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tL-D,, Frofeiior &J E7tg/$'sh Literature at Univenity C&Uiif, Lonikn, 




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44#»fV t/t*^ '*• ^!*^' /"^ •»«V ""J^ /■►••W /** Mttftf^ :■ 

:Ldoa: and aU Beoknnnm. 


(! A S S E L L ' S 

Library of English Literature 


' 7MAR87 ^^ 

O N T E N T S 


Bei-'Oke thk Usr or Printixo, — a.d. 13'>6 to a.h. 1474 ..■,,. 1 — H 


From Williav Caxton to Koger A^ciiam. — a.d. 1474 to a,d. 1558 .*.... 10 — 39 


In the Reion of Elizabeth. — A.ii. VmH to a.ii. 1003 ........ 40 — 93 


In the Reion of James [. — a.u. IQO'A to a.i>. 1625 

Under Cmahlea I. and the Comkon wealth. — a.i>. 1625 to a.u. 1660 . 

Under thk Lateb Stuarts.— a. i>. IG60 to a.u. 1688 


Umdeh Wh.l;am III. asp Queen Anne.— A.n. 1688 to a.d. 1714 


Under Oeou^b I. and George II. — a.d. 1714 to a.u. 1760 

Vbou thb Ac'.e-mon of George III. to the Fbexcm Revolution.— a.d. 1760 to a.d. 1789 . . 299— 346 


(HAPTZR X. P»*«s 

yar.M TH* FKicn-H fciTOUTTios TO n»t Binxt oi* Wirikuvj. — .i.a. 17*!) ti i.a. ISIJ 3-W — 397 


Fr/iK Tuit Batti,« or U'atiki/jO to tmk Acci«iion »->? «^rE».-« VtrTORi.i. — A.D. ISI-i n a_d. 1437 . 39S — 410 


TnMtK Vrtoru -..,,. .....'.. 410 — 132 

IvM^itii : — 

I._(jr:riTZT> WurtM asd Wouu . ..... .... 433 

ir-NOTW 438 

/II.—HMaHKI* OF ElfOLMH ........... "MO 


Initial "C." (From a MS. of tho " Anglo-Saxon 

Ghronicle," Cotton. Tib. B. 1, llth Century) . v 
Tailpiccu — Tinn? Jlowing. (From tho Title-page to an 

Edition of ■■Donatus," 1549) . . . . vi 
OmameDt — Brought by the Graces to Wisdom. 
(Designed for Elizabeth Elstob's "Anglo-Sttxon 

Grammar," 1715) viii 

Old Books. (From Sir W. Gcll's " Pompoiana ") . 1 
Initial from « Cotton. MS. of ilandovillo'a Travels . I 
I'aston Hall and Chm-ch. (From Sir John Fenn) . 7 
A Paston Letter of tho Reign of H«nry VI. (From 

Sir John Fenn^ ..... . . 8 

A Printing Press of 1498. (From the FroatiBptoco to 

a book of that year) ...... 10 

Evil Meroduch's Cruelty. (From Coxton's " Game 

and Play of the Chess" U 

ITio Finder of the Play of Chess. (Prom Caxton's 

" Game and Play of the Chess") ... 12 

Tho First Chess-Players. (From ''Caxton") . 12 

Sir Thomas More. (From an Enamel after Holbein) . 14 
John RogoTB. (Fmm his X'ortrait in H. Holland's 

■■ Heroologia ") 33 

IMshopFox. (FroQi (iueen Mary's Prayer Book) . 37 
Out of the Depth-*. (From Queen Mary's Psalter) . 39 
^\n Elizabethan Country House. (From Britten's 

"Antiquities") 40 

t^hrist Covered. (From Stephen Batoman's ""Doom," 

l-JSl) 44 

TTfcc Groundwork of Coney-catching. (From Titio- 

I>age of Gi-eenc's Book, lo91) .... 49 
ifiio Counterfeit Crank. (From CJroone's " Cbney- 

c-atchinR," 1-jfii) 19 

**"**^'»i and Country. (From Greene's " Quij) for an 

T'listnrt Com-tiot") 65 

•'*^*-"'»ii^ Raised from the Grave. (From J. Dickenson's 

•' (irf-ene in Conceipt," 1 .W8) . . . . 66 

'* ^*OIizHlx;than Shilling 66 

^<i <JId Front of WUton Houae .... 69 
*»ti^ from Hakluyt's -^Voyages," 1589 ... 87 
'*' ^''nincifl Drake taking a StKiiush Galleon. (Froiu 
John I'ine's Plates of the Tapestry Hangings in 

t lie House of Lordx) 88 

^ Portuguese Carack. (From the Titlo-pagc to 
l'-.inschoten'8*'Di3CourB of Voyages," 1598) . 89 
**l;>ieco from Hakluj-fs "Voyages," 1589 . . 93 
***»Jat, Emperor. (From KnoUea's " Historic of the 

Torkes," 1610) 97 


The Gotham Cuckoo. (Prom the "Mcrrj' Tales of 

Gotham,'* 1630) 103 

Abbey Church of St. Albans Ill 

Engraved 'Htle-page of Bacon's " Hylva Sylvaruni " 

(1629) 116 

John Milton, aged Twenty-one 127 

The Parliament of England. (From tho Groat Seal 

of the Commonwealth) 132 

John Selden. (Prom the Engraving in his " Janus ") 138 
Lambeth Palace. (From an Engraving by Hollar, 

1647) 144 

Autograph of John Milton 149 

Jeremy Taylor. (Frontispieco to his " Holy Dying ") 160 
Initial from Lord Orrery's " Parthenissa " . 161 
A Sailing Chariot. (From John Wilkins's " Mathe- 
matical Magic''] 163 

A Chariot on the Windmill Princiiilo. (From the 

same) 163 

Robert Boyle. (From the Frontispiece to one of his 

Books, 1670) 166 

Cowley's House at Chertsey 168 

Aphia Behn. (Prom the Portrait prefixed to her 

Novels) 1(5 

Ornament, from tho " Life of Clarendon," 1667 . . 196 
Sir William Temple. (Prom Sir I'eter Lely's 

Portrait, 1679) ^00 

Daniel Defoe. (From the " True Collection " of his 

Writinga, 1703) 207 

Jonathan Swift (From the Portrait engraved for 

Lord Orrery) 212 

Jofleph Addison. (From Portrait by Kneller, 1716) ■ 220 
Sir Richard Steele, (i^'rom a French TranaLttion of 

his PoUtical Works, 1716) 222 

William King. (From the Title-pngc of his Collw-to-l 

Works) 229 

Richard Steele, a-t. 46. (From Nichols's Editions of 

his Letters, &c.) '-'34 

Frontispiece to tho FirHt Volume of Stcfrle's " Ladius' 

Library," 1714 246 

Ornaments from the First Edition of "The BeggarV 

Oi)era" 217. 24(* 

Olympian Walix>le. (Frontispiece to Bolingbrokt ".■. 

" Dissertation upon Patties ") .... 256 

Lord Chesterfield 200 

Glastonbury 263 

Woodcut from Fielding's "Miacellanien" . . . 263 
Henrj- Fielding. (From the Portrait by Hogarth) . 272 

'IViTnaH SntoUpU. (Krum Uiv Purtrut by ^r JcHilia& 

R^->-noldji) 27$ 

WhtHitoriL' Furoanii by Apollo. (Prom the EditioD of 

hln Works publwhed in 17fi4) - . . .383 
I^y Umdahoigtu (From Mrq. Karbuuld'!! " Com>. 

a|iQii(iimcii of f^wnael KichaMlaon*') . . . £R9 
J^muH^I Rk'lwrdson, (From the I^nsravmg ci7vuUt«d 

>iy UiDBcilf umong^ his Fnentln) .... 2i)0 
iUchanijon Itoading Vim ilH, of '^ Sir Clutrlefl 

Irnuiilwcm," (t'mta a Hkeh-h inadv at thv lime 

liy one of the Party) 296 

Tho Infant Johnson. (By JSir Joeliim RtiynuUs, 1781) 399 
Laui-cnce Stcmc (Frum the Portrait before VoL I, 

of hiA " Scnnonst," Ufifi) . , . . . 30e 
.Saniiici Johnnon, (FTi»rii iJji; PurlDiit bi-fon- " 'ITiu 

I.iyeaof iJic I'oets," I7«l) , - - ■ - ^23 
Sir JuHhuiL lU-ynoLdfk (FniiQ his Purtnut of hlnuclf) 3Z0 
Tilt- (.^Id lloyiil .\cadciBy. PaU SUU . . . ,332 
ItuoiDs of the Itojul AraJcffly in Old SiiiioiMn lloiute 33^4 
KdniUlld Bitrk^. (Fraiu thi; Purtndl beluri' big 

" Ksfwy on Ihfi .SiibUiiio ami Iteiutiful," aiL 179S) 344 
Allvgoiical Docign tiimi L'uuipbell's " P]uuiiLn:» wf 

IfoiM)" 34fi 

tSttinuelTiiylwr Cgltriilgv- tt>om an E«rly I'ortmit, 

1790, iu Ju*i?iih Cottle's "liAiialleclioiia") . , 3(54 
llary WoUflUMittTsft Godwin. (From the Portmit 

bcifgrotfotlwln's Memoir of her, 1788J, . ^67 

Robert fioiithry (1790). {From Cottle's ■■ Early Hl-coI- 

lectioaa "J ^I>0 


William WunUwurih (I79B). {Ftom Cottle't " Eorly 

Recollection*") 37s 

Charl.-* Inmh [1798J. ;From the *aiiM> fl78 

WiJliam Ha/Jitt ^79 

Lui'igh Hunt (1797). 'From u Purtralt l>y' Hftmtul 

Laureoc:] 390 

Katmu% to Hmigrtutnoat. (From J^iith'.v's " Poet's 

PUgrimago to Wtiterloo." ISlfi) .... :)97 

KuinA of HoUgoUiDont (Fram the mau) . . . 397 || 

John Wil«)n -.._... 999 I 

ThnoiM Db Qninrey --..... 4Ci 
ChirlM Lunb. (Frum u l^utnit l.y WiUirtm Hiu;- 

litt) .101 

CmigenputtcK-h .....,,, «iio 
ThamoH Carlyli;'h Hotiec^ at Cnugeaputtorh flo 

CharlfM Dii:-lc4.'i]s ■-,,,., <2l 

Wiltiftin MaJtcpeatf Thjick-iny (1S62). \Vn,m a, 

PrMwing by 8;LtEiU4^>l I^urfiice) .... 422 

John Kwfkm 429 

Thonwia Cjirlyle (1S75}. 'Frmm a M<-<litlIion dtwgT" J 

by Bowhm) . . iil 

OrnAnir-nt fitim Jeremy TayUir's "Ojjuftcuk." 1*j7H . 132 " 
A Jlodurn Printing iLtchint; ..... 4U 
Imtiitl " I.'- (Fh>di Ba/;on"» "Henry theSivtuth," 

IfiJB) - . . 

Ornament from .loliAim Frii<drifh Eckhard'e " Nwh- 

ri'.hton von Eint^'n Sult(Ti«m Biirhfrii,"' IT7.i 
Omamiint 6nn» JprrTny Taylor's "CJrwit ExnrplAr," 



HYTHM is aKsociated witL 
tli« first utterances de- 
signed for frequeut repeti- 
tion aiid contiuued life. 
The praise of chiein, the 
clieiislied tnemoiiefi or 
beliefs of a people, fomied 
into musical sequences of 
WOltb ttntli H.]litemtiou, or other device 
to secure for each inipoilJiiit word 
hoth emphiiais and jb^ood help to it» 
iTcoUectiou, maJte the Rubstance of 
thftt early literature which lives on 
the lips of its authon* and iti the 
memories of thoRC who leum it fi'om 
them and ditfutio it pleoaantly iu 
cadenced ehaiit amqng tlie jieople. 
Pi*OHe was uot written when fpw read 
and literatiure lay betwt^en the reciters 
and A World of liHteners. When there 
Were moru readers, cultivated men and ' 
women, with the written page before 
tliem^ could recite at will for ploaaure 
of their friends. Still, tht^y were aup- ' 
\Mad chiefly with verse; Lut the good ] 
litories current among daily fcdk could ' 
J* collected and written, in the manner , 
of tho»e who told them well in thy 
direct phrase of common speech. Such 
tales in prose BodiSrfieio told again for 
the ItaliaoB in liis " Decameron," about , 

^ Htit to fhe cww coRtiuoiAtc fix b(x.iltH tcti&d. mid kbd,l«d, nrv 
""*. tUamd otid wi«-txnerc<l, tor writiug. BuIdw mo n reed iwn or 


the middle of the fourteenth century. But when 
Cliaucer and Gower followed the example of Lis 
fitory-tellingf their English tales were still in ^ 
except that Chancer included two prose pii?cea in 
hi& Canterbury Tulea — a moiiil Btory from the 
French, and a hgniily for hif* Parson.' The direct 
preaching' of Wiclif, and his urging of refonu 
u|Km th« Church and |>eoi»le, are represiented also 
by English prose trftcte and aermone, which ai* 
Ihoitiughly simple and atniiightforvvai'd, as it i* the 
natureof right prose to be. Thewoi*d "Proats" means 
Eitmightforward. It is derived from the Latin 
/JTorsu*, and so was the name of a Roman gotldeas^ 
Prursa, called also Prosa, who presided over ordinary 
birthw with the head foremost. Px-oae siguifiea, there- 
fore, the dii'ect manner of common Bpeech without 
twists or unusual ways of pre.%entiition. 

Coleridge said that he wigbed our clever young 
poets would remember hia *' homely delinition of 
prose and poetiy — that k, pi-ose Ir words in their best 
order; pfietry, the best words in the be&t otiler." The 
delinition may be homely, hut it is not trae. No 
writer of prose would wish to use Becon*l-l>e8t words. 
Setting aside the difference tliat lies dee|i in the 
nature of the thought, there remaiuB only the 
mochajiiwil distinction that veree is a oontrivance foi- 

cnlanms luid an Ink-aUiKl. Befaiud ii lUldtiier kutd 4f t&bl« bjitl«ilii^ 
from ^ metal pen or atyla, here naml ae it pin. Ta tbtf riteLt of UiAf u 
U tkll^lc boot tt table*. In (roat Are » atjle and a (rranp at «inftle 
Tolumes in en*™ or unniQed. with tjieir tjiHe* attnch^, KimeHme< to 
tbo pap^rms, Bometiincs Uf tl>6 wood in Uie ceutn. 

■ Port of tbu homilj'— on Aiitper^s qantml on pftgos ICQ-IOSof Uie 
voluiite of tliU L^I-rarr illiurtnitiog Eugllah Balifflan. In tfao auna 
v^ilnmfl, oa paifea 71-73, wfU be (OBad spMioiJeikB ot WtrfiTs prowj. 

obtaining liy fiiwl piiices of fi'eqnently i-ecmriug 
]iause and tlevatioii of the voice, by i-hyme and other 
deWcee, a Ittrgo immlK:'!' of places of tixetl eraphuiii^, 
that CHUse sti-eas to be l«i<.l on every iniportaut wotxl, 
vliUe they set thought to niiific Witatever will 
bear thia contiiiuoua eiifoix'craeint is tit mutter for 
veree ; but the customary thought of men, though 
put into woiiiIk that tit it perfectly, and iire thero- 
foi* the Iteat, is less intense, and therefore Ls best 
es|ire>»ed in the Btniightforwai"d method of our 
k'Hstomniy Hpeecli- 

Much of oiu' eiu'ly English proae is translation, 
cramped by somt* transference of foreign idiom, und 
with the choice of wordn sometimes determined mther 
by & foi-eigii text tlmu by the familiar association 
between word imd thQu<rht. But it h always un- 
affected. Thus, Sir John UliUHleville's itccount of 
hi^ travela, written, as it appeara fe*om tlie testa, 
fil-at in Fi-endi^ und then ti-aiialated, into Latiji, was 
traDHt«.te<I alHo into E]:iglit]h^ uail that version m 
ascribed in the Introduction to some copies of it to 
Sir John himself. An there are erroK of trans- 
lation into which the originiJ autlior of the book 
could not ha\e faJJen, beoatise they imply grof« 
ignorance of his meaning, the English vei'sion of the 
Travels ujiiat have been from another hand ; but it 
i-epreseTita prose of tlii' fmirttenth Lvntmy. 

Sii^ John Mandeville was bom at St. Alhan.^, anil 
was old enough in 1-3:22 to net out n|>on his travels. 
He was absent tliirty yeara, und whtin he came back, 
tixjubled with rlieumatic gout, he busied MiiiBelf 
with hiw |>en. The English version of his Travels ia 
said to have been ntaile in ID&d. The chief aim of 
Mandeville's Tmvelfi was to deacribe rontes to 
Jerusalem ; he mdapK^^l hia reuord of travel to this 
view of the chief object of travel. He saya that he 
iUid his men !*erved in a war the Sultan of Babylon, 
md werfi for fifteen oiontUs with the Great Khan 
<rf the TartarHi of Cathrty. Although Mandeville 
travell^l far and suw much, there can l>e little doubt 
that in hi» desire to gain a lively aud full view of the 
travellei^' world he woi'ked into hi« imrrative some 
reeoitU of other men's iulventures. 

In other reH|}ecta he tell« honestly what he has 
Been, luid ahows only the good a]>|ietite of hia time 
for inai'vels that he heArd. ITie futniloUii Pirster 
John, whose conntrv is described in the section here 
pven from Maiideville's TmvelH, was firnt heard of at 
Home in 1 l-tf) as a Nestorian piiest who claimed to 
bedeRcenrleil from the Magi. He hail taken Eobatana, 
and M^as going Ui Jenisalem, after the examplt! of his 
aiiceatont the Magi, but taking with him all his 
fotw, when he was stopped by the TigrLs, went north, 
where he boi*<l to cro^w at the winter freezing of the 
river, waited noms yftfiiTv foinid no ioe, and went l«ick. 
Fables thenceforth .spi'fnul rapidly coiiceniing Preater 
John a« a gi^eiit t'bristian emperar of the East, 

LTVavelletM to the far East were inquisitive UlK>n this 
Bubject, and this in the aooount given by Sir John 
Mandeville of 

hiB rciilni, and maay grciit anil lutgc i&lcti,' For all lhi.< 
couutry of Indiu in dividtid iato i&Ie^, hy the grwt Qciodv tint 
coma from PamilisOj tlmt sopuratti all tho Innd into mukv 
parts. And jiIm? in thu s&i he has full many ide*. Ami the 
Vet city m the ialo of pL-nthoxouro is Nyw, k veryro)-*] rily. 
noble und verj- rich. Thin FreatorJohn lui» njailw lumnuioy 
king^ nnd numy isluN, iind Qiany divetrfl peO'ple of diviTS coo- 
ditioiit>. And Ihisi land i» full m>wl and rich, hut not bo rit.- 
us the Unil oi thui Ctrcut Klirin. For tho menhimCd comt' not 
thither so ctjmitiynly tu Imy mcTclmndjaL-, as tln'v Jo in Our 
Lind of the GrcAt Khau, fut it 16 too t&i. And on the other 
iridu, in thu iult? of CHttiay,^ men find aU tliinga ncc«Mul to 
miui, t^lotbs of gold, of aiUt^ and kywer}'. And UuTelorr. 
although men have them cheap in the i»3p of Prcsti-r John. 
they dn^nd the lon^ wuy und tho gront perils in the se*. 
Fot in many iilncea of tho aea are great rocks of stone of 
adAmanl (loodtiturLG), whJcli of ita niituro dmwu iron to il; 
and therefore thori> paaa no ahipa that have either bondi or 
□aits of iron in thtim; and if thiy do, anon the mcki of 
adamiint draw ihum to them, that they miiy never go tbenoe 
I myuelf hiivc •tcou iiiur lu Ihnt sea, oathouj^h it hiul Ixiri u 
grout iab full of troc^ and bueheia, full of lliama and h^(<^ . 
in greut plenty ; and thi; shijimen told ub that nil that wu oi 
idiips that vtrt drawn Uiittitrr by the ndntnante, for thw irwi 
thut wiia in thoin. .^nd Lif tht* rottenui-iui und oth&t thing" 
thiit wei'c witliin the ahipa, grew Buch hushea, atid tfaonus 
aad btricr«, and green gnm, and auch kinds of things ; and ol 
tht< masts £inid of th.e Huil-yania, it eeinnod a gn«t wood or a 
jifrove. And nuiih rocIc« are in nuiny placea thoro about. Ami 
Ihcrofoix- nn-Tchiinta dnrv not jiass there, oxwpt they knu* 
W6ll the im&Mgi's, OT unleU' thc-y hav^; good pilota. Antl «.]»• 
they droad th« long waVi and, therefore, they ga to Colhuv. 
befnuM it ia nearer : imd yet it in not eo nij^h but men miui 
travel by sgh imd land eleven or twelvu Tnuntha, tram Oonci 
or from VcnicB, tij C'iithay. .\ad yet is the land ol Prater 
John more far, by many drendfui days' joumcy. Andtb'- 
meruhfuittt piias \iy the kitLfi;iiucn of PtiTsiJi^ und go to ftdtv 
called Uoranjs, beeause >Ii?rinB3 the philosopher founded it 
And after that they {lauB itn iirm of the son, and then they go 
to another city called Uolbache ; and Iht-ro they find mw- 
chnndiBO, and as great ahuadoDeti of p&rrota as men Snd hei^ 
at Reeae. In that country i« but little whomt or hurleyt ami 
thcrcforo they cat rice and honoy, milk, chtoac, and fniit. 

Thin emperor^ Prcflter John, takes olwreye to wifc thf 
daughter of tho Gri»at Khan ; ^ and the Great Khan also in tic 
mnie wie^ tho danglitcT of Prestcr John. For they two ore 
thft gt«atf8t lords und^T the firmament. 

In the Lnnd of Pre!rtH?r John are tnany divcra thinf^ ml 
maliy precioUB stotLos, «i gix'at and so hirgo, that metx tBmk* 
of thorn pintos, di&hc^, eiipfl, &:f. And many othor narrrl* 
aif there, that it were too long to put in a book. But 1 wili 
teU yyu of hla princiiwil iHlee, and of his e»tate, and of hi* 
law. Thio emperor Preater John is « Chrttitian, nnd a (pwl 
jMirt of hiB comitry aljso ; but tliev have not all the mtick* 
of our fiiith. Thoy bcUcv*,' in the Futhcr, Son, and Uoly 
tlhoet, and they arc very dcvowt and true to one nnothtf- 
Aml hf him imdcr him suventy-two provinces, and In ewr) 
province is a hinp, all which kings aro tributJtry to Preotcr 
John. And in hla lonhihipB aro many great marr^b, tor in 
hi> country is the aea called the Grardly Sen, which it all 


Thift empt^Kx*! Prentfr John, poBwiucs very extenaive 

tenitoTi-, and bna miwy T^' ooblo citim and good tovns in 

' Awt »nd IffTj* l*tH, Ootonal Tula etecerrm IImI It»BiWnll« 
makeii iilaada of auaiy all the Ew^^m roKlaM. He pacrib«a thla M 
pmetJce pHiil]]i to tbe litoM u£« "bf the Arab* ot thu word Jfezinlh, *">* 
Wk» Klaa, Was the ward naed Tor n place ramclie*j hy «eA t 

' C^lhay imii the mnillBrDl name ol Cfaiiui.. 

■ Tht arimt Khlti wai tho ^in|>eror ot CUiuu ia CkluImIu itr Plkb 
(Khan-Ulig, the Kban'i Clt;). 

*.D. 1354. J 


gnavel And Band, without a dri)[i oi wutt^; and it eblis nnd 

tiovs mgnai wares^ &» other una do, and it i& never still. 

&xid no mun (tin piiss thiit wa witli ships^ and, IhernftiTc, iw 

I Icnows what Utid is boyoDd thut iH.4. And ultliough it 

» QO wattT, men flod therein, anJ on tlie liankat vtry good 

i| of differcat nature and shftpu fmm whitt ia found in ooy 

; oud they Rto of text gtiud taste and dtdiduus to 

Thrik- days from that .Si^ are f^rvat mountuinfl, out of 
irliu-h niru a griiat rivor which coin'-e from PiLradlsc, nnd it 
ta ftUI oi iptr^oUs etuiiHi, williout a drop of Water, and it 
runs throuj^h thv dewrt, on odg ade, w> tliat it timl(o« Iha 
GiaTelly Sea whc>re it ends. And tluit river runs only thrfa 
dixya in the veck, and brin^ with it groit 8tonfH and the 
rocka also therewith, jnd thut in grvnt pk-oty. And whon 
Lht:y ure entsrod into the Gj^vclly lS«a they iltc ewn no 
Anil in those three days that that Hvor nianoth, no 
inn dure mtt-T into it, hut in the other days men duro ontor 
trll cnim^h. Beyond that livjiT, more np towarda tha 
I ia ri grent plain all gravally between thi? mountniiie ; 
md in that plain, eTtry day at Bun-risc, Aouill trfOii bcifpn to 
ffgrow, and th«y grow till mid-day, bearing fruit ; bnt no mai!, 
dnn; take of that trait, for It in a tiling of (asria. And filter 
mid-dny thoy decrease and enter again into the i?arth, no that 
jit sun-act they apjiear no mor« ; iind ^o Uiay do every day. 

In that dfficrt on? many wild mnn, hiileoiis to [oak on, and 
homed ; and they speak nought, but gmct like piga. And 
ihcre in aim gjvai plenty of wild dogs. And then.> are many 
parrots, which apeak of their own nature, and aalute men 
thftt ^ through thij doacrtH, and epmik la them as plainly aa 
though it TTCre a man. And thoy that ^peak well biT'e a 
Lt^e ton^e, and have five toe» upon euch foot And there 
are also othprs which have but three tofls upon each foot, and 
they apetik but littlp. 

This fimperor Preater John, when ho gora to haWit against 
»,Dy other lard, hfts oa tianners boroo before him ; btit h^:^ has 
three large croftAea of gold full of pTMioua fitunoa ; and eac^h 
crwt ii Bet in a chanut full richly nrraycd. And to keep 
eaMh Eton are appointed ten thousand men of aniiB, aiid taorc 
Haxt 0D« himdrcd thoneand fogtmEn. And this, ntmil^er of 
jieople ia independent of the chief army. And when he ban 
no war, but rid*^ with a privatp conipnny, he baa bcfon? him 
1<ut one plain eroas of wofld, in remembrance that Jeaas 
f" hriat aii0(;rud dtwth iifvon a woodt-n croBS. And thuv Carry 
before hicn aUo a platt-r of gold full of earth, in token that 
his nuMrnpse, and hii*. might, and hiu fleah, shall turn tu 
oiiTlh. And he has borne twfore hitn also a Teasel of silver, 
full of nuliLe jewili! of gold and prc^L-ioiis atonen, in token of 
hia lordahip, nobility, and power. He dwella commonly in 
the rity of Siinn, and there ia his prineipal palaee, which ia bo 
rich and noble that no nrnn can conceive it without »eeiBg it. 
And above the chief tower of the palace are two round 
pommels of geld, in each of whieh are two largf! carbimclcH, 
which ahine lirig'hl in the night. And the prineipal g&tQ* of 
hia palace are of the precioua atoncA called sardonj'TC ; and the 
'honlera and bfu-H are of ivorj- ; and the windows of the hullfl 
and c-ikanibAre are of cr^-etal ; and the tables, on whieli men 
t^at, non^e aro of cmemlda, aamo of iunotbyet, and some of 
pold, full of precioua etonce, and the pillDra thjit support 
the tabl™ are of the earn© preeiuuB ntonce. Of the etepa 
Approaching hia throne, where ht; aitfl at mf^t, one ia of onyx, 
another crista I, iLnnther Rreen jiiafier, another amethyst, iin- 
o^bor eardonyx, another cornelian, and the aoTonth.on whirrh 
lie aeta hta feet, ia of rhryBolito. All these strpn are bordered 
with fine gold, with thi> other predoua atnnea, act with great 

Ci>atl». The aidea of the eoat of his throbe are of 
, and bordered full nobly with ^Id, and dubbed 

with other precious ntonca and gr^nt pearls. All the pillon 
in Ma chituiber are of Sat' gold with precioua Htoncs, atid 
with many corbunclee, which give ^eat light by night 
to all peoplo. And although the carbuncle given light 
onoiigh, nevertholoas rit all timea a veaael of crystal, full 
of halm, ia burning to givi; good amell and odour to the 
emperor, and to expel all wicked airH and corruptiona. The 
imaic of his bed is of fine Bappliln>a blended with gold, to 
make him »lc«p well. . , . , Ho hath tilso a very 

fitir and nobl« paloco tn the city of Nice, whore he dwi ilji 
whyn he likes ; but the iiir ia not luj tr-mjterate a^ it Lb at the 
city of 8ii«a. And you ehall undonrtand that in hii> country, ■ 
and in the conntrioa aurfoimdiog, men cat hut once in the 
day, aa they do m the wurt of the Gi-uitt Khan. And mora 
thfiii thirty thousund pci^sona eat every day in hi« court, 
besidi^s goers and coiners, bot theeo thirty thotuuind persona 
spend not so much an twelve thouaand of our countr>~. This 
emperor l're«ter John has evcrmoj-e oeven kinga with him, to 
nerve him, who idmrc their aer^nee by pertain mcmthjs ; and n-ith 
thf-ae kinga serve alwaya aeventy-two dukmii and three hun- 
dred and aixty eurls. And all the days of the rear, twelvft 
BTchbiHhopa and twenty bij<hopa eat in hia houaehold imd in 
iiia court. And tht? patriarch of Ht, 'I^onma is thrfi' what 
the pope ia here. And tha arehbiahopM, and the biKhopn, and 
the abbots in that country, are all kin^. And eaeh of llicsa 
groat lorda knows well the Htteudance of hia aetrice. One it 
master of hia household, another ia his chamberlain, another 
SQrveth him with a dish, another with a cup, another t> 
steward, another ii marshal, another ia prince of hia arms; 
and thus is be full nobly and royally wr\-ed. And hie land 
extonlfl in eTtreme breadth four monttia' journey, and in 
b-ngth out of measure, including all the i&lea under cflrtk, 
that we sup^ae to be under ua. 

Near the iale of Ponthaxoirif, which ia the land of Prr«tor 
John, ia a ^eat isle^ lung and broad, mlled Miletemk,' which 
ifi in tho lordnhip of Prestcr John. That isle ia rerj* rich. 
There waa dwelling not loQg Binco a rich man, named G-alho- 
lonaboa, who was full o( tricks and subtle deceits. H*:' had 
a fair and strong castle in a mountain,' so strong and nohla 
that no maji could deviaa a fairer or « stronger. And hd 
had caused the mountain to bo all walled about with a strong^ 
and fair wall, within which walls he hjid the fajrcat garden 
that might be iniAginod ; and therein were tree? bearing all 
manner of Iruita, aU kinds of herbs of virtue arid of good 
smell, and all other herbs also that bear fair flowera. And 
be had al»a in that garden many friir wells, and by them Uo 
h;^d nmde fair hallj and fairchainbers, painted all with gold 
and azure, riiprei<enting many divers thinj^ and many diver* 
atoriefi. There were alBo beasts and birds which sung full 
deleetuhly, and moved by craft, that it aeemed Ikut they were 
alive. And he had aJao in hia g^uden all kin^lft of birdt> and 
beanta, that men might have play or sport to liehold them. 
And he had also in that place the fairest damaeU thnt might 

> JtHtUrali, the KiUeatorta ot Friar Odorio of Pordeno&e. trou 
wbam HandeTille leemi to have l>nrTOH«d mucb ia this put of his 
IxMk. Odoric of TO'rrlePOne', iu Friiill;, Wiu liom abont the jear 1SS8; 
became ffiu-ly in Ufa a PmudlsciLa friar nt Ddici^. and was fanuiai 
lor BOBctltj before be Bttirted on faia tni.v«b La tlie >r«&r 1319. I3l7, or 
I9IH. He lind for compiiiiUiD Friar Jamm, an Irifthmaii. He wbb ia 
WMtaru lodflL 9f*o^ at'cei 1331, Hp^ut lietwoLJ 1^2 and 1328 tliree 
yenm la Nortkiera Ctiina, and reiuni^d ia ]CW lu May of tLitt j-eop 
he dictated bia iitor; to a brotJiervl bia lifder, Wtlliaui of SoUifna. 
who Kokltdown La Latin. Odoricdled iajaimarj, 1331. Ulatntvala. 
witli taluat'U' introdiK^tor^ Unfiimuitiuaaiid iiot«a, are InuisJated into 
Etiiiiiab in Coloitol Vule't " Catlwy nod tine Wny Tblthur," a nioab 
iaterefllbu-colLautien. iu two toIuiom. of medlsfal natioes cf CblM* 
pnbHahw! bj the Hokbiyt Society In IM6, 

■ TIliM Bil*t<Bm tradiinti at mi Old Hsn of ibe Haqihtallia wm bIm 
told to JUarco tolo and Odoric, and is given bjr th^ni. 



lA.a. IKS: 




V> fonnd ooder the age of fifteen yean, and the fairest yo^ng 
atriptings iita.1 men might got u( tlut akdid age ; and they 
vere all clothed full nchly in clothi^ of gold : and he anid 
thfj' wpTO angels. And ho had alao caiiaed to bo mudc throe 
fair And Doble welLi, nil Burrouiidtid with atona of jasper and 
crytial, dwpertd with gtjld, nnd »(< with prcdoUS ettonps luid 
gn«t orient pearU. And he had mndd a conduit under thi> 
'darth, eo thnt the ttrM «dII8, nt his will, should nm one with 
milfc, ADothtir with wine, and anothor with honey. Ami thet 
plttfTA he c^od Paiudise. And when ttny good tni^ht, whci 
WM hardy and nobk", cmne to m^i this royalty, he would lead 
' btm icto PorodiBe, &iid flhow him theao wonderful thiDf^, f^r 
hia qhori, and tho mftn-'cUotis and dpUcioug song of div^re 
hirda, uid the* fair damst'lH, iitid the f^ir wella of tnilk, vrm^t 
and hont.'y, roncing plentifully. There hi? would let divers 
uuttumiiiitB of music sound in it high tow<^, so mcTrily that 
it wsa joy to hear, nnd no man should ace the cruft theroof : 
and those he BBid wcra angt-la nf Gtwl, and that place wns 
Paradiw, that God h^d promisad Lo tua frifinda, saying- " I 
will pv* yon a knd flowing with Tnills rend honey." And 
tbini he would maku thom drink of ccrtiiin drink, whormjl 
anon they shoiJd be dnink ; aftflr which bhiiyiieomedtuhavo 
greater delight than tbt-y had before. And then wodd ho 
Bay to them, that if thoy would die far him and for Wh love, 
after th^iir death thny should comt' to his pumdiac; and thfy 
■hould bo of the age cf the diLniM-U, and thoy should play 
with thpm ftud yet thpy woiJd remain maidens. And afU'r 
that he would put them in a fairer pfLradiw.', whtTc they 
rihould B^e the God of Nature visibly, in His majt-irty and 
blias. And then woold he t^faow them hi» intont, aod till 
them, if lh«y would go and Hlay «ui;h a lord or Buch a mnn 
who wfui his onemy, or dieobnlient to his will, th<*y nhould 
not fear to do it^ or to be altun themiiclvea in doing it; for 
after thtir death h« would put Ihfim into Rnothor pjiradise 
that wae a hundred fold fairtr than luiy of thi.' oChera^ and 
there should tltr-y dwell with the fdlreat dnoifiulH that Tnight 
bcj and piny with them evermore, And (hna went miiny 
diTeiB logty tiach«lora to alay gi-cat lords in divers i-ountries, 
that were hia enemiL-a, in ho[»pe to have tha-t paradifc. And 
thus he was often r^voogf^ of hi^ «neinlcd by hiA subtle 
decoits and faleo trioks. But when tho woilhy mpn of the 
country had parcoivod this subtle falj^-hood of this Gatha- 
loOabeHr they oasenihled with forra, and ossailrd hia eoBtlo, 
and slew him, and deatreycd all the fair phLcen of that 
pamdiM. The plaee of the wells and of the watl^ >ind of 
many other tbingB arc yet clearly to be soon, but the richee 
on clean gone. And it is not long rtgn since that pluce wbb 

Near that iale of Milrderak, upon the left mdo, nigh to the 
river of Piwn, is a omri-cllont thing. There is n vale be- 
two«i the moonttuDS which citi^nda nearly four mihit ; and 
Bome wll it the Knchnntpd VoIp. some c^ it the VbIo of 
Devils, and some tho Pnriloiia Vole.' In that Vale mt-n hear 
oftmlimea gnat thmjtcifta and thunders, and ^reat murmurs 
and Qoisc-a, day and eight; and great noise, as it were, of 
t«.borH, and Dftker*,' and tninifMitB, as thotigh it were of a 
great iisaat. Thia vnlo la aU full of devibi, And Iulh Iki^ih 
alwaj-a -, and mco say there that it i» one of the entrances of 
hell. In that rale is ^rtjit plenty of gold and silver ; where- 
fore many mbbdicving men, and many Chrisliara also, 
often timftfl. go in, to }ukv« of th& treattu^ ; but few return., 

> Tie accnaai of tie TetiityaB. Tale awnw U> be tftkuo from Odoric, 
tbon^h MugJeviT* joiai it to hia own eiporienoos. The &tBl «iif1it 
jvm i>f HuiJevJllu'i tn.T<>U <Mirr«spoijd to the eiifht Uat ol Odoriic'a, 
ODil « Ifolb uorteiulj went to the for Eiuct they tnaj have met ; tho 

two frlon mifiora of Lenubftrflj " befpff Odorio and Jamaa, 
Iftitw*, kettle^drams ; an Anbls word. 

Gspticiiilly of the misbelioTing men, for they ar? anon 
stmnglfd by the devils. And in tho centre of that vale^ 
under a rock, is a hesd B.ud tho visnge of ^ devil bodily, full 
horribW and dr«'uJ(ul tO see, nod it tihows but tho head lA 
the «houlder».' But thtre ia no man in the world "O boH, 
Christian or other, but he would ha m dn>ad to behold it, 
and he would feel almost dead with fear, bo hideaua ia it t» 
btthold. For he looks at avfttj m^n so »iharply with dieadftd 
eyes, that are pver moving and eparkling lite flrt". *nil 
ihabgeis and tiiici BO ofb-n in divers manners, with so horrible 
a couatfiianee, that no nian dare approach lowordla him. And 
from him iatiues smoke, and stink, and fire, and eo macli 
nboniination that Hi?uree any man may endure there. But the 
good Christians, that are their faith, enter withoat 
peril; for thtty will first shrive them, and mark them with 
the sign of the holy proas, m that the Rends hnvB no power 
ovor them. But although they are without peril, ywt thf-y 
are not without drend when they sec the deviU visibly and 
bodily nil about them, tluit mako full many divers assaidts 
and ra'^nncea, in air and on earth, and terrify them witli 
atrokr.'a of thuadir blasts and of tempetits. And the grcaJLuat 
fear is that Odd will take vengeance then of that whicdi men 
have misdonc agninet His will. 

And you shall understand that when my fellowa and I 
were in this vale, wo were in great thomght whether we dnnl 
[lut oitr bodied, in nv^nturc, to go in or not, in the protoc'tion 
of Uod ; and some of our fellowe agreed to i^ter, and «)iliii) 
not- So there were with uh two worthy men, Itua msnon 
of Lombardy, who said that if any man would enter they 
would go in with us ; and when they had said so, upon th* 
gmciouB trust of U-od and of thorn, we heard mu», and ^iry 
man was ahriven and hoiialcd ; and then M& linterod, fonrtMD 
persona, but at our going out we were but ninn. And w *« 
never knijw whether our felluws vrvre lost, or had tunud 
baek for fear ; hilt we novfr saw them after. They were t** 
men of tireeee, and tluep uf SfKiin, And our other fsllowa, 
that would not go in with na, went by another road to be 
bvforo us: and bo they were, And thus we passed tbit 
Periltms Vale, and fonnd therein gold and ailver, and prMunu 
stonus, and ritb jewels, in yreut plenty, both here and IhiTS 
aa it 9eemc?d ; but whether it was aa it seemed I know net, 
for I touched none ; bueauao the devils are 60 subtle to make 
II thing to stK^m otherwise than it ia, to deceive mankind ; ami 
therefore T touched none ; and also because that I wauld net 
be put out of my devotion, for I was more devout then tbaa 
ever I wba bcf ora or after, and all for the dread of Senda Uul 
I saw in diveta flguriw ; and also for the gi«at mnltitnde of 
dead bodjeathat I saw there lying by the wny, in all the valo, 
a& though there had been a buttle between two king«, and tlur 
mightiest of the ooUntTv', and that the greater party had bfti'S 
diacomfited and slain. AnA I believe that hudly should any 
countrj- have sQ many people in it as lay sUiiu in that val*, 
OH it seemed to iib, whieh was a hideous sight to aoe. And I 
marvelled much that thi/re were so many, and the bodies tU 
whole, without rotting; but I believe that fiends made them 
soom to be ao fresh, without rotting. And many of them w^r* 
in hahil.a of Christian men ; but I believe the^y wen? such »» 
went in for covelouaneas of tho troastiro that was thore, and 
had ovf^nnuch feebli'nees in faith ; ao that their hearts might 
not endure in the belief for dread. And therefow we wvn 
the more devout a great deal : and yet we were cart down 
and lieatcn down many timmi to the hard eurth by winds and 
thunderw, nud tempests; bnt evermore God of Hia graee 

■ A rouk acuJptoie maj ba.we been tbua amplified hj tzaditioiL JTobw 
hpanl in nle^p tnoimtalQ gortti^ linvo xnoTa tbaa i^^Ot been corafiarai 
ia Mber Duntlre to iouud ol kettle-drams. 



hdppd Hb, And GO «f} \Mis»L'i tlmt perilous vaXn withuut 
1 axid irithout Emcnmbrance, tliaiiked he almighty Uod ! 
LAft«r thu, bdj-Ottd ths ^ule, is a great islo, the i&luiliitaiite 
I wbid^ are preat ^aata of tw-cnij* -eight or thirty feet long, 

"i no clothing hut aldjuof heosta, that thmy hung upon 
i jukI th^ ent aothiq^^ b^it raw ll*:-!jh, and drinli miUc uf 
They have oo hoascH to lie in. And they eat more 
Hy maa'i fleah than any c-thcT flcuh. Ijito tbut iflle fUire 
no nun cater ; aaA it thtiy see a uhip, and mm therein, anon 
they «nitcr into tW- oca. to take thorn. And men told ub that 
in An iiile beyond that wtre ^ntH. of grater ataturc, aamb of 
forty-five or fifty fe^'t long, and oven, ob acme men say, of 
tfty cubitd loag : but I suk noav oi thasa, fur I hud do lust 
to ^ to those jiartB, bcMuae that no msn comi-'ii either into 
Ihnt isU or into the- othrr hut ht' will he d<!VCiLir^d unoti. And 
■auing thntii^ ^nnlE^ rtrt' jihuop ks grcM ns oxi.'q hore, whicJi 
bar grent roug^h wool. Of the Bh€«p I hnro seen amny 
lUDML And iDCD have stud iiiiiny timca those ^iiints t/iki- mt'O, 
k the Ma, out of thoir ^hipa, und bring thi-ni to hinJ, two 
B otw buid knd two in the othur^ eating thi-m ^ing, all 
tiw and nlJTe. In another iale, towaxda the noith, in the *Sea 
of Oc^nn, are very evil women, who hiivc prwioua utonfa in 
their r-ye« ; and if they beheld any iwin with wrath, they 

tiny him with the look Aft^-r that i& another 

ale, wb>(irv woucii make jifTcat aotrow u'hcn thtii children are 
bora; and whentlwy dic,theyiQnkcgTE)iitfL<aatGL, and groat joy 
tad RTcil. vid tbo) tbry nut thttn into a great burning lire. 
isd ttiow that lure wdl theii hiuhitndn, if their husbiin<lH 
£c^|hay caat thQmi»ulr>L'9 sUeo into the fire, with their children, 
(fid bom thesL In that lalu they tnuki?' thi^r king hIwjivb 
fcjr clectloii ; ajid they choose him not for nohlenesH or richca, 
VbI Hch a cme ae is of ^Dod tuiituacrH and cunditian, aaJ 
QMRvitlual ju* ; and abo that he be of great ugo, and that 
ht kare nO thildron. 

In tlMl iale man are very just, and they da jiiet judj^cnte 
ia rrrry (moae, both of rich and poor, 3muU and grcnt, 
MBwding to their trespanaM. And the king nuty not judge it 
Man to donth without aa^nnt of hia barona and other wiw men 
«f oovubI, md unlcM all the court agreo thereto. And if the 
Ixag libnwtf do any homidde or crime, «■ U> alay a man, or 
my Miek cmM, he «h&ll die for it ; but he shall not be slain 
■ motber man ; hut Ihey forbid, on pain of death, that imy 
fitt bff no buJd aa to make him company or to «peek with 
Ub, ta $tV6 or sell hirn nii».t or drink ; and so shall he die 
fayiaflllly. They ccp^kic no man that haa tr««passc-d, either 
far lave, or bvour, or riches, or nabihty; hut that he ehull 
htn aeconling to what he hiia done. 

BcjosmI that ial« ia anothpr, where is a great multitude of 
fHplv. «ho will not eat flmh of harea, hena. or fpnae : and 
Trt they bned them in ubiuidaiK«, to see and behold them 
mif, \mX they eat Ht^ of all either beasts, and di-ink milk. 
In iknt OOODtiy th^y t&ko their daui^htcm or Uii-ir ointcre to 

wtfa, ani their other kinawoTDcn In thnt 

■OMtry, aad in &U IndJA, are great plenty of ifxikodrillE, 
■ Mrt of long aetpent, as I have wid before ; and in the 
li^tf tbtf dwell in the wat«:r, and In the day upon the 
h^A, m rock* aod raYcw; imd th"y eat no meat in winlcr, 
llrt H» aa in a dniun, w do e^rpenta. ThcM HpqKuLs 
imy ■«. aad they «it th<ra weeping; and when they 
■d, Qmy move the upper jaw, antl not the lower jaw; and 
A»y IkBTS no ton;^*?. In that eountri', and in many othtTS 
hyoBd, and bI*o in many on this Ki», m^T how the e«ed of 
HttoB: Hid th^y Mrw tt evLTy yijur, and then it grows to 
■mH tvMa. which bear cotton. And so do mpv. ercry year, 
• Hal UiRV ia {limty of cotton at all timca. In this inle 
ibB, wot m many titbtan, there U a majmer of wood, hard and 
*iaf ; nnd mhtumit corcn the conls of that wood under the 

OiSheB theretiF, the aoala will remuin alive a year or more. 
And among other troca there arc nut trees, that liear nuta ha 
grout aa a man's head. There are also animak tallied omfit^xi 
which are cullod, in Arabia, gerfauntz.' They ore spatttKl, and 
a httle higher than a horse, with a nock twenty cubits loag . 
and the croup tLnd tail are like those of a hart ; and cue of 
ihetn may look over a high house. And there are aloe in that 
country many camclcons : and there are very great serpents. 
BOm^ one hundred and twenty f&et long, of diverB colours, rw 
myed. rwl, green and yellow, blue and black, and all speckk-d. 
And therif inrc uthifs that huve crests upon their head? ; iind 
they go iq>p(i their feet upriyht. And thsre are aUo wild 
swine of numy colourti. us (^oiit as oxen in our counti^-, all 
spotUsi likr^ ytinng fawns. And thtrt- are also hedgehogs, as 
gTt-at as wild 3wine, which vfv tall porcupinefi. And then? 
are many other extra ardinari.' animikEa. 

And beyond that inlf" is nnuther iula, great and tich, where 
are good and tnw people, and of good living after thvir 
belief, and of good faith. And although th«y aro not 
chriBtencd. yet by natural law tlit-y are full of all virtuep wid 
eschew all vicea ; for they are not proud, nor covetous, nor 
ennions, nor wrathful, nor gliitluiiouB, nor leeheroua ; nor dv 
they to any man otherwise than they would that other num 
did to them ; and in thin point they fulSl the ten command- 
ments of Ood. And they cure not for poweseions or riches ; 
Eind they liu not, nor do they nwut, but «tty simply yea and 
nay ; for they say he that Bwcqffftb wiil deceive hi* oeigt- 
hour ; and thomfore aU that they do, they do it without oath. 
And that isle in euUed the isle oi Brngmnn, iind aome men rail 
it the Land of Faith : and through it nin« a great river culled 
Thebe. And in general all the men of those ialea, And of iJl 
tht' hordei-H therenhout, ore truer than in any country then-- 
ahgut, end more just thuu others in all things, In tbAt i^lo 
i* no thief, no mu^de^er^ no commoa woman, no poor beggai^ 
and no man wa» ever elain in that country'. And they be aa 
chiLstr, and lead as good *i life, as though thi-y were monks; 
and the'y fast all days. Aod hiHAUBe they are so true, and so 
just, and no full of all good cunditiunii, thoy are never gricva'd 
with tempt^sts, nor with thunder rind lightning, nor with Kail, 
nor with pestilenee, nor with war, nor with famine, nor wilb 
itny other tribulation, as we are many times amongst ua for 
ooTfiins; wherefore it appearcs evident that God lovcll) thini 
for their good deeds. They believe weE in God that made 
all thingn, and woiahap Him; and they priso no oiirthly 
riches; and they live full oiiicrly, and so soberly in meat and 
drink, that they live right long. And the most p4ri of them 
die without sickncM, when nature failcth them for iiM age- 
And it hefell, in king Alexander's time, that he pur(fOaMl to 
conquer that isle ; but when they of the countrj- heard it. 
they sent messengera to him with k-tteni, that Haid thus:— 
" ^^'hat may we be now to that man to whom uM the world 
Ig inenfficientP Thoii shalt find Ddthing in ua to cause Huir 
to war agninat us; for we have no riehes. nor do we desire 
any ; and nil the goods of our coujitry An^ in common. Our 
micat, with whicli we sustain our bodiia, is our riches: an'J 
instead of trcftsupc of gold and silver, we make our treasure 
of aeom^ and poiAe, and to love one anath4.<r. And to appnrel 
out bodits we use a simple cloth to wrap our carcase. Our 
wive« are not arrayed to make any man pk^aeed. When men 
labour to array the body, to mako it seem fairer than (Jod 
oinde it, they do great ain ; for man should not device nor 
aak groater beauty than God hath orduinod liim to have at 
hifl birth. The earth miniaturclh to us two things; our 
livolihood, that cometh of the earth that we live hy. and our 
sepulchre after our death. "We have V-en in perpetniil peac* 

> OtfanmU. gfrmtfta. 



ti.0. last 


'till now ihtt thou tst Lomt to diaiiilKrit n»; mdJ kIm w« 
havi! H kint;. N<H lo do ju<ttce to ever; mBO, tar i\p aluijl find 
tin tatfial asaong tu ; bat to keep aahleaem, uni to show tlut 
wc vn oliedicnt, wc haw n king. For jiuUire ha* lunoDg u 
□o piflfo ; fur wo du to no nutn otherwiifr thin ire dt^nre thst 
ai«D du to ua, «> that righteonniea or Tcngeuioe lure nong^ 
to do laaaag oj ; w that thou nu^eit tike nothing^ from n» 
Imt our good paK«, Ibat ftlwHjrs hath endnred flmofig us," 
And wh«i Icing' Alexander had r«ad these lett«n, he thought 
that b« should do gr^^ ^ ^ troD^te them. 

There ii another Ule called Oxidnte, and mother callL-d 
OyiDnavophei, where there are aJao good people, and full of 
good Caith ; and they hold, for the moft part, the aune good 
fooiUlioni and ciutom», and good mannen, aa man of the 
roontty abovo tatfulioaed ; but they alt go naked. Into that 
Ule entered king Alexanrlor, to ace the coj^mfr ; and when 
hv aaw their gTMt faith, and the truth that was amon^ 
thcin, he nid that he would not grieve them, and bade thE'tn 
kttk cif him what thuy vould have of him, richer ot any thin^ 
clao, and the^r ahould have it irtth good wilL And the>> 
aiuvcnd that ha waa ric^ tioongh Out bad meat and ibiok 
tr> im<ftiD the bod; with ; for the richea of this world, that is 
tianaitoiy, are of no worth ; Sut if it were- in hU powfir to 
ninbe them immortal, th'^roof «-uald thejr pray him, and 
thank him. And Alcxandxt tutsKcred them th&t it waA not 
in hia power to do it, because be wu mortal, u they ware. 
And then they aaked him why htf wait aq proud, end so fierce, 
and H boay to put all this world under hia aahjeotion, " right 
«« thou wcrl a God, and hiwft no 4«rTa of this life, neither 
•lity n^r hoar ; and covetegt to have all the world at thy 
t'lnnmaiid, that shall ksre tbi» without fail!, or thon leave it. 
And ri^bt aa it hath been to other men before thee, right «o 
il nhull be to Othen after tbeo, and from hence ihatt thou 
ntrrj' nothing -, hut aa thou w«rt bom n&ked, right so all 
luiked ?th4l thy body bo tunn>d into <»rth, that thon wert 
huult' of. Wherefore thon dvoultht think, and imprces it on 
lliy uiindr that nothing is immortal but only God, that 
niadp nil things." By whiuh answer Altrxan^K-r was greatly 
HAuninlad and ahaabod, and a!) cuiifuai.-d departt^d from theca. 

Ifjtny other ialea there &re in the Umdof Pn-slrr John, atid 
'■tan)' great tnarrola, that were toe long to tell, both of his 
I icbea and ol hii nohleneH, and of the great plenty alflo of 
preeioiin ittonoi that he haa. 1 think that you know well 
nnw, and hav« Houd ny, why thia emperor a called FreKtcr 
-John. There waa eome time an emperor there, who was a 
worthy and a full noble prince, that had CliriiitLan knif^hla in 
his company, at h« ha« that now ia. So it iH-f'-ll thiit he had 
great dtwrc to nee tho wrvice in the chtirth among Clitii- 
tianA; and then Chriatendom extended lieyoiid the «0H, in- 
I'liuling Htl Tnrkpyi SiTia, Tartar^-, Jenualem, Palefltinf, 
Arabia, Aleppo, and all the hind of Egypt. 80 it befall that 
thin fTnp«n-or came, with u CbriistcBD knight with him, into a 
« hiiri'h in Efrv'pt; and it was the SuturiEay in W^lil^illntide. 
And the biahop wai confi^rring orders; tind he bfheld find 
liitptit^d to th« Ben-ict' full attentively; and he ankod the 
nLriKti.iiit knight what men of dcgroo they should he that the 
pruUtti had bfiore him -, and the knight answered and said 
that they were prictta- And th>em the empi>ror uaid that he 
would no longer be tailed King nor Emperor, bat Friejit; and 
thftt Yu^ would have the nauio of tho ^isl prieflt that went out 
of the ohiiroh ; and his nnuie waa John. And po, evennore 
■ince, hn in cwlh-d Prestrr John. 

Towanln tbc i-ast of Prftrt«r .Tohn'a land i« a good »nd great 
ialit i-ttliwi Tiipniljunn,' and it \» vory fruitful; jind thr- king 
thoroof ipt rich, and in unrlci- the olKtieance uf Prcfit^r JaUn, 

' Taymbatit, CBj]oa, 

ire theSed , 

tie n^HH 

[ gold, that 

of rrotor 
i, nu>ii£lid 
here i i th> B 

•1 Pua^H 

And there they alvajt uiik* Quar king by dnrtiofi. In that 
iale are twp nmwien ud two 'winta>: and men harvurt the 
com twice a year ; and m all ■eaaoat of the yv»r the gHrduna 
are in dower. There dwcU gvod fcople, \ai reaaonxble ; aa'l 
many Chriatian men among them, wba tte n rich that they 
know not what to do 'wtth their gooda- Of tH timo, when 
men p— cd. ina the land of Preaicr John tmtA that iale, mim 
made ordinance to paaa by *hip in tweqty-thpee day> or more; 
hot now men pa» by ship in Beven dayB. And ott/a nuy see 
the bottom of the tea in many plaon; Sof it b iK>t very de«p. 

Beaide that iale, towuda the oat, are t'vo other iales, one 
called Qrille, Uie other Argyto, of which aU the land ta 
of gold and silTeT. And thoae iaiea are joat where the Sai 
tie* aepai^cs frun the Ocenn Sen. And m thoae 
nee no atan Bo deuly aa in Other pUMa; fi» them 
only one clear star cai\ed Canopns. And there the 
nut '<f*-a in ail the Itmationt esoept in the tecoad qnattedf. 
thi- i<lf , alao, of thi4 T^probone are gnat hillfr of gold, that 
ants kr^:-[i fuU diligpOtly. 

And beyond the land, and ialoi, and deserta of Frotor 
John's hkrd^p, in ^ing straight towarda the east, men End 
nothing but moanlaiiu and great rocka; and there ia th> 
dork region, where no man may see, nnther by day 
u thty of the country ny. And that deacrt, and 
of dorknccA, btsta from thts coaat unto Tprrestrial 
where Adam, our fint father, and Eve were put, who dw^ 
there but a little while ; and that ia towaida the east, at the 
beginning of the earth. But this 'a not that eAflt tha.t we call 
our eaat, on thia half, where the sun riaes to ob ; for when 
the tun i» curt in thOK pMTtft towards Terrertrial Fandiae, it it 
then midnight in our parta on this half, on ttoeount of the 
roundneaa of the earth, of which 1 hHve told you before; tur 
our Lord God madr- llio «iiElh all round, in th^ middle of the 
firmament. And thcrt have monntaina and hilla beat, and 
valleya, which btobO only from Nooh'^ Sood, that wasted the 
aoft and tender graond, find full down into valleys; and th« 
hard forth and tbetOck lamein motintains, whtn the auft and 
lender earth was worn sway by the water, and fdl, ud 
became v^eyA. 

Of PaTsdiifo I cannot apeak properly, for I waa not then.* 
It is far hoi^'und ; and t repent not going there, but I itbb not 
worthy. But as I have heard vny of wise men beyond, I 
ahall tell you with good 'wiQ. TriT[-!>trijJ Farodiiip, as win 
men wy. i« th« highc»t pUce of tho «u1h ; and it la io bi^ 
that it nearly touchee the circle of Ihemoon there, aa the 
mjikea her tym. For it ia bo high timt the Sood of 
might not oome to it, that 'would hnve covered 
oarth "f the world all qbout, and uhovi' and b^Tbeath, 
F&nidJ^. And this FiiradiAe ie inclosi?d all about with % 
wall, and men know not whereof it ia ; for tho wall u 
covered all over with moaa, bj it scomn; and it eeena 
not that the wall Ib natural »(une. And that wrill rtrctdtea 
from the south to the north; and it h»n. but i>nf entry. 
which \« cloeed with burning fire, ao lh;tt no man that 
in mortil dafo enter. And in the highest pljice of I'aradiae, 
DXActly in Hie middle, ig n well that ae^it out tlie four 
atrcamH, which nuL by diwrv l&nd^, of wbii II the Brut u 
called Pi»on. or Ganges, that runs thn)ngli-^ut India, oa 
Emlak, in which river nfr many precious stoncf, and miH^ 
lignum hIws, and much sand of gold. And the other river ii 
callt.^d Xile, or Oyaon, wliirh goes through Ethiopii>,iind after 
through Egypt And the other i&aUcd Tigris, which ntos 
by ABsyrift, and by Armit?niii the Orr-nt. And iht- (hllvi-r it 
o^od Euphratea, whiiJh runs through Hodia, Armenia, and 
Ferna. And men there beyond say l^it all the awevt " atcn 
of the world, above and beneath, toko their beginning fnun 
the well of FuradiAO ; Uid out of 'that well all watdra coat 

■ BO nign 
themooA I 

t ndn I 


Xlift flprt nvcr ift cnJlt'd Pim>n, thut is, in our 

ftwrmMi ' for mimy ulhi-t riven miK't thero, and 

W^ into tliBt rivpr. And aomQ RiU it Gimgi^*, from an Indi"ii 

Vltin^, uiUud (Inngrres, lH<«»itaD it tun throu^^h hh laiiii. 

lAlid itM wuter h in acme plai;e9 tkuj,r. and in »om« plm-OH 

rtroublc?d: in AOiuft pWea hut, and in some pbjcca ould. Thi^ 

VMCond rivpT ia l-iiI1»1 \ilc. or Gyson, for it is alwnjs 

P^oullod; ftmi G^yHon, in the Ungua^ of Ethto^iia, in tn huv 

■ !1^uble, And in the lnngii»gr< ul Egj-pt aSap. Thtt thinl 

d^tir, callotl Tigris, ia as miKh m to Kiy, Faat Riinning: 

""ibr it nuifl i»slac than any of tlw; oIIiotts. Tiif fourllh riv«r 

ia dilM Euphrtitea, tktt ia to auy, Well Bearing ; for thcr* 

grow iipob that rivor com, fruit, and i>thur goodii, ia groiit 


And you shall onderstund thut no inaD thut is moi-tal nuiy 

iproMiiJi til thut Pmradifid; fur by lund no nian may go for 

l^eAflts, thiit urc in tho denerta, und for thu high 

iitnitiB, aad grenl huge rotks, thjit no man miiy Iibbs by 

; dark places that urs there; and by the riven uuiy no 

ga, for thi'^ water ruiifl bo roughly and so sharply, 

Bvnuse it corner doM-n eo outni^eouHly Eroni the hiyh phicue 

wve, ihiit it runs in so greut wnvca thut ntv ahip may row or 

1 ngHiimt it : iind th« water roaru bo, and mukea m huge ii 

!, and BO t;re&t » tempest, that no man may hem Another 

ip Bhip, though he critd with nil ih«" might he could. 

I* great lorda Iiatc uuiayod with great %i]l, tguiny tiine»t 

llo imaa hy ihoBe rivers towaT-da Punidiae, with full greilt 

niponicB.; Wt thpy might not flpeed in thtir voyage ; and 

f died for weiinnc««i of rowing- a^iinst the alrcpag w^vcr^; 

', many of them becamo hlind^ and many doa.(, for the 

) oi the Water; und aomc pcriohcd and were luat in thi^ 

,VM ; BO thtit no mortal man may approat'h to that place 

rithout Bpt!<^^ial grace of Gorl ; bo that of thtit pkco t enn 

■ten you no more. 

Our litfniture iiiclucles a series of family letters,' 
iwintten be-tween the yeiira 14'23 ami \5d*X Tliey 
written by Jind to mt-mWi's of the Pnston 
whidi <]i?rived its name from a Norfolk 

F'rnm Sir John Feun't " Orijimil Lettvn," 

village when? they livptl near the sea at Pnston Hallr 
about a inile frnni Bronihohn Pi-iorj", famed for 
possession of n piece of the true Cross. 

■ Tbs Fonou L«tl«» i»>re Qnt mudekiioiini to tbe pubUo ia 1787 b; 
John Vaai, of Eiwt Bereliiuii , in Norfolk, who poHiMMd tha autoKTApIui 
from whicb be then xrablliTiptl tva fnlio Toliimn of lettfira \>j rarlotu 
p«r«Du of Timfc (tnd oou«.-queTLCs durinirtbe niRiw of Henir VI.. 

Kwinl tV., And Itifibutl ni. Thof irere dedicated to tb« Kin^P 'Bd 
f li« aditioD was sold in a week. The Eiog fiifthtii« to aoe the 

In the reign of Henry VI,, William PuHtou, well 
eiiucateii by a frugal father who hud no worliUy posi- 
tion, I'ose in the law, till h» became in L429 .1 jU'tlfre 
of thei Conimoii Pleas. He nnirrietl Agnes, heireea uf 
Sir Eiiunmd Berry, of Hertfoi-dfjlujtj. They hail fi 
son John, jtlso bi-ed to the law, who was twenty-fonr 
years old when his father iliwl in 1444, m son 
Eklmund, who ahw was a lawj-er, a son Willuuii, and 
a daughter Elizabeth. Before the judge died he had 
evade for his. son a good marrta^ with Margaret, 
lieireaa of John Mautshy. John Paa.toii*B wife wuk 
foHDel for him, iiccortling to the fiishion of the time, 
fcut proved, us Margaret Pustoli, a good wife to ln-v 
" right reverent and wofsliipfnl hviybaml," for sls-antU 
twenty years. She raanageil his iiflairs in Norfolk 
when he was up in London during term time, and 
when she heard of him ill in London wrote, " I 
would ye were at home, if it were for your ease (anii 
your sore might be as well looked to here an it i.'; 
there ye bo), now, liever than a gown, though it wen* 
of a«w!et." 

Tlie following letter addrefsaed to this John Pastoii. 
by a kindly intervening lady, treats uf a marriag.- 
project for hia young aister Elizal*th. and of tli- 
hoinri diBcipline of Agiiea Paston, abuut the Year 


Tnijjty and well bdorod Couain, I commend me to you. 
desiring to hear of your wolfatf- and good sjioed in yotiv 
mattwr, the whieh 1 pmy. (jod send you, to KiB plesMUTi*''' 
und to }'oiit heart'd ease. 

Cousin, I ht you veto that Scropo bith be in thi* country 
to aeo mj- cOiudn your si«ter, and he Iwith bpoken with my 
(;ouaiTi your mother, aad abti dcaireth of him that he fihouJd 
show you the indtinturo» mado between the knight that hath 
bis daughter and him, whether that Scrope, ii he were 

>yiJ Library, ud u »- ^^^^H 
. TIjub eunounged, Sr^^^^H 
Tolnmci at them latlen^^^^^^H 
•Hi. ItwoapnbUdiodbr^^^^l 
iwb{]6tbeorl9liu]U88, ^^^H 
-wo vdIuiubb. bouDd intO^ ^^^^^H 
frotu the Eojul Iilbfkrjr, ^^^^^| 
uid Toarth T-nlumcs bJ»(» ^^^^H 
me wore eAao lost antil 

origrnid tett^n, the; were pmentfld to th^ EoyiJ Library, uid u »- 
pftT^eut tor the ^tt John Feau wm kDJ|rhC»<l. TIjub eunounged, 9r' 
Jolui Ficnu i«m»l, la I78E>, a third boeI fourth Tolnnui of ihefta" 
and hod a fifth vuluma ready at bis do&th in ITOt^, It woa pnbUihod hr 
hli uephaw, Kr. Serjeant Frere. in ISS^. SfcaawbUa the orl^liu] &t88< 
bad bMB lost. The origin&la ol Feiku'B irtt tiro vdIuiubb. bouod infa^ 
CbrWH9. vnls. tax the £mp,h«««dMinppmr«d frotu the Eojul Iilbfkrjr, 
The ari^noJ HSS.. im^liidicd ia Fenn's third and toarth T-nlumcs aitn 
dlanppeanid ; the M9S. usod far the fifth rolucie wore eAao lost antil 
1HB| vhtm they nerc diBOOveretl hy the Ia^Q ^r, Philip Frerc 1d hi^ 
Ilouh ji>t Dim^te. in CatabridKfinhm. oJoaif with o krgt ma« ol 
BdiLtioiuI MSB. ibelongin^ to ihe KamQ nollectioa. 

Siuifle letters tram 4he i^olle^ion hnve been scaltarod nbnut fm-m 
time to time, T*ri>nty are in tLu BuHllcian, tma Tolnmea ct Fa^tolf 
mi Put^n )iDp«nw«^ire' bought ^y SirThoiniu FhLUi^)M tor hit library 
■it CbeJUnhom. Ia 1875 1^ HSBS. uwd bf Sir Jnlio Feim lor bia 
third Dud fourth Tolumcs irerie at laxt found, ajnonn; tha papisril of 
iLiiufb«r ui&aibeF of Ike Frere tatnllT. at Bi>T4oti H«l]. But the two 
ToIumoH preneoted to the Bojul Library, and LlbI acca in the hi'udaaf 
Queen Chsrlot(<e, who is aapposed to have lent them lo eae of ber 
liidlea in attaudsuee, have yet to lie fauad. Mr. Juinea GwrdnerrOf 
the Rocord Office. l^i^K too'^ri b# tb^i crhief sp^ia^ atodeltt uf thepori^ 
of hJatory whioh thuie letiere lUuatriLto, h&a fti^flied bjs Qioct lcaaw> 
ledife to tk carefa] cLirDTiu'logifal tkmit>K«meQt of ihe Ik'tten, danfated la 
amaber Ivy recent diseareriBa, and pabllahedl thiem in three volnmea 
witb full biitorioiJ iefaiodnctio'Q, and with notes to the anoceaalra 
lett«n, ibat moJco tb«U- c^DlenU <-ku- to oU rvadcn. A* puhli«b«n 
will luit reoD^tdse u Kalflcteat public tor tuch bool^B, Ur. Bdwanl 
Arber liaa ixlded to his nianj aerrlce* to good Uteraitnre by taklnf 
upoahiuiwH tolasuoMr.OairdnBr's ■edition— now the atauduird odltlon 
—nt the Pn^oo Lcrt-cn, in three ieven-iihflLinK rolntnes, which are In 
Whod Ihrodirli tL«gMatbj<i!recC b|i>plicatloEtoEdirftr<3Aib«', F-8.A., 
SontliBate, Lendru, N. It ia Uie odIjt work iaaufld t>y Mr. Arber thai 
ia not oditad aa well A« putiliahnd bj himseU. 


lA.0. I4t9, 

ni«rTw4 mi fwtafMd to b>*« cLiMrati, if tlM duUrsi riioajd 
tnlvoit bis bud, 'je hit 4uHrlit<»' Um vicdk u manied. 

'Amuha, tw thia cakoK tklw ifryl Lwd to lui iodestarts, fw 
hx: it i^mA to ifaov /<« them, or vbom r* will uhzd ^rrih 
y/a i nd b« Mith to OK itft ia tLt lut in tl^ tul lyf hi> iif«- 
if^, thus vfajdi it uxx auric aad better, u W^ijcn rihi[>duii 
MUth, for bt hitli t«]c« a/yjooni r^ Lia Uitli^if: direr* time* ; 
«nd fWr^A mith to DM if Im Ur nuuriftd. uul fa^r^ a Mn an 
Iku*, hia iMot^ititx tlut i* mairvrd tLail Lar^ •yf ^'« IW*-IfA- l 
naric aad no moni ; and tl^tr^don, cooicn, mi^ K«iD«ch ht: wn 
IC^fi ffje my vjoma yjftr Bat«r, witttoot Uiat re mi^hl s^ her 
« \MltUx, And if 7« can t^ a bcttv, I tooM aria^ roa to 
labovr ID it a« abort time aa t« may i^»11t, for ab« vu oktct 
in mt ifnmt m^rrvw aa ali« ii oovadayi, for alu: may not vfeak 
with no man, vhoaoerer codm, d^ »A may >h« ne qwak vilh 
my man, d« vith lerranta of lurr dkaIut's Init that ahe 
>«atf*4h Imt on hand 'Xh«rviae than ahe mean^lh. And ah« 
hath b« sncft Kaa(«r tfa«; most part be b«at«n oaf« in th« 
Wfftk or twice, and aoow; tinv: twicft on one day, and b«r head 
broki>!n in two or thrw \f]»t:**. ^Itereforfr, coostn, ahe hath 
tKtA to nu: Ivy Friar N<-wton in great coiuufrl, and prayeth me 
that I would aend to y^u a k-tt«T of her heavineaa, and pny 

bAzu£h«d him for five jeus. bopine thereby to save his 
life, afuT he left the Fn gtiiA sbwe he was followed 
utd mnni^red u sea. Before hu departure the 
raiiifA parcj chief wrue ■ kcter to his eigfat-jeaF-old 
son, r^ which a oc^v wae preaerrM among the letters 
(^ the Paj^ton faiailj. 

My d^ar and only weZ belored tua, I beieedi oar Lord in 
HettTen, the Maker of all the worid. to Ueaa ymt, and to send 
yoD «T#f grace to lore Uim and to dmd Him : to the which, 
aa far aa father mav chance h« child. I both diarg;e yon and 
yrt.y yon to set all spirits and vita to do and to know Hii 
holy lavs and commandmenta. by th<r whidi ye ahall, with 
Hia gi«^ m^cy, paas all the great tempeata and troables lA 
this wretched worid. And that also wittingly ye do nothing 
for lore nor dread of any earthly o eatur e that ahonld dia- 
pleaae Him. An thes« is any fiailty maketh yon to fall, 
beseecheth His mercy soon to caD yon to Him again with 
repentance, satisfaction, and ctmtritioii of yonr heart, ners 
more in will to offend TTitw 

A pASToa Lkttkb or rax BneK ow Hnar TL, 
Aovtaf tkt DirteUi oni SmUd SiAm, ««k Uw ICaHiwr of Folding. {From Sir J<A.n Fnm-$ 


yoD to be her good brother, aa her trost ia in yon ; and ahe 
mith, if ye may ace by hia evidence* that hia children and 
hum may inherit, and ahe to have reaaonablo jointure, she 
hath hoard so miuJi of hia birth and his ccmditions that, an 
yf; will, ahe will hare him whether that her mother will or 
will not, notwithstanding it ia told her hia person is simple, 
fur she Maith men shall have the more deynt«e of her if she 
rule hiT to him as ahe ought U) do. 

Coosin, it is told me there is a goodly man in your Inn, of 
the which the father died lately, and if ye think that he were 
bett«!r for her than Hcrope, it would be laboured; and give 
Hcrope a goodly answer ihat h<; be not put off till ye be sure 
of a better, for ho aaid when he was with me, but if he have 
some comfortable anawer of you, he will no more labour in 
this matter, because he might tuA see my cousin your sister, 
and he aaid bo might 'a see her, an ahe had be better Uian she 
ia ; and that causoth him to dtimnt that her mother was not 
wfll willing, and so have I sent my cousin your mother word. 
Wherefore, cousin, think on this matter, for sorrow oftentime 
Muaeth women to b<-aet them otherwise than they should do, 
and if iho wore in thnt case, I w<A waW ye would be sorry. 
(,'oiiMin, I pray you bum this letter, that your men ne none 
<fthiir man sec it ; for an my cousin yonr mother knew that I 
had aont you this lett^-r, aho should never lore me. No more 
I writo to you at this time, but Holy Qhost have yon in 
kwiiing. Written in lutste, on St. Peter's Day, by candle 
"«*•'■ By your Cousin, 

Elizabsth Clare. 

Wlien the Duke of Sufiblk was accuned by the 
Comuiuiu of High Treason, and Henry VI., in 1450, 

I Secondly, next Him, above all earthly thing to be tme 
liegeman in heart, in will, in thought, in deed, unto the king, 
our aldermost high and dread sovereign lord, to whom botll 
ye and 1 been so much boond to ; charging you, aa &ther 
I can and may, rather to die than to be the contrary, or to 
j know anything that were against the welfare or proapcnity of 
hia most royal person, but that as iar aa yonr body and life 
may stretch, ye live and die to defend it, and to let his hi^- 
ness have knowledge of it in all the haste ye can. 

Thirdly, in the same wise, I chaige yon, my dear son, 
alway, as ye be bounden by the commandment of Qod to do, 
to love, to worship your lady and mother, and also that ys 
obey alway her commandmenta, and to believe her counfeh 
and ad^-ices in all your works, the which dreadeth not but 
ahall be best and truest to you. And if any other body would 
stir yon to the contrary, to flee the counsel in any wise, fat 
ye ahall find it nought and eWL 

Fourthly,' as far as father may and can, I charge you in 
any wise to flee the company and counsel of proud meai, cl 
covetous men, and of flattering men, the more eapocaally and 
mightily to withstand them, and not to draw nor to meddls 
¥nth them, with all your might and power. And to draw to 
you and to your comp [any good] and virtuous men, and such 
as ben of good conversEition and of truth, and by tbem ye shall 
never be deceived, nor repent you of. [Moreover never follow] 
your own wit in no wise, but in all your works, of such folks 
aa I write of above, axeth your advice a[nd counse]! ; and 
doing thus, with the mercy of Qod, ye ahall do right well, 

1 In the HS. "forthe" witb added letters illegfbla, Vr. OaMiMr 
reads " forthetnore." The bracketa in this letter eiieloae words 
supplied hj Ur. Oaixdner where tli« orlgiiul baa beooni flleflhiai 

■ 90 *.t>. 1W3.J 


riud livv in right much wonhip and grBK.1 hLiuK'H rt-at and 
vax. And I will be to yon u good lord and father aa my 
hrart can think. Aad hist of all, as liDartily and w loTin^^ly 
iM ever father bluas^d his uhUd on «arth, I givit yoa thu 
Iiltvsing of our Lard tmd of rnp, which of liia inKnite niurcy 
iBCTfast,' you in aU virtiio imd good liviu^. And that j-our 
Iiluod m&y by His gruc^ fram kLudjcd tu kdndrrd multiply in 
iiiis oarth U) Hu Krvic«, is each wi«o ais after Uu dtrpurt- 
lag from thij wrftUdked worUt hHrt>, yo mid tht-y may ghirify 
lUm vtemol^ anurngst tbe angeU in Uoavfn. 
Written of my hand, 

II The day of my dcimrling fr-mi tJiis ImiiI. 

I Your Crut! and lloving fiither, 


The Scmpe who mittli' suit fur Elizabpth Faaton 
'*«s Philip, Mil (if Sir John Fafitolfs wif»t by a 
fonnpr liiislmniL FoHtolf, wlioae iiaiEt^ wow borrowed 
fi>r Sliakcspeftre's FalstalT, wafi auiong t!ie frienrlg of 
tilt- Paatonii, anil here is ii letter from hi™, writttju 

FebruaTy, L455. 


To mjf riffAt trtutg and tetlt tfloveifctiai,in, Jahn Patto«, m 

Ri^ht tmsty and wpll bfloved comin, I commend me tu' 
you. And pli^asu yoti to wit that I ant adveiiiAi'd that at a 
dinner in Notwith, whereas ye adA othcir gentlemen wtire 
pn-sqnt, that there vcre certain personfl, gentlemen, which 
ottered, ecomful l^iguage of me, ae in this wine, witi) more, 
saying, "Wart.' thee, goeune/ ware, and go we to dinner; go 
we where? To Sir John Fastolf, and thorw wb shall well 
|uiy therefore. " What their meaning was I know well, to 
aogood intent to moward : whfrtrore, comiiu, I pray you, as 
my tnut ia in you, that ye give am knowlcd^ by writing 
what ganUeinen they he thut hi\d thia report with more,, und 
what mo^ gentlemen were present, as ye would [ ahauld and 
were my duty to do for yo« ip ^■■jiiilHhEe wjw- And I ahall 
keep your infonnstion in thin matter AecreC, and in Gud*8 
^mcB ao fturrey for them aa they Bhall not ht^ uJl weU ploaavd. 
At such a timo a man may know hid friends and hie foed 
•mnder kt. Jeeu preverre and kmvp you. 

Written at Caiater tha rii. diiv of Fchruary, anno xxxiii. 
h_ u. Vlth. 

John Fahtolf, Knight. 

Sir Jolin Fnstolf fiated from CaiHter, near Yar- 
mouth, where he hiul, at much coat of money and 
time, just coitkpleted the turning of his hou^e iitto a 
Htrong castle that covered gii acrp^ of ground. He 
wjM akin to John Paaton's wife Margaret, and when 
he dieil, in l + '^S^ Juhu Paaton was his execntor, A 
AerviLUt of hia own, apeaking of him in one of these 
letttrra, saya "crue! and vengfinble he hath Iwan over, 
and for the most part without pity and mercy-" His 
Kteward also couiplaiiw of Hting^' usage. There 
have been small cheer in a dinner with the real 
hiiitorical Jack Fastolt He aoUt the wardship of 
liL» Bt^pson^ Stephen Scrope, and Ixiught it bm^k 
again for hia own advantage; as the Hteptton himiifvlf 
said, '^He bouj^bt me and Hotd lue as a. beant, againtit 
aJ] right and law, to mine hurt more than 1,000 

marks." HLs wtt-p father's stijij^iiie^ obUgetl Scrope 
to hgU part of hiw inhfritu.nct ainJi take service Mdth 
tht* Duke o£ Glouce.'s.t^r in France. When he camo 
bock Fastolf rec^uii-ei him to pay for his meat and 
drink. Need of nioney drove him to hasty marria^ 
and Fikstolf then bronght an action that deprived 
hia atepson of what property the vtfe brou{!;ht him. 
The wife died. Iea>'ing Scrope with a little daughter, 
and afterwards he &ays, " For verv neefi I was f"i" 
to sell ar little daughter I have for imich less than I 
Hbould hiive done by possibiHtj." Eliziibeth Paston 
did not lieooroe tlie second wife of Stephen Scrope. 
She nianied about New Year'a Day, 1459, Robert 
Poviiings, who hud been an ally of Jack Cade's in 

FiLHtolfs friend, John Paston, liied in 1466, and 
left a lar^e family. HL* two ehkst «ons were both 
nameil Julnij and each liecame a kidght. A motherly 
h'tter from Margaret Paaton to one of these sons, 
who, in November, 1463, had left home clandestinely, 
and gone, upparejitly. to waitu[>On King Edward IV., 
at Pomfret, will enable uh to part kindly from the 
Paston family. The original spelling shall be left. 


To my wrllhelorffd mo». Sir Jvhn Panioit, frr ifiu dtUvrryd mi 

I gt(?t you wtdle, and send yow Godds Mieayng and mjni 
lutyng yow wet* that I huve roceyved a letter fruui you, the 
wycho ya dulifcrj'd to Master Roiter nt LjTine, wherby I 
conwyvc Uwr yi' thynko ye dod not wt-U that yi? departyd 
hon« withowt tny knowla^i-. ^Vll■prfo^ 1 kto you wett I wan 
ryght evyll puyi^ with yoa- Your fader thowght, axA 
thynkj'th jpt, that I was uHcntyd to your depnrtynjiand that 
hatfau CHUftyd me to have gr«^ herincaso. I hope ho wolle bo 
yoor good fador hereafter, if ye demsne you * well and do aa 
ye owe to do to h^*m; and I charge >-ou upon my Ijlyaayng 
that ill any thytig towchyng your &der that ahuld be hy* 
worebep, profji«, or Hvayl<j. that ye do your devoyr and 
dyligent labor to the fortheiAna thiMin, as yd *uM*i hnvct my 
^ood wUlc, and thul Bbnll ofmae yonr fader to be better £ador 
to you. 

It was told mc yo st-nt hjnn a letter to London. What 0iQ 
cntent thorof wae I wot not, but thowgQ he take it but 
lyghtly, I wold yo ahuld not npar tu writrt to hym ageyn aa 
luwly ua yi? cani', liesechyng hym to be your ^ood fadur ; and 
send hym aucho tydinga as be iu the contro thir ye bethe in^ 
and that yc war' of your expence bettyr and ye havo bo 
befor thys tymf, and bo your owno purso beror, I trowe yfl 
filiaU fynd yt mi^t profytable to yon. 

I wold y& fihuld Aond ta« word howghe ye doo, and howghe 
yo have schevyftu' for yourKlf syn ye departrd h^nii, W 
aonto trusty man, and that your fador have no knowlage 
therof. 1 duntQ not late \\ym knowo of tht Liate letter that 
ye wrot to me, becaune he wua bo sor dyBpluusyd with mo at 
that tyme. 

Item, 1 wold ye abulJ spoke with Wekis" and kuowe hia 
dj-spoaysion to Jauo Wal^iam. She bathe stiyd, ^yn hs 
departyd hen», but she myght have hym aha wold imvar 

> 04nMM maf ba fMMnw. rodsou ; "but toon- girobobly is of tlio i>t\^d 
■MTibod to the IrUb goMMun, gar^an, boy i tbe pbrasQi taeiuilii|f , " Be 
u« jonr iriatd, my boy." 

■ Jfoi, Ftnt Enelltb "mo.," morv. 


■ Latgnf yf« iMt, Mtlaff Ton know. Front lint Bagltoh " wlCas," 
to know. 

* If yt imn* i«a, Ob»MTie tbron^liOTit the oriflqaj um, aIwd i* 
tained in Uw madanikftd latlen, of fo (ge) oft a uamlmtLvfi iLod yoa 
(eoirli u ft drntivQ or UHinaatiTe. 

' War, be on frunL • ScKtr^r, Ehiflod. ' Bi. \<j. 

* Wtkit. John W/kflB, oahar of tb* Va^t «ib«inber. 



[JulL list. 

tnnrji-d, hyr hoit jb bot set un liyiu ; shf lolil nio that ho seyd 
to b>T that thor waa no wucuEia in the world liu lovyd 90 
wuUi.'' I wulil not that ho sJiuld jui^e hyr, fur aha mcnythe 
jfood fcythe ; and yf ho wollc not hare hyr, likto me wote in 
hiuAv and I ehnU purroy for hyr in othyr wysfl*. 

Aa for your bamc-ys ' and g-cr that ye left here, it ys in 
Daubenoyn kepyng ; it woa nCTor remL-i^yd syn your depHjrt- 
yog, be cause thnt ho hiiU not thi- {cl-vm. [ trowQ it ahnlt 
apoycF' but if it bo take hed hnti- ' bo tyinyn. Your fftdcr 
Imowythc not wher it ie. 

I sent your grey ]iot« tu Huston to the ferrot,' and he- 
■eytht! he uJiull nevtjr fuj nowght to rood, nowthyr ryght good 
to plowo nor to CArtc ; ho w:)>-tb he was sptiyyd, and hys 
■hulder rent from the Wly, I wot not whut to do vOh hym. 

Your (jTHDiI/im wuld ftiync here sum lydyngs fnim you. 
It wer wcllij ilo that yi? sent a letter to h^er howa ye do, hi^ 
ii«toly lu ye nuy. And (iod have you in llys kepyng, nnd 
make you & good matt, and jil yow f^co to do oa veil aa I 
woiiid ye should do. 

Wriityii nt Caster, ye Tewisday n<^xt hefor S«ynt Edmiind 
tbe Kj'n^. 

' Your Moder, 

M, Pastow, 

I wold vfi »huld make] moch of the parson Fylby, the 
herer h€-r«»f, iind nuikt> hym gOod cher yf ra BUiy. 

There U. in (ItM-'ayed MS., an inventor}'^made in 
the rei^jof Etlwiird IV., but not nthenrisc (\a.t&(\ — 
of books* belonging to one of the John PttstouR, Hiw 
librarv coiwiBted of twelve iiuiiiuacripts, Wi'ith onf 
piece of print, Caxtoii's earliest : "' ItPisi, ft Ijooke in 
preetite off the Pleye off the [Chesa]." The books 
representing the library of a geiitlemiin at tlie close 
of the fifteenth century— one MS. volume contain- 
ing seveiTi] works — coiiHititied of Home romaucefl, Houie 
poeuis of Chaucer, Occleve's " De Rf^nune Priii- 
cipum," a few religious and mowU pieces, three pieces 
of Cicei-o, a " Book of Blazouitigs of Aruia," mid a 
" Book of Knighthood." 


From William Caxtos to Roofer Ascham.— 
a.d. ih4 to a.i). 1.15^, 

William (.'astos, l:>om aliout 1422, was bred to 
wnnnierce, iind lovwl Htenitui-e in the days when the 
iirt of piintiiig hy movable typea v-'oa introduced 
into Europt^ He saw the commercial as well as the 
intellectvTfll gain to l>e secured by learning the art 
and bringiny it io England. In 1468, Caxton way 
in the Ber.'ice of Erlwiu-d IV. 's suiter Margaret at 
Bruges. At that time, CnJtton wab tnmftlating fmin 
RaouI le Fevro a " Recuyell of the Historyes of 
Troye," and affcerwanU he nays tlmt he leai-nt the 
art of printing. Hila first printed Iwok was " Tbp 
Crame and Play of the Chess," of which there were 
two mlitionn, the lirBt of them finished in March, 
1474. It is supposed to have been the first book 
printed in Engloud, thoiigh the clear statement, 

■ Api"j*r, bAcdtae worse, siiff>tir dainatw. 
) Tak, hti ImU, t*kea lM«d At. kwfcwl to. 
« ftrror, tarriitit. 

"■ Imprynted by me, Williiim Caxton. at West- 
minstre," timl appears in 1477, aft-er bis edition of 
a translation fi-oiu the French, by Antony Wood- 
ville, Lonl Rivers., of "The Dictes and, Sayings ui 
Philo3o|»heni." *'Thtt Giniie and Play of the Chess ' 

A Pmanaa Fana or IlfiS. 

r.jfyicFcd in Charla Kni^hVi " Lt/t of Dojrlon," 

is a moral treatise translated by Caxton from thf? 
French, divided into tnictatea, each completing n 
division of the aubject, and illustrated by Caxton 
with woodcuts, of which I give those which belong 
to the di-Bt tiuctate of 

Tht/r*t ehaptfro/thtjlrit fraftnte tfuiceti Httdtr tvAal Onf 
the pin ^ 0/ the Chfta irnj fonmieft- and made. Capitulo priniD. 

Ambng all the evil condiitions and MgnK thut may bo ia a 
man. thi? first aitd grestcst i*. when he f earctb not ue droadrtli 
to diapleuse and make wroth God hy sTn, and the people hy 
living- diBordiniitely ; when he ret^heth • not nor t^iketh heed 
uttto thi;m that rctprcve him and bis aHcob, but »l4?eth thvm, in 
Bucfa wise Bia did tho Emperor Nero, whiuh did do aliw* his 
m&flt^r Senc^iiie, for an much 11:1 he might not suffer to be 
reprtTved and taught of him- In like wine w84 KOmi'tinw «. 
kinj^ in Bubyloo ihAt waa named Evilmerodath, a joUy 
man without jui^tico, Rind so enicl thiit he did do hew hia 
fathcr'is body in thf«e hiui'drtKl pieces, and gave it to est an<t 
devour to three hnndri^ bird^ thail mi^n liiU vultures, and km 
of mah tionditicn as wai Nero, aad right well rowmhledi and 
M7i» like undo kin father Xabugodonnaor, which on a time 
Would do blee all the aage and wise men of Babylon, for ■■ 
much, as thoy ooilld not tell him hia droam that he had dreanud 

* RMcJuith, reckotb, frDin " i^cva," to i^k, ctm For, Ods tpoUfaf 
rapraMiLts tn-ouuccdatiou with a soft c. the other with • harl '- 
Between tbe two weak vowels, t 1. tLere -ma n iiattahd tsadoiM} 1'> 
■oFtenliiK of tlia f; aa Iro-m " I'Hcvua " ftttcbBtb. 

* Do iln, cvnc tv he •Uiu ; do hev, cauae to b« hawsd^ 

. 4.7..J 


<ta a. Digliti Hud hnd for^otlen it, like ns it is writl'>n in tlrn 
Bi>ili-, in the bw'b of TJanioi. Under Ihia kinio; then, Ei.-U- 
nii'rt>dacli, waa this gnme and plf*y of thti i-liosa fuiindi-n. True 
it is lliat eomo men ween that thie jilay wiw foundi'a in the 
timt of (111; battlra anil siege of Troy; but tbat is not so, for 
this phty CAtno to the plays of tho Cliald^M, ua Diotni-doti the 
GivcL Buth Bud rdtfarsetb, that wnifi Hre moat renomewi' phty 
iunon^ all othi.<r plays, and &ft«r that, cama thin piny in the time 
-»f AlexMnlcr the (_Jreat inlo Egypt, and so untoatl the jvirtie* 
toward the 8onth. And the uuifle wh«rcfcii\« this pUy was so 
iTnom«?d, flbull U- iatd m the iij chapter. 

TAu ehapto- ofthejinit traclafe nheinCh uhu f^^'Ufl Jiri-i Chi 

j>t»V «/'** ^A*". Cttpittilo ij, 

The play found ft philosopher of the OficTit which wm 
named in ChfiIdcH> Ex<^<reM. or in Gtv<-k Philcmatoa, whi^^h in 

for ua muth «9 they d»re not wiy to th'?e the tnilh. for to do 
justice Hghtt^rouHly; of myself I miike nofdfct-* whether I di« 
on tho land or on the wnlcr or othorwise. Ab who wid he 
notched not to die for juetice. In hke vise a» Democroon, the 
phihtaopher, put out hie own cyen hy cnciso he would not see 
that no g<XKl mij^htcomsto the evil and incioas people without 
Hght. And al»o Defortea tho phili]6o]>hcr ae he went t«watd* 
hit) dinith, his wife that fallowed after Mm aald that ho was 
dmnned to death wron^ully, then he anawerod and suid to 
her, Hold thy pc-acu and he? Btill, it is better itnd moru mero- 
lorji'u to die by a wrong ani unrightful judgment tUui that 
I had doBerv'ed to die," 

TAf third f^irjtinr of tl^f J!r*t tr^etafg irtalftli H'hffffort fh« 
piag wu fDHnded and tuadt, Cnpitulo iij. 

The* cauR^ whorbfore this play was ioundenr ton iij. The 

EnLMeaottiiTHB CKO(i.Tr. 

AS much id uy in Knglitih an he that loveth juaticc ahd mea- 
xure. And thin philoaophor wag tenomed greatly among Uie 
<>t««kA and them of Athena which were gwKl clerka und 
philovriphcn* also r^nomcd of their cunning, This philosopher 
vtnA BO jiiat and true Ehiit he hnd Ijpvpt dio thim to livo long 
nnd be h falM flflttcTGr wtih the said king. For when ht- 
heb«M the flinful lift" of the king, und that nowinn durtl hlama 
him, for hyhiA ^e&t cru^lCy hE) put them ttU to death that 
displ«i».<d him, h«' put hiniwlf in peiil of death ttnd loved Jind 
cliOBfl mther to die than longer to live. The evil life and 
dlufnmed of a king ii the liff> of a cruel bi'fl^. and ought not 
long to he euidained, for hedeBtrOyelb him that diapleaAoth 
him. And therefore rohcanicth Vakriuti thnt there wm a wine 
man naaied ThtKtiIore Cereni^ whom hie kinj:; did do hang on the 
«Tom fup u much as ho repreve*! him of his t'^il and foul life, 
and ftlway lU. he wns tn th« lormt'-nt he eaid to the king, 
^'riwnthycounfillonand them that hen clad in thy clothing 
and n>bt?e were mo» rcHAaii that thie torment should come, 

■ JbnMMd, "neBomm^," 

e&Biu, ID Vftlerjiu Haiiians' ' 
« lC«OK)ni.lnUiim," Ub, wi,. up. 2. 

Diotonnnfine r»o- 

firat was for to correct and npreve the king, for whtn 1 
king E^nhnLirodneh sjkw ihia l>lfty, and the baronh, knightl 
and gontleuK'n of Ym court play with tho philosuiihcr, he 
niarvelled greatly uf the beauty and novelty of the play, and 
dosirod to play againpt the pbiloeophcr. The philr>sophOT 
answered and said to him that it might not be done hut if * he 
first kerned the phiy. Thi- king said it wfta reason, nnd that 
he would put him tfi the pain to leam it. Thenthi,; philoao- 
pher begnn to Icmh him ftnd to shew him the manner of the 
tablu of the ehesa board und the chess men. And alao Ihu 
taftnnerH. and the coiiditiona of k king, of Iha nobl^M, and of 
tlie common proplc. and of their officon, and how they should 
he touched and drnwn : and how he should amend himwlf and 
hecome -rirtuous- \Vhoii this king heard that ho repreved 
him, he dsmiindi^d him «]K)n pain of dwilh to tell him where- 
fore he had founden and miido this play, und ht answered, " My 
right dear lord and king, th? giTLileal and most thing that I 
desire in that thou have in thyself a gloriona "nd virtuous 
life. And thnt may I not see hut if thou be cndoctrined and 
well mannered, and that had, so nutyat thou be helnred of thy 

■ itofare*, no 

* S*<l ^. n 

TO 4.ri. IWiJ 



li Kj, or thou art u. God, or n mno, or nouffbt. If thou hn (lod, 
do thoa vcU and pood to thf [ri«pl« an God doth, and t&kt* 
not from them that ihiry ought to bnvc and i^ tbeirsi ; if thou 
be n fsan think thikt thou H.hfilt die, and then thou Khalt do 
none ovil if tliou by nqqgHt (orget Ihyself, Tlnfn! ia mithing- 
so rtnjn^ and firm but that Bometimo a feublo tlLiag i;ajit«th 
dawb iind overthrow it. How wgll that Ihp lion 1h> tli^ 
■tmap!;cst bout, yet same timp u littU- bird catfttli him up." 

Thf wynnd oiumi wherefore thie piny waa foundtii niiil 
naCr, wtt% tor to koep Mra from idlc'ncde, whcrc-uf Seo'^qu^ 
BJth luito Luull[<, Idleness niChmit any oc[-up«ti(ju u tjcpnl- 
Liins ui H run living, and Cato auith in hix stmtencrfl that in 
Uk6 wi«oiu men go, not for to go, the mmv wise He life is not 
Dot given for to Lvf, hut fui- to do well nad good, And thett'fim', 
■eeondly, tfao I^ilosophcr found (lu^ V^Y ^'^'' ^^ keep the 
people from idk'n&BS ; fur there is much people, when «o La 
that they be iortunnti) in worldly ^(hIh thut tfacy drqw 
them to otu^ and idl(tneB», vhemol com^h oft timee miLny 
evil^ And ^realuns; and by thisidlmieBBthe heart iaqucmcht^n 
vbercof comeih good doapfr&tion. 

Tho third cause is ttuit pvciry man lULtnridly dc-inn th t-o 
know and hear noveltii^s and tiding*: for thiif caueo they of 
Atht-'Ud Htndied, as wc read, and fur as the corpurul or bodilr 
sight emiH.-'i^bfth ' and Mltth otherwhile tlie knuwhdge of 
Bubtlii ttings. Tliercforc we read that Demoerite the 
philcwpli'eT put out his «wn eyen fur us much lu ho might 
have the hotter «ntt;Ddpmitnt and iUider«t(U»ling. iitiny 
bare been miido blind tbwt were grcut clerka in likr wi^^' an 
waa Cidj'mUA bishap of Alesaudria, tbnt how woll ihtiC Iio 
«w not yet be wss 90 ffrftil a ckTk, that Ort-gory Xazuie ' and 
Hunt Jflxome that vctc cli-rks and mnstt^n to other, itane for 
to be hi9 Arhulars and learned of him ; lunl fiaint .\nthony, 
the gTott hormit, t-ama for to Bfo hhu on a timo, iind Among 
all othor things he dcmanJ^'d him if ho tv-ure not ^'utlv 
dis[dEHtBed that be *Kas blind and saw nut^ and he an^weri^I 
Umt he was ^eatly nbushrd for tboit ho euppo»i-d not that 
bi^ wna not difiplinaed in that be had lost hiti eight, and 
^nt Anthony answered to him, I mnrvil niui.'h that 
it di«ijleaflctb tbt* that ihon hris limt that ihin^ which iti 
commoii biptwHTi thw and bontrtti, and thou knowi^at well 
that thoa has.t not lost tbnt thing wbii;b is tommon bttwoen 
tbeo and the Rjigih, And for theso r»UHea foresaid, the 
PhilosDph^^r mtonded tu put away all pt^tisiveneas and 
thanghts. and Ut think only on this pli^y »» ahall be «uid &ud 
appedu in thiJi liouk &ft>i>r. 

Here eiwleJ the first tmrtAtp. Tlie aeconcl tractate 
then indicated the coostitntion of u ^itLitc in it^i 
rulers, in five cluaptera upon the tniperior chessnifn, 
king, queen, alphjii (judge), knight and rook 
^vicar or legat* of the king} ; tlie thtnl tmctsite 
set forth the places of the other meiulKTS of the 
commonwealth in eight chaptei'a on the pnwns. each 

lWH stAiiiling for a claBs. one for the lahoiirers, one 
tlie smithfl, one for the raprclinnta and chaitgprs, 
A fourtli tractate moralisoil the chess-lioard nnti 
ibe moves of the several pieces, and «I1 eniled with 
an •' Epilogfttion sind Recapitulation," giving a 
suininAry of the whole hook in its three last pages. 

Aciotber of Caxton's good swrvices wna the seeuring 
of ftn Original prose history, derivpU from thp chief 
poenis fonning the cycle of Artlmnfin romiince, whicli 
bad been finished hy Sir Thonms Malory in the nintli 

la foUow«4 at ttmoi too liwmn^ u [iIubbm bj w«U as words. 

jear of Edward IV., and was fiisf printed bjr Oftxton 
at WestniLQstcr in 14B5. This ia, in its original 


After thtit t had aecomplyiKhed and fynyintfacd dyvers 
hyaturyoa, us weU of <:ontcmplacyon Eisof otliur hystorj'flJ and 
worldly actes of ^ete conqueroun and prynces, and oIbo 
c^rrtnyn bookes of vneanniplt^a and doctryno, many noble and 
djT^rs ^^ntylmen of thy« royame of Englond camcn and 
demnundwl nie many nnd oftymint wherforo that I hav« not 
do make and cnprjnt* tho noble hyfltorj"© of the soynt greol, 
and of the mooat reoomt'd trysten kynpr, fjTwt iiod t-hyef of 
thethre beetcrysttn and worthy, kyng Arthui-, vihythi' ought 
mnoat to he remembred cmoTige no EnglysAh^ men tofore id 
other cryston kynges. For it in notoyrly knonen tharitgh 
the unyvi;>rBal world that there been ix. worthy ^ind tht* be«t 
that ever were, thut is to wete, thrs pnynjina. thre Jewea, 
and thre eryal^'n mon. Aa for tho paynyms, thej' wen« tofoPJ 
the incamaryfin of Ciyst, whithe were aai»«d, the fyrat 
Heetor of Troyp, of whome thyatoryc is ramen bcithe in 
hnlada and in proBe : the second Alysnunder tb« grab' ; and 
the thyrd JiiliTia Cesar, emptiroiir of Honte^ of whome 
thyBtoryea hen wel kno itnd had. And as for the Ihru 
JtwcA, whyche also wcru tiffore DijTioamacyoD of our Lord^ 
of whome tho fyrst was duo Josuc, whyche brought the 
chlldn'n of lemhel into the londe of bjhesle ; the &r<eQnd 
I>avyd krag of JheruesJom ; and the thjTd J\i»iaa Machttbocu ; 
oE theso ihre the Byble reh^ireeth ei theyT noble byfltoryos 
and af.'tc'B. And Bylh^ the atiyd incamit(.''yon hnve ben thre 
noble trytden tii>i>n i^dleid and admytted thiliriigh tha UOy- 
viiTsal world 'into the nombre of thu ix. heat^J| and worthy, of 
whumi^ wiin fy>vt Lht? nohhi Arthur, whus nuble ac-tee t 
purpoBi- to wryte in thy* present book hero folowyng; tho 
iweond wbh (iThairlemayn, or Chnrlcs the grrtn, of whomti 
th}-Htoryo ia had in many plact.'S bothe in Fronsohe and 
Englysahe; and the thyrd and last wa« Godofrsy of Boloyn, 
of wboe artee and lyf 1 made it book unto thexcullent 
pryiKW and kyng of noblo nn^morye krag Edward the fourth. 
Thtf Buid noble jontytmen instantly rttitijTed me teinpr}*nte 
thyrt'irye of the ftayd noble kytlg 4nd eonqUefOur kyng 
Arthur, and of his knyghtcs, with thyalorye of tho snynt 
greal, lUid of the dfth and endyng of tha ftuyd Arthur; 
HffennjTJg that I oujt rather tenprjTilt! tiis actoa and nobU* 
folates, than of Godefroj-o of Boloj'ne, or ony of the othpr 
cyght, con?yd('ryng thnt ho wno n mH.n home wythin this 
rri)'amp, and kyng and emjiArour of tho snmt'. 

And that thera ben in Frcnnabe dyv>L-r8 and many nobU' 
ToluDi' a of his actce, and al»o of hia knyghtea To whom 
I BDflwerd, that dyvero mpn holde oppynyon that there was 
no «Qchr Arthur, and that allu saihe bookes a& bct-n maad 
of hym, ben hut fwyned and fnhlefl. bycause that aomme 
eronyeloB make of hym no menoyon ne rememhro hjTn noo 
thynge no of his knyghti.* WTirTto tht-y jtnBwi-rd, and 
one in apecyal sjiyd^ that in hym that shcld sfiy or thynke 
that there was ne%-cr suche a kyng wiUyd Arthur, myght wol 
be arotted gret^? folye and blyndi nessi* ; for he uayd that 
there woro many fivydeocoa of tho vontrarje. Fyrst ye 
may w« hia sepulture in the monAaterye of Gkstyngburj-e, 
and also in roly(a>inycant'' in the v book tho nyxte ohap- 
pytro, and in the seTenth Ixmk the uiii ichappytrc, where 
hifi body wiy: bunred and after foimdtTi nnd tranalatcd irto 
the aayd moRaater^-ti. Ye flhal m also in thystor^'c of 
Bochiis in hu book tif rcM prtHripum, ptut<^ _of his nobI« 

■ Kalpli Hlfdou'i " FoljebmilcoBi" 





nctoa Uld alao^if his fi^Uc- AImi Gulfiyilufl.' in hia Brutyaahe 
kmk, recoonteth hiA \yt. And in diverB pUce« of Englood 
mKQjr remoinbniini?^ b*^ yci of hym nnd shall renmAiie 
perpetually, uid &I«o of hie hnyght^e, Frnt, in the itbliay 
of Wcrtmrrtrc «t wjiit EdwardcB flhr\-ne iT>aiaj-neth the 
prjitte of hu HCttl in reed -waxe closed in bcryll, in whyct 
is wrylon Patrieitu Arthurut, Sri/annitf Gailie, OertmrMte, 
Daeu, imfiirmtQr. ItMri, in the ciirtfl of DovcT re may see 
(!auwft>'ns slcdUe, and Cradoki montt-l ; at Wynchedrrj the 
ruusdo taMi! ; in othr:^ f^^i L&unc^lottes swerve, and 
miiny otht r thyngcs^ Tbcnnp al theve tlijTi^« etmsydcirod, 
thitra c«ii no tiiiui ruAonakly ga;iuaye but there wae n fcyng 
of thji lAnd« nampd AHhor. For in iil p!ac« eryslen ftod 
hotben ho id ropuUxil und taken far ani^ of tho is. worthy, 
and the fyrrt of the thro crystcTi men. And iU»o be h niort; 
fpokeo o( bcyonde the *w, oioo bonkt-B madi- of his nobl«^ 
aote^ than therv lic ia Eng'lond, an vol in Duchc, Ytalycn, 
SpanyHhe, uul Qrekyaihe, aa tn Ftrnti^jc, And vrt «f 
rvconl remayno in wytnemc of hyin in Walt-a, in thi> tounr of 
CmmekA, the grete *ton«s and mervayllotu werkys of yron 
ly^ng under the (troondo, and lyaJ vautee, whiiji dy vh^ now 
Lyryng luth aoeo. Wltrfar it i» • mervayl why he ia no 
dien ntionied in hu owne contrere, muf onelye it accordeth 
to ibe void of Ood, wbjutie tayth that no maji ia acccpl for 
a^mjiheito in hia trwne fcntttve. Thonoe al th«ec th^nigps 
fiirmyd ftltidgcd, ] ccmdp not wcl dcnyc but that there waa 
■uche a noble lnii{er nam<>d Arthur^ and reputed one: of the 
is wortlky. tad fjTst and chycf of the cristtu men. and many 
noble Toliunea b« made of hym and of hia noble kny^tea in 
Frenaahe, which I hare Mcn and redde bcyonde the tw, 
which been not had in our maUmal tongue, but to Wulssbi^ 
ben many, and olw in Fren«she. and wjnimc in Englyaahc. 
bat no vhor nygh alk. '^'^•^rfore auchc m have Uie ben 
dmiren oute biyefly into Englyaihc, 1 have aft«r the virmplo 
oonnm^ that God hath sc-nte to mc, onder the furnur und 
eoTTM-t^'on of &I noble Iorde« and gentylmen. enpr>'Aed to 
Hipryntfl a ItooV of thft noble hyBtoryeS of the a&yl k^iige 
Arthur, and of rertoyn of hie knyghtes, aftf r q cepye uato me 
d6lyTer«d, whydte 'Upye syr ThamaA U&lorya dyd take onte 
of oert«yil bookea at Frvnasba and rcduged it into Eoglymhe, 
Xnd I, accordyug to my copye, haro doon Ktt« it in c^npn'nte, 
1u the entente that noblem<>Ji may ace and \emt^ the noblo 
iirti of chyvaljye, tho jcntyl and Tortnoua dodea. th&t aomme 
hnj'ifhtiM used m tho dayes, by whyrhe tbej' came to honour, 
Hnd how they that v«re T^'cioua were punraafa^d end often 
put to Ahune and rebuke, hnmbly bjnwchying ol nobtc lordca 
and Udyaa, wyth al other c*t«.t<», nf what estate or degree 
they b«en of, that ahal aee and n^e in this aayd book and 
wtoke, Uut they take the good and honest ncti<6 in tboSr 
Timcnibraiinoe, and to folowe the aannt. %\*hunn thn- »haWQ 
ijnie many joyotu and pUywont byatorye<a and noble and 
TMUmed acta of famnanyte, g6DtyIne«i«T And (.-hyvatn-n. For 
herein uuky b* amu noble c^yvalrj-o, curtoiye. liiinian>-te, 
frendlyneaw, Jwpdyilt*ic, lore, frendahyp, cowardysn, mnrdre, 
hate, Tcrtue, ajiino. Doo after the good, and Ipvp tho evyl, 
and it aha) Ijrj-nge you to good fame and r*>nonimct\ And 
for to paue the tyme, this book shnl be ploaaunto lo rede in, 
but for to gyve layth and byleve that aj ia trewe that ia ctm- 
tnynod herin, ye be at your lybcrt^ ; tut al i» arj-ton for 
our doctrynr, and for to b^wiire thfti vf^ full^not Co wee ne 
«ynnvt but tttxenygp and fulowe vertu, by whythe wc may 
cwnt- and atteyne lo goo*! fame and nTotnme in thys lyf, and 
after Ihya ahortA and Iransjlarje lyf lo romi; unto ever- 
lutyng Uya«o ia beren. tho whyche h* gniunt m that 
TcygDoth in baren the hl6Myd Trj-nj-b^, Amm. 

Sir Thomas Mure, who was »boqt seres rpw* old 
when MiJurj'u " History of King Arthur'* wan finil 
printed by Caxton, entered as a vouth into the 
hoiuehoUl of Cardinal Jobu Morton, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, who Ipecnme his frii^tid aiid pntrtiiL 
Cardinal Sloiton had taken rtctive iwirt in the public 
life of the daya illuatratt^l by the later Pitston 
Letters. He was Bisliop of Ely at the time of the 
murder of the PiTnc*« in the Tower, the same Bishop 
uf Ely wliom the Protectur^Ricliard — seui tx> the 
Tower, ajid who became afterwanhi a friemi to ttio 
Earl of Richmond, und. after tlie Battle of Bosworth, 
to Henry VII. From information derived from thi^ 
[latroii,-^ there in iT-ajson to think, scmrtimeA eTW 
from Ms dictation, — Moiv ^Tote his "History of 

■ TaoHA4 Hoaa, (Fromaa EiMtiut aflrr ffiitbctaj 

the Life and Den-th of Edward V.^ and of lJ» 
Ueurpation of Richard in.," and it is supposeil lo 
have been wTitten in 1513, at a time when Mow 
was Under-Sheriff of London, Tlie hitter pftrr rS 
the HiBtory, tliough it accords in style with tli* j 
has been OBcribert to another hand, and is founni 
in Halt'fi Cbromele. Froiii the ]Mii't iinqueetiutiitin; 
writt'eii by Thomas More from Morton's recotl^tioH. 
I take the complete narrative of on*- incident — 

For this prwpnt matter I shall reheurse to yon tb»* doloniW 
end of theae two babffl, nut after every way that I hi" 
beard, but after that way that I bavr so heard by anch aad 
and such meana, as I think it to be hard but it thoakl 1* 
King Richard, after hia corontition, tuking hia way tu 
Gloucenler to vimt in hia new honour the town of which h» 
boTO the name of old, deviled aa he rode to fulfil that IhiiMC 
whii'h he before had intended. And fonumiuch na his mind 
gave him that, hia nephewa living, men would not rwko 
that he could ha¥i^ ripht tu the realm : he thnughl, thraffiCKVi 
without deky l« rid Ihrm, as though the Villing of his kiw- 
men might end hia cause and make him kindly king. Whar- 
iti>on he Kut John Orr-one, nhmn bi> fiipocjiilly troatwi, uola 

I so IfiU.] 



l^r^bVt BmkL-nliQrj-, tonisUtilt* ttt tli© Tow<t, with h Iftler 
waitttAtnce also, thmt thi.' same Sir Rubt-rt in any wiik 
durald put tho two i-hildim to death. This John Greeno 
did hiK cmmd to Brafceiibury, kneeling before our Lady in 
the Towor, who plainly Hnswpted that he would nfirnr put 
them to deBth to di« th<?rtfore. With ihe whii'h answir 
4irpc:iie tctuni«l, recounting ih^ Sams to Kinj? IticharJ at 
W'Hrwitk, ytt on his joumov, wherewith he tuok aiivrh dia- 
jileoautf) and thought, that th« eamie' ni^ht ha naid to a secret 
l»Bpp of his. " Ah, whom uhnH a jaan trust !■ tlic-y thnt I have 
liTouyht iiti mj'scilf, tlicy that I thcmxht would hav* moat 
$iirely sonyd nn', even those fiiil me, wnd at my enmmKnil- 
nent wiU do nothiniii; for me." "Sir," quoth th« i>«gi?, 
"there litfth one in the pallet ehiunber without, that I dare 
*ay will do your Grsi'e pleasure : the thing wera ti^ht h&rd 
that he would refuse " — meaning by this JarncB TyreU, wliii;)i 
wBji a man of n goodly perfionHpe, and for th<> gifts of tititure 
worthy to have served h mm.-h bttter prince-, if he had well 
Aen-ed Ood, and hv gtAC^ oMiiinc-d to hnm^ ah much truth and 
goodwill fu he hml Btrongth and wit. The man had an high 
hcAft tutd riore longed upn'^ard, not rieing yet bo fast as be had 
hoped, being hinder^ and kept undt-r by Sir Rirhard FEat- 
cliffe and Sir William Catesby, whii;h, longing for no more 
psHnf^n oi the prince *b fiivour — namelji not foi" him, whose 
jtride they knew would bear no peer — kept him hy necrtt 
drifts out of all secret triistj which thing this pAge had 
weU mnrked and knew ; vhe-refttre this ocmeion offered, of 
v<?ry special friendship, spied }us time to sot him forwAt-d, 
and in snch wise to do him i^ood, thftt mil the enemies, thtit he 
had (oxrept the de^-il] (W'lild nevor have dona him bo much 
hurt and Kbamo: for upon the page's words King Hiehard 
nrcwe (for thi* comninnication had he sitting on a draft, a 
tonveniont carpot for such a eoimcil), and came out into the 
pallet chamber, whefe he did had in bed the eaid James 
TjTcll and Sir Thomas Tj-rell, of pf>rHpn like, und brethren 
of Mood, but nothing of kin in conditions. Tbrn Said the 
king merrily, "Wlmt, airs, be you in bod so soon:" and 
eallwi np Janua Tyrell, and brake to hira aecretly his mind 
in this miscbiaToua matt^'r, in tho which he found him 
nothing stninge, WTierefore on thf morrow he sent Tiiin In 
Brakenbury with a lotttr. by the which he wag comminded 
to deliver to the said James all the keys of the Tower for a 
night, to the end that ho might tlierc accomplish the king's 
plcflsnre in such things ns he th'-re had given him in eom- 
mandmmt. After which letter delivered, and the koya re- 
ceived, .TftmeA apiiomted the nest night onsiung to destroy 
ihom. devising before und preparing the me«n«. 

The prince, as soon as the protector took upon him to be 
king and left th'P name of protector, was thereof advfrtised 
and showed that he should not r^'ii^, but hijt iincle tthould 
have the crown. At which word the prin'fe, sore abiiabed. 
began to sigh and «*y, " Alas, I would mine uncle would Let 
me hape my life, nlthough t leew my kingdom." Then he 
lliat told him the tale used htm with good words, and put 
him in the beet comfort thiit he could ; but forthwith he and 
his brother were both shut up, and all other removed from 
Ihcm. one eallt'd Black Will, or William Slaughter, only 
eJLcept, whic-h wero Bet to nerve thctn, und four other to see 
them anre- After which thi? priuce never tied his pointst 
nor anything regarded himself, but with that yoting babe his 
brother lingered in thought and heaviness, till this tmitorous 
defni delivere«i them of that wretchedness. 

For Jamea Tj-rell de^^ised that they should he murdered 

in their beds, and no blood ahed: to the execution whereof 

he appointed Miles Fort-st, one of the four Ibnt before kept 

tbent, B fellow tJeBh-bred in murder befure time, Find to hi:n 

W^ joined ono John Dighton, his o^^n horsekecjier, a bi^. 

broad, square, Aod strong knave. Thuu all the other being- 
removed from them, thiR MUea Forest and John Dighton 
about midnight, the tally children lying in the»r beds, ciime 
into the chamber, anil sndd^y lapped them up amongst the 
clothes, und so be-wrapped them, keeping down hv force the 
foather-bed and pillows hard undur thdr mouths, that within 
a while they smothered ^nd stilled them, and their breatha fail- 
ing, they gave up to LioJ their ionotent souls into the joys of 
heoyen, leaving to tho toiinentars their bodies dead in the 
bed, which after the wretches ixa-oeived (first by tho struggling 
with the pang of death, and after long lying i^till) to be 
thorough dead, they laid the hodiea out upon the bed. and 
fetched Jamod Tyrell to see them, which, when he saw them 
perfectly dead, he caused the niurderora |« burj" them at the 
stAir-foot, meetly deep in tfa» ground, under a heap of etone^.. 

Then rode .lames Tyrrell in great haste to King liichard, 
and showed hira all the manner of the murder, who gave him 
thanks, and, as men say,, there mad? him knight; but ho 
allowed not their burial in so vile a corneit, saying that he 
would have Ihem buried in u better pSace. because they were 
a king's sons. Lo the honourable courage of a king, for he 
Would recompense a detefllable murder with a solemn obseqnie, 
\Vhercupon n priest of Sir Robert Brakenbury'stook them up 
and buried tbem in aueh a place secretly as by the occasion 
of hifl death {which was shortly after) which only knew it, the 
very truth could never yet bo very well and perfectly known : 
for some say that King Bichard caused tie priest to take- 
them up and close tbem in load, and to put them in a cofiin 
full of bolea, hrtulfeil at the ends with two hooks of iron, and 
so to CAst them into a place called the " Black Deepa" at the 
ITiamea' mouth, bo that they should never ritie up nor be aenu 
again. Thia wjib the Tcry truth nnknown, by n:«»on that the 
said priest died so shortly, nnd disclosed it never to any person 
that would utter it, And for a truth, when Sir James T^till 
was in the Tower for trenson committed to King Henry Vll., 
Irath he and PiglilOn were examined together of this point, 
and both they cooieesed the miu*der to be done in the eanio 
manner as you have heard ; but whither the bodies wei*: 
removed (hey both a^rmed they never knew. And thus, as 
I have learned of them that knew much, and little cause hied 
they to lie, were thtfle two noble princefl — these innocent 
tender children, horn of the most royal blood, and hmught 
up in groat wealth, likely long to live, to reign and rule in 
the realm— by traitorous tyranny taken and deprived of thrir 
estJite. shortly shut up in prison, and privily slain und mur- 
dered by the cruel ambition of their unnatural uncle and his 
dispiteous tormentora, WTiici things, on every part well 
pondered, God gave this world never a more notable example, 
cither in what imsurety standeth thia world's weal, or whftt 
mischief worketh the proud enterprise of an high heart, or, 
finally, whiit wreti-hed end ensneth such dispiteous cru<'|(y. 

For, first to begin -with the ministers, Miles Forest, at 
St. Martin'*!. le-O rand, by pioce-meals miaerably rotted away ; 
John Dightou lived at Cakia long after, no less disdiiiiic^d 
and hated than pointed at, and there die4 in great mistTi- ; 
but Sir James Tyrell was beheaded on the Tower Hill for 
treason; and King Richard hinaself was slain in the field, 
hacked and hewn by his enemies' hands, hurried on a hers '^ 
haek, naked, being dead, ho is here in despiite torn und tuggF-d 
like a cur dog. And tho mischief that he took within \<m 
than three years, of tho mischief that he dii'd in three months, 
\ts not comparable, and yet all the meantime spent in mnf'L 
trouble and pain outward, and mnch fear, dread, and anguish 
within, For I have heard, by rrediWe report of such as wero 
seeret with his chambers, that after this abominable deetl 
done he never was quiet in his mind, he nfsver thought him- 
self sure where he went abroad, his liody privily fainted, hia 



ItL.c. UU 

ijt vhirlcd alwut, his hand (yver on his dn.g'^cr, hb coun- 
tatwnce uQd maimeT like ulwtiys to stiike again, hi? took ill 
mt on mghtH, ky long wakjnjfr njii. musing, for wuaxied with 
aro and watdii, tather Blurabored than alept, troulileti with 
fouful ireams, suddonJy tJomc^timiBH etrnit up, leap out of hu 
btid, uud look H.lioTi(; thcj chiuiiljtT. So wfca hie n^Ck't^ hi(>art 
coDtinuiLlly tossed and tumbled with the tudious imprcBdion 
and Atarmy ripimcinbraiice of his abominiibli: murder ubd 
eJtecniblo tyranny. 

King KifJiard, by thi^ uhouinHhle mifichief aad accl^roud 
act, thinking him»df well relieved both of ft-or and thought, 
would not have it kt^pi coutLScl, but within a few days caiiHed 
it la run bi a comuiou rumour that thn two children nsi-e 
Buddeiily dood^ and to this iotcnt, as it is to b« d'C«nic-d, that 
now no heir mule boint; alLVe of King Edvrurd'B body lawfully 
begottcm, th<> pfoplo i^ould bo content with thu more patient 
heart BMi qtiiel miad to obey him und auffc;r his nilt; and 
gUTfimfini:i> ; but whon Ihe fame of thiij detimtahlti fai-t V^aa 
rcTealcil and divulg^ thronfrh the wholo reaim. Ihi-re fell 
^noriUly tturh a dolour ftnd inwnrd sorrow into thi; huirta of 
all thii pt'oplu, thut, aU fotr of hi» cnitlty set HEiide, they in 
every town, street, and pliiw opcdly wept iind pitcouidy 
Bohhed, And when their sqftow w^ iwtll'Owhiit luitigii't^d, 
their inwiu-d grudi^o could not rcfrutn hut cry out in places 
public and also private, furiously aayiog, " What croature of 
all creaturefi is ao maliciouB and m obatiaate an enemy rather 
to Ood, or to Christian religioiit or to human nj^luri!, which 
would not haw abhorred, or at th« least abatuincd from, w 
miHSnbI« a tnnrder of aO oxeicrvhle a tymnny ? To murder 
a man is much odious : to Irili a woman w in manner ua- 
nataral ; hut to (day UTtd di-etray innocent baWii and youn^ 
infanta the whole world uhhorruth, and the blood fruni thi^ 
earth arieth to Almighty God iar Tengeimce." If the common 
poople criod out, ] B&suro you the friends of the queen and 
heft children made no leaa exclamation and LOTiipluint witii 
loud voice, liimcntably crying and sayings "Alas, what will 
h« do to others, thiit thiiA Bhaiupfully murdcreth hie own 
blwd without caose or des*rt 'f 'ft'hpm wjlj he suve, when he 
alayeth the poor kmbii committed to hion in tniet 'i Vow wd 
nee and hohold that thu most oruel tyranny hath invaded tho 
commonwealth ; now we sec that in him ia nt^ither hope of 
jostico nor triut of mrrcy, hut nhuudance of trruoUy and 
thint of tnnocmt blood." 

But when thia news was first brought to the unfortunate 
mother of the dead childrcm, yot being in sanctuary, no douht 
hut it dtreck to her heart like the sharp dart of death; for 
vheB she was first infonned of the murder of bar two aone^ 
■be ma suddanly amaejHl if ith tha jcreatneaB of the (cruelty, 
that for fear the itwooncd and fell down to the ground^ and 
there lay in a great agony like to a d(-dd corptio. And after 
that db^e camo to her memory and was roviv^ agninr din 
wept and sobbed, and with pitiful screeches she rcpk-ni&faed 
Ihe wholo miinsion^ her breast aho struck, her fair bnir she 
tort i»nd pulled in piece*, and being overcome with sorrow 
and peiiifiveneee, mther dcaircd death than life, caUing by 
nuno divers timed her sweet hahefi, accounting heraelf 
more than mad, tluit she, deluded hy wily and fraudulent 
promises, di.-liv6rHd her yotiogor son out of tho sunctuary to 
hift enemy to be put to death. thinHng that ncjct the oath 
oiado to God broken, and the duty of allegionci! toward her 
childrcj] riotated, qhe of all creatures m that point wa? most 
eedaced imd de^^civiidi. Ait«r long lamentation, when she 

■ no hope of revenging otherwise, she knc-eled down and 
criod on Ood to take Tengt>ance for the de^^eitful perjmy, aa 
who aoid mho nothing mislruatcd hut once He would remember 
it. What is he living, that if ha remember and behold these 
two DOble infants wjlhijttt dtsorving eo shnnicfully murderwl. 

that will not abhorc the fact, yea. and 1h> moved and tor- 
mented with pity and ineroy 'f Aod yet the world is 90 fnul, 
and our mitura ao blind, thut few be stirrod with such 
examples, ohvioudy for^lting and little considering that 
oftentimes for the offt'ncee by the parcutH porp6trated and 
cnnmiitted, that sin is puui»h»d in tlioir line and posterity. 
ThiB chance might so happen to these innocent cluldron, 
beoau^ira King Edward their father and parent offended in 
staining his conscience ; he made bin solemn oath before the 
gate of the city of Vork (as you have heard before), and 
proniiyed and sware one thing by hiH' word, thinking' clfon 
contrary in hia heart, an nHpr did afipoiLr. And afterirard, 
by the death of the Duke of Clarence his brother, he mcoired 
(of likelikoodj the great diepleoaurt toward Qod. 

The book from wluch Bignor B«nedick aoeiued 

Ee-atrice of Btealing Lor wit — the " Hundred Merry 
Tales " — was first lu'uit^d Ly Jolm Bastell in the 
year 1526. The only perfect copy of it known ia 
iu die Royal Libmry of Uie Uuiveraity of Giittingea. 
Thei-e Ls one Other »Kij>y, impei-Et^t, aud tUat ia in 

Each of the Merry Tales hiui a Khoi-t added moral, 
aiid the u^ukI butts of their wit are woiiion and 
Welshmen ; but there is considerablo variety q£ 
matter, and a vein of eaxneetneKs often distinct 
enough, that gives some worth to the collection^ 
which waa followed by many niorO'^few better, and 
Konie votise— of a like kind. Let us take 


0/ the TTehkiHan that ihrace Aim/or breaking Ait faH 
on the Fi'uiiig. 
A Welshman dwoUing in n wild place of Wales came to hil 
Cumt+< in the time of Lent and waii eonfoased ; and whon hit 
uonfcHsion was in manner at the «id, the Curate asked him 
whether he had any other thing to say that grieved his con- 
flcionc<>, which, bofg abaahi'd, answered no word a groat while. 
At last, by exhortation of hi» ghostly father, he aatd that 
there was one thing in hia mind that greatly grieved hia con- 
science, which he was itnhamed to utter, for it t^isso gripivaua 
that he trowed CJod would never forgive him. To whom the 
Curate answered and said, that God's mercy woa above nil, 
and bade him not despair in the mercy of God, for, whatso- 
ever it waa, if he were repentant, God would fui^vo him. 
And so, by loQg exhortation, at the last he ishowed it, and 
said thua: "Sir, it happened once, that as my wife was 
making a cheese on a Friday 1 woidd bavo said whc^er it 
had been aalt or fresh, and took a little of the whey in my 
bund and put it in my mouth, itnd, or' 1 waa ware, part of it 
went down my throat against my will, and so I broke my 
hiBt." To whom the Curate said, " If there he bone' other 
thing, I warrant Ocid shall forgive thw." So when he had 
well comfortfd him with the mercy of God, the Curate 
prayed him to anawer a question and to tell him truth. TTlfl 
Curate said that there were rohlieriea and murders done sigh 
the place where he dwelt, and divers men found alain, and 
asked him whether he were consenting to any of them. Te 
whom he answered and said, *'Yas;" and said he was party 
to many of them, and did help to rob and to alay divert of 
them. Then the Cui^te asked him why he did not coolea 

< Tbie- Oi^ttiDjcmt eopj wHri r^irlni^ in V^ witt) IbtroduoUm attl 
Nolea W Dr. Haneui Oe«t«r|(v ; th^ Other oopj waa edited ia tail 
b7 Mr, s. W. gingor. and In liH Mj Mr. W. Canw BasUtt, 

* t>r, ere, 

Bl-S. 1531.) 



The 'Welah.mBji muw&red and uii>l, bu took it 
fijriMBirit for it wutiacuBtom amoiig them thut when jmy 
booty catuti df any rich Tneirhunt riding it wiu but a f^ood 
Q^i^hboLir'y detd one to help another when onu cjilK-d 
aooth^r, afid ho the}' took tiiat liut tut gfiod fcllciwahlij Hiud 

^ Htire yo nrnj' see that acmie have remone of conscience 
of inuUl vcniiil hirb^ und ivw not to do grrat otfi^tiL'ce witlnniit 
Bhnme of tlin wotld or dread of God: and aa tbo common 
proverb is, lht?y atumbli; at a straw unil Icajt over a block. 

Of the Sojf thai bure the Friar Ku maainr't /itoaet/. 

A ccrtuiD Friiu* hind u boy that over vru» wont to boar this 
Ftiiir'a money, ^uiii on. 4 timo, nhL*D Lhe boy wHa iiu: behind 
his madt«r, aa thoy two walked t&g«'ther by the wuy theio 
□Let a man the Fmir wluch knew Uuit the boy haro the FriorB 
mcmey, and said, " How, Ma^itoT l;"rair, ahall 1 kid thy boy 
hie him apucc uiCc-r thvo'r" '" Vi^/' quoth thu Friur, Thtai 
vent the man to the boy and aaid. " Simkb, thy muster 
liiddeth thee giv'O tnt forty pttLt-e." " I will not," qnutb lh» 
hoy. Then c&llcd the maji with a, high voice to thtf Frijir, 
Mid mid, '* Sir, he aaith he will not." Then quoth tin; Friur, 
"Beat him.*' And whon the- boy hoard tuK maificr wiy no, hci 
gavo the man forty ponue. 

II By thiB ye may sos it i» folly for a nuo to tmy Yea or 
Nay to ft matter i>xeu|>t he know aurety what the matter iri. 

Of tha Man wAo truuld iaer llm I'at tlaad there ai he upotflJ. 
A yoTiag man late omrriod to a wife thoug-ht it waa good 
polity to g«t thti llQai(ti.Tj- of her in the hcgiiuuDg. (Jume to 
ker. the pot wwthing over the Sre, olthoiig^h th« meat therein 
was not enough,^ Auddi'jxly eoumifmdt'd hi^r to take the pot 
from thu fire. Whit:h unswui-Gd und aaid, thnt ths meat wai^ 
hut roady to cat. And he aaid again, " 1 will have it taken 
off, fur my plcui^ure." Thi^ good woman loth yet to offend 
him, 8st th<^ pot bt-side tho En? as he bade. And anon* after 
he commandt^d hc-r to aei the pot behind th^ door, und she 
laid thcmto a^un, " Ya be not wine theroin." But he 
precisely suid, it should bo so as he bado. And she gontly 
aflffein did bin comiiiiuidinc'nt. Thiti man, yet not satisfied, 
co mman dtd h>vr to aet the pot ohigh upon the ht^nroost. 
"What!" qtiotli tha wife ugaiti. "I trow yo lie mad."' 
Apd he fiercely then iwiamtuided her to st't it there, or eUa, 
he said, ^e should rfipont. Sha, Mouiwhat afsarcil to movLt 
his patience, took a ladder and st't it to thi? roogt, and wtnt 
hiarseli up the ladder, and took the pot ;u her hand, ptaying 
tftr hufllMiuI thun to hqld the ladder fust, for sdidinj ; which 
to did. 

And when the hudluind looked ap and Kiw thf pot stnnd 
then on hn-i^ht he said thus, " So now rtaoduth the pot thcro 
is I WO&ld have it." Thi* wife, homing that, 8U<ldtPly 
^ured the hot pottage on his head, and itaid tbuu, *' And 
now ttffl the poHogv there as 1 would have than." 

H By thifl tale men may see that tt i& no wiadom for a man 
Vi ittompt a mcL'k womnii's ptttionce too fur, lest it turn to 
^ on hart uid dsLmage. 

Ofthi Ccmriifr that did eatt tfu Ftiitr over tht Bvat. 
A Coojtii^ and a Priiir happ^nnd to raevl togethpr in a 
Ffcrybwit, and in a. cotnmttniuition botwp*n them fell at 

' Ktt^^airgh, Sot doiw«nQDsb : D'Ot perlectlf «ooked. iDAnoUicr 
^ thtM bU«* a Wolafaniaii ataie au EuttllHlunaa'H cock and iiat it in 
^^lAtabcU, TheEivltsliinui wenttoaiiLrur it. Bald the Wdiih. 
**k, " TbcTQ It ii. and if the cock's jomi yo^ tihoU buTS your sbare 
^It" ■* It Id jtataunagH," nid Ibo Eagh^maa. " Well." sua tlie 
"elifeoua, •■ V it's not enoTigb it nooii will be. For ttierc'a ik jrood fire 


words, angiy and diaphauEfid. vach with oth^^'r. ii,nd fought and 
^ruggled together ^o that at the hi^t the Uaun'tier cast the 
Friac over the boat ; so was the Friar drowned. Thb Fen-y- 
maTL, whii'h had l«!en a man of war the most part of Ua life 
before, and seeing the Friar was ho drowned i*nd gone, said 
thus to the Courtiur, " I boehrew thy hoart I Thou ahoaldi^t 
harci tarried and fought with him a land, for now thou hast 
eauaad me to lone an halfponny fur mj' furc<," 

H By this tale a man may aee that ha that is accustomed 
in vidouB aod cruel company shall lone ihctt noblu virtue, to 
have pity and compoasiou upon hiu neighbour. 

OfMailtr WMUinytm'i Dre«m. 

Soon after one Master Whittington hod builded a College, 
on a night as he nlupt be droamcd tliat he »at in his church, 
and many folks there also ; and fuilher ha droamctd that he 
saw Our Lady in the aome ehurth with a glass of goodly 
ointmeat in her hand, going to one askinfj; Mm what he 
htid doqe fur her sake; whiuh said, that he hud eaid Our 
Irfidy'ft Psalter dvcrj' day, wherefore she gave him a little of 
the oil- Anit anOD. ahq went to anuther, lukiog hun what ho 
hod done for her aak«: which aafd, that he had said two 
Lady's Psahers cvory diij", wherefore Oiu" l^y gave Itim 
more of the ointment than Bh« gave thi> other, Thiu tiuuster 
Whittington then thought that when Our Lady should como 
to htm ah& would give him all the whole glass, becaiiAC' he 
bad builded auch a great CoUego, and waa very glad in bit 
mind. But when Our Lady camu to him, ehe naked him 
what he had suffered for her sake. Which words mad$ 
him gnaitly ahashod, tujcauw he had aoUung to Bay for 
hima<':lf. And so be dreamed that^ for iM the great de<Ml of 
building of the aaid College, ho bad no part of that goodly 

H By this ye may aeo that to Buffer for Uod'ei shJcc is«niore 
metitorious than to givic groat goods. 

In li'iSl Sir Thomaa Elyot published, witli a dedi- 
cation to King Henry VIII, , ji book called "The 
Govemour," deiioribed by liiinBelf oe an -endeftvonr to 
(leacribe in our \'ulgur tongue the form of a juste 
publike weoJe, which matter I have gathered, as wel 
of the sayingffl of roost noble authors fGrekee aud 
Iditines) as by mine owne experience : 1 being con- 
tinually traine<.l lu some daylye aflayres of the 
publike weale of tliis your most noble realm, nlmoet 
from jny chiltEhocMl, which attemptate is not of pre- 
iiuniption to teach anye person, I my&elf having mfMt 
nede of teaching ; But only to the intent tLat menne 
wliich will be studious about the weale puLUke, may 
fiiuie the thing thereto expedient, coinpendiouslye 
written. And for as rauoh, as tliis presente booke 
treateth of the education of them, that here after 
may be deemed worthy to be goupmoura of the 
publike weale under your hyghnesRe (which Plato 
affyrmeth to bee the first an<l chiefe parte of a 
publike weale : Salomon saying also, where gouer- 
nouTH Ije not, the people shall fall into mine) I 
therefore have nameil it the Gouemour, and doe 
nowe dedicate it unto your hyghneswe, an the firat 
fmites of my study," 

Sir ThoDias Elyot was son to Sir Richard Elyot, 
once attorney-general to Elizabeth, queen of Henry 
VII, and afterwaitLi a Justice of the Common Flcaa 
He was educated in Jesua CoUege, Cambridge, and 

took liiB degree of M.A. in 1507. After his father's 
death, in 1530, he succeetled unexpectedly to an 

ewtdt*' &t Carlton in Cftmbridgefihire, wbich had 
tj^longeil to ills second cousin, and isucce^KfuJIy 
'lefpnded hia right in a, Chancpry auit. In 1523, by 
*-be influence of Cai-diiiat Wolt^fy, Tlioiuas Elyot was 
apfKtiDted Clerk uf the Star (JlmniWr. wkich office 
he lost when Wolaey fell from power. But Elyot 
wuR then knighted and en]{jloyed by tlie king in 
various aer^'ices. la 1530 he was one of a coni- 
iiiiMioii to inquire into WoIslVk pOKseusionEt in 
rambridgeahirp. In 1531 he published " Tlie 
tiovemaur," and in the following year Heuiy VIII. 
sent lijm as an envoy to Rome to treat of the king's 
Uivurce. In the mum year^ 1533, he was appointed 
Sheriff of CjUHbridgeahire and HimtingtlonRhire. 
In 1536 he was sent as an embassy to the Emperor. 
In 1545 he was a neeond time sheriff of his county, 
snd in 1546 be died at Carikm. He was married 
»n<l ha<:l three aons who died before liiin 

Besides "The Govemour," published in 1531, Sir 
Thomas Elyot wrote a book *' Of the Knowlmlge 
which makuth rt Wiitie Man," and " Th^ Castle of 
Healtli," "The Banquet of Sapience," "Pasquil the 
riaiiir" a Dictionary, several translations from the 
Oreek of writings illustrating tlie wisdom of life, 
iiicliidtng Plutarch on the Education uf Children, 
also "The Defence or Ajwlc^e of CJootl Women," 
Jind in 1545, the year before he diocl, "A Preser- 
VHtive a^ynste Detli." The translntion, by Sir 
Tliomsis Klyot, of Plutarch on t!n^ Education of 
Cliihlren doubtless came into tho hands of John 
Lyiy ; for in that part of his " EujihuHS," publisheil 
in 1579, which treats of education under the title 
" Euphuea and bin. EuphebuSj" it ja evident that 
Lyly had been fastening with sympathy on Plutarch 
aa well as on Aschain. TJie twelfth chapter of the 
Hecond book of Sir Tliomoa Elyot's " Grovtiniour " is 
a piece oomplete in itself 

,4nit ickereiff itfitllg dtEturtd the fi^iite of per feet amity, 

But now in tin.- midst of my klwur, 8« it wtjrti, to pause 
niiit Take breath, otid olno l<i rccraate thf> rcsd^^rs, whii:h, 
dtti^ml with ifitiK prtJceplB, desire vnritty of matter, or samv 
new pliyiwuit fntil^ of hiAtoiy, I will rfihear«c a right gvodly 
(^xHmpIv of frioniliihip, which example, utitdioujily road, BhaJl 
minister to ihu reiider'e iLogular pleasure, tud slso Incredible 
romfurt to pmctieo amity. 

