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Full text of "Catalogue of a Selection from Colonel Leake's Greek Coins, Exhibited in the Fitzwilliam Museum"

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CATALOGUE 



OF A. SELECTION FROM 



COLONEL LEAKE'S GREEK COINS, 



EXHIBITED IS 



THE PITZWILLIAM MUSEUM, 



CHUEOHILL BABINGTON, B.D., r.L.S., 

DISNEY PROFESSOR OF AECH^OLOGV. 



PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 
1867 



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! N D E X. 



Division I. Coins of Kikgs and Uvnasts . . , , 

„ II. „ Asiatic Greece .... 

„ III. „ CONTINETITAL EuROPE (eSOWDISQ ItALy) 

„ IV. „ Europe continued; Italy and Sicily 

„ V. ,, Islands of the Egean, &c. AiTiican Gtreeoe 

KoTE ON THE weights of Greek Coins , . . , 



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CATALOGUE 

OF A SELECTION FROM 

COLONEL LEAKE'S GREEK COINS, 

EXHIBITED IN 

THE PITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 






Sizes of the Coins. 

N.B. Tlie tickets in the glass-case, nearly 
tliG whole of which are written by Col. Leake, 
are placed ahme the coins to which they re- 
fer ; and the following Catalogue is designed 
as much as possible to afford information in 
addition to what they supply. Consequently 
the types and legends are not ordinanly de- 
scribed at length. The denominations of value, 
as stater, tetradrachm, &0. are usually added 
for the gold and silver coins; but the values 
of the copper coins are for the most part 
unknown. These last indeed, to apeak gene- 
rally, appear to be rather tokens than coins 
proper, and so not to be adjusted with accuracy 
to any scale ; the coinages of Italy, Sicily, and 
Egypt offer some exceptions to this remark. 
The whole question, however, of denominations 
and scales is at present in a perplexed and 
uncertain state. The brown tickets indicate 
that the coins below tbem are electrotypes, 
being impressions in most cases of very rare 
or iinely preserved originals. The abbrevia- 
tions AV, EL, AR, AB, which occuu on the tickets 
stand for aurum, electrum, argeatuin, and ^s, 
indi«5ating the metal of which the Coin is made, 
whether gold, electrum, silver, or copper. The 
figures on the tickets refer to the sizes of 
the coins, and are taken from the scale of 
Mionnet which is given above. The weight of 
the gold and silver coins is also added in grains 
Troy ; the weight of the copper (or brass) coins 
beilig in general not given, because coins in 
this metal (which varies somewhat in coins of 
different places) have usually lost more in weight 
than those in other metals. The abbreviation 
K on the tickets is used for the reverse or 
back view of the coin ; B or L often stand for 



ScaU of MionnU. 

"to the right" or "to the left," i.e. to the right 
or left of the spectator. Thus on ticket n. 2. 
"Horseman r" means that the horseman is 
moving toward the spectator's right hand : on 
ticket n. 25, "Head Perseus l" signifies that 
the head is facing towards the left hand of the 
spectator, Ex. is an abbreviation for ewergtie, 
or the lower part of the reverse, which is di- 
vided from the rest by a straight line, or other- 
wise. See no. 60, &c. The open sjRice of a 
coin is called its fields designated f on the 
tickets, see no. 13, &c. ; upon it are often found 
adjuncts *, e. secondary types, or monograms, the 
meaning of both which can only in compara- 
tively few cages be discovered. "When Col. 
Leake's ticket reads "another similar," it indi- 
cates that his cabinet contains another speci- 
men of the same coin ; in such cases a fttJler 
description is added in this Catalogue. In 
printing the Greek legends no attempt has been 
made to imitate the ancient forms of the letters. 
CoL Leake's divisions of coins into classes is 
here followed, though it would have been much 
better if he had simply followed Eckhel, who 
arranges the coins of Kings, not apart by them- 
selves, but in connection with the regions over 
which they reigned. Thus the coins of Mace- 
donia in genere, and the. coins of the various 
cities of Macedonia, are in Eckhel's system, 
now almost universally adopted, viewed in 
juxtaposition with those of the Kings of Mace- 
donia In Col. Leake's Nwmismata Hellenica, 
which is the printed Catalogue of his collection, 
will sometimes be found information, which is 
not contained either on the tickets or in this 
Catalogue. To this, a copy of which is kept in 
tho Library, the reader is referred. 



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FIRST DIVISION. 

Coins of Kings and Dynasts. 
A. Europe. 
1. Kings of Macedonia. 
1 Alexander I. (Reigned about e.c. 

500—454). Obverse. Male figure, 
wearing the Macedonian hat 
(causia) and light cloak (chlamys), 
bearing two spears, walking be- 
hind a bridled horse. Reverse. 
Sunk square, usually called ' quad- 
rate incuse,' including another 
square of four divisions, around 
which is the legend AAESANAPO. 
B. M., on Leake's ticket, indicates tbat the 
original of this very rare piece is in the Britisli 
Museum. If the Alexander of this coin is 
Alexander I. of Macedon, as is generally as- 
sumed, it is the earliest regal coin known to us 
having a legend. Some of the Darics (aee n. 
84 in this selection) may perhaps be as old, but 
they bear no inscriptions. With the types and 
weight of this coin compare one of the Orescii 
in Thrace {n. 96 of European Greece). It is 
difficult to speak with certainty about the scale 
of the old Macedonian coinage before Alexander 
the Great ; many, as L. Muller, consider it to 
be Eginetan, and call n. 10 a didrachm or two- 
dram piece of that scale. Col. Leake however 
seems to have reason to doubt the correctness 
of this view, and rather inclines to suspect it 
to be of the Euboic standard, whose unit (or 
dram) appears to have been from 55 to 57 
grains Troy. (The Eginetan drachma, as de- 
termined from coins of .^gina, is about 95 
grains troy.) In this view n. 10 is a tetra- 
drachm (four-dram piece) and the present coin 
an octodrachm. The octodrachm or eight-dram 
piece is of very rare occurrence, and surpassed 
in weight only by certajn pieces of Athens 
(Europ. Greece, n, 24) and Sicily (n. 75, 128 — 
132 in this selection). In Queipo's view it is 
a hexadrachm of a system which he calls Olym- 
pic ; he recognises also another system, which 
he calls Bosporic, in the Macedonian money 
before Alexander, whose drachmee weigh about 
75, and 57 grains Troy, respectively. (Essai 
sur les systkmes m^triques et mon^taires, Vol. i. 

E, 144. Paris, 1859.) His Olympic may per- 
aps be considei'ed as reduced Eginetan, and 
his Bosporic as Euboic weight. 



It will be observed that the reverse presents 
a transition from the rough incuse of the earliest 
coins (see n. 84 below, and nos. 70, 71, 80, 81 
in Asiatic Greece in this selection) to the later 
coins in which the reverse has a fnliy developed 
type of its own. The termination of the geni- 
tive, O and not OT, seems to be universal 
before the age of Philip IL, in whose reign the 
other form first appeared, as it seems, and be- 
came speedily almost universal, tho ugh lingering 
traces of the older form are found as late as 
Lysimachus. 

2 Archelaus (b. c. 41 3—399) . Perhaps 
a liglit tetradrachm; see previous 
remarks. 

This coin has no legend, hut a similar one 
in the British Museum reads APXEAAO. The 
goat, which gave the name to the Macedonian 
capital jl^te, previously called Edessa, refers to 
the legend of Caranus (see Leake Num. Hell. 
Kings, p. 1), and was the symbol of the Mace- 
donian empire (Dan. viii. 6). The advance in 
art on this coin as compared with the last de- 
serves notice, the types of the obverses being 
nearly similar. 

3 Do., the coin reading APXEAAO. 
Denomination doubtful; possibly 
a tridrachm, more probably a very 
heavy didrachm. 

The youthful head, having the diadera, is 
considered by some to be young Hercules, by 
others to be Apollo. It is not a portrait of 
Archelaus, for no regal portraits appear on coins 
before the age of the successors of Alexander. 

4 AmyntasII. (B.C. 393— 369). Same 
denomination. The original is in 
the British Museum. 

5 Do. Same denomination, but 
lighter. Obv. Head of Hercules 
in lion's scalp to right. Rev. 
AiVlYNTA. Horse to right. 

6 Do. This is among the earliest 
Greek copper coins. 

7 Philip II. (B.C. 359—336). Gold 
didrachm, or stater. (Attic scale). 

8 Do. Do. 

These beautiful gold coins of Philip, which 
had a wide circulation down to Boman times, 
are peculiarly interesting as being the proto- 
type of the early British gold coinage. (See 
British and English coins in this selection, n. 1, 



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&c.) They were worth 20 Attic silver drachms, 
%.e. about 20 francs. 

Scarcely any European gold is earlier 

than Philip II. The head of the obverse is 

most probably Apollo ; the biga, or two-horse 

chariot of the reverse, commemorates Philip's 

Olympian victories. See N'v/m. Hell. (Kings), 

p. 3. The adjuncts (the thunderbolt on n. 7 

and the trident on n. 8) indicate the places of 

mintage on tbe coins of PbUip and succeeding 

kings : the thunderbolt is probably for Pella, 

and tbe trident for Amphipolis. See L. MUller'a 

Monnaies de Philippe II. nos. 1 and 59. 

9 Do. Half-quarter stater. The can- 

tharus is more especially the cup 

of Bacchus, and is often seen in 

his hand. See a yase in case III. 

in this Museum. 

10 and 11 Do. Tetradrachm and di- 

drachm (Euboic scale ?). Both 

struck at Pella. 

12 Do. Copper coin. Ohv. Head of 
Apollo (or young Hercules) to 
right. Rev. Horseman, below a 
monogram. Place of mintage un- 
certain. , 

13 Alexander HI. (B.C. 336 — 323). 
Gold tetradrachm or double stater, 
with the thunderbolt for Pella. 
(MtiUer, n. 4). 

14 Do. Stater. The gold stater or 
didrachm of Alexander the Great 
had an immense circulation, and 
was struck in a great many cities 
both of Europe and Asia, and the 
same may be said of his silver 
tetradrachms (nos. 16, 17). 

L, MUller in his Nurrmmatique d' Alexandre 
Le Grand (Copenhagen, 1855) enumerates be- 
tween 1700 and 1800 varieties of tbe coins of 
Alexander, tbe greater part of which ai'e gold 
staters, and silver tetradrachms, and drachms ; 
differing from each other only in tbe adjuncts; 
from which the place of mintage can sometimes 
be determined. The present coin is n. 633 of 
MiiUer, and is considered to belong to Northern 
Greece, tbe precise place being uncertain. 

16 Do. Quarter stater. The bow 
and club relate to Hercules. 



16 Do. Silver tetradrachm. Ohv. 
Head of Hercules in lion's scalp 
to right. Eev. AAIiSANAPOY 
BA21AE12S, Jupiter sitting on a 
throne. 

Below throne KA ; in tbe field a monogram. 
Struck according to MuUer (n. 7l7) in Northern 
Greece. 

The silver as well as the gold money of 
Alexander the Great is adjusted to tbe Attic 
scale ; tbe gold money only of Philip being so 
adjusted. The Attie drachma properly weighs 
about 67 grains Troy; but the tetradrachms of 
Alexander vary in weight considerably, being 
sometimes heavier, more usually lighter than 
this standard. In the following pages, by tetra- 
drachm, drachma, stater, &c,, tbe Attic tetra^ 
drachm, &c. is intended, the contrary not 
appearing. 

17 Do. Do., reading aaesanapOY 
only. 

The arms of tbe throne of the reverse of 
this rare variety terminate in winged Victories, 
which on some other coii^, has no back but more 
usually a back with plain arms. Tbe figure in 
the iield is bebeved by L. MiiUer to represent a 
dancing Apollo holding the sacred fillet in both 
bauds, being probably a copy of a statue of an 
Apollo in some temple at Sicyon, where this 
coin is considered to have been struck. (MiiUer, 
n, 866, p. 219.) 

18 Philip III. (Aridseus) (b.c. 323— 
316). Gold stater, types those of 
Alexander (n. 14). The AY in the 
field of the reverse indicates, in 
L. MuUer's opinion, that the coin 
was struck in Lycia. [Monnaies 
de Philippe III. n. 96.) 

19 Demetrius Poliorcetes (e.g. 294 — 
287). Tetradrachm, on the ob- 
verse of which is his portrait. The 
Neptime, holding an acrostolium, 
of the reverse, alludes to the 
naval victory gained by his father 
Antigonus and himself over Pto- 
lemy Soter in Cyprus, b.c. 306. 
Very fine work. 

20 Lysimachus (b.c. 286—280). Gold 
stater. Ohv. Portrait of Alex- 
ander the Great, as the young 

1—2 



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Ammon, with the ram's horn. Bev. 

BASIAEJIS AT^IMAXOT. Pallas 

holding avictoiy, seated, liershield 

behind. In the field, torch and 

monogram. 

Struck at Chvyaaoris (i. e. Stratonicea) in 

Caria, according to Miiller, Munsen des Lysi- 

machus, p. 82 (Copenhagen, 1858) ; who refers 

'to this identical coin of Leake, 

21 Do. Tetradrachm, same types, 
but a different monogram. Miiller, 
n. 401, who thinks it was struck 
at Sigeum. Fine work. 

22 Do. Drachma or dram. Types of 
the silver coins of Alexander the 
Great ; the throne of Jupiter has 
no back. 

The lion and crescent in the field perhaps 
indicate that this coin was struck at Cardia in 
Tln-ace, over which country Lysimachus bad 
previously reigned soon after Alexander's death; 
similar adjuncts occur on a coin of Alexander. 
{Miiller, Al^. n. 358, Lysim. n. 19.) 

23 Antigonus Gonatas (b.o. 283—239). 
Tetradrachm. 

The head of Pan, in the centre of the Mace- 
donian shield of the obveKie, allude to the 
defeat of the Qauls at Delphi by Antigonus 
(B-C. 279); that God having been supposed to 
have struck them with a panic. The Pallas of 
the reverse is probably a copy of the archaic 
statue in the temple of Pallas Itonia between 
Larissa and Pherse, for the forked drapery, &c. 
is foreign to the age of Antigonus, and (except 
in cases of affected archaism) peculiai- to the 
early period of Hellenic art. 

Philip v. (B.C. 220 — 178). Di- 
draclim; the original is in the 
British Museum, as is indicated 
by the B. M. of the ticket. 
Do. Tetradrachm. The head of 
the hero Perseus in the centre of 
the Macedonian shield on the 
obverse (who has the harpe or 
hook behind his neck), alludes to 
Philip's assumed descent from 
Perseus; after whom he named 
his son and successor. 



24 



25 



Leake thinks that we have here the por- 
trait of Philip V. as Perseus; but this seems 
doubtful, if we compare this coin with his un- 
doubted portrait on n. 24. 

26 Perseus (b.c. 178—167). Tetra- 
drachm. Ohv. His portrait (of 
beautiful work) to right ; below in 
small letters zniA[OT], standing, 
as is thought, for Zoil us, the artist 
who cut the die. Mev. BA^IAEiiS 
llEPSEiiS- An eagle standing on 
a thunderbolt, enclosed in wreath 
of oak ; in the field a monogram. 

It is not certain that Zoilus was the artist ; 
he may have been a magistrate. At the same 
time the names of magistrates usually occur 
on the reverses of coins, though there are cer- 
tain exceptions to this remark, e.g. coins of 
Apollonia in Illyricum have the names of ma- 
gistrates on both sides. See remarks on n. 15 
of Asiatic Greek coins in this selection. 

2. Kings of Epirus. 

27 Alexander I., son of Neoptolemus 

(u. c. 342—325). Gold stater of 
very fine work, thought to have 
been struck at Tarentum, in Italy, 
which was succoured by Alex- 
ander against the Lucanians and 
Bruttii, about 335 b.c. The oak 
^vreath on the head of Jove shews 
that he is the Jove of Dodona. 
The thunderbolt of the reverse 
may be compared with the coins 
of Agathocles. See Div. iv. n, 137. 
The original is in the Hunterian 
Museum at Glasgow. 

28 Pyrrhus (b.c. 312 — 272). Gold 
drachma. 

This beautiful coin is presumed to have 
been struck at Syracuse about 278 B.C., when 
Pyrrhus was fighting with the Carthaginians 
in Sicily. The type of the obverse resembles 
a coin of Syracuse. See Div. iv. n. 111. 

29 Do. Didrachm. 

The typo of the reverse resembles the gold 
coins of the Bruttii, see Div. IV. n. 1 ; and this 
coin is conjectured to have been struck in their 



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territory, perhaps at Consentia, ■when Pyrrlius 
visited Italy {280 — 274 B.c.) to aid the Italian 
Greeks of Tarentum and other cities against 
Eome. Fine work. 

30 Do. Tetradrachm, of very beau- 
tiful work, thought to have been 
struck at Syracuse. 

A clever forgery of this magnificent coin 
has been executed by Becker. 

31 Do. Drachma, also thought to be 
of Syracuaan work. Compai'e the 
coins of Syracuse. Div. iv. n. 136, 
138. Probably of the Bginetan 
scale, but light ; (Persian, accord- 
ing to Queipo.) 

32 Alexander II. of Epinis, accord- 
ing to Leake. (Began to reign b.c. 
272). Tetradi-achm, Ptolemaic 
scale. 

The attribution of these beautiful coins is 
uncertain. Leake's a.rguments in favor of 
Alexander II. of Epinis may be seen at 
great length in Nvmi. HeU. (Kings), p. 18. 
Against them is the well ascertained fa«t that 
they are principally found in Egypt; and other 
able numismatists, aa Consin^ry, Finder, and 
L. Miiller, think that they were struck in Egypt 
in honour of the deified Alexander the Great 
by Ptolemy Soter. The ram's horn on smaller 
coins of this type (see n. 33) greatly confirms 
the view that we have on the obverse the head 
of Alexander the Great as the young Ammon 
bound with the diadem (see n. 20), clothed 
also mth the elephant's scalp, as the conqueror 
oflndia. The Eeverse,reading A AE5 AN APOT, 
has Pallas Itonia appai'ently (compare il 2S), 
which it is difficult to connect with Ptolemy 
or Alexander the Great, though easy, as Leake 
shews, to explain in reference to Alexander II. 
of Epirue, whose father Pyi'rhus dedicated the 
shields of the Gauls in the temple of Pallas 
Itonia. Notwithstanding upon the whole Mijl- 
ler's opinion seems most probable ; and it may 
be added that Pallas Itonia occurs on Bactrian 
regal coins. (See n, 89.) Miiller calls her sim- 
ply Athene Promachos. 

33 Do. Drachma. Types nearly as 
before, but the comti Ammonis 
appears on the head of Alex- 
ander. Scale as before. 



3. Dynasts of Paeonia. 

34 Patraus. (Contemporary with 
Philip 11. or nearly so.) Perhaps 
a tetradrachm of the Greco- Asiatic 
scale. See nos. l and 2. 

The Macedonian shield in the hand of the 
fallen foe, shews that Patraus is earlier than 
Alexander, who reduced Pieonia to submission 
B. c. 335. He seems to be unknown to literary 
history; Leake thinks he is "contemporary 
with or earlier than Phihp IL" 

He cannot be much if at all earlier, as the 
genitive of his name ends in OT on his coins. 
See remark at the end of n. 1. 

35 Audoleon. (Began to reign pro- 
bably about B.c. 350, was certainly 
reigning B.c. 310). Same denomi- 
nation. 

The monogram of the reverse, AT, may be 
for the commencement of his name. 

B. Kings of Asia. 
1. King of Ada. 

36 Antigonus (b.c. 311—301), Tetra- 
drachm ; fine work. 

The typo of Neptune on the obverse and of 
the galley on the reverse seem to allude to his 
■victory over Ptolemy Soter in 306. See n. 19. 

2. Sdeiteidae, or Kings of Syria. 

On the obverses of this beautiful series of 
regal coins we very generally have portraits 
of the reining sovereign. ITie reverses relate 
principally to the worship of Jupiter and Apollo, 
sometimes also to Pallas, the Dioscuri &c. From 
the reign of Antiochus III. downwards the 
larger silver coins are usually dated; the era 
being that of the Seleucidte, which commenced 
in the autumn of 312 B. c. when Seleucus and 
Ptolemy Soter defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes 
at Gaaa. 

37 Seleucus I, (Nicator) (B.a 312 — 
280). Gold stater. The original, 
formerly in the Duke of Devon- 
shire's collection, is now in the 
British Museum. 

All the gold coins of the Seleucidse are 
excessively rare ; strangely contrasting in that 
respect with the plentiful gold coinage iS Philip 



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Kings and Dynasts, Asia. 



and Alexander. The genuineness of all the 
gold octodrachms (see n. 46) in this series has 
been doubted, but without sufficient reason. 

38 Do. Tetradrachm of the same 
type as Alexander's, on both sides. 
(See a 16.) 

Lysimachus also, in his earlier coinage, 
copied the typ^ of Alexander : see n. 22. 

39 Do. Tetradrachm, but of different 
types. 

The anchor in the field of the reverse was 
the signet of Scleuciis I. and occurs frequently 
on corns of the Seleucidae, from whence it 
passed over to the coins of the Jews under 
the Maccabees, He adopted it in consequence 
of a vision in which his mother appeared to 
him (Appian. Syr. 58). 

