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/ 



o 



CATALOGUE 



OF TEE 



BIRDS 



This Volume (XXVII.) being ready first, is issued in 
advance of Vols. XXIV., XXV., and XXVI., which 
will be published in the course of next year. 

W. H. FLOWER, 

Dtctmher iiO, IHVr,. Director. 



VOLUME XXVII. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

1895. 



D 



CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



BIRDS 



IS THE 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



VOLUME XXVII. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY OKDEK OF THE TRUSTEES. 

1895. 



LIBRARY OF THE 
LELAND STANFORD JR. UNIVERSITY. 

a2. '??•<?/ 




CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



CHENOMORPH-aE 

(PALAMEDE^, PHCEXICOPTERI, ANSERES), 

CRYPTURI, 

AND 

RATIT JE 

IN THE 

COLLECTION 

OF THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 



BY 

T. SALVADORL 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

80LD BY 

LONO&fAXS ft Co., S9 PATERNOSTER ROW ; 
B. QCAKITCH. 16 PICCADILLY; DULAU ft Co., 37 80H0 SQUARE. W.: 
ILEOAN PAUL ft Co., PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING- CROSS BOAD: 

A2fD AT TUX 

BS1TI8U MUBBUM (NATURAL UISTOBY). CBOMWELL ROAD. S.W 

1895. 



PREFACE. 



f 



tf^r^^v«^\/s 



The numbers of the species of Birds treated of in this Volume, and 
of the specimens at present in the CoUection, are as follows : — 

Species. Types. Spedznens. 
ChenomorphaB 205 31 5044 

Crypturi 65 29 363 

Ratitffi 26 7 134 

In none of the preceding volumes has the number of desiderata 
been so small as in the present ; only eight species of the Anseres, 
seven of the Tinamous, and four of the Eatitse being entirely 
unrepresented by specimens in the Museum* Beside the 67 types 
of recognized species, the Collection contains 25 other typical 
specimens which are now regarded as referable to species pre- 
viously named and described. 

The unrivalled collection of Tinamous formed by Messrs. Godman 
and Salvin, and supplemented by the loan of numerous specimens 
from Continental Museums, has enabled the author to discriminate 
considerably more species than his predecessors were inclined to 
admit. 

The Hon. Walter Eothschild, whose collection of Apteryx far 
surpasses that in the British Museum, has given most valuable 
assistance in the preparation of this Catalogue by lending these as 
well as other specimens to the author. 

The present volume concludes the series of the ' Catalogue of 
Birds.' Thanks to the energy with which Count Salvadori has 



applied himaolf to the work, its publicatioo precedes that of 
Yolames 24, 25, and 26. However, it will bo followed imme- 
diately by 701111116 25, which containa the GulU and Petreb, while 
it IB a matter of regret that no Buoh proxpect can be held out aa 
regards the other two Tolnmos. In a final volume it is intended 
to give a EUpplcmcntary list of the species described eince the 
publication of the several volumes, and an Index to the whole 
work. 

ALBERT GtJNTHER, 
Keeptr of the DejiaHiMnt of Zooloijii. 
Britiah MiiKnin (N. II.]. 
September 6, I8ay 




INTRODUCTION. 



The present volume contains the account of the Chenomorphss 
(Palamedefls, Phoenicopteri, and Anseres), Crypturi, and Batitse. 

As to the Chenomorphce, the PalamedeoB and the PJuxniccpieri 
contain only a few species, the great bulk consisting of the 
Afueres. The literature relating to these is very scattered, and 
few works are specially devoted to thorn. The first attempt at a 
complete account was Eyton's ' Monograph of the AnatidsB, or Duck 
Tribe/ published in 1838. 

Between 1845 and I80O Dr. Reichenbach, in the ^ Synopsis 
Avium,' gave rather indifferent figures, mostly copies, of the ' Nata- 
tores ' known in his time. 

Prince Bonaparte, in 1856, published the " Conspectus Anserum 
Systematicus " (Compt. Bend, xliii. pp. 648-652), with a nominal 
list of 1 72 Bpecies known to him. 

Schlegcl, in 1866, published in the ' Museum des Pays-Bas ' an 
account of the ^Anseres' contained in the Lcyden Museum (pp. 122); 
they numbered 1199 specimens, belonging to 140 species. 

In 1869 Eyton published for private circulation a ^ Synopsis of 
the Anatidte,' by which our knowledge was not advanced. 

G. B. Gray, in 1871, in the 'Hand-list,' gave a nominal list of 
all the species then known, about 183, of which some cannot be 
maintained. 

Although not of a general character, the **Bevision of the 
Neotropical Anatidae " (P. Z. S. 1876, pp. 358-412), published by 
Sdater and Salvin, may be considered the best essay hitherto 
written on this suborder. A very important contribution also is 
ScJater^s ** List of the certainly known Species of Anatidse " 
(P. Z. S. 1880, pp. 496-536) ; the species included in this paper 
amount to 176. 

The number of species recognized in the present Catalogue is 196, 



VUl IVTBODUOTION. 

besides a few of a more doabtfnl character ; three are now described 
for the first time. 

In the ClasBification of the Anseres, I have oloaely followed 
that propOBed by Sclater and Salvin in 1876 (I. c), and by Solater 
in 1880, the only new feature in my arrangement being the inititu- 
tion of a new subfamily, Chenonettince, the membere of which have 
the external appearance of Geese, hat the males have a larynx 
famished with a bnlla ossea, as in Anatirux, 

Not much has hitherto been done in the systematic and doBcrip- 
tive treatment of the order Cryptvri. 

Wagler published in 1827, with excellent lalin descriptions, 
Uouographs of the genera Crypturvt, Notknra, and Shynehotu$, 
containing all the species then known. 

Gray, in 1867, in the ' List of the Gallins in the British Uusenm,' 
gave an aoconnt, with deacriptioDs of many new species, of the 
whole group, numbering about 55 species. A nominal list of the 
same appears in the ' Hand-list ' (1871). 

Finally Schlegel, in the ■ Museum des Pays-Bas,' published in 1880 
a Monograph of the ' Tinami,' pp. 1-57 ; the species mentioned by 
him number 33, represented by 134 specimens. 

The species recognized in the present volume amount to 65, of 
which 14 are described as new. 

In working out the Tinamous I have received much Bf&istance 




INTRODUOIIOK. IX 

Monograph of the ^ Aves Stmthiones/ represented in that museum 
by 37 specimens, belonging to 14 species. In 1877 J. de Mosenthal 
and J. E. Harting published a rolume on ' Ostriches and Ostrich 
Farming,* which contains a useful rSsume of our knowledge of 
Struthioas Birds« 

In working out these three groups of birds I have found that of 
the Anseres most laborious, on account of the exceedingly great 
number of references and of the many phases of plumage through 
which these birds pass, and which are not always easy to understand. 
The study of the Tinamous is very difficult, especially as the limits 
of variation seem wide and the species often ill-defined ; a very 
extensive series of specimens is necessary in order to arrive at any 
definite conclusion. Fortunately I have been helped by many 
friends, either with suggestions or with the loan of rare and typical 
specimens; and I desire to express my thanks particularly to 
Mr. Salvin, Mr. Sclater, Mr. Seebohm, the Hon. W. Rothschild, 
Mr. Hartert, Prof. A. Newton, Dr. Oustalet, Dr. Dubois, 
Dr. Reichenow, Graf von Berlepsch, Canon Tristram, Dr. Forbes, 
Mr. Ridgway, Mr. Allen, Dr. Hartlaub, Prof. Barboza du Bocage, 
Dr. Schauinsland, Dr. Stolzmann, and Prof. P. Godot. 

T. SALVADORI. 
Turin, Zoological Miueum, 

August, 1895. 



) 




SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Order XIX. 
CHENOMORPH^. 

Suborder I. PALAMEDE^. 

Fam. P A L A M E D E I D £. 

Pafje 

1. Palamedea, Ltnn 2 

1. comuta, Linn 3 

2. Chauna, IlUff 4 

1. chavaria {Linn,) 4 

2. cristata (Sw.) 

Suborder II. PIICENICOPTERI. 

Fam. Phcenicoptebid^. 

1. PhoenicopteruSy Linn 9 

1. ruber, Linn 9 

2. roseus, Pall, 12 

3. chileusis, Mol, 16 

2. Phoeniconaias, G. R. Or. . 18 
1. minor {Geoffr,) 18 

3. Phoenicoparrus, Bp 21 

1. andinus (Philippi) 21 

2. jamesi (JRahmer) .... 22 

Suborder HI. ANSERES. 

Fam. An ATI D^. 
Subfam. I. Cygnin2B. 

1. Cygnus, Bechst 25 

davidi, Smnh 25 

1. musicus, BechU 26 

2. bewicki, Yarr 29 

3. columbianus (Ord) . . 32 

4. buccinator, Bich 33 

6. olor {Gm,) 35 

6. melancorypbus (Mol.) . 39 



2. Chenopis, Wa^l 41 

I. atrata (Lath.) 41 

3. Coscoroba, Rchnb 42 

1. Candida ( ru;»Y/.) 42 

Subfam. II. ANSEBAXATINiE. 

4. Anseranas, Leu 44 

1. semipalmata (Lath.) . . 44 

Subfam. III. Plectroptkrin-k. 

5. Plectropterus, I^each .... 40 

1. rUppelli, 8clat 47 

2. gambensis (Linn.) .... 48 

3. niger, Sclat 50 

4. scioanus, Salvad 51 

C. Cairina, Flem 61 

1. moschata (Linn.) .... 51 

7. Sarcidiomis, Ei/t 54 

1. melanonota (Benn.) . . 54 

2. caruncubita (lUig.) . . 59 

8. Asarcorais, Salvad 59 

1. scutulata (^.3fu//.) .. 60 

9. Rhodonessa, Bchnb 61 

1. caryophyllacea (Lath.). 61 

10. Pteronetta, Salvad 63 

1. hartlaubi(Ow«.) 63 

11. Nettopufl, Brandt 64 

1. auritus (Bodd.) 65 

2. pulcbellus, Gould .... 67 

3. coromandelianus ( Gm.) 68 

4. albipennis, Gould .... 72 

12. Mjij Boie 72 

1. sponsa (Linn.) 73 

2. galericnlata (Linn.) . . 76 

Subfam. IV. Cebeopsdj-^. 

13. Cere<»psis, Lath 79 

1. noTSB bollandiffi, Lath. . 79 

Cnemiomis, OweJi 81 

1. calcitrant, Owen 81 



BTSTBH&TIC IXDBX. 





Subfam. V. Asbxsisjb. 




7. arborea (Linn.) 


^ 


14 


Chen, Boie . , 






164 




l.tUBrulescens (ii'nn.) . 


82 


9. ejtooi [GouJd] 


lea 




2. byperboreua (Poff.) . 


84 


24. Chenalopex, Staph 


166 








1. KtrvptiflcuB (Linn.) . 






4. roasi (Jao-d) 




•2. iiibatU3 iSpiv) 

25. TaJoma, ZeacA 

1. cornlita {S. G. Ota.) . 

2. radjnb {Oam.) 




15 




8H 


170 








2. ruhrirostris. £«/«. . 


91 


176 






02 


90. Casaica, Bp 






4. gambeli, tfarll 


OS 


l.nitiia(Jhtf.) 


177 




5. BlTthropua [Linn.) . . . 
II. &bftli8 {Lath.) 


97 
f<9 


2.cana(t^.) 

S. Tariegata (Cm.) 


189 
183 




7. Reiriniiitrin, Oouid . . . 


lUl 




185 






102 


27. Anas, Li«« 


187 




8. brachvrhvnchus, Baill. 


KIR 


ouBtaleti, Snirarf. ... 


189 




S. indicus (ia(A.) 

pBTftndis(fitn.) 










nn- 


2. wviUiaDB, Sdat. . . . 


196 


18 


OygnopBiri, Brandt 


107 




199 




1. cypooides {Lirm.) . . . 


m 






17 


Pbilncte, Bmiviiter 


KM 


6. obscnra, Gm 


200 




1. c«u»gica (Sevaitianoff 


KH) 


6. fulviguU, .R.-d^. ... 


202 












l.can«dvni,ig(ir«n.)... 


112 


8. diari, Rid^o 

ft aberti, Rtdgw 


204 




2. hiitohinai (JTw-A.) ... 


114 


204 






im 


10. iHzonica, FroKr 


205 




4. minima, Iii(ifW 


MB 


11. Buperciliosa, Qm. . , . 


206 






117 


12. pajdlorhyncha, Forstfr 209 








13. zonorhyncha, S^ninh. . 






7. nigripaos(iaipr.) ... 


IW 


14. iindolota, IhAoi* . . . 


212 




8. ruBcollifl (PaU.) 


\U 


15. sparsB, Smith 


213 




Neeochen. Salvad. 


\'.>.n 








1. sandvicenais ( J'ig.) . 


m 


2P. Eunntta, Bp 


218 


jH 



T¥RT. 






-«H- 



« e.zcL 



. ii.iinn. ^< 






•■rt. 



" L..JLr7fv 

^ TtfcF^: OifT^L. Aorao.. 

1, UTia. li-rr: 



L^r err 

r%iajr 



■BTirilL. 






^•1* 






hUilT'-TTJ-'rC'-'A- a*7. 

. •Tt^-T.-frf-fti-'W-S. 



'..••:. »T4-»Ti. i-iae, . 






. jrr.rsxalli. -Lr-'f!*. 



"^iii^kiiii. -ttuttt'-^ka 







1. jnxi"!' 






4%. 






*9\ 






J!* 






'i.» 






.i*i '>».-.za«.irr: 



r. ^ ?- 
r. h rV 



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>.-:' 






a;* 



>u&ao. A 3F^:s8v,—.'<irv^ 



TffR^v /:#,. 



.V. 






•• 








. iiuv* v>vuTi»»:» N>»s . 


4^^ 




1 4unu»v'*««rs,?s •>«»» 


44J^ 




J. naL^\^ >••;•:#. 


44S 




^ '-'^u^'irmfc. J*'. 


44f 




?. es»«i»*.T,t'-:»*:>^ ."^c^iAi; 


4.V 




K Vi^llMlli TVlVffV* 


. 4.V 


Jif. 




4-X 






STaTEMATIC OIPEZ. 



61. Mergnnetta, GmM 457 

1 . frionatji, Salvad. 468 

2. &rmHta, Go«ld 458 

3. turreri, 8d. * Saiv. . . 460 

4. ffarleppi, Bertepath . , 480 

5. leucogenjs {T>ch.) 461 

6. columbiBDS, Dea MuTt. 463 

SuMitin. XI. MsBonrx. 

62. Mei^uB, Lim. 463 

] . FJbfltluB, Liim 404 

63. liophodytw, Scknb 468 

l.cucullatiw(£»in.).... 468 

64. Mermiiser, 5™« 471 

1. cfwtor (Lmn.) 473 

2. comutua, Saload 475 

3. aroericHiius (Com.) .. 477 

4. squ&niatmi [Oould) . . 478 
6. eermlor [Linn.) 479 

6. aQst™li?l2rOTnft.*Jac7.) 4S4 

7. braailianus (nVi^.) .. 485 

Order XX. CRYPTURI. 
Fam. TiNAMiD.*. 
Subfam. I. Tinamins. 

1. Tinamu.^, Loth im 

l.tao, Ttmm 497 

2. robustua, Sdat 600 

3. fuscipenuis, StUvad. . . 600 

4. Bolitariua ( VieiU.) 501 

6. major {Gm.) 602 

6. flubciiatfttuB (CVii.) '"'" 



12. simplex, Salvad. 531 

13. bfllBtoni, BarU 631 

14. atrieapillua, Tick 683 

15. garleppi, Berl 633 

10. BtriguitMUfl (remm.) .. 533 

17. erythropuB {Natt.) . . 634 

18. variegftius (iMh.) 535 

19. salvini, Salvad. 637 

20. breTirostriB {Natt.) . . 538 

21. bartletti, Bel. * Sain. . 538 

22. noctivaeia ( Wied) . . 539 
SS. disamihB, SalBod. 541 

24. cinnamomeua {Left.) . . 641 

25. boiicordi {SaiU] 644 

26. columbianus, Salnad.. . 545 

27. mcxicanus, Salvad. ,.646 

28. occidental ia, Salrad. . . 546 

29. tranaftLSciatu^, Sd. 4* 

Sah 546 

4. RbTnchiituK, a»i 547 

1. hifesceos [Temm.) .... 548 

2. niBCulicollis, G. R. Gr. 550 

5. Nolhoprocta, Sd. Sf Salt: . 550 

1. tacMHO'wskii.Sf/.i^-Sn/r. 661 

2. cinnnace-aa {Bvrm.) . . 552 

3. per4icftria [KitU.) 553 

4. coquiiabica, Salia^. . . 654 
6. peutlandi ((?. R. Or.) . 555 

6. curriroJitriB, Set. * Sate. 666 

7. omatft (G. Jt Gr.) 567 

8. brsDickii, Toes. 558 

6. Nothum, War/l. 658 

1. macuioen (T'emni.) 559 

~ ' ■ogiittaf*, Sattad. . . 6G0 




STSTEMATIC IVDEX. 



XV 



2. molTbdophanes, Lmn, . 574 

3. australis. Gum, 575 

Order n. RHE.E, 

Fam. Rhxidjb. 

1. Rhea, Lath, 677 

nana, Lydekk 578 

1. americana {Lmn,^ .... 578 

2. macrorh jncha, StiaL . . 581 

3. darwini, (i^oicitf 582 

Older IIL CASUARII. 

Fam. L DBOMJBiDiB. 

1. Dromsus, TieUL 585 

1. noTS hollandilb {Lath) 586 

2. ater, FfetW. 588 

3. irroratus, Barti, 589 

Fam. n. Casuabiidjb. 

1. CasnariuB, Bris^ 590 

1. tricaruncnlatuB, Becc . 591 



2. Inearunculatus, Sdat, . 591 

3. galeatUJS Btmn^ 592 

4. au8trali9. Wall 594 

5. salvadorii, Oh$U 595 

6. bec«arii, ^2af 506 

7. uniappendiculatus, 

Blyth 597 

8. occipitaliA, SahatL 598 

9. papuanus, Bomnb 599 

10. picticollis, Seiat 600 

11. bennetti, GaM 601 

Older IV. APTERYGES. 

Fam. Aptkryqidjb. 

1. Apterjx, Shaw 603 

1. australia, Shaw 604 

2. lawryi. BothschUd 606 

3. mantelli, BarU. (X)7 

4. oweni, Gould 609 

5. ocddentaHs, Bothiich, . 610 

6. haasti, Potts 611 



I 




CATALOGUE 



OF 



BIRDS 



— ♦ 



Order XIX. CHENOMORPH^. 

This Order, the name of which has been proposed by Haxley, 
comprises all those Carinate birds which combine at least the 
following two characters : — 

Palate desmognathoos ; young covered with down and able to run 
or swim in a few hours after hatching. 

The other common characters of the group are :— 
^cck long, without apteria; oil-gland tufted; wings aquinto- 
oubital ; rhamphotheca with ceroma ; nares pervious ; maxillo- 
palatines coalesced across the middle line ; mandible much produced 
and curved upwards behind its articulation with the quadrate; 
flexor perforans digitorum leading to all three anterior digits, but 
not to the hallux ; ambiens muscle present. Eggs white. — Range 
cosmopolitan. Habits aquatic. 

Synopsis of the Suborderi, 

a. No uncinate processes on the ribs ; 

margins of the bill not laminated. 1. PALAMEDEJB, p. 2. 

b. Uncinate processes on the ribs ; 

margins of bill laminated. 
a'. Tarsus three times the length of 

the femur, scutellated in front 

and at back ; bill abruptly bent 

in the middle 2. PHCENIOOFTERI, p. 8. 

6'. Tarsus about the length of the 

femur, reticulated at back and 

generally in front ; bill straight, 

always with a distinct nail at 

the tip of the upper mandible. 3. ANSEBES, p. 23. 

VOL. XXVII. B 



FAL4VE|]BIL)£. 



Suborder I. PALAMEDE*. 

Boside the absence of uncinoto proceBSps to the ribs, a unique 
character among birda, the .Screamers are distinguished from the 
other ChenomorphK by the mediun basiptery^oid processes, the 
absence of a ventral and nlraoat of any other bare traet, the tarsus 
being less than one and a half times thn length of the femur, 
reticulated in front and behiud, the anterior toes being connected bv 
rudimentary webs, and by non-laminated margins of the bill. 

In external appearance the Screamers present the following 
features; — Head amall, neck covered with small soft feathers. 
Bill of a gallinaceous shape, much shorter than the head, with the 
haac rather thick, and covered with soft shin ; nostrils oblong, 
broad, situated rather lower down ; dortrum short, convex, with 
the tip obtuse, bent down. 

Wiiigs large, rounded, broad, with the secondaries very large ■ ; 
carpal portion with two spurs, the anterior one much the largest. 

Tail of 14 or 12 feathers, broad, nearly half the length of the 
wing. 

Feet thick, moderately hiph ; tibioi naked inferiorly ; toes very 
long, the median one subcqnal t« the tarsns, united at the base by 
a short membrane ; feet covered with small hexagonal scaler, dis- 
posed transversely on the toes ; nails rather strong, the posterior 
ono the largest : hallux long and strong. 

The Screamers are confined to the Neotropical Region, 



One family only. 




L F 



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31. X . ^i. X ^K3 j^4^ 1 MamtL 

Uimn Thgr^A-BL iL x 4b«l u'^* :! Mm. 
dmmmi Zbkl, xHL x 5i»?>. x ::*i4 l?5if". . ESaart, I ' Ol itfiT. 
X ^ -sr Tw Jf n . C-^«l ^. Z < lt«», x L4 ' &M3: X* 
r«inK ±£.-k.iSm -J^HA. 1 M. Mm. ^-3 . tuilr x *2 ^mun^ 
:^«4? . ^I«^':«L.i^ r«^ n^ T-mmL x «!^ ^^r^' ^2 asn^nK?. 
^' » Z * L*«L X C - «MC f ilsir. P Z £ J?*1C x 

jc«: ' *^*- Jit JEflu: :-ri- x ±i i. 




4 FlLlllEOKIDS, 

Adult mall. Feathers of the top of the bead black, mixed with 
white ooee; neck and upper parts glossy black, feathers of the 
lover part of the neck in front and on the aides grey, with a black 
band at the tip; breast black ; abdomen white; under tail oorerts 
black; wings glossy black, but the smaller wing-coverts white, 
those near the median black edged with white; carpal edge 
white ; base of the primaries, including the base of the shafts, 
white; under wing-coverte whitish; tail Mack: "iris bright 
orange ; upper mandible dark brown-grey, lower mandible paler ; 
frontal horn yellowish white ; legs and feet ashy grey " (Wud). 
Total length about 34 inches, wing 22-5, tail 11, culmen 1'4, 
tarsDs 4-4. 

Female. Similar to the mate, but, according to Prince Neu- 
wied, the grey feathers of the neck are shorter, the anterior part 
of the head and the upper neck more brownish; a female in the 
British Mnsenm has the smaller wing-coverts buff. 

Hah. Guiana, Yenesuela, and Amazonia, west as far as Ecuador 
and Eastern Peru. 

a. Ad. sk. S. America. 

b. $ ad. Hk. Upper Ucayali. E. Bnrtlett, Esq. 

[C.J. 
e. Ad. sk. Balzar Mts., Ecuador Salvin-Qodman Coll. 



2. CHAUJTA. . 

Type. 

Chauna, i%. Prodr. Mamm. et Av. p. 253 (1611} .... C. ciislata. 
Ghavaria, Rafinaqie, Analjfe,^. TO (1816). 

Opistholophos, yteiU. Aaainte, pp. 60, 70 (ISld) C. cristata. 

IschyromiB, SchA. Av. Stftt. Nat. p. «i (1862) C. chavaiia. 

Ischyomis, il/>. Onnpt. JZMd.xliU.p.69e,gen.lOU(18fi6). 




CbKaia it-ryKA. G. M^ G* Gtm. JSL s. ?. 4ftfL a. ±.iL MI 

AbV. * !ywt liur. I^^i:. p. JQS JVoai: ; Samtl RZS, Ir^. 



:k 377. ^i^^ Tu - -a* L*li5* p. 'fr»5 ; JEmtc. P ZLS. I^:i5L ^n, :**, 

ji«. jBwc: iu pa. »&. rv:. X 4ir ■ T-^>fatf : ^ >: Z ;». 



Ci 



:*?* : Saiii J^ Sua. XimtmeL Jtx, Xntmo. p. 'jjS 1^72 

CmttrtibL l*± p. Tl^; iL f^; Zm£ <^B-t. x Ti I*i' . 
RT. ^MT ry. ^t 'sta -iL p. 414 liW- : El iW. 1*1?. p. iTO 
V^n^nusui ; A, J^rvr. Imrt.ifR. pc m. p. ^^ I^sfrt*. 
LwiiTrrcifs fiofiviiuk. JbsMS. .^2. J^|H<i A^ p. zxi I I^sad' . G. R, 

G^, Rad-^me:^ p. 7L a- :»36« I*n j_^ 
Lic2TfrEaft^ -ief^'jaab. Jb. Omvr. M^mi. ilxix. p. -Sits, il t^ . I^^iir!' . 
PikmiHin tetany Sdtte^ & DHra^ p. :^IM liiU ; idL JKhl 
P.-5.. g^rr X r:i I=i'^> Botpitt ; Gwk TIbl Oil m. x Li 

Cbaanm Tyinii.iiK :Scfiie. P.ZS, Isf/iiL p. . -^ pL xL . 3S^v Gzanaiift v 
I'?i?«* X fir*!. I'^^WL X 3l!^ =i&a%wiA>. 

=«:. ia^^ana. rtT P Z A I-slHL x 417 . 

A3^roMT : «w FiESec p. Z ^ L^tS%.. pe. ^L ^"^ i iiL JLaiL ± Xv. 
y. EL :]' ET. ^ 14+-I50 L'i4l». ; G«in^ P. Z S. 1^75. tj. *li 
I?OS.9o. IM>^^} «.-Ticifdii« jiciJLp. I^u pl& xiL. x^.. xi^^ XT. ; 
FiztK^' R Z S. I?77. pp. JOT. J»L £ I <^aa. ; ^ Eob. I^I« 
m IL ±>; Bttfafiust P. Z S. la^ pp. 17^ L«l ; sdua. Um. 



piLer: iq^^ port; of tite&eadiKk zreT-: .yrfpfcil ooc 
cvy : <^i>ek9«. fii£» of ^&« fr^if. &ui timac wbOft,. i&arply »ftMfTTiwt 
nrrnn. die ilmik. wixiclL ijcm» s broad otHot vmad tiie misfnaiL uarc 
It die neck : jit^tien ai t^ Ljwar pare of z&e neck, iit die Tuii&ar- 
parts, md iba die unairiT wine-wrRrca. mare or leai widi paler 
tdcwoi tsK^^xrak *i£ cbe orriaL etise binaiiLy eited widi wkcce: 
pnnaryHnvera diiabtlT ^sdeeii wick whioe -hl die inner web ; inuier 
wimr-eoverts whice; prmntrnj* ami z^-Seaxsuea 4acj biatck: biH 
md &ac red (?\ Tocal Loigck a&mic ±& inehea^ wine sbQUC I^^ !2ul ^. 



Afik TiffwimriA and CaimnhiB. 

«. JmLic ' Jumaii'a. ' 

9> Ad, ic *^Araw>»aJ V-*nt*gneia. 

& ,£^ Ad ^ Caztaizqna ZmiLSicw 

d cf <>d ikeiflCaiL Camupma. 

«. Bimaa if rhe annk. 


ZmL Sie. 
ZwL Sk. 

SilTin-t^iiiiman C«iQ. 
Sibni-4ji]ihxuixi CfliL 



PILIHDEIDX. 

8. Chaona cristata. 

ChHJA, D'Azara, Apunt. i. p. lOd, n. 341 (1806) ) id. Fuy. [ed. &«m.) 
iv. p. 179(1809); i>«m™(, Wrt.Se. AW.iiJi. p.CO {parL)(1816). 

Chauna chavarU, JUig. Frodr. M. et A. p. 254 (part.) (18U) ; Cve. 
mgn. An. i. p. 499 (1817) ; Steph. Gen. Zool. aii. 1, p. 272 (part.) 
(W2i) ; Lesi. Man. iTOm. ii. p. 287 (1828) ; Cko. Rton. An. 2nd ed. 
i. p. 536(1829); I.e»i. Oimpl. de Buff., Om. vii.p.603 (1830); id. 
(W. c>f.2oded. p. 25311838) ;fiii>ti. Ven. 6a. Miu. v. 114 {1M4); 
O.lLOr. lAitB. Brit. M>». iii. p. 114 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. m. p. 591, 
' ' - • - ■■ .i".". ...... ^2ara't Apunt. ■p. S3 

a.ff.ll34"-35(1848) 
CTMi, ,^!i.p.88(1854) 
Bp. Cb'mpt. Rend, iliii. p. 598, a. 285 (1866) ; Biirm. J.f. 0. 1858, 
p. 153 [ Cria>, P. Z. S. 1864, pp. 14-16 (anatom;) ; sdat. P. Z. S. 
1864, p. 75, 180(1, p. 370 ; Sdat. ^ Saiv. V. Z. S. 1868, p. 145 (Con- 
chitM) ; Ftb.. On. Bra*, pp. 314, 458, hiii (1870) (Cuyaba, Villa 
Maria, Kio do Cabafal, Matogroseo, Rio Guapor^) ; Q. R. Or. 
Hand-liit, iii. p. 71, d. 10543 (1871); Sundev. Melh. nut. Av. 
ditp. Tmt. p. 133 (1872) ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1872, p. C03 (Zool. 
Giird.); Sdk. ^ Salv. Nommct. Av. Neotrop. p. 128 (1873); 
Hudson, i". Z. S. 1876, p. 108 ; Garrod, P. Z. S. 1876, pp. 189, 
180; Dumf. Ibi», 1876, p. 162, 1877, p. 190 (egg and nesti 

Buenos Ajres), 1878, p. 63 (Buenoa Ayres); GOiton, Ibi», 

pp. 415, 417, 1880, pp. 165-167 (habits : Buenos Ayres) ; J 
JbU, 1880, p. 425; White, P.Z.S. 1882, p. 625; -HcAbw 
CetdratU. 1882, p. 30 ; id. Voff. Zool. GUii. p. 71 (1882) ; ScM. 
Lilt Vert.. An. 8th ed. p. 414 (1883) ; Barrom, Auk, 1884, p. 272 
(Entrerioa) ; Stign. Stand. Nat. Httt. it. Btrdt, p. 134 (1885) 
Qoodchad,ibid. p. 196 ; Newt. Enc. Brit.mi ed. xxi. p. 562 (1886) 
Berl.J.f.0. Iffi7,p. 124; Sdat. Argent. Om. ii.p. 119 (1889) 
id. P. Z. 5.1880, p.i>86(egg8iniilarlo Ihatof the (Jeese) ; id. Ibis, 
1800. pp. 43-5.427 (chick); Htin.u.Rchnv:. Num. Mas. Hfin. OrH. 
p^322 (ParagiiBj) (1890); Frenzel,J.f. O. 1891, p. 13.1; Hortert. 




2. CHAUNA. 7 

Chauna fidelis, part, Ranz. Elem, di ZooL iii. 8, p. 33 (1826). 
Palatnedea cristata, Sw. Class. B. ii. p. 351 (1837) {ex PI. Col. 219). 
Palamedea lophyra, Natt. Cat MS., teste Pelz. Onu Bras. p. 314 
(1870). 

Adult male. General coloar dark grey ; upper parts glossy slate- 
grey, underparts paler, belly whitish; chin and cheeks whitish 
grey ; middle part of the neck black, with a naked ring all round ; 
occipital crest dark grey ; feathers of the breast slaty grey, paler on 
the edges ; smaller wing-coverts along the cobit with pale edges ; 
primary-coverts white on the inner edges, the innermost also on the 
outer; inner primaries white at the base; under wing-coverts 
white ; tail slaty black : bill (?) ; iiis brown ; feet red. Total 
length about 36 inches, wing 20*5, tail 9, culmen 1-5, tarsus 4*5. 

Female. Similar. 

Young in down. Of a yellow-brown colour ; head light rust- 
colour, neck pale grey, back pale chocolate ; wings and breast grey : 
iris wood-brown ; feet brick-red (Dumford). 

Hah. Argentine Bepublic, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Southern 
Brazil. 

a, b. 2 ^' ^' [Cayenne.] Purchased. 

e. 2 *d- 8^' ^^^ Guapop6, July (Nat- Salvin-Godman Coll. 

terer). 

d. (S juv. St. Paraguay. J. H. Gurney, Esq. 

[P.]. 

e. 2 ad. sk. La Plata, Nov. {R W. White). Salvin-Godman Coll. 
/. Juv. St. Buenos Ayres. Purchased. 

a. Pull. sk. Buenos Ayres, Feb. H. Dumford, Esq. 

[C.]. 
A. Skeleton. ZooL Soc. 



PH(EH1C0PTBBIII2. 



Suborder II. PH(ENICOPrERI. 

Bib* with onoinate procesBes ; basipteiygoid procesaes absent or 
very radimentary ; la-crymo-uasal region elongated ; frontalia narrow, 
not oovering ibo orbits above ; grooves for orbital glanda present ; 
cteOB well developed; a ventral bare tract; wing a^nintocnbital ; 
tarsne three timeB the length of the femur, acatellated in front and 
behind ; anterior toes fully webbed ; margin of bill laminated. 

Besides, the Flamingoes have a very long neck, with 18 or 19 
eervioal vertebra, tbe bill abrnptly bent in the middle and more or 
less pointed, the tongne lai^e and thick, the general plumage of a 
rosy colour, whicli on the wing-coverts changes into bright crimaon 
red. They build a nest with mnd, and lay only one white e^ ; the 
young are covered with whitish down, and nidifngous, and have the 
bill straight. 

Flamingoes are tropical birds. 

On the anatomy of tbe Flamtngoee, see Owen, " On tbe Anatomy 
of the Flamingo" (P. Z.S. 1832, pp. 141^144); Milne-£dwaidB, 
** Caract^ree ost^logiques de la Famille des Phcenicopteridea '' 
(Oss. Foss. ii. pp. ,^5^2, ISee-Vl) ; Garrod, P. Z. S. 1873, pp. 460, 
467 (both carotids), p. 638 (muscles); Oadow, "Anatomic des 
PkcmieopteTVt roteut und seine Stellung im System " (J. f. 0. 1877, 
pp. 382-398, pL 6. figs, la, lb); Weldon, W. F. R., " On some 
Points in tbe Anatomy of Phceniroptervn and its alliee " (F. Z. 8. 
1883, pp. 638-652, pis. lix., Ix.) ; Parker, W. K., " On the ' Manus ' 
(A Phanieopttrv*'' {-Itiifi: 1889, pp. 18:V185); Bbufeldt, » Note on 
the Anserine Affinities of the Flamingoes " (' Science,' 1 889, pp. 224, 




1. PBCENICOPTEBUS. 9 

1. PHCENICOPTERUS ^ 

Type. 

Phoenicoptenis, Linn, S. N. i. p. 230 (1766) P. ruber. 

Phoenicorodias (subgen), G. E, Gr. IbiSf 1869, p. 441 P. ruber. 

Range, Pala&arctic, Ethiopian, Indian, and Neotropical Begions. 

Key to the Species, 

a. General plumage vermilion-red ruher^ p. 9. 

6. General plumage rosy white ; wings rosy red. 
a'. Apical black part of the bill not reaching the 

bend rosetis, p. 12. 

b'. Apical black part of the bill extended above the 

bend MlensiSf p. 16. 

1. Phoenicopterns ruber. 

Phoenicoptenis americanus, Seba, Mus. i. p. 108, tab. Ixvii. f. I 
(1734). 

Phoenicopterus phoeniceus, Barr. Hist Fr, E^. p. 140 (1743). 

Phoenicoptenis gujanensis, Barr. Om. Class, i. p. 21, gen. viii. sp. 3 
(1745). 

Phoenicopterus bahamensis, Catesb. Carol, i. p. 73, pi. 73 (good), 
p. 74, pi. 74 (head) (Bahamas, Cuba) (1764). 

Phoenicoptenis, Broum, Nat. Hist, of Jam. p. 480 (Cuba, Jamaica) 
(1756). 

Phoenicopterus ruber, part., Linn. S. N. ed. 10, gen. 72, sp. 1 (1758). 

Phoenicopterus, part., Briss. Orn. vi. p. 632, pi. xlvii. f. 1 (1760) ; 
Gerim, Star, degli Ucc, v. tav. 496 (1776). 

Phoenicopterus ruber, part., Linn, 8, N. i. p. 230, n. 1 (1764) ; Scop, 
Ann, 1, Hist. Nat. n. 114 (part.) (1769) ; Gm. S. N. i. 2, p. 612, 
n. 1 (part.) (1788); Lath, Ind. Om. ii. p. 788, n. 1 (part.) 
(1790) ; Geofr. Bull. Sc. Soc. PkUom. i. 2, n. 13, p. 98 (part) 
(1798) ; Blig. Prodr. p. 270 (part) (1811) ; Temm. Man. p. 378 
(part) (1815) ; VieiU. N. D. xxv. p. 517 (part.) (1817) ; Bum, 
Diet. Sc. Nat. xvii. p. 96 (part.) (1820) ; Steph. Gen. Zool. xii. 1, 
p. 186 (part.) (1824). 

Phoenicopterus ruber, Bonn. Enc. MHh. i. p. 162 (1790) (Am^rique 
m6ridionale) ; Wils. Am. Om. viii. p. 45, pi. 66 (1814) ; Temm. 
Man. d'Om. 2nd ed. p. 587 (note) (1820); Brehm, Lehrb. d. 
Naturgesch. alle eur. Vog. ii. p. 662 (1824) ; Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 
ii. p. 348, n. 282 (1826); id. Speech. Comp. p. 67, n. 218(1827) ; 
Temm. PI. Col., genre Flammant, esp. 2 (hvr. 71, 1827); Bp. 
Syn. n. 282 (1828); Drapiez, Diet. Class, xiii. p. 362 (1828); 
Bp, Isisy 1832, p. 1177, n. 282 ; Nutt. Man. ii. p. 70 (1834) ; Bp. 
Comp. List J p. 64, n. 863 (1888) ; Aud. Om. Biogr. v. p. 256, 
pi. 431 (1839); id. Syn. p. 269 (1839); id. B. Am. vi. p. 169, 
pi. 375 (1843); Hartl. Verz. Ges. Mus. p. 116 (1844); G. B. Gr. 
List B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 126 (1844) ; Behnb. Syn, Av., Natatores, 
t. 108. f. 417 (1845); G. R Gr. Gen. B. iii. p. 603, n. 2 (1846) ; 
Denny, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 39 (Jamaica^ ; Gosse, B. Jam, p. 390 
(1847) (Jamaica, Cuba) ; Hartl. Isis, 1847, p. 606 (W. Indies); 
Cab. in Schomb. Guiana, iii. p. 761 (1848) (Coast of British Guiana 
and Bird Island) ; Licht. Nom. Av. f. 90 (1854) (Brazil !) ; Bp. 
Consp. Gen. Av. ii. p. 145 (1856) ; td. Compt. Rend. xl. p. 724 



rHtEMCOPTRBt J>X . 

a. 140 (1866), xliii. p. 992 (1866) ; BiMe, J. f. 0. 1866, p. 166 
(Zool. Gard.) ; Coft. ^ Gmidl. J.f. O. 1856, p. 432 (CuU) ; SaOS, 
P. Z. S. 1857, p. 236 (San Domingo); TAimem. J. /. 0. 1857, 
p. 166 (eire) ; Out- <« Baird't B. N. Am. p. 687 (1856) (Florida 
fcevB) ; Baird, Cat. N. Am, B. n. 502 (1869) ; A. ^ E Neat. 
Iba, 1869, p. 365 (St. Croix P) ; Bryant, Pr. Bost. Soe. N. H. rii. 
p. 121 (1859) (BnhamM) ; ffurdie. Natural, in Bermuda, p. 55 
(1859); MaHm»,J.f. O. 1869, p. 219{Bermudft); Wurdem. Aim. 
Rep. Smiths. Imt. 1860, pp. 426-430 (Gape Sable and the KejB)*; 
Brewer, Pr. Bost. Stoc. JV. H. vii. p. 308 (1860) (Cuba); Albrecht, 
J.f. 0. 1861, p. C6 (Bahamas), 1862, p. 206 (Jamaica); March, 
Pr. Acad. Fhilad. 1864, p. 65 (Jamwca) ; Schlt^. Mat. P.-B., 
Anserea, p. 117 (1866) ; Gtuidt. RepeH. Fiaco-Nat. Oiba. i. p. 386 
(1866); Sclut. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 418 (ZooLGaid.); Bryant, Pr. 
Bolt. Soc. N. H. xi. p. 97 (1867) (San Domingo) ; .Eyion, OOeoL Av. 
pi. 4K pi. 28. f. 2 (1869); O.R.Gr. Ibui, 18^, p. 443, pL xv. £ 7 
(head) ; Peh. Om. Bros. pp. 318, 459, Iriii (1871i (Praia de Caju- 
tuba, near ParS) ; Coia», Key N. Am. B. p. 278 (1872) ; id. Oeck- 
Hit N. Am. B. a. 476 (1873); Solat. * ^If. Nomatel Av. 
Neotrop. p. 127, n. 1 (1873) (Mexico) ; ffund/. J. f. O. 1874, 
p. 314 (Porto Kco), 1875, p. 368 (Cuba) ; Salv. Tr. Zool. Six. is. 
p. 4S8 (187S) (QalapR|[08) J A. Newt, tbit, 1876, p. 99; Rchnw. 
J.f. O. 1877, p. 229; Oieb. Th«,. Om. iii. p, 109 (1877) ; Gundl. 
Anal. Soe. E»p. Sitt. Nat. vii. p. 398 (1878) (Porto Rico) : td. 
J.f. O. 1878, p. 190; RidffW. iV. U.S. Nat. Atui. 1880, p. 231 ; 
Cory, B. Rahama 1. p. 180 (1880) ; A. ^ E. Newt. Handh. Jam. 
p. 112(1881); Mayn-B.ofE. itf. ^m. p. 436(1881) ; Cory, Bull. 
Nutt. Om. Club, VI. p. 165 (18811 (Haiti); Ridgw. Norn. N. Am. 
R. n. 585 (1861); Rchnic. Vog. Zoot. Gart. p. 134 (1882); COuet, 

Chtek-liil,'2tiA ed. p. 110, n. 687 (1882); Sdat. LUt VeH. An. 
8th ed. p. 413 (1883) (Zool. Oard.) ; Roucard, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 468 

(Vucntan); T'md-. JiiV 18?'4. p, 168 (San Domii'go) ; B.,1I.,&R 

Wattr-B. X. Am. \. p. 41ii 1 18M) ; Vmif. Key N. Am. B. Sad ed. 

p^6r9,n 687(1884) ;^n.Wfl, ii/n 1865. p. 186 (Cozumel I.) : 




1. PUauriCOPTB.RUB. 11 

Phoenicopterufl americanuB, Wied, Ertte JReitf navh Xvrd-Amer. p. 78 
(1835) {cf. GuHdL J./, O. 1871, p. 2t57) ; Sw. Class, B. ii. p. 364 



Phoenicopterus erythneus, J.^ E. t err. Eev. et Mag. de ZooL 1855, 
p. 221 (t^-pe, Gabon !) ; G. R. Or. Ibis, 1869, p. 442, pi. xiv. f. 6 
(head); id. Hand-list, iii. p. 72, n. 10645 (1871). 

Phoenicopterus gljnphorhynchus, Q. R, Gr, Ibis, 1869, pp. 439, 443, 
pL xiv. f. 5 (head, Galapagos) ; id. Hand-list, iii. p. 72, n. 10546 
(1871) ; Salv. Tr. Zool. Soc. ix. p. 498 (1875) (= Ph. ruber, Z.) ; 
Gieb. Thes. Om. iii. p. 108 (1877) ; A. Newt. Diet, of B. pt. L 
p. 257(1893). 

Phoenicopterus (Phoenicorodias) ruber, G. R. Gr. Hand-list, iii. 
p. 72, n. 10550 (1871). 

Flamiogo, Darwin, Natural. Voy. new ed. p. 60 (1882) (Gala- 
pagos). 

P Phoenicopterus i^ipalliatus s. ruber P, Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 104 
(Curasao) ; E. Peters, ibid. p. 122. 

PlMBnicopterus sp., Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 307 (Aruba), p. 335 
(Bonaire). 

Adult. General plum&ge light vermilion, lighter on the scapulars, 
more intense on the wings ; primaries, secondaries, and primar}*- 
coverts black ; axillaries bright red : bill yellowish with the 
terminal third black ; irides brown ; feet and legs lake-red. Total 
length about 42-48 inches, wing 15-16, tail 6, colmen 5*2, tarsns 
12-14-5. 

Young. Greyish white, with mesial dusky Hnes on the back and 
wings ; the greater coverts broadly tipped with brown-black. 

Downy young. " Greyish white, becoming nearly pure white on 
forehead, dieeks, median line of back, whole rump, and median 
onderparts: bill pale brownish, dusky terminally, naked lores 
dusky ; legs and feet brownish black ; bill nearly straight " (Ridg- 
way). 

Bah. Tropical and subtropical sea-coasts, from Florida Keys and 
ooast of Gulf States to Northern South America, as far south as 
Pan! and Galapagos Islands. 

The t}'pe of Ph. erythrcnus no doubt belongs to this species ; it 
has evident signs of having been kept in captivity, and one of the 
tarsi was amputated while the bird was alive. The locality Gaboon, 
attributed to this bird, is evidently wrong. 

a. Ad. st. No locality. Purchased. 

h. Ad. sk. Inagua, Bahamas {Maynard). Salvin-G< 

e, Juv. sk. Northern Yucatan {E. C. J. Salvin-G 

Devis) 

d. Ad. sk. Galapagos {Kellett ^ Wood). Pandota 

(Type of Ph. glwhorhifH 

e. Ad. sk. [Gaboon.] Fuichueb 

(Type of Ph. erythrm 



I<H<SII ICOPTERID£. 



. Fhmnicoptenu rosens. 



Phisuicopterue roeeus, Barr. Om. Clou. i. p. SI, imii. Tiii. gp. 2 
(1743) 

PhcBnicoptenu plinii, EUm, Ad. p. 128, lit. B. 

PluBnicoptenu, Brut. Om. vi. p. S32 (port.), pi. xlvii. t. t (1760). 

PhtenicoptaruB raber, part., lAnn. 8. N. i. p. 230, n. 1 (1766); Qm. 
S. Jf. i. 2, p. 612, D. 1 (Mrt.) (1788) ; LaA. ImL Om. ii. p. 786, 
n. 1 (put) (1790) ; Oeoffr. Bull Sc. Soc. Philom. i. 2, n. IS, p. 98 
(part.), pi. — . ff. 4, 6, a (be«d) (1798) ; J%. Prodr. p. 270 (partj 
(1811) ; 71mm. Man. tTOrH.p. 378 (part) (1815) ; VieiU. if. D. 
MtY.p. 517 (part.) (1817); Ihim. Diet. Sc. ^af. xvu.p.96 (port.) 
(1620) ; Temm. op. cit. 2nd ed. ii. p. 587 (pwt.) (lK»)j 5&y*. 
Oat. Zooi. xii. 1, p. 186 (port.), pi. 24 (1824). 

Fenicottero, Olti, Uec. Sard. p. 294 (witbpUte) (Sttrdinift) (1776). 

Flsmmut ou Ph^Dicopt^, part, Bt^. Sid. Nat. Oi*. Ttii. p. 476 
(1781). 

Red Flamingo, Lath. Sun. iiL 1, p. 299, n. 1 (1785) : id. 8m. Suppl. 
i. p. 2630787). 

PhffiDicopterus ruber, var. a, Btmn. Enc M4Ui. i. p. 162, pi. 42. f. 3 
(1791)!^ 

Pbceoicoptoriu roseus, PaU. Xoogr. Bono-At. ii. p. 207 (1611) (CfiB- 
man); K.^ B. WirbeUh. Bur. pp. Ixiii, 221 (1840); Bp. Icon. 
Faun. Ital., Ucc. htrodr. p. 15 (1841) ; id. Cat. Jtfd, Dec. £io-. 
p. 66 (1842) ; O. R. Gr. Lut B. Brii. Mut. iii. p. 125 (1844) ; 
Riipp. Syd. Ufbei-i. p. 137, n. 488 (1845) (Lower Efn-pt) ; Bfylh, 
Git. B. Mm. A. S. B. p. 299, n, 1760 (1849) (excL var. minor) ; 
Layard, Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. liv. p. 208 (Ceylon) (1854); BoUt, 
J. f. O. 1865, p. 314 (Spain) ; Bp. CW, Otn. Av. ii. p. 145 
(l»i5) ; id. Compt. Said. xl. p. 724, n. 142 (1866), xliii. p. 992 
(1866) ; Rrvgi Suit. Utberr. no. tl7S (1866) ; iocSc, Cat. M. et O. 
Atyir. p. 103 (18-58); Adami, P. Z. S. 1858. p. 50 (Punjab); 
Hirmey. J. f. 0. 1862, n, 424 (Balearic Isl.) ; Radde. Rett. S.O.. 
""■ ■ i. p. 347 (Lake B«ik«l) (186:1) ; Hnghl, Ibis, 1364, p. 149 




1. PH(BNIC0PTBRU8. 13 

Konkan) (1880) ; ButJer, ibid. p. 436 (Deocan) (1880) ; LeggCy B, 
ofCeyl p. 1092 (1880); OigL Ibis, 1881, p. 212; Bchmo. Vog. 
Zool. GdH, p. VM (1882) ; Nathunus, J,f, O. 1882, p. 295 {^a^^) ; 
Seehh, Ibis, 1882, p. 227 (Kirghiz), 1883, p. 33 (Caucasus); 
Badde, Omis Caucus, p. 439 (1884) : Tristr. Faun, ^ Flor, of 
Palest, p. 113 (1884); Saund. in YarreWs Hist. Brit. B. iv. 
pp. 244-252, ^idth fig. (1884-^) ; Whitehead, Ibis, 1885, p. 44 
(Corsica) ; Reid, Ibis, 1885, p. 260 (Morocco) ; Seebh. Hist. Brit. 
B. iii. p. 660, pi. 61 Cegg) (1886) ; Yerbury, Ibis, 1886, p. 22 
(Aden) ; Parker, ibid. p. 188 (Ceylon) ; Salvad. El. Ucc. Ital. 
p. 249 (1886) ; Trois, AtU 1st. Ven. (6) iv. pp. 126-129 (Venetian) 
(1886); Reid, Str. Feaih. x. p. 78 (Lucknow) (1887); Severtz. 
Zeitschr. d. ges. Om. 1887, p. 23 (Turkestan) ; Davids. Str. Feath. 
X. p. 325 (W. Kandeish) (1887); Hume, ibid. p. 613 (1887) (not 
breeding in India) ; Tait, Ibis, 1887, p. 375 (Portugal) ; Pleske, 
Rev. Turkest. Ornis, p. 53 (1888) ; Regalia, Proc.-verb. Soc. Tosc. 
Sc. Nat. 1888, p. 86 (nail) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vi. 
p. 317 (Shoa) (1888) ; Koenig, J.f. O. 1888, pp. 291-295 (Tunis) ; 
Lilf. Ibis, 1889, p. 344 (Cyprus) ; Tristr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 62 
<1889) ; [Fd.] loot. 1889, pp. 136-139 ; Hartert,Kat. Vogelsamml. 
p. 203 (1891) ; Sharpe, Cat. Osteal. Spec. Coll. Surg. iii. p. 288 (1891) ; 
Barnes, Ibis, 1893, p. 174 (Aden); Meade-Waldo, ibid. p. 199 
(Canaries). 
Phoenicopterus antiquonim, Temm. Man. 2nd ed. ii. p. 687 (note) 
(1820) ; Brehm, Lehrb. d. Naturg. oiler eur. Vbg. ii. p. 662 (1824) ; 
Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. p. 348 (note) (1826) ; Temm. PI. Col., 
genre Flammant, esp. 1 (livr. 71, 1827) ; Bp. Speech. Comp. 
p. 67, n. 206 (1827); id. Syn. n. 283 (1828); Drap. Diet. Class. 
xiii. p. 362 (1828) ; Savi, Om. Tosc. ii. p. 363 (1829) ; Brehm, 
Isis, 1830, p. 989 ; u;. Vog. Deutschl. pp. 602, 603 (1831) ; Bp. 
Isis, 1832, p. 1177; id. C&mp. List, p. 64, n. 391 (1838) ; Nauni. 
Vog. Deutschl. ix. p. 408, Taf. 233. f 1 cJ ad., 2 ^ jun., 3 $ juv. 
(1838) ; Bp. Icon. Faun. Ital., Ucc. Introd. p. 16 (1841) ; Schleg. 
Rev. Crit. p. ci(1844); HarU. Verz. Ges. Mus. p. 116 (1844); 
Rchnb. Syn. Av., Natatores, 1. 108. fp. 418, 419, 968 (1846) ; G. R. 
Gr. Gen. B. iu. p. 603, n. 1 (1846) ; P. Z. S. 1849, p. 941 
(Zool. Gard.) ; Del^. Voy. Afr. Austr. ii. p. — (1847) ; Licht. 
Norn. Av.jp. 60 (Arabia) (1864); Brehm, J.f. O. 1854, p. 83 
(Egypt) ; Bruck, ibid. p. 278 (Rhein) ; Bolle, J.f. 0. 1856, p. 27 
(Cape Verd Isl.j, p. 165 (Zool. Gard.) ; MUll. ibid. p. 231 (Ca- 
maigue); Brehm, ibid. p. 334 (Upper Egypt); Buvry, J.f. O. 
1857, p. 134 (Algeria) ; Bolle, ibid. p. 339 (Canaries) ; Salv. Ibis, 
1859, p. 361 (E. Atlas); Homey. J.f. O. 1859, p. 370 (Zool. 
Gard.) ; Tristr. Ibis, 1860, p. 78 (N. Africa) ; Powys, ibid. p. 348 
(Corfu?); Des Murs, Traits, pp. 126, 129, 436-444 (1860); 
Homey. J.f. O. 1863, p. 263 (Algeria), JSi-trah. p. 21; Parker, 
P. Z. S. 1863, p. 617 (vertebriB); Adams, Ibis, 1864, p. 33 
(Egypt) ; Tristr. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 463 (Palestine) ; Gigl. Ibis, 
1865, p. 62 (Pisa) ; Sc^. Mus. P.-B., Anseres, p. 116 (1866) ; 
Tristr. Ibis, 1868, p. 327 (Palestine) ; Saund. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 432 
(eggs, Spain) ; G. R. Gr. Ibis, 1869, p. 441, pi. xiii. ff. 1, 2 (head) ; 
Tacz. J.f. O. 1870, p. 63 (Constantine); Droste, Ber. xviii. Vers. 
Om. Ges. 1870, p. 80 ; Gum. Ibis, 1871, p. 297 (Algeria) ; SheU. 
ibid. p. 314 (Egypt) ; G. R. Gr. Hand-list, iii. p. 72, n. 10544 
(1871) ; Dohm, J.f. 0. 1871, p. 9 (Cape Verd) ; Holdsw. P. Z. S. 
1872, p. 479 (Ceylon) ; Shett. B. of Egypt, p. 272 (1872) ; Thien. 



PHOVICOPTBRIDA. 

Sier. t. lix. f, 7 ; ffeu?/, Orn. N.O.-AJr. u. 2, p. 126S (1873) : 
Garrod, P. Z. S. 1878, pp. 460, 467 (both carotids), p. 638 
(muncles) ; Lioyd. Ibit, 1873, p. 419 (Kattiawar) ; WaMe, Beiu 
n. d. mdi. Spanitn, ii. p. 9 ; Irby, Orn. Sir. GibraU. p. 193 
(1876); Kriiper, J.f. O. 1876, p. 284 (Smjrnft) ; Blanf. Eatt. 
Pen. a. p. 300 (Persian Gulf) {1876); Rchnv?. J.f. O. 1877, 
p. 227; Oia.TAa.Om.'m.f.l(}8{lS77);Mtvchimd,Set>.flMag. 
de ZooC. 1877, p, 367, pi. 11 (pullua) ; Hume, Sir. Rath. vii. p. 491 
(1879), yiii. pp. 114, 949 (1879); LOford, P. 7.. S. 1880, p. 446 
(S. Spain, breeding) ; /oA»m(. iAji. 1881, p. 173 (Tunis, breeding); 
Ed. Ibis. 1881, p. 449 ; Saurjd. Ibu, 1883, p. 397 (Spain, breed- 
ing) ; Weld. P. Z. S. 1888, pp. 638, 639, 0.51 ; Se/at. LUt Vert. 
An. 8th ed. p. 413 (1883): Stefn. Stand. Nat. Sat. iv. Bird», 
pp. 164, 156, f. 76 (1885) ; Sau„d. IbU, 1886, p. 456 ; Koenig, J.f. 
O. 1891, p. 291 (Tunis) ; St. John, Ibi», 1889, p. 179 (S. Afghan- 
iatao); TrUtr. Cat. CoU. It. p. 62 (1889j (distinct from Ph. 
roteuiV); Sclat. Ibis, 1890, p. 81 (oqiiintocubital) ; Sasnd. Ibi$, 
1891, p. 184 (Neuchatel) ; Finn, Ibit, 1893, p. 2.t8 (,Siiez) ; A. Newt. 
Diet, of B. pt. i.p. 267(1893)iXoenio, J./ 0. 1893, p. 102 (Tunis). 

Phcenicopterus major, Dum. Did. Sc. Nat. xvii. p. 96 (1820) ; 
Brehm, Vhg. Deuttchl p. 603 (1831) (larger var.). 

PhoBnicopteruB ruber, Bne (nft latm.), Iiis, 1822, p. 660, u. 273 ; 
LkU. Verz. Doubl. p. 70 (OaU. mend,. Cap. b. s., Senegamb.) 
(1623); LichLin Eoertm. Reitt, i. p. 70 (1823) ; Mam. El. di Zool. iii. 
8. p. 812 (1828 ); Lest. Man. dOm. ii. p. 243 (1828) ; id. Tr. d!Om. 
p.689,n.l(E.&S. Europe) (1831); Owm, P. Z. S. 1832, pp. 141- 
\4A ; Baket, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 159 (Dulihun) : Minitr. Cat. BaU. 
p. 60 (Caspian) (1832) ; Smith, Afrie. Glen, 13th ed. p. 35, a. 218 
(Cape) (1836) ; Gould, B. £ar. It. pi. 287 (1837) ; Hartl. J.f. O. 
1854, p. 160 (Oylon) ; Brehm. Vbgelf. p. 288 (1865). 

Phcenicopterus europKUK, Sw. Claei. B. ii. p. 364 (1837) ; Jerd 
MadT. Joum. ixi. p. 217, n. 373 (1840). 

Phcenicopterus ignipalliatus. Or. if Mitch, {nee D'Orb. ^ I. Geoffr.), 
Gen. B. ill. pi. lt« (1846) ; Jichnb. Sun. Av., Natatores, t. 107, 
" "I) (ex Or. * Mitch.). 




I. PfiiKyiciiprHRcs. 15 

y.O.-Afr. d. -J. p. L-Jhr Af^T-i.; H'nyht, IbU, 1>74. p. 227 
I Sicily. .Malta. : - Rchnw. J * O. I.H74, p. ;{74 (Jabooo; : S^M^t/tf, 
J.f, O. lf*7fi, D. !>«>"); A Artie, y./. O. L-77. p. ±25 idub*»peci»?sj : 
Drffss. 3. jf Eur. vi. p. .541) l.**7.)l . sfts^usj ; f^tj/, Ihu, l^V, 
p. -*l;i L'liL'iiiir ' ; B*H\ Ont, A/ii/. p. -Wii Aair«)ia, • l-V^l ; : iAurp*\ 
Luym-fii 3. .i*tnth Afr. p. 7-U il>^.i: .Si/tW. £7. Cw. ItaL 
p. ::;'/) l.-jf^'rf ; ATr^Mjy. j:/ O. IS'r^. p. JNl. lsy:j, p. i>6 1 Tiuii*! : 
A. ytnct. Diet, 'if 3. pr. i. p. -^'u . l>0;j). 
ETiCBnicoptenia platrrhynchiis. Bmhm, I'^tyeif. p. -jys 1 1.<>1 1 ; id. 
ytmmannin. 1'!Sj7». p. :i1M). 

* PhcBnicoptenis aiinor. Br^/im /lev Geoffi: - Voy/f. p. l>9^ , IS55) ; 

/rf. Snumannia. L^-l."). p. i*y<J. 
? Phnftriicnpteriii* pv2m;e»u. Btffnm. itif 3 p. Ctmpt. Rtmd. \iiii. p. !)OQJ 

PhoBnicdDtems row-iLs 1 -jrvtiiraeus, 5iiia. Lint 3. tf Eur. n. 3;iO 3 

■ iHtiilj; 
Flamintfo. BamusH Explor. >u SotaA-^vf^t Afr. tzijiitispiew ■I'^dAj ; 

r/tfri. /^«. L^70. pp. 4;J'.4-44l» 'S. jf Fnuicw ; C/utpm. Bm, 

IHS4, pp. 71 -72. ■j^-'ji). pi. iv. iJximdalqiiiv'.rt. 
PluBnimptenu :inriqiiurim. rar., ^y. 3. fJ-r. Ibis, Irj^SM p. 442 < India, 

'>yioni. rar. . L'.ipH >f tioiHi Qiipei. 
PhceniroptHnLs •^ritimeud tjrrnroi^, 3niuke, [hig. l.'*7?J, p. 34ii 

!>iardinia). 
Phrt;mcj»nterTis rin(i»»r?«ini. Br'mk:*, Pr. A. -i. 3. l-iT'), pp. 17-48 

! FittHitrnrh. X.W. Prt>v. jf India : Ifunn, STr Fvat/i. iii. p. 414 

!iM7.'»i ■ =:uiidr(iioruin. juv.,. 
PhmnifoDt^nw iii-seiis. i var. aarva. Sfct"**^. ./. r O. 1S7-'*. p. 1^*4 

Ad}dt naaftt. ireneni T3luiii:iire nsv white ; rail mthtT more of a 
PMy-rcd Tinxre : npper ind :mder winir-^.'orerrs and -ixilLiries brij^fat 
acariet : luiils black. n«)rniiL) rosy : iris palt' Lfmun-yeilow : bare 
akin next the eye and boise of bill desh-pink : :urminul purtiun ot 
the bill md edtten of the mandible black : ivici and feot pinkish red. 
Total ipHfifth ahont 44 no .5;] inches, winjr 17. --ail 7. <juimen .5-*5. 
tamiM I:S. bare oortion of the ribia -K 

FffTMlr. Eeflembles the mule, but is rather smaller in size. 

Ymruj. ffead. neck, an* I inderparts whitish, siiirhtiy cintced with 
hntf. esneoiailv on rhe inner nei*k ; back oshv brown, with Jarx 
mmiai lines on "^he teathera ; winK-«iovert3 liku rhe back, rhe larsvr 
mverffl almn^^r .»nrirely bmwn : axillaries paie pink : base jf "he 
bill dull pinkirth : Leq^ duU piumbe<iiis. 

Y'lnnrj in inwn. Whitish, tinirefl with zrey on ^he 'inner Tarr.s ; 
Ae bill :« -inite itraicht. 

ffnh. From '"he basin ot rhe Meflitemnean "j-t Lik.» Riuk.ii ; rhe 
whole of Artrrra. India, ind Cevlon. 



* Ad. «r. 






Kiimnf. 










h. All. ^r.. 






Kiirnni- 








P \i-r*.l\Hf*fr\. 


«. 4. Ad. »f , 


1IV 


*T. 










I* ir''iin>*fr| 


4 JllV ^t 














/.in J. "^.»ip 


/. .U. ^k. 






.Nfarnhpt 


W 


^t^v 


illp. 


1' 


f, k. Ad. .4t. 






Ixuadalqiiivir 





rHtSNICOPTEBTD^. 



t. $ ad. ak. 


Coto del Key, April (S. 


Hume Coll. 


k. d ad. sk- 


Sardinia, Feb. (Count 
Salpadon). 


T. 


Shelley Coll. 


/. PuU. sk. 


ABtmklian. 




Herr Henke [P.]. 


m. Ad. 8k. 






Shelley Coll. 
LordLilford[P.]. 


n, 0. Ad. etimm. 

sk. 
P-u. Ad. St. 


Fort Said, Aug., .\pril. 




LftkB Menaakh, 




J. W. H. Cuning- 

hame [P.]. 
CaM. R. H. Penton 

Sir A, Smith [P.l 


V. Juv. sk. 


Nuar Sutkim. 




JB. Juv. Bk. 


PafStine. 




;r. Viz ad. sk. 




S.Baroody,Dlq.[fc.l. 


y. 6 ad. Bk. 


River Ki:*on. Dec. (ff B. T.). 


Canon TrurtramrP.]. 


I. Ad. Bk. 






India Mnaeum [Pi 
Euphrates Eip. [0.]. 


a; b'. (J «d. et 5 

juv. sk. 
c'. Ad. flk. 


MeaopotamiH. 




Sindh, Feb. 




Hume OolL 


(f . J sd. sk. 


Larkana, Jan. 




Hume Coll. 


e'-f. <J 2 wl- «t 


Sambbur, Sept., Jan., Feb. 


Hume Coll. 


juv.sk. 
m'. Ad. 8k. 


(R. M. Adam). 






Delhi. 




Hume Coll. 


"■■ii„'r" 


Gurgaon, March (A. O. 


H.). 


Hume Coll. 








p'. rf ad. Bk. 


Bisowa, Jaipur, March 
(A. 0. ±). 




Hume CoU. 


?■. Ad. Bk. 


SecuDderabad. 






r', »: Ad. sk. 


Bheema, Etawah, Nov., 


,Dec. 


HumeOoU. 


t'. Ad. Bk. 


Mjnpoorie, Feb. 




Hume ColL 


«'. Ad. sk. 






Major Yerburj [PI. 
K. Cole, Eaq. [P.]. 


v. Ad.Bk. 


Madras. 




w". Ad.8t, 


De«an {Sake,). 
Afnam (MeCieUand). 




:r'. Jut. b1(. 




India MuBeum [P.]! 












1. PBxiricorTZRiia. 17 

Kat. VooekamnA p. 301 (1891) : A. SeKt. Diet, of B. p. 257 

(pt. 1, 1893), 
Chili FUmineo, LatA. Si/n. Snppt. ii. p. 330 (1801). 
FUmenco, I/Axara, ApiaU. i. p. 133, d. 346 (1805) ; id. Toy. {td, 

Sonn.) iv. p. leS (1809). 
PhcenicopteniH ruber, mtL, VieOL N. D. XXM. p. 617 (La Pluta) 

(1817) ; Temm. PI. CU., gatre Fhcenicoptenia, sp. S (put) (Hyt. 

71, 1827). 
PhoBoieopWre du ChiU, Turia. N. D. ixv. p. 620 (1817). 
PhoBnicopteniB ignipalliatus, D'Orh. S[ I. Oei^r. St.-SH. Am. &. 

Xat. ivii. p. 4£4 (Aolt, 1629) (Buanoa Ajnw, Corrientes) ; BmU. 

Sc. Nat. xi%. p. Ill (1829) ; Lett. Tr. d'Onu p. 689, n. 3 (1831) ; 

H'Orb. Mag. de Zoot. 183S, prem. Tasc. pi. 2 ; Iiit, 1834, p. 1094 ; 

Ltu. Compl. de Buff., Oit. ix. p. 483 (1837) ; id. op. rit. 2nd ed. 

p. 703 (1838); Sartl. Vert. Ou. Mm. p. 117 (1844); ? TicA, 

Arch.f. yaturg. 1844, i. p. 313, n. 338 (ayn. emend.) ; ? id. Faun. 

Per., Auei, pp. 63, 304 (1846) •; O. R. Or. Oen. B. iii. p. 603, 

n. 4 (nee pi. 163) (1846) ; Harti. Ind. Azar. Apunt. p. 22, d. 346 

(1847) ; Sibra, Denktchr. k. Ak. Wiat, v. p. 131 (1853) (N. ChUi) ; 

id. J.f. 0. 1856, p. 57 ; Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 90 (1854) (Chili, 

Colombiftl); Burnt. Syit. Ueb. Thiere Brat. iii. pp. 430,431 

(1866) (BmzU) ; id. J. f. O. 1860, p. S66; tel. Za Ptata-Reite, ii. 

p. 512(1861); Pelz. AeUe Nomra, Vag. p. 186(1866) (Chili); 

Sfiai. P. Z. S. 18(17, p. 334 (Chili) ; Srlat. |- Sah. P. Z. & 1868, 

L146(Conchita»); iid. Ibis, 1868, p. 139(GregorTBBy); PM. ^ 
ndb. Cat. Av. Chil. p. 279, n. 169 (1868) ; G. R. Or. Ibit, 1869, 
p. 442, pi. xiv. f. 4 (head) ; Pftt. Om. Brat. p. 559 (1871 ) (Braiil !) ; 
Sclat. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 627 (ZooL Card.) j G. R. Or. Hand-litt, 
iii. p. 72, n. 10547 (1871) ; Burvx. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 364 ; Sdat. 
P. Z. S. 1872, p. 649 (Rio Negro) ; &irf. $ Sals. Noviencl. Ac. 
Neolrop. p. 107, n. 2 (1873) ; Tacx. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 662 (Junio, 
C. Peru); Sdat. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 333 (Upper AmazouB, Zool. 
Gard.) ; Gieb. Thet. Om. iii. p. 108 (1877) ; humford, Ibit, 1877, 
p. 41 (Ohuput, PatftgoniB) ; Taet. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 330 (Tiimbez) ; 
Dumf. Ibu, 1878, p. 400 (Centr. Patac.) ; Otbton, Ibit, 1880, 
p. 166 (Cape San Antonio, Buenos Ayroa); Salv. Oit. B. Stridcl. 
Coll. p. 627 (1882) ; Selat. Litt Vert. An. 8th ed. p. 413 (1883) ; 
Barrows, Attk, 1884, p. 272 (Pampa*) ; Taas. Om. Ptr. iii. p. 423 
(1886) i Berl. J.f.O. 1887, p. 133 (Paraguay P) ; Rahtaer, J.f. O. 
1887, tab, ii. f. 2 (head) ; PMipoi, Omit, ir. p. 160 (Antofagaats) 
(1888) i Burta. Anal. Mm. iiac. Bueitot Airm, iii. p. 247 
(1888) ; Parkrr, Ibit, 1889, p. 183, ff. 1, 2, in p. 184 (oateol. of 
the manus) ; Selat. Argent, dm. ii. p. 117 (1889) ; Trittr. Cot. 
Coll. B. p. 62 (1889) ; Sclal. Ibit, 1890, p. 81 (aquintocubitAl), 
p. i2.') (Argentina); Oust. Mite. Sc. Cap Horn. Oi-i. p..S08 (18H1I ; 
Frenz.J.f. O. 1891, p. 1^4 (Cnrdoba) ; iW/anrf, /fiw, I»93,p.aOe 
(Argenlina) ; Btrk. James, New List Chil. B. p. 9, d. 14 (1882) ; 
Apiin, Ibii, 1894, p. 109 (Uruguay). 

Similar to P. roteus, but amallor, tinged with ll 
the lower part of the nock and breast ; win^ E 
black apical portion of the bill is more ex 
the bend : " the base of the bill is not r 
lege greenish grey, vitb darker reddish urtlnti 




18 .PHCmOOFTEBIIIX. 

{Jiurmeisier). Total length about 42 inches, wing 16, tail 6, 
culmen 5, tarHOS 9*5, bare portion ot tibia 6. 

Ttmng. Head and neck dull whitish, greyish ronnd the eyes and 
•n the neck ; lover parts white; feathers ot the breast with mesial 
brown streaks ; back and scapnlara pale brown, the edges of the 
feetbers whitish ; romp and upper tail-coverts white, some brown 
streaks on the nimp ; upper wing-coFerts brown with paler edges, 
the smaller ones washed with rosy ; primary-coverte brown, with 
the base rosy ; quills brown-black ; tail white : " legs yellowish, 
with blnieh-red articulations " {Barmei»ter). 

Hah. Southern part of South America, north on the east to 
Uruguay and Brazil (?), on the west to Chili and C. Pern. 

a. Ad. si Chili. T. 0. Bridge^ Esq. [C.]. 

I. Ad. sk. Chili. Purchased. 

9. ij yis ad. ek. Chili. Purchased. 

d. iw. sk. Chuput, Patagonia. H. Durnford, Esq. [P.]. 



2. FH(EmCOVAUS. __ 

Type. 
Phceniconaias (eubgen.), G. R. Gr. Ibii, 1869, p. 442 F. minor 

Range. Southern part of Africa, north as far as Senegal (?) on the 
West, and Abyssinia on the east; North-western India in winter. 



1. PhcEmiconAias minor. 

? Le Flamant, F. CaueAe, JCelat. vtrit. et Cur. de /*/•& de MaAag. 

n. 130(1661) (MiidnpnwarJ. 
f Sambe, f/iKwiH-i, Ht»t. de Madag. p. 1(« (1601), 




2. PHCBiricoirAiAS. 19 

p. 231 (Delhi) ; Hutney ibid. p. 855 ; O.JL Gr. Jhisy 1869, pp. 440, 
442, pi. XV. f. 8 (head) ; Finsch u. HarU. Vog, Ost-Afr. p. 798 
(1870) ; Boc, Jam, Acad, Sc, Lisb. 1871, p. 277 (Mossamedes) , 
Anderss. B, Damara Land, p. 333 (1872) ; Hume, Sir, Feath. i. 
p. 31 (1872) (India) ; Adam, ibid. p. 400 (1873) (Sambhur Lake); 
HeuffL Om, N.O.-Afr. ii. 2, p. 1272 (1873); Reynaud, Tr. R, 
Soc, Maur. viii. p. 4 (1873) ; Adam, Str. Feath, ii. p. 339 (1874) 
(Sambhur Lake) ; Hume, Str. Feath, iv, p. 26 (1876) (N. Guzerat, 
Sindh) ; Bocage, J./, O. 1876, p. 295; Butl, Str, Feath. v. p. 234 
(1872) (N. Guzerat) ; Gieb, Thee. Om. iii. p. 109 (1877) ; Rchnw. 
J.f, O, 1877, p. 228 (part); Hume, Str. Feath. viii. p. 114, 
n. 944 bis (1879) ; Butl, Str. Feath. ix. p. 436 (1880) (Deccan) ; 
Legge, B, Ceghn,ja, 1093 (1880) (N.W. India) ; Bocage, Om. Aug, 
p. 490 (1881) ; Milne-Edw. ^ Grand. Ois, Madag, p. 612, pis. 262, 
263 (osteoloffj) (1882); Sharpe, Lauard'i B. S. Afr. p. 746 
(1884) ; Fischer, Zeitschr. gee, Om, 1884, p. 393 (Massailand) ; 
Salvad, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) i. p. 233 (1884) (Shoa) ; Fiecher, 
J,f, O, 1886, p. 118 (Lamu, Nguruman) ; Hume, Str. Feath, x. 
p. 613 (1887) (not breeding in India); Matechie, J.f. O, 1887, 
p. 146 (Morungu) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vi. p. 318 
(Shoa) (1888) ; Tristr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 62 (1889) (Cape, Natal) ; 
Hartert, Eat. Vogelsammi, p. 204 (1891) (Gape and Ked Sea) ; 

A. Newt, Diet o/B. p. 257 (pt 1, 1893). 

Phoenicopterus parvus, Vieill. Analyse, p. 69 (1816) (Africa) ; Steph, 
Gen, Zool, xii. 1, p. 188 (1824) ; less, Man, ctOm, ii. p. 244 
(1828) ; G. R. Gr. List B, Brit, Mus, iii. p. 125 (1844) ; id. Gen. 

B. iii. p. 603, n. 5 (1846) ; Hartl. J. f. O. 1854, p. 302 (Sene- 
gambia, Guinea, Damaraland) ; Bp. Compt. Rena. xL p. 724, 
n. 145 (1855) ; Kirk, Ibis. 1864, p. 335 (Zambesi) ; Schleg. Dierent. 
p. 280, fig. in p. 279 (1864) ; id. Mus. P.-B. Anseres, p. 116 
(1866) ; Dub. Bull. Mus. Roy. WH. N. de Belg. iv. p. 149, n. 188 
(1886) (Tanganyika). 

Phoenicopterus capensis. Smith, Deser. of New or imperf. known 
Objects of the An. Kingd. found in the South of Afr. no. 4 (Ist 
Nov. 1828). 

Flamiiuro (nov. sp.), Smith, Afr, Glen, 13th ed. p. 25, no. 219 (Gape) 

flammant, Sganzin, Notes sur les Mamm. et sur TOm. de Madag, 
p. 47 (M^m. Soe. Hist, Nat, de Strasb. iii. 1840). 

Phoenicopterus antiquorum, Hartl, (nee Temm,), Zeitschr. f. Zool. 
u, Anat, 1848, p. 159, n. 106 (Madagascar) ; id. Ann, ^ Mag. 
N H. ii. p. 393 (1848) (Madagascar). 

Smaller Indian Flamingo, Blyth, Oat. B. Mus, A. S, B. p. 299 (1849). 

Phoenicopterus bljthi, Bp. Consp, Gen, Av, iL p. 146, n. 4 (r) 
(1856) {ex Blyth) ; t^. Compt, Rend. xl. p. 274, n. 143 (1866), 
xliii. p. 992 (=roseus, PaU. ?) (1866) ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 174. 

Phoenicopterus erythrseus, Hartl. (nee Verr.) J. f, O. 1860, p. 173 
(Madagascar) ; id, Om. Beitr. z. Faun. Madag, p. 81 (1861) ; ? id. 
J, f. O. 1801, p. 272 (Danakil and SomaU Coast) ; J. Verr, in 
MaiU. Notes, Annexe, p. 3 (1863) ; Pollen, N. T. £>. l p. 326 
(1863); Co^r.BulL Soe. Acd. de la R^n, ii. p. 22 (1864); 
Kerr, in Vinson^ s Toy, d Madag,, Ann. B, p. 4 (1865) ; Grand. 
Rev. et Mag, de Zool. 1868 j). 5 (Madagascar) ; P Sperl, Ibis, 1868, 
p. 292 (Mosambic flats) ; Finsch u, Hartl. Vog. Ost-Afr. p. 795 
(part.) (1870) ; Hartl. Vog. Madag. p. 238 (1877) ; Slbree, Bis, 
1892, p. 117 (Madagascar). 

o2 



20 SBtKnconxtaitM. 

FhcEniooptenu, ip., B. Xetet. IbU, 1863, p. 4S9 (Madagucar); 

SchUg. 4- PM. Bieh. Fmm. Medaff.u. p. 114 (imS). 
PhmnieopteruB roseua, part, Jerd. B. iff Ind. iii. p. 775, n. 944 

(1864) (iDdift). 
P}i(emcopleliU nibiduB, Fetid. Ibit, 1866, p. 496 {Secondenbad} ; 
Jerd. Ibii, 16e9,p. 230(=miiior); Hume, ibid, v- S66 {>=miDoi)i 
A. Kent ibid, (note, different from mmor) ; Q. S. Gr. Ibit, 186U, 
pp. 44U, 442, pi. xiii. f . 3 (bead) ; Blanf. Ibit, 1873, p. 220 ; Gifb. 
Thei. Om. iii. p. 109 (1877) ; Triitr. Cat. CoU. B. p. 52 (1880) i 
A. Ntnet. Bid. of B. p. 257 (pt. 1, 1893). 
Phcemcopterua (FhcenicoDsias) minor, O. if. Or, Ibit, 1809, p. 442 ; 

id. Hand-ttrf, uT p. 72, n. 10549 (1871). 

FhcenicopteruB (PhceniconaiaB) rubidue, (?. B. Or. Ibi$, 1860, p. 442 ; 

id. Strnd-Utt, iii. p. 72, n. 10548 (1871). 

Adult male, Qeneral plDmBRe pick; loond the base of the bill 

the feathers are tinged vitb crimBon ; in very old birds the feathers 

of the back and breast have mesial crimson streaks ; also some of 

the longer scapulars are crimson ; median wing-coverts bright 

crimson, edged with pink-white ; greater wing-coverts, primar)*- 

eoverts, and marginal under wing-coverts rosy ; axillaries crimson ; 

quills and greater under wing-coverts block ; under tail-corerte 

tinged with crimson towards the tip and edged with rosy ; tail 

rosy, brighter on the outer web of tbe feathers ; " iris red minium ; 

bill dark lake-red [with the tip black] ; feet red " (Antinon), 

Total length about 36 inches, wing 13*25, tail 6, oulmen 4, 

tarsus 8'75-7*6. 

FemaU. Similar to the male, but less bright, and without the 
crimson mesial stripes on the back, breast, and scapulars. 

Young inmotdtinff dress. Palor than tbe odolte ; general plumage 
pale rosy white ; wing-ooverts pink : " iria red or yellow ; bill lake- 
red ; feel roay or corul-red " {Aiitinori). 

Toung in first pluinarft. Whitish, with n slight rosy tinge ; Deck 




3. PHOOaOOPAKBUB. 21 

3. FH(EVICOPARBnS. 

Type. 
Phnmeopftrnis, B/i. Cbmpt. Rend, zliii. p. 992 (ld56) . . P. andinus. 
LtpooentniSy Stmdeo. Metk, nat, Av. dUp. Temt, p. 145 

(1872) P.andinus. 

Phoenicopazra, SUfm. Stand, Nat. Sitt. ir. Birds, p. 151 

(1885). 

Bmmge, Andes of Pern and Cliili. 

Key to the Specift, 

c Ltr^r: wiag aboat 18 inckes, culmen 4*6; ander 
tail-coverts much longer than the tail ; tertials 
black amdintu, p. 21. 

A. Smaller: wing about 1675 inches, culmen 3*4; tertials 

bright I06J jamesif p. 22. 

1. PhoBnicopamifl aadinns. 

Parrina of tke Chilians, PkHippi, AnaL Unh. de (Me, Aug. 1854, 
p. 337; tli^ Wiegm. Arch, 1855, L p. 10. 

Phoenicopterus andinus, Pkiiippi, Anal, Univ, de Ckiie* Aug. 1854, 
p. 337; id, Wtegm, Arch, 1855, L p. 12; Cass. U.S. Astnm. 
Exped, ii. p. 198 (1856); Phaip,n, Beise d die Waste Ataeama, 
p. 164, ZooL tt. iv., v. f. a (head) (1860) ; id. Ibis, 1861, p. 199; 
Selat, P. Z, S. 1867, pp. 334, 339 (part) ; Phil. ^ Landk, Cat. 
Aves CM. n. 170 {An, Univ. Chile, 1868, p. 279) ; Burm. P. Z. S. 
1872, pu 364 (E. valleys of Cordilleras) ; Sclat. ^ Salv, NomencL 
Av, Neotrop. p. 127, n. 4 (1873) ; Leyb. Ercurs. Pamp. Argent, 
(cf. J.f. 0. 1875, p. 444) ; Bchnw. J. f, 0. 1877, p. 229 (part) ; Oieb, 
thes. Om, iii. p. 108 (part) (1877) ; PhilippC Arch, f, Naturg, 
xlv. 1, p. 160 (e^) (1879) ; Selat, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 399, cut of the 
head, p. 400, f.2; Bahtner, J.f. O. 1887, p. 160, tab. ii. f. 3 
(head) ; PhUippi, Omis, iv. p. 160 (Antofagasta) (1888) ; Cab. 
J.f. 0. 1889, p. 76; ScUit. Argent. Om. ii. p. 119 (1889); id. 
P. Z. 8. 1891, p. 136 (Tarapaca) ; Frem. J. f. O. 1891, p. 125 
(Cordoba) ; Berk. James, New List Chil. B. ^9, jl 141 (1892) ; 

A. Newt. Diet, of B. p. 257 (pt 1, 1893). 

Phcenicoparrus andinus, Bp. Compt. Bend xliii. p. 992 (1850) ; O. 

B. Gr. Band-list, iii. p. 73, n. 10551 (1871) ; Oigl. Viagg. Magenta, 
p. 903 (1876). 

Lipocentrus andinus, Sunden. Meth. not. Av. disp. Tent. p. 145 (1872). 
Phcenicoparra andinus, <S^^.iS{arui. Nat. Hist. iv. Birds,^. 154(1885). 

AduU male. Head and neck pink, whiter in front of tho head ; back 
white, tinged with pink ; lower parts pale rosy, tho feathers of the 
breast brighter, with the edges nearly white ; wing-coverts bright 
pink, with the edges paler ; quills, including tertials, black ; axil- 
laries bright pink ; under tail-coverts bright rose-colour, much longer 
tlian the tail : " iris very dark brown ; feet whitish yellow ; beak, 
fore part black, hind part whitish yellow; between the nostrils 
brick-red ; lowest hinder part of lower mandible and a small spot 
before the eyes violet " (Rahmer), Total length about 48 inches, 
wing about 18, tail 7, culmen (in a straight line) 4*6, tarsuA 10*3. 

FemaU. Similar, but somewhat paler and smaller. 



ThiB is ihe loi^est of all the FlaminKoeB, uid lias the largest and 
stroDgeat bill. 

H^. Andes of Chili and easteni valleys of the CordiUerea. 
a. Ad. sk. Chili. 

A. $ ad. Hk. Hwwco, N. Chili, Feb. H. Berkdej James, Esq. 

(Rahmtr). [T.]. 

(>-«. cf 2 ad. ak. N. Oancosa, Chili (Jan., H. Berkelev James, Esq. 

April). [P.]. 

2. Pkenicopamu JRmen. 

FlamingOM with red bresat, Bollaert, Pr. Rou. Gtogr. Soe. of London. 

xxi.(36 April,1851J,p.l20(LakeofParmas); Pt(%7i', WieifnC 

Arch. 185o, i. p. 13. 
Phcenicoptenis sndiDus, pert, Sdat. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 3S4 (Tarspacfi) ; 

O. R. Or. {nee PAH.) Ibw, 1869, pp. 441, 448, pi. iy. ffi 9, W 

(head of BoUaert's epecimen*); ifcAnto. J. /. O. 1877, p. 2S9 

(part)i Gieb. Thei. Om. iii. p. 108 (part.) (1877) j P Tacx. (nee 

PhiL) Om. Pir. iii. p. 423 (BoUaert's specim.) (Parinacocba, 

PeruTian Andes) (188f!). 
PbcBDicoptaruB jomesi, Bahmer, m IM.; Sdat. P. Z. 8. 1886, 

p. 399, pi. xxivi. and cut of head, f. 3 on p. 400 (TarapacA) ; 

Jiahmtr, J.f. 0. 1887, p. 160t, tab. ii. f. 1 (head); Cab. J.f. 0. 

1889, p. 76 i &W. Arffe^. Om. ii. p. 117 (1889) ; id. P. Z. S. 

1891, p. 132 i Berk. Jama, New Lot Chil. B. p. 9, n. 142 (1892): 

Sdat. Ihu, 1893, p. 164. 
Adult male. " White ; head, upper part of the neck, and iringa 
tinged with rosy ; tip of the feathers of the nape, upper part of 
back, and of the breast, scapnlars, longer inner seoond&riea or 
tertiaJs, and axillariee of a rose-blood colour ; qnilla black ; feet red ; 
base of the bill yellow, apical portion black ; naked lores fleeh- 
colonr; hind toe wanting. Total length about 36 inohee, wing 16, 
■ '■ - "., tarsUB 6." {SchiUr.) t 




23 



Saborder lU. ANSERES. 



He JLsiKm. ake ?&e JLtaia^aes, hxt^JsmdaaiUd prweti on the 
zSa. a Tsn^nl aue saec :2ie ancmor toes faLj weooe^ md tne 
■wyTw ^ tjb& ad Lrin-Har<»ii : bos ire to be d acin y iia hoi by :ii« 
bMpCerjzcid prciseaau b«£Z2' pLiced M £tr £>^^ 
tbe dzsoB VJTiT ahi:v£ rbelecztic of tise fienuir. recienilated yadad vA 
LT ia. fnoc : zh^ ^Sfr^rsm &ja a pair of arxeaes •xi die pr.«t«r»r 
bm in Kcne af the Fmiitfm&Me and is. die M ujim w the skicdies 
aze«aiLT«r^fidi2:«} 'voixixipiecefeiieicne. Tbecouneia large, deshy, 
vidk tile wanr^.a ^dooued. Tbe bCl -sf tbe Aaaens is ^eaenHj 
bcqad axid moR •» Leae iattwigd : in the Mayimw tnd fame of toe 
^m^i&bF aarra V and aiore -ir Leai ^aper^ za a pcin; : aH bare a 
£Kmet aau ac die da ar die tipper matunhlt^ Tbe maks are 
fmrwiKHi vidi a larze ioiral ^enia. Xber ire mnnngaiiuMiB. Tbeir 
aeK is a rqiign ^onacncsioa. varmiaLT sisiafied; die «;gi tre 
BSiDiarKx^ 'jpamy boill or zreeniaiL wbxte. or pare vbxfia. Tbe 
yoons: ars in a^ die C^mammym^, ire <»>vend wish dfl^ra wben 
harjiitfd. ind ihie za nn or svim is oace. 



<Jiie IhrniT? uiIt. 



FamilT I. AXATIDi 



Hisd joe ant jolxd. 

k^Bcer :ian :iie bodT .' L CT^TTSM, p. it 

y . F«f J iiii[wiiiiiiiii : bxzsd ism iw» 

L 'die Ame Jrrei witk di^ ji 44. 

ma i ASSF.^A SA TLWE, 



• 



Hlsd toe rarfirr jmg -. ^ail- 



3oi2zideii s die :2p : 

T zicaaf ' . . -i 



OFTZRI^' E. 



21 



iB&nDA 



if". Hind toe modentte ;tail-fe&thera 
rather abort; uppei ^arta nut 
gloBsy ; DO metolbc wia^-flpocu- 
fun ; bill rather thick and high 
itt base, 
d*. Cere of the Inll mneh do- 

wJoped 4. CSREOPSIN^, p. 79. 

e*. No cere on the hill 6. ANS2UiI!fj£,f.81. 

6. Hind toe Ter^ narruvlj lobed ; nnialljr 

with metallic colours or speculum on 

the wings; the htrynx with a bulla 

OBMft in inaiei. [p. 128. 

c". BiU rather short and goose-lilra .... 6. CHESONETTINjE, 
iT. BiU rather flat and broad 7. ANATINjE, p. l^. 

e. Hind toe hroadlv lobed. 
t'. BiU more or InM deprenaed. 
« . Tail-feathers normal, not particn- [p. SSO. 

iarlystiff a FULIOVLINM, 

f'. Tail-feathers narrow and verr 

stiff 8. ERISMATURIN^ 

f. BiU more or lasa compressed, never [p. 420. 

decidedly deoressed. 
g''. Tail rather long and sUff; no tooth- 
like serrations on the edges of the [p. 454. 

mandibles 10. MERaANETTliiM, 

h". Tul moderately long, not particu- 
lariysiiiri lowermnndible without 
trace of lamellie along the sides, 
but with a series of distinct tooth- 
like serrations along the upper 
edge, as on the edges of the upper 
mandible 11. JtfiiiGJiV^, p. 403. 




L OT0VIII, 2S 



C^imna. Adbt Oni. Tdadicfift. iL p. 404 (note) 

(IflOS^ Color. 

OIoz; WagL Imty 1832, p. 1234 C. muBunui. 

Cjami. Temam. Mem, cTOm. 2iid ecL It. a 520 

(IftIO). 
Stfaeneiiu, 'SfeTMy, iV. ^.^9. Ta& Jfiu. ▼. p. Idff 

1 18^) C. mftkneoryphitt. 

gHMHiriidwi, 3Ujmg. KmgwL Stand. Jftd. 3uL w, 

pu 143 (ISBo) ( sdtheneiiu). 

Bmmg9, yoithflm hemisphere azid 7eatnipical leipoiL. 

& ZTo knob it the hHe of the <!Tii2iiea : di» txaebem 
■g mmua due^farma ^tetm, -whiek U hoilnw. 
1^. Hani TBTt if ±e biE and lanm iDon or li 

'<" BliieiE uaeai pnrciaK -yf di» >all 

raUr torn not rtxXKod AbnTR^ rhft nnMnU. 

a> "^s- m»: .Amr. loiaMn V:!<) 

InetuB . ' .' mmmmm. i. 2A. 

'iT. 3acK .wxeai icMtioiL nf 'Si»'<sil -^ctPtuui 

*n -hit- 2SQi*-r tfuiUir. ^oisaptt 

"S*^ incSM -jiinpiiinK. T. ^- 

y ^B■^7PtIow vionr ^f -h* -ail ?nntbiMt -« 

^rJ) *Be!ua vtmmimtmmm. *, fii. 

d^ Tae&ff* Jilt 'VBATTZur tu^ -attum. 4t*rRu 






>t.-URt{Ar A«r- ^lLp.-«»*n« .vwmU* ^JJd:.. .1 



■ ■■M ■■ll|f «ta* ' .. .A?^ -fa Zm** . ' .', ' ^" .,.?{. 

ir iiiMwiiiHwt i—rrr ,«i^M;tf / i^A ^« ^'i' ?:• «/ .. <*£ 



1. Cy^u miuUai. 

Wild Swan, Edw. Bird*, ii. pi. IfiO (1743) ; ElUt, Pha. Tram. Ivi. 

p. 31S, t. X. ff. I, 2 (tiochM) (1760) ; Dmy, P. Z. S. 1819, p. W 

(aorta). 
Qrgnus fenifl, Britt. Om. vj, p. 2ft2, pi. xzriii. (1760) ; Salens, Ortt. 

ou Tr. d. Ou. p. 405 (1767) ; FaU. 8v. VtleTuk.-Akad. Randi. xl. 

p. 27 (note) (1779) •. 
Anu ejpma, part., Linn. 8.N.\.f. 194, n. 1 (1766) ; Om. 8. N. i 

2, p. 601, a. 1 (^1788) ; Latk. Ind. Om. ii. p. 893, n. 1 (1790) ; 

id. Tr.Lmn.&x.h. p. 106, tab. xiii. ff.l,S(tnchMandBteii)U)n) 

(1790) ; Temm. Man. iOm. ii. p. 828 (1920). 
Aniw cjwnufl a, linn. I e, (1766), 

Cigno Mdvatico, (iermi, Star. degU Ute. v. t. 654 (1776). 
Cjgne eauvBge, Buff. Hist. Sat. Ou. ii. p. 20 (1783). 
Whistlicg Swan, Lath. Oen. &/n. iii. 2, p. 433 (1786) ; Coolie, Letter 

on the Wild iSuwi, pp. 1-11, pU. 1, 2 (1823). 
Anas cygnue (ferua), Lath. Syn. Sufpl. i. p. 297 (1787). 
Anaer cygnua, part., Bonn. Eho. MtUi. i p. 107, n. 1 (1790). 
Cjcnus canonis, Humboldt, See, d'Obietv. de Zool. et £AnaL Camp, 

p. 5 (1806J (nomea nudum). 
Gjgnua muBicus, Bedut. Qemeam. Natwg. V6g. DetOiehL iiL p. 830, 

t 86 (1809) ; BreAm, ItU, 1830, p. 996 ; td. Bandb. Vog. DadtcU. 

p, 831 (1831) ; Bp. Comp. Lilt, p. 56, n. 394 (1838) ; Eiipp. Slut. 

Senckenb. iii. p. 6 (1839) ; K. ^ B. WiH>elth. Eur. pp. Ixuu, 222 

(1840) ; Bp. Cat. Met. Ucc. Eur. p. 69, n. 413 (1842) ; MacgiU. 

Man. ii. p. 168 [1842) ; ScUeg. Ret. Crit. p. cxii (1844) ; Hartl. 

Suit. Ver*. Get. Mtu. p. 118 (1844) ; Temm. ^ Schiy. Fatm. J^., 

Aoe», p. 126 (1860)1 Midd. Sihir. Beit. ii. 2, p. 224 (1853) 

(Taimjr R., Bogauida, Scbantar Isl.) ; Waltengr. Saumanaia, 1854, 

p. 266 (Scaudinitvia) ; Licht. Nnmencl. Ab. p. 101 (1854) ; Brthm, 

A'oumanma, 1855, p. 296 (1865) ; Bet^l. I&U. (7e6. p. 66 (185(1) ; 

Schrenck, Vog. d. Amurl. p. 456 (I860) ; Fomy; Ibit, 1860, p. 351 

(Ionian Isl.) ; P SimpKm, Oit, 1861, p. 366 (Dobrudscba) ; Sainh. 




li creNiTs* 27 

P. Z. 8. 1871, p. 416 (Shanghai) ; Sound. Ihis, ISH, p. 896 (S. 
Spain) ; Nathus. J. f. 0. 1871, p. 266 (egg) ; Heugl Ibis, 1872, 
p. 63 (Novaja Semlia) ; SheU. B, Effypt, p. 279 (1872) ; Brooke^ 
Ibis, 1878, p. 842 (Sardinia) ; Severta, Turk. Jevotn. p. 70 (1873) ; 
Dyb. J.f. 0. 1878, p. 108, 1874, p. 336 ; Danf. ^ Harme-Broum^ 
Ibis, 1876, p. 428 (Transylvania) ; Swinh. Ibis, 1876, p. 466 
(Hakodadi) ; Gigl. Viayg. Magenta, p. 602 (Wusung) (1876) ; 
Dress. Ibis, 1876, p. 416 ; Seebh. <J- Harvie-Brovm, ibid. p. 437 
(Lower Petchora) ; Finsch, Ibis, 1877, p. 69 ; Tacz. Bull, Soc. 
Zool. Fr. iL p. 44 (1877) ; id. Om. Faun. Vost. Sibir. p. 68 (1877) ; 
Prjeo. Bowl. Om. Misc. iii. p. 98 (Mongolia) (1878) ; Blakist. ^ 
Fryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 211 ; Seebh. Ibis, 1879, p. 167 (Siberia) ; 
Finsch, Verh. z.-b. Qes. Wien, 1879, p. 266 ; Dress. B. Eur. vi. 

5. 433, pi. 419. f. 4 (head) (1880) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 606 ; 
lume ^ Marsh. Oame-B. iii. p. 4 (India ?) (1880) ; Blak. $ Fryer ^ 

Tr. As. Soe. Jap. viii. p. 182 (1880), x. 1, p. 94 (1882); Gigl. 

Ibis, 1881, p. 218 ; Seebh. Ibis, 1882, p. 227 (Astrakan) p. 386 

(Archangel); Bchnw. Om. Ceniralbl. 1882, p. 89; id. Vog. zool, 

Gdrt. p. 70 (1882) ; Coues, Checklist, 2nd ed. p. Ill, n. 690 (1882) ; 

Blakist. Chrysanth. 1883, p. 26; Seebohm, Ibis, 1888, p. 33 (Cau- 
casus) ; B. O. iJ. List Br. B. p. 120 (1883) ; Sclat. List Vert. An. 

8th ed. p. 423 (1883); Tacz. BuU. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1888, p. 343; 

Badde, Om. Caucas.^. 447 (1884) ; Blakist. Amend. List B. Jap. 

pp. 8, 28 (1844) ; Tristr. Faun. ^ Flor. Palest, p. 114 (1884) ; 

Sound. YarrelCs Hist. Br. B. iv. p. 308 (1884-86) ; Seebh. Hist. Br. 

B. iii. p. 408, pi. 67 (effg) (1886) ; Clarke ^ Backh. Ibis, 1886, p. 371 

(Iceland) ; Stmdev. Ibis, 1886, p. 408 (osteol.) ; Severtz. Zextschr. 

ges. Om. 1887, p. 22 ; Harting, Zoolog. 1887, p. 266 (Iceland) ; 

Tacz. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 460 (Corea) ; Tristr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 61 

(1889) ; Seebh, B. Jap. Emp. p. 234 (1890) ; Bchnw, J.f. O. 1890, 

p. 80; ?Lydekk. Cat. Foss. B. p. 107 (1891) ; Styan, Ibis, 1891, 

pp. 828, 494; Sharpe, Cat. Ost, Spec. CoU. Surg, iii. p. 294 (1891) ; 

SeM. Ibis, 1802, p. 26 (Heligoland) ; Campbell, ibid. p. 245 

(Corea). 
Cygnus melanorhvnchus, Meyer, Taschenb. deutsch. Vogdk. ii. p. 498, 

with pi. (1810)"; Dum. Diet. Sc. Nat. xii. p. 810 (1818) ; Naum. 

Wiegm. ArtA. 1837, i. p. 104 (Hungary). 
Cygnus ferns. Leach, Syst. Cat. M. ^ B. Br. Mus. p. 37 (1816) 

(nee Bartram, 1791) ; Vieill. N. D. ix. p. 39 (1817) ; Steph. Gen. 

Zool. xii. 2, p. 10 (1824) ; Flem. Br. Anim. p. 126 (1828) ; Yarr. 

Tr. lAwn. Soc. xvL 2, p. 463 (1830) ; Less. Tr. dOm. p. 629 

(1881) ; Benn. Gard. ^ Menag. Zool. Soc., Birds, p. 171 (1831) ; 

MSnitr. Cat. Pais. Cauc p. 66, n. 192(Bakou) (1832) ; Gould, B. 

Eur.^l. 366 (1837) ; Less. ConuU. de Buf.. Ois. ix. p. 627 (1837) ; 

id. op. cit. 2nd ed. p. 718 ( 1838) ; Bhmv. Gmpt. Bend. vii. p. 1024 

(1838); Naum. Wiegm. Arch. 1838, i. pp. 861, 866^ Ttf. vij« f \ 

{a, b,c,d); Eyton, Mon. Anat. p. lOl, pL 6 (tkelf*^ 

(1838); Less. Bev. Zool. 1839, p. 88S| A '*" 

p. 610, n. 4 (1844) : Bchnb. 8yn. Av., V$Mm 

(1846); id. Av. Syst. Nat. p. 10 (1869) | M 

(Greenland) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 876 (Zoo 

Cdt. Brit. B. p. 188 (1868); Mor^, iUi, '. 

Britain) ; Parker, P. Z. S 1865, p. 75Sf ; Dig*, r 

iL p. 473 (1867) ; Tristr. Ibis. 1868, p. 897 (H« 

^no^. p. 50 (1860) ; JBhom ^ BuokL WtflBi 



[. 1873) ; Okb. THa. Om. L 

._..,. , , _. .. J. 240; David Sf Outt. Oit. 

Chine, V. 483 (1877); Hume, 8tr. finU. viL pp. 106, 107, 464 

(1878-79), Tiii. p. 114, n. 944 qunt. (1879) ; JMm, P. Z. 8. 1883, 

p. 362. 
Cj^OB olor, PaU. (nee Om.) Zoogr. Somo-Am. u. p. 211 (1811). 
CjgQUS oloi a. Pail. op. cit. p. 211, 
Crvnus cjpiiia, Let*. Man. fOm. iL p. 407 (1828) ; Zocnrmi, Ont. 

Jahrb. ii. pp. 231-233 (Tyrol) (1881); Sarltrt, J. f. O. 1891, 

p. 806; ti^ Xat. VogfUammi. p. 226 (1891). 
f CrKDus idBndiciu, Brthm, Iiu, 1830, p. 000 (nw 112SP); fid. 

Kandb. Viig. Deuttchl. pp. 832, 1036, pi. xll f. 1 (1831). 
Olor muaiciw, Wagl. /««,1832, p. 1334; O. X. Or. Lia B. Brit. 

Mui. iii. p. 130 (1844) ; Smd. Melh. naL Av. disp. Tent. p. 146 

(1872). 
Cygnus lanthorliinua, Nmim. Vog. DeuiteM. v. p. 478, 1 296 (1843). 
Olor cjgnus, G. B. Or. Lid Oen. j- Subgea. B. p. 122 (1666) ; Bp. 

Compt. Bend, iliii. p. 648, n. S (1866) ; O. R. Or. Sand-Utt, iii. 

p. 78, n. 10600 (1871) ; Bidgie. Pr. U.8. JVW. Mut. iU. pp. 202, 

222 (1880) ; id. N<m. N. Am. B. n. 686 (1881) ; Stan. Pr. U.S. 

Sat. Mut. T. p. 198 (1882); J?., B.. ^ B. WaUr-B. N. Am. i. 

p. 423 (1884) ; P Slejn. BuU. U.8. Nat. Mtu. n. 39, p. 149 (Com- 

maoder Id.) (1886) ; id. Pf. U.S. Xat. Mut. x. p. 136 (Commandei 

M.) (1887). 
CjffDUB licnni, Ma/m, Gilteb. och Bohml. Faun. pp. 90, 343 (1877). 
Holor nusiciu, OkAe-OaU. Contr. Faun. Om. Bur. Ooc. fiuc. t. 

p. 3 (1886). 

Hyhridt. 

eigne chanteur tf X Oie domeetiqne 5,F.Gn'.Ann.Xut.Biti.Nat. 

Iii. p. 119(1808). 
GjgDiia musiciu iS X Aiuei domestlcuB ^,LeBerk. J.f. O. 1890, 
p- 217. 




1. cresTTB, 20 

a. Jurat Enzope. Purduaed. 

6t e. Ad. 8t Haylmg Island. J. R Tjndale, Eaq. [P.]. 

li. Ad. St. Wiltshue. Montagu ColL 

a^/. Ad. [heads]. Pagfaam Harboor, Sua- J. £. Harting, £aq. [P.]» 

a6x. 

ff. PnlL St. No locality. Gould ColL 

A. PulL at. No locality. 

i Ad. ak. Corea. F. Campbell, Eaq. [P.], 

iL Jot. ak. Shanghai, Not. (JL Swm^ Seebohm ColL 

hoe). 

L Ad. [head and S. Yexo, Japan, Feb. Seebohm ColL 

m, JvLv. [head]. Seebohm ColL 

11. PulL ak. Bred in confinement. 

o. Skeleton. 
p-n. Skulla. 
Ik -Sternum with 

trachea. 
w, x, y. Sterna. Yarrell ColL 

%, Sternum. 
tf'. Sternum, 

2. Cygnns bewickL 

Cygnua olor /3« Poll Zoogr. Bosso-Aa, ii. p. 214 (1811). 

Cygnua bewickii, Yarr, Tr. Linn. Soc. xvi. 2, p. 4^ (1830) ; 



ihdInoaU, ZooL Joum. v. p. 180 (1830) ; [AnonyTnaus], ibid. 
p. 191 (1830); SeOw, Tr. Jy. H. Soc. Northumb. i. pp. 17-26 
(1831); Leu. Tr. (TOm, p. 629 (1831); Selby, III. of Orn, ii. 



p. 284, pi. xlvii. bis (1833) ; Temm, Man. cTOm. iv. p. o27 (1835) ; 
JBaie, Isis, 1836, p. 262 (Dunkeique) ; JEut. Mist. R. Brit. B. p. 86 
(1836); Thomps. Mag. of Zool. ^ Bot. i. p. 462 (ia37) ; Gould, 
B. £ur. pL 356 (pt ziz. 1^37) ; Lest. Compl. de Buff,, Ois. ix. 
p. 628 (1837) ; id. op. cU. 2nd ed. p. 218 (1838) ; BaUl. CompU 
Bend. vii. p. 1021 (1838) ; Blainv. ibid. p. 1025 ; Bp. Comp. 
Lift, p. 65, n. 396 (1838) ; Eyt. Man. Anat. p. 98, pL 18 (trachea 
and sternum) (1838) ; Wiegm. Arch. Naturg. 1838, i.p.367,Taf. ix. 
(1838) ; Less. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 222 ; Hard. Syst. Verz. Ges. Mm. 
jt 118 (1844); Gerbe, Bee. Zool. 1845, p. 244; ? Midd. Sib. 
iUiee, iL 2, p. 224 (Taimyr) (1853) ; Altum, NaumamUa, 1855, 
p. 101; ?Sehrenck, Fog. Aniurl. i. 2, p. 456 (1860); ? Badde^ 
JUise S.0.'8ibir. u. p. 349 (Dauria) (1863) ; ? Parker, P. Z. S. 1S65, 
p. 752 (Malta, foaail) ; Murie, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 13 ; Siainh. Ihis, 
1867, p. 398; Dyb. ^ Parr. J,f. O. 1868, p. .338; FritBch, Viig. 
Ear. p. 339, Taf. 46. f. 9 (1870) ; Reugl. Ibis, 1872, p. 63 (Nwh- 
watowa) ; Stoinh. Ibis, 1873, p. 368 (China) ; Seebh. P. Z. S. 1875, 

f. 566 {egg) ; Seebh. ^ Harvie-Brown, Ibis, 1876, p. 438 (Lower 
tetchora ) ; Seebh. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 866 ; Prjev. Bowl. On. Miw. 
iii. p. 19 (Mongolia) (1878); Blakist. ^ Pryer, Ibis, 1878. p. 212 
(Japan) ; Finsch, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, 187d, p. 255 (W. Siberia) ; 
Hume, Sir. Feath. vii. pp. 107, 464 (1878-79), viii. p. 114, no. f^ 
quint. (1879) ; Dress. B. Eur. vi. p. 441, pi. 419. f. 3 (head) (188 
ScUa. P. Z. 8. 1880, p. 607; Hume ^ Marsh. Game-B. iiL f. 

* Authors generally add tumot, but in FalUa's work the word minor itf tJ 
aominapcement of hit description, and not part of the specific name. 



pt. e (18S0) ; Norderuk. Voy. of the Vega {tf. Ibii. 1883, «. 838> ; 

Cb««, CJuxMiit, 2[id ed. p. Ill, n. 691 (1383) ; Fhrbet, P. Z. 3. 

1883, p. 362 ; £. 0. U. tut Br. B. p. 121 (1883) ; SdiO. Litt 
Vert. An. 8th ed. p. 423 (1883) ; B-mgt, MiL Biol. 1884, p. 45 

(Lunft Delta) ; Blakist. Amend. Lift B. Jap. p. 33 (1884) ; Saimd. 

Jarrefl'iHwtJr.J.ii.p, 315 (1884-85); Se^h.HUl. Br. B.m, 

p. 484, pL 58 (etnr) (1885) ; Saioad. El. lice. Ital. p. 255, do. 356 

(1836) ; Oigt. ^ Saioad. P. Z. S. 1887, pp. 589, 691, pL lu. f. 3 

(head); iid. Mem. R. Ac. Sa. Tor. (2) zuix. p. 140 (1888); 

Pleske, Riv. Turkett. OmU, v. 54(1888); Trittr. Qa. Coll B. 

p, 51 (1889) ; Seebh. B. Jap. Emp.p. 235 (1890) ; Jtehnto. J.f. 0. 

1890, p. 80 i P Lydekk. Cat. Poet. S. p. 108 (1891) ; HarUH, Eat. 
VogettanmL p. 226 (1891) (.-VbhevillB) ; SAarpe, .Oat. Ott. Spec. 

Colt. Surg. iii. p. 296 (1891) ; SaAh. Ibit, 1892, p. 26 (HeHgo- 

laud). 
Cjgnus ieliiadicuB, Brehm, lint, 1830, p. 1125 (aecp. 096 P) (Miinch- 

ausen); JVoum. Wiegm. Arch. iv. p. 364, Tftf. tiiL f. ie,f,g, A 

(1838); Brehm, JVoumannui, 1855,p. 296; C. F. Duboa, PL Col. 

Ou. Btlg. iii. p. A pi. 208 (1860). 
Swan (new up.), WingaU, Tram. N. H. Soe. XorOumb. i, pp. 1, 2 

(ia31,re«dOct.20, 1829). 
Olor bewickii, Wagl. leie, 1832, p. 1234; Stem. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mm. 

\. p. 201 (1882) r B., B., * .S. WaUr-B. N. ^m. L p. 423 

(1884). 
Cjgnus borwickii («rr.), ^lon, Man. Anat. pL 16 (trftchea and 



Oygn 



12) ; e.B. Or. Got. B. iii. 
p. 610, n. 6 (1844) i 'Bchnb. Sun. Av., NatotorM, t. 106. ff. 963- 
64 (1845); Schl^. Namtanma, 1865, p. 268, Taf. iv. S. i~i 
(heada) ; Altum, ibid. (noU), Taf. iv. fi! 6, 6 (beads) ; Baedek. 
Eier eur. Vog. t. SI (18S5); Swinh. Zaolog. 1860, p, 6024; id. 
Ibu, 1861, p. 344 (China), 1862, p. 2^4 : id. P. Z. S. 1W3, p. 323 
(Canton) ; P A. Heat, this, ISaii, p. 615 (SpiwKTseu) : ScUfg. .V.«, 
" ". Anseres, p. 82 (1866) ; Degl. If Gerbe, Om. Eur. il p. 474, 







vn. 






Tl 



* *T*| I 1;^ 



i 

if"* -M 






Lrfk - ■■ ^- ^ 



«r 



i. ur i« -,'■1. 



«. Aa.. ^ ^ =. 






i::.*-.^ 



" " i.l»-'L L. 7* * * *-• 






V'SS. 












tr. J-- 



- r"f- 



-l- 



j- • 



•- x-r-. 



^'. A'-* 



•^b' 



_ »- 



CfclfciC^'tf". «-(Jitt:. j^r:..Mr. 



- -;^.^^. 



«r . 'J 



._ f 



.u 



'JV 



ilK. i/JL.. & 



/. Skeleton. 
m. SkuU and 
feet. 



B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 



. Cygnu colombiatiiu. 

M.) Trap. p. 294 (1791) (ma; be 



f (>gnna fems, Bartr. (nc 

v. buccinator), 
WhisUing Swan, P. A!im, HitL of the BxpeM. wtdtr ti 

of Capt Lewii and Clarice, i. p. 398, ii. p. 192 (1814) •. 
Anaa c^umbianus, Ord, Gutitie'i Geogr. 3nd Am. ed. p. 319(1615). 
Anas cjgnuB, Bp. (nee iinn.) Obg. Nomaul. WiU. p. ~- ( 18«) ; id. 

Speech. Comp. p, 70, n. 237 (1827). 
Cygnua muricus, Bp. {nee Bedat.) I c,\ id. 8m, p. 379 (1828); 

LinA Am. Joum. iliv. p. 268 (1843). 
Cygnus bewickii, Su>. 4" ^A- («e IWr.) Faun. .^.-..^ffl. ii, p. 465 

(1S31) ; NuU. Man. ii. p. 372 (1834). 
CvgnuB feniB, SAarp/eu (nee leach), Dougkty't Cab. Nat. Hitt. i. 



Cjfraus smencftnua, Sharpl. Am. Joum. Se. Art, xiii. p. 83 (1882) 
Bp. Sujwl. &>eeeh. Comp. p. 11, n. 237 (1832) ; MaegUl. Man. Om'. 
ii. p. 157 (1842) (Scotland) ; Bp. Comp. Liit, p. 56, a. 364 (1638) ; 
JBrf. Mon. Anat. p. 99 (1838) ; Aud. Om. Btoffr. t. p. 133, 
pL 411 (1839) ; if. ^. p. 274 (1839); id. S. Am. vi. p. 228, 
pi. 384 (1843); Oir.B.ZongIil.-p.2S8(lSii);G.Ji.Gr.(3en.B. 
ui. p. 610, n. 6 (1&44) ; Schnb. &)H. Ae., Natahires, Novitia, 
t. 164. f. 2774 (1860) (ex Audubon) ; Ifewh. P. B. R. Rep. ri. 
p. 100 (1867) ; Baird, B. N. Am. p. 768 (1868) ; id. Cat. N. Am, 
B. n. 661 a (1869) ; F Banuton, Ibte, 1860, p. 263 (Hudson's Baj) : 
Chop. * 8ucU. N. H. Walk. Terr. p. 248 (1860) ; Wheat. Ohio 
DO. 223 (1860); Cbua ij Prent. Smitht. Sep. p. 477 
'■ ■ ■- ■ -' -- - -' '■--'- ^ Siver) 



(18011 ; Itosi, Ciinail. NaturaL 



,MncW 





1. CTGITOS. 33 

Bp, Compt Bend, xliii. p. 648, n. 6 (1856) ; O. jR. Or, Hand- 
list, iii. p. 78, n. 10602 (1871) ; Hidgw. Norn. N. Am. B, n. 688 
(1881) ; iV<?&. CrvMe * Ci>nrtn/ p. 92 (1881) ; Mwd, Exp, to Point 
Barroto,^, 116 (1886). 

Cygnus columbianus, Coues, Btdl, 17,3, GeoL 8^ Geogr, Surv. Terr, 
2nd 8er. n. 6^. 444 (1876) ; id, Chech-Ust, 2nd ed. p. 110, n. 689 
(1882) ; id, JSiy N, Am, A p. 682, n. 689 (1884). 

Olop columbianus, Stejn, Pr, U,S, Nat, Mus, v. p. 210 (1882) ; B,, 
B,y ^ R, Water-Birds N, Am, i. p. 426 (1884) ; SteJn, Bull, U,S, 
Nat, Mus, no. 29, p. 160 (Bering I.) (1885) ; A, O, U. Code of 
Norn, and Check-list, p. 129, n. 180 (1886) ; Turner , Cmtr, N, H, 
Alaska, p. 144 (1886) (Yukon) ; Nels, N, H, CoU, in Alaska, 
p. 91 (1887) (Bering Sea)j Bidgw, Man, N, Am, B, p. 120, 
pi. xxix. f. 1 (bead) (1887) ; ^S^Vi. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. x. p. 136 
(Bering Is.) (1887) ; Macfarl Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus, xiv. p. 426 (eggs) 
(1891) ; Hatch, B, of Minnes, p. 82 (1892). 

Tail usually of twenty feathers ; bill not longer than the head. 

Adult. Entire plumage pure white, the head, sometimes the neok, 
or even entire underparts, tinged with rusty ; bill, tarsi, and feet 
deep black, the bare loral skin usually marked by an oblong spot 
of orange or yellow (dull pale reddish, yellowish, or whitish in 
the skin); iris brown. Total length about 53-55 inches, wing 
21-50-22, tail 7-8, culmen 3-82^-2, tarsus 4-06-4-32. 

Female similar. 

Toung. Light plumbeous, paler beneath, the fore part and top of 
the head tinged with reddish brown ; bill reddish flesh-colour, dusky 
at the tip ; feet dull yellowish flesh-colour or greyish. 

Hah, The whole of North America, breeding far north ; accidental 
in Scotland. 

a. Ad. St. N. America. J. Richardson, Esq. [P.]. 

h. Ad. st. Northern Exped. The Admiralty [PJ. 

e, cJ ad. sk. Corpus Christ!, Texas, Oct. {F, Salviu-Godman Coll. 

B, Armstrong), 



4. Cygnus buccinator. 

Cygnus buccinator. Rich, Faun, B,-A, ii. p. 464 (1831) (Hudson's 
Bay) ; YarreU, Philos, Mag, 1832, p. 287 ; id, Tr. Linn, Soc. xvii* 
pp. 1-4, pi. i. (1834) (sternum and trachea) ; Nutt. Man, ii. p. 370 
(1834) ; Aud, Om. Biogr. iv. p. 636, pi. 376 (1838) ; Bp, Comp. List, 

5. 55, n. 365 (1838) ; Wiegm. Arch.f. Naturg, 1838, i. p. 371 ; Eyt, 
fon, Anat, p. 100 (1838) ; Blainv, Compt, Rend, vii. p. 1026 (1838) ; 
Less, Rev, Zool. 1839, p. 323; Aud, Om, Biogr. v. p. 114, pi. 406 
(1839) ; id, Syn, p. 274 (1839) ; Riipp. Mm, Senckenb, iii. p. 6 
Q839) ; Aud. B, Am, vi. p. 219, pis. 382, 383 (1843) ; Wyman^ 
Pr. Bost, Soc. N. H. i. p. 119 (sternum) (1843) ; Giraud, B, of 
Long Isl. p. 299 (1844) ; O, R, Or, Gen, A iii. p. 610, n. 7 (1844) ; 
HaHl, Syst, Verz. Ges, Mus, p. 118 (1844) ; Rchnb, Syn, Av., 
Natatores, t. 104. ff*. 2775-76 (1850) {ex Aud.) ; Newb. P. R, R. 
^tetf. yi. p. 104 (1857) (California and Oregon) ; Baird, B. N. Am^ 
"^ (1858) ; id. Cat. N, Am, B. n. 562 (1859) ; Wied, J, f, O, 
162; ?Bamst. Ibis, 1860, p. 253 (Hudson's Bay) ; Coop. 



^ Sudd y. S. Wash. Terr. p. 248 (1860) ; Wheat Ohio Amic. 
lUp. no. 234 (leeO) (Lake Ene) j Ba/d. Sep. p. 176 (1862) (Yel- 
lowstone) i Blakitt. Ibis, 1862, p. 9 ; Soil, Canad. Natural Yii. 
p. IGl(MackeiiiieRiver) (1862); id. 2fat. Hitt. Bev. (2) ii. p. 286 
(1862) ; Btakiil. Ibit, 1863, p. 136 ; &lat. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 208 
(Zool. Gord.) i SchUg. Mw. P.-B., Angeres.p. 83 (1866) ; Murit, 
P. Z. S. 1867, pp. 6, 11, 12, 13 ; Smckt, P. Z. S. 1868, pp. 211- 
213 ; Srwm, Ati, 1868, p. 426 (Vancouver laL) ; DaU ^ Sana. 
TV. Chic. Acad. i. p. 294 (1869) (Frazer River and Yukon) j Turub. 
B. S. Pa. p. 45 (1869) (Chesapeake Bav) ; Eytmt, &/n. Anat. 
p. 49 (18691 ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 664 (Zool. Gard.) ; Tr^ipe, 
Pr. Eu. Itut. vi. p. 119 (1871) (Minnesota); Merr. U.S. Gtd. 
Sum. Terr. p. 703 (1872) (Wyoming) ; GteS. Thei. Om. i. p. 855 
(1872) i Couei, Key, p. 281 (1872) ; id. OUcft-iwi, n. 476 (1873) ; 
Snow, B. Kam. p. 11 (1873) (Iowa) ; Garrod, P. Z. S. 187;i, p. 467 
(carotids), p. 65©; mdgvi. Aim. Lye. N. Y. x. p. 388 (1874) (Illi- 
nois) ; Couei, Bird! N.-W. p. 641 (1874); Adanu, Ibis, 1878, 
p. 430 (Michalaaki) ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 606 ; Forbet, P. Z. S. 
1882, p. 352; Coua, Check-Utt, 2ad ed. p. 110, n. 688 (1882); 
Schnw. Om. Centralbl. 1882, p. 39 ; ii Vog. Zool. OUrt. p. 70 
(1882) ; Huet, Sail. Soc. Zool. A. 1882, p, 353 (breeding in csp- 
livity);&;ii(.ii"»(Fn-t..4n.8thed. p. 424, n. 946(1883);B. 0. F. 
Lut Br. B. p. 121 (1883) ; Cbw», Key X. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 682 
(1884) ; Sound. TaTTeWiBia. Br. B. iv. p. 322 (1884-85) ; ?Babitigt. 
B. of Suff. p. 243, pla. v., vi. (1886) ; Sharpe, Cat. Oiteol. Spectm. 
Coll. SuTff. iii. p. 2^ (1881). 

Olor buccinator, Waal. Iiit, 1832, p. 1234 ; Bp. Compt. Bend, iliii. 
p. 648, n. 6 (1866); Q. S. Gr. Sand-lilt, iii. p. 78, n. 10603 
(1871); Sidffte. Norn. N. Am. B. n. 689(1881); ^n. Pr. U.&. 
Nat. Mva. v. p. 216 (1882) ; B., B., ^ S. Water-Bird* N. Am. i. 
p. 430 (1884) ; A. 0. U. Code of Nam. * Chei^litt, p. 130, n. 181 
(1886) ; Bidgv). Man. N. Am. B. p. 120 (1887) ; Macfarl. Pr. 
U.S. Nat Mm. zIt. p. 426 (Deet and egee) (1891) ; MatiA, B. <f 
MinMi. p. a3 (1882). 

Cytniua pasemori, Hincki, Joum. Ltnn. Soc. viii. p. 1 (1864) 




1. creioTS. 35 

colour, and a large elongated patch of a light dull purple on each 
side ; the edge of the lower mandible and the tongue dull yellowish 
flesh-colour. The eye is dark brown. The feet are dull yellowish 
brown, tinged with olive; the daws brownish black, the webs 
blackish brown. The upper part of the head and the cheeks are 
light reddish brown, each feather having, towards its extremity, a 
small oblong whitish spot, narrowly margined with dusky; the 
throat nearly white, as well as the edge of the lower eyelid. The 
general colour of the other parts is greyish white, slightly tinged 
with yellow ; the upper part of the neck marked with spots similar 
to those on the head." (Audubon,) 

^^ Cygnets are of a uniform ashy grey in their first plumage, darker 
than in the corresponding plumage of 0. olor" When moulting 
they *' seem to be whiter on the breast and darker on the back than 
the Common Swan at the same period." (Sdater,) 

Eah. Interior of North America^ more rare or less generally 
distributed towards the Pacific coast, rare or accidental ^ong the 
Atlantic coast ; breeding from Iowa and Dakota northward. 

a. Ad. sk. Vaucouver Is. (/. K, Brit. N. Amer. Boun- 

I/ird), dary Comm. [P.]. 

b. Ad. sk. Snake R., Washington, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Sept (CuHU). 

c. Juv. sk. Califomia. J. Richards, Esq. [P.]. 

d. Skeleton. N. America. Zool. Soc 

e. Sternum with trachea. 



5. QygnuB olor. 

Tame Swan, Edw, Birds,^\, 150 (head) (1743). 

Cygnus, Briss, Om. vi. p. 288 (1700). 

Anas cygnus ft Linn, S. N. Lip. 194 (1766). 

Cy^us mansuetus, Saleme, Om, ou Tr, des Ots, p. 404 (1767) ; 

Flem. Br. An, p. 126 (1828) ; G. B, Or, List B, Brit, Mus, iii. 

p. 130 (1844); Ikgl, ^ Qerbe, Om, Eur, ii. p. 476 (1867); Dub, 

Fam. Bdg,, Ois. u, p. 410, pi. 240 (1892). 
eigne, I/Aubent, Pi, ml, 913. 
Cygne, Buff. Hist, Nat, Ois, ix. p. 8, pi. 1 (1783). 
Anas cygnas (errors?), Bodd, Tabl It, Eid.^, 64, n. 913 (1783). 
Mute Swan, Lath, 8yn, m. 2, p. 436, n. 2 (1786). 
Anas cygnus (mansuetus), Lath. Gen, Syn, Suppl, i. p. 297 (1787). 
Anas olor, Om, 8. N. i. 2, p. 602, n. 47 (1788) ; Lath, Ind, Om, ii. 

p. 834, n. 2(1790). 
Anser cygnus a, Bonn, Ene, MSth, i. p. 107, pi. 28 (upper figure) 

rgnus gibbus, Bechst, Gemeinn, Naturg, Deutschl, iv. p. 816 
(1809); Meyer, Taschenb. deutsch, Vogelk, ii. p. 601 (1810); 
Brehm, Isis. 1830, p. 996 ; Wagl. Isis, 1832, p. 1234 ; Nordm, 
BuU. Ae, So. 8t, Pitersb. 1834^ p. 460 ; 5^. Pr, U.S. Nat. 



Cy^ni 



• «L 189 (1882) ; Sundev. Ibis, 1886, p. 408 (osteoL). 
^b(vr. Bosso-As, ii. p. 216 (1811). 
I. Cat. Br, B. p. 64 (1817). 

d2 



Qvgnns olor, VieilL N. D. ii. p. 37 (1S17) ; Bum. Dtct. Se. Nat. xli, 
p. 308 fl818) ; 5(<pA. Oen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 16, pi. 38 (1824) ; Brehm, 
i(M, 1830,p. 995; Lea. Tr. eTOm. p. 629 (1831) j Sennett,Oard. 
^Meiu^.Zoa.Soe.,Birdt,^. 165 (1831); Temm. Man. d'Om.iv. 

SG20 (1835) ; Gouid, B. Eur. pi, 364 (1837) ; Zai. Campl. de 
Bf , Oit. ii. p, 627 (1837) ; id. op. cit. 2ai ed. p. 718 (1838) ; 
Bp. Omp. List, p. 66, n. 392 (1838) ; Eyt. Mon. Anat. p. 96, 
pf. 3. f. II (Bternum) (1838); Biainv. Compt. Batd. \u. p. 1023 
(1836) ; Lei». Ben. Zool. 1839, p. 321 ; Biipp. Mu». Senckenb. iii. 
p. 5 (1839) ; K. ^ B. WirbelOi. Eur. pp. liixii, 232 (1840) ; 
Naum. Vog. Deulichl. li. p. 442, Taf. 295 (1842) ; ffarti. Sgst. 

Ferz. Ges. Mv». p. 118 (1844) ; Schteg. Eev. Oit. p. cii (1844) ; 
O. B. Gr. Gen. B. iii. p. 610, n. 1 (1844) ; Bi^nh. SJw. Av., Nnta- 
tores, t. 105. ff. 252-64 (1845) ; WaUtngr. Nauviatima, 1864, 
p. 266 (Scandinavia); Ltcht. Nomencl. Av. p. 101 (1864); Bp. 

Compt. Send, iliii. p. 648, n. 1 (1856) ; Heugi. &/et. Uei. p. 66 
(1866) ; Parker, P. Z. & 1863, pp. 516. 617 ; Badd^, Beit. S. O.- 
Sibir. ii. p. 350 (Dfturia) (1863); ScAkg. Mitt. P.-B.,AagereB, 
p. 78 (1866) ; Tritlr. tbit, 1868, p. 327 ; Wr^ht, Ait, 1869, 



68, p. ; 
p. 44(1 



p. 248 (Malta) ; Ei/t. Sgtt. Anat. p. 44 (1869) ; Elwes ^ Buekl. Ibit, 
1870, p. 338 (Turkey) ; HtOt. ilnd. p. 397 (Auckland, introduced) ; 
ScM. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 664 ; G. R. Gr. Bar^litt, m. p. 78, 
n. 10957 (1871) ; Natkut. J.f. O. 1871, p. 265 (ej^) ; SheU. B. of 
Empt, p. 278 (1872) ; Suttd. Met. nat. Av. di^. Tent. p. 146 
(1872) ; Gould, B. Gr. Bnt. v. pi 8 (part iii., 1872); Oieb. Thet. 
Om. i. p. 850 (1872); Brooke. Ibit, 1873, p. 342 (Sardinia); 
Severtz. Twkett. Jevoln. p. 70 (1873) ; Dan/. ^ Harvie Brown, 
Ibit, 1875, p. 426 (TraoBjlvania) ; Oarrod, P. Z. S. 1875. p. 348 ; 
Ih-ett. J4«, 1876, p. 416; Scullu, Sir. Feath. iv. p. 197 (E. Tur- 
kestan) (1876) ; Forbet, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 307, 312, 817 (borea 
Fabricii) ; Taez. BulL Soe. Zool. JV. ii. p. 44 (1877) ; Prjev. Bowl. 
Om. Mite. iii. p. 99 (1878) ; Blanf. S'r. Feath. tII. p. 99 (Slndh) 
(1878); Hume, ibid. pp. 101, 106 (India) (1878); id. P.A.S. 
B. 1878. p, 138 (Sindb); Bogd. [Ii. Oiue.lp. 170 (Terek) (1878); 
'- «. B. E«r. vi.p.419, pis. 418, 419. ff. 6, 6 (heads) (1860); 




Cfgnns libiluu, Nilu. Skatut. Faun,, Fojfl. Sid ed. it. p. 386 (186B). 
Vjenua tuberauliroBtriB, C F. Dub. H. Col. Oi». Btk '" — 



. p. 300 



CjgDIU 



nutabilie, 



. (™ 



r.) Verk. t.-b. Get. Wim, r 



7^ (1863) (Meozaleh, En 
Cjr'RnuB unwini, Hume, Ibt^ 1^71, p, 413; Sain. Had. (note, =C. 

glor); £lanf. Str.Feath. vii. p. lOO (1877): Hume, Otd. p. 104 

(=olor juv.j (1878) ; Steja. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mui. t. p. 105 (1882). 
Crmus, tp., Stdkxka, J. A. 8. B. 1872, p. 29» (Cutoh) ; H^me, Sr. 

Feath. IT. p. 33 (1876), vii. p. 104 (18,8). 
Ctgniw pdidni, S/g». Pr. U.S. Nat. Mitt, v. p. 197 (Lake Man- 

-^) {1882J a«>n- P)- 

V&r. domesticB. 

fAnudiruea, Hfrm. Obt. Zool. p. 139(1809). 

Cyjrnus immutabiUa, Tarr. P. Z. 8. 1838, p. 19 (Medway, England) ; 
£p. Con^. Lul, p. 55, n. 383 (1838) ; Eston, sVon. Anal. p. 06 
(1S38) ; BlaiHT. Compl. Bmd. Tii. p. 1024 (1638) ( =?C. olorfenis) i 
Wiegm. Areh.f. Naturg. 1838. i. p. 371 ; Pelerm,Mag. N. JI. 1839, 
p. 172 (osteol. diff.); Leu. Rtv. ZooL 1839, p. 3-22;K.^ S. WirbeltA. 
Sir. p. UxiiT (note) (1840) ; Tarr. Br. B. iii. p. 121 (witb fig.) 
(IB4S); uJLGen.fi. iii. p.510,n.^(1844); j;eA>i6.%i.^D.,Nat&tores, 
t. lOa t 966 (184C); BIom. in Naunu Voq. DeuOehi. xiii. 2, p. 237 
(1800); Ptnoj/h Ibii, 1860, p. Sol { Ionian M) ; Dfgl. ^ Oa-be, Orn. 
Eur, ji. p. 476 (1867) ; Eyt. Sua. Anat. p. 45 (1869) ; fSla. 4" Bhc/cI. 
tbk, 1870, p. 338 (Epirus) ; Fielil, Jul? 1871 ; O. B. Gr. Haad-lut, 
iiL p. 78, n. 10598 (1871) ; Briigg. Zool. Gdrf. 1875, p. 321 ( =olor 
\U.); Sditt. P. Z.8. 18fi6. p. 4(56 (breeding) ; Southw. TV. Norf. Nat. 
Soe. ii. pp. 258-260 (1876) ; Drtu. B. Eur. tI. p. 429, pL 419. ff. 1, 
3 (beiuls) (1880) : Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 606 ; Foriw, P. Z. 8. 
1882, p. 362; SUrin. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mui. v. p. 192 (1882) ; B. O. 
U. ZiH Br. B. p. 120 (1883) ; .Sound. rarreWi Hal. Br. B. iv. 
p. 340 (1884-86): *eft*. .ffirf.Jr. if.iii. p. 478(1885); S<mth«i.m 
Stonen*. A o/ JVor/ott. iii. p. Ill (1890); ifcAnw. J./ 0. 1690, p. 80. 

War immuUbllia, flp. Cat. MH. t"rc. Eur. p. 68, n. 412 (1842). 

• ■ lutabUiB, Schleg. Bee. Oil. p. ciii (1844) (England, 



C'vpiiu cnor 1 
Holbind), 



Cygrtiu olor a. iminutabilia, Bp. Compt. Send, sliii. p. 648 (1856), 
<^niits olor, pnrt., Schleff. Mia. P.-B., An»eres, p. 18, spec 3 (Hur- 

Ihui) (I806) ; Oifb. thm. Orn. i. p. 856 (1872) ; Selal. Liet VtrU 

An. 8Ui t^d. p. 423, Hp«c. e, o, r (1883), 
Fblfah Swnn, Gu«i. P. Z 8. 1877. p. 379. 
C;]|piiiB mAnnietuB, pan.. Dub. Faun. Belg., OU. ii. p. 416 (1892). 

Hyhridt. 
Oranu* olor X Aiuer fenis, var. dumMticiu 

p. 127. 
Cnrnus oUirc 

J.f. O. lettO. p. 217. 
Cjgna* olor iS X Aiuer cinereiu $ , Leeerk. I. e. 
<^gn«8 0lorrr XAmerdoiuesdcui?, Lemrk. I.e. 
CjPgniu inimutkbiliBX (liemicla leucopsia X B, cauadensLe), Xetienl:. I. o. 
t^gniuolurS X.^ter cineKuaij, Levrrk. I. c. p. p. 218. 
Qi^iu olot 5 X C. atratus J , Zeverk. I. e. 



Crommelin, Ibit, 1660, 



AduU. Eotire plumage pore white ; lores, frontal tubercle, base 
of the upper mandible, nOBtrils, nail, edges of the upper mandible, 
and entire under mandible blaok, remainder of the beak reddish 
orsnge ; legs and feet dull black ; irides hazel. Total length 
4 feet 8 inches to 5 feet, wing 27 inches, tail 10, culmen 4-2, 
tareus 4-5. 

Female. Similar to the male, but Boroewhat smaller, the neck 
more alender ; the tubercle at the base of the beak amaller, 

Tounff. Plumage almost a sootj' grey ; neck and under surface of 
the body lighter in colour ; beak lead-colour ; nostrils and the basal 
maigmal line black. 

CifgTUti. Covered with soft brownish or dull aahy-grey down, 
whidi on the lower throat and breast becomes much paler, almost 
white ; bill and lega lead-grey. 

In this bird the keel of the sternum is simple, unprovided with 
any cavity. 

I quite agree with Mr. Seebohm and others, who believe that the 
so-called Polish Swan can only be regarded as a quasi-albino pro- 
duced by domeetication. None of the characters attributed to 
C. immuiabilis are constant. 

Sab. Denmark and South Sweden, South Bussia, Valley of the 
Danube, Transylvania and Greece, and passing the northern shores 
of the Caspian, to Turkestan and Mongolia; winters in the 
BOntiiem portions of the Caspian, ocoaeionaUy in the extreme north- 
west of India, and in tbe basin of the Mediterranean. 



a. Ad. St. 

b. Juv. sk. 
e. Ad. St. 
<f. Imm. st. 



Nairn, N.B. (imrnutabSu). 
AcbiU Is., Ireland. 
Ot. Britaiu. 

Mushes near Homing, 
N'orfoik {(mmUabHu). 



Duncan Baillie, Esq. [F.], 
J. K. Sheridan, Esq. [P.J. 
Dr. Dewier [P,], 
M. C. Cooke, Eeq. [P.]. 




Nuffi, N.B. (immubibaii). Duncan Bnillie, Esq. [P.]- 
n with trscbea. 
Algeria. 

6. CyguQS melancorypbns. 

Anas melimcorTphfi, Mot. Sa^g. Sfor. Nut. Chili, p. 207 (1783) ; id. 

up. nf. 2iid ed. p. 199 (1810) ; Brandit, Utbers. Melin. Naturg. 

Chli, p. LW (1(86). 
Black-necked Swan, Lath. Sm. iii. 2. p. 438, n. 3 (1785) ; Griff. 

A». Eingd. iii. p. 661, pi. — (1839). 
ADM nigricollis, Gm. S. N. i. 3, n. 502, n. 48 (1788) (.-.r Bougaair- 

rilU): Lath. Ind. On. it. p. a-H, n. S (1790). 
AnxB melanowphalfl, Gm. S. If. i. 2, p. 502, u. 49 0'88) (ei 

Anict mel«ici)iypl""«, Sonn. £Vw. Jititk. i, p. 108, n. 3 (1790). 

Atuer nigricullii, jSonn. /. c n. 3 (1790). 

Ci«ne de c»beia negra., I/Aatra, ApiuU. iii. p. 404, n. 42C (1805) ; id. 

Toy. (SbxR. «f.), iv. p. 323 (ISOO). 
' mus melanocephalua, rieill. X. D. n. p. 43 (1817); Blatnv. 
- ■ " ■ ii. p. 1026 (1838) ; ZicM. AbnimcA Av. p. 101 



Cysatii : 



Cygam niffricxillis, ■' Lath.," Dum. Diet. Sc. Jfat. iii, p. 813 (1818) 
** ■ " " ■ ■ - ). 17 (1824); Boie, ira,!^"" 



•■t<jt/i, Gm. ZaU. xu. 2, p. 17 (1824) ; £ok, Iris, 1826, p. 9 
£tf(. MoH. Atiat. p. 98 (1838) ; D'Orb. Vay. Am. M(r., Itm 
p. 304 (note) (16^) ; id. Wirgm. Areh. 1839, L p. 67 ; Leu. Bte. 
TSeol. 1830, p. 323 ; JKwm. Mus. SfHck. iU. p. 8 0839) ; IVpp. ibid. 
p. 9 (note) (1839) ; l9a»tr, P. Z. S. 1&13, p. 118 (Chili) ; G. B. 
Or. Lilt B. Brit. Mm. iii. p. 130 (1844) ; u/. Gen. B. iii. p. 610, 
n. 8 (1614) ; HaHl. Syd. Fere. Get. Mia. p. US (1844) : Bdmb. 
&>[. Ab., Natatores, 1. 106. (. 967 (184J)) ; Yarr. P. Z. S. 1&17, 
p.&t(eKg): UaHt. Ind. Axar. Apiaa. p. 27, n. 426 (1847); De» 
afurt, m Oav't Hilt. Chiie, i. p. 445, pi. 14 (1848): Bibra, 
Dmktekr. k. Ak. Wit»en*ek. t. 3, p. 131 (1853) (cf. J.f. O. 1865, 
n. 57) ; Thien. FoHpJlata»g. i. 76. f. 8 fegg) (1864) ; Bp. Compl. 
Send, xliii. p. 648, a. 2 (1856) ; Burm. Smt. Ueb. iii. p. 432 (Sta. 
Calhariua L) (1866); Ow*. f.S. Adrtm. Exp., Zool. p. 300 (1856) ; 
OvJd. P.ZS. 1859, p. 98 ; Sclat. ibid. p. 206 (Fdlilanil Isl.) ; 
Jfurm. J./. 0. 1860, p. 266; Wolf^ Selat. ZooL Sketch. I. pi. 48 
ami) ; Mbaft, Ibis, 1861, p. 159 (Falkliuids) ; Burnt. La-Plata 
Xtim, ii. p. 612 (1861) : SeAltff. DieraU. p. 277, witb fig, (1864) ; 
Afe, Beiie Nonara, VTSg. p. 137 (1865); Sdikg. Mue. P.-B., 
Amctch, p. 79 (1866) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1867, u.3S4; Ph.^ Landl,. 
Cat. Ae. CkiL p. 60 (1868) ; Cmningh. Ibii. 1866, p. JS8 ; &/. j- 
Sale. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 145 (G.nchitM) ; iid. Ibis, 1869, p. 284 
(EUxabetli ble) ; At. Sun. Anal. p. 46 (1869) ; Selat. P. Z S. 
1868, p. 629 (Zool. G«d.), 1870, p. 666 (Zool. Gsrd.) ; Pel:. Om. 
JBMa. p. 459 (1870) : Sftal.^ Sidv. IbU, 1870, p. 504 (emrs, Eliift- 
betli Uand): JB. Zooi. Oen. Amit. 1871, pp. 196-U)8; G. R. 
Or. Hmd-Uit, m. p. 78, d. 10690 (1871): Gieb. Tha. Ont. i. 
p. 856 (1872) J Burm. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 386 (ParanA) j Oarrod, 
r. Z. S. 1873, pp. 467 (carotids), 639; Selat. ^ Salv. Jfim. An. 
>«(rop. p. 150, n. 1 (1878); Garr.P.Z.S. 1876, p. 348) Gtdliv. 
aid. p. 488 ; Dum/. IMi, 1876, p. 163 ; Seiat. ^ Sale. P. Z. S. 
1876, p. 370; £hirn/. /&>, 1877, pp. 41 (Chupnt), 191 (Buenos 
Ajms), 1876, p. «M (Centr. Patagonia); ffAwH, Ibu, 1880, 



p. 38; Schm^, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 317; &Ial. iSui pp. 606, 636 ; 

Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 14 (Hugh Bay) ; Jbr6«, P. Z. S. 

1682, p. 362; SeAnw. Om. Centralbl. 1^, p. 89; id. Vog. 

Zaol. Girt. p. 70 (1882) ; A. MUtie-JBdw. Hum. Rig. Aiutr. ch. ix. 

p. 40 (1882) ; Sdal. LUt Vert. An. 8th ed. p. 424, n. &70 (1883) ; 

Sanoag, Avk, 1884, p, 273 (Entrerios) ; Btrl. J. f. O. 1887, 

p. 183 (Sta. C&tharinK, ParaD&, and B. Ajiea) ; Burm. Anal. Mm. 

Nac. Bum. Airai,iu.^. 2i7 (1888); Sclat. Argent. Om.\i.-f.\U, 

pL xriii. (1889) ; Triitr. Cat. CoU. B. p. 51 (1889) ; Kerr, Ibu, 1890, 

p. 368; Er>an»,Ibi», 1891, p, 71 (incubation) ; Frenstl,J.f. O. 1891, 

p. 126 (Oordova) ; (hut. Miu. &. Cap Horn, iv. Ou. p. 186 (1891) ; 

Martert, Kat. VogeUammi. p. 228 (1891) ; Holland, IbU, 1892, 

p. 206 (Argentina) ; Berk. Jatne», New LUt ChiL B. p. 9, u. 147 

(1892) ; Aplin, Ibu, 1884, p. 200 (Uruguay). 
Anas malanocotyphua, " Mol.," Lett. Cbmpl. de B*^., Oit. ix. p. 628 

(1837) ; id. op. cit. 2nd ed p. 718 (18S8> 
StheneluB melancoiyphua, SUin. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mat. v. p. 186 

(1882). 
Sthenelides melancoirphe., iSan. Kmgd. Stand. Nat. EitL it. p. 143 

(1886). 

Advli male. Fore white, except the head and tlie upper two- 
thirds of the neck, which ore black, with a velvet gloss ; a narrow 
white atripe surrounda the eye and extends backward towards the 
nape ; chin white ; " iria almost black ; bill plnmbeoua, with the 
base and knob red ; feet pale flesh-colour " {Nattertr). Total length 
about 48 inches, wing 17*5, tail 6'5, ciilmen 3'4, tarsua 3*6, 

Female. Similar to the male, only smaller. 

Yoking. No frontal knob ; head and neck brown, lighter than in 
the adult ; the white feathers have mety edges, more conspicuous 
on the upper parts ; tips of the primaries and shafts of the qaills 
chocolate-brown. (Stejtuffer.') 

Young in down. ^Vhlte, the upper parts with a faint greyish 




2. CHBK0PI8. _,_ 

Typo. 

GheQOpiB, Wa^. Int. 1832, p. 1234 C. atrate. 

Cheoopsia, ScAni. Ao. ^H. Nat. p. x (1862).] 

Sange. Confined to AuBtralia. 

1. Chenopu atarata. 

Black Swan, IMl. Sot. Bay, p. 98 (ITSfi) ; Labiil. Vuy. in Search of 

La Piroute, Engl. ed. i, p. 184, pi. 9 (ISOOj ; Lath. Gen. &/n. 

iSvpfL ii. p. 343 (1801). 
Aubs atrata, Lath. Ind. Om. iL p. 834, n. 4 (1790) i .Bonz. m. di 

Zool iii. pL u:. p. 97 (1826) ; Yarr. Tr. Xm«. Soc. iv. p. 382, 

pi. xii. (tracliea) (1826). 
Anser dots hoUandiffi, Bonn. Eite. Mith. i. p. 108, n. 4 (1790) lex 

Phuup*). 

Ados plutouia, Shato, Nat. Mac. m. pi. 108 (1791) ; Ctn. Biyn. An. 

i. p. 629 (1817). 
Cypie noir, LatOL Voy. ree. La Plr. i. p. 184, pi. 9 (1800). 
Cygniis atratiis, VieUl. N. D. ii. p. SO (1817) ; Dum. Diet. So. Nat. 

m. p. 314 (1818) ; Steph. Gat. Zool. xii. 2, p. 18, pi. 39 (1824) ; 

VieiU. Gal. Oia. ii. p. 215, pi. 286 (1826) ; Fair. Zool. Joun. it. 

p. 321 (1828) i Zeis. Man. d'Om. ii. p. 407 (1828) ; id. Tr. d'Om, 

p. 629, pi. 48. f. 1 (1831) ; Bennett, Gard. ^ Menag. Zool. See., 

Birds, p. 46, with figure (1831) j Heron, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 107 ; 

Leu. Compl. de Buff., Oie. ix. p. 620 (1837) ; id. op. at. 2ud ed. 

p. 718 (1838) ; Blaitw. Compt. Bend. yii. p, 1026 (1838) ; Leu. Xev. 

Zool. 1839, p. 323 ; .Hupp. Mut. Senekenb. iii. p. 9 (1839) ; O. B. 

Gr.Gen. 3. iii. p. 610, n. 9 (1844); Sartl Suit. Verz. Gee. Mm. 

p. 118 (1844) ; Gould, B. Atatr. vii. p. (pt, xx., 1846) ; Bchnb. 

Svn. Av., NataWres, t. 106. ff. 251-62 (1846), t. 107. f. 2362 

(i860) (srOouW); Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 101 (1654); Sclat. 

P. Z. S. 1869, p. 206 (incubfttioD) ; Criep, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 238, 

1862, p. 142; Schl^. Mtu. P.-3., Anseres, p. 80 {1806)[ MUU. 

P. Z. S. 1869, p. 280; Sdat. ibid. p. 620; Gtei. Thes. Om. i. 

p. 855 (1872) ; Pek. Ibis, 1873, p. 46 ; Garr. P. Z. S. 1876, p, 348 ; 

Sanu. Pr. Linn. Soc. N.S. W. p. 200, n. 646 (1878) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 

1880, p, 607; ^f*«,P.Z.S. I882,p.S52; Bchnio.Om.CfntraibL 

1882, p. 39; W. Toy. Zoo/. Gflrt. p. 70 (1882); Sclat. Liit FerL An. 

8th ed. p. 424 (1883); Leyge, Pr. Roy. Soc. Taem. 1886 p. 244 

{Taamama} (1886) ; Bamt. Tab. List Auetr. B. p, 22, n. 657 (1888) ; 

EaanM, Ibis, 1891, p. 71 (incubation) ; Hartert, Kat. VogeUamwi. 

p. 226 (1891) i Sharpe, Cat. Otleol. Spec. CoU. Surg. iii. p. 296 

(1891). 
Chenopis atraln, IVayl. Isis, 1832, p. 1234; Bp. Compt. Bmd. xliii. 

p. 648, a. 7 (1S66) ; Omld, Uandi. B. Auetr. ii. p. 34G (1865) ; 

Ramn. Ibis, 1866, p. 335 (Pott Deniwni); Hutton, Ibis, 1870, 

p. 397 (AuckJaad, intwduo^*^'-*^-"* J7„-AiW ;:i ,. 7a 

n. lOflOC (1871) ; Burnt. F. 2 

Mue. V. p. 2in (1883). 
Chenopais atraU, BehiA, 4 
I plutuoiiu, r" ' 




Eybridi, 



Adult male. firowDisb black, the under surface paler than the 
opper ; the feathers of the back tipped with greyish brown ; pri- 
mariee and secondaries pnre white ; tertiaries and scapulars crisp : 
" bill pinky scarlet, crossed near the tip with a broad band of white ; 
tlie extremities of both mandibles are also white ; irides scarlet ; 
eyelash and lores pinky scarlet ; feet black " (Qouid). Total length 
^)ont 40 inches, wing 19, tail 46, oulmen 2-8, tarsus 3'7. 

FemaU. Similar, but somewhat smaUer. 

Toung in dmm. Upper surfaoe light brownish grey ; nnder 
surface whit«; chin and throat white, changing gradually into the 
greyish tinge of the cheeks ; bill and lores brownish black ; nail of 
the bill white ; feet dull greyish browa ; later on the Cygnets get 
greyish also on the nnderparta, 

H(^. Australia, except the northern part, and Tasmania. 



a. Ad. St. 


Australia. 


Purchased. 


6. Ad. St. 


Australia. 


LordFamborough[P.]. 


e. Ad. sk. 


AustMlia. 




d,e. PulLsk. 




Gould Coll. 


/ Juy. ak. 




Salvin-Godman CoU. 


g. Ad. 8k. 

X Ad. sk. [pale 


N. S. Wales. 


Hume Coll. 


Adelaide. 


Adelaide Museum [P.]. 


Tariety]. 






I Pnll.Bt 


Southport R., Tasmania. 


Oould CoIL 


k. Pull. at. 


Bonks of the R. Thames. 




i,m.PuU.Bt. 




J. Baker, Esq. [P.]. 




Australia. 





I. Sternum with trachea. 




3. GoeooBOBA. 43 

Gkuiso bianco, U^Asara^ Apunt, ill. p. 406, n. 426 (1805) ; id, Voy, 
(Sonnini's ed.) iv. p. 325, n. 426 (1809). 

Anser Candidas, Vietil, N, D. xziii. p. 331 (1816) ; id, JEnc. MHh, i. 
p. 351 (1823) ; ^h, Oen, Zod, zii. 1, p. 38 (1824) ; Dum, Diet. 
So, Nat, XXXV. p. 471 (1825). 

Cygnus anatoides, Kinfft P* Z* S. 1830, p. 15; Eyt, Man. Anat. 
p. 101 (1838) ; Less, Compl, de Buff,, Ois. ix. p. 528 (1837) ; id. 
op. cit, 2nd ed. p. 718 (1838) ; Blainv, Compt, Bend, vii. p. 1026 
(1838); Less. Bev, Zool, 1839, p. 323; GiUr,'M4n. ibid. p. 324; 
Cunmngh. Bns, 1868, p. 488 ; Byt. Syn. Anat, p. 49 (1869). 

Cygnus hyperboreus, jyOrb, (nee Pall,) Vou. Am. M4r.^ Bin, ii. p. 304 
(note) (1839) ; id. Wiegm. Arch, 1839, i. p. 57. 

Olor coscoroba, G, B, Or. List B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 131 (1844). 

Cygnus coscoroba, G, B, Gr, 4* Mitch, Gen, B, iii. p. 610, n. 8, pi. 166 
(1844) ; Bchnb, St/n, Av., Natatores, 1. 106. f. 966 (1845) (ex Mitch, 
^ Gr.) ; Hara, Ind, Az, Apunt, p. 27, n. 426 (1847) ; Bes Murs 
in Gay's Hist, Nat. Chile, i, p. 446 (1848) ; Sclat, P. Z. S. 1860, 
p. 388 ; Burm. J,/. 0. 1800, p. 266 ; id. La-Plata Beise, ii. p. 512 
(1861) (Parand) ; Aibott, Ibis, 1861, p. 159 (Falklands) ; Pelz. 
Beise Novara, Voy, p. 137 (1865) ; Scnley, Mus. P,-B,, Aiiseres, 
p. 83 (1866) ; Sclat, P, Z, S, 1867, pp. 334, 339 (Cbili) ; PhU, <$• 
Landb. Cat. Av, ChU. p. 41 (1868) ; Sclat. ^ Salv. Ibis, 1869, 
p. 284 (Rio Galegos) ; Sclat, P, Z, S, 1870, p. 666, 1871, p. 545 ; 
Gid>, Thes, Om, i. p. 855 (1872); Bunn. P. Z. 8. 1872, p. 365; 
Oarrod, P, Z, S, 1873, pp. 467 (carotids), 639; Sclat, §• Salv, 
Nomend, Av, Neotrop, p. 129, n. 2 (1873) ; Hd, P, Z, S, 1876, 
p. 371 ; Dumf. Ibis, 1876, p. 163, 1877, p. 41 (Chuput), p. 191, 
1878, p. 400 ; Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 36 ; Dumf. ibid. p. 425 ; Sclat, 
P, Z, S, 1880, p. 507 ; Forbes, P, Z, S, 1882, p. 352 ; Sclat, List 
VeH, An. 8th ed. p. 425 (1883) ; Berl. J, f, O. 1887, p. 124 ; 
Withinyt, Ibis, 1888, p. 471 ; Burm, Anal, Mus, Nac, Buen. Aires, 
iii p. 247 (1888) ; Frenz. J.f, 0, 1891, p. 125 (Cordova). 

Anas chionis, IUig.,Jide G. B. Gr, Gen, B. iii. p. 610 (1844). 