There wae in the city of Sonid a. nablc BDtiAtor, msined 

Fulriuit, who sent his son, called Titus, being u child, to the 

rity o( Athen*, in Oreot-e (which wii« the fountain of all 

fiijvuni'r of do>i'trina), tht-re to learn good lotter«: and oauaed 

him to !■<: hcMftJii] nith a woTHhipfiil man nf that city, call&d 

rhrciiies. Thie Chromes happfliiod to hnvp b1k> a son na^med 

iiinip)iqB, who not only wa» Mjual to Iho naiJ yoiing TituB in 

jBsrs, but also in rtature, proportion of body, favour, and 

Icolirur of visnjt^i fuuntennncp aiiil gpopch. 'ITie two children 

■.were BO liltG, that without much difficulty it <Mjii^d not bu dis- 

Pwmt^ of their propor pftrentit, which was Titus from. (SiHip- 

I Jiu, or tJinppus from Titun. Thes*^ iTqi young- piTittfitMn, 

a tiiey wemcd to Im one in form and pemonagi^, bo shortly 

(■ftflr AWinaintance. the iwmc nat'iiv wrought in their hrartR 

mch a mutunl iifrm.'tion, and their wIUh and appctit^B daily 

more and more bo coiii«lenitod thomiwlvi*, that it 
none othuTr when their names were declared, but thH.t thi«y 
hiid aaiy diADgbd thcic placQH, iaeuing (ua I might May) (M|| 
of the one body, and entering into the other. *J~hey tc^el\ua, 
and tit one timo WL>nt to their IcamiD^ and atudy, at one 
to thtiir meals and refeclion, they delighl<EKl both in 
doctrine^ und jiro-Qted equally th>eroin ; finally, they tc^-thw 
increased in doctrina, that within a few years few wilhfa 
Athena might bo L-ompored unto them. At the laiA A\A 
Chremes, which waa not only to his bod, but also to Titi 
<»uiBe of much fiarrov and hfa^nneaB. GisippUa, by the goodi 
of hiB father, was known to Iw u mun of groat subotanoa 
wherefore then? were olfered tu bim great and rich nHuriagQi 
Aad h(t thon being of ripe yeu^ uul of an abl« aod 
personage, faia frieiidf, Ida, sad allioa exhorted him honly 
take a wif(>, to the intent he might incu^easo his linoif^ 
progeny. Bat the young nma, having his hiewrt alna^ 
wedded to his Mend Titus, nnd his mind fixed to tbe ita^ 
of philosophy, fcMing that miurriuge sboulcl be the occr" 
to Acvcir him both from the one and the other, refusHl of 
tirtie to be persufldud, nntil at tb© lost, portly b>' tte impo^ 
tuniLto calling on of his kinKmen, partly by the consent asC 
fidvivo of his di3ur friend Tttus, tbert-Co hy othor desired, 
assented to marry auch a one ilh ahoold lifae him. \^'hat sh 
need any wordu y Hia frionda found a, yonng gviatlewornxii 
which in equality of }*carB, virtuous conditions, nobility 
blood, lbeaut\% and sufficiifnt riphoa, thej' thought waa \ 
auch A young man spt and <;onv^nient. And when they aai 
her frienda upon the eoVflbanU of morris^ wdi^^ thoroo^^f 
ctcc-orded, they oounseUed G-isippus t« repair unto the mai( 
itnd to behold how her person contented him: aitd beaodoiMi 
found her in everj- fona sncl condilion according to his 
peetation and appetite, wheruut he mu>vh rejoic^, and hctxflN 
uf her aaiorouj, InBomuch as many and oftentimtw Imviafl 
TituB at hia study, he H»TetIy repaired unto Iie-j-. ?fotwidu 
Htiinding, the fen'ent lore that he had to his friend Titiu 
the In«t Hurmounted hm HhamefaAednoBB, wben-fore he di 
L'loaed to htm liis secret journeys, and what deIei^t4tion I 
took in beholding the excoUeot beauty of her whcMn he i 
tended to majrj-, and how with hei good maoners and svt 
ent?rtuinmeDt, ithe bad conntraiTied him to be her Io'stt- Aj 
on a time be, hav4ng witli him his friend Titus, went to 1 
Lidy, of whom he was received most joyously. 

Hilt Titus forthwith as he beheld so hea^nily a 
adom<>d with beiLuty inexplicable, in whose visa^ 
ainiHlila rountenance, mined with maidenly shai 
and the rare und sober words and well couehed, 
out of her pretty month, Titus waa ihireat abashed, 
the heart through piereed with the flerj' dart ol blind ^ij* 
of the which wound the anguish was so exceeding 
vehement, that neither tho study of pbilosophy, neither tk 
remembmneo of hia dear friend Qisipptu, who so mneh \a*f4 
and trusted him, could anything withdraw him trofr 
unkind appetite, but that of force he must love innnlioaf^ 
thdt kdy, whom his Baid friend had determined to tnany. 
Albeit with incredible pains he kept his thoughts whtcI unt» 
that he BEiil (iiaippua were returned anto their IrKlpinc*. 
Then the misemblc Titua, withdlAwing him an it wwr* to hi" 
study, all tormented and oppressed with love, tbrr-w biawttf 
on a bed, iind there rehutcLng hift own mo»t deapitifu) nnkisJ- 
neee, which fey the sudden eight of n mtiden, he h»d ««»• 
spited agsinrt Kia moat dear friend Gidppiu^ against ■B 
humanity and reaBon, rursed his fate or constellation. 
winhwi thist he kiui never como to Athens. And thsrr«i»fc 
he Bent out from the bottom of his hear* dsep and coU ^«fc* 
in flueh plenty, that it lacked but little that hia hmrt ws*«* 
rivi-n in pieces. In dolour and anguish toned he himvlf tq; 

^^ 4.B. 153L] 


a gortain apuce, bnt to no man would he di8cov« it. But at 
till' iael, Lhc pain l>!>i-ami< no intDk-rabl^ tbut would be or oo^ 
he win* tsiforttd to beftp hie bed, being for lack of eXv^p and 
othur mttiuiii BiiBLeiitiiii;u, brought m uuch fi^bli>n««9, that hie 
logv might not BUfltain his ^Krdy. Giutppiu miBeiug Iiindeiir 
friend TitUS^ wiut much abashed, adiI hcuriDg that bp lay eick 
in hia bi.<d, had forth'u'ith hla heart picrcod with hi-aviiiimB, 
and with all apeed cume to hini, wlw^re ho liij. And bclnjJd- 
i»g Hie rosol ccloui, which wan wont to be in bis Tiaagc^, 
tuitit-d tutu iialluw-, tile residue j>ale, his ruddy lipa wan, nnJ 
hie eY^ii I^jfld^a and hoUow, mig'ht unneth ' keep binuKll from 
wcieping : but to the intont he would not discomfurt his 
(riciul TituH, dissimiUiitoil his bivivincsB, and with u comfort- 
able I'ountcnanc^ dcronndM of Titus, whut wna the (mi»o of 
lu« diseiiai.', bhuning him ai unkindneBS, that he ho loDg hud 
mutoine-d it, without ^ving him knowli^dg^, tbqt hc' might 
for him hare provided nome rpm^dy, if any might have bona 
gat, tbougli it were with the diapcnsin^ of all his HtibettiniN?, 
With which vi/nia the moilal eighs reoewod in Tituik, nnd 
the salt t«Mr« biiTBit out of bU eyen in ouLrh abunditnce, a^ it 
had been a hind flood running down of u mountain aftcT it 
ctuTm. That buholding GiaifiptiiB, and being alflo roaolved 
into tean. mwt heartily dfwirod him, and (a^ I might say) 
ooujured him, fur the fervMjt and entire love that had bosn, 
ami yot was between them, that he wt>uld no longer hide from 
him hid gtief, and thut there wab nothing to him aa dear and 
prcdous [nJthoiijh it were Iiib ciwn Uf£') lh»t might n-store 
Titufl to hc'^dth^ but that h^ wauid |:;htdly, and without 
grodgiog employ it, with which wgrds, ohtcBtntiono, und 
tean oi Qiaippus, Titud con^train'cd, all blushing and 
aahamcd, holding down hia hi,4id, brought forth with great 
difficulty his words in this wise. 

" My dear nnd rajDftt loving friend, withdniw your fri^endly 
offer*, CJ?aee of^ your courtesy, rofrain your teitrs nnd regret' 
tings, take rather your knife. And shty mo hero whcro I lie, 
irr otberwiBC take vengroinoo on tnd, mOgt miBoruhk- and false 
tzaitor unto you, And of all otb^r moat worthy to auScr 
■hameful di^th. For wht(rt> ns God of nature, like an Bo 
hath given to y» siniilitude in all the pnrtH. of our body, bo 
hath lltt cviLJainvd our ^illB, i^tudiit^, and appt'titee together 
in one, so that between men wijs never like concord and love, 
ka I tupposi". And now nut withstanding, only with the look 
|.4f a woman, those bonds of love he diseolved, reasau op- 
id, friondahip ia eic^iliided, then) availoth no wiBidom, no 
le, Qo fidelity or trust: yea. your trust i» the caujw 
I haw conspired agnimttytiu thiBtrbasun. Aka! UiaLp- 
i PDvioud apirit moved j-om to bring me to her, 
1 y»u h*ve (rhoacn to Ije your wifi&, where I foceived this 
I my, Oinppm, where was then your wisdom, thut 
1 not th& fragility nf our eummou nature!' 
I yfl to c«lJ Tne for h witnose of your private- de- 
■ why would y&have me »« thut, whitJi you yourself 
i not behold without ravishing of mind iind carnal appf^- 
Alaa, why forgot ye, thiit our miuds. and appetites werr 
' one 'r and that also whjit bo ye liked was ever to me in 
t degrve pleamnt. What wHIl ye mon^ ? Gi«ippus, 1 say 
' tnut it the cauM- that 1 am entrapped. The mys or 
saoing from line lytm of hr-r whom ye have (-hoeen, 
tho remetnbnuieu of hi-r incompunible virtu<-a, hutii 
L ihroi^ihout the midat of my hi-art, and in Huch wiiie 
rth it, tlmt atiove nil things I desire to ho out of this 
3ied and most unkind life, which is nut worthy the 
jiy of #0 noble and loving a frivnd aa ye be." And 
Tltui eondudad hin t^onfceeion, with eto pro- 

" urowtln," not owHy, 

we i. oottsmon combf nation. 

fotmd and bitter a sigh, received with teat«, that it aeoraed 
tliat till hit* body should }x dissolved und r^lenled into Bedl 

But OiaippTiB, Fug he wore therewith notJiing aatomtdtod. or 
discontented, with an aaaured countenance, and merry regard, 
L-mlinKjing Titu^, and kioBin^j him, nnawercd in this wise : 
'• Why. Titus, ia this your only sicknosa and grief that ye ao 
unoourteously liave bo long i^oncetdod, and with much more 
unkindnt.>EB kept from rae, than ye havci conceived it t' 1 ac- 
knowledge my fully wherewith ye have with good right 
upbraid^Hi me. that in showing to yoti hsr whom 1 loved, I 
remembered not tho common estate of our nature, neither the 
^gTecahleneaa, or (as I might eay) the unity of our two 
n-iipetitea. Surely that defEmU can ho by no reagon eKcuned, 
wherefore it in only I that have offc^oded. For who may by 
right provo that ye hiive treHpusaed, that by the inQvitabl« 
Htroke of Cuji'ld'a dart arfi thus bitterly wounded Y Think 
ye me such a fool or ignorant j>en*on, that t know not thfl 
power of Venus, where she liketh to show ht^r importable 
riulunee ':* Have not ye Wi<'Il rcfiisted Hgainst Buch a goddeu, 
that for my wke hiive stiipen with her almoat to the death V 
What more loyilty or truth can I require of you ^ Am I of 
thiit %-irtue, that 1 may rosist against ceLcatial influence, pro- 
ordimtte by providence divine 't If I bo thought, what wet9 
my wita F where were my study so long time spent in noble 
philosophy t" T confew to you, Titua, I love that ituiidi^n as 
much u» any wiBe man might i^Mtuihle : and took in her eom- 
IMiny more delight and p]eH;flure than of all the treasure and 
hrnds that my father left me. which ye know was right 
abundant, Bill now I perceive that the aSet'tion of tove 
toward her Bunuouiiteth in yon alxive measure, what, ahall I 
think It of n wanton luBt, or suddr^n appetite in you, whom I 
huvH ever known of gravo and sad diitpnaition, inelinod alway 
to honest doctrine, flying all vain dalliance and dishoneat 
piistime I' Shall I imagine to bo in you any mBlie« or fraud, 
Bimo from the tender time of our childhood, I have alway 
found in you, ray sweet friend Titua, ftuch a confennity with 
all my mnnneni, rtppotitefl, and doairea, that never was seen 
between ub any manner of contention f Slay God forbid, 
that in the friendship of GIuppuA and Titua should happen 
uny auspicjon; or that any fantasy should pieree my head 
whereby that honourable love between ub ohould be the 
mouutenanee of ei crumb* peri&he<l, Nay, nay, Titus, it is as 
I said, the only prtividunee of Crod : ahe waa by Him from the 
beginning prepared to bo your lady and wife. For Bucb 
fen'cnt love entereth not into the heart of a wise man and 
virtuoua, but by a divine lUitpoaition : whormt if I should be 
discontented or grudge, I should not only be unjust to you, 
withholding that from yon which la undoubtedly yours, but 
n[BO obrtinat^ and repugnant against tho determination of 
Uod, which ehftll never be found in Giaipput. 

" Therefore, gentle friend Titus, dismay you not at the 
ehanee of love, hut receive it joyously with me, tbit am with 
you nothing diseontentod, hut raarrelloua glad, since it is my 
hap to find for you such a lady, with whom ye shall live in 
feheity, and receive fruit to the honour and comfort of all 
your lineage. Here I renounce to you clearly all my title 
and inU-rest. that I now h»ve or might have in the fair 
maiden. CilU to your priFitinute courage, wash clean your 
viaago and eyes thiia beWept, and abandon aU heaviness. The 
day appointed for our marriage approncheth : let m consult 
how, without difficult)-, ye may wholy ftttain your desires. 
Take heed thia mine advice : ye know well that we two be ao 
like, that being apart, and in ona apparel, few men do know 

' IrajiOTfablr, nnbausble. 
■ Tht in9(in|«i<anc< of -a. cru 

iib„ to the sunount of a cnunly. 


MS. AIm 70 do rcmamber tlmt the custom !b that, Botwitfa- 
etoo^n^ any ceremony done at the time of the ospoUBiUH, the 
marmge, notwithBtiuiding, in act confirmcni until ut night 
tlml the biiabancl putteth a ring on the &iger ai Ma vita, ftnd 
imlooAoth liergitttle. Ther^fot-C!, I myself will ba preaacLt with 
myfriends, anij perfanniill the; parts of « bridi-groom. And 
ye shall abide ia a. place &6crtit, whi^re F ehall appoitit you, 
xmtilit be night. And then shftU yoquicltly convey youraiU 
into thfl okaidcD'e icliambor, &nd tat the aimilittido of our 
pemmagM, aod of our n.pparel, ye ghall not lie cspigd of tht 
Tomeu, which have none of us &ny Bc^uaintance, and shortly 
get you to hed, and put your own ring- on Iha mniden'fl 
finger, and undo the girdle of virginity, and do all other thing 
that shall ho to your ptoaeiire. tk now of good chEHir, Titus, 
and comfort youraelf with good reflectiotia and BoUfo, that 
thifl WED, and pal« coIo'DT, and your cbc^^ks meagre and lean, 
bo not the cause of your diwovmtiig. 1 koavf well thut, ye 
having yo^ir purpose, I nhall he in obloquy and derision of »11 
men, 6iDd BO hati'd of all my kindttid, that thtty thaHl aeek 
occsnon to dpulae mo out of this r:ity, thinking me to he ct 
notable reptoaoh tu all my family. But lot God therein work, 
t force not' what pain that [ ahid^, so that yC|. my friend 
Titua, may bo «af«, aud pl»uantly enjO'y your duairOK, to tho 
increoaiug of your felicity," 

With thfdo wordd'ntus began to moTe, fuit were, out of a 
dream, and douhting whiither ho hoard Ciiaippua apeak, or 
&le« saw hut a ^iaion, lay atiU as a man abashed. But when 
ho buhuld the tears trickling down by the face of G-tstppue, 
he then recomforted him, and thanking him for hda ineom- 
poruble kindnoM, refused the beuofit that ho offered, saying 
that it were better that a hundred such unkind wretches at he 
waa should perish, than so noble a man oa waa Giaippue should 
euitain reproach or damage. But GisippDa efti^soom-tt com- 
forted Titufl, and therewith eware and iirotoated, that with 
free Eind glad wiU he would that this thing should be in form 
aforvwd aecoEni>liflhi*d, and then-with embraced and Bwi^etly 
kissed Titus. Who pflrceiving th& matter sure, and not 
feigned, UB n man uot Hick, but only awakitd out of his aloep, 
get himBelf up in his bed; the quick blood soinewhjit rcwrted 
unto Ilia viaagc, and after a little good niButa and drinkH 
taken, he wus Hhortly, and in a fow daya, restored into his 
old faahioEi und figure. To mako the tale short ^ the day of 
marriage was come. Oiaippus, accompanied with his allius 
and friends, Came to the house of the dumoaeU, where they 
were hononTa.bly and joyously feiutod. And l>otwe*m him 
and the maiden woa a aweot entortainment, which 6a behold, 
all that were prevent, took much pl^ure and comfort, pntts- 
ing the beauty, goodlinGsa, virtue, and rourte^y, which in 
this couplo were ^KceUcnt aboro all other that they had ever 
sean. What ahall I say more ? The COvenbatA «erc toad 
and ftualed, the dower appointed, sad all other hargaine con- 
nlnded, and the friends of either ^art took their ]i>ave and 
departed : the hride with a few womcti (as was the eustom) 
brought into hor chamber; then, a« it was before agreed, 
Titus conveyed himself, after Gurippua rotumcd to hia houae, 
or perchance to the chamlw^r appointed for Titus, nothin(> 
sorrowful, although that he hiNujiily lov^ the nuidcu, but 
with B glad heart and countenance that he had » recovered 
hid friend from di-ath, and so well brought him to tho efloct 
of his dewrc. .... The morrow ia come, Giaippua, 
thinldniit it oxpodient that the truth nhoidd b^ diacuvered, 
ftsacmhled all the nohilitv oi the city at hij own house, where 
also by appointment was Titos, who among thom had these 
warda tbat do fallow r — 

'^My friends, Athenians,, there is at thia tima showed 

■ J/torHM«t, IdoBotoars. Bo"Ko1anm"mwtwaMar, 

among you an ecamplif', almoet incredibk-, of the divine power 
of honourable love, to the perpetual rono^TL and eommendv 
tion of thia noble city of Athens, whereof he ought to take 
exceUcnt comfort, and therefore gives due thanks to Ood. if 
there rumain among yOu any token of the ancient wisdom of 
your moist noble progenitors. For what moro praise may be 
given to people than henevoleu'ce, foithfulueaa, and cotuitallcy f 
without whom all counLriea and cities he brought unto desola- 
tion and ruin, like as by them th^y bocome prosperoua and in 
moB.1 high f^eity. What, Hhall I long tarry ypu in- eoojoc- 
turingmiiie inttsnt and meaning.^ Yq all know from whence 
I i::amo unto this city, that of adventure I found in the hoiuc 
of (^liremefl his son Gisippua, of mine own age, and in ereiT- 
thing ao Ukc to mo that neither his father, nor any other man 
eould diacein of us tho one from the other, but by our own 
insigporac-nt or showing: in au much as there were- put about 
our necks lares of sundry co3our« to declare our persoiugee. 
Whut mutual agreement and love have hoen olway between 
us during the eight yt-ars that wo have been together, ye aO. 
bo witnesses, that hitvc been bchoMcrs and wondcrers of our 
most fiweet cotLversation luid consent of appetites, whereiD 
waa never any discord or variance. And, a» for my part, 
after tho df^Hi-aae of my futhist, notwithstanding that there waa 
desecndL<d and happened unto me great poQSCWons, £ur 
houses, with ahundancti of riches ; also I being oaUed home 
by the desirouH. and importunate hitters of mino allies and 
frienda, which be of the most noblo of all the senators, offered 
the adraneement to the highei^t dignitiCH in the puhjie weil, 
1 wiU not remambor tho lamentationa of mj' most natural 
mother, expressed in her tender letters, all besprent and 
blotted with fibundance of tcai?, wherein ahe acciuKth me of 
nnkindnesa, for my long tarrying, and especially now in hef 
most discamfort. But all this cotUd not removu mo the 
hroadth of my nail from my dear friend, (-Sisippub. And but 
by force could not I, nor yet may be drawn from hia sweet 
eompany, but if he thereto will conBoiit. I chousing nither 
to lire with him aa his companion and fellow, yea, and as his 
servant nither than to bo Consul of tlome. Thuamy kindnev 
hath beon well acquitted (or as I might say), r«douhled, 
d'ehvering me from the death, yen from the most cnicl and 
painful death of aU other. I porccive ye wonder henat, 
noble Athenians, HTid no DLarvel. For what person aliotild he 
80 hardy to attempt any auch thing against me, b«dag t 
Roman, rind of the noblo blood of the Romans f Or who 
should be thought ?>o miklii^ioua to slay me, who (aa all j-e U 
my Judges) never trespaBsod against aOy peTBon within ihlt 
city. Nay, nny, my friends, J have none of yon all IhsniB 
Ausjiectod. I perceive you desire and hearken tu know, wbit 
he was, that preaum<.<l to do bo cruel and great an enterpriM 
It vitis love, noble Athenianfl, the samo love, whiih hs your 
pootfi do remoraber. did wound the more part of all the goda 
that ye do honour, that conAtrained <)upiter to tmnsfonD 
himself In a swan, a bull,, and divers other likenees"^: tht 
oame love that canac-d Hercules, the vanquisher and doatiurff 
of monsters and giaotfi, to spin on a rock, sitting ■moof 
maidena in a wouuin'fl apparel ; the same leva that caused 14 
asatmbU all the noble princes of Asia and Oreew in the fictdi 
of Troy : the Nam.e love, 1 say, against whose assaults may In 
found no defonco or rcsietancf^, both ^dd«nly and luiawv* 
stricken me unto the heart with nuch vehemence and might, 
tjiat I had in short spiico died w»th most fervent torment* 
had not the incomparable friendship of GiAlppUft hulpen ma 
I Bw you would fain know who she ia that 1 loved. I w21 
no loDf^er delay yon, noble Athenians. It i» Hophronia, ths 
lady whom Giaippua had chosen to have to hi* wife, «nJ 
whom he mo^t entirely loved. But when his most gentle 
heart per«!ived that my lovo was in a mueh higbur degre* 

*-». 1MI-] 



thuL bis towunl Ibut ladj-, knd Ihut it proceeded ncitlier of 
-wimtoiuicsa, Deither of long^ conv^reation, nor of any othtrr 
corrupt desire or tanUtay, but in on inBtunt.'by tho only look, 
and wiUi euch ferveni-r, that iiiimi?di«toly I wa« so iruciat*, 
that 1 desired, luul in all ttut I mought provoked daith tu tuke 
me. Ha by hi» visAom godq parcaiv{.-d (tia I dou^t not but ftiat 
j« do) thiLt it wfu the veiy proTuion oi God, that ska Hhould 
Ik my wife and not bis : w-liEireto he giving place, and more 
MtfK^ming true fiiendahip than the love of a wonuui, wh^rcunto 
he wHti induct-'d by his frii'ndfl and not by violence of Oujiid 
coiutTminMl, as 1 itm, hath -u'lUicgly gmntod to mc the 
inlort'st that he had in tho d(inioHit<'L And it is I, Titu^, that 
haTO TBrilf wedded her, I huTn put the rin^ on her fin^tir, I 
have imdoiie the girdle of ht-r Bham<'fai.«diecs« : what will y^ 
moref I hivft Uin with htir, jmd contlrniod tho matrimony. 
jmd nude her h wiie."' 

At theM wordA &11 th^y that were preaont bcgHU to murmiir, 
And to cast a diMdciiiioiis and grierouB look upon l>isippujj- 
Then apuko iigsin Titue : — 

'• Leave your ^Tidgings imd menacing countenance towards 
OisippaA ; h^ hath donf to you all honour, und mi nCMl of 
reproach. 1 tell you he hath nc-L-ompliahi^d all thp prvtB of a 
(riendi that lore, 'ff'hLi;h wasmoet cartrtin, huth ho continuc^d. 
Jle know he might find in Ure^^ci uiDthor mitiden, and fair 
and as rich aa thiti that be had choaon, and ono, perchance, 
tiuBt h? niou|j;bt Icvo bettor. But euch a friend as I n'as, 
luiTin^ rei^>cc£ to our similitude, the long upprt>v{Kl concord, 
also miiu: estate and condition, he waseurcto find never nune. 
Also th« diunoHel tfiifler>i>th no dii^paragenKint in her Hood, or 
hindianio in her maTriuBC. but in murh rather advanced (no 
di^zaiAe to my doar friend UiMppuB). Also comddcT, noble 
AthimianB, that 1 took het not my f«.thcr Uving, when yns 
maoght have su^pet-ted that as well her ricrhes us her beauty 
ehouhl huvi; thereto allurad m« : hut «oon Eiftcr my &ithi:r*B 
d«««ase, when I far exceeded hor in iiofiaceaiona and Bubstance, 
when the tnc»t notable tnaa of lioniEs and of Italy desirfd 
mine alliance ; yo have thfirofore all cau»e to rejoice and thank 
OisippuH, and not to \uf. angry, and alao to extul hia wonderful 
kindneaa toward me, whereby ht« huth won me iind uU my 
blood, Huch frii^ds to jou and your city, thjit ye may he 
astoTcd,. to he by tu dvfended against all the world : which 
being ccTuridcred* G-inippue hath well dBBer»'ed a atatuti or 
ima^ of gold, to bo let on a pillar, in the midtit of yo>.u- city, 
for an honourable monument, in the r^mQmbifiriCQ ef our in- 
oompar^hle friendship, and of tho good that thereby niny come 
to yoor t^ty. Bat if thin pcrauaHion i^aimot datiefy yoti, but 
that ye wJU imapae Anything to the damage of my dear 
friend Ginppiu after my dc^uiiting, I make my vow unto 
Ood, creator of all thing, thut a* X flhall have knowledge 
thereof, I shall forthwith resort hither, with the invincible 
power of the Ronmna, and rcvrnge bim in aueh wise a^inst 
hia fincmies that all Oreccc shull Kpcak of it to their perpetual 
iliahtmonr, shame, and reprouch." 

And therewith TituB and Gi^ppuH rose, but the other for 
fear of 'Htiu dlBeembleth their muLicc, making scmblimt as 
ihfij had been with all thing contented. 

Soon after, Titaa, being sent for by the authority of the 
Senate and people of Ilome, prcjtarcd to depart out of Athi'us, 
and would foin hnvc had Oiaippue lo hnve gone with him, 
iffflnng to diride witli him all his. aubstauee and fortune. 
; GinppUJi, considermg how noccfisary hijj counsel should 
9 to the city of Athenn, wotild not depurt out of hia countiy. 
withstanding that above all earthly things, he moHt 
1 the company of Titus : 'ft'hich abode aleo^ for the said 
on, Titos appmvcd. 
LTittu with hia lady is departed towards the city of Roni«, 
re, at their coming, thoy were of (he mother of Titua, hia 

IdnaDitn, and of all tho Sentite and people joyonaly received. 
And therie lived Titus with hia lady in joy ineJtplicablft, and 
hnd by her many fair children: and for his wisdom and 
lotiming was ho highly cBt{>£<med, that there was no dignity 
orhoDourB.blc office within the city, that he had not with much 
favour and praise achieved and occupied. 

But now let ijs resort to Gisippus, who immediately upon 
the departing of Titus, was bo maligned at^ as woU by hia 
own kinsmen, as by the frienda of the hidy that he, to their 
aeemini;! iihujncfully abandon>ed, leaving her to Tittui, that 
they spared not daily to vex him with all kind* of reproftch, 
that they could deivise or imagine : and first they i^xeludod 
him out of their council, and prohiliit«d him from all honest 

vVnd yet not being therewith satiBfied, finally they adjudged 
him unworthy to enjoy any posseeaionji or good*, left to him 
by hie parents, whom he (a* thay aupposi'd) by his indiscreet 
friendship hiul bo distainsd. Wherefere they dpBpoiled hia 
of all things, and almost naked, pxpelled him out of the city. 
Thus is Gisippus, late wealthy, and one of the most nobla 
men of Athene, for his kind heart, haniehed hie countr>' for 
ever, iind as a man dismayed, wandering hither and tbithar, 
finding no man that would aUiWOitr him. At the Iwit 
romembering in what pleasure his friend Titan lived with hia 
lady, fur whom hi^ suffered thM« damages, concluded to go to 
Kome.andiieclarehisinfortunetohiaBaid friend Titus. What 
ahall need a lyhgtale '( In conclusion, with much pain, coldt 
hunger, and thirst, he is come to the city of Ftomn, and dili* 
giintly enqoiriag for the houue of Titus, at the last ht; earn? 
to it : but beholding it 90 hi^auttful, hirge, and princely, hfl 
was aahamed to approach nigh to it, bving in so «mple ctstata 
and unclad, but etEindeth by, that in case Titus came forth 
Dut of his houtut, he might prcHent himself to him. He bein^ 
in this thought, Titua, holding hiit lady by the hand, issued 
out from hiu dour, and taking their horses to solace them- 
aelves, beheld Gisippus, and Iwbolding hie vila apparal, 
regardwl him not, but poaeod forth on their way, wherewitli 
Gisippus woa jso wounded to the heart, thinking Titus had 
contemned his fortune, that apprewKd with mortal heavineSB, 
fi-U in a fiownde,' but lioing recovered by sonus that stood by, 
thinking him to he aick, forthwith departed, intending not to 
abide any longer, but as n wild beudt to wander abruad in the 
world. But far weurinfise ho was constrained to enter inta 
«n oldbiUTi, without the Hty; where he, eaating himself oa 
the bare ground with weeping and dolorous crying. hewaileUi 
liid fortiinui ; but oLost of all aeeusing the ingratitude of Titos, 
for whom he sufftred uU that misery, the remembmtice 
whereof was ho intolerable, that he determined no longf-T t» 
live in that anguish and dolour. And Uietewitb drew his 
knife, purpofling to have Hlaiu himself, But ever wi»don 
(nlijiih he by the study of philosophy had attained) withdrew 
him from that deajjeiate act. And in thia contention bet ween 
wisdom and will, fatigued with long joumcys in watch, or u 
God would have it, he fell into a det^p aloep. His kniio 
(wherewith he would have akin himwilf) falling down by 

In the meantime, a common and notable ruffian or tbje£, 
which hud robbed and slaiu a man, was entered into the bum 
where Gisippus lay, to the intent to sojourn there all that 
night. And seeing Gisippus bcwept, and hie viimge ro- 
plMiished with sorrow, and also the naked knife by him, 
perceived well that he was a man despemte, and snrpriseA 
with hea^Hineaii of heart, wb«. v/e&iy of bis life :; which the said 
ruffian taking fur a gixtd o<.<caaian to escape, took the kidffl of 
Gisippus, and putting it in the wound of him tluit 1 




pnt it all liloody in the hmd of Gislppufl, being fast aaleep, 
■ud Hi dopurted. 

i^oon aJtvr, the dtHud miin boing foiuid. tho oftic^n made 
diligfiat AeoKb for the raiirdorer; nt thr- laet th«y entering 
into the bam, and finding IrisipptiH aslocp, -w-ith tbo bloodT 
knife in his luind, uwakcd him ; wheren-ith he cTitertil 
Hpim iJitQ his old wnTowB, pompldiniiip )«» evil fcirtun'-'. 
But when the^ ofticerfi l^d unto him tbo dimth of the man, 
Wid the huving at ih(! tlnody knife, therent rejoiwd, 
thimkin^ God that suoh OL«iuitoti wak hdpptmod, whi'T(>'by hdi 
flhoidd HtiffQ]* dunth ly the |ilwh, a^d ('si,-ajh.' {.he violenw of 
bia own hiinda. Whertifore he dooicd nothing' tlmt vraa Itud 
to hid i-luirge, deairiug tht- oftic^rs to miik(.' hftste tliut he 
might bu Bhortly out of his life. Whei-orit thr^y mjirveUed. 
Anon, report cume to the Si.'nat«, that a man vna elain, and 
that u fltmtiger, and a Tln'^-k liom, was found in such form 
■a 18 before -mcintioned. 'l*bi''y forthwith cEnnnmniled him to 
be brought unto their prpsenne, sittiny there nt tlia.1 time, 
Titua bdog then ConauJ, ur in uthyr likL- dignity- Thn 
uuerfthle (iitdpptis wiut In-ought tu the bar, with hills and 
staves like a felon, of whom it was detnunded if he slew 
the man that wah foundun dewd. Hii tiothin§f dt-nicd, but in 
nioflt (wrrowf ul mirnner curwd hi» foiluue, naining himiivlf of 
all othe<r mcwt ruiBL-ntbU'. 

At th« IflHt one dcmxnding him Qi w^hnt countr)* ho w&s, 
ho confeaeed to bf> an Athoninti, nnd thorewtth he caitt hia 
MTTowfuI even upon Titus with mu.-h indignfttion, luid bnret 
otit into iDghs and tears HbtindantlyL I'hat befaqildioj^ Titue, 
and eepying by a litth' sign in hi» vLaagr'. which he kn(-w, 
Ihftt it wa* his dear friend (TiiiijiimBt and anon cuQ^doring 
that he wa» brought into dcsiHiir by some misadventure, 
roafi out of hifl plac:« *-here he aat, and falling on his knee^ 
hefont the jndgea, smd tbul he hiid »liiin tho man for old 
malice that he bare toward him, and that Gi^ppuii, bting a 
atnngQr, 'was guiltlons, and all men mought porcoive that the 
other wwi a deaporate perwin. Wherefore to abbrcviato his 
aanrowfl, he confmsMl thft a<jt whoroof he was innoceTlt^ to 
the intent that he would finish his aorrows with death, 
wherefore Titita desiied the juilgfis to give aentemrtt on 
him nccording to bis nierita. Bat Ciimppus, perceiving hia 
friend Titua (contrarj- to hia I'Xpwttition) to offer hiim^iilf to 
the death for hia safeguard, more importunately cried to the 
Senate to proceed in their judgment on him, that whs the 
vcrj* offender, 

Titu» denied, and &ffinn>i>d with rfiAaoni and arguments 
thi»t he vaa the murderer, anij not GiaipptiB. Thus they of 
long time, wjth abanrlanee of tenrs, contended which of them 
should die for tbo other, whereat all the ^^eniite and people 
wcro wonderfully abaabcnl, not fcnowing what it meunt. The 
murderer in deed hnppcmed to he in the prcaco' ut that time, 
who, perreiving the mur^cUoua contention of the^e two j»er. 
fions, which were both innocent, and that it procet-dcd of an 
incompirablfl friendahip, was Tehemenlly provoked to diecover 
the truth. Wherefore he brake through tbe prcaec, and coming 
before the Senate, spak^ in this mac ; — 

"Nobie fatberii, I am «ut'h a person, whom ye know have 
been a coirmon barrator *«.nd thief by « kng space of yoora: 
yft know hiIbo, that Titua is of b noblo blood, and ia spproved 
to be alw»y a man of oscellent virtue and wisdom, and never 
^_ waa nuilicioua. This other stnuigor sccmeth to be a man full 

^H of umpUcity, and that motf la dcapemte for fiorncr grifivouH 

^^M aoimw that he hath tatci-'n, as it in to you cndent. I Eoy to 

^^L you, fathers, they both be ionoeent; I am that person thnt 

' PrtoM, praai, erawd. 
* Sarrater, eicttitr of vtHfc. 
tualoB. fmmJ, 

alow him that is found* n dead by Uie bam. and robbed hint 
of hia money. And when I found in the bum this alxanga- 
l;inK aal(X!p, kiving by lum a naked knife, 1. the bolter to 
hide mme offence, did put the knife into tbo wound of th>- 
dead man, Eind ao all bloody Inid it again by thjs stRmgcr 
This waa my miaehie^'OUB desire to escape your judgment, 
Wheruunto now I remit me wholly, rather than thia nobk- 
nmii Titus, or this innocfint stranger, Rhould unirorthily die." 

Hweat all the Senate and people took eomfort. wid the- 
noise of rejoieing hi&artB fiUed all the court. And when tt 
waa further cxftniincid, Gisippm waa discovered; the tri^nd- 
Bliip between him and Tifu» wfig throughout the mty pwb- 
IiBhc>d, extolled, ami magnified. Wherefore the Senate con- 
sulted of this matter, and finally, at thu iniitanee of 'J'itua ami 
the people, diaehurgtid the f«lon. Titua recogniaed hia negli* 
gene© in forgetting Criaippua. And Titua, being aJvertisttf 
of the exile of GJeippuH, and the despiteful cruelty o< hin 
kindred, was therewith wonderful wroth, and having Gi&ipptLn 
home to hia house (wh*re he waa with incredible joy reoeiv^d 
of the hidy, whom some time he shonld hiive wLrdded) honoor- 
ably appart-Ued him; and there Titua offered to hira, to juf 
all hia goods and posacsaians at his own pleasure and dpjieUU 
Hut UiBippuB, desiring to bo again in hia proper coiiatrj", 
Titus, by the eonaent of the Senate and people, asaenibled 
a great army, and went with Gi»ippua unto Atlions, wh«t^ 
he, having delivered to liim all thoae which were csuBem of 
banishing and deapoiling of bta friend Giaippus, did on th«na 
uhikrp execution ; and reetoring to GixippUR hia lands and 
Huhjjtam'e, stabHehed him in pi.'rpc<tual quietness, and » 
ri'tumed to Hoine. 

Ttm example in the effwtu of friendship e?(prc««i.<th (if I 
be not detMiiveJ) the doacription of friendship, engc-ndored by 
the* aimilitude of age and jMn-somige, augmented by the con- 
formity of manners and studies, nnd eonfirmod by the lung 
contimittDf^e of company. 

It would bo remembered, that friendebip ia between gMid 
men only, and ia engendenMl of an opinion of virtue. Thiti 
may wo rcaiton io this form ; A gouil mFui is bo uiniod, 
becauiie all that ho wUloth or doth is only good ; in gooil 
eun be none ovil, therefore nothing that a Kood tniui wiUcih 
or doth c^ui be evib Likewje^^ virtue is tht affftiun of a 
good man, which neither willeth nor doth anything that !• 
evil. And vico ie coiitmry uoto virtue, for in the opinion of 
virtue is neither evil nor vice. 

And very amity ia \irtuc- Wherefore nothing ovil w 
viciotis may happen in friendship. Therefor© in the tint 
elertioa of friends restetb all the importance : wherefore it 
would not be without a lon|{ dc^liberation and proof, and, at, 
Aristotle aaitb, in na long time as by them both, being tti- 
^other coaveraant, a whole huahel of aalt iDOUght be c«t«ii. 
For oftentimes with fortune [as t late said) ia changed, or a1 
the leaet miniahed, the ferventneae of that affection, accordiTii; 
OH the Bw&ct poet Ovid affirmeth, saying in this senti<ni:e— 

" Whil'di Fortune' tbw favoured li, friends Ihau luut iitmiljr. 
The Urns iMdug' tmitbloiui, thoa art bU nlnQ«. 
Thon Meat umlvers lianaC housea m»4« wlute aod daint)- 1 
To the ruinoiu tower aJmost com^b ugiie, 
.01 oinroetq ianuinarB'ble uuetho thou Aairat une, 
ta empt; Inmea. ikbil where tMIeUt ■nbaiAuce, 
o friend ia wbOm la aj 

Old Freacb, "bstvC," dlAOord, oon- 

But if any happeneth in ovory fortune to be L-onataot in 
fricndahip, he ia to be made of above all things that m>v 
come unto man, and above any other thnt b« of blood or 
kindred, ns TuUy snith : for from kindred may b« taknn 
hffnevolence, from fricndnhiptt eftn never be severed. VThcw- 
fore benevolence taken from kiudrod, yet the name of kin"- 

' ro i.n, 1SS5.1 



iDiiD rcmaini'th ; Ui.k,a it Eroni fnuiidiihiji, and thu name of 
iriendship ia utterly perished, 

But Hioc^ t^B libbrty of spoccb b now mturi^iGd li y fluttcrtrB, 
whpre tb«y pcrceivH thut biiac'ntJktiiin iLnd pmitujoi \>v uliihoiTt'd, 
1 am therefore not well ssstinyl how- il man nuwaiiaye t^luill 
knowur disceraaucbBdinuiiLtion f roui tbitter>~, but by oni^ only 
■nt»uiH: that in ta say, Ui reniuinber that friunduhip miLV tiDt 
l>o but bftwcfii good mec. Then eoiuiJer it he thAt doth 
^idmoaish thoe be hirnBulf voluptaotia, ambitiouH, L-oi-otoiw, 
iiiTojpmC, or dusi>lute, rcfuae not hie udmonitiona ; but by the 
example of the Kmijeror Aiitoiiine, tluuLkfully tEkke it, and 
lunend such default aa thuu percoivost doth give occftiion 
<A ubloquy. in such manner aa the reporter aleo ty tJiino 
ffxample nuy be corrected. But for thut admonition onlr^ 
nccotmt him not iramediutely to bo thy friend, until thtiu 
tuLve of him a long unA. sure cxp^rii>niM>. For undoulitedly 
it U wonderfid di^cult to fiftd a Uia.n viirj- ambitiouti or cove- 
tous to be AAdurcd in friendtdiip. For wh>?re fiodeat thou 
^fltuth TiiUy] that wit) pot prefer honnnrs, grCBt oBic^s, rule, 
niithonty, and richeeiw hofoj* frimadbbip i Therefore (aaith 
hiu) it is vary bard to find frien<iBhip in them thtit be occupied 
■n Acquiring honour, or libout the Afinira of tho puhlic weal ; 
which spying: is proved by daily experience. 

For diidain and coutflinpt lie. n'ompuniuna with ambition, 
like »a envj- and imtr^ he also her feUowe. 



On the 6th of July, 1535, Sir Thomas More was 
exec!ited for his conacientioua diasent from Heniy 
the Eiglitli's ckiui U> be the Pope of England. In 
l-'iSS^ Hugh latimer was deprived of liia Ijishopric 
of Worcestf^r, for conacientioiis disjieiit fi^ra the 
Kiog'n Act for uljolishing Divoraity of Opinion, by 
«nfoi'ciiig with |)eiialtiea against his s\il)jt'ctH RoiniiEi 
Catholic opinion upon six points iii disput'tf between 
the churches. In the same y&r, Sii' ThorauM Wytitt, 
tiiirty-aix years old, returned from an emhasfly to 
Charles V, in. tSpain. Sir Thomoa Wyntt and the 
£iirl of Suirey w^re the mrat €iccom]>liflhed poeta 

long many Tiobles of that time who wi^ote good 
CVeme. He hwl l>een sent to Spain in 1537, the year 
trf the birth of Edwani, afterwards Ki ng Edwara 
VIm and from Spain lie addregsed these letters to his 
only son, that Thomaa Wyatt the yonng;ei', who was 
executed la 1554, for rebellion against the raarriagfl 
<ji Queen Mary to Philip of Spain. 


Lettkm I. 

In us much lu now ye arft come to eatne yeftra of under- 
«tnnJing, and ihwt ye ahuutd j^ither within yourself some 
fnunc of honc*ty; I thought that I ahould not Ipw?' my 
kboar -wholly if now I did som&thing wdTertiso you to take 
the sure foundAtiona, and Btablished opinions that Ie4ideeh3 to 

And here. I call not honoety that men co^mmonly aill 
honewty, jui reputation lor richci*, for authority, or souie liko 
thing; but that hoepBty, that I dare well sny your grand- 
father (whose igul God pardon) hud rathor irft to mo thnn 
" the landi be did leare oia ; that was, wiodom, ggntlenotta. 

I Tinft EuKlinti. " leo'aau/' paawd int'n tbc two torjoM lew imd \ok. 
LtadHhi tbe old KiatberD filnmJ lu ath. 

wbc-motxi, deeir^i to do good, friendlini'fiti to get the love of 
mfiny, and truth ahovc all the reet. 

A great part tn have ali thecL' thin^, ia ta desire to have 
thcni. And ulthoug'h glory and honwit name are not the very 
odda whorafore these thin)^ are to bo followed, yet auruly 
they must needs follow them ae light followatb fire, though 
it wATc kindled for warmth. 

Out of these things the chitrfcst and infallible:! ground ia 
the draad and rfivctr^nceof Ciod, whereupon atuill cnauo the 
oschcwing of the contmriea of th»e said virtues - that ia to 
4ay, ignorance, unldndncaA, rashness, dcaira of harm, imquiet 
enmity, htttPt>d, many nnd crafty falaohoodH, the very root of 
all ahiLmo and didhAntHtity. I aay, th<! only dread and revercnoa 
ot God that ^'cth all things, ia the dofenc« of th^ iveoping 
in of all thLiBe migghicfA into you. And for my part, although 
I do well say tlipre is no man thtit would his son bettor thaa 
t, yet on my faith I bad rather have you lifeless, thiia subject 
to th'ese vicefl. 

Think and imagin<? always that ye are in prosGuco of some 
honest man that yo know ; an 8ir Joltn KusocU, your fathoT' 
in-hiw, your Unele Parson, or eorae other sach, and yo shall, 
if at any time ye find a pleaauro in naughty touehos, r^^ 
member what §hiune it were afore these men to do naughtily. 
And &ure this imagination «hall tauAe you remember, that 
the pleuaure of a naughty deed is aogn past, and thtf robuko, 
ahame. and the note thereof tihall remain ever. 

Then, if these thiuRs ye take for vnin imogfinnlions, yet 
remember that it U ceituin, and no imagination, that year6 
alway La the preaence, and sight of God ; and though ye 
nee Him not, eo much ia the reveroDM the more to be had for 
that He seeth, and ia not seen. 

Men punish with ahiimc as greatest puntshmont on earth; 
yea, greater than death. Bat Hie fiiniahment is- Brut, tho 
withdrawing of His favour, and grace, and, in letxving liis 
hand to rule the stem, to let the ship run without guido to its 
own. destruction ; and euffereth m> the man that Ho foruketh 
to mn headlong aa auhjoct to all miahaps, and at laiit with 
shameful end to everlasting ahame and death. 

Ye may see eontintud cxamplus both of the one sort, and 
of th* other; and the ln'tter, if ye mark them well that your- 
self are come of: and connidor well j-our good grandfather,* 
what things there were in Vdm, and his end. And they that 
Iniev him noted him thue. First, and <:h]ody to have a 
RTeat reverence of God and gTHwl opinion of godly things. 
>rext. that th^re woa no man more pitiful ; no man more tr>ie« 
of his word ; no man fastcT to Ijia friend ; no man diligr'nlor 
nor more eirt-umBpTt. whioh thing, *wth the Kings hia 
nwBters noted in him greally. And if these things, and 
(qfeiially the grneo of God that the fear of God alway kept 
with Iiim, hall not been, the chances of thia troublesome 
world that he wr* in Jiad long aao overwhehnwl him. This 
preserved him in prieon from the handa of tho tymnt that 
votiM find in his heart to jtee him rackwl; from two yean 
nni! more pri.tonment in Scotland in irona and stocks ; from 
the danger of sudden chnngefl Bnd commotions divers, till 
that well hi'loved of manvi bated of none, in his fair age, and 
good reputation. g'^KlIy Find christiitnly hr want tn Him that 
loved him, for that he always had Him in reverence. 

And of myaelf, I may be a near example unto you of my 
folly and itnthriftinesB, that hflth, as I well deserved, brought 
me into a thousand dangers and hamrds, enmities, hatreda, 
prisornntinilB, despitee, and indiguatiDnii ; but that God hath 
ct his goodness chastiBed mo, and not cast me clean out of Hia 
favour; which thing I can itnpute to nothing hut to tlfe 

■' Sir Hpnrjf WyaH. The p'"'"l'"tlier o 
John bkimieT. Of IC«i|!atfl. 

tbe mollier'i diile < 



L4.h 1339 


(OBdOHl of mj good futher^ that, I dare well aay purchased 
villi conliiBiul request of Oud H}» grace towHcdH mo moro 
tluui I Fe^rded, cir eonHidL-rLd uiyablf; Hod a little part to 
tho amall fear thfit 1 ln*il of Ood in the mitet of my ruge, and 
Iho little d(;light that I Imd in misQhicf. You thcrefuro if 
you be Bure, tirid have God in your aleeve to enM you to Hia 
I^Ta^re at Last, venture liardiiy by mine LXiimple upon naugbly 
uotIirifLiiiE'33, in trust of his goo<lDess^ and bcHiJi;ti tllci 
Hhame, I dare Liy ten to one ye Hball periiib in tbs iidv^iiture. 
For truat mp, thfit my wiisli or desire of God for you sliall not 
Bluid yoQ iu BA rauch cffsct, tia I thinl: my Eather'e did fvr 
me ; we laro not all nceeptod of Him. 

Begin, theiefore, betimcB. MhIcc Ood and ^i>Qdiie38 your 
foundatione. Malio yi>-ai exaxajAm of wi«6 And honest men : 
nhoot Kt tlmt murk: be no mocker, mocka follow them Chut 
dcilig'ht therein. He alinll be sure of HbtiiuEf tluit feeleth mt 
grief m other men's sbontea. Hare your fiiends in a re- 
VMMico; anii think ujikindneaa to be tbo gre.ateflt offcnue, 
■nd leABt puniehed nmong men ; but no mui-Ji tho more to be 
dread, for tiod is juatit-pr upon thut aloii*-. 

Love well, and agree with your wife ; for whert> in noiso 
anil dflbatie in thii hou»f there is unquiut dwelling-; and mutli 
more, where it is in one bod. Frame well vDuraelf to luvu 
■nd rule wmll and bontj^atly your wifL- da your fellow, luid iih» 
lihftll loTfl and reverento you as her b*?ad. Hueh as you are 
onto her, siiij^h shall ahe be u&to you. Obuy and rovereiitf 
yoas father -in -law, as you would me ; and rcmemher that 
long life followetb thtm that reverence their fnthem and 
ddera ; and tlic bleaiang of Uod for gpod Oipreeinent between 
tba wifo and huabfiad \a fruit of many ehildren. 

Bead oft thia my letter, iind it iihull be aa though I hud 
oft<^n written to you ; and think thiit I have h^J^cin printed a 
fatherly Jifloction to you. If 1 may see that I hare not lost 
my pnui, mine shtiU be the eontputatiun, and yours thb 
proBt. And, upon condition th»t you follow jny advertiBo- 
mcnt, 1 iM.'nd you God's bteauiig' and mine, und ba well to 
coma to honesty, a^ to iocn^oau of years. 


J doubt not but long ere this time my letters are cmno to 
jou. I remember I wrat«? to you in thtm, that if yo read 
thom often it Hlifdl be as though I hud written often to you. 
For all thnt, I tannot ao content me but etiU to call upon yoii 
with my Lotteni. 1 would not fur all that, that if any thing- 
Iki well wiimod in the other that ye sboulii leavA to tc^mem- 
her it be^Aueo of this new. For it it not Uk<? with ndvi:rtiiiu- 
ments H9 it ia with apparel, that with long wearing a mnn 
cH»toth away when he hath new, Honest te»clungB never 
wear; unloaa they wear out of bia remon^brAnee that should 
kwp and follow them, to the Hhame and hurt of bimwlf. 
Think not also that I have any new or thEinge of advertise- 
mentk to ftcnd you ; but still it ie one that I would. I have 
nothing to cry and call upon yon foe but honesty, honesty. 
It may be div^iAoly nnmed, but alway it tendcth to one end. 
And afl 1 wrote to you last, I mean not that honesty that the 
common sort oalleth an honest man. Tniat me, that hont^t 
nun ta as common a name oa the nnme of n good fellow ; that 
is to say, a drunkard, a tavern haunter, a rioter, a gnnLer, a 
waster. So are amon^ the common (tort of all men hotiLut 
men that are not known for manifest naughty knavop. 

Seek not t pray thee, my son, that honwity which ap- 
pratflth, and ia not indeed. Bo weD asBured it w no common 
tiling, nor no common man's judgment to judge well of 
honesty : nor it is no common thing to come by ; but so 
mucb it ia the more ^(oodly, for thnt It ia 6a Tiite' and strange. 

Follow not therefore tho common lepntation of boDOsty, 
If ye will seem honest, be boadit ; or elK Kom aa ye are. 

Seek not tlic nai&e without the thing; nor lat Kot thtnum 
he the only mnrk ye shoot at. That will follow though fBt 
regard it not ; yea, the more you regard it^. the Eess. I tnran 
not by re^trd it not, esteem it not ; for well I wot honiwt 
nume is goodly. Hut he that huntctb only (or that, is Uke 
bJm that had rather ^em warm tbiui he warm, and 4^^g(?th » 
single coat about with a fur, lluu&st name is to be ki?p1, 
preserved, and defended, and not to employ all h. num's wit 
about the stud}- of it : for that smelleth of a glorioue and 
ambitious fool. I Bay, as I wrote unto you in my last lett€|«, 
gtit the thing, and Che other most of necessity follow ; as (ho 
idiadow followeth the thing that tt is of. And #ven so mufb 
is thu very honesty better thim the name, u the thing ia 
better than the shadow. 

The coming to this point that 1 would bo fa» hnvv jrra 
have, in to consider a mun's own kM what he ift, and whert- 
fore ho in. And hetL'in k-t liim think verily that ao ^>odly a 
work as man is, for whom all other things were wiwig'ht, WM 
not wrought but for goodly things. 

After a nian hath gotten a will and de«rc to iham, ij first 
to avoid evil, and L^am that point alone : '' Neves' to< da that, 
that witbin youraelf ye had a certain grudging^ against.*'' 
\o doubt in any thing ye do, if ye ask yotmwif, ov examine 
the thing in yoKMeU afore ye do it. ye shall dud, if it be 
evil, a repining against it. hly «Ofi, for our Lo«^'* U)V» 
ktH.']^ woU that repining ; euJQ'cr it not to be darked acd cor- 
rupted by naughty i^xumple, as though anyihing were to you 
exeiuable because other men do the siime. That aanif 
repining, if it did punish as he doth judfj^ii, there wexe aa 
such juatieer. And of truth, ao doth it punish ; buk not a> 
apparently, Hero however it ia no small grief, of a ood^ 
scicncL' that eoudemneth itself; but be wtdl U8ii'urt.'dy aitct 
this life it is a continual gnawing. 

Wh«n there is a custom gotten of avoiding to do evil, ihcb 
eometh a gentle courage. Bo content to be idle, and to mt 
without doing any thing; Then too had yc need to gatl^cr 
an hdup of good opiniooa and to get them perfectly, u ii 
were on your fingera' endii. Ktit-t not gr^tly npion the- 
approving of thera ; take them as alrejuly approvod^ becaosp 
they were of honeet men's iGuvinjgs. Of thom of God, thoe 
ifi no qucwtien. And it is uo amall help to them, the good 
opinion of moml philosophore r among whom I would Soneca 
your B'tudy ; and Epietetati, because it is little, to be ever 
in bosom. 

Tbe,so things shall lead you to know goodly [griideej; 
which whoa a man knowcth and takeCh pleasure in them, 
he ia a beast that followeth not them : no, nor he cannot \nA 
fellow them. 

But take this for conelusion and mun of all; that if Qod 
and Ilia gmcc be not the found»tioD, neither can yenmi 
evil, nor judge well, nor do uny goodly thing. Irft Ilim be 
foundation of all. ^Vill these things; desire them eaniMtly, 
and seek tbem at biu bund^, and knowledgti* tlK&m to come of 
Uim, and que&tiunless He will both give yon the uao aod 
plcasim^ in using them, and also reward you for them that 
come of Uim ; so liberal and good is He. 

I would fain &ue that my lettere might work to fmrae yon 
hbtieHt. And think thnt without that, I Mt&em, nothing of 
you : no, not that you are my son. For I reckon it no nnall 
diidione«ty lo myself to hare an unhonrat taught ehild ; but 
the fault shall not be in me. I shall do Lbt* part of a fitlier: 
cmd if yi) answer not to that I look for at your hasda, I 
ahall as well study with that that 1 shall tenve^ to make mdi 
[a»Ye an] honest man^ afi you. 

. IMS] 


Thy model uf Ktyle in tliesy letters sseeiiis to hiive 
b(*li Hi^riL'L'u ; but tlie ujQst j^niiine ii[ipliia.tion of 
Hchol}ir!Hhi[i ill thotte davs to tlie writing of Knglisii 
prose, is U> Ikj fouiiJ in tJin? works of Ro^^r Asclmtu. 
Aaehaia was u Yorkslnrfniati, born near Ntri-lk- 
ailerton, about the y«w I5I5. He wa^ oLe of the 
fire childreu of a lioiise-jfteward, in the iamilv of 
Lord St-rope, and went to Ht. Joliii'a Colle^, €cuu- 
briJge, with small nieati» fur his s,upport, but Mcquirr'il 
high distinction as a scholar. He took his B:A. 
degi'ee at the age of oiDeteen, and fuat«ned u]>on 
LJii&ek, which twg joujjg scliolars, Thomas Soiitb and 
John Clibki?, wen? then introducing into Cambridge. 
Cb^ke and •Smith wem both of the a^mc n^, ami only 
about a year older than A^cliam. Ascham caught 
Lis entijiisiaaui for Greek from Cheke, obtained a 
fullowship from his College, ami in l.'i37j when Jtbout 
twenty-two yeara old, received h stipend from the 
ITai^'eraity for tea*;]iing Lri-otik. He remained at 
Cambridge, became not It^ws famous for his Latin 
scholarshipj and as Ua wivte also a beautiful hand, 
was made, in cottrse of time, tutor and H^i-etnry to 
Heury VUL'scbildpeu, servinjr successively Eilward, 
Marj, and EJd^abath, who liked him, and left liia 
opinions free. He did not bis PrutesbiTitisiii. 
Ill course of time, also, be waii chosen Public Orator, 
and repfeiented the geholi»rt<hlp of his TJiiivecgity in 
all its correspondence. Heniy VHL was enooiu'agiJig 
Hhooting at the butta, that he might have a ]>eople 
apt for miliUry Bervice, and A-scbam first became 
known to the kingf wh*in hbi Ago was about thirty, 
by presenting to him an Enyliah book^'-Toxopbilua " 
— which advocated use of thtt bow. It was published 
in 1545, aud ita preface coiitimis tha plea of a tin^ 
clafisieal Scholar^ for the oae of n true scholarship 
by educated, men in writing their mother tongue, 
Aacham practiaed what he preachwl. In " Toxo- 
jJulus" and in his later Iwolt, "Tim Schoolmaster," hia 
Engliab is clear, pm«, and idLonmtic. Hv doeq uot 
corrupt it with Greek or Lutia idiom ; for he might 
as well spoil writing in Latin or Greek with Anjfli- 
ctsuis. But he sMiys ui apt wonla, well fitted together, 
just what be has to say. We aee very well in 
Ajjicham that a scholarly prose style ia the reverse 
of foruuil or pieilanC.ii:;. Thii; is, in its old bjwII J ng, 
Aactuun's Preface to " ToxopbiluiS " : 


Bias the -wyte maa rame to Cr«»n» the inoha Kin;^, on a 
titac, when hir waa amkiniftf uhwo uhippes, iiurpoBin)^ to have 
■ahduod by wnter the tint inlea tyin^ Ix'twixto Greef and Afia 
Jlmtor. "What newM uove in Gtfet f" eayUii the KingB 
to S'tai. "Noaa othet newea but thesp," myth Buia : 
"thxt the iaiea of Ortec haro prepared n wonderful com[M,iiy 
of hunemen to over-nm Lt/ditt wtlhal," " Thero is nothing 
onder buivcn, aayth the Kingty, that t woqld #a souno wLsli, 
u that they dunt be eo boldo, Xfi mcA* ua on th« luml »itli 
hor**-" "'And thinke you,'* snyth UiaA, " thiit thfro is uny 
thin^ which thty woiiJd sooner wi^hc. then tliat yom ahtruM 
be fen fuDili>, Ut msoto theni cm Lhu Witttr with a)ii{ijiOH P " And 
■a CrrtuM^ hesiTng not the true aewes, but iM-rcoyving the 
wyw tiiAnn€a mindc and counM-U. both t^avn then m-rr ciink' 
Engv uf bia ahipjios, and \eit ulrto lK<hmde Inni u w<>n<Vrfid 
Noamplti for ni comULOD irc-aJllbus \.-> fuUuw-iOi ikul i&,t:Vunuurc 


t(* i-i.-^iinlir and i^i-t inuHt by thut thia^ Mrli^ruiitu iiaturo 
hutli niiiti<_' Ltit-m niuHt u-^l, Aiiid M«i hulh BMitlu thum uioit 

Ity this tnattcF I meane the B}ioutinj in the lon^ bow, for 
E^ttjlinhcmin : which thiagt;, with ul iity hart I du wlsh^ and 
if I Were oi uutburity, I wyuld LoUiiseU uJ ihii? geQllbmcn uul 
yomi'U cff £tt^iandf, not to (.-hauiige it with nay othor tbin^^ir 
howe gO<jd Mluviir it soeuie to hv, hut that stil, auconliiig tO 
ihu oldcf want of Sn^latHiv, youth should nw it for tlte most 
horie&t i>u8tLtn>» in ^H-aoo, that mon might hundle it lui a most 
«iii'u wcupun m wurrt. Ulher stroiiyti woiipuuu, which both 
i^xprncaeo doth provo to he i^ood, and the widcdome of the 
Kiu^ii MiLJeyty iiud 2iis oouii8i.d ])FOvidL's \a ha hud, urv not 
ordu.yn<jd to toJca £iway» ahuotLu^; bat that both, not coid- 
pttpod togulhor, wbother aJiould be batter thrm the other, but 
IK) jayned togL-thor, thut the ono should h«alwaytwaa aydu 
Hud hidl^ for the othfJF, might ao strengthi-n the r^uUnv on aU 
eidtts, thiit an Iciadi; of i;nc(nye, in uiy klade of wouimui, mi^ht 
pSiBSB and go beypuilc us- 

For thispur^Knid I,parl]ye proTokod hy the counaellof some 
^ontEfitntin^ piirtlyc moved by the luve which I biive nlwayoa 
borne towiu^ fihootin^, hava written this litlo tmitiao ; 
wherLiJn, if I have not uatisfyud any nmn, I truat he will tho 
rathtir be content with my doings, bccauiw I am (I iupposfl) 
the fil-Bt, which hath said Any thlti^ lU Chitt lUBttid*, (ind 
f(jwo boguuiiu^ie« he perfect, wj-th wj-ae lavn :) uud ulao 
hec&uae, iC I have aaido amifttte, I am content that any man 
amende it ; or, if I had said to Utii', any man Lhut will to 
add& what him plieaju^th to it. 

My mindc! ia, in prgCiting; and pleasing evsry man, to 
hurt or dieple^isie no man, intending wiaxi other pui^osD, but 
that youth mi^ht be stirred ti> labour, honest paatiinet and 
reitue, and as nrnuh ad hiye in me, plu^^kcd from ydlunos, un- 
thrifty gacnus, and vioe : which ihiajju I huvo kboured onlye 
in this hooke, Hhewin^ howc ht bhoutinge iafor all Idndcs of 
men ; howe hane»t v. p'trtimi; for the mind<i ; howe hobwme an 
exercise for the bovlye; not \iln i<'T great men to use, not 
eoatly for poore men to gu^tuyne, not lur|(iii;f in hoU-s and 
oornerq for ill men at their plLiaflura to misupeit.butabydibga 
in the optiD Hi|>^htu aad face of th<3 worlde, for good men, if it 
fault, hy thcyr wyBi'dt>nie to oorrwt it. 

And hci^ I would dcaire al gcntk<men and yomen to ubo 
this ptistLBH.- in §uuh a. munno. that the ciiitrnfirious&esti of ffreat 
^minge ahnuM cot hurt the honaatye of ahoutingii], which, 
of hift owne nature, i* alwayefl jojiied with homatyB : yet for 
mennea f«u!tt« oftpntimoB hbmied unworlholye, ad all good 
thiii^^ hu(6 hi'ne, and evermore Khfll be. 

If any man would htamo mo, eyiher for tdkitig« mijeh a 
matter in hande, or eli for wryting^ it ia the Sn^ltaht tcmgiie* 
this aunswiiTL' I m'ly make him, that when the heat of the 
rsalme thincku it hotieat for them to nae, I, one of the mean- 
est (lorte, ought nut to lu^i^ao it rile for me to wryte : and 
thoughs to have writLtjn it ia another tongU'9, had beno huth 
more profitable for my rtudy, and aluo more honort for my 
name, yet I can thinhi] my lahoure wkU beatowed, if wit^ a 
little hiadruoco of my pn>fit« and name, may come any 
furthoranc'D to the plpatur^ or commoiUty of the gtritlemen 
and yomr^n of FMifiandv, for whose flake I tuke this matter in 
hand. And aa for the Latins or Grttiii tongUfr, evervo thiaRU 
is Ro (.'X'CAlli>ntly(> dune in them, that none c»ui do belter : In 
th? £iipli»/<r ton^'Uf, eontrary, ovcrye thinffe in a manner » 
msanlyo both for thi.' matter «nd handelinge, that no man 
i::un do voree. Fot therein the lea»t learned, for the most 
part, have bone atwayt-a must readyo to write. And they 
which had ksiat hopis in Lalim hjive bene most bould in Enji- 
iim/n- : whi^n Burelyo overyr man tlial in most roadye to tulk<\ 
la not UtOBt able to write, llti that wLli write ficiU ia nuy 





l/k.a. IStS 

tongue, must follow this cMJimsel of ArittotU, Ut speake aa the 
oomon people do, to thinke as wyae men do : aa so shouldo 
everj'e man iindorstund him, and the judgement of wyse men 
alowe him. Hanye Englithe writers have not done so, but 
tuinge Btraunge wordes, as Latine, Frtncke. and Italian, do 
make all thinges darko and harde. Ones I communed with a 
man which reaaoned the Engliahe tongue to be enriched and 
encreased thereby, sayinge : " Who will not prayse that feast 
where a man shall drincke at a dinner both wyne, ale and 
beere P " *' Truly (quoth I) they be al good, everj-e one taken 
by himielfe alone, bat if you put malveaye and sacke, redde 
wyne and white, ale and beere, and al in one pot, you shall 
make a drincke not easye to be knowen, nor yet holaome for 
the bodye." Cicero, in following Itoeratet, Plato and Demote 
thenea, encreased the Latine tongue after another sort. This 
way, because divets men that wryte, do not know, they can 
nej'ther folow it, becauae of theyr ignoraunce, nor yet will 
ptayae it for over arrogancye, two faultee, seldome the one 
out of the others companye. Englitke writers, by diversity 
of time, have taken dj-vers matters in hand. In our Others 
time no thinge was read but bookes of faj-ned chevalrie, 
wherin a man by readinge should bo lead to none other ende, 
but onely to manslaughter and baudrj'p. If anyc n;an sup- 
pose they were good enough to pae^e the time with all, be is 
deceiTed. Fop forely vaine wordes do worke no small thinge 
in Taine, ignorant, and young mindee, aQ>ecialIy if they be 
geren any thinge thereunto of their owne nature. Thcee 
bookes (as I have heard say) were maHe the most part in 
abbayra and monasteries, a very likely and fit fruite of such 
■n ydle and blind kind of lyvii^. In our tymo now, when 
every man is geven to know, much ratlfcr than to live wel, 
▼ery maify do write, but after such a fashion as very many 
do shoQte. Some shooters take in hande stronger bowea, than 
they be aUe to maintaine. This thinge maketh them some 
time to pver shoote the marko, some time to shoote far wyde, 
and pGfcbauncfl hurt some that looke on. Other that nevef 
learned to shoote, nor yet knoweth good shaft nor bow, wil be . 
as busy 14 the beet, but suche one commonlye plucketh down 
a side, and qrafty archers which be against him, will be both 
glad of him, and also ever redye to lay and bet with him : It 
were better for such one to sit down than shote. Other there 
be, which l^ve very good bow and shafts, and good knowledge 
in shootinge, but they l^ve beci^ brought up in such e\'iU 
favoured shootitfge, that they can neither shoote fayre nor 
yet nere. If any man will applye these thiijgea together, shal 
not se the one far differ from the other. And I also, amonges 
all other, in wrj-ting this ]itle treatise, have f plowed some yong 
■hooters, which both wil begin t^^ shote, for a litle money, 
and also wil use to shoote ones or twise abqut the marke fpr 
nought, afqre th^y begin a good. And therefore dyd I take 
this litle matter in hand, to assay myselfe, and hereafter, by 
the grace of God, if indgement of wyse mei), that loke on, 
thinke that I can do anye good, I may perchance cast my 
diaft among other, for better game. Yet in writiifg this 
booke, some man wil marreile perchance, why that I beyng 
an unperfoct shooter, should take in hand to write of mak>-ng 
a perfect archer : the same man, pcr-adventure, wil marveile 
bowe a whetstone, whiche is blunt, can make the edge pf a 
knife sharpe : I would the same man should consider also, 
that in going about any matter, there be four things to be 
considered, doing, saying, thincking, and perfectnees : First, 
there is no man that doth so well, but he can say better, or 
els some men, whiche be now starke nought, should be too 
good : Again, no man can utter with his tongne, so wel as 
ho is able to imagine with his minde, and yet perfectnes itselfe 
is fiu- above al thinkinge. Then, sej'ng that saj-ing \A one 
■tcp nerer perfectnes than doing, let ever}' man leave mnrvoyl* 

ing why my worde shal rathvr expre:«e, than my dede sluill 
perfourme, perfect bhootinge. 

I trust no man will be offended with this litle booke, ei- 
cepte it be some fletchers and bowyers, thinldnge hereby that 
many that love shootinge ahall be taught to refuse such 
noughtye wares as they would utter. Honest flttchers and 
bowyers do not so, and thoy that be unhoneat, ought rather 
to amende themselves for doing ill, than be angryc with me 
for saying well. A fletcher hath even aa good a quarell to be 
angiye with an archer that refuseth an ill shaft, aa a blade- 
smith hath to a fietcher that forsakcth to bye of him a 
noughtye knyfe ; for as an archer must be content that a 
fletcher knowe a good shafte in everj* pointe for the perfcctcr 
makyng of it ; so an honest flctcher will also be content that 
a shooter know a good shafte in cverye pointe, for the per- 
fecter usingc of it ; because the one knowth like a fletch^r 
howe to make it, the other knoweth like an archer how 
to use it. And eeinge the knowledge is one in them both, 
yet the ende divers; surety that fletcher is an enemy to 
an.'beT8 aild artillery, which cannot be content that an archer 
knowc a shafte, as well for his use in shootinge, as he him- 
selfe should knowe a shafte, for his advantage in sellinge. And 
the rather, because shaftes be not made so much to be sold, 
but chieflye to be used. And seinge that use and ocup^'inge 
is the ende why a shafte is made, the makyng, as it were, a 
itaeane for ocupyinge, surelye the knowledge in ever)* point of 
a good shafte, is more to be required in a shooter than a 

Yet, as I sayde before, no honest fletcher will be angrye 
with me, seing I do not tcache howe to make a shafte, which 
belongetl^ onlye to a good fletcher, but to knowe and handle a 
shafte. which belongeth to an archer. And this litle booke, I 
trust, shall please and profit both parties : for good bowcs 
and shaftes shall be better knowen to the commodity of all 
shootets, and good shootinge may, perchaunce, be more oc- 
cupyed to the profit of all bowyers and fletchers. And thus I 
praye God that all fletchers, getting their lyving truly, and 
all archers, usinge shootinge honestlye, and all manner of 
men that favour artillerye, maye live continuallye in heulthe 
and merinesse, obeying theyr Prince as they shoulde, and 
loving God as they oughtc : to whome, for all thingcs, be all 
honour and glorye for ever. Amen. 


Sir Thomas More's " History of Richard III." was 
not published until 1641. The latter part of it 
had then already appeared in the Chronicle, pub- 
lished as a history of " the Union of the Two Kobie 
and Illustre Families of Lancastre and Yorke," by 
Edward Hall, who became one of the judges of the 
SheriflTs Court, in the reign of Henry VIIL Hall's 
chronicle ended with ihe year 1 532, and was published 
in 1548, after its author's death. Its narrative of 
the closing incidents of Richard's life has s<xue 
likeness to the undoubted work of More in the 
earlier part of his history, but the authorship is bo far 
uncertain, that I give as from Hall's chronicle the 
account which is to be tound in More's History : 


When both the armies wer^ ordered, and all men ready to 
set forward. King Richard called his chieft^ns together, and 
to them said, " Most faithful and assured fellows, moat trusty 
and well-beloved friends and elected captains, by whose wis- 
dom and policy I have obtained the crown and type of thi« 
famous realm and noble region, by whose puissaQce and 

oAi> ma] 



TULliiintncM I hava enjoyftd aad tHnnwHsml Ch« atate royjil itnd 
dignity of tbr Mime, niati^re t]ie iU-wUl and Bi-ditiouit u,t- 
t«mptja of all my uuikvrvtL eiicnupH nnd inmidbiu udrtirKmofi, 
ty whoBu pnuleiit »nd jHjlitii; fuuntiel I Iiiivo wj |,'0 verneil my 
rt.'illm. p^jplc, und sutijecta, that 1 luivu omitU-d nothmif 
ii.]ifM^iiini(ig tu the iiffii,'i> nf h just iiriiict!, nor you hiiV^ jiM.-- 
t^nnitted nothing bclon^pniif to the Juty of wiw* find «agn 
couiucUors. So tlmt I miiy s»y tind tnt]y nffirtii Lhiit your 
npjHXKVcftl fjttelity uttd tried CODstHllCV inHlti'tli m*i to bblkiVL- 
tinnly and think that I nm an undoubted king and an in- 
duhiale prince. Ami ulthnugli in the aduplitin and oblaiainij 
of tbe gftrlantl I, being reduced and provoked by unisC^r 
cAunSci tend diiiVrolical teniptiLtion^ did commit a fHi^indtoUit 
Hud detestable act, yct I have witli strict ponanco ajtd mlt 
tuirs (iM I truflt.) oipiiituJ and claurly puri^ed Uie suma off eaco ', 
which nbominiilflu crime I rcciuiTV you of friendship na (dearly 
to ffwget a» I daily do remember to [leploro and Unjcnt the 
eitmc. If you will now diligently call to rutneinbrance in 
whAt mac nml perplexity vp novr utanil, GiTid in whnt doubt- 
ful ix-ril we be now intrielted, 1 dowbt mrt liut you in Iiistrt 
will think, and with ninuth cionfpiw, tliiit if I'Vcr ainity And 
fiiitli preTiiited bttweer prince ami suhjuctw, or bftwt*ii suli- 
jf«t juwl flubjcot, or if evt-r liond of alk-j^^nnc^^ ob]ig<:-d tho 
vaa»l to loVL' and B<>rvc his njitural sovcirei^ lord, or if any 
obligftticFR of duty Ixmntl any prim* to aid and defend his 
euhjcTts, all Lhtse lovira, houdti, and dntiL'S of nccmBLly aro 
this day to ba experim«iutod, showed, and put dn oxporicnce. 
For if wise ttierii suy true, thene in some policy in gS'tliag, but 
luuuli more in keeping: the one beini^ but fortnoe'u tlaujce, 
and thb Otli«t yti^h wit und puHcy ; for wtdch CJlUflu 1 with 
you and job -wTlh mo miwl neclft thts day take luhijur and 
pajn to kix-p jinj di-Eend with force ttiat pre-erntni^'nce and 
poucMioQ whkh by your prudent devitc I havu gqtt*;n and 
obtlilDed. I doubt nol Tint you know how tlio duvil, con- 
tinual enemy to hiiitian nature, disturlxT of concord, and 
bOWCT of Kdition, hath CTil*red into the heart of Hn unkuown 
WelslunAU (whose father 1 nvver knew, nor him porsonnlly 
Haw), oiL-ititi^ him ta iiBiiilv; and coril our rcHlm, ei-own, Jind 
dimity, and thereof cWrly to doprivij %nd »\yfil wa and our 
pcwterity ; yc aee, furthtr, how a company of truitOTa, thinvEts, 
outlaws, and ninagstes of our own mition be eide^r* and par- 
taken of hia feat and entCT-priee, ready at hand to overcoino 
and oppresn us; yon »«;, also, what a number of be^jpirly 
Britainea and faint-hearted Fn?nchmCTi !» with him arrivt'd 
to destroy ua, our wivsn, and ctiildren ; which imminpnt mia- 
chipfs and apparent inconveniences, if we will withrtand, we 
rnnat live together like brethren, fight toRotlior like lions, and 
f«»r not tn rljn together lilo men. And obscrFiug and keftp- 
injj; this nile and precept, believe mo. the fetirtul hare nevt«r 
fled faster beforo thu greedy ^eybtniiiil, nor the silly lark 
bofore the sparrow-hawk, nor tha sioipJe ubwp taifolw the 
iTivenoua woH, than vondt^r prolid birtp|rinp adveTBoriea, 
a«tQniflhf^l and nmtkzad with the only sij^ht of ycmr manly 
vtiw^s, win By, Tttn, and skir out of the flold. For if yoii 
connder and wisely ponder all thio^ in your mind, rnu 
shall peroctive that we have mnnifRat ransf-s and uppnrent 
tok«ne of victory. And to hegin. with the Eari of RiphmgnLl, 
captain of thia rth<?llion, he i& a Welsh milk-sOp, ft TllAn of 
amall courage und of less exp*rienco in nuirtial acta and feata 
of war, brought up by my bmlher'n mif-aiiR and mine, like a 
THptivc in a clow cape, in the court of FmnciB, Duke of 
Bntaine, and nevet saw army, nor was c-xercifwd in mnrtJHl 
alfiurH, by rntwm wheTB*j( he neither can nor is able on hht 
own wit and pxiimonce to pude an boat: for in thci wit and 
policy of th^ niptain conaiBteth tho fhief adeptioii of the 
victory and overturfi of the cnfmiea. Swcindly, fmr not and 
put away all doubts, for when the traitors and tun&g;ates of 

our ian\m ehall iiea us with huuuer displayed eunio a^in»t 
them, remembering their oath, [iromiae, and fidelity made 
uulo US, as to thoir soveroign lord aod anc;int<.^ kin^, they 
shall be so ^iHeked and atimiiLLted lu tha bottoin of thair 
scrupuloud oonHcicnixs, thut they for verj- rcmoree tmd drend 
of the divino plague will cithor HhaniefuUy fly or humbly 
liiibmit themseh-es to our gruL'^ and morey. And as for the 
Frenc-htneii and Britain^, their valimitnesH is Hueh, that our 
noble prageuitoFB and your noble pun-nts havi,' them oftensr 
voDquinhi^ and overcome in oou month than they m tho be- 
foiling iinngined puaaiblo to compaaa and iSniah in a whole 
yt^r. Wh^it will you make of theui, braggers without audacity, 
druukardH without disL-rtition, ribauds without rt-auon. cowarda 
without resisting, and in uoncluBLon the moat effeminate and 
hftscirioua people that ever ah^owod themaulros in front of 
buttle, ten timed more coiirtig;eoua to fly and fiBcope tha« onc« 
to aasiiult the breast of our strong and populous lirmy ? 
\Vherefore, considt-ring all thi^o advuDta^efi, expel out of yorfr 
thoujo^hta all doubta, and it^-oid out i>i your minda all f^^r, and 
liko valiant c±AmpiaQe advaa^co forth your standards, and asaay 
whether your nnemioB can decide and trj' the title of battle' 
by dint of aword. Advance, I say, a:gain forward, my cap- 
taiiiB, in whom lacketh neither poKey, wisdom, nor puissonoa, 
Eveiry one give but one sure HlripG>, and surely tbt' journey If 
oare. What prcvailcth a handful to a whole realm ? dvAlrin^ 
}'ou for the lovo that you bear to me. and the affection thtt 
y<iu have to your nativo and natui'al tomitry, and to tba 
safeguard of your prince and yourwdf, that you will this day 
taki; to your H'tcuBtomcol courage tuiil coarrugtxVus Bpirits, for 
the defeni-e and safeguard of ui tilt. And iiH for me, I MBHurA 
you tb^a day I will triumph by glorious victtfrj-, or suffer 
d^iith for immortal fame. For they be contemned, and out 
of the puliice o( fiime degraded, dying 'without renown, which 
do not as much prefer and exalt the perpetual honour ol 
their DRtivc i^ountry aa their own mottal and transitory life; 
Now. Saint CiBOrgO to borraW, let US Bet fofwa'rd, and remem' 
b4T well tliat t ami be which shall with high nds'wn cement* 
reward umd pf^er the valiant and bardy ehumpionfi, and 
pnninh and torment Vn shameful cowards and drotidfuL 

This Exhortation encoU'raged all t!uch aB favoured him, but 
such as were present more for dread than love kiefled them 
openty wholn th'ey inwardly hiited; Others Bwnra outwardly 
to take part with such who^ death Ehi?y Becretly cDcnpaiaed 
and ihwafrdly imagined; other* ptwmiBei! to invade the king's 
enemioe which Qnd ana fot^ht with Sorco coiira^ agninsb 
the kingr Olhexiv rtood still and looked on, intending to take 
part with the victors and bvercoaiers. So was hia peoplo to 
him ui^Biarcanyl unfaithful at bia i.°nd, as heivua to his nephewa 
ujitruiv and imnatuWl in hi» beginning, 

WlLfin the Earl of IML-hmood knew by bid fore-riders that 
the king waa BO acaf embaitlpd, he Tode about Ilia army^ from 
mnk to mrrfc, from wing to winp, frivinj comfortable word* 
to all men ; und thut Qnii^hiid (iKin^ armed nt all piecea, 
ativing hi& helmet)', mounted on a little hill, so that all hia 
people might see and behold him perftcMy, to thtir groat rs- 
joifinjf. For he was a mat] of no great stature, hut ao formed 
and decorated with all gifts niid lineaments of natulv, (bat ho 
Hf-emeil rnnre an imgelical ereaturc than terrefitrial ptirftODH^. 
Hia coiint^ntincc arid nspect was chtcrful and couWgeoua, hia 
hair yeHow like buriiisbeil grjld, his ftye* grey, shininff, and 
quick, prompt and ready in answering, but of ^t^h' sobriety 
thut it could nev<>r be judged whether he wefo more dull 
thiin quick in speaking, «ueh was his tomperanee. And when 
he bad over-looked his army over everj- side he paused 
awhile, and after with ft loud voice and bold Bpirit spako 
to hia cotnpanioiLB these or lilce th^ words following 




[A.B. UJS. 

" li ever i.iod gave victory to men. fighting in n just quiirrtl 
— or if Ho ever milled such ha miuLo war for tlia WL"ulth and 
tuition of their owa n;itiirft] and nutritive country — or il He 
ever Buccourod them whith tidvmtured Iheir livf/a for the 
rvli>of of iTmi>cciLt«, ^uppreniDy: of iTttiLefai.-toni aod appurcut 
offeDdera— ua doubt, my fellows And friunds, but Ha uf His 
tountjfnl ^oodnesa will this dny send us trimnphnnt victcry 
and a lucky joumuy over our proud fnomieH und nrrtigAnl 
nilvHTivirics. For if you TOmem^icr and i_'onaid»r thu vtiry 
mum of our juat qiiaiTf>l, you shall apparently perceive the 
Brnns to he true, godly, and virtuous ; in the whioh I doubt 
not but Ood will mther uid ub (yea, and G.ght for cs) than 
see us vnnquishwl nnd profligatfl by suth as neithor fear Him 
nor His laws, imr yet rc^rd jiistico or boaeBty, Our cause iti 
00 juBt thnt no LaitBrpriae can he of more virtiio, Ituth by tho 
Iawb divine and civil : for irhat can be a more boneflt, goodly, 
or godly quitmil thicn to fi^bt against n cajjtain being; a 
homicide and murden^r of hia own blood and progeny, an 
estreme defltimyer of hia nobility, to lii» ami our rountrj', and 
tht! poor Hubjccta of tbo name;, a deadly mall, a Urebi-nnd. 
and burden intolEirnhle ? Bf:«nde8 him, COnindtn- who be of bis 
Imnd rmd omfMiny — auL'h aa by tnurdcT and iintrutb committefl 
nguitl^Bt thrnr own kindred and liuOugu (yi^u., ftgahutt tbcir 
princfl finil jiovtiivigii lyrd) have diiinhprited niB und yon, and 
hath ■wToni^fuIly detftinod And usurped our lawful patrimony 
nnd liDtnl inheritAnfii. fur bv that cttileth bimeelf kin|^ 
kempeth from me the crown And re^mgnt of thia DoMti realm 
■tid POHntTV, contmry to ivll jiietica and equity. Likewisf, 
hj» innt(>9 und fneoda occupy your lands, cut down your 
woodil, und dtl'tttroy yonr maDfirB, Jutting' yoitr wivM and 
ebildren mugc abrwtd for thoir living; which pdrsons, for 
their ppimiice &nd punishment, I doubt not but (>od of Ilia 
^owlni-;^ will either deliver inCiO qht hands ns a. grcut guin 
and booty, ot cause tliem, being grieved and cocnjmntted 
with t]io prick of their corrupt conecicnceH, cowardly to ily 
and not Ahide tbo hattln. Bcsiilee this, I asHurs you that 
them Ik- yonder in thnt ffreot bnltle men brought thither for 
fear and not for love, aoldiera by fofcd compellwl, nnd not 
with gfjotlwill n&semVdiL'd, pcr^onij whii-b dt'uire mther the 
destruction than the salvation of thciv miietfir and captain ; 
and, fioidlvv n multitude,, whercuf tho moat part will bo our 
friends, und tho k'sat part our enemies. For truly I doiibt 
wliifh IB greater, tho molica of the soliliers tovards their 
cB.|>tuiii, or tht' fear of him coiwoivcd of bia people. Foi- 
iiuroly thiH rule la infallible, that hb ill men duily covet In 
dratroy tie good, au {Sod appointeth the good to confound 
the ill : And of all worldly goods the j^eutcr is to snppmis 
tyrant* and tBljpve innocents, whereof the one is ever as 
much hated as thu other is. beloved. If this be true, aa elorka 
pivH/'h, who will flpara yondpr tymnt, FtichHrd, Duko of 
Gloiifcater, untruly cftlUng hinDwlf king, conaideri ng that be 
hath violatwl and broken both the biw of Go^l und man ? 
whut virtue is in hipi which was the t'onfusioti of h!i> brother, 
and murdrrcF of his neph^we:' wbiit mei-cy is in him that 
flieth Ilia trunty fricndB ri« well oh his i^xtromti eninniem ? who 
tan have cnnfldence in him which puttcth diffidence in all 
men ? If you ha^o not read, I have hannl clerka nay, that 
Tarquin the proud for the vice of thi- liody lost the kinj»dom 
of Riime, and the imqjoof Taniiiin Iianishwl from tho city fop 
ovoT; yet wFia not hie fault so detestable as the fflct ot cruel 
Nero, whieh slew hiu own mothOT, and opened her entraila to 
behold the place of his tone^ption. Huhnld yond.ep KicJiurd, 
whi^U ia both Tarquin and Hhtq, yea, a tyrant mnrc than 
Kf'po, for he hath not only irurdr-red hia nophf-w bciuf hi« 
king and flOTcrr-ign lord, baBtn.rdcd his noblo brethiyjn. and 
dofamwl the womb of his virtuous and womanly mother, but 
al»o conipuaed all the means and ways thnt he could invt^nt 

how to stupnita and camnlly know hiti n-iwe, tmder ths 
pretence of b cdoaked matrimony, which lady I hare avom and. 
promised to take trnd inalco my wifi;, us you aU know and b»> 
lieve. If thifi ea.u£a be not just, nbd thts quarrel godly, let G«d 
the giver of viutory judge and determine We have 
be given to Chriat) t:6cap«d tho aooret treasons in 
and avoided the subtle snares of our fmudnlont enei 
pasaad tho troubloue aeas in good and quiat m.fci 
without reftiatituee huvo p(.'nctrttted the ample r^^fliB 
largo country of Wales, and am now come to lii^:* phw-e which 
we ea much desired: for long we hare liought the fnnoB 
lnuar, and now we bare found him. Wherefore, let na 
feikr to enter into tho toil wh«re w« nmy surely olay hm, for 
Ood Imowiith that we have lived in the vu)e« 
tottsing our ebips in djingeruus storms ; let ua not now ihfmi 
to noi up our aaila in fair weather, having with us both Him 
and gocd fortune. If we bud come to conqUif^r Wal^ and had 
achjerwl it. our pmiso hod been grpi^t and our gain mors; 
but if we win this buttlu the wholo realm of Kng^Und, with 
the lords and nders of the »ime. ahall be ours, tho pniflt 
shall be ovxrsy and the honour shall be oura. Th'T^on 
bi^iour for your gain, and sweat (or your right. "While w» 
were in Britaine wo had «mall livings and little pLmly al 
wealth er welfare ; now in the time come to get abandonee <f 
rit hra and ropia of profit, which is the reward of your ten- 
and merit of your pain. And this remember with yuat'^ 
Btlvca, that before u^ be our encmicB, rwid on either aide of m 
be sudi aa I neither surely truBt Hot gri.-atly believe; back- 
ward we cannot By: so that ii4!re 'we atand Uka «lice^ in a 
fuldr circuinaopted and i:!otnpaa6ed between our enemie* and 
oiu- doubtful frienda llienifore^ let all fear be aet aaide. and 
like sworn brethren let ub join in on^, for this day shall bt 
thn end of our tntvail and the ^in of our labour, either hf 
honourable dttath or faukoua victory; and., aa I trust, tha 
bilttl^ ^iinii- not be aq Bour as the profit ahall be sweet. £fr 
member that victorj' U not gotton with multitude of nuoi, bdl 
with the courage a( hearts and vuli^mtnesa of minds. Ti^ 
Hmaller our number is, tho more glory is to us if ■« 
vanquish ; if we be everconic, yet no laud is to be attributed 
to the rictora, conaidennis; that ten men fought againdt one; 
rtnd if wo die so glorious a death jn no good a quomrl. neilliW 
fretting time tior cankering oblivion shall be able to ohfnsr^ 
or ras!<* nut of the book of fame either our immm or *»v p»Jlf 
attempt. And this one thing I aasure you, thai in to jwl 
and good a cause, and bO notable a rtuarrel, you shall find a>i 
Ibis day rather a dead carrion upon the cool gix>nnd iluna 
frtie prisoner on a carpet in a lady's chamber. Let ua ihtt^ 
fori) fight like hiviticible giants, and set on oor enemie* liW 
untimnronn tigere, and banish all fear like ramping lioroa. 
And iidvoncc forward true m^n agaLnat troitori. pitiful pw 
souH against murderers, true inherltorv againat uaurpcrt, ths 
scourges of Ood against tyranta^ display my banner wilb a 
good courage, march forth like strong and robustions cham- 
pions, and begin the battle like hardy conqti«ronL Tl» 
battle is at hand, and the viistorj- approachelJi, and if «• 
shamefull yreeoil or cowardly Hy, we and oil ours sbaD bi 
destroyed and di«<hoaonred for ever. This ts the day of pia, 
and th)'^ is the time of loss; get this day victory and te 
conqufrorfl, and latfs this day's battle and be villains, at 
therefore m the name of Ood let eVtsTy man coan^rOviif 
advance forth with his standafi." 

These clioerful words ho set forth with ani^h gMlun rf 
body and nmiling countenance, as though alrouly b« hd 
vanqutshed hfa enemies and gotten the spoil. 

Ho hud BcajiUy finished hi» wyini: bnt the one army liffaii 
the otbfr. I^ord I how bahlily the Mldicr* bucklnd MH 
helma, how (|mckly thv archers bent thnr tiowi 

lera, bow readily th« hillmisn shotik tht-ir bilis and 
their «Ulv^£. rsiiJy to approacli uiid jciiii wht-n thr 
teniUe tmmpct nhuil eaund the bloody tlaat to Tic-tor>- f>r 
dmth. Between both urmiEW there was « great marsh wliich 
Iho Earl ot ItiphmonJ luft on his right hand for thia tutonl, 
that it dhouJd be on that side a dt-fcntw for hiB paii, und in sti 
df>tuji ho bad the sun at kiii buck and in tbf faces of his 

When King Rjt'luitd mw the oarr* eompar-y was pa*t tb"' 
nuirHh, ht: tciuiTuucidt?!! with idl tuiate to set upon them. Then 
thft trum])et(m hi** and suldiera fihaut*;d, and th« king's 
(irfhtina TOuragMiiBly let fly their aiTOws; the i^rVa bawmf^n 
Bto-id net «il^ but paid them homo iigain. The terrible shot 
oni'i- j«st, the armitiB joined und came to hAnd-Atrolcf^s, whuns 
neithpr eword nor bill was spared, at which cacoimtcr thts 
Lord SLuiJdt jwitwd with the earl Tho Earl of Oxforil 
in the int^Q eoaM;n. fjjaring test while his company was 
fig'htin^ thtiy nhnuld bo coiuprttSAod and circnTnvfnloJ with 
the multitude of hia encinifis, giivp fonnnimdjnt'nt in everj- 
rank that no num »h»iild bo so hardy aa to go aboTe ton ftiot 
from the Aundu-d j which fwuimamlmont oncg known, they 
knit thitmeelvcs logi?tJn?r. imtl coiued a little froth G^hting. 
TlieiidverBiiriw.flmidL'nlyahatthnditt the matter, ni><l niiatnwt- 
inst eomo fiaiid or dectfit, bnpfun also to puu&A, and k-ft atriking, 
and not a^inflt the will of mftny whic-h liad nithnr have 
had tht> king dMrtrPoyetl than mvetl, and tbf rffore thfiy fought 
very faintly or »t«Kl atill. The Eiirl of Oxford, hrinBin/j aE 
his band toother otj the ono part, si^t on his cnt'tniee nfrcfih ; 
nf^n the ailvcrsariBs, peri^eiving that, phtced Chmr niEin eltniler 
and thin before and thick and broad liehitiJ, beg-inning af^tiin 
hjuilily the Imttle. While the two fonrards ihua morlaUy 
fought, oa4:h inttinding to vniHjuiah and convince the other, 
King KichoM was .idmonishiiMJ by his oxploratots and e*pia]a 
that the E&rl uf BLchtnondt itcconipaTii^ with ft small number 
of mpn-of-arms. was not far off ; and as he approached and 
marchfid towanin him, ha pai'fectly knew biis ])creonage bv 
certain dc^ni^inutiiLtions nnd lokcoii which ho }i&d loumiMi and 
known of othtT* And being inllaTii»l with ire, tind voied 
with OUtmgeoM malito, he put his Spurs to hia horSe, and 
rod« got of the side of the range at his buttle, lenving the 
avantgnaHia fighting, and like a byngry lion ran with apciir 
and rest toward Inm. The Earl of Itiehmond pereeived well 
thy king f uriuualy came toward him, and, hccauife the M-holo 
hope of bJa wt-alth Jind purposa was to be detcnninecl by 
battle, he gladly pro(I«n.'l to encounter with him, body to 
body and man to man. 

King Richard set on so sharply at tho first hnitit that ho 
overthrow the earl's iitaadani, and &lew Sir Willinm Brandon, 
his standard-bearor (which vm fiither to 8ir Charles Brandon, 
by King Henry VIII. created Duke of Suffolk), and matcheil 
hand to hand with Sir John (Thieny. a man oE great force nnd 
■trengtb which would hove r^isted him; and the said John 
ma by him manfully ovprthrown, and sOf hft making open 
panage by dint of sword aa he went forward, thu? Karl of 
Richmond withstood his ^ioknee, and kopt him At theaword's 
pinnt without advjtntage lonper than hia compiuiiona cither 
thought or jndgcd, which 'being almo!!^t in despair of victory 
■were suddenly re-oonnfortod hy Sir "William Stanley, which 
c«in« to aiieeour them with three thousand tall men, at which 
very instant King Elichard'a men were driven bar>k and fled, 
BUd he himself, manfully fighting in thf middle of his 
e«i?mJ«!4, woM alain and brought to his death, as ha worthily 
hod deMn-E*]. 

In the me<vn season the Eirl of Oxford, with the aid of tho 

I^rd StunliG-y. after no loag fl^ht iliscomlitcd thf; forwani of 

jncT Riclmrd, whcroof a grrat number were i^tain in tho 

;ht ; bat tho greatest number whic^h (compellL'd hy fear of 

the king, and not of their mere valiant mution) <»Bie to the 
field gave never n stri/ku, and hunng no baniL nor danuigc, 
safely dopart&d, whieh came not thither in liope to boo the 
king prufjper and prevail, but to heUT that ho should he 
shumefiiEy confounded and brought to rain. 

In this^ buttle dietl few above tbp nunibiir of a thoamnd 
pi'raoas: nnd of the' noliility were Alain John, Diike of Nor- 
folk, wliiuh Was wametl by divurs to refniin the Bfld. inso- 
mueh that tbn night before he should *et frarward towurd tho 
icing one wroto on his gate— 

" Juck of Norfnlk, bo not too bold, 
For Dic-knn thf miLster ia t«>nif1tt nnd Boltl.''' 

Tet all thia notwitliatanding, he rc^giirding morti hi« oath, 
LiH honour, and promise made to King Itivhard, like a guntle- 
man and & faithful Hubjeet to liis prince, absented not him- 
self from his master, hut aa he faithfiilly lived under him, so 
he manfully i^ed with him, to his great iamo and kud. There 
Were fthiin busido him Walter, Loi^d Fcrrern, of Chartley, Sit 
Rieliard Rudclitfe, and Hobort Bnikonbury, Lic?xitenunt of the 
Tiiwcr. and not many g^mtlemen more. Sir WiUiam Catcsby, 
It-amed in the biws gf thff realm, «nd one of the chief coun- 
cillors of the late king, with divet» othL<t« v^cn- two days aftirr 
boheaded at Leicester. Amongit tliem ttmt ran away were 
Sir Francifl, Viscount Lovell, and Humphrey Stnilord, and 
Thomas Stafford, hia hnither, whieh took aanctuiiry at St. 
John's at 'Gloucester. Of captives and prisonon there was a 
g^reat number, fur after the death of King Itichard woa known 
and publi^ed, every man in manner unarming himself, and 
casting away his hahilinmnt of war, meekly subtnitbed theni^ 
selves to the obeisance and tvlIc of the Earl of Kichmond : of 
the which the more fiart had gladly aodonc in the begimung, 
if they might havo conveniently escaped from Kijig RiLJmrd'a 
«epials, which, having aa clear eyes aa Iji'nxea, and as open ears 
ae Midafl, raagtid and flcarthed in every quarter. Amongst 
thcfie wnB Henrj", tho fourth EjitI of North umborland, which, 
whethi?r it was hy tho commandmtmt of King Ricluird putting 
iliffidencQ in him, or hv did it for the love and favour that he 
barti unto the earl, stood still with s. great company, a^d 
intermilted not in the battle, which was intantincntly re- 
ceived into favour, and made o! the council. But Thomas 
tioward^ E^rl of Smrey, which submitted himaelf there, was 
not taken to grace, bwaiusc bis father vas chieif councilor, 
and ho was familiar witli King lliehard,hat committed to the 
Tower of London^ where ho long remained, and in conetuaion 
dclivi-red, and for his truth and fidelity after promote to high 
honours and dignitii's- On the Earl of Uichmond'a part wore 
slain Bcaree one hundred persanB, amongst whom tbu principal 
was Sir William Brandon, his stiindard-boarer. 

'Hiia battle waa fought at Bogworth. in Liticcstorshiro, tho 
two-and-twcntioth day of AuguHt, in the year one ihouK&bd 
four hundri^d and eighty-wTc; the whole conflict endured 
Lttle above two hours. King Riubard, aa the fame went, 
might huve cBcaped and gotton eafegiiard by Eying. For when 
thoy which wero next atiout hia person saw and perceived 
at the first joining of the battle the aoldiere faintly and no- 
thing eocimgcously to set on their enemi-w, and not only that, 
but also that some withdrew themselves privily out of tho 
prcaa and departed, thoy l>egan to Buspoct fraud and eniell 
treason, and not only exhorted, but doterminatoly adviiwd 
him to save himseU hy flight : and when the loss of th^ battle 
was imimnent and apparent, they brought to him a swift and 
n light horse to convey him away. He, which was not igno- 
rant of the grudge and ill-will that the common pwiple hare 
towfirda him, ciutin;^ away all hope of fortUtPite buchms and 
happy chanco to come, answered [as men Bay) he would mako 
on end of all battles, or else there finiah his lifu. Such a 




3ir -ir-.- ii- c=#r^ tiiu; M ^*: tfct day in tin^ vhkh h tb:>a^ 
V- u-r :iii-i iSjL irVrxii^iwj wh^^hfrr he thool'l pi^a««t>iT ot- 
■:»in i::ji -a; .7 iia cts^^'je: dririn^ his iife, ',t f-.»: jtttrlj 
i.r-j. 131I ■•T i-trlTijri ^,f tb- aiitt:. With -mt^.h. Z'a n;=--.h 

*flC.-r»ti fc:r*«iT inv, tfc-; L^rl faattl>r. to tfa^ i:.t. nt zo 'At-tin 
ii« ttj k q->t Mzn, or *-l3t to finish th^-r^ hi; ar-jazTt lif^ 
»3.i ■ia/-.rT'r3at^ gryr^mMK*. And Wj thia miitr at th* suae 
'■wj ^'.is.: tail likt thani-e and fortan'^ a« happ»-nexh to s^-vh 
»=::'"£- :s plv.* of right juati':*; and boiu«ty, IjLjj^ii^ th-rir 
■i:ii.i.xil app^tit/;. lore, 0**, and <:ml>Tsce mi*- hi-f _ t^innr, 
Uai uithnftiness. Suitly theso l* *:ian.plt.-s of n-on; vect- 
Bwwi/^y than m&n'i tongiie tan friprese to f-jar in-i astound 
t-.r.h eril penons as wili not live 'Jie toar Ta/.m,! from ■i'.iTiy 
a&d 'rxercininjj cruelty, mischief, or outragt^xia li\-ins. 

When the carl bad thus obtained W'.-tory, and =Liin hi* 
mortal enemy, he kneeled down and r^nJtrtd to .Vhniirhtv 
God his hearty thanks with devout and po'llv orisons, be- 
eeething His goodnew to «end him grate to ad^-anw and 
defend the Catholic faith, and to maintain justii-e and concord 
amongBt his oabjccts and peopb, by God now to hi;' eovem- 
ance committed and assigned. AXTiich prayer finished, he, 
replenished with incomparable gladnt-ee, ascended up to the 
top of a little mountain, where he not onlv praist^d and 
lauded his valiant soldiers, but also gave unto them his 
hearty thanks, with promise of condign m.-ompeii^ for their 
fidelity and valitmt facts, willing and commanding all the 
hurt and wounded persons to bo cured, and the desd carcases 
to be delivered to the sepulture. 

Then the people rejoiced and clapped hand&. cninc up to 
heaven, "King Henrj-l King Ui-nrj-;*' MTit-n the Lord 
Stanley saw the goodwill and gratuity of the people, he took 
the crown of King Richard, which was found amoog^ the 
ipoil in the field, and set it on the carl's head, as though he 
had been elected king by the voice of the people, as in ani-icnt 
times past in divers realms it hath been accustomed; and 
this was the first sign and token of his goo.1 luck and felicity. 
I must put you here in remembrance how that King Richard, 
patting some diffidence in the Lord Stanley, which had with 
him as an hostage the Lord Strange's elde^ son, which Txtrd 
Stanley, as you have heard before, joined not :tt the first with 
his son-in-law's army, for fear that King Riih;mi would have 
slain the Lord Strange's heir. MTiin King Richard was 
come to BoBworth, he sent a pursuivant to the Lord Stanley, 
commanding him to advance forward with his companv, and 
to come to his presence ; which thing if he refused to do. he 
■wore by Christ's passion that he would strike off his son's 
head before he dined. 

The l/xd Stanley answered the pursui^-ant. that if the 
king did so, he had more sons alive, and to come to him he 
was not then so determined. \Vhm King Richard heard 
this answer, he commanded the Lord Strange incontinent 
to be beheaded, which was at that very same season when 
both the armies had sight each of the other. The councillors 
wf King Richard, pondering the time and th* cause, knowing 
also the Ixprd Strange to be innocent of his father's offence, 
ptrmiaded the king that it was now time to fight, and not 
time to execution, adding him to keep the I»rd Stninge as 
a prisoner till the battle was ended, and then at leisun- his 
pl^^mire might be accomplished. So as (iod woubl. King 
Ri-hard infringed his holy oath, and the lord was delivered 
U> the kvf„fn of the king's tent to bo kept as a pri.*mpr: 
»hich. when the field was done, and their marter slain, and 
Iff^xlamation made to know where the child was, they 
•u^miittM themselves as prisoners to the Lord Strange, and 
he ireotly Rocired them and brought them to the new 

jx'.*:JtiiL.'>td kins, where of him and of hi* father be was 
rc<.«iv«d wTtL srT>A: ji-y and gladneM. 

AilKT ihii ifc.- whvlie famp nemoved with b^ and baggage, 
ka>l zhir msa nizht in the erening King Heuy with givat 
pomp '/Ki&e to the town of Leiceftter. wh&e, a* well for the 
T>-fTv-J".y ot hi« jK^yfAe and acJdien as for preparing all 
thii^ n^trsB^iy i<jT hi^ joonter towsid London, he rested 
ui-i rvj'jb'id LiTZLjcrlf two dkTj. In the mean season the dead 
c«jrp«i7 of King Richard was as shamefully carried to the 
town of L*i.:>rscer as he gorgeously the day before with pomp 
and |Tid« d^fttrted oat of the same town. For his body was 
nak>d ^i^i <Kr^>iird to the skin, and nothii^ left about him, 
not t» a.T^rh kj a ckxit to cover his privy members, and was 
tru<«^ i*-hind a pDr?aivant-of-anns called Blaonche Senglier. 
or \%'biLL- BijiU'. likt- a hoe or a aHi, the head and arms hangin g 
on th- oDr Hd^ of th^ borae, and the le^ aa the other side, 
and all brTFpriiikl>_d with mite and Uood, was lnY>u^t to the 
Grey Frrarr' <.'bnr\4i wrtfain the town, and there laid like 
a mi^erablr ?pecta<.'le. But sorely, considering his mischievous 
acts an-i faeiu' ■r<:-us doings, men may worlhih' wonder at such 
a c-ditiff : and in the mid chonA he was with no less funeral 
pomp iind 9ol<^mnitr interred than he would to be done at the 
burying of hi» inoot^ent nephewl^ whiHn he canaed cruelly to 
bt- mardt-rEd and unnatoraUy to be qotlled. 

X^lien hi^ death wa» known,- few lamented and many re- 
joiced, the i*ond bragging white boar (width was his badge) 
w«s vii-U-ntly raced and pinched down from every sign and 
plac« where it might be espied : so ill was his life, that men 
wished the menH>r^' of him to be buried with his carrion 
corpse. He reign<:-d two yexrs. two months, and one day. 

As Ik- was mudl and little of stature, so was he of body 
grratly def<irmed. the one shoolder higher than the other; 
his face sotall. but his counteaaoce was cruel, and such that 
a man at the fir»t aspect would judge it to savour and smell 
of malice, fraud, and deceit. When he stood musing, he 
would bite and chew beastly bis nether lip, as who said that 
his Beire natuiv in his cruel bod\' always chafed, stirred, and 
was ever unquiet. Besides that, the dagger that he wore he 
would, when he bodied, with his hand pluck up and down in 
the sheath to the midst, never drawing it fully out. His wit 
WHS pregnant, quick, and ready, wily to feign and apt to dis- 
semble ; he had a proud mind and an am^ant stomach, the 
whiL-h accompnnied him to bis death, which he rather desired 
to suffer by dint of sword than, being forsaken and destitute 
ot his untrue companions, would by coward flight prcservB 
and save bia uncertain life, whtcb by malice, sickness, or 
c«mdign puni:dunent might chance Aortly after to come to 

Thus ended this prince's mortal Iffe with infamy and dii- 
honour, which never preferred fame or honesty before md- 
bition. tyranrn-, and mischief. And if he had continued rtill 
protector, and suffered his nephews fo bare lived and reigned, 
no doubt but the realm had prospereil, and he aa much praised 
and beloved as he is now abhorred and vilipended ; but to 
Got], which knew his interior cogitations at the hour of hii 
df-ath, I commit the punishment Of his offences committed in 
his life. 

The note of war is still about us if we turn from 
Rwonl t() crozier, and these are days — under Henry 
VIIT.. E<lw»nl. and Mart- — when brute force finds 
its WAV into the spiritual battle-field. JohnSkeltoD, 
who had pourfd earnest thought into a homely jest- 
injj strain that would pass current among the people, 
Hiiil dctied the wrath of Wolsey in denouncing 
spiritual j>ridi', dieii within the sanctuary of West- 
minster ill 1529. His name had become so popular 

' Ti X.U. i»e.] 



tLat jukes of the day were fiittiei-eil u]>oti liitiL, iimi u 
colleatioii of those was publisheil thirty or forty ycAiB 
nii't«r bia death. Tht-re aiG only thi-ee of them with 
wliicli WkfttouV Urtiue might r«t8on«.bly Iiavy beon 
connwtwl. One, more lively tbim wittji ia a sutire 
on WHJ- frum the poor man's point of view : 


In the pariah of Dias, whcrcHS Skelton was pnraon, thera 
dwolt a cobbler, licmg hulf a souter, wbiiili vraa s. ia\[ ttuin 
aril a great aloven, ollutirwiw tkiiiiuil n sloiit-h. Tho kind's 
miij<.!atv- bnving wiirs beyoni thi; sutt, ^kcLttjc said to this 
iifrjrE-aiu4 Houyhty mtm. " NeigbJxmr, you Iw a tull man and 
lu. the king's wnre you nniHt hear n. standard." " A st&mliird ': " 
aaii tttu i;i>tihlt^'r, " wb»t a. tiling in thut 'r " Skmlton euid, " It 
ifl a gnat iKuiner, bu<^K a one its thou doRt use to l>ear in Ro- 
gurjim wook; finit u lord's, or u kiiight'a, oi' a ^ilk'tnnn^a 
amu shEkil be upon it ; nni Ihe soldiers tbnt tm ui>di>r the 
afoTTiHaid jKiTMio shall bo Rghtini; undor thy btjnnur." '^ Fight- 
ing ! " BBid tho cobblor. " I cuu do ekiU in tij^htin^." " No," 
AAiJ Ski>tt<3iit " thou shnlt not Ggkt, but hnld up ami advaiiL'o 
th* hfiiiTier." " By ray fay," said the cobblor, " I lam no »kiU 
ill th« mAtti-r." "' WfU," said Sk(!'ltotii, " th«w ift na remedy 
but lbi>n shtiLL furth tu do the kind's sL^rvtr^ in his ivars ; ios 
in all this comitry there is not amorolikeli*!TmiLn to do awch 
a feut a« thnu art." " SiTj" add the cohblfr, "1 will nivc 
you a. fiit ca}K>n thnt I might he al hume." " No," euid SkeltoD, 
" I will not have uanc iif thy cap<i[|s, for ihoii i*h;ilt ila tho 
kind aorvit'* in hie wai-a." " Why.'' tho oobbWr, " what 
should I do f Will yciii haTe mu to gp in tht Ipug's ware and 
to be kiU'Hl Jor my kl*tirJ' Then I ithtiU he well at tsi&o, for 
I «ilmU have my ttictiJs in mine own haiidfl-'' ^' ^Vh9t, knave," 
B&id HktJcon, "art thou acon-iuxL, haviag qo great bouoa :- " 
'■^ No," 8uid the I'obbltr, " I nui aot wfeai^ ; it i» good to sleep 
in a whole skin.'' "Why," Mid 8k^ltOQ, " thou ahalt l)e 
han)tif«).'d to keep aray the etrokeft from tJiy skin," '• By 
my fay," aaid the eohblur, " if I tniiat hksgAh fm'th F will tmn 
hiiw I shall tK> ordeivid," i^kclton did hami.-BB ' tho doughty 
tquim^l, and did put an helmvt on hid h^ad : and when tho 
hi'lnift was on tho cubhler's hi.'ud, the cobbler en.i<l, " Wliat 
eJiaU Ihoau holos afrvo for P " Skolton said, ''' Ilolea to look 
out to see thy enemies." '* Yen/' uaid the cohhlE-Ti " thon acn 
I in worwr uiw than pver I waa: for then ono may come 
and thniat a nail intn ono of the holes and pick out mine oya ; 
therefore," said thecybbler to 31iujter Skelton. "I will not so 
tu war. iiy wife ehall go in my stead, for aho caa fight and 
|i]ay the devil with her iliattLff nad with qt^uil, ^taff) cup, or 
«uadli''fitii'k : furhymy fay Icham uckflchillgo home tu bed; 
t think I shall die." 

Another story atltis to the number of j&sis against 
the limitotirs, whose eutroiichiiient on the functions 
of the piiriah priest^ and f^hanieless fmiultt on the 
|KH>ple, Chiiucer iiivl Langhmd had aatLLiaed in the 
fourteenth centmy. 

There wa» a friiir thu wliich did cota^ to Ske^ton to have 
Ucenw to prpacli at Dins. " Whnt would yoa preach thtre ? " 
taid Skolt'm. " Do not you think th;it I am Bu^ch;nt to prwich 
thrrw in ininr= own cure ? " " Hir, " »iid tho friar, " I am the 
limitotir of Xotwich, and onw a yrar one of oar place doth 

i JM IwfiiMi, «auMd to ba oai 

ii«« to preaeh with you to ttifce (he dtivotiorj of tho people; 
and if I tiiii.y havo your ^od will so he it, or else I will v^mo 
and preach aguiiiat your wlU, by the, autliarity of ttio Bishop 
of Rome : for I have hifl bulls to iireath in. every pluue, tmil 
therefore f will be thora on Sunday next coming." " Como 
uot thcra^ Liar, I ii\i couiibqI tliec," said ^kelton. The 
Sunday noxt folltiwmg., Skelton hiid watch fur thi' cocuinsof 
the friar ; and as soon aa ^kelton had knowledge of the fiinr, ha 
weut into thti pulpit to iireaeh. At Liat the friar did come 
into the church with tfau Uishop of Komr^'H hulU in his haml. 
Skclton then aaid to all his ixirish, " See ; kp | " nnd pointed 
t-o the friar. All thti paiieh gazed on the friar. I'h'iai said 
•Sktilton, " Maatera, hora is aa wondtrful a ihinir as fver waB 
seon. You all do know that it in a thiug Otiily eeeti, a 
hull doth hegvt H culf -, but here, conti'xjy- to nil natare, a caU 
hath gotten a. bull ; for thia friar, being a <-nlf, bath gotten a 
bull of tbe Bishop of liame." The friar, hc>in,[^ ashamed, 
would nevsr after that tim,e presume to preuush dl Diss. 

Tim tb.ii'd tale has its significance increiised by the 
fact that when Skelton diod in wmcttmry, to which 
be harl withilrawni for refuge from the wrath of 
Woisey sn]»reme in power, Woliwy was within four 
monthvS of the utter ruin tliat i^receded \a» own death. 


ThAmofl Wolftey, Curdiniil imd ArLbbishop of York, had 
made a rej^l tooib to bo in after hv wan dead; nnd lie desired 
Master Skullon to make for hit tomb au epitaph, which 
is a memorial to show tho life with the act» of a uoble 
man. Skidton said : " If it do hke your gniccv I oincot 
maku ao cpitnph unleM (hiit I do seo your tomb," Tho 
caTdinul Hitid : '■ I do pmy you to rafet with me to-iciorrow 
ut this West Monastery, and thon) fthaU you Bieu my tomh 
amnking." The pointment waa k«pt, and Skelton, soeing the 
flumptuouii cohE, more jH>rtainiag for an emperor or a Eiiaxi- 
inioiiB king thau for sueh a man sa ho waa (although canlinali 
will com]njLKi with kingd) : " Well," said Bkelton, '^ if it tikfl 
your grace tu creep into this tomb whiles you be ulivci, I ctin 
make «n epittiph ; for I am sure that when you ho dead you 
ehidl uiwer have it." The which was verihcd of a truth. 

Altlioiigb Wolsey and Skelt^n had \teen good 
ftieiiids before Wolaey's ainbition made him, in 
Skelton'n eyes, a type of lonlly corruption in the 
Chnrcb. it iii certain that after Wolaey had ri&on to 
]iower Skelton would have been tho last nian whom 
he would have asked to wi-ite his epitaph. 

Latimer's direct and homely English prose, with 
other utterances of the long day of religiouB stiife 
before Elizabeth's accession, will be found repi'esented 
in another volume of this library.' Here let it ba 
enouf^jh to rejjreaent tlie fierceness of the trial by 

ZaOTfttre Saatrdifra to h\» Tt'ift. 
Qmce and comfort, &c. Wife, you ahuJl do beat not to 
come often unto the prattng where the porter may aee you. 
Pal not yourself in dangar where it Tvyiida not; you shaU^ 
I think, shortly come fat enough into danger by keeping 
faith and u good conacience, whieh, dear wife, 1 trust you 
do net slack to miike raokoning nnd account upon, by exer- 
cising your inward man in Tnuditation of God's most holy 

■ nivitPfttlow of Evi^li B<^ffloB, !«««• IS&iai. 


word, being tli« sust-nnno: of th-i *:'ii. i— 1 '!-».• '.J ~'-^-^~ ^^''- "/ t-.'ini=n -isiy. Ly this riiu|tlu letter, to provoke, utir, 

yoursoli to hiinitd'- pr-y.r; f'.r ti-v-.- fv;- '.::^z.^* i.:~ '^- -ii-i i^i^-.-iah. y.,.^ -.u i.-.h:iTe vuimstlf in all your doiiijpi, siy- 

vrry iiii.'iin.-^ huw to l^r nui-ic ni^ai':-.r- 'j: ■-■ ir '^L. =:-_t.; :o i^>. i=.l wv^^-h:*. m.j^i ih.inkfully unto our good God (or 

inh< rit ilia kiiiii>lijm, ^-^ >•::-•;■- Ai.-i th-.rtiort. my doir «-ife, tw you havu ht-artily 

Do this, d'^ar wife, in <:ani'-rt. ici r. ■: I-ivicr :±: inl s-j r-:; .i.i.-i is. ;h-- L^iu. and ufU-ntimofl given God thuulks fur 

we two shiiU with our Chr'.-: :t:, i ill li:= X-s-iZ -.iLi^va. Hjs j j .•l^ in l-nrLj-'ng ua tog^thtfr in His holy onlinani-c, 

enjoy tht- world of hijiiriiLfS ir^ iL-i: rv..r„i-;;ii_- ::L.=.or- tv-;ii ^.j i^jw I d..sir>r y«a, when the time of our Beiutrutioa 

tality ; wh'.rrtiii, horu will liuiiiin:,- ~.^^ i-; :'-'i=.i l ii eitiMLiv sh_il. ■.■.cic. :o p:J'j:,.-»: with me in the Lend, and to givu Him 

mii«;ry, ev.;-n of thuA; who uivrt ;rrttiiily f-fr.i :tii w-:.r.i.y ni.^ Lhanii. Util He hath, to His glory and our cndlfSs 

wealth; Mnd HO. if we two (.oniinuo i.i-;d* c^iJ-ir-.z, ^r-if-i iivinij^^. s.:j<irA:<jd Uf ajuin for » little time, and luth 

in oiir Christ, the &inie 0»i's blrsj-inj wa;.,a. w-e rw^^Lve si-.p.ii.iIiT i.iic?n ti-; unt) Himself, forth of thid miserable 

■ball also st'ttle ujon i>ur iNiniuvI ; tiio^i^b. we io sh^rrly w..rli, ir.:o His <:t:-l>stial kingdom; believing and hoi>ing also 

di'imrt henif , and loave th-? p<;-jr mf^int, :■> Oiir ir*; r::r .^. *: .iSfmifily ttsz iivi of HL) goodness, for Hiji Son Christ'H sake, 

all adventurea; yot skdl he h.ive our i.-ri:. :-.'i4 '.i^d to ";•:■ bj . will sh>.rtly bnn^ you and your dear children thither to me, 

God : for eo Ue hath Kiid. :tn<l ilo carir.-.'! 1:^ : I w'_l \* :hy ihAt w-: ci^y □!.«: j>>yfuUy together sing praiiies unto His 

(iod, saiil He, and the God of thy setd : y-ea. ii y.j'U l-riive ■ j;l:ri:-!i3 2uine i-.T ever. And yet once again I deairo you for 

him in the wild wildtmf->i! drsiiiiitt- of ill hni, L*m^ ■;;ill-iii , iLt JJ'Vr of God. ^ni u e^er you loved me, to rejoice with 

of <'od to do His will, cither to die irr the Lonf-.s^:::: .f . zn-, iml to ^i> God t»ntinual thanks for doing Hia mo«t 

Christ, or any work of oi-iirnLe, thjt y'rA vtr.:- hvLird :hc -.ry sirr>;if,il will cp».'n nic. 

of the poor inf:mt of H;i,nx. S^rihV h.tnl-cu: i^n. a- I i;d , I liar say ih^i yoa oftentimes repeat this godly saying : 

BUtM.'oiir it, will do thr liki- :■:■ the thi'.i of yoa or Any v;iiTr. ■■ The Lc-ri's will \v fuJUUed," Doutitleu it rejoices my poor 

fearinif Him and putting: yo-^r tru«t in Him. ; hsar^ :.' h-i-n tOAt r<;|.-jrt of you, and for the Lord's sake 

And if we lack faith, as wo do invUrd iiuny :i=:<^ l^•: t^ tix- th^: ^^dly .rAy-r continually, and teach your childrea 

call for it, and we sh^ll h.tve the in.n>.ise \<-i':i of i- ani ani ij^ily tu suy the jamc day and night. And not only 

al-W of any other e-i-rJ l:rl^:t: or-i^rul for ty. ir.d n-"o:.-e in , say it with, y^-iir tLC^ucs, but also with your huait and mind, 

G(.ii, in whoni also I am v,ery ;oyi.i". O I.or\L * tr^-i: ] iU^i .'■■'■ytiilly i-t-nii: your will to (.iod's will in very deed, 

ciiiis<- of rtjoioing fc_ive we to think ujvn th-it fcii;^.'2i. j kn•:■»■i:^: -i^d Ivlieii-iEg assuredly that nothing shall come to 

whi<;h He vou>, ksafts f-,r Uis Cbnst's siike- frt'. ly to jivt cs. I y..a ■:r aev lI yours, oihi-rwLie than it shall be His almighty 

fonakiog ours-.Ivcs and folli-wii:.* Him '. IVar w::,>. thi? :* ' and fith-.rly ir-^d will and {'K-asure, and for your eternal 

truly to fijilow Him. e\-cn to tjke aj:- our cross and iVll, w , iv=ii:r; ici i< mnit-iity. >\"hieh thing to be must true and 

Him: ;ind then, as we j-a5-,r w::h H:!!i, >o *h.ul we rt.:^-a ' c^rtai=. Lhris: ustitits in Hi* holy gotipel, saying, *• Arc not 

with Him evtrListinjIy. Ani-n. ^h>:rtly. »hort".y, .^tn. , two li;:le si' *.ild for a fart h i ng ? and yet not onruf 

1 thici shill txrlsh wjihout the will of yjur hcavcnlv Father." 

Mv d.-ar frif-n-U. Master Harnnsrton ;i:id Mister HarUnJ. i .„) --. ' •.. j .v, ,.,.;„„ ., v,-.- -'-.* .-= t'u.^^r^^ t .. 

,,.,,.,,-,,, , I Aaa ae;,-uie.n. savuur. rear not ve tncrciore, for vt 

urav. tirav. .ind te jovfui m tnxl ; and 1 l^*«T.i'h vou Ai vou ! v .. .• ' " -» -xi »» ' \ . ^t 1.11 

^ ■ '^ ■ . r ,' , , , ■, i *^ better la-in r.Liov sixinvws^ iMatt. x.). As thouth lie 

.™y. 1« tn.. rjooJ brethKO .b™d W rut m ■::::■.... ol our j ^^^^ ^,., ^j .. J, ^-^J ^^,,^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ ,„^ ^ 

d.=.r tne.i Irttton inj -ho h.,vo. .h.- U™ U- yr^-j^ | ^.^^„ ,^;^.(^ ;, „^„ ,^^ ^ imllillg, that it di.Jl 

m-iilt: known their oon,*taniv in coaiosism.: thi :r',::h to :he ■ . v ". i ■ .l v . • _» -^ „ " ^., ,, , ... 

, . , , . .■, , , ,, V ._ V , i »■'- t^ -*ktti m the hme-lwie. net, nor pitfall, until It be Hh 

Irlo^^■ of G'j-l, and cmifv/rt, 1 doubt not.of His ihan.h;thiOiid. j -i 1 1 ~ 1. n . ., ■ 

L,-. ..,,. ..„. . !ro..*i wi^ and pk-.i»un;-. vou mav be well aasiircd that not 

Thus Live thtv sown * lhir.irs, toniess:::i: Chr\?:, I ' ' ■ _. „ T i i ' —i. .1. » d 1. .1. - it- 

, * ■ , . ■" . , , ont- ot vou. whom He so dtarlv loveth that He hath mven Ills 

tr^ij-t ihev wiU O'.-t w ioT;Tr:ial tha; ihev m:iv rtap of ih^.\k' •■'.-* 1. n' ■ ». j _» - ^^ > .,.■ 

■.,.,. , ,., . . ■.'.-,, '■'t^*' ^'"' >*^ii tfT vou. shall pensh or depart forth of this 

whu :ire ul iUiitv und at lib»rtv. thi'ir oan--ii th:ui». lit ncv: ' . . . -> -.. ' ..- » - %.* j •« . , ., 

_ , , • " ■, , . . . , m:s»r.k: .f -iii. without IIis auniehtr ROod will and pleasure. 

I -1,^.. n/,- t«:a.L^, o. m;- i.n*r ism- :o.:,ius th..«. J...r t~,^,v,„. j^ ,;{,, p„, ,„„ .^ ^ conlidmce .hoik 

tr«h™ hy. no- m Inr-L-. »ni m oraor ru.os, and .L^. ^„j _.^,. ^ „,__ ^ ^,^„ ■„,. ft., HI. .riU be talfflled. «.J 
thit 1 d->-i'.t wh.-:her I u_iy hw,' wherewith to wn:o htr*,- 

aft'-r. TK*- k*:*p»:r saith h^ mart n^t-ds set- thit we wrlto 

ours, cxcx^it it be agreeing to His will ; the which I pnr 
iKvl it EiAv ever be. Amen. And as tar wtnldly thiiigi, take 

Th': d*-vil roareth, la: tv of iriXKl (^^hivr; he wiU . _ v . v _ n i »i. t 1 j n j 

, . , , , . ,■'.,,,,, ^ '^'- ""-^ '-■■^>^'- p-^t be vou well assured the Jjota. yoop dear God 

sh-jrt.v w tn>l>."n under Ii-vt. and the r.ithcr bv the bnx\l 1 *- v -^i 1 ». -* ^ • 

.... . .1 ml tAthor wid not stvvounor vounlukif iroacaatmiiem 

of martvr*. >a.r;l'.-. in mv m<.'>rt heartv n;anner. cvvd ■ u- • 1 u-n-i *' jL - 1 * 

,, . • .r ■ 1 ■ . , 1 T^.' T ■ . ^ H:s .x>ve and ehiidlike fear, and keep a oonacicace dear boa 

M^^tre.. H^imngton. a.^d my ^:->l Udy i .-. T am their, as ^^ j^-^^^ ^,^ .^^,,^^^ ,uf««ition. and wickedll«^ as mv 

I/.r._: ^ I .:ve: and pny for them. H^^r* th.m to do .ik.- (^.^^. -^ ^j.^^^ ^.^^^ ^.ju j^,^ ^though it be with tha k. aiid 

w« for n^, and f.r aJ u. d^^-p .pj> to the slaughter. ^^ ^,f .^.r ^^^^ ^^^ Mofgui*, tmx not 

A pridoaer in th« Lord. 

Lawuence Savndkbs. 

t RT'-iit n-.'iT.yof Or.!, at the time of His ffo^J will 

tht-m that can but kill the body, and yet can they not da 
th:it until Gv^ give them leave : but fear to displeaae Him 
. that itiu kill both body and soul, and cast them into hell fiie. 
Lt't not the ivmembranee of your children keep you fromlnHL 
The Li>nl Himself will be a father and a mother, better than 
«r,l •^t',viirT.:^ ^-.'piAal'^. my d- arly V.;Iovtd wife, yoa and I i ever you or I i.vuld h.-ive been unto them. He Himself will 
»'-i>: -/Ai-'A V/_'--tr.-r in ti.v Lolv ar.d l'' state of pvUv 1 do all thinjrs nlvessar^- for thorn: >-ea, as much as rock the 
ir^ir.::.'.T.y. u »' 11 f.* 'jUt it- at joy jir.d (.i^mfort in ITiriat, as I crullf. if mvd Iv, Hi hath given His holy angels chargi' ov»t 
».*'y •.'. :':.'■ ix.-..-'M>!^- 'A Ul. bl-*i..-i ihuTLh and i:.:thf ul i.'on- j thi ni. th.nfi>r\' commit them unto Him. But if you may live 
(r,--/«*.'^,. ■*,;. iwi.-r.z l*wf-il il.iMr'n. *oomG'.-lof Hism.-rvy ■•ith a clear i-onstiecrt' for else I would not have you to li*V. 
>.*•-. '-,.'■•*..': •.. i. ■•}.. J r*:.'!' d >- Hi- nam*- thenfore. Even and s*f the brinsinc up of your children yourself, look that 
■'' .".'-■* '•> if.*- K,'.r- a <1 will ind ■iiviL.^- oplin;in--e, thi- time is ; you nurture them in the U-ar of God. and keep them Sai fivm 
'/.f.-.- t, iiT \* I --ir. ;•-:■*,;•.-<:, wi,. r-iii U- will, f.^r His i.*ior;- | i-.lo":;i:r>-. suitrstition. and all other kind of wickedntfe. .VnJ 
fcr.: '. „■ **,.-.T.4. ■ .::.*. ,r.. \.—.'.:-- thv vnr.- . -.iiA i^-.f^nile us i help thi m to si-'iiie Irtimins if it be pt^ssible, that thw niay 
A4.;>;'.f v^'tiii i-A a Xiii.-:. WL-.rvi'.'rv I thought it good, yva, \ incn.aa*:' in virtue and godly knowledge, which shall be > 

. ISK J 



better dowry to marry thi-m tlmn any worldly BubBtancc : 
iuhI whea thoy Lvnitf to age, proviiLu tliem auch husboqd^aq 
fear Gtid mid Iovp Hie holy word. I cliarg:e you tak« hoed 
that you mabiK tlioui witli dd ptipitilH; ^uid if you Uvp, unii 
iiiiLarnr agiuiL youreelf — v^hich I woUd wiidi you to do if noeii 
ruquire, or eUe not— good wife, takp heed how yuu buatow 
jmiTself, that you and my poor cLildrcn be not compellod to 
wickednoes. But if yaa Hhall hti uble well to live' G^od b true 
widow, I would counsel yon so to live rtiU, for tbc moro 
«|iiintui!BH of yuutsclf and your poor childretu Tnka hoed, 
Mjtrgaret, and j>lay the wiso wijuuiii'a part- Tou have wflrti- 
ing by othori, if you will take an example. Aad thiu I 
Tvittmit you and my aweot children unto tiod'H uioal mt-rciful 
defraice. The blessing of God bti n-ith you, mid Uod eead us 
» joyful meeting tflgether in h^wviBn. FnreweU in. Chridt, 
forewell mine own ddut hi-arts all. Pray, ptay. 

Jolui Rogers, the first of tkt inartyra under Mary, 
Was born at Deritend, a village near Birmiiighani, 
M'hich has become part of the town. He was 
■«4:lacated at Pembroke Hall, Carahridge, graduated 
ill I52o, w«s orduiiied. beutme for a time rector of 
tL city Khuri'ih, acteil &S chtiplaiii at Antwerp to the 
t'ompany of Merchant Adventurers, and there, 
having turned Proteiitant, caine to know lyndalfn, 
with wboqi he a^tsQciated himself &.^ a. translator of 
the Bible into English. Tyndale'a martyrdom fkt 
Antwerp in 1536 etided the earthly part of a frieiid- 
^ihip that bad then been very short, Rogers next 
diar^iardfid the Chiiroh intt^rdict upon marriage 

t Partrail in Hwnqi SoOanA'* •^Bmvlogin," 

of priests, and tonk an Antwerp Jady, Adriana de 
Weyden, as his wife. He went then to Wittunber)^, 
iiud took charge of a <x)ngregation thftre. After ttie 
issue of CovenlaleV Bible — the first complete trans- 
lation — two printei^s, Richard Orafton and Edward 
Whitchurch, bought the sheets of a translation by 
John Rogers, designed to complste Tyndale's work. 
and undertook the inaue of the whole, which ap- 
[■enred in 153" a« " TranKlated into Eiiglysh by 
Thomaa MaltheM*," and was known, therefore, as 

Matthew's Bible. For this reason, the Reformer 
waa afterwards proceeded against as John Rog^xs 
(Uias Matthew. Under Edward VL, Rogers came 
home to England, and became, in 1.550, at the same 
time vicair of St. Sepukhre's and rector of SL Mai'- 
garet MoyHea, in Friday Street. Next year, a 
prebend in St, Panl'H Catliedml was added to these 
preferraentR, with, the attached reutfli'y of Chigwell, 
in Essex, which at that time |j>roduced no income.. 
The duties at St Paul's obliged Rogei-a to give up 
his rectory of St. Mar^^ret's. After Edwui'd'a death 
and the arrival of Queen Mai-y in London, Rogers 
preached a sermon ftt St Paul's Croas, wliich led 
promptly to his inipi-iaonment, with defjrival of his 
living, and subse<{ueiitly to hie trial and condemna- 
tion as a heretic He was burnt in Smithfieid on the 
4th of Febi-unr^', 1555. Here is John Rogers's own 
accoimt of his trial and condeninatioiL 



M'tiif to the Lorii Chancellor, and in thr rest- ofikf ComteU, tfit 
22n<i of Jarnfar;/, 1556; pciintd b^ hini»f!f. 

The Lord Chaueeilor [Birhop Gardiner). Kret, the lord 
Chancellor said unto m« thua: Set, ye have heard of the 
atatr of the roidm in which it utuodttth now. 

KogtFM. No, my lord, I have been kftpt in dose prison, and 
cxL-ept there have been some general things said at tho tahle, 
when I was at dinner or supper, I have heard nothing ; and 
thvriL- have I hcutrU nothing whureupon any apecial thin^ 
might be< ^oundi&d. 

i. C. Then eaid the lord Clmrcellor, Gpiseral thin^ 
gfineta) things! mocking-ly; Yo hjtve heard of my lord Cur- 
dinol'a coRiing', unil tlu>t tJiE< purliumool h;ilh received luB 
blcsnng, not qoc ri)aielin^ unto it, but one man Mho did 
Bpoak against it.'' 8ut:h a unity, and auch u miracLe, has not 
been Men. One that vrixs by, whoM nama I know not, uid, 
And all they, of whom there wre cright acoro in oue huu»?, 
have with odo aaii<ent udd i-onsont received pardon of tlvrir 
offencm, for the Bcbiem that we hud in England in refusing 
the Uuly Fdthcr of Roma to ho head of th<; Catholic Church. 
Mow Boy ye, are ye content to unitc^ and knit yfniraelf tu the 
faith of the CuthoUt Church, with ua, in the atate in which it 
IB now in England : will ye dn thut ? 

M. The- Catholic Church I never diti nor will diecwnt from. 

L. C. Nay ; but I &peuk of the etato of thfi Catholie Church 
in that wiw in which wc atand now in J^nglnnd, huviiiK; re- 
ceived the Pope to be auiiremu hoad. 

Ji. I know none othn-r hca<X but Christ of hiu Qnlholic 
Church, neither will I acknowledge the biahop of Rome to 
hflvfi any more authority thiin any other biahup halh, hy lite 
Word of God, and by the doi'trino of tho old nnd pure CathoUc 
Chunh four hundred ycarsi after Chriat. 

L. C. Why didat thou then nfkaowledpi KIhr Henry the 
£:ighth to bi^ supreme bead of th« Church, if Cbriet b« the 
only head^ 

S. I never grunted him to have any eupremacy in apititual 
things, as the forgiven«B»qf ainij, givinp of the Holy Ohoot, 
and autherity 10 be a judge above the Word of God. 

3 Hj' lord CnrdiBal wu Be^ioald Fol», wlw lud «aiD« ■■ logit* 
from tha Pop^ In Havember, lASi. Kin^,. Qusen, uid both Houhm of 
I'lLTtuLmOht hftd kl^dt to Cbe Poipe'a lei^te lot perdnn mbA bbeolatloB, 
oqIj- one memher ol tLo Uou«e tt ConiDOns— & fnillifd Atdlrf— Sir 
Ralpb Batr«ilLaiI, ntfiiaLDg: vubmiaalon. ULt. "CtnaTioa Lm In4d« 
rtobte tiae at tbia ioddent to hlA drama af "Quwui Hkt? " (Act lit. 
«. 3). 




[JUD. U9£. 

L. C. Yea, eaid ho, and Toastal, hishop of Darham, »nil 
the buliDp of Wcrceater. — If thou haiat «&id bo in his da^'a 
{And thC}' n'Ciddcd the he&d at mC with laughter], thou tuidttt 
Dot bc«Q alive now. 

I denied, and would imve told hov ho was said and moiLiit 
to lie supreme bead. But they looked and Inngheid oti<j upos 
anoth>&r, and made aucb a business, that I wm i^ionettrAiii^ to 
luL it paw, Thoro Uea alfto no greitt weight thereupon; for 
ftll the world knowe what the medbin;^ wfia. Tho lord Cluui' 
GcUor alao said to tho lord WiUiatn Howard, that thittrc va£ 
no iacoDvenieoce therein, to have Chdat to "tie aupreme head 
and the hiiihop of Itgme ikSsa ; and when I was ready to ham 
angwered that there could not b« two heada of ooe church, 
kod to lure more plaialy d^elurod tho vnoity of that his 
rauon, the lord Chancellor aaid, What Bayeat thou ? Mate 
us a dinx-t answer whether thou wilt bo one of thiti Catholic 
Chutth, or Hot, with ua, in that state in which wc now arc. 

J?, My lord, without fail I cannot believe that ya your- 
a<>l¥eB do think in your huarta tliat he is euprcino head in 
forpTjng; of sin. Ac, Soc'inLg you and all tlie hishopa of 
the realm have now twenty years long pr^'achod, and BOmi^ 
of yon also writtL-n to thp tontruiy. and the juirliumcnt ims 
BO long ago coD^entcd unto it. — And thoro he intecnipt&d 
me thus : 

L, C, Tuah, that parlLmmt was with moat great cruelty 
coaatraided to abolish and put away the primacy from the 
bishop of Rome. 

R. With ciiTielty ! Why thou I perceive Umt you take a 
WForg' way, with crotJty to pereujide men's con&denceB. For 
it should ap'pe&r fcy your dainga now, that the cruelty then 
uaed boB not persuaded your comKiencea. Hciw would you 
then have our conMieoc^es pctauadcd with cruelty ? 

L- C, I talk to thee of no cnielty — hut that they were so 
Q^SD. and ao cruoUy catlod upon in that parliametit to lot tho 
act go forward; yea, and even with fcrce driven thorouuto: 
whertau in thia parliament it was ao uniformly received, ta 
U aforesaid, 

Here my lord Fa^et told me mpre plainly, what my lord 
ChaDoelloE meant. Uato whom I answered: 

R My lord, what will you conclude thefrhy ? that thu Btwt 
parliAmcnt waa of lesa authority, becauae but few coiiBcnt^d 
onto it : and this taat parliament of f^TfiCer authority, be- 
ctUK mora conaentrd unto it ? tt go«a not, my lordj by the 
more or Icasor part, but by the wiser, trtur, and godlier part. 
"And i would hnve aaid more, but tho lord C^hancellor inbor- 

Inipted ma mth hiA quastion, willing mo onto aguin to luuwer 
him. "For," vaA be, "we have more to upeak with than 
thoD, who muat come in after thee." — And ao indeed there 
were ten penouH more out of Newgateiheaide* two that were 
not coHcd. Of whi<:h ton, one w&a a citizen of London, who 
yielded unto them, and nine were eontmrj"; all of whom 
came to priaon again, and refused the cardinal'^ blessing, and 
tho authority of his Holy Father's church, saving that one iif 
tho«e biuA waa liot naked tha question, otherwifio than thua : 
Whetbar ha would he an honest man, ua hia father waa before 
hiraf and he aoaworod. Yea; ao he was discharged by the 
friendahipof my lord William Howard, fl« I have understood. 
— fie bade me tell him what I would do ; whether I would 
enter into the one church with the whole realm as it ia now, 
qr natF Nhi, said T, I will first bob it proved by the Scrip- 
tnroB. Let mo have pen, ink, books, &.<::,,. and I will tnke 
upon me plainly to art out the matter, ao that tlie contrary 
ahull b« proved to bo true : and let any man that will, confer 
with me by writing. 
L. C. Nuy, that ahall not be permitted thee. Thou ahalt 
oever have »o much proffered thee an thou haat now. if thou 
refatc it, and wUt not now conaent and agree to the Catbelie 

Cbureh. Hero itre two thinga, mercy and justice: if thou 
letuao the Queen's mercy now, then abalt Ihon have jurtioe 
miniatared aato thee, 

R. I never offended nor waa disobedient unto her graooi 
and yet I will not refuse her mercy. But if this ahall be 
denied me, to confer by writing, and to trj' out the truth, 
then it la not well, but too tar out of the way. Ye your- 
aelvea, aXl the biahops of the realm, brought me to abjure the 
pretendod pritnaoy of the bijiihap of Rome, when 1 waa a 
young man, twenty years paat: and will yo now, without 
colktion, have me to ^y and do the contmry ? I cannot be 
aa perauaded. 