40 Do. Copper coin. Obv. Head of 
Pallas. Rev. BASlAEfiS 2EAET- 
KOT. Victory crowning the name 
of Seleucus ; before her an anchor. 

41 Antiochus I. (Soter) (B.a 280— 
261). Tetradrachm. 

On some few coins with this type and 
portrait Antiochus is styled Soter. The cortina 
(curtain) drawn over Apollo's tripod is seen 
also on many other coins of this series. 

42 Antiochus II. (Theos.) (b.c. 261 — 
246). Tetradrachm. 

There is great difficulty in assigning many 
coinswhich oalyread BASlAEIiS ANTIOXOT 
or BASIAEQS 2EAETKOT to their proper 
owners ; the portraits being the principal gnides, 
and uncertain ones withal. This coin, remark- 
able for its winged diadem, which is attributed 
by Leake to Antiochus II,, is by other numisma- 
tists considered to belong to Antiochus Hierax, 
his younger son. 

43 Seleucus II. (Callinicus) (b.c. 246 
—226). Gold stater. 

44 Do. Tetradrachm. 

45 Seleucus III. (Ceraunus) (d.c. 226 
— 223). Tetradrachm. 

46 Antiochus III. (Magnus) (b.c. 223 
. — 187). Gold octodrachm. 

The original of this almost unique coin 
was in the Pembroke collection, and it was 
considered to be genuine by Mr. Burgon, It 



fetched however, together with a tetradrachm 
of the same king, only £7. 12s. Sec Pembroke 
Catalogue, p. 24il. 

47 Do. Gold stater. 

Mr. M. Eorrell has noted respecting this 
specimen, "Poor, but appears genuine," See 
remarks on n. 37. 

48 Do. Tetradrachm, 

The monogram in the field which reads 
into T. T. P. shews that this coin, like many 
others of the Seleucidie, was struck at Tyre. 
The date AP i.e.. 104 of the SeleucidK = 208 
B. c. when this coin was struck. 

49 Seleucus IV. (Philopator) (b.c. 
187—175). Tetradrachm. 

50 Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes) (b.c, 
175 — 164). Tetradrachm of rare 
type (having the head of JoTe) 
and beautiful work. 

Antiochus Epiphanes is the first of the 
Seleucidse, who styles himself God upon his 
coins ; some succeeding monarchs as Demetrius 
II., Cleopatra (mother of Antiochus VIII.), 
Demetrius III. and Tigranes followed his ex- 
ample. This act in itself would make him 
appear peculiarly odious to the Jews, of whom 
be was the relentless persecutor. 

51 Do. Tetradrachm of the ordinaiy 
types bearing his portrait, and a 
representation of the JoVe of 
Olympia by Phidias on the reverse. 

Antiochus IV. caused a copy of the Olym- 
pian Jove to be executed of the colossal size of 
the original, and to bo placed at Daphne. 

52 Do. Copper coin, of unusually 
large size. 

The types, style, and size of this piece are 
similar to many copper coins of the Ptolemies. 
There can be no doubt that Antiochus struck 
it in Egypt in one or other of bis four cam- 
paigns in that country (l7l — 168 B.C.). 

53 Antiochus V. (Eupator) (b,c. 164 — 
162). Tetradrachm, (Attic, but 
light). 

This king was only nine years old at bis 
accession, and was murdered by Demetrius two 
years afterwards; the artist who engraved this 
rare coin has made him appear like a grown 
man. 



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54 Demetrius I. (Soter) (b.o. 162— 
150). Tetradrachra. Ohv. Por- 
trait of the king wearing his 
diadem, within a \\Teath. Rev. 
Seated female to left holding in 
her right hand a wand, a horn of 
plenty in her I'ight ; on both sides 
of her in three lines BASlAEllS 
AHMHTPIOT SliTHPOS (King De- 
metrius the Saviour) ; in exei^ue 
ASP (Year 161 Sel. i.e. 151 b.c.). 

This fine coin is from tlie Thomas collec- 
tion. 

55 Do. Copper coin (with animal 
types). 

These serrated coins appear to he of copper 
only, and are tolerably frequent in the series 
of the Seleucidse, but scarcely, it is believed, 
occur in any other. The Romans however had 
serrated denarii, which, as Tacitus informs us, 
were known to the Germans and used by them. 
The attribution of the copper coins of the 
, Seleucidse to their true owners is peculiarly 
uncertain, unless they are accompanied by 
portraits; three kings bearing the name of 
Demetrius reigned at no long intervals from 
each other. 

56 Alexander I. (Bala) (B.a 150— 
146). Fine tetradrachm. 

57 Antiochus VI. (Dionysus) (b.c. 146 
— 1 37). Tetradrachm. 

The TPT. in the field stands for Tryphon, 
who was chief minister of his father Alexander 
Bala, and brought the son forward as a claimant 
of the crown against Demetrius Nicator. The 
OP is 170 Sel. *.e. 142 B.C. 

58 Do. Drachma. Ohv. Head of 
Antiochus VI. radiated (in the 
character of Apollo) to r. Bev. 
Apollo seated on his cortrna to 
r, nolding bow and arrow. Same 
legend, with a monogram : in ex- 
ergue OH. ST A. 

59 Tryphon. (b.c. 142—139). Tetra- 
drachm. Obv. King's portrait to 
r. Rev. Macedonian helmet, an 
ibex horn projecting in front; 



on the body of the helmet are 
ornamentations (eagle and winged 
lion apparently, in circular com- 
partments); the cheek-piece has a 
thunderbolt for ornament, in the 
field a monogram. Electrotype 
from the original in the Hunterian 
Museum at Glasgow. 
Tlie silver tetradrachms of Tryphon, the min- 
ister and murderer of Antiochus VI. are among 
the rarest in this series, only about four or five 
being known. The Pembrake specimen, now 
in Gencrsd Fox's cabinet, fetched £130. 

60 Demetrius II. (Nicator) (b.c. 146 
— 125, with interruptions). Tetra- 
drachm, dated lEP, 167 Sel. i.e. 
145 B.C. 

61 Antiochus VII. (Euergetes, or 
Sidetes) (b.c. 137— 128J. Tetra- 
drachm. 

62 Do. Tetradrachm, with type of 
, Tyre on reverse. (See Div. ii. n. 

109. Tyre). Date ZOP, year 177 
Sel. i.e. 135 B.C. Scale Ptolemaic. 
Not only is the eagle &c, the same as on 
the Tyrian tetradrachms, but a monogram end- 
ing in the club of Hercules reads T, T. P. and 
another monogram reads A, S. T. for offuXos 
(/tfl inviolable. P.E.A. in two lines is for lepa 
the sacred. Coins of the Seleucidte struck at 
Tyre and Sidonare mostlyof the Ptolemaic scale; 
nearly all the rest are Attic, hut often light. 

63 Demetrius II. Ketumed from 
captivity b.o. 129. Tetradrachm. 
Date 184 SeL i.e. 128 B.C. 

The head of the obverse, called on the 
ticket Jupiter, though with a mark of doubt, 
is more usually considered to be the portrait of 
Demetrius himself, bearded, after .his return 
from, captivity, and CoL Leake himself in the 
Nwn. Hell. (Kings), p. 32, adopts this view, 

64 Alexander II. (Zebina) (b.o. 128— 
122). Tetradrachm. 

65 Do. Serrated copper coin. 

The attribution must be regarded as un- 
certain (see remarks on n. 55). The copper 
coins ascribed to Alexander Bala have the. 
same legend, and on one of them is a head of 
Bacchus, as here. See Num. Bell. p. 28. 



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Kings and Dynasts, Asia. 



66 Cleopatra, mother of Antioclms 
VIII. (Reigned alone, b.c. 125). 
Tetradrachm, dated ZHP. 187 Sel. 
i.e. 125 B.C. 

The ©BAS ETETHPIAS of the reverse 
taken in connection with the veil of the por- 
trait shews that Cleopatra is represented in the 
character of Ceres, ss goddess of Abundance. 
The type of the reverse is Egyptian (see nos. 
99, 100), as is not unnatural, Cleopatra being 
daughter of Ptolemy VL (Philometor). The 
original of this most rare coin, now in the 
British Museum, fetched at Lord Northwick's 
sale £240. 

67 Cleopatra and Antiochus VIII. 
(Grypus) (b.c. 124 — 121). Date 
189 Sel. z. e. 123 b.o. 

From the Pembroke collection, where it 
fetched £13. 

68 Atttiochus VIII. (Reigned alone, 
B.C. 121 — 96). Tetradrachm of 
very fine work, and in perfect 



The fiiat letter of the date is "off the coin" 
in the exergue of the reverse, in consequence 
of the &va of the coin not having teen suf- 
ciently spread out to contain it; S P (190) being 
the only letters whose tips are visible;, con- 
sequentlythe coin, though lying between 122 and 
112 B.C., cannot be dated more precisely. 

69 Do. Tetradrachm, struck at Tar- 
sus, bearing on the reverse the 
representation, as is generally sup- 
posed, of the tomb of Sardana^ 
palus, who was buried there. 

This type occurs on the coins of Tarsus 
(see Div. n. nos. 98—100), but its meaning 
is uncertain. It seems to be a sepulchral 
monument, but Leake tries to shew, Num. Hell. 
(Asia), p. 128, that it is probably not the tomb 
of Sardanapalus. 

70 Antiochus IX. (Philopator or Cyzi- 
cenusXB.c. 125 — 95). Tetradrachm 
with bearded portrait. 

71 Antiochus X. (Eusebes). (b,o.95 — 
83, or thereabouts). Tetradrachm 
of rather rough work, as those of the 
Seleucidee now most usually are, 
as well as of light (Attic) weight. 



72 Antiochus XI. (Philadelphus) (b.c. 
95). Tetradrachm of rough work. 

73 Philip (Reigned about B.C. 94 — 84). 
Tetradrachm. . 

The execution of this coin, though rather 
coai'se, is much better than Philip's usual coin- 
age, which is often quite barbarous. 

74 Tigranes (b.c. 83—69). Tetra- 
drachm, struck at Antioch in 
Syria. 

The king's portrait on the obverse has the 
tiara of Armenia, of which country he was also 
king. The figure of the reverse represents the 
Fortune or City of Antioch, as a woman setting 
her foot on the river Oontes (personated by- 
a boy swimming). For further remarks see 
the coins of Antioch (Div. il. nos. 5 and 6). 

3. Princes of Jadcea. 

75 Alexander JannEcus (b.o. 105 — 78). 
Obv. " Jonathan the High Priest 
and the Confederation of the 
Jews" in Samaritan character with- 
in a wreath. Bev. Two horns of 
plenty and a poppy-head. 

The coins previously given to Jonathan 
Maccabteus are now generally assigned to Alex- 
ander JannEens (Madden's Jemish Coinage, p. 



76 Herod the Tetrarch (Antipas) 

(B.C. 4— A.D. 39). Date AZ, 37. The 
date is probably his regnal year, 
and is the same as that of the 
Christian era, which begins four 
years too late. 
This coin, like most or all of the other coins 
of Herod Antipas, was struck at Tiberias, a 
city founded by him near the lake of Gen- 
nesareth, in honour of Tiberius (Madden's Jew- 
ish Coinage, p. 98). 

77 Herod Agrippa I. (a.d. 37 — 44). 
OJrv. EAClAEiiC [ArPfflA] around 
an umbrella, a symbol of regal 
dignity. Rev. Three wheat-ears 
springing from one base ; in field, 
the date g-, or year 6, i.e. 41 a.i>, 
(Madden's Jewish Coinage, pp. 
104—106.) 



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This coin, formerly given to Agrippa II., is 
now assigned to Agrippa I. (' Herod the King,' 
Acts xii.). 

4. Kings of Bithynia. 

78 Nicomedes II., son of Prusias II. 
(B.C. 149—91). Olw. His portrait 
(with diadem) to right. Bev. ba- 
Sl AB£12 Eni<J>AN0T2 NI KOMH- 
AOT. Jupiter crowning the name 
of Nicomedes ; in his left hand a 
sceptre, with eagle before him : 
near his feet a monogram, and the 
date ES, 205. Eemarkably fine; 
formerly in the Devonshire cabi- 
net. 

The era on the coins of the Kings of Bi- 
thynia is the same as that of the Kings of 
Pontus, and commenced 297 B.C. The present 
coin was consequently struck 92 RC. 

5. Kings of Fergamus. 

79 Uncertain king. Tetradrachm. 
Obv. Head of PhiletJcrus. Rev. 
*IAETAIP0T, Pallas seated, with 
spears shield, and bow. 

The kingdom of Pergamus was founded by 
PhilctEGrus, keeper of the treasures of Lysima- 
chus, in 280 B.C., who held it till 203 B.C. ; it 
lasted tdl 133 B.C., when Attains HI. left it to 
the Romans by -will The legend of the kings 
of Pergamus is always 't>lAETAIPOT, and 
the portrait is nearly always the same ; so that 
the coins have never been assigned satisfactorily 
to any of the kings ; though some of them have 
the monogram of Eumenes, of whom there are 
two. 

80 Uncertain king. Do. The same 
types and legend, but the portrait 
differs. 

This is presumed by Leake to be the por- 
trait of Attalus XL, the legend notwithstanding. 
Num. Sell. (SuppL) p. 7. 

6. Kings of Galatia. 

81 Amyntas (contemporary of Cicero). 
Tetradrachm. Obv. Head of Pallas 
to right. .K^u. BASIAEI12 AMTNTOT. 
Victory moving to left, holding 
sceptre with ribbons. 



Compare the coin of Side. Div. II. n. 84 

7. Kings of Pontus and Bosporus 

82 Mithradates the Great (Eupator) 
(B.C. 120— 63). Tetradrachm of the 
finest work. Obv. Head of Mithra- 
dates VI. to rigiit, the diadem 
visible above. Rev. BASIAEiiS 
MI@PAAATOT ETHATOPOS. Stag 
feeding ; star and crescent before 
it. In field two monograms and 
date BKS, 222^75 b.c. The 
whole enclosed in a wreath of ivy 
leaves and berriea 

83 Ehescuporis III. (contemporary of 
Caracalla). Stater of Electrum or 
pale gold, dated Ai*, year 511 

= 214 A.D. 

The kings of the Bosporus and their dates 
are known to us in great measure from their 
coins. Some are as late as the fourth Century. 
" La taille de ces monnaies est fort remarqua- 
ble, puisqu'elle n'appartient ^ aucun des sys- 
tenies connus." Qtieipo table xu,, who further 
remarks on their affinity with the Cyzicene 
staters, which seem to have been the gold cur- 
rency of the Bosporus. This coin weighs nearly 
half a Cyzicene stater. See Div. ii. n, 21. 

8. Kings of Persixj,. 

84 Uncertain king. Ohv. King as 
archer, to right. Rev. Oblong 
punch-mark, with shapeless im- 
pression. — The Daric. 

The Daric is commonly said to be so called 
after Darius son of Hystaspea {B.C. 521 — 485), 
though it may be derived with at least equal 
probability from a Persiau word, signifying 
king. It seems to have been coined by the 
Persian monarchs for circulation over their own 
dominions and over Greece proper, while the 
empire lasted. The heads differ somewhat on 
different specimens, and some ingenious rather 
than successful attempts have lately been made 
in France to recognize in them portraits of the 
different Persian kings. 

This coin is usually thought to be intended 
by 'dram' in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah; 
if so, it is the only coined money named in the 
Old Testament, the shekels, &c. being only 
weights. For the scale see note at the end, § 4. 



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Kings and Dynasts, Asia. 



85 Same types in silver. — The Ary- 
andic, or unit of the Persian scale. 

Aryandes, the Persian governor of Egypt, 
is said to have imitated the gold Daric of 
Darius, son of Hystaspes, in silver ; a piece of 
presumption, whicli cost him his life, according 
to Herodotus. It was notwithstanding adopted, 
and like the Daric had a very wide circulation ; 
being still commonly met with in Asia Minor. 

86 Uncertain king, probably Arta- 
xerxesll. (Mnemon)(B.c.40o— 359). 
Obv. Portrait of the king, in a 
cap with flaps. Bev. BAXlA. and 
Lyre. 

This is considered by Col. Leake (Wum, 
Hell. Kings, p. 53) to offer a portrait of Arta- 
xerxes I. (Longimanus) (B.C. 465 — 425); but Mr 
Newton prefers to regard it as a portrait of the 
second king of that name. In either case, it is 
the earliest portrait which occurs on a coin. It 
is far from certain however that it is a portrait 
at all ; coins of Lampsacus have a very similar 
head. See Div. ii. n. 51, 52. (The latter is 
doubtless Bacchus.) 

9. Kings of Jiaetriana. 

This kingdom was made independent of 
the kings of Syria about 255 B.C. by Diodotus, 
governor of Bactra (Balkh). We have in the 
series of Bactrian coins a number of kings 
(Greek, Indo-Scythic, &c.) down to Mahom- 
medan tim^, some of which are only known 
to us by their coins. Their chronology is to 
some extent conjectural only. Wilson's Yiews 
inMs Ariana AnUqua are here mostly followed. 
See also Nwnism. Chron. for 1857. Vol. xix. 
p. 13. 

87 Buthydemus. (Began to reign 
about 220 B.C.). Tetradrachm. 

He may he considered the founder of the 
greatness of the Bactrian kingdom. His son 
Demetrius married a daughter of Antiochus 
the Great. 

88 Eucratides (b.c. 180 — 150, more or 
less). Tetradrachm. 

A Macedonian helmet, similar in form to 
the one here woi-n by Eucratides, was found a 
few years ago in the bed of the river Zab. 

89 Menander. Reigned about 1 25 
B. c. Tetrobol, apparently ; (hemi- 
drachm, according to Wilson). 



The Arianian legend of the reverse is, Ma- 
harajasa Tadarasa Minandasa. 

90 Do. Square copper coin, having 
the same Greek and the same 
Arianian legend as the preceding. 

The square coins, both in silver and copper, 
are almost peeuhar to the Bactrian scries. 

91 Azes. (Reigned probably about 
50 B.C.) Tetrobol, apparently. 

The Arianian legend of the reverse is, Ma- 
harajasa Makatasa Ayasa. The coins of this 
king are extremely numerous both in silver 
and copper. 

92 Kadphises. (Reigned probably 
about 90 A. D.) Double stater or 
gold tetradrachm. 

The figure alongside the Indian bull on 
the reverse is Siva. The king's dress, as seen 
on this and the following coin, shews that he 
is of Tartar or Scythian race, who notwith- 
standing encouraged the native religion of 
India. 

93 Do. Copper coin. 

This coin is curiously re-struck (recusus). 
The Greek legend of the obverse (around Kad- 
phises, standing) ought to be BACIAETC 
BACIAEliN [CXiTHP MEFAC OOH] MO 
KAA$ICHC, but the letters between brackets 
ai-e obliterated by nine Arianian letters, be- 
longing to the reverse of a similar coin. Simi- 
larly on the reverse the Greek letters AETC 
BACIAEil appear among the Arianian letters, 

94 Kanerkes. (Reigned probably in 
the second or third century a.d.) 
Copper coin. 

The name and figure of the Sun on the 
reverse, and the fire-altar on the obverse of 
this and the preceding coin shew that these 
Indo-Scythian kings had adopted the Persian 
fire-worship, as well as the Indian supersti- 
tions. 

C. Africa. 
Kings of Egypt. {Lagidai.) 

95 Ptolemy I. (Soter) (b.c. 323—285). 
Gold pentedrachm, (five-dram 
piece.) 

The serpents, by which his ^gis (or deco- 
rated cloak) is confined round the neck are. 



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seen before and behind. The scale of the coins 
of the Ptolemies is termed La^d by Queipo, 
but it scarcely differs from the early Macedonian 
money adjusted to a scale, which he calls Bos- 
poric, and wMch Leake suspects to be Euboic. 
See n. 1. Queipo makes the Lagid drachma 
3,54 grammes (=54,6 grains Troy); and the 
Bosporic drachma 3,71 grammes (= 57,2 grains 
Troy). 

96 Do. Gold hemidraclim. 

97 Bo. Silver tetradrachm with the 
title of Sotei*, and various letters 
in the field. 

This coin being undoubtedly , of the first 
Ptolemy helps to fix the attribution of other 
coins, which read only nTOAEMAIOT BA- 
CIAEIIC, having a similar portrait. 

98 Ptolemy It (Philadelphus) {b. c. 
285—247.) Gold octodrachm. 

This remarkable coin gives on the obverse 
the portraits of Ptolemy Philadelphus and his 
wife Arsinoe, with the legend AAEA*liN, 
brother wnd sister, ArsinoS being also his sister: 
the reverse gives portraits of their deceased 
parents, Ptolemy Soter and Berenice, who are 
styled gods (0EfiN). The portrait of Ptolemy 
Soter on this coin may be compared with nos. 
95 and 97- The original of this electrotype is 
in the British Museum. (Ool. Leake has acci- 
dentally written the description on an niico- 
loured ticket.) Some consider this coin to 
have been struck by Ptolemy III. in honour of 
his predece^ors ; but it seems more likely to 
have been executed by order of Ptolemy II. 