Coscoroba Candida, Bchnb, Av. Syst, Nat, p. x (1852); Stejn, Pr. 
U,S, Nat, Mus, V. p. 179 (note) (1882) ; Sclat. Argent, Om, ii. 
p. 126 (1889) ; Kerr, Ibis, 1890, p. 358 ; Berk, James, New 
List ChU, B, p. 9, n. 148 (ChiH) (1892) ; Holland, Ibis, 1892, 
p. 206 (Argentina) ; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, jp. 200 (Uruguay). 

Cygnus chionis, Licht, Nomencl. Av, p. 101 (1854) ; Pelz, (J* Lorenz, 
Ann. k, naturhist, Hofmus, iii. p. 58 (1888). 

Coscoroba chionis, Bp. Compt, Bend, xliii. p. 648, n. 8 (1856) ; 0. B. 
Or, Hand-list, iii. p. 79, no. 10606 (1871). 

Pseudocycnus coscoroba, Sund, Meth, nat, Av, disp. Tent. p. 147 
(1872) ; Hein. 4' Bchnw. Nom. Mus, Hein. Om. p. 340 (1890). 

Pseudolor chionis, Bchnw. Om, Centralbl, 1882, p. ^ ; id, Vbg, Zool, 
GdH. p. 69 (1882). 

Coecorobia coscoroba, Stejn, Kingsl, Stand. Nat, Hist. iv. p. 147 (1885). 

Pseudolor coscoroba, Martert, Kat, Vogelsamml, p. 226, n. 3350 
(1891). 

AdiAU male. White, but the tips of the primaries black : '^ irides 
light speckled red" {Wiihington) ; "bill and feet flesh-colour" 
'^KoK, MS.), Total length 40 inches, wing 17-5, taU 5-8, 
■^. tanas 3-8. 

lar to the male. 



HtA. Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Chili, Patagonia, and Falk- 
land Islands. 



c. Ad. St. 

d. cf ad. ek. 

e. Ad. ek. 
/. <J ad. Bk. 



8. America. 

Southern S. America 

{Capt. Emg). 
OhiU. 
Chili, Feb. 
Chili ( Weithat^t). 
BuenoB AyreH, A])ril {F, 

WiUiington). 
Falkland la. 



Di. Robertaon, R.N. [P.]. 

Eyton ColL [Tjiw of 

Cygmtt anatoidtt, King.) 

Furchaiad. 
Salvin-Godman Ooll. 
SdaterColL 

' Challenger ' Exp.* 



Subfamily II. ANSERA.NATIN^. 



4. AHSEKAHAS. 
AaserBnaA (Mus^imre), Lett. Man. d'Om. ii. p. 41 

(1828) ; id. Tr. tCOm. p. 633 (1831) 

CboriatopuB, Eyton, Mtm. Anat. p. 8 (1838) .... 

Range. Con&ied to Australia and Tasmania, 



A. Bemipalmata. 
A. semipalmata. 



1. Aiuflranas sflinipalmat&. 
Anas semipalmata, Lath. Tr. Litm. Son. iv. p. 103 (1798) (ex 

LamhtthU ie. mtd.) ; id. Ind. Om., Suppl. p. liix. n. 2 (1801) ; 

rarr«ll, Tr. Lwi. Soc. xv. 2, p. 363, pk. ziii., xiv. (tiachea) 

(1827). 
Black and White Goose, Lath. Qen. Syn. Si^pl. ii. p. 344 (1801). 
Semipabnated Ooose, Laih. Oen. Sun. Smpl. ii. p. 347, pi. ISd 

(1801). 




3^C ^Zl Id^ Gdnt* ; AHiJr .' ' O jiwL x t TicuHr* 
Ojmi:': JtsiowSL^Z ft l-<e-i^3«: Arwc >* Z i l-ttJi^x US 
IuhL ^rtHt. : CrMbic..SiHidr. j: .ikH::- i.x iS :i-i«; - hsm^. 
Mm. l-'li^ Asma^ x fe ::?*fir. : Jfij: > Z * 1-Hfc. % if**: 
^. i ^ ^0ii^-C £.1. Ti- L j;CEi >n : O^gL Taim, 'OnL. L 
X Sr« l-Ti? : Jou. >. Z « 1^^^L i. air. : .t. >-. 2jk. im^ 

^-Z ft Irr^'-.TH. 4/r. im : -TiTTiB^. 2. Z ft LrrcLi^ i;5I 'sas^MSL ; 

C7Z311S meJBD-.iWnnK. 6dM|:. J«i!S*nc x. ^77 lM4^ 

Cjhemxdiidf jBKixmk neum^ &»£. JKa. aic. ^i. dm . J«m:. x- 14^ 
Tl-'r?': j&snvc ^»-:p. Zi«l (rirr -u *J^ Z.*f^ : -£>». Jr 
Jfinfc JTw jE«fc Otl V *^' -**^^ ■ 

Cic. Oir:. *5««r Cm*:, ftwy. it. i. .5* 1**; , 



-wm 1t"Z. -aul •.- "nZ b^*. ibtbiif -^>*^ 

/vmiicrT* r«-dt iieT>: liic- naici*: of laie bKsk sue ncigimszf^ lUBck : 
de Bfla of TJit ftTT bimoc bidckiil. vIlL hd ^ultj prDBii!siaii&. or 



c '^ ■£. K. PoR EBsnrtmL J. B. Jiike&. &q. ~P/ 

it AiL HL. X. S. Wutt. Hmw CnlL 

«. Ad. «- Mnmrr K. Sr G. Garr "P.". 

^ Ad. t. S. AnstnJiiu Sr G. Gt^t y^.\ 

f. SEtugtazL. ^. Awc^Tifc Z:iqL Soc:. 

i. SkbtscoL. Sii}TiiHij!rodinBn GaL. 
i, 2l ggyifttniK. 



SuTifMnflT nL PLECTBOPTEBIX-E. 

Krv tv ik[ Gfa&fra. 

m, harm imksA : f aB<bheftd acod htm of tbt* boll 

fnrriwbed 'wii^ cinm!^IefeL. j^ ^*^' 

it. Jjtme ■pm on iktb ndnec ^». PucTB OPiAji rs, 

i^. HxBCF "vxdioixt onm 6. Cazkzxju il SI. 

ft. LmdkMlT' - ' 



16 AKATm^ 

c'. A luge dsBlij comh on the base of th« [p. 54. 

culmeu of the male 7. Sabcidiobhib, 

if. No comb on the base of the culmeu of the 

d". Head not crested. 
e*. Bill loDger or equal to double tbe 
depth at base, 
e*. BiU longer or about the length of 
the head, 
e". Outline of the loral feotherinK 

at the baae of the bill with [p. 59. 

the convexiw anteiioilj 8. Asakcobiob, 

f. Outline of the loral feathering 

at the baae of the bill straight [p. 61. 

and inclined backwards 9. Rhodonbssa, 

/'. Bill shorter than the head, with 
the outline of the loral feathering 
at the base of the bill inclined 
anteriorly ; frontal feathers at the 
base of the cuhnen almost in a [p. 63. 

straight line 10, Ptbbonbtta, 

/*, Kll not ao long aa double the depth 
at base ; size verr small ; joung in 
down with tail-feathers very long 

and stiff 11. Nmtopcb, p. 61. 

«". Head creeted; joung in down with 

tail-faatheis kmg and stiff 12. ,<£x, p. 72. 

5. FLECTKOPTERVS. 

Plectroptema, Zeach, MSS. ; SUph. Gtn. ZooL 3U. 2, 
p.6a824) P. 

PlectrophniiPS, '' TImiA " {errnref). Griff., Cur. An. 
Kingd. iu. p. 600 (1829J ; Brandt, Descr. et Ic ' 




n. rLECTR0PTERU8# 47 

3. A South-eastern African race (P. niger), of a very large size ; 
the adult (?) male has scarcely any frontal knob, the throat and 
tinder tail-coverts mostly black, the sides also extensively black, and 
no caruncles on the naked forehead. 

4. A Shoan race (P. scioanus) ; the adult male (?) is similar to 
that of P. niger, but has the naked skin of the forehead covered 
with many caruncles. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Throat and under tail-coverts white; abdomen 

broadly white; adult males with a distinct 

firontal knob, and bare rhomboidal spaces on the 

sides of the neck. 
a'. Frontal knob very prominent in adult males. . riippeUi, p. 47. 
h'. Frontal knob smiuler in adult males ffambensis, p. 48. 

b. Throat and under tail-coverts mostly black ; the 

white on the abdomen much reduced, the 
black on the sides being much extended ; size 
very large. 
c\ Adult males with a small frontal knob ; many 

caruncles on the naked skin of the forehead. . acioanus, p. 51. 
d\ Adult males with scarcely any firontal knob, 
and with no caruncles on the naked skin of 
the forehead nigery p. 50. 



1. FXectroptems rfLppelli. 

Cygnus gambensis, Biipp, (nee Lmn.) Mua, Serukenb. iii. p. 12 t. 1 
(1889); Sddeg. DierentjD,,m (1864). 

Plectropterus gambensis, Childr, {nee Linn.) tn Denh, <$* Clappert, 
Trav, ii. App. p. 204 (1826) ; Rupp. Syst. Uebers. p. 187, n. 485 
(1845) (Abyssinia and Sennaar); Itchnb, S^. Av,, Natatores, 
t. 110. f. 984 {ex ItuppeU) (1845) ; Vierth. Naumannia, 1852, 
pp. 40, 41, 42 ; Brehm, J,f. O. 1854, p. 84 (Sudan) ; Harti, ibid. 
p. 302 (part.); Brehm, Vogelf. p. 865 (1855); Heugl. Uebers. 
n. 680 (1856) ; HarU. Syst Om. WeHafr. p. 246, n. 697 (part.) 
(1857) ; Brehm, J.f. O. 1857, p. 378 (N.E. Afr.), 1858, pp. 409, 
410, 471 ; Heugl. J. f. O. 1863, pp. 4, 164 ; Aniin. Cat. Descr. 

5. 112 (1864) ; Schleg. Mus. F.-B., Anseres, p. 93 (part) (1866) ; 
Teugl. Beise Ahess. 1861-62, p. 288 (1868) ; id. Bets, in d. Oeb. 
Weiss. Nil, 1862-^, pp. 133, 384 (1869); id. Feterm. Geogr. 
Mitth. 1869, p. 413. 
Anser (Plectropterus) gambensis, Brehm, J. f. O. 1853^ Extrah. 

p. 104 (N.E. Afirica), 1855, pp. 486, 488, 1856, p. 468. 
P Plectropterus brevirostris, Brehm, Vogelf. p. 365 (1855). 
Plectropterus riippelli. Sclat. F. Z. S. 1859, p. 182, pi. 153. f. 1, 

1860, pp. 28-42 (with cut of the head and trachea) ; MaHl. J.f. O. 

1861, p. 272 ; Eyt. Syn. Anat. p. 24 (1869) ; Finseh ^ Hartl. 
Fog. Ost-A/r. p. 801 (part) (1870) ; O. B. Gr. Hand-list, iii. 
p. 73, n. 10554 (1871) ; Selat. F. Z. S. 1876, p. 696 (ZooL Gard.), 
1877, p. 48, 1880, p. 498 ; Bchnw. Vog. d. Zool. Gdrt p. 68 
(1882) ; Sdat List VeH. An. 8th ed. p. 415, n. 942 (E. Africa) 
(1883) ; HarterU Kat. VogelsamnU. p. 226, n. 8352 (Abyssinia) 
(1891). 



AnM riippellj, part., QUb. Tht*. Om. i. p. 862 (1872). 
Flectropterus gombienos, pftrt., HeugL Om. N.O.-Afr. iL 2, p. 1275 
(187.4). 

Advlt wiale. Similar to that of P. gamheiuie, bnt larger, and with 
a very high frtintal knob ; tvo rhomboidal naked spscee on the 
aideB of the neck ; cheeks and throat white. Total length about 
40 inches, wing 21'6, tail 10, bill from the gape 3'5, tarsus 4'^. 

FtmaU, Sinular to the male, but smaller and without the frontal 
knob. 

Eab. North-east Africa, westwards as far as the Central part. 

a. [J f] ad. at. Central Africa. 

i. LSnBd. Bt. Africa. 

c. Skelbton. 

d. Skeleton (head agiired, P. Z. S. 1860, 



2. Plectroptenu gsmbensu. 

&nser gombensiB, Briu. Om. vi. p. 283 (1760) ; ^utw, Mia. Lener. 
p. 229, pi. 66 (1798) ; ViaU. N. D. xxiii. p. 328, pi. M 2. f. 1 
(1818); Than. Diet. 8c. Nat. mtt. p. 464 (1835); Bam. Zod. 
Oard. Menag. ii. p. 207 with fi^. (1831) ; Le*». Compl. dt Buff., 
Ou. ix. p. 526 (1837) ; id. op. cit. 2nd ed. p. 717 (1838) ; K. ^ B. 
Wirbdth. £ur. pp. IhiIt, 226 (1840) ; Yarr. P. Z. S. 1841, 
p. 71 (trachea) ; Schleg. Ben. Crit. p. 106 (Europe ?) (1844). 

Anas gambensiB, itnn. S. N. i. p. I9fl, d. 3 (1760) ; Gm. S. JV. L 2, 
p. 503, n. 3 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 839, n. 19 (1790) ; Oip. 
jRipn. An. i. p. 680 (1817) ; Lath. Oen. Hiit. x. p. 241 (1834) ; 
Cub. B^. An. 2nd ed. i. p. 667 (1829); Lt^. Mag. d* ZooL 
1834, p. — . pla. Si), 30 ; Qiet. Tka. On. i. p. 352 (part.) (1872). 

Spur-wiugod GToose, Lath. &/n. iii. 2, p. 462, n. 15, t. cii. (1785). 

Ajiser spiQiaus, Brnin. Enc. Mith. \. p. 118, pi. 29. f. 1 (1790) (i 




I 



Se. LUb. 1873, p. IBS, ISie. p. 289; Sekt. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 48 
(eggj) ; Bm. Jom. Ac. Be. Liib. 1879, p. 1S3 ; 8<Jat. F. Z. S. 1880, 
p. 48» ( Weetem and 8. Africa 1) ; Boc. Om. Ana. p. 491 (1881) ; 
Rt/aiK. I"^. d. Zonl. GaH. p. 67 (1682) ; Sdhm, J. f. O. 1882, 
p. 183 (Eabnnia, E. Afr.) : TeU. in Holub, Btatr. Om. Sudafr, 
pp. 310 & foil, (skeleton, p. 311, akuU, pp. 3U, 317) (18^): 
B.O.a. LittBHt.B. p. 114 {188S); Sdia. Liat Tert. ^n. 8th ed. 
p. 41& (We«t Africa, but aUo ShirS Birer) (18S3); ^iarpe, 
Lm/<ird'i B. S. Aft. p. 748 (1884); FiKher, Ze'iUehr. ge*. Om. 
18!S4, p. 303; Siihm, J./. O. 1885. p. 38; /SrcArr, iVrf. p, 115; 
Satatd. yarrtlTi But Br. B. \i. p. SM (1885) ; 5rifl/. IhU, 1886, 
p. 300. t. 3 (roiinus) ; ffcAnw, /. /. O. 1887, p. 46 ; MaUvh. ihid. 
u. 144 ; Shfil. P. Z. & 188U, p. 371 (Tareba, MassaUand) ; Sharw, 
Cal. OtUol Spa:. CoU. Sura. iii. p. 208 (1891) ; Rdtnw. V<ig. BeuUck' 
Oa-Afr. p. 3B, n. 37 (1884). 

riri^tKipiiBiiea gamben^is, Brandt, Dncr. et Icon. An. Sou. Nov., 
.4r«i,bM:.i. p. 8(1836), 

Cheoalopwi ^mbenaa, Tarr. P. Z. S. 18il, p. 70. 

niictn>pl«rus 8clateri, Siuua, Jom. Ac. Sc. LUb. ii. p. 157 (Bistaa, 
(1609); Sdat. P. Z. S. 1877, p- 48; Boe. Om. Ang. pp. 403, 
498 (1881) ( = ganibi!nBu). 

HectKipteraii gambotwis, part., Hn^L Om. N.O.-Afr. a. p, 1375 
(1873). 

f Plectropteras riippellii, Sarltrt, J. f. O. 1886, p. Oil (Nigei- 

malt. Upper porta metallic black, with green and purple 
neck rather browner; breast and aides black; sides of the 
throat, gmaller upper wing-coverts, abdomen, thighs, and 
vnder tail-eoTerta whit« ; quiUa and tail-feathers black, with green 
■ad purple lustre : Eronta] knob, bare forehead, and bill coral-red ; 
luked part of cheeks grey : nail o[ the bill white ; feet flesh-colour; 
iridea hazel {tpecimen livint/ in the Zool. Oard. in London, tixiee 
1890t. Total length ttboat'38 laches, wing 17-20, toil 7-9, bill 3- 
8'5, tarsuB 3-4-4. 
The forehead is more or lees prominent, and in very old birds 
ft distinct, frontal knob ; again in the older birds the cheeka 
more and more nuked, and also in some a small and irregular 
•paoe appears on Ibe sides of the neck (Bocuffe) ; according 
r. Bohtn (J. f. O. 1SS2, p. 1S2), there is much indiTiduol 
mtetaon as regards the size of the frontal knob and the naked 
■pMU on the sides of the neck. 

Ftmai*. Similar to the male, but Bmalicr, and the naked part of 
ihe ch«eks less extended {Btxage), 

A female in the Zoological Gardens in London, acquired in IS90 
and stilt living, is smnller than the male, has no frontal knob, and 
the forehead feathered ; tbo feathers of the cheeks are white, as in 
Uwmalo. 

nte lOiing l^rdt hare the cheeks and the forehead entirely 
feathered. 

Toting iu rfoum. Pnle yellowish, with the upper parts pale brown, 
tvo jedowish spots on Uie back at the baae of the wings, and two 
VOL. xiTn. B 



JK> AtHTIDX. 

-others on tlie ndee of the ramp ; eidea of the bead yellowish ; thioBt 
white. 

Bab, Western Africa and aeross to the East, iW>m Uasai-land to 
the Zambesi. 



a. Ad.<t 
A. Imra. et 
«. PuU. at. 
4. Imm. sk. 
«,/. Imm. ak. 
g. <} ad. ek. 

A._[(fP]ad.ak.« 

•'. $ ad. ak. 

k. a pnlL ak. 

I a ad. Bk.« 
«.r2F]ad.ek. 



Africa. 

W. Africa. 

W. Afiica. 

Accra (/. Shnith). 

R. Niger. 

CuDeoe, Angola, April (At*- 

chiela). 
Taraba,E. Afi, (Mawai-laiid). 

Lake Scherwa, Njaasa-land, 
May. 

Myaaaa-lapd, Maj. 



Capt. Sabine [P.]. 
Purchased. 
Shellej CoU. 
Dr. Baikie [C.]. 
Prof. Barboia du 

BoCKffB fP.l. 

[P.]. ^ 

H.H. Johnston, Esq. 

[P.]. ^ 

H.H.JoIiiuton,EBq. 

[P.]. ^ 

Sir J. Kirk [0.1 
Sir J. Kirk [C.]. 

Salvin-Qodman Coll. 



3. Flectroptsnu niger. 
Flectroptenu gambensie, part, O. R. Or. Litt B. Brit. Miu. iii. 

L126, apecim. d (Cape') {1844) ; Layarti, B. S. Afr. p. 346 (deecr. 
mbedj (1867); P Ckapm. Trav. tn & Afr., .■ — ' 

Sutl., Ff^., 4- Beid, Zoolcff. " 

Om. Sudafr. p. 310 (1882). 
Aiuer gariepensiB, EMm, MS. m Mut. Vindob.,^ 



Afr., Adv. p. 422(]868): 
126(Nabil)i if. 



SUdafr. p. 321 (1882). 
Plectropterua uigur, IHelat. B.Z.H. 1877,1 



'lectropterua mgur, HeliA. P. Z. .S'. 18j7, p, 4i 
IhTiten.P.Z. S. 1879, p. r>jSelat. P. Z.S. 1 



1860, p. 498 (ZnnMlar. 




6. CAIBIKA. 51 

Hah. Zanzibar^ according to Sclater, but probably confined to 
Transvaal, Natal, and South Africa. 

4L c^ ad. sk. Potchefstroom, July (T. J. H. Gumej, Esq. 

^yres). [P.]. 

b, (S inun. sL TransvaiBd. J. H. Gumej, Esq. 

e. c^ ad. sk. [Zanzibar] died Aug. Zool. Sec (Type of 

species.) 

dL $ ad.8L In captivity. Hon. Miss Rose Hub- 

bard [P.]. 

e. Jnv. st Cape of Gk>od Hope. South African 



Museum [P.]. 



4. FlectropteniB sdoanns. 



Plectropterus niger, Sahad, (nee Sdat. ?) Ann. Mus, Oiv, Gen. (2) i. 

p. 238 (Shos) (1884), vi. p. 818 (Shoa} (1888). 
Plectropterus scioanus, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Civ. Oen. (2) L p. 239 

(Shoa) (1884), vi. p. 319 (Shoa) (1888). 

Similar to P. niger^ having black throat and cheeks, no bare 
spaces on the sides of the neck, or seldom a very small one, and the 
under tail-coverts mostly black, but has a small frontal knob, 
covered, like the skin of the forehead, with many camndes ; size 
large, as in P. tUger. 

Hab. Shoa. 



6. CAIMNA. 

Cairina, Fleming, PMl. of Zool ii. p. 260 (1822) C. mo^sU. 

MoechAtus (subgenus), Less. Man. d^Om. ii. p. 416 

(1828) C. moschata. 

Gvmnatbus (subgenus), NuttaUy Man. Om. ii. p. 403 

'(1834) C. moschata. 

Carina, :Egton, Mon. Anal. pp. 47, 142 (1838). 
Hvonetta, $und. Meth. not. Av. di$p. Tent. p. 146 

'(1873) C. moschata. 

Moecha, " Leach;' fide G. B. Gr. Hand-list, iii. p. 85 

(1871). 

Range. Tropical America. 

1. Cairina moschata. 

Anas sylvestris, Marcgr. Hist. Nat Bras.vt. 213. 
Anas cairina, Aldrov. Om. iii. p. 199, t. 200, 201. 
Anas moschata, Linn. S. N. i. p. 199, n. 16 (1766) ; Gni. S. N. i. 

2, p. 615, n. 16 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. u. p. 846, n. 37 (1790) ; 

Bonn. Enc. Mith. i. p. 124, pi. 34. f. 1 (1790) ; Lath. Tr. Linn. 

Soc. iv. p. 113, pi. xiv. ff. 1, 2, xvii. ff. 6, 6 (trachea) (1798) ; PaU. 

Zoogr. Bosso-As. ii. p. 258 (Caspian Coasts) (1811) ; VieiU. N. D. 

V. p. 129 (1816) ; Dum. Did. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 350 (1817) ; Wied, 

Beise Bras. i. pp. 61, 163, 206, 202, 326, 327" (1820) ; Licht. Verz. 

s2 



Sam. El. di Zool. iij. Q, p. lOS 
iQ);'Yarri:ll, Tr. linn. 'Soc. xv. p. 390, pi. it. f. a (trachea) 

(io28) ; lot. Man. d'Orn. ii. p. 416 (1828) ; id. Tr. if OrB.j).639 

(1831); ir»rf,£«(r.iT.p.01O (Brazil) (1832); Sordm.inDfmid. 

Toy. iii. p. 290 (1840) ; SchUg. Rev. Crit. p. 107 (1844) ; Ikgl. 

Om. Ew. ii. p. 421 (1849); Sehleg. Mae. P.-B., Anseres.p. 73 

(1806) i Gidt. Thes. Om. i. p. 357 (1872). 
Brentft moschnte, Scop. Ann. I. But. JVa(. p, 68, n. 85 (1709). 
Anns indicB, Ger. Om. v. pis. 668, 600 (1776). 
Anaa regia, Mol. Sagg. Star. Hat. Chili, p. 234 (1782) ; Gm. S. X. i. 

2, p. 608, 11. 61 (1783); Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 847, ii.39 (1790); 

Bonn. i-nc. Mm. i. p. 126 (1790) ; Vital. N. D. v. p. 137 (1816) ; 

Dum. Diet Se. Nat. vlp. 362 (1817). 
Canaid musqug, UAvbent. Fl. EnL 989 (17— F) ; Buff. Hilt. Nat. 

Oil. ii. p.l02,pl. (1783). 
Muscovy Duck, Lalh. St/k. iii. 2, p. 476, n. 31 (1786) ; id. SuppL ii, 

p. 348 (1801). 
Anas merianiB, Shatc, Nat. Miie. ii. pi. 69 (1791). 
Pato CTMide d real, S'J^r. Apunt. m. p. 410, n. 427 (1805). 
Grand Canard, B'Asn-. Voy. iSonn. ed) ir. p. 827 (1809). 
Cairina mogchata, Flem. Phil, of Zool. ii. p. 260 (1822) : id. Brit, 

Anim. p. 122 (1828) ; Jen. Man. p. 230 (1835) ; K.^ B. WirbeUh. 

Eur. pp. Imsv, 227 (Caspian Sea) (1840); Hartl.Verx. Oe». Mm. 

p. 120 (1844) ; Tsch. Wiegm. Arch. 1844, i. p. 315 (Pem) (1844) ; 

G. R. Or. Lia B. Brit. Mut. iii. p. 140 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. 

p, 618 (1846) ; Rcknb. Syn. Av., Natatores, t. 06. ff. 196-187, 168, 

930 (domestica) (1845) ; Ttch. Faun. Per., Aoet, p. 64 (1845-46) ; 

Ooste, B. Jam. p. 408 (1847) ; Sartl. Ind. Axar. Apunt. p. 27, 

n. 427 (1847) ; Cab. in Sckomb. Reite Gatan. iii. p. 703 (1848) ; 

Kehnb. Ac. Sytt. Nat. p. x (1852) ; Wied, Naumannia, 1852, 2, 

p. 64 (Cuba); Licht. Nomend. Av. p. 101 (1864); Bp. Compt. 

Jtmd. xliii. p. 649, n. 41 (1860) : Bumi. Sijil. Vd>. Tkiere Bras. 

iii. sp. 440 (1866) ; Moure, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 06 (Honduras) ; Sclat. 

a- .Salr. IhU, imK p. ^32 (C^ntr, Am.) ; Tayl. Ibi». 1660, p. 316 

(Hoadurnal; llurm. J.f. O. 1860, p.260 (Pamn&,.Tueuiiuui) ; "' 




53 

€«cciA fvlvHiRS. St^pk, Gtm, Zr^ zn. ^ PL rd, ?L «( aSU). 
AaM G^n^aMZtui^ a>=cA*;:a. XwAt. JUmm, Orm. '±^¥]S^ p1^M>. 

pL.^£^v4«,a=:^a lid? : ii Sf». ^*«r/j. I'JO rlj*. 
Hvu3£Ca safwrf^r*. Sn£ Jitik, mit, A-^, 4i*p. TtmL p^ \4^ 1^^; 
'Own. B.y.'We*t^ p. -SSl* ^^74-: iS^iwr. F^^. dL Ze^'J, GmU 
y. » 1^5 : JT^jHAer, J. f. O. 1^5. pu IIS i:e=*wce, E- .Vfaem); 
JGEfBv i- iSloicsar. 3r-^. JfsjL ITa^ 1^>. 



ff^-rids. 



fedTT. Z>9>ft:J2i« *» ri«2.., Ur. 1?. Ll pL il^ l^lsj (= 

pL^.ti^r' : iLEmnp.F-an,^4i\ .l^j : ^S^iyt. /m«. £ei^ 
p. 1*\ !i. :*^ 1^45 : Sciif^ J&r. OtdL p, lt>5 1^4*.. 

p. 51^ = A- V«ca*s X C. 3i:j5ci*2Ai. 
A3m TiATnm 6^;iM», J5. Jtm. p. 3t^ 1^7 • =?A. Vxc&aa y C. 

'Ii«3B^ p. ^*? Li:ii!r liLiad IrfuT . 
Falirila rail. ^^ Amm, X^ X l". t. p. :ili> liS'. = JL h^yaehm 

X C, -ni'iyhara : uL J.f. O. I'^S^x p. -^. 
Aius TtriiiHEnea, -i'flf..^*4f £a. dmpt. RfmL xliiL p. '^-Id \^jiI^. 
A2a« ii:oaz»uu Pitt. ^Irct. Xrfanry. I'ifa:'. L a i4: ^St^iiEf. P. Z. S. 

Ii*?7. pp. :!:Jrx -J*?, l-^lft. p. .i31 . = A. b«j«c£ifc» x C. aicacama l 
Csir-isa zJiflcisaCA x Amh* ariachiW. L/^^rri. J. < O. 1^J»1 pp. i2IX 

ill ; iZjrtErt. KxL rwfimmL p. :i2>. x :5»1 li&l •. 
CixrJia TTi-^raia -' x iJilcKia T-i.paii9i*r i . L^^t^rk. I. i p. ±30. 
C«zzaui Tifwrhna 2 x Aoder cssts^fiii f . Le-xrk, J. < O. Is90. 

Cairfna oicachaSA 2 '< Anna djpcaa -• , L^reri, L t 
Cairimi -nt.iyh^ia 2 x Tjikcxa s^ypCiiea. f . Ler:erk. L c 

Jthui maU, Head, crest, neck, ami lo'vrer porta browTL-oLaek : 
Liw^r liziiii :ieck uui ':;uik 'iark zreen with, i^ parole ^ioas. «sdlL 
f»* <*«**' m.-irgaed Ttm bLu:k: acapolora. terrial-s. Tipper ZiH- 
co^erta. iiui tail z!imj?t iaric zreen : iDT^^r lad ar.iier vin;r-'-'orerta, 
£ke uhfi ixilloriea. wiifte : primariea zioasr black : ^tKoodories 
Tn.»ranrtf» zreeii. wlch. 1 blx.s'fi loatre: sties iLio^. widi i zreen 
giofiB : bill Tiried widi hLtrgish ind pin kinh w!iite. '?at the Tanncles 
OIL tiie forehead ami aroond ihe naked peri'iCTiIar ^k:'ii bri:^r pinkiflii 
Fed: Dwc biiick: iria br^wn-j-iiDow. Ticai latrrb. iboai rl> inches, 
wis^ 14'5. tail 7-o* colmea ::*5. tarsus 2*3. 

EsmaU* Siznilar ro die male, but ouieli <«ina2er. and Tich 30 
CEnzncIes on die head. Toral Length iboor :^ inohea, win? L2*5. 
tail 5--5, «:iilmen :hL tarsna 1-5. 

ImmtEtwrt bizda are Lea ziofliy and ba^e die wing'-eirrata brown- 
black. 



64 

Young, Bimilar to the immature bird, bat eadi featlier of tfae 
nnderparts has a Babapical brown spot and the maigina wbltiah 
tinged with oohreons. 

Sab, Tropical America from Kexioo to Paraguay. 

Pieudio, Mexico, March (A. SalTin-Qodman ColL 
CoininBl I., Yocatan (<7. F. SalviD-Godman CoU. 



a. 6 ad. flk. 

6. Ad. ■][. 

o, d. <; $ ad. al 

e. iS ad. St. 

f. 6 ad. at. 
ff. Ad. sk. 
A. <; ad. at 

i. Imm.ati 

k. 6 imni.ak. 



(O. S.). 
S. America. 
8. America. 
S. Ameiica. 



Britiah QoiaiM. 



Furchaaed. 

Sir E. Belcher [P.J. 

Purchased. 

Lord Stuart deRoth- 



Sii 



']Fi^ 



shombor^ 
Cell 



p. S tA.A. 
;. cf ad-ak. 



r. 6 ad. ak. 



Boraima, Brit. Quiana, Maj 
(Jf. WhiUly). 

l-o. S ad., imm., Paataia,£cuador(C.AiaU!y). Salvin-Godman ColL 
et juv. A. 
•-'-'- TB'bae,E.Fera(J.Sattxv>elti. Salnn-Godinan ColL 

Upper Ucayali, July (E. H. J. Elwe^ Esq. 

Bartlttt). [PJ. 

lUo Parang Sept H. Dnmford, Esq. 

[P.]. 
Zool. Soc. 

Htbbids. 
Cairina moK^tata x Atuu boKtu, 

P. H. Clone, Esq. 

Salviii-nodmai. Coll. 




7. BABOIDIORmS. 55 

Anser melanonotus, Perm, in Forst, Ind, Zool. (2nd ed. P) p. 21, pi. xi. 
(Ceylon and Madaffascar) (1781). 

Oie de la c6te de Coromandel, D'Aubent, PL Enl, 987. 

Oie broDz^e, Buff, Hist. Nat. Ois, ix. p. 77 (Coromandel et Mada- 
gascar) (1783). 

Anas tricolor, Bodd. Tabl PI Enl, p. 66, n. 937 (1783). 

Anas melanotos, Om, S, N, i. 2, p. o03, n. 52 (Coromandel, Ceylon^ 
Madagascar) (1788) ; Shaw, Nat. Misc. xi. pi. 421 (1800). 

Black-backed Goose, Lath. JSvn. iii. 2, p. 449, n. 13 (1785) ; id. Suppl. 
p. 272 (1787) ; id. Gen. BKst. x. p. 240 (1824). 

Anas melanonotos. Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 839, n. 18 (1790). 

Anser melanotos, Bonn. Enc. MSth. \. p. 115, pi. 29. f. 4 (1790) ; 
Pewi. Ind. Zool. (3rd ed. ?) p. 50, pi. xiii. (1790-91) ; VieiU. N D. 
xxxiii. p. 332 (1818); id. Gal. d'Ois. ii. p. 213, pi. 286 (1826) ; 
Dum. Ditt. 8c. Nat. xxxv. p. 466 (1825) ; 8ykes, P. Z. 8. 1831, 
p. 126. 

Plectropterus melanotos, Steph. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 8 (1824); 
Sykes, P. Z. 8. 1882, p. 167, n. 213 (Dukhun) ; Jerd. Madr. Joum. 
xii. p. 219, n. 379 (1840). 

Anas melanotua, part.. Less. Tr. d^Om. p. 628 (Bengala) (1831). 

Sarkidiomis regius, part, Eyt. Mon. Anat. p. 102 (1888) ; id. 8yn. 
Anat. p. 51 (1869). 

Sarkidiomis regia, Hartl. (nee Md.) Verz, Ges. Mus. p. 117 (Ost- 
Indien) (1844) ; G. R. Gr. List B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 127 (India, 
Ceylon) (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 605, n. 1 (1846) ; Bchnb. 8yn. 
Av.j Natotores, t. 97. f. 227 (1845); id. Av. 8yst. Nat. p. viii 
(1852) ; Kelaart, Prodr. Cat. p. 136 (1852) ; HarU. J.f. 0. 1864, 
p. 160 (Ceylon). 

Sarcidiomis melanotus, Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. A. 8. B. p. 302, 
n. 1763 (India and Burma) (1849) ; Irby^ Ibis, 1861, p. 248 
(Oudh). 

P Anas melanotis, Rchnb. 8yn. Av., Natatores, t. 107. f. 2360 ( $ ) 
(1860). 

Sarkidiomis melanonotus, Layard, Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. xiv. p. 268 
(1854) ; Jerd. B. of Ind. iii. p. 785 (1864) ; G. R. Gr. Hand-list, 
iii. p. 73, n. 10566 (part) (1871) ; Holdsw. P. Z. 8. 1872, p. 479 
(Ceylon) ; Uoud, Ibis, 1873, p. 419 (Kattiawar) ; Anders. Ibis, 
1874, p. 220 ; Hume, Nests and Eggs, p. 636 (1875) ; Legge, Ibis, 
1876, p. 407 (Ceylon) ; Hume, Str. Feath. iv. p. 192 (1876) ; BuU. 
4- Hume, 8tr. Feath. iv. p. 27 (1876) ; Hume ^ Davis. 8tr. Feath. 
V. p. 486 (1878) ; Hume, 8tr. Feath. vii. p. 507 (1879). 

Sarcidiomis melanota, Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 649, n. 38 (1856) ; 
Garrod, P. Z. 8. 1876, p. 152, ff. 1, 2 (trachea) ; 8clat. P. Z. 8. 
1880, p. 534. 

Anas melanota, part, 8chUg. Mus. P.-B,, Anseres, p. 74 (India, 
Ceylon) (1866). 

Sarcidiomis melanonotus, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 175 ; 8und. Meth. not. 
Av. disp. Tent. p. 146 (1873) ; Blyth, B. of Burma, la. 165 (1875); 
Hume, 8tr. Feath. yii. p. 491 (1879) ; id. 8tr. Feath. viii. p. WL 
n. 960 (1879) ; Hume |- Marsh, Game-B. of Ind. iii. p. 92. pL IF 
(1880) ; Parker, Str, Feath. ix. p. 486 (1880) ; Legge, B. CM 
p. 1063 (1880) ; Oates, Str. Feath. x. p. 246 (Pegu) (1888) 
Simson, Ibis, 1882, p. 92 (E. Bengal) ; Salv. Cat. B. StrickL OoiL 
p. 531 (1882); H. Parker, Ibis, 1883, pp. 194, 195 (Ceylan); 
Swinh. ^ Bam. Ibis, 1885, p. 136 ; Hume, Nests ^ Eggs (OtAm 
ed.) iii. p. 282 (1890) ; HarteH, Eat. VogelsammL p. 227, n. 8871 
(pak) (1891) ; Mwm, Ibis, 1894, p. 72 (Calcatta). 



S«mclioTmBmeliinoQota,&Io(.P.Z.«.1876,p.6M,pl.lxTU.»(Iiidia) 
Wardi. Harni. Jbi*, 1877, p. 472 (ToDghoo) ; Scht. P. Z. S. 1860 
p. 610; Bchmc. Om. Cmlraibl. 1882, p. 36 ; id. Viig. d. ZoU. Gdrt. 
p. 61 (1882) ; Sciat. Lid Vert. An. 8th ed. p. 427 (1883J ; OaUi, 
B. Brit. Barm. ii. p. 275 (1883) ; Tridr. Cat. CoU. B. p. 60 
(1889). 

Afnea. 
Asser melaQonotiu, part, Anit. m Jbrri. Ind. Zool. p, SI (Mada- 

gMcax) (1781). 
Plectroptenia melanonotiui, Daih, ^ Clt^jptrt. Traveli, App. xzi. 



I, part. Legs. Tr. ^Orti. p. 628 (SeaegfJ) (1831) ; 

S. 1806, p. 426 (MadBj "" ' •"■ " ' 

.Fbun. Madag., Ou. p. 142 (1868). 



Schl^. P. Z. S. 1806, p. 426 (Madsgucu) ; iSeUeff. ^ PbU. Sedk. 



jjsikidiomie africauus, Eyt. Man. Anat. p. 103 (1838) ; Ayra, Ibit, 
1871,p.260(Transv8*l). 

Canard a basse, Sffam. Not. tw la Mamm. et tttr FOm. de Madoff. 
p. 40 (Mim. Soe. But. Nat. de Strati, iii. 1840). 

Saikidiomis melaDonotua, Sapp, Syit. Debert. p. 173, n. 480 (Shoa) 
(1845); Srehm,J.f. 0. 18o5,p.486; Hf«yt. Sytt. Defter., n. 661 
(1866) ; Hartm. J. f. 0. 1863, pp. 403, 470, 1864, p. 167 ; Sharpe, 
m OaU»' Matab. Land, p. 327 (1881). 

SarkidiomiB afncana, G. R. Gr. Oen. B. iii. p. OOS, n. 2 (1846) ; 
Strickl. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 221 (Kordofan); Sartl. J. f. 0. 1855, 
p. 361 (Gold Coast) ; td. Si/tf. Om. Watafr. p. 240 (1857); id. 
J./. 0. 1860, p. 173. 1861, p. 272 ; id. Om. Beitr. Fauna Madag. 
p. 81 (1861); Antin. Cat. Deter, p. 112 (1664); Vinton, Vay. 
Madag. p. 308 (1865); Verr. ibid., Arm. p. 4 (1866); Layard, 
Birdt S. Air. p. 347 (ISST) ; Poll. Rev. et Mag. Zoot. 1807, p. 167 ; 
a>apm. Travelt in S. 4/V. li., App.p. 432(1666) ; G. R. 6V. Hnnd- 
liit, iii. p. 73,11. 10566 (1871) ; Barratt, IbU, 1876. p. 214 (Potcbef- 
Btroora); Ayrtt, Ibis, 1880, p. 112 (RuBtenburgl ; Holiib ^ Pek. 
Beitr. Om. SOda/r. p. 3ai (188:;) ; Dubois, BnU. .Vim. Rog. d'M. 




7. SAxoiDioBinB. 67 

Jam. Ac. Se. Zwft. 1876, p. 266; id. J. /. 0. 1876, p. 205 (Huilla, 
Caneue, Qambos): Fitchtr,J.f. O. 1879, p.S96; MUne-Edw.8[ 
Grand. Ou. Madag. p. 719, pis. 267 ( <; &d.], 268 a, 263 6 (osteo- 
logy) 270. f. 1 (head) (1881J ; Bi^im, J. f. 0. 1882, p. 180 (Ka- 
komtt),1885,pp.60,54; Pitcher, J./. O. 1885, p. 116; Sartert, 
J.f. O. 1886, pp. 575, 611 (Niger-Benufi) ; Matichie, J./. O. 1887, 
p. 137 (Bom-Katani), p. 144 (Marmigti) j Jichnio. J. f. 0. 1892, p. 6 
(Victoria Njansa) ; id. Vog. DeuUcA-Oat-Afr. p. 27 (1894). 

Sareidiomia reda, Sclat.Jttec Mai.), Ibit, 1862, p. 284 (Natal). 

Sarcidiomis africanus. Kirk, Ibit, 1864, p. 3^ (Zambesi); SAdi. 
P. Z S. 1881, p. COl (Melinda), 1889, p. 371 (Kilimanjaro). 
. Anas melauota, part., ScAltff. Mvt. P.-B., Ausures, p. 24 (Mada- 
gascar, Africa) (1866) ; Gieb. Tkei. Om. i. p. 366 (part) (1872). 

Sanridiomia melanonotua, Heugl. Beit, in d. Oeb. d. Weite. Nil, 
p. 348 (1869); id. Peierm. Gtogr. Mittk. 1889, p, 413; ia. 
Om. N.-O. Afr. ii, 2j. 1230 (1873) ; Rcfmw. J.f. O. 1887, p, 48 
(Ka^hi) ; Hartert, Kat. VogdMmml. p. 237 (part.) (1891). 

Sarkidiornis melanotua, Anderm. B. Samara Land, p. 336 (1872) ; 
iSheU. Ibit, 1883, p. 367 (Molopo River). 

PSarcidiorais ruber, Reickmb. (errote?), Bi>km,J.f. O. 1886, p. 424. 

Sareidiomia melauonota, Emia, J.f. 0. 1891, p. 339. 

Adult fhaU. Head and neck Thite, intersporaed with metallio 
. black feathers ; crown and a band along the hind neck almost en- 
tiroly hlack ; baae of the neck and lower plumage, including the 
under tail-coverte, white ; upper back, the whole of the wings, 
rump, and npper tail-coTerta black, glossed with green and blue, but 
the secondarieB glossed with bronze and the scapulars with purple ; 
lower back grey ; tail umber-brown ; sides and flanks tinged with 
grey ; a black curved line on the sides of the lower neck ; on the 
lower flanks a black band descending iiojn the rump: " iris dark 
brown; bill and comb black; legs and Feet dark plumbeous" (Oaf«), 
Total length about 'SO inches, wing 15, tail 6, bill from gape 2-6, 
tarsus 3. The fleshy comb ou the bill of the male is about 2 inches 
high in the breeding-season, and very small and inconspicuous at 
other times. 

female. Verj' simOar to the male, but much amaller ; bead aud 
.neck more spotted with black; metaUio gloss on the upper plu- 
mage much reduced in amount ; whole rump and upper taU-coverts, 
as well as the lower back, grey ; no fleshy comb on the upper man- 
dible. Wing 11 to 11'5 inches. 

Toung. Head and neck more spotted than in the adult bird, but 
the dark spots and the cri>svn brown-blnck ; back and scapulars 
brown ; rump and upper tail-coverta greyish brown ; tail browu ; 
.underparte white, tinged with rusty. 

Tou,ng in dwvn. Upper parts greyish brown ; underparta { 
.-white ; upper part of the head brown ; a wbitisb frontal b 
on each side of the bead over the oycs ; a whitish o 
bounds behind the brown colour of the uppir part of ^ 
naiTOW brown band atarts from the eor-covcrt^ aod o * 
band on the bind neck; tvo wbito patches U 
.at the base of the wings, and two oth^s m 
posterior edge of the wing wliiLish. 




I have not been able to find any differenoe between the Indian 
and the African spetumens. 

3tA. India, Ceylon, and Barmah ; AMoa Bouth of tbe Sahara, 
with Uadagascar. 



a. $ ad. Bt. Cejlon. 

b. a ad. at. 
c <f ad. sk. 
d. <f ad. sk. 
«,/,y. <J$ad. 

et unm. ak. 
A. $ ad. ok. 

»;[$]ad.i»k. 
Jt, ;. d ad. ak. 
m. cf ad. sk. 
». 9 ad. 8k. 
o. $ ad. ek. 
p. ij ad. Bk. 
g. ^ ad. sk. 
r,»,i.J Pftd.8k. 

te, x. (J ad. Bk. 
y. PuU. ik. 
B-c'.(jead., juT., 

et puU. ak. 
if, «■.{!$ ad. ak. 
/. S puU. ak. 

^, A', (f aknlls. 



A. Jtialie fpea»i«ni. 
Uejlon. 

Madras. 
Madna. 
Deecaa {S^Am). 

Ehandeish, Feb. (J. Bnid- 

Attara, Jan. 

Seoni, Central ProTiDces. 

BaipuT, March. 

Calcutta, Dec. 

Behar. 

Delhi. 

Roy Baieillj, Dec. 

Etawah, Aug., Nor. 

Oudh. 

Oudh, Jan., Feb. 
Sihkiin Tend, July. 
Tonghoo, July, 8^, Oct., 

itov.iR. 6. W, S.). 
Lower Pf«fi, March, Sept. 
Attaran R., Dec {W. Da- 



Poicliasod, 
Piuchaaed. 

M. Cole, Eeq. [P.]. 

Eome Coll. 

India Muaenm [P.]. 

HnmeColl. 

Colonel Swinhoe [P.]. 

Hume ColL 

Emne Coll. 

HumeCoU. 

B. H. Hodgaon, Eaq. 

Home Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume CoU. 

Capt Stackhonse Yin- 

wiU [P.l. 
Home Coll. 
Hume CoU. 
Tweeddale CoQ. 




2. Sarddiomis oBmaoiilata. 

Ipecati-Bpos, Marcgr. Hitt. Nat. Brat. Cap. xr. p. 217 ; Licht. Aik. 

Ak. Bert. 1816-17, p. 176. 
Pato crestudo, IfAtara, Apunl. iii. p. 417, n. 428 (1806) ; id. Voy. 

(Sonn. ed.) iv. p. 331 (1809). 
Anas carunculatB, lUig. (nee Vteitl.) Mat. Bercl.; Licht. Ahh. Ak. 

Btrl 1816-17, p. 176 (ex D'Azara). 
CaiiiiuiF re^a, ^a>h. Gen. Zool. zii. 2, p. 82 (1624). 
Fato de crista, Wud, Seitr. iii. p. 942 (Brazil) (1832). 
SarkidiomiB re){iuH, part., Eyt. Man. Anai. p. 102 (Cajenue !) 

(1838) ; id. St/n. Anat. p. 51 (1869). 
Sarlcidianiis regia, part., O. B. Or. Utt B. Br. Mui. iii. p. 126 

(1844) i id. Qen. B. iii. p. 602, n. 1 (1846) ; Harti. Ind. Aiara, 

Amtnt. p. 27, n. 428 (1847) ; Pdz. Om. Brat. pp. 319, 459, Iviii 

(Mattogrosao and Borra de Rio Negro) (1370). 
Sarcidiomis regia, Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 049, d. 89 (1860); 

Burnt. J./. O. 18®, p. UCO (Tucuman); li. La-Plata Reiie, li. 



p. 613 (1861); Sdat. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 339; Phitippi, 
1868, p. 632 (not Chilian) ; Bum. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 365 tiucu 
in) ; BodinuM, J.f. 0. 1878, p. 366 (Zool. Gard.), 1882, p. 21. 



Anser melanotic, Burm. (nee Perm.) Syit. Veb. iii. p. 434 (1856). 

Sarcidiomis melanonota, Sclai. S[ Sail. Nomend, Ae. Ifeolrop. p. 12u 
(Paraguaf, Quiaua) (1873). 

SarcidionuB conmculata, Sdat. & Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 377 ; Sdat, 
aid. p. 695, pi. liyiii (Marfinham) ; SclaL P. Z. S. 1880, p. 611 j 
Torbei, Ibit, 1881, p. 366; Bchnio. Om. Ontralbl. 1882, p. 35; 
id. Vog. d. Zool. Qdrt. p. 61 (1882) ; ScUa. Lilt Vert. An. 8th 
ed. p. 427 (1883) ; Berl. J.f. 0. 1887, p. 124 ; Sclat. Argent. Om. 
iL p. 128 (1889). 

Advlt. Very aimilai to S. mtlanonota, from which it differs princi- 
pally in having the aidea and flanks hroadly brown-hlack, and the 
mmp with no grey colour, but, like the rest of the back, black, 
^oased with green. The gloesy-black crescent-like band on the 
aides of the breast is not conspicuous, being oonflnent with the 
blaok of tbe sides; the under tail-coverls are white, and not 
gamboge-yellow as in Ui. Solater's plate ! Total length about 24 
inohee, wing I4'8, tail 5, culmen 2-3, tarsus 2'6. 

Female. " Much smaller than the male, and has no wattle (or 
comb) at all on the head " {FotIm). 

Mr, Sdater was mistaken in bdiering the female to be similar 
to the male, as was pointed out by Ur. Forbes, who adds that " the 
female has little, if any, more black on the flanks than a female of 
8, mekmoMta'' 

Hob. Brazil, Paraguay, and Northeni Argentina. 

0, 6. cf ad. sk. Maranbam [Zool. Soe.). 

8. ASABCOSNIS. 

AaarconuB, Salvad. US. 

Allied to the genua Sarddiornit, 
' shape, in tiu iadoutations of 




tail, in the confonnation of the feet, bat has no comb ; the hill is 
■omewhat larger and flatter. 

Range. From Assam and Eastern Bengal to Java. 

1. Asarcontia Bcntnlata. 
Anas BcutuJata, S. Miill. Vtrh. Latid- en Valktnk. p. 1S9 (Java) 

(1839-44) ; Schkg. Mm. P.-B., Anaeres, p. W (Java) (1866) ; 

ScUa. ^ Wolf, Zool. SkeUha, ii. pi. ilii. (1867) ; Gteb. That. Om. 

i, p. 361 (1872); Hume, Str. Feath. viii, p. 168 (Kassoom) (1879) ; 

Vorderm. iV. T. N. I. xlix. p. 419 (1889), li. p. 246 (Sumatra) 

(1891). 
Sarcidiornia leucoptenu, Sluth, J. A. S. £. xtiii. p. 1^30 (Burma) 

(1849) i id. Cat. B. Miu. A. S. B. p. 302, n. 1764 (1840). 
Casaroa leucoptera, " Bfyt/t," Jard. Conlr. Om. 1850, p. 141, pi. 64 

(Meranii) ; Sckid>. Sjfn. Av., Natatons, t. Ill c. t. 2947 (er Jonfitu) 

(1850); Bp. Comp. Bend, xliii. p. 649, n. 60 (1856); Gould, 

P. Z. S. 18159, p. 150 (Tenajwerim) ; Jerd. B. of lad. lii. p. 793 

(1864) ; Eyt. Sa/n. Anal. p. 58 (1869) ; Oodwm-Avst. J. A. S. B. 

xliu. p. 176 (Dinapur, Dunauri R.) (1874) ; Blytk, B. of Bwma, 

p. 106 (1875) ; Hume ^ Davis. Str. RM. vi. p. 489 (1878) ; 

^' t, Str. Ftatk. -riii. p. 170 (Kusaoom) (1879), 



p. 176; ifwne.Sfr.JVu/A.viii.p. 115, n. 965(1879). 

Casarka ecutellata, Eyt. Sun. Anat. p. 57 (1868). 

Anas acutellata, G. B. Or. Hand-list, ill. p. 89, n. 10645 (1871) 

(Mergui, Moluccas!). 
Anaa leiicoptera, Hume ^ Marsh, (nee Otn.) Gamt-B. <tf Ind. m. 

pp, 147, I7a, pi. 20 (1880) ; Sinaon, Ibis, 1882, p. 92 ; Oafes, B. ^ 

Burmah, ii. p. 281 (1883) ; Hume, NesU ^ Eggi [Oates ed.) m. 

p. 287 (1890). 
Tadorna scutulata. SdtA. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 612; Stdtad. Om. Pap. 
>. aiKt (If'Si'): Tristr. Cut. Coll. fl. p. -M (Smuatra) 




9. BEODOKESSA. 61 

glossy on the edges of the feathers of the back and romp, and of 
the upper tail-coverts. Total length about 26 inches, wing 12, 
tail 6, culmen 2*4, tarsus 2*1. 

It seems that in the £a8t this bird is often kept in confinement, 
and then becomes partially albino, especially on the neck, breast, 
and abdomen ; two of the specimens mentioned below are of this 
deeoription. 

The systematic position of this bird has always been a great 
puzzle ; but I have no doubt that its nearest allies arc the species 
of the genus Sarcidiomis^ although it is devoid of a comb ; and on 
thid account I think that it ought to stand as the type of a dis- 
tinct genus ; Mr. Hume has also expressed the same opinion. 

Hah, Assam, Eastern Bengal, Mergui, Malay Peninsula, Suma^ 
tra (?), and Java. 

0. c^ ad. St. Mergai {Blyth), Zool. Sec. (Figured bv 

Mr. Wolf, Zool. Sketch, pi. 49.) 
(. $ ad. sk. DoUah, Assam, May. Hume Coll. 

0, d. Ad. St. [Moluccas], probably Java. Purchased. 

(semialbiso 

var.). 

9. RHODONESSA. ,,,_ 

Type. 

Rhodonessa, Bchnb. Av, Syst, Nat, p. ix, Taf. 85 
(1852) R. caryophyllacea. 

Bange, Confined to India, Assam, and Independent Burma. 

1. Rhodonessa caryophyllacea. 

Pink-headed Duck, Lath, Syn. Suppl, i. p. 270, n. 99, pi. 119 (India) 
(1787) ; Tweedie, Sir. Feath. vii. p. 527 (1879) ; Held, Str. Feath, 
viii. p. 418 (1879). 




p. 277 (1838); O. R, Or, List B, Brit, Mus, p. 136 (1844) 
(Bootan, Nepal) : O, B, Or, ^ Mitch, Gen, B, iii. p. 016, n. 10, 
pi. 167 (1845) ; Bchnb. Syti, Av,, Natatores, t. 85. f, 919 (1845) 
(ex Gray ^ Mitch,) ; G, B, Gr, Cat, Hodys. Coll, B, M, p. 14(5 
(1846) ; Jerd, Bl, Ind, Om, pi. 34 (1847) ; Blyth, Cat, B, Mus, 
A. S, B, p. 304, n. 1774 (1849) ; Licht, Nomencl, Av, p. 101 
(Assam) (1854) ; Jerd, B. of Ltd, iii. p. 800 (1864) ; Schley, Mus, 
F,'B., Anseres, p. 62 (1866) ; Gieb, Thes, Oni, i. p. 346 (syn. 
emend.) (1872) ; Hun^e, Nests ^- :^s Ind. B, p. 644 (1873) ; 
Sdat, P. Z, S, 1874, p. 110 (Zool. Gard.) ; Blyth, B, of Burma, 
p. 165 (Arakan, Bhamo) (1875) ; Fairbank, Str, Feath, iv. p. SO' 
(Khandala) (1876) ; Davidson, Str. Feath, vii. p. 95 (1878) ; Bml 
i, c. p. 232 (Rajmehal Hills, Hazaribagh) (1878) ; Hume, Str. Ibaii 
vii. p. 492 (1879), viii. p. 501 (1879) ; Ilume ^ Marsh. Game-B, 
Ind, iii. pp. 174, 435, pi. 23 (1880) ; Simson, Ibis, 1884, p. 271 
(Pumeah and Maldah district) ; C, Sioinh, ^ Bam. Bm, 1885, 
p. 137 (Lake Depalpore) ; Tridr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 48 (1889) 
Hartert, Eat. Voyelsammk p. 231 (1891). 



Adm etythrocephalft, Bonn, (wee 8. O. Om.) EtK. Mith. i. p. 143, 

pi. 36. f. 3 (1780). 
FuliguU carjophyUftCea, Sti^h. Gen. Zoot. idi 2, p. 207 (1824). 
Milouin h cou rose, Leu. Tr. if Om. p. 6S2, □. 40 (Bengala) (18S1) ; 

Pudwr.Rm. etMag.de Zool. I860, p. 636(=A.carTophjlUcea.); 

BartlJ.f. O. 1855, p. 420. 
Cftllichen caryophyllaceum, %(. Mm. Anat. p. 162 (1838). 
Tadoma P caijophjllacea, Jerd. Madr. Jotmt. zii. p. 2^1, n. 368 

(1840). 
Bhodonena canophylliicea, Sthnb. Av. Sytt Nat. p. ix (1862) ; 

Bp. Compt. Send, xliii. p. 649, n. 77 (1666) ; 0. S. Or. Cat. 

Hodgt. CoU. B. M. 2aA ed. p. 77 (1863) ; id. Baitd^id, iii. p. 82, 

a. 1065i {1871) ; SuTjdev. Meth. nat. Av. dup. Tent.p.W d872); 

BaU, Str. Feath. ii. p. 438 (Choto Nagpur) (1874) ; Oarrod, 

P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 153 (trachea), f . 3 ?, ff. 4, 5 J ; Humi, Str. 

Feath. viii. p. 115, n. 960 (1879); Sdat. P. Z. 8. 1880, p. 620; 

Sutler, Str. Feath. ixji. 437 (1881) ; Seid, Sir. Feath. i. p. 81 

(Lucknow) (1881); Hume ^ Manh. Game-Strds of Ind. iii. 

pp. 173, 435 jil. 23 (18S0) ; Salv. Cat. B. Strickl. CoU. p. 636 (1882) ; 

Oatet, B. Era. Bvrm. ii. p. 284 (1883) ; &ii(. LUt Vert. An. 

Sth ed. p. 432 (1883) ; if. Taylor, Str. Feaih. i. p. 531 (breeding 

iD Ehorda, Oriasa) (1887) ; Httme, Str. Featk. xi. p. 344 (Manipur, 

Sylbet, Asaun) (1888); Huiae, NeiU $ Bggi (Oatet ed.), iii. 
p. 290 (1890). 

Adult mah. Head, sides of neck, utid hind neck beautiful pale 
rosy pink, with, in the bieeding-season, a small tuft of still brighter 
rosy on the top of the head ; throat dark brown ; rest of the 
plomagQ fine ^oesy dark chocolate-brovn, paler and less gloBsed 
beneath, but under tail-coverts very dark ; mantle, scapnlaiB, breast, 
and rides with very fine rosy-whitiah Termiculationa or points; 
edge of the wing whitish, speculum reddish-fawn or dull aalmon- 
colonr, with a white band at the tip of the secondaries ; out«r web 
:ind tip of the outer primaries hrowii, the inner web nnd i 




10. pnEBOXBRA. 68 

plumage lighter brown, tiLe mLderports pale dull brown, with the 
edges of the feathers whitish. 

Hob, Northern India, from Punjab to Nepal, and Independent 
Bdrmali, snnth to Hadraa, but Behar and the rest of Bengal, north 
of the Oangee and west of the Brahmapntn, are its headquarters 

a. Ad. St N. India. Colonel Cobb [CJ. 

b. Jut. St Nepal. B. H. Hodgson, "* - 



c. Ad. St. 

d. Ad. St. 
«. Jut. sk. 

/. Ad. Bk. 
g. $ ad. sk. 



Jli. Imperfect skele- Nepal, 
ton (with portion 
of the trachea). 



Madras. 

No locality {Blgth). 



IndiaMuseum fP.]. 
India Museum \Pa. 
H. J. Elwes, Em. 

[P.]. ^ 

Home Coll. 
H. J. Elwes, Esq. 

[P.]. ^ 

Home Coll. 
India Museum [PJ. 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

[P.]. 



10, FTE&ONETTA. „. 

Type, 
Pteronetta, Saload. MS. P. hnrtlaubi. 

Plumage plain with no mottlinga, and do metallic speculum as in 
Ajareomu, but the frontal feathers in a strtught line, the lateral 
frontal ridgea of the bill not extending backwards through the 
feathers of the forehead ; tail graduated, but somewhat shorter. 
Stxet rimilar. 

Bange. Confined to Equatorial Africa. 

1. Pteronetta hartlaabi. 
iptera, Temrn. {nee Vieiil.) in Mut. Lugd. (Rio Boutry, 

.93(1856); 
Viail.) Om. Weil-Afr. p. 248 

Querquedula hsrtlaubi, Qm. Pr. Ac. FKOad. 1869, p. 175 (Camraa 
BDd Ogobu) ; Heine, J.f. 0. 1860, p. S03 ; Q. R. Or. Sand-Utt, 
iii. p. 83, n. 10660 (1871) ; Sharpe $ Bo»v. Suit. So& ZooL JV-. i. 
p. 3U(LouBmba,CWaiabo)(1876); Sclat. P. Z. S. m ~ 
Soc. Om. Anff. p. 603 (lf*Sl) ; SMI. P. Z. S. 1888, p. « 
Equal Afr.)i Tritlr.Qif. C««. 5. p.40(l"™ "-■■ ' 
aus Ziber. p. , n. 230 (18SK1). 

Anas cuprea, Sehieg. Mut. P.-B. Anaeres, i 
Gaboon) (1866) ; Oieb. Thei. Om. i. r « 

Qnerquedula (Pterocjanea) hartlnubi, ( 
ii. p. 122, pL 6 (Ogoflufi) (1879). 



Pterocyaaea cjanoptera, Bp. Compt. Send, xliii. p. 

Est. Sm. AnaC. p, 87 (1869). 
QuerquBduIa cjanoptera, Hartl. (t 



(1867). 



AduU malt. Head and upper part of 
patch on the frontal edge; rest 




64 uriTiss. 

ohangiDg iotfl chocolate olive-brown on the nunp ; upper wing- 
coverts blue ; primariee brown ; Becondariee olive-brown, with a 
alight bluish dnge near the edge of the outei web ; tertiariea olive- 
brown, edged with black on the outer web ; under wing-oorerta 
brown, washed with dull lead-blue ; tail brown : " iris yellowish 
brown ; bill black, with a broad 8ubt«rminal yellow band ; 1^8 
brown" (Emin. Pajika), Total length about 22 inches, wing 11, 
tail 5, culmen 1*85, tarsus 1'8. 

I have seen altogether seven specimens of this scarce spedes, and 
there appears to be do difference between the sexes ; In some speci- 
mens the white frontal patch is wanting. 

Hnh. West Africa from the Gold Coatt to Alima on the Congo 
{Mut. Pang), eastwards as far ss Tingasi. 

a. Ad. Bt. Gaboon. P. DuChaillu [CI 

b. Ad. ak. Gould Coll. 

c. d ad. ak. Tingasi, Eqoat Aft., July. Emin Pasha [C.]. 



11. NETTOPUS. 



Type. 



Nettapus, Brandt, Utter, et Icon. Anim. Sou. 

A'tJi'., Aves, fasc. i. p. 6 (183B) N, auritus, 

Anserells, Sic. Clam. B. ii. p. 160 (1837) N. coromaiideliamis. 

CiitT^icm, Broke, MS. {nee Mothr.); ^/t. Mon. 

Anat. p. 15 (1638) N. coromandulianus. 

Microcvgna, O. S. Gr. Litt Gen. £. p. 73 

(1840) N. coromandelianuB. 

Nettopus, Agaa. NotneneL Zool., Ind. Univ. 

p. 249 (1846). 
Cheaiekiis, Agatt. 



Sanije. From Tropical AMcaand Madagascar, through India and 




65 



I. Hettopns anritos, 

S irc«ille inAlo Jb Mwlii^-iiti-nr. 1/ Aulfnl . I'i EiU. 7i<i. 

S ,TceU« .1" MHa«ir»3Pftr, Ba^. Hut. N-tl. Out. U. p. 274 (17*)), 

Anni auritA, Bo'lil. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. Jd, u. 770 (1781). 

MaiUkhv**' Ti-ai. Lath. Sjfn. iii. 2, p. rm, n. fl4 (I7S5) ; I'J. (?<•>■. Bitt. 
», p, 3-.1(l«3^)- 

Aim* miiila!n«^>:ii>4s, G'm. & X. i. 2, p. 622, a. 89 (176^): ZtM. 
tml Om. ii. p. «7fi. n. ]Wi (1780); «o«n. Ski. Jttah. i. a. 15», 
n rt7. pi. 40. fa (171)11: ('iWa. A'. Z). v. p. 173 (ISIB); Dum. 
Wrf. Se. JVo(. vi. p. 897 (1817) ; X«*. Feni &.««. p. 85 (l(*23) ; 
Twon, in iji^irj, Trou moU de tfjofr A Madag. p. -im (180.t), 

BemicU lUMUf^arioa^^i', Sttph. Gen. Xoot. lil 1, p. 64 (18:.'4), 

Chenalopex mndagtiscnrieDaig. £«m. Tr. d'Oni. p. 6S7, n. ft (18'tl ). 

NetUpiu nudngOMtirii^nsii, Brandt, De»cr. el Icon. An. Butt. Nov., 
Aeei.lti'c.i.v.r, (ISiiU) : ^uni. Ou..V(k^. p. 48 (184U) ; LieU. 
Niimmci, Ae. p. 101 (1*)4) ; ZTirt/. J./. O. 1854, p. aO:(. n. 562 
(GHTibia, Nata], Mndai^iiaou') : B,>. a>mpt. R-ad. xliiL p. &4I), n. 63 
(ia.M) i llartl. Ora. Wr^nfr. p. ■J47, n. 099 (1857) ; Oui-n. Ibu, 
I»a», p. 331 (SbUD : Cfa.., /"r. ^c. .Sc. PhOad. 1839, p. 175, n, 297 
(Owrnia) ■,id.J.f. O. I8fiO. p, lW, n. 837 (Camms), l*il, p, 272 ; 
Heugl. J. J. 0. 1&63, p, UH j io.varrf, B. S. vl/r. p. 348 (1867) ; 
O^M. TVap. w 5. .>4/r. ii. Apu. p. 42J (1R(»): £|/t. %<. ..in(l^ 
p. 33 (1869): iaMrABu, 18*l9. p..t77 (8. Africa); U»^r, IbU, 
1874, p. 74 (Gold Ciwrt) ; ■: Si^kmn. J. f. 0. 1874.p.374(\ccM?); 
Atirrt, This, 1877, p. 354 (Tranavwil ) ; Harlert, J.f. O. 1880, p. 612 
(NigBT-B-ouS). 

Chuniieus raailatfaKcariensis, JCi/t. Man. .inat. p. 88 '1838). 

Auaer minute Jhiboit, Om. Gnl. p. 1 10. pi, 70 (1830). 

Nettaptis auritus, G. R. Gr. hUl Gen. B. p. 7S (1840): id. lint B. 
Brit. Mm. iii. p. 123(1844); id. GeK. B. in. n. OOii, ii. 3(1844); 
&*wi. Sy».-<f.,N«Uto(B^. t. fi«. ft*. Ml, li:(2(l845); Umtt. Zctt. 
/. Z«ol. H. Xoot. ISiW. p. 150; id. ,I»n. ^ Mav. X. H. ii. p, 303 
(1848): Hara.J.f.O. 18110. p, 173; id.Orn- Beitr. F.iin. Maila-/. 
p. 83 1I8OI); M. A', r. i>. i. p. .137 (1883); R^h Sf E. Neu-t. 
/6it, 1883, p. 174 (UaHitfCKaCBr); £, AVicf. I'Au/. p. 45» (trachea) ; 
&dat. P. Z. S. 1883, p. in« : Kirk. IhU. ISO], p. aSd (Zambrai) ; 
rwww, Vou. Madag. p 83 ( 18ffi) ; Verr. ibid., Ann. B, p. 4 (1865) ; 
acUv- Mut. P.-B., Aimru, p, 7o ( 1866) : id. P. Z. S. 1800, p. 420 ; 
SeUtg. 4- PaU. Jirek. j-«m. MaJaff. p. 141 (1868) ; Gra-.d. Rev. H 
Mag. de Zoal. 1868. p. S ; Oib.iiiv. d. Deek. Bn*. iii. p. 51 (ISIUi) 
(K. Aftic») ; Fin*eh ^ Harti. Fog. Otlafr. p. 804 ( 1870) ; G. R. Gr. 
Umid-Ha. iii, p. 77, n. 10603 (1871 ) ; Socage, Jam. Ac. Linb. do. xii. 
p. 378 (1871); Andera.B.bamaraLand.v.Sf3l6(Mi7i); B<^<'/e, 
Jom. Ac Liib. no. ivii. p 45 (1874) : Gieb. Thei. Orn. ii. p, 701 
(1878); Barlt. P. Z. S. 1975, p, (t8 (Tamatavo); flwoye, /,/. O, 
1876, p, 204 (IIuillmCunHiie); liartt. VHt,. Madag. -p. !i57 (Ig? 7); 
Fiiek. * Rrhntc. J.f. 0. 1878, p. 24H; Fieeh. iiul. p. 296, 1879, 
p. 28Q: Bofogr, Orn. Ang. n. 498 ll^t) (Angola); SAarpe in 
OaUJ Matah. Laid, p. Si"? (1881) ; MilHg-Edw. St Grand. Fauiie 
Madag., Om, p. 714, pis. 2IH ibirdj, 2t;j(,keleton), 2Wi(08t«(iloKv), 
•re. f, 2 (liead), 307. f. 1 (ega) (1882) ; Holub ^ Pel:. Beitr. O'm. 
fi.-Afr. p, 328 (1882) ; BhM.. Feild. & Heid, Zoal. 1882, p. 427 ; 
Skarpt, iJtyarSi B. S. Afr. p. 750 (1884) : Bohn, J.f. O. 1685, 
pp. 88,64 (C, AfriiM); Fiielier. ibid. p. 115 (E. Afrioa); Ai/re; 
jhU, 1886, p. 297 (Tranii'iift!): Malsckie, J.f- O. 1887. i "■" 
SMIev. /W«- 1888, p, 307 (E. Africa) : Triirr. Cat " ■ ' 



1887. p. 137; 

(.•oil. b. p. 51 



(1889); JIariert,Kal. JV'<'^'«'- P-227,n.3fl73 (18fln ; Sftree, 

i6«, 1892,^. 270; flcAnu. Mig. DniK-k. OO-Afr. p. 27 (181)4). 
Uicnicygnit madagsacftrienwa, HaHl. Eret. SacMr. VopeUamnU. p. IB, 

n. 217 (1846) (nee Gm.)- 
FNottapuB coromandeliaauH, Anderu. (interior of 8. AMc»,Jide 

Harti.Orn. Westafr.-p.M?); Gum.in And^M. S. Damara Land, 

■p. Sai (uote) (1872). 
NottiipuB ^lulAgaB:^a^iellHia, Siaid. Meth. not. Av. ditp. Tent. p. 140 

(1872) ; Rcknw. I'og. d. Zool. GSrt. p. m (1883). 
Nettopua tmritus, Scht. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 605. 
Nettapiw auwtua (errorB), SJuUtj/, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 001 (Lamu). 
Aiuerellti Aurits, Jtchntc. Orn. Centridbl. 1882, p. 22. 

Adult male. Forehend, sides of the head, and a collar round the 
neck white ; top of the head, a band aloni; the hiud neck, back, rump, 
upper wiog-coverts, scapnlara, and t«rtials dark glossy green ; ear- 
coverts and sides of the nape pale yellowish white, encircled ante- 
riorly aud below by a cresceotic black band ; lower part of the ucck 
all round. Bides and flanks bright cinnamon ; breast and abdomen 
white ; vent and under t«il-covert8 blaok ; on the lower part of the 
hind ueck the cinnamou fealhera with green-black undulated 
linea; upper tail-coverts with steel-blue gloss; quills and tail- 
feathers black ; the tips of the anterior greater wing-coverts and 
some of the median secondaries white, forming a conspicnouB 
Bpeoulam ; under wing-coverts black : " iris dark brown ; bill bright 
yellow [with the nail blackish}; feet black" (E.Newton). Total 
length about 11*5 inches, wing 61, tail 3'4, culmen 1, tarsus 0-9. 

Female. Rimilar to the male, but duller ; the white of the fore- 
head and sides of the head dotted with black ; no distinct yellowish 
patches on the sides of the head and no cresccntic black band ; the 
green feathers of the bock and upper tail-coveria freckled with 
obsolete rufous lines ; lower hind neck more distinctly banded with 




<r. T. 2 "A 't (f 






Ceiitrnl SIsilngnsCT. 



Twet-dJMe Coll. 
Dr. K. Uiiwdlur 

Slimw [P.\ 
Shelley Coll.' 

G. F. Scott Elliot, 
E«,. [P.]. 

S^bolim Coll. 



li. NettopuB pnlchellos. 

N'Mtopiio puldwlluB, Gvald, P. X. S. It^l, p. 80 (N. Auatralio) ; 
id. B. -iiwfr.vii.pl. 4 (pt. vi., I8J2); G. S. Or. Gen- B.iiLu.&IS, 
a. 2 i\SU) i JteAnh. -V- Ae. NftUtore*. t. ai. ff. 938, 939 (l&M) 
Ifx Gaald) ; J}/yt4, Cat. B. Mu». A. S. B. p. .-iO-2, n. IffiS (1S4U) ; 
Bp. Convrf. i>Brf. xliii. p. (t49. n. tU (185«) ; EUty. P. Z. S. 18S7. 
p. 28 i O, fi. ffr. /•. Z. & 1858. p. 108 ; id. Cal. B. AW OaiW. p. 63 
llSfiO) 1 Finteh, Kfu-Ouin. p, 183 ( I8U5) j OoiM, Himdh. B. A u*tr. 
U.p. 357 (IfSSa) X SMeff. .V<u, P.-B., Xaaena. p. 07 (1806) (Am- 
botu) ; Jbmi. P. Z. S. \em, p. 388 (Que^iuliiiKl) ; £yt. S»n. A not. 
p. 37 <I8<I0) ; Gitb. Tin Orn. ii. p. 101 (1K75) : Banu. Pr. Unu. 
JSw. A', a. W. i. pp. 194, 38tJ (187«) ; DAIb. 5yrf«. Mmt, IST7, 
p.348; M .^HK. ifut. 6Vr. Gen. i. p. 30(1877): lU Aw, li$77, 
p. 37a ; Raw. P. Z. S. 1877. p. 34fl ; id. Ff. Linn. Soe. It. S. W. 
li. p. 200, n. 050 (1877) : Maa. ibid. p. 27f, ((1877} ; DAlb. Se 
Sakad. Ann. Mm. Civ. Gi-u. xiv. p. 133 (18791 (Kutau tind Fly 
ttivere)! D'Alb. Nuai: Gmn. fp. Sl», 588(1880): Z^jw. /'-"/■' 
Cry/, p. 1067 (1880); SrJat. P. Z A\ 1.=1C«, pp. .53, 200<Lsr«t); 
.Wwni, I oy. rf. S«rfipp, p. a9 (1884) j ForA^jt, >'. Z S. 1884, p. 4.^1 ; 
Blu. ZfilKhr. <jf». Ora. 18*0. pp. aO-i, 20B (Olebea) ; Banui. T.tl,. 
IJd, p. 22, n, 061 (18881 j Trirfr. (Ji(. Cotf. fl. p, fil (1880) (Port 
Moresby) ; •Sb/i'oif. .^jiy. Ora. /V- e.VuJ. p. 21() (1891). 

AmerElla pnhhulk, G. B. fSr. flaHd-litt, iii. p. 77, n. lOoOo (1871); 
Jtdmte. Om. Cenlralbl. 188^, p. 3^. 

NettopiM pulchelluB, ScUa. P. '/.. S. 1880, p. 505 ; Sati'ad. Amt. Max. 
Cir. Gen. iviil p. 400, n. I (188^) ; it Orn. Pap. e Mot. iii. p. 3W 
(1883). 

Adult male. Frontal od^-. sides of ttte ben4, throat, breast, and 
alidomBn while ; Uip of tbo head brown, banded wilb dark grw-n 
And pale brown : in'ck uU round, baok, scapulars, and upp;r wini;- 
comtA darlc gloasy green with it blniah tinge ; tower pari, of tb>' 
'; and Bides with crescentic white and dark green bands, pru- 
duung » aoale-like appeariinee ; upper tail-coverl* dark glosey green, 
imgularly banded, especially towarda the base, with white : ([iiills 
" I aecondanea broadly tipped with white, forming a white hand 
' e wiug ; under wing-coTerta blaek glossed with green ; tail 
f black ; under tail-eurerta bkck : bill black, with the nail (in 
ii> pale : feet black ; " irides dark brown " {Forba). Total 
_ h about IH-S inches, wing 0-9, tail 3, culmen 0-98, tarsus 09S. 
Female. Similar to the male, but has the top of the head uniform 
broWD-black; aidca of the head and throat whit«. speekled with 
black : a black band along the middle uf the hind neck ; upper part 
of the neck whit^-. with black bands, whinh lower down hate a 
eT>t*ornt-lik<.- "hnpo : otherwise um iu the ma!t\ 



C8 ANATID.C. 

Immature mate. Has the anterior part of the clieeks and the 
throat tinged with blackiHh, while the posterior part of the checks 
and the ear-covertB are covered by a very ooBBpiijuouB whit« patch. 

Uab. Australia, Southern New Guinea, Tenimber Islaodi, Uo- 
luccas, aud Celebes. 



<. [:;]Hd.8k. 

/. a ad. 9k. 
y, A. tj 2 ad. sk. 
i. cT dd. ak. 
k. J ad. sk. 
/. $ ad. ak. 



Australia. 
Port EHsington. 

Port Essington. 

N.W. Australia. 

Adelaide River, N.W. Aus- 

Pt. AllMiDT, N.W. Australia 

(Coxen). 
Pt. Moresby, S.E. New 

Guinea. 
Larat, Teui tuber Island, 

Aug, 



SakiD-Oodman Coll. 
The Earl of Derby 

[P.]. 
J. B. Jukeo, F.9q. 

[P.! 
Capt Bowjer Bower 

I?]- 
P. W. BaasettSniith, 

Esq. fP.]. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

J. Goldie [C.]. 

H. O. Forbes, Esq. 

[CO- 



3. NettopQB coromandelianoa. 

Sarcelle de Coroniandel, D'Auhent. Pi. Eal. 949 (<J), 950 (J) ; 

Buf. nut. Nat. Oit. ix. p. 274 (1783). 
Uoromandel Teal, Lath. Syn. iii. 2, p. 656, a. B5 (178.')). 
Anas coromandeliiina, Gm. S. A', i. 2, p. 522, n. 90 (1788); LntA. 

Ind. Om. ii. p. 870, n. 106 (1790) ; Vtalt. A'. 1). v. p. 171 (18HI) ; 

num. Ditt. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 396 (1817). 
Anna coromandelica, Bom. Enc. Mftk. i. p. 159, n. 86 (17ltl). 
Bemicla coromandeliana, Steph. Om. Zoot. lii. 1, p. 66 (1824). 
Cheualopex coromandeliana. Leu. Tr. ttOrn. p, 627, n. C (1831). 




p. m HmKt); D.idd, X. Airh. ,Ih Mut, li,dl. vii. CVif. n. 44^ 
iCbiM) (1871): Lloyd. Ibii, 1S73, v ^'0 (Rullol); Waid. IbU, 
187i p. 149 {ADdauMins); Andfra. Ibin. 1B74, p. Sii (ej^p.-s, 
breBdine); fiV*- B. Buna. o. 1B5 (1875); »Wrf. Tr. Z. H. U. 
pp. 243, 259 (1875); fiuK. S(r. K^.W.iv.p. 27 (Oiwerat) (IS76); 
numr, ibid.: Dand ^ Oiur. Ois. Vhine, p. 501 (1877); ifcABio. 
J. /. O. 1877, p. 218 (Celebes) ; Hume Jf- 7>ap«. We. Ftalh. vi. 
p. 4^ (TenMserim) (1878) ; OaU». Sir. Fcalk. vit. p. 52 (187(1) ; 
CWp*. iWrf- P- 311 (1878); Tiraat, SmU. Com. Affr. ^ iHdmli: 
(Whinch. i, 1 (1878), p. lUl (187SJ) ; Lrggr, I!, of Ceyl p. lOCO 
(1S«»; Diiiyh. Str. FealA. \x. p. IB-! (I88O1; Twedd. On. 
n-.-' . ^|. L'-'V ]04. 413 (1881); Wardl. Rams. ibid. p. 6S0 
11--' ."■;., 1882. p. 80(E. BtMiptl); V'^nhna. N. T. 

.V .1 ,,,L| (1882): ■*»/.■■ fVif./f. »r»rt/. a>W. p.r,29 

I 1 - _ ;, , . ..., 1882, p. 198 (Pemk) ; Oattt, H. Brit, liurm. 

iL 1, ,:. vl --;,. Ulai. y.f. O. 1883. pp. 121, 122 (Cuktbes) ; 
St,bh. Ilu. I^r4. p. 1'7U (EiuViHiig, B. Chba) ; Blai. J.f. O. IHM, 

tiaO |W.E. Bunieo) ; »omA. $ Bani. Jbii, 1885, p. 137 ; Gi-a- 
Kwty, O'RM, 188-), p. IttS; SiUead, Ann. Mu*. Ge. Oen. (:i) v. 
p.ii2a(TenM»eriui)(188«); EixrrU, J. Str. Br. At. Sm. 1880, 
p. 102; 7'riitr. Cat. CoU. B. p. fiJ (1880); Styan, Ibi*. 188», 
p. Jl«; Hume, XetU^Esyi {OiUn'ed.). iii. p. 2tt0 (1800) ; Stynn, 
l*t.. 1801, pp. ;il7, 328, 406 (YniigtsB); HaHert, J.f. O. 1880, 
p. 436; uf. Kxil. VogfUamml. p. 227 (1801); £k La ToueAf. Ibit, 
1803, p. 401 (Fooohow); Styan, IbU, 1893, p. 485 (IlaiuBu) ; 
Mutm. Ihii, lam. p. 71 (Calcutts). 

Micruevgntt gitra, J/n^fT'. (VruyV Zuo/. .Vi'm'. p. 68, no. 70li(l'^). 

Xetlnp'iia Rommnndeliciis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 150 (Trvov) ; 
Irhy. Ibii, 18B1, p. 246 (Oudh): A-iwnA. Ibit. Ifi7.% p. (Hi (Chinn) ; 
(iieb. The,. On>. ii. p. 701 (purt.) (1875): Uumr, Nest, Ht Eyyt, 
p. 0;i8 (1876); Jtume ^ Manh. Game-Birdi vf Ind. HI pi 14 
llw80); r<»«-<fci-»i. .V. T.A:J.iM. p. 240 (1886), xlii. p. 410 
(l«8(l). 

An*r<lln coromfmdelicd. O. R. Gr. Cat. Hodgt. CM. B. M. 2nd ed. 
p. 70 I lHl);t) ; id. Uand-lid. iii. p. 77, no 1U504 (part. Y) (1871) ; 
Hchnit: Om. CtntriM. 1882, p. 22. 

AriMT (N.-lUpiu) comiuMitlelUnus, u. Mnrl. J.f. O. 1806, p. 30. 

Cbetiiaciu cutomuidelicitB, Suad. Melh. nat. Ar. ditp. Tent. p. 148 
(1872). 

Aiu«i«Ua crorODinndeliana, Hutdaw. P. Z. 8. 1872, p. 470 ; Leogi; 
Ibit, 1875, p. 407. 

NetUpu* kopachii, SmiiiA. Ann. & Mag. y. If. (4) xi. p. 16 (1873) ; 
GiA. The. Om. Ji. p. 501 (1875); Sniik. Ibit, 1b84, p. 270 
l=car»niaiid«IianUB), 

Ni-Uapua cmumuidus, Ifume. Sir. Fnalli. iii. p. Ift2 (187ri). 

NetUipiu cnromftndeliaDUB, Blyth, B. Burma, p. 165 (1875) ; Hiimr, 
Sir. failh. vii. p. 4B1 (187H), riii. p. lU, n. iTA (1870) ; Ilamr 
* .VariA. Oan^Bird. of Ind. iii. p. 101 (1880) ; SfUU. P. Z. S. 
I8WI, V- fit* ; Oalt*, Str. Ftalh. ». p. 243 (Ptgu) (lt'82j. 

Adull mate in tummer. Forehead, crown, and nnpt? Lair-brown, 

I tli« (oriDCir darkeiit ; remainder of bead, the whole neck, and 

ter plumage whit« ; a broad collar round Ihe neck black in front, 

I lElumiy ftn-cu behind ; the white of the braist pruduced round the 

uirkiuid fomuug another collar below the black one; Lack, ^cupulura. 



70 ANATin.E. 

rump, tcrtiaries, and wing-coverts dccii glosay green ; secondaries 
gl«iBygreen,broadly tipped with white; primariea dark brownonthe 
basal halves, then while with the tip black ; under wiug-uoverts 
greenish black ; upper tail-eoverte white, freckled with brown ; 
under tail-coTerts dark brown, mottled with white ; sides of the 
body vermiculated with brown : '* bill black ; iris bright red ; legs, 
toes, and webs black, the sides of the tarsus and toes dusky yellow ; 
claws horny brown" (Oalea). Total length 13 inches, wing <!'5, 
tail 3, culmcR 0-92, tarsus 1. 

FtinaU. Forehead and a KU['ercilium dirty white ; crown and 
nape dark bronu ; lores and a line through the eyes blackish; 
leroainder of head, the whole neck, and upper breast dull while, 
mottled with brown, the marks on the breast aud hind neck 
becoming well-defined wavy lines ; the lower plumage dull while, 
btreaked and indistinctly barred with brown ; the whole upper 
surface, wings, and tail brown, the secondaries tipjed with white, 
and the inner primaries also more narrowly tipped with white ; 
upper tail-coverts white, freckled with brown ; under wing-covorts 
brown, each feather margined with while : " hill brown above, 
yellowish below ; iris brown ; legs and toes greenish yellow " (Oale»). 
Size a trifie lees than the male. 

Idah in winter. Similar to the female, but always retains the 
conspicuous white patch on the primaries. 

Yottng. Similar to the female till Ihe first spring ^Oattt). 

Yming t» dmim. Upper parts, flanks, and under tftil-coverto 
blackish brown ; a broad sujwrciliary stripe, cheeks, throat, front 
neck, and breast white ; s brown line through the eyes ; two broad 
white spots on each side of the back, one near the ba:<e of the 
wings, and the other, much longer, on the sides of the rump ; 
fealhers of the tail blackish, very long a ' '" 




1 1. XETTOPUS. 



71 



My f. 6 i ftd. sk. 
w-y. (S 9 imm. 

et pull. sk. 
*"*'• S j'iv. 8k. 
c'-f. rf $ ad. et 

imm. sk. 
A*, r. d 2 ad. 8k. 
m\ n'. (S imm. 8k. 
o', p'. (S ad. 8k. 

q\ r*. c^ 5 ad. 8k. 
«'. cT ad. sk. 
f . (^ ad. 8k. 
»'. (^ ad. sk. 

v'. (^ ad. sk. 
ht'. $ ad. sk. 
y. (^ imm. sk. 
/, «'. d $ ad. sk. 

a"-€f '. cJ $ ad. et 

cf imm. sk. 
«" V- d $ ad, sk. 

h"-r\ cJ 2 ad. sk. 

et 2 juv. sk. 
f"-r. cJ2ad.sk. 

i»"-s". 2 ad. et 

(J 2 imm* sk. 
a', A'. (S 2 inani- 

sk. 
c*, <f*. (J ad. et 

imm. sk. 
e*-f. 2 ad. et cJ 

imm. sk. 
A'. cT ad. sk. 
«*• 6 juv. sk. 
ie. 2 ad. sk. 

r, m». 2 ad. et cJ 

juT. sk 
«"-/>'. d 2 ad. sk. 

y*. 2 jUT. sk. 

r*, #*. <J ad. sk. 

e, tt». d 2 ad. sk. 
p*, w*. d 2 iinm. 

sk. 
x*-s'. d $ ad. sk. 

««-<•♦. 2 ad. et <J 
juv. sk. 



Ankin, Aug. (-4. Anderson). 
Etawab, Sept. 

Oudh, Dec., Jan., Feb. 
Oudh. 

Gondah (S. Pinwill), 
Rahimabad, Sept. 
Nepal. 

Nepal (Hodyson), 
Darjeeling. 
Buotan. 
Nusserabad. 

Dacca. 

Svlhet. 

Kbasia Hills (Griffiths). 

Manipur, Marcb, May (A, 

O. H.). 
Tongbooy Feb., June, July 

(A G, W. R). 
Yavtho, Rrit. Burma, June 

(R. G, W. R). 
Near Rangoon. 
L#ower Pegu, May, June, and 

Sept. 
Tbatone, Aug., Nov. ( W. 

Daoison), 
Thamban, Nov., Jan. ( W. D.), 

Kaukarvit, Jan., July {J. 

Darling «J- W, D.), 
Assoon, March. 

Amherst, Dec. ( W. /).). 

Phalandoung, Dec. ( W. D.), 
Near Yeaboo, Dec. {J. D.). 
Yea, Tenasserim, March 

( W. D.). 
Tavoy, April ( fV, D.). 



Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Capt. Stack house 

PinwiU [P.l. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

fp.]. 

India Museum [P.]. 
India Museum [P.J. 
India Museum [P.]- 
H. T. Bellamy, Esq. 

[P.]. 
Hume Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
India Museum [P.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

E. W. Gates, Esq. 

[C.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Tweeddalj Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 



Andamans, July, Aug. (22. J. Hume Coll. 

Wimberley). 
S. Andamans, Feb. (R. G, 

W. R.). 
Port Blair, S. .Andamans, May 

{R. J, jr.). 

Port Blair, July (R. J. H'.). 
Cochin China, Nov. 



Tweeddale Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



Tweeddale Coll. 
M. St. Pierre [P.]. 



Kiukiang, China, Sept (R. 

Stein hoe). (Types 

Kiukiang, Feb., Sept. \R. 

Swinhoe), 



Seebohm Coll. 
of y. koj)schi, Swinh.) 
Seebohm Coll. 



d',e^.^ Q fid.sk. Kiiikiaog, June, Julr. F, W. Stjan, Eeq. 

/>. $ nd. sk. Malacca [C'finlor}. India Mtuwiim [I'.]. 

ff\ a nr. ad. sk. Suantik. A. K. Wallace, Esq. 

rc,]. 

A', 1^. (J ad. ak. Javn (Diard). Salvin-GodmAn ColL 

k'. <; nr. ad. sk. Manilla {Mmtland Hii-ivt). Tweeddale Coll. 

J*. $ imm, sk. Philippine Island*. 

m*. S imm. »k. Menndu, N. Celfbes. Tneeddele Coll. 

n*. Sternum. P^u. W. E. Ofttea, Esq. 



[P.]. 



4. Hettopas albipennia. 



Nettapus coram an del ianuK, Gould (nre Gm.\ B. Auttr. Tii. pt. 5 

(pt. vi., 1842) ; G. R. Gr. Gtn. B. iii. p. 608, n. 1 (part.) {1844). 
Nuttapus albipennia, Gould, B. AuUr. m text to pi. 6 (1842); id. 

B. Auttr. I. IntTod. p. ici (1848); .BcAn*. ^. ./<r., Katatoref, 

t. 96. If. 036-:f7 (184fif) (tx Gould); Bp. Vumpt. Rntd. xliii. 

p. 049, n. 01 (1866) ; Gould, Handb. B. Aiatr. ii. p. 359 (1866) ; 

ScMf!,. Mut. P.-B. Anwres, p, 77 (1866) ; Blyth, Ihit, 1866, 

p. 350 (note); Finsch, Verh. z.-h. Gis. Wiea, 1872, p. .339; iW=. 

Ibit, 1873, p. 122i Bain*. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 346; td. Pr. Linn. 

Soe. A". 8. W. ii. p. SCO, n. 651 (1878) ; Salt. Cat. B. StriM. CM. 

p. 530, n. 2678 (1882) ; B«m$. Tab. Lut, p. 22, n. 662 (1888). 
Nettapiis bicolor, Lem. Echo du Monde Satant, 1844, p. 127 (New 

Holland). 
Aneerella albipennia, G. fi. (7r. jf(in(/-/t'(t, iii. p.77,n. 1069(! (1871); 

Bcinw. On. Centralbl. 1882, p. 22. 
NettapuB coromandelicufl, part., Gieb. Thet. Ot-n. ii. p, 701 (JP7^). 
NettopuB albipennia, Sclot. P. Z. S. 18^0, p. 505. 
NettApus curumAndelinnuB albipennia, Hartert, Kal. Vogrltamml. 

p.228,n.S375(l«91). 



ajidelianvt, froio which it ia doubtfull}- 




rKtij lo the Ifj/fcUt. 
Daul portinn of tlie oppRr mandible formit a teiy 
rfi^p btikI" bptown llio teathering of the fore- 
hiroilRnd tliAtofthelnreBi feiltherBOD the Miles nf 
tli« neck of tbe mole nornuil ; inner terlials somn- 
wfaHt bnuul, but with the shnft cUnigbt; undt^r 
winfT^verts And HxilliuieB white spilled with 

bUckiih both in taaXn and female tponta, p. 73, 

A. Ruse of the upper nuuidibie forma almriet n straight 
)in«finm the forehead to the comT of the tuoutli; 
foatbers on the aides of the neck of the male 
tiiuch eloogBted, forming a conspicuous rufT of 
namiir ch^tnut feathers striped with whitish ; 
innermost t«rtinl tery broad and with the shaft 
miicb bi-nt downwaids ; under wiiij;-or)verta aud 
axillaiies uniform bruwmsh grey both in mule 
and female jfoleriiiliita, \<. 



1 . Ml sposea. 

Summer Duck, Cattfl. Carol, i. p. 07, pi. 97 : Edte. Birtli, pi. lUl ; 

LalA. .'*tn. iii. 2, p. 5J«. n. 8*5 (17*)). 
Adm MtivB, Briu. Om. vi. p. 3!i3. pi. xsxii. f. 2 (17llO). 
Anas tpoiua, Lmu. S. A', i. p. 207. n. 43 (176il); Gm. 8. N. i. 

•_', p. BSD, n. Vi (1788) : Lati. Jml Om. a. p. 871, n. »7 {17»0) ; 

Abw. Ent. Mfth. i. p. 130. pi. 35. f. 1 (1790) ; WU». Am. Orn. 

till. p. 07, pi. 70. f. a (1814); VirilL If. D. t. p. 10« (18111)! 

Ami. Diet. Sc. Nat. vi, p. a82 (1817) ; Licht. Ven. DouM. p. 85 

(IB23)i Sl^. Gen. Zooi. xii. 2. p. SC (1B24): Bp. OU. WOt. 

a. 201 (1825); Yarrra, P. Z. S. I8W, p. 35 (Dorking); Benn. 

Oard. d- Mnuig. Zool. Soe., Birdi. p. 281, with %ure {18:)l)i 

Zm*. Tr. d'Ont. p. 634 (1831); Null. Man. ii. p. 304 (1834); 

And. On. Biogr. ill. p. fi2 (1835), ». p. 618 (163a); id. Syn. 

p. 280(1830); Viffor; Zool. Btrckey't Tov. p. 30 (ISiifl); IfOrh. 

m La Sagrt/t Htit. Nat. Cuba, Oit. p, 288 (1840) ; Ktys. ^ Bin*. 

HWWA. £i«-, p. Uxriv (1840); Aud. B. vim. vi. p, 27!, pi, 391 

(ltt43);(?ira«d,B.Zoiifr/«/. p.312(]844|; DeKay,N. Y.Zoid.W. 

p. .138 (1844) ; Degl. Om. Ear. ii. p. 440 (1849) i WM, J./. 0. 

It4fie, p. 170, pi. 2. ff. 1, 2; Srkby. Miu. P.-B., Anaeres, p. 71 

(196(1); fJw*. Thr4. Om. L p. 362 (1872). 



.\ix ipoiiKa, Bow, /<M. 1828, p, 839. □. 8 ; Bp. Comp. Litf, p. 67. 
n. 31*) (1^38) i O. R. Or. lid B. Brit. Mu*. iii. p. 133 (1844) ; 
id. &»>.£. iii. p. 614, D. 1 (tA45); Goue. B. Jam. v. 408(1647); 
BMk, Cat. B. Mum. A. S. B. p. 30fl, n. 1783 (1&49); WoodA. 
t»sr. Rip. p. 102 (1853); Licit. Nomfncl. Av. p. 102 (1854); 
Jlp. Oimpt. Bfnd. xl. p. OtU (18641, xliii. p. 6«), n. 121 (IBfiC) ; 
L. Brfhm, Kawaanuia, \».Vi, p. 208 ; Vol-, j- Gundl. J.f. O. 1857, 
p. 220(Cub»); Keah. P. n. R. Rtp.Mvp.Vmmh-); Biiird, B. N. 
Mw. n. 786 (18.-j81 1 id. Vat. N. Am. B. n. 587 (1850) ; A. Ai-irf. 
/fti'ir, 1850. p. lOtii Srlat. P. 7.. 8. 1859, p. 20ft (iDCubation); 
Umiav. J. t. O. 18,50, p. 372 (Zool. Oart.) ; ffwrai. P. R. R. 
Ktp. X uU 6, p, (« (1850); Coop. * Suckl. A'. //. »'<uA. J'urr. 
p. 250 (1800); GundL J.f. O. 1801, p. ;U4 : Albr. J.f. O. 1862, 



p. i07 (Jftniaira) ; Hayd. Rrp. 180^, p. 176 ; I>/-r. Pr. Em. Itut. 

lii. p. 163 (1862) i Ulakiil. Ibu, 1863, p. 147 ; G. R. Gr. tW. £r. 

B. p. 106 (1863) ; March, Pr. Ac. Pkilad. 1864, p. 71 (Junaici) ; 

<imdl. Btpirt. Fu.-Kat. i. p. 389 (1866); J)re«i. Ibit, 1866, 

p. 43 (Texas) ; Brovm, Ibu, 1868, p. 428 ; Homry. J. f. O. 1868, 

p. 350; Coiie», Pr. Em. Itut. iii. p. 299 (1868) ; Eyt. Syn. Anot. 

p. 72 (1868) ; St^at. P. Z. S. \&Si, p. 629 (breeding) ; Draehenf. 

J.J. 0. 1870, p. 160; G.Ji. Gr. Hmd-tut, iii. p. 80, n. 106:i6 

(1871); Vouet, Kfu, p. 288 (1872); Selat * Hah: Norn. Av. 

Atofrop. p. 180(18/3); Onw*, CAcdb-M n. 49B (1873) ; id. Bird* 

N.- We»t, p. 571 (1874) ; Imcr. Man. Bo*t. Soc. N. H. ij. p. 315 

(Mexico) {\874); (?ii»*V./. 0.1876, p. 381(Cubft); Schal.J./.O. 

1876, p. 11 (Brandenburg); Stlal. ^ Salv. P. '/.. S. 1876, p. 397; 

Scimidt, P. X. S. 1880, p. 318; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 613; 

A. 8f E. Sort. Handb.Jam. p. 113 (1881); Ridgv. Horn. Jf.Am. 

i(. n. 613 (1881); &fc. Cat. B. Strtckl. Oitf. p.632 (1882); Qmet, 

theck'tiit, 2nd ed. p. 114, n. 719 (1882); TwAiHri en Sckmidh. 

MT.ora. Vrr. B'^tn, 1884, p. 30 (Styrin); Cmut, Sty N. Am. B. 

2nd ed. p. 608, n. 719 (1884) ; B., B., ^ li. Water-Birdi ff. Amer. 

ii. p. 11, tig. p. 10 (188i)i Con/, Lid Birdi W. I. p. 31 (1885); 

Sehrl. J.f. 0. 1885, p. 147 (UlinoiB); A. 0. U. Chrck-iix If. 

Am. B. p. 118, n. 114 (1886) ; Bidffio. Man. N. Am. B. p. 09 

(1887); Cory, Auk, 1888, p. 66; Tritlr. Ott CoU. B. p. 60 

(1889); Evani, Ibit, 1891, p. 73; HarteH, Kat. VogtUamml. 

p. 229 (1891) ; Sharpe, Cat. OtUol. Specim. CiJl. Surg. iii. p. 304 

(1801) ; HaUh, B. ofMinne». p. 51 (1803) ; Cory, B. Weri Ind. 

p. 86 (1892). 
DendronesM Hpnnsa, Stc. ^ Bieh. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 446 (1831); 
rarrdt, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 10 (moult) ; Sir. Clan. B. ii. p. 366 

(1837) ; &y$. ^ Blot. WirbtUh. Eur. p. 326 (1840) ; HaHl. 

Syit. Verz.Gr». Mu».D.U%{\BU); Bcknb. Syn. AB.,^a.tMonm, 

t. 96. ff. 190-198 (1846); Dtimu, P. '£. S. 1847, p. 40; GuUiv. 

P. Z. S. 1876, p. 488. 
]^nipron(«iH sponSB, Wayl. Ui», 1832, p, 2^1? ; Suridn: Meth. nat. 




U. .ST. 73 

A'Mt mail. Hcid (lurk gloHsy gri^cn, checks [iiir|ili.- ; lung 
prndeot oecipitul crest glossy green, purple behind, and bounded 
above aud below by two wbite liues, the upper one starting from 
the forehead and passiug over the 630, the lower one starting 
behind the eye ; a broad velvety blaek paWh oa the upper part 
of thu siden of the neck ; chiD, throat, and ujtper fore neck white. 
Bonding ott' a branch between the cheeks aud the black velvety 
]jHtch, and another below this on the sidea of the neck ; hind neck 
and mantle dark brooiie-grcen ; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
dark bronzy green ; scapulars dark velvety green, the inner oneB more 
)(rcen on the inner web ; lower fore nock and breast glnsar eheatnut, 
with triangular white sputa at the tips of the feathers of the breast : 
on the sides of tho breast a while band, edged below with a liruador 
black una ; lower breast and abdomen while ; aides and Hunks pale 
brown, vermieulated with Hack, the longer feathers beautifully 
marked at the tips with black and silky-white bands ; lower flanks 
glossy chestnut; nnder tail-coverts brown; lesaer wing-coverts 
brou lie- green, tho middle and greater ones silky blue, edged with 
velvety black ; primaries silky groy on tho outer web, glossy bluish- 
green at the tip; secondaries glossy bluish-green, with a wbite 
band at the lip; inner secondaries or tertials very broad velvety 
bluiah-bluck, but the one next to the secondaries glossed with 
coppery rod on the outer web ; axillaries and under wing-coverts 
white, spotted with blackisli, the greater ones more grey ; tail above 
dark velvety green, helow dusky ; " a InngitudimJ space on tho 
culmen, and tip of the bill with the nail, black ; an oblong space of 
milk-wbite from nostrils to the nail ; a border of gamboge-yollow 
following the basal outline of the bill; rest of the bill dark purplish 
red, deopoDing into scarlet just behind the nostrils ; iris bright 
orange-red ; eyelids deep vermilion ; legs and feet dull chrome- 
yellow, the webs and joints dusky "{Jfirfou'a.i/). Total length about 
19 inches, wing 9-9-50, tul 5, oolmen 1-40', tarsus 1-4(J. 

lah. Head and neck grey, glossed with green on the upper 
part of the head and crest ; a space surrounding the eyes, chin aud 
throat white ; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts bronze-grey ; 
scapulars and tertials also bronze-grey, but gloaaed with purple ; 
brt-asl, sides, and flanks brown-grey, with whitish tpois along tlie 
ilc of tho feathers, broader on ^e aides and HankK ; wings a^ in 
mole, but the inner grentor wing-coverts glossod with copperj' 
; tail above greyish bron/.y green, below duskv : lower lirciwt. 
>men, aud un(iBr tail-coverls whit«, the liHi ■ 1. ■■■■n. 1 n iih 

hrown-groy : "bill dark plurol>eous, the miil > .•-•<'•! 

n the culmen black : eyelids chromp-yeIh»v , j^ 

and feet yellowish brown " (Ridt/'t-mn ''.'■••■ 
inches, wing 8-50, tail 4-5, ruimen 1 
Young ill douit, " Alwvo deep li 1 : 
on the piJGum and toil : a ilin^ 

border of tho arm-wing, and ai 

Fide of the rump; lores, saIlercili■]r^ 



North America. 



t« the occiput, vith lateral aii<l uuder parte of the hsad, generally 
bright Bulphurj' buff, crossed by a vide stripe of blackish brona 
extending from the occiput forward to the eye ; remiiining lower 
parts dinf;y whit«, the sides brownish, this crossed on the flanks by 
an indistinct whitish bar" {Hidffway). 

Hah. Nearctio r^on from the 50th pnrallel to the Gulf of Uexico; 
resident in Cuba (Gundla^) ; accidental in Jamaica and Bermudas. 

h. Foil. sk. 
c, d, e. tS ad. 

et juT, sk. 
/ (J ad. sk. 
ff. (J ad. sk. 
A. tS ad. sk. 
i. Pull. sk. 

k. cTjuv.sk. 

/. d ad. sk. 

m. (f juv. sk. 

n. S ad. sk. 

0. d ad. sk. 

p. (J ad. at 

J. (J jUT. sk. 



Fraser B. (Itr. I^aS). 
AahUnd, Oregon, Feb. 
iia,a FraociKO, California. 
Moody Co., Dakota, May (F. T. 

Jencki). 
Fore DuSerin, June. 

Baffle Lake, New Brunswick, 

May (H. E. DreMtr). 
Lyon's Falls, New York, Aug. 

(A.J. Dayan). 
New Haven, Connecticut, Uct. 

(A. J. J).). 
Eliiabeth, New Jersey, April 

(Merriam'}. 
Princeton, lUinoie, Oct. 



E. Doubleday, Esq. 

Gould'Coll. 

J. K. Lord, Esq. [P.]. 

LordOdoKusselirP.]. 
Salviu-Oodman Coll. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 
SalTin-Godman Coll. 

N. America Boundary 

Comm. fP.]. 
Salvin^odman Coll. 

Salvin-Qodman Coll. 

SalTin-Godnuui Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 



Salvin-Godman Coll. 




Faimn Jnp,, Aeri.'a. 137(11*50): .VcWto. Ma-. P-Zf., Anserea.p. 70 

(I«tWj; David, N. Arch. Mut.. Bttll. di. ('a(. n.4fi2(l»ri); fl«*. 

71tf<. On. i. p. 35^> (187^) ; Sen&h. B. Japan. Emp. p. 246 (1^90). 
Swfsllo de U Cbine, DAubaU. PI. KhI. 80r>, 806 (d 2) ; Bwp 

ffi«(. .V«f, Oil, ii. p. 270, pi, 19 (1783). 
Ctiiiiese Duck, LUk. ^p,. iii. 2, p. 548, n. 86 (178.')}. 
Aix •nlericulata, BoU, Itii, IHiSS, p. 390, o. 1 ; Stnekt. P. Z. S. 

1842. p. ltf«: a. a. Gr. Liel B. Brit. Mm. iii. p. 133 (1844); 

«tO«.. B. iii. p. «14. n. 2(1S46): GouJd, B. i/ Aiia, \ii. pi. m 

(pt. iv., lSr,'i)i Lirht. Sommcl. Av. p. 102 (1854); Bp. Compl. 

And. iliii. p. 4oO, a. 122 (ISSfl); .S<Jfl^ P. Z. S. im\ p, 200 

(iocnbatioii) : Honu-v. J.f. O. I8jil), p. 372 (Zool. Oart.) ; Swink. 

P. Z. S. 180!. p. 324 (CentMl Chnw); id. IhU. I8IJ0. p. 295 

(FonnoBa!); iVw». Coy. n, IIW (I8tlT) ; WhiUfy, Ibli. 1807. 

p. 207 (ilslioiUdi) ; £yl. Si,n. Anal, p. 71 (ISOtt) ; &-/at. P. Z. X. 

IWW. p. 620 (bjwdingl ; (/. R. (It. Hmtd-M, iii. p, 80. ii. 10027 

(ICTl): Svmh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 418; I'rk. IbU, 1873, p. 123; 

Garr. P. Z. S. \%1A, v. 467 (cBrotidB), p. ffiW (rauacW) ; Sainh. 

lhi», 1875, pp. 137. 457 (llakodadi) ; Ityb. It Tarx. J. f. O. 187^ 

5, 266 (llwuri) ; Tats. J. f. 0. 1876, p. 203; irf. Bull Soe. Zwti. 
V. ii. n. 45 (1877); Daeid ^ Owl. OU. rfttn/-. p. Wl (1877) ; 
Btak. i Prytr, IhU. 1878, p, 213 (Jup^n); SW«(. P. Z. S. I8»0, 
p-.-ilS: h«iaH,J.f. 0. IMSI.p. 03, 1882, p. 340; Blali. Sf Pi-yer, 
TV, A», Sor. Japan, \. p. 07 (1882) ; Jmv, Pr. U. S. Xal. Mw. 
\i. p. 318 (18831; B.. B., * B. Wabr-hird* A". Am. ii p. ft 
(oot«) (1884) : BidpB. Man. N. Am. B. p. 90 (1887) ; Gigl ^ 
Saleod, P. Z. S. 1887. p, 591 (Olgft Bav) : Salmd. (^ Gigl. M^. 
A. Ae. Sc. Tor. (2) xxxix. pp. 118, l31 (1886) ; Tacz. P. Z S. 
188P, p. 460 (CoreaJ : Dorriet, J.f. O. 1886, p. 02 (B. Siberia) ; 
Trutr. Cat. CoU. B. p. fiO (1889); Eean», lbi», 1891, p. 73; 
Sfyan, IW«. 1891,pp. 328, 490; Hartal. Kat. yofftiiamml.ip.229 
0891): Skarvf, Cat. OiUol. Spedm. CoU. Surg. iii. p. 304 (1801) ; 
J)» La Toiioht. Iln», 1802, p. 492 (China). 

Coataoncsm galmcisiM^ Eaup, Itii, 1820 (/d« Qould, B. of Ana, 
vu. test of pi. 60). 

Umpionesu galericuUta. Waffl. UU, 1832, p. 282; Smd. Mtlh. 
nil. Ap. dup. Tml. p. 146 (1872). 

Deiidn)ne«sa gateric^nta, Sw. Anim. in Meniiff. p. 233 (1837); id. 
Clou. B. ii. p. 3as (1837): Uartl. Sp>t. fert. Gel. .Vui. p. 118 
(1844) ; JfcAnA. Sjpi. Av., NaUtorw, t. 95. ff. 194-195 (1845). 

Ai« g«lericuUt«, Eyl. Man. Anal. p. 110 (1838). 

Ame uitori, Temm. [M I'i.fiU G. B. Gr. Lttt B. Brit. Mua. iii. 
p, I3il (in oyn. A. galerlculatre }. 

Ana* (Aix) pnlericulBta, Sckrenck, JUff. Amur-L<md, p. 460 {1600) ; 
Badde. Brit. »■ S.O. S,&!r. ii. p. 302 (1863). 

Mx tpdcriculata, Seht. Litt rert. An. 8tli ed. p. 438 (1880), 

HifhruU. 



AJitt maU. FoTeLcad jcloiey green, changing into purple on the 
croirn; Iod^ oocipital crest coppery red. changing irto dark purple 
and iirecii below ; niilrs of ihe head anteriorly bufi, changing into 
while round the even, from whtrc the white extends on the eidcs of 



the head and of the crest ; lower part of the crest dark metallic 
green ; chin and throat cinnamon ; sides of the neck with Ion); 
pointed feathers, of a chestnut colour, striped with whitish along 
the middle ; back, rump, upper taU'COverta, and lesser wing-coverts 
hoarj' brown with a dull bronzy gloss ; lower neck iu front and on 
the sides gloesy chestnut, bounded on the sides with five oreeceutic 
bands, throe bkck snd two white; sides, breast, abdomen, and under 
tail-coverts white ; sides and flankfl pale brown, vermioulated with 
black, the longer feathers with white and black crescentic bands 
at the tip ; lover flanks tinged with glossy chestnot ; scapulars 
hroniy greyish green, glossed with blue, the outer ones white, 
hroadly edged with velvety black on the outer weh ; primaries grey 
on the outer web, tipped with green on the inner weh ; secondaries 
glossy hlubh green, tipped with a white band ; inner tertial with 
the shaft much bent downward, giving to the outer web a falcate 
form, the inner web eiceaaivcly widened into a very broad chest-- 
nut fan, edged on the upper part with whitish and on the lower 
with velvety steel-black, the outer web of the same feather 
velvety steel-hlack ; under wing-coverts brown-grey ; tail brown 
olive-grey: "iris dark brown, with a yellowish- white outer ring: 
bill reddish hrown, with the nail bluish flesh-colour; tarsus aud 
toes reddbh yellow ; membranes blackish " {Srhrentk). Total length 
■bout IT inches, wing 94, tail 4-5, culmen 1-25, tarsus I*35. 

Female. Head, neck, and crest grey ; a band at the base of the 
Irill, round the eyes, a bond starting Srom the eyes towards the 
nape, chin, throat, lower breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts 
white ; lower fore neck, breast, sides, and flanks brownish grey, 
each feather with a whitish oblong spot near the tip ; upper partn 
and upper wiug-covfrts brown olivc-fsrcy; primaries brown, with 
the edge of the outer web grey ; secondaries bi-own-olive, with a 






13. CEBEOFSIB. 


71 


M. $ Id. Sk. 


Hakndndi, Japan, Sept. (Bl^ 

uton). 
Yokohama, Japan (ff. Prytr). 


Seebahm Colt. 


sk. 
q. 5»d..k. 


Seebolim Coll. 


KamozB- Village, Tsu-ahima, 


Seebohm Coll. 




April (P. A. HoUi). 




r. 6 Kd. Bk. 


Nil VillaiK, Tsu-Ahitna, Oct. 
(P. A. Haiti). 


Soebohm Coll. 


f-f. Pull. St. 






K. Pull. »k. 




H. J. Elwes, Esq! [P. 


•T. Pull. 8k. 




Oould Coll. 


y. Skeleton. 







Subfamily IV. CEREOPSIN^. 

VA. CEKEOPSIS. 
CsTPopsis, Lath. Iitd. Om. Suppl. p. Uvii (1801). . C.n. 
Range. Confined to S.E. Australia and Tasmania. 



1. Cereopais noTS hollaodis. 

Cygne cendrt. LabUIard. Voy. Jlrek. La Pir. i. p. 130, pi. 9 (1801). 

New Holland Cereopsis, Lath. Oen. S^. Suppl. ii. p. 32.", pi. l.** 
(1801). 

Cereopsis nov» holUodite, Lath, Ind. Om. St^ml. p. Ixvii (1801) ; 
/%.?«>*. p. 2f)3(1811); Fifill. Ana/y»e,f. 00, gt-n. 2U (IBIO) ; 
Temm. Man. dOnt. 2nd ed. Analyte, p. cvii (1820) ; id. PL CW. 
206 (livr, 85, 1823) ; SCeph. Gm. Zooi. lii. 3, p. 67 (1824) ; Boie, 
Im, 1820, p. 081 i Ran:. El. Zool. ix. p. 292 (1826) ; Lett. Man. 
iTOm. ii. p. 412 (1828) ; id. Tr. aOm. p. 627 (18.tl>; YarrfU, 
P. ■£. S. I8a0, pp. 26, 26 (anaUiniy) ; i(*nne«, P. Z. S. 1830, 
pp. S6. 27 ; id. Gard. and Menag. Z/mI. Sac., Birdt, pp. 315- 
324 (1831); Bep. Couneil Z. S. 1831, p. 14, 18.32, p. 13; Lett. 
Cooipl. de Bujf., Oit. ii. p. 523 (1837) ; id. op. cit. 2itA ed. 
p. 716 (1838) ; Eut. Mon. Anat. p. 80 (1838) ; Temm. PI. Col. i. 
TaW. Mm. p. 100 (1838): Jard. 4- Selbu, lU. 0,-n. (a. ter.) pi. S3 
(1839) ; Rapp. Mm. Smc/Unb. iii. p. 11 (1830) ; G. R. Or. Litt 
Gen. B.-p. 73(1840); id. Litt B. Brit. Miu. iii. p. 126 (1844); 
id. Om. B. iii. p. f06 (18J4); Hartl. Syit. fVra. Oi'. M<u. 
p. 117 (1844) ; RchA. S^. An., Natatores, t. 1)6. ff. 940-tMl 
(1S46); Gould, B. Auttr. vii. pi. 1 (pt. Mviii., 1847)! Bcknh. 
Av. Sk/tt. yat. p.ix, tab.!. (1863); td. J./. O. IBf" 
Licht. Nomencl. Ar. u. 101 (18-54) ; Bp. Gimpl. Rend, xi 
n. 36 (1866); Crltp. P. Z. S. 1857, p. 215; SclaL P. i 
p. 206 (incubnlioii): Schltg. Dierent. u. """" ''*"" "' 
Oould, HohA- B. Autlr. li.p. 3S0(]Sf 
Anseres, p. 115 (1866); Ei,t. SMpL 
(18flB); id. Syii. Aimt. p. 15 fISffljj 
p. 280; Sdat. t. c. p. ^0 (breodinir) | f 
G. R. Or. Hand-lia, iii. p. 74, - 
/./. 0. 1871, p. 255 (e«); (iith^ 
8»)td.Metk.tui.A<.:-"- ■" 




1873, p. 769 ; GiiIUd. P. Z. S. ISTH, p. 4S8 ; Garrod, P. Z S. 

1876, p. 197 (Uclirvmal region); Itanu. Pr. Linn. Soc. K.S. It'. 

i. p. 194 (187B), ii-p. aOO, n. 647 (1878); Oudow,J.f. O. 1877, 

p. 389 (iatostin.) ; Diggt. B. Auttr.n.^\. 108 (1877?); Schmidt, 

P. Z. S. 1880, p. 317 ; Selat. t. c. pp. 497, 535 ; Bchnw. I'dg. 

Zool. Gdrt. p. 08 (1882); Sclat. Litl Vert. An. 8th ed. p. 417 

( 1883) ; Helm, J. /. O. 1884, p. 334 (muscles) ; Legge, Pr. Rog. 

Soc. Tasm. 1886, p. 244 (1887); Hanu. Tab. List, p. 22, n. 6-58 

(1888); Eiiani, UU, 1891, p. Tl (iacubHiion) ; SAarpe, Cat. 

Otteol. Spedm. CoU. Surg. iii. p. 291 (1891) ; Marltrt, Kat. r<jgel- 

mmml. p, 226 (1891); Forbei, Tr. N. Zeal. Intl. xxi». p. 185 

(1892). 
Cereopsis dnereus, Vieill. N. J), v. p. 516 (1810) ; id. Gal. de» Ois. 

\\. p. 211, pi. 284 (1825); Cuo. Jt^. An. 2nd ed. i. p. 609 

(1829). 
Anser grieeus, rieill. N. D. xxiii. p. 336 (1818) ; id. Ene. Mtth. i. 

p. 351, pi. 236. f. 1 (1823) ; Bennett, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 27. 
Anas temo lueuwin, Siphe, MS., D'Bntrcfa»t.Xarrat.,/kle Oennetl, 

P. Z. S. 1830, p. 26. 
C«reopsis cinerea, Brandt, Descr. tt Ic. An. Rose. Nor., A cee, fwc. i, 

p. 6 (1836). 
Cereopaifl nmtnilis, Sw. An. in Menag. p. 219, f. 32(1837); id. 

Clou. B. ii. p. 306 (1837). 

Adult. Crown of the head whitish, the remaicdcr of the plumage 
brownish grey; some of the wing-cOTerta and Bcapularg with a 
spot of brownish black near the tip; the feathers of the back 
margined with pale brownish grey ; the apical half of the primaries, 
the tips of the secondaries, the tail, and the under tail-coverts 
blackish brown : " bill black, cere lemon-yellow ; irides vermilion ; 
eyelash dark brown ; legs reddish orange ; toes, webs, claws, and a 
streak up the front of the legs black" (Oould). Total lengtJi 
34 inches, wing 20, tail 8, bill 2, tarsus 3-6. 

FemaU. Ijke the male. 




Ajvsranrjt. 81 

Apparently allied to Cereoptit novce hoUandim is the extinct 
Cnemiornii ealdtrans, known only from its bones, which are found 
together with remains of Dinomithidce. 

CNEMI0RNI8. ^ 

Type. 

Cnemiornia, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. v. p. 396 (1865). . . C. calcitrans. 

1. CnemionuB calcitrans. 

Cnemiomis calcitrans, Otren, Trans. Zool. Soc. ▼. pp. 396-402, 
pis. Ixiii.-lxvii. (1805) ; Hector^ Trans. N. Zeal, Ink. vi. pp. 26- 
o4, pis. x.-xiv.a (1874) ; Owen,Trans. Zool. Soc, ix. pp. 25S-272, 
pk. xxxv.-xxxix. (1876) ; id. Extinct B. of New Zeal, pis. ci.-civ. 
(1879) ; Lydekker, Cat, Foss. B. p. 99 (1891). 

^ Sknll short and massive, with beak rounded and stout. Carina 
of Mternnm aborted. Limb-bones short and very stout, the ulna 
being shorter than the humerus and having very prominent tubercles 
for the secondaries ; cnemial crest of tibia greatly developed. No 
foramen between third and fourth trochlese of tarso-metatarsus. 
Spines of dorsal vertebrae tall. Very considerably larger than the 
existing Cereojms novcB hoUandioi^ with the limbs relatively much 
stouter and shorter." {Lydelcker,) 

Hah, New Zealand. 

a. Skeleton (in- Earns Clough Cave, Otago. Capt. Fraser [P.]. 
complete). 

b. Several bones. Oamaru. Dr. H. 0. Forbei [E.] 

Subfamily V. ANSERIN.E. 

Key to the Genera, 

«. Serrations on cutting-edge of upper mandible 

visible from outside for greater portion of 

the tnmium ; the latter £cidedly sinuated 

or concave. 

a'. Bill very stout, ita depth through base 

equal to much more than half the length 

of the culmen ; colour of adults white or 

bluish, with primaries blackish 14. Chbn, p. 82. 

b'. Bill weaker and more depressed, its depth 
through base less than naif the length of 
the culmen ; colour of the adult never 
entirely white. 

a". Bill not longer than the head 15. Ansbr, p. 88. 

b". Bill longer than the head and flattened 

towards the tip 16. Ctgnopsis, p. 107. 

b. Serrations on edge of upper mandible visible 
only near angle of mouth ; the tomium 

very slightly or not at all sinuated 17. Phtlactb, p. 109. 

e. Serrations of upper mandiUe not visible from 
outside; the tomium almost straight ; bill 
moderate, but strong. 

d. Webs of the feet not deeply excised 18. Bkar^ ^ 

d. Weba of the feet deeply exdaed 19. Nmoos 

TOL. XXTIl. 



Chen, Bote, hit, 18-2-J, p. 563 C. hypetboMi 

Chionocheo, Bchnb. Av. S^it. Nat. p. ix (1802) C. hjrperborei 

Exauthemops, Effiot, B. A. Am. ii. pi. xlir. (pt. ix., 

1868) C. roafli. 

Range. Arctic lUgioDB of Korthem Hemisphere. 

Ke\/ to the Sptcia. 

a. Bill veiy rubiiet. the cammiasuie TCidelj 

gajoog' and cr.clnBJng a broad blockijih 
(pace, extending from the comer of the 
mouth Dearly to the tip of the bill ; 
featberinf^ at tie be?e of the upper man- 
dible, aluD^ eni.'h side, having a verf 
convex outline; culnien r96 mchea, or 
more [Chen). 
a'. Plumage chiefly gtcjisb brown ; tbe 
rump (uBuallj,) and wing-coverta bluish 

grey caiiileteent, p. 83. 

6'. Flunisjre of adult entirely -white, except 

primaries and their coverts, nhicb are 

grey ; voung greyish white, the upper 

parts tipped with dusky greyish. 

«". Lengtn abiiut 23-^8 inched, wing 

14'50-50, culmen l'95-2-30, tarsus 

3eO-360 kt/perborm; p. U. 

y. Length about 30-S8inches, wing ir'35- 
17-60, cuInien 2-65-2-rO, tarsus 815- 
8-60 nieaUt, p. 86. 

b. Biltcomparatively weak I thecommisaurenot 

gaping and Dot enclosing a distinct blackish 




14. CHEST. 83 

(1863) ; Schleg, Mus. P.-B., Anseres, p. 108 (1806) ; Bryant, Pr. 
Boat Soc, N. H. xi. p. 70 (Inagua) (1866) ; Lawr, Ann, Lye, 
N, F. viii. p. i>95 (1866); C<me8, Key, p. 282 (1872); id. Check- 
list, n. 479 (1873) ; Mat, 8f Salv, N<ymencL Av, Neotrop, p. 128, 
n. 2 (1883) ; JRidgw, Ann, Lye. N, V. x. p. 388 (Illinois) (1874) ; 
Couesy B. N.'West, p. 553 (1874); Nelson, Nutt Om. Club, 
1876, p. 137 ; Sclat, ^ Salv, P. Z, S, 1876, p. 361 ; Sclat. 
P. Z. S, 1880, p. 601 ; Salv, Cat, B. Strickl. CoU, p. 259, n. 2672 
(1882). 

Anser hyperboreu8, juv., WUs. Am, Om. viii. p. 89, pi. 469. f. 5 
(1814) ; Steph. Gtm, Zool. xii. 2, p. 33 (1824) ; Less. Tr. (TOm. 
p. 628 (part.) (1831) ; G. It. Gr. Gen. B. iii. p. 607, n. 7 (part.) 
(1844) ; Bjchnh. Syti. Ar., Natatores, t. 97. f. 226 (media) (1846) ; 
Baird, B. N. Am. p. 760 (part.) (18^>8) ; Eyt. St/n. Anat. p. 40 
(part.) (1869) ; Gieb. Thes. Om. i. p. 371 (part.) (1872). 

Anas hvperborea, part., Temm. Man. d^Om. p. 526 (1816) ; id. op. 
cit. 2nd ed. ii. p. 816 (part.) (1820). 

Anser hyperboreas, part., JEyt. M(m. Anai.^. 92 (1838). 

Chen hyperborea, part., G. R. Gr. List B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 129, 
specim. b (1844) ; Bp. Cmipt. Bend, xliii. p. 648, n. 10 (1856). 

Chen cflerulescenp, Gimdl. Repert. Fis.-Nat. i.p. 387 (W^) ; Elliot, 
B. N. Am. pi. 43 (1869) ; G. R. Gr. Hand-list, iii. p. 76, n. 10671 
(1871) ; Gundl. J. f. O. 1871, pp. 292, 294, 1875, p. 374 (Cuba) ; 
Ridyic. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. iii. p. 202 (1880) ; id. Norn. N. Am. 
B. n. 590 (1881) ; Coues, CheckMst, 2nd rd. p. Ill, n. 694 (1882) ; 
B., B., Sr R. WaUr-B. N. Am. i. p. 436 (1884) ; Ridgw. Auk, i. 
p. 240 (1884); Coues, Key N. Am. B. p. 685 (1884); Sclat. 
P. Z. S. 1884, p. 476 (Zool. Gard., Alaska) ; Nehrl. J.f. O. 1886, 
p. 146 (Illinois) ; A. O. U. Code of Nomencl. Sf Check-list N. 
Am. B. p. 361 (1886) ; Ridg^c. Man. N. Am. B.^.Uo (1887) ; 
A. O. U. Suppl. to Code of Norn. ^ Check-list, p. 18, n. 169 
(1889) ; Hartert, Kat. VogeUamml. p. 226, n. 3354 (1891). 

Adult. Head and upper half of the neck white, or mostly white ; 
lower neck and body greyish brown, the feathers bordered termi- 
nally with paler ; these pale edgings, however, nearly obsolete on 
the neck, where the tint is darker, inclining to plumbeo as-umber, 
which joins irregularly against the white above it ; rump and wings 
plain pearl-grey or bluish cinereous (the former sometimes white), 
in striking contrast to the deep greyish brown of the scapulars, sides, 
&c., that of the rump fading into white on the upper tail-coverts, 
and that of the greater coverts edged externally with the same ; 
primaries black, fading basally into hoary grey ; secondaries deep 
black, narrowly skirted with white ; tail deep cinereous, the feathers 
distinctly bordered with white: bill reddish, the commissural 
space black ; feet reddish. Total length about 30 inches, wing 
15-17, culmen 2- 10-2-30, tarsus 3-3-30. 

Toung. Nqitj similar to the adult, but the chin only white, the 
colour of the head and neck being uniform plumbeous-umber, or 
brownish plumbeous, like the' breast, only darker in shade ; body 
more cinereous than in the adult, the pale tips to the nearly trun- 
cated contour-feathers being obsolete ; rump, wings, and tail as in 
the adult : bill and feet blackish. 

Hah. Interior of North America east of the Rocky Mountains, 

o2 



84 iiriTiDjt. 

breeding on the eastern ehoree of Hudson's Bay ; migrating south 
in winter, through the Missiseippi Valley to the Gulf Oosst; occa- 
sional on Atlantic coast {Ridgway), in Bahama (Bryant), and Cuba 
(Oandla^). 

a. Ad. St. N. America. 

b. Ad. ek. N. America. H. J. Elwee, £m. 

[P.]. 
e. Jnv. St. Repulse Bay, N. Hudson's Dr. Rae [P.]. 

d. S ad. sk. Corpus Chriati, Texso, Oct. SalTin-Qodmui Coll. 

(F. B. Armitrimg). 

2. Chen hyperborens. 
F Anset grandinis, Schwem-k, An. Sit. p. 213 (Sileua). 
t ADser niveuB, Jiriu. Om. ri. p. 288 (1760) (m SeAwtnck). 
Anser hyperboreus. Pall. Spie. Zoo!, vi. p. 25 (17U7);ii'. Zoogr. 
IUm>-A. ii. p. 227, t. 66 (1811) (pyn. emend.); VieiU. .V. D. 



niii. p. 3U8 (part.) (IStS) \ SUph. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 33 (part.) 

"""" "^m. Diet. Sc. yat. isit. p. 467 (part.) (1825) ; Trmm. 

p. 516 (Japan) {1(M0} , K. ^ B. Wirbelli. Eur. 



pp. Lcixiii, 223 (part.) 1 1840) ; P Aaitm. Vog. Deuttchl. xi. p 213 
(part.), pi. 381 (1842); Schleg. Sen. Crit. p. cis (1844): G. H. 
Gr. Gen. B. iii. p. 607, d. 7 (part.) (1844) ; P o. rf. jtfuAi, BnVr. 
Om. GrieehenL p. 119 (Greece!) (18«) ; JicAnb. Syn. Av.. Nata- 
tcres, t. 97. ff. 224-25 (1845); Harll. Wifgrn. AtiA. 1852, i. 
p. 122 (1852) ; Wallenqr. A'aumannia, 1857, p. 268 ; P Cab. J./. O. 
1867. p. 226 (Cuba) ; Newb. P. S. R. Srp. tI. p. 101 (California) ; 
(1867); Jai.'d, £. JV. ^n». p. 7eO(part.)(1858); id. Cat. N.Am. 
B. n. 663 (part.) (1869) ; Htfrm. P. X. R. Bep. x. p. 69 (1859) ; 
Coop. ^ Suckl. If. H. Wa»h. Terr. p. 240 (1800) ; Bow, Canad. 
Naiur. vii. p, IM {Macktii/i" U.) (^m■2^; Ul y»i. HUl. Hf,-. (-2) 
ii. p, aiQ (1802); Blakifl. Ihir. 1803, p. 130; !i>riah. P. Z. : 




Anu hvperboren, (rm. ti. A', i, 2, p. 601, a. 54 (part?) (.17''8) ; 

!■ LaiA. Jnd. On. ii. p. 837, n. U (part.) (J790) ; tWOi. Am. On>. 

viii. p. 70, pL t». r.6 (1814); Temm. Man. p. /.25 (1815); Temnt. 

.Vn. 2nd M. IJ. p. 810 (1820) ; Bp. Sprfeh. Comp. p. 70, n. 2(3 

(IBJB); Rick. Ap,.. Parrv'' "i^l Tay. p.»05. 
Ckw hTpwhoTM. //oie, iiw, 1822, p. StW, 18*1, p, 081 ; (?. Jt f.V. 

tof &«i. tf. p. 73 (1840) : ftp. Cat. Met. Uet. Eur. p. CO, a. 417 

(lM2)j O.n.Qr.LutB. Brit. Miu.\n.v. 12B, Bp«im.a (1814) ; 

At. Coa^. Henrf. xKjvii. p. 6iH (CiJifornU) (18.53) i trf. CnW. 

JMaltr<,v. 93 (1854) ; i>f. r>>Mi.(. Send, iliii, p. 648, n. 10 Own.) 

(leMf; TurHrr. C'mtr. N. H. a/ Aliuka, p. i:»(188fl); Town,. 

Pr. tr.S. AV. Miu. X. p. 1»6 (Sei-nuni-nlo Vslley. CBlifornia} 

(18871 ; Xeb. N. Jl. Cull, in Alafka, p. 82 (1887) [ f Macfarl. Pr. 

U.S. A*. Mtu. liv. p. 42:) (1801) ; Hatch, B. o/ Mutnei. p. 73 

,i«oa). 

Chen Ijypt-rlioreus Bp. Cimp. lit/, p. 5Ji (1838); Oour, B.Jani. 
u. 40n (1847) ; OnniU. J./. 0. 1867, p. 226, 1801. p. 344, lfl02, 
11.01; AlbrrcAl. J./. 0. 18fi3, p. 206 (Jwnaiwi) : Blat. List B. 
Bw. p. 20 (1862) : Guiidl Itep. Fi:-Nat. i. p. 367 (186ii) ; Drffl. 
4- Ofrbr. Orn. Eur. H. p. 4*3 (18«7) : Tacz. J./. O. 1873. p. 108 
(R. Siberia) ; Cown, B. A'.- Weiif. p. ^48 (pitrt.) ( 1874) ; P Giu'dL 
J./. O. 1874, p. SU (I'ono Uico h : fiandt. J. f. 0. 187fi. p. 371 
(Cab«>; tf.J./ 0.1878, pp. 162, 190 (Portii RicoP); B.,B.,^R. 
Waltr^B. y. Am. I p. 4^ (pwt.) (1864); SamtJ. Tarrrlfi Br. 
B. iT. p. 275 (part) (1884-86) \ Ji^hrl. J. f. 0. 188S. p. 146 
(niinois); MaluAit ^ ^m. J.f. 0. 1886, p. 103; St^n. Bull 
P.S. Xat. Mum. ». n. 29, p. S17((8*il ; id. Pr. U.S. yat. Mnt. x. 
|i.136(KeringI.) (1887); ColUtt, Orn. Jahrh. \. v. 137 (Iforwav) 
(1800). 



Aiii*er hypfrbi>n-u, part., Evt. Man. Anal. p. 02 (1838). 
Chmmtclim hnierboreiis, Seknh. Ao. Syii. Nat. p. ix (IS 

Mtth. rnit. Ao. iltup. Tent. ^. 146 (1873). 
(,'hiu)alr>pcx hvperhi '■-** *^ 



>2); Sund. 



, r -- - • "'■*'■ iVonwror/. Ao. p. 101 (Meiicol 

(18A4|; C. 7.. Biehm.Naunumnia. 1865, n. 207, 1867. p. 367. 

AoMr alWuH, Ou>. I'r. Ac. PhUad. I860. p. 41 (W. and N, America) ; 
Bp. CoHtpt. Smd. xliii. p. 1024 (1860) ; Ca»». U.S. Erpl. Erped., 
Mamm.1^ Ont. p. 33^ (1868); Butt, Canad. A'atur. (2) ii. p. S86 
iMackt^nwf It.) (1802); id. Nat. Bitl. Bub. vH. p. 286 {1802); 
Bbilatl. Ibi>. 1863, p. 130 ; Tumb. B. K Pa. 1809. p. 45 ; A. Nrat. 
P. X. S. 1871, p. fi8 (em) ; Sawtd. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 6I0(lrvUDd) ; 
llartiag. Brit. B. p. 156 (1872) ; Blakitt. ^ Prvfrr, Ihit, 1878, 
p. 21.H (Tnkio Bav): Sdat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 501 ; BidffW. Pr. 
BivJ.fl'^. '(',kA, 1884. p. 107( = bvp«rbon»uB, /W/.). 

Clwn h1Wu«. Eili.'t, .Vne^- Pb/^.'A A', ^m. ii. pL 42 (1807) : O. 
R. Gr. llu,id-tft. iii. p. 75, n. 10572 (1871); Dreu. B. Eur. vi. 
p. 409. pi. 417. f. 2 (pt. x\x., 18731 ; Roiet. Orn. Misc. ii. p. 03 
pi. xKii, (1878); fl. 0. tT. Zwi Br. /f.p. 117 (1883) ; fient. Diet. 
<,/ B. p. .'574 (pi, ii.. 18931. 

Anivr lijtiArbi)raiu>, var. albalua, Coagi, Ka/ A'. Ant. B. p. 282, 
n. 480o (1872) ; id. Chfck-fiAt. n. 480a (1873). 

Aiuer hvperborrun A. olbatiu. C-met, B. N.-Weit. p. MS (1874). 

Chen hjperboreua albalua, Bidgw. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mug. 1880, p. 202, 
B. SO] <i ; id. A'oifl. A*. Ato. B. a. 591 a (1681) ; Couet, Ckeck-iiMl 
ff. Am. S. 2Ttd ed. p. Ill, n. 608 a*?2) ; frf. Kfv A'. Am. B. 
lltd vd. p. (18(1 (18841 ; Murd. Ezped. Ui Pvint Barrow, p. 116 

(AlaiVai (1886) 



Adm hyperboreiu. " PalL," Ridgw. Pr. Biol. Soe. Wash. ii. p. 107 
(1884). 

Adah. Unifonn pure white, the head often etained with nutj ; 
primaries black, becoming grejish basaUf, their covejta and the 
alula ash-grey : bill purplish red, the nail whitish, aad the inter- 
tomiel space black ; iris dark brown ; eyelids whitish ; feet purple- 
or orange-red, the soles dingy yellow. Total length about 23-28 
inches, wing 14 5-17, tail 6-30, culmen 1-95-2-3, tarsus 2'8-3-25. 

Young. Head, neck, and upper parts pale greyish ; the head 
more or less tinged with rusty, this deepest anteriorly ; the feathers 
of the upper parts with whitish edges, and (especially wing-coverts 
and tertials) striped medially with darker ; rump, upper tail-ooTOrts, 
tail, and lower parts plain white : bill blackish ; feet plumbeous ; 
irides brown. 

Sab. North-eastern Asia and Western North America ; breeding 
in Alaska, migrating south in winter to Japan in Asia, and in Ame- 
rica to Southern California and the Mississippi Valley ; accidental 
in Northern Europe. 

«, 6. Ad. et jiiT. Yokofanma, Oct. (H*. Ptyer). Seebofam ColL 

sk. 
e. Ad. sk. Tokio Bay, Yokohama, Japan, Capt Blakiaten [P.]. 

d. Ad. ak. W. side Rocky Mts. J. K. Lord, Esq.rP.J. 

^. ^2 '^- et Corpus Christi, Texas, Oct., Salviu-Godman Collt 
5 juT. sk. Not., Dec. (F. B. Arm^ 

ttrong). 
m. Jnv. ak. Chicajfo, Illinois, Oct. {E. SalTiu-Godmiui Coll. 

W. KtUon). 







87 



»'*«»(. Ohiu Agr. Rep. o. 236 (ISdO); Com. Pr- Ac. Philad. 

18C1, p. 72 J Stinh. Ibti, 1861, n. 12 iGreenland) ; Boardm. Pr. 

BaU. Sac. ix. p. 130 (Miuae) (1H621 ; fJioa, Canad. A'ataral. (2) 

iLp. 151(lSe2); fid. Nid. Hint. Sen. vii. p. 3« {18«2) ; ferr. 

iV. £t!. /n«f. iii. p. 159 (Mftine) (1663); BlakiU. IbU. 1863, 

p. 139 (Brit. N. Ani.) ; Brer. B. Eur. iv. p. 126, jil. — (1803) ; 

AUen,Pr. Ea. in«(.iv. p.87(l8^) : Sehleg. .Uiu. P.-B.. Anserea. 

p. 107 (p«rt., Labrador) (lasfl) j AfciZim-. JV. Ji». Intt. v. p. M 

(CklMdA, West) 1.1866)1 PC'owm. iW. p. S97 (1^06) ; £<iu>r, ..Jnn. 

Iak. y. Y. »iii. p. 295 11867); P Brow». iiw, 1868, p. 426 

[VMcouver I.); Eyl. Syn. Anal. p. 40 (1869) ; Gieb. THvi. Orit. 

i p. 871 (part.) (1872); Santtd. P. Z- S. 1873, p. 630; Sdat. 

P. Z. If. \m, p. 601 (part,) ; Triitr. Cat. OaU. B. p. 51 (Hudaon 

BajHISSlH; Sie6k. B.Jap. Ev%p.p.riS(mn.)[U9t); ? .Vat^arl. 

Pr. UJi. Xal. Miu.xiv.ji. ASS limi). 
? Tadonii nivM, )iart., BreAm, I»U, 1830, p. tlW ; id. Handb. Viig. 

DkuIk-U. o. 8C4 (put.) (Ii^*ll). 
Auger hvpirWeu, parL, Ei/t. Mim. Anaf. p. 01 (IHSS). 
Chen bj-perborous, G. R. Gr. Hand-liU. iii. p. 7o. n. 10570 (mcI. 

•vn.) (^1871); C<mfi.B. .V.-(r«i,p. 549 (pwl.) (IS74) ; B.,B.,^ 

R. H'atfT-B. N. Am. i. p. 439 (pitrl.) (|M84ii Smt. Diet, of B. 

p. 374 (pt. ii., 1893). 
Chtn byperboreUB nirdis, Ridgic. Pr. Biol. Soc. (ToiA. li, p. 107 

(I8&i): B.,B..JtR. IVater-B. A. Am.]i.^.440 (lS8i) : A.O.U. 

Code of Xomenel. ^ C/uck-ikl, f. 123, n. 169o{1886); ? Mae/arl. 

Pr. U.S. Xal. Mui. xW. p, 4i3 (1801) ; HarUrt, Kat. VogettamnU. 

p. 236, D. 335.^ (1891). 
Atuer bjrperhonus nivnlis, Seebk. Hitl. Br. B. iii. p. 400 (188.5). 
Chen bvporborwi nivalis, Bakie. Man. .V. Am. b. p. 115 (1887) ; 

HatA, B. o/Minnti. p. 75 (1892), 

Similar to C. hijiierhorrtu. but larger. Total lenglli about 30-38 
inchM, wing 17'S5-17'50, tail 650. culmeii 2-55-2-70. taraua 315- 
3oO, 

Ur. Bidgway gives as a distinctive cbaract«r for this speti>» tlie 
DBlmea 2'S3-2-70 ugainat l'95-2'30 for C. hyperboreut ; the foui' 
ap«cdiiieD8 mentioned below bave the culmen 2'30 inches long, bo 
that they would come nnder 0. ki/perhoreiis, but as they have the 
bill decidedly larger than anj-of the birds mctitioaed in the previona 
liat, which certainly belong to C. hi/perhorruA, and as at least the first 
two, trom the Arctic Overland Exptditinn and llepulae Bay, from 
th*ir locality ought to belong to C. nivalU, I have kept all the four 
under this species. Bat I must confess that it appears to me that 
Uie distinction of an Eastern form from a VTestcru one is not yet 
Mtubetorily established. 

Hah. Eastern North America; breeding-ground unknown, but 
psobably arctic regions east of Alackeozie River ; United States 
(Mtiaiaaippi Valley to Atlantic coast) only during migrations and iii 
winter. 



«. Ail.iL Arctir Land Exp. 

h. Ad. rt. RrpuUci JtsT, N. Hudan 

t. Ad.ak. Vancouver Is. 

d. Ad.«k. St. Juan de Fues, Vanci 



Bay. 



Capt. Itack [P.]. 
Dr. ilae [P.j. 
Salrin-Q adman CoU, 



4. Chen Toui. 
UOToed Wawey of Utunte, Juurn. io the Sorth Ocean, p. -142 

(1796). 
Ansar roasi, Baird, MS. ; Com. iV. ,4r. PAtfad. 1801, p. 73; Rov, 

Canad. Nat. rii. p. 151 {186i) ; id. Nat. Bid. lite. (-1) ii. p. 266 

(Mackeoaie Rirer) (1862); BMeitt. Ibi$, 1863, p. I3U; Schttg. 

Mia. P.-S., AnsereB, p. 108 (1806) ; Eyt. Syn. Aaat. p. 40 (18(19) ; 

Gieb. Thtt. Om. i, p. 373 (18721; Cokm, Jfey, 1872, p. 2Ba; <"rf. 

CA«cA-^(,n.481 (1873); uf. B.A^.-»'M(,n. 553(1874); -4 W™,fiKtf. 

Nutt. Om. Club. i. p. 52 (1878) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 601. 
Exanthemops rossii, Miot, lU. Am. B. i». pi. 44 (1869) ; G. JR. Gr. 

Hmid-li»l,m. p. 76, a. 10573 (1871); Heinf ^ RchnK.Kem. Mur. 

Jfein. Om. p, 341 (1890). 

, J^lVyu^ Pr. U.S. Nat. Miu. 1880, p. 203 ; id. Norn. N. 



Key lo X. Am. B. p. 686, n. 697 (1884); A. O. U. Code of 
Xomencl. 4- Cheek-liit, p. 126, d. 170 (1886); Hidgic. Mm. N. 
Am. B. p. 115 (1887) j Mai^url. Pr. U.S. Nat- Mui. xiv. p. 423 
(1891). 

Adalt. Colonra ezBCtly us in C. kyperboreus. Entirely snowy 
whit«, the jirimariM black, fading into hoary nah basally ; bastard- 
wing BDd primarj-coverta hoarj- aah : bill with the basal portion of 
upper mandible often wrinkled and warty ; colour of the bill dull 
reddiah, the tip white ; feet dull reddish. Total length 20-26 inches, 
wing 13-75-15-5U, tail 5, culmea l-50-l'70, tareus i-30-3. 

To»ag. 'Wliit«, tinged with greyish, the centree of tho feathers 

of the upper parts deeper greyish ; bill and feet dusky. 

- HtA. Interior of Arctic America in snmmer, migrating south in 
winter to Southern California, and eastward to Uontana. 



. Ad. St. 



Oalifomia. 



Purchased. 




15. .SSKB. 

*■. Kuinp dart {nvrub brown. 

A"*. WhJU^ 111] thi* tbrsheiui mil rune liiii|r 
A Uiw Wtwepii tile H_>BS. 
ft*. Snuller : total l?n^b kboul 27 

inches, culmen \-9 atbtfrons, p. 03. 

e*. Uuver: total leagtb ubout 30 

incliM, ciilmet) 2'8 gambtli, p. DC 

e". White on tbe furehead reaching a 
tine bi<tveeti the eves on tbe top uf 
th« hvad : lotnl Ictigth about 21 

inchiM, culinen 1-27 .... ... frj/lArapim, p. 97. 

k Nail of Ihi- bill Jn-hr or bl*;k ; iio dark 
browiT bknd well-dt-tiiteil i>Q the hind 

!■'. Ad onuige band round the median pnrt 
of tbe beak : feet orau^'e. 
r". Smaller : culmen 3'0 inchea /ahalit, p. 90. 

tt". I.iarsBT : culmen ^-4-S'4 inches .... terriro$tri$, p. 101. 
>f. \ pint band round the median part 

i-f the beak ; feet pink fleeh-coloui . . liraeiyrMjfarhu, p. 1< 
B. Tomia not Terr arched, almost straight ; 
indentations of upper mandible scarci^lv 
ttpoueMlEuiabria); durkbronm b«nd welf- 
delined aloo^ tha bind neck ; head whiUi, 
with two black cresueDtic bands on the ■ic- 
Hpnland DA)>e iiiJinw, p. 106. 

I . Anser feroa. 
nrev iaq Ouow. 

.\nj»r dome«ticu», BHm. Orn. \'\.p. 262 (1780) (ar Getter). 
Anas atuvr (ferae), SHinn. Orn. Bor. p. 13, n. M (1T64). 
.\imB awer, Linn. S. Jf. i. p, 107, n. B (a It fl) (17eB) ;(?«.& JV. 

i. 3, p. SIO. n. (1788); Lath. ImL Om. ii. p. Ml, d. 26 (1790) ; 

B^ SfKrhio Comp. p. 70, a. 216 (1837). 
Oct WMtlietana, Oertni, Stor. degli Pre. v. tav. 55» (1776). 
Ifm, Buf. nut. Sal. Ois. ix. p. 30, pi. 2 (1783). 
Orcy Um-goow, P^n». Arrt. Zool. li. p. 54(J, n. 473(1785); Lath. 

^. iii. 2, p. 45(1. n. 21 (I7S5). 
Aiuer ferii*, *Anejf Mut. Om.p. 67, n, 214 (178fi). 
Anas ansei fenu, BeeJkii. On. Ta»clien6. ii. p. 416, with pi. (1803) ; 

Trmm. Man. d'Om. p. 526 (I»16) ; id. op. at. 2nd ed. ii. p. 618 

(IffflO); Wemrr, Aliit. PalmipMM, pL 29 (IS—?); Lea. Tr. 

JfOm. p. 628(1831). 
AufW doereus, JUewr (nef Bonn.), TaxAenb. ii. p. 652 (ISIO); 

VitiU. JV. D. xxiii, p. 313 (1818); Jjim. Diet. Se. ifat. ixxv. 

p. 458 (1825) ; Jtaux. Orn. IVov. pis. 368. 369 (1826) ; Cuv. Jtiyn. 

An. 2Dd ed, i. p. 608 (1820) ; Siin. Orn. Tote. iii. p. 178 (1831) ; 

Brthm, Vfig. Detatekl p. 8:16 (18-11); Bp. Come. Lid. p. 36, 

D. 39S (Ifi38)f liartl. P. Z. S. Ift39, p, 2 ; ff. ^ B, JT.rWtt. 

J5w. pp. Ixxsiii, 224 (1840); Sp. Cat. Mel. Uee- Eur. p. 70, 

m. 423 (11^2) ; Ifmm. Veg. DeuUcU. xi. ji. 329, Taf. 286 (1843) ; 

SMeg. Set. Crit. p. cii (1844); Behnb. Syn. An., Natatores, 

L 108. a: 956-57 (1845) ; Kjarb. Danm. Fugte, p. 367, Taf. 44 

(1862) ; &An£. Av. &/it. IVat. p. ii (1862) ; Lietit- Nomenel. Av. 

p. 100(1854); n'ailrnffr. A'amnanNtn, 18-SJ, p. 367 (Scandinavia) ; 

Sf/yi, S'aumaimia, 1866. p. 202; Sp. Compt. Rend, uliii. p. 648, 

a 16 (1856) ; SeAlfg. I'og. Nedrrl. pi. 376 (1861) ; Kordm. J f. O. 



1 W4, p. »:» (^i' inlfind ) i SeMeff. Mut. F.-B., Ansereii, p. I W (1800) ; 

FriuA, Vdg. Eur. p. 40t!, Taf. 4. ff. 3, 7 (1870) ; Malmgr. J.f. O. 

1870, pp. 287, 288 {f^nkndl ; G. R. Or. Hand-liH, iiL p. 74, 

n. lOMl (1871)! Oieb. Thes. Om. i. p. 370 (1872) ; Sund. 8ti. 

Fogl. pi. 60. f. 2 (1872) 1 id. Meth. not. Av. ditp. Tent. p. 145 

(1872); AlU.^ Brawn, Ibit, 1873, p. 70 (Archangel); Fm$A, 

Ibis, 1877. p. m (Obdorek) ; Dreu. B. of Eur. vi. p. 356, pi, 41 

(pts. 71, 72,1878); FinA, Verk. z.-b. Get. Wien, 1879, p. 268 

(W. Silwria) ; Hume 4" Marth. Gavu Birds, iii. pi. 7 (1880) ; 

Sciat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 499 ; B. 0. U. Li»t Brit. B. p. 115 (1883) ; 

SrM. Li»t Vert. An. 8tli ed. p. 417, n. 947 (1883); GaeOtr, 

J.f. O. 1883, p. 81 (Ileliiruland); Sadde, Omit Caucat. p. 44o 

(1884): Sound. YarrelCt Br. B. iv. p. 253 (1884-85); Seebh. 

Hist. Bril. B. iii. p. 600 (1885) ; Tristr. Cat. CoU. B. p. 291 

(1889); Mfver, Abbild. roye/-Sb>/. pl.cxvii (1889) ; SharjM<,Cal. 

Oifeol. Spec. Colt. Surg. iii. pp. 291, 29:i (1891) ; Kolamb. Olasnik. 

yaravoJ. Dria. vi. p. 1G8 fl^l). 
Aneer vulgaria, PaU. Zoogr. Romo-A». n. p. 222 (psrt.) (1811). 
F.^n.^ei-madius, '' Temm." Meyer, Tatchenb. Zut. u. Ber. p. S31 

(1822). 
Anser feruB, Stiyh. Gen. Zool. iii. 2, p. 28, pi. 41 (1824) ; Gouid, B. 

Eur. pi. 347 (18.17) ; Ei/t. Man. Anat p. 93 (1&'18) ; G. R. Or. 

IM Gen. B. p. 73 (1840) ; id. Lid B. Brit. Mut. iii. p. 128 

(1844); id. Oen. B. iii. p. 607, n. 1 (1844) ; Hartl. Sust. Venc. 

Get. Mui. p. 117 (1844); Strickl. An«. ^ Mag. N. B. (3) iii. 

pp. 122. 124 (1859); G. R. Or. Cat. Bril. B. p. 186(1863); 

?Boie,J.f.O. 186.S, p. 61; Sclat. P. Z. S 1869, p. 629; ^jrf.SJm. 

Anat. p. 42 (1660) ; Elv>. ^ Suckl. Ibis, 1670, p. 339 (MBcedonk) ; 

A. Newt Pr. Ac. Philad. 1871, p. 96 ; Gould, B. Great BrU. v. 

pi. 1 (pt. iiiv., 1873) ; Rc/mm. Vdg. Zool. Gdrt. p. 67 (1882) ; 

Relinw. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 81 Dub. Faun. Vert. Belg., Ois. ii. 

p, 393 (1891) ; Peart. ^ Bidw. Ibit, 1894, p. 232 (N. Norw«y). 
Adm cinerea, Ranx. El. di Zool. iii. 9, p. 87 (1626). 
Anser pnlustria, Firm. Brit. An. p. 126 (lfi:;8). 
Anaer iiTlveatri». Brehm (nee Briit.), Iiit. 1830. p. 996 (descr. pulla) ; 




15. »ssKa. 91 

I white : l)ill piuk fiesli-culuur, wilL the horny 
]rowQ ; leg*. U>es, imd membraneB tluU deah- 
rolour ; cLiwB black. Total length 32 inchea, wing 17'5, tuil 5'5, 
bill 2-fi5, tarsua 2-8. 

Femalt. Similar to the male, hot smaller. Total leogth 30 inches, 
wing ifl. 

Votiay. Darker thftn the adult and with no black spots on the 
breaxt and abdomen ; they are easily distinguished by the grey 
colour of the shoulders and ninip. and Heiih -colour of the bill and legs. 

Ualt. Western Paltearctic region. 



n. Ad. ak. 


Gr^at Hritaiu. 




A. Ad. at. 


finat Britain. 


Purchased. 








f. Ad. «. 


Itlaekwsl«r It,, Etaex. 


F. Bond, E«. [P.]. 
Seebohm C<Jl. 


y. Kll. sk. 


Ttomm, Norway, June. 


Bud6, Norway. 