1. V. If thou wilt not receive the bishop of Rome to b« 
supreme head of the Catholic Church, then thou shall nwif 
have her mercy, thou misyest be aure. And as touching 
conferring and trial, I am forbidden by the Scriptures to uw 
any eonferring .and trial with thee. For St. Paul t«ftch« me 
that I ehouM ehun and oaehew a heretic after one or two 
monitions, knowing that auch a one is overthrown and is 
faultj', ioMimuch n» he i« condemned by his own judgment- 

S. My lord, I deny thut t lun a heretic; prove yo that 
firat, and then allege the aftirosaid text, — But atill the lord 
Chancellor played on one string, auyin^, 

Z. C. If thou wilt enter into one church with us, &e., itHl 
UB that ; or olae thou ahalt never have ao much proffered thoe 
again, as thou hast now. 

It. I win find it firat in the Scripture, and aoe it trii.'d 
thereby, heforo I reeeiva hitn to be aiipreme head. 

WorKKier. Why.doyo not know what is in your crevd, " I 
believe the holy Catholic Church ? ' 

R. I find not the biahop of Rome thera. Fur " catholic * 
BigniSoH not the Homiah chuirh; it Bignifica the conM'nt of 
all true teiirhing churvhoa of all times, and of all ageft. But 
how should the bishop of Roino'H church be ona of them, 
which teaches so many doctrines that are plainly and directly 
againat the Word of Ood Y Can that biahop be the tm<' 
head of the Catholic Church that does soP That ia not 

Z. C. Show mc one of them ; one ; let me hoar one. 

I reuiemborcd myaelf, that 4iimong bo matiy I weru host to 
show gnc, and naid, I will ehow you one. 

L- C. Lot am hear that, let me hear that. 

J{. Tho bishop of Rqmo and his chuTch «ay, read, and sing 
all that they do in their eougregatioca in Latin ; which U 
dirnttly and plainly againi^t the fiist to the Corinthiana, Ih* 
fourteenth chapter.* 

£. C 1 deny that, I deny that that is against the Word, at 
God. Let me see you prove that ; how prove you that Y 

Then t began to say the text from the beginning of Hk 
chapter; To apeak with tongues, said I, is to speak with > 
strange tongue, as Latin or Greek, JtC-, and ao to speak iM 
not to speak unto men, but unto Ood (mefuiing God 
the moat}. But ye speak in Latin, which ia a strange 
wherefore ye sp«ik not unto men, but urto Gad. 
granted, that they speak not unto men, but unto God. 

Z. C. Woll, then, ie it vain unto menP 


' 1 Gorititliiaiia ilv. 2—33: "Por he that *po«Tio0i iq an ou- 
known toovne ipeokctb uot unto iD«n, bat uato-God: for no w^ 
niiderstaad«tli him i bont>«lt in the apirit he apeakoUt waj^h^iM^ 
. ... Qrcater la he Chat pv^phcsieth than be th>t ipaskaUh 
with to&irnM. Mcept hs intnpnt ttiM the Chnwh mar nxntn 

^fplD^ And erati thiogn witbont llf« ffivioc ' 

Tfhether pipe nr iiorp, eseept tbef givo a diatinction In llMB 
how ahall it be known what is piped or hurpod f For if th* I 
RJve an nuccirtain aound, who ahull prepkr^ hlmaelf to Qu \ 
llkewLM T«. «iv«pt yt utt«T by th« toa^o wotds tttf to 1 
atood. how nhai) it b« known wlwt is »pok«D ? fw ye ahi 
into thfl air," tc. 

^r &.!>. IU&.] 



It, No, not m vain. For one mn-n epoaketh in one longne, 
nnd unuthor in Aiiolhor to]is(i{>, and aM ftiL^Il. 

L. C N«y, I wiU prqv^e then tliat he apeaks neither imto 
(itid aot imto man, but unto thi? wind.' 

I wna w)lliDg to Imvo Jiccliircd how tli<B8i! two texts du 
agree, for they muHt agree,, they both are the sayings of the 
Holy Ohost, Bpuk^a by thu aj^iostlo Paul, fts., To apeak not to 
men, but unto God, und To apeak unto the wind ; and m I 
would tiave gout forward with the proof of my matter begun, 
but here arose a noiao and a coufuaio'Q. Then said the lord 

X. C. To speak irnto God, and not tinto God, vere im- 

E. I will prove them posfliblr'. 

Kixy. with my lord Willitun Howard to my lord Chancellor, 
now will I bear you witneeA thnt he is out of tho way. For 
im gftanLs finitr that thoy whi>i;h ap^ak in a atrango apetih 
•peak onto Qod; and now ho aaith the contraryr that thi^y 
apeak neither to God nor to man, 

S. iturninff to my lord Howard.) I have Dot granted or said 
aa you report. I have alltigod the pmn U-iit, and now 1 um 
come to the other: they must agree, and I can make them to 
agtn*. But as for yuii, you undcTtitand not the matter. 

L. S. I ondentand m> much, that it is not poaidbk. 

This in A point of sophiatr^', q^uoth necretarj' Boiini. 

Then the lord Chancellor began to ttll the lord Howard, 
thjxt when he waa in GenDany, th^y at Kiille, wkieb bad 
bf'foro pmypd and uspd their Bervioo in Gernian, began then 
to turn part into Latin, and part into German. 

W. Yaa, and at Wittembcrg Coo. 

£. Tea (tut I eoitld not be hfsrd /or thtir nuite), in a 
TToiverBityj where man for the Tnast part understood the 
I^tin-'&nil yet not aU in Latin. And I would have told the 
cinlcTj and have gone forward both to hftvo anawered my 
lonl. and to hare proved the thing that I had taken in tMid ; 
but perceiving their talk and noiee \o bo too noisome, I was 
Liin to think thb in my heart, Auffering thorn in the mean- 
while to talk pno of thcni one thing, and another another, 
Alaa : neither will these mctn bear ma if I iipcdk, neither yet 
will they suffer mo to write. There 13 no remedy but let 
Ihem alone, and commil the matter to G&d. Yet I began to 
go forward, and said, that I would raiike tho texts to agTL'e 
and to prove my purpose well enough. 

L. C. No, no, thau»t prove nothing by the Scripttire. 
The Scripture is dead ; it mujit havo a lively expositor. 

R. No, the Scrijiture ia ali^a. But let me go forward with 
my purpose. 

Tf'. All htretiea have alleged the Scriptur(:« for them, and 
tberpfore wo muet have a lively expc>8itor for tht-m. 

J?. Yea, all heretics have alleged the Htripturea for them ; 
Wt they were confutc-d by the Sriripturew, and by n<> otbfr 

W. Bat tbEjy wDidd not confoss that they were overcome 
by the Smpturcfl : I am sure of that. 

H, I believe that; and yci were they overcome by them, 
and in all the Coimcila they wero disputed with and over- 
thrown by tho Scriptureu, And here I wonM have decliired 
how they ought to proeoed in tbeae days, and so Lavi^ oome 
itgain to my pnrpoae, but it wag iinposaible ; for one asl<ed 
one thing, another said another, eo that I woe fain to hold 
my peace, and let thrn] talk. And even when I would have 
taken hold of my proof, thi3 lord Chancellor bade to prison 
with me again ; and. Away, away„ aaid he, wr have more to 
talk vithal: if I would not be rpformed, so he termed it, 
Mtray, away ! Then up I atood, for I tmd kneeled all the while. 

* " far je KhaU upeak Into Lfae aiz,'' 

Then sir Hidwrd tjouthwoU, who atood by in a window, 
said to mo, Thou wilt not bum in tbis gear '^ when it cornea to 
the purpose, I know well that. 

R. Sir, I cannot tell, but T trust to my Lord God, ycs^-r. 
lifting up mine eyta wcto heaven. 

Then my lord of Ely told me much of the Queen's Jlajestj-'i 
pleeaure and meanlitg, and act it out with large Words, 
art)-ing, that she took them that would not roceivc tbo bishop 
«f Rome's be unworthy to have her mercy^ Jto. 

I said I would not refuse her mercy, and yet I nover 
offendttd her in all my life ; and that I besought hai- gtnest 
and oil their honoun to be good to ms, reserving my coa- 

eW'veral spake at once. No? said they then (a great sort* 
of thom, and specially secretary Boum)^ a married pneel, 
and have not offended the law 't 

I said, 1 had not broken the Queen's law, nor yet any point 
of the law of the realm ther^, for I married where it vu 

Several at Once, WTiete waa that 'i said ihey ; thinHng that 
to be imlawful in all places. 

R. In Germany. And if ya had not here in England made 
on open ]«w thftt priests might hava had wivt-s, I woidd 
hever hiUve come houiiD again ; for I brought a wife and eij^tht 
cbitdcen with me; which ye might be sure that I would 
not have done, ii the laws of the realm had not permitted it 

Then there wfts a great noise, some eaying, that I was 
come too Boon with auch a sort '.* that I should find a aouf 
coming of it : and some one thing and some another ; and 
one, I could not well perceive who, said, that there was never 
a catholic man or country that ever granted that a priest 
might have a wife. 

I said, that the Catholic Cburch never denied marriage to 
piiosts, noi yet to any other man ; and thatewith. wu 1 going 

■ fn Clitr pMf, In tlda biH(ii««a. 80 Bpanaer, In tba " Faerie Qmeeiie," 
"TLuBfo Ihej boti togetber to tbrir ffStf," Tie more wmmoa 
Huciaot ttaewcFil (fmm Firat EDgUsb"geanra,"proTlsJop ; ";«aro." 
rt«:d7) \9 uiTthiiiif iminrad, k^^oA^ elothing, IwDBoboId atuB^ 
triBjihitm fy ; and in tbevTq^ aeioBe it paasad 1^ tioqneitUT, ui berei. 
tu the amBgaiiratB af buslQMt. 

' I'm, Observe tkiat thfl word "' yea " la Ilbfo used witli tbe old 
restrictLoii m fullowine a negatiTe proposltioii, otberwiae thrangliDni 
tbia pMso^ tbe [one ia " j«A." Sir Thonuu Kora, in Mb " Oenfuta- 
tion" of TjDdoIe'a Answer to hi* " DiaJgyut.'* Uifed« OH ajniulii* 
attack on l^dnle for De^lecttDg the cUstitictkin between nae ot Kuf 
ftjid No, Mifl ot Tea and Tbb, " I would hare note lijr tJie waj." tiB 
said, " that ItTnilale here tmaslatetb ho for nny„ lor it is but a triflo 
»nJ HUBtokiiiK o( Ho English woi-d i uviu? tbftt ja ibonW bm tiuit 
be which io two bo plain Eog-liib worda, aoi] ao commoo. aa ia lUlu Dud 
tijr>, cannot t«1l vhea. be alioiiltl tako the: tone ajid wbeii tb'e totbor, is 
&i>t for trwulatlng' inta Baalish a miui very meet. For the lue of 
tboBe two wDrJd, In aoswerlDi; to i qngrtion, ia this : No ooswervth 
the Qiietil.iaii framed I17 thd idficiLaBtiTe ; u, (or eaauiplB, if a tnaa 
should n^lt Typdiila huii&i<lf, 'la on heretic moet ta tnn«lBte HO'f 
Scripture into SciKlisb ? ' Lo, to thin quwtiOB. if be will juuwar tr'a 
EnirllBh, bo must aiLSwcr no, and oOt tui'j. And a IJka difTerecivie la 
there betwaen thooe two jdverbs, Yaa aad Fu. For if tba qUUBtifja 
b« fnme<l UQto Tjmdnle by the sfflrnwUve, in this Guhioa : ' If aa 
huretic ralfcly translate the Kew Twtu^nt into Enxliah, bo nuJia Ma 
falsa herwiiea HHm tbo Word of God, be tut boo^ wortb^ to h« 
burneAP' To tbia ij^nTtion, aaked la tbia wjse. it ho will aoawer trua 
En^ljib, he mtiBt aiuwec ran, and not Yn. Bat now, if the qaaatioil 
be asked of bim tboi. !«. hj tbe ttegAtive: 'If an baretio tiiaeiy 
tronalaUr the New Testament into Englfsb. to mihe hl» fil«e heir.»iea 
s»em the Word of Gild, b« not bia books well worthy to be bumu^l Y' 
To this que^ciiii in thin Kuhiea rramed, if h« will auewa- tins 
KngUab, he moj' not iiMweT, Taa ; but he moat aoawer Tarn, ajid sot, 
' Tea, tuaiT?, be t^i^y, 1>okb tha tnuLBLitlac tuid the tianalator and all 
that wOl hold tbem.' " 

' Sort, oompan;. A word oheti osed In the eeuM af a 'CallectioD of 
people. So in Harlowa'a " Edward II.," Yoong BSortiimer aaka ths 
kdng', " Who lo^roa thee bnt a sort of Buttorera ? " 



[4.1>. ISO. 

out of tha chambsr^ tbe sargeuit who brought me thithar 
ha^'iDg me by thu arm. 

Then tht) biehrtp of WorciiatLT turned hi* face towards me^ 
And auid thut I wist not where that diurch waa or is, 

I said, yes, that I could toll wliera it was— but therewitli 
wuat the flcr^aol n^tli mo out of the door. 

This wiu the vary true effect of all tliat was spakun unto 
m», und fhf all that I otuiwtirod thcrQUnto, 

And here would I gladly make a. Biorc perftTt imflwer to 
nil the formar objections, Jia aho a due proof of that which I 
liad lakcv in hand ; but at this proaont I was infoimed that 
I should to-inorrew caiaB to furtbeT tinawpr. Whfre'faro I 
am c«tniM>llod [o leave out that whith 1 would nioHt gladly 
hAve done, dedhng here tho hearty and unfuigDed help at 
the prayorB nf all Christ's true inombers, tho true wjim of tho 
utifuignod Ciithalii: Churchi that the Lord Uod of all cod- 
wlfttion will now be my comfort, aid, strength, buckler, «Jid 
ihicM; i» also of aJl my brethren ilmt uru in ih» aame caao 
nod distn^va, that 1 and thoy all ma-y despise all manri'i^r of 
threats and cruelty, and ovon tho bitL«r bumlng firo, and tbu 
ilrL'jiiful dart of death, and »ti<;it hkc true soldiers to uurdi>ar 
luid loving captain, Chriat, our only EEijdoonier imd ftaviottr, 
ttnd atfio tho tnio houtl of the Church ; that dooth all in us all, 
which is the y&ry property of a. ht?ad, and is a thing thit all 
tJiebishopBof BomQ cannot do^ ami Ihjit wedonot tmitoiy>u8ly 
nm oat of his t«tits, or rather out tif tbo plain liatd from him, 
into the most jeopardy of tho biittl*' ; but that wo may p«r- 
wirrae in the Sght, if he will not ctherwiHO doliver ua, till wc 
be modt cruelly Mlain of hia^ CDomiee.. For this I most himrtily. 
and at thw present with weeping teara, most instantly and 
«BiTieBtly d«sinv, Aod heseedi you all to pray ; stnd uJso, if I 
die^ to be good to my poor and motft honcat wife, hc^iaf^ & poor 
rtrangor, and all my littlo soids, hurs und niy children; 
wliom with all the whole faithful and truo catholic con- 
gnj^tioti of Chridl, the Lord of Ufo and death, save, keep, 
iuid defend in all the troublett and aBsaidt« of tliie vuiu world, 
And bring at the lust to cverliisliii^ salvation, the true and 
siirs inheritance of ull crossed rhristiaus. Amen. Amen, 
Tho 27th day of January, st night. 

John Roobiw. 

Madt, anii lAat aAouid hatif ht(n madt, if I m'u/hl hatt been 
Stard, tfu 1l%th tmd 29(A dag» ofJaHnarif, \hhh. 
First, Being aakad a^aio by tJie lord Chancellor, Whflthcr 
J would come into one church with the bishops and whole 
rfjJm, &A now was toncludtid by parliament, in Lhti whit.'h 
nil the realm wa« eonvertt-d to the CathoUt' Church of Eomr, 
und 90 roBoive tho raerey befona proffierod me. arising ugjiin 
with the whole realm out of tho schiam and error in which 
WB hftd long hoQn, witli rtnaintation of my errors — I 
aoBwentdj that before \ coald not t«ll what hia oioriiy mount, 
but now I understaDd that it wm a mercy of tho Anti- 
chnrtioD Church of Borne, whit-h I utterly rpfuiK-d, and that 
the riaitig, which he spako of, vs» a very fall into error, and 
fttlae dwtrine. Also that I had and would be ahlp, by 
Uod'« grace, to prove that all the doctrine which I had ever 
Lna|;ht wu tnici and catholic, and that by tho Scripturus, 
and the authority of the fathers who liv<sl four hundred 
years after Christ'e death. Hq answcrffd, that should not, 
might not, and ought not to he granted me; far I wa» but 
a private man, and might not he heard ftguinst the deter- 
mJnatioD of tha whoJa realm. Should, quoth he. when a 
parbumoDt Wtb conduded a thing, one 01 any private 
p«»on havo authority to diaOusa, whetbcr tbey huvo dune 
right or wrong ^ Mo, Ibut m^y not be. 

T answered shortly, that all tliu laws of moa mi};ht uut, 
naithor could, rultj the Word of ^.^od ; but that thoy all must 
he discueaed and judged tharohy, and oboy thereunto ; anil 
neither my conscienee, nor any ChriBtuui man's, oould Iw 
satisfied with Huch lawa as disagreed from that Woni. And 
so waa willing to have auid much mora, but tho Hold Cluui- 
cellor began a long tale to very small purpose, concerning mim- 
anawor, to have debaacd mo, that Ihoru waa nothing In m< 
whoroforsi I shoidd bo himrd, but axrogancy, pride, and vain- 
glory-. 1 also gcnntod miao ignorance to b<i greater than I 
cPuLd express, or than be took it : but yet Ibat I foarod nul, 
by (iod's asaiHtanco and strength, to be able by writing to 
jjerfonn my word; neither was I, 1 thanhcd God, so utterly 
iterant as ho would tnako me, but all was of God, to whom 
Iki thanks rendered tlmrefore : pniud m^a was I never, luir 
yet vain-fjlorious. All the world kiiow well, where and on 
what side, prida, arrogoncy, and vain-glory wu, W waa a 
poor pride that waa or is in ub, God kiiowoth It. 

Then he said, that I at the Srst daah condemued tho Queen 
and the whnlo realm to bo of thti chun-h of Abtithnst, and 
he burdened me highly therewithal, I an^wartd, ihitt th« 
(jiiAen's MjiJL'sty, God savo her grace, would have done well 
enough, if it had not boon for his eounsol. Ho said, tJia 
Uucen w(<nt before him, and it was her own motion. I asid 
without fail. I neithur could^ cor woakl 1 ever hoItcTe it. 

Then said dix:tor Aldridi. thi> bishop of Carlisle, that they 
tho biflhopa wouEd beJir thf^^ro witness. Yoa, c^uoth I, that I 
balieve well : and with that tho people laughed: for that day 
thoro were many, but on the morrow they kept tho doom 
ahut, and would let none in but the bishops^ adli^^rcnts, ami 
aervants in a nuinnor, yoa, and the fimt day the thouaAndlli 
man came not in, Then muster ComptroUor and aecrctary 
BonifQ would havo stood up also to boar witnius and did ao. 

T said it was no great matter ; and to a&y the tmilu 1 
thought that they wero good helpare thereto thomaelTea; hut 
I cDoacd to Bay any morti thtTcin, knowing that they won 
too strong nnd mighty of power, and that thoy would b- 
Lelievod buforu mo, y«a. and before our Saviour ChriBt, and 
all htB prophets, and aposttea too, in those daya. 

Then after many words he asked me what I thou^t 
eoneeming the blossod saciament, and stood up, and put elf 
his Gip, and all his Mlow-biahopa, of which there wero n 
great v,uti,^ new men, of whom I knew few, whothor I 
believed the saemment to be the very body and blood uf our 
Saviour Chrixt. that waa bom of the Virgin Mary, and hangud 
on tho cross, ronlly and eubutantially. 

1 answered, I had ofttn told him that it waa a matter ia 
which I wa* no moddier, and therefore waa suapect«d of my 
brethren to ho of a contrary opinion. Not withstanding, 
even lu the most part of your doctrine in other porta is fal», 
and the defem^ci thereof only hy force and cmelty : so in thi« 
matter I think it to be as false as the rest. Pqt I cumol 
iindcretand, "really and substantially," to signify OtIiBrwi«e 
thfin cDTporcally ; but corporoolly Christ is only in Suarm, 
and BO cannot Christ be corporeally also in your iacnuntfil. 
And hero I somewhat sot out his charily altor this tot%- 
My lord, quoth I, ye have dealt with me most cruelly; for 
ye have put me in priwn without law, Bn,d kept ran ibeir 
now ohnoaia year and a half; for I waa almost half a yi<NJ 
ia my bouee<, where I was obedient to you, God fenowia, and 
Hpiik[« with no miin. And now have I been a full yoar in 
Xewgate, at great cost and charges, having a wife and les 
(^hildn^D to find, and I had never a penny of my Uvingi; 
which was a^inb^t the law, 

lie onswArMl. that Dr. Itidl'^-, who had given them n^ 

* BhI, ixnnraBj. 



I a Qjnrper, Had therefore I wu the unjmt poneator of 

Wxa Lhtt king iban un usurp^rp quoth I, who gave Dr. 
['Bitllny the biahopvic F 

Yea.' ijuoth ht^, und begvi tu ^ai out tlio wron^ that the 

ftiag hud demo lo thi^t bishop of Ixindon, and to himaclf altio. 

Bat yut I diO misuse my terms, quoth ho, to ctill tlHQ king 

urpcT. — But the word waa goDu out of tho Abundance of 

hodtt hef OTO ; and I think that h* was nut vury aonry for 
t in h&art. 1 ought b&vc said more conccrmng that mRtt-er. 

|]mt I do not. 

uikcd him whcroforfj he put mo in piiaon V Ma said, 
a I {rrcadb^ Hgainnt the Queen. 

1 luiawdrExi, that it was not true; and I woaM he bound 
to provL' it, und to stand to the trial oF the law^ that no mnn 
lUiould he able to prove it, and thereupon would wt my life. 
[ preai-.hod, qnoth I, a Bcrmon at the ctobh, after tho Ijueen 
cjune to the Towvr: hut therein was nothing; wiid lagainat 
the Qdcen, I take witrtcisu of all the audicncEi, which wus not 

I alleged aleo that he had, after cxamin»tion, k-t 

e ^ ni hberty after thf prcuL-hing of that SiErmon. 

Yo», but thou didst read thy lectnraa after, quoth ho, 
igwuut tho comnmndmcnt of the Oounc.:iL 

That did I not, quoth I : let that be proved, and lot me 

r did for iL Thus hnre you now against the luw of God and 

1 handled me, and never sent for me, nevi? conferred 

Rwiih tOB, nover sjiohcri of any leaxniilg', till now that ya huvtr 

Kl^oUcai H vhip to whip mo with, and a »word^ to cut ofl my 

ocok, if I ivill not condoaL-end to your mlbd. This chaiity 

ilotb nil th"? world understand. 

I nit){ht iU)d would have addod, if I could have been 
-iuffcred to sptsM, that it had been tinie enoiigh to take i^way 
men'« liTongs, and iheroto to have impri&oncd th^ni, after thi^y 
had offended tho laiFs: for they axe ^od dtisens thai break 
not laws, and worthy of praise and not of puninhment. But 
Ukot pmpoH Is to kfiop m«n in prison, until they may i[.'at(.'h 
ihem in their lawa, and so kill them. I could and would havo 
a4tW the emniple of IhiQicK who by ii cmfty-deviaed hiw 
waa cult into the lion's don. 

Also, I mifij'ht hava declarod, tbat I most hnmbly de« 
to h« set at Uberty, sending my wife to him (Gardiner) with 
H mpplicatinnt buiDf^ grout with uhilil, and with her eight 
honest women, or th&roabout, to Eichmond, at ChrirtmaB 
waa a twolremonth, while I was yot in my howae. 

Aiw, r wrote two supplications to him, out of Ncwgutef 
and Hnt my wif«i many timite to him. Master GoHnold 
alao, that worthy man, who is now dcpiirtod in the Lord, 
IxboikTCfl for me, and so did diviurs other worthy men abio 
Lake pains in tho matter. Theso things declare my lord 
Chanc*;llor'B Antichrirtian charity, which is, that ho hath (tnd 
dcith teeik Diy blood, and the destnictian of my poor wift; and 
my ten childreo. 

This in a abort sum of the word^ which wero epolcen on 
tho '28th day of January at oftemoanH after that maater 
Hooiicr had huen the firvt, and maater Cordmaker ' the second, 

' Tta, in aoswar tn itn ufflrmatiTe <|niMtloii. (Sec ni>t4 3, JXifH 35. t 

■ Tin )if AarafioUen a.vhi'p . . . and o nrard, Tli* IftWiiof Rickaid 
H.^ Hcui7 IT , uid HcaiT V. a^ainit harettcj had Loen repeaJcl, but 
wtre nrirtd by an Ast whieh wbb brought iato the. Hansa of Com. 
ncma oa tb« L2tb ot Secembar, 1&&4, and woa ptMsed by tha Lords fix 
wMks aftcnrardt, tbit ja to mj. &bout bEi -woekq before the date of 
Bobob'* TtSareaai to It, 

■ John Hooper, BJebop at VfcKoAtt. LmI boen brought behira Ou- 
dlaerat bU baiiM m S^utlnwark. od, tb« 2iud of Jiluukt^, lefnaod to 
•dnowledgv tbu P'Ope'fl aapniBuiy, and ms rccoDLinittcd to the Plaet 
Ob Ibe S8th he had been lummrvaed mgeln before- tb4 Coaun3i>[cikeTi 
in the Church of St. Mny 0»«ri«i. Soutbwaik, itaa looimnittea. 
Ilka Bogm, tP Uk Cooater in Soutbwack till next Uwrniiig, tlaa ZHh., 

in exumioatioQ before me. The Ivctrcl grant us grace tii 
atand togetbi^r, Qghtmg lawfully in his caa&e till we bn 
omittitn down togt'thor, if the Lord'a will he so to penoit it : 
for thePQ tihiill not a hair of our hiiads perish against Ilia 
•hill, hut with Hiia wiU. Whorennto the Lord grant ua to 
be obodi'dnt unto the end, and in the end. Ain<.m. 8wtjet, 
mighty, and merciful Lord JemiH, the Son of Dai4d and of 
God. Amen, Amen, let ovcry tratt ChriHtian say and pray- 
Then tho cloek being, bb I gtidOBL-d^ libout four, the lord 
Chancellor aaid that ho and the church must yet use charily 
with mo ; what nutnndr of charity it i«, all true Christians do 
veil understand, namely, the same that the fox doee with 

Bishop Pox. {Fivn itumn Mary'M ^n^jtr 3oakj SriUak Vaimt 

tha chickens, and the wolf with the lamhfl, and ha gave me 
respite till to-morrow, to see whother I would ttimember 
niyaelf well to-morrsw, and whether I would return to the 
Catholic Church, for ao he called hia AntiehriMtiaa falw 
L-hurch ugaiu, and repent, and they would receiTO me to 

I said, that I waa never uut of the true Catholic Choreh, 
nor would be: but into his church would I by God's grvcfi 
never come. 

Well, qoothhCfthcD is our <:biirch false and AntiiJiristijin ? 
Yesj' tjuoth I. 

And what is tho doctrine of tho sacrament ? Ful»e, (luolh 
t ; and caat my hands abroad. 

Then said one, that I vriis a player. To whom I answerod 
not; for 1 passc'd not upon his mock. 

Come again, quoth the lord Chancellor, to-morrow, hotw&co 
ainit and t«n. 

I am ready to come apiin, whcaaoever ye call, quoth f. 

And thus was I brougrht by the shertffa to tha compter 
in fkmlhwark, maator Hooper going before ine, and a grf«t 
multitude of people being present, w tbat wb had much to 
do to go in tho streets. 

Thus much waa done tte 28th day of ,Tammry. 

The second day, which was tho '29th of January, we Wfre 
acnt for in the morning, about nino of the clo^^^k, and by tho 
sheriffs fetchod from the compter in Southwiuk to the churoh 
again, where we were the day heforo in the afternoon. And 
when master Hooper waa condemned, sa I understood aftei- 
warde, then sent they for me. Then the krd Chancellor said 
unto me : 

Rogem, here thou wast yesterday, and we gave ths« 
liberty to rewember thyaetf this night, whether thou 

thb second rbij alw of this BacoDd esiiinEiui.t<oi) of John Borer*. Both 
aamsB h«c« chffii dispoeed of, br exooinmunioiitloQ and deliverr to tbe 
Mcular arm. Sagftra «n« burut at Smithflold '□-n the 4th of Uie nCiit 
F«braarj, Hooppr at QloiuMstar on tbs 0th, ind Cu'dmskcT', nho twd 
bwin pnthenAarj of Wella, waa bnmt in SmitbReld on the 30th ot Mmy. 
* Ytt. Becljiiis W tbo DeR»tir« propoMltf^n, pot trne sjid ncit 




vooldcflt come h> the hoiy Cctbolic Clmnii vl Chnsl 9«wt, 
or not. Tdl iu nonv, trb&t thou, hwt drtAndited, wbi^thci 
thm ariU tw RpmtaBi And MnT, uid wilt Rtmn tgm mud 

U]r Und, qooUi I, t kcir nsKstbegrd njv^ ri|^ well, 
what jon. j<«t«dtf tkid to na, knd deaiiv yOb td givfe n« 
iMve to declare my nrad, what I hav« to aay thernnto ; 
and thai dona, I ihaU aocwer ^ou to your 



Wben I jcatod^ dc a r wl that I laiii^ h* anlEend hr the 
Sc rip t w c»,WKlaBtbwrity<rftbe ftnt, best, ami pqR«tCliuTdlL, 
to ddnd Bj doctrine by writings ai«aiuii^ oot only of the 
inmoi^, Iral sImi of kH the dot-trine thst ever J had preached, 
ye anawered m&, that it might not, and onght not to be 
gnmied me, for I waa a printe pmoD ; and that the partia- 
toeDt •wis abore the authority of aD pri-rmle penona, and 
OuitfofB the amtcnce thfireof ndg^ not be found fulty and 
niadtm by me, hda^ only a private penoo. And yet, my 
kfd, qac4h I, I am aUo to ihow examplea, that one man 
hath cotne mto a GcAMml OMdtdl, and after the whole had 
d«t«Tmiiv«d ui4 agreed npon an act or article, aome cue man 
eoudng^ in aft«.TwAtdfl, luth by the Wind ot God, dedaicd bo 
{■thQy that th« Cwmdl had erred in decrbeing the aid 
article, that he taaB«l th« whole Coupril to rhati^, and 
alto- their act or article before drteimined. And of theae 
exain|dea, I am able to ifaow two. 

I can alao ihow the anthonty of Aoj^ostine ; that when he 
fruited with a heretic, he would DeiUter hi maetl nor yet 
bare the heretic to lean Dsto the detenninatitHi of the two 
Ittnner Cooncilfli of the which the one made for him. uid the 
oiher for the heretic that diipated against him ; but aaid 
that he would hare the Scriptiuve to be their judge, which 
wen ecmmon and mdiffetently for th^m both, and not 
proper to eiUier of them. 

Alao, I cotild ihow, B&id I, the authority of a kdtnted 
liiwyeT {Panormitaniu) ,' who —ifh, that unto a nmple lay- 
man who bringa the Word of God with tum, there ought 
more cradH to be given, than to a wholp Council gB^bercd 
together. By theee thiagi will I prove that I ooght not to 
be draied to lay my miod, and to be heard agatnat a whole 
parUameat, hnnging the Word of God for me and the 
amhohty of the old Church four hundred yean after Cbrist, 
albeit thjit erery man in the parliament had willingly and 
withoat respect of fear and favour agreed thereonto, whidi 
I doubt not a little of ; specially smng the tike had be«n 
permitted in that old Choreh, even in general Coitncils. ye4, 
and that m one of the chlefcat Cooocilfl that ever Mrae, 
mto which neithef any acta of this parli&meiat, nor y^t any 
of Che kte gentnl Cotmcils of the bi«ho^ of Rome, oo^ht (o 
be compared. For, nid I, if Henry the Eighth were ftUve> 
and should mU a pariiament, and begin to detenoinc a thing 
(and tun I would have alleged the pxample of the act of 
■akini; the Queen a bastard, and of making himself the 
npcricw head ; but I coold not. being intemipted by one 
whom God forgiTe], then will ye {paintinff to my lord CA»i»- 
*rUor), and ye^ and ye, and K> ye all [jniMt'wg fu ^A* r*al 0/ 
CA» kithof), m.y Amen; yea^ and il it like your grace, it ia 
mwt that it be 10 enacted, 

H«n my lord OMUicellor would suffer me to epeak no more, 
tat bade ma ih down, mockingly Myingt that I waa sent 

1 PiatmiaaBa. Aafawia BeoeadfUf, of KIoido, lawTsr, orator. 
•ad poK. Olad is 1171 Whw HVTifiv AMomo oI Am^mD. Ktac ef 
» i |l li. ba WM Mat bk 14S1 on a vtMioil W Tnic* to Dbtaia ui ami- 
feoMol li^, la wkidi aacoUatioa b« ■necMdad. H« ia nid alao to 
ta^eDldavMatoihal ba miflit bar lor LIibmiU a diatwrered test of 

for to be instJiKtedof them, and 1 would lake vpcm n>e (ebe 
thAT inatractor. 

Hy lari, qnoA I, I itand and nt not— abaU I not be 
AuSend to qieafc tw my life ^ 

Sball wc ■nSo- thee to tell a tale, and to pnie F qnoth br. 
—And with that he tbwd op, and began tO fiiOe me, aftrr 
bif old arrogant prond fft^coi : for be pemiTed that I ww 
in a way to hare tooched thnn Htmewhat, which be tikongbt 
to hinder by d a ab rn g me o«t of my tale, and w> bo ^d. fiir 
I could nerei be differed to ctM&e to my tale again, no, not 
to one word of it ; hot he had much Kke cotpmn nic a ti o n with 
me, a* h« had the day before, and aa Ma manna' it, tamit 
q.p«ii taimt, and che<-k npon check. Yvr in that caae, being 
God'a canae^ I told him he ahoold not make me aCtmid to 

Se«, what a spirit this fellow hath, said be ; finding fault 
&t mine accostomed ramretnran, and hearty manner of 

I have a tme ipirit, qooth I, agreeing and obeying the 
Word of Ood ; and would further have sud, Uiat I was ner«r 
the woTK, but the better, to be earnest in a joft and "one 
eaoae, and in my Haaler Chriat't matters ; but I cOuld not 
be heard. 

And at length he ptooeeded towatda hii flxoommmuottioa 
and coDdemn^on, ^ter that I had t^ him that hia Cli«Hi 
of Rome waa the Chiucb of Antichrirt, mfaning the taliv 
doctrine end tyrannical law«, with the maivtauiaoe thpreuf 
by cruel peraecutions oaed by the buhopa of the aud chorcb, 
of which the biahop of WinchCTter a»(d the real «rf hii fellow, 
btahopa that arv now in England are the chief membsn : (d 
the lawB I mean, quoth I^ and not aU the men and women 
wfaitth are in the Fope'a Chnrch. 

Likewiaei, when 1 «■■ wd to have detu<?d their aaammenl, 
whereof he made hia wmtcd reverent mention, raOM to 
nt<tmt^'n his kingdom thereby than for the tme iwrennv 
of Christ's institution ; more for Ua own and hia po^ib 
geoetation's »ke, than for religion or God's aake — -I told 
him after what order I did spei^ of it ; for the manner of 
his speaking waa not agteeisg to my worda, which am befnrt 
recited in the comrannication that v« had on tlw 38tb of 
Janoar}-; wherewith ho waa not oontemted, but he mjsti 
the audience whether I bad not amply darned the McnramL 
They would have said and done wjiat he liatad, fra- the mo* 
of them were of hia own wrracts At that day ; the 'iSth if 
January I meao. At the last I wid, I will nCTcr deny wb»l 
I said, which i^ That your doctrine of thenamnent ialate; 
but yet 1 tell yon after what order I aaid it. 

To be fehort, he md my condemnation before me, |a^ 
ticul^ly m^itioning therein but two articlee ; ftrat, that 1 
affirmed the Romish Catholic Church to be the Church of 
Antichrist ; and that I denied the reality of their eacraawala 
He cauaed me to be d^grad^ uid condemned, and put into 
the handa of the Uity, and bo he gave tno over into tbe 
iheriffi' hands, which were much bettef than hie. 

[Bogen here adds in LAtin, and I give in Englidi, with 
omiaaion of a centnd lump of verbiage,] 

En the iiam« of God, Am^'C We, Stephen, by the per- 
mission of God, binhop of Winchentet, lawfully and ri^]ill.T 
prore«ding, with all godly favour, by authority and virlni 
of our office, agninat thee, John Rogera, priest, aliaa udksl 
Mathcw, before ua penonally here proeent, bring aceuMd 
Btid detected, and notorioualy slandered of hemy ; hiriog 
heaid, K>en, and understood, and with all diligent dv'libna- 
tion, weighed, discuaaed, and coDsideced the merita of tbe 

. I»M 


cftuiK, all things b^i&g obserred, which 1>y iia in this lichulf 
in order of lawouiffht to be obsorved, fitting inour judgtnont- 
aeat, the dbhio of Oirut beiiig; fLnt called upon, and having 
God only bpfohs oUr ej'pa; ItoeauBD, by the a^tB unacted, 
propounded, and exhibited in, this matter, and by thine own 
vOideHioti, jndiciullf mode before nn, vrv io liud tb^t tliou 
luiat taught, hoMcn, and affinnoc)^ and oUatliaatcly dofendud, 
divvtn errers, hcreaiM, tutd donuuble upinions, contrary to 
tJ»e d<jctrine imd detemiinRtiioti of the holy church : uh, 
nomoly, thcso, that the Cfttholi<; Church of Rumo ia thiO 
Church of Antichriat; also, that in tho flacromont of 
the olUkT there id not, iubfltasti&Uy tior really, tho nattt^al 
body luid blood of Christ, ..... Wo Uiereforu^ 
albeit, following the exumple of Chriflt, which would not 
the doath of a BiiiD^r, bwt nithor that ho should convort 
and live, w« haTQ gone .ibout oftenlintcB t« (xjrrort thw, iind 
by all kwful moaiia that we could, and all wholeaorae 
odmonitiom that we did know, to reduce thee agnin untg 
the true faith and unity uf the Universal Catholic Church, 
notwilhstaudin,^ hitvo fouod th^oohHtinato and etiff-niH^kcd, 
willingly coDtinuinij in thy dnmmibltj opiniitns and heresita, 
ruid refusing to rtitum again untG the true fuith and unity 
of the holy mtither chuLrt-h; and ii* the'Childof wickedncBB 
and darlcnesa thou bust »o hardened thy hiiart, that thuu wilt 
not undcrstAnd the voicB of thy &hepherd, whkh with & 
fatherly ■JOfcetifO) doth soflk. uitcr thee, nor wiU be allur«d 
with his fatherly and godly admonitioiiH.— Wn*. therefore, 
Hli'phcn, the bishop aforenud, not willing that thou, which 
urt wickrJ, shouldfit now birfamo more wickfd, and infL»it thu 
Lcjrd*s flock with thy htTaay, which wo ar« givatly afraid 
uf. with Borrow of miod and bittetntfls of hBort do jud^ thuy, 
and definitively condemn thoc, tbe*iid John Rogers, otherwiwi 
culled Mathow, thy demeritA luid defaults bt'ing aggravated 
ihivugh thy dainiiable ebetinacy, as guilty of most deU'atable 
hiT««iea, and ab an ohHtioate inipenitcnt eiijner, rcfudCDg 
pe>niteiitly t« return to the lap and unitj- of the holy mother 
i-hurch, and thut thou hast been and art by Ikw exeoTnmu- 
nicnt^^ and do pronounce and declare thee to he an excom- 
municated person. Also we jironounce and declare thee, 
hinng a hen^tic, to be cast out froni the church, and left unto 
the jadgmont of the secular power, and now preeently do 
leave then as an obetiniitc hcrclie, and a person wnpped in 
the aent^aoc gf the greeit curse, to be df^mded worthily 
for thy demerits (requiring them, notwithsitanding, in the 
bowolfl of our Lord Jimi» Christ, that thia fxeoution and 
pmuahment worthily to be done upon thee, m&y bo bo 
Moderated, that the rigour thopeof be not too extreD)>e, nor 
yet the gentlcneaB too much mitigutod, but that it may be 
to the aalvation of thy aou!, to the oxtilpation, ttrror, ujij, 

conversion of the heretics, to the unity of the catholic faith), 
by this our sentence definitive, which ws hero Iny u^wn and 
agiiLnsb thee, and do with, sorrow of heart promolgBto in thia 
funn afurceuid. 

After thia sentence being read, ho sent na, niiieter Hooper, 
I nu-an, and me, to the Clink, there to remain till night : 
utid when it wus dork they eairiod lu, miutet Hooper going 
hefore with the one sherifi^ and I conung after with lbs 
othier, with bills iind weapons enough, out of the Clink, and 
Iwl OB through the bishop's house, and io through St. Mary'a 
churchyard, and ao into Southwark, and over the bridge, in 
pToecaaion to Newgate, through the city. But 1 mu»t lAiow 
you this also, that when he hiid read the condemnation, ho 
declared that I wa» in the great curse, and wh&t a vengeable 
dttngcroua matter it waa tu eat and drink with ua that Were 
accursed, or to give us any thing ; for all that did so, should 
be partaktitt of the Kamo great curse. 

Wi(^U, ]iiy lord, quoth I, hors I stand before God and you, 
and all thid honoucable audience, and take Him to wiiueao, 
that 1 never wittingly or willingly tatight any false doctrine; 
and therefore have I a good conacience before God and all 
gof*il men. J am sure that you and I &ball come before a 
Judge that ia righteoua, befon? whom I ahall be an good a 
man iia you ; and 1 nothing douht but that I ahull be- founi 
there a true member of the true Catholic Churth of Christ, 
and everlaatiDgly saved- And rB' for your false chnreb, you 
need not excommunicate me foKh of it. I have not hacn in 
it theae twenty years, tho t/>rd be thanked therefore ! But 
now ye have done what you can, my lord, I pr.iy you yet 
grant me one thing. 

What ia tiiHt y quoth he. 

That my poor wife, bctng a rtranger, may oome and epeak 
with me so long as I lire. For ighe hath ten children that 
lire hers and mine ; and aomewbst 1 would coun^l her whut 
were Ix^t for her to do. 

No, i]UDth be ; she ia not thy wife. 

Yes, my lord, quoth I^ and hath been these eighteen years. 

Should I grant her to be thy wiie? quoth he. 

Choose you, quoth 1, whether you will or not, she ahalJ bo 
iBO, ncVfrthclean. 

She ehnll not come at thoo, quoth he. 

Then I have tried out all your charity, said T. You make 
youraelf highly displcuBod with the matrimony of prici^ltf, 

hnt ' , Thereto he answered not, but looked, as it were, 

K-«qutnt at it: >ind thus I d<.<piirted, and saw him for the 
last time. 

< Here folkfwa a i»bta ataJLemaat ul what atood ia jdoot of 
ijr ol ItiD ■eieigj. 


casselt;s library of English literature. 

Ail Eljuutxav CotrntiLT Hottsi: (MobxtoS Hiil^ CHULftSlKX]. 

In the Reign of ELiaABETH. — a.d. 1&5S to a,d. 1603. 

TttE chief stren^rth of oiir literature was still in its 
veree iliiring Elizabetli's reign, but the growing 
KUOtgies of tl)p L-nuDtiy, npeut abundantly on thought 
tliat touched men to the qiiickj flddiMl their owti 
beauty and fo3-c« aJiio to English prose. A fashion 
ftfiiTwl from Italy through Europe which caused 
ueiii'Iy all wilting to be gverlaid with ingenoitifs pf 
thought and style ; but in England the fresh life of 
the time gave dignity to any di-ess. Men slit their 
(ilothca for Qrnumcut, and pudded them into deformity ; 
they caught from abroad arts of fake ttignity, but 
hat] at homo the true ] no art, Hut a posaession native 
to the soil and time. In literaturBr and in many of 
the outward forms of life, our faahiona in Elisftbeth'e 
time came from Italy. Roger ABchani, who renmined 
under ElizabctSi still Latin Secretary, <lietl in 156S, 
agEKl fiftythiue. Hi» widow two ytfiirs after hia 
dt.4Lth published his chief prose work, "The Schoql- 
Diajiter." It wa« Ijegiin in 1563, for a re-ason which 
is thus told by his own preface to the book : 

mGKS\ ASPHAM's preface TO *' THE 8CH00I,)fA8TER," 
Wlitii ihLi (fr^at pliiguQ was nX L<judon, the j-aar 1563, 
th« quocn'n mAJi^itty, QueeD Ell^tklieth, lay nt liDr cnatl^ at 
WiwUur. whure, upon thci tenth day of DgcemW, it fortuned, 
tlMt in Sir "William tVoil'B chtunhcr, tier hightiCjH'» pn'n- 
rajittl i^retar}', there Asavd to^th«r thtwe p«rWTia^3 ; 
Mr. SwretiiT)' himnclf. Sir Williiim Petro, Sir J. THnaon, D. 
Wotton, Sir Itic;hard ^^kvillr.i, truMHT'Or of the eirhcquer. 
Sir Wallor ^lildmay, rhjuicellor of the exchequer, Mr. 
Haddon. master of roqar-sta. ilr. Jolin Astlcy, maaLer of the 
j«woI-hoiiM, Mr. Benuird Hwnpton, Mr. Kii^us, aod 1. 
Ot which numlior the most pnrt were of Hor Majcsty^B moEt 
bonuurMble Pri^y Council, luid the nut serving her in very 

good place. I WAS glnil, tWh, and do rojokc yet to rexaeiii'bH'. 
that my chance wbm bo bu^py to be thon thai day, in th-- 
CDm|Hi|]y oi ao tnaity wJac and good men tOgvtboT, as hatilk 
then could hsrv beon picJcad out aguh^ ^^^ "f ^ EInglaivil 

Mr. Rocrctai^'i hath tbia acciutomcd manner : thongfa his 
liond he never ao full of most weighty afiaihi of the realm. 
yet at dinner-tune he doth stJtni to lay them ulwajm andr 
and findeth ever idt iHrcJiaioD to talk plenaantly of othrr 
mattors, but most gladly of iwinc mutter of lutLniin^. whnrein 
he will courteously heur thio mtud of the meaiivflt at Hi* 
tabic , 

Not loDg aH^r Our Bittinft down, '■' I hnro stmngv oo*'* 
brought me," »aith Mr. Secretary, " Ihie niomins, that di»iT» 
Bcholuire of Eton bo run away from the school for f«ar of 
buatiDg," Wbpreupop, Mr. Secrotarj' took o«9wOo to wiah 
that eami"- uioFfi discretion were in numy Mshoolmafitara i» 
uniupr cu}T<.i«tioii, tluLD eomnionly there ia; who many timn 
punish rather the weaknijes of nature than tho fault of ttr 
B(')iolar ; whereby many Bcholars, that might clao pnovv wcU, 
bu driven id hale Iitfiming before they know what lofifmi^r 
meaaeth: and ao arc made willing to fonuikc LbcLr book, and 
be glad to he put to aay other klfld of living. 

Mr. Petrf,' as one Bomewbat isevero of nature, «ud pklB^f. 

r Wiilia 

ima. &>nt in LincoloHtiire, and eilai^nti-d: at Cunbridgv, b* biftu 
Me with the aliidy of I"", ^t mado hii imy nt Conrt acid baeme < 
SocreUrj «f State im-^ Edw&M VI. Tbonith ha held ii4> tjHm BVAm 
Suit, be oBCHped peneouUoB. Eliiabath, upoa her Msoaaiaa. toA 
bim for ber riidet politloal HdTiftor, u BBorrt a jy ol 8tftt« aad Vnrj 
Councillor, ad4 iLrmlj* trusted Him until bis dB*U), tn ISH. 

> &r WillMia P*trt mu kbnnt W In 1563, Hffwu WUIkn P«tn. 
■OD ot a rich taaner. nf Tat-BrfOL, la DpTouBhiro, «atfr«d Up Btrtn- 
CQUefTB.Oxfanl.bntbecaiiLE FallawoC AJiI3oa]a In 15S3. He aJlerwi^- 
be<« SUOMHiTel; PrincLixJ of Peokwater"! Qui, on* ol thp TWU*'- 
of ftollfflaua Ifouaea when th&j wore being dlMolTad, HJulvrot Ik 
e«inoatB and a Eolglit, Sacrotaij toil OD« of ttw Privj OoaMfl l« 

■to*.j> ISfiSJ 



Ttwt the rod only was the aworil, that niiiat knfip the achool 
in ob«dicttt>e, and the scbolar in good order. Mr. Wotton.' 
a man mild ol nature, with soft voii'o and few words, iiidiaed 
to "iSx. Secrotiuy'a judgment, nnd said, '' [q miiM.' opinio^o, 
tbQ wihool-houiw should Ix- in dL-vil, d« it ia caUftd by luoii?, 
the house of play And pleasure, unci not ol io&t Aud bonda^B ; 
and, OS I du ramember, Kb euhh Sjocrates in one pUcc of 
Pluto. And therefore, if thr rod laurrj' the (oaruf 4 sword, 
it id tio m&rvel if thosa that ha feairful of utiturt, chooB^' 
rather to forsute the play, thau to utand Alwayjj wLthia the 
fear of a eword in a fond^ man'v hiindliDg." 

Mr. Miiaon,^ iiftfr hia manner, wiia vify merry with both 
partive, pleuaantly pkyinf^ both with tbe ghrewd touuhue uf 
H^uiy cursf* boys, und with the; amuli dieurction of many 
Lewd B^oobn&stem. Mr. HAddoii * weib fully of Mr. P«tr«'9 
ojdnion, Rnd siiid that Ihn Itest lu^houluiafitvr of our time waa 
the greatest beutar, and nami^d the pfiraua. "Though," 
qooth 1, •■' it wuH. hi» good foi-tunc tu Atnd from hbt achool 
unto the University onu of the i>eit sihoUre indwd of all our 
tiuiL-, yet wiac mua do thiali, that th^t canto so to paea, 
nther by the grcitt tovardness of the scholar, than by thf 
great bcnting of the muuter: tuid wh4?ther thie bu true or 
no, you your»el( are beat witneas.*'* 1 said BomowWt 
farth'er in tlio matter, how, and why young diildren wtre 
sooner aUurcd hy Lovi; than drivi'n by Witlng;, to attain 
good It^aming; wherein I wa^ tho bolder to say my mind, 
be<;aii!W) Sir. .St-Lri;Uin,- coHrtnoitsly provoked ini) thereunto; 
or c-lse in such a cymjtany, and nLimi,-ly in bis prest-nce, my 

Ung BOuj VUL OuA Edwiinl VI.-, Sulf-traaaTITer nnd altarwarda 
Treaiurer of tLe Pint FmJt« uul t&taClia t-.> E^Wurd VI.. BeclX'tur} of 
ibe PriTj Cuoucil to Quoen Uojy vai ChjuioelJor ol Uie Otdor ot ttie 
G>rter,u:>dflitDjl7FrJ*jCaaiicilk)t"iuii]«rEUEabetl]. He wsa in higli td- 
pote tor lixircfoS' '"^ tyttrm. naat on Fot«l|fD emboiuiles. He ttied in 1571. 
■ Mr. WottoB iii4ior hji>T« been Hcury, ■on of Edwoxd Wottou, wbo 
b^ bB^n pbysiiniia to Heut]' VIII., luid wum verj tunoua idi hia pro. 
leaSiOb, Pr, £d*rnrd Wotton died in 155&. His auu Heu)?, Gjy^i'k 
Ufiuder anil Fellui" of Corpus Chr«H CoUifge', OiJord, BBrred m 
Pnwtor to bia UnlVBrailji. uftBrwa£<di |iu 15fF7|i tiiix.-e4d«d Lu Urn 
F«cnltf of FbjBic, and olio aoqniretl a b]gh X'lace iti. Uia iiroCcasiou. 

• Sir John W<i»o« WW bfTTD Bt Abingdon, BeTfc4i, the boo nf o cowhard 
«Ik> lud morriml the riatsf ot a. monk. His utic]«, tlie tdOtik, f udini; 
Jaha Haaan apt to leom, lind liiin weU etlnntted unit iwut bim Tt> 
Oaford, wfaer? be bonune h Fellow of All Boula. Hia Hbiht)! nttradeil 
tuitiw. tad, bj aiivioo fit Sir Thomaa Uctre, Henry Vlll. seEt him tu 
DijalfntiF his studin at tlie UnlversHj of Porll, tud. Affrr bia return, 
liJit onl; kBJitlit«d tdm and ftupla^ed him on emlnaBlM, but made him 
• Friwj COancillor. TTndar Edward VT. b-a wna HtOI Privy Councillor, 
and Iwlil chaicib prefermenta, Including the Deanery nf WinclJeirter. 
In IStt he beoaiBc ChBn<rcllrir of tb^ UuvarilitT °^ Oilord. u^d beld 
tbM oflSce nntji iMfl, wben b« ml^«tl it iu laroor of CttfUtial Pole. 
M* bad irtvem np Mi deanery of WiniUieater io tbe Hrat jear of Mnxy'e 
nlgn, ami renuinad in. tbe 'Priry Council uu^et Ifary and Elliiit>eth. 
Jn IhSB be wia agdn elected f1un«el]or of the tlnireraiij of Oxford^ 
Biri wlufii Ht the dimwr of wliicb Avcbata tell», uot ou1y bf^M UiAt 
bat waj alH> TreaanJVr of tLe Qaeena CbambHr. Re xlied in 1566. 

• Currf, )7I natnred. 

t IFaifn- Haidon was »ducBl«id ut BtTo. |LEd wont to Cam'brfd^, 
wb«re be bad b aaholajTblp nt KIu^'b t'ulleire. He became PiotMeor 
of Ci«ii Law in bin Unwenril.j', aoquiTipd ifTW»t fnine for foBT-niojj. and 
»a he wui BTi eam^ refdmter, be wmi mndo, in E'dnard VT.*h reliro, 
hnaident of ICnKdaleii CoilB^, Oxford, hnt only held that otSt^e for a 
jtax. H9 &Toid«4 DOtice durintc Hanr'i t^^, hnt wmm cTDpinjed on 
«Bil>iHtfa b^ Klimbotb, uni made one of ber Maaten of Reqtie«ta. 
B* wrote aavenil boulu, au'l amoni; tltom Ipnlihsbed in. lM7t waa a 
VOlflBMot Latin Poems He died in 1571. 

• Walter Haddoo left Eton jnat before tbe time of Nt<^holu tTdall, 
who WW b««d BUffter titers from l£^ to IMI- Bnt Udnll k«pt'np tb& 
«aatOBM <tf hii pradeoeaaoF in tliia retapeot. It bi qI Ifilall tbat Tuwer 

*' From Panl'a I went to Eton, oeut, In learn atralKb.t.iFaya the Latin 
VlMra fiRy-tLrae atri|>e« §riT«ii to me at once 1 bad. 
^or Ikntt bat imall, nr none at nJl, it muie to puM tbiiH beat I wu r 
Bee, tTdall.aett, tlwraercr of tlieeto me poor lad" 


Tont is, to be more willing to uoa mine man than to oecupy 
my ton^^. 

Hir Waltf!!- Mildmay, Mr. Aatley, abd tho xi-et, atud very 
litUc ; only Sir Richard SackviUe'' satd nothing at eiU. Aft«r 
diniker, I went up to read with thf^ quiitina Majesty. "W'd 
read then together ui the Grpck tongiie, as I well rGmL'mbt-r, 
that noble tgration af Demosthenes agakiKt iEa4jhi;i€», for 
hie false defiling in hia umboesnge to king Philip of Mace- 
donia, tiir lUchard Suclcvillo camo up eoon aftiT, and flndinff 
me in her Mu,J6Hty'H privy -chamber, ho took ma by tlio 
hand, nod carrying mo to a window, sjud : "Mr. Ascham, 
I would not fui a g:ood deal of money have Imcu ihia day 
absent from dinner. ^Tieru, thoug'h 1 Oliid nothing, yet I 
gave aa good ear, and do consider as well tbe talk that paased, 
ad any ono did theri). lilr. I:^retary saLd very wisely, and 
moat truly, that nuinj' yonng wita he driven to hat-e learning, 
bvfom they know whiil Uinming* is. I can be good witnoHs 
tu thiti myself ; for a fotid tschoulmaater, before I van fully 
fourteen years old, drave mt' so wjtb fear of beating from 
all lovfi of learning-, a& now, when I know what difference it 
is, to have lemming, and to hnve httlo or none at all, I feel 
Lt my j:fr«tti3Bt grief, and find it my greateat hurt that evor 
■came lo me, that it waa my *> iU cbam^e to Ug-ht upon no 
lewd a Hchoolmasti.<r. But Bi>eiug tt \a but in i^in to lament 
thin^ pant, and also wisdom to look to thioga to come, 
ftUTtdy, Uod willingf if God li?nd me life, I will make *Jua 
my mLflhnp some oeeanion uf good hup to littli?>Tt 
SackviU?, Riy &on's son. For whooo Lrin^^g up, I would 
gladly, if it BO ploaae you, use eapecially yonr good advieo. 
I hear say you have a hub mut-h of bis agti; wa will thu- 
deal together : paint you out a achoolmaater, who ]iy your 
order shall teaeh my son and yours, and for all tbe rest I 
will provide, yea though they three do eost ta^ a couple of 
hundred pounds by year; trnd beside, yuu ahull find am M 
fast a friend to you and yours, as pen-hance any you havo." 
WTiich promi^ tha worthy (j-cntkman surely kept with ma 
nntil bia dpng day. 

We had then farther talk together of bringing up of 
rhildn'o, of the natoro of quick and htirJ wila, of tho right 
c-hoi» of n good wit, of fear and love in teuchiDg children. 
We paaaed from children and taime to youny men, namely* 
gintlomen : wb talked of their too much liberty to lice aa 
they Inat ; of tboir letting lodee too soon to oveTmuch 
ejipariencc of ill, contniry to tho good order of many good 
old eommonwoalthd of the PL-mana und Greeks; of wit 
giithen>d, and good fortune gott*.'n hy ijomo, only by experi- 
ence without le&rning. And, lastly, he roqairod of ma very 
earnestly to show what I thought of the common foing of 
Englishmen into Italy, "But," saith h<>, "hci-ause lhi» 
place, and this time will not suffer ao long talk, as thoso good 
rnnttera reqairc, therefore I pniy yon, at my request, and nt 
yoar leisure, put in acme order of writing the chief points of 
thiri our talk, concerning tbe right order of teaching, and 
honesty of living, for tho good bringing up of thildren and 
young men; And anrely, beside contentiutr me, ]-oq nhall 

' BUharA Sadeeillt. eld««t Bon of John SockvilLe 11 od Acae, daaifhf«r of 
QirWiUinni Boloyn.. hod left Oimh rid n with out tuktDK a dvpve, then 
atadifd law in Qraj'a Inti. WAS C&Utd to tbe bar, and boMina Treasnnir of 
the Army u[id>er Henry VHI., from whom be had largti gnuta of 
Abbey loudfl. He wna iiDii'lit.od in 15-IS, and belli nmoua lucnitiT« 
o-ffl^ea, AltbdU^h he was RomuTi C.itbolic, QOeen £liuihelb, wboee 
tnl COtlsia be wa», tod mnHe blni n. Priry Coauoillcir, He died In 
J.We. aftur a career o! auc<!«*ftfnl p:iODe3'-S4tTiag that bad won for biin namn nf " Fill ■arte." Hia aOn Tbomaa, 1»qru in l!i3S, kvmme 
[amriua vt pnet. and atal^eamnn, anil waa tbe Thnmna Sackrllle, attars 
waitU Lot4 Bnckfanrst, who iv, IS03 b -d Lately wrirten tbe beat ]»rl of 
ttM Bnt EuicUih traffedy. Sir Bioluu^'a lul^raat is tn tb« sdnoition 
of Ibepoet'fl pod, 

* Hamtti), eapedallr. 




both please and profit very ta&ay others.'" I made somo 
excuBc by Ibl'Ie ot aLility mid wcalinDSH of body. " WkUj" 
nith he, " I am not now to kwirn what you can do ; our dear 
frieiul, good hii. ticKidriL'kc, whcwti jtudt^aent I could well 
believe, did once for ill aatisfy me fully therein. A^in, I 
heiinl you say, not lon^ o^, that you miiy Ihank 8ir John 
Cheke for all th« le&tniag you hare ; and I know very well 
myself, that you did teach the i^ueea. And therefore, ■(?Qing 
God did u blesa you, to mako you the ^holur oi the best 
maetfir, and alHo the achouImastoE of tha beat echolitr, thut 
«vw wtre in oiif time; iiirolyf you flhotilil please God, 
benefit your country, Und honest your own tuunQ, if yail 
would take the jmin^ to impart to other* whut you learaed 
of flULh A inaatfr, and tow ye t&nght 6uch & SL'holAr. And 
in uttering the stuff ye received of the. one, in declnring the 
order ye to«k with the oilier, yo ahiAl nover Lurk neither 
niatt«r nor manner, what to write, nor how to writ«, in thia 
kind of &r^iQCrtt.*' 

I hegianiog some farther oxcuee, suddenly wu coUod to 
come to thft ^n(ii}fi. Tfce night following, I olopt little ; my 
h&vi wa^ HO fqll of thia our former talk, imd I eo mindful 
flomowhat to eatifify the honont requL-ut of so deer a friend, 
t thoug'ht to prepnnj same little treatiae for a naw-yciar's 
ftlft that ChriHtm^; hut, us it chanceth to busy huLldere, so, 
in buitdinjf thia my poor «.'hMil-houiie (tha mtht'r because 
the fonn of it ii9 eomowhiit new, nnd differing from otheni), 
the WQrk rwe duiily higher and wider, than 1 thought it 
would at tho bc^nnEQg. 

And though it appuar now, and he in very deed, hut a 

ecnoU cottage, poor for thi* tituil u.tid rude fur the workmnc- 

ohip; yet, in gtiinj^ farn'ard, 1 fgund tho gite W good, aa 1 

I loth to give it ov«r; but the making so costly, out- 

■ my ability, as many times I wiahed that Eome ont; 

t thote three, my dear friemls with fall purvieH, Sir Thomas 

Smith,' Mr, Httddon,'orMr. Watson,' had had the doing of it. 


'' Sir Thoinoi SmiCh, and Sir John Chtke, who la nninBd below, wera 
tli» two BcbolnTi who h(i4 hwn most wtivB i» iatroiucJng Or«ek 
■tudiM Luto the Vaitttidtf e( Cambriil^. Both were Imku In th« 
7Mtr Ulic and tb.07 wcro oalj aboat a janr aid-or tfaan Aacltam. 
Smitb, bom a.t SaJTitm Wkldan, wna of -QiiDaa'a Calle^, Ctunbrid^ ; 
Cbnko, bom at CuubTidsw, of St. Jobn'a, whlcb oJao wiu A^chain'^a 
Colle^. was ana of tba flrat ta be ton^lie^ hy Chekd'a 
cnthiwiuiB, ind hlmieU bec&mfl Orwk iMtom iu bia CoUe^, iu 
1337. Bmith berauneProYoat of Gt«n od the iu;ce«sii>D of Edniuil VI., 
atiil wma kni|{tite<l Is IMS. Cbeke aIho waa knighted by Ednurd TL. 
tindor wboib both Senitb atid Chcka proiqiered, anil beciune Secr^uri^a 
of Slate, Cb«ka tufferBd nmAli onder Harj. and. tU«d IQ tiiJ, baforii 
theaooesaloD of ELinb«th. 91r Tboiau Scaith w«a daptivAd of lua 
■kfflcoa, but bjul s pontioa at £100 a jear far lils learning. Under 
GUxabetli ha rcMe la hi^b tarour, bns&tae Socretary at State, auci 
CbBBcdloT of tha Oidar of the Oarter. He dlod ia 1576. 

■ Mr. Hadian, we nota S. pi^ 41- 

» Mt H'oJwA li ^ok«i of la "I'lie BQbc»lniacC«T " ib^elf aa "ooe 
o( Ibe beat acbolaia Uiat erar SL Jolin'a ColleRe bred, Hr, Wataom. 
nibieold friand, aometliiie Biabap of Liacola.''* Ha waa about i> j«u- 
rmingvr thui AAoham. He bAcame Deab of bia Calletfo and aoe of 
Ita preafibora. la im hs became domestic chnpibiln to Qardliier, 
Biihop of WlacbBstar, wbo Have bbm two liringa. Hbi taudancj* of 
tnlod waa not friotLdif ta tb.e Bflfnrm^tJon, ^ni^ U[|4<T H1U7 b& 
bqfame liuHec of 3t. Jabu'a (Saptcmber. 1^53. bat resided in the 
rollowliif Uaj), Deoji of Dnrbani (November, 15531, and in Det^tober, 
ISH, iWahop of LlBMita, bat waa not conaecTBtnd til] the faUuwiag' 
Xvgiut, H« had been one of ihate whi> -took part in tbe prr>c«e^hign 
•CtiDst Hnopor, Rpig:arii, sod CardmikAr. Hh «3tr«nie leai caused 
LItq to U^e part hi tha coadBiauatioa of Jolin Eou^b oa a.p«etilBiit 
barelk. tboUgh wbm Wataan preadbed CathoUdaiK iu tlie aorLb of 
Gij(LaiMl in Eiuf Edward'a daja, Bcra^h bad aavod him froni an arre«(. 
tor Iraaiion- Under EUxaboth, Blibop Vataon la iidd to faav« tftlk^d 
of eEHnnmotdcatiog the ouecii; in April, It&lj, he was a«at to the 
Towvr ; in Joai ha wu d«pHf«d of bia biibopric and r«hia»ed, 'Sa 
WHa atterwarda watobed. and ooeailonaJlj Imprlaooed, aod he 4i<^d a 
prUoaor onder the Bi«bnp of E1j*a ouatnlT in Widbt«h Coatle iu 
IM^ He h&d credit In his. Amj av riraf^ir and poet, «a well as 

Yet, nevorihelesBr I myself spending gladly that Lttle thaX 
1 got at home by good Sir John Cheke, and that t3wt I 
hortowed abroad of my friend Sturtnius,* besido ftomcwhat 
that WRB left mg in revereion by my old mastera Pluto, 
Arietotlft, and Cicero, I have at loat p&tch^ it up. aa I could, 
and 09 you see. If %'hef matter bo mean, and mmnly 
handlEid, 1 pray you bear both with me and it ; for never 
woric went up in worse weather, with more lets and atopa* 
than this poor school-houjie of mine. Westmiostcr Hall con 
bear some witnesa, beside muidi weakness of body, but more 
trouble of niind, by some ^uch sores as grieva me t« touch 
thom myadlf : and therefore I purpose not to Open theau lo 
othera. And ia the midet of outward injuries and inwMd 
eares, to inorease them withal, good Sir Bicbard SockriUa 
di(<lh, that wurthy genClemnn ; that caracist fsTounr and 
furtberer of God'i true religion ; that faithful nervitor to hia 
princo nnd uiutiU^' ; a lover of loaming and oil leBrned men : 
wi^e in all doinga^ eourteeua to all persons, showing B|ntB 
to none, doing good to many ; and as I well found, to me m 
fast i\ friend, as t maver lost the like before. When he waa 
gone, iny heart was dead; there was not one that wore a 
black gown for him who carried a hrasvier hoaH for faiu 
than I : when be was gone, I cast this book away ; I could 
not look upon it but with weeping fiyefl, in ruaiambering hio 
who waa the only setter on to do it; and would hnt'e been 
not only n glad commender of it, but aUo a. sure and certain 
comfort to me and mine for it, 

Almost two years together this bools lay Kittered and 
neglected, lind had been fiuito given over of me, if the 
goodticiSH of Dno* had not given me eoiiae life and spirit again. 
G^i, th'O movfT of goodnesH, prosper always him and his, aa 
he hiah many timea wmforted me and mine, and, I trust lo 
God, ^hall comfort mors and more. Of whom moat jurtlj 
I may say, and very oft, and always gladly I am wont to 
say, thHt Bwcot venio of 8(.tphocle&, s^ken by CEdipot to 
worthy Theactui : * 

theo^o^Ei, Bud diMCrrn bononr lor being ataobch to hi* ooavkittosa 
when saflerifig under EUiabath For oouaclcaDe' aake. tt it alat 
eridence of tbe kindlineaa of Aacham, who dared moaln a refom* 
□ndar Mary, and, did 90 witbpyt locLoff tie queen"* (roodwiU. (liat 
uudei Ellnabeth be debglitB to honoai hia old lellow-achobir of 6l 
Jobn'a.who ia anapnctod t-f tbe poreninie'at, aad (rom wbmeopiiaaB 
in crbarcb matttirB Aacbn-m fjitaliy diaaenta. In ^arbaTWi aobalaiabip 
bad done ita pTtJiier work in deepemn^ thoag-ht, and mrString tka 
tDind to ffcow t^ f Ca full bmdth. He wis the more fr«e to thiak hta 
own tbou^bt«, bec4LUa« he oould uot and did nOI inatdt ntlivr meata 
tbiuking' tbein. 

* Hk frimd Sturmiiu. " At home" witb Sir John Cbphe, — — — is 
EnirliLnd, Aachajm'a iblend Jiiha Starm waa bom in ]307 a| ftrhlcklaB. 
Iu Rhenish iTussIa. He gAvt hlnucll wttta sreat eathuaiiwBi talk* 
atudjr at tb« andeut cfausica, aad aet up a priotiDK preaa loa Ik* 
difinsliou of QfneJc tecl«, baln^. Ilka muat ol the wrlj stndcnta tt 
Greeks a roformer. After teaching Greek, Latin, and lagjc in Pmh 
ha Iflfc for StnLsbunr to avoid reli^ua peraecatioa. At Stnabuit a 
clvlo nufuate, hJKiblj honoured ba bLa town, which ha liad anrad 
anbatautiiiJI; on emboaaies, aud alao named Jlohn Stonn, wiw aboot tha 
same ticna founding a Hl^b BchiKil, nnd be mmia bis learadd naimraahi 
ita Qnl rector. AJtchufn's lereol Qreak had pnlabljr SitL druTM 
biiu into coireapoudencfi witb Stiirmiua, aod a hoarty friandaUp 
between tbe two Bcholajra waa eBtublLahed bj the pea. Wbeo *— ^-— 
went with tbe embaaajr to -Oennaay, id Kdwurd VI 'a time, be lootad 
for Bturm at LonTatu, bnt h^ hivppapQ4 IG t>0 a.W4t; from hoin^ Bd 
tbe frieaili nevet aaw each other. Bturm lirn^d ojiUl uep. 

' Sir Wltliam CecU. 

*■ Id (Edipaa at GdIodus, line 1139, after Tbeaena haa rt am »i ta 
(XVlipua hEa dauEfaten aeiied bj Creati, " Pur wbat I have, t faa** 
thnoush thee, uid do otker among mortals ;" or, aa it reads wtth Ife* 
oontext ID Frot, E. U. Plaia}>tre'a tnualatioB of Bopboclaa— 
" Now tbaae, bejond mr hopw. 
Appear ngaio ; for well I know thii Joj 
Haa come (o me from do oae elsa tet Chta ; 

Thia hope hntb helped me to end this book ; which, if ha 
allow, 1 shall thizkb my l&boura wol! employed, and aimU nat 
much esteem the mUhking of any others. And I trust hi^ 
eh^JI thmk the bett€r of it^ bccaunc ho Hhi^ll find the b<:st 
part thereof to come out of his schDol, whom ho of all men 
loved and liked Ifcst. 

Yctt some meii, friendly enough ot nature, but of email 
jadgtoent in learning, do think I tolia too much ^ina, and 
spead tix) iDiich time, in j»ttiDg forth those chililtec'a a^in^. 
Uut tbuw gcKMl men wert! nt'vor. brought up in SocrateB's 
flchool, who Bsith plainly,' " Thait Ho uad goeth &botit a moro 
godly purpose, thim he that is mindful of tho good bripging 
up bcith of hilt own nud athar mi-n's cbildi^n." 

Therefore, I tntst, good ^nd wise men will think well of 
this my doing. And of other, that think otherwise, I will 
think myself, thoy an liut mon to be pardoned for their 
(oily, and pitied for their ignamnod. 

In whtJDg this book, I have had ennaegt reject to three 
apcoi&l points; troth of rpligiati, hoUiOftty in living, right 
cvder in leonung. In which threti ways, I pray tSod my 
podi- L'hililnm nii^y dilig^ttitly walk ; for whoeo siike, bh nhtiiro 
movi^^ und rewsoa required, and notMjasity also somewlmt 
oompelted, I waa the willinger to take these pains, 

For, Baedng at my death I am not like to leave them any 
great store of living, tborefoTQ in my life-time I thought 
good to bequeath imto them, in this little book, a» in my 
win aad testam'Ont. tlia right wuy to good learning ; which 
if they folloW^, with the foar of God, they ahkll very well 
com^ to iHfficiept:y of living. 

I wisli also, with all my ho&rt, that yaung Air. Robert 
Sackville may tnko that fruct of this labour that bi» worthy 
grandfather purposed ho should have doD« : and if any other 
do ta.ko either profit or plcBsHuro hereby, they huvc canso to 
thank 3Ir. Robert Samkville, fot whom eapecialty this my 
Bc^i'Mjlruaster was |nt)yided. 

And otie thing I would have tha reader co&eiiier in reading 
tbu boolc, that, because no schoolmaster bath charge of any 
xrhild ht^fore hs enter into hia achodl, theriiifonj, I Itiuving all 
former care of their good bringing up to wise and good parepts, 
aa a matter not belonging to the achoolma^cr, I do appoint 
Au my Scboptmoster then and there to begin, whore his 
cAce and ch&rgo beginneth. Whieh charge loeteth not 
kmg, but until the scholar bo mode able to go to the 
imiverHity, to proceed in logid, rhetoric, and other kinds of 

Yet, if my Schooloiftftt4?r, for love he bearcth to hie Acholor, 
dull tcBch him BotnewhHt for hia furtherance and betlor 
judgment in learnings that may serve him ^even y^ar after 
in the univeraity, he doth his scholar no more wrong, nor 
deaerveth no worse namf thereby, thmi he doth in London, 
who, selling silk or cloth uato his friH^nd, doth give him 
better meaaure than cither hia promise or baFgAin woa. 

Fareutll in Chrvii. 

Queen EHzttljetb exclnimeij, when she heard of 
Aacham's death, that "she wouM rather have cast ten 
thousand |>oumU into the sea than have lost her 

YiiT Uiaii taoHt savied ttiem^ thou, and avlj than ; 
And naj tbe gtidi ^rvit all that T Doald wtob 
To thee tuA U thf land, "^ot t hiiT« foiiml 
Hotq oaly &mov laeD the feu- ol God. 
Tkft ripbteoiu imrpoee, an'il tbe tmtlifDJ, iron] ; 
^^^_ A.nd kaowinfl: ChiM t -^tyf It b&ck irith *t-°"V^ ] 

^^^L Tot lekal I havr, I hart l\Trnvj\ thM oIviiA. 

^^^K Anrl pow. prince, [ pnvj tb«e, ^vs thr huid 

^^^V Tlut I tuaj gmp it i ood, U that ma^ !>*> 

^^V Kin tbj dcmr bnjw." 


Ascham." Thet* are the clearest testimonies to 
his gentlenesH of character, anH among the beat 
acholars of Elizabeth's reign, Ascbam's English 
atyle was hardly in leag repute than Ma Lntiit. 
Gabriel Harvey wrote that " the finest wita prefer the 
loosest period in M. Aacham or Sir Philip Sidney 
before the tricksiest page in ' Euphues ' or Pup 

John Lyly's " Euphues," which gave its name to 
the style in fashion at the time of ita spi>eanince and 
for the rest of the yetvrs of Elisiiibeth'fi rmgn, seema 
partly to have been inspired by a i-eading of Aschani's 
" Bchoolmaater." Lyly'a age was Hbout twenty-aix 
in 1579, when "EuphHea" was published. He was 
a Kentish man, who speaka of h^se If as " sqai-ce 
bgni " in Queen Mai'j's reign. He became a student 
of Magdalene College, Oxford, in 156&, took his 
B.A. degree in 1573, was m. 1574 seeking, without 
success, a fellowship through the help of Cecil, then 
Jjotd Burleigh, who became after this time Ida friend, 
and found lum some employment in hia service. In 
1575, Lyly commenced M.A., and in the winter of 
1578 he wrote *' Euphues," which va& publisljed 
eai'ly in the spring. The ftiahion of ingenious talk 
bad been brought home to England by the young 
men travelling in Italy to finiah their education. In 
Italy it had arisen dtiring the decay of liberty and 
rise of petty tyrannies within the old repnblics. Tlie 
Medici at Florence, and other little supreme beingH 
elsewhere, had encouraged talk aliont literature afl a 
substitute for less convenient talk about politics, had 
aet up as patrons of liteniture and art, enjojTng both 
to a certain extent, and coming into the inheritance 
that was the produce of a freer life, they lived 
in a fruit time, ate and enjoyed the fruit, dia- 
cusaed its flavour with a-itical elegance, and killed 
the ti'ee. The fine gentlemen at the little conil-a of 
Italy affected wit and talked daintily. Wliatever 
they said must display wit or culture, both at once 
if [Kissible. An allusion that sliowcd reading, witti 
ft turn of thought to it that Eihoweil wit, and turn* 
of alliteration and neat balances of word with word 
that showed in the mere phrase-making a more than 
vulgar ingenuity, was aimed at even in speaking, 
and muiih more in writing. The fashion spread from 
Italy through Western Europe, and alfected literature 
in England, Spain, and France, hut especially in 
England and Spain, for French literature was then 
wanting in energy. The fashion having become 
established by 1579, and Italian love-tales wiitten 
in this daintily conceited fashion being iu high 
favour with the courtier?, John Lyly thought it not 
ami^s to put into the heads of courtiers some of the 
good doctrine he found iu Ascham's " School master," 
but framing it after their own daibty manner in the 
shape of an Italian novel, Ascham had condemned 
the corruption of manners introduced by the much 
going of young EngUshmon to Italy, and had dwelt 
oa the deep need of gentleness and eamestnesB in 
trainiBg of the young. Tliose fathers who most 
neefled the lesson were men who would not reatl & 
book with "Schoolrnaater" for its title, but who 
might be caught by the bait of a fanhionuble love- 
story, It$tero had a name taken— through Ascham — 
from Plato, representing simply a youth apt by natur& 




[i.1.. . 

to be influenced by all impressions from without. 
Awrihmn had represented in " The School master /' 
iifita Plato's "Ropyblic," the "seven plain notes to 
choose a good wit for a clillil iii learning. He should 
be : 1. Eiiphuea, that ia to say, by nature well con- 
iidtuted to receive impressioiiH through each of his 
flenses, with a iaU use of all powers of the boJy, Mid 
to [M£s knowledge on to others with kelp of a. ready 
wit, dear voice aud gooiily preaence. ''2. Good <►£ 
memory. S. Given to love learning. 4. Having a 
will lo take painB. 5, Glnd to h«^r and Is&m of 
another. 6. Bold to ask qiiestiona. 7. LoviDg praise 
at hia father's or master's han<l for well-doing. Lyly 
took "Euphue-R" from tliiit lint aa the name for his 

hero, and with a profoundly earnest purpoBe imtler- 
lying a quick wit, wrote aftet- the fashion of the day 
with such complete suoceas that the style of liie book 
was taken as a standard of the form of writing he 
adopted, which waa tlience called in Elizabeth's day 
Kuphuiam. Tlie uanie is retained in the study of 
Etigliak literature na a convenient term for the etyle 

■ CKri* Dnpsrad, B«Wm- (lto tbo pf«n»d feet of Cbriat, rapiported hs 
Qnem Ellub^tli'i bdd^efl. All «Ih la Cavatwd wit£ ■ Oot^'a head 
of cfrvmoniiil. tLiu fornied ;— A trborob bell !■ Um halmat, inUld with 
CTDMM Dwde of swords uu) fire-bmnda ; Lto plnme la the vmoke at a 
oeuaor I Ita onwraeuM sre a miUnA wolf d«TOTuing ■bwp. Mi (n with 
■ hooh^ » E(XM« w^tb A Toatif kk lU bLQ, kod t. bof In k iqtun (iap, 
dUTonrllBK. Of Ili« Qur^a'a (aoe, jnteii and fla|tia nuk* cheek, 
month, and ckuu ; c1uILb« And bolj warer makv tb« C^V ; a >cnm jrfaoCi 
ttio BOM' (tlu* *na B fLah-Bbapcd box nied to rmtahi a nnall iTniigw of 
Chiiat at tit % —iat, bac«.iu« the inltiala aI G^re«kirord< for "Jwnu 
Christ, Qod'fi San, SavlDttr," wibra put lafTAtbef, m&da tlie O'TMik tnr 
fiah;. Apa{»lbu]]uid it* dvp«id«iita«J form tbccvl'ol bnir and the 
«Ar, In tba ibibiildprB, muNig Chargfa oraaaKBlm, «re a pjn and a 
El^atd BIblo with Popa* mitr4 uid k«f h opolL Its oorer. 

Etbounijiiig in ingenious conceita of IJuicy and tricks 
of phraae, which represent the outward dress of 
nmcli gooii Eitglijih thought under Elizabeth. In- 
gfinuity of iJie same kind wafi tned with the pencil 
as with tht! jien. Tints a writer illustrated his 
comment on the ovei'Iaying of pxire ChriBtifmity 
with t^eremotdak uf Home with an ingenious puzzle 
picture of ChriBt covei-ed. 

There was ui such a «tyle among weak writers 
a not leisa obvious overlaying of the lirst aunpUcitiee 
of truth. But the times bred vigoiu-, and in Elijsa- 
beth'a days uiajiy a good wit could clothe li\'ing 
breathing tliuught in a rich robe of conceits that 
gniced its free mox'cnieiit^ and height«ned rather 

than obscured eVL'ry chann. 

The first part of " Euplmea " ia the complete work 
The second and longer part, "Euphnes and hia 
England," published in 1 5^0, was apparently designed 
to uiitigate some of the severity of the first, ami in- 
directly deprecate m courtly ftishion an interpretation 
of the author's meaning that might lead to the star- 
vation of his fumUy, In the first iiart, Lyly wtioSed 
liis conscience ; in the second poit, but still without 
diidionesty^ he satisfied tlie country and the court. 

In the dedication of his first part to Loid de U 
Warre, Lyly auggests that there may be found in it 
"more sfteeches whicli for gravity wiU mislike the 
foolish, thiLU unseemly terms which for vanity may 
offend the wise." He antictpatt-s some little difr 
favour fixim the " fine wits of the day ;" and hii 
allusions to " the dainty ear of the curious sifter," 
to the use of " suiterflaous elocjoence/' to the &eard] 
after " tlioae which sift the £nefit meal and hvviT U»ft 
whitest mouths," sufiiciently show that his own 
manner was fonned upon a previously existing taste. 
Here it is that a censure occutb which is veiy 
significant : " It is a world to nee how Engliiduueji 
desii°e to hear finer speech than tlieir language will 
allow, to eat finer bread than is made of wheat, or 
Wear finer cloth than in made of wool ; but I let pwB 
their fineness, which can no way excuse my folly." 

Euphues was a young gentleman of great patri- 
mony, who dwelt in Athena, and who corresponded 
in lua readiness of wit nnd perfeetnesa of body to 
the quality called Euphues by Ftata Disdaining 
counsel, the youth left hin own country, and happened 
to arrive at Naples. " This Naples was a pla 
more pleasure than profit, and yet of more ] 
than piety, the very walls and windows 
showed it rather to be the tabernacle of Venus I 
the temple of YeBta ; a court more meet for aji 
jilheist than for one of Athens." Hero the youUi 
determined to make his alKxIe, and wanted no otwi- 
ixiniona He welcomed all, but trusted none ; and 
showed 50 pi-egnant a wit, that Eubulus, an ol'l 
gentleman of Na^des, as one lamenting his wantonn€« 
and ]o\'ing his wittiness, wai-ned lum against tlie 
dtmgers of a city where he might see drunken satB 
wallowing in every house, in every chamber, 
yea^ in every channel. The speech of gooil oonnseJ 
{which occupies four {itages) doseil with the Bolemn 
adtoonition, "Serve God, love God. fear God, aad 
God will 80 blesE thee ag either heart can wish ot thy 
friends desire." 

Euphues, who was not at this sta^ of his jour&ejr 


LUH n^^ 

SU *,i^ 15HD.J 



through Ufe also (jwA^jfooi — glad to Itiam of another^ 
»ocu3etl the old gentlftirtan of churlisluissis, timt 
proved to him by many similitud'CH that men'a 
uatares are not alike. The sun doth harden the dirt 
tind Dielt the wax ; lire maketh the gold to shine 
and the straw to amother ; perfunieij refresh tlie dove 
uud kill the beetle. Black will take no other colour. 
The stone ftslwstos being ont* maile hot will uever 
l»e made cold. Fire cannot be forced downward. 
How can skge couuael iis who are young, when wo 
iiTv. coiifcmries i I am not Kiisotbered, iwiyH the young 
jiian, by your smoky argiinients, "but an the 
cluimeteon, though he have most ^uts draweth least 
breath, or aa the eUler tree, tliou^dt he be fullaat of 
pith, ia farthest froru strengtJn : !iO tliougb your 
reaaoua aeem inwardly to yourself somewhat eub- 
Ktantial, and your jierauasiona pithy in your own 
conceit^ yet they are nought." Here, says Lyly, 
ye may behold, gentlemen, how lewdly wit ataudetli 
in hi^ own light ; and he attackis in his own jm^fsou 
the cemtoriouiine»s of luen of aharp capacity, who for 
the moat part " esteem of thenisolvea aa most proijer." 
If one be bai-d iu conceiving, they prouounce him a 
dolt ; if given to study, they proclaim him a dunce ; 
if meny, a jester ; if aad^ & »aint ; if full of words, a 
»A ; if without speech, a cipher. If one ar^ie with 
them boldly^ then is be impudent ; if coldlvi an 
innocent ; if there be reaaonin^ of divinity they cry, 
C/ute aupra twa nUiU ad nm ; if of huinauity, iientcnr 
tiaa hquitur &i/j*ni/ex. But of himself he confesses, 
" I have ever thought so superBtitioualy of wit, that 
I fear I have committal idolatr}' against wi^om." 

After a two mouths' sojourn in Naples, Euphues 
found a friend in a young and wealthy town-V>om 
^ntleinan named PhilautUB. Euphues and Philautue 
used not only one board, but one bed, one book, if so 
bo it they thoiight not one too many. Philautaa 
had crept into credit with Don FerarfJo, one of the 
«hief governors of the city, who although he Imd a 
CDurtly crew of gentlewomen sojourning in hiu |>ala£e, 
jet hifi daughter Lucilla stained the beauty of them 
alL Unto her had Philauiua access, who won her by 
right of love, and should have worn her by right of 
law, had not Euphues., by str&nge destinv, broken 
the i^ionds of marriage, and forbidden the bium^ of 

Jt happened tliat Dan Ferardo hoA occasion to go 
to Venice about certain of hLs own affaii^, leaving 
his daughter the only etewardof his household. Her 
father l»eing gone, fihe sent for her friend tO auppcr, 
who came not aloue, bat with lii» fnend Euphues, to 
whom the lady gave cold welcome. W}ieu they all 
sat ilown, Euphues fed of one dish, which ever fftood 
before him, the beauty of Lucilla. 8up|)er being 
ended, " the order was in Naples that the gentle- 
women would desire to hear aome discourse, either 
conceniiug love or learning ; and although PhilautiiR 
was requested, yet he posted it over to Euphues, 
whom he knew most fit for that purpoae," 

Then follows one of the dtscoui-sea characteristic 
oE what in Elizabeth's day passed for the lighter 
portions of this work, Euphuea apoke to the 
quBfition whether qualities of mind or body most 
Awakea love ; declared for mind ; and said to the 
gentlewomen. If you would he tasted for old wine, 

be in the month a pleaaant grape. He ]>aaaed to the 
incjuiry whether men or women be moat ranstant ; 
and, accounting it invidious to choose his own side in 
that argument, undertook to maintain the contrary to 
whatever optuion might be given by Lucilla, Lucilla, 
williug to hear from him i>rai8es of her sejr, declared 
that woman are to be won with every wind. Euphues, 
therefore, began the praiee of woman's constancy, but 
ended abruptly, " neither," he said, " for want nf 
good will or lack of proof but that I feel in myself 
auch alteration that I can scarcely utter one word." 
Ah, Euphues, Euphues ! The gentlewomen were 
struck into such a quiindary with this sudden change, 
that they alt chauged colour. But Euphues, taking 
Fhilautus by the hand, and giving the gentlewomen 
thanks for their ]»a,tience and hin repast, bade them 
all farewell, and went immediately to his chamber. 

Lucilla, who now began to fry in the flameB of love, 
all the company being deimi-ted to their lodgings, 
entered into these terms and oontmrieties. Her 
Bolitoquy is three piiges and a half long, and with 
its proa and cons of ingenious illustration curiously 
(irtiHcial. Euphues, immediately afi>erw4ird3, has four 
pages and a half of mental conflict to work out in 
similitudes. "When be liad talked with himself, 
PtilftutuB entered the chamber, end offering comfort 
to his mourning friend, was ileluded with a tale about 
the charms of lavia, Lucltla'a friend. Fmm PhilautuH 
the fake friend iM>ught help in gaiimig frequent acccse 
to the Iwly. 

PhilautUB and Euphu«i therefore i-epaired tag;ether 
to the house of Ferardo, where they found Mistress 
Lucilla and Livia, accompanied with other gentle- 
women, neither being idle nor well employed, but 
playing at cards. Euphues waa called upon to re- 
sume hiia former discourse upon the fervency of love 
in women. But whilst be was yet speaking, Ferardo 
entered, and departed again within an hour, canjing 
away Philautus, and craving the gentleman, his friend, 
to supply his room, Philrtutus knew well the cause 
of this sudden depoi'ture, whit'h was to redE?ein certaui 
lands that were mortgaged in his father's time to the 
uKe of Ferardo, who, on that condition, had beforetime 
promified him his daughter In marriage. Enphue^a 
was surprised with such iucredible joy at this strange 
event, that he had almost swooned ; for, seeing lus 
eo-tival to be departed, and Feranio to give him so 
fn'endly entertainment, he doubted not in time to 
get the good will of Lucilla. Ten pages of love-talk, 
unusually nch in similitudes, do in fact bring Euphues 
and Lucilla to a secret understanding. But "an 
Feranio went in post, so bs returned in haate;" 
and Ijefore there wa.s a aeoond meeting of the lovers, 
the young lady's father had, in a speech of a (lage 
long, (xtntaining no similitudes, proposed her imme- 
diate marriage to Philautus. Lucilla replied artfully; 
disclaimed moi-e than a playful acquaintance with 
Philautus ; and declared her love for Euphuea, to 
whom therefore Philautus, after a long soliloquy in 
hia own lodgings, wi-ote a letter. Havuig received a 
gibing answer, he disdained all further inter«)urae 
with the fulne friend. 

Euphues having absented himaelf from the house 
of Ferardo, wliile Pei'ardo himself waa at home, longed 
aore to see Lucilla, which now opportunity off^^ 



[&.». ISTf 

>:nto him, Ferardo being gone again to Venice with 
Pliilantus. But in tliis his absence, one Curio, n 
^ntleman of Napliee, of little wealth and lefss wit, 
Launted LuciUa, unci so enchanted hei\ that 
SupliueB waa alBO cast oflf with Philautus. Hia 
next conversation wiU) the fickle lady endied therefore 
thus ; — ■" Farewetl, Lncillrtj the most inconstant thjit 
ever vaa nursed in Naples ; furewell Naples, the 
moat curaed town in sJl Italy ; and women all, 

Eiiphues talked much to himself when he reached 
home, lamenting his i-ejection of the fatherly counsel 
of EubuluH, and hia spending of life in the laps of 
liulies, of his lands in maintenance of bravery, and 
of his wit in the vanitioa of idle sonnets. The greatest 
wickednesa, he found, is drawn out of the greatest 
wit, if it be abused by will, or entangled wit!i the 
world. Or inveigled by women. H^ will endpjivoiir 
iiiinself to amend all that \& past, and be a mirror 
of godlineas thereafter, rathtir choosing to die in hin 
stiiciy amidst hia booka, than to caurt it ui Italy 
in the company of ladiea. 

The stoiy is at an end, although thi3 volume is 
not, and Lyiy'a idle readers, who have caught at liia 
bait of ft fashionably eonceittMl tale, may now begin 
to feel the hook with which he angles. Ferardo, 
after vain expostuhition M'ith hie daughter, died of 
inwfitdl gi^sf, leaving hpi' the only beii- of hia lands, 
and Curio to posseRS them, Irf>ng afterwards we 
are incidentally told of the shameleasnesa of her 
subsequent life and of her wretched end. Philautus 
and Eiiphuea reneweil their friendship. Philautus 
vafi earnest to have Euphuea tarry in Naples, and 
EuphueR detjirouit to have Philautiis to Athens ; but 
the one was so addicted to the court, the other to 
the univeraity. that ©twh refused Che offer of the 
other ; yet this they agreed between themselves, 
that though their bodies were by distance of place 
severe*!, yet the communic'a,tion of their niiuda waa 
to continue. 

The JiTHt bit of hiH raind communicated by the 
experienced Euphues Is entitled " A Cooling Canl 
for Pliilaiitui} and all fond Xxivi^ra." He is ashanif^l 
to have himself h*!*n, by reason of an idle lovr, not 
mnch unlike those abbey lubbers in his life (though 
fer luilike thein in belief) wluch la^HDurwl till thry 
were cold, ate till they SFweat, and Jay in betl till 
their bones ached ; urges that the sharpest wit 
iuclincth only to wickednoas, if it be not exercised ; 
And warns against immoderate sleep, immodest piny, 
imeatiable flwilling of wiiie. He bids Philautus 
study physic or law — Galen givetli goods, Justinian 
honoum- — or confer all hia Htudy, all his time, all his 
treasure, to the attaining of the sacreil and sincere 
knowledge of divinity. If this Ije not for hini, let 
him employ himself in jousta and tourneys, rather 
than loiter in love, and spend his life in the lai^ta 
of ladies. Wlien danger is near, let him go into the 
country, look to hig grounds, yoke his oxen, follow 
hk plough, " and reckon not with thyself how many 
milew thou hast gone — that ahoweth weariness > but 
how many thou haet to go— that proveth manlinewJ' 
Of woman's enticing om&mentjt, Bays l^uphuea, " I 
Loathe almost to tliink on their ointments and 
apothecary drugs^ the sleeking of their facee, and all 

their glibber sauces which Ijring queasinesa to tite 
stomach and disquiet to the mind. T^ke from them 
their peHwigs, their jwintings, their jewek, their 
rolls, their bolsterings, and thou shalt aoon perceive 
that a woman is the least part of herself." And 
Philautus also he admonishes — " Be not too curious 
to curl thy hair, nor careful to be neat in thine 
apparel ; be not prodi^l of thy gold, nor precise in 
thy going ; be not like the Knglisluuan, which pre- 
ferretli every strange fashiun to the use of hi« own 

The "Cooling Card " is followetl by a letter "to 
the grave Matrons and lione.»t Maidens of Italy,** in 
the spirit of one who, an he writes, " may love the 
clear conduit water, though he loathe the muddy 
ditch. Ulysses, though he detested Caly]>ao widi 
her BOgareil voice, yet he embraced Penelojke with 
her rude distaff." It ahouhl no more grieve the 
tnie woman to hear censure of woman's folly "than 
the mintmaster to see the coiner haiiged." 

Increasing in gravity as he proceeds, Gupbue* 
founds on the recollection of his misspent youUt "ft 
caveat to all parents, how they might bring their 
children up in virtue, and a commandment to all 
youth how they should frame themselves to their 
father's instructions." Tliis part of Euphues is, in 
fact, under the title of "Euphues and hia Epbebus,'" 
a systematic essay upon education, Bound ag Ascbam'B 
in its doctrine; dealing with the management ef 
children from their birth, and advancing to the ideal 
of a University. 

Having reasoned that philosophy — on^, in in 
teachings, with religion — should be the soholar's 
chief object of desire, Euphues delivers horoe-thmsu 
at the University of Athena, foi- the license of the 
scholars, the unseemly laahiopa of their dress, their 
newly-imported silks and velreta, tlieir courtien^ 
ways, ami their schisms. "I would to God," he aaya, 
" they did not imitate all other nations in the vice 
of the mind as they do in the attire of their body ; 
for certainly, as there is no nation whose fiuhion in 
apparel they do not use, so there is no wickednew 
published in any place that they do not practise. . - . 
Be them not many in Athens which tliink there is 
no God, no redempttou, no resurrection T " The 
common [leople, seeing the liceiitiouff lives of students. 
say that they will rather send their childj^n to the 
cart than to the univeraity ; " and until I see better 
reformation in Athena," Euphuea adds, " my yoong 
Kphebus sliall not be nurtured in Athens.'* 

An ad«lreBB to the gentlemen-scbolara of Oxford, 
prefixed to a subsequent edition of the Ixiok, prov« 
to U3 that in these passages of Euphues it unu 
believed that Ojtford was " boo much defaced or 
defarnod ; "— 

" If any ^nlt he cOminitted," Lyiy writda, " impute it to 
EiiphuCT, who know you not ; not to Lyly. who liat«« ytia 
not. Yet may I of all the rsnt moat roDilemn Oxford it 
nnldadnt^sie, of vice I <aniiot, -who aecmcd to waan me befiw 
she broitght me forth, aad to^ve me bonRS to gnaw beJoTv 1 
could get lh« tciit to suck. Whcrdu she played the w-r* 
mother, in sending mc into the country to Dum*, wfam 1 
tired at a dry hrsait Uiie€ yean, and was at the last lomA 
to wean myueU." 

' M «.b, UfO.] 



Lyly, who wa.s a Muatar of Arts, had pa8s>Ml fraia 
tlie LTuiveniity of Oxionl into that of Caiubritige, 
hilt Under whnt cireutuatjiLnL-PS we ai* ti1ia.hlii to eiiy. 
It was suggested that EiqthU'RB, on his arrival iii 
England, was to visit Oxford, " when he will either 
recant his MiyLugs or renew his complaintfl." But he 
<Ud not get fflj-ti*er tliaii London. 

(Jf the rest of thiS treatise on education, fanning 
so prominent a part of " Euphues, or the Anatomy 
of Wit," thft mtiin doctrines are »i)ch as tliese ;— No 
youth is to be taught with stripea Ascham and 
Lyly were alone in maintaining this doctrine against 
the atroDge&t contrary opinion. Life is diviilml into 
retnifision and atxidy. Aei thei% is watching, bo i^ 
tli^re sleep ; ease is the sauce of labour ; holiday the 
other half of work. Children should exercise a 
diHcreet silence : " let them also lie admonished, tliat, 
when they ahall apealt, they speak notliing but 
tnith ; to lie is a vice moht detestable, not to be 
suBered in a filave, much lees in a son." Fathers 
should study to maintain by love and by exauiplu 
iiiAueDcfi over th«ir sous as they advance to maidiootl ; 
'■ let thetn with mildnesB forgive light offences, ami re- 
member that they themselves have been young. .... 
^rae light faults let them disaeinble m though they 
knew them not, and seeing them let them not seem 
to see them, and hearing them let them not aeem to 
hear. We can e-asily forget the offencefl of our 
frieuds, be they nevei- so great, and shall we not 
forgive the escapes of our children, be they never bo 
small ') " 

Let the body be kept in its pure ati-ength by lionest 
esercise, nmi let the niind, adds Lyly, falling agajji 
into the track of omisure followe<l by all satirists of 
the day, "not be carried away with vain delights, 
as with tra\'el]ing into far and strange countries, 
where you shall sfe inoi« wiokedne^ than learn 
Tirtue and wit Neither with costly atttre of tlie 
new cut, the Dutch hat, the French hose, the Simjiiah 
ra.|ner, the Italian hilt, liud I know not what." There 
is nothing, he reminds youth, swifter than time, and 
nothing sweeter. We have not, as Seneca saith, 
little time to live, but we lose much; neither have 
we a short life by nature, but we make it Rhoi'ter by 
naughtuiesB ; our life is long if we know how to use 
it The greatest commodity that we oin yield unto 
our Country, is w^ith wisdom to bestqw that talent 
which by gi-ace was given us. Here Kuphues repeats 
tlie closing sentences of the wise counsel of Eubidus, 
scorned by him in the days of his folly, and then 
l^Bs&A to a direct exhoi-tation to the study of the 
Bible. " Oh ! " he exclaims, " I would gentlemen 
would sometimes sequester themselves from their 
own delighbt, and employ their wits in searching 
these heavenly divine raysteriea." 

Advancing Ktill in Kimeatneas as he prpsenta his 
Eu|djxiea growing in wisdom and now wholly devoting 
himself to the study of the highest truth, a letter to 
the gentlemen-Scholars in Atlimis pi'efacesi ji dialogue 
lietween Kuphues and Atheos, which is an argument 
against the infidelity that had ci'ept in from Italy. 
It is as Earnest ag if Latimer himself had pre4iched 
it to the courtiers of King Edward, Euphues appeals 
Holemnly to .Scri])ture and the voice within our- 
selves. In citation from the sacred t«xt consist 

almost hit! only illustrations ; in this he abonuda. ' 
Whole |>agea contalu nothing but the words cf 
Sfriptnre. At a tuue when fanciful and mythological 
adoniment was so common to literature that the 
very Bible Lyly read — the Bishops' Bible— contained 
wood-cut initials upon subjects drawn from Ovid's 
"■ Metamoi7>hoBea," and opened the Epistle to the 
Hebrews with a sketch of Leda and the Swan. 
Lyly, ill the book M-hich lias been for so many yeai-s 
condemned unrcadj does not Once mingle false 
ornament with reasoning on saci-ed things. He 
refers to the ancients only at the outset of liia argu- 
ment to show that the heathen had acknowledged a 
Creator; mentiona Plato but to Bay that he recognised 
Diia whom we call Lord tidd omnipotent, glorious, 
immortal, unto whose similitude we that ci*eep here 
on earth have our souls framed ; and Aristotle, onl/ 
to tell how, when he could not find out by the secrecy 
of nature the cause of the ebbing and the flowing of 
the sea^ he cried, with a loud voice, " O Tiling of 
Things, have mei-cy ui>on me ! " In twenty black- 
letter pagfB there are b«t three illustrations drawu 
from aup|X)6©d properties of things. The single 
anecdote from profane history I will here quote from 
a discourse that introduces n^rly all the texts in- 
corporated in our Litui^ : — 

" 1 hftve read of Th^iinuitocleB, which having offended 
FhiUp, the King of Macedonia, and could do wiiy appaaso 
hia angor, meedng hi» young' hod Aleiandf^r, t<K)k him in 
hia ariDB, imJ mut Phitip ia ihe face. I'hlli])^ Hi'cidg the 
StnLliTUj' countenaoci; of the cMlil, wstB wnU plvaimd with, 
ThomiBtocka. Eion so, if through thy manifold sina and 
heinous offcnreii thou provoke tho heavy diBpleunurc of thy 
God, inBomacJi as thou Hhult tremble fOr horror, titka Us 
H>nly begotten and wcll-helav^Kl Son Jesus in thmc onnn, and 
then hv. iif;ith<>r can nur will be angry with ihcc. It thou 
have dcniod thy God, yet if thou go out with Peter and weep 
hittcrlj.', God will iwt deny thee, Thoag-h with the pnidigal 
#>n thou watlow in thine own. wjlfijln,cfia, yot if thou retura 
Of^tn »orrowful thouehalt be reocirFni. If ihou b(^a grievouft 
offender, yet if thi>n come unto ChrJat with the woman in 
Luke, and vash hie feet with thy tun, thou shalt obtain 
remiasioB." ' 

Lyly's " Euphues" closes with " Certain, letters writ 
by Eujiliues to his friends," of which 1 take two as 
pieces eom[>tete in themHelves which niay serve aa 
]>Bttems of Euphuism from Lyly's hand. They are 

reproduced in the origiim! spelling. 

Euphuti and Eubultu. 
I salute thee in thu U>rd, Ac, Although I wa& not to 
wjttii> to follow thy grauo aduiee when I firet knew lh«: 
yet doe I not lucke grace to giqo thoe Ihunka Binco I tryed 
thoo. And if I wcro aa able in pemwoile thc« to pstience, 
as tho« wort desirous to orhurt mo lo pietif. or aa wise to 
tattifort thoc ia thine age, as thou wilting to instruct me in 
my youth, thou ahouldcat nowo with leaiw grinfe eaduro thy 
late loHse, and with little care leads thy aged life. Thoa 

■ "^le prsoadJcK sketcb^ "Eupbuoa" !■ rfprintAd. br pennlssim 
of Mr. Ktutbj. from lui article o( mine cm '' EaplinlHin," in thk 
"•QnarterljEeipie*'" for April. 1861. 



L tor tlw danUi of tby dftQghter, Mid I kugh nt tho 
Uiij of tito £irt!bcr, for g;i«atar Tuiitie is there in Ihe huiuIl* 
flf At moonur, than btUeroMn in the death of the deceBS«d. 
Itnt nhee was ■■"tbIiIb^ Imt jet dnfol, but die irH» yOung and 
mij^t faaue lined, bitt ohe wu mortaU and must baucd dyed. 
I ■ IkI hir jTOuHi madfi iheo often BtMTf, 1 but thtDC &gB shald 
onot malce thee wi»e. I but hir gree-ne ycHin« wcr vnfit for 
flnath. I bat thy hoar)' hmirus should Hnfyaa Ul<i. Knowest 
tboa Dot &«(«/»« Uutt iiin i* tb(> gift of God, duath the dn^- gf 
Xatan, ai we receioe the one u a bcnefitc, »o must we abido 
IIm otbor of oeces&itie. Wise mrai baue found that by loim- 
ing vhich old men should know by expeneaee, th&t in lifo 
lli^ ia noUun^ sweete, in death nothing sowrc, The PhiloHO- 
jibat Bocoupted it ye chiefest felidtie lunter to be borne, thci 
B to dyi?. And what bath dieath in it no htod yat ' 
1 take it so hi?aaily ? ia it itmunge in «cc yit cut off, 
whiA by nattirp in made to bo cut ^ at thut molten, which ia 
fit to ba melted f or that burnt which is »pt tp >w burnt, Qr 
BMn to ]Wii that u bom to peHeh ? But thou gratiiatcst thut 
Ae ^KMld ham djvd, and yet nrt thou gnucd that sht; i^ 
deadL la the death line better if vr> life be Ion;^r t tio tniely. 
For •■ neitber be ymt vingvtb mn^t, or praictb lon^eflt^ or 
nd«lL the ttente oftenest, but he yat doth it best de»erueth 
gnskat ptvpe, ao he, not r»t hath COOrt ypares but many 
r ert iw a, nor he that hath gnieat haine but greatest goodnee 
Ijvetk looffctt' 1^ chiefs beauty of life nmairtitb not in 
~ ^ <rf many dayca. but in tbe vaicLj; of rcrtuous 
^ [lUnte those be bent oatetaed that in 

t ttme fanng' foorth modi fmite. Bq not tbe foircat 
iowon pthand when thejr be freshest i the youngest beuti 
kilkifcrMoificebicaaKtlieybe&nBstf Tbe measure of life 
b aot IcMfthi bvt booeetir, neither do we «-iiter into life Co the 
aaim «• Aoold aet downe ye day of oar deiithp but therfore do 
wm haa, that we may obey him ynt nude v«, Kttd be wlUitig Ui 
ijm vlien be thai ckI va. But I will abke thee cIua question, 
vkrthcr tboa wayle the 'oaac of thy dauf^ht^T fgr thine ownn 
aks or btni if fuf thioA oa'n sake, bicaiuc thou didst hope in 
lUa* agt to TT^ourr comfort^ then is thy louo to hir but fur 
th/ MMOkoditic, and therein thou art but un vnkinde fatheir, 
if far ^''^ tb*« diMl tliou mtatruHt her mluiitiDn, nad therein 
ihcM sliewnal thy vncDnstiuit faith. ThO'U shouldirt nut we«|io 
thiA Ad hath nutne fast, bat that thou bast gone ia hIqw, 
■thhTT Mg'ht it to grieue thee that she^ in gaaa to hit homu 
vitk a lew yewea. but that tboa art to go with maoy. But 
why K"^ I abuul In vae a long prooesee to a lyttle porfjosc ^ 
Tbe bud is hUcted ** eoonc a» tbe blowne Roer, tbi> windo 
iteJu<b off the bloMome, aa well u ye fruit. Death etmreth 
Mither ye golden locbs nor th« lumry head. I monpg not to 
make • tuealiae in the piaiae of Death, hut to note the 
MoMsitic, neither to wnte whnt ioyes they rerciiif^ thnt dye, 
bvt to duw what paines they endure that llnL'. And thou 
ahilll art eoea in tbe wane of thy llfo, whom nB|iin> hath 
iwarisbed ao long', that now ohe be^tinnpth to nod, ntfti^t wel 
Icaow what griefce, wlut laboun, what painty nre in »sp; umi 
yet wovldat thuu be citbtT young to vaijurc nuuiy, or eldi-r to 
Uia more. IVit thou Ihinktrtit it hmiovirabt^; 1o ^ to thi> 
gna» wHb a KTn.y head, but I dccfOKi it more glorious to be 
■■Hid with an boncai name. Ag« wiiit thou is the bleoaing 
•( Oti^ ftt tba truMMonger of death. Pes ccnd therrtore into 
tUam ewM ooaadanca, ooniidM' the goodnease that cc>niinctb 
by dM Mid*! ami <b* ladneiM which was by the beginnmg, 
take Ike tetfi of tkjr ilaagtitcr patiently, and looke for thrne 

* i b»a aaid la loILnvIng plmwei. 

»r«l.tbaL 1W«M<>f "r" for" th"lB" that" and "tlH'-tnHM 
MrtteaMOf tnm tW r im m Uaiaem of the obeoleto rin(l« leiVer For 
"t^" eil^ " iban," rtNa kurledlf mlttea, to aa old wHKU^ y. 

own epoedely, so ahalt thou perfam&o both the office of an 
honest nuui, and the honor of an aged father, and so fMreweU, 

Suphues to Bototiio, to lakt hit vc'^ paiimtt^. 

If I were as wise to giucn thee coonauilc, as I Ai willing to 
do th<^ good, or as able to eot thee at libertie u deaitoaa to 
hauc thee fret, thou should'cat neither want good aduicc to 
guide thee, nor sufliL-ii-iit help to rcetoti* thc«. Thou takrat 
it heauily that Ihou sfaauldest bc accuocd without ujIout, 
and exiled without cause; and I thinbe thee buppy to he 
BQ well rid of the court find bei? ao voydc uf crime- Thou 
uyst btmishment is bitter to the^ free bom, and I deeme it 
the better if thou bee without blame. There bee inanyL> meatea 
which are sower in the rooutli and sharp^j in the Mawe, bat if 
tbou mingle them with Bwct-to bjiwcbb, they yeelde both a 
pkawiiuit tuat and wholediijme nourishment. Diucm coiiloun 
oScude the ey^s, yut huuing gteene among them, wbctte the 
eight. I speti^e this to this ende, that though thy exile aeeme 
gtii^iuotiH to thee, yet guiding thy aelfe with th6 rntea of 
Philosopbie it nhal bce.moro toUerable, hcc that ti coldc doth 
nut eouct lumselfe with cato but with clothes, be that i» 
wa^hvd in the raj-ne, drj-eth himaeUe by the fire, not by Irii 
fn&eiL', and thou which art baniahed oughteet not with t«ana 
to bewayle thy h*p, but with wifldomo to hciile thy hart. 

Nature hath giuen no man a couutrj-, no more thm sha 
hath a hquHfi or lands, or liuingSv Soerattt wold neither oaj 
himsolf an AthmieH, neither a Orapian but a citixen of f* 
world. PJalo would neuer atxompt him btuunhed ynt had ye 
Sun, Fire, Aire, Water and Earth, that he had before, when 
he folt tho Winters blaat and the SummerTa blaise, where ^ 
same Sun. and the same Sloone shined, whoroby he noted thjU 
cuary placu was u country to a wise man, and al |«r1a a 
pallace to a quiot mind. But thou art drioen out of A»pif .' 
yzLt is nothttig, Ali tlie Athtniant direE not in CoiiUm, nor 
euery CfW^fAiaHinCriZciff, uoral tbo LactdtmoHUint in i*it m m*», 
flow can any part of the world he distant fute from tba 
other, when his the Mulhematieiatu a^t down that tbc •uth » 
hut a point being compared to ye heaucns. Lenntn of ye IW 
OB wel to gathtrr Ilunny ni yc wot-di? iiii i\if flowre, and out c4 
fftire coantryoe to liup, as wd a« in thine own. He is to Iw 
tuugbed nt which thiiirki?tb ye MiMOe hcttar at AlKrn* than 
at TonWA. ai tho Ilunny of the B<.>e sweeter that ia Ruthcred 
in HftMa, then that whioh is mndi- in Mitmtua ' when it wm« 
caat in Din^mr» tt'eth, yuL thr fiuiiopfmrlci haJ btinished Mm 
Intuit, yi'A afdd hc>. f thcici of Uioffmn. I may say to the* 
as Straeejiieut tuaii] ti> hi« jfuest. who dcmaunded what taaH 
wns pimiahed with exile, and hi aimHwning false hon<I*<, why 
then mid SlmniHitms dopt not thou pmetise dwett to tiw rata 
thou maiirt ftuoyd the misciefes that flow in thy country. 

And Horely if runeei^'niT W- thf^ canse thon art hnniithed yv 
rnurt, I uccornpt thco wiii^ in bfing so precise yat by tbt 
vetng of Tertuej tbnu maiet be fxcilcd the place of vice. 
B<.-ller it i» for thee to line with honesty in ye country then 
(vith honar in thv court, und gniit^ wil thy praiw hve In 
flying vanitie, tbm thy pleaanrc in foltowingv tialMa. 
Choneo that place for thy pnlbiee which i* mnat qujH, 
euatucne will make it thy countrey, and an hooeot life HB 
eiiusM it a pluasaunt lytiin^. PAitip falling in the A\ul, oiU 
seeing the fl((iire of hii tUvty^ |3erfeet in show, flood God, 
Slid he, wc dottire ye wholf «irth, ami *••*" bowo liltli 
Jtufl hearing that this oncly barke whrrrn all hi* wraith 
nhipped to haue pcriahed, cryed out. Thou huat donu 
Fortune to thrust latv into my gowni> nKain^^ lo 
Philosophye. Thou hast therfore in my mind<^ (ttvat rMoae tv 
n-ioyce, that Hod liy ptininhnient hnlh cninpellod then in 
slrictm^sw of life, which by lylxTtie miij'ht hau>^ beti growMi 
to lewdneaae. ^Vhcn ihoii bjiot not one place Majgllijl 

f^i A,B. 1588.] 


to liua, but oDo forbidden thee nhich thou 
mtNt lvw«, then lliou l>eiji({ donisd but one, tbnt excepted 
thou midst t:liooae ftoy, Mot«oiter thiA dispute with thy wlfct, 
i beare no office whorljy 1 should ^^ithor for fearu plpiue IJin 
noble, or for ^ii» oppresee the needy. I am no krUjiCiirer in 
doubtful etioea whurby I sliuviuld uJtbcr pLTiisrtr IuBtii;i', or 
incQire displeaaurc, I am freo from tho iniuriea of tho 
ntniTQge. and nmlipo of thn weak. I am out of the InDyles of 
ttiH Beditioofl, and hiLOe cecHped the threatcs of thu umhitiouH. 
But aa hee that hnuing a foire Orciuird, wt-eing- one troo 
blsatod. r«.'omteth the discommoditic of that, tmd paeeeth oner 
in HileBce th>:- fmitffifulacMi^ of th« other. So hee that Is 
htnyshtd dotb ^twayes lament tins lowo of his house, and the 
ahfttiiA of hjs exile', not ruoyuog at thn liberty, quietnew and 
pleuuro that ho enioyeth by th&t iw^te punUhnieiit. The- 
Irin^ of h-rri/t were deemod happy in tbat Chrr^' pa^^i^d their 
Winter in Baby/on : in Medi^ thoir SummGr, nud tht^ir Spring 
in Siuu : and certeinly ths Eitio in this uiay be eu happy ub 
any king: m Ptrtia^ for he nuy At his leaauro heing at his 
owns ph'aaurei lead his Winter in At/ieitt, his Summur in 
Xaplft, his Spring in Argo*. But if he luiue uny buancs in 
hA&d, he m&y fltudy witbcut trouble, bE)h>p» without cnre, tmd 
wtV' At his wjl without controtmfjit, ^rulotle muflt tlJDf 
wh«n it pl4>aw)th FhiHp, Sia^me* whtn it Usteth I>i«^e)*ei; 
thu conrtier suppcth whi^n thu king is aal'iaSod, but Bafonia 
may sow eat when ^(rtituio is an hundred. But thou eaiflt 
thttl huuE^DieTit is shaiDcfiill. No Lruely, no tnaru then 
pcmartie to the content^ or grayo hair» to the eiged. It is thi< 
cAdbo that m&keth that- ahainr^ if thou wert buntahed vpon 
idiolpT, greatw 18 thy cnHiit in, »usteuiing wrong, thc-a thy 
enuyea in committibg iniiir^, and traM) dmme is it to thi>e to 
be oppreiHpd by might, then theirs that wrought itformaiice. 
But thou f«arest thou tihult not thriuQ in n ntruunge nation, 
ccrteinly thou art more uiriLde then hurto. 'Vhe Fine trei' 
growelh as iioane in. PSara as in Ida^ ye ^flghting^Ie ^ing^th 
ai» aweetly in the dciBcartH, ra in ye woods of UreU. Tho wise 
TOan liueih aa wol in a fur country as in Ida owno homit. It 
» not the nntuTQ of tho placa but the diflpuaiiticin of tho 
person, thjit uiakiL'th the U-fc pleasant. Scingthcrfore A*i*fl.jui, 
that al tb? Kw if ^pt for any fliih, yat it ia a hud grtpund 
whtntfiio flower wil gtow, that to a wise nian all lanis ^ro us 
fertile aa his owne cnheritancc, I disir« thee to temper ths 
■hftqmet of thy bMuiHhment with the swcctencs of thu aiuw, 
mstd to measiirn the tleepjoes of thyne owne oonecionco. with 
th# tpitc of thy enimiea quarrel, ao ahull thou reuenge their 
malyca with pati«nce, and endure thy Iwiniahment with 

Robert Greeue, the,i]nimatisi, was also a novelistj 
And as novelist the tiiOHt popula;" imitator of Juliii 
Ljly'a style. He was bom at Nor\yioh^ wia a lim- 
matifit two or three years older thjm Hhukpspeare, 
and Dtie of those wLq liad possetuiiun of the Htjige 
when IShiikesppape carae to London. OroBne was 
edocatud at St. Johti'a College^ Cambiidge. He 
ibilowed tlie fashion of Jiis day by travelling. 
immediately after gpHduatiou, in Italy and Hpiiin. 
He commeticed M.A. in 15^3, and published in 1584 
three prose tove |)amphiefca. hi l.'JSo or ISl^G he 
married, and becomiu.^ more and more known as an 
lOf^iiioua writer, joined in tavern life acnotig the 
wit^ came into contact with wonie Knupnny, yielded 
to temjitation, and brought his life to a ^d dose in, 
151*2. There are straiiiH of repetitauce and ks\{- 
reproach among his writings, with abundant evidence 
c£ a fine nature, and in big book^ and p'.uys he was 

true to the higher ahn&af life. There was a dcmuiid 
ill Ills time for books exposing the tricks of tho 
rtUarjiet*i or coney-cn-tchei-B, which aro^e from the 
ftiiccess of ThormiH. Haiiuan's "'Caveat for Cummon 

Tat OAUUUEiHCKX OT CO»IY-C*T<;aiSD, [Fm-m Liu J ilU jm;;)! 

ia Git*nt't Book 50 tcillc!'. l59l.) 

Cursitorfl," first published in 1567. Atncmg the 
books of this kind written by Robert Greene, "The 
Groundwork of Coney -catching " conftiata partly of a 
re-iKflue of Harman'it "' Caveat," with aoiue addition*. 
It includes deacriptioua of the oufttomaiy trioks of 

difiprent rognen, as the Abraham man (sham lunatic), 
prigger of prancera (horse atealer), raffler, visiter^ 
counterfeit cmuk. Of the counterfeit cnuik, wh* 





affects U> be subject to epileptic &tA, there is a figure 
ffyen. And this is the deecriptiou of 

A tltilUft not loag naee, going otdiiuiOy booted, got Itave of 
■ eMTiertorideonhiBoiwii hadmey a Uttlc way from London, 
wbo^ pf^Twa^ to tHie Inn wh«T« iha carrier that night should 
Iddge, faoDflrtly let by the hoTso, and i.-Dt«red tho hall, wht-ra 
wsc itt cue tahlfl •ome thiee-*nd-tbirty clothi^^n, all retom- 
io^ to their weveml countries. Uun^ aa hx could hiscciiui^H}', 
nj betng gantlenan-Uke aUind, he wu at all their invtaaco 
|lhaad at tlu apper mA by the hortcte. After h» had awhilo 
iilwi, be ^1 to dianrane irith mch pleaBaauw that all the 
laUa ««n gnii^y d^ght«d thi^nwith. In the nudst of 
wapfa tuten a nowe of mtujciana, who with their iiutni- 
wcBte added a dobhl« delight. For them he requested hiH 
Iwttiw to lar a ibDulder of mutton tind a couplo of capcDB to 
tha fin, for which he would pAy, and then moved in th<?]r 
bdti^ to giiher. Among them s noble waa made, which be 
Mmgnia^ waa wall Wwird, for bdbn he had not a oiiM» ; yet 
ha pnntbed to make it ilte an angel. To be ehort, in comca 
4a Rckoning, which, by reaion of the free fare and 6xc(!«d 
4^ wisf^ anuKinled to cttch man's hjtlf-CTOwn, Then ho re- 
qaeited hia hoetcH to proride bo many posaet« of sack as 
•Oold fomiah tho tatde, wbi[:h bo would bcatow un the 
^wiTh 11111111 to reqoita Uuir extnordiniir>' c-oM, and jestingly 
aifced bar if ahe would vagk^ him her deputy to gather tho 
tmskoaoDg. She grmntod, and he did. eo, and on a sudden, 
***g*""g to haaten hia hMt«a with the poaiteta. he took hia 
doak, and finding fit tim^t he sSipt out ef door«, leaving 
the gneatg with their luwtea to a new iwkoning, and the 
laiMnana to a good mpper, but tboy paid fcir tbr gauve. 

Among Greene's novels — the Elizfibetbaji novel 
bcitig a sliort Jove story formed on the Ititliiui ]>atteni, 
ami developed euphiiifiticallj — th^ most popular in its 
time was that upon which Shakespeai'e founded hiii 
pbif of * The Winter's Tale." It was first published 
m 1588, iiDder the aevemi titles of "The Fle»a&iit 
and iMlightful Hi^rtory of Dorastus and Faunia," 
and " PaudoBlo ; or, the Triumph of Time." 

Aiaoaf all the pMaioiia wherewith human minda are 
ptf]kltx*d, thcro ia none that ao gaU<^ *ith rcvllen despite, 
m Ibi9 iiif«ctioiu lore of jealomy ; for all other griefe arc 
•itlur to be appeaaed with Hneible penuaaioim, to b« curod 
wtth wboleaocne nmuel, to be reliered in wtmt, or by tract 
of tku to b« Horn oat, joalonajr only exoeipted, which ia m 
I Willi mapinoiu doubt* «id pinching miftrust, that 
h iMk* by friendly oounael to laae out this hellish 
, ii forthwith suspe^tud that be giveth tbi» advice to 
eonff hit own gnUttniua. Yoa, whooo it pAtned with thia 
ivatlea lannott donbtcth all, di»tnistclk himnclf, la always 
troacn arith f^r^ and iired with suApition, baring that 
wb«r«Jn eondateth all hie joy to be the brotHlcr of his miaery. 
Toa, it la aujch a luMv^r enemy to that holy eitate of mntri- 
MDoy. aowing betw gw i the inarrinl couplm such dtndly seeds 
of aacret hatred, at bve bring once raaud out by apitpful 
dbtmat, thoro oft maueth bloody rerortftr, he thin cn&uing 
Uitaiy manifoitly provoth: wherein Tuidoato, furiouily 
. by cauMfleaa jotlotiay, procurHl tho death of his 
i kix»« wit». Bad hia own andlaai aottow and 

la the Gotmtry of Dohomia thore rcigniNl a king called 

PandoBto, whose fortunate .succ^ae in wart uguinet hift foea, 
and boimtifnl courteey towanla bis friunda ju ptwee, iMafe 
him to bo greatly feared and loTud of aU men. This 
Pandosto had to wife a lady coll^ Bellaria., by birth royal, 
learned by edacatioa, &ir by nature, by virtues famous, ao 
that it was hard to judge whether her beauty, fwtunv, O'* 
rirtue won tho greatest commendations. These two, linked 
togothcr in jierfact love, led tbeu lives with euch fortututo 
content, that their subJHitd gT'Catly i^jotced to aoo tb«ir qutviL 
disposition. They had not been married long, but Foitmift. 
willing to iacrcaso their happinew, lent them s aon. so 
adorned with the gi^ of nature, as the perfection of thv 
child greatly aogmsnted the lovo of the parent*, and tho 
joya of th^it commonA ; in so much that the Bohemiana, to 
sbpw th^ir inwiud. joj'a by i>utward actions, made bonUrn^ 
and triumphs throughout all tho kingdom, appointing joutfta 
and touTQOya for the honour of their young prince ; whither 
re&ortednot only his nobles, ^utalao divers kings and prini^es 
which wore biv Deighhoors, willing to ahow their friendship 
they ought > to Fandosto, and to win fame and glory by their 
prowosa and valour. Pandosto, whose mind wa« fraught with 
princely liberality, entertained the king^, prince, and noble- 
men with auch aubmiae courtesy and magnifiral bounty, 
thnt thoy nil saw how willing be wa« to gmtify tbeir good 
wiUa, making a fe^st for fltibjecta, which continued by tba- 
wpQCC of twenty dayai all which time the jon^ and 
tourneys were kept to the great content both of the lords aad 
ladJDB there present. Thia solemn triumph being once ci^ed, 
the assembly, taking their Icaro of Fandoeto and Bellaria: 
the yoong son (who was called Garinter) was nimed up in 
the house to the great joy and content uf the parents. 

Fortune, enrioua of such happy auecess, willing to ahow 
some sign of her inconstancy, turned her wheel, nnd darlcanod 
their bright sun of prosperity, with the misty donda uf 
mishap and misery. For it so happened that Egiatus, King 
of SiciUa, who m his youth had bc<'n brought up with 
PandiKtO, defliruUl^ to tihow th&t neither tract of tbne dOr 
diatance of pbvce could diminish their former friendahip, 
provided a navy of shipa, and eailedinto Bohemi^^ to viaiihia 
old friend and companion, who, benring of his arrival, w«nt 
himself in penan, &nd liin wife Bt'llaria, aotompauit-d with a 
grvat train of lords and ladies, to meet E^atue ; and I'dp^'ing 
him, alighted from his hoise, orabiaced him very lo^'in^r, 
ppotmting that nothing in the world could haTo h^ipprned 
mora acceptable to him than his coming, wishing hi» wif* 
to w^corac hia old friend and acquaintance : who (to abow 
how ahe liked him whom her husband loTod) entazttinod hdm 
with auch familiiir euurtosy, as Egiatus pertxived himself 
to be verj' weU welcome. Aft«r they had thus aalat€>d and. 
embmcod fach. other, they mounts ugain on hottebark aaA 
rode towards tho dty, dovimng' and recounting how, baJaf 
children, ihry had pa«ed their youth in friendly paatimNS : 
wb<.Te, by the meana of the citiecna, Egt^tne was ivcadrail 
with tliumphci and shows in euch aort, thtit he man'ellnl how 
on 90 small a warning they could mnfce snch prcparatsoD, 

Paaidng the streetd thus with such rare si^ta, th«y rod* 
on to the polBTO, whrro Fandojto enterlaJned Egistna asd. 
his Siciliauft with auch banqueting and anmptooua (-hear. » 
royally, n« they all hnJ causa to Commond his princ*ty 
liberality : yea, the very basest slaTe that waa known to con* 
fn^m HiciUa was uwd with such eourtety, thai Egistue miahi 

I 0«fhl, owned, owsiL The flm dcuiIdc of the wqM, trvm F b a > 
EngU^ "ogui," to own or owe; port "'Uit«." "Ow*" Is nasd asw 
|iL ■ deriTed sense from uwo. Tbe worda am tliu SMna 

* Sbskeapeftm f,)Uoiir»d the nurd La fti^iox s cc»«t to Bobiato. 

■ P»Ui<^. nuratimt. G^wKVr lued tb« word In lb« «ub« saasib 
" Ju I will fOfl dariaa ' 




^^mj pocdrc ho* boUi he uni hU were honourod fmr hia 

tiifa^* Mfe. B«llAm, who in hi-r time waa thu flower of 

ttnaUm^, wilUn^ lo nhqw how onfeignodly the loved hor 

kwfcwkd by tua frieod'e witertiinmnnt, used him Ulcowisc so 

hm^Httj th&t Iwt countentmce lietray&d how her mind wai 

■fccBed tow&rd* him ; oftentimftfi eaming htrftplf into hia 

Wc4uuiil>cT, to KQ that nothing should V ainiad to mislike 

fcJm l^fl honest familJArity mi'rctuiid daily more and moro 

t*;*irt them ; for Belkria, noting in Egistus a princely and 

t^Minttfnl mind, a4Dmed with snodrj' and exitellt-nt qualilirfl, 

»ad Egistiu, finding in her n virtuous and courteouB JispOBi- 

tion. then grew Buth » aecret uniting of their affoctioaa, thAt 

tfcB one oAtUd oat well b* without ihu company of the olh-jr ; 

in -T' much tfa&t when Pundoato was buaied with such urgont 

■' ■ I-, that he cotlld oot be present with hia frienil EgintHfl, 

1 i-.ria w-ooU walk with him into the garden, wherothey 

'»T> in ]wiTQte and pEeasftnt devices would paaa away the tima 

to both their contt-nts. This tustotn Btill continuing hetwixt 

1m«, a. fiectain melancholy paneton entering the mind of 

nadBMo diore him into Bundry nnd doubtful thoughts. 

?fcrt fe» CftOed to raisd the btAuty of hin wife Bellariii, tho 

«i*aGMa* ukd hnrrTT nf hie friend EgiatuB, thinking thjit 

hm9 warn tibovt all Uwi and tluit«rore to he ertayed with no 

^: *^"* it waa hard lo put Are and fl&z t<^ether without 

■^niBg ; thai lieir open pleuoKCl might hroed hia aevtvt 

^^^mmrm. He caaddeni with himBelf that Egirfua wu a 

■■■• «■* WkWd. bewda love ; that Ins wife wm a woman, und 

•*■"**« M^j«ct ssto lore, ftigd that where fancy forced, 

wi» <rf no tffpx, 

id mch like doubtful thoo^ts 4 l<jiig time amothcr- 
i«j in a* fAomach, begwi at laat to Irindla in hie tnind a 
^ta^ imiMrM* which, mcnaMd by Beispicion, gn^w a;t kat to 
t» • fli iiiiiiA jealouy that M toraented him lu he could 
take Ml nsL He thm b»'gtn to measure aH their actiotw, 
■■d to ateoaaCrae o< their too private familiarity, judging 
*■■* ■• "■• ■** *«■ h«*fat affection but for diaordinato 
•••Ti •* •*■• h* V^ p MI to VBtdk them more narrowly to 9*^ 
tf W ooaM gvt «B7 tna cr ttrtam ptoof to confirm bis doubtful 
'WUke (haa fat aoted their looks and gntote*, 
^ *■* *fc«w tho"^** (ubI ramuBgv, they two aeely • 
«%« 4mI«iI Mikiaig o( thia bii tnaduaooa intoot, 
1 ^iily Wi^ adhsv^a ««BpaDy. w^u^drore him into 
L.aa< fe h^an to beu a awret hate to 
o to BeQana, who, msr- 
i frvwwL began to ea«A beyood 
\ BBBdiy t^oog^da, 
■T * ^ ■* ■ 

> Hr «^* Ww fe ai^d bnt 

crowns of yoorly n)vrnuc<«. Hia cui\b4<ar\<r, «ith(ir b^iif off I 
good mnBcdenco, or willing for faahlon ank«, lo dtny amlTi 
a bloody request, bogan with grmt nMiaoni U* \>CTwu»in 
randoato from hi* detonninatai mlachiof ; ahuwiug hink wlu 1 
an offence murd<>r wa« to ths goda: how auvh uiinulumi 
ictiorta dill more diB[ih<iiMi« thi> hnivtina, timn iim>ii, And tlltt 
causelesa cruelty did wldom nr ncvnr twntiw without n'Tongo : 
he haA br-foR! hia fncc, thnt Eifiatiu wui hia frivmt, n king, 
ttnd ene llwit wiia vunio into hia kingdom lo coiiUnii a liiagua 
of pr[>«lijal amity brlwiit thrmi Ihitt h<' h»d, Alul diil khaw 
him n raort frimdJy couptflmuiwi : how I'lgiatua wbm eidI iiiily 
honoured of hiA own pvuplu hy oboditsnov, liiit alau li'Vtnl a( 
th*j I^hi^miuns for hii'/onrlcsy. Ami UiHt if Im n'>w Jmuld, 
without any jtut or nuinifoat caUAn, iioirun him, it wnuM not 
only bo n groiit diiihonour to hi* mujuaty, anil n iiitiuiia to aow 
pcrjietiiikl unmjty lfotwec>n tho Hidlliana and th>i> DohctiilHJia, 
but aluo Ilia own aitljjcictx woiilil rtijilmi at mtvli truai-hiTiTiiia 
cniL'Uy. llioAC nnd «ui;h llkn ^xtraiuuilona of I'Vunlon [for M 
WUB hia ctijhlimrrr r^kllrnl) I'oiilJ no whit jirnvnil in iUm\tnAti 
him from hia deviliah pnlcirpriaa: but n<i]uilnliig rvaoluUi tn 
hia dttiTinitiHtioiL, hi" fury wi fired with riiK»i. '"■ 'f wmiM not 
bo 4i,ji[itULM.-il with rcniBon, ho boKnn with bittr-r tuunli Ui take 
tip hia nuin, luid tit hiy 1u-fore lilm two iMlla—pnifnmiC'nt and 
dt^ith; aaying thiit if hv would |>oiaon Km-IhCuji, h" would 
fMlvance him to high dl^nitijia , if hit mfiUHxl to dn It of an 
obatinnt4> mind, no torturo ikhould bo too grmt to roqiilto hit 
diaobodicnee. Fnuiiun, aiding tliut to pRnuaitu I'anduato tUf 
moTft, waa but to atrire agiiinat thn atronm, mruKHitwl, >M 
soon aa on Opportunity would give hira Imlvu, lu iln'^^utU-h 
EgistuB : wher«with ■'undowl'i ri.'DutintKl aomewtui aaU.«llwl, 
hoping now ho ahould tw fully mirungod (it aiich nditnialvd 
injuries, intending nXao u vx'n aa Kglatua was dciul, to giva 
hia wife a top of tho lanie aaucv, and ao )m rid of thuM which 
worn the cAukci of hia rnllcMi aorrow. Wlula thus hn llvod 
in thia hcpn, Fnuiion bi'lnv •c<tT<4 In hia f'h«Tnb<T« IxiffiiH to 
meditate with himwtf In Un'w Utvom : 

" Ah, Fnnion, treaaon ia loved of many, bnt thir traitor habid 
of all : cnjoat o&now may tat a time eaoape vitlurut dangfl^T 
but Dcrer wiUwot nrraskgo. Thon tti awvaat to • king, a 
most obey at mrnmand; y«i, Ftaaion, agnlnac taw a 
conadouH, it ia ant good to mdat a tyrant wiih aimt, nor 
pleoae ad dnjiiAt Id&g vUb obedicDiK. Wliat AmIi thoa dof 
FoUy refoaed gold, and tranxy pntafBOt: wiidcMi ai ' "" 
after dignity, and cooaael ka«|wtli tat g»ia. Eflatu la l 
■tzasgo' to thee, mai Faa A oato tlijr aormifnT 
HtUe catimt let tmpvA th* OBU, nd oa^ktMd to have | 
eve to obry tite ot^- Hank Ihli. fntitm, tkal ■ powd 4 
gold H worth A toB of tMd, ^iM gEfla Ma ttULapHlt: 
lael e iB KOt lo « ill bim la a vk 

if uiO^ nwliv tku pnnstfiak, ocr Ugh(«- llMa nyoHiJ 
ewe se« OMd fbM^ MMl opoirt tlM* a tnltor. ae an ca 
rich. D^ty^, nako, ^nHrih Ihjr irlifWy, u 
ngnKaabBtbvtfhjndi: Knvw Urfa^ « 

Kvgi fa* kswn to I 

MaMMt : lar Ht IfcM tfaM fo fift at Egiatoi, PMdorto « 

WvAatwdcH. Taa.fcm.P^Wlto.1111 -ill fao i 
Ital vhkfcb I 
r»»M. n^dlpMiB] 

rk«Mtt«*«»«^tf ^Al^W Kw*f*« 



[LP. 1&» 


affects tq Ite BUbject W epiJpptic tit«, there is a figure 
^Ton, And this is the deschptiou of 


Aahift^mot longsuioe, ^ing- ordinarily bootad.^tlcaTe of 
a ctUTier to ride on tui own hackcrf a littl'O v»y tram London, 
who, egming to the mQ where the carrier tbnt night should 
lodgs, lumeitl]' Ht b; the hone, uid ciit<-t«d the haU, where 
were al one tabic aotae thrce-uid- thirty dotbiert, kU natiim- 
iog to their HTcnl countrtet. Uding as he could hu coiutesy, 
and beiit^ ^ntlemiui.liko attired^ he was at lUl their iiutoace 
placed nt ths upper end hy the boctna, After hv llud awhile 
edteb, ho fell to disconne with sBch pleasaun>ci* that aJ] th« 
taWo w«re jnvtly dplight«d therewith. In the midrt ^l 
tapper cuten a notne at muaidanA, who with their iostni- 
mcnti added a double delig-ht. For thtm ho requent^d hiA 
hoKeM to lay a ahouldcr of mutton and a. (^upli;! of cn-poas tQ 
tile fire, for which he would pay, end then moved in thc-ir 
bahalf to gathirr. Among them a noble was. nisdo., which he 
Angering was weU bl«fl«e4, for before be hjid cot a cross ; yet 
h« promiBed tO' tnakv' H dint aa angel. To \ie ahort, in comtw 
the rcc'koTjing, which, hy rraaon of the fne isie and exccas 
of -want, amounted to «ach man's half-crown. Them he re- 
qaf.'stccl hia hoitcH to proridQ w many pooMtt of sack as 
would fumiflh the table, which h« would hmtow on the 
genUenidti to requite their extraordinary toqt, and jeiftiagty 
ukod her if abo would maVe him her deputy to gather the 
nc^oning. She gtanted, and he did so, and on a auddcn, 
feigning to hapten his bart««a with thD possets, he took his 
cloak, and Boding fit time, he »ltpt out of doora, lea^Hng 
tlte gueala with Uisir hoatisf^ to a new reckoning', and tbo 
nmiciBiiii to a good sapper, but they paEd for the saude. 

Among Greene's novels— the Elizabetbau novel 
being a short love story formed on the Italian imttem, 
aild (levtloped euphuiatioUlir — the ntoHt populai^ in its 
time was thnt upon which Shakespeare futimleJ his 
play of "The Winter's Tttle." It wae firet published 
in 1588, under the screnU titles of "The Plea&ant 
and Delightful History of Dorastua and Faunia," 
and " Paudosto ; or, the Triurpph of Time." 


