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Full text of "Catalog of California seabird colonies"

Biological Services Program 



FWS/OBS-80/37 
December 1980 



Catalog of California 
Seabird Colonies 




Bureau of Land Management 
Fish and Wildlife Service 




U.S. Department of the Interior 



From 



the collection of 




International 

Bird Rescue 
Research Center 

Cordelia, California 



in 



association with 



z ^ m 



oPre 






ibrary 



San Francisco, California 
2006 



;ram was established within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
..nation and methodologies on key environmental issues 
purees and their supporting ecosystems. The mission of 

[and Wildlife Service in its role as a primary source of 
fish and wildlife resources, particularly in respect 
[assessment. 

nesent information that will aid decisionmakers in the 
jtion of problems associated with major changes in 



gical information and evaluation for Department of 
programs, such as those relating to energy develop- 



Biological Services Program is intended for use in the 
ESS to prevent or minimize the impact of development 
;ivities and technical assistance services are based on an 
ation of the decisionmakers involved and their infor- 
[of the state of the art to identify information gaps 

is a strategy that will ensure that the products pro- 
knd useful. 

[the following areas: coal extraction and conversion; 
land oil shale development; water resource analysis, 
|stern water allocation; coastal ecosystems and Outer 
id systems inventory, including National Wetland 
[analysis, and information transfer. 



consists of the Office of Biological Services in 

ible for overall planning and management; National 

central scientific and technical expertise and arrange 

tudies with states, universities, consulting firms, and 

a link to problems at the operating level; and staff at 

rch facilities, who conduct inhouse research studies. 



. ^>/uu. j71 p. 



in and G.S. Lester. 1980. Catalog of California 
|of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological 



Questions or requests for this pubUcation should be directed to: 

Information Transfer Specialist 
National Coastal Ecosystems Team 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
NASA - Slidell Computer Complex 
1010 Cause Boulevard 
Slidell, Louisiana 70458 



FWS/OBS-80/37 
December 1980 



Catalog of California Seabird Colonies 



by 



Arthur L. Sowls, Anthony R. DeGange, Jay W. Nelson and Gary S. Lester 



Editorial Assistants 

Mary B. Evans 
Cherry Keller 



Project Officer 

Jay F. Watson 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Lloyd 500 Building, Suite 1692 

500 N.E. Multnomah St. 

Portland, Oregon 97232 



Field Assistants 

William E. Rodstrom 
Margaret A. Stewart 



CONTRIBUTORS 

The following people were involved in surveys of seabird colonies covered 
by this report. Without their efforts, this catalog would not have been possible. 



Steve Abbore 
David G. Ainley 
Daniel W. Anderson 
Jonathan L. Atwood 
Douglas Ayers 
Alan Baldridge 
Linda Belluomini 
Carl Benz 
Lynn C. Bemer 
Lawrence C. Binford 
Robert J. Boekelheide 
Kenneth T. Briggs 
James R. Chambers 
Howard L. Cogswell 
Paul Collins 
Elizabeth Copper 
Mary Ann Danielson 



Anthony R. DeGange 
Craig Denson 
Richard A. Erickson 
Michael Evans 
Bill Everett 
Alan K. Fukuyama 
Ron Garrett 
Robert E. Gill 
Sharon Goldwasser 
Franklin Gress 
Stanley W. Harris 
Thomas E. Harvey 
Valerie Hironaka 
Harriet R. Huber 
George L. Hunt, Jr. 
Ron Jameson 
Ronald M. Jurek 



Paul R. Kelly 
Gary S. Lester 
Ronald A. Le Valley 
David B. Lewis 
T.James Lewis 
David A. Manuwal 
Barbara Massey 
Stephen H. Morrell 
Tim McKay 
Maria Joyce Nakagawa 
Maura Naughton 
Jay W. Nelson 
John S. Nelson 
Audrey Newmjin 
Timothy O. Osborne 
Robert L. Pitman 
Mark Rauzon 



Gordon Reetz 
Jack G. Reynolds 
William E. Rodstrom 
Fred C. Sibley 
Fred Sorensen 
Arthur L. Sowls 
Steven M. Speich 
Margaret A. Stewart 
Gary Strachsui 
Craig Strong 
Laurie Stuart 
Philip Unitt 
Daniel H. Varoujean 
Michael C. Vasey 
Jay F. Watson 
Kathy Winnett 



This study was funded by the Bureau of Land Management, Pacific Outer 
Continental Shelf Office, under Memorandum of Understanding No. AA551-MU9-13. 

Published by 

Coastal Ecosystems Project 

Office of Biological Services 

Fish and Wildlife Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

Washington, DC 20240 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OfDce, Washington, D.C. 20403 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

A project of this magnitude would not have been possible without the assistance of 
many individuals and organizations. Jay F. Watson, our Project Officer, was paramount 
in managing this study and provided us with encouragement and advice throughout the 
project. Bill Rodstrom's able field assistance during the 1979 field season played a prin- 
cipal role in the completion of this project. He was responsible for data collection for much 
of the north coast. Margaret Stewart's help during the 1980 field season and with the pre- 
paration of this report were invaluable. 

Gary Rankel of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Areata, California graciously 
provided us with office space, a congenial work atmosphere, and access to a copy machine. 
Paul Springer, also of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Areata, kindly provided us 
with space to store our equipment. The following organizations loaned us equipment 
for which we are grateful: U.S. Fish and WildUfe Service, Anchorage, Alaska and Sacra- 
mento, California; San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge; and Washington State 
Fisheries Cooperative Unit. 

Data from many investigators were incorporated into this report. Without their co- 
operation this project would not have been possible. We thank all of those people Usted 
on the title page who were involved in these recent collections of data. Special thanks in 
this regard go to Dave Ainley, Dan Anderson, Jonathan Atwood, Bob Boekelheide, Ken 
Briggs, Alan Craig, Elizabeth Copper, Frank Gress, Stan Harris, George Hunt, Jr., Ron Jurek, 
Paul Kelly, Tim Osborne, and Dan Varoujean. 

We thank the many individuals of the California State Park System and the California 
Department of Fish and Game for assistance in many ways. John Warrick, of the Pacific 
Gas and Electric Company, arranged access to the Diablo Nuclear Power Plant and Jim 
Chambers assisted us with our surveys there and made his field notes available to us. Several 
aerial surveys were done with the cooperation of the U.S. Coast Guard. We would par- 
ticularly like to acknowledge Lt. Sutter Fox of the Areata Air Station for arranging logis- 
tic support. 

Jim Bartonek, Ron LeValley, Paul Springer, and Mark Strong reviewed an early draft 
of this report and their suggestions were most helpful. Dave Ainley, Dan Anderson, George 
Hunt and Stan Harris reviewed the final draft and added many useful refinements. 

We are much indebted to Linda Parkinson and Margaret Stewart who donated several 
of the drawings which adorn the pages of this catalog. Allen Brooks' drawing of the Mar- 
bled Murrelet was provided courtesy of The Murrelet, A Journal of Northwestern Orni- 
thology and Mammalogy. Help with maps was provided by Richard Huxley and Larraine 
Strong. Dave Van de Mark printed our photographs. Drafts of this report were typed by 
Maria Collins and Bemadene Logan, and typesetting was done by Kathy Amyotte and 
Jeannie Jacobsen. 

Finally, we thank the Bureau of Land Management for sponsoring this project and in 
particular Gordon Reetz of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Office. 



u 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 1 

THE NATURE OF SEABIRDS 1 

THREATS TO SEABIRDS 2 

METHODS 7 

DISCUSSION 11 

SPECIES ACCOUNTS: 

Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) 20 

Leach's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) 22 

Ashy Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa) 24 

Black Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma melania) 26 

Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) 28 

Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) 30 

Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) 32 

Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) 34 

Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) 36 

Western Gull (Lams occidentalis) 38 

Common Murre (Uria aalge) . . 40 

Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba) 42 

Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) 44 

Xantus' Murrelet (Endomychura hypoleuca) 46 

Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) 48 

Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) 50 

Tufted Puffin (Lunda cirrhata) 52 

MAPS AND TABLES: 

How to Use Maps and Tables 56 

Map Index 57 

Section 325, Eureka 58 

Section 379, Ukiah 106 

Section 404, Santa Rosa 142 

Section 429, San Francisco 180 

Section 454, Monterey 212 

Section 477, San Luis Obispo 236 

Section 501 , Santa Maria 260 

Section 502, Los Angeles 282 

Section 524, Long Beach 298 

Section 525, Santa Ana 318 

Section 545 , San Diego 326 

REFERENCES 341 

APPENDIX A: Data Archives 35 1 

APPENDIX B: Observation Points for Seabird Colonies 355 

APPENDIX C: Index of California Seabird Colonies 366 



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CMANNa lUANOS 



IV 



INTRODUCTION 



This catalog is a summary of the location, 
size, and species composition of seabird colonies 
along the California coast. It documents more 
than 260 nesting areas with a total estimated 
population of nearly 700,000 birds. 

Our study was sponsored by the Bureau of 
Land Management, Pacific Outer Continental 
Shelf Office, to fulfill requirements of the Nation- 
al Environmental Policy Act of 1970. The 
information will help resource planners evaluate 
possible effects on seabirds of proposed oil and 
gas leasing. Detailed information on seabird 
distribution and abundance will be useful to 
coastal planners, scientists, and amateur bird- 
watchers. For this reason, we have included a 
section on threats to seabirds and appendices on 
the archiving of our field data (Appendix A) and 
viewpoints from which several colonies can be 
observed without causing disturbance (Appendix 
B). 

Seventeen species of seabirds from six 
families are discussed in this report. These 
include four species of storm-petrels (Fork-tailed, 
Leach's, Ashy, and Black), one species of pelican 
(Brown Pelican), three species of cormorants 
(Brandt's, Double-crested, and Pelagic), one 
species of shorebird (Black Oystercatcher), one 
species of gull (Western Gull), and seven species 
of alcids (Common Murre, Pigeon Guillemot, 
Marbled Murrelet, Xantus' Murrelet, Cassin's 
Auklet, Rhinoceros Auklet, and Tufted Puffin). 
In addition to population information in the 
maps and tables, species accounts discuss aspects 
of the natural history of each of the above 
species, emphasizing the California populations. 

Population information for six additional 
species which could also be affected by coastal 
development and pollution has been included in 
the maps and tables. All the known locations of 
Least Tern (Sterna albifrons) colonies are iden- 
tified in this catalog, although yearly surveys by 
the California Department of Fish and Game will 
soon render this data obsolete. The catalog also 
identifies coastal breeding sites of the Caspian 
Tern, (Sterna caspia), Forster's Tern (Sterna 
forsteri), and Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), 
species which also breed inland. The single 
known California nesting location of the Elegant 
Tern (Sterna elegans) in San Diego Bay is also 
identified. Finally, locations of known Heer- 
mann's Gull (Larus heermanni) nest sites are 



indicated, although this species was never re- 
corded breeding in California until 1980, and 
cannot be considered part of the normal breeding 
avifauna. All six species, except Heermann's 
Gulls and some Least Terns, nest and feed pri- 
marily in enclosed bays and estuaries. Our 
inclusion of this information is intended only to 
supplement other sources of information on these 
species. 

It must be recognized that this report only 
documents nesting sites. Large numbers of 
non-nesting birds migrate through coastal 
CaUfomia in spring and fall and many additional 
birds winter along the coast. These include shear- 
waters from as far away as New Zealand and 
Tasmania, many kindsofshorebirds and waterfowl 
from arctic Alaska and Canada, pehcans and gulls 
from Mexico, and inland nesting birds such as 
grebes and small gulls. Oil spills and other dis- 
turbances could severely affect these populations. 
Seabirds are truly an international resource and 
must be managed as such. 



THE NATURE OF SEABIRDS 

Seabirds evolved in an environment free of 
most of the competition and predators faced by 
terrestrial birds. They have evolved into birds 
with long lifespans, low adult mortality rates, 
relatively late sexual maturity, and small clutch 
sizes. Lifespans of seabirds are not exactly 
known, but they are certairriy long in comparison 
to most terrestrial birds. Records exist of indivi- 
duals of several species of seabirds reaching more 
than 20 and even 30 years of age (Bergstrom 
1952, Clapp and Sibley 1966, Clapp and Hack- 
man 1968, Graham 1980). Long Ufespans in a 
species imply a low annual rate of adult mor- 
tality, and annual mortality rates below 20 
percent are common in seabirds (Ashmole 1971, 
Richdale and Warham 1973). Some albatrosses 
may have annual mortaUty rates as low as three 
percent (Lack 1954). Many passerines, at the 
other extreme, have annual mortality rates from 
40 to 70 percent (Lack 1954). If mortality rate 
remains constant with increasing age, large 
seabirds with very low annual mortahty rates may 
attain a breeding life of50 years or more (Ashmole 
1971). In addition, recruitment of birds into the 
breeding population is often slow and delayed. 
Before attaining maturity, many seabirds spend at 
least 2 years, and more commonly 3, 4, 5, and up 
to 9 years as non-breeders (Ashmole 1971). Long 



breeding lives, low recruitment rates, and delayed 
maturity could delay the effects of successive 
breeding failures on breeding populations for 
several years. 

The clutch size of seabirds is usually low. 
Storm-petrels and other procellariiformes lay one 
egg, alcids lay one or two eggs, and pelicans and 
gulls lay one to three eggs. Cormorants may lay 
up to seven eggs, though clutches of four or five 
are more common. By contrast, many land birds 
lay from 7 to 15 eggs and many produce two 
broods each year. 

Because seabirds reproduce at a slow rate 
but over a long lifetime, the effects of an oil spill 
or other disaster and the potentially more danger- 
ous effects of longterm chronic pollution, habitat 
loss, and other disturbances demand careful and 
frequent monitoring of seabird populations. 

Seabirds tend to be of two types: those 
which spend most of their time near shore (in- 
cluding cormorants, pelicans, and most gulls), and 
those which come to land only during the breeding 
season or sometimes intermittently during other 
times of the year (including storm-petrels and 
alcids). Of the truly pelagic seabirds, several are 
nocturnal on the breeding grounds; they will 
enter or leave their colonies only at night. In 
California, the four storm-petrels. Marbled and 
Xantus' Murrelets, Cassin's Auklets, and, to a 
lesser degree. Rhinoceros Auklets are nocturnal on 
their breeding grounds. 

The seabird colony is the most critical 
habitat for seabirds because reproduction and 
thus continuation of species depend on these 
sites. Here the population will reach its annual 
low, just before young are hatched, and its annual 
high, just after hatching. At other times of the 
year, seabirds may be able to avoid problems such 
as disruption of food supplies, and perhaps even 
large oil spills, simply by flying somewhere else, 
but for successful nesting they are limited to the 
area around the colony. 

In the following section, we discuss some of 
the problems which face seabirds. We hope an 
awareness of these will alert coastal planners to 
the kinds of problems that may be encountered. 



THREATS TO SEABIRDS 



OIL 



leasing program by the Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment offshore of California was initiated in 1963. 
Areas in the Santa Barbara Channel were leased in 
1 966 and 1 968 , and other sections of the Southern 
Cahfomia Bight were leased in 1975. Five new 
oil lease zones were identified offshore of central 
and northern California in 1977. The southern- 
most of these tracts is scheduled for sale in 1981. 

Resource planners must be aware of potential 
hazards to seabirds that may be caused by oil 
development. There is ample literature document- 
ing the lethal effects of oil on marine birds, 
including papers by Bourne (1968, 1970), Clark 
(1969), Clark and Kennedy (1968), CroxaU 
(1975), Manuwal (1978), and many others. 
Vermeer and Vermeer (1974) reviewed the 
literature appearing between 1922 and 1973 on 
the effects of oil on birds. 

One effect of oil on seabirds is destruction 
of the insulating properties of feathers. An oiled 
bird compensates for the loss of insulation and 
subsequent loss of heat by increasing its metabolic 
rate, using stored energy (Hartung 1967). If 
the bird's energy balance is not restored, energy 
reserves are soon depleted and death from hypo- 
thermia results. Oiled birds are unable to maintain 
their energy reserves because they cannot or will 
not feed. 

Marine birds may also ingest oil while 
drinking, feeding, and especially when oiled 
individuals attempt to preen their soiled plumage. 
Ingestion of oil may hinder the absorbtion of 



Oil exploration, production, and transport 
are important industries along the coast of 
California. A federal outer continental shelf 




A Common Murre fouled with oil on a Pacific 
Coast beach. Photo by Duncan McDonald 



water across the intestinal wall (Crocker et al. 
1974). Ingested oil may also affect reproductive 
success. Grau et al. (1977) showed that ingested 
oil altered the yolk structure of recently laid 
Japanese Quail eggs (Coturnix coturnix) and 
greatly reduced their hatchabiUty. These authors 
are continuing their studies on the Farallon 
Islands with Western Gulls and Cassin's Auklets 
(Ainley et al. 1979). Hartung (1965) demon- 
strated that ingested lubricating oil reduces the 
egg laying rate of captive Mallards (Anas 
platyrhynchos). Oil applied to the exterior of 
eggs also reduces hatching success. This has been 
observed in experiments performed on the eggs of 
Mallards (Hartung 1965), Common Eiders 
(Somateria mollissima, Albers and Szaro 1978), 
Laughing Gulls (Lams atrkilla. King and Lefever 
1979), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens. 
Patten and Patten 1977), and Great Black-backed 
Gulls (Lams marinus. Coon et al. 1979, McGill 
and Richmond 1979). 

The species vulnerable to oil spills are those 
which are most restricted to an aquatic environ- 
ment, particularly loons, grebes, seaducks, and 
alcids, although some variation will occur depend- 
ing on the season. We have discussed these 
aspects of each species' life history in the species 
accounts. 

In California, three well-documented oil 
spills which killed large numbers of birds have 
occurred: the Santa Barbara oil spill of 1969 
(Straughan 1971) and the San Francisco oil spills 
of 1937 and 1971 (Aldrich 1938, Moffitt and 
Orr 1938, Small et al. 1972). All three spills 
occurred in the winter which greatly influenced 
the species of birds killed. Wintering Western 
Grebes (Aechmophoms occidentalis) and loons 
suffered the greatest mortahty in the Santa 
Barbara oil spill. Western Grebes were similarly 
affected in the 1971 San Francisco oil spill and 
to a lesser extent in the 1937 spill. Common 
Murres and wintering scoters (Melanitta spp.) also 
experienced heavy mortahty from oil in the San 
Francisco oil spills. Common Murres breed in 
Cahfomia and appear in the near-shore zone 
periodically in the winter. 

CHRONIC POLLUTION AND TOXIC 
CHEMICALS 

Large oil spills are well pubhcized, but 
low-level chronic oil pollution, small oil spills, and 
the build-up of other pollutants probably pose a 
more serious long-term threat to seabirds. Pollu- 
tants of particular concern, other than oil, include 



pesticides and their residues, heavy metals, 
polychlorinated biphenyls and other by-products 
of industry, and plastic particles. 

Most seabirds are long-lived and feed at or 
near the tops of their food chains. Certain pollu- 
tants such as DDT and its principal metabohte 
DDE are stored in the body and concentrate in 
increasing amounts at each higher level in the 
food chain. When concentrations of these chem- 
icals reach sufficiently high levels, reproduction 
may be impaired or death may occur. Seabirds 
constitute one of the most conspicuous and easily 
studied components of the marine ecosystem, so 
their reproductive failure or death may be our 
first indication that the environment contains 
dangerous quantities of toxic chemicals. In 
Minamata, Japan, high levels of mercury in 
effluent from a vinyl chloride plant were first 
manifested in the deaths of fish-eating birds. This 
was followed by the tragic deaths of many 
humans (Kurland et al. 1960). The effects of 
pollutants on seabirds can be monitored by close 
study and may serve as a valuable indicator of the 
health of marine ecosystems. For this reason 
alone, continued study of certain seabird popula- 
tions will be useful. 

The effects of chlorinated hydrocarbon 
pesticides and their residues and polychlorinated 
biphenyls on birds are well documented (Peakall 
1970, 1975). These contaminants reduce breeding 
success by decreasing fertility, reducing the 
viabiHty of eggs and chicks, and interfering with 
calcium deposition, resulting in the production 
of thin eggshells which may later break. Physical 
abnormahties have also been associated with 
organochlorine residues (Hays and Riseborough 
1972). 

In California the Brown Pehcan has become a 
symbol in the fight against pollution of the world's 
oceans. The reproductive success of Brown 
Pehcans was seriously reduced by the presence of 
DDT, DDE, and related chemicals in the ocean 
off southern California. Because of eggshell 
thinning, most eggs were broken before the young 
hatched and only 12 chicks fledged out of 2,368 
nesting attempts in 1969, 1970, and 1971 (Gress 
et al. 1973). Double-crested Cormorants suffered 
a similar decrease in reproductive success in 
southern Cahfomia and Mexico (Gress et al. 
1973). These reproductive failures were traced to 
DDT dumped into the Los Angeles sewer system 
by a chemical manufacturing plant. Since April, 
1970, these wastes have been deposited in a 
landfill and DDT input into the ocean has declined 
significantly (Anderson et al. 1975). Reproductive 



success of both Brown Pelicans and Double-crested 
Cormorants has improved dramatically and the 
population of Brown Pelicans may be on its way 
to recovery (Anderson et al. 1975). 

Chlorinated hydrocarbons and poly- 
chlorinated biphenyls have also been linked with 
shell thinning of Ashy Storm-Petrel and Common 
Murre eggs on the Farallon Islands (Coulter and 
Riseborough 1973, Gress et al. 1973). Many 
other populations of seabirds in North America 
ha\ ' i; 1 1 ' ffocted by these contaminants. 




This Brown Pelican egg was broken under the 
weight of incubating adults as a result of thin 
eggshells from pesticide contamination. Photo by 
Frank Gress. 

Plastic particles are commonly found in the 
stomachs and gizzards of seabirds collected for 
scientific study (Baltz and Morejohn 1976, 
Rothstein 1973). It is likely that seabirds mistake 
these for larval fish, eggs, or other foods floating 
on the ocean surface. These particles enter the 
environment by physical breakdown of the huge 
quantities of plastics which are dumped into the 
world's oceans each year. 

The physical presence of plastic particles 
may affect the health of birds. Particles which 
accumulate in the gizzard probably are not as 
effective as the pebbles normally used to grind up 
food. Fortunately, plastics are nearly chemically 
inert and are unlikely to affect birds the way toxic 
chemicals do. More research on this topic and 
concern about the "garbage can" attitude we have 
toward our oceans are needed. 

FISHERIES 

Commerical fisheries can affect seabirds in 
three primary ways: 1) birds drown in gillnets, 
2) offal from fishing boats provides an additional 



food supply for certain seabird species, and 
3) extensive fisheries deplete some seabird prey 
species. Depletion of prey fishes presently seems 
to be the major fisheries-related threat to seabirds 
in California. Gillnet drowning and offal discharge 
have dramatically affected seabirds in other 
parts of the world. 

Seabirds drown in gillnets when they are 
caught while diving or plunging into the water for 
food. The alcids, which dive to feed, and shear- 
waters (Puffinus spp.), which plunge into the 
ocean to feed, are among the most vulnerable of 
seabirds. The salmon driftnet fisheries of the 
North Atlanfic and North Pacific Oceans have 
caused high mortality of seabirds. The Danish 
salmon fishery off West Greenland killed an 
estimated 500,000 to 750,000 Thick-billed 
Murres (Uria lomvia) annually between 1968 and 
1975 (Tull et al. 1972). In the North Pacific, the 
Japanese salmon mothership fishery kills over 
200,000 seabirds in gillnets each summer (Ainley 
et al. in prep.), and large numbers of seabirds die 
in the Japanese land-based fishery as well (Sano 
1978). Restriction of gillnet fishing near colonies 
and in regions of known high seabird concentra- 
tions at sea could reduce this kill. The large 
incidental kill of Thick-billed Murres in the 
Danish fishery was curtailed after an international 
agreement took effect in 1976, restricting the 
Danish fishery to only coastal waters (Salomonsen 
1979). The Japanese fishery, although reduced in 
size in recent years, is still very active in the 
North Pacific. 

The only salmon gillnet fishery In California 
is located in the Klamath River of northern 
California. Some birds drown in the nets of this 
fishery each summer (Chatto pers. comm.) 
but the total number of birds killed is small. 

An unknown number of seabirds are killed 
annually in a small coastal gillnet fishery for 
bottomfish that operates from Tomales Bay south 
to Santa Barbara (Miller pers. comm.). Common 
Murres, cormorants, and Sooty Shearwaters 
(Puffinus griseus) are apparently the species most 
frequently caught. Although this fishery has 
existed for at least 50 years, it has only recently 
become large enough to cause concern. The 
California Department of Fish and Game and 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are currently 
investigating the mortahty of marine birds and 
mammals in this fishery. 

Offal from boats, particularly processing 
ships associated with large whahng and fishing 
fleets, provides large amounts of food for some 
seabird species, especially Northern Fulmars 



(Fulmanis glacialis) and gulls. This new food 
supply may be in part responsible for increases in 
fulmar and gull numbers in some parts of the 
world (Brown 1970, Bourne 1972). Commerical 
fishing in California is primarily from small, 
privately-owned boats and offal discharge is 
probably insignificant at present. Coastal garbage 
dumps are likely a more important food source 
for gulls. 

Commerical fisheries are increasingly harvest- 
ing species of fish used by seabirds for food. This 
is due largely to an increasing demand for fish 
products, depletion of more desirable species, and 
improved fishing technology. Fish stocks can 
become so depleted through overfishing that 
decreases in populations of seabirds can result. 
This is best illustrated by the crash of Peruvian 
seabird populations following overfishing of the 
anchoveta (Engraiilis ringens). In the years 
between 1953 and 1965, Peruvian seabird popula- 
tions declined from 28 million birds to 4 million 
birds (Schaefer 1970). 

A similar conflict seems likely to occur 
between the Northern Anchovy (Engraulis 
mordax) and seabird populations along the west 
coast of Mexico and southern California. The 
diet of breeding Brown PeUcans in southern 
Cahfornia has been found to contain 92 percent 
anchovies (Gress pers. comm.). Brown Pelicans 
reproduce best during periods when anchovies are 
abundant near breeding colonies (Anderson et al. 
1980). Although pre-1979 harvest levels of 
anchovies probably did not affect Brown Pelican 
reproduction, potential increases in the harvest 
proposed under some options of the Anchovy 
Management Plan, Pacific Fisheries Management 
Council, could be serious (Anderson et al. 1980). 
Hunt and Butler (1980) have shown the im- 
portance of anchovies to the reproductive success 
of Xantus' Murrelets and Western Gulls on Santa 
Barbara Island (524 008, See page 56). 

Protecting seabird feeding areas, particularly 
those near breeding colonies, may be necessary. 
Caution should be used before any decision to 
increase anchovy harvests is made (MacCall 1974, 
Radovich 1979, Anderson et al. 1980). Little 
information is available on the effects of fisheries- 
caused depletion of prey species on other 
California seabirds and continued research is 
needed (Anderson et al. 1980). 

HUMAN DISTURBANCE 

A serious danger to nesting seabirds is 
disturbance by people, including scientists, bird- 



watchers, recreationahsts, and others. Disturbance 
is usually unintentional and, more often than not, 
the culprits are unaware of the harm that they 
have caused. When people go into or near a 
seabird colony they can cause disturbance in 
many ways. An awareness of potential problems 
can do much to reduce disturbance. 

Flushing birds from nests must be avoided 
since it can cause adults to abandon nests, exposes 
eggs and chicks to predators, and interferes with 
incubation and the feeding of chicks. During 
panic departures adults may even break eggs or 
kick eggs and chicks from nests. Larger chicks 
may run off and, unable to get back to the nest, 
may die or be killed. Airplanes, boats, and 
helicopters, as well as individuals on foot, can 
cause birds to flush by approaching a colony too 
closely. Helicopters are especially disruptive. 

In Cahfornia, predation on uncovered eggs 
and chicks is primarily by Western Gulls and 
Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Both gulls and 
ravens patrol colonies in search of unattended 
eggs and chicks or for a chance to steal food 
brought in by parent birds. Under natural circum- 
stances their success rate is low, but a colony from 
which adults have been flushed is "easy pickings." 
Plundering gulls may walk ahead of human 
intruders, pecking holes into eggs, or they may fly 
off with eggs to eat elsewhere (Anderson and Keith 
1980). Gulls calling overhead attract more gulls 
and add to the panic of the colony (Anderson and 
Keith 1980). Western Gulls are formidable 
predators. They will consume young chicks 
whole, including chicks of their own species, and 
will even attack large 3 to 4 week old pelican 
chicks to obtain regurgitations or will remove the 
eyes, uropygial glands, and entrails, causing death 
(Anderson and Keith 1980). 

Incubation of eggs and chicks is a means of 
maintaining an optimum temperature for rapid 
development. Parents sit on and turn eggs to 
warm them and will shade eggs and chicks from 
the sun to keep them from overheating. If parent 
birds are kept off their nests for a long enough 
period of time, death of the young from hyper- 
thermia (overheating) or hypothermia (over- 
coohng) can occur. Shorter periods of neglect 
can extend the incubating time required for 
hatching. 

The most damaging type of human distur- 
bance is physical alteration of habitat, since its 
effects are longterm, and in most cases irreversible. 
Whaler Island (325 045) near the Oregon border 
is now part of the Crescent City breakwater and is 
no longer used by nesting seabirds. Osborne 



(1972) estimates from historical records that 
20,000 storm-petrels (Leach's and Fork-tailed 
Storm-Petrels), along with Western Gulls, Pigeon 
Guillemots, and Black Oystercatchers, nested on 
Whaler Island. Loss of this nesting island may 
have substantially reduced the number of nesting 
Leach's and Fork -tailed Storm-Petrels in 
California. 

Several seabird species nest in burrows dug 
into the ground. No one should walk on these 
burrow areas since they can easily collapse under 
the weight of a person. Birds may then abandon 
the burrow. Burrow destruction can also accelerate 
the serious problem of soil erosion from offshore 
rocks. Most islands along the California coast 
were once part of the mainland and soil is primarily 
or entirely a remant from before the islands broke 
away. 

In California, burrow nesting species are: 
Black, Leach's, Fork-tailed, and Ashy Storm- 
Petrels, Xantus'Murrelets,Cassin'sand Rhinoceros 
Auklets, Tufted Puffins, and, in some instances. 
Pigeon Guillemots. Of these, Rhinoceros Auklets, 
Tufted Puffins, and Black and Fork -tailed Storm- 
Petrels are present only in very low numbers. 
None of these species' California populations 
exceed 400 birds, and none of these species is 
present at more than 14 sites in the state. While 
Cassin's Auklets and Leach's and Ashy Storm- 
Petrels are present in greater numbers in California, 
they are also limited to very few nesting loca- 
tions. Any disturbance to burrow-nesting species 
would be particularly unfortunate. 




Whaler Island (325 045) was an important 
seabird colony until the island was quarried and 
a breakwater was constructed. Few seabirds 
nest there now. Photo by Art Sowls 



SPACE SHUTTLE 

The following account is drawn largely from 
Potential impact of space shuttle sonic booms 
on the biota of the California Channel Islands: 
literature review and problem analysis (Evans et 
al. 1979). 

Channel Island seabird populations may be 
subjected to a new disturbance during the 1980's. 
The U.S. Government has selected Vandenberg 
Air Force Base (VAFB), just north of Point 
Conception, as launch site for the Space Shuttle. 
Most of these launches will be directed west over 
the open Pacific, but approximately six launches 
planned for polar orbit will pass directly over the 
Channel Islands. These launches will produce 
sonic boom pressure waves of up to 30 pounds 
per square foot (psf), considerably greater than 
the 2.0 to 2.5 psf produced by aircraft sonic 
booms. Depending on weather and other factors, 
sonic booms produced by the Space Shuttle will 
be at maximum intensity over San Miguel Island 
(Figure 1). Areas south and east of San Miguel 
Island will be subjected to intense, though less 
potentially devastating sound pressures. In addi- 
tion, all of the estimated 129 Space Shuttle re- 
entries will pass directly over the Channel Islands. 
Sonic booms from these flights will be similar to 
those from military aircraft, and 18 per year are 



• SAN LUISOBISI>0 



Zont of maximum 

foufid intarattv 30 pif \/ 



LOS 
ANGELES 




SAN CLEMENTE IS, 



GROUNDTRACK 



Figure 1. Predicted lines of maximum sonic 
boom pressures in pounds per square foot (psf) at 
sea level resulting from Space Shuttle launches 
into polar orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base 
(modified from U.S. Air Force, 1978. Final 
Environmental Impact Statement, Space Shuttle 
Program, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). 



scheduled. 

These sonic booms may pose several potential 
dangers to seabirds: 

1) High sonic boom pressures, particularly 
those from launches, could physically damage 
birds regardless of the time of year. 

2) Both surface nesting and burrow or crevice 
nesting seabirds may desert eggs and young 
or fail to initiate nesting because of sonic 
booms. 

3) Death of eggs and chicks will probably occur 
if sonic booms cause panic flights by adults. 
This result would be similar to that already 
discussed in the section "Human Distur- 
bance." 

4) The nests of both burrow-nesting and 
cUff-nesting seabirds could be damaged or 
destroyed. An underground nuclear blast in 
Colorado reduced local raptor reproduction 
by 20 percent when cliffs crumbled and 
crushed eggs in two of nine nests (Stahlecker 
and Alldredge 1976). Sound pressures from 
the Space Shuttle sonic booms may produce 
a similar effect. Sonic booms in Arizona 
reportedly have caused geological damage 
(Graham 1969). Subterranean - nesting 
species would be particularly vulnerable to 
the shifting of rocks and soils. 



METHODS 

Information compiled in this catalog comes 
from four primary sources. The U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service (this study) conducted surveys of 
seabirds in 1979 and 1980 along the California 
coast from Point Conception to the Oregon 
border. An initial survey of this part of the coast 
was conducted in 1969 and 1970 by Osborne 
and Reynolds (1971), and their data still provide 
the best population estimates for some species at 
some sites. Data for the Channel Islands and the 
coast south of Point Conception come primarily 
from another BLM-sponsored oil lease study 
conducted from 1974 to 1977 by Hunt et al. 
(1979) and the California Department of Fish and 
Game. Information for the Farallon Islands has 
been collected over the past ten years by staff 
members of the Point Reyes Bird Observatory. 
Other sources are listed in the references section 
and in colony tables. All persons known to have 



gathered recent data compiled in this catalog are 
listed on the title page under "Contributors". 

Inherent in any collection of data from 
different sources is variability in methods. No 
attempt has been made to enumerate all techniques 
used to collect data presented in this catalog. 
Instead we refer readers to the appropriate 
references from which we obtained population 
estimates listed in this catalog (After each line of 
data in the Maps and Tables section, we reference 
the source from which we obtained the inform- 
ation). A detailed account of the techniques we 
used during our 1979 and 1980 surveys is presented 
below. 

We conducted seabird surveys from Point 
Conception to the Oregon border from mid-May 
to mid -August, 1979, and from mid-May to late 
August, 1980. Adequate coverage of such a long 
stretch of coastUne required two teams of two 
observers each with a vehicle, an inflatable 
boat, and two outboard engines. In 1980, a fifth 
observer was added to the team. Surveys were 
concentrated during the peak of the nesting 
season, from late May to late July. Surveys of 
surface-nesting seabirds completed earlier in 
May when seabirds began nesting were repeated 
later in the season to determine the maximum 
breeding population. We concentrated our 1979 
surveys on conspicuous, diurnal, surface-nesting 
species such as Brandt's Cormorants, Pelagic 
Cormorants, Western Gulls, Common Murres, and 
Pigeon Guillemots. In 1980, we divided our time 
equally between censusing diurnal surface-nesting 
seabirds and censusing nocturnal burrowing 
species such as storm-petrels and Rhinocerps 
Auklets. 

All sections of coastline with likely seabird 
nesting habitat were surveyed by boat one or 
more times. Least Terns nesting in bays and on 
beaches were not counted, since their populations 
are surveyed annually by the California Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game. We did not attempt to 
census Snowy Plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus), 
Clapper Rails (Ralliis longirostris), American 
Avocets (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked 
Stilts ( Himantopus mexicanus), or some of the 
other species mentioned by Varoujean (1979) in 
his catalog of seabird colonies of the Pacific 
States, which was completed from available 
Uterature before our surveys were made. 

Counts were made from inflatable boats 
using 7X binoculars or the unaided eye. We 
found that binoculars with a wide-angle field of 
view were far superior to normal binoculars when 
counting from boats. Whenever possible, direct 



counts of nests and individual birds were made. 
Usually, the boat was slowed or stopped and both 
observers counted birds or nests at the same 
colony or section of cliff. Counts were often 
repeated to ensure accuracy. 

Except for the Farallon Islands (429 012) 
and Redding Rock (325 013), all islands and 
offshore rocks north of Point Conception are 
within one kilometer of the mainland. Counts of 
seabirds on offshore rocks, islands, and mainland 
cliffs were often made from shore promontories. 
Generally, these counts underestimated popu- 
lations since only the landward sides of colonies 
were visible. In many instances, our population 
figures for a particular colony are derived from a 
combination of different survey techniques, 
which may have included boat surveys, aerial 
photography, counts from the mainland, and 
observations made directly on an island after 
landing. 

Landings were made on islands and rocks 
whenever possible, except at colonies of Brandt's 
Comiorants and Common Murres, which are 
especially sensitive to disturbance. When we 
landed on an island, we counted cormorant and 
gull nests and searched for burrows of storm- 
petrels, auklets, and puffins. Island visits were as 
brief as possible to minimize disturbance. 

Counts made from boats, the mainland, and 
the islands themselves were the principal methods 
used to census Double-crested Cormorants, 
Pelagic Cormorants, Western Gulls, Black Oyster- 
catchers, Pigeon Guillemots, Marbled Murrelets, 
Rhinoceros Auklets, Tufted Puffins, and, to a 
lesser extent, Brandt's Cormorants. Most of our 
surveys were conducted in 1979. In 1980 we 
attempted to refine estimates made at locations 
where surveys were hampered by poor weather 
conditions the previous year. Also, many sites 
which were accurately surveyed in 1979 were 
resurveyed in 1980 to determine whether any 
population changes had occurred. 

Cormorants and gulls build conspicuous 
nests and are therefore the easiest species to 
census. Since their nests were directly counted, 
our population estimates for these species are the 
most reliable. Most surveys for Pelagic Cormo- 
rants and Western Gulls were made from a boat, 
often very close to shore. Our counts of Double- 
crested and Brandt's Cormorants and Western 
Gulls were sometimes hampered by our inability 
to see the tops of islands, the preferred nesting 
habitat for these species. We circumvented this 
problem by making counts from the mainland 
where possible, or by taking aerial photographs. 



We counted and noted the locations of all 
Black Oystercatchers, Marbled Murrelets, Pigeon 
Guillemots, Rliinoceros Auklets, and Tufted 
Puffins seen during our surveys. Nests of these 
species are either difficult to find or, in the 
case of burrowing species, difficult to identify 
with certainty. Therefore counts of individual 
birds and extrapolation from these counts were 
our best survey method. 

Black Oystercatchers were counted during 
nearshore surveys but in 1979 poor weather 
hampered our efforts in some locations. Better 
weather in 1980 allowed us to re-survey selected 
portions of the coastline and improve our census 
data. Because nests of this species are difficult to 
find, the breeding status of many Black Oyster- 
catchers was impossible to determine. Estimates 
of populations were usually based on the presence 
and behavior of birds rather than counts of nests. 
Some non-breeding oystercatchers were probably 
included in our counts and may have inflated 
population estimates for some regions. Fre- 
quently, however, sections of coastline with poor 
habitat for other seabirds were by-passed, even if 
some habitat looked promising for Black Oyster- 
catchers. For this reason, and because oyster- 
catchers were sometimes hard to see among the 
confusion of reefs, rocks, and breakers, we believe 
our estimates of Black Oystercatcher populations 
in California are conservative. 

Marbled Murrelets were counted opportu- 
nistically in a narrow strip offshore of the coast. 
The distances of these counts from shore varied, 
depending on the nature of the coast, but never 
exceeded one kilometer. The most critical factors 
influencing our counts of Marbled Murrelets were 
sea conditions and time of year. Our counts were 
made from small inflatable boats, so we probably 
overlooked some birds on the water in all but the 
flattest seas. The best censuses of Marbled 
Murrelets can probably be made in spring when 
both members of a breeding pair are on the water 
offshore of coastal forests. Our surveys, however, 
were usually conducted later in the year. In 
addition, our census strips were of necessity 
narrow and this probably resulted in many missed 
birds. Although our surveys of Marbled Murrelets 
have provided few data with which future compar- 
isons can be made, we feel they reflect the 
species' breeding distribution in the state. 

Rhinoceros Auklets and Tufted Puffins were 
frequently seen standing near and entering 
burrows in the early morning. Time of day is an 
important factor when censusing these birds, 
since they are seldom seen at their colonies in late 



morning and afternoon. We tried to locate eggs 
and chicks of Rhinoceros Auklets and Tufted 
Puffins at several sites where we observed these 
birds, but only at Prince Island (325 003) were we 
successful. For the other sites in our study area, 
we based our population estimates on the number 
of birds in breeding plumage on or near the 
colonies in 1979 or 1980. For some colonies that 
had been previously intensively surveyed, we 
relied on estimates in the Uterature. 

Pigeon Guillemots are some of the most 
difficult of California seabirds to census. Finding 
Pigeon Guillemot nests during brief surveys 
of the rugged habitat where they usually nest is 
nearly impossible. Also, numbers of birds around 
a colony fluctuate greatly depending on the stage 
of nesting and time of day. Distinguishing 
breeders from non-breeders is impossible in most 
cases, so our numbers reflect the total number of 
guillemots at a colony rather than the number of 
breeding birds. We found that Pigeon Guillemots 
are present in large numbers around colonies in 
the early morning but nearly disappear by mid to 
late afternoon. Once incubation begins one 
member of each pair is probably always absent 
from view. The best time to census this species is 
therefore in the early morning, before the egg 
laying season, when both members of a breeding 
pair are on the water near the colony. Nettleship 
(1976) concluded that this is the best time to 
census populations of the similar Black Guillemot 
(Cepphus grylle) in arctic and eastern Canada. 
Surveying Pigeon Guillemots later in the day will 
result in underestimation of numbers or even 
failure to detect entire colonies. Most of our 
surveys could not be conducted at this optimum 
time, so guillemot estimates which appear in this 
catalog are based not only on the numbers of 
birds seen, but have been modified to reflect the 
influences of time of day, stage of nesting, and 
quality of habitat. These adjusted numbers, we 
feel, provide the most realistic estimates of the 
populations at each site, but they may be higher 
or lower than actual guillemot numbers. Although 
our population estimates are almost always many 
times higher than those made during previous 
surveys (1,285 percent higher for the entire 
study area), we still feel they are conservative. 
Differences in survey techniques and more com- 
plete coverage of the coast are likely to account 
for our higher numbers. 

Aerial surveys were our best means of 
censusing Brandt's Cormorants and Common 
Murres. In 1 979, we conducted nine aerial surveys 
in order to cover the coast from Point Conception 




Jay Nelson and Bill Rodstrom censusing cliff 
nesting seabirds from a small boat at False Cape 
Rocks (325 040). Photo by Art Sowls 



to the Oregon border. Three 1979 surveys were 
flown from a high-wing Cessna 182 or 210 and 
the remaining six were flown in U.S. Coast Guard 
helicopters. In 1980 we conducted five aerial 
surveys. Four of these were made in a high-wing 
Cessna 172, and one was flown from a U.S. 
Coast Guard helicopter. Photographs of seabird 
colonies were taken either through the open 
window of a plane or open door of a helicopter. 
Both color shdes (ASA 64, 200, and 400) and 
black-and-white film (ASA 132 and 400) were 
exposed in a 35-millimeter camera equipped with 
either a 70- to 2 10- millimeter zoom lens or a 
300-millimeter lens. Flight altitudes varied, but 
most photographs were taken from an altitude 
between 150 and 250 meters. We were careful 
not to flush nesting seabirds or marine mammals 
by flying too low, and we are satisfied that we 
caused no disturbances during our aerial surveys. 
Seabirds flush readily from their nests 
when "buzzed" by low-flying aircraft, therefore it 
is imperative to fly high enough to avoid disturbing 
them. For the study area from Point Conception 
to the Oregon border, we recommend a flight 
altitude of 200 meters or higher. Common Murres 
in coastal California nest primarily on the flat 
tops of islands and, possibly, excluding murres 
nesting on the Farallon Islands, appear somewhat 
accustomed to low-flying aircraft. Murres in 
other regions also frequently nest on cliff faces 
where more care is needed to avoid flushing birds. 
HeUcopters are more disturbing to birds than 
fixed-wing aircraft, and should maintain a higher 
altitude. Telephoto lenses, especially zoom lenses 
in the 70- to iOO-milHmeter range, are needed to 
photograph seabird colonies well enough to make 
accurate counts later from the photos. Rapid 
shutter speeds of 1/1,000 second or 1/500 second 
lare important to dampen vibrations. We usually 
jused high speed color slide film because it enabled 
'us to shoot at rapid shutter speeds even on cloudy 
days. 

j Most counts of Brandt's Cormorants and 
^Common Murres were made from projected 
sUdes. In the case of Brandt's Cormorants, we 
counted individual nests and determined the 
number of breeding birds by multiplying the 
number of nests by two. Brandt's Cormorant 
nests are conspicuous and easy to count from 
aerial photographs. Our estimates for this species 
are probably as accurate as any estimates included 
in this catalog. Numbers of Common Murres 
were estimated either by counting individual birds 
on slides or by blocking off groups of lO's, 50's, 
or lOO's, depending on the sizes of colonies and 



the quality of our photographs. 

Time of day and of year influence the 
number of Common Murres at a colony. The 
greatest numbers of murres are seen in early 
morning, before the egg-laying season. Both 
members of each breeding pair, as well as non- 
breeding birds, are presumably present on the 
colony at this time. Later in the season, during 
the incubation and nestling stages of nesting, the 
number of murres on a colony at any one time 
decreases because one member of each pair is 
frequently at sea. Most of our surveys were flown 
during the incubation and nestling stages, near 
mid-day. A correction factor must be added to 
the murre count to account for this variability in 
colony attendance. Addition of a correction 
factor to our counts of murres from photographs 
should result in an adjusted estimate of the 
breeding population which is more representative 
than the straight count from the photographs. 
We used a factor of two-thirds, as proposed by 
Ainley (1976). A factor of two-thirds implies 
that fewer than half of the birds are away from 
the colony at the time of a survey, an assumption 
which we feel is reasonable. To obtain the 
adjusted total, we multiplied the count obtained 
from the photographs by 1.67. Our estimates of 
murre numbers included in this catalog are only 
the adjusted totals. The actual numbers of 
murres counted from slides, which may be the 
most useful numbers for later historical compari- 
sons, can b» obtained by dividing the number 
listed in this catalog by 1 .67. 



i 










is 



Brandt's Cormorants and Common Murres were 
censused primarily by counts made from aerial 
photographs. Here, Brandt's Cormorant nests 
are shown at Piedras Blancas (477 00 7). Photo 
by Jay Nelson 



10 



We were unable to distinguish between 
breeding and non-breeding Common Murres on 
the photographs. Our Common Murre estimates 
are actually the numbers of birds at a colony 
rather than the numbers of breeding birds. 

Common Murres are extremely difficult to 
census and our estimates of their populations are 
probably the crudest of all estimates in the 
catalog. These birds pack densely on islands and 
it is often impossible to distinguish between 
individuals, even on high-quality photographs. 
Comparison of our numbers with those obtained 
in future surveys will be difficult, but direct visual 
comparisons of photographs could easily show 
whether the extent and density of a colony has 
markedly changed . To make comparisons simpler, 
we have archived data and photographs at several 
different sites (see Appendix A). 

Storm-petrels and Cassin's Auklets are 
nocturnal and difficult to census. We made no 
attempts to census colonies of nocturnal seabirds 
which we knew existed on Castle Rock (325 
006), Green Rock (325 020), and Little River 
Rock (325 035), but instead relied on population 
estimates in the literature. Other colonies of 
nocturnal birds in our study area which we 
censused were either small in magnitude or small 
in area and did not warrant intensive survey 
efforts such as establishing sample plots and 
determining the ratio of active to inactive burrows. 
To obtain more refined data on these sites would 
have caused more disturbance than we felt was 
justified. 

Besides searching many islands for storm- 
petrel and Cassin's Auklet colonies during the 
day, we made overnight surveys one or more 
times on Prince Island (325 003), Flatiron Rock 
(325 023), Pewetole Island, Button Rock (325 
054), Goat Rock (379 006), an island at Van 
Damme Cove (379 027), and Fish Rocks (404 
003). We conducted searches at night for nesting 
storm-petrels and auklets, and on all but Pewetole 
Island, Flatiron Rock, and Goat Rock erected 
mistnets to catch nocturnal birds. We caught and 
banded 174 Leach's Storm-Petrels on Prince 
Island, Button Rock, and Fish Rocks combined. 
Our population estimates for several storm-petrel 
colonies were based on one or more of the 
following: 1) thenumberanddensity of burrows, 
2) the number of birds seen and heard on the 
island at night, 3) the number of birds captured 
and banded, and 4) the number of birds recaptured. 
We discuss our population estimates for storm- 
petrels at each site more fully in the species 
accounts. We offer no new estimates of Cassin's 



Auklet numbers in the catalog. 

This catalog includes the best information 
available for all seabird colonies along the coast of 
Cahfomia, but the information varies in quaUty 
from species to species and from site to site. We 
have devised a data quality code, described below, 
as an attempt to rate our data by its quality. A 
data quahty code number follows each of our 
population estimates in the maps and tables 
section. 

Data Quality Code 

I. Total count of all nests (number of 
nests X 2 = number of breeding birds). 
Few if any errors were made in these 
counts. Any changes in number of 
breeding birds from year to year can 
probably be detected. 

II. Count of nests. Because of omission or 
misidentification of nests, counts may 
be slightly higher or lower than actual 
bird numbers. Small or moderate 
changes in number of breeding birds 
from year to year can probably be 
detected. 

III. An estimate of the size of a breeding 
population based on counts of nests 
and birds and on estimation of the 
amount of available nesting habitat. 
Census techniques vary considerably 
among species. Only large changes in 
populations from year to year can 
probably be detected. 

DISCUSSION 

Populations containing nearly 700,000 sea- 
birds, representing 23 species, are discussed in this 
catalog. All major and most minor seabird 
colonies along the Cahfomia coast have probably 
been, identified, and present data seem adequate 
to evaluate the importance of even small sections 
of coastline to breeding birds. 