SalviQ-Gwiman Coll 



, p. 222 (1811)! 



A- Skeleton. 

I. Skalclon (Douiwlie variety). 

i-y. Skulb (l>ome«tie variety). 

r, Slrmuni with ibQulder^inlle (Doinesdc variety) 

2. Amer rnbrirostru. 

.».\ii*er mltrarii, part.. l^U. Zooyr. Rotto-Ai. i 

iiroHdt, J./, o. \mi. p. -jm. 

AiM« aryUiropua, part,, (i. H. Cir. Luf It. Bril, .tf«». iii. p. 130, 

■ppcim. e./ (India I ( 1S14). 
Anaer rabrirostris, Uudg: lean. Innt, in Mm. Brit. pi. S79; id. 

Oria't Zoot, M<K. p, m. no, 57y (!l<14l : O. Jt. Gr. Cat. Hodgi. 

Coli. B. M. p. 144 (IWn); Tar:. Bull Soc. Zaol.Fr.ii. p, 41 

(18771. 
Anwr ferus, Adamt {»« nuel.), P. X. S. ler.g, p. 189 (Udakh, 

bMediug) : tivM. Iliii. \m\. p. »t4, lm2. p :>r>4 ; ■'(/. P. Z. H. 

18«a,p. 323, 1870, p. 4^. 
Aaaer cinereui, lil^lh {nee Mry*r). Cat. S. Mut. A. S. B. p. 300, 

1. 1776 tlndii^) (^ismy; Sehrenck.Vdv. AmurLT..mnl6aO}; kndde. 

«eM. Sibir. p. 358 (Monsolia) <18US); G. Jt. Gr. Cat. Uod^t. 



CoO. B. .V. and ed. p. "tt, no. 027 (1*83) ; Jeni. B. of Ind. u 
p. 778 (16<U) ; Blytk, /W>, \mi. p. 174 j fiy*. * Parrar. /./ O. 
Isae, p. ass (Dnuria): &wr(i. Turketl. JevUn. p. 70 (1873); 
H%mf, Sir. Feall.. \. p. 258 (Piuijab and «n(lh) (1873) ; id. KtaU 
Sf EgsK p tVi (l«7.')l ; /Cu«. Str. F,alh. iv. p. 26 (ie7«) ; SaMy. 
aid. p, 1R7 (Tiirkesinn) llS7(t) ; lirru. Ibit, 1876, n. 418 : Damd 
Sf OuMt. UU. CAioe, p. 491 (1877) ; Frjeo. in Bowl. Om. Mite. iii. 
p. » lMo!i|(oli») (ISTS); Uume, Sir. FtatA. yii. p. 491 (1879), 
viiL p. \H. n. SMJ^ (I87S) ; Stime j- Mnr»h. Oamt-Btrdt, Hi. 
a. a6{jwr pi. 7) (1880) ; P Zaroudn. Oil. Tran»ea>p. p. 72 (1885) ; 
Smrtt. ZnUckr. f/es. Om. 1887, p. 22 ; PUike. Btii. Turkttt. Om. 
p. 61. n. 369 (1B8W) ; lltiine. Xttli * Eggs \.Oales' ed.), iii. p. 27» 
(l80D)i S^arpt. &r. Fark. Miu.. Arrt, p. I2H (I8»l); Pletke, 
Ha. Bid. liil. p. 208, n. IBS (1S92)( OumI. A'oub. AtcA. Mut. 
(4) ri. ^96{18W). 
Anarr oinxteui, Tar. nibriroitris. SwirJi. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 416 
(Shanghai) ; Dyb. J. f. 0. 1673, p. 108. 1674, p, 336 ; Pww, 



Mongolie, ii. pi). 149, 170, n. -im (1876); Prjeo. in Rncl. Orn. 

Mill', iii. p. 06(1878). 

Anser cinereun $. subdbif rons, Sevrrtx. J.f. 0. 1876, p. 1 84 (Turkestan). 

Anaer dnereus rubrirostris, Seebh. Hi$t. Brit. B. iii. p. 001 (1886). 

Similar to A.fertu, but somowhnt larger, especially the bill and 

feet, and more marked with black on the underparta ; bill of a 

fleah-colouT, with the base of the upper mandiblo bright red (Ait^). 

Total length about 33 inches, wing 18, tail 6--5, culmen 2-7, 

tarsus 3-2. 

Young birds have the uoderparta greyish white, with no black 
markings. 

Hah. Siberia, in winter Northern India and S. China. 



r. a ad. sk. 



t. Ad. sk. 

'.. Ad. sk. 



Sassvk-Alft Kul, Turkestan, 

ftfsy. 
KftAffar, Feb. (Fortytk). 

India! 

India (BliftK). 

R, Jheeliim below Sbahpoor, 

Nov. (A. O. H.). 
R. luduB, Dec. {A. O. H.). 
Delhi. 

Ourfraon, Feb. {W. H. Chill). 
Etawab, Nov., Dec., Feb. 



Dr. Ott.) Fin-wli [C.]. 

India Museum [P.]. 
Purchasod. 
Colonel Cobb [C], 



Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Cull. 



Futtehguhr, Nov. (A. Ander- Seebohm Coll. 



Kumal, Feb. Hume Coll. 

Dollab.Aasani, April(J. Cnct- Hume Coll. 




93 

Adm emhroniie IToAtt. (nw Limt.) Schrift. d. Berl. Gn. naCtaf. 

Fr. Tiii. pp. 75-01 (1T88). 
Aaaor tiUttom, Bonn. Ene. Milk. i. p. 114 (pftrt.) (1790) ; BeOiU. 

Oemem. Naturg. Deutifhl. 2iid ed. iv. p. WSS (1800) ; Sleph. Gen. 

ZooL xii. 2, p. 26 (1824); Dum. Diet. Sc. Nat. isit. p. 461 

(lB35);5p.i^)«wAiV. Cotb/.. p. 70, 11.218 (1827); Leu. Tr.d'Om. 

p. 628 (1831) ; Savi, Om. Tone. lii. p, 179 (1831) ; Minitr. Cat. 

lUi*. p. 66 (1832) ; Gould, B. Eur. pi, 28S (pt xii., 1837) ; Bp. 

Omp. List. p. 6f>. n. 397 (1838); Bartt. /'. Z. 8. 1639, p. 3; 

Saum. Vog. DevUchl. jri. p. 851. Taf, 28» (1842) ; Strkkl. P. Z. S. 

1842, p. 107 (China); SiAiy. Ben. (frit. p. ci (1844); Hart!. 

Att Vtrt. Get. Mat. a. 117 {ISU) ; Kiarb. Danm. Fugle, pi. 45, 

Smtpt. pi. 24 (18521 ; Midd. Beit. O.-Sibu: H p. 227 (Taimvriand) 

{im): Sehla,. r««F. .V«i<Tr/, pl8. 280. 281, 282 (1664) : H-'nlitngr. 

Namminma. 18M. p. 268 (1854): Lidtt. Nummel. At. p. 100 

(1854); Sefyt-L. Aamnnunia, 1855, p. 263; Bp. Qimpt. Bend. 

x\ui. p. m><. n. 18 {ISM) -.Adnmt, P. k.S. I858,p.60»(Puni«b) ; 

Tay}or,H.iM. 1850. p. 54 (ttopl) : A. Nevl. P. Z.S. 1860, p. 340 j 

FWy*, thit. \m\ p. 351 ; Setn\. Uin, 18U1, p, 12 (GrwnlBnd) ; 

""'■''' "■ """ "" ■" ' ■ "leini.J"- ■"■■ 



r. * p. Ondman. Ibii, 16«1, 



) (fiodn); 



i.Ibit, 18»1, 



p. 344 (N. China) : id. P. Z. S. \mS, p. 323 ; lioddt. Brig. S. O.- 
Sihir. ii. p. SG8 (Irtutok) (l8t«); Kordm. J.f. O. 1864, p. 87« 
(Finland); Jerd. B. of Ind. iii. p. 780 (Punjab) (1864) ; Degt. 
♦ Gffhe. Om. £«.: ii. \>. 483 (18(!7) ; EIk. ^ BuekL Ibtt, 1870, 
p. 339 {Mjicedonin); Maimer. J. f. O. 1870, p. 2H2; David, K. 
Arch. Mum. Bull. vii. Cat. a. 441 (1871); A. Neat. Pr. Ac. 
Philad. 1S7I. p. 09; Smith. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 416; SheU. Ibit. 
I>i;i, p. 315 (Eirypt) ; G. R. Or. Uand-li-t, lii, p. 74. n. 10665 
(1871); Gould, B. Great Brit. v. pi. 4 (pt. lii., 1871); Sand. 
Stm^. fbjrf. pi. 57, f. 1 (1672); SAell. B. Egypt, p. 280 (1872); 
Srrerli. Turked. JerolH. p, 70 (1878) ; Dyb. J.f. O. 1873, p. 108; 
Palmfn, AW. /Von. (D. s.) xi. pp. 358, 855 (FiuUnd) < 1876) ; A. 
ArtPt. Man. Nat. Hint. Gteenl. p. 1 13 (1875) ; Dm». lUt, 1876, 
p. 418 (Turkestanl ; Blanf. EatU Pert. ii. p. 303 (1876) ; Tara. 
livil. Soc. Zool. Fr. ii. p. 42 (1877); Davids' Outt. Oit. CAine, 
p. 40a (1877); DrM. B. Eur. vi. p. 875, pi. 414 [pM, 66, 06, 
1878) ; FintrJi, Verk. t-A. Get. Wien, 1879. p. 260 < W, Siberia) ; 
Huw, Str. ft<rtA.»iii.p. 114, n.047(187»>; Hvme ^ MartA. 
Cow B.'/hd. m. p. 73, pL 10 (1880); Sda'. P. Z. S. 1880, 
p. 600: Frekt, Zoohgid, Sept. IS81, p. 306: Ridgw. Nommd. N. 
Am. B. -a. 693 (1881); Cow$,Check-liH. 2t)d ed. p. lll.n. 893 
(1882); Bfknv). VUg. loU. Garl. p. 66 (1882); Salv. Cat. B. 
Strickl. Coll. p. 628, a. 2570 ( 1 882) ; B. O. U. List Br. fl. p. 1 1 6 
( 18i«!) ; SeM. Lift Viri. A n. 8i;li ed. p. 41 8 ( 1883) ; Seebh. Ibii, 
1884, p. SOU (C. Chiim); G>ue>, Key N. Am. B. p. 684. n. 692 
(On*iil«nil) (1884) ; Eadde, Unii, Cauea*. p. 444 (1884) ; Trittr. 
fjMM. 4- F/<^. Paint, p. 114 (1884) ; Saund. Tarreit, hU. Br. B. 
i*.p.2al (1884-86); Sethh. IfHi. Br. B. iii.p. B06,pl.60 (18BB); 
S^vad. EL r/n!./f<>f.p. 262,11. 840(1866): ■Wr/z. Zeitaehr. grs. 
Om. 1887. p. 22 ; Bid^pe. Man. N. Am. B. p. 116 {18871 : P 6^ 
k Sahad. P. ■£. 8. 1887, p. 589 (Coma) ; P iid. Mem. R. Ac. 8c. 
Tor. (S) iiKix. p. 140 (1888) ; LUf. C«l. Fig. Br. Bird*, pt. s. 
pi. — (1880) ; Behme. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 81 ; DtJi. Faun. Vert. 
Bdo., Oi*. ii. p. 406 (1891) ; Kalamh. GlailiH. Kararua. Dria. 
Ti. p. IlW (Ddmntia) 0891). Sharpe, See. Turk. Miu., Ave*. 
p. 128(1891). 

Anw ..rvthtnpu,, Firm, (wr tmn.l fin/. An. p. 121 (1828) ; %(. 



Afon. Aiuit. p. 00 (part.) (1838) ; Bp. Cat. Met. Vie. -Eur. p. 60. 
n. 418 (1842J ; G. R. Gr. Gm. B. iii. p. 607, n. 3 (part.) (1844) : 
Bchnb. Syn. Av., Nstatores, t. 102. S. 238~3U (I84o} ; G. Jt. Gr. 
Cat. Brit. B. p. 187 {1»«3); ScUtg. Mtu. P.-S., Aoserei, p. 110 
(part.) (1866); Eyt. Syn. Amtt. p. 38 (part,) (1869); F^itidt, 
Vog. Eur. p. 404, t. 46. f, (1870) ; Qieb. Tha. Om. i. p. S70 
(part.) (1872); Hume, Sir. FralA. i. p. 269 (Jhelum) (1873); 
SeebA. IbU, 1884, p. 269 (juv.) (Yang-i^e-Kiang). 

Aiuer medius, Brulh {nee Ma/er), Im, 1828, p. 732 ; fUrrp, Itit, 
1820, p. lOM; Tfinm. Mart. tfOrn. 2iid od. i*. p. 5la(I840); 
Licit. Xomencl. Av. p. 100 (18-t4) ; Brehm, Naumatmia, 1866, 
p. 297 (x=interill<>diun, yanm.). 

Auser bruchii, C. L. Brehm, Itii, 1830, p. 006 (de?cr. nulla) ; id. 
Vog. DeutKhl. p. 841 (18311; Bp. Cat. Met. Uc<^.Eur.-p. 69, 
o. 419 (1842); G. B. Gr. Gat. B. iii. p. 607, n. 4 (1844); 
Rekttb. Syn. Ac, Natatorea, t. 103. f . 9i>8 tl84i>j; C. L. Brdm, 
Naumannia, 1865, p. 2tl7 ; Bp. Corr.pt. Bend, xliii. p. 648, n. 10, 
p. 1025 (1S56) ; FriticA, Vog. Eur. p. 405, t, 45, f, 6 (1870). 

Anser intemiedtii?, Naum. VOg. Deuttchl. li, p. 340, t. 288 (1842) ; 



Selgt, Naumannia, 1855, p, 263; Blot, irt Naum. VOg. Deulschi. 

liii. p, 293 (1860) ; Mchnic. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 81 ; Hrin. ^ Schnv. 

A"«B. Mu». Heitt. Om. p. 341 (■Egypt) (18H)), 
f Anser albifrons roBeipea, SchUg. Aaumannia, IS&'i, pp, 264, 256, 

267. 
F Anser pallipeH, Sely», yaumanuia, 1866, p. SM (domestic rare) ; 

DeffL ^ Gerb. Om. Eur. ij. p, 486 (18W); Frits'^, Viig. Eur. 

p, 406 (1870). 
FAnMtalbifrousa. pallipes, Bp. Com»(. ,Bmd. xliii. p. 648(18561. 
P Anser pallidipes, A. Neat. Pr. Ac. Philad. 1871, p. 99 •. 

Adtdt male. Forehead and feathers at the base of the upper 
mandible white ; head, neck, back, rump, and wings brownish ash- 
colour ; tipper tail-coverts white ; breast and belly pale brownish 
white, wiUi patches and broad bars of black ; sides and flanks ash- 




a. Ad. tk. 
A. $ mL >k. 
c; S ad. at. 

d: S aiLBk. 

*. Ad. Bk. [atpj 

/. ,1 .d. i. 
>-.-. d? »d. « 

fc. Intm. tk. 



Dungltie, Co. Dooegal. J«r 
Fetlisrd, Clonmel. .\nril. 
Island of Tire«. 



>. (f ad. Bk. 
•-r. (f 9 sd. ik. 
. 5 ••!- ■>>- 



I «;. Jar ftk. 

J if, /. Sktleton*. 
U/. ^.ikelpIoQ. 



Wales. 

Cauibrid^ Dec. 
Cnmbridge [Balrfr). 
WilMhire. 
Brighton, Feb. 
IIolliuid> Jan. 
AlexBndria, K|rvpl, Feb. 

Alexandria. Egyiit, Feb. 
Fdyoooj, Egypt, Feb., Mar. 

(G. £. S.). 
Liioknow. 
R. Jh^eliim below Shahpoor, 

Nov. (A. 0. II.). 
KiukitiDg, Oct. 

Ywigtxe. Oct. (F. tf. Slyoii). 
Shtm^hai, Mnrch {It. Stcin- 
hue). 



Colonwl Irbj [P.]. 
(■apt. VVaJdroQ (p.\ 
Col. Irby &. Cant. 

Reid [P.]. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
C. H. WatsoD, E>«. 

CA. Feild^n \i:]. 
Hon, ^\'. EJlwanies 

[1'.]. 
Mi>nta^ Coll. 
t^a]\ii]-Godinan Coll. 
Could Coll. 
Montagu Coll. 
Seebohm CoU. 
H.J. Pike. Em. [PI 
H. J. Elwe«, V^|. 

[P.]. 
Shelley ColL 
Shelley Coll. 



P. W. Stvwj, 

[P.l ■ 
Seebobm CoU. 
Seebohm CoU. 



i. Anser gambeli. 



. Sirdt, pi. 153 (HudsonV 
i. p. 197, n. 11 (America 



Amer canadensis fiucu^ maculalu 
Bay) (1760). 

Ana« erylhmpua, pnrt.. Xi'iiii. 
WPI.MI700). 

Atuv albifrona. part., Om. S. K. i. 2, p. 609, n. 6i (Anjarica) (1788) ; 
LatA. Ind. Om. ii. p. S»2. no. 27 (1 < 00) ; Ftntt. JV. ZJ. xsm. p. 344 
<part.) ll«ln); Slepi. Om. Znnl. xii. 2,p.25(]824) ; Bp.Sjiecdtio 
Vamp. p. 70, no. 235 (part.) (1827). 

Xxmt albifwna. Bp. [nee Srop.) ^. p^ 376(1828); Waal. Iiit, 
I831,p. Ji3I (MhxIpo): Str. * Bieh. Fatm. Bar.-Am. ii. p. 466 
(M«d(onii«Biver,norlhofe7°,and Arctjc c:>a«t, breeding) (1831) ; 
Vatt. Mm. ii. p. 846 (lA-M) ; Au-I. Orn. Bvigr. iii. p. 5«8. pi. 286 
(1836) ! Bp. Cxmp. Lift, p. S6, no. 3(!7 (IS.-^) ; And- AV" p. 272 
(1838); id. B. Aih. vi. p. 200, pi. S80 (1848); fliraud, B. Lung 
Id. p. 2»6 (1844); Temm. Se Sfhirg. Fnun. Jf,p., Aret, p. 125 
rl860) ; fto/f, P.S. Erpi. Exped. riii. no. I.W {Oregon and Call- 
fomia) (1848) ; H<irfl. Witgm. Arch. 1852. i. p. 122; Bfury.Pr. 
Pkilad. Ae. 1856, p. 316; Wied, J. f. O. 18fi9, p. 166; llemn. 
P. R- R. Rfp. X. pt. ri. p. 68 (California) (I85») : Hoy. Smitlu. 
Sep. p. 430 (Mi«wuri) |18i>4) ; Trippt, A-. Ett. Ini/. vi. p. 110 
lMiDaeM)ta)(1871): '^icinA. IhU, 187<^, p. 4.% (Hahndadj), 1877, 
p. 146; Blakitl. * iVy^r. Ibu, 1878, p. 212; iid. Tr. A». Soe. 
Jap. Till p IB2 (IRSO., I. p. 115 (1883) ; Blakift. Amend. Lxtt B. 



Jap. p. 8 (1884) ; Setbh. B. Jap. Enm. p. 237(1880} ; Bramdt, 

J/. 0. 1891, p. 266. 
f AoBersegetum, Nutt. (nee Om.), Man. Ji. p. 348 (J834) (N.E. 

America) {fide Brandt, J.f. 0. 1881, p. 266). 
Aiuer gsmbeli, Sartl. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1852, p. 7 ; id. Nau- 

wonnw, 1862, p. 2 ; Bp. Con^. Rend, iliii. p. 648, n. 17 (18S6) ; 

Cab. J.f. 0. 1867, p. 226 (Cuba) ; Out. US. Expl. Exp., Mamm. 

and Om. p. 334 (iSiS) ; Baird, B. N. Am. p. 761 (1868) ; Coop. 

^ Suckl. if. H. Wash. Terr. p. 249 (1860) ; Wheat. Ohio Agr. 

iJe/-. no. 236(1860); BlakUt. Ibis, 186;), p. 140; Allen, Pr. Ets. 

Intt. IT. p. 87 (MassachtLsetts) (1864) ; Oundt. Sepert. Fis.-Nat. 

i. p. 387 (1666) ; Coues, Pr. Esi. Intt. v. p. 298 (New EngUad) 

(1868) : id. Pr. PAilad. Ac. 1866, p. 08 (Anzona) ; Sing, Sportem. 

and Natur. in Ginada, p. 190 (1866) (= albi&ons) ; Dreu. Ibit, 

1866, p. 43 (Texas); Couet, Ihit, 1866, p. 269; id. Pr. Boit. 

Soc. iii. p. 124 (South Carolina) (1866); Broom, Ibit, 1868, 

p. 425 (Vancouver Isl.) ; Datl ^ Bonn. Tr. Chic. Ac. i. p. 294 

(Yukon, breeding) (1869) ; TundmU, B. E. Pa. p. 36 (1869) ; Bann. 

" ■ " ' - B. ffilJM. p. 11 

i (1871); ScM. 
. Neotrop. p. 128, n. 3 (1873); Dall.Avif. 
Aieui. tet. unai. taiiw. p. 6 (1873); id. Aeif. Aleut. Isl. loest 
Unal. p. 6 (1874); Lanrr. Mem. BosL Sob. N. H. ii. p. 313 
(Mazatlan) (1874) ; Gundl. J.f. 0. 1876, p. 376 (Cuba) ; Sclat.^ 
Sale. P. Z. S. 1876, p. ,161 ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 18B0, p 500 ; Satmd. 
Yarreiri Hist. Brit. B. iv. p. 264 (1884-85) ; Secth. B. Japan. 
Emp. p. 237 (1890). 

Anser albifrooB, Tar. gaiubeii.Coues, Key, p. 282 (1872) ; Ridgw. Ann. 
Lt/c. y. r. I. p. 388 (niiDOTs) (1874); (hues, B. K.-West,a.6m 
(18r4j ; JfeU. Chii»e ' OwTPtn,' p. 93 (1883) (Sib. coaat o( Bering 
Sea); B.,B.,^R. Water-B. N. Am. i. p. 448 (1884); Turner, 
Auk. 1885. p. 168. 

Anst-r ervtliro|iiis, i:»l. Mon. Am:l. p. fK) (purt.) (IKi8); Biiird 
{nee Linn.). !il<iu/ii. Hep. u. 321 (IM2): II"or«/A. Silgr.Bep. p. 102 
(lft>3); Xeirh. Pr. Ji. R. Rep. TJ. p. 101 (1857)'; fJrhU!,. " 




lb. AKSKB. f? 

Sc&roiily diSerBDt from A. alhifnrm ; on the average it is laj^r 
uitl haa a biKger bill. •' Iris very dark brown ; biL milky wbito 
(bfcumiiig licsh-colour some time after death), the anterior part 
mod toniitt with n very faint rosy tinge, the posterior part with a 
hardly jiercuptiblc wash of bluish ; a square liguro on culmen, edges 
of uostrils, a Bmim spot beneath them, and the basal two-thirds of 
iha lower half of tlie under mandible cadmium-yellow ; naked ekin 

I on Dieutol angle and corner of mouth of the same colour, but paler ; 

I 3 siHpo niong the forehead pale brownish yellow ; tail cream- 
oolonred 4 naktid eye-ring dark brownish grey ; foot vivid cadmium- 
yellow ; webs somewhat paler and purer yellow ; nails Uorny 
white " [StfjnrgfT). Total leugth 29 inches, culmen 2-3, 

i/oi. Northern Amtirica (except Greenland), migrating south as 
Ear «s ifexico and Cuba, and aloog the E. Asiatic coast to Japan. 

a. $ ad. (li. N. America. Salvin-Godmnn Coll. 

t. Ad. at Arctic America. Capt. BuJc [F.]. 

«. Head. Arctic coiut, E. of Ft. Ander- Safvin-Oodman Coll, 
Bon, July {McFarlane) . 

I d: Ad.»L RejiuLte Bsv. Dr. Raa ■V.]. 

<L <; ad. tk. Bniwiisville, Tcjas, Feb. (F. SiilTin-Oi>dmiui Cull. 
I B. ArHutroofj). 

/. Ad- sk. British aolumbin. 

«. Ad.ak. N.W. Ammca. 

jl M-Simm-iJuT,, Ht. Michael's, Alwka, June, 
M pull. sk. Aug. (£ W. Seltrm). 

. Ad. St. Japan. Purchaa^d. 

a. Ad.sk. yokohama (ff. iVyer). Soebohm ColL 

I r>f- <^ ••l.»tjuT. Ilakodudi, April, Oct. (i^nftu- ijeebohm Coll. 
-m). 



5. Anser erythropns. 

AaM emhtonuB, Linn. S. .V. i. p. 197, n. 1 1 (part, et byn. emend.) 

0766). 
Anier (inmarahicua, Oumifr, in Lrfmii dr Lapjivn. Cvmm. nvti», 

p. aw (1767): Rehnw. J.f.O. 1890, p. 8J ; Han. u. Rdaae. 

Vom. hlv». Bein. Om. p. 341 (1890). 
Anns albifrons, part., Gm. S. A", i. '2, p. W9. n. 64 ( 1788) ; Lath. Ind. 

Om. ii. p. 842, n. 27 (1790) ; Fwifl. N. D. uiii. p. 344 (181fl). 
ABMr albifnmv, part., Bonn. Sue. MilJt.i. p. lU (1790); SUpK. 

Otn. Zool. «i. 3, p. 2S (1824); Dum. Diet. 8e. Nat. xmv. p. 4«1 

(ISiM); Wright (iwc Scop.), Fink Fufil. p. 43 (l»fi9) (r/. lUt, 

ISel.p. 111). 
■Aiu<irerythnipu», i^'f;. Zoogr. B«uo-A%.\\. p. S2;> (1811).* 
AMertemminckii, Bui./ni, 1822, p. 883 (Hamburg); Schleg. Rr<, 

Crit. p. fx (18441; Midd. Beta. O-Sibir. ii. p. 2-28, t. xs. f. 2 

Ipallns) (1861 1 (Tnioivr It., Boganid*) ; Prix. k. Lor. Ann. k. naturh. 

m/mtu. lit p. W* (lri*?|. 
Aukt ciOFmcHUB, C L. Brehm. Lekrb. Nalurg. eur. Vog. ii. p. 772 



(1SS4) ; id. hU, 16W, p. »U0 1 id. Uandb. Nalurg. Vog. DeuUM. 

p. 845 <1831); ia. Naumanai.., 1856, p. 297 ; «/. Vog^. p. 367 

(1855) 
Auserbreiii'ostris, IleckeHwU?)' ; Brfhm, Itii, 1830, p.996(deacr. 

nulla) ; id. Naturgetch. Vog. DeuUcht. p. 844 (1831) ; G. Jt. Gt. 

Gen. B. iii. p. 607, n. 6 (1844) ; Behnb. Sgn. Av., Nfttatoree, 1. 103. 

tf. 398, 399, 361 (1S45) ; C. L. Brekm, yauvumnia, 1865, p 297 

(= roinDtuB, JVouin.) ; id. Fogelf. p. 367 (1856). 
Anser brevirostris, Koek (ubi ?), ^de Frittch, Vog. Eur. p. 406, 

Taf. 46. r. 3 iyauag), f. 7 (»d.) (1870). 
Anser minutuB, Naum. Vog. Deultchl xi. p. 864. Taf. 290 (1842) ; 

NiUs. Skand. Fauna, Fogl. ii. p. 404 (1844) ; AjWA. Dimm. FugU, 

p. 356, Suppl. pi. 24 (1*52) ; Schkg. Vog. Nfdert. pi. 283 (1864) ; 

LicM. Nomead. An. p. 101 (1854) ; Selg», Kaumaanta, 1855, p. 264 ; 

Bp. Compt. RfTiil. iliii. p. 648, n. 19 (1856) ; P Antin. J./. 0. 1858, 

p. 484 (note, Smjrna) ; ScUeg. Vog. Nederl. p. 519, pi. 283 f 1858) ; 

Bias, itt Xaum. Vog. DeutiM. xiii. 2, p. 293 (1860) : P Irby, Ibis, 

1861, p. 247 (Ouith); Nordm. J./. O. 18«4, p. 376 (Finland); 

Sc/Ueg. Mtit. P.-B., Aneeres. p. Ill (1866) ; Bree, B. Eur. iv. 

p. 137, pi. — (1867); Sundtr. Svemka Fogl. pl.67. 1".3(1872); 

/iniwA, hit, 1877, p. 62 ; id. Vfrh. z.-b. Get. Wiea, 1879, p. 200 ; 

Hume, Sir. FealA. v'm. p. 114, no. 948 (1879) ; Seeb/i. B. Japan. 

Emp. p. 238 (1890). 
Marilockea brevirostris, " Heekel," Reknb. Av. Syst. NaL p. ix 

(1862). 
Anser enrthiopus, A'nttf. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 341 ; id. Ibit, 1860, 

p. 406 ; id. Ann. * Mag. N. B. (aer. 2) ii. p. 462 (1860) ; 

Sumh. P. Z. 8. 1863, p. S23 (China) ; Jerd. B. of Ind. iii. p. 781 

(Oudh) (1864); Degl. ^ Gerbe, Om. Eur. ii. p. 486 (18«7) i 



and N. Rusiift) ; Gieb. The*. On. i. p. 370 (1872); Bhk. ^ Prger, 

ll.U. 1H7>-, ^.-112 iTokiu and Yf/o) ; AVM. Ibi^, 1S7!», p. 2^ 
(Toliio) ; Dress. B. of Eiir. vi. p. 'iSi (pts. 7.i, 76, 1879) ; Hume 
& Marth. Oame B. of Iiid. iii. T). 78, pi. 11 [1680| ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 




15. is^KK. 99 

eft* (III tlii> top uf the bewi Total length altuut 21 inchea, wiDg 15, 
UU 4-5. culroen 1-27, tnreus :;-4. 

FrmaU Bmitller than the male, wing about 13-3 Juches. 

yi/ttng hirdt have no white on the toreheBiI and no block marks 
un th« lowM" [Hirta. 

Hall. Lajibinil and ea^tvrardii, aUo Siberia : it migrates south' 
«nrd«, and lta« beoo fnaiid in wint«r from W. Europe to Japau; also 
>n Sortliem India. 



a. I,»iu. A 
k. Jut. a. 
t. 9 ad. sk. 
A. Imin. tk. 
a. Jar. tt. 
f- Ad. ik. 
I #.*,£.«;$ ad. aL 

*. ?ad.ak. 

f L a »^ik. 

■L Ad.-h. 

n. Skr^lob.!]. 



N. of Europe. 

Ob R. IHstrict, Auft. 

Yenisei, June (H.S.). 

l).tuietta [Filiiijiimi). 

Ca»ni«n Si«. 

Omlh. 

Suliiinpur, Ourgiton. March 

( H'. JV. CAiU). 
Shanghiti, Nov. {Jl Sn>in/u.e). 
Tokio, Jan. (Slaki»/oa). 
Yokohttmn (//. J^ytr}. 



I'lircliased, 
llr.Oft.fiuaubrC.l. 
Se«bohm Coll. 
Shelley CiU. 
Purchased. 
Hume ColL 
Hume Coll. 

Seebobia CoU. 
ISeeboboi Coll. 
Seebohm ColL 



(I. Anser fabalia. 
IVan Ooosp. 
Aiucr sTlveHtris, J-'ruch, Vog. DeuUcht. tab, 15J$; Briu. Om. vi. 

p. ^0760): Dtgl. On. Ear. u. y. 29-1 (184B); Depl. Jf Oerbe. 

Om. Eur. ii. p. 481 (I8«r) : I)uh. Faun. Vert. Btlg., Oit. ii, p. 398 

llM»l)- 
Un nkatiu, Grrini, Star, drgh Vce. v. Ut. WI (1776), 
Oie wuvage, D'Auhrnt. PI. Enl. 085. 
Arm anwr, Bo^d. (nee Linn.) TaU. Pi. Enl. p. S7. n. 986 (1783) (er 

H. Eml. (IS5). 
Baan <ioose, LatA. flffli. m. % p. 404, a. -23 (178-^). 
Aduu [abalia, Lath. dm. Sun. Sup/>t. l p. 3»7 (1787). 
Anas BFgcIum, Gm. S. X. t. 2. p. 513, n. 68 (1786) ; LmK. lad. On, 

ii.p. 84S,n. 28 (1700): Temm. Man. ^Om. p. 697 (1816)) id. 

t^. fit. 2nil ed. ii. p. 820 (1820); Ranz. El. d! 2W. iii. pt. », 

p. 80 (I8:>a); Wfntr, Atbu, riUuilpedea, pi. 30 (18— P): Bp. 

l^ecrhio Comp. p. 70, D. 311 (1827 1. 
Aiuet leriis. Bonn, (nfe auct.) Ene. Mefh. I. p. 110, a. 7 (excl. a, b) 

(17l>0) ; Firm. Brit. Anim. p. I2« (WiH). 
AnfmMfFGluin, Bmm. Eur. Mfth. i.p.ll6{l>90)i .V«$«r, Taivkenh. ii. 

p. fi<H(1810); IT*;//, S.l). xsili, p. 342(1818); Stfpk. Ge,,. la. Ii, 

p. 20(1824); Dum.Dut. .Sr.AW. xixv. p. 460(182.5) : iftmr. Om. 

Pnr. pi, 300 ( 18J."i) ; Bni^h. lot, 1828, p, 734, TaC ix. f. 4 ( =ttnen- 

»\»,Jfaum.)i Brehm, Ist*. I8a0,p.99n; Znu. TV. ifOrn. p. «38(I8»1),- 

Savi, Om. Tote. iii. p. 177 (1831 ) ; GomW. B. Eur. pi, 348 (18^7) ; 

^.Mm.A»at.n 91 (18S8); Sp. CWw.iJW, p. &5, n. 399(1838); 

&rf/. P.Z.S. lim.p.2iBp.Cat.Mel.Uec.Eur.B.70,a.4-rHlU2); 

Kum. Vgff. DnaiM. li. p. .%0, Taf. 287 (1843) : Sehlfg. Rrr. Crit. 

p. ds (1S44I ; G, It Gr. Gat. B. iii. p 607. n. 2 1 1844) : Sehnb. 

Sun. .^ti,,An9ercs, lab, 102. H'. 240,^41 11810): llarmnrt. P. '/..a. 

lasl. p. 146 (Madeira) : MiM. Rru. AVW, ii. 2, n, 325 (BofcHnida 

indtaTmir Land) )■«■ p, 227. S.E. Siberia) n^^li Kjrrb. Om. 

/)«(.t.4-^{1S52l: Situm. Naumanma. 1863, pp, &-«,'t. 1. 17. D. 

K. F; SrkUy. V<y. Xedrrl. pig. 276, 277 (1854) : LifM. Nrmmd. 



Ab. p. 100 (1664) { Wallettffr. Xaumannia, 1854, p. 267 (Scan- 
dinavia) : Schleg. Naumannia, 1855, p. 262, o. S; Bp. Compt. Bend. 
iliii. p. 648, n. 13 (1866) ; Gri»p, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 215 ; G. R. Gr. 
Cat. Brit. B. p. 180 (1863) ; fristr. P. Z. S. 1S64, p. 453 (Pale»- 
tine); ? Xordm. J. f. 0. 1864, p. 376 (Finkod) ; Sckteg. Miu. 
P.-fl., Anserea, p. 112 (part.) (1806); Ei/t. Syn. Anat. p. 39 
(1869) ; FHttch, Vog. Ear.o. 406, t. 46. f. 6 (1870) ; GlUdt, Ibu, 
1870, p. 308 (Nova Zembia) ; Btwfs ^ Buckl. Ibu, 1870, p. 338 ; 
Malmgr. J./. O. 1870, pp. 281, 280 (Finland and Lapland); 

A. Newt. iV. Ac. Phiiad. 187], pp. 98, 99 (Lapland) j G. R. Gr. 
Sand-lilt, iii. p. 74, n. 10563 (1871 ) ; Hevgi. J./. O. 1872, p. 121 
(Kova Zembla) j 6ieb. Thea. Oru. i. p. 373 (pBrt.)(1872) ; Sundev. 
Smntka Ihgl. pi. 56. t. 4 (187^) ; Gouid, B. Great Brit. v. pi. 2 
(1873) ; Severtz. Turkat. Jevotn. p. 70 (1873) (Turkeetan, 
migrating through, and winteriiip) ; Breu. Ib%i>, 1876, p. 418 ; 
Dren. B. Eur. vi. p. 363, pi. 412 (187il) ; Hume S[ Marth. Game 

B. of Ind. iii. p. m, pi. 8 (1880) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 500 ; 
Bchnie. Vog. sool. Gart. p. 66 (1882); Salv. Cat. B. Strickl. Colt. 
p. 528, D. 2669 (I882i ; B. O. U. List Brit. B. p. 115 (1883) ; 
Sclat. Lilt Vert. An. Sth ed. p. 418 (1883) ; Radde, Ormi Cavcai. 

Las (1884) ; Triilr. Faun. ^ Flor. Paleit. p. 113 (1884); 
md. Yarreiri Htit. Bi-it. B. iv. p. 205 (1884-86) ; Seebh. Hist. 

Brit. B. iii. p. 493, pi. 68 (1885) ; Fkike, Bev. Turkeit. Omu, 

p. 64 (1888) ; Triitr. Qii. CoU. B. p. 61 (1889) ; Bchnjc J. f. O. 

1890, p. 81 ; Kolamb. Glainik. 2Var<mw(. Dna. vi. p. 168 (1891) ; 

Sharpe, Cat. Ogteol. Spec. CoU. Surg. iii. p. 291 (1891). 
Anaa (errore pro Anser) segetura, Bedut. Naturg. Dtutirhl. 2nd ed. 

iy. p. 883, n. 2(1801). 
Anaer rufescens, C. L. Brehm, Beitr. Vogelk. iii. p. 871 (1822) ; id. 

Jtii, 1830, p. 996; ia. Viig. DeuUvhl. p. 838, n. 3 (1811); id. 

Naumaimia, 1866, p. 297 ( =8egBtiim, Naum.) ; id. Vogdf. p. 366 

n. 3 (1855). 
Anser platjuros, C. L. Brehm, Itii, 1830. p. 996 (descr. nulla) ; id. 

Voq. BeuUch!. p. 837 (1«3]); id. Naumannla. \8^'). p. 2fr, 

id.'VoQ. ■' --^ ' ""-' 




» 



Om.i. p. 374(18721. 

Adtih mtiU. Head and neek greyish brown ; a few whitiah 
baliicn on the buse of the bill ; back and scapulars dark brown, 
•lightly tiugttd with grey, each fealher margined with greyish 
white; rump blnckish brown; upper tuil-eoverta white; breast 
|wlt greyish brown, elianging into white on the abdomen, vent, and 
under tail-covi-rts ; flanks brown, with pale edgings to the feathers ; 
wings brown, more greyish on the bend of the wing, bastard-wing, 
prinary-coreris, and base oF the primaries ; wing-coverto, seeand- 
ttries, and tertinls edged with white; under wing-coverts ash- 
browD : bill with the nail, edges, and baee black, the middle portion 
deep orange ; irides dark brown ; feet orange, claws black. Total 
length 34 inches, wing 19, tail 6-5, bill 2-4, tarsus 2-6. 

FrmaU similar to the male, but somewhat smaller. 

Toung birfit of the year are rather darker in the general colour 
<if their plnmage, the markings are less distinct, and there is a tinge 
«f tawny colour about the neck. 

I/ah. Western Pala'srctic Region, breeding in Northern Uussia 
uid Lapland, migrating to the basin of the Caspian, wintering 
in all Europe and Northern Africa ; has occurred us far south as 
Madeira. 




Gt. Britain 



I'urchalM'd, 



ZoolopCttl Gardens [BartlHt). Purchased. 
I'Minburgb, Jan. Hiuae CqII. 

6a1vin-Gu(Iman Coll. 
EngUnd (?l, X^sdeohall Market. Hiinie tVill. 



-Godninn Coll. 
Feilden and Uarvie- 

Brown Cnll. 
Seebohm CoU. 



Norfolk. J a 

KovB ZuiLibIa, .luty ( Copt. 

MarkhamS. 
Vetehata (H. S.). 

Yf^n-e-sav, Siberia, lat. 60}°, 
May (H. S.). 



Anter fahalit X A. frrut. 
Northrepps. Norwich, April. J. I!. Oumej. Esq. 



Aturr fabalit X A. rdhifruni 
d i'}tiv.»k. Lilford Amries, Ai^. 

7. Aiuer sernroBtris. 



r spgetuin. Mi-id. |n/f Gm.) Sibir. Jtfier. li. 2, p. 227 (vai 
S.F. SiVria) (1S61); ScAr™cA, S^i- Atitur-L. p. 463 (1860) 
»einl>. nit, I860, p, 67. 1861. p. 344, 186^, p, 253; irf. P. Z. I 






1863, p.3Q3iSadde,Meu.8. O.-SMr. ii. p. 356(1863); SwmA. Hit. 
1667, p. 392; Dyb. If Forrtj^, J. /. O. 1668, p. 338 (Dauria) ; 
Swinh. Ibit, ISia, p. 456 (part) ; Prjet,. in Bmtd. Om. Mite li. 
p. 96 (1878) ; Blak. * Fryer, IbU, 1878, p. 212 (part.); «W. Tr. 
Ai. Soc. Jap. Tiii. p. 182 (part.) (1880), x. p. W (part.) (188a); 



\ 1888, p. 460 (Cores) ; Sfebk. B. Jap. Emp. ii. p. 236 

(1890). 
Aiuer MirrirOHtm, GoaJd, M.S. ; SctbA. IbU, 1884, p. 269 (Ceotral 

Chioa). 
Ansersegetuni, var. serrirostriB, Swmh. P. Z. S. I87I,p. 417 (China) ; 

Diib. J. f. O. 1873, p. 108; Tacx. Om. Faua. lo4t. SiVr. p. V7 

(J872) ; id. Bull. Soa. Zool. fV. ii. p. 42, n. 373 (1877). 
AnBersegetuitiBerriroslris, Sttjn. Sta. U.S. Nat. Mut. no. 29, p. 144 

(Date) (1685) ; Sn^h. Hut. Br. B. iii. p. 404 (East, form) (1885) ; 

id. B. Jop. Bmp. ii. p. 236 (part.) (1890). 

h. mid<iendorfii. 

Atiser frrandis, Midd. (nte Gm.) BvU. phfi.-math. Ac. Fflenb. iii. 

no. 19, p. 298 (1844) ; id. Reiie SUnr. ii. 2, p. 225, n. 1S2, TaT. xi. 

f. 1 (head) (Boganida) (1851) ; Schrewk, Seii. Anmr-L. i. p. 462 

(1860); Raddf, Rfii. S.O.-Sibir. ii. p. 354 (1860); *"■ 



p. 338; Gieh. Tha. Om. i. p. 371 (part.) (1872) ; Elwet, P. Z. 8. 
1873, p. 640 ; Taet. J f. O. 1873, p. 108, 1874, p. 336, 1876, 



P.-£., Anserea, p. lU (1866); Dyb. * Farra, J./. O. '. 

— "■ ■ tAm. r ■ — — "■ 

/. /. ti. 1873, p. . 
}. 256 : P FnxK. Mong. et Pay» da Taig. ii. p. 160 (Lac Chanlul 
(1876) ; Tacz. Om. Faun. Voit. Sibir. p. 67 {1877) ; id. Ball. Soc. 
Zool. Fr. ii. p. 42, n. 42 (1877) ; Prjn. m Bowl. Om. Miie. ii. 
p. 96 (Lalie Ilanka) (1878); Jan. Bull. Soc. Zool. JV. vUi. 
p. 343 (1883) ; iSnbh. Ibia, 1884, p. 209 ; Htin. u. Jtchnw. Norn. 
Mtu. Hem. Om. p. 341 (E. Siberia) (1890). 
'Aiiscr. sp., C/>. J:'jtr. Vumpt. Raid. t. xliii. p. 4-'i (uote) (Lake 
BniliuJ) (TH-Ml). 




15. AicsBft. 



loa 



n i« quite possible that two dJatinet forms are tncluilt^ under 
A. »rrrir«ttri» — one larser. with the culmun 3-15 inehes long, and 
wilhtha hetid nnd neck buffiaUbrown (/J. muliUrulorffi), anA the other 
•matter, much more like A.faMit. but liirger and with the bill 
mneh thicker {A. tm-irotlrit). I have not Been a sufRcicnt number 
of ^tccimens to make up my mind on the subject. 

11^. Bosteru Siberia, trum HoKuuidR iiutwnrdB ; in wintarChiiia 
nud Japan. 

«, if ad. »1(. Tunkn, .\inc>or-ljuiiI, Mhv (G. KnMe). Swbnhm CoU. 
4. Ad. M. K. Siberiu. J. F, Bnwdt [P.]. 

c. Ad. sk. Chinkiauif. ("hiim. Feb. F. W. Sivan. l->q. 

[P,]. ■ 
J. t! ad- ak. S'mgpo, IW. {It. SitnnMor). Seebobm Coll. 

*. rf ad. sk. lUkodiuli. Oct. (Blakitton)- Seebohm Coll. 

/. A<L»k. Vokohnina Iff. Pi-y^r). Seubohiu Coll. 

8. Aaaer brachyThynclitis. 

I^Bk-fuotcd Gnoar. 

Anxiir hrachyrbvnehuB, Haill. Mim. Soc. Jl. iTAhbev. \»RR. p. 74 : id. 
Cat. p. 2B. n,'i48 (tSI-P) ; id. I'. Z. S. 1839. p. 134 : Tr-nm. Man. 
tfOrx. 3nded. iv. p. fiSO (1840); Siji. Coanc. Z. S. 1841. p. 14: 
■■ " ■ JIfrf. Pec. £*!»•. n, 70. n. 421 (l'*^3)! Jardvir, Natur. 
rii. p. 70 (184.'i) : Yarr. Hiil. Brit. U. Sod ed. iii. p. IM 
(18*6): ScMeg. lUe. Oil. p. ex (ISMf; G. R. Or. Ur,i. 



Libr.i. 



V. OOT. n. 1 1^44) i BIytA. tW. B. Mnt. A. S. B. v. 301, >i. L7-5tf 
IPuDJab :)( 1841)) ; Midi/end. Sibir. Jtrii. a. 2. p. -l-n (St. r<:aer>4buiv> 
(1^1); Sdtlfg. I'oj,. Nedrrl pb. 378, ITI) (1854) ; i^. y»uman>ua. 
1855, pp. Iifi4. 3.^7 : S<-Iy; Naumannia. 18r<5, p. 263, ii. 4 ; Yarr. 
Bid. Brit. B. .-(rd cd. iii. p. 158 (1856) ; ? irfty, Ibii, 1S«1. p. 347 
lAkmbac.Oudh): G. R. Or. fat. Jfrit. B. p. l'«7(lM:t); Jerd 
B. uf ind. iii. p. 780 (1804) ; A. Anet. P. Z. S. I»fl4, p. 4IW 
(3pit«b«rgua| ; ■'/. Ibit, 1864, p. 133 (Irdnnd), 186^, pp. 31)9, 51.1 
iSpilebewn) : .More. Ihit. 1605. p. 441 ; T)«il. S[ Grrbr. Om. Bur. 
ii. p. 4Kf (1801): rjiUelt, Saer»h. afl. «f Vid. StUk. Fork. p. 175 
(N(.rw«vl (ISOt*); A. Sih-I. Ibis. IBtflt. p. 230! £y(. *>». Anat. 
p. .■« (l»»); .Wa/wyr. / /*. O. I87U, p. iiflOi ^«i.ff/. J./. O. 1871, 
p. 101 (Spinbe^en) ; /I. .Vf k<. iV. ^r. fAliAxJ. 1871, pp. «», MP: 
&. fl. Or. ffand-U.t. tu- p. 74, n. 10564 (1871): G-mld. B. Or. 
Brit. V. pL 31 (pt. lix., 1871); Sumttv. Stnuk. Fogl. pi. H3. f. I 
(1872)1 i>«M, S. £Hr. Ti. p, 3119, pi, 413(pt8. 71, 73, 1878); 
ZTuov, Mr. /VnrA. liii. p. 114, n. 94l-> (1870) ; ffumr » .Maroh. 
Gam* a. iii. p. 71. pi. 9 (1880) -. Sclat. P. Z. & iVSO. p. »)0 ; 
Xlax; llii', I8KI. V- 314 (Jutland) ; Ri:hnv. Fag. aw/. Oai-t. p. IM5 
(1882): jWrf«Mt. Dir UnfUi/f/ung Ai. u. Eur. i. p.l01i(l8»3U 
A O. U. iMt Br. B.p. Illl(li«3)l aolau,J.f. O. 188.1. p, 78, 
ft loll. (UernunT) ; OifUtt. ibid. p. 80 (Heligoland) ; SHat. Liif 
V»H. An. Sill eJ. p. 417 (1883) ; Tiattm. P. Z. S. 1884. p. 176 ; 
Sntmd. Yarf^i- Br. B. iv- p. 270(1884-85); Stfbh. ffiil. Br. 
B. iii.p.498,pl.«0(l8«i): ballot. Suppl. Iii y^rt/f Fufilt,^.! : 
TMclrmi, Str. FftilA. x. p. 168 (Punjab) (IShtI: Tritlr. Cal. 
CoU. B. p. r,- (ItwlH ; Sturh. (BfT. .1* y-irh. 18-11, pp. 300-21 1 
(Swedpnli .S«ft*, tLJ«p. Emp. li p. 2rUl(iinU-l (IHllOj; lieAntK. 
J./. O. If-W), p. «l: -Duh. Faun. ftrt. Brl-i..OU. li p.40l(l*-9h. 
i KtHmt brnTiroftris. Thira. [are Ueckrlt. Forlpfl. Viig. Evf- pi. v- 
p. 28 ( IH-WjIopp •) : K. .\ B. Wirhrllh. F"r. p. liTxiii (nolf I (1«40|, 



Anoer phmnicapuB, BarU. P. Z. S. 1639, p. 3 ; Farr. HiH. Br. B. 
iu. p. 64, with <at. (1843), i. Introd. p. xi (1843) ; BarU. P. Z. i). 
1861, p. 19. 

Anser wgetum, A'oum. (n*? Gm.) Viig. UeuUcfil. li, p^ 287, t 287 * 
(1842) ; fid. Naumatmia, 1863, pp, 5-8, t. i. fi. D,E, F; Stridcl. 
Ann. * Mag. N. H. (3) iii. pp. ll>2, 124, pi. It. ff. 2, 3 (1859) ; 
Malmqr. (Efv. K. Vet.-AJc. Tdrh. 1863, p, 189 (Spitsbergen); 
id. J.f. 0. 1863, p.378 (Sinteber^a) ; SchUg. Mtu. P.-B., Ansenis, 
pp. 112, 113 (part.) (1860); Oiet. Tha. Om. i. p. 373 (part.) 
11872). 

Anser Regetiim a. bracliTrliTiicbua, Bp. Comjit. Rend. lUii. p. 648, 
n. 13 a (1880). 

Anaer ferus, Evans 8( Sturge (nee auct.), Bit, 1850, p. 172 (Spits- 
bergen). 

Aneer ciopreuB, TAoreil (ner Meuer), Biitoi. Mag. Med. Kandid. 
p. 61 (1860) ; Malmgr. (Efc. K. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1803, p. 116 
(Spitsbei^n). 

Anaer eej^etiim v. bracbjrhjncbus, Malmgr. I. c. pp. 396, 413 ; id. 
J.f. 0. 1866, p. 210. 

Anser rufeBcens, Palm, (nrc Brehm), Fittl Fogl ii. p. 339 (1872). 

Very similar to A. fahalit (=ugetum), from which it differ* in 
being Bmalliir and in having the bill shorter, the legs and feet 
and middle portion of the bill piuk, iiist«ad of orange. Wing abont 
16 inches, culmeu 1-7, tarana 2-2. 

ffai. Spitsbergen, where it nests, and probablj' also Pranz Joseph 
Land ; during the migration and in winter in N.W. Europe ; oc- 
caaionalJy it strays to Germany, Sclgiam, and France ; itA alleged 
occurrence in India requires further evidence. 




15. ANSBR. 106 



9. Anser indicus. 

Barred-headed Goose, Lath. Syn, Suppl. i. p. 277 (1787). 

Anas indica, Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 839, n. 20 (1790). 

Anser undulata, Bonn. Enc. Mah. i. p. 114 (1790) (ex Latham). 

Anser melanocephalus, Vieill. N. D. xxiii. p. 3»'i2 (1818) ; Dum. 
Diet. Sc. Nat. xxv. p. 460 (1826). 

Anser indica, St^ph. Gen. Zoof. xii. 2, p. 36 (1824) ; Oould, Cent, 
mm. B. pi. 80 (1831). 

Anser indicus, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 126 ; Eyt. Mon. Anat. p. 90 
(1838) ; Vig. P. Z. 8. 1831, p. 173 ; Jerd. Madr. Joum. xii. p. 217, 
n. 376 (1840); Hodgs. in Gray's Zooi. Misc. p. 86, n. 693 
(1844) ; G. R. Gr. List B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 130 (1844); id. Cat. 
Hodgs. Coll. B.M. p. 144 (1846) ; Licht. Norn. Av.j^. 101 (1854) ; 
Jerd. B. of Ind. iii. p. 782 (1864) ; Schleg. Mus. P.-B.y Anseres, 
p. 114 (1866) ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 175; Beav. Ibis, 1868, p. 401 
(Umballnh); Eyt. Syn. Anat. p. 37 (1860); Gieb. Thes. Om. i. 
p. 371 (1872) ; Hume, Str. Feath. 1878, p. 260 ; Adam, t. c. 
p. 401 ; Ilume, Nests (jr Eggs, p. 636 (1873) ; Butl. Sir. Feath. iv. 
pp. 27, 40 (Sindh), p. 499 (1876) ; Dress. Ibis, 1876, p. 419 
(=ekomiakovi) ; Hume, Sir. Feath. iv. p. 499 (juv.) (1876); 
Przew. Mongolie, ii. pp. 161, 170, n. 256 (1876) ; Prjev. in Hotel. 
Om. Misc. iii. p. 97 (Lake Koko-nor) (1878) ; Anders. West 
Yunn. ii. p. 698 (1878) ; Hume, Str. Feath. vii. p. 491 (Calcutta) 
(1879), Tiii. p. 114, n. 949 (1879) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 500; 
Hume 8f Marsh. Game B. of Ind. iii. p. 81, pi. 12 (1880) ; Bidd. 
Ibis, 1881, i^.m',Itehnw. Vbg. d. Zool. Gdrt. p. 66 (1882); Salv. 
Cat. B. Strickl. Coll. p. 528 (1882) ; Sclat. List Vert. An. 8th 
ed. p. 418 (1883) ; Severtz. Ibis, 1883, p. 76 (Pamir ranpre) ; 
B. O. U. List Br. B. p. 116 (1883) ; Przew. Beis. in Thibet, 
pp. 64, 226 (1884) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 320 (breeding, Zool. 
Gard. Rotterd.) ; Kimherg, Zool. Gart. 1886, p. 324 (Shamin) ; 
Pleske, Bev. Turkest. Omis, p. 54 (1888) ; Tristr. Cat B. p. 61 
(1889); Hum>e, Nests ^ Eggs (Gates' ed.), iii. p. 279 (1890); 
HarUrt, Kat. Vogelsamml. p. 227, no. 3369 (1891); Sharpe, Sec. 
Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 128 (1891); Pleske, Mil. Bid. xiii. p. 298, 
n. 167 (1892) ; Newt. Diet, of B. p. 373 (pt. 2, 1893) ; Oust. Nouv. 
Arch. Mus. (3) vi. p. 97 (1894). 

Bemicla indica, G. R. Gr. Gen. B. iii. p. 608, n. 15 (1844) ; Rchnb. 
Syn. Av.y Natatores, t. 101. ff. 961-52 (1845) ; Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. 
A. S. B. n. 301, n. 1767 (1849) ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 509 
(Indus & Punjab). 

Eulabeia indica, Rchfib. Av. Syst. Nat. p. ix (1852) ; G. R. Gr. Cat. 
Hodgs. Coll. B. M. 2nd ed. p. 76 (1863) ; id. Hand-list, iii. 
p. 76, n. 10669 (1871) ; Tacz. Bull. Soc. Zool. de IV. ii. p. 43 
(Lake Baikal) (1877) ; Hein. u. Rchnw. Nom. Mus. Hein. Om. 
p. 341 (1890). 

Eulabsea indica, Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 648, n. 11 (1850). 

Anaer skomiakovi, Severtz. Turkest. Jevotn. pp. 70, 149, pi. x. ff. 3, 
(ad.) 4 (pull.) (Turkestan) (1873) ; id. J.f. O. 1873, pp. 346, 377, 
886, 1875, pp. 80, 100, 184 ; id. Zeitschr. ges. Om. 1887, p. 137. 
-*-"- "-^-^oa, BaU, Str. Feath. 1874, p. 436. 

'^iro horse-sboe blackish bars on the 

•black ; a longitudinal white band 

i<e verj' pale ashy, the feathers 




106 urnivM. 

edged with whitish and tinged with brown on the mantle and 
scapulars ; sides of the rump and upper tail-coverts whitish ; 
throat white, fore-neck brownish ashy, passing gradually into 
cinereous on the breast, whitish on the abdumen ; vent and under 
tsil-coverts white ; feathers of the flanks brown, rufous towards the 
tips with pale edgings ; quills grey, dusky towards the tips, and 
gradually becoming darker towards the secondaries i tertials brownish 
grey ; tail grey, white-tipped : " bill yellov ; irides brown ; legs 
orange" (Jerdoit). Total length 27 inches, wing 17, tail 6, bill 2, 
tarsus 2-75. 

Vottiuj. Forehead brownish white, a little tinged with maty ; a 
dusky lino through the lores to the eye ; whole crown, occiput, and 
nape sooty or dusky black ; no trace of either the two distinct 
black head-bars or tho conspicuous white neck-streaks ; back of 
neck wood-brown, sides and fronl< of the lower part of the neck pale 
dnsky greyish, mottled with whitish ; most of the feathers of the 
hreaat and abdomen have a pale rusty tinge towards the tips ; the 
conspicuous dark banding of the flanks of the adults is almost 
entirely wanting ; tail somewhat browner than in the adult. 

young in doivn. Palo yellowish, top of the head and upper parts 
pale brown, 

tiab. Central Asia and Northern India ; rarely in Southern 
India {Jerdoti). 



0,4. ?ad.»k. 


Koko-Dor, March (Pjjeval- 

N.India. 
India. 
N.W. India. 

Kumaon (SiraAeyl. 


H. Seebohm, Esq. 

Col. Cobb's Coll. 
Hardwicke Beq. 

Capt. S. Pin«dn [P.], 
India Museum TP.]. 
India Museum [P.]. 


c. Ad. at 

d. Ad. St. 
t,f. Ad. sk. 
g. Ad. flk. 
h. Ad. sk. 




in. CYGNOPSIS. 
Cytmopsis, Brandt, BuH. Ac. PeUrA. IHaii, i. p. W. 

Dear- ft Irtm. Anita. Rms». Nov. p. 5 (1(?3«) . 
Ocnnptris, Iffia. u. Rcknvr. Nam. Mvf. Htin. 

p, &ii i\me» (nom. rmend.). 

R<>nge, KaXeru Asia. 

I. CygiaopaiB cygnoides *. 



C. cygnoideB 



Asm cymirades orieiilnlid, Zcnn. 

ticntMl). 

AuM-r mo9coviticu!i, Bri$t. Orn. iv. p. SiS 11760). 
Auter Kuineeiisiii, Srui. I. c. p. 2bO (1760) ; Eyt. Mini. Aiiat. p. 04 

(18.18) ; id. Syn. Anat. p. 42 (18fi9). 
Adm i!jgtto\Aiaa. BTietnli«, Xtnn. 5: N. i. p. 104 (176^). 
Aau cvgnoidiv ff. oriiMitnliii, £ii>n. I'Mil. 
Anwr Vjpioidw, Pall. Stue, iji, p. 700, n. 32 (I77«) ; Btmn. Une. 

Mtth. i. p. 101. n. 6 (1700) ; Pall. Zoogr. Somo-At. ii. p. -21%, Ub. 

Iiiv. (1811): Vieat.N.D.j^v.f.SSnOV'\i5):Dvmiml, Did. fk: 

Kat. XXXV. p. 466 (1^35) ; Boie, hit, 1S26. p. 081 ; Byt. Mon. Anat. 

pi, 6 (ikelutOB), App. 1, S (1H3H) ; G. R. GV. Gen. B. ui. p. 607, 

n. » ylMi) I Bfyth, ViU. B. Mia. A. H. B. p. SOU, u. 1764 (1840) ; 

Tanm. $[ SrhUg. Faun. Japan., Amt.p. VJo (1860) ; i^orfrfe, Britr. 

A Kmnt. Sum. Seiih. xxziii. p. 216 (18(lJ) ; Sirinh. Un»,\^\, 

p. 314 ; iit. P. ■/,. S. Id63, p. 32^ (Fl. Chioa) j StkUe. Mut. P.-S., 

Ans-rw. p. 100 ( ie60( ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1669, p. 620 (brwdin(t) ; 

Cab. n. 4. Dtck. Rrit. iii. p. 61 (1860) ; BMh, tbin, 1870. p. 176 ; 

Ratid. AouB. Arch. 3iu»., SuU. tH, Vat. n. 430 (1871) : Swinh. 

P.X. S. lS7l,p.416: GieL. Thtr. Ors. i. p. 370 (1873); ftwrfct. 

JWkat. Jrrotn. p. 70 (1873); Elwr>, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 649; 



Onat aunw. /Van. Ant. ZoU. ii. p. MO (I76fi); LaiK Am. iii. 2. p- 446, 
n. II {1785). 

Anu nwwii*. Cm. 5. i^. \. 2. p. .504, n. 53 (1768) . i;«/i. Jnd. On. ii. 
p. 837.D. lfi(1790>. 

AnMrgraodit. Boon. Ak. .W«A. i. p. 110 (17flO): PaJl.Zoogr. H«m-A*. 
ii. B.2::l (1811: Una. CikmohaU*. Ansdrr RiTer) (tf (Vmrfin, fin.) 1 
ViiUt. S. II uni. p. 34f> (1818); Sfrph. fir*. Zoot. iii. 2. p. 3& 
(18£4>; B*m. Difl.hr. jVut. »rr. p. 473 (ltl25); Sp. C-mpl. Rtnd. 
jliii. p. 648, n. 14 (1SW) ; G. H. Gr. Hand-tiif. iii. p. 74, n. 113562 
(IBTli; Gw4. 71**. Om. i. p. 31 (pnrt.Kl«72): Sftrlt. Ibh, 1876 
p. 417 (=:cygiioidM), 

Btrnlck ? ^nndi*. G. H. Gr. Gem. B. Hi. p.lUIR. n. Ifi(lB4-l) 



"O* ■ 



tiij , bodr diielj, iindorpurli 



FerA. ft. j.-6. Ge». Wien, 1879, p. 2.58 (\V. Siberia) ; Sclat. P. 2. 
1880, p. 601, a. 14; id. LUt Vert. An. 8lh ed. p. 418^ n. ! 



Cnt. OOeot. Specim. CoU. Surg, i 

1891, p. 267. 
CKe de Uuinte, D'AtAent. Fi. Ent. 347 j Buff. Hut. Nat. Oit. iz. 

p. 72, pi. 3 (1783). 
Cbineae Goose, Lath. &p>. Hi. 2, p. 447, n. 12 (1786). 
Anaa orientalia, Gm. S. N. i. 2, p. 603, n. 2^ (1788). 
CfgDua sinenua, Steph. Gen. Zooi. lii. 2, p. 22, pi. 40 (1824). 
C^ftDopsia cv^Qoides, Brandt, BuU. Ac. Pittr^. 1836, i. p. 37 ; id. 

Descr. ^ Ic. An. Eua. Nov., Aves, fasc. i. p. 5 (1836J ; G. S. Gr. 

List Gen. B. p. 73 (1840) ; Bp. (M. Met. Ucc. £ur. p. 69, n. 415 

(1842); SlriAl. P. Z. S. 1843, p. 166 (Chinese); Marll. %s(. 

Verx. Gee. Mtu- p. 117 (1844) ; Jichr^. St/n. Av., Anaerea, t. 106. 

ff. 249-SO (184fi) ; Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 101 (_1864) ; Bp. Compt. 

Send, xliii.p.648, n. 9 (1860); G. S. Gr. Sanrf-iu(, iii. p. 75, 

n. 10674 (lS71)i Sund. Mel. nat. Av. ditp. Tent. p. 14-') (1872) ; 

Ihib. J.f. 0. 1873, p. 108 (E. Siberia), 1874, p. 336 ; Taat. BtdL 

Soc. Zool. JV. ii. p. 43 (1877) ; Stfjn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mia. x. p. 136 

(Bering I.) (1887) ; Tacs. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 460 (Coren). 
Anaer cygnoides fenis, Temtn, S( Schieg. Faun. Japan., Aves, tab. 81 

(1850). 
CvgnopBiB ferus, Ecknb. Syn. Av. n. v/. Novit. Natatoraa, t. cccliii. 

f 2773 (ex Faun. Jap.) (1860). 
Cjgnopsia guineeoBis, Hchnb. Av. Si/st. Nat. p. x (1862). 
Cvgnopsia cvgnoidee a. australia, Bp. Onmpt. Rend, xliii. p. 648 

■(1856). 
Anaer (Cygnopeis) cvgnoides, Schrenck, Viig. d. Am.-L. pp. 457-461 , 

Taf XT. (1800) i Aadde, Rei»e S. O.-Sibir. ii. p. 350 (1863). 
Anser sineii^ic, Stlat. P. 7.. S. 1863, p. 2:J4 ; Ibiinu-. Ilk,, d. Zool. 




17. rni[,*c 



109 



nddish brown. Total lengtb about 36 inohea, wiug 17-5, tail 7, 
bill »'3, tarsDS 29. 

FfinaU. Similar to the male. 

la tho domesticated state this Qiwse has tbe bill red, much shorter, 
kod with a largo frontal knob. 

Sah, fireeds in Eastern Siberia and winters in China ; apparently 
rwident in Japan : baa been recorded from the Eurile Islands. 



Ajnoorlaad, April (Bruldr). 
Shanahfti. March, Not. {Jl. 

SiciiiAiif) . 
Shanghai, Nov. (£. SaiinAoe}. 

Yokuhams, Japan {Oicttoa). 
Liph"oli, Haiit« (dom. vox.}. 



H. J. Elwefi, Era. 

[P-I 
Capt, Blatdston [P.]. 
Ziwl. Garden. 



T. Butler, Esq. [P.]. 
Eytoo CoU. 



Hybrid (J. cjgnoiilea idoinesliea) X Bernioln eaundensia. 

iak. Domestic H. J. Elwes, Esq. 

[P.], 



17. FHHiACIE. 
Pliilacte, Baanulrr, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phiiad. 1870, 
p. 131 

Sanyf. .Vorlh-east Asia and Norlb-west .America. 



1. Philact« cani^ca. 

I* cunii^icu, Sevtutianoff, Nona Acta Ac. St. PeUrib. liii. p. AJ6, 
L % (1800). 

ler pktus, Piill. [nee Bomtaterrt) Zoogr. Sou.-Aa. ii. p. 233 
'1T1 .■Tn-n.t.l, uA.tV (Itlll); fkhUo. HotuII. Dierk. i. p. 438 
Is.-; I; SanUmk. Vou. of the K(ya. ii. p. 42 (Chuck PeaiuBula) 
1--I 1 . I-almht, ai. Intern. Fuh. Exh. Land., Stcedcii, Spre. Cat. 

■r oiuafflcus, Brandt, BuU. Ac. Sf. Pft^tb. i. p. 37 (1830) [ id. 
ttr. et Ifoa. Anim. Rm». L p. 7. Ub. 1 ( ISaO) ; SchUp. Diercnl. 
t7Bwitbfia. (1864); id. Mia. P.-^., Anserex, p. 116 (18U«); 
- ", .^6*. Brfvt. Fw. iii. p, 86 (IseO); Oith. Thet. Om.i. 
78); A!rto(. P. Z. S. im), p. 601 ; Braadl, J.f. 0. 1891, 



; Muntlux. Bull. Sof. Acclim. 1SR6, p. ]6«. 
i.ra. Bii. Comiil. Bend. xUii. p. 648, n. SO (1850) ; 
. N.'Am. p. 788 fl8fi8); id. Cat. N. Am. S. n. 673 



(1659) ; Miot, lOuMtr. Am. B. pi. 46 (1606} ; Egt. Syn. Anal. 

p. 35(1869); DaU 1^ Banmit. Tr. Chic. Ac. i. p. 296 (1869); 

G. S. Gr. ffand-litt, iii. u. 77, n. 18692 (1871) ; Omes, Chedc-lUt, 

2nded. p. 112, n. 698 (1682) ; DaU, NuUii Amf. Aleut. Ul. Un/O. 

Eastw. p. 5 (1873); Adamt, Ibit, 1878, p. 429 (Michftlasld) ; 

Hein. Ik Rchnw. Norn. Mia. Iltat. Om. o. 343 (1890). 
PhilactecAuaRica, Bannitt. Pr. Aead.FAilad. 1870, p. 131 ; Couet, Key, 

p. 283, f. 183(1872); id. Clitck-liU, n. ^•2{1873): id. B.N.-Weit, 

p. 668 (1874) ; Datl, NoUt Avif. Aiail. Id. Wetf. Unal. p. 6 (1674) ; 

Couft,El!ioiesAff.Alai-ka,p.lS»{mr>); Bidgic. A'"m. N.Am. 

B. u. 698 (1882) ; Eltha, Man. Seal III. p. 130 (1882); Nelton, 

CniM • ConeiTi; 1881, p. M'> (1883) ; B., B., ^ R. WaUr-BirOs N. 

Am. ii. p. 477 with fip'. (1884) ; Couet, Key S. Am. R. 2nd ed. 

p. 680, with fig. p. 088(1884); Murdoch, Exp. to Poiut Barrow, 
, 117 (1885); THmer, Auk, 1885, p. 158; A. 0. U. Code 'if 
Tommd. 1^ Check-Iitt, ?■ 128, n. 170 (1886); RidffW. .Ww. JV^. 



p. 117 (1885); Turner, Auk. 1885, p. 158; A. 0. U. Code 
Nomend. 1^ Check-Iitt, v. 128, n. 170 (1886); RidffW. .Ww 

, p. 118 (1887) ; Turaer, Ctmtr. Nat. Hitt. Atadca, p. 

; Sl^n. Fr. U.S. Nat. Mia. x. p. 136 (Behring I.) (1887) 



Tumneend, ibid. p. 10« (Humboldt Bay, California) (1887); 

Ne/mn, Nat. Hist. Coll. in Akaka, p. 89, pi. W. (1887) ; Fannin, 

Auk, \m% p. 76 (Vancouver I.). 
Chen canagica, A'etrf. Enc. Brit. 9th ed. i. p. 778 (1871>) ; id. Diet. 

0/ .B. p. 374 (pi. 2, 1H1I3). 
Adtdt. Head and napo white, the former frequeatlj staiued, 
espeoiallj- anteriorly, with rusty ororaugc rufous ; throat aud neok, 
frontally aud laterally, brownish black or duaky greyish brown ; 
tail alaty black, and while on l«rminal half; prevailing coloor of 
reet of plumage bluish ash, each feather variegated by a narrow 
tarmiual bar of whit« and a broader subtermiaal crescoDt--shaped 
one of black, these markings nearly obsolete on abdomen and 
oriaanm ; greater coverts and secondaries slate-black, conspicnoaelj 
margined with white ; anterior lesser covert*, iirimaries and 
■ manJiblo durk I 




18. BRANTA. Ill 

c-f. <5 ? ad. et (5 Yukon Delta^ Alaska^ May, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

imm. ak. June {E, W. Nelson). 

Pfkfi, 2 ad. etc^ St. Michael's, Alaska, June, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

juv. ak. Sept. (K W. N,). 

k, Imm. ak. Ugasnik, Alaska (C L, Salvin-Godman CoU. 

McKay). 



18. BEANTA. 

Type. 

Branta, Scop. Ann. I. Hist ^at. p. 67 (1/60) B. bernicla. 

Bemicla, Boicy Isis, 1822, pp. 563, 883; Steph. Gen. 

Zool. xii. 2, p. 4o (1824) {ex Brisson, Orn. vi. p. 3(X), 

1760). B. bemicla. 

Leucopareia, Bchnh. Av. Si/ttt. Nat. p. ix (1852) B. leucopsis. 

Rufibrenta, Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 648 (subgen.) 

(ia'>6) B. ruficollis. 

Leucoblepharon, Bairdj Birds ofN. Am. p. 763 (subgen.) 

(1858) (nee Leucoblepliara, Lafr. 1840) B. canadensis. 

Brenthus, iSundev. Meth. nat. Av. disp. Tent. p. 145 

(1873) (nom. emend, ex Aristot.) (nee Schonh. 1826). 
Ptocas, Heine, Nam. Mus. Hein, Orn. p. 342 (1890) 

(= Rufibrenta). 

Range. Palaearctic and Ncarctic regions. 

Key to the Species, 

No chestnut colour on the breast. 
a'. Upper tail-coverts normal, confined to the 
Iwie of tlie tail ; head partly white, 
a". Head black, with a somewhat triangular 
white patch on each cheek, usually 
confluent on throat ; chest brownish like 
brea^t and belly. 
a". Wing more than 14'50 inches. 

a*. Lower parts fading gradually into 1 canflrfpy/5w, p. 1 1 2. 

white on anal region | AMfcAi?wi(?),p. 114. 

A*. Lower parts greyish brown, abruptly [p. 115. 

defined against white of anal region. . occidentalis (r), 
A"'. Wing not more than 14*50 inches, usually 

less minima, p. 116. 

b". Head mostly white ; the lores, occiput, 

neck, and chest black leucopsis, p. 117. 

A*. Upper tail-covert8 very long, reachinjr the tip 
of the tail-feathers; head entirelv black, 
c". Sides of the neck with two patches of white 
streaks on each side, usually not meeting 
in front; lower parts greyish, in con- 
spicuous and abrupt contrast with black 
of che.«»t ; or dark brown, but sufiiciently 
defined from the black of the chest. . . . bemicla, p. 110. 
d'. The white patches on the sides of the neck 
constantly meeting in front, so as to form 



a broad white collar, interrupted only 
behiDd ; breoat aod abdomen dork sootj 

brown H^p'icatu, p. 128. 

b. Chest and a patch on the posterior part of the 

sides of the head chestnut ruficoUi*, p. 124. 

1 . Branta canadenaiB.* 

Canada Gooae, Bdw. Birdt, pi. 161 ; LalA. ^n. iii. S, p. 400, n. 14 

(1785). 
Aoser ferus canadenns, Sdw. op, eit. iii. p. 246 (1750). 
Anser canadensis BvlveBtris, Brits, Orn. vi. p. 272, pi. xxvi. (1760). 
Anas canadensis, Linn. S. N. i. p. 198, d. 14 (1768) ; Font. PkU. 

Tratu. btii. p. 414 (1772) ; Gm. S. N. i. p. 514, n. 14 (1788) ; 

Lath. l«d. Om. ii. p. 838, n. 17 (1790); Witt. Am. Orn. viii. 

p. 62, pLG7. f. 4(1814). 
tte sauvage du Canada, DAiAgjd. PI. Enl. 346. 
Oie icravate, Buff. Hitt. Nat. OU. ii. p. 82 (1783), 
Anser canadensis, Bonn. Enc. Mith. i. p. 114, pi. 32. f. 2 (1790) ; 

VkUL N. D. xxiii, p. 335 (1818); Bum. Diet. Sc. Nat. ixiv. 

p. 468 (1828) ; Flem. Br. An p. 128 (1828) : Bp. %n. p. 377 

( 1828 ) ; «W, * Rich. F. B.-Am. li. p. 468 (1831) ; Lfm. Tr d'Om. 
•6 (1831) ; Beim. Gard. ^ Menag. Zool. Sue. del., Bird*, 



p. 201 (1831); A'w(.jtf<i«.u.p.349{1834); Aud. Orn. Bi 
p. 1(1836), T. p. 607, pi. 201 (1839); Bp. O^p.List, p.6o { 
Eyt. Man. Anal. p. »5 (1838) ; Aud. J^^n. p. 270 (1S39) ; K. ^ 



1 (1836), T. p. 607, pi. 201 (1839) ; Bp. Gmip.Liit, p. 65 (1838); 
_j(. Mtm. Anat. p. »5 (1838) ; Avd. J^. p. 270 (1S39) ; K. ^ B. 
mrbeltJi. Bur. pp. luxii, 223 (1840) ; Aud. B. Am. vi. p. 178, 
• "• LfF " " *■ ' 



pL 370(1843) : hcfi'ay, A^. Y. ifco/. ii. p. 348(1844); Gir.B.Txmg 
IiLp. 289(1844); Gmse, B. Jam. p. 408 (1847) ; Baird, StamburyU 
SUp. p. 321 (1852) : Wied, J.f. O. 18-JO, p. 184 ; Schleg. Mu». 
P.-B.,AneereB,p.l06(1866); ^(. ^, .4naf. p, 44 (1869) ; Gieb. 
The*. Orn. i. p. 369 (1872). 
Cygnua canadensis, St^h. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 19 (1824) ; Jen. l^aa. 
p. 227 ( iKii'i) ; Ei)t. Cm. Br. Bird; p. ti.j (18.'5ti|. 




IS. BuuriA. 



113 



Ae. Philad. 1861, p. 238 ; Smb. Cunad. h'at. \m-2, p. 162 ; Himd 
Sff,. p. 175 (1862) ; I err. Pr. JBsa. Intl. iii. p. 153 (1862) ; Boardm. 
Pr. Bout. Soe. iv. p. 139 (1862) ; BlakM. IbU, 1862, p. 9, 1863. 
p. Ul ; ReiaA. Fid. Med. t. 1864 (1805) p. 240 (Diaco) ; JtfarcA, 
TV. .4c. PAilad. 1864, p. 70 (Jamaica) ; J3oj/. WntfAi. Bep. 1864, 
p. 438 (MiMonri): I)rai. Ibi», 1806, p. 43; Omei, Pr. A^ 
nUad. 186B, p. flS; iowr. Arm. Lye. N. T. viii. p. 296 (1866) ; 
Omra, Pr. E-. Iiut. vi. p. 208 (1868) : Hiiiekt, P. Z. S, 1808. 
p. 21 1 ; Broien, Ibit, 1868, p. 425 (A'ancouver I»l.) ; Dull 4> Batm. 
Tr. Otic. Ac. i. p. 296 (Alaaku) (1869); Steti. U.S. Ofol. Suit. 
Terr. 1870, p. 4fi6 (Wyoming); Coma, Pr. Ae. Philad. 1871, 
p. 33 (N. Oarolinn) ; Garrod, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 467 (two CMOtids), 
p. 639 (muscles): *tDW, A A'a»*M,p. 11 (1873); Sctoi, .J- Sato. 
Xmi^cL Ac. Xeotrop. p. 128, n. 1 (1873) ; iVd. P. Z. S. 1876, 
p. .■)62 (pMt ?} i Sclmadt, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 317 ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 
18S0, p. 602; Ridgw. Nom. N. Arn. S. 11.694 (1881); Giuei, 
CAirk^ttl, 2nd ed. p. 113, n. 703 (1882) i Sdar. Liit Vrrt. An. 
8th ed. p. 410 (J883); B. O. U. Liif Br. B. p. 118 (1683); 
Bta^, Auk, i. pp. 300-313 (SewfoundUnd) (1884) ; B., B., ^ R. 
Water-B. N. Am. i pp. 455, 456, 467, 460 (1884) ; Couet, Kiy 
y. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. B88, n. 702 (18»4) ; Smmd. htrrflii Hitl. 
Br. B. iv. p. 205 (1884-86) ; Monti. Buli. Soc. Aecl 1886, p. 140, 
% p. 141 ; Next. Diet. t^B.p. 376 (pi. 2, 1893). 

pniiopaie cansdensis, Brmdt, Iktcr. rt Ic. An. Bott. Nob., Ave», \. 
1.5 (1836) ; Bp. Cat «rf. Vec. Rir. p. 69. u, 416 (1842) ; G. R. 
**r. LiU B. Brit. Mu*. iii. p. 130 (1844). 

t pMvipM. Com. Pr.Ae. Philad. 1852, p. 187 (Vera Crui); 
( V.S. Erpl. Erped., Mamm. j- Om. p. 83« (1868). 

niela (LeucoblepLamii) canadeusia, Baird, B. Ji. Am. p. xlix 

(1858). 

f Upmicla leueoleeraa. Murr. Edinb. New PhU. Joum. ix. p, 228 
(»»r.)(1850). 

t Boniela bamstoni. Sou, Caitad. Nat. vii. p. 152 (var.) (April 1862) i 
U. Nat. Ui*t. Rer. (2) ii. p. 28 (1862) ; Bloki»t. ««, 1863, 
§143 ; B., B., ^ R. Waler-B. N. Am. i. p. 460 (1884). 
Jb cuadensiA, Bcmn. Pr. Ae. Philad. 1870, p. 131 : Couet, K^, 
FS83, e 186a (1872); id. Chfck^tia, a. 485 (1873); id. B. 
W.- Wnt, p. 564 (1874) ; AUm. Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, i. p, H> 
flSTfl); ff. n'-. EUioU, Mon. &al Id. p. 130 (1881); A. O. U. 
Cade of Nomenel. ^ Ch^k-Utl, p. 126, n. 172 (1880) ; Rid^. 
Mm. N.Afn.B. p. 117, D-172 (1887); Macfarl. Pr. U.S. Nat. 
Mtu. at. p 424 (Mdckeime Basin) (1801); SaHert, Eat. 
foffrUamnl. ■0.2-27, a.Smi (1801); Hatch, B. of Mmna. p. 77 
(1893) ; MacKay. Aidi, 1894, p. 226, 1806, p. 77 l^UaJwacbiu^tU). 

LaDGoblepkaron c&iiadunee, O. S. Gr. Sartd4igt, iii. p. 76, n. 10578 
(1871) J Sund. MetK. nat. Av. di^. Tent. p. 145 (1872) ; H^>. .J- 
Scinw. Norn. Mut. Han. Om. p. 342 (1890). 

Anasi (Breniliua) cooadenmB, B^nw. Om. Osntralbl. 1682, p. 37 ; 
»i n^. tool. QUrt.-p. m (1882). 

Adtdt. Uend and ncnrl}' oil ttie neck black ; chin and throat 

, cxtAndiog upwards on tho cheeks and endiag in a point 

bind the oar-coveitB : back, wing-coverts, aecondories, and terliab 

I, tlie feathers, except those of the back, with lighter-ootoured 

ytWrnp bl&ck; upper tail-corerts white; lower part of the 

t white, bat rarely dtatinct; breaat and belly pale 



^24 iSAmSi 

brawn, graAntHj fading into the vHte of the vent and under tail- 
«OTertB ; primariea and tail-feathers black : bill black ; irides daric 
brown ; l^p, toM, and membranes dark lead-oolonr, almoat black. 
Total length 41-42 inches, wing 15-60-21, oolmen 1-55-2-70, 
taiBia 2-45-3-70. (Sidffway.) 

Female. Similar to the male, but smaller. 

TouHff are mnch smaller, and have the white feathers of the 
cheeks edged with black, 

Bab. Temperate North America, breeding In the Northern 
United States and BritJeh territory, migmtiDg in winter southwards 
toUexico. 

2. Broata hutchinai. 

Aneer csnadensii, FbU. Inee Zmn.) Zoogr. SatK-Ai. ii. p. 330 
(AleDtiBH laUnds] (l^^l)- 

AnM beraicla, var. ^j RieA. App. Parry't 2nd Voy. p. 368 ^182S). 

Anser hutchinsii, Bteh. in Sid. S( iUcA. jFimn. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 470 
(1831) 1 Xua. Man. ii. p. 363 (1834) ; Aud. Om. Biogr. iil. p. 236, 
pi. 277 (1836) i Bp.Omp. Lot, p. &G (18S8) ; £W. Man. Anat. p. 9S 
(1836) ; Aud. Syn. p. 271 (1638) ; id. B. Am. vi. p. 198, pi. 377 
(1843) ; Liad. Am. Joam. xHv. p. S49 (Connecticut) (l84S) ; 
Oiraud, B. Lang I. p. 393 (1844) ; Ftaie, V£. Expl Expied. viii. 
sp. IfiS (1848) ; Schdt. Ac. Si/a. Nat., NatatoieB, Novitia, t. 104. 
f. 3773 (ex Audubonf) (1850): HarU. Wiegm. Ardk. 1852, i. 
p. 132; Bp. Cofitpl. Bend, iixviii. p. 664 (Califomia) (1863) ; id. 
Not. Call Deiattre, p. flS (1864) ; Putn. Fr. Eu. Itut. i. p. 310 
(Massachusetts) (1866) ; Srhleg. M«4. P.-B., Anseres, p. 105 
(Bleucopareins, Brandt) (Mexico) (1866); ^. Syn. Anat. p. 43 
(1869) ; Gi«b. 7%m. Om. i. p. 371 (1673) ; Sabh. B. Jigi. Emp. 
p. 239 (1890). 

Anser leucopareius, Brandt, Butt. Se. Ac. Pittnb. i. p. 37 (Aleutians) 
{1886). 

If (liomicla) leucopareius, Brandt, HeKr. et Icon. Anim. Sots. 




18. 



116 



Jm. pp. B, ai (1884) : Sound. YarrtWs Hi»t. Brit. B. iv. p. 908 

(1884^); Montlfz. Bull. Sor. Anl.\mb,-a.m, Stwt. Diet, or 

B. p. 37« (pt. 3, 1883). 
Bemiclk (Leucoblephamn) hntchinaii, Bnird, B. A'. Am. p, xlix 

{1*581. ^ '^ 

BruiU hutchiniii, £<inn. iV. At. PhUad. 1870, p. 131. 
I«umb1epharon huUhiDsii, G. R. Gr. Hand-tat, iij. p. 76, n. 1067S 

OK-l). 
Lt-ucoUephftron leucoparwa, (?. Ji. Gr. Hand-litt, lii. p. 76, n. 10580 

(1871). 
Bnata canftdends, var. hutfihinsii, Coiut, Key iV, Am. B. p. 284, 

n. 4856 (1872) ; Tunitr. Auk, 1885, p. 158. 
Anaei (Bmntii) cnnftdenMs, var. hutchindi, Sidgvi. Ann. Lye. N.Y. 

r. p.388(niinoi8i (1S74). 
Bnnta canftdeneia. c. huicbinsii, Com; B. N.-Wal. p. 554 (1874). 
BernieU leucopariA, Blak. ^ Fryer, Ibu, 1878, p. 213 (Japan) : iid. 

Tr. Ai. Soe. Jap. viii. p. 1S3 (1880). 
B^tiucIa Mnftden«e butcnin»ii, Bitfym. Pr. U.S. Nat. Miu. JiL p. 203 

<1880); id. Xom. N. Am. B. n. 594« (1882); CWa. CTteck-litt, 

3aded.p. 172,a. 704(]«82). 
Aiuer (Brenthu*) hutchinai, BeJinit. Om. Centraibl. 1882, n. 37; 

id. Vhg. xool. Gart. p. 05 (1882). 
Braubi leucoparets, Stcjn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Miu. tiji. 70 (1883). 
Bemicla canndenau, y. hulchinrai, B., B., ^ B. Water-B. N. Am. i. 

pp. 455, 467, 468, 464 (1884). 
Beauts eansdensU hutchinai, Sifjn. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mu». no. 20, 

p. 147 (1885) ; A. O. U. CWfc ufNimmei. ^ OieBk-Iitt N. Am. B. 

p, 127, n. 172 a (1386) : Tamer, 0»Ur. N. H. Alaska, p. 13fl 

(1886) ; Nehm, Nat. Sitt. Coll m Alatika, p. 84 (1887) ; BidffK. 

Man. JV. Am. S. p. 117, n. 172 a (1887) ; Swn. Pr. U.S. Nat. 

Miu. X. p. 135 (Bering I.) (1887) ; Shu/eldt, A. U.S. Nat. Mm. 

xi. pp. 348-261, ff. 27, 28, 29, 30 {osteoiogj) (1988); ? Matfarl. 

Pr. U.S. Nat. Mia. xiv. p. 434 (1891); HaleA, B.ef Mima. 

p. 80 (1893). 

" Sinilftr to B. eanadftisit, but amaller (wing lumilly lesa than 
16'00 inchea; culmcn naadly less than 1-75). Length about 
25-<»-34-(iO, wing 14-75-17'75, culmen 1-20-1-90, tarsas 2-25- 
8-20 " (Ridffu>ay}. 

Hall. " Arctic and Subarctic America ; south in winter, through 
United Btat«ii, chicflj' vest of the Alleghanies ; Norlli-eBStern Asia 
(Jftpuu to East«m Siberia) " (Suli/taai/). 



K pp. xlii, 76S 



3. Branta occidentalis. 
f Iknicla canadenBis, Cati. (»ee Linn.) U.S. Expl. Exptd., Mamm. 

^ Om. p. 336 (1&58) ; Sartt. J./. O. 1883, p. 282 (Alaska). 
BtrnicU leucopareia. Baird (nix Brandt), B. N. Am. ] 

( 1858) ; P Nnt*. Did. of B. p. 376 (pt 2, 1893). 
Bmiicls occideDlftlis, Ba'trd, oju dt. p. 706 (1858) ; id. Cat. N. Am. 

B. n. 567 a (18C9) ; Smnd. TarreO'f Hitt. Br. B. iv. p. 298 

(1884-86): EidffV!. Pr. U.S. Nat. Max. viii. p. 22 fl885). 
Bfnucla canBdeouB, var. occid^Dtalis, Ho// 4" Bonn. Tr. Chit. Ae. i. 

p. 206 (1800) 1 iaitr. Mtm. Bait. Soc. N. H. li. p. 363 (Durango) 

tl874). 
BendcU canadeoBis, var. lencopareia, Coaet, Xey, p. 284 (1872). 
i2 



finnU Cfmadeiuis, 6. lencopsrdB, p&rt^ Catui, B. K.-Wat, p. 664 

(1874). 
BernicU canadeiuia, put., Selat. 8r 8alr. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 362 

(Dumogo, Hezico). 
BenuclA canadensis occidentals, Ridgie. iV. 71.8. Nat. Mm. iiL 
p. 208 (1880) ; id. Nom. N. Am. £. n. fi94 c (1881) ; Oauet, Eg^ 
N. Am. 5. 2nd ed. p. 688, n. 702a (1884). 
BemicUcftnodensiBi^.ocddeDtalis, £.,£., j- Ji. Water-B. N. Am.\. 

p. 466 (1884). 
Bnmta canadensis occidentaliB, Ridatii. Pr. U.S. Nat, Jlttu. viu. 
p. 866 (1886) i A. O. U. Codt of Nomen^ ^ Checkout N. Am. B. 
p. 127, a 172 b (1886) ; NeUon, Nat. Hilt. CoU. n Alatka, p. 66 
(1887) ; Eidgw. Man. N. Am. B. p. 117, n. 172 6 (1887) ; Maqfarl. 
Pr. U.S. Nat. Mm. liv. p. 424 (1881). 
AduU. " Lower parts deep greyisli brown or browniali f^y 
(often not conspicnoosly paler than upper parts), abruptly defined 
against white of anal region ; white cheek-patches nanally separated 
hj & black throat^tripe, or black mottling on throat ; white collar 
Tonnd lower neck asnallf very distinct in winter plumage ; tail- 
fetthers usoally 18*00-20-00. Total length about 35 inches, wing 
16-25-18-00, eulmen 1-40-1-65, tarBOs 3-05-3-25.'' (Bidgway.) 
. Bab. " North-west coast of America; north to Ktka; aouUi in 
winter to California" (Sidgwa]/). 

(Branta tanadentii ; S. hatehiiui; B. oeeiAntalit.) 
o, (. Ad. St. N. America. Purehaaed. 

0, d. Ad. ak. Brit. Columbia {J. K. Lord). N. America Bonndary 
Oonus. [P.]. 

e, Ad. sk. IVaser River, Brit Oolnmbia N. America Boundary 

{J. K. L.). Comm. [P.l. 

f. Ad.ak. 4eth Parallel (J. J: Z.). 




18. BBAKU. 



117 



BracU canadends, rar. leueopBTMS, Qiut* in EUiot't Affair* to 
Almka, p. 190 (1875) {nee Sfy, 1B72, p, 2&1, which^B. occiden- 
lalis, Baird) ; Coua, Cheek-Utt, n. 48ofl (1873). 
fienticln canadenBis leucopareis, Bidgtc. Norn. y. Am. S. n. 694 b 
(1881) i Coaet, Checkrltit, 2nd ed. p. 112, n. 703 (part.) (1882) : 
id. Kfif N. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 689 (1884). 
Bermcbi canHdensis, A. leucoporeia, B.,B., Sf R. Water-B. N.Am, i, 

pp.-lot!,4-'>7,4Ji9(ld84). 
Branla miaiiua, Ridgw. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mia. viji. p. 23 (1886J. 
Bnmta cHDideiiBis niiniroa, Kidgv:. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. vili. p. S6S 
11885): A. 0. U. Code of Nomenet. J^ Check-list N. Am. B. 
p. 127. n. 172 c (1886); Totomatd, Auk, 1887, p. 12 (breeding; 
Kowak R., N. Alaaka) ; Tuiwr, Contr. N. H. of Alaika, p. 138 
(1866) ; Ndtm, Nat. Hitt. Call, in Atatht, p. 86 (1887) ; Si^ 
Man. N. Am. B. p. 117 (1887). 
Beniicla munrou, Rothsch. Ana. S( Mag. N. H. (6) I. p. 108 (1892) 
{Kauai, Swidwich Islands) {fype exatttined=taaujan). 
Bimil'U' to B. canaden^, but very much emaUer. Lower parta 
deep greyish brown or brownish grey (often not oonspicuoualy paler 
tliAo the upper parts), abruptly defined against white of anal region ; 
the feathers of the nuderparts have paler edges; white cheek- 
patches nsnally separated by a black stripe of spotting on the throat, 
ftod lower part of neck encircled by a more or less distinot white 
cdlar; tail-feathera usually 14r-16. Total length about 23-25 
inche*, wing 13-60-14-50, culmen 0-95-1 -15, tarsuB ii-40-2-75. 

Ball. Pacific coast of North America, breeding chlefiy about the 
ahorea of Norton Sound and the Lower Yukon, but extending to 
Kut<ebue Sound and along the Arctic coast to the vicinity of Point 
BttRow ; south in winter to California, and more rarely to Upper 
HiwiMippi Valley (Wisconsin, Sc); it strays to tho Sandwioh 
Iilsads. 



m,k,e. (J? ad. 
•tpulLsk. 



St. KGchaers, Alaaks, June, Oct. Salvin-Godnian CoU. 

(£: m Nfhon). 
Eotttk, mouth of Yukon K., Salviu-OodmBn Coll. 

Alnuka. May {E. H'. Nelton). 
5 ad-sk. Grey's Harbour, Washington Salrin-Godmsn Coll. 

Teraiory, Dec. {Iknihawj. 

5. Branta leucopsifl. 
The Bamaclo or Bemacle Goose. 
BCTnicls. Briu. Or... TJ. p. 300 (1760). 
Bemicla minor, Britt. ™. eil. a. 302 (1760) (juv.). 
jXnna bsmkU, part., Unn. S. N. i. p. 108, n. 13 (1760). 
*■ Auaa hrota, O. F. Mall. Zool. Dan. P.odr. p. H (1770). 
Ueruache, IfAubent. Pt. Bal. 855; Buff. Hitt. Nat. Ou, ix. p. S3 

(1783). 
Anu BtTthropui, Gm. (nee Linn.) S. N. i. 2, p. fll2, n. 11 (1788) ; 

tath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 848, n. 31 (1790). 
Abm ervthropHS, 3, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 844 (1790). 
Anseremhropua, Bonn. (nrcLimi.) Ene. Milk. i.p. 120, n. 28 (1790) ; 

Zf». Alan. d'On. u. p. 406 (1828) ; Deal. On. Eur. ii. p. 402;(1B49). 
Anu leucopns, Bedul. Om. Tatcheni. ii. p. 424 (1803); Ttmm. 

Man. p. 631 (1815) ; td. op. at. 2Dd ed. ii. p. B23 (1820). 



AiiMr leucOTWe, SackU. Oem. Nattm. DtuUdd. 3nd ed. it. p. 931 
(1809) ; rteOl. N. D. xxiii. p. 329 {1818} ; Dtmoid, Diet. 8c. Nat, 
— „™-, „ „ y^j (1828); Zeit. Tr. fOm. 

.. p. 356 (1834) ; Jm. Mm, 
. p. 609, pi. 296 (1835) ; id. 
Afo. p. 271 (1639) ; Bp. Camp. Lut, p. 50 (1838) ; Eyt. Mm, 
Anat. p. 86 (1838) ; Xa/i. ^ Blai. WirMlA. Eur. pp. Ixaxiii, 224 
(1840) ; JVoum. rdg. BeutMchl. a. p. 378, Taf. 291 (1842) ; Aud. 
B. Am. Ti. p. 200, pi. 378 (184S) ; SehUg. Bev. Cril. p. 11 (1844) ; 
Middaid. Reu. Sanr. a. 2, ■p. 228 [Sihetia?) (1861); WaOtiiffr, 
Kaummmia, 1864, p. 268 (Scandinavia) ; nortU, Bidr. Spitib. 
Moliuskf. p. 60 (1869) ; Blae. tn Nmm. Vog. DeuttcAl. niL 2, 
p. 296 (1863); Maimm: <E/v. K. Va.-Ak. Fork. 1863, p. 106; 
hmnh. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 323 (ex Midd.) ; Schkg. Mtu. P.-B., 
Anwrea, p. 104 (1666) ; Lttwr. Am. Nat. t. p. 10 (1871) ; OiA. 
The*. Om. i. p. 372 (1872) ; Nordenik. Voy. V^a, i. p. 126 (1881) 
(Spitabergen & NoTua Zemlia) ; Seebh. Eiit. Br. S. iii. p. C12, 
pi. 60 (egg) (1885). 

Aaser bemicU, PaU. {nee Lirm.) Zoogr. Ro»to-A». it. p. 230 (1811) ; 
ieoeA, Cat. p. 37 (1816) ; FUm. Bnt. An. p. 127 (1828). 

Bernicla leucopus, Bote, Itit, 1822, p. S63; JSinip, Sac Ent. aa: 
Thierw. p. 25 (1829) ; Brehm, Handb. Vog. DeutmU. p. 847 (1831) ; 
Eyt. Cat. Br. Bj. 62 (1636) ; MacgiJln. Man. ii. p. 160 (1842); 
Bp. Cat. Met. Uee. Eur. p. 70, n, 424 (1842) ; HarU. Suit. Ven. 
Get. MtiM. p. 117 (1844) ; O. R. Gr. lAtt B. Brit. Mtu. ui. p. 128 
(1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 607, n. 2 (1844) ; Bchnb. Sjf«. Av., 
Natetorea, t. 97. S. 230-231 (1846); Bp. Compt. Said. iliu. 
p. 648, n. 31 (1866) ; Baird, B. N. Am. p. 768 (1868) ; id Cat. 
N. Am. B. n. 572 (1859) ; id. Am. Nat. ii. p. 49 (Hudson Bay) ; 
Beinh. Jhit, 1861, p. 12 (Oreenland) ; G. B. Or. Litt Br. B. 
p. 184 (1863); Mahngr. <^. K. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1864, p. 89S; 
JievH. lbi», 1865, p. 513; Degl. ^ Gerbe. Om. Eur. ii. p. 488 
■""57); -Ey/. V- -^no'-p- 33 (1869); Mnlmgr. IbU, 1SC9, p. 230 
itsberBen) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 629 (breediDg); Malmgr. 
f. O. 1670, p. 303; FriUck, Vog. Eur. p. 401, Taf. 145. 




IS. BUItlA. 



u» 



Branta leocopua, Bann. Pr. Ae. PhUad. 1671, p. 131 ; Q»it», Key, 

p. 283 (KffS)! id. Oieek-Iui, n. 483 (1873)! id. B. N.-We»t, 

p, 568 (1ST4) i B., B., ^ R. Water-B. N. Am. i. p. 474 (1884) ; 

SalBod. El. Uee. Ital. p. 363, n. 351 (lUlrt (1886) ; Sidgw. Man. 

JV. Avt. B. p. 117, n. 175 (1887) ; Schnw. J./. 0. 1890. p. 81 ; iJu*. 

Fawi. Verl. Bdg., Oil. a. p. 385, pi. 242 (1891); HarUrt, Sal. 

VogrUamml. p. 227, u. 3367 (1881). 
.\Dser (BreaLhue) leucopsis, Bdinw. Om. CfntraOtl. 1882, p. 37; 

id. I'dg. toU. Gdrt. p. 66 (1832). 

Adtdt male. Forehead, cheeks, and ctiia white ; a streak from the 
b««k to the eye, top of the head, nape, all the neck, and iater- 
acftpulais bUok ; rump bluish black ; upper tail-coverts white ; 
bnttst and belly grayish white : venl and under tail-coverts pure 
white ; flanks and thighs tinged with grey in bars ; scapulars, 
wing-coverts, and tertiale lavender-grey, tipped with a crescent of 
blnieh black, and an extreme edge of white ; pritQBries and tail- 
feathers almost block : bill, legs, toes, membranes, and claws black ; 
iridea dark brown. Total length 25'5-28 inches, wing 16, tail 5'5, 
cnlmen 1-37, tarsus 2-'A. 

FemaU. A little smaller than the mole. 

Yotaig. The whit« of the cheeks varied with black feathera ; the 
ends of the feathers on the back and of the wing-covert« tinged 
with rufous ; the flanks barred with darker grey, and the legs less 
black than in the adults. 

I have seen on the waters of Battersea Park, in London, a 
liring hybrid between this speeice and some kind of Goose (?); it 
has the K'hite on the heail much more extended, the legs yellow, 
and the general colouring paler brown than in B. leueopng. 

Ball. Greenland, Iceluud, Spitsbergen, and Navaia Zemlia, where 
}trobal>ly it breeds ; passes on migration iilong the shores of Scan- 
dinavia to winter in the Baltic, and on the coasts of Denmark, 
Holland. England, and Northern France ; seldom straggling to 
Ci'Dtral and Southern Europe ; casually 
Koftfa America. 



Ad. St. 

.. Plili St 
/k. <J 2 ad. sk. 

k S ad. skeleton. 
*, Z Skeletons. 



6. Branta hernicla. 
Bmt-Oouse. 

Aiwer tonuatus, Friich, fiiff. DeuUdd. ii. Taf. 1<J0. 
BreoU, BriM. Ont. vi. p. 304, pi. xxu, CI760), 
Abu beniicU, Linn. S. iV. i, p. 108, n. 13 (p8rt.)(]7efl) ; Om. S. N. 

L 2, p. 613, n. 13 (1788) ; ZalJi. Ind. Ont. a. p. 844, n. 32 (1790) ; 

Brcht. Om. T(ucht«h. ii. p. 424, n. 11 (1803) ; WO*. Am. Om. 

viii. pi. 72. f. 1 (1^14) i Temm. Man. d'Om. p. 631 (1815) ; id. 

«. nf. 3nd ed. ii. p. 824 (1820); iScoreibi/, Ace. Arct. Brg. i. 

p. 637 (1S20) ; Rant. EU di Zool. iii. 9, p. 01 ()63Q) ; Wtmtr, 



1 the Atlantic ooast of 



Great Britain. 
Cumbertoad. 
Devonshire. 

Holland. 
Holland. 


!»urchased. 

Col. Montagu GoU. 

Purchased. 

H. J, ISke, Esq. [P.l 

H. J. HkB, Esq. [P.J- 


England. 


J. Hay, Esq. [P.]. 



Atlas, PalmipMes, pi. 33 (1628) ; Sou, in Parry'* Narr., App. 

p. 196 (1628) ; XeM. jlf<iii. d^Om. ii. p. 40S (1838) ; id. Tr. d'Om. 

p. 627, n. 8 (1881). 
Kranta beniicU, Soim. Arm. I. H. N. p. 67, n. 84 (1760) ; Bonn. 

Pf. Ae. Pkiiad. 1870, p. 131 ; O. R Gr. Hand4iU, m. p. 7«. 

n. 10676 (1871) ; Couet, Key, p. 284 (1872) ; id. Chedi-Utt, 

n. 484 (1873) ; id. B. S.- Wat, p. 666 (1874) ; A. O. U. Code <•/ 

Jfommel. ^ Cheeh-liit N. Am. B. p. 127, it. 173 (1886) ; 

Salvad. El. Uce. Ilal. p. 263, n. 362 (1886) ; JfUhnw. J.f. 0. 1890, 

p. 61 ; Harftrt, KaL VogrUamml. p. 227 (1891) ; Hateh, B. of 

Minuet, p. 61 (1892) ; MaeKmf, AtJc, 1894, p. 224 (Musk^st I.). 
AnM brenU, Tumi. Om, Brit. p. 4 (1771). 
Oca eolombaccio, Gerini, Star, degli Ucc. v. TaS. 682 (1776). 
CraTant, D'Aubent. PI. EaL 342; Buf. Bi»t. Kat. Oit. ix. p. 87 

(1783). 
Brent Ooo«e, Laa. S^/n. iii. 2, p. 467, n. 27 (1786). 
Aiuer beniicla, Bonn. Ene. Mith. i. p. 121, pi. 32. f. 4 (1790) ; Ilt^. 

Prodr. p, 277 (J811); Bp. Aim. iyc JV. F. p. 378 (1826); id. 

Syn. p. 378 (1828) ; Sw. | JHch. Faun. B.-A. u. p. 469 (1631) ; 

Savi, Om. Tote. iii. p. 180 (1831) ; Ntdi. Man. ii. p. 369 (1834) ; 

Sw. Clou. B. ii. p. 366(1837); And. Om. Biogr. v. p. 610, pi. 391 

(1839); id. Syn. p. 272 (1839); Seiyi-L. Faun. Belp. i. p. 139 

(1642) ; Aud. B. Am. vi. p. 203, pi. 370 (1843) ; SdiUg. Btv. 

OA. p. ex (1844); G^uJ,B.i;<»t^J.p.293(1844); DfKay, S.r. 

ZooL p. 351 (1644) ; Dtgl. Om. £ur. ii. p. 404 (]849) ; f MOd. 

Beit. O.-mir. p. 228, Taf. ui. f. 1 (pullua) (1851) (Taimjr River. 

Boganida, breeding) ; Wallenffr. Naumannia, 1854, p. 209 (Scandi- 

navia) ; MOIL J.f. O. 1866, p. 231 (PrOTanco) ; Putn. Pr. Em. 

Ittit. 1. p. 219 (1866) ; &hUg. Vog. Nederl. pi. 286 (1858) ; Thordl, 

Bidr. Spittb. Mottuikf. p. 60 (1859) ; Maimffr. (Fft. K. Vet.-Ak. 

Fork. 1863, p. 106; id. J. f. 0. 1863, p. 377 (Spitsbergen); 

ScAUg. Mui. P.-B., Anseres, p. 105 (part.) (1866) ; DrosU, Voffelw. 

Nwdteeint. Borkum, p. 287 (1869) ; Qieb. TAa. Om. i, p. 368 

(part.) (1872). 
' 18 monachua, Beieke {«te Scop.), Vbg. Eurl. \ 




15. BSAirri, 



121 



Or. Zitt Oen. B. p. 73 (1 840) : Bp. Qit. Met. U<x. Eur. p. 70, n. 425 
{18*2); G.R.Gr.LittB. Brit. Mv».ai.p.l2».»i<f€im.'i,b(l»U); 
iii. 6<m. B. iii. p. 607, n. 1 (1844) : HaHl. Suit. Ven. Gei. Mvs. p. 117 
(1»U); Bduib. S(m.^r., Nitlatoies, t. ($7. ff. S28~S0 (1845): id. 
Ae.&iiit.SaU^.ix(\^2)% W'worfA. Si^.&j.. p. 103 (1h53); J5p. 
L\mpt. Rmd. xliii. p. 648, n. 33 (1856) ; Baird, B. N. Am, p. 767 
(1«8) ; id. Cat. N. Am. B. a. 570 (1859J ; Moan* & Sturge, Ibis, 
1*59, p. 167 (W. SpEtsberfTBO) ; Homeytr, J. f. O. 1650, p. 370; 
BantH. I/>U, 1860, p. S65 (Hudson'* Bfty) : Walka-, ibid. pp. 166, 
167 (Omtiluid): Sclat. ibid. p. 303 (ege) ; Bank. Jbi», 1H61, 
p. 1-J (OreenUnd); Som, Omad. Nat. vii. p. 162 (18Ci2): id, 
Jfat. Hilt. Bev. (3) ii. p. 287 (1862) ; VrrriU, Pr. Em. Intt. 
1882. p. 163; Blnkitt. Ibit, 1803, p. 145 ; Attttm. J. f. O. 1«03, 
p. 120; DroiU, J./. O. 1864, p. 428(BorInim); Mal»iffr. (Eft. K. 
»V^-vlA.KrA.1864,p.3M;iVp«rt.i/.«,1865,p.512{Spit»betwen); 
yialmgr. J.f. 0. Mm, p. 209 (SpitebergeD); DroiU, aW. p.»42; 
DrtM. Ibi», 1866, p. 43 (Teiwi) ; Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. t. viU. 
p. 396 (1806) ; Degl. ^ Oerbe. Om. Eur. U. p. 48» f 1867) ; Dro^, 
J. /. O. 1967, pp. 65, 8fl; TVwfr. Ibii, 1888, p. 328 (PaleBtine) ; 
ft««, iV, Ea. JmU vl p. 298 (1868) ; GilUtt, Ibii, 1870, p. 308 
(SovBva Zeiulva) ; FrUi^, Nt^un/. Fog. Eur. p. 402, Taf. 45. 
t 2 (1870); Malmj/r. J. f " "'^"' ""' 



. / O. 1870, pp, 287, 304 ; Couet, Fr. 

North Carolina); Hmgl. J.f. O. 1871, 

1S72, p. 63 (NovajaZetnlin) ; SluH. 

.„ , . '"gl. J.f. O. 1872, p. 120 (Noyaja 

,); Garrad, P. Z. S. 1878. p. 638, f. 5!(mQ8cle») ; Gmdd, 



Ae. Fhilad. 1871, p. 36 (North Carolina); ffeugl. J.f. O. 1871, 

S104 tSpitubergen) : W. Ibii, 1872, p. 63 (NovajaZetnlio) ; 
. ofEmpt. p. 281 (1872) ; ffeugl. J.f O. 1872, p. 120 (K 
Zeiidia)-. r ■ - " " ■— ~ - " 



. 1290 



H B. Or. Brit. v. pL 7 (1673) ; Jteiigl. Om. If.'O.-Afr. ii. 

■ (1873) : Bfstli, Bull. Soe. Oeogr. March 1875 ; i)reu. o. aur. 
H Ti. p. 38B, pi. 415. {. 2 (pto. 83, 04. 1877) ; Frtld. P. Z. S. 1877, 
^m p. 32 (brr«diiiff, Polu IBaain); id. B>is, 1877. p. 412; Sekmiilt, 

■ >. Z. S. 1880, p. 317; Sciat. P. Z S. 1880, p. 502; Ridgw. Norn. 

■ A'. Am. B. n. 5B5 (1881): Amte. P. Z. S. 1882. p. 65-2 (Fmnx- 
H Jowf Land): Court. CAeck-liH, 2nd ed. p. 112, n. 700 (1882); 

I "^ 

■ iv' 

■ w 
■ 

■ Bei 

I "^ 

L 



Br. B. p. 117 (1883); St^at. Lxtt Vrrt. An. 8th ed. p. 419 (1883) ; 

Comet, Kiy N. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 687, %. p. 666, n. 7()0 (1684) ; B., 

S.,ifB. Watfr-B. N. Am.lv- 467 (imj: Sound. rarrelCi Hid. 

Br.B.iv.v.2'Mlli<>ii~S6)iBrdd.P.Z.S. 1885, p. 843 (anatomy); 

.Vontlm. Bull. S-x-Atel. 1886, p. 134 (fig. p. 135); Trittr. <M. 

Catf.^. p. 54(1889); Saiadtri, Man. Brit. fiiriAi, p. 339 (1890); 

RutfU, Zool. (2) xiv. pp. 63-69 (Ebscs) (1890) ; Payton, /Mt, 

18»l,p. 21MJ(Miirocco). 
Bwniclii n:l«uco|iaeler, C. L, Brekm, lint, 1830, p. BS>6(deacr. nulla); 

id. Jlandh. Vog. DndtcU. p. 840 (1831); id. Naumannia, 1S5S, 

p. 297. 
Demicla micropus, C.L. Brrfim. Itit, 1830,0.096; id. fog. Dnitmhl. 

p. 8.1»(|8.11); id. h'autnanftia, 1865, p. 297 ( = vap.plBucofra*tet). 

cmiclA I'lalvuros, C. L.Brehm, Itit, 1830. v.99Q: id. T'ag. IkulteM. 

V. S.V1 t iml) ; id. Naumannia, 1856, p. 297. 
IkrnicU c'lltiriB, C. Z. Brrkm, Itit, 1830. p, 096 ; «l, Vog. DeutockL 
-- - ' ■ --.56,p. ^-(=v, • 



p. 861 (1831); id. Naumannia. 18.56, p. 207(=vnr.glaucoeBater). 
p«ips MnegiU. Man. Br. Om. ii. p 151 (1842) 
C. L. BrtAm, rogrifang, p. 368 (1655) ; ii Nauinan- 
97. 

glaucogaster, Bp. Cumpl. Rend, xliii, p. 648, 

p. 145 (1872) 



a pallida, 

, 18.M, p. 2 

Bemicla bivnta, 

n. 33 a (1856). 

Btentbu* b«nurta. Sunrf. -VpM. not. Av, dltp. Tn 

Jlein. Sf. BeJinto. Nam. Miu. Hein, Om. p. 342 ( 



Brauta bemicU, Bmgl. Btit. Nor^xtlarmeer, iii. p. 133 (1874). 

Anser (Brenthus) torqustus, ScAnto. Om. CmttraOl. 1882, p. S7 ; 
id. rag. coot. GSH. p. 66 (1882). 

Anser brenta gUncoga^r, Stebh. Hid. Br. Bird*, iii. p. 606 (1886). 

BnuU brenta, IhOoit, Faun. Beig., Oim. ii. p. 3SS, pi. 243 (Lin. 
143-162, 1862). 
Advlt mdU. He&d, neck, and breast sooty-blaok, ahatply defined 
from the brown-grey ooloor of the upper and onder puts ; two 
white patches, with some admixtnre of black, on the sidea of the 
neck ; romp brown-black ; upper tail-coverts, vent, and under tail- 
corerta white; the featheia of the npper and under parts with 
somewhat light«r edgings, quite distinct and whitish on the flanks ; 
quills and tail-feathers browni^ black ; under wing-ooverts brown- 
grey : bill black ; iiides dark brown ; tarsus, toes, and webs black, 
with an olire-green tinge upon the tarsal joint and the upper 
surface of the toes. Total lengUi about 21 in<die8, wing 13, tail S'6, 
onlmen 1-5, taraus 2*1. 

FeniaU. Similar Xo the male, but a little smaller. 
Toang. Paler than the adults ; no white patches on the aides of 
the neck ; the dark colour of the upper breast scarcely darker than 
the underparta ; no white edgings to the feathers of the flanks ; 
wing-coverts with oonspicaoos pale edges, almost white on the 
median and greater ones ; seoondaries with white tips. 

In this species there seem to be two forms — a dark-bellied one 
{B. hemida), which, according to Mr. Seebohm, breeds in tbe 
Taimyr peninsula, Noraia Zemlia, Franz-Josef Land, and 8ints- 
beigen ; and a light-bellied one (B. glaueogatter), which lives in 
Arctic America, from the west coast of Greenland as far west as 
the Parry Islands. I would have kept the two forms separate if 
it were not liat a specimen from Noraia Zemlia, mentioned below, 
belongs to the light-bellied form, aad, moreover, this bird haa the 




J. Ad. ct. 
. $ aO-tk, 



' DiscoTMT.' 
Dr. lUe fP.f. 
St.Patrick'aBay,Jaii.(C.flart). Voy. of H.M.S. 

' Disco ve^.' 
CromArtr Bay, Feb. ( If. E. 0. O. H. Qnintin, Esq. 

Oranl). [P.J. 

Devonshire. Col. MonUgu [P.l 

Seebohm ColL 

._.__.. . , . , ...... Seebohm Coll. 

. Ad. ale, TU.* Novaia Zemlia, June. H. W. Feilden fud 

n. Brown [C.]. 
«,p,f. Stenu. 

h, UDderparta dark grey or brown, 
r. (f«d.ak.,TaT.« Cookham, Nov, { IT. £r^y«> Tweeddale GoU. 
s. Ad. sk., Tar.» DeTonahire. Col. Montagu [P.]. 

t,it. Imm.ctjuv. Maldou, Essex {Major RusscU). Seebohm. CmU. 

7. Bnmta nigricanB. 
Anu bernicla. Prim. i»tc Linn,) in Cuok's I'oj/. Padf. ii. p. 368 

(KaiutKhatka) [1TS4). 
Aiwer brenla, part., Pall. Zortffr. Eoito-At. ii. p. 229 {ex Amenu) 

(1811) i ? SmnA. P. Z. S. 1803, p, 323 (China). 
Anwr nigricBiiB, Lawr. Ann. I^. N.T.vr. p. 171, pi. lii. (1846); 

Barti, Naumaimia, 1662, p. 2 ; Stthh. Hut. Br. B. iii. p. 508 

(]e«5) ; (A B. Jap. £mp.j. 240 (1890). 
Bnvicla usricaiia, G. E. Gr. Gen. B., App. p. 27 (1849) ; C^. 

/tfwfr. ^. CW)/. p. 52, pi. X. (1863); Bp. Compl. Bend, xliii. 

p. 61S, n, 34 (1866) ; Baird, B. N. Am. p. 767 (1858) ; id. Cot. 

y. Am. B. n. 671 (1859); (hop. Jj- Suckl. N. H. Waih. Terr. 

p. 252 (1860) ; Blakiit. IbU, 1863, p. 145 ; Zairr. Ann. Luc. iV. Y. 

«ii. p. '29Q (Long Isl.) (1867) ; Brmat, Ibu. 1868. p. 435 (Vaii- 

eouver 1.) ; Datl ^ Banti. Tr. Chic. Ae. i. p. 29-5 (.\laaka) (1869) j 

liaU. Avif. Aleut. III. Wat. Unal. p. C (1874) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, 

p. 602; Xehon, BuIL NuU. On. Club, ri. pp. 131-138 (1881); 

Xidgw. Norn. N. Am. B. n. 596 (I&32) ; Bean, Pr. U.S. Nat. Mui. 

1882, p. 166; A'ei. OwVe ' Corvnti,' p. 94 (1883); SmM. Urn, 

1884, p. ITo (Japan) ; 3lttki»t. Amend. Liit B. Jap. p. 3S (1884) ; 

B.. B., 4- E. Water-B. JVi Am. i. p. 471, L p. 472 (1884) ; Sound. 

TarreWt Jlitt. Brit. B. iv. p. 203 (1884-86) ; Murd. Exped. to 

iWnfBarroiD, p. 117(1886); MontL Bull. Soc. Aixi.l%m,-D.\S7 ; 

Nrwt. Diet. ofB. p. 375 (pt. 2, 1803). 
Anae bsmida, KitU. (nee Lmn.) Denkw. il. p. 381 (1868). 
Ajwer beraida, part., SchUg. Mu». P.-B., Aneerea, p. 103 (1866) ; 

Gift. Thes. Om. i. p. 360 (part.) (1872). 
Brsnta nigricans, Bonn. Pr. Ae. PkUad. 1870, p. 131 ; O. R. Gr. 

Bimd-lut, iii. p. 76, n. 10570 (1871) ; «^. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mut. 

no. 28, p. 149 (1885) ; Turwr, Contr. N. S. Alaska, p. 141 (1886) ; 

A.O. U. Codeo/Noau^ Cheek4itt,p. 128, n. 174 (1886) ; Eidgw. 

Man. N.Am. B.\>. 118,0.174(1887); NtU. Bep. N. U. Coll. in 

Alaika, p. 87 (1887) ; Stejn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. x. p. 135 (Bering 1.) 

(1887); Maefitrl. I'r. U.S. Nat. Mu». liv. p, 424 (Liverpool Bay 

and Fmnkliu Bay) (1891); Hatdt, B. of Min>te>. p. Si (\tm). 

* Wbila palohat of ths nack nearly meeting in front. 



SnnU bemicls, var. ninicaiu, Oouea, Keg, p. 284, £ 184 A (1873). 
Bntnta bernick, b. nirncftiui, Caaa, B. N.- Wttt, p. 567 (1874). 
BmucU torauBta, BkMil. k Pn/^ (f^ BeiAtt.), Ibit, 1878, «■ 212 
- (Japan) ; ad. TV. Ai. Soc. Jap. viiL p. 163 (1880), x. p. 06 (1683^. 
B«niicU brebta nigricuis, Couf», CheckrKri:, 2dA ed. p. 112, n. 701 

(1882) i id. Kty N. Am. B. 2Dd ed. p. 688, n. 70, f. p..0d7 (1884) ( 

Cory, Auk, i. p. 96 (MaaeachuMtU) (1384). 
' Anser (Brenthus) mgricanH, BchntD. Om. anlraibL 1882, p. 37. 
BemicU breuta, nt. uigricaiu, Seebh. Ibii, 1864, p. 32 (Yokohama). 
Anger torquatiw, Brandt {nee Fritek), J.f. 0. 1891, p. 267. 

Similar to B. bernicla, but with a conspicuoue collar of white 
interrupted only on the nape, the white marks on each side of. ti» 
neck meeting together in firont ; belly ahnoat bs blai^ as the . 
breast ; bill and feet deep bkck ; tarsi black (?). Total length 
22-29 inches, wing 13-70^ 13-40, culmen 1-20-1-35, tarsus 2-20- 
2-W. 

Ttning, Similar to adnlt, but collar indistinct or obsolete, the 
larger wing-ooverta and secondaries broadly tipped with whit«, and 
heathen of sides and flanks snifonn brownish grey, withont white 



ffab. Western Arctic America, and across Bering Stndts as far 
88 the valley of the Lena {Seebdkm), migrating eonth in winter along 
rtiia Pacific coast to Lower California, and very rarely straying to 
the Atlantic coaxt (Long Island); along the Eastern Asiatic coast 
it extends to Japan, 

a. Ad. sk, NagBsaJfi, Jamn, 

')), c, d. Ad. et Yokohama {E. Pryer). 

jOT. sk. 

.fc Ad. bL Yokoharaa (ff. Pryer\. CapL Blakiston [P.]. 

/. Ad. at St. Juan de Fuca, Vancouver Capt Eellett and 

" Lieu' '■'--' ''•■' 




IS. DBAKTl. 



125 



(1832); AT. 4- £. WirbeUA. Eur. pp, li«iii, 234, n. 300 (1840) ; 
2iaum. Viig. DnUschl. xl. p. 408, t. 203 (J) (1S42): S<My. Rev. 
CHt. p. cxi (1644); Midd. Jteit. SAir. ii. 2, p. 229, pi. xi. f. 3 
(tgg) (leCl); Kjm-b. Om. Dan. U 45 (18o2); WaUengr. Nau- 
mamiia, 1B54, p. '269 (Scandinaiia) ; .Viirtiii, J./. 0. 1856, p. 94 
(captiTe) ; Slat, in Xaum. Tog. Deutschl. liii. 2, p. 297 (1^) ; 
ArmA. P. Z. S. 1863. p. 323 ; Schim. Mas. P.-B., Anseree, p. 102 
(1806); SHnd. SvaukaFogl. pi. 82. f. 2 (1872) ; Seeih. R Z. S. 
1877, p. 806 (egg) ; id. Hut. Br. B. ni. p. 615, pi. 61 (egg) (1885) ; 
Sttxrb. ZeittAr. ga. Om. 1887, p. 22. 

Aims torqiuia, S. G. Gm. Btite RhuI. u. p. 179, t. 14 (1774) ; Om. 
& y. i. 2. p. 514, n. 70 (1788). 

Anae pulchricoUiB (errore), Georgi, Reue Ruts. Reich, p. ](t7 (1776). 

Klnne Ktuzarka, Ltpech. Seit. Sum. Reichet, ii. Aaliaiig, p. 183 
(1775). 

CtMrkn minor. I>peeh. ffnii. p, 296, t. 5 (1775). 

Bed'hreasted Goose, iHn. Aret. Zool. ii. p. 571 { 178o) ; Zati. Apt. 
iU. 2, p. 456, II. 17 (1786). 

Amu Tuficollia, Lath. Gen. S^h. Suppl. i. p. 297 (1787) ; Gm. S. N. 
i. 2, p. 6U, n. 67 (17M) ; LtOA. Ind. Om. ii. p. 841. ii.23 (1790) j 
Lnom, B. Gr. Brit. nii. p. 6 (rue pi. 241) (1794) ; Ber&if. Om. 
Tasc\a,b. ii- p. 425 (1803); Seicicfc, Br. Ii. ii. p. 289 (1805); 
T«iRni. Man. iTOra. p. 533 (1816) ; id. Man. Sod ed. ii, p. 826 
(1830); ti'entr, Athu, PftlmipWes, pi. 34 (1826); Leis. Tr. 
(fOrn. p. 628(1881). 

Aiwer torquatua, Bonn, (nee Friirh), Snc. Mtth. i. p. 122, n. 31 
(1790). 

fienuclft ruficoUis, Boie, Ita, 1822, p. 563; SUpk. Gm. Zool. xti. 2, 
p. C3, pL 43 (1824) ; Brtbn,, /jru, 1830, p. 993 : Gvuld, S. Ear. t. 
pL 351 (1837) i Eyt. Man. Atiat. p. 66 (1838) ; Bp. Gmp. Lttt, 
p. 66, n. 402 (1638); id. Qd. Met. Ucc. Eur. p. 70, n. 429 
(1842) i G. R. Gr. Litl B. Brit. Mm. ui. p. 128 (Berwick) (1844) ; 
id. Gen. B. m. p. 007, n. 8 (1844); Rchib. Sgn. Ai:. Nalatorea, 
t. 97. S. 233, 234 (1845); LiekC. yomencl. Av. p. 100 (18641; 
J)mJ. ^ Qer6e, Oit. Eur. ii. n. 490 (1867) ; Ei/t. %n. Anal. p. 32 
(18BB)i GiffL Ibi; 1869. p. 242 (Itolj); V Bliflh. Ibi; 1870, 
p. 176 (Kagpore) ; Gould, B. Gr. Brit. v. pL 6 (pi. uriiL, 1870) ; 
Elteet ^ BucU. lbi>, 1870, p. 339 (Macedonia); Maimer. J./. 0. 
1870, p. 305; Dyb. J.f. O. 1873, p. 108 (Irkulacli) ; lirag. B. of 
Bur. vi. p. 403, pi. 416 (pu. 61, 52, 1876) ; Taa. Bull. Soc. Zo^. 
Fr. ii. p. 48 (1877) ; JVwcA, Ibit, 1877, p, 62 ; id. FerA. i.-b. 
Get. mea, 1879, p. 2G0 (W. Siberia) ; Sdat. P. Z. H. 1880, 
p. G03; Paimia, Med. Sae. Fean. Tii. p. 144 (E^imlniid) (1881) ; 
Own. /6u, 1881, p. 495 (HoUaod) ; B. O. U. Li*t Brit. B.p. 119 
(1883); Sdat. Lut Vert. An. 8th ed. p, 419 (1883); Radde, 
OnmOaucei.v- 141 (1884) ; Sound, i'arrelh Uiat. Br. B. iv. p. 281 
with fig. (1884-85) ; Badee, Zeitechr. ge*. Om. ISai, p. 48, p!. iv. 
(rar.l; Moatlta. Bull. Soc. AecUm. 1886, p. 140, gg. p. 150; 
7>»fr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 51 (Lenkoran) (1889); Saumiert, Man. 
Brit. Birdi, p. 396 (1889) ; Liiford, Cot. Figt. Br. B. pt. uti. pL — 
(1892) ; Neuit. Did. of B. p. 376 (pt. 2, 1893). 

L«ucopM«iA niiicollis. SchrA. Av. Soil. A'a/. p. ix (1862). 

Bermrla (Rirtibreata) ruUcoUis, Bp. Cotnpt. Rmd. xliti. p. 046, 
B. 36 (18S6). 

KnfibrenW nificollis. G. R. Or. Hand-Utt. iii. p. 7t<, n. 10583 (1871 ). 

AiiMi (Beniicla) rulicoliid, Lemetteil, Bull. Soe. Zuol. Fr. v. p, 75 
(Lower Seine) (1880). 



Aluer (BreDthnt) rnflcollis, ilcAme. Om. OaOralU. 1882, p. 37 ; lU. 

VSg. tod. Odri. p. 66 (188S). 
Bnnta nificoUii, Salvad. EL Uet. Hal. p. 364, n. 363 (1886); 

S>A»«i. J. /. 0. 1890, p. 81 ; BmrUrt, Sat. Voaebamml. p. 237 

(1891). 
Ptocai ruficollis, Mane ^ Sehnw. Sommel. Mut. Sem. p. 342 

(1890). 

Adtdt maU. Entire crown and hind neck black ; the black of the 
crovn extends through the eye to the chin and throat, leaving a 
large round white patch between the eye and the bill ; on the ear- 
oorerts a chestnut angular patch, surrounded with white, ending in 
a white band down the sides of the neck; nedc and npper breast 
rich chestnut, surrounded below by a white narrow buid ; back, 
rump, lower breast, and upper alnomeu black ; upper toil-eOTerta, 
lower abdomen, and nuder tail-ooverts white ; fluike white, with 
black bands at the tip of the feathers ; wings brown-black, the 
upper coverts with pale edgings, which on the middle and greater 
wing-coverts form two greyish bands ; tail black : " bill almost 
black ; irides haxel ; legs and feet dark brown, almost black " 
ls<mnder»). Total lengUi about 22 inohee, wing 14, tail 6, bill 1, 
tarsus 2-1. 

Adult ftmaU. Similar to the male, only somewhat amaller, 

Immatart bird. The black replaced by dark brown, the auricular 
patch brown, with some mfons tinge, the nook and breast reddish 
buff ; tips of the reotricee white. 

Bail. Ob and Yenesei valleys, where it breeds ; ^eetem Siberia, 
Northern Turkestan, and Caspian Sea, where it winters ; aoddentol 
in Europe and also in Egypt. 




Ifl, SEBOCHKS, 127 

Earll. AirA. /. A'afurp. 18S2, i. p. 137 ; Lichl. Nomenet. Ae. 

D. 100 (1854) i ScUU. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 206 (incubatinn) ; DoU, 

Pr. Boil. Soc. N. H. lii. p. 305 (18(fe) ; ftfe. Verk- i.-6. Gta. 

Win, 1873, p. 159 ; GuUh. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 488 ; Doit, Savau 

Aim. 1879, p. 54 ; Frnxk, Kaa, 1880, p. 81 ; Sdat P. Z. 8. 1880, 

p. 604; Sab>. Cat. S. Striekl. OaU. p. 629, n. 2577 (1882); fifcitf. 

lAtt Vert, An. 8th ed. p. 433, n. m5 (1883) : Montluz. Bait. Soe. 

Acelim. ie«C,p.l46, fig. p. 147; Triilr. Cat. OIL S. ^. 61 (1889) 

(type!) ; Snit ntU. Ava Bawai. pt. jv. pi. — (1803). 
B«niid» sandwiceneu, Lai. Cbmpl. dr Biif., Ou. ix. p. 636 (1837) ; 

id, op. at. 2nd ed. p. 717 (IS-'iS) : Sp. Cempt. Semi, iliii. p. 6*8, 

n. 32 (1866) ; Cau. U.S. Erpl. Erpcd., Mamrn. * Orn. p. 338 

(1858) ; O.JLGr. Cat. B. Trop. M. p. 54 (18.50) ; Rarlrrt, Kat. 

rWMmm;. p. 327, d. 3366 (1891) ; Hharpe, Cat. Oiteal. ^ee. 

Ctoff.5uty.iii. p. 203(1891). 
ChloephagA aandvicenwi, Eyt. Mm. Anat. p. 81 (1638) ; id. Sj/H. 

Anal. p. 26 (180B) ; Selat. P. Z. 8. 1869, p. 620. 
Auser bawatieusis, Eyd. 4* Soni. Foy. BoniU, ZooL i. ■a. 104, pi. 10 

(1»11). 
Aneer hsuaiensiB, PcaU, U.S. Erjil. Exped., Birdt, p. 249, pL lix. 

(1848). 
Anaer hawaientis, Hartl. Arch./. Kaiuiy. 1863, i. p. 132. 
Tmidiestea eacdviceiMB, lUhnli. At, 8ytt. Nat. p, u (1862). 
Anwt Mndwicensis, Sdittg. Dierent. p. 278 (1864) ; id. Mut. P.-S., 

Auwres, p. 106(1866). 
Lcucopareia BBudwira^Dsis, O. B. Gr. Sand-li>t, iii. p. 78, n. 10563 

(18(1) ; fl^m. if BrhHw. Norn. Mm. Ilein. Ont. p. 342 (1890). 
Aiuer (Breotliusl RandTichenn*, Bchttw. Orn. Ocitlralbl. 1882, p. 36 ; 

id. t'os- zool. Giirt. p. 64 (1882). 

Adtdt maJe. Htad and throat black, which colour eTtends a little 
Mow Ihe oyo and down the back of the Deck ; sides of the neck 
tawny bnff, becoming lighter tAwards the lower part, the feathers 
blarlosli at their bases, giving the neck a mottled or striped appetkr* 
uie« ; upper surfikoe dark umber, the feathers barred with dnll 
wbitieh ; rump dusky black ; nppcr tnil-coverts whitish ; breast 
and bdly pate pTeyish brown, feathers darker on flanks, barred 
with mnber and whitish at the tips; abdomen and under tail- 
coTcrta pure white ; quills and tail dusky black : " indes dark 
hazel; bill and feet black" {,Sroil WiUon). Total length 22-5 
inchea, wing 1-1-3, tail (!, eiilmea 16. tarsus 28. 

Female. Tlie black exteiidint; further down the throat, and 
oocnpying a greater space below the eye ; feathers on flanks paler 
than in the adult male i lower breast not so pale, but uniform ia 
ookmr with the flanks (Seott Wilton). 

Tomuf. Similar to the female. 

Younif in down. Upper parts greyish brown ; forehead, sides of 
the bead, throat, and middle of the underparts whitish ; a wfait« 
(pot an each side of the back at the base of the wing. 

Haft. Sandwich Islands. 

I »-€. Ad, et pulL St Sandwich Islands. Zwlogical Society. 

» a,..t Zoological Sodaty. 




SnbfamUy VI. OHENONETTIN^. 

Key to Ou Qaura. 

a, Tailnearlf even; upperwing-coTerts white; 

Bize laige 20. CbloIphaoa, p. 128. 

b, Tiul not eveu, but distinctly graduated. 

A'. Tertdftls rather bioad; upper wiDg-coTBrts 

blue ; nie large 21. Cyanockbn, p. 139. 

d. Tertiala long and narrow ; upper wing- 

coverto grey ; uze small 22. ChbnOnztta, p. 140. 

. 20. CHLOKPHAOA. 

Chloephagft, Eyt. Mm. Aitat. p. 13 (1838) 0. ma^oWica. 

TenifieateB, EcAnb. Av. ^it. Sat p. ix. (I852J C. antarctica. 

OressoclieTi, Barm. Pr. Ac. Se. Phitad. 1870, p. 131 . . C. meUnoptora. 
ChloetrophuB, Bann. Pr. Ac. Se. Ftiiiad. 1870, 

5. 131 C. poHocephaU. 
oophaga, Sund. Meth. not. Ad. di^. TaU. p. US 
(1872). 
Tnaidisathes, Heme, Ifomencl. Mui. Hein, Orn. p. 342 
(1890). 

Range. Confined to South America. 

Key to the Speeia. 

a. Uuder tail-coverts wbite. 

a'. Qeneral plumage white, with no barrings. 
" " scftpulers white, each witli i 




1. CMoepbaga melanoptera. 
FOtis chilenns, Mol, Sagg. .Slir. yal. t'hiti, p, 
Anser ntRknopteru^ EyI. Man. Anal. p. 93 (11 

Oatdd in DaninH, Vm. 'Sraalt,' p. 134, ul. 50 (1S41); lYiuer, 

P. Z. S. 1848, p. lis (Chili) ; Bard. Ify»t. Vorz. Ot». Mm. p. 117 

(1344): ScAAy. Mta. P.-B., AnsereB,p. 100fl866): Syt.Syn.Anat. 

p. 41 (1869) i Gieb. Tha. Or». i. p. 513 (1872). 
Aiwet moutwia, TicA. {mc Gm.) »"hsot. -ircA. 1843,i. p. 390, n.Sl. 
Alwer outicolft. Tech. op. at. 1»«4, i.p. 815, n. 342. 
Oemicla meknopteia, O. It. Or. Lut II. Brit. Afiu. lij. p. t2S 

i}m4);id.f/en.Ji.m.p.(HIIT,n.S{le44y.JiiAnb.S!fH.Av.,liaUKot^, 

tlOI. f. 953 (184-5) (cj:Bfasilc); Bm Mar* in Ooy, HM. de 

CMe, i. p. 443 (ItMS) : Hartl. Smimatmia, 18.53, p. -il-I, bd. H»; 

Bibra. IMnkteAr. k. Ak. Wiurtitek. v. 2, p. 131 (I80.I) ; id. J.f. O. 

IWiS, p. 57 i Com. in U.S. Antrtm. Exp. H. p. 101 (185«) (Cbili) ; 

Sdat. P. Z. S. 1«67, p. las ; Phil. Jf Lindb. Wiespn. Ar«h. 1863. 

i. p. IHS; StJat. IIm. ltM>4, p. 121; Pels. Beit. Novara, Ct^. 

p. 137 (1986) ! Seiat. P. X. S. 1867, pp. 320, 334, 339; i»Afl. ^ 

Lama. Cat. Av. ChiL p. 40 (1B6S) (Chili) ; Sclat. If Sale. P. X. S. 

1S69, p. im (Htimuum) ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1671. pp. 645, 7O0 (Zool. 

aardjj Barm. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 305 ; Sdat. * Side. Nomtwi. Av. 

Ktetr<^. p. 128, n. 2 (1873) ; lid. P. Z S. 187fl, p. 362 ; Sctat. 

P. Z. S. 1B80, ^.^Oi; id. Liu Vert. Ah. 8th ed. p. 420 (1863) ; 

Borek, MT. om. Vrr. Wim. 1884, p. 167 (Extract, p. 24) (I'una, 

BoIirU) ; Selot. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 401 (Sacaja) ; Montlia. Bait. 

Soe. AtxUm. 1886, p, IIU; Tacz. Ont. P£r. iu. p. 467 (1886); 

jmKppi, Omit, 1888, p. 160 (llren) 1 Sdat. Argent. Om. a. p. 122 

(1880); id. P. Z. S. l)*Ol, p. 136 (Tnrupaci) : B. Jamct, Ntw 

Lift Chit. B. p. B, u. 14:1 (18031. 
BenucU nnOw.la, O. R. Gr. Oen. B. iii, p. 607, n. 11 (1844). 
Anaer (ChloephaM) raelnnoptems. Timh. Parni. P^., Ate», pp. .54, 

SO^il'uDft) (11^). 
Cbloirpnan melonopten, £tcAf. 3'oinane^ Ar. p. 100 (1854); Bp. 

Gtmpt. Bmd. iliil p. 648. n. ^5 (1850) ; Bum. La Ptata-Itrite, 

a. p. 513 (1801) i Sciat. Ibti, 1864, p. 122; G. R. Or. Hand-litt, 

iii. p. 77, n. 10501 (1871); Burm. P. Z 8. 1872, p. 3({6; rots. 

P. Z. S. 1874, p. 664 ; O^l. Viagg. Mag. pp. 946, 067 (1876). 
Orewoehim meluiopUinu, Bonn. Pr. Ac. Phttixd. 18T0, p. 131. 
Axuer (IlrrulhuH) iiiHlunopteriia, Bekme. Om. Cnttralu, 1682, p. 37 ; 

irf. Vog. vxd. Oart. p. 66 (1882). 
Bnnta meloiioptero, Harttrt, Kat. VogeUamml. p. 327, u. 3363 
(1801). 

Aimit nudt. Wtiite ; anterior tcapulara with a browu spot along 
tbe Budlle; piwterioT scapulara brown with a greeniah tinge; 
WiHiii'^ gruat^r wing-coverte dark green with a purpio gloss, form- 
tnjE A apeculum, thu ioiiennost ones and tertiaU dark glossy groen ; 
pnuuuim aud toil-featliors black with a greon gloss : *' bill cinnabar- 
rad, wilb the anil black : tarsus. Feet, and membranes cinnabaT' 
red, wilh Uie nail* black; iris grey-brown" {PhU. ^ Landb.). 
Total Irnglh about 28 InchtM. wing ICo, tail 6'2, cnlmen 1-7, 

t'rmaU. 8imilar to the male but smaller. 

Tmtnij partly in down. White ; two brown-grey bands on the 
mim of the upper part of the bead, meeting on and extending 

VOL XJCVU. E 



down the nape ; back browD-grey ; on th« sidee of the ramp 
two white longitudinal bands; Bcapnlan grey with dark spots; 
toitials and tail-feathers dark glossy green ; iris dark brown ; feet 
dark brown ; " beak blaok " {Bahmer). 

Bab. Western South America, &om Pera and Bolivia to Magellan 
^teait ; aeen also at Punta Arenas (Qi^iali). 



c. Ad.sk. 

d. Ad. sk. 



8. America. 

Fern, June (Mtki), 

Htuniatca, Pern, Aug. (S. 

WMUiy)- 
Chili. 



j. Ad.et 

y. Ad. St. 

h. Ad. St. 

>, A. <; ad. et $ 

juv.sk 
L i ad.Bk. 

«, n, 0. tJ 5 ad. 

et JQT. sk. 
p, o. Ad. et imm. 

r. Ad. sk. 
*. PuU. sk. 
t. Skeleton. 



Putehased. 
Wamw : 

Sal vin-Oodman Coll. 

Eyton's ColL [One ot 
the tjmn of the 

T. C. Bndgee, Esq. 

Pun^based. 

U. Peutland, Esq. 

Valparaiso. Sir W. Burnett & 

Capt Fitiroy [P.]. 
Cneva Nina, ProT. of Tata- H. B. Jamas, Esq. 



Chili. 

Lake llticaca, ChilL 



pBc£,Feb. 
L. Huaeco, I^t, of Taiapatiit 

Jan. 
Sacaya, March, May. 



. James, Esq. 

. James, Esq. 

Central ChilL H. B. Jamas, Esq. 

ProT.Cohjhagua, Chili (£#ed). SalTin-Godman ColL 
Pampas Argentiuas (LtybM). SalviU'Qodman CoIL 
ChilL , Punihased. 




so. celoBfiuga. 



131 



BemcU antarctica, Steph. I7en. ZooL lii. 1, p. 69 (ldS4) ; £;/[. Man. 
Anat. p. 84 (sm. emend.). pL ii. f. 6 (trachea) (1838) ; Darwin, 
Voy. Broj/le, iii. p. 134 (1841) (Tierra del Fuego, FaUdand 
Islands) [ G. R. Gr. Litt B. Brit. Mw. iii. p. 127 (lft44) j id. 
Otn. B. Ui. p. 607, n. 4 (1844); Barll. Suit. Vtrx. Ges. Mil. 
p. 117 (1S44J; RcAnb. Syn. An., Natatores, t. 98. ff. 397, 94S 
(1845); LnMurt in Oay, Bwl. de CAiVe.i. p. 443(1348); Btfew, 
I)nk»i-Jtr. k. Ak. WiuaitcA. v. 2, p. 131 (1863) ; id. J.f. 0. 1S56, 
p. 67; Cau. U.S. ^rfron. ^. ii. p. 200, pi, xniL (J 2) 0856) 
fCo«*t of Chili) : Goidd. P. Z. 8. 1859, p. 06 (ere) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 
1800,p.38t(; Abbolf, Ibit. 1861, p. l£9; I9i. ^ Lamib. Wiegm. 

Arei.lSe3,LpAm;iid.au.Av.Ckil.t " "' 

J8G4, pp. 131,122; Pdi. SaM Novara, V 



40(1668); ScU.Ibii, 
1. 136 (1866) ; Solat. 



P. Z. a. 1867, pp. 320, 334, 339 ; CunniagAam, Ibit, 1868, p. 127 
Eft. Sjfn. Anat. p. 30 (1869) ; Bvrm. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 366 ; Sel«t. 
^ Salt, yommct. Av. Neolrop. p. 128 (1873) ; iid. P. Z. S. 1876, 
p, 367, 1878, p. 436 ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 310 (ok), 1880, 

SG04; 8/iarjx, P. Z S. 1881, p. 13; SeM. ^ Saiv. Vim. Chalt., 
nfa, p. 106 (1881); Selal. Li»t Vrrt. An. 8th ed. p. 423i 
2883); MmtUa. BuU. Soc. AccUm. 1886, p. 153. tif;. p. 164; 
urm. Anal. Mtu. Nae. Buen. .dirw, iii. p. 247(1888); Tristr. 

Cat. Coll B. p. 61 (1889); ShaTpe, Cat. Otteol. &>ee. Coll. Surg. ' 

iii. p. 203 (1891) ; B.Janui, New Litt ChU. B. p. 9,ii. 146 (1882J. 
CSienelopex leucoptera, part., Lett. Tr. d'Om. p. 027 ( cf ) (1831), 
Chenelopei antarctiea, Im». op. cii, p. 628 ( 5 ) (1831) ; id, Compl. 

dt Buff., Oil. 2nd ed. p. 717 a838^. 
.Vnas f anta, Fursl. Icon. ined. t. — iid. Deter. An, (ed. Lichl.) p, 336 

(1844). 
Ta^nidieetes antarctics, iffAni. Av. Suit. SiU. v. ix {1852} ; Bonn. 

Pr.Ar. Philad. 1870, p. 132; ff. S. Gr. Hand-liiC, ui. p. 76, 

0.10585(1871). 
Chlocphaija aotarrtica, ZichC. Nomend. Av. p. 100 (18.54) ; Bp. 

Compl. Rend, iliii, p. (148, ii. 23 (1856) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1868, pp. 527, 

62P (Fftlkknds) ; Sdat. ^ Salv. Hm, 1869, p. 284 (Port Otway), 

IHTO, p. 4flS(OiM>d8Biiv); Gigl. Viagg. Magenta, pp. 027, ^ 

M2, »M,947 (1876); Vnc(. i>K*. o/ S. p. 376 (pt 2, 1893). 
Barnitla h^brida, PA. «■ Lmdb. Wuym. Ard>. 1863, i. p. 199 

(Qote). 
Atwz (Brentbiu) antarctic us, A^nw. Om. CmTroIU. 1882, p. 36; 

id. Voff.Bxtl. OUrt. p. 64 (1882). 
TanddiMthea antarctiea, IlfUi. ». ReAnuj, Norn. JUta. Hein. Om. 

p. Si2 (1890). 
Bendcla (Chloephaga) antarctiea, Outt. Mitt. 8c. Cop Horn, OU, 

p. 196 (1891). 
Braota antarctiea, Hartert, Kal. Vojui*aimd. p. 227, n. 3364 

(1891). 

AdtiU male. Entirely white : " bill black, with a yellow spot at the 
baae; tamus and feet yiJlow; iridesgreyiah brown" (Gi;/iioK, J/,S',). 
Len^ about 2A inches, wing 15, tail it, culmen 1-5, tarsus 2'T5, 
. FttnaU. Brown-black ; upper part of the hojid and anpe brown ; 
forehead, aidca of tho head, and neck block with narrow white 
banda; appor back, BCapulars, and tertiala brown-black ; lower back, 
ramp, upper tail-cororts, lower abdomen, Tent, under tail-coverta, 
and tail pure whito ; breast, abdomen, sides, and flanks deep black, 
luDdaOmely haired with white ; tower and median wing-coverta. 




182 AMnnsji. 

Kcondaries, and under wing-oorertB irhito ; greater wing-ooverto 
metallic green, fbnning a speculum, tipped widi 'wlute, and with a 
black band before the tip ; primaries and their coverts black : " bill 
fleeh-colonr ; tarsua and feet yellow ; irides grejiah brown " ( Giglioli, 
JUS.). Total length 23 inches, wing 14, tail 5, culmen 1-4, 
tarsus 2-2. 

H<U>. Patagonia, Struts of Magellan to Chiloe, Tierra del Fu^o, 
and Falkland Islands, 

a. (fad. Bt. Antarctic Exp. Capt. King [C.]. 

b. Imm. St Stiaita of Magellan. Zool. Soc. 

c,d. cf $ ad. sk. Struts of Magellan. Sir R. Murchison 

«, /. J $ ad. ak. Port Henry, Str. of Magellan, 



Dr. Copp 



8tT. of Magellan, Not. 
Hermite la,, Oct., Nor. 
Hermite Is., Sept. 

Cape Horn. 



g. PuU. sk. 

A, t. cf £ ad. sk. 

i, /. (f ad. St., 5 

ad.Bk. 
w. cJ ad, sk. 
n-g. (J 2 ad. et 

r. $ ad. sk. 

I. (f $ ad. sk. Falkland Is. {LewnU). 

t. ^ td. sk. Falkland Is. 

u. $ ad. at. E. Falkland. 

V. S nearly ad. st. St. Salvador Bay, Falklauds. 

to. cf ad. ak. Berkeley Sound, Falkland, 

Aug. 
X, Skeleton. 



Falkland Is. 



Antarctic Exp. [C.J. 

Antarctic Exp. [C.l 
Challenger Exp. [CTj. 

Sir W. Bomett & 



Challenger Exp. [C.l. 
Antarctic Exp. tcX 
Antarctic Exp.[C.]. 
McConniok Bequest. 



Chlofiphi^;a nu^eUanica. 




Beraitl* maffeUanico, Steph. Gen. Zool. sii, 2, p. 67 (1834) ; O. S. 
Gr, Oen. B. iiL p. «07, n. (1844) ; Ri^hvb. Syn. A v., Nntatows, 
t 08. f. wa (1S45) : Dea Muri in Oaj/, Sul. de Chile, i. p. 443 
(1848) ; */<tf. /6m, 18S4, p. l:>-2: PeU. Jtei»e Niinara, I'm. v. 136 
(1806) ; OainrnjiA. Ibu, 1868, p. 127 ; Sdat. ^ Sale. P. Z. S. 1876, 
p. 863 ; Dam/. Ibu, 1878, p. 400 (Ohuput) : Sclitt. P. Z. S. 1880, 
p. aKj id. Zut VeH. An. 8tL ed. p. 420 (1883) ; Montiia. SuU. 
Sac Acdim. 1886, p. 165, Ss. p. 167; Tridr. Cat. Coll. S. p. 61 
(1888). 

BemicU bucopiera, Steph. Gen. Zoot. xii. 2, p. 68 (1824) ; Ph. ^ 
lMidli.An.Un.Ch^,%a.v.i2-(\i!m); Od. Wiegm.Arch.lH^, 
i. P.1&4. 

Chenelopax leucoptei*, part.. Lets. Tr. dOm. p. 027 (1831). 

CUoi^tiafn iiuic!<^l]&nic«, Eijt. Mon. Anal. p. 82, p). 1. S. I, 2 
(tncbu) (1^1: G. R. Gr. List Gen. S. p. 7a (1840) i Jjarw. 
Yog. ' BeagU; ill. p. 134 (1841) (Tierro delFuego and Falkland 
lal.); Sartl. 8ytt. Ven. Get. Mot. p. 117 (1844); G. Jt. Gr. 
LUt B. Brit. Mas. p. 126 (1844); Sartl. Ifaunumnia, 1853, 
p. 292 ; LirAt. Norn. Av. p, 100 (1864) ; Sp. Compt. Bend, xliji, 
p. 648, a. 22(1866); SdiU. P. Z. S. 1&57, p. 128, 1858, p. 289; 
Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 96 (egg) ; Sefa(. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 387 
(Bjn. erarnd. P) : Abbott, Ibii, 1861, p. 167 (FoUtland IbIJ ; Sdat. 
IbU, 18tM, p, 122; Sclat.^ Saiv. I6i», 1868, p, 189 (StTidtti of 
MaftpUnri) ; &dat. P. Z. S. 1808, pp. 527, 629 (FiJkUnds) j W. * 
Landb. Cat. Av. (M. p. 40 (ISBB) ; ScM. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 620 
(bftwding) ; mt. Sm. Anat. p. 27 (I860] ; Seial. ^ Salf. Ibit, 1870, 
pp. 409. 600 (EUialieth Isla) ; Bonn. Pr. Ac. Phiiad. 1870, p. 131 ; 
G. S. Gr. Btmd-litt, iii. p. 77, n. 10586 (syn. emend, F) (1871) ; 
Selat 4- Sale, ^^l>m. Av. Neotrop. p. 128, n. 1 (pwt.) (1873) ; Oigl 
ViasS- Magenta, p. »61 (187R) ; Oarrod, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 198, f. 2 
(»kaU); Sdat. P. X S. 1870, p. 310 (ngifs) ; Burm. Anal. Mm. 
Sac. Buen. Airee, iii. p. 247 (I8ce) ; Rogtron, Bidl. Hoc. Aod. 1888, 

SI. 12-21 ; Sbirpe, (Mt. Otteol. Spec Coll. Surg. iii. p. 293 (1881) j 
fwl. £)ut. of B. p. 375 (pt. 2, 1893). 
Anwi'(nrentbus) mageUBii'— ■" "-' — 

id. Vog. sool. GSrt. v. 64 
BemicU (Cliloephagft) n 

p. 187 (18yl). 
OrmntA nia^tlnnicn, Uarteil, 

ami). 



i. Jtchnto. Om. Centralbl. 1882, p. 37 j 
182), 
aiH^Ilaoiai, Oust. Mtta. So. Cap Bnrn, Oil. 

Vugelgamml. p, 227, n. 8363 



H^hruU. 
Btnucln dispar cf K B. magelifmica £ , Sdat. ^ Sato. P. Z. S. 1876, 

f36G, f. a (mule), b (female) ; Seiat. LiU Vfrt. An. 8tb ed. p. 421, 
o(iniae), 6 (female) (1883). 

Adiult male. Wliite; head aad neck nnifoim; eiden and upper 
part of the back witli the lower part of the hind neck barred with 
Uack ; lower back and rump greyish black ; npper tail-coverts 
white; Tent and under tail-coverts white, the latter odged with 
bUekub an the outer web ; Beapulars, tertiaU, and primaries dark 
pry ; smaller and median upper wing-coverts white, the greater 
one* ^ey, od the outer web metallic green with a purple glosa, 
foraing a wing-speculaDi, and tipped with white; secondaries and 
sndor wing-coverta white ; lateral tail-foathera white, the four 
* grej-iflh black : bill black ; irides brown-blaok ; feet 




18< 



AKAIIDX. 



dftrk lead-colour. Total length about 26 inches, ving 16-3, tail 
6*6, cnlmen 1*5, taniu 3*8. 

Female. DiiFerent from the male. Head and neck greyiah lufous ; 
apper back and breast pale rufoae, with black bars; abdomen and 
flanks almoet black, with whitish Ws ; lower back greyish brown, 
rump and upper tjul-oorerts almost black; vent ^d under tail- 
oorerts whitish, the latter stained with brown-black; wing as in 
the male ; tail black : bill black ; irides dark brown ; feet yellow. 
Size a htUe smaller than the male. 

Sab, Falkland Islands, IWra del Fu^o, Uagellan Straits, and 
Patagonia. 



No locality 



of CM 



e. e ad. sk. 

etst. 
t. a ad. St. 

k,l. 9ad.etcf 

juv. sk, 
m. $ ad. sk. 