Amonf^ sU the pasaJtais wherowith human minds are 
perplexed, there is none that so galltih with restleas de«pit«, 
u the mfoclioUB aore of j&alousy : for all other grie^ are 
•ither to be appeased with sonaihlr persuasions, to be cured 
with wholeaome coonsol^ to be relieved in want, or by tract 
of time to be worn out, jealouiy only excepted, whir^ i* so 
■anc«d with HUspidoua doubts nnd pinuhing mistrust, that 
whoMii sobkH by friendly couniw] to rase out this hellish 
paawon, is forthwith sosiwcti'd that he g^iveth this adrire to 
coTcT his own guiltimw. Vm, whoBO is pained with this 
TBstlcaa torment doubtath all, distrnst«th himself, is always 
tnun with fvar, and llm] with tuapicioTi, having that 
whoreiin oonaisteth all his joy to hf- the l^«cderof hia miivry. 
Yea, it is such a heavy cncniy to that holy eflat« of matri- 
Bumy, sowing K>tweeo the oiarriod oouplos such deadly seieds 
of sacrvt hatred, a* lovo being ones nuad out by spiteful 
distrust, then oft snauntb bloody rerenge, as this Miauing 
biatory manif rally proreth: wherein Pandoato, furiously 
^Dcvnsed by causeloas jealonay, procurvd tha death of hia 
ouwt UMnf asul loyib wife, and his own tadlon •orrpw and 

Id the oountrj of Bohemia thare reigned a king called 

Pando«to, whosu furtunalu succeas in wan against lus foss, 
kind bountiful courtesy townrda hijj^ frii?ndA in peace, nuulu 
him to bii greatly fearod and loved of ^ mun. Thia 
PjLnilottto hud to wifo a lady caUc-d Belloria, by birth ror%al, 
Icaraud hy eduoation, fair by nature, by virtues famoua, «> 
that it wDji hani to judge whether her beauty, fortune, o. 
virtuo won the gnatest commendatioos. Those two. liakc>l 
tog«<thur in perfect love, led their livos with such fortunatu 
content, th*t their subjt'cta grwitly rejoiced to aee thtur iiuiet 
diBposition. Th^y had not bi'^n married long, but Furtuno, 
willing to inenuBQ their huppinesA, lent them, h son, so 
adorned with the gifts of naturo, as the perfedioo of thi» 
ehild greatly augmiinted the love of the parents, and ibo 
joys of th«iz commoua; in so much that the Bohemi 
ahow their inwanl joys by outwurd ac^tions, made 
and triumphs throughout ntl the kingdoru, appoiatin; j 
and tuumeyB for the honour at their young prince; 
reaort«d not only his nobles, l;»ut also diven kings and ; 
which wero hijs neighbooTA, willing to show th»r frie 
they ought * to Pandoato, and to win fam^ and glory byi 
prowess and valour. Pando«to, whose mind was frai 
princely liborality, entertained the kings, princva, and l 
men with such Bubmiss courtesy and msgiuficfll ~ 
that they all saw how willing he was to gratify their good 
wills, makiag a fatat for subjects, which ooatioiiod hy the 
Bpaco of twenty days ; all which time the jousta and 
tourueya were kept to the great content both of the lords and 
ladiee there proflont. Thla fiolemn triumph being once endt^ 
the aasembly, taJdng their leave of FandoBto and BcUaria : 
the young •on [who was (aU^ Oarinter) was nursed up ii» 
the house to the great joy und content of the parenta. 

Fortune, enviauA of auch happy sueccaa, willing to show 
some sign of her inconstancy, turned her wheel, and datk««iod 
thvir bright «un of prospetity, with th« misty douda of 

mishap anA. miner]-. For it SO happened that Egiatu», Kinjc 
of 8icilia, who in hi» ynutb bad been brought op with 
Pandosto, de«ui:>UB to ahow that neither tract of time nor 
distance of plnce could diminish their fonner fricmdahip. 
provided a navy of ship^ and sailed into Bohemia' to viait hi* 
old fnond and (companion, who, heuring of hia arnval, went 
himself in peraoD, and hia wife Btdlaria, accompanied with a 
great train of lorda and ladies, to meet Egietu»; and upj'ing 
him, alighted from his horse, embraced him very lovingly. 
protesting that nothing in the world could have happumed 
more acctptabla to him than hii coming, wJBhing hia wiir 
to welcome hl» old friend and aL^quaJntaaee : who (to ahow 
how she likL>d him whom her husband loved) rattertaiBod him 
with such ^miliar cuurleay. tn. Kgistus porc^V^ hiuMclf 
to be ver^' well wolcomo. After they had thus vlntM and 
embraced each other, they mounted again on horsebark and 
rode Cowards the city, dtfvjjing* and reconnting how, b<.>inj(- 
uhildren, they had pau^ their youth in friendly pasCitnaw : 
where, by the me«na of the citiaona, Egistns was rrceivnl 
with triumphs aod ahowA in such »ort,that ha marveUrd how 
on 10 vmal] a warning they could make such pn>pnration. 

Faaaing the stn>ets thna with such tnie aighta, thoy rod* 
on to the paUce, where FaDdo«to entertained Egistns and 
hia Sicihana with such banqnedng and sumptuoiu chi^or, so 
royally, as they all had OaiUO to eommeod his princely 
UfactmUty; yea, ther>or>- basest sIato that was knowq to oomw 
from Sidlia waa uvd with auoh DOurtMy, that Egiabaa laijclit. 

> Oaf M. owaad. owed. Tlt« Hnrt iB««alat of tb« wovd. Isma W\ 
Eoallsb "Stfaa." to aws or owe ^ |*al ""ihla" "Ow«"l»>M*Ai 
la > d«ri<nd ham froTD vwa. Hi* words a» ihm nma. 

* Bhakaipaari toUa««d tlie aoval ta glvlnc a mart to niilisialB 

• Ua^mp, namtlnv. CluDHr a««d tli« wonl la tlw mm» aa 
" Ab I niJl yoa davlsa." 

1 10 A-h US8.] 



^t0^t?Siltt^lt''hQv both ha and his were honuaTcd! for his 
AtenlAto. BeUuri:!, who in hi-r timi? was thu^ flower of 
conrtMy, villiTLg to show how unfeignedly ahe loved her 
husbnnd tiy liis friend's etitortainmont, used him likewise so 
famiEarly that her couEtenoQca betrayed haw her mind was 
affiH^ted tcwordfl him : oftentbnos coming hi?TseIf into hie 
iKKichamber, to see th&t oothiog ehould ha Kmlsa to mialilre 
him. This htmeet familiBrity incTeaaod daily more and more 
hetwixt them; for BcUam, noting in Egtstua a princely tmd 
boubtifal mitid, adorned with Huiidry and escnllent quaUtiee, 
and EgiBtus, finding" in her a virtuous and courteous diBptwi- 
tion, there giew aueh a uecrpt uniling^ of their afTectiaofif thirt 
the one could not well be without the company of the other : 
in so much that wh«b Pandosto waa buaiL^d with such urgent 
&£un, that he could not be present with his friend Egietua, 
Bellarin would wiUk with him into th<? gnrden^ where thay 
two in private and plG«Baiit devices would pass &wa.y the tttne 
to both their conti-ntn. This euatom Htill continuing; betwixt 
them, a certain meliincholy paaaion entering^ the mind of 
Pando^ drove him into flundry and doiibttul thoughts. 
First he callc-d to mind the beauty of his wife BcUaria, the 
comelineae »nd bravery of his fritind E^stun^ tliinking that 
love wa* ftbova all laws and therefore to be stayed with no 
Iaw ; thiit it was hnrd to put fire and fiox togethrsr without 
burning ; thut thoir open pleoaures might breed hia aecret 
dioplGasnres. Ho considered with himself that E^stus woa n 
m&n, and most ne«ds love ; that hia wife was a womaji, and 
thcrefotc subject unto love, and that whore fancy forced, 
friendship vas of no forte. 

These and auch hkc doubtful thoughts n long time flmofehor- 
ing in hi» »ioTn4>ch. began at liut to kindle in his mind a 
S MTc t DUBtnut whicJi, increased by BUfipicion, gt^w at laist to 
be a flaming jealougy tbitt eo tormeatiid him as he could 
takt KO rest. Ho then began to measum all their actiona, 
and to misconBtrue of their too private familimty, judging; 
that it wiu not for honest affeetion but for disordinato 
fancy, so that he begnn to watch thorn more narrowly to see 
if he conlJ get any true or certain prOof to confirm hin doubtful 
lOBpidon. ^Vhilc thus ho notod their loolu and gestureBr 
and SnspMtsd iheLr thoughts and m&atJfiga, thoy two eeely' 
Kvulfl who doubted nothings of thie his trcnchcrous intent, 
frpqnent^ dail}' each nthor'a cotApany, which dropo him into 
Fr4'.'h ft frantit pas&ion, thnt ho began to bear a secret hate to 
KiH&toa, and a lowr^ring counti-nauce to BtitbLria, who,, mar- 
vlling at sucb unaccustomed frown?, began to east beyond 
thr moon, and to enter into a thousand Bundity thoug-hta, 
which way she should offend her husband: but finding in 
bnvelf & dear cooacienne, ceased to mna^j. until such time as 
ahf might find fit opportunity to demand the cause of his 
dumps. In the meantime Pnndnsto'amind was Hofarcharged 
with jeAlobSy, that he did no lunger doubt, but was assured 
(as he thought] that hifi friend EgJEitug had entered a wrong 
point in hi» tables, and so bad played him false play ; where- 
upon deairoQfl to rdTong^ so great an injury, bo thougbt best 
t" dissemble tho grudge with n hiir and friendly eountenanee : 
And so under the tih.'Lpeof a &4end, to ahow him the trick of a 
lot: Dei,-ifiing with hinuetf a long time how he might best 
put away Egistud without suspicion of trcachoroua murder, 
he ccintlndod at lu*t to poison him- which opinion, pletising 
his humour, he became resolute in his det«smination , and the 
belter to bring the mattsr to paiis ho called unto him his cup- 
bcaper, with whom in secret he brake the matter : promising 
to him for tho performanco thereof to give bim a thousand 

* briy, tlDipla, Innoomt ; now tpelt tlEly. Tiom Tint EoglLiib 
"fM^" i J fOS pm tj. bleUedneM. "Seltg" wu the Bdjecti«e wtiilch 
hM takm Ita modivti lenae, becauMi x " blcsaod innDcent" ia full of 
Ulb uul Miilr dscdvad bj liara. 

crowns of yearly revennea. Hia capbearDT, either being of a 
goad cfiEscJenoe, or willing for fashion sake, to deny snch 
a bloody request, l>egan with great roaaons to perauada 
Pandoflto from his determinate mischief ; Bhowing him what 
an offence murder was to the gods: how such unnatural 
actions did more diaplease the hcaTenfl, than men, and that 
causeless cruelty did seldom or never escape without revenge r 
he laid before his face, that Egiatus was hie friend, u king, 
aad one that vm come into his kingdom to confirm a league 
of perpetual amity betwixt them ; that he had, und did show 
him a moHt friendly countenance : how Egistus was not only 
honoureilof hia own people by obedienfie, but also loved of 
the BohcTnians for hia cotirteay. And that if he now should, 
without any just or manifest cause, poison him, it would not 
only be a great dishonour to his majesty, and a means to sow 
perpetual enmity botwaen the Sicilians and the Bohcmiansi 
but also his own subjects wonld repine at such trcacherooa 
cruelty. These and sueh like perBuasionfl of Franion (for SQ 
waa his cupbearer called} could no whit prevail to diBsnada 
him from hia de\°iliAh enterprise : but Tt'maining re9i;lute in 
his determination, his fury ho fired with 5-agc, au it could not 
b« appealed with reason, he began with bitt«>r taunts to talw 
up hlB man, and to lay before Uin two baits — proferment and 
death: saying that if he would poison EgiH.tuH, be would 
advance him to high dignities ; if he refused to do it of an 
ob^inute mind, no tartui-o should be too great to requite hia 
disobedience. Fmnion, seeing that to persundo Fandoato any 
more, was but to strive against tho strfAm., consented, as 
Boon as an opportunity would give him leave, to despatch 
Egietus : wbereA-ith Pandosto remained somewhat satLsSed, 
hoping now he should bo fully revenged of such mistruisted 
injurioa, intending also as eooo as Egistus was dead, to giv^ 
hiij wife A sop of the eamo sauce, and so Ikj rid of Chose which 
woro the eause of his redtless sorrow. While thus bo lived 
in this hope, Franion being aecret in hiii chamber, began to 
medit-ate with himself in these tormiB : 

" Ah, Franion, treason ia lovod of many, but the traitor hated 
o£ all : unjust ofiencea may for a time escape without daagWp 
hilt nf^ver without revenge. Thou art servant to a king, and 
must obey at comnmnd ; yet, Franion, against law and 
consciencis, it is not good to resist a tjTant with urms, nor to 
pltMLse an unjust king with obedienccv What shall thou do* 
Folly refuBe<l gold, and frenzy preferment ; wiadom seekath 
after dignity, and counsel keepoth for gain. Egistus is a 
stranger to theo, and Pandosto thy soveToign ; thou hast 
little cause to respect the one, and oUghtest to have great 
can to obey the other. Think this, Fraaioa, that n pound it( 
gold is worth a ton of I^fld, great gifts are little gods : and 
preferment to a moan man h a whetatona to courage ; there 
ifl nothing aweeter than jifomotion, nor lighter thmn report : 
care not then though most count thoc a traitor, so all call thee 
rieb. Dignity, Franion, advanceth thy poatcrity. and evil 
report can but hurt tbyself. Know thin, whure eagles build, 
falcons may prey ; where lions haiuit, foxes may steal. 
Kings are known to eccumand. servants are blameless to 
conaciit ; fear not thou then to Uft at Egistus, Pandosto ahall 
bear the burden. Yea, but, Fnmion, conscLeucC' is a worm 
that ever biteth, but never ceaecth ; that which is rubbed 
with tho stone GSaluctites will never be hot- Fleah dipped in 
the sea .Slgeum will never be aweot : tho herb Trigion being 
Once bit with an aspia, never groweth, and conseionca one* 
BtftJRod with innocent blood, is always tied to a guilty re- 
morse, Prefer thy content before riches, and a c-laar 
mind before dignity; eo, bsing poor, thou shalt haverioh 
pence : or eUe rich, thou shalt enjoy disquiBt." 

Franion having muttered out these or such like voids, 
seeing either he must die with a rleai mind, or live with a 



C^-n law. 


deonfcicncethr vus so I'lunbcrcd with diren cogitatiodB 
thit be ooold talto no rcA : natil at Laut hv deteimmcd to 
fafcak the nuttor to E^iotua ; but fearing thnt the kin^ fthtiiild 
cither suspect or hetBr of such maltera, b«- conct)i«led iht- 
Aaviee till opjiOrtunity would pcrmiC biiii td KTcal it. 
XJo^eniiff thus in doubtful fear, lu an cr(.-mpg he went to 
Kgutus' lodgifi^, Mnd desiroiu to bn*k witb him of certain 
■Ssin thai towthed the bog, aJler sU wen' comoianded out 
of th« (buabur, Fidjuon m&d<^ rnHniftifit tht whole' cocop'iiraoy 
vhicfa. PwidoBlo had devised agniiut liim, doHii-ins: Epistiia 
not to ftcoou&L him s traitor fo[1>otniyiiig his master's l-oooscI, 
bal to think that he did it fnr conacica^c : hoping; that 
Ahhougb his nuLster inflomod with, or iaceiued by aom« 
' reporta, or BlandorauB apcechee, bad itoA^ined such 
I nuschiflf, 7et vben timn shoold pacify his luigrr, 
Niid try those tolebGoren hut flattering' }ianuitoSj thtm he 
■roald cotmt him u a faithful semnt that with truch care 
had kept his master's credit Egistiu hud not fidly h«.-Anl 
l^anum t^ forth his tal€, hut u quakiirg fear po9scg»ed aII 
Ilia limbs, thin Htig tb&t tbcro wua wmo tracisoD wrought, 
Hod that Fewuoq did but shadow b» cmft with thee^ hilae 
culoun : wheiefoto he begftii to wax in cholcr, snd said that 
l«t doubted not FuidostOr nnoo be wae his friond, and there 
had nerer as yet b«eo any broach of smity : h« had not 
soa^t to biv«4e his lauda, to conjpire with his enomiee, to 
illrwisdn his sabjertd fmr their allegiance ; hot in vord and 
UuMlgllt he r««4od lu» at oil times: he knew not th«refare 
any aaaK that shonld more Pandosto to seek his death, but 
siiOljected it to ho a compacted knavery of the Bohcmianfl to 
Ijring tho Iditg and him to odds. 

FranioD dtaWn^ him the midst of his talk^ told him, 
■hat to dally with {Jiiiicc^ was with the swaits to sin^ against 
their death, and thul if the BohenuaOs had intended UiV BUL'h 
nuathit^t it might have been better hrought to piiAs than by 
Tcraoliog the coiupir&cy: therefore his msjasty did ill to 
■niaconstruo of his ^pwd mtwniog, since his intent was to 
hinder tzBason, not to Iwcoaae a traitor; «id to couflrm hi«> 
Ijnimisoa, if it pleaacd his majesty to &y into KicUlu fof the 
wfo^^uard of his life, ha would go with him, and if th>!a] he 
funnd not Kiich a pnctiL-e to h« pretevdod,' let his imtigiDed 
tnachory be repaid with moot monstrous tormeotn. Egistuo, 
hearing tho Boleoan protiistatioa of Fmoion, bf'gon to con- 
sider, that in loTC and kin^onin neitber f^ilh nor law 
is to be rwpected : doubting that Pandosto thought by his 
death to de«troy his men, and with speedy war to ini-ade 
HiciUo. Tlieae and such doubts thoroughly waighpd, he 
Kare gXMt thanks to Ptanion, promising if he mif;ht with 
liJff rotnm to Syracasar th&t ht> would cnvto him a duke in 
IHcilLa r craving his cwunsrE how he might est^po out of the 
country. Franion, who baring some smaU skill in narij^- 
tion. was well acquainted with the ports and havcnst and 
knav oToy danger in the aoi, joining in counsel n-ith the 
UMUv of Elgistiu* navy, rigged all thair shij^ta. and setting 
than afloat, lot them lie at anchor, to bo in the more 
fwdinw. whan time and wind shoold sorvs. 

Portn&a, althoagh blind, yet by chance faToiuing this 
jiMi isutaa, sunt Ihcm within six dayn a good gale of wind; 
iMA. VteuOD iMing At for their parpoeo, to put Pandooto 
0^ ol nspfdon, tba mght Vfora thoy should mil, he went 
lo Mm and piDcnlMd. that llto nest day he would put the 
4nlm bl praotioe, for ho had got such a forcible poisOn, as 
IKb r«y WiwU Utoraof would procure sudden d'^ath. Pandosto 
VM joyfnl to hear this good nows, and thought nvnry bnur \ 
4af, tfll h* nldfht lie glutted, with bloody rcTongo; but his 
nit had but ill RUX«a. For Egistiu fmring that delay 

(orword, |Miirorth. 

(night Inraed dangoi-, and willing that Iht- gnua ahontd not hi.- 
cut from under his ffet, taking tug and bqggngo, by the 
help al Franion, convf-yod himself and his men out of a 
poet«ro gHteof the citysoseir&tly and speedily, that without 
uny auapk'JAb they got to ths boa shore ; where, with many a 
b;tter curse tiiking Ihuir leave of Gobenun.tbey went nbo^nL 
Weighing ibcir anchors and hoisting soiL they paasod aa Easi 
us wind and sea would permit towards Sicdlia ■ Egiatna bmmg 
A joj'fali man that he had aafi^ly passed such 
perils, But as tbey wftre qvieCly floating on the 
Pandosto and his dtixeos werp in an uproar : for seei 
tho Sicilians without taking thsir k«Lve, were fled away bv 
night, the Bohemians fearod some tTeason, and th« king 
thought that wilhont qu^tioa his suspicion was true, 
th'> cupbearer hod betrayed thti. sum of his scciet 
Whu^reupoQ ha began to imagine that Frauion fend 
Bellaria had conspirod with Kgistus, and thut the 
afitXTtion sho bare him, was the only meana of hift 
departure ; in bo much that, incensed with ntge, hi 
manded that his wife should he cuniod straight to 
until they hiMird further of his pleasure. The 
willing to by their hands on «uch A viitufius pj 
vt't fearing the king's furj', went Tcry eoiTowful to *uMB 
rhargo: comitig to the quoon'a lodgings they found her 
playing with her young son Gariuttir : unto whom flrith toort 
doing the mCBoage, Bellaria astonished at juch a hard consore, 
and finding her rlcor ponadonce a scire adrocate to pluad in 
hsr dtuiic, w«nt to thi* prison most willingly; whoru with 
aighs and tears she pa««d away the time, till ahe mi^ht conw 
to hi* triiil. 

But pandosto, whose reason was sapprcased with i«^ 
tknd whose unbridled folly wad incensed with fuiy*, a Being 
FraraoD had betrayed his s^rcts, and that Egistua Dlij^ 
wcdl he railed on, but not roTi^ngcid; determined to 
all his wrath on poor Jlellaria. He thercfDrc 
g(<nemL proclamution to he made through oil his 
the queen and Kgii^tuA had, by the help of Fianioo, 
committed moat ineeatooufi adultery, but also had 
the king's death ; whereupon the traitor Franion 
awuy with EgiMua, and Beilaria wAs most jiutly impi 
This proclamation being once blaced through the caunfry't 
although the virtnona disposition of th& queen did half dia- 
credit the contents, yot tho vuddcn and speedy pasaai;* «if 
Egistus, and the secret departure of Franion, induced thoB, 
the circumstnacea thoroughly considered, to think thai bcAh 
the prochunation was tnie, and the king greatly injtuvd: 
yet they pilied her case, as sorrowful that so good a lady 
.should be croMi^d with surh advArse fortune, But the king, 
whoso mBtleas rage would remtt no pity, thciughl thai 
iLlthdogh he might sufficiently requite his wife's falaabood 
with Uie bitter plague ot pinching penury, yet his mind 
ahauld nerifrbd glutted with rerenge, till ho might haT« Bft 
time and opportunity to repay the treachery of Ggiatus wiUk 
a toUl injury. But a curst cow hath oftcntimet short hoiii% 
and a willing mind hut a weak arm. For PaDdmlo althoo^ 
he felt thai r«vDng« was a spur to war, and that onvy alvaja 
proffercth steel, yet be ww, that Kgistus was not only of 
great puissance and pmwoss to withstand him. but had 
many kings of hie alliance to aid him, if nc*d shoaM tm 
for hti mamed thi^ Em|ieror> daughter of Iluasia. Thine 
the like considr'mtions something daunted PandnoUk Us 
poutage, »o that he was content rather ti> put up a 
injury with peaec, than hunt afttr rerenge^ diohononr, *a4 
loss; duteTminiag since Egistni had escaped scol-frM. Ikafc 
Bollaria should pay f «r lUl at nn unrT<asonabl« priew. 

Remaining thus re«olutfl in his dntvraunation. BeUoilt 
continuing still in prison and hearing the COQtofits of Um 

nl to w iidki 

re caniflHH 

ion, nd^^^^l 
id »A^^H 


JuS. UBB.] 



|.n}daiii:tti<.rn, Icnowing that her mind wa» ntivur touthrJ 
with swrh afiection, nor thai Egiatus hitd uvur offert-J her sm-li 
fli(i«»iirtes}% «ouIil gluily have come to hpr aiuitr&r, that both 
(Jip mi^ht hiive known linr jiuit accus^rH ani cloarad horec'^U 
of iWt ifigiltleas criniL'. 

But Pftjuloato was ao iniittmed with mga iai infuetod 
witHi jV-dlousy us W would not voiichaafi; to bear her, nor mimit 
any jiiBl eicuw ; ao that aho was tain to mftk& a. virtuu of her 
need und with patiADcte to bear those hcuvy injuries, Aa thus 
jJw \a.j crowad with cftlamitiea, a. great cauaei to inc:reaeo her 
gtiet, she found henel! qiuclc with child : which a? »oon ^ 
aha felt stir In her body, dnj burat forth into bitter team, ex- 
cluminp againat FortiuiL* in these Lltuin: 

■■ Ahu, UeUaria, how imfortimatc an. thou, betaoBQ fortunate : 
bottrr thou hudEtt ht'pii bom a lieggar, thim a piinceas, so 
iihouldi:ut than k-ivc bridti^d Fi>rtutu:) with wiuit, wheiv now 
she apurtcth htTsolf with thy plenty. Ah, happy life, whore 
poor thoughts mul mean doaifea life in Bociire content, not 
(earing Fortima becansr too Igw fur Fortune. Thou aei'Bt now, 
BeUsriii, th^t (mk ib a canLptuiion to honout, not to poverty ; 
that high cvdiLTS are crushed with tempasta, when Jqv/ ghnilw 
Nro not touched with the wind ; pri'ciaiui diamonds are cut with 
the file, wht-n dti^pised pebbles lin atfa in tha swind. DelphoB 
ia aought to by priftces, not bei^gars : and Fortune's altars 
BUtakft with king^' preitdntii^ ai>t with lioor man'^ gifts. Happy 
«re Biii;h, Bi^llaria, that curue fortune for I'onU'mpl, not fear : 
uid may wijih they wore, not ftorrow ihey havu been. Than 
urt » prineoHfl, UaUaria, and ytft ai priaoner ; bom to the one 
by descent, aeaigned to the other by duttpito : niM-iiBed vitbout 
e&nse, and therofare oughtest to die without CEire: for 
patic<ncc in a ahiuLd v^ainat Fortune, and a guiltlt;aii Mind 
yietdeth aatto hoitow. Ah, but infuoiy j^aUt^lh unt» death, 
uid liveth after death : report is plumod with Time's feathers, 
ftod eoiry oftentimes soundetb Fame's tmmpet : the aiMpectcd 
■daJtoy ahall fiy in the air, and thy known virCuca ahaU be 
bid in the earth ; one mole atain'j^th a whole face : and whut 
is once Rpottcd with infamy can haxdly b« woki out rt-ith 
lime. Diu thcin, Bellam ; Bellaria, die : fur if the gods ^loigld 
nay thou art guiltless, yet envy would hear the goda, bat 
npTer believe the gods. Ab, haplisia wrctth, cai&c tht'so 
l«nns; diapcrat-o Ihoughta are fit for tbom thut fear shame, 
not for such m hope for i<redit. Pandoato hath darkened thy 
dme, hut ahall never dii«c^c^dit tby vLrtucft. Suspicion mjiy 
onter a faUe action, bnt proof nIiuII never put in biS plea ; care 
not then for envy, aince report hath a blister on her tongue ; 
and let sorrow buit them which offtind, not touch thoe that art 
fi(iiltlE«e. But olaa, poor aoul, how cunat thou but oorro^v 'r 
Thon urt with ehiid, and by him that iiuttad of kind pity 
plncheth thei- in L-old priaon." 

And with that, such gaaping eigha bo stopping her bra&tb 
tlutt she uotild not utlcr more worda, but wringing her hands 
And guithing forth Btretima of tears, aho paeaed away the time 
wiih bitter compkintA, Tho jailor pit^iag thoau her heavy 
paHURU, thinldng that if the Hog knew nhc wero with t-hild, 
he would somewhat nppoasb hiB furj* and release her from 
prison, went in all haato, and fortified Pandetito what the 
effect of Bi'llaria'a rempluint woe ; who no soontir heard the 
julomy she was with child, but os one possessed with b 
pbnnvy, he rooo up in a Togf*, swearing tbd.t fihe and the 
butard brat she was withal should die, if the gnds them- 
•oivM a^id no; thinking that surely by computation of fimf, 
that EfpAra and not he, was father to the ehiiJ. This 
*aspioiona thought galled ^ifresh this bolf-bealed uoro, inso- 
much as he could takt- nu rest, until ho mi^ht mitigate hi» 
oholer with a just revenge, whioh happened prewntly after. 
For Bellaria waa brought to bed of h. fair and beautiful 
dau^tar; whidi nu sooner Pandosto h«ird, but he dftter- 

miued Lh;it both BelUria and the young infant should bi- burnt 
with fire. Kia nobles, hearing of tho kind's cruel aeutcu^'-, 
nought by pcrvuoBLons to divert him from hiti bloody detcnnioa- 
tioH: biying bofuro his faee the ittnoceney of tbo child, a&d 
virtuous diapoaitlen of hia wife, how slie hiid tootinujiUy loved 
and hanoured him aa tendefly, tliat without due proof he 
couJd not. nor ou^ht not to, appoach her of that erime. And 
if aha bu.d faulted, yet it wen^ mote honourable to pardon 
with morey than to puniaii with extremity ; und more kindly 
to be L'ommended of pity than uccuikkI of rigour : and aa for 
the ebild, if he should piiniBh it for the mother's offence, it 
wen? to strive against nature and justice ; and that unnatural 
actions da more offend tho gods than mtm : how causeleaa 
cruelty nor innocent blood ucvsr acapca without revengo. 
These and auerh like reuaons equld not appE»l-'4e his rage, but 
he rested resolute in this, that ho would not suffer that aucth an 
infiLmoua Lrat should {^LD him father. Yet at Li&t, seeing hi« 
noblemen W'^re importunate upon him, he waa content to apai-e 
the vhild'alife, andyet to put it to a worse' denth. Forhefdund 
out this d<?vic«, that seeing (aahethoaghl] it {^ame by Fortune, 
no he would commit it to the charge of Fortune, and tfa^refote 
caiuied a little ^ock-boat to b<^ provided, wherein he meant to 
put the brtbe, and then send it to the mercies of the S9U and 
the dG^tinies, From thi^ hiit pcura in no wi&e could persuade 
him, hut that be sent presuntly two of his guard lo feteh 
the iJiilil : why being come to the prison, and with weeping 
tears recounting their master's message, Bellaria no SiGoner 
beiini thi* ri(^orous reaolution of her merrileaa huabaud, but 
ehe fell down in a tiwoon, so that all thought aba had been 
df»d : yet at lost being eomo to herself, she cried and screech^ 
ont in this wise : 

"Abi8, sweet nnfortmiateluibe, acaxco bom bi?fDC9 envied by 
Fortune-, would the day of thy birth had bet^n the term of thy 
life : then ahouldat thou hiiVe made an end to e&re and pre- 
vented thy fdthei:'d rigour. Thy faults cannot yet deserve 
Buch hateful rovenge, thy days arc too qhort for so aharp a 
doom, but thy untimely death mu»t pay thy mother's debts, 
and lier guiltleaa crimu uinat be thy ghastly eur»e. And shidt 
thou, s^eot, bu uommittcd to Fortune, when thou art 
already spited by Fortune ? shall the oeoa be thy harbour, and 
the hard boat tby cradlo ? Shall tby tender mouth, instead of 
sweet kisses, be nipped with bitter storms i Shalt thou havu 
Che whistling winds for thy luUaby, and the suit sea foam in- 
fltesd of aweot milk Y Alas, what deatlnics would aiuugn suih 
bmil hap ? What father would he ao cmel : or what god» 
win not raTenge' such rigour 'i Let me kiss thy ILpa, swi^ 
infant, and wet thy tendisr eheoka with my tears, and put 
this chain about thy neck, that if Fortune save the^, it may 
help to succour thee. Thns, since thou must go to surge in 
the gaatful' hbs, with a sorrowful Iciss I bid thee farewell, 
and I pray the guds thou maycst fiire well. 

Such, and so great was her grief, that her iiital spirits being 
suppressed with sorrow, she fell again down into a traniCi 
luiving her senues SO sotted with care, tbjtt aft(>r she was 
revived yet she lost her memory, and lay for a great tim^ 
without monug, as OAO in a tr;inct. Tho guard left her in 
this perplexity, and carried the child to the fctng, who, quite 
devoid of pity, commanded that without di-lay it should be put 
in the boat, having neither wil nor rudder to guide it, and ao 
to bo carried into th>& midst of the aca, and there left ta the 
wind and wave m the deatiniea please to appoint. The very 
bhipmen, seeing the swret countenance of the young babe, 
began to accuse the king of rigour, and to pity the child's 
hard fortune ; but fear constrained them to that which their 

I Otdfvl. rrig-btfiU, ghuMy . To gut * 
to frig-liten, make ii^luut. 

I i»ed lu s rerb, '"—"'"g 








naturo AiA nbhor ; eo thsX tlii>y pLiced it in one of the ands of 
the boat, iwd ■aith a few greon boughs made a homely oibia tc 
ahroud it ai they could from wind and weather Uariiig thtu 
trmmied the boat they ti(3d it to a ship, and so baled it into 
the Duun sea, and then cut m etmder tho cord, which thcy 
hnd na sooncir doti!>, hut thore aroso a mighty tL-iiipi?fit, which 
tossed the littlu boat ea vehemently in the wBvoa, that tho 
ahipmcn tboiLg^ht it could not lon^ continup without amking, 
yea the etarm gnw w ^reat, thut with much labour and pBtil 
they ^t to the shore. 

Bat leaving the child to her fortoaea, again to PamlosCo, 
who not y«t glutted with suflScicnt revenge, devi»eil which 
way he should best iucrcaeci hui witeu cal&mity. But fitst 
.liMonihling hii dohl^ and coiutsellors, bo called her tor th-o 
more reproach into open coaii, whire it fKH objcctfrd Hf^niinnt 
her, that aha had contmiitted ndultery with E^ietua, and con- 
H^nnd with Franioa to poi^n 1*ando)iio her huahand, but theic 
pretence tiemg^ partly epied, she counselled them to fly awaj* 
by night for their better safety. DdLiria, who, frtanding like 
a pnaonor at the bar, fealiog in herself a clear conscience tc 
withstand her false accuBera, aoeing thut no losAthxin death 
vunld pacify hor huabond'a wr&th, wwod bold, and d^ired 
tbnt ittc might tutTe law and juHtice, for mercy sho ueithi^iF 
Cloved nor hoped for; and that those perjiired wnitcbea, 
which bad falsely accused her Co the Itiiig, might he hrought 
before her face, to give in e^'idi.Hni.e, But F&Ddosto, whoue 
rage and jealousy wu fruch, no reaAon n&r i>quity cAiitd ap^ 
fmse, told her, that for her ntcnuaors they wpre of Ritch creidit, 
as their words were suEScJent witti4>i(s, and tkit the Huddeuand 
■ceret flight of Egistus and FrunJun cQ^oSmied that which 
thc>' hud confosaed : and aa for hi^r, it waa har part to deny 
«iic;h a monstrous crime, Ftnd ta fe impudent in furawearijig the 
lad, since she bad pasHcd all Bhame in c^immitting the fault : 
but herfltitk countcnnntii should stand for no coLu, for luthc 
bustard which shi' bare wrw aerved, so nha should with gome 
cruel death hu requited. Bullaria, no whit dismayed with thJa 
TOUgh reply, tuld her huaband PituJoato, that ho epake upon 
choler, and not conaciitin(,^e i for her virtuoua lifa had been 
ever such us no upot of suBpicion couM ever stain. And if 
abi.' had borne a friundly countt-nanca to KgietuB^ it waa in 
roapceC he was his frinnd, and not for any lusting affoction : 
therefore if she were condemned without any further proof » 
it was rigour, and not htw^ 

The noblemen which sat in judgment said that Bell&ria 
flpaha reason, and entreated the king that the accusers might 
he openly exiumned, and swam, and if then tho evidence wero 
radi u the jury might And her ^ilty (for aeeing she was a 
prince«s she ought to be tried by her peersj, then let her have 
such ponishraent ad the pxtrcmity of the law will assign to 
such midefftotops. The king presently made answer, tliat in 
this case he might and would disponm? with the law, and that 
the jury being once pantjlled, they should take his word for 
Biiffifiont evidence, othtrwi?? he would make the proudest of 
them repent it. The nob^rmen seeinR- the king in dioler 
were all whist,' but lielluria. whose Efe then hung in the 
balance, fearing more perpetual iafniny than moraentarj' 
death, tuld Iho king, if his fury might atsJid for a kw that it 
were vain lo have tie jury yield their verdict ; and therefore 
she fell down upon her kneee, and deflirfd the king that for 
the Jove he bar? to his young son trarintei, whom she brought 
into the world, that he would gmnt her a requeat, which was 

■ WkUt,^eat,tvO'mw\ iut«ije(}tiaaa] laund like "Mat" and "huah,*' 
Hat warn amS. Uk« bush, aa ■ rerb. So the Evl af Sorra; bagui hla 
i-eprfirti of tba ateowl book erf the SnaiiJ, "Ttaj wWabed all. with 
Di^l fxw lulmt" A ipuno of mnla ii -naino^ "wliist" frout the 
•lia«M rsqqirad for Ita proiMF ooDdikcr bj pbijtin. of whom bJso it 
oirbt tohtaU. "Tbi^whlslAdall. wtth Aitt] (arai inteot." 

kne w >U [' 

pre w^ 3 

this, that it would pleaee hia majdaty to eend ai^ of hia noM«- 
men whom he best trusted, to the Isle of DeLphos. there to 
inquire of the Oracle of Apollo, whether the had committed 
aduJti^ry with J^gi^tuH, or conspired to poison with Fmnion : 
and if the god Apollo, who by hia divine efls^uiie knew kll 
S[*creta, giive answer that aho woa guilty, aha were ooni 
suffer any torment, were it never so terrible. Tb.6 i 
was no reosonabli.-, tbnt Pandosto could net for shamo d 
unleaa be would bo counted of all his subjtKts m>ais wflfid 
than wiae, ho therefore agreed, that with as much speenl aa 
mi^ht be there should bo certain Ambiuaodors dispatched to 
the Isle of Diilphofl ; and in tho mt^n seaaon ho cDmmanded. 
that his wife ishould ho kept tn close prison. 

Bellaria having obtained this grant waa now more carefol 
for her little babe that Soatud on the miOA, than ftorrowful for 
her own mifthap. For of that she doubted; of herseli ahe 
was assured, knowing if Apollo ehould givo omde aecordtog 
to the thoughta of the heart, yet the sentence should go oa 
her iddG, such waa the c!eamesa of her mind in this com. Bnt 
Pandosto (vhoae fiuspicioma hend still remained in oneBDOg) 
chose out siz of his aohiUty, whom he knew ware acarw tn^ 
diffi>rent' men in the queen's behalf, and providing all thing* 
fit for their journey, sent them to D&lphos. They wQling to 
fulfil the king's command, and d^siroua to 9ee tbo aitoatioD 
find cuatont of the inland, dispatched their aflaira with as 
much epeed ns mig'ht be, and embarked themselves to this 
voyage, whjeh (the wind and weather serving fit lor their 
purpose) wa8 hoou ended. For within three wecka they 
arrived at Cejphos, whero they wore no sooner »et on land, 
but with great devotion Lhey went to the Temple of ApoBo, 
and theri^ offering sacrifice to the god, and gifts to the priiMl, 
aa thft custom was, thoy humbly craved an answer of tlieir 
demand. They had not long kneeled at the attar, but 
Apollo with H loud voice said : " Bohemians, what yon Eind 
behind the altar tnkt* and depart." They forthwith obeying 
the omile, found a scroll of parchment, wherein was writtoi 
these words in lettera of gold : 

The OhAeLii. 

SiupicioH u HO proof: Jtaiausy it an tinequat judgt : BttUaiM 

i* chsstt; Effistus tlanuku: FranioN a ttM *uHfrft i Paih- 

tiotto irraeherout : His bnbe an innoeeni, ati4 tht liiHf §Mt 

ike icifAaut an Atir i/that leAicA u k»l be not found. 

An noon as they had taken out this scroll, the prieat of the 
god commanded th^ra that they ehautd not preaumo to a 
it, before they cume in the presence of Pandosto i imlt 
would incur the displeasure pf Apatlo- The Bohemiuilj 
carefully obeying his command, taking their leave of the p 
with great reverence d(?]Mirted out of the temple, and went 
to their ahips, and as soon us wind would permit them, sailed 
towards Bohemia, whither in abort time they safely axrirvd. 
and with great triumph issuing out of th&ir ahip« we4t to Ort 
king's palace, whom they found in hie chamber accompanud 
with other noblemen. Pandosto no sooner saw them, bat 
with a merry countenance he welcomed them home, asldag 
what ne^ws. They told hia majesty that they had received on 
iinewer of the god written in a scroll, but with this chaxg«, they should not read the contenta before they cams in ths 
presence of the king, and with that they delivered him the 
parchment ; hut hia noblemen entreated him that nncc 
thr^rein was contained either the safety of his wife's life aod 
honesty, or hftr death and p*<rpetua] infamy, that he wouH 
hiive hia nobles uid commons asMmhled in the judgmoit 

■ iKdiffirtHl, ImpajtiJuL ke wtam we pray In tlue ChttRh DBik< 
tliut oar Jiidg'M maj " trulf aa^i itiiiiffiireDtlj' kdministflT InattoB." 

£at of the 
ne toa|^_ 


f A.«. 1MB.] 



hfiUr wbei'O tlip c^uoeu, bnxight in as u. prisoner, aliaiild hciir 
the (»Qti>otB : if the were found, guilty by tluj oracle of the 
god, th>eii nil Hhanlil huvc cause to thinlc his rigour proceoilt;*! 
of due desert: ii her j^race wore found fduLtlEats, thun she 
should be clearod before all, nines alie had bet-n accused openly. 
Thia pleased the kiag so, thtit he appointed th« dny, und ua- 
aembled idl hia Lurda and ComnionH, und caused lh& qui?en 
to bo brought in bcfoni tho jud^uout seat, conuminding tbiit 
the iocUctment should be nuid, whtxreill Ahe wad anKilUod of 
Rdultery with Sgistus, snl of conepimcy with FntJiiun ; Bel- 
Uri& heiuing tha conteot^ waa uo whit antoniiihi^d, but m&de 
this gheerful answer : 

" If the divine powers be privy to human actions [fu no 
doulit tbcy HTu), I hope my patience ahall mukc f urtune bliudi, 
and my unspotted lift' shall stain H[iituful discredit. For 
although lying roport hath sought to uppeach mint.' honour, 
nnd auapidoD huih intc-ndt-d to soil my i!iedjt with iatanny : 
yvt whcTv virtue keepiith the fort, report and suapicion nmy 
assail, hut neveraaok: how I have led ray life btfuri' EjjiBtua" 
coming, 1 nppcAl, Pandoato, to the god» aod to thy conscit'nce. 
V^luit hath poiuH'd betwi^-u hiin and me, the gods only knuw, 
mill I hope will presently reveat That I loved SgiiftuB I cuunot 
deny i that I honoured him I shame not to confcB« : to the 
one I wna furceil by his virtups, to the other for hi& dignitiea. 
But as tfinohing lascivious lust, I say Egistua ia houeet, and 
hope myseLE to ho found without spot ; for Franion, I <xn 
lur-ithor accuse him nor excuse him. for I \f&a not privy to his 
departure, and that thia is trus whii^h I have here rehcurscd, 
I rufer mysetf to thr divine otade." 

Belloiia hud no sooner said, hut the Idng commnniJcd that 
one of bia duties ehould read, the cimtfutd of the scroll; 
whit:h after the oammobs hud heard, tbey gave a ^^-eat shout, 
r^ioicing nnd tinpptug thoir himds that the qoeen vaa clear 
of that iidae acK^lst\t{ua. But tho king whose conacienoe wm 
a witneBBiiguinat him of his witless fury, and false suspected 
JunltiUBy, w!u ao B^hame^l of his rash fully, that he entrwitBd 
hia nobles to peraunidD Ik-lhuiu to forgive and forget those 
injnrii?!) : promising nut only to show himaelf a loyul tin.d 
loving husband, but also to reconcLLo bimseU to Egiatus and 
Ftanion ; revealing then before them all the i-ause of their 
•ecivt digbt, and how troachcrouBly he thought to hava 
pnctiied his deaths if the guod mind of hia cupbearer htiA nut 
prorented hia purpose. As thus he was relitting the whol^e 
mntttiT, there was word brou^rht hibi th&t his young son 
Garintqr was suddenly dcind, which ne^ws so sw/n Hfl Bcllitria 
heard, surcharged before with e^ctrem^ joy, and now sup. 
pnwed with heavy aorrow, her vital apirite were 90 atoppo-I, 
that she fell down presently dead, and could nf.'Viirber<L'vivod. 
This Boddcn sight so appullcd the king's seniles, that he SHuk 
from his seat in a sound, '^ Etc as he was fain to be carried by 
his nnbles to hie pulaco, where he lay by th? Hpoce of throe 
dsys withoat speech : his commons wero as men in despair, 
SD direncly distreasied : there was nothing but mourning and 
latnentatian to be hAard throughout all Bohemia : their young 
princes dead, their virtuoiis quoen bereaved of her life, and 
their king nnd sovereign in great hazard : thia trngicul dis- 
course of Fortune aa daunted them, aa they went like shadows, 
not xoen ; yet somewhat to comfort their heavy hearts^ they 
hnrd thai Tandosto was come to himself, and had recovered 
his speech, who as in n fur>' biuyed out these hitter speeches ; 

*• O initwmbLe Pandosta, what surer witnesj than conscience ? 
what thooghta more Rour than suspicion f WTuit plague 
mure l«d than jetdousy ? fnuatural a^tionn offend the gods 
more than moo, and causelow cruelty never scapea without 

■ Sound, iwonnd, swcMni, 
totoiknt, to faint. 

First EogLii 

revenge : 1 have committed A bloody faot, as repent I may, 
hut recall I cannot. Ah, joatoufty, a heU to the mind, snd a. 
horror tu the uonAclanoe, ftuppretising raason, and inc^iliTig 
ntge ; it worw pnasion thtui phren8.y, a greater pkgue thaa 
EnadnDss. Ara the gods jtut P Then let them revenge such 
hrutioh cruelty I Jly innocent bube t have drowuud in the 
6(Aa ; cny loving wife 1 hdve itlaln with dUadiorous suspicion ; 
oiy truety friend I have uuught to Ikitniy, and yct the god« 
are slack to plague such oilencos. Ah, unjust ApoUo, Pan- 
dosta ia tho man llut hath committed the fault: why should 
Cjarintex, seely ' child, abide the pain ? Well, aince the goda. 
mean to prolong my days^ to inei^ease my dolour., I will offer 
my guilty blood a sacriliceto those sadclesjt^ souls, whoA&livea- 
aro lott hy my rigorous folly." 

And with that ho reached at a rapier, to have murdered 
himself, but his peers being piesent^ stayod him from such a 
bluody act : pumuuding him to think, that the commonwealtli 
<:ouEii&tcd on hia safety, und that those ahccp could not but 
perish that wonted a shepherd ; wishing that if he would 
net liva for himscilf, yet he should have core of hia subjffi:ta, 
and to put such faneies out of his cnind, sinee in sores poat help, 
salves do nut hoaL, but hiui : and in things ptist cure, curt: is 
iL currueive. With theAu and Huch like pcrBuajtiuns the king 
was overcome, and began somewhat to quiet bis mind : *> that 
Hn tiDon fiji he Could go abroad, he idiuaed his wife to be etti- 
balniL-d, and wrapped in b:ud with her yoong eon G^rinter - 
ercHttng a rich and famoiis sepulchre, wherein he entombod 
them both, making such uolemn oboequies at her funeral, tut 
bH Bohemiik might perceive he did greatly reptnt him of hi» 
forepassed folly : caiiinng this epitaph to ho engraven on her 
tomb in lottei'S of gold : 

Btre liet eniombed Bfilaria /air, 

Fulttly oceu*td to bt H»fha»te : 
Cleared bg Apoilo'a aaered doom. 

Yet liam byjttloufy at last. 

W^half'er thou he that patuxi Jy, 
Cvr»t hiau ihat taiiaed t\ia Qneen la die. 

This o^pitaph being engraven, Pandottto would xmce a day 
repair to the tomb, and there with wnterj* pLunts bewail his 
biLafortone; coveting no other companion but sorrow, norno 
other harmony but repentanee. Hut leaving him to hia 
doloroue pasaions, at last let us como to show the tragical' 
(liacounaL of the young iiifaot. 

Who being tossed with wind und wave, floated two whole 
dnys without suceour, ready at every puff to be drowned in 
the 8CB,, till at last the tempest ceased, and the little boat wna 
driven with the tide into the cotLst of Siciliu, where, sticldng 
upon the sands, it rested. Fortune, minding to he wanton, 
witling to show that «b she hiith wrinTcleson her brows, so 
she bath dimplca in her cbef^ks ; thought after so many sour 
looks, to lend a feigned -smile, and after a puffing .storm, to 
bring fl. pretty calm : she began thus to dally. It fortuned a 
poor mercenarj' shepherd, thut dwelled in SiejUa, who got 
his living hy other men's docks, misiHMl one of his she<>p, ftnd 
thinking it had stmyed into the covert, that was hard by, 
ficught vi^ry diligently to tind that which he could not see, 
fearing either that the wolves or eagles hnd undone him, for 
he wna 80 poor, a» a sheop was half his eubntance, wanden-d 
down towards the sea elilEs, to see if perehunca the sheep wa» 
browaing on the bob ivy, whereon they gnntly do fe«d, bat 


• Swli;, intuKent. See Mote i, p H. 

• SiLcilca, innocant, peuteabla tjxria Tint fin^Ush " udtis," fre*. 
from " snetl/" rtrifa. 




.'^H/MUf/Itt^ her there, us be wits reudy to return to hla Hock, 
feJHHiilft child cry : but knowiag there was no houac ni.'ar, 
k* ^ao^t he had mi^tuken tha Mjund^ eind thut it was tlie 
UMtag<if his afaeep. Wherefore looldng mon narrowly, rh 
ks tMtt Yaa eye to the eca, he epicrd a little boat, from whE^iice 
M be attentivcil}' listum^d, ho might hair tbo cry to cotne. 
Staadiog ■. ^od while ia amEUemeDt, at h^t ha wunt to the 
ihrav, and vrulmg to the boat, ob he looked in, he suw the 
Utile babe lying all utoni;, ready to din for hunger iimJ coW, 
«Tiipp4.4. ID a mantlo of ^curlet', ri[;hly embroidcitid with gold, 
and having a chain about the nsclc. 

The «hi3phord, who beforu Imd never seen 9o fiur a babi;, 
por flo rich jewels, thought ^Mutc-dly, that it was Bomo little 
(fodj and be^a with ^oat ti^jvatiao to knock on hia iireast. 
Tho babe, who wriLhed with the ht^d, to jn^r-k for the pap, 
twgftn again to cry afrash, whereby the poor nuin knew that 
it wn« Lk L'hild, which by aome siiiiistcr meuiia was driven 
thither by liii^nfiB of wmther: miirvtilling how euch n sivty 
iufant, whii'h, by the mjiutle rind thu chjiin, ixiuld not be but 
bom of nubk' parentage, Hhould be bo htirdly croAsed with 
ileodly miahai), 'Hie poor ahephLTd perpli'sod thus with 
iliver? thoughtB, totjk pity of the uliild, and dekirmined with 
hiuiaelf to carry it to the king, thtit tht>tD it might be brought 
lip atcording- to the worthini^ss uf birth ; for his ability 
fOuld not aft'onl to tosti-r it, though his good mind wsa 
willing to further it. Taking therefore the child in h-is 
nnnM, at he folded the maDtle togc-lhdr, iho b6ttf>r to defand 
it from cold, there fell down at his foot a very fair and neb 
pur*e, whoTvin he found a gi^at Rum of gold: which sight bo 
revived thf ahepherd'e spirit*, aa h<? was greatly nivLnbi'd with 
joy, and daunted with fear; joyful to lee Kuch a «uni in his 
pfiw^r, and fearful if it should be known, thiit it might breed 
his ftuihcr danger. Ne^fiBtfity wished him at thL'i Ica^it to 
reUin the gold, though be would not keep the child: the 
simplicity of hid contcimco ACftTAd him fron:^ euch decoitful 
bribery, Thiw was the poor man perplexc4 with n doubtful 
diletnma, utitil at hut tho oovotouBnoAS of thir coin ovorcamo 
him: for whut will not thr greedy daaireof gold cause a msn 
to »tti ? S(i thiit he wttB tesoh'ed in himaelE to foater tho 
etiild, and with thJ3 smu to relieve hia want. RestLag thus 
nvoluto in this point he left seeking of hh aheop, and na 
fotortly and Bt-erwlly aa he eoold, went by a bye way to his 
house, If*at any of his neighboiirB. should perceive his earriuKr}. 
As noon an ha wua g<tt home, entering in at the door^ the child 
In'gun lo ciy, whidi hia wife hearing, and seeing hor huaband 
with A young babe in his arms, be(!^n to he numicwhat 
joilIoub, yt.'t inoTveUing that herhualMind should bo bo wimton 
abroodt since he waa ao quiet at home : but &a women ure 
ruitunilly givi^n to betiew tha worst, ao his wife thinking it 
wiiti floine bastard ; bc^gan to erow agaioHt hi'^r good man, .&nd 
taking up a cudgel (for the moat master wt?nt bn.-eehle«8) 
Bwore solemnly that sbe would nuike ulubt truonps, if he 
brought Any bastard bra.t within her doora. Thn good man, 
w.'cing his wife in her mitjeS'ty with her mjieo in her band, 
thought it was time to bow for fear iff blown, and dosin.'d hor 
to be q^iiiet, for th-^re waa none «a<-'h matter ; but if she could 
hold btr pedcf, they wore made for ever. And with that he 
told lier the whole matter, how ho had found the child in A 
Little boat, without any auL'cour, wrapped in that eostly mantl'P, 
und having that rich chain about the neck : but at last when 
fci-^ shcwod h<:r the purw full of gold, she began to aimper 
•utmelhing Kweetly^ and taking her husband about the netk, 
kitued him after her homely fashion : sajing that she hoped 
Ifiid had Seen their want, iind now meant to relieve their 
|x>viTtv, and seeing Uiey {^uuld get do rhijdren, had st-nt thL-m 
ihiit littlo bube to be their heir. " Take hni-ed in itny caaft.'' 
(luotli the rhepherd, "tbrLt you be xiecret, and blab it not out 

when you meet with your gosaipa, for if you do, WQ are Iifc« 
not only to loso the gold and JewelH, but our other good* 
and lives." "Tuah," quuth hia wife, " profit is ft good batch 
before the door: fear not, I have other things to talk of than 
of this i but I pray you It-t ua lay up iho moO^y 8ur«lT» And 
the JGWola, least by any misbap it be spied." 

.\fter that they had sat all things in order, the shepherd want 
to his sheep with a merry note, and the good wife levnod t« 
etng lullaljy at home with her young liabe, wrapping it in u 
homi^ly blanket itutead of a rich niUDtl(.<; nouriahing it mj 
cleanly und eurefuUy as it began to be a jolly girl> in Bo siU'ch 
thftt they began both of them to bo very fund of it, snein^. 
aa it waxed in age, na it ittoreaacd in beauty. The Bh^pbun). 
avery night at hiig. coming bo!ne, would aing and danee it on 
hia knoF", imd prattle, that in a short time it began to tpouV, 
and coll him dad, and her mam. At last when it grew to ripe 
yours, that it was about seven years old, the abopherd Ibft 
keeping uf other men's yht^ep, and with the money bo found 
in the pursa, bo bought him the lease of u pretty fiuin, wad 
got a sauLU flock of sheep, which when Fawnia (for m tiwy 
nauied the child) camo to the age of ten yaars, he set her t4 
keep, and ehe with duch diligeocu perfurmi.'d her chATge a* 
the sheep prosiwred nutrvellously under her hajid. Fawnia 
thought Forruy had bt<en her father, and Mopaa her mnlhrr 
[for so was the Hhpphord and hia wife calli-d], honoured and 
obeyed them with such reverence, that all the neighbcnre 
pni.iacd the dutiful obodieti<^« of the child. Porrua giwv in i 
short time to be a maa of Bomo wealth and ta-edit ; fiir 
Fortune aa favoured him in hnving no chiirge but Fawnii, 
that he began to purchase bind, intending after his death tii 
f^ve it to hia daughte^r ', so that divciirs rich farmers' aona cami; 
aa wooers to hia house: for Fawniii was something cImdU' 
attired, being of such lingular beauty and cxcollent wit, iJui 
whoBoover saw her, would have thought she bod bwn rnim 
heavenly nymph, and not a mortal creature : in « imdl. 
that when aho came to thu ag^ of uvteen yedn, aha «> 
ineroastycl with exquisite iserfcctioTi both of body a&d laintl. 
as ht*r natural ditipoaitlon did betray that she was born at 
some high parentage. But the people thinldnct ahc vu 
ditTigbt&r to the shepherd Porrus, rested only bhiiumI at Iht 
boauty and wit ; yea, sha wan Hudi favour and oommmdjitinni 
in every man's eye, as her beauty was not only pmiiMjd in th* 
fiountty, but aIm spoken of in the oourt : yet Auch was hw 
Hubmiasive modesty, that although her praise daily incrdULil. 
her tnind waa no whit puffed up with pride, but humbH 
hereielf as became a country maid and the daughter of a font 
shepherd. Evory day she wont forth with her aheep to tb» 
fSeld. Weeping them with such c^re and diligence, aa all ana 
thought «ho was vfry painful, d^endtng har fa.oa iron tfc" 
heat of the eun with no other veil, but with a garlasd nada 
of boughs and fiowers ; which attire became her M galliDtljr. 
as she seemed to bo the goddess Flora heraeli for beauty. 

Fortune, who all this while hjid showed a friendly h/x^ 
began now to turn ber bruk, and to show a low^ur 
countenance, intending as she had giveb Fawnia a litaiei 
chot'fc. 80 she would give her » harder mate : ^ to bring •'lii«J" 
to paaa, eh& laid her tr.Lin ou thift wiso. Egiatiu had but oit« 
only 8on called Domains, about the ag« qf twtmly ywMi; ^ 
prince so de-cked dud adorned with th« gilts of natutr: « 
fimnght with beauty and virtuous qualitioa, as not only ^ 
father jorod to have ao good a son, and all lus comiw* 
rejoiced that God hmd lent thLvn «uch s noble priruw t* 
Buccecd in the kingdom. Egistua placing all hit jo)' inlk' 
perfection of his son : seeing that he was now mjuTia|P»w> 
(wnt ambassadors to the King of Denmark, to cotrrai » 

I Ch*rk . . . lAtii, tifTuu trom tdasi^'plajiji^. 



nuuria^u bctwocTi hiin And hia drtughtcr, who wUllEglj' cou- 
aeotin^, mnde answer, that the next spring, if it jilc^uac 
Egutus with hid son tu L-om<j into Dcnmurk, ho duiubti>d n»t 
bat Lhoj shonld agree npon rEuisanaUo eondiLionn, Egiatua 
rMting- satisfled with thJa friennily anawur, thuugtit convenient 
in the mfantim^ to break with hia aon: fitiJing thcrfftn'e 
on a. day &t opportuuity, he Hpake tu him in thcac fatherly 

*' Poni«tu8, thy youth wurnoth me tq prevent the worst, and 
uilii«^ ago tfl< pravidfi the bi>9t. Opporlunitict! ne^lectod^ am 
signs of folly; actions moiiamrod by tim'.% aru seldom Littcn 
with rcpentancA ; thou art yuuQg, and I old : ag>e hidb 
taught me thjit which thy youth ramnot y<it CCmcetve, \ 
Efufefore will coun8<*l thee as & father, hopin"; thou wilt ahey 
113 a child. I'hou wcat my wliitu biirs ure bEosaooiH for the 
gTHTc, imd thy friwh colour truit for lime and fortune, so 
thiit it bohoveth me to think how to die, nnd for theti to cure 
how to livfl. My cro\m I urnat luavti hy diuith, and thou 
enjoy lay kingdom by aurcewiioTi, whoroin I hope thy virtue 
and prowe9A shall ho such, ua though my eiibjoctfl want niy 
person, yet th<y iihftll sn* in thee my parfcction. That nothing 
either may fail to aatiafy thy mind, or ini.-r«HSC thy dignities : 
thr only cure I have ia to see thcu widl nuirriod bi-fore I dits 
and thou becoms; old.*' 

XJonutus, who from hiB iufaucy, delighted rdth^r to die 
with Mara in the Fii'ld than to dully writh VenuB in the 
Chamber, fenhng to diflp^^lU)e his father, and yet not willing: 
to ho wed, uiaile him this revotont finewer : 

" Sir, there 18 T»0 gnjater hond than duty, nor nt> Btraighter 
law thAii nuturti : disobi>dicncc in youth ia oft«'n g&Uod v-ith 
dn«pito in ago. The comTniinJ of the father ought to bi' n 
coniftiraiDt to the child ; so parents' willa are tawa, ho thiy 
pvsa not all laws: may it please your grace therefore tu 
appuint whotn I »hall Iotp, Hftth^ than by dgniiU I should 
be appcached uf disobodioncc, I rert content to love, though 
H bfl th« only thin^ T hatr-.'* 

EgiatUd*. hearing hia J*on to fly m far from the mark, bogon 
to he somewhat choleric, nnd thoreforo made him this baaty 
answer : 

" What, Dorafitns, canst thou not love ? Cometh this 
cyniml passion of prone* dE»iiri?ii or peovish frowardlneaH? 
>Vliat, durst thou think th\-?Glf too ^ood for all, or nonti fpod 
«iiau);h l>ir thoe i* I loll theo, Duraatus, there ia nothing 
■vertor than youth, aor swiftor ducrcasing while it ia in- 
creAainK'. Time pa^t with follv mav he tvpi&Dtod, hut not 
recalled. If thou marrj* in ng*\ thy wife's fri?Bh colours will 
htrtteA in. theo dead thoughts and xUnpitioll, and thy white< 
hairs her loathsom'^ncss sad wrrow. For Venus' affections 
aru not f«d with kingdoms, or tixi»HUn;ei, hut with youthful 
conceits und sweet amonrn. Vulnin was Jill'ttttnl to nliake 
the tree, hut Mar« ullowi?d to roEip thu ftuit. Yiold, DorastoSr 
to thy father*!! pt-tsuiiaioDa, which may pruvent Ihy porila. T 
hflv« ehodL'H thM a wife, fair by tialurc, rayiil by birth, by 
virtue* famooa, leami'd by edncnlion and rich by pqisseasiane, 
•oth&t it is hard to judge whe;thL'r hur bounty, or fiirtun^, her 
bi^nty, or virtue be of greater fureo: I moan^ Dorartus, 
F.ui^taDiA, daughter and hmr to thi- King of Donmark." 

I'^gistus pausing hem awhilo, looking whoa his son should 
maker him answer, and seeing that he Ktood still as one in a 
ftanee, he shook him up thus sharply : 

"Well, Doraatus, t&kt'heod.thetrt.'e Alpya'wiiBteth not with 
Hnj, but withereth with the dew: that which love nourinh^th 
i.^t, prri^eth with hatt''. If thou like Euphrtinia, thou 
hrvt-dcvt my content, and in luvinff her thon shalt have my 
IofPt othorwiso" — and with that hp flnng from hw son in a 
rigi.', leaving him a oorrowful inAU, iu that he hitd by denial 
iUff))Leiued hit father, ind half angry with himself Uwt he 


could not yield to Ihat paaoiuii^ nhi^rotfi both reason, acid liis 
father pcrauadcd him. But mn bow fortune is plumod with 
time's feathcta, and how she can miaiBter strange canBiia to 
breed strange otfecta. 

It happenwl not long after this that there was a meeting 
of 4lII tht: fj^trmtfra' dnii^hters in 8ieilia, whither Fuwnia watt 
&1bu bidden aa the mistresfl of the feast, who having attired 
herself in her best garmentSi went among the rest of hpr 
companions to the morr)' tDceling ; there spending the day in 
su(!h homely paHtimM aa Hhcphatda used, Ab th« uveoing 
grew <jn. !ind their sports cuoaod, each taking their leave at 
other, Fawtiia, dealing one of her compamofis to bear her 
eompany, wmt homo by the 6ock. to see if they were well 
folded; and as they retuniod, it fortuneid that Donuttutt (who 
aU thiit day had been hawking, and kiibd store of game) 
h'nrountered by the way these two maids, and taattng Ida pye 
suddenly on Fawnia, he was half afmid, fearing that with 
Aetieon he had aCeo Diana, for he thought such exquisite 
pcrff-tion conld not be found io any mortal creature. Aa 
thus he stood ib & maze, one cf his page^ told hitn, that 
the nmid with the garland on her head was FawniH, the fair 
shephfad, whose hf^aiity was so much talked of in Cho eouii. 
DoraHtuB, defiiroiiB to i*lio if nature had adorned her mind with 
any inward quaiitie^a, as sbo had docked her body with uut' 
ward shape, began to xjuustion with her whoao dauyhtfr shu 
WBis, of what ago and how she had been trained up ; who 
answiGTed him with soi^h modest reverence and shurpneaH uf 
wit, that Daraatus thought her outward! beauty woa but a 
t'OUnterfeit to darken hor inward qualities, wondering how 
so romtly bi'baviour could he found in so eiimplea cottagu, 
and cursing iortuni: that had shadowed wit and beauty with 
Bueh luird fortune, \a thus he held her a long while with 
chat, beauty seeing him at discovert, thought not to lose the 
advantage, but struck him do deeply with an eiLvenottu-d 
shaft, UM he wholly Wt hia liberty, and became a slave to love^ 
which iKifore contemned love, glad now to gaxc on a poor 
ahepberd, who before rrfuaod the offer of a nth piinceBH ; 
for the jwrfcption of Fawnia hud so fired his fancy as be felt 
his mind greatly changed, and his affections altered, cursing 
love that had wrought aucb a change, and blaming thr* base- 
nesA df his mind, that would make Hueh a choice. But think- 
ing these were but passionate tones that might ho thrust out 
at ple&Bure, to avoid the syren that cnehanted him, he put 
spora to his horse, and. bade this fair «hcpherd farewell. 

Fawnia, who all this while had marked the princely 
gesture of Domstus, seeing bii* face ao well featured, and 
edclt litnh ba porfei^tly £rami>d, began greatly to praiitc his 
perfection, commendixiB him bo long, tiE she found herself 
faulty, and perceived if she waded hut a little further she 
might slip over her shoes. She therefore, seeking to quenoh 
that tire which never waia put out, went home^ and feigning 
herst-lf not well at ooee, got her to bed, where, easting n 
ihmiaand thoughts in her head, she could take no rest : for if 
she waked, j^he begun to call to mind his beauty, and think- 
ing to beguile aUih thoughts with sIcl'ii, ehi:- tht^n dreana-d 
of his perfection: pcsterH thus with these uxKicquainli-d 
IHiK-^iom^ tAkf piiageil th<- night aa she eould In short slumbera. 

Dorastos, who aU thia while rode with a flea in his ear, 
could not by imy m*:-rinfl forgot the aweet favour of Fawnia, 
hut rusted bo bt!witched with hrr wit and hcnuly, ax he could 
take no rest. He felt funey to giro tho assault, and hin 
wDiuidL-d mind ready to yield jlb vanquished: yet he tiegan 
with divers couAidtinitionH to mipprcoB this frantic affection, 
ealling \q mind, that Fawnia was a shepherd, one not worthy 
to la' looked al uf a prin(,'e, much loss to be loved of suih a 
patentJite \ thinking what a diaeredit it were to himself, atvX 
what a grief it would Ik* to his father; blaming Fortune* and 




[Jk-D, LS8^ 

seeming hia own fully, that shoulil be w loni as but ouc-e to 
oast a glaacs at biuJi a cOontry slut. A» thus he wa« raging 
kgaiiut hinuclf, Liore, tesring ii the <kUied long to lotie h<.-r 
duunpion, atcpjied more tiigb, olid gAV^ liim eU'ch. & frt-ah 
wound aa it pierced hini at the htxirt, that lie wajb faw to 
peld, (nAugre Mb &c«,' and to foruke the cotupAny and get 
bim to his chunlKT; vbctv Wing wlt^mnl}* »H, he burst 
into tbsm punomlo terms : 

"Ah, I>or9«ti», art tboii nloni?? No^ not atoni% wtulv thou 
ui tirod with these DDAcquaintod piudoiui, Yii'ld to fiuicy 
thou canst not ^^y thy idthcr'B coim^^l. but id a fronzy thou 
art tiy just d^stiniea. Thy tuther were conti:at ii thou 
conldi^ lovPt "'^'I- thnu therefore di«x)Dtciit tK-caUse thou 
doft lore. O (Utido Lovt, feared of men Ibecauae huaoured 
of the gods, not to be Bupprewed by wiailqm, bccatiM not to 
b« coroprebendEHl Ly i«aAon: without law, and therefore 
above nil law. How now, Donustus, wby (iosl thou hloEo 
thut with pnusoA, which thou haat tauso to blasi>boine with 
curees? Yet why abonlit tb^-y curse Love that are in lovo !- 
BlUish, Dordatufl, &t thy fortune, thy choice, thy love: thj- 
thou^ta cunnot he uttored without ahame, uor thy affsctioiui 
without diacredit. Ah, Fawnio, sweot IVwnia, thy beauty 
FawniH. 1 Shamoat not thou, Dorutftus, to name one un&t for 
thy birth, thy digitities, thy Idugdotfui P Dio, DomatuB, 
Dorastua, die I Better hadat thou perish with high desires, 
than live in haa« thoughts. Yea, but beauty must be obc-yed, 
botaiuao it is beauty, yet tram^ of thq goda to feed the eye, 
not to JcttBr the heart. Ah, but he that striTeth against 
LoTe, abooteth with them of Scyrum againat tho wind, and 
with the cockatrice pecketh againat the «teel. J will there- 
fore phcj', because I must obey. Fawnia, yea Fawnia ahall 
be my fortuno, in spile of fortune. Thr gods abore disdain 
not to lore women beneath. PhtpbuiS likcid SybiUa, Jupiter 
lo, and why not I then Fawnia? one something inft-Hor to 
thowt^ in birth, but far superior to them in beauty, born to 
bff a ^cphtTd, hut worthy to be a gadd««a. Ah, Dor&sluA, 
wilt thou ao furj^t thyficlf as to suffer affection to a^ppre^ 
wisdom, and love to riolate thine bonourf^ Haw boiu* n-Hl 
thy I'hoiiM? bo to thy father, Burruwfvil to thy bubjecta, to 
thy frionda a griei, moat gLadEoma to thy foes! .SuMue, 
tbeti, thy affectioDB, and ceoac to love her whum thou couldat 
npt lore, unless blinded with too much love. Tuah, I talk 
to the wind, and in nt.'tikia^ to prevent the causea, I further 
tbi? <-'fiveta. t will yet praisr' Fawniii ; honour, yea, and lore 
Fawniii, and at this day follow content, not lOunacL Do, 
DonistuB, thou catLut but repi>nt ! " ATid with tliat his pago 
camo into tbf chamber, whereupon ho L-eiisf?d from his. lom- 
ptninta, hoping that time would wo&r out that which fortune 
had wrought. As tbiu he vus pained, bo pour Fawnia waa 
ijcenjely perplexed : for tho next morning, getting up very 
early, aha went to her ahiwp, thinking with hard taboura to 
pii»Away her new conceived amours, beginiung very busily 
to drii-o tWtffl tu the tietd, and then lo ahift the< folila. At last, 
wearied with toil, ahe snt her down, whort, poor soul, ahs 
Was iaoro tried with fond affei^tious: for Iqve began to 
aswrnlt her, u^somuch Ihut aa she sat upon tho aide of a hill, 
she bcgoci to auL'upt! hw own folly in Ihcwe terms : 

" Citfortunate Fawnia, and tht-rcfore unfortimate because, 
Fawnia, thy fihepherd'a ho«ic *howeth thy poor stale, thy 
proud tif!vrv!f an aapiring mind : the one dwlarcth thy want, 
the other thy pride. No bastard hawk must soar bo hi^n'h aia 
the bobby ,^ no fftw] gaze against the sun but the eagle ; 

> Maitun hii fa€t. tbougb his fiuts wum »ti ajwiiut XL Old Freucb 
"mmaifrei" IaUd " nude ffiadun " 

* UntAv, Fraaefa " hoberaaD.," Fale« tublmlro, Tbe hab1)j iii"hohbjr. 
haras " and tbtt phiaae "rldJup one'i bolibf" uj^ Telnt«4 to s Douiiali 

Actiooa wrought against n&ture reap despite, and thougjit* 
above fottunc diadain. Favmia, thou art a ahephecd, daught^v 
to (joor PojTus: if thoy reat content with this, tbau art like 
to stand, if thou lUmb thou art sure to fall, llie herb «mt« 
growing higher than, aii iucbea beeometb a weed. H'llns 
dowing more than twelve cubits procureth a dearth. Daring 
uffectiuns that pass meaBun^, are eut ahgrt liy time or fortune: 
Rupproas thL'u, Fawnia, thOAO thoughts which thou maynA 
shame to express. But uh, Fawniu, love ia 4 lord, who uill 
command by power, and constrain by foroe. Dorastua, ah, 
Duraslus is the man I love, tho worse- is thy hap, and the Ich 
cause boat thou to hope. Will eagles <^tt:h at fliea, will 
cedars sloop to brambles, or mij^hty princoa look at inch 
homely trulls P No, no, think this, Borastus' disdain ia 
gn^t^^T than thy deaire: be ia a prince respceting his honour, 
thou a beggar's brat forgi;tting thy c^ling. CeuaiB, then, utit 
only to pay, but to think to love Doraatus, and diotembk tliy 
lovD, Fawnia, for butter it were to die with gri«f, than to 
live with shume : yet in deapitc of love I will ngh, to »«■ if 
I can aigh out love." 

B'jiwuia, BomewbiLt appe^nng her griefs with tbaie pilby 
porfluoaions, begun aitct her wanted manner to walk about 
her abeop, and to keep them from struv-ing into the corn, 
suppressing her affection idth tho due conddenktion of hir 
baae estate, and with the ipipoeaibiiitiea of her iov©, thinking 
it v/es-e frttnzy, not famy, to eovt^t that whiidi tho very de»- 
tJniaB did deny her to obtain, 

But Dorastus was more impatient in his paamons; for lore 
so fiorL«ly asaailL-d him, that neither Lumpany nor music c.-ouJd 
mitigate hie maitjTdom, but did rather far the more incmir 
hiamaliidy: Bbame would not let him i-'rave coimaol in thij 
case, nor fear of hia father's diaplcusure rercol it to any 
secret friend ; but he was fain to make a. secretary of himself, 
and to participato his thoughts with his ovn troubled mind. 
Lingering thUiS awhile in doubtful auspenw, at last stealini' 
Boctetly from the court without either inen or page^ he went 
to see if he could e»|iy Fawnia walkm^ abnxtd in the field: 
but as one having a great deal mom skill to n.>tneYC the' 
partridge with his spaniola than to hunt altar snL'b a strani:^ 
pr»y, he sovight, but waa little the bettor: which eroaa lucii 
drove hi"i into a great uholer, that he began, to aecuac \jai<t 
and Fortune. But aa he was ready to retire, he t«w Fawnia 
sitting nil alone under the side of a. hill, making a garhuid of 
such homely flowers as tho fields did a:?ord. Thia aight «> 
revived his spirits thut ha drew nigh, with mure judgment to 
take a view of her singular perfection, whi>jhhe found to >)e 
Bun'h as in that country attire she stained aU the courtly 
damea of 8icilia. While thus he stood gimTig with pierrinf 
looks on her aurposuiog beauty, Fawnut cast her eyefrande, 
and fipied DontertuB, which sudiJlen aight made the pour girl to 
hluah, and to dye her crysttd eheek^a with a vcimilion ni; 
which gave her sui;h a grace, as she seemed fur more beautiful. 
And with thut she rose up^ saluting the prince with auvh 
modest t:urtaeyti, an be wondered how a cotcntrj' Rwid rontd 
B.&ord ?qeb courtly behaviour. Doraatus, repaying her cartaf>y 
with a smiling ^Li^uatenanee, begiui to parley with her in thia 
manner ; 

•' Fair maid," qiioth he, " either your want is grout, m * 
ahepherd's life very sweet, that your delight is in aiich 
countjy labours. 1 cunnot t-oneeive what plenaure yoa should 
take, unless you moan to imitate the nympha, bang yoiiwelf» 
like a nymph. To put me out of this doubt, ahow me what 
ia to be commended in a shepherd's life, and what pleaautn 
you have to countturvjiil thc^e drudging laboun." 

Fawnia with blushing fate made him this ready uunnr; 
"Sir, what richer state Ihnn content, or what awet-ln IW* 
than quiet f Wo shepherds are not bom to honour, nor 

[A-p. lan. 



T>ehoildme unto ^K^auty, the tesa care we hiive to ftar famf- or 
furtune ; vb toiuit our uttiro bnivu enough if warm cuQugh, 
and •>ut food dflinty, if to duSlcf' nature. Otir grenteit enemy 
is the wolf i OUT only care in Bciv keepin(^ our flciek : iafitcnii 
<jf courtly dittie», we epend tliu days with countrj" Bongs: 
our amomiie conceits btc homely thoug^hts ; deli^titiiig aa 
xnivrh to tiilk of Pikn and his country pmnks, as luJics to tell 
vt Venus and bur waaton toya. Our Coil is in sbiiting the 
fold/t, and looking to the Ltmbe^ onay kbours: oft ainging 
aail tpHUag tales, homely plEataUrOB ; our greatest wealth not 
lo cov^, OHT hoQour not to cJiinb, our quiet not to care, 
En^'y lookftth not m low ax ahepherda.: Bheph^rdM ginb bot 
BO hiyh 04 ambition., Wu arc rich in that we are jHwr with 
content, and proud only in this, tkat we have no uauae to be 

This witty anawer of Fawnia no inflamed Dorostua' fruicy, 
9ia he 4x>inmcud£-d himaelf for Toalnng ho good a choico, think- 
ing, if h^r hirth wore &nawerabte to her wit and beauty, that 
ahp were a fit mate for the most famoua prince in the world. 
lit' therefore began to eift hor mora narrowly in tMtf 
jiiriiinor ; 

•' Fawnia, I B«e thoii art content with country lahouta, 
b(?t»uBe thou knowest not courtly pI^eaflurcH : I commend thy 
wit, and pity thy waut : bnt wilt thou leave thy futht-r's 
cottage, and serre a oourtly mirtreas?'* 

"Sir," quoth she, "beg-gf&rs oug-ht not to Btrire a^inat 
fortune, nor to gazQ after honOnx, lost either thotr fall bo 
grtHter, or they bccoma blLud. I am bom to toil for the 
court, not in the tioiirt, my nature unfit for their nurture: 
better live then in mean degrpu, than in high diaduin," 

"Well mid, Fawnia," quoth Doratitus, "I gxiiaa at thy 
th<iuglit«; thoeart in lure with som(> eountrj' sliepherd," 

'* No, HT," qnotli she, " shepherda cannot lovo, that are ao 
aimple, and lanidti may not love tJuit arc bo young," 

" Nny, tiim«foie," t^uepth Doraatua, "uutids most love, 
V'caow they are young, (or Cupid is s chilis and VanuB, 
Chough old, i* punted with freah oolourfl.^' 

*' I graiU," <iaotli ahe, "age may be painted with new 
fihadows, and youth may havo impt^rfect offoctiona; but what 
art coBcealotJi in onp, ignorance revgaleth in the other." 
Donatwi, seeing Fawnia held him bo hiird, thought it waa 
vain BO long to b«»t ubout tho buali : therefore he thought to 
have girm her a fresh charge ; but he waa prcvpntod ly 
nertiux 4f kis merit who, miuiing their mfLjter, came posting 
to B«>k hia, aocing thiit hu vna gone forth all alone; yet 
befort tlie^ dnw so nigh that they might hour their talk, 
he lived the»e ipeecbeBT 

** Why, Favoia, perhapa I lo«^e this«, and then thou must 
D(<«dv yipld,for thou koowi^ I can command and coaHtrain." 
" Truth, sir," quoth she, "hut not to love; for conatrained 
lore is force, not love ; unil know this, sir, mine honoaty is 
such, as I had rather die than he a concubine even to a king, 
and my birtli id w base as I am unfit to be a wife to a poor 
farmw,'' *'Why. then," quoth he, "thnu canHt not love 
Domstus" " Yes," said Fawnia, " when Dorustiia beeflmea 
• shephArd.'" And with that the preaence of his men broke 
«ff their parloy, so that ho went with tham to tbo palace, 
and left Fnwaia Hittin;^ etill on the hillside-, who, seeing that 
the night drew on, ehift^'d hvT folds, and buaiod hera«lf 
about other work to drive &way eneh fond fancies as began 
t^ troublo her brain. But all this could not prevail; for 
the beauty of I>orastus had mado aiich a d(.fp imprBanon in 
hvr heart, a« it could not be worn out without cmckiag, SO 
th-'it ahe wafl forced to blame her own folly in this ^-iae : 

"Ah, Fawnia, why doiit thou gneoagninat the nun, or catch 
at iii0 wind)' atara are to be looked at with the eye, not 
iCAclud at witli the hand : thoughts are to he moaaui^d by 

furtunes, not by di^aire^ : Mis come not by sitting low, but 
by climbing too high : what, then, shall all fear to fall, 
beo/iuse soma hap to fall P Ko luck conieth by lot, and 
Fortune windeth those throada which the Destiniei*' spin. 
Then art favoured, Fawnia, of a prince, and yet tliou ait 
BO fond to rcjc-ct desired favours: thuu haBt dcoiaJ at (Jiy 
tonguo'ti ond, and desire at thy heart's bottom : a woman's 
fault, to fljium at that with her foot, which sdio gratdily 
cntcheth at with hfr hand. Thou lovent Dorastiia, Fawnia, 
and yet BQeincBt to lour. Taki' heud, tf he retire thou wilt 
repent ; for unless he love, thou canst but die. Hie then, 
Fawnia, for Dorados, doth but joat; the lion never preyed 
on the mouHc, nor falcons stoop not to doad stale«.^ Sit 
dcwn, then, in sorrow, ccaae to love, and content thyself, 
that Doraatus will TouchBofo to Batter Fawnin, though not 
'to fancy Fawnia. Heigh ho ! Ah, fool, it woro aeendier foi 
theo to whittle aa a ahepherd, than to sigh M a lover." And 
with that she c^u^ed from theae perplexed pasaiona, folding 
her ah'i'cp, and hieing home to her poor eottage- 

But Buch was the incessant sorrow of Dorartus to think oa 
the wit end beauty of Fawnia^ and to seo how fond ho was 
being A prince, and how froward she wa« being a beggar, 
that he bogan to lose his wontod appetite, to look pale and 
wau ; instead of rairth^ to feed on melancholy; for courtly 
liunces, to use cold dumps ; insomuch that not on!y hia own 
men, but hia father and all the court hf>gan to marvel at hia 
Buddfin change, thinking thjtt eomc lingering ^ckneee luul 
brought him into this atatu: wherefore he caused phyaidana 
to (!omc, hut DorHstua neither would let them minister, nor 
so much as suSer them to seo his urine ;' but remained still 
so oppressed with th««o passions, as ho toored In himself a 
farther incoBvanionco. Hia Honour wished him to ceeao 
from snot folly, hut Love forcod him to follow fancy : yea, 
and in despite of honour. Lore won the conquest, so that his 
hot desires cau&ed him to find new devices, for he ptvsently 
made himself a shepherd'a coat, that hi? might go unknown 
and with the less suspieion to prattle with Fawnia, and eon- 
voyed it socroUy into a thick grove hard joining to the 
l>ulai«, whither, finding fit time and opportunity, he went 
all alone, and putting off his pi-incely apparet, got on those 
shepherd's roboB, and taking a great hook in his hand (which 
he had also gotten), he went vorj' anciently' to find out 
the mifltress of his affeiction. But as he went by the way, 
seeing himself clad in such unsoonrdy ntgs, he began to amils 
at his own folly, and to reprove hifi fondness in thc«o terms : 

" Well," said Dorastus, " thou koepest a right dfCOrnni, 
base deaires and homely attires ; thy thoughts are fit for nona 
but a shepherd, and thy apparel auch o^i only become a 
shepherd. A strange chango from a prince to a peasant! 
What ia it ? thy wretched fortune or thy wilful foUy ? Is it 
thy cursed deEdinieB, or thy crooked deaircs, Ihut nppointcth 
thee thia penance P Ah, Uurastus, thou canst but love, and 
uolesa thou love, thou art like to perish for love. Yet fanl 
fool, choo:^ Bowers, not weeds ; diamonila, not pebbles ; ladioa 
which niity honour thee, not shepherds which mny disgrace 
thee. Venus ifi [uLinted in silks, not in rags ; and Cupid 
tread«th en disdain, when he reachcth at dignity. And yet, 

1^ SCdlM. d«»T Wrdi, from OW Frmwsh " estalar.'" to upoM Iii a 
Axed vl>^<% JLlUeU W Oerman " sUllon," to plun, utd Bn gl l a l i 


3' This m» ODce looked upon oa an »ld Co the AiafgnaaiM tit lUaeart 
not Leas i^re thui the feelluK at tho frnlse, snil the belief enablnd 
uULDf pr^ct1lioti«fs to >do a tani« bnstoQu with patletit* whom thay 
never aiw. 

' XiLcimLIv is perlutiH uaed hem by a tnuuTareoaa of thoncht to 
"anoient" ■ trom "uatiqae," the wiinJ "umtic" bdngdcriTod ln>mth« 
gIvt«igu«iaBi ol BJKiieDt ■rchltootunl Bgurei^ 



[k.D. ua». 

Danstos, shamo oot at thy uhcptiDrd'ii vtei. IIid hcavonlv 
fiA hare sometmics mithly tbougllta . NeptuDi' became a 
ran, Jupiter a bull^ ApoUo a ehcpherd: tirny god^, and yet 
in I«n> ; nnd thuu a iniLii af P^i^^^ tu UlVL^" 

Devising thiu wiUi bimBcIf, ho dren- nigh to the plnc^ 
wlune FsKTUA wn» keoping hct Hhc>Ap^ wLm cutiting; her oyK 
Asde, ud se«mg such amiuinerly ahephcrd, perfectty limni-d. 
•nd cooung with so (^cod a jiace, ohc bfgtui hdlf to furg^t 
Dvnstus, Rod to favour this prttty shepherd, whom she 
thooght sho might both love luid obtain : but ne &he wiu in 
ibno thoughta, aho porcoived than, thut it wus the yoitng 
prince DorasCas, -wheriBforo ahti rose up and roverently saluted, 
him. Doraatas, taking her hy the hand, repaid hor curtacy 
with a 9wcot kisa, and pmying ber to eit dovn by him, he> 
began thus to lay the battery : 

"If thou morvcl, Fawnia, at my strange attire, thou* 
wouldat more miue at my unaccustomnl thoughts ; th« one 
lUflgrucdth but my outward ahape, the other diatiirbt'th my 
inward taeoq^g, I lovo Kawniu, and theTvtore whnt love 
liketh I i&nnot miBlike. Fawnin, tboi] hnst pn:imiBod to love, 
nnd I hope thou wilt pmrform so It'ss: I huvu fulflllitct thy 
roqu£<st, and new tbou canst but grant my deeiira. Thou 
wert contont to love Donistua when he eortsed to be a prince 
and h«comc u ehephord, and lee I hnre made the change, and 
therefore nut to diibb dS ray ohoifc."" 

" Truth." quoLh Fawnia. ; " but all thut wear cowU aro 
not monkfl; pniuted t»gleB ore pinturoB,. not (stgU-s, KriisiH' 
grttpci wcro like g^mpefl, yet nhadowa: rich >cJothing make 
not princio^, nor homely attiro buggara : Hhophctda lu^ not 
called shepherds, bccauso they wtiar bootti and hag?, bat 
tbut they aro bom poor, and live to ke^*p ehtivp : ho thin attire 
luth not made Dam3tuq 4 shepherd, but to set-m Uke a 

"Wtll, FMwnia," anflwcrwi DonutuB, " woro I aah(>phcrd, I 
ooulil not but liko theo, and being a prince I am forced to love 
thcc. Take heed, Fawnia, be not proud of Bcanty'ii pitint- 
ingi for It is a flower that fiidcth in tbf hloetsom. Thoae 
■which diBdaiu in y outb art di.<spi8od in age : Be^vity's shadowy 
vt& trickod up with Time'^ colours, which being ect to diy-in 
the sun are at^incd with thQ *mn, scan-e plea^og the sight 
erw tht-y br^gin not to be worth tho j*ight, not much unliko 
the herb ophomeron, which fl.ouri^E'th in thu morning and ii 
-witherod before thi^ »uii setting. If my doairo wore agiunBt 
law, thou mightc^t justly deny me by reason : but I love 
th«f, Fawnia, not to mifitisa thoe as a >eDticubiaD, but to hbl- 
thto fiB my wife; I can proauBe no more, and mnnn to per- 
form no Icsi," 

Fatrnia, hearing thia wlemn pro testation of Pomstua, could 
no longpr wiChstiuid thu aHk-iult, but yielded up the fort in 
these; friendly tertDS ; 

" Ah, Dorofltu^, I shame to exprcAd Ibat thou forc^^&t me 
with thy sug;trt-d apeoc-h to iumtcBa • my bAse birth uituteth 
the one, and thy high dignitiee thp othf r. Beggara' thoughts 
ought not to reach »o far oa kings, and yet my dosiroB reach 
lA high ua pnnt-fts. I dare not say, CometuH,. I love thrr, 
becauau t am & shepherd; butt^l'gOcEa know I have honoured 
Doraatus (pardon if I say iLmiaa). yvA and lovf^ Dora^ui^with 
mith dutiful uife^^tion ua Fawniii can porform, or DnnLAtug 
disJrc; I yii^Jd,, not overcomo with prayers, but with Iotp, 
FiMliBg Donutna' handmaid ruody to obey his will, if do 
prejudice at all to his honour, nor to my credit." 

DorastUA, hoaring thia friendly concluaiou of Fawma, om- 
brMod her in, hii amu, awraring that nciither distance, lime, 
nor advene fortune aliould diminiah hta uffoction i but thnt 
io d^apiteof tho doEtinien he would remain loyal iinto dc^th- 
IlariRg thai plight their troth to eaioh othi?r, seeing they 
Lould not hnvr the full fnutlOD of their love in SicUiu, for 

tiuit Egifitua' couoent would never be granted to m mean ■ 
miitch, DonistuB dotermined, aa tioan ba time and opportunity 
would give them leave, to provide a great maaa of raonvy. 
and many rich and costly jewula, for tho oaaier carriagr.^ arid 
then to transport themaclves and thc-ir troaaaro into Italy. 
where they should k-ud a reintented life, until such timtrxii 
oithcr he could he rei;oncilod to hid futhcr, or else by vnecft- 
don L-ome to the; kingdom, This dirvice wus greatly pnaiawl 
of FiiM-nia, for tihe fc^sd if the king bis faUier ehould but 
hear of tho conlxset, that his fury woidd b» «uch aa no laaa 
than death would stand for payment : she thfrefon? told him, 
Ihnt delay brod danger; that many mitdkAptt did fall out 
betWL-en the cup and the lip, and that to avoid duagcr, it 
w(^re beat with as muiLh flpood Afl might be to poaa out of 
8ieiliA, lest Fortune might provent their pretence with amno 
naw despite, Doraatus, whom Love pricked forward with 
desiro, promised to despatch hia affair? with as great haste aa 
cithiLT time or opportunity wauM giv^ him leave: and m> 
resting upon thb point, ufler many enbracings and swoi-t 
)cjBS<:'a thoy departed. 

Dorustu», having taken lua leuve of hia best beloved Fawnia. 
want to the grove whero he had hia rich ap[Mrel, and then- 
unerasing hinucLf hh aecpetly as might be, hiding up his 
shEtphenl'a attire, till occasion should Hrve again to um it. 
ho went to tho pfilnce, ahowing by hia merry caiuit«iuuu'('T 
that either the atato of his body was amended, or tho omc of 
his mind greatly redressed. Fawnia, poor soul, WU no lea 
joyful, that, being a flhephcrd, Fortune bad favoiued her sw, 
aa to reward her with the love of a prince, hoping in time to 
bo advanfod from the daughter of a poor farmw to 1* the 
wife of n rich fcing : bo that ahe thought oveiy boor a ymr, 
till by their departure tbey might prevent danger^ not 
ceaaijig atill to go every day to her aheep, not so much for tlw 
tare of her dot-k, as for tbe deairc' eiku had to ace her lore and 
lord I)i>ruBtus : who ofLentimaa, when Opportunity wunU 
sen-e, repaired thither to feod hia fiincy with thpi ^weet eon- 
tent of Fnwnia's preaeace. And although he never went U> 
visit her but in hia !th>(>pherd'a mg^, ytii, his oft repair nudi* 
him not ouly enspected, but known to divera of their niugh- 
bouTB: who for tho good-will they bare to old Porrtia, toliJ 
him Hcertitly of the matter, wishing him to keep his daughUi 
ut home, lest she wtTit so oft to the field that «ho hrou^hl 
him home & joun^ fion : for they feared that Fawoia bein.^ 
90 beautiful, the young princp would allure her to folly. 
PorruB was atricktio into a dump at thne news, ao that 
thanking hia neighbouTB. for their good-will^ he hied kiin 
home to hia iirifo, and culling her aside, wringing his hartb 
nnd fihixlding forth tears, he broke th(! matter to hiT in Ihetf 
terms : 

" I nm afraid, wife, that my daughter Fawnia hath nude 
hcrwdf »o fiats that she will buy repentaneo too d*«T I hear 
oewi^, ^'hicb, if they be tru^, aome will ^i«h they had not prtned 
true. It is told me hy my neighbours, that Dotaatus, Uib 
king's Hou, begioa to look at our danghler Fawnia; ' 
if it be BO, I will not give her a halfpenny for her h 
thu ye&r> end. I tell tbec. uifi', nowadays iKmnty ia&j 
atalo to trap young men, und fiiir worda und a 
aretwogreutonemieB to a maiden's honesty ; and thoak 
where poor men entreat, and cannot obtjiin, there p 
coninland, and will obtain. Though kltiga" sons danoe il 
they may not bo soen; hut poor mea'a fauits oju vpiifd •■ a 
littln holo. Well, it ia n hArd ease where kingB' IuhIj an- 
Inwfl, and that they shoulil bind poor men to that whidi U»y 
thomaelves wilfully brt^afc." 

" Feaco, huabond," quoth hia wife. " Lake hw^l wJiM yoa 
Bay; apeak no more than you ahould, Icat yon hewwhat VM 
would not. Qreitt streums ure to be stopped bjr lleight, not 

T».B. ue&j 



fry furt'e; juiii priaccii to io |it<niimileil hf Bubmisaioa, not 
by rigour. Do wLut you i-ub, but nu moto than you may, 
iefit in aiiving Fawniii, you lose your own hend- Tak<j heed. 
I tay, it is iU jewing «nch cdgt-d tooUt^indl biiJ sporting witti 
Iciniri. The wolf hait hia skill pullod over bin eurs for but 
looking into tLe lion's dec." " Tiuh, wifa," quoth ho, " thtJia 
spcviki^at lik'i ii fool; if tlio king ahould fcnowj Itia fury 
would be such ua no iloubt vq should both low oar go<xLi 
and Kvea. Ncceaaity, thereforo, bath nn law, anil I will 
pnvcnt thia miHchicf with a new device thtit \» coniu into 
my ht^, vhiLli eihall noilher nS^od tha k:r]^, nor diflpli?aflc 
Dorartiw, I mean to take tho chrtin *ind Uw jewels that 1 
(ound with Fawoia, and carry th^^ni to tbo king, luttiag' him 
tliLii to undQratsnd how ^bn is noni; uf my daa^htor, liut that 
I found her beaton up with the wtitor alone in & little boat, 
wT!»pped in a litii ruantlOf whf^roin wBaenclPwd this treasure. 
By tJus mtams I hope the king wiH t&ko FawniA into hia 
service, and we, whatsoever chsmwth, shall lie lilmipleBs." 
'Itkiji dEivic<o pleaaed the good wife ver^' woll, sa thiit they 
dutenni^ed, aa soon m thoy might ^ow tho king at It^isurer to 
stake hitn pfiry to this cnm. 

In tho meantime, Dorostua wri^ not aluGk in his. n^uirs, 
bat applied his uutlers with Buch diligente that he pro\idod 
»|] thin^ fit fur thvir journey. Treasure and jewels he had 
fatten great Btore, thinking ihsre wu no huitor fri'O'nd than 
iDonoy in a strange country; rich attire he had provided for 
Fnwni^ and, becuuao he could not bring the matter to piiss 
without the help nud advice of some one, hu nuide an fi!d 
Hervant of hi», caUied Capnio, who had served him from his 
childhood, privy to his. aSiun, Kho, At>ein^ no ^ntuasioutt 
could premil [o div'urt him fram Tiis s^'ttlod d^jtcfmimtiqu, 
gavQ hi« conBent, and detail no secretly in the c»uho, that 
within &hoirt dpucti he hod gotten a iihip r<3ady fgr t^i^ir 
pwn^ge. The mfirincire, nccing ii St gale of wind for lh«ir 
l^turpoBi^, wished Capnio to mako no doltiyti, lost if thoy 
pnttemuttjid tlua good weather they might otay long ere 
they bod such a fnir wind. Capnio. fearing that hifi ncgii- 
genoe should hinder thd joume*-, in the night-time eonveyod 
the tninks tall of tros^urc into Cho ifhip, and by secret mea.ns 
let Fawnia undeirfitand that the nest morning they meant to 
■Ifiport. She, upon this ni?wB, slept very httlo that night, but 
^joi up Tery early, ami went to her ahi!ep, looking every 
■ninutc when she ishould seo Doraatus, who t^uritid not long, 
for four d<:lay might breed ditngor, hut camo as foat na hn 
i-oold gallops and, without itny greut circumstaiice, took 
t'awnia up behind him, and rode to the haven, where tbxr 
»hip lay, whieh waa not three-quarters of a mils di^Cunt from 
that place. He no sooner came thero hut the mannora wero 
r<(*d.j with theit cook-boat to set them uboard, whorp, being 
oomi^hcd topither in a cabin, they passed away ths time in 
recounting their old loPt*d, till their man Capnio iihould come. 
Porrus, who had heard thnt this morning the king would go 
abroad to take ihc nir. called in hai^ti? to hia wife to bring him 
his holiday hoso and his best jackot, that he might go like nn 
honcHt, substantial man to tell his t^le. Hirf wife, n gixjd 
clauily wench, brought him all things fit, and spungnd him 
np Very handflomc-iy, giving him tbe chains and jewoU in a 
littl* box, which Pomis, for the more safety, jiut in his bo*om. 
Ha?i[i|^ thus all hiB. trinkota in readinesH. taking hifi etafi in 
his hand, be bjide his wife kiss him for good luck, and 6q he 
went towards the palacft. Dut os ho woe going, Fortune ^who 
meant to show him a little faLst- play) pTovented hia purpose 
Lo this wisa. 

3e met by chajjw in his way Capnio, who, trud^ng as fast 
na lie could, with a little coffi^r under hi^ arm, to tho ship, 
and spying I'o»tub, whom he knew to ho Fawnia's father, 
goio^ tawAida the palaec, being n wily fellow, beg^m to doubt 

the worst, aud therefore crossad him thi^ way, and tutk^d hitn 
whithei h.0 wuB going ia early this morning, Forrus, who 
knew by hia faco that Iiti wa« one of the csotirt, meaning 
simply, told him that tht; king's son Dorastus dealt hardly 
Hdth him ; for be hud but ona daughitir, who was a little 
beautiful, and that his neighhoun told him the young prinee 
had nllai'cd hot to folly : he went, therefore, now to complain 
to tho king how gretLtiy be was nhuBed. 

Capnio, who straightway srnelt tho whole matti.u', begnn lo 
Bootho him in bis talk, and uiiid that Doiruitus deidt not like< 
a prince to spoil nny poor man's daughter in that wrt; he^ 
thorefoi-o, would do the best for him hei could, hecauso be 
knew he was an honest man. "But," quoth Capnio, " yoalofta 
your Iiibour in going to tho palace, far the king mmna this 
day to tnke tho air of the .aea, und to go luboaid of a aliip that 
lies in thc' haven. I am going before, you see, to provide all 
thin^ in ttmJineas, and if you mil follow my counsel, turn 
buck with mo to the haven, where I wHI set you in auch a fit 
place aa you msyKpotk to the king at yutir pK^aauro." Poitub, 
giving credit lo Capnio's ifrowth (al«, gav^ him a thouaand 
thanks for his friendly advice, and wnnt with him to tha 
haven, making all the way hi^ eompkiiaba of Dorastus, yet 
concealing secretly the chain and the jt^weU. As soon aa they 
wore come to tho Boa-aido, the marinem, seeing Oipnio, cnmo 
u-knd with their cock-boat, who, atill disaombliag tho matter, 
demanded of Porrua if ho would gO and see tho ship, who, 
■LnwiUiug and fairing the worst, bccnuHf; he wa» nut woU 
ncqiuiinied with Ciipnio, made his, oscuhe thfit he coiM nut 
brtiok the sea, thon.'foro would not trouble him. 

Ciipnio, AOoing that by iair mMna he could not get Mm 
abtwtrd, commanded the marinorB. thfit by violoDw; they should 
carry him into the ship, who, Itke sturdy knavi-s, hoisted the 
poor shepherd on their backs, and, bearing him to the buut, 
Ijiunchod from the; land. 

Pormj, eooing himaolf ao cunningly botrayed, durst not cry 
Out, for ho saw it wuuld not prevail, but began to enttwat 
Capnio and the mariners to be good to him, and to pity hin 
estate : he waa hut a poor mJin that hvod by his luboiu:. 
They, laughing to boq the phcpherd so afraid, made hs much 
hofito as thoy could, and set him aboard. Porrus was no 
sooner in the ship, but he saw Domstiw walking with Fnwnia. 
y«t he scarce knew her, for shx- had attired heraclf in rich 
appHTel, whifh so increasod her beauty that she resamhlLd 
tather an JLQgol than a mortal CK-atura, 

Dorastus and Fawnia werf half aatoniahiMl to see the old 
shepherd, marvelling greatly what wind had brought him 
thither, tiJI Capnio told tb^^m nil iha whole dirtcuarae — how 
Pon-ua was going to mako hi-f LompUint to the king, if liy 
policy he had not prevented him ; and therefore now that ho 
was ahoat^l, for the avoiding of further danger, it wera best 
to carry him into Italy. 

DorBAtus praisod gr^tly his man's dovico, and allowed of 
hia counsel; but Fawnia, who still feared Porrus, a» her 
father, began to blush for shame, that by her n»;anj he ahould 
oithpf incur dnnK^r or^«urt>. 

The old ahephen.1 hearing thi» hard sentence, that ho should 
on such a sudden bo oirriod from hia wife, hia country, and 
kinsfolk, into a foreign land amongst strangera, began with 
hitter tears to make his eomplaint, and on hia kuEies Lo entreat 
Doraetus that, pardoning his unadvised folly, he would give 
him li^ave to go home, swearing that he would keep all things 
aa secret aa they could wish. But these protcKtationn <'Ould 
not preFail, although Fawoia entnj^ted Dorartus very ear- 
nostly: but the marincT?, hoisting their main sails, weighod 
anehom, and sailed into the deep, where we leave them to the 
favour of the wind and seas, and rrtum to Egiatufi. 

"Who, having appointed this day to hunt in one of hiii 





lonfltSj callfidi for hia son Tlorastus tu ({Ci Bport himaelf, 
becaoH ha nw that of lat'?- I)« be^on to lour; but his man 
made answer lliat hi wab g;oiie Abroad, none knew whitber, 
exj«pi lie wen gone to tbe grove to walk all atgne, oi Ills 
eustom wu to do every iky. 

Tbe kin^i willing to wakoiL bim out ai Iiib dunipB^ semt one 
of hu aisu to go ftguk him, liut in vain, f oi at Inst he returned, 
liut find him be could not, so tlmt thci kin^ went himself to gu 
■ee the i^rt; when jussing away the day, returning' at nigbt 
irum faqqtingi he a«bed for his Bon, but ho could sot he hoard 
of ; which drove the king into a great cholcr, whenoupon mofit 
of luB nobli^inen und other euurtiurs posted abroad to SL-ek hini, 
but they could oot hear of him through all Sicilia, only th«-y 
misicid Cnpoio his maa^ which again mode the king suapeot 
that he was not gone far. 

Two or three days boing paased, and nn newa hard of 
DomstuB, "EgatiiB be^n to fear thut hu waa d^^vaured with 
lomc wild beasts, and upon that made oat a great troop of 
men to go seek bim ; who cOaatcd through nil tbi? trountry, 
■ad ecardiod in pvory dangerous and Hcrret plaac, until at 
Udt thi>y fiOiot with a tishDrman that wbb aitting in a little 
covert hard by the Bea-aido, msnding hla neta, when Dorostua 
and PftWTiia took shipping ; who, being examined if he either 
knew or heanl where the king's son was, without any secrecy 
§.t aX\ revoak'd tho »bo3e matter ^how he was sailod two days 
past, arid had in hifl company hia nmn Cnpnio, PomiH, and 
his fair iiaught>>r Fawnin. This huavy neve was presently 
carried tu the king, who, half dead for sorrow, cammand'Cd 
pDiruB'B wife to ho aent for. She bt-iBg come to the palaco, 
afEor duo exumination confeiiH^d that bar neighbour? hud oft 
told hor that the king's son wtia too familiiit with Fawnin, 
her daughter; whereupon her htiabnod, ffaring the worat, 
about two days poM, hi^oring the king should go a hunting, 
rose early in the m&miog, and went to make hia complaint, 
hot since eihe neither htard uf him nor saw him. Egistus, 
perceiving the woman's unfeigoed simplicity, let her depart 
without incurring further diapleasuro, concieiving such aecret 
ipitif for hie iou'h reckJi^Ba foEly that be had ao for^tten hia 
honour and phircntage by so baae a choice, to dishonour hi^ 
f&thor and diaBrodit hiEnaelf, that with very care and thought 
h(j fell into a quitrtan, fflvcr, which was ho unfit for hia aged 
years and complexion, that he hecame bo w^ak, aa the phy. 
sieiiuiH would grant him no life- 

But his son DoraatuB little regarded Aithei- father, country, 
or kingdom in reupoct of his lady Fowqia ; for Fortune smiling 
on thi* young novice, lent him so lucky a gait* of wind for the 
apace of a day and a night, that tbcj mariners lay and nlf^pt 
upon tho hatchofl. But on the next morning, nbont th*: hreiik 
of the day, tho air began to Iw ovcrcaBt, tiie winds to rise, 
the ocas to swell — yea, presently there arose eui:h a fearful 
tempest, as thiJ ahip was in danger to be swallowed up with 
every bcb. Tho tnainmaBt with the violence of tho wind was 
thrown overboard, tho saiU were tom, the tacklings went in 
■under, the Btorm raging still so furioutdy that poor Fawnia 
waa almost d«id for fear, hut that she was greatlv comforted 
with tho prpftence of Dorastus. The t^mpeat iwmtiimed ihree 
ditya, at which time tho mariners every minute looked for 
di-ath, and the air wa* go dArki^ncd with clouds that the 
master could not tell by his eouiposs in what cmat thfy 
wi»re. But upon the foorth day, about ten of the clock, 
thp wind bcgaii to cease, tho aca to wax calm, and the aky 
to be clear, and the mariners descried the coaat of Bohemia, 
shooting off their ordnancfi for joy that they had escaped such 
n ft»rfal tctnpc«t. 

Doraatm, hearing that they wore arrived at some harbour, 
sweetly kissed Fawnia, and bade her be of good chfct. When 
they told him that the port belonged unto the chief dty of 

Bohemia, whcro Fiindosto kt-pt his oourt, DorMtOf hegan to 
be sad, knowing thut his father hated do man SO nmch as 
Fandoeito, and that the king himself hud eonght secretly lo 
betray Egiisttit!. This considered, ho wa« half afraid to gu on 
kud, but that Capnig cotinselled him to change hie name and 
hia 4M>iiatr^', autil sueh time aa they could get eome other iMik 
to tmnifport them into Italy. Durastus, liking this dc-rive, 
made bis ease prity to the le'irineTs, awarding them bounti- 
fully for thc;ir paina, and chajging them to «ay that he was d 
gentleman of Tuipalonia, colled Melengrus. The ahipmni, 
willing to show what friendship they coiUd to Dorastuv 
promised to be as Boct^^ as they could, or he might wish . 
and upon this th>ey Lmded in a little village, « mile disUnt 
from the city, wherBi after they had rcrted a day, thinking 
to tnako provisiott for their marriage, the fame of Favnia's 
beauty wa« spread throughout all the city, so thai it came to 
thd oara of randosto; who then being ahout the age of fifty, 
had notwithatiuidtng young and fresh afiectiona, bo that h« 
doaired greatly to aoo Fawnia; and to hiing this matt«' Clu 
better to pa^, hearing tbey had but one nuin, and how ilwjr 
rested at a very homely house, he caused thorn to bo appie* 
handed as «pie^, imd eent a doram of his guard to take thoin, 
who, buing eoms to their lodging, told them tho king's inn- 
gage. Dora«(uR, no whit dismayed, accompanied with Fawnii 
itjid Cajinio, went to the court (for they left Pomis tokecf 
the stu^ , who biiing admitt^Hl to the king's prBsenc^, DonstB 
and Faw-nia with humblEi obedience saluted hta majeaty. 

PanijoBto, amazed at the aingolar perfcctioin of Fawnii, 
ittoixl half ajitonished, viewing her beauty, ao that he had 
ulmost forgot himself what he had to do. At hLSt, with Bton 
countenance, he demandud their nnmeia, and of what eounti^ 
they were, and what caused thorn to land In Bohemia. "Sir," 
quoth Dorastus, " know that my name is IWji^agnis, a kniglit, 
bom and broiight up in TrapalorJa, and this gentlewooiao, 
whom I maan to take to my wife, )b an Italian, bom in padiu. 
from whence T hFtve now brought her. The cause I have to 
small a train with me is for that her friends, imwilHng ki 
consent, I intended secretly to convey her into Ttapiloaii, 
whitbfii as I WHS sniling, by distreds of weather t w^ drifcn 
into thpse coasta. Thua have you heard my name, my connliyt 
and tho cause of my voyage." Pandosto, starting from ha 
seat aa one in choler, made this rongb reply : 

" Mcloagrua, I fear this smooth tale hath bat small trnth, 
and that thou covereat a foul flkin with fair paintings, Se 
doubt this lady, by her grace and beauty, is of her dcigrae 
more meet for a mighty prinee than for a dmple knighl, 
and thou, like a porjurod traitor, hath bcrcift her of b«t 
jiarents, to their prosent grief, and her ensuing Borrow. TSl, 
therefore, I hear more of her parentage iind of thy calling, 
I will stay yoa bath here in Bohemia." 

Porastus, in whom rested nothing but kingly raloiu', wi» 
not able to euff«r the reprottchea of Pandovto. hot that he 
nuide him this anawer : 

" It LB not meet for a king, without dtic proof, to qipttck 
any man of ill-^behaviour, nor upon suspicion to infer beli«i 
strangers ought to he entertaini'J with coujtMy, not t4 b? 
treated with cruelty, Ipst being forced by want to |«t 19 
injuriea, the gods avenge their caiiae with rigour.'^ 

Pandoato, hearing Doraatus utter thcae words, oommaaded 
that he abould straight be committed to prison, until «ort 
time aa they heard further of his plpasure ; but aa fta Fiwni*. 
he charged that she should be entertained in the eoort, with 
snch courtesy aa belonged to a itranger and her cftUiog. Tfc» 
rest of the shipmen he put into the dungeon. 

Having thus hardly hsmlled the supposed TtipaloodiBs, 
PandoBto, contrary to hia aged ycan, Iwigan to be somffwhtt 
tickled with the beauty of Fawnia, inaomodi HMt ho ooaU 

take no rest, bat ca^it in his old he&d a thoiuand new devicea. 
At huA he fell into tlit^- ttiuugiitEi: 

" How art thou pcatored, raad&sto, wkh fresh afTec-tinna, 
and iui£t f(inci<?s, wishing to puasess with an unwiUing minii, 
and ti hot dedirc trouhL'd with ii L-oli dusdnin 1* Shall thy mind 
yield in ago to thiit thoti haat i«ai»t^-d in youth? Pence, 
FNndi>8tQ, blah not out that whicJi thou mayeat be uhumod 
to reveal to thyai'lf . ATi t Fawiiiu ia beautiful, and it ib not 
for thine hunour \ioT\d fgol} to natnti hor that in thy captive, 
and ntiother man's <'Oi3i:iibiito. Alas I I reach ut that with my 
hunil which my heart would fain refus* ; playing like the bird 
ibui in Egj-pt, whidi hiitcth Aorpetita, yet fcodeth on their i-'gss. 
Tuah, hot dpsirea turn oftentimes to cold duiduiii, Love ia 
hrittie, wheTB app«titi>, not reaaon, bears the sway. Kings" 
themfhta ou^ht not to climb so high ae the heavens, but to 
look no lower thJLn honour ; better it in to peck at tha steiTH 
with the young eaglea, then to prey on doid c&rcaaaea with 
the vulture. 'Tig more honuuiablu for Poudoeto lo die by 
cbnctiHliiig love, th&n to enjoy auch unfit love. Doth Pan- 
donto, then, love J- Yea: whom r" A maid unlmown — ye«, 
and jM-rhapn imraodeftt — struggled out of her own country : 
bofflutiful, hut not then^fore chaste ; comolv in body, but 
perhup» croolt^ m mind. Cease then, Pandi»to, to look at 
Kawbiii, much liuie to lov6 hct ; ha not ovtrtakeit with a 
wQujum'a heiiuty, whose eyes are framed by art to enamour, 
who«« heart is framed hy nature' to enuhunt, whose fal»u tnira 
know their true timed, and whose ^wl'cI wards pierc<» deeper 
thmi ^arp ewords/' 

Here Piiudosto i>oaaod from his talk, but not from his Itive ; 
altboug;h be sought by reawn und winlom to (upprfsa this 
frantic affection, yet ho L^ould take no rest, the beauty of 
Fawnia bad made such a doe^ impresyion in his heart. 
Uut on a day, walking abt'(jad into a park, whiih wna hard 
jkdjoining' to hi^ bouac, hy asat hy one of hia scn'ants for 
Fawnia, ubto whom he ultcK^d theae words : 

"■ Ftiw-ni)], I commead thy h«uuty and wit, and now pity 
thy diatroM luid want -. hut if thou wilt foraake Sir Mcloa^ug., 
whoso fMiverty, though a knight, is not uble to maintain an 
estate answerabln) to thy heauty, and j-iekl thy consent lo 
P&ailoeto, I will both im^mase thee with dignities und riLhcB." 
"No, air," Qnswored Fawnia: "McIeAgrusia a knight thiil huth 
won mo by lore, and none hut he ahull wenr me. Hia ainiEtar 
miachanco rikull Qit^t diminiah my aSwtioti, hut rather inereaae 
my good^will. Think nut, though your gi^ce had imprisoned 
him without cause, that fear ahall make me yield my eonsont. 
I had nther h* Moleagrua'a wife, and a beggar, than lire in 
plenty, and be Pimdosto's concubine," Paodostn, hearing the 
AfifiuriHl anawer uf Fawnia, would, not withstanding, prosecute 
hi^ aiiit to the uttermost ; MH<king with fair woidii and groat 
promiBOfl that if she would grant to hia desire, Sleleugrus 
■houli not only be set at liberty, but honoured in hia court 
unongat hia tiobleK. But the^ao alluring baita c^ould not entice 
her mind from the love of her new bc-trothod mjite Melea- 
grua, whicih Pandoato seeing, he left her iilnne for that time 
to conitider more of the demand. FaniiiQi, being alooc by 
hfliself, began to enter into these solitary meditotiona : 

" Ah ! unfortimato Fawnia, thou seest to desire above for- 
tune Ja to strive against the goda and fortune. W'Tio ga^etb at 
the sun weakoaeth hin sight ; thpy whiiih stare at the sky fail 
oft into deep pits. Hadett thou rested eontent to have been s. 
■hpphcrd, thou Qccdeat not to have feared mi^hiinLt^ Belter 
had it hit'n for thee, by aitting law, to have hftd quiet, than 
hy climhing high to hjive fallen into miiwry. But, alas 1 I 
fnr not mine own danger, but Doraatuu' diBplcHauro. Ah ' 
aweet Porastua, thou art a prince, but now a prisoner, by too 
much love procuring thina own loaa. Hadst thuu not lovod 
Pawqia, thou hjtdit beon fortunate. Shall I then he false 

to him that hath fotsakon kingdoms for my cuuhq f Xo, 
would my deulh might deliver him, so uiiaa honour mignt 
he proHQrved."" With tluit, fetching a deep sigh, ahe ciwiaL'd 
from her c-omplaints, and went again to th& palace, enjoj-ing 
a liberty without content, and proJferpd pleusuro with small 
joy. IJut pool Bomotui lay all this while in close priaun, 
being pinthcd with a hard restraint, and pained with tho 
burden of cold and heavy irons, aorrowing aomotimeu that 
his fond affection had prycured him this mishap ; that by thu 
disobedience of his ii&rentft, he had wrought hia own despite. 
Another while cursing the goda and turtuno, that they should 
cross him with such sinister chance, uttering at laat his poiBsiona 
in these wordu : 

" Ah ! unforttmate wretch bum lo mishap, now thy folly 
hath his desert. Art thou not worthy for thy base mind to 
have had fortune ;^ <JoiUd the deatinies favour tbee^ which hast 
forgot thine honour and dignities ? Will not the gods plague 
him with dettpite that paineth hia father with diaohedicnw f 

gods, if any tnvoitr or justice bo left, pkgue ma, but 
favour poor Fawnia, rtnd shroud her from the tj-rannic-s 
of wretched Pauidosto, but let my death free her from mia- 
htip, and then welcome dcnth." Domstus, patD«d with thii^se 
heavy paeons, (tarruwed and sighed, hut in vain, for 
which he u£E<d the mare patience. But again to Pandosto, 
who, broiling at the heat of unlawful luat, could take no ri'st, 
hut still felt hie mind disqui't'ted with his new love, so th^it 
hia nobles and suhjecta marvt-Uod greatly at this suddm 
alteration, not 'bvrmg able to conjecture the caup« of Ihia 
his continued care. Pandusto, thlnkiug tivery hour a yiHir 
till he hud talked once uguin with F;iwnia, Ront for her 
secretly into hia chamher, whither, though Fawnia unwiU 
lingly coming, PanJo«to entertained her very cotirteoualy, 
Using the^ familiar speeches, which Fawnia answered aa 
ahorlly in thia wise : — 


"Fawnift,are you become less wilful and more wise, to prefer 
the love of a king before^ the liking of a poor knight ? 1 think 
ere thia you think it is better to he favoured of a king t^ui of 
a Buhject." 


" Pandodto, the body is subject to Victoria, hat the mind not 
to he Bubdued by canqun^t ; honesty ia to be preferred before 
honour, and n drachm of faith weif^heth down a ton of gold, 

1 have promised MQleugrusloiove, and will perform no lesa,'' 

" Fawnia, I know thou art uot 00 unwise in thy choice as. to 
refuae the offer of a king, nor ao ungrateful as to d««ipis(> a 
good ttim. Thou art now in that place whero I may eom- 
mand, uid yet then seeat I entreat. My power is such us 
I may compel by fore*, and yut I eue by pnijera. Viyld, 
Fawnia, thy love lo him which humeth in thy love. Meleagrua 
ahall be set free, thy conotrymen dbcborged^ and tllou both 
loved and honoured." 

" I sci&, Pandoato, where hist rolethit laamiaerabtc thing to 
bo a virgin ; Wt know thia, that I will always prefer tuioB 
before life, and ntther choose death than dishonour.'" 

Panduirto, seeing that there was in Fuwnia a dotcnninatfr 
courage to love Mtileagrus, and a re&olution without faur to 
hate him, fiung away from her in a rage, sweaiing if in abort 
time she would not be won with rouson, he would forget 
all courtesy, and «otinp«l ha to grant by rigour; but thew 
threatening words no whit dismayed Fawnia, hut that sh9 
still both despited and despised Pandoato. 

While thus these two lovere strove, the one to win love,, 
the oth£T to lire in hate, Egislua heard cortaiu newa b/ 




[..!.. IM. 



the menhxuta of Bohemia, that his aon Dor&atus was im- 
(tiiaonod by ruodoEto, wbich made him fear greatly that 
hii Bon »lioitid be biH hardly entntited ; yui ctamiering 
thut ll^ll&riai &tiA he Vttte cleuTcd by the oraulA of Apollo 
irom that crioii! whvnswith Piind<J3to had unjually thnrsed 
him, he thought host to seod with ilU Bpced La P^sidottto, 
tbul he 8hould aot froe hi* B4D Poraatu^, and put to 
death Fawnia and her father PomiB. I'lndirg this, by 
thu adviuv uf L'ouiiicil, the Bp^nlie^ remedy to relciuuj 
his fion, bo caused preeeDtly two of his ahipa to be rigged 
aad thoroughly fiimiehcd with provimoa of men noil 
Tiutuali, and iteat diven of hia men axii noblue umbaiisadoni 
into Bohomia, who, willing to obey thoir ]dDg and reliovo 
thflii young prince, modti no delavB. for i&ir of danger, but 
with iu moch epi'ed hs niig;lit bo, auled towardu Bohemia. 
The friud and sems favonrud them igreatly, whic^h mado thi>iit 
hope of Bome good hup. for within thrw (lays they werr 
landiod; which PaudoRto no jfinn<!r hoard o£ thi.'ir arrivii.1 bat 
ho in pers/ju went to PPect them, entreating them with eycll 
Biunptuaui and familiar caurt^Hy, that th«y migbt well per- 
oeive how soiTj' he was for tho former injurii^ ha had offprod 
to tbc-ir king^ and how vi-illing^, if it might be, to ituike 

Ah I'undoato umdv report to thom, bow odc Mcleagruii, a 
Knight of Trajwlonia, was littdy arrived with a ludy tilled 
Fawniii in hU bind, coming very HuepJciously, accompanied 
unJy with one eervanl and an old ehuphcrd, the amboBsailuEB 
perc-eived by tbo half what tho whole tale meaat, and bega-n 
to I'onjoctuxe that it welb Doraatus, who, for foar to be known, 
hwil j-liinig rHJ hia naint!. But disiiii^mbiiiig the nuiitt<?r, they 
shortly arrived at the Coart, where after thoy bad brim very 
^Icmnly and Huniptuouety fouitixl, tho noblf^men of 8ii;ilirt bt^inff 
^albtirvd together, they mndo report o( their rmbu^^go, wbi'tif 
they eertifleii I^mdosto that Moloagrtia woe son and heir 
to tho Eiug E^tiEH, and that hit name waa Domatus; how 
contrary to the king's mind ho hid privily conveyod away that 
l''ttwtlia^ intcniliai^ to m^rty ber, being hut daughter to that 
poor shepherd Forms; whereupon tho king^'s n.'queBt was 
thai Capnio, Fawnia, and Porrus mi;i;bt be murdered ajxd put 
to death, and that hi? eoQ Doi^wtus might 5»e w:nt home in 
safety. Piuidofito having attentively find with grtjat manTiJ 
heard their embiLbsiigc, willing to rcooocile himself to E,g:istu&, 
and to show him how gt-ic^tly he feteemed hh fu.vour, al- 
thoug^h love and fancy forliaile him to hurt Fawnia, yet in 
despite of love he datermiced to rixecute EgiAtua' will without 
morcy ; and therefore bo proscntly s^nt for Domatus out *if 
priaoD, who, marvGUing at this uolooked-for courLosy, found 
at his coming to the king's proBonoLi, that which he leiMt 
doubted of, hiitfather'tt iLmbaasadors, who no sooner itaw him 
hut with groat reverence they honoured him, and Pandusto 
embracing Doraatua, set him by him very lovingly in a chair 
of state. Donmtm, aHbamed tbiit hi« toUy waa betrayed, sat n 
long liffio as ODC in a mu&e, till FandoBto told bim the »um 
of hia futhcr'fl embaaua^e, whieb ho no sooner heard but he 
waa touched at the quick for tho cruel aeiitcnco that was pro- 
nounced aguinat Fawitia. But neither could hia sorrow nor 
p<>riU4iiions prevail, for Pandoato commanded tluit fawnia, 
PoTTua, afid Capuio, should Ijo brought to his presence ; who 
were no sooner come, but Pandosto, having hin former love 
turned to a diadainf ut hate, bi^gan to ra^ against Fawnia in 
thene term a ; 

" Thou disdainful vussal, thou currish kite, a«^gned by tho 
destinies to baAc fortune, and yet with an Aspiring miivd 
gajeinK after honour, how durst thou preAucne, being a b^^^Kt, 
to match with a prince J By thy oUnring looks to enchant 
l)ie son of a king to hmvc hia own country to fulfil thydis- 
ordimiLe losta^ dc»pituful mind, a pnud heart in a begg&r 

ifl not unlike to a great Arc in a small cotta^, which wamcth 
not the hoTiBc but buroetii il ; assure thyself that thou ahalt 
dio. And thou, old duLing foul, whosn fully hath been smb 
as to aufEcr thy daufibter to reach abovu thy fortune, look fnr 
no olhy meed but Ihe like punishment. But L'upnio, thuu 
whilst liast botmyed the king, and haat (consented, to the im. 
lawful lust of thy lord and mask*, I know not how jurtly 1 
may plague thee; death h too oaity ti pynisbtncnl far thy 
fulschuod, and to live, if not in extreme misery, were not to 
abow thee equity. I therefore awurd that thou shall have 
thine eycfl put out, and continually while, thou ditifit, grind in 
a mill like a bnite beast.'' The fear of doalh brought a 
liorrowf ul rulenue upou Fawnie and Capnio, hut Potius, seotBg 
no hope of Iif>;, burst forth into these specchea : 

" Pandosto, and ye nohla ambuasadoTs of Sicilia, ft&ein^ 
without CMUsa I am condemned to die ; I am yet glad I haw 
opportunity to disfiurfen my conacit.'nee before fby death; I 
will tell you aa mtieh as I know, and yet no more than u 
trtiB. Whereas I am accusoJ Lliict I liave been a eupportf^ of 
Fawniu'a prida, and she di)»daini>d iia a vile begigv, *o it is 
that I am neither father unfa her, nor she daughter unto me. 
For so it happened that f being a poor shepherd in Sicily, 
living hy keeping other men's flocks, one of my sheep Atra^oi; 
down to tbe si^a-side, aa 1 wunt to seek her, I ^aw a UtUc boat 
driven upon tho shore, wherein I found a bahe of six daj's old. 
wrapped in a mantle of scarlet, having about the nt-ek thit 
ehain. I, pitying the child, and detdrous of the trcasmv. 
carried it home to my wife. wh.j with great care nursed tt uii, 
and set tt to keep abe4-]j. Here ie the ch.un and thL> jevcU, 
and this Ftiwuia ia the child whom I found in the bout ; whal 
she ia, or of wltat parentage, I know not, but this I am 
ot^ared that she is uonip of mine." 

Pandcieto would scarce suJI^r him to tell out hii^ talir-, ^i 
that ho enquired the time of tho yi»r, the manner of the ImL 
and other eircumatanc^ea, whit'h wheu he found agiei'^ing to 
hia count, ho suddenly lenped from hia scat, and ktssBdl 
Fawnia, wotting hor ttmdtir ebeuka with bis tears, and crying. 
"My daughter Fawnia, ah, sweet Kuwmu, t am thy father, 
Fawnia I " ThJH nudden passion of the king drove Ihem all 
into a innxe. especially Fawnia and I>uraatus. But when tbr 
king had breathed himvlf awhile in this new joy. ho n- 
hearacd before the umbnaBadora tho whole matter, how he 
liad treated hia wife Dallaria for jcHlousy, and that this wu 
the child whom he sent to flout in the ecuis. 

Fawnia was not more joyful that aho had found mch » 
father, than Doraatua was glad he should get such a wift. 
The ambasaadora rejoiced that their young prince had niiA- 
Bueh a choice, that thoee kingdoms, which through enmity 
had long time been diasc^-ored, should now through purpctiwl 
amity be united and revoneiled, The lutisenA and atihjocta of 
Bohemia, hoaring that the king had found ognin hia dAugbhr, 
which was suppoaed dead, joyful that thore waa an h«r 
apparent to biH kingdom, made* bonfires and shows through- 
out the city. The courtiera and knl^hta appointed jnuSt* 
and tonmeya to^figmfy their willing minda ia gratifj-iog Uk 
king's hap. 

Eighteen days bfiing paasud in these princely aporta. IVo- 
doato, willing to reeompenae old Porrua, of a ahejihcrd made 
him a knight; which done, providing a sufficient navy to 
receive him and his retinue, aueompanied with Donula*. 
Fuwnia, and the Sicilian ambnaBudoT?, be Hiiled lowardi 
Bieily, where he wa« most pritLci>Iy ontertalned by Kgiato*, 
whu, hearing this eomicul event, rejoiced griMtly at his »m't 
good hap, and without deky (to the perpetual joy of Ihr t«« 
young lover*) L-olebnitod the marriagi?. Which w»s no sooivi 
ended, but Pandoato. caUiug to mind how finrt hci ba-tnytd 
hii friend ^etu8, how hie jealouay wm Uie nine of OcUEiia'i 

SttfiblMutt hv uJutiHi-y to ihu Ihw ot natitre had Siisti-il utU-r 
Vk^KOL daugihter, moved with the^e dcflpfruto thoui^htii. he 
f>ell tnta n m^lAncholy St, and tc l-1osc u|i thi3 wiiii<dy with ;l 
tnigical stTa.tagQiii, he slew hlmsali. Whose death being nmny 
lUyo bciFailed of Fnwniii, Diirn-itUH, and his dear fnsiiil 
EgiatuB, Doniattia tiilrin^ his leavu of hia futher, went with 
hia wife Bud thn dend enrjise into Rohpmia, whprw after ibiiy 
wsTV flumytuoiiiilj- entombed, UoniAtus tnded hla Anyb id 
contented quifst. 

Town anil country were, no doiiht, alike pleased 


dramiLtlsts of his day. But in town anil couutry 
IfaM were inauy ■w'to eondemneJ tlie plays ainl 

Lyly's Euphura led iia to Rol«ert Greene aa Euphuia- 
tic novelist ; but we umftt not advanco to works of later 
ilAte witiiout a glance back atthebocifc of "MeryTaJBS, 
Wittie Queatioim and Quicke Answerea, very plsaiiant 
to rewlde," wliicli continuwl the line of thejeat-^books 
>K^ii with Dip " HmiJrfnl Meny Tales," and wliich 
appeared in 1567. There is evidence of culture in 
the variety of soui-ces fi-om which this little storj-- 
liook is ilrawn. There ai* anecdotes hJilI wiyilijiB of 
the fritekB and Ronittiia from PhitaTch, Livy, Vale- 
rius MaximiiK, nud others ; there are jpjtts fmm 
It«lyand jests froiu France; some traceable to the 
Antbd ; auti all put into homely English, with the 
WtasoQ of life llm^^'9l from a tale now anil then ^et 
forth in A pithy Mintence or two at the ckise. This 
'itory ifi of an aacient tyjfe, derived origiunUy fnmi 
the East: 


What timt King Ijcwia of Frfimc the XI. of that nciTii(», 

lieCNiup of thu IroiiMe that WJte in llii' rr^alin kept hiniH«lf in 

Borgojiie,' he chAi]t.-ed, by ocmsiun uf himtinj;;, tu heconie 


Freiicb Bmirjpi Time, Bur-^nradp. 

ucqiiitintM with one Conpp, ri homely hugbvidoiim and n 
pLaJn-meanin; fellow, in which icuuiiitiT of men the hi^h 
princes ^rwitly delight tjiem. To thift ciim'B hpune the kiiiij 
uft ri-sortsd from hucitia^, and with f^re&t pl^eiire be would 
«At radiah raota with him. ^A'ithia a. vhile alter, whin 
Lewiit WEks n^atorcd heme luid had tht fpjv>emun«j of Fnnc-r 
in hia band, thia huHbandiinui vmn LdunsBlled by hia wita U> 
lake B goodly sort^ of radish root^i and to go and givtj thiT- 
to the king, iind pnt him in mind ni the goiid cheer tliat hr 
had tntLdo hini at hiit houtfv. Conou would not nau'nt thereto. 
" What, foohah wOTcfm 1 " quoth he ; " the gnftt ptincftfi ri-- 
member not siachMimll plc4wure».'' hitt forftJI thai ehewQuM 
nut rest till Cunon touk out » great siji^ht' of tho fjiit«at ruoLa 
and took his josinipy toward the Cuurt. But «* ho went liy 
the way he utu up uH the raduheB 9»vv one of the grentcat, 

Conon ]ieaked* into tht C<»nrt. and atood where the kin^^ 
ahould paaft by : by iiud by* the king knew him and (.'nlk-d 
him to him, C'onon atuppod to the kin^ and pTCtietited hif 
root with a ^lai] ebeor. And the king tifok it mAr? gludly> 
iind biide on« ihat was nctu't«t to him to ky it «]> umoog those 
ji^Wck that he bisHt loved; and then euuinmnd^d Conon to 
dine with him. When dinner waa dooo, lie thanked Cfiiuti : 
and whon ihn kitif^ saw ih^t he wutald depart tumeH ho I'om- 
munded to igive bin] H tbiJUifaDd crowns of gold fur hia nidish 
root, When thitt was known in the king'A houAe. one of tho 
CJourt guva thq ksnir a proper niinion hyrae- The king pt't- 
L^eiTr-ing that he did it bft»n»e of the libtimlity showed unto 
CJonon, with very j^lnd eheer he took tho gift, and eoiineelh'd 
with hia loTda how and with what gift he might iwximjHiDHe 
the hiiree tlnet wua »o goodly and fair. This miwnwhilo the 
picklhank' hud a mnrrdlooa great hope, and thought in hi»' 
mind thus: If he *j well retompensed the nidisb rout, thiit 
was (firun of a rnatii'al nuin, how much more kruely wJH he 
rewmpenet.- auc-h an horse-, thut is given of me thiit aim of the 
C'fjiirl Y Wlicneverj- man hadBaidhix mind as thouj^htlie^ king 
}iK^ i-i)iiu,HL<lled about ii igreat weij^hty niiitttT, anil thut they 
liad Long i&l the pickthank mith vain hopi?, nt lust tho king 
said : " I remrmher now whiit wo shall jtivL' him ;'"and so ho 
called one of hib lord^, und bade him in h\n c-nr ,go fetch him 
tliat that he found in his chanibcr (and told him ths 
place whero) tmtly folded ap in ailk. .Anon he oame and 

• Sort, collectiou. 

* Sight in tlie bbdmb at q.nantltj was DOinmot] In old coUoqui-i) 
Entrli^h- ■"■^ ^ RtMid rutg^r Enifllili bow, '' & siKht of money," " i 
pTOciooi. aCgItt," ^ It WIS nev>eT w used hj SbalcetiTwiu:^, <ir iu Th« 
bt«t Utfirature. Hr. HbUIwbII FhilllppB'q|D>>teBftx>m Ji^lm Fal8(r>ikVt»'B 
"AooIbhCuh " i tMO^, " Whiire is k> great a titnni^.L of lueuejr, vrbtire 
is an liugte a mirht of mouey." 

-* fiMiLfd., Ur. UBiuLHiKh Wediprool Ln Mb Etjinalegioal DJc-- 
tlouai-j ^VH "To peak. F««kii)E, PM'ing, pullnB. tlckly. trum xht 
pipy tone tif volc«of aiidc petWili, I).. " ^itpjlare," k> pcepDaacticVeil, 
l« wliijie <iT pule : Boaa. " plku.1.," Eathu-u, '" pikdunk," '' pliksimw," t<i 
peep B8 m fbii:\ct!a; Sw. "pjakb," " pjunlu," to pal«. "TheaaroB 
RimuM'tiflii," Ur. WHlfwaDd uddi, "betwiHn lh« uttwiui» of atbhi 
hig'h note ajid tbe idea of loaktiig uarroirlj, whlcb in noticed under 
' Peep,' la eietapMed In the prearat word, whicli wiia foimeilj naed 
in the bbuw qJ poepinn. 

" Thut i>n« «re wfuki u thcngb it wa« bat bUiid, 
Tlwt other [irim noid pobka La iverj pkoe." — Gammyti^. 
" Why aland' Ht thon here thon, 
Buvkking *pA peaking aa tiiau^h theio. watdil'st hWkI Unen ? " 

' By imd ty, ilninedia.le'ly. 

' Piektkaiik ia »iie wlio do«a a aervice fortlte uko of piekinif mi 
oocoajou fa obtaiu aubstAutlo] return of tlmokH. "Floe- beads," 
wrote John Lyly. " will pick a qnarra] with me if »I1 ho not curt«ua, 
i>nd 0. Ihauk il Duythiuir ba {i^mnt." So &huki»iMMLn>. in " OeiLfy 
IV.," Pun I.. Act in. wme 2: 

" Of tDt-aj tales dflriaed^ 
Which oft ih* ear of ir^ntTi.g« pw4b mwit b«ar — 
B;r nnlliiii^ pi^kthoaka." 




CA.D. U67. 

kina;' iaT« it with bi* own hoA to tlie ctwrtier. myinz' : - W? 
sof^jae TQor Ixww u v^ r«>xfapau«ii with this i«w^ foe it 
huh CMt B« a thAtumd aws*." The courtier wcox hia «»7 
ntrfft ■» flMl, and vhen b« had itnf olded it, he iyiond none 
'Xh«T tK«fftR but the ndiih root timfMt withend. 

'Widihet ihall ve brins thcmf* qnoth they. 
- To the Svan in Lob^ Ljuk br Snithfield," quoth he, and 
ao left th*m, and qnd him thither the ne^ * wmy. When he 
eaoM to the cood aiaa rd tk* Swan he aiked if he woald bay 
t«» good loadi of hay 5 *- Tea, Boairy," Mid he, *' Where be 
ibev^" - Even here they eoBie.''qaothMakeahift. "What 
tfa^ I pay ? ~ and tibe innholder. " Four noUea," quoth he : 
bfit at length they agncd tux xs ahilhng. When the hay 
WW come, ^■fc***'^ bade them Bnload. While they were 
doing ■». he came to dw imiholder, and Mid : " Sir, I ptay 
rau let me haTe ny aiDney. for while my men he nnloading 
I win go into the dty to boy a tittle ttnft to hare home with 
cw." The pwdnun waa cootent and gave it him. And 00 

rrvM Ot Itflff |« U Mm OMfaMM'* "Gmmt im CMutigi," Ui8. 

Thix is, from the aame coUection, the ancient story 
th&t luM paned into a proverfo, of the ^peal from 
Philip drunk to Fhilip sober : 


A woman which gmUleaa on a time was condemned by 
King Philip of 3facedan when he vaj not sober, wherefore 
Ae »id "I app^:'* "Whitherf " qnoth the king: -To 
King Philip,'* qnoth she ; *^ but that is when he is more sober 
and better adviaed.** Which saying caosed the king to look 
lM!4t^ 00 the matter, and to do herright. 

This writeth VaL Kaximns. Bat Platan^ ssyeth it was a 
man, and King Philip was half asleep when he gave sentence. 

And here, akin to the literature of 
catching" i» one more story of a shifter : 

' Conev- 


In lyjfvlon dwelkd a merry, pleasant man (which for his 
time we may caD Makerfiift), who being anayed stmiewhat 
harrfatlike, with a pitchfork on his neck, went forth in a 
morning and m«4 with two load of hay coming to the city- 
ward, i</r thfc which he bargained with the owner* to pay ixx 

■ TUb •nt. thm rmij kaowa afpntth to s portnut. if it eui be 
^alkrf s f xtntt. 'rf GracBc, ■ fioB the title-p*** to ■ ic6k entitled 
" ri'txm^ m OrMMif*. 3r«w raised from hia |fra*e to write the Tr»- 
Viqo* HiaVxi* A< tain Talwia o( Loodon. Ac. Eecei red and reported 
t/f 1. D." TV i»df d is eoTgw l cnpj of it ia in the BcNUeiaiL A fac- 
UBife r^ it* litU-iiMr* ■■ ciTCD bjr the Rer. Dr. Groaart in hia pciTatdT 
feinted TrJsB* f4 tb* Pnae and Tctm of John Dtckenaoa, one of the 
■KMt iattr-mSam'A a iMeahnrlj osefnl aeriea of Ri«inta of «ohimea 

-t sornT* 'm}j in Teiy few or riagle coftes, each lepiint being 

As Euul^rkax Saiuiaa.* {frtm Sfm£» BUI^rit tf BntmkL,Wi.) 

he went his way. When die men had unloaded the hay tht^ 
came and demanded their money: to whom the innholder 
aa«l,'-I have paid your master." "What master?*' qootb 
ther. "UaxtT." qnoth he. "the same man that made yoa 
bring the Itty hitlwr.'' *^ We know him not," qnoth they. 
'-Xonaxedol,'' qnoth he; '*that Hme man bargained with 
me for the hay and him have I paid : I netther bought nor sold 
with you." '* That is not eiMK^^ for na," qnoth they ; and 
thn they atzoTie together. But what end they made I know 
not. For I think Hakeahifl came not again to agree them. 