Unfortunately, sufficient historical data do 
not exist to evaluate population changes or trends 
that may have occurred or are occurring along 
much of the Cahfomia coast. Only on the 
Farallon Islands (429 012), Santa Barbara Island 
(524 008), Anacapa Island (502 007), and at 
Least Tem colonies in southem Cahfomia have 
long-term studies been initiated. 

Although Cahfomia's breeding marine avi- 



11 



fauna is diverse, only a few species make up the 
majority of this assemblage of seabirds. Common 
Murres, Brandt's Cormorants, Cassin's Auklets, 
and Western Gulls compose almost 90 percent of 
the California population (Figure 2). A dispro- 
portionately large percentage of this population 
breeds at only a few locations in the state. Two 
regions, the Farallon Islands and the north coast 
of California from Cape Mendocino to the Oregon 
border, contain the largest number of breeding 
seabirds (Figure 3). The Farallon Islands are 
extremely important. Large portions of the 
state's breeding populations of Ashy Storm-Petrels, 
Brandt's Cormorants, Western Gulls, Common 
Murres, Pigeon Guillemots, Cassin's Auklets, 
Rhinoceros Auklets, and Tufted Puffins breed 



on these islands (Figure 4). 

The coastUne north of Cape Mendocino 
contains more breeding seabirds than the Farallon 
Islands although no single site there approaches 
the Farallones in number of birds. Large portions 
of the state's breeding population of Fork-tailed 
Storm-Petrels, Leach's Storm-Petrels, Double- 
crested Cormorants, Common Murres, Rhinoceros 
Auklets, and Tufted Puffins inhabit this coast. 
Castle Rock (325 006), the second-largest seabird 
colony in the state, is found in this stretch of 
coastline. 

The Channel Islands are particularly note- 
worthy since the entire California breeding 
populations of Black Storm-Petrels, Brown 
Pelicans, and Xantus' Murrelets nest there. The 




Figure 2. Populationsof breeding seabirds and per- 
cents of total aggregate population in California. 



Leach's Storni-Petrel 1 8,304 (3%) 
Pelagic Cormorant 15,870(2%) 
Pigeon Guillemot 14,724 (l'A\ 



Foik-tailed Storm-Petrel 
Ashy Storm-Petrel 
Black Storm-Petrel 
Brown Pelican 
Double-crested Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Forster's Tern 
Least Tern 
Elegant Tern 
Caspian Tern 
Black Skimmer 
Marbled Murrelet 
Xantus' Murrelet 
Rhinoceros Auklet 
Tufted Puffin 

* coastal population only. 




(4%) 



12 



more sub-tropical seabird community of the 
Channel Islands, although containing fewer 
breeding seabirds than the Farallon Islands and 
northern Cahfomia, is of no less importance. 

Six of the 23 species discussed in this catalog 
are widespread along much of the California 
coast. Of the six, the Black Oystercatcher is the 
most widely distributed, despite an estimated 
breeding population of only 1,000 birds. This 
distribution reflects the abundance of this species' 
preferred nesting habitat in California. The Black 
Oystercatcher's small population size, however, is 
perhaps related to its tendency to nest as isolated 
pairs on offshore rocks and inaccessible stretches 
of the California coastline. 

The distributions of Pelagic Cormorants and 



Pigeon Guillemots are also relatively uniform, in 
part because their nesting habitat is abundant in 
this state (Figure 4). Pelagic Cormorants are most 
numerous between Cape Mendocino and San 
Francisco, an area possessing long stretches of 
vertical cliffs. Pigeon Guillemots attain their 
greatest abundance in central California, south 
of San Francisco, including the Farallon Islands, 
but large colonies are also found at many locations 
north of Point Conception. Both Brandt's 
Cormorants and Western Gulls are widely distri- 
buted throughout Cahfornia but extremely large 
concentrations of each exist on the Farallon 
Islands (Figure 4). Common Murres are found 
throughout much of central and northern 
Cahfomia although they are most abundant in 



Figure 3. Percentage of breeding seabirds along 
the California coast. Circle size is directly pro- 
portional to numbers of birds. 




13 



Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel 

Calilornia Colonies 



Catalog Total 

310 birds 
• ■ colony sites 
o K. lormer sites 




Leach's Storm-Petrel 

California Colonies 



Ashy Storm-Petrel 

Calilornia Colonies 



Black Storm-Petrel 

California Colonies 



Catalog Total 
150 birds 



• ■ colony sites 





Brown Pelican 

California Colonies 

Catalog Total 

2.690 birds 
colony sites 
former sites 




Brandt's Cormorant 

California Colonies 

Catalog Total 

64,210 birds 
• • colony sites 




Double-crested Cormorant 

California Colonies 

Catalog Total 

1,884 birds' 
• ■ colony sites 




Pelagic Cormorant 

California Colonies 

Catalog Total 
15,870 birds 
• • colony sites 




* coastal population only. 



Black Oystercatcher 

California Population 

Catalog Total 
704 birds 
• « nest sites 




Figure 4. Percentages of the California breeding population of seventeen species, of seabirds for 



14 



Western Gull 

Calilornia Colonies 

Catalog Total 
50,930 birds 

• = colony sites 




Common Murre 



Calilornia Colonies 



Catalog Total 

363,154 birds 

• ■ colony sites 

= former sites 




16% 



3%/ 


"^ 


8%\ 

20%] f^ 

;-=^ 8% 1^ 


17% (^ 


1%\ 



Pigeon Guillemot 

California Colonies 



Catalog Total 
14,724 birds 
a colony sites 



14% 



1% 



Marbled Murrelet 



California Population 
Estimate 

2,000 birds 




Xantus' Murrelet 

California Colonies 

Catalog Total 

3,500 birds 
• ■ colony sites 



Offshore Sighting 
■ =high 
feS 'low 




Cassin's Auklet 

California Colonies 

Catalog Total 
131,170 birds 
• - colony sites 




Rhinoceros Auklet 

California Colonies 

Catalog Total 

362 birds 
• * colony sites 



Tufted Puffin 



X = present, less than 1% 




California Colonies 




ten sections of the coast and the Farallon Islands. 



K 



northern California. 

Twelve of the 23 species discussed in this 
catalog reach either the northern or southern 
limits of their breeding ranges within California. 
Elegant Terns breed only as far north as San 
Diego Bay. Black Storm-Petrels, Brown Pehcans 
and Xantus' Murrelets breed as far north as the 
Channel Islands, although they are much more 
abundant farther south. The breeding range of 
Ashy Storm-Petrels is restricted to coasts between 
northern Baja California, Mexico, and Marin 
County in northern California. Fork-tailed 
Storm-Petrels, Pelagic Cormorants, Common 
Murres, Pigeon Guillemots, Marbled Murrelets, 
Rhinoceros Auklets, and Tufted Puffins are all 
cool water species and reach the southern limits 
of their breeding range within Cahfomia. Pelagic 
Cormorants and Pigeon Guillemots breed as far 
south as the northern Channel Islands, as did 
Common Murres and Tufted Puffins until the 
early part of this century. Breeding Common 
Murres and Tufted Puffins can now be found only 
as far south as Monterey County in central 
California. Marbled Murrelets probably breed no 
farther south than the coastal forests in Santa 
Cruz County, although they have been observed 
as far south as Point Sal during the breeding 
season. Probably the southernmost breeding 
location of the Rhinoceros Auklet is at Point 
Arguello (501 Oil). The southern range limit of 
breeding Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels lies in the 
islands of Trinidad Bay. 

Point Conception and the northern Channel 
Islands are considered the boundary zone between 
warm and cold waters in California. There 
is no clean division of water masses in this area, 
however. The region is, instead, a complex 
oceanographic zone. The principal oceanographic 
components are a cold southerly-flowing offshore 
current (the California Current), a cold northerly- 
flowing offshoot of the Cahfornia Current (the 
Southern Cahfomia Countercurrent), and a cold 
southerly-flowing inshore current (the Southern 
California Coastal Current), all of which are 
seplarated in part by bodies of warm water. At 
this complex junction of water masses, Black 
Storm-Petrels, Brown Pehcans, Pelagic Cormorants, 
Pigeon Guillemots, and Xantus' Murrelets reach 
the limits of their breeding ranges. 

Populations of seabirds living at the edges of 
their breeding ranges are often small. This is 
best illustrated in California by Fork -tailed Storm- 
Petrels, Black Storm-Petrels, and Tufted Puffins. 
These populations may be particularly susceptible 
to changing environmental conditions and distur- 



bance. If local extinction should occur, as it has 
in the case of the Tufted Puffin in the Channel 
Islands, re-establishment could take a very long 
time. 

Breeding activity of seabirds in Cahfomia is 
related to the hydrographic cycle by its synchrony 
with a period of upwelhng that usually begins in 
March. During this period, strong northwest 
winds develop and surface waters along the 
coast move southerly and offshore. Cold, high- 
salinity waters upwell along the coast to replace 
surface waters moving away from the shore. 
Once these cold, nutrient-rich waters reach the 
photosynthetic zone, they trigger a phytoplankton 
bloom which in turn triggers an increase first of 
'zooplankton and later of fish and squid. Bolin and 
Abbot (1963) have shown that in Monterey Bay, 
phytoplankton begins increasing in late January 
and peaks in June. Seabirds of all species in 
Cahfomia concentrate their breeding activites 
from as early as late winter through June and 
early July, coinciding with the time of peak 
plankton production. 

Productivity of plankton along the coast 
decreases in late summer and early fall during the 
oceanic period of the hydrographic cycle (Bolin 
and Abbot 1963). At this time of year, the 
strong northwest winds abate. Cold, surface 
waters sink and are replaced by warm, low- 
nutrient waters from offshore. Lack of food at 
this time of year may help explain the cessation 
of breeding activity and the occurence of periodic 
die-offs of young birds, especially Common 
Murres. 

The intensity and duration of the upwelhng 
period may influence the number of birds breeding 
and their productivity. This may explain the 
decreases in numbers of Brandt's Cormorants 
which we observed at many sites in California in 
1980 from the numbers we observed in 1979, 
which was apparently a banner year for seabirds 
in Cahfomia. 

During the fall and winter, warm, nutrient- 
depleted waters intrude into the Califomia coastal 
zone. These coastal waters move slowly northward, 
pushed by predominantly southerly winds to 
form a countercurrent (Schwartzlose 1963). If, 
during the following period of upwelhng, north- 
west winds are not strong and persistent, upwelhng 
will be weak. Water temperatures will be higher, 
plankton productivity lower, and the numbers of 
breeding seabirds and their productivity will 
decline. Fluctuations in these oceanic conditions 
occur yearly, so variation in the number of 
breeding seabirds and their productivity is 



16 



Pt. Reyes' 

\N FRANCISC0i 



The timing and success of breeding of many 
\ California seabirds is related to the upwellingi 
\of cold, nutrient-rich water. This enhanced \ 
] infrared satellite photograph shows cold water] 
\ masses (lighter in color) upwelling along the 
I coast, particularly near prominent points. 

Photo compliments ofNOAA 



common. 

More prolonged changes in climate can also 
influence breeding populations of seabirds. 
Cassin's Auklets, now the most abundant seabirds 
on the Farallon Islands, were rare on those islands 
in the mid-1 800's (Ainley and Lewis 1974). 
These auklets are cold water birds found from the 
Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, north to 
the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. In 
Cahfomia, the breeding period of this species 
coincides with the period of upwelling of cold, 
nutrient-rich waters when zooplankton is most 
abundant. According to Hubbs (1948), the ocean 
climate from 1853 to the 1870's was dominated 
by a northward intrusion of warm water. Ainley 
and Lewis (1974) believe this northward intrusion 
of warm water extended as far north as the San 
Francisco-Farallones region and may explain the 
scarcity of Cassin's Auklets on the Farallon 
Islands during that time. Additional evidence of 
this was found during two other warm water 
periods in recent years when Cassin's Auklet 
productivity on the Farallon Islands was signif- 
icantly lower than in cold water years (Ainley and 
Lewis 1974). 

Gradual changes in seabird populations may 
also occur in response to the gradual degradation 
and formation of nesting habitat. Many islands 
and rocks along the California coast are eroding 
away. During this process, the habitat changes 
and it may become more suitable to some species 
and less suitable to others. For example, younger 
islands with deep soil layers are preferred by 
burrowing species such as storm-petrels, Cassin's 
Auklets, Rhinoceros Auklets, and Tufted Puffins. 
As the soil erodes away, islands become less 
suitable to these species. Cormorants may 
colonize the barer regions of the island and speed 
soil and vegetation loss. Once an island is stripped 
of soil and vegetation it may be suitable only 
for cormorants, murres, and, to a lesser extent, 
Western Gulls. 

Examples of nesting islands in different 
stages of their evolution are evident up and down 
the California coast. Point Sur, at the north end 
of Big Sur, and Trinidad Head in northern 
California are obvious islands-in-the-making, 
although they are still attached to the mainland. 
Pewetole Island, north of Trinidad Head, is a 
forested island recently cut off from the mainland, 
still accessible to predator^ \mi tide, and at the 
present time inhabited onty by Black Oyster- 
catchers. This island appears to offer excellent 
petrel habitat and could become an important 
colony once the channel between it and the 



mainland deepens. Little River Rock (325 035) is 
a treeless but heavily vegetated island in northern 
California, accessible to humans by wading at low 
tide. Little River Rock is the largest storm-petrel 
colony in California but it has recently been 
colonized by Double-crested Cormorants which 
are degrading the habitat for burrowing species 
(Harris pers. comm.). 

Flatiron Rock (325 023) is an almost bare 
island in northern California presently inhabited 
by large numbers of Common Murres, Brandt's 
Cormorants, Western Gulls, and a very few Pigeon 
Guillemots and Tufted Puffins. Clay (unpubl. 
field notes) in 1911 reported Tufted Puffins as 
numerous there and also found nests of Pigeon 
Guillemots, Cassin's Auklets, and Leach's Storm- 
Petrels. We found the burrow nesting habitat to 
be poor in quality and used by few birds during 
our visits to the island in 1980. 

These examples show a continuum in the 
evolution of seabird nesting habitat from future 
islands, to new islands with deep soil, to older 
islands with less soil, suitable only for surface 
nesting seabirds, and finally to wave-washed rocks 
unsuitable for nesting. 

Seabirds themselves can be active agents in 
the evolution of nesting habitat. Pelicans, cormo- 
rants and gulls remove plants for nest building 
and their excrement sometimes kills vegetation. 
Burrowing species contribute to the destruction 
of their own nesting habitat by digging burrows 
and removing soil. Puffin Island, in the Chamisso 
Island National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, is a 
vivid example. There, a burrowing population of 
Homed Puffins has created long, deep furrows in 
the sod where burrows have collapsed, accelerating 
recession of the vegetative cover from the nesting 
area and hastening the removal of soil through 
erosion (DeGange and Sowls unpubl. data). 

Seabird numbers and productivity vary 
naturally from year to year and also over longer 
periods of time. Man's activites have in the 
past had largely adverse effects on California's 
seabirds. Additional conflicts in the future are 
likely, but still avoidable. We hope that planners 
will carefully consider the welfare of seabirds 
when making coastal policy decisions. To this 
end, the catalog of California seabird colonies will 
be useful. Seabird populations in this state can 
flourish indefinitely, as long as they can satisfy 
their basic needs - food, sufficient habitat, a clean 
environment, and freedom from disturbance. In 
this sense, "management" of seabirds should be 
directed towards meeting these needs. 



18 




Common Murres at Point Reyes (429 001). How many? Our count is at bottom of page 21. 

Photo by Anthony R. DeGange 



19 



Fork-tailed Storm -Petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) 




— ^is-'t 




World Breeding Range 



Fork-tailed Stomi-Petrels are small seabirds 
often found far from land over the open ocean. 
They usually feed at the ocean's surface on 
plankton but are known to follow fishing vessels 
and to feed on scraps and fishing offal. Although 
the species occurs in California, its center of 
abundance appears to be the Aleutian Islands and 
the Gulf of Alaska (Sowls et al. 1978). 

Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels breed on offshore 
rocks and islands safe from mainland predators. 
Throughout their range they nest in both rocky 
crevices and, to a lesser extent, burrows in soil. 

To avoid diurnal predators, colony activity 
occurs during the darkest hours of the night. 
Adults mate, exchange incubation and brooding 
duties, and feed chicks only during the night, 
remaining in the burrow or returning to offshore 
waters by day. For this reason Fork-tailed Storm- 
Petrels are rarely seen at the breeding colonies 
during the day. Their nocturnal habits make 
detection of colonies difficult and estimation of 
populations imprecise. 

CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels have been iden- 
tified at six sites in California, all north of Eureka 
(Harris 1974, this study). The largest of these. 
Little River Rock (325 035), is inhabited by 
approximately 200 birds. The population at 
Castle Rock (325 006) is estimated at 100 birds 
(Osborne 1972), and the other four colonies 



together probably contain fewer than 100 birds 
(Harris 1974, present study). All major colonies 
of Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels in California have 
probably been found, but additional small colonies 
may still exist. 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Published data indicate that since the 
1930's, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels have disappeared 
from three California sites and been found at an 
additional four sites. A major colony of storm- 
petrels was extirpated from Whaler Island 
(325 045), Del Norte County, after construc- 
tion of a breakwater to the island in the 1930's 
(Osborne 1972). Clay and Dawson found 
Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels nesting on Blank 
Rock (325 023) in 1916 (Dawson 1923) but this 
species no longer breeds there (Osborne 1972). 
Soil erosion probably led to their disappearance 
from these two islands. Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels 
have recently been found on Little River Rock 
(325 035), Prisoner Rock (325 027), and Tolowa 
Rocks (325 007) (Osborne 1972, Harris 1974, 
this study). These recent discoveries probably 
reflect a more thorough search for nests rather 
than an increase in population and colonization 
of new sites. 

Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels readily desert 
their nests if disturbed by humans during incuba- 
tion or while parents are brooding recently hatched 
chicks. Evidence from studies of an Alaskan 



20 



100% J 


California Colonies 


zt 


Catalog Total 




-I 


310 birds: 
N. • = colony sites 




> r» 


\v = former sites 




^S 






^ 


\^ 




I. 


\v 


( 


\^^ 


\ 


\. 


T- 


^_J 


Breeding Population. 


/ 



Breeding Chronology 



Northam California 




Incubation Period •37-68 days 
Nwtling Py iod ■ <6 dayi 



(3.4.17,24,10) 



Contfil Cilifomia 



NotBfMdint' 



ItuaieTS in parentheses correspond to the 
references from vhlch ve obtained the data. 



Southtm California ' 



Not Braiding; 



Jan. I Feb. | Mar. | Apr. | May I Juna | July I Aug. | Sep. | Oct. | Nov. | Dae. 



population shows that extremely unfavorable 
weather conditions or insufficient food supplies 
will cause parents to temporarily abandon eggs 
and chicks (Boersma et al. 1980). Such temporary 
abandonment of nests reduces viability of eggs, 
causes death among chicks, and lengthens the 
breeding season (Boersma and Wheelwright 1979, 
Boersma etal. 1980). 

Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels are most vulner- 
able to oil pollution during the summer months 
when their movements are restricted to nearshore 
areas by breeding activities (Lensink et al. 1978, 
Wiens et al. 1978.) While these petrels generally 
feed in waters over the continental shelf (Lensink 
et al. 1978), they are usually uncommon in the 
coastal zone of CaUfomia and become more 
abundant only during years of unreasonably cold 
water (Ainley 1976). Considering this species' 
small population size, restricted number of 
breeding sites, and low reproductive potential, 
any major disturbances to their breeding colonies 
could be disastrous to the CaUfomia populations. 




Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels, like allprocellariiformes. 
have a tube-nose. 



Our count for photograph, page 19 : Common Murre = 4,000; Brandt's Cormorant = 1 

21 



Leach's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) 




Leach's Storm-Petrels are the most abundant 
of the storm-petrels breeding in California and are 
probably the most pelagic of the four species. 
Although breeding colonies are confined to the 
northern hemisphere, wintering birds range south 
to tropical waters in both the Pacific and Atlantic 
Oceans (Pahner 1962). 

Like all storm-petrels, Leach's Storm-Petrels 
are nocturnal on the breeding colonies, an 
adaptation which reduces their susceptibiUty to 
diurnal predators such as gulls. Nests are ususally 
located in burrows or, less frequently, in rock 
crevices (Palmer 1962). Leach's Storm-Petrels 
have a well-developed olfactory system (Bang 
1966, Stager 1967) and Grubb (1973, 1974) has 
suggested that these birds, which often nest in 
crowded colonies in dense spruce forests, may 
locate their burrows by odor. 

Like most seabirds. Leach's Storm-Petrels 
exhibit relatively long lifespans and low mortality 
rates for their size. Individuals that survive the 
hazardous first year of Ufe can live up to 24 years 
and possibly longer (Graham 1980). Additional 
references on this well-studied species include 
Ainley et al. (1974, 1976) AinsUe and Atkinson 
(1937), Gross (1935), Harris (1974), Huntmgton 
(1963), Morse and Buchheister (1979), ThrelfaU 
(1974), and Wilbur (1969). 

CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Leach's Storm-Petrels are known or suspected 
to breed at 13 sites along the California coastline. 



While most sites are located in the northern part 
of the state, recent evidence suggests that small 
numbers of Leach's Storm-Petrels may also nest 
in the Channel Islands (Hunt et al. 1979). 

The largest colony in California is located at 
Little River Rock (325 035), which has 10,000 
birds (Harris 1974). Other major colonies are 
Castle Rock (325 006) with 5,000 birds, the 
Farallon Islands (429 012) with 1,400 birds, 
Trinidad Bay Rocks (325 054) with 1 ,640 birds, 
and Prisoner Rock (325 027) with 160 birds. 

Colonies are suspected to exist at Fish Rocks 
(404 003), Prince Island (325 003), and Tolowa 
Rocks (325 007), although nests of this species 
have not been found at these locations. On both 
Fish Rocks and Prince Island suitable nesting 
habitat is available and Leach's Storm-Petrels with 
clearly visible incubation patches have been 
mist-netted and banded. We are confident that 
Leach's Storm-Petrels breed at Fish Rocks because 
of our recapture of banded birds there and 
the island's isolation from other known Leach's 
Storm-Petrel colonies. At Prince Island no 
recaptures of banded birds were made and it is 
possible that the birds we caught were from 
nearby colonies at Castle Rock (325 006) and 
Goat Island, Oregon. At Tolowa Rocks, the less 
common Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels were found 
nesting in burrows. Many unexamined burrows 
were present and it seems likely that Leach's 
Storm-Petrels nest there. 

All major colonies of Leach's Storm-Petrels 
in California have probably been identified, but 



22 



Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



California Colonies 

Catalog Total 
18,304 birds 
colony sites 
former sites 




Breeding Chronology 



Northern California 



Farallon Itlandt 



Southam California 



Incubation Psrkxl ■ *2 dayi 
Nwtliog Period - 66 -70 dayi 



ew laying 



(24) 



•« laying 



: 1(1) 



hatching 



^fiB 



•09 layiofl 



(31) 



? 



-n hatching 



No data available for Channal Itlandt populations. 
Chrono/ogy conttructad from datat of aggt ■% • 

collacted in Lot Coronadot Itlandt of . 

Maxico. 



^ 



—. fledging 

MM 



r 1 tm^am^m^am^^^^mm^^ 

Jan. I Fab. | Mar, j Apr, j May | June | July | Aug. | Sep. I Oct. | Nov. | D^ 



additional small colonies may exist on almost any 
island with suitable habitat. 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Limited published data suggest that Leach's 
Storm-Petrels have decUned in number in 
California since the turn of the century. Breeding 
colonies were once found on Whaler Island (325 
045), Blank Rock (325 024), Flatiron Rock (325 
023), and Green Rock (325 020). They have 
been extirpated from the first three islands and 
only one dead petrel was found on Green Rock 
during a survey in 1970 (Osborne, 1972). On 
Whaler Island, a colony of 20,000 storm-petrels 
was destroyed after construction of a breakwater 
to the island in the late 1 930's and the breakwater's 
subsequent strengthening in the early 1950's. 
The island was quarried for rock and the intro- 
duction of rats hastened the colony's demise 
(Osborne 1972). Storm-petrels on Blank, Flatiron, 
and Green Rocks may have been reduced in 
number or eliminated by over-collecting and 
accelerated soil erosion caused by early egg 
collectors and by erosion caused by nesting 
cormorants and murres. 

Harris (pers. comm.) believes that the recently 
established breeding population of Double-crested 
Cormorants on Little River Rock (325 035) 
is preempting and destroying storm-petrel nesting 
habitat. This Double-crested Cormorant colony 
has increased substantially in recent years, from 
two pairs in 1974 to about 50 pairs in 1980 



(Yocom and Harris 1975, this study). Nearby 
Trinidad Bay Rocks (325 054) may be receiving 
the petrels displaced from Little River Rock. For 
example, Button Rock (325 054) had no nesting 
storm-petrels in 1970 (Osborne 1972), but in 
1980 approximately 1,000 Leach's Storm- 
Petrels were actively breeding there. Nevertheless, 
the loss of nesting habitat through soil erosion 
and the displacement of birds by cormorants may 
be two of the most significant threats to storm- 
petrels in California. 

Predators such as River Otters (Lutra 
canadensis) and Mink (Mustela vison) can also be 
detrimental to storm-petrel colonies. Osborne 
(1972) found about 90 dead Leach's Storm 
Petrels on Prisoner Rock during surveys in 1969, 
1970, and 1972 and attributed these losses to 
mink. In 1980 we observed 45 Leach's Storm- 
Petrel carcasses on Prisoner Rock and suspect a 
river otter was the predator. Despite this loss, our 
estimate of Leach's Storm-Petrels for this colony 
remains similar to Osborne's. The population of 
Leach's Storm-Petrels on the Farallon Islands 
appears relatively stable in size (Ainley and Lewis 
1974). 

Leach's Storm-Petrels are vulnerable to 
contamination by oil. The period of greatest 
susceptibility is from February to October when 
they are most abundant off coastal California. 
During the winter they are uncommon within 
30 kilometers of shore (Ainley 1976) and are 
unlikely to be affected by coastal oil spills. 



23 



Ashy Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa) 





World Breeding Range 



Ashy Storm-Petrels, like other storm-petrels, 
are diminutive birds well suited to oceanic Ufe. 
Their breeding range overlaps with that of their 
close relative, the Leach's Storm-Petrel, but they 
occupy different feeding niches. The Ashy 
Storm-Petrel forages in the waters of the California 
Current, just off the continental shelf, while the 
Leach's Storm-Petrel feeds over a vast pelagic 
range (Ainley et al. 1974). 

Ashy Storm-Petrels and other members of 
the family Hydrobatidae feed on small inverte- 
brates and fish caught at the ocean surface. All 
hydrobatid young are fed a pecuUar smelUng oil 
which the adults regurgitate. This oil, or "petro- 
leum," as labelled by Griimell (1897), provides a 
concentrated energy source for growth of the 
young and allows adults to carry more food than 
if they return with whole prey. 

Ashy Storm-Petrels usually nest in natural 
rock crevices, although the Farallon Island 
population uses rock walls and buUding foundations 
as weU (Ainley et al. 1974). Adults are nocturnal 
at the colonies and may only return with food 
every few nights. Foraging trips lasting several 
days probably allow storm-petrels to feed over a 
larger range to optimize their effort. 

The nocturnal habits of Ashy Storm-Petrels 
may serve to reduce predation by normally 
diurnal Western Gulls. On the Farallon Islands, 
Ainley et al. (1974) found "that only one percent 
of the storm-petrels were taken by Western Gulls 
each year. In addition, Ashy Storm-Petrel young 



fledge late in the year after many of the gulls have 
left the Farallon Islands and by this strategy may 
avoid a potentially serious post-fledging mortaUty. 

CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

With the exception of one small colony in 
the Los Coronados Islands of Mexico, estimated 
to contain about six birds (Jehl pers. comm.), the 
entire known world's population of Ashy Storm- 
Petrels inests on islands off the CaUfomia coast. 
More than 75 percent (4,000 birds) of the recorded 
population nests on the Farallon Islands (429 
012). The remainder of the population, except 
for a small colony at Bird Rock (404 010), nests 
in the Channel Islands. 

Nine colony sites have been found in the 
Channel Islands. Major colonies are located on 
Prince Island (501 004) with 600 birds. Castle 
Rock (501 005) with 200 birds, and Santa 
Barbara Island (524 009) with 250 birds. Addi- 
tional smaU colonies are located on San Miguel 
Island (501 006), and small islets offshore of 
Santa Barbara and Santa Cruz Islands. Although 
additional small colonies of Ashy Storm-Petrels 
may exist in the Channel Islands and elsewhere 
along the Cahfomia coast, the largest colonies 
have probably been identified. All identified 
colonies together contain approximately 5,200 
birds. It seems unlikely that the population 
exceeds 10,000 birds, allowing for possible under- 
estimation of known colonies and the existence 



24 



California Colonies 

Catalog Total 
5,187 birds 
• = colony sites 



77% 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



Breeding Chronology 



Norttwm Caljfofnia 



Clutch- 1 

Incubation Period - 42 d«y« 

Nestling Period ■ 76 dey> 



(1) 



Not Breeding 



Haabers In parentheses correspond to the 
references from which we obtained the data . 



Farellon Itlandi 



n = p~» 



Channel lilarxlt 



^ 



eggleying 



lAi 



U) 



^^ 



egg laying 



' 7 ' 
hetching 



(2a,29> 
7 ? 7 



fledging 



7 7 7 

adults preMnt 



Jan. I Feb. | Mar. | Apr. | May | June | July | Aug. | Sep. | Oct. I Nov. | Dec. 



of non-breeding birds and some small undiscovered 
colonies. 



Preserve. The remainder of the Channel Islands 
have recently been designated a National Park. 



HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Populations of Ashy Storm-Petrels along the 
California coast have probably changed Uttle in 
size over the years, although httle information on 
their historical status exists. Ainley and Lewis 
(1974) discuss the history of Ashy Storm-Petrels 
on the Farallon Islands where observations of 
storm-petrels were made as early as 1 862. Relevant 
historical material for the Channel Islands is 
summarized by Hunt et al. (1979). 

Ashy Storm-Petrel colonies can be affected 
by disturbance by humans and terrestrial pred- 
ators. Adults are vulnerable to surface oil slicks, 
but fortunately they disperse widely along the 
coast, a habit which reduces the chances that a 
large percentage of the population will contact a 
particular pollutant. However, during the fall 
large numbers of Ashy Storm-Petrels are known to 
concentrate in Monterey Bay (Ainley 1976). 

The small world population of Ashy Storm- 
Petrels has restricted breeding and wintering 
ranges. Each known area of concentration, both 
during breeding and non-breeding seasons, is 
valuable to the species. Fortunately, the most 
important nesting sites in CaUfomia are protected, 
the Farallon Islands as a National Wildlife Refuge 
and Santa Cruz Island as a Nature Conservancy 



25 



Black Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma melania) 





World Breeding Range 



The Black Storm-Petrel merits the distinction 
of being the rarest breeding seabird on the 
CaUfomia coast. They are known to nest in 
California only at two sites in the Channel Islands 
which together contain approximately 150 birds 
(Hunt et al. 1979). Although Black Storm-Petrels 
were not discovered nesting in CaUfomia until 

1976 (Pitman and Speich 1976), they have been 
known to breed in the nearby Los Coronados 
Islands since 1898 (Anthony 1898). 

Fall dispersal from the breeding colonies is 
generally southward Jout wintering birds have 
been observed in offshore waters from San 
Francisco south to Ecuador. They seem to prefer 
relatively warm ocean waters. Black Storm-Petrels 
feed primarily on small fish and invertebrates 
taken near tne ocean surface and on garbage 
discarded by passing ships (Anthony 1898, Willet 
1933, Murphy 1936). 

CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Black Storm-Petrels nest in California only 
on Santa Barbara Island (524 008) and nearby 
Sutil Island (524 009) in the Channel Islands 
(Hunt et al. 1979). The population estimate of 
150 breeding birds was deduced primarily by mist 
net banding and recapture during several nights in 

1977 (Hunt et al. 1979). Since Black Storm-Petrels 
nest in low densities in scattered natural crevices 
and burrows of other species, censusing is 
extremely difficult (Bent 1922, Palmer 1962) and 
little is known of this bird's breeding biology. 



Additional nesting locations may exist in southern 
CaUfomia. 

Breeding Black Storm-Petrels are present 

8 kilometers south of the U.S. -Mexico border in 

Los Coronados Islands. This population is 

estimated at approximately 200 birds and appears 

"stable (Jehl pers. comm.). 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

The size of historical breeding populations 
of Black Storm-Petrels in California is unknown, 
but it seems unUkely that this species has ever 
been common. SmaU numbers of breeding petrels 
nesting on Santa Barbara Island could easily have 
been overlooked by previous investigators (Hunt 
et.al. 1979). 

Small peripheral breeding populations such 
as the Channel Island colonies are extremely 
vulnerable to extirpation (MacArthur and Wilson 
1967). The Santa Barbara and Sutil Island 
colonies could be destroyed by disturbance 
either of the breeding grounds or of offshore 
wintering areas, and care should be taken to 
protect these sites. Population declines at the 
more populous colonies in Mexico may have a 
negative effect on the CaUfomia colonies by 
reducing potential breeding recruitment. Fortu- 
nately Santa Barbara and Sutil Islands and the 
nearest Mexican breeding Islands are protected as 
sanctuaries by their respective govemments. 



26 



California Colonies 

Catalog Total 

150 birds 
• = colony sites 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



Breeding Chronology 



Northern California 



Incubation Psriod - 42dav«7 7 
Nestling Partod - 70 • 7S dayi 7 ? 



Not Braading 



Numbers in parentheses correspond to the 
references from which we obtained the data. 



Central California 



Channel Islands 



—I hatching 



A/o data available for Channal ft/andt populationt. 
Chronology constructad from datet of aggs collactad 
in Los Coronados Islartdt of Mexico. 



^fib 



(31) 



ftodging 



! adulti p rmiit 



Jan. I Feb. I M»f. j Ape. I May I Jiin« | July | Au«. I S«p. I Oct. I No». | D«c 




Black Storm-Petrels are considerably larger than Ashy Storm-Petrels. 



Photo by Robert L. Pitman 



27 



Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) 





World Breeding Range 



The Brown Pelican is one of the most 
conspicuous and easily {identifled members of the 
marine avifauna of California. It is included on the 
endangered species list of the U.S. Fish and WildUfe 
Service. In CaUfomia, Brown PeUcans are slowly 
increasing in number, but their continued recovery 
is uncertain. 

The large number of Brown Pelicans in 
California during summer, fall, and early winter 
belies the actually small breeding population. 
Many birds migrate northward from Mexico after 
breeding in spring. These birds feed and molt in 
California and southern Oregon before returning 
to Mexico in early winter. 

Brown Pelicans in California and Baja 
California, Mexico, build large stick nests on the 
ground (Gress 1970). The lusterless, white eggs 
are incubated by adult pelicans using their webbed 
feet; a habit characteristic of many birds in the 
order Pelecaniformes (pelicans, boobies, cormo- 
rants, frigatebirds, and tropicbirds). Brown 
Pelicans feed by making spectacular plunges into 
the water. Throughout their range, fish are the 
chief food!(Palmer 1962). The Northern Anchovy 
(Anderson et al. 1975, 1980) makes up nearly the 
entire diet of breeding birds in California. 

Reproductive success of Brown Pelicans can 
vary markedly from year to year. Changes in 
oceanographic conditions and in the distribution 
and abundance of forage fish are two interrelated 
factors that may account for this fluctuation. 

CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Brown Pelicans breed regularly in California 
only on West Anacapa Island (502 007). In 



recent years they have also nested intermittently 
on Santa Barbara Island (524 008) and Scorpion 
Rock (502 010). 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

The California breeding range of the Brown 
Pelican formerly extended as far north as Bird 
Island (454 009) near Monterey. Pelicans have 
bred only sporadically on this island since the 
colony was discovered in 1927, and the last 
successful nesting attempt was in 1959 (Williams 
1927, Baldridge 1973). 

Historically, West Anacapa Island has been 
the island most consistently used for nesting 
by Brown Pelicans in California. Before 1929, 
birds nested primarily on East Anacapa Island but 
establishment of a lighthouse there likely caused 
the breeding population to shift to West Anacapa 
Island. Population estimates for Brown Pelicans 
on Anacapa Island have fluctuated considerably 
over the years and are summarized by Anderson 
and Anderson (1976) and Hunt et al. (1979). 
Historical records also exist of Brown Pelicans 
nesting on Prince Island (501 004), Santa Cruz 
Island, and Santa Barbara Island (524 008). 
Brown Pelicans were last recorded nesting on 
Prince Island in 1939 (Sumner 1939). The only 
record of pelicans nesting on Santa Cruz Island 
was made by Wright in 1909 (Willett 1912), 
although up to 1 60 birds have nested on nearby 
Scorpion Rock (502 010) in 1972, 1974, and 
1975 (Anderson and Anderson 1976). Brovvm 
Pelicans were first observed breeding on Santa 
Barbara Island in 1911 (Willett 1912) and have 
nested intermittently there until 1980 (Gress 



28 



California Colonies 



Catalog Total 

2, 690 birds 
• = colony sites 
= former sites 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



Breeding Chronology 



Northern C«lilQmi« 



(20,21,29) 
Clutch - 2-3 

Incubation Period - 30 day* 
Nestling Period - 13 weeks 



Not Breeding 



lumbers in parentheses correspond co the 
references from which ve obtained the data. 



Bird Island «S4 009 ) 

i 1 



egg laying 



7 
hatching 



No nming tnempn i/nc« I96S. Branding chronology 
from cambintd yaart 1933 to 1959. SM text. 



J : 
? ?: 



fledging 



(7) 



idutts pTMcnt 



Channel Islands 



egg laying 



hatching 



17.20) 



fledging 



adults present 



Jan. I Feb. | Mar. | Apr. | May | June | July | Aug. | Sep. I Oct. I Nov. | I 



pers. comm.). 

In the late 1960's and early 1970's, the 
reproductive success of Brown Pelicans declined 
considerably in CaUfomia and northern Mexico. 
From 1969 to 1971 only 12 chicks fledged out of 
2,368 nesting attempts (Gress et al. 1973, 
Anderson and Anderson 1976). The breeding 
failures of Brown Pelicans during this period were 
related to the high levels of DDE, the principal 
metabolite of DDT, in the marine environment 
(Schreiber and Delong 1969, Schreiber and 
Riseborough 1972, Riseborough et al. 1971, Jehl 
1973, Anderson and Anderson 1976). 

Brown Pelicans in CaUfomia feed at the top 
of a food chain that also includes plankton and 
anchovies. At each higher level of this food 
chain, concentrations of pesticides were magnified 
until^- in Brown PeUcans, metabolism and depo- 
sition of calcium in eggs were impaired and egg 
shell thicknesses were reduced as much as 50 
percent from normal (Anderson et al. 1975). 
Breaking of thin-shelled eggs under the weight of 
incubating adults reduced hatching success to 
almost zero (Gress et al. 1973). Dumping of DDT 
into the sewage system of the Los Angeles area 
ceased in 1970 and since 1972 the reproductive 
success of the Brown Pelican in southern California 
and northern Mexico has improved. Ten years 
after the DDT dumping ban, DDE levels have 
stabilized at lower levels than in the past, but the 
effects of this chemical on the Brown Pelican 
continue. 

Brown Pelicans reach the northern limit of 
their breeding range in southern California. 
Historically, breeding populations of Brown 



PeUcans in southern California have fluctuated in 
response to environmental conditions. Current 
thought suggests that these populations increase 
during periods of ocean warming (Baldridge 1973, 
Anderson and Anderson 1976). The recent 
history of this natural population flux has been 
complicated since the 1950's by a consistent 
decline in the numbers of Brown PeUcans because 
of environmental contamination by chlorinated 
hydrocarbons (Anderson and Anderson 1976). 

Although the threat of environmental 
contamination by pesticides has diminished, the 
future of the Brown PeUcan in California is not 
necessarily secure. Brown PeUcans can be seriously 
affected by oil spUls since they plunge dive to 
feed and often sit on the water. They are limited 
to nearshore areas where oil spills are likely to be 
most common and severe. Brown PeUcans in 
southern California feed almost exclusively on 
Northern Anchovies, a fish also in great demand 
by man. A sustained high commercial catch 
could deplete the fish stocks necessary for success- 
ful peUcan nesting. Any changes in anchovy 
management must take into account the require- 
ments of a potentiaUy expanding population of 
Brown Pelicans. 

Breeding Brown PeUcans are highly suscep- 
tible to disturbance. Reproductive success is 
lower in colonies that have been disturbed by 
man than in those imdisturbed (Anderson and 
Keith 1 980). Increases in the number of tourists 
at several colonies in Mexico could cause a serious 
decrease in the reproductive success of this 
species .md might have important effects on 
southern California populations. 



29 



Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) 




Double-crested Cormorants are the most 
widespread of all cormorants in North America. 
They are also the only cormorant in the United 
States and Canada regularly found in freshwater 
habitats. In CaUfomia, Double-crested Cormo- 
rants are found breeding along the coast and 
inland near large rivers and lakes. Despite their 
widespread breeding distribution, they are 
probably the least abundant of the cormorants in 
California. 

Double-crested Cormorants nest in a variety 
of habitats. Along the coast they nest on offshore 
rocks and islands, on abandoned wharf timbers, 
and on power poles in coastal bays. Cormorants 
living inland nest in trees or snags, around lakes, 
or on islands within the lakes. They construct 
nests of sticks or matted vegetation gathered near 
the colony. 

Double-crested Cormorants are sleek and 
strong swimmers that prey on shallow-water fish 
(Robertson 1974). After their fishing sessions, 
they are frequently seen extending their wings to 
dry. Cormorant feathers become completely 
saturated during underwater swimming and 
require periodic drying (Rijke 1968). Many 
Double-crested Cormorants which nest on coastal 
rocks and islands feed in nearby bays and rivers of 
the mainland. Even birds nesting as far offshore 
as the Farallon Islands (429 012) may come to 
the coast to feed if local food supplies are poor 
(Ainley pers. comm.). 



CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Double-crested Cormorant colonies are 
located in the Channel Islands and Farallon 
Islands and on nearshore rocks and islands north 
of San Francisco. There are 17 coastal sites listed 
in this catalog. The largest of these sites is Prince 
Island (325 003) with 450 birds. Other large 
colonies are Old Areata Wharf (325 038) with 
340 birds and the Farallon Islands (429 012) with 
180 birds. The remaining 14 coastal sites have 
150 or fewer birds. The total breeding population 
on the coast of CaUfomia now contains about 
1,900 birds. The largest inland population in 
CaUfomia breeds near Tule Lake, Siskiyou 
County (Kelly pers. comm.). 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Populations of Double-crested Cormorants 
on the Channel Islands may have declined in size 
significantly since the tum of the century, but 
numbers may now be increasing (Hunt et al. 
1979). The reasons for the prolonged decline are 
unknown. However, in the late 1960's and early 
1970's pesticide contamination caused thinning 
of eggsheUs of Double-crested Cormorants and 
Brown Pelicans in the Channel Islands, 
considerably lowering the reproductive success of 
these two species (Gress et al. 1973). EggsheU 
thinning in Double-crested Cormorants has also 



30 



10% 



Calitornia Colonies 

Catalog Total 
1,884 birds* 
• = colony sites 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 

coastal population only 



Breeding Chronology 



Northern California 



CMC..2.7 '5,i,J7, 

Incubation Period - 26 - 27 dayi 
Nestling Period -36-42 days 



hatchinfl 



fledging 



Faralton Islarkdt 



hatching 



■ ?7 
fledging 



177 
aduftt preaent 



Channel Islands 



^^ 



^^ 



hatching 



«ii 



fledging 



0) 



adults pmant 



(1) 



(29) 



^ adults prssant 



Jan. I Feb. \ Mar. [ Apr. [ May | June | July | Aug. | Sep. | Oct. | Nov. | Pec. 



been documented at the Old Areata Wharf (325 
038) colony in northern CaUfomia (Ayers 1975). 

On the Farallon Islands, Double-crested 
Cormorants were once the second most abundant 
species of cormorant, numbering in the low 
thousands (Ainley and Lewis, 1974). This 
population of cormorants declined in size between 
the 1800's and the early 1900's as a result of 
disturbance by commercial egg collectors. The 
population has not yet recovered, although egg 
collecting stopped long ago. Its failure to do so 
may be related to the disappearance of the Pacific 
Sardine (Sardinops caerulea) from central and 
northern CaUfomia (Ainley and Lewjs 1974). 

We compared the number of Double-crested 
Cormorants observed in the region north of Cape 
Mendocino during our study with Osborne's 
(1972) results and found that numbers had 
increased at three sites. Nests were absent from 
two other sites, but we found six additional 
colonies unreported by Osborne. The total 
number of Double-crested Cormorants in this 
region has apparently increased from 530 in 1970 
to 1,200 in 1980. These few data suggest that 
Double-crested Cormorants may be increasing in 
number on the north coast of California, but 
since yearly variations in nesting effort occur and 
cormorants have shown a tendency to switch 
nesting islands often, caution in such speculation 
is recommended. 

Human disturbance of Double-crested 



Cormorant colonies can be very destructive 
(Ayers 1975). Comiorant eggs and chicks are 
vulnerable to gull predation when adults are 
frightened off their nests by human intrusion 
(Kury and Gochfeld 1975). Inland colonies have 
probably been disrupted to a greater extent than 
any other Double-crested Cormorant colonies in 
the state because of lake development and recrea- 
tion (Kelly pers. comm.). 

Little is known of the vulnerabiUty of 
cormorants to oil, but few oUed birds have been 
found after California oil spills (Small et al. 1972, 
Berkner pers. comm.). Cormorants are mobile 
and it is likely they can avoid oil spills to some 
degree. Unlike other seabirds, cormorants spend 
large amounts of time out of the water. The 
greatest numbers of Double-crested Cormorants 
are found along the coast in winter, since many 
inland breeding birds move to the coast at this 
time of year. 



31 



Brandt's Connorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) 











#» 
«»^^> 





World Breeding Range 



Brandt's Connorants are the most abundant 
and conspicuous of the cormorants nesting on the 
California coast. Present the length of the 
California coast in summer, they leave areas of 
breeding concentration on the north coast and the 
Farallon Islands in early winter and disperse along 
the central and southern coast (Osborne 1972, 
DeSante and Ainley 1980). 

Brandt's Cormorants usually nest on the 
flat tops of offshore islands or, less frequently, on 
inaccessible mainland bluffs and cUff ledges. 
During the breeding season, these cormorants 
present a striking appearance with their bright 
blue throat pouches and white feather plumes 
on the sides of their heads. At colonies, Brandt's 
Connorants are opportimistic gatherers of nesting 
material (Hunt et al. 1979). They collect nearby 
grasses and herbaceous plants and pluck seaweeds 
from close tidal rocks. Once nests are constructed, 
continual additions are made, often with material 
stolen from neighboring nests (Palmer 1962). 

Nesting adults stand on their clutches of 
chalky blue eggs, incubating with their webbed 
feet. The young are bom without feathers, but 
soon are covered with coal black down. Nestlings 
feed by inserting their heads down the throats of 
their parents and removing partly digested fish 
remains. 

Strong swimmers and divers, Brandt's 
Cormorants prey on various species of fish 
(Hubbs et al, 1970, Scott 1973, Baltz and 
Morejohn 1977). Clay (1911) has reported 



Brandt's Cormorants caught in fishing nets at 
depths as great as 70 meters. These cormorants 
frequently feed in large flocks, often in company 
with other seabirds (Bent 1922). 

CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Brandt's Cormorants usually form large 
colonies compared to most other California nesting 
seabirds. The largest aggregation of Brandt's 
Cormorants is on the Farallon Islands (429 012), 
where 28,000 birds nested in 1979 (Ainley pers. 
comm.). At least 13 colonies contain more than 
1,000 birds. 

Over the years, Brandt's Cormorant colonies 
shift from one location to another (Hunt et al. 
1979, this study). Two hundred birds were 
recorded nesting on Casket Rock (379 009) in 
1969; no nests were observed in 1979, but 330 
birds nested there in 1980. Similar fluctuations 
occurred at White Rock (379 010), "333 Point" 
(379 032), and Arched Rock (404 006). Reasons 
for these movements are not well understood, but 
cormorants may have abandoned Prince Island 
(501 004) in 1977 because of a heavy flea 
infestation (Hunt et. al. 1979). 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Brandt's Connorant populations in the 
Channel Islands have declined in size since they 
were first recorded there in the late 1800's (Hunt 



32 



44% 



California Colonies 

Catalog Total 
64,210 birds 
• = colony sites 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



Breeding Chronology 



Nofthfn C*tifotni» 



TTT^ 



Cluto.- 26 I (-1,25,29; 
Incubation Period - 28 - 32 day* 
N««tlinfl Pf iod ■ 40-42 days 



Farailon Islands 



r~l = pa* 



laving 



(14,35,42) 



«dutt» pi w it 




cduHs prwMit 



ChwHWl lilands 



^^ 



anlayina 






(1) 



(28,29) 



■dultl pfMMIt 



■fan. 1 F«b. I Mar. | Apr. | May | Jun« | July | Aug. | S«p. | Oct. | Nov. | C»c 



et al. 1979). Hunt et al. (1979) speculate that 
they were affected first by human disturbance 
and later by the accumulation of pesticide residues. 
Thin eggshells, similar to those caused by DDE 
concentrations in Brown PeUcans and Double- 
crested Cormorants on the Channel Islands, were 
seen in Brandt's Cormorant eggs on San Nicolas 
Island (524 01 1) and Lion Rock (477 Oil) (Hunt 
etal. 1979, Frame 1972). 

Brandt's Cormorants on the Farailon Islands 
declined in number during a period of high 
human disturbance in the mid-1 800's. Populations 
began to increase in size after this period of 
exploitation, and by 1972 there were 22,000 
Brandt's Cormorants breeding on the islands 
(Ainley and Lewis 1974). About 28,000 Brandt's 
Cormorants now occupy the Farailon Islands 
(Ainley pers. comm.). 

Our population estimates for colonies along 
the remainder of the California coast are nearly 
double population figures from 1969 and 1970 
(Osborne and Reynolds 1971). The difference 
may be due, at least in part, to more accurate 
censusing rather than to real population changes. 
It may also reflect an unusually high nesting 
effort in 1979. 

Changes in ocean conditions from year to 
year apparently influence breeding populations of 
Brandt's Cormorants. Periods' of upwelling, 
which bring cold, rich waters to the surface and 
trigger plankton blooms, are of great importance 
to seabirds. When warmer ocean waters prevail. 



the quantity of food drops. Breeding populations 
of seabirds become smaller and reproductive 
success declines. Favorable ocean conditions in 
1979 caused a boom year for Brandt's Cormorants 
on the Farailon Islands, where up to 28,000 birds 
nested. Conditions in 1980 were less favorable, 
and only about 16,000 birds nested there (Ainley 
pers. comm,). 