N. <f ad. sk. 

0. c^ ad. St. 

p-i. (J $ ad. dr. 



ai Is., April (£. /. 
Smith). 
Falkland Is. 

Falkland Is. (LeeonU). 

East Falkland Is., Jvij. 

SL Salvador Bay, Falk< 

land Is., June. 
Berkeley Sound, Falk- 



Sb W. Bmnett & Cast 

Fitarov[P.]. 
H.Dumford,E8q. [P.]. 
Antarctic Expedition. 

Sir W. Bnmett & Cast. 

FitMOT [P.]. 

SalviiHiodman Coll. 

Voyage of H.M.S. 

' Rattlesnake.' 
McCormick Bequest. 

Antarctic Expedition. 

HcCormick Beqneat. 

Maidstone Hoseum [P.], 
K Cross, Esq. [P.]. 




20. CHUeFBAaA, 



1S& 



Ae. yfotrtm. p. 128 (part.) (1873) j Barroat, Auk, 1884, p. 273 

(CMbud). 
Bemicla niagellaoica, Dei Mart (ttec Gm.) in Golf, Hid. ChiU, i. 

p.<43(tt*4r)(ChUoe)i CtoM. C.& ^5(mi. J5jy. ii. p.201,pl. xxiv. 

(li««!) (ChiliJ: &Ai(. P.Z.*. 1872. p. 549 (Rio Negro), 1877, 

pp. SJa, 8W (PutBgonia), 1879, p. 818, 1880, p. 704 ; id. Litt Vert. 

An. 8th ed. p. 420 (part) (1883). 
BeniiclB inorrmtii, t>ti .\tur« in Gay, Hitt. Chile, i. p. 444 (1847) j 

Ph. ^ Lnwlb. An. Un. Chile, ui. p. 486 {18S2) ; iid. ifieffm. 

Ar^. imil.i. p. 199; Sdat.^ Sah. P. Z.S. 1876, p. 367 (note); 

Mmllux. BuU. Soc. Acclim. 1866, p. 160. 
ChloephagB picta, Bp. Compl. Rend, xliii. p. &48, n. 21 (1850) ; 

Bonn. Pf. Ac. PhUad. I87(>, p. lUl ; Gigl. Viagg. Magenta, p. 904 

11876). 
t:Uoephaga inornata, Bp. Con^t. Ratd. xliii p. 648, n. 24 (1S66) ; 

R/l. Svn. Anat. p. 23 (1866); G. S. Or. H<md-(iU, iiL p. 77, 

n. 10588 (1871) : Sdat. ^ Salv. Nonxead. Av. Neotrop. p. 128, 

n. 2 (part.) (1873) ; Sharpe, Zool. Ereb. ^ Terr., Birdi, p. 37, 

pi. 30 (type; (1875). 
Anu inaniaU, Sdat. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 290 (P=maKellMiica). 
Btunicla A\smx, Ph. ^ Laa^. An. Unie. Chile,xii. p. 437(1862); 

iid. ITiym. ArcA. 1663. i. p. 190 ; SeJat. lUt, IBOi, p. 122 j Peb. 

Rtite Navar., FUg. p. 137 (1865) ; HiU. ^ Landb. Cat. An. CkiL 



*«"S: 



aalv. p. Z S. 1876, p. 384 ; Scint. P. Z. H. 1880, p. 503 ; MonOvx. 

BuU. Soc. Aeelim. 1886, p. 159; Burm. Anal. Mm. Nae. Butn. 

Aim, iii. p. 247 (1868) ; Sdat. Arffml. Om. u. p. 123 (pact.) 

(1881t) ; B. Jamei, Amd Lttt ChU. B. p. 9, d. 144 (1^2) ; Lataste, 

Act. Soc. Sc. Oiiti, iii. p. cuii (1894). 
Beniicia antaictica [em>re). Burnt. La Plata-Reim, ii. d. 
Ckloephnro diapar, Selat. Ibis, 1864, p. 122 ; id. P. 

pp. 320, 3*4 (Chili); Eyt. Sifn. Anat. p. 29 (1869); G. R. Gr. 

Sand^itt, iu. p. 77, n. 10687 (1871). 
Anaer ma^llauicui, j«rt., ScAleff. Mta. P.-B., Aiueree, p. 90 (1800) ; 

GM. The$. Om. i. p. 872 (part.) (1872). 
Admt (Brentbiu) diapBr, Jtchnio. Om. CmtroBil 1882, p. 37; id. 

Vog. zool. Odrt. p. 6o (1882). 
Bernii^Ia (Chloephaim) dispar, Oiat. Mist. Sc. Cob Horn, Oia. p. 311 

(1801). 
Berniclti (Cliloepho^) inornata, Ount. op. cil. p. 31S (1891). 

Hffbrida. 

Benuclft dispar cf X B. maKellanica ^, Selai. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 
1876. p, 365, ff. n ,J, 6 $; Sdal. Lid Vtrt. Ah. Slh ed. p. 421, 
K.a ,S,h 2 (1883). 

Rimilnr to C. mageUanica, bnt tbe male has the breast and 
sbdumen much more banded with black. 

The ftmaU has the head and up{ier pBrt^ of the neck of a dull 
gicy, almost without any of the reddish tinge so conepioaotiB in the 
&BUtl« of C. mageUaniea. Dr. Scliiter, in Uie ' A^^entine Ornttho- 
lo^y,' describes the male with the rump (or upper tail-ooverts ?) and 
tail^eatbcre aahy black. I suppose that Uie descriptioD applies 



136 isiTms. 

only to iramatuie birds, as in the original deacription of FhOli^i 
and Landbeck the upper tail-coverts and lateral rectriees are said 
to be whit«. A specimen in the Torin Unseum, evidently moult- 
ing, received from Heosrs. Fhilippi and Loodbeck, has the upper 
tail-eoverte partly black and partly white. 

Foung ntaU. The black tmnds are more nnmerouB, boQi on the 
back and lower parts, bnt not so well-defined as in the adult bird ; 
the speculum is blacldah, with no green lustre (ifiw. Taurin.). 

Bab. Central and Southern Chili, and also Magellan Straits; 
fionthem Argentine Kepnblio ; breeds on the Lakes of the Chilian 
Cordilleras. 



1. 13 sd. St. 
i.g ad.di. 

imm.sk. 
«. $ ad. ak. 
/ S f^- ak. 
ff. is imm. et. 



Chili. 

Chili [LeybolO). 

Chili (SMd). 

Chili (iirarf). 

Santiiigo, Cidli (Weitihaupt). 

Straits of Uagellan. 



Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Oodman Coll. 

Zool. Soc. (T™. of 

Aruer momatus, mng.) 



5. Chlofiphaga rDbidicqw. 

Chloephaga poliooephala, part., G. S. Gr. Lut B. Brit. Mm. iiL 

p. 127, spedm. c, rf, ,r (1844). 
BOTnicla inomata, G. R. Or. {nrc King) Zool. Voy. Ereb. ^ Terror, 

Birdt, pi. 24 {twe Gen. of B., neque King) (1846) ; Rchnb. Syn. Av., 

Katatoi^, t. 98. f. 947 {ex Voy. Ertb. * Terr.) (18— P); Sel. 

Guide to Gard. Z. S. ed. 5 & 6, p. 16. 
Chloephaga rubidiceps, Sd. P. Z. S. 1880, pp. 387, 415, pi. cbcxiiL 

(Falkland Islauda). 1661. p. 46; Abbott. Ibit, 1861, p. 158 (Falk- 

kud IsUmda) ; iUr;(. Jiu, ISG'I, p. 1:^^ ; id. i\ Z. ti. l.SWt, p. 629; 

G. It. Gr. Hand-lilt, iii. p. 77, n. 1051t0 (1871) ; Sctat. Liit Vet 




20. CHLOfiPHAOA. 137 

upper wing-ooTerts metallic green, tipped with white; bastard- 
wing, primaries, and primary-coverts black; secondaries white; 
tertials and scapnlars brown-grey ; tail black : bill black ; irides 
almost black ; feet yellow, tinged with blackish exteriorly. Total 
length about 23 inches, wing 13*5, tail 4-5, culmen 1*5, bill from 
the commissure 1*5, tarsas 2*5. 

Female. Similar, but somewhat smaller. 

Young birds of the first year assimilate in plumage to the adults, 
except that the speculum of the wing is of dull black instead of 
glossy green (Abbott), 

Hob, Falkland Islands. 

0. Ad. sk. Falkland Islands (Leconte). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

5, e. Ad. sk. Falkland Islands. Tweeddale Coll. ' 

d, S ad. sk. Falkland Inlands, July. McCormick Beouest. 

e. Ad. sk. Falkland Islands. Antarctic Expea. 

(Type of the species.) 
/. Imm. sk. Falkland Islands. Antarctic Exped. 

y, A. d ad. sk. St. Salvador Bay^ Falkland Antarctic Exped. 

et ad. St. Is. 

i, Skeleton. Falklands. Zool. Soc 

G. Chlo^phaga poliocephala. 

Bemicla inomata, G. R. Gr, {nee King) Gen, B. iii. p. 607, n. 6 
(svn. emend. )y pi. 166 (1844) ; Bchnb, Sgn. Av,, Natatores, t 98. 
f."946 {nee 947) (ex Gray) (1845) ; Hartl Erst, Naehtr, Voget- 
samml. p. 19, n. 216 (1846); Ca»s, Vn, St, ExpL Exp., Mamm, 
4- Dm, p. 337 (1858; (Tierra del Fuego & Falkland Isl.) ; Sclai, 
Ibis, 18o9, p. 327. 

Chloephaga poliocephala, G, R, Gr. List B. Brit, Mus. iii. p. 127 
(part., specmi. a, b) (1844) (descr. nulla): Sclat. P. Z. S. 1857, 
p. 128, 1868, p. 290 ; Gould, P. Z. S. 18591 p. 96 ; Sciat. P, Z. S, 
1859, p. 206 (incubation), 1801. p. 46 (Falkland Isl.) ; Abbntt, 
Ibis, 1861, p. 159 ; Sciat. Ibis, 18lU, n, 122 ; id. P. Z. S. 1867, 
p. 335 ; Sclaf.. ^ Salv. Ibis, 1868, p. 180 (Oazy Harbour) ; Cunningh, 
Ibis, 1869, p. 233 ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 629 (breeding) ; Eyt, 
Sun 
Cfra 
list 

p. 128, n. 2 (part.) (1873) ; iid. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 436 (Gray Harbour, 
Tom Harbour) ; Gigl, Viagq. Magent. pp. 9^3, 937, 943, 946 
(1876); Sclat. P. Z. S. 188*1, p. 813; Shufeldt, Pr. U.S. Kat, 
Mus, X. pp. 383-384 (skull) (188/ ). 

? Anser leucopterus, Licht. (nee Gm.) in Forst. Descr. An. p. 834 
(1844). 

? Chloephaga leucoptera, Licht. (nee Gm.) Xoni. Av. p. 100 (1854). 

Chloephaga inomata, Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 648, n. 24 (1866). 

Bemicla poliocephala, Sclat. Ibis, 1859, p. 328 ; Pflz. Reise Novara, 
Vog, p. 136 (1865) ; Burm. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 360 (Bahia Blanca) ; 
Sclat. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 549 (Rio Negro) ; Sciat. ^' Salv. P. Z, S. 
1876, p. 366; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, p. 400 (Centr. Patagonia) ; 
S4at. P. Z,S, 1880, p. 503; Scl. ^ Salv. Vog. Chall., Birds, ^. 107 
(1881) ; Sclat. List Vert, An, 8th ed. p. 422, n. 962 (1883) ; 




Montba. BuU. Soc. Atxlim. 1886, p. 160; Bwm. Anal. Mtu. 

Nac. Even. Airet, iii. p. 247 (1888) ; Sdal. Argttit. Onu iL p. 134 

(1889) ; Triitr. Cat. Coil. B. p. 61 (1889) (Puerto Buwio) ; 

B. James, Nev, List ChO. B. p. 9, n. 146 (1892) ; Solat. P. Z. 8. 

1893, p. 472 (breeding). 
BerniclB chOoenais, Phil. ^ Landb. An. Umn. ChSe, xxi, p. 427 

(1862) ; iid. Wkgnt. Arck. 1863, i. p. 149 (Chiloe); Sdat. Ibu, 

1864, pp. 121, 122 ( =poli(M»phAk, Gr.) ; Phil. ^ Lamdb. Oat. Av. 

aUL p. 40 (1668). 
Aaser polioceplislus, Schieg. Mu*. P.-B., Ajueiea, p. 101 (1866) ( 

GiA. Tha. On,, i. p. 378 (1873). 
Chi«tuut>breaBted Gd<we, Cunmngh. Ibi», 1868, p. 127. 
Ohloetropliiw poIiocephaluB, Barm. Pr. Ac. Philad. 1870, p. 181. 
ADMT^^DthuB) poUocephaluB, BckniB. Om. Centralil. 1882, p. 86 ; 

id. fog. zool. Gart. p. M (1882). 
BrauU poliocephola, Hartert, Eat. VogeUatmrU, p. 227, n. 3S69 

(1891). 
Bernicla (Chloephaga) poliocsplifilB, Ouet. Mitt. Sc Cap Horn, Oit. 

p. 192 (1891). 

Adult, Head and neck greyisb plnmbeoos, paler on the upper 
part of the head ; forehead and periophthalmio feathers vhiti^ ; 
long feathers of the nape tinged with mfons, espedally the lotrer 
onee ; breast and npper back mf oua chestnut, the base of the feathers 
white, banded with black ; these banda more or less showing 
through ; lower back greyish ; ramp and upper tail-coverts black ; 
abdomen white ; sides white, regularly banded with black ; lower 
flanks blacik ; nnder tail-corerts white, but the onter feathers rufous, 
with the outer web black; scapulars mfous grey, with narrow 
transveiee black bands ; lesser and median wing-ooverts white ; 
greater wing-coverts glossy green, with coppery reflections on the 
outer web, forming a distinct speculum, bordered with white 
posteriorly; tertials grojisb broivii with an olirecist; primarieB 




y. $ ad. ik. 
A. $ poU. Bk. 

k. 6 ad-sk. 

f-». ,{ ad.et 

mtlUak. 
^ Ad.ik. 
j,r.l^.Bk.elBU 
*. Skelelon. 



21. ciAifociun. 139 

Alert Bav, W. Const of Pftta- Voyage of H.M.S. 

gonia, Dec. ( J>r. Coppinger). ' Aiert.' 

Port litairj, Dec. (Zfr. Cop- Voyace of IT.M.S. 

pinker), '^ert.' 

NeeehamCove.Str.ofMagellan, Vojage of H.M.S. 



Ora' 



Feb. {pr. C'oppini/er). 
rav Harbour, Mesaiei 

Cnannel. 

am Harbour, Jaa. 



Falkland Is. (Lecontt). 



21. CYANOCHEN. 



' Cbalienger ' Exped. 






CyMOchen, HartLfde Bp. Campt. Bend, iliii. p. 648 

u 10 (1858) C. cjanopteru*. 

uAodwn, &<U9. 18137 (^fiiU G. R. Gr. Hand-lift. 
Hi, p. 76, 1871). 

Jtange. Confined to Abjssima and .Shoa. 

1. Cranocheii cyasopterns. 

Berairla cyanoptern, Hupp. &/*(. Utters, pp. 129, 137, a. 488, t. 49 

iShoa) <1845) ; G. S. Or. Gen. S., App. p. 27 (1849) ; J3« Jtf«r» 

m Ltfrhvre, Viy. Abye». vL p. 16;), pi. iIt. (1943-50) ; ifcAdfi. 

&M. Av. Xomt. a. W. Natatores, t. 90. f. 2351 (1850) ; Heugl. 

&w(. C^cieri. n. 785 (1856) ; id. J. f. 0. 1662, pp. 2D3, 306; id. 

iWni. 0«sff-. 3fd(A. 1669, p, 416; UeugL B^tc nncA Abyu. 

ia61-«^, pp. 309, 317 (1808) ; Eyt. Sifn. Aaat. p, 3a (Hm) ; 

Blanf. Qtvl. Si Zool. Abj/u. p. 430 (1870); Fijuch, Tr. Zool. Soe. 

TU. p. 329 (1670) ; Sclal. P.Z.S. \B80, v- SOi i Selvad. Ann. Mut. 

OV. Gm. (2) i. p. 241 (Shoa) (1884); Mmtlut. Bull. Soe. Avlim. 
^, p. 151, % p. 152. 
Orsnocheii cyuiopteros, Sartl. JSdt Sp. Compt. Bend, xliii. p. 648, 

n. 36 (1866) ; G. S. Gr. Hand-iiit, iii. p. 78, n. 105B4 (1871) ; 

~tin. 4- Sehtw. Norn. Mus. Hein. Om. p. 342 (Woggera) (1890). 
_ JT cyaooptenw. SehUg. Mui. P.-fi,, Aaaeres, p. 06 (1866) ; G«A. 

The*. Om.\. p. 370 (IHT^). 
Bnnta cyaaoptera, Heiigl. Om. N.O.-Afr. ii. p. 1262 (1873); 

Bartert, Kat. VogeUamml. p. 237 (1691). 
ir (Bi«ntbiie) cyanoptera, ifcAnic. Om. Centralbl. 1862, p. 37. 

Adult. Head and neck aahy, somewhat darker on the hind part : 
b*ck, flcapulars, and undorparta browD, the feathora, especially on 
tlie latter, with pale grey edges, producing a mottled appearance ; 
rnnip and apper tail-coverts grey, with a bluish tinge ; under t^- 
OOTcrtB whitish ; upper wing-ooverts load-blue ; primaries and 
twtuuiee gloBay black ; secondaries glossy green, with a nsjrow 
white •dge at the tip; under wing-coverts greyish hrown, the 
whitish: "bill and feet blackish ; iridcs hazel-brown " 
{AMtinori). Total length about 20 inches, wing 15, tail 6, culmei 
1-4, Uitm 2-5&. 



140 

Female. Similar to the male. 

Tw-ng t» dovm. Upper parta bUckiah brown, nDderparts yeUowish 
vhite ; a broad auporciliar}' band, a patch on the scapular r^on, 
a baad acroas the wings and two on the sides and flaDka yeUowiah 
whit* {Mut. Taurin.), 

Bah, Ahyaainia and Shoa. 

a,b. $ ad. at Sboa, May, June (Sarru). India Muaeum [F.]. 

etak. 
c. Ad. bL Shea {Harrit). India MuaeUm [P.]. 

22. CEENONETTA. _^ 

Chenonetta, Brandt, Deter, et le. An. Batt. Nov. i. p. 6 

(1836) C. jobata. 

ChlamTdocheD, Bp. Compt. Bend. zliiL p. 648, gen. II 

(1856) C. jubata. 



Range. Onfined to Anstralia. 

I. (Aenonetta jabata. 
Ilawkeabuiy Duck, I^UA. Sun. Suppl. iL p. 868, %. in frontisraeca 

(1801). 
Anas jubata, iaM, Ind. Or». App. p. kii, n. 3 (1801) i VttULN.D. 

V. p. 110 (1810) i Ihim. Did. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 388 (1817) ; Brandt, 

Ic. An. Boai. Nov. i. p. 6 (1836). 
Ansar aubata (arore), VieiH. Ene. Mfth. i. p. 368 (1823). 
Bernicla jubata, ^epi, Oen, Zool. zii, S, p. 63 (1834) ; Eyt. Mm. 

Anat. p. 80 (1938) ; 0. B. Gr. Om. B. Sii. p. 607, n. 3 (1844) ; id. 

LillB.Brit.Mu/i.iii.p. 138(1844); Gould, B. Atutr. vil -pi IS 

(pt ixi., 1846); Bcknb. Si/n. Av., Natatores, t. 98. ff. 944-45 (1846), 

t 09. ff. l'362-53 (1850) (r.r Goidd) ; Hartl. Brit. Nachtr. Vogel- 
215 (1846) ; Lkht. NomeTicl. Af. p. 100 (1854) ; 




22. CHXNONETTA. 141 

Branta (Chlamydochen) jubata, Rams. Pr, Linn. Soc. N, S. W. 

ii. p. 200, n. 649 (1878) ; id. Tab, List Austr. B, p. 22, n. 660 

(1888). 
Anaer (Brenthos) jubatus, Rchnw, Om. Centralbl. 1882, p. 37 ; id. 

Vog. zool. Gdrt. p. 65 (1882). 
Chloephaga jubata, RogeroUf Bull, Soc. Acclim. 1880, pp. 478-486, 

560-676, with two cuts. 
ChlamTdochen jubatus, Hein. Sf Rchnw, Nom, Mm, Ilein. Om. 

p. Si2 (1800). 
Branta jubata, Hartert, KaJt, Vogtilsamml. p. 227 (1801). 

AduU male. Head and neck rich brown ; the lengthened plumes 
down the back of the neck brown-black ; back, lesser wing-coverts, 
and tertiaries grey ; lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail- 
coTcrts black ; breast grey, each feather broadly tipped with greyish 
white, and spotted with black on each side, giving the whole a 
mottled appearance; sides and flanks grey, delicately pencilled 
with wavy lines of black ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts 
deep glossy black ; scapulars grey, broadly edged on the outer 
web, and narrowly on the inner, with black; a glossy green 
speculum across the secondaries, which are broadly tipped with 
white ; also the greater wing-coverts tipped with white, the white 
tips forming two bands above and below the speculum, which is 
black anteriorly ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and primaries 
gloesy brown-black ; under wing-coverts and under surface of the 
quills towards the base white ; tail glossy black : *' bill olive-brown, 
irides very dark brown ; legs and feet dark brown " (Gould). 
Total length 20 inches, wing 11, tail 4, culmen 1'15, tarsus 1'42. 

FemdU, Similar to the male, but the head and neck paler brown, 
the former speckled with white on the sides of the face ; upper 
parts greyish brown, scapulars and tcrtials blackish on the outer 
webs ; green speculum less conspicuous ; breast, sides, and flanks 
brown, each feather broadly barred and tipped with white ; abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts white. 

Hah. Australia. 

a. fS ftd. 8t. Australia. 

b. S *d. sk. Australia. H. J. Elwes, Esq. [P.], 

c. d!. cJ ? ad. sk. Australia. Salvin-Godman ColJ. ^ 
e. J ad. sk. Australia. Lady Carrington [P.]. 
f-L <J 5 ad. sk. N.W. Australia. Capt. Bowser Bower 

A:. (^ ad. sk. ^^ . Australia. Capt. Sir G. Grey [P.]. 

/. (^ imm. sk. W. Australia, April. Hume Coll. 

m. cf ad. sk. Queensland. Mrs. Simpson [P.]. 

II, o. <J $ ad. St. Murray lliver. Capt. Sir G. Grey [P.]. 



Subfamily VU. ANATIN^. 
Key to iJu Qtnera. 

a. Lower portion of taiaua in front mtlkout 

transverse BcuteUie, but covered witli 

amall reticulate scales 23. Dxmdboctciia, 

b. Lower portion of tarsus in front witt a row [p. 144. 

of transvene scut cUb. 
V, Wing-gpeeulum more or lees coub^ocuoiu, 
but alwaje present 
b". Outer web of tertiola chestnut; upper 
wing-coverts white, except in Chenalo- 
pex jubalta, which has them black; 
sixe rather large. 
fi'. Edges of the bill with no prominent 

lamellffi 24. Chxnalopex, 

c". Edges of the bill with more or less [p. 166. 

prominent Umellie. 
c*. Bill broader towards the tip than 
at the buo ; culmen rather con- 
cave ; l&mellie more developed 
towards the tip of the upper man- 
dible ; lower mandible with the 
lamellm not projecting outwardly ; 

feet flesh-colour : sexes aimilar . . 26. Tadosna, p. 170. 
ij*. Bill not broader towards the tip 
than at the base ; culmen almost 
straight ; lamella eqoallj deve- 
loped along the inner edge of the 
Upper mimdi'bK^ ; kmellte on the 
edge of the lower maiidJble pro- 




JLJXATIVM. 143 

/•. Tertials or inner second- 
aries sickle-shaped; up- 
per and under tau- 
coverts reaching beyond 
the tail; centod tail- 
feathers not lengthened 
beyond the tip of the 

lateral ones 28. Eunbtta, p. 218. 

^. Tertials or inner second- 
aries not sickl^shapedy 
but straight. 
^. Bill not fringed with a 
soft membrane near 
the tip of the apical 
portion. 
g^\ Lamellae of the upper 
mandible quite pro- 
minent; central tail- 
feathers scarcely ex- 
tending beyond the 
lateral ones ; specu- 
lum black out- 
wardly, white in- 
wardly 29. Chaulelasmus, 

A^°. Lamellffiof the upper [p. 221. 

mandible scarcely 
prominent; central 
tail-feathers more or 
less acuminate and 
extending some- 
what beyond the 
lateral ones. 
h'K Bill smaU, and 
gradually taper- 
ing towards the 

tip 30. Mabeca, p. 227. 

t^K Bill moderate, not 
gradually tapering 
towards the tip, 
where it is more 
rounded and com- 
paratively broader 
than in Mareca ; 
scapulars and ter- 
tials longer and 

narrower 31. Nbttion, p. 238. 

A". Bill fringed on the 
edges of the apical 
portion of the upper 
mandible witli a nar- 
row soft membrane. 
t^°. Lamellae extremely 

developed ; wings [p. 287. 

apt for flight 34. Elasmonetta, 

p^. Lamellae moderate ; 

wings very small, [p. 289. 

useless for flight . . :}o. Nbsonbtta, 



f. Tail long, with the central 
feathers Teiy long and acumi- 

/'. Culmen of the bill iihnost 
straight ; speculum broader 
than the light band at the tip 

of the BecoDdaries 32. Dafila, p. 270. 

^. Culmeu not quite straight, but 
somewhat concave i Bpeculum 
very narrow, much narrower 
than the rufeacant band at 
the tip of the secondaries . . 83. P<scilon'btta, 
/*. Upper wing-coverts blue or bluish [p. 281. 

grey 3C. Quebquxdula, 

e". Bill spatukte. [p. '.>90. 

g'. No soft membrane on the sides of 
the bill, towards its tip; upper 

wing-coverta Mue 37. Spatcla, p. 306. 

A*. BUI with B soft membrane on the 

sides, towards the tip 38. MALAGOBHYKCHrs, 

<i. Speculum wanting', combined with general [p. 319. 

colouring greT or greyish brown. 
i'. Tail normal, of mmlerate length ; bill 
rather lung, equal in length to the 
head, not broader at the tip than at 
the Inse ; culmen distinctly concave. . 39. Mabmabonbtta, 
e". Tail very short, bill broader towards [p. 320. 

the tip than at the base. 
f. Bill longer than the head, at the 
base much higher than broad, with 
the culmen much concave and with 
the nwl bent backwards as in Eri»- 

matura 40. StKToxktta, 

^^ Bill about the length of the head, [p. 324. 

neatly as high as broad at the base. 




^^m 23. DEISDHOCTCNA. 


145 ^H 


Keif to the Sjxeit*. 


H 


a. FeatLera of ihe fltmkg nonnul, vii, not xary long ; 


^^1 






a'. Smaller upper wing-coverU deep chestnut. 
s". Anierior part of the bead and throat white. 




»idaata, p. U'i. ^^1 


*■•. Anterior part of head not whit*. 




i*. Upptjr tail-coverU whitish buff, uniromi 




or Fpotied with bkck, 








black walkings 


fiaw, p. i'^. ^H 


c'. Breast mfous-chustDUt, more or lets 




with black markiiiga 


amttata, p. 1S8. ^^M 




javanioa, p. 150. ^^1 


C Smaller upper win^-coTerte not deep chestnut. 




<■", Abdomen and sides uniform black, sbarpiv 
defin-d from the breast, or whitish with 






nazTOw imyith bftTB j quills basally white. 


^^1 


iP. Mantla cbeatnut, uniform with the 




back 


aut»mtalii,^.lSO. ^H 


1^- Mantle (^rinb brown, ahaxply detiaed 




from the chestnut back 


diMobr. p. ^H 


a'. Abdomen and sides not uniform black, but, 




like th^ breast, varied with white or black 




spots ; quills not white basdly. 




f. Upper tail-coverta uniform black ; larger, 




wing 10-5 inches 


arbor«a, p. 102. ^H 


f*. Upper tail-coverta black, with white 




spots or bare ; smaller, wine 6*5 inchea. . 
t. Feathers of the Hanks vorr lung and acuminate ; 


guttata, p. 104. ^H 




under wing-cotetts banded; wing with no 




chestnut mloui; sides of the breast reddish. 




barred with bkck 


^«„-.p.i,r.. ^m 


i . Dendrocycna vidnata. 


H 


Anas vidual*. Linn. S. N. i. p. 205, n. 38 


(1766) (Cartageoa, H 


Jaemiin) ; Jnegmn, Beytr. i. p. 3, n. 2, t. 1 


(1784); Gm.S. N. ^M 


i. a. p. 6S8, n. 38 (1788) ; Lati. Ind. Om. a. p. 8S8, n. 65 0700) ; ^H 


Bono. Ef>f.M4fh.\.o.\SQ [I'm; Hm^. JV. D.t. p. 164(1^16); ^| 


iJm. Did. tk. Xat. vi. p. 383 (1817) ; Wied, Stue nach Una. ^| 


pp. I«3. 168, S07 ( IfcBO), n. p. 109 (1821) ; Lidtt. Fmr. Z»ouW. p. 84 ^1 


(1828) ! SUph. Om. Zool. wi. 1, p. 102 (1824 
p.6»4(1830i Wied, neitr.\y.D.&n (Braxil) 
Tp. 448 (1830) ; TWAad.', Cbtw. Av. iVr. n. 


-, Leu. Tr. eTOm. ^M 


\^2): ^Orb.Voy. ^| 


S^ (Wiegm. Areh. ^H 


1844, 1 p. 315) ; Burm. Tkiire Brw>. iii. p. 434 0856). ^H 


Cward du Maragnon, D'Atibmt. PI. Bnl. n. 80a 


^m 


Canard k face blnnebe, Suf. Hitt. y<a. Oil. 


U. p. 355 (1783) : ^M 


ITAtara, t'oy. (fd. Sonn.]iv. p. 343 (1800). 


^ 


Kp.n»b Duck, part., Lalh. Syn. ui. 2, p. 5S€, n. 69 (1785). ^H 
Au. *4duata fi, Lalk. hd. Om. ij. p. §68, n. 663 (1790). ^1 


I'aM> .ara blauca, D'Azara, Apunt. ui. p. 440, n 

gUftV). 

An»* Wropsia, rieill. (nee Brrhal.) ft". D. v. p. 
Ueodroc-jKna liduat*, Eyt. Mm. Anal. p. flO 


43.5 (1805) (Para- ^H 


16 (1816). ^1 


(1838); ». if. 6V. ^1 


TOt. XJTU. 


J 



Z*rt B. Br. JftM. iii. p. 132 (Brazil) (1844) ; BarU. Vtrz. Oet. 
Mut. p. 118 (1844) ; 0. R. Or. Gen. B. iii. p. 612, n. 6 (1846) ; 
Bchnb. Syn. Av., Natatorea, t 89. ff. 173-74 (1846) ; Tich. Fatm. 
Per.,A:<ieA,'a.M{\»m-AQ);HarU.Ind.Aiar.Aptmt.-a.^,ii.4S!i 
(1847) ; GA. m Sckonib. Oiaana, iii. p. 762 (1848) ; Bhth, Cat 3, 
Mu». A. 8. B. p. 301 (1849) ; LuM. Tfonuncl. Av. p. 103 (South 
Amer.) (1864); Bp. Compt. Satd. xHii. p. 649, n. 55 (1866); 
Later. Ann. life. A ¥. vil. p. 274 (Cuba) (1860) ; flurm. J.f. O. 
1860, p. 266 (Tucuman) ; id.Za Ptatn-Beitt, ii. p. 615 (Tucuman) 
(1861); Alhrteht, J.f. O. 1861, p. 214; Oandi. J.f. O. 1861, 
p. 344, 1862, p. 179 (Cuba) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 209 (Guiana, 
Brazil, Parapiay, etc.) ; Oiauil. Sepert. Fimeo-Nat. Cuba, i. p. 388 
(1866) ; L4at. Oil. Trm. p. 609 (Tnnidad) (1860) ; Scht. 4- Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1866, p. 200 (Ucayali) ; Sehkff. Mm. P.-B., Aaserea, p. 90 
<1866) ; Sdat. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 160 (Rep. Arg.) ; Bs/t. 
Son. Anat. p. 61 (1869) ; Peh. On. Bra*, pp. 318, 469, Iviii 
(1870); Seinh. Meddd. Fork. 1870, p. 21 (Brazil); O. B. Or. • 
Hand-lut, iii. p. 79, n. 10613 (1871); Burm. P. Z. S. 1872, 
p. 367 ; Sdat. ^ Sah. P. Z. & 1873, p. 304 (Ucayali) ; iid. 
Ifomenel. p. 129, n. 5 (1873) ; Cout*, B. If.- Wat, p. 669 (1874) ; 
Chatdl.J.f. O. 1875, p. 377 (Cuba); Gieb. Thet. Orn. ii. p. 31 
(1875) ; Sdat. i^ Sale. P. Z. 8. 1876, p. 376 ; Durvfird, Ibis, 1878, 
p. 64 (BuenoB Ayrea) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 6(W ; Rcknv>. Om. 
Centram. 1882, p. 22 ; Sdid. Lut Vert. An. 8th ed. p. 426 (1883) ; 
B., B., Ii- R. Water-Birdi 2f. Am. i. p. 481 (1884) ; Gary, LUt B. 
W. Ind. i. p. 30 (1886) ; Salv. Ibis, 1886, p. 172 ; Tacz. Om. Pir. 
iii p. 471 (Paru) (1886); Bmtt, Sev. Cienl. Univ. ftnir. Venez. 
i. p. 43 (Veneauela) (1887) ; Berl. J. f. O. 1887, pp. 33, 124 
(Paraguay) ; Ridow. Han. N. Am. B. p. 110 (1887) ; Cory, Auk, 
1888, f. 60; id. S.W. Ind. p. 261 (1889) ; Fetid. Ibii, 1889, p. 600 
(Barbados) ; Selat. Argmt. Om. ii. p. 128 (1889) ; Bartert, Eat. 
VogebammJ. p. 228, n. 3384(1891) ; Kerr, Ibit, 1892, p. 146 (Lower 
Pilcomayo) ; Berl. ^ Stolxm. P. Z. S. 1892, pp. 399, 408 (Peru) ; 
CAapm. Bull. Am. Mvt. Hat. Hitt. 1894, p. 82 CTruudiKl.) 




23. DEirrBOCTCKA. 



147 



Bfugl.J.f. 0.1863, p. 164: i7artm. iWrf. p. 463 ; HarllP.Z.S. 
1S63, p. lot) (Kaieh, E. Africa) ; Rock ^ E. Neict. Jbit, 1863, 

£174 (Madnmcar) ; E. j\'e»(. ibid. p. 452 (inttoduced in 
auritiuB) ; &£if. P.Z.S. 1864, p. 114 (Menin^E. Afr.),p.299; 
Antin. Cat. Deter, f. 113(1864); Sarin. J./. O. ISM, p. 160; 

A. Ntwt. P. Z. 8. Ifm, p. 837 (Madagascar); Tini. Tw. d 
Madm/. p. 4 (1866) ; Sehlis- P. Z. S. 1866, p. 426 (Mad^ascar, 
Reunion, Mavotte) ; id. Mat. P.-S., Anseree, p.OO (1866) ; £iyard, 
Birds S. Afr. p. 349 (1867) ; Grand. Rev. ft Mag. Zool 1868, 
p. 6; ScAlrff. ^ Poll. SecA. faun, de Madag. p. 143 (1608); 
Oiapm. Trav. & Afr. ii. App. p. 423 (1868) ; -Hwiffi. ftrmn. Geogr. 
Mitth. 18(10, p. 413 ; id. Jteue m d. Geb. d. WeUs. NU, 1863-64, 
pp. 6], 384 (1880) ; Finich ^ Hartl. rUg. Ost-Afr. p. 800 (1870) ; 
O. S. Or. Band-lilt, iii. p. 79, n. 10613 (part) (1871); Andern. 

B. Damara Land. p. 338 (1872) ; Savl- Om. N.O.-Afr. iL 2, 
p. 1298 (1S73) ; RchnD. ^ Lahder, J.f. 0. 1873, p. 211 ; Edmui. 
J./. O. 1874. p. 374 (Gold Coast) ; Bartl. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 68 
{Hftdagucu) ; Bocagt, J. f. O. 1876, p. 394 (HoMoniedes), p. 434 
(Biasao); ficAnw. J.f. O. 1877, p. 11 (Loango) ; JlarU. Vog. 
Madag. p. 358 (1877); Fitch. ^ Rc^w. J.f. 6. 1878, p. 318 
(Ori-Tana); Fiteher, ibid. p. 2IW, 1879, pp. 295, 296; ScUU. 
P. Z. S. 1880, p. E09 ; SMI. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 601 (Vgogo) ; Sah. 
Cbt. B. Strickl. CoB. p. 580 (Kordofan) {1882) ; BWiS * JW». 
BtUr. Om. 8.-Afr. p. 328 (1882); MUne-Edto. ^ Grand. Oil. 
Madag. p. 729, pi. cctotv. f. 6 (head) (1882) ; Sharpe, Layard^t 
B. S. Afr. p. 751 {1&84) ; id. Joum. Linn, Soc., Zeof. xrii. p. 441 
(Njam-Nyam) (1884) ; Salrad. Am. Mm. Cic. Gm. (2) i. pp. 242 
(8ho«), 270 (Lake Oto) (18*4) ; Bohm, J.f. O. 1885, pp. 38, 62, 
66, 67,113; FitcA. ibid. f.U5; fiH^if. /i«, 1885, p. 414 (Sgwali) ; 
BarteH, J.f. 0. 1886, p. 612 (Niger-Ben ue ) ; Duboi*, BvU. Mut. 
Sev- fB. y. Selg. iv. p. U9. n. 192 (1886) (Tanganyika); 
Ayrtt. Ou, 1867. p. 64 ; Itchnw. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 46 (Kageh!) ; 
Mafiekit. J.f. O. 1887, pp. 137, 144: Skell. Ibu, 1838, p. 307 

Suignni): Sahad. Aw. Mia. Cit. Gen. (2) vi. p. 320(1886); 
utr. Oif. CU/. £. p. 51 ( 1S8S) ; £enJ. /Au, 1892, p. 2-27 (Gambia) ; 

SOrte, Ibi*. 1802, pp. 262, 268, ^70 (MndBgwcar) ; Saivad. Mem. 

B. Ac. Se. Tar. (2| ilJv. p. 561 (Somali) (1894) ; Sehnw. VSg. 

Di-uttch-Oa-Afr. p. 27, fig, p. 28 (1894). 
Dcodtocvgna peraotiata, Wiirtlemb. in Utt.,fidt Bartl, Jardtn^n Qmtr. 

Om. 1850. p. 140; id. J.f. O. 1654. p. 304; Bp. Compt. Bend. 

xial. p. 649, D. 64 (1856) ; Kirk, Jbit, 1861, p. 338 (Zambesi) ; 

a-Aw. J.f. O. 1830. p. 107 (Kamernn), 
Ucndrocygnua viduatus, Brehm, J.f. O. 1855, p. 488. 
Dcndrocygua viduato personata, Rehnw. J. f. O. 1689, p. 281} 

(Quilimane) ; BarUrf, Eat. VogeUomnd. p. 228. n. 3386 (1801) ; 

Bikntc MiOh. Naturh. Mut. at Hamb. x. p. 6 (Qiuliaiane) 

(1883).* 

* I ban verj little doubt that the rolluwing refsrencea belong lo Ibe pteseat 
nMiW; SonDarat'a bird, (rhiob luu never been properl; ideDtified, va< probnblf 
»«D lb Cap* of Good Hope:— 

Im pMite Saroolk it I'iale de LufOn. Sonn. t'oy, Sbuv. Gvin. p. 91, pi. 55 

(1776). 
ItaniUa Teal, Uti. Sgn. iii. 2, p. 557. n. OS (17S5). 

tuDltioolor. Sl-op. Del. Fler. el Faun. IttMbr. ii. p. 92, n. 74 (1786) 
' of). 

enns, Cm. 8. S. i. p. 523, n. 91 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. 



148 AirATn>.s. 

Adtdt, Fore part of t^ head, chin, and spot on the middle of the 
tliToat white ; bock of the head and npper port of the neck black, 
lower neok cheetnnt ; book and ecapulars brown, the feathers of the 
npper part of the bock with narrow fulvooB bars, the feathers of the 
middle part of the back and the scapolan mai^ined with fnlTons ; 
in the oentre of the back a ehestnat patch ; lower back, rump, and 
upper tiul-ooTerts black ; centre of the nnderparts, Tent, and under 
tsu-ooTerts black ; sides and flanks whitiah buff, barred with black ; 
lefMT wing-ooverta chestnut, remainder of the wing-ooTerts slaty 
blac^ the median ones and the tertials with on olive tinge ; quills 
brown-black; tail black; iris dark brown: " bill with nail black, 
with a grey cresoent-like band behind the nail ; tarsi and fert with 
membranes lead-oolonr" {Wud), Total length about I7'5 inches, 
wing 9, tail 2-5, culmen 2, tarsns Id. 

Femalt. Similar. 

IvoMivirt birdt have the middle of the abdomen whitjsh mixed 
witbblaok. 

Tmmg in down. Pale greyish brown above, whiHah below and on 
the sides of the head ; a dark band through the eyes from the 
fbrehead backwards ; a white band across tiie occipnt ; four whitish 
spots on the sidee of tlie back and two lower down on the sides of 
tSe ramp. 

There is no tangible difference between the American and 
African birds ; oocaaionally specimens from both localities have the 
white of the head slightly tinged with fulTous, and the white spot 
on tiie middle of the throat not separated by a black band from the 
iriiite of the chin. 

Bah, Woflt Indies, Sonth America as far sonth as Argentine 
Repnblio, Africa south of the Sahara, and Madagascar. 




w 


"^!^ 


14» ^1 


^M s- 


Brazil. 


Lord Stuart de Roth* ^^H 

.say [P.], ^M 

Solvin-GodmauOolL ^H 


^B A. c^ ML ak. 


Cuvaba, Braii!, March 
Bahia, firniil ( Wwihtra-). 


^B 


SalTin-OodmanColl. ^^| 


^H /. cj' Bd. ak. 


Buenos Ayres, Sept. 


U. Uuniford, B»q. ^H 


^" 


.4/Vicaii tpecimena. 


«. PuU-rt. 


? W. Africa. 


Purchased. ^H 


«. Ad-dt. 


Gamtna. 


H. J. Etwee, Eeq. ^H 


«. Ad.«k. 


Fantee. 


IL V. Bliasett, Esq. ^H 
Shelley ColL ^| 


». Ad. 8k. 


Fmtee (Utiher). 


f-J. d 2 •d. ak. 


Aam, }iayt J. SmxM. 


ShelleT UoU. ^H 


«. .\d.»k. 


Benue B. 


Capt. Mochler Peny- ^H 


f^ V. Ad. It. ot 
•k. 
^^ *. Ad. «k. 


Lake Tchad. 


M^Denham [P.]. ^H 


Njam-Djam. 


F. Bohndorff, Esq. ^H 
F. J JackH.li, Eeq. ^| 
Bhellev CoU. ^H 


^H y.$ ad.sk. 


Lamu, Aug, 


^1 ^ 


HAmboio [Kirk). 


^B d'. Ad.Bk. 

^H »\«',<f. d Sad. 


LAe Shirwa, NyasM-land, 


Shelley Coll. ^H 
H. H. JohuBton, Esq. ^H 


H 


Feb, ( »-%<«). 


■ 


^H •-. Ad. 


Lake NyaiM (f ■>■«). 


Livinirstone Esped, ^^H 


^H /<-5'. Ad.sk. 


Zarabeai [BrwUhaw). 


Shelley Coll. ^H 


^1 A. Ad. .k. 


Zambe»i {Kirk). 


Liviti)r»tone Exp. ^^| 


^H )*. $ Bd. sk. 


Potchefstroom, Nov. (J. 
T<,yhr). 


SHli-iu-Godman Ooll. ^H 


^» »'. Jut. 8k. 


No localiw. 




1 r. Ad. ak. 


Madagascar. 


Purchased. ^H 


wt. Ad. ak. 


We«t of .A-ntananarivo, Uada- 
gnectr, July {Dta-u Coiom). 


TweeddaleCoU. ^H 


I .-. Ad.ak. 


Seebohm ColL ^^| 


^H a*. Skeleton. 


2. Deiidroc7cna fnlva. 


■ 


^1 MHlouin du Kleiique. JJru'o. 0/-». d. p. 390 (Mexico) (1700), ^H 


^H Feofitoped)' 


DBTicana, £rua. ibid. 




^H MeJiimi Pocfaud, XoM. Syfl. ui. S, p. 634 (17Bfi]. ^H 


^H AuM Mva, f?rR. 5. N. i. p. 530, n. 100 (1788) \ex Brluon) ; LaA. ^H 


^H /n/j, Om. 


u. p. 863, n. 79 (171)0) ; Bonn. 


Enc. Mali. i. p. 137 ^^ 


^M (1700) : r>rtU: iV. X>. V. p. 127 (ISIB) ; IHm. Dkt. &. ifat. -n. ^H 


^M p. SSJ (1817) 1 Wasl. Im, 1831, p. 532 (Mexico) ; Wud. BeUr.iv. ^H 


H r«t« TOXO r 


13) (Brazil) ; Bwm. ^nt. Uth. Thifr. Bra*, iii. p. 436 ^H 


negro, Axara, Apmt. iii. p. 443, n. 436 (Pangoay) ^H 


^B (1805} 1 ti, 
^H Anu bicolor 


rov., &nn. erf. iv.p, 344(18091 




, rieiU. fi. D. V. p. 136 (1810) (,j- .^a<ra) ; id. Enc. ^H 


^1 .V«(A. i. p. 


355(ie33>; fi. ^. Gr. ««i. i(. i 


ii. p. 610, a. 17 (1846), ^H 


^H App. p. 28 (1^9); Hartl. Ind. Atara. p. ^, n. 43(1 (1647); ^H 


■ i:^. bu. 


rrin. p. 5U (Trinidad) (ISIW) ; 


£»rm, P. Z. 8. 1672, ^H 


^H p. 870 (Pa»D&). 


J 



Asu TirgatA, Wied, Bate Bnu. i. p. 323 (1820). 

Fnligtda Mva, Steph. Gen. Zool. xii. 1, p. 204 (1824). 

Fuluula biniloT, Steph. I. c. p. 208 (1824). 

DendroDessa fulva, Wt^l. Int, 1832, p. 282. 

Nytoca fulTa, O. S. Or. Qen. S. iU. p. 621, n. 7 (1844). 

Anas sinuata, Licht. in Mut. Berol. (jMe Bp.). 

Anas collvis, Merrem {ntc Donov.) in Eiich u. Qru6. Enc. sect, i. 

ToL zxzT. p. 81 (1841) (iM- Axara). 
Dendrocjgna fulya, Btirtl. Sutt. Vers. Get. Mia. p. 118, n. 8 (Brazil) 

(1844); LicM. Xomend. Av. p. 102 (1864); Bp. Compt. Send. 

xliii. p. 640, n. 68 (1856) ; Baird, B. JV. Am. p. 770 (Oalilbniia) 

(1858) ; id. op. cit. ed. 1860, pi. 83. f. 1 ; iiL Cat. iV. Am. B. 

n. 576 (1859) ; Xanttu, JV. Ae. Pkilad. 1869, p. 192 (Fort Tejon) ; 

Bnrm. J.f. O. 1860, p. 266 (Tucuman) ; id. La Ftata-Seae. ii. 

p. 614 (1861); Sclat. P. Z. 8. 1864, p. 301, 1866, p. 149; Dreu. 

aU, 1866, p. 42 (Texag) ; Covet, Pr. Ac. Philad. 1866, p. 98 

(Amona) } Sehl^. Mut. P.-B., Ansores, p. 87 (1866) ; Moore, Am. 

Sat. iv. p. 126 (1871) (New Orleans, iKiuisiana) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 

1867, p. 687 (Zool. Gard.) ; Sdal. * Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 635 

(Argentina) ; Bluth, Ibit, 1870, p. 176 (=inaior) ; Pels. Om. Brat. 

pp. 819, 459 (1870) ; Q. R. Gr, Sand-litl, iii. p. 79, n. 10616 

(Wl);^!.^.^. Z.S. ]872,p.S67; Ow»,iiy, p. 284(1872) ; »rf. 

Otedt-litt, a. 466 (1873) ; Sdat. ^ Salv. Nomenel. p. 129 (187S); 

Coaet, B. N.' Wett, p. 668 (1874) ; Later. Mem. Boet. Soc. N. B. li. 

p. 818 (1874); Oieb. Thet. Om. ii. p. 31 (1876): Sdat. ^ Salv. 

P. Z. 8. 1876, p. 372 ; Dumf. Hit, 1878, p. 63 ; MerriU, Pr. U.S. 

Nat. Mut. i. p. 170 (1878) ; JfcAnic. Om. Centraibl. 1882, p. 22 ; 
White, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 625; Gmet, Check-litt, 2nd ed. p. 112, 

n. 705 (1882) ; Sdat. Litt Vert. An. 8th ed. p. 427 (1883) ; 

Oauet, Kes, 2nd ed. p. 689, n. 705 (1884) ; Taez. Om. Pir. iii. 

p. 470 (Moyobamba) (1886) \ A.O.U. Code of Horn, and C%<cfc- 

lift, p. 129, n. 178 (1886) ; Bidgw. Mm. N. Am. B. p. 119 (1887) ; 

Bert. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 124; Sdal. Arg. Om. n. p. 126 (1S89); 

Triitr. Cat. Colt. B. p. 51 (W. Mexico) (1889); AUen, Bull. Am. 

Mut. N. H. ii. p. 2I!9 (1689) : S/iarpe, Cat. Osteol. " 




23. DEHDBOCTCRA. 



151 



P. Z. S. 1867, p. 1046 (MadagaecM, Zool. Garf.) ; SehUg. ^ FoU. 

SkL Fam. Madag. p. 161 (1866); \Blyth, IbU, 1870, p. 176 

(=fiilTa) ; Bimgl. Om. N.O.-Afr. u. p. 1303 (1873) ; Gieb. Thtt. 

Ora. ii. p. 31 (MadairasCM) (1875) ; Marti. Vog. Madag. p. 350 

(1877) i Sibrte, Ibis, 1893, p. 270 (Madaf[as»»r). 
DendrocTgna afiicana, G. S. Gr. Hand-iUt, iiL p. 79, n, 10(309 (1871) 

lUugl. Om. N.O.-Afr. ii. p. 1304 (1873); id. ly. cit. ISacAHx. 

p.(acii(l87l). 
Dendrocygafi lulva, Fmtch ^ Bartt. Fog. Oti-Afr. p. 808 (Sen 

Kordofan) (1870) ; Jlewfl. On,. S.O.-A/r. ii. p. 1301 (1873) 

op. cit. Nachtr. p. cicix (1871 1) ; &lat. ^ Saie. P. Z. S. 1876, 

^ 372 (part.) {MadagaMar); Hartl. Abh. Brtm. 1882, p. 216 

(Lado) ; Bolub ^ Pels. BrUr. Om. S.-AJr. p. 328 (1882) ; Sahad. 

Ann. Mut. Cic. Gen. (2) i. p. 243 (Sboa) (1884); Duboix, BvU. 

Mm*, fty. d-Jl. y. de Beig. iv. p, 149, d. 191 (188(1) (Tanganyika) 

Ke/Utte. J./. O. 1887, p. 46 (Kagehi) j Salvad. Atiu. Mw>. Civ 

Gen. (2) vi. p. 320 (Slioa) (1888) ; BcAiiw. Fog. Dailieh-Ost-Afr 

p. 27 (1^94). 
Dendrocycna major, Sdat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 510 (Ewt -Ifiiea, Mada- 

gaecar). 
Ilemlrocygna arcuat8,VRr. major, Milne-Edw. S( Orand. Oit. Madag. 

p. 731, pi. cckiii, (bird), udxiiii., cclxiiy. (osteoIoRT), celxxr. a. 

f.S (head) (1882). 

DtJDdrocvima mojor, Jvrd. Madr. Joum, xil p, 218, n. 377 (1840); 
id. lU. hd. Om. pi. 23 (1843) i G. H. Or. LiU ^. B. Br. Mue. 



i. p, 612, n. 2 (1845) ; Bartl. Erit. 
218 (1846); BIgth, Orl. B. Miu. 



iiL p. 131(1844); id. Gen. i 

yaeAtr. Fogrltamml. p. 19. 

A. S. B. p. 301, n. 1761 (1849) [Lower Bengal) ; Meknb. Sgn. Ao., 

Natatores, t. 100. t 2768 (ez Jerdon) (I860) ; Jerd. B. o/lnd. iii. 

p. 700 (sjn. emend.) (1864) ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 300 (India) ; 

Bfytii, Ibit, 18&5, p. 39 (India), 16W;, p. 149 (India) : SchUg. Mu$. 

P.-B., Anseres, p. 90 (1866) ; Blyth, Ibi$, 1867 ji, 175; Eyt. Sm, 

Ama. D. 59 (evn. emend.) (1869) ; G. B. Or. Sand-Ua, in. p/ig, 

n. 10611(1871); .ffuDi«,A>«te(in(f^(, p. 640(1873); Qieb.Thei. 

Orn. ii.p. 31 (India) (1875); H«me, Str. Feath. id. D.im (Cpf^i 

Pegu) (1875) ; Sflai. If- Salv. P. Z S. 1870, p. 373 ; Wardl. Bona. 

Ibu, 1877, p. 472 ; Br/mw. Om. Centraldl. 1882, p. 22 ; Sclot. Lilt 

Frrt. An. ISlli ed. p. 427 (1883). 
DendrocTgna arcuata, tu. major, Bp. Compt. Band, xliii. p. 640, 

11.53 d (1866). 
Dcndrocygiui fulva, Sdat. * Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 372 (India) ; 

Sume 4- Davit. Str. Feath. vi. p. 488 (1878) ; Hume, Str. Featk. 

rii-p. 463(1879),viii. p. 115,n.953 (1879); Legge, B- qf Qyl. 

p. 1069, 06*. (1880) ; Stone ^ Marth. Game Birdi, iu. p. 119, 

pi. Ifi (1880) : Parker, Str. Feath. is. p. 487 (1881) ; Oatei, Sir. 

Jiath. X. p. 245 (1882) i id. B. Br. Burmah, ii. p. 274 (1883) ; 

Jittmr.yiit4^lMg,(0ate»'ed.),m.^. 2m 11890) i Sartert, Kat. 

VogeUammi. p. 2K. n. 3386 (Calcutta) (1891). 
DendrocTcna major, Sdat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 510 (Indial ; BcHnw. 
Vog. 'd. coot. GhH. p. 60 (1882) ; Tridr. Cat. C-U. B. p. 51 

(Kumcbee) (l!<89). 

Adnlt. Head, neck, and lower parte deep reddish ochraceous, 
into cinnamon oq the flanks, where the longer featbors havo 



152 urnxDM, 

a broad meual stripe of pale ochraoeooB, boidered by dusky ; crown 
ferruginonB, nape with a distiQct brown-blaok stripe, commencing 
at the ocoipat; middle of the neck whitiab, ntiiiately streaked 
with dusky od the edges of the feathers ; prerailing colour above 
brownish black, the dorsal and scapular feathers broadly edged with 
cinnamon colour, giving a barred appearance ; lesser wing-coverts 
chestnut; npper and under t^-corerte huSy whit« ; quills and tail 
dark brown ; " bill bluish black, legs bright slaty blue " (Merrill) ; 
"irides hiown" (Whiu). Total length 18-20 inches, wing 8*10- 
8-90, toil 2-2, culmen 1-66-1-95, tarsus 2-10-2-4, middle toe 2-30- 
2*8. 

Female asaia. 

Yoong bird* bsve reiy little cbeetnnt colour on the smaller upper 
-wing-coTerta : the nnderparts paler ; the upper tail-coverts narrowly 
margined with brown. 

Young in dwnn. Upper parts greyish brown ; lower parts whitish ; 
a white band across the ocdpnt, isteiTupted by the brown band 
-which runs along the hind-neck ; a brown band from the ean to the 
hind-neck ; no white patches on the sides of the back ; a whitish 
band across the wing. 

Sab. America (&om Sontham border of the United States to 
Uezico), and then from TenezQela and Fem to Argentine Republic ; 
Africa south of the Sahara, and Madagascar ; Asia, the greater 
part of India and Rnrmah. 

«. Ad. bL No locality (Sfatutia CoU.). E. Wilson, Esq. [P.]. 

Amtriean tptnment. 

I. (J od. sk. Galveston, Texas, June (7/. -E. Sal rin-Godman Coll, 

Dretser). 

e-h. {? g lul. all. Corpus Cbrieti, _TeMj, May, Salvin-Godiuan Coll. 







23. DENDBOCTC.VA. 153 

\a PUt«, Bueoos Avrea, Nov. Salvin-Godman Coll. 
(B. H". WhiU). ' 

Afriean ipedimm. 
Lasdona, Conga (I. Pelii). Shelley Coll. 

Pslomtd R.. Shirwa Plains, H. H. Jobnston, Esq. 



Aug, (A. rrhyte). 
/-*'. cf 5 id. dt. Lake Shirwa, Feb. {A. WAjfte). 



I 



r Ad. d. 

m'. Ad.ak. 

r*. JTuv. ak. 
«'. <f ftd. »k. 

«t imm. «k. 
(f ad. sk 



Indian apeeirMni. 



Sindh, Dec., Jan. 
nylnibftd. 
Bhawulpoi 
Nepal (Hodgi 
CalculU, Not. 



Dec. 



CalcutlA, Nor., Dec., Jan. 

Feb., March (.4. O. H.). 
Tonghoo, July {R. G. W. R.). 



ft", f". <; 2 ad. LowM Pegu, July. 



[P.]. 
H. H. JoUnaton, E«q. 

[P.]. 

FuKhased. 

India Museum [P.]. 

Hume Coll. 

India MuBeum. 

Hume Coll. 

India Museum [P.I. 

Col. J. Biddulph 

[C.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 
E. W. Gates, Esq. 
[C.]. 
. oaeietoD. 

3. DeodTOc^cna arcuata. 

Anfu javBnicH, var. 8, Uor>f. Tram. Linn. Soe. »iii. p. 200 (1891) 
(Java). 

Abm aicuaU, Cue. in Mii*. Paru • ; Jlonf. Zool. Ret. in JaM, 
pi. 65 (1333) (JftTa); Lea. Tr. d'Orn. p. 634 (1831) (Java); 
yin»ch, Nfu-fSuin. p. 183 (1865) (Port Eednirton, Amboina, 
Celebes, Jnva) : Rouab. Bfitt. naar Gretmnkb. p. 118 (ISTo). 

DeDdroDeiifia arcuata, Wagl. Ini, 1832, p. 382. 

DeudMCTSna aj-cuata, Sw. Ciaiti. B. li. n. 365 0887): ? Hartl. 
Vm. 'Qu. Mui. p. 118 (IHU) ; G. R. Gr. Gen. B. iii. p. 612, n. 1 
fl845) (excl. iyn); OoaM, B. Auitr. vii. pL 14 (1840) j RchtA. 
Vos. XeuAoa. p. 521 (1851) ; ? Roienb. N. T. S. L ixv. p. 256, 
n. 301 (1863) 1 id. J.f. O. 1864, p. 138, n. 301 ; Rana. Ibi», 1665, 
p. 87; Digsl Om. Atutr. pi. 114. f. 2 (pt. xxi, 1870) ; Li^«, B. 
^ Ccy/. p. 10*10 (1830) : SalsaA. Am. Mv». Civ. Gen. nviu. p. 400, 
11.2(18®); Bitu.J.f. O. 1884, p. 919 (S.E. Bijmeo) ; 9 Harlfrt, 
Kat. Vogflmmml. p. 229(1891); Wigtrne. Aeet Pi-li/nrs. p. 69, 
n. 346 (1891). 

Aw badis, S. Mm. Verh. Land- en VaOtenk. p. 159 (1839-44) 
(Moluccas, descr. nulla). 

Deodiocygna Titans, ^fl. MS. ; G. R. Gr. Lift Spec. B. Brit. Mu*. 
iii. p. 131 (1&)4, Mnnitln, deecr. nulla) ; t'liuer, Zuol. Tap. pi. U6 
(1649) (Manilla) : RcAiit/. ^. Av., Natatorea, t. eclxxxvii. f. 2301 
iti Fnter) (1850) ; G. R. Gr. P. Z. S. 1858, p. 198; i<l. Cat. B. 
Vtv Oum, p. 63 (1850) ; id. Cat. B. Trap. hi. p. &1 (Fiji) (I8-S9} ; 
Waa.P. Z.S. 1803.p. 487 (Timor) 1 Selat. P.Z. «. 1864. p. 300; 
Bfyth, Ibit, 1865, pp. 38, 39; Pelt. Nooara Reiie, Vhgel, p. 137 

• Uad«r tbp name at Anasati.-uata. Cur., lliere are six apeeinien» in the Pari* 

II ■III, two belonginn l<i (bif itpeoiia and four to D. jaitaniea, nil ooUected 

t^ UidMDKilt; eridently Cmiar, like Uorifield, did not diiiinguiih the two 




(1866) (Manilla) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 149 ; SMtff. Uut. P^B., 
AnsereB, p. 88(1866); f^£&,/6u,1887,p. 17S; Harti. ^ Fintek, 
Fama Centraipoiyn., Om. p. 211 (1867); Bam*. P. Z. S. 1888, 
p. 388; Bh/th, IbU, 1870, p. 176 ; O. R. Or. Hand-HO, iii. p. 7B, 
n. 1061U (1871) ; La«ard, Ibu, 1872, p. 90 ; WaU. Traiu. Zool. 
Soc. viii. p. 102 (1879) ; Tatedd. Tratu. Zool Sac. iz. pp. 242, 
262 (1876) ; Layard, P. Z. S. 1875, pp. 30, 440 (Viti-Ievu) j 
Girb. Thea. Om. ii. p. 31 (1876) ; Salvad. Ann. Mm. Civ. Qen. 
' (1876) (Bioto) ; Layard, IbU, ?'"" 



iz. p. 4» (1876) (U[oto) ; Layard, IbU, 1876, p. 303; Briiggem. 
AM. natural. Ver. Brent, t. p. 98 (1876) ; Bam». Pr. Lim. Soc. 
N. S. W. i. pp. 77, 196, 217, 386 (1876), ii. p. 200, n. 664 (1877) ; 
D'ASi. Sydn. Mail, 1877, p. 248 ; id. Arm. Mm. Civ. Oen. i. 
pp. 19, 20 (1877) ; id. Ibit, 1877, p. 372 ; Sharpe, Jaum. Linn. Soc 
iiii. p. 606 (1877) ; Tweedd. P. Z. S. 1877, pp. 769, 834, 1878, 
pp. 602, 712, 954 ; Hume, Str. Peath. vi. p. 488 (note) (1878) ; 
Bamt. Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. iii. p. 301 (1878), iv. p. 102, n. 211 
(1879); Ro»enb. Malay. ArcAip.vv. 279 (Gorsm), 373 (Aru, K6), 
664 (New Guinea) (1878-70) ; ITAlb. ^ Salvad. Ann. Mui. Civ. 
Gen. xiv. p. 134 (1879) (Fly River) ; Meyer, Ibit, 1879, p. 144 
(Celebes); ITA^. Nuova Guin. pp. 686, 688(1880); La/ge, B. 
Gyl. p. 1069 (observ.) (1880) ; Tmedd. Om. Workt, pp. 201, 404, 
643,661,602,626,6^(1881); Wardl. Bam*, ibid. p. UQO (18B1) ; 
Be/mte. Om. CentrcMt. 1882, p. 23; Salv. Cat. B. Strichi. CoO. 
p. 631, n. 2586 (1882) ; Bla*. J. / O. 1883, p. 133 (Celebes) ; 
Vorderm. N. T. N. L xliii. p. 133 (JaTH) (1883), ilvi. pp. 222, 
240, n. 462 (Bandjermasain) (1887), ihi. p. 419 (Sumatra?) 
(1869); BoBi*. Tab. Li*t,v.22, n. 666(1888); fBvereU, Joura. 
Str. Br. B At. Soc. 1889, p. 192 (1880) : North, Cat. Neati ^ Eggt 
^urtr.p, 339(1889); Wigkw. Ace* Polyn.-^.m {\^l). 

Dendrocygna arcuata (austnlis), BrJmb. ^/n. Av., Natatorea, t. 91. 
ff. 2660-61 (1850) {ex Gould). 

Uendrocygna arcuata, tax. gouldi, Bp. Compt, Bend, xliii. p. 649, 
D. 63e(1856). 

Dendrocfg-nn arcuala, var. vagans, Bp. Aid. n. 68 <j (1856). 

Dendrocygna badia, G. it Gr. P. Z. 8. 1800, p. 366 (Moliiccaa). 




155 

alinoBt white ; back and scapulars blact, witli the edges bright 
rnfons-cbestnut, on the npper back the block part of the feathers 
with rufouH spots or bars ; rump black ; median upper tail-coverts 
black, the lateral ones bufly wliite, more or lees spotted with black ; 
brast pale rufoun, each feather with black dots or crescent-like 
spots in the middle, and shading into the bright rufous -cbestnut 
of the abdomen ; lower abdomen and the under tail-coveits whitish 
buff, the latter uniform, but the abdomen with brown spots ; the 
fe«thera of the flanks with broad mesial bufiy uhite streaks, edged 
with black : lesser and median wing-coverts bright chestnut, the 
gr««t«r ones, t^uills, and tail black : irides brown ; bill blackish or 
daik ash}: ; tarsi and feet dark ashy. Total length about 17>ncheB, 
wing 8-5, tail 2'8, culmen 1-7, tarsus 1-85. 

Frmatt similar. 

Uaf,. Philippines, Celebes, Borneo. Java, Timor, Sumba, Molucoaa, 
New Gninea, Australia, New Caledonia, and Fiji Islands. 

m, i. Ad. St, Manilla, Philippine Is. CumingColl. (Type 

of Deudrocyana vagatu, Eyton.) 

e. S jnv. ak. Cntbalugan, Samar, April. L. L. Moselev, Esq. 

[0.]. 
4 «. cf mL et Cebu, March, April (A. E. Tweeddale CoU. 

jii». ak. Everett). 

/. iS ad.ak. S- Lejte, Sept. (A. E. E.). Twceddale Col], 

y. A. rf J ad. sk. Arnparo, July {A. E. B.). TVeeddole Coll. 

.; *, t 2 ad. et N. Bohol,Oct.,NoT. (A.E. E.). Tweeddale CoU. 

(J 2 jUT. Sk. 

at, ■•■ ij *d. et SiquijoT, Feb. 

St $ ad. sk. Zamboanga, April [A. E. E.). 

p. Ad. A. N. Mindanao [A. E. £.). 

f. ^ ftd. ak. Maliniaui, Nor. 



y 



MskaMor (A, R. Wallace). 



£. L. Moseley, E«q- 

Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
E. L. Moselev, Esq. 

[CO. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
A. R. Wallace, Esq. 

[P.]- 
H. J. Hives, Esq. 



Indi 



Museum ri'.]. 



m. Aa. ak. 

lSad.ak. 

^, V, tf. Ad. et 

inr. ak. 
if, %'. Ad. ek. 
/, /. S ad. rii. 

«tad. St. 
A-. Ad.s]i. 

e, k: Ad. sk. 

r. AA-tk. 



(Type of Horsfield's plat*), Zool. Rts. pf. 65.) 

Java (Horrid). India Museum [P.]. 

(One of the types of Anatjaeankv, sar. j3, Horsf.) 

E. Timor {A. R. W.). Tweeddale Coll. 

E. Timor. A. R. Wallace, Esq. 

[P.]. 

I. Salvin-Oodman Coll. 



lAwr«iiceR.,AustmiiR(/n^ 
Port Esaington. 



Salvin-fioduiBQ Coll. 
J. B. Jukee, Esq. 



^L r. Ad. tj 



Now Caledonia. Tweeddale Coll. 

Viti Levu, Fiji Is,, Sept. (/. Vovage of II.M.8. 

X*. Mac<lof,ald). • Alert.' 

Kandi, Rji Is. {E. L. Layard). Seebohm Coll. 



4. DendrocTcna JftTiuoa. 

Anas jayuiica, Hor^. Tr. Zarm. Sac. xiiL p. 199 (Java) (1821). 

Adbb Mcuata, part. Sorif. Zoot. Rt». in Jaca, text of pi. 66 
{1822J; Syka (nee Cuv.), P. Z. 8. 1831, p. 125. 

Anns Bp., Saffi. Tr. Linn. Soe. xiii. p. 3al (SunaBtre) (1822). 

Mareca swsuree, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 166 (Dukhun) ; Leu. Ooa^L 
de B^., Oit. ii. p. 634 (1837); id. ap. dt. 2Qd ed. p. 721 (1838). 

Dendrocjgna arcuata, Sjb. [nee Cw>.) Clatt. S. ii. p. 86J) (Java) 
(1837) ; Eut. Moti. Anat. p. 108 (1838; ; Sodgt. m Oray'a ZaoL 
Mite. p. 86, n. 581 (ISM) ; O. R. Or. Litt »*m. B. Brit. 
Mus. ill. p. 131 (1844): id. Gen. B. iii. p. 612, n. 1 (Bvn. 
emend.) (1845); id. Cat ^c. Bodgi. QiU. B. M. p. 144 
(1846) ; Blyth, Cat. B. Mta. A. S. B. p. 301, n. 1762 (1849); 
Selaart, Frodr. Cat. ■p. 136 (1862) (Ceylon); ?Licit. NomeneL 
Ac. p. 102 (Bengala, Java) (1654) ; Ij^ard, A-an. ^ Mag. N. H. 
liv. p. 269 (1854) ; G. R. Or. Cat. Spec. Hodgi. CoU. B. M. 
2Dd ed. p. 76 (1863) ; Sciat. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 224 (Baajei^ 
miuuiiiiK),1864, p. 300 (port.); BIgth, Ibit, 1865, p. 89; Atf. 
BeiaeNaoara, Voget,-p.iSJ (Java) (1865); SchUg. Mm. F.-B., 
AnMrea, p. 89(1866); Blfth, Ibit, 1867, p. 175; Egt. StgmL 
Oiteol. Av. pi. — (1862) ; id. Sgn. Anat. tv 60 (1869) ; G. R. 
Or. Sand-lilt, iii. p. 79, n. 10608 (1871) ; Hume, Str. JVatt. L 
p. 260 (Sindh) (1872-73) ; Anderi. Ibit, 1874, p. 222; Hume, 
/fettt and Eggs, p. 639 (1873-74) ; Salead. Ucc. Bom. p. 362 (part) 
(1874); Hume, Str. Feath. ii. p. 316 (Nicobars) (1874); BaU, 
ibid. p. 437 (1874) ; Hume, ibid. p. 483 (TenuMrim) (1874) ; Bli/th, 
B. Bum. p. 166 (1876) ; Oieb. Thet. Dm. ii. p. 30 (part.) (1876) ; 
JTonH. Jtow, /iw, 1877, p. 472; Oatei, Str. Ftath. v. p. 169 
(1872) ; Rdtnw. Om. Omtralbl. 1882, p. 22 ; Salv. Ott. B. Striekl. 
CoU. p. B31 , n. 2685 (1682) ; Forrf^rm. K T. K I. sliii. p. liH 
(Java) (1883); ? B/a-. J. /. O. 1884, p. 219 (BanBkavi Lake); 
Graboioky, Omit, 1885, p. 163 (Bangkau, S.E. Botn«o); A. 
Mutt. J. f. O. 188.-), p. 162 (Salnnjra): Vordfrm. N. T. If. I. 




23. DESDRocrcNi, 



157 



I 



p. 1S8 (Ceylon) ; Srebk. IbU. 1887. p. 181 (Loo-choo Id.) ; »vn. 

Pr. U.S. Nat. Mug. x. ji. 3ilT (Loo-cLoo I.) (1887) ; id. ZeiUckr. 

gc». On. 1S87, p. im ; Slpait, Ibis, 1869, p. 44^ (Sliaogbu) ; 

Bluett, Jmtm. fitr. Dr. R. At. Sae. 1889, p. 102 ; Hume, NeHi 

j- Efp* lOata' ed.), iii. p. 381 (1800) ; Seebh. Birds Jap. En^. 

p. 2W (1890) ; HarUrt, Kal. FcmUammi. p. 229 il8»l) ; SAarpe 

Cat. Otlrol. Spedm. Coll. Surg. id. p. 'M (1891) ; SickeK. I6ii, 

1804, p. 225 (Cliina). 
i)eDdro(-vgDa arcuatA, vni. minor, Bp. Compt. Itfod. xliii. p. 649, 

li.fi3A(l&jei). 
Dendrocvwui wcuaU, part., Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 610 (India) ; 

Sehni: V6g. der tool. Giirt. p. 69 (1882). 
t)a)<Iroe;ciUi JAVauica, Sah-ad. Om. Pap. e Mol. iii. p. 388 (1882) ; 

Oigl. Atif. Ital. p. 301 (1880) ; Salvad. £1. t'er. Ital. p. 256 

(1887) : Si. Ann. Mh.. CSi: Gfn. (2) ir. p. 616 (Burmah) (1967) ; 

Gigl. loin. Avif. Ital. pt-iixiv. pi. 416 (1867) ; G^l, Prima tUtar. 

Avif. Ital. pi. 1, p. 40.5 (1889), pt, 2, p. 36 (1800). 

Adah. Fnrchcad, oroim, and occiput brown, more nifotu on the 
loreheail : sides of tho heail and nock palu greyish fulvotts, darker 
oa the hind-neck ; chin and throat whitish ; back and scapulars 
dvk brown, each feather broadly edged with rufoiu ; rump black ; 
upper taU-coverts chestnat ; breast yellowish ochreoua, shading 
gradually into the light chestnut of tho lower plumage ; feathers of 
the fiankH fulvous-brown, with white-fulvous streaks along the 
middle ; axillarief brown-black ; under tail-coverts whitish fulvous ; 
le&ser and median upper wing-coverts chestnut, greater coverts und 
ijuills ashy black, the quills darker ; tail brown : " bill, legs, and 
fe«t brownish blue, the nail of the bill nearly black: iris brown ; 
evelids bright yellow ; claws bluish hom-colour" {Oatet). Total 
length about 16 inches, wing 7'0, tail 2-3, cuLmen 1'9, tarsus 1". 

Pemalt. Similar. 

Bab. India, Ceylon, Indo-Burmeae countries, Siam, Cochiflchiaa, 
Cldiia, Loo-choo Islands, Ualay Fouinsula, ijnmatra, Borneo, and 
Jan •. 



a, Juv. St. 

A. Ad.«k. 
«, 2 wLak. 

rf. Ad-ik. 

«. 9»d.*k. 
f,0,K AA.» 

•it. 

I. Ad.etjui 




India {Btyth). 

E, Narra, SindU, July (£ 

A. ButlfT). 
Oodrn, Pniieh AlehoU, Sept. 
Jhaneee, >^pt, 
av. Etawnb, Au^. 

sk. OuJh. 

Oudh, Dec. 
ad. Snugor, Central Provinces, 
Aug. to Dec. 



Hump Coll. 
nuwe Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Capl. SWckl 
Pinwilt ri'.i 
Hum^ Coif. 
Hume (.'ull. 



■ Ue iMt tpccitDBU ia tb» lilt belo*. b; mistalre nod irith a quer;, u 
'' * u frMn the ititcriur of Afrios {Major Denhamj. It is importAQt to 

at 111* only tpwia of Vtndnevavt reoordetl m ojBt with during the 

I Jonnxy of Dnttiaw aud CUppertun i> D. viduata. 



»,t,u. Ad. »k. 


et 


Nepal. 


B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

DiuaMuseum [P.l 
ndia Museum [P.l 
HumeColL 


ir-y. Ad. flk. 
c Ad.Bk. 
«'. Imm. ak. 




N«i*l(if.H..Hbiy»«). 

Darjeelinff. 

Bbotan Terai, Jan. {£. 

Jtfmafcfli). 
fibotan Doan, Jan. (X. Jf.). 
Aseam. 
Dollab, Aaaam, May {/. 

Dipur Bbeel, Assam, Nor. 

(A. W. OumneU.). 
Suddya, Aaaam, March, 

April {J. C). 
Klkouahah, Cwhar {J. 

Sa^pur, April. 
Maunbhoom, Feb. {R. C. 
Beavan). 

Calcutta, Feb. 


b: Jut. ik. 
e. Ad.8k. 
<r, e". {J 2 mL ak. 


Hume Coll. 
Tweeddale CoIL 
Hume Coll. 


/,/. rfSjav.Bk. 

A'-f . (J ad. et ad. 

ak. 
»'. Ad. ak. 


Tweeddale ColL 
Hume Coll. 
Hume ColL 


n'. Ad. ak. 
n\ S ad. 8k. 
p-. ?ad.ak. 

?■. rf ad. ak. 




India Muaeum [P.]. 

IlumeCoU. 

H. J. Hires, Esq. 

Col'j. Kddulph, 

H. J. Eiwea, Esq. 


r'. <J ad. ak. 




Calcutta, Jan. [J. Andtrton). 


V. cJ ad. ak. 

*'. Ad. 8k. 

tt'. Ad. ak. 
i/. Ad. ak. 

w'-i'. Ad. ak. 


et 


CAlewtU.,Feh. (J. Biddulph). ri^dale ColL 

dency {Major WymA). 
Dacca. Hume Coll. 
Deccan (^ke>). India Museum [P.], 

(Type of ATareca awturee, Sykea.) 
Deccan (S^lx,). India Muaeum [P.]. 


a". Ad. ak. 
6". 2 ad. Bk. 




Ceylon. 

Gianfa Tank, Ceylon, Feb. 


Dr.J.KBl«art[C.]. 
Hume Coll. 




«», a>, e*. Ad. et 

iu*. ^ 
rf'.f'.A <JS ad. 

•k. 

J», *». rf 2 Bd. Bk. 

I'-w". (f ? Ml. ak. 
«*,«*. <J ad. et 

jUT. d(. 

jH. Ad. i. 



2 J. SBKDUOCTCKA. 

Loo-choo Is., Aug. (JT. 

iVjw). 
Kossoom, Apiil, May {J. 

Darling). 
Port Blair, S. Andaniftns, 

Mny (ii. J. Wimberlen). 
Triokiit Is., Nicobare, teb., 

March { W. D.). 
Trinkut Is.. Jan. (fl. j: »'.). 



ProT. Welleeley 
Hnimg {Dr. Cantor). 



{Dr. 



T*. Ad. sk. 
/■. Ad.ak. 

I*. Ad.at. 
a*. S mL ek. 
«*. Ad. ct. 



Suwatra ( Carl Hock). 
Java {HortfieUl). 

Jnvn {? Jlortfield). 
Java ifliorf/). 
[Interior of Africa.] 



Seebohm CoU. 

Hume CoU. 

Hume CoU. 

Hume Coll. 

Tweeddfde Coll. 

India Maseum [P.], 

India Museum 
Capt. U. J. 

Tweeddale GoU. 

A. R. Wallace, Esq. 

[C.]. ^ 

Tweeddftle Coll. 
India Museum [P.]. 
(Type of the species.) 
India .Museum \V.]. 
Salvin-liodman Call, 
[Major Deiiham[P,].] 



. Dendrocjcna antnmnaUs. 



Bed-bUlod Whistling Huck, Edw. Birds, i\. pi. 194 (West Indies) 
(ITW) i Latfi. S./n. iii. 2, p. 4118, u. 47 (1785) ; id. Sujipi. i. p. 274 
(1787). 

Anas listalaris americnna, Britt. Ortu vi. p, 400, pi. 38 (1760) 
(Am^rique septentrionnle). 

\jiaa aiitumnalis, Linn. S. X. i. p. 205, n. 3» (1766) ; Gm. S. N. i. 2, 
p. 537, n. 39 (part.) (1788); LntA. Ind. Orn. u. p. 852, n. 63 
(pari.) (1790) ; ifwn, Enc. Mitk. i. p. 140 (part.) (1790) ; rifiU. 
k. D. V. p. 153 (part.) (1810) (Cayenne) ; Dum. Diet. He. Nat. Ti. 

^369 (part.) (1917) ; Stei>A. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 09 (frart.) (1834). 
or a bee rouice et narines jauiieg, part., Buff. Hitt. .Vat. Oi». 
U. p. 183 (1783). 
DeodroDeesa aatumnnlis, W'ny/. lit*, 1832, p. 283. 
BeDdrocvgna aiitumnalis, Et/t. Mon. Anat. p. 109 (1838) ; G. R. Gr. 
Gtn. B. iu. p. til2, n, ;i (part.) (1845); BeAnb. Syn. Av., 
Natotore»,t ^. f. 175 (18*5) j Gvue. B. Jam. p. 398 (1847); 
Lbwt. Ann. It/c. N. Y. lail, p. 117 ; Stanib. Bep, p. 334 (1862) ; 
'fy. Qmpt. Bmtd. xliii. p. 64», n. 67 (1856) ; Sctat. 7. Z. 8. 1856, 
tSaOfUonduTM); Jairri, B. jV. An. p. 770, pi. 63. f. 2 (Teias) 



P-S . ... 

(1866) ; id. Cat. X. Am. B. n. 574 (1869); id. MtJr. u. ««,„. u. 

i, p. aJ, pL 26 (Texas) (1869) ; Sclat. ^ 8aln. Ibit, 1859. p. 231 ; 

Timl. IbU, 1860, p. 315 ; Cau. iV. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 197 (R. 

Truandol ; Aibreeht, J.f. O. 1803. p. 366 (Jamnica) : March, Pr, 

Ae. PMiad. 1864, p. 70; Tayl. IbU, 1864. p. 172 (Porlo Rico); 

Selat. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 399 (part) ; tklat. ^ Sale. ibid. p. 872 

(Paaanja); Sale. Ibl>, I8((5,p. 193 (Guntemala) ; Zditr. Ara.iyo. 

jr. y.Tii. p. 13(Panam8)(IH65);Z(i-rM./6w,1866,p. 42(Teia»); 

iaw. Amu. Zj/e. If. Y. riii. p. 63 (Panama) (1866), ix. p. 143 
^.H}iMta Kott) (1863) ; Ik,t. &m. Anat. p. 01 (part) (1869) ; Frantt. 
I J./. 0. 1869, p. 370 (Coata Rica) ; Peb. Om. Brat. p. 469 (1870) ; 



G. S. Or. Hand-lift, iii. p. 79, a. 106J6 (p«rt.) (1871) ; Oitb. Thet. 
Om. ii. p. 31 (1876) ; 0>ue», Key, p. 28f (1872); id. Cheek~lut, 
1. 487 (1873) J Sclat. ^ Salv. NomrneL Ae. Neotrop. p. 129, n. 2 



A. 4- E. Newt, aandb. Jam. p. 112 (1681) ; Sah. Cat. B. Stric/tl. 
CoU. p. 530 (1882) ; Coufi, Oi«;*-/i»(,2Dded. p. 112, n. 706 (18821 ; 
Sekna. Om. Centralbl 1882, p. 62; Sciat. Lut VeH. An. 8th ed. 
p. 42fl(pMt.) (1883); Cou**, i:«y JV: ,4m. *.2Dded.p.688,ii.706 
(1884); Cory, Lilt B. W.Ind.^.SO (1865); A. O. U. Oodt of 
Horn, and auKk-ti*t, p. 120, n. 177 (1886); Lloyd, Auk, 1887, 
p. 185 (W. Tbim) ; iSdyic. Man. N. Am. B. p. 119, n. 177 (1887) ; 
Cory, AtA, 1888, p. 60 (Jamaica) ; id. B. W. Ini. p. 261 (1888) ; 
Sah. Ibit, 1889, p. 377, 1890, p. 89 (Cozumel I.) ; ISchm. Pr. U.S. 
Nat. Mm. jti. p. 531 (Rio Fno) (1893). 
DbodrocjcQa autumnaliB, Sclat. P. Z. 8. 1880, p. 609; Pidffio. A'om. 



Adalt. Fileom dnnamon-brown, pale in front, on the occiput 
pasiiDg into black, which ia continaed in a narrow stripe dovn the 
nape ; sides of the head and upper part of the neck pole Dchreona 
ashy ; remainder of the neck, back, acApulars, jagulum, and breast 
oinnamoa-brown, tlie dorsal region more rusty ; rump, upper tail- 
oovertA, abdomen, flanks, and under wing-coTorts deep black, 
abruptly defined against the cinnamon of the breast ; oriBSum 
irbite, spotted with black ; lesser wing-coverts oohreoiu olive, 
middle coverts osh-colour, the greater and primary -coverts greyish 
wUte, the lower feathers of the latter dusky ; qniUs and tul deep 
black, but the quills pare white baaoUy : " iris browo; biQ coral- 
red, orange above, nail of bill bluish ; 1^ and feet pinkish white " 
(MerriU). Total length about li> inches, wing 8'2a-9'70, tail 3, 




a. 9 fi^Bk. 
». S vLsk. 
I. <J id. A. 

r, ». rf J JUV. b1 

^ Ad.sk. 

1, r. (f Bd. et S 

tmm.ak. 
p. $ uL sk. 

M'. Ad. 9k. 

f. Ad. 8k. 

r. (f Rd. sk. 



23. DENIIBOCVCSA. 

AlUmiro, Tamaulipas, May 

( W. B. R.). 
Tunpico, Mexico, June ( W. 



R.). 



Not. 



XftlniB, Mexico, 

[^Ferrari-Ptra). 
Vega del Casndero, Vem 

Craz, Dec. (M. Trujilio). 
Mozatkn, W. Mexico {A. 

J. Grai/tem). 
Presidio, W. Mexico, Jan., 

Feb. {A. Forrrr). 
lluamuchal, G uatemala , 

Feb. (O. S.)- 
Corumel I., Yucotan (G. F. 

Gaumrr). 
Nicora, Costa RicEi, March 

(£. Afce). 
Uon Hill, FaaBma {Mc- 

Leannan). 
Aqua dulce, Panama. 



161 

Salrin-Godoifta Coll. 
Salvin-Godman ColL 
SalTJii-OodmacL Coll. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Salvin-O adman Coll. 
Salvin-Qodman Coll. 
SalvJQ-Godman Coll. 
Salvitt-Godman Coll. 
SalTiu-Godman Coll. 
SalTin-Godmon Coll. 
SaJvin-Godmaii Coll. 



6. Dendrocfcna, discolor. 

C*Dard siffleiir de Caj-enne, D'Aubtn(. PI. Bnl. 82fi. 

Sffleur k bee mage et narines iaunea, part-, Bi^. Hut. Nat. Oit, is. 
p. 183 (1783). 

Anas autumnalis, Jaequin [ncc Linn.), Beytr. i. u. 6, n. 4 (New 
Cirenada) (1784); Gm. S. N. i. 2, p. 537, n. SB tpart.) (.1788); 
Lath. Ind. Oth. li. p, 852, n, 53 (part.) (1790J ; Borni. Sac. Mitk. 
i. p. 140 (part) (1790); VitiU. N. D. v. p. 153 (Cayeime, 
Nouvello Grenade) (1816) ; ftim. Diet. Se. Nat. yi. p. 869 
(part.) (1817); LitKt. Vers. Ihudl. p. 84 (Brazil) (1823); Slt^h. 
Om. Zool. xii. 2, p. 00 (part.) (1824) ; Zeu. (nee Zrnn.) TV. d'Om. 
p. 634, n. 68 (CaVenoe) (1831); Bvrm. St/ti. VA. Thitre Brat, 
Fog. li. p. 436 (part.) (185«); Enut, Ree. dent. Univ. Omtr. 
Vena. i. p. 43 C\enezuela) (1887). 

DendiocTgna autumnalis, G. R. Gr. (nee lAmn.) List Spec. B. Br, 
Mu». lii. p. 131 (S. Amer., Guiana) (1844) ; Cab. in Sdtomb. Oman. 
Reit. iii. p. 761* (1848); ? ImAI. Non»fnel. Av. p. 103 {1864); 
Selal. P. 2. S. 1864, p. !299 (part.) ; Sdat. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1866, 
p. 300 (Ucayali) ; Liutaad, Oi*. Trin. p. 607 (Trinidad) (1866) : 
StAieg. Mm. P.-£., Angurea, p. 2* (1866); Eyt. ^n. vlitat. p. 61 
(part.) (1869) ; Pelz. Om. firfw. pp. 320, 469, lriii(1870): .FVfwcA 
jP. Z. 8. 1870. p. 580 (Trinidad) ; O. S. Gr. Hand-lilt, iii. p, 79, 
n. 1061S (part.) (1B71) ; 6^. TIteit. Om. ii. p. 31 (part.) (1876) ; 
Selat. Lia Vert. Ah. 8lh ed. p. 426 (part.) (1883) ; Tnttr. [nee 
XuM.) Cat. Cbll. B. p. 60 (Para) (imi) ; Hartert, Kat. Foffet- 
sammi, p. 228, n. 3383 (8. America) (1891). 

Dendrocjgrjk discolor, Sclat. j- 8alv. Ifomenel. Ae. Neotrop. pp. 129, 
161 (1873): iid.P.Z. S. 1876, p.375;&/a(. P.ZA'.lSeO, p.606: 
B^hnw. Om. Centralbl. 1882, p. 23 ; Salv. Cat. B. Striekl. CoU. 
p. 630 (1883) ; £., S., ^ R. Watfr-Btrdf N. A. i. p. 482 (1884) ; 



Salv. MU, 1886, p. 172 ; Ilict. Om. Pir. ui. p. 469 (1886) ; Ri^w. 
Man. N. Am. B. p. 119 (1887) ; Otapm. Bull. Mut. N. H. 1894, 
p. 82 (Trinidiid). 
DendrocvniB autumnalia discolor, B., B., S( R. Water-Btrdt N. A. 

L p. 480 (1884). 

Similar to D. autvmnalit, bnt differs in the lower hind-neck being 
MTOus-grey, strongly and abraptly contrasted against the dark 
chestnut-brown of the back ; also the breast is gjej'ishv instead of 
chestnut as in D. auiwnnalit. Wing 9-10-9-30 inches, cnlmen 
1-80-1-90, tarsus 2-20-2-25. 

Hab. Colombia, Guiana, with Trinidad Island, Dcaador, Eastern 
Peru, and Brazil. 

a. Ad. at. S. America. 

b, c. Ad. et juT. Bnlzar Mts., Ecuador (iU'n^ SalTin-Oodinan CoU. 
sk. worth). 

d, e. Ad. st British Guiana. Sir R. Schombuigk 

ft 9- d ? od. ak. R.RupuruiQi, British Guiana, Sslvin-Godman CoU. 

May {H. Wkitely). 
h. Ad. sk. Maroni lUver, Surinam Salvin-Godman Coll. 

I. $ ad. sk. 



(Kappltr). (Tjpe of the specieB.) 

dj^r Ucayali, May (£. El. J. Elwes, Esq. 



SartleU). 

. S ad. ak. Rio PaTfin&, Brazil, April 

(Natterer). 



7. Dendrocycna arborea. 

Whistling Duck, Shane, Jam. ii. p. 324, t. 273 11738). 
Black-billed Whistling Duck, Edir. Glenn, pi. I'ja (1743) (West 
Indies); XaM. gyn. iii. 3,j>. jSQ, u. 4S (ITM). 




23, DENDBOCICK^ 



1C3 



5: 



(1847) ; Jletmb. Syn. At:, miiOia, Natatores, t 107. f. 2359 {ex 
SAB.t (ItWO) ; id. Ai<. Syil. Nat. p. x (1853) ; Baird, Slmub. JUp. 
3»i(I852); Bp. 0,mpl.&nd.xlm.v.fi49,a. 56 (ISM)! Cab. 
'./. O. iefl7, p, -227 1 A. ^ E. A'nct. Ibti, 1859, p. 366 (St. Croix, 
with fig. of the trachea) ; Biyant, Pr. So$t. Soc. N. B. rii. p. 122 
(Bdiamiui) (18.50); Albr. J.f. O. 1862, p. a)6; Selat. P. Z. 8. 
1«H, p. 300 (Jamaica) : Mareh.Pr. Ac. PhOnd. 1864, p. 70 : Bruait, 
Pr. Boa. Sor. N. H. xi. p. 73 (Ina^a) {18a6) ; Sehk;/. Mum. P.-B., 
Anseres, p. 84 (1866) ; Gundl. Bep. Fu.-Nal. CuLa, i. p. 387 
(imB) ; Egt.Sffn.Anat.f. m {IS&d); Pe/i. Om. ^r«», p. 459 
(1870) ; G. R. Gr. Band-li$f, iii. p. 79, n. 10614 (1871) ; Ovndl. 
J.f. O. 1871, p, 273 (?); Badin. J.f. 0. 187a, p. 72 (breeding) ; 
Setat $ Sab: Nomaicl. Ar. Anrfnw. p, 129 (1873) ; Coue; Bird* 
N.-Weit, p. 5.18 (1874) ; Gundl.J.f. 0. 1874, p. 314 (Pono Rico), 
1875. p. 375 (Cuba) ; ft>6. Thf4. Om. ii. p. 30 (1875) j Sdot. * 
Sab-. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 375: GmuH An. Soc. Em. Hid. Nat. vit. 
p. 400 (1878) : id. J.f. 0. 1878, pp. 162, 190 (Porto Rico) ; Q>ry. 
B. Bahama 1. p. 183 (1880) ; A. S( E. Newt. Itandb. Jam. p. 112 
(1881) : SeJimo. On. CVntralbL 1882. p. 32 : .Sale. Cat. B. Striekt. 
Coll. p. 6:ttr(1883); ffclat. Liil Vrrt. An. Kth ed. p. 426 (1883); 
Oo,i/, B. Haiti and San Donu'",:: ]■ hi. ■ i".. I!:'h,„: Man. K. 
^n. A. p. 119(1887); Cfl-y,.i", --• ,' ./,- Cat. Coll. 

ft P..jO(Jm«uu(m), p. 270(Dimii:i,-. -■■, ' .,. fl. W. Tnd. 
p.a«0(l889);S*(n7w.Oi(.O(rf..s):.. r// \...,,/.i:i p, 398 (1891), 

Ifcn<irocjgnii»ftrborw>, Brrtc. Pr. K'-rt. .V'-v A". J/, vii. p. 308(1860). 

f Dendmcjgnaatitumiialis, 7(>y/oi-, /£u, 1864, p. 172 (Porto Rico). 

Dendrocycim nrborea, Sflat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 509 ; Rchntr. fiig. d. 
tooL. GHrt. p. 59 (I8S2) ; fl,, fl., * R. Wattr-Birds N. Am. i. p. 480 
(doI«) (1884). 

Adult. Anterior half of the crowii reddish brown, sbadin^ into 

bLuk on the occiput, whence a black band runs down along the 

I napo : sides of the bead and of the neck dull greyish, indistinctly 

inottlcd with white; throat white; round the tower neck a kind of 

I collnr, interrupted behind, formed by white foathora, edged with 

bbuk ; upper back, scapulars, aud tcrtiols brown, with tawny edges 

to th» feethen ; rump and upper tiiil-eoverts black ; breast reddish 

Inwwn, witli indistinct whitish spots ; lower do^vTi the breast has 

tha feathers while along the middle, blackish on the edges ; abdomen 

and under tail-coTerta white, thickly covered with round black 

l« : feathen of the sides white in the middle and broadly edged 

I and c»cn banded with black ; wing-coTcrts pale brown, with paler 

ledpw, the outermost and also the greater ones greyish, each with h 

KUack nibapicul spot; quills grey, blackish towards tlie tip. the 

I under nurface uniform blackish brown ; under wing-coverts black, 

|tlu) mniOleT ones with narrow white stripes ; toil dark brown ; lege 

1 bill black. Total length about 22 inches, wing 10-5. tdl aS, 

n 2-1, tATsosSi. 
yanalt toniowhat smaller, 

Keun^ in down. Ujiper part* brown, lower parts whit« ; a white 
d round the occiput ; ear-corerta brown ; four white spots, two 
f,.tn the lides of the back and two on the sides of the rump. 
/fa£. Bahamas and Antilles. 



a. Ad. at Jamaica. Purchased. 

b. cf fkd. ak. Cuba. SalTin-Godman ColL 

c. PulL sk. Virgin Gorda, W. I., Dec. SslTin-Godman Coa 

(C /. Winnh). 
i. Skeleton. 

e. Stemum. Jiunaica. P. H. Qoase, Esq. 

CPJ. 

8. Dendrocycna guttata. (Plato I.) 

Anas guttata, For»l. MS. et Miu. Lugd. CM Sehltgel). 

Anas guttulata, Temm. (Jide Wallace). 

Deairoojgaa guttulata, S. MuU. MS. {fide Sdater). 

Deadiocvgna guttulata, WiM. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 36 (Bouni, Ceram, 
Celebes); Sclat. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 300; Eyt. »/ii. Anat. p. 66 
(1868) ; I/Ald. ^ Sali-ad. Ann. Mui. tVu. Gcti. vji. p. 839 (Ilall 
Bay) (187S) ; Sal»ad. ibid. viii. p. 386 (Bouru) (1876) ; Eatm. Pr. 
Urtn. Soe. N. S. W. i. p. 395 (1870) ; Itcknie. Om. CetUralbl. 
1882, p. 23. 

Ana* punctata, " Temm.," Fituch, A'ei-Guin. p. 18» (1865) (Halma- 
hera, Batchian). 

Dendrocygna guttata, Schtfg. Mut. P.-B., Anaerw, p. 85 (1866) 
(descr. princepB) ; Btyth, lint, 1870, p. 176 ; G. H. Or. Hand-ii»t, 
ai. p. 79, n. 10612 (1871); Waid. fr. Z. S. viii. p. 102 (1872) ; 
Gitb. Thee. Om. u. p. 31 (1876) ; Jtoeenb. Eeiit. naar Geehnnkb. 
p. 3 (1875) (Teniate) ; Salvad. Ana. Mai. Civ. Gen. ii. p. 49 
(1876); IfAa. Sifdn. MaU, 1877, p. 248 ; id. Atm. Mui. Cie. Gen. 
i.m.l9,20(1877) i id.Ibii,l877,v.S7'2; SAarpe,Joum. Lam. Soc., 
2«>/. viii. p. 505 (1877); Soienb. Malay. Arcktp. p. 279 (Celebes), 
p. 324 (Oonm), p. 407 (Temat«) (187»-79) ; Eamt. Pr. Linn. Soc. 
N. S. TF. iii. p. 301 (1878), iv. p. 102, n. 210 (1879) ; If Alb. i- 
Saltad. Aim. Ma*. CVo. Gen. xiv. p. 134 (Yarru 1.) (1879) ; D'Aih. 
Nuoim Guin. pp. 193, 451, 519, 585, 688 (1880) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 
1683, pp. 52, 2O0 (Larat, Timorlant) ; Blai. J.f. O. 1883,_p. 140 
(Celebefl) ; Firucf; I'tiff. d. SSdtee, p. 29 (1864) ; Forbes, P. Z. S. 




23. BESDEOCTCSA. 185 



feather viiii a. white spot at the tip ; lower breast and abdomen 
whitish, with faint dusky lin^ across : feathers of the fiantu 
■with lai^ white round spots, the longer feathers are almost barred 
with black: under tail-covert« whitish, with black bars; quilla 
brown ; tail almost black : " bill black ; tarat and feet ashy, more 
or lees tinged with reddish ; irides brown or chestnut" (I/Albertit). 
ToUa length about 17 inches, wing 6-5, tail 29, cuUnen 1-63, 
tanuB 1-62. 

Female. Similar. 

Foung. Feathers of the flanks paler and with the white spots 
elongated and lanceolated (Sfhlfgd). 

Bab. Mindanao, Celebes, Moluccas, and New (juinea. 

ti. Ad. at, [Sumatra.] PurcliBBed. 

*. 5 »d. at (.Celebes. "WaUace ColL I 

ft ij ftd. ak. Bouru. Wallace CoU. { 

(Types of "Wallace's description.) 
J. J ad-ak. Larat. Tenimber Islands, Aug. 11. O. Forbes, Esq. [CJ. 



9. Dendrocycna eTtoni. 

Leptotusis eTtoni, Oauld, MSS.; Eyt. .Won. Anal. p. Ill (1638); 
GquM, B. Atutr. Tii. pL 15 (pt. xi., ISIT,) ; Bp. Compf. Bfrnd. iliu. 
p. 6*9, a. 59(1856); Frh. Xomra Sfix, Viiifft, p, 137 (1865); 
^. Syn. Anal. p. 63 (1869); G. R. Gr. HaniLUtt, iii. p. 80, 
n. 10617(1871). 

Dendrocygna eytoni. Q. S. Or. LiU B. Br. Mm. iii. p. 132 
(1644); id. OrfTi. S. iii. p. 612, n. 7 (1645); BcAab. Byn. Av., 
Natalorea, t 99. ff. 23.57-68 {ex Gould) (18.50); Stanl. SaU-Utt 
Knoauley Men. p. 45 (1851) ; Sola/. P. Z. S. I8fi4, p. 301 ; Gould, 
Sandi. B. Aiatr. ii. p. 375 (1803) ; ScJileg. Mum. P.-B., Anseres, 
p. 87 { 1866) ; Sriat. P. Z. S. 1867, p. B86 (Zool. Oard.) ; D^L B. 
Amtr. ii. pL 144. £ 1 (1870) ; Hurt. Cat. B. Neuj Zeal. pp. 86, 77 
(1871): Piruch. J. f. O. 1872. p. 184; Purdie, Tr. Jf. Z. Iiut. 
1872, p. 213 (New Zealand) ; Sector, Sml., note ; Balkr. Hut. S. 
J/ew Zca/.pp. xxi, a«5 (1873) ; Fltueh, J.f. O. 1874. p. 201 ; Gitb. 
The*. Om. u. p. 31 (1875) ; Sharpe, Zool. Ereb. * Terr., Bird*, 
App. p. 31 (197.5) ; Cailebt. ^ Ratiu. Pr. Idim. Soe. N. S. W. i. 
p. 396 (Norman River, Gulf of CnrpeaUria) (1877); Beknw. Om. 
Ventraibl. lr«2.p. 23; BuUer, Man. B. New Zeal p. 67(1882); 



Selat. Li*t Vert. An. 8th ed. 



7\t#»i. 1886, p. 244 (Tas , . __ . _. .. 

Ztai. 3nd ed. ii. p^ 268 (1888) ; North, Cat. Ne»t> ^ Egff$ Aiulr. 

J, p.a40(]B89);H«rter(,iat. r.weitamm;. p. 229(1691) ; SAarpe, 

Cat. Oilevl. Speeim. Coll. Sarp. iii. p. 207 (1891). 
Jlendroeygnn versicolor, Hartl. Ertl. Nadir. Voijeliamml. p. 19, 

n. 'J-X3 (184(!) (deser. nulla). 
Uondrocyatia arcuala, Bennett (nee Cuv.), in Sclat. P. Z. S. 1866, 

p. 149 (Sydney). 
Dandnxyena (Leptotanis) eyioid, Bennett, P. Z. S. 1806, p. 41S; 

Rami. Pr. Linn. Soe. N. S. W. i. p. 195 (187C). W. i«i. a p. 200, 

n. ftM (1877) ; id. Tab. UU, p. 22, 0. 666 (1888). 
KlrooYciul eytoni, Sriat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 510; Srhnte. Veg. d, 
kL OUH. p. 59 (1882) ; Tri^. Cat. Colt. B. p. CO (1889). 




Adult. Upper part of the head, hind-neck, and breast pale 
oohTMOB brown ; aides of the head and neok didl pale gre}', fading 
into white on the throat ; back and wings greyish brown ; the 
feathers of the back and scapulars with paler edges ; upper tail- 
coTeits whitish hufi, broaiily edged with greyish brown ; sides and 
lower part of the breast reddi^, regularly barred with black, the 
black bars broader on the sidee ; feathers of the flanks very long, 
of a bnff colour, and mai^ined with black ; abdomen and under 
tail-coverts bufiy white ; qniUs and tail brown ; under wing-coTerts 
with reddish and brown-grey bands ; axillaries pale reddish along 
the middle, brown-grey on the edges: " i rides dark brown; bill 
yellowish browu, largely blotched with black; the nail darker 
brown; legs and feet pale flesh-brown" (Bulhr); "feet bright 
rose-colour ; bill reddish flesh-colour, with n laige mottled patch in 
the centre; irides orange" {DiggUa). Total length 16 inches, 
wing 9-5, tail 3, colmen 1-6, tarsus 2. 

Female. Similar. 

Saib. Australia; it stra^les to New Zealand. 

0. Ad. sk. Australia. 

b-g. Ad. sL Australia ( Coekerell 

Thorpe). 
A, "i *. (J 2 ad. et N.W. Australia. Capt. Bowjer Bower 

juT. sk. fP.]. 

^, m. [J $ ad. sk. N.W. Australia, March, May. J. R- Elsey, Esq. 

n. d ad. sk. Pott Essuurtou. J. B. Jukes, Esq. 

^ [I'.l. 

0. Ad. St. Pott Ea^ugtoD. Dr. Sibbald jT.]. 

p. Ad. St. New South Wales. Australian Museum 

[P.]. 




'24. caasALOPKL, 167 

1. Cbenalopex sgyptucna. 

Aiwer (BBTpliaeuB, Jliitt. Orii. yi. p. -284, pi. 27 (ITiiO) ; Bmrn. Enc, 
Miih.i. p. 118, pi. 29. r. 3 (1790) ; Temm. Man. iTOm. iv. p. 523 
(lear,) : WoHm. Ftk/. DiMieM. ri, p. 418, Taf. 294 (1843) ; Math. 
Faun. SieiL p. Sin (1843); iSeA/t^, ifn>, Orit. p. cxi (1844); 
B™**, J./. O. 18S4. p, 277 ; Brekm, J./. 0. lft5S, p. 484 ; Tayl. 
Ihit, }fm, p. 54; Schleg. Mut. P.-B., Aasexm. p. 84 (1866); 

«w;. iJ«. isn.p.air,. 

Anu WBjpliao*, Z.wi. S. A", i, p. 197, n. 10 (17fl«) ; Gm. S. N. i. 9, 
p. 512, n. 10 (I78S) (eicL Tar. 3) ; Lath. Itid. On. ii. p. S40, n. 21 



17i)0j (exc\. var. (3) ; Om/Ti-. Minag. d» ^lu. </£uf. JViif., art 
'^■- ■'E^UpU, pp. 1-4. pi. — (1801) ; S4.IW, JVo(. jVue. pi. 606 

: Cut. Sign. An. L p. 531 (1817) ; Lath. Gen. Hut. x. 

(1834) ; Civ. Sign. An. Sod ed. i. p. 669 (1829) ; LeM. Tr. 



OuJTEgypU, pp. 1-4, pi. — (1801) ; Shaw, Jfat. Mite, j 

(1834' '■ 
Sehlrg. Ib-b. Crit. p. ad (\U^)~ Chapm. Trm. S. ^^.u. App. p. 421 



. p. 531 (1817) ; Xa(A. Gen. Hut. i. 
V. 344 (1834) ; Cue. Jltgn. An. Sod ed. i. p. 669 (1829) ; I«m. Tr. 
iOm. p. 6S8 (leai) ; Trmm. PI. Cot. i. TW. Mm. p. 103 (1838) i 



tie«8). 

"ye d'Egyple, D'AtAeul. PI. Enl. 379 (1770) ; £«*: Hiel. Nat. Oil. 

ix. p. 7H, pi. 4(1783). 
(hro du Cap dp Bonne-Esp^rMCO, D'Aubenl. PI. Enl. 382, 983. 
Ova wuvapr du Cap de bonae espirancB, Sonrter. Voy. Jnd. Or, ii. 
p. 230 11782). 
I Oio am^ (error*), Buff. Hitt. Sat. Oii. ii. p. 76 (esd. syn.) 

I' (1783). 

Egrptjan Qoose. LalA. Sm. iii. 2, p. 453, n. 16 (1785) ; YarreU, 
P. Z. S. 183:5, p. 4 itwchwi). 
Anser africaniis, B'mn. Ene. Mfth. i. p. lit) (1790). 
Anaa met^oiier, Naum, A'aturg. Land- u. Waster-Viig. m. pp. 329, 
478,t. 53. f. 78(17l«l). 
Amu Tfuia, Ber:k't. Om. Tatchenh. ii. p. 'l->4, n. 39 (1803) {ex Nattm. 
l.e.t.m. t 78), iii. p. 090 (1812) ; td. Naturg. DeutKhl. (2nd ed.| 
IT. p 1043, □. IS. 
Aii»er TBriuB, Meyer * WoW', Taiehenh. ii. p. .'m {18101, iii. p. 232 
(1822) ; Vieill. N. D. xuii. p. 33.5 (1818) ; Dnm. Diet. Be. SaL 
xxzT. p. 464 (1626). 
Chenalopox Myptinca, SUfA. flen. Zoal. xii. p. 43, pi. 42 (1824) ; 
Oould, B. Eur. pi. i'lS (1837); Egt. Man. Anat. pp. 22, 103, 
pi. 7 (skeli^toii and trtuhea) (1838) ; Bp. Comp. IM, p, 56, d, 403 
(1838); O. R. Gr. Utf Gen. B. v- 72(1840); K.^ B. Wirbetth. 
Bitr. pp. lixiiT, 22-5 (1R40); So. Cat. Met. Uoc. Eur. p. 70, 
n. 428 (1S42) ; Harni, Higkl. o/jEtAiop. p. 417 (1844) ; G. k Or. 
Litt B. Brit. Mui. iii. p. 126 (1844) ; ffiW- Sf/a. Uehert. p. 137, 
n. 487 (1845) ; Det Muri, m Zefebvre, Voy. Abytt., Git. p. 170 
(I84S) ; ViertA. Ntmrnminia, 18.52, pp 29, 55; StriekL Am. ^ 
Mag. JV. JT. 1852, p. 349 ; Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. 
(18M); U<^l. .SyU. Ueheri 



. 228; Antm. Cat. p 112 (1864) 
: /Jodrr/. Avif. Sieil. p. 2.56 (1869) ; 
Hitigt. Peterm. Urogr. Mtfth. 1889. p. 411; Tarx. J.f.O. 1870, 
p, G5(Coii«tat)tii>n); BUmf.Qeol. fy &<>/.»^^ V-P- 438 (1870) ; 
JWA, Tr. Z>H.l. &K. Til. p. 800 (1870); Tact. J./. O. 1870. 
>. 55 (Constantina); fi. B. Gr. Hand-liM. iii. p. 74, q. 105-57 
.1B71) ; SheU. B. i{f £giipt, p 270 (1872) : Sund. Meth. not. Ae. 
dim. Tent. p. 140 (ft72) ; Harti. Orieck. Jakrr*t. iii. p. 28K 
(1875); AltHtn,J./. O. 1877, p 107 (Europe); BoUe, ibid. p. 200 ; 



Fitek. ^ Eehnw. J. f. O. 1878, p. 248 ; Fueh. ibid. p. 296 
(Kau), J879, pp. 296, 2m, 301 ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 498; id. 
Lid VeH. An. 8th ed. p. 416 (1883); Salvad. Ann. Mut. Civ. 



Gen. (2) i. pp. 241, 276 (Shot.) (1884) ; Triilr. Faun. ^ Flora of 
Paled, p. 114 (Dead Sea) (1884) ; Sharpe, Layard'e B. S. Afr. 
p, 747 (1884) ; Saund. YarrelCi SiiL Br. B. iv. p. 300 (1884-85) ; 



ibii, 1888, p. 306; Salvad. Ann. Mm. Cio. Gen. (2) \ 
p. 319 (Shoa) (1888) ; J}uboi», Bull. Mut. Roy. ^H. N. dt Be^. 
IV. p. 149, n. 190 (1886) (TangaiiYika) ; Koenig, J. f. 0. 1888, 
p. 285; Trittr. Cat. CoU. B. pp. 61, 270 (1889); Sharpe, Cat. 
OtUot. 8pee. CoU. Surg. iii. p. 294 (1891) ; id. Ibit, 1892, p. 641-: 
Koen^, J. f. 0. 1893, p. 96. 

Tadoms sgyptiaca, B^, Int, 1826, p. 981, 1830, p. 996. 

Olieiulopez ffigrptiacuB, Wa^l. I*U, 1832, p. 1235 ; G. R. Gr. Gen. 
B. iii. p. eij6, n. 1 (1845) ; Echnb. Syn. Ae., Anseres, t. 102. 
ff. 236^ (1846); id. Av. Sgd. Nat. p. ix (1852); Brehm, 
J.f. 0. 1863, Extiaheft, p. 103, 1864, p. 84; Lichl. A'om«ncl. At. 
p. 101 (1854) i Bli/th, J. A. S. B. iiiv. p. 305 (Somftli) (1855) ; 
Brehm, Vogelf. p. 369 (1866) ; id. J.f. 0. 1856, pp. 329, 336, 398, 
477, 1857, p. 357; Homo/. J. f. O. 1869, p. 370; i^ke, Urn, 
I860, p. 248; Blt/th ^ Speke, Sep. Coll. Somali Country, p. 16 
<1860) ; Licht. Reiten, Si. -a. 569 ; HaHl. J. /. O. 1861, p. 272 
(Biseao) ; Livingil. Mint. Trav. p. 204 ; Kirk, Bnt, 1864, p. 336 ; 
Taylor, Ibii, 1867, p. 71 ; Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 347 (1867) : Boe. 
Jom. Ae. 8c. Li»b. 1867, p. 329 ; Gum. Ibti, 1868, p. 49 (Natol) ; 
Trittr. Ibis, 1868, p. 328 (Dead Sra) ; Layard, Ibis, 1869, p. 377 ; 
Cab. in V. d. Deck. lieii. iii. p. 51 (1869) ; FintcA ^ HaHl. Vog. 
Ott'Afr. p. 803 (1870) ; Ltmdoii, ZooL Gart. 1871, p. 251 (West- 
pbiilia): SMI.B. of Eyvpt, p. 279 (1872); GUh. The). Orn.'i. 
p. 368 (1872) ; Andera. B. Damara Land, p. 335 (1872) ; Srugl. 
Om. N.O.-Afr. ii. 2, p. 1286 (1873); Boc. Jam. Ac. tic. Liib. 
1873, pp. 198, 289, 294, 1874, p. 45 ; id. J. f. O. 1876, p. 296 
(Mofi^raedes, Humbe, Cunene, Bio Coroca) ; ifcAnu-. Jlig. zooL 



Reid, Zoolag. 1882, p. 427 (Natal) ; Nathut. J. f. O. 




24. CHRSALOPEt. 



189 



Hyliridt, 
Tadoma Kg}-ptinFaX Anns boschan, Leverk. J.f. O. 1890, p. 221. 

Adult mole. Feathers roand tlic base of ibc bill, a patch ronnd 
the eyes, back of the neck, and ring round lower part of the latt«r 
mdd; ; rest of the heiid and upper part of the neck greyish brown ; 
mnntle mddy S''^7> finely lineated with dark (p'ey ; lower back, 
nimp, and upper tail-coverts black ; lower neck, breast, and flanks 
buff, finely lineated with grey ; on the middle of the breast a maroon 
p.-itch; abdomen white; under tail-coverts ruddy; Bcapulars and 
tertiaries ruddy ; upper wingnjoverts white, with a narrow black 
bdud near the tip of the greater ones ; secondaries shining green ; 
primaries, their coverts, bastard-wing, aod tail black ; inner under 
wing-coTerts and axillarieH white ; " iris dark yellow ; bill pink, 
with tip, margins, and base black ; tarsi and feet pink " (Ai/ra). 
Total length 28 inches, wing 16, tail SI, bill 1-78, tarsus 3. 

FtmoU. Similar to the male, but smaller, and, according to 
Dr. Finsch, paler, and with the pect«ral maroon patch smaller. 

Bab. Africa and Palestine. 



a. PoUit. 
&. Ad. at. 

A$«d.St. 

c Ad.sk. 
/ Ad. *L 



^ 



■,9. (f ad. sk. 

p. Ad.ik. 

•y. Ad Bk. 
r. Jur. at 
J, f. tf 2 ad. sk. 

L. Ad.«t jar. sk. 
a". Skelelou. 
b\ Skeleton. 
«*, d^. Sterna and a 



Kred in captivity.] 
hlertire. SttrUng:shire. 
Kiver Tweed, April 4. 
Kiver Tweed. 

Egypt. 

Egypt. 



Waliko, Jnly K ( W. Jeue). 
Mnragaz, July 28 | W. Jaue). 

ECii, Slioa, -Vpril (Sir W. C. 

Lake Xaiwascho. 

Zambesi {Dr. Bradthaw), 

South .\friea. 

Uumbe, fi. Cuoene, Jan. 

(Anchieta). 
Itiver Niger, Dec. 



A. D. Bortlett, Esq. 
Sir D. Dunda* [P.J 

Purehased. 

W. B. T. TumbalL 

Esq. [P.]. 
Victor Amus, Esq. 

[P.], 
Hume Coll. 
W. T. Illanford, Esq. 

[C.]. 
TweeSdnle ColL 
IL E. Dresser, Esq. 



India M us 



A. G. Baxter, Esq. 

[C.]. 
Shelley CoU. 
Old Coll. 
Shelley CoU. 

Dr. Baikie rO.]. 

Zuolojpcal Society. 



ipulor girdles, 
Ifi/hrid btUveen " Penguin Duck " 
cT «d. et. Divd in captivity. 



C. iegjiiliacus. 

Zoological Society, 



2. Chenalopex jabatns. 

AiiBOr jnbotus, Sph, Ar. Jira.. ii. p. 84. t. 108 (1S26) {nae 

juhats, lath. ISOl) ; Jfwm. Sffii. UfUra. iii. p. 433 (18fi6). 



Anser polycomos, Cuv. Mti». Farit ; Lea. Tr. itOm. p. 637, n. 4 

(1831); Pucher. See. et Mag. de Zool. 1850, p. 546 ( = iubfttus, 

Spiv) ; Hartl. J.f. 0. 1866, p. 419 ; Sehleg. Mua. P.-B., Aoseres, 

p. 96 (1866). 
Cheiulopei iubatiu, WagL Iiu, 1832, p. 1235, n. 2; O. R. Gr. 

Gm. B. iii. p. 605, n. 4, pi. 164 (1946) ; Bthjji. Syn. Av., Naia- 

toree, t. lOa. H. 234-236 (1845) ; J. E. Gr. Glean, from Knowgl. 

Mettag. pi. xr. {1846} ; ScAon^. Guian. Seie. iiL p. 762 (1848) ; 

Taohr, Ibit, 1864, p. 96 {Orinoco) ; Sdat. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1866, 

p. 200 (Lower Ucayali) ; Ei/t. Sifn. Anat. p. 53 (Id69) ; Pels. Om. 

Brat. pp. 319, 459, Iviii (1870); Sdnt. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1873, 

p. 304 ; Scknm. T'dg. toot. Giirt. p. 63 (1882) ; Salv. Ibit, 1886, 

p. 172. 
Chenalopex jubata, G. S. Gr. Litt B. Brit. Mu». iii. p. 126 (1844) ; 

Bp. Compl. Bend, iliii. p. 649, n. 44 (1866) ; Sclat. k Salv. 

yomenel. Av. A'^trop. ■p. 128(1873); iid.P.Z.S. 1876, p. 369; 

Sclat. P.ZS. 1880, p. 499; ia, List Vert. An. 8th ©d. p. 416 

(1883) ; Tact. Om. Pir. iii. p. 468 (1886) ; Trittr. Cat. CoU. B. 

p. 5 (1889). 
Adiw pollicBrifi, lilig., und£ 
Anser pollicarie, Ltdit. in Mat. Berol. ; Gieb. Thei. Om. i. p. 873 

a872). 
Clieu&lopex pollicaris, Licht. Nomeacl. Av. p. 101 (1854). 
Chenonena lubsta, G. H Gr. (nee Brandt) Hand-lUt. iii. p. 74, 

n. 10568 (1871) ; Sand. Metk. tiat Av. dap. Tent. p. 146 (1872) ; 

Heine ^ Mchme. Norn. Mta. Sein. Om. p. 341 (1890). 

Advil. Head, neck, and breast dull whitish ^rey, darker on the 
hind-neck ; upper muntle and acapnlars ruddy ; lower mantle and 
inner scapulars brown ; back, rump, upper tail-coverts, tul, and 
wings black with a green gloss ; abdomen ruddy, whitish along che 
middle, changing into blackish brown on the lower part ; under 
tail-coverta white ; greater wing-coverta metalLc green with a 
purple glosH : biise of iho aecondiirii's white, t'omiiug a white ajjecu- 




A'ey to the SjiecUs. 

a. A promiDETUt red koub at the base of die bill ; heed 

and upper part of the ueck blnck, gloaaed willi 

green; Uui wliite, tipped with black cornnta, p. 171. 

b. So knob at the boae uf the hill ; head and neck 

entirely whit« ; tail black rad/ah, p. 176. 

1. ladoma cornuta. 
The Common Sheld-duck; Sbieldrake. 
Anse niaritima, Gtsn. Aties. p. «03 (1655). 
Tadoma belunii, Jta^, titfu. Av. p. 140 (1713). 
Tudoma, Briti. Om. \i. p. 344, pi. miii. f. 2 (1700). 
Anas tadomo, Linn. S. N. i. p. 193, u. 4 (17B6) ; Gn. S. N. i. 2, 

p. 500, a. 1 (1788); Lath. Ind. On,, ii. p, 854, n. 66 (1790); 

£oim. Enc. Milk. i. p. 123. pi. 37. f. 3 (1790) ; Lnth. Tr. Limt. 

Soe. iv. p. 117, t. IT. £ 8, 9 (trachea) (17»8) ; Pall. Zoogr. Somo- 

A». ii. p. 238 (1811) ; Temm. Man. dOrn. p. 639 (1815) ; rieill. 

y, D. T. p. 158 (1810) ; Dum. Diet. Sc. Nat. -n. p. 363 (1817) ; 

remm. Man. eCOm. •inA ad. ii. p. 83.f (It^l) ; Lkht. Verz. DoubL 

p. 84 (1823): Hata. EUrm. di Ziut. m. 0, p. 97, t 30. f. I (182«); 

WerH.AtUu, PalmipMea, pi. 38 (182»); Leu. Man.d'Om. a. 

p. 416 (1828) ; H. Tr. d'Orn. p. 633 (1831) ; &ie>i, Om. Tomc. iii. 

p. 166 (1831); Tetmn. Man. d'Om. it. p. 631 (1840); Naum. 

Yog. DeuUchl. ». p. 634, t. 298 (1842) ; SckUg. £ev. Crit. -p. av 

(1844) ; Tanm. <$- Schltg. Fatm. Jap., Avti, p. 128 (1S60) ; Kjarb. 

Om. Dan. p. 363, Taf. 4U, et Sui^H. Tsf. 26 (1862) ; Paul. J.f. O. 

1863, p. 243 (E. Finmark] ; A. Bnhm, J. f. O. 1854, p. 84; 

VanffenoB, J.f. O. 1866, p. 345 (Neumark) ; MkU. J.f. O. 1856, 

p.S32(Caitiatsue): Aucry, J./. 0. 1857, p. 123 {Algeria); S<Aleg. 

Veff. NfdfTl. p. 643, pU. 303, 304 (1858) ; Antin. J.f. O. 1868, 

p. 4»4 (Smjma) ; SotU, Aid. p. 489 ; Quutorp, J. f. O. 1860, 

p. 78 ; BoUand, ibid. p. 305 (Ostaoestrand) ; Altwn, J./. C 



J.f. 0. ISOa. p. »7 ; Somty. J. f. 0. 1870, p. 43 (E. Siberia) ; 

mmgl. J.f. 0. 1871, pp. 10, 82 (Skoro, N. Europe); Gieb. Tket 

Om. i. p. 363 (1872); Sevtrts. Turktst. Jemtn. p. 70 (1878); 

£tnA. in Sutid. Soeittk. FogL p. 1311, ^. IviiL f. 1 (1886). 
t Anaa subturranea, Scop. Ann. I. Jtiit. Nat. p. 67, n. 83 (1769). 
Anaa corouta, J.'. G. GimI. &it. Jtuist. ii. p. 186, t. 19 (1774); 

CaUtU, Nut Mmj.f. Nat. 1877, p. 198. 
Volpoca o Tadonia, Ger. A/or, dtyli Ucr. r. I, 576 (1770). 
Tadomv, jyAubmt. PI. Eni 53 ; Buff. Hitt. Nat. Oi». ix. p, 205, 

J J. liv. (17831. 
Uck-hended Dudt, Sliaw, Trav. p. 254. 
Uamietln Uuck, Lath. Hi/n. iii. 2, p. 487, n. 41 (1785). 
Shieldnke, Lath. op. eit. p. 504, n. 61 (1786). 
Anas damiatica, Gm. S. N. i. 2, p. 535, n. 10(t (1786) {e-c Haiielq. 

Jt. p. an, n. :(6, 1767) ; Lalk. bid. Orn. ii. u. 650, n. 48 (1790) ; 

Bomt.Enc. Mith.i.f. 131(1790); Vieill. iV. B. v. p. 119 (1810) ; 

Dvm. Diet. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 379 (1817) : Stfph. Om. Zeol iii. 2, 

p. 108 (1824). 
Tadomit ladoma, Ftfia. Phil, of Zaol. ii. p. 260 (1822); LitAt. 

NomeTii-l. Av. p. 101 (1854|; UarUrt, Kat. VogeUmnml. p. 228 

(1«01) ; id. Ibis, lci92, p. 618 (E. Pruawu). 



Todonu fomiliiirifl, Boie, hi*, 1822, p. 564. 

Ttkdoma beUonii, Steph. Gen. Zool. lii. 2, p. 72, pi. 4G (1824) ; Sw. 
Clau. B. ii. p. 368 (1836) ; E^. Man. Anat. p. 105, pi. 1. ff. 8, 4 
(trachea), pi. 3 {stemimi), pi. 8. f. 3 (csca), pi. 9 (skeleton) (1838) ; 
SeAnb. Ad. Suit. Nat. p. i (1852) ; Bp. Compt. Bmd. xliii. p. 649, 
n. 52 (1856) ; Hartm. J. f. 0. 18B4, p. 235 ; Coflett, Norg. Fia/l. 
p. 63 (1868) ; Egt. ^. Anat. p. 55 (1869) ; (Mett, Om. Bemiirk. 
1671, p. 63. 

Tadoma Tvlpnuser, I7em. Sut. Br. Anim. p. 122 (1828) ; Gould, 
P.Z.S. 1834, p. 51 (Trabizond); Strickl. P.Z.S. 1836, p. 102 
(Smyrna) ; Gould, B. Eur. pi. 367 (1837) ; Bp. Camp. Lilt, p. 66, 
n. 404 (1836) ; id. Cat. Met. Ucc. Eur. p. 70, n. 429 (1842) ; HarlL 
Vers. Ges. Jtfa*. p. 118 (1844) ; G. B. Gr. Liit S. Brit. Mta. iii. 
p. 132 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 613, n. 1 (1846) ; id. Cat. Hodga. 
Coll. B. M. p. 144 (1846) ; RchtA. Sun. Av., Natatores, L 93. ff. 432- 
34(1846); Blytk, Cat. B. Mw,. A. S. B.f. 933, 0.1769 {\8^); A. 
Brehm, J.f. 6. 1855, p. 367 ; Cau. Exp. Am. Squadr. Oina Seat 
1^ Japan, ii. p. 248 (Macao) (1856) f cf. J.f. 0. 1868, p. 460) ; Jffoiwy. 
J.f. 0. 1859, p. 371 ; SimnA. IbU, 1860, p. 67 (Amoy) ; Trittr. ibid. 
p. 81 (Tuggurt) : Pouyji, ibid. p. 354 (Ionian lal.) ; Sicink. Ibis, 
1861, p. 344 (N. China), 1883, p. 434 (FordoBa) ; id. P. Z. S. 1863, 
p. 324 ; O. R. Gr. Cat. Hodgt. Coll. B. M. 2nd ed. p. 76 (1863) ; 
Jerrf-^.^Jnd-iii. p.794(lefti)i ^/fen, /6u,1864, p.l89; More, 
Bnt, 1866, p. 442 (England) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 629 (breeding) ; 
Oouid, B. Gr. Brit. v. pi. 11 (1869) ; Frittch, Viy. Eur. Taf. 60. 
f. 6 (1870) ; Eltoet * Bucld. IbU, 1870, p. 339 (Turkey) ; Shell 
iiis. 1871, p. 315; &Knd. *iii.p.376 (Spain); SheU. B. of Egifpt, 
p. 281 (1872); Ihtrnf. Ibis, 1874, p. 403 (N. Frisia) ; GulUv. 
P.Z.S. 1876, p. 468; Schmidt, P.Z.S. 1880, p. 317; Simmn, 
Oit, 1882, p. «i (E. Bengal) ; »:ht. Litt Vert. An. 8th ed. p. 428 
(1883); T^tvrk. J.f. 0. 1887, p. 2)2; %««, IbU, 1891, p. 4M 
(Yangtse). 

Tadonia ^bhera, BreAm, leie, 1830, p. 997, n. 1 ; id. Viig. BeuUckl. 
p. 856 (1831) ; id. Vogelf. p. 370 (18.56), 




25, tambhji. 173 

p. 370 (1856) ; L. Srehm, Sauuiannia, 1855, p. 291 ; A. Orehm, 

J.f. O. 1855, p. 307. 
Anu (Vulponser) taduma, Radde, RrU. S. O.Sibir. U. p, 300 (I803J. 
Chenalopex tadorna, u. Vroite. J.f. O. 1805, p. 353. 
AuAS rutpaueer, David, N. Arch, ilu Mm., Bull, tu. Cat. a. 444 



nsri). 

Tuorna co 



I, 6. R. Gr. Sand-lut, iii. p. 80, n. 10618 (1871) ; 
SiwitA. P. Z. S. 1871. p. 418 (Chios) ; -ffa.w, Sr. Featk. i. p. 260 
(1873): Se^. Om. N.O.-AJr. u. 2. p. 130t (1873); JAmf. ^ 
M. Brown, iSu, 1875, p, 427 tTranBjlvfuuft) ; B., B., R. «. S. J.f. 
O. 1877, p. 336; Dreu. Ibi», 1876, p. 419; Blak. ^ Pruer, Ibu, 
1878, p. :il3; Piyer. Roal. On. Mite. iii. p. 100 (Mongolia) 
(1878) i Dreu. B. Ear. v\. p. 461, pL 420 (pt». 67, 68, I«78) ; 
Gigl Icon. Avif. Jiat. fa«c. ii. Uv. ;148 (1870) ; Hwm, Sir. Fealh. 
TiL p. 492, Tiii. p. 115, n. 056 (1879) ; Hume * MarA. Game B. 
iU.p.l63,pL la (1880); JWoI. P. Z. S. 18e0,p. 511 ; Gigl. Iln*, 
1881, p. 214; SrtlA. iiii, 1882, p. SiJS (Aslnikhiui); Sah. Vat. B. 
StHekt. a>U. p, 631 (1882) ; B. O. U. Liit Brit. B. p. 122 (1883) ; 
Sfi^h. Ibi», 1884, p. 175 (NaKftski) ; Saimd. YarrtlCt Hiet. Br. B. 
i*. p, »5S (1084); Seebk. Hiit. Br. B. iii. p. 520, pi. 6U (egg) 
(1885) ; Sativd. El. Uec. Ital. p. 266 (1880) ; Tait, ibit, im, 
p. 375 (Portugal); Waih. Mitth. ont. Ver. iS'ien, 1887, p. 18a 
(Styria) i Koen^. J.f. O. 1888, p. 306 (Tuiub) ; Samders, Man. 
Br. B. p. 407 (1689) ; Lilf. iSu, 1889, p. 345 (Cyprus) ; Trnfr. 
Cat. CoU. B. p. 50 (188a); &cM. B. Jap. £mp. p. 241 (1800) ; 
£miu, Ibii, 1881, p. 73 (breeding) ; SAarpe, Cat. 0$Uol. Spec. Coll. 
Smrff. iii. p. 209 (1891) ; SeebA. Ibis. 1892, p. 37 (Hdigoland) ; 
J)e ta Touche, Ibis, IS()2, p. 461 (Foocliuw aad Swatow) ; Dvbui», 
Famt. Vert. Belg., Oit. ii. p. 423, pi. 261 (1892) ; Peart. ^ Bidic. 
IbU, 1894. p. 232 (N. Norway). 

Vulpanser (Anas) tadoma, Barth. Norg. FtigUv. p. 40 (1881). 

Tadonta damiatica, Stejn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mtu. 1882, p. 88; ScAal, 
J.f. 0. 1890, pp. 5, 10, 39; Rehnw. J.f. O. 1890, p. fe; Floeriekr. 
J.f. O. 1891, pp. 171, 198, 291. 1892, p. 251. 

Tadonia vulgHns, Serb/i. Iln$, 1883, p. 33. 

Miibridt. 
Tadoma vulpanser J X Casarca caua 2, &fa(. P. Z. S. 18.')9, 
p. 412. pi. driii*; id. Ibii, 1859. p. 474; id. Lint Vert. *in. 8tb 
ed. p. 4^8(1883). 
Anas tadoma x Anna boschas, Miin'er, J.f. 0. 1863, p. 303. 
Advit male. Head and Upper part of the neck dark glossy green : 
rouad the lower neck a broad white coUar ; a band of rich uhestuiit 
coTen tho upper part of the back, the apace before the bend of the 
wiiig, and Uie upper part of the breast ; remainder of the back, rump, 
■ad upper tail-coverta whit«. acapularB black, except the inner ones, 
which are white ; a band along the middle of the breast aad belly 
dark brown ; sides and dauks ^^'hite ; under tail-coverts rufous ; 
wing-coverts white ; primaries very dark brown ; speculum on the 
Mconduies green ; long iuiicr secondaries with rich olieetnut outer 
wtbs ; inil-feulhers white, tipped with black : bill and knob at the 
base bright red ; iridcs brown ; legs, toes, and tlieir membrariet 
Stab-pink. Total length 24-26 inches, wing 13, tail o-2, culmcii 
^4, taraui 2. 




174 auatidj:. ' 

Female. Rather smaller than the male ; less bright in colours, 
and has no knob at the base of the bill. 

Toung birds " of the year in August have the beak flesh-colour, 
the head and neck brown, chin and &ODt of the neck white ; inter- 
scapulars brown; wing-coverta white; inner eecondariee white, 
edged with chestnut ; primaries black ; speculum becoming green ; 
all the under surface white ; legs flesh-colour" (TarreU). 

Netiliiiffs in down are dark brown above and white below ; the 
white on the underpnrts extending to the forehead, sides of the 
head and neck, wings, ecapulary region, and sides of the rump 
{Seehohm). 

. Hab. British Islands, across Europe and South Siberia to Japan, 
during the breeding-season ; Southern Europe, Northern Africa, 
Western Asia, Northern India, Southern China, Tonnosa, and 
Japan in winter. 



a. Ad. sk. 

b. Ad. sk. 
e. Pull. sk. 

d. PuU. sk. 

e. Ad. St, 
/. d ad. 8k. 

ff,h.6 9- ju'- 8k. 

i, k. Pull. St. 
I. Poll. sk. 
tn, n. cf $ ad. sk. 
o. £ imm. di. 



No locality. 
No locality . 
No locality. 
No loi-ftltty. 
Gt. Brilain. 
North Uist, Hebrides, 

July (H. J. E.). 
St Andrew's, N. Scotr 

land, Dec. 
Kirkwall. 

Knox I., Fame Is., June. 
Norfolk, Jan. 
Aldebargb, Sufiblk, 

July. 

Brighton, Feb. {E. K 

&fbohm). 
llaUiiig 1. 



Mrs. Wakeltng [P.]. 

W. T. RIanford, Esq. [P.]. 

Sal vin-G adman Coll. 

Gould ColL 

Gould Coll. 

H. J. Elwes, Esq. [P.]. 

J. A. W. Cook, Esq. [P.]. 

Purchased. 
Salviu-Oodman Coll. 
J. H. Guniey, Esq. [P.]. 
Colonel Irby [P.]. 



J. W. Tvudale, Esq. [V.]. 










Shfingliai, Chum 

(Mickie). 
Xmoy. Chinn (A. 

AVi'nAor), 
Yolcohama, Japan {J. 

NafTtuaki, Japan, Jan., 



TwMddB]e Coll. 
F. Webb, Esq. [P.], 



F, Ringer, Esq. [P.]. 



I IT. SkeleloD. 
iT-/". Sterna. 



■2. Tadoma la^jalL 

Sarcelle im Malius, Garn. Vmj. Cuq., ZooL Aflai, pi. 49 (l!S20). 

Anas ndjah. Gam. Fo^- Coq., Zuol i, 3, n. 30^ (1828) ; Lft». Man. 
d^Om. ii. p. 417 (ifeSS) (Bouru) ; id. Tr. ^Om. p. 634 (1831) ; 
id. Compl. de Suf. Oil ix. p. fiSO (1837) ; id. <m. Ht. 2iid ©d. 
p. 719 (183«) : MiiU. Verh. land- ai VoOanik. p, Iffll {183a-44) ; 
Waa. Atiiu 4- Mag. N. H. (2) xx. p. 478 (Am) 118.57) ; Fiiueh, 
NtiUrOuin. p. 1S3 (186r>); SdtUg. Mm. P.-B., hnmiea, p. 69 
(1860) : Oifh. Thfi. On. i. y. 300 (1872) ; SoKnb. JCnit. naar 
Getiv%nkb. pp. 9 (Tenwie), HI t'^^)> 118 (1^75) ; u2. ilfa^ay. 
M«A^.pp. 324(CBmm). 407,*"" '"'"" — " ■' ■" " ' ' 
Mu». rill. p. 68 (1888). 



I (1878-79); Biittik. Ku. Ltyd. 



Tsdonm radjiib, Evt. Mm. Anal. u. 106 (1838) : Gould, B. Amtr. 
" • " ■ ■ ., lB44)i G.n.G, "■ " ■■ - " 



».pl.8(pt.i , 

8«)i id. Gm. B. iii. p. 613. i 
435-30(1846); 



^1 SI" 

K (If 

L 



1> (1846): Jlchnb. %i. As., 
liii. ff.306, 435-3)1 (1845) ; MaafilL Narr. Toy. Sattkm. 
ii. p. 3S8 (1SJS2) ; Lirht. Nomencl. Av. p. 101 (1804) ; G. S. Gr. 
P. Z. e. JM8. p. 198; id. Cat. B. A'«c Giin. p. 63 (1869) ; id. 
P. Z. S. 1860, p, 365 (IkU'bian, Oilolo). 1861, p. 438; H'ali. 
P.Z.&1863, p. 30 (Bourn, Moluccas, New niiinea); Uotenh. N. 
T. N. I. xsv. p. 256, n. ^^ (1863) ; id. J.f. O. 1S64, p. 138, 
n. 802; Selat. P. Z. S. 1864, pp. 180, 190; Goald, Handb. B. 
A*utr. ii. p. .360 (18U5) ; Roa^. Srit naar Zmdinttfreit. p. 64 
(Am) (1867); Ei/t. Syn. Anaf. p. 56 (1860); Saau. Pr. Litm. 
Soe. y. 8. W. i. pp. 194, 217, 386, 395 (Port Moresby) (1876), iL 
p. SOO, n. (1C2 (1877) ; .tfart. ibid. p. 276 (1877) ; Sana. P. Z. & 
1877, p. 346 ; SAarpe, Joam. lArm. S»c. xiii. pp. 321, 506 (1877) ; 
Salvad. Ann. Mut. Civ. Gm. x. p. 166 (l»f7) : Lfnx, J.J. O. 
1877, p. 381 (Cenwn) ; Diggl. B. Atutr. ii. pi. Ill (1877) ; Sam. 
Pr. Lvm. Sbc. 2f. S. W. iii. p. 300 (1878), iv. p. 102, n. 209 (1879) ; 
SoMnh. Malay. Arckip. i>p. 373 (Am), 306 (Salnwattv) (ie7t^79) ; 
iStoye, Jtum. Lim. Soc liv. p. 688 (1870) ; Selat.'P. Z. S. 1880, 
pp. 611, 5.16 : D'Alh. iVutw. Ovin. pp, 34, 50, 682 (I860) ; Salvad. 
Ann. Mua. Civ. Om. xviii. p. 401, n. 4 (1882) : id. Orn. Pap. t 
Mot. iii. p. 891 (1882) ; Salv. Cat. B. Strickl. Qtlt. p, fi32 {188d) .- 
Selat. P. Z. 8. 1883, pp. 52, 196. 200 (Larat, Timorlnut) ; .KnxJl, 
. d. SOdiUT, p. 29 (1884) i Meya; SitsA. u. Ahh. GeieUich. I»it, 
\. /Mi. L p. 67 i Forhf,, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 434 ; Meyirr, Zeiliehr. 
On. i. p. 206 ( 1884) ; Plakt, Butt. Ac. Ptter-sh. xxix. p, 638 
4) : Gu'iltm. P. Z. 8. 1IW>, p. 1165 (Watriou, Johi) ; Xorth, Pr. 
Linn. Sne. y. S. W. (2) ii. p. 448 (1887) : Ramn. Tah. Lint, p. 23, 
a. 668 (iSSi) ; Trittr. Ctit. Coll. 3. p. 50 {lrt8») ; id Ibi., 1889, 
^Sriii{la».VaT^»toii):Satvad.Antt.Miu.Cic.Oen. (2) x. p. 828 
(1891) I id. Agg. Om. Pap. e Mot. p, 210 (1801) ; Rarttrt, KaU 



Vogtitamml. p. 228 (1891) ; Meyer, J.f. 0. 1892, p. 265; North, 

Cat. NaU ^ Eggi Aiulr. B. p. 338 (1889). 
RBdjob eytoni, &Jinb. Av. Syit. Nat. p. x (1852) ; Bp. Comnl. 

Bend, sliii. p. 649, u. 61 (1856). 
Anas leucomelaB, 0am., ^fide Bp. CompL Said, xliit. p. 649, in sju. 

Badjfih eytoni (1856) ; O. A. Gr. P. Z. S. 1800, p. 385, in ijn. 

Tadonue ladjali. 
Rsdjah radjfth, G. . 

Sund. Meth.Ttat ^ . / 

Vulpanser radjah, Bchnu). Dm. Cmtra&l 1882, j 

GeonFeochen radjah, Heine, NomencL Mat. Htin. Om. p. 343 (1890). 

Adult male. Bead, neck, breast, and abdomen wliite ; back, 
scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverta black ; the mantle vormi- 
oulatcd with narrow cheBtnnt lines ; a cheatnut pectoral band, with 
narrow black lines ; under tail-coverts and lower flanks brown- 
black, vermiculatod with narrow white linos ; upper wing-coverts 
white, with a black band near the tip of the greater ones ; hastard- 
wing, primary-coverts, and primaries black ; a glossy green specnlum 
on the secondaries, edged with blaok posteriorly; tips of the 
secondaries broadly white ; inner secondaries or tertiids brown- 
black, rich chestnut on the outer web; enter under wing-coverts 
black, the inner ones white ; tail black: " eyelids yellow ; iris milk- 
white ; bill and feet white ; claws dusky white ; nostrils blackish '' 
{WaUaee). Total lesgtii about \Q inches, wing 11, tail b, culmen 
1-76, tarsus 2-12. 

FemdU. Similar to the male. 

Young birds have the upper part of the head and the nape dark 
reddish, the upper wing-coverts edged with blackiah, the black band 
near the tips of the greater wing-coverts broader, and the green 
Bpecolam duller. 

Australian specimens arti larger, and have the hack much n 




t, t. Ad. rt. Port Esfflnrton. Cftpt. W. Cbambera [P.]. 

w, If. Ad. flk. Que^Dsiuid. Hume Coll. 

V. d ftd. sk. Moretoa Ba.v. E. Ilargjtt, Esq. [P.], 

26. CASABCA. ^^ 

CMnrcs, fiji. CSxn;.. iiit, p. 66 (1838) C. tutiu. 

Netulopei, ifrtn«, A'omene/. Jlfw. Sem. On. p. 343 (1690) 

( = Caiiarci>, Bp.). 

Rang*. Cou&uod to the Old World and AustraUaii Region. 
Key Ui tht Sptdea. 

a, Uodei tail-coTertfi futvoiu orcbestnut. 

a'. Fodertail-eoveKsfulTous; back and scapu- 
lars unifarut rufous; breast and Hbdoiuen 
uniform dniiBmoQ or rufous. 
a". Head buff, deepening' into cinnamon on 
the neck; mslH with a block collar, 

female without rutila, p. 177. 

b". ilcad and neck aah-eoloured, the anterior 

part of the head white in the fumale .... caaa, p. 1^. 
b'. Under toil-cov^rls cbeitniit ; back and 
ccapulars block, waved with grey lines ; 
male with th<^ head and neck ^loasj hlack ; 
female nith the head and upper part of 
tbe ueck pure trUite variegata, p. 163. 

b. Under tail-corerti hlack ; brenat rufous : mnle 

with the head and upper part of the neck 
black, witli a green ^loM ; female with the 
head brown, and a white baud of feathers 
round the base of the bill tadomoidti, p, 166. 

1. Casarca mtila. 
Buddy Sheldrake. 

Ansa auranlia, Martill. Danub. \. tab. 54 (1744). 
Anas persicft, FrUch. Av. t. 167 ( $ ) (1763). 
Adu ferruginea. Cat. f'meo. AdmiJir. p. 358. 
Anas CBsarca, Zim. S. N. iii. App. p. 224 ( 176S) ; 8. G. Om. Rtiie, 

ii. p. 182, t. 16 (1774) ; Gm. 8. N. i. 2, p. 611, n. 46 (1788) ; 

£0(A. ind. Om. li. p. S41, d. 24 (1790) ; £mn. Em. Milh. i. 

fl36, pi. 31. f. 2 (1780) i Savigny, Dem. de FEgypt, OU. pi. 10. 
1 (1809); Beelut. Om. Taichmb. iii. p. 589 (1812); Temm. 
Man. d-Om. p. 635 (1816); iw. Tr. d'Om. p. 633 (1831); 
Tenm. 4- SeMra. Fam. Jap.,Avn, p. 128 (1850) ; Tobiat, J.f. 0. 
1863, p. 217 (Oberlanaitz) ; PduUr, J.f. 0. 1854, p. 380 (Tauris) ; 
MiilL J. f. O. 1856, p. 232 (Camargue) ; finiro, J.f. O. 1867, 
p. 133 (Akeria) ; /&ucA, J. f. O. 1859, p. 386 (Bulgaria) ; 
LMfrm. I'off. OtiecheiU. p. 159 (1860) ; Baddf, Seilr. u. Kermt. 
Aim. Btickfi, »xiiii. p. SfS (1861) ; Sriiprr, J.f. O. 1862, p. 317 
(Uneueo) ; Wright, Ibu, 1864, p. 156 (HaitA) ; Schleg. Mtu. P.-S., 
Ahmtm, p. 66 (1866); Wright, Ibin, 1870, p. 492 (Malta); 
HamfV. J. f.O. 1870, p. 431 ; Gieh. Tket. Om. i. p. 347 (1872) ; 
Sarll OrietA. Jahrev. iii. p, 289 (1875). 
Anu ruula, PaU. A'ov. Otmtn. Betrop. xir. 1, p. 579, Ub. 22. f. 1 

TOL. XXVU. B 



(1770) ; id. Zoogr. Bouo-At. u. p. 242 (1811) ; Tentm. Man. 

Snd ed. ii. p. 63S (1820) ; Licht. Verz. Doubt, p. 84 (1828) ; 

Wemer, Atiat, Palmg>idei, pi. SO (1827) ; San', Om. Tote. iii. 

p. 168 (1831) : Mtnitr. Cat. SaU. p. fi7, a. 196 (Bftkou r 1832) ; 

TeiTim.Jiran.iT.p. 531 (1840); Nordm. in Dimid. Toy. iii. p. 286 

(1840) ; Naxim. V6g. DeuttcM. si. p. 564, Taf. 299 (1842) ; Yarr. 

Brit. B. iii. p. 137 (1843); Schleg. Bev. Oit. p. civi (1844); 

Xjarrb. Om. Dan. pi. 48 (1864) ; Statd. 8b. Fogt. pi. 88. f. 1 

(1856) ; Coita, Fauna Rrgno di Nap., Uec. pt. 2, p. 28, t viii. 

(1867) ; Severts. Turkett. Jevotn. p. 70 (1873) ; PoteUn, J. f. O. 

1876, p. 66. 
Germano foreatiero, Qer. Star, degli Ucc. v. tav. 571 (1776). 
CoUared Duck, Oentlem. Mag. xlii. t. p. 161 ( ) (fide Latham). 
Ruddj Goose, Lath. Sgn. iiL 2, p. 456, n. 18 (1786) -, ul. Suppl. i. 

p. 273 (1787). 
Anas coMTca, Dum. Diet. Sc. Nat, vi. p. 377 (1817). 
Anser casarca, VieiU. N. D. ijiii. p. 341 <1818) ; Dum. Diet. Se. 

Nat. iii-y.-p. 4S2 [1825). 
Tadoraa rutila, Boie, leit, 1822, p. 364 ; Stepk. Oen. Zool. xii. 2, 

p. 71 (1824); Brehm, Handb. Natvrg. Vog. Deulichl. p. 859 

(1831) ; Sgket, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 167, n. 215 (Dukhun, Quzerat) ; 

Sfriekl. P. Z. S. 1838, p. 102 (Smyrna) ; Gould, B. Eur. pi. 358 

SW7) ; Frater, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 122 (Erzerottm) ; Jerd. 
adr. Joum. sii. p. 220, n. 286 (1840) ; Blyth, P. Z. S. 1842, 
p. 94 ; Ti^fl. Ibit, 1869, p. 54 ; Powys, Ibit, 1860, p. 364 (Ionian 
la.) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 190, 1866, p. 150 ; Taylor, iiw, 
1867, p. 71 (E^JVt) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 629 (breeding) ; 
Etw. ^ Buckl. Ibii, 1870, p. 339 (DobrudBcha) ; Shell. Ihii, 1871, 
p. 316 ; Sound. Ibit, 1871, p. 396 (S. Spain, breeding) ; Garrod, 
P. Z. S. 1873, p. 467 (carotide), p. 639 (musclefl) ; Irbi/, Om. Sir. 
Gibr. p. 197 (1W6) ; -Don/. 4" B. Brown, Ibit, 1876, p, 426 (Transvl- 
Tania) ; Dreu. Ibit, 1876, p. 410 ; Forbet, P. Z. 8. 1877, pp. 307, 
812 (bursa Fabridi) ; Dumf. Ibit, 1878. p. 36 (Asia Minor) ; 
Schmidt, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 317; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. fill; 
Scfbh. Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 524, pi. 66 (egg) (1885) ; Trintr. 




26. CASABCt, 



179 



(1863) i Sartm. J./. 0. 1863, pp. 234, 236 ; Trittr. P. Z. S. 1864, 
p, 463 (PiUestine) ; Anlin. Oat. Deter. Uec. p. 113 (1864) (Egypt, 
Asia Minor) ; Jerd. B. of lad. Ui. p. 791 (1864) : Adami, liu, 
18tM, p. 34 ! Id, J. f. O. 1864. p. 46? ; D« FU. Viagg. in Pertki, 
p, 31:i (186.)) ; L«fAe, Ejpl. Sc. Atgir. ii. p. 366 (1S67) ; PeU. 
Jbu, 1868, p. 321 (l'ugiK,Tliibet); id.J.f. O. 1S68, p. 37 (Pug») ; 
7H«(r. nil. 1868, p. 328 (PalBStine) ; Btavan, Tiii, 1868, p. 401 
(India) ; Dgb. 4" Parrtx. J. f. O. 1868, p. 339 (Dauria) ; Gould, 
B. Gr. Brit, T- pL 13 (1869); Eyt. Syn. Anat. p. 66 (1869); 
Haigl. Pctrrm. Geogr. Mitlh. 1869, p. 408; Tacz. J.f. 0. 1870, 
p. M (Constwitine) ; Fritsch, Viig. Eur. pL 47. f. 9 (1870) ; O. &. 
Gr. Band-lilt, iu. p. 80, n. 10621 (1871); Smnh. P. Z. S. 1871, 
p. 418 (China) ; FritKA, /./. O, 1872, p. 369 (Bohemia) ; Sand. 
Met nat. An. dUp. Tent. p. 146 (IS72) ; Salaad. Faun. Ital., 
t'lv. p.2.'i6(l8"2); Sayl. On. N.0.-Ajr.ii.2,v. 1306 (1873); 
Jlasu, Str. Ftali. i. p, 260 (1873) ; Adam, ibid. v. 401 (1873) ; 
Burnt ^ Aitdir*. Lahore to York. p. 296 (1873) j Hume, NesU ^ 
Sgg*,f.tH\ (1873); Taa. ^ Di/b. J. f. 0.1873, p. 108 (Daurk) ; 
Ball, Str. Fealh. ii. p. 437 (1874) ; Hume, op. eit. Hi. p. 193 
(Upper Pwi) (1875) ; Bk/th, B. Burm. v. 165 (Amkan, Bhaino) 
(1876); BulL Str. Feati. it. p. 28 (1S76) ; Seullif, ibH. p. 198 
(B. TuTkaitaD) (1S76); Fairb. ibid. p. 264 (Khandala) ; Blatif. 
Eaa. Peri. ii. p. 303 (1876) ; Schal. J.f. O. 1876, p. 189 (Persia) ; 
Taa. BuU. &,c. Zool. Fr. ii. p. 44 (1877) ; Butt. Str. FeatA. v. 
n. 234 (1877) ; David ^ Oust. Oit. CHuw, p. 497 (1877) ; Shk. ^ 
Fryer, Ibit, 1878. p. 213; Schal. Om. CentroM. 1678, pp. 12-1* 
76 ; Brehm. J. f. O. 1878, p. 363 ; Prjeti. Bowl. Om. Mim. iii. 
p. 100 (M<aigoliaJ (1878) ; Siane S[ Davis. Str. FaUh. vi. p. 489 
(Tanatserim, Kolan Island, Mera^ii Archip.) (1878) ; Hume, Str. 
Feath. Tiii. p, 116, n. 654 (1379) ; Seully, ibid. p. 362 (Nepal) ; 
Fiimk, Verh. z.-b. Get. Wiai, 1879, p. 261 [W. Siberia) ; Hume 

?■ UoTMh. Oaaie B. of Ind. iii. p. 123. pi. 17 (1880) : Bidd. Ibis, 
881, p. 99 (Oilgit) : OigL ibid. p. 2U (Italy) ; Schal. J. f. O. 
I8S), p. SAO ; C. Sicinh. lOi, 1882, p. 124 ^ndabar) ; Oater, 
8tr. F. X. p. 24Ji (Vega) (1882); Bc/imn. J.f. 0. 1883, p. 122 
(HamhuTg) ; Salead. £1. Vce. Ital. p. 267 (1886) ; Scully, J. A. 
S. B. M. p. 89 (1877) ; Saltiad. Ann. Mui. Civ. Gen. (2) n. p. 644 
(Shoa) (1888) ; Koen^, J.f. O. 1888, p. 286 (Tunis) ; Sharpt, Tr. 
tiun. Soc. (2) Zoel.\. p. 191 (1889) ; Suet, Le Na/ur. xii, pp. 107, 
108 (1890) : De la ToacAf. IbU, 1892, p. 491 (Chin«). 

Votpawi rutilft, E. ^ B. Wirbelth. Eur. pp. Ixixiv, 225 (1844) ; 
p. d. MuhU, Beitr. Om. GritchetO. p. 123 (1844); Behnw. Om. 
OntntA/. 18S2. p. 36 (1882) ; id. Viig. tool. OUrt. p. 62 (1882). 