99 Arsinoe, sister and wife of the 
preceding. Silver decadrachm 
or ten-dram piece. 

The flower at the top of her head is pro- 
bably the lotus. The reverse gives the double 
horn of plenty, or BiKepwi, a vessel invented 
in her honour as goddess of plenty twice-told. 
{AthenEeus p. 497). As respects the legend, 
0IAAAEA*OT is an adjective agreeing with , 
APSINOHS, not a substantive depending 
upon it. 



100 Do. Gold octodrachm. 
typea 



101 Ptolemy III. (Euergetes.) (b.c. 
247—221.) Gold octodrachm. 

The obverse appears to indicate that Pto- 
lemy Euergetea assumed the attributes of 
three divinities, as he wears the regis of Pallas, 
(whence issues a serpent,) holds the trident of 
Poseidon, (the central prong of which is orna- 
mented with the lotus,) and in fine wears on 
his head the radiated a'own of Apollo or the 
Sun. 

102 Berenice II., wife of Ptolemy III. 
according to Leake. Gold hemi- 
drachm, Attic scale. 

It is not certain to what Berenice this rSre 
little coin should be assigned. Col. Leake 
purchased it at the sale of the Pembroke 
collection for the somewhat small sum of 
£5. 2s. Qd. Mr Burgon {Pemh. Cat. j>. 273) 
thinks that the doin was struck in Syria "in 
consequence of the weight being adjusted to 
the Attic and not the Ptolemaic talent." The 
coin now weighs nearly 33 grains, and is there- 
fore half the Attic drachma, whose full weight 
is computed by CoL Leake to be 67, 5; where^ 
as the Ptolemaic drachma must have weighed 
about 54 or 55 grains. Well preserved tetra^ 
drachms of Ptolemy Soter weigh about 220 
grains (see n. 97, and Compare the weights of 
the gold octodrachms which sometimes reach 
about 429 grains.) "The stars would point to 
Tripolis as the place of mintage, where the 
Dioscuri were preeminently the tutelary divi- 
nities." (Burgon.) See Biv. ii. n, 105 (Tripolis). 
On some of the gold octodrachms of ArsinoS, 
which are certainly Hot adapted to the Attic 
talent, we have the club and monogram of 
Tyre. 

103 Ptolemy V. (Epiphanea) (b. a 206 
— 181.) Gold octodrachm. 

For the two stars, see remarks on the pre- 
ceding coin, 

104 Ptolemy XII. (Dionysus) (b.c. 51 
— 47). Silver didrachm. 

From the Pembroke collection, where it 
fetched £6. 12s. 6d. 

105 Cleopatra, sister of Ptolemy XII. 
(B.O. 51—30). Tetradrachm, of 
base silver, adjusted to the Attic 

2—2 



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talent, as debased in Roman 
times. 

The place of mintage of this curious piece 
is untnown ; but it was most likely not in 
Egypt ; more probably in Asia. Cleopatra ap- 
peared in public, as Plutarch tells us, in the 
character of the New Isis ; which explains the 
legend of the obverse, 0EA NEOTEPA. The 
legend of the reverse, ANTaNIOC ATTO- 
KPATiiP TPITON TPIHN ANAPilN, is 
the Greek rendering of Antonius Imperator 
III, Triumvir. Thus, as Col. Leake observes, 
this coin was struck B.C. 35, when Cleopatra was 
in her Sith year, and Mark Antony about 53 
years of age. Perhaps this coin gives as faith- 
ful a portrait of Cleopatra as is known, but 
she has been unfortunate in her artists. The 
lunar epsilon and sigma are early examples of 
their kind. 



106 Do. A denarius, and properly 
belonging to the Roman scries of 
coins. 

Portraits of Cleopatra and Mark Antony 
as before, and of better execution, but that of 
Cleopatra is on a very smah scale. The legends, 
as Leake remarks, prove that the coin was 
struck after Antony s return from Armenia, 
B.C. 34, when he and Cleopatra publicly in- 
vested one of their sons with the attributes of 
King of Armenia and Media, and the other 
with those of King of Phenicia, Syria, and 
Cilicia. On the legend of the obverse, Filio- 
rum Regum must be taken in apposition with 
the preceding Regum, so that Cleopatra styles 
herself Queen of kings, who are sons of kings 
(i. e. of herself and Antony). For the Arme- 
nian tiara behind the head of Antony, com- 
pare n. -■ ""■ 



107 Do. Copper coin of herself only. 

This coin is evidently by its fabric one of 
the Egyptian series. With the three portraits 
of Cleopatra here given may be compared 
T)iv, II, n, 106 (Tripolis), on the obverse of 
which, as many think, Antony and Cleopatra 
are represented in the characters of the Dios- 
curi ; it has unfortunately suffered a good deal 
by circulation. 



DIVISION II. 

Asiatic Greece. 

1 Abydos ? Hecta or sixth part of 
the Cyzicene stater, generally sup- 
posed to be struck at Abydos. 
Ohv. Head with curved horn. 
Rev. Eagle. No legend. 

This coin, as well aa No, 4 and Nos. 72 — 
78 in this division, and n. 41 in Div, III, were 
found in a supplemental cabinet of Col. Leake, 
which contained various other coins of doubt- 
ful attribution, or in an unsatisfactory state of 
preservation. They are not described in the 
Nii/mii^mata HeUemca, and the tickets accom- 
panying those which are here exhibited are 
written by the author of this catalogue. 

2 Aradus in Phenicia, (Arvad of the 
Old Testament, now Ruad). Te- 
tradrachm. 

The PKP of the reverse is the date, 123. 
The era of Aradua commenced B. C. 259, when 
its independence was probably guaranteed by 
a treaty between the kings of Syria and Egypt, 
Consequently the present coin was stntck B, C, 
136. Below the date is a Phenician letter, 
and below that two Greek letters whose mean- 
ing seems to be unknown. The turreted and 
veiled head of the obverse is probably a per- 
sonification of the city (compare the coin of 
Antioch, n. 5, Seleucia, n. 82, Sidon, n. 86, and 
Tripolis, n, 105). 

3 Do. Drachma. Oiv. Bee, and 
two monograms. Itev. APAAJiiN. 
Stag and palm-tree. 

The types on both sides are the same as 
those of Epbesus (see n, 25) ; and the coin 
was most probably struck there indicating an 
alliance between Aradus and Ephesus, 

4 Do? Octodrachm. Obv. King in 
chariot of oriental style ; his cha- 
rioteer in front, an attendant be- 
hind on foot. Jtev. Galley and 
Phenician letter. 

These fine coins are thought by some to 
be struck at Aradus, and during the time of 
Persian supremacy over Phenicia; or between 
the age of Darius son of Hystaspes and that 
of Alexander the Great (b,c. 521—336), The 



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Asiatic Greece. 



17 



galley and Phenician letter appear to indicate a 
coast-town o£ Phenicia The scale is Phenician, 
or Bosporic {ie. Enboic) ; see helow Div. v. no. 69. 

6 Antioch of Syria, of Augustus. 
Tetradrachm of reduced Attic 
scale, apparently. (Bosporic, ac- 
cording to Queipo. 

The obverse gives a good portrait of Au- 
gustus, and the reverse is the fortune or city 
of Antioch personified (a woman setting her 
foot on the neck of a swimming hoy, who sym- 
bolises the river Orontes. Comp. Div. i. n. 
74). This was the composition of Entychides 
of Sicyon, and the statue was contained in a 
temple (■nr^etbi') which is seen in n, 6. The 
same composition, a little varied, is repeated 
on the reverses of imperial coins of other cities 
of Asia, e. g. Samosata and Tarsue. See K. 0. 
Miiller, Andent Art and its Remains, § 158. 
The legend of the reverse, ET0T2 HK Nl- 
KHS, "the 28th year of the victory," refers 
to the battle of Actium, the Actian era cofh- 
mencing B.C. 31. Tho present coin was there- 
fore struck B.C. 3 (or, as Leake says, B.C. 4). 
The THA IB refers to the 12th consulship of 
Augustus ; and the ATT. to the autonomy of 
Antioch, TIIA, and ATT. being expressed in 
monograms. Queipo thinks that no coins of 
Antioch are adjusted to the Attic scale; an im- 
probable hypothesis, seeing that the kings of 
Syria struck nearly all their money thereby. 

6 Do. of Trebonianus Gallus and 
Volusian (a.d. 251—254). See 
preceding remarks. 

S. C. in the exergue is for Senatus Con- 
sulto ; the legends of the coins of Antioch 
being often partly in Latin, partly in Greek; 
as well as in Greek only or in Latin only. The 
meaning of AE "cannot be readily explained." 
(Leake). 

7 Alexandria in the Tread, Tetra- 
drachm. 

The AnOAA£lNOS ZMIQEnS of the 

reverse indicates the statue to be that of 
Apollo Sminthcus (for the orthography see 
Leake, Num. Hell.) who destroyed the rats 
with his arrows. AAESAN. of the exergue 
is for AAESANAPEHN, which occurs at 
length on other coins of this city, and PMA 
in the field is the date 141. Leake thinks that 
the era dates from the fall of Antigonus, B.C. 



300, and that the date of this fine and rare 
coin is consequently B.C. 159. 

8 Antioch of Caria, of Gallienus 
<A.D. 253—268). Obv. AT. K. 110. 
rAAAIHNOC. Bust of the Em- 
peror Gallienus to I. lim. En. 
APX. A<t>. ANTlOXEilN, i.e. when 
Aphrodisius was archon. (See 
N-wm. Hell.) The river Mieander 
personified as a recumbent figiire 
on a bridge ; behind him is a man 
walking; to the left are arches 
with a square superstructure (pos- 
sibly of an aqueduct); below the 
arches of the bridge the river 
flows rapidly ; fishes are seen be- 
low. — Large brass. 

The bridge of the Mieander at Antioch of 
Caria, mentioned by Strabo, was on the great 
eastern road from Ephesus. See Leake for 
details. 

9 Aspendus in Pamphylia. Ohv. 
Two wrestlers opposed. Rev. 
eSTFEAI1T[2] being the Famphy- 
lian form of the name Aspendus. 
Slinger discharging his sling. In 
the field a triscelium; below ^, 
and a wild goat, as countermark 
below. Persian didrachm. 

For the language of the legend, see Leake. 
The triscelium (or three-leg-piece) occumng 
also on the coins of Sicily, and in modern 
times on those of the lale of Man, may pro- 
bably be a religious symbol ; it does not seem 
to have been explained. The countermark is 
the stamp of some other state to make the 
coin pass current there; Leake observes that 
it resembles the Cretan wild goat. 

10 Bithynian Confederation in the 
reign of Hadrian (a.d. 117—138). 
Ohv. Portrait and titles of the 
Emperor Hadrian. Rev. Temple 
of eight Corinthian columns, with 
KOINON across the field, in ex- 
ergue BE10TNIAC. 
Confederations for religious and political 
purposes, perhaps based on earlier ones, ex- 
isted in many parts of Asia in imperial times. 
With these various oiBcers were connected ; 



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e.g. the Kotvov 'Atria?, or Commune Aaiie (i. e. 
Proconsular A^ia) liad its Asiarchs and its 
Higti-Prieats of Asia ; and similarly the Com- 
mune Bithynia: had its Bithynarclis. The 
temple may be supposed to represent (conven- 
tionally, probably} the sacred building em- 
ployed by the Confederation. The metal of 
this coin is yellow brass, which is by no means 
usual, 

11 Byblus in Phenicia, of Macrinus 
(a.d. 217, 218). Obv. Portrait 
and titles of the Emperor Macri- 
nus. Bev. lEPAC BTBAOT. Tem- 
ple of eiglat columns, sunnounted 
by a tall pyramid; behind it a 
square enclosm-e or portico ; (the 
temple of Venus and burial-place 
of Adonis) ; on the left is a tem- 
ple (of Isis) of two columns, at 
the entrance an altar. 

See Leake, Num. Hell., and Donaldson's 
Archit, Nv/fnism. p. 105, n. 30. 

12 Cibyra in Phrygia, of Macrinus. 
Medallion of unusually large size. 

The era of Cibyra commenced a.d. 24!, the 
year after an earthquake. The date 193 thus 
corresponds to 217 -A-D. The sacred casket 
{ici0QjTi';) on the head of the priestess is said 
to be connected with the name of the city. 

13 CEGsarea of Cappadocia (prius 
Mazaca), of Trajaa (a.d.98— 117.) 
Double denarius. Obv. ATT. KAl. 
NEPOTAC TPAIANOC CEBAC. 

PEPM. Head of Trajan to right. 
Rev. rnAT. AETT. {ie. Cos. II,) 
Statue of Apollo on the summit 
of Mount ArgEeus. 



Trajan's second consulate was A.D. 98, 
when this coin was struck. Mount Argjeus, at 
the base of which the city lay, was regarded, 
according to Maximua Tyrius, aa a deity. The 
name of the city is omitted on many (not all) 
of its coins, but the type removes all doubt as 
to the attribution. 

14 Clazomente of Ionia. Gold coin 
of very fine work. 



This coin seems to be the third part of 
the stater of Phoca;a, which weighs about 254 
grains. 

15 Do. Tetradrachm of very fine 
work, with the same types of 
Apollo and the Swan; but with 
©EOAOTOX EnOEI ("Theodotus 
made it") on obverse. 

The number of coins which have a legend, 
distinctly stating who engraved the coin, is 
very small indeed. Another example is a coin 
of Cydonia in Crete, NETANT02 EHOEI. 
But there is a larger number which have 
proper names in small letters, which are usu- 
ally thought to be the names of the artists. 
See Div. l. U. 26, &c. The reverse of this coin 
doubtless had KAAZO, but it is "off the 
coin," the metal not being sufficiently beaten 
out. 

16 Do. Very early coin. 

' The weight of this coin is singularj and it 
may possibly be a very light didrachm of the 
Euboic scale,- Mt Burgon remarks that its 
weight is half the gold stater of the same place, 
which differs from the Oyaicene. {ThoTnas 
Catalogtte, p. 296.) Early Asiatic gold and sil- 
ver coins rarely, it is believed, belong to the 
same scale. 

17 Do. Hemidrachm; (Attic scale); 
types in 14 and 15, 

18 Cnidus of Caria. Drachma. Obv. 
Head of Venus to right, hair in a 
knot behind: behind the neck a 
monogram. Rev. KNI. TEABA2. 
(magistrate's name.) Head and 
foreleg of lion. 

Venus, who was especially worshipped at 
Cnidus, is commonly placed on its coins. 

19 Cyme of ^olis. Tetradrachm of 
fine work. 

The adjunct, a vase of peculiar form, on 
the reverse occurs frequently either as a pri- 
mary or secondary type of coins of Cyme, but 
hardly anywhere else. 

20 Do. of Tranquillina, wife of Gor- 
dian III. (She was reigning a.d. 
241.) Obv. *OTPIA TPANKTA- 



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19 



AEINA CEB. Her portrait. Eev. 
E. ATPH. ACKAHniAAOT PP. 
(ypa/j./j.aTe(a^) KTMAIIiN (the last 

four letters in the field.) The 
Ephesian Diana, half-stags at her 
feet. See n. 30, &c. 

This coin weU iltusti'ates Acts xix. 27. 
"The great goddess Diana... whom all Asia 
and the world worshippcth." Her image also 
occurs on coins of Acrasus in Lydia, of An- 
cyra in Phrygia, &c. The town-clerk is a 
functionary mentioned on various other coins 
of Asia, e. g. Ephesus. See Acts xix. 35. 

21 Cyzicus of Mysia. Stater of elec- 
trum or pale gold, the alloy of 
silver being about one fourth. 

The Cyziceno staters are mentioned by 
Demosthenes and others, and were reckoned 
equal to 28 Attic silver drachmae ; their norma! 
weight being about 248 grains. Their types 
ai-e various, hut the tunny fish is generally 
present, as here : they are almost always with- 
out legends. 

22 Bo., according to Leake. The 
third part of the Cyzicene stater. 

Countermarks occur on the face and edge 
of this coin, which however seems not to have 
been struck at Cyzicus; the quadrate incuse 
of the reverse is very different, and resembles 
that of Sardes, n. 80, 81, which has moreover 
in part the same type. It is impossible to 
speak with certainty of the place of mintage 
of many of these early uninscribed gold and 
olectrum coins. 

23 Do. Hecta, or sixth part of the 
Cyzicene stater. 

The attribution of this coin to Cyzicus may 
be considered certain, as the tunny fish occurs 
upon it. 

24 Ephesus of Ionia. Very early 
silver coin, drachma (Greco-Asia- 
tic scale). 

The Muses in the guise of bees led a co- 
lony from Athens to Ephesus, according to 
Philostratua and Himerius. 

25 Do. Attic Drachma. Ohv. Bee be- 
tween Eff. Rev. NIKOAOXOS 



(magistrate's name) : stag and 
palm-tree. 

The stag was sacred to the Ephesian Diana, 
and sometimes is represented at her feet both 
on coins of Ephesus and elsewhere. See n. 20. 

36 Do. Didrachra (Greco-Asiatic) of 
beautiful work. Ohv. Head of 
Diana (quiver behind). Rev. 
E*. nTOAroPAS. (magistrate's 
name), bee, and half-stag. 

The Diana of the obverse is the true Ar- 
temis, who was strangely identified both by 
Greeks and Komans with the many-breasted 
Asiatic deity of fecundity, who was worshipped 
at Ephesus especially and also very widely 
throughout Asia. See n. 20. 

2T Ephesus of Ionia. Cistophorus. 

The Cistophorus is mentioned by Cicero 
and other ancient writers. It is a tetradrachm 
of the " Greco-Asiatic" (Queipo) (or " Rhodian" 
Pinder) scale, whose unit or dram is three 
fourths of the Attic scale, so that the Cis- 
tophorus would pass for an Attic tridrachm in 
countries where that scale prevailed. It is a 
coin peculiar to the kingdom of Pergamus, or 
(as it afterwards became) the Roman Procon- 
sular Asia; the era of which began, B.C, 133, 
when Attalus III. bequeathed his kingdom to 
Rome. The present coin being dated 53 was 
consequently struck B.C. 80. The types of the 
Cistophorus refer to the mystical worship of 
Bacchus; the obverse has the mystic chest, 
from which a serpent emerges ; the reverse ha^ 
two serpents with an object between them 
which on the heat executed specimens is seen 
to be a bow-case; butit is usually only very par- 
tially represented. This is also an attribute of 
Bacchus. In later times the Romans modified 
the type (n. 28), or retained the denomination 
and abolished the type. This very interesting 
class of coins has been made the subject of an 
ample monograph by M. Pinder (Ueber die 
Oistophoren und iiher die Kaiserlich&n Silber 
medailhns der Romischen Provim Asia, Berlin, 
1856, from which some of these remarks were 
derived. See Nos. 28, 30, 31, 54, 68, 104 in 
this Division. Whether the Greco-Asiatic scale 
be identical with what was anciently termed 
the Rhodian, or (as Queipo thinks) its half only, 
seems uncertain. 



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28 Do. Cistophorus. Ohv. m, anto- 

NIVS IMP. COS. BESIQ. ITKR. ET. TERT. 

Head of Mark Antony within an 
ivy-wreath. Mev. iii vir e. p. o. 
{i.e. Triumvir Reipublicaj consti- 
tuendse). Mystic cista between 
serpents; above it the head of 
Octavia. Struck before b.c. 34. 
(Eclchel VI. 65. Find. t. 2. f. 1.) 
For other portraits of Antony, see Div. i. 
Nos. 105 and 106. 

29 Do., according to Leake. Di- 
drachm, or double denarius of Nero 
(a.d. 54 — 68) of base silver. Obv. 
NEPnNOC KAICAPOC I'EPMANI- 
KON. Young bust of Nero to 
right. Eev. AIAPAXMON Simpu- 
lum and lituus. (Augur's sacri- 
ficial vessel and staff.) 

The place of mintage, though not named, 
is probably Ephesus. (See Finder, p. 577.) This 
is one of the very few coins on which the deno- 
mination is inscribed. In imperial times the 
drachma was defeased to the level of the dena- 
rius, so that this is in fact a double denarius. 

30 Do. of Claudius (a.d. 41—54). 
Cistophorus medallion. 

31 Do. of Hadrian (a. d. 117—138). 

32 Do. of Septimus Severus (a. d. 
193__2ll). Large brass. 

With the Ephesian Diana, as seen on these 
three coins, compare that seen on n. 20. 

33 Do. of Trajanus Decius (a.d. 249 
251). Small brass. 

The reverse has the river-god, Cayster, re- 
cumbent, and bearing his name. River-gods 
are commonly represented as holding a reed 
in one hand, and having by their side an urn 
from, which water flows. 