Brandt's Cormorants are vulnerable to 
disturbance during the breeding season. Adults 
flush from their nests readily when approached 
by boats, low flying aircraft, or humans on foot. 
Once parents are away from the nests. Western 
Gulls are able to prey upon eggs and chicks. 
Repeated disturbance can cause permanent 
colony desertion. 

Reported cormorant deaths from oil spills 
are not frequent (Berkner pers. comm.), and 
Brandt's Cormorants made up only one percent 
of the recovered birds in the 1971 San Francisco 
oil spill (Small et al. 1972). The relative low 
number of oiled cormorants found on beaches 
may reflect a greater tendency to sink than in 
other seabird species (Harris per. comm.). 
Brandt's Cormorants are likely the most vulnerable 
of all cormorants to localized oil spills because of 
their large breeding concentrations. . 



33 



Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) 




The Pelagic Cormorant is the most ubiquitous 
cormorant in California. These smallest of the 
CaUfomia cormorants can be seen during any 
season in their rocky coastal feeding grounds, 
where they propel themselves underwater with 
their strong webbed feet in pursuit of fish and 
shrimp (Robertson 1974, Hatler et al. 1978). 
Clay (1911) reported that Pelagic Cormorants 
are capable of diving to depths of up to 140 
meters. 

Pelagic Cormorants nest in scattered groups 
whose locations sometimes shift from one year to 
the next (Benz and Garrett 1978, Nysewander 
and Barbour 1979). Situated anywhere from 
hundreds of feet above the ocean to just within 
the spray zone, they raise their young in platform 
nests of seaweed built on small outcrops and 
ledges. These cliffside colonies stand out because 
of the summer whitewash they receive and can be 
seen for great distances. 

Although Pelagic Cormorants are shy birds, 
their nesting activities may be observed at a 
judicious distance. One of the best locations in 
the state for observing their breeding behavior is 
Salt Point State Park (see Appendix B). 

Pelagic Cormorants are often found nesting 
close to other cormorants. In these locations, 
direct competition is apparently reduced by 
staggered nesting chronologies and by differences 
in nest site selection, behavior, and in selection of 
food types, food sizes, and feeding locations 
(Benz and Garrett 1978, Robertson 1974). 



CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Pelagic Cormorants nest in suitable habitat 
along the entire coast of California. Forty-four 
percent of the California population nest on 
offshore islands, while 56 percent nest on precip- 
itous cliffs of the mainland. In some regions, 
small groups of nesting Pelagic Cormorants are 
scattered in a continuous band along the coast. In 
these areas our designation of colonies has some- 
times been arbitrary. That is, the hmits of 
colonies are often assumed for convenience to be 
geographical landmarks such as coves or points of 
land, and frequently long stretches of coastline 
are included under a single colony number. For 
example, the Triplett Gulch colony (404 021), 
one of the largest listed in the catalog, encompasses 
approximately two kilometers of coastline and 
numerous offshore rocks. Fish Rocks colony 
(404 003) on the other hand, although of similar 
magnitude, consists of two discreet islands in this 
same vicinity. 

Although Pelagic Cormorants occur through- 
out the coastal region, certain areas of con- 
centration stand out. Areas immediately north of 
San Francisco have a disproportionately large 
percentage of nesting birds, as do theFarallon 
Islands (429 012). Pelagic Cormorants occur in 
decreasing numbers farther and farther south of 
San Francisco to the southern terminus of their 
nesting range. This California distribution may 
reflect available nesting habitat or perhaps more 
subtle oceanographic or biological factors. 



34 



12% 



5%/ 


24% 1 


23%\ 


12% 


— sj? 


12% > 



5% 



California Colonies 

Catalog Total 
15,870 birds 
• = colony sites 



Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



4%\ 




3% ^ 


pi-> 


X 





Breeding Chronology 



Nofthem Calilomii 



•gg laying 



C,u.c..3.7 f^S'^^'W 
Incubation Pwiod * 33 days 
Nestling Period ■40-50 days 



Farallon Islands 




(35) 



adults prtMnt 




Channat Islands 



7 
hatdiing 



fledging 



a) 



(29) 



Jw. I Feb. I Mm. | Apt. | Miy | Junt | July | Aug. | S«p. j Oct. | No». | I 



HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Detailed information on the historical status 
of Pelagic Cormorants exists for only limited 
portions of the California coast. In the Channel 
Islands there has been httle change in either total 
number or distribution during the last century 
(Hunt et al. 1979). In contrast, Pelagic Cormorant 
populations on the Farallon Islands (429 012) 
-dechned greatly in size during the 1850 to 1900 
period of egg collecting (Ainley and Lewis 1974). 
The population has been recovering throughout 
this century and is still increasing in 1 980 (Ainley 
pers. comm.). 

Historical population estimates for northwest 
California are available from Osborne and 
Reynolds (1971), although differences in time of 
survey and survey technique limit comparisons 
with our 1979-80 data. The tendency of Pelagic 
Cormorants to move nest sites in succeeding years 
(Benz and Garrett 1978, Nysewander and 
Barbour 1979), makes surveys of large areas 
desirable for this species. 

Shoreline use and development pose a great 
threat to Pelagic Cormorants in California. 
Cormorants can be disturbed by any human 
activity near colonies. Approach to nesting birds 
by boats, planes, and humans on foot may force 
adults off their nests, leaving eggs and yoimg 
chicks unprotected. Chicks and eggs may be 
knocked from nests and predation by Western 
GuUs and Common Raven may increase following 
the adults' panicked retreat. 



Pelagic Cormorants, like other members of 
the order Pelecaniformes, may be vulnerable to 
pesticide pollution. The egg shell thinning, egg 
breakage, and subsequent population declines 
experienced by both Brown Pelicans and Double- 
crested Cormorants in | southern Cahfomia (Cress 
et al. 1973) are yet undocumented for Pelagic 
Cormorants (Hunt et al. 1979). 

Oil spills in California have resulted in few 
known cormorant deaths to date (Aldrich 1938, 
Moffitt and Orr 1938, Small et al. 1972, and 
Berkner pers. comm.). Because of their widespread 
distribution and ability to shift colony sites. Pelagic 
Cormorant populations are relatively resistant to 
localized oil slicks. Individual cormorants may 
avoid surface oil (Berkner pers. comm.), and their 
habit of spending nights and much of the day 
roosting on rocks further reduces vulnerability to 
oil pollution (Small et al. 1972). 



35 



Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) 




Blade Oystercatchers are shorebirds of the 
outer coast of the northwest Pacific. Adults 
estabUsh breeding territories on mainland rocky 
beaches and offshore rocks and islands. An 
oystercatcher nest, composed of a scrape lined 
with pebbles and shell fragments, is surprisingly 
difficult to find. One to three cryptically colored 
eggs are placed directly on the pebbles. 

Black Oystercatcher young are precocial and 
may leave the nest within hours of hatching. 
Although they remain near the nest at first, 
within a few days chicks follow adults to intertidal 
foraging areas. The California mussel (Mytilus 
califomianus) is the chief food of oystercatchers 
in the Channel Islands (Hunt et al. 1979) as well 
as in northern Cahfomia (Helbing 1977), and 
limpets and chitons make up most of the remainder 
of the diet. Chicks at the nest are frequently fed 
crabs (Hartwick 1976, Helbing 1977). 

Mortality among eggs and chicks is apparently 
high. Hartwick (1974) lists gull predation as an 
important cause of mortality. In addition, chicks 
and eggs are frequently washed "overboard" from 
nests by storm waves. 

During the winter, oystercatchers are 
gregarious (Webster 1 94 1) and can be observed 
feeding along rocky portions of the California 
coast. With their bright orange bills, pink feet, 
and loud distinctive call, these birds are con- 
spicuous. 



CALIFORNIA POPULATION 

Black Oystercatchers are a non-colonial 
nesting species, although they are usually found 
on the same offshore islands and rocks as colonial 
nesting seabirds. They establish large nesting and 
feeding territories and thus distribute themselves 
along the available coastal habitat. Actual nests 
were pinpointed only for a small percentage of 
the sites listed in this catalog. Nesting was 
indicated more often from the territorial defense 
behavior of adults. This method obviously has 
limitations since approach to a nest must be close 
enough to initiate a reaction from the adults. For 
this reason the catalog total for this species is 
almost certainly low. The actual breeding popu- 
lation size is probably about 1 ,000 birds. 

Information presented in this catalog 
gives a good representation of the overall breeding 
pattern of this species, a population of single 
nesting pairs widely dispersed along the entire 
California coastline. Concentrations of 242 Black 
Oystercatchers in the Channel Islands and 40 
breeding birds in the Farallon Islands (429 012) 
represent nearly half of the catalog breeding 
total. 

HISTORICAL STATUS & VULNERABILITY 

Black Oystercatchers disappeared from the 



36 



CalHornia Population 

Catalog Total 
704 birds 
• = nest sites 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



Breeding Chronology 



Northern California 



■3 ] f'?' 



Clutth- 2-3 1 '*• ' ' 
IncutMtion Partod - 2S • 30 d«yt 
Nestling Period - 36 * 40 day* 



eggleying 



hatdiinf 
7 ^ ? 



^4 4^14,27,35) 



■duto pfnt 



Farailon Islands 




Channel Itlandi 




(291 



n. I Feb. | Mar. | Api. | May | June | July | Aua- | Sep. | Oa. I Nov. | 0«c 



Farailon Islands in the 1860's, possibly as a result 
of too much human disturbance. A few birds 
were seen in 1903, but oystercatchers were not 
observed there on a regular basis until 1956. The 
breeding population of Black Oystercatchers on 
the Farailon Islands increased to 16 by 1959 and 
to 40 in 1972 (Ainley and Lewis 1974). Since 
that time the population has stabilized and 
may be at its maximum (Ainley pers. comm.). 
Historical population information for areas other 
than the Farailon Islands is almost nonexistent. 
Black Oystercatchers require clean and 
undisturbed rocky coastlines for nesting and 
feeding. To the extent that these areas are 
disturbed by humans, reproductive success will be 
reduced. OH spills, which foul rocky coastlines 
where oystercatchers feed, could seriously affect 
the food supplies of this species, but losses of 
birds from direct oiling would probably be low. 
Long-term degradation of intertidal habitat would 
almost certainly cause population declines. 




\Black Oystercatchers Photo by Ian C. Tait 



37 



Western Gull (Laws occidentalis) 








World Breeding Range 



Western Gulls are the breeding gull of the 
California coast. They breed as far south as Baja 
California, Mexico, and as far north as Washington 
and southern British Columbia. Western Gulls 
in Washington and British Columbia are sym- 
patric with Glaucous-winged Gulls (Lams glau- 
cescens) with which they hybridize extensively 
(Hoffman et al. 1978). 

Western Gulls nest in a wide variety of 
habitats, but usually are found in the greatest 
densities on the flatter portions of islands and 
offshore rocks. Some nest on the mainland 
and these nests are always confined to areas 
inaccessible to mammahan predators such as steep 
slopes and cliff faces. Western Gulls will even 
nest on man-made structures. Their nests are 
substantial and are usually constructed of 
vegetation gathered near the colonies. Western 
Gulls usually lay clutches of from one to three 
eggs, although in the Channel Islands clutches of 
from four to six eggs result from female-female 
pairing. The eggs in these supernormal clutches 
are usually infertile and do not hatch (Hunt and 
Hunt 1977). 

Western Gulls feed on a variety of prey. 
Important food items from around the Farallon 
and Channel Islands include anchovies, rockfish 
(Sebastes), Pacific Sauries (Cololabis saira), 
midshipmen (Porichthys), cephalopods, euphausi- 
ids, barnacles, and offal (Ainley and Sanger 1979, 
Hunt et al. 1979). Like large gulls elsewhere in 
the world. Western Gulls often feed on human 
refuse at dumps scattered along the coast. 

CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Although Western Gulls breed widely along 



the California coast, most of the breeding popu- 
lation is concentrated at a few sites. The 32,000 
gulls of the Farallon Islands (429 012) make up 
more than 60 percent of the entire breeding 
population in California. Other large colonies in 
California are at Middle Anacapa Island (502 008) 
with 5,000 Western Gulls, Santa Barbara Island 
(524 008) with 2,300 gulls, San Nicolas Island 
(524 Oil) with 1,800 guUs, Castle Rock (325 
006) with 1,350 gulls, and Prince Island (501 
004) with 960 gulls. Most of the Western GuU 
colonies in California, however, are much smaller. 
Sixteen of the remaining sites have between 100 
and 500 birds, 22 sites have between 50 and 100 
birds, and 115 sites have fewer than 50 birds. 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Western Gulls are probably the least likely of 
California seabirds to suffer population declines 
as a result of mail's activities. The population 
may in fact be growing as the result of an abundant 
food supply at garbage dumps. Increases in 
numbers of large gulls may not be desirable since 
these birds can harm other seabirds and interfere 
with aircraft at airports. 

Increases in the size of several populations of 
large gulls have been attributed to the availability 
of human food wastes and sewage (Drury 1979, 
Kadlec and Drury 1968, Vermeer 1963). Both 
Herring Gulls (Lams argentatus) and Great 
Black-backed Gulls (Lams marinus) in eastern 
North America have increased in number and 
caused substantial damage to tern and Atlantic 
Puffin (Fratercula arctica) colonies by usurping 
optimal nesting habitat, stealing food (klepto- 
parasitism), and eating eggs and chicks (Nettleship 
1972,Nisbet 1973). 



38 



CalHornia Colonies 

Catalog Total 
50,930 birds 
• = colony sites 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



Breeding Chronology 



NoffHnfW C«lifofni> 




(2B,29) 
Clutdi -1-3 

Ifwubation Piriod ■ 29 days 
Nwtllm P«riod ■ 42-4Sd«v» 



ttadjing 



Farallon Itlandi 




(35) 



adults praaant 



(1) 



aduhspcaaawt 



Channd Islands 




(28,29) 



Jan. I Fab. | Mac. | Apr. | May | Juna | July | Aua- | Sap. | Oct. I No». I Oac 



Populations of Western Gulls in CaUfomia 
have probably also increased in size during the 
last two decades, but documentation is difficult 
to obtain, since historical data for much of the 
California coast are lacking. Osborne and 
Reynolds (1971) censused many of the large 
Western GuU colonies in central and northern 
CaUfomia, but their data may not be comparable 
with ours. Certainly differing survey techniques 
account for some of the differences between the 
two sets of data. We were able to make a compari- 
son of Osborne and Reynolds' data and our data 
for 26 sites and found more Western Gulls at 20 
sites in 1979 and 1980 than in 1970, fewer at four 
sites, and no change at two sites. The apparent 
net' increase in numbers of breeding Western Gulls 
at these 26 sites is about 1 ,600 birds. In addition, 
we found many previously undiscovered sites. 
This probably reflects in part, our more complete 
coverage of the coast. These comparisons suggest 
that the number of Western Gulls in California 
may have increased during the last decade. 

Other evidence suggesting that numbers have 
increased comes from the Farallon Islands and 
Prince Island (501 004). The number of Western 
GuUs on the Farallon Islands pliunmeted in the 
mid-late 1800's primarily because of egg collecting 
and disturbance from domestic animals (Ainley 
and Lewis 1974). The population recovered in 
size to about 23,000 birds in 1959 and remained 
stable until 1972 (Ainley and Lewis 1974). Since 
then the population has increased to 32,000 birds 
and there appears to be a surplus of adult-plumaged 
birds. On Prince Island, a population of about 
500 birds in 1968 (Ruber 1968) increased to 
about 1,000 birds in 1976 (Hunt et al. 1979). On 
Santa Barbara Island, however, there has been a 



marked decline in numbers of Western Gulls since 
1972, which appears to be related to the abundance 
of anchovies (Hunt and Butler 1980). 

The effects of an increasing population of 
Western Gulls on other seabirds are difficult to 
assess. Western Gulls are the most important 
predators of storm-petrels and Cassin's Auklets on 
the FaraUon Islands (Manuwal 1974, Ainley et al. 
1974), and further increases in Western Gull 
numbers may increase the rate of predation. 
Increases in Western Gull numbers elsewhere in 
CaUfomia could have a similar effect on small 
alcids and storm-petrels. Western GuUs klepto- 
parasitize cormorants. Rhinoceros Auklets, and 
probably Tufted Puffins. The present rate of 
incidence is unknown but may increase if guU 
populations continue to expand. 

This species is probably one of the least 
vulnerable to oil spills of aU seabird species 
nesting in CaUfomia, since they are highly mobile 
and frequently retum to land to rest and roost. 
Western Gulls, Uke other surface nesting seabirds, 
are susceptible to disturbances while nesting. 
Disturbance in a particularly dense colony may 
result in intraspecific pirating of eggs and canni- 
baUsm. Chicks frightened from their territories 
may be kiUed by neighboring gulls or become lost 
and starve. Nevertheless, the future of the 
Western Gull in CaUfomia looks secure. With the 
present pattem of waste disposal in California, 
Western GuUs wiU probably continue to increase 
in number. Because of their relatively high 
reproductive potential, an excess of non-breeding 
adults, and their abiUty to feed on a wide variety 
of prey, they would likely make a rapid recovery 
from any decline. 



39 



Common Murre (Uria aalge) 




Common Murres are some of the most 
highly colonial of all seabirds. Island and mainland 
colonies are usually densely packed shoulder to 
shoulder with these noisy, gregarious birds. 
Common Murres breed in both the North Pacific 
and North Atlantic Oceans and are some of the 
most abundant seabirds in the northern hemis- 
phere. 

Common Murres prefer to nest on wide, flat 
cUff ledges and the tops of islands. A large, single 
egg is laid on bare rock or soil and is narrowly 
pointed at one end and broad and rounded at the 
other. Murre eggs vary greatly in color, ranging 
from white to buff, brown, reddish, blue, or 
green. They are almost always marked with dark 
dots, blotches, or intricate scribbling (Harrison 
1978). The unique pattern of each egg probably 
aids individual recognition by adults (Johnson 
1941). 

Murre chicks are fed by both parents and 
jump from the colonies to the waters below when 
only partly grown. They are accompanied at sea 
by only one parent, usually the male (Varoujean 
pers. comm.). 

Common Murres are good fliers and are 
capable of foraging long distances from their 
colonies. They dive to considerable depths 
and include flsh, crustaceans, and cephalopods in 
their diet (Ogi and Tsujita 1973, 1977). Common 
Murres are often seen in coastal California during 
the fall and winter months (Ainley 1976) and 
make frequent landfalls at their colonies during 
these seasons. 

CALIFORNU COLONIES 

In California, Common Murres breed from 



Castle Rock (325 006) in the northern part of the 
state south to Hurricane Point Rocks (454 Oil) 
at the north end of the Big Sur coast. They are 
known to breed at 19 sites in California and a few 
non-breeders have been seen on three additional 
islands. These three islands, Kibesillah Rock (379 
004), White Rock (379 010), and Gualala Point 
Island (404 004), all appear to have suitable 
nesting habitat and should be watched for future 
nesting. 

Colonies of Common Murres, although easy 
to find, are difficult to census. Variables such as 
time of year, time of day, and the unknown 
breeding status of many individuals compUcate 
an already difficult task (see Materials and Meth- 
ods). The estimates of murre numbers presented 
here and in the tables include the number we 
actually counted or estimated, plus two-thirds 
of that number to account for members of the 
breeding pair away from the colony (Ainley 1976). 

Colonies of Common Murres in CaUfomia 
vary greatly in size, from as few as 50 birds on 
Sisters Rocks (325 008) to 126,000 birds on 
Castle Rock. Other large colonies of murres exist 
at the Farallon Islands (429 012) with 60,000 
birds. Green Rock (325 020) with 55,000 birds, 
False Klamath Rock (325 010) with 26,500 birds, 
and Flatiron Rock (325 023) with 24,000 birds. 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Two lines of evidence suggest that Common 
Murres are presently increasing in number in 
CaUfomia. First, in 1979 and 1980 Common 
Murres were found breeding at four sites where 
murres were not observed by Osborne and 
Reynolds (1971), although they censused these 



40 



17% 



CalHornia Colonies 

Catalog Total 

363,154 birds 
• = colony sites 
o = former sites 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 




Breeding Chronology 



Northern Californil 



(35) 
Clul*- I 

Incubation Period -28-34 deyt 
Nestling Period - 2o - 28 dayi 



Ferellon Itlendt 




: U) 



Channel Itlandi 



■99 laying 

7 ^m 7 



No coftfirmtd bnrding tinct t912. 
Grap/i conttnjct*d from lUtnof »ggt 
colhcfgd in tht Chutntl Itlandt 



hat ching 
7 ■■ 7 



fledging 

^m 7 



Jan. I Feb. | Mat. | Ape. | May | June | July | Aug. 




Sep. [ Oct. I No¥. I Dec 



same Islands for other species. These islands are: 
Sisters Rocks, Blank Rock (325 024), Pilot Rock 
(325 026), and Cape Vizcaino (379 002). Murres 
may have been present at Cape Vizcaino during 
the years of Osborne's work but could have left 
the colony prior to his survey in August. Second, 
there are 14 breeding colonies of Common Murres 
for which both Osborne and Reynolds (1971) and 
we have estimates. Our estimates greatly exceed 
theirs in all cases, usually by a factor of two, 
three, four, or more. Even if the two-thirds 
attendance factor is subtracted from our estimates, 
our totals still exceed Osborne and Reynolds' in 
all but two cases. In the two instances where ours 
are lower, Castle Rock and Green Rock, the two 
estimates are similar. 

Apparently murre numbers have been 
increasing throughout much of this century. 
Osborne (1972) found that the population of 
Common Murres in the region from Cape 
Mendocino to the Oregon border has increased 
from a few thousand birds in the 191 0's to about 
143,000 birds in 1970. The history of Common 
Murre populations at two other sites also suggests 
that numbers are increasing. Clay (unpubl. field 
notes) makes no mention of Common Murres at 
Flatiron Rock between 1910 and 1934, but 
Osborne estimated that 10,000 birds were present 
there in 1970. Our estimate for this site in 1979 
is 24,000 birds. Clay (unpubl. field notes) 
estimated 2,000 birds at Green Rock in 1941, 
compared to Osborne's estimate of 40,000 in 
1970 and our estimate of 55,000 in 1980. 

Common Murres on the Farallon Islands are 
also increasing in number but in this case the 



increase follows a documented severe population 
reduction. Between 1854 and 1959 the population 
dropped from 400,000 birds to between 6,000 
and 7,000 birds. A commercial egg harvest and 
oil pollution were the primary causes of this 
reduction (Ainley and Lewis 1974). With strict 
protection, the population increased to 20,500 
birds in 1972 and to 60,000 birds or more at the 
present time. 

Common Murres formerly bred on Prince 
Island (501 004) in the Channel Islands but no 
longer do so. Hunt et al. (1979) states, "Since 
the tiny colony at Prince Island was so far south 
of the nearest murre colony, it seems likely that 
repeated visits by early egg collectors, coupled 
with the slim possibility of recruitment from 
other colonies, could have eliminated murres as a 
breeding species. . . ." 

Nesting Common Murres are very sensitive 
to disturbance by boats, low-flying aircraft, and 
humans on foot. When disturbed, adults flush 
from the colonies and may knock eggs and chicks 
from nest sites. The remaining chicks and eggs 
are subject to increased predation from gulls 
and ravens. Common Murres are highly vulnerable 
to oil contamination and were some of the most 
frequently oiled birds in the 1971 San Francisco 
oil spill (Small et al. 1972). They are common in 
the coastal zone of California throughout the year 
and spend large amounts of time on the water. 
They appear to be highly social during both the 
breeding and non-breeding seasons and frequently 
congregate on waters adjacent to their colonies. 
Future oil spills along the CaUfomia coast could 
kill large numbers of this species. 



41 



Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba) 




Pigeon Guillemots inhabit the nearshore 
zone and are usually found along stretches of 
rock coastline. They are most easily observed in 
the early morning, before the egg laying season, 
when both members of each pair frequent waters 
adjacent to their colonies. 

Pigeon Guillemots usually nest in natural 
rock crevices, talus, and boulder beaches (Thoresen 
and Booth 1958, Drent 1965). They also use 
burrows dug into loose conglomerate bluffs and 
man-made structures, such as wharf timbers, drain 
pipes, and within truck tires slipped on wharf 
pilings (Campbell 1977, this study). In some 
regions of California, Pigeon Guillemots and 
introduced Rock Doves (Columba livia) may be 
competing for nesting space. 

Pigeon Guillemots are some of the few alcids 
to regularly lay two eggs (Bent 1946, Thoresen 
and Booth 1958, Drent 1965). Eggs are laid on 
bare rock, soil, or sometimes on a bed of pebbles 
and shell fragments. Guillemots usually feed 
close to shore and the proximity of the feeding 
grounds to the colonies may help explain their 
abiUty to sometimes raise two chicks. Pigeon 
Guillemots, like all members of the family Alcidae, 
dive for food using their wings for propulsion. In 
California, fish are the principal food of guillemots 
during the breeding season (Follett and Ainley 
1976). This appears to be true throughout their 
breeding range although near Kodiak, Alaska, 
Pigeon Guillemots are known to eat small crabs 
and shrimp (Krasnow et al. 1978). 

Following breeding. Pigeon Guillemots 
largely disappear from the California coastline and 



do not reappear until just before the next year's 
breeding season. Their wintering range is presently 
unknown but we suspect that a northward move- 
ment of birds takes place. 

CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

In CaUfomia, Pigeon Guillemots breed from 
the Oregon border south to Santa Barbara Island. 
They are found breeding in large aggregations of 
up to 3,000 birds, in smaller groups of only a few 
birds, or as isolated pairs scattered along the coast 
in suitable habitat. Delimiting colonies is often 
difficult, especially in those regions where Pigeon 
Guillemots are spread along the coast. In many 
cases, colony boundaries have been based on 
geographical landmarks and cover large sections 
of coastline. 

The catalog total of Pigeon Guillemots in 
CaUfomia is about 12,000. We feel that this 
number is conservative, although for any individual 
nesting site our estimates may be either high or 
low. Censusing Pigeon Guillemots is at best an 
inexact science and is compUcated by several 
factors (see Materials and Methods). Although 
many Pigeon Guillemot colonies were surveyed in 
both 1979 and 1980, only the best of the estimates 
for these two years are included in this catalog. 

The FaraUon Islands (429 012), with 3,000 
birds, have the largest population of Pigeon 
Guillemots in California. The coastline between 
Davenport and Point Santa Cruz (454 021) is 
inhabited by about 1,300 guillemots. Other 
locations with large numbers are Point Arguello 



42 



20% 



California Colonies 

Catalog Total 
14,724 birds 
= colony sites 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



Breeding Chronology 



Incubation Period - 30 - 32 dcya 
Nitling Pwiod ■ 36 - 45 ctoyi 



Fafalloo lilands 



Channel lilandt 




: ggg 'aying 



hatching 



HSk 



adults praaant 




(i> 



(29) 



Jan. I Feb. | Mar. | Apr. | May I Jum | July | An;. | Sep. | Oct. | Nov. | D«c 



(501 010), Fish Rocks (404 003), Castle Rock 
(325 006), Sugarloaf Island (325 041), and Prince 
Island (325 003). Generally, however. Pigeon 
Guillemot colonies are small. More than half the 
sites we investigated had fewer than 30 birds. 

fflSTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Few data pertaining to the historical status 
of Pigeon Guillemots are available. On the 
Farallon Islands, Pigeon Guillemots escaped early 
persecution by commercial egg collectors but 
later fell victims to oil pollution (Ainley and 
Lewis 1974). The guillemot population of the 
Farallon Islands reached an all-time low of 200 in 
1911. Since then it has recovered steadily, to 
1,000 birds in 1959, 2,000 in 1972, and 3,000 at 
present (Ainley pers. comm.). 

Elsewhere along the California coast it may 
appear from the data that Pigeon Guillemot 
numbers have increased dramatically. However, 
we do not feel there is sufficient information to 
make this judgement. Previous investigators 
largely overlooked Pigeon Guillemots since they 
often nest in low densities and usually do not 
form distinct colonies. Censusing Pigeon Guille- 
mots requires much time and manpower and 
access to many nesting sites is poor. Time of day 
and of year can greatly influence survey results 
and some previous surveys were conducted after 
Pigeon Guillemots had finished nesting. 

Compared to other seabirds such as Common 
Murres and Brandt's Cormorants, Pigeon Guille- 
mots are not highly prone to disturbance, primarily 



because of their comparatively low nesting 
densities and inaccessible nest sites. Pigeon 
Guillemots will, however, readily desert their 
nests if disturbed during incubation or brooding. 
Like murres. Pigeon Guillemots are very 
vulnerable to oil pollution. Guillemots spend 
large amounts of time on the water, usually 
close to land where oil exploration and develop- 
ment are concentrated. Fortunately, the 
population of Pigeon Guillemots in California is 
widely distributed along the coast and any oil 
spill would most likely affect only local birds. 




Pigeon Guillemots occasionally nest in man-made 
structures like this tire on a Crescent City dock. 
Photo by Anthony R. DeGange 



431 



Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratm) 




Dnwing by AlUm Brooks, complimenti of The Munelet, A Jouiml of NoithwMt Onitthototy ind ll«iiiiiii»o«y. 



The Marbled Murrelet is the only breeding 
alcid in California that has become adapted to 
nesting habitats inland from coastal rocks and 
beaches. The locations of Marbled Murrelet nests 
are the least known of all the seabirds breeding in 
Cahfomia. Only four nests have been found 
throughout the species' entire range; one in Siberia 
(Kuzyakin 1963), one in California (Binford et 
al. 1975, Singer and Verardo 1975), and two on 
East Amatuh Island in the Barren Islands, Alaska 
(Simon 1980). Kiff (in press) has recently 
reviewed the known eggs and nests of this species. 

Of the four nests, both the Siberian and 
California nests were found in trees, but the 
Alaskan nests were found on the timdra of a 
treeless island. The Siberian nest was found in 
the upper branch of a Larch (Larix dehurica) 6.8 
meters above the ground (Kuzyakin 1963). The 
California nest was found 45 meters above the 
ground on a moss-covered limb of a Douglas-fir 
(Pseudotsuga menziesii) in Big Basin Redwoods 
State Park, Santa Cruz County (Binford et al. 
1975). This nest contained a Marbled Murrelet 
chick sitting in a small depression encircled by" 
droppings. 

Binford et al. (1975) theorize that the pale 
green egg, the cinnamon brown breeding plumage 
of the adult, and the light brown nestling are 
cryptic adaptations for nesting in trees. The 
entire breeding population of Marbled Murrelets 
in California is suspected to nest in trees. 



Marbled Murrelets seen at sea during the 
summer are often in pairs and are usually within 1 
to 2 kilometers of the coast. Breeding birds return 
to their nests in the evening and depart at dawn. 
We have observed individual birds, pairs, and 
groups of up to 60 birds in the breeding season 
flying over the tree tops at the margin of old 
growth Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) 
forests. An amazing display of this behavior can 
be seen at Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park in 
Humboldt County (Appendix B). Marbled 
Murrelets may also use coastal forests in winter as 
evidenced by calling birds flying over the redwood 
forests during this season (Strachan pers. comm.). 

Marbled Murrelets like all other alcids, spend 
a large percentage of their time on the ocean. 
They feed on fish and less frequently on crusta- 
ceans (Sealy 1975b). 

CALIFORNIA POPULATION 

We observed Marbled Murrelets during the 
breeding season on coastal waters from the 
CaUfomia-Oregon border south to Point Sal, 
Santa Barbara County. However, two areas of 
concentration stand out: coastal waters from 
Eureka to the California-Oregon border and from 
Santa Cruz to Half Moon Bay. These two regions 
respectively account for 76 and 14 percent of our 
185 Marbled Murrelet sightings made during the 
1979 breeding season. During this season our 



44 



California Population 

Estimate 

2,000 birds 




Offshore Sighting 
■ =high 
S =low 



Breeding Chronology 



Nofthf n 5nd Cfitfll Criifornia 



Clutdi- 1 (40) 

Incutxtion Period - 30 days 
Netiring Period - 23 days 



(9,40,42) 



egglayina 



? ? 
hatch tnfl 



- DiKonrv of chick in nm. S*, rexr 



Note: CJffomi, chronology i,hl, it mocUtitd fronj indinct widt 
UurrwtM popolationt. SmSwV. t974;Sm,ly, 197S. . 



'danct in Britith Colotnbi, U,rbl,d 



Southern California 



Not Braedinti 



Jan. [ Feb. ) Mar. | Apr. | May | June | July j Aug. | Sep. I Oct. I Nov. I Dec. 



coverage of the central and northern California 
coasts was virtually complete. These two regions 
were again censused in 1980, when we made 390 
sightings of Marbled Murrelets, but our coverage 
of the coastline in that year was less complete. 
Both regions of high Marbled Murrelet concen- 
tration are offshore of mature stands of coniferous 
trees. This suggests that murrelets may require 
these trees for nesting. After breeding. Marbled 
Murrelets disperse along the coast of California. 
They have been recorded as far south as Imperial 
Beach, San Diego County (McCaskie 1980). 
It is difficult to estimate the breeding pop- 
ulation of Marbled Murrelets in California, but we 
speculate that it is about 2,000 birds. This 
estimate may be conservative since this small 
alcid's breeding habits are poorly known. It is 
difficult to see them at sea in other than perfect 
conditions, and it is likely that other unobserved 
murrelets were farther out to sea during our boat 
surveys. Our observations of Marbled Murrelets 
were made from a boat incidental to surveys of 
other nesting seabirds. These surveys were not 
designed to census Marbled Murrelets in the most 
accurate fashion but we hope these results shed 
some Ught on the species* nesting distribution in 
the state. Further work on Marbled Murrelets is 
certainly needed and our individual sight records 
may be of future use to anyone attempting a 
more complete survey of this species. All records 
of our observations are included in the Colony 



Status Records and in our field notes (Appendix 
A). 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

There is httle information on the historical 
status of Marbled Murrelets in California. Dis- 
turbance to nesting Marbled Murrelets probably 
has been and will Continue to be primarily through 
the destruction of nesting habitat. Populations of 
Marbled Murrelets may have been reduced by the 
destruction of virgin coastal forests, althou^ no 
data are available. The old growth stands of the 
coast redwood alone have been reduced in area 
from an estimated 809,000 hectares (2,000,000 
acres) to 93,000 hectares (230,000 acres) (Veirs 
pers. comm.). We suspect that Marbled Murrelets 
were formerly more abundant than they are today. 

Marbled Murrelets are vulnerable to oil 
contamination since they are often found on 
waters very close to land. An oil spill along the 
coastlines of Humboldt - Del Norte Counties or 
San Mateo - Santa Cruz Counties could endanger 
a murrelet population that is highly concentrated 
during the summer months along those two 
stretches of coastline. 



45 



Xantus* Murrelet (Endomychura hypoleuca) 






y^v-^>^ 



^\> 






r 



■-^"■^ . 




Worid Breeding Range 



The breeding range of the Xantus' Murrelet 
is restricted to the Channel Islands and the west 
coast of Baja California, Mexico. This species and 
the closely related Craveri's Murrelet (Endo- 
mychura craveri) are thought to be reproductively 
isolated, even though a small zone of sympatry 
exists in the San Benitos Islands, Mexico (Jehl 
and Bond 1975). Before intensive research 
was begun on Xantus' Murrelets in 1975 by Hunt 
et al. (1979), little was known about their life 
history. Most of the information in this account 
was taken from that study. 

Xantus' Murrelets nest primarily in rock 
crevices along or near cliff ledges, but also under 
bushes, in ground vegetation, in abandoned rabbit 
burrows, under old pelican nests, and in man-made 
debris (Hunt et al. 1979). These murrelets, unlike 
most alcids, usually lay two eggs annually. Eggs 
are incubated under the wings, next to lateral 
brood patches on each side of the body. 

During the breeding season, Xantus' Murrelets 
spend daylight hours either in the nest or foraging 
at sea. Other colony activites, such as nest-site 
selection, incubation shift changes, and fledging, 
occur at night (Hunt et al. 1979). Xantus' 
Murrelet chicks are highly precocial and fledge at 
about two days of age. The small, flightless, 
downy young leave their nests at night and scurry 
to the shoreline. Upon reaching the ocean, they 
plunge in and head far out to sea with their 
parents. Chicks waylaid during the night or 



attempting to leave the nests during the day are 
quickly eaten by Western GuUs. 

Xantus' Murrelets dive for food and feed 
extensively on larval fish. Northern Anchovies, 
Pacific Sauries and rockfish (family Scorpaenidae) 
are the most important species taken by Xantus' 
Murrelets in the Channel Islands (Hunt et al. 
1979). Of these. Northern Anchovies are the 
most important and their availability may 
dramatically influence the breeding success of 
Xantus' Murrelets (Hunt and Butler 1980). 
Xantus' Murrelets often forage in the immediate 
vicinity of their colonies during the breeding 
season, but disperse widely thereafter. 



CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

All California colonies of Xantus' Murrelets 
are in the Channel Islands. Santa Barbara Island 
(524 008), where 2,000 to 4,000 birds are esti- 
mated to breed, is the most important colony for 
this species in CaUfomia. Hunt et al. (1979) have 
conducted studies of this species' breeding 
biology and at-sea distribution at this site. All 
remaining colonies of Xantus' Murrelets in 
California are small. Of these. Prince Island (501 
004) and Sutil Rock (524 009) are the largest, 
each with 150 birds, followed by East Anacapa 
Island (502 009) with fewer than 40 birds. Snag 
Rock (524 007) with 30 birds, and GuU Rock 



46 



California Colonies 

Catalog Total 

3,500 birds 
• = colony sites 




Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 



Breeding Chronology 



Northern C»ll(orni« 



Clutdi - 1 ■ 2 

Incubation Period ■ 41 rlayi 

Nastlinfl Period ■ 2 d«vi 



(28,29) 



NotBrMdIng 



Smdbera in parentheses correspond to the 
references from trhlch we obtained the data. 



Cmtnl Calilainii 



Channel Island! 



Not Breading 









— 1 egg laying 




PM* 




^^^^ : 
















■ 




adults p) 



(28,29) 



Jen. I Feb. | Mer. | Apr. | May | June | July | Aug. | Sep. | Oct. | Wo». | Dec 



(524 001) with two birds. Xantus' Murrelets 
probably also breed at Scorpion Rock (502 010) 
and Castle Rock (501 005), and small numbers 
may occasionally breed at other locations in the 
Channel Islands (Hunt et al. 1979). 

HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

The population of Xantus' Murrelets on 
Santa Barbara Island is apparently recovering 
from a drastic decUne. Between 1897 and 1908, 
feral cats (Felis catus) were introduced onto 
Santa Barbara Island. Few data on the size of the 
murrelet population prior to the cats' introduction 
exist, but Sumner (1939) states, "At one time 
large colonies of auklets and murrelets were 
present on the island, but none have been recorded 
in recent years and it is supposed that they have 
been exterminated by these feral cats". By 1975 
the population of cats was reduced to perhaps 
a single animal and Xantus' Murrelets are now 
some of the most abundant of breeding seabirds 
on the island (Hunt et al. 1979). 

Natural predators of Xantus' Murrelets 
include the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). 
Deer Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), and 
the Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis). Peregrine 
Falcons were once common residents of the 
Chaimel Islands, but now are only present as 
migrants. Their decreased presence may have 
contributed to the Xantus' Murrelet recovery on 



Santa Barbara Island (Hunt et al. 1979). 

An insular subspecies of Deer Mouse resides 
on each of the eight large Channel Islands (Nelson 
and Goldman 1931). They are known to prey on 
eggs and possibly chicks of the Xantus' Murrelet, 
but their presence is not a deterrent to successful 
reproduction (Hunt et al. 1979, Winnet et al. 
1979). 

The Island Fox is present on all large Channel 
Islands, except Anacapa and Santa Barbara 
Islands, the only two islands with large seabird 
colonies. The presence of foxes on the other 
large islands may account for small populations of 
seabirds there. 

Because Xantus' Murrelets, like other alcids, 
spend a lot of time on the water and dive for 
food, they are vulnerable to oil spills. Location 
of spills in the CaUfomia Bight during the breeding 
season would be the most critical, since adults 
and recently hatched flightless chicks would be 
concentrated near their colonies. 




Xantus' Murrelet Chick 



47 



Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) 




■■.« fRS> 




The Cassin's Auklet is one of the most 
widespread members of the family Alcidae in the 
North Pacific. Cassin's Auklets build their nests 
in burrows on offshore islands that have a sufficient 
mantle of soil. These tiny alcids are nocturnal at 
their breeding colonies and are likely the most 
pelagic of all the California alcids (Hunt et al. 
1979). A population is present on the Farallon 
Islands (429 1 2) all year, but wintering northcoast 
birds are found between 10 and 50 miles offshore 
(Manuwal 1974a, Yocom and Harris 1975). 

Throughout their range Cassin's Auklets 
usually nest in burrows, but on the Farallon 
Islands birds also may use rock crevices, debris 
piles, cracks under buildings, and large caves 
(Thoresen 1964). Each female lays a single 
creamy white egg, but may lay a second egg if the 
first egg is destroyed (Manuwal 1974a). Adult 
Cassin's Auklets develop two incubation patches 
on the body, one beneath each wing (Manuwal 
1974b). These incubation patches are found only 
among several species of alcids, including Xantus' 
Murrelets, Rhinoceros Auklets, and Tufted Puffins. 
Breeding Cassin's Auklets also develop a gular 
pouch, used to store food for young that are fed 
by regurgitation at night (Speich and Manuwal 
1974). Small fish and pelagic crustaceans form 
the mainstay of the diet of Cassin's Auklets 
(Manuwal 1974a, Hunt et aL 1979). 



CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Cassin's Auklets breed in California from the 
Channel Islands to Castle Rock (325 006). Of the 
know colonies in California the Farallon Islands 
colony is by far the largest, containing 105,000 
auklets. Of the 23,000 Cassin's Auklets nesting in 
the Chaimel Islands, 20,000 are found on Prince 
Island (501 004). Castle Rock, near the Oregon 
border, has an estimated population of 3,600 
birds. 

Cassin's Auklets are difficult to census 
because of their nocturnal Ufestyle, burrow 
nesting habits, and highly pelagic nature. We 
found no new colonies during our surveys and 
have made no new population estimates for this 
species. 

HISTORICAL STATUS 

Surprisingly, Cassin's Auklets were rare on 
the Farallon Islands in the mid-1 800's. Ainley 
and Lewis (1974) relate this scarcity to a period 
of more than two decades when warm, tropical 
water moved north along the California coast. 
They hypothesize that populations of Cassin's 
Auklets increased when cold water returned to 
the region. Now Cassin's Auklets are the most 
abundant birds on the Farallon Islands. 



48 











California Colonies 

Catalog Total 
131,170 birds 
• = colony sites 


Breeding 


Chronology 


CM*. , " 


■^ 




i 






Incubation Period - 38dayi 
r4astling Pariod - 41 . 46 days 


3% ] 


Northern California 






an laying 




-4 


7 


7 


7 ; 

7: 


\ ' -"'^"- 7 ^ 

: : : : n«<«in« 


jay 

7 






k 

"f 


■duttipraaai 


tit 

1 J. » 




\ 






Fafalkxi Idandi 




si 


. 




(33) 1 


• 








agglayina 










ladjing 


1 






^■v 




hatching 








'..'.'. 










\ 


•duHipraMM 


Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 


^ \ ^ ^ ' ' \ \ ' \ 1 




Channal lilandt 




I) 


17%*-- 




7 




aw laying 




- — *Vj 


'^X i 


T 


' hatching 








\ 


(Mging 


7 

adutepiaiit 




/ 








: . : 1 










Jan. 1 Fab. | Mar. | 


Apr. 1 May 1 Juna 1 July 1 Aug. 1 Sap. 1 Oct. 1 Nov. 1 (MG. 1 



Osborne (1972) estimated that numbers of 
Cassin's Auklets on Castle Rock increased from 
100 seen in 1959 by Thoresen (1964) to 3,600 in 
1970. Cassin's Auklets formerly bred on Flatiron 
Rock (325 023) as late as 1934 (Clay unpubl. 
field notes). Osborne (1972) believes that soil 
erosion was the principal reason for their extir- 
pation from this island. 

Western Gulls prey heavily on Cassin's 
Auklets at Castle Rock and the Farallon Islands 
(Thoresen 1964). Young are pulled by gulls from 
shallow burrows and adults are killed at night 
when they unfortunately land at the feet of 
roosting gulls (Thoresen 1964). 

Cassin's Auklets are vulnerable to disturbance 
from humans and to the depredations of intro- 
duced predators such as rats. Cassin's Auklets 
may desert their nests if disturbed during 
incubation and their burrows can easily be caved 
in by unwary visitors to their colonies. 
Fortunately, all colonies of Cassin's Auklets in 
California except Green Rock (325 020) are 
protected. 

Cassin's Auklets feed from the ocean surface 
in large social flocks where they are highly 
vulnerable to oil contamination (Hunt et al. 
1979). An oil spill near the Farallon Islands, 
where 80 percent of the state's population breeds, 
would be particularly damaging to this species. 



49 



Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) 




The Rhinoceros Auklet is an uncommon 
breeding seabird in California. It derives its name 
from the keratinous "horn" found on its bill 
during the breeding season. Although this species' 
common name implies it is an auklet, the 
Rhinoceros Auklet is more' closely related to the 
puffins. Rhinoceros Auklets are excellent divers 
and feed on small fish and cephalopods (Heath 
1915, Richardson 1961, Leschner 1976). 

Rhinoceros Auklets nest primarily in burrows 
dug into the ground on both forested and un- 
forested islands. Burrows may be up to 6 meters 
in length and often fork two or three times before 
ending in a nesting cavity (Heath 1915, Willett 
1915). The recent discovery of Rhinoceros 
Auklets at Sea Lion Caves, Oregon (Scott et al. 
1974, Varoujean and Pitman 1980) and at caves in 
the conglomerate cliffs at Point Arguello (501 
010) indicates that this species may also nest in 
rocky mainland habitats. 

Rhinoceros Auklets almost always enter and 
leave colonies at night when feeding chicks. This 
predominantly nocturnal behavior may have 
evolved as a means to reduce kleptoparasitism by 
gulls. In California and Oregon, Rhinoceros 
Auklets can often be observed on or near colonies 
during the day, but farther north they appear to 
be strictly nocturnal. This difference remains 
unexplained but may be related to the availability 
of food and its proximity to the colonies. Despite 
their diurnal tendencies in California, Rhinoceros 
Auklet colonies are some of the most difficult to 
find and census of all colonies of breeding seabirds 
in the state. 



CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Rhinoceros Auklets are known from eight 
sites in California, but breeding has been confirmed 
at only three: Prince Island (325 003), Castle 
Rock (325 006), and the FaraUon Islands (429 
012). At the remaining five sites we have observed 
Rhinoceros Auklets in breeding plumage on or 
near the colony and suspect breeding occurs. 
Small numbers of Rhinoceros Auklets likely 
occur at several more sites, particularly in northern 
California. 

Up to five birds were seen on Green Rock 
(325 020) at one time and birds were observed 
entering burrows on several occasions. As many 
as 38 Rhinoceros Auklets have been seen in the 
water next to or flying in the vicinity of Green 
Rock at one time. Rhinoceros Auklets have been 
suspected to breed at this site for several years 
(LeValley pers. comm.). At Gualala Point Island 
(404 004), Fish Rock (404 003), and Arched 
Rock (404 006), the presence of birds on the 
water immediately adjacent to the rock or doing 
"fly-by's", and the presence of suitable burrows, 
strongly suggests breeding at these sites. Rhinoc- 
eros Auklets are also suspected to breed at 
Little River Rock (325 035); (Harris pers. comm.). 

Point Arguello (501 010) may support a 
mainland colony of breeding Rhinoceros Auklets 
in California. We observed a maximum of 24 
birds on 1 1 June 1980. A minimum of 13 birds 
were discovered entering and leaving small caves 
in the cliffs on 17 and 18 July 1980. An examin- 
ation of these caves was inconclusive. 



50 



California Colonies 

Catalog Total 

362 birds 
• = colony sites 



28% 



Percent of California 
Breeding Population. 




Breeding Chronology 



Noflhfn CalHoroto 



Firalton lilMidi 



Cluuti - 1 (38) 

Incubation Pariod -31-33 d«ys 
NwMinj P»riod - 36 - 4B day 



•gg laying 



hatching 



'. fle dging 
■■■ 
adults pfatant 



(14,35i 



Ninabers in parentheses correspond to the 
references from which ve obtained the data. 



Channd Island! 



NotBfMding 



Mf . I Apr. I May | Jun» | July | Auq. I Sep. | Oct. | Nov. | D^c 



HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Rhinoceros Auklets were first found breeding 
at Castle Rock (325 006) in 1917 when Clay 
(pers. comm. in Osbome 1972) claimed to have 
found one nest. Clay, who periodically visited 
many of the seabird islands in northern California, 
makes no further mention of this species. Osbome 
(1972), after his 1969 and 1 970 surveys, estimated 
a population of between 100 and 150 Rhinoceros 
Auklets on Castle Rock. He revisited the island in 
1977 and felt the population had increased to 
200 birds (Osbome pers. comm.). To avoid 
disturbing the seabirds at Castle Rock we 
conducted no new groundwork there during this 
study. 

Rhinoceros Auklets were known to breed on 
the Farallon Islands in the early 1800's but 
disappeared in the 1860's, possibly as a result of 
collecting by overzealous scientists. They were 
not observed there again until 1971, and in 1972, 
two or three pairs were present (Ainley and 
Lewis 1974). Presently about 100 Rhinoceros 
Auklets are suspected to breed on the Farallon 
Islands and the population is thought to be 
expanding (Ainley pers. comm.). 

Before 1979, Rhinoceros Auklets were 
known to nest only as far south as the Farallon 
Islands. Although our observations at Point 
Arguello do not constitute a breeding record we 
are confident that they are breeding there or 
will do so in the near future. This would represent 
a range extension of some 350 kilometers. 

Rhinoceros Auklets are very sensitive to 



disturbance during the nesting period. Adults will 
readily desert their nests if disturbed during 
incubation or brooding. Their burrows are often 
near the surface of the ground and are easily 
collapsed. 

Like all alcids. Rhinoceros Auklets are 
extremely vulnerable to oil spills. During the 
breeding season, they concentrate at two sites: 
Castle Rock and the Farallon Islands. Oil slicks 
or other pollution in the vicinity of these colonies 
could affect a large portion of California's breeding 
population. During winter, CaUfomia waters 
support large numbers of Rhinoceros Auklets, 
many from colonies further north (Briggs 1980). 