TMlorna CMWOk, Ma<yill. Man. Brit. Om. ii. p. 103(1843); Drake, 
JWi, 1807, p. 430 (Morocco) ; Dtyl. * Gerbe, Om. Eur. 3Dd ed. 
ii. p. 601 (1807); DoderL Avif. SicH. p. 267 (1869); Dreu. B. 
E»r. y\, p, 461, jiL 421 (1876); Andivt. Ym«. B^xd. p. 699 
(1879) : ttggf, B. Oyl.V. 1070 (note, Cevlon F) (1881) ; SetbA. 
nil, 1882. p. 228 (AsUakban) ; Satv. Cat. B. Striekl Colt. p. 532 
(Iffiaj ; S. O. U. Lilt Bril. B. p. 122 (1883) ; Set. Litt Vert. An. 
8th ed. p. 428 (1B83) j Oalei, B. Brit. Burm. ii. p. 277 (1883) ; 
»(£A. Ibii, 1BS4, p. 370 (Kiukion^) ; Sound. Tarrelti SiH. Br. B. 
JT.p. 347 (18ft4-86) ; SwimA. * Barrtet, Ibi*, 1885, p. 137 ; LiVord, 
Ihu, 1889. p. 345 (Cyprus) ; Hume, yeOs ^ Eggs (Ontti ed.), iii. 
p. 286 (1890); Rehmv. J.f. O. 1890, p. 83; Eaani. Ibis, 1891, 
p. 72 (brecdinK) ; Dreu. ibid. a. 369 (Erteroum) ; Collell, Forh. 
%Ul CAr. 1890 (1891), no. 4, pp. 17-19 (Norway) ; SAwve, Sec. 



I 



Tark. Miu.,Avet, p. 128 fl881) ; Lilfbrd, Col Ftp. Br. B. pt. ix. 
(1891) i Hartert, Eat. VogeUamtni. p. 228 [I891J ; Offilvie, Zool. 
1892, pp. 392-398 (Brit Id.) ; UtiArr, t. e. pp. 334, 336 (IreUnd) ; 
FtmA. r»rh. Oe». Erdk. Berl. u. p. (OrMolud) (1893). 
Adm (Cawrcci) rutila, Brekm, J.f. O. 1864, p. 84 {Sudim). 
Anas (Vulpanser) nitils, Stulde, Seu. 8. O.-Sibr. ii. p. S61, Tof. 

jdT. f. 1 (puUua) (1863). 
VnlpuiaeT nitilus, Badde, Omit Caueat. p, 361 (1884). 
Cainna rutilft, Toes. P. Z. 8. 18B7, p. 611 (Cores); 1888, p. 

(Cor»). 
Nett&lopez Tutila, Hant u. Behnto. Nomend. Mtu. Hem. Om. p. 
{1890). 

Hybridi. 
Oasanm rntiU tf XC. cona $, Sdat. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 442; a. 

Ibit, 1869, p. 474. 
TBdom&TutJlaxChen&lopeK ngjptisca, Sclat. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 2. 
Tadornft casarcaXQuetouedula ialcataP, &&(. P. Z. S. 1890, p. 1, 

pi. 1 (Vladivostok, N.B. Asia). 
TadomamtilaXT. (Bg7ptiw»,XewA. J./ 0. 1890, p. 221. 
Adxdt male. Head, cheeka, and chin bnff-colour, darkening to an 
orange-brown at the lower part of the nock, which is snrrounded 
by a black ring; back, acBpolarB, breast, and all the underparta 
orange-brown or foiy-red ; rump fulvous, Termioulated with black ; 
upper tail-coverts, tail, and qoilk black ; wing-coverts white ; 
■econdaries glossed with green and purple on the outer web, fonning 
a speculuu) ; tertials yellowish, tinged with foxy-red od (be out«r 
web, and on the inner with grey : bill, legs, and feet blackish ; ins 
brown-hazel. Total length about 24 inches, wing 14-6, tail 5-5, 
oolmen 1*75 ; tarsne 2*25. 

J^maU. Similar to the male, but the head is whiter, the black 
oollai round the neck is wanting, and the coloration lighter. 

According to Hume and others. Iho adult males also arc without 




^^ 


26. CIBABCA. 


in ^H 


^m g. Imm. sk. 


Aden. 


C. Chevalier, Esq. [P.l ^H 
India Museum [P.t ^H 


^m h. Ad. ak. 


Babylon (Jonu). 


^H 1. A. (f Bd. ak. 


Bagdad. 


Kenneth Loftus, £aq. ^^H 
W: D. Camming, Esq. ^H 


^1 /. ,; ad ek. 


Bushire, Pereian Qalf, 




Mareh. 


^H 


^H m, n. (f $ ad. ak. 


Kandahar, March. 


Colonel Swiohoe [P.]. ^H 


H ». Sjuv.ak. 


Ynrkand.June {J. Senlly). 


HumeCoU. ^H 


H f>. d ad. ^. 


Turkeatan, May {Graf 

Wamaiy). 
SaiacMts. 


Dr. 0. Fio^h [P,]. ^H 


^1 0, r. g ad. at bA. 


St 0. LitUedale, Esq. ^B 


■ ak. 

^H 4. f. <; Kd. ak. 


Lob-nor{/V;>wii«A:y). 


Seobdhm CuU. ^H 


^H a. $ ad. ak. 


Chuan-che aupr. iPn'nat- 
India. 


Seebohm ColL ^H 


^H r. -Vd. St. 


Major-Uen. Hardwicke ^H 


^H 




^M «. <1 ad. sk. 


India. 


PuTcl?^, ^H 


^H J-. y. Ad. at. 


N. India. 


Col, Cobb [0,]. ^H 


^M t-e. (f»Letjuv. 


Ud»k(«racAfy). 


India Museum [p.]. ^H 


^1 <;'. Ad. sk. 


Sdkkur, Sindli. 


India Museum [P. J. ^H 


^1 f '. S <ld. Rk. 


Jhedura. Nov. 


Hume Col!. ^^M 


H /. 2 ad. 8k. 


(!^heiifib below .Mooltan.Dec. 


Hume CotL ^H 


■ y. Ad.ak. 
H \-n\ ^ $ «L et 


.Murdan. March. 


Hume ColL ^H 


CJurKaon, Dalhi, Jan., Feb. 


Hume ColL ^H 


^H cT imm. ak. 


( IV. y. CAM). 




^H '>',jf>i- (f ad.et 


Etawali. 


Hume CoU. ^^M 


■ jgv.^k. 






H r-V.<f$ad.ak. 


AUohabad, Feb., March, 
Nov. (A. 0. a.}. 


Hume Coll. ^H 


^1 »", o", 4". Ad. ak. 


Oudh. 


Capt. Staokhouse Hn- ^^| 


^H /'. i ad. sk. 


Oudh, Jan. 


Hume CoQ. ^H 


H /". <;ad.ak. 


Uoao,3»n. [0. Reid). 


Hume ColL ^H 


■ ;". J.d.sk. 




Hume Coll ^H 


■ k: f. Ad. et 
^M imm. sk. 

^H A", /". .U. sk. et 


Nepal. 


Tweeddale CoU. ^H 


fTepaL 


fi, li. Hodgson, Esq. ^^| 


^^1 imm. St. 




^H 


^H m". Ad. sk. 
^H n". Ad. ak. 


Nepal (Hodgmm). 


India Mu^um [P.]. ^H 
B, El. Hod^D, W ^H 

Hume CoU. ^^M 


^H o". $ ad, sk. 


Interior of Nat. Sikhim, 


H ,; 


May (£. .Va«dtUi). 


^^^M 




Native Sikhim, May 


name CoU. ^^H 


^1 f". 9 ad. sk. 
^H /'. /. Ad. sk. 


Sikhim, Oct. (i. M.). 


Hume CoU. ^H 


Calcutta, March, 


Hume CoU. ^H 


^H t". $ ad. -k. 


Rnipur, Feb, 


Hume CoU. ^H 


^H w". (f >d. sk. 


Deccan (Syka). 

Boulay, Upper Peiru.Nov. 

Kiukiang, China, Nov. 


India MueeumfP.]. ^H 

E. W. Dates, Eb^. \C.\ ^H 

F. W. Styau, Esq. [P.l. ^H 


^M p". ^ nd. sk. 


^M W, X". Ad. sk. 


^H y". Ad. sk. 


Kiukianjf, China, Nov. 
(F. W. Sh/an). 


ijeebohm CoU. ^H 






^1 S", »'. (f ad. et 
^H ^. d *d. sk. 


Hankow, China. 


C. Maries, En. [C.]. H 


Shsnghai, China, Jan. (.4. 


Secbobm Coll. ^H 


L 


MiAit). 


J 



182 AVATQA 

e*. $ kd. sk. CotM. C. W. CunpbeU, £m. 

[PA 
d*. Skeleton. Zool Soe. 

e*. Skeleton. Volga. Brenat Coll. 

/*. Imperfect tkeL Nep&l. B. H. Hodgson, Eaq. 



HTSBise. 
Oaiarea rutilaX C. c 



[P.]. 



2. Casarca cana. 
OreT-beaded Dock, Brown, Itt. pp. 102, 104, pla. 41, 42 (Cape of 

Good Hope) (1776) ; Lath. Sk/n. Sapiil. i. p. 373 (^1787). 
Oie StiUTage k tSte ^ise de la Cote de Coromandel (f), Sonm. Voy. aur 



Graj-beaded Qoofie, Lath. Syn. ill. 2, p. 4fi8, n. 19 (1786). 

Anai cana, Cm. & N. i. 2, p. 510, n. 66 (1788) j Lath. Ind. Ont. ii. 
p. 840, 11.22 (1790);ifi«. TV. (TOrti. p. 6S3 (var.) (1831) ; Z*cW, 
ForHer'i Doer. An. p. 44 (note) (1844) ; &JIfsr. Afiu. P.-A., 
AnaeTss, p. 67 (1866) ; (Tt'eA. 2^m. Orn. i. p. 346 (syn. emend.) 
(1872) ; Banf. Sf HarvU-Brown, Ibu, 1875, p. 430. 

Anas eegTptiaca fi, Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 840 (part.) (1790). 

Anaer ferrngineus, Bomu Etie. MHK i. p. 116, pi. 30. f. 2 (1790) (« 
Brown). 

Anaer canus, Fi«iU. N. D. xxiii. p. 846 (1818). 

Beruicla cana. Steph. Gtn. Zool zii. 2, p. 61 (1824). 

Eauika du Cap de Bcnme Espfrance, Lafr. Mag, de Zool.,Oit. 1834, 
in the text of pi. 36. 

Chenalopez cana, BuL Mon. Anat. p. 104 (1838) ; id. &m. Anat. 
p. 64 (1868). 

ADSflteontuia, Font, (nsc Om. P) Icon. intd. 69, 70; id. Deter. An. 
(ed. lAckt), p. 44 (1844) (Cape of Good Hope). 

Casarca nitila, part., 0. B. Or. i«( S. Brit. ilui.tVi.'p. 132(1844); 




Tsdornavulpansertf xCwaM»e«iia$,Scii(. F. Z. S. 1659, p. 442, 



I. 414: id. Lilt Vert. An. 8lh ed. p. 438 



p. 326 



TDlpaiuer rf x Tudonia ( 



a ?, ^. Newt. Ibi>, 



Adult male. Head and neck ash-coloured ; a dark rufous collar 
round the neck ; lower part of the nock and breast fnlTOOB, changing 
into cinnamon-colour on tbo upper back, eoapular!!, aud nnderparts ; 
the lower abdomen almost cbestnut ; under tail-coverts bright 
fnlToos ; bock and scapulars Tonniculated vith black ; lower back 
blachish, with pale vermicnlations ; upper tail-ooverts and tail 
black ; tower flanks blackish, with fulvous vermiculations ; upper 
and under wing-coverts white ; primaries, bastard-wing, and 
primary- cove rta black, secondaries glossy green on the outer web, 
forming a speculum ; inner secondaries cinnamon on the outer web, 
dark grey on the inner one ; greater under wing-covert« blackisfa ; 
beak and feet black. Total length about 22 inches, wing 14, tail 
5*5, culmen I'S, torsns 2. 

Ffnale. Similar to the male, from which it difiers in having the 
anterior pnrt of the head, the sides of the head above the ear-oDTcrts, 
and the throat white ; size somewhat smaUer. 

Youit^ tnale. Paler and duller than the adult bird ; the head 
and upper part of the neck dull greyish brown. 

Bab. South Africa, as far north as Transvaal and Orange Free 
State. 



s, i. $ ad. et juT. South Africa. 



«. ,f ad.ek. 



Transvaal ( T. Ayrei). 
Potachefatroom, July 

{T.Ayre,). 
Kroonatad, March 

[F. Sj/mortdt). 



Sir A. Smith [0.]. 

Shelley CoU. 

J. H. Gumey, Esq, 

[P-l 
J. U. Gumej, Esq. 

[P.J ^ 



niBRiDB, 

Tadoma comuta cf X Canarca cana 2 , 

Zoological Socie^. 
Catarca cana J XC rutila J . 

Zoological Society. 



3. Casarca rariegata. 

Varitsftted Oooae, Lath. Syn. iii. 2, p. 441, n. 6 (1785) (New 

Zedand). 
Anas Twiegata, Gm. S. Jf. i. 2, p. 505, n. 58 (1788) : lath. Ind.Om. 

i). p. Sae. n. 10 (17C0I ; Schlfff. Mut. P.-B., Anseres, p. 66 (1806) ; 

GM. Tht*. Om. i. p. 364 (1872). 
haMft variegatns, Som. Ene. Milh. i. p. 113 (1700) ; VieiU. N. D. 

nm.p.84S(iei8); Dum. i>ice. SC.Vat. xxxr. p. 472(1825). 



Ansa pcta, FinU. (wk Ovi.) N. D. t. p. 132 (New Zealand) (1616) 
{exCooht). 

Bemiela Tuieg«ta, A«pA. Gen. Zool. zii. 2, p. 59 (1834). 

Caurka castanea, %e. Mon. ..liuit. p. 108, pi. 19 ( $ ) (1888) ; til. 
■V- ^n«(- P- 69 (1869). 

Ansa chenetos, Fortt. Icon. trad. t. 67 ; id. Deter. An. (ed, ZwM.) 
p. 92 (1844) i LicAt. ibid, (note) (=A. lariegiita, Om.). 

OdMLTca rariegata, O.ILGr.in Dieff. Trav. ii. App. p. 198 (1643) ; 
id. Lift B. Brit. Mv*. iii. p. 133 (f844) ; id. Om. B. lii. p. 613, n. 8 
(1846) i G.R.aT. Zool. Ereb. ^ Terror, Birds, p. 15, pi. 16 (<J) 
(1846) ; Sehnb. Sgn. Av., NaUtores, p. 94. f. ^361 (e2- freft. ^ 
Terror) (1860); Lieht. Homencl. Av. p. 101 (1854); 'Eaatt, 
-Hmort, p. 136 (1861) ; id. Jfiw, 1862, p.lOl ; G. £. ffr. JW»,18e2, 
p. 240; Lauard, Ibit, 1863, p. 245; Sailer, Esiay Om. N. Zeal. 
p. 18 (16%) ; Hector, Nea Zeal. Eah. p. S77 (1866) ; Finteh, 
J.f. O. 1867, p. 336, 1870, p. 356; FotU, Tr. ^ Pr. N. Z. Intt. 
ii. (1869) p. n (1871) ; Mitton, Ibit, 1870, p. 398 (Auckland) ; 
id. Git. B. New Zeal p. 86 (1871) ; O. S. Gr. Tland-liit, iii. p. 80, 
n. 10623 (1871) ; Travert, Tr. ^ Pr. N. Z. Intt. iv. (1871) pp. 206, 
207 (1872) ; Finich, J. /. O. 1872, p. 184 ; BotU, Tr. ^ Pr. N. Z. 
Itut. V. p. 190 (1878) ; SuUer, Hut. B. Sen ZeaL p. 241, pL 26 
(d 2 ) (187S) i Harme Brown, Ibit, 1874, p. 96 (egp) ; jUicA, 
J. /. 0. 1874, p. 202; Sharpe, ZooL Ereb. $ Terr., Birds, App. 
p. 31 (1876) J Suller, Man. B. New Zeal. p. 67, pi. xxii. (1882) ; 
Touch, Ibit, 1682, pp. 400, 401; tZauard, iMd. p. 542 (New 



(1888) ; Tri»tr. Cat. OoU. B. p. 60 (1880) j Smith, Trant. ^ Pr. 
N. Z. Intt. ni. 1888, p. 222 (188'" " " •" ' - •' " 

Intt. zxT. 1892, p. 63 (180: 



2 (1880) i Bailer, Trmt. * Pr. N. Z. 



Casarca caatonea, Bp. Compt. Rend, zliii. p. 649, n. 48 (1866). 

Anaer vahegBta, EUman, Zool. 1861, p. 7471. 

Tadonia vftri^iata, Sclat. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 191, pi. lix, 1866, pp.78, 
\i<.\, 1809, p. 023, 18(iO, p. 512; id. Lul IWt. An. 6lt ed. p. 429 
(1883) ; Rogeron, BaU. Soe. Aedim. 1885, pp. 161-173; ." ' " 




23. CABABCA. 



185 



not, more or leas waved and freckled with blaok and white lines ; 
remainder as in the mole. Size somewbat leas. 

Tottng. " In the yeuag etage the sexes are alike, the plumage 
resembling more nearly that of the adult male. Head and upper 
portion of neck sooty black, varied with light broirn ; lower portion 
of neck dark brown, with narrow transverse lines of rufous ; the 
whole of the under surface blackish browu, mottled and barred 
with rufous, each feather narrowly margined with white ; ahoulden, 
back, and lower aides of the body black, with vrhito freckles and 
vermiculations ; wings as in the adult ; rump and toil black ; under 
tiul-oorerts pale ferruginous" {BuSer), 

Young mala have a tinge of brown about the head, and the 
feathers of the shoulders more or less margined with dull fulvous 
brown, presenting on the surface wavy lines (BuUtr). 

Toting female* show irregular white feathers on the head and 
neck, which rapidly increase in number, till the plumage of those 
parts becomes entirely white (Buller). 

Toung in doom. Dpper half of the head, a band along the nape, 
mantle, and anterior part of the wings, a band along the back, and 
two patches on the flanks brown ; lower half of the head, lower 
parts, posterior half of the wings (except at the tip), and a band on 
each side of the back and rump white. 

ffi^. New Zealand (it has straggled to Brisbane?). 



A,&cf$ad. St New Zealand. 



c, li d S ad. at 
r,/ ^ S ad. St. 
•, A. <; $ ad. tk. 
L <f ad. sk. 



New ZealftDd. 
New Zealand. 
Otago. July. 

[Brisbane. July] {CockereU 
if TAorpe). 



New Zealand Coll. 

[P.]. 
P. Earl. Esq. [CJ. 
Capt. Stokes [P. J 
Hume Coll. 
Salvin-Qodmnn Coll 

Zool. Soc. 



4. Csiarca tadomoides. 



la tadoraoides, Jnrd. ijf .SWfty, III. Oni. ii. pi. Iiii. (1828) ; Lt^fr. 

Mag. ZmI., Ois. 1834. lext to pl. 23; Le»». Compt. ile Buff., Oim. 

U. p. &34 (1837) ; id. op. eit. 2nd bA p. 721 (1838) ; SeUtg. Mm. 

P.'B.. AnsereM, p. 66 (1866) ; Gieb. The>. On. i. p. 364 (1872). 
Anas kasarkoidra, Lafr. Mag. At Zool. 18.^ text to pl. 3C. 
Caurka todomoides, Eyt. Man. Anat. p. 107 (1838) ; id. &;«. Anat. 

p. 68 (1869). 
Casarca ladomoidea, Oiuld, B. Auttr. v. pl. 7 (pL xir., 1844) ; 6. R. 

Or. Lid B. Brit. Mm. iiL p. 133 (1844) ; H. Gen. B. m. p. 613. 

c. S(IS45); A'AnA.«i/n.^B.,Natatore),t. 93.9'. 428-430(1846); 

ImM. A'omeucl. Av. p. 101 (1861) ; Bp. Campt. Rend, iliii. p. 6*9, 

tt. 47 (1866); Selat. P. Z. 8. 18^, p. 185: fSaiUd, Handb. B. 

Anttr. ii. p. 361 (1866) ; G. S. Or. Sand-lut, iii. p. 80, n. 10623 

(1871) ; ainM. Pr. itro. Soe. If. S. W. i. pp. Ift5, 219 (1876), ii. 

p. 200. n. 653 (]«7a) ; id. Tab. LUt, p. 22, n. GG4 (1888) ; Blaauie, 

Ibit, 1894, p. 317 (duuble moult). 
Tadonu Udornoidea, i/arf/. Vert. Get. .Vim. p. US (1844); Sdat 



p. Z. S. 1864, p. 191, pi. XTiii., 1880, p. 612 ; kI. Ztrf Vat. Am, 
6th ed. p. 429 (1883) ; Leffpe, Pr. S. Soc. Tatm. 1886, p. 244 
(TtunDBUitt) (1887) ; Tri»tr. Cat. CoU. B. _p. 69 (1889) ; UarUrt, 
Kat. VogeUammt. p. 228 (1891) ; Sharpe, Qit. OtUol Spedm. Coil. 
Surg. iii. p. 298 (1891). 

Vulpenaer tadornoides, Sehiw. Orn. CentraOl. 1882, p. 36 ; ul. VSg, 
tool GdTt. p. 62 (1882). 

Nettalopex tctdoroiiia, Htmit $ Eekme. Norn. Mua. Hem. Orn. p. S43 
(1890). 

Adtdt maU. Head and npper part of the neek ^ossy dark grem ; 
a white ring separates the npper part of the neck from thelowerpart, 
which, together with the apper part of the hack and breast, are of 
a bright foxy-red ; back, acapulars, and lower parts black, finely 
freckled and waved with falvoos ; npper and under tajl-coverts and 
tail black, glossed with green ; wing-coverts pure white ; primaries 
and primary-coTerts black; seooudaries with a glossy green 
Bpecnlam ; tertiaries rich chestnnt on their onter wob and dark 
grey on their inner webs ; " irides dark brown j bill black ; legs 
greyish black "(G'ouU). Total length abont 24 inches, wing 14, 
tul 6, onlmen 1*8, tarsos 2-25. 

fimaU. Smaller and duller than the male ; head and upper part 
of the neck brown-black ; a ring of white or mottled feathers 
Borronnds the base of the biU. 

According to F. E. Blaanw, this bird is sabject to a doable moult 
" In May the first moult takes place of all tlie feathers, primaries 
and tail-feathera included. The rich shining chestnut feathers of the 
breast are then replaced by dull yellowish-brown feathers, and tbe 
white neck-collar is replaced by another collar, also white, but not 
so clearly defined, and not nearly so pure in colour." Kr. Blaanw 
calls this the winter dress. 

"At the end of August generally, the second moult (of the 




27. AKAS. 



187 



27. AHAS. 



Alias, Lmn. S, N. i. p. 134 a766) 

AnaasuSy Hqfin. AnatyK^ p. 72 (1815). 

Boschas, Sw. Favna Bor.-Amer.j Birds, p. 442 (1881) 

Mange. Cosmopolitan. 



A. boscas. 
A. boscas. 



ji' 



Key to the Species. 

41% Central tail-feathers curled up. 
a'. No white ring round the eyes. 
a". Speculum purple-blue; under tail- 
coyerts in fml-plumaged males velvety 

black 

b". Speculum greenish blue; under tail- 
coverts (in full-plumaged males?) 
black, more or less mixed with chest- 
nut 

V. A ring of white feathers round the eyes. . 
b. Central tail-feathers not curled up. 
cf'. Wing-speculum puiple, green, or blue, 
e". No transverse wnite oands across the 
tail. 
Bill greenish olive or yellowish, but 
not yellow with a distinct longi- 
tudinal black patch on the culmen. 
c*. Outer web of tertials not white. 
c^. No very distinct black band 
through the eyes, but sometimes 
only an obsolete one. 
c*. Throat and cheeks thickly 
streaked with brown; no 
white band anteriorly to the 
speculum. 
c'. gpeculum metallic green . . 
(P. Speculum dark violet ; 
general colour very dark . . 
(P, Throat usually not streaked 
with brown; the light part 
of the plumage more or less 
rufescent. 
e'. No white subapical band on 
the last row of the upper 
wing-coverts ; specmum 
bluish green or greenish 
blue. 
«". Secondaries with no white 
band at the tip, or with 
a very narrow one .... 
/*. Secondaries with a very 
distinct white band, 
about 0'35 inch broad, 

at the tin 

/^. A white suoapical band on 
the last row of the upper 



boicas, p. 189. 



wyinllianaj p. 196. 
laysanensiSf p. 199. 



melierif p. 199. 
obscura, p. 200. 



\fulviyula, p. 202. 
( maculosa, p. 203. 



aberti, p. 204. 



wing-coverte, quite dia- 

f'. Speculum puipla-blue or 

violet... JofOM ?,p. 189. 

V. Speculum greenish blue 

or bluish green ws/iiilliana $,p. 196. 

I*. Speculum green dum, p. S04. . 

d', A verr distinct black band 
through the ejea. 
**. Sides of the head ud ni»ck 
rufous ; plumage sJmost uni- 
form brown-crej luxcnioa, p. SOS. • 

/•. Sides of the head and neck 
not ruf oua ; general plumage 
distinctly mottled ; speculum 
metallic green; no white 
band anteriorly to the specu- 
lum si^rcilio»a, p. 206. 

if*. Outer web of tertials more or less 
broadlj white ; terminal portion 
of the upper mandible yellow. 
e". Speculum metallic green ; a 
broad white Bubapical band on 
the last row of the upper wing- 
coverts, anteriorly to the spe- 
culum ; mandible at the fore- 
head red ; breast white, with 
conspicuous black round spots; 
the whole of the outer web of 

tertials white padhrhgncha, p, 209. 

J*. Speculum metallic blue, more 
or leaa with a Kreenisb lustre ; 
no white band anteriorly to 
tlie speculum ; no red apotB at 




1. Anas boscas. 



i, p. 318 (i:«0) ; Ltneh, Cat. Af. ^ B, Br. 



oDuck. 
Adu ten, Brill. Om. i 

Jtf<».p.3S(181C). 
Ansa domestica, Briia. Om. <ri. p. 308 (1760) ; (ha. 8. If. i. 2, 

S638, n. 113 (1788) ; Dmi,. Dkt. Sc. Nal. vi. p. S64 (1817) ; 
reKm, Vog. DevlieM. p. 8ti6 (1831). 
Aiuw rostro iQCuiTO, BriM. Om. vi. p. 311 (1760). 
An»a boschw, Linn. S. N. i. p. 305, n. 40 (1708); Seop. Ann. I. 

Silt. Nat. p. 63, n. 77 (1769) ; Font. Philo*. Tram. liii. p. 383 

(1772) ; Qm. S. N. l 2, p. fl38, n. 40 (17881 ; lalH. Tnd. Ont. ij. 

p. 850, n. 49 (1790) ; Bonn. Enc. MM. i. p. 142 (1790) ; Zfl(A. 

Tram. Lim. Soc. iv. p. 112, pi. Kiii. C 10 (trachea) (1798); 

FtiUai, Zoogr. RoiMO-At. ii. p. 25S (1811) ; WiU. Am. Om. viii. 

p. 112, pi. 70. f.7 (1814); Ti!mm.Man. p. 537 (1815); Vititt. 

S. D. r. p. 138 (1816) i Dum. Did. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 366 (1817) ; 

Ttmm. Man. 2nd ed. ii. p. 835 (1820) ; Boie, Itii, 1822, p. 564 ; 

Lieht. rert. Doubl. p. 84 (1823) ; StepA. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 84 

(1824) ; Bp. Ob*. Nomaui. IViU. a. 256 (1835) ; Sam, EUm. 

# Zaol. iu. pt. iz. p. 100 (1826) ; Bp. ^. p. 383 (1828) ; 

it'cAf. Prai-Ven. p. iii, n, 157 (Mexico) (1830)! Brehm, Itii, 

1830, p. 992 ; Let,. Tr. rfOm. p. 634 (1831) ; Sari, ft-n. Tote. Ui. 

p. 161 (1831); Wagl. /.«, 1881, p. 532 (Mexico); MtnHr. Cat. 

Sat*, p. 57 (Bakou) (1832) ; And. Om. Biogr. iii. p. 164. pL 221 

(1836) ; StriekL P. Z. S. 1836. p. 102 (Srayroa) ; Gould, B. Eur. 

pL 361 (1837) ; Bp. Comp. LUt. p. 56 (1836) ; Eat. Mm. Anot. 

p. 140, pi. 11 (ekeletoQ &. trachea) (1838); Frai. P. Z. S. 1B39, 

p. 1S4 (EriCToum) ; Aud. Hyn. p. 276 (1830) ; Vig. ZooL Beeeh. 

Vm. p. 30 (1839) ; Ttmm. Man. it. p. 531 (1840) ; K. ^ B. 

Wtrheltk. Ear. pp. ixxxv, 227 (1840) ; MaogilL Man. ii. p. 165 

(1612) ; Sely-Lmg. Faun. Beige, i. p. 140 (1842) ; Naum. Viig. 

JDeutichl. n, p. 675, Tal 300 (1842) ; Aud. B. Am. vi. p. 236, 

SL .385 (1843); DeKay, N. T. Zoot. ii. p. 347 (1844); Qinaa, 
I. Imtg hi p. 29fl (1844) ; Hchleg. Set. Crit. p. ciiii (1844) 
Hani. I'en. Ga. Mui. v. Uit (ISU); G. R. Gr. LUt B. BrU. 
Miu. iii. p. 136 (1844; ; id. Grn. B. iii. p. 616, n. 1 (1845) ; Siipp. 

thtxriDg niiie relalioD to A. botcai ; beiidei, the mottUog of llie baad and 
of tbs upper parts aboirs great libmeis to A. butcai, villi whioh the adult 
bird* from the Uarianne lilanda, when anELablc, wLU haTa tQ be OOmpared. 
Oneof tlu ■r~" "" !_:r__ ...!._.. _. .... 1 < .. 



\ 



teof tlu maoien* ia \m aimilar to the Wp* of " ^. boichiu a. /rtymitti" ; 
■ ia labelled an from "M^ouinM Islandi. but, according to U. Ouatalet, it 
■Mjr taaTe corns from the Marianne Iilanda 



r Ana* bowhaa a. trercineti, Bp, Oampl. Bold. xlju. p. 0i9 (IS66) (nomen 

Anai ouilaloti, Salvad. BflL Brit. Om. Club, n. n. p. 1 (Mananne la.) 
08W,. 

F^uati. Similar to A. mpereUioia, but differs m being paler undiirnratb, in 
haijim Uaa deOned diulij band* un the lides of the bend (one through the larea 
lad me ajM backwards, uid the other through the ciieeka), the light part of the 
(k«k> redder and generally gputled, and tbs ipeculuin bluish purple, while 
in A. mpttttlioia it i> pure motallie green ; beiide* anteriorl; to the speculum 
thaic i< > suffldentlj distinut while band near the tip of the greater wing- 
•l^Mrta. which i* wantine in A. luperciiioia. (jtfal. Paru.) 

Hat. Uarianoe or Ladrooe Iiland* (Gnshlm). 




^gt. UOert. p. 138, n. 497 (Abjsaiiua) (1646) ; SchiA. Son. Av., 
NaUtons, t. 84. ff. 199-303 (184S) ; a. It. Or. Ou. Sodgt. CoU. 
B. M. p. 145 (1646) ; Goise, B. Jam. p. 408 (1847) ; PeaU, U.S. 
Expl. Ecp. no. 103 (1848) ; DegL Orn. Bur. ii. p. 425 (1849) ; 
Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. A. S. B. p. 303, n. 1771 (1849) ; T. 4- S. 
Faan. Jap., Avet, p. 126 (1850) ; HarcoaH, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 146 
(Madeira) i BcAnb. Av. Sytt. Nat. p. ix (16631; Bartl. AnA.f. 
Ifatuiy. 1852, i. p. 122 ; Woodh. &V- ^- P- 103 (1853) ; Muid. 
Sibir. Beit. ii. 2, p. 229 (I853>; Walimgr. Naumanma, 1S54, 
p. 270 (Scandinavia) ; Lichl. Xomend. Av. p. 101 (Arabia, Mexico) 
(1854) ; Bollt, J. f. 0. 1855, p. 179 (Cananes) ; Bp. Compt. Send. 
iliii. p. 649, n. 64 (1856) ; Seteb. P. R. R. Jttp. ti. p. 102 (1857) ; 
Cab. J./. O. 1867, p. 229 (Cuba) ; Ca»t. U.S. Expl. Eip., Mamm. 
aud Om. p. 340 (Or^on, California, Philippines) (1858) ; KittL 
JimkK. ii. p. 294 (1858); Adamt, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 516; Murr. 
NeTo Ediytb. PhU. Joum. 1859, p. 229 (Hudson's Bay) ; Adanu, 
P. Z. S. 1859, p. 190; Saird, B. N. Am. p. 774 (1868) ; id. Cat. 
B. N. Am. a. 676 (1869) ; BryajU, Pr. Bott. Soc. N. H. viii. 
p. 132 (Bahamas) (1859) ; Bre^oer, ibid. p. 308 (Cuba) (1860) ; 
J&ioer, P. Z. S. 1860, p. Sa'J (gizzard) ; Co,^. ^ SucAl. N. M. 
Walk. Terr. p. 253 (I860) ; Schrmck, Vog. Amurl. p. 472 (1860) ; 
Reinh. Ibis, 1861, p. 13 (Greenland); SwiiA. Ibit, 1861, p. 344 
(N. China); 0)u««, Pr. Ac. t%ilad. 1861, p. 238; iSwinh. Ibit, 
1862, p. 254 ; BiaK^t. Ibit, 1862, p. 332 (Japan) ; Verr. Pr. E$t. 
Iiut. ill. p. 153 (1862) ; Rosi, Canad. Nat. v-ii. p. 152 (McKenzie 
R.) (1862) ; id. Nat. Hist. Btv. (3) ii. p. 387 (1862) ; Hm/d. Rtp. 
p. 175 (1862) ; iMAf. J.f. 0. 1863, p. 59, n. 151 (Mexico) ; G. R. 
Or. lAtt Br. B. p. 193 (1863) ; id. Cat. Sodgt. CoU. B. M. 2nd 
od. p. 77 (1863) ; Swink. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 324 (Chma) ; id. Ibit, 
1863,p. 434 (Formosa) ;iiij(«e,&rM.S. 0.-Si6i>. li. p. 363 (1863) j 
MarcA, Pr. Ac. PAilad. 1864, p. 73 (Jamaica) ; Jerd. B. oflnd. 
iii. p. 398 (N. India) (1864) ; Trittr. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 453 (Pales- 
tino) ; Later. Ann. Lye. N. Y. Tiii. p. 13 (Panama) (1865) ; More, 
lUi, 18(ii). ]). -143 (LJivat Itiit.) ; Oodm. Ibis, ISiyj. p. lOJ (.Vzores) ; 
Schleff. Muj. P.-B., Ai^rea,f.iO {ISm) I CBueg,Pr. Ac. {"hi/ad. 




2". iSAB. 191 

p. 378 (Cuba) : Sotd. Ont. Mue. i. p. 117, pi xiv. f. 2 { S in cf 
plumage! (1B7S) ; Bianf. Etat. Pert. ii. p. 300 (lS7Gh Sclat.^ 
8ah. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 380 ; SeuUi/, Str. Feath. iy. p. 19S (Tur- 
kegtan) (1876); Drtsa. Ibu, 1876, p. 409; Pnaa. Mongolie, ii. 
pp. 166, 170 (1870) ; Swinh. itw, 1877, p. 146 (Ilakodsdi) ; Taa. 
dm. Faun. Vott. Sibir.p. 69 (1877) ; id. SuU. Soe. Zool. B: 1677, 
p. 46; David It Outt. Oil. Chine, p. 496 (1B77) ; Pnev., Soiclry't 
Om. Mite. iii. p. 101 {S.E. Mongolia) (1878) ; Blak. ^ Pryer, 
iAu, 1678, p. 213; ^iJaini, i£u. 18(8, p.4»0 (Mebalmki) ; Setbh. 
ftu. 1879, p. 23 (Jspan) ; Iltime, Str. J>a(4. viii. p. 115, n. 958 
(1879) ; rinich, Verh. z.-b. Oei. Wien. 1879. p. 262 (1879) ; Biak. 
4- Prytr, Tr. Am. Soc. Jap. riii, p. 183 (1880) ; Guy, S. Bahama 
Isl p. 184 (1880) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. IBSO, p. 616 ; ElUot, Mm. Seal 
ItL p. 130 (1881) ; ifcAnw. Om. CadrMl. 1882, p. 18 ; id. Vog. 
seat. Gart. p. 60 (1882) : C. Sainh. Hit, 1883. p. 124 (S. A&hiui- 
isten) ; B^ak. ^ Pryer, Tr. Am. Soe. Jap. x.p. 96 (1882) ; Blakiit. 
CAryionM. 1883, p. 37 ; Tacx. BuU. Soe. Zool. Fr. 1883, p. 3t3 : 
Jfiirt/. J./. 0. 1883, p. 281 (Alaska); Ail!.. &w« ' CVaii«,'j). 95 
(1883) ; B., B., ^ R. Water-B. K Am. i. p, 491 (1884) ; THrfr. 
Fowl. ^ Fhr. PaUat. p. 116 (1884) ; D'Sammv. BuU. Soe. Zool. 
Fr. 1881, p. 101 ; Madar. Zeitichr. d. ge». Om. i. p. 37 (1884) ; 
Sehiamaxi, Mitth. om. Per. Wien, 1884, p. 38 {vox.) ; id. ZeiUohr. 
d. pet. Om. ii. p. 63, t. 6 (v»r,) (1885) ; Zanabt. Oil. Tranicasp. 
p. 72 (1885) ; Serbh. Hilt. Br. B. iii. p. 669, pL 63 (««g} (1885) ; 
Om/. iMt B. We^t Ind. p, 30 (1886) ; TWrwr, Aide, 18M, p. 168 ; 
SUmeg. Bull U.S Xat. Mui. n. 29, p. 162 (Bering Is.) (1885) ; 
WeUi, Lilt n. Qrenada, p. 10 (1886); ITffaraonw. Bull. Soc. 
Zool. Fr. 1886, p. 286; Hartinq, Zoolog. 1886,0.339; Turner, 
Omtr. JV. H. AloMka, p. 131 (1886) ; A. O. V. ChetMiit If. Am. 
B. p. 114, n. 133 (1886); (Tray, P. Z. S. 1887, pp. 348-360, 
pk. udi., XXX. (wing) ; I^eli. R^. N. H. CoU. in AUuka, Birdi, 
p. 67 (1887) : Ridgw. Man. N. Am. B. p. 91 (1887) ; Stein. Pr. 
P,S. A''rf. Mui. X. p. 136 (CommnndBT Ii.) (Irt87) ; Tacx. P. Z. S, 
1888, p. 400 (Cores); While, Tr. N. Z. /«*(. rx. p. 39 (1888) 
($ in (J plumoge); £Vy, Auk, 1888, p. 61 (Cuba, Bah unas, 
Jwwuca. Grenada) ; id. S. W. Ind. p. 332 (1889) ; Meye,; Abb. 
Vogel-Skcl. Tftf. ex*, (pt. xii., 1889) ; Triitr. Cat. Coil. B. p. 49 
(1889); Setbh. D. Jap. Fmp. p. 243 (1890); Sarlert, Kat. 
Vogdiajnml. p. 390 (1691); Sharpr, Cat. Oit. Spite. Call. Surg, 
ui. Ave; p. 299 (1891): Brandt. J./. O. 1891. p. 367 (Aleutiwi 
I*.) ) Bateh, B. nf Minnei. p. 38 (ISftJ) ; Otut. Oil. du Turkeit. 
etc., XavB. Arch. (3) vi. Exlr. p. 97 (1894). 

Aims boschu, S, Linn. S. y.i. p. 206 (1706) (=A. aomestioB). 

Anu ftduncn, Linm. S. N. i. p. 306, n. 41 (1766) {tax. domestica) ; 
Om. S. N. i. 2, p. 538, a. 41 (1788) ; Palt. Zaagr. Bauo-Ai. ii. 

S2C7 (1811); nanoean, Br. B. ii. pi. 218 (1838); Lru. Tr. 
Om. p. 6.14 (1831) ; Jmyn*, Man. p. 234 (1836). 
^iiMmrmach.a.,Soop.Ann. I. Hiit.Nat.p. 66, d.SO (1769) (var.P); 

Om. S. y. i. 2, p. 510. n. 73 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 847, 

D. 40 (1790); Bona. Ene. Mith. i. p. 146(1790); BeehH. Om. 

Tatehenli. ii. p. 453 (1803) ; FieUl. K D. i. p. 128 (1816) ; Dum. 

Dirt. Sc. Kat. vi. p. 384 (1817) ; Steph. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 107 

(1824). 
AnM curvirortra, Pail. Spidl. vi. p. 33 (1769): ft". 8. N. i. 3, 

p. 637, n. 112 (1788); Lath. Ind. Om. ii, p. 852, n. 60 (1790) ; 



S«mm. Bmc. Mttk. L p. Ii4 0790} ; FUZ. .V. D. t. pL 107 |1S16> : 

£Kn. Diet. Se. SmI. vi jl 365 (I^IT) : Sttpk. Gtu. Ztnl. ziL % 

PL 93 (l^ei) ; Bdab. ^a. ^r^ NalaUms, t. SI. fl. 313-15 \\AiS>. 
Gmaid Bon^, UAiJiaa. PL EmL ~6 (<f), 777 <$> |l~Ol: 

B^. HiA. Sat. Om. ix. p. lis, [d*. 7, 8 (17e3f. 
Anatn aalratica rule, G(r. Afar. ^£ Tcr. t. t oTO (c^) 41776). 
HaDard. A)nL2b(>JL.<ln<.D.p.563(1785): Zctt. &>. iii.3, p.4«. 

n. 43 (1785). 
Cmred-Ukd Dw^ Zofi. fiy>. iii S, p. 496, b. 44 (1705). 
Aiw cinliato, Csl SI .V. L 2, p. 538 (1788) (tu.}- 
Anaa penica, fiat. iML (rar. ). 
Anaa major, Gm. t. c p. 539 (rar.J. 
Anaa giwa. Gat. iiiiJ. (Tar.). 
Aaaa DKria, (Tat. ibid, (rar.}. 
Anaa oigra, &■>. Aid. irar.J. 
Anaa kwcaa. Fonf. Sym. Cat. Br. B. p. 3.) (IS17> : Wiarlam. BA, 

1679, p. 4.>3 Inomen ^mend.) : Humt ^ MarA G«mt B. of lad. 

iiL p. 151, pi. il {18S0): Bidd. Aw, 1681, p. 99: SaOf.t.c. 

p.-%>: ^ J-£ A'nrt. Handb. Jami. f. 113 (16811 : Sidpe. Sim. 

N. Ant. B. n. 601 (Iwlj : Court, Oieck-lut, 2iid ed. p. 113. 

n. 707 (188-i) ; Salt. Cat. B. StHdJ. CW/. p. 533 (1683) : B. O. C. 

Lift Brit. B. p. 135 (1883); Sdat. Un I'nY. ^4*. 6tl> cd. p. -130 

(1883) : Gwi^ J&y .V. ^m. £. 2iid ed. p. 691 1 1884) : Samad. 

YarrtSi HiMt. Br. B. ir. p. a58 (18844.5) : Gi^ Ie<m. .4(^. 

JbiJ: fasc xxiz. U*. 31» (18%) ; SaUad. B. Cer. lUL p. ^S7 

(1886); LOf. CcL Hg. Br. £. pt. riJL pL — (1688): Sumf, 

Xtttt If Egg* [Oate* ed.), iii p. 3^^ (1890) : Sekmr. J.f. 0. 1?(W, 

■a.&;S>tirpt,8tc. Tark. MiM.. Art», ^. MM {imi) : iM. fsn. 

Bdg., Om. u. p. 433, id. 2&3 (la93) : Fiak*. MH. BioL xiiL p. ^96 

aseZ) ; A. Stwt. Dit. o/B. p. 168 (1893). 
AiMBatckiboachai,ZrraAm,im, I8.%,p. 997,ii.l:ad. np.AmArAC 

ft 663 (1831). 
AiiMaDbbc»ch»,&iAai, /fw, lS30,p.9g7,D.3; id. Fag. Drat^AL 




27. iNAB. 



19» 



^ 



y. Amer. i. p. 491 (=A. boschas ij is cbonging pluma^F), 

p. 4it5 (=A. boschiw X A. obscura?). 
Ansa ftudubooi, Bp. Cump. List, p. 56, n. S74 (1838) (=l)reweri). 
Anas moschttto-boschM, iicSwi. Syn. Av., NftUtorea, t. 84. t 203 

(1&I5). 
Ana* fuBFo-boschas, Jithnb. ibid. S. 20i-205 (1845), 
Anas majiiaii,Gin>r, B. Jam. p. 399 (1^7) {= A. boachas X Curiaa 

raosehatJt) ; Baird, JS. N. Artier, p. 774 (1858) ; Sdat. P. Z. H. 

1869, p. 369 (Mexico). 
ChaDleliuinius streponta a. breweri, Bp. Compt. Send, xliii. p. 650 

( = C. atreperuB x A. boaeb&sl) (1856). 
AnasbogcbaaxBalUaacuta.-Etfwf, P. Z. & 1859, p. 437. 
Ants bodcbas x Ansa obacum, A. Newt. P. Z. S. 1S<X), p. 337; 

Schleff. Mu4. P.-li., Anaerea, p. 41, n. 31 (1866) ; Sade, P,: U.S. 

Not. .Vim. Tii. p. 66 (1884). 
Adm boBchas x A. crecca. (Vwrnn. If. T. D. ii. p. 293 (1865)! 

Leotrk. J.f. 0. 1890, p. 327. 
AiMa bosclins li x Amid crecca 2, Sckkg. Mum, P.-B., Anseres, 

p. 41. II. 30(1806). 
Anas bnacbas (dameatica) x A. clTpeatn, T»ehu»i, Zeittekr. get. Oitt. 

1885, p. 533, 
P .Idm boKoa $ X A. aupercilioBa (J , White, Trans. JV. Zeid. Inst. 

x»iii. pp. 134, 1S5 (1885). 
Anu [domeatica] labradorta X Anas paira alba(!'), Kanp. Mim, 

Soc. Zool. Fr. ill. p. 109 (1890); Leverk. J.f. 0. 1890, p. 227. 
Anu bosuas x .4. atrepera, W. L. Sdat. P. Z. S. 1891, p. 313. 
Aoaa boscns ^ x Mei^ua merganser 2, ScAiUler, Om. Jahrb. ii. 

pp. 109, 110 (1891) i Ttchuti, ibid.m. 170, ITl. 
Anna boachaa x Anas americana, EUiot, Auk, 1892, p. 160. 
Anaa boscaa x CIinulelaamUB Htrepenu, Pavem, Bull. Soc. Veneto- 

Trmt. di Sc. Nat. v. m. 3 (1893). 

Adull maU. Hood and upper half of the neck rich glossy green ; 
b^w that a narrow ring of white, not quite meeting behind; 
manUe uid aoapulars grey, more or lesa tinted with brown and 
ninutfily barred with hro^iii ; middle of the back dark umber- 
brown ; rump, upper and under tail-«overtfi deep velvety block ; 
Qpper breast deep chestnut; lower breast, sides, and abdomen 
greyish white, waved with narrow dark linos : wings asb-browa ; 
wing-apeculum on the secondaries glossy purple-blae, margined 
Ulteriorly and posteriorly by a black and a whit« band, the last 
low of the coverts having a subterminal white band and the tip 
black, and the secondaries having a subterminal black band and the 
tip white ; tertials partly dark brown on the outer web ; under 
wing-«overts and axQlaries white ; foor middle tail-feathers black 
and recurved, remainder of the tail-feathera pale grey in the middle, 
edged with white : bill yellowish green, black at the tip ; under 
mandible reddish yellow at the base ; irides brown ; le^a and feet 
reddish orange. Total length about 24 inches, wing 10-o0-ll'50, 
t«iJ 4'-l, cnlmen 2-2, tarsus 1-85. 

Adult ffmalt. Oeueral colour of the upper parts dark brown, each 

'" having a brownish-buff margin; the underparle are buff 

" with dark brown, except on the chin and throat, which 




194 uiAnsji. 

an immactilat« ; wings as in tiis male ; tail brown, tbe edges of the 
feaihera pals wUtuh baft 

Foung i» Jirtt plumage doeelf lesemblee sdnlt female, but the 
male is somewhat oarker in colour. 

Aduh male in motdting plumage resembles adult female, hat is 
somewhat darker in colonr. 

Toung in down has the apper parts dark brown, with nearly 
white spot« OD tbe wings, scapulars, and sides of tbe romp ; the 
imderparts are pale brown, palest on the belly, and shading into 
bnif on tbe throat ; it has a boff stripe over the eye, a dark brown 
stripe through the eye, and a dark spot at the end of Hie ear- 
oorerts (iSuiioAm). 

Bah. Northern Hemisphere, rarely north of the Arctic Circle ; 
in A&ioa, ext«nding from the Azores, Uadeira, and Canaries on tbe 
Wcet to Nubia and Abyssinia {RiippeU) on the East ; in Asia, dnriog 
the winter found &om Arabia, throngh Persia and North India, 
to China and Japan ; in America, extending southwards to Usxlco, 
the West Indiea, and Central America as far as Panama. 



Europe. 
Orkneys, Jane. 
Rrth of Forth, Nov. (R. O. 
W.B,). 



d. ,;ad.Bt 
b. Pull. St 
o. $ ad. sk. 



«. PuRsL EnglandF 

/,f,A.$ad.et Great Britain. 

»-o. $ ad. et <; Merbm Hall, Norfolk, Aug., 

9 joT. sk. Oct 

p.^ ad.Bt. Cambridgeshire. 

9, r, «. rf ad. et AviDgton, Feb., May. 



Purchased. 
Purchased. 
Tweeddale ColL 

Tweeddale Coll. 
Gould Coll. 
Purchased. 

Lord Walangham 

[P.]. ^ 
Porchesed. 
R. Bowdler Sbarpe, 




■k. 

«■'. (fad. 8k. 

ft", (f ad. ak. 

e". $ »d. Bk. 
d", <". <f sd. 

ak. 
/". rf dd. sk. 

•d-ak. 

1". <f ad. sk. 

/'. S *^ ek. 
«.",■". <J 2 ad. 

•".f". <J 2 «i 

f". (f •! ak. 

r." (T ad. ik. 
■".r. rf ad.ak. 
iT . cJ ad- sk. 
B^. e ad' it 
«^. d ad. ak. 
<". a ad.sk. 
^■-JjuT-ak. 




Huncha Lake. 

Larkbaan, Sindh, Jan. {A, 

o. a.). 



Sultaupar, Ourgaon, Bee. { IT. 

Miingloo, Kooloo.Fel). 
EttLwali, Jan. {A. Andenon). 



Sandee, Feb. {A. A.). 
Nepal 

Native Sikhim, Not. {L. Man- 

Bangiii] (Faicontr). 



Seebohm Call 

B. H. nodgBoo, Esq. 

[P.]. 
Hiime CoU. 



China (ruobrtt). 

Wuhu, YfmgtBe, China, Jan. 

Shanghai, China. 
Natn^aU. Japan, Dee. 
Tliikudadi, Japan, March. 
Fuiisan, Japan (H. Pryer). 
Ttikohania, Japan (H. P.). 
Western side of Bocky Mta. 
St. MichaeVH. Alaska, May 

(E. W. NeUoti). 
Britiab Columbia {J. K. Lord). 

Washoe Lake, Nevada, May 

(H. W. Beruhaw). 
Canada. 



uid Eipediti 
ParalM. 



Greanland- 

Lake Minnesota, Oct. [A. J. 

Daijia,). 
Chici^o, Illinois, March, Oct, 

(A. J. D.). 
Hermiiillo, State of Sonora, 

Mfiico, Dec (f. Ferrari- 

Fera). 
Corpaa Cbristi. Teuw, Oct. 

Dec. (F. Armttrotig). 



[P.l. 
rwaeddale ( 



I, Eaq. 



F. W, Styan, Esq. 



Safvin-^ 



SaTvin-Godman Coll, 
F. Rinffer. Esq. [P.]. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Seebohm CoU. 
Seebohm Coll. 
J. K. Lord, Esq. [P.l 
Salvin^JSodman Coll 

N, Amentia Bound- 

Biy Comm. [PJ. 
Salnn-Godman Coll. 

GoTonit. of Caniula 

[P.]. 
N, America Botind- 



N. America Bound- 
ary Comm. [P.]. 



Salvin-Qodman Coll. 
SnlTin-Godman ColL 

Salnn-Oodman Coll. 



IM 


AKAUDX. 




4*, e". rf 5 td. 
rf'-A^. Ste™. 

r-r- skuni. 

r*. S .d. rt. 

(malfonned). 
.«.PiilL.k. 

(domeidc). 
f . <; ad. It 

(dark). 
«*. Ad.8t. 

{meUniatJc). 
B-.tfadik. 


Tarpon Springa, Florida, Not., 
Ifec (IF. a B. Soctt). 

Vakibiibb. 
No locality. 

Nolo<»Uty. 

Qteat Briton. 


Salnn^odman ColL 

ReT. W. Parish [P.], 

J. H. Oonie;, Eaa. 

[P.]. 
Puichaeed. 


Lincolnshire Fene. 
Lilford Avi&riea, Nov. 


J. Duhwood, Esq. 
[P.l. ^ 

The Hon. Lord Lil- 
ford [P.l. 

C. BerWey, Esq. 

Pureh^. 

0. Darwin, Eaq. [P.]. 


tt*. Ad. ak. 


Egypt. 


^. Ad. at 

«', I*. Ad. ak. 

(albino). 


China. 

Ado;, China (JL Smnhoe). 




pBirauiiT DvcK. 




rf". Pull. 
«•. Poll. 
/". Skeleton (in 
nulfbnned apt 
/>. SkuD. 


Bonieo (AgaA AwAe). 


C. Darwin, Eeq. (P.]. 


Borneo {Sajah Brooke). 


C. Darwin, Eaq. [P.]. 


Bali or Lombook {Saj. Brooke). 

complete) of the 
Kimenr*. 


0. Darwin, Eaq. [P.]. 

Gould Coll. 

ZooLSoc. 

Key. W. Parish [P.]. 




Anas boteas x A. superdliQ 


Wl. 




Adas bo»cb&s. rnr., Hartl. J./. 0. ISoi, p. 1 70 (Suidwich Isl.). 
Aima supeicitioea a. saadwichensia, Bp, Otmpt. Bead, xliii. p. 619 

(1866] (nom. nudum). 
Aaaa BUperalioM, var. (part.), O. R. Gr. Cat. B. Trop. lal. p. 54 

(1868). 
Anas supcrciliom, JhU {tuc Om.), Fr. Bo»t. Sue. N. H. riL p. 805 

(leOO) (Sandwich Isl.); Sdal. Ibu, 1871, p. 360: Doln, Haui. 

Almnnac, 1870, p. .5.5; id. B.Hamai. Id. 2ti<led.p.65 (1879). 
Anas oiDdwicliensis, '" Bp.," BuUtr, B. Neio Zeal. p. 245 (in »yn. 

A. supereiliostB) (1873). _ 



Anas wvvUliaoa. Setat P. Z. S. 1878, p. 360 (jut., Sandwich Isl.) 
ii^w, iV. l/.S. Nat. Mai. i. p. 261 (2) (1878); Solnt. Ihi, 



Ihis, 



■ Bui 

^^1 snd VI 



187S, p. 1 

IdandLifii, p. 396 (ym){Rthnw. Om. Centralii. I 

SaiMd. Om. Pap.e Mil. iii. p. 390 (note) (1882) ; St^n. Pr.U.S. 

Nat. Mut. Jti. p. 98 (1888) j Scott WiU. Am* HaioaiUntt*, pt ir 

pi. — (1883). 

Besides the four specimens mentioned below, I have seen three 
ctlien received for inspection from Prof. Newtoo, and many more, 
over twenty, in the Hon. W, Rothschild's collection. As observed 
by Dr. SleJD^r, the specimeas inspected show a number of oitra- 
ordinary variations, truly perplexing, and I mast confess that I do 
not quite understand this species. The most adult male bird 
examined in Mr. Rothschild'it coUection has the central tail-feathere 
curled up, so that this specioa appears to come near to A. boseat. 
Bxamining the series as I have done, it seems to me that perhaps 
not one of the specimens inspected is in full dress, and, secondly, 
that many of the birds have some taint of A. I^srai, which, 
aooording to Judge Dole, is luiturnlizal in all Ok IslajuU. Both 
these points cannot be solved at present, but we must wait for 
further information obtained in the Sandwich Islands. 

Before proceedins to mention the principal features distinguishing 
A. vt/rntliana, I wifih to point out that the Ggare of the tj-pe of 
Ana* wyvUUana (Voy, of the 'Challenger') is not very exact in the 
following paniculars: — 1st, the speculum is much too green; 
Snd. the fathers of the breast have small roundish dark spots, 
while in the ii/pe iliere are U-shaped black submarginal bands ; 
3rd, the general colouring is not olive-brown, but much more 
rvfescent. 

When I was in Paris I examined in tho Moseum the presumed 
type of A. Imtchat a. freyeinUi ; it is a male in moult, putting on 
the green feathers of the head. This bird, which is labelled as 
from " Lea tales Malouinea," was inadvertently stated by Gray 
to he from tho Sandwich Islands. According to the information 
given to me by M. (Joatalet it is not at all improbable that the 
^>e of A. boieJiat a. frf'jntMi came from the Marianne Islands, 
and if ao, it would be the same as my A. otutaltti. 

Besides the centnl tail-feathers being curled up in one specimen, 
snd very little ao in another, the most adult mate specimens of 



the " Duck from the Saodvicti Islands " ezamlued by me ahov the 
following charactera; — 

1. The mmp and upper tail-coverts are black ; abo the mtder 
tail-coverts are more or less black, but mixed with chestirot in 
Bomo gpeciniena. 

2. The abdomen has a greyish tinge and traces of dusky narniir 
oroBs bars. 

3. The head on the upper part is blackish, glossed with greeiir 
while the sides and throat have dark streaks aa in A. obseara ; in 
one specimen the throat is blackish. 

4. The crop-region and breast are reddish chestnut, with black 
markings mote or less of a crescent shape, especially on the sides. 

5. The leathers of the mantle and interscapular region hav» 
black and mfous-chestnut undulated bands, and many feathers, 
especially on the side, are finely waved with grey. 

6. The speculum is glossy green, with a bluish lustre in soma 
specimens, and is bounded anteriorly by two bands on the last tow 
of the upper wirg-coverts — one, snbapical, whitish grey, and the 
other, apical, black ; posteriorly the speculum is bounded also by two 
bands — a subapical one, black, and a brosd apical one, white. In 
some specimens the anterior whitish band is almost obsolete. 

7. The tertials are brown-grey, the outer ones have the outer 
■web velvety black. 

8. The upper wing-coverts are dark grey, with nanow rofeecent 
edges. 

9. The under wing-coverts are white, but in some specimens the 
marginal ones .are dusky. 

10. The siEc is'smidler than in A. botcaa- total length ahoub 
18 inches, wing 9'25, culmen 1'85, 

11. Colour of the soft parts: bill black above, flesh-coloured 
below ; feet orange. 

T7te fetnale resembles that of A. hoacai, but is smaller, darker, 
and has the speculum green, the npper wing-coverts more or leas 
with rufescent edges : the bill dusky, with a yellow bond near the 
tip. 

TTie yoiiiip bird resembles the adult female, but has dark streaks 
also on the throat; the markings on the underparts are more like 
longitudinal streaks. 

Tounp in down are very aimilar to the same stage of A. hMeai, 
but perhaps the brown colour of the upper parte is more olive. 
(HothfchiU Coll) 

Hab. Sandwich Islands. 



1, 6, ^ moult, et 
$ od.sk. 



Hawu [Knudsen'). 
Hilo, Owhyhee. 



Prof. CoUett [P.]. 

VoY. of H.M,8. 

' Challenger.' 
(Type of species.) 
Voy. of H.M.S. 

' CballeDger.' 



27. AMMIB, W9 



3. 
rU09) ; id. Urn, ViS0^ p.^n «1 >4/>^^ </ /4y«M, |<. I p, IC9^ 



MmU pg ri mg* nut fiiSr »iilt. OiesMinl plaaMi^ n rfuw^iutn ^ fMM 
aaipe Ikbek vidi a. iRn^niah. hntr^ *fc^^AsiSkj ^m tK^ Mp^ ; 

as In^giiar v!i2D» rizur rvuui ^du^ ^7^^ ; *Jirvit »i«r( -9^49^ 
ck. vty t ym o LX i^ 'inMC taut iaflUc* -vxh ^^''9^ m4 r4m^ 

«ifB€ ^rxa raSafxni:: «^K:unm 'toil SMt^Uut pwTUi «iui i^j^^^^ 
wsLwti liaek: izuiusr -ratf'-^^^r* vevw^ ^«f0td -r-xii n 6u i ^.M nt, 
wad agwui . -rxii mSovKn]: :3i#i titncru ^tiu/^Miiutrt :tt2v^ 

flon 0ii isn«r -ixxrvir nx/i ^ 'lie wsfruiun. i«tut nn^ InlVr. 



Jtt^^ e 1. J^'^nr. mfr ^^^ . Jt» >f5l 



x- i iV 77 ir tir i- :, -^i-.i- Jji<a4 '.."^^ . »*^ "'-^s >•* 

'■ ■'. ^ , i:AaiC Ij'P'i jtetmmr Vn \*-Tf.'"Ai< .•'f*^- 




198 

Uie " Duck from Uie Sandwich Idands " examined by me ehow the' 
fbUowing characters :— 

1. The rump and upper tail-ooTerta are black ; also the niider 
tail-covertB are more or less black, bnt mixed wiQi cheatnnt ia 
•ome BpeoimeiiB. 

2. The abdomen has a greyish tinge and traces of dusky namnr 
oroeabara. 

3. The head on the upper part is blaokiah, glossed with greeny 
while the sidse and throat have dark streaks as in ^ obieura; in 
me specimen the throat is blackish. 

4. The crop-region and breast are reddish chestnut, with black 
markings more or lesa of a orescent abape, especially on the sides. 

6. The feathers of the mantie and iatetscapular region have 
black and rufons-cheetnut nndolated bands, and many feathers, 
especially on the side, are finely waved with grey. 

6. The speculum is glossy green, with a hlnish Ingtrs in some 
specimens, and ia bounded anteriorly by two bands on the last row 
of the upper wing-ooverts — one, anbapical, whitish grey, and the 
other, apical, black ; posteriorly theapecolnmis bounded e^o by two 
bands — a snbapical one, black, and a broad apical one, white. In 
some specimens the anterior whitish band is almost obsolete. 

7. The tertials are brown-grey, the outer ones haTO the outer 
web velvety black. 

8. The upper wing-coverta are dark grey, with narrow rufesoent 
edges. 

9. The nnder wing-corerts are white, bnt in some specimens the 
marginal onM ,are dusky. 

10. The sise is^ smdUer than in A. botoat ; total length about 
18 inchee, wing 9'S5, cnlmen 1-85. 

11. Coioor of the soft parts: bill blaok above, flesh-oolonred 
below : ' 




I 



3. Anas layBanenaia. 

Anu laj-suiensis, SothtcA. Bull. B. O. C. do, 4, p, zvil (Laysan t.) 
(1892) : id. Ibu, 1893, p. 250 ; id. Am/, of Laymn, pt. i. p. Ifl, 
pi. — (1893). 

MaU perbapB not fiilly adult. Qenerol plumage rofeiceiib ; head 
and nape black with a greenish liutre, especially on the nape ; 
edge6 of the feathers on the sides of the head streaked with reddish ; 
m irr^ular whit* ring round the eyes ; throat mixed with 
white; back, crop-w^on, breast, and flanks with brown and rufes- 
cent V-shaped marks ; ramp blackish, with rufescent markings ; 
abdomen rufescent, with brown bars ; under tail-coverts rafoua- 
ehe«tnat, with brown marks; upper wing-coverts greyish brown, 
edged with rafeecent ; speculum doll metallic purple aud greeu, 
with a white apical band ; tertials hrown, with the outer web 
Telvety black ; under wing-coverta brown, edged with rufescent, 
the inner ones with the axiUaries white ; tail brown, the feathera 
edged and crossed with rufescent ; the central tail-feathors mnch 
darker and somewhat curled up : " iris brown ; upper mandible 
blackish, green towards the edges ; feet dull orange, wobs brown " 
(Palintr). Total length about 17 inches, wing S, tail3'd,culmon 1'6, 
tarsus 1-4. {Mat. EoOiMcKiU.) 

Female. Similar to the male, but differs in having more white on 
the chin and upper throat and in the spoculiim being much duller, 
scarcely indioBt«d ; upper and under taiUcoverts paler, rufescent 
with dusky marks or bands. (Afug. Rolhtc/iild.) 

In some specimens the white ring round the eyes extends back- 
wards, in a kind of band, and many white feathers are scattered on 
the sides of the head ; again, in one female many tail-feathers are 
white ! (Mat. Molhtchild.} 

Sab. Laysan Islands. 

4. Anas melleri. 
ts lanthorhyncha, liarA ^ E. Newt, {nee Fortt.) Bni, 1863, p. 174 
(TamaUve). 
JJHGla errthiochyncha. Sclat. (nee Gm.) P. Z. S. 1863. p. 165. 
LAnas melleri, Sclat. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 4S7, pi. ixxiv. (MadsgasCftr); 
^ 7.fi.er.ffomM*f,iJi.p.8-2,n.l(M41(l8n); Oieb. The,.Oni.i. 
>. 367 (1873) ! SartL Vog. Madog. p. 300 (1877) ; 



>.19; Trittr.Cat. (M. .B, p. 49 (1680) ; ffiSnfe, -Bi», 1802,p. 270. 
U DoreUi, Orand. Jiev. et Mag. de Zoot. 1867, pp. 88, 265 
>i melleri). 

M boKluu (P), T&r. melleri. Grand. Eev, tt Mag, de ZooL 1868, 
.5. 

» boschaa (F), ScAUg. * FoU. JUeh. Faun. Madag. p, 160 (1868). 
W mascarina, Vtmoa, Mfm. Soc. Acd. de file dt la 'Biun. 1868, 
" ; id. Bull. Soc. d'Acclim. 1868, pp. 626, 627 ; </. A. yeat. Zool. 
.».pp. 108,100. 



J 



Adult. General colonr reddish ; the feathers brown in the middle 
and margined with reddish; bead and neck with narrow dnsky 
streaks, each feather margined with reddish ; feathers of the back 
with some narrow irr^olar reddish bars ; specnium glossy green, 
bonnded anteriorly and posteriorly by two Tolvety-black bands, the 
Ulterior one at the tip of the greater ving-ooverte ; a narrow whitish 
band at the tip of the secondaries ; before the anterior black band 
there is also a narrow doll reddish band ; tertials Tclvety brown, 
darker on the enter web ; under wisg-coverts sod axillaries whit« : 
"bill black (?); irides sienna-brown ; feet fleshy colonr " (&iaf«r). 
Total length aboat 21 inches, wing 10-6, tail 5, oulmen 2-3, 
tarsus 1*65. 

Female. Apparently similar to the male. 

Young. Has a redder tinge, almost rosty, on the edges of the 
feathers of the lower parte. 

Bab. Madagascar. 

4. Ad. St MadogBSCST. P. L. Sclater, Esq., 

[P.].. (Type^of 



species.) 

Ifadsgascar {Deant Coteart). Tweeddale CoU. 
MadsMscar (Demu Cowan). Shelly OoU. 
E. of AntananaiiTO, Mada- W. DeaJiB Cowi 



gascat. £sq. [CI 

<. Ad. sk. 0. Madsffsscar. Shelley Coll. 

J. Ad. sk. S.E. MacUgascar. W. Deans Cowan, 

Esq. [0.], 

5. Auu obicnra. 
DoHky Duck, Penn. Aret. Zool. ii p. 664, n. 496 (1785) ; Lath. 

8yn. ui. 2, p. 646, n. 84 (1786). 
,\iuiB oWiira, R.-,. S. A', i. 2, p. ral, 0.116(1786): Lath. Ind.On. 




•J7. 1SA9. 201 

p. 297 (1866) ; Cbuet. Pr.Ka. liut. r. p. 298 (I968I i?id.Fr. So*t. 
Soe. N. H. xa. n. 721 (Soutli Corolinm winter) (1868) { Allm, MerA. 
Boa. Soe. y. a. i. p. 6O2 (lowa, euaimPT) (1868) ; Tumh. Ji. E. Pa. 
p. S5 (!»(») ; -^. f^. Anat. p. 97 (1860) ; Maya. Guutf, p, 147 
(HusachuutU, breeding) (1^70) ; irf. Pr. Bmt. Soe. xir. 1871, 
p. 3ftl (1872) ; P Cto«, Pr. Acad. Philad. 1871, p. 36 (North 
C«roiin«) ; O. R. Or. Hand-liit, iii. p. 82, n. 10849 (1871) ; (?«. 
Thei. Om. i. p. 359 (1872); (hia, &y, p. 285 (part.) (1872); 
id. Cheek-li»t, n. 489 (187S) ; SaM. & $alv. Mmmii. Av. yt-otrop. 
p. 129(1973); Cmie»,eirtUX-Wett.p.mCi{lSTi); &lat.^Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1876, p. 380 ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 517 ; Jtidga. Xom. 
y. Am. B. a. 602 (^fm); Owt, Chivk-lut, 3nd ei p. 113, 
n. 708 (1882) ; fifAair. Orn. Cmfro/W. 1682, p. 18; a. VSq. d. 
tool. (?<!r(.p.60(1882)i Sale. Cut. Jl. SmU CW/. p.634(1882)j 
Si^t. Lilt Tert. An. Sch ed. p. 430 (1883) ; C<mai, Key N. Am. 
B. 2nd ed. p. 691 (1884) ; B., B., ^ R. Wai^rr-B. S. Am. i. p. 499 
nasi) ; A. O. U. Check-tiat, p. 116, n. 133 (1886) ; RiiUffK. Man. 
X. Am. B. p. (11 (1887); Trxttr. Git. Coll. B. p. 49 (1888); 
HarUrf-, Kat. Vogtlmmml p, 230(1891); Sharpe, Cat. OiteoL 
Spfdm. Coll. Surg. iii. p. 300 (1891J ; Ualek, B. of Mimuv. p. 40 
(1892). 
Anas brtschtia, var. ubjicura, Lfis. Tr. iCOm. p. 034 (1881). 
Adbii (lloschaa) obacura, A'ult. Man. ii. p. 392 (1834). 
Adult nuiU. Pretmling colour browniah black or dusky, the 
feath«ia edged, more or less distmetly, with pale RreyiBh fulvous ; 
upper put of the bead darker than the checks and upper part of 
tli« neck, which are greyiah folvous, streaked with duaky ; a dusky 
stripe back from the eye ; the chin and throat more sparingly 
str^ed, but not immacolate ; apeculam deep glossy violet, anr- 
rounded with velvety black ; before tbe anterior black band, formed 
by tike last row of coverts, there is a narrow pale band almost 
obsolete ; at Ibo tip of tho secondaries a narrow white baud ; mar- 
ginal nsder wing-coverts dusky with white edges, the inner ones 
and axillarics white ; primaries and tail-feathers dusky black, the 
lBtt«r with narrow pale edges : " bill yellowish green, the unguia 
doaky : iris dark brown ; feet orange-red, the webs dusky " {Awtu- 
bon). Total length about 2) inches, wing 10-50-11, tail 4, culmen 
2-2-35, tarsus 1-70-1-30, 

" Some examples have a slight tinge of metallic green on the 
sides of the head, behind the eye" (B., B., j- if.). 
Ftnialt. Simitar to the male. 

Young in down, " Above olivaeeous brown, faintly relieved by 
six inconspicuous markings of light brownish bnff, situated as 
follows : one on tbe posterior border of each arm-wing ; one (small, 
and somotimes nearly obsoleto) on each aide of the back, behind the 
wing, and one, mure distinct, on eacli side of tho rump, near the 
base of tho tail ; pilonm and najw (longitudinally) brown, like the 
back ; rest of tho head and neck, with lower parts, light dingy 
brownish buff, paler on the abdomen ; aides of the head marked 
with a narrow dusky stripe running from the upper basal angle to 
tbe eye, thence back towards the occiput, but scarcely confluent 
with tbe brown on the latter ; an indistinct spot on the auricular 



SOS AIMTIOS. 

legjon, with a still less distinct diuky msrk extending bad from 
tiiis to the nape" {B., B., ^ B.). 

This species, in Hr. Kidgway's Key, comes in the section in which 
the wings are without white bands ; bat in two of the specimens 
mentioned below, one from New Brunswick and the otlier from the 
Bermuda Islands, there is a disUset narrow white baud at the t^ 
of the secondaries. 

fofi. Eastern North America, breeding from more northern 
United States to Endaon's Bay and Labrador; western and sonthem 
limits imperfectly detennined ; Bermndas. 
a. PnU. St. No loeaUly. 

(. Ad. at. N. Amnrica. Piuchs«ed, 

0. Ad. at. N. America. J. J. Audubon, Esq. 

[P.]. 
i. S ad. sk. New Brunswick, Sept. Capt. S. O. Reid [F.l 

t. Ad. sk. Halifax, Noya Scotia. Capt. 8. Q. R«d [P.]. 

f. g ad. sk. New Hbtbd, Connecticut, April Salvin-Godman (%II. 

(C. A. Merriam). 

g. (f ad. sk. PeDi8ton'BFond,BermudaB,Jan. CapL S. O. Reid [P.]. 
k,i. Skeletons. 

6. Anas folTignla. 

Anas obscura, part., Avd. On. Bioffr. \y. p. 16 (IB38) ; id. B. Am. 
Ti. p. 244 (1843) ; P Gome, B. Jam. p. 40S (1847) ; P Oundl {nee 
ftn.)/./. 0.1867, p. 229 <Cuba); Mar<A, Pr. Ac Btiiad. 1864, 
p. 73 (Jamaica); P toua, Pr. Boa. Soe. N. H. xiL p. 724 (South 
Carolina, in winter) (1868) ; P Alien, BuU. Miu. Comp. Zool ii. 
p. 863 (Honda) (1871) ; ?A.^ E. Newt. Sandb. Jam. p. 118 
(1861) ; P Cora, Bev. Lat B. W. Ind. p. SO (1686) ; id. AtA, 1888, 
p. 01 (Cuba, Jamaicn) ; ? id. B. W. hd. p. 26i> (1889). 

Anas obscura, Tiir. fuJvigula, Ridgie. Am. An(. viji. p. Ill (Florida) 
(1874) ; Omei, Check-litt, App. n. 489(i (1874). 

AnMobBCura,6. fulTigula,CowH, J. y.-ffwi,f. 661 (1674). 




The last specimen in the list below differs very conspioaouflly 
from the olher tiro : the specuJum is black with a greenish gloss, 
only one of the feathers shows a distinct bluish-green colour on 
the enter web ; the upper part of the head ia very dark brovm ; 
there is a very distinct black band from the lores through the eyes ; 
the checks are entirely Covered with blackish Btreaka ; throat bnffieb, 
nnspotted. I am not sure that it beloDga to the present species. 
It has the appearance of being not fully adnlt; but in the collector's 
not« it is iiud ihat it was sitting on 13 e^s ! 

Sab. Florida, and perhaps also the West Indies. 

a. fj ad. sk, Florida (Seruiaw Coil.). Salvin-Oodman Coll. 

6. S ad. sk. Lake Hiehpoochee, Rorida, Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Hatch {F. Menge). 

ft^td.Pslc. Lake Hichpoochee, Florida, Sal rin-Qodman Coll. 

Mawh (KMauje). 



1. Anas maooloia. 

Aaas obecuK, part, Ba^, B. N. Am. p. 776 (1858) ; Brawr, Ihii, 
1866, p. J2 (Teias) ; Coua, Key, p. 285 (part) (1872) ; id. Check- 
h»i, n. J89 (part.) (1873) ; Snow, B. Eaiu, p. 11 (1S73) ; Rid^tB. 
Ifom. N. Am. B. n. «03 (pan.) (1881) ; Goit, Cat. B. Emt. p, — 
(Kmiuw) (1883) ; Covtt, Key S. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 691 (part,) 
(1884). 

Anas fulvigula, Oou {nee Ridgv.), Auk, 1B60, p. 113 (Kansas) ; id. 
Sev. Cat. B. Kan*, p. — (1S86) ; Ridgw. Man. N. Am. B. p. 92 
(pwt.) (1887) ; id. Auk. 1868, p. 108 (note) (Chihuahua). 

Back Duck, ETmnet {nee avct.), Auk. 1688, p. 108 (Chihaahun). 
triorida Dnck, Goi (nee nidi/ie.). Auk, 1888. p. 444. 
f Ana* macnloBs. SenwU, Auk. 1889, p. 203 (Teiae); Goi*, Aak, 
1800, p. 88 (Kansas). 

AnaafulTirula maculosa, ^.O. U. Auk, 1890, p. 61 (Easlpm Teias, 
and north to Kansae). 

In my opinion A. maculma is scarcely ditTerent from A. fulviffida, 
but, according to Mr. Sennett, " the most marked differences between 
A. maeulota and A. fidvi/ftila are that the checks of the former 
mn itTeaked with brown, while those of the latter ara plain buff, 
the Bpecolum is parplc instead of green; the general effect of 
tli« coloration, especially on the undersides, is mottled instead of 
rtreaked ; the light colour everywhere is a pale buff or isahella 
Oftlonr instead of a rich, deep buff, and the tail-markings also are 
different, as indicated." 

Uanyof the specimens mentioned below have the throat immacu- 
late, but several have it streaked with brown. 

ffah. Eaatem Texas and north to Kansas. 

A. Ad. ak. San Antonio, Texas [S. E. Salvin-Oodman ColL 

k-OT. d 9 >d. sk. Corpus Christi, Texas, June, Salrin-Godm&n Coll. 
Oct,, Dec. [F. B. Armitrmff). 
Teias {F. B. A.). Salvin-Godman Coll. 



Anas diaxi, J^Jffia. Auk, 1886, p. 332 (Puebla, Mexico) ; F.-Perex, 

Pr. U.S. Nat. Mui. 1888, p. 171 ; S&hw. ibid. ; id. Mm. N. Am. 

S. p. 32 (1887) ; trf. ^ujfc, 1889, p. 264. 

Male. SIoBt like A. fulvigvia, Sidgw., bat last row of ving- 

coverte with a distinct sabterminal band of white, and Hecondariee 

with abroad termiaal bar of the same; general colour mach leaa 

fhlvous; cheeks streaked with dusky, and lower basal angle of 

npper mandible without black spot. Wing 10 inches, tail 4,cnlinfflL 

2-05, tereuB 1-60. {^Ridgway.) 

FemaU. Similar, bnt somewhat smallei. 
Hob. Mexico. 
fl. 5 ad. Bk. Puebla, May {Ferrari-Perez). Salvin-Godmaa Coll. 

9. Anas abertL 
P Anas obscura, Zamr. (nee Gm.) Mem. Sod. Soc. If. H. ii. p. 814 

(Tepic, W. Mexico) (1874). 

Anas abeiti, Ridgw. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mtu. i. p. 260 (Mautlan, 

Meiico) (1878) i B., B., * R. WatefBirdi N. Am. i. p. 490 

(1884) ; Sidgu,. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mm. ix, p. 173 (1886) ; id. Mm. 

N. Am. B. p. 02 (1887). 

Adult female. " Size of Qturquedula diteort and eytau^Ura, bot in 

coloration closely rpsembling A. fvlvigula. Prevailing colour ochra- 

oeouB huff, but this everywhere relieved by brownish-black spots 

or streaks. Head, neck, and lower parts streaked, the streaks finest 

on the neck and ndes of the head, broadest on the jugolum and 

crissam, which is somewhat tinged with rusty, and asstuaing the 

form of oblong spote on the abdomen, thighs, and anal region ; 

throat immacnlate. Back, scapulars, and rump with the blackifii 

predominatiiis ; tlif^ fcatbera bordered with ochre 




27. 



205 



"In addition t« the charactore given above, it may be mentioned 
that there ib a distinct indication of a narrow, dusky, postooular 
streak, nnd of a wider and less distinct loral stripe, thua separating 
a light superciliary stripe from the tight colour oF the cheeks. The 
lining of the wing and the axillar ore pure white, the latt-er with a 
tegr^ation of dusky spots near the carpo-metacarpal joint." 

Hah. Mazatlan, Sfcsico. 



» 



10. Anas lu2oiuca. 
Anas luzonicft, Friufr, P. Z. S. 1S30, p. 113 (Luzon) ; Q. R. Gr. Lut 

B. Br^. Mm. iii. p. 136 (1&44) ; id. Oen. B. iii. p. Olfi. n. 7 (1 S4S) ; 

Frater, Zool. Tup. pi. 67 (1849); &4n*. Syn. Ae., Natalotea. 

t 04. f. 2346 (IKO) (cr Fra»er) ; Bp. Ompt. Rend, xliii. p. 619, 

n. 70 (185li) ; iMorf. /. /. O. 1868, p. 30; Schlea. Mta. P.-B., 

AnaercA, p. 43 (1866) ; But. Sun. Anal, p, 9n (1869) ; O. R' Or. 

Bmtd-M, in. p. 82, n. 10626 (1871) ; HaHl. ^ Fimeh, P. Z. S. 

1873, p. 108 ; Gieh. TheM. Orn. L p. 366 (1872) ; H'ald. Tr. Zaol. 

Soe. ix. p. 242 (1875) ; Sharpr, Tr. tinn. Soc. (2) Zool. i. p. 354 

(1876): Twtftd. On,. Worlai, p. 401 (1881); TTarttf, Born*, op. 

«(. p. 660 (1881); KHaer, J. /. O. 1882, p. 178; Rcknur. Or*. 

Ontralbl. 1882, p. 19; Steere, Lut B. ^ M. PhOlppinft, p. 27 

(Guimaras. Marinduque, Siquijor) (1890): Grant, Ru, 1895, 

p. 117, 
Anas lllconicl^ Fimch^ J.f. 0. 1870, p. 368. 

Adtiit. Ouneral plum.ige brownish grey, almost nnifonn, without 
any dark markings in the centre of the feathers : ujiper part of the 
head and upper part of the nape blackish brown ; soperciliary stripe, 
mdee of the hi'ad, throat, and sides of tbu upper part of the neck 
rafons ; a blackish-brown band runs across the eyce &ora the lores 
to the occiput; back dark grey, changing into brown on the rump 
and upper tail-coverta ; speculum glossy green, bounded anteriorly 
by a velvety-black bund at the tip o( the greater wing-coverts and 
by a narrower white one at the tip of the last row of the median 
upper wing-coverts ; posteriorly the speculum is boandcd by a 
velvety-black subapical band, and by a narrow apical white band ; 
under wing-ooverts and asillarics white : undcrparte brownish 
grey, deepening into brown on the under tail-coverts ; tail brown : 
colours of the bill and feet not recorded, but apparently dark 
olire. Total length about 30 inches, wing !)'8, tail 4'5, culmen 2, 
t*nus 1-7. 

Toung. 8imilar to the adults, only much paler on the head and 



throat, which ore scarcely tinged i 
bright, and with some purple retleuons. 
Bfab. Philippines. 

a. Ad.sk. MsDilla. 

Ad. et Manilla. 



ifouB ; the Bpecolum less 



Eyton Coll. {Type of 
the (pecie«.) 

Cuming Coll. 



Mdnillo (Maitlattd Ueriol). Tweeddale ColL 



11. Anaa snpercilioaa. 
Sttpercilioiu Duck, LaA. 8m. iii. 2, p. 497 (1786) ; id. Oen. Hitl. x. 

p. 327 (1824). 
Anu BuperdiioM, Om. 8. N. i. p. 537, n. Ill (1788) (Nova Sb»- 

laodia) i Lath. lad. Om. u. p. 853, n. fit (1790) ; Bonn. Ene. 

Mftk. i. p. 146 (1790); Beeiitt. Lath. Ueben. iii. p. 430 {1796), 

iv. p. 612; Vieia. N. Dkt. v. p. 120 (1816) ; Dum. Diet. Se. 

Sat. -vi. p. 389 (1817) ; Stepk. Qm. Zooi. iii. 2, p. 108 (1824) ; 

Lot. Tr. teOm. p. 633 (1831) ; Eift. Man. Anal. p. 139 (1838) ; 

Frater, P. Z. 8. 1839, p. 114; Mull. Va-h. Land- en FbttenA. 

pp. 159, 178 (1839^44) (Timor, Java) ; Hartl. Yen. Oti. Mut. 

p. 119 (1844) ; O. R. Gr. List B. Bnt. M«». iii. p. 13S (1844) ; 

U. Oen. B. iii p. 615, n. 4 (1845) ; Omiid, B. Aattr. vii. pi. 9 

(pt iz., 1645) ; Peak, Un. St. Espl. Erp. sp. 162 (1848) ; Schnb. 

Syn. Av., NatatoreB, t. 85. ff. 913-914 (1845), t. 94. f. 2347 (1850) ; 

Bfyth, Cat. B. Mui. A. S. B. p. 304, n. 1772 (1849) ; ScAnb. Vog. 

jViruAoa.n. 311 (1861); fliir«. fTteyw.^rcA. 1862, i.pp. 122, 136; 

MacgiU. Narr. Voy. RaUUm. p. 328 (1852); id. J./. O. 1854, 

p. 169 ; LieAt. Nomend. Av. p. 101 (1854) ; Bp. Compt. Send. 

xliU. p. 649, n. 68 (excl. TOr. a) (1866) ; Cai*. U.S. Expl. Exped^ 

Mamm. 4" Om. p. 339 (1858) ; Q. S. Gr. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 166 

(New OaledoDis) ; Peb. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, xli. p. 331 (Noriolk I.) 

(I860); iAw, I860, p.422; Verr. Sf De» Mun, Bev. el Mag. Zoot. 

1860. p. 442 (New Caledooifi) ; 8cUU. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 371 (Zool. 

Gard.) i O. R. Or. IbU, 1862, p. 241 ; Netot. Ibii, 1862, p. 285 ; 

WaU. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 487 (Timor) ; Jouan, Mtm. Soo. CTeri. ii. 

p. 242 (1863) ; Sclat. P. Z. 8. 1864, p. 9 (Huaheine) ; WoodAoute, 

aid. p. Hi Selat. ibid. p. 487; Hartt. Ibis, 1864, p. 232 (flji 

Id.) ; BtdUr, Eu. Om. N. Zeal, p, 18 (1866) ; FiwteA, Neu-Grdn. 

p. 183 (1865) ; Ooidd, Handb. B. Amtr. ii. p. 363 (1865) ; Ramt. 

Ibit, 1866, p. 336; Selat. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 418 (Zool. Gari); 

&AL7. Mm. P.-£., AiuiereB,p.42(1866)i Hector, Hew Zeal. Eiy. 

7(1866); i'lWeA, J./. O. 1(^7, pp. sail, 037; Hutt. Tbti, 

370 ; Uartl. P. Z. S. 1807, p. 832 ; F. ^ B. Om. Central- 




27. iSA8. 



207 



n. 213 (1879) ; Sclat. P. Z. 8. 1880, pp. 617, 636 ; LfffffH, B. Cft/l. 
p. 1074 (1860) ; Fiaich, Vof. CkaU., Birdi, p- 52 (1881) ; Meyr:r, 
Ta-h, x.-i. Get. Wim, 1881, p. 767 (Sumba); Seham. Om. 
OaaraUil 1882. p. IS; id. Viig. loot. Gdrt. p. H) (1882); 
Layard, Ibit, 1882, pp. S37, 644 ; atibte'Edwardi, Ann. Sc. Nat., 
Zoot. (vi.) iiii., A^^ 4, p. 41 (18S2) ; Satvad. Ann. Mm. Civ. 
Gen. xviii. p. 401, n. 6 (1882) : id. Om. Pap. e Mol. tii. p. 394 
(ISaS) ; Bin. Man. B. Nnc Zeal. p. m (1882) ; Ram». Pr. Linn. 
&>e. y. S. W. vii. p. 41 {Solomon lal.) (1882) ; mat. U»t Vtrt. 
An. 8th ed. p. 431 (lQ6X; Mej/er. Sitxb. u. Abh. Get. hit, 1884, 
Abh. i. p. 57 (Celebes) ; Legge, Pr. R. 8oe. Tium. 188B, p. 244 
(Tasmanw) (1887); , Ram*. Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. Jf. (2) i. 
p. 1162 (1887); Grant, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 187 (Solomon Isl.); 
Hum*. Tab. Lid, p. 22. n, 668, p, 38, n. 45 (Lord Howe and 
Korfolk IbI.) (1888) ; Bulkr, S. 1/ew Zeal. 2nd ed. ii. p 261 
(18S8) ; Smith, JVon*. N. Z. In>i. xn. 1888, p. 221 (Lake Brunner, 
N. Zealand) (1889) ; IfortA, Cat. Neit» j- Eppi, p. S41 (1889) ; 
TVt'ifr. Ojt. Coll. B. p. 60 (Samoa and Uuaebine bl.) (1689) ; 
VordTm. N. T. X. I. xlii. p. 419 (Sumatra, Java) (1889); 
Sahad. Meia. R. Ace. Tor. (ji,) xlii. p. 64 {Agg. Om. Pap. e 
Mol. p. 210) (1801) ; ? CheeKman, Tram. N. Z. Itul. xjdii. 1890, 
p. 221 (Keniiadec Isl.) (1891) ; Sarttrt, Kat. Vogelaammi. p. 230 
(JaTa) (1601) ; WigUra. AvaPolyn.v.7G{\1Si\); Meyer, J.f. O. 
1862, p. 265; ForUi, /6i>, 1803, p. 643 (Chatham Id,); Trittr. 
this. 1894, p. 31 (Santa Omt, Solomoti Isl.). 

Anai leucopbrjs, Fortl. (nee VieiU.) Deter. An. {ed. Lieht.) p. 93 
(1844). 

hBaBm.,G. R. Gr.GiH. B.'xn. v.iSlQ.D.'il {lUS) (ex S. MiUUVerh. 

^l;^). 

Anas mulleri, Bp. Compt. Bend. xOu. p. 619, n, 09 (1856) (Java,. 

■nmor). 
Anas supercUiosa, var., G. R. Gr. Cat. B. Trap, III. p, 64 (1850). 
¥ Anae supefcilioga, vta. peleneneia, Bartl. Sf Fintch, P. Z S. 1872, 

p. 108. 
Anas pelewenria, S. * F. MSS. ; FineeA, Joum. Mm. Godeffr. Heft 

Tiii. p. 40 (1875) ■ ; a. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 738; Sc/ijneUz, Ethn. 

Abth. Mus. Godeffr. 1881, p. 407 (note). 
Anaa superoiliaria, "Om." (enore), Layard, Ibit, 1880, p. 233 

( Loyal t}' lel.). 

Hybrid. 

Anaa aunerciliotisx Domestic Duck, Kingil. Trant, N. Z. hut. xxt. 
1802, p. 107(1883). 

Admit male. General plumago above and below brown, the 
feathen narrowly edged with ochreous buff; upper part of the bead 
&nd a band &om the forehead through the eye« to the occiput browu- 
black ; lapercilisry stripe and a band from the haae uf the upper 



jecimea IVom the Pelew Iilands. in the Hamburg 
MiBaun, for the losn oF wbiob I bate to thank the director Dr. Kniepelini 
and I auila tigtt« with Dr. Fineub, wlio baa rvougniied liiat the Pelew Uland 
Utd. ulliough mtallor. like thuie from the Fiji, ii not diSerent from the irua 
A mptrtiUoia. 



mandible tlirongli the cheeks, chin, and throat pale buff immacn- 
late ; a dark band formed of small hlaokiBh streaks runs from the 
gape to the ear-coverta ; upper part of the aides of the neck pale 
buff, minutely streaked with brown; a pole brown band along the 
nape; wings brown; specnlum on the secondaries glossy green, 
bordOTcd anteriorly by a black band at the tip of the greater wing- 
coverts, and posteriorly by another black band with a narrow white 
edge at the tip of the secondariee ; onter web of the outer tertials 
black ; nnder wiug-coTcrta and anllaries white ; ramp and npper 
teil-coTorts blackish brown ; teil-fcathers brown, with narrow pale 
edges : hill plumbeous, with the nail black ; feet and toes yellowish 
brown, the membrane dusky brown. Total length abont 24 inches, 
wing 10-75, tail 4-4, ciilmen 2-25, tarsus 1-65. 

Female, Similar to the male. 

Specimens from Timor, Felew, Fiji, and Samoa Islands are 
decidedly smaller than those from Australia and New Zealand. 

Sab. From Java and Timor te Southern New Guinea, Australia, 
New Zealand subregion and Polj-nesia, inclndiug the Pelew 
Islands. 

Dr. H. 0. Forbes [P.]. 
A.R.WaIIac6,Esq.[G.]. 



k. Ad. St. 
I. Ad. sk. 
m. S ad. sk. 
n, o. Ad. sk. 



Australia. 
Australia. 
Australia. 
Australia {Oockereli if 

Thorpe). 
W. AuBtralia. 



Lady Carrington [P.T. 
Sir G. Grey [P.]- 
H. J. Elwea, Esq. [P.]. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Governor of W. Aus- 
tralia [P.], 
J. B. Jutes, Esq, [P.]. 
Tweeddale Coll. 




12. Anas pcecUoiliyiicha. 
Ahm ptecilorhvncbn. Font, in Penn. Zaol. Ind. |i. S'l, t. :tiii. T, 1 

(Ceylon) (I7dl); Lath. Ind. Or». ii. p. S50. a. 47 (17!W); Ltst. 

Tr. (TOrn. p. 63.1, n, 64ll'^lt: Gray ^ Hardtr, III. Jnd. Zool.\. 

jri. 67 (lHaVW) : a. R. Or. Oen. B. iu p. CIS. d, 2(1**^') i W- 

Gri. JTorfjp*. Cofl, B. M. p. 145 {1846) ; Blyth, Cat. B. Mm. A. S. 

B. p. aw, n. 1473 (ISiO): lichnb. San. ^d., Natolores, t. 94. 

f. 2348 (1850) (er Gr. 4- Hardw.) : SelaaH, Prodr. Col. p. ISO 

(1852) : ifiyoi-rf, ^nn. ^ Afaj,. A'^. If. riv. p. 1>«9 { 18.>t) ; * Lirht. 

A'omencl. Av. p. lOt (Kafft^rlHDO !) (1854) ; Adamt, P. Z. S. 1858, 

p. filO (Indus) ; G. B. Gr. liit. Ilodgt. Coll. B. M. 2nd ed. p. 77 

(1863); Jerd. B. of lid. m. p. 7i>9 (1864); ScU<y. Miu. P.-B.. 

An*eK»,p.4S(put.](1866]i Eyt.Svn-Anat.^.QiilWXi); Selat. 

P.Z.8. 187a, p. 720 (ZoqI. Qtrd.); Gxdi. TAft. Orn. L p. 3(X) 

(1872) (ayn. emend.); Holdm. P. Z. S. 1672, p. 479; Hume, Sir. 

FMtk. i. p. 2tH (1873); Adam,aid. p, 402; Ugge, Ibu. 1875, 

p. 407 (Cavlon): Blyth, B. Bitnna, p. \'V) (AxakAn, Bhamo, 

TenuHrim^ (1875) ; Ilumt ^ DavU. Str. Featk. iv. p. 489 (1878) ; 

AnOtn. Ytmrt. Eriied. p, 61)9 (1879); Hume, Str. Feath. ta. 

0.607(1879), viii. p. 116. n. 900 (1870) ; Hume ^ Mar A. Gamf 

».i//w£.iil. p. 168, pL 22(1880); Srlat.F.Z.$. 1880. p. 618; 

Lent, B. of Ceyl. p. 1073 ( 1880) ; Stlinu!. Orti. Cmtralbl. 1882, 

n. 10; id.'yii,. tool. Girt. p. 51 (188S) ; Satv. Cat. B. iSlnekl. 

ihU. p. 534 (1882) : Oatn, B. Brit. Barm. ii. p. S83 (183.1) ; 

&W. li*t Vrrt. An. 8lh ed. p. 431 (1883) ; Salvad. Ann. Mum. 

Cie. Gm. (2) iv. p. 516 (Bhamo) (1887); Trintr. Cat. CoU. B. 

p. 49 (1889) ; Hume, SesU ij- Egg» (Oatti' ed.), p. 289 (1890) ; 

JlarUrt, Kat. VogeUamnd. p. 230 (1801). 
Spotted-billBd Duch, L<dh. Syn. iii. 2, p. 487, n. 40 (1786). 
Adiu pcekilorhynclia, Om. S. y. i. 2, p. 535, n. 105 (1788) ; Bona. 

£hc. Milk. i. p. 144. nl. 34. C 2 (IiOO); J)„m. Diet. Sc. Nol. vi. 

p. 379 11817); O. B. Gr. Uand-lut. iii. p. 82, n. 10643 (1871); 

Hume, SeaU Jj- Eggt lad. B. p. 643 (1873) ; BtdL Str. Feath. iv. 

p. 29 (1874) ; Hun-e, ilnd. 
At»M enthrofhyncha, VUiU. {nee Gm.) N. 0. v.p. 108 (part,) (1816), 
Marecn poecilnrhynchft, Stepk. Gen. Zool. xa. 2, i>. 134 (1824) ; S«ke$, 

P.Z.S. 18.12, p. 166, n. 218, 
Anas pBcilorh^cha, Egt. M<m. Anat. p. 138 (1838); G. R Gr. 

Lit< B. Brit. Mu*. iii. p. \m (1844); By. Compl. Bend. xUii. 

p. 604, n. 67{186fi|. 
TMdonmf puii:ilorhyncba, Jerd. Madr. Jom-v. x\\. p. 221, n. 387 

(1840). 
P'ChaiilHlnsmus strepenw, SUiUrzka frrw nurf,), J.A.S. B. sli. 1, 

p. 265 (1872) (<•/. Hume. Str. Feath. tv. j.. 2t>). 

AtluU mate. Upper part of the head and a broad Uand from tbe 
Idkm tliruugh ibt) eyes to some distance IicUind them dark bron-u : 
■apwrcilinr}' striijo, aides uf the bead, and upper part of the neck 
iloll whitisb, roinutdy streaked with dark hrovn ; throal iminacu- 
lata ; back and acapulani greyish brown, each Icatbi-r cdg;od wilb 
pole browD ; loner back, rump, upper and under tail-covt'rls brown- 
black ; breast aud abdomen fulvous white, s|iotted tlirou^hont wiih 
Ttnind brown marks wi^U defined ; lower abdomen changing into 
dark brown ; upper wing-coverts dark grey, with lighter edges ; 
tbe lost row, or greater ones, with a subterminal white baud iiad 




310 ivaiDX. 

a terminal one velvety black, bordering the glossy green speculum, 
which is bordered posteriorly by a subterminal velvety black band 
and an apical one ftt tbe tip of the secondaries ; tertiaries brown, 
but the outer ones mostly white on the outer web ; primaries brown ; 
under wing-coverts and axiUaries white ; tail brown, the ccnlral 
feathers velvety black with a green lustre, each feather with the 
eJge of the outer web pale: "iris reddish brown; bill black, tip 
chrome-yellow, the nail black ; baseof thoculmen yellow " (Ltgge): 
" mandible at the forehead red"(Oa(M): " tip of the tower mnn- 
dible yellow ; legs and feet orange-yellow ; claws black " {L^gge). 
Total length about 24 inches, wing 11, tail 5, culmen 2-25, tarsus 
1-75. 

Female. Similar to the male, bat somewhat smaUer ; wing about 
10 inches. 

Toang. Wants the red at the base of the upple mandible (Oalf*\ 
and besides it is much less spotted on the underparts, where ihe 
breast is unspotted white ; the dark spots on the lower neck and on 
the abdomen are much smaller. 

ffai. India and Ceylon ; it extends to Independent Burmah ; 
rarely, if ever, iu Pegu and Tenasserim. 

a. Juv. sk. India. Tweeddale Coll. 

b-e. (f £ad. sk. R. Jhelum, above Jung, Hume Coll. 

April, Nov. [A. O. S.). 

f. 5 ad. sk. Chenab R., Dec {A. O. S.). Hume Coll. 

ff. (j ad. sk. Ranepoor, Sindh, Feb. India Museum [P.]. 

i. Ad. sk. Birdhar, Kattiawar, Dec. Uould Coll. 

1. Ad. sk. Funiaub, Feb. Hume Coll, 

/c-o. (f $ ad. et Sambhur, July, Aug., Dec Hume ColL 

imm. sk. {R. M. Adam), 

p. $ ad. sk. Sambhur, Jan. {JL M. Tweeddale Coll. 

Adam). 




HlDRtD. 

Anas ptrcilorhyneha X -i- 6o*i"(i«. 
Ad. St. [In confinement.] T. H, Powell, Esq. [P.^. 

13. Anas zonorhynclia. 

AnM iJWcilotlivticlia, llrhn/i. {ifr. Funt.) .Siin. Ar., Nulalore?. t. 111. 
f. 1061 (I84S) 1 Trmm. * SfkUo- FauH. Jap., Aftt, p. lafi, pi. Bd 
(1860); Ji!<»bi&. Syn. ^ ».. Natatores, t. 100. f. 2763 (1850) {ex 
Trmin. ^ SehUg.) : SadiU, Rcl$. S. O.-Sibir. n. p. 364 11863): 
Sinink. £>. Z. S. mi, p. Ul>4 iCllina) ; uf. Ibu, 1B63, p. 4S4 (For- 
mou) ! ^A^. .ViH. P.-fi., Aiueres, p. m, p. 42 (part., sp<<ciiu. 1), 
4,R,JapMi)(186Ul; !> Jocz. J./ O.1870, p.312 (Uauria) ; Hvmey. 
aid. p. 431 (E. Sibir. &. Amuri.) ; A. JtavH, A". AreA. Mm.. Bull, 
ml Cat. n. 446 (1871) f JM/b. J.f. O. 1878, p. lOtf iK aiberia), 
1674, p. 336. 

Ahm Eonorhvncbs, SwinA. IMs, 180)!, p. Sa4 (Ningpo) ; id. P. Z. S. 
WIO, p. 4L>7 (Caatiin), 1871, p. 417 (Uhiiw); ff. «. Gr. Hitnd- 
lUt. lii. p. 82, n. I<XH4 (1871); Girb. Thai. Om. i. p. S6G (1»7-'] ; 
Stcinh. Ibit, 1873, p. 367, 1874, p. 1«4 (Hakodadi) ; TaFz. Suit. 
Soc.Zouf.Fr. 1877, p. 4.5 J David ^ Otul.Oie. d'W, p. 496(1877); 
Blak. ^ Pryrr, IhiM, 1878, p. 213 (Jflpnn); Fijn. Soiclry'i Om. 
JtfMC. m. p. 103 (S,E. Monp>lift) (1878); ScM.F.Z.S. 1880, 
p. 618 ; ScAmc. Om. Cmfralbt. IbSL', p. 1« ; Blak. ^ Fryer, Tr. 
A*. Soe. Jap. x. p. 96 (Kuriles) (188:>)i J<my, Fr. U.S. Nal. Mut. 
*i. p. 318 (1883); SHyon, P. if. S. 1887, p. 2 (egg) ; Toa.P.ZS. 
1888, p. 458 (Corea) : Scrih. Birdt Japan. Etitp. p, 243 (1800) 



m, Ibii, \m\. pp. 328, 49<t ; Seebi. Ibii. XifU'I, p. 96 (Tsu 
lie la ToHclte, Ond. p. 491 (Cliinn). 



la); 



Aduil viaU. Eesemliles the male of A. panlorhijnxha. Upper 
port of Uio head and a hroad stripe from the lores through the e}es 
b) BOme distance behind them dark broirn ; superoiUary stripe, sides 
of the head, and throat whitish ; from the gape towarda the eyes a 
•lightly indicnted dusky band, formed by dasky streaks ; upper 
ports brown, the back and suspulare paler, with the edges of the 
Icalhera pale greyish ; nimp und upper tail'featbers uniform dark 
brown ; lower part of the fore neck and upper breast dull whilieh 
baff, with the centres of the fculhera dosky ; lower breast and 
ftbdumeD almost uniform brown, deepening into black-brown on 
th« n&der tail-coTerta ; wings brown ; spocidam glossy blue, moro 
nr \e» with a green lustre, bordered anteriorly aud posteriorly by 
two Tclrely black bands ; the tip of the secondaries narrowly edged 
with white ; tiirtiala brown, with only the apical part of the outer 
veb white ; tail brown, the edges of the feathers whitish : bill 
black, with the apical portiuu, except the tip of the nail, yellow, 
DO red apols at the base ; feet light bright red, the web slightly 
- ■'~'- I uidea yellowish brown (HoUt). Total length about 23 
wing 11-6, tiul 4-d, culmen 2-2, tnrsua 1'75, 
. Smaller and paler, the feathers of tlie breast for a greutor 
a than in the male hsTing broader whitish edges. 

Knuu;. Paler even tbao the lemale, with aniiUler dusky spots on 
tLv UDderpart« ; the edges of the upper wing-coverts pale ; a broad 



subapical white band acrou the greater wtDg-corerts, and the ooter 
web of the tertials for the greater part white. 

Hoi. China, Uougolia, and Eastern Siberia ; Japan and Kurilee. 



a. Ad. Bk. 
b,c,d. Ad.Bk. 

ak. 
A. d ad. ek. 
I. Ad. Bk. 
;t-. Ad. sk. 
i.Z»i. Bk. 
m. Ad. sk. 

0. Ad. St 



No locality. 
China [Tnckftt). 
ShaiurhM, China, March, 

Not. [R. Swinhoe). 
Shan pb at, China, Not. 
Kiukiang, Cbina, Feb. 
Canton, China. 
Naf^asaki, Japan, Dec. 
Yokohama, Japan (ff. Pryer). 
Kechi village, Teu-sbima, 

Feb. {P. A. HoUt). 
Ilakodadi, Japan. 
Hakocladi, Japan. 



Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale ColL 
Seebohm CoU. (Typea 

of the specie*.) 
R. Swinhoe, £sq. [C.]. 
F. W. Stvan, Esq. [P.]. 
Tweeddale ColL 
F. Ringer, Esq. [P.]. 
Seebohm CoU, 
Seebohm Coll. 

H. Whitelv, F^. [CI. 
II. Wbitelj, Esq. [C.]. 



14. Ana* andnlata. 

Anag flaviroBtris, 8miA {nee VUiU,), Cat. S. Afr. Mu$. p. S 



in Lefebvre, Voy. Abyse. p. 171 (1845-50) ; Bp. Compt. Send, iliii. 
p. 640, n. 65 (igflU) ; Heugl. SyH. Ueber,. n. 697 (1866) ; id. J.f. O. 
1862, pp. 293, 306, 1863, p. 4 ; Pek. Heite N<rvara, Vogel, p. 138 
{Cape)(18(16);Xoyanf,.B,S.vV^, p. 852(1867); Gum. iftw, 1868. 
p. 48 (Natal) ; Hengl. Bate nach Abeit. 1861-69, pp. 286, 317 
(1868) ; Chapm. Trao. S. Afr., App.p. 422 (1868); Bocage,Jom. 
Ac.Sc. IM. 1888, p. 50; Hmgt. PeUrm. Geogr. Mitth. 1869, 
p. 417 ; Eyt. Syn. Artat. p. 98 (1809) ; Bianf. Geol. ^ Zoal. 
Abyu. p. 437 (1870); Fiiuch, Tr. Zool. Soc. Tii. p. 329 (1870) ; 
Boca^c, Jurn. Ac. .Sc. LUI.. 1(<7U, p. *51 ; Bii-kl. IbU. 1874. 
p. ;i90 (K_ala\);/'Uc/ier,7^UicAr. get.Orn. 1SS4, p^ 3M (MjBailaad). 




27. AB«. 213 

fSitil. Ibu, 1894, p. 476 (I'lJnmbi Itiver) ; Jkhnw. fiig. DeultcA- 

Ost-4fr. ^. liii (l^m). 

Aoaa cajwnsis, ZiicAt. [nee Ont.) Vcn. Sdufftth. u. Viig. p, 20, n, 251, 

3o3(Kallerl) (lg41>); i^.r'tt Jnrtt.ZfMcr.^n. p, 4a(D0le) (1S44): 

?£i A'onumf/. ^n. p. JOI (1854), 
Anaerneppelli, A/yfA, J. ^. A. A. xiv. p. 36S(lSfie); trj. iMr, 1^7, 

[LlTO( = HaviroBlrui,«mi/A); Jfrd. B. i^f Ind. iii. p. SOO (IBIM) ; 

Gifb. The*. Om. i. p. :«ll (1871*). 
(JaerqueduU laulhoriiTncha, A'Aarpe, Ibit, 1892, p. 641 (Hfiehnko). 

Adult mnlf. Dork brown above vith narrow pale eilgcs, bvlow 
the edges of the feuthera are broader and whiter ; head rntber dark, 
the light edges being very narrow ; also the upper wing-ooverls 
with narrow light edges ; wing-s[w.'culum very broad, oi' a metallic 
green with a bluish gloss, bounded ant«riorly and posteriorly by 
two bands, one velvety black and the other white ; outer tvrtials 
velvety black on the outer web; under wing-coverW whitish; 
axillariea white; tail-feathers dark brown, with narrow pale edges: 
" irides cbestDut ; bill yellow, with a long loDgitudiual patch on 
the culmen, and the aail black; feet black " (jlnftnori), " tinged 
with yellow" (Aifres). Total length about 20 inches, wing 10'75, 
tail 4'd, culmen 'J, tarsus 1'55. 

Ftmal^. Similar to the male. 

Hab. South Africa, Eastern Africa as far noilli as Abyssinia, and 
WMt«m Africa aa fur north as Angola. 



Cape of Good Hope. 

ft, e. Ad. tk. Port Natal {T. Avrf). 
4. Ad. nil. Movi it., Notai; .May 

«. Ad.ak. TrsnavaaL 

/. Ad. aU Transvaal Republic. 

f,Ad£ad.ik. PotchefstToom, Aug. (7*. 

li, *. Ad, sk. PotchefBtroom, 

i: $ ad. sk, Near Pretoria, June {_F. 

Oateif. 



m,n.<ii»i. 



Pnlombi it., NvaMa-land, 

Aujr. (A. H'Ayto). 
Shoa I ham's). 
Angollalab, May (Hiirrii). 
.\gula, Aby^iua, May. 

Hrasu). 
Anat nndvlata: 



Sir A. Smith. (Type of 
A nntjlavifmlrit. Smith.) 
Shelley Coll. 

Shelley CoU. 

H. J. Elwe«, Esq. [P.]. 
A. Foresman, E^.Yp.'i 
J. n, UufDey, h8q.[P.j. 

F. A. Barratt, E»q. fP.l 
W. E. & C. G. Gates, 

Esqrs. [P.]. 
H. H, Johiwlon, Esq., C.R 

rp.]. ^ 

India Museum [P-l- 
India Museum [P.J. 
W.T. Blnnford, Esq. [C.]. 

ZooLSoc. 



ohteui-a. 

Zoul. Sue. 



lo. Anas aparsft. 

ith. Cat. .S. Afr. Mm. p. 36, 
Anal. p. 142 (S. Aft.) {'. 



S~. Afr., iirJ>, pi. 07 (pt. ai/lttiij 
p. 010, D. S (l&M); JicM. S^ 



324 (IM7) (dewr. 
i) i Smifh, m. 2w.(. 
_. _f. Or. Oen. S. iii. 
t 110. ff. 911 (ex SmifAf, 



979 (1845); Ourn. IbU, 1659, p. 2Q1 (Niital); Heusl. J. f. O. 

1862, p. 306; Kirk, Ihi*, 1864, p. 336 (Zambesi) ; Layard, B. «. 

^fr.p. 852(1867;; Chapm. Trdr-tna ^/'r.ii.App. p. 422(1863); 

Hm^.BeiteruKhAheu. 1861-62, pp. 29(t, 308 (1868) ; id.Pittrm. 

Gatgr. Mitth. 1869, p. 417; Evl. Si/n. Anal. p. 99 (1869) ; Fintek 

«■ Harll. Vdg. Oit-A/r. p. 809 (18/0) ; O. A Or. Hanilnlitl. iii. 

p, 82, n. 10642 {\%~l); Anderit. B. Damara Land,^. 341 (1872); 

Heiiql. Orn. N.O.-Afr. ii, 2, p, 1317 (1873); Ayrei, IhU, 1874, 

p. 105 (Transvaal), 1876, p. 433, 1p80, p. 273 (Tranavafti) ; Sdat. 

P. Z. S. 1880, p. 516; Bchnie. Orn. Ontralhl. 18s2, p. 19; BttIL, 

Ffild., * Reid, Zoohff. 1882, p. 427 (Nutalj (1882) ; Holub, Britr. 

Orn. Siidafr. p. 330 (1882); Sharpe, Lai/ard'a B. S. Afr. p. 756 

(1884) ; Sal^^d. Ann. Mv*. Cie. Gfit. (2) i. p. 244 (Sh<^) (1884), 

vi. p. 321 (Shoft) (1888) ; Trutr. Cnt. OAl B. p. 49 (1889) ; 

Hartert, Kat. Vogt^mmmL p. 230 (1891); Sh^ Ibu, 1894, p. 28 

(Zomba) i Echnm. Vog. DeutKh-Oit-A/r. p. 26 (1894). 
Anas tlBTiroatris, O. E. Or. (tuk Smith), Litt B. Bril. Mm. iii. 

p. 137, speed (1844). 
Anas leucostigma, S^. &f»t. Uthen. pp. 130, 138, Tnf. 48 

(3. Abysiinia) (1845); Dn Mart in if/More, Voy. Abyns.. Oit. 

p. 171 (1845); Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiiv. p. 265 (1855j ; Hri^l. 

Syst. Uebers. u. 095 (1856): BIylh, lbi», 1807, p. 176; Cab. in 

V. d. Decken, Reism, iii. p. 51 (1869). 
Ansa guttata, Lickt. Nomrnd. Ac. Mtu. BeroL p. 101 (CKQrsnn) 

( 1664) ; Bp. Compt. Bend, iliii. p. 649, n. 66 (1856) ; Jerd. B. of 

Ind. iii. p. 600 (1864) ; S.-Wr?. Mas. F.-B., Anaeres, p. 49 (1866) ; 

Gieb. Tht». Orn. i. p, 353 (1872). 

Adult male. Geoeral plamaf^e dark sepia-browD, the head and 
upper neck lighter, having the feathers edged with whitiah ; the 
feathers of the anderparts with narrow pale edges; scapulars and 
tertials with one, two, or three whitish-buff bars, interrnptdd by 
the shaft ; wing-Bpecnlum metallic green with a blue gloss, bounded 
> banils ou the last row of the wiiis-werta. 




i. rf »d.et (id. Potd.e&lroom, March, April 
'. Ad. et juT. Zombn, Nvasaa-land, Oct. [d. 



J. H. Gumej, Esq. 

Sir II. H. JDlmston, 
C.B. [K]. 



1 (3. Anaa specnluiB. 
Anu •peculnrie, Ein^, Zooi. Joum. iv. p. 98 (Straits of Mai^llnn) 

(182M)! Eut.MoH. Anat. p. 138 (I^); Jard. & .Sflb. III. Ont. 

iv.pl. 40 {1840); Harll.ren.Ge>.Mut.p. 119(1»44); (i. H. ffc. 

Zi't S. Bnt. Mu». iii. p. 13(1 (18+4); id. Gen. B. iii. p. 61fi, a. 3 

(1846); Of Man, in Gajr'i fut. t/^ Chile, i. p. 4S0 |1?4>^] ; 

Schai. AfH. .^v., NataloFM, L 94. (. 2349 («z J. ^ &) (18A0J ; 

Jtartl. Xaumafuiia, 1853, pp. 917, 223 (Chili); Cou. r^,& ^fnn. 

Erpfd., Zeot. p. 202 (^1606) j POt. Beite Jforara, Va/. p. 138 

(Chili) (1865); Sel>,I.P.Z.S. 1807, p. 335 (ChiU); Phil. ^ Lam/b. 

Cat. Av. Chii. p. 42 (18G8); Si/t. S^. Anat. p. 95 (era. emend.) 

08B8) : iMal. * So/it. P. Z 5: 1876, p. 380 ; Sc/at. P. Z. S. 1880, 

p. 619, 1681, p. 734 (Zool. Gard.) ; JU^hiw. Om. Cattralbl. 1882, 

p. 13; id. rUff. tool. Gart. p. 61; Sclat. LiH Vert. An. Stb e<i, 

0.482(1883); BHrm.An.Mus.Nac.Bum.AirA'a.^'l'^^im*.); 

Triilr. (W. OJI. D. p. 49 (1888J ; Uarlert, Kat. Vuffelmmnil. 

p. 230 (1891); Ber&Jm Jamet, SeiB Lia Chit. B. p. », n. l-W 

(1892). 
Asm chalcnpters, £Crr/. Mim. prM. Arad. St. Ptfenb. ii. p, 471, 

pi. 6 (]83o) i fl-mwr, P. Z. S. 184.?, p. 119 (Colchapis) ; JUhHh. 

&n. .rfr., NHtatore«, t. 100. (T. 2700-67 11860); ImM. &'umenel. 

Av. p. 101 (18«) ; Bp. Cotnpt. Jtfitd. xliii. p. 049, n. 74 (18S(i) ; 

SrA/*y. ,Hiui. P.-A, Anseres, p. 4(1 (Bolivia) (188(i) ; G. ^. Or. 

JI«nd-lia. iii, p. 82, n. 10(i50 (1871); Uieb. The». O™. i. p. 3J7 

(1872) ; Sclai. Jj- Sa'''- Atmfnc/. Ar. h'totn-p. p, 129 (1873). 

AduU matf. Head and neck brown, but a large spot on the siJei 
of the face, chin, and middle of the throat whil«, spreading on ilie 
■ides of the nevk ; back glossy brown-black, with the edges of tla- 
fratbcro pall' brown; lower back uniform glossy brown-black, 
ebanging into olive-brown on the nppi^r tail-covert*: onderpartH 
pole nifi-scent, more or less with obsolete brown bars or transversi? 
RpOtB ; udes and flanks with brown-blaok spots : wings blaok with 
ft green lustre ; speculum on the secondaries eopperj- red, bonndid 
po«teriorly by a subtenninal velvety black band and by a while 
mpical bnnd ; under wing-covcrtfi gloasy black, the greater ones dark 
gney ; asillnries white ; tail above brown-black, with a green lust re, 
below greyish brown: "bill black; legs red" (A'iny); " leps 
ywUow ■ (Stlater ^ Salvin). Total length about 21 inches, wing 
10-'>, tail 4-8. ciilmen X», tarsus l'6.j. 

Ffrnalt. Similar to the male, but duller. 

YoMny in dovrn. Upper part* brown ; underparta, sides of the 
b«ui. ft bond on the |>0Btcriur edge of the wing, joining another on 
tlie *idc« of the back, and a spot on each side of the rump whitish ; 
a brown band from the eje to tlie occiput, and a second one across 
Ifar cbeoks (.Vfuf. Turin). 

Hah. Central and Southern Chili, (Bolivia?), and Magellan 
Strait*. 



rt. 5 nd. 8k. Cbilj (E. C. Reed). Salvin-GodmwiToU. 

b, e, d. Ad. sk. C. Chili. H. Berkeley Jsmea, 

E*q. fP.]. 
e,/. g ad. sk. Eio Pilmacquen, Feb. H. Berkeley Junes, 

Esq. [P.} 
g, h. Ad. Bt. Straits of Magellui. The Admiraltj [F.l. 

1. Juv. at. Straits of MBgellao. Sir W. Buraett & 

Capt-FitiroyrP.l. 
k. Ad. sk. Straits of Magelkn ( Weit- SolviD-Oodmaa Coli. 

haupt). 

17. Anas eristata. 

Crested Duck, Lath. Syn. iii. 2, p. 643, n. 81 (Staaten Land) (IT&S). 

Alias eristata, Gm. S. N. i. 2, p. 540, n. 114 (17d8j Itx LutAam) ; 
Lath. Jnd. Om. ii. p. 870, n. 93 (1790) ; Biain. Ene. Mith. i. 
p. 143 (1790) ; Vieill. N. B. t. p. 120 (1816) ; Bum. Btct. Sc. 
Xal. vi. p. SJ3 (1817) ; G. S. Gr. List B. Brit. Mut. iii. p. 13ti 
(1844); U. Gen. B. iii. p. 616, n. 6 (184fi); Dm Muri m Gay 
ma. de Chile, i. p. 449 (1848) ; Gould, P. Z. S. 186B, p. 06 (ejfff, 
Falklands) : Sclat. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 389 (Falklands) ; Abbott, Ibit, 
1861, p. ICO (Falklands) ; Peh. Keiie Xovara, log. p. 136 (Chili) 
(1865) i Schleg. Mut. P.-B., AnBeres, p. 39 (Bolivia, B'Orbigny) 
(18G6); ScUt. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 336 (Chili); Sdat. ^ Salv. 
I. c. p. 890 (Salinas, Peru), 1868, p. 570 ; Phil. ^ Lmdb. Cai. 
Av. Chil. p. 41 (1868) ; Sclat. * &/r. Ibit, 1870, p. 499 
(Tuei«iay Bay) ; O. B. Gr. Jia«d-liil, iii. p. 82, n. 10651 (1871) ; 
Gieb. Thai. Om. i. p. 349 (1872); Sclat. ^ Sale. Nomtncl. Av. 
Xeolrop. p. 129 (18;3) ; Pdz. Ibis, 1873, p. 40; Tacx. P. Z. S. 
1874, p. 554 (Junin, Oentr. Peru) ; Sclat. ^ Sah. P. Z. S. 1876, 

S381 i Selat. P. Z. S. 1880. p. 619 ; Sharjx, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 13 ; 
cAnio, Om. Centratbl. 1882, p. 19; Tacx. Om. Pir. iii. p. 473 
(1886); Selat. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 401 (Tarapaea), 1887, p. 396 
(Zool. Qard.) ; mitippi, Omis, 1868, p. 160 (Pastes largos) ; 
J!„rm. An. My$^ AVr. Bum. Air. iii. p. :.>ji; (l^fW) ; TrUlr. Cut. 




and extcads to tbe eyes ; nape wilh u loog pendent crest ; chin and 
thruat vhitisli imnumulale; bikck and scapulara brown, the featliers 
it the back with pale etlges, the scuputare darker towurds the tip; 
lower back, riunp, and upper tuil-coverls uuiform Dlive-brown ; 
br^a«t and abdomen pale rufeseent, the frathers of the breast with 
u brown spot in the ceutre ; the abdomen with obsolete darker bars ; 
longer andcr tail-oovcrts black : wings oliro brown-grey, speculam 
on the secondaries eop|>orj- red with a green gloss, and bounded 
posteriorly by a velvety black band, broader on the inner feiithers, 
and by a second white baud at the tip of the secondaries ; primaries 
oliTo-hrown; under wing-coverts olive brown-grey, the greater 
ones grey ; asillaries white ; tail browu-black, with a purple gloss : 
"iris blood-red" or oisiago (Btrideu James) ; "legs dark grey, upper 
mandible horn colour, lower one flesh-colour" {Copftin^er). Total 
length about 24 inches, wing 11-5, tail 6, culmca 1-Sa, torstis 1'75. 
FteTualt. Similar to the male, but somewhat smaller, and the 
crest shorter. 

This species is not a very typical member of the gcnas Anas, 
Ilab. tiouthem America, from S. Peru (and Bolivia ?) to Magellan 
t^ raits, and also the Falkland s. 



o. Ad. A. 
b. (J ad. St. 


S. America. 

Salinas, Peru, 14,000 ft., July. 


EvtonColL 

If. Whit«ly, Ejq. 

TiwJdale ColL 

Salvin-Godmnn Coll. 
Sslv-in-Oodman Coll. 

H. Berkeley James, 

U. Berkeiey James, 

H. Berkeley Jarne*, 

!1. Berkeiey James, 

II. '^rkelej James, 

H.T' E*M, Esq. 

[P.> 
The .\dmirBlty [P.]. 
Hr.Coppi»ger'[k]. 


f. 2 ad. sk. 

d. Ad. sk. 

r cT <kL >k. 

/. Ad. »k. 


SaUnas, Peru, 14,000 a., July 
(H. WhiUhi). 

Tiata, Peru, June (H. W.). 

Prov. Santiago, Chili i Leu- 
hold). 

Prov. of TaraiiaciL 


,. k.e Sad. ak. 


Lake iluauo, Tarapacd, Jan. 


.-* rf 2 ad. ek. 


Sacaya, Jan,, Feb. 


7.^ (J S ad. sk. 


Sit ana, Jan. 


t. Ad- ak. 
..tfad.sk. 


Central Cbili. 
Strails of .Magellan. 


*. Ad. rt. 

V. $Bd.^ 


Straits of MagelUo. 
CiKkle Cove, titmit* of Magel- 
lan, Feb. 
Port Uusnrio, March. 
North Ifav, Hermit la., Sept. 

in- M^d.). 

Xorlb Hurbour, Hermit Is. 

Falkland K 

Falkland Is. 

Falklsn<) is. 

Falkland Is. (Lecontt). 

Falkland Is. 

BerkeU-y Souud, F. Falklands, 


J-. $ »A. sk. 
f.d'd-A. 


Dr. Coppinger [P.]. 
McCimick Bequ»>t. 


i^9ad.ak. 
tf. Ad. n. 
«-. Ad. .k. 
c. 2 ad. «k. 
•e. Ad. ak. 
X, /. Ad. sk. 
/. rf «». .k. 


Antarctic Eip. [CJ. 
The Admiralty [I'.j. 
Eyton CoU. 
Antarctic Eip. [C.l. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Antarctic Eap. {C.\ 



28. EUHETIA. ^p^ 

KuuatU, Sp. Compt. Bend, xlkii. p. 660, gen. 35 (1853) . . E. falcaU. 
Bangt. Eastern PalEearctio Region. 

1. Ermetta hlc&ta. 
Aoas Wcata, Georgi, Reise Ituti. Reickt, i. p. 167 ( 1776) ; Pali. Zoogr. 

Roaio-AM.u.-p. 269, tab. Ixx. (1811); Brandt, Deter, et Icon. An. 

Bom. fasc i. p. 21, t. 3 (ISSB) ; Hard. Verz. Get. Mm. p. 119 

(1844); Midd. Sibir. BeU. u. p. 2.11, Taf. xii. f. 2 (vounp rf) 

(1653) J Bp. Cumpt. Bend, iliii. p. 1025 (1856) ; Kittl. "Denkw. ii, 

p. 307 (1858) ; Bla*. u. Batd. Nawamm't Viig. DeutacU. liii. 2, 

p. 300, Taf. 389. f. 1 (cJJ (1860); Sdikg. Mm. P.-j5., Aneeree, 

p. 72 (1866); Dyb. u. Parr. J. f. O. 1868, p. 338 (Dauria); 

iVsew. Toy. n. 201 (1867-69) ; id. Pute»ch. Uuur. n. 201 (1870} ; 

Homey. J. f. 0. 1870, p. 432 ; Gitb. Then. Om. i. p. S-tO (1872) ; 

BlaJciit. Ibii, 1876, p. 336 (Kunitschatka) ; McLead, Str. Feath. x. 

p. 168 (Bhawulpore) (1881) ; Tacx. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 458 (Coren) ; 

SeeiA. B. Jap. Bmp. p. 246 (1890) ; Brandt, J./. 0. 181)1, p. 268. 
Anaa falcaria, Pall. BeUe Bum. Bach*, iii. p. 701, d. 34 (1776) ; 

Gm. S. N. i. 2, p. 621, n. 86, with var. /S (1788) ; Lath. Ind. 

Om. ii. p. 860, n. 70 (1790) j Bonn. Enc. Mith. \. p. 147, pL 36. 

f. 6 (17t)0) ; VUill. N. D. v. p. 106 (ISld) : -Dum. Diet. Sc. 

Nat. Ti. p. 397 (1817) ; SUph. Gen. Zool. lii. 2, p. 100 (1824) ; 

Tenun. 5" SchUg. Faun. Jap., Avei, p. 127 (Japiin) (1850); 

JfaSengr. Naumannia, iSiii, n. 273 (Skandinavia) ; Swinh. Ibis, 

1862, p. 254; id. P. Z. S. 1803, p. 324; David, N. Arch, du Mut., 

BuU. vii. Cat. n. 450 (1871). 
Swcelle de Jafa, D'Aubent. K Eal. n. 930 ( J ) ; Buff. Hitt. Sat. 

OM.ii. p. 276(1/83). 
Anw JRvana, Bodd Tabl. PI. Enl. 5S, n. 930 (1783) (ex PI. Enl.). 
Falcated Duck, Penn. Arct. Zool. i. p. 674, t. 23 (1786) ; Lath. Sgn. 




p. 45 n877) 1 



r.^. Sibir. p. 69 (1877) ; id. BhU. Soe. Zool. Fr. u. 

JUakul. 4- iVjirr, Ibu, 1878, p. 2U (JapHii) ; Andi^ri. 

ii. £(rd., p. 701 (IS'l^) ; //wn<, Str. FfuUt. *ii. p. 404 (CrieiiHa 

niMket) (1S79I, viii. p. 116, d. 966 bU, n. 411 (India) |1ST9); 

&taf. P.Z.& 1880, p. mi ; Akru 4- Marth. Game B. of Ind. iii. 

p. 831, p!. 30 (1880); Blahiit. ^ Pryr. Tr. Ax. Soc. Jap. yni. 

p. 105 (1880). X, p. 98 (1882) ; Bolau, J.f. O. 1882, p. 340 ; Tan. 

BuU. Sue. loot. Fr. riii. p. 3J3 (Kwolschslka) (1883) : Selat. Lilt 

I'rrt. An. Slh ed. p. 434 (1863); BlakiU. Amend. Litt B. Jap. 

p. 8 (1RS4) ; Madar. ZrittcAr. gt>. Om. l p, 38 (Hungrtrv) 

(1881); TrMr. Cat. CoW. S. p. 49 (188U); SAaire. Tr. Linn. S.'.: 

12) HaoL V. p. 91 (1889)i irf. Cat. Oirieol. Specim. Coll. S«rg. 

iii. p. 3(11 (1891). 
iJnerqueduU jatanii, G. B. Gr. Cm. B. iii. p. Olfl. n. fi (1845). 
(juerqiiedula dn>pitno)iti!ros, Bp. J?cc, iYit. p. 103 (18o0). 
Ijaerqiiiidula javaueusjs, Bp. CW^f. .Kntrf. iliii. p, 650, d. 96(185C>) ,- 



IjaerqiiiKlula javaueusjs, Jfp. Lom^ 

EgL Syn. Anal. p. 74 ( 18GB). 
Eutietta fiilcata, Bp. timpt. B 



Swinh. P. Z. S."lfi7I, p. 410; G. M. Or. Hand-Hit. i 
n. 10671 imii) ; Sundev. Mefh. Tiat. Ar. di»p. Tctw. 0.147(1872) ; 
SKwA.iiM.1873.p.30«, 1874, p. 164 (Haliodadi): fieuj/. /./. O. 
IB74, p. 462; Daiid ^ Outt. Ou. Chine, p. 504 (1877); PrjeT. in 
Xowl. Om. itiie. Ui. p. 104 (Monjtolia) (1878j ; Srehh. Ibi>, 1884, 
n.3!70(C.CIttDH); «■/(,"■ fl'irfuiwr. 1884, p. 0; «.i:»tf. U.S. Aat. 
itfu. n. 20, p. 156(Dt>riugl.)(t88-))i id. Pr. U.S. Kat. Mm*. %. 
n. 136 (Bering I.) (1887); Giffl. Ir Salead. P. Z. S. 1887, p. iiOl ; 
SatiMd. 4- Gigl. Mem. B. Ae. 5c. Tor. 13) xxxix. p. 118 (1888) ; 
Stpan, Ibi$. 1891. pp. 3^8, 497 ; Schal. J.f. O. 1891, p, 208 ; 2^ b 
Tvae/ie, ibie. 1892, p. 492. 
Uuer* falciua, Oiui.E.i-p. Am. Siptodr. China Seat and Jap. i\. p. 331 
(ISM): id. J.f. O. ItS.W.p. 448. 



QuerqiiiKlula multicolor, Swmh, (i 
Aoas iQuFrquednla) falcnl 
Saddf, BMt. S. O.-Sibir. 



cSeap.) Ihii. 1880, p.67 (Amoyl. 



Aoas iQuFnjuednla) falcniA, Jii^n-nA, )'i>if./4i».-£<i>f(f,p.476 (IKiO) ; 
*■ " " ■ " '■ ""■" "i. 'p. SfHHimS) ; BehHw. OrH. CaitraiLL 
.Gdrt. p. H (1882). 

i.p.71 (1883). 

Adult mah. Crown deep chestnnt ; sideB of the head bronie- 
puqile, greener posteriorly ; a long green mane on the back of the 
nape; throat aod appor part of the neck white, intergccli'd below 
by & green eollar ; mantle and upi>er scapulars with narrow 
— CMtic bands grey and blackish : rump blackish ; ba«al upper 
HB mn-TTtr grey, vermtculated with black, the longer ones lilack 
'tflE Wtirely hitUng the tail ; upper breast waved with alternate 
MWOentio ban of black and white, producing a regular scaly 
amwftrance ; lower breaat wbilisb, each feather with black bars, 
one of which is aubtemiinal ; sides, Saoks, and abdomen waved 
with tiarrow black and greyish bands ; under tail-coveris black, 
very long, and reaching beyond the tail ; on each side of the 
under tail-coverts a very distinct buff patch, the buses of the 
ti»thcr« being black, showing a beautiful black bur, which separalea 
the buflV patch from another silky white band formed by the tip of 
loWMt Oank-feathen ; scapulars grey, narrowly waved with black. 
and more or less distinctly whitish on the edges ; a black patch on 
the outer scapulars ; wing-coverta grey, the last row whitish ; 



220 ASiTIBa. 

ving-Bpeculum on the secondarieB dark glosay green, bonndcd below 
by a. narrow whitUh band at the tip of the secondaries; tertiats 
very long and narrow, sickle-ehaped, with the shulU whitiuh, the 
woba velvety glowy black, the edges and part of the inner webs 
grey ; quilla dark grey, almost blackish towards the tip ; under 
wing-coverts white, bat the greater ones grey ; aiillaries white ; 
tail-feathers grey, with narrow white edges : bill greenish black ; 
feet dull blue-grey, darker on the web ; iris brown. Total length 
m inches, wing 10, tail 3, culmen 1-8, tarsus l-^id. 

Adult femaU, Head striped with blackish, each feather mai^ncd 
with fulvous ; sides of the face and neck lighter, dottJid with small 
black points and stripes ; feathers of the back black, varied with 
rufous V-shaped marks and edges ; rump blackish ; upper breast 
and sides rufous, with black crescentic bars ; lower breaat and 
abdomen white, with block crescentic bars or spots, but almost 
uniform in the middle ; under tail-coverts reddish, with blackish 
marks ; upper wing-coverts dusky grey, the greater row whitish at 
the tip ; wing-Hpeculum black, faintly glossed with green ; primaries 
greyish brown ; nnderwing-covertaandaxillariea wbit«; tail-feathers 
browu'grey, with reddish edges : bill, feet, and irides aa in the mate. 

The female roaemblea that of CkauUlannu* strepenu, but differs in 
having the risible portion of all the lat«r sccondariee black, with a 
metallic green reflection, narrowly tipped with white, and the terminal 
portion of their greater coverts, or last row of the wing-coverts, 
whitish, while in the female Gadwall the entire viisible portions of 
the later secondaries are pure white, and the terminal portion of 
their greater coverts black. Besides, the tail-feathers of E.faleala 2 
are almost uniform brown-grey, except the reddish edges, while in 
the female Gadwall the outer tail-feathers are whitish, with 

regular brown marks. Finally, the upper mandible of the fen 




29. CHIULEULSMUS. 



221 



V. c{ imm. sk. Shanghai, Feb. 

to, Xyy. (^ 2 ^ B^* Kiukiang, China, Feb. 



«. cJ jav. sk. 
a*. $ a<L sk. 

b'. (^ ad. sk. 

c'-/*. $ ad. 8k. 

^', *\ ^^ d ? ad. 
et juv. sk. 



Peking, China, Oct. {E, S.). 
S. Manchuria. 

Awomeri, Japan, April 

(Blakiston). 
Nagasaki, Japan, Jan., 

March. 
Yokohama, Japan {H, 

Pryer), 

29. CHAULELASMUS. 



F. W. Styan, Esq. 

F. W. Styan, Esq. 

[P.l. 
Seebonm Coll. 
H. M. James, Esq. 

[P.l. 

Seebohm Coll. 

F. Ringer, Esq. [P.]. 

Seebohm Coll. 



Type. 



Chauliodus, Sw. Faun. Bor.-Amer.y Birds^ p. 440 

(1831); id.Journ, Hay. Inst. ii. p. 19 (1831) {nee 

Block, 1801). 
Chauliodes, Eyt. Mon.A nat. p. 43 (IS^^S) {nee Lair. 1798) C. streperus. 
Chaulelasmus, G. B. Or., fide Bp. Comp. List B. Eur. 

iSc N. Amer. p. o6 (1^38) (= Chauliodus, Sw.) ; G. R. 
^ Gr. Gen. B. lii. p. 017 (184')). 
Ktinorhjmchus, Eyt. Mon. Anat. p. 137, preface, p. 2 

(1838) C. streperus. 

Ctenorhynchus, Agass. Nomend. ZooL, Ind. Univ. p. 198 

(1840). 
Chauliodous, Olphe-Gall. Contr. Faun. Ot-n. Eur. Oee. 

iv. p. 50(188S). 

Range. Confinod to Xorthcrn Hemisphere. 



Kty to the Species. 

a. LarpT; wing about 11 inches 

b. Smaller ; wing 8 inches (only female known) . . . 

1. Chanlelasmus streperus. 



st repents, p. 221, 
couesi, p. 220. 



Strepera, Briss. Om. vi. p. 339, tab. xxxiii. f. 1 (1700). 

Anas 8trepera, Lirin. S. X. i. p. 200, n. 20 (17()0) ; Gm. S. K. i. 2, 




pi. 1.5. u. i, r> (iracnea; (i/v»oj ; i-au. ijoogr. nosso-j-is. u. p. 
(1811) ; JVi/s. Am. Om. viii. p. 120, pi. 71 (1814) ; 7W«w. Man. 




Ztyol xii. 2, p. l():i (lf<24) ; Bp. Ohs. IVtls. n. 207 (1825) ; id. Si/n. 
p. 383 (1828) : F/em. Brit. An. p. 124 (1828) ; iSari, Orn. foxe. 
lii. p. 169(18:31); Brehm, Viiy. Deutsehl. p. 870 (1831); Sykes, 
P. Z. 6'. Ib32, p. 108 (l)ukhun); Aud. Om. Bioyr. iv. p. 3o3, 
pi. 348 (18^38) ; id.Syn.^r27S (18:39); id. B. Am. vi. p. 254, 
pi. 388 (1843) ; A'. ^ B. Wirhelth. Eur. pp. Ixxxv, 226 (1840) ; 
Aaum. VOg. Deutsehl. xi. p. 659, pi. :K)2 (1842); Selys-L., Fautt, 
Rely. i. p. 141 (1842) ; Schley. Rev. Crit. p. 115 (1844) ; Giraud, 
R. Long. Isl.ia. 304 (1844) ; De Kay, N. Y. Zool. ii. p. 343 (1844) ; 
Deyl. Om. Eur. ii. p. 430 (1849) ; Teimn. ^ Schley. Faun. Jap.. 



Ave*, p. 138 (I860) ; Midd. SOir. Bd*. ii. p. 232 (1853) ; P Paints, 
J. f. O. 1853, pp. 242. 312 (Lapliind ! breediDfrJ ; Wallatffr. 
JVoBiwmmo, 1854, p. 272 (SaindinaTi«) ; JVetefi. P. Jt. S. Sep. vi. 
p. 102 (1867); Jon., Wedd., ^ Hurdix, Nat. in Berm. p. 47 
{Bermudii) (1869) ; Mart. J.f. O. 1859, p. 220 ; Finsch, J.f. 0. 

1859, p. 387 (Bulgaria) ; Preen, ibid. p. 4e3 (note) j Pncyt, Ibi», 

1860, p. 353 (Ion. Isl.) ; Simpi. ibid. p. 394 ( W. Greece) ; Saink. 
P. Z. S. 1863, p. 324 (China) j Nordn^ J. f. O. 1864, p. 377 ; 
Schirs/. Mat. F.-B., AoBere*, p. 48 (Cape of Good Hope !) (1866) ; 
iV«w. Foi/. n. 203 (1867) ; Triitr. Itis, 1868, p. 328 (PalcBtine); 
Elma 4- £ucki. IMs, 1870, p, 340 (Macedonial ; Horneyer, J.f. O. 
1870, p. 432; Smnderi, Ibu, 1871, p. 396 (S. Spain, bivediniC); 
Tatflor, Ibit, 1872, p. 233 (Crimea) ; ShtU. B. of Egj/pt, p. 283 
(1872) i Oifb. Thfa. Orn. i. p. 363 (1872) ; Seixrts. Turkeit. Jevotn. 

§70 (1873) : Sdat. ^ Sals. Nomtncl. An. Neotrop. p. 129 (1873) ; 
It/tk, B. ofBHrmn, p. 166 (Arakan) (1876) ; SiUit. P. Z. S. 1876, 

p. 382; Blanf. Eatt Pen. ij. p. 300 (1876) ; Finseh, Verh. t.-b. 

Oe». Wten, 1879, p. ■262 ( W. Siberia) : A.^E. Nftct. Handb. Jam. 

p. 113 (1881); C. Swinh. Ibit, 1882, p. !34; Rehmc. Orn. 

Centraibl 1882, p. 19; id. Vog. tool. Oart. p. 62 (1862); 

Triitr. Faun. Sr Flor. Palrit., Artt, p. 115 (1884); Sound. 

Yarretfi Hitt. Br. B. iv. p. 370 (1885) ; Settbh. Hitt. Br. B. iii. 

p. 530, pi. 64 (egg) (18C6) ; Memb. ILig, 1885, p. 367 ; A. O. U. 

Ckedt-lUt, p. 115. n. 136 (1886) ; Turner, Contr. N. H. Altuka, 

p. 131 (1886) ; Scully, J. A. S. B. Ivi. p. 88 (1887) ; iWyte. Man. A'. 

Am. B. p. 96 (1887) ; Giry, Auk, 1888, p. 61 [Cuba and Jamaica, 

winter); id. Birds W. Ind. p. 202 (1888); Triitr. Cat. CbU. B. 

p. 49 (Bermuda) (1889) ; Rchnw. J. f. O. 1890, p. 82 ; Ulf. Col 

Fig. Br. B. pt. nv. pi. — (1890) ; &e*A. B. Jap. Emp. p. 24a 

(1890); Sartert,Eat. Voffelmmmt. p. 231 (1891); SatcA, B. of 

Minnei. p. 41 (1892): A. Newt. iHcl. of Birdi, pt. 1, p. 297 

(1803). 
Anns cinerea, S. G. Gm. Bei>e Russl. ii. p. 184, t. 17 ((f> (1774); 

Bre/im, I»if, IS30, p. 097 ; id. Vtig. DeutiM. p. 871 (1831). 
Anas kekiischlia, S. G. Om. Seine, iii. p. 249, tt. 21i, 27 (Caapiup 




iii. p. 617, n. 1 (1&15) ; id. Cat. E<^j,i. CaU. B. M. p. 1*5 (IWfi) ; 
Goue, B. Jam. p. 408 (\M>] ; Blyth, Cat. S. Mia. A. S. S. p. 301, 
n. irn (1SI9) ; Jichnb. t,)/it. All. p. X (103S) ; Woodh. Sityr. li^. 
p. 104 (1853) ; Bp. Cofiipl. Rend. xl. p. 064 (1853). xliii. p, 060, 
n. 80 (16oU) ; Mmgl. Si/it. Ueb. n. H03 OSTaI) -. Brrhm, J. /. O. 
li*67,p. 357; Baud. B. .V. ^m. p. 782 (1858); id. Citt. A'. Am. 
«. n. 584 (1859); lleerm. P. IL JL Sep. x. pt. tL p. 69 (]8.j9) ; 
»i/t>, Ibit, 1859, p. 363 (E. Atlas) ; J/omra, /./ 0. 180». p. 873 
(ZooL Gatd.) ; /rirfr. Jfti., 1860, p. 81 (K. Atr.) ; Cbop. ^ Siickl. 
y.H. H'aifh. Terr.p. l'M(miO); Aibrecht.J./.O.lsm, p. 207 
(Jamiueii) ; JJlaki»i. IhU, 18ii8, p. 14e (Br. N. Am.) ; O. k. Gi: 
Cat. Hodfft. CaU. D. M. 2iid ed. p, 77 (1863) ; Utanh, Pr. Ac. 
PAfJutJ. 1864, p. 73 (Jamaica): Trulr.P.Z.S. l^l, u. 4M -. Jtrd. 
B. o/Ind. iii. p. 60-2 (1804) i Moit, Ibit, 1865. p. 442; Dre**. 
Ibit, 1866, p. 43 (1'eias) ; Co«e; Pr. Ac Pkilad. 1866, p. 9JI 
(AtiMiial ; Gundl. Rep. FiM.-Sat. \. p. 389 (Cubnl (1866) ; later. 
Ann. Zue. A'. I', viii. (IWW). p. 207 1 1867); Btav. Itnt, 1868, 
p. 402 (India) ; Brown, ibid. p. 426 (^'ftDCouver) ; Doll j- Ba^n. 
Tr. Okie. Acad. \. p. 30S (18fH)); Su^'iiA. P. Z. & 1871. p. 418 
(Chiiwj: OuebeL, J. /. O. 1871, p. U7 (UnuuiMben Kreiae) ; 
Omdl. J. /. O. 1871, pp. 202, 2U4 (Cuba); Frittdi, J. /. 0. 
1672, p. SOU ; Sundee. Melh. nat. Av. dim. Tmt. p. 148 (1872) ; 
Merr. U.S. Getd. Sure. Terr. p. 704 (Idato) (1672) ; Altm, RuU. 
M. C. Z. iii. p. 183 (Colorado) (1872) ; Ailxn, Pr. Bott. Soe. sv. 
p. 240 (Colorado) (1872): Cb««. Key. p. 286 (1672); id. Check- 
lwf,D. 4»1 (1873); AUl. j- H. Broom, Ibit, 1873, p, 70 lAroh- 
Mtiel); Liojfd, ibid. ^. 420 (Kattian'ar); Snotc, B. KaJti. p. 11 
(1673) ; Hume ^ Hendert. Lahore to Ynrk. p. S96 (1873) ; DreM. 
B, Bur. Mi. p. 487, pi. 424 (pt. ixiii., 1S73) ; Heugl Oi-n. K.O.- 
4fr. a. % p. 13Sf7 (1873) ; CHum. B. iV.- Werf, p. 663 (1874) ; Lawr. 
Mtm. Bo*(. Snt. N. H. ii. p, 316 (1874) ; Gvndl. J. f. 0. 1876, 
B, 381 (Ciibn) ; Drem. Ibit, 1876, p. 419 ; David^ Outl. Oil. Oiine, 
p. 4&» (1877) : Pijev. m RoipI. Or*. Mite iii. p. 106 (MonpoliR) 
(1878): Bbik«d. * Fryer, Ibis, 1878, p, 214 (Yokohama) ; Hume, 
atr. FealA. viii. p. 1 IS, n. 961 (1^79) ; Sculfy, AtJ. p. 3(12 (Nepal) 
(1879) ; &ht. P. Z. & 1880, p. olB; Htane^^ Marih. Game Bu'd*. 
U). p. 181, pi. 24 (1880) : mdd.Ibit,\^l,a. 100 (Gilipl): -^•'^'c- 
Kim. N. Am. B. n. 601 (1881) ; Couet, Chrck-M, 2nd ed. p. 113, 
O. 711 (1882) : Sah. Vat. B. SlrirkL CoU. p. 534 (1882) ; Blak. ^ 
fryer. Tr. Am. Soc. Jap. j. p, 98 (1882) ; IfrAnw. Om. Cenlralbt. 
1882, p. 19; id. rHy. tool. GUH. p. 62 (1882); B. O. U. Ua 
Br. B. p. \-2r, (1883| ; Sdat. Ua Vai. An. Slh eil. p. 432 (1883) ; 
(Wei. B. of Br. Burma, u. p. 28:( ( 1 883) : ManA. Ibu, 1884. p. 424 
(CliaiDba); If., B.. ^ It. Water- Biid» N. Am. i. p. GU6(]884i( 
CiMM. Key If. Am. B.aaded. ■p.m3{\S8i];Sharpe.Lnvard'iB. 
8. A/r. p. 759 (Omnge Riviirl (1884) ; Nehrl. J.f. 0. 1885, p. 146 
(HlboUl ; Salrad. EL Vet. Hat p. 258 (1880); Tait, Ibit, 1887, 
p. 376 (Portupil) ; Stejn. Pr. U.S. A'o(. Miu. x. p. 136 (Bering I.) 
(1867)1 m. Jo/m. Ibit, 1889, p. 120 (A^hdoiiitan) ; SAarpe, Tr. 
Lua. Sue. (2) Znol. V. p. 91 (1689); irf. Sec. Yark. £.rp., Ave/, 
p. 131 (1891); id.Cal.Oiteol.^>eiim. CWi. Sb™. iii. p.301 (181)1) ; 
Vyan. Jbii. 18SI1, pp. 328, 4MJ ; Dub. Faun. Belg.. Oil. ii. p. 438, 
pi. 354(1892); (hwt Oi*. Turkett. etc. (AWf. Arch. Mut. (8)71. 
Ertr. p. W) (1804) ; Rickett, Ibit, 1884, p, 224 (rhina). 

Kttmirbvnrbus etr«p«rupi, Eyt. Mon, Aiiat. p. I.'t7 (1H38). 

(ttiorqanluU «i>-pur«, Maeyill. Man. Om. b. p, li,9 (18J3) ; id. Hilt. 
Br.B. V. p. ea (1852). 



Etiaorhjnchus strepera, Barfl. Verx. Get. Miu. p. ISO (18J4). 
Adu mail, Hodga. Gray't ZooL Misc. p. 81, d. 600 [ $ ) (1844). 
CbBulelmmiia strepera, JtcAnb. Si/n. Av., Natotorea, t. 93. ff. 165-167 
(184fi); Lkkt. Nommcl. Av. p. 100 (1864) ; BolU, J. f. O. 1855, 
p. 814 (Spain) ; Degl. * G»be, Om. Eur. ii._p. 510 (1867) ; Gould. 
B. Great Brit. v. pi. 19 (pt. liii., 1868) ; Etjt. Syn. Anal. p. 93 
(1869); Taes. J./ 0. 1870,p. 5fi; e. if. ffr. J?anrf-ii»(, iii. p. 84, 
n, 10674 (1671); Huh. J.f. O. 1873, p. 110, 1874, p. S37j Taei. 
BtUl. Soe. Zool. Fr. li. p. 40 (1877) ; Madar. Zeittchr. gee. Om. i. 
p. 39 (1884). 
Chaulelasmus cinereua, Brehm, Vogelf. p. S73 (1856); id. Nau- 

mnnnia, 1856, p. 297. 
Chaulelasmua americanus, Grinf (a\A?),Jide Brekm, Vogelf. p. 874 

(1865) ; id. Ifaumimnia, 1866, p. 207. 
Cbaulelaamtu atreperus, b, americanua, Bp. Compt. Bend, zliii. n. G-jO 

(1866). 
Anas atrepern americana, Wied, J.f. O. 1859, p, 169. 
Anas (Chauliodes) Btrepera, Radde, Reie. S. 0.-8ibir. ii. p. 370 (1863). 
Anaa atreperus, Cory, LUt B. W. Ind. p. 30 (1886). 
ChauliodouB Btrepenu, Olphe-Gall. CorOr. Faun. Om. Eur. Occ. it. 
p. 60 (1888). 
Advlt male. Upper part of the head reddiah brown, indistinctlT 
epeckled vith darker brown ; eidea of the hnad and upper neck 
whitish, the latter with a maty tinge, both thickly speckled with 
brown ; an indiatinct brown band behind the eyes ; mantle and 
scapulars grey, thickly waved with blackish ; lower back uniform 
brown, changing into yclvety black on the rump, upper and under 
tail-ooverts ; lower neck in front and on the sides and upper breast 
with blarkish and white crescent-like bara on each feather, producing 
a scale-like appearance ; lower breast and upper part of the abdomen 
white ; sidea and flanks thickly waved with blackish and gre}*iBh 
bands, which extend on the sides of the vent ; smaller wing-covcrta 
brownish grey, the median ones rhestiiul, tlio prea tor velvety black ; 




^^ 


29. cHiuLEtisiirs. 


S25 ^1 


Vourui in dcnen 


I resemble those of the Mallard, " but there is a ^H 


moro prouoonced 


golden tinge on the throat and cheeks, the atrcak ^^B 


through the eye is more defined, and tbere is 


a small dark spot at ^^H 


the janctioD of 


the mandibles, which the 


Mallard ha^ not" ^^M 


(rorTvfl).^ ^^ 




^^B 


Hail. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in subarctic regions of both ^^| 


contineota, extem 


ling south during wiut«r as 


far as Abyssinia and ^^H 


Shoa, but not u 


1 for as the Cape (?), Palestine, India, Arakau, ^^| 


China, and Jupan 


; in America as £ir south as 


Mexico and Jamaica. ^H 


n, J, ft (J 2 od. rt. 


Grent Britain. 


Purchased. ^M 


</. <; ltd. sk. 


l.ofTiree, .Nov. 


Col. Irby & Capt. ^^1 
Tw Jddal^ CoU. ^H 


r. <f ad. A. 




/-*. (J2 »d., d 


Mertoo, Norfolk, Jone, July. 


Lord Walaiugham ^H 


iniro.sk.,etpiill. 




^M 


». lmm.«k. 


Pembrokeshire. 


Earl of Cawdor [P.]. ^H 


^ 5-d.ak. 


Aldebiirgh. SidTolk, Aug. 


Theodore Fisher, ^H 


r. <fd..k. 


Kent. 




«. <; ad. ak. 


Hasdngs Market, April. 


n. J. Elwes, Eeq. ^H 


t. It (f $ ad. Bk. 


London Market. 


.,_«■. d •d.«2 
1 imm. sk. 

*.y. d io».»k. 


EBjpl. Feb. (G. E. «.). 


SheUey Co'u. ^H 


Leokoran. 


Seebohm Coll. ^H 


>. d Hi. ak. 


Tt-heran.lOOO ft,, Persia. 


W. T. Blanford, Esq. ^H 


^H «'-<r. ^ 2 ad. ^ 


Lob-nor,Feb. (P«>™/«Au). 
BaJa Morghab, Jan., Feb. 


Seeboim Coll. ^H 


H •-,/■. d id. et J 


AigUan DjIimitatioQ ^H 
Lt.-Col. Swinkoe ^M 

Hume CoU. ^^H 


^B JUT.tk. 


(Ailchuon). 


^B f--/. <{ ad. ^. 


Kandahar. Feb., Mar. 


H *'. $jaT.ak. 


R. Jhelum, near Sbabpoor, 


^B 


Not. (A. O. H.). 




^B /-, «'. ({ ad. ak. 


Hamal Mehui-, Jan. 


Hume CoU. ^^M 


H .'.<fad.ak. 


MehuT, Upper Sind, Jan. 

(A. 0. m- 


Hume Coil. ^H 


^H c'-J. (f ad. et 1^ 


Sambhur, Feb., March, Noy. 


Hume Coll. ^^M 


H 


(fl. M. Ad„m). 




H r.^fad-at. 


Gwalior. 


C. Maries, Esq. [P.]. ^H 


^B v. $ ad. «k. 


Ajmere, Dec, {A. 0. H.]. 


Hume Coll. ^H 


^B <^> i^- ^ "°°>- "I'' 


Siiza. 


Hume C^ll. ^H 


H ^,y',<'. rfS »L 


Uurgaoii,Feb,{jr.JV. CTiffl. 


Hume Coll. ^H 


^B M «j imm. ak. 






^H «"-«". d S ad. et 


Elawah, Not. 