34 Do. of Gallienus (a.d. 253—268). 
Middle brass. 

The legend of the reverse E*ECinN A. 
NEllK.OPnN impUes that Ephesus was ap- 



pointed temple-warden {veatKcpo';) of the empe- 
rors for the fourth time, an honour conferred on 
csus only, whence the legend on a coin of 
' ' E*ECIilN MONJiN AHACIiN 
TETPAKIC NEflKOPilN. Ephesus is called 
in Acts xix. 35, worshipper (temple- warden) of 
Diana, which is illustrated by an Ephesian coin 
of Caracalla and Geta reading B^ECION 
TPIC NEOKOPliN (sic) KAI THC APTE- 
MIAOC. The type of the reveise, which 
Leake scarcely understood, is Fortune holding 
the Ephesian Diana, in allusion to the pro- 
sperity of the city as depending on her goddess. 

35 Do. of Do. Small brass. 

The Diana of the reverse is not the Ephe- 
sian Diana, though the two were identified. 
See n. 26. Greek imperial coins (i. e. which 
have an emperor's head on one side, and which 
are in fact the Greek coinage of the empire) 
terminate with the reign of Gallienus, to speak 
generally, (The Num/mi Alexandrmi are a 
notable exception to this remark.) 

36 Erythrse of Ionia. Olympic drach- 
ma. Ohv. Male figure holding horse. 
Eev. Ftdl-blown flower in quad- 
rate incusa, in the angles EPT0. 

The weights of the coins of Erythrse of 
about this size vary very considerably. See 
the following coin, and Leake's N. Hell. 

37 Do. Bosporic drachma, appa- 
rently. 

The principal types on both sides (head 
in lion's scalp, and club and bow-case) refer to 
Hercules ; the owl on the reverse to Minerva, 
his patron- goddess. Their temples at Erythne 
are mentioned by Pauaanias. See Leake, N. H. 

38 Do. Copper coin, with the same 
principal types. 

39 Do. Copper coin. 

The BPT@PAI of ohv. indicates that the 
turreted bust is meant for the city personified. 
The ' beacon-fire,' as Leake calls it, of the re- 
verse is curious. 

40 Eucarpeia of Phrygia, of Sep- 
timus Severus (a.d. 193 — 211). 
Large brass. 

The usual representation of Health, feeding 
a serpent from a saucer {<ptaKii). 



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41 Mausolus, satrap of Halicarnaa- 
sus (B.C. 377—353). 

42 Hidrieua, satrap (b,c. 351 — 344). 

43 Pixodams (b.o. 341—335). 

The types of these coins of these satraps 
or tyrants of HalicamassuB are the same. Oov. 
Head of Apollo or the Sun seen in front. Mem. 
Jove holding sceptre and double axe (Xd^pvi). 
About their denominations it is less easy to 
speak ; the weights seem to agree beat with 
what Qnoipo calls the Bosporic scale. Brandis 
however calls their scale Hhodian ; Queipo 
regards it a« "attique, quolque aiFaihh en 
gknkral." 

44 Heliopolis of Ccele-Sjria, of Sep- 
timius Severus (a,d, 193 — 21 1 ). 
Middle brass. 

The reverse shews the great temple of Ju- 
piter at Baalbec seen in perspective. Like 
the other beautiful buildings still standing 
there it seems to be of the second century 
after Christ. On the Upper part of the coin 
are to be seen traces of I. O. M. H. (which 
Leake has omitted) i. e. Jovis Optimi Maximi 
Heliopolitani. These letters, according to Ses- 
tini, occur frequently on the coins of the city 
from Sept. Severus onwards. 

45 Timotheus and Dionysius, tyrants 
of Heraclea in Bithynia, in the 
time of Alexander the Great. 
Olympic didrachm. (Weight 
omitted by Leake. Lord North- 
wick's specimen, which fetched 
£16, weighed 146 grains.) 

The head of the obverse with a thyrsus 
behind is probably of a Bacchante, (not of 
Bacchus, as Leake says), 

46 Shekel of Simon Slaceab^us 
struck at Jerusalem (b.c. 144 — 
135). Obv. Shekel Israel (in Sa- 
maritan characters), i. e. The she- 
kel of Israel. A cup: above it 
two letters for Shenath SJiethaim, 
i. e. year 2. Rev. Jerushalaim, 
ha-hedoshah, i.e. Jerusalem the 
Holy. A triple lily. 

About B.C. 139 Antiochus VII. granted to 
Simon liberty to coin money with his own 



stamp (1 Mace xv. 2 — 9). These shekels are 
now almost universally considered to belong 
to Simon, and the numerals to refer to the 
years of his Coinage. The type of the obverse 
baa been very frequently taken for the pot of 
manna, and that of the reverse for Aaron's 
rod that budded ; but against this view see 
Madden's Jewish Coinage, pp. 48, 49. More 
probably both types are simply a cup and a lily, 
and express the prosperity of Judiea ; compare 
the expression of 0. T. " my cup shall be full ;" 
"Israel shall bloom like a hly" (Hos. xiv. 5). 
The coin is in fact a tetradrachm of the 
Ptolemaic (" Lagid," Queipo) scale ; Josephus, 
by a slight inaccuracy, identifies the shekel 
with the Attic tetradrachm. De Saulcy, Num. 
Jud. p. 25. 

47 Ilium in the Troad. Tetradrachm. 

The reverse gives a representation of" Mi- 
nerv-a Lias, whose temple was at New liium, 
The threads hanging down from her distaff 
may be noted. Formerly in the Pembroke 
collection, now in that of Gen, Fox. 

48 Jewish copper coin of Augustus. 
Quadrans or farthing (St Mark 
xji. 42). 

The date h. A®, year 39, is probably the 
year of Augustus, which began, according to 
Censorinus, Jan. 1, 727 (b.c. 27); in which 
case this coin was struck A.D. 12, when M, 
Arabivius was procurator. This and the two 
following coins are of the class which are sup- 
posed to he struck by the procurators. See 
Madden's Jewish Coinage, pp. 134 — 138, 301. 

49 Similar coin of Tiberius. Far- 
thing. 

The date of the coin ,17, is a.d. 30, which 
was therefore struck when Pontius Pdatc was 
procurator or governor, who held office A.D. 
25—35. 

60 Similar coin of Nero. Farthing. 

The year 5 of Nero, or A.D. 58, when this 
coin was struck, is the last year but two of the 
procuratorship of Claudius Felix. 

51 Lampsacus in Mysia. Gold di- 
drachm. 

The head may possibly be that of Arta- 
xerxes Mnemon. See Div. 1. n. 86. 

52 Do. Tetradrachm. 



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The typo of the reverse is Apollo 
i.e. Conductor of -the Muses, in a long robe, 
holding the lyre and plectrum. He was so 
represented at Actium in bis temple, and Eckhel 
thinks that this coin was struck in reference to 
the victory of Augustus over Mark Antony 
at Actium, rc. 31. The date of the coin can 
hardly be very much earlier, as appears by the 
lunar sigma and efsilon. Compare a coin of 
M. Antony and Cleopatra, Div. i. n, 105. 

53 Laodicea in Syria. Tetradrachm 
of Bosporic scale, according to 
Queipo. 

Jupiter holding a Victory occurs on the 
reverse of coins of the Seleucidse. See Div. i. 
n. 50, 56, &a It is sometimes difficult to 
distinguish the Bosporic and the reduced Attic 
scales. See n. 82, and remarks on coins of tho 
SeleucidaB, Div. i. p. 9. 

64 Laodicea in Plirygia. Cistopliorus. 

(See n. 27.) 

55 Do. Cistopliorus medallion of Ha- 
drian. Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS 

p. p. His head to right. Sev. cos 
III. Jupiter of Laodicea holding 
eagle and sceptre, as on coins of 
Laodicea in Phrygia. (Figured in 
Finder's Cistoph. t. viii. f. 1, whence 
the defects in Leake's description 
are supplied.) Hadrian was con- 
sul for the third time a.d, 119, 
and so remained ever afterwards. 

56 Lehedus in Ionia. Tetradrachm, 
of fine work. 

57 Magnesia in Ionia. Tetradrachm. 

58 Do. Do., same types, but with a 
different magistrate's name. 

The beauty of the draped bust of Diana on 
the obverse and of the figure of Apollo on tlic 
reverse of these coins can hardly be exaggerated. 
The original of n. 57 was in Lord Northwick's 
collection, at whose sale it realised the extra- 
ordinary sum of £265. No. 58 is in tho British 
Museum. 

The symbol of the Mseander, near whose 
banks this Magnesia was built, is also used for 
other rivers, and occurs frequently as an orna- 



ment of Greek vases, as may be seen by tho 
collection in this Museum ; in modern art it is 
sometimes called the key-ornament. 

59 Mallus in Cilicia. Double Ary- 
andic, or didrachm of Persian 
scale. 

Evidently struck imder Persian influence ; 
see Div. I. nos. 84, 85. "These coins of Mallus, 
are strong indications that it was the principal 
sear-port of the Persian government in Cilicia, 
prior to the time of Alexander," (Leake.) 

60 Miletus in Ionia. Didrachm, of 
Greco-Asiatic scale. Obv. Lau- 
reated head of Apollo to left. 
Mev. Lion looking back at a star. 
Ml in monogram (Miletus); in 
exergue EpriNOS. 

The temple of Apollo at Branchidse near 
Miletus explains the type of the obverse. 
The lion and star refer to the sign of the 
Zodiac ; similarly a ram looks back at a star 
on coins of Antioch in Syria. 

61 Mopsuestia in Cilicia, of Valerian 

(A.D. 253— 260). First brass. Obv. 
ATT. K. OTAAEPIANOC CGB. 
Head of the Emperor Valerian 
to left. Eev. Five-arched bridge 
over the Pyramus; under each 
arch a letter of the word AliPEA; 
on the bridge a river-god reclin- 
ing, a gate at each end. AAP. 
MO^'EATXiN rKT(323 of the Pom- 
peian era = A.D. 250); in excise 
HTPAMOC. 
(Legends taken from Leake, JV. ff. Suppl. 

p. 69 ; but the date seems to be KT, i.e. 320 

= A.D. 253). 

The word Smpe^ seems to indicate that 

Valerian built this bridge over the Pyi-amus; 

in the following century Constantius built 

another. 

62 Myrhina in .^olis. Tetradrachm. 
Ohv. Head of Apollo to right. 
Mev. MTPlNAinN. The Grynean 
Apollo sacrificing; in his right 
hand, saucer (phiale) ; in his left, 
branch with pendent fillets ; in th& 



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field a cantharus and the cortina, 
and a monogram ; all within 
wreath. 

Apollo'e temple at Grynium was about sis 
miles from Myrina. 

63 Nacrasa in Lydia. Small brass 
com. Ohv. OEON CTNKAHTON 

(sc. ^ iroki.'! TLixa). Head of the 
Roman Senate personified, to 
right. Rev. NAKPAClTfiN. The 
Ephesian Diana and Stags. 
See remarks on n, 20 and nos. 30 — 32. 

64 Nagidus in Cilicia. Didrachm 
(Persian scale). 

-65 Do. Do., fine work. 

Eckbel thinks the type of the reverse is 
Jupiter rather than Bacchus ; if so, one may 
suspect the reverse, to be intended for Juno, 
ieake calls it " Venus crawned, like Juno." 

66 Neapolis in Samaria (now Nab- 
lous), of Macrinus (a.d. 217, 218). 
Obv. [ATT. K. M.] on. CE (Opelius 
Severus) MAKPliSTOC ceo. Head 
of the Emperor Macrinus to right. 
Bev. c&A. (Flavise) NEAC. nOAEilC 
CT[PIAC]. Mount Gerizim ; upon 
it a temple of Jove of four 
columns ; at the foot of the moun- 
tain a portico, from whose centre 
steps rise to the summit; on a 
peak of the mountain a smaller 
temple. 

' The Sarnaritan temple, built about 334 B.C. 
in honour of Jehovah, on Mount Gerizim, was in 
the time of Antiochua Epiphanes consecrated to 
Jupiter, lest the Samaritans should suffer perse- 
'cutionlike the Jews. It waa destroyed by Hyr- 
canus; but Damascius speaks of a temple of 
Jupiter there at a later period. It was probably 
'built not very long after the destruction of Jeru- 
salem, as it is represented on- coins of Hadrian 
And later emperors. The city called itself I'la- 
-vian in honour of Titus and Domitian. 

67 Perga in Pamphylia. Tetradrachm. 

The goddess on both sides of this coin is the 
Artemis of the Greeks, whom they identified 
with the Diana of Perga; she is represented 



however on other coins of Perga as a veiled 
statue with a modius on the head. The same 
identification was adopted as regards the 
Ephesian deity. See nos. 26, 30 — 32, and re- 
marks. 

6 8 Pergamum,or Pergamus, in M ysia. 
Cistophorus. 

One of the monograms reads IIEP. for 
Pergamus ; the other is for IIPTT. (Prytajiis), 
followed by BA, (the first letters of his name). 
The cistophori of Pergamum are much more 
common than those of any other city, and 
somewhat more numerous. 

69 Do. Small copper coin. 

The Pergamus of the obverse must be a 
magistrate, whose name coincided with that of 
the city ; which was said to have a hero Per- 
gamus (IlepYa/iO! KTMrrjj! on coins) for its 
founder. 

70 PhocEea. Stater of electrum, or 
pale gold. 

The PhocEsan staters a^e mentioned by 
Thucydides and Demosthenes, but they are 
now among the rarest of Greek coins ; they are 
of purer gold and about six grains heavier than 
the Cyzicene staters (see n. 21). Staters of 
Phocsea and their Hectte (sixth pai-ts) are also 
named in an inscription of the British Museum. 
The Phoca or seal occurs as the type of the 
stater, and the secondary tvpe of its hecta 
(no. 71). 

71 Do. Hecta of the stater, adjunct 
a seal. 

72 Do. Uncertain hecta, probably 
of Phocaea, as there seems to be 
a trace of a seal to the left of 
the bearded head. 

73 — 78 Uncertain hect^ of Asiatic 
cities, some of very beautiful work; 
all uninscribed. 

The accompanying tickets are by the com- 
piler of this catalogue; the coins were not 
included by Leake in his Numismata Hellenica 
in consequence of their uncertain attribution. 
A great number of them are figured as mmtmi 
aurei incerti by Sestini in his Bescriz. dsgli 
Stateri antichi. (Fir. 1817.) They appear to 
be of the fourth and fifth centuries b, c. (those 



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24 



Asiatic Greece. 



■with tlie quadrate incuse on the reverse being 
the oldest), and to helong to cities on or near the 
■west coast of Asia Minor. They are all about 
size 2 (or rather less), and weigh about 40 
grains. 

79 Sardis in Lydia, according to 
Leake. Hecta of the stater. 

Omphale, daughter of Jardanus, king of 
Lydia, wore the club and lion's skin of Hercules, 
while he \inder the influence of Love handled 
the distaflf. Omphale so attired occurs on one 
inscribed coin of Sardie ; hence the attribution 
of the present coin. 



Gold coin probably ad- 
justed to the Babylonian talent, 
but equivalent to the Attic di- 
drachm. 

This coin appears to be the original shekel 
of Phenicia, thence derived to Lydia. The 
heads of the lion and bull facing bespeak an 
oriental origin. 

81 Do. Silver coin of the same types, 
but of a lower weight. Siclos of 
Xenophon. 

This is the drachma or unit of the Persian 
silver scale of Queipo, and like the Aryandic, 
(Div. I. n. 85) weighs about 84 Troy grains. 
Though called o-ikXw (i-e. shekel) by the Greeks, 
the original Phenician or Babylonian shekel, 
the monad of Egypt, was equivalent to the 
Attic cUdrachm. See Leake's note (in Num. 
Hell.) on the Weights of Greek coins. Both 
this and the preceding are among the earliest 
coins known, and may probably be of the time 
of Crcesns (B.C. 560—546), or thereabouts. 
Those in silver are tolerably common ; the gold 
pieces are extremely rare. No. 22 may, it is 
suggested, be a coin of Sardis ; the form of the 
quaHrate incuse being also similar. 

82 Seleuceia in Syria. Tetradrachm, 
perhaps of Bosporic scale. 

The type of the thunderbolt on a table 
refers to a legend that Scleucus Nicator was 
guided by lightning to the site of his new city. 
See Leake, M. H. For the scale, see n. 53. 

83 Selge in Pisidia. Persian di- 
drachm. 



This coin much resembles another of As- 
pendus (no. 9). 

84 Side in Pamphylia. Tetradrachm. 

There can be little doubt that this and 
other similar coins were struck by Amyntas, 
king of Galatia, who must consequently have 
been master of Pamphylia also. See Div. I. n. 81. 

85 Do. Silver coin with Palmyrene 
legend. Persian didrachm. 

This coin appears to be adjusted to the 
Persian scale, being double the weight of the 
Aryandic. (Div. i, n. 85.) The saucer in the 
hand of the sacrificing figure is the ^lakt] ofi- 
tpaXtorm, the boss being clearly visible in itB 
centre. 

86 Sidon in Phenicia. Tetradrachm 
of Ptolemaic (Lagid) scale. 

The autonomy of Sidon dates B.C. 110, after 
the straggles and reconcihation of Antiochus 
IX. and Antiochus X, The present coin, there- 
fore, dated AH or 81, was struck B.C. 29, 

87 Do. of Elagabalus (a.d. 218—222). 

Tlie type of Astarte (Ashtaroth) occurs fre- 
quently under various forms on the coins of 
Tyre, Tripoiis, and Sidon. 

88 Smyrna in Ionia. Grold stater. 

The authenticity of the original of this 
unique piece (in the Biblioth^iue Nationale at 
Paris) has been doubted. It represents a statue 
of Nemesis dedicated by the Prjiianes. The 
obverse represents, according to some, Oybele; 
according to others, the Amazon Smyrna. 

89 Do. Tetradrachm of fine work. 
The legend ZMTPNAIIIN forSMTPNAI- 

HN is frequent on the coins of Smyrna. 

90 Do. Do., without the lion on re- 
verse, very fine work. 

91, 92 Do. Small copper coins. Obv. 
OMHPOC. Homer seated, hold- 
ing a stafi* in one hand and a 
book in the other. Eev. CMTP- 
NAmN in wreath. 
Coins of Colophon and Chios have hkewiso 

representations of Homer similar to the present. 

Salamis, Rhodes, Argos and Athens also claimed 



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25 



Homer as their own ; of which however, it is 
believed, their coins shew no signs. Hia head 
is represented on coins of lus (one of the 
Cyclades), where he was said to be buried, and 
of Amast.ris io Paphlagonia, for some unknown 
reason; see Div. v. n. SI. 

93 Do. of Sevenis Alexander (a.b. 
222—235). First brass coin. Obv. 

A. K. M. CE. AAESANAPOC . Head 
of Sev. Alexander to right. Bev. 
CMTPNAinN nPilTUN ACIAC T. 
NEHK. TliN CeB. ell. C. nOAEI- 
TOT. Heads of Sev. Alexander 
and his mother Julia ManiEea op- 
posed; the former radiated (as 
the Sun), the latter with crescent 
behind (as the Moon). 
The Ephesians, no less than the Smymeans, 
styled tbemselves "primates of Asia" (Trpwroi 
'Affia?) on coins (Eck, D. N. Y. ii. 517); and 
were also, as the Smyrneans here boast of 
being, " thrice temple-wardens of the emperors." 
(7. veioicopai to)c %i0aaTwv.) See remarks on 
n. 32. 

94 Do. of Gordian IH. (a.d. 238— 
244). Do. Obv. ATT. KAI. M. ANT. 

TOPAIANOC. His head to riglit. 

Rev. CMTPNAIilN V. NEIl. EH. 
TEPTIOTACIAPXOT. Alexander's 
dream. 

Alexander, hunting on Mount Pagus, lay 
down tired under a plane-tree near a temple of 
the Nemeses, who admonished him in a dream 
to found a city there, and bring the Smyrneans 
thither. Apollo Clarius having confirmed tbeir 
advice, the Smymeans migrated to Mount 
Pagus. (Eck. ii. o48.) 

95 Do. Large brass coin. 

The bust on the obverse is Ceres, or as 
some think Tranquillina (wife of Gordian III.), 
in the character of Ceres. The name of Tertius 
the Asiarch on the reverse shews that it be- 
longs to her time. See n, 94. 

The Asiarchs are mentioned in Acts xlx. 31 
("chief of Asia," E. Y.), and their office is the 
subject of a paper in the Numismatic Chronicle 
for 1866, by the author of this catalogue. 

96 Tarsus in Cilicia. Didrachm of 



Persian scale (double siclos), 
struck by tlie satrap Absohar. 
Ohv. Baal Tars (in Phenician 
letters.) Jupiter of Tarsia sitting. 
Rev. Phenician legend (" This lion 
money was struck by Absohar, 
prince of Lower Cilicia".) Lion 
and bull; building with towers 
below. 

97 Do. Same denomination, without 
legend. 

The Jupiter of this coin seems to be Baal 
Tars, whence the appropriation, 

98 Do. Small silver medallion of 
Hadrian (a.d, 117—138). 

The abbreviated legend of the obverse is in 
full : AvTOKpdropo'i Kato-apos 0eou Tpaiavov 
JlapdiKoO vw, ®eov Nep/3a nt'toj'o?, Tpaiavoi 
'ASpiavoi 2«|SaffT05. The type of the reverse 
is thought by Leaie to be Mithras, an oriental 
divinity. The original of this curious coin is 
in the collection of the Due de Luynes. 