The available data indicate an increasing 
population of Rhinoceros Auklets in CaUfomia. 
Significant increases in numbers have been ob- 
served at the two largest colonies in the state, Castle 
Rock and the Farallon Islands, and Rhinoceros 
Auklets have been found breeding or are suspected 
to breed at six additional sites. These recent 
increases and the discovery of new nesting sites in 
Oregon (Scott et al. 1974, Varoujean and Pitman, 
19791) and British Columbia (Hatler et al. 1978) 
indicate that this population increase may be 
widespread along the west coast of North America. 



SI 



Tufted Puffin (Lunda cirrhata) 




Tufted Puffins are among the most abundant 
and conspicuous of the seabirds in the North 
Pacific, although they are the least common 
alcid nesting in California. The species' center of 
abundance appears to be the western Gulf of 
Alaska and the Aleutian Islands (Sowls et al. 
1978). These colorful, comical seabirds can often 
be seen standing in front of their nesting burrows, 
especially in early morning. 

Tufted Puffins usually nest in earth burrows 
at the edges of cliffs or on the grassy slopes of 
islands. Tufted Puffins in California also use 
burrows or small caves found in loose sandstone 
or unconsolidated conglomerate rock. In 
California, extensive areas of ideal nesting habitat 
exist on only a few islands, so many colonies are 
small and undoubtedly will remain so. Except on 
the Farallon Islands, lack of adequate nesting 
habitat may ultimately be one of the major factors 
limiting expansion of the Tufted Puffin population 
in California. 

Tufted Puffins can sometimes be observed 
carrying fish in their bills to their chicks at 
colonies. Preferred foods include small fish, 
cephalopods, and crustaceans (Hatch et al. 1979). 
Althou^ Tufted Puffins are diurnal, fledglings 
apparently leave their burrows and go to sea only 
imder cover of darkness. In fall, adult puffins lose 
their brightly colored bill sheathes. Both fledglings 
and adults head far to sea and during winters are 
only occasionally seen near land. 



CALIFORNIA COLONIES 

Tufted Puffins are found from Prince Island 
(325 003) in northern California south to 
Hurricane Point Rocks (454 Oil) at the northern 
tip of the Big Sur coast. We Ust 14 sites at which 
Tufted Puffins have been recorded but breeding 
has been recently documented at only five of 
these: Prince Island, Castle Rock (325 006), 
Green Rock (325 020), Puffin Rock (325 021), 
and the Farallon Islands (429 012). With the 
exception of Little River Rock (325 035), Tufted 
Puffins have been observed near burrows at the 
remaining sites. Although Harris (1974) listed 
Tufted Puffins as possible breeders on Little 
River Rock, where the habitat appears suitable for 
this species, we did not observe birds there. 
Tufted Puffins were regularly observed at Piedras 
Blancas Rock (477 007) in 1979 (Rauzon pers. 
comm.), but not in 1980 (Ron Jameson pers. 
comm.). 

The largest Tufted Puffin colonies in 
California are on Castle Rock and the Farallon 
Islands. Each contains about 100 birds (Ainley 
pers. comm. this study). All remaining locations 
contain ten or fewer birds. Most Tufted Puffin 
colonies in Califonia have been identified, but a 
few undocumented pairs may be present at 
scattered locations, primarily in northemCalifomia. 



52 




HISTORICAL STATUS AND VULNERABILITY 

Since the early 1900's, the Tufted Puffin's 
range in California has contracted northward and 
its population has declined in size. Tufted Puffins 
were formerly found breeding in the northern 
Channel Islands (Willett 1910), but they no longer 
do so (Hunt et al. 1979). The southernmost 
suspected breeding location today is Hurricane 
Point Rocks (454 Oil) in central California. 

The Farallon Island population of Tufted 
Puffins was once much larger than it is today. 
The several thousand birds present in the early 
1900's decreased in number to a low of 26 in 
1959 (Ainley and Lewis 1974). Ainley and Lewis 
(1974) state that oil pollution was the major cause 
of this decline and suggest that the crash of the 
Pacific Sardine population has been the major 
factor keeping this population depressed. 

Elsewhere in California, little information on 
the historical status of this species is available. 
Tufted Puffins once nested on Blank Rock (325 
024) during the earlier part of this century (Clay 
impubl. field notes), but they have since disap- 
peared from this island, probably because of 
soil erosion. Clay also reported Tufted Puffins on 
Flatiron Rock (325 023) as "numerous" in 191 1, 
but since then their nesting habitat has apparently 
deteriorated greatly. Osborne (1972) found only 



two Tufted Puffins breeding on Flatiron Rock in 
1970 and we list only two on this site during the 
1979 and 1980 breeding seasons. Tufted Puffins 
in California are concentrated around two m^or 
breeding colonies: Castle Rock and South Farallon 
Island. Floating oil near either of these islands or 
repeated human disturbance could be disastrous 
to the population. Fortimately, both islands are 
protected, the former as a Nature Conservancy 
Preserve and the latter as a National Wildlife 
Refuge. Anyone attempting to land on either 
island must obtain prior permission. The remain- 
ing islands are not officially protected, but because 
of their rugged topography and inaccessibility 
they have so far received little attention from man. 



53 



54 



Catalog of California 
Seabird Colonies 



MAPS & 
TABLES •• 




55 



How to Use Maps And Tables 



A few minutes taken to carefully read this 
section should make your use of these maps and 
tables much easier. Each Colony in this report is 
included on one of 1 1 U.S. Geological Survey 
maps which cover the Cahfomia coast. An index 
to these maps appears on the facing page. They 
are numbered under a U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service system covering the entire United States. 
The first three digits of the six-digit catalog 
number for each colony is the map number. All 
data in the following maps and tables are organ- 
ized into eleven sections corresponding to these 
maps. 

Once you have determined which of these 
eleven maps covers your area of interest, turn 
to that section. Heading each section is a map of 
that area showing the locations of all colonies 
within that area. The numbers that appear here 
(001, 002, 003, and so on) are the colony identi- 
fiers, each specific for a colony area within that 
map. These are the last three digits of the six- 
digit catalog number. Note that these numbers 
are not sequential along the coast. Many new 



colonies have been identified since catalog num- 
bers were initially assigned by Varoujean, (1979). 
We have retained these initial numbers and added 
new colony numbers as necessary. 

A sample colony listing is given below. Note 
that the populations are given in number of breed- 
ing birds and not pairs. The reference (j, 2, etc.) 
at the end of each data line corresponds to the 
proper citation, page 341, from which we obtained 
the information. If further detail is needed about 
a site, these sources should be consulted. For 
information on the archiving of our U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service field notes and photographs see 
appendix A, page 35 1. 

Since there are many landforms with similiar 
or identical names along the coast, such as "Bird 
Rocks", "White Rocks", or "Castle Rocks", the 
catalog number is important in distinguishing 
sites. Therefore we list it after mentioning a site 
in the text. If you know the name but not the 
catalog number of a site you are interested in, 
check appendix C. It lists all colony areas alpha- 
betically and their catalog numbers. 



sample 

ColonyNo. 



Colony name 



Lat.-Long. 



Number breeding birds 

Investigators 
Survey date 



Lcie 



^^^/^N / ' V I — :r* — R /^ rSurvi 

(004) Gull RociO 39°35,'20"N,121°35;45"T? 

1 #. -■.-^ .^ /.. , „V- — TV C — r> 



Pelagic C orKPrawta: 



Gear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 



■ Data qual. 
■ see text 



\ 



Reference 



40 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/14/79, B, II) '42 

48 (0sl)ome,6/5/69} y^ 35 

Purvey Jj = '"'^' 



type 



boat 

M = from mainland 
L = o« site 



56 



MAP INDEX. 




Dots keyed to map sections. 



f 



57 




325 
Eureka 



The maps on the facing page and following page are indexes to the locations of colonies 
within map 325, Eureka. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively 
from north to south, since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial 
colony numbers were assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following these two maps, 
all colonies are Usted sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 



Numbers of breeding seabirds will vary from year to year, 
numbers of breeding seabirds within this region. 



Below are the approximate 



Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel 350 

Leach's Stonn-Petrel 17,000 

Brandt's Cormorant 7,000 

Double-crested Cormorant 1,000* 

Pelagic Cormorant 3,000 

Black Oystercatcher 100 

Western Gull 3,500 

Common Murre 250,000 

Pigeon Guillemot 2,500 

Marbled Murrelet no estimate 

Cassin's Auklet 3,600 

Rhinoceros Auklet 250 

Tufted Puffin 150 

♦ coastal population only. 



58 



325 (North) Eureka 



r 



PACIFIC 



OCEAN 



N 



KILOMETERS 



KIT 




< wo BIROS 
lOO - 1.000 BIRDS 
1.000 - 10.000 BIRDS 
MO.eOO - lOO.OOO BIRDS 

ovcR ioe«aa smos 




59 



60 



325 (South) Eureka 



N 



KILOMETERS 



rcata 



KEY 




< 1CX} BtROS 
100 - 1.000 BIROS 
l.OOO - 10.000 BIRDS 
10000 - 100,000 BIROS 
OVER 100,000 BIRDS 







o 
^ 



€M 



Sk«t»*r Cev* 



61 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 



sample 

ColonyNo. 



Colony name 




004 



'Gull Rock^ 



Pelagic Cormorants 
/Pelagic Coonorants 



Lat. -Long. 



'Number breeding birds 

■ Investigators 
- Survey date 



'39°35,'20"N,121°35;45"W 

40 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/14/79, B, II) 
48 {Osborne, 6/5/69} 

A 



Z. Clear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 




■ Data qual. 
- see text 



r Reference 



Survey 
type 



42 
36 
aerial 
-I B = boat 

M = from mainland 



L = on site 




001 



Cone Rock 41°58'21"N, 124°13'02"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
l%Tag1c torfBorant 
jPelagic Cormorant 
iiestern Gull 



^2- 




10 
_8 
18 
•20 
14 
16 



(DeGange, Lester & Sowls, 7/2/80, B, I) 
(DeGange, Lester & Sowls, 7/2/80,8,111) 
(DeGange, Lester & Sowls, 7/2/80, B, III) 

(Osborne, 7/16/69 »A) 

(tester & Rodstrorfi»6/3/?9,B,in) 

(Osborne, 7/ 16/ 69, A) 



42 

42 
42 

35 
42 



(002) Hunter 


Rocks ^ 


Brandt's Cormorant 


680 


Pelagic Cormorant 


122 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


38 


Pigeon Guillemot 


120 


Total 


962 


irandt*s ConBorant 


320 


Brandt's Cormorant 


584 


Pel^tgic Connorant 


50 


Pelagic Cormorant 


60 


Pelagic Cormorant 


30 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


lies tern Gull 


30 


Itestern Gull 


20 


tiaeon Guillemot 


Z 



41°57'2?"N, 124°12'41"W 

(DeGange & Nelson, 7/25/80, A, II) 42 

(DeGange, Lester & Sowls, 7/2/80, B, II) 42 

(DeGange, Lester & Sowls, 7/2/80, B, III) 42 

(DeGange, Lester & Sowls ,7/2/80,8,111) 42 

(DeGange, Lester & Sowls, 7/2/80, B, III) 42 

C0sb6me,7/24/69Vl) '•"' 35 

(Lester, 7/12/79, A, II) 42 

(Osborne, 7/24/69,1) 35 

(Osborne, 1970) 35 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/4/79,8,1 1) 42 

(Osborne, 6/ 24/69) 35 

(Osborne, 7/ 24/69, I) 35 

(Lester & Rodstrom,6/4/79,8,II!) 42 

(Osborne, 7/24/69,L) ^5 



62 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1 :24,000 scale map: 

Smith River, Calif. 

Km 




Cone Rock 



Photo by Art Sowls 



63 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




003) Prince Island 41°57'04"N, 124°12'41"W 



Leach's Storm-Petrel 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Rhinoceros Auklet 
Tufted Puffin 
Total 

Brandt's Cormorant 
Double-crested Comorarrt 
Double-crested Conm>raRt 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pelagic Corrrorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillewt 

P = probably present 



P 


450 
146 

6 

420 

450 

12 

8 



1,492 


34 

180 

406 

80 

40 

2 

6 

100 

294 

aa 



DeGange, 
DeGange, 
DeGange, 
DeGange, 
DeGange, 
DeGange, 
DeGange, 
DeGange, 
DeGange, 



Lester 
Lester 
Lester 
Lester 
Lester 
Lester 
Lester 
Lester 
Lester 



Sowls 
Sowls 
Sowls 
Sowls 
Sowls 
Sowls 
Sowls 
Sowls 
Sowls 



,7/3/80, L) 
,7/2/80, BL, II) 
, 7/2/80, BL, II) 
,7/2/80,8, II) 
, 5/21/80, L, III) 
,5/21/80, L, II) 
,5/21/80, L, III) 
.7/3/80, L, III) 
,7/3/80, L, III) 



Osbome»6/17/70,L) 

Osborne, 6/1 7/70,L) 

Lester & ffodstrom,6/3/79,l,I) 

Osborne ,6/1 7/70,1) 

Lester S fiodstrom,6/3/9,L,n) 

Osborne,6/17/70,L) 

tester & Rodstrom,6/3/79,l,ni) 

Osborne. 6/17/70, L) 

Lester & Ro<)strom,6/3/?9,L,II) 

0sborne»6/l 7/70,1} 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

35 
35 
35 
42 
35 
42 
35 
42 
35 
42 
35 




[ OOA ) Smith River was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have not 
^ ' included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 




rQQc 1 Lake Talawa Beach was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We 
iUKJOj jjgyg j,Q, included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 



64 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




Hunter Rock 



002 




Prince Island 



003 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Smith River, Calif. 




"o Ship Ashore 
"~V^ Landing Strif 




Prince Island 



Photo by Art Sowls 



65 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




006) Castle Rock 41°45'37"M, 124°15'W 



Castle Rock is the second most important seabird colony in California. 
It presently has the largest breeding populations of Common Murres and 
Rhinoceros Auklets in California as well as important populations of Fork- 
tailed and Leach's Storm-Petrels, and Tufted Puffins. It is a major hauling 
area for California sea lions (Zalophm californianus) and Stellers sea lions 
(Eumetopias jubata) and is a pupping grounds for Harbor seals (Phoca 
vitulina). Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are often present in low 
numbers. 

Castle Rock is the primary spring staging grounds for the endangered 
Aleutian Canada Goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia). The island serves 
as a safe night roost for the geese as most feeding occurs in nearby fields. 

Until 1979, Castle Rock was privately owned and in the 1920's sheep 
grazed its slopes. Speculators have contemplated guano mining, rock quarrying, 
and construction of a tourist attraction on the island. Fortunately, in 1979, the 
Nature Conservancy purchased Castle Rock and it will soon be protected as a 
refuge by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. See Appendix B. 



Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel 100 

Leach's Storm-Petrel 5,000 

Brandt's Cormorant 2,200 

Pelagic Cormorant 340 

Black Oystercatcher 6 

Western Gull 1,350 , 

Common Murre 126,000^ 

Pigeon Guillemot 800 

Cassin's Auklet 3,600 

Rhinoceros Auklet 200+ 

Tufted Puffin 100 

Total 139,596 

Brandt's Cormorant 1,758 

Brandt's Cormorant 2,010 

Pelagic Cormorant 100 

Pelagic Cormorant 96 

Black Oystercatcher 2 

Black Oystercatcher 2 

Western Gull 1,200 

Cojfflwn Hurre 80,000 

Cassin's Auklet 100 
Rhinoceros Auklet 
Cassin's Auklet 

Rhinoceros Auklet 100- 
Tufted Puffin 

/I Estimate is number of birds present 



X 

X 

■150 

50 



Osborne, 1970, L) 35 

Osborne, 1970, L) 35 

DeGange & Nelson, 7/25/80, A, II) 42 

Lester, Nakagawa & Vasey, 6/19/80, B, III) 42 

Lester, Nakagawa & Vasey, 6/19/80,8, III) 42 
Lester & Rodstrom,7/12/79,A,&7/19/79,A,III) 42 
Lester & Rodstrom,7/12/79,A,&7/19/79,A,III) 42 

Lester, Nakagawa & Vasey, 6/19/80,8, III) 42 

Osborne, 1970, L) 35 

Osborne, 1977, L) 34 

Lester, 1980, BL, III) 42 

(Osborne, 1 970, L) 35 
(Lester & Rodstrom,7/12/79,A&7/19/79,A,III) 42 

(Osborne, 1970,L) 35 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 5/21/79, 8,111) 42 

(Osborne, 1970, L) 35 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 5/21/ 79, 8,111) 42 

(Osborne, 1970, L) 35 

(Osborne, 1970,L) 35 

(Thoresen,4/16 &8/25/59,L) 4i 

(Clay, 1917, L) 35 

(Clay, 5/20/34, L) 35 

(Osborne, 1970, L) 35 

(Osborne, 1970,L) 35 



times 1.67, sec page 10. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial survey (also times 1.67 J is 131,600 

007) "Tolowa Rocks" 41°45'15"N, 124°14'W 




Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel 
Leach's Storm-Petrel 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Comorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 



60 

92 
8 

116 
40 

316 
24 
36 
24 



(Lester, 6/20/80, L, III) 42 

(Lester, 6/20/80, L) 42 

(Lester, 6/19&6/20/80,B, II) 42 

(Lester, 6/19&6/20/80,BL, II) 42 

(Lester, 6/19&6/20/80,BL, II) 42 

(Lester, 6/19&6/20/80,BL, III) 42 

(Osborne, 9/14/70,K,census of one rock) 35 

(Lester S Rodstrom,5/21/79,B,I) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom,5/21/79,8,II) 42 



66 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




Castle Rock 



Photo by Gary Lester 



67 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




008) White Rock 41°44'46"N, 124°13'44"W 



Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Hack Oystercatcher 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Western Gull 



v.040^'4^l4^^'vXMW/^uM. ' 



2 (Lester & Berner, 6/20/80,1,1) 

74 (Lester & Berner, 6/20/80, L, II) 

10^ (Lester & Rodstrom, 5/21/79, B, III) 
86 

1 (Osborne, 7/ 17/69,1) 

2 (Lester & Rodstrom,5/21/79,B,III) 
40 (Osborne, 7/1 7/69,1) 

24 (Lester & Rodstrom,5/21/79,B,n) 



42 
42 
42 

35 
42 
35 
42 




009) Sister Rocks 41°39'29"N, 124°08'47"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Common Murre 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
^■iffffat's Cormorant 
Brandt's Conrorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 



42 
22 

2 

40 

50 

40 

196 

100 

8 
20 
14 

2 

4 
40 



DeGange & Nelson, 7/25/80, A, II) 
Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, B, II) 
Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, B, III) 
Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 
Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 
Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 

OS borne, 7/69, H) 

DeGange & Lester, 5/22/79, 8, I I) 

OS borne, 7/ 69, M) 

DeGange & Lester, 5/22/79, 8, 11) 

DeGange & Lester, 5/22/793, HI) 

OeGange & Lester, 5/22/79,8,11) 

DeSange & Lester, 5/22/79,8,1! I) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

35 
42 
35 
42 
42 
42 
42 



68 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




e)\ 


(009V 


fnf,f\ 


*- 


\ 


V 26J/; 
\ '***•' 

\ 4 

\ * \ : 
\ '^ 

Midway Point ^ 

•\ 

• 'X- 

••> 

• 

• • 


w 

06 


J 
Ed 
Q 

2b 1 

36 /: 

\ 


124*10' 


Sister 






— ■ Rocks 


Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Sister Rocks, Calif. 
Kb 




H 1 



69 



AKtA jzo, tureKa icont a.) 




010) False Klamath Rock 41°35'40"N, 124°06'36"W 



356 
84 

110 

80 

,500 

160 



n 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 

Common Murre 26 

Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 27,290 

Brandt's Cormcirant; 370 

Brandt's Conrsirant 406 

Double-crested Connorant 12 

Double-crested Connorant 2 

Pelagic Cormorant 18 

Pelagic Cormorant 44 

Western Gull 50 

Western Gull 80 

Common Hurre 20,000 

Pigeon Guillemot X 

^ Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67 
survey (also times 1.67) is 37,600. 



Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 42 

Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 42 

Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 42 

Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 42 

Lester, 6/19&7/12/79, A, III) 42 

Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 42 

mbomeJn/JQ.m 35 

Lester & Rodstrc»ii,6/19&7/12/79,A,III) 42 

Osborne,! 970, M) 35 

DeGapige & Lester, 5/22/79,8,111) 42 

Osborne,! 970, W) 35 

DeGange & Lester, 5/22/79, 8,111) 42 

Osborne, !970,H) 35 

OeGange & Lester, 5/22/79. 8,111) 42 

Osborne,! 970, H) 35 

Osborne,! 970, W) 35 

see page 10. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial 



(on) Flint Rock Head 4r31'31"N, 124°05'00"W 
Pelagic Cormorant 4 (Osborne, 8/6/69, M) 



35 




012) White Rock 41°30'56"N, 124°05'06"W 



White Rock is one of the most important Brown PeUcan roosts in 
northern Cahfomia, with up to 1,000 birds present from August through 
October. 



Brandt's Cormorant 240 

Double-crested Cormorant 60 

Pelagic Cormorant 12 

Black Oystercatcher 2 

Western Gull 24 

Pigeon Guillemot 6 

Total ^ ^ 344 

lras^'l-^limcbP«ll '''''• ■" 206 

8paER<lt*S Cotfrnrmt 514 



(DeGange & Nelson, 7/25/80, A, II) 
(Lester, 6/2/80, M, III) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/5/79, 8,1) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/5/79,8, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/5/79, 8, III) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/5/79,8, III) 

IOsfeGrne.Tf70) 

(Lester ,6/!9lt7/!2/79,A, 11) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

35 

42 



70 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 



Louis P De»M 
Memorja 



Section from U.S.G. 
:24,000 scale map: 

Requa, Calif. 
Kb 




Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Requa, Calif. 
Km 




71 



AREA 325. Eureka (cont'd.) 




013) Redding Rock 41°20'29"N, 124°10'26"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Common Murre 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Brandt's Corniorant 
Brandt's Conoorant 
Pelagic Conrorant 
Western Qu}] 
Vtestem Gull 



158 (DeGange,7/9/80,A,II) 
20 .,(Berner & Lester, 6/30/80,8, III) 
2,100^' (DeGange, 7/9/80, A, III) 

8 (Berner & Lester, 6/30/80,8, III) 

2,286 

m (Osborne, 5/1 2/ 70 »A) 
158 (Lester & Sowls, 5/1 51.7/1 2/79,A.1 11) 
X (Osborne, 5/1 2/ 70, A) 
X (Osborne, 5/12/70.A} 
40 (Lester & SowU»5/l5&7/12/79,A.III) 
600 iQ&borm,mUWM ~ 



42 
42 
42 
42 

35 
42 
35 
35 
42 
35 




^ ^ Photo by Anthony DeGange 

LI Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67, see page .10. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial 
survey (also times 1.67) is 1,700 




[014) ^^ Lagoon was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have not 
included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 



72 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




Redding Rock 

Lighthouse (Aband) 



^ 



+ 41*'20' 
124**10' 



S 



o 



'^ 



Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:62,500 scale map: 

Orlck, Calif, 

Km 
I ' 1 



. 41 20'^ i 
12A*'05"' 



Mussell Point^ 



Freshwater Rocks' 




Stxep Villag. 

(Indian Ruins) 



Lookout Poi 



75 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 

Total 
Pelagic Connorant 



01 5j "Cormorant Rock" 4r08'32"N, 124°09'39"W 



14 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,6, III) 
2 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,6, III) 
2 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,6, III) 



11 



4 (Osborne, 1970,|1j(^ 



42 
42 
42 

35 




016) Wedding Rock 4r08'28"N, 124°09'32"W 



Pigeon Guillemot 
Pigeon Guillerrot 



60 
44 



(DeGange, 5/15/79, M, III) 
(Osborne, 1969- 70, M) 



42 

35 




017) "Sea Gull Rock" 41°05'21"N, 124°09'07"W 



Double-crested Cormorant 


136 


Pelagic Cormorant 


106 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


40 


Pigeon Guillemot 


12 


Total 


306 


Double-crested Cormorant 


48 


Oouble-crested Cormorant 


96 


felagic Connorant 


40 


Pelagic Connorant 


62 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


itestern ^uW 


20 


ilestern Gull 


40 


Pigeon Guilleniot 


4 


lies tern Gull ™»™j™s™™», 


20 


Fiseon <3uiHe<mtfHHH| 


L X 



(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,6, III) 42 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,8, II) 42 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, 6, III) 42 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, 6, III) 42 

(Lester, McKay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79, 6, III) 42 

[Urn & Garret, 1978, M) 43 

(Lester & Rodstrofn,5/9/79,M,!II) 42 

(Benz & Garret, 1978,M) 43 

(Lester, HcKay & Rodstrom,8/l/79,B,I) 42 

(Lester, HcKay t Rodstrom,8/1/79,B,I) 42 

(Benz & Garrett, 1978,M) 43 

(Lester, HcKay & Rodstrom,8/1/79,B,I) 42 

(Benz I. Garrett, 1978,H) 43 

(Osborne, 6/1/69) 35 

(Osborne, 6/1/69] 35 



X = present 



74 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




75 



AREA 325. Eureka (cont'd.) 




018) "Sea Lion Rock" 41°05'40"N, 124°09'49"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 



OoubTe-crtsted 0»r«&tiii!t 

Pelagic Connorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Mestern Gull 



36 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,6,11) 42 

2 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,8, III) 42 

28 (Lester & Stewart,6/23/80,B,III) 42 

20 (Lester, McKay & Rodstrom,8/l/79,B,III) 42 

106 

15 T6$bbrf»B,6/T8/TO,l) 35 
34 (Osborne, 6/18/70, L) 35 

16 (Lester. HcKay 4 Rodstroffl,8/l/79,B,I) 42 
24 (Osborne, 6/18/ 70,L) 35 
26 (Lester, McKay i Rodstrom,8/l/79,B,III) 42 




019) White Rock 41°05'13"N, 124°09'33"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Conmon Murre 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Tufted Puffin 



70 (Lester, McKay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79,8, II) 
20 jLester, McKay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79,8, II) 

2.600^(Lester, Rodstrom & Sowls, 5/15/79, A, &6/19/79,A, III) 
24 (Lester, McKay 4 Rodstrom, 8/1/79,8, III) 

P (Osborne. 6/18/70.M) 



Total 


2,714 




Double-crested Cormorant 


24 


(0sbdme,197O,K} 


Pelagic Cormorant 


62 


(Osborne, 197Q.M) 


Western Gull 


10-20 


(Os borne, 6/ 18/ 70, M) 
(0sborne,6/18/70,M 


Common ^^rre Jm^ 


1.200 



4 
4 
4 
4 
3 

3 
3 
3. 
3: 



P = protMb(y 



' Estiroate is numbei of birds ptesent ante* 1.67, Me 
surrey (also times 1.67) is 3300. 



10. 



et*L's 



fotinm 



76 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont d.) 




77 



^\nc/A o<ca, Eiuieivd \t;uiii u./ 




020) Green Rock 41°04'32"N, 124°09'48"W 



Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel 
Leach's Storm-Petrel 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Common Murre 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Cassin's Auklet 
Rhinoceros Auklets 
Tufted Puffin 

Total 
Fork- tailed Stonn-Petrel 
Leach's Storm-Petrel 
Brandt's Coriwrant 

Cormorant 

Cornrarant 

Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Conwion Murre 
Cotwnon Murre 

Cormnon Murre 40- 

Pigeon Guillemot 
Pigeon Suilletnot 
Tufted Puffin 

Ls Estimate is number of birds present 
survey (also times 1.67) is 28,300. 



Brandt's 
Brandt's 
Brandt's 



50 (Osborne, 6/18/70, L) 

X (Osborne, 6/18/70, L) 

216 (DeGange,7/9/80,A,II) 

48 (Lester & Stewart,6/23/80,B,II ) 

2 (Osborne, 1969-70, L) 

40 (Lester, McKay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79,8, III) 
55,000^ (DeGange, 7/9/80, A, III) 

28 (Lester, McKay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79,8, III) 

50 (Osborne, 6/18/70, L) 

6 (DeGange, Lester & Sowls,1980,M,III) 

10 (Osborne, 6/18/70, L) 

55,420 

X (Talmadge,1930's,L) 

X (Talmadge,1930's,L) 

X (Talmadge,1930's,L) 

202 (Osborne, 6/28/69, I) 

76 (Osborne, 6/70, L) 

440 (Lester, 6/19/79,A, III) 

X (Talfnadge,1930's,L) 

4 {Osborne,1969-70,L) 

52 (Lester, McKay & Rods troin, 8/ 1/79, 8,111) 

44 (Os borne, 6/ 18/ 70, L) 

X (Talmadge,1930's,L) 

2,000 (Clay, 5/10/41 ,L) 

•48,000 (0sborne,6/18/70,L) 

X (Talmadge,1930's,L) 

6 (Osborne, 5/18/70, L) 

X {Talmadge,1930's,L) 

times 1.67, see page 10. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial 



35 
35 
42 
42 

35 
42 
42 
42 
35 
42 
35 

35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
42 
35 
35 
42 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 




021) "Puffin Rock" 41°04'18"N, 124°09'32"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 


8 ( 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 ( 


Western Gull 


44 ( 


Pigeon Guillemot 


10 ( 


Tufted Puffin 


6 ( 


Total 


70 


Pelagic Coruwrant 


8 ( 


Pelagic Conmsrant 


U ( 


Western Gull 


40 ( 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 { 


Pigeon GuillenKit 


12 ( 


Tufted Puffin ^__ 





Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, B,II) 42 

Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, BL, III) 42 

Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, BL, II) 42 

Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, BL, III) 42 

DeGange, Lester & Sowls,1980,M,II ) 42 

Osborne,! 970 ,H) 35 

Lester, McKay & Rodstrom,8/l/79,B,II) 42 

Lester, McKay & Rodstrom,8/l/79,B,III) 42 

Osborne, 1969- 70, M) 35 

Osborne, 1970,M) 35 

Osborne, 1970. «) .x<- 35 




022) "Little Pewetole Rock" 41°04'N, 124''09'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Total 



4 (Osborne, 1970, M) 35 

2 (Lester, Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79,8, I) 42 

6 



78 



AREA 325. Eureka (cont'd.) 



(02S)— °^rckO 



Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Trinidad, Calif. 



Quarry 
361 '■: ^\ 

!'■ ^-~~ - 24 V, 

• Water Tank 




Green Rock 



Photo by Anthony DeGange 



79 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd. 




023) Flatiron Rock 41°03'34"N. 124°09'39"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cornrarant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Common Murre 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Tufted Puffin 

Total 
Leach's Storm-Petrel 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Coniwrant 
Brandt's Connorant 
Brandt's Conwrast 
CoiTSfnon Mjrre 
Coiwnon Murre 
Pigeon Guilleniot 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Cassln's Auklet 
Tufted Puffin 
Tufted Puffin 
Tufted Puffin 
Tufted Puffin 
Tufted Puffin 



1,540 

4 

2 

40 

24,000 

2 

2 

24,590 

X 

2,400 

260 

400 

U206 
? 

10,000 

X 

2 

X 

'nifflierous" 

"sparse" 

4-6 

2 

2 



/I 



DeGange, 7/9/80, A, III) 

Lester & Rodstrom, 5/9/79, M) 

Osborne, 1969- 70, LM) 

Osborne, 1969-70, LM) 

Lester & Rodstrom, 5/15,6/198.7/12/79, A, III) 

Lester, McKay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79, B, III) 

Lester & DeGange, 1980,M, II) 

Clay, 5/22/10,6/10/34,1) 

Clay,6/10/34) 

Osborne, 1969) 

Osborne, 6/ 18/70) 

Lester, Rodstrom & Sowls, 5/ 15, 6/1 947/ 12/79, A, 11 I) 

C1ay,19l0-I9l2&l934) 

Osborne»1970,LH) 

CI ay. 5/22/10) 

Osborne, 6/18/70) 

Clay, 1910-11, 1934,L) 

Clay,7/11/ll,L) 

Clay,6/10/34,L) 

Hallmark, early 1950 's) 

Osborne, 6/3/70) 

Lester, McWay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79.8,111) 



Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67, see page 10. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial 
survey (also times 1.67) is 17,700. 




024) Blank Rock 41°03'15"N, 124°09'26"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 


52 


Pelagic Cormorant 





Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


1,000^ 


Common Murre 


Pigeon Guillemot 


20 


Total 


1,154 


Fork-tailed Storm-^'etrel 


X 


Fork- tailed Storm-Petrel 





Leach's Storm-Petrel 


X 


Leach's Storm-Petrel 


. 


Brandt's Corii^rant 





Brandt's Connorant 


280 


Pelagic Corirorant 


6 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


X 


Western Gull 


90 


Western Gull 


100 


Pigeon Guillemot 


20 


Tufted Puffin jhk. 


X 



LI Estimate is number of birds present 
survey (also times 1.67) is 400 



(DeGange, 7/9/80, A, I) 42 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,8, I) 42 

(Lester & Stewart,6/23/80,B^III) 42 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/22/80, M, III) 42 

(DeGange, 7/9/80, A, III) 42 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, B, III) 42 

35 

fBaWson H CI ay , 6/ 1 8/1 6, L) 35 

(Osborne, 1965, 1969, 1970, L) 35 

(Dawson & C1ay,6/18/16,L) 35 

{Osborne, lSf65, 1969, 1970,1) 35 

{Osborne, 1969) 42 
(Lester S fe)dstrot«,5/15,6/19S7/12/79,A,in) 42 

(Lester* Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79,8,11) 42 

(Lester, Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79, 8, III) 35 

(Dawson & Clay, 6/18/16, L) 35 

(Osborne, 6/18/70, L) 42 

(Lester, Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79,8,111) 42 

(Lester. Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79, 8,11 I) 35 
(Dawson $ Clay .6/1 8/16,L) 

times 1.67, see page ID. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial 



80 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Trinidad, Calif. 




Trinidad Head 
i_ 



. *i^ifc-^^^*?^W 



.^Cl 



r 





Flatiron Rock 



Photo by Art Sowls 



81 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




025) Trinidad Head 41°03'09"N, 124°08'58"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Gulllerrtot 



202 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,8, II) 42 

60 (Lester, Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79,6, III) 42 

262 

198 ( Osborne, 1 970, L) 35 

94 (Lester, Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79,8, III) 42 

40 (Osborne,! 970, L) ;,^mmmmmm^ 35 



m26) Pilot 


Rock 4ro 


Brandt's Cormorant 





Pelagic Cormorant 


8 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


^^.^ 


Common Murre 


2,500^' 


Pigeon Guillemot 


20 


Total 


2,570 


Brandt's Cormorant 


160 


Brandt's Corirorant 


40 


Pelagic Corirorant 


24 


Pelagic Corirorant 


8 


Western Gull 


20 


Western Gull 


14 


Cojimiun Murre 


X 


Pigeon Guillemot 


2 



4r03'06"N, 124°09'09"W 



DeGange, 7/9/80, A;Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,8, I 

Lester, McKay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79, B, III) 

Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, B III) 

Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, B, III) 

DeGange, 7/9/80, A, III) 

Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, B, III) 



Osborne,! 969, L) 
Lester, 6/19/79, A, III) 
Osborne,! 969, L) 
Lester, McKay & 
Os borne,! 969, L) 
Lester, McKay & 
Osborne, 1969) 
Osborne, 1 959, L) 



Rodstrom, 8/1/79, B, III) 
Rodstrom, 8/ 1/79, 8,1 II) 



) 42 

42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

35 
42 
35 
42 
35 
42 
35 
35 



Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67, see page 10. Briggs et al.'s estimate tor 7/2/80 aerial 
survey (also times 1.67) is 1,500. 




027) Prisoner Rock 41°03'07"N, 124°08'34"W 



Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel X 

Leach's Storm-Petrel 160 

Western Gull 2 

Pigeon Guillemot 4 

Total 166 

teacH^s Sfom-Petrel X 
leach's Storm-Petre! 150-200 

Pelagic Connor'ant 4 

X = present. 



(Osborne, 1970-72, L) 

(Lester, Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79, L, III) 
(Lester, Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79, L, III) 
(Lester, Nelson & Reetz, 7/20/79, L, III) 



ay,6/5/10S6/24/12;i) 
(Osborne, 1970-72,1) 
(Osborne, 1970-72,1) 



35 
42 
42 
42 

35 

35 
35 



82 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




83 



MnCM ^£0, curtfKa \uuni u.; 




028) "Unnamed Rock" - see 054 




029) "Mr'rp Rock" - see 054 




030) Cap Rock - see 054 



(03l) " 



Luffenholtz Rocks" - see 054 




032) "Tepona Rock" - see 054 




033) "Halfmoon Rock" - see 054 




034) "Snag Rock" - see 054 




035) Little River Rock 41°02'08"N, 124°07'16"W 



Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel 


200 


Leach's Storm-Petrel 


10,000 


Double-crested Cormorant 


100 


Pelagic Cormorant 


12 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


60 


Pigeon Guillemot 


60 


Rhinocer*os Auklet 


P 


Tufted Puffin 


P 


Total »a----«^ 


10,434 


iiuble-crested Cqwo^KKSK^' 4 


Itouble-crested Conm>rant 


78 


Double-crested Cormorant 


120 


Pelagic Cormorant 


10-20 


Pelagic Conuorant 


8 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Sull 


50-60 


Western Gull 


62 


Western Gull 


84 


ffester« Gull ^^sMmm^ 


60 


Pigeon Sulllecsot .^^^p; 


30-40 


P = probably present 





(Harris, 1965-72, L) 24 

(Harris, 1965-72, L) 24 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,6, III) 42 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,8, II) 42 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,8, III) 42 

(Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,8, III) 42 

(Lester, McKay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79,8, III) 42 

(Harris, 1965-72, L) 24 

(Harris,1965-72,L) 24 

(Ha*'ris,«/8/?4,l) 23 

(HarHs, 6/1/77,1) 23 

(Lester, HcKay& Rodstrom»S/1/79,B, IV) 42 

(HarHs,1965-72,L) 24 

(tester, HcKay & Rods tr«r!,8/1/79, 8,11) 42 

(Harris, 1965-72,1) 24 

(Harris, 1965-72, I) 24 

(Harris, 6/8/74,1) 23 

(HarHs,6/V77.l) 23 
(Lester, McK^ S Rodstrom,8/l/79,8,ItI> i 42 
(Harris, 1965-72,1) * ; 24 



84 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




026 



n Pilot 
-U Rock 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Trinidad & Crannel, 

Calif. 
Km 





035 



Little RJwfi*JVJ?'^' '\^' 1.: f,.: 



Moonsl 




little River Rock 



Photo by Art Sowls 



85 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




036 



Clam Beach was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have not 
included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 




037 



"Mad River" was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have not 
included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 




038) Old Areata Wharf 40°50'59"N, 124°05'58"W 



Double -crested Cormorant 340 

mP^^trested Cormorant 32? 

fiouble-crested Cormorant 352 

Double-crested Cormorant 424 

Caspian Tern X 

X = present 



(Sowls & Stewart, 6/19/80, B, III) 

(Ayers,1971) 

(Ayers,1972) 

(Ayers,5/i5/73) 

(Harri 5,6/16/66) 



42 
5 
5 
5 

23 









%u^ 


H^^s^^ 1 


BS^^.>*^>5?.^' ^-^ "^'"^ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W^^^^^^»s^ - JW 



Double-crested Cormorants, Old Areata Wharf 



Photo by Art Sowls 



86 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




B)racut 

r Trailer 



87 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




039 



Humboldt Bay was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have 
not included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 




040) False Cape Rocks 40°30'38"N, 124°23'40"W 



(Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/26/79,8, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/26/79,8, III) 
ttu -.(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/26/79, 8, III) 
8,000^(Lester & Rodstrom, 8/2/79, A, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/26/79, 8, III) 



(0sbofne,7/69»A) 

(Lester & Rod5trom,8/2/79,A,n) 

(Osborne, 7/69, A) 

(Osborne, 7/69, a) 

(Osborne, 7/69, A) 

(Qsfesnme,7/69,A) 



8randt's Cormorant 


400 


Pelagic Cormorant 


170 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


220, 


Coirmon Mu rre 


8,000^ 


Pigeon Guillemot 


150 


Total 


8,942 


Brandt's Connorant 


406+ 


Brandt's Cormorant 


640 


Pelagic Connorant 


P 


Vtestem Gull 


X 


Coffln»n Murre 


1,6(KJ 


Piqmn Sufllemot 


X 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

35 
42 
35 
35 
35 
35 



X = present, P = probably present 



n 



Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67, see page ID. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial 
survey (also times 1.67) is 11,000. 



88 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Femdale, Calif. 

Km 



I »- 






Mussel' 
Rock 




'. Rock 



40°30' 




...5^, ° ■ ' " False, 

^ False Cape • Qg 



&9 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 



@ 



Sugarloaf Island 40°26'18"N, 124^24'41"W 



Osborne, 1970, LM) 

Osborne, 1970, LM) 

Osborne, 1969- 70, LM) 

Nelson & Sowls, 7/26/79,6, III) 

Nelson & Sowls, 7/26/79,8, III) 

Nelson & Sowls, 7/26/79,6, III) 

Lester & Rodstroni,5/10/79,M,III) 

Nelson & Sowls, 7/26/79,8, II I) 
Nelson & Sowls, 7/26/79,6,11 1) 
Nelson & Sowls, 7/26/79,8) 
Osborne,! 969. IM) 
Nelson & Sowls, 7/26/79, 6,111) 
Osborne, 1969-70,LM) 
Os borne, 1969- 70, LM) 
Osborne, 19 70, LM) 
Os borne, 1 970, LM) 



6randt's Cormorant 


200 ( 


Double-crested Cormorant 


32 ( 


Pelagic Cormorant 


400 ( 


Black Oystercatcher 


6 ( 


Western Gull 


320 ( 


Pigeon Guillemot 


240 ( 


Tufted Puffin 


4 ( 


Total 


1,202 


^^nnorant (unid.) 


100 ( 


Brandt's Cormorant 


182 ( 


Doufale-crested Cormorant 


■? ( 


Double-Crested Cormorant 


6 ( 


Pelagic Cormorant 


21{H- { 


Black Oystercatcher 


X ( 


Western Gull 


300 { 


Pigeon Guillemot 


200 ( 


Tufted Puffin 


4 ( 



35 
35 
35 
42 
42 
42 
42 

42 
42 
42 

35 
42 
35 
35 
35 
35 



X = present 




042) Steamboat Rock 40°24'54"N, 124°24'09"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Common Mu rre 

Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Brandt's Connorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 

Pelagic Corrrorant 
Western Gull 
Common Murre 



494 (Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 42 

(Lester, Nelson, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/26/79,6, II) 42 

60 -,( Lester, Nelson, Rodstrom & Sowls,7/26/79,B,III) 42 

4,500 ^(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/24/79, A, Lester, Nelson, 42 

Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/26/79, 6, III) 42 

, 2 (Lester, Nelson, Rodstrom & Sowls,7/26/79,6,III) 42 

^Toss" 

340 {Osborne, 1969- 70 »AH) 

640 (Lester & Rodstrom,7/24/79,A, Lester, Nelson, 
Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/26/ 79,8, II) 

4 (Osborne, 1969- 70, AM) 

X (Osborne, 1969-70, AM) 
600 (Osborne, 196 9- 70, AM) 



Zli 



Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67, see page 10. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial 
survey (also times 1 .67) is 5,100. 



90 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




i 



91 




043) Sea Lion Rock 40°19'35"N, 124°21 '38"W 



Cormorant (unid. ) 
Western Gull 

Total 



(Nelson & Rods trom, 7/18/79,6) 
2 (Nelson & Rodstrom, 7/18/79,8, III) 



42 
42 

35 




[OH) Point St. George Lighthouse 4r50'N, 124°22'W 

Pelagic Cormorant 12 (Lester, 7/12/79, A, III) 

No detailed map available see page 59. 



42 




(045 



"Whaler Island", 
unnamed rocks. 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
^rk-tifTS§i'*SfiWSfitret 
Leach's Storm-Petrel 
Fork-tailed Storm-Petref 
leach's Storm-Petrel 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western (kill 
Hgeon Guillemot 
Cassin's Auklet 



40 

2 

4 

24 

72 

142 

X 

X 

20,000 

X 

X 

X 
f 



Crescent City breakwater. Steamboat Rock and 
41°45'N, 124°13'W. 

(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 
(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, I) 
(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, BL, III) 
(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, BL, III) 
(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, BLM, III) 

(CTaly,5/14/t6&7939,L;Ta1madge, early 1^30's) 
(Clay, 5/14/16&1939,L;Talmadge, early 1930's) 

(Howell, 7/ 16/19,1) 

(Talmadge, early 1930's) 
(Talmadge, early 1930's) 
(Howell, 7/16/n,L) 
(Clay, 3/22/25,1) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

35 
35 

35 

35 
35 
35 
35 




046) Unnamed Small Rocks 41°42'N, 124°08'W 



Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelagic Connorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Vtestem <5u11 

X » present, P = probably preKtit 



22 (Berner 

66 (Berner 

6 (Berner 

28 (Berner 

100 (Berner 
222 

2 (DeGange 

6 ( Defiance 

P {DeGange 

8 (O^sange 



& Lester, 6/20/80,8, II) 
& Lester, 6/20/80,8, II) 
& Lester, 6/20/80, B, III) 
& Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 
& Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 



% Lestosr, 

& Lester, s'm'mWJ 
i Lester, 5/22/793) 
& Lester. 6/e2/?M» II) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 




92 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont d.) 




iWhite Rock 




Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Slater Rocks, Calif. 

Kb 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Sister Rocks, Calif. 

Kn 

1 



h 



— •— 






\ 




,^^az -^^a- " ': **- 






{ I (I 



\ 



:•<' ( I r 






1 "o > 
/' " 'n 

\ A, \ \ // « -- 
l^JI^VJi: ' ■. '--I?— --V- ^ — ■"" 






7^ 



11 '• 



7 



93 



AREA 32b, fcureka (cont d.) 



(047) "Easy Triangle Rocks" 41°40'22"N, 124°08'30"W 




Pelagic Cormorant 


54 


(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, II) 


42 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 


42 


Western Gull 


8 


(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 


42 


Pigeon Guillemot 


20 


(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 


42 


Total 


84 






Pelagic Cormorant 


20 


(DeGange & Lester, 5/ 22/79, 8,1!) 


42 


Black Oystercatcher 


P 


(DeGange & lester,5/22/79,B,III) 


42 


Western Gull 


12 


(OeGange & Lester, 5/22/79,8, II) 


42 


Pigeon GuHlewt 


10 


^ f^^^^9iAtotoM^S^IIifciill««.. 


42 


P = probably present 










048) "Rock R" 41°40'00"N, 124°08'30"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
irandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Ulack Oystercatcher 



(DeGange & Nelson, 7/25/80, A, II) 
(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, 8, II) 
(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 
(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 

( LestM'B^l 9*7/ 1 2/ 79 ,%rf' 
(DeGange & Lester, 5/22/79, 8,1) 
:>^(De6ange & Lester, 5/22/79,8,111) 



140 

10 

4 

2 

156 

188 

4 



42 
42 
42 

42 

42 
^2 
42 




049) "Last Chance Rock" 4r38'05"N, 124°07'30"W 



Double-crested Cormorant 4 

Pelagic Cormorant 40 

Western Gull _4 

Total 48 

Pelagic Cormorant 6 

stern Gull 2 



(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, II) 
(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, 8, II) 
(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,6, III) 

(DeSange B. Lester, 5/22/79, B, II) 
(DeGange & Lester, 5/22/79,8, II) 



42 
42 
42 

42 
42 




050) Footsteps Rock 41°37'00"N, 124°07'10"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Pigeon Guillemot 



36 (Berner & 

2 (Berner & 

4 (Berner & 

60 (Berner & 
102 

20 (DeGange S Lester, 5/22/79,8, I) 

2 (DeGange & Lester,5/22/79,B,III) 

50 (DeGange & Lester, 5/22/79,8^111) 



Lester, 6/20/80, 8, II) 
Lester, 6/20/80, 8, III) 
Lester, 6/20/80,8, II) 
Lester, 6/20/80.8, III) 



42 
42 

42 
42 

42 
42 
42 



94 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Chllds Hill, Calif. 
Kn 




049 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Requa, Calif. 

Kb 

t » 




95 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




051) "Radar Station Rocks" 41°33'30"N. 124°06'00"W 



Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



20 

34 

P 

X 

20 
74 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/5/79, B, III) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/5/79, B, II) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/5/79, B) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/5/79, B) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/5/79, B, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 



X " present, P = probably present 



(052) Palmer's Point to Scotty Point (except 017) 41°07'N, 124°09'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Connorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Suitlenjot 



100 


(Lester 


10 


(Lester 


20 


(Lester 


40 


(Lester 


170 




14S 


(Lester, 


6 


(iester. 


20 


(Lester, 


50 


(Lester, 



& Stewart, 6/ 23/80, B, II) 
& Stewart, 6/23/80, B, III) 
& Stewart, 6/23/80, B, III) 
& Stewart, 6/23/80, B, III) 

mKay % Rddstroin,8/1 /79,B,rr) 
McKay & RodstroiB.8/l/79,B,ni) 
HcKay S RodstroM/V?9,B,in) 
McKay & Ro<istr<5«,8/l/79,84n) 



42 
42 
42 
42 

42 
42 
42 
42 



96 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 



Section £rom U.S.G.S. 
: 24, 000 scale map: 

Requa, Calif. 





Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Trinidad, Calif. 
Kn 



Cone 
Rock 



Palmers Point 



97 



AREA 325. Eureka (cont'd.) 



©Scotty Point to Megwill Point (except 018 - 021) 
41°05'N, 124°09'W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
iPelagic Connorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
^stern Gull 

X = present 



2 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,6, II) 42 

134 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,8, II) 42 

6 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80,6, III) 42 

16 (Lester & Stewart, 6/23/80, 6, III) 42 

60 (Lester, McKay & Rodstrom, 8/1/79, 6, III) 42 

218 

96 (Lester, McKay & Rodstroin,8/l/79,S,U) 42 

X (Lester, HcKay ^Rodstrom, 8/1/79, B, III) 42 

14 (Lester, McKay & Rodstroni,8/l/79.B»IIli 42 



98 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Trinidad, Calif. 