Hume CoU. ^^B 


H /^"^'i'«d-«J 






Futlehgurh,Feb. (A. Andfr- 


Seebohm CoU. ^^B 


^B j». ak. 

^ A"; <J ad. ak. 


PLotrfpore, near Allahabad, 




Hume CoU. ^H 




Feb. 




i". (f ad. ak. 


Oudh. 


Capt. Stackhoiise ^H 
Knwill [P.]. ^H 


**■, r. (J ad. ak. 


Oudh, Dec, Jan. 


Hume Coll. ^H 


W, n", -/'. 2 ad. 


Nepal. 


B.H.Hodg«on,Esq. ^B 


«t <J ju*. »k. 




[PI ^1 


»!». xx»n. 




^^M 



/'-v". <f $ ad. et NatJTeSiUum,Feb.,Maicli, Hume Coll. 

iuT. sk. Not. (i. ManiUlli). 

w". d ad. sk. IHpur Bhe«l, Asaom, Feb. Tweeddale Coll. 

\A. W. ChmnelT). 
y. d ad. Bk. Dinapore, Jan. Hume Coll. 

y, e". J ad. St, at Deccau (Syket). India Museum [! 

$ ad.8li. 
A*-cI'. <; $ ad. ek.. Sbanghu, March (S. Stein- Seebohm Coll. 

hoe). 
«'./"■ <J 2 ad. sk. Yokohama, Jan. (ff.iVyer). 
y. Pcf jav- at. Behiing Strata. 



A'. (J ad. St. 
t^. rf ad. sk. 
k\ $ ad. sk. 
;'. tf jUT. dc. 

™'. e juv. ak. 
n". Juv. ak. 
o'. (J ad. ak. 
p'. tf juv. ek. 

^-f. (J ? ad. et 
juv. sk. 



«'./',?*■ cfSad. 

sk. 
A',.*, J', Pull. at 

i'. Pull. Bt 

m'. Skeleton ^- 

perfect). 
ri*. SUoDum and 



N. America. 
Vancouver Island. 
West side Rocky Mts. 
4dth ParaUel. 

Warner Lake, Oregon, Sept 
Wsshoe Lake, Nevada, Not. 
MJaaiffiippi VsUej, April. 
San Antonio, Texas, winter 

{S. B. Dretier). 
Corpus Chriati, Tex 

Dec, Jan. (F. 1 

ttrang). 
Los Angeles, California. 
Presidio, Mexico, Feb. (A. 

Forrer). 
Zacatecaa, Mexico, April 

( W. B. Rickardion). 

No locali^. 
Nepal, 



II 



Seebohm Coll. 
CaptKellett&Li 

Wood [P.' 
J. E. Gray, I . 
J. K. Lord, Esq. 
J. K. Lord, Esq. __ 
N. America Etbun( 

ary Comm. [PJ. 
Salvra-Godman Coll. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Salvin-Godman CoU. 
SalTiu-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Qodman Coll. 



Salvin-Oiodman Coll. 

ZooLSoc. 



B. H. HodgBon, Esq. 

[P.). 




30. lURECl. 



227 



iDuaediatvly distingatshod by its grc^tiy inferior size, irhioh hardly 
«xn«ds that of a Teal, the diffprent colour of the bill and feet 
(black, somewhat lighter on the inner ride of the tarsna), and the 
nugular discrepiiticy id the lamellie of the bill ; these arc email and 
clooely pactcd, about 75 iii nmnber, while in ttrrptrat are only 
Aboot 50. Length 17 inches, wing 8, en 1 men l'-16, tflrsus 1-40," 
(Slrf/tt.) 

Hah, Washington and >'ew York Islands, Fanning Group. 



Type. 
M. pt-nolope, 
M. penelope. 



Mareo*, Stfpk. Om. Hoot. sii. 2. p. 130 (1824) 

Penelop*, Saup, Natiirl. S^t. p. 31 (1820) 

Maries (erroreF), LeacA, fide Sw. Ckti. B. ii. p. 366 

(1637). 

Banyt. Paltoarctic, Neorctic, and Neotropical regioi 



Kty to the Sjnecia. 
A wide white palch ou the upper wing-coverte ; 
central tail-fentbers rather acuminate -, bill 
mther small ; Umellffi scarcelr prominunC. 

a. lipper tail-coverts izrcy, the outer feathera 

btick; under tail-coverta glosay black in 

a'. Upper port of the head buff; remainder of 

the hend and upper neck chestnut; femtde 

n-ith tlie head brown-chestnut, spotted with 

black penelope, p. 227. 

A'. Upper part of tbo head mhiligh ; sidea of the 

head and upper neck whitish, with black 

spots : female with the head and upper 

neck whitish, spotted with black amfricana, p. 233. 

b. Upper lail-coverts white ; under tftil-coverto 

whitu, tinged with chestnut j hind part of 
the head and nape slosij green, with blue 
hiane, especially on the nape tibSalric, p. 236. 



1. Kareca penelope. 
The Wigeon. 

I'enelops, Qeftt. Af. p. 108. 
AnM flstukria, flrnM. Om. ri. p. 391, t. xmv. f. 2 (rf) (1700;; 

lirehm. Ilia, 1830, p. 007 ; id. Handb. Tog. Deutte/U. p. 674 (1831) : 

i henny, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 40. 
Anas penelops, Umt. S. A i. p. 202, n. 27 <1766). 
? Anu niuluiura, Scop. Atuu I. H. N. p. 06, n. 82 (1700). 
Aww rogolcn, 8. Q. Om. Jleit. i. p. 70 (1770). 



Anna kocolca, S. G, Gm. Nov. Comm. Prtrap. it. p. 468, t. 21 (1771) ; 
'- '■ ". i. 2, p. 527 S (1788) ; ITWi. JV. A r. p. 122 (1*116) : 
Hvm. Did. Se. Sat. vi. p. 376 (1817). 



Om. 5. JV. ].; 



Kjrnat, ai»ngUUA,Oeniti, Stof. da/li Pec. v. tt. 586,686 (1776). 
Canard riffleur, D'Auimit. PL iW. 825 ( cJ ) ; Suf Hut. Sal. Oi*. 
ix-p. 169, pK 10, 11(1783). 



Wigeon, Lath. Syn. iii. S, p. 518, n. 63 (1786). 
Ansa penalope, Gm. S. N. i. 2, p. G27, n. 27 (1788) ; ZoU. intf. Om. 
ii. p. 860, D. 71 (ireO) ; Bonn. .£W. Mtth. i. p. 141, pL 34. £ 4 

E))i ittfA. Tf. iiBH. «bc. iv. p. Ill, t. liii. f. » (trachea) 
!} ; PaU. Zoogr. Soito-Ag. ii. p. S61 (1811) (Riuaift, Siberia, 
techatka); Temtn. Man. d'Om. f. 542 (1816); ieoc-S, CW. 
p. 37 (1816) ; VieiB. If. D. t. p. 150 (1816) ; Dum. Diet. Sc. Nat. 
Ti. p. 866 (1817); rwnm. JHon. if Or». 2nd ed. ii. p. 840 (1B20); 
£oie, Int. 1822, p. GGl ; Ucht. Vert. SoubL p. 84 (Icekni), Egrpt) 
(1823) ; Srehm, Eur. Vog. p. 768 (1823) ; FUm. Br. Atutn. p. 124 
(1828) ; Brehm, Itis, 1830, p. 097 ; id. Eamlb. Fiu. DeatiM. 
p. 874 (1831) ; La». Tt. d'Om. p. 634 (1831) ; P Wagl. Im, 1831, 
p. 532 (Mexico) ; Savi, Om. Toic. iii. p. 146 (Italy) (1831) ; Nordm. 
m Ennann'$ Verz. Th. Pfi. p. 18 (1835) ; Thiaiem. ^at. DtirtUU. d. 
Fortpfi. Vbg. Eur. fl Abth. p. 34, t. zxiv. f. 5 (1838) ; Temm. Man. iv. 
p. 632 (1840) ; Keys. ^ Bias. Wirbtlth. Eur. pp. IiuIt, 223 (1840) j 
Navm. Vog. Beutschi. li. p. 724, t. 305 (1842) ; Selt/i-L. Faun. Bflg. 
p. 142 (1842) ; SchUg. Bev. Orit. p. ciiv (1S44) ; DeEau, N. Y. 
^l. ii. p. 436 (1844) ; Giraud, B. Long Itl. p. 307 (1844) ; Degl. 
Om. Eur. ii. p. 431 (1849); Temm. S( ScAleg. Faun. Jap., Avet, 
p. 127 (1850) i Midd. SMr. Seise, ii. 2, p. 229 (1863) ; Piuti. 
J. f. O. 1853, pp. 242. 318 (Lapland) ; Schill. ibid. p. 337 ; 
WaUengr. Xaumannia, 1864,p. 271 (ScandinaTia) ; Raink. J.f. 0. 
1S64, pp. 426,441; Thienem. FoHpJtanamgsg. gu. Fog. tlxzx. f.6 
(1856); KiHl. Denkw. ii. p. 292 (1858); Simpton, Jbii, 1860, 
p. 394 (Greece) ; SeinA. Ibis, 1861, p. 13 (Greenland) { StnnA. 
P. Z. S. 1863, p. 324 (Chba) ; Wright, Ibit, 1864, p. 165 (Malta) ; 
Nordm. J.f. O. 1864, p. 3/7 (Finland, Lapland); BfirfA, B. of 
Burma, p. 166 (Arakan, Hainan) (1866) ; Schky. Mu». P.-B., 
AuBeteti,p.U{lS66);Pn!ew.Vo!/.D.lm(lS&7);Dyb.^Parr.J.f.O. 
]868,p. 338 (Dauria) ; Miilt. ^ Drogtn, J J. 0. im, p. 346 (Faroe 
Ib.) ; J&Atw 4- Buckl Ibis, 1870, p. 339 (TurkeT) ; Daeid, N. Arch, 
du Mut., Bull. vii. Oit. a. 449 (1871) ; Gie6. 'Thti. Om. i. p. 369 
■ --2) ; JI>r„gi. lids, 187:^, |.. 04 (WaiiiHts Is.) ; Tni/!. ibid. p. 233 
,) ; Fischrr. J-fO. 1672, p. 3ft) (iJt. Peterebu^j Set'ert:. 




30. mRECA. 



229 



pL 369 (la^) ; Bp. aiiip. Lint, p. 56 {1838) ; SiriekL P. Z. S. 
lM2,p. 168 (China): MaafOl. Man. ii. p. 174 (1342); Rarfl. 
Fen. Gel. Mai. p. 118 (1844) ; G. S. Or. List B. Brit. Afiu. iii. 
p. 133 (1844); id. Gtn. B.vi. p. 614, n. 1 (1846); Riif^i. Syct. 
Uebert. p, 138 (Egypt, AbyBamia) (1845); Rehnb. Sm. At'.. 
NaUtores, t. 92. ff, 168, 168 (18*6) ; O. R. Or. Cat. Hodgi. OM. 
A Jf. p. 145(1846);BiyM, Cat. B. Mu». A. 5. B. p. 305, n. 1778 
(164») ; Harcotirl, P. Z. 8. 1861, p. 146 fMndraraJ; Schnb. Av. 
&/»t. Hat. p. ix (1852) ; Haramrl, Ann. ^ Mag. N. B. xii. p. 63 
(M«l<i») (18o3); Ueht. JVowimrf. Ai>. p. 101 (18.S1); Marti. 
J.f. O. 1854, p. 160 {Cevloa!)»: Bp. Compl. Jtend. iliii. p. 660, 
D. 117 (1856); Ounn. S'arr. Exp. Am. Sguadr. ftx. ii. p. 231 
(Hakodndi) (18.5(1) ; Balrd. B. X. Am. p. 784 (1858) ; id. Cat. N. 
Am. B. n. 58« ( 18o9) ; Sale. Ibit. 1859, p. 364 ; Som/^. J. /. 0. 
1859, p. 372 ; Finich, ibid. p. 386 (Bulgnrift) ; Romt, Rte. et Mag. 
di Zool. IB69, p. 14o, pi. 6 (var.); Triitr. Ibis, 1860, p, 81 : 
Fovm, ibid. p. 353 (Ionian lal.) ; Swini. Rni, 1861, p. W> 
(N. China), 1863, p. 434 (FormoM) ; O. R. Or. Zia Br. B. p. 181 
(1868); id. Cat. Hodgi. CV-ii. A -tf. 2nd ed. p. 76 (1863); Trittr. 
P. Z. S. 1864, p. 463 (Jordan) ; Jerd. B. o/Ind. iii. p. 804 (1864) : 
Mor*, IbiM, 1865. p. 444 (Great Britain) : WhUrly, Ibit, 1867, 
p. 307 (Hakodadi); Sioinli. ibid. p. 399; Later. Ann. Imc. N.T 
riii. p. 207 (18tS7) ; Degl. * Gerbe, Ont. Enr. ii. p. 512 (1867) : 
Tn$tr. Jhi$, 1866, p. 328 (Palestine) ; Oa&t, Pr. Em. Inxt. v. 
p. 29» (New EnBland) (1868) ; Taex. J.f. O. 1870, p. 65 (Con- 
•tantina); Swinh. IbU. 1870, p. Sm ; id. P. Z. S. 1871. p. 418; 
Sound. Ibi». 1871, p. ;197 (Spain) ; Gaebd, J. /. 0. 1871, pp. 21, 
22, 28, W, 148 ; O. R. Gr. HandJi^, iii p. 81, n. 10028 (1871) : 
Oouid, B. Gr. Brit. t. pi. 13 (1871) ; &undev. Melii. nat. At. 
dim. Tnd. p. 147 (1872); SA*«. B. of Egypt, p. 288 (1872); 
Oouei, Ety.y. 268 (1872) ; id. Oieck-tia. n. 493 (1873) ; DrM, Avi/. 
Aleut. III. UnaL eaitic. p. 5 (1873) ; Hume, Sir. Feath. i. p. 271 
(Sindh) (1873) ; Aid. ^ It. Broum, IbU, 1873, p. 71 (Arcbiingel) ; 
BnxAt, ibid. p. 343 (Sardinia) ; Dgb. J.f. O. 1873, p. 110; Seuil. 
Om. N.O.-A/r. ii. 2, p. 1809 (1873); Qmet, B. N.- H>rf, p. 664 
0874) ; Taa. J. / O. 1674, p. 337 ; SwmA. ifii, 1875, p. 457 
(Hakodadi); Comi in Eltiatf* Affdirt AUaka, p. 191 (1875); 
HatUng, Fauna Prubil. W. p. 29 (1875) ; BuH Str. FtatA. iv. p. 30 
(1870); Hurm, ibid.: B. Whitrltm, Ibii, 1876, p. 28 (Cornea) : 
Drem. Ibii. 1870, p. 420; id. B. of. Eur. vi. p. 541. pU. 432, 4a^ 
(pt. 48, 187S) ; Blanf. End. Prm. ii. p. 301 (1876) ; SAarpe, Ibti, 
VSn, p. 34 (Borneo) ; Taet. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. ii. p. 46 (1877) ; 
ii. Om. FauH. Fcwf. SfJir. p. 70 (1877) ; DavidS[ Out/. 0«, CAine, 

S499 (1877) ; Pij>v. in Rmet. Om. Mite. iii. p. 101 (Mon^Ua) 
878) : Blakiit. * Pryer, Ihi». 1878, p. 213 (Japan) ; Lawr. Bull. 
Nutt. Om. auh, iii. p. 9a (1878) ; Beritr, op. til. u. p. 190 (N. 
Cuolina) (1879) ; Hvmf, S/r. Ftath. vii. p. 484 (Calcutta) (1879) ; 
lit <w. ™t. viii. p. 116, n. 903 (1870); Ufone, C«//. iVa«. Om. CTufi, 
T. p. 12«(N. GftToliiifl, Virginia) (1880); Scfat. P. Z. S. 1880, 
p. 674; FSnir-h. Dai, 1880. pp. 332, 333 (Taluit, MawliaU I.); 
Smne ^ Manh. Gamr-Bird* of tnd. iii. p. 197, pi 26 (1680) ; 
Ridgv. Kom. X. Am. B. n. 600 (1881) ; Cecil Smitli. Zo^. 1881, 
p.448; Sume, Str. Feath. x. p. 245 note (PeRu) (1882) ; C. SmnJt 
IbU, 1882, p. 124 (Kutdabtir) ; Couei, Cheek-list, 2tid ed. p, 113' 



n. 712 (1882) ; Slakitl. ^ Prytr, Tr. At. Soc. Jap. s. p. 97 (ISKft } 

Mliott, Mon. Seal-Itlp. 180{Prybaov lal.) (1882); Salv.Qit.B. 

StriM. CoU. p. 682 (1882) ; Tacz. Butt. Soe. Zool. Fr. viii. p. S44 

(Ksmtacliatka) (1883) ; B. O. U. Lia Br. B.v- 123 (1883) ; Selat. 

List VeH. An. 8th ed. p. 436 (1883) ; NeU. Cruite 'Gyrwat; p. 96 

(1883) ; Oale», B. BriL Burm. ii. p. 278 (1833) ; Biakist. ChnstmOi. 

1883, p. 27 ; id. Amend. Liit B. Jap. p. (1884) ; Tritir. Faiot.Se 

Flor. of Pakit^. 116 (1884) ; Badde, Ontii Caucat. p. 456 (1884) ; 

B., B., ^ S. Wakr-B. N. Am. i. p. 617 (1884); Cowu, Key N. 

Am. £. 2nd ed. p. 684 (1884) ; Madar. Zeitichr. d. ga. On. i. 

p. 34 (1884) ; Fimch, Mitth. om. Ver. %Vien, 1884, p. 127 ; 

Sound. YarreWa But. Br. B. iv. p. 397 (1884-86) ; Chapm. Ibu, 

1886, p. 169 (LapUnd) ; Biid, ibid. p. 266 (Marocco) ; St^. Bull. 

U.S. Nat. Mm. no. 29, p. 167(BerinB I.) (1886) ; Salrad. El. Uec. 

Ital. p. 259 (1886) ; Tatt, B>ii, 1887, p. '377 (Portugal) ; Stgn. Fr. 

U.S. Nat. Mia. i. p. 136 (Commander I.) (1887) ; Bidffw. Man. N. 

Am. B. p. 96 (1887) ; Nel*. Nat. Hist. Coil, in Alaska, p. 67 (1887) ; 

Tan. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 640 (Ck)rea) ; Own. Ihi>, 1888, pp. 228,230; 

Koenig, J.f. 0. 1888, p. 296 (Tunis) ; Salwd. ^ Oigl. Mem. R. Ac. 

Sc. 7'(»r.(2)Mxix.p. 131 (Japan) (1888); XiW>rJ, 76m, 1889, p. 346 

(Cjprus) ; Trittr. Cat. Coil. B. p. 60 (1889) ; BDerett, Joum. i^r.Br. 

B.A«. Soc. 1889, p. 192 (Borneo) : S&arpe, Tr. lAnn. Soc. {2)Zool. v. 

p. 92 (1889) ; id. Biit, 1800, pp. 148, 28.) (Borneo) ; Biuiell, Zooloff. 

(3) i!T. pp. 62-69 (Essex) (1800); Lilf. Col.Fig.Br. B. pt. xr. pL — 

(1890) ; Erxmt, Ibit, 1891, p. 72 (incubation) ; Sharpe, ibid. p. 116 

(Fao); Sfvan, ibid. pp. 328, 496; Wigleitc. Anei Polyn. p. 71 

{M«rshaU Is.) (1891) ; Sharpe, Cat. Otteol Spedm. Coll. Surg. iii. 

p. 302 (1891) ; Dub. Faun. Vert. Bely., Ou. ii. p. 441, pi. 225 

(1892) ; Be la Touche, Ibit, 1892, p. 492 ; Meade- U'alda, Ibit, 

1893, p. "199 (Canaries). 
AnasP vitticeps, Bodgi. Gray't Zool. MiK. p. 86, n. 677 (2) 

(IH44). 
FuliKiiLi? cbemiGn, Hu,lqf. Grni,'' Z,^l. MiK. p. 86, n. 458 (J) 

(1844), 




I 



no. HAHECt. S31 

Anw pcoelope X A. acuta, Cmmm. N. T. D. ii. p. 296 (1865) ; Leeerk. 

J./ O. 1800. pp. 210, 230. 
Ansa pVDplopt! X A. creccs, Leoerk. J.f. 0. 1800, p. 230. 

Adult mate. Forehead and top of ths head buff, rest of the head 
aiid neck i^innamon, minutely Bpotted, especially round the eyes, 
with bottle-green ; chin and throat more or Ic^a black ; mantle, 
bitck, and scapulars grey, crosaed with irregular iigzag bnes of 
black ; central tail-feathers paler, almost whitieh ; lateral tail- 
feathers like the under t^-coverts, black ; lower fore neck aud 
sides of the breast rinacooDs; tnidiUc of the breast and abdomen 
white : sides, flanks, and under wing-coverts grey, with zigzag lines 
like the back ; wiag-covert« white, the largest tipped wifii black ; 
primaries nrnfomi dark brown ; outer webs of the secondaries green, 
forming a speculum, edged with block ; black outer webs of the 
secondaries broadly edged with white; tail-feathers elongated, 
pointed, and nearly black ; irides dark brown ; bill blaiah lead- 
colour, tipped with black ; legs, toes, and their membranes dark 
brown. Total length 18 inches, wing lOo, tiiil 4-6, culmen 1'55, 
tiLTsua l'5o. 

Femah. Head and neck pale reddish brown, speckled with 
blackish ; upper parts brown, each feather with pale whitish edges. 
the edges of the scapulare reddish brown ; breaat and sides reddish 
brown : under surface white ; under tail-coverta white, with 
irregular brown bars or spots ; primaries dark brown, secondaries 
dull black, slightly tipped with white ; wing-coverts like the back, 
but thp larger ones tipped with white ; tail dull greyish brown ; 
iride* brown ; bill bluish black. 

yoitity maU. Besenibles more or less the female. 

Netttifig '* may bo distinguished by the warm rufous tint of the 
cheeks and throat and the absence of any loral streak ; the upper 
parts arc, moreover, of an almost uniform brown, with hardly any 
signs of bars on the pinions " ( Yar^tM). 

Ilah. PalacarotioRegion.breeding in thecolder regions from Iceland 
to Kamtechatka, wintering in ihe more sonthcm latitudes, in Africa 
as tar as Madeira and Abysunia, in Perua, in Northern India, 
Burma, Chins, Japan, Borneo, aud i 

>»% " 



I 



I 



Uarshall Islands; also 
qaoDtly in Alaska ; it straggle 
a. 4 imin. ak. No locality, 

h,t. J mA. St imm. Great Brila 

rf. (f ad. «k. Orkneys, 

»,/. rf 2 »d. Bk. 
g, 1mm. sk. 
k. $ juT. sk. 
t. ,; ad. St. 



straggler 
I East«m North America, fre- 
o California. 



Sulht-rland, June. 

St. AncJrcw's, Fifeehlre (S. 

O. W. R.). 
R. Oarrtjn, Stirlingshire, Jan. 

{J. A. Harrit-Brolcn). 
Llandilo, Wales. 



U. J. Elwes, Esq. 

CoVlrbT & Capt. 

Reid [^]. 
Twaeddale Coll. 

Tweuddale Coll. 



it, I. (f $ ad. sk. 
m. $ imm.Bk. 
n. $ ad. Bt 
0. <f inun. ak. 

q. 5*Lm: ak. 
r. cf ad. sk. 

', t, w. ^ 2 ad. sk. 

et cf ioini- ak. 
c, w. (f ad. ak. 

■r, y, t. <J ad. et 

imm. sk. 
a'. (J imm. ak. 
6'. iS ad. ak. 
^, a, «■. <J e ad. 

at (T juT. ak. 
/*. JuT.ak. 

S', h'. (J ad. ak. 

.'. e juT. ak. 
V, f. (J ad. ak. 
!»', >•'. rf ? ad. ak. 



o'. $ ad. sk. 

p") ?'■ <J S imm. 

ak. 
j^, <". rf ad. et J 

H'. cf ad. ak. 



Camliridse Market. 

Wella. Norfolk, Jan. 

Berkahire. 

I. of Orain. 

Bedgebury Parit, Kent, Nor. 

AddWton, Sumy, Feb. 

Christeburch, Hanta, Sept 

BevoDshire. 



SalTin-Godman ColL 
E. DcMlaoii,£8q.[P.l 
W.Bri™,Eaq.tC.]. 
Tweeddale CoU. 
Oould Coll. 
Colonel Irby. 
Baron A. von Hiurel 

[P.]. 

Mouta^ CoQ. 



AicachoD, Fnmce, Not. (B. Seebohm Coll. 

o.sx 

Egypt, Feb. (0. E. A). SheUey CoU. 



Meeopotamia (Jona). 
Babylon (Jont*). 
Bagdad. 

Fao, Persian Gulf, Oct 

Narimskaja, Ob, Sept 
Lob-nor, Feb. IFrievaltku). 
". , of the y " 

Siberia, lat < 

(U.S.). 
Lake Balkash, Aug. 
Bala Morghab, Jan. (Aitehi- 



Kftndabar, Jan., Feb. 



India Muaeum [P.l 
India Museum [P.]. 
Kenneth Loftua, 

C. Chevalier, aq. 

[P.! ^ 

W. D. Cunmung, 

Eeq.p-.]. 
Dr. O. FinBcb [C]. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Seebohm ColL 




^y 


:10. lUKEca. 233 ^^| 


^M <r. s od. 8k. 


N^pal. B. 11. Hod»on, F^. ^H 

[P.]. (fypeof ^m 

Ana» aliie^m, ^odgs.) ^^1 

Native Sikhim, April, Oct. Uume Coll. ^^M 


•;/•. rf .d. .t s 


iiin.Ji. 


(£. .Vanrfc/fi'l. ^^H 


J". SjUT.dL 


Manipur, Moit^h (^ 0. tf.). Hume Coll. ^^M 


A>. cf ad. ek. 


Calcutta, March. Hume Coll. ^^M 


■ 1% **. (j S ad. «k. 


Cyna. J. R. ReeTCS, Esq. ^^| 

Shanghai, China, March. F. Webb, Eaq.fP.l ^H 
Rhanirhai, March (JC. Swtn. Seebohm CoU: ^H 

Shaaghai, Nov. F. W. Stjan, Eaq. ^H 
Tftkow, Formosa, Dec. (A «.). Seebohm CoU. ^^H 


H ^ cf imm. ek. 


■ «■,»■. c!S.d.,k. 


■ ,{ad.ik. 


H ]>'. d imm. «k. 


H e'. i»ji"-."k. 


^B f'. ^iur.ak. 


■ .-.Si^di. 


Jamn. Twee<tdHle Coll. ^H 


^F ''>"'■ (J nd.et $ 


Yokohama, Jnpan <H. Seebohm Coll. ^H 


lnm.dc. 


iVO. ^H 


a'.w'.(J5juT.Bk. 


Nagasaki, Japan. March. F. Rin^r, Esq. [P.]. ^H 
HaJiodadi, Jnpan. Not. Seebahm CoU. ^H 


a'. 5 imn.V 


»■. S Imm. d.. 


Chichi-sy ma, Qonia la., Oct. Seebohm CoU. ^^M 




(P. A. Jfoht). ^^M 


H ••. $ jar. dc. 


Bintulti. Boroeo. Purchaud. ^^M 


■ riki?:,;,;'- 

^B o*. $ skeleton. 


NewfoimtUand. H. Keeks, Esq. [P.], ^H 


Zool. Sor. ^H 


«r, (T*. Imperfect 


NepaL fi. H. HodgaoD, Esq. ^H 




^1 


/'-#■. Sterna. 




*', r. Sknll*. 






UtBKID. ^^H 




Marec'i penelujt X Amis I'Oteot ? ^^^| 


m'. Ad. St. 


Great Drilam. lion. Grantle; ^^H 
Berkeley LP.1. ^M 






2. Hareca americana. ^H 


Canud Jeosea de la LouisinDe, DUub^nf. P/. £>il. 0A5 ; £u# ^H 


Hut. Nat. Oil. U. p. 174 (1783). ^H 


Anerioin Wiin«n,iVnn.^fY'(.ZW.ii.p.667,ti.502(178.')); £(itt. ^^| 


^K iii- 3. P 


r>20.n.<U>ri785). ^^ 


ABM amwicau^ ^m. & N. i. 2, p. 526, n, 07 (1788) : Lath. Ind. ^H 
Onu ii. p. 861, n. 74 (1700) ; Wih. Am. On,. Tiii. p. «6, pi 60. ^H 


t 1 (1814): 


rj«i^..V.i>.v.n,131 nnm : Dum. Diet. Se. Nat. vi. ^^M 


p. 380 (1817)1 Bp. 0I>$. Naminrl. WiU. n. 629 {183S) ; id. Sun. p. !»4 ^H 
(1828): £<»*. Tr. d-Ora. p. tiS4 (Jamaica, Port« Rico) (1831); ^H 


JV««.Jtf«B. 


M.p..'W0(Hii34); Aud. Om. fliwr. iv. p. 3.17, pi. 34fl ^H 
S^m. p. 370 (1830) 1 ZfOri. m £o Sjj™. fft**. Nal. ^H 


(1838) ; id. 


Otta,0M.p 


203(1840); .rlunC. Zf. .Im. vi. p. 250, pi. 389 (1843); ^^M 
Br. B. m. p. 106 (184-3) : Giraad, B. iona 1,1. p. 806 ^H 


r«r. Bui. 


(1*44) i SfcAiy. .RfP. Cnt. p, cii*- (1844) ; BtKay. N. V. Zoot. ii. ^H 


p.346(1844)i SrW-'.7.M<«.P.-fi.,Aa»erc«,p. 4.5 (1866); Sumfcir. ^H 
(^. £. Vet-Ak. Farh. 1809, p. 603 (Porto Rico) ; Oieb. The*. ^H 



Om. i. p. 344 (1872) ; Firuch, Abh. Bnm. Ver. iii. p. 66 (Ala»l») 

(1872) ; Adamt, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 431 (Michakaki) ; Turner, Auk, 

1886, p. 158 (Nearer Isknds) ; Seebh. Hid. Br. B. iii. p. 543, pL 63 

(ere) (1885) ; A. O. U. Oteck-lut N. Am. B. p. 116,n. 187 (1886) ; 

Turner, Contr. Nat. Hitt. Altuka, p. 131 (1886) ; Neb. Nat. Sitt. 

CoU. Altuka, p. 68 (1887) ; Bidi/a. Man. N. Am. B. p. 96 (1887) ; 

Sartert, Eat. VogeUamml. p. 230 (1801) ; Hatch, B. of Mame*. 

■a. 43 (1892); Chajm. Bull. Am. Miu. N. S. 1894, p. 83 

(Trinidad). 
Anas wigeon, Bonn. Ene. MHk. i. p. 120, pi. 33. f. 4 (1790). 
Mareca americana, Stepk. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 135 (1824) ; Sw. j* Ekh. 

liiam Bor.-Am. ii. p. 445 (1831) ; Bp. Comp. List, p. 66 (1838) ; 

Eyt. Mm. Anat. p. 116 (1838); Blyth, Naturalitt, iii, p. 417 

(England) (1838) ; HartL Verz. Get. Mia.-a. 118 (1844) ; G. R. Gr. 

lAa B. Brit. Mu3. iii. p. 134 (1844) ; id. Gat. B. m. p. 614, n. 2 

(1845) i TTtompi. Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. 1845, p. 310 (Ireland) ; 

Rchnb. Syn. Av., Natatores , t. &2. ff. 159-101 (1845) : Benny, P.Z.S. 

1847, p. 40 ; Gosee, B. Jam. p. 408 (1847) ; MacgiU. Hitt. Br. B. 

V. p. 90 (England) (1852) ; Baird, Starubury't Bep. p. 822 (1852) ; 
Woodh. Sitgr. Sep. p. 102 (1853) ; Bp. Compt. Bend, xsiviii. p. 664 

(1854), iliii. p. 660, n. 118 (185C) ; Cab. ^ Gundl. J.f. 0. 1857, 

p. 227 (Cuba) ; Neiob. P. It. R. Sep. vi p. 102 (1857) ; Com. U.S. 

£ipl. Exp., Mamm. $ On. p. 342 (1858) ; Baird, B. N. Am. p. 783 

(1868) ; id. Vat. N. Am. B. n. 685 (1869) ; id. Mex. Bound. Sun. 

ii. Birds, p. 27 (1859) ; Heerm. P. R. S. Rep. x. pt. vi. p. 68 (1869) : 

Sclat. ^ Salv. Ibis,l859, p. 231 (Guatemala) i Murr. Edinb. N. Fkilot. 

Joum. 1859, p. 229 (Hudson Bay) ; Co<y>. ff Suckl. N. H. WatA. 

Tar. p. 266 (1860) ; Newt. J6w, lHC0,p.3O8 (St. ThomM) ; Brewter, 

Pr. Bolt. Soc. N. H. vii. p. 308 (Cuba) (1800) ; Gun^. J.f. 0. 1861, 

p. 344 ; Boat, Cmad. Nat. April 1802 (Mackenzie) ; Verr. Pr. Eg*. 

Inst. iii. p. 158 (1862) ; Hayd. Sep. 1862, p. 176; Alh-. J.f. 0. 

1862, p. 207 (Jamaica) ; Blak. Ibie, 1863, p. 147 (Brit. N. Am.) ; 

G.S.Gr." ■ " " ■"" .. . - . T,,.,., ,^. 

p, 71 (JaD 

186.5, I ■ 



r. Cat. Br. B. p. 192 (1863) ; March. Pr. Ac. PhUad. 1864, 

A. Neirt. P. Z. S. ISari, p. 2.56 (egg) ; iSah: Ibi', 




30. UAKrcA. 235 

fl,, B., 4" R. Wata-Birda N. Am. i. [>. 520 (1884) ; Coua, Key 
N. Am. B. 3nd ed- p. 6SH (11*841 ; TarreU, Sitt. Br. B. (SflujuJ. 
td.) iv. p. 403 (18S4-86) ; Nfhrl. J./. O. 1885, p. 146 (lUinois) ; 
MatieA. ^ Ziemer, ibid. p. 191 ; St^. BuU. U.S. Nat. Mu*. no. S9, 
p. 1S6 (Beriw Isl.) (1885) ; Cory, List Bird, W. Ind. p. 31 (1885) ; 
aieJH. Buil. U.S. A'at, Mut. no, 29, p. 158 (BerinK 1.) (1885) ; id. 
Pr. U. S. Nat. Mut. x. p. 13B (Boriug 1.) (1887) ; Cory.An/c, 1888, 

S68 (W. Indies) ; id. B. W. Ind. p. 364 (1889) : Tfutr. Cat. OM. 
. p. 60 (18801 ; Sounder*, Man. Brit. B. p. 427 (1689) ; Sharp*. 
, .Cat. Otteol. ^ccim. R. CbU. Surg. iii. p. 803 (1891). 
Abu (Bowhu) Americuia, Hult. Mm. ii. p. 388 (1884). 
■-"SUric* wneriewia, Sw. Clau. B. ii. p. 360 (1837). 

Cluii]elasmuBainE'ricanus,£Mf.A'(tmrac;...Jr. p. 103(Mexico)(1854}. 
Maieca peoelope, S. americann, Btat. Utl B. hir. p. 21 (1862). 
Aau (Mareca) americana, Rehnw. Om. CentralbL l88i!, p, 20. 

Adult male. Forehead and top of the bead whitish, almost 
immacnlate ; aides of the head and ueck dull whitidh, speckled with 
black ; behind the eyes a dork pat«h, tbickij speckled with metallic 
gteoD ; mantle, Bcnpulara, b,-ick, And median npper tail-eorerU grey, 
more or less tinted with reddish, fbiely nndulatcd with black ; romp 
almost black ; out^r -ahA longer upjier tail'feathcrs blnck ; upper 
breast and aides reddiah Tinaceous, the Iatti;r uiidulat«d with black : 
lower breast and abdomen white ; under tail-corerts Telvety black : 
upper wing-coverts white, but those uear the bend of the wing dark 
grey ; primaries and prim arj- -covert s dusky, the former with the 
inner web paler ; secondaries black, some of tbo inner ones glossed 
with green, forming a black and green speculum ; the longest upper 
iring-coverta arc broadly tipped with black ; outer tertial whitish 
grey on the outer web, the inner ones verj- long, acuminate, dusky 
grey on the inner web, velvety black, edged with white on the outer 
web : under wing-corerts grey : sxillatics white ; tail dusky black : 
•• bill light grej-ish blue, the end black ; iris brown ; legs and feet 
light bluiah " i^Kidgwaii). Total length 18-21 inches, wing lO-liS- 
10-75, tail 4-5, culmeii 1-30-1-50. tarsus 1-50. 

Advlt femalt- ytsTj similar to the female of M. penelope, but the 
head and ntick much whiter, the light part of tbo feathers being 
whitish iiOlead of reddish brown. 

Fottny malt. Similar to the adult female, but the colours more 
pronooDCed and the pattern better dehnod, especially on the wings 
(mdfftmii). 

Tbutig in douti. " Above dark olive with a sopia tinge ; a spot of 
pale greenish fulvous on the posterior half of the wing, one on each 
•ide of the back, and one on each side of the rump ; lower parts, 
LDctuding head and neck, pale fulvous ; a distinct blackish-olive 
Stripe from the bill to and back from the eye, with a wide and 
a superciliary stripe of fulvous above it " (Ridtjwny ). 
. Korth America, from the Arctic Ocean to Guatemala, and 
Jly tho West Indies. 



•ar^ad-rt. 


No locality. 


E. Wilson, Esq. [P.]. 


e. 2 «i. St. 


N. America. 


Audubon Coil. 


«.cf ad.ik. 


N. America. 


H. J. Elwes, Esq. [P.]. 



d. ,f juT. ak. 

e. (f ad. at. 

^, o- A. (J ad, et (J 

Juv.sk. 
t. $ ad.Bk. 

A, 1 (f Bd. et jut. 

■k. 
m. It, 0. J ad. «t (J 

0, 7 . cf ad. et $ 

juT. sk. 
r. (f ad. ak. 

fc S im^. sk. 

c. (^ ad. ak. 

•P-u'. rf ad. et cJ 
■juv. ak. 

b', o-. <J 2 ad. ak. 
<f . (f ad. ak. 



N.W, America. 

Migsouri Brakes, Mootana, 

49tb PuaUd. 

British Columbia (/. 

Lord). 
VaDcouver la, 

W. ude of Kocky Mia. 

Arctic I«od Exp. 

Canada. 



[P.]. 
N.Americi 



'',/",/■ (J ad. et 

(J $ juv. ak. 
A', i", k'. (J ad. et 

J juv. sk. 

f. S ad. ak. 

'■ J jut, ^k. 



irfblk, Virginia, Feb. ( W. 
SretPtUr). 
Chicago, Illinois (Aebon ^ 
Jeiicki). 

Corpus Chrisli, Texas, Not., 
Dec, Jan. (F. B. Arm- 

alruny). 
Ventura, California, Nov. 
Hermoullo, State of SoDora, 

Mexico, Dec (F. Ferrari- 

Pem). 
Presidio, Mexico, Feb., 

March (A. Forrer). 
Duenas, Quatemala, Feb. {O. 

8.). 



Comm. [P.]. 
N. A inerica Boundai; 

Comm. [PJ. 
J. K.Lord,aq.|T.]. 

J.E.Lord,Eiq.|T.]. 

Sir G. Back [P.]. 

Oovenunent of 

Canada [P.]. 
SslTin-Oodman Coll. 
SalTin-Godman Coll, 

Salvin-Godman CoU. 

W. B. Dismore, Eaq. 

[P.]. 
Salviu-Oodman ColL 



SalTin-Godman Coll. 
Salvin-Qodman Coll. 




30. HiB£CA. 237 



Dei Mttri 
1853, 



(18«) ; HarU. Ind. Az. Aptmt. p. 27, n. 432 (1847) ; 
m f?^, Hia. de Oiile, i. p. 447 (1848); HartLNaumc 



p. 222 ; fltftra, DenkKhr. Ak. Wifn, r. p. 131 (1853) (ChiU) : irf. 
J.f. O. 1855, p. 57 : jBp. aBn;);. Send. lEii. p. 650, n. 120 (1856) ; 
Can. U.S. Aitr. Erp. ii. p. 201 (1856) ; Oould, F. Z. S. 1859, 
p. 96 (Falklanda) ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1800, p. 380 (Falkl«nds) ; Abbott. 
}M, lB«l,p. 160(Falklsads]; F^b. Mfine Nonara, Tlig. p. 138 
(1866) ; &iit. P. Z. S. 18G7, p. 335 (Chili) : PAS. Jj- XandS. Cat. 
Av. Cha. p. 41 (1808) : Sclat. ^ Sate. P. Z. S. 1969, p. 635 (Rep, 
Arg.) i iW. I6{; 1809, p. 284 (Gregory Bav) i £^t. Svn. Armt. p. 00 
(iee»); Sclat. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 6e7'{Zoil. Gftrd.), 1871, p. 700 
fZool. Gwd.); O. B. Or. Hand-lla, iu. p. 81, n. 10030 (1871); 
Bwrm. P. Z S. 1872, p. 368 (Ar^utnaa) ; Sdal. S( Salv. Ifonvnel. 
Av. A'»>trop. p. 130 (1873) ; Hadt. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 108; JJum/. 
Oil. 1676, p. 163 (Buenos Avres) ; Milne-Edw. Bech. Fawi. Jtfy. 
Auitr. ch. IS. p. 45(1682) : »'A!tf. P. Z. S. 1883, p. 42 (U Plain) ; 
Sdat-Ltst Vert.An.etbed.p iS7 il^SS), Sodinm.J.f. 0. 18&>, 
p. 21 (Zool. Gart.) ; WitKviijt. Ibti, I&88, p. 471 (Lomss de 
Zaiaan); Bvrm.An. ^tu.iViir.J?ui-ji.Ji>.iii. pp. 247.320(1888). 

Anae parvirostris, Marr. in Eruh u, Grvb. Enc. aect. i. vol. xxxv. 
p. 4;i (1S41). 

Smkidiornis aibilatrix, O. Ji. Or. Gm. H. iii. p. 605, n. 3 (1845). 

ClULilt^lasmua chiloensia, ImU. Nommd. Av. p. 101 (18.54). 

.\na8 (MnrecB) diiloensis, Surm. J./. O. 1860, p. 267 (Mondoia). 

Maroea sibilatrin. Sdat. ^ Sak. P. 2. S. 1876, p. 395; lium/. Uit, 
1877. p. 41 (Cliuput), p. 192 (Buenos Ayres), 1878, p. 401 (Central 
Pata^nia) ; ficiul. 4f SaU. P. Z. 8. 1878, p. 436 (EliMbeth !.); 
Selat. P. Z. S. im), p. ol4 ; Sclat. ^ &Jv. fotj. Chatl., Bird», 



p. 107 (1881): .Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 13(Coqmmbo): flairoira, 

" k, 1884, p, 274 (B^iia Bfanca) ; S.. B., ^ R. Watrr-Birda N. 

^i. p. 517 (1884); BfrlJ. f. 0. 1887. p, 183 (Parmruaj?): 



(. Argtnt. Or«. ii. p. 13.") (1880); TrUtr. Cat. Coll. £. p. 60 
(1880); fhul.Mm.Sc. CapSorn.yi. Oii.p.SlOiiml); ffJland. 
ait, 1992, p. 208 (ArgentiDB) ; Berkeky fatna, Nra Hit ChO. B. 
p.9,n. 159(1892). 
Altaa (Mareca) sibilatiix, Sehnw. Orii. Centralbl. 1889, p. 20; id. 
fag. tool. Oarl. p. 53 (1882). 

Ht/hi'idg. 

HuMAchiJoenaiayDnlilaspiiiicauda, Selal. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 1002: 

id. titt Vrrt. An. 8lh ed. p, 437, spec. ' ' (1883). 
AnaocbiloeaeiexA, spimcnuda, Lrterk. J.f. O. 1800, p. 220. 

Aitvh male. Forehc:id and fore cheeks wfaito, Temaioder of the 
head and neck black ; behind the eyes » glossy greeti K-ind tneotint; 
on tbe Dspe : lower nock with black and white ban ; back and 
scapnian black, broadly edged with wliite ; lower back and nunp 
black ; appcr tail-corerls, brcu^t, and abdomen white ; sides, flanks, 
and under tail-coverbt rusty red ; wiug-^overts white, cscept those 
Dc«r the bend of the wing, which a.re dosky grey : primaries dusky 
black ; tips of the greater wing-corerta and secondaries velve^ 
black, forming a speculum ; tertlals long and acuminate, black, more 
or loH broadly edged with white, especially on the outer web ; 
trodor wing-corcrtH greyish, finely powdered with brown ; tail dusky 
black: " bill and feet black ; irides chestnut-brown " (jV(«. Taur,). 




Total lengtii 20 inches, wing 10-6, tail 4-2, onlmen 1*45, 
tarsus 1-55. 

Femah. Similar, but oot so bright in colour. 

young in doiim. Upper parts brown, with two white spots at the 
base of the wings and two on the sides of the rump ; lower parts 
wbite j sides of the head bright rufous. 

Sab, Southern part of S. America, Chili, Paragaay, Ai^ntine, 
Patagonia, Falkland Islands. 



I. Ad. sk. 
'. ^ ad. sk. 

!. a ad. sk. 



■. 5 juT. Sk. 

n. Ad. sk. 

L 2"iram.'Bl 
I. $ imm. al 



Prov. of Santiago, Chili 

(Lri/bold). 
Santiago. 

Itio Piilmaiquen, March. 

Lnke Llanqiie, Not. 



I. of C'biloe. 
Straits of Magellan. 

Coquimbo, June. 
Folkkod U. (Leamte). 
Fallilaiid Is. 
Falltlftnd Is., Not. 
Buenos Ajres, June (f. 

Wittiington). 
Mont« Video (JohtuUm]. 
Bred in confinement. 



Bred in confinement. 



%tOD Coll. 
Purchased. 
SalTiu-Qodman ColL 

H. J. Elwea, Esq. 

[P-]- 
H. Berkeley James, 

&q.(P.l. 
H. Berkeley James, 

Esq. rp.]. 

H. Berkeley James, 

Esq. [P.]. 
The AdmiraltT [P.]. 
Voyage of II.M.S. 

'Challenger' [P.]. 
Dr. Coppinger [O.]. 
Sslyio-Qodman CflL 
Tweeddale ColL 
Antarctic Exp. [P.]. 
SclaterColl. 

SalTin-Oodman Coll. 

H. J. Elwes, Esq. 

[P.]. ^ 

A. _D; Rartlett, Esq. 




31. NETTION. 239 

b"\ Top of the head chestnut, like the 

cheeks; a broad metallic-green band 

from the eyes to the occiput. 

/>*. No white crescentic band on each 

eide of the breast, in front of the 

shoulder ; the lower scapulars 

yellowish white, broadly edjred on 

the outer web with velvety black. . crecca S » P* 243. 

c*. A broad crescentic white band on 

each side of the breast, in front 

of the shoulder ; scapulars with no 

white carolinense (5 , p. 260. 

b". Head and upper part of the neck dark 

metallic green castaneum <5 , p. 252. 

b'. Head with no metallic-green colour. 

c". A white band anteriorly to the speculum, 
formed by the tips of tlie last row of 
upper wing-coverts ; this white band 
broader anteriorlv and irraduallv dimin- 
ishing in breadth posteriorly. 
c". Anterior secondaries entirely white: 

female similar to the male capenscy p. 259. 

</'". Anterior secondaries not entirely 
white. 
</'. Speculum velvety black, with a longi- 
tudinal metallic green band on the 
7th, 8th, and iUh secondaries, leav- 
ing a black portion also above. 
d'. Cheeks dull greyish, finely streaked • 

with black; no ring of white 
feathers round the eyes; usually 
no white edge on the outer web . .„^.^,,.,,„, o « 059 

of the first secondary ] Tmi^Jfr^nsl '>rA 

e\ Cheeks brown, with indistinct ''' j/cr , ^. ^' , 
darker streaks ; a ring of white 
feathers round the eyes ; the first 
secondary broadly white on the 

outer web Migulare, p. 257. 

e*. Speculum entirely velvety black, with 
a green lustre in some lights, but 

with no metallic-green band bemieriy p. 258. 

ti". A narrow cinnamon band at the tip of 
the last row of the uppi'r wing-covei-ts ; 
head and upper part of neck greyish 
brown, thicKiy barred with narrow 
black bands : sexes similar. 
f'". Speculum velvety black, with a 
metallic-green longitudinal band on 
the upper part. 
y*. Bill yellow, with the culmen black. 
p. Smaller, wing 8 to 8'2o inches; 
abdomen like the brea.st whitish, 
each feather with a subterminal 
black spot ; scapulars with large 
black spots and narrow rufescent 
edges flavirostrcj p. 261. 



g'. Larger, wing 870 iucheB ; ab- 
domen unspottod, and like the 
under lail-coTerU pale myvih 
white ; acapulus witb smftU black 
spots uidbrond rufeacent edsw. . oryvUrum, f. 262, 
o*. Bill whollT dark, without anj ySlow. otx&mi, p. 263. 
f . Speculum (ilack, wilb no metallic- 
green band gtargicum, p. 264. 

6. Upper win^-eoverts not dark grey, 
c'. Upper wing--coTerta brassy greeu: size small, 

wing 6-20 ioches pinwtatum, p. 2Ci). 

rf". Upper wing-coverta velvety black. 

e". Axillaries wbite; a white patch or broad 

band at the tip of the secondaries bratUitiue, p. 366. 

/". Axillaries black ; a white patch above 
the tip of the anterior greater wing- 
coverta toryuUum, p. 268. 

1. Nettiou fonuoBom. 

Anaa formoaa, Georgi, lUue Sum. Stick, p. 168 (1775) ; Gm. S. A', 
i. 2, p. fi23, n. 92 (1788) ; Zath. Ind. On. ii. p. 876, n. 108 (1790) ; 
rieitl. N. D. v. p. 168 (1816) ; Bum. Diet. &. Nat. vi. p. 393 
(1817); Hara. Veez. Gu. jtfw. p. 119 (1844); ScAUg. Set. CriL 
p. 109 (1844) ; Temm. ^ Schkg. Faun. Jap., Ave*, p. 127, tab. 82 B 
(<J),82C (2) (1850); SehUg.Mus. P.-B., Anaorea, p. 54 (1866) 
(syn. emend.); Gieb. Tkfs. Om. i. p. 361 (1872) (arn. emend.); Setbh. 
Ibis, 1888, p. 361 (Great laakoff I.); Too. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 460 
(Corea); Seebh. B. Jap. Emp. p. 244 (1890); id. Ibi», 1892, p. 96 
(Tsusiiua); CamfiA. iai'i^. p. 246 (Oorea). 

Anaa glociUne, Pail. Act. Stockh. il. pp. 26, 33, 1. 1 (1779) ; Gm. 
S. N. i. 2, p. 526, n. 90 (1788) (syn. emend) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii 
p. 862, n. 76 (1790) (sjn. emend.) ; Bonn. Enc. Mtth. i. p. 128, 
pi. 3(J. f. 4 (I'SX)|; FaU. Zoogr. So**o-Ai.\\.^. 281 (1811); Bum. 




31. NETTlOIf. 



241 



1880, p, 521 ; Stme ^ Marih. Game B. of Ind. iiL p. 225 (1880) ; 
B<Aau,J.f. 0.1881, p. 64; Slak. ^ Pryer, Tr. At. Soe. Jap. x. I. 

C-i (I8*Q) i Salt: Cat. B. StrickL Coll. p. 636 (1882) ; Fiori. 
. Ansrig. 1S82, p. D4; id. Atti Soc. Natur. di Mod. (■'{) i. p. 4 

(1882); OiffL Icon. Avff. Ital. Gp. & tsT. 354 bU (fliic. ui. 

1863); ScUU. Litt Vert. An. Sth ed. p. 433 (1883); Sahad. El. 
P«. flu/, p. 260(1860); Dorrut, J. f. O. 1888, p. 94 {E.Siberia) : 

Trutr. Cat. CoU. B. p. 49 (1689). 
Querquedula slocibiiiB, Boie, I$is, 1628, p. 329 ; O. R. Or. Gen. B. 

ai. p. 010, n. (S (1&15); Sehnb. fi^ffi. .^r. I. 89. f. 412 ((f) (1845). 

t. 90. ff, 2338-10 (1850) ; Bb/th, Cat. B. Mm. A. S. B. p. 305. 

u. 1779 (Lower Bengnl) (1849) ; LuJtt. Nomettd. Av. p. 102 

(1854) ; Sipini. Jbit, 1861, p. 344, 1603, p. 434 (FonsoHa); Jtrd. 

a «/ind.ui. p. 808(18e4); Hvt.iSun.Anat. -0.74 (vait.) (1809); 

Syb. J./. O. 18:S, p. 109; Taa. J. f. O. 1874, p. 337, 1875, 

p. 257; id. BuU. Soe. Zool. Fr. u. p, 45 (1877) ; iTuTBc, Sir. 

Fsath. idii. pp. 412, 494 (1679) ; Hmte ^ Manh. Gamr B. oflnd. 

iii. pi. 29 (1880); Jtj/b. ^ Taa. BuU. Soe. Zool. /V. ix. p. U7 

(EuDtscliatka) (1684). 
Abs8 perpulchra, Tarr. Sepori of Coune. Z. & 1831, p. 22. 
Anas (BoMbaa) formoaa, Sic. Jovm. of the Boy. Imt. ofGr. Brit. ii. 

p. 21 (1831). 
A&u cucuUftta. Fitcher, BuU. Soe. Nat. Motam, iii. p, 279 (Petto- 

p«il«ki) (1831); id. AWo. Mtm. Soc. Jfat. Moieou, iii. p. Ill, 

pi. ix. (18.54) : Gieb. Thes. Om. i. p. 349 (1872) ; (qf. Stmn. Pr. 

V.S. Nat. Mut. I. p. 136, note, 188/). 
Aoas (Anas) clociUns, Brandt, Drtcr. el Icon. An. Rott. Noe. Uae. i. 

p. 28, I. 4 (1830). 
Dafila? ciicullata, O. R. Gr. Gen. B. iii. p. 615, D. 3 (1845) (e.i' 

Pucker). 
Gnnelta fonnoso, Jl^. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 650, a. 109 (1860); 

Swinh. P. Z. 8. 1871, p. 418 (China) ; G. R. Gr. Sand4itt, iii. 

p. 84, n. 10672 (1871) ; Sminh. IbiM, 1873, p. 368, 1875, p. 137 

(Chefoo); id. Ibi*. 1877, p. 147 (Japan); Damd % Oiul. Ois. 

CImie, p. 503 (1877) ; Seebh. IbU, 1884, p. 270 (C. China) ; Sl^i. 

Pr. U.S. Nat. Mui. i. p. 130 (u..>to) (1867); Styan, IbU, 1801, 

pp. 328, i9(7\ Dela Touehe. Ibis, 1892, p. 492, 
D«ma acuta, a. cucullaU, Bp. Covipt. Rend, xlili. p. 650 (1850) 

(hybrid!). 
Anas fQuerqaeduU) fomiosa, Gerbe, Rev. et Mag. de Zool, 1854, 

pl. 3 (Fmnce) ; Rchnw. Om. Centralbt. 1882, p. 20; id. Viig. sooi. 

<^r(. p. 54(1882). 
Adu (Qneraiiedula) glocitans, ScArenek, Vih. d. Amur-land, p. 474 

(1860) 1 Radde. Reis. m 8. 0.-8ibir. ii. p. 368 (1863). 
Ail formo«a, " Brandt;' Stvinh. lbi». imf, p. 394. 
Ail ^otuUna, Sim'nA. Ibii, 1667, p. 409. 
Qnerauedula bini&culata, FrilacK (nee caet.), Fog. Eur. p. 418, 

T»f.47.r.7(cf),f.ll(2) (1870). 
EoneUa glodtana, Ptjen. in Rowl, Om. Miee, iii. p. 105 (Mcmgolia) 

(1878). 
Netdoo formom, Oigl. Aoif. Ital. p. 312, n. 302 (1886). 

Bybrid. 
Ados formomiXA. penelope, Kemp. Mtm. Soc. Zool. Fr. ijL p, 112 
(1880); Leoerk.J f. 0. 1890, p. 230. 

jidfiU maie. Crovs of the head, back of tbo nock, entire throat. 



242 ixaax. 

And a band extending from the eve aorosg the face to the throtit, 
black ; face and neck on the ndes and under the throat boff, 
the boff parts margined narrowly with white ; also the black 
«rown from behind the eye is bordered on each side with a white 
band which ihob down the eidee of the black nape, and epreads 
OD the sides of the neok ; from behind the eye a broad glossy 
green band of a creEcentio shape passes along the ndes of Uie 
head and inferiorly changes into black, between the bnff colour 
aateriorly and white band posteriorly ; back and scspnlars gi^i 
somewhat tinged with brown, minntely vermiculated with black ; 
the inner scapalars elongated, lanceolate, on the outer web black, 
edged with cinnnamon, gilky bnff, edged with brown on the iuner 
web ; lower back and rump greyish brown ; the upper tail-corerta 
brown, edged with rufous ; lower neck and upper breast vinous, 
marked with small oval black spots ; on the sides of the breast, just 
before the bend of the wing, a crescentio white band ; lower breast and 
belly wMt« ; flanks grey, minutely venniculated with black ; under 
taiI-covert» black, but marked witii bay on the sides, the longer ones 
whitish buff at the tip, with slight vermiculatiDn ; on the lower flanks, 
just at the base of the tail a band of silky white, formed by the tip of 
the feathers; wings pale greyish brown ; the last row of the upper 
wing-coverts tipped with cinnamon, forming a band which borders 
anteriorly the wing-Bpeculum : the latter is glossy green anteriorly, 
with a snbapical velvety black band, and bordered by a white band at 
the tJp of the secondaries ; the longer tertials marked with velvety 
black on the outer web ; quilla pale brown ; under wing-covcrts 
brown-grey, the greater ones pale grey, the central ones and the 
azQlariee whitish, minutely spotted with brown-grey : bill dark bluish 
brown ; feet light greyish blue, darker on the web ; iridea chestnut- 
brown. Total length 18 inches, wing 8-6, tail 4*2, cnlmen 1-5, 
tarsus 1 




/, f. x3 ad. sk. et ChinA. 

«. 

A, L cf S Md. sk. Chioft, 

Jt (f td. ale. China (.7\(c&t«). 

A"".*, rf 2ad.ak, Pa-Chow, Ichang, Pec 

d. S >d. 8H. Shau(;hai, March (£. Su 

/>. (J ad. tk. Amor, China, Jan. {R. S 



P-*. (f 2ad.Mrf 

juT. sk. 
d*. ,5 ad. sk. 
A", rf ad. ek. 

<f,>f. rfad.ak. 

■'. 9 akeletOD. 



YokohaniH, Japan | ff 

Nagasak], Japan, Dec.-Jait. 

Awomeri, Japan, April. 
Kobo t^P), Jm. (A Chap. 

Kechi Tillage, Tau-ahima 
(i*. A. HoU). 



J.R. Reevee,E3q. [P.]. 

lluiueColl. 
Twwddal« Coll. 
C. Pratt, Em. [C.} 
S«;bohm Coll. 

.Sefllmhm Coll. 
C. W. Campbell, Esq. 
[P.]. ^ 

Seebohm Coll. 

F. Ringer, Eaq. [P.]. 



Seebobm CoU. 
Zool. Soc, 



■ NettioiL crecca. 



TheTeoL 

Quenjuedula minor. Brut. Om. vi. n. 438, t. xl. f. 1 (1760). 

Aiia« crecia {errorf ?), Linn. Famt. Suec. p. 45, n. 129 (17B1). 

Anas necca, Lim. S. N. i. p. 204, n. 33 (1706); Om. 8. X. I a, 
p. ra2, n. 33 (1788) ; Latk. Ind. On. ii. p. B72, n. 100 (1790) ; 
Smn. Enc. Mlth. i. p. 154 (1791) ; Lath. Tr. Linn. Soe. iv. p. 106, 
pi. xiii. t 1 (trachea) (1798) ; Fall. Zoogr. Roiao-Ai. ii. p. 263 
(Kurite I. and Kanitschatka) (1811) ; Trmm. Man. p. 547 (1815) ; 
I'm*. A'. D. V. p. 173(1816) ; Bum. Diet. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 390( 1817) ; 
Ttmm. Man. 2nd ed. iL p. 646 (1820) ; Licht. Ferx. Douit. p. 84 
(1823) 1 Plm. Brit. An. p. 125 (1828); KiUl. Jm, 18*29, p. 529 
(Kamtachalka) ; Frankl. P. Z. 8. 1831, p. 123; Sari, Om. To$e. 
tU. p. 148 (1831); Hrehnt, Vog. Dndnclil. p. 684 (1831); MitUtr. 
(3«t Sait. Caue. p. 57 (Cnapian) (1832) ; Jm. Man, p. 235 (1835) ; 
Tunm. Man. 2nd ed, iv. p. 639 (1840) ; Seyt. ^ Slat. Wir6m. 
Bur. pp. IxxxT, 227 (1840) ; Sffyi-L., Faun. Belff. i. p. 142 (1842); 
Stam. V6g. DmttcU. ». p. 701, t. 804 (1842) ; SMeff. Sec. CriC 
V. ciiii (1844) 1 Marti. IVs. Om. Mm. p. 119 (1844) ; Ikgt. Om. 
iSW. ii. p. 438 (1849) ; Temm. * SeAlfo. /aim. Jan., Am, p. 127 
(18o0) ; Hare. F. Z. 8. 1861, p. 146 (Madein) ; Midd. Sihir. Beit. 
ii, p. 230 (1853) ; Wallengr. Naumannia, 18-54, p. 273 (Scandi- 
navia) ; Bo&, J. f. O. 1655, p. 17« (Cannriea) ; KUa. Ihnhr. ii. 
p. 292 (1858) : Sieinh. P. Z. & 1W3, p. 324 (China) ; Jerd. B. of 
Ind. iti. p. 806 (1864); Siainh. Ibu, I860, p. 347 (Formosa); 
Oddm. Ru, 1866, p. 102 (Axoies) ; &A^. Mat. P.-B., Ansejwa, 

SGS (part.) (1866) ; Tritir. Ibi*, 1868, p. 338 (Palestine); 
Yttm. PuU»Ph. Uuur. n. 203 (1867-60) : Dyb. ^ Parr. J.f. 0. 1868, 
p. 368 (Dauria); Dr«tlf, Vogtbo. Borfcmm. p. 280 (1868) ; SwitUi. 
nit, 1870, p. 3fllJ (Usinanl: Oum. 2hii, 1871, p. 209 (Algeria); 
Sauhd. ituLp. 396 (S. Spain) ; GicA. Thet. Om. i. p, 349 (1872) ; 
Swerti. TVfert. JirotB. p. 70 a873); Bli/Ui, B. uf Burma, p. 166 
(lS75)i Blakut. Ibit, \SJQ, p. 335 (Kamtadiatka) ; Legne, B. of 
Ceyl p. 1083 (1 m>) ; 8caUg, Ibii, 1881, p. 503 (Oilfnt) ; ScveriB 
A&, 1883, p. 76 (Pamii Rai^) ; Triitr. Faan. 4- f^- °f PaU»U 
r2 



J 



p 116 (1884) ; Seebh. Hat. Brit. B. iii. p. 646, pi. 66 (egg) (1885) ; 
*" ■, Contr. N. B. Altuka, p. 132 (Atth* I.) (1886) ; A. O. U. 



Ch^k4ut N. Am. B. p. 116 (If 

(1887) ; Seebh. B. Jap. Emp. p. 244 (1890) ; Bchnvi. 

E.82: Hartrrt, ^d. Vogdtamml. ■d. ""' '■" ■" " 



ScuUy, J. A. S. B. W. p. 8 

—')) ; lUhny!. J. f. O. 1890, 

(l«il); Brandt, J. f.O. 

1891, p. 267 (Sitlia.). 
Aastra querqueduls minore, Ger. Star, degli Ucc t. tt. 696, 697 

(jouni), 698 M ad.) (1776). 
PeSto Sarcelle, D'Avbenf. PL Etd. 947 ; B%iff. Bi»t. Nat. Ou. ix. 

p. 265, pis. 17,18(1783). 
Comman Teal, Lath. &pi. iii. 2, p. 651, a. 88 (1786). 
Querquedula creccA, Stepi. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 146 (1824) ; Bote, 

Itit, 1828, p. 329; Syicai, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 169, n. 222 (IndiB) ; 

Stridd. P. Z. S. 1836, p. 102 (Smyrna) ; Qould, B. Ear. p. 362 

(1837) ; Bp. Comp. Liit, p. 57 (1838) ; Eyt. Mon. Aiwt.. p. 123, 

pi. 8. ff. 1, 2 (anatomv), pi. 10 (skeleton and trachea) (1838); 

Macgill. Matt. ii. p. 167 (1842) ; O. S. Gr. Lilt B. Brit. Jtfa*. iii. 

p. 137 (1844) ; id. Gm. B. iii. p. 616, n. 1 (184f>) ; SUpp. Syit. 

Ueberi. p. 138, n. 494 (Red Sea) (1845); Bchnb. Syn. As., 

Natatores, t. 89. ff. 186-187 (1846) ; G.S.Gr. Cat. Sodgs. Coil. 

B. M. p. 146 (Nepal) (1846); Blyth, Cat. B. Mug. A. S. B. 

p. 305, n. 1780 (India) (1840); Bclmb. Ae. iSyit. Nat. p. ii 

(1852) ; Etlaart, Prodr. Cat. p. 136 (Cejlon) (1864) ; Lauard, Aim. 

4- Mag. N. H. xiv. p. 269 (1864) ; Licht. N<m. Av. p. 102 (Arabia) 

(1864); BoUe, J. f. O. 1856, p. 314 (Spwn) ; Bp. Compt. Rend. 

riiii. p. 660, n. 94 (1856) ; Brandt, NoAt. Ural etc. p. 70 (1860) ; 

Adarru, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 610 ; Trittr. Ibii, 1860, p. 81 ; Swinh. 

Jbit, 1861, p. 345 (China), 1863, p. 434 (Fonnoea) ; Jerd. B. of 

Ind. iii. p. 806 (1864) ; Gould, B. Gr. Brit. t. pi. 16 (1866) ; 

xr_. 71..'. loflR - tm II? i._." "T. .. . — .• .-„>. i.~- 



Mor», Ibu, 1866, p. 443 (England) ; Wkitdy, Ibu, 1867, i 
(Hakodaki); 1)^1. ^ Gerbe, &n. Eur. u. p. 621 (1867); ' 



207 



Ibi», 1867, p. 399 (Amor) ; Byt. Sun. Anat. p. 75 (1869) ; Elv>. ^ 
BuekL Ibit, 1870, p, 540 ; Blar/. Geol. and Zool. Abyu. p. 438 
(1870) ; Fiiuch, Tr. Zool. Soc. vii. p. 329 (1S70) ; SAarpe ^ Drttt. 

B. Eur. vi. p. 97. pi. i-26 (pi. I, 1871) ; SicfWi. P. Z. «. 1871, 




31. HETnos. 



24S 



n. 7U (1882) ; Onlfi, Sfr. FialA. x. p. 24C (Pepru) (1662) ; id. B. 
of Brit. Sun,,, n. p. 28.^ (1883); B. 0. U. Lid Brit. B. p. 137 
0^83); &&£. Zm( Hut -/4H. 8th ed. p. 433(1883); Tacx. Bull. Soc. 
Zooi. ^. viii. p. 343 (1883); Blakuit. Cinf«mtA. 1883, p. 37 ; td. 
AmeTuL Ziat B. Ji^. p. 9 (1H84) ; Saltxid. Ann. Mitt. Civ. Gen. 
<3) L p, 24fi (Shua) (1884) ; find*-, Oma Qmetu. p. 467 (1884) ; 
%*. * Taa. BuB. Soe. Zool. Fr. \x. p. 147 (ConimMider Id.) 
(1884); Madar. ZaUehr. d. get. Om. i. p. 38 (1884); Saund. 
TarrtWi Bttt. BrU. B. iv. p. 38 (1984-85) ; Keriury, I6i*, 1686, 

S22 (Aden) ; Salvad. El. tec Ital. p. 361 (1S86) ; Sculfy. J. A. 
B. Ivi p. 88 ( 1887) ; Tail, IbU, 1887, p. 376 (Porlug*!) ; LUf. 
Col. Fig. Brit. B. pt. Tiii. pi — (188S) ; Soivad. Ann. Mm. Civ. 
Oct. (2) vi. p. 331 (Shoft) (1888); Saivad. ^ GigL Meni. R. Ac. 
JSe. Tor. (2) ™U. p. 131 {Jspan) (1888) ; S*w«, Tr. Linn. &c 
(Si Zool. T. p. 91 (1889); Tristr. Cat CWi. k p. 40 (1889) ; 
Mtyrr, Abhild. Vaffti-Slitl. pt. xii. pL cxiv. (1889); Sautden, Man. 
Bnt. B. p. 419 (1889); Eeant, Ibu, 1891, p. 72 (ineubatioti) ; 
Bkarpf. See. Tark. Mis*., Aim, p. 130 (1891) ; Arriff dtglt Oddi. 
AUtSoc. Vau-Tt-aU. Se. Jrti(. iii. pp. 142-144 (var.) (1891); De 
la Tout*e, Ibit, 1893, p. 401 (China); Dub. Fam. Vert. BeU/., 
Oil. ii. p. 452, pi. 256 (1893) ; Bai^tt, Ibit, 1893, p. 174 (Aden) ; 
Mfode- Waldo, Ibii, 1893, p. 199 (Canaries) ; Prart. ^ Bidw. Ibis, 
1894, p. 232 (N. Noni-ay) ; Oatt. Oit. Turkeil. etc. (JVow. Arch. 
Mai. (3) vi. Exlr. p. 98, 1894). 
Netti'in creccii, Kaup, Naturi Sj/it. p. 95 (1829) ; Saird, B. N. Am. 

S778 (1658) ; id. Cat. X. Am. B. a. 580 (18S9) ; Couet, Pr. Ac. 
kilad. 1861. p. 238 (Labnulor) ; Blakiit. ii«, 18(12, p. 332 (JI. 

J»p«n) i G. B. Gr. Cat. Hodgt. CM. B. M. Sod ed. p. 77 (1863) ; 

Later. Ann. Imc. N. Y. viii. p. 297 (1807) ; Coaa, Pr. Ett. Irttl. 

V. p. 298 (IftB) ; G. B. Gr. Hand^i4t, iii. p. 8.t, n. 10661 

(1871) i Sttnd. Meth. nat. Av. dim. T<mt. p. 147 (1872) ; Ridgw. 

Nom. N. Am. B. n. Ull (1881) ; B., B., ^ R. Watei^B. N. 

Am. ii. p. 7 (1881) ; Sttjn. BaU. U.S. Xat. Mnu. no. 29, p. 165 

(Bering r.,KamWchtttka)t 1885); id. Pr. U.S. Nat.MM.i.^.3,%1 

(Lw-t-hoo I.) (1887); id. ZriUehr. ffe*. Om. iv. p, 169 (Loo- 

choo I.) (1887) ; Ridgw. Man. X. Amer. B. p. 94 (1887). 
ijnerquedula subcrocc*. Brrhm, hit, laW. p. 998 ; id. Viig. Deaiaehl. 

p. 885 (1831) i id. Voffclf. p. 378 (1855). 
Quenjueduk cieawides, Brehm (nee JCiny), iw 1830, p. 908 ; id. 

ViM. Dadeekl. p. 886 (1831) : id. Vogelf. p. 370 {18S5). 
SarcellerouKe.XeM. Tr.rf'OrTi. p.634, n.74 (1831)(t™ eiiunined); 

PufAer. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1^50, p. 637 (lJen^a=^. creeca, 

juv,) ; Rartl. J.f. O. 1855, p. 420, n. 3S. 
Anas rubens, Leu. (nw Gm.) (ubi ?), fide Bo. Cornnt. Rend, xliii. 

p. 660. 
BoachaB creccd, Sic. Clattt. B. ii. p. 307 (1837) ; Jerd. Madr. Journ. 

xiLp. 220, n. 384(1840). 
FAnw grtenUndica, Brehm, Voffclf. b 
QuerquMlula creeca, a. rubens, Rp. C 

g«la) (1856), 
Anaa (Qiiernundula) creeca, Sehrenek, Viig. d. Anmr-Land, p, 474 

(1800) ; Radde, RtiM. S. O.-SHnr. ii. p. 367 (1863) ; R-hnn. Om. 
Omtram. 16K, p. 20 ; vd. Vih. zool. Giirt. p. 54 (1882). 
QnPTqitedula (Netuon) crccca, Coue*, Kea JV, Am. B. ^nd ed. p. 095 

(1884). 
D«H1«(;) cn-cca, tilejn. Pr. U.S. -Vn(. Mw. x. p. 136 (Commander 

ImI.) (i(*8r). 



ffybridt. 

Kmuukted Duck, Ftmn. Brit. Zool. a. p. 602, pi. C, n. S87 (Eng- 
land) (1776) ; Lath. Ssfli. iii. 2, p. 521, n. 66 (paxt.) (1785) ; MotU. 
Om. Diet i. (1802); Bewick, Brit. B. a. p. 378 (1804); Pom. 
Brit. Zool. Snded. ii. p. 274 (1812); Mont. Om. Did. 2nd ed. 
p. 34 (1831) ; Tarr. Brit. B. iu. p. 105, with % {1843) ; Tomta, 
Zoofoyuf, 1847, p. 1698; Sdat. P.Z.S. 1860, p. 303( = A. boschas 
xQuerqueduIa crecca) ; HatKock, N. H. Tr. Northamb. vi p. 153 
(1674) ( = 'Wigeon x Ten!) ; Sound. Yarreirt Hitt. Br. B. iv. p. 386 
(1884-86) (=Tealx Wigeon). 

AxM> st\MiU.nt, Lath. {neePati.) Gai. Syn. Suppl. i. p. 297 (1787); 
Om. & y. i. 2, p. 526, n. 96 (part.) (1788); J^U. N. 1). v. 
p. 118 (part) (1816) ; Flem. (ntc Pall.) Brit. An. p. 125 (1828) f 
Jen. Man. Brit. Vert. An. p. 232 (1835) ; Zimm. Man. iFOm. 
2nd ed. iv. p. 63.1 (1840) ; Yarr. Hiit. Brit. S. 2Dd ed. iii. p. 260 
(part.) (1845); Tomat.P.^.S. 1846, p. 121 ; Macff, Hi*t. BrU. B. 
V. p. 42 (part.) (185U). 

Mareca P glocitanB, St*ph. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 140 (1824). 

QuerqueduU Rlocitans, Viff. (nee PaU.) Ltnn. Trani. xiv. p. 559 
(1826); £jrf. Cat. Brit. B. p. 60 (1836); id. Mm,. Anat. p. 123 
(18.18) ; Bp. Omip. Litt, p. 67, n. 414 (1838) ; Macffili. Man. N. 
M., Om. u.jp. 168 (1842) ; Eyt. Sip,. Anat. p. 74 (part.) (1869). 

Bimaculated Teal, &Wy, fin"(. On., ii. p. 3:il, pla. 56 (tf ),55» (J ) 
(1833) ; Gould, B. Eur. pi. 863 (1837) ; StdimA. Ibie, 1867, p. 394. 

Anas bimacuiata, " Om.,'' Bp. Camp. Litt, p. 67 (in eyn. sp. 414) 
(1838) iX.^B. mrbeltk. Eur. p. Ixiir (1840) ; StAleg. Btv. Cnt. 
p. cxiii (1844) ; 7omM, £b(%ijt, 1847, p. 1698 (=A. boecbaax 
Querguedula crecca); Bp. Bee. Crit. Om. Eiir. p. 103 (1860); 
Berkley, Field, 1661, March 16 (=A. boschaaxMarecapenelope); 
iVeiof. P. 2. iS. 1861, p. 392(^A.baBchasxQuerquedula cracca); 
Jerd. B. oflnd. iii. p. 809 (1864). 

Querquedulw himaciilntn, Bp. Cnt. Mi''. Vec Eur. p. 71. n. 437 
(1842); G.R. ffi-. r,>n. /y. iii. p. (U6, u. 7 (1845); Bp. llei<. Vrk. 
Om. Eur, p. 193 (1850) ; G. K. Gr. Vat. BrU. ' 




31. 



347 



Telvet^black, the Interal ones of a buff colour, with a band of bUck 
at llie base ; upper wing-coTerta lead-grey, the greater row whitish 
baff, darker towards the inner ones ; wing-Bpeculom on tlie secuo- 
dariei> velvety bl^ck, with a whit« apical hand on the outer bnlf, 
^oesy green on the inner half; the first tertial vclvet-bluck on the 
outer web ; primaries and tail-feathers greyish brown, the latter 
with [Kile edges ; under wing-coverta grey, edged with white, the 
central ones and the oxillaries wholly white : bill nearly black ; iris 
hazel ; legs, toea, nai membranes brownish grey. Total length 
14-5 inches, wing 7'25, tail 3, cnlmen 1'6, tarsus I'l. 

PtmaU: General colour of the upper parts dark brown, each 
feather with reddish-brown edges; upper part of the head darker 
than the sides, which are whitish, thickly B|>eckle<l with black ; a 
blank line behind the eyes ; chin and throat whitish ; tho feathers 
of the bock and acapulara with two narrow tronsrerse bars of huffy 
brown : undcrparts whitish, with a reddish tinge on the breast. 
«ich fc-ither. except those of the belly, with obscure dark ceatres : 
wing as in the miUe, but somewhat duller. 

Yoviuf in first plumage closely resembles the female, but the 
wiDg-coverts have pale edgings, and the dork centres of tho feathers 
appear also on the belly. 

M-iUt in moulting plumage resemble the adult females. 

"Ntstlituf is yollowiBhwhite on tho underparta, huff on the forehead 
uid throul ; a dark brown streak from the forehead to the crown, 
which, with the upper parts, is brown ; a dark loral streak, and two 
other streaks from hetuod the eye to the nape, on each side" 
{YamU). 

Hah. The Pahcarctic Region, wintering in Northern Africa as 
lai MUth as Shoa, in Arabia, Persia, India, Ceylon, Burmah, China, 
and Japan ; accidentally in Orconland, and along the Atlantic coast 
of North America. 

D, A. <f $ ad. St, 

c. e ad. sk. 

^. $ ML et pull. 




Gt. BritaiD. 
Gt. Britain- 
Kiritwall. 

N. Ui«, 



Nnimehire, N.f),, March. 
St. Andrew's, Fifeahire, Aug. 

(fi. fS. W. R.). 
R. Edeu, St. Andrew's. Sept. 

(H. a. H'. s.). 

Garroartheo. 
Pembrokeshire. 

Merton, Norfolk, May, 

Tring, Herts, May. 

Avington, Feb. (R. li. I 
G. £. SheOq/). 



Purchased. 
YaneU Coll. 
Purchased. 

H. J. Elwes, Esq. 

n. F. Rose, Esq, [P.]- 
Tweeddale Cofl. 

Twt-eddale CoU. 



Montagu Coll. 
Earl of Cawdor [P.]. 

Lord Walidneham 

[P.]. 
Hon. Walter Roth- 

srhild [P.]. 
R, iSowdler Shorpe, 
Esq. [P.]. 



248 

u. J imiiLBk. 
p.,; Kd.sk, 
V. (S jnv. sic 

y. $ ad. tk. 

&$Bd.Bk. 

a', h; c'. cJ 2 ad. 

sk. 
^. 9 ad. Hk. 
*■,/. 2 ad. sk. 
ij'.A'.Sad.flk. 



it'. (J luv. sk. 
/, m'. cf $ od. ak. 



n'. rf ad. Bk. 
''.p'.g'-tJSad. 

K. ^'ad-ak. 



Ljolland, Denmaik, March 

(Beimn). 
Hungaij, Aug. (C. EJt). 

Valencia, Spain, Dec (H. 
Scamdert). 



Egypt, March ((?. E. S.). 



Alexandria, Feb. 
Socotra {Balfovr). 
Socotra (BaifaKr). 



Bondeijohan, Ob R., Sept. 
Valley of the Yen-e-Mi^ E, 

Siberia, lat. 66}°, Jiuie 

(H. S.). 
Samarkand, March. 
Kashgar {Bditie). 

Shahidula, Oct. (Forti/a). 

Lodak (SCraoW]. 

Bola Morghab, Jan. (AitM- 



R. Bowdler Sharps, 



Hungarian Natitmal 

Museum [P.]. 
Tweeddale UoU. 

Tweeddale GolL 

H. i. Elwes, Esq. 

Shelley OoIL 

SheUey CoU. 
Shellev Coll. 
The Kitish Aasodft- 

tion [P.]. 
KenneUi Lof tus, Esq. 

[P.], 
Dr. O. Rnach [C.]. 
SeebohmOoU. 



',x^. (J i »d. sk. Enndahai, Dec. 



SeebohmColL 
India Muaeum [P.y 

India MuHenm ^.1. 
India Muaeiun [P.J, 
Afghan Delimitation 

Comm. nPJ. 
Lt.-Colonel Swinbos 

[pj. 

HameColL 




31. HBTTION. 



249 



^-t'. cJ ? ad. 8k. 
ik*. $ ad. fik. 

m^. c^ ad. sk. 

n*, o', ^'. c^ ad. ak, 

9*, r». cT 2 ad. ak. 
*', t^, 2 ad. ak. 
•i'. d ad. ak. 

r*, u^. cf $ ad. ak. 
X*. $ ad. ak. 
y*. 2 ad. ak. 
s*. $ ad. ak. 

a\ 2 ad. ak. 

A*. 2 ad. ak. 
c*, dP ad. ak. 

d*-h*, d 2 ad. ak. 

et c? ad. at. 
i\ k*, t*. 2 ad. et 

cJ juv. sk. 
»»*, »*. c? 2 ad. ak. 
o*. 2 ad. sk. 

i'S yS r\ c^ 2 ad. 

et c? juv. ak. 
s*. S ad. ak. 

r*. d ad. ak. 
w*. 2 ad. ak. 

r*. d ad. ak. 

IT*. 2 ad. sk. 

jr*, y*. 2 ad. ak. 
z^. cT ad ak. 

fl*. Skeleton. 
A'. Skeleton. 
c*, d^, <?'. Skeletons 

(imperfect). 
/*, ^, A\ Skulls. 
I* -ft*. Sterna. 
o'. Sternum with 

shoulder-girdle. 



Native Sikhim, March (Z. 

Mandelli) 
Sikhim. 

Daijeeling. 

Aasam (McClelland), 

Upper Asaam (A, JF, Chen- 

neU). 
Manipur, March (A. O. H,). 
Bengal (Falconer). 
Behar. 

Calcutta, Feb. (A. O. H.). 

Deccan (Sykes). 

Tonghoo. 

Lower Pegu, Feb. 

Nr. Thatone, Dec. ( W. Da- 
vison). 
Malacca, Dec. (Maingay). 
8. Manchuria. 

China. 

China ( TuckeU). 

Kiukiang Canal, China. 
Kiukiang, Oct. 

Amoy, China, Feb., Nov. 

(R. Swinhoe). 
Amoy, China, winter (-R. 

Swinhoe). 
Yezo, Japan. 
S. Yezo, Japan, Oct. (Bla- 

kiston). 
Corea. 

Yokohama, Japan (If, 

Pnjer). 
Nagasaki, Japan, Jan., Nov. 
Kechi village, Tsu-shima, 

Jan. (P. A. Hoist). 
England. 
Wiirtemberg. 
Nepal. 



Hume Coll. 

H. J. Elwea, Eaq. 

India Museum [P.]. 
India Museum [P.]. 
Tweeddale Colt 

Hume Coll. 

India Museum [P."]. 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Hume Coll. 

India Museum [P.]. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

E. W. Oates, Esq. 

[C.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

II. M. James, Esq. 

[P.]. 
J. R. Reeves, Esq. 

rp.]. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Lieut. Da vies [PJ. 

F. W. Styan, Esq. 

[P.I. 
Seebonm Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 

C. W. CampbeU, Esq. 

[P.l. 
Seebonm CoU. 

F. Ringer, Esq. [P.]. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Purchased. 

Dr. Giinther [P.T. 

B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

[P.]. 



England. 

Hybrid. 
Nettion crecca x Anas bascas. 



T. Ingall, Esq. [P.]. 



f^f 9'. d 2 ad. ak. Maldon, Essex ( Vigors Coll.), Zoological Society. 

(Types of QuerquedtUa glocitans, Vigors.) 



3, Nettion carolineiue. 

AniM crecca, Vftr., Font. FAi:. Tram. Izii. p. 419 (1772) ; Adamt, 

Ibis, 1878, p. 431 (Micbalasbi). 
American Teal, Penn. Arct. Zool. ii. p. 500, n. 604 (1786) ; LatA. 

Sun. iii. 2, p. 654, n. 90 ( 1786} ; id. Oen. Hitt. x. p. 371 (1824) ; 

Sound. Yarrtitt Hixt. Brit. B. iv. p. 381 (1884-66). 
Auaa carolineajus, Gm. S. N. i. 3, p. 633, n. 103 (1778); Lath. Ind. 

Om. ii. p. 874, n. 101 (1790) ; Dum. Diet. Se. Sat. t». p. 399 

(1817); Ari.*&%,/a.Orji.iiLpl.(a:lTi(l836); Avd.Syn.9.2Sl 

(1839) ; Vig. Beeeh. Vay., Om. p. 30, pi. xiii. (1839) ; Aud. B. Am. 

Ti. p. 281, pi. 392 (1843) ; Giraud, B. Long hi. p. 314 (1844) ; 

DeKay, N. T. ZooL ii. p. S40 (1844); Hartl. Verz. Get. Mat. 

p. Hi) (1844) i Lemb. As. C<d>. p. 114 (1850) ; Reinh. Vid. Med. 

1853, p. 84 (Gieenland) (1854); Wied, J. f. 0. 1859, p. 172; 

Beinh. Ibia, 1631, p. 13 ^Qreenlaiid) ; Trippe, iV. £h. Intt. vi. 

p. 119 (Minnesot*) (1871) ; Gieb. Thu. Om. i. p. 346 (1872); 

&eSA.Hi»(. JnY, .S.iii. p.549(1885); A.O. U. Check- Utt, p. 116, 

n. 139 (1886) ; Turner, Contr. N. H. Alatka, p. 132 (Alaska) 

(1886) ; Neh. Nat. HUt. Coll. in Alaeka, p. 68 (1887) ; Ridgui. Man. 

N. Am. B. p. 94 (1887) ; Satch, B. o/Mmnet. p. 44 (1891). 
Anaa americana, Bonn, {nee Gm.) Ene. Mtth. i. p. 155 (1791). 
Anaa migratoiia, BaHr. Traixh, p. 295 (1791). 
*""i8 ereoca, Witt, (nee Linn.) Am. Om. viiL p. 101, pL 60, f. 1 



(1814) ; Bp. Obt. Nomend. Wileon, n. 263 (1825) ; id. Sun. p. 31 

(1828); Aud. Om. Biogr. iii. p. 218 (1836), t. p. 616, pL 2! 

>) ; Schleg. Mat. P.-B., Anseres, p. 52 (part.) (1866), 



Anasaylvfttica, Firttf. iV. D.T.p. 167 (1816). 

Querquedula caroliueDus, Steph. Gen. Zool. xu. 2, p. 148 (1834) ; 

Bp. Camp. List, p. 67 (1838); But. Man. Anat. p. 124 (1638); 

G. R. Gr. List B. Brit. Mut. iii. p. 187 (1844) ; td. Gen. B. m. 

p. 616, n. 2 (184.5) ; Rchnb. Syu. Ai:, Nftlatoraa, t. 89. ff, 183-89 
(1815) ; Jard. Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. ii. p. 377 (Tobago) (1847) ; 
Gofse, B. Jam. y. 408 (1847) : flcinfi. Syn. Av., Nalatoren, t "" 




1888, p. 61; 



3): TViWr. Cat. Coll. 
%. CoU.Surg.m.^SfA 



s.-pA 

P Querqiiedula sinonciuwi, Brekm, l»it, 1830, p. S98 (deacr. nulla) ; 

id. Vog. UeutKht. p. 887 (1831) ; id. Vogelf-^. Srft (1865). 
P Quorqiwdula grosnlaodiea, Bnhm, Iti», 1830, p. 998 (deaci. nulla) ; 

id. Vbg. BruUchl. p. 887 (iBSlJ. 
Anas (Bosdias) crecca, tta., Sw. if SicA. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. pp. 400, 

408 (1831). 
Boachaa caroUneoHS, Jard. edit, of Wiium, iii. p. IS4 (1832) ; Stc. 

aoM.J».ii.p.367(lS3r). 
Boachaa crecca aiu«iricaita, Z>mMy, J*. 2. & 1947,p.40. 
Nettion carolineiiBis, Baird, B. N. Am. p. 777 (1858) ; id. Mex. B. 

Surv. ii. pt. ii. Birdg, p. 26 (1859) : W. Cat. JV. /Im. 5. n, 57U 

(18581 ; .Bryimt, iV. Bod. Soe. N. U. vii. p. 122 (BaLamaa) (18-59) ; 

Cxw. 4- &wU A', .ff. Waih. Terr. p. 2&i (1860) ( Coue*, Pr. Ac. 

fftOad. 1861, p. 236 (Labrador) ; Hayd. Hep. 1862, p. 175 ; Bou, 

n 1 «■ J _': _ le.i /nr.n- i-Di/iaiWi. ;j \t,t Wi'j 0... 



1£2 (MeKende R.) (1862) ; id. Nat Hid. Sev. 
!); DrMitrjIbis, I*«6, p.43(TeiM); Coaet, Pr. 



Canad. Xat, tii. t 

(3) ii. p. 287 (186: 

Aead-TUlad. 1866, p. 98 { Atuodh] ; Gmdl. Srp. Fit.-Xat. Cuba, i. 

p. 888 (Cuba) (1866) ; Lawr. Aim. Lye. N. Y. viii. p. 287 (1867) ; 

l>aU^Bam. Tr. Chic. Ac. i. ji. W(J (Aliwka, breeding) (1869); 

atop. U.S. Oeol. Surt. Terr. 18,0, p. 466 (Wj-ominti) ; G. £. Or. 

SaKd-litt. iii. p. 83, □. 106G4 (1871); AUen, BuU. ifua. Cimp. 

ZfBot. iii. p. 183 (Kansas and Utali ) ( 1872) ; Tripjit, Pr. Ba^. Soe. 

K. U. IV. p. 241 (Iowa) (1872); Aikea, ibid. p. 310 (Colorado) 

(1672) ; Laar. Mem. Boit. Sx. X. U. ii. p. 314 (Mexico) (1874) ; 

GunM. J.f. O. 1875, p. 381 (Cuba); Bidgw. Sam. X. Am. B. 

n. eia (1881) i B., k, * B. WiOer-B. N. Am. ii. p. 2 (1884) ; 

Nekrl. J.f. O. 1885, p. 147 ; MatfiA. u. Zietiier, ibid. p. 191. 
Qoerquedula americatia, Murr. Edinb. Ktv Philot. Joura. is. p. 280 

(IffiS). 
Nettion earolinenae, Bl^dst. IbU, 1802, p. », 18G3, p. 147 (Brit. N. 

Am,); BrirtCTi, /iw, 1868,p. 426{VaQcouvetL). 
Qneniiuidula (Nettion) carolmensis, Cuue', Key S. Am. B. p. 695, 

f. 462 nBS4). 
QueiqueauU cn-cca, Tar, carulioenaiB, Dub. Faun. Vert. Brig., Oit. 

ii. p. J53 (1892). 

AduU male. Similar to that of &', ereeea, but the whitish tine 
wtiidi Eurrounda the green patch on tbo Bidea of the head, and posBes 
dawn to tbo base of tbo bill, is almost obBolete ; tbo Boupulars ue 
nniform [lolc sinte-grej^, with no white, iind there is a brond whitish 
crwcent on each aide of the breast in front of the shoulder. 

Female. Appiirently indistingubhable from that of A', crtcra. 

Bat. Northern America, from Alaska and Greenland, to Mciico, 
Hondorae, and the West Indies ; accidentally in Europe. 

It, b. ij i »d. ei. N. America. Auduboo Coll. 

a. d imm. ek. X. America. U. J. Elwes, Eaq. 

d. iad.ik. N. America. Capt.KulIett& Lieut. 

Wood ri'.]. 

Sir G. Back [P.l 
J. K. Lord, &CL. [P.]. 



Arctic Land Exped. 
W. ^de Rocky Uts. 



i, k. $ ad. et <f Britiali Columbia. 



m. 5 juv. Rk. 



II. (7 ad. ek, 

e. cT juT. sk. 

w-e'. (^ $ ad. Bk. 

/*. rf jUT. «k. 
ff'. $ ad.sk. 

h; i*. (J S ad. 8k. 
*'. ', m'. cf 5 ad. 



Waahington, B.C. 
Kee waken Vol., Oregon, 
Aug. [S. W. Hmihavi). 
Uwh, Nov. (H. W. H.). 
4t>thPsiaUd. 

Repulse Baj. 

Ontonagon, Michigan, Oct. 

(^A. J. Dm/an), 
Hudson R., Albany, New 

YoA (J. H.Hvrtt). 
Ljon's Falls, New York, Dec. 

(A. J. D.). 
CorpuB Christi, Texas, Oct., 

Dec. (F. B. Arnutrong). 
Mexico. 
Hermodllo, State of Sonora, 

Mexico, Nov. (F. Ferrari 

Perec). 
Preadio, Mexico, Jen. {A. 

Forrer). 
ZacatecsA, Mexico, Feb. ( W. 

£. Jti<Aard»on). 



,.[P.]. 



GoTenunt of Canada 

LP-]- 

Dr. J. Rae [P.], 
Salviii-GodniHii ColL 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Sal vin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godmaa ColL 



SalTin-OodmaD ColL 
SalTin-Qodman Coll. 



4. Nettion castanevm. 




P AntyiuneWta. r«r., G. R. Gr. P. Z. S. 1860. p, 166 (Sew Caledooial; 



Mur; Rev. et Mag. de Zool 1 



id. Cat. B. Trup. III. p. 55 (New Culedonia) 

42 (Naw Caledonia) 
■.S. 1871, p. 040 (noti 
I. :», 154 (bulU otsfsa. only 



.pp. 



100, i 



(1«63). 



Jiamt. Fr, 



I 



Jftin. Sbc. CAn-4. i , 
AOM casUneA, ^. A^pic 

Xmd. Sac. y. S. W. iii. p 

(1878) : fiWat. P. Z. S. 18t 

4»: Sobiio. Orn. Ofntra^W. Itie2, p. 1 

p. 61 (1SS2); «o/m(i. Om. Pap. e Mol. iii, p. 396 '(1882) ; Salv. 

Cat. B. Strickl. OiO. p. SaO (1882) ; Sdat. Ua VfH. At*. 8th ed. 

p. 432 (188:1) ; [lliia. ZriUckr.ga. Om. a. p. 82H (188.1) ; Ltyge, Pr. 

S. Soe. Tn,m. 1886, p. i>44 (Tasmania) (1887) ; Bama. Tab. LUt, 

5-22,0.069(1888): Tristr.fW. CW/. Rp. 49(1889) ; JVortA, Qif. 

Aetti ^ Eyjg Awilr. B. p. 3-11 (1889) ; Keartland, Viet. Nat. Tii. 

p. 46 {Australia) (1890). 
Auu (Virago) caatanea, part., Ba'nt, Pr. Linn. Soe. X, S. W. u. 

p. 200,0.058(1877). 
Virago casWnea, Stfjn. Kiagtl. Stanil. Nat. Wit. it. p. ll-i (1885), 

AJmU malf. Head and neck dark glossy green, with bronze re- 
flections in aomo bghts ; mantle and buck black, each feather edged 
with chestnut : rump, upper and under tail-covertfi deep black, with 
a green gloaa ; breaat and abdomen chestnut, with round black epota, 
thoee on the sides and flanks letter ; on the lower flanks u whitish- 
buffband bordering exteriorly the block under tail-coverts: scapulars 
and wings dark olive-brown, the former narrowly edged with 
cheetnat ; the lost row of npper wing-coverts white, slightly tinged 
with reddish ; wiDg-spccuIum on the secondaries vclToty black, with 
a metallic green bond, glossed with coppery red, on the upper half; 
at the tip of tho sccondariea a reddiah-white narrow band ; under 
wing-ooTerte olive-lirown, some of the inner ones white : axillaries 
white ; tail brown-block ; " bill bluish leod-oeloar, nail and the 
edges of the upper mandible black, the under mandible crossed near 
tho dp by a band of reddish fleah-oolour ; iiides hazel ; feet lead- 
colonr, with the membranes of a somewhat darker hue " (Ooid<{), 
Total length about 18-5 inches, wing 9, tail 4'5, culmen 1-5, 
tonus 1-4. 

FemaU. Upper part of tbo head dark brown, with some ligiit 
«dges to the feathers, aides of the bend paler, thickly streuked with 
dusky : chin and throat whiliah, immoculate ; upper part* brown, 
the feathera edged with pale reddish or greyish ; lower back and 
romp almost uniform brown : tho feathers of the undcrparts light 
fulvoua or nifesccnt'-grey on the margins, with obscure brown spota 
in the c«ntre, especially on the breast and udes, each feather having 
a broad central mark of blackish brown ; sides and under tail- 
coverts darker than the rest of the undorparta ; wing-coverts uniform 
dork greyish brown, with an olive lustre, the greater or last row 
white, forming a band broader outwardly than inwardly ; speculum 
■■n the secon^rios velvety black, tipped with a white band, but the 
three middle secondaries metallic green on the outer web ; primaries 
and tul-feathcrs dark brown ; under wing-coverts dark brown, the 
grwlet ones dark grey and the innermost, with the asillarics, white. 



t inches, wing i 



, tail 3'5, cnlinen 1*4, 



254 



Total length about '. 
tarsuB 1-3. 

Taung in down. Upper parts brown, the upper part of the head 
darker ; sides of the head, foro-neck, and lower parts whitish, with 
a rafescent tinge ; a dark brown band from the lores, through the 
eyes backwards ; a small dark spot at the gape ; two whidsh- 
mfescent spots on tlie back, at the hose of the wings, and two more 
on the sides of the ramp. 

ffab. Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia (?), and as a 
straggler in Celebes and Java. 



a. (f nd. St. 

b. <f ad. sk. 

c. d. tJ ad. Bk. 
e. <i ad. sk. 
/. F 2 imm. Bk. 
y.P$ inim.sk. 
A,i J ad. et PS 

ad. St. 
i. d ad. P sk. 



Australia. 
Australia. 

Australia. 
Sydney P 
Port Essin^n. 



N.W. Australia. 



n, o. cf ad. et I 

ad.Bk. 
p. P $ ad. sk. 
J. PulL ak. 
r. $ Bd.Bk. 



N.W. Australia, April 
Perth Flats, W. Australia, 

Maj. 
S. Australia. 

S. Australia. 

Australia. 

FliadeiB I., Bass' Stiaits, Jan. 

(F. Af. Ita^er). 
Tasmania. 
Kecherche Bay, Tasmania, 



Ilardwicke Bequest. 
Purchased. 
Salvin-Oodman Coll. 
Tweeddale CoU. 
J. B. Jukes, Esq. [P.]. 
Dr. Sibbald [Prj. 
Australian Museum 

[P.l. 
Cant. Bowyer Bower 

J.R.ElseT,E8q.[P.]. 
Oould GolL 

Sir G. Grey [P.]. 



Voyage of H 

* Alert 'ip.]. 

B. Qunn, Esq. 



[P.]. 




id. Cat. B. Trap. III. p. 55 (1869) ; T'^err. ^ Det Man, Res. et 

Mag. Zoot. 18C0, p. 442. 
Anns gibbifronB, Walt. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 487 (Flores, Timor) ; Fmteh. 

yru-Gum. p. 183 l\fm) i Ei/f. Syn. Anat. p. 94 (1869). 
Anas punctata. Oould, HaniUt. B. Austr. ii. pp. 3I!€, 366 (part.) 

(laW)) i iSctat. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 861 : yewt. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 649, 

fig. 2 (stenum), Bfr. 4 (trachea with bulla oeseu). 
Abm tpbberifroiw, Sp&Ug. Miu. P.-B., Anseres, p. 68 (1^66) : BiUl&r, 

Ibit, 1870, p. 450; Utitt. Cat. B. New Ztal. p. 86 (1871); GM. 

Thu. Om. i. p. 363 (1872) ; Jtartl. Ibit, 1877, p. ftlS ; id. VOg. 

Madag. pp. 364, 366 (1877) ; Hama. Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. u. 

p. 209 (1877). iii. p, 38 (1878) ; PosnO,. Malay. AreAip. p. 279 

(Celebes) (1878-79) i FivMch, Ibit, 18*10, p. 3»7i Sclat. P. Z. S. 

1680, pp. 462, 619, 1662, p. 463, pi. xxxiii. ; Sclat. ^ Sali>. Ibit, 

1882, p. 538 (note) ; fkilmd. Ont. Pap. « .Vol. iii. p. 398 (1882) : 

Rchnte. On, CtntralbL 1862, p. 19 ; id. Vih. sout. G.lrt. p. 63 

(1883) ; Vordgrm. JV'. T. N. I. ifi. p. 219 (Java) (1882) ; Stlat. LUt 

VrH. An. 8Ih ed. p. 432 (1883); Bias. Zeifrhr. get. Om. ii. 

p. 3^ (Celebes) (1686), iu. p. 171 (1686) : Rams. Pf. Linn. Soc. 

y.S. »-. (2)i.p. 1151 (1886); id. 7"nft.i«(, p. 22, 11.670(1888)! 

Bua. B. A'ea Zeal. 2nd od. p. 261 (1668) ; Triafr. Cat. Colt. B. 

p. 49 fE. Timor) (188))) ; North. Cat. NrtU atid Egi;s Auttr. B. 

p. 342 (1889): Keartl Vict. JVtit. vii. p. 46 (Australin) (1600); 

Hariert, Knt. Vogetiamml. p. 231 (1891); Wigtemi. ,4iw* Polgn. 

p. 70 (1892). 
Auas mnta, S. Mull, (ubi 9),Jide Schlrg. Mm. P.-B., .\iweres, p. 68, 

m tyn. A. gibberifrontis. 
Anu giBcilis, Butler, Ibie, 1869, p. 41 (New Zealand) ; Haatt, I. e. 

p. 42 (do1«) (South Aiutralia); Fitaeh, Hid. p. 360(=^bberi' 

frons); Sutler, Trans. N. Z. Imt. i "'" ' -" " - 



TVmu. JV, Z. Inil. i 



J02 (1869); Bnllm, 
i. p. 271 (1880). 

Anas (Querquedula) ^bberifcooB, Pintch, Ibit, 1869, p. 380, 

Hareca cartaupa, Marie (nee Egt.),Ae(, Soc. Linn. Bard, xivii. p, 328 
(New Caledonia) (1870); id. Ibit, 1S77. p. 363; Lagard, Ibit, 
1682, pp, 638, 644, 

Nettion pbberifronB, O. B. Gr. Haml-litt, iii, p. 63, n, 10663 (I67I). 

Ajuu (Virwo) Malanea, part,, Rami. Pr. Iahh. Soc. N. S. W. u. 
p. 200, n. 658(1877). 

Anaa CMtauea, Ramn. (nee Egt.) Pr. Linn. Soe. y. S. W. iii, p, 115 
(UaU Sniind, Ethel Rirer) (1878), p. 301 (S. New Guinea) (1679), 
i». p. 102, n, 212 (Port Moreeby, South Cape) (1879); Selat. (nte 
&i.) P.Z.S. 187)1. p. 627 (Zool. Gard.); id. Litf VeH. Ah. 
&ol. Soe. Lond. 1678, p. 367 1 Sutt. Traiu. A'. Z Intl. iii. p. 273 
(leSO) ; Salitad. Ann. Mut. Cif. Gen. xviij. p. 402, a 6 (1882). 

Advlt male. Upper part of the head dark brown, witb the edges 
of the feathers reddish or greyish; «idcfl of the head paler, thickly 
strcalccd with black or brotm ; chin and throat white, imm.-iculato ; 
upper parts brown, the feathers edged with pole reddish, the 
(eathera of the lower hook and rump almost uniform, with edges 
•carccly paler ; the feathers of the undcrparts light fulvous on the 
margins, with obscure brown spots in tho centre, especially on the 
breast and sides of the body, each feather having a broad oentnd 
mark of blackish brown : sides and under tail-coverts darker thaa 
Ihe rest of Ihc underparts ; wing-eoverta dark greyish browo, with 
an olive luslrc, the grc3l«r rovr white, forming a band broader 



L-iM^ 



J 



2o6 AHATID^B. 

outwardly ttian inwardly ; epecolam on the secondariee velvety 
black, tipped with a wbit« band, but the three middle eecondariee 
metalUo green on the outer web ; primaries and tail-feathers dark 
brown ; under wing-coverts dark brown, the greater ones dark grey, 
the innennoet and the axillariea whit« : " irides yellowish brown ■ 
bill bluish black, on the edges somewhat greenish, with the nail 
black ; the tip of the lower mandible yeUowisb ; feet lead-colour, 
with a yellowish tint " (S. MiiUer). Total length 17 inches, wing 8, 
tail 4, bill 1-5, tarsus 1-25. 

Female. Somewhat smaller than the male, and paler: "iris 
brick-red ; bill black, with a yellow band across the middle of the 
lower mandible ; feet greyish purple " (Zoria). Total length 15'5 
inches, wing 7-5, tail 3'5. 

This species is absolutely similar to the supposed female of N. cat- 
taneum, both in colour and dimensions, so that I am utterly unable 
to diatinguiab it ; still it seems quite certain that they are not 
identical, as birds in the pluma^ of Anat ffibberifront have bred, 
and, perhaps, are still breeding, in the Zoological Gardens of 
London. 

In the Hon. W. Rothschild's collection there are two specimens, 
brought frozen in the flesh &om Melbourne : one is in the plumage 
of the male ^. cottaneum, and the other in that of the suppoaedfeniale 
of the same, and both, having been dissected, proved to be msles ; 
I have seen the testiclcB and the windpipe, with the bulla ossea, of 
both; one bad tbe testioles enormously developed, showing that it 
was killed in the breeding-season. 

I have seen also a male bird that lived in the Zoological Gardens 
of London, which has the plumage of N. gibherifrma, or female 
N. eastaneamy but shows on the breast a distinct reddish tinge. 
a hybrid of tho two epecicB 'i 




31, METIION. 



257 



6. Kettdon albignl&re. (Pkte U. %. 1.) 
QiiprqueduU ADdamBDen^is, TijtUr, 16u, 1867, p. 333, a. 89 (deacr, 

mlUa). 
Nettion ftDdamanenBiB, G. R. Or. Hand-Htt, tii. p. 84, n. ]0C6(» 

(1871). 
Anas andamanonaui, Oifb. Thtt. Ont. i. p, S44 (1872). 
Marec* punctota, " Cui-:'?, Hall, J. A. S. S. sli. 3, p. 290, n. 62 

(Andanwiw) (1872) : id. Sir. Ftath. i. p. 88 ( 1872), 
Mureca nlbogularis, Sumf. Str. Fiath. L p. 303 (Andanmnfl) (Febr. 

1(*7.1) ; Bhnf. Ibit. 1873, p. 236. 
Mnreca gibben&ons, WaM. {ncc S. Miill.) thu, 1B7S, p. ^1 ; Uumt, 

Nntt l^ Eapi, p. fU4 (Asdamius) (1873) ; id. SCr. Fealh. ii. p. 31(1 

(1H74): Waid. in tilythU H. of Burm. p. 100 (note) (1873); 

TtCftdd. Orn. Work*, p. 251 (ADdamfius) (1881). 
AOM pimcteta. ninth {luc Cuv.), B. of Burm. p, lOfi (note) (1875). 
Qaeraaednln gibbcrirmns, HHme (iim 3. AfitlL), Str. Feati. viii. p. 1 15. 

n. 966 ttr (lS7fi) ; Hume * Marth. Oama B. of Ind. in. p. 243. 

pi 83 (1880) ; Hume, NeiU ^ Sffs/a <fflnd. B. [ed. Oatm], iii. p. SIO 



at. P. Z. S. 1 



I, p. 614 (ZooL Qud. of 



I 



Adntt mate. Upper part of the hood brown ; this colour covers also 
the upper part of the cheuks and gradually ch^Dges ioto the white of 
the lower part of the cheeks and throat ; the brown of the cheeks 
with obsoleto dusky etrealu ; round the eyes there is a ring of white 
fc«thera, broader below ; in some specimens on the lores or at the 
bitso of the bill there are some white feathers ; iip[>or parts brown, 
the edges of the feathers of the back a<jd Bcapulara pale brown : 
rump uniform ; feathers of the breast and abdomen pale brown in 
t)ie centre, and broadly margined with brownish fawn-coloiu', 
producing a mottled appearance ; under tail-coverts brown, .ilmosl 
uniform ; npper wing-coverts dark brown, greater or last row of 
upper wing-coverts white, forming a band, diminiabing in breadth 
and tinged with brown inwardly ; speculum velvety black, with u 
longitudinal copporj'-green band on the middle, from the seventh 
to the ninth secoadarj-, and bounded at the lip by a buff band ; the 
ftret secondary broadly white on tho outer web ; tertials broadly 
volvety black on the outer web ; primaries brown, with an olive 
Instre ; under wing-eoverts brown, the median ones tipped with 
whi[« ; (txiilnries white ; tail brown : " legs and feet greenish blue 
to plumbeous, webs usnally darker ; bill plumbeous, nail black ; iii 
some tbe lower mandible, in one the terminal two-thirds of this. 
pink ; iridea reddish brown to deep reddish brown " (Hume). Totiil 
length 17 to 18 inches, wing 7 to S, tail 4 to 4-2, culinen 1-J. 
tarsus 1'!) to 1'4. 

Femalt. Bimilor to the male, but smaller, and tho lower surfaw- 
duller and the Centerings of the feathers less marked, the green 
band on the wing-spectdum more coppery. Total length 15-6 to 
16 inches, wing 725 to "■4, culmen 1-3 lo 1'35. 

Tming birds are similar to the females, bat the dusky marldn^s 
of the under surface are even less distinct. 

VOL. XXV II. H 



TIuBSpeciee is very Bimilat to Jf.^t66m/rm«aiid to the female of 
N. eattaneum, bat it diffm Id having the sides of the head darker 
and mure nnifoim brawn, with the darker streaks almost obsolete ; 
besides it bss a ring of wMte feathen round the eyes, and the first 
secondary with the outer web entirely or broadly edged with 

Sab, Andaman Islands. 



a-«. tJ 5 sd. sk. 

/,^. $ad. etjuy, 

sk. 
it $ ad.8k. 

i,k,l. d»d.A. 

m. cJ sd.sk, 

B-r. (J $ ad. ak. 

1. $ ad. sk. 
/-y. (J £ ad. sk. 
z. Ad.ak. 



S. Andamans, Feb. {S. G. 

W. S.). 
S. Andamana, May, Dec. 

(R. J. WiTnixTley). 
S. Anduaans, April (S. 

J. jr.). 

Fort Mouet, S. AndamanB, 
April ( W. Daouon). 

Port Blair, S. Andamans, 
May (11.J. W.). 

Port Blfur, S. Andsmanfl, 
March to May ( W. Bavuon 
^M.J. WimUrhj/). 

Port Blair, 8. Andamans, 
June (S. f. W.). 

Dnngleaf Creek, Andamans, 
Jan., Dec {W. Davwm). 

AndaMaus. 



7. NettioiL beimeri. 



Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale ColL 
HtuneColL 
Hume Coll. 
Tweoddala ColL 
Hnme ColL 

R. Bowdler Shoipe, 

HumeCoil| 

Hnme OoU. f 
(Typee of the speciea.) 



P Sarc«lle de Madagascar, Sgtmdn, XoUi lur le* Mamm. el FOm. de 
Madoff. p. 48 (Mim. Soc. Mut. d'Hut. Nat. de Stratb. 1840). 

Querquedula bernk-ri, J. I'en: MS. in Mus. Vindob. et Pan»\ 
Hertt. J./. Q. 1880, p. ]73; id. Oni. Jieitr. Fattn. Madag. p. 82 




259 

Adult malt. Head and neck pale reddish ttrowD, ihickJy streaked 
with bluckiHh ; npper part of the head darker ; back brown, the 
feathers narrowly edged with rntoua-grey ; ramp and upper t^ii- 
coverts browii-olivo, almost uniform ; breasi and ubdcmen dull 
reddish, with the centres of the fcathera pale brown, producing a 
mottled appearance ; longest tinder tail-coverts uniform brown ; 
upper wing-coverts dark grey, the last row with the apical portion 
«aite, forming a white band, much broader outwardly and 
decreasing inwardly; speculum velvety black, bounded at the tip 
by a broad white band ; primaries blackish brown ; tertiala and 
ecapnlars greyish brown, with narrow reddish margins; under 
wing-ooverta dark brown; aiillaries white; tail-featheJa brown, 
with paler tips: " irides browu ; beak and feet red " (6VaikIi(ii«'); 
"beak reddish brown, feet brown" (^ii*. SothK-hUd). Total 
length Ifi to 17 inches, wing 8, tail 4, oulmen 1-5, tarsus 1*5. 
(JfBJt. RothKhild.) 

FgmaU. Similar to the male, only somewhat smaller, and the 
dask}' spota on the underparta duller. {Mm. RoOufhild.) 

Imntature bird. Similiir to the adult, but the dusky spots OD the 
uuderparts more longitudinal, streak-like ; the browa under tail- 
coverts not uniform, but distinctly margined with reddish buff. 

This species, although nearly related to N, gibherifrona, is porfeotly 
distinct, having the bill much smaller and red, the spots on the 
breast paler and less defined ; the upper wing-coverts more grey ; 
the speculum velvety black, without the green longitudinal band ; 
the wbit« baud at the tip of the secondaries broader, pure white, 
witli no trace of rufous tinge ; the axillaries pore white instead of 
brown. 

The figure in the 'Oiseanx do Madagascar' is not exact and 
rather misleading, showing the speculum with bloc and green 
gloM, the white band on the last row of the wing-coverts eqoally 
broad, iustuad of gradually diminishing in breadth inwardly, and 
the general colour too rofcscent. 

Bab. Madagascar. 
«. Inun. sk. Madagascar ( ran Z)a»i) SbeUey Coll. 

8. Hettioa capense. 
Cape Wigwn. lath. Sj/H. iil 2. p. 51B, n. M (1785). 
Anas capeniis, Om. S. N. i. 2, p. 627, n. 98 (1788) (« Latham); 

Lath. Itid. Om. ii. p. 881, n. 73 (1790); Bonn. Enc. Mith.i. 

p. 148 (1791); rieili. N. D. v. p. 164 (1816) i Dam. Diet. &. 

liat. Ti. p. 3tJ8 (1817) ; O.Jt.Or. Oen. B. iii. p. 616,n. 1-3 (1845) ; 

Lie/a.NommH.Av.v.\(i\ (1854); Peh. Novara Bat., Fey. p. 138 

(1866): Chapm. TVon. m «. ^. li. App. p.4£2{1668); O.h.Gr. 

mptd-iut, ui. p. 8a, n. 10(MO (sjn. emend.) (1871): Oitb. Thtn. 

On*. i.p.316(Byn. emend.) (1872); '< Gadcm,J.f. 0.1877,p.389; 

Sah. Gii. B. Strifkl. CoO. p. 6S4, n. 2002 (syn. emend.) (1883) ; 

Salvad. P. Z. S. 1BB4, pi. liii. ; Hartert, Kaf. Vogilatmml. p. 381 

(1891). 
Mam» cspensis, Slrpk. Gm. SM. lii. 2, p. 139 (1824) ; G. R. Or. 



Gtn. B. m. p. 614, n. 6 (1845> ; Layard, Btrdt S. A/r. p. 361 
(1867) ; id. Oil, 1869, p. 26 ; Ayra, lint, 1809, p. 302 (Trans- 
Ta&l); Oum. m Anderti. B. Dainara Lattd, p. 339 (]872). 

Chauliodua capenala, Sa. Jourti. Roy. Inst. ii. p. 19 (1831). 

Anas IftrratB, Cuv. MS. Mu». Paru (Gape) ; Less. Tr. d'Om. p. 634, 
D. 72 (1831) (de«cT. nulla) ; Pucker. Rev. (t Maq. dr. Zooi. 1850, 
p. C49 (doBcr.); Sartl. J./. O. 1866, p. 419; Socage, J./. O. 
1876, p. 294. 

QaeTqueduk capeuns, Smith, Cat. S. Afr. Mve. p. 37, a. 326 (1837) ; 
Eyt. Mon. Amt. p. 128 (1838) ; G. -ft. Gr. Grtu B. iii. p. 616, n. 15 
(1S4.5) ; Eyt. Syn. Anat. p. 82 (1869) ; Bocaffe, Ot-n. Any. p. 602 
(1881) ; Salvad. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 174 ; id. Ann. Mtu. Civ. Gen. (2) 
i. p. 245(1884); Shirrpe, LayanTsB. S. A/r. -0.758 (18^); Tristr. 
Cat. Coll. B. p. 48 (1880). 

PKcilonetta geowica, G. R. Gr. {nee Gm.) List B. Brit, Mui. iii. 
p. 134 (Cape of Good Ho]>e} (1844). 

Auaa araimilia, Foral. Icon, itied. t. 76 ; id. Deter. Anim. {ed. Lieht.) 
p. 46 (1844) ; ScAley. Miu. P.-B., Anseres, p. 59 (syn. emeod.) 
(1866) ; Gifb. Thet. Dm. i. p. 344 (ayn. emend.) (1872) ; Hartl. 
Yog. Madag. pp. 364, 365 (1877). 

Chaulelasmua strepera, a. r^penais, Bp. Compt. Bend, iliii. p. 650 
(1866). 

Querquedula larvata, Bp.Compt. Bend, iliii. p. 650, n. 99 (syn. emend.) 
(1866) ; Bocage, Jom. Ac. Sc. Lisb. 1871, p. 278, 1872, p. 70. 

Anaa sparsa P, BiiAm (nw SnwM), /./. O. 1885, p. 62. 

Adult male. Head, neck, and nnderparts whitish ; head and neck 
dotted or streaked with black ; throat immaculate ; feathers of the 
back and nunp and upper tail-coverts edged and barred with fulvous, 
each feather has one or more brown-black bars and a aubterminal 
spot of the same colour ; upper breast with brown bars ; remainder 
of the underparts with obsolete greyish-brown spots, better defined 
and bar-like on the sides and under tail-coverts ; wings dark grey ; 
the greater wing-coverts broadly tipped with white, forming a white 




9. Rettion flavirostre. 
I^to pico Etmarilla y Degro, Azarit, Apiint. iii. p. US, a. 439 (liuenos 

AyiM) (1805). 
Anas flavircwlris, Vieill. X. D. v. p. 107 (1316) (ex Auira) ; id. Ene. 

J»(A. i. p. 363 (1823) ; G. B. Gr. Gm. B, Hi. p. 616, n. 19(1845) | 

^irtL lad. Aiar. Avant. p. 28, n. 430 (1H47) ; R-Jmb. %». Ao. 

t 00. t 2343 (1850) ; Burm. La Plata-BeiMy ii. p. 516 \\mi) \ 

BeSkg. Mua. P.-B., Anserea, p. 59 (pnrt,) (1866) ; Oitb. Thf». Om. 

i. p. 3.^1 (svn. emend.) (1872) ; £.. B., ^ Jl tVaUr-B. N. Am. a. 

p.3(note)(18g4): J^<m. J./. 0. 18Ml,p. J25(Coidov»)i HarUrt, 

KtU. r.,]/dtamml. p. -231 (1801). 
Adm creccoido*, Kini/, Zool. Jaum. iv, p. 99 (StruU of MngelUn] 



B &bec 



■, X<JM. Tr. ifOm. p. 634 (MalouinM) 



QuHTquwlula creccoides, £yt. Mon. Anat. p. 128 (Ift18); Fra*fr, 
P. z:«S. 1843, p. 116 (Ciiili); i7. R. Gr. Zitl B. Brit. Mtu. iii. 



p. 138 (S.TI1. emend.) (1844}; id. Gen. 



616, n. 3 laja. 



emeod.) ('l845) ; Va .Vuro in Gay, Hist, dr OiOe, J. p. 453 (ObiU) 
(1348) ; Banein. Voy.'Bm^,' iii.p. 13 (1848) ; Bp. Oimpi. Rmd. 
xliii p. 660, n, 104 («ivii. emend.) (1856) : Cau. U.S. Attrtm. Ex^d. 
(L p. i303, pi. nvi. (Cbili) (1856) ; (?o»(«, P. Z. S. 18.59. p. 96 (e^. 
KalUKids); &-lat. P. Z. 8. 1860, p. S89 (Fslklaiids) : Ahboit, 
IhU, 1861, p. 160 (Falklands) ; SoUa. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 335; Phil. 
* imutt. Cat. Av. Chit. p. 42 (1808) ; Eift. Syn. Anal. p. 81 
{ 1869) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 18/1, p. 700 (ZooL Gsrd.) : MiiwEdw. 
Seek. Fatm. JUg. Atutr. ch. vt, p. 46 (1882) ; Sclat. LUt J'ert. An. 
8Ehed. p. 434(1833). 
Aims aiarw, Merrem in Erich u. Grub. Enc, sect. i. vol. xxxx. p. 26 

_ «.*(Ou.p.247(184"). 

Querauedula oiyptem, Ifarti, (nfc Afryot I JS'(iun4an»i*i, 1853, pp, SI7, 
aSa (Bio de Valdivift, Chili) ; P Bibra, Denktchr. Ak. Wtm, r. p. 131 
(CaiiU)(1863)(c//./. O. ISS.-), p. .W) ; Lieht. Nantf mi. Av. p. 102 
(pait., MonWTideo, nee Peru) (1654) ; P ftto. Sinae Novara, Vog. 
p. 188 (ChiU) (laOfi) ; Sharpf, P. Z. 8. 1681. p. 14 (Port QiHUat 
and Cockle Cofe) : Omt. Mint. Se. Cap Hm-n, vi. Ou. p, 314 
(1891). 

AnM (l)Alik) flsvirosim, Barm. J.f. 0. 1860, p. 366 (Mendoia). 

Qnerauedula flavirostm, Sdal. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 335 (part.) ; Selat. ^ 
SaU. P. Z. S. 18«7, pp. mo, 991, 1868, p. 140 (iSuenos Ajtm) [ 
Sunn. P. Z. S. 1872, p, 367 (Argentine); Sdtit. j- Sain. Nomnui. 
At. Nwtrap. ^. 129 (1875) [ Hudi.P.ZS. 1874, p. 167; Seiat.^ 
Bail). P.Z.S. 1876, ]i. 386; Dura/: /iiV, 1877. pp. 41 (Chupul), 
IDI (Buenos AjTes). 1878, pp. 65, 401 (Centr. FBiajMiiiB) ; Sdat. 
f, Z S. 1870, p. 310 (eegs), 1880, p. 522 ; il. iV ChaUmg., 
MM*, p. 160 (1881) ; White, P. Z 8. 1883, p. 42 (CorioTft) ; Bert. 
u.Jher. ZeiUchr. ga. Om. 18K5, p. 175 (Taquarn do Mundo Novo, 
a BrtdtU) : Bmi. J. f. O. 1887, p. 133 ; Cab. J.f. 0. im.\ p. 118 ; 
Swvt. Am. Mw. A^(ie.£uni.vfir. iii. p. 247(1888); Selal. Argent. 
Or*. iL p. 131 (1889) i Tri*lr. Cat. G)U. B. p. 49 (188») ; Onst. 
MtM. &. Cap Ifom, \i. Ou. p. 206 (1891) ; Holland, Ibit, ISSi, 

fw 307 {.\riwnli»e) ; Berk. Jamei, JVehf List ChiL B. p. 9, a. 153 
1882) : ApUn. B.U, 1804. p. 200 (Unigunv). 
NsttioD SariroHlri*, G. R. Gr. Hand-lUt, iii.'p. 88. n. 10066 (1871), 
AnM f QnorquodiiU) flaviroslris, Rektac. Om. CentraM. 1882, p. 21 ; 
id. V6g. tool. Gart. p, &fi (1882). 



Adult maU, Head and upper part of the neck greyish brown, 
thickly barred with narrow blackish bands ; mantle and anterior 
scapolars greyiab brown, with a black spot near the tip, and 
margined witb nifescent brown ; lower back, wings, and upper tail- 
ooverta uniform gre3-iBh brown ; breast and underparts whiliBh, 
the former more or leas tinged with reddish, each feather has a 
enbterminal black Bpot and a blackish bar hidden and almost obsolete ; 
the tpota almost evanescent on the abdomen ; vent and under tail- 
ooverts whitish grey, unspotted ; upper wing-eoverta brown-grey, 
the tips of the greater row hazel, forming a band bordering an- 
teriorly the wing-speculum, which is Telvety black, only on the 
onter web of the inner feathers being glossed with green ; tips of 
the seooudaries rufous wbit«, forming a band ; tertuds and longer 
Bcapniars greyish brown, edged with reddish ; primaries dnsky 
grey ; under wing-coverts brown-grey, but the central ones and the 
axillaries white ; tail brown-grey : " bill wax-yellow, with the 
culmen and nail black; iris carmine (or wood-brown, Dumford); 
feet groy-blue" {PhUijtpi). Total length 15 to 16 inches, wing S 
to 8*25, tail 4-75 to 4-25, culmen 1-4, tarsus 1-12. 

FeTTtait. Similar, but somewhat dnller and smaller. 

Young. Duller, and the markings on the head and breast not so 
distinct, especially on the latter. (Jfuf. Turin.) 

Hah. Southern Brazil, Argentine, Chili, Patagonia, aud Falklsnds. 

a. S ad. ik. Chili, Maich ( Wnukaupt). 

b. Ad. ak. ChUi (Heed). 
e. $jnv.8k. Chili. 




S853) (Chili) : ImAI. Sommel. Av. p. 102 (pMt., Peru) (TSS-l) ; 
ihm. J.f. O. 1855, p. 57; Sctat. Sr Sale. P. Z. & 1807. p. 990 

{SaUnsa, S. Peru), im, p. 570, 1869, p. 157 (Peru) ; Od. Nomenti. 

^p. JVeofrM. p. 12» (1873) : Tom. P.Z.S. 1874, p. 561 (Junin, Centr. 

Pbtb); Sdat. ^ Saiv. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 385 j Tact. P. Z. S. 1880, 

p. 212 (Cutervn) ; Sctat. P. Z. & 1880, p. 52-2, 188«. p. 401 (Tara- 

pucS) i Tacx. Or». Pir. iii. p.476 (1886) : Trittr. Cat. OoU. B. p. 49 

(1889); Sctat. P. Z S. 1691, p. 136 (TurapacA); Berk. Jamu, 

Nae Lilt Chit. B. p. 0, n. 165 (Turapati). 
Dotilii oiypteni, Ec}\nb. &n. Ae., NataUtres, t. 92. £ 164 UvMa/en) 

(1&45). ^ 

Qaerauedulaaiif^iEtirostriB,^A. Sf Landh. (nee Minttr.) An. Univ. 

aSe, ixi. p. 43i) (1862) ; ita. JFifym. Ar^. 1883, i. p. 202 (Tftcna) ; 

Selat.P.Z.S. 18G7, p. 396(=i>5yplera, iWeyon); Philippi, Omia, 

1888, p. leO (Calfiknte). 
Anas flavirostris, purt., SeUeg. Miit. P.-B., Auwres, p. 59 (1866) ; 

Oieb. The: Om. i. p. 351 (part.) (1872). 
Querquedula flaviroatris, Sclal. {wn Viria.) P. Z. S. 1867, p. 335, 
Nettion oxjptera, G. S. Or. Hand-Uet, Hi. p. 84, d. 10070 (1871). 

Adult. Similar to jV, Jlavirottre, but larger, with longer bill 
inlPrecnpuUr feathers paler, with the central apots less distinct 
scapulars more rufcsccat and with emoller ceotrnl black marks 
dark spots on the lower parts smallor and confined tn the breaat , 
abdomen and onder t^-coverta pale greyish white, the latter with 
a alight reddish tinge : bill yellow, culmen and tip black. Total 
length 17-5 inches, wing 8'7, tail 4, culmen 1'45, tarsus 1-4, 

Bah, Cordilleras of Peru and of Northern C!hili. 



a, cf ad. sk. 
i. cf ad. ek. 
c. a ad. «h. 
d,e. a^»A.»k. 
f,9- d9&d.ak. 
A-ffi. cf 9 Ad- «t 
nF^^A. ak. 
«. $ ad. sk. 



Tiata, Peru, June. 
Tint*, Peru, June (ff. 
Salinas, S.W. Peru, July 

Iiagims da Laujni, Feb. 

\H. Whiltiy). 
L'ueva neffra, Pnjv, of Ta- 

rapacd, Feb. 
SacftVB, Tarapaca, Jan., 

Feb. 
Sitani, Tarapaca, Jan. 

HuBsco, Tarapaca, Feb. 



W. Whitely, Esq. 

Twetiddale Coll. 

Sah-in-Qodnian Coll. 

H. J. Elwes, Esq. 

[P.]. 
H. Berkeley James, 



I. Berbeler Jan 
J. lierkdey Jat 

Esq. [V.i 



1 1 . Nettion andinm. 



Da£la sp.. Sclat. P. Z. S. 1860. p. 83 (Ecuador). 

(javrquedula andiiim, Selat. j- Salv. Ito/nmel. Av. ytotmp, pp. 129, 
l«a (Ecuador) (1873); iid. P. Z. 8. 1873, p. 237 (Sierra Nevada 
of Merida), 1876, p. 387, nl. xxxiv. ; Sclat. P. Z S. 1880, p. 022 ; 
Tan. * Bert. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 119, 

Adult. Similar to N. JUurirottre and N. o.riij>teru>n, but darker ou 



264 AirATiDx. 

the upper parts, with the iateTscapalar feathers and scapulars less 
reddish, having the pale edges narrower and more greyish ; blackish 
spots on the breast larger than in JV. oxypUrvm, hot not so well- 
de&oed as in N. fiavirostre ; the upper part uf the speculum bronze- 
green ; the principal difference is in the bill, wholly dark, withont 
any yellow; feet flesh-colour. Total length 16 to 17 incbee, wing 9, 
tail 3-5 io 4, culmen 1-66, tarsus 1-5. 
Hah. Andes of Ecuador and Veneeuda. 



i. Ad. sk. 



«,/. Ad. 8k. 
g. d jnv, ak. 



Ecuador, between Rio Bamba Sclater Coll. 



and Mocha (Fra 
Sical, Ecuador ( Vii^gomes). 
Rio Blanco, Ecuador (C. 

Buckley). 
Ecuador. 
Sietra Nerada of Merida, 

Venezuela (A. Ooering). 



(Typo of the epedee.) 
Sakin-Oodmau ColL 
SalTin-Oodman CoU. 



12. ITettion g«ire:iciim. 
Oeorda Duck, Lath. ^n. iii. 2, p. i78, n. 34 (17o6) (Oeai^a Aus- 

traJi Americas) (ex Sir Joteph SatJa'i drawingt). 
Anas georgica, Gm. 8. N. i. 3, p. 516, n. 77 (1786) ; Lath. Ind. Om. 

ii. p. 847, n. 41 (1790) ; Bonn. Eac. Mfth. I p. 148 (1791) ; rioB. 

y. D. y. p. 118 (1816) ; Sum. Diet Sc Nat. vi. p. 381 (1817) ; 

O.R. Gr. (?<ni. 5. ui. p.616, n, 8(1846)( = ]tanthorhyncha,Jorii. 

le. 71J ; ta. nand-U»t, in. p. 82, n. 10652 (1871). 
Tadoma georeica, StepK. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 76 (1824). 
Anas zauthornmcha, Font. Icon, ined. t. 71 (nee t. 72) ; id'. Deter. 

An. (ed. Zicht.) p. 342, n. 267 (nee p. 4fi) (1844) (Qeo^a Aua- 

trali) ; Licht. ibid, note ( = Adbs oxjptera, Lic&t. {nee Megen), 

which ia =A. flaTirostris, VieUl), cf. Nomencl. Av. p. 102 (Monte- 

rideo). 




13. Nettioii pnnctatmn. 
Anns punct*U, Barck. TrareU, i. p. 233 (note) (18221; G. R- 



p. HIO, n. 21 (I845JJ JV«»(. P. Z. S. 18n,p. 649 

Afr. .Viu. p. 37, n " 
'29 (Orange B 



e Biver) 



fir. Gen. S. i 
(note). 
Querqu^ulA hottenlotii. Smith, Cat, . 
(1837) {deacr. nuUa) ; .%(. Mon. A 
(1833) ; SmUA, III. S. Afr. Zool., Av* 

6m. B. iii. p. 616, n. 8 (1845); Bp. Compt. iJ^iA iliii. t. . . 
n. 101 (1856) ; Gun. IhU, 1862, p. 154 (Natal) : Ltniard, B. of 
8. AJt. p. 353 amt) : Boe. J«m. Aead. Sf. Lith. 1867, p. 329; 
Qtm. Ail. IfldS. pp. 262, 471 ; C&apm. Trav^it in S. Afr. iL 
App. p. 442 (lSll8)i Grniul. Siv. et Ma-/, de Zool. 1868, p. fi 
(MFidflga«c«r) ; %/. Syn.ylnuf. p. 83 (1800) ; A'rtci.P.Z S.1871, 
p. G4fl|m>lc); StM-. Joiii. Acail. Se. Lidoa, 1872, p. 70; Barti. 
P. Z. 8. 1876, p. 69 (Tnmatave, MnddfraBCiir) ; Boc. ^ Oad. J.f. 0. 
1876, p, 294; Haul. Vog. Madag. p. 38S (1877): Agm, Ibi$, 
1880, p. 273 (Tranavaal) : Sac. Om. Anq. p. 503 (MoBsatnedes, Hio 
Con»cai(1881); ^u«.,/'nY<f..*fl»i,2i«%. 1882. p. 427(NMid) ; 
MOitf^Bdw. ^ Graud. OU. Madag. p, 723. pi. 375 a. t. 3 (liMd) 
(1882) ; Sharps, LaynriTi B. 8. Afr. p. 757 (1884) : Dufcw, B«fl. 
Mat. Boxf. ^H. N. tIfBelff. iv. p. 14!), n. 194 (1880) (Tawmnjik«) ; 
Trutr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 270 (^fatBl) (1889): Sibrte, lbi», 1892, 
p. 271 (Mml^iucar) ; Shall. I&U, 18S4, pp. 38, 478 (Litke 
Shiiwa). 
Ahm pDeata. LieM. Verz. SSugtth. u. VHg. p. 20, na. 244, 24S 
(Kstfenil.) (Ift4a) ■ G. ROr. Gen. B. App. p. 28 (1849) ; Gidt. 
TImi. On. 1. p. 360 (1872) ; Bohm, J. f. O. 1885, p, 6/ (Karema, 
TanguivikB). 
PterocTuiea pileuta, hiiM. Nomend. Av. p. 102 (1854). 
Asu hott«iitota, Schlfjf. Mm. P.-B., Arueras, p. 60 (Umias. S. .\.tt.) 
(1866) ; Gie6. Thts. Om. i. p. 354 (1872) ; HnrtrrC. Kat VogfU 
tamnd. p. 231 (1881) ; Rehato. Vag. Deut»i:h-0»t-Afr. p. 26 
(1694). 
Qaenjaedula madnfcascsrieusis, Grand. Bre. et Mag. d« ZooL 1867, 

pp. 87 (Madagascar), 255 (=Q. liatt«nlota), 
Nettinn hottcntota, G. B. Gr. Uand-lia. iii. p. 83, no. 10662 (1871) ; 
Anderu. B. Samara Land, p. 340 (Damara aud Great Namaqoa 
LMid) (1672). 
Anas UBimiliB, Ma». Forit., fidt Omtalet (cf. Harti. Vitg. Madag. 

p. 365, 1877). 
QtiOTCiueduln punrtata, Sdat. P.Z8. 1880, pp. 622,534 (S. AfiHra); 
Saload. Ann. Ma*. CVit. Om. (2) it. p. ^ (Shoa) (1888) ; Trtttr. 
Cat. CoB. B. p. 19 iTrnnavnall (1889), 
Querqiii-duU pileatn, SeJialmc.J.f. 0. 1884, p. 177 ; MatKhv',J.f.O. 

18e7,p. ];i7. 
Querqiindula cTBDorhtrirhn, Bohm. MS., fide Schalim, J.f. O. 1884, 
p. 177 ( = pifc?ata, Lkht.}. 

AdtUt tnalf. Upper part of the head, iiicludiofc the eyes, blark. 
•harply defiuM from the buffish-white lower half and throat; tha 
wtut« of the cheeks i'ili>iidiug baoliward in a hroad band towards 
the occiput ; aides of tlie neik whitish, thickly mottled with black ; 
boolc black, each feather edged with light brown ; lower bock and 
nirap blai'k, glossed with green ; upper and under tail-coverta pale 
brown, thicUy undulated with narrow black lines; lower parts 






light brown, the feathere of the lower fore neck, breast, and ndes 
with lai^ Bobapicol black spots ; lower breast and abdomen tmdn- 
lated with blai^h bora ; wings brassy green ; a glossy green 
speculum on the secondaries, which are broadly tipped wiUi white 
and have a black aubterminal band bordering posteriorly the 
Bpecnlom ; longer soapolara brassy green, with a light brown stripe 
along the middle ; under wing-coverts blackish brown, the median 
and the greater ones, like the aiillaries, white; tail-feathers dark 
brown, edged with pale brown : " bill dark leadnioloar ; feet dark 
lm>wn ; irides brown" (AnUmm); but according to Andersson, 
" iris reddish yellow ; bill bluish red except at the base, where it 
is black; legs purplish yellow." Total length about 13 inches, 
wing 6-2, tail 2-5, culmen 1-45, tarsns 1, 

Female, Similar to the male, bat somewhat duller, and the 
markings less distinct. 

Foung. Differs &om the adult birds in having the breast as well 
as the abdomen pale fawn-coloar, with no distinct spots or obsolete 
ones and no transveree dusky bars; the under tail-corerts are 
reddish fawn-colour and unspotted. 

ffah. Southern Africa and Madagascar, north to Angola on the 
West and Shoa on the East. 

a. £ imm. ak. Damara-land. Purchased. 

(. fd juv. sk. OmanbondS, Damara-land H. J. Elwes, Esq. 

(Ander,5on). [P.]. 

c, d. <f 9 ad. 8k. S. Afiioa. Sir A. Smith [P.l 
(Types of Querquedtila hottentota. Smith!) 
<-t. cJ 2 ad. sk. Natal. Tweeddale CoU. 
£. <f ad. sk. Newcastle, Natid, Dec. Shelley CoU. 
/. (J ad.sk. PotchefBtroom,Nov.(2'.^ynM). J. H. Gumey, Esq. 
[P.]. 
Transvaal. R. B. Sharpe, Esq. 




(1870) ; Gieb. Thet. Om. i. p. 346 (1872) ; Frm:. J. f. 0. 1891, 

p. 125 (Cordf-bn) : BaHert, Eat. VogeUamml. p. 231 (1881). 
Ahm mnnea, Borm. Ene. MtOi. i. p. 162, n. 67 (1791). 
Pato ipecutui, Asar. Apunl. ui. p. 445, n. 437 (Pamguay) {ISOQI, 
Anu ipecBtiri, Vtall. N, D. v. p. 120 (1810) (ex Aiara] ; id. Enc. 

Jlf«£i. p.354(1833). 
Hueca bnoliends, 8teph. Gen. ZooL lii. 3, p. 138 (1824) ; G. R. Or. 

Om. B. iii. p. 614, n. 7 (1846). 
Anas patnri, &ir, Av. Brai. u. p. 85, 1. 108 (Bio S. Francisco) 

(mS). 
Aiu*iiotMit,Illi/.mJlfm.BeroI.,fidt WuKl,Beifr.iv.p.e3i {1832). 
QneiqiiediilB erjtfaroih^clia, ^' Spix" Egt. {nee Om.) Mon. .inat. 

p. 127 (1838) ; Darw. Va/. •Beagle,' iii. p. 135 {Buenos Ayres ami 

Smuts of M^ellan) (1841) ; Ei/t. Sijn. Anat. p. 79 (1869) ; Burm. 

Ann. Mm. Nae. Sum. A\t. iii. p. 367 (1888). 
Querquedula ipecutm, G. B. Gr. List B. Brit. Mtu. iii. p. ISO 

(Bntish Guiana) (1844) ; Harti. Ind. Atar. Apunt. p. 28, n. 437 

(1847); Dm Muri in Gay, Hi»t. de ChiU, i. p, 461 (1848) ; 

actat. P. Z. & 18ftl, p. 138 (Para, Zool. Oard.) ; Phil. 4" Landb. 

Oat.Av. OiU.^.^ (1868). 
Qnenjuedula ipecuturi, G. R. Or. Gen. B. ui. p. 616. n. 9 (1846) ; 

R^nb. &n. At>., Natatores, t. 80. f. 179 (1845) {ex Spii). 
Qnetqueduia novw hiflpaniee, Rchnb. {nee Gm.) Sgn. At., Natatorea, 

t.ll0.ff. 081-82(1845). 
Querquedula braailienais, Lichl. Nomewl. At. p. 102 (18&1) ; Bp. 

Compt. Bend, iliii, p. 050, n- 100 (1850) ; Selat. ^ iSaii: P. Z. S. 

1869, p. 636 (Buenos Ajres) ; Peb. Om. Bras. pp. 320, 460, lii 

(iUo Branco, S. Paulo and MatngroMo) (1870) ; Bum. P. Z. S. 

1872, p. 368 i Sdat. 4- Salv. NomencL Ac. Neotrtm. p. 129 (1873) ; 

Beht. P. Z. 8. 1873, p. 809 (Zool. Gurd.) ; Cab. J.f. 0. 1874, p. 231 ; 

aiiat. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 390 (Bolivia, Pearce) ; Dumf. Hit, 

1877, p. 192, 1878, p. 64; Sciat. P. Z. 8. 1880, p. 632; Soiu. 

Oat. B. atrickt. Coll. p. 536 (1882); Sdaf. Zitt Ferl. An. 8th ed. 

p. 433 (1883) : Barrowt, Auk, 1884, p. 273 (Entreritn) ; Beri. v. 

JAerinj,, ZeitKkr. gea. On. 1886, p. 176 (Taquara) ; Berl. J.f. 0. 

1887, p. 124; TrUtr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 48 (1889); Sdat. A^eni. 

Dm. ii. p. 133 (1889) ; Oast. Min. Se. Cap Horn, vi. Oit. p. 312 

(1891) ; Kerr, Ibii, 1892, p. 140 (Loner l>jlcoina;o) ; Aplifi, Ibit. 

1894, p. 201 (Uruguay). 
Nettioti btSNlifnaia, G. B. Gr. Band-Ua, iii. p, 84, no. 10667 

(1871). 
Abm (Querquedula) braailienaifl, BcAnip. Om. Ceiitralbl, lS83,p.20: 

id. ITiff. aaol. Gnrt. p. 56 (1882). 

Anas braailiennB X A. casUoea, SucAeUt ; Zevrrk. J. /. 0. 1800, 
p. 221 ). 

Adull mule. Upper parte olive-brown, the feathers of the back 
ilarl:er in the centre ; forehead, anterior part of tho cheek, and 
throat brown ; top of the head, occiput, and upper part of the nape 
Mack, the tatter with u green gloss ; sides of tho head, ])OsterioTly. 
tuid npper part of the sides of the neck dull greyish ; lower part of 
the neck ^nd breast reddish, changing into groyiah on the abdomen 
and under tiul-corerts ; the breast and abdomen with brown 



268 ASATIDS. 

obsolete spots or bars ; round the middle of tbe neck some small 
black spots ; some round black spots on the sides ; rump Telvety 
black; upper tail-coverts greyish olive ; under tail-coverts undulated 
with some irregular dark cross lines, the tip of tke larger ones black ; 
upper wing-covert* velvet}- black, but the greater row like the 
secondaries glossy green, more or less with a purple gloss, espemally 
towards the innermost of the latter, wbicb bave the apical haU 
snowy white; between the green and tbe white portions a black 
velvety band ; tertiale like tbe scapulars olive-brown ; primaries 
black, the inner oues glossed with green on the outer webs ; under 
wing-coverts black, with a green lustre ; azillaries white ; tail 
black : " iris brown ; above dark greyish red, brighter on the edges ; 
under mandible pale red ; feet cinnahar-red " ( WUd). Total length 
17 inches, wing 8'15, tail 3'9, culmen 1'75, tarsus 1'25. 

fimiale. Similar to the male, but somewhat duller; the top of 
the head and the nape brown ; a whitish spot just a little over and 
before the eyes, and a second one at the base of the bill abov« 
the gape ; no black spots round the middle of the neck ; bill dark 
brown. 

Hah. South America, from New Granada and Guiana to Magellan 
Straits. 



a. Ad. ek. 



Vicinity of Bogota, Nen 
Granada ((7. Ci-omther). 
;. ij ad. et juv. British Guiana, 



Aunai, Brit Guiana, June 
(H. Whtitly). 

Bahia, Brazil ( Wucherer). 
Pelotas, Rio Gmnde do Sul, 



/. Ad, sk. 
g-i. Ad. sk. 
k. <J juv. sk. 



Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Sir R. Schombnigk 

S(UTin4jlodman ColL 

A[. Claussen [C.]. 
Salvin-Godmao OoIL 
Salvin-Godmau Coll. 




31. KKrnoH. 268 

Qnetqnediila muiillensls, ^l. {nte Qm.) Mim. Anat, p. 135 (1S38) 

(^ examined) ■ ; id. ^. AtuU. p. 7S (16R8). 
Anu rnbidoptHTH, i>u£. Om. Go/, p. UO, pi. Ivii. (<; nnd ?) (IS-IO); 

e. R. Gr. Geo. B. iii. p. fiI6, n. 23 (1*45), 
Anas rhodopua, Merrem in Erich u. Grub, Ene. sect i, toL xxxv. 

p. 4G (1841). 
Querauedula torquata, G. S. Gr. Lid B. Brit. Mta. iii, p. 131) 

(1^) ; I'l'. Om. B. iii. p. 616, n. \i (164a) ; J7arf/. Ini. Atar. 

Apml. p. 28, n. HI (IMT); Bp. Ctompf, BmA lUii. p. 660. 

n. 105 {lB5rt) ; Srlat. P. 7.. S. 1807, p. 335 (Chili !) ; Stiat.^Sak. 

P.Z.S. IWO.p. 635(Ar^atiiiB); jVle. Om.flrai. p.4e0 (1870): 

JuTOT. P. it S. 1872, p. 367 (Pivranfi) ; Sdat. ^ Sale. Xomenel. 

At. Ifeob-op. p. 129 {ArKWitiiio) (187S) ; Sctal. ^ Saiv. P. Z. S. 

'" ; Setat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 522; BerK J. f. 0. 1 — 



; A^n, Ibu, 1894. 



I 



p. 134 : Sflar. Ars/eat. Om. ii. p. 132 

p. 201 (Uruguajr). 
Aua rbodopMra, Dab. ierrere). Op. Cbmpl, Bmd, zUii. p, 050 (in 

Mju. up. 105) (1856). 
f Quenjuedula leiicophrys, Bp. I. e. n. 107 (185«). 
NBttion ttaqniitajO. Jt. Gr. Hand4ul, iii. p. 83, u. 10606 (1871). 

Adtdt nuiU. Crown and hind riBck black, expanded bolow into a 
half-collar ; forehead dull gre}', streaked with black : checks, throat. 
and aides of the neck doll whitish grey, with dusky strcttka on the 
former ; back greyish olive ; lower back, rump, and upper tail- 
coverte deep black ; breast rosy red, each feather with a roandiah 
subapical black epot; abdomen whitish, obsolot«ly barred with 
grey ; flanks pure grey, waved with narrow black lines ; under 
tul-coverts black, with a white blotch on each side at the base : 
scapalars chestnut-red; upper wing-coverts glossy black, with a 
irhitA patch on the anterior secondary -coverts ; seooudoriea broniy 
green on the outer web, forming the speculum ; tertiaries olive- 
brown, primanes blackish brown ; under wing-coverts black, the 
greater ones brown-black; tail black: bill black (?); feel yellow. 
Total length H inches, wing 7'2, tail 2-5. colmen 148, tarsus 1'08. 

FtmttU. Brown ; superciliary stripe, middle of the cheekB, throat, 
and «des of the upper neck white ; back and seapnlars olivo-browo : 
rump and upper tail-coverta bhtck ; beneath dull whitish, with 
broad Bubapicul pale brown bands, better defined on the flanks : 
abdomen and under tail-coverls whitish, the latter powdered with 
dusky ; wings as in the male ; tail brown : bill roddish brown ; 
feet brown (or yellow ?). 

Malr. Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentine ; wrongly stated to 
inhabit Chili, Brazil, and San Bomingo (Sehlegel). 

a. [f ad. St. S, America. OM Coll. 

li. g ad. eh. Buenos Avres ( If. It. Huthtm). Salvin-tiodman Coll. 

r. S ad. St Probably ^liTia(£ria^«). Cumisg Coll. 



270 AMUXDX. 

32. DAFILA. ,_. 

Type. 
Daflla, Zeaei, in Brit. Mtu. ; Sttph. Oat. Zool. xii, 2, 

p. 126 (1824) D. acuta. 

TracheloQetto, Kaup, NaiUrL J^it. p. 115 (1829) D. aeutt. 

Phadanunu, Wagl. Itis, 1832, p. 1225 D. acnta. 

Daphik (I), SKi.,.fide Cbuu, Birdi N.-Weat, p. 663 (1874); 

GUb. Thtt. Om. ii. p. 14 (1876). 

Sange. Cosmopolitan, except Auitralia aod Nev Zealand, bat 
one spedes has been found in the Phoenix tironp. 

Kei/ to Ae Spedu. 

a. Tail-featlwB not barred scroM. 

a'. Central tail-feathers black, lateral ones 

srej, with paler or whitish ma^na ; 

bead dark brown ; a uatrow band at the 

tip of the last row of wing-coverta 



a". Lai^: culmen l'85-2-15 inches; an- 
terior part and sides of nock, breast, 
and middle of the abdomen white. . . . acuta iSt P- ^^ 
b". Smaller: culmen 1'36 inch: anterior 
part and sides of neck, breast, and 
abdomen dull gre^sh ; the breast with 

narrow brown etreaks eatottt ij , p. 278. 

b'. Central tail-feathera dark brown, a little 
darker than the lateral ones; head 
nifescent on the upfier part, wlutish on 
the lower part, thicklj dotted with 
blackish ; buid at the tip of the last row 
of the wing-coverts, like the one at the 

^ of the secondaries, bufi ipmioauda g $,p,279. 

b. Tail-feathers blackish, barred across with 




32. 



271 



Fiem.) ; Savi. Oni. Toic. iii. p. 156 (1831) ; MMtr. Cat. BaU. 

Cane, p, 57 (Caapiui) (1832) ; Aud. Ont. Siogr. iii. p. 214 (1835) ; 

St/rdm. m Ermann't Vert. Th. IV. p. 18 (1836); Aud. Om. 

Biogr. t. p, 616, pi. 227 (1880) ; id. Syn. p. 279 (1839) ; Vig. 

Zoot. Befches'i V"!/., Om. p. 31 (1830) ; Trmm. Mm. Snd ed. 

iv. p. 683 (1840) ; K. ^ II. WirMth. F.ur. pp. Uji», 297 (1840) ; 

A'own. VSg. DevtttM. xi. p. 638, Taf. 301 (1842) ; fkht-Longch. 

Faun. Belg. i. p. 142 (1842) ; Aud. B. Am. vi. p. Slfe, pL S90 

(1813) ; Giraud. B. Long lel. p. 310 (1844) ; IhSav, X. T. Ztml. 

a. p. 341 (1844); HdtUg. lUt. Crit.-f. 115(1844); JloOolt, Faun. 

Grortd. p. 64 (1846) ; Dtgl. Om. Eir. ii.p. 430 (1849) ; Lvinb.Av. 

Cuh. p. 113 (1850); Temrn. 4" SehUq. Faun. Jap., Avrt, p. 138 

(ISMjj Midd. Sib. Reii. p. 233 (1863J ; Watimgr. Namruamia, 

1854, p. 271 (ScandinaTia) ; Zayard, Ann. 4- Mag. X. H. xiv. 

p. 269 (Cevloni (1854); Adavu, P. Z. S. 18fi8, p. 510; Eittl. 

VaOiw. ii. OT. 292, 343, 366 (1868) : Wied, J.f. O. 18.50. p. 169 ; 

JUartent, ibid. p. 220 (Bermudas) ; FinaA, ibid. p. 366 (BulgMm) ; 

Smnh. P. Z. S. 1803, p. 324 (CLiiui) ; Tristr. P. Z. S. 1864, 

V. 463 {Pdesline) ; Schlfg. Mui. P.-B., Anseree, p. 87 (Senegal !, 

fearil, Surmeitler'.) (1866); iVaw. PuttKb. Uaturi, n. 204 

(1867-60); Daad, N. ArOi. du Mu:, Bull, vii., Cat. no. 448 

(1871) ; Fintch, Abb. Tfr. Brem. iii. p. 60 (Alaska) (1872) ; CW. 

Thei. Om. i. p. 343 (1872t; Seitrl::. Turkat. Jeeotn. p. 70 

(11*7.3); Btvth,B. Burma.ip. lri6 (Arskan) (1875); Adatru, Ibit, 

lfi-8,p.431(A]fleka); FmwA, Vtrh. t.-b. Ga. »Vcn,1879,p. 262; 

Ltgge, B. of Ceyl. p. 1076 (1880); Scullg, Ibi>. 1881. p. 693; 

Rchnw. J.f. O. 1800, p. 82; Serb. B. Japan. Bmp. p. 246 (1890) ; 

Brrnidt, J.f. O. 1891, p. 267 (.\leutiftii t). 
Ann» BubuUta, & O. Gm. Beiu SukI. i. p. 13, 1. 1 (£) (1771). 
IHn-Iail. Pemi. Brit. Zool. ii. n. 282 (1776) ; Lath. »m. iii. 3, p. 326, 

n. 72 (1785). 
Anatra di coda lunga, Gerini, Star, dtgli fee. v. t. 581 (cf) (1770), 
Canard a lonrue qaeui*, B'Aabatl. PL Enl. 964 (17— P), 
PUet, Buff. Hiil. Nat. Oil. ix. p. 199, pi, 13 (1783). 
.\Ea* alundica, ^wirm. Mut. OarU. faac. iii, t. 60 (1786). 
Anaa BcutA ff, Gm. S. X. i. 2, p. 628 (1788) (ei' Baekf, Scbr. der 

Bert, nahaf, Gea. ya. p. 459). 
Abm ipamiuuiRi, Lath. Ind. Om. ii, p. 876, n. 110 (1790) (ex 

SfMrrman] : VUUl. N. D. v. p. 157 (IslO), 
Ana* caudocuta, Pall.Zoogr. Rouo-A». ii. p, 280(1811): £«aeA, Cat. 

M. ^ B. Brit. Mm. p. 38 (1816). 
Anas uiiiihoa, VieiU. A'. I), v. p, 163 (1616) (Mexico, ex Ber- 

nandrt). 
Dafila caiidacuta, Strph. Gm. Zool. iii. 2, p. J27, pi. 49 (1824); 

Jard. Br. Bird*, iv. p. 120 (1837?); Sw. Ctait. B. ii, p, 367 

(1837); GouW, B. af Eur. pi. 365 (1837); R/t. Man. Anat. 

p. 11.3(1838); Fra«T, P. ■£. S. 1839, p. 134 (Eraefoom); Jerd. 

Madr. Joum. xii. p. 220, n, 385 (1840) ; Dennv, P. Z. S. 1847, 

p. 40 ; Orde, Ibi», 1859, p, 460 (N. Uist) ; Parker, P. Z. S. 1863, 

p. 617 (aacral vertebrw) ; Egt. &fn. Anat. v. 78 ( 1868). 
Tnchelonelto acuU. Kaup, Hatarl. I^it.n. 116 (1829). 
Atuw caudata, Brehm. hit, 1830, p, 997, n, 3; tf. Nalurg. Vbg. 