99 Do. Autonomous copper coin. 

The reverse is usually considered (but not 
by Leake) to be the tomb of Sardanapalus, 
who boasted of having founded Tarsus and 
Anchiale in one day. (See Div. I. n. 69.) The 
figure on one of its aides is evidently the same 
aa n. 98. Leake thinks it is a small pyramidal 
temple or shrine. 

100 Do. Copper coin of smaller size. 

Same types, but the side of the structure 
differently ornamented (possibly a different 



101 Do. of Gordian III. First brass 
coin. 

Mithras, when cutting a bull's throat, as 
here, is more usually represented without rays, 
and in a Phrygian cap. The letters A.M.K. 
have been supposed to stand for dpiaTTji (so. 
/iijT-poTroXeo)?), fj.eyia-Ttj'i KiXiKtat. (Eck. iii. 77) ; 
r.B. is {or 'Ypd/j.p.aTi ^oii\% = S.C. on Roman 
coins. 

102 Teos in Ionia. Primitive silver 
coin; didrachm of Eginetan scale. 



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103 Do. Hemidraclim of Bosporic 
scale. 

The canthanis, or cup of Bacchus, on the 
reverse of this coin, is precisely of the fictile 
form, which is most commouly found in Italy, 



Cistophorus. 



104 Tralles in Lydia. 

(See n. 27.) 

105 Tripolis in Phenicia. Tetradrachm 
of Greco-Asiatic scale. 

M. Antony and Cleopatra are here represent- 
ed with stars above, as the Dioscuri, the favourite 
deities of Tripolis. The date SI, of the Pom- 
peiau era = B.C. S3, when Antony and Cleopatra 
were exhibiting themselves at Alexandria, as 
Osiris, and Isis. (See Div. I. nos. 105—107.) 
On the reverse is Astarte standing. The Pom- 
peian era begins B.C. 64, when Pompey van- 
quished Tigranes and made all Syria free, 

106 Do. of Oaracalla (a.d. 211—217). 
Middle brass. The temple of Jove 
is on the right ; that of Astarte on 
the left. 

107 Do. of Blagabalus (ad, 218— 222). 
Do. 

The temple on this coin, and one of the 
two temples on the preceding, have the symbol 
of Astarte in the pediment (compare n. 87) ; 
statues of Apollo and Diana occur in both. 
The architectural details on this and the pre- 
ceding' are in an unusually fine state of preserva- 
tion. 

108 Do. of Diadnmenian (a.d. 217). 

The date f^K.0 is of the Selencid era, and 
= A.D. 217. The details of the ship are most 
beautifully preserved; the circular object neai 
the mast-head ia.the carchesium,. a tetm also 
applied to a vase -of a somewhat similar toim 

The boy-emperor Diadumenian, son of 
Macrinus, was murdered the same year that he 
was proclaimed Osesar; his coins are consequent- 
ly not very common. His portrait is ot brttei 
execution than is usual on Greek imperial coins 

109 Tyre in Phenicia. Tetradrachm. 

The temple of Hercules at Tyre was famous, 
to whom the types on both, sides refer. The 
eagle on the prow occurs also on coins of 
Sidon (no. 86), and is probably adopted fiom 



coins of the Ptolemies, the prow being very 
naturally substituted for the thunderbolt, and 
the palm added, as well as the club of Hercules, 
The date 7 is of the Tyrian era, when De- 
metrius II. was slain at Tyre and the city 
became free, B.C. 126. This coin was therefore 
struck B.C. 119. The scale seems to be Ptole- 
maic; or, as Queipo calls it, Lagid. 

110 Zeugma in Commagene, of Philip 
Senior (a.d. 244 — 249). Middle 
brass. 

The town derived its name from its site 
near a bridge over the Euphrates. The temple 
on the reverse is on the summit of a mountain, 
and can be reached by two flights of steps, 
which are connected by a portico or passage 
below. 

DIVISION III. 

CONTIKENTAL EluROPE, EXCLUDING ItALY. 

1 Abdera, in Thrace. Tetradrachm 
of Bosporic scale. 

The gryphon is the type of Tcos in Ionia, 
who peopled Abdem b.c. 544(seeDiv.il. n.l02); 
hence also the Ionic form ABAHPITBriN. 

2 Acanthus in Macedonia. Attic 
drachma, apparently. 

3 Do. Smaller silver coin, probably 
a tetrobolua. 

The weights of the coins of Acanthus are 
perplexing. Leake obtained several of them 
on the site of Acanthus. These have no legends, 
and are of an early period ; the former is nearly 
the weight of an Attic drachma, and the latter 
of an Eginetan hemidrachm, or Attic totrobolus. 

4 Acarnia. Olympic didrachm. Obv. 
Beardless hum an head of the river 
Achelous, with neck and horns of 
a bull; behind, ATKOTProS. Eev. 
AKAPNANUN and monogram. A- 
poUo seated, a bow in his hand. 

The Lycurgus of the obverse of this beau- 
tiful coin is probably a magistrate; possibly, 
however, the artist. Magistrate's names are 
usually on the reverses of coins. See Div. i. 
n 26 The drachma of Queipo's Olympic scale 
weighs 75,29 Troy grains ; -this scale may per- 



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27 



haps be regarded as a later and degraded form 
of what is called in this catalogue the Eginetau 
scale (i.e. the Commercial Attic of Queipo and 
Poole). 

5 AchEean League in genere. Hemi- 
drachm of the Eginetan scale. 

The obverse of all the sQver coins of the 
league has the head of Zeus Homagyrius, and 
the reverse has AX in monogram. The present 
coin has no additional letters on the reverse; 
but various cities of the League append their 
own initial letters or symbols, to which a 
magistrate's name (in whole or part) is often 
added; thus FA on the following is for 
FAAEinN, i.e. Elis. See nos. 61—64. For 
the scale, see Mr Finlay's remark.? in Num. 
Chron. for 1866, p. 24. 

6 Elis, struck for the Achsan 
League. Do. 

7 Phlius, struck for the AchEean 
League. Copper coin. 

The type of all the copper coins of the 
League is Jupiter Nicephorus ; that of tlio 
reverse Juno. The copper coins bear the names 
of the various cities of the League at length, 
and usually some magistrate also. 

8, 9 yEnus in Thrace. Tetradrachms, 
of fine old work, but light. 

10, \\ Mi6{\si.in genere. Tetradrachms. 
Slightly varied. 

The type of the reverse (which has been 
variously explauied,) is probably in both cases 
.^tolia personified, sitting on Macedonian 
armour; and the coin was most likely struck 
to commemorate the share which .iSltolia (allied 
with Erome) took in vanquishing Philip V. and 
his Macedonians at the battle of Cynoscephalie, 
B.C. 197. 

12 Amphipolis in Thrace. Tetra- 
drachm of very fine work, of the 
Bosporic scale. 

The old Attic or Ionic form of the legend 
(AM^mOAITEflN) is explained by Ampbi- 

Solis being a colony from Athens. See Leake, 
'.SCEurope), p. 10. 

13 Apollonia in lUyricum. Drachma. 

The types (Cow and calf, and the gardens 



of Alcinous, so-called) are those of Corcyra, of 
which Apollonia was a colony; Dyrrhachium, 
another colony of Corcyra, has also the same 
types. See no. 59, and Biv. V. no. 17. The 
coins of Apollonia have mostly the name of a 
magistrate in the nominative on one side, and 
another in the genitive on the other, where 
hrX seems to be understood. The latter is con- 
jectured to be the Archon Eponymus. The 
weights of the coins of this city vary so much, 
that the scale is uncertain ; Queipo regards it 
as Greco -Asiatic. 

14 Do. Do. Ohv. ArfiNinnoT. Head 
of Apollo to left. Rev. ADOA. 
across the field; AINOKPATH2 
EPIMNA2T0T in the exergue ; 
three nymphs dancing round a 
hill from which fire issues, i.e. the 
Nymphffium, near Apollonia, men- 
tioned by Strabo, a burning hill 
sacred to Pan and the Nymphs. 

15 Argos in Argolis. Hemidrachm. 
(Eginetan scale). Ohv. Fore part 
of wolf. Eev. A in quadrate in- 
cuse ; a dot below it. 

1 6 Athens. Gold stater, probably 
about the age of Alexander. 

Down to the times of the orators Darics and 
Cyzicene staters seem to have been the gold 
currency at Athens. 

19 — 23 Do. Tetradrachms of the same 
types, but of different periods. 

The Athenian tetradrachm, held in the 
highest esteem for its purity, was the silver 
coinage of the old world in Greek times, and 
there exist barbarous imitations and forgeries. 

The types of the tetradrachms of the early 
periods, reaching probably as late as Alexander, 
are always the head of Minerva on one side 
and her owl on the other, together with a sprig 
of olive (as weU an a crescent on the later coins) ; 
the legend being invariably A0E; this legend 
was retained on the much later tetiudraehms 
from a conservative feeling, long after the H 
had come into use: see especially n. 26, which 
bears the names of Micion and Eiiryclides, 
demagogues of Athens B.C. 216, whom Philip V, 
put to death. Nos, 19 — 21 are probably much 



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earlier than the Persian wars. The style of noa. , 
22 and 23 prevailed during the 5th and 4th 
centuries B. C. I 

24 Do. Decadraclim, same types. 

Only two or three specimens of this coin 
appear to be known; they seem to be rather 
older (Leake thinks 'much older') than the 
Persian wars. One in the British Museum has 
a deep notch, which Lealce calls 'the Persian 
countermark ' ; it often occurs on coins of the 
Persian empire, see Div. ii. n. 96. 

25, 26 Do. Later tetradrachms with 
magistrates' names, and of lighter 
weight. 

The head of Pallas on this class of tetra- 
drachms is quite different from the foregoing, 
and is undoubtedly copied from her statue by 
Phidias in the Parthenon. The secondary 
symbols (caduceua on n. 25, and youths on 
n, 26) are certainly connected in some way 
with one of the magistrates. The date of n. 26 
is about 216 b.c. See preceding remarks. 



27 Do. Later tetradrachm with mono- 
grams of magistrates. 

28 Do. Drachma of the usual types. 

The types are the same as the tetradrachm : 
compare especially nos. 22, 2.3, The drachma, 
whose normal weight was 67,5 grains, accord- 
ing to Leake, is very nearly the value of the 
modem franc: it contains 6 ohols, of 11,25 
grains each. All the coins of Athens, certainly 
known to bo such, are of the scale of Solon; 
and his reform seems to have consisted in re- 
ducing the Eginetan standard to his new Attic 
scale. 

The reader (and especially the classical stu- 
dent) is recommended to consult Leake's Num. 
Hell. Europe, pp. 21, 22, for many valuable re- 
'Uiarks both on the weights and history of the 
coins of Athena, which are much too long for 
insertion here. Since his death M. Beule has 
written an excellent work on them exclusively, 
entitled Monnaies d^Athhies, Paris 1858, ito; 
with figures of all the principal forms in all 
metals. Queipo estimates the Attic drachma 
at 65,67 grains. In later times it was much 
reduced and was at length considered equiva- 
lent to the Koman imperial denarius, which 
weighed about 60 grains, varying at different 
times. 



29 Do. Triobol or hemidrachm. 

The types and legend as on the earher 
tetradi-achms, but the owl is seen in front and 
is wingless. There are two ohve-sprigs and no 
crescent. 

30 Do. Trihemiobol, or obol-and-a- 
half 

Same types and legend as before, but the 
owl has spread wings. 

31 Do. Diobolus, or two-obol piece. 

Same types and legend, but the owl has 
two bodies and one head. 

32 Do. Obols. 

Same legend and types exactly as the 
ordinaiy drachm and tetradrachm. 

33 Do. Half-obols, with precisely the 
same types and legend. 

34 Do. Tritemorion, or three-quarter 
obol. 

Obverse as before, but A@B and three 
ci'escents on the reverse. 

35 Do. Tartemorion, or quarter obol. 

The same, but with one crescent only. 
The number of crescents shews the number 
of quarters of the obol. 

36 Do. Early copper coin, perhaps a 
chalcus. 

Same types and legend ; Minerva's head in 
old style (n. 22), beside her an oil jar (amphora) 
standing. This is among the earUer Athenian 
pieces of copper (none of which can be older 
than B.C. 406, when copper money was first 
introduced), and may probably be about the 
age of Philip. See Beul^, pp. 73—75, The 
denominations of the copper money are diflicult 
if not impossible to determine. 

37 Do. Late copper coin. 

It is remarkable that no imperial Greek 
copper coins {i.e. having an emperoi^s head) 
of Athens exist. The present piece, however, 
may (with Beul^) be referred to the imperial 
period, the legend A0H indicating a very late 
date The design (Theseus killing the Minotaur) 
varies a good deal on different Athenian coins. 
BeuM, p. 398. 



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88 Bo. Late copper coin. 

The reverse of this excessively rare coin 
has A0HNAIflN, a sure proof of a late date 
(perhaps ahout the second century after Christ) ; 
it represents the theatre of Dionysus with one 
diazoma or concentric circular passage ; above 
this are caverns in the rock , higher up the wall 
of the Acropolis, above which the Parthenon, 
and to the left of this the Propylfea. See 
Leake, N. H. p. 28, and BeuH p. 394. 

39 Do. Late copper coin, also read- 
ing A©HNAiaN (nearly effaced). 

The contest of Neptune (not Jupiter, as 
Leake has accidentally written on the ticket) 
with Minerva for the possession of Attica occurs 
on the Parthenon (west fi'ont), on gems, and on 
vases. For this particular representation, taken 
from Athenian statues found near the Par- 
thenon, fragments of which still remain, see 
Beui4 p- 393. 

40 Do. Do. 

The stairs seen on the right-band side of 
the coin lead up to the Propyl£ca ; to the left 
of which stands the Acropolis, the colossal figure 
of Minerva Promachus (conspicuous from afar 
to sailors) standing between them. The grotto 
of Pan is seen in the rock of the Acropohs (the 
actual statue of Pan included in it is now in 
this Museum); and above this the wall of the 
Acropolis, in which there is also a cavern. 

This coin is very rare, and perhaps never in 
good preservation. See Leake, u. s. p. 28, and 
Beul4 p. 394. 

41 Uninscribed silver coin (drachma), 
usually assigned to Athens. Obv. 
Half-horse (the hind quarters) to 
right. Mev. Quadrate incuse. 

From Leake's miscellaneous cabinet, which 
is not included in his Nwniismata Hellenica. 
See Div. II. n. 1. For the reasons for attribut- 
ing coins of this type to Athens, see Beul^, pp. 
15 — 20. The wftole horse also occurs as a 
didrachm. Similarly on other coins {e.g. Syra^ 
euse) the half of a type indicates half the value 
of the coin which has the whole type. The age 
of this coin can hardly be much later than 
Solon's Archonship (B.C. 594), to whose new 
Attic scale this dass of money certainly belongs. 



42 Bizye in Thrace of Caracalla (a.d. 
211 — 217). Large brass. 
The representations of the city-gates on 
different coins of Bizye differ rather considerably, 
and seem to indicate that architectural details 
have not been strictly adhered to in all cases. 
See Donaldson's Archit Numism, nos. 83, 84, 

4S Bceotia in genere. Archaic di- 
drachm of the Eginetan scale. 

44 Do. Similar didrachm of a good 
period of art. Obv. Bceotian shield. 
Hev. ETAPA (name of a magistrate, 
probably a Bocotarch); a crater 
(Bacchic vase) ; club (of Hercules) 
and grapes above. 

The digamma may be noted in the legend. 
These Bceotian coins were probably struck at 
Thebes. See Leake. 

45 Chalcidenses in Macedonia. Tetra- 
drachm, Bosporic scale. 

The city at which this beautiful piece was 
struck was probably Apollonia in Chalcidice, to 
which the types of Apollo and the lyre naturally 
point. See Leake, N. H. p. 33. 

46 Do. Smaller silver coin, tetrobol, 
(same scale) with the same types. 

47 Ohersonesus of Thrace. Early 
didrachm (of the Eginetan scale). 

Queipo prefers to regard this as a Greco- 
Asiatic tetradrachm. 

48 Do. Later hemidrachms of the 
same scale, but lighter. 

The pointed amphora or wine jar on this 
coin may be noted. Similar vessels were made 
down to Eoman times; and a specimen found in 
this countiy is in this Museum, See also a 
representation of one (stuck in the ground) 
in a black-figure vase in Leake's collection. 

49 Cleona; in Argolis. Hemidrachm 
{Eginetan scale) of fine work. 

50 Corinth. Primitive coin, didrachm. 
Ohv. Pegasus with curled wings 
to left, below it the Koppa or 
ancient form of the letter K, 
(initial letter of Corinth). Rev. 



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Quadrate incuse of unusual form 
(peculiar to Corinth?). 

This ia the Corinthian stater divided into 
ten litne ; it is equivalent to the Attic didrachm. 

51 Do. Early coin (though later) of 
the same denomination. Ohv. 
Head of Pallas in Corinthian hel- 
met to left, in sunk square. Rev. 
Pegasus (bridled) to right, and 
Koppa. 
52, 53 Do. Later coins of the same 
denomination. 
Types as before, but the Pegasus has point- 
ed wings and no bridle. The obverses of these 
most beautiful and very common coins have 
various adjuncts (as a Hermaic statue on n. 52, 
B. cock on a club n. 53, and very many others, 
see Leake) ; they probably are connected with 
the magistrates in whose time tbey were struck. 
The retention of the archaic koppa on these 
later coins (about the time of Alexander and 
later) may be compared with the retention of 
E for H on later coins of Athens. See n. 26. 
Leake thinks that the Corinthian standard was 
nearly the same as at Athens, or about 67 
grains to the drachma, 

54 Do. of Lucius Verus. (a.d. 161 — 
169). Middle brass. 

The imperial coins of Corinth are extremely 
numerous, and the legends are always in Latin, 
as is most generally the case when a Greek 
city was superseded by a Latin colony. The 
full legend of the reverse is CoLONiA Laijs 
Julia Corinthus, Julius Ceesar having colo- 
nised Corinth ac. 4i6. The imperial coins very 
generally (as here, where Bellerophon mounted 
on Pegasus spearg the Chimjera,) preserve the 
ancient ti'aditions of their respective cities. 



56 Cosa in Thrace. Gold didrachm 
or stater. 

Obtained by Col. Leake in Macedonia, where 
these coins ai-e not very rare; who says "they 
were coined probably by order of M. Junius 
Brutus" (who is presumed to be represented 
between two lictors on the reverse) " when he 
commanded the Roman army in that country 
previously to the battle of Philippi." (B.C. 42). 

56 Delphi in Phocis. Diobolus, with- 
out legend, Eginetan scale. 



The ram's head on the obverse is connected 
ivith the worship of Apollo or the Sun. The 
dolphins and Cretan goat's head of reverse may 
allude to Apollo having conducted CastaJius 
from Crete to Delphi under the form of a 
dolphin. See Leake N. H. p. 45. Some coins 
with these types read AAA or AEA, 

57 Do. Obelus, also without legend, 
same scale. 

The dot in the centre of the circle denotes 
that Delphi was the central point of the earth, 
(imibilictis terr<e); while the tripod on the other 
side refers to the Delphic oracle of Apollo. 

58 Do. Copper coin of Hadrian. {a.d. 
117—138), reading AEA3>iiN. 

For a somewhat different representation of 
Apollo Musagetes see Div, ii. n. 52. 

69 Dyrrhachium or Epidamnus in 
Illyricum, Didrachm (of reduced 
Eginetan scale, apparently). 

Types of the mother-city Corey r a. See 
Div. V. n. 17. The name DyiThachium alone 
(as here ATP) occurs on the coins, none of 
which seem to be very early. Queipo considers 
the scale Persian. 

60 Do, Didrachm of Attic scale, with 
Corinthian types on both sides- 
See n. 52. 

Corcyra was a colony of Corinth ; whence the 
Corinthian types of its daughter Dyrrhachium. 

61 — 64 EUs regio. Didrachms (of 
Eginetan scale) of fine old work. 

The types of Jupiter and Juno, and in con- 
nexion with them of the eagle and thunderbolt, 
occur very generally on coins of Elis ; the 
digamma of the legend (FA or FAAEION) 
may be noted. 

65 Epirus in genere. Didrachm of 
Olympic scale. 

The oak-wreath round the head of Jove 
indicates him to be the Jove of Dodona, where 
(as Leake thinks) the coins of Epirus were 
struck; the butting bull on the reverse pro- 
bably symbolises the river Arachthus. 

66 Do. Drachma (same scale). Mo- 
nogram behind. Obv. Head of 



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Jupiter Dodonaeus to right, mo- 
nogram behind. Refi). AHEIPIiTAN. 
Eagle on thunderbolt to right 
within oak-wreath. 

67 Lacedtemon in Laconia, a tetra- 
drachm (Attic scale!) struck by 
Cleomenes III. (b.o. 236—220). 
Obv. His portrait, with diadem, 
to left. Refi). Archaic statue of 
Apollo Amycleeus; in field aa (for 
AAKEAAiMONlilN) and a wreath. 