99 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




054 



Trinidad Bay Rocks: "Double", "Mr'rp", Cap, "Split", "Button", 
"Luffenholtz", "Tepona", "Halftnoon", "Snag" and unnamed small 
rocks 41°03'N, 124°08"W 



Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel 
Leach's Storm-Petrel 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Leach's Stomh-Pet*^! 
Pelagic Comiorant 
Felagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
>testern 5u11 
Jiseon Juillefflot 

X = present 



X (Osborne 

1,640 (Lester, 

22 (Lester 

10 (Lester 

22 (Lester 

60 (Lester 

1,754 



, 1969-70, L) 

Sowls & Stewart, 1980, BL, III) 
& Stewart, 6/23/80, B, II) 
& Stewart, 6/23/80, BL, III) 
& Stewart, 6/23/80, BL, III) 
& Stewart, 6/23/80, BL, III) 



$2 (Osfaorrm 

56 (Lester, 

2 (Osborne 

2 (Lester, 

X (Osborne 

12 (Lester, 

20 (Osborne 



»I96< 

»1969-70a: 

McKay & Rodstr<«n,8/ 1/79,8,11) 
,1969-70, L) 

McKay & Rods trom, 8/ 1/79. 8,111) 
,1969-70.L) 

HcKay & Rodstroni,8/l/79,B,ni) 
.1969-70,1) 



35 
42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

35 
35 
42 
35 
42 
35 
42 
35 



100 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




101 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




055) Three Brothers & Hair Seal Rocks 40°19'40"N, 124°21'58"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Total 



110 
6 
4 

120 



(Nelson & Rodstrom, 7/18/79. B, II) 
(Nelson & Rodstrom, 7/18/79, B, I) 
(Nelson & Rodstrom, 7/18/79,8, III) 



42 
42 
42 




056) "Cormorant Hotel" 40°02'10"N, 124°04'50"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Total 



280 

2 

282 



(Lester, Nelson, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/18/79, MB, II) 42 
(Lester, Nelson, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/18/79, MB, I) 42 



102 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 







♦three t^Ci'tl^'' 

Brothers ^*'s> RcitC 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Petrolla, Calif. 



Sea Lion 
Rock 




42°02'30"-k 

12A°05' ^ 




056 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Shelter Cove, Calif. 

Km 



Sewage Dis 




103 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 




057) Point St. George 41°47'N. 124°15'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



14 
8 
20 
40 
82 



(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, B, I) 

(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, B, III) 

(Berner & Lester, 6/20/80, B, III ) 

(Berner & Lester,6/20/80,B,II.I) 



42 
42 
42 
42 




Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Total 



058) Wilson Rock 4r35'45"N, 124°06'37"W 



2 (Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, II) 

2 (Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 

_8 (Berner & Lester, 6/20/80,8, III) 

12 



42 
42 
42 



104 



AREA 325, Eureka (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Cresent City, Calif. 
Km 



% Brown Rock 



SAND 
DUNES 





105 




379 
Ukiah 



The map on the facing page is an index to the locations of colonies within map 379, 
Ukiah. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively from north to south, 
since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial colony numbers were 
assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following this map, all colonies are listed 
sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 



Numbers of breeding seabirds will vary from year to year, 
numbers of breeding seabirds within this region. 



Below are the approximate 



Brandt's Cormorant , 6,000 

Pelagic Cormorant 4,000 

Black Oystercatcher 70 

Western Gull 500 

Common Murre. 6,000 

Pigeon Guillemot 1,000 

Marbled Murrelet no estimate 

Rhinoceros Auklet . . . ' p 

Tufted Puffin 10 



106 



379 Ukiah 




fe^ 


gl 






(Cj^ 


(oo.) 


o 


(030j ^^S 


"lQ 




©f^^>A 


\ 


^ 


@v 


1 


,, 


€r 


K 



107 



sample 

Colony No. - 



Colony 



name 




[004) 'Gull Rock^ 



Pelagic Cormorants 



•Number breeding birds 
Lat.-Long. / y- Investigators 

f *i — ^^ r Survey date 

^9°35,'20"N,121°35;45"lf 

f fT. ^ 



-v, r 



40 (Nelson & Sowls ,6/14/79,6,1 1 
48 (0sbome,6/5/69) 



Qear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Staple lines give additional estimates for other years. 




.Survey 
type 



- B 
M 
L 



• Data qual. 
- sec text 

T Reference 

42 

35 
aerial 
boat 

from mainland 
on site 



® 



Brandt's Cormorant 





Pelagic Cormorant 


250 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


10 


Pigeon Guillemot 


20 


Total 


282 


Brandt's Corfnorant 


X 


X = present 





"Rockport Rocks" 39°44'10"N, 123^50'00"W 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79, B, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79,6, III) 
(Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79,8, III) 
(Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79,6, III) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79,8, III) 



(Osborne, 8/26/69 .H) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

36 



(002) Cape 


Vizcaino 


Brandt's Cormorant 


3,080 


Pelagic Cormorant 


120 


Western Gull 


60 


Common Murre 


5,800 


Pigeon Guillemot 


8 


Total 


9,068 


Brandt's Cormorant 


1,000 


Brandt's Cormorant 


3.662 


Pelagic Comorant 


50 


Western Gull 


40 



39°43'34"N, 123°49'55"W 

(Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79,6, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79,6, III) 42 

(Briggs & Lewis, 5/7/80, A,I II) 42 
(Lester, Sowls & Stewart,7/12/80,M,III) 42 

(Osborne, 8/26/69,H) 36 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 8/2/79.A, III) 42 

(Osborne, 8/26/ 69, M) 36 

(Osborne, 8/26/69, H) 36 



108 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Westport, Calif. 



BCape Vizcaino % \*' 
^•^; 




Cape Vizcaino 



Photo by Gary Lester 



109 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 

Total 
Pelagic Corinorant 



003) Chris Rocks 39°42'51"N, 123°48'07"W 



54 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, II) 

_6 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79,8, III) 

60 

40 (Osborne, 8/25/69 »M) 



42 



36 




Chris Rock 



Pliuto by Tim Osborne 




Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Cormorant, 



004) Kibesillah Rock 39°34'49"N, 123'^46'51"W 



350 (Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II ) 

92 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79,8, III ) 

20 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79,8) 

462 



150 (Osborne, 8/26/69, M) 

490 (Lester & Ro<istroni,8/2/79,A,ni) 



42 
42 
42 

36 
42 




005 



MacKcrricher Beach was previously assigned a catalog number because ol Snowy Plover nesting. We 
have not included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stcnzel (1979). 



1 lU 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Chris Rock 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Westport, Calif. 

Km 
> I I 




123*>47'30" 
_|_ 39035 » 



o» 



(ooa)- 



Rock 



4} 




^ ::i 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Inglenook, Calif. 

Kb 



.h^^^ 





Kibesillah Rock 



Photo by Gary Lester 



111 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




006) Goat Island Area 39 18'28"N, 123 48'49"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 1,240 

Pelagic Cormorant 134 

Black Oystercatcher 6 

Western Gull 2 

Pigeon Guillemot 120 

Tufted Puffin 4 

Total 1,506 

Brandt *s Cormorant 500 

Brandt's Cormorant ■ 1,400 

Pelagic Contiorant 30 

Pelagic Carmorant 38 

Black Oystercatcher 2 

Black Oystercatcher 2 

Vfestern Gull 24 

Pigeon Guillemot 12 



Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 42 

Lester & Sowls, 6/5/80, BM, II) 42 
DeGange & Lester & Nelson, 6/5/80, BL, III) 42 
DeGange & Lester & Nelson, 6/5/80, BL, II) 42 

Sowls, 6/5/80, BM, III) 42 

DeGange, Nelson & Sowls, LM, II) 42 

Osborne, 8/26/69,1) ' 36 

Lester & Rodstrom,8/2/79,A,n!} 42 

Osborne, 8/26/69, L) 36 

Lester & Rodstrom, 6/21/79, 8,111) 42 

Osborne, 8/26/69,1) i 36 

Rodstrom,5/17/79,M,III) i 42 

Lester & Rodstrom,6/21/79,8,III ) 1 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/21/79, B,!II) I 42 




Main nesting island ("a" on map). 



Photo by Gary Lester 



12 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.! 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Mendocino, Calif. 

Kb 



113 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




007) "Devil's Basin" 39°10'14"N, 123°44'50"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Brandt 's Ciiirorant 
Brandt's Connorant 
Pelagic Comwrant 
Pelagic Connorant 
Western Gull 
Western Gull 

X = present 



300 


(Lester 1 


132 


(Lester, 


2 


(Nelson, 


14 


(Lester, 


20 


(Lester, 


468 




350 


(Osborrtfi 


380 


(Lester ■ 


70 


{ Osborne 


52 


(Lester . 


X 


(Osborne 


6 


,,.(Les,|er,j 



& Sowls, 7/23/80, A, III) 42 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,6, II) 42 

Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80,8, II) 42 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80, B, III) 42 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,8, III) 42 

\i^mmm ' 36 

& Rodstroet,8/2/79.A,ni) 42 

,8/25/69 ,H) 36 

& R<Hlstro«i,5/22/79,B,n) 42 

,8/25/69,M) 36 

§ Rodstrom.6/22/79,8,ni) 42 




Most Brandt's Cormorants nest on this rock in "Devils Basin." 



Photo by Art Sowls 



114 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Albion & Elk, 

Calif. 
Ka 




115 



MtttA j/y, ukian (contd.) 




008) Wharf Rocks 39°07'49"N, 123°43'24"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 



90 (Lester, 

2 (Lester, 

10 (Lester, 

34 (Lester, 

136 

20 (Osborne 

62 (Lester 

2 (Lester 

20 (Lester 



Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80, B, II) 42 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,8, II) 42 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,8, III) 42 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,8, III) 42 

,8/25/69,1) 36 

& Rodstrom,6/22/79,B,n) 42 

& Roctstrom,6/22/79,B) 42 

& Ro<lstrom,&/22/?9,B,in) 42 



mm Casket 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 



Rock 39°07'49"N, 1 23^43' 39"W 



(Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 42 

(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80, B, II) 42 

(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80, B, II) 42 

(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,8, III ) 42 

Osborne, 8/25/69,M) 36 

Lester h Rodstrom, 6/22/79,8, 8/2/79,A,l) 42 

(Osborne, 8/25/69,M) 36 

(Lester & Rods trom, 6/22/79, 8, 11) 42 





010) White Rock 39°05'42"N, 123°43'11"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Conrorant 
Western Gull 

X = present 



(Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 

40 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79,6, III) 

10 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79,8, III) 
50 

200 (0sborne,8/25/69,M) 

448 (Lester & Rodstrom,8/2/79,A,in) 

X (Osborne, 8/25/69,M) 

X (0sborne,8/25/69.«) 



42 
42 
42 

36 
42 
36 
36 



116 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




117 



AKbA J/9, UKian icont aj 




Oil) Point No Pass 39°58'40"N, 123°59'40"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 68 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, II) 42 

Western Gull 2 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, II) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot _2^ (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, III) 42 

Total 72 




012) High Tip 39°55'30"N, 123°57'10"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 80 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, II) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 2 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, III) 42 

Western Gull 4 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79,8, II) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot _4 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79,8, III) 42 

Total 90 



18 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
: 24, 000 scale map: 

Bear Harbor, Calif. 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

IftMT H«sb*r, Calif. 
Kb 




012 




123"57'30" 



Cluster Cone P/, .*"'"-''%A 
Rocks » - ♦ 



119 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd. J 




013) Anderson Cliffs 39°52'30"N, 123°54'30"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 304 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79,8, III) 42 

Pelagic Cormorant 132 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, II) 42 

Western Gull 4 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79,6, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot _40 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, III) 42 

Total 480 




014) Mistake Point to Big White Rock 39°51'30"N, 123°53'30"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 132 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, II) 42 

Western Gull 2 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79,8, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot JOO (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, 8, III) 42 

Total 234 



120 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section £rom U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Bear Harbor & 

Mistake Pt., Calif. 




121 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




015) Usal Bay 39°48'45"N, 123°50'30"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 62 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, II) 42 

Western Gull 2 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, II) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot _40 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79. B, III) 42 

Total 104 




016) Soldier Frank Point 39°45'18"N, 123°50'15"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 18 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, II) 42 

Western Gull 20 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot 20 (Lester & Sowls, 7/19/79, B, III) 42 

Total 58 



122 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Hales Grove, Calif. 




Usal Rock«^ 




123 



Anii^m »^#«*- x^fxiMii tv^^i 




017) Hardy Rock & "Union Landing" 39°42'20"N, 123°38'20"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



46 (Lester, Rodstrom & Sowls, 6/10/79, B, 8/8/79, M, III) 4 

8 (Lester & Sowls, 8/8/79, M, II I) 4 

_6 (Lester, Rodstrom & Sowls, 6/10/79,6, 8/8/79, M, III) 4 
60 




018) Westport 39°38'00"N, 123°47'20"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



178 
2 
4 
4 

188 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79, M, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79, M, III) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79,M, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79, M, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 




(019) "Chadbourne Rocks" 39°37'02"N, 123°47'W 
Pelagic Cormorant 74 (Lester & Rodstrom,6/13/79,BM,n) 



42 



124 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

W«atp*rt, Calif. 




Abalone PoinClf 



Switzer 
"Rock 




Section £rom U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

y — t p ort & 

Ingl«M«k, Caitf. 



h 



-» 



125 



MncM J/9, UKian \coni a.; 




020) "Strawberry Cove" 39°35'37"N, 123°47'10"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 84 (Lester & Rodstrom,6/13/79,BM,I) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79, BM, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot TO (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79, BM, III) 42 

Total 96 



^2l) "Newport Rocks" except Kibesillah Rock 39°34'49"N, 123°46'51"W 

Pelagic Cormorant 192 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79,BM,&6/20/79,M, III) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 4 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/20/79, M, III) 42 

Western Gull 2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/20/79, M,II) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot 28 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79, BM, III) 42 
Total ?26 



J26 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 







Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Inglenook, Calif. 



123»47'30" 
39»35'-^ 




127 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




022) "Georgia Pacific" 39°27'N, 123°48'45"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 


32 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


4 


Total 


38 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79, M, II) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79, M, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/13/79,M, II) 42 




023) Caspar Anchorage 39°22'N, 123°49'10"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 58 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79,8, 1) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79,8, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot _2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/12/79,8, III) 42 

Total 62 



128 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Ft. Bragg, Calif. 



-)- 39^22*30** 



123*50' 




Water 






Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Ft. Bragg & 
Mendocino, Calif. 



I- 






■I 



129 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




024) Point Cabrillo to Jack Peters Gulch 39°20'N, 123°49'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 192 (Lester & Rodstrom,6/ll&6/21/79,B,III) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 4 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/1 4/79, M,III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot _J8 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/ll&6/21/79,B, III) 42 

Total 234 



130 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Mendocino, Calif. 



Point Cabrilto..;^' 
POINT cabril46 

LIGHT STA 



39020'-^ 

123050' 




131 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




025) Mendocino 39°18'10"N, 123°47'50"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Pigeon Guinemot 

Total 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guilleraot 



52 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/5/80, B, I) 42 

2 (DeGange, Lester & Nelson, 6/5/80, BL, I) 42 

32 (Lester & Stewart, 6/5/80, M, III) 42 
86 

44 f Sowls, 5/T8/79,H, ID 42 

50 {Sowls,5/18/79,H,!n) 42 




026) Mendocino Bay 39°17'30"N, 123°47'40"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Comorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 



86 

2 

20 

108 

50 
16 



(DeGange, Lester & Sowls, 6/5/80, B, I) 42 

(DeGange, Lester & Nelson, 6/5/80, B, III) 42 

(DeGange, Nelson & Sowls, 6/5/80, B, III) 42 

(Lester & RDdstroin,6/21/79,B JII) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrofn,6/21/79,B.ni) 42 




027) "Van Damme Cove" 39°16'10"N, 123°47'28"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Tufted Puffin 

Total 
IW^>«tic Comjorantt 
Slack Oystercatcher 
Hgeon Guillemot 
Iiim4. Puffin , .. 



26 (DeGange, Nelson & Stewart, 6/5/80,8,11) 42 

2 (Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80, BL, III) 42 

140 (Lester & Rodstrom, 5/18/79, BL, III) 42 

120 (DeGange, Lester & Nelson, 6/5/80, BL, III) 42 

2 (Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80, L, II) 42 

290 

56 (Lester & Rods trom,5/ 18/79,61,11) 42 

2 (Lester & Rodstrom,5/18/79,BL, III) 42 

30 (tester & Rodstrom,5/18/79,BLJII) 42 

A (Lester & R<Mistr©Ri,5/18/79,BL, 11) 42 



132 



AREA 379. Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Mendocino, Calif. 




133 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




028) Schoolhouse Creek to Albion River 39°15'N, 123°46'30"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 436 (DeGange, Nelson & Stewart, 6/5/80, B, II) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 14 (DeGange, Nelson & Stewart, 6/5/80, B, III) 42 

Western Gull 34 (DeGange, Nelson & Stewart, 6/5/80, B, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot _68 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/21/79, B, III) 42 

Total 552 

Black Oystercatcher 4 (Lester & Rodstrom, 5/1 8/79,8,6/21/79,8, III) 42 

Western Gull 10 (Lester & Rodstrom,5/18/79,B,6/21/79 ,8,111) 42 



134 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




135 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




029) Albion Cove to Navarro River 39°12'30"N, 123°46'20"W 



(Nelson, Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80, B, II ) 42 

(Nelson, Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80,8,11) 42 

(Nelson, Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80,8, III) 42 

(Nelson, Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80, 8, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/21/79, 8,11) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/21/79,6, III) ' 42 



Pelagic Cormorant 


266 


Black Oystercatcher 


8 


Western Gull 


16 


Pigeon Guillemot 


30 


Total 


430 


Pelagic Conr»rant 


80 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 



136 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.l 




-|-39°12'30 
123°47'30" - 



Section £rom U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Albion, Calif. 
Kn 

»5 



137 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




(030 



Cavanaugh Cove to Gunderson Rock, except Wharf Rock (008) and 
Casket Rock (009) 39°08'N, 123°44'W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 



4 
410 

8 

20 

100 

542 

398 



(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 

(Lester & 
(Lester & 
(Lester S 



Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80, B 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,8 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,8 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,6 

Sowls & Stewart, 7/12/80,8 

Rodstron^6/22/79,B,n) 
Rodstrom, 6/22/79,8, III) 
Rodstrom,6/22/79,8,!n) 



II) 

I) 

II) 

II) 

II) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

42 
42 
42 




031) "Bonee Cliffs" 39°07'N, 123°42'45"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



176 

40 

216 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79,8, III) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79,8, III) 



42 
42 



138 



AREA 379. Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. | 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Elk, Calif. 



> 



O 





Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Mallo Creek, Calif. 
Km 



139 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 




032) "333 Point" 39°05'N, 123°42'30"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 



360 

100 

2 

462 



(Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79,8, III) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79,8, III) 



42 
42 

42 



(Lester & Rodstrom,6/22/79,B,a/ 



■I) 42 




033) Bridgeport Landing 39°03'45"N, 123°4r50"W 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79,8, III) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79, 8,111) 



Pelagic Cormorant 


16 


Western Gull 


2 


Total 


18 



42 
42 




034) Mallo Pass Creek 39°02'20"N, 123°4r50"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



20 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79,8, III) 

4 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79, 8, II) 

20 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/22/79, 8, III) 
44 



42 
42 
42 



140 



AREA 379, Ukiah (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Mallo Creek, Calif. 




123*>42'30" 
39°02'30"-4- 



Sectlon from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Mallo Creek, Calif. 

Km 



I- 




141 




404 
Santa Rosa 



The map on the facing page is an index to the locations of colonies within map 404, 
Santa Rosa. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively from north to 
south, since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial colony 
numbers were assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following this map, all colonics 
are listed sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 

Numbers of breeding seabirds will vary from year to year to year. Below are the approx- 
imate numbers of breeding seabirds within this region. 

Leach's Storm-Petrel 100 

Ashy Storm-Petrel •.".'.".'!!! .14 

Brandt's Cormorant. . '.'.'. k 000 

Double-crested Cormorant . . . .'lOO* 

Pelagic Cormorant ' " 4 qoO 

Black Oystercatcher .".'.".'* ' 60 

Western Gull .*!!.'. 1 100 

Pigeon Guillemot • • • • .^'^^^ 

Marbled Murrelet .■:::; no'estimate 

Rhinoceros Auklet ... 20 

Tufted Puffin .'.'.'.".*." ! .' .' .* ." jo 

* coasta/ population only. 



142 



404 Santa Rosa 



Point Arena 




or Bay 




0--^ 



.Fort Ross 




Bodega Bay 



n 



KitOMETERS 



KEY 




< 100 BIROS 
100 1.000 BIRDS 
VOOO 10.000 BIROS 
10000 - 100.000 BIRDS 
OVER 100.000 BIRDS 




143 



AREA 404. Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Colony name -i 



sample 

Colony No. - 



Pelagic Cormorants 
/Pelagic Cofworants 




004 Gull Rock' 



Lat. -Long. 



■Number breeding birds 

■ Investigators 
T- Survey date 



39°35,'20"N,12r35;45"W' 

40 (Nelson & Sow1s,6/14/79;b,I I ) 
48 (0sborr»e,6/5/69) 



Z. Clear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 




■ Data qual. 
- see text 



\ 



Reference 



42 
35 



type 



„ A = aerial 

^"'^'■■y J B = h„at 



M = from mainland 
L = on site 



[OOU Sea Lion 


Rocks 


Pelagic Cormorant 


6 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


2 


Pigeon Guillemot 


60 


Total 


70 


Pelagic Cormorant 


40 


Western Gull 


P 


fl^on ^niernot 


I 



38°55'07"N, 123^43'45"W 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 5/31/79,8, III ) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 5/31/79, B, III) 
(Lester & Rodstrom,5/31/79,B,III ) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 5/31/79, B, III) 

(0sborne.8/25/69,M) . 
{Osborne, 8/25/69 ,H) 
imi)^rnt,a/25/69,M) 



42 
42 
42 
42 

36 
36 
36 



f = pri)habh present 




002) "Iverson Landing" 38°50'39"N, 123°38'37"W 



(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/13/80, B, II ) 
(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/13/80,8, III ) 
(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/13/80, B, III) 



Pelagic Cormorant 


96 


Black Oystercatcher 


4 


Pigeon Guillemot 


30 


Total 


130 


Pelagic Coraoraftt 


m 


Pelagic Corawrant 


T08 



(0sbornt,8/2S^«9,M) 

(Lester a Rodstrom, 5/ 31/ 79, 8,11) 



42 

42 
42 

36 
42 



144 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Point Arena, Calif. 

Km 
I I I 



T 13 N 
T 12 N 




72 



Pt Arena 
Latitude 



Saunders ' 
Reef 




020 



Saunders LandinK*, 




(002 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Saunders Reef, Calif. 

Km 



Iversen Landing 




145 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




003) Fish Rocks 38°48'00"N, 123°35'3T'W 



The Fish Rocks colonies are some of the most important seabird 
colonies along the northern coast of California. They are inhabited by a 
great diversity of seabirds and are also important hauling areas for California 
sea lions and Harbor seals. 



Leach's Storm-Petrel 


100 ( 


Brandt's Cormorant 


18 ( 


Pelagic Cormorant 


400 ( 


Black Oystercatcher 


4 ( 


Western Gull 


350 ( 


Pigeon Guillemot 


250 ( 


Rhinoceros Auklet 


14 ( 


Tufted Puffin 


4 ( 


Total 


1,130 


ifandt's Corrrarant 


30 ( 


Pelagic Corinorant 


200 ( 


Pelagic Cormorant 


200 { 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 ( 


Western Gull 


TOO ( 


ii#fe»:siy|Miti6fe 


6 ( 



DeGange, Lester & Stewart, 1980, L, III) 42 

Lester, Nelson & Sowls,6/7/80,BL,II ) 42 
Lester, Nelson, Sowls & Stewart, 1980, B, II) 42 

Lester & Rodstrom, 5/31/79, BL, III) 42 

Lester & Rodstrom,5/31/79,BL,III ) 42 

Nelson, Sowls & Stewart, 6/7/80, B, III) 42 

Nelson, Sowls & Stewart, 6/7/80, B, III) 42 

DeGange, Lester & Nelson, 6/7/80, BL, II) 42 

Lester & Rodstrom, 5/31/79, BL,III) 42 

Osborne, 8/27/69, B) 36 

Lester & Rodstrom, 5/ 31/ 79,81,11 1) 42 

DeGange, Lester & Nelson,6/7/80,BL,III) 42 

Osborne, 8/27/69, 8) 36 

Osborne, 8/27/69 3) - 36 




Pelagic Cormorant. Fish Rocks 



Photo by Bill Rodstrom 



146 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Onalala, Calif. 




o 



♦ * 
Collins Landing 



^ 



147 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




004) Gualala Point Island 38°45'04"N, 123°3T42"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Brandt's Csmorant 
Brandt's Connorant 
Western G^ll 



1,240 (Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 

40 (DeGange,6/n/80,M,III) 

40 (Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/13/80,8, III) 

1,320 

500 (Osborne. 8/27/69. «) 

1,840 (Lester & Rodstrom,8/2/79,A,in) 

40 (Lester & Rodstrom,6/24/79,B,III) 



42 
42 

42 

36 
42 
42 




Gualala Point Island 



Photo by Gary Lester 




0051 "Russian River Rocks" 38°27'14"N, 123°08'34"W 



(Lester & Rodstrom,6/25/79,B,II) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, III) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, II) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, III) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, III) 



(Osborne, 8/23/69.H) 



Brandt's Cormorant 


124 


Double-crested Cormorant 


32 


Pelagic Cormorant 


88 


Western Gull 


64 


Pigeon Guillemot 


40 


Total 


348 


Pelagic Cormorant 


zm 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

36 



148 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




Gualala Point* 
Gualala Pt lsland*ti^pf* 




.Rocks 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Arched Rock & 
Duncan* Mills, Calif. 

Kn 

I — -♦ 



Arched^— »*^ 

Rock 



149 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




Brandt's Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Tufted Puffin 
„ Jptal 

franit's Cormorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Mestern GuH 



006) Arched Rock 38°25'53"N, 123°07'32"W 



(Lester & Sowls,7/23/80,A,I) 

2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, III) 

60 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, III) 

20 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, 8, III) 

2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/ 79,8, III) 

~M 

T50 (Osborne, 17B?lf,M) 

400 (Lester & Rodstrom,6/25/79. 8,111) 

6 (0sborne,8/23/69,M) 



42 

42 
42 
42 
42 

36 
42 
36 




007 



Salmon ("reek was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have 
not included information on this species in this report. Sec Page & Stenzel ( 1 979). 




008) Bodega Rock 38''17'48"N, 123"02'50"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 1,350 

Black Oystercatcher 2 

Western Gull 50 

Total 1,402 

Brandt's Cormorant 800 

Brandt's Cormorant 1,350 

Brandt's Cormorant 1,714 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/80, A, II) 

(Osborne, 8/23/69, L) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, III) 

(0sborne,8/23/59,L) 

(Jurek, 6/15/72, A. II) 

(Le^,t€X.>&.„ftodstrom,7iLU7^,A,{i}^., 



42 
36 
42 

36 
12 
42 




Bodega Rock 



Photo by Jay Nelson 



150 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




151 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




009 "Dillon Beach Rocks" 38°16'26"N, 122°59'11"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Ifelagic Cormorant 
ll-Fandt's Cormorant 



190 (Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 

186 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79, B, 11) 

6 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79, B, III) 

12 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79, B, III) 

40 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79, B, III) 

434 

250 (Osborne, 8/23/ 69 ,M) 

168 (Lester & Rodstrc»ii^|^|i:,n> 



42 

42 
J2 
42 
42 

36 
42 



152 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




153 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




010) Bird Rock 38°13'49"N, 122°59'35"W 



Ashy Storm-Petrel 


14 ( 


Pelagic Cormorant 


8 ( 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 ( 


Western Gull 


228 ( 


Pigeon Guillemot 


30 ( 


Total 


282 


Ashy Storm-PetreT 


10 ( 


Pelagic Cormorant 


2 { 


Black Oystercatcher 


■6 { 


Western Gull 


60 ( 


Pigeon Guillemot 


24 ( 



Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, L, II) 
Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, L, II) 
Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, L, III) 
Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, L, III) 
Lester & Rodstrom,7/l/79,L,III) 



Ainley & Osborne, 7/3/72,1) 
Osborne, 8/23/69,8) 
Ainley & Osborne, 7/3/ 72, I) 
Ainley & Osborne, 7/3/ 72,1) 
Ainley & Osborne, 7/ 3/ 72. L) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

3 

36 
3 
3 
3 




Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Cormorant 



Oil) Tomales Point 38°12'13"N, 122°57'39"W 



134 (Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, B, III) 

2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, B, III) 

_^ (Ainley & Whitt, 7/3/72,8) 
144 

172 (Ainley & Whitt, 7/3/72. B) ' ^ ''" 



42 

42 

3 




(012 



Point Reyes Beach was previously assigned a catalog number because of" Snowy Plover nesting, 
have not included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 



We 




013 



Limantour Estero was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have 
not included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 



154 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Tomales, Calif. 




155 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




f m /I A Napa River was previously assigned a catalog number because of Double-crested Cormorant, California 
lU I 4 J Clapper Rail, and Caspian Tern nesting. We have not included information on this site because it is 
not coastal. See Varoujean (1979). 




[015) Petaluma River was previously assigned a catalog number because of California Clapper Rail nesting. 
We have not included information on this species in this report. Sec Gould (1973). 




[01 6) GaUinas Creek was previously assigned a catalog number because of California Clapper Rail nesting. 
We have not included information on this species in this report. See Gould (1973). 




017) Point Arena 38°57'20"N, 123°44'30"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



28 (Lester, 5/23/79, M, II) 

2 (Lester, 5/23/79, M, III) 

60 (Lester, 5/23/79, M, III) 
90 



42 
42 
42 



mis) "Moat Cove" 38°53'10"N, 123°4TW 
Pelagic Cormorant 40 (Lester & Rodstrom, 5/31/79, B, III) 



42 



(019) "Section 30 Cove" 38°52'39"N, 123°40'10"W 
Pigeon Guillemot 30 (Lester & Rodstrom, 5/31/79,8, III) 



42 



156 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Point Arena^ 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Point Arena, Calif. 




Section from U.S.G.S. 



I^ 1:24,000 8cal6 map: 
Point Arena, Calif. 



Ka 




157 



ARJEA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




020) Saunders Landing 38°51'13"N, 123°39'05"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Comwrant 



174 (Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/13/80, II) 42 

2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 5/31/79,6, III) 42 
176 

48 (lesler & R6dstrom,5/31/79,B,iII) 42 




021) Triplett Gulch 38°49'N, 123°36'15"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Pigeon Guillemot 

,„ Total 



390 

2 

200 

592 



(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80,8,11) 42 

(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80, B, III) 42 

(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 6/6/80, B, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 5/31/ 79,8,111) 42 




022) "Fish Rock Cove" 38°47'45"N, 123°35'20"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 

Total 
felagic Corttwrant 



18 (Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/13/80,6, II) 42 

54 (Lester, Sowls & Stewart,// 13/80,6,11) 42 

72 

36 (Lester S Rods trom, 5/31/79,6, I I) 42 



158 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd. 



Saunders 
Reef 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Saunders Reef, Calif. 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Gualala, Calif. 




159 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




023) Collins Landing to Gualala River 38°46'N, 123°32'40"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
f Pelagic Cormorant 
i; Black Oystercatcher 



368 
6 
2 

30 

We 

154 
2 



(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/13/80,6, II) 42 

(Lester, Sowls & Stewart,7/13/80,B,III) 42 

(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/13/80,8, III) 42 

(Lester, Sowls & Stewart, 7/13/80,8, III) 42 

(Lester & Ro<istrom,6/24/79,B,ni) 42 

(Lester & Ro(i$trom,e/24/79,B,ni) 42 




[024) Del Mar Point 38°15'N, 123°31'W 
Pelagic Cormorant 12 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79,8, III) 



42 



160 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




Robinson 
•J^Reef 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Stewarts Pt. , Calif. 




161 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




025) Sea Ranch 38°42'N, 123°27'30"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 


164 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


20 


Pigeon Guillemot 


8 


Total 


194 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/1/79, M,&6/24/79,B, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/1/79, M, II) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79,8, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79,8, III) 42 



162 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1 : 24, 000 scale map: 

Stewarts Pt. , Calif. 

Km 




163 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




026) Black Point to Stewarts Point 38°40'N, 123°25'15"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 54 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79,8,111) 42 
Pigeon Guillemot _2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79,8, III) 42 

Total 56 




027) Stewarts Point to Rocky Point 38°39'N, 123°38'45"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 76 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79, 8, II) 42 

Western Gull 8 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79, 8, II) ^2 

Pigeon Guillemot _6 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79, 8, III) ^2 

Total 90 



164 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



t LaMfiitl ii \ 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Stevarts Pt. , Calif. 
Km 



165 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




028) Horseshoe Cove 38°36'30"N. 123°22'10"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 50 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79,8, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot U (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79,8,111) 42 

Total 64 




029) Cannon Gulch to Stump Beach 38°35'30"N, 123°20'30"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 124 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79, 8,1 1) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot 4 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/24/79,8, III) 42 

Total 128 



166 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Plantation, Calif. 

Km 
I 



167 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




030) Gerstle Cove to Stillwater Cove 38°33'N, 123°18'45"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



86 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, I) 

6 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8,111) 

18 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8,111) 

no 



42 
42 
42 




031) Bench Mark 125 to Timber Cove 38°32'20"N, 123°17'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Total 



74 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/ 25/ 79, 8,1) 
_2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, 8,1) 
76 



42 
42 



168 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (confd.) 






Section, from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Plantation, Calif. 
Kb 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Plantation, Calif. 
Km 




169 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




032) "Northwest Cape Rocks" 38°30'40"N, 123°15'17"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 20 (Lester & Rods trom, 6/25/79,8,11) 42 

Western Gull 28 (Lester & Rods trom, 6/25/79,6,1 II) 42 

Total 48 




033) "Russian Gulch" 38°28'N, 123°09'36"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 336 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, II) 42 

81ack Oystercatcher 2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, 8,1 II) 42 

Western Gull 10 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, 8,1 II) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot 60 (Lester & Rodstrom,6/25/79, 8,111) 42 

Total 4D8 



170 



AflEA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Plantation, Calif. 

Kb 

I ' ( 




*,'» 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Arched Rock, Calif. 
I 



171 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




034) "Peaked Hill" 38°25'45"N, 123O07'10"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



156 
2 

20 
80 

258 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, II) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, II) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, III) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 




035) Gull Rock 38°25'30"N, 123°07'10"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
,,, Total 

ifirjdt's Csrworant 
Ifestem fiun 



650 
16 
28 
40 

734 

300 

20 



(Lester & Sowls, 7/23/80, A, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, II) 
(DeGange, 6/10/80, M, III) 
(DeGange,6/10/80,M,III) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, 8. HI) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, 8,111) 



42 
42 
42 
42 

42 
42 




036) Shell-Wright Beach Rocks 38°25'N, 123^06"W 



Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, I) 
Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, III) 
Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, III) 
Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, III) 



Pelagic Cormorant 


112 


(Lester 


& 


Black Oystercatcher 


6 


(Lester 


& 


Western Gull 


80 


(Lester 


& 


Pigeon Guillemot 


8 


(Lester 


& 


Total 


206 







42 
42 
42 
42 



172 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




173 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




037) Duncan Point to Arched Rock 38°22'30"N, 123°05"W 



Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, II) 42 

Rodstrom,6/25/79,B,III) 42 

Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, III) 42 

Rodstrom,6/25/79,B,III) 42 



Pelagic Cormorant 


70 


(Lester & 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


(Lester & 


Western Gull 


16 


(Lester & 


Pigeon Guillemot 


4 


(Lester & 


Total 


92 





174 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Duncan Mills & 
Bodega Head, Calif. 




Park. 
Hdqrs-/"' 



w 
> 

r. 



I" ^^jv^j-jV- Salmon Creel 



175 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




038) Bodega Head 38°18'N, 123°03'45"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 168 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, B, II) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 6 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79,8, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot _60 (Lester & Rodstrom, 6/25/79, 8,111) 42 

Total 234 



176 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Bodega Head, Calif. 




^ Sodega Rock 
• 'a 



-|-38Ol7'30" 
123°02'30" 



177 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 




039) Pinnacle Rock 38°18'20"N, 123°0T10"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



4 
2 
2 

30 
38 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79,8, II) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79,3, III) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79, 8, II) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79,8, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 




040 



'Sonoma-Marin County Line" 38°17'20"N, 123°00'20"W 



(Lester & Sowls,7/23/80,A,II) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79, 8, II) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79, 8,111) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79, 8, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 6/26/79, 8, III) 42 



Brandt's Cormorant 


12 ( 


Pelagic Cormorant 


134 ( 


Black Oystercatcher 


4 ( 


Western Gull 


16 ( 


Pigeon Guillemot 


40 


Total 


206 



® 



"Elephant Rock Complex" 38°11'N, 122°58'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



16 

li 
28 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, 8, III) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, 8, III) 



42 
42 



178 



AREA 404, Santa Rosa (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.C.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Bodega Head, Calif. 

Km 
I I I 





Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Valley Ford, Calif. 

Km 
I I I 



.,^ ~** 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Tomales , Calif. 




179 




429 
San Francisco 



The map on the facing page is an index to the locations of colonies within map 545, San 
Francisco. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively from north to 
south, since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial colony 
numbers were assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following this map, all colonies 
are listed sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 

Numbers of breeding seabirds will vary from year to year. Below are the approximate 
numbers of breeding seabirds within this region. Most of these birds are at the Farallon 
Islands (429 012). 



Leach's Storm-Petrel 1,400 

Ashy Storm-Petrel 4,000 

Brandt's Cormorant 31,000 

Double-crested Cormorant 2,000* 

Pelagic Cormorant 4,000 

Black Oystercatcher 100 

Western Gull 34,000 

Common Murre 100,000 

Pigeon Guillemot 4,500 

Marbled Murrelet X 

Cassin's Auklet 105,000 

Rhinoceros Auklet 100 

Tufted Puffin 100 



* coastal population only. 



X = present 



180 



429 San hrancisco 





N 



KILOMCTERS 



KEY 




< 100 BIRDS 
100 - 1 000 BIROS 
1,000 - 10.000 BIROS 
10.000 - 100.000 BtRDS 
OVER 100.000 BIROS 




o 
> 



181 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 



sample 

ColonyNo. 



Colony name 



(004) \ 



Gull Rock 



Pelagic Cormorants 



Lat. -Long. 



'39°35,'20"N,12r35;45"W 
/ f. ^ 



Number breeding birdi 

Investigators 
- Survey date 



\ r 



40 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/14/79,8,1 1 ) 
48 {0sbome,6/5/69} 



i_ Clear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 




Survey 
type 



■ Data qua!. 
■ see text 

\ Reference 

42 

35 

A = aerial 
B = hnar 

M = from mainland 
L = on site 



@ 



Point Reyes 37°59'26"N, 123°59'24"W 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79,6,7/11/79, AM, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom,7/l/79,B,7/n/79,M,III ) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, B, 7/11/79, M, III ) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79,8, 7/11/79, M, III) 42 

KLester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79, 8,7/11/79, AM, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/1/79,8, 7/11/79, M, III) 42 

(LeValley, 1975-80, L) 32 

(Ainley & Wh1tt,?/3/72,8) J 

(Ainley & Wh1tt,7/3/72,8) 3 

(Alnley & Whitt,7/3/72,B) 3 

(Afnley & WhHt,7/3/72,B) 3 

(Ainley & Wh1tt, 7/3/72, B) 3 

(Ainley & S^1tt , 7/3/ 72 , B ) 3 

^ Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67, see page 10. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial 
survey (also times 1.67) is 22,000. 



Brandt's Cormorant 


2,400 


Pelagic Cormorant 


808 


Black Oystercatcher 


10 


Western Gull 


62 


Common Murre 


16,500 


Pigeon Guillemot 


120 


Tufted Puffin 


6 


Total 


19,906 


Brandt's Comorant 


96Q 


Pelagic Cormorant 


528 


Black Oystercatcher 


6 


Western Gull 


26 


Conimon Murre 


7,640 


PIseon^auiUfijuQ^;: 


48 



182 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




183 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




002) Millers Point Rocks 37"58'53"N, 122"48'35"W 



Brandt' 
Pelagic 
Western 
Pigeon 
Tota 
;Srandt' 
Brandt' 
Pelagic 



s Cormorant 
Cormorant 
Gull 

Guillemot 

1 

s Cormorant 

s ComiQrant 
Cormorant 



194 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/80, A,III) 

60 (Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79,6,11) 

34 (Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79, B, III) 

10 (Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79, B, III) 

298 

120 (Uster & R0d$t«jfn»7/2/79,8,7/11/79,A,ni) 
30 , (Osborne, 1§70,«) 

10 (Osborne. 1970, «) 



42 
42 
42 
42 

42 
36 
36 




003) Double Point Rocks 37°56'51"N, 122°47'08"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 


258 


Pelagic Cormorant 


16 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


13,000^ 


Common Murre 


Pigeon Guillemot 


40 


Total 


13,340 


Brandt's Cormorant 


340 


Western Gull 


100 


i^mmiMime 


, U400 



/I Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67 
survey (also times 1.67) is 13,900. 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79, 6,7/11/79, A, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79, 6, II) 42 

(Osborne, 1970, M) 36 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79, 6, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/80, A, III) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79, B, III) 42 

(Osborne, 1970,M) 36 

(Osborne, 1970, M) 36 

( Osborne. 1 970 ,H) . 36 



see page 10. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/1/80 aerial 




(004 



BoUnas Lagoon was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have 
not mcluded mformation on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 




(005 



San Pablo Creek was previously assigned a catalog number because of California Clapper Rail nesting. 
We have not inlcuded information on this species in this report. See Gould (1973). 




(006 



nr,iL^w"K Marsh was previously assigned a catalog number because of California Clapper Rail 
nestmg. We have not mcluded mformation on this species in this report. See Gould (1973). 



184 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Doable Point, Calif. 




37^7 '30" 
122»47'30 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Double Point, Calif. 




185 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




007) Bird Island 37°49'27"N, 122°32*09"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Brandt's Cemorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 




2 
4 
6 

75 
2 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, I) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, III) 

(Osborfte,8/1W69,M) 

(0sborn€,8/19/69,M} 



42 
42 
42 

36 
36 




008) Point Bonita 37°48'55"N, 122^31 '40"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic CornKirant 

X = present 



60 
4 
J(_ 
64 
50 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, II ) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79,8) 

(Reynolds, 8/1 9/69, M) 



42 

42 
42 




009) Seal Rocks 



37°46'42"N, 122''30'53"W 



The Seal Rocks colony is an excellent location to see seabirds, partic- 
ularly Brown Pelicans, even though there are few nesting birds here. Calit'ornia 
Sea Uons can also be observed. See appendix B. 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total ..._.,,„._, 
Brandt ' s Wilrant 
Western Gull 




2 
44 
_6 
52 
76 
24 



(Nelson & Sowls,6/24/80,A,I ) 42 

(Nelson & Nelson, 5/25/79, M, 7/1/79, B, II) 42 

(Nelson & Nelson, 5/25/79, M, 7/1/79, B, III) 42 

(Nelson & Nelson, 5/25/79, M, 7/1/79, B, III) 42 

(Nelson & Nelson, 5/2S/79,M, 7/1/79, B, iff) 42 

(Reynolds »7/21/70»M) 36 




010) Alameda Naval Air Station 37"47'12"N, 122^19'49"W 



No map is provided for this site in San Francisco Bay. For the most current information contact 
the California Department of Fish and Game. Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations 
of Least Terns are surveyed annually. 



Least Tern 
Least Tern 
Least Tern 



80 ( ,1979,L) 
160 (EHc*fiM»n978,l) ^^— ^' 
90 (Atwood et al.. 5/6/77,1) 



vl'W.v^*^,.^ S*^,XvX■ ^♦'^' 



12 
12 
12 



186 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 



(Sir) §dp( 




' 37«47'30" 
122*32 '30" 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Point B«nlta, 

Calif. 

Km 



T /•: 



,< \ 



C/^ 



\' 



V) '' 



Mile Rock 




029 



/ — 



/ Lands ErtdJ r 

" X ft i( .( 1'Os.*-' ' 



Point Lobos/ 

al 
\ / Rocks 'j'J 



-A. 



'i\,w-iiMd 



's^Ps 



187 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




on) Oakland International Airport 37°43'21"N, 122°13'46' 



No map is provided for this site in San Francisco Bay. For the most current information contact 
the California Department of Fish and Game. Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations 
of Least Terns are surveyed annually. 

Least Tern (Ericl<son,1978,L) 12 

Least Tern 14 (ftlwoodj 977,1) 12 




012) Farallon Islands 37°4r53"N, 123°00'05"W 



The Farallon Islands constitute the most important area for nesting 
seabirds on the California coast. Together they contain the largest breeding 
populations of Ashy Storm-Petrels, Brandt's Cormorants, and Western Gulls 
in the world and a large percentage of many other California breeding sea- 
birds (Figure 4). The importance of these islands to marine birds and 
mammals cannot be overemphasized. 

Uncontrolled exploitation in the past of marine mammals and seabirds 
on the Farallon Islands led to drastic population declines. Russian and 
American sealers exterminated the Farallon populations of elephant seals 
(Mirounga angiistirostris), fur seals (Arctocephalus philippi). and sea otters 
(Enhydra lutris). Seabird eggs were collected commercially during the gold 
rush and were sold as food. Well over 14 million murre eggs alone were 
taken over a 45-year period and murres declined in number from about 
400,000 in 1860 to less than 5,000 in 1924 (Ainley and Lewis, 1974). 
For a thorough review of this history read Ainley and Lewis, 1974. 

Today the Farallon Islands are protected as a National Wildlife Refuge 
and all waters within one mile of the islands make up a state refuge. Most 
marine mammal and seabird populations are increasing dramatically in 
numbers and eventual full recovery seems possible. Longterm scientific 
research on marine mammals and seabirds is being conducted by Point 
Reyes Bird Observatory (PRBO). Only through such studies can we hope to 
understand and protect these magnificent resources. 



Leach's Storm-Petrel 1,400 (Ainley & Lewis, 1972) 2 

Ashy Storm-Petrel 4,000 (Ainley & Lewis, 1972) 2 

Brandt's Cormorant 28,000 (PRBO Staff, 1979) l 

Double-crested Cormorant 180 (PRBO Staff, 1979) 1 

Pelagic Cormorant 2,000 (Ainley & Lewis, 1972) 2 

Black Oystercatcher 40 (Ainley & Lewis, 1972) 2 

Western Gull 32 ,000 (PRBO Staff , 1979) l 

Common Murre 60,000^ (PRBO Staff , 1979) l 

Pigeon Guillemot 3,000 (PRBO Staff, 1979) l 

Cassin's Auklet 105,000 (Manuwal , 1971) 33 

Rhinoceros Auklet 100 (PRBO Staff, 1979) ^ 

Tufted Puffin 100 (PRBO Staff, 1979) 2 

Total 236,320 

Pi»^a tlomyitieiienr^^M^^ ImM, 1974. 

/] Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67, see page 10. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/2/80 aerial 
survey (also times 1.67) is 138,500. PRBO estimates do not include North Farallon. 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 



I .NOONDAY ROCK 

\ 

\ 
\ 
\ 



\ 



Duilic Ocvd)} 



.KORTHFARAUON 

1*> 



\ 



\ 



\ 




\ 



\ 



\ 



-N- 



\ 

[012) \ 



\ 




MIDDIEFARAILON 



\ 



\ 



\ 



aVi'A 



' 2 



SCALE IN MILES 



\MAINT0P ISLAND t" \ 

SOUTHEAST FARAUON / 



.Ns 


> 

\0«KUNO 


y S»NfR»NCISCOV_ 


1 


FARALLON \ 


^^ 


N.W.R. 


SAN JOSE 


510 » 30 


40 


scileia nlles 





189 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




Southeast Farallon Island 



U.S.F.W.S. photo 



190 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




Southeast Farallon Island 



Photo by Bill Parsons 



191 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




013) San Pedro Rock 37°35'43"N, 122°3T20"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Cormorant (unidJ) 




8 
2 
8 
40 
B8 



(Nelson, Sowls & 

(Nelson, Sowls & 

(Nelson, Sowls & 

(Nelson, Sowls & 

(Nelson, Sowls & 



Stuart, 6/9/79, BL, I) 
Stuart, 6/9/79, BL, I) 
Stuart, 6/9/79, BL, II) 
Stuart, 6/9/79, BL, I) 
Stuart, 6/9/79, BL, III) 



str i^^miM^f/ziiWM^ 



n. 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

36 




014) Devil's Slide Rock 37°34'28"N, 122°3r39"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 

Pelagic Cormorant 

Black Oystercatcher 

Western Gull 

Common Mu rre 

Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
^mmn Hurre 
Jigeon GuHleitiot 

/]^ Estimate is number of birds present 
survey (also times 1.67) is 2,9001 



22 (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, B,6/30/79,M, II) 42 

180 (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, B,6/30/79,M, III) 42 

4 (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, B, 6/30/79, M, II) 42 

2 , (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, B, 6/30/79, M, II) 42 

2,300^(Nelson & Sowls, 6/30/79, M, 7/6/79, A, III) 42 

120 (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, B, 6/30/79, M, III) 42 



2,628 

700 

2 

times 1.67, see page JO, Biiggs et al.'s estimate for 7/1/80 aerial 



(Reynolds, 7/21/70,M) 
(Reynolds, 7/21 /70,M) 



36 

36 



(ois) Alameda Creek 37°36'59"N,122°07'20"W 



No map is provided for this site in San Francisco Bay. 



Forster's Tern 



200 (Sibley, 5/28/48) 



43 




016) Bair Island 37°31'43"N, 122°13'05"W 



No map is provided for this site in San Francisco Bay, For the most current information contact 
the California Department of Fish and Game. Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations 
of Least Terns are surveyed annually. 



Least Tern 
Least Tern 



8 (Erickson, 1979, L) 

2 (Atwood et al., 5-6/77) 



12 
12 




017) Coyote Hills 37°32'48"N, 122°07'28"W 



No map is provided for this site in San Francisco Bay. For the most current information contact 
the California Department of Fish and Game. Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations 
of Least Terns are surveyed annually. 



Forster's Tern 
Least Tern 
Total 



614 (Gill, 4-8/71) 
80 (Gil 1.4-8/71) 
694 



43 
43 



192 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




193 



4 S '-«!♦*' 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




Greco Island was previously assigned a catalog number because of California Clapper Rail and Snowy 
[018) Plover nesting. We have not included data on these species in this report. Sec Gill (1972) and Page 
Stenzel(1979). 



(019) Coyote Creek 37°28'4T'N, 122°02'5T'W 

No map is provided for this site in San Francisco Bay. Tor further information see Gill (1972). 

Caspian Tern 400 (Gill ,4-8/71 ) ^^ 



{020J Guadalupe Slouqh 37°28'12"N, 122°04'52"W 

No map is provided for this site in San 1 rancisco Bay. 1 or further information sec Gill (1972). 