ZViriKiU. p. 869(1831). 
Anaa (DafilB) cftiidacutn. Sic. ^ Birh. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 441 

(1831). 
Pbuiuiinii Bcului, Wagl. Int. 1832. p. 1235, 
Quwqtiedula acata, &■%, lU. Brit. Om. ii. p, 311, pi. 69 ( (f), pi. 00. 



S AII1TID.& 

f. 2 ( $ ) (183S) ; StruAl. P. Z. S. 1836, p. 102 (Smvma) ; GuUh. 
P. Z. S. 1876, p. 488. 

Anas (Boscbaa) Acuta, A'utl. Man. ii. p. 886 (1834). 

Amu (Dafila) acuta, Jenyni, Man. p. 332 (1835). 

Dafilb acuta, Eut. Cat. Br. B. p. 60 (1836) ; Bp. Comp. Lut, p. 66 
(1838); Blylk, P. Z. S. 1842, pp. 93, 94; Bartt. Ven. Ga. Mui. 
p. 119 (1844) ; O.R.Or. Lilt B. BrU. Mia. iii. p. 134 (Jamaica) 
(1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 615, n. 1 (1846) ; id. Cut. Hodg,. CoU. 
B. M. p. 145 (Nepal) (1846) ; Beinb. Syn. Av., Natatotes, t. 88. 
ff. 221-23 (1845) ; BUm. Sj/it. Ueb. p. 138 (184-')) ; ffo*^, B. Jam. 
p. 408 (1847); Bbjth. Cat. B. Mut. A. S. B. p. 304, ii. 1775 
(1849) ; Bchni. Av. iS}/ft. Nat. p. ijc (1853) ; Bnird, Stiaub. Sep. 
p. 323 (1852); Woodh. Sitgr. Sep. p. 103 (New Meiico and 
California) (1853) ; Licht. Xommcl. Av. p. 102 (Arabia) (1854) ; 
Bp. Oimpi. Send, xxivii. p. 664 (1864) ; id. O^mpt. Rend, iliii. 
p. 650, n. 112(1866); Neicb. F. R. R. Rep.^\. y- 102 (California, 
Oregon) (1867) ; Sclal. P. Z. S. 1857, p. 206 (Jalapa) ; Gai. ^ 
Gundl. J. f. O. 1857, p. 227 (Cuba) ; Com. E^. Am. Sqfu-dr. 
China Seas and Japan, ii. p. 231 (18C1) ; id. U.S. ErpL Exp., 
Mamm. ^ Om. p. 341 (1868) ; Baird, B. N. Am. p. 776 (1858) ; 
id. Cat. N. Am. B. n. 578 (1859) ; Beerm. P. S. R. Sep. x. 
pt. Ti. p. 60 (Catlfomia) (1859); Murr. Edinb. N. Phil. Joum. 
1869, p. 229 ; Adamt, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 190 ; Sdat. 4r Salv. Ihii, 
1869, p. 231 (Guatemala) ; Coop. ^ SuckL N. H. Waih. Terr. 
p. 262 (1860) ; Bretper, Pr. Boit. Soc. X. B. TJi. p. 308 (Cuba) 
(ISGO) ; Irbtf, Ri>, 1861, p. 250 (Oudh) ; Swinh. Ptii, 1861, p. 346 
(N. Ciiina) ; Aibncht, J. f. O. 1862, p. 207 (Jamaica) ; Batpi. 
Rep. 1862, p. 176 (Nebraska) ; Blak. Ibii, 1863, p. 332 ; Eoit, 
Omad. Nat., vii. p. 162 (1862) ; id. Nat. Hist. Rei\ (2) ii. p. 287 
(1862); Verrill, Pr. Ea. Jtut. iii. p. 158 (1862); 6. R. Gr. 
List Br. B. p. 192 (1863) ; id. Cat. Rodoe. Coll. B. M. 2nd ed. 
•>. 77 (1863) ; Sidnk. Ibi», 1863, p. 434 (Formosa) : Zoitr. Arm. 
■ M 1- ..;;; .„ 1 o it)= i /lofioi. t i r> „f t-j ;;; 



%l 



N. y. viii. p. 13 (Pauama) (1863) ; Jerd. B. of Ind. i 

■■ " Var<h, ^ ■ "■-■■-■■ -' ' 



.. Stti (l8liJ)i iVanh, Pr. .it: Philad. 18l!4, p. 7l jji 
'Mure, Uiit, 18156, i). 443 (Great Britaici) ; Ifn-n. 11^. 1866, 




'. p. z & 1 

p. a91 ; Bhxnf. Emt. Persia, ii. p. 801 (1870) ; BhU. Str. FeatA. 
IT. p. 29 (iSrO); Sadlv, &id. p. 200 (E. Turkertiui) (1876)1 
Sharp*, Ibit, 1377. p. 24 (noroei.) ; Swinh. ibid. p. 147 ; Taa. Om. 
iima. V<Kt. Sibir. p. 69 (18T7ji id. BiUl. Soc. Zoot. Fr. 18T7, 
p. 46; Damdft OwU Ou. PAiiw, p. 498 (1877); Omdl. An. Soe. 
Eip. Hilt. Nat. Tii. p. 442 (Porto Kico) (1878) ; Hume ^ Datit. 
Sir. Fcath. vi. p. 439 (1878) ; Ptjcv. in Sotelej/'t Orn. Mite. iu. 

LlOl (MongolU) (1878); Blakiil. 5- Pryir, Ihi», 1878, p. 213; 
*, Ihit, 1870, p. 22: Humf, Str. Ftath. riiL p. 115, a. (162 
findis) (187fl); &utf 
P/iy». Sof. Edinb. 1880, ■ 
Prjifr, Tr. At. Six. Jap. viii. p. 184 (1680J ; Sdmidt, P. Z. & 
188U,p.818; Stm.P.Z.8. 1880, p. 616; Hume ^ Monk. Game 
B. of Ind. iii. p. 189, pL 26 (1880) ; Bidd. Ibit, 1881. p. 100 
(Giigit) J Mfyio. Norn. N. Am. B. n. 805 (1881) ; A. ^ E. Ntwl. 
Handb. Jam. p. 113 (1B81) ; BlakUt. ^ Prwr, Tr. At. Soc. Jap. 
X. p. 97 (1883) i amet, Chtck-Ud, 2ud ed. p. 118, a. 710 (18^; ; 
BtJi. Cat. B. Strkkl. Oill. p. 533 (1882) ; Oattt, Sf.r. FetOh. x. 
p. 245 (1882) J id. Birdt Br. Barm. ii. p. 278 (1883) ; B. O. U. 
JM Er. B. p. 134 (1883) : Setat. List Vert. An. Bth ed. p. 434 
(1883); Tact. BuU. Soc. Zo<J. Fr. 1883, p. 343; 2feU. Cruise 
• Oinroi,' p, 96 (1883) ; B., S., ^ R. IVater-B. N. Amet. i. p. 611 
(1SB4) ; Couei, Key N. Am. B. p. 092, lig. 480 ; Badde, Omit 
Cbw. p. 46G (1884) : Bktkift. Amend. List B. Jap. p. 9 (1864) ; 
Q/OaJ. Am. Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) i. p. 243 (Shoa) (1884) ; Satmd. 
Yarrtir* Bin. Br. B. iv. p. 380 (1884-85) ; Sttjn. BuU. U.S. Xal. 
jtfM.iio.29,p, 153(1886); A. O. U. Chech-Vat N.Am. B.'o.lM, 
n. 143 (1880) ; Turtle, Contr. N. H. of Atatka, p. lit (1886) 
Salead. El. Ucn. Bat, p. 250 (1886) ; Nelt. Nat. Hitt. C«U. %n 
Akuku, p. 69 (1887); Bidgv. Man. N. Am. B. p. 97 (1887); 
Sckier, MT. om. Vrr. Wxen, 1887, p. 23 (breeding in Itoh«miB); 
Martin, Bull. Sne. Zoot. FY. 1887, p. 88 (breeding near Brenne) ; 
Stcjn. JV. U.S. Nat. Mat. 1887. p. 136 {Commander I.). 1688, p. 97 
(Hftwuian 1st.) ; Oatet, IbU, 1888, p. 73 (Bhama) ; Too. P. Z. 8. 
1S68, p. 460 (CoMi) ; Sali-ad. ^ Gigl. Mem. R. Ae. Sc. Tar. (3) 
xxxix. p. 131 (Japui) (1888) ; Salvad. Ann. Mut. Ctv. Gen. (2)-n. 
pu 320 (Shoa) (1888) ; I)orrkt,J./. 0. 1888, p. 93 (E. Siberia) ; Qny, 
Auk, 1888, p. 62 (Cuba, Jamaica, Porto Rico); id. S. W. Ind. 
p. 203 (1889) i Trittr. Cat. Call. B. p. 60 (1889) ; Exrett, Joarn. 
Str. Br. R. At. Soc. 1889. p. 192 (Borneo); Samtdert, Man. Brit. 
B. p. 417 ; /.itford. Col. F^. Brit. B. pt liii (1890) j Stetre, Litl 
B.^M.of fhe Fhilij^ntt, p. 27 (Laam) (1890) ; B«m.. Ibit, 
1881, p. 72 (incubiiliou) ; Sfiarpe, ibid. p. 116 (Fbo) ; Stomi, ibid. 
pp. 328, 490; Sharpe, See. Fork. Mitt., Aim, p. 131 (1891); 
BarieH, Sat. Vogdtamml. p. 282 (1891); Siorpf, Cat. Otleol. 
Spec. ColL Surff. iii. p, 302 (1891) ; Haleh, B. of Minnet. p. 49 
(1802); Seottirilt..foetHawai.pt.h.p. — Oma); Chapm. Ibit, 
1884, p. 349 (W. Jutland, breeding) ; Quit. Oit. Turketl. etc. 
(Noup. Arek. Mut. (3) vi. p. 100, 18^). 

QiUiqueduU caudNCiila, Mangitl. Man. Om. Ii. V-^^Q (1843). 

Pafila loDgicaudfl, /In-bm, Naumannia, 1865, p. 297. 

DafiU caudaU, Brehm, ibid. 

Dafik ocuM a. amoHcuiia, Bp. Compt. limd. xtiii. p. 050 (1866). 

Aou (Dalik) acula, ScAnmA, Vo.j. d. Amur-Lande, p. 481 (1860) ; 
VOL. XXVU. I 



Eadde, Seise S. O.-Sibir. u. p. 871 (1863) ; Beknw. On. GaiiraliL 

1882, p. 20; uJ. Vdg. tool. Gart. p. 63 (1883). 
Daphiln acute, Oieb. Thei. (h n. ii. p. U (187S1. 
DfipbUit loDgicauda, Qieb, ibid. 

Hybridi. 
Dafila acuta X RbyncliBspiB cljpeata, Sdyt, Bp. Compt. Send. xliu. 

p. 660 (1856). 
Anas boMshas x Dafila acuta, A. Netct. P. Z. S. 1660, p. 338, 

pL cliviii. 

Anas acutaxA. querquedula, Leadb. P. Z. S. 1862, p. &i. 

Dafila acuta d X Aoaa boschas (domesticB) S , Blot, in Aiium. Fin;. 

Dndtchl. xiii. 2, p. 308, Taf. 389. f. 3 (1800) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 

1860, p. 616. 

Pintail ij X Common Duck $ , rarrell, Sitt. Brit. B. {Saand. ed.), 

iv. p. 383 (1884-85). 

AduU male. Head and upper neck plain hair-brown, darker on 

crown, and faintly glossed on sides of occiput with purple ; upper 

half of hind neck black, with a white stripe on each side, conflnent 

with the white of the lower neck and breast ; lower hind neck 

greyish brown ; back, sides, and flanks waved with grey and dnsky ; 

upper tail-coTerts black, the median broadly edged with grey ; longer 

scapulars velvety black, edged with whitish ; wing-coverts uniform 

brownish grey, the last row broadly tipped with cinnamon, producing 

a distinct bar ; primaries brownish grey, darker towards the tip ; 

speculum varying from dull metallic green to bronzy purple, tipped 

with whit«, and crossed by a sabterminal bar of velvety black ; the 

inner quill of the speculum velvety black, with a white band along 

the inner part of the outer web ; tertials grey, marked with a velvety 

black median stripe ; abdomen, whitiah, dusted with grey, lower 

flanks with a buff tinge; under tail-coverts black, the outer ones 

white on the enter web ; central tail-feathers long, acuminate, and 




ii2, DATH,!. 



275 



«ovprt«, and most of tho feathers of the nunp are broadly barred, 
ioHlead of enely vermiculatod, with white {Stthohm). 

Ailull mala in niotdlijitj-jiluinaije may be distinguished from adult 
females by liaving an alar sgieaulum, and lieing richer aad darker in 
colour (Setljokm). 

Yoany in floivn have the same pale spots on the upper parte as 
those of the Mallard, but the white oa tho throat and holly is sligbtly 
suffuwed with Rroy inslead of hulF, and in addition to the dark line 
puAStn;; through the eye. a »ecoiid dork line passes from the lores 
iidlow the eye to the iiapc \Stffiohm). 

According to some omithologiata, European specimens ilifter verj- 
apprftciably from North American in having a narrower speculum 
{B„ H.. ^ B.), bat 1 have failed to find that there is any appre- 
ciable differenee. 

Ilah. Northern Hemisphere, breeding ia the northern parts, and 
migrating southward to Northern Africa, India, Ceylon, China, and 
Japan, and in America as far as Panama and Cuba.* 



b. (fjUT.St. 

r. 9 ad. It 
A c; sd.Bk. 
(L (f ad.ik. 
/. PolLak. 
g, K rf ad. el 



f. rfjuT.ak. 
f,r. ij? ad. ak. 
«. (fad-ak. 



Slietland, April. 

Aldeburgb, Suffolk, Sept 

Cambridgrahire. 

Devonshire. 

Valk^nswHHrd, Holland. 
Arcachon, Fnuiee, Jan., Nov. 
{E. r. SwAoAm). 

Near Seville, Spain, Feb. 

(ff, Samdfrt). 
Egypt, Feb. (0. E. S.). 
Egypt, March. 

Anjrollsla {Marrit). 
.\ichangel. 

Neriniiiwstaja, Ob River, 

Sept. 
Yen-e-»ai, Siberia, i^t.O 



H. 3. Elwes, £eq 

Theodore Flsber, 

Esq. [P.]. 
Purchased. 
Montagu ColL 
Montagu CoU. 
Salviu-Codraan Coll. 
Seebohm CoU. 



Shellev CoU. 

Dr. 'fVOTthinirtoa 

[P.J. ^ 
India Museum [P.]' 
n. It. Sharpe, Esq. 

Dr. O.'tlnsch [P.]. 

Seebohm CoU. 



• Dafila uoDEar*. 

TWnfr. F. Z. S. 1886, p. 70. pi. »ii, (Svdnoy I., Phoioii 
Onrap, Ooitr. Paoifle) ; id. Cat. Coll £. p. SO (ISeo!; Luter. P. Z. S. 
18ftl, pp. 289. 288, 300 ; H'.^fo™, Aea Polgn. p. 71 (1891). 
Cauoo Trittniin La* kiadlj Mat ine fur inspectiou lb« t^vpa* of hi* I), mud/tta ; 
Ic u iminaturp. ho* Ihp right ving out, and bu been kept in oonlliitf- 
1 ouiaut (Irttinguiiih them froin Hjina tpaHiuen* of D. aatUa ; still. 
oMubbriug ih» loeaUiy whcnmi tliey came. I do not think it quite m,h, at Itott 
(br iha prnent, to UentiQ' 1). niodcala with D. acuta. 




276 


AVA-nvs. 




t-w. rf 2 >i 8k. 


Lob-nor, Feb. {Ptjtt^aUky). 


H. Seebohm, Eaq, 
W. D. Cmmning, 
In^^uMum [P.]. 


X. rf jUT. 8k. 


Fan, Peraan OuU, Oct. 


y.B. cJ2ad,8k. 

V, f, ,: i 9 «a. 




Bagaad. 


Kenneth LoftuB,Esil. 


8t ij iuv. ak. 
i. Si>d.<k. 




[P.]. 


Kandahar, Feb. 


Lt.-ColDnel Swinhoe 

[P]. 
Hume ColL 


t'. 6 ad. ak. 


Kandabar, Feb. 


/'-.-. ,J S «i. et 


India. 


Purchaaed. 


ijjm.di. 






»'.V«i.ak. 


N. India. 


India Miiaeum [P.]- 


f. <j8d. 8k. 


Ouibee Dehra, Laikhana, 
Jan. (A. 0. H.). 


Hume CoU. 


».■. J aJ. ak. 


Koree, Uppei- Sindb, Jan. 
Eoree, FeC 


Hume CoU. 


n'. d ad. ak. 


India Muaeum [P.]. 


a', tf 8d, ak. 


DeM. 


Hume Coll. 


/. 5 ad. ak. 


Guwaon, Delhi, Feb. (W. 
If. CMU). 


Hume Coll. 


J'. <J ad. ak. 


KumaoQ (Stracheii). 


India Museum [P.]. 


t'-x/. d ? ad. at 


Etawah, Not. 


Hume CoU. 


JiuT.ak. 
vf-t. rfSad.et 






Allahabad, March, Nov., 


Hume ColL 


iav. i' 


Dec. {A. 0. H.). 




Oudh. 


Capt. Stackhouae 
PinwiU [P.], 


n", V. (J ad. 8k. 


Oudh, Dec, Jan. 


Hume Coll. 


y.i^.A. 


Sultanpur, Oudh, Feb. 


Hume CoU. 


»". J iJ. ak. 


Hwdu5, Oudh, Feb. {A. 

Anderam). 
Nepal 


Seebohm Coll. 


f-a". rf8ad.ak. 


B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 


at (J JUT. at. 




[P.]. 


p". 9 ad. ak. 


Nepal Dolaka, Jan. 


Iliuue Coll. 


J'. /ad. dr. 


Manoum, Ninal, ApriL 


J. ScuUt. Esq. [P.]. 




32, DAFILA. 



277 



^. S ftd* sk. 

**. $ juv. fik. 
P. cJ juv. sk. 

m*. 2 juv. sk. 
n\ $ ad. St. 
0*. c^juY.sk. 

P\f' (^ juv- et 
pull. sk. 

r*, «*. (S juv. sk. 

/*, tt*. (^ ad. et cT 



JUY. sk. 



«*. c^ ad. sk. 
v*. c^ ad. St 

4^. cT ad. sk. 

y", 2^. cJ ad et cT 

juv. sk. 
a*. cT ftd. sk. 

A*, c? ad. sk. 
c*. 2 io^m- sk, 
rf*. $ ad. sk. 

«*-;>*. f^ $ ad. et 
JUV. sk. 

5^-u*. $ ad. sk. 

27*. cT ad. sk. 
V*. 2 a^* sk. 
X*. $ ad. sk. 
y*. cT ad. sk. 

X*. Pull. St. 
a'. cJ skeleton. 
^. Skeleton. 
c*. Skeleton (im- 
perfect). 



Yokohama, Japan 

Fryer). 
BintuJu/ Nov. 
Labuan, Dec. 

Sarawak. 
N. America, 
Kotzebue Sound. 



St. Michael's, Alaska, July, 

Aug. (JE. W. Nelson), 
W. side of Rocky Mts. 
British Columbia. 

Washin^n, D. C, March, 
Missouri Brakes, Montana, 

April. 
Fort Dufferin, April. 

49th Parallel. 

Canada. 

Indiana. 

Washoe Lake, Nevada, Nov. 

Weaverville, N. California, 

March (J. S, Cairns). 
Corpus Christi, Texas, Jan., 

Oct., Dec. {F. B. Arm- 

stroTKj). 
Tarpon Springs, Florida, 

Jan., Nov. (W, E, I). 

Scott). 
Zacatecas, Mexico ( W. B. 

Richardson). 
Dueiias, Guatemala, Feb. 

(0.6'.). 
San Jose, Costa Rica, May 

(M. L. CaUeja). 
Antigua, Constancia (O. S,), 

London Market, March. 

Nepal. 



(J7. Seebohm Coll. 



Wa 



Purchased. 

A. H. Everett, Esq. 

"C.]. 

"allace Coll. 
Sir G. Back [P.]. 
Capt. Kellett & Ijeut. 

Wood [P.]. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 

J. K. Lord, Esq. \V.\ 
J. K. Lord, Esq. [P.J. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 
E. S. Cameron, Esq. 

[P.]. 

N. America Bound- 
ary Conun. [P.]. 

N. America Bound- 
ary Comm. [P.]. 

Government of 
Canada PP.]- 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 



Salvin-Godman Coll. 



Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Zool. Soc. 
Purchased. 

B. n. Hodgson, Esq. 

[P.J. 



d^j e*. Ad. St. 
/•. Ad. St. 

y*. c^ ad. sk. 



Hybrids. 
Dajila acuta x Anas hoscas. 

Great Britain. Old Coll. 

Great Britain. Frederick Bond, Esq. 

[P.J. 
Beardstown, Illinois, ApriL H. Saunders, Esq. 

[P.]. 



2. Daflla eatooi. (Plate ni.) 
Querquedula sp., 0. Jt. Gr. Litt B. BriU Miu. iii. p. 138 (Kerguelei 

Querquedula keipielenms, Clarkt, Wre<A of the 'limorUe,' p. 18t 
(1650) (deacr. niilk). 

Queiquedula eatoni, Sharpt, Ibis, 1876, p. 328 (Kenueleu laland) 
Couai, Qmlr. Nat. Hut. Eerg. /«. p. 4 (1876) ; Kidder ^ Couet, 
Bail. V.S.Nat.Mut. iL p. 4 (1875); Cab. J. J. O. 1875, " "" 



Kidder, op. cd. iii. p. 7 (tmre) (1870) i CtA. * SchniB. J.f. O. 1876, 
^. 329 ; Sharpe, Tratu. Vea. E.cped., Zool., Birds, p. 5, pi. Ti. 
1977); Eaton, ibid. f. 7 (Crozettea) (1877); Sclal. P. Z. S.I878, 



p. 578) Sharps, Phil. Zran*. clxviii. p. 105, pi. ri. (1879); Eaton, 
tbid. p. 107 (Crozettea) (1879) ; MoieUy, Noiei, pp. 190, 191 (1879); 
Sclat. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 310 {egaa), 1880, p. 523 ; td. Toy. CkaOaig., 
Birds, pp. 113, 150 (1881) ; Milne-Edv>. Reeh. Faun. Big. Auttr. 
chftp. ii. p. 40 (1882) ; B., B., ^ R. Water-B. N. Am. ii. p. i 
(DOte) (1^) ; Pagenit. Jakrb. d. Hamb. Wissmsch. Anst. ii. p. 8 
(pan) (1884) ; Cab. J.f. 0. 1888, p. lia 

Adult male. Head aod upper part of the neck dark brown, tiie 
feathers with narrow central darker Btripes ; nape blackish with 
pale dottiugB ; interscapular region and back brown, waved 
with narrow whitdsh bars ; scapnlare long and acnminate, black, 
with greyiah edgee, the onter ones black on the apical part out- 
wardly ; npper tail-corerta brown edged with whitish, the onter 
ones black on the outer web ; nnderparta dull greyish, with a slight 
brown tinge on the crop-region, which is thickly dotted with small 
blackish spots or streaks, the latter finer on the breast ; sides and 
flanks regularly barred with black and white, the white bars the 
narrowest ; crissnm black in the middle, greyish outwardly ; wings 
greyish brown ; speculum bronzy green, but the upper and lower 
paiis velvety black, bounded anteriorly by a narrow cinnamon 




32. KAnti. 279 

Immature maU. Resemblra the female, bat haa the iringB as in 
Uie ad nit malo. 

Touny, Resembles the female, but has the feathen of the lower 
parts centred with brown atreaks, 

rotiiuf in rfi'wn. Similar to the young iu down of D. actiUt, Imt 
the sides of the head Uislinctly nifescont; a tinge of the same 
appears also od the thrust, breast, and sides. 

The type of Ihis species is an iminmature male, and does not show 
the cbantcteristica of the genus, which are ijaito evident iu the 
fiilly adult male— almost a miniature of the male Pintail. 

Ball. Eerguclen Island, and apparently also Crozette Islands. 

*-/■ d 5 «d.,juv., Kerguelen L 'Challenp^^' Eip^d. [C.]- 

et pulL sk. 

/, k. $ sd. et (J KePgueleo L (Eaton). The Admiralty [P.]. 

imm. «k. (Types of the species.) 

ii A, /. (f S ad. sk. Kerguelen I. Antarctic Exped. [C.]. 

m. Imm. tic. Crozette L Capi. Armson [P.]. 



3. Dafila ipiiuc&ada. 

Pato cola A^uda, Asira, Apunt. iii. p. 421, n. 42H (Bocnos Ayrea) 
(leOS) nude 

Anas xpinicaada. TieUl. N. D. v. p. 13-5 (1816) ; id. Eik. Mtth. i. 
p. Me (1833) ; Ourm. La Ptata-lUiie, U. p. 515 (ParaaS) (1801) j 
SciUg, Mtu. F.-B., Anseres, p. 38 (1866); Ok6. Thee. Ora. i. 
p. 3^ (1873). 

Anas oxTura, Licht. in Miu. Smvl. ; Maim, Noea A eta, xvi. Suppl. 
i. p. 123 (Chili) (1834); Mentm, JErtdi ^ Orub. Ene. sect. i. 
votxxsv. p, 43 (1841) ; C. S. Gr. Gm. B. iii. p. 616. n. 22 (1846) ; 
Dftilun, in Oa^i Faim. CM. i. p. UQ (184«) ; Licht. Nomenel. 
-Jr. p. 10I(I85J); Qm. t/'.S..i«lr.£n>. iL p.202(1866); Burm. 
Im Plata-BeiM, ii. p. 616 (Meodoza) (1861) ; PhiL ^ Lama, OU. 
Av. Chil. p. i\ (18B8); Phil^, OrnU, iv. p. 160 (1888 ) (Aiito- 
taga»M); Waugh ^ LalaiU, Act. Soc. Se. CKiVi, IT. p. Ixxx'a. 
(renaflores) (1804). 

Enamatura spinicnuda, O. «. Or. Oen. B. iiL p. «27, n. 7 (1844) ; 
Uartt. hid. Atar. Apunt. p. 27, n. 420 (1847) ; G. R. Gr. Om. B. 
iii. Append, p. 28 '■""■ ■■ - '- ■" ""■ ■"'. >■ 

(S. Braiil) (1870). 

Datila oxTura, BcAnk &p>. Av., Natatore^ 1 88. S. Q-iO-OSI (1845) ; 
*to. /'. Z. S. 1867, p. SS5 (Chili) ; G. R. Gr. Uand-litl, iii. p. 81, 
uo. 10633 (1871) ; Tad. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 65* (Peru), 1B82, p. 47 
(N.E. Peru) i PhUippi, Omit, \i. p. lOO (Antofsffasta) (1888). 

DaQla spinicauda, Bp. Gmtpt. Rend. xUii. a. 660, n, 113 (1B66); 
Sclal. & Sale. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 146 (llep. Ar?.). 1869. p 167 
(Tinla. Peru) ; iid. Una, 1870, p. 601 : Sdat. P. Z. S. 1870, 
jro. 66.5, OtW, pi. MSTiii. i O.fi. Or. .HoniWW, iii. p. 81, n. 10a»l 
{1871); Jana.i'.Z.S. I87S, p.3e7(ArjfeotiDe); Oarrod, P. Z. S. 
1873, pp. 467, 639; Selat.^ Sale. Nommd. Av. Nratrop. p. 180 
(1873); iid.P.Z.S. 1870, pp. 17, 392 (Peru): Duntf. IbUA^O, 
p, 1«8. 1877, pp. 41. 193, 1878, pp. W,401 (Centr. Palag.) : Setat. 
P. Z. 8. 1880, p 516 ; Sharpi, P. Z. S. 1881, p. H; S^v. Cat. 



B. StrickL CoU. p. 533 (1682) ; Milne-Edvi. Sech. Fmm. JUg. 
Atatr. ch. is. p. 46 (1882) ; WhiU, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 42; Siiat. 
lAtt Vert. An. Sth ed. p. 433 (1883); Barrow*, Auk, 1884, 
p. 274 (Entrerios) ; Boeek, MT. orn. Ver. Wien, 1884, p. 167 
(extract, p. 24} (Cocbabamba, Bolivia) ; Sclat. P, Z. S. 1886, p. 402 
(TarapacS) ; Taez. Om. Pir. iu. p. 481 (1886) ; Berl. J.f. O. 
1887, p. 133 (Paraguay P) ; Sclat. Argent. Om. ii. p. 134 (1888) ; 
Triar. Cat. Coll. B. p. 60 (1889) ; Srlat P. Z. S. 1891, p. 136 
(Tarapacfi); Sdal. lbt», 1890, p. 425; tarn, P. Z S. 1801, p. 178 
(ducluB Botalli); Oiut. Atitt. Se. Cap Horn, vi. OU. p. S09 
(1891); fflirfart, Kat. Vageliamml p. 281 (1891); Kerr, Ibit, 
1892, p. 146 ; Holland, BiU, 1892, p. 207 ; Berkeley Jamtt, Nao 
List Ckil. B. p. 9, D, 167 (1892) ; Aplin, Ibii, 1894, p. 201 
(Uniguaj). 

Dafila urophaaanus, Sclat. (nee T'iff.) P. Z. S. 1660, p. 388 (Fidk- 
laDds) ; Abdalt, Ibii, 1861, p. 100 (FalklandB). 

Anaa (Dafila) spinicauda, Surm. J. /. O. leW, p. 266, n. 246 
(HendoHt) ; MUne-Edm. SecA. Faun. Big. Auttr. cbap. ix. p. 45 
(1882). 

Aii«B (Dafila) eaudacuta, Burm. {nee PaS.) ibid. p. 247 (Paranfi). 

Dafila sp., Sdat. ^ Salt. Ibii, 1868, p. 189 (Sandy Point). 

Dafila caudacuta, G. R. Gr. Sand-litt, iii. p. 81, n. 10683 (Fannfi) 
(1871). 

DaphUi* Bpinicauda, Giti. The*. Om. ii. p. 14 (1876). 

Anae (Dafila) spinicauda, Bch«u>. Om. Oentralbl. 1882, p. 20; ti'. 
VUg. Md. aurt. p. 63 (1882). 

Byhridt, 
Dafila Binnicauda <; X .£z spODM $ , JVnn, P. Z. & 1891, p. 830 ( cf ). 

Adult male. Above brown, feathera black in the centre, those of 
the back, ramp, and upper tail-coverts mctigined with greyish 
blown, the ecapnlnrs mai^ned with nifouH-brown ; head above 




33, PffiCILONETTA. 281 

ffiA. Sontt America, from Sonthern Brazil on tlie East and 
Southern Peru on the West to Maf^ellan Straits and Falkland Islands. 



d. Ad. tk. 
e,/. Ad. 8k. 
p. Ad. Ek. 
A. cj ad. ik. 

m, B. <J$ ad. 

sk. 
«,»?. (JS ad. 

»Mi. J ad. et 
(J 2 juv. A. 

p-y. d 2 ad. et 
JUT. ak. 

>. Ad. Ik. 



Tinta, Peru, .Tune. 
Lafrunti de Tangnsuca, 

Peru {If. jniffl^}. 
Laguna de Langiu, Feb. 

IH. H'hiltly). 
ChUi. 

Chili (E. a Bead). 
Chill (£. C. AwrfV 
Kio Bueno, Chill, Jan. 

Sacaya, ProT. of Tarapaca, 

CHili, March. 
Silani, Tarapaca, Jan. 

Corral, Chill, Oct. 

Rio Pilmaiquen, Chili, Feb. 

Central Chili. 

Talcahuano, Sept. 

Sand? Point, Sir. of Ma- 

freOan, Dec 
Falkland U. 
Uruguay, Sept. 

Monte Video (Jahmton). 
Moreno, Buenoa Ay res, 

Nov. 
Bred iu confinement. 



SalvJn-tToduian C 

n.J.ElweB,Esq.[T.]. 

Piirehased. 
Purchased. 
SrJvin-Undnittn Coll. 
11. Berkeley Janiai, 

E«,. [P.]. 
H. Iwrkeley James, 

Esq. [P.]. 
n. Berkeley Jamea, 

Esq. rp.]. 

H. Berkeley James, 

Esq. IP.]: 
H. Berkeley Jnmef, 

Esq. [P.]. 
B. Berkeley Jamas, 

Eeq. [P.]. 
Dr. Coppinger [C.]. 
SalTia-Oodman CoIL 

Ttrecddale OoU. 
Alan Peel, Esq, [C.]. 

Salvin-Oodmaa Coll, 
H. Dumford, Esq. 

[P.l 
Lord Lilford [P.]. 



Htbkid. 

Dafila tpinicawla jf X .-Ex tjpotun ?■ 

Bred in confinement {Zool. Frank Finn, Esq. 



33. PffiCILOlTETTA. 

PKrilnnitta, Eytnn, Mob. Anat. p. .SI (1838) P. bahamenns. 

INeciloiiitla, (5. S. Or. LUt Gen. H. p. 74 (If^O). 
PcBcilcaietta, Asauix, Xoiitcncl. Zool., Ai-et, p. 61 (1&43-46). 

Jtanfft. Soatbem America from tho West Indies southwards, aud 
Africa toatb of the Sahara. 



I 



Kry to the SjoenM. 
«, T»i! and upper lail-coverta pale rufous, nearly 
uniform; central tajl-fealbera muun elon- 
gated and acuminale. 

, (-lieeka pure white, \vith no dark spots : 
(iie lar^r ; wing S*4 to 10 inebea 



b'. Cheeks vrhitiBh, thieUf speckled with 

brown : size smaller; wing 7'6 inches . . galapagentU, p. 264. 
(, Tail and upper lail-coTerto brown, the feKthers 
with narTDw whitish or grejdBh edges ; central 
tail'faatherB not partJcuXarlj elongsled «TyfArorAyneAa,p.S86. 

1. Pmcilonetta bahamaiiBig. 
MarecB, Anatis Bjlveatris speciee, Marcgr. But. Br. libr. t. p. 314 

(J648). 

Anas behameDBis, Cate^, Carolina, i. p. 98, t. 93 (1754) ; Briu. 
Om. V\. p. 368 (1760). 

Ilathera Duck, Co(#rfy, ibid. ; Lath. Syn. iii, 2, p. 607, n. 6S (1785). 

Anas bahamengis, Linn. S. JV. i. p. 199, n. 17 (1706) (ex Cateibj/) ; 
Gm. S. JV. i. 2, p. 616, n. 17 (178») ; Lath. Ind. Om. iL p. 865, a 58 
(1790) i rieill. N. D. t. p. 126 (1816) ; LuJU. Abk. h. Ak. Wif 
tensch. Berl. 1816-17, p. 172 ; Dim. Did. Sc. JVirf. \i. p. 386 
(1817); Wied, Beitr. iv. p. 925 (8.E. Brazil) (1832); Fraier, 
P. Z. S. 1843, p. 119 (Chili); T«A. Wii^m. Arch. 1844, i. p. 315 
(Pern) ; id. Faun. Per., Avee, p. 64, n. 2 (1846) ; P Yarrell, P. Z. S. 



3847, p. 54 (Chili; egg); Burm. ^ri. Ueb. iii. p. 436 (1856); 
Cab. f.f. O. 1857, p. 3-i7 (Anmerh.) ; Gundi. J.f. O. 1861, p. 191 
(Cuba); SeAi^. Mus. P.-B., AnBeres, p. 55 (1866); Sund. (Efe. 



E. Vet.-Ak. Fiirh. 1869, p. 691 ; ffieft. Thee. Om. i. p. 346 (1872). 
Marec, Buff. Hitl. Nat. 0«. ix. p. 266 (1783). 
Anas ilathera, Bonn. Enc. Mlth. i. p. 151 (1791). 
Fato pico aplomado y roxo, Axara, Apunt. iii- p. 436, n. 433 (Buenos 

Aires) {1§06). 
Canard & bee rouge etplomb£,iSi>ni)vit, 'lair. Fay, ir. p. 340, n. 433 

(1809). 
Anas mbiirostris, Vieia. N. D. v. p. 108 (1816) (ex Axara) ; id. Sue. 

MHh. i. p. 363 (1833) ; G. ILGr.Gen. B. iii. p. 616, n. 16 (1845). 
Mareca balianiensis, Si<y)k. Get). Zoi,t. xii. 2, p. 137 (1824). 
Anns urophui^iiiDus, Virf. Zool. Jtrurn. it. p. 857 (N.W. America !) 

■*"' — ; Lest. Compl. de Buff., OU. \x. p, 536 (1837) ; id. op. cit. 




33. pfflcii-ONErTA. 283 

p. Ml (1656) ; Baird, B. N. Am. p. 776 (note) (1858) ; ftfa. 
ifrwf NoBora, Vim. p, IS8 (Chili ; oaa) (1865) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 
I867,p.336(0bUi); FhU.^Landi,. Cal.Av. Cktlt, y. i\ (lHHS) i 
Sclat. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 146 (ConcUitas); PtL Om. Bra*. 
pp. 320, 460, Iriii (1870) ; Burm. P.Z.S.1 872, p. 307 (Argentine) ; 
/*&.««, 1873, p. 40; Sclat. ^ Salv. Ni>mmcl.Ai: Neotno-f. 130 
(1873); i<d. P. Z. 8. 1876, p. 803 (part.) ; Durn/, Ibu, 1876, 
p. 163, 1877, p. 102 (Buenoa Ayres) ; Xoiw. iV. U.8. Nat. Mm. 
1. n. 487 (Antigua, Guadeloupe) (1878) ; Too. P. Z. S. 1879, 
p. 243 (Tuinbez, N. Peru) ; Schmidt, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 316 : &^l. 
P. Z. S. 1880, p. 516; Coiy, B. Bahama l$l. p. 185 (1881); A, ^ 
E. Ntwt. Haitdb. Jant. p. 113 (1881) ; Sdii. Oi?. B. Striekl Coll. 
p. 633 (1882) ; Selat. List Vert. An. 8(h ed. p. 435 (1r<83) ; Barrow*, 
AiA, 1884, p. 274 (Timiwis); Botck, MT. om. Ver. WieH, 1884, 
p. 167 (Mtract, p. 34) (Cocl»tbiinib», Boli»iii) ; Cory, B. Haiti 
mdStatDomiHffo, p. 167 (18SS); id. Litl B. W. Ind. p. 31 (1885); 
Sak. Ibu, 1886, p. 172 ; Taa. On. Fir. iii. p. 482 (1886) ; Mao- 
Pitrl. lint, 1887, p. 203 (Aricn, Mollendo) ; Sidgtu. Man. N. Am. 
B. p. 08 (1887) ; Btrl. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 133 (Parsmiay ?) : Oury, 
AtOi, 1888, p. 02 (Bubamiu and Antilles) ; id. B. W. Ind. p. 20:t 
(1880): ScUit. Argait. Om. U. p. 135 (186d){ Tritlr. Cat. OoU. 
£.p.S6(188U); Meyer, Abb. F^k^&M. Taf . cxvi. {ISSS) ; HoU. 
Jj- Sclat. Ibit, 1890, p. 435; Owrf. Afw.. Sc. Cap Som, tj. Om. 
p, 314 (1801) ; Pma. J.f. O. 1801, p. 125 (Cordoba) ; SaHert, 
Xat. VngtUmml. p. 231 (1801) ; SAam, Cat. Osteal. Sptdm. Cbll. 
Sia-s/.m. p. 302 (1891); SoUatid, Ibt», 1803, p. 207; Berkeley 
Jmntt, iVaw Lilt CMl. B. p. (1802). 
Pcecilonetta baliameuus, Bchnb. Syn. At., NaUtores, I. 83. f. 022 
(1M5) ; GoiM, B. Jam. p. 408 (1847) ; BikiA. Av. Sy*. Xat. p. be 
<18<)2); Sclet.P.Z.S. 1860, p. 380 (Falklaods); Abbott, Ibii, 
1861, p, 160 (FiJblaiids) ; AUn-ttM, J.f. 0. 1862, p. 207 ; March, 
Pr. Acad. Philad. 1864, p. 71 ; Sclai. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 620 (breed- 

S' !) i G. R. Gr. Band-titt, iii. p. 81, n. 10630 (1871) ; Sundet. 
tth. not. Ac. di»p. Teat. p. 147 (1872) i (hmdl. J. /. O. 1874, 
*■ • «. An. Soc. Etp. Uitt. Nat. ■ " 



1.314 (Porto 



1878) ; irf. ^. / 0- 1878,™. 163, 190,1881, p. 400 (Cuba)!' 
-■' — "' urophtisiimu*, £p. Campt. Said. xliiL p. 650, n. 116 



76 (18^). 

O. 1860, p. 366; id. La 
Sehm. Om. Ordralbl. 



^^ green, 

^^^ colour 



Peciloi 

(1856). 
Datila utDphflAiann, Baird, B. N. Am. 
Ants (D&ula) bahnmeiins, Burm. J. 

PUia-Beite, ii. p. 515 (Uruguay) (IHII) 

1682, p. 200 ! id. rUg. :ooL GiirL p. 63 (1883). 
PndlonetU urophuinuus, O. K. Gr. Iland-tUt, iiL p. 81, n. 10637 

(1871). 
Daphila bahamensiB, Gieb. TAet. Orn. ii. p. 14 (1875). 

AduU malt. T7pp«r part of the head, nape, lower neck, upper 
back, breast, and abdomen reddish, nitb black spots, almOHt roond, 
ou the neck, breast, and abdomen ; cheeks, sides of the head, and 
throat pure irhitc ; tower back and rump blackisli brown ; upper 
tsil-coverts, tail, and under tail-covorts immaculate fawn-colour, 
the latter with a slight rosy tinge ; the tail paler towards the tip ; 
■CBpolars blaok, edfed on both webs with reddish ; wing dark slaty 
green, tpeoulum glossy green, margined antcriorl_v by a fawn- 
coloured band, formed by the tips of the greater wing-ooverts, and 
jMMtcriorly bj- a velvety black band, followed by a broader one of a 



fawn-colour, formed by the tipe of the secondaries ; tertials dnaky 
brown edged with fawn-colour, the inner ones velvety black along 
the middle ; under wing-coverts like the upper ones, bnt the greater 
ones grey, and the inner once, like the axillars, whitish : bill bloish- 
lead, with two red or bright orange-yellow spots at the base of the 
npper mandible ; feet brown. Total length I'J inches, wing 8-4-10, 
tail 5, calmen 1-85, tarsus 1-40. 

Femaie. Similar to the male, but somewhat smoll.er and lea* 
bright, especially on the Bpeculum. 

Young male. Similar to the female. 

Young in down. Very idmilar to the same stage of DaJUa acuta, 
but the white of the sides of the head aod nnderparta with a slight 
yellow tinge. 

Hah. Bahamas, Antilles, and the whole of South America, with 
the Falklands, but not in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. 

a. Ad. sk. Antigua, W. Indi^, Feb. W. India Committee 

(FrUdat). [P.]. 

h. d ad. ek. Cajutuba, Bradl (Nat- Sah-in-Oodman Coll 

terer). 

e. Ad. sk. Buenos Ajres, Aug. H.]>uraford,Esq.n 

d. Ad. St Chili. C. Crawley, Esq. f 

e. Ad. St. S. America. J. E. Gray, Esq. ^ 
f,ff. 6 ad. et Bred in confinement (Zool. H.J.Elwas,Eaq. {T-j 

ad. sk. Soc.), Feb., Oct. 

h. Ad. St Dr. Giinther [P.]. 

I, k. PuU. St. Zoolo^cal Society. 

;. Skeleton. 



*.. PtBcilonetta galapagensia. 



■•I 

n TT>T 




23. ttKciLOKETii. 265 

3. Fouilonetta erythrorhyncha. 

Crimson-billed Duck, Lath. .>y». iii. 2, p. 50", n. 52 (lT8->) (Cape of 

Oiiod Bone). 
Ana* emhrorhjncha, Cm. S. X. i. 2. p. 517, n. 7» (1788) ; Zaf-S. 
Ind. dm. ii. p. S-Vi, a. fl7 (1790) ; Bonn. Enc. Milk i. p. 120 
(1T90) : Oum. Dkt. Sc. An(. »i. p. SSO (1816) ; Surch. Tmveh, 
t p. 283 (1822), ii. p. Sie (1831) ; G. H. Gr. Oen. B. iii. p. 616, 
D.14 (18*5) ; SmiiA, lU. S. Afr. Zool., Birdi, pi. lOl (1846) : De* 
Xuri in Le/tberr. V,t,. Aln/K*., Ou. p. 173 (1845-1850) ; Lieht. 
A'omrtu^. Av. p. 101 (1854); Bk/th, J. A. S. B. isiv. p. 26.5 
{AbysMnio) {l&w); BolU, J.f.O. 18C6, p. 165 (Zool. Gard.) ; 
Btugl. J. f. O. 1803, p. 4 ; iVfa. Beise Aown-o, Vofftt, p. 138 
(Cap*) (1805); ScAlf/. Miu. P.-B., Anwres, p. .50 (1800); id. 
P. Z. S. 1806, p. 436 (Mndnpiscor) i Layard, B. S. Afe. p.351 
(1667) ; Hnrii. P. Z. S. 1807. p. 837 (Zaniib»r) : Hirugl. Ban nacA 
Ab>fmH. 1801-63. p. 260 (1808) ; Schleg. * PuU. Rech. Faun. 
Madag. p. 141 (1808) ; Chapm. Trav. in S. Afr. ii. App. p. 422 
(1888) i Fintch S( JlarfJ. Vog. Oit-Afr. p. 808 (18701 ; ft>6. 
Tket. Om. i. p. 3M ^1872) ; nartt. FSff. Xadog. p. 303 (1877) : 
8heU. P. Z. S. 1882, p. 810 (Mamboio); Milnf-Edw. ^ Ornnd. 
Oil. Madoff. p. 725, pi. 275. f. 4 (heail) (1882) ; Fiahtr. ZeiUehr. 
ffa. Om. 1884, p. 3il4 (Masai) ; SUhrn, J. f. 0. 1885, p. 62 
tKaruma. C. .\frica) ; Emi«,J.f.O. 1891,p.68 fUgoiro); ifcAnio. 
Qtid. p. 141; Harttrt, Kal. FoffeUamml. p. 230(1891): Sibree, 
nil, 1892, p. 270; ScAnw. J.f. O. 1892, p. (Bukoba, Ugsnik) ; 
id. Vgg. Deutick-O^I-AJr. p. 26 (1894). 
Ajia« melanura, I'ieiit. (nee Om.) A'. J), v. p. 135 (nee p. 165) 

(1818). 
Tadorna ervthrorbynclia, SlepA. Gm. Zool. xii. 2, p, 75 (1824). 
Qnerqueduk erfthroTbyncba, Sm^A, Cat. S.-A/r. Mm. p. 30, □. 325 
(1887); Bp. ComiA. Smd. xliii. p. 050, n. 100 {1»50) ; Htugl. 
Om. N.O.-Afr. ii. 2, p. 133.) (18i3) ; Holub, Beitr. Om. Siid- 
^fr. p. 330 (1882) ; Bahm, J. /. O. 1885, p. 03; JlwAw, J. /. O. 
1886, p. 115 (GftUa) ; Jiiibmi, Bull Mm. Sou. itH. N. dt Beta. 
IT. p. 149, IL 193(1886) (TaDKanyika) ; MaUchte, J.f. O. im, 
pp.137, 144. 
pBcilonitta erythrorbiiicha. E<jl. Man. Anat. p. 115 (1838) ; G. B. 
Gr. Liil B. Brit. ?iu». iii. p. 134 (Abjasima) (1814); ^it. &m. 
./iBOf. p.67{18flt)). 
Mar«>cB errthrorb.vncluk, Ilartl. Vert. Get. Mm. p. 119 (1844), 
Anas pTTThorbyncha, Font. Icon. ined. t. 73; td Daer. An, Ud. 

ZibM.) p. 4-5 (1844), 
FiBcilonitts erylhrorhyncbn, Snpp. Sutt. Ueion. p. 138, n. 491 
(Saiiiu>ar,AbTB«iiiA)(1845); SAtU. Ibii, 1885, p. 415 (Somali) ; 
ttf. p. Z. S. lesa p. 371 (Kilimanjaro). 
Asas punctaU, ifcAnft, ( 

ff. 915-910 (1845). 
Anu pyrrhocephala, " Font." (errore), BMk, Cat. B. Mue. A. S. B. 

p. 804, in STn.n. 1776(1849). 
DafllB erythrorbvncha. Blyth. Cat. B. Mia. A. S. B. p. 304, n. 1778 
(1849) ; Harit- Om. Buitr. Faun. Madag. p. 82 (1801) ; PolUn, 
K. T. D. J. p. ^27 (1803) ; Bach * E. Xeiet. Ibii, 1803, p. 174 
(Madagascar); Sclat. P. Z. S. I8tt3, p. 105; Verr. in FuMon'* 
Toy. it Mailay., Ann. Ii, p. 4 (1805) ; Grand. Rev. H Mag. dt 
Zool. 1808, p. 5 (Madagaacar) ; SclaL P. Z. 8. 1880, p. 315; ISutl., 
FeOd., 4- Seid, Katural 1 882, p. 437 (Natal) ; Sale. Cat. B. Strieid. 



Coll. p. 53,1 (186i) ; Sdat. Lilt Vert. An. Stb ed. p. 436 (ISSS) ; 
Trvfr. Vol. OoU. B. p. 50 (1889). 

Ptecilonetts erythrorhyncha, Gum. IbU, 1859, p. 251 (Natal), 1861, 
p. 134, 1862, p. 158, 1808, p. 471 ; Boc. Jom. Ac. Se. lAA. 1867, 
p. 329 : fiWut P. Z. S. 1869, p. 629 (breeding) ; Boc. Jorn. Ac. &. 
Litb. 1871, p. 277, 1872, p. 70 ; Anderu. S. Damara Land, p. 339 
(IHtnora and Great Nuuaqua-liuid) (1872); Boc. J.f.O. 1876. 
p. 294 (Rio Coroca) ; Gum. ibid. ; Ayre$, Ibia, 1880, p. 272 
(Transvaal); Boc. Om. Any. p. 501 (1881); Sharpe in Oalei 
Malab.-land, p. 328 (1881) ; id. Layard't B. S. Afr. p. 754 
(1884) ; Salvad. Ann. Mia. Civ. Gen. (2) i. p. 244 (Shoa) (1884), 
Ti. p. 32 (Shoa) (1888) ; Shell. Ibii, 1888, p. 307 (Tamrani), 1894, 
pp. 28, 478 (Luke Shirwa) ; Satnad. Mem. S. Ac. Sc. Tor. (2) 
Ay. p. 564 (Somali) (1894). 

Nettion erythrorhyncha, G. R. Gr. Hand-liU, iii. p. 84, b. 10668 
(1871). 

Dafila errthrorhynchn, Gieb. Thet. Om. ii. p. 14 (1875). 

Querqueduia pTrrhorhvncha, Holub, Beitr. Om. Sadqfr. p. 330, tn 
tyn. Q. erjt£rorhvncbai (1882). 

Anas (DafiU) erythrorhyncha, Iteknv:. Om. Otntralbl 1882, p. 20; 
id. Vog. zool. GUrt. p. 64 (1882). 

AdvJl maie. Upper half of the head, as far as the eyee, dark 
brown, sharply defined from the whitish of the sides of the head 
and throat ; neck greyish, mottled with blackish spota ; back and 
scapulars brown, the feathers edged with reddish buff; undcr- 
parts whitish, each feather with greyish-brown spots, larger on the 
flanks, darker and better defined on the under tail-coverta ; wings 
slaty grey ; a narrow velvety-black speculum more or less with a 
green lustre, edged anteriorly by a reddish-fawn band formed by 
the tips of the last row of upper wing-coverts ; a very broad band 
of the samo colour on the apicalhalf of thesccondanefl; under wing- 
coverts lirown-gTt'y, the greater uncs piiler and [nirc-r ^e;- ; tail dark 




34. ELABMOXETTA. 287 

^ c^ ad. sk. Lamu, Au^. F. J. Jackson, Esq. 

[P.]. 

/. Ad. sk. Mamboio (Kirk). Shelley Coll. 

m,n. (S 2 ftd. sk. Mapane Pan, Matabele, Nov. W. E. & C. G. Oates, 

Esqrs. [P.], 

^fP' 6 2 ^' sk. Potchefstroom, Transvaal, J. II. Gurney, Esq. 

March, June (7*. Ayres). [P.]. 

q. Ad. sk. Potchefstroom. F. A. Barratt, Esq. 

r. Ad. sk. G^ahamsto^\^l {E. L. Layard). Shelley Coll. 

s, t. Ad. sk. Madagascar. l*urchased. 

ti. <5 ad. sk. Central Madagascar. Shelley ColL 

V, w. Pull. St. Zool. Soc. 

.r. •Ad. st. Zoological Gardens. Zool. Soc. 

y. Skeleton. Zool. Soc. 



34. ELASMONETTA. 

Type. 

Elasmonetta, Salvad. MS, E. chlorotis. 

Bill compressed, soft on the edges of the apical part of the upper 
mandible ; lamella) extremely developed ; wings well developed. 
Hatu/r', Confined to New Zealand subregiou. 



1. Elasmonetta chlorotis. 

Anas chlorotis, G. li. Gr, Voy. Ereb, ^- Terr.y Birds j p. 15, pi. '20 
(1846) ; lichnb, Syn. Av.y Natatores, t. Ho. f. 912 (184-) (e.r I. c.) ; 
G. It. Gr. Gen. B., App. p. 28 (1849) ; Jip. Coinpt. Bend, xliii. 
p. G49, n. 71 (18^50) ; (;. B. Gr. Ibis, 18Gi>, p. 241 ; Bvh. Beise 
Novara, Voyelj p. l.*38 (1805) ; BuUer, ICks. on the Orn. Aeiv Zeai. 
p. 18 (1865): Hector, Neiv Zeal. Exh. p. 277 (Otago) (1866); 
Fiyisch, J.f. O. 1867, p. 330 ; id. Tr. X. Z. Inst. i. p. 72 (18(j9) ; 
I" Trovers, Trans. N. Z. Inst. i. p. 178 (Chatham Isl. !) (1809) f ; 




Hand-list, iii. p. H'2, n. 10048(1871); Hidt. Ibis, 1872, p. 250 
(Chatham Isl. :") ; Gieb. Thes. Orn. i. p. 347 (1872) ; Finsch, J. f. O. 
1872, p. 180; Buller, Hist. B. N. Zeal. p. 248 (1873); Finsch, 
J.f. O. 1874, p. 202; Sbarpe, Voy. Ereb. ^' Terr., Birds, p. 31 
(1875); Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 519; Finsch, Ibis, 1882, p. .'597; 
Bull. Man. B. New Zeal. p. 08 (1882): Bchnw. Orn. Cenfralbl. 




N. Z. Inst. XXV. 1892, p. 02 (1893). 
Nesonetta aucklaiulica, Hector (nee G. B. Gr.), Xew Zeal. Erh. 
p. 277, n. 50 (18('»6) : ef. Finsch, J.f. O. 1874, p. 202. 



* Sent 88 a hybrid between P. hahameu&is and Anns .vanthorhyncha^ but is 
iodi8tiiigui8hable froiu V. erythr*>rhyncha^ 

t I hare not been able to find tlua reference, quoted by Ilutton. 



Hl/hridt. 
f Anas chlorotiB ^ (?) X Aaaa boscaa $ , BuUer, B. Nevj Zeal 2nd ed. 
p. 269 (1883). 

Adult male. Head and upper part of neck browu, the cnwa 
glossy, with a chestnut tinge ; sides of the occiput and nape glossed 
with metallic green ; throat more or lees whitish ; npper parts 
brown, the edges of the feathers paler, greyish brown ; on the inter- 
scapular region the feathers are finely waved with black and mfons 
lines ; the outer scapulars black on the outer web, waved with 
black and chestnut lines on the inner one ; lateral upper tail- 
coverts black, glossed with green on the outer webs ; a white collar, 
more or less distinct, separates in front the brown of the npper from 
the lower part of the fore neek, which is chestnut, shading into pale 
reddish on tbe breast and abdomen ; these parts have nomerons 
black spots, almost round, on tho lower fore neck, more transverse on 
the breast and abdomen; flanks waved with rufous and black lines; 
under tail-coverte black, at the base of them on each side a white 
patch ; wings brown ; speculum black, metallic green on the upper 
part, bounded anteriorly by a narrow cinnamon band at the tip of 
the last row of the upper wing-coverts, and posteriorly by a rnfes- 
cent white band at the tip of the secondaries ; tertiaU edged with 
rufescent; under vrirg-coverte brown, the inner ones, with the 
Biillaries, white ; lail brown-black, with narrow rufesoent edges to 
the feathers : " irides black ; bill bluish black ; the pectination of 
the upper mandible yellowish brown ; feet dull slaty grey " {BuRer), 
Total length about 18 inches, wing 8, tail 4, culmen 1'7, tarsus 1-5. 
(Mia. Bothtchild.) 

l-'iiiiah. Held ;uid upper portion of the neck brown, the crown 
darker, each feather edged with rufous ; sides of the head and 




rf, c.f. S lid. e 

i jnv. sk. 
y,A. tf iuim. a 



Ti Zealand, 
ft Zealand. 



WeUinirtoii Mue 

[E.]. 
Sir G. Grey [P.], 



FoveaiixStrait»,NewZcaliuid. Capt. Stokefl [P.]. 
Chnthnm la. Dr. H. 0. Forbos [O.j. 



35. NDSONETTA. 
i. Or. Gen. B. iii. p. 627 (1JM4). . 



Range. Confiped to the Aucidancls. 



BuckWdicB 



1 . Heeonetta ancklandica. 

NeMDetta ftiicklondics, G. S. Gr. Gen. 



p. 1127 (McL flvn-). 



p). 169. f. 4 (bond, winp, and foot) (l&M); id. Litt tt. Brit. Mwi 
lii. u. 191 (Mcl. Bjn.) (1*14) ; id. Vw. Er^. * Twr., Birdi, p, 16 
pi. 17(1846); uf. Cm. J?. Append, p. 28(1M9); i^FAni, SsfH.Au., 
Nfttdtoru, t 77. f. 801 (tir ^eftiu ^ Terror) (184- ?); hj. ..le. 
aywt. Nat. p. ix, t. vii. (1*52); Bp. Compt. Bend. xliiL p. 661. 
0. 154 (ISM) ; O. R. Gr. Ihit, 1862, p. 242 : FfiueA, J./. O. 1870, 
p. 368 ; O. B. Gr. HoHd-liit, iii. p. 90, n, 10724 (1872) ; Sundev. 
MetA.nat.Ar.ditp. Tent. p. 150(1872); Fintch. J./.O. 1872, 
p. 188; Butt. rmni. A". Z.>n*i. T. p. 288(1873); Fimck. J./.O 
1844, p. 203; Girh. Thee. Om. ii. p. 700 (I87fi): Stuirtit, Voy. 
Era. ^ Terr., Birds, -a. 31 (1S76) ; Buller, Hut. B. Aew Zeal. 
and ed- u. p. 2«3, pi. ilii. (lowertig.) (1888) j id. Tratu. X. Z. In»t. 
- ■ ■""' ^. 8fi(1892)(voungir ' ' 



Erumslura (Ni 
p. 4. 



aetta) nucUanditB, Rohnu}. <Pm. Centralbl. 1882, 



jiduU male. Head and npper portion of the neck blockiab brown 
with 3 green gloss, eF^ecioll)' on the nape ; upjwr ports brown, 
with a greon gloHs and with brown-chestnat edges tu the feathers : 
lower portion of hind neck, mantle, and ecapnlara waTed with black 
and mfoua-brown lines ; lower pnrt of fore neck and crop-region 
cbe§tnQt, changing into whitish on the breast and abdomen : on 
the crop-rc^on and breast the feathers are centred with blockish 
ronnd spots ; abdomen crossed with dusky and whitish bars ; sides 
and flanks waved with blttck and rufous bars ; under tail-coverts 
blockish, mingled with brown ; at the base of them, on each side, 
« not Terj- distinct paler patch, waved with ridbnH-grey and black 
bere; wingBbrown,thefBathcrs with narrow brown edges; second- 
aries obscnrely glossed witli green, and tipped witb reddish white, 
forming a narrow apical band ; under wing-coverts brown, hroadly 
edge-d with white ; tail blackish brown, almost uniform : " bill 
blackish brown ; tarans aud feet reddish brown ; iridea dark hoiel" 
(Bidler). Total length from 17 to 18 inches, wing ^'5, tail 3-8, 
cnlmen 1-ti, tursus l-^. (lioflischiUl CoB.) 

Frmdlt. M.uch smaller than the male ; head brown, with no green 
lustre ; on the cheeks and throat the feathers edged with whitish ; 
general colour brown, with a dork green lustre on the back and 
wings ; crop-region, sides, aud flanks brown-chestnut ; on the flanks 

TOL-XXm. IT 



290 axaudx. 

the feathers have brows marks before the edge, nearly hidden; 
middle of the abdomen bufBsh, the tape of the feathers being of tliat 
ooh>ar, while the bases are dusky; wings browner than in the 
male ; secondaries aoarcoly showing a green Instre, and with lesa 
eonspicuouB reddish-white apical band. Total length about 14 
inches, wing 5, culmeu 1*35. (SothieAUd Coll.) 

Towftg in down. " The body ia covered wifli thick down, \rith 
long central filaments, eepeciaUy on the npper parts. The general 
ooloor ie dark ollTaoeouB-brown, fading to pale folTous-brown on 
the throat and fore neck, and to doll fawn colour on the breast and 
abdomen. There b a purer shade of dark brown passing through 
the eyes and melting away behind. The rudimentary wings have 
an outer fringe of yellowish brown ; the produced filaments on the 
shoulders and mantle are of the same pale colour. The hlU is dark 
brown, with the terminal shield and feet olivaceous-brown, the 
webs being darker ; claws yellowish brown." (£uUer.) 

This bird is very nearly related to Elatmomtta dUaroHt, having 
the same markings and colours, but has very small wings, nseleas 
for flight, and lamella of the bill much less developed. 

H^. Auoklands. 



(I. $ Bd.sk. 
6. ^? imm. si 



Auckland. 



Auckland Island. 



Antarctic Exped. (Type 

of species.) 
Sir G. Orey [P.T. 
The Countess of Gallo- 

wayrP.]. 
The Hon. Walter 
Rflthschild [P.]. 



aUEBQDEDULA. 




'SH. UlTEBaiTEDCU. 



upper part or tiiu nwik brown- vinou;?, 

Btre&led with white (mnle) circia, p, 393. 

. Upper winp-coverla bright Bmalt-blue. 
r. A crescenl-liko while band betweun the eyes 
anil the bill at the male ; BmaUeT, bill uauaUy 

less tlum 1 •05 ditcort, p. 299. 

d. No CRSCent^like white bimd between the eyea 
ftnd tbe bill of the male, which bos the aides 
of the hcnd, neck, breast, and laAes bright 
chestnut: InrK^r, bill usually more tliaa l-Oo. eyanopterti, p. 303. 



1. Qaerqaedula versicolor. 
Pal* pieode tre» colnres, ATMra, Apanl.m. p. 450, n. 440 {Psragiiay) 

(IS&6). 
.\iiu versicolor, Vteia. N. li. v. p. 100 (1816) [ex Aiara) ; id. Eac. 

Mtlh. i. p. 353 (1823) ; SOieg. Mm. P.-B., Anseres. p. 57 (1806) ; 

Sdal. * Sate. Ibii. 1870. p. 499 (Sandy Point) ; Gkb. The>. Or*. 

i. p. 304 (1872) ; Hariert, Eat. Vogfleammt. p. Wl (Rio Grande, 

S. Americw) (1891). 
Anas niBCulinMtris, Lichl. Verz. Doubl p. 84 (Montevideo) (1823) ; 

Swirfau. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 136 (Ualapngosl). 
Aniu frt'tensia, King, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 11> (Mneellui StnuU). 
i:yanopI«rU8 ih'teusis, ^yi. Mon. Anal. p. 131 (1838); Jard. ^ 

Sflb. III. Om. iv. pi. 29 (1838); Fra»er, >. Z. S. 1844, p. 167. 
.\aaa mursliij, Merrem m Ersch u. QnA. Enc. aect. i. toI. xxxt. 

p. 4a (1841). 
Cytuiopterus mdculiroetris, HarU. Verz. Get. Mat. p. 119 (1S44). 
tjuerquedula maculirostria, 0. R. Gr. Lwl S. Bnt. M,u. lii. p. 138 

(1844) ; Dtt Mun in Qay, HiU. de Chile, L p. 45S (1848) ; Bora. 

Naumtmnia, 1363, p. 222; Lickt. IfomeHct. Av. p. 102 (1864); 

PkiL^Landb. Cat. Ao. CkU. u. 42 (1808) ; Bunn. P. Z. S. 1872, 

p. 367 ; id. An. jtfw. jVoe. Biien. Air. iii. pp. 247, 820 (1888). 
Pterocyanea maoulirostris, G. R. Or. Om. B. ill p. G17, n. 3 (1846) ; 

Sehnb. Sj/H. Av.. Nstatores, 1 89. 1. 181 (1846) ; Hartl. Ind. Aiar. 

Apmtt. p. 28, n. 440 (1847) ; Bfhnb. Syn. Av. t. 90. f. 2344 (1850) 

{«X Jard. & Selb.) ; BHira, Denk»chr. Akad. Wien, t. 2, p, 132 

(1863) (Chili) ; id. J.f. O. 1855, p. 67 ; Pek. Seite N«iwa, rdff. 

p. 139 (Chili) (18tNi) ; id. Om. Brai. p. 464 (1870). 
Ptcroo'&aea Twwicolor, Bp. Cotnnl. Bend. ilui. p. 660, no. 91 (syn. 

emend.) (1856). 
CjudKiuedulA verMoolor, Cast. U.S. Aitrou. Erp, ii. p. 203 (Chili) 

(1656); &^. P.Z5. 18<!0,p.389(ridklAnds): Abio/t,Ibi*,iml, 

p. 161 (FalkUnds) ; Sctal. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 336 (Chili) ; Sclat. 4 

Salv. P. Z. 8. 1868, p, 146 (Buenos Ayrea) ; G. S. Or. SoMl-liit, 

lU. p. B3, n. 10659 (1871); Sdal. 4r Sah. Xomencl. Av. ytotrop. 

p. 139 (1873) ; Sahin, Tram. Zool. Soe. iv. p. 499 (1876) j Sdat. 

i Bah. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 388 ; Ditrnf. Ibit, 1877, pp. 41 (Chuput). 

191 (Boenoa Avres), 1878, p. 401 (Centr. P»t«g., reaident) ; SoUU. 

P.Z.S. 1680, p. 622 ; Milne-Edte. Bech. Fmm. Rig. Aiulr. ch. ii. 

p. 46 (1682) J Barroum, Auk, 1884, p. 274 (Entrerios) ; Btri.J.f. 0. 

1887, p. 1S4 (Pftraguay) ; ScUa. Argent. Om. u. p. 131 (1889) : 

JVitr. Cat. Call. J. p. 49 (1889) ; Oiut. Miu. Se. Cap Burn, vi. 

Oil. p. 207 (1891) ; HoUond, Ibit, 1892, p. 207 (.\rgentinB} ; Eirr. 

/tM,ltie0,p.358,1892, p.l46(LoweTpilcomayo); Btrktl.Jmnu, 



Xme Lia Chil. B. p. 9, n. 154 (1892) ; Aplin, lUt, 1894, p. 200 

Amn ^1«rocj&nea) maculiroatris, Surm. J. f. O. 1880, p. S66 

(Meodoza) ; id. La JHata^JUite, ii. p. GI6 (1861). 
Ptovcyonea treteafae, Eyl. Syn. Anat. p. 85 (1668). 

Adtdt Tnale. Upper half of the head blackish brown ; sides of the 
head and throat whitieh buff; lower part of the neck bnfflsb, 
minntely spotted with black ; mantle and anterior acapulars blach, 
the feaUiers edged with ochreons, and with a oarrow bar of the 
same colour; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverta with narrow 
white bars, which are more numeroua on the latter; breast bofiah, 
changing into white on the abdomen, each feather vitb a snbapical 
spot and a bar black ; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts white, 
with black bars, very narrow on the vent and central under tail- 
coverts ; longer feathers of the flanks with white and black bars ; 
longer scapulars brown, with a central bufflsh stripe ; upper wing- 
coverts greyish brown, the greater row white at the tip, forming a 
white band anteriorly to the glossy green speculum on the second- 
aries ; the speculum more or less changing into blue towards the 
posterior half and bounded by a subapical black band, and by a 
second white one at the tip of the secondaries ; longer tertials brown ; 
primaries brown ; under wing-coverte greyish brown, the central 
ones and the axiUaries white ; tall brown-grey, freckled and waved 
with irregular narrow white bands : bill black, with an orange patch 
on each side at the base of the upper mandible ; " legs and feet 
green, webs black ; irides white " {Dumford). Total length about 
16'5 inches, wing 7-5, tail3'4, culmen 1'6, tarsus I'l, 

FemaU. Similar, but smaller, colour duller, and wing-speculum 
not so bright (5rfal«-). 

" . Speculum grey, with no mctallic-greeu cob 




. QUEBQCBDUtA. 



■J. Qnerqnednia puna. 

AI1B5 piiniL iidW. Mui. Berol. ; Ttch. Arch./. Notary. 18i4, i. p. 315, 
u. 347 (Peru); id. Faun. Per., A,»$, p. 309 (184.5-40); Sum. 
Sail. (.W, nicr. Srai. iii. p. 439 (1860) i Gieb. The$. Om. I 
p. 300 im-2). 

ijuerquedulA puna, G. R. Or. f!rn. B. p. 616, n. 14 (lS4o): Licht. 
ytitnmd. Ab. p. lOa (ISM) ; J^lon, &pu Anid. p. 81 (ltt09) ; 
mu. 4r Sail). P. Z. S. ISO), p. lo7 (TungMuca) -, iid. Ecot. Om. 
p, 197, pi. 09 (1600); iid. Nomenel. Av. Ntotrop. p. 129, o. 10 
(1873) i Too. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 554 (Jirain) ; SeUO. ^ Salv. P. Z S. 
1876, p. 388 ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 522 (Andes of Peru and 
Bolivift) ; Tacx. Om. Ptf. iii. p. 478 (1880) ; Sdat. P. Z. 8. 1886, 
p. 401 (TuBpoci) : Phllijipi, Omit, iv. p. 160 (;Vtito£Bguta) (IdS8) : 
Trior. Qit. CWt fl. p. 49 (1889) ; SeUU. P. Z. S. 1891, p. 136 
fTurapaca) ; Beik- Jamet, New Litt Cha. B. p. !i. ti. 156 (Tivrnpaca) 
(1892). 

PuiuDetU leueofreiiTS, " Tteh." (errore), Bp. Compl. Rend, iliii, 
p. 949, n. 78 (1850). 

pDnaaetta puDA, O. R. Gr. Haad-list. iii. p. 84, n. 10673(1871). 

Adalooetta puna, H'iae, NmiiencL Miu. Htin. Orii. p. 346 (1890). 

Similar to Q. venicolor, but much larger, with longer and in dry 
akios unifomi black bill ; the upper half of tho head deep blaok ; 
chocks and throat purer white ; the bars on tbc flanks much 
narrower and less shaqilj defined ; the lower buck uailorra brown- 
grey, with no whitish narrow bars : " bill light blue, with the 
rid^ black: eyes dark haEel; legs and toes bluish lead-oolour" 
(Whiuly). Total length li>-5 inches, wing 8-5, tail .1-8, culmen 
1-8-2-15, tarsna 1-3. 

Ftmalt. Similar to the male, but somewhat smaller; the upper 
h-tlf of the head dnrk brown ; tho speculum less bright. 

Twng. Has the speculum grey, without any metallic green 
ooloitr. 

Uatt. Andee of Peru, liolivia, and Northern Chili. 

>, b. Ad. sk. Vera (Jftski). Warsaw Moseum [E.]. 

«. S Kd. sb. Yuaoca, Peru, March (if. SalTin-Godman Coll. 

Hiite/v). 

d. 2 ad- *k. Liiguna de TuDgasuca, Peru, Salvia-Godman Coll. 

Jiily(7f. W.]. 

«. S ad. St. lAguna dtt Tungasuca, July. H. Whiwly, Esq. [0.1. 

/. rf »d. it I*giina de Tangui, Peru. H. Whitely, Esq. [C.J. 

f-l. Ad.et imm. I'rovincp of Tarapaca, Chili, H. Berkeley James, Esq. 

»k. Jan.-April. [P.). 



3. Querqnednla circia. 
The Oarganev. 

(Jiierquedula,' BriM. Om. vi. p. 427, pi. mix. (1. 1, 2((r2) (1760). 
(luaniuedula Kstiva, Britt. op. cit. p, 445 ( 1 760). 
Aiuu quBMOcdula, Linn. S. X. i. p. 20:l. n. 32 (1706) ; Gm. S. N. 

i. p. 531. n. 32 (1788) ; LalL IniL Om. n. p, 872. n. 99 (1790) ; 

Aom. fw. Mith.i.^ 163. pi. 30. f.l (1791); Lath, Tr.Liiin. Soc. 

iv, p. lOe, t»h. »iii. H. 2, 3 (trachea) (1798) ; Pall Zoogr. Rouo- 



Ag. ii. p. 264 (1811) ; Tmm. Man. p. 546 (1815) ; J'iall. N. D. 

T. p. \m (leim ; Hum. Diet. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 389 (1817) ; Tenon, 

JUan. and ed. li. p. 844 (1820) : Bote. Itit, 18i'2, p. 504 ; Hekt. 

Vert. Doubt, p. 84 (1823) ; Savi, Om. Tote iii. p. 161 (1831) ; K.E. 

Ahbott, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 134 (Trebizond) ; Tevtm. Man. 2nd ed. 

iv. p. 539 (1840) ; K. * B. Wirbettk. Eur. pp. Iwiiv, 22fl (l&iO) ; 

Naum. Viig. Deidacht. xi. p. 677, Taf. 303 (I»12) ; Schleg. Bet. CrU. 

p. ciiv (1844); Midd. Sibir. Beit. n. p. 230 (1653); WalUitgr. 

Nmmannia, 1864, p. 272 (ScRndiQavift) ; BoUe, J. f. 0. 1855, 

p. 365 (Spain) ; Blyfh, Ibi$, 1869, p. 464 (Lower Bengal) : Fiiuch, 

J. f. O. 1859, p. 387 {Bulgaria) ; Fo«y», Ibit, 1860, p. S53 

(Ionian Ifll*.); Sunp$. ibid. pp. 34\, 3&4, (Qteece) ; SwinA.P.Z.S. 

1863, p. 324 (China) ; Nordm. J. /. O. 18U4, p. 377 (Kuopo) ; 

Drotte, ibid. p. 428 (Borkum) ; ScAleff. Mia. P.-B., Anseres, p. 49 

(Philippinea) (1866); Przeio. Voy. n. 202 (1867) ; Uyh. * Parr. 

J.f. O. l8C8, p. 338 (Dauris) ; Pn:ev>. Pvtetch. Uimr. n. 202 (1870); 

Satmd. Ibii, 1871, p. 390 (Soutbern Spain) ; Gieb. Tkft. Om. i, 

p. 360 (1872) ; Tayl. Ibit, 1872, p. 233 (Crimea) ; Serertz. Turk. 

Jevotn. p. 70 (1873) ; Jiotenb. Matt, naiir Geelmnkb. p. (Tematel) 

(1876) ; Blyth, B. of Burma, p. 166 (Arakan, Tenaaserim) (1875) ; 

Salaad. Om. Pap. e Mot. iii. p. 400 (Ti:nuite ?) (1882) ; Bchnw. 

J.f. 0. 1892, p. 82 ; Harlert, Kat. Vogeleammi. p. 231 (Abvaainia) 

(1891). 
Anaa drcia, Limt. 8. If. i. p. 204, n. 34 (1760) ; Gin. S. N. i, 2, p. 633, 

11.34(1788); Bonn. Enc. Mith. i. j. 155(1791); VieiU.N.D.y. 

p. 166 (1810) ; Dum. Diet. Sc. Nat. \i. p. 502 (1817) ; Leu. Tr. 

SOm. p. 634 (1831) ; Legge, B. of Ceyl. p. 1080 (1880) ; SeuUy, 

i6i», 1881, p. 593 ; Trittr.I^n.!^ Flor. of Pa/eit. -p. ] 16 (1884); 

8eeb. Hitt. Brit. B. iii. p. 551, pi. 66 (egg) (1885) ,- LUford, CbL 

Fig. BHt. B. pt. liii. pi. — (ISBO). 
Garganey, Pom. Brit. Zool. ii. p. 604, n. 289, t. 101 (1776) ; Lath. 

^. in. 2, p. 560, n. 87 (17fti). 
Mestolone femmina (errore), Gerini, Star, deyli L'cc. \. t 573 ( cJ ) 

(1776). 
Aaatrn 




36. QUERQtfBsDLA. 2U5 

B. Ear. vi. p. 513, pi. 420 (pt. S, 1871) ; Tritlr. IbU, 1872, p. 2IKS 
(PjJeetine) ; /fo/rfiiP. P. Z. S. 1873. p. 47U (CeyloD) ! Wabl. Tr. 
Z. S. Tiii. p. 103 (Celebw) (1872) ; Shell. B. afEmpt, p. 287 (1872); 
HtuglOra. fl'.O.-^/r. ii. 3, p. 1320 (1873) i Hmne.NuU ^ ^ga. 
p. tM4 (1873) ; Dyb. J.f. 0. 1874, p. 337 ; BatMii. Cat. Uce. Bom. 
p. 361 (Borne,!?) (1874) : JlB™-,«r, fi«tt. iii. u. 193 (Pegu) 1 1876) ; 
nrtu. Ibie, 1876, 0.419; Seulfy, Sir. liath. iv, p. 201 (E. TuTkesUn] 
(1676) ; flW. Entt. Ar». ii, p, 301 (1876); David ^ Ou*l. Oi*. 
Chme. p. SS (1377); J'oei: m Howl. Om. Mite. iii. p. 103 
(Moagofui) (1878); Blak.& Prytr, Ibii. 1878, p. 214; Hume ^ 
Danis. Sir. Faath. vi. p. 489 (Tenaaaerim) (1878); CVi>i^. Sir. 
Feath. vii. p. 312 fE. BdOfrftl) (1878); Hume, Sir. Featk. viii. 
p. llfi, n. 966 (1879) ; Sculli/, ibid. n. 363 (Nepal) ; ^VtucA, Verh. 
*A. GfB. WieH, 1879. p. 2to (W. Siberia): r.rnrtf, B«B. Com. 
Agr.rt Indmtr. 1. 1 (1878), p. 161 (1879); Hvmt^Marah. Omnf 



Jap.y\± p. 185(1880),x. p. 96 (1882); itufeT, /Ut, 1881, p. 100; 
a Sainh. tbii, 1862, p. 12S; Oalf. Sir. F«tth. x. p. 245 (Pogu i 
(1882) ; Salt. Cat. B. Strickl. OM. p. USa (1882) ; Sevtrt:. llif, 
1883. p. 76 (Pamir range); Nii-hol». /*m, 1^^83, p. 86 (Borneo); 
B. O. U. Lilt Brit. S. p, 126 (188;J) j Sclat. List Vert. An. rth «l, 
p. 434 (1883) ; Oates, D. Brit. Burm. ii. p. 286 (1883) ; Btakiat. 
Ammd. List B. Jap. p. 34 (1881) ; Srfb. Ibis, 18*1, p. 17-5; 
Sbyn. A'aturm, 1884, p. 9; Seiivid. Ann. Mm. Cin. G«t. (31 i. 
p. 247 (ShtMi) (1884) ; Vorderm. N. T. N. L xliv. p. 263 (Jbvb) 
(1884); Madar. Zeitsekr. d. gtn. Om. i. p. 37 (l!<84): Sound. 
Yarreir* HUt. Brit. B. iv. p. 393 (1884-86) ; BaehH, Lf Nat«^U. 
1886, p. ■% : Men^. Ibis, 1886, p. 3o8 ; Skaiw, Ibis, 1880, p. 403 

SO); Blai. Ztittehr. d. get. Ottu iii p, I<1 (Cekbea) (1886); 
wd. El. Uce. Ital._p. 261 (1886); Vorderm. N. T. N. L xlvi. 

p. 240 (1886) ; Tmt, Ibis. 1887, p. 3T3 (Portiigid) ; Salrad. Ann. 

Mut. av. Gen. (2) «. p. 321 (Shos) (1888) ; Salvad. * Oiffi. Mrm. 

R. Ac. Sc. Tor. (2) urii. p. 137 ( Chinu) (1888) ; EeerM, Jnurn. 

8tr. Br. B. As. Soe. 1880, p. IS2 (Bornoo) ; Trittr. Oil. Coll. B. 

f. 40 (1880) ; Saunders, Man. Brit. B. p. 433 (1889) ; Vorderm. 

N. T. A". /.xlix. p. 419(1B80); Hutw. Nesti Sf Eggi {Oalri td.\ 

iii. p. 201 (1890); St.f*re, List thiUpp. B. * Af. p. 27 lUiou) 

(1890); £i>an>. Ibis. 1892, p. 73 (incubation); Sharpe, Src. lark. 

Miss., Ave*, p. 131 (1801) ; he la Ti-uehe, Ibis, 1892, p. 492 (Cliiiia) ; 

Hubou. fhun. fert. Belg., Oi,. ii. p, 448, pi. 257 (1802) ; Bnme*. 

Ibis, 1803, p. 174 (Aden) : Sti/an, Md. p. 436 (Ilainiui) ; Salvad. 

Mem. S. Ae. Sc. Tor. (2) xUv. p. 564 (Somali) (18041. 
QnerquiHluU gUucoptenu, Brtkm, Isis, 1630, p. 997 ; id. VSgel 

AraracW. p. 882(1831). 
Querquodiila 9CHpiilari», Brehm, Isis, 1830, p. 907 ; ii. Viigel DeutscU. 

p. &i3 (1831). 
Boacbu circift, Sw. Oau. II. ii. p. 307 (1837) ; Jerd. Madr. Joum. 

xii. p. 220, n. 383 (1840). 
(^nnopUrus circin, Eut. Mim. Anat. p. 180, pi. iL T. 3 (tracliea) 

(1838) ; a. &. Or. Cat. Hodq*. Cott. B. M. p. 14« (1846). 
PiwocvMiPK circia, Bp. Iron. Faun. Ital., Vee. Introd. p. 17 (1841) ; 

id. Oat. Mft. Ucc. Eur. p. 71 (1812) : O. B- Or. Gen. B. iii, p. 617, 

n.l (1846|; R^knb.Ssn. ,1r.. NaUlor«8, t.80. (T iaV189 (1845): 

U. Av. Sf/st. Hat. p. ti (1853) ; Bolle. J.f. O. 1865, p. 314 (Albii- 

1m) i Sah. Ibis, 1860. p. 363 {£. .\llits) ; Hartm. J.f. 0. 1863, 

p. 309 (SouUi Of Dongola) ; More. Ibis, 1866, p. 443 (Great Brit.) ; 



E^. Sj/n. ATuit. p. 84 (1869) ; T<kx. J./. O. 1870, p. 5B (Con- 

Btentisa). 
Anaa (Queiquedula) hiimeralia, S. Miill. Verh. Land^ en Vcikatk, 

p. 169 (Javii) (1839-44). 
Querqueduk vulgarie, Hodgt. in Grai/t Zool. Mite. p. 86, a. 767 

(1844). 
CjADoptenis querquedula, HartL Verz. Get. Mu». p. 119 (1844) ; 

Hewjl. Sytt. UeOeri. a. 692 (1855) ; Suadre. Meth. nat, Ae. ditp. 

Tent. p. 147 (1872): v. Koch, J. f. 0. 1872, p. 139; Abt. ^ H.- 

Brotcm, Ibis, 187S, p. 71, 
QuerquedoU humeraUs, G. R. Gr. Gen. B. iii. p. 616, n. 13 (1845) ; 

Bp. Compt. Rend, iliii. p. 610, n. 98 (1866). 
Pterocvanea querquedula, Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 103 (1364) ; Sv. 

Oompt. Bfnd. ihii. p. 660,11.93 (1856) ; Dyb. J.f. 0. 1873, p. 110; 

Taa. Bull Sov. Zool. i^. ii. p. 46 (1877); id. Om. Faun. Vott. 

Sibir. p. 70 (1877) ; HaiffL Faun. Both. Meer. n. 286 (1881) ; 

Tacs. BuU. Sac. Zool. Fr. viii. p. 343 (1883) ; Vyb. 4" Tac:. op. eit. 

ix. p. 147 (Bering I) (1884). 
Pterocynnea glaucopferos, Brekm, Vogelf. p. 674 (1855) ; id. Nau- 

mmmia, 1855, p. 20?,. 
Fterocyanen wnpularis, £reAm, r'«Mtf'.p.374(1856) : id. Naumannia, 

1866, p. 298. 
Anas fflaucoptera, C. F. Dub. PL CoL Oi*. Beig. iii. p. 274 (1860). 
Asm (Gyanoptarus) querquedulai, Badde, Beit. S. O.-Sib. iii. p. 370 

(1863). 
Qneiquedula numemlis (errore), Jerd. B. o/' I'od. iii. p. 808 (1864). 
Queiquedula querauedula, Baird, Am. Joum. of Sc. ^ Artt, xlL 

p. 339 (1866) ; id. IbU, 1867, p. 283; Sgn. 5utf. U.S. Nat. Afiw. 

no. 29, p. 156 (Eamtclifttka) (1685) ; id. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mut. x. 

p. 136 (note) (1887). 
Anas ptarocyanea, Goeldlin, J. f. 0. 1879, p. 382 (Schaffhauwn). 
Anas (Querquadula) circia, BcAnic. Om. CentralbL 1882, p. 20; tif. 

Vdg. tool. Girt. p. 66 (1882). 
Cyanoptema querquedulua (I), Badde, Omit Cauc. p. 467 (1884). 




■iS. ttlTERQCBDCLl. 



2W 



Female. General colour of the upper parts dark brown, each 
feather with a pale margin ; broad euperciliar)' stripe wLitiah ; u 
donky band behind tbc eyea ; sides of the bead and neck -wbitiBh, 
etreaked with black ; chin and throat white ; feathers of the lower 
fure neck blackish, tvith vrhitish edges ; breast and abdomen white; 
aides, vent, and under tail-corerts white, with brown-black spota; 
wings greyish brown ; a dull metallie-green speculum, bounded 
anteriorly nnd posteriorly by two white bands ; under wing-coverts 
brown, margined with whitt', the greater ones pure grey, the central 
onee, like the axillaries, white. Size smaller than that of the male. 

Younff in first plumage resemble the females, but are darker and 
more snflused with rufoiis on the fareust. 

Adult mate* in moulting ftluinaif. closely resemble adult females, 
but are darker in colour, and may be distinguished by the brighter 
alar speculum (Hethohm). 

Doamy tuttling resembles that of the Mallard, but it is smaller, 
and has a broad unbroken buff streak above the eye, and a well- 
defined dark streak through the eye {Yarrell). 

liab. Pa]»arctio Region, wintering in Northern Africa as far south 
as i^oa and Somali-land, in Palestine, India with Ceylon, in Burmah, 
China, Japan, Philippines, Borneo, Java, Celebes, Ternate, and Ccram. 



o, fi. (J 2 ad. sk. 


Enpland, March. 


Snlvin-Godnian Coll. 


c rf ad^st 


Norfolk, feb. 




d. s ad. «k. 


Rockland. Norfolk, Sept. 


Seebohm Coll. 


«. ,; ad. ak. 


Norwich, March. 


U. J. ElwBs. Eaq. 
Tieeidate C4L 


/. e »A. sk. 


SuiTolk. 


g. S ad. sk. 
A, <. cT $ ad. sk. 




Montagu Coll. 


8)iorel>am, Kent, March. 


Seebohm CoU. 


*-«. cj "d. sk. 


ask*""' 


SheUej (;oll. 


o,p. rf2 «d.sk. 


Kenneth Loftua, Esq. 

W. D. Oumming, 

Esq. [P.]. 
St-OsorgeLittledftlB, 

Esq. ["p.]. 


y. r. (J 2 ad. sk. 


Fao, I'erufui Oulf, 


«-c. d 2 «!■ «k. 


Oowk, May. 


«. rfid.dt. 


Poniir. 


Colonel' J. Biddulph 

[P.l. 
Dr. R. Dowdier 


T,y. rf2ad.ek. 


Yurkand. 


a. <f ad. sk. 


Kandahar, March. 


Sharpe [I'.]. 
Lt.-CoI. Bwinhoe 

Colonel J. Biddulph 

India Museum [P.]. 


o*. 2 '>d- sk. 


GUgit, Sept. 


b: 2 nd. sk. 


Leh, Sept. {F. StoUtska). 


r'.J-. cr2imm.sL 


India. 


PurchasL-d. 


f. (f imm. ik. 




Seebohm ColL 


y, 2 sd.sk. 


Karachi, Dec. (£, A. Butler). 


Hume Coll. 


$■, h'. cT ad, sk. 


Sumbbiir. March. April (B. 
M. Adam). 


Hume Coll. 


t-f'. d 2 ad. sk. 


GunraoB, Delhi, April, May 

( w. N. aiU). 


IluOle Coa 


/,/■. tf od.Miinm. 




Hume Coll. 


■k. 


March, Dec. 





w'. ,? jav. «t 


Baipur, C. Provinces. 


Hume Coll. 


I.', «^. J imm. sk. 


EtawBh. 


Hume ColL 


a'.y',!'. g «d.Bk. 


Futteh7ui'h,Much,Mav(..4. 

Aixhrtim). 
Kheree Di8t., Feb. (A. A.). 


Seebohm ColL 


«". (J imm. Hk. 


Seebohm CnIL 


b'W. tf ad. 8k. 


Allahabad, Mnrch (A. 0. H.). 


Hume Coll, 


/". 5 ad. 8k. 


Oudh, Jan. 


Hume Coll. 


y",A",i". rfjad. 


Oudb. 


Rnwill FP.l. 


Bk. 




r. 9 ad. 8k. 


HillBN.of Muasorie. 


Hume Colt 


r-r". cf $ Bd. et 


Nepal. 


B. H. Hodgson, E«q. 


JUY. Bk. 

^'. (", .<". ■? 2 


Nepal {Hodg^). 


India'MiiBeum [P.]. 


imm.etjur.8k. 






r". (J iuv. Bk. 


DaTJeelinii. 

Natj^-e Sikhim, March, Oct. 


India Mu»eum [P.! 


w"-o». (J 2 ad. et 


Hume ColL 


cJJuv.Bk. 


(Z. Mor^elU). 




i'. 2 ad. ak. 


Assam {McClrSand). 


India Muaeum [P.]. 


c'. {J ad. 8k. 


Manipur (A. 0. H.). 


Hume Coll. 


.P, e'. 2 ad. Bk. et 


Calcutta,Feb. (^. 0. /r.). 


Hume Coll. 








/•, g', A'. cT ad. et 

imm. Bk. 
i'. cJ ad. Bk. 


HexxAD. {^kts). 


India Museum [P.]. 


Madms. 


Tweeddale CoU. 


A-*-n'. P2ad.ek. 


Tonfrhoo, Oct., Dec. (fi. G. 
W. S.). 




«'. 2 ad. Bk. 


Pesfu, Sept. 


E. W. Gates, liq. 

[C.T ^ 

E. W. 0at€8, Eaq. 

nine Coll. 


p'.j'.r'. ,i8d. et 

2 imm. ek. 
•W. £ ad. et <J 


Lower Pegu, March, Oct. 


ECadaikeglay, near Thatone, 
Dec. (W. Davison). 


i«v. sk. 
»^ x>. <J ad. Bk. 




Cochin China. 


M. St Ketra [P.]. 


y*. d ad. 8k. 


Lob-nor, March (ft-jVnaW^l. 


Seebohm ColL 


:\ ^ mi. A. 


China. 


J. \^'ebb. Esq. [P.]. 




■i. Qaerquedola discora. 



Querquedulft aineriraim vimtmrta, Catctb. Carol, i. p. 100. t. 100 ( J ) 

QueniuediilA ftmeriofuia fiuca, Calab. Carol, i. p. 99, t 99 ( 2 ) 
{1T54). 

Querqueduln omericanA, Brisi. Orn. vi. p. 463 (1700). 

Querqui^ula virginiiuiit, Biits, Orn. vi. p. 49J3 (17Q0). 

Adm discors, Htm. S. N. i, p. 206, n. 37 11766} (<:.r CataAy) ; ^>. 
5. N. i. 2, p. 636, n. 37 (I7S3) ; Lath. Ind. Orn. ji. p. 854, n. m 
<17001; flonn. Enc Afi*rt.i.p. lM,pl.41.f.a(5)(l7»l); IFi/«. 
-^nt. Orn. viii. p. 74, pi. 08. f. 4 (1814) ; rigill. X. D. i. p. 17S 
(ISW); i)«m, Sicf. &■- Nat. vi. p. 3»9 (1817); Bp. Obs. WOi. 
n.362 (1835); id. Sm. p. 386 (1*88); lMM.pTas-Verz.miXK. 
F&f. p. 3 (1830) ; H'a^. Int, 1831, p, 633 (Mexico) ; Leu. Tt: 
efOm. p. 634 (CkvenDe !] (1831); Aud. Orn. Biogr. iv. p, 111, 
ri. 31S (1838); irf. ^. u. 282 (1839); i>-Ori. in La Sagra't 
Hitt. Nat. Cuba, Ou. p. 294 (1840); Aiid. B. Am. vi. p. 287, 
pi. 883 (1843); Giraud, B. Li.«.j 1,1. p. 316 (1844) ; IkKay, N. 
F. Zoot li. p. 339 {1&44): LuAt.J./. O. 1803, p. 69 (Mexico); 
SeAleo.Mu».P.-B.,.\naoiw,v.50(\mi); Sundev. (E/p. K. Vet.- 
Ak. Farh. I8«9, p. 691 (St BHrtholomev), p. 6U3 (Parto Rico) ; 
Trippe. Pr. Em. In»t. vi, p. 119 (Minnesota) (1871); Qkb. Tka. 
O™. i. p. 3S0 (1872); Seth. Hut. Brit. B. lii. p. 661 (1886); 

A. O. U. Chtek-aa N. Am. B. p. 116, n. 140 (1866); Turmn-, 
C-Mtr. N. H. of AUaka, p. 133 (1886) ; Nd*m, Nat. Hut. GtU. m 
Alatka, p. 69 (1887); Bta^. .V<w. N. Am. B. p. 93 (1887): 
Wiagr, Orn«, 1888, p. 412 (Sahy, Denmari) ; Uarlfrt, Kat. 
VngrUamml. p. 231 jlf'91); UaUh, B. of JUintin. p. 46 (1802): 
Chajm. Bidl. Amrr. Mat. X. If. 1894, p. 83 (Triaidnd). 

Suci^lle da Cayeoae, ilitte la Soucrourou, D'AiU/aU. PI. EnL 90(! 
(cf), 403(2)- 

Sarcelle Soucrourou, Buff. Hitt. Nat. Oit. ix. p. 279 ( (J ) (1783). 

Snrcelle Soucrourette, fii# o;).p»i. p. 280 (J ) (1783). 

Whit.-toced Duck, Lath. ^pt. iU. 2, p. 602, o. 50 (1786). 

Qiieraucdula discow, Strph. Gen. Zoot. lii. 2, p. 140 (1824) j Bute, 
/««, 1828, p. 329; G. Ji. Gr. Zi*( /?. Br*. -Wuii.iii. p. 138(1844); 
&dat. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 206 (Julapn) ; SallS, P.Z.S. 1857, p. 237 
(8. Dorainw) : J?ai>5, B. N. Am- p. 779 (1868): id. Mii. B. 
*«»-p. p. 20(1869); id. Cat. N. Am. B. n. 591 (1869); Bryant, 
Ft. Batt. Hoc N. H. vii. p, 122 (Bahamael (1859) ; Seiat. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 393 (Ouxom) ; Sclat. ^ Salo. Ibi; 1869, p. 231 (Quate- 
mal*) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 204 (OrixnU) ; Coop. ^ Sutkl. N. 

B. Wath, Ttrr. p. 254 (1*») ; Srlat. P. Z. S. 1961, p. 83 
(JuDsica); Ulakiit. Pit,, 1862, p. 9 (Bnt N. Amer.) ; Rom, 
Canad. Nat., April 18(12; J'rn: Pr. En. In,/, lii. p. 153 (1802) j 
Haud. Rep. 1862. p. 176; Blakiri. Ibis, 1803, p. 146; Mareh, Pr. 
Ac. Philad. I««. p. 71 (Juintticn) ; Law-r. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 
p. 101 (Sombrero) ( 18M), p. 207 (1806) ; Saiv. Hie, 1806, p. 193 
(OuftUmalB); Dremtr, IbU, 1866, p.43(Ti>xW),bie«Kting) ; Oundl. 
Stp. Fi».rNat. Cuba, i. p. 389 (li^); Dtgt. ^ Oerht, Orn. Eur. 
n. p. QSO (1867) ; Coiu,, Pr. Ea. In*t. v. p. 299 (1868) ; Selat. 
^ Balv. P. Z. S. lUm, y. 262 (Vdlencift, VeuezueU) ; Lawr. 
Ann. Lj/c. N. K ix. p. 143 (C<»ia Rica) (1868) ; Datl ^ Bonn. 
Tr. C*tc. Arad. i. p. 297 (,yiisk«. br«e(lin|f) (1869) i Puts. On. 
Brat. p. 460 (Bmiiil !) (1870) ; Hair. P. Z S. 1870, p. 219 (Vem- 
inw); O. R.Gr.Jiand-litt.w.p.na,a. 10669(1871); ./ittnt, Bu^i. 
Mtu. Omp. ZooL iu. p. 163 (Kanew) (1873) ; Aikm, Pr. Boit. 



Soc. XV. p. 210 (Colorado) (1872) ; Tr^^, ibid. p. 341 (Iowa) 
(1872) ; Gme», J&y, p. 287 (1872) ; id. Check-liit, n. 496 (1873) ; 
SnoiB, B. Kansal, p. it (1873) ; Sclat.SfStdv. Nommd. At. Neotrop. 
p. 129 (1873); (Met, Sink N.-Wett, p. 566 (1874); Law. 
Mem. Bait. Soc. If. H. ii. p. 3U (Mexico) (1874) ; GundL J.f. O. 
1874, p. 314 (Porto Rico), 1875, p. 380 (Cuba) ; Sclat. ^ &Uv. 
P. Z. S. 187C, p. 383 ; Gundl. An. Soc. E$p. Hat. Nat. vii. p. 404 
(Porto Rico) (1878) ; Sclat. li' Sah. F. Z. S. 1879, p. 543 (Medal- 
lin) ; G>ry, B. Bahama I. p, 186 (1880) ; Salat. P.Z. S. 1880, 
p. 621 ; AidffVi. Norn. N. Am. B. n. 609 (J881) ; A. ^ E. A'«rt. 
Handb. Jam. p. 113 (1881) ; Salv. Cat. B. Strickl. CW/. p. 636 
(1882) ; CbuM, Check-titt, 2nd ed. n. 710 (1882) ; B. O. U. Litt 
Brit. B. p. 126 (1883) ; Coue», Key N. Am. B. 2Dd ed. p. 896 
(1884); k, B., * R., Uater-B. N. Am. i. p. 531 (1884); 
Sound. Yarreirt Hist. Brit. B. it. p. 392 (1884) ; Mattch. ^ 
Ziemer, J.f. O. 1885, p. 191 ; Cbru, B. Haiti and San Domingo, 
p. 168 (1885) ; id. Litt Birdi W. I. p. 31 (1885) ; WtiU, LiU B. 
Grenada, p. 10 (1886); Ernst, Bev. Cient. Univ. Cmtr. Vena. i. 
p, 43 (Venezuela) (1887) ; Cory. Auk, 1888, p. 03 ; id. B. W. Ind. 
p. 204 (1889); Sah. Ibis, 1889, p. 377 (Commel); Rild. tbid. 
p. 500 (BarbadoB) ; Tristr. Cat. Cult. B. p. 49 (1889). 

Anns (BoBchas) discors, Stn. ^ Rich. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 444 
(1831); NuU. Man. ii. p. 307 (1834). 

Boschas discors, Ste. Clou. B. ii. p. 307 (1837) ; Denny, P. Z. 8. 
1847, p. 40. 

CjunopteniB discora, R/t. Mon. Anat. p. 131 (1838) ; Bp. Comp. Litt, 
p.r>7(]838); G<ww,2J.Jiim. p. 401(1847); Cab-i^Gundl. J.f. 0. 
Ift-i?, p. 228; Sdat.P.Z.S.\mi,-o.eA (Ecuador); Taylor, Ibit, 
1860, p. 315 (Tigrfi Island) ; Blot. B. Eur. p, 21 (France) (18^) ; 
Gimdl. J.f. 0. 1871, p. 289. 

Pterocyanea discow, G. R. Gr. Gen. B. iii. u. 617, n. 3 (1846) ; 
Rchnb. Syn. Av., Natatores, t. 88. ff. 176-177 (1845) ; Bp. Compt. 
Bend. xlii. p. 664 (Nicaragua) (1853) ; Woodh. Sityr. R^tp. p. 103 
(lisW); LiiJil. yoiimicl. Av. y. 102 (1854); lip. Compt. Rend. 




36. itiTEnau£i>DLA. 301 

Adult male. Hciid and upper part of the neck dull plumbeous, 
slightly glossed with grci'ii on the occiput and nape, aud marked iu 
front of the eyes by a large crest'entic band of white, extending 
from the sides of the forehead to the sides of the throat ; pilenm and 
chin blnckiah ; back and anlerior scapulars dusky, marked with 
U-aha[ied bars of piile reddisli buff; rump anil upper tail-coTerta 
blackiKh, with lighter edges : lower parts pale reddish, thickly spotted 
with block ; nndcr tail-covcrts black; a whito patch at the base of 
the t&il on each side ; longer ttcapolars black, with n central atri[ie 
of buff; lesser wing-coverts and out«r webs of sonie of the out^r 
scapulars pale blue ; greater conerts white, forming u bar anteriorly 
to the wing-spcculnm on the secondaries, which is glossy green ; the 
tips of the secondaries bluish black : prima.ries and tail-feathers 
blackish iirown ; under wing-oovert^ dusky bluish, the central ones 
«nd niillaries whitu : bill uniform black ; iris brown ; feet yellowish. 
Total length about l(i inches, wing 7'5, tail 3-25, culmen 1-75, 
tarsus 1'2. 

F*iiiiiU. Upper parts dusky, the feathers bordered with whitish 
buff; pilcnm blackish: sides of the head and upper neck dull 
whitish, miautoly streaked with blackish, the streaks more dense 
before and behind the eye, forming an indistinct dusky stripe ; the 
throat almost iniinneulate ; feathers of the underparta dusky, with 
brood whilish edges and irregular bare, the bars more of a V-shape 
on the flanks ; no light stripes along the centre of the longer 
fcapulars ; wings as in the male, but the green speculum much 
duller, and the white band formed by the tip of the last row of 
npper wing-oo verts narrower. 

Maltt moulting, simitar to the females, but the wings of a brighter 
colour, and the markings of the feathers better defined. 

Toun^. Similar to the adult female, but whole belly immaculate, 
and apecnlum dull greyish brown, without metallic gloss. 

Hah. North America, but chiefly east of Rocky Monutains; iu 
winter West lodiea aud Middle America, south to Columbia, Ecuador. 
and Peru. 



«. t! sd. sk. 


No W«lilv. 


I'lirchased. 


4. rf«i.sk. 


N. AmHri^n. 


C«pt. Kellett and 
Lieut. Wood [P.]. 






r. <f ad. it. 


llrpidse t{«v. 


Dr. J. Rae [T.]. 


tf. <f td. A. 


W.sideofhockvMt., 


J. K. Lord, Esq. [P.]. 
Tweeddah) Co2. 


,. 5 »d. »k- 


Hudson's Kiver. 



BarMlU du Meiiquf, B-ff. Bift. X<U. Oil. ix. p. 385 (1783). 

Heucsn Duok, LalA. S>,n. lij. % p. 68!l, n. 7S (17W>). 

Anw M(R hinnniiF. dm, S. X. i. p. T-2!,. n. H (ITSS) -. Uih. Ind. Orn. ii. 

P.8S8, n.8»(lT0O); Soon. Ear. ttU/,. i p. 100 (1701): HoU A. 2>. 

r. p. 173 (1616) ; Dum. met. Sc fat. vi. p. 400 (1617) : Wagl. Iri^ 

lS3l.p.6^(-diMoM>, 
QucrqiMduU norn hiipaniK. Slrpk Gea. Zool. lii. 2. p, 153 (ISlM), 
PtarwyaniM iiot« hiiiMiiiin; G. B. Gr. Gtu. H.tii. p, H17, n.6(1643); Sv. 

Cempl. Bad. iliti. p. «0U. it. 88 (165U). 



f-i. tf $ ad. 8t 

2 imm. sk. 
k. d juv. ak. 
/. tJ ad. at. 

m, n. S ad. et 

pulL SK. 

o. £ad.Bk. 

p. cf ad. «k. 

9. (J juT. flk, 

r, «. Ad. Bk. 

l,«. (J 5 ad. sk. 

o-y. 2 ad. et cf 

JUV. sk. 
^ a', di ad. ek. 
A', d ^- sk. 



^-r. d S ad. ak. 
m'. £ ad. ek. 

o', p'. (J ad. et 
$ imm. bL 



q, /, «'. J ad. et 



Fort Dufferin, June. 

Warner J^e, Oregnn, Sept. 
Missouri Brakes, Montana, 

April. 
WesDoe Lake, Nevada, May, 

OntonaKO, Michigan, Sept. 

{A. J. Dayari). 
Gibson, Indiaaa, April ( W. 

Brewitrr). 
New Haven, Sept. (A. J. 

Dayan). 
Bermudas, Oct. 

Florida, March (C. J. May- 

nard). 
Tarpon Springs, Florida, Oct, 

( H'. K li. Scett). 
Texas. 
San Autonio, Texas, April 

(H. E. Dretter). 
Corpus Cliriati, Teias, Jan, 

Oct., Dec. \F. B. Arm- 
strong). 
Brownsville, Texas, March 

(F. B. A.). 
Weaveraville, N. Califomia, 

Sept. (J. S. Cainu). 
Mexico. 
Tamesi, near Tampico, 

Mexico, March ( fff B. 

Richardaon). 
Presidio, Mexico, Jan. (A. 

Foner). 



Brit. N. A roer.Boond. 

Coram. [P.]. 
Salvin-Oodmau CoU. 
£. S. Cameron, £aq. 



rp.]. 

Salvin-C 



Siuvin-Qodman CoD. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Salvin-Godnan OolL 
Salvin-Oodniao Coll. 
Capt. S. G. Had 

[CO- 

Salvin-Oodman Coll, 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 



Salvin-Oodman Coll. 

SalviD-Godmao Coll. 
Salvin-Godman CnlL 



Salvin-Godman ColL 




■ 


^^V 




3G. acERauEiicLi. 


303 


i:^. 


. (? ad. ek. 
, S ad. St. 




Limn, Pmi(.V«f<w.). 
JftDiftica, W.Indies. 


SAJrin-Qodmiui CaU. 
P. H. OoBse, Ebq. 

[C.l. 
Gould CoU. 


•"• 


4". 6 Bd. 


rt d 


Jamaica. 


r. 

m" 

«'■ 
P" 

1" 


Ad.ak. 
'.2 St 

, Steniam, 

. SUrrnuiD. 




NevU, W. Indies. 

8. Vincent, W. Indies, Oct. 

Gtenada,Sept. {D. W. SmUh). 

.IwnaicR. 


W. Cottie, Esq. [P,]. 
SolTin-Godnisn Colt 

SJrin-GodmanColl. 
P. H. Qou^, E»q. 



o. Querqaedula cyanoptera. 
TaIo altis azuW, ^zora, ylpunt. iii. jip. 437, 439, n. 43i (ISOSj. 
Ciuurd nux iule« bleues, .'Uara, Voy. {Sonn. td.) iv. p. 341 (1^}9). 
Ahm evanoptera, ViaU. N. D. v. p. 104 (1810); id. Enc. MM. i. 

p. 352 (1823) ; JHerrem in Ertek u. Oruh. Ene. sect. i. vol. xxxt. 

a. 33 (IS41); Sann. La Plata-JUite, ii. p, 616 (1861); ScAfcy. 

Mtu. P.-B., Anserea, p. 51 (1S66); nieb. Tha. Om. i. p. ;m 

(1872); A. O. U. Lul N. Amer. S.p.n7.n.\41{lSS6); BidoK. 

Man. X. Amer. B. p. 93 (1887) ; Frrna:!., J. f. 0. 1802, p. 125 

(Coidoba) ; Hartert, Kat. Vvjeltamml. p. 231 (Mexico) (1891) ; 

Hatch, B.ofMintifs. p. 47 (le02). 
LfAiias j&spiitea, VieiU. N. D. t. p. 163 (Paraguay) (1810) (m 

lc^ud&teteja£pije, Vifill. ibid. ; id. Enc. MH/i. i. y. 352 0B23). 

Anas rafflcdi, finji, Zoot. Joim. iv. p. i)7 (18:^8), Suppl. pi. 39 
(Magellan Sttnita) ; Jard. ^ SM. lU. Om. new ser. pL :!& (1838) ; 
Out. Joun. Ae. Philad. iv. p. 19<> (Luuiduia) (1848). 

Cywioptwrua raffleaii, Eyt. Man. Anal. pp. 38, 132 (1838) ; Ilartl. 
VfTL. Oe». .Vut. p. 119 (1844). 

Qaerqaedula cfflHilata, " Ei/ton '' {icribt csmlcata), Fnuer. F. Z. S. 
1843, p. 118; G. E. Or. Liit B. Brit. Mum. ia. f. 13>H\S4i) ; 
YarrtU, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 54 (epg); Df* ->/««« i" Gay's Hia. de 
Chtle. i. p. 462 (1848) ; Bli/tJt, Cat. B. Mm. A. S. B. p. 306, 
n. 1783 (1849); Hartl. Kaumamtia. 1853, pp. 217, 222: Oould, 
P. Z. S. 1869, p. 115 (Fdklands) ; Fhilippi, Omit, 1888, p. IttO 
(Antofagasta). 

Adhs ueiultsBta, LicM.,Jide G. B. Gr. Utt B. Brit. Mm. iii. p. 188 
[in sjDoajm. QueiqueJule ctenUcalai) (1844); Lieht. in Mui. 
Ba^.. Bibra, DmloKkr. Ak. IViat, v. p. 131 (Cluli) (1853); td. 
J./. 0. 1865, p. 67. 

Pterocyanea cwnileata, O. It. Gr. Gen. S. iii. p. 617, n. 4 (1845) ; 
JteiTtb. Syn. Av., NaUtotes, t. 80. f. 178 (1845), t. 90. f. 2337 
(1860) (m- Jard. ct Sdby] ; Harll. Ind.A^r.Apmt. p. 27. n.4»J 
(1847) : Later. Ann. Lye. iV. i'. v. p. 220 (CaUfomia) (1862) : 
Bp. Vampt. Bmd. niviii. p. 664 (California) (1853) ; H'cod/i. 
SOyr. Bep. p. 103 (Texaa, New Me»ico, California) (1863) ; Lickt. 
KonuiaC Av. p. 102 (Meiico, Chili) (1864); Bp. Compt. Rtnd. 
xliu. p. 650, 0.87(1666); .VewA. P.*. A. ii^>. vi. p, 103 (S. Cali- 
fornia) (1867) ; Pfh. BeiM Xoeara, Voyrl, p. 139 (1865) ; nu. !>■ 
limdb. Cat. Av. ChU. p. 42 (Chili) (1868). 

f BcMcha* diacors occidental is, Denny, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 40. 

Plerocyanai rafSesii, Baird, Stambary't Rep. p. 322 (Oreat Salt 
Lake) (1862) : Eyl. Syn. Anal. p. 88 (1860). 



Querquedula cjanoptera,. Scia(. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 104 (Bogota, Sta, 
Martha) { Ous. lU. B. Calif, p. S2, pi. 15 (LouUiaiia, Utah) 
(1865) ; id. U.S. A,tron. Erp. ii. p. SB2 (1856) ; Sclat. P. Z. 8. 
1856, p. 311 (Mexico) i Balrd, 5. jV. -4m. p. 780 (Rocky Moun- 
taiDS to Pacific) (1868); id. Cat. A', ^m. ff. d. 682 (1&59) ; id. 
Mex. B. Surv. u. 2, Birdt,^. 26 (Teias) (1850); Seial. P.Z S. 
1859, p. 237 (VancnuYer I.J ; Kenn. P. R. R. Rep. x. Birdt, p. 35 
(Arizona and California) (1859); Seerm. ibid. p. 69 (Hew 
Mexico and Oaliroraia) (I860) ; Chop. ^ Suckl. Oid. xii. p. 266 
(Oregon) (1860); iSclaL P. Z.S.l8G0,r,.m)(FaMimds); Abbott, 
Ibii, 1861, p. 161 ; Couen, Pr. Ae. Phiiad. 1806, p. 98 (Ariiona) ; 
id. Ibis, 1866, p. 263 ; Sclal. P. Z. S. 1867, ]>. 336 (Chili) ; Baird, 
Ibii, 1967, V- 271 ■,Sclat.^Saiv.Ibii,lS6H,u. 189 (Sandy Point); 
Brown, IbU, 1868, p. 428; Sclat. ^ Sah. P. Z S. 1869, p. IfiO 
(Buenos Ayres) ; Slfv. U.S. Gfol. Sun. Terr. 1870, p. 466 (Wyo- 
ming) ; G. R. Gr. Hand4itl, iii. p. 83, n. 10657 (1871) ; Merr. 
U.S. Geol. Sum. Terr. 1872, p. 703 (Idaho, breeding) ; Aiken, Pr. 
Bolt. Soe. XV. p. 210 (Colorado) (1872) ; Alien, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zo<^. iii. p. 183 (Utah) (1872) ; Cbufi, Key, p. 288 (1872) ; id. 
Check-m, n. 497 (1873) ; Selat. ^ Salv. Nomencl. Av. JVeoft™. 
p. 129 (1873) ; ioiCT". Menu Bost. Soc. N. H. v. p. 314 (Mexico) 
(1874) ; Onut, Birds N.- Weet, p. 567 (1874) ; Ta<s. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 654 (Centr. Peru) ; Sclat. $ Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, pp. 17, 384 
(Peru); Dumf. Ibis, 1876, p. 103, 1877, p. 41 (Chuput), p. 191 
(Buenos Ayras) ; Taci. P. Z. S. 1877, p. U6 (W. Peru) ; Dum/. 
Ibit, 1878, p. 400 (Centr. PatiiMiiia) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 522 ; 
SAaipe, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 14 (Talcahuano) ; Ridffw. Norn. N. Am. 
B. n. 610 (1881) ; Couei, CAeck-liit. 2nd ed. p. 114, n. 717 (1882) ; 
MUne-Edic. Reck. Faun. Rig. Austral, oh. ix. p. 40 (1882) ; Sain. 
Cat. B. Strickl. CoU. p. 536 (1882) ; White, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 625 ; 
B.,B.,^R. Wattr-Birdt N. Am. ii. p. 534 (1884); Barroios, 
Auk, 1834, p. 273 (Pampas) ; Coueg, Key N. Am. B. 2nd ed, 
D. 696 (1884) ; Tacz. ^ Berl. P. Z S. 1886, p. 116 (Ecuador) ; 
(. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 401 (Twapaca) ; Taex. Om. Pir. ii. p. 474 

— " • ' f. die"" - '"■■ -' ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ 




, aUGRftCEDULA. 



305 



primaries, primory-coTerts, aad bastard-wing dark brown ; under 
«ring-coverts brown, with a blaisli shade, and tipped with whit-c, 
tho inner ones, like the axillaries, white; tail-feathors brown, with 
narrow pale edgea : bill black ; feet yellow ; iris dark brown. Total 
length aboat 18 inches, wing 7'9, tail 3-5, cnlmen 1-9, tarsus 
1-25. 

FemaU. Very similar to that of Q. dixorg, but somewhat larger, 
the bill especially ; culmen 1-65-1-85 ; the feathers of the back less 
blackish, and with tho pale greyish-brown edges broader and much 
more conspicnoos ; lower parts deeply tinged with light brown or 
buff-brown. 

Young. Similar to adult female, hut markings of lower parts much 
narrower, streak-like. 

Yovtng in down. " Above dark olivaceous, varied by u spot of deep 
greenish huff on each side of back (behind wings) and a. spot of 
clenrer yellowish on each side of rump, at base of tail ; top of head 
and hind-neck similar to back, but darker ; forehcud, broad super- 
ciliary stripe, sides of head and neck, and lower parts generallj', 
deep buff-yellow, the sides of the bead marked with a distinct 
narrow stripe of dark brown." {Ridyway.) 

llab. Western America, from the Columbia Itiver to Chili, Paru- 
gnay, Argentine Republic, Patogonia and Falkland Islands ; casually 
in tile Uissisippi Valley. 



a. a ad. sk. 

6, c. (f ad.sk, 
d, «,/. J ad, sk. 
g. a ad. sk. 



N. America. 
Carsou, Nevada. 



f. cf ad. sk. 

r. (j ad. ct. 
•. (f ad. sk. 
t-t. d 5 ad, 

imm. sb. 
«*, &'. dKd.sk. 

e-v. d 5 ad. et 

d juv- sk. 
i*. d ftd. sk. 
M',n'.dSsd.Bk. 

o'.l^- d ? sd. ak, 
/. d *^ all. 



I 

••- — 

^M TOL. XXV 



ker). 

San Francisco, CnUfomlB. 
Browns ville, Texas, Jan., 

March, April (F. B. Aitn- 

ttronff). 
Preddio, Mexico, Feb. (A. 

Forrer). 
Interior of New Granada 

{TrUbner). 
Chili. 
CbiU. 
Stu'sya, TarapBCii. Jan., Feb., 

Sitam, Tarapaca, Jan. 

Cenirol Chili. 

Bnntiago, Chili [Lmbold). 
Colcbsguo, Chill, July. 

TalcahusDO, Chili, Sept. 
Monte Video (Johmton). 
Buenos Ayres, May. 



Capt. Eetlett&Lieut. 

Wood [P.]. 
Salvin-Oodman Coll. 
Salvin-Godman CoU. 
Salvin-tiodman Coll. 



Salrin-Qodman Coll. 

Salvin-Oodman Coll. 

LonJ^ Byron [P.} 
Cuming Coll. 
H. Iterkeli-y James. 
Esq.^P.j: 

II. Berkelev James, 

Esq. [P.i 
II. Berkeley James, 

F^q.yp.j 

SalTio-Godman ColL 
iL J. Elwes, Esq. 

[PA 
Dr. Coppingor [C.J, 
Salvin-Godman CoU. 
U, Dumford, Esq. 

[P.], 



d. $ Inm, *k. 8trnla dl Magnnan. Cnt. Eub [C.]. 

C.v'. c;2 •d.ak. Falklind la^AngiuL GonldC<dl 

/, v*. $ Id. «t FalUud Ii. TwMdd^ CoD. 
(J jur. ik. 

37. SPATDLA. „_ 

Type. 

SjHtulA, Bom, Zm, 182S, p. W4 S. djpetta. 

lihrncIiMpiB, LemA, MBS. ; Sb^A. (r«. ZooL xii. 2, p. 114 

(1824) S. clTp«ta. 

firwtulttt, FUm. Brit. Amm. p. 123 (1828) 8. dTpe»ta. 

i!\yp(faU iniihgen.), Leu. Man.iFOm. a. f. 41Q{IS2S). . S. cljpwt*. 

Clyp<«ta, " Bote," Brtkm, Jni, 1830, p. 987 a dypeato. 

Anu, »e. (nee Linn.) Faun. Sor.-Am. iL p. 4U9 (1831). S. djpeate. 

Itawje. CoBmopolitaii. 

Key to the Specia. 
a, LcatfftT KKpulaTB with a white baud along the 
ra^ntnil part; abdomen (le«p cheBtuuL 
a'. IIi'iul nnd upper portdou of the neck deep 

gloHty green clypeata ^ , p. 806. 

h', Ifi-ad and upper nortiou of the neck bluieh 
lead-colour, witn b vhite ciescentic band 
butmecn the biieu of the bill and the ejes, 

extending to the throat r/iynchotu ^, p. 314. 

e'. Head and neck light rufescent, minutely 

■lotted with black platalea jf , p. 316. 

A, Ijongpr Bcapulara dark blue-green, more bluish 
on the outer web, with no white band 
dong the central part ; abdomen with no 
chuHtuut colour eapauit ij , p. 818. 




L 



307 

(1631) ; fibvi; Om. Tok. iii. p. 154 (IBSl) ; MinAtr.Cal. Eau. Cauc. 
p. G7 (CaiUBn) (1832) ; Ifatt. Mam. iLp. 375 (1^34); Jtn. Man. 
p. 230 (1835) ; Nordm. in B-man't Fere. Tkier. Pfiaaz. p. 18 
(1836) ; &e. Clatt. B. a. p. 3«7 (1837); .lud. Om. Biogr. iv. 

L241, pi. 327 (1838) ; id. Syn. p. 283 (18391 ; TVwwi. «iw. 
I ed. iv. p. 540 (1840) ; Jrrd. Madr. Joam. xii. p. 230, n. 382 
(1840): sLth, P.Z.8. 1842, p. 220 (Calcutta); Navm. F^- 
I>euUchl.xl.O.7i7,T:aI.S0e{18^);Aud.B.Am.n.v.2&3,Bl.SH 
(1843); Oiraud,B.lA»tgI»l.p.&nQ»44y, DeKm/, N. Y. Zool. ii. 
p. 342 (1844) i &A/cy. ifcK. Crii. p. oit (1844) ; iteii^, P. Z. & 
i847,p.40; JVo/e, l/.S.£ipl.Ejp^ BiJrfi,p.2ol,ap. Ifti (Hamui 
ud Osliu) (1818); J^l. Om. Eur. U. p. 423 (1649) ; Ttrnm. ^ 
Schlcff. Faun. Jap-Ava, p. 128(18S0); SarU. Arch. Xaluiy. ISS2, 
U p. 122 (Hawaii, Oaha) ; Midd. «t&ir. Bets. U. p. 233 (1853) ; 
Zemb. Av. Cui. p. 116(1856); Adatas, P. Z. S.18m, p. SIO; 
Kita. Denkw. ij. p. 294 (l858) ; Tajfl. Ibiii, 1859, p. 54 (Etypt) ( 
Witd, J.f. O. 1869, p. 174; Mart. ibid. p. 220 (Bfnnudn) ; Blot, 
in Kaum. Viiff. DniUtM. lui. 2, p. 312 (egtn) {I860) ; I'awyt, Ibit, 
\mO, p. 353; Sunnk. IbU, 1862, p. 264 (Foocliow) ; i.1. P. Z. S. 
1863, p. 824; IacM. J.f. O. 1883, p. fill (Mexico); Wnjkt, 
Ibif. l«04, p. 155; &A%. Mta. F.-B., Anseres, p. 33 (part.) 

CI); HuKltv. C^v. K. Vri.-Akad. Fork. 18(Ri, p. (103 (Porto 
); DoU, Pr. BofL Soe. N. fl, rii. p. 306 (1809); PntK: 
Puirtch. &'.™r.n. 206 (1870); Garn. -Km, 1871, p.299 (Alceris): 
Ttofl. Ibii, 1872, p. 233 (Crimeii) ; Gieb. ZAw. Om. L p. 348 (sjn. 
emend) (1672); Sererb. Turkeit. Jeootn. p. 30(1873); Adami, 
Ibii, 1878, p. 432 (UichnU«ki) ; J)ole, Hawta. Alman. 1879, p. 5fi; 
Snerla. Ibit, 1883, p. 76 (Pamir) ; Serlt. Hilt Brit. B. iii. p. 654, 
[i 63 (t«g) (1885) ; id. B. Jap. Emp. p. 242 (1800). 

AiiMelypeiitnj9{At)s.ainuacarift, Gtmt.), Linn. S. If. i. p. 200 (1766); 
Gm. S. y. i. 2, p. 518 (1788) ; tath. Ind. Om. a. p. 867 (1790) ; 
ritUl. A'. D. V. p. 166 (1816). 

AiMtra m«8M)loiw, Oerini. Star, degli Uee. v. tav. 672 ( <J ) (1770), 

Sonchet, D'Aubent. PL Btd. 071 (J), 872 (2) ; Buf. Ifitl. Nat. 
Oit. ix. p. 191 (1783). 

Red-brewted Slioveler, Pern. Brit. Zoot. ii. n. 281 (England) (1785) ; 
Lath. Syn. iii. 2, p. 512, n. 67 (1786). 

Uexican Shoveler, Lath. Syn. iii. 2, p. 511, n. 66 (1785). 

Anu ru%u«l«r. Lath. Om. Syn. Suppl. i. p. 297 (1787). 

Anas dypeat* y, Om. S. X. L 2, p. 519 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. 
p. 857 (1790). 

Ana* niexicana. Gm. 8. JV. L 2, p. 519, n. 81 (1788) ; Zath. Ind. On. 
iL p. 857, n. 61 (1790) ; Dmn. Diet. Sc. Nat. ri. p. 366 (1817) ; 
lybrb. in La Sagra'i Uid. Nat. Oi*a, Ow. p, 299 (1840) ; Gmdl. 
J.f. 0. 1871, pp. 278, 280. 

Anaa rubens, Gm. S. N. i- p. 610, n. 82 (1788) (w Ptnnant) ; Ltdi. 
Ind. Om. ii. p. 867, n. 62 (1790) ; Bonn. Enc. Mitk. i. p. 145 
(1790) ; VieM. N. D. v. pp. ISt, 156 (1816) ; Oum. Did. Sc. Nal. 
Ti. p. 378 (1677). 

Anw dvpeala'niexicaiia, Bonn. Ent. Mith. L p. 161 (1791). 

Spatula' dn«Bta, Soie, Iii*, 1822, p. 564, 1826, p. 980; G. S. Or. 
Lia B. BrU. Mta. iii.ji. 139 (1844); id. Gen. B. iii. p. 018, n. 4 
(1846) (Brn.Hmentl.); AoMT, P.Z.S. 1845, p. 13; Rahnh. Sun. As., 
NataU.re«. I. 88. fE. 215-216 (1845); Biipp. Sgrt. Ufbrrt. p. 188, 
n. 490 (N.E. Afr.) (1846) ; O. B. Or. Cat. Hodui. ColL B. M. 
p. 116 (Nepal) (1816) ; Btyth, Cat. B. Miu. A. S. B. p. 303, n. 1770 
iajrn. eineod.) (1849) ; Mchnb. Ac. tSyit. Nat. p. ix (1851') ; Woodk. 



SUgr. Sep. p. 104 (18C3) ; Zmard, Ann. 8f Mag. N. B. siv. p. 379 
(CeTlon) (I8S4) ; GotM, P. Z. 8. 1666, p. BS ; Hartl. Suit. Om. 
Wutafr. p. 248 (CBBamanee) (1867) ; Cab. J. f. O. 1867, p. 22» 

iGuba) ; Com. U.S. Krpl. Erp., Mam. ^ Om. p. 343 (1868) ; Baird, 
1. JV. Am. p. 781 {IS58) ; td. Cat. N. Am. B. n. 583 (1868) ; id. 
Mex. B. Sun. p. 27 (1859) ; Hetrm. P. E. B. E^. i. pt. Ti. p. 60 
(1869); Sdat. ^ Salv. IbU, 1859, p. 231 (Guatemaia); Saiv. ibid. 
pp. 366, 363 (E. AUm) ; O. R. Or. Litt 3. Trap. I»t. p. 66 (1869) ; 
Vo(^. ^ Suekl. K. H. Wath. Terr. p. 265 {I860) ; Zawr. Ann, 
Imc. y. Y. vii. p. 274 (Cuba) (1860) ; A. Newt. Ibit, I860, p. 308 
(St. Thomu) 1 Sclm. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 83 (Jamaica) ; Irbg, Ibit, 
1861, p. 249 (Oudh) ; Slakiit. Ibu, 1862, pp. 9, 332 ; Sclat. 
P.ZB. 1862, p. 20 (Mexico) ; Hm/d. Sep. 1862, p. 176 ; G. R. Gr. 
Lid Br. B. p. 197 (1863) ; Sou, Canad. Nat., April 1862 ; Verr. 
Pr. Bu. Inst. in. p. 168 (1862) ; Albrnht, J. f. O. 1862, p. 207 



BwmA. Slid. p. 434 {Formosa) j March, Pr. Ac. PhUad. 1864, p. 71 
(Jamaica) ; Jerd. B. of Itid. iii. p. 796 (1864) ; P Oould, Handb. 
B. Amtr. li. p. 370 (N. S. Waleal) (1866) ; fiWat. P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 618 (Hakodadi); More, Ibis, 1866, p. 442 (Great Brit.); 
Omdi. Repert. Fit.-Nat. i. p. 389 (Cuba) (1866) ; Coue$, Pr. Ac. 
Phitad. 1866, p. 99 (Arizona); Lawr. Arm. Lye. N. T. viii, 
p. 297 (1866) i Liat. OU. Trin. p. 618 (1866) ; Degl. * Gerhe, 
Om. Eur. ii. p. 503 (1867) ; WhiUly, Ibit, 1867, p. 207; Cottet, 
Pr. Eti. Itut. T. p. 299 (1868); Drake, Ibit, 1869, p. 164 
(Morocco) ; Seiat. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 629 (breeding) ; Goeb. J.f. O. 
1869, p. 32 (Archangel); Frantx.J.f. 0. 1869, p. 378 (Costa Rica); 
Egt. ^. Anat. p. £0 (1869) ; Baa ^ Banti. Tr. Chic. Acad. i. 
p. 297 (Alaska) (1869) ; Eiwa ^ Buckl. Ibit, 1870, p. 330 (Turkey) ; 
FtMch, Z^. ZooL Soc. -vii. p. 301 (AbyeBinia) (1870) ; Stev. U.S. 
Gtol. SuTv. Terr. 1870, p. 466 (Wyoniing) ; G. R. Gr. Hand4itt, 
iii. p. 86, n. 10676 (1871) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 418 (S. China, 
Furnio.-!!) ; Oiridd, II. Urtat lirU. v. pi. 11 (pi. \y.., 1^71) : Allen, 
Bull. Mils. Comp. ZkI. iii. p. 183 (Hiah) (la?:?) ; IIoUUic. P. Z. S. 




37. flPArcLi. 



309 



Bir^, n. 608 (1881) ; C. Smnh. IbU, 1883, p. 124 ; Couet, Ckerk- 
iM(,2nd ed. p. 114, n. 718 (1882); Sate. Cat. B. Striekl. O.tL 

S53«(18b2); Blakiit. ^ Pryer, Tr.At. Soc.Jap.i.'p.9fi(\S&>); 
. O. V. Lilt Brit. B. p. 128 (18S3) ; Sclat. LiU Vert. An. 8th id. 
p. 437 (18SS) ) NtUon, 'CniUe Concin.' p. 96 (1883) ; Obua, Key 
Jf. Am. B. 2iid ed. p. 606 (1884) ; Saliiad. Ann. Mm. av. Gai. 
(a) i. p. 247 (Shoa) (1884) ; B.. B., * B. Watfr-B. N. Am. i. 
p.S26(1884}i Triitr. Fatal. ^ Flor.FaUat.f.n%i\^ii); Saui'd. 
m YamtV$ Hat. Brit. B. iv, p. 375 (1884-85) j Con/, Liit B. If. 
Itid. p. 31 (1885) ; St^n. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mtu. no. 29, p. 159 
{Bering I.) (1835) ; Zaroudn. Oil. Tran«xup. p. 72 (1883) ; Shari-f, 
Ibit, 1886, p. 493 (Fao); A. 0. U. Chfrk-lUt JV. Am. B. p. 117, 
n. 143 (1886) ; Saivad. EL U<x. Ital. p. 2fiO (1886): Ae/rt. Enc. Brit. 
Stta ed. xii. p. 842 (1886) ; Turner, Gmtr. JV. S. Ata»ka. p. 133 
0886); iVeiwji, ^at. H«t. Coll. in Altuka, p. 89 (1887) : SMn. Pr. 
V.8. Nat. Mu». I. p. 137 (Berinir 1.) (1887) ; SiHgw. Man. N. Am. 
Birds, p. 97 (1887) ; Taa. P. Z. S. 18**, p. 460 (Coreft) ; P Bam*. 
Tab. Lai, p. 23, n. 672 (New 8. Wolra) (18SS) ; Shu/eldl, JV. 
ZT.S. Nat. Mut. 1888, pp. 230-248, ff. 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 
SS (osleolcey) ; Salcad. Ai\n. Mui. Civ, Oen. (2) vi. p. 323 (Shoa) 
■{1888) ; Cory, Auk, 1888, p. 54 ( W. Iadie«t ; id. B. W. Ind. p. 265 
(1889) ; S&arpe, Tr. linn. Sac. (2) Ztml. y. p. 91 (1889) ; £<//. 
Cbl. Flff. Or. B. pt. X. pi. — (1830) ; Triitr. Cat. CalL S. p. 48 
<1889) : Feild. IbiM, 1889, p. 500 (lUrbados) ; North. Cat. NftU 
4- Eggs Aaitr. B. p. 371 (1889) ; Saunders, Man. Brit. B. p. 415 
(1880): BcAme. J./. O. 1890, p. 82; Emm, Ibit, 1891. p. 73 
{incubation) ; Sluan, ibid. pp. 328, 497 ; Sharpe. Sop. I'ark. Mi*f., 
Artt,v. 132(1891); id. Cat. (hteol. Spmm. CoU. Swg. ili. p. 303 

S881): Hartfrt,Kat. Vogdtamml. v- 232 (1891); HaUA, B. of 
MRM. p. 47 (1892) ; Hanmy, Ann. SeoU. N. S. t. p. 138 (Orkney) 
(1893); Battertby, Zool. 1892, p. 311 (Wcstmeftth) ; Duboit, 
Faun. Vert. Brig., Ow. ii. p. 458, pi. 252 (1892) ; De la Tow^he, 
iAw,18»2, p.492; Fairbridgt, n)U,\^^,o. l.»(CapeI); Meade- 
Waido, aid, p. 199 (Canariei): SJimig, J./. 0. 1893, p. 104; 
Chapm-lbii, 1694. p. 842 (W. JutUnd) ; Scott Wile. AveeSairai. 
pt iv. (1893): C^^nn. £ei^ .dm. ATiM. JV. if. 1894, p. 83 (Trinidad) ; 
Satead. Mem. B. Ac. Se. Tor. [2) zliT. p. 594 (Somali) (1804). 
Bhvnch&RiiB djpeats. ZeacA. MS.: Steph. Gen. Zool. xii. 3, p. 115, 
p"l. 48 (1834); Striekl. P. Z. S. 1836, p. 102 (Smyrn«) ; Eyt. Cat. 
Br. B. p. 01 (1836) ; Gould. B. of Eur. \. pi. 360 (1837) ; EvI. 
Man. Anat. p. 131, pi. 3. f. 7 (fltucnum) (1638) ; Bp. Comp. Litt, 
p. 67 (183S) ; Dkkt. ^ Bou. P. Z. S. 1839. p. 134 (Eraeronm) ; 
Vfo. Zool. Beackeu't Voy. p. 31 (1839); K. * B. Wirbellh. Eur. 
pp. toiv, 227 (1840); Striekl. P. Z. S. 1842. p. 167 (Chins); 
Mat^U. .Van. ii. p. 172 (1842) ; Sefy»-l. Faun. Belg. i. p. 143 
(1842); HarU. Vert. Get. Mat. p. 120(1644); Goue, B. Jam. 
p. 408 (1847) ; Hartl. Arch. f. Naturg. 1852, i. pp, 136, 137 
(Swdwich lal.) ; Bp. Gimpt. Bend, xctvii. p. 004 (1853) ; 
Waliaigr. AViumiin)tHi,1864,p.270(Scandinatia): Liebt. Nomencl. 
><R p. 102(1854); Selat. P. Z. 8. 1855, p. 164(Bo^t«!): Bp. 
Cbmpl. Bend, iliii. p. &W, n. 82 (18.56) : Neiei. P. B. B. Bep. vi. 



p. 1(J3 (1857) ; Cab.'lt Gu'ndl. J./. O. iS57.p.228(Cul»); Zotie. 
Cat. Mamm. el Oi: Ala. p. 141 (1858) : MTurr. Edinb. Neu, PhU. 
Joum. 1869, p. 229; Trittr. Ibta, 18-tO, p. 37 (Paleiline), 1660, 
p. 81(Jt.K. Alr.)i S;7np8<m,ifo>. 1 — — " " - - 

Sbr. N. II. vii. p. 30ii (Cubn) 1181 . , _. ^ .. 

(Ilonj^kong); Tn*tr. P.Z.S. 1864, p. 4'f3 (rslestiue) ; &oinh. 



tMATax. 

Ibu, 1667, ^ 388; AfOw, Vrit, 1871, p. S16; 8a-md. lUt, 1871, 
p. 896 (8. EhMin) ; 8MUu, B. ofEgypt,v. 285 (1872) ; Too. J.f. O. 
1873, p. IIU, 1874, ^ SSI; id. Om. Vod. aOnr. p. 30 (1877) ; id. 
BuU. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1877, p. 46, 188S, p. 34S ; JEodUf , Ondt Cimeat. 

p. 4m (i8»i). 

B&jticbaqai mezicana, A«)A. ffrfn. ZboJL liL S, p. 118 (1624). 

Spatulea clj>pe«U, J%in. .^if. ..Jni'in. p. 123 (1828). 

ClypeBtK macTorhTiichoi, SrOm, Itit, 1830, p. 9»7 ; (iii Fm. ZJealiciU. 

p. 870 (1831). 
Cljppata pUtTThvncboi, Brehm, Int. 1830, p. 997 ; ijf. Fm. DemlieU. 

p. 877 (1831). 
Cljpeata pomuioa, BreMn, Imt, 1830, p. 9OT; irf. Vt^. DetUteU, 

p. 879 (1831). 
ClrpMte bnchyrliTncllua, Brehm, IiU, 1830, p. 997; id. Vdg. 

Jhuttchl. p. 878 fl831). 
Ilbj'iichiuipii TirettceoB, Leaeh 

n. 217 (bukhnn). 
Rhvnchaiipis iiiBcrorhynchoa, Brehm, Vogelf. p. 377 (185S). 
" ^ncho«, £r«Am, F.^^. p. 378 (1856); id.Nau- 

Brehm, Naumamaa, 185S, p. 298. 
" • 'a. 

Compt. Bold. zliiL p. 650 



A MS8.,Jide Syie*, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 166, 



Rhyncha*pis poi 

BhfDchaapiB brachyrhjnchoB, Brehm, ibid. 
Kbynchupis pUtyuros, Brehm, ibid. 
RbTncbsniU cljpeata a. mexicaus, . 

(1866). 
Asaa (Ilhynehaepifl) clypeato, ScArenck, Iteit. Amurl 

{I860) ; Badde, Beit. S. O.-Sibir. ii.jp. 373 (1863). 
BhyncliMpia spathulattt, C. F. Daft. H. " ' " ' 

(i860). 
BbyDchaamuB (!) clypeata, Koenig, J.f. O. 1893, p. 104. 



(. Cot. Oil. Belg. iii. p. 276 



Adult mah. Head and tipper part of the neck dark glossy green ; 
lower nook, broast, and tho anterior Bcapulare white ; middle of the 
hack dark brown, the feathers with paJe edges ; nuDp and upper 




37. SFITCU. 



SlI 



I 



tail-feathers wltitbti, with brovn marks : beak oliTe-brown, base of 
the maxilla and the entire mandible orange ; irides bazol-brown ; 
feet dull orange. 

MaU in first plumagt rosembles the female, but the wings ate 
brighter coloared ; bill pale reddish brown ; l^s and feet flesh- 
colour. 

MaUt in Oieir first nu/tlial plimage have the white of the breasl 
with a few dark crescontic bands, the lower belly with dark bars, 
ajid the rich block of the andcr tail-eoverU mottled with chestnut 
and white. 

Adult male in Tiutullinff plumage may bo dietinguished from the 
adult female by the greater brilliancy of the blue and metallic 
green on the wing, the plwn dark upper tail-coverts, and the 
general darker colour of the entire plumage; the crown is dark 

Finiiur in down resemble those of the Wigoon in having the upper 
parts almost uniform, with indialiuct pale spots, but tliey posses,* 
the dark brown stripe through the eye as in the young Mallard. 
The bill is not widened at the tip, but it grows very rapidly. 

Hafi. Northern hemisphere, breeding as far north as lat. 6S° ; 
from the Palteurctic region in winter extends in Africa as far south 
as Casamoncc on the West, and Somali-land on the East ; and in Asia 
as far as Arabia, Persia, India, Ceylon, Formosa, Southern China, 
and Japan ; in America as far as Colombia and the West Indies. 



a, ». (J 2 «!■ »t. 

c. $ ad. et. 

d. 2 juv- •*. 

«,/. tf $ ad. St. 

S/'l. (f 2 ad, et 

jm. »k. etsL 



Qreat Dritnln, 
Great Britun. 
Loch Lomond, Scotland, Aug. 

Jlerton, Norfolk, Uay. 

Lincolnshire. 

Aldeburgh, Suflblk, Aug. 



o. ^ ad-rt. 
p,j. (f 2»d,ak. 



Purchased. 

The Duke of Mont- 
rose rP.]. 

Lord WaUinaham 
[!■.]■ 

Montagu Coll. 

Tbeo. Fisher, Esq. 

(T.]. ^ 

Theo. Hsher, ^. 

[P.]. 
Montagu Coll. 
Baron A. von Iliigel 



y, t. 2 ad. et 
(J2 Jn'-'J'- 
a'. J imm. sk. 



&'. (f od. ak. 



^M f-. a ad. ak. 
H J. $ ad. sk. 



Poole Harbour, Doc., Jan., Feb. 

Archangel, June. 

Middensee, Oeimany, June, 

Hungary, Sept 

Golicia. 

Sardints, l^Iurch (ft. E, S.\. 
Eubcea, Greek Archipelago, 



[P.]. 

Baron A. « 

[P.]. 

HuBgnrian 
Mu. 



on Hiigel 
on Hugel 
on Hiigel 
National 

^-l , 
on HUgtfl 



Baron A. 

[P.]. 
SbeUey Coll. 
H. J, Elwes, Esq. 

[P.]. 



312 

et JUT. as.. 
A'. $ kd. Bk. 
i. (f ad. Bk. 
f,/'. (J?Bd.8k. 

et % inun.ak. 
p'. 2 jiv. ik. 

9'. $ ad. 8k. 

r'. $ ad. sk. 

V.C. <J? aiak. 

m', 1/. cf ad. et 

imm. ak. 
u>'. cf ad. ak. 

a--. Pull. ak. 

jf'. J imm. Bk. 



£^t, Feb., April (0. £ A). SbeUe; ColL 



AJexudrit, Feb. 

Senaf6, AbyBmnia, April ( ITm. 

Jeue). 
AogoUala (fiorra). 

Bagdad. 

Mesopotamia (/onw). 

Fao, Pemian Quit 

LenkoTan. 

Sanpta, ApriL 

Eaaan, June. 

Omak, Maj. 

NarimskaJB, Ob R, Sept. 
Valle; oi the Yen-e-eaj, 

Siberia, l*t. 664°, June 

{S. &). 
Eaahgar (Beiieto). 



J.Bowriiig,E^.[P.l 
SheUer ColL 
TweetWUi ColL 

India Muaenm [P.], 

C. Chevalier, Eaq. 

[P.]. ^ 

Kenneth Loftua, Eaq. 

[P.]. ^^ 

Euphrates Exned. 

(g.\ '^ 

W. D. 



Seebol 



K 



ion. 



Baion A. von BMgd 

[P.]. 
Baron A. von Hiifrel 

[Po- 
st. Oeonre Littledale, 

Dr. O.'fWi [P.]. 
Seebohm CoU. 



India Mutteum [P.]. 
India Museum [P.]. 





37. bpahtla. 

Nepal {B. B. HodgttmX 
Native Sikhim, March (£. Man- 

deUi). 
Bootan (Ptmbertan). 
Shan Stales. 

Cochin China. 

Lob-nor, March {PrjecaUhf\ 
Djunjfaiia, May {PijevaUky). 
China (TucAett). 

Kiukiang, China, March- 



India MuMum [T^]. 

E. W. Gates, EbQ. 

[P.]. 
M.St. Pierre [P.]. 
Seebohm CoIL 
Se«bohm Coll. 
Tweeddale ColL 
Fortune CoU. 

F. W. atjan, Esq. 
[P.]. 

Lieut. Davies [PJ- 



. Saunden, 



*». 5 



I 



a\ 6*. e ad. et 

jUT. ak. 
«'*, rf'. (J ad. at 

S inun. ab. 
'•-;*'. (J 2 ad. et 

.-■. cT ad. ak. 

A'. $ ad. Rk. 
/>, M*. n'. cT ad. 

et mv. A. 
«*.p. 7*. (f 2ftd. 

et imm. sk. 

AV rf^.et$ 
«'. ? jUT. sk, 

r*. (^ tnun. ek. 

te: 6 mLsL 
*'. 2 imm. sk. 
»*. rf juT. ak. 



Caaton Market, China (R. Swin- : 

hot). 
Takow, Formosa, Feb., Dec. I 

(S. S.). 
Yokohama, Japan iU. Piyrr). I 



. Ycno, Japan, Oct. {Blakii- 



**» *^- tf i""- * 

9 inm. ak. 
j'-D*. rf 2 ad. et 

imm. ok. 
w*. rf ad. ak. 

j". cf juv. ik. 



Ft Simpson, July. 
4Sth t'arallul, April 

Ma^sachuti^tts, Oct. 

Cbicag,}, Illinois, April {E. W. 

Rockport, N. America, 
Fairporl. N. America. 
French Itroad II., near Alex- 
andeHB, N. C, April lU. 

w. m. 

Denver, Colorado, Mav. 
Brownsville, Teias, " March, 

April (F. B. Armetrony). 
Corpus ChrUti. Teias, Oct., 

Doc. (F. B. A.). 
California, Dm. {S. O. Parker). 
Zac*t<K88, Mexico, Feb. { W. B. 

Richardson). 
Presidio. Mexico, Feb, {A, 

Farrrr). 

Duefias, Ctuatemala, Feb,, Oct 

(O. S.). 
nunmuchni, Guatemala, Feb. 

(O. S). 
Medellin, V.S. Colombia {T. K. 

SaliHoH). 



F. Ringer, Esq. [P.]. 

Soebohm ColL 

J. K. Lord, Esq. [P-l- 
J. K. Lord, Eaq. [P.]. 

N. America Bound- 
ary Gnmm. [P.l. 

B. B. Ross. Eao.[P.]. 

N. America Boun- 
dary Conun. [P,]. 

Salvin-fiodman Coll. 



Salvin-Oodn 



a CoU. 



Prof. KirtUnd [P.l. 



Sal vin-0 adman Cull. 

Salviu-Grwliuan C^jIL 
Salvin-Gmlraan ColL 

Salvin-Goilmaii CoU. 

SalviD-Ooduian Coll. 

Salvin-Oudman ColL 

Salviii-Oodman Coll. 



S14 

y*, s". PdIL nt. 
a*. Skeleton. 
6*. Skeleton, im- 

perfect. 
«*. Skull. 
iT. Sternum. 
a*. Stenimi with 

■IioaldeT-girdle. 



Nep>L 



£nglukd. 
England. 



Pnchaaed. 

PvcfaAMd. 

a H. HodgMO, Era. 
T. Ingdl, Eeq. [P.]. 



2. SpEtula rhynchotii. 

New IIollBnd Shoveler, Lath. Gat. &)i. Si^pi. ii. p. 339, n. 87 
(1801). 

Antu rhjnchotiti, Lath. Ind. Om. Sujipl. p. Ixi, n. 5 (1801); Leu. 
Tr. dfOm. p. 033 (1831); SchUg. Mut. P.-B., Aneeree, p. 35 
(1866) ; Oieh. TTtet. Om. i. p. 361 (sTn. emend.) (1872) ; FirueJl, 
Ibi>, 1880, p. 397. 

BhynchBiirtris rhynchotis, Steph. Gen. ZooL jrii. 2, p. 123 (1824) ; 
fyt. Mm. Anat. p. 133 (1838); P. Z. S. 1839, p. 114; JTp, 
(hmpt. Smd. iliii. p. 660. o. 8fi (1856) ; BuOtr, Silt. B. Sfc 
Zeal. 2Dd ed. ii. p. 271 (1888). 

Spatula xhynchotiB, G. R. Gr. Lut B. Brit. Mm. iii. p. 1*) (syn. 
emend.) (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 018, n. 2 (»yn. emend.) (1846) ; 
Gould, B. Atutr. viii. pi. 12 (pt. xi., 1846) ; BehrUt. Sj/n. Av., 
Nstatorea.t. 110. f. 980 (1846), t. cclxxiiii. (86) If. 2334-35 (18G0) 
(ex Gould?) ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 9S; id. Handb. B. Atutr. 
li. p. 368 (1866) ; Pth. Rtit. Novara, Viig. p. 189 (New HollMid I 
(1865) ; Eat. Syn. AfuU. p. 88 (1869) ; ? Aforw, Act. Soe. X*iim. 
Bord. xxvu. p. 328 (New Caledonia) (1870); G. R. Gr. SantNUt, 
Hi. p. 80, n. 10677 (1871); Digffl. B. Auttr. ii.pl. 112 (1877); 
P ^^aTie, Il.lt, isrr, p. :W,Z {!^ew Cnledonm); nammu, Pr. Linn. 
Soc. a: S. tr. ii. p. 200, n. «f)9 0<*'8) : Leffgr, B. of (iyl. p. 108^< 
; Scl,it. P. Z.S. 1880, p. 523; Sale. " ' " "" " '* 




■PilDLA. 315 

* (1831) : Sclat. P. 7.. S. 1680, p. 023; 

i. p. 37 (TaBwwiia) {1802). 

Cimpt. Sfvd. sliii. p. f(60. n. 86 (18561 
(Wn. emend. ?)r-fV'>«^. Jf- O. 1870. p, 356; Futf*. Tr. N. Z. 
Ijut. iii. (1870) p. 102 (1871); IlutUm, Cat. B. If. Zeal. p. 37 
(1871) ; Button. IbU, 1872, p. 248 (Chdtbam Is.) : FimKh, J.f. O. 
1873, p. 187, 1874. p. 203; BuUrr, Man. B. New Zeal. p. 70, 
pL us. (1882) i Bull. Hist. B. Neie Z^aL 2aA ed. ii. p. 269, 
pL sliv. (1888) ; Forbei. IbU, 1893, p. 543 (Chstham L). 
Anas rhynchoti8. Ellmmi (nee ZathT), Zoologiit, 1861, jn, 7471 ; 
SeUfg. Mia. P.-B., AnaeMS, p. 35 (part.) {lHOG) ; Oieb. net. Orn. 
i.p.361 (part.) (1872). 

Adult Tiudt, Crown of tho head, space enrroundiug (be base of 
tliB bill, and chin brownish blauk ; a cresccntic white band between 
the biD and the eyes, bounded posteriorly by speckles of black ; rest 
of the head and neck bluish grey, with greenish reflections, especially 
on the sidea of tJie nai>e ; back browniiih black, the feathers edged 
with reddish ; rump and npper tail'Oorerts black, with a green 
gloBS ; feathers of the lower neck and upper breast more or less 
white, vith b]ackish-brown crescenlic bands, and edged with rufous; 
lower breast and abdomen bright rufous chestnut, with black bands; 
the flanks brighter, each feather crossed hy several broad cresccntic 
bands of black ; under tail-coverta black, glossed with groon : a white 
patch on the lower flanks on each side of the base of the tail : shorter 
scapalaie brown, with white cresccntic bars and nifons edges ; the 
longer scnpal.irs with a control (rreyish-white stripe, but the upper 
once glo^y black, white the lower ones have tho out«r web fight blue 
like the upper wing-coverts ; upper wing-coverts light blue, the an- 
terior ones of the h^t row broadly tipped with white ; wing-speculum 
glossy green, the tips of the secondaries brown witli a blue tinge ; 
the ioncT secondaries or tertials long, black, with a bine gloss, some 
with a whitish central stripe; mai^nal under wing-coverts pale 
brown, edged with white, the remainder of the asillaries entirely 
white ; tail black, the oater feathers narrowly edged with whitish on 
The outer web : " iridos bright yellow ; hilt dark purplish black, the 
under mandible clouded with yellow ; legs and feet yellow" (Gould). 
Total length 22 inches, wing 9' 75, tail 4, culmen 2'55, tarsus I'3. 

Femal*. A'ery similar to that of S. clypeata, from which it 
differs in being darker, heavier brown-spotted on the nnderparts, 
uid principally in the tail, which is dark brown, with rufcscent 
edges and narrow bars, instead oF being pale fa,wu-coli>ur wilh 
lirown marking: the speculum is of a darker green. 

Yotmy. Similar to the female, but duller and darker. 

Although I have kept separate the synonymy of S. laritgata 
froiu New Zealand, I must say that 1 have not Invn able to 
satisfy myaelf that it is different from S. rAi/ncAyfuf of tho Australian 
continent. According to Mr. Gould the New Zealand male bird 
ha« much more white on the sides of the lower neck and breast. 
I hare seen Australian birds which have as much white on 
the fiidea of the neck and breast as the New Zealand ones; and 
knowing how much tlic extension of the white un the neck varies 



in the male of S. dypeaia according to age, I am indiiied to 
oonaider the Aastralian and New Zealand forms as spedfically 
identicaL 

H<A. AoBtralia, Taamaoia, and New Zealand. 



a. rf imm. at 


Australia. 




Pmchaead. 


6.e.cJad..k. 
I e imm. tk. 


Australia P 




Gould UolL 


Australia. 




II. J. Elwea, En. [P.]. 
Sir D. Cooper [P.]. 
F. D. Qodman, Esq. 

fP.). 
Ail^ti^ Museum 


e-cfod-ak. 
/,?,A.<J$imm.ek. 


Austnlia. 

Australia. 




1,*. (JSad.8t 


N. S. Wales. 










[P.]. 


I Sad. A. 


N. S. Wales. 




Hume CoU. 


ffl. (J imm. at. 


S. Australia. 




Sir G. Grey [P.l 
Hume Coll. 


n. cJ ad. sk. 


Tasmania. 




0. JuT.ak. 


Near Hobart Town, Tas- 


Gould GolL 




mania, Nor. 






j>. (J imm. ak. 


New Zealand. 




P. Earl, Esq. [P.]. 


J. rfad.riL 


New Zealand. 




aptsto£c»[p.]- 






fIVpeof 5 


r,*. 9ad. etcf 


Cook's Stwita, 


NeVZea- 


imm.Bk. 


land. 







3. Spatula platalea. 
IVito esp&tula, ..4iara,^j>unt. iii, p. 42r,n. 431 (Buenos Ayree) (1806), 

Anas pUlalao, F^I. JV. i). t. p. 157 (1816) ; id. £We. JUM. i. p. 857 
(1823) ; Burnt. La Ttata-Beue, ii. p. 617 (Paraofi and Buenos 
AtmsJ (1861) ; Schleg. Mm. P.-B., Aneeres, p. 85 (1866) ; GW. 
Thti. Om. i. p. 360 (1872). 

Spalulft iilntalen, lUiie, Jm, \8-X, p. 080 ; JinrH. hul Azar. Apunt. 