Cleomenes III., who changed the Spartan 
form of government into a tyranny, is the only 
king who could have placed his portrait on 
coins of Laced^emon or Sparta ; the wreath 
indicates a victory, probably of Cleomenes III. 
over the Ach^an League B.C. 225. Fot these 
matters and for the type of the reverse, see 
Leake, N. H. (Europe), pp. 55,56. 

The coin ia evidently in imitation of the 
contemporary coins of the Seleucid^i which 
accounts also for the Attic scale, adopted by 
Alexander and his successors in Syria. See 
Div, I. nos. 41—43. 

68 Do. Copper coin, struck in honour 
of their legislator Lycurgus. 

The lunar C shews that the coin can hardly 
be very much anterior to the Christian era. 
(Compare late coins of Smyrna in honour of 
Homer. Div. 11. n. 92.) The position of AT- 
KOTPrOS on the ohuerse leaves little doubt 
that the head is not of Jove (as Eckhel half 
suspects. Vol. II. p. 280), accompanied by a ma- 
gistrate's name, but that of the lawgiver himselt 
On many coins of Sparta we have the names of 
magistrates on the reverse. 

69 Lamia in Thessaly. Hemidrachm 
(Bginetan scale). Obv. Ivy- 
crowned head of Bacchus to left, 
of beautiful work. Mev. aamiehn. 
Crater, ivy-leaf above it; beside it 
au cenochoe. 

The crater was the vessel holding the mixed 
wine and water, from which the liquor was 
drawn in the cenochoe or jug, and thenCe passed 
into the cylix (cup). See Vase-room, Kv. III. 
and the model of the Campanian tomh. 



70 Larissa in Thessaly. Eginetau di- 
drachm of splendid work. Obv. Fe- 
male head, full face, with frontlet, 
her hair hanging loosely in flowing 

tresses (the fountain Messeis? 
Horn. II. 1. 456). lie,v. AAPlSAinM. 
Bridled horse to right. 

The type of the obverse is undoubtedly a 
fountain personified (see a precisely similar 
coin of Syracuse, reading APE@OSA, Div, IV. 
n. 121), not ApoUo, as Leake says. The type 
of the horse on this and the following coins 
may refer to the celebrity of the Thessalian 
horses (Leake) ; but it is more probably to be 
connected with the worship of Neptune. See 
no. 98. 

71 Do. Drachma. Obv., as before, 
but of inferior execution. Mm. 
AAPL Horse feeding. 

72, 73. Do. DrachmBB, with other 
types. 

For the oaima or Macedonian hat seen on 
both coins see Div. i. nos. 1, 2. The bull on 
n. 72 refers to the celebrity of Thessalian cattle. 
The female head on 73 may be the Nymph of 
the fountain. 

74 Lete in Macedonia. Very early 
Silver coin, didrachm of the Olym- 
pic scale. 

For the scale see remarks on Div. i. n. I. 
This coin deserves attention as a very finely 
preserved specimen of the stiff and exaggerated 
style of the earhest art. This coin may be 
suspected to be about six centuries before 
Christ, more or less. 

75, 76. Leucas in Acamania. Di- 
drachms with Corinthian types on 
both sides. 

No. 75 has the less usual legend AETKA- 
AlilN; no. 76 has A only on both sides. 
Compare nos. 52, 53. 

77, 78. Locri Ozol;e ? Didrachms with 
Corinthian types. 

Leake thinks that their coins were struck 
at Naupactus on the gulf of Corinth, the most 
important city of Locri Hesperii or Ozohe. 



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82 

The legends here are always, as it seems, AO- i 
KPilN or AOKP (to prevent confusion ^vith 
Leucast). It is however very doubtful whether 
these coins are not of the Locri Epizephyrii in 
S. Italy, on whose copper coins Corinthian \ 
typea certainly occur (see Leake JV. H. Suppl. 
p. 131) ; as appears by the annexed coin. 

79 Locri Epizephyrii in S. Italy (out 
of its true place. See Div. iv. n. 
29). Copper coin with Corinthian 
types. 

For the coins of the Loeriaus of Opus see 
no8. 94, 95, 

80 Macedonia. Gold medal, of third 
century A. D.? 

Obtained by CoL Leake in Macedonia, and 
considered by him to have been probably struck 
to gratify CaracaUa when passing through 
Macedonia (a.d. 214), who was a passionate ad- 
mirer and imitator of Alexander. Both work 
and letters indicate a late date. Some however 
regard the medal (for coin it can hardly be 
called) as a modem fabrication altogether. 

81 Macedonia Prima, under the 
Romans. Tetradrachm. 

L. jErailius Paullus (u. c. 108} divided Ma^ 
cedonia into four provinces, a division which 
lasted about 20 years. Coins of the first, second, 
and fourth regions are known. The capital of 
MAKEAONIiN HPilTHS was Amphipolis, 
where this coin was no doubt struck. 

82 Macedonia under the Romans. Do. 

Later than the preceding, when the four 
provinces were mei^d in one, with a bilingual 
inscription. Oh). MAKEAONHN. Head of 
Alexander, with ram's horn (compare Biv. i. 
nos. 20, 21, 33) to right; behind, 0, (perhaps 
for Thessalonica) : Rev. AESLLLAS Q. (i.e. 
Qusestor) Cista of Bacchus, Club of Hercules, 
and Quaestor's Table; all within wreath. 

83 Do. of late imperial period. Cop- 
per coin. 

This portrait of Alexander is inscribed with 
his naine, AAEZANAPOO, in late letters. 
For the l^end of the reverse KOINON MA- 
KEAONflN AIG NEaKOPflN, see Div. u. 
■n. 10, and n. 82. No Neokor coins of Macedon 
are older than CaracaUa. 



84 Mantinea in Arcadia. Probably 
three-quarter obol-piece {-rpiTiino- 
piov) of Eginetan scale. Obs. MAN 
(in archaic characters) between 
three acorns disposed like a 
triscelium, their stalks touching. 
Eev. Tliree taus similarly disposed. 
Compare no. 119. 

The acorn alludes to tlie oak for^ts of 
Arcadia. Silver coins of Mantinea are very 
rare, contrary to what we should expect from 
so illustrious a city. 

85 Maronea in Thrace. Very early 
uninscribed didrachm (of Egi- 
netan scale). 

The large and small incuse of the same 
type on the reverse are very peculiai'. Coins 
of the same general types as the present read 
MAPfl. 

86 Do. Light (Attic) tetradrachm of 
a later period, of good work. 

The canthanis above the horse (as well as 
the vine of the reverse) is a symbol of 
Bacchus, the tutelaiy god of Maronea; some of 
its coins read AIONTSOT SUTHPOS MA- 
PiiNITiiN. 

87 Massalia in Gaul (Marseilles). 
Apparently a tetrobolus (Attic). 

A very usual size and weight of the silver 
coins of Massalia; none seem to be larger; 
and none to be very ancient, 

88 Megalopolis ia Arcadia. Triobol 
or hemidrachm (Eginetan scale). 

The city was founded b.c. 370 by Epami- 
nondas, was in a state of decline about B.C. 
180, and extinct before Strabo's time. The 
coins are mostly of the same age, style and 
denomination as those of the Achsean league. 
Compare nos. 5, 6. 

89 Messene in the Peloponnese. 
Didrachm (Eginetan) of very fine 
work. 

90 Do. Tetradrachm (late Attic). 

This very rare coin is interesting 



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l®flM on the reverse; shewing the figure to 
be the statue of Jupiter Ithomates at Messene. 

91 Neopolis (Neapolis, Acts xvi. 11) 
of Macedonia (formerly Datus). 
Very early silver coin,(uninscribed) 
(Attic didraclim?) Obv. Head of 
Gorgo, full face. Rev. Four in- 
dentations in a square form. 

92 Do. Later coin, of fine work. (At- 
tic diobol, or rather Corinthian di- 
litron.) Obv. Same type. Rev. 
NEOII. Head of Venus to right, 
hair rolled and corded. 

It is difficult to see by what scale the coins 
of Neopohs are regulated; see the weights of 
those given in N. H. (Europe) p. 76. It would 
seem to he most probably Corinthian, 

93 (Eniadffi of Acamania. Copper 
coin of fine work. For type of 
obverse see n. 4, 

94, 95 Opus in Locris. Didrachms 
(Fginetan) of very fine work. 
Precisely similar coins read AOKPiiN 
instead of OnONTIIlN; both were struck 
doubtless at Opus of the Locrians. Queipo is 
disposed to regard them aa light Attic tridrachms. 

96, 97. Orescii, in Thrace. Very early 
silver coins, of uncertain scale. 

Both for weights and types of these coins 
compare Div. l n. 1, and Div. iii. n. 72 respec- 
tively, They can hardly be much later than 
B.C. 500, to judge by the fabric, and yet contrary 
to expectation H and il occur in the legends. 
For the Orescii, a tribe who probably hved 
among the Pangsean mountains, .see Leake 
N. H. (Europe) p, 81. 

98. Orthe in Thessaly. Copper coin. 

The horse emerging from a woody rocky 
cavern alludes to the creation of that animal 
by a blow of Neptune's trident on a Thessalian 
rock, which was probably claimed for Orthe. 
SeeLeake,-ffun)p. Greece, j4cMertd. p. 162. This 
interesting and beautiful coin is thought to be 
unique. 

99. PanticapEeum of the Taurica. 
Gold stater (heavier thau the 
Attic didrachm). 



100. Do. Copper coin. 

The Greeks connected Pan with Pantica- 
pffium, as appears by both these coins ; Dr W. 
Smith thinks the name was probably Scythian. 
(Diet. Geogr, s. v.) 

101 Phalanna in Thessalia. Drachma 
(later Eginetan) of beautiful woi"k. 

Tins is intermediate in weight between 
Queipo's Commercial Attic (Eginetan) and 0- 
lympic scales; and is one of several indications 
that these are vai'ieties of one and the same 
Eginetan scale. 

102 Pheneus in Arcadia. Didrachm 
(Eginetan) of very fine work. 

On some coins of this type the name Areas 
is written near the child. He was the son of 
Jove by Callisto, whom Mercary concealed 
from the jealous wrath of Juno. 

103 Philippi in Macedonia (formerly 
Crenides). Gold stater (Attic 
didrachm). 

One of the very few cities in Greece proper 
which struck gold; Philip II. discovered it in 
the neighbourhood, ancj named the city after 
himself. His and his son's (regal) gold coins 
were probably derived from the same mine. 

104 Phlins in Achaia. Apparently a 
litra of the Corinthian scale. 

There are coins of Phlius which have a 
whole butting bull on the obverse, which we 
should have expected would have been double 
the weight of the present coin, which has a lui,lf 
bull ; in fact it is the triple of it, weighing 
about 40 grains, or three litrje. The scale of 
these coins can hardly be Eginetan; it seems 
rather to be Corinthian, which is perhaps not 
surprising, considering the proximity of Phlius 
to Corinth. 



105, lOG Phocis in genere. Hemi- 
drachms (Eginetan) of fine work. 

The occurrence of ApoUo's head on these 
coins leads to a suspicion that they were minted 
at Delphi, the principal city. 

107 Platsea in Bccotia. Apparently a 
hemidrachm of the later Eginetan 
scale, (but light). 



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The head of Juno refers to her famous 
temple at Platsea, one of the most perfect 
Greece in tlic time of " 



1 08 Sicyon in Achaia. Drachma 
(Eginetan). 

The doves are sacred to Venus, who had 
a temple near Sicyon. 

109, 110 Do. Didrachms, same scale. 

The Chimera (compounded of a lion, a goat, 
and a dragon) has reference to Bellerophon, " a 
heronot less honoured at Sicyon than at Corinth," 
Leake N. R. (Europe) p. ,95, who gives reasons 
for attributing these coins to Sicyon. Gf n. 54. 

111 Do. Hemidrachm, same scale. 

1 1 2 8t3'mpha!us ia Arcadia. Di- 
drachm (Eginetaa) of very fine 
work. 

The Diana of the obverse had a temple at 
Stymphalus; on the revei"se. Hercules, whose 
lion's skin is flying behind, is about to strike 
the Stymphaliau birds, whom he has fairly put 
to flight from off this coin, though on other 
coins of Stymphalus they appear ; sometimes 
with Hercules on one side and the bird on the 
other. 

1 1 3 Thebes. Gold coin of fine early 
work, apparently a hemidrachm of 
the Eginetan scale. Obv. Head 
of Bacchus (ivy-crowned) to right. 
Eev. [0] E. The infant Hercules 
strangling the serpents (sent by 
Juno to destroy him). Weight i7 
grains, size 2, (Mionnet's scale). 

From Lord Northwick's collection, sold in 
1859 after the publication of the Num. Sell., 
and therefore not included therein. Thebes 
is very nearly, if not quite, the only city in 
Greece proper which struck gold before the 
time of PhiUp II., and these are of the highest 
rarity; there ai'e a few gold coins of early look- 
ing fabric ascribed to Macedonia and Thrace, 
whose genuineness is somewhat doubtful Even 
in Philip's time and long afterwards very little 
gold was struck by any city in Greece proper; 
gold coins of Philippi, Athens, and ^tolia in 
genere being excessively rare, and those of any 
other place {e.g. Chalcis in Macedonia) being 



either unique or nearly so. The regcd gold of 
Philip, Alexander, and Lysimachus is abundant. 

114 — 118. Do. Yarions early silver 
coins adapted to the Eginetan 
scale; drachma (n. 114), obol (n. 
115), didrachm (116, 117, 118). 

The type of all on the obverse is the Bceotian 
shield, which occurs on various other Bceotian 
cities {e.g. OrchomenuB, Plataaa n. 107, Tanagra, 
ThespiEe nos. 125, 126) ; the reverse of all have 
incuses of various forms. No, 114 has no letter; 
nos. 115, 116, 117 have ®, only of different 
archaic forme; no. 118 has 0EBA. 

119 Do. Three quarter obol-piece, 

(TeTapTjj/iopioy,) Of the same scale, 
(as also the two following) . 
The three half-shields correspond to the 
three crescents on the coins of Athens (n. 34) 
of the same denomination, but of a different 
scale : the normal weight of this coin being 
nearly 12 grains, that of Athens nearly 9. Com- 
pare no. 84. 

120 — 123 Didrachms (later, but early 
and of good work). 

On n. 120 and n. 123 the is of the modem 
form, but the E is not replaced by H, as on 
some later coins. For the ci-ater on n. 123, 
compare n, 69. 

124 Do. Hemidrachm. 

The vase on this coin is a canthants, the 
cup of Bacchus and his attendant route. 
See n. 86. 

125 Thespiss in Bceotia. Obol (Egi- 
netan) of early work. 

The form of the sigma deserves notice. 

126 Do. Didrachm (Eginetan) of fine 
work. 

The legend eESlTIKON is in regimen 
with the coin imderstood, whether vo/ua-fia 
(Leake) or hiZpa'XJJ-ov. 

127,128 Thessaly m ^eraere. Drachms 
(Eginetan) of rather late work. 

For the Pallas Itonia on these coins see 
Liv. I. n. 23. 



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85 



129 Thessalonica in Macedonia. Cop- 
per coin of good work. 

The city was built by Cassander B.C. 315 
or thereabouts, and this coin seems not very 
nrncb later, to judge by the fabric. It ia singular 
that all the coins of this city, the metropolis of 
Macedonia secwnda so famous in profane and 
sacred history, should be of copper only; they 
are very numerous both autonomous and im- 
perial. It is quite probable however that 
tetradrachms of the Roman period were struck 
there. See n. 82. 

1 30 Do. of rhilip junior (a. d. 247—249). 
Obv. MAP. lOTAioc a>iAinnoG 
AT [TOKPATHP.] His radiated 
bust to right. Rev. ©ECCAAO- 
Nio:nN nehkop. A tripod; its 
caldron holding five (balloting?) 
baUa 

Thesaalonica is ono of the very few Neokor 
cities in Europe; they are nearly all in Asia 
Perinthus in Thrace is another instance, and 
the Macedonians generically are called New- 
Kopoi. See n. 83. 

131 Thyrrhcium in Acarnania. Silver 
coin of the same scale and types 
as n. 4, and half its value. (Olym- 
pic drachma.) 

We can hardly doubt that coins of Acarnania 
in genere were struck here. 

132 Do. Corinthian stater (= Attic 
didrachm) with Corinthian types. 

133 Tyras in Sarmatia. Drachma 
(later Eginetan) of spirited work. 

This city was situated, according to Leake, 
on the Dniester about 15 or 20 miles from its 
mouth, and with Olhia was the most northern 
limit of Greek civilisation. 



DIVISION lY. 

Europe continued, Italy and Sicily. 



The Greek cities of Italy and Sicily being 
in a great degree Achaean, their scale, as Leake 
remarks, appears to be mostly Corinthian ; but 



the weights of the drachm and didrachm vary 
a good deal, as the following coins shew ; and 
some probably belong to other scales. Some of 
the copper money are pai-ts of the Roman as. 

1 The Brettii, or Bruttii. Gold 
drachm. 

Compare the coins of Pyrrhus (Div. I. n. 
29). Both are probably nearly contemporary, 
and struck at Consentia, the chief city of the 
Brettii, a barbarous tribe who revolted from 
the Lucanians about B.C. 356, and were sub- 
dued by the Komans under L. Papirius Cursor 
(B.C. 274); hut did not utterly disappear from 
history till after the close of the second Punic 
war, (about RC, 200). They inhabited Calabria 
Citra and Calabria Ultra. 

2, 3 Do. Silver drachms (heavier 
than usual), of good work. 

The weights of the silver coins of the Brettii 
vary a good deal. 

4 Do. Copper coin. 

The types of this coin (Hercules and Pallas) 
are the aa.m.% as on some coins of the Lucani, 
The coins of the Brettii seem to have been 
mostly struck a little before and after B.C. 300. 

5 Do. Do. Obv. Head of Jove to 

right; ear of com behind. Rev. 
BPETTION. Eagle, crescent, and 
horn of plenty. Size 5. 



6 Do. Do. 

7 Do. Do. 



8 Do. Do. Obv. Head of Victory 

to left. Rev. Jupiter ftihninating 
in a biga to left; under horses 
grapes. 

9 Do. Do. Olrv. Same type, with 

NIKA. Rev. BPETTIIIN. Jupiter 
standing to right, fulminating; 
in field, star and horn of plenty. 

The copper coins of the Bruttii are com- 
monly well preserved, and sometimes (as these) 
in a very fine state. As a general rule Greek 
copper coins have, suffered considerably from 
circulation or time or both; the quality of the 



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metal is not the same in all cases, which may 
account for a good deal When itia chemically 
changed into a green or blue varnish (as n. 4, 
n. 39 &c.), the coin is said to be paHnated. 

10 Cales in Campania. Didrachm 
of good work. The Latin legend 
(CALENO) on all the coins of Cales 
shew that they belong to the 
Roman colony, b.c. 331. 

1 1 Caulonia in Bruttium. Very early 
didrachm of the incuse type. Obv. 
KATAO. Nude youthful figure 
with long hair to right (Apollo?) 
holding a branch in his right hand, 
and a figure with winged heels, 
(Hermes?) in his left: in field, 
stag (symbol of Artemis, associ- 
ated LQ worship with Apollo). Hev. 
Same legend and types but incuse 
(i.e. in intaglio). 

The incuse coinage is peculiar to Magna 
Grtecia : commonly the same type and legend 
(or nearly so) occur on both sides, (compare 
nos. 13, 30, 31, 43, 55, 56); but sometimes the 
incuse type is altogether different from that 
in relief (as no. 14, 32). 

12 Do. Later but early didrachm. 

Caulonia was founded from Achaia towards 
the end of the eighth centuiy B.C. and depopu- 
lated by the elder Dionysius b.c. 388. The 
coin lies within these limits. 

13 Orotona in Bruttium. Early di- 
drachm with tripod in relief and 
incuse. 

14 Do. Do- but the incuse type of 
the reverse is an eagle. 

15 Do. Do. but both types are in 
relief 

The Koppa (whence the Latin Q) for Kappa 
shews these three coins to be early; it is ti\e 
only example, it is believed, of this letter occur- 
ling on coins not followed by the vowel 0. 
We have the letter on early coins of Syracuse 
(n. 115), Coresia (Div. rv. n, 21), and Corinth 
(Div. 111. nos, 50—53), whero it is retained 
by an affected archaism on its late coins. 



16 — 19 Do. Later didrachms of 
beautiful work, the types referring 
to the worship of Juno, Apollo, 
and Hercules. 

From all these coins the old Koppa has 
disappeared. The obverse of n. 18 is the La- 
cinian Juno, Whose temple was a few miles 
from Croton. The vessel held by Hercules on 
the reverse of the same coin is his own peculiar 
cup, the scyphus (see also n. 22), Several va- 
rieties of this cup may be seen in the Vase- 
coUection (Periods I. II. III. IV.) 