Forster's Tern 1,256 (Gill ,4-8/71 ) ^^ 




i021 ) Pescadero Creek was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We 
have not included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 




022) Punta del Ano Nuevo 37°07'07"N, 122°20'09"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 210 (Lester & Nelson, 6/13/80,8, II) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot _70 (Lester & Nelson, 6/13/80,8, III) 42 

Total 280 

Pelagic Cormorant 200 (Nelson i Lester, 7/5/79, Btin) 42 




0231 Ano Nuevo Island 37°06'30"N, 122°20'09"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 10 (Briggs,1976,L) 43 

Black Oystercatcher 24 (Briggs,1976,L) 43 

Western Gull 240 (Briggs,1976,L) 43 

Pigeon Guillemot _64 (Briggs,1976,L) « 

Total 338 



I 04 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




Pelagic Cormorants, Punta deJ Aiio Nuevo 



Photo by Art Sowls 




195 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




024 



Point Resistance 37°59'55"N, 122°49'40"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Common Murre 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Corniron Kurre 



150 (Rodstrom, 7/11/79, A, III) 
104 (Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79,6,11) 
2 (Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79, B, III) 
20,, (Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79, B, III) 
7,500^(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/80, A, III) 
60 (Lester & Rodstrom, 7/2/79, B, III) 



7,836 
400 



(Osborne, 1970,M) 



^J Estimate is number of birds present times 1.67, see page 20. Briggs et al.'s estimate for 7/1/80 aerial 
survey (also times 1.67) is 6,800. 



42 
42 
42 
4? 
42 
42 

36 




Point Resistance Rock 



Photo by Jay Nelson 




025) Gull Rock Area 37°52'35"N, 122°37'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



28 

2 

4 

_2 

36 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, II) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, III) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, III) 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 



"X" 



(?esistanci 




Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Double Point, Calif. 
Km 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

5«a KAfa*l & 

Ft. BoBita, Calif. 

Km 
I ' I 



37"52'30''-|- 

122°37'30 




197 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




026) Muir Beach Headlands to Tennessee Cove 37°5T00"N, 122°33'45"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



34 
2 

36 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79,8, II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom,7/3/79,B,II) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, II) 



^2 
42 
42 




027) Bonita Cove 37°49'30"N, 122°31'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 


20 


Western Gull 


2 


Pigeon Guillemot 


X 


Total 


22 



(Lester & Rodstrom,7/3/79,B,II ) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, I) 
(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B) 



42 
42 
42 



X = present 



198 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

?t. Bonlta, Calif. 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1 : 24, 000 scale map: 

Pt. Bonlta, Calif. 



199 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




028) Point Diablo Bluffs and Needles 37°49'30"N, 122°29'W 



(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, II) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B, II) 42 

(Lester & Rodstrom, 7/3/79, B) 42 



Pelagic Cormorant 


64 


Western Gull 


16 


Pigeon Guillemot 


X 


Total 


80 


X = present 






029) Lobos Rock and Lands End 37°47'15"N, 122°30'20"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
ISrandt's Comrarant 



80 

12 

68 

160 





(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/80, A, II) 
(Nelson & Nelson, 7/1/79, B, III) 
(Nelson & Nelson, 7/1/79,8, III) 

(Nelson & Nelson; 7/1 /79»8, I) 



42 
42 
42 
42 

42 




Lobos Rock 



Photo by Jay Nelson 



200 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 



Needles 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

San Francisco North 

& Pt. B«alta, Calif. 

Km 

I ' I 



201 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




030) Pillar Point 37°23'N, 122°29'55"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Connorant 



16 (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, B,I I ) 

_6 (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, B, III) 
22 

(Reynolds, 1970) 



42 
42 

36 



202 



Mricrt tz.^, i>an rrancisco tcont a.) 




203 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




031) Eel Rock Cliffs 37°24'15"N, 122°25'30"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Cormorant 



12 (Lester & Nelson, 6/13/80, B, I) 42 

_P (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, B) 42 

12 

14 (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79,8.11) ^2 




032) Seal Rock Cliffs 37°23'N, 122''25'W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
t*e1agfc Cbntsjrant 
Black Oystercatcher 
;Pigeon Guillemot 

P = probably present 



A ««.^^ *» WK ^.Jo*'^*' 



50 (Lester & Nelson, 6/13/80, B, II) 

108 (Lester & Nelson, 6/1 3/80, B, II ) 

4 (Lester & Nelson, 6/13/80, B, III) 

10 (Lester & Nelson, 6/1 3/80, B, II) 
172 

168 {Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, 8, 1 1) 

P (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79, 8) 

10 (Nelson, Sowls & Stuart, 6/9/79,8, III) 



42 
42 
4? 
42 

42 
42 

42 




033) Martins Beach 37°22'N, 122°24'30"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 


40 


Pelagic Cormorant 


100 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Pigeon Guillemot 


120 


Total 


262 


Pelagic Cornwrant 


152 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 



(Lester & Nelson, 6/13/80, B, II) 

(Lester & Nelson, 6/13/80, B, II) 

(Lester & Nelson, 6/13/80,8, III) 

(Lester & Nelson, 6/13/80,8, III) 

(Nelson & Lester,7/5/79.B,ir) 

(Nelson & Lester, 7/5/79,8, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 

42 
42 



204 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 



Eel Rock^ 



:rom U.S.G.S, 
scale map: 

Half Moon Bay & 

Gregorlo, Calif. 

Km 
' I 




205 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




034) Pigeon Point 37°10'55"N, 122°23'20"W 



Black Oystercatcher 2 (Lester & Nelson,7/5/79,BM,I ) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot 6 (Lester & Nelson,'7/5/79,BM,III) 42 

Total 8 




[035j Greyhound Rock 37°04'40"N, 122°16'W to 

Davenport 37°00'30"N 122°ir30"W 

No map is provided for this site as it extends along a lengtliy stretch of coastline. 

Brandt's Cormorant 236^(Nelson, 7/14/80, M, II) ^^ 

Pelagic Cormorant 50 (Lester & Nelson, 7/5/79, B, II) ^^ 

Black Oystercatcher 6 (Lester & Nelson, 7/5/79, B, IV) ^2 

Pigeon Guillemot 400 (Lester & Nelson, 7/5/79, B, III) ^2 

Total 682 



n 



all on pier at Davenport. 



206 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1 : 24, 000 scale map: 

Pigeon Point, Calif. 
Km 



207 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




036 Alcatraz Island 37°49'34"N, 122°25'20"W 



Western Gull X (Abbore, 1980) is 

Heermann's Gull 2 (Binford, 1980) 8 




[037) Pier 45 37°48'34'N, 122°25'W 
Western Gull X (Danielson, 1973) 15 



(038) Verba Buena Island 37°48'34"N> 122°22'15'W 
Western Gull 80 (Cogswell ,7/28/74) 15 

%iUm euii X (Cdfiiitfiiigr) 15 



X = present 



208 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 



Arch Rock 



.Alcatraz\lsland / 



ghtn^use j 



\ / 7- 



Sectlon from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

San Francisco North, 

caif. 

Km 

■ 1 




' Blossom Rock 




0«U.«Dd West, Calif. 



209 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




039) Red Rock 37°55'45"N, 122°25' 50"W 



Western Gull 



92+ (Cogswell, 5/20/70, L) 25 

X (Cogswell, 1960, 1969, 1971, 1975, 1978) 25 




040) The Brothers 37°57'47"N, 122°26'W 



Western Gull 
Western Gull 



80 (Cogswell, 6/22/67, M) 
X (CQgswelU1968-7U1973J975-76) 



15 



m- 15 



X = present 



® 



(041) The Sisters 37°59'22" N, 122°26'25" 
Western Gull 40+ (Cogswell ,6/13/75) 



15 



210 



AREA 429, San Francisco (cont'd.) 




> 

\ 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: ' 

San Quentln, Calif. 
Km 



H 



-\ 








/<f 



* ^ The Sisters 
5%, 






Pt San Pedro 




041 



/ 



/ / 
' / 



/aT 



4-/ A' 

^7 / ^ 



/ 



/ 






\ 



^ 



//■ 






/ V 



^ 



^ L- 



I (040) p^ gg^ pg^^i^ 

The Brother 

j^ "Tigfithouse 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

San Quentin, Calif. 

Km 

I ' 1 

4 1 



RICHMOHD 



RICHMOND 



' Wreck 



Pt San Pablo 
- Yacht Harbor 




211 



?:, 



454 
Monterey 



The map on the facing page is an index to the locations of colonies within map 454, 
Monterey. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively from north to 
south, since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial colony 
numbers were assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following this map, all colonies 
^e listed sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 



Numbers of breeding seabirds will vary from year to year, 
imate numbers of breeding seabirds within this region. 



Below are the approx- 



Brandt's Cormorant 8,000 

Double-crested Cormorant x 

Pelagic Cormorant 800 

Black Oystercatcher 60 

Western Gull , 900 

Common Murre 6,000 

Pigeon Guillemot 2,600 

Marbled Murrelet P 

Tufted Puffin 2 

P = probably present 



212 



454 Monterey 



^Santa Cruz 






KILOMCTER8 



KEY 




< XK) BIRDS 
100 - 1,000 BIRDS 
1.000 - 10000 BIRDS 
10.000 - 100.000 BIRDS 
OVER 100.000 BIRDS 



( 006 J 



■'Mont«r«y 






Point Sur 






-P 



213 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 



sample 

ColonyNo. 



Colony name 




Lat. -Long. 



004 



'Gull Roc k^ 



39°35;20"N,12r35'45"W 



Number breeding birds 

Investigators 
Survey date 



Pelagic Cormorants 
Srants 



/ 



.^ 



"V C 



type 



■ Data qual. 
■ see text 



X 



Reference 



40 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/14/79,8, II ) 42 

^ {0sljome,6/5/69) y 35 

/survey _f ^ = aerial 

Gear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. "> " 

Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 



boat 
M = from mainland 
L = on site 



( nm J ^Uder Creek was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have not 
\^J included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 




[ nn?l ^*J*''o River was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have not 
[ UVC) jjjgiudgd information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 




003) Elkhorn Slough 36°49'04"N, 121°46'30"W 



Western Gull 
Forster's Tern 
Caspian Tern 

Total 
Western Sul1 
Western Sull 
Western Gull 
Forster's Tern 
Forster's Tern 
Caspian Tern 
Caspian Tern 



122 

95 

180 

397 

.....,..,......„.,.^^... 

110 
102 
165 

550-600 
170 

160-180 



(Harvey, 1980, L) 
(Harvey, 1980, L) 
(Harvey, 1980, L) 

(farou3ean et a1. ,5-g/1972,L) 

(Harvey, 1978, L) 

(Harvey, 1979, L) 

(Harvey, 1978, L) 

(Harvey, 5/25/79, L) 

(Harvey, 1978,L) 

(Harvey. 1979, I) 




26 
26 
26 

43 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 




fnn4l Salinas River Beach was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We 
[ UUH ; jj^yg ^^^ included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 




[ nnt> 1 Marina Beach was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have not 
L UU3| included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 



214 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




215 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




006) Bird Rock 36°35'31"N, 121°57'59"W 



Bird Rock offers excellent viewing opportunities for seabirds, sea lions 
and harbor seals. See appendix B. 



Brandt's Cormorant 1,340 

Black Oystercatcher 2 

Western Gull 1_0 

Total 1,352 

Brandt's Cortrwrant 2,000 

Brandt's Cornjorant 600 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/80, A, II) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/79, M, II ) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/79, M, III) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 7/ 6/ 79, A, III) 
(Reynolds, 7/15/70,A) 



42 
42 
42 

42 
36 




^ 







Bird Kock 



PhoU) by Ai t Sowls 




007) Pinnacle Point Area 36°3r25"N, 121°57'14"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 200 

Pelagic Cormorant 22 

Black Oystercatcher P 

Western Gull 14 

Pigeon Guillemot ^OO 

Total 336 

Brandt's Cortnorant 125 

Brandt's Cormorant 30 

Pelagic Cormorant 30 

Slack Oystercatcher 2 

Western Gull 25 

Pigeon Guilleniot 2 

P = probably present 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, B,7/31&8/3/79,L, III) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, B,7/31&8/3/79,L, II) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, B,7/31&8/3/79,L, II ) 
(Nelson & Sowls,6/ll/7/13&8/3/79,B,L,I II ) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, B,7/31&8/3/79,L, III) 

(Varoujean & Brl9gs,4/25&7/14/72,M) 

(Reynolds, 5/ 6/70 ,H) 

(Reynolds, 5/6/ 70 ,H) 

{ Reynolds, 5/6/ 70 ,H) 

( Reynolds, 5/6/ 70 ,M) 

(Reyno]ds,5/6/70,M) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

43 
36 
36 
36 
36 
36 



216 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Monterey, Calif. 
Rn 




Cypress Point RocJt 



Carmtl Point ji* 
Pinnacle Poin\ 



•* 



S»o\ Rocks. ' ..o 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Monterey, Calif. 
I ■ 




217 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




008) Sand Hill Cove 36«31'01"N, 121°57'0T'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Corjnorant 
Pelagic Connorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 



36 (Nelson & Sowls, 8/2/79, L, I) 42 

2 (Nelson & Sowls, 8/2/79, L, III) 42 

2 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/80, L, II) 42 

20 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/80, L, III) 42 
58 ._ 

36 (Briggs & Varou jean ,"4/ ?5&7/1 4/72,(7 43 

26 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/80, 1,11) 42 

12 (Briggs & Veroujean,4/25&7/14/72,L) 43 




009) Bird Island 36°30'25"N, 121°56'33"W 



Bird Island is the second largest Brandt's Cormorant colony in California, 
after the Farallon Islands (429 012). It is also the most northern site for 
nesting Brown PeUcans ever recorded, although no nesting peUcans have been 
observed here since 1963 (Baldridge, 1973). If recovery of the Brown 
Pelican continues, this site may be recolonizied. Bird Island offers excellent 
viewing opportunities (see appendix B ). 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/80, A, II) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 8/2/79, L, III) 42 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,6, 6/12/79, L, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, B, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/80, M, III) 42 

(1927-1963; see Baldridge 1973) 7 

(Reynolds, 5/6/69, M) 36 

(Briggs & Varoujeaii,4/25&7/14/72,M) 43 

(Nelson & Sowls, 7/6/79 ,A,ni) 42 

(Briggs & VarouJean,4/25&7/14/72,H) 43 

(BHggs & Varoujean, 4/258.7/14/72 ,M) 43 

(Briggs & Varoujean,4/2S&7/14/72.H) 43 



Brandt's Cormorant 


4,200 


Pelagic Cormorant 


16 


Black Oystercatcher 


4 


Western Gull 


46 


Pigeon Guillemot 


4 


Total 


4,270 


Brown Pelican 


- 0-110 


Brandt's Connorant 


800 


Brandt's Connorant 


1.568 


s,Brandt's Cormorant 


5,000 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


X 


Pigeon Guillemot- 


X 



X = present 



218 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2^,000 scale map: 




I 



Bird Island 



Photo by Jay Nelson 



219 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




010) Castle Rocks & Mainland 36°22'35"N, 121°54'25"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Common Murre 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Comorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Western Gull 
Cdtimon Murre 
Pigeon Guillenwt 



18 

96 

6 

78 
3,500 

88 

3,780 

534 

300 

62 

6 

2 

50 

20 

200 

2 



(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 



Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 



& 



Sowls, 6/12/80,8 
Sowls, 6/1 2/80, B 
Sowls, 6/12/80,8 
Sowls, 6/12/80,8 
Sowls, 6/12/80,8 



I) 
I) 
I) 



(Nelson & Sowls, 7/14/79, M,6/20&8/l/79,B, III) 

(Nelson & Sowl s, -7/1 4/79, M, 6/ 20&8/1 /79,8a H 

(Reynolds. 5/6/70,M} 

(Nelson & Sow! s,6/20&8/V79, 8,11) 

(Helson & Sowls, 6/20/79, 8,11) 

( Reynolds, 5/ 6/ 70, M) 

(Nelson S Sowls,6/20&8/1/79,B,II) 

(Reynolds, 5/ 6/70, M) 

(Reynolds, 5/6/70, M) 



@ 



Hurricane Point Rocks 36^21 '40"N, 12r54'25"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 444 

Pelagic Cormorant 50 

Black Oystercatcher 10 

Western Gull 72 

Common Murre 2,300 

Pigeon Guillemot 80 

Tufted Puffin 2 

Total 2,958 

Brandt's Cormorant 582 

Pelagic Cormorant 10 

Western, Gull 50 

Common Murre 400 

Pigeon Guillemot 4 



(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 
(Lester, 



Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 



Sowls, 6/12/80,8 
Sowls, 6/12/80,8 
Sowls, 6/12/80,8 
Sowls, 6/12/80,8 
Sowls, 6/12/80,8 
Sowls, 6/12/80,8 
Sowls, 6/12/80,8 



(Nelson & Sowls, 7/14/79,H,8/l/?9,B, 11!) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 7/14/79,M.8/l/79,B, II) 
(Nelson & Sowls,7/14/79,H, 8/1/79, 8,111) 
(Reynolds, 5/6/ 70, H) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 7/14/79.M,8/l/7$,B, III) 



I) 

) 

I) 

I) 

I) 

I) 

) 




012) Point Sur 36°18'22"N, 121°53'39"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 


54 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


6 


Pigeon Guillemot 


4 


Total 


66 



(Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/12/80, B, II) 
(Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/12/80, 8, III) 
(Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/12/80,8, III) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 8/1/79, 8, III) 



220 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 



36°22»30'' -)- 



121°55' 



Castle Rock 

{ *e 

Castio Rock 



Bixby Landi 



€>-: 



Hurricane Point 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 




012 



Point S 




221 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




013) "Torre Canyon Rocks" 36°n'25"N, 121°42'46"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 





22 

_i 

24 

125 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79,8,1) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, B, II) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, B, III) 

(Reynolds, 6/ 14/70,M) 



42 
42 
42 

36 




014] "Partington Ridge North" 36°10'06"N, 121°41'14"W 



Double-crested Cormorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Doubl e -ores ted 'tbrmoratt^"*" 
Brandt ' s Cormorant 



6 

910 

26 

4 

30 

80 

1,050 

0-10 

125 



(Baldridge,1980,M) e 
(Nelson & Sowl s, 6/23/79, B, 7/13/79, M, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79, B, II) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79, B, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79, B, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79, B, III) 42 

( Reynolds, 5/ 14/ 70, M) 36 



@ 



McWay Rocks 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
;0randt*s Cortfwrant 



36' 


°09'46"N, 


> 


20 

2 

8 

100 


(Nelson 
(Nelson 
(Nelson 
(Nelson 


& 
& 
& 
& 



121°40*44"W 

Sowls, 6/23/79, B, I) 
Sowls, 6/23/79,8, III) 
Sowls, 6/23/79, 8, III) 
Sowls, 6/23/79, 8, III) 



130 
80 (Reynolds, 7/22/ 70, M) 



42 
42 
42 
42 

36 



111 



AREA 454. Monterey (cont'd.) 




223 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




016) "Anderson Canyon Rock" 36°06*58"N, 121°36'58"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79,8, I) 

82 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79, 8, II) 
82 

284 (Reynolds, 7/22/70,H) 



42 
42 

36 




017) "Burns Creek Rocks" 36°08'29"N, 12r39'28"W 



Cormorant (Unid.) 


2 


Brandt's Cormorant 


348 


Western Gull 


4 


Pigeon Guillemot 


24 


Total 


378 


Brandt's Cormorant 


60 



42 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79, B, 7/13/79, M) 42 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79,8, 7/13/79, M, III) 42 
(Nelson & Sowls, 7/13/79, M, III) 42 
(Nelson & Sowls, 7/13/79, M, III) 42 



(ReynQlds»7/22/70,M) 



36 




018) Dolan Rock 36°05'06"N, 121°37'02"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
8fandt*s Cormora 



(Nelson & Sowls, 7/23/79^6,8/2/79, A, I) 42 
~ (Rey«olds,7/TS/70,A} tm^^ 36 




019) Square Black Rock 36°04'21"N, 121°36'35"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/80, A, I) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 7/23/79,8, 8/2/79, A, I) 42 

20-40 (Reynolds, 7/15/70, A) 36 



224 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 






S ' Doldn 




, / / Stung 1 


@ 


Dolan Rock \ \ | 


36O05' 


'\\ 


12X°35' 


^1 BM 223 




— \ ' 11*9 




' «k^ 








S ) 26 '^'7- 






*( 1 Block '^ / i' \ , ; 

Square Black * .\ . ^**" • ' '' T" ' 
>Roc^ * V ^ 


Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 




Lopez Pt., Calif. 




mi9) • \!r^ \^^ ^^ 


Kb 




\ _ 


4 1 







225 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




020) Lopez Rock 36°0r34"N, 121°34'46"W 



Brandt's Cgrm^ 

f ra ndJt ' s IS rmo r a n t 
Brandt's Cormorant 



(Nelson & Sowls,6/23/80,A,I) 

TNetsonl. S6wTs;77237H3,S7f77f;S;^ 
100 (Reynolds, 7/23/70, M) 



42 

42 
36 




rnoiA Davenport 37^00 '30"N, 122°11'30"W to 
^ ' Pt. Santa Cruz 37°57'10"N, 122°0ri5" 



No map is provided for this site as it extends along a lengthy stretch of coastline. See page 213 



Pelagic Cormorant 28 

Black Oystercatcher P 

Western Gull 2 

Pigeon Guillemot 1 ,200 

Total 1,230 

P = probably present 



(Nelson & Sowls, 7/15/79, B, I) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 7/15/79, B, I) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 7/15/79, B, II) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 7/15/79, B, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 




022) Pescadero Rock 36°33'43"N, 121°56'33"W 



Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Total 



2 

20 
22 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, BL, III) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,61, I) 



42 

42 




023) "Guillemot Island Area" 36"31 '25"N, 12r56'47"W 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, BL, 8/3/79, M, II) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, BL, II) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, BL, 8/3/79, M, II) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, BL, 8/3/79, M, III) 42 



Pelagic Cormorant 


14 


Black Oystercatcher 


4 


Western Gull 


60 


Pigeon Guillemot 


40 


Total 


118 



226 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Lopez Pt. , Calif. 

Km 




020 



Lopez Rock 




Lopez Point A 
o 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Monterey, Calif. 



insef Po/nf 




Peicodero Poinf 



Carm»l Point 
PinoocI* Poin\ 
Pinnacle t 
_^ South Poinrt 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Monterey, Calif. 

Km 
I I I 




227 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 

X = present. 



024) Yankee Point 36°29'29"N, 12r56'41"W 



8 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,8, II) 
X (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,8, III) 
8 



42 
42 




[025) Lobos Rocks 36°27'18"N, 121°56'10"W 
Western Gull 12 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,8, II) 



42 




Lx)bos Rocks 



Photo by Art Sowls 




026) "Soberanes Creek Rocks" 36°27'18"N, 12P55'35"W 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, 8, I) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 7/17/79, M, II) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, 8, III) 



Pelagic Cormorant 


30 


Western Gull 


4 


Pigeon Guillemot 


40 


Total 


74 



42 
42 
42 



228 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




229 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




027) "Soberanes Point South" 36°26'47"N, 121°55'35"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 2 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,6,1) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 4 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,6, III) 42 

Western Gull _6 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, 6, III) 42 

Total 12 




028) Rocky Point 36°24'06"N, 121°54'40"W 

Pelagic Cormorant 6 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, 6, I) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 4 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, 6, III) 42 

Western Gull 20 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,8, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot 40 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,6, III) 42 

Total 70 




029) "Bench Mark-227x" 36°23'21"N, 12r54'13"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 68 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, 6, 6/12/79, BM, II) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 2 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79,6, 6/12/79, BM, III) 42 

Western Gull 300 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, 6, 6/12/79, BM, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot 160 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/11/79, 6, 6/12/79, BM, III) 42 

Tatal 530 



230 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A*000 scale map: 

Soberanes Pt . , 

Calif. 

Km 



Rocky Point 




028) 




231 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 

P = probably present 



030) "Molera Rock" 36°16'45"N, 121°51'30"W 



26 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, BM, I) 

8 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, BM, II) 

_P (Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, BM, II) 
34 



42 
42 
42 




031) Cooper Point and Islands 36°14'55"N, 121°50'10"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
No nesting biri% 



72 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79,6, II) 
20 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, B, II) 
40 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79,8, III) 
132 

(Reynolds, 7/15/70,A) 



42 
42 
42 

36 




032) Pfeiffer Point 36°35'18"N, 121°47'35"W 



Cormorant (Unid.) 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



2 

6 

4 

_8 

20 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, B, II) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79,8, I) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, 8, I) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79,8, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 



(033^ Grimes 


Point 




Brandt's Cormorant 




16 


Pelagic Cormorant 




20 


Black Oystercatcher 




2 


Pigeon Guillemot 




40 


Total 




78 



36°12'20"N, 121°44'15"W 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, 8, II) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, 8. II) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, B, III) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, 8, III) 



42 
42 
42 

42 




034) Lafler Rock and Mainland 36°12'N, 121°43'36"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



12 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, 8, I) 

6 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79, 8,1) 

20 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/22/79,8, III) 
38 



42 
42 
42 



232 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Big Sur, Calif. 




Cooper 1=ointt§*—>/s, ' 

O \ o* . \ 

/' Nf * ' \^ * & 

f03lj V- 


27 


L.-,J \ 


■ - ■ ' \ '^ 
> ■- 

' ' ' '^ . ' 


"v 

LOS 




• V 


\ 


< 


* M 


Pfeiffer Point V . r-. 
^ 3aa — 


' { N A T I"' 

"' v>"-. 3 
^'F R E S 


Section from U.S.G.S. 


1 : 24, 000 scale map: 
Pfeiffer Pt. , Calif. 


\ 


Pfeiffer Rock r %*• V*.. • .' % ♦ 


Kb 




(032) 


\ 1 


( 









36°12'30" 



12I°45' 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Partington Ridge, 

Calif. 



h 



Ka 



•\ 




233 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




035) "Partington Ridge South" 36°00'N, 121°40'40"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



20 

30 
416 
466 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79,6,1) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23&7/13/79,B, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23&7/13/79,B, III) 42 




[036] "Bench Mark 247" 36°02'N, 121'^34'45"W 
Pelagic Cormorant 6 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79,8, I) 



42 




037) "Rockland Landing North" 36°00'57"N, 121°32'30"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 

Total 
1*e1agic Cormorant 



16 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79, B, II) 
64 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/79,8, II) 
80 



42 
42 

36 



234 



AREA 454, Monterey (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Partington Ridge, 

Calif. 

Km 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Loper Pt. , Calif. 



Ka 



36°02'30*"^<o \ 

I21°35.'\ V ^ 

A -• 




BM 247 



■V- 



\-0 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Lopez Pt. , Calif. 




235 




477 



San Luis Obispo 



The map on the facing page is an index to the locations of colonies within map 477, San 
Luis Obispo. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively from north to 
south, since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial colony 
numbers were assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following this map, all colonies 
are Usted sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 



Numbers of breeding seabirds wiU vary from year to year, 
numbers of breeding seabirds within this region. 



Below are the approximate 



Brandt's Cormorant 3,000 

Pelagic Cormorant ... 700 

Black Oystercatcher 80 

Western Gull 1,100 

Pigeon Guillemot 1,200 

Tufted Puffin 0-2 



236 



477 San Luis Obispo 



Cap* San Martin 





Point Piwdrat llancat 






4 



Morro iay 



N 



KILOMETERS 



KEY 



faint twcKt 



'^r7> 



<^/ \ 







< too einos 
100 - 1,000 Bmos 

1.000 - 10.000 BtROS 
10.000 . 100,000 BtRDS 
OV£n 100.000 BIROS 



B-i- 



237 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



sample 

Colony No. - 



Colony name 




004 



'Gull Rock^ 



Pelagic Cormorants 
/ Pelftgfc Coffiioirants 



Lat. -Long. 



39°35;20"N,12r35'45 



'Number breeding birds 

■ Investigators 
■ Survey date 



"1? r 



• Data qual. 
- see text 



40 (Nelson & Sowls ,6/14/79,8,11 ) 42 
48 {0sbor"ne,6/5/69) /* 35 

A = aerial 



Reference 



l_ Clear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 




Survey 
type 



-I B = boat 

M = from mainland 
L = on site 



® 



Small rocks and mainland 
35°55'16"N,121°28'22"W 



north and east of Plaskett Rock 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



42 

6 

64 

30 

142 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, B, I) -^2 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79,8, II ) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79,8, 7/13/79, M, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79,8, III) 42 



36 




002) Plaskett Rock 35°55' 14"N,12T'28'41 "W 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/80, A 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, B 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, B 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8 



Brandt's Cormorant 





Pelagic Cormorant 


10 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


Western Gull 


60 


Pigeon Guillemot 


20 


Total 


92 


Sirarrdt^s Cormorant 


im 


Brandt's Cormorant 





Piqeon Guillemot 


2 



(Reynolds. 5/4/70 ,«) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/ 2 J 
(Reynolds, 5/4/70. M) 



,11) 


■12 


,11) 


42 


,111) 


42 


,111) 


42 


,111) 


42 




36 


.8/2/79,A»I) 


42 




36 



238 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont d.) 




Plaskett Rock 



Photo by Jay Nelson 



239 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 




003) Cape San Martin 35°53'17"NJ21°27'55"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
"^Brandt's Conrrorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 



680 
26 

4 
474 

8 



1,192 
400 

U228 

140 

2 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/80, A, II) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79, B, II) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79, B, III) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79, B, III) 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79,6, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 



(Reynolds, 5/4/ 70, M) 36 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79,M, 6/25/79,8, 8/2/79,A, II) -^2 
{Reynolds, 5/4/70, M) 36 

(Reyn9Tds,S/4/70,M) 36 




004) Unnamed Rock 35°53'05"N,121°27"46"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 

Total 
SrarKlt's Connorant 



2 
2 

12 
16 

150 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79,8, II) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79, B, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79,M, 6/25/79,6,111} 42 

(Reynolds, 5/4/70,M) ' ' 36 



240 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



"•In ♦ sand 



Kelp 




003 



Kelp 


. . .Uncovers 
*^* 3 feet 


cock, f 
rocky '5 


'■■■■■.. '■■-/^•'*^':>"- v^ 


I ^ rocky^ 




) 

Cape S 


an Martin 




Kelp ( 


sand 


, ' 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Cape San Martin, 
Calif. 

Km 




004 




Cape San Martin 



Photo by Jay Nelson 



241 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 




(005 



'Redwood Gulch Rock" 35°49' 32"NJ21°23'29"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 



478 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79,3, II V 42 

2 (Nelson & Sowls,6/24/79,M, 6/25/79,8, III) 42 
480 

600 (Reynolds. 7/21/70,M) 36 




Cormorant (unid.) 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 

Total 
Cormorant (unid.) 
Black Oystercatcher 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 



006) La Cruz Rock 35°42'23"N,121°18'45"W 



(DeGange & Nelson, 7/15/80, L, I) 

2 (DeGange & Nelson, 7/15/80,1,1) 

10 (DeGange & Nelson, 7/15/80, L, II) 
12 

4 (Nelson ^ Sowls,6/25/79,BL,I) 

2 (Reynolds, 7/1 9/70, M) 

2 (Nelson & Sowls,6/25/79»BL,I) 

20 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79,81, III) 



42. 

42 

42 

42 
36 
42 
42 



@ 



Piedras Blancas 35°39'52"N,121°17' 18"W 



Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/80, A, II) 
Sorensen, 1980, M, III) 
Nelson & Sowls, 6/26/79,8, III) 
Nelson & Sowls, 6/26/79,6, III) 
Jameson, 1980, M) 

Reynolds, 7/15-19/70, AM) 
Nelson & Sowls, 8/2/79, A, II) 
Reynolds, 7/15-19/70, AM) 
Reynolds, 7/15-19/70, AM) 
Reynolds, 7/15-19/70, AM) 
Nelson & Sowls, 6/26/79,8, III) 



Brandt's Cormorant 


1,200 ( 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 ( 


Western Gull 


56 ( 


Pigeon Guillemot 


50 ( 


Tufted Puffin 


( 


Total 


1,308 


Brandt's Cormorant 


200 ( 


Brandt's Cormorant 


1 ,360 ( 


Western Gull 


8 ( 


Pigeon Guillemot 


2 ( 


Tufted Puffin 


2 ( 


Tufted Puffin 


2 ( 



<2 
30 
42 
42 
30 

36 
42 
36 
36 
36 
42 




(008) ^°''° ^*y was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We have not 
^ ' included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). lor information on 

Morro Rock see 026. 




009) Point Buchon 35°15'20"N,121°53' 58"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic Gonnorant 



4 

6 

20 

30 
46 



(Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79, B, II) 42 
(Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79, 8, III) 42 
(Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79,8, III) 42 



( Frame »1972,«) 



19 



242 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



35050' 



121°25' 




(oosV'" 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Villa Creek, Calif. 

Km 



121°20' 

f 35°42'30" 



woe) — I 



La Cruz Rock 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Plerdas Blancas, Calif, 

Km 

I < I 



121°17'3Q" " 

35^40 I COAST duARD fl^SS^ 

Point Piedras Blancasf ♦* ^'^ 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Plerdas Blancas, Calif. 

Km 

1 I 



•Point ^Dchcjn** 
[009 





\>- 






vf-^ 






35°15' 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Morro Bay, Calif. 

Km 

' I 

i< 1 



^-\ \ I 



243 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 




010) Unnamed Rocks 35°14'40"N,120°53'39"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
Pelagic CorfBorant 
Pelagic Corfnorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 



64 (Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80, B, II) 42 

10 (Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79, B, III) 42 

22 (Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80, B, III) 42 

200 (Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/16/79,8, III) 42 

296 

50 (frame, 1972,H) 19 

62 (Gharnbers, Rodstrom & Sow! sj/ 6/79, B,ir) 42 

4 (Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80,8,11 I) 42 

54 (Chambers, Rodstrom & Sgw1's,7/6/79, 8, in) 42 




on) Lion Rock 35°31 '01"N,120°52'15"W 



While Lion Rock is not an important nesting island, it is a critical roost 
rock. In the fall, up to 5,000 cormorants, hundreds of Brown Pelicans, 
and lesser numbers of Western and Heermann's Gulls roost here. California 
Sea lions haul out here in large numbers. 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

Total 
iBrandt's Cormorant 
;8randt's Cormorant 
^Brandt's Cormorant 
; Brandt's Cori!«)rant 
:; Pelagic Cormorant 
: Black Oystercatcher 
i Western Sull 





2 

34 

30 

66 

700 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/80, A, I) 
(Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80, 8, II) 
(Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80, 8, II) 
(Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80, 8, III) 
(Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79, BL, III) 



. (Reynolds, 7/15/70,A) 
2004- Frame, 1972, L) 
100 (Chambers,! 978, BL) 

(Chanibers, Rodstrofn & 

(Fraine, 1972,1) 

(Chanibers, Rodstrom S 




30 

4 
20 



Sowl 5,7/6/79, 8, L, 8/2/79, A, I) 
Sowls ,7/6/ 79, 8L, III) 



(ChaiBbers , Rodstrom & Sowl s , 7/6/79 ,8L ,111) 




012) Unnamed Rock 35°12'06"N,120°50'28"W 



I This site was reported by Reynolds in 1970. Exact location of this site is 

uncertain. Data has been combined with number 030. 



244 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Port San Luis, Calif. 




245 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



(013) "36 North" 35°58'36"N,121°29'15"W 
Pelagic Cormorant' 6 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79,8, I) 42 




014) "Larus Rock" 35°57'44"N,121°29'-01"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 2 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79,6, I) 42 

Black Oystercatcher 2 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79,8, I) 42 

Western Gull 20 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79,8, II) 42 

Total 24 




015) Unnamed Point 35°57'00"N,121°28'51"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 6 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8, I) 42 

81ack Oystercatcher 2 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8, III) 42 

Western Gull _4 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8,111) 42 

Total 12 




016) Mainland point across from Bird Rock 35°52'37"N,121°26'59"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 38 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8, I) 42 

Black Oystercatcher _2 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79,8, III) 42 
Total 40 




[017) Point north of Redwood Gulch 35°50'20"N,121°24'04"W 
Pelagic Cormorant 26 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8, I) 42 



246 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 




TnrT"!^ 



U; y.-^^A-iv 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Villa Creek, Calif. 
Km 



h 



247 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 




018) Seastack south of Redwood Gulch 35°49'30"N,121°23'22"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Total 

P = probably present 



16 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, B, I) 

P (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, B) 

_6 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79,8, I) 
22 



42 
42 
42 




019) "Unmapped Island" 35°48'20"N,121°22'26"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



56 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8, II) 
12 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8,111) 
68 



42 
42 




[020j "Salmon Creek" 35°48'31"N,121°21 '47"W 
Pelagic Cormorant 12 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8, I) 



42 




021) Arched peninsula South of Salmon Creek 35°48'05"N,121°2ri4"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



8 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, 8, I) 
80 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, B, III) 
88 



42 
42 



248 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



35050' 



121°25' 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Villa Creek, Calif. 



Km 




Uncovers 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Burro Mountlan, Calif. 




249 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 




022) "Ragged Point Lodge Colony" 35°46'53"N,121°19'56"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



46 
2 

14 
20 
82 



(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79,6,1) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79, B, III) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls,6/24/79,M,6/25/79,B,II ) 42 

(Nelson & Sowls, 6/24/79, M, 6/25/79, B, III) 42 




023) "3 Rocks" 35°45'06"N,121°19'07"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Total 



38 
_2 
40 



(Nelson & Sowls,6/25/79,B,I ) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 6/25/79, B, II) 



42 

42 




024) Two rocks south of Point Piedras Blancas 35°39' 30"N,121°16'02"W 



Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



48 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/26/79, B, II) 
20 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/26/79, B, III) 
68 



42 
42 



(025) Island south of Cayucos Point 35°26'45"N,120°55'51"W 
Black Oystercatcher 2 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/26/79, BL, I) 



42 



250 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (contd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Burro Mountlan, Calif. 
Kb 



■ KelD • KelP: 

Uncovers 3 teet.^: 
H.k, . Irocky 

■ tocky 



rocky 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Burro Mountlan, Calif. 



Km 
> 



* N ( » BM 98^^^^^ 


Section from U 
1:24,000 scale 


S aG • S • 

map: 


"1 COAST dUARD ?E^-- ]i,^is^ ^*^ ' ><^'*^'\. 

' !: (~^' Lighthouse V * *** ••'.••V 

Point Piedras Blancas ««'''V^^^v^ ^/t « + 4"' <-^:^i 


Piedras Blancas, 
Km 


Calif. 


u 








^ 


1 


(00^ ^Oe^^ 




X- 


0-l!fl 






» • 




* t ♦ 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Cayucos, Calif. 



Km 



251 



AREA 477. San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 




026) Morro Rock and Pillar Rock 35°22'13"N,120°52'08"W 



Nelson, 7/7/79,8,11) 
Nelson, 7/7/79, B, II) 
Nelson, 7/7/79, B, III) 
Nelson, 7/7/79, B, III) 



Pelagic Cormorant 


40 


(Lester & 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


(Lester & 


Western Gull 


120 


(Lester & 


Pigeon Guillemot 


40 


(Lester & 


Total 


202 





42 
42 
42 
42 




Mono Rock 



Photo by Jay Nelson 




027) Spooner's Cove 35°16'21"N,120°53'57"W 



Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



2 (Nelson, 6/11/80, M, I) 
100 (Nelson, 6/11/80, M, III) 
102 



42 
42 



252 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Morro Bay South, Calif. 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Morro Bay South, Calif. 

Kn 

I ' 




253 



AREA 477. San Luis Obisp^ ;;;ont'd.) 



^28) "Pup Rock and Adjacent Mainland" 35°13'00N,120°52'n"W 



Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 

Total 
iMestern Gull 



2 (Lester, Nelson, & Sowls, 6/10/80,8, III) 42 

54 (Lester, Nelson & Sowls,6/10/80,L,II ) 42 

56 

40 (Chambers, Rodstrora & Sowls, 7/6/79, BL»II) ^2 




029) Diablo Rock and Adjacent Mainland 35°12'36"N, 120°51'38"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 


212 


(Lester, 


Pelagic Cormorant 


16 


(Lester, 


Western Gull 


4 


(Lester, 


Pigeon Guillemot 


60 


(Lester, 


Total 


292 




Brandt's Cormorant " 


360 


(Nelson & 


Pelagic Corn^rant 


22 


(Chambers 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 


(Chambers 


Western Gull 


4 


{Chambers 


Pigeon Guillemot 


30 

i::::::y:o:y:::::::-:;:-:>:;:s;>::::>:->::>:- 


(Chambers 



Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80,8, II ) 
Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80, B, II) 
Nelson & Sowls, 6/10, 80, B, II ) 
Nelson, & Sowls, 6/10/80, B,I I ) 



^<'*A^'W^«. 



sow!s,g/27fOT!fT" 

, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/793,11) 

, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79, B, 11 H 

, Rodstrom & Sowls,7/6/79,e,I! I- 

, Rodstrom & Sowls,7/6/?9^B,Ill; 



4? 
42 
42 
42 

42 
42 
42 
42 
42 




030) Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant South 35°12'07"N, 120°50'39"W 



Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80, B, III) 42 

Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80,8, II ) 42 

Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79,8, III) 42 

Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80, 8, II) 42 

Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79,8, III) 42 

Chambers, Rodstrom S %m\sJfWW0^) ^'^ 

Reynolds, 7/15/70, A) 36 

Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79, B, I) 42 

Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79,8, II) 42 

Chambers, Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/6/79,6, 1 II) 42 



Brandt's Cormorant 


100 ( 


Pelagic Cormorant 


82 ( 


Black Oystercatcher 


4 ( 


Western Gull 


10 ( 


Pigeon Guillemot 


132 ( 


Total 


328 


Cormorant (unid.) 


16 ( 


Brandt's Cormorant 


200 ( 


Brandt's Cormorant 


16 ( 


Pelagic Cormorant 


18 ( 


Western Gull 


4 ( 



254 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
: 24, 000 scale map: 

Port San Luis, Calif, 




Diablo Rock off of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant 



Photo by 



255 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



@ 



[031) "Double Rock Region" 35°ir39"N,120°50'29"W 
Pelagic Cormorant 16 (Nelson, Sowls & Watson, 6/28/79,8, II) 



42 



(032) Pecho Rock 35°10'45"N,120°49'00"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Western Gull 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 



148 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/23/80, A, II) 42 

4 (Lester, Nelson & Sowls, 6/10/80,8, II) 42 

152 

none (ReynoMs,7/15/f70,A) 36 

140 (Nelson & Sowls, 8/2/79,A, II) 42 





033) Smith and Whaler Islands 35°09'00"N,120°45'15"W 



(Nelson, Sowls & Watson, 6/28/79, BL, III) 42 
(Nelson, Sowls & Watson, 6/28/79, BL, I) 42 
(Nelson, Sowls & Watson, 6/28/79, BL, III) 42 



Black Oystercatcher 


4 


Western Gull 


2 


Pigeon Guillemot 


20 


Total 


26 



(034) Fossil Point 35°10'26"N, 120°43'26"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 


44 


Black Oystercatcher 


6 


Western Gull 


6 


Pigeon Guillemot 


110 


Total 


166 



(Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/7/79, B, I) 
(Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/7/79, B, III ) 
(Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/7/79,8,11) 
(Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/7/79, B, III) 

256 



42 
42 
42 
42 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Port San Luis, Calif. 

Km 
I I I 




Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Port San Lula, Calif. 



Kb 



Santa Rosa 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Flame Beach, Calif.. 

Km 

^ 1 



Lone 

Rock ''t * 



# Avila 
' Rock 



257 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 




Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Heermann's Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 

. Total 
Slack Oystercatcher 



035) "Shell Beach Rocks" 35°09'06"N, 120°40'11"W 



4 (Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/7/79, 8,1) 
6 (Sowls, 6/11/80, M, II) 
U/-,(DeGange, 5/26/80, M, II) 
X'^CDeGange, 5/26/80, M, II) 
100 (Sowls, 6/11/80, M, III) 



124 
6 



(Rodstrom & Smls^J/Jm^ndlU 



^Before 1980, Heermann's Gulls were known to breed only in the Gulf 
of California and along the west coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two pairs 
attempted to nest at Shell Beach in 1980. These represent 2 of 3 known 
nesting attempts by Heermann's Gulls in the state of California in 1980; 
the other being at Alcatraz in San Francisco Bay (Binford 1980). All 3 
nesting attempts were unsuccessful. See Appendix B. 

X = present 



42 
42 
42 
42 
42 

42 




036) "North Pismo Beach Rocks" 35°08'57"N, 120°39'23"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



18 

4 

8 

60 

90 



(Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/7/79,6,11) 
(Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/7/79,8, III) 
(Rodstrom & Sowls, 7/7/79, 8, II) 
(Nelson & Sowls, 5/29/79, M, III) 



42 
42 
42 
42 




037) Oso Flaco Lake 35°01'42"N, 120°37'40"W 



Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most cunent information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 



12-20 (Goldwasser, 4-8/80, L) 



12 



(038) Point San Simeon 35°38'N, 121°12'W 
Pigeon Guillemot 40 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/26/79,8, III) 



42 



258 



AREA 477, San Luis Obispo (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Pismo Beach, Calif. 

Km 

t- » 





Lake 

Little 

Oso Flaco Lake 



Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Oceano, Calif. 
Km 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Sttft SlBftMi, Calif. 

Km 
> 



259 




501 
Santa Maria 



The maps on the facing page and following page are indexes to the locations of colonies 
within map 501, Santa Maria. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consec- 
utively from north to south, since many previously unreported colonies have been added 
since initial colony numbers were assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following 
these two maps, all colonies are listed sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 

Numbers of breeding seabirds will vary from year to year. Below are the approximate 
numbers of breeding seabirds within this region. 

Leach's Storm-Petrel X 

Ashy Storm-Petrel 400 

Brandt's Cormorant 5,000 

Double-crested Cormorant 150* 

Pelagic Cormorant 400 

Black Oystercatcher 130 

Western Gull 1,200 

Pigeon Guillemot 1,400 

Xantus' Murrelet 150 

Cassin's Auklet 22,000 

Rhinoceros Auklet 30 

X = present 
^ coastal population only. 



260 



^\#i ^«iiii«j m%iii»< 



Santa Maria 



^ 



• 




Oc 



H jy 






KH.OMCTCMS 



KIT 




w.oeo - Mo.ooe •mo* 
ovco 100.000 wno* 




261 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 



sample 

Colony No. « 



Colony name 




004 



'Gull Rock'' 



'Number breeding birds 
Lai. -Long. / ^Investigators 

-* J yC- r Stdrvey date 



Pelagic Cormorants 
/PeUgt<c Cormorants 



39°35,'20"N,12r35;45"W 
f f. ^ 



\ /- 



Lcie 



■ Data qual. 
■ sec text 



Reference 



rKcJere 



40 (Nelson & Sowls ,6/14/79,8,11 ) ^42 

48 (Osborne t^S/fli y^ ^ 35 

A = aerial 
y :sur\'e\ 

Clear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 



Survey 
type 



B = boat 

M = frotri mainland 

L = an site 



@ 



001) Santa Maria River 34°58'09"N, i;?0°38'51"W 



Least Terns arc an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. I'or 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 

i^ast Tern 

least Tern 



40 (Goldwasser, 4-8/80, L) 
34-40 {Atwood,4-8/ ,L) 
36-46 (Atwood,4-8/79,L) 



12 
12 




(002 I Santa Ynez River was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We 
have not included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 



262 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 



-|-3A<»57'30" 
IZCAO' 



Mussel 




Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Point Sal, Calif. 



263 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




003) San Antonio Creek and Purisima Point 34°47' 120°38' 



Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. lor 
the most current information contact the California Department of I'ish and Game. 

Least Tern 54-64 (Goldwasser, 4-8/80, L) 12 

te&st T^r*r " ^ 26-30 (Atwood, 4-8/80,1) 12 

least Tern 58-68 (Atwood,4-8y79,L} 12 



264 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.C.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 



265 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




004) Prince Island 34°03'29"N, 120°20'00"W Formap see page 28 1 . 



Leach's Storm-Petrel 


4+ 


; /I , 1976-77, L) 


29 


Ashy Storm-Petrel 


600 




,1976-77) 


29 


Brown Pelican 







,1976-77) 


29 


Brandt's Cormorant 


1,814 




,6/21/77) 


29 


Double-crested Cormorant 


150 




,1976-77) 


29 


Pelagic Cormorant 


40 




,1977) 


29 


Black Oystercatcher 


6 




,1977) 


29 


Western Gull 


960 




.1977) 


29 


Common Murre 







,1975-77) 


29 


Pigeon Guillemot 


300 




,1975-77) 


29 


Xantus' Murrelet 


150 




,1975-77) 


29 


Cassin's Auklet 


20,000 




,1975-77) 


29 


Tufted Puffin 







,1975-77) 


29. 