It is a little characteristic <^ the taste for in- 
gennitr that this shifto- is called, by a storyteller 
who aiiwa at soggntioos of practical wisdom, nothmg 
worse than " a merrr {feasant man." The purpose 
oi putting men apon thieir guard against the tricks of 
if^es was associated with a distiuct pleasure in the 
telling and the TouUng of than. In what Lylj 
called the " idolatry of wit " there was a half friendly 
welcome even for the wit of thierea. 

Let OS turn now to some wit shaken by an earth- 
quake out of a distinguished member of the Univenity 
of Cambridge. It seemed wit to him, but to us it 
rather represents the good-humoured banter amoag 

*Stt, nearart. Rnt EagiUi "as*l>.'' 
niicfaer or neater ; " n/bst." or ** nAi 

* A» HuaMhaa aUDiaf is tssred abora bom ' 
Elinbetb's nipn is Spaed'a matoiT {EdttkM of 1«U}. The d*w 
shOliBK tof twdre pence) wm dhidad iato two parta. riTr m n M <e 
tortona (wbeM* the valear Banish taatar). asd that was asaia i^ 
diTided into paeces worth IhiNniiiiii 11 nn dulUacs nada a aan, 
six-aoA-eigfatpence a noUe, two aofalea or t hirteaa a a d-fo m paaae XR 
a mark. A erown aader Efixabeth was a goU cota we ifhl ag oat 
peBBjweiiclit and nineteen graina. Tbe cfoaaoa the ahilttBf aadM 
other BMNwj waa a coounoa mbject of aOnsioa in Htocataia sad ii 
daOrtife. SoinHMainger'a "bahfalLorer." " Tbedarilslaeiaii 
mr pocket. I bare no eroaa to diiTe him Iidib tt :" and of tbe ■■* 
origin ia the phrase of ** crossiag ** a lortane to ller'a hand with aOr*. 
The " angd," also oftot panned apon. waa flg n rad oa a goU aotk 
therefore known aa the Angtd Noble to diatiagaiah it frOB tbe OeoV 
Noble and the Old NoMe. The amooat of gold in the OU Hohto «• 
4 dwta. 9t gis.: in tbe George Nobta 3 dwta.; and in tha AB«d S Mi. 
7) RTs. Tbisvasonljaliont 'grainatesatbaa tbeEIisahathsofera^ 
Tbe gold coin representing twenty afailliags waa known as the Oiwl 
SoTsreigii, and weighed tea penajwei^ta. 

Ti-ieitfLs that in 15^0 und in 18B0 is easentmliy the 
BLitne, however ita ontrwur<I forma may viiry. GiLbnt'I 
Harvey was in 1580 aljout thli-ty years old. He 
wiis Uie eldest of four sous of a prosperoua ro])c- 
nidker, iit Saflroii Waldeii^ wlio spent money veiy 
lil) in the education of hia children. Gabi-iel 
hatt gone to Cambridge and distingiiiahed himself 
tliere. He had lectured on rhetoric, had aapii-ed to 
tlie pofit of Piibiie Oi-atoi', hiad been employed by the 
Eiiu-I of Leicester upon contideutial service, and liis 
lively interest in literature had thus bi-ought Itiin 
into an acqnoinbuice thftt becaine funiiliar friend- 
Kliip with Leicester's nephew, iSir Philip Sidney. 
When Edrannd Spenser went to Cambridge he 
found Harvey there with a stfiiitling acquiiiad by hia 
abilities, and honour among atudeuta of the Univei"sity 
SB a young la&der in matters of taste and criticism. 
Between Harvey and Spenser a atrang friendship ■wma 
established, and it was Harvey who, just before I58IJ, 
hail found an oppoituuity of iutrotlucing his fiiend 
Sjienser into LeiceBtei-'H sendee and giving Iiian hia tiittt 
atart in the world. Gabriel Harvey hml 1>6en Ktrongly 
interesstet,! in the publication of Spenser's first book, 
"The Sliephenl's Caleudnr," in 1579 — Spenser's age 
then being Bix-and-twenty^ Harvey's pei'lia|ra twent}'- 
eight or twenty-nine- — tind the introduction to 
Leicefjter had not only bi-ought Sjienaer and Philip 
Sidney together, joimjig Spenger to the friendfihip 
between Sidney and Harvey am! to their diaciififiions 
about [joetrj-, bufc led to Spenser's ap]K>intment oa 
secretary to Earl Grey of Wilton, with whom he 
went t-o Ireland in 15S0. Wliile he was still in 
London, Spcnsei* i-eceived fi-otn Ida friend Harvey a 
letter occasioned by the wirthtjuake which hap[:teiied 
in England on the evening of the 6th of April in that 
year. Haney pubJiah'wl tliLs with two other lettei-a 
between himself ami Spenser, under the title of 
"Thi-eeproiieraiid wittie familiar Letters lately jmaBed 
betweene two University men, toucUiug the Eai-th- 
quake in April l(Lit and our Snglish reformed veri- 
fying, with the preface of a well-wisher to them both." 
He liad two ptu-poae-a in the publication ; one was to 
recobimeiid the notion, tlien much occupying his mind, 
nf adopting Latin meaaui-es as the fonu of English 
verse ; the other waa to op^Kiee the general tendency 
to look (ipon earthquakeii as mu-acles portending 
cftiamity, or otherwiee prophetic, and suggest tliat 
tbey had cauaea which were to lie found among the 
OBiual openttions of nature. His endeavour to find 
the^ef eauiaen wft« Iranndcd by the knowleilge of the 
time, but he was right in the way of his endeavour 
to abat* a stiperstition lia.sfd on ignorance. His 
letter t-o Spenser — addresseii by his name tka tije new 
|io»^t, Imuierito — written on the raoniing after the 
eiu-tbquake, gives this lively sketch of fiiinilimr talk 
in an Elizabethan countiy house near Safii-on Walilen 
on the evening of the 6th of April, 1580 : 

To r»if Uviftff ffi^nf, M. Imtnrnlo. 
SigTior Imni'-ritn, after a% mitny ffcqtlc gooJnwrrowa as 
nm&lf and your »wwit heart Ibti'^th ; Mny it pleas* your 
Mtulenhip to dispenae with a pogr C'rutar oi yonra for brimJc-- 

ing unc principal ifmnd rule of our old hiviolable rules of 
rbftone,uiBbowLnghiiimt'lf auini^whjitlunplLiiLfluniVilyiiiiipoi^rd 
in a Bad matttT ; Of porptMi.', to rao«t with a i;oupk' of ehrtiwd 
witty nuw-marnDd j^ntlewomim which wore mum inquleitivu 
than cnpiible of Knlurcs^ti works, 1 ■ftiU i-eport you a pn-tty 
cwncwit^il di&course that I had with thmn im Ipnjer ago tlmn 
yotttemii^ht, ia ^l gcntlDmim'ii hou9C! hco^? in Ksacx. ^Vhero 
beiTi)^ in tlii- pompiifiy of certain L-ourtcJous j^entlL-mcn, itnd 
those two ^cntlcwunicnj it wu»tnychun{^<<to bL^wcll occupied. 
I wartHnt you, at f»rds (which I ilarti say I sfanely hanilled 
a wholu twelvemonth before), nt thitt vury ioBtant thut thu 
vtixMi under tm quaku'd and the houfic ahaked above : besides 
tlxfj jnoviDg and inttliiiff of the table and fumu whore wo eat. 
Whcrfiiipoa, the tw6 g^entlewom^ IviTing h««D ct>iitiiiiiiiUy 
wraag'ling with all thci r>e>Ht, and i^speciaUy with [nj-sclf, and 
even lA that very sumo mamftit making a gront U>ud noitw 
and much ndo, " Croud Lord," quoth I, " is it not wondtirfcil 
Htrange that iho dolic«tfl voica?^ of two so proper tine gentU-- 
women BLould make such a sudden t<UTibk cartbqiuiko'r" 
Itnagiinn^, in gotMl fuith, nothing; in the world lesH than thut 
it ahouLd bo any earthquaku indeed^ and impntin^ that 
ahaking to the BudJen Htirring^and reoDO^'ing of eamc< eum- 
broua thing or othtT in the npper chitmbor over our heads: 
which only in elYwt most of un noted, Hcareely perceiving th« 
rest, being so closely and eagerly set at our game, and some 
of US taking on as they did. But behold, nil nn the sudden 
there cumeth tumbling into the jiorlour the firdntlemun of tbu 
housed somewhat stmngely aifrighted and in u majuier all 
aghast, aad tcll<:>th us, aa well as hia hvad itnd toagiie wouM 
givr him lis-ave, whiit I* wondrous violent niotii>n and dhaking^ 
thure wae of atl things in his hull ; sgmtiljly und viaihly seen. 
Ad woll of hia own self aa of many of hia ^onantii and neigh- 
bours there. I etrttijfhtwaya bediming to think somewhnt 
ruoro seriously of the matter ; " Then I pirij" yi>u, g^ood sir.'' 
quoth I, " send pn^sentl]* one of your servimtH into the t«« n 
to itni]uire if the like hath happent-d thtrc, aa most hkely ia, 
and then muat it noeda bo some eiLrthqnake." Wtcpwit the- 
good fcmrful gtintleman boin^ a little rccomforted (an xnijj- 
doubting and drmding before, \ know not what in hia own 
houee, ita nuiny otherH did), (ind iMm^iately dispatching hia 
man into the town, we had hy and by certain word that it 
wiiB general Over all thfi town, and within leas than a qunrter 
at on horn" after, that the vt-ry bke happened tht* next town 
tcHj, bein? a. fur greater and goodlier town. The geatlv- 
women's hearts, nothing aequamted with any such accidentSf 
wert- murrelloualy daunted : and they that immeduttfly hcforo 
wrtre 80 cflgorly and greedily preying On na, began now, for- 
Btxpth, vt-ry demurely and dt'voutly to pmy unto God, and the 
one especially, that waa even now or the housetop, "' I 
beseerh you heartily," quoth she, ■• lt*t us leuve off playing 
and fall h pniying. By my truly. I wus never «o ociirod m 
my lif«. Methinfcfl it ta man'cUouB grange!" "What, 
gocxl partner, cannot yoii pray to yoUMclf," <pioth one of the 
geotlemen, "but nil the hou»tt must hear yu and sing ' All 
In to our Lady's matins^ ' I ace women arc- everi- way vehp- 
ment and oifectionute. Yourself was liker oveu now to mnko 
a fray than to pruy. and will you now nfodn in all haste be on 
iKith yoiir kneefi '{ Lpt nSj and you Bay it, first diaputo tlio 
matter, what danger and terror it ca;rTieth with it. God be 
praiaed it 18 ftlrcftdy ceasf^. and here be some preeOTil thiit 
are slile cunningly and elerkly to itrgtic tho faae. I btseech 
vou, master (or miatress) your eealouii ami devout passion 
awbde," And with thnt, tumitig to me, und smiling a little 
at thfi first: " Now I pisy you. Slwter H-, what »ay yuu 
phhoBophors," qnolh he, " to thia sudd«n oartbquaks "i JIny 
there not be some Bensihlo natiirul v&\my thereof in tb** con- 
cavities of tho earth itself, an some fordbl-> and violent 




f».i.. : 


tniptiou t)t wiad or U»q likuf'"' "Tub, no di>uht, eu-, may 
Dii.Tc," quulJi I, " as ivell as an intulli^ble aujterruitiirai : 
uud, j*i-r« J venture, tho great ulmadiintc; liiid superfluity of 
watuTB thut fell shortly lifttr llicli;ki.-bim8 lust, beiiiff nut lu 
yet driud or druwii up with the liiMl ui lliA huh, whidi hath 
not j-ct rc<;ovi;rt>d hLa full Mttraflivt fttrcngth and powtT, 
oiLgbt tuimstt-r name iKx-asiott thercuf, aa might BHi&ily h<^ 
ilL(jcov[ir(jd by >riii.lurHl Pdtlwophy in -wbat sort tho pores 
iiiid vents naA i^ranniuti of thu (mrih "bi-laa AD etopij&d And 
tlllod up <;verywh«ro with moiBtwri^, tb4t the wimly eKhu.- 
iMtuiaH I ubd I'^iioittB pciiit 141 m it wc<i'« iti thu^ hoKda thertc^f 
fonld dqI oth«jrwi9o gvt out Itnd mtciLiiii to tht^ir natural 
oii^nol lAuca. Hut lh« teuaa of art and very cDtures 
vt things themBcEvuu »o utterly uiiknovii us tliiij' um to 
most hure, it wero a pieob uf work to liiy 0{K<a the rcinMn to 
every one'i caiptidtj'." "I know well it is we yoa mi'ttn," 
(inath DnE>of the gentlewomt^u (whom for distmction sake, nnd 
b(.<cBUiH! I imiLgiua they w-ould bu loth to be named, I will 
hertLftfter call MuttrcBS loquiaitivaf and tho other ^ladamc 
ImTLvliilH), "Now, 1 Ijcsteirh you, ItHU-ned sir, trj- our wits 
a Httli>, and let us hoar a pieco of your dct-p t'niyersity 
Miiming." " Seciiug yon gentle women will nlgntcs hare it 
tN>. with a good will," quoth 1: and thien, fonooth, T6ty 
(Kilcmnly pauang- awhilo, most gruvply and doctomUy pro- 
cvcded a» followeth : 

" Tho earth, yon know, is a, mighty grcut hn^ Ijody, tuul 
coiuiatcth of many diven andcontniry memhtireand veiiiBfuid 
urteriev and L-ont-avitics whorein. to avoid the abaurdity of 
vacuum, must necessarily be great store of fiuluttantifil nt&tt&r, 
ujid sundry aooidental liinncnrB nod fujugq nnd ijpint^, l'itlL<.'t 
good, or hfld, or mixed. Gtxtd thf^y cannot poraihly nil "be 
whoreitt ia enfji-ndcred so much hnil, tut njim'ely *ii many 
poiDonful and venonioue itsrhn and heatfts^ besidea a thoiLHand 
iiifeclivir itnd contaj^oua things aUe, If thtiy be bad, bad 
you iiiiiiit nt'ede j^ut ia iinliject to bad, and then can th<fre 
nut, 1 wurriint yon, want au objt-ct for b«d to work upon. U 
mixed, which iwiiixivth moat probahSe, yat ie it impoHaiblo 
thai thcro should bo Kiicb an equid and praxK)rtiunuble t»u- 
|>firatare, in aU and emgukr tcspects, but suDiL'time the eril 
{in the devil's aiaae) will a« it were interduuigoiibly have hiu 
natural predominant courao, kdJ iBsae oue way or other. 
TiSTiich evil war king veht^monlly in the parte, and malinouHly 
'?ncountffriDg tho good, forcibly toBseth and cruelly diaturbcth 
thu whole : which conflict n-ndureth so long, and is foijt(.>red 
with abundaiiL-e of cojTupC, putr«Sed humoura, and ill- 
favoured gTMA infected matter, that it miut ncodB {as well, or 
mthcr w ill. as in men's and women'e bodifa] but»t out in the 
ond Uito one ptniloua disease or other, and soTDetime, for vfsat 
ill natural voiding each foveroua and dAtuciun »pii-ita aa lurk 
within, into AUi-h a violent ohill nhivLTin^ vhaking ague tia 
cvea now you »eo the t-arlh ha^-e. WTiith ftdguf, or hither 
every fit thereof, we sthuliini i-all grogely aiid homely Teirrt 

vtUM, n moving or BlirritiK of the eaith, you (gentle women, tluit 
be leamoil, aamewlmt more fint'ly and daintily Terra nultft, 
a fear and agony of the c-arth : wo boing only moved and not 
terrified, you being only, in a manner, terrifiod, and scarcely 
nwrcd, therewith. Now here, and it plua^ie you, liL-th tlu; 
point ixnd quiddity of the eontroveray, whether our Xotm or 
your Jfefufbe (he bottcr and more Bonaonant to the principles 
und nuixima of philosophy : tho one bmng nimily and 
uevdid of drend, the other womaniBh and moat wofnlly 
quivering and Bhiv>(>rti)g for very feair. In sooth, I uue not 
to dittxjanbto with gentkwomon : I am flatly of opinion the 
oarth whoroof man was icnme'ljatfly made nod not wuman, vt 
in all jiroportioDs and wnLiitudoiJ liker tis than j on, and when 

1 Tbfl word iQ tbo original la exh&ltutioos. 

it fortunr^th to hv difiti<m||it FL-d uud disi-afcd. either in port or 
in whole, 1 am perauadcd, nnd I bL-lit^'VC nason and philoBophy 
will bear me out in it, it only movsth with the very impulHirc- 
force of the malady, and not tremhletb or quuketh f<jr doa- 
tardly fear. Now, I boacefh you, whnt tlunk yc, genUiN 
womun, by this reason ^ " " Ruiaon '. " quoth 3I;id«fijt* Incrw- 
dula. "I can neither pii-k out rh^nu- uur ronsuii out of any 
thing I huva huird yet. And ytt, methinJfA, all should be 
Gospel thflt OOmeth frotn you Dixtors of rnmbriiiye. but 1 
tteo well all is not gold tLuit ^list(;[ii'th/' " Indiud," quoth 
MiBtrel^» luquiiiitiva, " boTo is much ado, T truw, tuid )ittl<' 
hi'lp. But it pCcattoth Mast«r H. (to dulight hinisclf and 
these gvn tinmen) to toll us a trim guudly lalo uf liobin Hoijd, 
1 know pot what ; or sure, if thja be Cfospel I doubt I am not 
in good lielief. Trust mo truly, Sir, your elofjuetK-e far 
pasBcth my intuUi^fence.*' " Did I not tell yuu uforehand," 
quoth I, "^ns muehf And yet would you nf»:dB presuma uf 
your capacitiM in HUi:h profound myaterics of philosophy and 
privitiea of Nature oa thf^ae b<>, thd very thinking wheraof 
(nnlew happily it bu jmt /idem impiirifnm, in believing- ss tbf 
Inamed bollcvb and aayiti^, It ia iw bc<»UBe it ia ao) ii oigh 
enough to C^t yoq both into a St or two of a dajiptroua 
shaking fevt r unleaa yoii presently itcek ume remedy to pre- 
vent it. And in eamofit, if yc will give mo IcuvG, u|ioq that 
small skill I have in exthnnral and intrinaical phygiogniOiny. 
and so forth, I will wa^r aH the monoy in my poor pune U 
a poltle of hippocraa. you ahall both this night, within scrmo- 
whnt lesathun two hourn and a half, driam of terrible &traiiK» 
Agues and agoni^B, aa well in your own pretty India as iin th« 
might great buily of the earth." " You are very merrily dia^ 
poBod, Ood be praiAod," quoth Miatrcsn Inquiaitiva,, *' I am 
glad to see you so pleaBarnblc. No doubt but you are mar- 
vuUous privy to our dreiimg. But I pmy you now in a littJe 
good ennx^t, do you si?hi>)ars think that ic is the very rMuon 
indeed tbiit you spake of oven now i " *' There be many of 
u«, good Miittre^," quoth I, "of that opinion: wherein I an 
content to appeal to the knowledge of then Wmed gcotle- 
men here. And Eomo ligatii of our finest cooeeitod httti* 
defend thie position (a very atrangc [«nido^ in my fancy] ; 
tb-i! «irth hrt^-ing taken in tim miieh to drink and, as it wera, 
over lavish cups, na it hath aensibly done in a manner all thw 
winter past, now Htaggtiroth, and roeleth, and tottcroth, thii 
way and that wiiy, up and down, like a drunken man at 
Woman when thpir olobench rhetoric comoa upon them, and 
Bpet^inlly the moving pathetical figure Putt^-ponie, and thet»- 
foro, in tills forcible sort you lately baw, paincth itwlf to 
vomit up again that ao disorderetb and diaquieteth the whtJ* 
body within. And, fotwwth, a few contPidictory fellowi 
mukono more of it but u corUiin vehement and poMionato 
nceaing, or eobbing, or coughing, when-withikl. thoy my, 
and aa they my, say with great phyideal and natunl 
reason, the eartb, in aome place or other over lightly ahcr 
any grtwl and audden alteration of weather or diet i 
exceedingly troubled and pained, aa, nomelyt this TBTf 
time of the year, after tha extreme pinching 
wintir, and again in autumn, after the extreme 
hiait of summer. But shnll I tell you, MintreM 1 
tiva ? The soundest philoaophera indeed, and tofy ( 
accretaricH of Nature, hold, if it pleaao you, anot}i«r | 
tion, and mninlaSn this for truth (whidi, ut thv lc« 
of all other aecmeth marvellous reasonable, and is qut^ 
leas fjii-thent off from hereay) ; that aa the enrth upon it hath 
many atntely and boiateroDs and floreo et^^aturi:^, aa namely, 
mc^ and women and divers botiBte, whereof ^me onv u in 
manner continujilly at variance and feud w'ith anothiT, ever- 
more e£>eking to be revengod upon his tnemy, whi<jh f 
breakcth furlli into professed and open h'jalility, an 

)r diet ii 

this TBFf , 

4.D. 1580.]: 


tntly follow sst buttlDfl und marlal wars, wberaifi 
4Rni pBTtrf K'liJotb ail the force of his oi-dn&nco aatl uther 
martial fiinuture uf^iiijrt. Ihu uth^r: ^ ILkawisu within it ti>a 
it hath &lao som>Q as vimgibly and forvordly iMmt, us for 
example, warms, and inol^ro. und cunicfi) dnii auuh utliBE 
valtantl/ hig-hmindbd cr(.-tttareH^ the sons and dau^htcm of 
Mbiv Bad BelloiuL thiit uounah civil dtsbats und cunttary 
bction« amongisL tht<iiuelv«i: which are Holdom or n^-v^r 
^ndi^d ttxj without misenLlile bloodslml and deadly war : aud 
then go me their guns lustily off, irnd the one diwhBtTreth 
his pkH.-G coiiragt^tialy at tliio other; tittd Uiura iti such a 
general dub-a-dub lunun^t th<^m, and &uch h'Orrt^lut LliundL-r- 
ing on evorj- iride, and fluoh a iDionHtroiiB and uniel ishaking 
uf 01113 another's forU nnd uistlca, ikni the whole oarth n^in, 
«r Rt l6&at SQ muLli of tho earth «» is over or neat tleetn, ia 

fenibly hoit«ed, and" . "No taore finds or ifs, for God's 

aake,'' quoth tlw mudjipne. "And this >"■ vi"ir jnt:it 

; Here foilowa " Master H.'s shoft but shml> and 

learaed juiigmtmt of eiii-tliquukes," seriously bujj- 

geattng groun<[i5 for liia opinion UjCfftiiiKt the »uper- 

I Mt.iti(>na of the day, that " an eftrtliquake might aa 

I well l>e supjwseij a natT.mul motiou of the ea.i'th as a 

I pi-etemfltural orsujwrnatural ominous work of tlod," 

j By the interest of all this talk, jila}i"ui and serious, 

' upon the event of the evening, ApriJ (>th, J 580, 

■ siipji^r was il<Aa.y<id nii hom% and after the 8upi>er 

I the ladies occAsianaliy interrupted graver diacourae 

with a "te-he" at tlie notion of eu-th aueezing.' 

In the apriug of 1580, at the time of tlie eftrth- 
quake, Sir PliiJI]> Sidney wa« also gtaying at h 
country hoii«e, the niftfisiou of the Eiirl of Pembroke, 

in*. UiJi FuoKT or W 

HvuaB. \Ftam Sir HiciiaTd CM Hu^n-it " Uitlotf uj WatAin.") 

'dcKtorly loiiTTlin^t wt* have even onou^jjh ulroady for oiir 
money ; and it you should go a littlo fartJior I fear ms yoti 
would msJfQ tiH nigh an ciumiu^ aa yDursclf : and that would 
be H. grvAt disigzacfi to tha unirciraity." " Not a whit, gentle 
Madame." quuth I : " thcra be of us that have gruiter atoro 
in our biide;ctB then we can wed occupy ouiBtiWoa, and there- 
fore w@ arc glad, aa you see, when by the favourable Jind 
g7B<!ioiu aspect of some bletsacd plonot, and speeidlly our 
MeiCit^ or your Viinus, it is oar good fortune to light Od 
ADch good friimdii tut you nnd eomo other guod gGntlewomcn 
Ix, that talto pleiHuro imd comfort in sudi good Ihiags." 
Wbereat Mistrcsa InquiHitiva, Liugliiug right out, and 
beginning to demand 1 tngw not whnt, m^thoug'ht nhc 
made Ad if it should huve "beon foma goodly pUusiblo jc^st, 
w^ieioit she if-, aad takes hcrai-lf, priittily good. " Well, 
wdl, Master H.," quolK thf> guntlucian of the houae, "now 
yon have played your part ao cunniii^ly with the gentla- 
woiucn, ad I wuTunt you shall 1x3 n>mcmbored of Inquitiitiva 

IvbiOn you are gone and nmy haply forgi-t hor : which I hopo 
Vinresa Incrcdula will do somttLme too, by hei luive : I pniy 
fyoo ID oameat I<?t us men Icjim aomcthing of yoii too. And 
'■especially I would K^ladly hear your judgment and p.'ftfllution 
'Vhoifaer you pount of 4>arthqufikba as nAtunil or siipbrnatiiral 
tDotioiitf. But the shorter nU the better,' ' To whom I made 
answer, in pficct, as followt-th. 

at Wilton, near Salisbury. He hati offi>nclwI tba 
Queen ty preeonting to her, in liia zeal for Englaml, 
a writttii argument againBt the HuppoHed project of 
her man'iage with the Duke of Aujou. For a time, 
therefore, he withdrew from Court in Mai?ch, 1580, 
antl went to etuy at WEton with hia siftter Mary, 
who in 1577 at the a.g6 of twenty had Ijoconie tie 
third Mfife of Henry Herbert^ Earl of Pembroke, (m 
amiable and able man of forty- Sidney stayed at 
Wiltqn seven months ; wrote there the greater part 
of his "Arcaditt" for liia isiater'a prirafce enterbiiu- 
mcnt, in good Euphuistic fashion, and may have 
begun thpre his " Apologie for Poetrie." written in 
manly eameat, without any tritkH of style. 

Til ths year 1579, a young dramatist, Stephen 
Gossan, who liad come young &om hia tJoiversity 

I In IsuM DlHTnAll's ■' Qnnmla of Antbon " these ia on anwiiuit 
ot QAbriel ^arr^j, derii^d oltielly ttom the »bi>» O* him by Tfanmu 
Nash, wLick invk« carjaus eTklimc* of the ubtriiHt-HOfdubet^ of iJie 
hnphaxnnl wnj in which th*it oamiifler ahol uwteriuJ nfon hU huapi 
of unuinE Ut«T«T7' BJincdntc- It oaa be ahriwa tliDl in this iLi_'«0'iiat 
gf O&bHal Harvey th« only Hint«iic«4 which ilo nut oouColu om 
uDwJttiDff miw^EMBtatfttloii. «zpnH«d or impUod, u^ thoae which 
oantaiii two. 



[A.D. uei. 

time Tcan \0ion, vfacn the fint theatre wm baih, 
aivl jfM&Hl tbfe plftTeTB at the '* CmtAm," recanted all 
iahb ID hn art, and in a pamphlet, called " The 
HdyxJ of Abate," joined the hanifaest c^ the Pori- 
taxM in ooDdenmation of " Poets, ]tfpera, j^jera, 
j mU TB, and mcfa-tike caterpillars of a commoawealth." 
With a canooH dtnunneflB GoBson, an honest man, 
vho becanK a iaithfol ci^ clergrman, dedicated this 
indiNcriniinate attack opon all poets to Sir .Philip 
Sidner, Hidner was at that time twentr-fire jean 
old, hffootavA and loved br Queen and Coort, a poet 
and a fiiend of poets, Ijut essentially a man of 
action, with a deeply religions nature. The Protes- 
tantii of Eatope looked forvard to the daj when a 
joath of mn^ large premise among Kngli«Ji heredi- 
tarr irtatemien, should be Coremost, nnder the Sove- 
reign, in directing English policy. When Goeson's 
pamffhiet apf^eared Spenser had not been long in 
London, employed hj Sidney's uncle Leicester, and 
the friendHhip Ijetween Spenser and Sidney was 
then newly formed. It was the year in which 
8peniter published his first book, "The She|^ierd's 
Calewlar." Gosaon's "School of Abiise" was only 
one example of much ignorant attadc <m poetry by 
doll, well-meaning m«i, and the dedication of such a 
botJc to him probably stirred Phii^ Sidney to write 
not long aiterwaids his " Apcdogie for Poetrie," the 
first piece of true literary criticism in our English 
literature. It was wiitten in 1581, althoo^ not pub- 
lififaed until 1595, nine yean after its author's d^ith. 
William Webbe's "Disoonne of English Foetrie" 
bad been printed in 1586, and George Puttenham's 
" Art of English Poetrie," written later (about 1585), 
had been printed eariier, in 1589. But these books, 
though written after, and printed before, Sidney's 
** A[K>logie," in no way enter into competition with 
it They deal chiefly with the body, or the meclutr 
nism, of verse, but Philip Sidney looked entirely to 
its soul. 


Writttn bjf th« Si4/ht XoNe, Vertuotu, and Leaned Sir 

FkUip Siding, Kmight. 

Whea the ri|^ rirtnoos Edward Wotton' and I were at 
the Emperor'a oourt togetiier, we gave ourselves to learn 
honemaiuhip of Oio. Fietro Pogliano; ooa that, with 
great commendation, had the place of an oaqaire in hia 
atable; and he, according to the fcrtileness of the Italian 
wit, did not only afford oa the demonatration of hia prac- 
tice, but aoaght to enrich our minda with the contemplation 
theruin, which he thought moat predons. But with none, 
I remember, mine oata were at any time more laden, than 
when (either angered with alow paj'ment, or moved with 
oar Icamer-liko admiration) he ezcrciaed hia speech in the 
ptaiac of hia faculty. 

He said, soldiers wore the noblest estate of mankind, and 
bonicmm tho noblest of ooldiers. He said, thoy were the 
maatem of war and ornaments of peace, speedy goers, and 
strong aTnders, triumphera both in camps and courts ; nay, to 
so unlicliuved a point he proceeded, as that no earthly thing 

bred scdk wondo- to a pcince, as to be a good horaeman; 
akin (A gOTennneiit was bat a " pedanloia " in comparison. 
Then would he add oeztain pniiea by telling what a peerlen 
beast the hone was, the only serviceable courtier, without 
flatxery, the beast of most beauty, bithfulnesa, courage, and 
such man, that if I had not been a piece of a logician before 
I came to him. I think he would have persuaded me to have 
wished mrs^ a hone. But thus much, at least, with his 
DO few words, he drove into me, that self love is better thau 
any gildiBg, to make that seem go^eous wherein ourselves 
be parties. 

Wherein, if Poglisno's strong affection and weak ai^u- 
ments will not satisfy you, I will give you a nearer tzample 
of myself, who, I know not by what mischance, in these my 
not old years and idlest times, having slipped into the title of 
a poet, am provoked to ^y something unto you in the defence 
of that my onelected vocation : which if I handle with more 
good will than good reaaooa, bear with me, since the scholar 
is to be pardoned that foUoweth the steps of his master. 

And yet I moat say, that as I have more just caoaeto make 
a pttifnl defence of poor poetry, which, from almost the 
highest ertimatioQ of leandag, is &llai to be the laughing- 
stock of diildtea : so have I need to bring some more avail- 
able pncrih, abice the fonoer is hy no man barred of hia 
deserved credit, wheteaa the silly latter hath had even the 
iiaiim <rf philoaophers used to the d fF^ci" g of it, with groat 
danger of civil war anrang the M us es.* 

At first, tntfy, to all them that, professing learning, in- 
vei^ against poetry, may justly be objected, that they go 
very near to ungratefulness to seek to deface that which, in 
the noblest nations and languages that are known, hath been 
the first H^t-giver to ignorance, and first nurse, whose milk 
hy little and little enaUed them to feed afterwards of tougher 
Imowledgfls. And will you play the hedge-hog, that being 
received into the den, drove out hia host ^' or rather the 
vipers, that with their birth kill their parents?* 

Let learned Greece, in any of her manifold sciences, be 
aUe to show me one book before Muaasus, Homer, and Hesiod, 
an three nothing else but poets. Nay, let any history be 
bron^t that can ny any writers were there before them, 
if they were not men of tho same skill, as Orpheus, Linus, 
and some others are named, who having been the first of 
that country that made pens deliverers of their knowledge to 
posterity, may justly challenge to be called their fathers in 
learning. For not only in time they had this priority 
(althou^ in itself antiquity be venerable] bat went before 
them as causes to draw with their charming sweetness the 
wild untamed wits to an admiraticm of knowledge. So as 
AmphioQ was said to move stones with hia poetry to build 
Thebes, and Orpheus to be listened to by beasts, indeed, 
stony and beastly people, so among the Romans were Liviua 
Andronicns, and Ennius ; so in the Italian language, the first 
that made it to aspire to be a trcasore-house of science, were 
the poets Dante, Boccace, and Petrarch ; so in our En glis h 
were Gower and Chaucer ; after whom, encouraged and de- 
lighted with their excellent foregoing, others have followed 
to beautify oar mother tongue, as well in the same kind as 
other arts. 

* This did so notably show itself that the philosophers of 

1 BdiMrcl, •Ider brother <rf BIr Henrj' Wotton. H« was 
knlfflited bj Ellatbeth In 1902, and nude Comptrollsr of ber Honae. 
boM. 0\mm\ •• the pUjfnIaeas in Bidnej'a opmlng uid cloM of « 
traatlM irritt«ti tbron^bont in plain, manlj EngUah without 
Enphoism, and strictlj reasonsd. 

■ Here the introduotion ends, and the ugament begiiu with tta 
% 1. Po«trytlwJln(XwU.^twr. 

■A table from the " Hetaaijthiam " of Lanrantins Ataatamins. 
ProfaaKir of BeUea Lettres at Urbino, and Librarian to Doha Qnidu 
Ubaldb nnder th« Pontificate of Alexander TI. (1402—1308). 

* Plinr wKf% ("Nat. Hist.", lib. xt., oq>. 62) that the touds vtpen, 
impatient to be Imm, break throngh tha aide of their mother, aul m> 
kill ber. 

■ I 2. BarroiMd/rom bv PhiloMjihert, 

TO A-K. ]:9S J 



■ Aunt not a loog tinie appear tu tliu uurld bill uuilcr 
: of -potts; K> Thales, JCnipLxioclea, tmd Parmenitlee 
I their natural pMlctitupfay iu voi^os; so iliil Pylhag^raa 
I and PhocyLidoa tlicir moraj. couhsoIb ; » did Tj*rUi&uti in wax 
L ib&tterB t And SuIjoi] iu mutt^ru of policy ; or ratbur tht^y, bein^ 
lijoctA, did exerdau Lhuir dalightfiil rein in llioso poinU of 
^b.i«t knuwli^d^, which Iwfuro Hmta lay hidJun to tbia 
l^iwrlj ; for that wine tktlvn viui directly a poet it is mumfi^st, 
lluifing Vitiltcn in verae lh« notable iahlu of thi}t Atliultic 
laii, which wi« continuod by PJiitin. ^ And, truly, evuD 
I Platu, whflifMV'dr woU cotLaidorcth tUmil find t)mt in the body 
■ «f his wuik, thoug't tha insjilc and strength wore pTiilosopIiy, 
\ ttte ttkin, an it wc^re, and beauty dependisd most of pcK.-ti-y. 
I Por nil standi Upon, dialo^uet< ; whoroin hq fi>i{piH miuiy 
liumest bur^eHiKS of Athena spaHking of aucb matten that if 
ft4fauy luid btien wt un tho rack they would n«vi!r havo con- 
} iBMcd them ; beoiiles, hia poctioil dewribiag thi^i circumiitHJiccH 
K4if thijir meetings, us the weU-OTdoriiig of u, lumquut, tho 
iry of a wnlk, with interlacing mere tiiloe, as (j-ygeft'ii 
Ring.,* imd otfaers; which, who Inuw^ not to be flowers of 
portry, did nevtr walk into Apollo's gardon. 

> Anil cren historio^Tuphei^ although th<eir lipa sound of 
tJiings done, Hnd vmity bo wriLt^m in thuir forcthpuda, )uiV0 
heea glad to bDrrow hoth ffLuhion and, porchance, wbi^ht of 
the poeta; lut Herndotoi entitled the books of bin hiiitury by 
the niunes of the Nine AIiut>a : and both he, and all tho rest 
lh»t foUowed him, either alcic or iitmrpod, of pootrj'. their 
pBflsion&te describing of piuEDona, the many particulAfLtica of 
hatllea whinh no mixn could altimi -, vr, if that Ik; ilunicd mu, 
long orations, put in the tnouthu of great king^ and captaina, 
wbiuh it IB certain they nevtr [iruaOunced, 

80 that, truly, neither philosopher nur historiographer 
4»ald, at the flm, havti entered into the gntuu of popular 
judgmontfi, b£ they had not taken a great dieiport of poetry ; 
whiicJi in bU nntionri, at thia ilayt where l^.m^ng* Qounahetb 
not, in pkin to ho soen^ m all which they hare some ftwliag 
of poetry. In Turkoy, besides their lanrgivini^ dJviuca thf^y 
hkva no other writera but poGts. In our neighbour-country 
ll-ehuul, whete, tou, learning goes very ban;, y«t am their 
poeta held in a devout reverence. Even among tlie moat 
bHrbarouB and simple IndtAQs, whore no writing la, yut havn 
they their poet* who make find sing songs, which thay call 
" ArL'Htoa," both of th^i^ir ancestors decdii and pmitses of their 
gotU. A Bufficieut probability, th^t if ever letiroing eomea 
Among them, It must be by having their bard dull wita 
aoftedod and sbarpanod with tho swwt delight of poetry ; for 
mitiL they find a pleaaure m the exi?reisti uf tho mind, great 
l^oiniEea of much knowledge wiH little pcrauAdn^ them that 
know not tho fruiu of knowledge. In Wales, the true 
remnant of the anciont Britoue, [is there are good autburitleu 
to show the lung time they had poct», wMch they called 
budH^ao through all thuconquejits of Roniiuis, 8uxens, Danua, 
■nd Normans, soine of whom did souk to ruin all memory of 
teaming from among them, yet do their poeta, even t« thia 

H, tb« Fjthaffcireaa philoa.iiihflr of Locri, lud the Alhebiui 
CtttiH a» npmmblti trr Plato u tuiviDK lUteaed to tbe disoonne at 
Socxatea on a Bapnbllo. Socratea calls on thain to abtrw kmiIi ■ oiats 
ia actienk Gritlaj will tall at th« rwcna at ^twft/t by tb4 aaoleFit 
dtiuDB of A.ttl<«. 10.l»} j«Ln bafora, f»m an Inrond of oountlau ia- 
Twlva wlia iluae trma Uia vaat Mlama oC AtliLUtln. in Weatera 
Ocaaa; a «tragi;l[i of vrhicb record wua prGuerviml iu Lbe t«mii]o of 
Mailhor Athraii ut Suij, in 'Egfpt, nnd huriileil 'lonrUc tlhroug-li Soloti. 
hs tutulT eTRdjtion to Critist. But inf Ttmien^ Kffr^eB to e^ponnrl 
Ibe atmcton of the nnireiae : tbisu CrltLua, lb a pieoe left tiufluilhed 

m iff PIaIo. (jroceeda to allow an jileal sucietf in 4U!tkifl agaiiist preaBaro 

%fil ^ danj^ar that aeeaw irreaisUbte. 
■ Plato'a " It«ptilitlC," book iL 

day. Injit ; so ns it is not more notuble ia the soon beginning 
tluia in long-continuing. 

But flinve the authors of mast of our aciencca wore th6 
RomariA, and I'lefore them the Greeka, Ivt us^ a little, sUuid 
upon their authonties; but even bo feu-, us to see what OumetL 
th^y havo given unto this now scorned akill.' Among the 
Komana a poet waa i:all>nd^ " vatea,^' which i^ as much as fl 
diviner, foresccr, or proph^.!, ati by hiu conjoined words 
^'vatitinium," and " vaticinari," ismnnifoHt; ho bfcavenly a 
title) did that cxcuUcat people K^tow upon this hcort-nivish- 
ing knowledge ! And sa far wcro they carriod into tho 
udiniration thercimf, that they thought in the changmble 
hitting upon any aueb vbnM.*H, great foretokens of their 
following fortunes were placad. Whereupon grew the word 
of sortea Virgilianw ; when, by sudJioi opening Virgil'a book, 
tliey lighted upon some Torsc, as it is reported by many, 
whereof the histories of the Emperorv^' liveti ate full. As of 
AlblnuB, the governor of our island, who, in his childhood, 
met with this verse — 

Anna omena capiOp aoC sat ntiaiiii in aTmis n 

and in his agffperfonned it. Although it were a very vain 
and godless superstition ; as ulso it was, to think spirits werei 
eumnmnded by such verseB.; whcroupon thia word charms, 
derived of " camiiua," cometh, so yet servoth it to slkow the 
great rovei«nee those wita Wute^ h^ld in ; and ultogother not 
without ground, since both the oracle« of Delphi And the 
SibyTa propbiMues were wholly dt>livared in voices; fur that 
«ame csquiuite observing of number and. meaauru in tho 
Words, jind thiit high-ftytng liberty of conceit proper to the 
poet, ilid ntxm to have some di\-inQ forM in it, 

* And may not I presume a little farther to ahow the reason' 
ablenes^ of thia word " vatee," and say, that the holy David'q 
Psalms are a divine poem Y If I do, I uhiill not do it without 
the testimony of great learned men, both ancLcnt and modern, 
but even the name of Paahns will sjieak for me, whieh, being 
interpreted, is nothing hut Honga^ then, thiit is fully written 
in metrti, an all learned Hebrieiana itgrc'e, although the ndee 
be not yet fully found. Lckstly, and principally, his handling 
hifl prophecy, whii;h ia mirrely pootieal. For what else is 
the awaking his muHicol instrumi?ntB ; thei often luid free 
changing of pi>r)>0Qs; hiu notable proso[:io]Krias, when he 
maketh you. us it were, aee God coming in llis majesty ; his 
telling of the beasts* joyfutness, and hilb leaping; but a 
huavenly poes}-, wherein, almost, he ahcwuth him^ilf a 
pasaionate lover uf that nuspcakable and eveilaating beauty, 
to ho seen by the eyes of the niind, only L-lfured by faith? 
But tmlv, now, having named him, I fear I wet'in to profano 
tb»t holy name, applj-iag it to poetrj', which is, among ua, 
thrown down to so ridieulous an ttatiuation. Itut they that, 
with quiet judgments, wUl look a little deeper into it, ahull 
End the end and working of it such, as, being rightly apphod^ 
di-Hcrveth not to bewQitrged out of the church of God. 

'But now let ua see how the Greeks havo named it, and 
how they decmod of it. Tho Wreeks namMl him wontr^i', 
which name hath, as the moftt execUcat, gone through utlier 
Unguagos ; it cemcth of this word voiitf, which is tu mak* ; 
wherein, I know not whether by lunk or wisdom, we English- 
men havo mot with the Grtwka in culling him " a maker," 
which nauie, how high and incomparable a title it is, I had 
rather w^re known by marking the scope of oth*jr ariencen, 
ihan by any pnrtiol allegation. There is no art delivered 
unto mankind that hath uot the works of nature for hta 

* f * HxnwHTid by tiu Romiuu at Soartd and Proplttae. 

» I S. Ani raaUjf laemd and yroph^c in the PnUmi of DtrH, 

* j 0. By th' Gn«b, Poiti vrt hfHatirpd etlh tJw nam* o/Molwr*. 



[A.D. U8L 

pcincipal object, wttboot which they ooald not consut, and 
oa vhich thf r t^^ depend u they become scton and players, 
m* it were, of what natote will hare set forth. ' Ho doth the 
aatroouner look apoa the stars, and hy that he soeth set down 
what order nature bath taken therein. 80 doth the geome- 
tri'.-iaa and arithmetician, in their dircrse sorts of qnaQtities. 
tit^ lUAb the mosician, in times, tell you which by nuture agree, 
which DiA. The natoial philosopher thereon hath his name ; 
and the oKnal phikaopher standeth upon the n<itund virtoes, 
rices, or jaMion^ of man ; and follow nature, saith he, therein, 
and thou shalt n'jt err. The lawyer stiith what men have 
determined. The histMian, what men hare done. The grum- 
marixn speaketh wily of the rules of speech ; and the rhe- 
torurian and logician, considering what in nature iviU soonest 
prove and persuade, thereon give artificial rules, which still 
are rvjmpaased within the circle of a question, according to 
the proposed matter. The physician weigheth the nature of 
man's body, and the oataro of things helpful and hurtful 
nnt<^ it. And the metaphysic, though it be in the second and 
at^nw.-t notions, and therefore be counted supematuial, yet 
doth he, indeed, build upon the depth of nuture. Only the 
poet, disdaining to be tied to any such subjei'tion, lifted up 
with the rigour of his own invention, doth grow, in effect, 
into another nature ; in making things either better than 
nature bringeth forth, or quite anew ; forms such as never 
were in nature, as the heroes, demi-gods, Cyclops, chimeras, 
furies, and such like ; so as he gocth hand in hand with 
Nature, not enclosed within the mirrow warrant of her gifts, 
but freely ranging withinthezodiacof hisownwit.' Nature 
never set forth the earth in so rich tapestry as divers poets 
have done; neither with so pleasant rivers, fruitful trees, 
■weot-smolling flowers, nor whatsoever else may make the 
too-mnch-lovod onrth more lovely; her world is brazen, the 
poets only deliver a golden. 

Hut let those things alone, and go to man ;' for whom as 
the other things arc, so it socmeth in him her uttermost 
cunning is employed ; and know, whether she hare brought 
forth so true a lover as Theagenos ; bo constant a friend as 
Pyladci ; so valiant a man as Orlando ; so right a prince as 
Xenophon's Cyrus; and so excellent a man every way as 
Virgil's .£noas ? Neither let this be jestingly conceived, 
bucauHo the works of the one be essential, the other in imita- 
tion or Action ; for <>very understanding knoweth the skill of 
each artificer standcth in that idea, or fore-conceit of the 
work, and not in the work itself. And that the i)oet hath 
that idea is manifest by delivering them forth in such excel- 
lency as he had imagined them ; which delivering forth, also, 
is not wholly imaginative, as wo are wont to say by them that 
build castles in the air ; but so far substantially it worketh 
not only to make a Cyrus, which had been but a particular 
excellency, as nature might have done ; but to bestow a Cyrus 
upon the world to make many CyruscH ; if thoy will learn 
aright, why, and how, that maker made him. Neither let it 
be deemed too saucy a comparison to balance the highest point 
of man's wit with the efficacy of nnture ; but rather give 
right honour to the heavenly Maker of that maker, who hav- 
ing mode man to His own likeness, set him beyond and over 
all the works of that second nature ; which in nothing he 
showeth so much as in poetrj- ; when, with the force of a 
divine breath, he bringeth things forth surpassing her doings, 
with no nmnll arguments to the incredulous of that first 
accursed fall of Adam ; since our erected wit mnketh us 
know what perfection is, and yet our infected will keepeth us 

I Potlry U thi 
' Pott* imjirori 1 

ivt art. AitrfrnoMtn and cAhtn reptat irhol 
■ And iitalizfrnan. 

bom reaching unto it. But these arguments will by few be 
understood, and t^ fewer granted ; thus much I hope will be 
given me, that the Greeks, with some probability of reason, 
gave him the name above all names of learning. 

* Now let us go to a more ordinary opening of him; that the 
truth may be the more palpable ; and so, I hope, though we 
get not so unmatched a praise as the etymology of his names 
will grant, yet his Ter>' description, which no man will deny, 
shall not justly be barred from a principal commendation. 

'Poesy, thei-efore, is an art of imitation ; for so AristoUe 
termeth it in the word ;i(fM)0'it ; that is to say, a represent- 
ing, counterfeiting, or figuring forth : to speak metaphorically, 
a speaking picture, with this end, to teach and deUght. 

'Of this have been three general kinds: the MiV/", both in 
antiquity and excellency, where they that did imitate the in* 
conceivable excellencies of God ; such were David in the 
Psaims ; Solomon in the Bong of Songs, in his Ecclesiastes, 
and Proverbs ; Moses and Deborah in their hymns ; and tho 
writer of Job: which, beside others, the learned Emanuel 
Tremellius and Fr. Junius do entitle the poetical part of the 
Bi'ripture ; against these none will speak that hath the Holy 
Ghost in due holy reverence. In this kind, though in a wrong 
divinity, were Orpheus, Amphion, Homer in his hymns, acd 
many others, both Greeks and Romans. And this poesy 
must be used by whosoever will follow St, Paul's counsel, in 
singing psalms when they are merr^' ; and I know is used 
with the fruit of comfort by some, when, in sorrowful pongs 
of their death-bringing sins, they find the consolation of the 
never-leaving goodness. 

'The teeond kind is of them that deal with matter philoso- 
phical ; either moral, as Tyrtseus,' Phocylides, Cato ; or, 
natural, as Lucretius, Virgil's Georgics ; or astronomical, as 
Manilius' and Pontanus ; or historical, as Lncan ; which whu 
mislike, the fault is in their judgment, quite out of taste, aoJ 
not in the sweet food of sweetly uttered knowledge. 

But because this second sort is wrapped within the fold of 
the proposed subject, and takes not the free course of his own 
invention ; whether they properly be poets or no, let gnus- 
marians dispute, and go to the third* indeed right poets, of 
whom chiefly this question ariseth ; betwixt whom and these 
second is such a kind of difference, as betwixt the meaner 
sort of painters, who counterfeit only such faces as arc set 
before them ; and the more excellent, who having no law bat 
wit, bestow that in colours upon you which is fittest for the 
eye to see ; as the constant, though lamenting look of Lucretia, 
when she punished in herself another's fault ; wheran he 
painteth not Lucretia, whom he never saw, but painteth the 
outward beauty of such a virtue. For these three be they 
which most properly do imitate to teach and delight ; and to 
imitate, borrow nothing of what is, hath been, or shall be ; 
but range only, reined with learned discretion, into the 
divine consideration of what may be, and should be. These 
be they, that, as the first and most noble sort, may justly be 
termed " vates ; " so these are waited on in the excellcntest 
languages and best understandings, with the fore-described 
name of poets. For these, indeed, do merely make to imi- 
tate, and imitate both to delight and teach, and delight to 
move men to take that goodness in hand, which, without de- 
light they would fly as from a stranger ; and teach to make 
them know that goodness whereunto they are moved ; which 

* H«r« o Second Pari 0/ {hi E«mv htgint. * S 1- PM*n> ^mA. 

* %i. lU fciiuU. a. Dinnc. 

T b. Pkiloiophioat, vhtch it prrhapt too t'mtfailtr*. 

* Harous JfauiUas wrote under Tiberias a metrical tnatis* oa 
Astrouomy, of wlucli five books ou the fixed stan n 

* c. Po^rg proptr. 

k.V. 1S!^.J 



hoiag tht^' tLulilpat scope to which eVcr ntiy lc«miii^ was 
dirw:teil, yH want there not idle tuDgue» to bnrk ut tbu-m^ 

^Thefic b« subdjnded into e\mdT^* more 6p<^cial denomina- 
tiwiB; tbf msmt notfttile W the heroic, lyric, tragic, toihic. 
AutTTic, iambic, elegiac, paatorfil, ajid certain othen ; some of 
thvee bein^ t{<r]iiod according to the matter thsy dual n^th; 
•ome by th* sort of verse they Uki! best to writo in : for. 
indeed, thp erw*toBt port of pOL-ta hiivr- appartiUed tht-ir 
poetical inveDticmfi in that numecouE kind of 'writing which 
is (xUed verBC. Indeed* but BpparcUed vetw, beinfir hut un 
oniiimnnt,nnd no cnuH to poetry, siscothprv hHTebc>(.>ii mnny 
raosC 'QiDelleTit pootn thnt tiever vL-ruitiml, &nd no'w awiLtm 
many Tersifiers that need never anawcr to the tiaraf? of poets," 
For X^0;[)hoili who did ImitntB na exL-cllontly as to f^v^ un 
wJSyitMJ\*»ii iatftrii, the portraitum of a just «'mpire, -under 
the njune of Cyrtui, nu Oici-j-o saith of htm, madci thLToin an 
Absoiliit« hcroiciJ poem. &o did KeEodorua,' in hiH su^ml 
iiivontion ni that picture of love in Thcagcne* and Chariclea ; 
and yi-t both thew wrote in pnwe ; -which I t^jK-ak to show, 
thnt it ts nut rhyming and voismg thnt makvth a poet (tio 
tnon? tlufa a Jun^gf go-wn nmktith an advoeiite, who, though hp 
pknidMl in unnoor ahould be on udrocutti and no ^Idior) ; hut 
itifrthnt fcipiing notable images of virtuoa, vieen, oc whut 
elie, -witli that didightEni teaching, wbic^h niutit be the light 
cteacrihin^ note- to know a poet by. jUthuugh, indeed, thii 
senate of [hkIk haT(» chosen vi-ne as their fittp&t raimeot ; 
inclining, aa in matter they passud all m alt, uo in nuiiinfii to 
go be-yotid thorn : not apeakin^ table-talk fashina, or Like men 
in II drouJn, worda as Ihoy chani-Ptibiy fall from thf mouth, 
hut piednir t'Bch siylUble of iwch wtird by junt proportion, 
accordi»|j to thu dimity of th« suhjc«t. 

* Kow, ihcrpfort?, it iduiU not bo ami^s, finrt, to weight thie 
1iitt«r iioct of poetry by hia woji*, and tht^n by hia ptirU; 
and if in noilhuT of these anAtomiew ho be commfmdabk, 
I hope we ahall rtKM.-ivo a motu faVout-ahlu H^ntQllce. Tbia 
puriiyinj; of wit, thie enriching, of m^morj-, ennhling of 
jur^mMit, and onUr^ng of conci-itr which commoidy we call 
Wmin^. under what name soL'Vcr it come forth, or to what 
unmediato end »UL-ver it be directed ; the fliuU end is, to lead 
and draw ns to )ui hi^h a perfi-etinn as our dc^nerate sotila, 
miulc wonw bj- their i:\iiy lodgia^s,* can bo c^pHbh' of. TliiB. 
acoordlng to the iaclinulian of miill, bred many farmed ini- 
prenions; for some that thought this, fvliiity princi|«illy to 
W ^tten by knbwh'di:;^, and no koowlBd^e to bu ho higji or 
hcivt'nly as to bn aej^uainted with thu s(«rfl, gavp themselvei* 
to rietnncimy; others, persuading thc^m^-lvi^H to be demi-|(ri>i]R, 
if they koMc tho causes of things, became natural and auper- 
natuml phUouipherfl. Same an adniimhle dflii^ht drew to 
miuic^ and same Che certuintv of demonstratioiia to ChiJ niiithe- 
matici; hut nil, oniU and other, having this scope to Icnow, 
and hy knowledge lo hft up the mind fi-om the dungeon 
of the Iwdy to the enjoying his own divine oaBCQce. But 
whcTi, ty the Vjuhitieo of cxiierienfe, it was found that the 
astronomer, looking to the ntars, might fall in a ditch: that 
the enquiring philosophir might be blind in hiniBelf ; and the 
nuthcmutitinn might draw furth a straight line with a crook4>d 

' % S, SutiAiriaie-n* t)f I'neSryijiroprt, 

> Utlimlcnuji wan Biahop ot TRmo, lii Tbeaaalj, oud lirod iu tb«' 
fnurtU MUtnij. His storj ot Tbus^DEM atid L'hariclea, cnJled thp 
** ftbiojjic*." was B mnwatic tale in Qrcwk which wiu. In Eliiabetb'g 
■cipn, tranaUted into Enttliah. 

k» Tlu Pntfi BWtnni p.irU. } L VFaSMz What Fittry ilow/or iw. 
" Sucb banuoDf ta in Immnrta] soaU : 
Bat whiUt tbis maddy veatmre of dacsf 
l>vth gnmiy cloa* H in. w« (>aQDOt hiMX it." 
<9hBkwp«are, " Iferclumt of Voulcn-." net t.. so, 1.) 

heart; tht<n lol did proof, llic over-ruItT of opimons, maks 
manifest that all these are but serving ■cioni!L')j, which, aa thejr 
have a private end in themselveSr *3 y^t ^^ t^^y "-'^ ilirected 
to the hi(-hest end of the mistress knowledge, by the Greeks 
culled 4pxiTc>rTDi'4ir4, which stands, as I think, in the know- 
Iwlgeof a rmin'sBulfi in the cthi^- and politic consideration, 
with the end of well doing, and not »! well knowing only; 
ev(>ii im the auddler'ti neit und is to make a good saddle, 
but his farther end to serve a nobler faculty, which is 
hoi-aumonship ; eo the horsemjun's to soldic-ry ^ and the 
soldier not only to have the skill, hiit tb perform the prac- 
tico of a wddiur. So that the ending ond of all ciirthly 
limi -nin g being virtuouft action, those skills that most bctvl* 
to bring forth that havo a most just titlft to bi> yrincet* over 
all the rcfst ; wherein, if we can show it rightly, Uie poet ii 
worthy to have it hefori' any other comijetito™." 

^ Among whom prineiiwilly t-a challenge it, Btep forth the 
moial philoEophLTs ; wbum, naethinka, I see coming toward 
Hie with n snllon gravity (as though they could not aliule vice 
by daylight), rudely elpthod-, for to witmwa outwurdly their 
ijontempt of outward things, with books in their hands against 
fflory, whereto they set their miraesi aophisticully ai>eftkine 
agJiinst subtlety, and angry with any man in whom thoy bop 
the foul frtult of angor. These men, cjieting lurgessoa as thoy 
go, of deBnittona, divisions, and diutinctiona, with a »:-omful 
iiiterrogntivo' do soberly ask : Whether It he posaible to Und 
any path so ready to lend a man to virtue, m that which 
taacbath what virtue is; ixoA tftiehcth it not only by deliver- 
ing forth his very being, his CMUses and iffects ; hut ultKi by 
making knowTi his enemy, vice, which must be di.'stroyed ; 
and his CHmbentome servant, passion, whieh miut ho mastered, 
by showing the genentlities that contiun it, and the >t]teeicili- 
ties that are derived from it; Liatly, by jjkin sotting down 
how it Bxtendfl itaolf out of the limits of a mim'a own little 
world, to the government of familieit, and maintaining of 
public Bdi'ifties ^ 

The historian * scarcely gives leisiire to the moralist to say 
so much, hat that he (ladtin with old mouse-'aitan records, 
authOriiiTig * lumiiolf^ for the most pitt, Tit>on othfr hurtories, 
whose greatest iiuthoritias are built upon the natuhle foimda- 
lion of hearsay, having much ado to accord diffc-ring writem, 
and to pick truth out of inirtiality ; better aL'quaintwl with a 
thousand ywirs a^o than with the prt-sent age, find yet bHtcr 
knowing how this world goea than bow his own wit ntna^ 
curious for antiquities, and iaquiaitive of noiF-ellies, a wonder 
to young folks, and n tyrant in taMn-talk) donieth, in a great 
chafe, that anv mtin for tt^ching of virtue nnd virtnous Rctioiw, 
ia oompiirabJc to him. 1 am " Testis temi»oru,ni, lui veritatia, 
\'itri memoritei magiatra vitra, nuncia yetuatatiB." ^'' The 
philosopher. iMiith he, teachelh a disputative ^-irtue,, but I do 
un active ; his virtue in uxccUt.'nt in the djingerles* aeadoniy 
of Plato, but mine ahuweth forth her hotiounthlc face ih 
tho battles of Marathon, rharBulin, Foictiera, and Agincourt; 
ho teachoth virtue hy ci'itain abstract considiTationB ; but 
I only bid yon follow thw footing of them that have gone 
beforo you : old-aged M[ierieufc gocth beyond tho Sne- 
wittcd philasojihiT ; but I give the experience of many agWL 
Luatly, if ho makij the song book, I put the leamt-r'a hand to 
the lute; and if he be the guide. I urn the light, 'then nonld 

T Tti nidtMntiigi httTrin nMr Jtfnriit Pli>iiiK-|ihii, 
* Iu advanlitgf Ji.rrriii urn- B'ali>f;f. 

^ " A1I cncn maks faults, Knd eran I la this. 
AuthiJdjiias Ihj- tti»]ms* witb compsTV." 

ahokespa^rc, " Bonnet " 46. 
ID •> WHueM nf tJiB timM, light of trnth.Ufe aTmoioorj. mistmaof 
? of Bnttqultj." — CiOBrOt " Pe Oratare." 



[a.d. ua 

he slivgti you inniiQierublo examples, iKintiTiiiiiig atury by 
fltories, how tiiuch the wiaeut BenaUirs and princes have been 
directed by the credit of liistorj-, aa Unitiis, AlphonauB of 
Angon (and who nDtC if ntted ^m). At length, tbe lon^ 
liiiL- of their diapatatigQ nmkee a point in this, that thij uul" 
giveth thi> preci^pt, arid the other the t-xumiil' . 

' Now -whcui ahull wo find, wnce tba qitevtion atandcth for 
thf higbert form in the flt'hool of luAiwng, to be moderator i" 
Truly, riB niu sei'milh, the iioet ; and if nnt a mod'-ivitor, Qven 
the niun that ought to carrj- the title from thtm both, and 
much more from all othi-r nerving' B>i:ionccs, Thereforo 
coDipBTfi we the poet with the historian, and with tht^ 
moral pTiilOaopher ; and if he pn lioyonul thi*m buth, no 
ather human iskill can Tn&tch him ; for as fur the Divine, 
with nU reveronfe, iw is ever to be exceptt-d, not only for 
haviDji; hTa aoope as far beyond any of Uietu^, ai eternity 
exueedeth a moment, but even for pasBing: «icb of theso in 
tbemaelree ; and for the lawyer, though "Jua" b^ thu 
daugbtar of Jiistit*?, tho chief of Tirtues, yet bciicaLiae he 
Breks to make men good rather "formidine prcnio" thiin 
" virtiitie timorLi," or, to say rightcr, doth not endeavour 
to make men good,bcit that their evil hurl not otharB, having 
no care, bo ho be a gooti dticen, how l>'id a man he bo: 
therufon^, a$ our wkkt-dne^a miLketh hiin ni-iL''»teiuy, and 
noceastty maketh him honourable, so in ho not in the devpiHt 
truth to stand in rank witli thtittf, who all endoa^'our to tako 
iiai)g)itine!iL8 away, and plant goodnow even in thi gocrete^t 
cubinctt of ij^ir aouIa. And thuao fuiir arc all that any way 
deal in the contridtTRtion oi men'n mAnnLra, whieh being the 
auprome kiiuwltdge, tlie'y that boat breed tt deserve the b^ 

Tlie philoftopher, therelorf, and the hietorian are they m'hith 
u'outti win the goal, the one by pri]itL'pt, the other by example; 
but holh, not havinf- both, do both halt. For the philoBOpher, 
sotting down with thorny tirgnmcnta the bare rule, is ho hard 
of uttitraDce. and «o misty to bi> conceiv^, thai one that huth 
no othor guide hut him alinU wade in him until bo be olci, 
IwforO be ahall finJ sufficient c&iute to Ibe honest. For hia 
knowledgp slandetb so upon the abstract and general, that 
happy it tlukt man who may undoretand him, and tnofG hapjiy 
that L'lin apply whut h^ doth undGratnnd. On the other siJe 
tho historian, wanting tho prwept, is so tied, not to what 
should he, but to what is; to tlio fuirticnlar truth of thiti^i?, 
and not to the genend Teuton of things; that his C!cam.plo 
dniwethnoneeoaaary coQHe{^ueDCQ,and IheTefuro ft leaa fruitful 

* Now doth the peerlens pOet perfarm both ; for whatso^^ver 
the philosopher sasth should bo done, he ^veth a perfect 
picture of it, by Bomo one by whom he pre-Buppoflfith It was 
done, BO as he couplcCh the ^enenl notion with the partit-ular 
example. A p(Tfect picture, I say ; for he yieldeth to the 
power* of the mind an image of that whertof the philosopher 
liestoweth hut a wordiih description, which doth neither 
strike, pierce, nor ponesa tbe sight of the soulr so iniii'h aa 
tliat other duth. For a«, in outward thLnga, to a man thpit 
had nevPT seen an elephant, or a rhinoconip. who should ttD 
him mO«t osquiftitfly all their shape, rolour, bisnws, and par- 
liciihir marks ? or of a Rorgeons palare, an «rchi[ect, who, 
declaring the fuH beauties, might well make th& hearer able 
to repeat, as it wen', by rote, all he had heartl, yet should 
never Mtiiify hia inward comreit, ft'tth being witncae to itBclf 
of a truu living knowk-ilge ; but the snme nmn, as soon as ho 
miifht see those be-aats wcU piiintu'd, or that house woll in 

1 fn i»luil «aaii#r fki Port fM» hmemi PliUoK|ihfr, Siftonon, nad oil 
* UaiM htyonA the PkOotopluK 

model, should straightway grow, without need of any d*' 
sciiption, to a judiijial Comprehending of than : h>, do doubt^ 
tho philosopher, with his ieam-.d definitions, bo it of rirtna 
or viceBf matters cf pubSic policy or private goremmcnt, 
repknishoth the memory with many infallibin gronnda nrf 
-n-iadom, which, notwithntunding, lie dark before tbe imagi* 
native and judging [wwer, if they he not illuininated <» 
tiguiod forth by tht' «j>eaking picture of poesy. 

TuUy ttkcth much pains, and tiiany times not without 
potitic-ij htilp, to make us know the forte love of our country 
hath in us. Let us but hear old Anehises, epeAking in tha 
midat of Troy's flamea, or see riyasw, in tha fulnew of all 
Calypso's li^lights, bewaU his abaenee from barton and bpSI- 
garly Ithaua. Anget, the Htoics said, was a short fntidnnM; 
let but Sophoclra bring you Ajix on a »Uige, fciUing or whip. 
ping shfcji and OKen^ thinking t3ieiti the army of tii«'&kB. with 
their crhieftaina Agamemnon and 3Icnelaut; and tell rae, if yoa 
havo not a more familinr insight into angtr, than finding in 
the sehoolmcin his genus and difforeni-o Y See whether wiMtom 
and temj^KTFiDco in TJlyaaee and Diomaded, valonr in Achilh^ 
friendship in Nisus and Eiiryaluf, even tn an ignorant man, 
carry not an apparent shining ; and, tonlruTily, th« reniona 
of conscience in (Edipua; tha aoon-rejitnting pride ia Aga^ 
memnon; tho si'lf -devouring cruidty in his father Atreos; tin 
violeni'c of ambition in the two Thaban hrwlherw; tbe tott 
swfetnosa of revenge in Jfcdipii ; and, to fall Iow<t, the TcTfP- 
tiftn Gnatbo. and oar (,'haucer'a Pandar, so oxpi«eaed, thu w 
now use their nnmea to signify their trades; and Soally, iiU 
virtues, vicca, Find possionfl fi in their own n&tutal utAtn liiid. 
to the view, thai we seem not to hear of thera, but cJewly to 
aoe through the'm Y 

But cvon in the most excellent determination of g^mdiioB, 
what ]ihiloBophpr*a L-ounscl nin ho r^dily direct a ].*rin« u 
the feigned Cyrus in Xnnophonf' Or a virtuouii man in lU 
fortiinee, aa jlCneas in Virgil^ Or a whole LammonwMltlt. 
as the way of Sir Thonitis Here's ITtopiaP I aay the way, 
becauBO where Sir Thomaii More erred, it waa the fault of the 
man, and not of the poet ; for that way of patttming • eooi. 
mon wealth waii most absoluto. though he^ percbanee, hath net 
so abaolutoly perfonned it. For the qutsticm in, whether tha 
ftignod image of poetrj-, or the regular intitructiort of philo- 
Bophy, hath the moix) force in teaching, Wherein, if the 
philoHophera have more rightly showed themadvaft phUo*> 
phers, than the poeta havo nitaiDed to tbe high top of their 
ptofessiort, (afi En trtith, 

HedlDcrfbaa «Me tM'tU 
Hon 0\, Don bomitiea, non nonoiMMre ooluiEuun.*; 

it IB, J Bay again, not the fnult of the art, but that by fi-w dm 
that art tan bo accompli Ahi>d. Certainly, even our Saveonr 
rhrist could as well have giien the mofrU oomnion-plae»*<rf 
untharitahlcneMi and huniblcnesa, »a the divine nanatioo of 

• Huraoa'a "Ant TOeUW liBM 37»— 3. But Ktmca wreWK™ 
bomiue*, noil Dl"~"NeitJ)eT Dien, goda, Qor lettered ooluama btw 
admitted medlocHtj in pc>e(«." 

* Th« nifrai comiK^n-ptMcx Ootamon Plaee, " Lo^ny oMBwniai'' 
w*» n t«rm nsrd In old rhetoric Co nspreseat tMtinumlos or p'''' 
mulHDiiea ot trood antbom which miirtat b« iu«d (cc atnagthenUt « 
adoniiriK a. dia»>ars«: bal, iu<] Keck«rnuuin, wboae Sfaetoric «•• • 
twt-lxwk in tho da-ji of Jmum I- (usd Chwle* 1,. "Sseaiu* U *» 
impiMaibld lima to read tlmnigii all nutLow. ibrrv »'* bootalW 
fnv» ttiid-nita ot el(K|n«ii<» what thp'r De«d In tta» •tweinot braa' 
\ina\a ot Coniin^n PlAces, like lluit eoUMtnA by Btslva* «t ■' 
Cicero, 8&n<<ca^ Tur«nc&, Aristotlii ^ btit aapi^ciallr tlM book HttW 
' PilyniitbH,* jn^iridea riiort lud effective santcnM* aiA t>OT 
matter." Freqaent reaort to His VoljSiathe^ Ca.awei nasT*^ 
(inotatlon tn b« builmie<t ; tha benn at rhefotic, " a oaMMHrflMa 
cninfl then to aiHao » Koad wiyinir ri Bile (auHlar "by luc i—o I qp"!"*- 
tad thta, in oommon fpcM^b, luiy fitfi lajliig, good OT t*^ ^ 
oonunonly without wit id it. 




Dives anJ LMmriui; or trf disolit'dit'Dco Bnd mnny, id the 
beaveoly duu'oiuae of the lost cliilil and the gracious father; 
but thttt his thorough MArchin.!:^ wiiBilfliti knew the oetaU- of 
Dive* botniug' in heC, anil of Lazatufi in A/bcuhaTn'a bosom, 
would moie constantly, as it wt<ri^ jnliuliit both thti memoi^' 
and jiidf^iEint. Truly, for taysL-lf (tne peerua), I ftse bi-£oro 
minn uyi-s the lost cMM's lUHdnioiul [irodifiptlity tumcd to 
o»i-y a jiwine's dinner; which, by the lf&ni£>d divines, are 
thuiif^ht not liiatdriL-ul »c;ts. but inutruc-tiiig pamliilee. 

i'ltr coEuduaion, I my ihs philosojiher teachuth, hut he 
tcRL-hi^th obacurcly, so oa the k-iuned only can Undr:ratund 
him : that is to say, he tciachcth them tlut aro tdreudy 
luught. But the pout ia the food (or the toaclcrcAt etouliLi.'hA ; 
the poot IB, indtxxl, the right popular pUil(ieoi>hcr. Whereof 
.£Hop'«t4lc0^Vi; good proof ; vhc8L' pretty iillogvnes, HtiviJJng 
iiDd«:i the fonnal tulea of heasts, make mjuiy, moru beaatly 
thun beuflta, begin to heac the sound of virtue from those 
dojiib speakere. 

But now may it bo iillegtjd, thut if thia nuLoii^ag of matters 
be So fit for the intaginatioDt then must the hiiitorian neoda 
BarpHi:^, Mrho hnri)^ you imagos of true matters, such us, 
indeed, wero done, and not buch lui funtaatically or ftdBely 
iaii.y he floggestui] to have heeu doDi<, TtuIv, Ariatotit) him- 
kU, in his Discourse of Poesy, plainly determineth thi» quea- 
titoi, Baying, that ^elrj' ia ^iKotratp^iripow icol mtovitu^rtpav, 
ttml is to say, it im morv philosophiuil and moro tn^enious 
than histofy. Hia rbftsoii in, IxicAMfuf pc^6sy ileak^th with 
nf^Xov, that a to Sfl-y. with the univLTsail coiiBidirntlon, 
and ths history Koff Mcurrav, th« particular. " Now," soith 
ht*, " the nnivprsal waighii what ia fit to tn* aaid or done, either 
in UkcrUhood or neoeaaitj" ; which the i)oi^»y conaidoTeth in his 
impoited names ; aiid the particular only marks, whether Aki- 
biad'Sj did, or uuifered, thda or that:" thus fax Ariatotlti.'' 
Wliuch reason of his, as all his, is most full o£ nmsrjn. Fur, 
iniTnMi, if the queatiDn were, uh'^thcr it wsiQ better to bavo ix 
pHrtictilar act truly or EaltM-'ly aet down i' the;re is no duuht 
tfhich is to be chosen, no mure than whether you had mthc<r 
hftve Vc^pauitn^B picturo n^^ht aa he wua, or, at the painter'H 
ideaviire, nothing reft^^mhling ? But if the question bo, for 
yoot own nan and leumin^i;, whethf^r it be hetter to have it 
Mt down us it should be, or aa it was ? then, c-c rtiiit\Iy, is more 
doctrinablfl the feigncid CjTiia in Xenophon, than the true 
Cyras in Justin;* and the i^igai>d ^^n*;aa in Virgil, th-i-n the 
right j^jieas in Darce Phrygiua : ' as to tt ladjT tJuit deain.>d to 
fuhion hor countoiumcQ to the hcut grace, » pnintt.'r should 
iDOTi* benefit hor, to portrait a most swrat face, writing 
Ckiudia upon it, than to paint CBnidiu as she was, who, 
Horace AWearetk, whs full iU-favounid. If the ^lOet da hia 
paxt aright, ho will show you in Tantulus, Atreua, and such 

( Thiu far AritlalU, T1i« whole pusago in the ''' Po«tli»" muB: " It 
is Hoi 1>J" aiHtlav bi wtn^ *r pnwe that the HiHtoriin nnd Pciet are ^»- 
tJiUTuish^d- Tho Dork ot HorodoLiu anlBbt ba veraifled ; but it vaald 
■till be B >p«dda of Htatnry, do Ihw witl] metre tbaii without. Thef 
tre diatmgniAbMl hj tbu. tt4t the f^ne rclntea vihei hiut boim, tho 
Mb«r what mlyht be. On tiiiii ttocuuiit Poetry U oiore ]>Li1oabt>1iica1, 
mad a more lexceUeot tiling thac Hintorji lor Poetrr 1a cbieDj rain- 
v«rwuit B>bont gienervl tmth ; HiAtoi7 abaot paiiliniLir. In. whjit 
uac&ar, tor example, anjr perMm ot n certain c1u)nu't«r woald Hpenli 
attci, vrobAUr <"■ n«Bii*rQr. ^^^ ** frennnil ; nnd this [a the ohject 
«d FotitJT-, evau whtle it taakM use ot panluular umjlh. &ut what 
AJoibubda* did, cw wlut lu-iipened to Itloi, thi» im purticnlBr FniLb." 

■ JuIIbiis, who lived iu the *eooiLd eoiitarj, mad^ an epitum^ at 
th» hdatciiT ot tba Aaajrian, Peniim, Orecion, Hacodouinii, and 
Bomsn Empirot. fnun Trogiu Fompcdiiji, «!]■;■ Ilvf4 iu tho Tlm« of 


■- DUr«4 FhryTTiu waa xarpOaed to hi^vc bo«'u u prLoi>t 0[ Tiilcfir, wliti 
n« )n Tro7 daric^ Lba siegd, ao't the tliad tkacnbe-l to bun 
aa carlf aa tba tun«' of .Sliiui, A,D. 330, nne Huppo^ed^ tUerofoia, to 

like, nothing that is not to bo Hhunncd; in Cyrua, 
Ulysses, each thing to be followed ; whero tJto historiiui, 
bound to tell things oa things worn, cannot be libural. without 
he will Ik poetical, of a perfect ]HittGm ; but, aa in Alexander, 
or Sciiiio himself, show doings, soino to be likpd^ some to Ije 
misliked; and then how wilt you discern what to follow, but 
by your own distTntion, whii^h you had, without reading 
Q, Curtiua ;- * And whereas, a man may say, though in imi- 
versat eonaidcration of iloetrinn, the poet provaileth, yet that 
tho history, in hiti saying siieh i« thing was dan«, doth watrant 
a man more in that he shuJl fuUaw; the answer is manifoat: 
that ii he stand upon that iritt, a« if he tihould argno, beiause 
it rained yesterday thtwvfura it should rain to-day; then, 
indiMMi, hath it some advantage to a gross conceit. But if 
be know aa examitlo only enforma a conjoctured Ultelihood, 
and sa go by reason, the poet doth aa far exceed hint, as ho 
is to fiume hi» example to that which in moat reaaonnhle,. 
be it in warlike, politic, or private ni»tters ; where tho his- 
torian in his bare itrm hath raany timeiH that whicli we oall 
fortune to overrule the beut wisdom. Many times ho inuat 
tr-ll events whiereof he con yield no cause; or if b« do, it mart 
b« jxieticAlly. 

For, that a feigned example hath as much force to tanoh 
as a true tixampk (for ag for to move, it ia daar, sinci tha 
fgigncid may be tuned to tbi' high'>8t key of passion), let ua 
take one cxanipLe when^in an historiim and a poet did concur. 
liirodotics and Justin do both testify, that ZapjTus, King 
Dariua's faithful flervant, aoiring his maat'C-r long rostatod 
by the rehitliiouB Ilahylonians, feigni?d himaelf in oKtrem* 
dis^taco of bis King : for verifytng of whi;;h ho cauwd hia 
own Doso and ears to he cut oS, and BO flying to thiB 
Babylonians, was received ; and, for bis known valour, so 
fur eredited, that ho did find mr-an» to deliver thein «ver 
to Dariue. Much-like matters doth Lny record of Tar- 
(iniuLUS and his aon. Xfnophon excellently feigned sm-h 
another sttatagnm, performed by Abradattia in Cyrus's 
behalf. Now would I tain know, if Ot'cugion hd preSicDted 
unto yon to serve your prince by such an honest diHsinauU- 
tion, why do you not aa well Idiam it of Xenophon'H fiction 
as of the other's verity f and, truly, so much the l»etter, a^ 
you shfiU save your nofie by the bargain; for Abradatus did 
not connturftit so tar. So, th^n, the heat of the historlfina. 
is Biilnjeet to the poet ; foi', whatsoever action or faction, 
whEtsoaver counsel, policy, or war etratogem tlif) hietorian 
ie bound to reeite, that mny the poet, if he list, with his 
imitation, make hia own, beautifj-ing it liotb for fsTiher 
toiichitiKi and more dclightuig, aa it pleaso bim : having nil, 
frum X>auUVfi heaven to bis hell, under the authority of his 
pen. Whi^ih if I he asked, What popta have dono so p aa I 
miKbt well name aome, bo yet, say I, and aay again, I speak 
of the art, and not «f the ortiSoer. 

Now, to that which commonly is attributed to the praise 
of hiflloryj in reapect of the nutjlda learning which is goE 
by murking tho success, as though th^Tein a nuin fthotild see 
^•irtuo 'Exalted, and vice punished : truly, that gommendation 
18 peculiar to poetry, and far off from hirtory ; for, indeed, 
pofttry ever sets virtue so out in her best colours, making 
fortune her wpU-wailing handmaid, that one must needs be 
enamoured of her. W't-U may yon nee If lyaflee in n storra. and 
in other hard pbghta ; but thfy arc- but oserciscfl of patience 
and magnanimity, to make them ahino the more in the near 
foUowinir prosperity. AnJ, on the contrary part, if evil 
men come to the Btagc, they evt-r go out (aa tbt: tragedy 


• V^'"*''*'' C'irtiua, m OiftuiLa liktofJjiJi of UDC«rtuTi dat«, wba wtgl^i 
the hlstoTT of Aletander Uia Qiaat lb. Mm books, of which two an 
lo^t and others drfeotive. 



{:«.o. im 

writer otuwerod to una th&t misUked thfi ithow of euch 
pcnwmt) »o muiiaclcd, wt they littlo iminiatw folks lo futluw 
ihom. But hutory hvHag iiatptivQ to the truth of a foolUh 
world, io many tiinei* <i teiTor from well-dojut;:, und iin cn- 
coiimgoniGtit to tiflbndlud wickt'dncuH. For eee we cot TiLliant 
Aliltukdea rut in liis ft'tt(?nil'' tliu jiut Phoeion aod Uiu 
iLCCodDiiluJit'd t>c3<^TateB put to death like tniiton^ thxi i;rucl 
Sevenifl live prgBpcroualy ? the excaUiOrt Soverua miaerably 
murdered r Kylla (ind Msiriua dj-ing in their beds V rianpoy 
4ad Cicoro ahiin Ihtn when thi^y would hnvQ tliougbt exile 
It happinc«« ? S(^ wc not vii-tuouii C'ato driv>(.^ to kill him- 
«eK, luid riL'bcl CiL-iiar bo udvanrmly that Mb namt- yet^ after 
axiaen hundrwi yean, lusteth in thi,' luj^htist hoaour'r And 
murk but even Cwsar'n own words of the foreiiu.nied Syllii, 
(who in that only did hcitiRi^tly, to put down his diahanvst 
tyruuiy), " litwiw ncHcivit;" bh if wimt «f luaming uaiiscd 
Iiim to do woU. llti motnit it Qot by poctsy, 'nhidi, not 
content wiUt eitrthly iilague^, deTiseth new pimishmcnt in 
hfill for tjTiuit* : nor yd by philoaophy, which teacht-th 
"OCTJidinitM PBsia ; " but, no doHM, hy nkill in historj' ; for 
thatr indtTodf can afford yon t'j'pAelus, FeriandtT, Phalfiiie. 
Dionyaius, and 1 know not how inony more of the same 
kannel, that spiked well enough in their ubominublu injiuticc 
of usurp^tipn. 

I eoneliidtf, therafore, that ho excelloth hiirtorj', not only 
id furmahiii); iiu\ mind with knowli'dge, but in aetting it 
forward to that whieh desi^n'os to hn uiUed and accounted 
fpMid: which Hotting forward, lUid moving to wi'll^duing, 
indeed, m.'ttoth tlio Ifinrel crowns qpan th*' poctfl u» lictoriou* - 
not only uf thn hiAtoriJin, but ovi';r Uvi philoaopher, howBO- 
vver, in teaching, it iP3y be qutstionntle. For auppoao it bo 
KtanU^d, th&t which I Bupj^ode, with great reation, nmy be 
thjaicd, that thf! [ihtiosapher, in reupLi-t of hia mt-thijilicu] 
procooding, tcjich more perfectly than, tlw pti^t, yet do I 
think, thut no man i» so ouch 'tnho^t\6ifo<pos, rm to compare 
the phllosophfr in moring with the poot. And that moving 
is of a higher dcgroc Xtum. teaching, it may by this appear, 
that it it Vrell high both thi< c&iuw and cfiect of teJlchtn^^i 
for who wijl be taught, if he be not moved with desire ta be 
ta.Qght'r And what ho much good Joth that teaching bring 
iortli (1 Bpciik BtiU of moral liottrine) p» that it nioveth one 
to do that which it doth tivich. For, .ib .^jistotlo gaith, it ia 
not yr&Ftt hut -rpi^tt ^ inuat be the fruit : and how rpi^is can 
be, without being moved to practise, it ia nt> hard matbor 
to I'QiiMder. The phitoMopher ^owoth you tha way, he 
infonnoth you of the particiihuriliii^, am wull of the tediouancaa 
of the way an<l of Uie pleasant Icdg^ng you shall hjtve when 
yocr joiimey ui ended, aa of thi> muny by-tumingB that muy 
divart you from your way ; but this is to no man, but to him 
that will rend him, and road him ^-ith attentive, atndious 
pointiilneHK^ ; whEdi constant dctarc whosoever hath in himr 
bftth «lre«dy puseod hjdl the httrdnew of the way, and there- 
fore is beholden to the philosopher but for the other half. 
N«y, truly, learned men have learnedly thought, that wh(-rc 
Onco reason hath no muek over-mastered pooaion, as that the 
mind hath a frcw desire to do well, tho inward Ught each 
mindl hath in itself is Jia gorjd on a philosopln-r'a book ; since 
in nature wo know it in woll to do well^ and what is well 
and what is evil, although not m the uorda of art wkiuh 
phikwophen bestow upon ub ; for out of iiHturul conceit the 
philoHophare drow it; but to bti moved to do that which wo 
know, OP to be movyd with deeiro to know^ " hoc opus, hie 
tabor est." 

^ iS'ow, tkl^rain, of all sciencvfl (t apoak still of human, and 

' Nat IciM]«l4dir9 but practtw. 

■ Ttit Port M^rnjtvK o/aJI Ettnsn Seitnca, 

according to tho human conceit), i» our poet the roonardL. 
Vor he doth not only show the way, but giveth so sweet a 
prospect into the vay, Aa n-ill entice ao}' man to enter into 
it ; nay, ho doth, aa if your journey should he through a fur 
vimeyard, ut the very iimt give you a citulor of gnLpee, that 
tuli uf that taiite you may long to pnas farther. He 
bt^ginneth not witli obw-uro deSnitiocs, which mnat blur the 
margin with inttrpiCtatiO'na, and load the memory with 
doubtfulnoaa, hut he comoth to you with words ec4 in 
delightful proportion, either accomjianied with, or pr«linJ«d 
for, the well-enchant tug »kill of music; and with a t«h<. 
forsooth, ho comoth unto you with a tale whi*i huldeth 
ghildran from play, and old men from tho ehinmey ■comer ;* 
and, protending no more, doth intend the winning of lite 
mind from wiektidneaa to virtue ; even as the child is oftin 
brought to to-ke movt whuloBonie thingu, by hiding them in 
iueh other sl6 hfivo n pleasant taatc ; which, if one t^ould 
begin to tell tht^m tht' uatuni of the alooH or rhabarhMTdOk 
lh(.>y fihould receive, would aooner take their physic at tlwb 
earn than at their mouth ; io it ia in mtfn [most of thfm aie 
ehildish in the beet thinij^a, till they be cTTullcd in tlieir 
gravt*) ; glad they will be to hfwr the tah« of Ilerrolai, 
Achilltifl, Cytu6, .^nfifta ; Aud hearing them, must ctx-da hew 
the right deacription of 'n^iadam, valour, and juoticA', which, 
if they had been barely (that in to Bay, philcwophicinUy) «4 
out, they would nweur they bti lirouglit to Hehool *gailL 
That imitation whfteof poetry is, hath the moet pfrnvemaxj 
to nature of all other; insumueh that^ aa Ariototle auth. 
those thingfl which in themselveB arc horribln, a« end 
luattica, lumaluKil monHters, are made, in poetical imiitaticoi, 
delightful. Truly, I hiive known men, that even with tmJ. 
iog Amadis do Oauto, which, God knowbth, wiint«-th moth 
of a perfect po(!ay, have found their hearts movwd lo th» 
CKcrtiso of courttwy, libemHty, and especially courugr. Who 
rcodeth ^nces carrying old Anchiai^ on. Ma biirk. thai 
wiahetb not it were hjg fortune to pr-rform so Clie«JIflll U 
act P Whom doth not those words of Tumus more (tJw Id* 
of TumuB hsvisg planted Tub imag^ in thft imagioataoi 

" ^igicmtem bsK term viilebit f 

A\'lM>re the philosophani (a» they think) arom to d 
much they be content little to move, saving 
whether "virtuR" be the chief or the only good; i 
the contempltttivB or the active hfe do ei«l ; which PUtc 
and Boetiua well knew ; and theiafore made mi-itrcw Pbilo* 
ewjihy very often borrow the masking raiment of po«y. 
For even thoso hurd-heorted evil men, who think virtue* 
et^'hool'name, and know no other good hot " indulgcre gcnio," 
and therefore de<apitM the auBtere admonitions of the philo- 
sopher, and feel not the inw&rd n'oiwn they atand upon ; yot 
■will bo content to ba delighted, which ia all the good-fellov 
poet sci'nLB to promise ; and so Bt(\al to are the form of good* 
nean, which seen, thi?y cannot but love, ero thumsdve* b« 
tiware, h4 if they took a medieine of vhcnies. 

' la "Love's Laboio'a Lo>t" 
between tku iwanife and Bosolind's daampUoo of Buvft, 

"■Wlil^ hi> Ulr Uyo^b — miweit'a ecpoBtor — 
DeliTfin Lu auoli apt uid gniflkiRi word*, 
TtMt ag^ mmn plo; tmnnC »t hi* t*bl«*. 
And yoangier hflorliiKS are qulle rBViBtiM, 
Sa sweet luid Yolublo Ui 1ii« diooouna." 

' And akall tliis itfiMniid faiiiCbeartfid 

Tnrous fljiuic riew t 
U It Ml vile ih^ig U> di&f "—(FIuer'B TmnlaUon [lf7>]^ 

* Vi«ii'B 

»o *,B, ise.] 



' Intimto proofs of thu Etnmga electa of this poetieiil in- 
BTOitiop mif^ht 1>L> allvg«d; oaly two shsLlJ ser^e, which im 
^40 often rcTncmbetrdk f^t ^ think, all men know thiin. Thv 
i of Uenrmtis Agrippa, vrho, wbea tho whole ]>eoplQ of 
tno hitd reeolniuly divided thcruBcIvea fmm thp sonatf, 
li flppurent ihow of uttor ruin, thQutfh he wltH', fur thitt 
^ an tUCOoUAnt araiai, cikOm not tLiii(Jii)j; thrm tijuin tnint, 
• 4itii«T ol flpu«tiv« apecchcti, or cuiuliti^ iiiiiLnuiitioiiii. and 
much leas with fiLr-tetdiud iiiJixin].B of philos^phv, whiuh, 
(MpecUUy if thoy were Platonic, they wnat hava learned 
geometry hefore th«y L-ould huv^ mtu-'etVGd; but, forsooth, 
he bohavdth himsL'lf liko a honjrly nnd fftmHiar iKict. He 
tcUffth thtnn a tale, thut thore viti6 a tiniu, wh«a all the ■pAtU 
«f Oks buity nuKto a oiiitiiu>u& t^niiBpimry agninst the helty, 
which they thuught devoured tho fruits of t'wch othi-r's 
labour; tb<^y conclu'Jed thay would let ao uupratitable a 
dpeado' starve. In thci end, td bo short (fur the talft is 
ELotortoua, and a» noEoriouB thut it wbb h tale), with puiuahitii; 
the bt'lly they pki^uod th{>inaelvfa. Thia, appli^ hy him, 
wroug'lil such etfoL't in the j»>oplo, ae 1 never rend that only 
words brought forth ; but thi'^n bo suddoD, and bo good nn 
altetHtioD, for upon rtntbonablo L-undiCionft a perfect rocuncile- 
mmt ennuid. 

The other i* of Nathwii the prophet, ^vho^ whon iho holy 
Dnvid had »o far forwtkc-n (jtid, n» tt* eonflrni ndultcry witli 
muidw, whpD hu •wna to do iiuy ti>tiilcrest oflico of a friend, 
in lAving hia own shamei before his i-yr a. bein^ et-nt by tiod 
to call AgAin no ohoMsti a eervant^ how duth he it? hut by 
lEiUing of a man whoso beloved iRDih was uugrsite fully tnken 
frcKu hJsboeom. ITie applimtion rnoet divinely true, but thei 
diaMnrrae itself fciigned; whi>L'h made David (I mpQ^ttk of xhv 
flrtwnd and iiutnimiTntal cuoih?) us in a ^lasM see hia own 
filthuiMH, Ail thiit heavpnly psalm of merpy woU tcxtifielh. 

By these, therefore, oxiomplei; and mtarrDs, t think it may 

ho numfmt, that the |joot. with that iumc band of delight, 

doth draw the mind more (^eituiiUy than any other »rt 

doth. And BO a L-onuliuiion not unfitly enniies.; th»t aa 

virtue ia the most exccllunt rbfttLag-plac.<e for all worldly 

leAniing to mako his end of, bo poetry, bt'ing tho most 

_ iamiluj: to tou;h it. and most princely to movf> towards it, 

■jfaihe iru>Ht eXcollcrat work ia the most exoeUent workman. 

^L'Bot I un co&tcnt not only to decipher him. hy bin works 

'-'(IdChougli workfi in fioaLmcndtLtiflU and dixpraise miiHt ever 

holid a hig;K authority), hut more murowly will examine hia 

puts ; K that (aa in a mun) though all tocher mny carrj- 

a loeaence full of majoBty and, bejiutj', perchance in some 

one defoctiiou6^ piG«e we may find bleiuit<h. 

'Xow, in hia porta, kinJK, orepecio^, as- ycm litft to t<-nn 
them, it ia to be noted, that eoma poesira have couplicd 
together two or threo kind&; aa the tra^cal and comical, 
wlit«renpoii is ri«on, the trajn-comical ; Bomc, in tha mann&r, 
have mingled prose and verse^ as SannoEoro and Boctius; 
dome hikve min^lud matters heroirol atid piuitonil; but that 
comi'th all to one in thtB question; for. if severed they be 
good, the conjunLtion eannot he hurtful, Thfre.fore, pt-r^ 
chance, fofgotting Koim.;, and leaving eorno ra nefiUuss to be 
remembered, it nhall not be antiiia, in a wordj. to fiUi tho 
specaal kindo, to see what faults nuiy bo found in the right 
uae of them. 

I« it then the pBfltOral pMm whiu-h ia mialikedr* For, 
ftavbaavo, where tite hedgb ia Imweat, they wiU soooMt leap 

* iJmteliinyL This word, trota the Fr^scb " defKtUSiUC,'' U nwd 
Wfe* fo fk« " ipoltvie (or Poetrie." 

ovor. J» the poor pipo diodained, which Bometimes, out oS 
Uelibfctui'fl tnouth, can ^ow tho minery of {^.-ople under hard 
lords and mvening stjldii.'n)^ And ngiiin, by Tityrus, wluit 
blcewcdn^aa in litTived to them tb^t tiw lowest ftom the 
gtHKlnesM of them that Bit hiifhest?' Sometimes under the 
pretty tolt^ of wulvea and uhevp, can iaeliido the whole 
eonaidiirutionM of wrong doin^ and jsitience; Bomcitimes 
show, thjit c-ontcTLtioufi for tritlee can get but a trilling 
Victor)' 5 whiiTe, perchance, a iniiii may Bee, thiit even 
AleTHudt-r and Duriiis, whon thoy strove who ehould he 
cocic of thiij wotld'a dimghill, tba benefit they got was, that 
the aftejr-livers luay my, 

Hafc memini, et viotom fruitrs coutesdere Thyrttin. 
£k iUd CDrfduD, Corjdou ect tempore nobi* * 

Or ia it the lamenting olegiuc,' which, in a kind heart, 
would move rather pity than blume; who bewnUoth, with 
the great philoaopher Hcraclitiw, the wciknoRa of mankind, 
and the wrutchednesB of the world : who, aurcly, is to be 
praised, either for eomjmswioaatety nccompiinying jrwt caiisOB 
of lamentntionH, or for rightlj* pointing out how w^nk Jw the 
paaaiona of woi-fulnesu f 

ia it tho bitter, but wholcaome iambic,' who rubs the 
i^lTillt'd numl, Tnaldnj?: ahaine tho trumpot of ^-ilTany, with bold 
and op(>Tii crying out againut. nuughtincas i 

Or, iha wttirie'r who, 

Omne vafer vitintn rideuti taofflt amiro -, ' 
who nportinijly never leHveth, until he liiaki> n man laugh 
at foUy, and, at lenf^h, ashamed to iaugh at hieuK^li, whieh 
he cannot avoid without avoiding the foUy; M'ho, while 
" ciroimi pra'cordio. ludit," giveth us to feel how iruLny 
headocboB a pasfiionato lift) briuj^tjth ua to ; who when all is 

Eat tnnhrli, auimiu ti aot oou dsflcit eqaoc.* 

* The c\omtit VitigriJ'* Bevantki Edotnu— Tlijiaia wai vamqiahlied, 
■LDtl CoTT-Jou crowued with Uuttes glorj. 

' Or lambicf ar SaliTic r 

* From the first Satire of FeraiiiH, line 11€, ia & doacrititicD itf 
HoiQ«r'B Htlre ;: 

"Oiaae Tafer rltiiun ridenU Fljiecas imica 

TaDKit, et udniissun circuin prwcordja ludit," ho. 
B]trew4 FUcciui f^ncbeA w^h vice in his liiafffaig,^ friead. DrjdeB 
tliuB i3faaalat«d tk& wholu puBaafiie:— 

" Uulik^ j» method^ vi'lL oour»aIed dMigii 
Didemfty Haiacm hia km nniDben Join; 

An^ with B Klf iHlUIUUtillJ^ RTOCQ 

Iiau^lud at hlB fri«k:id, bud l'>okdd him in thi loca : 
Would nuBe a l>luah wLero aecret vies he toimd ; 
And tlclclti, while he B^ntly probed tb« wound -, 
With Besmlue luuoioeiice the cTOWtt h^guile^. 
But made the •Jmtm'tbK poasea wLili^ liG bmlled." 

* From the end ot t4)« el^i^eUth of Eoroce'i cyiatLH lldb. l>i 

" Ovlam non uiimum muliuit, <tni traus but* mrmat, 
Strenua hoa axercet inertia ; oavibai sTqne 
QmuJriKk patlmua bens vlTere. Quod petm, hio eat, 
Est UlnhriB, onlmua ni ts nou tletidt siiuiu." 
The^ chamra Ch«ir akJaa bat uot their nund who mn ncroia tiUfl 

'W'S tnil In laboared idleneaa, oad afek to live «t «aaa 

With force ai alLipa and four horse C«aDa». Tiuit which ^on reck 

At Uluhne, tuileaa jam icltid bui to be cnlm auii elonr, 
"At Ulnbrs" wuB equiruleut to uTing'iii the didleat coruorof ttle 
world, or unywhers, Uluhra was a littlo town prolxihly in Caaii-nuii, 
a Bomui Little PedlingitiiiTi. Th(>nuia Co^'lTle OLO-y fasrs hod this 
pu»*g^ ia mind wbw ke ttvt to the eatae thoiii^ht n mpder fonu in 
Sartoi BemrrnB : "Hay we nut any that the boor oi apirltual 
-c^tifmnchiBement ia even tliix f When yoar ideal wrirld, wherein tlw 
nhoie nun ha> been dimly iitragitlintt nnd [nexpreArilhlT langnishinn 
to work, bfloome» rev«al«d and tbtown niwn, and jT'iu 'Umotm' with 
asuumnont toautfh, like tbe Lothario iu WUheJai Meiater, that jAur 




L».iv. lufi 


Nu, pen^ftime it ift the pouUc ; ' whom mnji-lity jjIiiy-nmkiTi* 
wad etege-lKHtpvTV htivc j <»lly mndo ckIidub. To thc> ur^mctitB 
iif abuse I will after fin«wLT \ only thus moch now- ia to be 
(uid, tliat tlio tometLy ie an imttatioQ of the commnii cttofs 
of our liife, vhich he reprasenlciLb ib the moHt ridiculouii imd 
ocumfiLl Bort that may b^; sq ns it if* ioopousiblG that any 
bchoMor can ^M> cootent to ha atich & anc. Xow, am in 
g(<omtitr>-, tho obliqiio must bo known as well m the ri^ht, 
anil in aritbmietk-, the odd ha well aa iht dvuij; hu in the 
iiutionti of our lift*, who Mj'-th not tha filthine^ of evil, 
wtiutcth a gTt'ttt foil to |)Mx.flivQ this beauty of Wrtae. This 
dutb the' Oomiily handlt< aOj ill our priviile und domestical 
iRiittera. as. with heHrin^- it. wo gBt, aa it were, an expmriiiCJc: 
of whiit id to 1h- looked fof, of a nifj^^nlly Dcnieir, of a 
<:ntfty Da^-ua, of a Hattsting Linatho, of a vain-glorioaB 
'I'htHBo ; and nut only to know what effects are to be expoctcd, 
Iwit to know who be auch, by the ai^nif j-inff badge given thorn 
by the cambdian. And little reason hath any miin to any, 
that men letim the evil by uccing it so eet out ^ aiace, aa I 
mid btifore, th*H! h tio man living, hut by the force truth 
ha,th in naturp, no booult iKx^th thoflo men play their parts, 
but wifthHh thorn io " pLHtrinuDi ; "'^ although pen-banco the 
Back (if hiH own famUs lie w behind his back, that he seoth 
not hiuiBtilf to dance in tho aaniQ mea^urci, wherato yet 
nothing enn morn open hi* eyes than to Bcc bin own actione 
contain i>ti My not foi-th ; bo that the right urn of comedy will, 
1 think, l;y nobody be blamed. 

And miich loss of the high and excellent tragedy,' that 
0])«neth the gretitoet wounda, and ahoweth forth thp uicpra that 
arc covt^red with tisaiio ; that makcth kinga fear to be tyrants, 
and tyrants to mimifi'Bt their tjTannicid hiinioura ; that with 
Btirnnic the oiffwts of ndmiiation and cotami&Aintion, tcachotb 
the lunrertatnty of this world, and upon how weak f oundntionH 
gilded Toofa ore builded; that maketh ua know. " qui »(?c>ptrii 
■B3\'us duro impoiio ivgit, timet timcntca, metai^ m authorem 
redit." Hut how much it can moro, Plntaruh yielded a 
notable testimony of thy abominable tyrant Ale^andi^r 
PhciTctu : from whose eyes a tnLgied)-, n-dl utadR and 
r&proaontml, drew abuhdHJico of te«rs, M'ho without ail pity 
hiulmuniirttd iulKaJtt? numbcra, and Homt.^of hia own bloixl; 
BO AS ho that WAA not aahamed to mako nrnttera for tTa)^dii«, 
yet could not resiat th-? sweet violence of a tm^cdy. And if 
it wrought no farther good in him, it waa that he, in. deapitc 
of hiinaelf, withdrew hiiuaaU from hfarkening to that whith 
miffht mollify his hardened heart. But it ia not tbi^ tragody 
they dir dinlike, for it vctb too abxurd to cunt out mi 
excrtlent a coproventation of vhatsoevpt ia moat worthy to 
be iniimml. 

Fb it thi> lyric that moat dijipleawth. who with his tuned 
ij'TB and well accorded voit.'e, grivoth praisct th<i rpwiicd of 
virtue, to virtiioua acta? who givuth moral precepts and 
uitural jiroblems^ wha sometimes niiaeth up hia voii-e to the' 
height of ihL' hcaveofl, in xiaging tho lands of th»t inimuttal 
GtHl^ Certainly, I miiat corifeaa iniuL- own burharomjnt^w): 1 

The eltoitiou that luu not its ^utj, iU 
ideal, nai uner oecupied b/ uuu. Y«. herv. in thin pof>r. miMrablo 
hanpttred ttttna] wb«rtda thou even bow atuidest, Lere or aowtiere, ia 
tbjrldsBl; work Itont tharafrara, believe, llTe,Biidb«tree. PooP the 
Ideal i» In th^atiW, the inipadimmili ttya U In tliyaolf, TUr dontUtiuD U 
iMit the itntr tbon an to ibnpe ihU suue Ideal out cf. What matt-er 
wImUuht nich itofl be ot tli» mirt or Cbat, to the form thou give It be 
hMOfo. t« poeli^ f O tliou thftt pinoot iu Ihiu iniprlacrnmeut nf the 
MllMl, nuil crioat >iitt«rly to the ioda lor ft ktofrloni wliereln ta rnl^ 
aadorealtf, hoow thin of u truth, th^ thiuif Thou w«keit is alt^i^ 
wiOi Iboc, li«r« or nowhere, coahbc thoa only s>ee." 

I Or Coupler 

* Tn I'irfriiiMn. Ib tbo pouLuliu^-iuiU (anaiilJf wurkoil by liones or 

Or Trnji* f 

> sieotingB, 
that nafctl 

nnaar onua 
think, ihoB^^ 

never hc>ard tho old eong of Percy and DougUa, that I fotmd 
not my h^art moved moro thun witha trumpet ;* tuid ye* it i* 
flung hut by eomi.- blind crowder, with do roug'her voice thin 
rude atylo ; which being mt evil apjmretlod in the dust and 
cobweb of that uncivil age, what would it work, trimnied in 
the ^^orgouti floquenco of Pindar i' In >lnngsry I have aeen 
it the nuinnciT at all feasts, and all other auoh-Iikc sieoting*. 
to have eao^ of their anLHJstora* valour^ which that i 
Boldier-like nation think one of the chicf'Cflt kindlncs a ' 
courage. Tho incomparable Laci^dienioniana did 
carry that kind of mueic ever with thoin to the fi»l 
efea tkt houLP , as such eOn,gs w^ei-e made, ao Were tbey aD 
content to t^e singers of them : when the iurtj' men wera lo 
tell what they did, the old men what they had dorio, and tlte 
young whtit they would do. And whor^ a man. may aay. 
that Pindar muni' times proiaeth hi}j;hly victcrriea of omaJt 
moDicnt. rather matt«ni of ii^port than virtue' ; aa it may be 
anewciiW, it was tho fault of the poet, ami not of tho puvtrr, 
HO. indeed, the diief fault was in the time and cuatom of thi* 
Greeks, who aet thoso toys at so high a priop. that PhJHp of 
Macpiion rc-ckonod a hor)»o-nu:o wba ut Ulj'mpua atnung hik 
three fciarfiil felicities. Hut aa tho inimjt&ble Pindar oflca 
did, »D is that kind most caiMilde, and m:>)it fit, to aw 
thoujthta from the alt'ep of idlonesa, to crmbtace 1 

'Itiore rij«ts the heroicali* whoga very name, I think, i 
daunt all backbitL-i-a, for by what conceit can a tOD^oebc 
directed to a^msM. evil of that which drjiwcth with hial no loas 
chainpir)nB than AcIiiUoa, Cjtiib, ^neaa, Turue, Tydeua, 
lUmildo ? who doth not only teach and move to truth, hut 
teaehoth and ntoverth to thu most high and exc4L'>Uont truth -. 
who maketb nuignanimHy und jiutico ahinu through all miaty 
feorfulnasB and fogg;i- dfairesi' who, if the saying of Plato 
and Tullj- be true, tluit who could sm virtus, urotdd be 
wonderfully raviehod with tho love of her bc«uty ; tliia miin 
setteth her out to moke her mrire lovely, in her holiday 
apparel, to tho eye of any tliat will deign not U) dudiuii 
until they underatand. But if any thing he already said in 
the dfffoncc of sweet poctrj', all concumth lu the mjuntainini; 
th(3 heroicHi, which is not only a kind, but the beat and moat 
acirOmplished kind, of pootry. For, as the inwge of «u-h 
action BtiiTL-th and iuBtnictt'tii tho mind, k> the lofty inuig* 
of aiich worthiea moat intlaoieth the mind with doure to be 
worthy, and infurms with counJiel how to be worthy. Only 
let ^ne&a be worn in the tablet of your memory, bow ho 
jB-ovt-meth himself in tho ruin of hia country ; in the preserv- 
ing hi» old f atlicT, and eair^-ing away his rsUgioua atromobicA ; 
in obt^ying Ctod^s i?ouimandmonts, to li-ave Dido, though not 
only pn^eionaCe kindness, but even thi< humiin conaid&iatin] 
of virtuous gi-atitfulnesB, would hare cj^ved other of him; 
how in storms, how in ajwrts, how in war, how in peac«, how 
it fugitive, how victorious, how bcHiegod. how bokie^ing^ bow 
lu uliungcrB, how to allies, bow to eneuiiea ; how to his own. 
lastly, how in Ids inwiird aelf, and bow in his oqtwwd 
government ; and E think, in a mind most prejudiced with 
a prejndicating humour, he wiU he found in oxccltcncy 
fruitful. Tea. aa Horace saith, " Melius Uhryxippo et 
Crantore: ^'c buf, truly, 1 imagine it falloth out with thtw 
poet-whippers as with aonie good women who often aiw iit^k. 
but in faith th^y cannot tell where. &o the aajue uf pt>Ktt 
ia odious to them, but neither his cauao nor eSei-ld. sunlhiT 


the Tolume ol " SLortar English PtMBU " in thia Library, pp. 108— IM 

' Or (fcr Hrnie I 

EpLitW 1, W. i. Better tbon Chryaiiipan and Cnuitew. Ttey 
we» both phL]ot[i]>b'era, Chrysippiu a subtle bLoui, Cnuttor Uw ftnl 
oumineubttoT upon Plato. 






the aam tluit ('cmta.iii8 him, nor the p&iliL-uknti^ deacendlog 
from him, ^ve nny fast hnndU' Ui their i»rpm^ dupraJAe. 

J^un.-^i, U1131J ^Hwlry is of all h'tnuiD lieurningB th» most 
ancient, nnd of moil fatherly Autiquity. aa from vhcQco 
ot!ier li!aming9 bavn tnken Hii^ij- bc^tLikings ; Binei' it u; »(> 
univuTftEiI thttt no leomt'd tuition doth decpiec' it, nor barliuruDB 
nntion is without it ; ainco lioth Ruhirii and Greek garo eiifh 
olivine niun«B unto it, tb« one of prophcn'in^, the uther of 
i>^iuitdng, lind that indued thut numc of milking is fit for him, 
! ' iConsidaniig, th&t whore &11 otLur arts rttam thcmselv>e8 
I ^tithin thfir subject, and receive, as it were^ thi-ir being froin 
■ It. the poet only, only bring^th his ow-ti stuff, ami dolh not 
I SflAm A i:'oni::^t out of a. mattur, but miLketh mrtttor for a 
conceit : eince neither his dcecription hqv end contuneth any 
evil, thi; thing deauribtHl cannot be otiI; sint'i; his effoits b* 
so good aa to Unich gt'odnees, and dvlight the LenniKirB of it; 
nnt-o therein (naraclyy in monil dottrino, the chief of all 
knowledges) he doth not only fjir puss the historian, but, 
for mstrueting, ia well nigh conip/irnble tu tho philoso^bfr ; 
fiirmuvtng, leavoth him bcbind him ; since thiO Holy Bcripture 
{whL-rein there is no uncleanni^ia) hath whole }iarLi in it 
jjoetical, and tlwt even our titivitmr ChriBt vouthwkfcd to lue 
the tlowi!r» of it ; ainco all hie Vimia ai% not only In their 
imiti'd forms, but in Uicir eover^ di»HOftionnfuUy cummend- 
ubla: I think, and think I think rightly, the k^irel crown 
appointed for tnumphnni captuina, duth wgrtliily, of all 
«th«r learning, honour tb<> pot^t'i tniini]ih . 

' but boeaiLBu wo bnvo cam aa wl>11 as tonii^'i^s, and tbfit the 
li^htcjFt retiBonfi that may hs, will aceni to weigh greatly, if 
nothing ht: put in tho counter-balance, let ua hcnr, and, aa 
wcU ua wi? can, pondi^r whut objettioiiB bo mnde Rgainat thi* 
«rt, which m^y ho wortliy cither of yti'tding or Answering. 

Firrt, tmly, I ni>tf, not only in fhf^e fttrofioijaoi, poet- 
hnters, but in all tbut kind of pDopte who mx.-k » {iraiM) by 
flisiirainDg others, Chat thciy do prodi^Uy npcnd a great 
nuuiy wandering worde in quips imd Mroffs, carping anil 

I taunting at eaih tiling, which, by stirring tho spleim, may 
Mtay the bnuA froio. & thoriiugb bi;bolding thii worthintHW of 
the subject. Those kind of ohjcctjona, iia they are full of & 
■W6ry idle lUK^aidntivi (ainco tberu ib nothing of so sacred a 
n»je«tyt hut tbat an itching tongue may ruli itfleLf upon it], 
mo dcAorve they no other answer, but, inirtead of laugliing at 
•till" jc-st, to Ldu^h at the jiBstar. Wo know n playing wit c«n 
.jtniw tht.' didcretion of an am, the comfortablimo«i uf b<eing 
-in dt;bt, and the jolly commodities of being sick of the 
flogiie ; »o, of the L^ntmry aide, if we will turn Urid'a vene, 
** That good lies hid in ncumef* of tho cvd," Agrip^ta will T» 
US nM^rxy ifl tho shoning tho \ATiity of Sciftnce, as Eraemua 
wna in the commending of Folly ; ' in.'jthor shall uny man or 

I matter OHcap« some tout^h of these etniliiig railors. Rut for 
£rnsmiu< and ,^gTtppa, they had Aoether foundation than the 
mperficiol jjart would iiromiso. Marr\', these other i>iofi*Dnt 
111 lilt -flndcm, who will corract tlio verb before they Hniiei'fltand 
the niun, and rnnfutn others' knowledge befnri' ihny cotifirm 
Iheir own ; I wauM bav4) them only rpmcmbcT, thut Bcoffing 
oomcth not of wiadom : bo m the licst title In true English 
■fbpj- get with their nnfirrimertH, is to 1k« ratlctl good ftxila: 
for so barri onr graTe forefAthem aver termini lluit hunsoroua 
Jriod of jestora. 
But that which gireth greateat scope to their Koming 
1 SamHury aflKt argumtnt Fkiia/nr. ■ nb}eetian* staffd! nnd met. 

* CnrnoUiu Axripi)a*s luoh, " De IncarUtudine «t Vanltat-e StIcq. 
Ykfom «t ArtliTDJ " wns fl™t pntWshoi in LSSu j Em^uuuR " Morie 
EnoomiabL " «>■ written in a w«ok. in l^lff, and vmimt m a. low moiitlu 
thnrayh wt«b sditldoa. 

humour, is rhyming and vorsing.* It w alrendy suiii, and, as 
I think, truly said, it ia not rhyming and versing thiil tiiuboth 
poeay ; one may bu a pout without veffling, iind a verHiflor 
without jfoetry. But yeti prosuppose it wero inaepiLrable, as 
iudeud, it seenieLh ycaliger judgoth tndy, it were an IniOpAt^^ 
able commtindation ; for if " oratio" nixt to "rHtio," 8]K,*o(rh, 
next to reason, be the groalesit gift bi^towed upon morttdity, 
thut cannot bo pn^isekitB whicji doth most jKiliijh thnt bU'V^ing 
of apooeb ; which Considereth mch word, not only aa. a matL 
may say by hifi forcible quality, but by his best Tn«uauml 
quantity ; cairying wen in themselves a h'lrmony : withoat, 
pt'rchanco, tidinber, meaaurc, order, proportion be in our Hme 
grown odious. 

But biy uaidii tho just praiee it halh, by bting tho only fit 
speech far music — rousic, I nay, tho raont divine* utriker nf 
tho asQSt.^ ; thus much \a undoubtedly true, that if roading 
ba foolish without pennembering, memory being the only 
treasure of knowledge, those woids which ure fittest for 
memory, are likewise moat convonieiitfor knowledge. Now, 
that verse far excpod«th proae in tho knitting up of the 
memory, the reatwin is manifest ; the words, befiiJee their 
delight, which hath a great oMnity to memory, K'ing so set 
as one cauaot be loat, but thu whol^i work fails ; whicJi 
accuBiDg itself, caUoth tho remCTnbni.nce back to itself, and 
BO mofit strongly confirmcth it, Hesidtfij, one woiii so, w it 
wcrp, Ikpgctting another, au, be it in rh\-me or measured 
veiwj, by the former a man Hbiill bftve a near gu<?&a to the 
follower. Loittly. even they that have taught the ait nf 
memory, huve showed nothing so fiiit for it as a certain Ttnita 
divided into muny pluces. well and thoroughly known; now 
that hiith the rata in effect pfrfecUy, ovcrj- word having 
his natural nent, which Beat must neetlft make the word 
remembered. But wliat needs mote in a thing »o known to 
all men f Who is it that cvor was a scholnr that doth nctt 
eurrj- away some verSeB of Virgil, HoiBcc, or Cftto, which in 
his youth he learned, and even to his old age sene him ftrr 
hourly leseons 'f a&, 

PenMutBtoreiu fnglto: nam esn-nlus iitOa est. 

Duiu -libj. (iniaqtia placet cFednla tnrba aniniui.^ 

But the fitncBS it hnth for memory is notubly provnid by idl 
dulii'ery of artB, wherein, for tha most part, from gnuiimar 
to logic, matheinHticB, phynie, nnd the re*t, the ntk^ chietly 
neeeftsiuy to lie^ borne away arc compiled in virstis, Hn 
tlmt verse being in [tself sweet and orderly, and biiog biwst 
for memory, the only handle of knuwiedge, it Bini*t bo in 
jest that any man cjin epeak agaitiBt it. 

■Xowthen go wo to the most important imputaliunalaid tu 
the poor poctft; for aught I can yet l^m, they ore these. 

FirRt, that thero being many other mora fruitful know- 
ledges, a man might better dj>t>Dd bia timu m Uifm than 
in tliia. 

Seo.3nd]y, tbikt Jt is the mothfr of lies. 

Thirdly, that it is the nurw of abuse, infectinig M with 
nmny poBtilent deairea, with a etyrtn sw^-ctntus. drawing tbo 
mind to the ficrpent'a tail of sinful faneies ; and hurpin 
esppfially, comedies give tho largf«t field to ear, aa Chaucer 
sailh L how, both in other natioaa and ours, before po«t» did 

* Thfob/Ktion to rhymsanflwffrB, 

^ The Srst ot th«Be Bentencefe ia frAid HoTlW (IBpCBllp I , rrOI. 00'! -. 
'• Fif tmm th« tfinuSHitlvv nun, for lie a A tAbt-ler '* Tbc locnuO, 
" White vcb pleMKCs biaiMli we are a crmluli^aa >CToml," seem^ to Im 
tariea (romO^i/l ilFwM, iv. 311) — 

" Cooaoi^ meca ncti, Coma mendAdii rittft 1 

8ei] HOB in ntlum creOula turla :i'iiiii,i«," 

A miuJ cmncinus of ri|t;iiC;liH at tli« lalaeliouds ot liuue, hvtt 

townid* »io* ws are a creduiou* crinwd, 

* Tk» eh\<!fohJKt.fiia. 



[A.V. UBI 

eofU'ii us, wo were full of cohtb^, giren to martial exercuefl, 
tho pillun of manliko liberty, and not lolled aale«p in ahady 
idlcnoas with poeta' pastimes. 

And Itutly and chiefly, thty cry out with open month, aa 
if thoy had ovorahot Itobin Hood, that Plato banished them 
out of his commonwoalth. Truly this is much, if there be 
much truth in it. 

' First, to the first, that a man mi^t better spend his time, 
is a reason indeed ; but it doth, as they say, but " petere 
prineipium."* For if it be, an I affirm, that no Icamingisso 
good as that which tcacheth and moveth to virtue, and that 
none can both tonch and move thereto so much as poesy, 
thou is tho conclusion manifest, that ink and paper cannot 
ho to a more profitable purpose employed. And certainly, 
though a man should grant their first assumption, it should 
follow, methinks, Tcry unwillingly, that good is not good 
because better is better. But I still and utterly deny that 
there is sprung out of earth a more fruitful knowledge. 

■ To the second, therefore, that they should be the principal 
liars, I answer paradoxically, but truly, I think truly, that 
of all writers under the sim, the poet is the least liar ; and 
though ho would, as a poet, can scarcely be a liar. The 
astronomer, with his cousin the geometrician, can hardly 
escape when they take upon them to measure the height of 
the stars. How often, think you, do the physicians lie, 
when they aver things good for sicknesses, which afterwards 
send Charon a great number of souls drowned in a potion 
before they come to his ferry. And no lees of the rest which 
take upon them to affirm. Now for the poet, he nothing 
affirmeth, and therefore never lieth ; for, as I take it, to lie 
is to affirm that to be true which ia false : ao aa the other 
artiats, and especially the historian, affirmeth many things, 
sn, in the cloudy knowledge of mankind, hardly escape 
from many lies : but the poet, ae I said before, never 
affirmeth ; the poet never maketh any circles about your 
imagination, to conjure you to believe for true what he 
writeth : he citoth not authorities of other histories, but even 
for his entr}' ealleth tho sweet Pluses to inspire into him a 
good invention ; in troth, not labouring to tell you what is 
or is not, but what should or should not be. And, therefore, 
though he recount things not true, yet because he telleth 
them not for true ho lieth not ; without we will say that 
Nathan lied in his si>ccch, before alleged, to David ; which, 
aa a wicked man dunt scarce say, so think I none »o tdmple 
would say, that .^sop lied in the tales of his beaats ; for who 
thinlceth that JEmp wrote it for actually true, were well 
worthy to have his name chronicled among the beasts he 
writeth of. What child is there that comoth to a play, and 
seeing Thebes written in great letters uptm an old door, 
doth believe that it is Thebes ? If then a man can arrive 
to the child's age, to know that the poet's poraona and doings 
are but pictures what should be, and not stories what have 
been, they will never give tho lie to things not affirmatively, 
hut ullegorically and figuratively written ; and therefore, as 
in liiatory, looking for truth, they may go away full fraught 
with faW-hood, so in poeay, looking but for fiction, they shall 
uae the narration but aa an imugioative ground-plot of a 
profitiiblt! invention. 

But hereto is replied, that the poets give names to men 
they write- of, which argueth a conceit of an actual truth, 
and Ml, not lieing true, provoth a falsehood. And doth the 
IftwyiT lie then, when, under the names of John of the Stile, 
and Jolin of the Xokcs, he piittcth his caseP But thitt is 
easily iinHwcn-d, their naming of men ia but to make their 

' Thai timt might if helttr i-peni. ' Beg the question. 

• That poetry w the moUxr of Iim. 

j jictuie the more lively, and not to bidld any hidory. 
Painting men, they cannot leAve men nameleM ; we see wd 

j cannot play at chess but that we mnrt giTe names to our 
chess-men : and yet, methinks, be were a very partial 
champion of truth that would say we lied for giving a jiece 
of wood the reverend title of a bishop. The poet nameth 

\ CyroB and ^■tn*':'* no othv way than to show what men of 
their famea, fortones, and estates ahoold do. 

I * Their third is, how ranch it aboseth men's wit, training it 

I to a wanton sinfolness and lustful love. For, indeed, that 
is the principal if not only abuse I can hear alleged. They 
say the comedies rather teach, than reprehend, amorous, 
conceits: they say the h-ric is larded with paanonate Bonnets: 
the elegiac weeps the want of his mistress ; and that even to 
the heroical Cupid hath ambitiously dimhed. Alas! Love, 
I would thou couldst 88 well defend thyself, as thoa canst 
offend others! I would those on whom thou dost attend, 
could either put thee away or yield good reason why they 
keep thee ! But grant love of beauty to be a beastly fault, 
although it be very hard, since only man, and no beast, hath 
that gift to discern beauty; grant that lovely name of lov» 
to deserve all hateful reproaches, although even some of my 
masteri the philosophers spent a good deal of their lamp<oil 
in setting forth the excellency of it ; grant, I say, what they 
will have granted, that not only love, but lust, but vanity, 
but, if they list, scurrility, possess many leaves of the poets' 
boohs; yet, think I, when this is granted, they will find 
their sentence may, with good manners, put the last words 
foremost ; and not say that poetry aboseth man's wit, bat 
that man's wit abuseth poetry. For I will not deny hot 
that man's wit may make poesy, which ahoold be ^parruH^, 
which some learned have defined, figuring forth good things, 
to be ^wTcurrur)}, which doth contrariwise infect the fimcy 
with unworthy objects ; as the painter, who should give to 
the eye either some excellent perspective, or some fine 
picture fit for building or fortification, or containing in it 
some notable example, as Abraham sacrificing his son Inac, 
Judith killing Holofemes, David fighting with Goliath, may 
leave those, and please an ill-pleased eye with wanton shows 
of better-hidden matters. 

But, what ! shall the abuse of a thing make tho right nse 
odious ? Nuy. truly, though I yield that poesy may not 
only be abused, but that being abused, by the reason of his 
sweet charming force, it can do more hurt than any other 
army of words, yet shall it be so far from concluding, that 
the abuse shall give reproach to the abused, that, contnri- 
wiae, it ia a good reaaon, that whatsoever being abused, doth 
most harm, being rightly used (and upon the right use each 
thing receives hia title) doth most good. Do wo not see skill 
of physic, the best rampire' to our often-aasaulted bodies, 
being abuaed. teach poiaon, the most riolent dcstroj'eri' 
Doth not knowledge of law, whose end is to even and right 
all things, being abused, grow the crooked fosterer of horrible 
inj nries ^ Doth not (to go in the highest) God's word abused 
bt«ed heresy, and Hia name abuaed become blasphemy f 
Truly, a needle cannot do much hurt, and as truly (with 
U>ave of ladies be it apoken) it cannot do much good. With 
a tiword thoo muycat kill thy father, and with a sword thou 
mayest defend thy prince and country' ; ao that, as in their 
calling poote fathers of lies, they said nothing, so in this 
their argument of abuse, they prove the commendation. 
They allege herewith, that before poets began to be in 

* Thnt poetry ia the nurte of abut, infteling «■ vilh ir«i>loN and pf*- 
(lie II I denrt*. 

■ Bampive, rampart, the Old French form of " rempazt," wa» " rev- 
par," from " remp irer." to fortify. 

It A.D. laiT'.] 



|iriro, out QHtion hod. Mt thx^Lr hoart'e dulight u[>on action^ 
Mid not imR^natiim : rather doing things worthy to be 
written, Uvm writing thmgs til la ln' ticmu. What thut 
U^fwre limp was, I Uimk 8c«rtfly Sphjtm can toll ; Einim no. 
taeiaaty is aoanciant that gires not the precedence to poetry. 
And crrt^in it in, that, in our pluuiL'st liomL<l!nGas, yot never 
waa the Albion nation without poetrj". MarT>', this ar^- 
Tnmt, lliotii;h it be levi^U»xi agninst pwrtry, yt-t it is indeod 
a ch^ia-Bhut iigainst all If^omitig ur iK>okt8hii(.>BB, aa tht.<y 
nommcinlt term it. Clf sufh mind vmro Lcrtiiin Gotha, of 
whom it is writien, tlmt huvmg in the iqxiil nf b fjimous* city 
tKlcm a fuir libriir)', one hangtnim, bolike flt to cxM-utc tho 
&lli1« of their wits, who Ijaijmurdored b pT«at niimbor of 
bodiiM, would have mt fito in it. " No," Huid finothi^T, veiy 
gnivfily, " t*fce hoed what yoii do, for whilo thej" are biisy 
atiuut Ihouc toys, we shuU with more lieisura ranq^Bcr thoir 
countries." This, iadtx'd. is the ordinary doctrine of igno- 
rajiLft Jind nuiny wordn annw^time* I hAVo heard s^ut in it 1. 
but bumusR this roflson is ^?norally agRinat hU Irsminif, v,^ 
well H» poetry, or rather nil luuttiiig but poetry ; beo^tufic it 
wen.' loo kir|^ a dijrreflsion to hnndle it, or at leitat toa 
auperfluoii!!, ainne it in miimfL-Bt that all ^vommont of 
action is to bo gottwi by knowledge, ajod kntiwlgdje hest hy 
KattiiTiDi^ Aiady kniiwk>d^f.«,, whii'h lis trading: I only eny 
with Huraw, ti> him that is of thut opinion, 

^K JubeastaltumeBHlibeater ' 

^DT aa for poultry ititelf, it ia tho freest ftoin thin objectioii, 
far i>octrj- is Ibo comixuiion of cjimjm. I dan? onilertake, 
llrUndf) Furioeo, Or honcat King Art.hltt, will tiUVtt dLS])latia(T 
an>Idi«r: but the quiddity of "fns" and "prinni materiu " 
wiU hardly agree with a coraekt. And, therefore, aa I said 
in [hy bi-ginning, even Turka and Turtare. ore delighted with 
|MM-tH. Hfimer, n Greek, fiourislipd hefort' <Ji'c«.'o tluUrLshcd ; 
and if to a Blight conj«rture a lonjccUire iimy bfj opposed, 
truly it may seem, thnt jta b>' him th^ir Iranicd man tuuk 
ahnoAt their Eret light of knowledge, bo their at'tivo men 
rtwivr thi^ir lirat notionn of couragt!. Otdy Alexrmder'H 
rjnniple may Bcrve, who by i'lwtarch is accmmtL-d o£ such 
Tirlne,thAt fortuAO waanot bis gaid^ but KiB footstool; whost; 
4Ct« 8|K«ik for him, though Plutarch did not; indocd tlio 
Dihatiix of warlike pnuct's. Tide Alexander left his school- 
iiwslcr, lirin); Aristotle, hchind him, but took de»d Humer 
with him. Ho put tho philo.wpher Calliinthcnes to death, 
for his sc^mini; philoHophicoJ, indeed tnutinotis., Ktubbomnt'sa ; 
Iwt tho i-hief thing be was over heard to wish for was that 
llomcr hnd been a]i\*c. He well found he rcceircd mure 
Vcaverj- of mind by the pattern of Achillea than by hoarinf,' 
the definition of fortitude. And, therpfore, if Ciito mLslik^ 
Fnlvixu for canyiag Enniua with him to the Ji'ild. it may bo 
■nawered. that if Cato mtalikod it, the noblo FuLviua liked 
it, or oL!« ho had not done it : for it vna not Uio oxccllDiit 
Cat* UticcnsU, whose ^ythonty I would mudi more have 
rtirercnu^ : but it was thf furunet, in ti-utb a bittor punishor 
'•( fjiult*, Itut el*e a man that hud newer Bacrifieod to the 
lirmiva. }\\i mifllikod imd eried oiit against :tll Grock learn- 
ing; (Mid yj?t, beinip Fourafore ycora old, hopin to learn it, 
ike fairing thjit Plato undpntood not Latin. Indeed, tho 
Uin laws allow^ no person to ho eiirricd to the wars but 
r that was in the soldicr'a roll. And, therefore, though 
riialikt-d liia nnmuatercid person, ho minliked not hie 
»rk. And if he had, Srijrio Nrwita (judged by coraTnoTi 
ait the beat Roman) loved him: lioth the other Scipin 
brothen, who had by their \-irtuM no lens Homamcs thAn of 
Asia and Afric, no loved him that they cauaed hia body to 

' ■■ t iri'o tiiBi free lenrc to be fooll.-*lL*" A viiriitiim from tlio Ua^ 
(Sal. 1. L Sll, "Qnidt^cia* ilU! Jub«v misenan esae libauber," 



bo buried in their fleptilture. 8o, as Culo'a authority heiag 
bnt (igainst hia person, and that najwered wiLh bo fur greater 
thjin himsitf, is herein of no validity. 

^ Uiit niiw, indited, my burthen in j^cat, that Plato'a name 
i» laid upon mo, whom, I mtut arnicas, of all philoBophcra I 
have ever cstcemr^d most worthy of reverence ; and with good 
reaflon, since of uli philoHopbers ho is the moflt pootiftil; yet 
if he will detile tho fountain out of wbiuh hia llawini> i^trennM 
have proceeded, let us boldly einimine with wlwt rc^^kisoii he 
did it. 

First, truly, a man might malieionsly ohject, itutt Pinto, 
Itejn^ a philoeopher, waa a natural onemy of po^ts- For, 
indeed, after tht^ philoHopiiers hud pi^-ked out of thu sweet 
Biysttriea of poetry the right discerning of true points of 
knowledge, they forthwith, putting it tn method, andmiiking 
n school (d art of that wbieli the poets did only tcoieh by a 
divinu deliglitfulDcs#, beginning to apum at their guidt-a, like 
uiigtat<>ful apprenl ieca, wero not (Oiitent to net up t>hoji for 
theni«elvi», but sought by all mcuns to diseredit their nuu<ti3r» ; 
whi^Ji, by the force of delight being barred thorn, Iht- leas 
they eould overthrow them, the mure they hated thcni. Fi/Vt 
indeed, th&y found for Uomex eevon ditioa strove who sh'iuld 
have hira for their citizen, where many citiiit banished 
pbiloiKiphers hb not fit mcmbcm to lira amon^ theni, for 
only nsptfltiuR certain of Euripidoa' vereeB many Atbc-niana thuir Lives saved of thu Symcusuns, where the Athomnsis 
thcicaelvoB thought many of the philoaophcrs utuvorthy tu 
livt*, Cectuin potts, as WimcinidoB and Pindar, had ao pre- 
vaiiod with Hi(iro tho Fiml;, that of atyrant th^y madf^ him a 
just king : where Pluto could do ao little wiLh Diouyg^iiin. that 
he hioiself, of a philoaopher, was made a slave. Uut who 
^ould d.0 thtiu, I eonfess, ahould requite the ohjoetions nitned 
n^ainat jtoetai with like Cttviliatiom* a^inet philoaophent; ujh 
likowiao ouo abould do, that ahould bid one rend Pha-diue or 
Symposjum in Plato, or the diBcouraeof Love in PliilUirdi.nnd 
B.&e whether any poet do authorise abomiaable filthineas its 
they do. 

Again, a man might ask, out of what Commonwctilih PLlo 
doth buniuh thenii' In south, thence where he himself 
alloweth community of wamon. So, as belike ttuei baninh- 
mont grew not for effeminate wantonneBOt since little nhould 
poetiunl sonnetfi ba hurtful, when a mti.n might hnvo what 
woman he lifted. But I honour pluLoeophiuil instruilioua, 
and bleas the wits whiiJi bred tliein, ao vji they bo not ^buwd, 
whiuh IB likHwise stretched to poetry. Suint Paid hiniKplf 
Bots a watiihword uiK>n philosophy, indeod upon the aIjuiM>. 
So doth Plato ujion the aboee, not upon poetrj-. PlnCo fotind 
fault that Iht poots of his tiEne filled the world witJi wrong 
opiuions of tho godti, making light ttdm of Ihut unspotted 
casence^ and therefort; would not bavo the youth depraved 
with «ueh opinioas. Uorein mny much ha said; let this 
aijflioc: the poetic did nut induce auch opinions, but did 
imitate thotw opinions already indueed. For nil thu (JrCek 
Btories lan well testify, ttiat the vtiy religion of that tiras 
Btood upon muny and many-faidyoned gode ; nut taught eoby 
poeta, but fellowMl Ht'coriiing to their natun? of imitation. 
Who li»L may read in PluLireh, the discoutst-a of lej^ and 
Oairis, of tht' causa why oracles ceased, of the I>ivinc pri>- 
vidence, and eee whether the theology of th«.t nation stood 
not upon flueh drcama, which the poct« indeed BU|M>rBtit3auBly 
observed; and truly, ainco they hod not tho light of Chriat, 
did much better in it than the philosophcm, who, uhakin^ off 
superstition, brought in atheiiiin. 

Plato, therefore, who^e authority I had much rnlber jiutly 
conatnio than unjustly resist, monnt not ia general of ptwts, 

■ Tlwl Flotff bomulMijNMb/rOM hia idtOlStfwUU. 



ID thuiW vctdi id wiiidi Jolio* Sc*liger luth, "qoa aatho- 
ntA;«. bartttri qniduii atqoe insipidi. abati relint ad poetas e 
wpab^cA taevaiot : " * bat ooly meant to drive out tbooe 
VTung opinkoi of the Ikntr. wbefvof nov. without btrtber 
law. CluvtiuutT hath taken away all the huxtful bt-lief, per> 
chuki« aa be thought, noniidictl by then est«iemril poeCa. 
And a man need go no farther than to Plaio biwm^lf to know 
his BKanin^: who, in his dialogue called Ion,' iriTeCb high, 
and rishtly. dirine cammendatioa unto poetry. !>o as Plato, 
baoishiw; the abase, not the thing, not banishing it. bat 
giving dae honoar to it. shall be oor patrocu and not oar ad- 
venazT. Yor, indeed. I had much rather, since Craly I may 
do it. show their miHaVinif of Plato, ander whoae lion's skin 
they wvmid make an aa»-like bnying against poesy, than go 
abodt to oTerthivw his aathoritT : whom, the wiaer a man is. 
the man jbk came he shall find to hare in admiration: 
wpKxftlly since he attziboteth onto poesy moie than myaelf 
do. namelT, to be a rery inspirins of a dirine force, far abore 
man's wit, a* in the farenuned dialogne is apparent. 

Of the other side, who woald show the bonQars have been 
by the K'st soft of jndsments granted theoL a whole aea of 
examples vooU pnamt thenueln* : Alexanders. Ccars, 
Scipio*^ all favoozvn of poels: Ijelias, calkd the Roman 
&Knses. himietf a poet ; m as part of HaaotontimenNuaeoaa, 
IB Tes«oc», was svpfOied to he made by him. And even the 
Omek !^ -<cTat«t^ wh^'vi ApoDo confirmed to be the only wise 
^UL is said to have wpaH part of his old time in potting 
.Esk^'s FaUea into nne r and. thefefotv, fall evil dioaU it 
Ww^ j hit jcholar Fblo. to pot toA wvrds in his master's 
meath against poeta. Bat what needs more* Aristotle 
wriSMthr An of Po«n-; and wity.if it should not be written ? 
R-asatvh tewheth the ose to be gathered of them : and how, 
if :be\- d»«Id not be nod* And who reads Plntarch'i 
eciher hiAccy or phiktwfihy. ihall find he trimmeth both 
lh»r gaimenxs with gaaids' of po<»y. 

B« I bK not to de<eni poecy with the help of his onder- 
tisc ^iiS<wxicn{<ker. Let it sOlBce to have showed, it isa fit 
Kcl i<w pnise to dwvS npc« : and what dispraise may be set 
ame XL. it either <«s!y overcome, cr transformed into jort 
o.-auKsia:>.-&. Sa. that safe the excellencies of it may be 
fo ewjy as»i so jsmN- ronfiimed. and the low CTvepins; oh. 
;-«r»-:Bs«> «.>« trvddendown:* it not kjruranart of be«,bat 
cf tTve Axtziae : act d eSeminateiMiH. bat ci notable ftirring 
«f cvvrace : net of afeoiin^ man's wit, bat of strenethesiinc 
max's wit : nx baniifaed. bet hc>i.>«DTd by Plato : let as 
nd»n- jihsr. mcrv la a rt li f ^w to ingar^an-i the jvets' heads 
w^^ k&:«r «f being Ikareate. as K'^ad^-^ th;-ai only 
irixsTfaa::: .■arCaiBs wvre. is a saSL:ecl asthjcity to show 
the prv-« they cnght to he heM is than soffer the iU> 

tavoozed breath of «ach wrong speakers onoe to blow npon 
the clear springs of poeay. 

' Bat since I hare ran so kog a career in this matter, 
metbinka, before I give my pen a fall sb^ it diall be bat a 
little more lost time to eoqaire, why England, the mother of 
excellent minds, ahoold be grown to hard a step-mother to 
poets, who certainly in wit ought to pam all others, nnc« all 
only proceeds from their wit, being, indeed, makers of them- 
selves, not taken of others. How can I hot eirl a im , 

senaton, great captains, such a% beadea a thooaand others, 
David, Adrian. S^ode*. Gcmaincaa, not only to faroor 
ports, hot to be poets : and of oar nearer times can preaent 
for her pairona, a Robert, King of Sicily : the great Kiog 
Francis of France : King James of Scotland-, sodi cardinals 
as Bembosand Bibtena; soch famoos ptencbcra and teadMis 
as Besa and Helascthon : ao learned philoaophers as Ftacm- 
torios and Scaliger; so great orators aa Pontanas sod 
Maretns: ao laercing wiu as Ge«rge B nch a n a n : so gtsve 
oooncillara aa. beside* many, bol befiore all. that Hoqiilal' tl 
Fnnot^ than whom. I think, that realm never broagbt forth 
a more accomptished jodgment more firmly boilded vpon 
virtae : I say. these, with numbers of others, not only to re«i 
others* [oesi«ft. bat to poetise for otheni' reading: that poai>. 
thtu embraced in all c«h^ places, shoold only find ia our 
time a hard welcome in FwgJMiwI I think the very earth 
laments it. and therefore det^ oor seal with fewer laor^ 
than it wasaccnrtcened. Porheirtotare poets have in Engkul 
also fioarished: and. which is to he noted, even in thiw 
times when the trumpet of Uar> did soand loodeat. And nov, 
that an orer-faint qu^titess iboald seem to strew the houie 
for poeta. they are ahnott in as good repatation as the moante- 
banks at Venice. Troly. even that, as of the tme side it 
giveth grtnt praise to poen*. whicji. Eke Toias (bat to better 
purpose^, had rather be tronbled in the net with Mars, than 
enjoy the himkcly qoirt of Tnkan : so su i tt h it for a piece 
of a reason why they are Imb giatdal to idle England, 
which mow can scarce emdorv the pain of a pen. Upon this 
necessarily foDowvth that base men with servile wits, oitder- 
take it, wh-? think it eswogh if they can he rewarded of the 
jvintA': and so as Fpaminoadat is said, with the boooor of 
his virtne. to have made an ofioe by his exercising it, whid 
Wfxe WIS c«ntcii^4iKe, to beecme highly respected: m 
thew men. no b^:4v b«t setting their names to it, by their 
own diagTaoef«hie«a. difgraoe the most graccifnl poesy. For 
now. as if an th'f Hase* were got with child, to bring forth 
has£ar] ^vts, withcct any innmiMiiai. they do post over the 
bank? of H* Si'vo. until they make their iimli li more wearr 
tba£ pc«3-lKe«» : while, in the meantime, they. 

nhas hot thi^ika ft?« *i«Bteai>r «^ea W ulks «( 
i»m»m . "y-Mj talrai ia ca|«w»£ar 

sK^^l . a w a it» cm I pft t^oMaazac b-.-iM the »^cia:x« 
■«Ma. A fiMt IS a Iv^t. asv. V<^ iwrKV. w^'* «a>.'« wwt- 
itrmm n d «> k«r aa kit naaca nvai^ wttha kxB. TW 
lAk* a««7 kji ?«■*.-«. Mfcuilalii ia fhfi <4 :i ^hta on 
^itifcnzvrm. kni P|*<ia^ ixjvliw. . . . L^k* |«vfi^'^ a*^ 
m .Y 4C-«.- ML ■iiflft JMt» W«« th«i3' MML-w tafcM >««▼. *»! 
Ex •r-rm* .-{ ziir «^■»il. 1* i» »« liey wKv Strrft j/ •Artr 
utaX -a, «wA jai-'^-B-^ icrvaik. ■x s« i^ cot «&^ i^iMki tw aik. 