20, 21 Cumte in Campania. Early 
didrachms. The female head on 
the'obverses is uncertain, perhaps 
Parthenope (not the Cumffian 
Sibyl, of whom the earlier Greek 
authors know nothing); for an- 
other representation of Scylla (on 
n. 21) see n. 74. 
22, 23 Heraclea in Lucania. Di- 
drachms of very fine work. 
Hercules (who occurs on the reverse of both 
coins, and indeed of most of the city) was also 
a favourite deity at Tarentum, from which 
Heraclea was colonised B.C. 432. "Some of 
the coins of Heraclea may deser\'edly be reckon- 
ed among the choicest specimens of Greek art," 
(Bunbury, in Smith's Diet. Gr. and Rom. Oeogr. 

S.V.) 

24 — 26 Velia or Hyele in Lucania. 
Didrachms of beautiful work. 
The letters KAETAHPOT above the front- 
let of Minerva (n. 25) are quite microscopic, 
(compare nos. 121, 132); Cleodorim was pro- 
bably the artist. 

27 Hyrina (in Campania?) Didrachm 
of fine early work, with retrograde 



The andromorphous bull of the reverse is 
said to he an exclusively Campanian type 
(occurring on coins of Neapoiia and Nola, see 
nos. 38, 40), and has led numismatists to place 
this Hyrina in that province. The coins of 
Hyrina and Nola are sometimes found in com- 
pany, which leads to a suspicion that the cities 
were not far apart. Hyrina in Campania is not 
mentioned by any ancient author whatever, and 
its existence is established by its coins alone. 



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28 Italian league for promoting the 

Social War {b.g. 90-— 88). Denarius 
of rather barbarous fabric with 
Oscan legend. Ohv, Head of 
Bacchus to right; in front MVTIL. 
EMBPATVR.(i.e.Mutilusimpcrator). 
Uev. BulKsymbolofltalianleague) 
goring wolf (symbol of Rome) : in 
exergue c. PA API (*.e.Caius Papius). 

The coins of this league are thought to have 
been struck at Coriinium in Samnium. They 
chose consula in imitation of Rome, Q. Pom- 
paedius Silo, and C. Papius Mutilus, both of 
whose names occur on coins. This coin, taking 
both its aides, reads (in Latin) : C. Papius 
Mutilus, Imperator (i.e. consul). 

29 Loeri Epizephyrii in Bruttinm. 
Didrachm. See Div. iii. nos. 78, 
79; one or both of which belong 
here. 

30 — 32 Metapontum inLucania. Early 
coins with incuse types. 

The pjlant represented on all these coins 
15 bearded wheat (not barley^ as Leake). The 
incuse type of nos. 30, 31 is a repetition of the 
obverse; but the reverse of n. 32 has a hull's 
head. 

83—37 Do. Didrachms of beautiful 
work. 

The head on 34 is that of Mai^; on 35, 36, 
Oeres (of the most exquisite execution); on 37 
Venus, apparently, but perhaps Ceres. 

38 Neopolia in Campania (Naples). 
Didrachm. 

The head of the obverse is probably Par- 
thenope, the Siren, who gave her name to the 
place, 

39 Do. Copper coin, beautifully pat- 
inated. Obv. NEOnOAlTriN. Head 
of Apollo to left ; behind, T. Rev. 
Victory crowning human-headed 
bull ; two letters (IX ?) below. 

The andromorphous bull according to some 
symbolises Baechus; according to others the 
river Glanis. 



37 

40 Nola in Campania. Didrachm. 
(See remarks on n. 27.) 

41 Nuceria Alfaterna in Campania. 
Didrachm. Type of the obverse 
(homed head) uncertain; Bacchus 
(Bckhel); the river Samus (Leake); 
Alexander the Great, according to 
othera (Eckhel). See Div. i. nos. 
20, 21. 

The retrograde legend (in Oscan characters) 
is in Greek letters NTFKPINiiN AAA- 
^ATEPNfiN. Leake thinks the coins 
are of the thii-d century B. C. 

42 Popidonium (Pupluna on coins) 
in Etruria. Double denarius (as 
denoted by xx). 

The flat smooth reverse (without type or 
indentation) is peculiar, or very nearly so, to 
Populonia. Some early British coins have also 
a blank reverse, but it is very convex. See 
Select, of Brit Coirw, n. 5. 

43 Posidonia, afterwards Ptestum, in 
Lucania. Very early didrachm 
with same types on both sides (in 
relief and incuse). 

Fine old work. The Sigma in this coin 
(which reads II02) resembles M ; the ancient 
Mu may be seen on n. 30, where the left-hand 
stroke is longest. 

44 Do. Didrachm of a more recent 
period, good work. 

45 Do. Copper coin, reading IIAIS- 
TANO. 

The name seems to have been corrupted 
into Pajstum about three centuries b. c. (more 
or less). 

46 Do. Copper coin (a triens desig- 
nated by the four globules). Obv. 
Head of Bacchus, four globules 
behind. Rev- IIAIS. Horn of plen- 
ty and four globules : in field ear 
of branched com (wheat). 

Leake's conjecture tiiat the plant is Maize 
is out of the question; the Zea Mays being a 
native of the West Indies, and consequently 
unknown in Europe before the discovery of 
America. 

5 



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47 Rhegium in Bruttium. Tetra- 
drachm (heavy). 

Atiaxilas of Messenian origin, became ty- 
rant of Rhegium B.C. 494. Ai-istotle tells us 
that he introduced the hare into Sicily, and 
also won a chariot-race of mules at Olympia ; 
and that he accordingly placed the hare and 
mule-chariot on the coins of Rhegium, the 
types of the present coin, which is prohably of 
the j^e of Anaxilas. See coins of Messana be- 
low {Nos, 92 — 95), and the remarks. 

48 Do. Do.; fine early work. Ohv. 
Lion's head seen in front. Mev. 
PHriNON. Head of Apollo. Two 
leaves of olive behind. 

The lion's head is a Samian type, and is no 
doubt placed on the coins of Rhegium, because 
of the assistance which the Samians gave Ana- 
xilas in conquering Zancle. See below, n. 92. 

49 Do. Drachma (same types). 

50 Do. Hemidrachm. Obv. Same 
type. Sev. PH, and sprig of olive- 

51 Do. Copper coin of beautiful 
work. 

52 Uncertain of Campania. Gold di- 
drachm (or denai-ius). Ohv. Head 
of Janus. Mev. ROMA. Kneeling 
figure holding a pig; a military 
chief standing on either side of 
him, touching the pig with a 
sword. 

This' is evidently an 'alliance' coin, pro- 
hably between Rome and some city of Italy. 

Of. Stahant, etCEesajungebantfcederaporca. 
^n. Vlil. .641. CoL Leake considers coins read- 
ing ROMA or ROMANO to have been struck 
in Rome itself ; othei«, as Mr Burgon, regard 
them as having been struck in various cities of 
Campania under Roman influence. The Ro- 
mans first struck silver money B.C. 269. 

53 Do., reading Romano. Silver di- 
drachm (early denarius according 
to Leake). 

The Romulus and Remus of the reverse 
may seetd to favour the view that the coin was 
struck in Roma The denarius, which at first 
weighed about 112 grains Troyj gradually fell, 
according to L6ake, to about 60 grains in the 



first century B.C. In imperial times it varied 
rather considerably. 

54 Suessa in Campania. Didrachm. 
Obv. Head of Apollo to right. 
Rev. Naked man on a horse to left, 
a palm branch on his shoulder, 
by his side another bridled horse ; 
in exergue SVESANO. 

Leake considers that Suesano is for Suesanom 
the old Latin genitive ; on some Lucanian 
coins we have AOTKANOM. Tho present coin 
is prohably of the second or third century B.C. 

55 Sybaris, aftcnvards Thurii, in 
Lucania. Didrachm of the earliest 
work (incuLse types). 

66 Do. Drachma, same types. 

Sybaris was founded about B.C. 720, and 
almost destroyed B.C. -510. "The extant coins, 
therefore, of Sybaris are of the sixth or seventh 
century B.C., and some of them are among the 
most ancient to be found either in Greece or 
Italy." — Leake, who considers the bull to sym- 
bolise the river Crathis. For the form of the 
Sigma in the legend (2T), see n. 43. 

57—69 Thurii. Tetradrachm (n 57), 
and didrachms (nos. 58, 59), of 
very fine work. 

Tlie figure on th^ helmet of Pallas is 
Scylla; see n, 74- The coins of Thurii arc 
considered to be among the very finest ever 
struck by the Greeks. 

60 — 62 Tarentum in Calabria. Gold 
didrachms of very beautiful work. 

63 Do. Gold obol, or rather litra. 

Aristotle mentions that on the coins of 
Tarentum, Taras, the son of Neptune, was 
represented riding on a dolphin. Tarentum is 
the only city in Magna Grtecia which had a 
gold coinage of any considerable extent, all the 
coins, however, being rare, 

64 — 67 Do. Didrachms of good work. 

The silver didrachms of Tarentum are im- 
mensely numerous ; in Cai'elli's work on the 
money of ancient Italy more than 500 varieties 
are figured. 

68 Temesa in Bruttium. Didrachm, 
of early date. 



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Tcmese, a port to which Homer mentions 
that Greek ships went to obtain copper in 
exchange for iron, is identified by Strabo, Ovid, 
and Statius with the Temese or Tempsain 
Mf^na Greecia. See Leake, p. 150. 

69—72 Terina ia Bnittium. Di- 
drachms. 

No. 71 is a very early coin, as appears both 
by the style of art, and by the forms of the 
letters ; NIKA on the reverse, indicates the 
figure to be that of Victoiy. Nos. 69, 70 are 
also considerably ancient, as appears by the 
legend TEPINAION, which in the more recent 
coin n. 72, becomes TEPINAIQN. The ob- 
verse of n. 71 (marked TEPINA), and the 
reverses of 70 and 72 (also marked TEPINA), 
are figures of Terina, the nymph of the foun- 
tain, which gave name to the city. The ob- 
verses of 69, 70, 72 are considered by Leake to 
represent the Siren Ligeia, sister of Parthenope 
(see n. 38), whose monument stood on the 
river Ares, near to which Terina stood. 



^ 2. Sicily, and adjacent Islands. 



(Scale mostly Attic, i 



r rather Corinthian ; 
111.) 



73 Acragas,orAgrigentum(Girgenti). 
Tetradrachm; 

The inscription is written houstrophedon, i.e. 
partly ascending, pai'tly descending. The crab 
is the freshwater crab of the Mediterranean, 
which shews that the coin symbolises the river 
(not harbour) of Girgcnti. 

74 Do. Do., but much more spread. 

The original of this most beautiful piece 
fetched at Lord Northwick's sale, £159. 

76 Do. Decadrachm. 

This denomination occurs also among coins 
of Syracuse. The original of this coin (at 
Paris) is believed to be unique. 

76 Camarina. Tetradrachm of early 
work. 

The microscopical letters on the plinth 
(EHAKE2TIAA2) probably denote the artist 
The vases in the exergue Me amphone. Compare 
Athens (Div. iii. nos. 25 — 27) and Chios 
(Div. V. n. 12). 



77 



78 



79 



39 

Catana. Tetradrachm of early 
work. 

Do. Do., later ; of fine but rather 
mannered execution. 



Gela. Small gold coin. One and 
a half litra), apparently. (Lagid 
diobol, according to Queipo). 

Sosipolia is an epithet of the Goddess (Pro- 
serpine?) represented. Soteira occurs similarly 
on copper coins of Agathocles as an epithet of 
Diana. 

80, 81 Do. Tetradrachms of fine 
early (n. 80) and later (n. 81) work. 

82 Himera. Drachma (Egmetan), 
early work. 

83 Do. Tetradrachm (Attic), of fine 
work. 

The female holding a phiale or patera, the 
boss (p/iijidko^) of which is visible, is probably 
the nymph of Himera (cf. n. 109, 110); and 
the companion faun (upon whom the hot water 
descends) symbolises the sufferers who derive 
benefit from the baths, or Thermas, as Himera 
was afterwards called. 

84 Leontini. Tetradrachm of fine old 
work. 

85 Do. Do. 

86 Do. Didrachm. 

87 Do. Obolus, or rather litra. 

88 Lipara. Copper coin, reading 
AIHAPAION. 

The genitive ending in -ON is very unusual 
on copper coins; money in that metal being 
in almost all cases later than 400 b, c, and near- 
ly all coins having the O for fl in the genitive 
being of the fifth century R c. or only a little 
earlier or later; coins inuch earlier than 500 
B. C. having either abbreviated legends or none. 
The present coin seems to be about 400 B.C.; 
at any rate not much earlier. 

89 Melita (Malta). Bilin^al copper 
coin of the Roman period. 

The selia lyurtdis or Roman chair of state is 
5—2 



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represented on this and on various Koman coins. 
C. Arnmtanus Balbus was doubtless proprietor 
of Sicily, to which Malta belonged. 

90 Do. Copper coin with foreign 
(Egyptian?) types, but Greek le- 
gend. 

The veiled head crowned with the lotus 
may probably be Isis ; the four-winged figure 
Osiris. 

91 Messana (Measiaa), formerly Zan- 
cle. Drachma (Eginetan scale). 

Zancle, here written Dank[le], is a Sicihan 
word signifying a sickle; the sickle on this coin 
symbolising the noble harbour of Messina, the 
projections being perhaps buildings. This very 
early coin may be safely ascribed to the sixth 
century B. C. See below. 

92 Do. Tetradrachm {Attic scale); 
or rather a double decalitron of 
the Corinthian scale. 

Anasilas, tyrant of Rhegium, by the help 
of some Samians and Messenians (from the 
Peloponnese) seized Zancle 494 B. C, and 
changed its name to MesSene. The types of 
this coin (calf s and lion's head) are Saniian, 
and occur also on some coins of Khegiunx 

The form of the legend and of the letters 
indicate that this early and very rare coin is 
contemporaneous with Anaxilas. 

93 Do. Do. 

The hare was introduced into Sicily by 
Anaxilas, whence the type, as Aristotle tells as ; 
the same types on both sides o6cur also on some 
rare coins of Rhegium ; see n. 47- 

94 Do. Do., very fine work. 

The legend now becomes ME2SANI0N 
(Doric form ) , having previously been ME22 ENI- 
ON. The Doric dialect came in with Dionysius 
I. tyrant of Syracuse, who in 396 B. c. took 
Messene, and transported most of its population 
to Tyndaris. The genitive ending m -ON 
shews that this coin cannot be much later than 
that event. The head accompanied by the 
syrinx is probably that of Pan, though without 
boms. 

95 Do. Do., also of fine work. 



Later than the preceding, and reading 
MESSANIilN (not MESSANION). 

96 Do. Copper coin of very fine 
work, bearing the name of the 
Mamertini. 

About 282 B. C. some Oscan mercenaries 
of Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse, after h^ 
death B. C. 289, treacherously seized Messina, 
and massacred the inhabitants. They ruled 
the city under the name of Mamertini, i. e. eons 
of Mamers or Mars (the head of Mars and the 
legend APE02 occur on this coin), and struck 
coins bearing their name ; which are of un- 
commonly fine work, but all of copper. They 
allied themselves with Rome and continued to 
rule Messina till the reign of Augustus in their 
own name. The coins of Messina from first 
to last are amongst the most historical in the 
whole Greek series. 

97 Naxos. Tetradrachm. Very fine 
old work. 

The squatting faun on the revei'se holds 
a cantharus, the sacred dririking-cup of Bacchus, 
whose head is on the obverse. 

98 — 105 Formerly classed to Panor- 
mus, but now considered to belong- 
to Carthage. They have either no 
legends or else Punic legends or 
letters. 

98 Stater of electrum, of the Egine- 
tan scale (L. Miiiler Nttmism. de 
VAfrique Anc. vol. ii. p. 135. 
Copenh. 1860). 

The symbol above the horse on the reverse 
is thus explained by Miiiler; "Lesymbole^gyp- 
tien, compost d'un disque radi^ fianque de 
deux serpents portant chacun un disque sur hi 
t^te, nous pr&ente le soleil combing avec le 
serpent aspis, qui par les ^yptiens ^tait appeld 
ouro, ureus, et consider^ comme symbole de la 
divinite. Get emblfeme est sans doute celui 
d'Osiris, dieu du soleil" Id. p. 119. This coin 
is bis n. 64 of Cai-thage, p, 85, and as no Greek 
coin is in this style of art, as regards the head 
of Ceres, "elle doit 6tre regard^ comme pro- 
premeiit carthaginoise." 



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41 



99 Gold stater of the Olympic scale. 
Id. p. 134. 

This very elegant coin, "oil la beaute s'unit 
it la noblesse," is n. 45 of Carth^e iu Miiller, 
pp. 84, 112. 

100 Eighth part of the Olympic gold 
stater. Miiller u.s. n. 79 (Car- 

, p. 87. 



101 Silver decadrachm of the Phe- 
nician {i. e. Bosporic) scale, ac- 
cording to Miiller, p. 136. 

This coin is his n. 127 ; the Phenician 
legend whose letters, rendered into Hebrew, are 
)l5nNl, is considered to express "le nom de 
Byraa, citadelle de Carthage." p. 125. 

i02 Tetradrachm, of the Attic scale, 
struck by Carthage in Sicily, ac- 
cording to Miiller, p. 7-5. Oho. 
Head of Ceres wiih. blades of 
wheat in her hair to left, sur- 
rounded by four dolphins. Rev. 
Bust of horse, Punic legend 
{Am-^machanat, i-e. people of the 
camp) below. Miiller n. 13 (Car- 
thage). 

The interpretation of the legend is uncer- 
tain : some understand Panormus to be intended 
by it, others Carthage itself. 

103 Do., according to Miiller. Obv. 
Head of Hercules. Rev. Bust of 
horse and palm-tree. Legend as 
before. Miiller n. 8 (Carthage). 

104 Do., to judge by the weight. Obv. 
Head of Ceres with dolphins. JRev. 
Quadriga and Puniclegend below. 

This is apparently not included in Miilier's 
work. The types on both sides are those of 
Syracuse. 

10.5 Do., according to MuUer. Obv. 
half horse crowned by victory, in 
field grain of barley : below Punic 
legend Kart-chadmat {i.e. new 



toii^n). Rev. Palm; and Punic le- 
gend Machanat {i.e. camp) as be- 
fore. 

Miiller n. 3 (Carthage). 

106 Segesta. Didrachmof fine work. 

107 Do. Tetradrachm of very fine 
early work. 

The figare of a hunter in a Phrygian cap 
is considered to be Acestes, a Trojan, and the 
mythical founder of Segesta. 

108 Selintis. Early didrachm (but 
heavy) . 

109 Do. Tetradrachm of fine old 
work (light). 

110 Do. Didrachm (light). 

The SeUnimtians suffered from a plague, 
arising from the marshy character of their soil ; 
the philosopher Empedocles of Agrigentum 
("Who flourished 444 B. c.) recommended works 
of draini^e, and so the pestilence ceased. The 
types of the river-gods Hypsaa and Selinus 
sacri6cing at the attar of Asclepiua (which 
bears his Symbol a dock) have reference, as is 
generally thought, to this happy event (nos. 
109, 110). 

The Apollo and Diana of n. 109, arc the 
deities who can shoot or withhold their plague- 
bearing arrows. SeUnus was destroyed or nearly 
ao about 409 B. c, and all its coins appear to be 
of the fifth and sixth centuries K. C. 

Ill — 148 Syracuse and Tyrants of 
Syracuse. 

The coins of Syracuse are amongst the most 
beautiful of the whole Greek eeries, and are 
also exceedingly numerous, ranging from, the 
sixth century B, C. to the reign of Hieronymus 
the last tyrant, who died 215 B.C., and perhaps 
later. The city was taken by Marcellus 212 
B. c. ; but its power of striking money may have 
been retained, as it became a most favourite 
resort with its Boman masters. The monetary 
scale of Syracuse is the same as that of Corinth 
the mother city; the litra, weighing about 13 
grains, being the unit. As the Corinthian 
stater of 10 litree was nearly equivalent to the 
Attic didrachm, it is common to render the 
money into Attic denominations. 



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Ill Gold piece of eight litrfe, ap- ' but it is certain that in some places the short 
parently. Extremely fine work. vowels survived a few years later. See n. 94. 



112 Gold litra. 

The same unit of measure, having nearly 
the same types, occurs also in silver, n. 120. 

113 Gold drachma {i. e. five litr^e). 

The head on this and the foUowing coin is 
that of ApoUo, and ia so described by Leake 
himself in the Numimnata Hellenica. The 
triscelium, or triquetra, which is found on various 
coins of Asia, as woU as of Sicily, is probably 
a rehgious emblem. It is now the arms of the 
Isle of Man. 

114 Gold drachma, of fine work. Ohv. 
Head of Apollo to the left; be- 
hind, star. Rev. STPAKOSlflN. 
Tripod. 

None of the gold coins of Syracuse seem to 
he earlier than the Dionysii ; the earliest ap- 
pear to be those of Evenetus and Oimon. 
{Tram. Royal 8oc. Lit. for 1850, p. 361.) 

115 Very early silver tetradrachm, 
probably about 600 b. c. or a little 
later. 

The style indicates a very remote antiquity. 

116 Very early silver didrachm, but 
later than the preceding; pro- 
bably about 500 B. c. 

This coin, alone of all here exhibited, has 
the Koppa (9) in place of the Kappa (K) in 
the legend; and may safely on that account be 
regarded as earlier than any of them. See n. 
128, 

117, 118 Early silver tetradrachms, 
probably of the earlier part of the 
fifth century b. c. 