Total 


23,420 






Ashy Stonti-PetreT 


X ( 


:8Tietz, 7/ 50+7/61) 


29 


Ashy Stornj-Petrel 


800 \ 


;Cra1g S Sheppard,7/65) 


29 


Ashy Storm-Petrel 


50-100 \ 


'Hyber,1968) 


29 


Brown Pelican 


X < 


Willet, 1910; Everman,19l9; Deqoot,1927; 


29 




Stevens, 1930) 


29 


Brown Pelican 


400 j 


Summer, 5/ 18/39) 


29 


Brandt's Connorant 


X i 


Willet, 1910; Peinberton, 1922+1 928; 


29 




Stevens, 1929) 


29 


Brandt's Corinorant 


3,000 i 


Craig & Sheppard,7/65) 


29 


Brandt's Cortrorant 


2,000 \ 


Anderson,4/27/72) 


29 


Brandt's Cortfiorant 


1,720 \ 


ZL ,1975) 


29 


Brandt's Comiorant 


1,18Q { 


/I ,1976) 


29 


Double -crested Comrorant 


200 ( 


Appleton,6/6/06) 


29 


Double -crested Cormorant 


X ( 


Willet. 1910) 


29 


Double -crested Contssrant 


60 ( 


Crossin & Borwnell,5/15/58) 


29 


Double-crested Cormorant 


40 ( 


Huber,1968) 


29 


Pelagic Cornjorant 


X 1 
24 \ 


Streator,1886) 


29 


Pelagic Cormorant 


Appleton,6/6/06) 


- 29 


Pelagic Corniorant 


10 (Huber,1 968) 


29 


Pelagic Connorant 


20 { 


/) ,1975) 


29 


Western Gull 


X (W111et,6/10) 


; 29 


Western Gull 1,000-2*000 ( 


Wright & Snyder, 5/25/29) 


■ 29 


Western Gull 


4,000 ( 


Craig & Sheppard,7/65) 


I 29 


Western Gull 48O-SO0 (Huber,1968) 


* 29 


Western Gull 


1 ,000 ( 


/I .1976) 


% 29 


Common Hurre 


X (Bradbury, 1885; Burt, 1905: Hedrick & 


29 




Appleton,1906) 


■ 29 


Comtnon Murre 


200 Willet. 6/15/10) 


1 29 


Common Hurre 


X (Wright & Snyder,7/12/12) 


; 29 


Pigeon Guilletnot 


X W111et«6/15/10) 


1 29 


Pigeon Guillemot 


400 


Craig & $heppattl,1965) 


'29 


Pigeon Quillemot^H^H^.. 100 { 


"^*^^»^^^^^ ^^^M 


29 


X = present 











266 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




004) Prince Islands (Cont'd.) 



mntus* Hurrelet 


X 


Cassln's Auklets 


X 


CaSsin's Auklets 


z»ooo 


Cassin's Auklets 


200 


Cassln's Auklets 


100 


Cassift's Auklets 


6,000 


Cassln's Auklets 


10»000 


Cassln's Auklets 


3,000 


Tufted Puffin 


X 


Tufted Puffin 


none 


X = present 






(Streator,1886i Wright & Snyder, 191 2) 
Z»000-«- (Burt & Appleton, 6/6/06) 
(Van Denburgh, 5/19/19) 
(Pemberton & DefioQt,3/31/27) 
(Craig & Sheppard,7/4/65) 
(Crossin & Brownell ,5/68) 
(Ruber. 1968) 

(Burt, 1905; Burt & Appleton,1906; Wlllet, 1 
Wright & Snyder, 191 2) 
(Craig & ^pp«^4^1'^e5i B^BS^.I^r^iM^b 



91 Ot 



29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



^ Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 




Prince Island 



Photo by George Hiint 



267 



AREA 501. Santa Maria (cont'd.) 



(005) Castle 


Rock 34°03'17"r 


i, 120°26'17"W 




Ashy Storm-Petrel 


200 1 


Zi ,1976-77) 


29 


Brandt's Cormorant 


1,832 




,1977) 


29 


Pelagic Cormorant 


50 ( 




,1977) 


29 


Black Oystercatcher 


6 ( 




,6/8/76) 


29 


Western Gulls 


TOO 




,6/8/79) 


29 


Pigeon Guillemot 


200 




,1976-77) 


29 


Xantus' Murrelet 


P 




,1975-77) 


'29 


Cassin's Auklet 


2,000 




,1977) 


29 


Total 


4,488 






Ashy Storm-Petrel 


X 


[Crossin S Brownell,5/15/68) 


29 


Brandt's Cormorant 


X 


[Crossin & Browne! 1 ,5/15/68) 


29 


Brandt's Connorant 


1,100 


[Anderson, 4/27/72) 


29 


Brandt's Cormorant 


432 


: /I ,1975) 


29 


Brandt's Connorant 


726 


: a ,6/8/76) 


29 


Pelagic Co mo rant 


50 


;Huber,1968) 


29 


Pelagic Cormorant 


68 1 


: /I ,1975) 


29 


Western Gull 


200-300 i 


'Huber,1968) 


29 


Pigeon Guillemot 


X ( 


.Cross in & Brownen,5/15/68) 


29 


Xantus' Murrelet 


X j 


;Cross1n & Browne 11, 5/ 14/ 68) 


29 


Cassin's Auklet 


X \ 


;Willet, Ca. 1912) 


29 


.Cassin's Auklet 


5,000 i 


Xrossi 


n & BrownelUS/ 15/68} ,,, 


29 



X = present, P = probably present 



^ Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



268 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

San Miguel Island Vest 



Km 



^Judith Rock I 
3401 130" r^ 

120O25' 



269 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




006) San Miguel Island 34°02'32"N, 120''22'30"W 



Data has been reorganized so that data for San Miguel Island is now under 
numbers 014, 015 and 016. 




007) Santa Rosa Is., Sandy Pt. to Carrington Pt. 



Brandt's Cormorant 1,400 ( [\_ ,^^11) 
Pelagic Cormorant ^^/p^ 
Black Oystercatcher 4o4|{ 
Western Gull 30^( 



29 
,1977) 29 

^'il^-ll) 29 

,1976-77) 29 

,1976-77) 29 



Pigeon Guillemot 250 ( 

Total 1,792 

lir^sa^'Silftlemot X (Winet,1910) 

X = present 

^ Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



/2 

Population estimate is for all of Santa Rosa Island. 



29 



270 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (contd.) 



M 0* 



W 




? in 



r 



i 



271 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




008) Lion Rock at Point Sal 34°53'55"N, 120°39'50"W 

No nesting birds (Nelson & Sow1s,7/12/79,B,I) 42 

No nesting birds (Helsofi & Sow1s,6/23/80,A»n) 42 

Ho nesting birds (l^nolds,'}970,A) 36 




,009) Destroyer Rock 34°36'10"N, 120°38'40"W 
Pigeon Guillemot 100 (Nelson & Sowls, 7/10/79,8, III) 42 



\ (oio) Mainland and rocks east of Destroyer Rock 34°36'N, 120°38'26"W 

Pigeon Guillemot 80 (Nelson & Sowls, 7/10/79,8, III) 42 



111 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S, 
-\ 1:24,000 scale map: 



Point Sal, Calif. 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Pt. Arguello, Calif. 
Km 



h 



-» 




009 




Point Pederna, 

VABM 



Wreck >,«;^^ 

Destroyer 
Rock 



273 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




on) Point Arguello 34°38'N, 120°38'49"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 30 (Lester,6/ll/80,M,II ) 

Western Gull 4 (Nelson & Sowls, 7/10/79, B, II) 

Black Oystercatcher 2 (DeGange & Nel son, 7/18/80, M, II I) 

Pigeon Guillemot 700 , (Lester, 6/ll/8Q,M; Nelson & Sowls, 7/10/79,8, III) 

Rhinoceros Auklets 30^' (Lester. 6/1 1/80, H; DeGange & Nelson, 7/18/80, M, III) 

Total 766 

Pelagic Connoratit 20 (Nelson & Sowls, 7/ 10/ 79,8, II) 

Western Gull 4 (DeGange & Nelson, 7/18/80, M, III) 

^ See text, page 50. 




012 Rocky Point 34-33'45"N, 120 38'11"W 



Black Oystercatcher 2 (Nelson & Sowls, 7/10/79, B, III ) h? 
Pigeon Guillemot 100 (Nelson & Sowls, 7/10/79, B, III) 42 
Total 102 




013) Point Conception 34^26' 54"N, 120 28'13"W 



Pelagic Cormorant 6 (Nelson & Sowls, 7/10/79,8, III) 42 

Pigeon Guillemot 30 (Nelson & Sowls,7/10/79,B,III ) 42 

Total 36 



274 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 





Point Conception*! 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Pt. Conccrtl*n, 

Calif. 
* Kb 

' t 







275 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




014) Point Bennett, San Miguel Island 34°2'N, 120°3'30"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 54 ( /J. ,7/20/77) 29 

Pelagic Cormorant 24y^( | ,1977) 29 



Black Oystercatcher p^( ' ,1977) 29 

Western Gull 40 (Collins, 5/19/77) 29 

Cassin's Auklet _Z0 (Collins & Newman, 1977) 29 

Total 138 

P = probably present 



^Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



"= The estimate for entire San Miguel Island is 48 birds. 



276 



AntA ou I, £>ama maria (com a.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

San Miguel Island West 



Km 



Q^Judith Rock | 

3401130" r 

120O25' 



277 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




01 5 j Harris Pt. to Cuyler Harbor 34°04'N, 120°22'W 



Ashy Storm-Petrel 


X 


/I ,6/25/76) 


Brandt's Cormorant 


10 




,1976) 


Pelagic Cormorant 


''U 




,1977) 


Black Oystercatcher 




,1977) 


Western Gull 


28 




,1976) 


Pigeon Guillemot 


140 




,1975-76) 


Xantus' Murrelet 


P 


^ 


,1975-76) 


Total 


302 







29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



X = present, P = probably present 



^ Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



^ 



The estimate is for entire San Miguel Island is 48 birds. 



278 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

San Miguel Island East 



279 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




016) Bay Point Area 34°02'N, 120°19'W 



Pelagic Cormorant 52 ( (\ ,1911) 29 

Black Oystercatcher P^( l ,1975-77) 2o 

Pigeon Guillemot 120 ( I ,1975-77) 29 

172 

P = probably present 

^Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman. Naiigliton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speicli. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies eonduclcd 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 

12 

'— Estimate for the entire San Miguel Island is 48 birds. 



280 



AREA 501, Santa Maria (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

San MlgTMl lulaaii Ea»t 
Km 



281 




502 
Los Angeles 



The map on the facing page is an index to the locations of colonies within map 502, Los 
Angeles. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively from north to 
south, since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial colony 
numbers were assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following this map, all colonies 
are Hsted sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 



Numbers of breeding seabirds will vary from year to year, 
numbers of breeding seabirds within this region. 



Below are the approximate 



Ashy Storm-Petrel 80 

Brown Pelican 2,500 

Brandt's Cormorant 100 

Double-crested Cormorant 150 

Pelagic Cormorant 60 

Black Oystercatcher 130 

Western Gull 6,700 

Pigeon Guillemot 500 

Cassin's Auklet 120 

* coastal population only. 



282 



502 Los Angeles 



N 



KILOMETERS 



KEY 



COLONY 
NUMBER 




< 100 BIRDS 

100 1 OOO BIRDS 

1 OOO - 1OO0O BIRDS 

10 OOO - 1 CO OOO BIRDS 

OVER 1 DO OOO BIRDS 



Santa Barbara 



PACIFIC 



Ventura 



OCEAN 





CHANNEL ISLANDS 



283 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 



sample 

Colony No. . 



Pelagic Cormorants 
/PeUgk Coraaoraots 



Colony name 



004) 'Gull Rock^ 




Z Gear lin 



La t- Long. 
'39°3C^20"N,12r35'45"W 



Number breeding birds 

Investigators 
- Survey date 



/ r. 



^ 



-V r 



40 (Nelson & Sowls ,6/14/79,8,11 ) 

A 



• lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 




■ Data qual. 
■ see text 

-. Reference 

\ 
42 

35 



Survey 
type 



aerial 
-j B = haat 

M = from mainland 
L = on sire 



®Goleta Slough was previously assigned a catalog number because of Light-tooted Clapper Rail nesting. 
We have not included information on this species in this report. See WUbur (1974). 




fnn?) ^' Estero was previously assigned a catalog number because of Light-footed Clapper Rail ncNting. 
[UUc ) We have not included information on this species in this report. See Wilbur (1974). 




003) Santa Clara River 34'n4'08"N, 119''15'51"W 



Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. 1 or 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Came. 



Least Tern 
least Tern 
least Tern 



34-30 (Goldwasser, 4-8/80,1) 
20-30 (Atwood,4-18/78a) 
30-40 (Atwood.4-18/79,L) 



12 
12 
12 




(004 ) McGrath Lake was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. Wc have 
V / not included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stcnzcl (1979). 




005) Ormond Beach 34°08'13"N, 119°10'56"W 



Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually, for 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 
Least Tern 
ieast Tern 



(Goldwasser, 4-8/80, L) 
(AtwGod, 4-8/80, L) 
12-16 (Atwood,4-8/79,L) 



12 
12 



te) Mugu Lagoon 34°06'08"N, 119°06'04"W 

fh. m„lf ^'' ^"."^ V^ ^" .^"'^""ew^'J species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. 1 or 
the most current mformation contact the CaUfornia Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 
least Tern 
Least Tem 



X = present 



24 (Goldwasser, 4-8/80, L) 
20*24 (Atwood, 4-8/80,1) 
X (Atwood, 4-8/79, L) 

284 




AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 



J^ Section from U.S.G.S. 





1:24,000 scale map: 
Oxnaxd, Calif. 

KXD 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

fltaaard & 

fmSmX. Mug*, Calif. 

Km 



h 



285 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 




007) Anacapa Island - West 34"00'54"N, 119°2T57"W 



Anacapa Island - West is the most important breeding site for Brown 
Pelicans in California. 



Brown Pelican 


2,516 


Brandt's Cormorant 





Double-crested Cormorant 


132 


Pelagic Cormorant 





Black Oystercatcher 


X' 


Western Gull 


X 


Pigeon Guillemot 


10 


Total 


2,758 


Brovm Pelican 


X 


Brown Pelican 


400 


Brown Pelican 


4,000 


Brown Pelican 


4,000 


Brown Pelican 


4,000 


Brown Pelican 


X 


Brown Pelican 


2,544 


Brown Pelican 


1,104 


Brown Pelican 


1,080 


Brown Pelican 


522 


Brown Pelican 


494 


Brown Pelican 


832 


Brown Pelican 


424 


Brown Pelican 


834 


Brown Pelican 


152 


Brown Pelican 


420 


Brandt's Cormorant 


X 


Brandt's Cormorant 


100 


Brandt's Cortrorant 


X 


Brandt's Cormorant 


2 


Double-crested Cormorant 


30 


Double-crested Cormorant 


68 


Pelagic Corrrorant 


2 


Pigeon Guilleniot 


X 



Z3l 



(Anderson & Gress,1979) 


( /I ,1976) 


(Anderson & Gress,1979) 


( a ,1976-77) 


( 


,1976-77) 


( 


,1976-77) 


( ,6/23/77) 


(^shworth;i929 ; Stevens ,t93SV Bond ,1 940) 


(Ashworth § Thompson, 5/9/30) 


(Bond, 1935) 


(Stevens & Harrison, 3/1/36) 


(Bond & Surw>er,4/16/39) 


(Jensen, 1962i Ranks, 1963-64; Schreiber & 


1967-68) 


(Risebough,1969) 


(Sress,1970) 


(Anderson & Anderson, 1971) 


(Anderson & Anderson, 1972) 


(Anderson & Anderson, 1973) 


(Anderson & Anderson, 1974) 


(Anderson & Anderson, 1975) 


(Anderson & Anderson, 1976) 


(Anderson & Anderson, 1977) 


(Anderson, 1978) 


(Ashworth & Thompson, 1928 & 31) 


(Bond,5/34) 


(Cross in & Browne 11, 5/ 68) 


( /I ,1975) 


h 


. ,1977) 



4,20 

29 

4,2C 

29 

29 

29 

29 



Delong, 



(Anderson & Sress,1978) 

( A. J975) 

(Wright $ Snyder. 7/6/ 12/ Badger, 

Hdftna,5/2?/1?) 



Peyton & 



^ Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



/I 



20+ estimated for entire Anacapa Island. 



Estimate is for entire Anacapa, but birds are most likely from West Anacapa. 

X = present 

286 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Channel Islands Nat. 
Monument , Calif . 

Km 




-^5J 




Brown Pelicans, Anacapa Island 



Photo by Frank Gress 



287 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 




008) Anacapa Island - Middle 34'^00'19"N, 119"23'43"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Total 



4 ( 

5,0005f( 

P^{ 

5,008 



Zi 



,6/23/77) 
,1977) 
,1976-77) 
,1976-77) 
, . ) 



29 
29 
29 
29 
29 




009) Anacapa Island - East 34"00'41"N, 119"25'26"W 



Brown Pelican 


0/ 


p{Anders 


;on, 1976-77) 


Black Oystercatcher 


X^ 


^{ /I ,1976-77) 


Western Gull 


200 /a( 


,1977) 


Pigeon Guillemot 


P^ 


'{ 


,1977) 


Xantus' Murrelet 


X 


( 


,1976-77) 


Total 


200 




Ir^n'FeTfeP''''^'''''''"-^"^^ 


■"■"■■"'■^- W 


(Ha1<Jef,T898) 


Brown Pelican 


1,000 


(Wlllet, 6/5/10) 


Brown Pelican 


400 


(Peyton, 3/12/11) 


Brown Pelican 


2,000+ 


(Peyton, 1914) 


Brown Pelican 


3,000 


(Peyton, 191 6) 


Brown Pelican 


4,000 


(Peyton, 1917) 


Brown Pelican 


10,000 


(Peyton, 1920) 


Jrown Pelican 


1.000 


(DeGool 


:, 3/5/28) 



4 
29 
29 
29 
29 

29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



1} Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 

l2 20+ estimated from entire island. 

Z3i Estimate includes bkds from West Anacapa. 

/^4i Estimate of 10 birds is for entire Anacapa. Birds most likely from West Anacapa. 



X - present, P = probably present 



288 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Chanael Tslmds Wat. 

MoBUHOit, Calif. 

Km 



h 



H 



Natural Arch. . . r, i 
»,C&Arch Rock 




^TOST GUARD 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

CK—M 1 lalani* Mat. 

. Calif. 

Km 



289 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 




010) Scorpion Rock 34°02'50"N, 119°32'47"W 



Ashy Storm-Petrel 
Brown Pelican 
Double-crested Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Xantus' Murrelet 
Cassin's Auklet 

Total 
Ashy Stonn-Petrel 
Brown Pelican 
Brown Pelican 
Brown Pelican 
Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Western Gull 
Kantus* Murrelet 
Xantus' Murrelet 
,Cas£inl£^Auyet.„^^ 

X " present 



40 

6 



2 

300 

8 

P 

100 

400 

X 

X 

160 

210 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 



( a 



( 



,1976-77) 

,1976-77) 

,1976-77) 

,1977) 

J977) 

,1975-77) 

,1975-77) 

,6/22/76) 



(Stevens, 1937-41) 
(Anderson & Anderson, 1972) 
(Anderson et a 1., 1975) 
(Anderson, et al.,1974) 
(Beck, 1895) 
(Beck, 1895) 
(Beck, 1895) 
(Badger, 1928-29) 

(Stevens, Harrison & Badger, 1936+38) 
iBeck,1895; Badger, 191 9+29) 



/J 



Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



29 
29 
29 
29 
28 
29 
29 
29 

29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



290 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd. 



_Cavern Point 




Section from U.S.G, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Saata Crez Islmd 



Yetlowbanks 
Anchorage 



291 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 




on) Santa Cruz Island 



Data has been reorganized so that data for Santa Cruz Island is now under 
012, 013 & 014. 




[012) Coche Point to Cavern Pt. 34°2'N, 119°36'50"W to 34''3'20"N, 
119'*33'45"W 

Western Gull 92 ( /± ,1977) 29 

Pigeon Guillemot X ( J^ ,1977) 29 

X = present 



^Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



292 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 




293 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 




013) "Sppit Rock" 34°02'45"N, 119°43'30"W 



Ashy Storm Petrel 16+ ( Zl jn^/1^) 29 

Black Oystercatcher 6 ( i ,1977) 29 

Cassin's Auklet 20 ( I ,^111111) 29 

Total 42+ 



^Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



294 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 




Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Saafta Cnui I>1mi4 C 



295 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont d.) 




014 



Santa Cruz 
Diablo Pt. 



Is. - Kinton Pt. 34°0'30"N, lig'^BS'W to 
34''3'N, 119°45'W 



Ashy Storm-Petrel 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Cassin's Auklet 

Total 
Ashy Storm-Petrel 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Tufted Puffin 

X = present 



20 
84 



234 
X 
X 
X 



( n 

( 

( 

( 

( 

( 

( 



,7/15/76) 

,1977) 

,1976) 

,1977) 

,1977) 

,1977) 

,1977) 



(Wright & SnyderJ912; Dickey, 1913) 

(Dawson, 1923) 

(Wright & Snyder, 191 2) 

(Wright & Snyder, 191 2) 



29 
25 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 

29 
29 
29 
29 



11 



Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt. Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



a 



11 



100 estimated for entire Santa Cruz Island, including Gull Island (524 001), 
Scorpion Rock (502 010) and "Sppit" (502 013). 

400 estimated for entire Santa Cruz Island. 



296 



AREA 502, Los Angeles (cont'd.) 



o <fl 

u e 

>4-l 

o • 

•H O 

•u • 

o w 

(U . 

M C3 




297 




524 
Long Beach 



The map on the facing page is an index to the locations of colonies within map 524, 
Long Beach. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively from north to 
south, since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial colony 
numbers were assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following this map, all colonies 
are Usted sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 

Numbers of breeding seabirds will vary from year to year. Below are the approximate 
numbers of breeding seabirds within this region. 

Ashy Storm-Petrel 300 

Black Storm-Petrel 150 

Brown Pelican X 

Brandt's Cormorant 730 

Double-crested Cormorant 150* 

Pelagic Cormorant 10 

Black Oystercatcher 30 

Western Gull 4,700 

Pigeon Guillemot 120 

Xantus's Murrelet 3,200 

Cassin's Auklet 400 

X = present 

* coastal population only. 



298 



524 Long Beach 




299 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 



sample 

ColonyNo. 



Colony name 




004 



'Gull Rock^ 



Lat.-Long. 
'39°3C^20"N,121"35;45"W 



Number breeding birds 

Investigators 
Survey date 



Pelagic Cormorants 
/PfeUgtc C6il*#ionaits 



/ r. 



^ 



-V c 



40 (Nelson & Sowls, 6/14/79, B, II ) 
48 ({kbOft»e,6/5/69) /* 

L. dear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 



■ Data qual. 
- see text 



\ 



Reference 



Survey 
type 



42 

35 

aerial 

boat 

from mainland 

on site 



(m) 



Gull Island 33°57'01"N, 119°49'28"W 



Ashy Storm-Petrel 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Xantus' Murrelet 
Cassin's Auklet 

Total 
Brandt's Cormorant 
8rar{dt*s Connorant 
l^elaglc Cormorant 



2 
134 



8 
170 

2 

150 

466 

46+ 

110 

8 



ZI 



a 



,4/12/77) 

,1977) 

,1976-77) 

,1977) 

,1977) 

,1976-77) 

,1975-77) 

,1975) 
.1976) 
,1975) 



29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 

29 
29 
29 



LI Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



300 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




Gull Island 



right 



Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Soita Cns Island B 

Km 



H 



-i 



301 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 



(002) Venice Beach and Playa del Rey 33°57'30"N, n8°27'30"W 

Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 

Least Tern 300-330 (Atwood, 4-8/80, L) 12 

Least Tern 170-210 (Atwood, 4-0/78Vi) 12 

least Tern 196-240 (Atwood, 4-8/79,L} 12 



fOOSj Terminal Island 33"57'30"N, 118^27' 30"W 
Least Terns no longer use this site for nesting. 



(004) Anaheim Bay and Surfside Beach 33°44'05"N, 118°05'34"W 

Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 

Least Tern 80-96 (Atwood,4-8/80^L 

Least Tern 12 (Atwood, 4-8/79**' 




302 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




Plava 




Seal Beach, Calif. 
Kb 



303 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




005) San Gabriel River 33°45'12"N, 118°06'15"W 



Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 

"^Ist Tern 
Least Tern 



24-30 (Atwood,4-8/80,L) 
120-130 (Atw<«Kl»4-8/78,L) 
lDO-110 (Atwood,4-8/79,L) 




12 
12 
12 




006) Bolsa Chica Beach 33°42'05"N, n8°03'05"W 



Least Terns aie an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. 1 or 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 
least Tern 
Least Tern 



40-52 (Atwood, 4-8/80, L) 

(Atwood, 4-8/78,1) 

68-92 (Atwood,4-8/79,L} 



12 

12 
12 



304 



AREA 524. Long Beach (cont'd.) 




Section fron U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Seal Beach, Calif. 

Ka 




305' 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




007) Shag Rock 33°29'15"N, n9°02'05"W 



Western Gull 
Xantus' Murrelet 
Total 



20 { 
30 ( 
50 



/I 



,1976) 
.1977) 




008) Santa Barbara Island 33°28'37"N, 119°02'03"W 



Black Storm-Petrel 
Ashy Storm-Petrel 
Brown Pelican 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Western Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Xantus' Murrelet 
Cassin's Auklet 

Total 
Brovm Pelican 
Brown Pelican 
Brown Pelican 
Brown Pelican 
Brown Pelican 
B^own Pelican 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Cormorant 
Brandt's Connorant 
Brandt's- Cormorant 



120 



130 

250 

174 

102 

14 

4 

12 

2,300 

90 

2-4,000 

150 

6,220 

none 

50 

300-400 

X 

none 

none 

X 

92 

52 

146 

X 



Double- ores ted Connorant 



Double-crested Connorant none 
Double-crested Confiorant 132 

Double-crested Corttiorant 20 

Pelagic Cormorant X 

Pelagic Corn»rant 2 

Pelagic Cornwrant none 

Western Gull X 

Western Gull 1 ,0{X) 

V/estern Gull 3,000 

Western Gull 2,324 

Western Gull 2,230 

Western Gull 1,622 

Wester?) Gull 850 

Pigeon Gu111erm)ts X 

Xantus' Murrelet X 

Cassin's Auklet X 

Cassin's Auklet none 

Cassin's Auklet none 

Tufted Puffin ? 

X = present 



( ZI ,1976-77) 

( I M976-77) 

(Gress,1980) 

( 11 ,1977) 



( 



,1977) 

,1977) 

,1977) 

,1975-78) 

,1976) 

,1977) 

,1977) 



29 
29 
20 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



(Grinnel,T89T) ■■■■■■■■■-■■-■■■-■■■■■■■■■■■■■-■■■■-■■■- 

(Willet, 6/14/11) 
(Wright & Snyder, 7/2/1 2) 
(Peyton, 5/ 7/ 14; Schrelber & Delong,1967) 
( a .1975-77) 
(Gress, 1978- 1979) 
{Grinnell,1897; Howell, 1908) 
(Oehl, 7/11/74) 
( ZI .1975) 
I .1976) 
(Cooper, 1863; Gr1nnel,l897; Peyton, 1914; 
Wyisan, 1920+27; Sufl»ner,1939) 
(Crossin & Brownell ,5/68) 
(Hunt & Hunt, 7/2/72) 
( a .1976) 
{Grinnell,1897; Pemberton,1927) 
( ZL ,1975) 
{ I ,1976) 

(6rinne11,1897) 
(ChaiBl3ers,1889) 
(Hunt & Hunt, 7/7/72) 
( a .1975) 

,1976) 

.1977) 

,1978) 

(GrinneU,1897; $urRner,1939; Small. 1960) 
(Wright & Snyder, 7/3/12) 
(Cooper, 1863; Gr1nnel,1897) 
(Howell, 1908; Willet, 1911; Wright & Snyder, 191 2) 
(SuRmer & Bond, 1939; Hunt & Hunt, 1972) 
(6r!nnel.l897) 



306 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




009 



-\- 33O3O' 
119002 •SO" 



Santa Barbara Isia 

c. 




fArch Point 

U .S COAST GUARD 
HK.SEKVATION 



Rjiiger Station 
dndlCai7>pgfound 



-(W 



n^fX'sutii 



-|-33**27'30" 
119002 '30" 



PA C I F I C 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Channel Islands Nat. 

Monument, Calif. 

Km 



h 



307 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




009) Sutil Island 33°28'50"N, 119°02'50"W 



Black Storm-Petrel 


20-30 


/I ,1976-77) 


Ashy Storm-Petrel 


40-50 ( 




,1976-77) 


Brandt's Cormorant 


152 




,1977) 


Double-crested Cormorant 


120 




,1977) 


Pelagic Cormorant 


4 




.1977) 


Black Oystercatcher 


4 




,1977) 


Western Gull 


150 




,1976) 


Pigeon Guillemot 


30 




.,1976) 


Xantus' Murrelet 


150 




,1977) 


Cassin's Auklet 


70 




, 6/27/76, L) 


Total 


750 




»raft«(it*s Connorant 


80 1 


:vkh1,mV74) ' ^ 


Brandt's Connorant 


186 


[ /I .1975) 


Brandt's Cormorant 


140 


[ a .^976) 


Double-crested Cormorant 


60 


: Zl .1976) 


Cassin's Auklet 


200 


(wnie 


tt,6/14/n,L) 



29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 

29 
29 

■29 
29 
29 



a 



Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 




Sutil Island 



Photo by George Hunt 



308 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 



+ 33«30' 
119002*30!^ 



Santa Barbara Island 
Shag Rock j:?. 








fArch Point 

S COAST GUARD 
RESERVATION 



er Station 
Campground 




008 



U S COAST GUARD 
RESERVATION 



Sutil 
Island 



+ S3*J!7*30' 
Mf •©! »8e" 



JP A C I F I C 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

Channel Islands Nat. 

MonuBient, Calif. 

Km 

I > I 

h 1 



309 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd. 




010) Bird Rock 33°27'04"N, n8°29'04"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 


Western Gull 


Xantus' Murrelet 


Total 


;^randt's Cortnorant 


^'Brandt's Conrtorant 


^Western Gull 


Iftestem Gull 


^stem Gull 


Ifestern Gull 


ptestem Gull 


Itestem Gull 


^Xantus* Hurrelet 


X = present 





52 





52 

X 

nom 

X 

48 
50 
20 
58 
50-60 
X 



( 11 
( I 

( I 



,1975-76) 

,1976) 

,1976-77) 



(W11 let. 4/11/04) 
(Jehl, 7/9/74) 
{Grinneini897) 
(Harper, 1965) 
(Harper, 1966) 
(Jehl, 7/ 1974) 
(Hand, 1974) 

( a '■J^^s) 

(Bleitz.1967) 



29 
29 
29 

29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



il Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



310 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




311 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




on) San Nicolas Island 33°14'30"N, 119°30'30"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 


290 ( 


Black Oystercatcher 


2 ( 


Western Gull 


1 ,800 ( 


Total 


2,092 


Brandt's Co^fm)rant 


X ( 


Irandt's Connorant 


1,200 ( 


Brandt's Connorartt 


1,200 ( 


Brandt's Cormorant 


970 ( 


Brandt's Connorant 


1,230 ( 


Brandt's Connorant 


266 ( 


Brandt's Connorant 


340 ( 


Western Gull 


6,000 ( 


Iftestern Gull 


1,200 ( 


X = present 





a 



,1977) 
,1977) 
,1975-77) 



Gaylord,1897) 

Schreiber, 6/1 7/68) 

Anderson, 6/14/72) 

Anderson, 1973) 

Hunt & Leach, 5/ 22/ 74) 
a. ,1975) 
IX ,1976) 

Delong J/29/67) 

Schretber,1968) 



29 
29 

29 

29 

29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



11 



Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



312 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




313 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




012] Bird Rock and N.W. San Clemente Is. 33°02'N, 118°35'W 



Brandt's Cormorant 10 ( /I ,1976) 29 

Black Oystercatcher 2 ( ,1977) 29 

Western Gull 56 ( ,1976) 29 

Total 68 

Brandt's Cormorant X (Linton, 1907; Jehl,1973) 29 

Western Gull X {Jehl,1973) ^^ 

,|||||rO,|iiU,,,.,,,,,,,,,, 62 ( ^ a975} mmmmmmmm ^^ 
X = present 

^ Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman, Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly. Briggs and Speich. Only the most significant 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



314 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




315 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 




[013; Seal Cove to Lost Point 32°52'N, llS^Sl'W to 32^54' 10"N, 
118°32'20"W 

Brandt's Cormorant 30 ( Z] ,1976) 



,1976-77) 2i 

,1976-77) 1'? 

,1976) 2? 



Black Oystercatcher 2 ( 

Western Gull 56 ( 

Xantus' Murrelet _X^ ( 

Total 88 _ ,._ 

8ran<^t's Cormorant X (Leattierwood & Coulombe,1972; Jones & JehlJ9? 

Wes tern Gul 1 X (Oeh 1 , 1 973 1 

X = present 

^ Investigators are some or all of the following: Hunt, Pitman. Naughton, 
Winnett, Newman, Kelly, Briggs and Speich. Only the most significjnt 
historical data has been summarized here from intensive studies conducted 
in the Channel Islands, see Hunt et al. 1979 for further information. 



316 



AREA 524, Long Beach (cont'd.) 



■SB^ 



h 




Section from U.S.G.S, 
1 : 24, 000 scale map: 

Saa Cl«a«itte tulmtd 

Central 



Kb 



317 




525 
Santa Ana 



The map on the facing page is an index to the locations of colonies within map 525, 
Santa Ana. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively from north to 
south, since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial colony 
numbers were assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following this map, all colonies 
are hsted sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 



318 



525 Santo Ano 






KILOMCTCRS 




< 100 Btnos 
100 - 1,000 BIROS 
1.000 - 10.000 BtROS 
10.000 - 100,000 B<R08 
OVER 100.000 BIRDS 






Oceanside 



319 



AREA 525, Santa Ana (cont'd.) 



sample 

Colony No. - 



Colony name 




004 



'Gull Rock^ 



Pelagic Cormorants 
/ Pelagic Cowaorants 



LOe 



Lat. -Long. 



'39°35,'20"N,121°35;45"W 
/ f, ^ 



Number breeding birds 

Investigators 
- Survey date 



\ r 



40 (Nelson & Sowls ,6/14/79,8,11 ) 
48 (Osborne, 6/5/69} 



Clear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. 
Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 




■ Data qual. 
- see text 




_ A = aerial 

Survey J g ^ ^^^^^ 



type 



M = from mainland 
L = on site 



(m) 



Huntington Beach 33"38'43"N, 117°59'02"W 



l.easl Terns jrc un endangered ^peeies. PdpuUuions of Lcusi Terns arc surveyed annually. 1 or 
the most eurrent information eontaei ihe California Department of I ish and Game. 



Least Tern 






140-180 (Atwood, 4-8/80, L) 

, . 1 60-1 9a_iMwfi«jkfea/i3:>u...,. 



;;Sftv::;:-::-;->>;-:^:;^ft-:Wy^ 



12 
12 
12 






(002) Newport Bay 33°38'46"N, n7°53'08"W 

Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 
least Tern 
Least Tern 



4-10 (Atwood, 4-8/80, L) 

15-20 (Atwood, 4-8/78,L) 
12-14 (Atwood, 4-8/79,1) 




12 
12 
12 



(003) Santa Margarita River 33°13'57"N, 117°24'37"W 

Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 

Least Tern 
Least Tern 



80 (Copper and Bel luomini ,4-8/80, L) 
60-80 (Unitt, 4-8/78, L) 
64-80 (Unitt, 4-8/78,1) 



12 
12 
12 



320 



AREA 525, Santa Ana (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
:24,000 scale map: 

Newport Beach, Ca. 




"f^ \jlJ" 









Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Newport Beach and 
Tustln, Calif. 

Kb 

I » 



o 






Oceanslde, Calif. 



321 



AREA 525, Santa Ana (cont'd.) 




004) Agua Hedionda 33°08'45"N, n7°19'30"W 



Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually, I or 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 

Least Tern 16-20 (Copper, 4-8/80, L) -15 

Least Tern 22-30 (Unttt, 4-8/78, 1) •, 13 

Least Tern 46-56 (Copper, 4-8/7d»L) ^||HK|WWUUH ^s 




005) Batiquitos Lagoon 33°05'25"N, n7°17'30"W 

Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. Kor 
the most current information contact the ralifornia Department of lish and Game. 

Least Tern 50-60 (Copper, 4-8/80, L) 22 

least Tern 44>54 (Unitt,4-8/7a,L} mmmmmmggjgmm^ ^^ 

least Tern 76-80 ( C op per» 4-8/79,1) :&■■■■■■■ 13 



(ooe) San Eli jo Lagoon 33°00'58"N, n7°16'52"W 

Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. Tor 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 

Least Tern 34 (Copper, 4-8/80, L) 13 

least Tern IB (Unitt»4*8/78»l) -^2 

least Tern . 24 (Copper, 4-8/79,1) 12 



322 



AREA 525, Santa Ana (cont'd.) 







Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

San Lula Rey, Calif. 





Section from U.S.G.S. 
1 :24,000 scale map: 

Enclnltas, Calif. 

Km 













Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Znclnltaa, Calif. 



-• Kark"! 

Solana BeachI 



Kb 



323 



AREA 525, Santa Ana (cont'd.) 




007) Aliso Creek 33°30'35"N, n7°45'12"W 



Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Legist Terns are surveyed annually. Tor 
the most current int'ornialion contact the California Department of I'ish and Game. 

Least Tern 100 (Copper, 4-8/80, L) ^ 12 

■^m tern -■'■■■■ --^^^^^^^^^^^ (Copper,4-8/79,L J '^m ^^ 



(OOS) Buena Vista Lagoon 33°10'30"N, n7°2ri5"W 

Least Terns arc an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. 1 or 
the most current information contact the California Department of lish and Game. 

Least Tern 2 (Copper, 4-8/80, L) 12 



324 



AREA 525, Santa Ana (cont'd.) 










Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 
Laguna Beach & 

^ij San Juan Caplstrano 
Km 




325 




545 
San Diego 



The map on the facing page is an index to the locations of colonies within map 545, San 
Diego. Note that all colonies on the map are not numbered consecutively from north to south, 
since many previously unreported colonies have been added since initial colony numbers were 
assigned by Varoujean (1979). On the pages following this map, all colonies are listed 
sequentially and a detailed map of each is provided. 



326 



545 San Diego 




327 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 



sample 

ColonyNo. 



Colony name 



La t. -Long. 




004 



'Gull Rock^ 



'39°35'20"N,121°35;45" W 



Number breeding birds 

Investigators 
Survey date 



/ r 



.A. 



-V r 



Pelagic Cormorants 40 (Nelson & Sowls ,6/14/79,8,11) 

/ ^ Xsurvey p 

Z. Clear lines give the most recent or the best estimates available. ■ ~* " 

Stipple lines give additional estimates for other years. 



■ Data quai 
■ see text 



\ 



Reference 



type 



42 

35 
aerial 
boat 

from mainland 
on site 



@ 



Los Penasquitos Lagoon 32°55'49"N, 117°14'54"W 



Least Terns axe an endangered species. Populations of Least Tems aie surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 
Least Tern 
least Tern 



30 (Copper, 4-8/80, L) 
32 (Copper, 4-^8/79 »L) 




12 
12 
12 



328 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

D^ Mar. Calif. 




329 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 



(002) Mission Bay 32°46'42"N, n7°13'46"W 

Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns axe surveyed annually. I or 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 
Least Tern 
Least Tern 



262-266 (Copper, 4-8/80, L) 
246-328 {Unitt,4-8/78,L) 
222 {Copper,4-8/79»L) 



12 
12 

12 




Least Terns 



Photo by Bill Beebe, Santa Monica Evening Look 



330 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 




Entrance 



Cfia^ 



K7 ,^ 



Beach I 
Par 



r.eW- 




Section from U.S.G.S, 
1:24,000 scale map: 

La Jolla, Calif. 



Kn 
I 



331 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 




003) North San Diego Bay 32°44'N, 117°12'W 



Least Terns aie an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 
Western Gull 

Total 
Least Tern 
least Tern 



342 
20 

362 
182-190 
386-400 



(Copper, 4-8/80, L) 

(Copper & Jorgensen, 4-8/80, L) 

(Unitt,4-8/78,l} 
{Copp€r,4-8/79»L) 



12 
16 

12 
12 




004 



Silver Strand Beach was previously assigned a catalog number because of Snowy Plover nesting. We 
have not included information on this species in this report. See Page & Stenzel (1979). 



332 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 




333 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 



(005) South San Diego Bay 32°36'N, 117°07'W 

Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 



Least Tern 


130 


Forster's Tern 


2,000 


Elegant Tern 


900 


Caspian Tern 


900 


Black Skimmer 


70-80 


Total 


4,010 


least Tern 


74-78 


Least Tern 


122-140 


Black Skinsner 


2 


Black Skimmer 


5 

itmmfffmm:' 



(Copper & Evans, 4-8/80, L) 

(Copper & Evans, 4-8/80, L) 

(Copper & Evans, 4-8/80, L) 

(Copper & Evans, 4-8/80, L) 

(Copper & Evans, 4-8/80, L) 

{Unitt, 4-8/80. L) 
(Copper, 4-8/79, I) 
(Evans, 1976, L) 
(Evans,4-B/77,L) 



12 

12,16 
12,16 
12,16 
12,16 

12 
12 

12,16 
12,16 




Caspian Terns 



334 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 



-?i M ay| 




Parks U-o-tliJir^ 



Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:24,000 scale map: 

Imperial Beach, Ca. 



335 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 



(ooe) Tijuana River Mouth 32°33'25"N, n7°07'48"W 

Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Ueast Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the mosj current information contact the California Department of lish and Game. 

Least Tern 50 (Copper, 4-8/80, L) 12 

least Tern 16-24 (Unitt, 4-8/78, L) ^^^^ffi| 22 

Least Tern 50-60 (Copper, 4-8/79, L) I^HI ^^ 



(007) Del Mar 32°58'10"N, n7°14'45"W 



Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 

Least Tern 10 (Denson,1980,L) 12 




008) Sweetwater River 32°38'30"N, 117°06'35"W 



Least Terns are an endangered species. Populations of Least Terns are surveyed annually. For 
the most current information contact the California Department of Fish and Game. 

Least Tern 24-30 (Copper, 4-8/80, L) 12 

Least Tern 94 (Unitt, 4-8/78, L) 12 

Least Tern 48-56 (Copper, 4-8/79, L) 12 



336 



AREA 545. San Dieoo (cont'd.) 



Section from U.S.G.S, 
1 :24,000 scale map: 







Section from U.S.G.S. 
1:2A,000 scale map: 

NatlMid. Clt7. C«. 




1 ©^0| 



337 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 




009) La Jolla 32°5rN, 117°15'55"W 



Brandt's Cormorant 6 (Everett,! 980, L) 16 

Western Gull _4 ( Everett, 1 980, L) 16 

Total 10 



338 



AREA 545, San Diego (cont'd.) 



2 View Poi 



5*' SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHW 

(UNIV OF CALIFl , V »» 



Point La Jol 
Boomer Beac 
Rocky Poi 




339 




fwff 



340 



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344 



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33 Manuwal, Dj\. 1974a. The natural history of Cassin's Auklet /'/'fyc/ioramp/ms a/e«f/c«s/ Condor 76:421-431. 
Manuwal, D.A. 1974b. The incubation patches of Cassin's Auklet. Condor 76:481-484. 

Manuwal, D.A. 1978. Effect of man on marine birds: a review. Proc. J.S. Wright Conf. 4th (Purdue Univ.), 140-160. 

McCaskie.G. 1980. Southern Pacific coast regional report. Amer. Birds 34(3). 

McGill, P.A., and M.E. Richmond. 1979. Hatching success of Great Black-backed Gull eggs treated with oil. Bird- 
Banding 50 : 1 08- 1 1 3 . 

Miller, D., pers. comm. California Dept. of Fish and Game, 2201 Garden Road., Monterey, CA 93940. 

Moffitt, J., and R.T. Orr. 1938. Recent disastrous effects of oil pollution on birds in the San Francisco Bay region. 
Calif. Fish and Game 24:239-244. 

Morse, D.H., and C.W. Buchheister. 1979. Nesting patterns of Leach's Storm-Petrels on Matinicus Rock, Maine. 
Bird-Banding 50:145-158. 

Murphy, R.C. 1936. Oceanic birds of South America. Vol.2. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. New York. 

Nelson, E.W., and E.A. Goldman. 1931. Six new White-footed Mice /Peromj'scMS mamcu/iims group) from islands 
off the Pacific coast. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 21 :530-535. 

Nettleship, D.N. 1972. Breeding success of the Common Puffin (Fratercula arctica L.) on different habitats at 
Great Island, Newfoundland. Ecol. Mono. 42:239-268. 

Nettleship, D.N. 1976. Census techniques for seabirds of arctic and eastern Canada. Occas. Pap. No. 25. Canadian 
Wildl. Serv., Ottawa. 

Nettleship, D.N. 1977. Seabird resources of eastern Canada: status, problems, and prospects. In T. Mosquin and 
C. Suchal (eds.). Proceedings of the Symposium on Canada's Threatened Species and Habitats. Canadian Nature 
Fed., Ottawa. 

Nisbet, I.C.T. 1973. Terns in Massachusetts: present numbers and historical changes. Bird-Banding 44:27-55. 

Nysewander, D.R. 1977. Reproductive success of the Black Oystercatcher in Washington State. M.S. thesis, Univ. 
Washington, Seattle. 



346 



Nysewander, D.R., and D.B. Barbour. 1979. The breeding biology of marine birds associated with Chiniak Bay, 
Kodiak Island. In Environmental assessment of the Alaskan continental shelf. Annual reports of principal 
investigators. Natl. Ocean. Atmos. Admin. Environ. Res. Lab., Boulder, CO. 

Ogi, H., and T. Tsujita. 1973. Preliminary examination of stomach contents of murres (Uria spp.) from the eastern 
Bering Sea and Bristol Bay, June-August, 1970 and 1971. Jap. Jour. Ecol. 23: 201-209. 

Ogi, H., and T. Tsujita. 1977. Food and feeding habits of Common Murres and Thick-billed Murres in the Okhotsk 
Sea in summer, 1972 and 1973. Pp. 459-517 in Res. Inst. North Pac. Fish. Special Volume. Hokkaido Univ. 

34 Osborne, T.O.. pers. comm. Alaska Dept. Fish and Game, Box 667, Petersburg, AK 99833. 

35 Osborne, T.O. 1972. Ecology and avian use of the coastal rocks of Northern California. M.A. Thesis. Humboldt 

State Univ., Areata, CA. 

36 Osborne, T.O. , and J.G. Reynolds. 1971. California seabird breeding ground survey. Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, 

Admin. Rep. 71-73. 

Page, G.W., and L.E. Stenzel (eds.). 1979. The status of breeding Snowy Plovers in California. Calif. Dept. Fish and 
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37 Palmer, R.S. (ed.). 1962. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. I, loons through flamingos. Yale Univ. Press, 

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Peakall, D.B. 1970. Pesticides and the reproduction of birds. Sci. Amer. 222: 72-78. 

Peakall, D.B. 1975. Physiological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons on avian species. Pp. 343-360 in R. Haque 
and V.H. Freed (eds.). Environmental dynamics of pesticides. Plenum Publ. Corp., New York. 

Pitman, R.L. and S.M.Speich. 1976. Black Storm-Petrel breeds in the United States. Western Birds 7:71. 

Portnoy, J.W. 1977. Nesting colonies of seabirds and wading birds-coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. 
U.S. Dept. of Interior, Fish and Wildl. Serv., Biol. Serv. Prog. FWS/OBS-77/07. 

Radovich, J. 1979. Managing pelagic schooling prey species. Pp. 365-375, in H. Clepper (ed.). Predator-prey 
systems in fisheries management. Sport. Fish. Inst., Wash., D.C. 

Rauzon, M., pers. comm. 627 N. Forest, Bellingham, WA 98225. 

38 Richardson, F. 1961. Breeding biology of the Rhinoceros Auklet on Protection Island, WA. Condor 63:456-473. 

Richdale, L.E., and J. Warham. 1973. Survival, pair bond retention and nest site tenacity in Buller's Mollymawk. 
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Rijke, A.M. 1968. The water repellency and feather structure of cormorants, Phalacrocracidae. J. Exp. Biol. 
48:185-189. 

Riseborough, R.W., D.B. Menzel, D.J. Martin, and H.S. Olcott. 1967. DDT residues in Pacific seabirds: a persistent 
insecticide in marine food chains. Nature 216:589-591. 

Riseborough, R.W., F.C. Sibley, and M.N. Kirven. 1971. Reproductive failure of the Brovm Pelican on Anacapa 
Island in 1969. Amer. Birds 25: 8-9. 

Robertson, I. 1971. The influence of brood size on reproductive success in two species of cormorant,/", auritus and 
P. pelagicus, and its relation to the problem of clutch size. M.S. thesis, U. British Columbia, Vancouver. 

39 Robertson, I. 1974. The food of nesting Double-crested and Pelagic Cormorants at Mandarte Island, British 

Columbia, with notes on feeding ecology. Condor 76:346-348. 



347 



Rothstein, S.I. 1973. Plastic particle poUution of the surface of the Atlantic Ocean: evidence from a seabird. 
Condor 75:344-346. 

Romero, P.D. 1971. Anaheim Bay study, July 1970 to 1971. Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, Spec. Wildl. Invest., 
Project W-54-R, Job III-12, fmal rep. 

Salomonsen, F. 1979. Marine birds in the Danish Monarchy and their conservation. In J.C. Bartonek and D.N. 
Nettleship (eds.), Conservation of marine birds in northern North America. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Fish and 
Wildl. Serv., WUdl. Res. Rept. 1 1 . 

Sano, 0. 1978. Seabirds entangled in salmon driftnets. Enyo 30: 1-4. 

Schaefer, M.B. 1970. Men, birds, and anchovies in the Peru Current - dynamic interactions. Trans. Amer. Fish. 
Soc. 99: 461-467. 

Schreiber, R.W., and R.L. DeLong. 1969. Brown Pelican status in California. Audubon Field Notes 23(l):57-59. 

Schreiber, R.W., and R.W. Riseborough. 1972. Studies of the Brown Pelican. No. 1: Status of Brown Pelican 
populations in the United States. Wilson Bull. 84:119-135. 

Schwartzlose, R. 1963. Nearshore currents of the western United States and Baja California as measured by drift 
bottles. Cahf. Coop. Fish. Invest. Repts. 9:15-22. 

Scott, J. M. 1973. Resource allocation in four syntopic species of marine diving birds. Ph.D. diss. Oregon State 
Univ. Corvallis. 

Scott, J.M., W. Hoffman, D. Ainley, C.F. ZeiUemaker. 1974. Range expansion and activity patterns in Rhinoceros 
Auklets. Western Birds 5:13-20. 

Sealy,S.G. 1974. Breeding phenology and clutch size in the Marbled Murrelet. Auk 91:10-23. 

40 Sealy, S.G. 1975a. Aspects of the breeding biology of the Marbled Murrelet in British Columbia. Bird-Banding 
46:141-154. 

Sealy, S.G. 1975b. Feeding ecology of the Ancient and Marbled Murrelets near Langara Island, British Columbia. 
Can. J.Zool. 53:418433. 

Sibley, C.G. 1953. Forster's Terns breeding on San Francisco Bay, California. Condor 55:278-279. 

Simon, T.R. 1980. Discovery of a ground-nesting Marbled Murrelet. Condor 82:1-9. 

Singer, S.W., and D.R. Verardo. 1975. The Murrelet's nest discovered. Pacific Discovery 28:18-21. 

Small, J., D.G. Ainley, and H. Strong. 1972. Notes on birds killed in the 1971 San Francisco oil spill. Calif. Birds 

3:25-32. 

Sorenson, F., pers. comm. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 67, San Simeon, CA 93452. 

Sowls, A.L., S.M. Hatch, and C.J. Lensink. 1978. Catalog of Alaskan Seabird Colonies. U.S. Dept. of Interior, 
Fish and Wildl. Ser., Biol. Ser. Prog. FWS/OBS-78/78. 