* n« JMCIMi j^MW 

the eymfaK ol llr^s Mmmi (Omt BL 

- n* CWm«Ow. avfc«£ V rB^>tel. kn ia UJSl « 
hit ftmt v«Lw«: nKVtfiH .«k^k iailatiil Ike l>a|ai^ of the IWF^- 
^bMom <t Fnac*. sad t.T lafctim sa ia|aam etnl mMi)gnaX^' 
BvwwL. H«.Si«lmUn. 

* TWw haar n ti' S i ^ t iW TSim irMHsAav) fc ut mtd «itk t 
)Mwr<l»r. J«v«tMi:.ji4:.E»-»- Drfcaln— Irt III tha Bait ■J'* 

v>.- \f^ -^wnwfiwt frw tkia iafactioa frsa. 
W-a crft.-»,-«i HMiaa tat mMm ^ds deaicaad, 
IWrkv** ■ «— Laailhairchr ri aail" 

- IMS.] 




tlun by publuhing thL'm to be ttfcaimted knightd ol the aaD.u 

But 1 that, before avvt I diint adtpire unto thi) dignity, am 
■dmitted inU> the coiripuny of th<- jmper-lnluixera, 4o lind Uie 
r(»7 true cause of oiit WNnting (.-aliniation, ia wunt of di^Bert, 
tttkinig upon ua to be puets in d(<8pitfl oF Pidlus, Now, 
whercia we want doai:rt, were u thankworthy labour to 
oxprms. But if 1 knew, t uhould hiivo mcnd^ myself; but 
as I Dcve<r dcKired thg title, w tuve I neglected the mpans to 
como by it; only, ovtrmaiitered by somo thoiight«, I yiulded 
on inky tribute ualo them, firarrj-. thry tliat delight in 
poi?sy it»{-lf, BihouM ectik to know what Lhi<y do- unil li'iw 
ihey do, eapecially, look themselves in on unH uttering glata 
of niuun, if the)' he tucliimble unlo it. 

For jiopay mujit not be drawTi by the ears, it must bogi'ntly 
tad, or rnthor it must bod ; which was pitrtly tho caust< that 
made Iht^anricnt IcamiHl affirm it was a divine, luid uii huniim 
■kill, sincr all other knowlcd^^M Hu ready for any thut hava 
rtreti^K of wit i a poet no indimtry can mnke, if hia own 
geniue be not carried into it. And thcrcfort* is an old provorb, 
" Oiator St, poets imacitur." ^ Yvt i-onfi'sa I Always, that Jtn 
tho falilest ground must ho mHuurcd, mi must the highoat 
flying wit hiiTc u Duidiilua to giiido him, Tliat Diedalua, 
tJioy say, both in this and in oth(.T, hath throe wtnga to bear 
itaclf up into thii air of due conimenilatiun ; that ia, arl^ 
mittatioiE, Euid rxpixiw. But th€«c, neitht-r artificiul rules, 
□or imitative pattvms, wti much numlicr ourscilves withul. 
Bki^fcew, indeed, we do, but thut votv forfbackwardly ; fur 
where- we ^hoiild vx&rcLau to know, we exercise bb huving 
known ; und so is our bmin delivered of much muttcir, which 
never wh& begnttan by knbwlodgo. For there buiug two 
principal parts, mattttr to bo ^pressc^ by words, tend wonU 
to express the matter, in neither wo ui^ art or inutntion 
lightly. Our matt«r is " quodlibet, " ° indoQil, although 
wnnigly, performing Oviii'e verse, 

QiiiiDijulil coti&bor dicare, venni erit , * 
Iurv6t vOMrdiaDloK it into nny tJafliirud runk, tbiit otmoflt th-o 
TT»deTft c^nnut ti^Ei where to find thumAelves. 

Chatioer, undouhtodly, did eKnellenlly in hia Trailuaand 
Oeaeida; «f wh">ni, tr>Uy, I know not whothor to man-pl 
more, eithtt' Ihikt h<L- in that misty time' could seei^o clearly, 
or that wo in this tUiftr iiifc gi.> bo Htum.blin);ly after him. 
Yet bad hf gr>T«it wants, At to bo forgivpu in bo reverend 
nilttqnify. I account tho Mimir of Mu^etratus, meetly 
fumitflii^ of bcantifui parts. And in tho Earl of Surrey's 
LyrifB, many thirigd Uietinp of it noble birth, and wgrthy of s 
noble mind. The ^hophurds' Kalondnr hatli tntich pt»esy in 
lit< cdotfueBv indeed, worthy the readinj^, if t bo not iletcivfcl. 
That B«ine fratmng of his' style to im old Tustic^ language, I dare 
tut allow; aiacenoithorTheocritiw in Greek, Virgil in Latir, 
aor 8nimE(EBro in JtaliaD, did uffei.'t it. Besides these^ I do 
aot reniiiiilifr to havw spon but few (tg s].ieiik boliily) printed 
that have potticfll rinews in them. For ptoof whoreof, let 
bni iTiort of the vt-rBOfi bo put in prow, and ihen ask the 
nn?nuirpif, and it will be faund that ont vci-so did but begt>t 
anolbtT, without ordering at tho first what should lip at tho 
: which bpcoTROtfri confused maas of wouIm, with a tinkling 
:d(I nf rhyme, barely uccompanit'd with ir-nson. 

' Tbfl omlor la mod-e. Cbo poe't linni. 
> Wba't j-na will 1 Dip firat that miit(«. 

• " Wli.T.teTCT' 1 ediill try t« trriie will lie v^t^p," Biirlu&jqaoteft from 
Biar7, 4M1.1 odnpiA to his ix>Dt«Kl, Tristiiiiu rv, a. aS- 
" 3pmi.t« mii carateu aamaras reaiaimit ad aptoa, 
Etqnod temptabnm dtomc, T«Tsua entt" 

i''hpnBiu tbnoTiflwpfi ; tha word " its " not IwLng' jet 
i into Eajtlult wriCiaK. 

• Our tntgtiliee hjiiI comedies, not without enuae. ato criEnl 
out agmnat., observing rules neither of hont^t civility nor 
sfcilfnl pootrv. Escnapting Gorboduc* lagain I say of those 
thut I have a&m), whiuh notwithstanding, ae it la full of 
stately Bpecchua, and well-Bounding phraacR, elimhin^^ lo iha 
height of HcnecR his style, and iis full of notabb momlity, 
which it doea most debgbtfully teftch, and no obtain thu vary 
end of poesy -, yet, in trutb, it is very dcfectuous in th«i cir^ 
fiumatancce, whitJi grieves mo, hecauso it might not rrjmiin oS 
an e:)(ai;t inodi'l of aH tiag^oa. Vitr it icf faulty both iu place 
and time, the two necf saary campanions at all corporal actions. 
For wherfl the stugc should alwuys rtprnaent but ono plnoe; 
und the; uttertThi^at time presupposed in it eliould be, both by 
Ariatotle'j^ piticspl, and commun reason, but one day ; thi-ru 
ia both many days and nutny places inartificinlly imagined. 

But if it be HO iu Ciorboduc, how much moro in all the rest? 
where you ahull have Asia of the on© aide, and Afric of the 
other, and no many othor under kingdoma, that the jikyer, 
when hu eomua in, niunt eiver begin with telling where he is,' 
or ol»8 the tale will unit be concoivod. Now Bhall yon buve 
throe kdies walk to gather flowers, and ihon we must believe 
tho Btage to be a garden. By and by, we bear news of ahip- 
wTKck in the same place^ then we are to blame if we :'icrrpt it 
not for a rook. Vptm the bnck of that comes out a hL.ifou* 
mflnalor with tire aod smoke, and then the- miaemble beholden 
are bound lo take it for a cave; while, in tbo mcantimo, 
two anmL'H Ay in, roprcaE-nted with four sworda and bucklers, 
and then, what bard heart will not n^eivo it for a pit<J]ed 
&L-ld -^ 

Now of time they are much more libentl; for ordinary it 
is, thitt two young princes fall in love ; after many traverscju 
she is got with ehild; delivered of a fair boy; ho in lost^ 
growclh H man, faUeth in love, and is ready to get another 
child ; and 411 this in two hours' apace ; which, how abnurri it 
is in BenH*, even sense may imugiuo ; and art hatb taught and 
ail uncicnt examples justified, and at this day tbo ordinary 
playere in Italy will not err in. Yet will some bring in tin 
example of thii Eunuch in Terence, that coutaiueth nintter of 
two days, yet far short of twenty years. True it is, and so 
wa* it to be playfl?d in two days, and so fitted to the time it 
set lorth. And though I'lautua have in one place done amisa, 
let us hit it with him, and not miss with him. But thi;y will 
any, liow then ehaW we eet forth a stor^' which contains both 
many places and many times? And do thoy not know, that 
a tragedy in timl til the laws of poesy, and not of hi&tor>'; 
not bound to follow tho t^tory, but havin^r liberty either to 
feign a quite new matter, or to frame the history to tho moat 
tntgiral convenience!' AgJurij many things may be told, which 
o/mnot be nhowcd; if they 'know the difference betwixt report- 
ing and representing, As fur example, I may speak, though 
I am here, of Peru, and in flpeech digrcBs from thut to Dm 
description of Csltcut; but in action I cannot represent it 
without Pacolut's horse. And so was the manner the uncicnts 
took by some " Nuntiug,"* to recount Ihinga done in ftimier 
time, or other place. 

Lastly, if they will represent an hiatory, they must not, 

» Df/HT* in (IW lynma. It sbnold he rBmeubmed that tbis wm 
written wban tbo Eu^lUb OrHiua ifM hnt iwoitj' joKtm o]d, and 
Bhukoapaara, aged about seveateea. b^d &Dt ivt (Sime to LoBilaa. 
Tha atmugest of SiakeapHuro's precuraora tiad not j6i baRiiU Co writ* 
for lbs sta^e. Harla«« hid n-<t jot writtau; aud the strvo^lj lUat 
wna to come of tld tT99^om (Vf t^fl Englisfa, dmma had yet to b* 

* S«e the lolume of tlila 'Librarj illai>trattttft " £n«llah Floyi.' 
paffcs i7 to M . 
' T)ie»e W4IH na K^a^erj on iha Eliiabetbaji slaga 
> Ueasentror. 






a« Homco Boith, begin "ab ovO," ' but they muBt ttomu to 
tivi ^hiicip«i1: point of thut cina nctioQ which tbey will repre- 
sunt. tiy eXUnple tbia ivtll be best exproBScd; I bavn a 
fltcry of young I'olydoi-ufl, duliv^rid. fiir iwMy'ti sv.'kt. with 
KiTULt richue, by hix fatht-t- rrLdiiLiiii to IVLxintuastur, King uf 
Thnvce, in tho Trojun wiir tiuM.'- Up, nfUsr Bomo yearn, hwir- 
ing of tbo urtirllttvjw ijf I'mmas, fur to make thti ttotuuro hiii 
ovFu.Tniiniuretb the Lhilii; ILli bnwly uf ttic L-liild i* tak^n up: 
Ilccuba, flhi^, tho game tky, findeth a ^luigrhL to bo ravL-n;^ 
moat orucHlr «C llw lymnt, \VbcrL\ now, would oav of oiir 
tragedy -writiM* bui^iiu but with the ticlivt-rj- uf tbe child? 
TIr-q tiliuiild hi< Hiiil uvor into 'I'hrac;)*, niid iw i^pc'nil I kitoir 
not how mitny yeara, ;uid travel niiEnbfrra of pliu^frs. But 
wtiure duth Euripidcu P Evja wiLh thv Hading o£ tlic body ; 
leanagr tho rent to be Uild by the spirit <*f Ptjlydona. 
This ncedi no fttrthcr to be enlarged; the dull^■st wit may 
0OiM*ive It. 

Bnt, bmidea time gro»» iibsurditiD». how aH tbeir pluya be 
nj^ithor ri^^ht tngcdicA nor rigbl lumiHtira, min^'liDg kin^ 
«ni| L-lowus, not bev«ueo thti inatter so corrioth it, but tbnuit 
in the tlowQ by he&d and BhouldL-rK to ph\.y a ^mrt in majnA^ 
tical mattcra, with ncithur decency nor diw:<retion; bo uh ticLthcr 
tbc admiration and c-ommiBomtiuii, nor Ojo right Hp>rtfuLoeisB, 
is by their niongi«l tragi-coniody cbtnjned, J Vnuw Apukiua 
did Boniowhiit so, but that is a thing rctDuntiid with ciiuL-n of 
time, not reprcMcnt^-d in qdc mom«jnt : anil I know thv qnciunl» 
have one ar two fixamploB of tnigi-comi^dies us I'lautMu hath 
Amphytriu. Bui, if wo mark them will, wy nhall tind, that 
they Qcvtir, or very dftintily, nmlch hoi-npipi>e and funerab. 
8u ^lloth It out, that having indi»>d iiq ri|^ht comedy in ttuit 
comii-al ptirt of our tragedy, we havft nothiag but aCutriJityf 
unwurtliy uf anychaste cure ; or some i!xtrE?infl ahow of doltieh- 
nMH, indeed fit to tift np a load htughtcir, and notliiti^ shu : 
whore Iho wholo tnu^t of a comedy should bg full of delight: 
JLS thr tragiMly ahould he etill mainbuuDd id a welUmiaed 

But oor comedianA think tbrre i& no di?li)i;bt without laugli- 
ter, whJL^h is very wron j ; for thougb kughter niHj' como with 
dulight, yet Cometh it not of delifiht, as though dolij^ht ^uuld 
bo tbe cause of laughter; but w<dl ifwty one thing bnnKl both 
togcrthfr. Nay, in thf^maelvoft, they have, as it wi^re, a kind 
of ifjutntriuty. For delight wc scurccly do> but in thin^ 
that have a canveoieacy to ourselves, or to the ^ncml nature'. 
Ijiiiglitur nlmost ever comoth of things most diBprojiortion'Od 
to ourHr.<]v{>i and niitura: dohght hAth n joy in it tii^ur per- 
manent Or proHont; laughter haUi only a scornful titkUng. 
For oitaniple : wc are ruviab^ with di?light to bci* a fair 
woman, and yet arc far from btnng moved to laughter ; 
we lau^h ai defonned creatuR-n, when/iis cartiiinly wa cannot 
delight; wedtlight in^od (haticesi wc hm^rhat miBchanccH; 
we delJKht to hear the h4ppini3Ba of onr frionda and country, 
at which ho were worthy U> bo hiughod at that would llaui:>h : 
we shjiU, contrarilr, soTnetimpB laugh to find a initltrr quite- 
tniAnken, and go down thchilliii^insttho biaA,^ in tho mouth 
of »otuo such men, as fot the mipeK:t of them, cine shall be 
hrarlily uirrow ha uuuint ohooso but hiu^h^ and no in rather 
|Ht)nnd tSiHD diOiifhtcd wilh laughter. YcL deny I not. but 
that tb'y may go well togethn-r ; for, aa in Alipxfmdf r"a picture 
widl «it out, WB delight without laughter, and in twenty mud 
antics we luuKh without delight : so in Her<^ilea, painted with 
hi« jfTiiit bni»rd and furious (^ininten.'ince, in a wojiiAn's uttire, 
spitinini; at Omphnlc'a commundmcTit, it brefd« both delight 
and latightar ; for tbo reproBcnting; of no atningu a i>uw^r in 
lavf7, piacnrciv dvUghi, fnd the sGomfuliicu of the action 
atirreth latii^htor. 

*nna tlie egg. 

I, btoiH)^ FrtuoU "Vwla*' 

Hut I Bpeak to thi« purpose, that all the end of the eoDiial 
piU't be not upon such itoornful nwtton u hUt laughter only, 
btit tnix with it that dt'ljghtful teaehing which it the end <tt 
poeuy- And the great fsuH, rvi-n In tbat point of laughter,, 
and fnthiddcn pLii&ly by Arietotlu, in, that they atir laughter 
in (linful things, whi>i;h atc mthor eaocrablr than ridieuloin; 
lit in nuetrahlo, which are rather to b© pitiod than «»rDod, 
For what in it tci miJco iiA\i% ^Jie at a wrcLchod be$;gar. and 
a. luiggarly elown; or againnt the law of hoapitulity, to jmI 
at strungcrx, beieauMO thoy siwak not English so widl oa «o 
do f what do we learn, «neo it ia certain, 

Nil Uabct iofdix puaptiflu duriut in ae, 
Quiuu quod niUciilua huminaa tacit ? > 

Rut mthcr a liuay lono); court.iQr, and a hoartleoA thnxtening 
Thnteuj A 8clf-w-i.4f deeming iiclioolnmatcr; a wry-tKuiwfonnoi 
tmvrller; tbeiu^, if wo uiw walk in stage oumea, which we 
pliiy nnturally, therein were delightful luughter^ and teaching 
dflighlf ulnuBS : an. in the; other, thu trugediua ot Buchanan* da 
justly bring forth a divine admiration. 

But I have It^iahed out too many words of this play mattfr ; 
I do it, b«causti, im they are Dxc(.<lling parta of poesy, ao ia 
thu're none m> much oacd in England, and none can bo menv 
pitifully mbuR-d; which, like an uumunn<>rty daughter, show- 
tng a biid cilucation, eauwith her mother Pocay's hooeAty to 
bt' i-ull{4 in question. 

* Otlnrwirtrtof p(H:'lry,almoat,have we none, but that lyrical 
kind ef Hnnga imd ttgnneta, which,, if tha Lord gavt us ^} good 
minds Jiow well it might be omployed.and with how hL«vi;n1y 
fniite, both privute and public, in singing t!w pnuwv of the 
immortal beauty, the immortal goodnee» of that Ood, wb" 
givetb us hands to write, and wita to conceive; of wbicb 
WLi might well want wordjt, but nev«r nuittor^ of wbirb wt 
jjouEd tum our fyoa ta nothing, but we should ever bavu vtrw 
bndiling occaeions. 

But, truly, many of Huch writings as come under the llwnnKC 
of unreeistible love, if I were a mifltnMS, would neveu' pi-nuadi- 
me they were in love ; w coldly they apply Uory spccchoa, a> 
men that had rather read lover's writingn, and eo uuigfat up 
i;.Ttain Bw*-lling phraawi, whiuh hang together like a moD that 
onfM3 told nic, "the wind was at nofth-wc^ft and by south;" 
btH-'ause he wot^ld be «ure to name winds enough ; than thal^ 
in truth, thuy feel iboiHi paAsions, whieli oasily, i>e I think, 
mrtv be bf?wra3'L!d by tho aamo forcibleuesa. or "enn^gia,* 
;^iii Uku Un-eks call it) of the writer. Uiit l<'t this ba • 
Hiilhcient, thouj^h abort note, that wo miw the right ue <rf 
the matoriaL point of poeey. 

* Now for the oataido of it, which ia wurda, or (da I nay 
lerm it) diction, it ia evein wail worse ; so is that honey- 
flowing nuLtnm eloquence, apparellod, or rather disgitiiH. 
in A courtezan -li Leo painted aflectation. One time with ■> 
far-fetched words, that many aeom nionatora, but moat smn 
xtrangor^toiuiy poor Engliahman: another time with naunuMT 
(if a U-tl«r, as if they were bound to follow the method of a 
dictionary' : another time with (ij^utm and &ewora, eatruooly 
win t er-Rttarved* 

■' Jav6iua, Sol. fil, Vatm iSS—3, Which Samu^ Jofanaea flaal) 
fonkphrucd in liti " Lctn^tin :" 

'■ Df All the KTicIa tlwt bams* tbe cUatrart. 
Burti Uiii moat bitter iii a aoacnfuljcat." 

* Oeor^ Bu4:h<uiBa (who died in IfiSl, acnd •eveDt3''4is) liad vnt- 
l«^n la earlier lil« four Latin tmsediaa, wfaea Fnltmot «f HaTnia' 
tl«a At ^r4«mi. with Sl«iUij(iM ia hi> daia, 

' Dtfaria in Iiiirie Pottry. 

* D^acUinDietian., This belnir writtea onlf a jotr or two tftsrih* 
paUicnUon of " EnplLoea/' roprefttnt- (hat atyle of ■bed*)' whirkM* 
tMt o<«4t«4 twt rcjiresutud by the b<iok troia which tl took tk* 
aame at " EupliuUoi." 

But I would this fault w(;n3 only (laeilliar io vcmQors, und 

luul not u Urge poBKaaion amua^ proBe-priuter* : Knil, whii-h 
u lu lie niurvt'llotl, among many siiholiirs, Ami, which ii to be 
]ULi(>d, itainiii; aomu pT«iu:h4.'rv. Tmly. I could wtsli {if nt lotuit 
t mi^htlivsalMld to wi«li,m & tiling bi.'yund tiic. ri'Uich vf my 
CBjNicity] Iho dili^'nt imit»tor» of Tully »"iil Ui-monlhi-iifs, 
tuast wurlhy to be injiUktcil, iliil nirl au much ki>i°p Nijtuliim 
jmpr-booka ' of thcnr Hj^res umi phriisiiB, lui by utlutitive 
Inuiolittiftn, 4Ui it were, devour them whulu, and nuiku them 
w|ui>lly titvin, F'»' HOW tUiiy t-tist suifar aud spire ujkjii every 
ditth tlut to H'j^'cd n.1 the tAhb: like thoBC IiidinuB, not con- 
(out Ui wear eur-riii;^ ut the Jtt and tuitiirul pltux nf Lhi3 cnm, 
hut Ihuy will thriut jowcU through thtir noiK' luid lipd. bocaiiae 
tlu-y will bo amv to be fine. TuUy. when he w^t to drive out 
Catalibi-, aa it wurc with u tliundtirbolt of uloqueiu'e, often 
UMrth thy ligun: of rt'potition, ii» "vivit ct ^-im-it, imo in 
tetuLtum vcnit, imo in MiiEiji.tum vcnit," Sif.'* Tn^'Oil,mtlamHl 
with a wcU-gToiwded rage, Jii' woitld have his words, lu it 
witTO, doublL' uiit of hia mouth ; find «o do that artificially, 
wluoh we sue mcti in ch^tlcr do natumlly- And wv, having 
iKitt>d t]i<: ji[tw!« of thaan words, tLTLlo them in inonM^inieii to 
a fiMnUiwr epistle, when it were tuy much t-holer to be 

Ilnn well, store of '^siinilitcT cadences" doth aoimd with 
tho gmvity of the pQlpit. I vould hot invokR DeraDfithen^.^' 
wiul to tell, who with a rare daintin^^os uiielh thttoi. TnUyf 
thay hnvs madL^ me think of iiui sophiBi^r, Ihnt with too Touch 
Miljtifity woiild [.rove two og^ throo, and though Iil* mu.y bo 
ronplFfl a sophiBttn-, Imd aoue for his kljour, Ho thnse men 
liringinfr in «tuh a kind of eloqu^nc:e, well nuy thciy ohtiiin 
«a oj>iMioo of a ewming fliieiie«s, hat persuade ftfw, which 
tihouM ho tho «nd of their ttot^^neeii. 

Now for idiuilitudua in certain printed iliwourae«, I think 
aII hrrhtJiKta, all etorie»of beoata, fowlu, anil tiahe^ am riflid 
up, that they may come in multitudes to wmt upon any of our 
t*nr&ita, whitth Certainly ia as alisunl a Hiirfeit to the ears aa 
u ix>«eiblc. For the force of a similittulo not b4?inLr to jmi'vu 
um-thing to a contrary disputcr, hut only to explain to a 
wiHinB: hearer; wht^ that in done, the rest is a most tedioiu) 
prattling, rather orenwayirig the memory from the purpose 
wherrto they wore applied, I bun any whit informing thtj jndjf- 
mt^nr, jtlmidy either Ritistied, or by Bimililudeit nut to be 

For my pmt, I do not dunht, when Antoniun and CraMiis, 
the grojit ford:'athem nf Cicero in otocpicnf^c, tho one (itn 
Gcwro lestiSetb of them) prt'tendod n'l to know art, tho 
fithor not lo net by it, hemuae with it plain RonHitjluueHa 
they Tiiight win credit of popular wira, whirh crwlit is the 
nrNrest step to persiuLsion (whinh perauEUion ia the chief 
mark of oratory) ; I do not dowht, I say, but thiit thpy used 
the«A knac-kB vm-y npuringly ; which who doth generally nae, 
I any man may Hee. duih dftnce to hix own mujoe ; and eo to l.w 
nrilcd l>y the audience, more careful to npeak curioHaly than 
truly. Undoabtodly iat least to my opinion nndoubtedly) I 
hare found ia divera imiaLI- learned courtiera a more aoimd 
si rl0, than in some professors of l<»ming ; of which I ran 

I MOM no other <^tL»e, Init thdt the courtier foUowini^ that 
^Kh hy pmriice be finileth Stleat to natim, thoretn (though 
'1 Kisdlian pa]i«r~limiki atv eoinmoDpliwe Looks uf ([Datable piuasroa 
1^ note 4. png^ 71), so tsoMoii bi!ca.iiie an Itotiua ifmiiiniaritkD, 
tvfaa SlioUav, bam %i BFracUci tu tfaa l&tb c^ntnrr, im<3 onti of Tho 
•obolan of (be ficrwHuict in the iGtli, wiu iitie of tbe flrst [urD^iii^BfB 
ef aocb r jioUiev. Ui* (autribalian *aa nn nSplLiibatiOal fuliu dicUnniuy 
at pbn^m troia Cic«r>ci : "TheMiiiriu CLcorrjniajiaii, biyu Appamtiia 
l/tU(ti» laatine e scripliii TdIKI CicernniH ooHiwtus." 

■ " He lirea bdiI win*, niiy. cotQua (a tbv 8eu|it«, naj, t^JDVf to tbe 
'fiauAU," Ac. 

hti know it not) doth nccordiag to lu-t, thouffh not hy art : 
wlieru tho other, tmug »rt to ^ow nrl, and not hide art [u« 
in these caaea he ahould do], flietb from nature^ and iiideod 
aliuMith oi-t. 

But what 3 metbinks I deaerv*; to he pounded ' for atrajing 
fruiD poctrj' to ortilorj' : but Wth Iwivn sui'h an uAinily in the 
wordiah conuderationa, that 1 think this digrc^aion will nmket 
tny lueauing nic-eive the fuller unden^tunding: which ii!i not 
tu take upon mu Co teach poets Low Ltiey shuiild do, but imly 
finding m^'self aiek ejnong; Lho rest, tu aliow some one or tun 
i<potti of thf! common iufcM^tion grown among tho moal (lart of 
wtitera; that, aokDowIedgin^ ourselves BOmewhat (iwry, W« 
niAy bond to tho right uaa both of mutter and miinner: 
wherebj our lan^jmipi ;{iv9th lis great oc-cajsion, being, indeed, 
capable of nay 6it.atiii&at eKcreiHing uf it.* I know itcime will 
sdy, it ig a miiiglod lun^uuge : and why ont »u much tha 
IwtCer, taking the best of buth the other ^ Another will nay, 
it wjinLeth giummar. Nay, truly, it hath that praiau, ihni it 
wunbd net grammar ; for grammar it mi^lit have, but miadB 
it not; bcit% bo easy in i^iAU und «o void of thoao cunibcnr- 
»ome differences of caseat gonilora, meoda, and tcnsce ; wliieht 
L think, WAS a pi^ce of Lho tower of Babylon's curw, thnt » 
uuin ahuuM be put to achooL to luatn hin tnuther totigtto. Hut 
for the uttering sweetly and properly the conceit of the mind, 
which IA the end of speoch, that hath it tonally with any 
other tongue in the world, and is particularly happy in 
eompotritionft of two or throo wordj together, nonr the Greek, 
far beyond tbe Latin ; which ih odq of the greatest heauliea 
c&n he in a language. 

' \ow, of versif)4ng thtiro are two sorta, the one unaient, the 
othor modem ; tho ancient marked the quantity of ojich 
syllable, und neeording Co tliat framed hi>i vorae ; thumodeiTi^ 
oluDrving only number, with ^ma regard of the otceul, the 
irhicf lift) of it atandeth in ttiut like Bouudiiig of the wonifi, 
which we cull rhyme. Wlicther of these 1ki the mom extel- 
l^nt, would l>ear many speeches; the ancient, no doubt more 
fit far mu&ic, both words and time obaorinng i|Uuntity ; and 
more fit livoly to ^xprcHii divers passions, by ih< low or lofty 
Kiund of tho irell' weighed avllable. Thu l&tter, likewcHe, 
w:th his rb^-me striketh a. certain muaic to the uur : and, in 
fine, since it doth dolight, though by imother wjiy, it obtiineth 
the same purpose ; there bfing in eiiher, sweetnews, and 
wantiog in neither, nu-juaty. Truly the En^liid^, before any 
vulgar language 1 know, is (it far both (wrt*; for, for the 
ancient, the Italian ts so fuil of vowels, that it must uvor be 
cumbered with clisiona. The DutL'h so, of the other side, 
with cooHonants, thnt they caJinot yield thc^ awoet sliding til 
for a, vep*e. The Freac4i, in hia whole hmguage, hath not 
ono word that hath his uctyjut in the lottt ^ylluble, ouving 
two, called anteponultima , imd little moro hnth the KpanJ^h, 
and therefore vc^ry gracelcssly may they um dactilcii. Thn 
Ilngliah IB. subject to none uf these dcfueln. 

Now for rhymt', though we do net observe quantity, wo 
observe the iiccent very preci*t']y, which olhcc languages 
either cannot do, or wiU not do so alHCilui4^<ly. Thut 
" cfflsura^" or brsatluBg- place, in the miibt of the Yvm\ 
□either Italian nor Spanish have, the Frc^nuh and wo never 
almost fail of. tAaily, cvun the very rhyme itwlf the 
Italian cannot put in the loi^t syllable, by tho French naniml 
tliG mawiuline rhyme, hut vtiU in the next to tho Imt, which 
the French call the female; or tho next before iJiat, which 
the Italian ealla " adrucciohi :" the example of the former is, 
" boono," "BQonOi" of tho sdmecioU ia, "femina," **a©- 
mina." The French, of tho othgr wide, bath both the nulls, 

I 'Penndad. }*ut In Ihn- pnunil, wheu foxuid Utra^. 



I* ». U37 

Ma •• bom,'' "son," and tho fcmuEc, an "plaise,' "Uubo;" 
tml the " aJrucciola " he kuth not ; whare the English liath. 
ftU thnH% as " du«," "tnio," " fnther," " rutbffr," " moUwa," 
"potion; " with much more wliicli might bo mid, but thut 
ilrcody I Bad thn trifling of thia iliscoitrw ia much too much 

' t?fi th»t aince tho e»ar pmisaworthy pooay ia full of TJrttio, 
broedinj^ dclightfulni^s,. and voiJ of ntj gift thut oii(j[ht to Ih.' 
in tha nolle tiaria of loaming", sinco tbv bhitii'Ctf liid a^tiittt 
it a]i> Liilhi>r faliso or fwiblti; aini^ the t»u!w why it is not 
nteemod in England, is the fault of ^tot't-npea, iK't [>»?U, 
■incc, hutUv, our tonguc 14 moBt lit to hciTioLr puMy, and to he 
honuuivid by potay ; I conjure you rvll that have luul tho ewil 
c to ruid this inh-wiistin^ tuy ot mme, i^vcn in the riAmo 
I the Ninis lEiiBOfl, no more to ai-orn the uacred myaCorieB of 

My : no more tu kLu^rh nt lUi' miniii of jxiete, as thuugh they 
were next inh'^iitars to fools: do more to jeat at thu rererend 
title «f "a rhyinpr;'" hiit U> lielieve, with AnBtutlo, thut 
thpy wwc the andont tri^iiaiircrs of tho C(i\>cmii$' divtDtty, 
to heliEve, with Buoibus, that th«y were thn first btingura in 
of nil mility; to believe, with ScaligBr, thftt no philosopher '^ 
pn)(«|}Ui can flocmnr mulct' you iin hontiAt mun, thuti iins 
rendiiiH-of Viri^il ; to bi'liL'vp, with Clmiuorua, tho tTanslutor 
of ('Atmitna. that it pliMtoL'd tho hvnvDDly dimity by llBtiiod 
and Hoinrr, undw the veil of fuhltw., to jjivo lu all knowledgt*. 
logii*, rhiitoric, philoBOphy nut jnil and moml, and ' 'quid Hon V" 
to bi'IieVB, with utv, that tbyre ere many nivHti'ricia co-nt>(iiie4 
in poctrj', whif:h of piirpOfto weiru written darkly, lost hy 
profuQB wits it ehoitld Im abiisod: to bclicvr. with Laadin, 
that they ara bo beloved of the godfl, thut whatsoever thoy 
wrilti, pnwDOda of a dlvini; fiirj'. Ijiatly^ to hutiavc thoin- 
bpIvm, whan tbny tell fou, thay will nuke you inunortaJ by 
thpir vnrw^. 

Thiis doing^, your oamea ahall Soiiriah in thi? printers' 
Hihopa; tbu» doing, yon shiiU 1» of kin to m«ny 11 poatiuJ 
prt*fac!i4: thuA doing, you shull bo taast fair, moBl rich, moat 
wiM, Tnost all r yon fihalt dwell upoq auperlative* : thus doixi^. 
tlioQgh yon be " Lihertino pntre natua," you Ethrull auddealy 
grow " Hereulcu pmhw," 

St QUid men Cormiria poiauiiC : 
tbtlfl doiag, your aoul shtill be plsred with rfrmtc'a Beatrix, OT 
Virgil's Anchisie, 

But if (flu of flUL-h « but '.) you h« bom so nuar thii dalJ- 
making CHtoFatt of NiJus, that y«u cunnot heur the phinot- 
like music of poetry ; if you havo so oarth-cnwpin^ u nLind, 
that it r^annot lift ilfwlf up to look to the elty of poetry, or 
TBther, bya certain Tiiatic^-i! disdain, will besMmeEUchaMomr, 
hb to bifi n Momiu of pmlry ; then, though T will not wiah 
unto you the uoh'b cars of Midua, nor to bo drJvon by a pool's 
Tersea. H8 ftiihonax vim, to liun;^ himAEilf ; nor to be rhymed 
to diMth, OS is wild to be done" in Irahind ; yet thiut mudi 
ciirao T must send you in tho bclwlf of all popta ; that whilu 
yoH live, you livo in love, utiJ never get favour, fur bicking- 
akill of a Minnot ; und when you die, your momory die froiu 
thu curth for want of ad cpitjiph. 

In Philip Sidnev's life tliere was not leaa action 
H\i\n thought. He vas B. noble type of the young 
iftDfrgy of Englatid ip his time. Such energy gave life 
even to the vain search for iiove]tii.>& of speech that 
flought to put into the ilttily bread of converaitioti 
per bnui than was made of whoiit. In Europe there 
the domination of Spain, high in weidth &nd 
■epT to defy and overthrow ; a breacli to be made 

* Xflri AuMMrv M*^ platlM ptfofotitti. 

in the fjreftt barrier against civil and religious liberty. 
Far over the western aeaa there were new worlds to 
i^eRk, and tlirough tJie polar ice a \\o\il short cut to 
be forced, if |)OB&ible, for commerce with the Ea^ 
Tliere was a Corpoi^tion for the DiRcoverr of New 
Trades chartered by the Queen. Hiimphrey Gilbert,afi 
a BiBmlwr of itj urnred that tho Indiea might be reached 
by sailing to the nortb-weBt inat^oui of tho north-esar.. 
His " Discourse to prove a Piiasage by the Nonh- 
west to Ciithsy antl the Bast Indies," was printed in 
1.t77, by RidrnPil Eden, iij liis " Hiatoiy of TmvHvIe 
in the West and East Indieft," and tigaiB in Richftrd 
Hakluyt's record of " The Prindpal Navigationa, 
Voyagea, and DiBcoverios mail^ by the En^lisli 
Nation," published in 1589, a nuble reK.-ord of Englbili 
entorprise by seal, in the plain wortla of men who 
were telling their own stories, with the simple vigour 
that had carried them abroa^l on their adventures. 
lu June, I.ITG, Martin Frobieher ntjirteJ nort-hwivnJ 
with two harks, each of them tweiity-fii-e tons, the 
Gnbrid and the Miduid, and a ten-ton pinnace. Hh 
found Frobiaber'a Straits on his 6rst voyage ; aailod 
ajfim ill 1577, and miule »cqunintftnce with the 
iwiople of Meta Incognit-a, On a third voyage, in 
1573, he discovered the great inJot afterwartia known 
as Hudiion's Straitfl^ Gjiptidn George Best, one uf 
Frohisher'tt companiona, thiia deaciiljes the peril uf 
an Ai-ctic storm that broke upon tlieni after one of 
their diip», the Deiiig,oi 100 t^ns, had been WTPcked 
by an iceberg and lost with its rargo, the crew betu^ 

The fleet being: compusucd on every side wiEh ice, hai-itig 
left muehlMiliind them through which they pnaacnl, nndfinihAX 
more before th4.'m through which it was not poo&ible to pua, 
theria arode a eudden uiid ti'rriblo tpmpest, which, blowing fnaa 
tl^t mniu aca directly uiHin the place of the Btraita, hnni^ 
togethvr all the ite A^A&aboArd of ua upon our ^eka, And 
thereby debiirred us of reluniing bat'k to rwavpr scn-roon 
n^in; BO that, lioing thiu compaased with dnng^er on rvtrry 
nido, sundry mi^n with sundry devieoB «ougbt thc> best way to 
biive thetuBolveH. Some of the nhipa, where they t-ould. Snd.a 
plri('t> tnorD clear of ii'^, und get u little horth of wa-rwMn, did 
tuk^ in their sails, and there lay adrift. Other aome iiuAwtd 
and moored OD'choriipnn a ^;reiat island of ire, and Todc nn^v 
tho lee thereof, ^uppoEnn^ to be better guitrded thcrt-by froa 
tho oiltta-dCeoua winda and the danger of tbr lemrfltKituigiA 
And, agniQ, etfrae wi.Te no fast shut up and c'lnijNuiaod in uauic 
an infinite ntimbor of in^it eounlriiw and iniundit of in tkal 
thoy wiprc fain to TOmmit themwOvcB and their ship* to Utf 
miTCy of the unrnTircifitt iv^}, itnd atn^n-ilienr'l the aidM ef 
their ehipa with junka of i-abLe, bcda, mastM, planka, and «udh 
liltL', which, b*»iiiighana:ftiovL<rboiird on ihi' aides of their vhiiii^ 
mi^ht the letter defond them from llie>u« »wity uti 
atrokeut of the aaid ico. But ua in greatest dit(ttt»s men of hoi 
valour are beat tol»diBeerDeiI,#o it is greatly wortliyeooinwit* 
dation nnd nottaj; with what invineible mind iovery oDpiiUD 
encdumged liia eompuny, and with what incrr-diblo luboiv tlw 
painful mariners and poor miners unaet^ajtint^'d with ncli 
extremitiF^B, to the everla^itin^ renown of our luitiun, dul 
overcome the* brunt of these great and extreme dati|;;un>. For 
Home even without hoard upon the tix-. and Borate withia 
board upon the aides of their ships, having [mlea, ]Mhra. \»t<tt 
of timber, and oars in thc-ir hnndu, stood almost day andiUf^t< 
without any rwt, bearing o& the force and Lteaking the sway 



of tbi^ iw with Biicli incTMlibls pain and peril that it va% 
wondorful to behold ; which otherwiae, no doult, had Btrick:L>ii 
quii« through and through the sido.i of their iihi{«, nritwith- 
fltandmg our former proviiUDii ; fur platiks of timber of mure 
thun three inches thick, aud other things of greater force and 
bigni-3s, by the eurgiog of the sen and billowa with the icu, 
were shivered and cut in »iiliiii!r At the aid<>(i of otil ehipe. 
And amidst tbeie extreroes, whilst eoiae khourcd for the 
defen>CA of the nhips And 6uught to e&\-b th&tr bodiga, other 
tttnns, of more mild spirit, «oofrht to save tboir souU by devout 
pHiytf and meditation to the Almighty, thinking, imJot'd, 
by no oth?r 011^109 poBsililtj than by » divjjio minnle to havo 
thfiir delix'ierRncc ; to that tht^ro was nona that were either idlu 
or not well cccupiisl ; and be- that hold himaolf in heat security 
had, God Imoweth, but only baro hope remaimng for hia 

Frobiaher WB8 preparing for a fourth attempt when 
Fnncis Drake returned iu tlie I'dic'tit^ in Novembei-, 
1580, from his adventtirous Toyage round the world. 
The Queen ktughted him in 1581, and ordered the 
Pelican to be preserved. Sir Fnuicis Drake was t}ie 
son of a Devpnshii*e sailor. He was boni atTfiviatoek 
in 15+5, tlie eldest of twelve sons, and educated at 
the espensc of Sir John Uawkina. When eighteen 
jeai-s ohl he was purReV of a ship trading to Biscay, 
at twenty he made a ■voyage to Guin'ea, and at twenty- 
two was captain of the JtuHtL He served under 
8ir Joha Huwkins gainst the Spaniards ; came back 
jioo!', plmined an attack on Sjiain in the West Indiea 
lliat attracted voliiuteera, earned credit and WiS^th 
by other experlitions, ami used his wealth in fittiog 
out ships for the service of his ootintry. With Sir 
CJiristoplier Hfttton for a patron, and Elizalieth for a 
friend, he left Plymouth, in l.i77, with a little fleet, 
the Pelican, hia own ship, of 100 tons, tJia Elizabeth 
<ji eighty tona, the Hman, of tifty, the 3fari/(/old of 
thirty, and the Chrii/tofjfi^r of fifteen. He was bent 
on entering the South Sea through the Straits of 
Magellan. Before reaching the Straits Le had to 
abandon two of his ships, having taken out the crewij 
and proviaiona. After etiteiiiig the great South Sea 
the Maryt^ohl waB lost in a storm. The Elizab^ik 
^Hii'ted company and retuiiied home through the 
8traite. Drake m the PeHcan went boldly on, took 
gold and silver from slups of the Sjianiards — from 
one tihip at Yalparaino, froui three ships in the port 
of Arica, from twelveahipa. at LJiua — and after many 
adveiitiirea iu his piiawige over the whole round of 
the globe, including the sticking of his own vessel 
for twenty-seven hours on a rook, when he had to 
throw overboard eight of hia guns, Di'ake sailed again 
into Plymouth harbour on the 3rd of November, 
1580. In 1585 Sir Fraucia Drake went as an 
miral with on e-aniJ- twenty ahipa to attack Sjiain 
the West Indies. Two years afterwards, when 
le gt-eat Armada wa^ being prepared hy Sj^aht 
Bgaiust England, Sir Francis Drake set out with a 
sniall squmU'on to interfere as much as he could 
with the preparation Spain waa then making for 

"e delivery of wk'it was tueaut to be a crushing 
Let ua read the reconl of this expeilition 

tlituined hy the 'Rev, Richard Hakhiyt from one who 
took part in it, and given as received, with a few 
lines of kis own at die close which are recognised 

at once both by their matter and l>y change from the 
lirst person into the thinh Richai-d Haktuyt M-as 
about eight years younger than Drake. Me was born 
in 1553, at Eyt-oii, in Herefordshire, educated at 
Westminater School and at Chrlstclnirch, Oxfoiil, 
was ordained ami became, alioiit the yeai' 1584, 
Chaplaiti to the English Ambassador in Paris, aud 
also Prebendary of Biistol. He took entliuaiastic 
interest in voyages of adventure and discovery, and 
wc owe to his zeal the tmnami&sion to after time of 
ail admirable body of authentic records. He died in 
the same y^.r as Shakespeare, 1G16, and in hi« latter 
years, in the i-eigu of James L, waa a Pix^bpndary of 
WeatmiuBter, and Hector of Wethei-ingset, live milea 
from Eye iu Su-tfolk, 


A brief relation of the notable atmice performed by fOr 
Franrit I>rake apon the Spa»i»A Fleet preiiured in the 
Koadof Caifii : ami of his destroying of lOO anil of bark*; 
Paaabg from thence all aJong the coimt to Cfipe Sacre, 
whore also he took certain Forts ; and bo to th* mouth O'f 
the Uiver of LUlfOii, and thmce crossing ovcj- to the Mb 
of Sant Mie/iaff-, Burprised a mighty CamcV (tailed the 
fhut Phitip coming' out of the East Inditi, which was the 
first of tbiat kind thnt over was 8»*a in England: I'er- 
fonncd in the year Jo»7, 

Ell Miijrsty being in- 
formed of a mighty pre- 
pai-ation by aen, b6|f ub in 
K^Mlin for the inruxicin of 
Eofflund, by good advice 
ot ber |J?^VG and prudent 
Council thought it cx- 
pediont to prevent tha 
Bame. Whereupon abe 
cmuKod a Beet of some 30 
(laiU to h\i ngged and 
fiimiiJied with a)] thing! 
nci:ciiHary. Over that 
Beet she apixiintcd liene- 
rul Hir Fmncis Drake (ol 
whose manifold f onner good aerviceii she had saflicdont proof), 
to whom aho cauaed 4 ships of hor Navy myal lo be delivered, 
to wit, the Smarmtun wherein hiraiielf went aa UcneraL, the 
Lioit under the eondut-t uE Master Willijim Borough^ Contt.>lter 
of the Sal-)*, the Dreidaou^hi under the (."yminand of M, 
nionuiB Vcnner. und the SatHboir, caption whereof was M. 
Henrj- BallLnghani : unto which 4 ahipa two of hor pinnaces 
were itppointod as haudmaida. There wcro alao added untJ 
this fleet certain tall Bhips of the City of London, of whwe 
H'HIKifiid good stTvice the Genfral miidc particular mention iu 
hia private lotlcni diiected to her Majerty. Thia flert k* 
sail fnjm the Bound of Pljinouth in the month of April 
towat*(ifl the coast of Spain. 

The ItJ of the said month wo nwt in the ktittide of 40 
ilflgrees with two ehijiB of Middlehorough which came from 
Cadia : by whit^h wtt underatood that there who great rtoto of 
warlike provision at Cadiz and thereabout ready to coaie for 
I^iAbon. Tpan this information our ti-enenil with all spiMxI 
poasible, bending himBelf thithw to cut ofi thwir wiid fori^ea 
aad provifflODB, upon tln> 19 of April entered with hid fliWl 
into the harbour of Cadii: where at our firet entering wa 

Tiatvdfnm«iMw]!t:'i"¥ouai/tt" {LS8PJ. 



[i.o. IMS 

WGT» ofiBaik-d tjvcr AgTiinat the town by eixgulloya,' which not- ' 
withstanJinK Ln short lirau retired under Lhcir fartress. 

Thuro Tcrc in thu road &D Hlii[» and direra othi^ small ' 
v'^aselfl undfr the fortTcss : thpro flod about 20 Frcni-h whijis 
to Port Ileal, and BOmn snuiJI Hpuniah. tcbbgIb that mig^ht pusa I 
the ahoii^. At our 6r8t fomin^ in we sunk with our shot a 
ship of Ra^iua of .1 1000 tons, fumiEhed with forty pi«<»?3 of 
bmss and vm^' riii^hly laden. There rnmo two g;nl!r}-& more I 
from S. Mar}' port, and two from Porto liDule, which (jhnt ' 
freely at us, but altofirPther In vjiin ; for thny went Hwny with 
tfae blows well beatcm for their painR. 

DcfoTC nig-ht V6 had tulccn SO of tbo auJd Mfs, atid V<ximi^ I 
maatrrs of the nmd, in desptte of the gallieyB, whirh were 
g'lad to retire thc^u under the fort 1 in the BuinbDrof which I 
t^ipiR there was une new ship of an oxtraindiiuiry bigrnwis. in 
barthL<n tihavD 1200 touiu, bt'langih^ to the Marquia uf Sont^ 
Cm2, bnin|r at thnt instant high Admiml of Spain. Fiva uf 
then) werif! prcnt ahi|iH of Biftcay^ whereof 4 we fired as thfy 

tliuir contintiiLl t^hootin;^ ftom tbo gatlcye, the fuitti>sic«^ mad. 
iroEu the aiiore : where continually si pkcca convenirast they 
planted oew ordnance to cffond ub with : besidtw tlur* incon- 
Vifmenro whi<^-h we eutfui-ud front their ^ip9 which, when 
they could deft^nd no longer, they set an flro to come onoit); 
ua. Whereupon when the dood came we wore not & littio 
troabhd to deftmd ub &oin their terrible fire, whirh never- 
theless WHS ti pleuBRut sight for fia to behold, heeuusc we weir 
tfaercljy tasmi of a gri.icit kbour, whkh luy upon \u diiy and 
nii>1it, in diftchnrgiu)^ the viiituals and other provisions <tt thu 
eat.-ijiy. Tiixta hy the asciatnncc of the Almighty, and th<> 
itivini'ible tuUragu and induBtry of our (trndral, thu Atl^Ulire 
and hiippy outerpriao wns achieved in ono day and two nii;htic, 
to the ftrcftt (istoniahiBpnt of the King of Spuin ; which brtd 
Bueh a eoiTotdre in th« heart of tho Mnrquis of Santa Crus. 
hi^h AdmirJil of Sptiin, Ihnt ho never enjnyod good dayjiitT, 
hitt withm few monthB (as may justly be BUppu«o(l) died oi 
estn^me Rrief and aorrow. 

From JqIiii i'n 

r JPIar*" n/ Wj» tajrtarv HvngtlW "/ '*? Soytr a/ liOfdt. 

wAre tailing m tho Kihi^'bi provision of viitUiiJa for Ihr fur- 
niahing of hia fleet at ListMin ; the fifth bHng a ship of about 
1000 tooB in burthen, laden with iron spikes, naiib, iron 
hoo]>s, horse Bhocs. and other liko cecrasarioB hound for ths 
Wfwt Indicfl, we fired in like manner. Also we took a ship 
of IISO tons ImdeTi with ^nnps for thi- king'* provision, whieh 
we ejim'ed ont to se-a with us, and them di&charjrwl the fwid 
wines fo? our own iitorr. iind nftcrward set her on fir*^, 
Jloroovor we took 3 ily liofkta of 300 tohs a piece, laden with 
btsciu't, wboTCof oni.' was lialf iirdadcD by ub in th*.! tiarboiiT, 
Hiii there flrcid, and the other two we took inaur rompauy to 
the SCO. LikewiBC then.' were iire>d h}' us ten othc'r Bhips, 
whiidt wew ladini with wine. raiHina, fi^,, oils, wheiit, and 
neh like. Tc conclude, the whole numhi^r of ship? and Itarks 
(ws we stippoBe) thtn burnt. Hunk, and broaght away with un, 
aniountod to 90 at the leust, hfiing (in our judgment) about 
10,000 tont) of shipping, 

Tlirrc were in aifcht of ua nt Porto Real about 40 ahipe, 
b&<tid'>e thoiw thiit Hed fmm Cfldiz. 

We found little ertse dining our abode there, hy reason of 

t OtlUqNt. The )(athj— old Bpaiuah *' ipvlea," Intor "K>]im." AniK{« 
"fchrilnili"— • lari» BhJp. 1*114 low luid flpMriiilt, nArijntv] wlrb 
Mi«. ud oftan ti>w«1 hj ibv«c or priaoaen. Tli«ra i« ■ Sittjaidli 
^liet. ttftb ita oWt. oti Ibp rigiLt of tiie picture nborc, given Iroia 
Lbfi OIJ TBpeatriai o( the Euiiae of Lordx. 

T)]ua htivintif p(^rfonn«l thin notablo Acrriee, ve 'r«m« out 
of the jviad of Cadi* wo the Friday morniag' of tho 21 ut U»i' 
Slid month of April, with very imuill lo«8 not worth men- 

After our departure ten of the galleys that were in the rood 
eume out. UB it wcro in diadiun of ub, to mnke aomo ptwihntt 
with their ordnance, at whii^b titiib the wind seanU'd iipun til, 
whoi-eupon we east about aji^in and gtood in wilh Oic shorn 
aud came to an anchor within a league i>f the toim ; whfTi« 
th'O sitid gfiUcys, for aJU their tonner brag'^Dg, at length 
Buifered iw to ride quietly. 

We now have had Dxpcrimce of gallcy-fig^ht : whwcwi I 
ean asBure you^ that Only these i of her MajcBty'a shijai will 
make no aeeouat of SO gailevB, if they may be atone, uid n<* 
buHied to guard others. There wore never ^Ilrys that htd 
better plftco and flttor opportunity fartbcir advant^f^o to Sg^tt 
with shipft : but they were bKU forced to retire, we riiiag in 
a narrow f^t, the plare yieldinf* no bettcTj and drirrn t^ 
maintain thu witrae until we had diBcharged tuid Rred Ih** 
ahipB, which could not conveniently be done but ugnti Uw 
flood, at which time thoy might drire vicar at lu. Thw 
bc-infj iHetiuilled with brcrid and wine at the pnemy'* cort If 
divers montha (bcBides the provisions Ihnt wtt biuoght fiwn 
home) Ddr General deapati'hod Cnptitin Crnm into Eiif^and 
wilh hi» l^ttora, giving him further in charge to dcclan vBD 



hnr Mitjesty ilII the particultt.riti'Cii ''if lhi& uur Grat enterprise. 
After whoBti dopurtiito we Bhi[ipH'd our coitrao lowRrd Cape'. and in tl^e way thithir wci luok ni suvci-iil tiraos tif 
ehijtf, barks iind cnraviiU ' wi-U near tin hundred, laden ■with 
TioojJB, giiUvy uare, pijiy stiivos, and othc-r provisionB of tho 
tvin^ uf Spain for tlm furoisliing" uf hia forces inti^ndul 
againut Englnnd, nllwhiLh wli burriL-d, having; dualtfmvouruhly 
with tho men and acnt them on tdiarc!. Wc also spoilod and 
rxinBumi^ nil the 6t>hi3rboBt8 luid nc^tB thei«tbouta to tbL-ir 
greul hiniinuLce, nnd (>ls wc suppoau) to Ihi' utter ovarthruw 
nf thu rich Sdimg o£ their tuniiii?s for the same yeur- At 
length we cntne to tho Afomsaid Cllj>o Siicro. where w-e wont on 
l&nd : AB.A thn better to enjay tho bvneGt of the plaCA, aud to 
ride in harbour at our jjlcuRiire, we asmiled tho same caiitlo 
i»iirl ihrei' othpr sti^ngholda, which wo took, aomo by force 
Hiid iiom<i by Biirrctnder, 

T]iene« wc tame before the hnven of Ltiibon, aQi;hDring 
ncnr unto Cokugk,' where the jtlantuia of KanLiii Cruz wua with 
his enllsyx, who, seeing tis cbiMe hia ahipau^ihore and tuke tind 
cnrry Away his hnrlca tin*\ cuni^'ula, whs content to suffer ufl 
tht-re (jiiirtly to tarrj-v ur.d liki'wifte to depart, and novpr 
lihiirg^ed iw Willi one (.-unnuu shot. And when our Genenil 
xmt him word that he waa thei« reudy to axchungo ci'i'tiiin 
bullet^ with him. the Marquis rofuiMxl hin t halUog'i.-, twadin^j 
hiin word that he won not thi-n rrady for liim, ncir hod 4PT 
sittrh uummiaffiQu frqra bis luug, 

Our Ufineral thus refund by thfi ^furquia, and aeain^ nu 
nort- good to bi) done in thia plaw. thought it conveni'int to 
»iwni! no longer time ujion tlita eoiiat : and therefori'. with 
i-ouM'nl nf tho ehicf of hie cwnipanj-, he nhinKHl his coui-se 
towitrda th(? laleB of the AxoTea, and jtaaskig towjvrdi* thi- lale 
rtf Saint Michat'l, within 20 or ;tO leiiguea thcretif, it wiia luia 
g*ioil loPtunc to moet with a TortngaJ i-araek ' tulleil Sunt 
Pktfip^ licing- the BH3H0 ship which in thi» voyagt: outward had 
mrriLd the thrfo prinoos of Jupim thut were in Europi- inti) 
thi- Indies. This canLek without njiy grcut rcflbtanee he 
to'.'k, boatflwing the pcojile thcrt-Kf in njert-uji v<?3ael8 wt-ll 
furnished with victuals, and Bcndicg them cowrtfioualy honif! 
into their couotry: atid this wua tho &rat curaek tJint over 
WiH! tjikcn comins forth of the Kufit Indiisa; whieh tho Por- 
tnpila tnnk for Bii ovil aign, W.'aiUBo tho ahip bttre the Kin^'a 
own nunie. 

The rirhi* of thin priEe seemed so great unto tho whole 
comptmy (tw in truth it Vfan] thnt they aNSnrcd themBeJves 
«Vvry ninn to bnvd a sulhdenl reward for hia; Jind 
tbereujMin they lill reealvod to return homo for Eiiglund : 
which they happily did, and arrived in Plj'moulh tho lUimu 
eummer with their whole fleet and this rith booty, to thuir 
own profit, and our uommendution, and to the greut admira- 
tion of the wholo kingdom. 

And her*! by the wny it ia to be noted, that the taking of 
this irainu'k wroutfht two extmordinary cffecta in England: 
fimt thiit it tiLught otheTi! that curacies w<jre no sucli bugs ' but 
thAt th-^y might be taken (as aince indeed it hath fallen out 
in ihu tukin]^ of tho Madre 4f Dht, and firing and sinking of 

' Pem«rf«. nvnoh "eamwll*," HimnLih "caTtiiia." Uodem Qtoa\ 
"t^Bafl," OmUc ■■cairth." A Uirlit muod rtip, ot not tnore thaii 
1ft) fwa. with a iqujir^ poop -. aneil iii imta. 

* Crtirti^ X m»port town o( Portutfal, jibont flft«ieD milpj wewt of 

» r-arnrk. Tba preat dirp of hordeu i£se<l by tlia P^rtdRtieea lor 
troh: wttb Lhe gjut Isille* la aiud to Imve been called iu ForhtKii«»Q 
" came," TTom "iJirfiL." o. waifon, becausa -ol tlie (frent Innil it hnre. 
UUiursucriba tlMuamateaflnt luenf it in trade irith thoCiur^^nu 

* Av/>, emtmim of iMedliiMi fear, Welsh "bw;," hob^bliti. houtv- 
*n>w. So SJuketpwrfl. in the " Wiut«t'HT&le," Act iii. «c. 3:^ 

I" 3ir, ap%ra yonr Ihrvuts : 
Tbia blip Ibat jou «rouH trigkt me witb, l«eeh." 

othora); andaeeondly in Requriinting the EngUahKiitioumoro 
gentirally with tho purticolaritiea of the exceeding rit^hcs and 
W4!Rlth of tho Euut Indies: wheroby themaalve» and the'ir 
xu^ighboiorfl of Uolland have het-n encouraged, being men 
aa skilful m navigation and of no lesa euurage thun the 
I'ortugiLJd, to Shan! with them in the East Indies, where 
their ittrength b nothing no grttat us heretofore hath beon 

From (At tidc-pw t^ Lfnwhetn'4 " DitevurmfVuyana" (Ud6). 

Tlie ensT^es of life ami thought that mode Dntke 
ataml for Drugori in the eyes of Spain, and tlmt bred 
ill poetiy a Slmkeupeure, gave iilso Bacon's genius in 
aitl of the advanqenipnt of wjeiice. Francis Bacon, 
aliout tlirne yeara older tlnui Shakesiieare, waa the 
Hon uf Sir N'iaholas Bucod, Queen Elizubeth'i Lord 
Keejjer, and hia mother, dnughter of Sir Antony 
C'ook, wftB sister to the wife of Eliisabeth's chief 
stateamitn, Sir William C*cil, afterwards Lord Bur- 
JeigL As a student at Trinity College, Cuinbridgi% 
Fmlicia BncOtt liad »hawii diHtnj4t^ fur philoHnjihicuI 
Rbndiefi that train a mun to live within thti priiMin of 
his own mind, acutely intrasptietive, arguing ovpr ita 
wuy of arguing, thinking alwut its way of thinking, 
and ftcociimfcing himself to know enough of the outward 
world when he can invent ]irttt»ma of words under 
the name of definitions to explain ita factfl without 
luiking how they arose, wlmt they actually mean^ 
nnd what fmit tliey can War for the well-being of 
society. His wisli, even as a youth, was to lead 
men away from the vain hulxjur of running round 
nnd round within the circle of their own mbids, like 
the mice in a revolving cage, and urge them to use 
their braina in aid of jiuniaii progresK, Tlie mice in 
the cage are wonderfully active, ftiirl develop niuHcle; 
the cage-work is hill of exercise, no doubt; but the 
workei-s never get an inch beyond their starting- 
poiiit. So Biicon thought it wa.** with nineli of the 
philoHophicu] work he waa a.skeil to employ his 
mind upon. It became hw wish to j>ei-auude philo- 
iti^pbical thinkers that the outer world is the gi'^i^t 




[Ln. lh» 

([■uiftrry in wliich wo rawst Lew ; that a mail's l>niiti 
is the tool with which lie is to work that qiiftm-y, i-ich 
in the wisdom of God, which, wiien thus rightly won, 
becomes wisdom of iniin, and adds to tha well-being 
of tbe hnirean race. In this Jii-ection lie did aet 
thought working, and by so rioiiig gave new life to 
science, for by the vigour of his geniua he fixed 
ntU-ution on the only Botuid iind fiuitful method of 
f*pji.r«h into the secTeta of thti physical world aur- 
ronnding THiin ; hut thia wfis not until alter the 
(hiuth of Qiief;n ELiziibeth. In Eli/Jilwth's rei^n In? 
WE13 huttSing fur fortvine. His fHthcr died aiuliieiily 
when Francis Bacon was eighteen yoai-a old. There 
W(is n family by a foimer wife, and Hrrangeinents to 
pTOviile for the two sons by a second wife were Kot 
corapletetl. Bai»u had to make law his profc!8siou 
in^tteml of diplomacy, and se^k to live by it^ In 
1584, when in his twenty-ftfth ycsar, ho entered 
pArliiinieut ns member for Melwrnbe Regis, in 
DoL-setshifp. Ill the Parlianiient that met ui IStifj 
111-' -sut fur Tanntoii j lie wuh memhiei' next for Livt-r- 
]iiioL In 1589 he wi-otiS — hut did not print — a 
citim and rarnest jiaper u;[>f)n the imseemly spint 
sht>wn in the Marprelate nud other Church coiiti'O- 
vei'siea of the ilaiyJ In October of that yeiir he 
obtaiited the reveraion of the office of Clerk of the 
Ooimcil in the Star Chamber, which was worth 
nearly two thouKand a year; hut it was in i-evei-aion 
only, HJitl he had twenty years to wait before it 
became vacitnt. in 1593, when Ba^ion was meral>er 
foi" Middleae:^, he offended the Queen by opposition 
to leer wiah on a question of subsidy. Nest year lie 
ho|«;Ll, though only a yonug bniTister of tliirty-thi-ee, 
to jjet the vacant oflice of Attoraey-General. The 
Qiinen promoted to it the Bolicitor-GeneraJ, 8ir 
ICJward Coke, who had high standing in hia pi-o- 
ftviaion, and wus by nine yeara Bacon's geiiioi'. 
llttoon tried then to obtain the offi<?o of Solicitor- 
Geuenil, which Coke'i* pi-oraotton had left vacant. 
After long delay, the Queen gavi' that office, in 
Ntjvombftr, 151)5, to another of his seniorai. The 
young Ear! of Essex had been patron to Fmnds 
Bacuu and his brother Antony. To make amende 
for" BacMjn's di)4ap{x>intmentL the Earl of E;.s!i(jx guve 
Bacon "a piece of land "^Twickpjdiani Park — wlneh 
hv. afterwards sold for ^1,800 (equid, say^ to about 
J; 12.000 in present money), In 1597 Bacon was in 
debt, and thought to help himself by maiTying a 
rich young widow. That prize waa afterwaitls (in 
November, 1598) won also ft-om him by Sir Edward 
Coke. It wua at thia [period of hia tife^ when he wiiK 
thirty-six yBju-s old, in Janmiry, 1597, that Fi'ancis 
Baeon published the firat edition of his " Essays." 

This book was a very little one, containing only 
ten Esaaya. followed by twelve 8acred Meditiation» 
ill I^itin, and hl thutl beotion of ten pieces, entitlefl 
*■ A Table of Colours ; or, Appearances of Good and 
Evil." Bacon's " Essays " grew with his life. They 
represent his analytical spirit applieil pi'a(!tically to 
man, with a view to the eundtict of life, a$ in hiu 
philosophy it is applied to outward nature with a 
view to the material well-being of life and the 

'' tt j« pivm in th« valonne at thi* Lfbrar; Itltiirttatiim' Ejig'ligli 

isicrease of man'^a store of wjgdom. Apart froio 
iinauthorisctl iasiiPA, there were three editions of 
Bacon's " EsBaya," which mark tlieir development 
The first etlition, in 1597, contained ten essays; the 
author's second etiition, in 1G12, eontAiiied ihiny- 
eight ; m hia thini edition, published only a yi-ar 
befoi-e hi,s death, the number of esaays was increao^l 
to lifty-eight. Moreover, the successive ciJitniiiii 
)jl)0w eontioued work upon tho old caeays as w«-]| m 
the addition of new. Bacon's ** Easinya," in fiict, 
seem to have been jiart of tlie utterance of all !nt 
life after it had i-eached its meridian, to have \hkh 
iilwiLyn at bund in hia fitudy for niorlificntion ijt 
wlditioD when he wm disposed to quiet contemplation 
of human arfaii-s, and they remain to iis aa fiitalJ^ 
isHuttd — the deliberate, well-weighcci expresMitm of hU 
Mim of worldly witidom. The only essayist liefort 
Bu£on waa Michel Montaigne, and tlie first editHtn 
of Montaigne's essays had appeared in 1580; the 
second, much enlarged, in 1588; the thii-d in 1595. 
The first English translation of Montaigne's &^tin 
wa.s liy John Florio, but that did not appear until 
HJ03. A copy of that was in Rhakespeare's lihniry, 
for it i-eniains with an undoubted autograpb of 
Shakespeare, and there is ehreftd use made of t 
passage from it in the second scene of the second art 
of the "Tempest." But the pleasant talk of Mon- 
taigne's essays sup]died to Bacon no patt«TJi of 
esaiiy-writing. To Bacon, the essay was — accoi\liii^ 
to the strict meaning of the word, preserved still in 
its other form of "assay" — an attempt to rwlnw W 
its elements each relation of life that might be ii\iiA^ 
a subject of analysis. In the first etlition of tm 
essays, ■\>iiiicli shall he here given complete, tk 
i-elaciou of life to religion is not yet includcti in dii- 
field of view, though the section of "Sacretl Medita- 
tions" insures it^ behig contained within the volmnc. 
Bacon b^ns with Stndy, Mati alone with t» 
thought ; passes then to iiitei-course with anotljCT 
man, DLScoui-ae ; then to tlie common forms of siwli 
intevconi^e, in three divisions, Ceremonies mJ 
Kespectii, Followei-B and Friends. Suitors; tJien to 
a man's management of hie life in the household, 
ilk Expense, in Begimen of Health ; theJt for k" 
njiuiagement and advancement of life in the nvM 
world, at home and ahraatl, in the three rpinaiiiini; 
easays. of Honour and Reputatiou, of Factioti, tf 

BACOS'fl ESSAY'S — 150?, 

WtudicB serve for pMtim«>a, for omaincnt*, for »liiliti«: 
thtir chief use for pnatimcs is in jirivntencw nod rdiriiif : 
far ornaments, in dist-oursc^ and for ability ia juiIgm»^t-M 
ex[)crt men can csecute. hut Iwimwl morx nxn mow fii ta 
judgR nnd cenBure : to spfrnd too much timo in tliem ii tk^ '■ 
to U80 Ihtim tuo much ior arnutnt^nt ifi nltoflAtioD : to m^* 
juilgtiifnt only hy thrir rules ia tho humour ol a irfMUT; 
thpy peT^oct iinlure, and an; themw^lvFa pt-rfwtwl by fipei- 
encc : craft}- men contomn thom, 'wiso men iu« them, KuniJ* 
mun admire tht-m ; f«r tliey teneh not thf ir own iwr, but lb*l 
there ifl a wisdom without them «nil nl"ovc iht'in, w"i> V 
n1)w?rvution, Bt^ad not to (contradict, nor to lM»Ii«»vc, but tu 
wui^h Mad consider. Some liooV* ore t« lir ta«(^ ahn* ta 
Ije KWJiUanod, imd some few to be chewod and digoEtmi : liul 

■Ki 4.D. isor_i 



» to tic rt«d only in i>arts, othorH io bo pead but 

oly, abd iamt icw to lio redd wh'olly taith diligcnci; 

I mUcntioD, Rending mnJcL'th a fuLl inao, conEiir^nce u 

Mdy. and ^Titin;^ an amtct msia -. thL-rfifon-, if a man write 

Ule ho liuti iux.ll of a great memory; if he toRfer iJttk', he 

had Qf^l of a pitrstTit wit, and if hn itmd litilo, he hail &(<ed 

hur>L- iTiLit'h running to uc-cm to know that he duth not 

know.' llistoTicAmako mcti wise , potta witty; the mnthc- 

wti'i-s 9uhtlc< ; nutumt philosophy dco^) i moml gi-avu ; logii;; 

[ Knd rhcAorir u'blr to conteod. 

0/' Itineoumr. 
Some in thnir dis^^aurse desire nitbpr conimtndution of wit, 
in K^tn^ ublc to bold nil arg'umeata, thim of jud^L<nt in 
discenting whjit is ttuc : as if it wpri? it pmiae to kiiaw what 
ou^ht bf> a»i'l, and not wliiLt Khould bo Lliutight: same have 
CKittim CLtuinionplaicca find thumi^s, whorcin they ore |*L>a(l, 
aad want vnritfty : which kind of poverty ia for the most pnii 
tedious, nnd now and then ridictilo'US : tho honourablDBt piirt 
id talk ia to gfivv the occasion, and again to modGniti', iind 
pan to eomeW'hat viae. It ia ^ood to \ary and mix Hpo(K-h of 
thr present M.T.isioii vHh lirgumentEi' : tiUi>a with it.'nsottB; 
dng of questiana with tollinfj of opinionai and jeut with 
■ne^t : but eome things btq privilcgud from jetrt, ontnely, 
Si^ioh^ laiLttiTa of etnte, great pei-sotWt all meti»" prcst'tit 
inese of importamo, and nuy case that dtscrvdh pity. 
! that LiufMtiunL'lh muirh &kill loHi-n much, Hnd c^ontcnt 
Pwoc^ eapwiidly if hn apply his quPdUonw to tht* akiU of the 
futy oi whom h« askoth: for hi^ aluill ((ivo thctu ortneton to 
plMtHO thLinM.'lv(.'a in apcaking^ tmd him^Qlf ^lull cuntmniilly 
gathfo- knowlodgo: if Kimctimos yoti disHcmble your knoW' 
IcO^? of thiit }'oi] are thaught Iq know, you uholl tie thought 
anotht^r time to know that which you know not." trlpoeih of 
H ninn's self is not good often; iind there ia but one thing 
wheT'^iti it nuin nm\ comm^ml himiself with good gra[?L', &nd thiit 
it i-omiurnding virtue in nnothcr: eBpt^^iiully if it be ^uch » 
virto« AA whert-unto hiinfii-lf prt^tctndotli, Diacri'tion of B[iecch 
18 more tlum clonuenpp, find to upcak agreeably to him with 
vfaodn we denl, is more thsii to speak in gt>od wordis, or in 
order ; n ^^ood eontinQud spc^li, wtth'Oiiit n good Bpe€>{:h 
E interlocution, sbowcith ^lowneM ; and a good ACKLond itpccirh 
ithont H ^ood eet Bpcorli nhowelh shallow qiihs- To usb too 
ny ("ircuKoiiitiincoB ere one come to the matter ia wwirisorae, 
1 to IMw none lit nil EB bltint. 

Of CnvmonUx rrntl Rr-Bp^etB. 
He that iuoniy renl, nocdcth exceeding great puiia of virtue. 
i thp stoup hnd ncved to he fxueuding rieh that is set willinat 
Tl : but commonly it !» in pmi« as it ia in guin : for lui th" 
!OTCth is trur that light gnins make heavy purf«-«, bL-niusc 
r coute thU'k : whereas the grttat como but now und IIk'H ; 
k it U U tmo that tmoU matters win greut comiinKadation, 

' Bttxm mmmta a touch oT the Mine tmnniuf , wh'L-la muiiy use whc 
wn«>l4 Ite mcrrry ta commend tt, ia IJi& next emaj. 

* Tov tiuill b# tlMugM to tnair that wkuih \ji}u ktOiC hW. 
^^H Tliere t.n a Krt of men, wtiowa rtsncm 

^^H Zto cmm and maallr^ hkj» a atawlinir piraid ; 

^^^1 Aail da a. mittal stUlncw eulertain, 

^^^B With imrpntK to be dr^ncicL in ul opiniDn 

^^H^ Of wiadoni, ^m^HtT. |?rilfqui](l cnucait | 

^^M A* nho nhaLI aaj. " I am Bir Oracle. 

^^K Aod when I ope my lipn !al on dog tinrfc ! " 

^^^^ O inj' Antonin, I rlo kiiov of these, 

^^^H That therefare rt^ly ore- reputed wiie 

^^^H Fi^ nayibii aothiug- ; wbea, I'm. very aare, 

^^^^■^^^ II tbi.'7 Htioiild Hpealc, 'twould almoat damn those inn 
^^^^^^^^^^ fThich hoarlnjT tbem, would call their brottton fru^la. 
^^^^^^^k (Bhake«p«uro'fl " Unrcljuirt of VeuJoe." Act i-rscv 1.) 

boausu they are contiDually in obp, and in note, whcrv>us the 
ociandn of uny griuit virtue cometh but un limlidnyB, To 
atttun good fomu it aiiffic;ctfa not to deHpiHO them, for so shall 
a tDAb obiH'rTQ them in othera, aud k-t him trust himself with 
the rest : for i£ hf L-are to express Ibem ho sbull loac their 
grauo, which ia to hf- imturuJ, and unaifocted. Some tnen's 
hehak-iouT is like a vc-me, wherein evorj- aylhible is measured; 
bow ran a nun obaorve grent matters that brcaketh hin nitod 
too nnut-'h ID smnU ob ler rati one ^ Xot to ubs t^remoiue^dt 
iiil is to te^ti others not to use them ugain, and so diminish 
hii! resp«^t : cepacijiJly they are not to he omitted to atracgcrs, 
nnd Gtnuige naturoH. Among n mati'ii equuls a nan shall bo 
Bure of familiarity, and tliorefore it is good a Itltlo to keep 
btatG ; among a. man'H. inforiarH a miin aliitU Iw biitg of irrcr- 
cmio, JUid therefore it ia good a little to be familiar: h'-' that 
i» too Diuch in anything, no that ho giveth another occasion 
of ttatiiuty, uiak^th himi^elf (^'hoiip ; to apply oneself to others is 
igoud, HO it he with di'RionstratJon that a man doth it upon 
Tfgiird and not uptju facility : it is a good precept geneially 
in SL'Coniiiiig another, yot to add wniowhat of hisown ; if you 
grant his opinion let it be with eame distinction; if yoU wHl 
follow hiii motion, let it hf: witli coaditioti ; if you allow his 
(^ouubcI, let it be with tJleging further roasoD. 

0/ Fiilhwers and Friendn. 
CoBtly followers are not to he liked, lout wMIb b man 
miiketh his tmin longer, he inaketh his wings shorter. I 
reckon to be costly, mot theim alone which charge the {Jiirsc, 
l>nt whit:h are weariwimD and iniportunato in auita. Ordinnry 
foUuwere ought to challenge no higher conditions, than 
couutenimco, r&camm«ni^tion, and protection from wrong. 
Fnctioiw followerK arc wome to be liked which follow not 
upon aSe^.'tian to him with whom thuy rango theiusolves, but 
upon eornt^ ditteontentmcot received sguinot wrae othcn, 
whttretipon oommonly eoauAth that ill int^^Iligence, that many 
time^ we SCO betwcf^n great persO'tiugeH. "^v following of 
e^'rtain statciifl answerable to that whii'h a groat perBon:ige 
lums^^lf profcsaeth; aH of Holdiera to him that hiith been 
employed in the wars, and tho like hath ever been a thing 
civil, and well taken even in tnoDarehifB, «o it lie withont too 
niiK-h pomp, or poptilarity : but Chu moat hoaounible kind of 
fellowing is to be followed as one that intendoth to adviim'6 
virtue and deaert in all sorts of ]>enKin»: and yet where there 
if. no imminent odda in guCGcintnty, it ia hettur to take with 
the more pnasable, tlinn with the more able : in government o( 
charge it is good to une nun of otie rank equally : for to 
tountemmco some extmordiiMirily is to muke them insglont 
and thi4 rest discontuut, because they may claim a due : but 
jn favoui-s to uao men with much difierencc and elcclion ia 
good, for it makbth the poreons preferred more thankful, and 
tho rect affections, because jj,! ia of favour. It iu good not to 
muko too much of uny innn at ^rst, because one otnnot hold 
out that proportion. To be governed by one ib not good, and 
to be dietnteted hy many is worac; but to bike Advice 
of friends is over honouruble; for lookers on many times *wi 
more tliiin gnmestere, and tho viile bPRt discoveieth the hill. 
There is little friendithip in the world, rand Icn^ of all between 
equjila ; that whioh is. U botwMn superior and inferior, whoso 
fortunes may comiffchond tho one tho other. 

Many ill matters are uudertiikon, and many good matter* 
with ill minds; some ombraCQ Huita which never mean to 
deal effectually tn them, hut if they see tiicro may ho life in 
the matter hy some other mean, they will be content to win 
a thank, or tako a second reword, gome take hold of suita 
only for on occAaioQ to cross iwmQ othere. or to moku u 






inform ntion, wliereof they could not otlierwiae have upt 
pretest, Tfithout care of what bccom*? of the suit when that 
turn ih served: na}% same uniivrULko amis with u full purpose 
to Ut them fall, to the end to gratify th« uclvene party or 
competitor. Purely th<ire is in sort a right lu evi?ry suit, 
either n right of equitjr, if it hc^ a aait of eontiuversy ; or u 
ri^ht of dfisort, if it he a suit of petition. If affeption lead a 
main to favour the wrong biiLq, in jiuLicc mther let him use 
his cionntEiiiiJica to eompoimd the uiattor thun to earrj' it : if 
aJfection lead a man to favour tlie lesa worthy in desert, let 
hiiu do without depraving or disabling the better deHervcr. 
In «ait9 which a man doth not uudcrstand, it is good to refer 
thoni to ^mo frioDd of hifi, of trust bud jodgmGnt^ that iha^ 
report wlicther he may deal ia Uiein with hontmr. Buitora axe 
BO distnetj.^ with dnsliiys and fchunca, thiit pluin dealingp iti 
dunying^ to dotil in suits at first, and reportiDg the Hurcpsa 
barely, and in chnllen^ng no more thanks tiuin ono hath 
doserved.ifl grown not only honourable, but also graciouH. In 
Buits of fjivour the first earning ou^ht to take but little p)aca, 
fio farfoorth conHidi-mlion miiy he hied of hij trust, thut if 
idtoUigfmci] of the maltcr could not otherwise have been had 
tut by him, HdvHntag^ bo not takun of the note. To bo 
i^oMmt of tbo Tulue of & suit iia simpiicitv, as well aa tO hn 
jgnonml of th*^ rig-bt thereof is want of (.'onacience. Secrecy 
in ^uitii i» Lc great mraui of ohtnining: for voicing them to he 
in farwartlni::s« may discourage some kind of suitors, but doth 
quicken and nwnkA others. But timing of Auite ia tho 
jirinrapnl; timing, I say, not only in respect of the perBoo 
that flhoiild grant it, but in mspK^ct of those whitish are like to 
cruas it. Nothing i» thought BO easy a reqwest to a great man 
aa hiH lett«r, und yet not in un ill caiuae, it ia m much out {if 
his rrputJition. 

niches are for Bp<niding, and eiipending for honour and good 
actioiu: therefon.i extraordiimri,' expentie must be liniit^d by 
the worth of thu occasion: for voluntary undoini;; may be as 
well for n. man's eoMnliy ae for the kingdom ui hL«ven ; but 
nrdinarj- expcni»(.' ought to he limits by a miin'a entate, and 
governed with Boih rejnirJ an it bo within his compass, and 
not subject to dcft-it, snd abuae of siirvants. and ordiirod by 
the bi4t tthow, that the I*il1s may be teas thun the egtimation 
abruLd. It iA no bnw nL''BH for tho greatfiHt to deacrnd and 
look into their own ostiitc: some forbear it not of nugligoncB 
akino, but doubting to liring thcmsclvoa into melancholy, in 
nopoct thoy shall find it brokiob: but wcmnde cannot be 
I without Searching. He that (Mmiot look into his own 
, had need both choose well tho!io whom he L-mfjloyetli, 

\ clkungfi thfim often, for new mra axu more tinrnrous and 
Ipbb subtle, Jn clearing of a nuui's estate he may as wdl 
hnrt himsolE in be^ing too sudden, us in letting it run out too 
long ; for hasty selling is commonly a& disFidrantageabl<^ as 
interest. He that hath u sLiite to repair may not despise 
«imBll things: and commonly it fa k-as dii^bunour to abridge 
potty charged, than to stoop to pelty gettings, A man ought 
wurily to begin eh«rgcB which begun must continue, but in 
mattKra that return tiot he may bo more liberal 

Of Re^imm of Health. 
Tliere ii* n wisdoni in this beyond the rules of physic ; a 
man's own obsfjrration ^ whnt he finds good of, and what ho 
finds, hurt o^f, \» the biBt physic lo prewrve health, but it is a 
Bufer condition to say, this agrecth wi>ll with me, therefore I 
will coiitinuii it ; I Hnd no offcnicc of this, therefore I may nee 
it: for atrenftth of nature in youth passelh over mnuy 
oxceasoa, wiiich we owing a man till hia age. Discern of tho 
-wnuiig on of yean, and think nut to do the satnd thinga slill : 

beware of any sudden change in any great point of diet, and 
if nec'ssity enforce it, fit the rest to it. To be fnt-'mindt'd 
and ehcserfuUy diaposed, at hours of meat, and of «leep. and 
of exeiciee, ia the beat precept of long iMsfing. If yon fly 
phyHie in health altogether, it will be too Btrong for your 
body when you shall need it;: if you make it loo familiar it 
will work no ojctra ordinary effect when cdirkneM eomfth 
Despise no new ticcidttnt ui the body, but uak opinujn of il 
In aii'knesB principally respect houllh, and in health action, 
for those that put thoir bodk* to endure in health, may ia 
most eickni'M which are not very sharp, Ise cnix.'d only with 
diet, and good tending. FhysieiunB are, wime of them, m 
plciwing to the humours of the patient, thut they prew ™ti 
tho true- eiire of the diseaso ; and some othca* po tegalai in 
proceeding according to art far the disease, as they rc«]*ct 
not eufliciently tho condition of the patient. Take ortc of ■ 
mild temper, and forget not to euU hA well the best acquainted 
with your body, as tho best reputed of for his faeiilly. 

0/ HonoHf aitd EeptUation. 
The wincing of honour is but the rfvealing of « mete'* 
virtue and worth without diHAdvatibige ; for some in thcir 
actions do affect honour and reputation; which Bort ii( mi-n 
lire much talked of, but inwnrdly Httli^ admired; nndsoiiui 
darken their \T.rtue in the show of it, so that they be under- 
valued in opinion. If ft man perform that which hath no* 
b*;en uttempted before, or attempti'd and given over, or hath 
liefu nehieved, but not with so good circumstance, he *b"»II 
purchaBo more honour than by effecting a mattur of gfatcf 
difficulty wherein he is but a follower. If a roan so tcmimr 
his actions, as in some of them he do eont«nt ever^' fairticin. 
tho music will be the fuller. A man is an ill husband of lu» 
honour that cnterelh into any action the failing wherein njijr 
disgrace him more than the caiT>-ing it thicugh can beiiiMr 
him. Diecreet followers help much to teputatidn. Enrj, 
which in the canker of lionour, is best extinguished by declar- 
ing u man's self in his ends, rather to seek merit than fun& 
and by attributing a man's snccese rather to providonoe, and 
fe^ieit;^'. than to his own virtue and policy. The tr» 
mamlialling of the degrees of sovereign boneur are Ihijs^it is 
the fir^ place, eowiitorea,^ foundera of statics. In the tcoand 
place are iiyulalorrt, lawgivers, which rn-e also culled nmeil 
founders, at ptrpcfHt pr'Mfiptu, because Ihcy goveni by ihni 
oidinancea after they aro gone. Tn the third plarv m- 
lilffrcitoitt, such as compound tho long nufieiies of civil wu^ 
or deliver their Country from tbe s«:irvitnde of slTangvm M 
tj-mnts. In the fourth jiltfcc are prnpaffatgrft, or proptfmUm 
imperii, Buch Bfi in honourable wor^ enlargo their territoria. 
or make noble defence against the invader^. And in the !■* 
place are patna patnt,^ whioh reign justly, and make it' 
times good wherein they live. JHogret* of honour in nuhjrrt* 
aro, firftt, pnrtieipft eui'ai'nm, those upjn whom |>rinr«B «J'> 
diechargo the greatest weight of their affairs, their right hanckt 
ae We iiall them ; the nert ate dueea belli, great liiulnn, facli 
(IS are princ^fw" ligutensnts, and do theio notable scri'ice in thi* 
vara; thi!! third aro ^ratiiui, favorites, snrh ws vxiv^d n<i 
this scantling to "bo solnce to their sovereign und hamili-Mto 
tho people; and the fottttb are called wyfotiU pam, »uch «* 
havf- great places nudcr prJncoB, and exoeuto tkdr pUow ' ii*i 

■ CondtloTu, Imiltlern. Pifrp*f«l yr^ttApmt, perpetnal eliMk Bmb* 
luldud in 16^ to canAilOTt*, the wnrd im;HTi«, bnI1d«r« of tm^am. 

■ Putalt |M(rM, fathers of their COUntrj. Partidjxw CMr^nai. liaNfS 
or dares. DiKf biilli, l^twltTs of wnj. A'r.^l'iw y^rtm^ i / v n % ia yBM* 




■ Of /''artitiH. 

SJjirtT hnve a. new wisdom, otherwise cnllcd a fond opiman, 
thiit for n prince to gnvrim hit estate, or for a grent person 
to govern liis |ir(X!f<e(im^» ACi'drdibg to the teap^i-t of fuctian 
i» ilia principal pjui at policy : wbs<re«8, contTBnwwe, the 
chidf^t wisdom u either in ordfiring thcwa thinge whit^'li are 
K^jnemU unJ "nrherfritt mom ni aevpnil fnctiimft An nevcrtheliMs 
Sffree; or id ^iUiitini^ wi!.h ci>rr*'aponjlin}| persmia Oiiu- li>' one. 
But I Niy ufil that the CHiiuutlfnitioii ui factions is tu be 
B^glectetl : nuNtn men muut udhere, but grsaX men ih^it hjive 
strength in thomsplras wero better to inuintaiii thtnnselTea 
■ndiffereflt and netitml : yfi- avcn in beginners to adhere so 
moderately m he be tk mun of thu oiii:> factiun, which U 
punahloflt with the othar, commouK* irivtith liwt whj. The 
lawc4' »nJ wwakpr fiu^tioti is lh« firmer in twTiditwn, When 
one of the ticEion U oxtinffui^ic<(l, the rcnmiiiin^ siibdiridetb, 
■whii-h is pixjii fat a wiocmd. It is commonly 8ei*r tliat men 
oDcc piuccJ takv in with the contmry fitctiua to that by whit:h 
they unlnr, Th« tniitor in fuctions lightly ^oeth iiwiiy with 
it. for whoa inHtUTS hiivv tituck l^^ttji; in luluni^ini;, ths winnin);^ 
of eomv Ob« man custeCh thi-m, and he gotteth id) the thunlfB. 

► Of Nefotiatirtf. 

It U bott«r g'^nerally to d^il by speech thun by letUt«, 
md by thfl niedifttiun of n third thun hy oa^wlf, L<«tt4rs siro 
good, when Ji man would draw an annwcr by letter "itAnk 
■affain, or when it may servo fur » man's justifimtion after. 
words to pToduoe his own letter. To dwd in person is ^ood, 
whcrt- a man's face hneedn re^^ard, as cotaineiily with inieHon* 
In choice of infltnimentfl it U bt'ttcr to ch<t09e men of a 
plainer sort, that are likely to do that which is eommitttNl 
onto them, tintl to report hack again faithfully tbe aaccean ; 
than they that (ire cunning- to contriTe cut o( rather iiicn'8 
huHtneflA Mnttiwhat Ui gnic^ thtaniSLilves, i^nd will h«lp thu 
mutter in n>pcrt fur Katiqfuc.-tion'e anko. It in bettor to sound 
a person with whom one dralfth. afar o^, than to fait nfxin 
tbo point ut first, oxe»pt yuu i]i^>un to aiirpritHi him by e^iinc! 
abort qiio'etion. It ia U'tter dealing with men of appetite 
thun with th«80 who an; where they would Ik.'. It a iniin 
deal with iinothor upon conditions, the start, or first p^or- 
aiani-e in all, which ii man i^nnot reiiBunulily demand except 
rather the nitturo of tho thing be such which must go before, 
or nice a man can ppreuflde tlie other party thiit ho shall need 
him. in wtnc other thin^, or oUo that he he counted the 
boQMter man, All pmctic^ i§ to discover, or to moke mttn 
diarovcr tbpni94»lve9 in tmst, in passion, at unowTires, and of 
nccwaity, wh(!r« they would h&v» somewhat dutip, nnd cannot 
find an apt pn>t<?xt. If yon would work any man, you must 

e'ither know his nature und fashions, and ao It'nd )]im ; or ilia 
ende, and eo win him; or his weakneaees or diaadvantigos, 
und ao awe him ; or those that have interest in him; and 
ao govenj him. In doaliii;; with cunning pc^nioiu we must 
over conjtidor their ends, to intci-^jrot their spoeehee, and it is 
good to itiiy little imto theui, and that wliich they least look 

Tlis worldly wisilom in tliesu counsels is not evwy- 
wht;ro of thd truest tflni]>or. In tlieir wliule UiiiQ 
we feel a hnbit of thought occupied upon the epitit 
of man witli the same J!ort of aaalyBis that may l>e 
applied jiiatly to the outei- worlw of natufe. Life, ia 
Bacon's " Kn.sftjH," even at their innturBHt, filirewdlj" 
thoLiglitfnl !ut tbey are and enforced with a nire 
weight of yxpi-essign , fM^ms too much to consist 
of cool oxperimmit towards material sncoess. There 
is no place in hi» " Essjiys " — aa there seemii also to 
have been no place in Jiifj life— for the jnat play of 
emutioiu Wht-n tLi> yciiiig Eiirl of Essex, who had 
been his generotis fnenil, was rashly ini[jenllmg 
himself, Baoon fell from lam. Wlien lie Imd ruined 
liimself, BiM?on turne<I against him, accepted h Iiiiof 
ajEfflinst hull at liis triftl, and pTnleavoiifed to yrin 
back £liza>>eth's favour to himself by slkowing zeal 
aj^iuRt hia former friend. It ia time thtit Bacon had 
takes standing in 1.596 na Queea'a Couiiwiel, (ind it 
might ht* argued either that he could not rafciae the 
brief agrtin«t one accused of treason, or that, if lie 
could, lie might have been both kind ainl wise in 
BPW^pting it, beiuanae he would thus occupy the pla.ce 
of one who might have less ^viah to deal gfneroiiKJy 
with the acrnned. Hut twice in the cowise of the 
trial Bacon, who wai no leailitig counsel, vtiluiiteei-ed 
ajMjech for the pnrpOHe of bringing back the brunt o( 
tiie battle from side quetttiona favoiimljle to the accused 
into the main line of attack upon hig life ; and in onfl 
of these uncalled-for exhibitions of prudential loyalty 
be twmpored Easex with C'-ain. Elimbeth, old as she 
waa, had wamith of feeling beyond reach of Bjwron'a 
calculations. Robert Devemnx, Recoud Earl of Essex, 
was beheaded an the 25th of February, 1601 ; and 
although Bacon gave the forcG of Lia pen to the 
drawing up of an otKoial " Ueclai-atioii touching the 
Treason of the late Earl of Essex and hia Complices," 
which was sent to pre-SH on the I4tli of April, he got 
nothing from Elistubeth during the time that re- 
mained before her death on the 24tb of Marcli, 1G03. 

fmm BMuni't "Voytiii*" (tSBPJ. 



In the Reign" oe James L — a.d. 160S td a.d. 1625. 


Thr largest Engliiih prose work |nihUslied in the 
H]-st yoar of tb« rKign of Jfim(.^3 thp Fin»t, wiui !i 
(olio of more thmi 1,300 jH^ges, Kidmnl Kutilk'ii'H 
"Lfeneml Hiatorie of the Tiirkeg." Appenileil to it 
wsts " A briefe diacounae of the ^i-eatni^sae of the 
Turkish Empire." BichanJ ICnolles'a gt-tiit book 
wna in higli i-epute in James's I'eign, ami liaa in after 
yoara been saved from ncig]ect by the piuises of nioi-o 
tiinn one man of genius.' Its author, wlio was of 
thp fiiraily of his name living at Cold Ashby, in 
Northwmptonshii'B, graduated at Oxfortl in l^'H, 
nnd tltvn ubtained a FellowBhip at Liticola College. 
At Oxforrl lio was fisjiiring to servo Gotl find his 
Kimitry with some hu^ work (jf tlie pen, when he 
wu» invited to Sandwich by Sir Roger MitnwootL 
Hiiiidivich, in ancient dfiyn the most famous English 
port, though now tlio seA is two miles distant from 
it, had ceased to be a {Kirt, and th<^ti deaiyed so 
l-apiilly that in Edward the Hixth's tiina there wei-e 
hut two hundred hotisefi whpre then; had hceu nijie 
hiuidit«l. But in EILxid>eth's reign four Inmdnid 
Pi'oti?stant WiiUoona, driven fi"ora thciir own coniiti-y 
by roligiou-s pei-secution, i*tt]ed in Sandwich, bring- 
ing with tlieni thoir ludiiHti'tt;^ as wot'kei<s in a^rgi^ 
Iiaize and l!annel, and turning wafite ground into 
iiinrket j^iilens, tbut became famoua espet:taJ]y for 
r«lory. in this iMjviving town Roger iVIanwoorl was 
Imm in \!i25, a drainer's son who naade law hk pro- 
fession. HpWTisa Serjfantin 1567,a. Justieeof f'om- 
luon PJens in 1(572, a knight and Chief Baron of the 
ExchittULT in 157S. He gi'ew rich, and was liWral. 
He Ix'giui to minpiiihjsiiativotown.ns^airly ua l-'i'tiS, 
a hi]L[h gabled buihlinfr to he used as a EWiliool for the 
edncatiou of the children o£ towiiiaj)eople, wlio were 
to b« " fi-eely tauj^ht witl;out anything taken but of 
liimevolenoe, at the end of every quarti^r, towat-ds 
buying bouka for the common use of the scholai's." 

I SuoiueL JobMuaa in n iiMt>c^ of ^^^ RaiahUr {No. 1231 ^n) ^& 
writing of History, tpLve tho drit iiUcw iuiiouk EHglialiiiiHti &a *a 
Ustorinn to Itldiard JCD^Uei. "Ko&e of out irritera," bo aajd. 
"(Mil. ill tu^ opLDiDEi, joatly iwDteat tha mperiority af Knotlos, wlio in, 
lua History ol tbe Turkji ium (liaplajed bU the i-.iou!]eiidieH tliut 
uamihve i!jn admit. Hia Ht;lo, tltouKli uamewbiit f>1i«L-Ltr«<l hj UniQ, 
ilihI RomctJDioi -ritinCod bj (ilIsi! wit, it putfr, ucrvaua, elevated uid 
clHr, ke., ^- . . . Vgthiokr cwilil bnv« aunk tlua ■utliur in. 
obMnfit; but tbe remoteness uud borliairitf of tlia people wbnse 
atory hm rel&taH. It wldom luppoai that kll dnmmituiCM couitf to 
hHi>ptnMi (>r fmue, Tbe tmtloti wUcb produced tliia gn&t hlAtarlui, 
Iiw ttie icnet or neduif hia (teuiiia employ nl npou il forei)>ni and tin- 
'iilerealliLH eubJQct ; aad t^ut wril«r, wbo ini^bt buve sec^urad 
pnq^witiiii.y to tils Euune bj & hlMtory lit hui own country, liiu vipoBtfd 
hinidolf lo t.hrb dpik^KT of oUtTida. by rKi>iiutinir fiiiterpriiM luid 
rvvubitioni of wbiiib nauB deaif^ to bo iulnnnod." Lord B>ragL luul 
fMit KnollvK, wb«D he unite " The Giooiu," nurd m, few woeka before hia 
tbMfb.bcBBidut HlMolonglkl, "Old KnoUeawiLauuo of the fint books 
that Kait^ mo pltiaaure when a child; niid I be1ii>voit bul Inticli 
Infliieure on mj fiitimj wUhi^ lo Firit the LeviInT, ilui] buvo. pwrhapB. 
thti Omiital CdlouHoi^whLfiL la obaerred iu saj |M«try." Uir ^ro bl^ 
'Id Trtend n comer in tLio tiftb canto at " Dna Jiun," wboiv it ia m^ 

OtfeSoItBD .— 

Ho iraa aa good a «orer«iin] of the sort 

A< uir memtimued in the iij»(oriiM 
Of Cjuttomlr 6r EDollea, whi-re fow phiae 

Sbtb Solymiui, th« frlorr ol ttaclr liae," 

^1 OtfeSoICi 

The foumlation of the Free School was completed in 
1566, and Roger Manwood himself di"ew up itn 
rulw. The bcwks to he uset! were '* the Dhdoga of 
Castillo, the Exercises of Apthomius, Vii-j^llK 
Egiog's, or some <;haMte poet, Tidly, Csesar. and 
Livie." To the heiul-mitstershij) of this school, 
iiiehtird Krioiles wius inviteit. He was tlie third 
who occur>ie<l that office, mid tlie flj-st who abided in 
it h>ng. He spent the rest of his life among Itia boys 
and his Ivooks, with the hearty fiiendsliip und en- 
couragement of Sir Roger Manwood, whose chief 
house w;ia at St. Stitpben's, neitr Cautei'bqry, anc! to 
wlioae nmniticence it is praliable that the greatest 
of oiir driiinati>*ta Iwfore Shakespewe. Christophi^r 
Marlowe, son of a Canterbury shoemaker, oweil hi:i 
Cambridge erlucsition. After Sii' Roger's death in 
15''.)2, his son Peter, who was knifjlitwl at the 
coTOnatiijn of James I., remained KjioHc-s'h friend, 
and eoTOurageid him to work at his great History. 
Kichanl Knolles was in repute as a schoolmaster who 
sent many well-trained youths to the University ; he 
wrote a Com[jendiuin of Ditin, Greek, and Hcbn^w 
Gmmmar, in which attention wae puid to the nnits 
of words, and flied in 1610, the year of the iaHue of 
the second edition of his " General Historie of the 
Turkes," tirst published in lfi03. 

When Kiiolles chose the subject for the main work 
of Ilia life outside the schoolroom, there was danger 
to Christendom from the power of the Turk ; the 
clanger now is from his weakness, and the day haa 
come to which KnoHeS looked ft*rward for rewiing" 
again, at least, his " Brief Dii!ieoui*se of the greatnest 
of the Turkish Empire "' written, aa Le said, for this 
among other reasoms, "that they which come here^ 
after, may, by comlmring of tliftt which ia here 
written with the state that then Bhall be, see how 
much this great Empii-e in the meantime inci-L^aseth 
or diminiiiheth." I will leave here tlte old sfiolling. 


A/i iii»t> H'fientH the ffrt'^fritl ttrmffth iltemf oont'uittth, av4vf 
tfAat pawer the boidei'ltip Priiuety a» welt Mnktnnetmtm M 
Chriftvnif, arr in epmparigon n/il. 

Tliti Illetotie <i( the Turks (buin^ indiied Dothinff eitts but 
tht! trim Hicord of thp wofiill ruinfa of the ^reutor part of tlio 
CliTLBlmn I'onimunwcule] thus as buroro (uimiiI thrgn^h, mbA 
at Icn^fth hrouffht to uii «iiii ; imd their empiro (of all nthen 
Daw v|)on iL'nrlh fricro tho gT»Lt«et) as n (iroud champina bUQ 
standing 17^ ua it tfore In dGfiiiuce of the whole world: I 
thotiglil it g'oud for the conulueton of this my labunr^ to pr^ 
pow vntci the Tiow of the zeatoiis Chri^tiriD, tbo gnmXatme 
th<;rfi)f ; and bo n(>oro an I c-ould to b^ down tlio bouiula auA 
limits within the which it is (by Iho pwjilm^sHe of Oo»lt M w« 
coutaineJ, tcifiL'tbi-r w.n1h thi- strtnpfth and power thMVol, a» 
nine in what n^gard it huth tht neighbor princes Ixmlpring « 
nriiGmng' Mpan it, with some other particu]aritit« ImdiRf 
vn\o thu eume parpass. All or most part whcmif, xtUtuof^ 
it W by the coneidpnit well to lie gnthorcd out of iJir whoJa 
CQurw of the HiBtorifi before ^'mg, yet ahiill it ntarc ^dMDrlf 

. I«$] 



hf-m U>|^>tlh<^T in t>i» full thcn'o! appL-aiYi, thim hy the long 

jid jorticubtr conaidemtioa of titc rising and encrensfl thereof 

l||ba pcmiucd: net mucTi Tnlikc the ou<.>rgruwn.c ttee, at the 

"ataeAM vlureof cueria nuin frondercth. no nmn in the 

Kifviu time either pcro^iiitng or marking how "by Ultle And 

hll'- in trarl of time it grew vp to th;it bigneau, ns now to 

UffTtop all th« refit of the wnod. The imperiall «eat of thifl 

Vv ^rrcfti and dnvidfuU an empire, is th« mo&t famous citie of 

3'i?»wrj»KTi\nrLii. eomctimc the gloricof the (irei-k iMnpitL^ 

lot now the pl»w wheP9 AThinitt tha first of thfit niimp, itnd 

iiL«mth of Ihc Oshomaii pnipBtourB, HckfiDwledgiu^ no man 

fikv inito hiniBelfe, txiumphoth ouer many nHtiom: a titie 

ily foundrdtQ commaiuiii, and ty tbe grpjit eonqiii^rour 

■ of all olheni thonclut to be tho best rented for the 

iof |li« worEd. In which citic (taken from the Christiana 

wr the »wond, by lhi3 Turkey ?iimiiiiii.<l tlio tirt-at, 

tltfl Grcvk^.' rinpire by him aiihu6rt«d) as the Othoman 

nfwnntn bsiie cuer since sralcd thefnwlues, so huu*.^ they 

^ wonderfully cuon to the aatohiahnimt of tlie world, out of the 

Tuinca of that so glorious a State ein'rensed both their Htri'nRlh 

JAil ainiiiro, almoat altogether 3^^ cufn in tho sclf4^^[lle 

km^plomi'Sr CDuntri^, iiod r'^oilb, as was nometiiiiiTs tliHt; 

. not M >'Ct (tJoil be thunked) nhlo to attaino \f> the 

t Imnndj that that enipirc auaiLilimes had, cHjiecially 

%%rWiTt.: ftlb«t that it haue oftcntinicg in pride thoreof 

^htily swolno, and in a^imc! few pliiL-es thereof socne- 

(illao flxceedni the same. Amrmcst tho r^st of the 

■ cmiieroura, this great Monarch of ithom we Bpenke 

(assutly Aehmat the fint, which now nlgneth \a that mgtjt 

■tstxly «rHl itnpcriall citip) hath at thiti prenunt ^-nder hiH 

K:*oRnnannd Rnd Ermpirsr the chtefo nntl nnjat fruitfuU parts of 

' firflU knowne parts of tho -world : on^ly Amthica 

; free from him, not morp hnppie with tha rich 

p MaoTfOt. than in it ia »o farre fi-om out of hia reucb. 

|;Et»opx he hath itll tho tea const from tb<j contiiieii of 

i {the vttermoBl bound of his empire in EvHors 

■mrd) mto the mouth of thft riiicr Ta:<.«h, now culled 

beet, yrixh vhAtsoouer helh hetwixt Bvoa in HvNOAmR, and 

tW iai|KruX iiti$ of L'osn'AN-ni'ioi-LK : in whit'h iii»icc is com- 

frAoidcO tho b<?ttirr part of Hvxoabie^ qH Lo!, Seicvta, 

BnA«)ti4t with A ^Tcat ptn-t of Dalmatia, Epirvh, SIace- 

»oviA, l3«-u-]a, rELor-osEBvs, TntiAfi/i, ths AiicHtTELAno, 

viih tho rich ialaud» contHin«d therein. In Afui^-a he 

jMnaeaartk «ll the sou coaM iKna Ym.£z (or ita somo t^W it 

BcLi*) !>■ OoJiBBA. or nioro tniply to eny. from the riuer 

SfixriA (the twundt-r of the kin^ome of Vf.t) eiien vnlo tho 

AmjtaiAy piUlB or jrd »c« Bju'twani, CT«?irt Bome few placoa 

■wfom \h* riiu^ cf tlic ua, hahlcn by the klni^^ of f^r-Aise, 

««£. MK»«JU.c»wn. ilri.ti.l,A. f>PA-'s. and Pt;NS«M and from 

Atxx^ytitilt Northward Mito Mm c-iiie of Akxa, enllcd of old 

. Soothward ; in which apRTO nro (.ontwinMi tho famous 

I ol TaEieizEx, AtdiEiw, Tvnes, and M^\ pt, with 

I oUurr prnit rilirs and jirouinceB. In Abta oil is his 

I lb** «tnit« of Mrllbwomttb Wystward, into the prrait 

«»l Tatiia Koptn-HDl : and from Dfasmext neerp vnto the 

Northw^ird, vnto Ajikn'A vpon the Gulf^ of 

^tai Honthward. Thn ^imtnt'uso of this hiei empire pmy 

'hetCfr Iw ■renreinrtl liy the grcutnceHe af wimc parts 

• iBOcrt? of Meotib, which is all at the Titrkioh 

I r«niniainid. bnns: in compAsne it thonssnd miled^ ; 

1 dw Eatxinp ftr Bl»rke wvi in circuit two thousand and 

• kendnd: ; and the Mpditcrnu)>(«uQ roa^ which is suhjnct 

ninR in compiiSK- about ei^ht (liouMnd TniTefl. 

9 ol hi» whole t^-rritori* toprther, he j^ofth in his 

t frnoi TAiTtin lo HvDA, about thre^^ (honsaiid 

♦•■ Irandiai m)l«. The liki- distimct- e^ from Pi-ufifi^r 

ndo AiKMA. From Bauuu vpon Iha Pcreisn gulfe \-nto 

Treuisena tn Baruakib, Aro [iccoiinted little t««BO th:kn four 
thousand miles, tlo huth also in tha eca, ibo mobt noblu 
ieland» of Cvpavi^, £i-b(ea, Ghoi>tb, Sajios, Chios, Lb^hos 
nnd others of tho AHCurreLAUo. In this bo htrgo and s[»X''Aoti» 
tlQ empire Sic eantainod nmnv groat And litrgij coitntrieot 
Bomctime nio:at famous kingdomca, abounding v\ih all mui- 
nec of worldly hlcMsin^ and, natures utoro : for what kingdotno 
or cfluntTcy i? more fruitful! thaii iBavi'T, SvmA, and n i^reitl 
part of A«IA f \\Tiftt oountrey mOre wealthie Or more plouti^ 
fqllof all good things Umn wap ftoniettmcHvNOARiE, Gv-v ia. 
and Thkacia? In which ocuntrioti he hath also mutiy iidi 
and fnmaua cities, bat OHpecinlly foure, which by of grj-iiti-t*t 
wi»Jtb and tmde: namely CoNSTASTraorLE, Cahie, Aleiti*, 
and Tavkis. CossTANTraopLB for multitiidG of pcophi 
cxcaedcth all the cities of GrHOfs ; wherein are deemed to Im) 
nhouo ecuen hundred thousand moii: which if it be so^ is 
almost cquuU to two such cities ssPabis in Fbaxcv. Ai.eri'U 
is the greatest titio of Sybia, nud us it wort iht? centre wheris- 
unto uU the merehiuidiac of Ah'IA ropaJre. Tavbis of lAt<- tho 
raiall seiit of the Peraiiui kirtpa, and one of the greotest i-itifn 
of that kini^oiTie, from whom it was in this our age taken by 
AiHurath the third, hath in it nbaue two hundred tliiiiiMLiid 
men, Caike amongst nil tho cities of Avuica ia the chii-f'-, 
leiiuitig all otliors furrc behind il (ulthuugh thiit sonio inak'i 
the citifl C^Nu eqwdl vnto it in greatnesw) being wt it wun; 
the stfltphouse not of .SlfivpT onc-ly, arid ai a gnist purl of 
Akhica, but of iKniA&lso; the richer whereof Ving lH»ngbt 
by the red sea to 8ve«, and itom thonce vpon ranimplff Cd 
Caiile, and ao down thu riuer Xt^va tO At'EXANUiUA, are 
thoncc dijiperusd into rIE theii<e Westoinc ^Mrts: allhoit Ihiti 
thia ri^i trade hjith of Itite time been muib impaired, iind hh 
3iko more to be, the Christians (espeuiriUy the IVrtui^la) 
tniffi'Cking into tho Bust [ndicfl, and by the vust Ocean 
transpottin^ tho rieh commodctit^ of ilume Easterao counlrii'" 
into the W-est, to thu great hindrunco of tho Grand i^r*igDi<ir 
hifl custome*! in Caibr, 

The Othoman goucrtunent in tbiH his SO great An empire, lk 
altogether like tbt.' gouernment of the master ouer his ttlane, 
and inde«d meere tj'nknnical: fur the great Sultan is no 
absolute u loid of nil things within the compdaw of h>ii 
empire, that all hits ttiibJLH'ls and p(M>ple, ba Lh^y ncucr »» 
great, do call themBeluea his alaues, and not hia suhjuctH' 
neither hath any man i>ower oner himsclfe, much lc»w is hw 
lord of the house wherL'In he dwelleth, or uf tlie land which 
h« iilleth, <>Xi>ept some fow familiefl in Cditktamtihupi.e, vnl'i 
whom some few such things were by way of reward nnd vpofi 
spMriall fauour giucn by Mahottttt the Aecond, at such tim<> a« 
be WOOD the name. Neither is sny m&n in that pnipiro no 
gtfat or yet 8o far in favour with tho great Sultaa^ as that hn 
can aBHUrahLmst?lf(?of his life, much lense of his present foiliino 
or aliilp, longer thun it plc4U!cth tho grand aeigniar. In which 
eo absolute a. soucmignty (by ujiy ft*c bort piMiple not lo brt 
endured) the tyitint prcwrweth himselfe by two nio«t CTpe^ijil 
means: flnit, by talking of dIl&mK« from his nuluraliaubjcctrti 
and Ihm by putting the mine and al] thingn eUe concoming 
the «(Mte and the goucntment themf into the hands of thni 
Apostata or reocgatc Christinns, whom for moet part ctuiry 
thitd^ fourth, or lift ycru (or oftener if his need so requiff) 
he tiikoth in thoir childhood from their miKrable parcnta, ntr 
his tenthe* or tribute children. Whereby he gaineth two 
(Trent rommoditie* : first, for thut in bo doing he apoylcth Iho 
prnuincca he mOKt feftreth, of the flower, sinewos, and strength 
of th" people, choice being »t ilL made of the ^trong^t youthes. 
and fitl-est for wamj: then, for thiit with these as with bin 
own crralurcs he armcth himsclfe. and by them aHurclh his 
sintj?: for they in their chiUhtmd tjiken from their iiiiritiln 
lapsj and deliuereil in cluirgG to one or oihft appointed tn Wati- 






t^iK 1 

piirpi^ac, quitkly and before the)' be awarc b«>comc Muiui- 
HiAtaOA; iind bo, no iDoro ucknowlodgiog father or mothor, 
dt^pcnd wboUy of tlio great Sultan, who to malcB Tee of thom^ 
lioth feeds them nud foaten them, ut whose hflnda oncly they 
luaktf for all thin^, and whom ulono they thankti foT hII. 
Uf which fna ho taken from their Christian parentis (the oiicly 
wimiiinriLi of hia wsirrea) SojiIl* Lctitimt' honM-meii, Soiiil- foti't- 
umn, Iind bo in time the greatest commiiundeni of hL» Bliitc 
and empire next vuto hibiaelfe, the naturalL Tiirkf:^ in the 
ne&ni? Itttie giuing ttBmaelues whully vuti;i thL' tmilc of 
iihvrc-baDdifeio' und other th«ir miK:him;>call octMiijatiotiM : or <f\ev 
vnto the ft'oding of cattell, th&ir mout ^.tmlieut and luituruU 
Tocation, not bitermi'lling at all with mFittcra of goiiemttient 
or litiitf^, ^0 that if mtu thoBC hi^ Bouldioure, ull uf the 
CliriatKin nice, you Jojtib also his fleet and maney, yciu hano 
HB it woTO the whold strenyrth of hii empire : for in thtifto 
fonrp, his horaamcn, fuotmim, hie &&et, and nxincy, oapLncially 
conaiatsth hja grefit foreo and power : wlmreof tg apeabe nwre 
partirnUrly, and first conL-t^rmbg Iiiei tnuiiti}', it iectitiimouly 
thought, tliat hia ordinane reui?oew exgcedeth ngit eight 
miUinna of gold. And Hllji.^it thcit it might flcome, thut he 
might of BO largi3 an empiro rcL'mue u fiu: grtjater reuenevr, 
yet doth he not, for thnt both hs aod tils nien of whrre {in 
whuM' pDwor oil things axe) hitiio tht-ir gn-i^tust and uJmoHt 
onely care vpon amui, fitter by nature to wnat and di;fttroy 
DOUntncs, thna to [inisuriiio und oncioh them: inaoini)Lh, that 
lor the preaemation of thair amiiss, and ftirthi'<rance of thpir 
eKpt>ilitions (euwrie ye«r© to doi.-) they tuost greiiioualy upoyla 
fitton their owno people and pronincoB whoreby they jwibsp, 
BCArL'e iBHuin^ them DeceesEiries wherewith to liuR ; ^ tbiit 
ihn Acihjectfl dcitpairing' to onjoy the fruitti of the earth, mueb 
lesBC the riches which by Uitir indufitrip and lubour thpy might 
get vn(o themi!eIuL'«, doe nuw no furthtr endt'auour tht^in- 
«e1iK« RJlhBr to huabuiK'lrie or tnifficpie thiin thtiy must nceils. 
ycft ihfin vpriti nc^eeaaitie it selfe cnfoi'ccth them ; For to whnt 
end ikiifiilcth it t<^ HOW thut another nian tnust roup? or to 
reapt? thut whiet another man ia rcadie to douonr i flrTiero- 
upon tt cOmmeth that in tho tMrritonca of Ehu Othartum 
empire, yea eufn in the most fruitful] countrii.'sof ^tAirEUoNTA 
and fi'HE.Bf'K are scene great foroHtH, ftU euerie where vaut, 
few titicH well peopled, and the greitteat part of thoHu i^oun- 
tries lying diiwokto and desurt; ao thiit huitbHadrie' (in nil 
'well ordered tonunonwe»]e» tli« prince* grevteBl store) de- 
caying, tho earth neither VL-oldiuth her mereiug vnto thu 
painJiiU biwTi&ndnMLii. neither he malt^jr vnl« tho artififirr, 
neithr<r the artiiicer wares to fumiah the mrTclmnt wich, a]l 
togL'thur with the plough running into mine &: decay. Ah 
for the trade of merchandiai!, it ia almost all in thd handa of 
ttie r<iwB, or the ChriatiuiLS of Evhi.u'e, his. the KagUHJiui^. 
VenL'tiiLns, Gi'nowaieSr French, (jf Fjit^lish. the natunill 
Turtea having therein the I>;aat to dui-, huhliug in that their 
so liiigc? an empire no oCirnr famouB eitiea for trado, mnire thun 
the fijuro abeua named, t-i^. CoN»TAWTi«ori,E, Tavris, 
Alrvi'o, and Caike: wht'irounto may be added Qavyk nnd 
TwefwAtoMCA in EvuorE. DAMAatvs, TiuroLT», and AnEK, 
in Amia: Ai.EXAynni\ and ALOteHut in ArntrKE. In onr 
i^onntriea hiire in thie W'pnA. part of Evwoi-g., of the HbiindxiD'CiO 
of in-opln oft«ntimeii atiBcth dearth ; but in many piirla of the 
Tiirkti dominiona. for want of men to manure the groond: 
most piirt of the pooro countrey people drawDe from iheir 
ownir dwellings, bctng tjnfgrced with vitrtuala and otit.r 
rwo»8Hrie8 to follow their grcftt armies in their long espedi- 
tionM, i>r *hom scareely one often ewer retui-ne heme to their 
dwtillinga ngninc. there by thv way [loriBhing, if not by the 
rnrlTiii'tt Bword, yet by the want«. thu intf-inpenitcDOBSO of the 
aire, iir immodcmt ]wiincH taking. IJut to come npcror Totn 
our piii-poao, although the great Turka ordinary rsueneweabe 

no greiater than ie aforesaid, yiit are his cxtmordiiuuis eachiovt* 
to be grcutly accounted of, ospeciiLlly his ccmflacatiotu, for- 
feitures, Bnca, amerciaments (which are right manyj hi" 
tributei^, euatomeB, tilhcMi and ttmthes of a^ preyea taken by 
Ren nr liind, ivith diiiers other auL-h like, far exceeding hin 
Htunding tuid ecirtaine reuenuw : hia BaasLoa and cither hj< 
great offii^era, likii rtcueniug Ilurpiea as it irere ftUckiiig out 
tho bloud of hie poore i^ubjects, k heaping vp ineatimaUr 
trcnMircs, whicli fur the moet part fall agnine into the gnmd 
Seignior Jus eofloi*. Ibrahim the Viaicr Basaa (who hued 
not long sineu) 'i» auppoaed lo hauc bitiugbt with him ^ta 
Caihe to tho value of six miUiona : Sl Xaiumrt tuiother of the 
Vitd^rs waft thought to bane had iv fat greater kumine. Uia 
prci^ents also amount vntu a great matter : for no tfabKii^dour 
can come bef oro him without gifts, no man !a to hope for any 
eommodioms oQiceor preferment without money, n^; maa may 
with emptie hunda come vnto tho prcaoni'© of him so giutl 
Bprineej either from the prouanw he had the charge of, or 
from any great cxpiNlittoa he waa lient vpon; n^ithar ratoco 
groEit and mighty a prince are tridea presented. The Vay- 
uods of MoLUAViA, Valackta, And T&ASjiTLTA'nA (bbfonr 
their late reuolt) by gifta preserved thenuclucis in Ulcir piin- 
eipalities, being almost daily changed, eapeeially in Vaj^achu 
and MoLhAViA : for those honours were by the gnuulSetgmoiir 
etill giiieit to thorn that would giue moit; who toperforoie 
whut they bad offered, mist'rably oppreaHMl the pegple, auil 
brought Ihcii prouincea into groat pou^rtie. In biiefo. An 
caeie thing it is for the grent tyrant to find occasion fur hifo 
tit his pleasure to Luke away any nuuu bfc, together with bis 
wealth, he it ncuer eo gnvit : bo that he eannot well be said 1a 
bicke money, so long ua any of hia 8iibj+>ctB hath it. X''ik.T- 
thideBse, the lute rereiiin W4UTe so emptied the m.o8t oourrtoui 
Sultun Amurnti hia eoffera, and exhausted hia treosnrvs, tbaL 
nil oner bis (<Dipire the vajno of hja gold waa beyond aU ccvdil 
onhnimfu^d, inaomut^h, that a C'hccc:inD was twice »o mach 
worth ua beforo : hosidiK thiit, the mottall wbvreoif Mh gnbl ami 
ailuei wtLS mride, was so embasHl. that it gane occaaion mta 
tht3 lanizariett to net fire ^'pcin Che ciitie of CoNHTA^fTrxuPLi, lo 
the gre^t terrour not of tlie vulgar aort onelyr but of ih*' 
grand Seignior hiraselfe also. And in the cltie of Alsi-ki 
onoly wore in the niimo of the gnmt Sultim 60000 Chtcein** 
taken vp in pr«it of the merehanta there, which how wi'll 
thoy were repaii-d, wo leuue (or them to report- 
Now albeit that th» Turka reuenewB Ito not so gTMt u 
tlie ]nrgone89£t of big empire and the fmitfuUione of hi* 
[.•ountriea might aeeme to affoord, all the auilti being hia ownt; 
yet hulh he in bis dominion a eomraoditio of grmtcr vahw 
and vse than am the reucnowes thf^msiduw: vhidb. U tlw 
multitude of the Timariote, or pentioncra, which arp idl 
bcii-at-mifin, bo call^-d of Timarp. thiit is a stipenj which they 
haiie of tho great Sultan, vU. the poasoasion of certain Tilluc:ca 
and townes, whieh they hold during their life, and for vhidi 
they fltnnd bound for euery thrueacort duciata they h«iw of 
yc'iirely rcuonew to maintain one horseman, eithur with t»i* 
and arrowes, or ela with targuet iind launce ; and thAt as w4l 
in time of peace an warm; for the Olhointtii emperuura t«k* 
vnto themaeluea all ifuch IbsIb as they by tho aword wia (mn 
their enemiea, jib well Muhomelanoa as Christiana, all whieii 
they diuide into Tiniitrs, or as wo may call them Ccmuam- 
damB, which they giup vnto tbi-ir Buuldlom of good dcaoit fca" 
tearmc of life, vpon condition, that they shall (aa u afonaud] 
iii'curding to the propurtion thLTUuf kaepe cei1^aiii« nuuaiid 
horRGH Ut for Kruice alwnies rcndie whensoeuer they dwU b» 
eulled vpon. Wherein coniUBteth the gr«nt««t policic nf tlii> 
Turka, und the sorest nteane for the pnseruation. of thftr 
euipiic. For if by thia meonea the eare of inju(,imnig th» 
ground were not committed ^'nto the aouldion, for the |itc6t 




thry hopetbenwf, but k'ft ic the h&nd of the pJoioe ptinefull 
kuabuidinaii, aU WQU^d in tbut bo -wArUbe on cmpirti tip wiut 
■nd daulato; tho Ttitke ihen^sGlucn conunonly euviiig, That 
wbt^reaomer tlie Gpuid Heigmor his horac settoth his fopl, 
tb* gnaae wiU th^ni' mt mot-o grow : lULvmiA^, the d«atntction 
iSti tb«ur gnat armies Tjiing in nil p]«ci?P where they midl'. 
like isstitation of tke«t TEtn&rii>U, ami th^ inking Tp of tlir> 
A^inglann ^(q^ -m Uuiy c»El thuas chililrfn utiieli arc; Ltikt-n 
Tp bom th«r Chri^tiuD ]Min>iitB to be brought vp for lani- 
^tfie>) are the tvo chJcfe ^Ulara of tht Turks cnipirc, and the 
rtnngUt of th«Lr wKireo : Irath which fieenie to h^ deuiHtd 
rato the iiailatioa of iho bomiines, as aro iliuf^rB things mue 
in the Torlciih ^acmment ; for the Komane einpi^rours vacd 
tbeir owne so)ij<'Ct« in U)i<ir wurrca, and of them cooeiHtc-d 
lk« Pretoriao onnie, which uanor departed from the empcr- 
OWB aide, but were still to giuird Iiis penwn, as doe the 
TwiwiiiiM the great Turke. And in thu Itcnnoai' empire hinds 
Mr» gioen VHto aonldiara of gtyad ietusrt fur them to tiike the 
fnfll of dining th«ir hues, in reward of (heir ^;ood s^Tuiet} 
tati ndour. whiilh Vbto called Senefieia, and they whic^h hnd 
IhaiK Jbar^^ry, or as we tcarme them. Bcnofic4J<s. and lk<tie- 
§ctd Bunu JIUx«Hdtf Settcrttt grabinted vnta Huiii aouMiuDt 
kttnt t^t ihey tni^bt >mjoy those luida and commerodajiLH, 
Tpoa conditioii also, that they th*?iiLiie1ui» should ^eruo jls had 
liar fathem, oCheTwiae nyt- CotufatiCim also thy grwit f^uti 
TMo bw captainM that had w<-ll deserued t^f him, certuini' 
kmSm tor tbom to liurv rpon duriqg the tcarnio of their lif e.-. 
1W Iiki» fee* in Fkat?(cb, which they caHcd Feada, -wttte lA 
IfHpotanea mado pcTjKituitii^ by th«^^ th^ir late Ifin^, 
Thmt Timuiot faonemoa in thF) Turkish crapire, iicnit! to 
two grtat and meet notable purjHWQs: whc-recif the filT^t in, 
tkd by ihem the Gnnd SdgDiour, on with a bridle, k^-jjcth 
tW nit o4 Ilia BUbjeeta in euerie jHLrt of his j^rt-at empirtr in 
■Pt, SO that they cannot m soone moua, but that they atiall 
faar th«M hu Timariota aa hnleomi in their nccken ; iat to 
they AM diapoised k11 ouer hie douiiDiomi and 
HieDtbCT TH of than (and no leaae profitable than 
) U, for that out of them be is alwniee able at hi» 
lo drsw into the tield an hundred and tlftie thousind 
k wpU fumiahod, readii; to go whither aoeucr he sltall 
1 tbeni ; with oU whom he is not At one farthing 
Which to BitBat ik power of horuemen cannot lie eon- 
BMuntained for l^Biw than 14 niillions of duckat» 
Wlme/ore it IA to be maruelled, that some eompannir 
^ Tvk> Teaeaewem with the CUiristionfl, zaiiVe do mention 
4 Ai> aa great a part of the Otiaman empcrouts wealth and 
MMMRClt, •eruing him firot for the lupprioiiinng of all Buch 
M mig'ht viae in hie t^mpire, and then ae a moet 
rtnsngth of hi> continual wars, ilwiiJea leadie to 
1 in ha* greateit expeditioii». The nnmbeF of thMe 
horanmai w now gnjwne verie ^cnt, Utkin^ encrciue 
viSh the Turlu empire. It is tepnrti^, that Amuralh 
third, iprsndfather to jirhmat that now migncth, in his 
a^atiut the renian, subdued iiito himselfa so 
\ ma BeniiMl hiin to erwt therein fortio thouaand 
at Ta^tih a new rcwit, which wan 
mto him u million of goM. Tbesfl Timariots 
an to dD aeriKmlod to he wnen hundred and uincteen thou. 
mmA Mgfctii^ ma: of whom 3o70€0 haoe th<rir aVtile and 
to 'Enton ; and ^d^fHlO in Ahia and Afbicke. 
ihMB T^nartotCt the Omnd Seignior hath a great 
ail odter bonsnien also, vnto whom ho |nii>etb pay, 
«•• ta» ftpUu. Vlnfafrii and Carapici of hi» Court, being 
Uu noneriea and Mtminaiiea of th^ gn^t offieem and 
^^ _ — Jtmn "f hie empire : for from nmong (hem up: oniinjtrily 
^^^■VB tlk^ Hanxadu, which Aftcrwarda throus-h their cnod 
^^^^■Ra. rw tkr froltaoa great fauour^ faooonw Vi«ier», Bcgkir- 

■^ 189 

bega, and Basaaeir the chief rolers of that iw mightic n 
MgiDsitihis. Heo hath alao atiU in biAJiJ~niii« a greut mul- 
titude of other horaemen ca.ll«d Aoanzij, bein^ indeed hut 
runill clowncs, yet for certain e priuilcdgeo which they hauo 
are bound to ^e vnto ^& wars, being oucn of the Tiirka 
thijiDflelueei aficounted of email worth or Yalin^ in coiDpiirisoa 
of the Timuriota. Hee reetiucith grmt aid hIuj from the 
Tartars in hia wamw, as also from thi- Vaiachians and Mol- 
duuions {vntill that now of late by the example of the Trun- 
Byluuuiane, th«y bane, to the graat lienefit of the rest of the 
Christian eominonweiilo, rcuolttd from him ; ] nil whii'h are 
to bo aecountcd as the liiimanefl AujuUitrij, that is tv say, 
Bueh a» eomc to aid uid uasi^t him. And than much for hia 

A.KMiT, EMPraoR or tmb TritKB 
iVoM JliioUm' "G*Mrai Hi»toru of rjM Turtc." 

Arethor great part of hi* strength eonfdBttrth in his foot- 
mon, and especially in his lanizaricB; in whom two Ihinga 
are to ho eonBidered, their Nntion, and Doxtetitlft in nnnAs. 
Coaceming their Nation, such of tho Axamoglonii h» urc 
home in A«)a, are not ordinarily enrolled in the number of 
the Tan>sarte«, but rath au art' home in EvHorn : for Iht-y of 
Asia are accounted more effi?minatt% ob they hnuc beene 
alwayea more readiQ to Sie than to fight : wheras th« people of 
luncore hnue euen in the East baene accounted for better 
atid moft- Valiant Auuldiours, having there, to their immortiiU 
glorie, Brt vp the notable trophies of their most gloriona 
virtiorit-a. The 8.nildiourji of Asia bo cnHed Turkes, after the 
Hame of their mition. and not of thoir eountrey (no ooantMiy 
IWog indeed so propftly eslled) and they of EvuopK Runii, 
that ia to say-, lilomani, or Roinwn?, a^ the country'. edpeciAlIy 
about OsNJtTANTiyoPLE, ia oftUed.hy the name of ItvM-li,i, 
Uiat is to Huy. the Komane country, aa it waain antient tune, 
of the notable Romane Colonies therein, ksowne by the name 
of Rn«A.\-]A. Mow as concerning their Derteritie, such mnlo 
ehildrcn ore cuUcd out from tho ChriatianA, aa in vhom 




{t.o. : 


Kppemreih the grcntest aj^es of stren^Ii, Hctiaitip jld(1 LMont^e ; 
for these three qualities are in s. Bcaldioiir capet-iully req^uii^d. 
This i;h«fo is inadi.> euerip third yoare, except neceasitie 
foforce it to he made nocn^. a» it hiii)i>?>i(Hi tn the Uto 
Fentan mure : wherein aot only oftCLi?r choice was m&de, 
bat they wery (flsd to vbc the AmrnQglims also, a thiiip netipr 
before by them done. 1^'or thoi^e youths, thft children of 
Chriatiiia parents. b«iD^ by tbvm that haim Luken them vp 
brodg^ht ti) CnN sta}sti!(opi.b, are Uiici^fl view of by the AgH of 
tie Uninriea, "ho omBeth to be regiatrml the name of tht' 
j-outh, with th« aiun« of his father nnd coantrey wburoic 
he was bume ; which doqe, part of them are sent into ike 
Imct Aaij) {now called Natolia) and other pnuincea, whvre 
learaing: the Turkiflh Lingwigv and law, they arc also inft^i^d 
with the viceft and mamiois <it thucn with whom thf-y liuc, 
and so in short time become right 3[ahomc<taac9. Anothar 
put of them, ahA thoxe of the muot towardlLeat, iftdiuided 
into cloisters which thi? Grand Seigniour hath at Constas- 
itxoPLZ and Peha, of whout the f&irest and nioAt hAndaonia 
an appotuted for thu t^era^'lia nf ike grvat Sultiin hiiiiselfe. 
All the time that theeo youths, thus sent abroad, liue in the 
leaaer AeiA^ or other the Turkue prouincos, fhty are not 
spjwinted to any cartaiflB exerciaes, but still kept btusiod, aomo 
at huabkorlde, Bomo in gardening, Boms in buildin}^, aoma in 
other dome^icaU BoraiceBp nouor anfE&red to be idle, but 
alwayes occupied ia painfull labour; where aftur Certuiau 
yowosthey haue tK4<nie thus eaurdd to labour aixl E>aia?!» tohiiig', 
they Kr& called thenea inta the oloifltors of the A7.EtniogUiu 
(for M they are ailed all the time vnlil they he enrglled into 
thfl ntimher of the lanizaritia) and ar« thi>rt> dcliut-t^ vntu 
vortaine epuciaU goaernouie appointed to take charge of them : 
who ke«p« theta still exerdsad in paisefuU worke and labour, 
entreating them euiJJ j-nough, its well in their iHct, as in thei; 
appaf rll and lod^i^in^ : thtty sloepe together in htrge rooiiieB, 
liltti vntu the reiigioni Dormitones, wbcroin i\xe laiii.i>t:H iitill 
humin^, and tutors attendingr without whose tumc they may 
not Htirre out of their places. Th@u> thsy leame to shoot 
both in tha liow and Fuec^e,^ the um of the Scimitar, with 
in»ny feata of nctiuitie : nai, being well tmined in tho»e 
exerclws, are enrolled aoiongat thi) lanxzarioa or Spahi: of 
whom the lAnisarieH recciua not lease than liue nuiiors, nur 
moro than eight for their daily pay, and the 8pahi ten. Being 
reoordH.>il atnoDg th{> InniEarit'a, thuy are eilher sent aw-tiy 
into lh(i wiim.-a, or into sontc garrison, or el«e attend &t thv 
Cimrt. TheHH Itiat hauti for their dwelling three grunt plfl'.es 
like vuto Llirov monaatorius in the litic of Cusi(TA<(n>ro>-i.E : 
Ihttrp thoy line vndrt- their gijuemoura, to whom they ivri; 
deputed, ttio younger with grent obedience and silcace »oniini^ 
the older in bujnng of thin^^ for them^ ld dre^unng of their 
meat, and anch like aeryieos, 'ITiey that be of cne seat or calling 
tiue together at one table, and flleopo in long walkes. ff any of 
tliEin vpon oeea&iun ehunco to lyo all nij^ht abroad without 
Innuc, the next ouening hee la notably beaten, with buliIj 
nurture and discipline, that after hia IxiatLng he likit* an Ape 
kiMfth his Oouernourft handi that flo L-Orrected him. These 
Luujeuriesbauo many htrgv prLuiIcdgc«,are honoured, although 
they he most iiuolcnt, and are fcarad of all men, yi<a oven of 
the gTdHt iSultao hiiiisclfc, who i^ »till glad to makt) faire 
wotithcr vhh them. In their cspfditiona or trauell they rob 
the poore Chriatinns cottages and houaes, who must not my 
onu word to thi} contmrie. When th^y buy asy tiling, th^y 
giac for it but wliitt thoy list thcnuoluefl. They ean hoe 
j'udgiKl hy noue but by their Aga; neither con thi^y be 
psocuted without danger of bq insurrection, and Iberfore 
such execution is ncldatind done, and that veriu fli^eretlv. They 

' Pmc*, rm, •■ In " lowlinif-piei! 

haue a thousind royaUitd : some of them arA appotntvd to the 
kfejiing of cmbaBsadoHrs sent from forrcin princ-es: othcr«m« 
of them ore oangned to accompanie stmuifiars triiueUr>n, 
aapeciaUy them that ba men of the better sort, tu the intent 
thay may safely passe in the Turkes domimuna, for whicJt 
Beruice thoy arc eommonly woll rewarded. 1"h''y haue mar]>r 
cthoice of their prince, namely of Srlymiu the tlrst, Lia fatbci 
Baut2et yet Uuin|^; neither can uny the Turkey Kulliuu 
ftcoocint tbomst^uM fully inueetod in their impcriall dignitie, 
or owured of theLr estate, rntil they be hy thtnn approniin) 
and pruclaimt^. Euerie one of iheirj^nltansat hiatirvt cmqi- 
ming to the empire, doth giue them some great largene; 
and sometime the better to pleuao them, cncroiiKth ul«u their 
pay. Id euerie great expedition some of them gwcth forth 
mth their Aga, or hia lietitennnt, and are the lost of all that 
fight. There is no office umnng the Tufkes, that mo? enuie 
at, than at the olfice of the A^n of the lanutarie^, for the 
greatnesst! of his nuthoritie and eommiiund : onely he and the 
Beglerbeg of Gh-kcia chuae not their owne lieutenant, bni 
hiiue them nominated vnto them by the Grand Seignior, 
Vnto this great man the Aga of the lanizariea, nothing can 
portend a more certaine destraction, tfaan to t>« nf theni 
beloued, for thsnls he of thegroatSultan straightway feared 
or mistmHted, amd so oC'Casion sought for to take him out of 
the way. The number of the Linizaries of the Court is betwitt 
tf.-n and fouretecno thousand. This warlike order of souldican 
is in th^e our dayea mach embused : for now naturtU Tnrb 
are iakvii IQ for lAbiJEarled, as are aI«o the pwople of Ami; 
wherc-«a ia former timea none were admitt^'d into thnt ordtt, 
but the Chriatiana of Evroph only ; beside that, thfV iomttw 
wjuea aIbo contrario to thoir autient cnatonie, which is not 
now forbidden them, And bec^iuae of their long lying ftiU 
nt Co>'i«TA^'TiNorLE [n eitie aboaodinig »-ith all manner of 
pieaHtiru) they are becOaDe much more effeminate and elrrthfal, 
but withall most insolent, or xhk/k truly to uiy intoIltTnblt, 
It is wjmmonly reported the strength of the Turkiiih empire 
to consist in this order of the luQizarie&iWliii'h is not tLltui;ctlMr 
ao, for albeit that they ba indeed the Tarkoa best footmen 
and rarest gard of the great Sultans person, y^ ^Ttdoobtnil]' 
the greatest strength of his state and empire restHh nothtBi^ 
BO much in them, aa in the great multitude of hi« hdrsmm, 
esper.-irilly his Timariota. Benide theae Inniaariw, Ihi 
Turkish era]M>rour hath a wordcrfiil nnmb"r of hoiftt' footmai. 
whom the Tnirk^ cull Aaapc, btttf^ at^quaitited with ihc fpaii^ 
tlutn with the sword, acruing rather tu the wea.rving of thrtf 
enemiee with their multitude, than the Tanquishing of thia 
with their valour ; with whoNo dead bodies the lameviea t* 
to fill vp the ditches of towne« besieged, or to aerue them Cn 
ladders to eSime ouer the oncmtee wels vpon. But *a Uw 
Ronmtts had both their old liegionorie, and othcT mttiinri 
eouldioni, whieh they called Tirones; of wboin the finrt w«f» 
the fhiefe strength of their warrea, and the oth<» but m it 
were an aid or BuppHo ; cut>n so tho Turte nnouatrth lua 
Tiuiariot horacm^a the strength of his armie. and th^ Anoxi; 
[which ia saotber ^ort of boeo and eocnmon horvemm) bat as 
an acfieaeorie: and soamongat his footmen he ecteomoUi ofhii 
Ianti!OTieq, aa did the Romans of their Pretorian Ir^ionxi Id) 
of his A^pi as of shadowcs. The IiLniuuiefl btp )vr noov ta 
>ie conunandcd, more thnn by the great Sultan himarJifa, bdJ 
theit Aga -. us for the Baasaca, they much regud then nd. 
but in their rage oftentimes foule entreat euen lh*r giT«li*l(rf 
them. The Asapi as they nre but baao and comnran bm^ 
dioura, so haue they aWi thctr ordinarie captjuiu:* and am- 
inanndora, xa&D. of no great pk<:« or marke. 