119 Early silver tetradrachm, pro- 
bably of the latter part of the fifth 
century b. c. 

The penultimate letter of the last four coins 
being O not fl shews that none of them can 
be placed later than about 400 R c. The 
archonship of Euclid, when the long vowels 
were first used in public documents, is 403 B.C.; 



120 Silver htra, early work. Obv. 
Femalehead (Proserpine) to right; 
in front 2TPA. Rev. Sepia. 

The litra was a little heavier than the Attic 
ohol; the former is estimated by Leake to 
weigh 13,5 Troy grains, the latter 11,25 grains. 

121 Later tetradrachm of magnificent 
work by Cimon ; of the middle of 
the fourth century b. 0. 

The head represents the fountain of Arethusa, 
and the word APE0O2A in small letters may 
still be read; this orthography indicates the 
coin to be early; in the Macedonian series OT 
first takes the place of O iii the genitive in the 
reign of Philip IL 359—336 b. c. On the 
frontlet the word KIMflN occurs in microscopic 
letters, Cimon being doubtless the artist (see 
n. 132); the occurrence of the il indicating 
that the coin could not be earher than about 
400 B. c. Taking all circumstances into account 
we may plaee its date about 350 B. c. more or 
less, or in the reign of Dionysius II. (367 — 343 
B. c). 

122 Later tetradrachm, shewing the 
horses of the quadriga in extreme 
action. 

The full legend is not visible on this 
specimen ; the penultimate letter was H. See 
Combe Hunt, Mus. tab. 62. f. 15. 

123 Another in a different style. 

124 Rather early silver tetradrachm 
of most elaborate execution, by 
Euclid, whose name (ETKAEIA) 
may be traced in microscopical 
letters on the helmet of Pallas. 
Probably about 400 b, c. 

On another tetradrachm this artist's name 
occurs where the legend is not as here 2T- 
PAK02IOS (understand N0TMM02), hut 
STPAKOSION, so that the coin cannot be 
much later than 400 b, c; and the exceeding- 
ly elaborate and delicate treatment indicates 
that it cannot be much earlier. 



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4^ 



125 Silver liemidrachm. 

126 Silver didrachm, with Corinthian 
types on both sides, in a later style 
of art. 

Syracuse was colonised from Corinth about 
734; B. C, and lilce many other Corinthian colo- 
nies aometimes adopted the types of the mother- 
city. 

127 Apparently a silver piece of 
twelve litrse; in a later style of 
art. 

The Diana Venatrix is probably a copy of 
an ancient statue. 

128 Silver decadrachm, or pente- 
contalitron ; Queen Demarete's 
piece. 

The date of this ma^ificent coin is known 
within a year, having been struck by Gelon I, 
after concluding a peace with Carthage 480 B. c. 
As he died 478 B. c, we may place this coin 
479 B. c. The proceeds of a present made by 
the Cartht^nians to his wife Demarcte furnish- 
ed the metal for these coins ; vofua-j^a e^eKoyjre 
t6 xXtjOep air iicelv>)<! Aa/iaperewv tovto S' el^ep 
'Atthcos Bpav/ioi; SeKO" iaXriBi] Zk irapa, rot? 
St/eeXtwTOW a-TTo tov araOfwv wevr'rjKovTakiTpov 
(Died. Sia XI. 26). 

It will be observed that although the il 
does not occur in the legend, the ordinary K 
does ; so that all coins of Syracuse which have 
a Koppa in the legend (see n. 116) may safely 
be pronounced earlier than 480 B. c. The style 
of this coin enables to date approximately others 
which approach it; e.g. nos. 117, 118. 

129 Ditto. Decadrachm, often called 
the Syracusan medallion. 

Below the lowest dolphin of the obverse are 
traces of ETAINETO, the artist's name, 
(Evenetus) in the old genitive. In the ex- 
ergue of the reverse are seen a shield, a cuirass, 
greaves, and a helmet; below these in some 
specimens (as in 130) may be read A0AA (the 
prise) in very small letters. They were the 
reward of the victor in the chariot-race. 

130 Do. Another without the name 
of Evenetus, varied. 



These very much admired coins have not 
quite escaped criticism ; the treatment of the 
hair is a httlc mannered, and Mr Poole notes 
other imperfections. 

Probably struck during the tyranny of the 
elder Dionysius 405—367 b. c. 

131, 132 Do. Others, with the name 
of the artist Cimon (KIMiiN) in- 
scribed on the lowest dolphia. 

The liair of Proserpine is now confined in 
a net behind, Nothing can surpass the tech- 
nical skill of all the details of these magnificent 
pieces. They may be referred to the age of the 
younger Dionysius (367 — 343 B. c), 

K. 0. Miiller calls the Syracusan medallions 
"the costly master-pieces of Sicilian engravers." 
(Ancient wrt and its remains.) 

133 Do. Copper coin. Obv. STPA- 
KOSinN. Head of Proserpine. 
JRev. Biga, above it a star. In the 
exergue uncertain traces of letters 
(probably no. X., as in a similar 
coin described by Mionnet). 

134 Do. Copper Uncia or Ounce. 
Obv. 2TPA. Head of Pallas to left, 
in Corinthian helmet, around it an 
olive-wreath. Bev. Star between 
opposite dolphins. 

The fuU weight of these Sicilian ounces is 
thought by Leake to have been about 500 Troy 
grains; and their age to be about that of 
Dionysius I. They are heavier than the ancient 
Roman ounces in the proportion of 25 to 21. 

135 Do. Copper coin, on the reverse 
of which is an hippocamp or sea- 
hoi«e, with a cord hanging from 
its mouth. 

136 Do. Copper coin. Obv. Stpa- 
KOSIXIN. Head of Hercules in 
lion's scalp to left. Eev. Pallas in 
forked drapery, in field owl. 

This is interesting as being a re-struck coin 
(numraus recusus); the new types were im- 
pressed o» aeommon coin of Agathocles (n. 139), 
and the types and legends of his coin are still 



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Islands of the Egean, tStc. African Greece. 



in part visible. Hence we infer that the 
present coin is at least as late aa Agathoclee; 
probably it is later. 

Tyrants qf Syracuse. 

No genuine coins of any tyrants of Syracuse 
before Agathoclcs, which hear their name, are in 
existence; even under the Dionysii the re- 
publican forms were observed, and the coins 
read STPAKOSlIiN; and it is probable that a 
great part of the copper money which has the 
same legend is later than Agathocles ; in some 
instances we know for certain that it cannot be 
earlier; see n. 136. 

137 Agathocles (317— 289 B.C.). Gold 
coin, apparently of six litree. 

This would seem by the weight to be a 
piece of six litrse. 

138 Do. Silver tetradrachm. 

The obverse (inscribed KOPAX) is the head 
of Pi-oserpine as usual. The trophy of the re- 
verse consists of an upright stake against which 
are nailed a breast-plate and various pieces of 
armour. 

139 Do. Copper coin. 

The Doric foi-m of the genitive in 137, 139 
may be noted ; ArA0OKAEIO2 in 138 agrees 
with cTO/i/ios or some such word; cf. n. 124. 

140 Hicetas 
drachma. 

141 Hiero IL (270—216 b.c.). Gold 
drachma. 

142 Do. Silver piece of 33 litrffi, 
= 6J Attic drachms (Lagid octo- 
drachm, according to Queipo). 

The portrait on this and the two following 
coins is probably that of Hiero II, himself. 

1 48 Do. Copper coin. 

144 Do. Copper ounce. See n. 134. 

145 Gelo 11., son of the preceding, 
and associated with him in the go- 
vernment. Died before his father. 
Silver piece of eight litrse (or, in 
Queipo's view, a Lagid drachma). 



-279 B.C.). Gold 



Obv. Portrait of Galon II. to left. 
Rev. STPAKOSlOI TEAiiNOS. Vic- 
tory in a biga to right. 

The construction is difficult. Probably 
FEAilNOS is merely the ordinary legal 
genitive, not depending on 2TPAK02IOI ; 
these (the citizens) seem to be symbolized by 
the victorious type of the reverse. 

140, 147 Philistis, supposed to be 
queen of Hiero II. Seems from 
the weight to be a piece of 15 
litrEe (Tetradrachm of the Lagid 
scale, according to Queipo). 

Except on her coins, her name only occurs 
in an inscription on thogreat theatre of Syracuse, 
where it is associated with Nereis, queen of 
Gelon II. 

148 Hieronymus (216— 215B.O,). Sil- 
ver didrachm, or decalitron. 

The portrait is probably Hieronymus him- 
self. Leake prefers to regard the portraits on 
coins of Hiero II., Gelon II,, and Hieronymus as 
meant for Gelon I. It is more likely that there 
was a great family likeness between Hiero II. 
and his two sons Gelon II. ^d Hieronymus; 
similarly the portraits of Vespasian, Titus, and 
Domitian are very similar. 

149 Tauromeniimi (Taormina). Gold 
litra, apparently : but heavy. 

150 Do. Silver-piece of four litrse. 

151 Do. Copper coin, on which Apollo 
bears the title apxapetaS. 

Tauromenium in 358 B. c. received the re- 
maining inhabitants of Naxos (in Sicily) ; and 
the Naxians, on the foundation of their city 
from Chalcis in Eubcea, brought with them a 
statue of Apollo Archegetes, as the founder of 
the colony. 

DIVISION V. 

Islands of the Egean, &c. African 
Greece, 

J 1. Islands of the Egean sea with 



1—8 .^]gina. 



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Islands of the Egean, &c. African Greece. 



4>5 



At this place, according to Ephorus and 
most Greek authorities, silver money was fii-st 
coined by Pheidon, king of Argos, about 740 B.C. 
Hence emanated the Eginetan scale, which 
to judge by the coins, had for its principal 
division a drachma weighing about 95 grains 
Troy, which was subdivided into 6 obols. Nos. 

I and 2 are probably among the earliest coins 
in existence, and scarcely differ from ingots ; 
they may he referred to the 7th or perhaps 
even 8th century B, c. A rude sea-tortoise is 
the type of one side; and a rude punch mark 
disfigures the other side, These coins are 
didrachms, as is also n. 3, which has the same 
types, but is of a later though very early date, 
bemg probably of the 6th century B.C. The 
workmanship of both sides is much less rude. 
No. 4 is an hemidrachm. Ncki. 5 and 6 are 
respectively a didrachm and obol of the later 
type, a land-tortoise; nos. 7 and 8 are an ohol 
and half-obol of the older form. The Eginetan 
drachma soon declined to about 86 grains. 

9 Carthsea of Ceos. Silver didrachm 

of the later debased Attic stand- 
ard (of about 60 grains to the 
drachma). 

Aiistseus {who long dwelt in Ceos) implored 
Jupiter and Sirius (the dog-star) to cause a 
plague in Greece to cease; hence probably the 
type of the dog-star. Leake considers this coin 
to be of about the first century b.c. 

10 Chalcis of Euboea. Drachma of 
Queipo's Bosporic scale, which ap- 
pears to be the Euboic scale of 
antiquity. See note at the end. 

The Euboic scale is still uncertain, and Mr 
Poole thinks that the coins of Eubcea have 
been the main hindrance to its discovery. See 
Smith's Diet, of the Bible, vol. 3, under Weights. 

I I Chios. Very early drachma. Bos- 
poric scale. 

The pointed form of the amphora may be 
noted, which came down even to Boman times. 

12 Do. Tetradraclim, same scale. 

13 Do. A copper coin declaring it- 
self to be a three-as piece ! 

These pieces are probably of the third cen- 
tury after Christ, and have been referred to the 
reign of Gallienus. The Roman as originally 



weighed a pound, which seems not to have 
differed very much from the pound Troy (the 
former is variousiy estimated, by Bockh at 
5053 grains; the latter weighs 5760 grains;) 
now however three asses weigh about as much 
as a heavy English penny, 

14 Greta in genere, of Caligula. Sil- 
ver didrachm, of debased Attic 
scale, apparently. 

15 Cnossus in Crete, with a square 
labyrinth. Drachma of the Egi- 
netan scale, which prevailed in 
Crete generally, for the earlier 
coins. 

16 Do. with circular labyrinth. Tetra- 
drachm of Bosporic scale. 

The different modes of representing the 
same labyrinth, shews that a certain conven- 
tionality must be looked for in architectural 
and other representations on coins. A cavern, 
partly natural, partly artificial, atill exists near 
Gortjna ; the reputed work of Daedalus. This 
is probably the labyrinth of the present coin. 

17 Corcyra (Corfu). Probably a light 
Eginetan didrachm. Ohv. Cow to 
left and calf to right, sucking her. 
Rev. A type which has been com- 
monly supposed to represent the 
gardens of Alcjnous, on one side 
K. 

' Similar types occur on coins of Dyrrhachium 
and Apollonia, colonies of Corinth. See Div. 
III. nos 13 and 59. 

18 Do. Reduced Attic hemidrachm, 
apparently. 

The Pegasus is a reminiscence of Corinth, 
the mother city of Corcyra. 

19 Do. having a crater on the obverse. 
Probably a tetrobol of reduced 
Attic scale. 

20 Cos. Tetradrachm (Attic) of fine 
old work. 

The dancing figure is probably Apollo. 

21 Coresia in Ceos. Eginetan di- 
drachm of very early work. 



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46 



Islands of the Egean, ^c. African Greece. 



For the form of the incuse, compare the 
coins of ^gina, nos, 2 and 8, 

22 Cydonia in Crete. Eginetan dl- 
drachm, fine work. 

The Cydonians were renowned for the use 
of the bow. 

Tela Cydonio direxit arcu, Hor. Od. iv. 9. 

23 Commune Cypri, under Caracalla. 
Copper coin. 

For an account of the temple of Venus at 
Paphos, whose image is a conical stone, seen 
in the centre of the reverse, see Donaldson's 
Architectura N'wmismatica, n. 31. 

24 Cyprus of Claudius. Copper coin, 
struck "under Cominius Proclus, 
proconsul." 

This is the most important of all coins for 
establishing the accuracy of the New Testa- 
ment, where there seemed grave reason to sus- 
?ect an error. St Luke had termed Sergius 
aulus, the avQimaro^ or proconsul of Cyprus ; 
and it was thought by Grotiua and others that 
he ought to have called him dvTL(7TpaT7}ybii or 
proprietor. The present coin shews that, in the 
time of Claudius, Cyprus was governed by a 
proconsul {dv6vTTaT<n), whose name was Co- 
minius Proclus, and therefore that the term 
used by the Evangelist is correct. It had 
previously been governed by a proprsetor, but 
in the time of Augustus an exchange of pro- 
vinces took place between the emperor and the 
Senate, and consequently the title of the pre- 
siding governor was then changed; the dv0v- 
-TtaTof, being the title of the governor of the 
Senatorial provinces, as avTiaTpaT-riyd^ was of 
that of the Imperial. See Akerman's Numis- 
matic Illustrations of the New Testament; 
Pale/s Emdmces, part ii. a vi § 8. 

25 Gortyna in Crete. Eginetan di- 
drachm, of very early work. 

The very archaic characters stand for 
rOPTTNOS TO SAIMA (SHMA). The 
lion's scalp was the •napaarjuov, coat of arms, 
SO to say, of Gortyna ; and it is here termed 
aT}fia. . "The style and letters indicate a pro- 
duction of the sixth century B.C." (Leake.) 

26 Do- Tetradrachm of (somewhat 
reduced) Attic scale with Athenian 
types. See Div. iii. nos, 25 — 27. 



This rather late coin certainly indicates an 
alliance with Athens, when it was struck. Pre- 
viously in the Peloponnesian war the cities had 
been allied ; but the age of the present coin is 
probably that of Philip V. See Num. Chron. 
for 1861, p. 174. 

27 Do. Eginetan didrachm. 

Pliny's observation explains the type (xii 
§5): "Est Gortynae platanus ... statimque ei 
GrteciEe fabulositas superfnit, Jovem sub ea 
cum Europa concubuisse," The buU of the re- 
verse is of course the bull of Europa. 

28 Histisea in Euboea. Probably a 
tetrobol of the Euboic scale. See 
Leake's JVotes on the weights of 
Greek coins in the Numismata 
Hellenica. 

The head of the obverse rather seems to be 
a Bacchante, than "Bacchi fceraineum caput" 
(Eckhel) ; the female on the reverse is probably 
Histi^a, the foundress of the city. 

29 Referred by Leake to lalysus in 
Rhodes, but doubtless belonging 
to the Cyrenaica, probably to Cy- 
rene itself. Attic tetradrachm. 

This is u. 22 of Miiller's Cyrenaique (mon- 
naies sans nom de ville), and it has given rise 
to some discussion. The eagle devouring a ser- 
pent is regarded as symbolical of victory, sent 
by Jove; and the lion's head has been con- 
jectured to be a Samian type, placed on the 
coin by Arcesilas IIL (b.c. 530 — 514), who 
recovered his kingdom by aid of the Samians. 
L. Miiller considers that the style of the coin 
points to this date. Nwmism. de Vcmc. Afrique, 
vol. I. p. 18. Compare Div. iv. n. 92, which 
probably su^ested this view. 

30 Itanus in Crete. Eginetan (re- 
duced) drachma of fine work. 

31 los. Copper coin, bearing the 
head of Homer (inscribed). 

Other places, as Chios, Smyrna, and Amas- 
tris have placed Homer on their coins. Homer 
was reputed to be buried in los, one of the 
Cyclades. 

32 Copper coin of Ithaca, bearing the 
head, as is thought, of Ulysses. 



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33 Lesbos. Small early coin of base 
silver or potin. Apparently half- 
hecta of the Cyzicene or Pho- 
csean stater. 

34 Lyttus in Crete- Early drachma 
of the Eginetan scale, reduced. 

The forma of the letters T and O are re- 
markable. This is but Kttle heavier than a 
drachma of the so-called Olympic scale ; which 
seems to be the I^netan scale reduced. 

35 Do. Eginetan didrachm ; later, 
but early (probably of the fifth 
century b.c.), 

36 Mytiiene. Hecta of Cyzicene or 
Phocasan stater. The M of the 
reverse above the calf's head, the 
type of Mytiiene, leaves little doubt 
of the attribution. Leake thinks 
the female head is Diana. 

37 Do. Coin of potin, with remark- 
able quadrate incuse. 

38 Do. Do., but lighter. 

Leake thinks that the exact resemblance 
in form, style, and material, and in the size 
and form of their reverse leaves little doubt 
that they were struck in the same city. The 
weights however are different, and it is hazard- 
ous to pronounce on their denominations : no. 

38 may perhaps be a light Eginetan didrachm, 
while no. 37 appears to be a Bosporic or Lagid 
tetradrachm, 

39 Naxus (in the Egean Sea). Heavy 
Eginetan didrachm of very early 
work, of the age of Darius Hys- 
taspes, as Leake thinks. 

A very ancient representation of the cantha- 
rus, which retains the present form (or nearly so) 
in the Greek-Italian Vases of the Decadence. 

40 Olus in Crete. Eginetan didrachm. 

The head is probably from the statue of 
Diana Britomartis at Olus, mentioned by Pau- 
sanias. The more coins are studied, the more 
it appears that thoy preserve many copies from 
ancient statues. The wreath of bay on Diana's 
head is unusual. 

41 Phiestus in Crete. Eg^etau di- 
drachm. 



42 Do. Do. 

The fine vase in the field is the itkv^o<; 
or peculiar cup of Hercules. Cf Div. IV. n. 22. 

43 Do. Do. 

These coins exhibiting Hercules as the 
slayer of the serpent of the Hesperides, as the 
asaajlant of the Hydra, and as reposing after 
his labours, well illustrate Mr Poole's remark 
that the Ootan artists make their coins more 
pictorial and more full in details than wo find 



44 Polyrhenium in Crete. Eginetan 
didrachm (rather light). 

This is an early coin to bear a magistrate's 
name in full The O (not ii) in the legend 
shews that it is not much later than B. c. 400, 
while the occurrence of H equally shews that 
it is not much earlier. 

45 Priansus in Crete. Eginetan di- 
drachm. 

46 Ehodes. Tetradrachm of Bos- 
poric (or Euboic) scale; see be- 
low, no. 69. 

The flower on the reverse is certainly the 
rose (not the pomegranate, as Leake and many 
others) ; this is put out of all doubt by the 
divided sepals. For the various scales of the 
money of Ehodea see Queipo, tab. xxsix. 

47 Do. Didrachmof the same scale. 

48 Do. Do. 

49 Do. Tetrobol, apparently. 

50 Do. Copper medallion. 

The fine execution of the head of Bacchus, 
as well as of his ivy crown, desei^ves attention, 
in a copper coin more especially. 

61 Nicocies, king of Salamis in Cy- 
prus. Succeeded his father Eva- 
goras I. B.C. 374; time of his death 
unknown. Eginetan drachma. 

The BA of the obverse and the NIK of 
the reverse (in monogram) are an abbreviation 
for BA2IAEOS NIKOKAEOX, or (as Leake 
prefers) BASIAEilS NIKOKAEOT2. 
6—2 



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AT THE raiYEHfilTY PRESS. 



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