Speich, S., and D.A. Manuwal. 1974. Gular pouch development and population structure of Cassin'sAuklet. Auk 
91:291-306. 

Stager, K.E. 1967. Avian olfaction. Am. Zool. 7:415419. 

Stahlecker, D.W. and A.W. Alldredge. 1976. The impact of an underground nuclear fracturing experiment on cliff 
nesting raptors. Wilson Bull. 88:151-154. 

Strachan, G.J., pers. comm. Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, Orick, CA 95555. 

Straughan, D. 1970. Ecological effects of the Santa Barbara oil spill. Pp. 1 73-182 in R.W. Holmes and F.A. DeWitt 
(eds). Santa Barbara Oil Symposium, Dec. 16-18, 1970, at Univ. California, Santa Barbara. 



348 



Straughan, D. 1971 . Oil pollution and seabirds. Pp. 307-312 in Biological and oceanographic survey of the Santa 
Barbara Channel oil spill, 1969-1970. Vol. 1, Allan Hancock Foundation, Univ. Southern Calif. 

Sumner, L.E. 1939. An investigation of Santa Barbara, Anacapa, and San Miguel Islands. Unpubl. ms. on file 
Channel Island Natl. Monument. 

41 Thoresen, A.C. 1964. The breeding behavior of the Cassin's Auklet. Condor 66:456-476. 

Thoresen, A.C, and E.S. Booth. 1958. Breeding activities of the Pigeon Guillemot, Cepphus columba columba 
Pallas. Dept. Biol. Sci., Walla Walla College, Walla Walla, WA, Publ. 23. 

Threlfall, W. 1974. Foot injuries in Leach's Storm Petrels. Wilson Bull. 86:65-67. 

Tickell, W.L.N. 1968. The biology of the grea.t albzUosses, Diomedeaexulans and Diomedea epomorpha. Antarctic 
Res. Ser. 12:1-55. 

Tuck, L.M. 1960. The murres. Their distribution, populations, and biology: a study of the genus Uria. Canad. 
Wildl. Serv.,Monogr. Ser. 1. Ottawa, Canada. 

Tull, C.E., P. Germain, and A.W. May. 1972. Mortahty of Thick-billed Murres in the west Greenland salmon fishery. 
Nature 237: 42-44. 

U.S. Air Force. 1978. Final environmental impact statement, space shuttle program. Vandenberg Air Force Base, 
CA. 

42 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Field notes. See appendix A. 

Varoujean, D., pers. comm. Oregon Inst. Marine Biology , Charleston, OR 97420. 

43 Varoujean, D.H. 1979. Seabird colony catalog: Washington, Oregon, and California. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Fish 

and Wildl. Serv. 

Varoujean, D.H. and R.L. Pitman. 1979. Oregon seabird colony survey, 1979. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Fish and 
Wildl. Service. 150 pp. 

Veirs, S.D., pers. comm. Research Scientist, Redwood Nat. Park, Box 55, Areata, CA 95521. 

Vermeer, K. 1963. The breeding ecology of the Glaucous-winged Gull (Lams glaucescens) on Mandarte Island, 
British Columbia. Occas. Pap. British Columbia Prov. Mus. 13:1-104. 

Vermeer, K., and D.B. Peahall. 1977. Toxic chemicals in Canadian fish-eating birds. Mar. Poll. Bull. 8:205-210. 

Vermeer, R., and K. Vermeer. 1974. Oil pollution of birds: an abstracted bibliography. Can. Wildl. Serv., Pesticide 
Sec.'Manu.Rept.No.29. 

Webster, J.D. 1941. The breeding of the Black Oystercatcher. Wilson Bull. 53:141-156. 
Welty, J.C. 1962. The life of birds. W.B. Saunders Co. 546 p. 

Wiens JA D Heinemann, and W. Hoffman. 1978. Community structure, distribution and inter-relationships of 
marine' birds in the Gulf of Alaska. U.S. Dept. Comm., U.S. Dept. Interior. Outer Continental Shelf Environ- 
mental Assessment Program. Final Rept. 3:1-178. 

Wilbur, HJ^. 1969. The breeding biology of Leach's Petrel, Oceanodrowa/eucor/zoa. Auk 86:433-442. 

Willett,G. 1910. A summer trip to the northern Santa Barbara Island. Condor 12:170-174. 

Willett, G. 1912. Birds of the Pacific slope of southern California. Pacific Coast Avifauna 7:1-122. 

Willett, G. 1915. Summer birds of Forrester Island. Auk 32:295-305. 

Willett, G. 1933. Birds of southwestern California- in part (Petrels, Pelecaniformes, and Alcidae). Pacific Coast 

Avifauna, 21. 



349 



Williams, A.S., S.C. Brundage, J Af . Harris, and D.C. Smith. 1978. Saving oiled seabirds: a manual for cleaning and 
rehabilitating oiled waterfowl. Amer. Petroleum Inst., Wash. DC. 

Williams, L. 1927. California Brown Pelicans nesting at Point Lobos, Monterey County, California. Condor 
33:66-69. 

Williams, L. 1931. Further notes on California Brown Pelicans at Point Lobos, California. Condor 33:66-69. 

Winnett, K.A., K.G. Murray, and J.C. Wingfield. 1979. Southern race of Xantus' Murrelet breeding on Santa Barbara 
Island, California. Western Birds 10:81-82. 

Yocom.CF., and S.W. Harris. 1975. Birds of north western^. California. Humboldt State Univ., Areata, CA. 

44 Zerlang, L., and T. Eraser. 1940. A large set of the Black Oystercatcher. Condor 42:264. 



350 



APPENDIX A: DATA ARCHIVING 



This catalog is a summary of data from many sources and more detailed information on 
many of these sites is available. This information may include more detailed maps, notes on re- 
productive success, vegetation, marine mammals, pelagic birds in the area, land ownership, 
access, management problems, and photographs. We have provided this section for those who 
may desire access to this information. 

Field data collected by the U.S. Fish and Wildhfe Service in 1979 and 1980 were recorded 
onto Colony Status Records (Figure 5) or into a field notebook arranged by species. Other data 
compiled in this catalog are referenced as to their sources. This catalog can serve as an index to 
the Colony Status Records since their numbering systems are identical. Copies of the Colony 
Status Records and our field notebook have been deposited at: 



Bureau of Land Management 
Pacific OCS Office 
1 340 W. 6th Street 
Los Angeles, CA 90017 

CaUfornia Academy of Sciences 

Golden Gate Park 

San Francisco, CA 94118 

Cahfomia Dept. of Fish and Game 
WDdlife Investigations 
1416 Ninth Street 
Sacramento, CA 95814 



Patuxent Research Lab 
U.S. Fish & Wildhfe Service 
Laurel, MD 20810 

Colonial Bird Register 
Laboratory of Ornithology 
Cornell University 
1 59 Sapsucker Woods Road 
Ithaca, NY 14850 

U.S. Fish & Wildhfe Service 
Lloyd 500 Building, Suite 1692 
500 N.E. Multnomah Street 
Portland, OR 97232 



Photographs will be of great value in the future, particularly for evaluating changes in 
habitat and changes in populations of Brandt's Cormorants and Common Murres. Some black 
and white prints and some color shdes are included with each set of Colony Status Records. 
Nearly all of these photographs were taken during our study. All remaining photographs and all 
black-and-white negatives taken during our study have been divided between the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service office in Portland and the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. 
These were divided so that nearly identical photographs are at both locations. Important 
photographs from other sources have also been copied and included when possible or reference 
to their existence has been made on the Colony Status Records under the section "Photo 
Coverage". 

More historical data probably exist than have been summarized in this study and future 
studies may obtain much new information. We consider this study a step toward a better under- 
standing of marine birds and we welcome any comments, corrections, or additions to our files 
or to this report. Comments should be addressed to our Portland office. 



351 




Colony Status Record 



iih 



•^ 1 1 il 1 re Se rvice 



Area Number 



477 007 



Observer (s) Nelson, Sowls 



Colony y.ax.e Pledras Blancas Rock Field No. _ 

.Map Pipdras Blancas. Ca, Lat .3 5^39'52" Lo,g> 21°17 ' 18 'V,^^ /26 9:4 9^f 6/26/79 - boat 

Weather 6/26 nvp.rrasr ,1 ip.hr breeze from NW. swells 6', waves T. 1. 1 



.8/2/79 - aerial 



No, 
Nests 



No. 
Birds 



Remarics 
(estimar.ed tninimum £ maximum, egg & chick status, etc.) 



Fork-tailed Storv Petrel 
Leach's Scorn Pecre* 
Aahy Stom Petrel 
Brown Pelican 
Corvoranc (unld.) 
Brandt's Coraorant 
Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelanlc Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
f^ull (unld.) 
Claucous-wlnged Cull 
Western Oull 
Least Tern 
Forscer's Tern 
Caspian Ten> 
Coonon Hurre 
Pigeon CuiUeMOt 
Karbled Murrelet 
Xancua ' Murrelet 
Cassln's \uklec 
Rhinoceros Auklet 
Tufted Puffin 



i: 28. 



E 25 



rnoRf 
rooBt 



r. 680 1360 



f 



count made from aerial slide taken 8/2/79. ' 
Most nests In a "bowl" on the S.W. side of.. ' 



t-hff Island - these cannot be counted from 
the mainland or from a boat, nata qu al. = I I . 



mrHfi M ere rounted that appeared to be on 
territories, number estimated conservative. 



Data quality - III. 15 nests est, on N. si de. 
9 nests est, on vestem side & 4 nests est. 

on S.E. side. 



t 



G ood habitat, 24 birds either on the l8lan4 
or just offshore. J 



One seen flying N. from Island on 6/25 In 
the. PifPti<nB. Reynolds, CDF&G est. 1 or. here 



In 1970. Mark Rauzon, USFWS - seaotter prog. 
has seen no more than 2-3 puffins here. Roc k 
does not appear to have soil, but It may be 
present and covered with guano. 



Pecor.r.er.ded Classification: Colony Complex 



Colony X Sub-colony 



Roost Area 



1ARINE HAMMALS 



Sceller Seallon 
Callfomlj Seallon 
Northern Elephant Seal 
Harbor Seal 



" "Hauled out prlmarlllv on the west, south & 



K 500 •> eastern sides of the Island. Boat distance 



must be maintained to avoid disturbance & 



-Ifi 



,♦, I landing on island at this time not posslbli : 

/ l ^ wltli 
■L-<Haul 



wit hout causing disturbance. 

led out on intertidal rock E. of Islan 



r ■ Tvnil t4;*..f, 



Figure 5. ^Colony Status Record, front. 



352 



AREA Number 



477 007 



Pierdas Blancas Rock 

Description of Colony 



DATE 6/26 & 8/2/79 



Access Excellent landing beach (see map), unless S.W. swell at Pierdas Blancas lighthou se. 
Mainland adjacent pro party currently USFWS - seaotter research station, phoneft08)37 5 - 
??78. T.anHing nn Island would he difficult, but not recomended due to disturbance 

prnhlp.ir with seal ions. 

Vegetation i Physiosr-achic :h3.-ae:erist ics This large Island has a large bowl on the S.W. sid e 
wp.rp. most of the Brandt's Cormorants are nesting. A rock stack is at the north end. 
Wn vpgoraMnn nr gnll is evidenf but soil may be covered bv guano. See photographs. 



iuman Activity Probably boats from San S im eon fish off shore and the people at Pierdas 
Blancas they have seen airplanes buzz the island disturb i ng the Btallons. This area 
is within the California Seaotter Game Reserve - flying bel o w 1000 ft. is prohibited . 
:-:an.'Tiaii2r. Predators, Livestock, etc. pr^hphly nnnp. . 



Census ::ethods i Data 3tat;s Island passed by in zodiac on 6/25, 6/26 island was zodiaced 
nn the N. ,W. & S. sides - E. side could be seen well also. D istance was kept larger 
than u sual so as not to disturb sealions. August 2, 1979 the island was photographe d 
through the npen window of a Cessna 182. Aerial photos used for counts of Brandt's C or. 



JentJac^ftbaecJgQtJsiogcK* For futurp s urvpya it Is rec . onjpnded the I s l and be watched from — 

mainland for a long period when Tufted Puffins should be feeding chicks. Aerial 

photos work well for Brandt's & boating is necessary for Western Gulls & for Pelagic 
Cormorants. Island should be landed on if disturbance to sealions & birds is avoided . 
Photo Cover-.-e Aprial folor slides & B+W's taken from 500- 800 ft. w/ a 70-210 zoom & 
a ^nn mni 1 Pn 1/1000 of a sec. Photos through open window of Ces sna 182. — Permissi on 

t-n fly hpirm 1000 f^■ must he nhfained from CDF&G prior to f lig h t. 

Overall Evaluation of rn'nrv p^g.-^n^n y , large colony and a major hauling ar ea for sealions. 
At present this may be the southernno gt breeding point of the Tufted Puffin on the 



wpsr rnasl-. 



Supplemental Material i rata Attached P-jit) photographs attached. 



General Colony ol<etch 






Jf7T oo7 




Se«^ 



^T? Ol't) 



MAP: tracing from U.S. G.S. 1:24,000 
map Piprrias Rianras. Hnllf. 



Figure 5 (continued). Colony Status Record, back. 



353 




"For fearlessness, pluck and dash the Tufted 
Puffins have no equal on the island" - Harold 
Heath (1915). 



354 



APPENDIX B: OBSERVATION POINTS FOR SEABIRD COLONIES 

Birdwatching is a major form of recreation throughout North America. It contributes to 
the enjoyment and education of people and furthers their appreciation of the natural world. 
Hatler, Campbell and Dorst (1978) describe the philosophy of birdwatching as follows: 

"It wasn't the gold I was wanting, as much as just finding the gold." 
This line, from one of the most famous poems by Robert Service, alludes to 
the passion for discovering existing to some extent in everyone. It is likely 
that the widespread appeal of birdwatching is based, to a considerable 
degree, on its potential for providing thrills of discovery at all levels of 
"importance." At any moment the observer may discover a species he has 
not seen before, a significant personal event because it represents a broaden- 
ing of one's experience. Or, he may discover a bird which few people have 
seen in that season or at that locahty. Then, oh happy day, there is the 
occasional discovery of a species which has never, or only rarely, been seen 
previously in a province, country, or even continent. The birdwatcher 
may also contribute to knowledge of the ecology of a species by observing 
birds involved in their various annual activities. Finally, even if a series of 
observations does not include anything unusual, the observer will likely have 
discovered, or rediscovered, the sense of satisfaction which comes from 
relating to other creatures with which we share the Earth. 

Birders in California have the opportunity to view not only large colonies of seabirds but 
also several species of marine birds that are difficult to see, either because they are uncommon 
or because they rarely come close to land. However, the well-meaning student of natural 
history can easily disrupt seabird colonies in his or her quest to observe or photograph nesting 
seabirds. Recognizing the rewards of observing seabirds and the need for information about 
viewing opportunities, as well as the disturbance problems that can occur, we have included this 
section. We have listed viewing points where large seabird colonies can be observed as well as 
locations where less common species can be seen without causing disturbances. Readers are 
encouraged to read the section on human disturbance (page 5) before visiting these sites. The 
use of binoculars or better yet, a spotting scope are essential. 

One of the best ways to view marine birds is through pelagic boat trips, regularly offered 
at several ports in California. Pelagic trips result in Uttle or no disturbance to birds and the 
viewer can see several species that are infrequently observed from land, such as the albatross, 
storm-petrels, and shearwaters. Interested parties should contact local chapters of the Audubon 
Society for information. 



355 



VIEW POINT: Point St. George or Pebble Beach Drive, Crescent City. 

COLONY: Castle Rock (325 006). 

ACCESS: From Crescent City take any of the several arterial roads leading west from 

Highway 101 to Pebble Beach Drive. The best locations for viewing are 
any of the large pullouts near Point St. George (see map). No attempt should 
be made to land on Castle Rock since a great deal of disturbance would 
occur. 



SEABIRD SPECIES: 



Castle Rock is a breeding ground for 12 species of seabirds, but because of its distance 
from shore, birds can only be seen with a spotting scope. Point St. George is note- 
worthy because of excellent views offered of Aleutian Canada Geese. The geese are 
present in greatest numbers in the spring. Up to nearly 1,500 birds can be seen in April. 
The dawn departure of the geese from Castle Rock to their mainland feeding grounds 
is a great wildlife spectacle. This is best viewed from anywhere on Point St. George. 



\C 







006 



^^ 



124°15' 

41°45'J_ 




Prestoni 
Island 



356 



VIEW POINT: False Klamath Rock Overlook, Redwood National Park. 
COLONY : False Klamath Rock (325 010). 



ACCESS: 



Take the Lagoon Creek puUout from Highway 101, approximately 40 
mUes south of the Oregon Border and 25 miles north of Orick. A coastal 
hiking trail leads to an overlook of False Klamath Rock. 



SEABIRD SPECIES: 



Cormorants - All three species can be seen, particularly during summer. 

Brown Pelican - Non-breeding birds are in the area during summer and early fall. 

Black Oystercatcher - A few are present in the area all year. 

Common Murre - Thousands nest on False Klamath Rock in summer. (May to early 

August). Birds are sporadically present from November to May. 
Pigeon Guillemot - A few birds are in the area from mid-April until September. They 

are most frequently seen on the water. 




■^'Avf 



357 



VIEW POINT : Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, Orick. 

SPECIES: Marbled Murrelet inland nesting location. 

ACCESS: Take the marked tumoff to the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park head- 

quarters, 30 miles north of Eureka on Highway 101 and about 7 miles north 
of the town of Orick. 

SEABIRD SPECIES: 

This is one of the best locations to observe the flight of Marbled Murrelets in the forests. 
The local population can be seen at dawn from the entrance station circling the tops of 
the nearby redwoods. In the evening the birds return and their high pitched whistles can 
be heard in the forest stillness. The best opportunity to observe the murrelets is during 
the months of May through July. Contact State Park personnel when arriving at the park 
for more information. 




358 



VIEW POINT : Elk Head , Trinidad State Beach . 

COLONIES : Green Rock (325 020), Puffin Rock (325 02 1 ), and Flatiron Rock (325 023). 



ACCESS: 



Take Trinidad exit off Highway 101, approximately 18 miles north of 
Eureka. Drive to Trinity Ave., about .2 miles from the exit, and turn right. 
Proceed .8 mile to a parking lot on the west side of the road. Walk down 
the trail from the northwest comer of the parking lot to Megwil Point (see 
map), or near Elk Head to view Flatiron Rock. 



SEABIRD SPECIES: 



Cormorants - All three species can be seen, particularly during summer. 

Brown Pelican - Non-breeding birds are in the area during the summer and early fall. 

Black Oystercatcher - A few are present in the area all year. 

Western Gull - Birds are present in the area all year. 

Common Murre - Thousands nest on Green Rock and Flatiron Rock from May to early 

August. Birds are sporadically present from November to May. 
Pigeon Guillemot - A few birds are present in the area from mid-April until September. 

They are most often seen on the water. 
Rhinoceros Auklet - A few are present on Green Rock from mid-April to mid-August. 

They are rarely seen except early in the morning. 
Tufted Puffin - A few are present on both Green and Puffin Rocks during summer. 

They are most likely to be seen standing by burrow entrances in the morning. 



(p2o)^zi:^ 







023 




359 



VIEW POINT: Stump Beach, Salt Point State Park. 
COLONY: Cannon Gulch to Stump Beach (404 029). 



ACCESS: 



Salt Point State Park is about 20 miles north of Jenner on Highway 1 ana 
about 80 miles north of San Francisco. A parking area off the highway at 
the Stump Beach picnic grounds is about 2 miles north of the Salt Point 
State Park campground entrance. Walk the access trail to the beach, then 
head up the bluffs on the trail south of the Stump Beach cove. 



SEABIRD SPECIES: 



Pelagic Cormorants nest on the northern mainland cliffs of Stump Beach. Take extreme 
care not to disturb nesting birds. Vantage points at the bluffs edge can be found to 
observe Pelagic Cormorants nesting during June, July and August. A small population of 
Pigeon Guillemots is also present in the summer. Binoculars and spotting scopes are 
recommended for better viewing. 





360 



VIEW POINT: CUff House, San Francisco. 

COLONY: Seal Rocks (429 009). 

ACCESS: The Cliff House overlooks the ocean from a bluff just north of Golden Gate 

Park on the west side of San Francisco. Access is by bus or private car from 
downtown. The best viewing is from a platform below the restaurants, where 
coin-operated spotting scopes are available. The Golden Gate National 
Recreation Area maintains an interpretive center there. 

SEABIRD SPECIES: 

Relatively few birds use this site for nesting, but good views of breeding Western Gulls 
and occasionally of Black Oystercatchers can be made there. During the nonbreeding 
season, especially in late summer and fall. Seal Rocks are used for roosting by hundreds 
of Brown Pelicans and Brandt's Cormorants, as weU as by Heermann's and Western 
Gulls. Seal Rocks is also one of the best locations on the CaUfomia coast to view 
Cahfornia Sea Lions and occasionally Steller Sea Lions. 




361 



VIEW POINT: Seal and Bird Rock Picnic Area, 1 7 Mile Drive. 

COLONY: Bird Rock (454 006). 

ACCESS: Via 17 Mile Drive near Carmel, a scenic private road. There is a charge to 

enter and a map showing points of interest is provided. Bird Rock can be 
seen well since it is close to land and coin-operated telescopes are available. 

SEABIRD SPECIES: 



Brandt's Cormorant - This is the principal nesting species at this colony. Large numbers 

of Cormorants are present during summer. 
Western Gull - A few nest on Bird Rock in summer. These and several other gulls winter 

in the area. 
Brown Pelican - Non-breeding birds can be seen here in summer and fall. 
Black Oystercatcher - A few are probably present all year. 

MARINE MAMMALS: 

California Sea Lion - Large numbers haul out on Bird Rock. This is an excellent place to 

see sea lions. 
Harbor Seal - A few are present year-round. They are most likely to be seen hauled out 

on small intertidal rocks. 
Sea Otter - A few are present in the area year-round. 




362 



VIEW POINT : Bird Island Overlook, Point Lobos State Park. 
COLONY: Bird Island (454 009). 



ACCESS: 



Enter Point Lobos State Park four miles south of Carmel off Highway 1 . 
Roads and trails to Bird Island Overlook are clearly marked. State park 
service naturalists offer guided tours, including one to see Bird Island. 



SEABIRD SPECIES: 

Brandt's Cormorant - This is the principal nesting species at this colony. Large numbers 

are present during summer, fewer in winter. 
Pelagic Cormorant - Small numbers nest at several locations in this state park. Sand Hill 

Cove, a short distance north of Bird Island, is a good spot to see this species. 
Brown PeUcan - Non-breeding birds can be seen in the area during summer and fall. 
Black Oystercatcher - A few are probably present all year. 
Western Gull - Low numbers nest in the area. These and other species of gulls winter in 

the area. 

MARINE MAMMALS: 

California Sea Lion - These can be seen at Sea Lion Rocks, a short distance north of Bird 

Island. 
Harbor Seal - A few are present in the area all year. 
Sea Otter - A few are present in the area all year. 




363 



VIEWPOINT: 



Shell Beach 



COLONY: 



Shell Beach Rocks (477 035). 



ACCESS: 



Highway 101 south of San Luis Obispo to Shell Beach. Go to the south end 
of town and take any residential street west to the shoreline. 



SEABIRD SPECIES: 



Shell Beach Rocks are an excellent location for viewing breeding Pigeon Guillemots, 
Black Oystercatchers, and Western Gulls. In 1980 this was one of only two sites in 
CaUfomia where Heermann's Gulls attempted to nest. During summer, fall, and winter 
months, Shell Beach Rocks are used by many Brown Pelicans, Brandt's Cormorants, 
Heermann's Gulls, and Western Gulls for roosting. At low tide more than 100 Harbor 
Seals can usually be easily observed. 





I.U. 



364 



COLONIES: 
ACCESS: 




East Anacapa Island (502 009) and Santa Barbara Island (524 008). 

Access to the Channel Islands is by charter boat from Ventura and Los Angeles, 
California. The waters on the north side of West Anacapa Island are closed 
to boats out to nine fathoms during the nesting season. AU interested 
persons are encouraged to contact the National Park Service for more 
information at : 

Channel Islands National Park 
1699 Anchors Way 
Ventura, CA 93003 
(805)644-8157 



SEABIRD SPECIES: 



A diverse assemblage of marine birds and mammals can be seen in the Channel Islands. 
At present both East Anacapa Island and Santa Barbara Island have trails to accomodate 
visitors. Colonies of Western Gulls can be observed at both islands and breeding Brown 
Pelicans may be observed from boats offshore of West Anacapa Island (502 007). For 
overnight camping, permits must be obtained from the National Park Service. 




COLONY: 
ACCESS: 




Farallon Islands (429 012) 

From San Francisco by tour boat chartered by local natural history groups. No 
landings are allowed. For more information contact: 

Refuge Manager 

San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge 

Box 524 

Newark, CA 94560 

(415)792-0222 



SEABIRD SPECIES: 



Teeming with many thousands of breeding seabirds, the Farallon Islands contain the 
most important seabird colonies of the California coast. Although visits to the islands 
are restricted, a boat is an excellent vantage point to observe the bird life of the Farallones. 



^(^<; 



Appendix C 



Below are listed in alphabetical order the names of seabird colonies listed in this catalog. Names given are as on 
U.S. Geological Survey maps unless they are in quotation marks. Names in quotation marks are of sites which are not 
named on U.S.G.S. maps. These names are either locally used or were assigned by us or previous investigators. 



Name 

Agua Hedionda 

Alameda Creek 

Albion Cove to Navarro River 

Alcatraz Island 

Aliso Creek 

Anacapa Island - East 

Anacapa Island - Middle 

Anacapa Island - West. 

Anaheim Bay and Surfside Beach 

"Anderson Canyon Rock" 

Anderson Cliffs 

Ano Nuevo Island 

Arched Rock 

Hair Island 

Batiquitos Lagoon 

Bay Point Area 

Bench Mark 125 to Timber Cove 

"Bench Mark 227x" 

"Bench Mark 247" 

Bird Island 

Bird Island 

Bird Rock 

Bird Rock 

Bird Rock 

Bird Rock and N.W. San Clemente Is. 

Bird Rock, mainland point across from 

Black Point to Stewarts Point 

Blank Rock 

Bodega Head 

Bodega Rock 

Bolsa Chica Beach 

"Bonee Cliffs" 

Bonita Cove 

Bridgeport Landing 

Brothers, The 

Buena Vista Lagoon 

"Burns Creek Rocks" 

"Button Rock" 

Cap Rock 

Cape San Martin 

Cape Vizcaino 

Cannon Gulch to Stump Beach 

Casket Rock 

Caspar Anchorage 

Castle Rock 

Castle Rock 

Castle Rocks & Mainland 

Cavanaugh Cove to Gunderson Rock 

Cayucas Point, island south of 

"Chadbourne Rocks" 



Colony Lat., Long. Page 

524 004 33O08'45"N, lir^lQ'.WW 322 
429 015 37036"59"N. 122O07"20"W 192 
379 029 39Ol2'30"N,123O46'20"W 136 
429 036 37O49'34"N,122^25"20"W 208 

525 007 33"='30"35"N,117°45'12"W 324 
502 009 34"00'46"N,119°25"26"W 288 
502 008 24°00.19"N,119°23"43"W 288 
502 007 34°00'54"N,119°21'57"W 286 
524 009 33O44'05"N,118°05"34"W 302 
454 016 36O06'58"N,121°36'58"W 224 
379 013 39°52'30"N,123°54"30"W 120 
429 023 37°06'30"N.122°20"09"W 194 
404 006 38O25'53"N,123°07'32'"W 150 
429 016 37°3r43"N.122°13"05"W 192 
524 005 33°05'25"N.117°17"30"W 322 
501016 34O02'N.120°19'W 280 
404 031 38°32'20"N,123°17'W 168 
454 029 36023'2r'N,121°54'13"W 230 
454 036 36O02'N,12I°34'45'"W 234 
429 007 37°49'27"N,122''32'09"W 186 
454 009 36O30'25"N.121°56"33"W 218 
404 010 38°13"49"N.122°59'35"W 154 
454 006 36035'31"N,121°57'59"W 216 
524 010 33O27'04"N.li8°29-04"W 310 
524 012 33O02'N.118°35'W 314 
477 016 35052'37"N,121°26'59"W 246 
404 026 38O40'N,123°25'15"W 164 
325 024 41'-03"15"N,124°09"26'"W 80 
404 038 38Ol8'N,123°03'45"W 176 
404 008 38°17'48"N,123°02'50"W 150 

524 006 33°42'05"N,1 18°03'05"W 304 
379 031 39O07'N,123°42'45"W 138 
429 027 37°49'30"N,122°3rW 198 
379 033 39°03'45"N,123°4r50"W 140 
429 040 37057'47"N,122°26'W 210 

525 008 33Ol0'30"N,117°21'15"W 324 
454 017 36°08'29"N,121°39'28"W 224 
325 054 4lO03'N,124°08'W 100 
325 054 4lO03'N,124°08'W 100 
477 003 35°53'17"N,12P27'55"W 240 
379 002 39043'34"N,123°49'55"W 108 
404 029 38°35'30"N,123°20'30"W 166 
379 009 39O07'49"N,123°43'39"W. 116 
379 023 39O22'N,123°49'10"W 128 
325 006 41043'37"N,124°15'W 66 
501005 34O03'17"N,120°26'17"W 268 
454 010 36°22'35N,121°54'25"W 220 
379 030 39°08'N,123°44'W 138 
477 025 35°26'46"N,120^55'5r'W 250 
379 019 39°37'02"N,123°47'W 124 



Appendix C (Continued) 

Name 

Chiis Rocks 

Collins Landing to Guaiala River 

Coche Pt. to Cavern Pt. 

Cone Rock 

Cooper Point and Islands 

"Cormorant Hotel" 

"Cormorant Rock" 

Coyote Creek 

Coyote Hills 

Davenport to Point Santa Cruz 

Del Mar 

Del Mar Point 

Destroyer Rock 

Destroyer Rock, mainland and rocks east of 

"Devils Basin" 

Devil's Slide Rock and headlands 

Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant South 

Diablo Rock & Adjacent Mainland 

Dillon Beach Rocks 

Dolan Rock 

Double Point Rocks 

"Double Rock" 

"Double Rock Region" 

Duncan Point to Arched Rock 

"Easy Triangle Rocks" 

Eel Rock Cliffs 

"Elephant Rocks Complex" 

Elkhorn Slough 

False Cape Rocks 

False Klamath Rock 

Farallon Islands 

"Fish Rock Cove" 

Fish Rocks 

Flatiron Rock 

Flint Rock Head 

Footsteps Rock 

Fossil Point 

"Georgia Pacific" 

Gerstle Cove to Stillwater Cove 

Goat Island 

Green Rock 

Greyhound Rock to Davenport 

Grimes Point 

Guadalupe Slough 

Guaiala Point Island 

"Guillemot Island Area" 

Gull Island 

Gull Rock 

Gull Rock Area 

"Halfmoon Rock" 

Hardy Rock & Union Landing 

Harris Pt. to Cuyler Harbor 

High Tip 

"Horseshoe Cove" 



Colony 



Lat., Long. 



Page 



379 003 


39°42'5r'N,123°48'07"W 


110 


404 023 


38°46'N,123°32'40"W 


160 


502 012 


34°2'N,119°36'50"Wto 
3'20"N,119°38'45"W 


292 


325 001 


41°58'21"N,124°13'02"W 


62 


454 031 


36°14'55"N,121°50'10"W 


232 


325 056 


40°02'10"N,124^04'50"W 


102 


325 015 


4P08'32"N,124°09'39"W 


74 


429 019 


37°28'41"N,122°02'51"W 


194 


429 017 


37''32'48"N,122°07'28"W 


192 


454 021 


36°58'N,122°07'W 


226 


545 006 


32°33'25"N,1I7°07'48"W 


336 


404 024 


38°15'N,123°31'W 


160 


501 009 


34°36'10"N,120°38'40"W 


272 


501 010 


34°36'N,120°38'26"W 


272 


379 007 


39°10'14"N,123°44'50"W 


114 


429 014 


37°34'28"N,122°31'39"W 


192 


477 030 


35°12'07",120°50'39"W 


254 


477 029 


35°12'36"N,120°51'38"W 


254 


404 009 


38°16'26"N,122°59'ir'W 


152 


454 018 


36°05'06"N,121° 37'02"W 


224 


429 003 


37°56'51"N,122°47'08"W 


184 


325 054 


41°03'00"N,124°08'W 


100 


477 031 


35°11'39"N,120<>50'29"W 


256 


404 037 


38°22'30"N,123°05'W 


174 


325 047 


41°40'22"N,124''08'30"W 


94 


429 031 


37'=24'15"N,122°25'30"W 


204 


404 041 


38°11'N,122°58'W 


178 


454 003 


36° 49'04"N,1 2 1° 46'30"W 


214 


325 040 


40°30'38"N,124°23'40"W 


40 


325 010 


41°35'40"N,124°06'36"W 


70 


429 012 


37°41'53"N,123°00'05"W 


188 


404 022 


38°47'45"N,123°35'20"W 


158 


404 003 


38°48'N,123°35'31"W 


146 


325 023 


41°03'34"N,124''09'39"W 


80 


325 011 


4P31'3r'N,124°05'00"W 


70 


325 050 


41°37'00"N424'^07'10"W 


94 


477 034 


35°10'26"N,120°43'26"W 


256 


379 022 


39°2rN,123°48'45"W 


128 


404 030 


38"33'N,123°18'45"W 


168 


379 006 


39°18'28"N,123°48'49"W 


112 


325 020 


41°04'32"N,124°09'48"W 


78 


429 035 


37°03'N,122°15'W 


206 


454 033 


36°12'20"N,121'=44'15"W 


232 


429 020 


37»28'12"N,122°04'52"W 


194 


404 004 


38°45'04"N,123<^31'42"W 


148 


454 023 


36''31'25"N,121°56'47"W 


226 


524 001 


33°57'01"N,119°49'28"W 


300 


404 035 


38°25'30"N,123°07'10"W 


172 


429 025 


37°52'35'TS[,122°37'W 


196 


325 054 


4r03'N,124°08'W 


100 


379 017 


39''42'20"N,123°38'30"W 


124 


501015 


34°04'N,120°22'W 


278 


379 012 


39°55'30"N,123°57'10"W 


118 


404 028 


38°36'30"N,123P22'10"W 


166 



367 



Appendix C (Continued) 
Name 

Hunter Rocks 

Huntington Beach 

Hurricane Point Rocks 

"Iverson Landing" 

Kibesillah Rock 

La Cruz Rock 

La JoUa 

Lafler Rock & Mainland 

Lake Talawa Beach 

"Larus Rock" 

"Last Chance Rock" 

Limantour Estero 

Lion Rock 

Lion Rock at Point Sal 

"Little Pewetole Rock" 

Little River Rock 

Lobos Rocks 

Lobos Rock & Lands End 

Lopez Rock 

Los Panasquitos Lagoon 

"Luffenholtz Rock" 

Mallo Pass Creek 

Martin's Beach 

McWay Rocks 

Mendocino 

Mendocino Bay 

Millers Point Rocks 

Mission Bay 

Mistake Point to Big White Rock 

"Moat Cove" 

"Molera Rock" 

Morro Rock and Pillar Rock 

"Mr'rp Rock" 

Mugu Lagoon 

Muir Beach Headlands to Tennessee Cove 

Newport Bay 

"Newrport Rocks" 

"North Pismo Beach Rocks" 

North San Diego Bay 

"Northwest Cape Rocks" 

Oakland International Airport 

Old Areata Wharf 

Ormond Beach 

Oso Flaco Lake 

Palmer's Point to Scotty Point 

"Partington Ridge North" 

"Partington Ridge South" 

"Peaked Hill" 

Pecho Rock 

Pescadero Rock 

Pfeiffer Point 

Piedras Blancas 

Pier 45 

Pigeon Point 

Pillar Point 

Pilot Rock 

Pirmacle Point Area 

Pinnacle Rock 



Colony 



Lat., Long. 



Page 



325 002 


41°57'22"N,124°12'4r'W 


62 


525 001 


33°38'43"N,117°59'02"W 


320 


454 011 


36°2r40"N,121°54'25"W 


220 


404 002 


38°50'39"'N,123°38'37"W 


144 


379 004 


39°34'49"N,123^46'51"W 


no 


477 006 


35°42'23"N,121°18'45"W 


242 


545 009 


32°5rOO"N,117°15-S5"W 


338 


454 034 


36°12'N,121°43'36"W 


232 


325 005 


41°50'03"N,124°13"18"W 


64 


477 014 


35°57'44"N,121°29'0r'W 


246 


325 049 


41°38'05"N,124°07'30"W 


94 


404 013 


38°Or52"N,122°55'53"W 


154 


477 011 


35°3rOl"N,120P52'15"W 


244 


501 008 


34°53'55"N,12(f 39'50"W 


272 


325 022 


41°04'N,124°09'W 


78 


325 035 


41°02'08"N,124°07'16"W 


84 


454 025 


36°27'18"NJ21''56'10"W 


228 


429 029 


37°47'15"N,122°30'20"W 


200 


454 020 


36"01'34"N,121°34'46"W 


226 


545 001 


32°55'49"N,117°14'54"W 


328 


325 054 


41°03'N,124°08'W 


100 


379 034 


39°02'20"N,123°41'50"W 


140 


429 033 


37°22'N,122°24'30"W 


204 


454 015 


36°09'46"N,121°40'44"W 


22"> 


379 025 


39°18'10"N,123°47'50"W 


132 


379 026 


39°17'30"N,123°47'40"W 


132 


429 002 


37^58'53"N,122°48'35"W 


184 


545 002 


32°46'42"N,117°13'46"W 


330 


379 014 


39°5r30"N,123°53'30"W 


120 


404 018 


38°53'10"N,123°4rW 


156 


454 030 


36°16'45"N,121°5r30"W 


232 


477 026 


35°22'13"N,120°52'08"W 


252 


325 054 


41 03'N,124°08'W 


100 


502 006 


34°06'08"N419°06'04"W 


284 


429 026 


37°5rOO"N,122°33'45"W 


198 


525 002 


33'^8'46"N,117°53'08"W 


320 


379 021 


39°34'49"N,123°46'51"W 


126 


477 036 


35°08'57"N,120°39'23"W 


258 


545 003 


32°44'N,117°12'W 


332 


404 032 


38°30'40"N,123°15'17"W 


170 


429 011 


37°43'21"N,122°13'46"W 


188 


325 038 


40°50'59"N,124°05'58"W 


86 


502 005 


34°08'13"N,119°10'56"W 


284 


477 037 


35°01'42"N,12CP37'40"W 


258 


325 052 


41°07'N,124°09'W 


96 


454 014 


36°10'06"N,121°41'14"W 


222 


454 035 


36°00'N,121°40'40"W 


234 


404 034 


38°25'45"N,12:f 07'10"W 


172 


477 032 


35'^10'45"N,120°49'00"W 


256 


454 022 


36^33'43"N,121°56'33"W 


226 


454 032 


36°35'18"N,121°47'35"W 


232 


477 007 


35°39'52"N,12I°17'18"W 


242 


429 037 


37°48'34"N,122°25'W 


208 


429 034 


37°10'55"N,122°23'20"W 


206 


429 030 


37°23'N,122°29'55"W 


202 


325 026 


41°03'06'N,124°09'09"W 


82 


454 007 


36°31'25"N,121°57'14"W 


216 


404 039 


38°18'20"N,123°OnO"W 


178 



368 



Appendix C (Continued) 








Name 


Colony 


Lat., Long. 


Page 


Plaskett Rock 


477 002 


35°55'14"N,121°28'41"W 


238 


Plaskett Rock, small rocks and mainland N. and E. of 


477 001 


35°55'16"N,121°28'22"W 


238 


Point Arena 


404 017 


38°57'20"N,123°44'30"W 


156 


Point Arguello 


501011 


34°38'N,120°38'49"W 


274 


Point Bennett, San Miguel Island 


501 014 


34°2'N,120°3'30"W 


276 


Point Bonita 


429 008 


37°48'55"N,122°31'40"W 


186 


Point Buchon 


477 009 


35°15'20"N,121°53'58"W 


242 


Point Cabrillo to Jack Peters Gulch 


379 024 


39°20'N,123°49'W 


130 


Point Conception 


501013 


34°26'54"N,120°28'13"W 


274 


Point Diablo Bluffs and Needles 


429 028 


37°49'30"N,122°29'W 


200 


Point No Pass 


379 011 


39°58'40"N,123°59'40"W 


118 


Point Piedras Blancas, two rocks south of 


477 024 


35°39'30"N,121°16'02"W 


250 


Point Resistance 


429 024 


37°59'55"N,122*'49'40"W 


196 


Point Reyes 


429 001 


37°59'26"N,123°59'24"W 


182 


Point Reyes Beach 


404 012 


38°04'00"N,122°58'47"W 


154 


Point San Simeon 


477 038 


35°38'N,12fl2'W 


258 


Point St. George 


325 057 


41°47'N,124°15'W 


104 


Point St. George Lighthouse 


325 044 


41°50'N,124°22'W 


92 


Point Sur 


454 012 


36°18'22"N,121°53'39"W 


220 


Prince Island 


325 003 


4l''57'04"N,124°12'4r'W 


64 


Prince Island 


501004 


34°03'29"N,120P 20'00"W 


266 


Prisoner Rock 


325 027 


41°03'07"N,124°08'34"W 


82 


"Puffm Rock" 


325 021 


41°04'18"N,124°09'32"W 


78 


Punta del Ano Nuevo 


429 022 


37°07'07"N,122°20'09"W 


194 


"Pup Rock and Adjacent Mainland" 


477 028 


35°13'00"N,120°52'11"W 


254 


"Radar Station Rocks" 


325 051 


41°33'30"N,124°06'00"W 


% 


"Ragged Point Lodge Colony" 


477 022 


35°46'53"N,121° 19'56"W 


250 


Red Rock 


429 039 


37°55'45"N,122°25'50"W 


210 


Redding Rock 


325 013 


41°20'29"N,124°10'26"W 


72 


Redwood Gulch, point north of 


477 017 


35°50'20"N,121°24'04"W 


246 


"Redwood Gulch Rock" 


477 005 


35°49'32"N,121°23'29"W 


242 


Redwood Gulch, Seastack south of 


477 018 


35°49'30"N,121° 23'22"W 


248 


"Rock R" 


325 048 


41°40'00"N,124°08'30"W 


94 


"Rockland Landing North" 


454 037 


36°00'57"N,121°32'30"W 


234 


"Rockport Rocks" 


379 001 


39°44'10"N,123°50'00"W 


108 


Rocky Point 


454 028 


36°24'06"N,121°54'40"W 


230 


Rocky Point 


501012 


34°33'45"N,120°38'11"W 


274 


"Russian Gulch" 


404 033 


38°28'N,123°09'36"W 


170 


"Russian River Rocks" 


404 005 


38°27'14"N,123°08'34"W 


148 


Salmon Creek 


404 007 


38°20'27"N,123°03'58"W 


150 


"Sahnon Creek" 


477 020 


35°48'31"N,121°21'47"W' 


248 


Salmon Creek, arched peninsula south of 


477 021 


35°48'05"N,121°21'14"W 


248 


San Elijo Lagoon 


525 006 


33°00'58"N,117°16'52"W 


322 


San Gabriel River 


524 005 


33°45'12"N,118°06'15"W 


304 


San Miguel Island 


501006 


34°02'32"N,120°22'30"W 


270 


San Nicolas Island 


524 011 


33°14'30"N,119°30'30"W 


312 


San Pedro Rock 


429 013 


37°35'43"N,122°31'20"W 


192 


Sand Hill Cove 


454 008 


36°31'01"N,121°57'01"W 


218 


Santa Barbara Island 


524 008 


33°28'37"N,119°02'03"W 


306 


Santa Clara River 


502 003 


34°14'08"N,119°15'51"W 


284 


Santa Cruz Island 


502 010 




294 


Santa Cruz Island - Kinton Pt. to Diablo Pt. 


502 014 


34°0'30"N,119''53'Wto 
34°3'N,119°45'W 


296 


Santa Margarita River 


525 003 


33°13'57"N,117''24'37"W 


320 


"Santa Maria River" 


501001 


34°58'09"N,120°38'51"W 


262 


Santa Rosa Island, Sandy Pt. to Carrington Pt. 


501007 




270 


Saunders Landing 


404 020 


38°51'13"N,123°30'05"W 


158 



369 



Appendix C (Continued) 



Name 

Schoolhouse Creek to Albion River 

Scorpion Rock 

Scotty Point to Megwill Point 

"Sea Gull Rock" 

"Sea Lion Rock" 

Sea Lion Rock 

Sea Lion Rocks 

Sea Ranch 

Seal Cove to Lost Point 

Seal Rocks 

Seal Rock Cliffs 

"Section 30 Cove" 

Shag Rock 

"SheU Beach Rocks" 

Shell Wright Beach Rocks 

Sister Rocks 

Sisters, The 

Smith and Whaler Islands 

"Snag Rock" 

"Soberanes Creek Rocks" 

"Soberanes Point South" 

Soldier Frank Point 

"Sonoma-Marin County Line" 

South San Diego Bay 

"SpUt Rock" 

Sponner's Cove 

"Sppit Rock" 

Square Black Rock 

Steamboat Rock 

Stewarts Point to Rocky Point 

"Strawberry Cove" 

Sugarloaf Island 

Sutil Island 

Sweetwater River 

"Tepona Rock" 

Terminal Island 

Three Brothers & Hair Seal Rocks 

Tijuana River Mouth 

Tolowa Rocks 

Tomales Point 

"Torre Canyon Rocks" 

Trinidad Bay Rocks 

Trinidad Head 

Triplett Gulch 

"Unmapped Island" 

Unnamed Point 

Unnamed Rock 

Unnamed Rocks 

Unnamed Small Rocks 

Usal Bay 

Van Damme Cove 

Venice Beach 

Wedding Rock 

Westport 

"Whaler Island" 

Wharf Rocks 



Colony 

379 028 
502 010 
325 053 
325 017 
325 018 
325 043 
404 001 
404 025 
524 013 

429 009 
429 032 
404 019 
524 007 
477 035 
404 036 
325 009 
429 041 
477 033 
325 054 
454 026 
454 027 
379 016 
404 040 
545 005 
325 054 
477 027 
502 013 
454 019 
325 042 
404 027 
379 020 
325 041 
524 009 
545 008 
325 054 
524 003 
325 055 
545 006 
325 007 
404 011 
454 013 
325 054 
325 025 
404 021 
477 019 
477 015 
477 004 
477 010 
325 046 
379 015 
379 027 
524 002 
325 016 
379 018 
325 045 
379 008 



Lat., Long. 

39°15'N,123°46'30"W 

34°02'50"N,119°32'47"W 

41°05'N,124°09'W 

41°05'2r'N,124°09'07"W 

41°05'40"N,124°09'49"W 

40°19'35"N,124°21'38"W 

38°55'07"N,123°43'45"W 

38°42'N,123°27'30"W 

32°52'N,118P31'Wto 

32°54'10"N,118^32'20"W 

37°46'42"N,122''30'53"W 

37°23'N,122°25'W 

38°52'39"N,123°40'10"W 

33°29'15"N,119^02'05"W 

35°09'06"N,120''40'11"W 

38°25'N,123°06'W 

41°39'29"N,124''08'47"W 

37°59'22"N,122°26'25"W 

35°09'00"N,120°45'15"W 

41°03'N,124°08'W 

36°27'18"N,121°55'35"W 

36°26'47"N,121''55'35"W 

39°45'18"N,123''50'15"W 

38° 1 7'20"N,123'' 00'20"W 

32°36'N,117°07'W 

41°03'N,124''08'W 

35°16'21"N,120°53'57"W 

34°02'45"N,1 19°43'30"W 

36°04'21"N,121°36'35"W 

40°24'54"N,124°24'09"W 

38°39'N,123°38'45"W 

39°35'37"N,123°47'10"W 

40°26'18"N,124°24'41"W 

33P28'50"N,119°02'50"W 

32°38'30"N,117°06'35"W 

41°03'N,124°08'W 

33°57'30"N,118°27'30"W 

40°19'40"N,124°21'58"W 

32°33'25"N,117°07'48"W 

41°45'15"N,124°14'W 

38°12'13"N,122'=57'39"W 

36°11'25"N,121°42'46"W 

41°03N,124°08'W 

41°03'09"N,124°08'58"W 

38°49'N,123°36'15"W 

35°48'20"N,121°22'26"W 

35°57'00"N,121°28'51"W 

35°S3'05"N,121°27'46"W 

35'*14'40"N,120''53'39"W 

41°42'N,124°08'W 

39°48'45"N,123°50'30"W 

39°16'10"N,123°4r28"W 

33°57'30"N,1 18°27'30"W 

41°08'28",124°09'32"W 

39° 38'00"N,1 23°47' 1 0"W 

41°45'N,124°13'W 

39°07'49"N,123°43'24"W 



Page 

134 

290 

98 

74 

76 

92 

144 

162 

316 

186 
204 
156 
306 
258 
172 

68 
210 
256 
100 
228 
230 
122 
178 
334 
100 
252 
294 
224 

90 
164 
126 

90 
308 
336 
100 
302 
102 
336 

66 
154 
222 
100 

82 
158 
248 
246 
240 
244 

92 
122 
132 
302 

74 
124 

92 
116 



370 



Appendix C (Continued) 

Name Colony Lat., Long. Page 

White Rock 325 008 41°44'46"N,124°13'44"W 60 

White Rock 325 012 41°30'56"N,124°05'06"W 70 

White Rock 325 019 41°05'13N,124°09'33"W 76 

White Rock 379 010 39°05'42"N,123°43'U"W 116 

Wilson Rock 325 058 41°35'45"N,124°06'37"W 104 

Yankee Point 454 024 36°29'29"N,121° 56'41"W 228 

Verba Buena Island 429 038 37°48'34"N,122°22'15"W 208 

"333 Point" 379 032 39°05'N,123°42'30"W 140 

"3 Rocks" 477 023 35°45'06"N,121°19'07"W 250 

"36 North" 477 013 35°58'36"N,121°29'15"'W 246 



371 




I .s. 

KtSHAWILOIJFK- 
SKHVK-K 




DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



As the Nation's principal consen/ation agency, the Department of the Interior has respon- 
sibility for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural resources. This Includes 
fostering the wisest use of our land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife, 
preserving th».environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places, 
and providing for the enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The Department as- 
sesses our energy and mineral resources and works to assure that their development is in 
the best 'interests of all our people. The Department also has a major responsibility for 
American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in island territories under 
U.S. administration.