The whole state of the grtsat Ompir» o( th^ Toika • 
commaunded by the groat Sultnn, by the irnne advt«* •b' 
cauiuell of his Viaier Btutaaee, which wem not wool to W ■> 

» A.EK i«m.] 




iber nitoae foiu^, ho (irouiding' foi thp tuji-ret-io of bis hi^ti 
4eei{fnc«or bnpoHnnt recKrlutioDiit, hardly Ly a i^Tvutwr niiilti- 
fauUi to Iw concMLil : how-btit thut thL> SulUna *>f Inter tiiiii'» 
hnue had sonnHimesi iriw, eoutetiTqea fewiT. aa thok ploii&iiro 
wma. Thene men an^ of all others in that emjiin? the grenlsfX., 
for thrir hiyb plttCif* most honored : vnto lliL<m oucn the 
itcvt princes that hjiue any thing la diH> in thi> TurlcL's 
'Courtt sviu and send their honoLirgittle prciH^ts, Bv their 
aduico the ^eut Sultan taketh hia WBirea in hand, nctthor 
withnut them concludeth hr jiny pfUX. They giue umlifiico 
mto the EmbaBBadoun of forraino princes, and from tbetn 
thoir diepntcli. Th(^ greateBt honors and jin^fLTmintd 
i(wlHch ure nuioy in that so great and largt. on empire) are all 
their meanea to bo obtained : whk'b muketh thcui of all 
to Tie Bought vnto. Soenu ono or othpr of tbmn arr etill 
lemlfl ouor the ^eatiirmioa qf the Tiirk«8, espiHjiully in 
their lat« v^rree, their three lobt ^mptirourH neiiurth«m' 
uIdcb going forth into the Hi-ld [oicco{>tin|; otiQi* that Mthwef 
the third fur the> nmintenance of hia credit with hi» m^n of 
wwrc. Came downti into H'V'soakie, and tht-TO worjn the ciUc 
ol Aohia;} which loadinf^ of such mig'htic armies iii still with 
gnxit emulation and Ambition of thu Viaici Biuaaga ttmoQ^t 
tluoueluea BOUg:ht after, as well fot th& great profit thorehy 
vnto them ariaii^,'Ba for the honour theregf, which la of nil 
oChar the greataat. But leaning these great aaes, the diiefe 
eounapLlaujB' for hia atnt^ ; the wholiC body of bin so Itirg;^ iind 
hlii.' an empire (all in the hand» cf mjirtJall men) is 
merncd by other great IlaHBHee, whom they by n moat proud 
'baroua namp call B<jlfrl>egTt, that ta to Bay Lorda of 
I, eiicrj- oni! &f thorn hauing vnder him rertaine Upgs or 
imrlteg, who are Ionia jind ruler* also oner some pEirtitular 
;ioa & coiintrica, with thf Timainota thi^rain; yat aU atil at 
oommand k book of th'.-ir BrplDrbeg, In a^ttcnt time 
thrre was wnnt to bo hat two of tht-so proud Beglerbega in 
•Q the Turks empiro: the; ons commjinding ou«t oil tho 
prouinces the Tutke had in EyRope; k the other oUor all 
that he had in the W»{>r Asia, now of the Turks called 
NaxoLU. But tbo Turkish enipire greatly augmufltiiid in 
Aha by SelyKua the firat, Sc alao afterwnrds much enbnijed 
both in EvHOPB and Aj^u by Saijfinan hie son, the number of 
the Beglwhegs wcrs by him mcreaaed, and in aome |>art ahio 
lAanged: who although that tht-y bo nl Bo^krbega, u.nil that 
CDC of them (cBpeciiilly in the time of peaee) in thL= munajifing 
^ his aotildiam and aSatrea of his countr&y, ia not subject to 
iMoy other, but ia onely at thL^ eommaund of the fiTt'Ot Turke; 
J* notwitlutanding in time of warre, whero the Boglerbcg 
of Romania ia, all nre obedient vnto him, as the rhiefest af 
tha rtwt; tcsomuch, that nono of them but only he nn*! tho 
DaaBB uf NArotiA arc called by the dtatoly name of Begk>r- 
Iwpit th'j olhera being (hen only called the BasHnceof &neh 
Aod such phic6s,a8 of Utua, Alefi'o, and &u6h like, although 
bidecd they lire m miturc Uegk-rhe^, and ho writtt'tL in their 
FKorda. For the moro manifeating of which their gouum- 
mmt, aa also that they which eoinci hereafter, may by e>nin- 
iug of that which in here written, with tht) state that than 
be, &ee how much t^^n greiit I^jiLre in the meanc time 
or dimmiaheth, I haite thought goad here brieft'ly 
■B^down ttll the said UeglerbogB with their Sunzacke and 
and BM noere ae I could (either by leading, or the 
hJd relation of othcra well trauelled in thoar countrica) 
ilogethor. and aa it were at one aht-^w set forth the whole 
and power of thia bo niightie an Empire, li» also in 
What triimtriea and prouinces thi) tame ia eapecii^lly placed. 
The BfiffltrirffM or ffrrat Cammatiiieri of the Twkea 
Empire in £vjioi-e. 
Th« firrt and chiclest ai all the Boglerbcgs ill Iho Turkish 
i|Mro, ia the Beglcrheg of JtoHASU or Gh/Vcia, called uf ttio 

Tiu-kea R.vm-1li (or as wee awy, the Itomnne countrey] the 
prindpaU rcaidenn^ of whofic Boi^krhogship, ia at ^oi-iiia, a 
citie of BvLOAicA ; so afipointfsl for the oCtmmodiouB situation 
thereof, for the better comtimund of the real of the prouineea 
of Evhofe: hawbciit, that hu for the moat part or rathar 
altogcthor abideth at the c«uTt, whjdv the other Beglcrlwga 
(.'onnot doe, for that they are bound not Cij tli.'part from the 
youemmcnt o( their prouanceis; in which charge they 
ordinarily eontinui^ but three yearea only, tho greut Kultati 
still changing and altering them at his pleaanro. Thin Hep- 
lerbi?<g hith ruder hia owne ansigne ^nd commaund forty 
thouwad Timariota alwaiea reiidy at his call, t'uder the con- 
duct of theai> one and twenty Sanzacka following, mimdly, the 
Sunzucke uf 

1 Sophia ia Bulff/tna, !1 JVuVrnw "J I 

2 Jfieofwiii. \2 SuhniefiiiaW m Theatalia^ 

3 Cfiate at Quadragiiitu Ee- 13 Triehata^ 

cUtia. 11 Mifitta, of old called 

4 Vifw in Ttiraeia^ Sparia, ia Mafta. 

5 Eirtiicn "j 13 Palaopatva, m the aamo 
G fiill»tt^a y^Z^fl^''"' p«umco. 

9 Afheratan, in the confinea 19 AHclona or Aulona in A.I- 

of MMamit, bamit, 

10 rsropiffl. 20 Data-in in Epirm, 

21 lerntiraiitSoodraxaAlbatiia, 

The Beglerheg of Bvda, who there reddoth in the fronticra 
of the TurkiBh Empire, hauing -v-nder his charge 8,000 
Timftriote^ healde l^tlflO other aouldiorft, which in cpntiauall 
pay lye atill readio in garriaon in thd confines of HmoARtl, 
CiioATtA, ytiftu, and other pLictM bordering vpon iho 
ChiiBtiane, but eapetioUy the tenitories belonging to tho 
house of AvsTRLA. He bad of latei vndor his enaigne and 
fionmiaiind these flftoeno Sauzackes, ri:. the Sonmcko of 

1 yoviffrad. 9 Simmfofhs. 

2 Fiifk. 10 Vopan. 

3 Zet»chpH. II Mt&atii. 

4 ZotMaek. 12 Zt^eth qt Sanoar. 

6 Gr«n or Sfriffnnifi'H. IZ FeCuc/teu or QuiMjtu 
B SefftdiiK £ecie99m. 

7 Jl6a Re^alit. H Sirtiiium. 
a StJ-ard. 15 Semmdrui. 

Of whieh, Ptlek, Zbtsches, and Stkiooxivm are in thew 
lute wijirea woon from the Tnrks by the Imperiala, jjid bo yet 
by thom hnlilen ; as waa atao Alha Eeoaiis, whinh hut of 
Lite was by the Turkcs ngain rocouered. 

The Bcglerbeg of TaiieavTAK. in Ei-muahi*. who there 
hath his abode, hauing mder hia cuiumaund aeucn thousand 
Timariota, with these eight Sansockos, the Samacke of 

1 TrMe»urar. 6 H'^incAilimi. 

2 Mmivm. IniDomiek, 

3 Vilaogtraf. 1 Vidiit. 

4 J>oA+«H«*i'- 8 Ltpa. 

The BegWheg of BowJi. who lieth at Basnialtca, hath 
vnder hira thewSanzackeB, tha Banzaekc of 

1 SiiffHiffhica. 6 .'^n:etehno. 

2 T!oih4iffa, 7 Giula. 

3 VtiMS. 8 Brisrfm. 

4 BfTtte50<fina. 9 Atialnfliia 
6 Liktt. chi»>ay, 

Tht? Biiglerbeg of Coffe or Cafha. who there renidefh in 
Tavkica Chbissosebvh, and beside the counlrey th^reaboutt 




[A.b. las 

K the 

^B n Siru 

commflnjideth ouur all thu' iSirnwu ks neoro vnto the gnmt 
riuer Tanad), lUid tht; feimcs of Mrotes. It waa. at tirst but 
H Stuunckship, Bubject to the BcgloTboy of Ou^tdc-ia, nrvd ia in 
tinith tiLther a Beglorbi^gs place in soido, ttum in strength 
luul power- 

7^ Betjler&tgt or grrnt Cowniiaunflrri of the T«rkt» 
Umpire in AaiA. 
Tho Beglorbog of — 

1 Anaiolia^ who hath liU rcsiuiicc in Gatatf^ tho metrti- 

poUttcaU city of the greater J'Ariffiii [caLleil of uiin<.'iunt 
time Cali/ai) uuil liaUi vndtir his enai|^e and t'oni- 
nuiund thirtie thousand of the Tmuiriot horBemim, with 
twelue Hanzacks. 

2 Caramaniit, whu hath Mb abode at Cainuria (in aundnat 

time ciiJltd CrgMria) n oitie of Ciiieia, and bath vnder 
him A^^'uen SauzackeB, with twentle thoii^nd Titiiafiuta. 

5 Siuat, who huth hia abiding at ^biaiia, q critic of tbl; letter 

ArtMiiifi, and hath ynder hie goiiemnii?Dt ten thou^ind 

4 Totainn^ who resideth at Awuia, tlio tnstropolis of Cupa^ 

doeta, and hath vnd»r him Kuo 8iin&K^keB. 

6 Diilgndir. Bonnatinte part of the Idnii^oinie of AtadeiiUs, and 

CJ^miuacdL'th ouor foure Kanzac^kea. 
6 Ealrp, commonly called AUpfnt, a citie of ^iji-ia, and one of 

the moHt famous marte of tho East, who huth vndur hl^ 

regiment flue tind twt^nlie thousand Timariots. 
1 Sham, othcrwiao cuillol Dumaneo, a moat fnmoua oitio of 

Sj/ria, who comnmnduth ouer fortia thousand Timaiiota. 

5 Tarapoio* or Trirpotosf commimly called Tripoiia, jinotlicr 

famous citio of Sjfria. 

9 Jfaraa, a citio vpon the great rincr IBuphrato^, betwixt 

Aitpfo and MeMpntamifi, who hath vnder hia commaund 
ten LhoUNimd TiiiuLriote. 

10 IHariifkir, Qt\M:TvdB& caJled 2fut/potam'ui, -wiio maketh hia 

alicde at the cilio of .Imiiia, or ae tho Turktm ivill !t^ 
Cartt-Zumid : who comroaundeth over twulve Himzackpft. 
and thirtit' thousaud Timitriote. 
It Say4al (or now Bubijion) where he roaidoth not farre from 
thf ruinca of old Unbglmi, who hnth Vndor him fortif 
tbouaaud Timariotii. 

12 Balnara, not farro from Baijdal vpon the Persian f^fct 

who hnth vnder hia rule or yuuormnQnt fiftocne thou- 
saaJ TimariotB. 

13 Lnsa, towards Ormitt, and neoro vnto the pGraiiui, hath 

vnder hia rcginient ten thousand TimajiotB, 
U Grntfti auil -Jdew, two fiimooB citiuB in Arn^ta FxILt, 

vpon the ccwiflt of the rod ata, who hath Tnder him 

thirtif thousand Tiinariots, 
15 Ckekd or Zcbet, vpon tho Mtaat of the Arahiom gulfe, 

noctQ vnto thy kingd^mc of the gryat JEthyopiao king- 

Pftianti, i'OEnmonlj- (hut comipllj-) called I'rcJiiiCer Ivhn. 
IB Cifpriu, who lyeth iit M'Ka*ie or Famifffmta, eoimnaundin^ 

ouor all that great Inland, wmetime of it self* akingdoiue. 

17 'ScifAervzHt in AMyrm, bordering vpon the Persian, kHo 

hfith Vnder hie gauemment ten thousand Timariot^, 

18 ll'an, a citia in the confines of the greater Armoma 
towarils Mfilia, who hath vnder him twelve thooaaad 

10 Arcentm or Erztrum, in the hordnff? of Armvitia townrda 
Cnparioeia, utniul. foure dmea joamey from Trapean^, 
who (-ommaundotli ouer twentie thousand Timariota. 

20 TVrfM, nwro Fiito tho Groor^ana, ersotwl by Mi*itapha 
^<M»fi,Ocaerftll of Amurath tho third hia armie ag'ainat 
th*f Persian, in the yesrtj ISrS. 

'l\ Siruan or Media, ereciod hy the same Muttapha, and ai 
th^ name timCt commauqdoth otior aU thut great 
VQiuitrciy, iometime a JamouB kingdooie. 

S2 Trmir-Capi or Jirrbfut, necrc Tnto the Cwspinn afw, taken 

by Otmaa Batia thi! aomu yeatc 1->7H, who hAUing alaiBe 

Sr^fumet Chitu his father in kiw, reduced that couitny 

into the formt of ii Be^k-rht'g«hi{i. 
23 Carji, a citie of Armrma thi? greiitpr, diatnot Irom Arturam 

four daicB jonmey, hy Mtuttipha Bm»a ma^o a Beglcrhcg- 

ship in thu yiiiro 16(0. 
'ii Taehitdtr or Tzildcr in the c»)nlin«« of the tieorgiaiu, 

erootod hy the Banw OoDcrall Mimtapha in the sain<> 

yeare 1679. 
2a Faiita gr FhntiM in MrHgrtUit, neere vnto the Goorgians, 

erected by YlutalM tho TnrlcB Admirall the mcur yaom 

20 StithuM, in the hord^rH of th$ Oooi^iAS, croutcd by the 

great Bdssa Sittan in the yioara 1580. 

27 Bat'iH^ th>ere erected also by the aame Sinan Batta, 

28 Rfiiian, eriTted hy Ft^rat Baum, (tcmcruU of the Turius 

atmJQ, tiiken from ToaniuK Chan the Poreian in the yeace 
1582, whereof Cif/riti Batta was the tiral Ik^^lcrbcijf. 

29 Somneliia, in the coiintrey of Jfedia, erected by Oraua 

Ba*Mtt m the year© 1583. 

30 Tiiwu, A moBt famaus citie of Armenia ths gTuatfit, som^ 

tima the nigall «sat of the Persiaji Idnga, bat c( tide 
taken fromth^m hy Ofituin Bosaa, and co'iiueftMl into a 
lieglerbegship in the euoie ycare 1683, 

But thtfiu late oreetodhonoura, namely, the BeglerbetjaJiij* 
of TEiLia, SiRVAK, Teuir-Cafi, C'A&n, Ti^childbr, Fama, 
and the rent guiiied by A'»*iroth from thD PeraianB aod Uie 
UeorgianB, although thi?y contatnc- a great territorie, at nitt 
(if themaeluce any of them worthy of thoac proud titlt», or 
ynt able to maintaino tho same, SiavANr H£ita.v, and Tavw 
onely excepted; but weto by the ^eat BasBsea, Jfx rf a p ta, 
Sinaa, Frrat^ and Oiunau, Amtifalh hift Ucutbiiants, for thw 
owne greater honor, and the cncouruging of them which wen 
to di-iend thoBo their ii'!W conqutsatfi, orated; bring indeed 
nothing cither in power orstrcngth compaFuble with the oUiO' 
mora uumjent Bogl(j>rbega either in Evhope or Asia. Out 
hauing tbna passed through thu gtqut kingdom«ti and pro. 
uine^ by tha Turkey, holden in Evbope and Asia, with thm 
proud honours therein, l?t vs goe forward toward tho botith, 
to Hei> what great kingdoneti and temtoricB they at tlui 
preaoot hold in Afkickb alao. 

The Befflerluffa or ifreat CommeuHcltTt of the Ttrilt 
Empire in Apkicxb. 
Tho Beglerbeg of — 

1 Minir. who atitl making his abode at the great dtie ui 

Caire, hath vndcr his eOmnuvund all the Idngdoiili!! rf 
jEgipf, with aixtocno ^nnzacke^, and on hundred then- 
Band Timariats. 

2 Cetair (in ancient time called Julia Cvtaria) but now ««- 

monly AiffierSf whoro the Beglerbeg etilil nsdiiigi 
Fommamlelh ouer all that kingdome, wherein an flort» 
thousand Timariota. 

3 TMniK, whore he Htill rcmatning as a Viceroy, corainaaQd«ttr 

all that pTPent and large kiogdome. 
A Tripolur, thm ttnat of hlfl Heglerbegahip, by Sinan /Um 
taken from tho knight* of Mtiica in the ymitf 1551. 

Tliera are beside, these other two IcingdomeA in AnucE> 
enrolled in thi,^ Turks records as thoir ownc, although ihpy b* 
not aa yet by them brought into tho forme of Beglarhegiki]*' 
tmmely, the kingdomce of Fh" and Maboco, but mwmj** 
holden by them ua their tributanoa and vaaaales. 

But hAuing thus an it were takpn view at ihr gnmtottK 
and iorc{yn of this so mightie a Alonarctu Empire hf Uai 
and BO in somo aort bounded it out, let vs conaiilDr alo b« 
po#er by iea. With the great Ooetn he much mcillotbK^ 

14 i.u. lalaj 



ai«re thim a liUl* in the giilfcs of Peiwia uni Ahama ; mt*t 
of Ilia ti^ritones iytbg v[i»ii tho Mt-ditcmiiioui uud Eiuino 
s(VM, nr flue moru uawttrdly into the heart of Asm, ncer^ vnia 
no tie.%. Nciw for thiwe eeaa, nu prince in the wut-ld hiilh 
j^reiittT or Iwtter means to set forth liis Heat* tbun. butli Ijc : 
for ihv ouorgTownt woodti uf EpntvKiknti Cilicia ; and mure 
tban ihty. those of N^(rnK?i>|A anii TiLAPBZoyiis, um so )p-uut 
and so thiclcc, uid bo full of tall trees Ht for the building of 
■faipa tuid ^dliDB of all sorLfl^ um m iiJinosit inen.'djblc. Ni-itliL>r 
waELtvth h« fltore of «hipwrightii and other carpenters for the 
fnunitig of that so ^;roBt store of timber, Inrg-c pay drawing 
vaea the CliristiiLQ skilful carpenters and workint?ii into hia 
AianulA &t CuNsTAwnJiapi^Et Si.vai'E, CalLiphlib, and others. 
For pTDofe -whereof it in worth ths nuCing, that Selfftnm the 
wcond in ow frcnh remembrimw, the next youre after that 
nctablc aaerthrow hy him rectiuod at the EcKiTfAnss (cuin- 
moaly ralltnl the buttle of Lbpa^to') riggudvp a Ac&t where- 
with VlHzakt hia admirall w&a not airuid to fB£« the vhola 
Ijower of the fr)nffMlera.t ChrisUun princt^ at Obuidu. Neither 
hath the Turke euvr wanted good store of expert HniDon, 
aftat tho miutcr of those scaa: fur bL-aiJu those he; hiith in 
«toTe at Caio^ii'dus and Hiyovs, out of liis i;ullies whi<jL hci 
hitth oJwaitw in rauline^di? in LsrinoH, ChIoh, Ruiim'e, Cypuvs, 
jind Albsanpuia, & from tho pynita which he continually 
recviueth ictu the purCd of TvMa, BvfiiA, TumjUH, & 
ALaiE^Kx^ ha can &; doth from them whi^n need in thuao 
captain«s, mariners, and rowera snffitiait (or the manmng 
and stonng of his fleol, Wlmt he is iible to doo in those b«i*, 
wai well at^na in our time, by thosD fleets whie^ he had at 
SIA1.TA, Cirpttvs, the Echiwaheu, end Cvletta. He hath 
bMidfi of all nMeeaar>' &aA warlLko prouiHao ahundtutt atore, 
Ik of grraf ordnance to furnish hinifk^lfc withnU both by sea 
& land an infiuit quflntitio. Out of Hv^oaiur he hath cjurird 
away aboue 3000 groat peecea, out of Ctfkvs 500, and few 
leaae frcnn Gvlbtta, not to apeake what ho hath mure got 
from tho Christians in diiiurs other places alao. \Vhat store 
ho hath of ^ot and puuder, ho shuwed at Malta, where he 
^iisdiai^ged about; 6O0)OO i^at ahot ; at FAUAavsTA, where he 
iKstOwed 118000; & at GvLErrA, where in the apace of 3J} 
liaies he by the ftiric of hia grEnat ordnone'?^ ouerthrew tho 
fOriifientiODS whirh the Christiana had bttn 40 ytMux-s in 
bnfldiag. Ho that to rL-turac again rnto our purpose, the 
grvnt Turko no well prouidcd of men, mony, shipping, and 
great ordnance, and Iiauing dene ao (irreiLt laatten) at sea as la 
before rfihearied, lm not in roajion otherwise to lie aecountoil 
cf than aa of A moKt mi|i:hty and puissant prince^ as wel by 
tea a» laud ; whieh to bo »», the greutn«u)c of hJa Benisii 
Bi^lcrbeg or great Adnirall (ceminoikly called Capita* Bffrrufy 
of wbiDm we hAne not yot Bpnken) weU declnreth. This gT(>at 
nan haamg charge of all the Grand Signior hia strength at 
sw, u alwaJeri one of the Yiaier BnAsaeii, not bound stiU to 
follow the court, a» tho other Viaier Bassaes be. but alwaJcs 
fir for mofit part re^iajit at Conht.vntinui'LB or Callipoub, 
» to be the neerer Tnto his charge. He that now hath thia 
Iiftncinblo p)ac«, in i^Med of the Turks fJignia Basfo, diseendLHl 
of an honorable family of that name in Oeht a ; who com- 
Otunly rcwdiogat Cokstantinoi'i.b orC'Ai,L,tpoLiK, hath nider 
him 14 SanEBckes, lill of thein great eoramaandem and men 
of great plaocj namely, tho Hanzackr of — 

I O^Hpoli*. or Callipolii. h Mitijtene, or T.e»b(t». 

[ OaUta,ot Ptra, Q Chiiin, or Sio. 

I AVffwfrfifl, 7 ^'fxia, or Xnjrit*. 

I /.itiutat, At ZratHuj. 8 tteffrojn/nt , or Kribiea. 

On tbe 7th of October, isn. the fleet* of Spaiu. Tenice, 
lEftlta, And tho Pope, comiiuuidod by Doa Jolm of AiiHtrlB, 
th« Torkv in a gnnt sea-flght oO L«puilo, ae^r Coriutli. 

U JiAotirnt, 12 Lepautn^ or Naupaetu*. 

ID Cauaia in the froutiere of I'i S. Mtiura. 

Miierdiiiiia. 14 ^Irximiirin, 

II ^apohili UttirtaHta, 

Thn grctitne«w,', weiilth, lunl atrnpngth of this bo mightio iin 
Empire, a» well by ecn lut Jnnd, thita in Homc aort dochkred, 
let vs now a<:f} vpati whut prinri?« it also eonEneth, juid of 
what power enery one of tiiem w in corniparuioa of it, sa gr«it 
and out^^frowno a 8ute. The Turku tuwurd tho Eitat burdur 
vjjon (he I'uraiana. aL-eording to a rjgbt line, drawne by im- 
agination from Tavris to Haldaha : vpon the Portugala at 
the Persian gulfo, and fto there likcwiBv toward th^ !^uth : 
at the red sea, vpon the great ^thyopian king Preiunt*, 
commonly called J^mtfr lohti : towards the West, in Afuickb 
vpon the king of Makoco : and in EntoPB vpon the kingdome 
of NAn.E!*, with some iwrt of the Vonetinn Kignorio : towarda 
tli« North vpOQ the Poluniuns, und the ti^rritoriea of th^^ house 
of Avsthia. Kow to hegin with the IVnitan, thu great Turke 
no douhc is in &(4d too strong fur him, as by proofo hath beeii 
oftenUtRca seene ; For JfahotMt tJie Orerit in plsine battailo 
ouercume the valiant Vg»H-Co»MHti : Srit/mu* thb first, and 
after ^dm Solyman his mm, put to flight tho noble Symafl 
und Ttimatf the two great und famous Persian kings : and 
now of late in our time, Amurrtth the third by liis- tieut^umta 
hath tjikcn from tho Persians all J^Iedia, with the greater 
Ahubkia, both eometimeA famous kin^James, together with 
the reguil citie of Tavkis. Tbu.t the Turke aa preuoileth ia 
by rOttaon of hia footmen, which the Ptirsian wanteth ; and of 
his great ordnance, whereof the Persian hath neither store 
not uso; and although the Persians by valour of their horse- 
men hath sometime in op^n Seld foiled the Turke, yet hauo they 
still lost HOme part of thi^ir cOuntroy, Sa/ffmnii taking from them 
JlffaoroTAWu, and Amtiyath MsPtA and Armbsia.' Neither 
d-id the Persians nlunc feele that huime, and Icioms thoir owne, 
but ^-ndid their confederats also; iirl^mm the 6T8t spoiling 
the Manmliikevi of ^^^gi'pt und I^tiua, and vtterly rooting 
them from off the face of the earth, and Amwrath by hia 
Ueutonants hauing brought t« a low ehbc tho warlike Geor- 
gians, both of them the Pcnian kings fri^.'ada and coafcderata. 
Now ts not thd Turke ao much too strong at hind fot tho 
Peraian, but that hu la as much too wt'uke at sea for tho 
Portugal^ ; in those neaa [ meane where their forces hhlie 
more than once to the Turks cost met together in the &>st 
Indies. Tho I'ortugAki, bailing in tho»9 rieh but nymots 
countries many sure harbours and ports, yea fairo cDuntrieg 
and territories abounding with vi'Ctu&la and n.11 ptouision 
Qeceaaary for shipping, with some aJao of thosr gn-at Enstumei 
prinons, their allies and donfedor&ta ; whereas the Turke on 
the other side hath nothing in tho Persian g:ulfu etrang, 
besido IUlhaicA; the sca-Miast of AhAHiA, which might stand 
him in beet stifld, haiung no mere but fouro townes, and, 
those but weak and of small woith. So that there, aa also in 
thi3 red son, it is a muttor of exiT-oding charge and difficultie 
for him to wt out any gnut Aen^t into thoae aeoa ; for that 
those countries are vtterly destitute of wood flt to make sh]p« 
of. For which chubp, those few times that he prepared hia 
Qeeta in the ri?d Aea (to haue cut off tbo PortuRKla trade into 
the Gust Indii»} being net abli3 to performe the same in the 
Peraian gulfft, he was enforced to bi-ing the titnbcr for the 
building of his gallifs out of the ports of Bithysia and 
CiLiciA [out of another world as it wore] vp the Nh.1 Tnto 
Caihk, and from thoncp Fpnn cammels by Luid to Bteh, 
where he bath hia Arse&all, a thing almovt urcredible. And 
yet hailing done what he could^ as oft as he hath nude any 




^^h.ta. m 


vxpoditioa against thinn, he ncu&r gained anything bat loaac 
nnil ilislionour: aa in thi? ytnre 1(i3S nt tho <^'itio of Dim; 
and ]Q tho s'loar^ 1552 nt tho Ifilund cf jVkmvz : and after thut 
ut 3I0UUAZA, wh«fO fuurc of the TurkeB gnllitrs, with one 
gaUiut, wtucb b^ ttm fi^uour of thu king of Momuajea luid 
thought to haui^ ttnyed in titns^ iaas, wera liy thu Portiiguls 
takr^n: who aUU huii? »n eapociftU rcgiird \t.nii L-art, thsit Lho 
Turkoe aettlo not thtimeelves ia 'ihosa satB ; but as eoone lu 
the}' pcrcuLue thcin to pnipurc any tic-ct, they forthwith «ct 
T[na them, ftnd Uh thut trQil oftetitimcs wilhtiut rosistoni'v 
fniar into the rvd sea. i'mtrr /oAw, of whom &lthuug^h men 
ii)«fak much, ^t^^t is he nothing in tttr^nfi^th to be compni^od 
vnto thrj Turke, hut farre infuriour vnto Iiini both f'>r com* 
nuLundetfl and eouldiora, aa idao for wcnpomi aud muniticin,: 
for tiut EiToHt prince hath a great kingdoms without fortifi- 
cutiou, and a lunltitudci of souldiora wiLhout iiiiucti: ait 
Hp^>eiired by tho ODGrthruw of Jtarna^aiiio bhs lieutenant to- 
wards tha red aoa ; who hailing lost nil that aaa rronst vnto the 
Turkcs, wav brought to that extremitie, that to haue ponce 
with tlw'nii ho ytreljud to pay vuto tbem a yearely tribute of 
a thoiuHind ouniccti of guld. Id A^ieicke thti Turko faath moii 
territorii-a thnn hfith lh« king of AIauo^io, otherwise 4:nIlod 
the Xcrifc r For ii-n p'jamaanth nM tbat ther^ lyeth betwixt tho 
rod ana and tho kingdume of Fsa ; but the Xcrife hath thu 
better part, the ridi'T. Htronger, and moro vuitud: yit daro 
noitht-T of thwn We!] milkci warro Tlion the other, for tho 
ndtveni-BEW of the king ol SrAiyB, enomie vnto tlit'm Iwth. 
Now thrtn tlioro rt^RiA,ii!i«Lh the tt-at uf the (Christian printes 
borilcriiHr vjion the Turkc ; and first tho king of Pulonia. 
\\'hAt thbflo two princea can do thft ona againat thei other, 
hath bt*-n aeoni^ in aome fonugr cxpeditioDB, whtrein the 
I'lilonian had Atill tho wavse. Yot it aliuuld aeeme that of 
later tiiqo the 'f m-ko ht^th not hc<jiip prwtly dejtrou» to 
moiiii" the roluninn too furre : For lluit hciug prouokod by 
(iiui-n> occHirioiLs (nanioLy, in the reigne of Jfrury thu third, 
in lho wara Ihiit lohn thu VujtiulI of Valaiiiia liad with tho 
Ticrknr luaiiy I'olonmn horscimon aerucd the said Vayuod, 
though not indeed sent from tllo king: and in the tJino cf 
Stfitmitud tiw third, tho Polonian CtMaackea hnue with diuvra 
incursiont) not n little troubled them : btwid^ tht^ laic motiuna 
of /**« ZfititrjxcAui the great C^haW't^lor und Gaiit<nLU of tho 
Folonian forcea, for tho fttaying of the Tjutara by the Turko 
scHit for] he lintU bt't'ug eonU'nt to i?umpoH th£> aumti, and 
not with hia wont4'd pride sought to be thereof reiieEigiid, an 
ha liath for farre teatve vpon somu uthur princes. And on the 
other »ido, tho i^oloniana ainco the vofortiituLtc oxjwlitlon of 
king LiidUtuuA, aeaes tooki^ vpon thsni fOiy warrc* ngainflt 
tho Turka, neither (oiuo auch aid mt thoy sliould vnto the 
VahM-hiaiu their oobffdcnita, hut Miiffi>rod to I* taken from 
IbeniKilutw.wbJttBoeU'CTchtj- had Uiftaxda ihe- EuKinc ur BLicku 
Km : a thing imputod rather vato the want of oounigf in 
Ihcir kings, than in the nobilitie of Unit kingdoniL-. Si^U' 
mumt the tirtit being by Poi* Lra the tenth uiuitod to the 
wHiTsa against th'- Tiirku, answered him in thcno few worda : 
Set j'ou the thrifitifln princ«« at vnitiu amongst thcmiwluctf, 
aod I for my part will not boo wanting. Sif/umuitii tho si^ei^nd 
so nbhonwi the waire&.that he not onely declined thu Turkti, 
belt prDUok<id by the llusL-otiiC^, ne>ui?r suught to tt-uengo tho 
aame. King SlepA«u (by the c'omint.-ndation of Amwath 
chui^i>^ kini; of Poiajsia) an indiffc-j-ont eati-enier both of his 
'i>'ni''[in(ia forecs and his owne, thought it a moi^t dnngcrous 
thing to join battuilo with tho Turke, and yet in priuatr 
talkc with hifl friendti would oftt-ntimea say, That with tliirtiu 
thionsand foot joynod vnto hia Poloniiui honemon, ho duret 
Wt'll In vadertukii an ex^wdition ngainst the Turke : which he 
was luppoaed oftentimes to hibue thoni{ht vpon, Tho Em- 
purottr, with Lha rest of the ptincua of the bouae of Avi^tria, 

arc by a longer truLt of ground joyacd vnto th3« great Empirr' 
of the Turke, th&n any one Other prinfO of the world, and 
boBtow in fortiiicAtiona and the nminuawoce of their garnsota 
(whotoin they hauc codtiauully bIiou« tw«ndc thonsuid hono 
and foot] the greatest part of their reiwuua^ quem in the ^ 
of p<;&ci>, mueh moro in th«Aetheif long warrea. and 
tlcnnanc forces jojTiod vnto their ownc, ate mora <| 
bow to defend that thftv yet hauo Ifrft, than how tfl 
tbat they bane already lout, or to enlnrgo thi-ir Empire. H» 
EmpCTOur t'trdimtHd with greater force than tuccoasc vndn- 
tooke tho vnfortanate expoditioius of Bvda and Poasvo*: 
which BO euill fell out, not for tkit hie forcM were not aiiffi- 
cient or strong onongh ; but for tlu>t they wanttd A^lilin And 
deixtcriti^. The truth lA, thoflo his aimiea were strong ynotich, 
and Hufficiently furnisbftd with all things neteMftiie, but rtm- 
siated for the most p«i"t o£ GernianeB and BohMniaD*. elow 
and haauie ijeopl**, vnfit to encounter with the Turkm, a 
more roadie and nimble kind of souldiora. Th? Vt-n-tisns 
also coTifrontioT the Turkt* by many hundred milc« both hy 
sen and kind, and defend themaeluM rather by i«eiit«aU5 
policie tbrin by forca of aimiMi ; notably forttfj-ing thrir BttwiiC 
holda vpon their frontierft, declining by all in« the dung>» 
and chorg™ of warre. by embBBrnges and rich pnwuu, 
loBtiing nuthinR vaaltemptcd (thoir libertie and State pre- 
(Kiruod) rather than to fall to wjutw. To uaj' tho Iniih nf 
them, although thoy had both eoyne and warlifeo prouiaon 
Bufficiont, yet want theyTnenandvictuolBandwetabktosognia 
a war ag^ainat bo piiisaunt ,tn ciiftmy. There remaineth flab" 
the king of Spaikb, of all other the great prini*''» nUm 
ChriHtinna or ^[ahomet&ne» (iKirilcring Vpon him] tha tmt 
able to deals with him ; his yeartjly renenewea au (anc 
exoeoding ihoao of the Tnrke«, as thM they Are ulao pivlMllir 
thought to eountarcflilg the greatest pi rt of hi« Timariiib: 
and hia g^fiat dooiimonB in SeAtsft, Pyiirvft*LL, N*M.i». 
SjciLiA, M1LL.UNB, SARDINIA, And tlio I^w Counth» (if thw 
weru with him at ¥riltie) able to affourd vnto htm M grml 
and powerful rt Btrtn^h both by sea and land, as m0A 
mako him dreadfnll ouen vnto Uih Great Tnfko when b" 
swelloth in hie greatest pride : But considering how hu fum* 
are distracted for the maititonance of his warrv* at our* ia 
diu?raphm<H: as also for the nwcsaaTie defence and Iw^wB 
of hia So Inr^'e and dtAporsctd tn^rritoriea, not all the hnat ol 
themsclufis artwted to tb*' Spanish goiicmment, he istwlli> 
Iw thought of himaolfe strong ynough aguinst th<^ vnital 
forcee at the groat Turke, whonsoewcr thej' should t-liancc to 
l»e imploieil vpon him. 80 that by this wo huiie altwli* 
Bftid, is Ernaily to be giithemd how mui-h the Turke '\i to 
strong for any one tho neighbour princa, either Mahumr- 
tanefl or CliriBtianB, bordering ^"poti him, atid thepHfons V.' ^ 
of them tho more feared. Yot loast some mistakinfr ■■■> 
might thinke. What, ia then tho Turke iii»iiidhlr<:' Patk 
be that thunght from me, to thinke any enemi^ of fhiW 
Imo (be his armo nener m atrong) to be able to nithsUnl hi* 
power, oithet (|u3te to ileuour hia little flockis raw h** unvr 
so much alHjut it, A» for tho Turke^ tho must daungtfoua 
and profe^tBfd enemie of the Christian commonwaale,. be bw 
^rength ao grnit, yea and haply greater loo than is Wfnt de- 
clared (tho groatneese oi hia dominions and ompiro conndCTv^j 
yot is bo not to beo thought therofore either inuincihlc, or Iw 
power indoed ao great lU) it in show sceiueth far to be: hi* 
Timariot horsemen (bis greatest stTongthl diapersMl OUV bi* 
whole cmpiri?, being neuer possibly the <]ne halfe <>f tlMm bf 
him to bo gathored into tho bodie of one armiif : nmtlMi J 
they BO were, passible in such s mnUitnde long to bn kt-pi tr*- 
gctber, liutng ^-pon no pay of hie, btit vpon BUih rXar* aa>l 
prouisioii onely ns they bring with them from thair Titosn. 
neuor auffioiant long to nuintaiiu thtmi.. BeoidM ttat, IW 

»,D. imo} 



policic of hu fltatfl h&nUy or nouor suffcrtth him to dnw 
uLbuc k Uuni port ui liis Ticiiuriuts out uf bin c^^iuitiioe whare 
ihey iIwbU, tor teare letut tbd rottt uf the peopk liy them atill 
k»[jt ntdcr, Ahoold ia thi^it Abscncre btke vp Armfa a^inat 
him in defence of thcmiteLues nnd their aunti^nt Ubertie : 
'vrttereafti.'r thu )^reat6»t purt of tbuAfi [nmte optureaaed uulee, 
ui Welt Ml chamL' lanes as Chnslians ui viicrie prQBiBOO of biH 
empin^ avaitingbut the opporti]iiitLe,m( longeth: 
B>> ttutt mora thiui two parte of them being ftlwayts to ba k-ft 
lit bomv, for the neceeaajie defence' of th& RpHCJoua border of 
bin ao large an (nnplre, lu ^iJsq for thu kiH^^pmg m obodieni-e of 
BO many diacontcated natiooB : it id a gm&t niatter, if hce ouan 
in hia grraiteet warrai draw togrjther of these kind of soul- 
Uioun tiw full number of an hiLndrt'd und Eiftie thouBiind 
etroag. miikiiig vp the rcat of hia huge nmltitudf! with hia 
Acanxij, lioiDg of no pay of hiA, but vjixin tho sp<iUe of tbi' 
eiiDmic onelj, tbe flft part wliitreof tlioy pay vntv him alw. 
AH which put togother, whjtt {d.^[iQe<r of mi^u they be, of and 
■nrhat valoiir, not onply the etnatl armiL-s of tbe Christiana 
vnder the leading of their worthio c^bieft-tainea lluninden, 
Srand^beg, king MaltKia*, [imd othur^ bauQ to tboir im- 
mortal glorie iu fonncr timen nuide good proofe : but ouen 
in tbia our b^c, and thnt as it wire but tbo other day, tho 
Transyluamian prince with diui^ra othi^E vuliant captainea atid 
<otiimi)>undi^tit yet living, huua duiu! the like also; oa ^^■l'l 
witi]^««ctb the lat« t»Ltl^'Ll of AoiiiA, wherein tho CbriB- 
tiuna, in nunjbiT not halfe bo many aa the Turkea, by 
J. bine viUoar dmue tbo great Siltan Mafiaitiai himaelfe 
^urith Ilirnhim HoMa bla ll(>uteiiaut Genctul) out of lhi> 
liitM, and baitt ol him had the most glorious viclurie 
that euer was ^<A i^gaitittt that enumiu^hAd tliey nM by 
U^i mui^b carolcancsHc and vnttmely dusirc of itpoiLi:, 
ihciiiBvluies ulkuiiL'fully intfirmpted the eauiie. But thva 
ii> Itt hi» honwmon paaae, the chiefa etronglh of hia foot- 
men ate hlB lunisttrics, neuorin □um.hi.-r cxcfKHlirgiwi'Iui? 
«jr fornvtccnc tliousuDd, yea eoldomc times hulfo so mimy, 
«iicn id hill greatcB't annieit, except livs hiin8i.'Ue be tbi^r'j 
in [KTmn prcai^nt in the midde^t of theim: v>-ho bcdidL> 
tbo mnaU. ntimbcr of tliem, in the time of these tli^'ir 
late vaLuptuou» and etfeinJnntt} emperotirs, eorrupted M-ith 
the ph<aatttt» of Co>«aTAS'riMOM.S^ ftnd Uit WcUit of thE.>ir 
woontoil discipHne, banc togi:tJi'ir with their 8UDli*.'nt 
obt-diLtice &nd patienct:, lo«t alno a great piui of their 
fnniii^r rcjiut«tio!i and valour: all \,'hv rest of hia footnu^n 
filling vp tbe bodiu of hie poptiloua annie, bebig hia 
Anpi.TnthcT pionerHthnnMiuIdioujs, menof mnall wurth, 
And BO accounted of, both of the Turks and their on(<tuiiL-& 
alsu. iKo that all thinga well eonmdcnKl, hia best »oul- 
dioiin hiring the le^t pnrt of hie greatest ai'miea, and they 
stw) farr? Tnliku their pi'L'decmsors, thf aterne foUowpFB of 
the fonncr Othcutait kinga and cmp^irours, but m^^n. now giueii 
to plauuro and delight : it ie not otherwisb Co be thought, 
bul that he bringoth into th«> ficild far moc men than good 
•ouldioui*, more brauerie than tniu vulour, moro show than 
worth, hill multitudci being hmcbiefeet stl^^ngth, bia s.uiipOHed 
gmtneuo the temmr of his n*>ig>iboiir princf^a, mnd both to- 
gether line venV tnajeatii? of hid emjjirr-. Wlikb Although it be 
ind««c| worie ptrong (for the reations hcforo alleadged), yot ia it 
by nutny piflhably thoucbt to be now rp(»n the daclining h:sm!, 
tJiwr Into CTnpcro™ in Ihpirowno persona far degenerating from 
their -warlilco progcnitirB. their souldioun generally giuing 
themaO'lDea to rnwonled plcasiireti, their auneient diacipline 
flf warrc negli>cted. their Buporstition not with ao mueh jwile 
lu of old rognrded, and robelliufia in diuei-a parts of hia 
Empire of bite stmngely raiaed, and mightily fluptH>rted: all 
tlucigltMof u declining fitat«. Which were thi-y nut iit all 
^btie aeenei aa indeed Ihcy be very pregnant, yet the Etreut- 

nease of thiB Empirt boiag tack, as that it labouroth with 
nothing more than the Weightinesse of iL selfe. it must needs 
[after the raanm-r vi worldly tbitign) of it hoUo full, and 
againe come to nought, no miin knowing -nben or hnw no gieat 
a work ahall be brought to paeae, but hi» ia who»o deepe cffun- 
aela all these great rcuolutJoiu of Em[iit«tj and Kinf^domi^a are 
from otemicii? Bbut vp : who at bis pU'aaiiro ahaU Ln duc^ time 
by such meaneft ua be ao^th beat accompUsb the eame, to the 
vnspoakable eaoifui't of his poorc aBlieted Sock, in one placa 
or other still in danger to be by this roaring Lyon doudomL. 
WbicJi worko of ao gr(«t wonder, be for bia soone our Sauiooi 
Chziat hifl sake, the gloria of his name, and i^Amfort of many 
tJiouMad oppressed ChriatianB, fed with the bread of careful- 
nease amidst the fiuvace of tribulation, in mercie haaten, that 
wi^ with them, and they with ts,, all as uieBihcrs ai one bodie, 
may conCiinuaUy aing, Ynto him be all honour and praioe 
world without end. 

Among tho jest-books of the time of Jamea I. anrJ 
Charles I. is one tliat k said to have been lii-st com- 
piled by Andrew Boordc, in the dfiya of Henry VIII,, 
the " Merry Tales of the Mftd-men of Gottam." An 
e<.litioa of it published in 1*)30 had oa the title-page 
a wowl-cut, here reproductvl, allowing how the men 

of Gothflm bf>[>er! to fence in the ctickoo, Gotlitiiii 
is a pariah now containing seven or Pij^ht hvinili"pd 
inhnbitanta, about seven miles from Ifottinghiim. 
HimdredB of places in and out of England have 
obtained local celebrity of the sajue kiml aa tlmt 
which the ohi jegt-book hfls caused Gothum to obtain 
in English Literature. I quote live of tJie twenty 


On a time, the men of Gotham wonld have pinned in the 
cuekoo, whereby she should eing all the year, and in tha 
midst of the town tbey made a hedge round Id t^mpaaa, and 
they h^d got a cuckoo, and had put hor into it, and «id: 
" Sing here all tho year, and thou shalt lack neith'er m6flt nor 
drink," The cuckoo, as soon as she perceived faeraelf eneom- 
pniLied tnthjn tbo hedge, flew awny. " A vengeanee on hcrj' 
said they ; " wc made not our hedge high enough," 



[a-d. un 


Wlirn that Good Friday wa^ come, the men ol GcithHm did 
4.7ist their heftda togi&Lhcr wh-it to do with theit whito borring, 
their red herring-, their »i>tvXs, mjitl suit fldh. One connulti.'ti 
with th& otlit<r, und aijTiMi'd th&t atiLh ficiL should b« cast into 
tliair pond or pool (the which was in the niidiUt of Ihe town), 
that it mi^ht incrcitsi^ a^ingl tha next yoar; and t^vi^ry miin 
thnt Imd imy 6aJi Ifft, did cast Ihem into the pool. The on« 
said: " I havethiuDianywhitc hcninge;" itaotlier said : "I 
hsvo thua many spruts ; " another said : " t hiiva thun many 
red herring ;" and the othoi said ; " I have thiu many ealt 
fifthes. Lot all go togothiT into the pool or pond, und we idiall 
fare like lorJs tho nest Lent." At tho boginning of the nost 
Lent follawin^, the laca did draw the pond to bnvo their fiahp 
and thctv 'veas nothing lint a. grout eel. 

"' Ah 1 " naid th'.<y nil, " a miBt-hicf on this eel I for h« hath 
eat Dj) a.U our Seh. Wlukt tdrntl we do with himF" sud the 
one to tho other. " Kill him," wid the one of Ihem. " Chop 
him all topicM:tis,"ftaidatictlif>r. "Nay, not fco," snidthttothLT, 
"let na drown him." " Bti it »o," said uli. 

They wtmt Lo lUiothur pool or pond by, and did caa.t in thit 
ctl into tho wiit«T- " Ue there," said they, " and shift for thy- 
Bi*lf : for no holp thou shalt haro of tu /^ imd Mivtv tliey k-ft 
the oel to he druwncd. 

Th* lAmt Jfafi. 

On a f^rtajn time^ there were twclvD man of tiotham, that 
did go a ^ehing. and i«omo did wade in the water, luid iwnki? 
stood upon dry hind, und whin that they wont homowtird, oac 
said to the other : "We have ventured wonderful hurd this day 
in wading; I pray God that nanfv of us that did come from 
home be drowned." " Many," wtid tha ono to iho other, " Jet 
DSBOi- that, fortherodid twelve of uscoimtout :" and they told 
themaelvea, and every man did tall ck'V^'n, and the twelfth 
miui did never tell hiauclf . " Alas," said the one to the otb(T, 
"there Isonn of uedrowaed." Tht-y went back l» thr hrwik, 
where that they bad been fifthing, and wu^ht op and down 
for him that wae drowned, And did nuike grtrat lami-ntation. 
A eoartioT did come rkdin^ by, and ha did axle what it wit^ 
they did «aeb, and why they were so eorrj'. "Oh," said 
thoy, "this day wo wpot to fitih in thia brook, and thutu did 
cotnfl out twolva of iw, and ohp is drownwl." "Why," said 
tho courtier, " tcU how miiny bo of ytiu." And Uic one told 
eleven, and ha did not toll himfiuU. " Well," uiid thu cour- 
tier, "what will j'ou givo me, and I will find out twelve 
mon?" "Sir," sitid thoj*, "ull tho money that vro have." 
''(iivo me tho mnnay," said the *ioUti:ier; and ho began 
with tho firat. imd did ^ve him n rocombendihu* over tho 
nhouldc^r« that he f;ro&ncd, and said : '' Thr.>ri; ih omx" So ho 
wrred all, that th^y jfroanwi on th^ matter, liVhen he did 
come to tha hut, he payed him a ^ood, AAj-inii; : " H)?re ia the 
twelfth mat!-" " (rwPii hlossing on yciir heart," said all the 
cimipanj', " that you liave found out our neighbour.'" 

The Thrfff Ooumpt, 
A man'(* wife of (Gotham wae brought to bed of n man-child ; 
ihn futlitr did bid thi- gossips, the whiih wpi» thildicn of 
ei^ht or nine years of age. Ills eldoat child'B name that 
nhould lie godfiither was nnm(<d Gilbert ; the eeeond frhild wa» 
named Hatnplirey ; and the godinothj^r'& name wus Christabcd. 
Tho frionda of tbum did admEini«h thenif wiying, that diver* 
times Ihfry must aiy after th** prii.'flt. "Whtn all were cumft to 
the ehurch door, ihu priest Ktid i '• Be you agrood of the 
OMmey" "Re you," i«iid Ciilbert, "iigreed of the names''' 
" lio yoti," RftiJ ll»mpbn>y, '^agrwd of the mime Y" " lie 
yoM," Baid Christnbol, " agreed of thu nami!}"" The pri*at 
aniii: " Wh«iiC'f«ro be you come hithL'rf* Oilbwt said; 

" Wherefopebe you come hither?" Humphrey nid ; "Whci»- 
f ore be yon come luthir ? " ChriAtabcl said : " Whtmiom b« 
yuu romc hither I' *" The pricHt. biiing unsc«i. eoald nut 
tell what to luiyt hut whistled lUid naid " Whew.** Gilbert 
whistled and said "Whew;" Uiunphiey whistlwl and aaiil 
^'Wbew," und bo did ChriBtiibel. The prtost, being angry, 
said: ^' Go home, fijols, go home."" " Clo honiP. fools, go 
home," HLid GiUu-rt. "-(hi home, fooln, go home," ta>d 
Humphrey. ■' Go home, foole, go home," said Chri«t»bri. 
The priottt then provided nuw godfathers and godmothoi. 
Uore a man may see, that ehildren can do nothin.; wiUwot 
good , inBtnic^tioni. And thoy be not not wis<^ Uutt will 
regnrd chUdreo'& words. 

Incild time,, when thiafieaforcffiidjewts (as men of thooountry 
reported] and such fantastical nutttera wero done at Oothan, 
which I cannot tell hidf, the wivt« wtire gathered tDg«thci in 
an alehouBO, and the one said to the other, that th^T- *w» 
profitable to their husbands. "Which way, good gumprtf* 
i«iid the Alewife. The flrst said ; "I jihall tdl you all, good 
goHsifiH. I can neithor bake, brew, nor can I do bu woriu 
wherefore 1 do make every day holiday, and I go to Ihu «Jb- 
bootie, bocfiuao at all times I cannot go to the chtmh ; and ia 
the alehouse I pray to God to speed well my hobtiond, and 1 
do think my prayer «hall do him much more good than mr 
laljour, if I ahuuid wqrls." Then said the Bocund : " I am pnifil- 
fiblc to my hiisl>aTid In nuving of candles in winter ; f or 1 <f» 
cHuae my husband and all my houaehold follrs to ^ to bnl hx 
daylight, and to rise by daylight." The third wife said : " And 
I am proritable to my hunband in spending of bntad, for I vtQ 
oat but little : for to the drinking of a ^lon Oi' two of gond 
ale. I care for no meat." The fourth wife Band : " I am loth tu 
RIMmd meut and drink Fit homo in mine own house, wherefon 
I do gr> to tho wine tavern at iSattingliam. and so take win* 
add flueh things aatiod tthaU send me there." Tho fifth wiir 
said ; ''' A man tihall have ever moro eompony in aqothor ouii** 
houae than in hia own, and moat eommonly in on olelumv » 
the best chc>er in a town ; and for sparing of meat and dn'iik, 
and other nercsflarics, 1 go to the alehouse." Tlie sixth «if( 
suid : " My huahund hath wool, and Qax, and tOw ; and (a 
spare it, I go to other men's houeeB to do other men's work." 
The Bcviinth wifi* auid : " I do spnro my hiubnnd'a tti 
coal, and do eit talking all the day by other men's tiruk." Thi^ 
eighth Bnlii : " Beef, pork Is dear; wh^Ti'fopf I 
do Bpare it, and do take pig, goosc^. hen, rhicken, coney, uiil 
capon, tho which he of lower price." The ninth naid : *' And I 
do Bpare my hiiahand's Boap and lye : for when ho should be 
woflhad once in & week, 1 do waahoncm in a quarter of a j'ou.'' 
TliDn said tho Alewife : "And I dok>»pmy buslmnd's alcthM 
I ilo brew, from BOnring ; for, whereas I won vont to drink 
tip all. now I do lenve never a drop." 

Cliamcter writing Wfis Among the forms of ingo- 
naiiy titnt came^ iiito frisliion as our Eagtisl) stvie 
passed from the freshness of Elizabethan np^ietit^ for 
wit to the nion^ jwled toate. the wit-hungpr dcpeudent 
upon Hrtifidal niiuces of the later Knphuism. Tb* 
tirKt good examjjies of this kind of writing, and sttU 
the Ijest, are in hen Jouson's "Evpry Miin nut of bb 
Humour," acted in the year ISyy, niid lirut printed 
in 1000, and in h\n "■ Cpithia'a R«?vh!s." printed in 
IGOh Jtisnotonly "The Cliaractor of tlw* Persona" 
prints! Iwforc " Evpry Man oiil of hiN Humoor," 
but the phiy itsolf in scjme degfee, and *' C^iTithia's 



Revels " throughout, is bo written afl to sparkle with 
elalnrateii little bits of CharfMit+r writiibg. Thus, in 
'■ The Chamcter of the Pei-aons," prefixed to "■ Every 
ilan out of his Hiunour/' two are thus sketched ; — ■ 

CarU Bufaur. 

A public, H:uTriloua, and profune je»ter, that] more iwift 
than Circfi, wiUi ubsurd suiiik-s, wJlJ tranaform any person 
into deformity. A good fGoat-hound, or btitiquct-beitglf?, 
thut will K'ent you out a supper soma tliroii milf« off, and 
dwear to bia ptiti'on. he cam** in oars, whtn hu n-us hut 
wiift<4 gvpT in K aciUJer. A skiTt- thut luith an estraor- 
dinary gift in plooeiog hia palatL<, und will Hwill u]j more 
MW^k Ht ft sitting: thun nuuld niiuke ul) t^d guanl a, pusfigt- 
His reli^on is roiliDg, and hix di^comno ribrtldr>'. They 
i*t«nd lugheet in hia roapect whom hts studies moat to 

Fuaiidwua Britk. 

A ncAt, apruce, affecting courtier ', ons that weam clothea 
wuU and in fnahioii; practiiica by his glnss how to ualutv; 
speaks good rvumaiitfi, notwithstundia^ hia Wu) viol and 
totmoxi; inre&n tBreely, and with variety ; caros not what 
Udy'a ftiYuDT he holies, or great mtm'a fumiliLtrity: a gcK>d 
prcjpcirty to perfiime the boot of a coach. He will borrow 
anothor man'a horse to praiw, and hiick him oa hia own. 
Or, for a ne>ed, tFn foot, cun poat himself into credit with his 
merchant only with the jingle of hit spur and the jerk of his 

From Ben Jonaon's play of *' Cynthia's Revels" 
tliwe twq chiw^ctera ;^ 

A TrartiUcr. 
Amorpbus, n traTeUei, or<^ so made out of the mixture of 
sbrpds oE forma, thitt hiiueelf ia truly deformoil. IIo walke 
moat commonly witk a. clove or pick-tooth, in his mouth, he 
ia the very mint of compUmontt oil hia behnvinura are printed, 
hia ia,<x IB another volume of <.>a8ay9, and his heard la [in 
ArietKroboa. Ho speaks all croara sldmxiifxE, and more 
aflected than a dozen waiting wocncn. He iii hia own pro- 
mote? in every p1ac«. The wife of the ordinary givus hito 
hid diet to maintain her tiible lu diecotirau, which, inde^, i» 
A mere tv^Jiny over her other guestB-, fi>r he will uailtp all thci 
talk ; \fm, con»t4hlc« aro not so tediotu. He \n no ^reut nhif t^^r ; 
oiu.'e a year hift apparel a ready io revolt. He doth tue much 
to arbitmto quarrels, and l]g[^ht» bimB«lf, exceedingly wtU, 
out at a window. He wiU he cheaper than any beggar, and 
loudit'r than most clocks, for which he is right properly ac- 
cobuoodated to the WhetHtono, hie page, 

CfiiiM : <t Man of Sound Jitdifnttnt. 
A tzeatnre of a most perfect and divioo temper : one in 
whom the hnmonrs and elements are poaceahly met, without 
emulation of precedency ; he is neither too fantaatically 
melancholy, too alowly phlegmatic, too hghtly sanguine, or 
too Tuhly choleric ; hut is all ao composed and ordered, an it 
ia clear Nature went about some full work — she diil more than 
make a mnn when she made him. His. discourse ie like hie 
behaviour, uncommon, but not uuple^ug^ ho 16 prodigul of 
neither. He fltrives rather to be Ihflt which men call 
j udicioiM, than to be thought ao -, and it, 50 truly learned that 
he ■ffeett not to show it. He will think und speak his 
thoughtfl both freely, but aa distant from depraving another 
Rnn'v mcrrt k% prgqloimiog his owiu. For his VBilour, 'tis 
nt:li that h" dares na Uttla offer an iajary as recuTe one. In 


aum, he hath a most ing)?nuouj4 and aweet spirit, a Eiliari> 
and seasoned wit, a atnught judgment, ai^d a atrong mind. 
Fortune could never bn'ak him, nor make him less. Hw 
counts it his pleoeitre to d^apiw pk^iaureti, and ia mow 
delighted with good dcadii than goods. It id a eompcteniy 
to him that he can be virtuous. Ho doth neither covet 
nor £i»ir— he hath too much ireaAOD to do either— und that 
(.-ommeudti all thiuga to him. 

The fashion thus set at the close of Elizabeth's 
reign, gpreatl in the t'eigiis of James I. and Chai'les I. 
Joseph Hall," who betaime a hiahop under Charles L^ 
published in IB'IH, when he was vicar of WaJtham 
Holy CixiGS, " Cliarftcters of Virtufit and Vices," in 
two books, each with a proeme, one of eleven Vir- 
tiiea, ftiid the other of fifteen Vicea. Here is one of 
each : — 

Jh Eoitftt Mint, 
He looks not to whjLt he might do, hut what he should. 
Jiutico is hi» first guide, the second luw of his ucMonK i» 
expedience. He Lad mthei complain than uffund, cind hates- 
sin more for the ipdiguity of it than the danger. His oimple 
uprighCncHS works in him that contideuco which ofttimea 
wrengH him and gives advantage to the nniihtlp, when he 
r:*ther pities their fuithlessneaa than repents of hiA credulity. 
He hnth but one heart, and that Ueit open to sight: and 
were it not for discretion he never thinks aught wheruof he 
wi;ald avoid a witne^. His word is his pLrchmont, and hi» 
" yea " his oath, which he will not riolute for fear or for lo««. 
The miahaps of following events may lause him to blame hi» 
providence, can never cause him to eat hia promiBe; neiUier 
saith he, " ThiB. I saw not;"' but, "This 1 suid," When 
he is mode his friend's executor, he defrays debts, payn 
legacies, and scurneth to ^>n by orphans or to nuutuck 
graves, and therefore will be true to a deiid friend because ho 
Boes him not. All hi^ deulinga are sqiuire, und abovo tho 
board ; he bewinya' the fault of what be sella, and restores 
the oversoen g^in of a fulso n^ckouing. He osteoma a bribe 
vonomone, though it come gilded over with tho ooleut of 
gratuity. His rhecks are nover stained with the blushea of 
recantation ; neither doth his tongue falter to make good a 
lie with the secret glos«)«a of double or reserved senses ; and 
when his name is traduced his innocence beara him out with 
courage ; then, la ! ho goe.8 on the plain way oF truth, and 
will either triumph in his integrity or suffer with it, Hia 
cDn&cieDce qvemiltts his providence, so aa In all things, good 
or ill, ha reepecta tho nature of the actions, not tho scqucL 
If be «ee what be must do, lot God see what shall follow. 
Ho nevw loadeth himself with Tiurdens abova his strength, 
beyond bis will ; and unee bound, what he can he will do, 
neither doth he will hut what ho can do. His ear v 
the sanctuary of bis absent frirnd'a name, of his present 
fTiond's secret; neither of them con miscarry in his truBt. 
Ho rcmcmbcra the wrongs of hia youth, and repay* them 
with that UBury which he himnelf would not take. He 
would rather want than borrow, and beg than not to pay. 
His fair conditions are above liiaBembliing, and he lovos 

'" ninxtntioai of 

f conditknu 

oa ucoM for 

> Soe "Bhortw BiiBUst Poeaia," pp. 
£ti«Luti Rdiffion/' pp.SSI-fflS. 

* t.f.. did not for^AMi i making cluuge 

* Bwrayi, diAclosOn: &.[iplt«i to a fault; from Ftnt-ElkRlf ''i, 
" wtAk"!," to aJiicuBB. ■' Betray " te troiii Latin "' tnuloTo," to rtdWti' 
Dp. to KJre into the h&nda at na eaemj. Beircfl.yal, Ui«retore, mujr er 
BMj uQt inTolre betrayhl. 




La."-. 1 



actions hIkivo worda. Finullj-, he Ikatos falacihood worse than 
death; lia ia a fnithfiiL iiJient at Tnith; no vum's tjnviny; 
anil itia n qui^Hticiii, whether more another ciaa'a friend or 
hie own ? And if thiao were na hfuivuu, yet ho would he 

Of the Supertlitious. 
Suppritition is g^tllees religion, devout impit'ty. Thu? 
suiJCTStittouB ifl fund in abBervstiDn, fc-rtile in fear, ho wor- 
Bhi[ia God. hut us he lists. He givtw God what He aaka not ; 
more Umn He lutks, ntid all hut what hs should give; and 
miikoB more bId^ thiin tho Tt.'U CominiinclinGutH. Thia tlifia 
dArea not etir forth till his breast be crijBsed aud hia face 
apriukleJ ; if hut an harp cmes him the way he njtumH; or 
if his joumoy bLgiin tmiLwuros on tho ditiuiHl day ; or if he 
fltumblo at the threshold. If he see u anakc unkilled,, he 
feara It miflchief I if the ealt fall towania htm, he looks pato 
Anil ^ed^ and is not quiet till ono gf the wuili-rs have poaxed 
wine on hia lap; and when he neezeth, thinks tlictm nut hia 
frienda that uncavcr not. In the momiiig^ he listens whcthi-T 
tho crow crioth oven or odd, and hy that token prcHagoa of 
the weather. If ho hear hut a mTcn cronk from tho next 
Toof, ho Tnakes hia will, or if a bittour' fly over hia head by 
night : hut if hie tTaublod foiti^y ahall sqcend hie thou^htfi 
with tho dream of a fair garden, or green ruahca, or tho 
salutation ai a dt'ad friond, he tnkea leave of the world, and 
«ays he cannot lire. He will never st.'t to eea Imt on a. 8ixn- 
ddy ; neither cvlt goea without an Erra Pater^ In his pochet- 
St, FbtjI'b Dny, and St, Swithin's with the Twelve, am his 
otacIm, whii:'h he durea believe ugninftt th'e alm!ciiUL% Whon 
he Ucft aiclt on hia death-hed, no 6\n truuhlea hfm po nmcb na 
thiit be did once fiat (iMh on a Friday ; tio rfpcntanL-e i-an 
uxpinte tlint, tho rvaX n^td ngne- Then) 19 no droant of his 
withnnt an interpretation, without a predirtion; and if tlio 
levant answer not hia cxpositiun, he expounds it according to 
tha event. Every dark grove and jjictured wall strikes him 
with an awfdt hiit carnal devotion. Old wivoa and stars are 
hia counH«llorri; his night-iipf?ll ia his guard, and ehnnna are 
his physicians. He wearB ParacelBian eharactera for the 
ioothache, and a little hallowed wax is his antidote for all 
■pvila. Thi)* man in utrangely cn]dQ!ou&, and calls impoB^hlo 
thiniffl miraciiloua; if he hoar thiJt some iuiered blnt^k spoaliB, 
ihoveH, weeps, Bmilea, hia hara feet carry him thithor with nn 
offering : tind if a danger miM him in the way, hia 8uint hath 
tho thanks. Somo ways he will not ^, and tH>me h^ darva 
not: either there arc bugs, or he ffiigni'th thorn; every 
lanttu^ 10 a ghost, and every noiam in of thains, He knows 
not why, hut his custom is to go a little /ihout, and to leavo 
the croHB still on the right hand. One ^vent la enough to 
makr a. rule ; out of thcae he condtidef* faahiijuR proper to 
himaolf ; and nothiog can torn hira out of his own course. If 
he have done his task ho is safe, it matters not with what 
affection. Finally, if God would Ist him lie the carvor of 
hifl own obedience, He could not hare a bett-or Bubjet-t ; na he 
ia, He cannot have b wone, 

Thomaa Overbnr?, born at Ilmington, in Warwick 
alire, in 15B1, and educated at Queen's OoUege, 

So In Ch&pniiro'a traaaktioii 

' UHfitMf. an old for™ of ••Mttern. 
of th» "OdjBMy"— 

" WLere bawlu, sea-ovls, ui<l Idk^ toiicnie'l hinoiin bred." 

• Srra Patar, t piopbetk ulnmBac. The ■ori«iiuil Erra iras 

*tid to ti»T« b«ea > Jewish dmoCor la Bstronninjf und ptyiic, hut Khe 

nam* bad pd iiri into vie u a common tetna for eitb«f a. propbetlo 

MjtuAMao maker ot* prophetic nliMMC. Butler uUaoI HniUliniB— 

" lu mathwafttica L« «nu ^eat«T 

Tban Tycho Bralie or Em Pftter." 

Oxford, imtercd the Innpr Temple, and tJien beoann- 
iL ooiu-tjer iVA the friond of Tlionias CJarr, the favourit*' 
of James I. Overhuiy was knighted iu 160t<, uiiU 
all went well till hp opposed fan-'s pi-ojevt of luar- 
rif^e witL the ctivoi'ced C-ountoss of Essex. TEp 
king theu proposed to get Sir TLoma^ Overlbury out 
of the wiiy by Hondiog him on an euiltH^^y to Kiiftsia ; 
and, aa be refused to go, he was aent to tbtt Towpi, 
where he wa« poisoneii in September of the same _v<M,r, 
I6l3f in Tvhich Carr becaime Elar) of Somerset, and 
Ilia marriage had, at court, a stately celebration- In 
161(J the Earl and Countess were found guilty of his 
murder, but they were pardoned in 1622. Kr 
Thomas Overbmy, who wfis niurdf?red at the age of 
thii"ty-two, had written, l)eaiUes his poem of "The 
Wife," which ia given in another volume of tliis 
Library.^ a, collection of chiinioters from wliic-b I tikf 
the following : — - 

A Coitrlier 
To all men's thinking ia a man, and to moat men the fintxt; 
all things elso are defined by the undtfratandltig, tint this by 
the aiinnes ; but hia suroeit mark \R, that he ia to t>e found ooly 
about print:cB, Ho smella, und putteth away muc-h of hu 
judgment about the sitiintion of hiH clathoa. He knows o) 
miui thiit is not fifncraUy known. His wit, like tho inajS;;&ldv 
opimGth with the- aun. and therefore he ris^th not Wfon; I'm 
of the duik. He puU Toore L-unfidcnc^e in hia wird^ ihaa 
meaning, find more in bts prynunciation than hi;t woid*. 
OL-caHiuu iia his Cupid, and he hulh hut one r^L-eipt of making 
love. Ho followjs nothing; but iucGnstaney, admira) nothnu; 
hut beunty, honours nothing but fortune, luvr« nuthilif!. 
Tho Buatcnance of his dieooursc is news, and his c^msnrr lilif 
& shot deponda upou th£> !.-htirging. He \a not, if hi* htv oal 
of court, hut tish-liko brcnithcfi deatructioD if out of hia fl^nieiiL 
Neither hiti motion or aapget are regular, but hL' m uvea by thr 
upper npheresi, and is the reflection of higher subfitancM. 

If you find him not here, you sliull in Paul's, with a [ncV- 
tooth in his hat, a rapccloak, and a long etucking. 

Aft I^rmranf Glary-hmiltr 
Ia an inaectnm aniinid ; for \i<^ is tlie ma^^gOt of opinion, he 
behoTiaur ia another thing from liiKist.<lf, and ia glued asA 
but Bet on, Hq entertaina men with n'pftilionft, and i^una 
them their own wonls. Hi>is ignoi^ntof nothing, no, not of 
thiwe things where ignoTuueo ia tho li^aer ehame. H» geW 
the nitmea of good wits, and uttera them for hia oompanifxit^ 
He OAofesaeth inc-^i* that he is guiltless of, if they \m ta 
fashion ; and darc's not sfilute a man in old clothes, or out of 
fo^iioD. Thero is not a public jiisseuibly without hitn. anil h* 
will tako any pains for an acquaintAnce there. In any idiow 
ho will be one, thoag'hhebo butu whiffler,^ ora twrh-hnwcr. 
and bears down atntngfira with the story ol his actiona. H» 
ImndhMuothini? that is ni>t rare, and defends hi* «-anlnil*<- 
dtot, and all eustomft, with entituUng their bcgiiuiingt tnm 
princes, groat Boldtora, mwl strange nations. Ho diviiS sprak 
more than he understandj>, and adventnroe his wonls withoal 
the relief of any aecondn. Ho relates Iwttlos and akimuslutf. 
H« from an cyc-witneas, when his cyee thicmshly lieimdlod a 
ballad of them. In a word, to make euro of admSratiun, h* 
will not let himaelf understand himself, but hopes £uM ani 
dpiniou will be the refldera of hia tiddlea. 

' Sbort«r En^lUIi Foeuia. pp, ffTi. 278. 

An AftHatt Trtmtltr 

l« a apeakii^ fuhiua ; ho hatU Uiken pHEna to bo ridiculous^ 
rijid hiitii avrm more than he hfith percM^-ifdi. Hia attire (peaks 
Fn-iitb nr lUiIian. Had hist ^t ltiim, RL-lifild niR ! He ccoRarea 
mU LhinjjB )jy coiuiteasnitei', *uid etryge, tind spt.'-alu his own 
Inn^uii^e irith Mham'' and li^iKini^ : he will chaktt raCliL>r th»n 
cwnit-'-H hiyer ^owl diink ; and his [tick-tooth i» m nmin [flrt of 
Ilia liohavi'iur. tie choo«eth ruthor Ut Ik' counted n Mpy, ihun 
nctC u pi»HticiLin. and maintains his reputation by naming: 
great tn<?n familiarly. He cliooseth rather to teU lica than 
not wondifTB, and t«Jks with mrn singly : his (liBoourne aoiinda 
hig, but nuttiu nothing : and his hoy is bound to admiro him 
haWaoeVcm Hp cvmcs still frotn ^i^roat poraoiLagcs, hut gio^a 
with moan. He tak^ ocaaaian to Hhow jciwula given him in 
Tcpinl of bis virtue, that wi:<ri^ bouf^ht in HI, Miuiin's : and 
not long 6.ttm havinjEf with n mouLtt^lianVa method pro- 
iiimiic«i th?m worth thotwamU. impownt'Eh them for a few 
AhiUiDgB. Upon <estivnJ dnye h« ^^ocs tu court, and ealut<?a 
withuut reaalutiD^: at night in im ordinary hft miiTaaseUi the 
bujsinafia in hand. And s^i^ma 4us ronvcr»atLt with all intt^'nla 
and ]jlola as if he he^t thorn, Hia ■i^ylmordiiuirv Account oi 
men ia, dist to t«U them tbc ends of all matter^ of rom^-- 
qaenve, and then, to borron' moniy of Ihem ; he o/Fctb 
ouuxteflieB, to show them rather than hitnsolf humhl?. Uu 
disdaiiiB all thin^ above hia maDh, and pruferreCli all countries 
before his own. He imputrth Ms want and poverty to tho 
ignoranra of the timet ci^ bia own unworthinrMna : and voa- 
dude« hi? diwonrse with buli u poriod. or n word, nod U'Avi^ 
the reet to i&iagin&tioii, In a woril, liie relii^un is faahion, 
and. both body and soul an i^)Vi^mt.'d by &unu ; he Iovm ino^I 
vaicca abovti tiuth. 

Is tho truth tit the tme dr^finition of man» that h, a ii^»souahle 
ctHiture. Bia dispoetljon nltcrB, ho altera not. He hidts 
hinutflU with the Bttir<> of the vnlgjir; and in indiffi^irnt 
|Mn^ ia contc^iit to bL< guvumed by thutn. He loolu tLVord- 
ing to nature, sa goes bis bohavLour. Hia mind efijai'g a 
ixHitiuual BttioothneH : tto i.'utiieth it, that hid (.'OpBiil<.-mtion in 
always at hoini?. He endures thu faults uf all tik'n isili-ntly, 
except hi» friends, and to tht^m he i» tho miiror of thi>ir 
actioBa; by thiu means hiti pc^c« com(.<ih not from Ft>rtun(t, 
but hiubft^lf. Ho ia cunning in man, not ta surpi-iac. but 
keep lua own. and bents olQ thpir in-nf!i*cted hunioun, no 
plherwis* than if they were dies. He uhocjit^th not frionda 
by the sulisidy book, and is not Inxurioufi after acquaintance. 
He maintains the strength of his body, not by deU»3it(«, but 
tt'xnperancc : and hia mind by (p^Tng it pre-ttntnonce ovar his 
hody. Ho undentanda things, not by thoir form, but 
qunlitice ; nnd hi^ comparisons intinid nut to dXCiiA! but to 
provoke him hipher, Ht is not subjwt to casualtiea : fm- 
furtuno hqth nothing to do with the rnind, escupt tlioBO 
drownM in tho body : hut he hath dindi-d hi» soul from tho 
caw of hia aoul, whose wenknesa lies iUHistti' no othr.'i-wiBe than 
CDmmiaerat«ly, not that it is hia, but th.'vt it im, Hv i»thuti, 
anil will be thus : and livea subject A-eithfr to iitav nor hia 
frailli*--*, the scrrunt of %'irtue, and by viituv, th« friend of 
the highuet. 

A Fine GfHtUman 

Is the cinnamon treo. whose bark i« mon? w-oEth than his 
bo^]y. He hath n^d the hoolc of good mHnn^rv, and by thi» 
tiirir mch of bis limbs may reiwl it, Ho allowetU o( no 
Judft« but the eye; painting, bolsterinj;, nnd bombasting (tra 
his pnttorv ; by th*.<«e aluo h^ pruve^ his industry : for be hnth 
purchiwod legs, hair, beauty, and stiaightnese, more than 

Nnturo loft him. He ..,,,, sp&aks Euphaua, 
not ad gracefully &a hearttly. Hid dia^Jiiuno makcv not 
his behaviour, but be buys it at court, a^ couulr^'mtin 
their elothi^a in Dirchin Lnne. Ho ia aomcwhikt like tho 
salamucdn-, and liveu in tho fljirae of love, whicll JXlina 
he L'Xpretuteth comi(»Cy: and nothing griercB him so mui^h 
aa the wunt (if iL poet to make an iaaue in hia love; yet 
he sighs fiwsctly and speaka lamentably: fur hia brmlh 
if p«rfiimod and hia words are wind. Ho is best in, 
season at Christmas; for tho boar'a himd and rcvell(?r caniu 
together ; hia hopes ore laden in hia quality : and leat fidJlci's 
should tak*:' him unpravidt^, hu wears pumps in hi? p^nku-t i 
and lest ho should take Sddlcrs unprovided, ha whistles bja 
own galliard. He is a calender of ten yican, and marriutfo 
rustg him. Afterwards he maintains himself an impleraunt 
of haosehold, by carving and ushering. For all this, he is 
judicial only in taliora and lutrbcrs, hut hia opiuion is ever 
roftdy, and ever idle. If yoo will know mon! of hia acta, the 
broker^s shop ia the witness of lu's viilcitir, wliiTe lies wDundc<d. 
dead rent, and out of fashion, manya spruce auitj overthrown 
liy his fantaaCien'eBa. 

He trewd^ in a mlp, and one hand scana versed, and the 
other holds hia scoptre. Ho dari^s not tbiuk a thought, that 
the nomiuativo easo govoma not the verb ; and he never had 
meaniiig m his life, for he travelled only for words. His 
BJiibitiou is criticism, and hie euimple Tully. Hr> vuluM 
phnkaes, and olecta thorn by the soitad, and the eight purta of 
speech arc hia servanta. To bv brief, he ia a Ht^Ceroclitn, for 
ho wants the plural number, hm-ing only the idngle quality 
of wQrda. 

A OoodWift 
Is a man's hfist movable, a acion ' tncorporato with tho atoL-k, 
bringing eweet fiuit ; ono that to h&r husband is more than a 
friend, less than trouble: an equal with him in the yoS«. 
CnlnmiLiua and troubles she sham alike, nothing ploiis(<lb 
bur that doth not bim. 8ho ia rolative io all ; and he withouE 
bar but hiilf himself. Sho is hia absent handS:, eyofl, cars, and 
miouth : his present and absent bU. She tramoB her nature 
unto his, howsoever: the hyacinth follows not the sun mori.' 
willingly, sltibbomneaa and olwtinary aro berba that grow 
not in hnr garden. 8b<i Itmrea tattling to the gossips of the 
town, and is m.QrQ tteen than heard. Her botiflehotd ia her 
charge; her care to that make» her scldoui Qon-i-eaidunt, 
Hct pride is but U> bo elennly, and ber thrift not to bo 
prodigal. By her diacrction she hnth chlldnin, not wantons; 
a husband n-lthout her ia a raiserj' to man'ri appand: uouo 
but aha hath an aged husl>imd, to whom nbe is both a. tiaS 
nod It ehitir. Tu ooncludo, sbo h both wise and religioua„ 
whieb makes her all this. 

A MtiaMtMjf Man 

la a fitrayer from tho drove ; ono that Nature minde a sociHldi), 
btx^use aha made him man, and a crazed diapo^sition hath 
altBfad. rraploaaingto MU.aaull to him; atraggling thoughts 
are hia content, tboy loaking him droam waking, thero's his 
pleasure. His imagination ta never idle, it keeps hia mind in 
u continual motion as the poiso the dack ; ho winda up hia 
thought* often, and as often unwiuda them ; Penelope'a wt'b 
thrlwcfl faster. He'll aeldom be found withoot tho shade of 
acme rt'^ove, in whoao bottom a river dwells. He carries a 
cloud in hia face, never fair wouthor : hie outaidti m frum^ to 
his inatde, in that ho keeps a dM^orum, both unseemly. tjpBak 

t SiSciH, ju fagniftad. eattiofr. Old Fivaeii, "ciua" and "■cLoik," 
tiom lAtiB " Mcan," to cat. Also a jonnir aliaot from a |tlaut. 

tu turn; he hears with hia eyes; fairs £u11dw his mind, uid 
Ihnt'i not at Ifeifiuro. ll& thinks buaincBa, but never doea 
any : he is nil contemplation. Eo actjan. He hcwa and fiuhipiie 
bis thoughts, IL8 if hi? meant iheta lo scmu purpoac ; hut they 
provL^ unprofitnlilor ""k^ pifcci cf wrought timhur to no uac. 
His opirits and the sun arc oniimieii, Eheaun bright And warm, 
his humour black utid (!alil. Vnrii^ty oS faaliah appuritiuns 
pcnpl« hia hood, thej-- fluifcr htm not to breathe, accarditi^ to 
the necSBaitioH of nature ; wbiuh makes him aup up a dmught 
Qf iti much air at oncii, vts would scr^'o ut thrico. Ho donic« 
Nnturu her due ia nlcop, and nothicig plcasetb him Ian);, but 
thut which plcnu^th h]9 own fiuitafloa : they ere the conHDicing 
ovlLb, and evil ccnsumptionB that conBoma him ^ve. Laatly, 
he is n man only in fihow^ but com^ia Biutri of the bclt«r 
jHirti II whoJi' n-nBatuihlo mouI, which in man's chief pre- 
eminence, and sole mark from crcaturce aentdble. 

A fFtrrthy Commnrtfier in (ht tFcrt 

Ji one thnt sccouDtfl Immiitg the nouriyhmGut of military 
virtue, and luya thiit as hin Urat foundation. Ho nafut 
hlbodiofl bis sword but in beat of battle ; and had ntther B^ve 
one of hia own soldifln, than MjH ten of hie enemies. Uo 
AC>i!«iitit« it AH idle, vun-glorious, and suapectcd boiinty, te ho 
lull of good word* : hi» rewarding therefore of the dcscrver 
arriTee so timely, that his liberality can nev^t be Baid to be 
^aty^handed. \lv holds it next his irreed, that no coward 
4an bG an honcet man, and dara die in't. He doth uat think 
hia body yields a more spreading shnduw after a victory tb>m 
before : and when ho looks ujmn hiti onctny's dead body, 'ti« 
a kind of noble hoatiiieM, no insultatioTi ; he is so honuurably 
merciif 111 to women in Biirprisal, that only that makes him on 
excellent eourtJor. He kncrwa th6 hazard at hattXtm, nut the 
pomp of ceremonies, are soldiers' beat lhea.tri>a, and strives to 
gain reputation, not by the multitude, but by the griewtness of 
his at-tionB. Ho is thu first in giring the chm^p, imd tho 
lamt in rotiring Ms foot. Equal toil ho t-ndures with the 
common soldior :; from his examples thoy all tuke finj, as one 
torch lights many. Ho underatajids in war, thcro is no iii^n 
to ere twice; thy first and but fiiult being sufKoit-tit to ruin 
on army: faolta therefore ho pordca^ nono, they that ore 
pn:«di!nt« of disorder ot mulinyr ropair it by being examples 
of his jujjtice. Besiege bim iievcr bo strietly, so long us the 
air ia not cut from him, hia heart fainta not. Ha hath learned 
aa well to nmko use of a rictory, as to get it, and purauing 
hit cnaraiaa like & whirlwind awrios oil afore him ; being 
assured, if erer a man will benefit Mmsolf npon his fefl, then 
is the tirao when thoy hft*o IohI force, wisdom, courage, and 
roputation. The goodness of his camo is tho Bpotial motive 
to his 1,-aJour; nover ia he known to aligbt the weakest enemy 
that ixunea armed against him in the band of jiistiee. Hasty 
and overmuch heat ho accoimta tho stepdonio {o all groat 
actionii, th^t will not suffer than to drive : if ho fannot ovcr- 
com<3 hifl enemy by force, he does it by tiino. If ftvcr ho 
shako hands with war, he can die more calmly than most 
courtiors. for his (xintiniuil dangers havo been as it were bo 
many raodiUtionB of death : ho thinka not out of IiJa own 
calling, when he nccounta IHo a cOntiniml warfare, and his 
prsyBm thnn b™t bocome him whon armed lap-a-pie. He 
ultere them liko the grait Hebrew Gcnoml, on horw- 
bsck. He casta a smiling conttTript upon calumny, it 
tneeta him as if gbwa ahonld encoiinttfr adamant, JIo thinfcs 
war IB never to be given o'er but on one of thesfr thir* 
condiliofia; an aaaurett peace, abaolute victory, or an honest 
death. I,*atly, whon pftice folds him np, his silver hoad 
should lean near the goldoi Kcptre, and die in his prince's 

A Fair anti Eappt/ JliU-mmid 
Ib a country wench, that is bo fur from making herscU 
tifut by Art, that one look of hets ik alilo to put «U fad»* 
phytic oat oi coimlflnanco- She knows u fair tuwfc is Uit ^ 
dumb orator to commend virtue, therefore ininila it aoL JJ| 
her excoUcncif^ etand in h'er so dilantly, as tf they had 
upon her without hur knowledge. The lining of hat t^fftH^ 
(which is bGTBclf) is far better tlum vut^dca of 
though she Int nut nrrayod in the spoU of the silk- 
LB decked in innocency, a for bctttir wearing. She doth wH, 
with Ijiug long abod, spoil both her complexion and ccroiG* 
tions : Nature bath taught her, too immoderate sleep i> ratf 
to the Koul ; sho riaoa therefore with Ohantit-leer, hor darae'a 
cock, and at night mJikoB the lamb her Ctirfow. In KuUnn^A 
COW, and stmLnlng tho t«at« through her Jiagers, it anmu thd 
ao awevtamilkprcSs maki^a themilk thei whit«>t- or «wi-ctcT:; fee 
never cume nlmond glove or aromatic ointment on her p&tm to 
taint it. The golden dots of oom fall ajid ki«fi ha fvH utiA 
she reaps tbcm, lu if thry wished to be bound and li4 
prisoners by thE< game hu.nd ihat felled them. Her bftKik jk 
her own, which Bcente all the year long of June, like a mw- 
mada haycock. Sh^ makes her hand hard with labooruA 
her heart »(jft with pity ; and when winter ereoing* fdl enlf 
(sitting tkt her meiry wh«<'l) sha sings a defiance to Claa , 
wheel of fortune. She doth all things, 'wi^ 
it itflcma ignontnee will not suffer her to do £11, 
mind is to do W4^ .Sho beetows her year's 
fiiir, and in choosing her garments, counts no brti 
world bke decctncj'. The ^rden and bee-hive 
phyific and ehirurgory. and idio hvcs the long«r ior 
dares go filone and unfold the aheep in tlie ni^Ut, 
manner cif ill, bocauaeahemcAnu none: yut to any 
iK^vcr alone, for she h atjll acrampimipd with, old _ 

thoughtHf and praytint, but tihurt ones ; yet tbey haw 
efficacy, in that thoy ore not palled with ensuing idleoog^ 
tiona. Lastly, htr dioamA are so cbaete, thai die 
ihem: only a iYiday's dream ia all har supers^om- 
eonet^ulfl fuL' foar of angfU-. Thuji livos she, and iltj 
ia she niay dio in thv springtime, to hare shs« oC 
stuck upon her winding-Bheet. 

There were some litiea written by Sir Henifl 
Wotton on the imprisontnent of Carr, Earl d \ 
Somerset, once dazzled with the height of fiaa, J 
which end with the statutno— 

But if grcatncfis be m blind 
Aa to trust in towors of air, 

Let it be with gaodn«a lined, 
Thnt at least the fall be fiiir. 

Then, though darkened, yon Bhall My, 
When Friends fail, and Princes frown, 

Virtuo is the roughest way, 
Uti at night a bed of down. 

Henry Wotton was lioi-n in 156^. at the hamttlt 
hh forefathei-iii, Boughton Kiill, in Kent. Hn fiUbn 
ThomaEt Wotton, was a cultivated imd hoBpitaU* 
country gentlenmn, who declined a knighthood *a^ 
court fiivoiirs, offered hiin by Queen Hlil&beth wboi 
viniting hiH hoose. But all his four nuns, vrrv 
knighted ; Edward, the etdr^nt, bwaunp, nti*lvr Jasx* 
i., loifl Wotton, Btuyn of Merley, in Rent, and Lorl 
Lieutenant of the county, Henry, the youngeat, m 



S only BOH by ». secoud wife. He was eiliicfttetl at 
linster School, and New Colf«L'ge, Oxforti, 
pMaing froiu Ifew College to Ijiuei^ii's at the age of 
eighteen. Aa a student of Queen's College he wrote a 
tTAgedy ("Taucredo") for private attiiig. ' At twenty 
he jjiTiceedetl MuHter of Arts, ajid gave thi-ee Latiu 
lectures on the Eye. Boon aiiterwards his fatlier (lied, 
and ftfter staying two more ypare «t Oxford, Henry 
Wotton went abrotid, knew Beza (then an old rattn) 
at ifeneva, and Jodgt^l in the Ratue house witli Isaac 
C'4isiulKm. After h year in France iiuil Genevii, 
Henry Wottou spent tliree years in Gertnsuiy, aiiil 
live yeara in Italy, before Ms return to England. 
He was then thirty years old, tall, graciefiil, witty, 
eamfiat, and highly educated. He became attached 
to the ' Earl of Essex, and upon the an-est of Essex 
for tre&fion Wotton escajied to France, whence he 
psHsed onto Italy. At Florence, the Duke Ferdinand 
had intercepted letbei-a diacovt^ring a. ^lesign against 
thp life of Jamefl VI. of Scotiaud. Sir Henry 
Wotton wftA sent to the kiug with warning and 
Italian aiitiilotes against poison. Being in danger 
aa a friend of Essex, he went to Scotland by way of 
Norway, in the chjiiiicter of fin Italinn messonger, 
calling himself Ootavio Baldi. He delivered his 
letters aa aji Italian in pi-esence of the king'a frienda^f 
but took an opfjortunity of whispering to the king 
that he was an. Englislmian, beseeehinic,' private con- 
fereuoe and concealment during his stay. The friends 
of Efffiex were tho friends of Jaxnea^ and th** King of 
tJootlasd having learnt the tnie name of hig Italian 
nesBenger, treated him hoRjvitftlily for thi"ce nnontlis 
as Octavio Baldi, When Eliialieth died, about a 
year afU-rwardSf and James came to England, he 
asked Sir Edward Wotton whether he knew one 
Henry Wotton who hsid spent some tiaue in foreign 
travel. Sir Edwarrl repliftd that hfi was his bi-other. 
Then the king asked where he was, and learning that 
he would he soon in Fans, mid, " Send for him, and 
when h« shall conie to Englanil, bid him repair 
privately to rae." Sir Edward, wondering, aaked 
the king whether he knew hira. To which the king 
anawered, " You must rest imsatjafieil of that till 
yon bring the gentleman to me." When, after a 
while, Henry Wotton was in England and canio to 
court, the king embraced him, welcoming liijn iia 
IJcta^io Baldi, said he was the moat honeat dis- 
sembler he had ever known, knighted liira, and 
thenceforth uaed his knowledge of foreign lands and 
languages by employing liira on embassies. He wiw 
firat sent, with a large allowance, to Venice. On the 
way, going through Germany, he staje'l some days 
at Treves, where, being one day with gooti company 
in playfiJ mood, he waa anked to wnte a line in the 
album of ■Chrintnpher Flecamoj'p, Hh wrote a 
definition of an arabaaswlor in Latin tlint did not 
b«ir the pleasant donble meiuiing of the Englwh 
version he would have given of it — " Legatus est vir 
Lonu« peregre miasuft ad meiitiendum Reipublicw 
causa" — " An Ambassador is an honest man sent to 
lie abroad for the good of hia country." Eight years 
»flei*wards tliis sentence wan brought out of its 
frientUy privacy by an Italian adverrtary of King 
James, who took it as evjdenoe of thu King of 
£ii|fland'8 morals in diplomacy, Tlie king waa 

angry lUitil Hem-y Wotton bad written two notable 
apologies to clear himself. Henry Wotton wiLS stiiit 
also as amliaasadur to the EmiJeiur Ferdinand II., 
to Ul^ the claims of the QucPit of Bohemia to the 
Palatinate, He was sent also t*:i the (^iennun princss. 
Towai-dii the close of Jamea I.*s reign, Sii" Henry 
Wotton luul retiuTied to England, and, eml>aiTa!*-sed 
by Djuoh nx|JeiwUtiire, was in money diMcultiBH, 
looking for some othce at. home from the king. The 
ProvoHt of Eton die<l in lUl!? ; his ytlax^ was sought 
by mauy, and wan given to Sir Henry Wotton. 
Theneeforth his life was easy and happy until his 
death in 1639. Among his pieces publisht^l am 
''Reliquia Wottonianie" are. some letters, of which 
examples are givea The first, written in October 
1630, describes lui incident of wur^the death of 
Count Tampier. 


Of m}' purpme to depart from Vienna, and to leave the 
Emperor to the counflob of his own tortime^ I gBve hia 
MajoHty knowledge by my aort-iint, J&cni^s Varj'. 

I will now mokt> you ft saimnnry uccount of what hatK 
htkp]it!ni'4L here, which ie t*) bi* doat' both out of duty to your 
plac^, Hnd out of gbIi|^iti(jD to yum- h-ii;n(hlhip. 

The Count Tampier had aome twelve day^ Hincc taken from 
ttiQ Hun^^uTLiuis, by surpniml in the fjiulil, thirtcea L«nti't« of 
bor»e, and one ^nai^ of fo<}t, whith hero with much osteatft- 
tion wiiro carric-d up imd liown, iind laid on Sunday wm 
BOVGQ night undoT the Kniperor's feut, aa he came inm the 

Ewme note, that tho vanity of thi^B trinniph wm grontEtr 
thtm the merit ; for thu Huiig^ariana Iby thoir or^riKry 
diBciplia&i Kbauad in comptB, bearing one almoat for cvory 
twenty horse, w aa ftags ttro good cheap iimongst them, 
und but flhghtly guardod. HowMcver the matter bi' nrnda 
more or Iphb, uccording to the wits on both ndos, thi* wiu 
brevt ffaHdium, and itself, indeed, Eoni« cmubq of tho foUawing 
disaator; for thii Count Tanipior, hiAof^ hy nature na 
cnterptiBing man, wjii now also iii6ami!d hy accident, which 
made him imTnediutoly comseivo the nurprieal ai Pnwhurg, 
while the Prince of Tmnaylvaiua woh rotirod to thf slt'ge o( 
Uiins, aoTiie sii or seven leugiieu dis.tant. A project in truth, 
i£ it had pro«pered, of notorious utility. 

First, by thu very reputatioa of the place, h«iDg tho 
capital town of Hungaria. 

Nextt thi- access to Comotn and Qoab {which plarca onJy 
tho Kmptror rotaintth, in that kin^om of «uy eunsidumljlo 
value) liad Iwjea frcod by water, which now in Ji matiticr ore 
blocked, up. 

Thirdly, tho mcurflionn into these provinces, and igno- 
miniouB depredatioiu had Ijeeii cut off. 

And Instly, the Crown of Hungitiiii had been recovOTed, 
which the Kmpcror Mutthiaa did transport lo the <.'U9tk- of 
Presbarg, afUjr the deposition pf Rodnlph. hi» brother, who 
always, kept it in the raatle of Pragaa; which men uceount 
one of the subtle thingn of that retired Euiporor, &» I heiar by 
discoume. So m upon thca« coneddcrationB, Ihu enterpriM 
woe more commend&ble in the desigii, than it will appear m 
the execution: being thoB carried. 

From honc» to PreBharg' i^ in thia month ol October an 
eaay night's journey by wutor. Thither on. ThuMday night 
of tho last wook, Tumpicr himself, accompanied witii «nne 
four or five Colonfls, Jind O'thcr rcmarknble men of this faurl, 
roBolvOa to bringdown in twotity-five ThmIh, ubout S.OOD foot, 
or such B mutter; having giveii order, and ejiace enough 




t^-D. IMt 

before, for certain horse, partly Dutch, and partly PolonianB, 
to bo there, and to attend his coming about two hours before 
Friday morning. And to shuduw this purpose, himself on 
Thursday in the afternoon, with affected noise goes up the 
river the contmry way, though no reasonable imaginations 
eould conceive whither ; for the lower Austria was then all 
reduced. By which artificial delay, and by some natural 
stops in the shallowB of the water, when they fell silently 
down again, it was three or four b^'ur^ of clear day before he 
arrived at Prtisburg the next morning : where his moaning 
was, first to destroy the bridge built upon boats, and thereby 
to keep Bethlem Gabor (as then on the Austrian side) not 
only from succouring the to^'n, but from all possibility of 
repassing the Ditnube nearer than Buda. Next, to apply the 
petard to one of the gates of the citadel. Some wise Bixy, 
he had liko inward intelligence, that at his approach, the 
wicket of the castle should be opened unto him by one Palfy, 
an Hungarian gentleman; which conceit, though perchance 
raised at first to animate the soldier, yet hath gotten much 
credit, by seeing the enterprise against all discourse continued 
by daylight. Bo that point how it will, his fatal hour was 
come ; for approaching a sconce that lies by the castle gate, 
and turning about to cry for his men to come on, he was shot 
in the lowest part of his skull nearest his neck, after uhich 
ho spake no syllable, as Don Carolo d' Austria (second base 
son to liodolph the Emperor, and himself at that time saved 
by the goodness of his armour) doth testify. After which, 
some two or three soldiers attempting to bring away his body, 
and those being shot, the rest gave it over, and the whole 
troops transported themselves to the other aide, leaving the 
boats behind them, as if they had meant to contribute new 
provision for the mending of the bridge, whereof they had 
only broken one little piece. 

This was the end of the Count Tampier; by his father's 
side a Norman, by his mother's a Champaigne, a servant 
twenty-two years to the House of Austria. Himself captain 
of a thousand horse : but commander divers times in chief, 
especially before the coming of the Count Bucquoy, from 
whom he was severed to these nearer services, being of 
incompatible natures : a valiant and plotting soldier ; in 
encounters more fortunate than sieges; gracious to his ovm, 
and terrible to the Hungarians ; to the present Emperor most 
dear, though, perchance, as much for civil as militarj' merit : 
for this was the very man that first seized upon the Cardinal 
Clesol, when ho was put into a coach, and transported hence 
to Tirol ; so as now we may expect some pamphlet the next 
mart from In^lstadt, or Koln ; that no man can end well 
who hath laid violent hands upon any of those Iloman 

To this point I must add two remarkable circumstances : 
the first, that Tampier, among other papers found in his 
pockets, is said to have had a memorial of certain conditions, 
whereon it should be fit to insist in his parley with the town, 
as having already swallowed the castle. The other, that his 
head having l>cen cut off by a soldier, and sold for five 
dollars to another, who meant to have the merit of presenting 
it to tho prince, tho presenter was rewarded with a stroke of 
a sabres for insulting over the dead carcass of a gentleman 
of honour. 

The next letter was to an old friend Nicholiis, 
Pey, who, from service in tlie house of Heniy 
Wotton's brotlier Sir Edmund, had been advancpil 
by Sir Edmund to profitable service in the household 
of tlie king, and was at court the tnwtiest friend of 
the Wottou family. The death refen-ed to in the 

letter is that of Wotton's cou-sin. Sir Albert Moi-ton, 
who had gone with him to Venice as his secretoty. 

3fy dear Xic. Pey, 

This is the account of me since you saw me last. 

My going to Oxford was not merely for shift of air, oth<;r- 
wise I should approve your counsel to prefer Houghton befon.' 
any other part whatsoever ; that air best agreeing with mf, 
and being a kind of resolving me into my own tx^nningf : 
for there I was bom. 

But I have a little ambitious' vanity stirring in me, t^- 
print a thing of my composition there: which would else in 
London run through too much noise beforehand, by reasrm 
of the licences that must bo gotten, and an eternal trick in 
those city -stationers, to rumour what they have under prmf. 

From Oxford I was rapt by my nephew. Sir Edmund 
Bacon, to Redgrave, and by himself, and by my sweet ni«« 
detained ever since : (so I say) , for believe me, there in in 
their conversations, and in the freedom of their entertain- 
ment, a kind of delightful nolence. 

In our way hither we blanched Paul's Perrj-, though 
within three miles of it, which we are not tender to conft-sn 
(being indeed our manifest excuse) ; for thereby it appears 
the pains of the way did not keep us thence. 

In truth, we thought it (coming intmodiately from an 
infected place) an hazardous incivility to put ourselves npon 
them ; for if any sinister accident had fallen out about the 
same time (for coincidents are not always causes) we should 
have rued it for ever. 

Here, when I had been almost a fortnight in the midst of 
much contentment, I received knowledge of Sir Albeitu 
Morton's departure out of this world, who was dearer nnti* 
me than mine own being in it. What a woimd it is to mr 
heart, you will easily believe ; but His undisputable will oiu-t 
be done, and unrepiningly received by Uis own oreatQif^. 
who is tho Lord of all nature, and of all fortune, when H<.' 
taketh now one, and then another, till the expected diy 
wherein it shall please Him to dissolve the whole, and to 
wrap up even tho heaven itself as a scroll of parchment. 

This is tho last philosophy that we must study upon th>' 
earth ; let us now, that yet remain, while oar glssaes ahill 
run by the dropping away of friends, reinforce our lore to 
one another; which of all virtues, both spiritual and morel, 
hath the highest pri\'ilege, because death itself shall not md 
it. And, good Xic, exercise that love towards me in lettine 
me know, &c. 

Tour ever poor friend, 


The next letter is to Sir Edmund Bacon, in 
sympathy for his loss of a wife, whom Wotton iu 
a previous letter had greeted with his " hot love to 
the best niece in the world." 

Among those that have deep interest in whatBocver ran 
befall you, I am the freshest witness of your nnexpressible 
affections to my most dear niece ; whom God hath takMi fnnn 
us into His eternal light and rest ; where we must leave hir 
till wo come unto her. I should think myself unworthy for 
ever of that love she bare me, if in this case I were fit to 
comfort you. But it is that only God who can reconsoUtf <>* 
both : who, when Ho hath called now one, and then another 
of His own creatures unto Himself, will unclasp the final bouk 
of His decrees, and dissolve the whole : for which I hope H^ 
will rather teach us to thirst and languish, than to repine it 

'V> A.L. 16S&] 



|«>tk'Ular (liBSoluLiunfi. I hoA in u peiiuliiij- iifflit:tian of 
mine own (uU TF-Lthin the compass of little time) much con- 
sulatictn frum you; wkt^ih caniiot Wt Ik* now presout witl) 
yiituiiflf ; for I urn well acquiiint^d with the atretigthof your 
Chrietiun niinJ. 

ThtTcdoro bciDgr kindly invittxl by the good Master of the 
RitUs to write ty his pxpwsa mesKen^rr Lmtnj you, Itt me 
iwitbuut furthci- discourse of ciiir gtit^e) only join in this 
^^ilh hiin, to witJi yout company divided luetwnen him and 

We Till c»nt«mpUte together, whai w« tauot, oiir future 
Ivloaavdnctis, and our prtwrnt uncertaintifs : and I mn Rfmid 
we afaali find too much argum(.-Qt to drown our private feelings 
ill thi; puliHi; svlialud^-. Uud'a luvc, wIiltqIq U all jgy, be 
with us. 

Your cvtT true »i)d hcnrty servant, 

From "^VeBtminrter, this idth April, 1626. 

A letter to Frauois Bi\ci>ii, thanking liiia for the 
L'il't of Lis "Novum Orgamim," describes a visit to 

Sir ffmrtf Wottou to Lord Jinftm. 
Sipfit fffifiurif/'fc, ettrl nry ptrtf gooJ Lord, 

I have your lordship's lettvra duted thu 20th of October, 
a&d I hav^ -withtkl hy thc! ca-re of my coutjiu, Ut. Thomas 
^It.B,«tiH, iuid by your own Hpmai fnvour, three copies of 
that work, wherowith your lonLvhip hnth don« a great and 
I'Tvr-living b^npflt to rU the duldiyn of Xitttire ; find to Nftture 
herKlf, in her att«nno8t f-xtont and latitude: who uerer 
bttfore had eo noble nor aa true an interpreter^ or (lui I am 
r«wdia to atylo ytiut lordnhip) never bo Inward a awretary of 
her cwhifflct. But of your said work {which camo but thia 
«f6ok to nay Imnda) I B,hitll find occaeioa to epeak more here- 
after ; having yet re^d only thc fii-st hook thi-rfcf , nud n few 
aphorimcA of the Bfcnnd, For ft is not n. btin<T;M<'t, that men 
may suptrficiully totile, and jjut up thi; Wst in their purketa; 
hut, in tnith, a Aolid feast, which rtctuircth du'' tiiaetioition. 
TTiBTPfore when I hRv? once myeolf perused the whola, I 
df^crmidi^ to havo it read piece by piece at certiiin bouTB in 
my dcmeistic college, as aa aniiont uuthor ; for I havo kamed 
thus mni-h by it nlroady, that we are extremely miBtakcn iii 
the compubttion of antiquity, by aearchixij it liackwajJ^, 
hpcnuso indwd the first [itnoa were the youngcet; GflpectilJy 
in p^nts of n^itural discovery and eaporiene*. For though I 
Rxant, that Adjim knew the nAtores of all bcaisita, and Solomon 
of &11 planta, not only more than any, bat more than all since 
iheir timft L yet that weis hy diviae inf uaion. and therefore they 
did nirt need any such Orgaimm iia your lorilnhip hath how 
deliverc-d to the werld ; nor we neither, if they liad left us 
tbo mrmories of their wisdoiu. 

But I am RDno ftirthor than 1 meant in Bpeaking of this 
«£t»llent labour, whila the delli|rbt yet J feel, and even the 
prill* that I take in a certain ccngmiality (as I may torra it) 
with your lordBhip'ii studies, will dcant let nic tieaao- And, 
■nd(><>d, 1 owB your lordship even by promise {which you are 
pleased to remcmhor. thereby doubly binding rae) eomc 
trouble* thia wny ; I mean, by tlip oomirierce of philosophical 
■r'xperimetiU, wliich flurely, of all other, is the most in^auiLouFi 
traffic. Therefore, for a h4>g;inning', b't me tell your lordship 
n pretty thing which i saw coming down the Ilanubc, though 
moft^ remnrkftljlf^ for thi' application than forthptheoTT. 1 lay 
11 nicbt at LinlJ!, the nJctropoliBof the hiirhpt AiiBlria, but 
then in verj- low fotate. havinR; been newly taken by the 
Didce of Bnmria; who, ifandimfe farlutifl, waa gone on to the 

lute effects. There I found Kopler, a man fumutis Ln ttip 
scieuciM, fts your lordnhip knows, to whom I purpose to convey 
from hence one gf your Ivooka, thut he nuiy nee we have *oni9 
of our own that can honour our king", a» wdU as he hath dona 
«ith hia IfariuoHirf.^ In thia ninn'a study I was much taltcu 
with the draught of a landskip on a pit^cc of pajwr, mt-. 
ihciug^hta masterly done: whereof inquirinfj the author, he 
bewrayed with n scille, it was hJoiM^lf ; adding, hr> had donii 
it, jV-wi liiHijiiHiu yielor, neii taniftiniif Malhetttaticitt- This hil 
nic' on lirG ; ul luhit he told mo how. Ho hiith a little blucl^ 
tint (of what stuff is not mmch ijnporting) whit'h ho rJiii 
sudLk-nly ml up where he will in n field, and it is convertible 
(like H windmill) t« all quarters at phuiKurc, enpnble of nut 
much more than one man, a« I conc^ivo, and perhaps at no 
gniMt oaso; ^xRCtly elo9Q and dark, save at one hole, about an 
iuch and a hnlf in the dinnieter, to which he applies a long 
perspective trunk, with a eonvex gln^ Btted to the said hole, 
and the concave taken out at the olhar end, which ex'^ndnlh 
to about the middle of this ereielL-d tent) thruu|i;h which the 
visible radiations of all thet objects without aio intromittod, 
fulLinj^ upon a paper, which is aecommodated to receive them, 
and so he tracoth them with his pen in thoir natuml appear- 
anee, turning his little tent round by degrOea till ho hath 
designed the whole aspect of the field. Thia I hitve deseribed 
to ycmr lordaliipt because I think there might bo i^ood use 
ma>de of it for chorography : for otherwise, to make T:iind«In]ie 
by it Were illiberal ; though surely no painter can do them so 
precisely. Now from these artifleiul nod natural vurioiritics, 
let mu a little iirei^t your 1urd«hip to the contemplation of 

The rest of the letter tellfl of the eluinged fiice nf 
politics, about the German Emperur. 

It was in OctoberT 16211, that Francis Bacoii 
presented to King Jamea liis " Noviim Orgauun)/' 

AbS» Cwi?«C» ot St. 

a fmgm'ptit on whiieh ha hmt worked for tliirty yetirH, 
He hftd lieen createtl Baron Vemlnm i few motith!) 

L joliHiii Eeplff [bom ISft. ^*d ISSO) itntilkhed kia " HwviamM 
Haoilf," dereloFtastbatblrdof "EepleT'«ZiBn,"iiil019. 
• Not u P^ntor, bnt u ICatbeinatldlBZk. 



[».». leas 

Vfoi-e, taking the ancient name of tlie town beside the 
fjiiaily seat at (rorluuiil>Hry, and in JaUiiaty, 1 C2 1 , he 
was luatie Viacoiiut, with his title derived from the 
later name of the town — Viscount St Albany. 

In Miii-cb followed his, fall. Li May. 10^1, Le wa-t 
sent?nt«l, ftptl tiiencefoi-th 1ib witlidi-ow from [loliticai 
life. His iust fiv« yeara were spent in the worthiest 
1386 of bis intellect. Bacon was, however, nuioug 
tlirjse who Fjougbt the office of Provost of Eton, which 
WH8 given ic Sir Hfury Wotton, In lC2ii, Ibe 
' before kis Jenth, be published the thiivl edition 
Easivys, leaving tbem [>cifected to the utmost 
bin power. Of the EAmys, as tiiey were tben 
puhliahed;r these are tbrc^ : — 

E8&4Y9 DP* BACOK, im. 
0/ TrvTh. 

'* WJutu tnUb ?" Bftid JBstmg l*ilatp ; ucd wouEd not stay for 

" ' ttly there be timt delight in giddineafl, and 
t>fis a belief i idTcctingfre^ewill in thinking 
And though the i(e<:ta of philouophcrs of 
ihitt kind be gan?, yet Ibert; remnin i:>t-rtain diamiirain^ wit^, 
which ATS of thv B&me tciiu, though there bo not k> much 
blood iu them, as won in thoae of this luicifnta, But it is not 
only the difficulty and Liboar which men tukc in Hnding out 
of truth ; oOr, ^gnio, thAt when it is fount], it impoavth ujMia 
mca'B thoughta ; that dotb bring lioa in favDur : but ii uiitunil, 
though ^tormpt love of th't- lie iUcli. One of the bit*^ arhool 
<j! the {irecimis, etxHininoth the nuvttcr, sud u* at a Blnndl. to 
think whitt should be in it^ thut i&ftei 6hou]d lova iif« ^ whc-n:; 
ppither tbry make for plensuro, as with poeti ', nar for ndviu)- 
U^e, as with the ini?rchiint: but for the li«'B dake. But I 
cnnniit tell : thia a&ma truth la h nuked and open daylight, 
that dolh tiot ebow the innflksj and mumraerit^, and triumphs 
of tho world half »o utatidy STid ditintily nn can^aUgiittt, 
Truth mar puthapa ccime to th& [iri-trn of a pirarl that ahoweth 
hot by day: hut it wjU not riim Ut the jirico of Jidmmcrnd of 
carbuhL-li! thut tihowi^th bc^t in vhHlsI lights, A mixturo of 
« lie ijoth over aij<l plwisure, I>oth rtny nmn doubt thiit if 
thero wero taken out of mcn'a minds vain ufiLaJoii^ flattering 
hopes, i»lBe vidii9Lticni&, imn^nntiona as nne would, and the 
likr ; but it would Icavo tho nHQda of a niunbor of meti poot 
shriuikun things, ftdl of mrUnchoty and indisposition, and 
iinpleaiung to thenuolvos ?* One of the fathcra in gr«at 
aevority callixl po€fly, ViMum liemnanum,^ bocMUse it flUeth tho 
imAgmatioQ, and y^t it is but with the shadow of a lie. But 
it ui not the lie that pnaeeth throuj^h tho mind, but thu liu 
that ainketh in, anJ Hcttk'th in it, thjit doth tho hurt, auch ns 
we apdkkD of before. But bowaopver thi-se things are thufi, in 
mon'fl dfrpTKTed jud^cmnttt and afloctiom, ytit truth, which 
only doth jud^ itaclf, tefteheth that the inquiry of truth, 
which ia the Tovo-maldn^ or wixiing of it : th<3 knowh-dgb of 
tmth, whidh i$ the prfsuBoeof it; and the belief of truth, whii-h 
is tho (ynjoying of it ; in tho soTormgn f^ood of human ^bt»^<:^ 
The first crcutun; of (lad, m thf> worka of the Aay», was the light 
of the Bease ; tha la»t was thn light of nmaon ; and Uij sabbath 
work ever sinra is tho illainiiuition of i^a spirit. First He 
broathod hg:ht upon tho face of the matter or chna^ ; th'on He 
hr»«thpd light into thf fuoo of man ; and rtill Ho breatheth 
and inspireth lif;ht into the face of Ilia chosen, Thf) poet,^ 
lhatbtaLuti£ed the sect' that wna otlu?rwi»e inferior to thereat, 
eqjth yet oxceMently well : " It Ia a pk'ASiurc to ittand upon tho 
ahorfrftod to see ships tossed upon the aoil ; a ploaatiro tnatand 

> WJa^ofDnboiu (lopiaEiDe). 

' Tbfl £picuroiua. 

in th*? window of a c<b8tle and to we a battle and the adrrn- 
LUnrH thurt-of htlow ; but no pleasure ia ccmpai^bki U' ihc 
Htftfiding u^jon tho vantage ground of truth [a hUl not to br 
comnwiidid , aad where Uie aSx ia always clear and apimn, 
aad to vj^ tb>.< errura, and wanderings^ nnd miata, Aod ttiu- 
peatH^ id the vftlo below." So always, thjkt this prT>«pw* br 
with pity, and not with swelling or pride- Certainly it ia 
heivtn upon (-arth to have a ntanV mind move in chant;, 
rest in Providfncoi and turn upon the poles of tmth. 

To piisa from theological and philooophicnl tratK. to l^ 
truth of avil buamoaa : it will be iicknowledgwd, even by thoai- 
that prat-tiae it not, that rl^r aod round doaling is tlu; 
hiiauur of man's njiture ; and that nuxture of falaehood U lilic 
alloy in coin of n^old and silver ; which may make tho mcW 
work tho belter, bnt it 9inba3eth it. For the«e windiug uid 
orooked courses are the goings of the serpent, which g<.eUi 
basely «pon the belly, and not upon the ft*t- There i* 6i> 
vleo that doth Bo oovor u man with ahame, u to bo found 
fabic, and perfidiousi. And tberefurt< Montaigne eoith pretUIiy^ 
vhon he inquired the reason why the word of tlu lie ahould 
be «ueh a dis^^mco and soch an odiou* nhargo ? Saith he. " If 
it be weU w^ig^hed, to bbj- that a man lit^th is as much to mt 
as that he is brsvo towards Gtxl anJ a cowairi lowarda metL" 
For u lie fao«(t God and ahrinka from man. Surely th- 
wicki^dness of f^ilscbood, and breach of faith, oanuot ptiwtil\ 
he Ml highly enpre&aed, as tn that it sliall be tbtt last pnd Ui 
1^1 the jndgmi,'nts of Ood upou the geaerationx of nuv , tt 
btdng fort<told that when Christ c-^nieth He shall not Hnd faith 
upon [hi'.' earth. 

Of FrumfgAip. 

It hAd boen hard for him that spake it, to havD put atan- 
truth and untruth tog«ther,in few wonls^thaain thut^xiccb 
" Whoeocver 3s delighted in solitude is oithet a wild beaat Of i 
god." ' For it ia moat true that a UAtural and aecrel tutrad aad 
Mversation towards soeiety in any man hnth someirluit of th> 
savage boast -, but it is most untrue that it shoqld haw atf 
chanw-'ter at all o( the divine nature, eieept it proc«ed, iW 
out uf s, pleasure in solitude, but out of a lova and deain to 
aeqac^or & man'fi sAlf for a higher convefaatiim, such as i* 
found to bqvfl bet'n (al»aly and fejgnedly in «uine of lh« 
heathen ; Hi. Epimenitlea, the Candian ; Numa, tho Bonu : 
Empedocles, the Sicilian ; aod Apollonian, of Tyaoa ; aai, 
troly and really, in dirers of tho andont henaits aod half 
fatliora of the Church- But Lttle do men perceive what sc£- 
tude hi, and how far it ejctcndeth. For a crowd » not coiofaa?* 
and fares apo but n gallery of picturoa ; and talk bat ■ tinkftiy 
(iymbal, where there is no lovo. The Latiq ada^ msctA 
with it a little: "Klagnn L;iTit(i6,ni^:naeiolitudo;"* beonitiBS 
great town friends aro scntteredr bo that there ia nOl ikM 
fellowship, for the most part, whicJi is in leas ncdgb.bovltfs'k- 
But we may go further, and aflirm most truly that it it > 
mere and miacrablo solitude, lo want true friends, vilhs^ 
which the world Js but a wildomMS - snd even in Uu» i"** 
ulao of Boliludo, whoeouver in the fmfoo of tuA natal* aas 
affections is unht for friendship, he taketb it oC the beast, aJ 
not from humanity, 

A principal fniit of friendship is tho caoe and diachstfi^ 
the fulaoas and swellings of the heart, whieb punou rf d 
kinds do cause and induce. AV'e know difloaana uf s|«p|tafl 
and auttocationa are the moat dangi&rons in the body: salt 
is not mnch otherwiae in thf Tiiind. You may take MlBto 
ippcn the liver ; steel to opou the spleen ; flowen of w^"* 

* EMdw, Uv, jr,, tAap, rriu. !>■ ItmmMUr. 

» Arittotle. "Ethtca," Bk vilL 
■ A trreat citj, a {[rut iolitnds. 


. UH.] 



tor the lunf^ ; eafltoreum for tlic bcain ; but no receipt openfth 
Gte hmri but » true friend, to vhom you may impurt grivfa, 
joyi, Ihta, hofiefl, aaspiciooB^ counsols, and wbatsocvvr tictb 
upCQ the hdirt] to oppress it, m a kind of dvil ahrift or 

It ia a Btm»ge thiBg to clMort-0 how high, a rut« great 
kiogB und monurchA do act u|jim this fniit of friiaadahip, 
wlicwof wo apmk, «q great, as thty purthoiiQ it miiny tim&B 
ut the hazard of th^ir own sofHity and greatnesa. For 
I'rioiiEw, in regard ot Iho distanL^e of tbeir fortune from that of 
thuir subJKts luid Ken'unts, cannot gnthor tliin fruit, i encffit 
(to nuke theouielvi^ cupu^le thertxif) they rnLgc Ejupie jt^ra^TiB 
to be, as it irere, comj^kanioDS and alnkost equtJtt tu ih^a- 
*ulvt«, iFlich mimy timos sortoth to iiicotiV(>iui>nce. The 
modc^m Luiguo^efl give bnto e.uch persona the Diime uf 
i^ivvurites, or prinidoce, a» if it were umttcr of grtw^t or con- 
T«rmtian. But the liomon trnme attaineth the trua use and 
qaiuc thereof, naujing thtm parti>c)pe»ciinu'iun;> for it is that 
which ticth, the knot. And wu e^a pLunly that thia hath been 
dune, not by weak und pH^0QA(« princfs only, but by th« 
wisest and most politic; thatoTt^rr^igiied ; who hfivu ofti-n- 
ttinea joiaod to thcmac-lves Bomc of their sorvtuita, vhom both 
Ihconselvce hove cnUod fri^nd^, and jillowod others likewise to 
caiLI thcin in the snme maimer, using thf) WDi'd which i& 
received bulwocn privuts men. 

L. Sylltt, whan he cormnuDtlcd Rome. rMi!«?iI I^ompey (after 
iBurownt'd th* tlrout) to that height that Pompey vauntt-d 
hiuiM^li for SylJa'a ovfrniateh. For when ho had wirri'.'d the 
cuDsul«>bip for a friend of his against the pursuit of Syllii. and 
that Sylli did a little Te-eeut thereat, and bognn to Hpeiik 
great, I'iimpey turned upon him again, and in clfuct bade him 
W quiet : for thiit more men adured the eun rising than the 
nin setting. With Julicia Ca^tuir, Dcititnua Brutiu had 
obtained KhaX. inter^t, sa he get hioi dowa in bis t«gtaniE!nt 
for heir in n,-maindi:r after his nephev. And thia was thr^ 
man that bad pomor with him to draw hitii forLh lo hia death ; 
for when Ca'sor would have disdnirged the g«nate, id regu,rd 
of some ill presages, Eind especially a dream of Cnlpumiti, 
this muD lifttxl him gt^ntly hy the arm out of hia chair, telltng 
him he hoi>ed he wuiild not difmias the senate till hia wifo 
bad dreamt a hvttur dream." And it seemoth bin favour vr\i3 
■u gr^at, as Antonius in n letter, which ia reeitod verbatim in 
one of Cicero's Ffailippica,' caliuth him " venf^fica," witch, ivi 
if he had (<Qchanteii deear, Augustus raised Agripjja 
(though of mean birth) to that height, as, when he coTiaiiU^-d 
vitJi Alseco&As about the marriage of hia daughter Julia, 
Mfficonaa took the liberty to tfU him thut ho mutrt t'ither 
nuury his daughter to Agrippa, or ttilce away hia life ; there 
■wna Ro third way, he bad mnde him so gretit. With Tiberi iw 
Ctt^fiar, iS^jaiiiui had uecended to that height as they two ti-ere 
Uamad and reekooed as a pair of frionds, Tiberiufl in a letter to 
him Buth : '^ Ucbc pro amicsitia nostra dod occoltavi "j * and the 
vhole Senate dedJicated an attar to Friend^ip. oa to a goddcsa, 
ifi tveptct of the KTcat deamesa of friemlehip between them 
two. Tb« likE<. or moru, was between ^^ptimius ijevcrua and 
Plaiitiohtiii ; ioe he forced his eldest son to many the daughter 
of Plaatiamw, and would often maintain Phiutiiuius in doin^; 
afeonts to hi» tan ; and did writo also in a letter to the 
H<iial« * hy these words ■■ "■I lovo the man bo well aa I wish he 
Biajr Drer-liTC me." Now if tboM princiH had been as a 
IViijan, or a Itliuvus Auroliiu, a man m){{ht have thought 

* Thttm UtaatiaUana W fnum Plutjuch'a Liv^^ of Ponipoy bui3 

> Ga. "PWUpp/'iiii. 11. 

■ Tb«« tbiuga, beouute c4 atir Criendsbip, E liave not ooucealL-J 

' DiOB- ClUH. Ixzv, 


that this had procooded of an abundant goodnefia of natturo; 
but LiQing men so wise, of auch strength ttnd severity of 
niiud, and so extreme lovera of theniBolviia, as all these were, 
it proreth most plainly that they found their own felicity 
{.though UB greiLt as ovct happ«i3ied to mortal men] but &b ua 
half pitHM), except thoy might have a friimd t« make it entire ; 
and yiit, whidi is more, they wtsre princes that had wiv&ii, 
&ona, nophows ; and yet all these «ould not supply tha eomfgrt 
uf friendahip. 

It ia not to b« forgottun what Commineus obacrveth of hia 
first moister, Duke Charlea the Hardy,' namely, tliat hu would 
communicate his ueereta with none, und Icaixt oi all iLosu 
Bt^L^rttttwhioh troubled him moat. Whereupon he goeth on, mid 
sdith, that towards his lattur time, that elD«cnc»a did impair 
and a little perish his undei-etuuiling. Surely Commineus 
might have mode the same judgment also, if it htul pleaoL-d 
him, of his second m^st^i^r, Leuls XI., vhofle cLoBcneaa was 
indeed, his tormentor. The parable of Pj-thagoras is dark, 
but true: "Oor nei editb," iwit not the heart.' Certainly, if a 
man would give it a hard phrase, tboHo that wjmt frienda to 
open themselves unto ore cannibals of their own hearts. Hut 
(me thing a moet admir&blo (whurswith I vill conclude thi« 
first fruit of friendahip), which is^ that this communicating of 
a man'e self to hia fiiend works two contrary elfecta : for it re- 
dguhli^th joy» and cutteth griefs in halvo^a. For therfi is no 
man that imparteth hia joys to hia friend but he joycth the 
more \ and no man that impFirtitth hi» grlefa to his friend, but 
hii grievolh the loss. So that it ia, in truth of operation upon 
B man's mind, of Like'virtue, aa thn Alchymista used to attri> 
bute to their stone, for mun'B body ; thnt it worketh all Con* 
tniry ^ect«, hut still to the good and heuetit of nature. But 
yot, without praying in * aid of althymiHta, them is a manifest 
imago of this in the ordinary courso of nature. For in bodiea 
union atrengthenoth and thoriishcth any natural aition : and 
on the other aide, weakeneth ajid duHeth any violent impres- 
sion ; and even so is it of minds. 

The seeond fruit of friendahip is healthful and sovereign for 
the underBtundtng as the first is for the offecliona- For friend- 
ahip mnketh indei'd a fair day in tho affotitiona from storm and 
tompoBt : but it makt-th dayUght in the iHiderataudiiig out of 
durkncbs ami confusion of thuughtn. Neither is this to be 
undBrstood only of faiUiful ooiuiBel which a man receivi'th 
from his friend. But before you come to that, certain it is 
that whosoev(>r hath his mind fraught with many thoughts, 
hia wits and understanding do fiLutfy and break up in tho 
communicating and diu-ouraing with another. Ho tossett 
his thoughts more easily ; ha mjirshrtlLeth them more orderly ; 
he Beeth how they look wh^^n they are tumcd into words ; 
finallyi ho waxeth wisor than himself, and that more by an 
hour'a diacouxse than by a day's meditation. It was well said 
by Tbemistoeles to the King of Persia, that spee^^h was like 
ok>th of anaa, opened and put abrwd,* whereby the inuigery 

) Philippe d« Colaulaes began his csiwr »t tho oonrt ol Ctivlaa ie 
Hu-rdi, ChariM the Bold, I>ukii ol fiufjiuidT. aod ws« dr^wp, iin 11?%, 
frum the Htmice o( Chuj-loa into tli« Barrier of Louis XI., who SRVO 
bim bu coafidcnce- und tre:ttad Lim with ?miC CamULuitj'. CommiUM, 
therefore, luid. uo p-BrsQUJil ro>iAi^n te record '' tbu mubo Jud^uuut bIsu 
uf LiBactMiid inHSleT." 

' Quoted in PluUireli'B tnoattae on " fidaculJon.*' 

I J^pnf ill, InvitinK ; " prayliiK la aid " wi« ■ Ikw t6na for the 

^llii^ iu cf liclt< CO a Giius« from one who bu luterest in It. So Pro- 

cuUhoa B»r» to Clswjiotni ("' AnL uad CI,," Act t„ bc S| ;— 

" Tnu dh&U ft&4 

A eaniitismr thnt will prby in aid far kuidnera. 

Whta Uo I" knopled tm." 

HiLiuiMn- Rni poiated gat the meanhig erf the phiaH la this poasufff 'rf 


■ FIuUuoIl'b Lite of TliemlAtacles, 




[&.D. loa 

Jtfth appear in flffuro ; whereas in thoughta ihay lio but as 
tn i3€M'ktf- NaithiT ie thia apL-ond fruit of frieadahip, in a^iumng 
ihB uailerstanding, rcBtruiaud only to such frimda as arc able 
to give it man <^ouIlAQl (they indeed aro beat), but even without 
that n tnan leomoth of himsQlf and brinii^eth bin own thoughts 
to liyht, and whetteth hie wits aS aeninst a ntuno which its-'lt 
otLts not. In a -word, a man wore betlmr relate himsulf to & 
atatuG) or jiictonO) than Vi Riificr hitt ttiougbta to |»[sb in 

Add naw, to make this BecOnd fruit of frieniiahip complete, 
ihjit other point, which Lctb nioro open, &D.i falleth within 
iTjlgar obaervatioa, xvhich is fiuthful coutiscl from a friend. 
llt'j^cLitus saith wdl, in one of hi» eni^nas, Dry li^ht is evor 
tho boet.* And c^^ttaiin it id that the lii^ht that a man tt^cciri^th 
liy counsel from unothcr ia drier and purer than that which 
Cometh from hia own uncliirstanding' and judgtni:nt, whic!h is 
fVBT infused nnd drenched en hits rtfEoctions and custonu. So 
jLS tiiera ia aa much difference between the counsel that a. 
friend givcth and that a man givoth him^L'lf, us thore is be- 
tween the counBol of a friend and of a flatterer. For thcra is 
no such flattorr^r ais 19 n man'n nelf; snd there is no such 
ramody ti^uiAt flattery of a tn&ix'n self as thi- Iibi?rty of a friend. 
CotinBcl is of two eorta ; the one concerning monnci^, the othiiF 
t'oncemrnt; huBincsa. Por the first, the heat preaorvntive to 
]t6P^ Lho mind in health i^the faithful admonition of a friend. 
The calling of a man's self to & strict account is a medicine 
soRiotimes too piercing and corroidve. Ending* good books 
i.>f morality i& a tittle flat and dead. Obaerving our faults in 
othois ia Bonietime« unprop^r for our ca«o, But tho heat 
Tficeipt [best, I aay, to work, and ht-at to take), ia tho admoni- 
tion ot a friend. It ia a strung^ thing to bi3hoM what gross 
otTDra, nnd extreme absurdities enatiy (^pMJally of the ^real^r 
sort) du (commit for want of a friend to tell them of them, to 
tho i^ruit dnnijige bath of thiiir fame and fortune. For, as 
S- Jamtia^ saith, they ar« as men that loolc sometimes into a 
fl;laaa nnd preBcntly forget thiiir own flbiipe and favour. As 
for husin^-?, » man may think, if ht.* will, that two eyca s«r> 
no more thim one ; or that a gnmoater aeoth ulwiiya more thnn 
II looker on ', or that a man in anger ia as wise as he that h/ith 
mid over the fotir-and-twenty letters ; or that a muaket may 
he »hnt off a« well npon the aruk as upon a rcat; find siieh 
other fond and high ima^nations, to think hiiiisclf all in all. 
But when all iis done, the help of good counsel ia that which 
Hftttfth business straight. And if any man think that he will 
lake fouHBal but it shall he by pieces ; asking coudhqI in omi 
boaineHS of one man, nnd in another husineaa of another nmn ; 
it ia well (that ia to Bay, better, perhaps, than if he asked 
none at all) ; but ho runneth two dan^ra: One, that he shall 
n»L be iftithfnlly counjiulled; for it is a raro thing, except It 
be &-om a perfect and entiru friend, to have counnel given hnt 
«ueh aa ahalt bo bowed and ci-ooked to some Fads, which hv 
hath that givvth it. Th& other, that ho shall hn\-e eounael 
giTCn hurlfiil and unsafe (though with good meaning-), and 
mixed, partly of mischief and i«irtly of remedy: oven as if 
yon would cull a physician that is thought goofl, for the cure 
of the diBeoae you compluin of, Wt is unacquainted with your 
body ; and therefore may put you in way for a present care, 

> Qaattd hj Slutarolt in bis tndt dd " Flwh Emtiag -. " tiw orliliu] 

WiiidiiMn), iui7>t (nprr ivjiij rapmnrn. In t^e openiei^of tho first liook 
iH hii " ArtvnnoeiiicuF ol Lenmiint," Bncos hai Aneth«r reteNiic* to 
ih* 'Mrr lUbl" 01 "luineu Bii^oiim," faying, that where FoLra and 
d4wlrM Join pt^AoniJ uare to 1110 pursuit of ktio«Ied$:e, " it hecoraeth 
'Iniuen nuulldnm' or 'muoeTatiun/beinff ittifpcHl uid Infmed lu tbe 
hainMir* ot the nSectiocta." Bo in cotiunflii tpwch. * " drj aubject " 
or " drjr Btjta " la that wbiii^ ia net at all toachad by " th» humaun 
o4 Um »S«oth)D«," 
' JamwLSf. 

but ovcathroweth your health in some othoT Ifinrf, anjj ta can 
the die^Ai&o and kill the patient. But a friend that la wfaoUy 
acquaint4.4l with a munb estate will bowore by f urtheriog any 
present hnsinede how ha daahoth ujiOn other inconvenience. 
And therefore rent nut upon Kattei^d (.ounfi^ls ; tber will 
rathOT distract and mislead, than sn^ttle and dunetA. 

After theac two ijoblt? fruita of friendship (peace ia the 
afloctiona, and eupport of the judgtni'bt}, follun-elh the la<t 
fruit, which ia like the pamegranaCe, full oi many keniab: 
r mean aid, sjid hearing a part in all actiona and ocxaoiona. 
Hero, tho host way to represent to life the maaiiold um of 
friendship, is to cast and see how maiiy thing* there on 
which a man cnnnot do himself- and then it wiU appoftr that 
it was a sparing apcetb of tho ancients to aay, that « bieod 
is unother himself : ^ for that a friend 14 far more than hinuelf. 
^Ii>n have their time, ami die many timea in denre of iotDe 
things which they principally t&ko to heart : the beotoving 
of a child, the Sniahing of a work, or the like. If a qwd 
have a true friend, he imiy rest almost eecure thai the can of 
thoa« things will (continue after him. So that a man hath. a> 
it were, two Uvea in im desires. A man hath a body, and, 
that body is confined to a plaoo ; but wh^v friendahip ia, all 
offlcua of lifu are, aa it were, gnirite>j to him and hia dcpulf. 
For ho msiy excrciso them by hia friend. How many thingi 
are there which a man cannot, with any face or comelin^B. uy 
or do himseiU f A man can i!carc« allege his own nieKts wit^ 
iDtKlcBty, mueh less oxtol them, A man eannot sometam 
brook to supplicate or beg ; and a number oi the like. Bui all 
th>c>80 things arc graceful in a friend's mouth, which nm 
blushing in a num'fi own. 80 again, a man's person hilfa 
many proper relatione which he cannot pot off. A niAn 
iTtnnot spoak to hiti sen, but aa a father ; to hia wife, hat as a 
husband; to his enemy, hut upon terms; whcTt^ia a friead 
may apeak as the case requires, and not as it aortvlh with tba 
person. But to enumerate these things wct« endleaa. I tutn 
given the rule where a man cannot Utly play hix own part— 
if ho haro not a friend he may quit tho stage. 


Studio serFo for delight, for omamont,. and tot aboltl^. 
Their chief uso for delight ia in privuteneas and rctirng^ 
for otnamr-nt is in discourse : And for ability, ia iu the jad^ 
ment nnd disposition of bunineBH. for expert men c«i eiucBto 
and pi^rhnpe. judge of particulars, one by one; bat thej 
counBole, and the plots, atid nifirshulling of affBirs^ 
best from those that are learned. To spend too mil 
in studies in sloth ; to use them too much for 1 
allectatton : to make judgment wholly by thoir ntiM] 
humour of a scholnr. They perfect nature, and are | 
hy experience. For natural abilities aro like natnial; 
that need pruning by study : and attidieft themselves 
forth direettons too mucli at Urge, except they be ' 
by cxpcrienco- Crafty oicn contemn sladiea: « 
admire them; and wiac mt^n use them: For they 
their own use :; hut that ia a wtadom without Ihnni, and ahtm 
them, won by ubserration. Read not to contradid andooo- 
f ute ; nor to believe and l{ike for granted ; nor to find talk tad 
discnurse, but to weigh and consider. Bomc hooks an to h 
tasted, others to he swallowed, and some few to be chpwcd aid 
digested 1 that i^ some books are to be nnd only hi faiti: 
others to borornJ, hot not curiously ; and aome few to hemJ 
whoUy, and with diligence and attention. Some boobsks 
may be tiad by deputy, and extncta made of ibsHi hj alkoik 

> U waa Cliwro (" De A.inlcitia~'J who a 
(><ulm la tiniden tomiiauD Alter fdanL" 


.. lew,] 



but thut would be only in the li^ias important argumeiitB, and 
Ihe mwincr sort of booka ; cIhg distiUod booka ary Uku comtnon 
diBtilied wtitcTB, flashy Ihinjjs. Heading maketh ii full man, 
coafEoranceq ready mun, and w-ritia^ an axoct nuia, Ajid thcre- 
forp, if a man writo littlis he had cued have a grmi memory ; 
H he ctjnfor littlo he had ne«>d huve a presotit wit ; ftud if he 
read litUe bo h&d nood have mnnh cunning to seem to knciw 
that he doth not. Hiatoriea nmke men wise; poetfl witty; 
thf iimthemotica, Buttlp ; nntural philosopliy, deep ; moml, 
grave ; logit; and rhetoric, able to coDtonid. " Al>eunt studia in 
more*," ' Nay, theru ia nu atond^ or impodimfnt in tha wit lint 
may 1« wroti[fht out by Hit studies l like as diaouBOB of the 
Ixjdy mtiy huve appropriuto DXDrciiKs. Bowling ie goad tot 
the Btonu and mine : fthooting^ for the 1 unga luid liraaat ; gi-qtle 
walking for thu &toumch ; riding for the head, und the like. 
So if a mtin'Bvit be wandering, lL*t him study the mathe- 
maticH; for in domonatrntionE, if bid wit be uall^^d away novar 
•D litU*;, he must begin again : if hie wit lie not apt to dia- 
tinguish at find differonges, let him study the Bchoolinen ; for 
tiiL-y are •' cymini »ctoreB/'" If he bo n^>t apt to beat over 
inatteiv, und to call nji one thing to prove mid illuatrTite 
ajQuther, lot him atudy thw LLwyors' cii»eH. So uvury dtjfwt of 
the mind may have a Bpeciai receipt. 

From PIftio'a " Eepublio " downwarfi various 
attempts hAva lx*n mode by pliilosophera in playful 
earne«t to suggest idtail conimaawealths. Such a 
wort of inteUectual fancy, practical in eaeence and 
(glancing everywhere at the political life of tht diiys 
of U^arj VIII., wm More'a " Utopia." Jwwph 
Hall, ill 1607, Lad in his " Miindus Alter et Idem," 
" A World Other an;I the Same," imagined a great 
Au-strat continent, jiarcelied out into liuids that 
typified the vices and follies of mankind, near to 
which was the Temi. Sauctu, little known. The 
jEluttoTia and -w-ine-bibbers peopled a Crapuliit ; the 
masterful women a Viraginia, or Gyniu, Nova ; the 
foola a Slorania, the largest of those I'egionB ; aiul 
Lavemia was the huid of thieves. Dr. WilliAm 
King long afterwards liegaji a taninBlatiou of HalFs 
" Mundua AJter et Idem," wlddi, being found among 
hiR " Remains," Wiia supposed by their editor to be a 
fragment of an oi-iginal work, a satire on tlie Diitch^ 
and printed by him in \7^'2 as "a fragment in the 
manner of HabelaiB." Another famoug sketch of an 
ideal comtnonwealtlt was Campanella's " Civitas 
Soli8,"City of the Hun, a cityglorifiid by knowledge, 
ruled by the citizen who had atbtined to the mos5t 
perfect intellect, through Triumvirs, wb^ i-epresented 
BPTerally Power, Wisdom, and Love. Fiunciu 
Bacon's " Kew Atlantia " la an irJeal, at the heart 
of whiob he ]>laced the highest ispiritual aim of bis 
philosophy, the dmwing of men near to the di\ine 
lift' by search for the wisdom of God in Hta works, 
thnl they may make it thelrfl. Bacon, like Joseph 
Hall, laid the scene of hia imagitied 3ife in a then 
undiscovered Attstralia, as the old Oi-eefc legend 
placed Atlantis in the New World beyond the 
Atlantic^ that waa yet to remain for eighteen 

' Btudiea jma on into oh^motBT, From Grid. Bp. it. 81 ;— 

"8i»e sbenu't Btudk in monn. artMntifi mapittrBs." 
■ Stntti, point of itAsditll!. u whca a lume coioea to a atiuirE. 
* Oividm of cuiain (a tavj amall ■eed)' ; a* w« now tmy, iiilitt^Tn ijt 

centuries unknown. Bacon also attached his fancy 
to tliG ancient fable of Atlantis. 

Sulan, who died 558 yettrii Ix'foi-e Chrat, waa said 
to have been wi'ituig in his laat days wliat he bad 
heard in Egypt of Atlantia, ii i>briect laland, rich in 
procioiia metals, wine, grain, choicei^t fruit. Neptune 
wns its chief deity, and ite ten kingdomu were ruleil 
by ten of bis descendants, Plato, who iKed b,c. 3+7, 
has left amoug his dialogues three tliat fu-e thus related 
to one anotJier- "Timiaa" repi'esents the Divine 
Cosmos ; the "Republic/' Man in Society^ "Critiaa" 
(unlinishedj, the perfect Society lihown in action 
under the pi-e ssure of terrible enemies, the pi*eBsnre 
being an invasion from Atlantis. Plato repreBents 
that Timieua, the Pythagorean philoao]iher of Locri, 
and the Atbeniao C'ritiafl. Imving listened to dialogue 
in which Socrates had develoiwd the nature of Justice 
in the coniititution of a true Republic, Socratea 
called on them to show such a State in action. 
Critiaa undeilook to do so by telling of tile re&cue of 
Europe by the ancient citizens of Attica, ten thousand 
yeare liefore, from an inroad of countless and 
iiTesiBtible invaders out of the vaat island of Atlantis 
— an island greater than all Libya and Asia — in 
the Westeni Ocean. The story of this struggle was 
]>resei-\"ed, it waa said, with the ancient records of 
the temple of Naitli, or Athene, at Sals, in Egyi'ti 
and handed dowTi, through Solon, by a family tradi- 
tion to Critiaa, ITie di^Tne life had Itecotae slowly 
imbruted in the Athinttd Kings, till they were - 
i-eckleas and amhitiouB, They [Kniped into Ens-or*, 
and broke theii" force against the tj-ained valour and 
wisdom of the citizens of Attica. But the perfect 
citizens, Laving achieved their victory, were lost from 
the face of the eaiih, which swallowed tliem in one 
night, while Atlantis itself, with all its iieople, Wfis 
cli-owned in the ocean. The sinking of that gi-eat 
land was the cause of what ii\ Plato's time waa 
aupj>osed to be the fact — that the Atlantic Ocean ia 
ft gi-eat i-egion of ehidlow watt-r and mud. 

Francis Bacon's "New Atlantis" is, likp Plato^a 
"■ Critias," unfinished ; but it is nearly finished, and 
aeta forth the whole design. It is one of the works 
in wMch he sought to *in men to iLn exfieiimental 
atudy of Natui-e, and was first published nine years 
after Im death. Bacon died in 162B, and tlie EngUsh 
venjion of the " New AtlantLs," first written in Latin, 
appeared in 1629 as an appendix to Bacon's " Sylva 
Sylvaram ; or, a Natural Mietory in Ten Centuiies." 
It accords with that view of hia philoBOphy given by 
Bacon in his " Noi'um Organum." whei*e he difitin- 
guishea "'three kinds and, am it were, degreea of 
human ambition; first, that of those who desire to 
enlarge their own power in their country, which ia 
a vulgar ajul degenerate kind ; next, that of thcwe 
who strive to enlarge the power and dominiou of 
their coimtry among the human i-ace, which is cer- 
tainly more dignified, but no leas covetous. But if 
one should eadeavoiir to renew and enlarge the 
power and dominion of the human race itself over 
the universe, this ambition {if ao it may be called) is, 
beyond a doubt, more sane and noble than the other 
two. Now the dominion of men over things dt;|ienils 
alotie on ai-bj and sciences ; for Nature is only 
governed by obeying her." 




lk.V. VB^ 

loth appear in tl^ii: 
LU piK'IcK. Naitht^r 1 < 
Jgtt undoretiui':: 

B^ve u man 
I a. Quiu ]i 

fiuU not. h'- 
stntur, or J! 

Add now, t' -i • 
tbj\t qUjoit pi- ■ 

Ucmditiifc ' 
the hrifit.i 


tte SaaiL Sen, 

. ami liul gtKXl 

. u* liTB inofiths' 

. '^-ut, nnd aettlH: 

...4I1U liwio or no 

, i_« li>.-«» ih" *"iith. with 
, m Uwt wp couM do, 
^1 ii.'IiihJh inilmi us, 

■■ -iUwittiM ot watrn in 

.. ..drwl^'tw for I'Mt nKTt. 

: 1 ltd ii[i our !ii.iirl« nui 

ihi vTonilxini in tlm dcrp, 

. Fr» thi' bi'tniining Hn dis- 

'■Mifhl forth «Iry .bimJ. wj 

■ Sdl wii might not i><«riiih. 

*V| •Imiit ciTdilinn, wnsHW 

M «h W^*!*'* '^'' nurth, a» it vori* thick 

11 hii|w u( Inn't, knowing how 

I »M Httrflv (inlmowTi, And mi^ht 

. tlMl lilthi'Ho wiirr not come to 

• t]illli0r, wli'.TO wp asv 

.»" i1M>jU n|iljUDa"jB Maiu-hl*" 

! all that night ; And in Lbs dawning at 
^nljr diticciiti, thiit it waa a land. Sat 
^ bosM^ ; * which nuule it show Uw 

.« ^tf R.n h()iiT and h h:Of aailin^, ve entered 

^ hdtii; tliu ^rt of u fair city — not great, 

—I teih, iLnd thiit ^r^jvi'! n pliiasant view froni lh« 

'-. tkinkinK «very iniDiitc long till we wen oa } 

i«» to the shore, and offfired to Und; Int 

.^^ * «« ntr divem of the people, with hutcns in 

^p^ m it vft'to, forbidding^ u» to Und ; yet without 

^■tt t\'rvvoom. hut only aa wsmia^ tu off hy signi 

w» smJc. Whereupon, bf-in^ sot n little discomfited, 

^ »Jnsing with ourwlves whflt we ahccild do ; during 

ane there mode forth to ua h, flmnll boH.t with about 

ftnrma in it, whereof one of them had is hid hand 

a»5 of s j'ellow cane, tipped at hoth ends with hlne, 

«nie nboiird our ship without any show of distrust at alL 

. 1^ when he oaw one of our nuinlitr present hJnwclf aoniiv 

<teU afore the rest, he drew forth a little scroll of parchment 

. rni'what j-ellowor than our parchment, and ihining like tlw 

- of writin)^-t4ibka, hut otherwise soft iuid flexible], and 

nxl it to our forcinoat mnn. In which BerolJ were 

■:i.n in ancii^nt Hebrew, and in nncii'nt Greek, and in 

^--•<>d Latin of the aehool, and in Spaniah, these words; 

" Lnml ye not, none of yqu ; and provide to be gone from thi» 

csMBt within sixteen days, oxn'pt you have further time given 

you. Menn while, if you want frt^sh water, or victuaL or hfilp 

for j-our sick, or that your ship needeth repair, wiilc down 

yonr vanla, and you shall have that which belongeth tc> 

tnercy." Thie acroU was signed with a staokp of cheruhin*' 

wings, not spread, hut banging downwarda ; and by thcin 11 

'.rom, Thia boin^ delivered, tho officer returned, und left 

only a Aorvaut with ua to receive our juiawer. C^meiilttng 

hereqpoQ nuiongift ourselvec, we were much perplexed. Tbu 

denial of hinding and hasty warning ub away troobled ua 

muoh : on the othiT Aide, to find thut the people had langiiagn, 

and were so full of hiunanity, did comfort ua not a little. 

And above all, the sign of the croaa to that inetroinent waa to 

ua a great rejoicing, and, aa it were, a certain preugeof good. 

( >fir aninrer was in the Spaniah tongue ; That for our aUdp, ii 

was wt-11. for wo bad rather oict with calniB and contmr 

winds than any tompestfl ; for our ftick, they were many, and 

in very ill uiao, so that if thcfy were not pcnnitted to land 

they ran da.Dg4.T of their Uvm. Our other wuila wa at 

dovi'n in particular ; adding, tlint wo had some Uttle aten of 

nup*. of which the «rUHt la in the BnUvb 

fortugnew bid ■• «ulr U IMO a b«ll*f that Um tna Magh 

LaoiI id tba ratrl*™ now known ■■ Aoatnlia. It ia >9«f«d acnrihaf 

JavK HI B gm^t ro^oa called, '* Jnvn la Grsiida." A map %t * ABB 

Boti. in im ^nglis)! raliuiie of ISU. repaftta iliiv tm [■ 'WttKlhM. 

caTIiu^ t)i« KT«ht »cj[fLbeni coatlaeat "Tb« Loade of Java." aad Jara 

" Tha LrtU Jhtb." Ja thv UtroidnMiDU to Kr. R. H, Xajor*! 

for tbe HahltL}^ Soc^vlf (l§QP) of " Early Tofacea la 

■H>w dkUed Anstrali*," will be found ««it liil^raBtiBg raanl 

loqiillj intn tbe irT>>wl,b from nispldOO' to _ 

«Xtat<nm o( da uneiplorsd AusCt:^ land, of KThicb II *«* «iM 

booh bj ConKliiM WjUUet, inibliahnl at Loan^a hi !»«, tint •>■» 

sbnrei btb bitherla but litUo kuown, aiaoa altsr oaa wratf* »mt 

anotbar, tbaC nnta hu Immi deaartcd, aii4 aolitom Is tb* etmmirj 

Viaited nalau i«hea Isilori U« dr)T>«ii Outs* hf *Uttwm. Tlia AoatHdH 

INtrra liegtiu at two or £br«a d«gr*— fnm tba H|ua1:ar, an] ta nai^ 

tnineil hj aoine ta ba of aa ffn^t an aiteBt Uut if It wai* ihmvack^ 

ccjilrirKl, ft woiiUl be rmardad aa a fifth part of tha worM." 
a part of tba AqatnlEao ooaat ww TiatUhl lij tba I>ut('h jrvbt. tW 
DuyfiitH. ta th« samt yf^. Lait Va«i <la Torr^ a 9)mnianL pa^nl 
tliRiugb TortM StiaJta, wbicb uttj/^nt* Auattajla froa }!■•• Q«ta«b 
Barvru'a kaowtvdca want no fartbnr, hut tba Dvtdi w«r* h»»f ta tfe« 
•■Miibem aaaa dnrlai tbm laat y«an ol hi* Hf«, tad la UMt, fovHaaS 
>rar<i afl«r Us daalfa. bwui tha diaeoTariei of Ab«l Jaaa Tkanas, 

• iiiMrofr, wood, thlokat An nld Prmch iKiol modam ftaaa^ 
" boeafa." Ha, a Lttla Utar, boitpM^ ■U«'lEi or ateroa, Utnu. 

A.O. ,..l«!M.l 



loercbandiae, which, if it pkioAticl tliQin tn dt^l for, it might 
supply our waDtfi without Ix-Jng chnryeahliai unto tht-ia. Wo 
offered Bome reward in pistok-ts' untothesQrTaDt,and n piece 
-of criDiBon vt K-uC to be prL-gcnteMl to the officer ; bat the scr- 
Tant took tht-mnot, nor would kcuxcq lock upon, them; and 
«0 l«^ft UH, nnd went^ bap k in another little boat, which vas 
sent for him. 

About three hours aftur va had diapatehed our aiwwer, there 
came towards us a person (lu it acemcd) of plni^. lie hud on 
him & gbwA with vide aloevos, of a. kind of watot chamO'lott,^ 
of HI excellent azuro culour, fur more glossy than ours. His 
under apparel wna ^gliIi, and m whh hiji hut^ hbiaa la tho 
form of a turhtin, daintily uiade, and not m hu^ ag the 
Turkish turbsAfl, and the locks of hie hair tAHiii Aova h<:tIow 
the brima ai it — a reTG<r«iid man was he to lic-hcrld, lie como 
in a boat, gilt in socncr pari of it, with four pi.Tsona more only 
in that boat: and was followed by another boat, wherein 
wtTP some twenty. "Whfin he van come within a flight-fthnt 
of our ship, aignu wem made to us tliat wo should send forth 
.some ta meet him upon the- water,, which we prewmtly' did in 
OUT ship-bout, sendinii^ the principHl man aman(>:st us save 
One, Ufid fouf of out htambcTwith him. ^Vhen wi> wan: tonui 
withiD Hx yards of their boat, they callcHl to ub to &tay, and 
net to approach Curthor, whi^ih wa did. And tht'tciVLpon tlm 
mm whoDi 1 hofgru deacrthcd, stood up, and with a loud 
voice, in Spanish, aakcd, " .ire yoChrijitiansI'"' We answered 
wi; were; fenriDgf the Icea hc-c&usc of the crosa ns had eiotm in 
the subscription. At which amwer the said pei»on lift up his 
right hand towards Heaven, and drew it atiftly to hio mouth, 
(which is the ffoBtarc thsy use when they thaak God), and 
then said, " If ye will BwcaTj r»ll of you, liy the morit^ of thi) 
Saviour, that ye are no piratca, nor huvu Jihod blood, lawfully 
nor unlawfully, within forty days piiat, you may have license 
to cume on land." We said wu were all ready to take that 
oath. Whereupon, oiio of tho»o (hat wuro with him, being, as 
it Becmed, a notary, mado a.n enti^' of this act. Which done, 
another of the attendnnte of the groit person, which waa with 
him in theianrnQ boat, after hi^ lord hud spoken a littlo to him, 
aaid aloud, " My lord would have yOu know that it ia not of 
prido or jfrRatnoss that ho cometh not aboard your ship, but 
for ihut, in your answer, you do(;laru that you have many 
HCk amongst you, be waa wanL«d by tho Conecrvator at 
Health of the city that he should kc^p a distance.'" Wo 
bowed cuTfielvcB toward.u hiui and anawerod. Wo were his 
humble servantp, and acconntfd for great honour and singidar 
humanity towards ua that which wne iilrt»dy done; but 
hoped well that the nature of tho sicknoM of our mpn was 
not infwtioDB. So ho returned ; and iiwhile after came tlie 
notary to as ahoard our ehip, holding in his hand a fniit of 
that country, likt?ao orange, hut of colour between orange- 
tawny and BCArlfit, which east n most exeellent odour; ho 
uBcid it,«fl it aertneth, for a praiervqti-ffe a^inst infection. He 
gave us our onth, by the ntimo of Ji'sua tuid Hitt m«rita ; and 
sfter told V9 thjit the next day, by sij of the clock in the 
tnomingv we should he Bent to, and brought to thi;! Strttngera' 
Hnutse {9Q he (ailed it), whcro we should be accommadated of 
thing*, both for our whole and for our aiclc. So ho left ua ; 
and when we offered him «ome pistolets, ho smiling said, He 

• gmJus lJ|fh.t.@r ttmn dncata. Tlie 
ero wcie also double' piatolota: and 

■ fii^olrti wen golil ooiuFi t< 
doj^Bt wel^tiad t dwt S gr. "1 
datil>1« dncati, 

» CAanutliXr. ohamlet or C&tukt. Bpoi^isb " tauuclot*" Bod 
** cbamEloie'," a HtuB oriKJoal'j nuult: uf lAinieLH' Lair, sftjjcwiinlH of 
bab-aud allk, and tbeaofifool and tbrcmd. It bad. a wai'jr nrnnteretl. 
(leai, and tn their latest chempenerl torra was caed lu a. irui.tcri.u1 lar 
■4l(Hiki 9DaipumtiT«lr witt«-proof. until tha spphoatlon el ctoutchouc 
to oflkcr liiltila. 

> FTMraCtf, iimsadiatelr- 

iimst not be twicfi paid for one labour ; meaning, aa I take it, 
that he had sahirj- suMcient of the State for hia flerviw. For. 
a» I after learned, they call an officer that toketh tewardd, 
twice puid. 

Thu next morning early thefe camu to ua tho eamft o&icer 
that came to us at first with hi» cone, und told us ho citmo to 
eanduot us to the Strangera' Uoiuc, And that he had pre- 
venttd^ the hour iK^csutte womight have the- wholu day hofore 
us for our businosa. " For," said he, " if you wiU follow my 
SfUTt-e, thert! shall first gta with me some few of you, and see 
the place, and how it niny be made convenient for you ; and 
then you may send for your siiik, and the rest of your 
number, which yo will hrin^ on land." We thanketl him, 
and said,. That this core which he took of di?aobite Bti^JtgeTA 
God would reward. And so six of us went on land with 
him. And when we were on land hn went before us, and 
turned to us and said. He was but our servant and our ^lide. 
He led us through three fair streets, antl all this way wo went 
there were gathered some people on both adoa, standing in a 
row, but in bo ciWl a fashion, ua if it had been nnt to wonder 
hi cu, but to welcome us. And dirora of them, as we pB»fteit 
by thcin, put their ami^B little abroad, whieh is their gi'tituro 
when tliey bid any welcome. The Straogers" Houw ie a (air 
and Bpaeioua houAe, built of brii:k, of nomewhat a bluer colour 
than our brick, and with hnndjwine windows, some of gluaa, 
some of a kind of cambric oiled. He brought us Siftt into a 
fair parlour above staira, and then oekcd U8 what number of 
persona we were, and how many sick ? Wo answered, wo 
were in all (sick and whole) one and fifty persons^ whereof 
our Bick were seventeen. Ho deBirod us to have patigncQ a 
little, and to stay till he came back to ua, which wasabont an 
hour after : and then ho ted us to bog the chambers whieh 
wereprovidedfor ua, being innumbemiuetoen. They ha-^-ing 
cast it (as it acemeth) th;it four of thoae chnmbem, which 
were better than the rest, might receive four of the principal 
men of our comj^^iny, and lod^o them alone by themselves; 
and the other fifteen chumhora were to lodge ub two and two 
together. The chambers were bandnome and ehecrful chnm- 
t>ere, and fumiBhed civilly* Then he led us to a long gallery, 
like a dorture,* where ho showed ue aU along the one aido 
(for theotber aide woa but wall end window) seventeen eella, 
very neat ones, having partitions of cedar wood, which gallery 
and celLa, being in all forty (many mare than we ncoded), 
were instituted as an iafirmaiy for dck perttons, And he told 
us. withal, that aa any of our siuk waxed well, hft might bo 
removed from hia coll to a chamber, for which purpose there 
wore set forth ten spare chambers, beaidiM the number we 
spake of before. This done, he brought ns back to the par- 
lour, and lifting up hia CAue a littio (aA tht-y do when they 
give liny charge or command), said (o na, " Ve are to know that 
the euBtotn of the laud ruquireCh that after this day and to- 
morrow (which wo give you for removing of your people from 
your ship), you are to keep within doora for three days. But 
let it not trouble you, nor do not think yonniclveH restrained, 
but rather left to your rest and ease. You ahall want notliiiig. 
and there are six of our people appointed to attend you fur 
any business you may have ahroad." We gave him tbanka 
with all affection and respect, and said, •' God surely is mani- 
fested in thi» land." Wa offered him also twenty pistoletfl; 
but he Smiled, and only said, " What ? twice paid I" and so he 
left U3. Soon after our dinner wftfl served in, which wa» 
right good viands, both for bread and meat, better than any 

* Pm«iJnI, dome beti^KF, the ■trict nciLniiig ef tine Word. Asintbfl 
prajer to God in one of the CoUncta of tha KngUah Ctupcb UM, Hii 
gTftoa " isx>j lOwBji prnvrait and follow tiM." 

* Dprturi, fnni Fraoch "dorboir." Lntin " donnftoiiam," domd- 






coUegiatv diet that I hnvu Imown in Europe. Wo had al&o 
drink of thrM sorta, all whuloSDiae Uld ^ood : wine ai tlio gmpe, 
a drink of gmin ^eudii n» is with ua our bIc, but more clear}, 
anil A kind of dderm&deof a fruit of thsti coniLivy — Ekvrondcr- 
lul ploonng aad refrcsliing drink. Ijoaidfa, tbor^ were brguglit 
in to iia KTfiBt fttare of those Bcailet oning%a for aur sick, 
irbicb, the}" said, were an tusurud remedy for Hickncee taken 
at »on. l*h6TO was giv^on a> aUo a box of eaiall grey, or 
whitJBh, pills, wbidt thijy wished oui- aick should take, one uf 
the pills tvfity night before eloep, which, thoy auid, would 
Iwetcn their recovorj-. The nt'st iLiy, after tiiat our tioulilt 
of caniago, and removing of our men and gooda oat of out 
sbip WW somewhat settled and [^iiiL't, I thought good to ^U 
oar company togethr>r, and wh^n they were UHAemblod, said 
onto them, " My dear friendH,— I-et ua know DUTVi>lvi!B,and how 
it atnndelh with us. Wc kto tnun ami on land, as Juniis whh, 
out of the whale'ft hfclly, whpn we were aa buried in the detp; 
and now w<" arc on ^ocd- Wu are hut between death and lift'!, 
for we are beyond both the old world und the new: and 
wht'lher over we Bhnll Bce Eurojie, CtoJ only knoweth. It ia a 
kind of miracle hath bronght us hither, and It miuit be Htlle 
leas that nhall bring ub hunwr. Theniforc, in rtfgard of our 
deUTcnuii.'c puet, and our danger preHont and to eomc, kt iia 
look up to God, and every mfin reform bis own waya. 
Boatdes, wo are come ht^u amoagBt a Chrietian peuplc^, f bill of 
piety and humanity ; lt;t na ntil bring that l,^oIlf^eiuIl of face 
upyn oureelvefl, aa to show our vicca or unworthine&s before 
them. Yet there b more, for thoy have by coannandtEGnt 
(tboqgh in form of coiuteay) cloistered ub within tbofio walls 
for three days ; who knoweth whether it be not to (ako btane 
istKbi of oar mannojs and conditiona f And if they find then] 
bad, to bonitih uh Bttaightwaye ; if good, to give ua further 
time ; for tWsc men that Ihty have givm ua for attendance 
may withal havo an eye upon ub. Therefore, for God's Iovd, 
and OS wo lore the veal of our i§ou1h und budieB^ lut lu bo 
behave Oursdvefl oit we may be at pi?ace with God, and may 
And grace in the eyra oE this pt-ople." Our eompany with one 
Toice thfUiked TOO for my good sdmonitLon, and promieed mo 
to live sobarly and civUly, and without giving any tho li>ast 
ooLaiion of oflt'nee. So wo spent our thnc; days joyfully And 
withuut care, in expectation whnt would bo done with lie 
when thoy wete expired ; during which time wo had I'verj' 
hour joy of tltc Jimendmont of our skk, who thought them- 
BolvcH iftst into some divine pool of healing, they mended so 
kindly and so fnst. 

The morrow aftor our throe days were past thetR cojne to 
lui « new Hiun, that wu !iad not seen before, clothed en blue 
a* thi' former wfw, save Ihat hiBturbitiQwau white with asmall 
red iroM on the lop ; be had utao a ^ppet of flue liurn. At 
hia coming in ho did bend to ub a little, land put bin arma 
abroud. We of our parts Mliilcd hira in a very lowlv und 
mt/miHire nwnnfr, na looking that from him wo ahould 
rercivp iienljjncc! of lifo or death. He d«iired to speak with 
Mrtne few of lu, whereupon six of us only etayed. and the 
RMt avoided the room. He said : " I am by oEco govtmor of 
thi« HouM of Htnutgen, ond by Tocation I am a ChriHtian 
primit, and, therefore, am come to you to offer you my ner- 
Tic«, both u altangers and cbieflyM ChrifltiariB. Some things 
I may lell ynn, which, I tbtnk, you will not bw unwilling to 
hear. The Stfcle halh given you license to stay on knd for 
the B]jnj_-e of six wii<vka ; wid let it not trouble you if your 
occnsinna aak fiirthj^r time, for the law in thia Jioint ia not 
precise ; and 1 do not doubt hut myself ah«ll be able to obtain 
for you mch further time ojt may be convenient. Ye ahoU 
tlao luidonritand that tlie Strang*-™' Hoii*e u at thia time rich, 
•nd moch aforehand, for it hath laid up revenue those thirty- 
Jrvco yearn, for so long it it tiuix any Btranger arrived in 

this pttrt. And, therefore, take ye pq can; t^ State w}]]. 
defray you all the time yoa Btay ;; neither shaZl yon May «v 
day the lew for that. As for any mgr rfa a iwH^ jv ban 
brought, ye aIuiII be well used, and haT« yoar rodm ti&tt 
in morchandiso or in gold and vlver^ for to oa it ia aA tmt. 
And if you have any other reqnost to make, Ude it not, for 
ye uhatl ^nd we will not nuke >*our oonntPMTirr lo CaU hj 
the answer yc shall receiTc. Uolj this I nawt tell joa,AaL. 
nun<» of you muet go above a kaian [that is wttb thuiaS 
and a huJf] from the walls of the city without eqwciallf 
We answered, M'ter we had looked awhile one npovi : 
adnuring this gracious and parent-Hke umtgb, Uiat n 
not toll what to aay, fur wo wanted woi^ Co i 
thanks, und bia nobLo, free oBen left us Dodung to ■ 
acemed to us that wo had before ua a jactnre of oue ■ 
in heaven: for w« that were a while since in tb£ j 
dc-uth were now brought into u pbice where we Cpaad. d 
but conaoUtiona. For the comsumdmvnt laid upon m w* 
would not fail to obtry it, thguifh it waa impoe&ible but unr 
hearts sfaould bo in&amed to tread farther upon tlus h^ipy 
and holy groiiod. We added, That our t«iigits itMoli 
Ent cleave to thu rooEs of our mouths eiv we ahoold flK^ 
either bis reverend perwnor this whole nation in oar |rayen 
Wc alao moBt humbly besought him to aoc^ of u u h» 
true Bcrvimtft, by iis just a right a& ever men ou mrth wera 
botinden, kj-ing and presenting bo^ our pcnoiu and aU wv 
had at his fi^t. He said he was a ^est, and looked tor a 
prieat'a reward, whii'Ji was our brotherly love and thogvodcf 
our Bouls and bodies. So he went froia us — nut without t«u» 
of teDdemeiiB in his sycs— and left us also eonfuaed withjvj 
and kiodnees, wying iimoagiit ouraelve», T'bat wc wsie ooidc 
into A land of angela, which did uppeftr to ua doili- and 
prevent ua vh-ith comforts which wc thought not of, mndi lok 

Tho next day, ubout ten of the clock, the go\-enior camrti> 
us again, and, after aalutationB, nud fRmiliitrly. Thai he waa 
como to visit UE ; and called for a ehotr, and sat "i 
And We, being iiome tcH of ns (the rest woro of 1 
Hort, or else gone abroad), sat down with him. 
were sat, he began thufi.;" Wc of this island of I 
ao they <»U it in their language] have thb : That 
of our Kglitar^' aituution, und the law4 of Bccmcy v 
have for our truvolleni, and our rare adnii«aion o 
we know weU most port of the habitabic world, nod are our- 
Bolvea onknown. Therefore because he that kaiow^th learf 
in Bttcst to auk ^uctiticnaa, it is more reuson for th^ mtertu^ 
ment of the tirau> that ycaak mc> questions tlkiA tlial I tiJt 
j'ou." "Wo auBwered, That we humhty thanked him ihst 
b« would givo ua leave so to do^ and that wo t^onctiiml by 
the taste we bad already tliot there was no worldly thing m 
earth more worthy to bo known than the state of that hapfiT 
land. But above All, we said, sinee that we wers tnct fren 
thci several ends of the world, and hoped aaBoretUjr tfaaC va 
:abauld meet uue d^iy in (he kingdom of hcATOn (for < ^*t vn 
were both parts Christians), we desired to Imow (in nwpstl 
that liicd Villa eo remote, and ao divided by vmgt asd nakBOWi 
fieDA from the land where our Srivtour walked on eullij wW 
wiiB the Apoatle of that nation, and how it waa coaT«rtl4 la 
the faith i* It appeared in his face that he took gnat «■■ 
tentment in this our question. He aaid : " Yv knit nj h«Kt 
to you by unking thLa question in tin ftiil jiliiii . fm i| Jm^ilfc 
that you first seek the Kingdom of Heavon, and I sfamll i^tdif 
and briefly satisfy your demiind. 

" About twenty yenrs after the Asoennon of oor Ihihlit. 
it came to pmns that tbf^rc was seen by the people ef Raafsa 
(a city upon the eastern coast of our island} wittun stftU(tt* 
night wme cloudy and calm), aa it might btt satbe mile iatv 




thB sea, a great pillar of ligbt, titit bhurp, Ijut in farm of a 
<»ltunu oT cyliader, rising from the sea a grviat way up to- 
wnnU hearcn ; naA on thu top of it vas nam u lur^ crutw of 
Jight, more Imght luid roflpkndtint thim the Iwdy of the 
pillAT. Upon which BO Htimige a spoptacU,, the ptnple of tht> 
city ^thered iipacD together upon the Bundii to wooder, imd 
4o Attet put tbemBelves into b nunibcr of smatl bouts, tu |Cfu 
nearer to tbit marrellouB sight, lint wh>„'n the buits w> 
fome witbin (about) sixtj- j'Jirds of thu pilUr thoy found 
themselves sU boumj, and ^'ould go no further: yc-'t iki uii^thoy 
Jbight niOTe to go abuut, but nlig'hl; not approHch noarcr. So 
«■ tfao bo&ta stood »U 4» in n theatre, bchoidinnf; thia light oa a 
hUTeolj ngn, it so fell out thnt tfaora woa in one of thn boata 
one (rf the wise men of tho Society of Salomon's Houao, whi(.'h 
house, or oolle^, my g;ood brethren, ie the very eye of tbia 
Jdngdom, who, taviiig awhilo attentivaly and deroutly 
"viewed naH conteonplated this pillax and erosa, fell down upon 
iiis face, and then raifiad hinualf upon hie knees, and lifting 
up bis haodii to HeaTen, made his pruyers in this mnnnQr : — 
'*' Lord G^ oC Heaven and oarth, Thou hiutvouGhaafedof 
Thy graoO to those of our Order to know Thy Worka of Creation 
.and the ae{:rcti» of them, and tt> diKem (iia fjir a^ appertainuth 
to thft gMi^mtiotia of men) betwoen divine miracltw, works of 
nutitra, works of art, and impoeturea and illiuions of allHorta. 
I do hen Bcknowlodgi; and tostify bufoce thiA people that tho 
thing which we now wc before our eyes ia Thy (in^err, and a tr je 
miraiie. And f oruamut^ as wo learn in our books that Thou 
never workgjtt miracles ^»t to a divine and exccllont end {for 
tbe lnWfl of nature are Thino own Uwb, and Thou exceed^at 
tiiem not but upon great cause), we most humbly beet^ech 
Th» toproapor thJa great sign, and to give us the interfireta- 
tJun und iiw dI it in mercy, which I'hou doat in aome part 
tiecrv'tly prontlac by sending it unto ua.' 

" ^Vh^n he hod mado hia prayer, he presently found thfi 
"bont he wna in movuidu and uulxktMid, wheroaa nil the reat 
nsnaincd still fast ; and taking that for nn dASuranid of InavA 
to approneh, ho caused tho boat to be softly, and with silence, 
jowed towards tho pillar r, but era he camft near it the pillar 
and croHB of light brake up, and i^ust itaelf abromd, aa it were, 
into A firmanl{^nt of many atars, which also vnniahtd aoon 
after, and there won nothinf^ left to he «.-en but a unall urk, 
or chest of cedar, dry, and not wet at all with water, Chough 
it swam. And in the fore end of it, whJeh wna townrtia him, 
KTvw a. small green bmnch of palm ; and when tht' wiau man 
ha<l takt^ it, with all reverence, into his bout, it opened of 
itKli, and there were found in it a botik and a IttttT, both 
writlfn in fine parchment, snd wrapped in aindons' of linen. 
The book (contained all the omonical books of the Old and 
Sew TeatiuiLfnt, according as you have them (for we know 
well wliat the ihurcbes with you receive), and the Apocalj-psG 
itavU. and somo other books of tho New Teatament, which 
ncTf not at that time written, were nevertholuss in tho book. 
And for the IffltiT, it wng in theso words ; — 

" ' I, BoithDlomew,? a s^'rvant of tho Kiifhcat, and Apontlo 
of Jcflua Chriflt, wiia wiimad by an angel, thiit appearcil to mo 
in a vision of glor>-, that I should commit this nrk to the 
Qooda of the >ea. Thercforo, 1 do tL-stify and dechiro unto 

■ SiiKbu. (^iudon t> a clouical irord (Greek, " nviar ") tor a fine 
tndJaa icottmi staff. As a delioLto luid soft fabric. It -m* Bt tor «ii' 
niLoplnc dBllmlc and eoctljr thiniri (bb -w a unn mifcht ii4« cotton -wool). 
BindoBfl meaat, tlwrvfon. delicate wrapfiu^ ; ut^ tbe woril ig sliU 
uaed in niRrr lor tbe pln^ of soft ocrttou tiatp *<• prnteot the bmin, 
Into tbe Iwla made in iho Hkull by ooe of lb« trpphioe. 

* Barthnlmnno la Ibe laint fiumcd, hccnuae chnrch Icg^Q't siKKmted 
himwith the workot apreodJuK th« tiilmgd oftbe OoEpel to fu- lon^. 
H« Waa said to hmtm prsacbed Id flT<oat«r Armenia, to hci¥« conv^rlcd 
tha Ljcaonlaa*, and to b»ve ■.( last ctun'od the Goipe] into lodln^ 

thiit pi'Opk' where God liball onhim this ark to cume tu land, 
that in the tame day has come untothem aolvatioD and ixiaco, 
itnd ^odwill from t>io Father and from the Lord Jeau».' 

" There was also in both tbtae writings, a& weU tho book u 
thci letter, wrought a great miracle, conforme to that of the 
Afjoatlea in the original gift of ton^os. For there being at 
thiit time in thialond Uehrewa, Feraians, and Indians, besides 
tho natives, every one tead upon the book and letter, aa if 
thpy had bn*n written in his owo Lan^iui^c. And thua waa 
thia land raved from iiitidLdity (oa the romaina of tho Old 
World was from wnter) by an ark, through tho Ajioatolical 
>ind inirtcuIoDa evnngelidm of Sitint Bartholomew," And 
hefc he paUHcd,and am^waeu^roameand called him fromu^ 
So this was oil that passed in that eonference. 

Tlie next duy the same ^vumor cumu aguin to us immfl- 
diatfvly aftt^r dinner, and excused himself, saying, That th^ day 
before he was called from us somewhat abruptly, hut now ho 
would make us amends, and spend time with us if we held his 
compnny and cOfifcrenca agreeable. We nnswerod. That we 
held it 80 ogrefahle and pleoeing to us ;lh wo forgot both 
dangirra p^iet and ffsars to cOme for the time we heard him 
eponk. And that we thouglit nn hour spent with him was worth 
yoBra of our former life, Ko bowed himnelE a little to uh, 
and after we were set again, he suid, " Well, the queatiouBATe 
on your part.^' One of our number soid, after a little pause, 
Thflt there waa a mutter wo were no lees deinroiiii to know 
thbtt fearful to ask. Hut we might prosnme too far; but. en- 
couraged by his rare haTuanity towards, us (thiit could scarce 
think ouraelvea etn^n^crs, being his vowed and profeaaed ser- 
vants), we would take the hardine«a to propound it, humbly 
besihiching him, if he thought it not tit to he anxwereJ, that 
he would piinlon it though he rejected it- We said, Wo 
well observad those hla woTdB which ho formerly ajtako, that 
thia happy i^kod where wo now st'.>od wait known to few, and 
yet knew moat of the nrttiona of tho world ; whiiJi wo found 
to be true, considering they had the langmiges of Europe, 
atid kn(^w much of our atato and buaiuiwe, and ycC wo in 
Europe (ngtwilhatandiog uU the remote diaco^'oriea and 
navigatiosa of this last o^) oevor heard any of the least ink' 
ling or glimpH« ot thia inland. This we found wonderful 
etntnge, for that all nations have uiter-knowh^go one of 
another, either by voyage into foreign piirts, or by stningeifl 
that come to them. And though tho traveller into a forei^ 
country' doth commonly know more by the eye than he that 
fltayetb at home can by reUtion of the traveller, yet bolh 
ways suffice to mako a mtituat knowledge in some degree on 
both parts. IJut for this ialmd, wo never heard tell of any 
uhip of theirs that Imd been oofm to arrive upon any ahoro of 
Europe ; no, nor of either tho Eiut or West Ihrlifs, nor yet of 
iLny ship of any other part of tho world that hod made return 
from them. And yet the marvel rested not in this, for the 
situation of it (as bis lordship said) in tho aetret conchive' of 
nacii & Tai^ R<ia might causu it. But then, that Ihc-y should 
hnvt; knowledge of the languages, books, ofiatra of those that 
lit* Muoh a distaneo from thfim, it waa n, thing we could not tell 
what to make of; for that it seemed to ua u condition and 
propriety of divine powere and beinga to bo hidden and un^ 
Heen to others, and yet to have others opt/n and as in a light 
to thom. At thia Hppoch the governor gave a gracious smile, 
and said : That we did well to oak pardon for this question 
wn now asked, for that it imported aa if WO thought this land 
a land of nmginnna, that sent forth spirits of the ait into all 
pixrts to bring them nowa and intelligence of other cou&triea. 

■ Omic^oiw, a roora or apac« that may be locked op, THra LatlD 
"fvin," with. sad" cUvii,"q k«r. HeiKW the tms«at OaoofUie word 
tor a Kcret oouocil. 




[a-V iw. 

It vnm luiBworod 1>y lu all in all powilslD humbkinc^aa, but yot 
witl) a. uomttenunqe taking knuwlcdg^j tbAt wo know that he 
spake it but merrily. Tlwt wo -were upt enough to ttiink 
ther^ WBA AcjULCwluit siipE<matiirHl in tlu& igtaod, but yi.-i 
rather aa angelicjil tbun miLgical. But to l(^t hii^ loirlahip 
know truly whitt it waa tluit made tm tonder, nnd doubtful to 
mk thiB quoHitioti, it veas not Rny auch L^onceit, but liii^rauBo w« 
remeiubered he had given it touiih in bin fonner speech that 
this knd bad lnwa of Mecrpcy toiidiinff Btiunjgcri, To this 
h(^ said: " Y»u rometntie'r it urij^ht, &nd thert^fore in that I 
bIihU K*y to you I niiiQt reaeirq! fmine pftrticuliirB which it is 
not luwful far me to reveal ; but there wiU be enough left to 
^vt> you tuttisf notion. 

'^You shull luulerstand — that which, perha^M, }*ou will 
scarce thuits crtnliblo — that ubuut three thousand ytai-* ago, 
or ■ome:what more, the navi^tion of the world {especially for 
Tomote Toyiigca) wuB greuter than at this day. Do not think 
with youraelTOB that I know not how much it ia iucTQaiwd 
with yuu within tht'so stx acor» ycani ; I know it well, and 
yet I ^y i^roatur thi^n than now. \V^Qth«r it was that the 
elinmple of the urk tlukt saved the n?mnant of men from the 
antvoriHiL dielu^e i^nfc tnL-n i-onildence to advenluro uyion the 
watctB, or what It wtis, but S\h:h JB the troth. Thu rhictLl- 
cian&, and ejnaciaUy tlie Tyriuns, iwd jfnmt flwts ; ho hitd Iho 
Carthaginiaiu their culotiy, wliich ie yet fiuther west. To- 
wards the Eu4t the ahipping cjf Kgypt and i>f I'ttlf^siLinit wub 
likewise great ; Chiou, oUo, and the great Atlantiu [that you 
call AintiriL>B] which ha.\'e now but junks and i?Jinn(!a, uboundtKl 
then in taU ships. ThJa isUnd (as appi^areth hy faithful 
Tegiatvis of those tioii^s) had then fiftiioo hundred atront; aliipB 
of ^'Cht content. Of all this., thera h with you FjAring 
memory, or none ; but w© htiVLi hirpc knowledge thLTtHaf . 

" At that timu thia hind wilh kno^'n and frequented hy the 
■hi^ and vemeU of all the natious boforo namud. And, as it 
vometh to pmiA, tbsy had many tiatte. men of uthiir countripa, 
that were no Bailors, that camo with them ; as PoraiunH, Chul- 
deiuia, AmbiAUfl. So aa almocit all nations of might a^id fivme 
nwot^^d hither, of whom wo havu acme atirpa ' and little tribes 
with ua at thi» day. And for oar own iihipa, they went sun- 
dry' Toyai^, a» woli to your etrait^, which you uiil the 
Fillare of Uerculea,^ an to uther pui'ts in the Atlautit: and 
MediteirantAa Soas ; a« to Paguin (which in the anoie with 
Oimhalino)' and Uuinzy/upon the Orieitlal nem, iiaf4ir ua to 
the borders of thti Eaat Tartary. 

" At the name time, and im age after or more, the inhabit- 
ants of tho Great Atlantifl did Houriah, For though the 
Dmratioa and doaoription which is made hy b greiit man with 
you, that tho dt^seoadante of Neptune plaiiited thtL'te, and of 
the magnificMynt temple, palace, city, and hiU, and the muni- 
fold etrcfliue of goodly narigahle rir&rA (which ae so many 
chiuns i^nvlroacd the somo sito iind temple), tiud the Kverwl 
degrecii of ascent, whtiroby men did climb up to the same, ua 
if it hfid bt-oti a Scala Cmli,* bo ^l po«tical and fabuloua. Yet 
HO nkUL'h in tniu that the said country of Atlnntia—aH well that 
of I'eru, then oalled Coyu, aa tMt of Jlexico, then namc^d 
Tyrumllxl — wore mighty and proud Idni^oms in ^Lnna, nhip. 
pinjir, and nehea; to mighty aa it (loe tin«j— or at luRsit within 
the sjMca of ten yeaie — they both mtul^ two great cspi:*di- 
tioDs ; they of Tyraml*! through the Atlantic to tho Medi- 
terruni-an Sob ; and they of Coya throui^h iha South 8eu upon 

■ SUrju. iirr>K9Qj. Lwtin. " Btl^«," dtem, pliuit, iIlooI, atock, race, 
oSwptiuf: u*«d bazv as ia View's " atizpB at gmnt omna fnturum." 
' Stnlta ot Gibraltar. 

* OunhVt tn Qiuent, whera tmcU h« dKOfed if tlullowing o! 
'Ota Outf of CambAT. 

* <^n»ii.. tbe.ChJnMe in-oriliM of Quamg-ai. 

* Stair of HaiTea. 

were at hil 
k that tlg^ 

of ooff^^^B 

this Otrf island. And for the former of thftSiii which WM into 
Europe, the same author amon;^ you, ae it awnielh, had 
wjme relation from the Egj-ptian pn'cst whom he dtcth, for 
assuredly such a thing there was. But whether it wwe thn 
anc'iont Allw-Taiiins that had the gltiry of thorepul» and rwi»- 
tance of thoau forces, I can my nothing ; hut certaiii it ia, 
thi^re ntvcT i-ame hack either ship or man from that voyage. 
Noithor liad tht> other voyage of thasip of Coj-a upon us htd 
better fortuiio, if they had net mot with enemios of grvalw 
cltmency. For the king of tliia isliuid^ by Alta^nn, a 
wise man and a great warrior, knowing well both his own 
strength and that of hi« enemii^, handled the matter «o aa hr 
eut off their land forces from their tihiiWf and entoilod hoih 
thoir niivy ami their camp with a greater power than ihctn. 
both by aea and land, and compelled them to render th^^m- 
JwlvQS without Btrildng stroke. And after thoy were at hii 
mfToy, contbntinf^ hims&lf only with their oath 
ahould no more bear arms agttinat him, diemined liw^m I 
safety. Hut the divine i-evenge overtook not long 
proud enterprises, for within leas than the space of 
dred years tiw> great Atkntis was utterly loat and dertroytd- 
Not by a great furthquakp, tia your man saith (for that whole 
traet ia littlu subject to earthqutikcfl), but by a particiUar 
deluge, or iDUodatiun. ITlose eountriea having at this diy 
far greater tivors and far higher moimtains to poor down 
wHter9 than any part of the Old World. But it ia true thai 
the Bume inundatiein wa& not deep : not past forty feet 12 
most places from tha ground ; so that although it dcatnywl 
man and boti»t generally, yet soma few wild inhabitvita of 
tho wood oawtjied, bird^ altto were saved by flying to thehj^ 
Iteus and wwxla. For, us for men. although they had btdld- 
jnga in many plaeea higher than thu depth of the water, y<4 
that inundiition, though it were ohjUlow, h«d s long 
tinuance, whereby they of th«> vale that were not 
jieriidied fat want of food and other things neceaaaiy. 
murvol you not at the thin population of AmcricMt ftOPi 
rudeu«»8 and ignorance of the people, for yoa must 
your inhahitanta of AmEiricu aa s young p«<opls, 
thoueand y^are at the 3&-i«t than the rest of the 
that there wan w much time betweim the unirei 
and their parti{:ular inundation. For the poor z«ou»Rt of 
human seed which remained in their monatoina peopled the 
country again slowly by littlu and littli- ; and b^ng nmple 
and eava^e people (not like ffotdi and bi» wm, which was the 
chief familj' of the earth), they wers' not able to Icare letter*. 
urta, and civility to their poetErritji'. And having likcviie 
in their mountainous hahitation^ been na&d (in respect of the 
extremo eold of thn^e regions} to clothe themselvGii with tlw 
skins of tigere, bi'iaja, and great hairy gonts that they have is 
thusu parts, whejiafter they camp down into the vaUw, 
and found the intolerable boats which arc there, and kncv 
no meona of lighter appaji^l, they wore forced to begin th'' 
LUHtom of going naked, which continueth at thia day. Only 
they take great pride and de^light in the feathen of biidi; 
and this alAO they took from tho»e theiir ance«tora of the 
mnuutnins, who wi-m invited unto it hy the infimtc flighU oC 
birds that came up to the high groundR while the walflrt stood 
Ik'How. !^o you sec, by this main accident of time we loitoar 
tmffiiii with the Ameripans, with whom of at] others in regsrd 
ihey lay nutirest to tis, we had tni'sl comtucrce, A» for tha 
othi;r parta of the world, it is moat manifest that in the off* 
following (whether il were in respect of wairs, or by ■ italuni 
rovolutiou of timoj navigation did everywhifn! groatly 
and Qspcijially for voyages (the i»ther by the ti»e of 
and auch vetsela, ae could hardly brook the 
altogetbot left and omitt'^d. Ko thcQ, that port of 
which could be from other mittoES to sail to tu, y\ 

A.P. ...1«9B.3 



it biith long' since ceiwed, excopt it were l>y w>inc rare actidtTit 
aa this of youn. But now of ibo ceBuition of tli&t other part 
Lof mtorcoiirso which might be by ti-urAulilig tn dthtsr natinDs, 
'. must yield you somu olhtT ^aye^; fo^r I cunnot my, if I 
«ay truly, Imt our shipping for aumbm*, fltfiiigth, 
arirn^rs, pilots, iukI »ill things thut api" rtiiin to TuiTigaLioD, 
Iiii Ad gTuit a& evar; jind, therefore, why wa ehoiild ait at 
. home, 1 nhall now give you nn fti lujuut by itsolf ; nnd it 
Trill drAHf netircr tu give you ftntisfaction to your priDcipftl 

"TJaere reined iathisislbnd aKiut 1,000 years ago a Ktn^, 

wkoau memory of all othiirB wo moat Jidore ; not ftiipereli- 

tioQsly, but US a divine jjutriunpiit though s. mortal miiTi. LXis 

^^ jiAjiifi WSB Sol»iiiDiint nnd wu esloein him oa tho hiw-giv^er of 

^^b>our Qutiun, This king had a Iftrgfr hcrart, inscrutablo for good, 

^Httnd WI18 wholly beat to mako his kinj^fdom and people Imppy. 

^™ Eo, thwefore, Lnkin^ into conBidtthition how BuiUd'Citit and 

vubriantivB thu land whs to mnintain itself without any aid 

at oU of tho fomgnfir; boiug ^i^OO ouW in circuit, tmd of 

Iimre fvrtility of soil m tho grcqiteet part then^of ; anJ end- 
|iBg »L«o the ahipping of tbiH countr)' might bo plontifiilly net 
^on work, both by tiehiug and by bransiwrtntioni' from port la 
l^rt, and hkewisc by sailing tmto Aomci timall ialiuidfl that are 
^^>t far froui us, and are uudtr the i-rown and lawg of thiH 
'fitate : and reeuUinj^r into hie mwnory tho hitppy and flourish- 
ing p«tnto wherein thiv land then was, so us it might be s 
thoaaand wayii altered to ih? worsp, but Boarce any one way 
to the better— thought nothiiig wanted to hia coble and 
heroicol intentions, but only {an far ita human foresight might 
reach) to give p(?rp«tuity to thut whicrh waa in hia timo so 
happily mtablish^-d. Tbcrefon?, lunongst his other fund/i- 
muiitiil hiws of this Idngdom ho did ordnin the intordicta and 
prohibitions which wa hava touching entrance of fltrangem, 
which Bt that time (thouj^h it was after tho calamity of 
AtaetitA) vsA freqaenC, doubting noYCltitiA and commixtnreof 
nuuineTB. It ia trap, the Ubo law against the adraisaion of 
strangers without UcP'nse ia an f^ntiont law in tho kiu^om of 
China, ajid yet continued in ii»e ; hut them it i& a pfl'jr thing, 
and hath matle them n curious, ignorant, f^rful, foAUnh nation. 
But our law-givor madr his law of another temper. For flr»t, 
he hath pTGsorvcd all points of humanity in taking order and 
making piuviftion for tho rclii?f of fltrangera dietrcsspd, whereof 
you hav« toBti-d.''' At which 8pc<ech, as roaaoa was, wa all 
Tfisu up and bowed ourselves. Hg went on : " That King abo, 
stfll desirioR to join humanity policy together, and think- 
ing it ugaJnat bunutnitj' to detain atrangcrs here aguiniit th^i-ir 
willa, and ngninst pohcy tluit they ehoold return nnd dij- 
(»v#r their knowl^di^ of this estate, he t«ik this course : he 
did oi-dnia Ihut o£ the strangers (hut shoald be pennitted to 
land, as many at all times might depuit as would ; but b» 
tDHiiy H9 woulii ftlay ifhould have very good conditiotis iind 
tnean« to lire from the .State. Wherein he saw eo i&r, that 
cow, in so mnny ages sincQ the prohibition, wn havo mpmary 
not of (mc ship that ever returned, anil but of thirtr.'on per- 
Mtns only, at several times, that chose to retom in our 
bottoms. What those few that rclnrned may have reported 
nbroad I know not : but you must think whataooTer they hare 
■aid could h«' tfkkcn, where thi'V eaini?, but for a driMtm, Now 
fur ouF travelJiTig from henco into pflrta ubroad, our law-givrr 
thought flt altogt'tlu^ to rcstmin it. So la it not in China, for 
the C^incae sail whore Ihey will or can, which showeth that 
their law of keeping out ittran^ra in a kw of puBillanimiCy 
and fear. But thia restraint of ours Imth ono only cxcrspttou, 
which ift admirable : prenon-ing thu good wbii-h eomelh by 
communictiting with Htnmgero, and avoiding the hurt. And 
^^ I will now open it to you i taiil horf I Bhall seem a little to 
^^WUgrnBe, Ivni vou will by and }iv !inii it pertinent. 

" Ye ^hadl understand, ray doar f ricnda, that amongFit the ex- 
cellent acts of thpit Icing, one ubovo oil buth tliu pro-cininonce. 
It waatheerei'tion and institution of an order, or society, which 
we cuts Salomon's liooae : the noblest foundattoti, a» wc think, 
that nvcr wuA upon tho ourth, and the kinthom of this kin^otn. 
It is dfdjcated to the fttndy of the Works imd Creaturea of God. 
Some think it bcAreththe founder's name a little comipti<d, as 
if it should be Solamona'fl House, hut the records write tt as 
it ia spoken. So as I take it to be denominate of the king of 
the Hebrews, which in famoua wjlh you and no strangt-r to 
MM, for we have some parts of hia work* which with you are 
lost : nanu'ly. that Katural Historj' which ho wrote of all 
IMantfl, horn th^ eedor of Libanua to tho moss that gioweth 
out of the wall, and of all things that havo life and motion. 
tlite makcth me think that our king, finding himeolf to s^^in- 
bolise in many thin^ with that Icing of tho Hebrews {which 
lived many yfare before him), honoTiTod him with tho title of 
this foundation. And I am the rather induc>&d to be of thi» 
opinion for that 1 find in ancient records this order, or society^ 
in aomftimca called Salomon's House, and somr^timos the 
College of the Sis Dnya' Works, whereby I am satisfied that 
our excellent king had learned from tho H^brewB that God had 
created the World and an (hat therein is withui six days ; and 
therefore, hi? inS'titiiting that house for the finding out of thj> 
truo nature of all thioge {wh<^rfcby G*! might have the moro 
glory in the worknmaship of thamraud men the more fruit in 
the uae of thtm}, did give it also that second name. But now 
to I'ome to our preBcnt purpose- When the kmg had for- 
bidden to all his pMple navigation into any part that was not 
under bis crown, ho made, nevprthelew, this ordinance : Tlint 
every twelve yean there should bo set forth out of thIa king- 
dom two shipa appointed to Bevenil voj-a^™ ; that in either of 
these ships thero shoidd be a mission of throi^ of the fellows. 
or brethren, of Sftlotron's House, whoae errand waa only to 
give us kno^nladge of the affairs &nd stat^ of those countri'id 
to which they were designed, and ospoqially of the seit-ncea, 
arts, tnaiiufactiiri?s, and invontious of all the world; and 
withal to bring unto us books, iDstruments, and patterns in 
t'vory kind. That the nhips, after thoy had landed the 
brethren, ahould return, and thol tho brothren ithould stay 
abroud till the new mission. Theso ships arc not othfipwijii' 
fraught than with utore of victuals, and good quantity of 
trraifluro to remain with the brothrt-n, for tho buying of fluch 
thiugs and rewarding of such pereona as they should think fil. 
Now for mo to toll you how tho vulgar sort of mariners are 
contained from being discovered At land, and how they that 
must be put on shore for any time colour themselvou nadcr 
tho naxncB of other nations, and to what plncea these voyages 
have been dcsigm^d, and what placos of rendcKvoua arc ap- 
pointed for tho new miaeiona, and the like uircrinistanc-s of 
iiic pTOcticfi— I may not do it. Neither is it much to your 
denro. But thus you see we maintain a trado, not for gold, 
silver, or jewels; not for silks, not for apiceSr nor any other 
commoditj* of matter ; but only for God's first frpatuTc, whinh 
was Light. To have Hght, I say, of tho growth of all p^irts of 
the world." 

And when he hod said this he was silent, and eo wera 
wo all ; for indeed wf were all astonished to hear so jitr»ng« 
things so probably told. And he, perceiving that wo were 
willing to say somewhat but hnd it not ready, in grcitt 
courtesy took us off. and descended to ask hb q^uestions of oar 
voyage and fortune^, and in the end concluded that we might 
do well to think with ourselvea what time of rtny wo would 
demand of tho .State ; and bodo us not to scant ourselves, for 
he wouhi proc'ire such time oa we desired. Whereupon we 
nil row> up, and prcaentod oureelvwi to ki^ the skirt of hiH 
tippet, hut he would not suffer us, and so took hij teavo. But 



[4J>. ...UK 

when it came once amongst our people that the State iiaed to 
offer conditions to litrangera that would atay, we had work 
enough to get any of our men to look to our ship, and to keep 
them from going presently to the governor to crave con- 
ditions. But with much ado we refrained them till we might 
agree what course to take. 

We took ourselves now for free men, seeing there was no 
danger of our utter perdition, and lived most joj'fully, going 
abroad, and seeing what was to bo seen in the city and places 
adjacent within our tether; and obtaining acquaintance with 
many of the city, not of the meanest quality, at whose hands 
we found such humanity, and such a freedom and desire to 
take strangers, ob it were, into their bosom, as was enough 
to make us forget all that was dear to us in our own coimtries. 
And continually we met with many things right worthy of 
observation and relation ; as, indeed, if there be a mirror in 
the world worthy to hold men's eyes, it is that country. One 
day there were two of our company bidden to a feast of the 
family, as they call it ; a most natural, pious, and reverend 
custom it is, showing that nation to be compounded of all 
goodness, lliis is the manner of it : it is granted to any man 
that shall live to see thirty persons descended of his body 
alive together, and all above three years old, to make this 
foast, which is done at the cost of the State. The Father of 
the Family, whom they call the Tirsan, two days before the 
feast, taketh to him three of such friends as he liketh to 
choose, and is assisted also by the governor of the city or 
place where the feast is celebrated ; and all the persons of the 
family of both sexes are summoned to attend him. These two 
days the Tirsan sitteth in consultation concerning the good 
estate of the family. There, if there be any discord or suits 
between any-of the family, they are compounded and ap- 
peased. There, if any of the family be distressed or decayed, 
order is taken for their relief and competent means to live. 
There, if any be subject to vice, or take ill courses, thoy are 
reproved and censured. So, likewise, direction is given 
touching marriages, and the courses of life which any of 
them should take, with divers other the like orders and ad- 
vices. The governor assisteth to the end to put in execution 
by his public authority the decrees and orders of tho Tirsan 
if they should be disobeyed, though that seldom needcth, such 
reverence and obedience they give to the order of nature. 
The Tii«an doth also then ever choose one man from amongst 
bis sons to live in house with him, who is called ever after 
the Son of the Vine — the reason will hereafter appe-ar. On 
the feast-day the Father, or Tirsan, cometh forth after divino 
service into a large room, where the feast is celebrated, which 
room hath a half-pace at the upper end. Against the wall, 
in tho middle of the half-pace, is a chair placed for him, with 
a table and carpet before it. Over the chair is a state, made 
round or oval, and it is of ivy — an iv'y somewhat whiter than 
ours, like the leaf of a silver asp,' but more shining, for it is 
green all winter. And the state is curiously wrought with 
ailver and silk of divers colours, broiding or binding in the 
ivy, and is ever of tho work of some of the daughters of the 
family, and veiled over at the top with a fine net of silk and 
silver ; but the substance of it is true ivy, whereof, after it is 
taken down the friends of the family ore desirous to have 
some leaf or sprig to keep. Tho Tirsan cometh forth with 
iiU his generation, or lineage, the males before him and the 
females following him ; and if there be a Mother from whose 
Itody the whole lineage is descended, there is a traverse^ placed 
in a loft above, on the right hand of tho chair, with a privy 

> A*p, upeo. First-English, " ssp. ■* Aapm is its adjective. 

■ Trawrm, barrier or movabta Kreen, ■ometimeB formed only by a 

I door, and a carved window of glass leaded witli gold and blue, 
where she sitteth but is not seen. When the Tirsan ia come 
forth he sitteth down in the choir, and all the lineage plaee 
themselves against the wall, both at his back and upon the 
return of the half-pace,* in order of their years, without dif- 
ference of sex, and stand upon their feet. When he ia set, 
the room being always full of company, but well kept and 
without disorder, after some pause there cometh in from the 
lower end of the room a taratan (which is as much as a hendd), 
and on either side of him two young lads, whereof one 
corrieth a scroll of their shining yellow parchmait, and the 
other a cluster of grapes of gold, with a long; foot, or atolb. 
The herald and childr^i are clothed with mantles of aea- water 
green satin, but the herald's mantle is streamed with gold, 
and hath a train. Then the herald, with three curtaeys, or 
rather inclinations, cometh up as far aa the half-pace, and 
there first taketh into his hand the scroll. This scroll is the 
king's charter, containing gift of revenue, and many privi- 
leges, exemptions, and points of honour granted to the &ther 
of the family ; and it is ever styled and directed : " To mc-h an 
one, our Well-beloved Friend and Creditor," which ia a title 
proper only to this case. For they say, the king ia debtor to 
no man but for propagation of his subjects. The seal set to 
the king's charter is the king's image emboasod, or moaldGd, 
in gold ; and though such charters he expedited of course, 
and as of right, yet they are varied by discretion, according 
to the number and dignity of the family. This charter the 
herald readcth aloud, and while it is read the Father, or Tinun, 
standeth up, supported by two of his sons, such as he chooMth. 
Then the herald mounteth tho half-pace, and delivereth the 
charter into his hand, and with that there is an acclamation 
by all that arc present in their language, which is thus much. 
"Happy are tho people of Bensalem." Then the henild 
taketh into his hand from tho other child the cluster uf 
grapes, which is of gold, both the stalk and the grapes. Itut 
the grapes are daintily enamelled ; and if tho males of the 
family be tho greater number, the grapes are enamelled purple, 
with a little sun set on the top ; if the females, then they 
are enamelled into a greenish-yellow, with a crescent on the 
top. The grapes are in number as many as there are descend- 
ants of the family. This golden cluster the herald delivereth 
abio to the Tirsan, who presently delivereth it aver to that sod 
that he had formerly chosen to be in house with him, who 
beareth it before his father as an ensign of honour when he 
geeth in public over after, and ia thereupon colled the ISod uf 
the Vine. 

After this ceremony ended, the Father, or l^rsan, re- 
tireth, and after some time cometh forth again to dinner, 
where ho sitteth alone under the state as before; and none of 
his descendants sit with him of what d^ree or dignity soever, 
except he hap to bo of Salomon's House. He is served only 
by his own children, such as are male, who perform onto him 
all Ber%'ice of tho table upon the knee ; and the women only 
stand about him, leaning against the walL The room below 
the half-pace hath tables on the sides for the guests that xtt 
bidden, who aro served with great ond comely order. And 
towards tho end of dinner (which, in the greatest feast with 
them, lastcth never above an hour and a half] there is an 
hymn sung, varied according to the invention of him that 
composoth it (for they have excellent poesy), hat the Babjn-t 
of it is always the praises of Adam, and Noah, and Abraham. 
whereof the former two peopled the world and the last ww 

> Th« rettirn of the half-pae*. Actum Is hen iu«d in the ucUt«ctanl 
MDH of the continnatiou of a moulding', projectioa, Ac., in a cob- 
trarj- directiou ; a put that falle awij from the fnmt o( a ttraisfat 
work ; aa here the heXj--p<u» (the nlitiT floor or aoafloUt) j r o le c t s fHa 
the straight line of the waU. 

A.C, ...Ifflfi.! 



the Fnthtr of th*? Fftithfnl ; confliidirg- ever «itli a thrints- 
Riviny: ifpr ibi Ntttivity of our Saviour, in whosti birth the 
birthA of all Are only ble&tieii. Dmiior beinj^ iloTio,theTirsaii ro- 
tireth n^^n, and haring- wittdiswn himaulf uIoqu into b pUce, 
where ha maketli same private prayers, he coinolh iorth the 
thinl timo tu giv^ the bluBamg, with all hin dtwccndants, who 
sUnd obout him aa at the first. Then hH talloth them forth 
hy unp and liy one-, hy namo, m b.v plvAsoth, though m-ldom 
tlie ordar of age bo rnvtirtcd. The ptisan that is cuJlwi (the 
tAhlo being lisfora njmoved) kncijlfth down HieforiJ Ihe chair, 
ttinJ Uie father layeth his hand ui.1011 his htiad, ir her head, 
and ipTeth the bl^^wing in those words: "Son of Bcnanli^m 
[or dang^lex of Bvaaolem], thy FiLthf^i: eaith it ; the man liy 
whom thoti Last hr^th sni life»kcitli the wgni; the 
bleedng of the Ererlasting Falju^r, the Prince of Peaeo, jiimI 
tlie Holy Dove bo upon thee, and malte the dayB of thy pil- 
griniage good &tid maoy/' This hti SHitb to every of them ; 
and that 6am!. it thern Ik? any of his sons of tniiiieiit nn-'rit 
anil virtuo (ao the^y lie not aboFu twu) he calln'th for thciu 
again, and aaith,' laying his arm ovor their i^bDuLdcrB, they 
«t«nditt|r, " Sqju, tt in w«U ye are Iiorn ; giro Gad tho pmiaev 
and pensovwo to the end." And withal delivereth to either 
of thvm a JeireV made in the figure of an t?ar of wheat, wbi'Cb 
they OTPF aittir wear in the froQt of their turban, or hat, Tbia 
dons, they fall to mugic and dant^ea, and othi^r r^creationu 
aftur thoir mannor for the rest of the day. This is the full 
order of that feast. 

By that time six or scvi^n dayg vera spinit, I was fallen 
into stnught acquaintance with a nier^h/mt of that city, whose 
name was Joabio. He was a Juw, and circumciBed, tor thvy 
haFo fione few fitirpa' of ilewa yet ri^maining amon^ tfaem, 
whom tht-y leave to their own religion : whieh they mny the 
better do bccsuw they ati' of a ti*r diSenjnt dispoaition from 
the J^wft IB other parts: for whereas they hat*; tht; name of 
Christ, And have a Aocret inhred t^fiiCtiLir againHt the people 
amongd whom tkay live, these, contmriwjsc, give unto our 
Saviour many high &tCributt:-», and luva the nAtion of Ben- 
■alcm extremuly. Surely thig qmn of whom I six'ak would 
ever nrlcnowl^ge that Chriat wjia IfoHi of u virgia, and that 
He waa more than a man ; and he wouH ti'll how God made 
Him ruler of the e^raphinb which guard llis throne ; aoid they 
call him also the Milken Way, and tho Elijah of Uio MesHLih, 
and tDBJiy other high namee, which, though they be inferior 
to His Divine Majesty, yet they arc far from the huigunge of 
other Jews. And for the country of Bensnlem tliia man 
would make no end of coromending- it. N?in>^ desirous by 
tradition among the Jewa thore to hare it helioved that the 
pcop3e thereof wore of the {^euorationH of Ahrahum by another 
■nn, wfaom they called Kachoran ; and that Mob^ by a t^ctvi. 
mbaLL ordained the laws of Benaalem whieh they now use ; 
and that whoa the Mcaiiah should com*?, and nit tnUia throne 
at Jemaalem, the king of BenBatem should ait at hia feet, 
whereas other kings should kwp a great dietanei?. But yet, 
lotting ^ide theae Jewii«h dreams, the man was a wise man, 
ami learned, and of great policy, and e.\cellently seen in- the 
law6 and ciUitonis of that nation. Amongst other discourje^ 
tjne day, I told him I woB much affectH, with the rolatinti 1 
had from some of the eompiny of their t-ustom in hyldinj; 
ttie Feast of thff Fiumly, for that, methought, I bnd n^ver 
heard of a solemtuty wheretn Nature did bo niueh presiiL;. 
And because propagation of families procc«deth from the 
imytial copulation, I desired to knew of him what laws and 
coBtoms they had wnceming mfflrri4igc, and whether thoy kept 

BtiTfi. Bm Kota 1, p. lio. 

S«nt M, aUOed la. Icnttatjon of the Latin use oF " B^ientatiu ; " 
phnae In Old EnglUb. 

marria|^e well, and whether they were tied to otie wife ; for that 
whore population is eo much affected, and such sb with them 
it seemed to bt% there is commonly pemiifisioa of pliuiility 
of wiveB. To thia he BaiJ, " You have re^aspn for to fom- 
niend that excellent inatitution of the Feast of the Family, aai 
iude«d we have experience that those famtlias that aro p«r. 
takers of tho hleHsiitg of that feast do flourijh and prosper 
tvcr after in nn an extmonlinarj' manner- But hear mo now, 
and I will tell you what I know. You shall underataiiil that 
thtn.' is not under the heavens so chnate a nation aa this of 
Benealem, Qar eo frdo from all pollution or foulntM. It i£ 
tho virgin of the world. I remember I havo road in one of 
your European booka of & holy hermit amongst you that 
desired tq see the spirit of fomieatioo, and there appeared to 
him a little, foul, ug-ly Ethiop ; hut if he had deHin^d to nee 
tho spirit of chastity of Bensalem, it would have appeared to 
him in tho likeness of a fair Ixtautifal (?hfirubtn ; for there is 
nothing amongst mort/d men more fair and admirable than 
the chaste nunda of this people. Know, thensfore, that with 
them tht^re ar^ no 8ti>w«i, no dissolute hou^^s, no eourtcBanSr 
nor anything of that kind. Nay, thi-y wonder, with detesta- 
tion, at you in Europe which permit such things, They wy 
ye have put marriage out of olhce, for ninrriagrt is ordained a 
remedy for unlawful concupiBocncc : and natural conoupi- 
seene^ Bef.'moth as a spur to nuuriage ; but when men have at 
hand a remedy more agreejihle to their corrupt will, marringe 
is almost ejipulsed. And, therefore, then* UT& with you ewn 
inflnite men that marrj' not, hat choose rather a libertine ami 
impure aingle life than to be yoked in marriage ; and many 
that do marry, naarry kto, when tha prime and strength 
of their years la past. And when thoy do marry, what le 
marriage to Ihsm but a very bargain, whyruin is nought 
ftlliarice, vt jwrtion, or rejiutation, with some desire (almoet 
indifferent) of issue, and not the faithful nuptial union of man 
and wife that was find instituted. Neither ia it pas^bla that 
those that have cost away ao basely so much of their strength 
should greatly esteem children (beiag of the iome matter) aa 
cimistii men do. &>, likewise during: the (.-099 much 
amended, as it ought to be if thoscj things were tolerated only 
for neccasity P No, but they remain still aa a verj' affront to 
marriage^ The haunting of thooe dissolute places, or resort to 
courtesans, are no more punished in married men than in 
bachelors, and the depraved custom of change, and the 
dehgbt in meretricioiifl emhracementa [where sin is turned' 
into art), maketh marriage a dull thing, and a kind of impo- 
sition, or tax. They hear you defend theae tliing^s as doni:i tu 
avoid greater evilH; but they aay thia la a prcposteroud 
wisdom, and they call it Lot's offer, who, to save his guests 
from abusing, offered hia daughters. N'uy, they any further 
that there is little guined Lo this, for that the same vices and 
appetites do still remain and rihoucd : unhiwful lost being 
like a furnace, that if you stop tho flamOB altogether, it will 
qufinch ; but if j/ou give it any vent it will rage. As for 
niaaouline lovo, they have no touch of it: and yet there ore 
not so faithful and inviolate friendahipe in the world a^n as 
aro there ; and to speak generally, as I said before, I have 
not read of any Buch chastity in any people as theirs. And 
their usual aaying is. 'That whosoever is unchaaCe CAunot 
reverence? himself.' And tbcy say, ' That the rrverencq of a 
man's wlf is, next reli^on, the chiefeet hriiUle of all vic<>a."' 
And when he had said this, tho good .tew pnuusd a tittle; 
whii-reupun I, far more h-iULng to hear him speik on than to 
dponk myself, yet thinking it decent that upon his pause of 
speech I ahoold cot bo altogether ailent, aaid only this, '^ lluit 
I would say to him aa the widow of Sarc-ptn said to Eliaa: 
that he was come to bring to memor}' our sini, and that t 
ctiofeas the ri^hteousnesa of Bonsalem wiia greater than thv 






rigbt-Bou^Gss of Eurojie." At which apeoeh he his 
bead, and wt-nt on in this mKnn&r : '* Thoy hav-u ul&o m&ny 
vJBV und uxt^pllcnt laws touching matriu^ : Thoy ulluw no 
polygBmy ; they tmvo ordiiiii<?d tliat ao&e do intcnnarry or 
vflDtrict until a month lie pout from their first interview. 
Mtinid^> vJthdut consent of parc-nts Lhey do nut make void ; 
but they mulct it tji the inheritura, for thi> chiliinen of suiih 
marmgcw nro not admitted to inherit above a. t)iird part of 

their parents' inherilAbU! 

And aa we ■were thus in conference there came one tb«t 
aeumcd to bo a tEiii-Htctiyn', in a rieh huko',^ that apika with the 
Jew, whereupon ho tamed toiBe,aiid unid: ■"Yon willpurtlon 
tnu, fur I aiti cominAnded away in haste," Theaoxt mumiag 
he cftRio to me again, joj-Jul ua it eoomed. and sniit: "'nwn_> 
ia wgtd coma to the governor of the tily that ono of thu 
Eath'Ors of Salomon^H Houao will be here this day soTen-night. 
We hiive ae<?n none of them thia dozen years ; his toming is 
in Btute ; tnit thu caiue of his corning is secret. I will provide 
you and your fellowa of a good fitimding to bw his ontry." 3 
thanked him, and told him I was moiit glad of tho uirva. 
Tbf) day heing come, ho mudLt hin entry. He- wait a mAn of 
middle rtftture and age, comely of person., and hud an aspeet 
u if he piti«'d men. Ho vim olothod in a. rolw of fine hluck 
dotli, with wide aleevca and li capo ; hia under- garroent was 
of excellcDt whito lin&n. down to tho foot, girt with a girdle 
of the same, and a oindoD,^ or tippi^t, of thii same ahout bi^ 
neek. Ue had gloves that wcie curious and e«t with Btone ', 
and ahoes of poaoli- coloured velvet ; his neek wan bare to the 
flhooldon; his hat wa& like a helmet, or Spanish iDontera;^ 
and his locka eUrled below it deeently Jtboy wero of colour 
brown) ; hu bDard vob c\A round, and of the same colour 
with hishnir, nomewhat lighter. Uc was carriwi iu i* rjeh 
chariot without whoelH, litlor-wise, with two horses at either 
ond, Hehly trapped in bHe velvet ombroideied, Bnd two foot- 
men on ouch Aide in the like attira, Tho L'hariot vmn all of 
vedar, gilt, and Bdora>ed with erj'Btal, nave that tho fpre-end 
4iad panels of sapphires set in borders of gold, und the hind^ir 
■end the like of emeralds of thu Peru eolour; there was uliji> 
A sun at gold, radiant upon the top, in the midst, nnd on thf* 
top before, a Kmall crherub of gold with wincfidi8p]ayt«d. ITie 
chimot was covered with doth of gold tissued upon blue. Ho 
had before htm fifty attendants, young uicn ull, in while 
satin looao ciMita to tho mid leg, and atockingM of white dlk, 
and ahoes of blue velvet, and hat« of blue velvet, with fine 
plumee of tUverHe colours eu.'t round like hat-hnndH, Next 
before the ehunot went two men, bare hc-aded, ia linen gar- 
tnonts dawn to the foot, girtj and idioeB of Hue velvet, who 
carried the one n crosier the other a pastoral stail, like a 
flhevp-hook. neither of them of melol, but the croaierof balm- 
■wwod, the pa*tor»l trtafl of i'E<dar. Hoisemcn he hod none, 
neither before nor behind hiti chariot, aa it seemeth. to nvoid 
bU tumult and trouble. Behind hia clumot went all thn 
offieera and pna-L'ipals of the eonLpanie» of the city. He sat 
alone upon cuehions of a kind of excelL^nt phmh, bUtte; and 
under hia foot cuxiouB carpets of silk of diverge celoiuv, like 
the Fer«ian, but far hner. He held up hia bnrc hand, as he 
went, as blessmg the peoples hut in Hilence. Tbo atrect was 
WDTiderfully wpU kept, bo that there was never any atmy had 
thnir men stand to better battle array than the peopio stood. 
The windows likewise were not crowded, hut every one stood 

' B^, eiaak. Old Froach "hniiiia." ProlfflUy turned tram tJw 
pia6« of entton cloth worn ^j |bie AwM over thft tnoic, Mk, frem 
At. "iMJka." X" w«nTo. The word oucuia In Old HiiglUti u haA, 

• Bi*ion. S*e Note 1, piufe llfl. 

' tl<Maro,, a. huiit]D(r.cati, fratn " montero," a huutfinui, tO CSllfd 
{tfooLuie hiB gjmie- ii on the ULonncain, " mont«.'" 

in them as if they hod been placed. ^Vhen the show ««■ 
paatt the Jew said to me, " I shall not he abk- to uttend yon 
iu< I Would, in regard of soma charge the city hath laid npoa 
mo for the entertaining of this great penon.'' Three days 
after, the Jew t'ame to me again and said, '^¥e ore happy mm, 
for the father of Salumoti's House taketh knowledge of youir 
hcing here, and eommandod me to tell you that he will admit 
all your (^omjiany to biH presence, and have privato eonferentr 
with one of you that ye shall cbae»e, imd for thia hath n]>- 
pointed the next day tifter to-moirow; and becauee hu 
uieoneth to g^ve you hia blL-asing he hath appointed it in Iho 
forenoon." We caioc at our day and hour, and 1 was rlioarn 
by my fellows (or the private acceufl. We ivund him in a 
tair ehomber, richly hangi.d,, and carpeted UndBt foot, without 
anydtjgTeee to the state;'*' he wassfttupona low throne riehly 
adorned, and & neh cliJth of state over hia head oS hlor watin 
embroid'ered, Ue wak alone^ save that he had two pages of 
hoDour on either hand, one finely attired in whit«; hia under 
guroientA were tho like that we saw him wear in thci duuiot, 
hilt instead of lu» gown he had on him a mantle with a titpa, 
of the eame fine black, fastened about tum. When we cams 
in, m we were taught, we bowed low at our firat entrance; 
and when we were come near his chuir he stood op, holding 
forth hia hand ungloved^ und in pusture of bleaung, and w«, 
overy oa& of us, stooped down and kiased the hem of hit 
tippet ; that done, the rest departed, and I remained. Thea 
he warned tbe jjages forth of the room, and caused mo to ait 
down bcaide him, und spake to me thus in. the f^paniiih 
tongue ; — 

"C+od bless thee, my eon I I will give thee the greaCeflt 
jewfil I have, for 1 will impart unto thee, for the love of Hod 
and mi;n, a relation of the true state of SiilomonV Motn& 
Son, to make you know the true state of tS»lumoii'^ Uouse^ t 
will keep this order r first I will sot forth unto you the *d 
of our foundation. Becondly, the preparationa and inatru' 
menta we have for our works. Thirdly, the Mn'eral employ^ 
miLTLla imd functions whereto our feUows arc Rssigned. And 
fourthly, the ordinances and rilps which we ohBerre. 

" The end of our foundatioti Is the knowledge of causes, snd 
secret m.vtion« of things ; and the enlarging of the hounda of 
h\i[iiia.a empire, to the effecting of all things possible.* 

'• The preparations and inatrumcnts are thesO : we have lart^ 
and dei-p caves of several depths ; the dcepeet ore sank ax hun- 
dred fiithoms, and some of them ore dug,and made under gnat 
hilla and mountains, so that if you reckon together the d«pUi 
of the hill and the depth of the cave, thej' are (some of thod) 
above three miles deep. For we find that the depth of a hill 
and the depth of a cave from the Bat is the same thing ; hoik 
remote alike from the aun and heaven's beams, and from Uw 
open air. These eaves we call the lower region, and »a on 
them for all CDHgulations, indurations, refrigerations, and 
consLirMitiona of bodieii. We use them likewiae for ths 
imttiition of natural mines, ahd the producing oUn of nf« 
nrtilicial metals by eompueitions and materiala which we 
use, and lay there for many yean. We use them also aoow- 
timea (whieh may seem strange) for curing of a 
and for prclongation of life, in some henmta that i 
to live there, well necommodated of iJl thingB 1 
and indeed live very long; by whom also we lesn itma* 

"^ We have bimale in several enrths, whera we p«l divtfs 
eenients, an the Chinese do their porcehiin, but w« ham thm 
in grcnter variety, and eomc of them mere Sob. W« h»n 

* DegrfM to Ihr utalt, utepe up to tbe caaopiocl Mat. 

* Th« end o/our faandaiwmnm tbe avowed aha ol tha wlula S] 
dC Baeou'jt pilulesophy. 

' A.D, .„isM.;i 



aiflo great variety of ccmposta fiiid bdlLa for the malcmg of 
tiie earth fruitful. 

" Wc lu.v6 hi^h towers, the highest about haU n mile in 
heiglit, and. some of them likewise sfet upon high moimtaiiiH, 
so that the vantage of the hill with the towpT i», in the 
highest of them, thrtw miles at least, And the&i^ jilAcfia wit 
all the upper region ; accoufltrng the air between the high 
|iU(M» iind ttu> low Its a middle region. We ns^y thi-so tuwen. 
itccordjng to their several hfight» a-ttil Bituntiane, for ineohi- 
liorit' lefrtgeration, tonseiiT&tMjn, and for the view of divurs 
meteor*, m winds, rain, inow, liail. acd oome of the fiery 
munteon also. And upon th^tn, in eome places, are dwcUingv 
cif h(!rmilG, whom wo insit HOincitim«!J4, unci in^tmet whttt to 

" Wo hBv« i^Tcat hikes, both ealt and fresh, vhenwf wo have 
use for the Hah And fowl, Vto ubb them alao for buriale of 
some luitnral bodies: fur wo 6iida difference in things horied 
in earth or in itii* below thtt eurth, luid things buried in 
water. Wo hBPe algg pttob. of which some do ^tniin frc^ah 
watAt out of lalt, and othoTA liy Art do turn iiLtih wutor into 
nit. We hiivB al99 tame rocka in the midst of the sew. and 
scow haya npOB tha shore, for aome works wherein is rL>c(uiit«d 
iht' air and vapour of the son. Wn hnvv likewise ^"iolent 
stTeums and cataructs, which Hervo ua for many oiutions, and 
likL'wise enginee for multiplyini^ and enforcing of winds, to 
Kt UlIwj on dicing diVL^rae motions. 

" We have idaa a number of artiSeiaJ wqlls and fountains, 
mode in imitntion of the natuial boutccis and Itiithe, as tinctcd 
upon vitriol, ealphur, steel, brass, lead, nitre, and other 
mincnls. And agTiin, we havo littlo wella for iufiijcons of 
many thinga, where the waters take the %TrtuB qin<,'ker and 
bctt'ir than in ve&eela or haKLna. And amongst th^m V6 hav« a 
wat«r which we call water of Pjiradiet', ht-ing', by that we do to 
It, nuide vay uvttreign for hi^llh and jiroloniijiation of life. 

" Wq havQ also great and fp^icious homacs whera w imitate 
and d^munatrate meteota, &a enaw, YmU, t-aiu, some artifieial 
rsins of bodies and nut of water, thuudGirti, lightnings; also 
gcoemtiona of hodjes in air, an frogic, Sies, and divers others. 

" We have a\sa certain L'tuimbere, which we call chambcra of 
health, where we ^tuiiify the air a« we think tfpoA and 
propcz, top the cure of divers diKoeea and pressrvation of 

" Wa have also fair and large baths of several miJctureB. for 
the cure of diseases and the rtHtoring of nuin'fl hody ftom 
arefaction^^ and others for thocnnflrming of it iu etreugtli of 
Mnewfl, vital porta, and the very juice and aubstonca of thu 

"Wa have, abo largo and various oTcharda and ^rdiaiB, 
wheretQ wo do not bo much respeet Ixiaiity as variety of 
ground and *>il, proper for divcra trees and horliis, and aome 
vary ajiACtotis, whuxc trees and lorries are lict, whereof wo diverse tipds of drinks, besides the linftj-Brde. In 
thsBC we piaetiflo likcwiso all conclusions* of grafting and in- 
oculating;, Bi well of wild trees as fruit trci:H, whirh pto- 
ducetb. tnany effects. And we make (by art] in the same 
Qttlurds ULd gardenj, treea and flowera to came earliot- ot 
later than th^ eoasons, ami to i?omc up and bear more 
■peedily thou by their naturiil coursf- th<'y do. We make 
than alflo, hy art, greater miich than their nsture, and their 
frnit groater nnd sweeter, and of differing taste, sraell, colour, 
and fij^ura &nm their nature. And many of ^em wb so 
order as they become of medicinal use. 

^l fMnJ'rfi>n. erpoaingta ttrtniTBoItlieian. 
* ^v*/ci«r«M, behs^mods diji fmnj Latla "lu-ere," to bo Hij, and 
bfvTB." to make. 

* ProduB ivmclufioTLM, »f|iuvrLl«at M "try ctiaiiluiilotia," make thtj 
«xi>*!naieDt from which eoiiclttiiaiLA jaaj be drown. 

" Wb have also means to make divtrs plants rise by 
miiturea of qarth without seeds, und likewise to mako divers 
new pLintA, diffpring fram the vulgar ; and to mako one tree 
or plant tnrri into anuthr-r. 

'■ Wo have oLso jutrka. and enuloaiLreH of all aorta of bt?«»tc 
and birds, whifh we ust not only for view or laroncss, but 
Hkcwiso for disaectiona and triaU, that thereby wo may lake 
light what may bu wrought upon tiw body of man. Wherein 
we fLnd many stniDgo oifectfi, as continuing life in them, 
thuugh divers parta, which yoii account vital, be polished and 
taken forth ; rcsu^G-ittitlng of somu tlmt etH>m doad in appear- 
ance, and the like. Wl- trj*, also, all poisoaa, tmd other 
medicrinea upon them, us well of fhirurgerj- as physic. By 
art, likewise, wo itiaka them greater or taller than their kind 
is, iBnd, t'onttariwiso, dwarf them, and stay thoir growth , *a 
make theni inoro fniitful and hcarini* than their kind i&, and, 
contrariwise, boxron and not gonerative ; iilso we makt> ihvm 
diSer in eolollr, dWpe, activity — many waya. We find 
meuns to make comnuxturea and copulations of divers kinds, 
which have produt^rd many new kinds, and them not barren, 
as the general opinion is. We make a number of kinds ot ] 
sorpents, wonna, fii««, flahee, of puttcfoction. whereof e 
are advantiid (in effect) to he porfeot tTeatur™, like beasts M ^ 
birds, and hare scxos, and do propagate. Neither do we this 
by chance, hut we know beforehand, of what matter and cem- 
tnLKturu, what kind of thos^ creature will arise. 

" We hiivo alio particular pools, where wt xnake touls ujion 
S^hea, as we havt^ said before of heiists and birdA. 

" We have also plaecw for breed and generatioD of thuae 
kinds of wonna and flies which are of spcci&l use, such as aid 
with you your mlkwotma and bec-s, 

•' I will not hold you long with recounting of our brcw- 
honaea, bakehouaes, and Idtehens, w^hera are made divert 
drinks, breads, and meatSj ruro, and of special effocte. Wines 
we huve of grapes, and di-inks of other juice of fraito, of 
grains, and of roots; and of mixtures with honey, sugiir, 
mimno, and fruits dried imd deL-wted. Alsu of the tmra and 
woundinga of trees, and of the pulp of canes. And thew 
drinka are of B»?veral ugesy some to the age or last of forty 
years. We have diinks also brewed with several htTbs, and 
roota, and Bpicca; yea^ with several fleshes mid white meats, 
whereof some of the drinks are euch as they are in (.'fiect 
meat and drink both, bo that divers, eep^cially in ago^ do 
desire to live with thiim, with littlo or no mcnt or bread. 
And, ftbovo all, we strive to have diinka of extreme thin 
partit, to ineiniiato into the body, and yet without all bitin;^, 
tilutrpneefi. or fretting ; insomuch na some of them, put 
upon tho bH<.'k of your hand, will, with a little stay, puss 
through to the palm, and yet taete mild to the mouth. \\'« 
have also waters which we ripen in Uiat fashion, a» tbey Iw- 
eomo nourishing, so that they are iudeC'd excellent drink, 
and many will use no other. Breads we have of several 
grnina, rutjtit, and kernels: ycu, and some of tli'sh and fi^, 
dried, with divers kinda of leavenings and seasonings, so ihiit 
some do extrem-elv move appetitca. Some do nourish so as 
divert do live of th«n without any other meat, who live verj- 
long. So for mi'nts, we havo some of them SO lieaten and 
made tender, and mortified, yet without all corruptiug, a* a 
weak heat of the etomaeh will turn th^m into good ihyhi-i, 
AA well As ft atrong heat would meat otherwise proparod. Wo 
have Bome meuta also, iind breads, and Jrinkir, which, taken 
by men, rr^ble them t^ fast long aft(3r : and sotno other, that 
used make the very flesh of mens bodies RMisibly more hard 
and toughj and their strength far greater tbBJi otherwise it 
would he. 

" We have dispensatoriL-s. or shops of medicinca, when-in 
you may easily think, if we h&vft such i-ariaty of plants and 


living oreaturea moiro thun yciu Iihvij in EtirojH' — for wu know 
wluit yau hnvo — the H)mple;«, drugSt iind injfreiUentB of mtili- 
cinea must likewise bd in so [iiiich tho fj^re&tcr varii'ty, Wp 
hav-e them, likc^wiae, of divert agvR and long f cnnC-ntatii^riH l 
and for thoir proparationg we have not oaly all B>ajuier ol 
oxquituto distEliations mail a(^\iAtiti\(iaay and Qsp&cially by gentlt! 
heata, ami ixTcolations through Jivera etrainers, yfiii, tmd auli- 
Btancm ; liut ^Ibo i^iuict fomis of compositioii, whereby tht'y 
iui.<or[Kintlc almijat «» thay weru niituriil aimples, 

" Wl- luLve also divem raMhanical arts which you hftve not, 
anil stii& Rmdc hy them, as [uipitr^, IJovm, mlka, ti^uiiEH, dainty 
workti of fbAther^ of wonderful luatrL-, liicellent dyea, and 
many othors; and tihops, likewise, ita well fot BUih aa are nut 
brought into vuI^eit use Kmon^t us, a» for thoai.< thut ure ; for 
you mutit know iliat of the Ihin'ja before recitw*!, miiny of 
them aro jfrown into ium ihroughnnl the kingdom ; but yet 
if thyy did flow front qkt iavention, we have of tbeci alw fpr 
patterns and piincEjitilB. 

" Wo bai'f? nJsg f iuTiac<!B of great diversitiesj mid tlwi-t keep 
gtettt divfirsity of hen.ts, tierce itnd quick, strong and con- 
stant, soft iknd miliL, Idpwn, quiot, dn% moist, ntid the like: ; 
but ubove nU wu^ hare heats in imitatian of the aun's and 
heavenly bodies' henta, that pass diveraeintiquiilitUs, and,Aait 
viit&, orbs, progresses, and returns, whereby we produce 
ftdnurablc! efipcta. Besides, we have heats qf dungs^ and of 
helli«a and mawa of living creatures, and of their bloods and 
bodiija; .tnd of hnys luul herbs laid up moist, of lime iid- 
quenched, and sucJi-likti. I lUitnimoutK, also, which goni'nit« 
heat only by motion. And further, places for strong inuola. 
tioEu: and ogkia, placra \mdcr the eaaib, which, bynature of 
urt, yield heat. Theae divero heafax wc use as the nattire cif 
thi' operation which wu intend roquirath, 

"We liave, jilao, pfrspoitive boiiaus, whete we make de- 
mons tmtion a of All lights and raciiittions, and of all ooloura ; 
and o\it of things uncoloured and Irftqaparent we can repre- 
sent unto you all several colours, not in ntinbowa — m it is in 
gi'ius and priHtna- — hut of thc<mtielves single. We represent, 
aIao, all multiplications of light, whidi we CArry to great dia- 
tunc<.<, and make so sluirjj as to diacei-n stncill points a.nd line«, 
Also all cflloriitiona of light : all delnsiomi and di>ceits of th4^ 
sight, in G^rea, ningnitudt^d, motiqns, coloura; uU demoTi- 
stiittiona of shadows. We find, also, divL^rs meanfi yet un- 
knrjwu to you of producing of ligiht orij^naliy from divers 
bo<tik.'8. Wv procure means of »cciag objects afar off, as in 
the bi'jLven, and nmnte plac.'ea ; and reprosent thin^a near us 
afar utf, and things afaxoS as nc.i&r, making feigned distances. 
Wo havfl also beljw for tho «ight^ far above spectacle and 
glftsscd in UM ; we have aLw ghuucd and m^iu to see amull 
and minute bodies perfectly iilid dtatinctly, us tha nhapc'ii nnil 
coloun of snuill flies and v^onna, grains and flaws in gems. 
wludi cannot othet-wi&o be st^n; obscrvatxona in urine and 
blood not otherwisie to he setn. Wp make artificial rainbowa, 
baloa twid citqlt-a about light ; we rvpi-esent nlso all mmmer 
of roQoctions, refractions, itnd multi plications of visual beftirts 

»of olljf't^ts. 
" Wo have also precioils stones of nil kinds, many of them 
of gruat licAuty, nnd to you unknown ; vrysfila likii^wiyi;, and 
gluBSoa of divers kinds. And amongst tht^cn Hom? of metala 
vitnAcntL'd, and other rnutfi-iata, 1iesiit<.-a thous of which ypu 
irfRkc glasa. Also a number of fossils and imperfect minerals. 

Iwhii'h yoa have nitt. Likt!wie« Icuulatoncn of prodij^oua 
«trtu», and oth<pr rare stonea, both natoral and aitificial. 
" Wo have alau sound- }i»ubo«, whore we pmetiDB and die- 
monitralv [lU wunds, and their generation. Wo have 
tutmiunira whii-h you have not, of qTiarti'r- sounds and leMsnr 
slitlri of Miinds. Divers instruments of music, like^iee to 
yoa uiikiio^vn, soma sweeter than any you have, together 

with bellft iind rings that iin* ditiuty and awctt- Wr rvyn~ 
sant BuuiU sounila ue grLiit and doop, likewiOB j^reat MUlids.. 
exteniiat« and ahftvp ; we v\»U?. divers tremblingB and w«r- 
blinga of Bounds whieh in theit' originoJ ar& entire. W« 
represent and imitate all' aoiinda and leitten, and 
the voices and notes of beasts and birds. Wt: tuirt.- cotoin 
helps, which, net to tlie vkt, do further the hearing greatly. 
Wc have aUo divers stninge and artificial echoes, reflectintr 
thij voico many times, and, aa it were, tossing it; and strate 
that give back the voice louder than it come, some ahnUrr, 
[iiid some deeper. Y(,(!l, some rendering the Toit«, dillmnf; 
in the lettcis or articulate sound from that Uwy nscwTC. 
We hnvE! bIho means to convey sounda in tronlci and ppta, 
in strange lines iind distoncos. 

"We have also porfunie-housea, wherewith wt» join aW> 
pi-ftcticee of tnate. We multiply smells, nchicb may soraa 
strange. We imitnte smells, nmking all smells to bmathn 
out of other mixtutrnt than tha»6 that give them. We make 
diverse inutations of taste likewise, 90 tbat tliey will decdve 
any man's tdste. And in this house we contain also a ccn- 
ftture house, where wo maka all nweetmeata, dry and oiftUt ; 
and diverse pleasant wines, milla, liroths, and salada, Ux a 
greater variety than you have. 

" We have nlao engine-houses, where are prepaiwd engini« 
and mstrumenta for all aorta o( motioas: thers we imilatA 
and priLctisc to nwiko swifter motions than any you have, 
either out of your muaket^ or any engine that yoa have ; and 
to make thcra and multiply them morti easily, nud with •mall 
force, by wheels and other means ', and to niAko thi^nk atronger 
and more violent than yours are, oxceeding yonr gTratoBt 
cannons and iTaailiakfl, Wo represent, also, ordoane^ and io- 
fltrumi'nta of war, and engines of all kindt^ ; and Ukewiie new 
mirtures and eompoaitionn. of gunpowdKr, wildfires burnuig 
in wfltet, and unquenehablB ; also flrewoirks of all Turiety, 
both for pleoauro and use. We imitate, also, flighta of birds; 
we havo aome degreea of fliTJig in the air ; we hare ahijii imd 
boats for going under water and brooking of acoa ; also min- 
ming-girdlea and enpporters. We have divers curious clot^ 
and other like motiona of return, and uome perpetnal mottaDu 
We imitate also motions of living crcatiircs, by image* of 
men, beaste. birds, fishes, and aerpenta. We bate also a gnat 
number of other various motions, fliMigo for equality, fine- 
ness, and subtlety. 

" Wl' have also a mathemflticiil house, where we rep^ 
8entr<d all instnimenta, as vrell of geoiQ^ty u aatroBimiy, 
exquisitely made. 

" We havo also bouses of deceits of tli« nensea. whaw ** 
rei>roBont all manner of feats of juggling, false apporitaHH, 
im]>ostrures and illusions, and their fallacira. And miralj yon 
will cosily baliovu that wo that have so many thini^a truly 
nutural which iniluc-e admiration, could, in a wmrM of par* 
ticulnrs, deceive the scfiB??, if we would disguiac those thin^ 
and Inboiir to make thetn He«m more miraculoua. But wc d" 
hate all impostures and lies: insomuch aa we have swetrh 
forbidden it to all our fellows, under pain of tgnomiiiy as^ 
fines, that they do not phow iiny natural work or ihisfT 
ftdomed or sn'elling, but only pure aa it is, a&d without Ji 
affertatiou of atrangr-nrss. 

"These are, my son, the riches of Solomon's Hotue. 

" For the several cmploymente and offlcM of our MUns' 
We have twolve that anil into foreign countries nndar tbr 
names of othur nations (far our own we conceal), who brafini 
the bookn, and abatraet^,. and patterns of experimoiti ol sft 
other parts. These we coll Merehanta of Light. 

'* Wc have tlttee that collect the cxperintenta which ar* in 
ull brioks. These we cmiU Deprodatora. 

" We hi:ive thxbe that collect the experimEoit* U st> 

...ISM j 



tncchitnicul nrta. und lUso of libtm! stienws, uml iilao of jjmc- 
titea whidi ara bot bruiijjht iutu ^rU. These we call Jklystt^ry 

"Wo hare three that try new ^xpcrimc-itts Buch aa them- 
selves think ^oud. lliiiBt' »-c call I'iuneen or Minera. 

" We have Xhreo thut draw the txptirimbcta cif tbe former 
four iatcj titles uiid tablt^ tu |^vo Lhc bellt-r H^bt far the 
dnwing; of ubKTVutiona anil axkinui out of thtui, Thesie 
wk UiJ Cumpildre. 

" Wo Imvo three Ihst 'bend themsslvci, locking mto the 
«A[Mirunfiiits uf thfiir felluws, and tAAiing about how to draiF 
uut of them thui^ of U9e and ]>nn.'tiL'e for man'a liio and 
knowled^, as well for trorks &s for jjliiin demouHtTatioii uf 
nuiseA, meHDE uf trntursl dJ^'Uiatian^, i4i|d thp eiuty tmd clear 
diBcovery of the virtuea and parts uf hodicn. Tlieae Wd C^ 
Duwrj-'Ditn, or Uii^cf&ctDis. 

"'I'hen After diverec meetLDgu and conaiilta of out whirls 
aumbct. to counder of the fonnet UIkkuib and collections, wq 
have three that take tare out of them to direct now esperi- 
mentit of a higher light, more inaetT&ting into nature tWn 
the Lttiast. Theeo we dull Lana^tl. 

" We JiAve three others that do oiccute the expi^rimentff Ki 
-direL'tttd, and rHport thnn. These wa call Inoculatora. 
" Lastly, we have thiee that raiBe ttie fonncr discoveries, by 
«<xp«t-uiUiDta, into g:iraaler obaervatiun^, axioms, and aphDiieuu. 
Thase we tadl Lnt^frpretcrfl oS XatURV 

" W« have also, tia you muet think^ novices e,nd apprentic^a, 
iJwL iJiL- sut»]€Kiiiuu qf the ftirutev Lmployed cwin do Dut fail, 
IieaiclcH a great number of servunte end attendants — tneti and 
women. And this we do also: we hare com^ulCatiooti which 
of the iiiTsntionfi and ejcperiencaa which we have disfovored 
bhaii ho pnhlifihed. aud which not ; rmd take nil on oath oi 
secrecy for the coDtealiu;^ of those whicli we think fit to keep 
.aecret, thou@;h naf&b of thoaa we du revctil sometime to the 
8tate, and Hume not. 

" For our ordinaoc^B and rites, wa hare two verj- lung nnd 
tair galldrieB : in ono of Ihc^se we place patterns iind Ji^iinples 
«>f all manner of the more rare and excellent inventions; in 
Uie uther we j^hn'e the statues of itU prinL-ipal in^entorH. 
Ther* wo have the statue of your Columlniij, thut diacoverod 
the Wert ladies ; also the inventor of id;ips ; your monk, 
Uut was the inventor of ordnancoand of guc}>owdtT : the in- 
Ventoi of muBic ; the inventor of letters; the inventor of 
printiQif ; tho invvntO'r of obficrrationB of mtronomy : the 
inventor of n-orkg in metul v the inventor at g]&iid ; the in- 
ventor of silk of the worm ; the inveutfjr of «ijie ; the in- 
ventor ol Bdtti and bread ; the inventor of ftugutu ; And all 
thvme by more certain tradition than you liuve. Then hiive 
we diverse lAventArs of aut om^q of tixccll^at works., which, 
*incv you have not seen, it were loo lonif tiv make dpscnptiiina 
of thrm ; nnd hftddn-A, In the rij^ht utide^mtabding of thoee 
dewn'ption^ you might eoraly en- ; for upqq ever}' invention 
of value we erect a Htat^ie to the inventor, and giv« hira a 
liberal and honoumble reward. Theso titatues otg, aomc of 
Imiss, etiRie of mEirble and touchstone,' some of cednrnndatber 
•perial woods, gilt And adorned, some of iron, iKimc of ellrer, 
Boma of jfrtld. 

" We have certain hjinnn and services, which we say 
daily, of Iliad and thanks to God for His marii'eLloiis Wi>rks, 
and fvnns of pmyei* imploring His aid nod blt-Bamjr for the 
illiniiliiation fif our laboun, and tho turning of them into 
good EiQil holj~ nwB- 

" Luatly, we havs circuita. or viftita, of divcrae princiiial 

> ToBcJufmr, L.Tilian aConflf or tiasiaite, is nliciona achist a,ln:tr«t 
mt cotnpict tM fliat, catlad taiacikit'Oiia' because it vro* to iiitlJmtc 
Um |Mini7 of gnld tgr the atoeak left irbsre the kqIiL bod betrn (Lcnwu 

citie? of the kingdom, where, ns it conictb to iwfti. we do 
publiah etiiph new^trogtahle inventione as wo think (food. And 
we do also declare natural divinntions of disenses, plagueSj 
ewamis of hurtful creatures, gfitrcity, tatn^eata, dai-thqunkt-ft, 
great inundntiorm, cometa, tempemtuTe of the year, and 
divcFBe other thlng^s ; and we pve counsel thtreuixin what the 
people ahall do for tlin prevention and rtmcdy of thoni." 

And when he had said this, he stood up. And I, a£ I hud 
bsen taught, kneeltd down, and ho luid hia rif^ht luind upiin 
my head, and naid : — " God bless thee, my son ; and God 
bless this relation which J huve nuide. I give lliea Itftre 
ti> pubhah it, for the good of other nationc ; for we here are 
in Crod's huHom, ;i hind unknown.*' And »o he left nie, 
having^ asai^ed a value of about two thoUHind ducqt* for 
n bounty to mo and my fellowst. Fdt th^ey give great 
]a.rgeHAes where they come, upon nil octAsJotis. 
The rftt tear wt pcijiricd. 

Joas MiLTOM, AOiti TwtWTT-ow. 
From Fertut'B Engr^rmg ofiiu 0Ti<}iy^ai JPirfm 



A.D, 1625 to A.D. 1G60. 

Ben Jon'SON was fifty-one yeiir.s old at the accession 
of Cbtirles I., and he liv^d, iii weak health, the fhief 
poet of the time, liuriiig the tiret twelve ye^nB of tlie 
reign, Ujiiig in I &37 at the ftge of aixty-thi-ee, Aiiion^ 
the papei-a founil after hia dmth was hia pttatoriil ]iluy 
" The Sad Shepherd," of which a jmrt in lofet, the 
Ijegininni^ of a doniestiu tm^eity. nn Eiigliah gnun- 
riiiir, !Uid 11 ijeiies of thought* in prose which be imlled 
" Discovei'ies," aud which »e*!iii to have beeu written 
at itit«i-\als, during the last years of his life, a« thry 
were aLip:geate<l hy his ohsw-rvation or his rejidiiij;- 
By " diftcovfiy " he mertut, accoriling to a seiist! «f 
the word then umial, uucovoriug, unmaskLug, uiid 



endeavour to look below their disguises at the truths 
of life ; or of literature, which is but the voice of 
life when most intent on its day labour. 
Here is a selection from Beu Jonson's 


Jactura vUet.^ — What a deal of cold business doth a man 
misspend the bettor part of life in ! in scattering compli- 
ments, tendering visits, gathering and venting news, follow- 
ing feasts and plays, making a little wiater-Iuve in a dark 

Betieficia? — Nothing is a courtesy unless it be meant us ; 
and that friendly and lovingly. Wo owe no thanks to rivers, 
that they carrj- our boats ; or winds, that they bo favouring 
and fill our sails ; or meats, that they bo nourishing. For 
these are what they are, necessarily. Horses carry us, trees 
shade us, but they know it not. It is true, some men may 
recoivo a courtosy, and not know it; hut never any man 
received it from him that knew it not. 5Iany men have been 
cured of diBoasea by accidents ; but they were not remedies. 
I myself huve known one helped of an ague by falling into a 
water, ranothor whipped out of a fever : but no man would 
ever use these for medicines. It is the mind, and not the 
event, that distinguisheth the courtesy from wrong. My 
adversary' may offend the judge with his pride and imper- 
tinences, and I win my cause : hut he meant it not to me as 
a courtesy. I escaped pirates by being shipwrecked ;waB the 
wreck a benefit therefore ? No : the doing of courtesies 
uright is the mixing of the respects for his own sake and 
for mine. He that dooth them merely for his own sake, is 
like ono that feeds his cattle to sell them : he hath his horse 
well dressed for Smithfield. 

Veritas proprium hoininii.^ — Truth is man's proper good; 
and the only immortal thing was given to our mortality to 
use. No good Christian or ethnic,^ if he be honest, can miss it : 
no statesman or patriot should. For without truth all the 
actions of mankind are craft, malice, or what you will, ruther 
than wisdom. Homer says,' he hates him worse than hell- 
mouth, that utters one thing with his tongue, and keeps 
another in his broiiat. Which high expression was grounded 
on divine reason: forn lying mouth is a stinking pit, and 
murders with the contagion it venteth. Beside, nothing is 
lasting that is feigned ;• it will have another face than it had 
ere long. As Euripides saith, " No he ever grows old." 

De vfre aygatiiJ — I do hear them say often, some men are 
not witty ; bccauso they are not evorj'where witty ; than 
which nothing is more foolish. If an eye or a nose be an 
excellent part in the face, therefore bo all eye or nose I I 
think the eyebrow, the forehead, the check, chin, lip, or any 
part else, are as necessary, and natural in the place. But 
now nothing is good that is natural : right and natural 
language seems to have least of the wit in it ; that which is 
writhed and torturinl is counted themore exquisite. Cloth of 
bodkin or tissue must bo embroidered ; as if no face were 
fair that were not powdered or painted •■ no beauty to be had 
but in wresting and writhing our own tongue? Nothing is 
faithionnble till it be deformed ; and this is to write like a 
gt-ntlcman. All must he affected, and preposterous as our 
gallant's clothes, sweet bags, and night dressings: in which 
yon would think our men lay in like ladies, it is so curious. 

* Tbrowinf; mm/ of 'dfe. ■ Elndneaaes done. 

■ Truth is the speciAl propertj of man. * Ethnic, heathen. 

* Hud, ix. 312, 313. 

* '* FictaonmiAcaleriter, tanqonm floKcnlJ, decidant, nee sininlattUD 
pot««t qnidqunm enM dintarunm." (Cicero.) , 

T Of the trolr wittj. 

Ingeniorum diierimina.* Not. 1. — In the difference of wits, 
I have observed there are many notes : and it i« a little 
maistrj' to know them ; to discern what ever}' natore, every 
disposition will boar : f<n-, before we sow our land, we should 
plough it. There are no fewer fonns of minds than of bodies 
amongst us. The variety is incredible, and therefcnv we 
must search. Some are fit to make divines, some poets, some 
lawyers, some physicians : some tp be sent to the ploagh, and 

There is no doctrine will do good, where natare is wanting. 
Some wits are swelUng and high ; others low and still ; some 
hot and fiery, others cold and dull ; one most have a Imdl? , 
the other a spur. 

Not. 2. — There be some that are forward and bold; and 
these will do every little thing easily, I mean that is hard-br 
and next them, which they will utter unretarded without any 
shamefastnees. These never perform much, but quickly. 
They are what they are on the sudden ; they show presently 
like grain that, scattered on the top of the ground, shoots up 
but takes no root ; has a yellow blade, but the ear emptj'. 
They arc wits of good promise at first, bat there is an 
inffenittitium : they stand still at sixteen, they get no higher. 

Not, 3. — You have others that labour only to ostentation, 
and are over more busy about the colours and surface of & 
work, than in the matter and foundation : for that is hid, the 
other is seen. ' 

Not. 4. — Others, that in composition are nothing but what 
is rongh and broken : Qua per taUbroM, altaque tara caduiU* 
And if it would come gently, they trouble it of purpose. They 
would not have it run without rubs, as if that style weie 
more strong and manly that struck the ear with a kind of 
unevenness. These men err not by chance, but knowingly 
and willingly ; they are like men that affect a fashion by 
themselves, have some singularity in a rough, cloak, or hat- 
band ; or their beards specially cut to provoke beholders, and 
set a mark upon themselves. They would be reprehended 
while they aro looked on. And this vice, one that is 
authority with the rest, loving, delivers over to them to be 
imitated ; so that ofttimes the faults which he fell into the 
others seek for: this is the danger when vice becomes a 

Not. 5. — Others there lire that have no composition at all ; 
bat a kind of tuning and rh}'ming fall in what they write. 
It runs and slides, and only makes a sound. Women's poets 
they are called, as you have women's tailors: 

Thej write a verse as ■mootb, as soft u creKs ; 
In which there is no torrent, nor scares si 

You may sound these wits, and find the depth of them with 
your middle finger. They are cream-howl or hut puddle- 

Not. 6. — Rome that turn over all books, and are equally 
searching in all papers, that write out of what they presently 
find or meet, without choice; by which means it happens that 
what they have discredited and impugned in one week, they 
have before or after extolled the same in another. Such are 
all the essayists, even their master Montaigne. These, in all 
they write, confess still what books they have road last ; and 
therein their own folly, so much, that they bring it to the 
stake raw and undigested: not that the place did need it 
neither ; but that they thought themselves furnished, and 
would vent it. 

Not. 7. — Some again (who after they have got authority, 

* Discrimiofttions of character. 

■ From an epiitram of Hartlal'a (zi. 91) to a Chrestillns. wbo Ukcd 
no veraea that flow imoothljr, bnt onlj "those which fall thioagh 
rugged places and high rocka." 

fr.D.» I 



at, vhich IB less, opiiuoa, hy ttdir writingB, to hftve read 
cnQch) daro pretiently to feign whole 'tx<ok» mid uutbore^ imii 
lie iafely. For what never waa, will not easily be fouQdj not 
Vf the uiDet curiouB. 

Ji'or. g. — -And eoma, hy & cunmc^ prciteiitatirm a^icat ftll 
reading, nmd fulue venditation of their own luitiinilB, ttink to 
^iivett the sagacity of ttoir EcddctrB frum Ihumftolvca, und cool 
theAcent at their own fox-like thcfta; when ytl they are eo 
nnk, u & man nmy find whole pages together usurped from 
one aathor: thoir neuDS!>itiGB (^ompcllitig them to rend for 
present me, which could not he in many books; and so come 
forth moro Tidicidonflly asd pulpably g^lty than thoee, who 
becauao they cannot trace, they yet would alander their 

jVol. y.— But the wretchedar ore the ohstinate contemners 
of all heipe and arts; euch us ^rvsumuig on thtir own 
naturals (which perhaps oro exeellant) dtLce deride all diligence' 
and fieem to mnck nt tho tem>» when they imdarstand not the 
thingg; thiaking thiit wiiy to got off wittily with their 
i^oranoe. Thcao jit@ imitated uft'C'n by Hucfb us are thtjir 
{xen in negligence, though they cannot be in nature : and 
tliey utter all they can think with a kind of violenco and in- 
diipooition ; unexamined, without relation either to person, 
plftce, Or any fitneae elso : und the more ndlful and Htubbom 
tiiey lire in it, the moro learned thoy ars oatcemed of tho 
multitude, through their excellent v\cei of judgtni^nt: who 
tiiiok those things th« atrong^ that have no ia±; as it to 
break were better than to opon, at to rend asunder gontlot 
than to looea. 

XaC. to, — It cannot hut coma to pass that those ratin who 
commoidy neek t<* do more than enough, may gomHimei 
happen on eomething that is good and great ; hut very Beklom, 
and when it comoa it doea not rocompeneo the reat of theii' 
ill. For their jestB, and their sontEincoB (whici Ihey only 
ami ambitiously seek for) stick out, and arc more ismincat, 
betaufio all ia Bordtd and vile ahout tliL-m ; an lif^hla art- more 
di^ccnied in a thick d&rknoHS than a faint shadow. Now 
becAiUM they epeak all tiey can (however unfitly) they are 
thought to hare the greater copy : ' wbera the ]£ain>ed iiae ever 
fstection and a mean, they look hack to what Ihey intended at 
firet, and make all an even and proportioned body. The true 
iziificer will not tan away from Nnture, oa he were afraid of 
ber ; or depart from life, and the LLkoneES of truth ; but apeak 
to the aipacity of hia hoarord. And though hia hingua^ 
differ from the vulgar Bomewhat, it shall not fly from all 
hunumity^ with the Tamerlanes, and Tamor-ehams of the Inte 
*g», which had nothing in thcro but the scenical fltnLtting-, 
and. fnriona Toctferntion, to warrant them to the ignnmnt 
gap&ii. Ho knows tC, ia hia only nrt, so to carrj" it &b nono 
bnt tuiificera perceive it. In the ineantime, perhape, he is 
cftlled barren, dull, Iwin, a [wnor writer, or by whut con- 
tumelious word am come in their cheska, by these men, who, 
without labour, jadgment, knowl^dga, or almost aense, arc 
received or prefiirred before him. Ho gratulatee them and 
their fortuno. Another ajj^'. or juater mon, will acknow^ed^o 
the Tirttna of hia atudii^^s, hia wisdom in dividing, his subtlety 
in argmag, with what strength be doth Lnfi:j;iTe his readera, 
with what Bweetn^a ho strokes them; in inveighing, what 
aharpnofia ; in jest, what nrhunity he uses ; how ho doth reign 
in mt-n'e affcictiona; huw invaJo and break in upon iheTR. 
and injLk«a their minds like ths thing ho writes- Then In hia 
elocntion to bahold what word ia propor, which hath omn- 
oienta, which height, what is beautifully tranflhitfid, whore 
flgures are fit, which gentle, which etrong, to show the com- 

Copy. Latia. "' copia," filmBiIaJice. AiiTtliuiff ia said to be n copjr of 
M ^being m uacnMM flf it« i^u«nti^ \ty reprodactwn. 


pofiltion manly ; nnd how he hath avoided faint, ohacare, 
obscene, sordid, hiiinhle, imptoper. or etEeminuto phrase; 
which ia not only praiaed of tho most, hut eonuncndcd [which 
ia worse) oajjccially for is nought. 

i)iff Au^iiirtitit ScierUi'imiN. — Jutiun Ctttar. — Lord St. Albim. 
— I have ever obaervtd it to hflve been tbo office of n wise 
patriot, among the greatest fLffaint of the atate, to tako care 
of the Commonwealth of Li^aming. For schools, iheyaretbe 
B&minaries of state : and nothing is worthier the Ktudy of a 
atiitesmunt than that-part of the republic which we call tlie 
advancement of letters. Witness the care of Julicis Cffiaar, 
who^ in the heat of the civil war, writ liie booka of onaliig^', 
and dedicated them to TuUy. This nuido the late Lord St. 
Alban entitle his work Xtmnm t/rgnnam: which though by 
the most of superficial men, who canoot get beyond tho titla 
of nominala, it is not penetinted. nor understood, it reully 
opencLh all d^ecta of learning whateoevcr, and is a book 
Qui lOd^iun aoUi icriptori prorogat Kram.* 

Sly conceit of his person wuh never increased toward him 
by his place or honours : but 1 have and do revorenre him, 
for the greatneaa that was only propor to himself, in that he 
Beemod to me ever, by bis work, one of the ^>».lest meOf i*nd 
moat worthy of admiration that had been in many agefi. lu 
hia adveraity I ever prayed [hat (.^oA would give him 
strength : for gTi>utneaa he could not want. Xcitlier could I 
condole in a word or sj'lbible for him, as knowing no tucidont 
could do haim to virtUG, but rather help to make it manifest. 

The word " Diacovery " is Tiaetl, in the B&nse applied 
to it hy Ben Jouson, in John Earle's " Aiicrucosmo- 
gi-aphie ; gr, a Piece of the World Discovered." 

John Eiirle, l»m at York in the y&u" 1600, was 
sent to Oxford at the bl^q of sixteen, aud at twenty- 
three waa M.A., and a Fellow of Merton. In 1628, 
lie being in hiB twenty-eightli yeai", a little volume of 
CharacterB, written by him, wtja publiahetl under the 
name of " Microcosmographie/' because it |mntei.l 
laan., the microcosm or world in little. Earle was 
a tine scholar, and eiiteeuied at court as wit iiud 
poet; for he was drawn fronj the TJnivei'sIty a few 
years after the jmbliRhing of his " Microcosiuo- 
graphie," and had ]odgii\gs at court as chajilain to 
the Earl of Pembroke, who was Lord Chamberlain 
to the King's household. In 1639 the Karl of 
Pembroke presented him^then Dr. Earle — to the 
Rectoiy of Bishopaton, in Wiltshire, by which he 
remainefl until 1662, when (under Chailea II.) he 
■was made Biehop of Worc«iter. He had beuonip 
Dean of Weatrainater at the Restoration. He died 
ilk 1G65, and left behind hira Uio character of one 
who had been no man's, enemy. He was fimi to 
Church and Crown, but an opjiouent of intolerance i 
*'a man," said Dr^ Calamy, "that tould do gpod 
afjfainBt evil, forgive much ont of a charitable heart" 
Here are two of John Enrle's Characters : — 


Ho is a man strangely thrifty of Tjmo Past, and an enemy 
indeed to bi5 maw, whence be fetches out many things whcnt 

■ Eonce, "Ars Poetio.," 1.3H, which Sosoomtnon tnuHlntea. witlb 
S coatcEt. 
" TheM ptti -niib oduuration thmngh tLe worlJ, 
Aiitl bring tliMi uathor to eteriuLi fame." 




they are now all rotten and stinking. He is one that hath 
that lumatnial difleasc to be enamoared of old age and 
wrinkles, and loves all things (as Dntchmen do cheese) the 
better for being mouldy and worm-eaten. He ia of our 
religion because we say it is most ancient, and yet a broken 
statue would almost make him an idolater. A great admirer 
he is of the rust of old monuments, and reads only those 
characters where time hath eaten out the letters. He will go 
you forty miles to see a Saint's well or a mined abbey : and 
if there be but a cross or stone footstool in the way, he'll be 
considering it ito long till he forget his journey. His estate 
consists much in shekels and Roman coins, and he hath more 
pictures of Cffisar than James or Elizabeth. Beggars cozen 
him with musty things which the}' have raked from dung- 
hills, and he preserves their rags for precious relics. He 
k>vea no library but where there are more spiders' volumes 
than authors' and looks with great veneration on the antique 
work of cobwebs. Printed books he contemns as a novelty of 
this latter ago ; but s manuscript he pores on everlastingly, 
especially if the cover be all moth-eaten and the dust make a 
parenthesis between every syllable. He would give all the 
books in his study (which are rarities all) for one of the old 
Human binding, or six lines of Tolly in bis own band. His 
chamber is hung commonly with strange beasts' sldss, and 
is a kind of chamel house of bones extraordinary, and his 
discourse upon them, if you will hear him, shall last longer. 
His very attire is that which is the eldest out (rf fashion, 
and you may pick a criticism out of his breeches. He never 
looks upon himself till he is grey>haired, and then he is 
pleased with his own antiquity. His grave docs not fright 
him, for ho has been used to sepulchres, and he likes death 
the bettor because it gathers him to his fathers. 

Is one that has much learning in the ore, unwrought and un- 
tried, which time and experience fashions and refines. He is 
good metal in the inside though rough and unscoured without, 
and therefore hated of the courtier that is quite contrary. 
The time has got a vein of making him ridiculous, and men 
laugh at him by tradition, and no unlucky absurdity but is 
put upon his profession and " done like a scholar." But his 
fault is only this, that his mind is somewhat much taken up 
with his mind, and his thoughts not loaden with any carriage 
besides. He has not put on the quaint garb of the age which 
is now become a man's total. Ho has not humbled bis medi- 
tations to tho industry of compliment, nor atBictcd his brain 
in an elaborate leg ! > His body ia not set upon nice pins to be 
turning and flexible for everj- motion, but his scrape is homely 
and his nod worse. He cannot kiss his hand and cry, Madame, 
nor talk idly enough to bear her company. His smacking of 
a gentlewoman' ia somewhat too savour>', and he mistakes 
her nose for her lip. A very woodcock would puzzle him in 
carving, and he wants the logic of a capon. He has not the 
glib faculty of sliding over a tale, but his words come 
squeamishly out of his mouth, and the laughter coiomonly 
before the jest. He names this word College too often, and 
his discourse beats too much on the University. The per- 
plexity of mannerliness will not let him feed, and he is sharp 
set at an argument when ho should cut hia meat. He is 
discarded for a gamester at all games but One and Thirty, and 
at Tables ho reaches not beyond doublets. His fingers are 
not long and drawn out to handle a fiddle, but his fist is 
cluncht with the habit of disputing. He ascends a horse 

somewhat nnistariy, thon^ not on the left ade^ and Aey 
both go jogging in grief together. Wa Ma». ■■■lingty rmmauwwA 
by the Inns of Court men for that heinoDB vioe, boHg ott of 
fashion. He cannot speak to a dog in hii own dialeet, tad 
understands Greek better than the langnge of • Mcopw. 
He has been used to s dark room and dark doUw, and Ins 
eyee dazzle at a satin doablet. Hie hennitage of his sta^ 
has made him somewhat uncouth in tb* worid, and men Biks 
him worse by staring on him. Thus is he silly and ridicoloas, 
and it continues with him for aome quarter of a year out of 
tiie Univeraty. But practise him a little in mea, and bmdt 
him over with good company, and he shaB oot-balaBoe thoas 
gUsterera as much as a solid substance does a festiier, or gokl 

The taste for Character writmg became so general 
that even William Habington, in tJie second editaon 
of a series of pore love-poems entided " Outan," 
prefixed to each of the three parts a {mne Character 
of a Mistress, a Wife, and a Holy Man, to ■width be 
added afterwards the Character of a Friend ; and 
John Alilton, when at CoU^e, tried his hand at two 
Characters in verse, the pieces upon Hobeon, the 
University carrier. 

I I/«9, bow. Hu not maile n stmly of bowing. 

■ The kiss was stUl used as an act of Hodol conrtes;. 

In 1639 an unnamed writer published a small 
collection of " Conceits, Clinches, Flashes, and Whim- 
zies,"' which serve to illustrate the current fonn of 
jest among the talkers who desired to set the table 
in a roar. Many of these were of his own invention, 
and invented in cold blood. All of them, doubtless, 
obtained currency and aided mirth in social gatherings 
wherever laughter was at home and hungry enou^ 
to welcome all food, fresh or stale. I give them with 
the crust of age by leaving their old spelling. 


One wondred much what great Scholler this same Ilnii 
was, because his name was almost to every booke. 

One asked what he was that had a fine wit in Jest. Itm 
answered, a foole in earnest. 

One hearing a Usurer say he had been on the pike cf 
Tenerifi (which ia supposed to be one of the highest hilli in 
the world), asked him why he had not stayd ther«, for be 
was perswadcd hee would never come bo neere bearen 

A Gentleman that bore a spleene to another meets him in 
the street, gives him a box on the eare; the other, not willing 
to stricke againe, puts it ofli with a jest, asking him whether 
it was in jest or in earnest ? The other answers it was in 
earnest. 1 am glad of that, said he, for if it had bees ia 
joBt, I should have been very angry, for I do not like sock 
jesting ; and so past away from him. 

Usurers live, sayes one, by the fell of boires, like swine by 
the dropping of acorns. 

One asked his friend how he should use tobacco so that it 
might do him good ? He answered : yon most keepe s 
tobacco shop and sell it, for certainly there is naae else find 
good in it. 

* A bidbU edition of this book (S6 oopin) was iasoad hj Hr. Bdfi- 
well-Philtipps in 1800, and in 18U it was repriatsd hy lb. W. Ctz^ 
HozUtt, In his valnable sories of Sbskespeai* Jast-Books. 


A simple fellow in gay cluthit, myea One, is like & CimiamDm 
; the barkp h of more worLh Itaon the body. 

A ScboUer and u Courtiur raf^ting; m the street seemd to 
eODttet fw- th« w«ll ; sayes the Cuurtier : I do oot ue* to give 
wwy coxcombe tht wulL The SirliuUior anflwcred: but 1 do, 
Jir; ui4 BO jHUwdl by him. 

One OE^ed why Ludyes called their huBbands blaster aadi 
A one. and lEfleter such a one, and not by thu'n titloa of 
knighthood, as 8ir Thomoa, 8u- lUuh&rd, .Sir WiUiitm, etc. 
It wiiq an^WLriMi that, (hough others cuU<k1 thq-tii by their 
rig-ht titlt^, aa Sir ^Villiam, 8ir Thomfie, etc., yet it wwi fit 
their wives BhouLd maeter them, 

Oi aU loiAVL'd there's the grecitest hope of n Coblrr, 
for though ho he never bq idle a follow, yc^t ho its Htill 
UAidiiif . 

A Smith, said odp, is the moEt prag^muticall fellow undar 
Sun^ for he hath olwayi^ muny irone m tbc Arg' 

Saitha of nil h.iTidy-CTaits ia(ia aid the ntoat irregular, for 
thii-y never thioke themselveH better employed, then wbea they 
are addicted to their Ticsu. 

Glowers, mid one, moHt acedes he ^ood arbitrators, f^r 
they spend their whole ttine in nothing but compoaiiig of 

Carpenters, said one, ara the oiveleat nion in a Common- 
waalth, for tbvy iii?ver do their buiidaoBee without a Bale. 

Of all wofull fricindE a bungmiUi ic the most truflty ; for, if 
he tmce hnve Ui do with a mtm, he will see him han^'d before 
hee shall wont muny or any dung tilae. 

On« wid I^yntiiuiB had the host of it; for, if they 
^id well, the world did jin>ckiiiie it; if ill,, the earth did 
eorer it. 

Scriveners ore most bard hcirted ffllowea, for they never 
[Joyce more than when ihcsy put «thtr m^ou in hunda. 

Horsc-kt!«{tGTS and oetlers {let the world go which way it 
, though thero liu never «o [Qucb eiLteration in timed Mtd 
u] an iftill Btable men. 

> aaid it was no great matter what a drunltard said 
in biji drinke, for hs Aoldome Bpake any thing tlmt he could 
(ttand to. 

One- said of all profusions, that Ptage-players were tbe moat 
philobopbit-ull mtm that wer^, bowman thtiy wore iia m'.rry aod 
as w«ll contented, when they were in i&ga oa when they were 
in robea. 

Obe 8&id FaJoters were omuiing feUowea, for Ihey had a 
poloar for every thing they did. 

Oni; Miid GAlUntd luid reason to be good Schollers, because 
they were de*i> in nmny liooltH. 

An Tpholstcr was chiding his Appin?nticG, becmiHe he wjui 
not nimbU- eiwugh ut his worke, ^tnd had not lus nnik^a nnd 
hoinmfir in reAdinea, whpn be should ubg them, ti'Uing him 
that, whi-n he waa an Apprentice, he waa taught to hnve his 
nailes at hia fingers ends. 

Onf, drinlring- of a cup of burnt claret, said he was not 
tthlc to Irt it down. Another demanded whv. He anawGred, 
heCAuso it was red hot, 

An Inkeeper brag'd h« had a bed mo lurge that two hundred 
OonMKhleft h*d lytm in it at one time, meaning' two Constablea 
of bundredn. 

One' eai J to his Wend that had been speaJdnB- : I love to 
haarg a man twlfc nonsi^nso : the other unswpnd, I tniow j-ou 
^Elptre to heare youre wife talkt; as well aa any rnfln. 

One AAked why bejpirs stood in iiis atroeta ] 
biyjomee in tbeir hands. It was anawer&d, fa 
with them swotp away the durt out ot peoples night, whicn 
whiJu they hod a mind on th^^y would never part with a 

A Gentlenun tooke up Bome commoditiea upon trust m a 
shop, promising thu nmat^r of tho iihup that ho would awo 
him so muqh mooL-y. The maeter of the shop was therewith 
vlt)' well contented; but seein)^ that the lieDtleman dt.-layod 
the paicneut, he asked the monyy. The gentleman told bira 
he had not piomised to pay him, he had promie<>d to owe him 
BO much inani:;y, and that ho -would in Bo -wise bi^euko hit 
promise, whidi if he paid him he did. 

Uao asked why h titood before c. Because, said another, a 
mim must a before ha nm C- 

OuQ asked how long tbe longest letter in the English 
Aljihabct WHJi, It Wii9 uuswETC'd, an l long. 

Onecomminghy a 8cxton (who was mukiagagrave for one 
Button which was a great tal fallow), a^k^'d him for whom 
that cottraordinary long giavu vaa. He answum-d, he had 
made many lon^r then that, and sa:d it waa but a butUin 
hole in reiHpoct of eomo gravea that hQ had made. 

A great tall fellow, whoso namt was Way, hsy along the 
Btreot drunke. One went over him, and being asked why ha 
did ao, he answered he did but jfOO along the high-way. 

Printers (saies odi&) arc the most lawlosau men in a Eing^• 
domo, for they commit faults earn privittgio. 

TliQ greatest prose work of the reign of Chavlea L, 
perhaps the greatej^t in our literature, is Aliitun's 
** Ai-eopagitica, or l^i*eoh for the Liberty of Un- 
licen&ed Printing'." JSIiJton, born iu 1£J08, wm* 
feeventeeo yearn old at tbe acwssion of Charles L, 
and then went to College. He rpmained at CollejeiB 
seven years, and then, having taken his M.A. degree^ 
epent seven yeara in specifti study, live yemrs Hud 
thi'eo quarters at Horton, dining whicli time lie wi-ote 
"L'A]legro"flnd"llPenser(jHO,'" '*Ai-cadeK," "Comus," 
and "Lycidas," fallowed by lifteeu uionthii of foi*ei^ 
travel. In June and July^ ISS^t IVIilton iX'turued, 
and soon afterwards he took a garden house in 
AJdersgate Street, where he estabUsbed a scbooL 
Danger of cIiftI wai' then occupied men's tliouglits, 
and the senee of Milton's prose ■tt-orks — which repre- 
sented fiimply hiR contfiljution of opinion and 
ailment to tJie j^reat coiitrovei-aieB of tjie time — 
began in 1611 with |jaiJiphlet9n|ion the most bm-ning 
question of that year. Swonis may clash as they 
wiJl, hut theii* victoiies leave all uudecidcti, ojien to 
fresh strife that will come in sooner or tater — "for 
what can war but endless wnr sliil bree*l ( " — unlew 
rea-wn side with the Imttalions atid approve their 
cause. The only wnr that Ciin have ha]tpy iBsne ib 
of thought o]^iposed to thought ; this is and must be 
the essential part of every battle that concerns the 
intereats of man. In this iwufiict it was Milton's 
duty* aa it ifl the duty of every citixeu in timti of 
danger to the cominonwealth, to be at hia post ; and 
the period of Milton's proae writing, wliich extended 
Over mwi's best years of i-ipened vigour- — frpm the age 
of thirty-tliree to that of iifty-two — waa a willing 
sacrifice of all hia. aspiration aa a jKiet, that he might 



[a-c. LSMl 

give to his countty the day-labour those years 
I'equireiL All hope of progrefw i-estel then, as ic 
iniist always rest, on a free trial of the strength of 
opposite opinions. To-aud-fro uttenuice of differing 
opinion iu a tliiiig not niei-ely to tolei-ate, but t-o 
wolcome. BoUleat ia best. The eieve must be well 
KlkakHU tha.t partH cliaff from com. 

When, it Wild believed that oneaeas of opinion wag 
essential in matters of religion and. govei-ninent, 
especially in matters of religion, and the printing 
pres« began to Hcatter men's thoughts broadcast, the 
Okurch, naturally enough, endeavoured to sift out 
Wore publication whatever might establiah or en- 
oourtigo schiamj itiiil a syatematiL' censorship liegan at 
Rome. "When Henry VIII. threw ofi" the Pope, 
the Cfnaorship for England pmnaed from the care of 
the Pope to that of the AiTJabishop of Canterbiiry 
Mid Bishop of London. The Htatt; added its effoi-ts 
to prevent publication of discordant political opinions. 
£liza).>etli forbade printing in all |Tarts of England 
except London, O^dord, tind Cambridge, and in those 
towns limiteil the number of the presses. Tho Star 
Chamber, by a decree of the year 1637, limited the 
number of printers in the whole conntry to twenty, 
•lid of typehfoundei*8 to four, placed them imdet tlie 
strictest overaighl^ and oi-diuned precautions against 
unlicensed impoi'tatioii of books from abroad. In 
1640 the Star Cliamber waa aboliaheil, hut not it? 
Rpirit of intolerance, which represented in average 
men of all pai-ties an aspect of the time, and not the 
malignity of any one boily of thinkers. The Lojig 
Parliftinent sought in ifcg own way to oontnol the 
pi'ess unci suppress biwks and paniphlpta that In its 
opinion defamed religion and goveniment, and on the 
14:Ui of June, 1643, it published an Ordinance for 
the regulating of printing. Milton then sought with 
all his might to win from his own party an aban- 
donment of this great en"Or, and teach it Uuit Trnth'a 
▼ictoriea are to be won only in free and open 
encoiinter. For this purpose he published in 
November, 1644, the following pamphlet: — 


A Spitehfor the Liberty of VnOerntti Friniinff, to ths 

Periiaiiuutt of EHgland. 

^Thoy, who to fltatoa* and govcmorB of the common- 

woftlth direct their Bpooch, High Court of pBi-liameat, or 

wiintin^ fluch occesa in a privato caadition^ write that 

which th'cy forfwt^ nmy ddvoacA tho pahlie good ; I auppcmt) 

< JrwpnjtUim. MUton talcea this uume from the Kp*iawa.yiTijtiit 
A«rM— OntJo AnKpacitiot— irbvi^b inu directed, bj iKcnilMfl to tke 
Qnot Cottndl ot Atli«in, Um AiwiM^fuit, u tliij la kddnued to tbe 
Oreftt ComMiit ot Englaiult tha Purli&mBiit. En boUi ■peecbea there 
\a mn eaAe^ftrar to prodneo a oluutge'icir eondoct in ttao chief nnamblj. 
The AChenuui Cotmcil ikm bq cklUd, b«miwe Ita mottMngH were hi^ld 
on Ui9 Hit] of Man {knAxtt pne««). Inocntas wu born in BrwthcA, 
A TllkfN ai AttiCA. laS jwn beforti Chriit. being wyen ar Bifiht ^ain 
alder thui Plato, hta cou temporary. His father Thoodoiua, a rich 
anuinCMttimr of Dinrical lEwtnimeiita, gsTe him n paod edacatiou. 
He waa taodht l>5 Oor^ian, th« foimdor of the Orwlt Khool cf rhetoric, 
b^ Protlioiu, tha 9i-at of th« SophiaU wka took. f»M bom. his pnpllfl, 
and bf Stwratea. He Loat hn -^trimnoj diuiag th« Pelopounesian 
wax, and at flrat earned moaejr ^J writing detencea ot accuse penona, 
a abandoiied fhlAamx'laj'ineiit, andbecaman teacher. laocratei 
D ot gmlni kA ft tJii« lover «f Ub«rt7 : thougli, bT Tolce nud 
laiui)«raJsinit. dlaqUaUIUd tot pUbUa apaakiuv, b« radaed the ataudaril 
if thg art ot Ofatorj, amd taught Ita priiKiipUa in a achool, Mtabllaliad 

thi?™ QB at the t^eginninfj; of no meaa BDdeavour, not a littln 
aLtoted' and jnored inwardly in thoir ciindat wme vitfe 
dciuljt of what will be tho nucc-efls, othen with fear of what 
will bo the censure ;' Bome viUi hope, otherB with ooofldoncB 


thi Grout Saal^M* 

of what they bnvo to ^peak. And mo perhaps each of tbew 
diepositLDns, &a thi^ imhjDct wa& when»n I «nt«rod, nuy hare 
tit ether timea vnrioiialf aSc^^tuJ ; and lilcoly citght ia thM» 
foremost expreesLoas now also diaclosa vhich of thos 

flPHtr jut Chioa, of t«nranXs at Atliona, Crom which, aa Cic 
OTDtoirc, il, A, 10) aa trum tha Trr^ao hone Iberfl c 
(^hi«fs; IsBQS, LjcoTVUS, Hjp«ndci. Domonthene*, and 1 
th<9 maoT CaaiQ.vrhawtm over the ttUlM of Athens, bjril 
§;etieroua anil noblei spirit ot hla maatcr. DemOatllSDM, B 
delitar;, alira/a re^rnrded bia old toucher aa hl« 
c^omiwaitlan, Plata iu Ha Phndmit, a dialogne of laorf m 
wriCt«Tt wh«n Isocntds ms old, but repmentin^ an earUcr t 
makflfc Socr^toa aay, " btx^Tatoa is stUJ riHUi£, hut he Las ti»B 
Keoios to ho compared with I,j-ahu ; he ahows a gTeKber Ion fbr 
rirtue, and I ahould Dot be anrprUed that, aa bia knowtoilge IneniSH 
with hi? jBo™, be c^w?! nil tlwae in the saioe walk ol Ut«fati|i«M 
saBch oa men exMl chll-lrea."' Cicero wiots of iBocnttm u aniifilM 
in ewaetoeas. oC uiimbGiTS Oind grwiestit drntdfr. QointfllUi sfioks si 
highly of hia gvDiu», and imJaed Mm tor having naed it always ia sii 
(if the cnuaa of virttic. Dioujrsloa of Halicaniaains has Wt a tag 
oritfeism on the writlntn of Isocmtes. ud npedillj Kdmind tta 
flound roJen ot condnot. uud tho gnud principles at poUticsl «i*toB 
CNULtainnl in them, liocrates lired to tlw o^ of 9B, and diad ia lh* 
rmra.c, £8, orercoine by grief wham, aa KUtm wrote of hlmlahii 
lonnst to Lftdr Hpxganat Lay, the 

" diihon'Ht TictoTT 
At ChtBroneo, Eatnl to liberty, 
Killed with report tlut old man eloqarat." 
Of sixtT oratjoaa by Iiocmtos whicli w«« «it(Lnt in tLs 1 
FlaUreh, twent^-oiiiD pemaiQ. That called the 
written aboiit twenty jootb after tbc clow of the Feloponnc 
wbvu tlio AtheuianR wero reeaveriDg their lead ii 
tallenfrom thBTirtQS«r tbelr iLndml roauncrv. Tb« CooufiatV* 
AronpoguB hod iafld«a(» onir inaanen and f«iigi«in whidL «m WH^ 
for trood wb^in only meaot weight and exp«rieLice were- admlttsA to IL 
But in biter daja the wbj to tbe diimltjr of an AreopagUs had ta« 
op<!'n«d to meu of lower marie, licontiouH and ooTTUptihla, fhm 44ifMt 
Ot Iioor&tea wru to unrn n r«toi:a.tion ot tb« old mntpUcttT sad pottf 
gf DULuiieni, by n rtistufiitiua ol the old rfatftio tibdw «rtiiA A* 
Areapai^t«j wero patti^ras nil 'well as gnidss to the jon&ffi ssdtts 
maintananca by them ot religion and Biorals Knong tLs yasat 
uannd tLe atr«ngth nf the E^pubUo, "y^xtut,"' lis Hid (I qsoir 
from Dr. John 6tlli«s's tianslatl«& of Che Orstkms of lorslaa afed Ifh 
cntea, pttbhahad in ITJ^^, " Tirtus is not to be taitght liy miss g it tf^ 

A.n. IBU.] 



■iniT«d moat, but that the very &tt£-nipt of this address 
ihuB madii, and the thought of whom it bath recoiirsG to, 
hath got the power within m<3 to a paasioD, tm more wclcomu 
than incidental to b profucc, Wlucti though I stuy nut tn 
oonfeHi era any tak, I Hhall be hlAmolou, if it bo no other, 
than the joj and gratnlation which it hiinga to all who wish 

cBect, or Biij rati lunDtHiT' in tbe poUtiool maduDQ r thenDmbflf uul 
BDoniUj at Um laws tmlj inoMea imperfecticiiu. Tboj ore mRiuiila 
to i iiiin t tba iaandiiioii of rice, bat nmea' ddji giva bLrtli to aae 
rirtnenu actloa. Socb u wtv wiaelj gnvemet!, cherefare, ha-ra not 
tbelr piuia* wirerisd with edicta ; (li*j hA-ia tbe phucipM erf justice 
tofUk<lta Ob their IkHTtS. WltUOnt thew Ui6 UaTt Ihws can be of im 
■Tail I farthsy onlf nbo an) well educated are anffldantljr pn'iauvd