" — ■ - -■ .p.z.s-'"' "■-" 




37. BPATlTLi. 



317 



JVounurinw, 1853, p. S?2; I%tt. ^ Landb. Cat. Av. Chii. p. 43 
(1868); Waughi(tatastf,AH.SiK. &. CAiV. iv. p. Unix (PeBa- 
floreB) (1894). 
Rbynchftspis macnlatB, Bartl. Verz. Get. Mu*.j,. 120 (1844). 
Spatula rhynchoti^, piirt., O. R. Gr. Lilt B. Brit. Mu». iii. p. 140, 

Bp«aiii.A<1844): id. Gen. 5. iii. p. 018, n. 3 (part.) (1845). 
Dafils cssiiMopiilB, ItchtU,. Sm. Av., NatAtorw, t.li. (8»] t 180 

(1846). 
Dafik cwsioscdpukta, Bibra, Datktchr. Ak. Wien, r. p. 131 (Chili) 

(1863) ; id. J.f. O. 1&G5, p. 57. 
BhTncbaspis meiicana, Licht. {nm Gm.) Nomend. At. p. 102 

(Monterideo, Chili) (1854). 
RhynchMpb plstalea. By. C<>m}it. Send, sliii. n, 650, n. 83 (1866). 
Sptitula maculAtiu, Oould, P. Z. S. 1606, p. »& (I'eni P, BoliviAf): 

E^. SsfM. Anal. p. e9 (1860). 

Spatula (RhynehaEpb) macuIflU, Peh. Beu. yovara, Vog. p. 130 

(Chili) (1805). 

Advit maU. General plQmagereddiBh,thickly spotted with black; 

I he&d and neck light nifeHcent, minutely dotted vith black, chin 

I- almoat inimaoulate ; crown black, with pale edc;cB to the fcuthora ; 

' che«t and abdomen cheatoat ; shorter soapularB reddish, with black 

epots like the back ; lower back, rump, and npper tail-covcrta black, 

with a golden glosa ; under tul-coverte black; on the lower flanks. 

ftl the base of the tail, a wbit« patch ; longer scapulars gloesy black. 

with a central buff atripc along the middle, the Buperior ones edged 

with nifona : wing-corerts light blue, the last row white ot the tip, 

forming a band auteriorlj- to the wing-speculum, which is glossy 

green, with a blue lustre towards the tip and on the inner second' 

aries ; primarr-coverU and primaries greyish hron'n, the latter 

darker and with a green lustre towards the tip ; marginal under 

wing-covert grej-ish brown, with a bine tinge, the remainder and 

the aiillam white ; tail greyish black, the outer feathers lighter, 

all broadly edged with whitiah on tho outer wol>s; bill dark, dmoet 

bt&ckish ; feet yellow ; irides white. Total length about '2Q inches, 

wing II, tail 5 -3, culmen 2-5, tarsus 1'4, 

FrmaU. Very similar t-o the female of S. elt/jieata, so like that it 
ia very difficult to distinguish it, except by the bill, which is a little 
Bhorlet and in dry skin of a dusky colour, while in S. dypeata il 
become* yellowish. 

Bah, Southern America, from the Falklands and Patagonia to 
Pbth on the West, and Paraguay on the East: possibly also Boliria. 




No locality. 

Tarapaci, N. Chili, Feb. 

Central Chili. 

Itio Bueno, Chili, Jan, 

Rio PiUnMquen, Chili, Feb. 



H. Berkeley James, 

H. Berlteley James, 

E«j. fl>.j. 
II. Berkdey James, 

11. Berkeley James, 

SalTio'-Godman Coll. 
H. J. Elwee, Esq. [P.j. 



Uruguay, Oct. 
CoDcbitBS, Bueoos Ayres 

( W. H. lludm>n). 
Moreno, BueuoaAjreSfHaT. 
Sandy Point, Str. of 

Magellan. 
Falkland Is. [LeemU). 



Salvin-Godmau C 



H.Diiniforf,EBq.[T.]. 
' ChaUeuger ' Expeo. 



Salvin-Qodman ColL 



4. Sp&tola capensis. 

Bliynclia«pu capenFJs, Om'tA, Cat. 8. A/r. Mia. p. 3a, no. 322 (1837) 
(descr. nulla); Eyt. Mon. Anat. p. 135 (1838); Smith, lU. S. 
Afr. Zeot., Birds, pi, 98 (1844) ; Bp. Compt. Send, iliii. p. 660, 
n. 84 (1860) \ Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 354 (1867) ; Boc. Jom. Ac. 
Sc.Lie6. 1867, _p. 330; Gum. JW*, 1868, p. 50 (Transvaal and 
Natal) ; E. L. Leyard, Ibii, 1869, p. 377 (eKes) ; Boc. Jom. Ac 
Se. Liab. 1872, p. 70 ; Saltad. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 173 (nolfi). 

Spatula uljpeata, part, 6. R. Gr. List B. Bnt. Mu*. iii. p. 138, 
Bpecim.j (Cape) (18*4). 

Spatula capensia, 0. R. Gr. Gen. B. iii, p. 618, n. 3 (1846) ; EckiA. 
Sun. Av., NatatoKS, t. L. (88) S. 2Id-230 (1846) [ex Smith) ; 
iDe» Murt, tn Lffdivre, Vou. Ahys*., OU. p. 172 (1845-18S0) ; 
OmM, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 95 ; iy(, ^, Anat. p. 91 (1869) ; G. B. 
Or. Sand-iitt, iii, p. 85, n. 10679 (1871) ; Anderu. B. Damara 
Land, p. 341 (1872) ; Boc. J. f. O. 1876, p. 294 (Rio Coroca) : 
Setat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 623 ; Boc. Om. Angoia, p. 504 (Rio Coroca) 
(1881) ; Bull., Feild., ^ Seid, Zoolog. 1882, p. 428 (Natal) ; Sharpe, 
LayarWa B. S. Afr. p, 750 (1884) ; Jrisfr, Cat. OM. B. p. 48 
(1889). 

Anas dypeala, part., Schleg. Mas. P.-B., Anseres, pp. 33, 34 (epecim. 
from S. Africa) (1866) ; Gieb. Thtt. Om. i. p. 348 (part.) (1872). 

Anas capensis, part., Gieb. Thes. Om. i. p. 340 (1872), 

Spatula smithii, Hartcrt, Eat VogelnmmU. p. 331, note 447 (1881). 



Adult male. Upper part of the bond dark brown, with the edge* 




3S. luucoKBnicars. 319 

FrmaU. Similar to the female of S. clypeata, but easily dlstin- 
(TUuhtibie hy the blue tinge of the speculum ; bcaJdt'a it bus the tail 
much darker brown, with irregular mfeecent \iaxs ; the bill in. Aiy 
skin is dark brown. 

Hah. South Africa, north to Angola on the West, and TransTaal 
•-•n the East ; according to Lefebvre also Abysaima, but this locaUtj 
requires further proof. 

ShdfcyColl. 
arA.Sniitb[P.]. (Type 

of epeciee,) 
i'urchused. 
Shelley CoU. 
Shelley Coll. 



<•. ? ad. Bt. 
<f. d" ad. dl. 
e. <5 jnv. sk. 



Cape of (iood Hope. 
Port NhIbI {Ayray 
Riu CorocB, Ad)^1b, Jan. 
{Aitchiela). 



38. MALACORHTNCHUS. .j,^^ 

SJaUerahyiKrliUB, Sw. Jourri. Et,;/.lnil. ii. uo. iv. 

p. IH (1631) - M. meoibrBnaeeuB. 

. Confined to AustruHa and Tasm.inia. 



Range, 



1. Kalacorhynchiis membranaceiu. 



New Holland Uuck, Lath. Oen. Syn., Suppl. ii. n. 
Anas membransceo, Lath. Ind. Oim. Sumt. p. Ixi 



SQ(lml). 

,. , . .*(ieoi)! 

JV. D. V. p. 108 (1816) ; 2)um. Dut. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 388 

(1817) i rieiU. £nc. Mith. i. p. a58 (\»-}&); Oieb. Thu. On,. L 

p. 3S7 (1872). 
Anas Cwciatft. Sham. Jfat. Mue. xrii. pi. 697 (lTfK)-]813) : Lm. 

7y.<fO™. p, 632(l8ai). 
Membnnaceoiu Uiick, Lath. Oert. Hut. x. p. 331 (1824). 
RhTDChupia membmnacea, Stcpk. Orm. Zooi. xu. 2, p. 124 (1824). 
Ualacorhynchus menibranaceuB, Sw. Journ. R. Jn»l. ii. do. it, p. 18 

(with fiif. of head) (1831) ; G. R. Or. Lit Om. B. p. 74 (1S40) ; 

jfl: op. cii. 2oA ed. p. 94 (1S41) ; JIartl. IVra. Got. Mu4. p. ISO 

(1844) ; a. U. Or. lAd U. Brit. Mu*. iu. p. \m (1*44) : id. Gm. 

B. iii. p. eie (1845) ; Gould, B. Auttr. \i. pi. 13 (pL xfiii., 184fi) ; 

Meknb. S^. Ac, NaUtorea, t 88. £ U344l26 (1S15) ; O. JL Or. 

On. B., App. p. 28 (184fl) ; Bfhnl,. fiy.i. Av., Notatorea, t 88. 

ff, 2a»3-33 (« Gould) ( ]«S0) ; id. At. Sya. Hat. p. ii (1852) ; 

liekt. N<tmmcl. Ao.f.lW (1854) ; Bp. Cempt. Bmd. xM. p. OoO, 

n. 81 (i8M); ZuehoM, J./. 0. 1858, p. 41 (Lynch ffiver) ; 

Otnild, Htmdt.B. Auj-tr.u.n.372n8lir>); iiamii.Jbit, 16G6,p.335 

8 "on Deni«oo) : Miill. P. Z. S. 1800, p. 280 (Melboume) ; G. B. 
r. Band-litt, iii. p. 85, n. 10861 (1871) (avn. eufod.) ; Smd. 
MetJL nat. Av. dup. Tent. p. 148 (1872); ^m*. Pr. Linn. Son. 
If. 8. W. \. pp. 1&5, 216. 2IU (1870) ; OuUtn. ^ Ramt. Aid. p. 386 

£ilfofCan>«nt«riaJ(IB7fi); i%/. B. v<ia(r. il pi. 113 (1877) 
m*. iV. Lmn. Soc. JVi S. W. ii. p. 200, o. (Wl (1878) ; SbW. 
P. '£. S. lt«0, p. 634 ; Jiana. Pr. Liim. Sot. N. S. W. iii, p. i58 
(1682); Salv. Cat. B. Strirki. Call. -a. 5.17 (1882); Ltgm. Pr. S. 
Sec. Taem. 18*1. p. 244 (Tasmania) (1887); Satiu. fah. Li*t, 
p. 22, n. fl7.1 (1888) ; North, Cat. A'«*t $ Egg$ Aiatr. ~ 
llflS»)j Trittr. Cat. CoH. B. p. 48 (1880); 
~ ■ I. Coll. Smy. ill p. 304 (1801). 



■ 

J 



MaUcorhpchus fascifttus, Woffl. Itig, 1882, p. 1535. 
Malftcorbynclius membrinaceus, £yt. Man. Anal. p. 136 (1838) (S7n> 

emend.); id. S^. Anat.j. 92 (1869). 
MalBcorhfiichua iodotis, Leas. Deicr. Mamm. et Ou. p. S46 (^) 

(1847). 
Anas iodotis, Leu. (cf. Schleg. Mta. P.-B.. Anseres, p. 36), 
Anas malacorbyncba, Schleg. {ntc Gm.) Mta. P.-B., Anserea, p. 36 

(1866). 
MalftCorhvncbuR maUcarbTiicbus, HarUrt (rm Gm.), Kal. Vogel- 

lammLp. 232, n. 3426 (l891). 

Advli male. Crown greyiah brown ; sides of tbe bead and chin 
greyiab wbite ; a patob on tbe aidea of the head, inclnding the eyes, 
and a line from either eye uniting at tbe occiput and passing down 
the back of the neck, blackish brown ; an oblong mark of rose-pink 
immediately behind tbe dark patch surronndiug the eye ; neck, 
breast, and underparts greyish white, crossed by nnmerona brown 
bars, narrow on the neck, broader on the breast and flanks, nearly 
obsolete on the centre of the abdomen ; under tail-coverts whitish 
buff; back, soapnlars, and upper wing-corerta greyish brown, 
minutely dusted with lighter points ; rump and upper tail-corerts 
dark brown, the latter with a white band at the base ; secondaries 
with a white band at tbe tip ; primaries dark brown, the shorter 
puea tipped with white ; under wing-ooverts white, crossed with 
narrow brown bars ; axillarien white ; tail brown, the feathers 
slighUy lipped with white : " irides dark reddish brown ; bUl varies 
from greenish grey to bluish olive ; tip of the lower mandible 
white ; tarsi and toes emerald-green in some specimens, and yellow- 
tirown in others ; webs dark brown " (Oould). Total length abont 
17 inches, wing 7-15, tail 2-5, cuhnon 2-5 to 2-65, tarsus 1-25. 

Female. Similar to the male, but somewhat smaller ; according 
to Eyton it wants the pink spot behind the eye, but 1 have found 




1. KannfLTonetta angottirostrii. 

AnM ftognstirostris, M^n^tr. Cat. Hau. tiiue. p. 58, n. 205 (LfQkorAn) 
(1833); Lot. Conpl. lie liuf., Oil. -JtAt^i. p. 722 [ISS^iiE.J^B. 
If'irMtk. Eur. p. Ixiiv (Auiiiiirk.) (1S40) i SMfff. Bev. Crit. 
p. MJii (l&H); B"meyer. J. f. O. mj3, B, p. a6; ScAUff. M«i. 
P.-B., Anaores, p. &') (IStiti); SatUA, IbU,ld^,ii.ioa (I'^ttuf&Ui 
HJkarpe * Dreu. B. of Eur. vi. p. 47«, pi. 423 (pt. 13, 1873) ; OM. 
Thes. Om. i. p. 844 (1873) ; Wriffit, iSu, 1874, p. 22tt (Mftltn) ; 
Jrby, Om. Str. Oibr._n. 199 (1875) (Morocco) ; Gk™. Sam^ai of 
I yalural. p. ±i« (Egypl) (1876); BUuif. Bad. Pert. ii. p. r" 

"' ■• " • ■'■ w); &■«, 

of FaUst. 
p. Hi) (P^le^tine luid Ejfvpl) (1<^B4); TaO-'lbU, 1887, p. .t'U 
(rortug*!); Kotnig, J.f. O. I*W, p. 286 (Tuiuh): Plake, Jlrv. 
Turkest. Oriiu, p. 55 (TixrbinM) (1388); GuUtern. IbU, \>i'*i>, 
p. 216; Lilf. ibid. p. a45 (Cyprus); TriHr. Cat. CoU. A p. 49 
(1880) i Ecawi, liU, 18»1, p. 72 (incubntion) ; IfarHtrC, Kat. Vogtl- 
aammL p. 230 (18(11); AiAa, Orn. JoArA. iii. p. 2t)0 (Boliewia) 
(I89i) ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1893. p. 77U (8p»io, Zool. Gwd.). 

Aiiu (FuliKuIn) W'lrmoraUk, 7'eHi»i. a^«l O^Mld, B. <^ Eur. v. pi. 373 
lpt.ii., 183— f). 

Aou mtinnorata, CtniM, P.Z.S. 1636, p. 59 (X. A&ica); Ttnwt. 
Mam. ifOrn. 2ai ed. iv. p. 544 (Sanlinia) (1840) ; H'enter, AtUu^, 
PHlmipddes, pi. 403 (!»—?] ; E.^ B. WirbelUt. Ear. p. \xxxv 
(Aunierk.) (1840); Qira, Orn. Sarda, p. 100 (Sardinia) (IU2}; 
Buery, J. f. O. 1657, p. 123 (Aluvna) ; Bulle, Had. p. 348 
(CMurieB, breedinit) ; iVuyt, Ibit, I860, p. 3o3 (loaiMi I. ; TunU) ; 
Tmtr. ibid. p. 372 \ id. P. Z. 8. 18li4, p. 453 (Palestiae) ; Bnu; B. 
rif Eur. iv. p. 156, with pUls (1867) ; Triiti: I6i», 1868, p. 328 
(EUeadne) ; Suund. Ibii, 18W, p. 171 (Spain), 1871, p. 3U6 (fi. 
Spain); Uumr, IbU, 1872, p. 4»8 (Sciude); -Brooke, Ibii, 1873, 
p. 343; Don/. ^ Hamus-Broum, Ibii, 1876, p. 430; Seeb. Ibii, 
1883, p. 220 (Astrakwi) : ? Chajiin. Ibit, 18(i4, p. 90 (Sp«D I ; 
B^ifer, Vtrh. x.-b. Gel. Wien, xl. p. 4 (HunwoviDB) (1800); id. 
Om. Jahrb. i. pp. 108, 109, Tsf. i. (1890). 

Ihililji nuumontn, Ei/l. Man. Anat. p, 114 (18.38) ; Bp. Cvmp. Li»t, 
p. 56, n. 410 (1838) ; id. Sjfn. Anat. p. 66 (18U)). 

Qautquedulft aiiguftirodtriB, Bp. Contp. Li*t, p. 67, D. 415 (lB-18) ; 
Durasio. Uec. Lig. p. 70 (Sftrdinia) (1840); Bp. Iom. Faun. 
Ittd. i. Uee. t»y. 47. tl, 2, Intnd. p. 17(1841); id. Atti Xmfi. 
Se. IfaL FirtKe, 1A||, p, 317; id. Cat. Mel. Obe. Eur. p. 71, 
n. 435 (1842) ; id. liit, 1843, pp. 403, 404 ; O. B. Gr. Geii. B., 
App. p. 28 (1848) ; Degl. Ora. Eur. p. 435, sp, 467 (1840) ; Bp. 
lice. O-ri. pp. 104, 103 (1850) ; Ikhnb. St/n. As., Natatofas, t. 00. 
B. 2341^3 (w Bp.), t. 91. r. 2(162 {ex Gould) (1850); Vidal, 
Man. d. Madr. Ac. 1851, p. 196 (Spftin); Brthm, Voijdf. p. S7-J 
(1«S6); BoOe, J.f. 0. 1866, p. 314 (Spain); Salcad. Cat Vce. 
Sard. p. 106 (18G4) x id. J.f. O. 1866, p, 323; Cora, Onerv. Col. 
Uec. Sard. p. 121 (1866); Dn^. ^ Grrbe, Om. Eur. li. p. 638 
(1867); IhdeTl.Apff.Sieii.eMod.p.2liinmi}: Etn/ei ^ Bueid. 
Ibii. 1870, p. 340 (AlUnU) ; Hume, Sir. fiaU,. l p. S62 (Stndh) 
(1873); Anderi. Str. Fealh. iil p. 273 (Uoab, Oudh) (1876): 
Sajti, Om. Ital. iii. p. .'i0(l8ru) ; Hume^Martk. Game B. of Jnd. 
iii. p. 237, pi. 31 (18S0) ; lUid, Str. Fealh. i. p. Si (Luoknow) 
{1881) i C. Stoin*. Ibii, 18S2, p. 124 ; Areealo, Al^ de EipaOtt, 
Tot. xxTO. r 



/./. O. 187( 



p. 366 (1887); «ilM(f.nM,18B8,p.S33; Skarpi, Tr, Zin. 8oc 
(a)&o/.v. p.92<1889j. 
U armuoDetU uigastiTDStric, Selmb. A v. %rf. A'of . p. iz (1868) ; 2^. 
a»np(. Anuf. iliii. p. 660, a. Ill (183«): XorJb-, Qi(. JfaMa. <4 
Oi*. Alfftr. p. 142 (Algeria) (l&5e); &i/RnI. Awi. ifitel, (Tiw. 
p. 263 (1872) ; Selat. P. Z. 8. 1860, p. 5^; Giffl. Iba, 1881, 

S2U (IuIt) ; id. B. Ucc. Ital. p. 67, n. Z-2R (1881) ; &Jv. CU. 
. Stricld. a>il. p. 5S4 (1882) ; Oigl. Anf. Ital. p. 30O (1686) ; 
Salraii. B. Urr. Itat.f. 262 (1886) ; SL Join, Ibu, 188B, p. 179 
( A^haniatui) ; Gigl. Primo Jtaoe. JtteA. Orn. Ital. i. p. 477 (188a) ; 
Carruedo, Boll. Soe. Bom. ». pp. 1-14 (1693); Oigl. leom. Am. 
Ital. fuc lii. ap. ft tev. 356 (1883) ; Koeniff, J.f. 0. 1693, p. 96. 
Tprift, Unggr w. Eoticky, Die Ituel C^pent (1865) ; A. Mill 
i. 1879, p. 392, n. 106 ; cf. Oit. 1888, p, S46. 
MamonettB sngiuljroatiu, Mart. J.f. O. 1868, p. 67 ; Suttda. If elk. 
not. An. ditp. Tent. p. 147 (1872) ; Bogdan. Bird* t^tht Onic (in 
HusdAn), p. 173 (1679) ; id. Mamm. ^ B. of Midiile and Lower 
Volffa (in KuMiftD), p. 149 (18— ?) : fci. Badde, Omu Qmeat. 
p. 466). 

CbAulefumui uiguetirostm, Seuol. Orn. N.O.-Afr. u. 1, p. 1339 
(1873), ii. 3, p. cc (lS73): id. J.f. O. 1874, p. 64; Btam.-Str. 
Feath. Tii. pp. 493, 623 (Lower Bengal) (1679), viii. p. 116, 
D. 961 Hi (1B79) ; id. Halt ^ Bggt Itid. B. (Oatei'ed.], ui. p.3Ul 
(1890). 

Quetqnediila msrmorata, Drem. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 60n (m^ SeTille). 

UhauTiodet augiutiiostris, Badde, Omit Caueet. p 466 (1664). 

Harblfl Duck, JHcLeod, Str. FealA. z. p. 168 (Fiiou, IndoB Valler) 
(1881). 

Mubled Teal, Hume, Str. Feath.i.v. 174 (Ounraoo) (1881). 

Uarmaronetta nutrmorato. Blot. Ver. f. NtUumri**. (BramteiiD. 
Tofftil. 14. 3. 94) (Lech, near Munich) ; cf. Ibii, 1694, v. 453 ; 

Scht. aid. 




323 

geDeraHy all the markings and tiots duller aad less conspicuous ; 
the occipital c^^t shorter. Total length 16'!> to 17*5 inches. 

Young. Similar to the female, but oil the markings and tints slUl 
duller ; the lower parts almost uniform dull pale (p^yiah. 

Hah. From the Canaries, Portugal, and Spain, through Northern 
Africa, Palesttna, Persia, and Cnucaaua to India ; apparently also in 
the SeycbeUee; it atr^glea into Southern Europe, and also into 




/. (f iid.«lc. 
f. Skofeton. 
m', e'. StenWpWith 

•bouliI«T-girdlfli. 
le', r'. Uletna, with 

•houlder-girdles, 
^, I*. Tnchete. 



Iburope.l 

Santa Olayo, Seville, SpaJD, 

Ma;. 
Near SeriUe, Spain, Nov. 

{ff. SauHtifn). 
Mai„ga, Sfwin, S«pt. {B. 3.). 
Morucco. 



SejoLelles, April. 
Mesopotamw (Cnmm. Joneg). 
Mesopotamia (Comtn, Janet). 
Bahrlnn (Camm. Jonti), 
Bagdad. 

Bala Mor);hnb (Aitchi»on). 

Eaodahar, March. 

Sindli. 

Uamnl Mehur, Upper Siadh, 

Jan. (A. O. a.). 
Dosulle, Upper Sicdh, Jan. 

(A. 0. it.). 
Guvbee Dehra, Upper Sindh, 

Jan. (A. 0. EX 
Itore« District, Upper Sindh, 

Jan. {A. 0. U.). 
The Gag, Sehwan, Sindh, 

Jan. {A. O. U.). 
Karachi, Sept. (£. A. But- 

Ur). 
Sanilee, Match (vl. An' 

Guriraon,' April ( »". N. 

CAiU)- 
Calcutta, Dec. (A. O. B.). 
Speciiuea in couBneraeal. 
Algeria. 



PuTcbaaed. 

II. Sauodeia, Esq. 

[C.]. ^ 

SheUey Coll. 



Shellev CoU. 
Euphrales Eip. [C.]. 
In^a Museum [P. I 
India Museum [P.], 
Kenneth Loftus, E«q. 

[!•■]■ 
Arghau DHltmilation 

Comm.£P,J. 
Lt.-Col. Swmhoe 

Hume"Coll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

Hume CoU. 

Hume CoU. 

Hume Coll, 

Hume Coll. 

Seebohm Colh 

Hume Coil. 

Ilnrae Coll. 
Lord LUtord [P.], 



40. BTICTOHITTA*. .^^^ 

SGetoMMa, Jtelmb. Av. S^it. Nat. f, ix Cieea) 6.omnm. 

Satyi. Confined to Adstxslia. 

1. Stictonttte niBTOM. 

Anu ]UBT(w&, Oouid, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 177 (W. Aiutnlu) ; id. B. 
AuUr. Til. pi. 10 (pt T., 1841) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 19S; 
SMtff. Mut. P.-B., Anaerei, p. 63 (1666); MiUL P. Z. S. 186^ 
p. 280; Gieb. Thei. On. i. p. 368 (]872) (Chinal); Jtamt. Pr. 
Zmn, Soe. If. S. W. i. pp. 196, 216, 219 (1876) ; Bdaae. Ont. 
CmiralU. 1882, p. 19. 

TndoniB DBTOM, G. R. Gr.Lut B. Brit. Mum. ui. p. 132 (1844) ; id. 
Gen. B. iii. p. 613, d. S (1846) ; Schnb. Sgn. Av., N&talorea, t 98. 
f. 431 {u Oould) (1846). 

Stictonetu nSTOM, Bdmb. Av. 8y*t. Sat. p. ix (1862) ; Bp. Compt. 
Bend, iliii. p. 649, n. 79 (1866) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 192 ; 
Qotdd, Handh. B. Avatr. ii. p. 8U7 (1866) ; G. R.Gt. Smd-lat, 
iii. p. 80, n. 10620 (1871 ) ; Jtarru. Pr. Liim. Soe. X. S. W. ii. p. 200, 
D. 666 (1878), iii p. 164 (trachea) (1878); Selat. P.Z.8. 1880, 
p. 613; Morton, Pr. R. Soc. Tarn. 1884, p. Ititi (TBunenia) 



(cf. nU, 1884, p. 472) (1886); Z™e, iV. i 

p. 244 (Twrnuiift) (1887); Bam*. Tab. Li*t, p. 2_, _ . . 

ifurth, Cat Ne$U ^ Eggi Auatr. B. p. 340 (1680) ; TriWr. Cat. 



CoU. B. p. 60 (1869) ; HarUrt, Kat. Vogtbanml. p. S28 (1891) ; 
SaHing, Una, 1894, p. 297 (Gippeluid). 
AdvU. The whole of the plumage is dark brown, blacker on the 
aDterior part of the head, miniitely firecUed and spotted with 
lireipilaT ofaloDg marks or bars of white, tinged with baffisb on 
the npper parts; the under surface the same, but whiter, the 
gronnd'Colonr being white, and the (k^ddce and bars brovn ; under 
tail-coverts almost regularly barred with brown; wings without 
speculum ; primaries plain brown ; seoondarieB spotted like the 




41. HETEBOSErfi. 325 

41. HETESOHETTA. __ 

Hatemnetta, Satead. AUi Soc. Ital. Sc. Hal. viii.p. 574 

(1865) H. atricapilla. 

Bamjt, ConGned to the Bouthern part of South Amarico. 




1. Heteronetta atricapUla. 

VUo Cftben nagra, Aiara, Ammt. iii. p. 447, □. 4^ (ISOJi). 
CHtmrd K t^tt: noire, Atara, Vog. (Sonn. ed.) iv, p. 347 (1800) ; Wted, 

Beitr. iv, p. 932 (1832), 
Anu melanocPphaK VUiU. (nee Om.) N. D. v. p. 163 (1816} (ftr 

Atara) ; id. Ene. MHh. i. p. 354 (1823) ; G. R. Or. Orn. B. iii. 

SeiH, n. 18 ( 1844) ; HarU. Ind. Aiar. Apunt. p. 38, a. 43U (1847) ; 
p. Con^. Rettd. llui. p. 649, n. 78 (1856) ; Catt. U.S. Ailmn, 

Exp. ii. p. 302, pi. xx\. (1S50) : Burm. Sf/gt. Ueb. T%ier. Br/a. 

in. p. 439 (note) tl866) ; Pelz. JUite Nocara, Vim. p. 138 (Chili) 

(1866) ; Sclat. P. Z. 8. 1867, p. 335 (Chili) i PhU. ^ Landb. Cat. 

Av. aa. p. 43 (1808)! Feb. Om. Brat. pp. 320 (not«), 459 

(1870) i Oied. Tht». Om. i. p. 356 (1872) ; Bwm. P. Z. S. 1S72, 

p. 370; iSclal. ^ Sale, yomend. Ae. Ntotrop. p. 129 (1873); 

Zturnf. Ibu, 1878, p. 64 (Buenoa Ayrea). 
Aoaa atric&pitU, Merrem, in Eraeh u. Grub. Ene. MCt. 1, vol. zxxv. 

p. 26 (1841). 
Anu nigricepa, Lieht. in Mas. BeroL; id. Natneiicl. Ae. p. 101 

(Montevideo) (185J). 
Hetetonetta melanocepbaU, Satrad. Atti Sot. Hal. Se. Nat. viii, 

p. 674 (1865) ; id. J.f. O. 1870, p. 67; G. R. Gr. Band-iist, iii. 

p. 83, n. 106.55 (1871); Sdat. ^ Sak. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 383; &ii/. 

P. Z. S. 1880, p. rm ; id. Arytnt. Om. ii. p. 130 (1889) ; Hoitand, 

Ibii, 1891, p. 19 (ArgentiDa), 1893, p. 200; Berktl Jataet, ^nc 

Litt Cha. S. p. 9, n. 149 (1892). 
Fuligula meluiocephBla, SeAltff. Xui. P.-B., Aaseres, p. 32 I1S66). 
Nyroca meUuiocephnU, Eift. Sj/n. Anat. _p. 1 18 (Chili) (1869). 
FuliguU nifTOceiia, " VieiU." Eyt. I. e. m the n/noni/my. 

Adult. Head and upper port of the neck black ; chin white ; 
back or upper parta bluckiah brown, minntely verraioulated with 
pale rufous; Iwlow dirty whitish, hot the base of the feutheta 
duaky brown; aidce. Aaiiks, and under t^l-coverts rufoun brown, 
freckled with blackish ; uo wing-apecnlum, the tips of the greater 
coverts white, a white band at the tip of the secondaries ; alao the 
shorter primaries edged with white at the tip ; primaries and tail- 
fMthetB blackish ; under wing-coverts, except the greater which 
are grey, and axUlaries whit« : " hill blockish, with a basal spot on 
each aide Beeh-colour ; feet homy brown " (Sclater). Total length 
about 14-5 inches, wing 7, tiul 2-3, oulmen 1*75, tarsos 1-12. 

Female. " Similar, but the bead like the hack, obeeka brown, 
freckled with black, and throat and auperoiliory stripe whitish " 
(^Srlater) : " upper mandible dark bom, side base with a tii^e of 
nJlowish red ; lege and feet pale slat«, webs darker ; iridea wood- 
brawn " (Damford). 



li. Bio Grande do Sul {Wud); Urugaay, Ai^entina, and 



«. $ ad. e 



AlTear, Buenoa Ayi^, Sept. 



h, e. ij ^ ad. ak,' Kfentlout, Argentine Republic 

(E. C. Seed). 

d, c. <f $ ad.Bk. Mendout, Feb. (H^ouwknfrf). 

/. $ ed. ak. MeDdoio, Feb. 

y. (J ad. Bt Cbili. 

A. $ ad. Bt. Ohili. 

t, it. (f $ ad. ak. Sontiafro, Cbili (Le^old). 

^ m. (f S ad. sk. Bio Filmaiqaen, Cbili, Feb. 



H. Suinibrd, Esq. 

[P.], 
Ptuchaaed. 

SalviD-Godman Coll. 
H.J.Elwe« 
E. Wilson,! 
PuTcbaMtd. 
SalTio-Qodnian CoU. 
H. Berkelej Jamea, 
E-q.[P.]. 



^^K 



Sobfamily VIII. FULIGULIN.^. 

Key to At Gennv, 

I. Primaries not nniform dark brown, ae 
blackiali, but paitlT wbitiab, iritb tbe tip 
brown ; the nrat tnree or four primariea 
brown also on the outer web ; bUl rather 
long, broad, and flat. 
a'. Indentatjona of the upper mandible 
prominent; head of the mrde tuRy 

crested 42. NnTA,p.S27. 

('. Indentatjong of tbe upper mandible not 
prominent. 
b". Bill gibbous at Uie base; outline of 
loral featbering straight, and inclined 
backwarda j.^. Mktopiana, t 




42. HETTi. 327 

edges of the upper mandible 
not bent inwardly; males with 
a glossy head, females with a 

brown head 47. Clanoula, p. 376. 

«'. Central tail-feathers of the 
male very long and pointed ; 
edges of the upper mandible 

partly bent inwardly 48. Harelda, p. 388. 

e*. Head smooth, not distinctly 
crested ; bill conical, almost 

tapering to a point 49. Cosmonktta, p. 394, 

c'". General plumage of males deep 
black, of the females greyish 

brown, but not barred 50. (Edemia, p. 399. 

e". Some patches of stiff feathers on the 
head of the males. 
/'". Upper mandible fringed with a 
sott skin towards the tip ; lower 
mandible with apical portion flat [p. 410. 

and spatulated 51. Camptoljemus, 

g'". Upper mandible not fringed with 

a soft skin towards the tip ; bill 

rather narrow and pointed ; ttTtials 

more or less falcHte, Hspecially in 

the males; females bajred with 

rufous and black. 

ff*. Edges of ui)per mandible bent 

inwardly ; lower mandible with 

the apical portion flat and almost 

spatulated; male and female with [p. 418. 

a metallic speculum 6'2. Heniconetta, 

h\ Edges of upper mandible not bent 
inwardly. 
^*. Feathering of forehead contin- 
uous with that of lores, and ad- 
vancing quite to the nostrils ; 
a pad of feathers encircling the 

eyes 53. Abctonetta, p. 422. 

P. Feathering of forehead sepa- 
rated from that of lores by the 
interposition on each side of a 
more or less extensive naked 
angle ; no pad of feathers 
encircling the eyes 54. Somatehia, p. 423. 



42. NETTA. ^ypc. 

Branta, Boiey IsiSf 1822, p. 564 (nee Scop, 1769, neque 

Oken, 1815) N. rufina. 

NettA, Kaup, Natiirl. Synt. p. 102 (1829) N. rutina. 

Callichen, ^rtf^m, /«m, 18.J0, p. 999 ; id. Handb. Naturg, 

Vdg,DtutKhL^.^>\{\^\) N. rufina, 

Mergoides, Eyt. Cat, Brit, B, p. 57 (1836) N. rutina. 

Range, From the Basin of the Mediterranean to Turkestan and 
Northern India. 



1. HfltUmflna. 
Anna fiatiitarii> cristntft. Britt. Or*, vi. p. 396 (1760). 
Anas nitiiia, PaU. Beiu, ii. App. p. 713, u. 2S (1773); id. BpkO. 

germaa. ri. tab. 6 (rf & J); Om. S. N. i. 2, p. 611, n. 118 

(1788) 1 Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 670, u. 94 (1790) ; Bmm. Ene. 

Mith. i. p. 128 (1790); Pail. Zooffr. So»t9-Ai. ii. p. 26S, Ub. 

luil.(1811)i rnmn. Man. <rOrn. p. G60 (1816) { ViaU.N.D.y. 

p. 164 (1816); Dum. Diet Sc. Nat. ri. p. 367 (1817); Ttmm. 

Man. 2ai ed. ii. p. 864 (1820) ; ImU. Ven. DntU. p. 86 (182S) ; 

Smtz. El. di Zocl. iii. pt. 9, p. lae (1826) ; YamU, Tr. Lim. Soe. 

IT. 2, pp. 387, 391, tab. XT. f. e (trachea) (1827) ; !>«. TV. dTOm. 

p.632(1831);3fAiAr.CW.£au.C!in<c.p.67(BBkou)(1832); Temm. 

Man. d'Orn. 2nd ed. iv. p. ^U (1840) ; Schbff. JUv. OHL p. cxxi 

(1844) ; Xaum. Vag. DaiUM. lii. p. 7, Taf. 307 (1844) ; Brtkm, 

J.f. 0. 1854, p. 84 (Egypt); PUut. ibid. p. 380; MiiU. J./. 0. 

18^6, p. 2.12 (Provence) ; Cotta, Fauna Sfg«o di Ni^., ^ee. pt. ii. 

p.S3, t.xiv.(]8'37); MimchauKn, Naumatmia.imi, m. 299-330; 

Botfe, /./ 0. 1868, p. 227 (CanariesP) ; Tru/r./fc^ 1869, p.l61 ; 

B/at. in Jfaum. Vog. DeuUM. ziii. 2, p. 304 {I860); Prren, 

J.f. O. 18U3, p. 28a (Mecklenburg) ; GiA. Thet. Ont. I p. 361 

(1872). 
Adbb cinerea, S. O. OmeL RMtt Statl. il p. 164, tab. 16 (9) 

(1774). 
Fiscliione col ciuffo, Gerini, SU>r. dtgU Ucc. v. toT. 687 (1776). 
Ana« ruticepB, I'all. Vel.. Acad. Handi. il. p. 28 (1779). 
Csnfird sifflBur hupp4, D'Aubmt. PI. Ent. 926. 
Siffleur liuppi. Buff. Hitt. Kat. Oil. is. p. 183(1783). 
Red-cre8t«dDuck, LatA. Syn. ii. 2, p. 644, n. 82 (1785). 
Anas BJuraksD, De Brujn, II. Moieae. p. 336, tab. d. 182. f. D. 
Canard de Steller (errorBl, Bomi. Enc. Mith. i. pi. 36. f. 3 ( rf & $ ) 

(1790). 
Briintft nifinH, Bott. Ill's, 1859, p. 614; Bp. Icon. Faun. Hal. 

hiU-od. p. IT (IKII); Bp. Cat. MH. U-x. Eur. p. 73 (184^1 

'■ f. Of. Li»t B. Brit. Mta. iji. p. 142 (1844); id. Oct. B. r 




Fuligula rufinn, Strph. Gen. Zooi. lu. 2. p. 188. pi, M ( rf 1 (1834) : 



Id, Om. Tmc. iu. p. 137 (ISaih Sgke», P. Z. 8. 18S2, p, 
(X>u]diuo)i GvhM. S.Cur. T.pl.368(183;)i Jerri. Madr. Jo 



109 



xiL p. 221, n. 389 I tSiO) ; E.^ £. Wirbeltk. Eur. pp. lix 
S31 (I&IO) ; Erotr, P. Z. S. 184^. p. 03 ; Blytk, ibid. p. 94 OnMa.) ; 
BerU. V«rt. Oa. Mm. p. 130 (1844) : Lajiard, Ajm. j- May. 
N. A xif . p. 309 [Ce;loD P| (1B54) ; Cotta, Faun. IUf». Nap., 
Ucc. pt i. p. 78 (1857); Adam*, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 510 (PunUb) ; 
Tritlr. Ibu, 1860. pp. 163, 372 (E. AlgBria) ; fij»yi, Ibii, 1800, 
b 354 (lonUn I.) ; Simpma, Ibis, ISiiO. p. 304 : SdiUg. Mia. 
P.-B.. Aii»eres. p. 35 (180(1) ; Saund. Ibi». I8tS9. p. 3U7 (Sicilv, 
breeding). 1870, p. 397 (3. Spwn) : O. R Gr. Sand-lint, iii. 
p. 85, n. 10683 (1871); TayL IbU, 1S73, p. 233 (Crimen); Dreu. 
J.o/f:ur. Ti.p. 669.pl.43a (pt. xrii., 1873): Hfugl. Ont. JV.O.- 
Afr. a. -2, p. 1335 (1873); Seeirfx. Turkeati Jeofiln. p. 70 (1873) ; 
Aew. Ibit. 1876, p. 431 ; BlaHf.Eail. ftr». p. 301 (187(i) ; Fnrbei, 
P. Z. a. 1877, p. 312 (bum F&brLdi) ; Hume, Str. Ftat\. viii. 
p. HI, n. 967 (1379) ; Ij^ge. B. of (>yL p. 1087 (note) (I880I i 
Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 524 ; Payne-Gi^aey, Zoolog. 1881, p, 143 
(Irdwid) ; More, P. Z. S. 188L p. 409 (Ireland) ; Eidgw. Btdl. 
U.S. Sat. Miu. DO. 31, p. 85 (Lomr Island) (18S1); id. Pr. U.S. 
yat. Mum. x. p. 23 (ling laliiad) (18S1) ; Allen, Bull. Nutt. 
CAtA, v1.p. 173 (1881); C fitrinA. Am, 1883, p. 125 (Kvidahor); 
Cutm, cW-Jwt. 2Qd «d. p. 130. n. 886 (1663); R-kme. Om. 
CmtraOd. I88S, p. 5 ; id. Hy. tool. Gart. p. 46 (1883); Salv. 
Cat. B. Slrickl. 0.0. p. 637 (1883) ; B. O. U. Lid Brit. B. p. 133 
(1883) ; SiM. JM Vert. An. 8ih ed. p. 440 (1883) ; B.. B., * R. 
WaUr-B. N. Am. ii. p. 15 (1884) ; Coats, Key N. Am. B. 3nd 
fA. p. 7O0 (1884); Saand. Farrelti Hist. Brit. S. iv. p. 407 
(1SS4-S6) i Sceb. Hint. Brit. B. iii. p. m, pi. 64 (era) (1885) ; 
MaqiAeri. Zoolog. 1886, p. 489 (yotiag in dovm) ; LUford. Oil. 
... ,...„. , (1889): Tr" - "-"■■" 



J^. Brit. B. pt, I. 



(1889): fria/r. Oat. Coll. B. p. 48 (1889); 



(1801); Oust. NouB. Arch, Ju Mus. (3) vi. p. 10^ (TurkestAo) 

(1894) ; Oarke, Uit, 1894. p. 549 (Cunorgup). 
PUtypus rufiniui, Brrhm, Lehrb. Nalurg. eur. Vog. ii. p. 826 (1824) ; 

PUmkr, J.f. 0. 1856, p. 67 (Anhalt). 
Adu (Fuligiilfl) ruflnik, Zeu. Man. iPOm. ii. p. 415 (1828). 
Keltn mtliia, Kaup, NalHrl. 8i/U. p. 103 (1829); Ridgw. Pr. U.S. 

Nat. Mm. viii. p. 866 (1885) ; A. 0. U. CAtk-list N. Am. B. 

p. 1 IS, II. [145] (1886) ; RidgK. Man. H. Am. B. p. 100 (1887). 
CkUichen ntttcepB, Brekm, Isis. 1830, p. 999, d. 1 (descr. nulla) ; id. 

V6j. Deulsc/d. p. 923 (1831). 
CsUichoD rulinuB, Brehm. Isis, XBaO, p. 909, n. 2 ; id. VSif. HeutscAl. 

p. 924 (1831); Bp. Omp. Lilt, p. 58 (18.T8); id. Jam. Faun. 

Jtal i. tav. 47. f. 3 (fuse, xxx., Wl) : Bp. Compt. Smd. xliii. 

p. 661, n, 144 (1856); Homfy.J.f. O. 1862, p. 434 (Baleftriclal.); 

^nsrtz. J. f. 0. 1873. p. 344, 1876. p. 18-5 ; Radde, Omis Cautas. 

p. 163 (18^): Salead.Bl. Cfo. Aol. p. 263 (1^80). 
Odliehen •ubruttnui, Brekm, Iti*. 1830, p. 999, a, 3 (deacr. nuIU); 

id. Fdg. IkuUcU. p. 924 (1631). 
Callieben niicropu^ Brehm, Ini, 1830, p. 090, n. 4 (deaer. nulla) ; 

id. Vog. Dad^M. p. 926 (1931). 
iFiihp>i^tp..Ss/ke»,P.Z.8. 1833.p. 16g(Dukhu&) ($P), 
MeranJdM nifloa, Egt. Gil. Brit. S. p. 57 (1836) ; iii. Hilt. Sartr 

Brit. B. p. 77 (1836) ; id. Si/h. Anal. p. 17 (1869). 



Callicheti nifiimm, £jrf. Man. Anal. p. 153 {183B). 

AythjK rnBn*, MaegiU. Man. Brit. B. p. 1»1 (1842). 

TadoraA P pnoe, Hodgi. Oray't Zool. Mite. p. 66, n. "" 

CaUieheo rufewena, Brekm, Vope{f. p. S79 (1855). 

CUlichen nifina, Bp. Compt. Bend, zliii. p. 6fil, n. 144 (1866) ; 
Zodie, Cat. M. et O. Algtr. p. 144 (1868) ; Trittr. Ibit, 1800, p. 61 
(N. Atno.) ; Simdeji. Meth. nat. Av. diK>. Tenl. p. 148 (1872). 

FiUiguIa rufidiste, C. F. Daboit, PL CoL Oit. S^h. iii. p. 377 
(1860). 

CaJlicheD rub {errore P), Siienig, J.f. 0. 1888, p. 386 (Tqhu). 

ffybridt. 
Fuligola nifina X Metopiua pepoMca, Sebt P. Z. 8. I68Q,p. S24. 
Branta rufiiu d X Ansa boecaag , MartonUi, P. Z. 8. 1601, p. 489. 

Adult ffidU. Head, tiiroat, and sides of the npper neA reddish 
chestnut; the feathers on the top of the bead ranch elongated, 
fonnlog a conspicDons crest of a reddish-bnff colour ; back of the 
neck above and lower neck brown-black, cbangiug on the breast, 
bell J, and under tail-coverts into glossy brown ; back gieyish brown, 
darker on the lower part, and changing into brown-tdack on the 
rump and npper tail-coverte ; scapulars pale brown ; wing-coverts 
and tertialB greyish, leoondariee white, forming the wing-epecnlnm, 
bordered near the tip by a grey-brown band; primariM wbitjah, 
but the tips and the outer webs of the first five greyish brown ; 
under wing-coverts and asillaries white, the latter greyish at the 
tip ; edge of the wing near the carpal joint white ; a white patch 
almost hidden at the base of the scapolars ; sides and fianki white, 
with an evanesoent pinkish tjnge, more or lees undulated with brown 
lines anteriorly and posteriorly, the npper feathers brown-olive, 
and also the longer ones at the tip ; at the base of the tail on the 




42. RBITA. 



331 



bills and eyelids, by the greater development of their crest, by th9 
dtirker brown of the belly and under tail-ooverls, and by the redder 
colour of the feet. 

Young in down are described by Baldamus (J. f. 0. 1870, p, 280) 
aM having the upper parts dull olive-grey, vith a buff spot od each 
shoulder, and the underparts baff; a buS stripe passes over each 
eye, and through the eye runs a dark stripe, which divides into two 
behind the eye. 

//ab. Palxarctic Region, from the basin of the Medit«rTaDean to 
the Black and Cnspiaii Seas, and From there to Turkestan in summer, 
and India in winter; accideutal visitor in the North of Europe; 
only once in N.E. America. 



Great Britain. 

Milf.ir.1 HrtTen. 

Dulwich (bom in captivity). 

Damiettft, Egjpt, Dec. (FiUp- 

ConBtaQtinople (7*. Sobton). 

I^nkoniD. 

Bala Morghah, Jan. (AitcM- 




Eandahar, March. 
India (BtagraM). 

B, Jhcluni, Sindh, Nov. (A. 
: O. H.). 

Muncba, Sindh,. Ian. (A.O.H.). 
Sambhur, Dec., Jaa., Feb. (£. 

M. Adam), 
Sirza. 

Gurgaon, Feb. {A. O.B.). 
Delhi, Punjaub, Jan. 

Etawah, Jan. 

Kberee District, Feb. {A, An- 
Fullcbgurh, Dec {A. Ander- 
Oudh, Dec., Jan,, Feb. 
Oudh. 

Nepal 



Earl of Cawdor JT.]. 
K. Hoffmann, Esq. 

[P.]. 
Shelley CoU. 

H. J. Elwea, Esa. 

[P.l. ^ 

Seebohm ColL 
A&lian Delimitation 

Conim. [PA 
Lt.-Colone! Swinboe 

[!■•]■ 
India Museum [P.]. 
Bwtleti CoU. 
Col. Cobb rp.]. 
Hume ColL 



Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



H. J. Elwes, Esq. 
[P.l. ^ 

Seebohm CoU. 

Hume ColL 

CapL Stftdihouse 

T»in*-ill [P.]. 
B. H. Hodgmu, Emi. 

[P.]. 
India Museum [P.]. 
B. H. Hodgson, Eeq. 



S83 

r. <f ad.tk. 



UUTIDX, 

8HubnlponIM«tr.,OaiitnlPTo> HnnwOoIL' 



e". <f imm. Hk. Diiupote, Dec 

d". <f ad. Bk. HaipuT, Jan. 

•"./". 9"- <S "J. Calcntto, Dec. {A. 0. ff.). 



', *". cJ ad. Bk. LoVnor, Feb., Match {Piy^ 
". (f inun- Bt. China. 



m". Skeleton 
(imperfect). 

n . Skeleton 
1,imperfect). 



Nepal. 
Volga. 
EngUnd. 



HdhmCoIL 

HumeCoU. 
Hume Coll. 

H. J. Ehre^ Eh. 

[P.l ^ 

Seebdliiii Con. 

J. B. Rmvm, Eaq. 

B.H.HodgM>ti,E«). 

BiandtCdL 



d' 



M. papo wca . 



43. XETOFUHA. 

Bp. Gmpt. Send. zliu. p. 648, gen. 26 
Metopia^^n>i^*A'i>m. irw.'^^''Oi^p.'347^ 
Bange. Confined to Soath America. 



1. Metopiana pepowea. 

Pato negrizco ^a bianco, Azara, Apunt. iii. p. 423, n. 430 (Fam- 

' fnuY and Baeuoa Avrea) (1806). 
Anaa peposaca, rieill N. D. t. p. 132 (IBlSt ;,»{. Sta JVALi. 
p. mi (IW:^.-)) ; Biirtl. Verz. Ges. JUjam. p. 119 (lSi4): id. Ind. 
Azar. Apunt. p. ^7, n. 430 (1847) ; .flurm- J./ " """ " "" 




■^ brownu 



43. MEiopiiSA. 333 

id. J. f. 0. jess, p. 67 i JWt JJw». ^otw™, T'os. p. 13» (Chili) 
(ISOS). 
Metouiwia pepoaftci, Bp. Compt. JUnd. xliii. p. 649, n. 78 (18-50) ; 
Scht. ^ Saie. P. Z. S. latta, p. IM (Ooachitas) i Sclat. P. Z. S. 
1870, p. 086, pL xxxvii. (ZuoL Oard,); G. it Or. fio«rfJi«(,iiL 

6 87, n. lOtieS (1871)1 flunn. P. /. 5. 187l>, p. 386 (Patagonis, 
UMKM Ajrea, Foraui) ; Oarrod, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 467 (carotids), 
p. 630 (muscles) ; SoieU. if Satn. Hvrntncl. Ac. yeotnp. p. 130 
(1873) i Salvin, Ibu, 1874. p. SltP ; Oarrod, P. Z. 8. 1875, pp. 1S4- 
156, t. 6 (trachea) ; Setat. ^ Sah. P. Z. S. 1878, ^ 398 ; Dun^f. 
IbU. 1876, p. 183, \»17, p. 19:! (Buenoa Ajree), 1878, p. U5 
(nrat) : Sriat. P. Z S. 1880, p. 6i4 ; White, P. Z S. 1882, p. 625 
(.^jgvatiaii) ; ScitU.Liiit Fml. An. Slii ed. p. 430 (ISSS) , Barrowt, 
AtJc, 1884, p. 374; Serl. J./. 0. 18o7, p. 124 ; Trittr. UaL 04L, 
B. p. 48 11889) ; Sdat. ArgmL Om. ii.p. 137 (186») ; Kerr, IbU, 
18W. p. 358 ; ffoUaud, ibil. p. 427 ; UarUrt. Sat. Foydiamrat. 
p. 231 (1891); HoUan'l. Ibi*, 1802, pp. 206, 208, 310; Btrk. 
Jamet, 3>w LUt C'hil. B. p. 10, a. 1«1 (1802); Apiin, tbit, 1804, 
p.201{Urag»«y). 

FulifuU p<^pomca, Sphley. Mat. P.-B., AuMres, p. 31 (186C) ; Selat. 
P. Z S. 1867, pp. 335. 310. 

Helopia« pepu&ica, Urine -i BtAmc, Noin. Ma*. Hem. Om, p. 347 

fft/hrid. 
FiUipila rufinaxMetopiniiS peposaca, &.-kU. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 524 ; 
LeBtrk. J./. 0. 1890, p. 2:i5. 

Adult male. Above black, rery finely striated with grey on the 
back and vcapuUrs ; sides of head and upper part of neii with a 
purple glosB ; breutit, like the neck, Llack ; abdomea and Sanks 
minutely ¥enniculated with pale grey and grB3"'sh brown ; under 
tail-ourem white; wing« black with a green gloas, edge of the 
wing uod specolnm on the secondanM white, the Utter mth a 
^OMy binck band at the tip ; primarie« white with the tips block, 
the four outer ones brown-blaek on the outer web, and grey on the 
outer part of the inner web ; anjer wing-coverts white, except the 
marginal on ea which are blackish; uTillaries white, vermiculated 
with grey near the tip ; tail browa-hlack. the outer feathers 
greyish ; bill roay red, with the tip and nail black ; feet yellow ; 
iridei golden red. Total length about 12 inches, wing lU, tail 3, 
culmon 2' 5, tarsus I '6. 

Female. Head, neck, sides of the breast, and flanks nifons-brown ; 
crown of the head and occiput darker brown ; bank, Bcupulnrs, and 
wing-oorerta dark brown, with an olive gloss ; upper t:iil-cuvert8 
brown ; chin and throat, and also a few feathers ou the side!) of 
the head at the base of the npjier mandible, white ; lower parts 
whitish, the base of the feathers brown ; under tail-ooverts white ; 
edge of the shoulder grey ; speculum on the secondaries grey, with a 
brown hand at the tip : primnries brownish grey, with black tips, 
the first three or four blackish brown on the outer webs ; under 
tfing-eoverts, like the axilluries, white, but the moi^inal ones 
brownish ; tail brown : ■• bill bluish brown " {Kew Gard.). 



884 ' 1X1.TIBX. 

Aaotlm Bpecimen in the Turin Uaaenm hu tlw rafiraB-browD 
colour of the head, neck, and sides of body paler, and the whitiah 
of the underpartB tinged with oohreoua. 

HtA. Southern firajdl, Pamgua;, Umguay, Argentina, andChilL 

AdmirvlBowkelP.]. 
PuichaaBd. 
Cumiiig Coll. 



a. cf ad. ik. 

(. ,S K^' "t- Chili. 

(!-«. ij $ ad.atet Cbili (7*. fru^). 

$ Bd^Hk. 

Z', p. rf ad. et cJ ChilL 

jUT. bL 

A. cf ad. sk. Cbili. 

i,k. dS ad.tk. Central ChilL 

/, m. ij $ ad. ak. Santiago, Chili {LafbolJ). 

n. 2 ad. ak, Santiago, Chili, Aug. 

o. (J juT. ak. Rio mnaiquen. Chili, Feb. 

p. (J ad. »k, UmguAT. 

;, r. cj 2 ^- '^ Moute Video (Jokwtim). 



T. Bridge., Ea,.[C.]. 

H. J. EIvM, Esq. 

H. Berkeley Jamea, 

SalTiD-Oodman CoD. 

H. J. Elwes, Eaq, 

[P.]. ^ ^ 

H. Berkeley JamM, 

Al^Peel,'^. [P.l. 
Salvin-Qodman CuU. 



44.im«)CA. ^ 

Nywca, Flem. iHi'i. o/ 2«>/. ii. p. 260 (1823) N. afiicana. 

Aythia, Iloie, Itit. 182-2, p. 664 (oonien nudum) .... N. ferina. 

Althya, Kaup, NaUirl. Syd. p. 99 (1829) N. ferina. 

Fuligula, Sw. (Mc 5t«pA.) Oaa. B. ii. p. 368 (1838). . N. ferina. 
Aethria, Agai>. Nomencl. Zool. Ind. U»w. p. 42 (1846). 

Marifs, Jlchnb. Av. Sptt. Nat. p. Tiii (1852) N. ferina. 

Aithyia, Bp. Com/it. ke«d. xliii. p. 6S1, gen. 60 (1856). 

ArifltonetU, ^airrf, B. N. Am. p. 793 (1868) N. Tallianeria. 




44. KTKoci. 335 

6. Goieral plumage brown ; bend, except in X. 
bam, wholly or partly tinirud with chestnitl, 
espt^ially in »dult males (Nyroi-a). 
c'. Lower breast and upper part of the abdomen 

c". Head aod upper part of Duck black, gloesod 
with green ; a chuatnut patch on the 
ftnt«rior part of the cheeka near the base 

of the bill in tlie female iki«n', p> 344. 

if '. Head chestnut, more or le» bright. 

(T. A white Bpot on the chin afrieana, p. 345. 

t'. No wbil« spot on the chin. 

e'. Breast of a brighter and deeper chest- 
nut; amaller, wing T'd inches mnolata, p. 350. 

^, Breast of a duller chestnut ; Larger, 

wing 8-75 inches atutralit, p. 360: 

i. Abdomen duskj ; upper part of the bead 
black ; sides nf the head and of the upper 
portion of the neck deep chestnut-brovm ; I bnmnea, p. Slil. 

sides reddish brown , \ natiimi, p. 3SA. 

{ eiythivjmthalma, 
tp.353. 
1. Njroca ferina. 

Penelope, BrUt. On,, vi. p. 3ftt, pi. ixxv. f. 1 ( rf ) (1760). 

Penelope nigra. Brut. op. cit. p. 389 (1760). 

Anaa ferina, Linn. 8. N. i. p. 203, n. 81 (1766) i Gw. 9. N. i. 2, 

p. 530, a. 31 (1788) ; Latk. lal. Om. ii. p. 862, n. 77 (1700) ; 

Bom. Ene. Mith. i. p. 137. n. 3:1, pi. 36. f. 2 (with rar. a, p. 137) 

(1790); lalh. Tr. Ltnn. Sue. i». p. 116, tab. ii». ff. 5, 6 (trachea) 

(1708); Palt. Zoogr. R-ttm-A*. li. p. 260 (1811); Ttmm. Afan. 

dOm. p. fi64 (18151 ; f'itiU. N. D. v. p. 12-5 (1816) ; Omm. Diet. 

Se. Nat. Ti. p. 373 (1817) ; Temm. Man. 2nd ed. ii. p. 868 (l!J20) ; 

Lida. Tot. i>o«AI. p. 85 (Siberia and Cyprua)(i828); Bp.Sjxxoh. 

Vamp. p. 73, n. 232 (1827] ; ititUtr. Git. Rai*. Caue. p. 68 (Bakou) 

(1833) ; SeMeg. Bev. Crit. p. cix (1844) ; Naum. Vog. Dmttchl. 

xiii. p. 21, Taf. 308 (1844) ; BrAm, J.f. O. 1864. p. 84 (Egypt) ; 

JcfoU, ilnd. p. 363 (Bararla, breeding) ; PdnUr, ibid, p' 380 

(Taurie); id. J.f. 0.1850, p. 68; MikU. ibid. -a. iM (ProTence); 
■ iuwy, J./. 0.1857, p. 133 (Algeria); Haul.J.f.0. 1863, p. 307 

(N.K A^.); Homof.J.f. 0.1870, p. 433 (Bukal); Ottb. Thei. 

On. i. p. 350 (syn. emend.) (1S72) ; RneL Om, Misc. iti. p. 230 

(1878). 
Anas ferinad. Gm. ^ JV. I. 2, p. 630 (1788); Lath. Ind. Om. ii. 

p. 863 (1790). 
Anas TuScollis, SiMp. Atm. I. Hiit. Nat. p. 66, n. 81 (1769) ; Bonn. 

Enc. MUh. i. p. 133 (1700). 
Anas ervtbrocephala, 8. V. Omrl. Reise JtuMl. i. p. 71 (1770) ; id. 

Aw. 'Comm. Petrop. it. p. 465, n. 14, tab. 20 (1771). 
Anas penelope, Gcrini, Star. Uce. v. lav. 583 {J), 684 ($) 

MiUoain,' I/Aidienl. II. Enl. SOS; Btif. Hut. Nat. Oil. U. p. 21S 

(1783). 
Pochard, Pmn. Brit. Zool. ii. p. 600, n. 381 (1776) ; XoM. Am. iiL 

2, p. 623. n. 08 (1785). 
Bufoua-necked Duck, LaCA. &/«. iiL 2, p. 477, a. 32 (1786). 



Ann Tufft, Gm. SuU. Nat. i 2, p. S16, n. 71 (1788) Ux AmsoIOi 
X<iU./«J.Oni.u. p. sea, 11.76 (1790); Lm. TV. iOrm. p. 631 
(8JD. emend.) (IbSl). 

Nttoch ferine f)«m. JW. q^ 21x4. ii p. SW (I8S3); Hl.£rit.4)>. 
p. 121 (ie:J8] ; O.ILer. iMt Om. B. p. 75 (1840) ; lU. O**. B. 
lu. p. ^1, n. 1 (1844) fid. Lilt B. Brit. JITw. iiL p. I4S (wit.) 
(18l4) ; SeAnb. SyH,Aii.,Vt.tStom, t.7S. ff. 1S4-S6(I845) ; BolU, 
J.f. O. 1865, p. 315 (8^) ; Botn^. 3J. O. 1869, p. 870 (ZooL 
Otrd.); Jfcre,/Au,18(je, p.44fi(GnU&it.); OmJd, B. Gr. BriL 
V. pi. 21 (pt. xxi^ 1872). 

Aftfarft feriiu, Boit, JttM, 1822, p. 564 ; Br Am, Iiu, 1680, p. 999; 
uj. F(^. i)»bcU. p. 920 (1881) ; Bp. Comp. ZiM, p. 68 0830) ; 
id. CW. JIfrf. p. 73 (1842) ; Brdtmi,J.f. 0.1855, p. 3e9CE^t); 
Bp. Oompt. Send. sliu. p. 061, n. 143 (excl. tu.) (1866) ; XmA:, 
Cai. M. et O. Algtr. p. 144 (1858) ; JW. B. </ Ind. iii. p. 812 
(1864) ; Saltad. (M. Uee. Sard. p. 109 (1804); id. J.f. O. 1865, 
p. 826 (Sardinu) ; G.R.Or. Hmd-M, iii. p. 66, n. lOOrffl (1871) ; 
&nnA. P. Z 5. 1671, p. 419 (Shu(cb&i); JHImA, J.f. O. 1872, 
p. 871 (Bohemia) ; lAoud, Ibit, 1873, p. 430 (Kattunu) ; Dyb. 
J. f. O. 1873, p. llOi JHeufft Om. N,0.-4/r. ii. 2, p. 1341 (1873J ; 
Taez. BuU. Soe. Zool. Fr. ii. p. 46 (1877) ; J>and^ Outt. Oit. tSw. 
p. 606 (1877J; Byro. .fiowfey'* Orn. Miac iii. p. 106 (1878); 
iEodi^ Ornit Caucat. p. 460 (1684) ; F Sfmn. iV. {7.& Xat. Mm. 
X. p. 187 (1887). 

Fuligula feriD■^ S'miA. Cm. ZooL ziL S, p. 103 (18S4) ; Savi, Om. 
Tmc. iii. p. 135 (1831) ; Stridd. P. Z. k 1836, p. 102 (SmjTn») ; 
Byt. Cai. Brit. B. p. 57 (1836) ; Sa. Clam. B. ii. p. 368 (1837) ; 
OoM, B. Bur. V. p^. 867 (1637); Eyt. Man. Anat. p. 164, lO. 12. 
f. 3 (caicm) (1836) ; K. ^ B. WirieUk. JW. pp. IzxxTii, 230, 
(1840); Jerd. Madr. Jbum. zii. p. 221, n. 389 (1640); Bl^h, 
P. Z. S. 1842, p. 84 (IndiA) ; MartL Fen. Oa. Attu. p. 1^ 
(1844); Blf^, Cat B. Mm. A. 8. B. p. 806, n. 1765 (1849) ; 
Lil{jtb. Xa«vuxn»ia. 18:'.a, 2, p. 110 (N. Ilussia) ; WulUii'jr. 
Noumamiia, 1854, p. 27.*): Jdckd, J.f. 0. 1855, p. 407; Witd, 
J.f. O. 1&59, p. 176: Triitr. lUi, 1860, pp. 81, 




4-i. NTROCA. 337 

CoU. p. 537 (1882) ; Blakist ^ Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap. x. p. 99 
(Japani (1882) ; B. O. U. List Brit. B. p. 130 (1883) ; Sc/at. List 
Vert. An. 8th ed. p. 440 (1883) ; Biakist. Amend. List B. Jap. 
p. 34 (1884); Seeb. Ibis, 1884, p. 176 (Ilakodadi); Tristr. Faun. 
^ Fhr. Palest, p. 117 (1884) ; Saund. YarreU's Hist. Brit. B. iv. 
p. 413 (1884-85). and Man. Brit. B. p. 420; A. Neict. Enc. Brit. 
lHh t>d. xix. p. 252 (1885) : Seeb, Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 575, pi. 64 
(egj?) 0885) ; Meade- Waldn,Ihis, 18.-9, p. 515 (Canaries) ; Tristr. 
Cat. Coll. B. p. 48 (1S>9); Bchuc. J.f. O. 1890, p. 84; Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Brit. B. pt. xiii. pi. — (1890) ; Seeb. B. Jap. Emp. p. 254 
(1890); Shar}>e, Sec. Yark. MifiA.^ Aies^ jt. 132(1^91); Jlartert, 
Kat. Vogelsamml. p. 232 (1891) ; Styan, IbiM, 1?<91, pj). 328, 497 ; 
iJubois, Faun. Vert. Uvhj., Ois. ii. p. 472, pi. 262 (1892) ; Meade- 
Waldo, Ibis, 1893, p. 1911 (ranaries) ; Colletty M indie Medd. vedr. 
Noryes Fvylef. 18^1-92, p. 215 (1894). 

Platypus ferinus, C. L. Brehm, Lehrb. Xaturg. eur. Vog. ii. p. 828 
(1*824). 

Aithya ferina, Kaup, Naiiirl. Sgst. p. 99 (1829). 

Aytliva ervtlnoccphala, Ihehni, his, 18^30, p. 999 ; id. Vog. Deutschl. 
*p. 919 (18:51 ) ; id. Vogrlf. p. 379 ( InOo). 

Anas niarila, Malh. (nee Liim.) Faun. Orn. Sicii. p. 220 (1843). 

Fulipula rufa, O. B. Or. Geu. B. iii. p. 621, n. 7 (1844). 

Marila tVrinu, Bdnib. Av. Syaf. Xat. p. viii (1S52). 

Aithyia ferina. Livid. Nomencl. Av. p. 102 (1854). 

Aythya ruHceps. Brehm, yaumanuin, 1855, p. 298. 

Fulijrula ervtlirocephala, C. F. Dubois^ PI. Col. Ois. Belg. iii. p. 278 
(I8r.0). 

Anas (Fidigula) ferina, Badde, Beis. S. O.-Sibir. ii. p. 375 (1863) 
(Baikal). ^ 

Aethvia ft^rina, Giql. Ibis, 1S65, p. 52 (Pisa); Sirinh. Ibis, 1^74, 
p. *1?<2 (Taiboo "Lake); B.,BL.It..6f S. J.f. (). 1S77, p. 3:i7 
((lerniany); Salcad. El. Ucc. Hal. ]>. 2' 5 (1886); Sliarpe, Cut. 
Osteal. iV/^er/z/i. Coll. Surg. iii. p. 3(H) (IbOl). 

Fulix ft'rina, Sulrad. Faun, d'ltal., I'cr. p. 265 (1872); Brgalia, 
Prof.' J'erb. Soc. Tosc. Sc. Sat. lb^8, p. 92 (nail un the dijrit-). 



Ilghrids. 

Fuliirula mariloidcs, Yarrell {nee Vf//.)^ Hist. Brit. B. iii. p. 247, 

with H<r. (1NJ7-43) ; lip. Ber. Crif'. pp. KXJ, 105 (part.) ( 1S50). 
American Scanp. Yarrell iuee auvt.). I. c. ; Saund. in YarrelCs Hist. 

Brit. B. iv. p. 427, ti-r. p. 42^ (1>S4 S")). 
Aythya niuriloides, ]iait.. I>j). Cat. Met. T^e<\ Eur. p. 72, n. 453 

'(1M2); td. Ucc. Crif. y. ll»5, n. 443 (j.ait.) (lN»). 
Fuli^-uhi f.rinoides, Bartl. P. Z. S. 1.^47. ]>. 4s ; (inuJd, P. Z. S. 

1K">4, p. 95 ; A. yeict. P. Z. *V. l^(;0, pp. ;^;;7, ;;3S. 
Fuliirula h-ucoptera, A. Xcfct. Zw.logi.'^t, IMx, p. 2063 ( = ftTin()ides). 
Fulif-Mda honieyeri, lUuhher. ynuymuniiu, 1^5i', Ili'lt i. ]). 12 (liotter- 

dani) ; UaUUim. ibid. ll»'ft ii. ].. Iif4, Taf. 1; yauni, J. f. (). 

185;}, Kxtmli. ]). 7 (hvbml); Frifsrh, J.f. O. \<)4, p. *280; 

(floyvr. J.f. O. \<)A, p.*40.^ (not a hybrid !) ; Budrk. J.f. O. 16-54, 

Extrah. p. xiv; Jloymiftr, ibid. p. Ixvi ; Olplu^iiuH. yauniannia, 

IKV*, j.p. 402, 403; 'dloger, op. cd. l85r., p. :i52 ; id. J. f. O. 

l?v/6, pp. 272, 'io't; ()lphe-(rall. yaumannia, 1^57, p. 6; Bias. 

in yaum. lieutsch. Viig. xiii. 2, p. 305, Taf. 389. f. 2 (1860); 

A. ytwt. P. Z. S. 1860, pp. 337, 338 ; lieyj Syn. Eur. Bnttwig, u, 
VOL. XXVII. z 



OStle, p. 130 (1872); Arrig. dtgli Oddi, Att* Soc. Ital. Be. 
xsxiv, fasc. a, pp. 179-192 (18841. 
Anu 'mterm&il^Jaubert, Itev. et Mag.de Zooi\B5%-^\\A{ = 



ferinax A. njroca) ; A. AVutf. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 337. 
Avthva homeveri, Brehm, Vagelf. p. 380 (1865) ; %d. . 

'1855, p. 298: 
Avthvia ferina a. bomeTeri, Bp. Conmt. Smd. xliii. p. 661, D. 142 a 

'(1856). 
Avthvia feriaa b. iotennedia, Bp. t. c. n. 142 b (1856). 
Avthvin ferina c. ferinoidea, Bp. I.e. n. 142c (1856). 
A'Diw'liomeveri, Jlom^. J.f. O. 1870, p. 433, 
Fuli)niln tviiaaXJEx epoDsa, Sclat. tut Vert An. 8th ed. p. 440 

(1883) i Leverk. J.J. O. 18iW, p. 224. 
Fuligula ferina cJ X F. crislAta $ , Savtid. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 560. 
Fuligula ferinaxF. nyroca, Leverk. J.f. 0. 1800, p. 223; Alharda, 

J.f. O. 1(J92. p. 429. 
Fuligula ferina X F. criatate, terfrk. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 224. 
Fuligula ferina xClanguta (jlaucion, Leivrk Aid. 
Fuligula ferina x Anaa bogcbns, Leverk. ibid. 
Fuligula f*^rina x Anas obscura, Ltitrk. ibid. 
Fuligula ferina X (Anas boschasx A. Btr«pera), Leverk. ibid. 
Adult male. Heud and npper neck rufoue chestnut ; upper back, 
lower neck, and upper breast all round glossy black ; maotle, 
Bcapolare, tertiala, and upper parts lavender' white, finely vcrmica- 
lat«d with black ; rump, upper toil'COTerts, and nnder tail-coverts 
dull black ; lower breast almost white, scarcely vermioulated, and 
gradually becoming darker on the lower abdomen and mei^ng into 
black on the under tail-cuverts ; wing-coverts grey, more or less 
vermiculated with white ; a grey speculum on the secondaries, the 
inner ones edged with blackish on the outer wob, all edged with white 
at the tip ; primaries grey, darker at the tip and on the outer web ; 
under wing-covcrta and axilhtrica white, the marginal under «" 




44, VTBOOA. 



839 



upper partfly shading into rusty brown on the head and neck; nnder- 
parts dirty yellowish white : bill and feet light blnish ; iris gr^. 

Hab, PalflMurctic fiegion from Iceland to Japan; breeding princi- 
pally in the northern part of the Western PakDarctio Begion ; it 
winters in S. Eorope and Northern Africa, and from Asia Minor 
through Persia, India, and China to Japan. 



a. cf ad. sk. 

6, e. (^ $ ad. 8t 
<^ c^ ad. sk. 

0. c^ ad. sk. 
/. $ ad. sk. 



Aberdeenshire ( W, C, 

Angus), 
England (London Market). 
Milford Hall, Stafford, Jan. 

Cambridge Market, Nov. 
Cambridge Market, Nov. 
Aldeburgh, Feb., Aug. 



m, n, (S ad. ak. 

o. c^ ad. ak. 
p, S imm. 8t 
q. S ad. 8k. 
r. S ad. sk. 

9,t. c^ ad. et $ 

imm. sk. 
«, r. c^ $ ad. sk. 
V. $ imm. sk. 
X. $ ad. sk. 



H. J. Elwes, Esq. [P.]. 

Purchased. 

Capt W. S. LeveU 

rp.]. 

Salvin-Godman ColL 
H. J. Elwes, Esq. [P.]. 
Theodore Fisher. Esq. 

[P.]. 

Hon. W. Rothschild 

[P.]. 



tfk^l, S ad. sk. Tring, Herts, June, Sept. 
etcJ J imm. St. 

Avington, Hants, Dec. (O, Shelley ColL 

RS.) 
Cookham, Dec. (W. Brigys), Tweeddale Coll. 
Somersetshire. Montagu Coll. 

Devonshire. Montagu ColL 

Arcachon, France, Nov. (J?. Seebohm Coll. 

V. Seebohm), 
El Baheira, Tunis, March Salvin-Qodman Coll. 

(O. S.), 
Egypt, Feb. (G. E. S,). 
Cairo, May. 
Mesopotamia. 



Shellev Coll. 
Dr. Worthington. 



y, X. c^ $ imm. Lenkoran, Jan. 
sk. 



Euphrates Expd. [P.]. 
Seebohm ColL 



a'. (S ad. sk. 
h\ d, ^ ad. sk. 



Central Asia. 
Eashgar {Bellew), 



^9 e*. d^ $ ad. sk. Kandahar, Marcn. 



Moscow Museum [P.]. 
India Museum [P.J. 
Lt-Colonel Swinnoe 

[P.]. 

ft y » ^'* d $ ad. Mado Mehur, Upper Sindh, Hume ColL 

sk. Jan. {A, O. H), 

€, 2 ad. sk. Sehwan, Sindh, Jan. {A, Hume Coll. 

O. JET.). 
k, S ad. sk. Roree, Sindh, Feb. 

i*. (^ ad. sk. Rajpootana, March {A 

O. H.). 
m\n\o'. cJ Jad. Delhi, Jan. 

sk. 
p'-i\ cJ • $ ad. et Gurgaon, Jan. {A. O. H,), 
($ imm. sk. 

Etawah, Dec. 

Sandee, March (^A, Ander- Seebohm Coll. 

Bon), 
Futtehg^rh, Feb. (A. Ander- Seebohm ColL 

ton), 
Oudh. Capt. Stackhoose Pin- 

will [P.]. 
NepaL B. H. Hodgsooi Esq. 

i2 



tf'. c^ juT. sk. 
v*. (^ ad. sk. 

«". $ad.8k. 

^f]^. $ ad.sk. 

s*. $ imm. St. 



India Museum [P.]. 
Hume ColL 

Hume Coll. 

Hume CoU. 

Hume Coll. 



'. A ad. Bk. 
■,A cJ?im 



A", Sternum, 
t". Sternum with 

shoulder-girdle. 
k''. Sternum with 

ehoulder^inUe. 
t',m". Sterna. 



Maoipiir. March {A. O. EX 
Shtntrhai, China, Dec. (A. 

JUichV). 
flakodadi, Japan, March. 
YokiihBma, Japan, winter 

(H. iVyn-). 
England. 

Enfrkod. 
Enjllflnd. 

England. 



Purchased. 

Purchaii«d. 

0. IngaU, E™. rp.]. 

J. Ray, Esq. [P^. 

M. Lefebm'B CoU. 



Htbbids. 
Nynxa ferina X F. marila. 
Pun-hased at Mr. Doulile- F. Bond, Esq. [P.]. 



dB3's sale, Auir. %% 1871. 

(Tjpe of i\Uigida niarSoidei, Yorr. d 



. jj"i 



Ayrocffl fenna x F. fuKgula. 
Woodford Park, Blackburn, E. J. Howard, Eaq. 
Aug. [P.]. 



S. NjToca americana. 
Anas ferina, Gm. & A', i. 2. p. 530, n. 81 (pait.) (1788) ; Zath. Ind. 
Om. ii. p. 802, n. 77 (1790) ; Wil$. (wc Zi'nn.) Am. Om. Tiii. 
ji. 110, pi. 70. f. 6 (1814) ; lip. Spnch. 0,m;,. p. 73, n. 2S3 jlP27) ; 



n. 77 (1790) ; Wi/t. (wc Zi'nn.) Am. On. 

li.l]0,pl.70. f.6 (1814); lip. «fWfA.O,m;,.p. 73,n.2S3 jlPi 
bovff/ilv, Cab. X. H. ii. p. 40, pi iv. (1832) ; G<eb. Thn. Om. i. 



270 (1825). 




44. sn 



341 



ATthjs ■merieana, Baird, B. .V. Am. p, 783 (185A) ; ul. Ott. N. Am. 
'£. n. 618 (laW); BruaHi. Pr. Bo*t. Soc. JV. H. Tii. p. lad 

(Bahamast {1&59) ; id. J.f. 0. 1S81. p. 56 ; itardt, Pr. Ae. PAilad. 

18M, p. 27 (JamucB) ; O. K. Gr. Hand-lia. iu. p. 8«, a. 10600 

(1671); LniBr.Me.n.U'.tt.S-K^.K. ff. ii p.315 (MuzMlaii) (l-C*); 

A.O. U.Check-lat N.Am. B.^.n».-a.Uti{lSI^'\: Ridgw. Mtn. 

N.Am. B. p. 101 (1887); Cory, Auk. 1888. p. fi6; id. B. W. Ittd. 

p. 267 (1889); floIfA, fl. o/.tfumw. p, 55 (181(2), 
Njrroca erytfarocephola, Sterm. (nee lirthm.) P. R. R. Rep. r. pt, 4, 

p.70(l&J9|. 
Aelhvia omuriiNina. Dre**. Ihk, 1860, p. 43 (Texas) ; Brown, Ihit, 

1868, p. 426 (Vancouver 1.) ; Sciai. ^ Sah. Nanunel. An. Neotmji. 

p. 130(1873); Ridgw. yomenel.N. Am. B.nGXH (1881); B.,B., 

* R. ITafer-B. JV. Am. ii. p. 36 (1884) ; NeM. J. f. 0. 1886, 

p. 147 (ntinoig). 
Ajihva. ferina, vnr. americana, .rl/fan, J!uA Mat. C. Z. iu. p. 183 



(1872). 
Fuligula fe; 



Fuligula ferioa. Tar. americana, Ckmet, JTejr, p. 389 (1873) ; id. CHeck- 

liUN.Am.B. n. 503 (1873): id. Birdi iV.- »«(, p. 575 (18741; 

Cory, B. Bahama 2. p. 189 (1880) ; DuboU, Faun. Vert. Belg., Oi*. 

ii. p. 473 (1892), 
Fiilig'iila ferinn americana, Couet, Cheek-liit N. Am. B. 2ad ed. 

p. 1 14, a. 723 ( 1882). 
FuUx ferina americaoa, Couet, Key N. Am. B. 2ud ed. p. 702, n. 723 

(18*1). 

Ilifhrid. 
Fulignla americana X F. inarila (!), LtBirk. J.f. 0. 1890, p. 224 

Very similar to -V. ferina, but the rich chestnut colour of the 
head and upper half of neck glossed with purple ; abdomna whtto, 
not vermiButatod witb dusky : bill pale blue, only the end black. 
8i»e the same as that of N. ferlva, or very little larger ; wing 9'4 
iiichei, eulmea 2. 

Fcmait. Head and neck greyish brown, darker above, th& fore 
pwt- of the former lighter, almost white on chin and upper throat ; 
backt acapolars, chest, sidos, and flanks doll greyish brown, the 
f«fttfaen tipped with paler or folyous; abdomen whiter than in 
Jf./trina female. 

Tbunff in dtiwit. " Abore ocbracMus olive-brown, with an indistinct 
)^eIlowigh spot behind each wing, another on the lower border of the 
arm-wing, and a third on encli side of the rnmp ; whole sides of 
head and neck, with lower parts iii general, deep buS-yellow, paler 
and duller on belly and ventral region ; no dark markings on sides 
othni"(liidg.ia!,). 

Hah, Whole of North .^morion, breeding from Maine a.nd Cali- 
fornia northward. 



a,h. J^ »A.ai. 
c. a ad. ak. 

I «,/ rf 8 ad. sk. 



No locality. 

[EDgland.] 

Vancouver B Island {lliyi/iiu). 

49th ParaUel. 



Mr. Haderart fC.]. 
TwBoddale Coll. 
Snlvin-Godmnn Cotl. 
N. America Bound srv 



N, America B<>undHi'y 
CoinmissiuD [l',j. 



h. (f juv. sk. Warner Lnke, Oregon, Sept. Sakin-OodmaB CoH. 

I. cf ad. ek. Chicago, Illiaois (Ndioii S[ SalTin-GodmaD Coll. 

Jencks). 
k. e tkd. ek. Neucee Co., Teztu, Jan. (JV. SalTia-Oodmui Coll. 

E. A'oaAei). 
^. rf 9 ad. et (^ Corpus Cbristi, Texas, March, Salvin-Oodman ColL 
juT. ek. Oct., Dec. (F. B. Arm- 

Urong). 
t. J imm. sL BrownBville, Texas, April Salvin-GodniM CoU. 

{F. B. ArmUrong). 
u. cf ad. ak. ZacAlecas, Mexico, April ( W. SalyiD-Qodmu) Colt. 

B. Richardton). 
V. tS ad. ek. Vailej of Mexico (H. S. U Salvin-Qodman Coll. 

iSsranffe). 



3. Kyroca Talluneria. 

i. p. 108, pi. 70. f. 6 (1814) : 
iw». TV. d'Om. p. 631 (1831); Doughty, Cab. N. H. a. -0.36, v\.i 
(1832); Coty, Lut B. W. Ind.y. SO (1885), 

Aoae vellisnenaDa, Sabine, App. Fi-anki. Joum. p. 099 (1823). 

Anas valisDeria, Vieili. Fnc. MilA. i. p. 369 (1633). 

Fuligula valtisnerie, Sleph. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 19G (1824) ; Bp. Amt. 
Lye. N. r. ii. p. 39-i (1820) ; id. Syn. p. ^2 (182S) ; Ste. ^ Eieh. 



1. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 461 (1831) ; A'u((. Man. ii. p. 430 (1834) ; 
*ion. Anal. p. 153 (1838) ; Aud. Or». Biogr. iv. p. 1, pi- 301 
; id. Sun.v- 286 (1839) ; id. B. Am. vi, p. 299, jl. 3 



(1843) ; Gir. B. Lang Itl. p. 318 (1844) ; DeEau, N. Y. Zool. ii 
p. 321 (18441; Tuimb. B. E. Pa. 1869, p. 46; Coues, Key. p. 290 
(18(2) ; id. Cheekrlist, n. 504 (1873) ; id. Binb N.-Wetl, p. (375 
(1874); id. Chtck-li^, 2nd ed. p. 116, n. 724 (1882); Harttrt, 
Eat. Vogelsamml. -a. 232 (1891). 
Avthva valisuerift. Boie. Itis, 18S6. p. 980 ; Bp. C<-mp. 




44. mrsocEi. 



843 



Heerm. P. B. B. JRep. z. pt ir. p. 70 (1869) ; Brewer, Pr. Bad. 

Soe. N. M. yii. p. ^ (Cuba) (18iK)) : A. ^E. Newt. Hmidb.Jmn. 

p. 118 (1881). 
NyiDca yalisneriy Bchnh, Syn. Av^ Natatores, t 75. f. 127 (1845). 
A^yia erjrthrocephala, Licht. [nee Brehm) Nvmend, Ao, ^ 103 

(N. America, Mexico) (1854). 
Aytbya valisneri, Brehm, NauTnatmia, 1855, p. 298 ; id, VogeJf, p. 380 

(1855). 
Aethyia valisoeria, Cab, <$- GundL J, /. O. 1857, p. 229 (Cuba) ; 

Oundl. J.f, O. 1861, p. 246 ; Salt. Ihis, 1866, p. 198 (Guatemala) ; 

Brown, Ibis, 1868, p. 426 (Vancouver I.) ; Sclat, 4" Salv. NomencL 

Av. Neotrop.f. 130 (1873) ; Jtidffw* Norn. N. Am, B, n. 617 (1881). 
Axistonetta Talnsneria, Baird, B. N, Am, p. 793 (in text^ (1858). 
Aethyia Tallisneria, Dress, Ibis, 1866, p. 43 (Texas) ; B., B,, 8f R, 

Water-B. N, Am, ii. p. 30 (1884) ; Nehrl J. / O. 1885, p. 147 

(Illinois). 
Fuligula Talisneriana, Schhg, Mtis, P,'B,, Anseres, p. 25 (1866) ; 

TrUtr. Cat CoU. B, p. 48 (1889). 
Anas Talisneriana, Gieb, Thes, Om. i, p. 364 (1872). 
Fulix Tallisneria, Coues, Key N, Am, B, 2nd ed. p. 703 (1884). 

Adult male. Similar to that of N. ferina, but macb larger and 
witb a macb longer bill ; tbe upper part of tbe bead dsirker cbestnut 
tban tbe rest ; lower breast and abdomen wbite : ^* bill entirely 
greenisb black ; iris carmine-red ; feet bluisb grey " {Coues). Total 
length 20 to 22 inches, wing 9*25, tail 2*9, culmen 2*6, tarsus 1*6. 

Adult femaU. Head, neck, jugulum, and anterior part of back 
raw-umber-brown, a postnuchal space, the fore part of the head, 
and fore neck whitish ; chin, throat, and cheeks tinged with fulvous ; 
back, scapulars, and flanks greyish brown, vermiculated with white ; 
wings as in the male : ** bill greenish black ; iris brownish red ; 
feet plumbeous " {B., B,, Sf R.). 

Hab. North America, breeding from the North-western States, 
northward to Alaska; in winter southwards to Guatemala and 
W. Indies. 



a,b, (^ $ ad. St 
c. c^ ad. sk. 

dy e,f, (S ad. sk. 

g^h. S 2 Ad* sk. 

«. 6 juv. sk. 

l-o. 6 $ inun. sk. 

|^-9. cf $ ftd. sk. 

V. cf imm. sk. 
jr. skeleton. 



N. America. 

Fort Rupert, Vancouver's 

Island (J, K. Lord), 
Vancouver's Island (J. K, 

Lord), 
Minnesota. 

49th ParaUel. 

Cook Co., Illinois {E, W. 

Svlson), 
Corpus Christi, Texas, Dec. 

(r\ B, Armstrong), 
Brownsville, Texas, March, 

April (F, B, Armstrong), 
Duenas, Guatemala (O. ^Si.). 
N. America. 



Old Coll. 

N. America Boundary 

Commission [P.]. 
N. America Boundary 

Commission [P.]. 
II. Courage, Esq. 

[P.]. . 

N. America Boundary 

CommLssion [P.]. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Salvin-Godman ColL 

Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Eyton CoU. 



4. NjTocabaen. 

Aaiw kuCiiphtl,Hlino», Kittl. {nrc BorH.) hit, 1829, p. fi29 (Kunt- 

Khotka) : (/. Strju. Pr. I.'. S. Aal. Mm. x. p. 137 (note) (ISST). 
P NjToca leuTOphtliRlmn a. duMumieri, Bp. Vompt. Bend, xliii. p. 651, 

n. LW n (HeiiKHl, vnlde maj,>r) {18.)<» •- 
Ana* (Fuli^ila) laeii, Kadde, Rei$. S. O.-Sibir. ii. p. 870, pi. 15 

{lKtf3) ! cf. Iti-, imn, p. ] 18. 
Ansi baeri, Homty. J./. O. 1870, p. 4-33. 
ATthya firinB (rrrorf), 5innA. i*. Z. & 1871, p. 419 (ShBnphw) ; id. 

Ib!», 1873, ]i. *■*. 
Fulix Wri, *««*. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 410 (Kiukiane on the Yimgtje) ; 

ill. Ibis, 1873, pp. -MG, 367, P 187-5, p. 437. 
Fulix crisUla, part., G. R. Or. Haud-liit, iii. p. 86, n. 10(184 (18711. 
Fuli^iU nvroca, IMrid (niv GuMmft.), X. An-h. da Mui., Bui/, vii. 

Cat. n. 364 (1871) ; Btakiet. ^ I'lyer, Ibu, 1878, p. 216 (Japan); 

IMi. Ibi», 1879, p. 22 (Japan). 
Fuiifiulabaeii, 2>yA, /./. O. 1874, p. 337; Tirf!. J /'.O. 1875. p.257 

(iMuri): id.i}»ll.Soe.Zo-l.l-V.t\.v.i1 (1877)'; Dafid ^ Otat. 

Oil. Cbin«, p. 509, pi. 124 (1877); Sfth. B. Jap. Emp. p. 254 

(1890) ; Sfyon, Ibit, 1891, pp. 3:J8, 497 (Yangtse). 
Fulix njTOCa, Daad S[ Oiut. (»a; Giiidfnit.) Oi». Chine, p. 607 

(1877) t. 
Kvr<»!a ferrnpinea, Blakii-t. ^ Pryer (n« Gm.), Tr. A». Snc. Jap. X. 

'\, p. 99 (1882) ; HIakiif. Amend. List B. Jap. p. 9, n. 47 (1884), 
Fulifrula baueri (errore), TrUtr. Cat. Call. B. p. 48 (1889). 

Adult male. Head and neck black, with a green lustre ; a vhite 
Rpot OQ chin ; upper parte brown ; the mterecapular region and 
the scapulars finely waved with paler brown irregular lines ; breast 
nifouB chestnut, sharply defined from the white of the abdomen ; 
under tail-covcrta whil« ; flanks nifons brown ; rent tinged vith 
hTQwn ; speculum white, with a. broad blackish SQb&pical band -, a 
i blind at the tip of the Hecondariw ; qnills whitiah. 




44. vnoo^ 845 

o-^. i^wLA. ShaDglud, Chiiift» March Seebohm CoU. 

(R. dwinkoe). 
A. (f ad. dc Shanghai^ China, March. Dr. R. Bowdler 

Bharpe [PA 
t. $ ad. ak. Shanghai, China, March. Shanghai Musenm 

^ A M- cf $ ad. Yokohama, Japan (H, Pryer). Seebohm Coll. 
ale 

5. Nyroca africana. 

The Ferruginous Duck. 
Anas (ru&), Linn. Faun, Suec. n. 134 (1746). 
P Anas latirostra, Brunn. Orm Bor, p. 21, n. 91 (1764). 
Anas nyroca, GiUfUnst. Nov, Comm, Petrop, xiv. 1, p. 403 (1769) ; 
Lath, Syn, iii. 2, p. 541, n. 79, Tar. A (1785) ; id, Ind. Om, ii. 

L869, n. 91 (1790) : Bonn, Enc MSth, i. p. 135 (1790) ; Bechst. 
iham'B Uebers, iii. p. 465, n. 29 (1796) ; VieiU. N, D, v. p. 131 
(1816) ; 2>M. TV. dTOm. p. 632 (1831) ; ScJdeg, Rev, Crit, p. exx 
(1844); Naum. Vog. Deutschl xii. p. 41, t. 309 (1844) ; Firitsch, 
J,f, O. 1853, Extrah. p. 33 (Croatia) ; Jikkel, J,f, O. 1854, p. 30;i 
(&varia) ; Passler, ibtd, p. 380 (Tauris) ; Vangerow, J,f, 0. 1855, 
p. aio ; BoUe, J. f. O. 1857, p. 266 (Canaries) ; FriUch, J, f, O, 
1858, p. 413 : Tri9tr, Ibis, 1859, p. 161 (eggs) ; Finsch, J, f, O, 
1869, p. 387 (Bulgaria) ; Baldam, J, f, O. 1870, pp. 280, 281 
(Mansfelder Lake) ; Gieb, Thes, Om, i. p. 358 (1872) ; Fintch, Ibis^ 
1877, p. 54. 

P Anas peregrina, 8, Gmel. Reis. RumL ii. p. 183, 1. 16 (1774) ; Gieh, 
Tket, Om. L p. 3<'>9 (1872). 

P Anas skoorra, Miiil, Zool, Dan, Prodr, p. 16, n. 130 (1776) ; Lath, 
Sun, iiL 2, p. 515, n. 60 (1785); Bonn. Enc. MSth, i. p. 134 
(1790). 

Anas glaucia major, Gerini, Star, degU Ucc, t. t. 589 (S)t ^^ ( $ ) 
(1776). 

Ferruginous Duck, P^nn. Brit, Zool, n. 285, t. 99 (1776) ; Lath, Syn, 
iii. 2, p. 526, n. 71 (1785). 

Sarcelle d'Egvpte, D'Aubmt. PL Enl, 1000 ; Buf, Hist, Nat, Ois, 
ix. p. 273 (1783). 

Red Duck, Venn. Arct. Zool. ii. p. 576 (1785). 

PLapmark Duck, Penn. Arct, Zool. ii. p. 576, M (1785); Lath, 
Syn, iii. 2, p. 515, n. 60 (1785) (slatirostra, /?rtfim.= skoorra. 

Mm.), 

Tufted Duck, var. A, Lath, Syn. iii. 2, p. 541, n. 70 (17a5). 

Anas rutila, Lath, (nee PaU.) Syn. iiL 2, p. 526, n. 71 (1785) ; id. 

Syn, Sufypl. i. p. 297 (1787). 
African Teal, Lath. Syn. iii. 2, p. 555, n. 93 (1785). 
P Anas scandiaca, Gm, S. N, i. 2, p. 520, n. 85 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. 

Om. U. p. a59, n. 68 (1790) ; VieOl. N, D, v. p. 155 (1816) ; Dum 

Diet. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 376 (1817). 
Anas africana, Gm. 8, N, i. 2, p. 522, n. 88 (1788) (ar PI, Enl. 1000) 

Lath. Ind. Om, ii. p. 875, n. 104 (1790) ; id, Tr, Linn, Soc. xi 

p. 178 (1815) ; VieOl, N. D, v. pp. 131, 171 (1816) ; Dum. Diet 

Se. NaL vi. p. 394 (1817). 
Anas fisrruginea, Gm, 8, N. i. 2, p. 528, n. 99 (1788) {ex Pennant) ; 

ZoO. Ind. Om. ii. p. 866, n. 84 (1790) ; B^n, Enc, Mitk, i. p. 126 

(1790) ; lUtL FauH. Suee. p. 130 (1800); VieiU. N. D. v. p. 116 

(1816) ; Dum. Diet. Se. Ntd.'yl p. 876 (1817). 



itadt); Licht. Verz. Do«bl. p. 86 (IS__, 

P Adm guttoir, Gm. S. JV. i, 2, p. 642, n. 122 (1788) (ei Fortk. Dfer. 
Ah. p. 3, n. 10, 1775) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 877, n. 115 (1790) ; 
Bonn. Etc. MHk. i. p. 134 (1790) ; VifiU. N. D. t. p. 118 (1816). 

Anas legvptiaca, Bonn, (nee Linn.) Enc Mith. i. p. 159 (1791) (ex 
Buff-m). 

Anas ferina, var. 1, Becktt. Nat. Gtsch. Dfutichl. ii. i;. 658 (1791). 

Anas leucojihtbaliiiu^ Borkhauttn, Detdtche Fauna, i. p. S&l, n. 304 
(1797) ; BefhA. Om. Taichenb. ii. p. 450, n. M (1803) ; id. Naturg. 
DfUltchl. iv. p. 1009 (1H09) ; Temm. Man. dOnt. p. 571 (1816) ; 
id. op. fit. 2nd ed. ii. p. 876 (1820) ; Fabrr, Prodr. Itl. Om. p. 72 
(1822); Ilaia.Eitm. 3i Zoo/, iii. 9, p.l33 (1820): iofe. J*w, 1828, 
p. 1233 ; Temm. Man. iv. p. 646 (1840) ; Bolie, J. /. O. 1855, 
p. 179 (Canaries) ; MiiU. J.f. 0. 1866, p. 232 (l-rovence) ; JVmcA, 
Ibif, 1877, p. 60. 

Anas leucopis, Naum. Natarg. d. Land-u. Wauem. iii. p. 479, t. liz. 
f.89((J) (1799). 

Antu glaucion, Pall, (nee Linn.) Zoogr. Rnmo-Ax. ii. p. 268 (1811). 

Kytoca nyroca. Firm. Phil, of Zool. ii. p. 260 (1822) ; Lieht. Komend. 
Av. p. 102 (1854) ; G B. Gr. Band-tist, iii. p. 80, n. 10693 (1871) ; 
Stejn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mu». x. p. 137 (note) (1887). 

Ajtbva njroca, Boie, I$it, 1822, p. 564 ; Brehm, lsi», 1830, p. 999 ; 
id. I%.Z»ea(<cW.p.9l8(1831); Jerd. B. of Jnd. iii. p. 813, n.9l» 
(1864) ; Pels. J. f O. 1868, p. 37 (Sirinagur) ; Merte, (Eften. K 
yet.-AA. Fork. 1871, p. 782; HeugL Om. K.O.-Afr. ii. 2, p. 1W3 
(KoTOBka, Tigrt) (1873) ; ITime Jj- Baideri. Lahore to Yark. p. 297 
(1873) ; Hume, NeUi ^ Eggt, p. 646 (1873) ; Lloyd, Ibit, 1873, 
p. 420 (Kithawar) ; Scuilif, Str. Feath. iv. p. 202 ( Yarkand) (1876) ; 
Sadde, Onus Cauca». p. 461 (1884). 

Fuligula njroca, Steph. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 201, pi. 66 (1834) ; Saw", 
Om. ToK. iii, p. 138 (1831); Eyt. Cat. Brit. B. p. 67 (1836); 
Jerd. Madr. Joum. xii. p. 222, n.'SOl (1840) ; K. ^ B. WirbMk. 
Eur. pp. liKtril, 230 (1840) ; f'mne, P. Z. S. l»4l, p. 7 (Little 
Thibet); myOt, Ibig, 1842. p. 94 (India); SaHL Vem Oa. Miu. 




flSer); Trutr. GU. OAl. fl. p. 48 (1889): LUford, Cnl. Fi.j. 

Bril. S. pt, siv. jJ. — (1890) ; Serb. S. Jap. F.mp. p. -ifA (nule) 

(IflflO); Jtc/mw. J. f. 0. 1890, pp.a%84; Srnne. NctU and Eyg* 

[fjatned.], iii. p. '293 {1890): HarUrl, EiU. VogeUamml. f. 232 

(1891); Did). Fatal. l-'eH. Biiff., Oa. u. p.477,pl. 263 (1892), 
Fulitmtu femigiu*!*, Sleiih. Om. '£onl. xii. 2, p. S05 (1824) ; Uartity, 

Handb. Brit. S. p. 64 (1872). 
Ilntvpiu leucophthalmiis, Srehm, Lehrb. A'ai. atr. Tog. ii. p. 834 

( r»24) ; PiialfT, J. f. O. 1850, p. tJ7 (Aobalt). 
ATthvH leucopbtbtJiu'oii, Brthm, Im», 183U, p. 999 ; id. t'Ug. DeuUeU. 

p.ftl7(1831). 
NvrocB leuctmbthftlinos. FletH. Bril. An. p. 121 (1823) ; Eyf. Jfon. 

Arml. p, 1«0. pi. 13 (skeleton imd tmehea) (1838) ; BoUr. J.f. O. 

18M, p.8lJ5 (Spaiiili Brebm, V'^flf. p. 380 (1865)! £jrf. Sp,. 

Anat. p. 118 (1809) ; Tn<s. J.f. O. 1870, p. 56 (Algeria); Gould, 

H. at. Brit. V. ri. 21 {pt. xx\., 1872). 
FuUkuU leucophibalniB, Oouid, B. Eur. t. pL 863 (1637); C. Dui. 

PL Col. Oit. Bthj. iii. p. 279 (l*i7): Sntrts. TuritH. Jev«ln. 

p. 70 (]87.'i)( Seknie. Om. CentraOL 1882, o. b-, id. VSg. tool. 

(Sdrt.p. 46il882j. 
Kyroos ^■u<!op^ltballn^ Bp. Comp. list, p. 58, n. 423 (1838) : id. OU. 

Mer. Urc. Eur. p. 73 (1*42) ; O. R. Or. Oen. B. m. p. 021, n. 4 

(1844); KcAni. 8^. Av.. Nntatore*, t. 75. ff. 128-130 (18*5) i 

O. R. Gr. Cat. Hadg*. CoH. B. M. p. 147 (1&46) ; Rcknb. Av. Syitl. 

A'oi. p. Till (■ 1852) : Up. Comp(. ft-nd. xliii. p. 051, n. 138 (18«i); 

L-xhe, Cnl. M. ft O. Al>ffr. p. 144 (1858) i Stde. Ibit, 1859, p. 304 

<E, AtlM); Adani*. P. Z. 8. 1859. p. 190 (Cftshmufe) ; Selat. 

P. X. S. 1859. p. 442 ; Triitr. Ihi*, 18«>, p. 81 (N. Afiica) ; O. R. 
lodgt. tut. B. .V. 2nd ed. p. 77 { 1863) ; Pek. J.f. O. 

■ "■ "■■'■"'' ■" " bmsdintr) : S/ktU.I&it, 

•JUS (1872) ; JWtocA, 
\Z.S. 1878, p. 479; 

Komig, J.f. b' 1888, p. 28-5 (Algerift) •. 
NyrocB afiicnna, ft. R. Gr. Lid B. Brit. Mm. iu. p. 144 (1844) i 

Sahad. El. t're. Hal. p. 263 {188<i). 
Nyroea nbaoletA, Brehm, Voijelf. p. 380 (1855): id. Navmamutt, 

185^ p. i>98. 
Aelhyw nwwra, G«*. J.f 0. 1870, p. 182 ; B., Bl., R. ^ & J.f. O. 

I877.p."838; Odffi, J./.O. 1879,p. 272. 
Fnlix arroctt, Salead. Unm. d'ltal., Pee. p. 265 (1872) ; Gigl. Icon. 

Axif. Hal. sp. 361. t«v. 361 (1881) : OoW/.n, J.f. 0. 1881. p. 190. 
NyroM femiginea. Sharpe & l^nt.B.Ear.ti. p.fiSl, pi. 438(1872) ; 

Jh-at. IbU, 1876. p. 421 ; B. O. V. Lia Brit. B. p. 130 (1883) ; 

Sclat. Lilt (*«■(. yin,8tb(>d. p. 441 (1883); Trintr. Faun. J^ Flor. 

PaUtt. p. 117 (18841; Claris, Ibis. 1884, p. 147 (Slavonia Hod 

Ilungnry); C. Swinh. ^ Bamrt, Ibii, J885, p. l.W (C. India); 

i)i--/rf.«i. J./O. 1885. p. 200; TniV, Ww, 1887, p.377(I'i)rtuinil); 

Beam. Ibit, 1891, p. 7J (iocub&tioD): Siarpr. Sie. Tarte. Miu., 

Ar*». p. 132(1891); id. Cat. Onlml. Sptcim. CtJl. ft^rj;. iii. p. 300 
(I89I): P/i-^la, .Vtf. AW. xiii. p.299, n. 173|18U2)i OiuC. iVohd. 
Areh. du Mm. (3) n. p. 102 (l^irkcstan) (1804). 



Quid Syrora UutapktkaJma.Qiaat.B.Jum. p. 408 (1847); Albr«obt, J.f. O. 
2. p. 2(17; Hkruh, Fr. Philitd. Acnd. I8)M, p. 72 (rrom JimRin): Lffit. Oil. 
)t(l. p. 524 (TiiDidiwl:) (1866); Ciiapm. BulL Am. Mua. N. U. ri. p. 86 



MarilA nTKC&, " F/em." (errore), Sfei. Hia. Brit. B. iii. p. 670, in 

»jwi. F.nyrociB(188S). 
Ilvon«tt« nyroca, Heine & Behnw. NommeL Mut. Hein. Om. p. JH7 

(1890). 

Hybridt. 
FuligulanrrocaxF. crisUta, Selui, BuH Ac, R. Bntx. xiiij. 3, p. 15 

{18«t) ; Leverk. J.f. O. 1890, p. 2^4, n. 10. 
Fiuigula DjrocaxF. marila, Lroerk. Lc. n. II. 
Fuligulanyroc&X A.ix sponaa, Xofuon, BuU.Soe. imp. Zool. tTAcditn. 

X. p. tWfl (18U3) ; Levei-k. J.f. 0. 180O, p. Sii, n. 13. 

Adult male. Head, neck, and upper breast rich ehestnut; a small 
white spot on the chin ; round the middle of the neck a browDish 
collar, more or less blackish ; back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail- 
oovorts blackish browu, the scapulars indistincti}' dueted with browa- 
chestnut; lower part of the breast, belly, and under toil-covctts 
wtiit« ; sides and flanks brown, tinged with chestnut; sides of the 
vent brown, freckled with white ; wings blackish brown ; a white 
■peculum on the secondaries, bordered posteriorly by a black band ; 
tertials with a dark green gloss ; outer primaries dark brown on the 
outer web and at the tip, white on the inner web, the remainder 
white also on the outer web, but tipped with dark brown ; under 
wing-coTerts, except the marginal ones, which are brown, white 
like the axillariea ; tail blackish brown : beak and legs dark lead- 
colour, darker on the webs ; trtdes white. Total length about 
16 inohes, wing 7'75, tail 2-4, cuimen 2-25, tarsus 1-12. 

FemaU. Similar to the male, but duller ; the chestnut of the head 
browner, and that of the chest suRused with white and less clearly 
defined from the whit« of the nnderparts, which is more or less 
tinged with brown ; the feathers of the mantle and scapulars, like 
those of the flanks, have boffish-brown pale edges (Setbohm). 




44. VTBOOUu 



849 



s 

IPyi^iii. cf 9 ad. 

etjov. flL 
«. 2 ad. 8k. 
o. Jav. ak. 
jh Imm. ak. 
f . Imm. ak. 
r» (f ad. ak. 

a. (^ ad.ak. 

<. $ imm. ak. 

«, 9. c^ $ ad. ak. 
V. c^ ad. ak. 

•Ciy* c^ ftd. ak. 

a. c^ ad. ak. 
a'. Juv. ak. 

b\ Jut. ak. 
e', tt. (S ad. 8k. 
e', (S ad. sk. 

/*-*'. cJ ad. sk. 

&8t. etjuv.sk. 
r. Jiiv. sk. 
m'. Jiiv. sk. 
n. Juv. sk. 
o*. 5 ad. St. 
/>', /. cT ftd. sk. 
r*. cJ ad. ak. 

/. (^ ad. sk. 

t\ ($ ad. sk. 
«'. cJ juv. sk. 
o'. c^ ad. sk. 

fp*. (^ ftd. sk. 
J-'. PuU. St. ? 
y'. Skeleton 

(imperfect), 
a". Skeleton, 
a". Sternum. 
6". Sternum 

(with shoulder- 

^idle). 

c". Ad. at 



Adalia, Asia Minor, Bee. 

( a Q. Danford), 
Anluan Sea (220 mika fixim 

land). 
Lenkoran, Nov. 

Ala Kul, Turkestan, May. 

Yarkand, Aug. {F. StoUcika), 

Thibet 

Cashmere. 

Kandahar, Feb. 

Kandahar, Feb. (Lt-Col, 

Swinhae). 
Machi, May. 

Sukkur, Sind,Nov.(^.O.Zr.). 
Hamal Mehur, Upper Sind, 

Jan. {A. O. H.), 
Larkhana, Upper Sind, Jan. 

(A. O. H.). 
Eanepur, Sind, Feb. 
Hills N. of Mussoorie 

( Wihon), 
Etawah. 

Oudh, Jan., Feb. 
Oudh. 

Nepal. 

Nepal (Hod(fmn), 

Sikkim (X. Mamlelli), 

Darjeeling. 

Owalior. 

Bengal (Falcon fir), 

Calcutta Bazaar, Feb. 

Calcutta Bazaar, Feb. (Bid^ 

dulph), 
Calcutta. 
Dinapur, Oct. 
Behar. 

Lob-nor, Feb. {Pr/evalsly), 

Nepal. 



England. 
England. 



Seebohm Coll. 

J. E. Haztiiig, Eaq. 

[P.l 
Seebonm ColL 

Dr. 0. Fwach [C.\ 
India Museum [P.l 
Earl Giffiird [P7|. 
Hume Coll. 
Lt-Col. Swinhoe 

[P.]. 
Seebohm Coll. 

Lt-Col. Swinhoe 

[P.]. 
Hume Ck>ll. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 

India Museum [P.]. 
Hume Coll. 

Hume Coll. 
Hume Coll. 
Cai)t. Stackhouse 
Pinwill [P.]. 

B. II. Hodgson, Esq. 

[P.l. 

India Museum [P.], 

Hume Coll. 

India Museum QP.l 

C. Maries, Esq. P.J. 
India Museum ^P.]. 
Colonel Biddulph 

[P.l 
Tweeddale Coll. 

Hume CJoll. 
Hume Coll. 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

[P.l 

Seebonm Coll. 

Pu^cha^ed. 

B. II. Hodgson, R«q. 

[P.]. 

John Rav, Esq. [P.l 
G. Ingall, Esq. [P.]. 



Nyroca africana x Faligula fidifjula . 

Zoological Society. 



8. NTTOca innotata. (Plata IV.) 
Avtbia njTCH», A. MUne-Edw. (nee QHlderat.') Compt. Bend. xci. 

p. 1036, D. 97 (Mndiipiscar) (1880) ; Hnmbl. Arch, ties Mui. (3) 

viii. p. 166 (Madnfnscar) (I&82) ; MUmt-EdiB. ^ Grand. Oa. 

Madag. p. 734, pi. 276 n. f. 4 (head) (188-2). 
Njrooa mnotata, Salcad. BuU. Br. Om. Clui, no. %x. p. ii (1884) ; 

id. Ibit, 1895, p. 136. 

AduU male. Very eimilar to the male of N. africatui, from 
vhich it differs in having the head and neck of a much darker and 
more gloeay chestnut ; also the chestnut colonr of the breast is 
darker; there is no distinct hlackish-brown collar round the neck, 
separating the chestnut upper portion from the lower one ; no 
whit« spot on the chin ; back and acapulBra brown with no wavy 
lines, nor minutely sprinkled with white. Size nearly the same 
as that of N. afrieana : " iris white ; bill bluish grey, with the base 
and the edges black; feet greenish brown" {QrOTididier). Total 
length about 15-5 inches, wing 7'8, tail 2-5, culmen 1-75, tarsus 1-2. 

I hare seen a second specimen in Bothschild's collection, abso- 
lutely identical with the type. 

Hab. Madagascar. 
a. <JP ftd. Belsileo, Madagascar. Rev. J. Shaw [C.]. 

(Type of speuee.) 
7. Kyroca avBtralis. 

Nyroea australis, Gould, MSS. ; Eylm, Mon. Anat. p. 100 (1838) ; 
a. R. Or. LUt B. Brit. Mu». iii. p. 144 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. 
p. 621, n. 6 (1844); Gould,B.Au»tr.yi\.^\. 16 (pt. Mvil, 1847)i 
Bchnb. Apt. Av., Natstoree, I. 2326-27 (1850) {ex Gould) ; Liekt. 
Nomencl. Av. p. 102 (1864) ; Bp. Cami^. Bend, xliii. p. 6ol, 
n. 139 (1866) ; Gould, Handb. B. AttUr. ii. u. 377 (1865) ; Bamt. 
Ibin, 1867, p. 414 -, Mm. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 280 (Melbourne) ; Eiit. 
" ,n. Anat. p. 118 (1869); Marie, Act. See. Linn. Bord. ; --'-'- 




44. KTROCA. 351 

Anas aostralis, Oieb. Thes, Om» i. p. 345 (1872) (sjm. emend.). 
Ljonetta australis, Hein, 8f Rchnw, Nom, Mus, Hein. Om. p. 347 

(1890). 
Fuliffula baeri, Rothsch. 8^ Hartert (nee Radds), Zool. Res. i. [p. 684 

(Waigiou and Arfak) (1894). 

Adult male. Head, neck, and breast dark brown-chestnut ; back 
and scapulars dark brown, each feather with olive-brown edges ; 
rump uniform dark brown ; abdomen white, but the lower part of 
it brown ; sides brown, each feather with paler edges ; wings brown 
with an olive gloss ; speculum white, tipped with brown ; primaries 
white, with the outer web and tip brown, the first three have the 
inner web more or less greyish brown near the shaft ; under wing- 
coverts white, except the marginal ones, which are brown ; tertials 
brown, with an olive gloss ; tail brown : ** irides white ; bill black, 
with a dark slate-blue band at the tip [nail black] ; front of tarsi 
ver}' light grey, behind darker ; toes very light grey, membranes 
black, bordered with light grey on the side of each toe" (Htitton), 
Length about 20 inches, wing 8*75, tail 2'Oj culmen 1*9, 
tarsus 1*0. 

Female. Similar to the male, but rather smaller and duller, 
having scarcely any tinge of chestnut on the head and neck, which 
are brown. 

Young male. Has the chestnut-brown colour much lighter and 
the feathers of the back margined with pale brown ; it has also less 
gloss on the head, and the brownish white of the underparts mottled 
with brown {Bulhr). 

Hah. Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Aucklands, New 
Caledonia, and Papuan Islands, westwards as far as Waigiou. 

a. ^ ad. St. No locality. 

b. S ad. St. Australia. Piircha<»efl. 

c. Juv. St. Australia. Lady ('jirrinp^ton ''P.], 

d. (S ad. sk. Australia. Sir ]). Ccxjper [P.]. 

e. (S ad. f»k. Australia. (lould Coll. 

/, ^, h. 2 ad. et Austraha. Siilviu-Godmau Coll. 

]uv. sk. 

t, k. cTad. et imm. New South Wales. Australian Museum [P.]. 

sk. 

/. cf ad. sk. Lawrence River (/rr/wy). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

m. cT ad. sk. S. Australia. Cipt. Sir G. Gn'v 4\]. 

n, Juv. sk. Tasmania. II. J. Klwes, Esqi. [P.\ 

8. Nyroca brunnea. 

Anas capensis, Cur. (nrc Gm.)^ .\fits. PariA. ; Le.<iA. Tr. d'Orff. p. 0.32, 

n. ;>9(1KU) (drscr. inc(jmpl.) ; Piichpr. It4'i\ of Mat/. Zooi. \8i)(), 

p. 545; Ilartt. J. f. O. l8.>j, p. 419; Gied. T/irs. Orn. i. p. 340 

(part.) (1872). 
Fulijfula capensifl, Smith, Cat. South Afr. Mus. p. 80, n. 380 (1837) 

(descr. nulla) ; S<'hh<j. Mm. P.-Jl, Anseres, p. 31 (18<>0) ; Sclat. 

P. Z. S. 18S0,p. 520; Rrhnw. Orn. Centralh. 1882, p. 5 ; itl. Vot/. 

zool. Oiirt. p. 40 (iaS2); TriMr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 48 (1880); 

Hartert, Kat. Vof/fUamml. p. 232 (18J)1); Rchnw. Vog. Deutsch- 

Ost'A/r. p. 20 (Kibaya, Maasai) (1894). 



F FuligulB Interelis, Stnitk, Cat. South-Afr. Mat. p. S6, n. 331 (1887) 

(desci. nulla). 
NyrocR brunnfia, Eyl. Mm. Anat. p. 161, pi. 23 (1838) ; O. R. Gr. 

Gen. B. iii. p. 021, n. tf (1844) ; Striekt. if Sdat. Contr. Om. 1862, 

L160 (Damani); liolh, J. f. O. 1666, p. 165 (Zool. Gwd.) i 
yard, liirdi S. A/r. p. 3fiS (1857); Eyt. Syn. Anat. p. 119 

(1869) ; Ayrei, IbU, 1871, p. 266 ; Boe. Joni. Ac. Sc. LUboa, 1871, 

p. 279, 1872, P. 70. 
FulLKula mariloides, Biytk {nee Yarrett), J. A. 8. B. lii. p. 180 

(Cape of Good Hope) (1843) ; id. Cat. B. Mus. A. S. B. p. 386, 

n. 1786(1849). 
NvrocB camnsiB, PucAer. Bev. et Mag. Zvol. 1850, p. 548; Sartl. 

'J./. O. 1855, p. 419. 
Aythiacaperisia,/(p. amip*..Bm(f.xliii.p.G61,n.l41 (18fl6fi O. R. 

Gr. Hand-li$t, iii. p. 86, d. 10U62 (1871); Gum. in Andent. B. 

Damara-L., p. 342 (1872) ; Boc. Jam. Ac. So. Liiboa, 1873, p. 290 i 

id. J. f. 0. 18711, p. 294 (ilosiamedes) ; id. On. Avg. p. 605 

{\m\); Batl., Feild.^ Beid,Zoolog.\m2,-p.A'2H{'Sa.\ii.)i Biiboit, 

BuU. Mu*. Rov. H. N. de Bdg. It. p. 150, n. 195 (Tanganyika) 

(1886); KuKhet,J.f. O. Z895, p.Si (eitB). 
Fuligula brunnea. Gum. Ibit, 1864, p. 365 (Natal) ; Sclal. List Verl. 

An. 8th ei). p. 440 (1883) ; Saivad. Ann. Ma*. Civ. Gen. (2) i. 

p. 248 (Shoft) (1884). 
FiuipuU nyrocH, Vhapm. [nee GOldenfl.) Trav. in South Afr., App. 

p. 4-J3 (1"868). 
Fuligula meridionals, HarUrt, Kal. VogeUamml. p. 233, note 

(1891). 
Aythya capensis, ShelU;/, Ibit, 1894, p. 478 (Zomba). 

Adult male. Head and upper part of the neck dark cbestnat 
with a purple gluss, apper part of the head and nape darker, almoet 
black ; lower nock blaok, changing into brown-black on the upper 
parts ; mantle and scapulars finely speckled with pole brown ; 

breast browu, clianging into glossy prc-jish brown on the ta\ 




43. HTBOCA. 358 

4,6. <f $id.tlL Itio GoKMsa, W. AM(», Jan. Shelley Coll. 

(Anckieta), 

e. (f ad. St. DMnanrlaDd. C. J. Andenson, Esq. 

A $ ad. ak. Damara-land. Tweeddale Coll. 

€,/. (f $ ad. ak. S. Africa. Sir A. Smith [P.]. 

(Types of the speciea.) 

^. $ ad. ak. Reit Pan, Rhenoater R., J. H. Gurney, Esq. 

Cape Colony, May (T, [P.]. 

Ayres), 

k. ^ ad. ak. Port Natal (Ayres), Shelley Coll. 

u 2 juv. sk. Natal. Eytun ColL 

Jb. $ ad. ak. Newcastle, Natal, Sept. Capt. S. G. Reid [P.]. 

I. <^ ad. sk. Transvaal (T. Ayres). Tweeddale Coll. 

111,11. cf $ ad. sk. Transvaal (T. Ayres), Shelley Coll. 

o. dad.ak. Near Potchefstroom (7\ J. H. Gurney, Esq. 

Ayres), [P.]. 

/».[$] ad. sk. Marico. F. A. Barrett, Esq. 

[P.]. 

g. S ad. sk. 2^mbesi. Dr. Bradshaw [CJ. 

r, a, f . d $ ad. et Zomba R., Nvassa-land, H. H. Johnston, Esq., 

$ ? sk. May, June {A! Whyte), C.R [P.]. 



9. Nyroca nationi. 

Fuligula nationi, SclaL 8f Salv. P. Z. S, 1877, p. 622 (Lima) ; Sclat. 
P. Z, S. 1878, p. 477, pi. xxxii. ; Garrod^ I. c. p. 479 (trachea) ; 
Tacz. Om. PSr. iii. p. 484 (1886) ; ? MacFarL Ibis, 1887, p. 203 
(Arica and Mollendo) ; Berl, <$• Stolzm. P. Z. S. 1892, p. 899. 

Type, Very similar to the male of N, brunnea^ but the brown 
ooloor of the underparts apparently a little more reddish. 

Ancfther specimen, marked male, cannot be distinguished from 
some adult males of N, hrunnea ! 

I belieye both specimens mentioned below to be males, and 
althoug^h similar to those of the African N, brunnea, I refrain 
for the present from uniting iV. nationi with the African species, 
and prefer waiting for the reception of additional South-American 
specimens.* 



* NtuOCA EKmiROPIITHALMA. 

Anas erythrophthalina. IVied, Beitr. iv. p. 929 (Villa de Belmonte, 
S. Braxil) (1832); J Hartl. Verz. Ges. Mus. p. 119 (Brazil) (1844) t; 
Bp. Compt. Bend, xliii. p. 649, n. 73 (1856); Burm. Si/st. Uebers. 
Thiere Bras. iii. p. 438 (1856) ; Peh. Om. Bras, p. 460 (1870) ; G. B. 
Gr. Hand-list, iu. p. 82, n. 10653 (1871); Gieb. Thes. Oni. i. p. a'H) 
(1872) ; Salv. Ibis, 1874, p. 319 (type) ; Sclai. # Salv. P. Z. S. 1876. 
p. 899 (note) ; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H. ii. p. 269 (types) (1889). 

Only known from the types in the American Museum of Natural History in 
Kew York ; thuiks to Mr. Allen, these, after my departure from London, were 
■enl for inspection to Mr. SaWin. who writes to me as follows: — 

*'Tbe types of Ana» rrythrophtkaima, Wied, are in old worn and faded 

t Dr. Hartlanb writes to me that the specimen attributed by him to this 

in 1844 is no longer in the Brsman Museum. 
TOL.ZZTII. 2 k 



354 iSATiDX. 

The only apecimena known of N. witioni are those mentioned 
below, and I do aot koow whether those mentioned by MaoFarlane 
really belong to thia apecioa. 

Hab. Vicinity of Lima, Peru. 
a. Ad. sk. Lima, Peru (Prof. Nation). 



6. (T ad. sk. Lima, Peru (Prof, yation). 

e. Trachfawith Lima, Peru [Prof. Nation). 
bulla oaaea. 



SHlvia-Oodmsn Coll. 

(Type of specips.) 
SnlviD-Oodman Coll. 
Salvin-Oodman Coll. 



45. FULIQULA. _ 

Type. 

Fuligula, Stph. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 187 (1824) (cf. 

Simdev. Metk. nat. Av. diip. Tent. p. 148) F. fuligula. 

Plntypun, pt., Brehm, Lthri. d. Natarg. Ew. Vog. ii. 

pp. 805. 999 (1824) (mc Shaw, 1793). 
FuliT, Suwten. Kongl. Vet.-Ak. Handl. 8tockh. 1836, 

p. 129 (1836) (=PIittypu8 and Hydrobatea); Baird, 

B. N. Am. p. 790 (1858) F. fuligula. 

Mariln, Bp. Compt. Bend, xliii. p. 661, gen. 48 (1S56) 

{nee Reknh. 1852) F. raarila. 

KettarioD,Bairrf,B.JV.^OT. p. 790(1868) F. fuligula. 

Raw/e. Northern Heraiaphere and New Zealandian subregion. 

Key to the SpeMa. 
a. Speculum white, tipped with black. 
a'. Back and acapulare in adult males grejiah 
white, irreguliiTly waved or zigta^ed with 
black; no distinct crest ^ abdomeu white. 
a". Head, oeck, and cheat uDiform black, the 




L 



if'. No pendent occipiUl crest ; abdomen 
diuky, waved wilh blnck and white 

irreeuUr liae^ in adult make noca wilandia, . 

b. S^idum bliiiah giey; head, nock, and chest [p. 3 



collar of chestnut eoUarit, p. 370. 

1 . Tnlig nTft irmr iln.. 
Tlw Scaup. 

Fuligula gasneri, Sai/, Si/n. p. 142, A. 6 (1713). 
Glaudum minas striatum, Briai. Om. vi. p. 416 (1760). 
Anas mania, itmt. S. X. i. p. 190, n. 8 (1706) ; Om. S. y. i. 2, 

p. 509, n. 8 (1788) ; ZnfA. InH. Om. il. p. 853, n. 64 (1790) ; 

Bonn. Em. MHh. \. p, lSi> (1790) ; Lath. Tf. Linn. Soc. iv. p. IIS 

tab, nr. S, 3. 4 (tracbsa) (1796) ; Pall Zotxr. Souo-At. ii. p. 248 

(1811); Tmm. Man. dOrn. p. 562 (1815); LraeA, Cat. p. 39 

(1816) i VifilL y. D. V. p. 137 (1816) ; Dum. Diet. Se. yat. vi, 

p. 374 (1817); Temm. Man. 2nd ed. ii. p. 865 (1820); Lickt. 

Ven. Dmbl. p. 86 (leelund; Cyprus) (1823); Lett. Tr. aOrn. 

P.6S2 (part.) (1831); Tfmm. Man. 2Dd ed, It. p. 545 (1840); 

SdUtg. iUv. Cnt. p. cu (1844) ; JVaum, Viig. DtuUcU. jql p. 88, 

Taf. 311 (1844); Pdul.J./.O. 1853, p. 242 (Lapland); Brelm, 

J.f. 0. 1854, p. 84 (Egypt) ; Midd. Sibir.Seit. u. 2, p. 238 (1853) ; 

MiiU. J.f. 0. 186-5, p. 232 (Provence) ; Xrupcr, NaumanTua, 1857, 

p. 44 (Iceland) ; Kita. Denhc. iL pp. 313, 378. 401 I185S); Blot. 

m JVoBW. Vay. DeuhcU. liii. 2, p. 312 (1860); Pnew. Pufaeh. 

Uuur.n.iW(lS70)iSomq/er,J./.0. 1870, p. 433 (E. Siberia) ; 

GuA. Tht4. O™. i. p. 3511 (part.) ( 1872). 
f Anas eubterrauaa, Scop. Ann. I. Hitt. yat. p, 67, n. 83 (1789) '. 
Scaup Duck, Fenn. Brit. Zo,J. ii. p. 686, d. 276, pi. 100 (1776); 

LatA. Sipi. iii. 2. p. 500, a. 49 (1785). 
Hillouinan, D'Aubent. PI. Eni. 1002; Buff. UUl. yat. Oit. ix. 

p. 229 (1783). 
Anas (renala, i^rrm. Mm. Carh. t. 38 (2) (1786); Bonn. Enc. 

Mitk. i. p. 144. pi. 31. f. 2 (1790); VieiU. N. 1). «. p. 109 

(=n»rila2)(181fl). 
Nyroca marlU, FUm. P&il. of Zool. ii. p. 260 (1823) ; id. Brit. An. 

p, 122 (1828), 
Aythya marila, Bwe, /«», 1822, p. 604; Brelim. hit, \S30. p. 198; 
id. rag. DfUlichl. p. 912 (1831) ; Bp. Cat. Met. Uct:. Eur. p. 73 

(1812); FritKk, J.f. O. 1872, p. 371 (Bohemia); Sl^. BuU. 

" bill plumbeoua, like the legi ; irii r«d, pnler 



Hob. VaU de BelmouiG, 6. Bruil. 

It iMinu oitrenwlj iikelv thnt the Braiilian JV, frsthrophfhalma (Wied), the 
Ferurian .V. nalvnu. and the African N, brimiua are ono and the tanie ipecica, 
wbicb will bale to stand under the name af N. rrpfhrophlialiiui, coranioii to 
Sontb A/rioa and South America ; the cue would be aimjlar U> thai of Dtudro- 
q/ma viduala and D./alva. which are alw) fouud is 
M ntonding eieu to India, 



Cf. Naoroann (T. D. »i. p. 88, note), who decidedly jtates ijial S™poli'« 



U.S. Xat. Mux. no. 29, p. 160 (Bering I) (188.5); id. Pr. U.S. 

Nat. Mu». X. p. 137 (Bering I., and Copper 1.) (1887). 
Anas marina {errort P), Drap. Diet. Class. H. N. iii. p. 136 (1823). 
Fuligula marila, Stepk. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 108 (1824) ; Savi, Om. 

7W. iii. p. 123(1831); Jen. Man. -p. 2^ (iSS5) ; Oould, B.Eur. 

V. rd. 371 (1837); £yt. Mm. Anat. p. 156 (1838); Bp. Oomp. 

Hit, p. 68, n. 425 (18^) ; r.>. Zool. Voy. Blossom, p. 37 (1839) ; 

Etys. ^ Bbu. Wirbflth. Ew. pp. IxMvii, 230 (1840) ; Setyi-L. 

Faun. Bdg. p. 145 (1842) ; MacgiUiv. Man. Om. ii. p. 188 (1842) ; 

Hartl. Ven. GfS. Mm. p. 120 (1844) ; G. E. Gr. List B. Mr. Mut. 

iii. p. 143 (1844) ; id. Gen. S. iii. p. 621, a 3 (1845) ; Rcimi. 

&n. vie, Natatore9.t. 76.11.131-133(1845); i^. Cat.Hodgs.CoiL 

B. M. p. 147 (Nepal) (1848) ; Dfgl. Om. Eur. ii. p. 453 (1849) ; 

Blytk, Cat. B. Mas. A. S. B. p. 806, n. 1787 (1849); Lichl. 

Nomencl. Ae. p. 102 (1864); Wallengr. Nautnannia, 1854, 

p. 274; Hetigl &/st. Uebers. n. 702 (%jpt) (1856); SwinA. 

Ibi», 1860. p. 67 (China); Powgs, ibid. p. ^54 (Livitarza); 

fSeinh. Ibis, 1861, p. 13 (Greenland); Sminh. Ibis, 1861, 

p. 345 (N. China), 1862, p. 254 (Foochow), 1863, p. 434 (Formosii) ; 

id. P. Z. S. 180.1, p. 324; G. R. Gr. LiU Br. S. p, 199 (1863); 

id. Cat. Botfys. CoU. B. M. 2nd ed. p. 77 ( 1863) ; Jerd. B. of Ind. 

iii. p. 814 (1864); Tristr. P. Z. S. 1804, p. 464 (PalestiQc); 

Nordm. J./.O. 1864, p. 379 (FinUnd and Lapland); Drotie, 

ibid. p. 428 (Borkum) ; Srhltg. Mut. P.-B., Anseres, p. 26 (Japan) 

(1866) ; WhiUly, Ibis, 1867, p. 208 (Hakodadi) ; Dfgl. Om. Eur. 

ii. p. 636 (1867) ; Triitr. lbi», 1883, p. 328 (Paleatine) ; Drosfe. 
Vogetw. Borkum, p. 206 (1869) ; Gould, B. Gr. Brit. v. pi. 34 

(pt ivi., 1869) : Broste, J. f. 0. 1868, p. 347 (Faroe) ; Eltces .$■ 

Muckl. Ibis, 1870, p. 340 (Macedonia) : G. JR.. Gr. Hand-liU. iii. 

p. 86, n. 10686 (part.) (1871) ; SkrH. B. of Egypt, p. 290 (1872) ; 

Couet, Key, p. 288 (1872) ; Taa. J./. O. 1873, p. 110 (Darasun) ; 
Covet, B. A'.- West, p. 673 (paM.) (1874) ; Blanf. East. Pert. ii. 
p. 302(CaBpiftn) (1876); Srsb. ^ H.-Bratcn, Ibi>. 1876, p. 445 




46. TULxevLA. 357 

F\§tmm uMriluy Br^km, Lehrb. NeOwrg. eur. VSg. ii. p. 880 (18S4). 
AytbTft kUndica, i^^wAfli, /«w, 18S0, p. gge, n. 1 ; id. Vog. DaOaM. 

p. §11 (1881). 
Ajthra kuconotos, ^r0^ Im, 18S0, p. 998, n. 3 : tdl Vog.DeuUM, 

p. 913 (1831). 
Foliffala gemeri, ^yf. Cat, Br. B, p. 58 (1836) ; Jard, Br. Birds, 'vr. 

p. 138, pL 6 (1837) ; Wright, Ibis, 1869, p. 264. 
FiUigula marina, 8w, Class. B. ii. p. 368 (1836). 
Faligula marilla, But. Mon. Anat. p. 156 (1838) : id. Syn. Anat. 

p. 114 (1869). 
Platypus marila, SchUJing, J.f. 0. 1853, p. 378. 
Faligula islaodica, Brehm, Vogdf. p. 381 (1855) ; id. Nautnanma, 

1855, p. 298. 
Faligula leuconotos, Brehmy Vogelf. p. 381 (1855) ; id. Naumannia, 

1855, p. 298. 
Marila mnata, Bp. Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 651, n. 135 (1856) ; Locke, 

Cat. Mamm. et Ois. AlgSr. p. 144 (Lake Halloula) (1858). 
Fulix marila, Cass. Pr. Acad. Philad. 1802, p. 322 (Loo-choo 1.) ; 

Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. p. 297 (1866) ; O. R. Gr. Hand-list, iii. 

p. 86, n. 10686 (part.) (1871 ) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 419 (China 

and Formosa) ; id. Ibis, 1873, p. 367, 1876, p. 457 (Hakodadi; ; 

Heugl. Om. N.O.-Afr. ii. 2, p. 1339 (1873); Stoinh. Ibis, 1875, 

p. 456 (Hakodadi) ; David 4" Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 607 (1877) ; 

Radde, Omis Caucas. p. 462 (1884) ; Tacz. P. Z. JS. 1888, p. 460 

(Corea) ; Sharpe, Cat. Osteol. Specim. Coll. Surg. iii. p. 306 (1891). 
Anas (Fuligula) marila, Radde, Reis. 8. O.-Sibir. ii. p. 376 (Baikal) 

(1863). 
Platypus marila, Dgb. ^ Parr. J.f. O. 1868, p. 339 (Dauria). 

Hybrids. 

Fuligula marila X Nyroca leucophthalma, Sclat. List Vert. An. 8th ed. 

p. 440 (1883). 
FiQigula marila xF. nyroca, Leverk. J.f. O. 1890, p. 22{). 
Fuligula marila xClangula glaucion, lieverk. J.f. O. 1890, p. 226. 

North America (F. nearctica). 

Fuligula marila, Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. p. 393 (part.) (1826) ; Bp. 
£k/n. p. 392 (18^) ; Ste. <J- Rich. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 453 (part.) 
(1831); NuU. Man. ii. p. 437 (part.) (1834); Bp. Comp. List, 
p. 58, n. 389 (part.) (1838) ; Aud. B. Am. vii. p. 356, pi. 498 
(1843) ; Giraud, B. Long Isl. p. 321 (1844) ; Be Kay, N. Y. Zool. 
ii. p. 323 (1844); G.R. Gr. List B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 143 
(specim. h) (18U) ; Denny, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 40 ; ? Cass. U.S. 
Expl. Exp., Mamm. 8f Om. p. 343 (Oregon) (1868); Wied, 
J. f. O. 18o9, p. 170 ; Heerm. P. R. R. Rep. x. pt. iv. p. 70 (1859) ; 
U^edd. <S- Hurdis, Natural, in Berm. pp. 49, ^ (1869) ; ? Reinh. 
Ibis, 1861, p. 13 (Greenland); G. R. Gr. Hand-list, iii. p. 86, 
n. 10686 (part.) (1871); Coues, Key, p. 289 (1872); id. Check- 
list, n. 600 (1873) ; id. Birds N.- West, p. 673 (i)art.) ( 1874) ; Sclat. 
4- Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 35)9 (Mazatlan) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, 
p. 525 (part.); Coues, Check-list, 2nd ed. p. 114, n. 720 (1882); 
Brandt, J.f O. 1891, p. 268 (Sitka). 

Falix mania, Baird, B- N. Am. p. 791 (1858) ; id. Cat. N. Am. B. 
n. 588 (1859) ; Bryant, Pr. Bost. Soe. N. H. vii. p. 122 (Bahamas) 
(1860) ; Cbap. 4* SuekL N. H. Wash. Terr. p. 258 (1800) : Bo$$, 
Canad. Natural. April 1862 ; Blakisi. Ibis, 1863, p. 147 (Brit. N. 
Am.); I^mt. /M, 1806, p. 48 (Tezaa) ; ?Br9wnjlhi$,m»,^4S6 



(VenGOiiTer) i DaU ^ Batm. Tr. Chic. Aead. i. p. 398 (1869) ; 

AOat, BuS. Mta. Comp. 2o6i. iii. p. 183 (Kfuuu emd UUb) (1872) ; 

Stiatti,B.Kaia.^.\\ (1873); Zowr, Mem. Sort. SocW. J. ii. p. 316 

(MuatUa) (1874) ; Rydgvi. Nommcl. X. Am. B- a. 614 (1681) ; 

B., B., ^ Jt. Water-B. N. Am. ii. p. 18 (part.) (1884) ; Cona, 

Key N. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 701, n. 720 (part.) (1884); NtkrC 

J.f. 0. 1885, p. 147 ; MaUclue ^ Zumer, ibid. p. 101 (BBring Sea), 
P FuLfnila mariloidee, Witd (mc Vig.), J.f. O. 1859, p. 176 (Mi»- 

souri). 
Anu mftrila, MaH. J. f. O. 1869, p. 221 (Bennuda) ; WaOer, IbtM, 

1860, p. 166 (Godhavn, Greenland); Gi^. Thei. Om. i. p. 366 

(1872). 
Ajthva marila nearetica, Sltjn. BuU. U.S. Hal. Miu. no. 29, p. 161 

(1685) i A. 0. U. CheeMUt N. Am. B. p. 119, n. 148 (1886) ; 

Tumtr, CoTttr. N. H. Alaska, p. 133 (1886) ; Nektm, Nat. Bid. 

Coil, in Ataika, p. 71 (1887) ; Eidgw. Man. JV. Am. B. p. 103 

(■1887); Richmond, Auk, 1888, p. 19 (Mt. Vernon, Columbia); 

MtrriU, ibid. p. 142 (Oregon); Schahv, J.f. 0. 1891, p. 268; 

Satth, B. o/Mirma. p. 58 (1802) ; Mackay, Auk, 1894, p. S25. 
Fuliguia mania nearctica, HarUrt, Eat. Vogeliamml. p. 232 (1891). 

EaiUm Alia (F. mariloideB). 

Fnligula marila. Vig. Zool. Votf. 'Bloitom,' p. 81 (1839). 

Fnlifpila mariloides. Via. Zool. Voy. 'Blouom,' p. 31 [in text) (18S9) ; 
O. S. Or. Gen. B. iii. p. 621, n. 4 (part.) (1844) ; Cam. Pr. Ac 
PhUad. 1862, p. 322 (Loo-choo I.) ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 812 
(Zool. Oard.) ; Sioinh. Ibit, 1877, p. 147 ; David <$- Ou*t. Ota. 
Chine, p. 608 (1877) ; Vian, BuU. Soc. Zool. Fr. iii. p. 61 (1878) : 
Blakia. ^ Pryer, Ibit, 1878, p. 216 (Yeio); Sdat. P. Z. S. 1880, 
p. 526 ; BdtniB. Om. Centralbl. 1882, p. 5 ; id. VSg. tool. Oart. 
p. 46 (1882); Sctat. Zitl Vert An. Sth ed. p. 440 (1883); SXytm, 
Ibi*, 1891, p. 497. 

Fulix mariloidee, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1673, p. 412 (Ningpo) ; id. IHa, 
1875, p. 467 (Hakodadi) ; Blak,,it. fr Pryer, Tr. A,. Soc. Japan, i. 




45. vvLiucui. 359 

neck, snd breast brown ; upper parts dark browii, the back and 
BcapuJarB slightly vermiculated with whit« ; underporls white below 
the breast ; flaaka brown, more or less verm ioulat*d with white; 
vent a,uA under tail-coverts dark brown, slightly vennlculated with 
while ; wiogs duller and browner than in the male, the upper 
wing-coverta much less vermicnlated with white : bill and l^;s 
darker than in the male. Size aomewhat less. 

Yotmg male has the white at the base of the bill like the adult 
female, but it is of a darker and richer colour. 

Matt in first nvptial drtM has leas green metallic gloss on tho 
head and neck ; the black breast-feathers have white margins ; tho 
black under tail-coverts are more or less vermiculated ; in the ver- 
micnlations of tho lower mantle, scapulare, and wing-coverte the 
dark brown predominates orer the white. 

Male* in moulting pliiniatjf closely refiemble adult females. 

Tount/ tn down closely resemble those of the Tufled Duck (Sa- 
hohm) : " crown, nape, and upper parts uniform dark olive-brown ; 
throat, sides of the head, and fore part of the neck yellowish white ; 
a dolt greyish band crosses the lower neck, rest of the nnderparts 
dull yellowish, the flanks greyish yellow ; upper mandible blackish, 
tooth of the beak yellowish ; under mandible yellow " ( Dretstr). 

According to Dr. Stejneger, the American form (nraredea) has 
the pnmaries, from the fourth quill, with a grejish — not white — 
area ou the inner web. I must confess that I have not been able 
to appreciate the difference. Also the Eanl-ern Asiutio birds are 
considered by the American ornithologists to belong to a distinct 
form, allied to F. nj^'iw, but differing in having the "sis inner 
primaries with a distiuct white space on inner weha as in F. mnrila." 

The Chioese and Japanese birds examined by me, and among 
them are those mentioned and described by Swinhoe as biJonging 
to F. mariloidu, Vig., are not conetautly smaller than tiie Western 
birds (marila) ; sometimes they ore intermediate between Ime 
F. marila and F. affinij, not only in siic, but also in the colour of 
the head, which shows some purple reflections. Are these fpeciracns 
hybrids ? 

fftifi, PalEearctic llepion, from Iceland to Kamt-schatka, breeding 
in the Arctic Begion as far north as lat. 70° ; winters sparingly in 
the basin of the Mediterrauean, but (to my knowledge) not reaching 
Abyssinia, as stated by Mr. Seebobm ; it winters also in the basins 
of the Black 8ea and Caspian ; rare in Northern India ; winters on 
Lake Baikal, China, Formosa, and Japan. 

Tho Scaup inhabits also the Nearctic Region, breeding far north- 
ward ; southwards in winter to Guatemala. 



a. ,S ad. «k. 
£. S ad. ak. 
A 9 ad. sk. 



No locnlitv. 

Tiree, Scotland, Aug. 

Rnh of Forth. Scotland, 

Jan. (E. O. W. R.) 
Yarmouth, Norfolk. 

Walberswich, Korfulk. Feb. 
( H'. TyhT). 



Tweeddale Coll. 
Colonel Irbv [P.], 
Tweeddftle toll. 

Clark Kennedy, Esa. 

[CI. 
Seebohm Coll. 



360 

y. A. rf 2 «l. A, 
i,k. as ad.A. 
I. $ ad. St. 

m. $ ad. St. 
n. cf ad. sk. 

0. rf Rd. at. 

}>. (} ad. sk. 
?, r. cJ S ad. St. 

>. £ Bd. sk. 



u. (Jjuv.sk. 
^--■.<J$»d.,imra., 

ft', C. 5 9 sd.ik. 



Beccles, Norfolk, Dec. (7". 

£. Gunn). 
Cambridge Market, Not. 



SomeroetshiTe. 
Hampshire. 
Kingsbury Reservoi 



Salvia-Godmau CoU. 

Purchased. 

Earl of Cawdor [P.]. 

Monta^ Coll. 
Montagu CoU. 
J. E. Hartiiig, Esq. 

[P.]. 
Dr. O. Fitweh [P.]. 
Old Coll. 
Hume Coll. 



Langiurskaja, Ob, Sept. 

Uurgaon, Delhi, March ( W. 

If. Chill). 
Amoy, China, Jan (S. Smn- Seebohm Coll. 

Aoe). 
Amoy, winter. 
Ningpo, ChiuB, Oct. {B. 

Sicittkiie). 
Hakodadl, Japan, April, 



g", a; r. tf ad. sk. 
e, r. (J S ad. ek. 

m'-j'. J J imm. 

et pull. ak. 
r'. $ ad. ek. 
«'. a ad. sk. 
('. 2 ad. sk. 

u". cJ ad. sk. 



Yokohama. Japan, Dec, (S. 

Nagasaki, Japan, Feb. 
N. America. 

St Michael's, Alaska, June, 
Aug.,Oct.(£. W.Ndton). 
Brit. Coluoilaa. 
Vancouver's Island. 
Canada. 



F. Ringer, Esq. |T.]. 



^. 



Salvin-Oodman Coll. 

J. K. Lord, Esq. [P.l 
J. K. Lord, Esq. f.]. 
Uovemment ol 




-to. FtruciLA. 801 

J. f. O. \m-2, p. 207 (Jamaica) ; SchUy. Mut. P.-B.. A Dserea, p. '2S 
(1866) (sccideDtal in UoUaEd!); Dqrf. ^ Gerbr. Oni. Eur. ii. 
p. 638 (J867); Turab. B. E. Pa. p. 36 (18H1)); Sah. P. Z. S. 
IfiTO, p. 219 (CMtillo, Veragua) ; Couts, Key, p. 29tf (1872) ; id. 
C3teek-iiM, n. 601 ( 1873J : id. Bvdi A'.- H>*(, p, 573 (1674) i Sclat. ^ 
SalB. P. Z. 8. 1S70, p. 391! ; Tian, Bull. Soe. Zool. Fr. lii. pp. 69, 
80 (18761; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1880. p. 626; C&ry, B. Bahama I. 

L167 (1880); Cmu», Chtck-IM, 2ad ed. p. 114,11.721 (1882); 
0. Cat. B. Sirkkl. VoU. p. 537 (1882); B. O. TJ. Li*l Brit. B. 
p. 180 (1883) ; Hard. J. f. 0. 1883, p. 282 (Alaska) ; Saund. 
YarrtWi Hint. Brit B. it, p. 427 (1884-8.'i) ; SeebA. Hia. Brit. 
B. iii. pp. 680, elO ( 1886) ; Cory, Lid B. W. Ind. p. 31 (1885) ; 
TrWr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 48 (1869); Jtartert, Knl. Vtmelmmmt. 

S232 (Meiicol (1891); ? Aiiania, J. f. 0. 1802, p! 42S {S. 
olland). 
F Anas marila, It Orb. (itec Zinn.) in La Sagra'i Hiit. Niti. Cub., 

0,>,p.295 (1840). 
Fulipila minor, BcU, Pr. Ac. PkOad. i. p. Ul (1642) ; Oiravd, B. 

ionyW. p. 323(1844). 
Ajthya manlaides, part., Bp. Cat. MH. Uce. Ew. p. 73 (1842). 
Anaa marila americoDH, Schlig. Bet. Crit. p. cut (1844). 
Fuliirula mariloidrs, G. S. Gr. (nrt Viff.) Gen. B. lii. p. 621, n. 4 

(1844); Bdmb. {nee Vig.) ttm. ^v, NatBtorea. t. 80. ff. 2756-67 

(1860) (ex Aftdubon) ; CW. 4" ftm*. /./ 0. laW, p, 230 (Ouba) ; 

Wied,J.f. O. 1861), p. 178; Gundl. J.f. O. 18(12, p. 92 (Cuba), 

1871. p. 290; Eeu, ^monym. cur. Brule, u. Gditt, p. 131 (1972) ; 

Adam», Ibit, 1878. p. 432 (Micbalaaki). 
Pulisrula melaaocephala. Licit. XomencL Ac. p. 102 (Mexico) 

(iM. 

Mniiln ajfinix, Bp. Cnnpt. Rend, xliii. p. 651, n. 136 (kth. eraend,) 

(1856). 
Fuli« atfioifl, Sairit. B. K. Am. p. 791 (1858) ; id. Cat. N. Am. S. 

n. 580 (IS.'iO); ? A. ^ E. Sevjt. Jbu. 1869, p, 366 (SI. Croix) ; 
Wheat. Ohio Agrir. Rep. 1800. n. 260 ; OkjkU. J. f. O. 1861, 

S340; Cow* Sf Print. &nitAi. Eep. 1861, p. 417; Boardm. Pr. 
Brf. Soc. iv. p. 120 (1862) ; Vrrr. Pr. Ei$. Irul. iii. p. 159 (1882) ; 
Btaldit. Ibi», 1863, p. 147 (Nelson River) ; Mareh, Pr. Aead. 
Phiiad. 1861, p. 71 (Jamaica); AUm^ Pr. Ett. Intt. ir. p. 88 
(1864); Mellnr. ibid. v. p. 9S (1866); Herm. m J>rei$. Ibit. 
1666, p. 43 (Teifu); GunM. Bfpert. i^.-A'aC. Cuba, i. p. 390 
(1866) ; Imvr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. yiii. p. 297 (1«J6) ; A'nrf. P. Z. 8. 
1867, p. 167 (egg) ; Coat, Pr. Botl. Soc. xii. p. 129 (1868) ; lit 
Pr. Em. Ind. v. p. 200 (1868) ; Laior. Ann. Luc. X. Y. ix. p. 143 
(Costa Rica) (1608), p. 210 (Yucatan) (1869) ; Dail ^ Bann. 
Tr. CWc. vJcorf. i. p. 298 (Vuion, breeding) (1809): SWr. P. Z. S. 
1870, p. 218 (Venigua) i JItayn. Gui.&, p. 148 (1870); Couei, Pr. 
At. liHad. 1871, p. 37 ; Allen. BuU. Mm. Comp. Zool. ii. p. 363 
(part) (1871): G. E. Gr. Hand-lUt, iii. p. 86, n. 10687 (eyn. 
emwd.) (1877); Aiken, Pr. BoU. Soe. xv. p. 210(1872); Snow, 
S. Kant.a. 11 (1873) ; Selat. ^ Sidv. Kommel Ae. Neotrop. p, 130 
(1873); Laar.Mem. Bo»(.&k?. A'.-H. ii,p.375 (Maiatlan) (1874); 
OiMdl. J. /. O. 1874, p. 314 (Porto Rico). 1876, p. 382 (Cuba), 
1878. p. 190 ; id. An. Sc. Eip. HitC. Nat. vii. p. 406 (Porto Rico) 
(1876) ; Ridme. Nom. N. Am. B. n. 615 (1881) ; Court, Key N. 
Am. B. 2inr ed. p. 701 (1884) ; It., S.. * B. WaUr-B. N. Am. 
ii. p. 22 (1884); S'ehrl. J. f. O. ]886, p. 147 (Dliooia); Siarpe, 
Cat. Otfeoi. Spevim. Coll. Surff. iii. p. 305 (1891). 
.\DaB llffini^ Gieb. Tin. Om. I p. 343 (1872). 



Nrraca affiuis, A. & E. A'ewt. Haadb. Jam. p. 113 (1881). 

AHbj* aBma, Step,. S«a. U.S.Nat, tfw, no. 29, p. 161(1886);.^. 
O. U. CftedWirt N. Am. B. p. 119, n. 149 (1886) [ NeUon, NaL 
Sift. CoU. m Alatka, p. 71 (1887); JUdgw. Man. N. Am. B. 
p. 103 (1887); Co™, ^ui, 1888, p. 65; HatcA, B. of MiriHet. v- 00 
(1892); Oiapm. BuU. Am. Mut. N. H. vi. p. 83 (Trinidad) 
(1894) ; Mmfcag, Auk, 1894, p. 226. 

Ftiligula marila, tu. affinia, i>uAow, Faun. Vert. Btlg., OU. ii. 
p. 468 (1892). 



Fulignlii affinig X F. valianBria 
p. 437; A.NtiDt.P.Z 8. 1 



r F, americanft, Elliot, P. Z. S. 1859, 
i9, p. 337. 



Adult inaU. Similar to that of F. marila, but maob smaller, the 
black of head and neck gliiesed with purple instead of green; the 
back darker, the black markings oa the white granod being coarser 
and broader ; tbe upper wing-coverts much less venniculated with 
white ; the barring on tbe aides more distinct, and the longer 
feathers of the flanks pale brown, Termicolated with black ; the 
nnder tail-corerfB whitish, bat the lateral ones with a rtifoaB tinge, 
all Termiculated with bUokish bars ; primaries blackish, without 
whitish on the inner web, the latter being only a trifle paler than 
the rest of the qniUs : bill blue, nail hlack. Total length about 16 
inches, wing 8-2, tail 2-5, culmen 1-75, tarsus 1*15. 

Female. Similar to that of F. marila, but smaller, the white on 
tlie fore part of the head and chin more restricted ; the whit« and 
brown barrings on the back and scapulare coarser ; the pale brown 
on the breast paler and not bo distinctly defined from the white of 
the underparts ; barrings on the sides and flanks coarser. 

Hah. North A.merica in general, breeding northward, south in 
winter to G)aat«mala and West Indies. 




o', 


et laini. tk. 


cf, 


,«■- 


J»d.8k. 


/■ 

A'. 


^ 


<J imm. et 

UV. 8k. 
Bd. 8k. 



45. PVLiauLA. 



303 



TArnon Springs, Fliirida, Sa]vin-Oi>dmu] CoU. 

Nov., Dec. (IT. £. D. 

Scott). 
Zacatoras, Mexico, June ( W. Salvin-Godman Coil. 

S. RiehardMi-i). 
Duenaa, Guatemalit. Nov. Salvin-Godm&D Coll. 



(O. S.). 



Due 



, GusUmala, 9 



Costilla, Veragiia (Aret). 



H. J. ElwBS, Esq. 

[P.], 
Suvin-Godnum Coll, 



«ri. t 1 (rf juv.). 2 (?) 



3. Fnli^a, fali^la. 
The Tufted Duck. 
Anas cristata, Say, Sffti. i 
GlMucium, Briu. Orn. vi 

(1760). 

Glaudum minus. Briu. Oni. vi. p. 411, pi. ixsvii. f. 1 (1760). 
? Anna latirostra, Briian. Orn. Bor. p. 21, a. 91 (1764). 
Anas tuligula, Linn. S. N. i. p. 207. n. 45 (1766) {ex Getwr) ; Seop. 

Am. I. Silt. An/, n. 78 (1760) ; Om. 3. A', i. 3, p, 543, n. 45 

(1788); laih. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 868, D. 80 (1790); Bonn. Etc. 

mth. i. p. 160 (1791) 1 Lath. Tr. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 117 (trachea) 

(1798); RiU. Zooyr. Bomo-A: ii. p. a65(18Il); Temm. Man. 

dOm. p. 568 (1815); VieiU. N. D. v. p. 128 (1816); Dum. Diet. 

fie. iVaf. Tip. 374(1817); Ttmm. Man. ({Om.-2nA ed.ii.p.873 

(1820); Licht. Verx. Ihu/J. p. 85 (Siberia) (1823); Bam. El. di 

««>/. iii. pt. iji. p. 128 (1826) ; £<«. Tr. .TOm. p. 032(1831) (sjm. 

emend.) ; MMtr. Cat. Bau. Cauc. p. 58 (Bakou) (1832) ; £. E. 

Abbott, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 134 (Trebizond) ; Temm. Man. 2nd ed. iv. 

p. 647 (1840); Schleg. Eev. Crit. p. Mut (1844); yaim. Vog. 

Beuiteld. xti. p. 64, Taf. 310 (1B44) ; Ttmni. ^ Schleg. Fmtn. Jap., 

Ara, p. 128 (1850) ; Midd. Sibir. Bag. ii. 2, p. 237 (1863) ; Fouler, 

J.f. 0. 1853, pp. 242, 244, 318 (LapUnd), 1864, p. 380 (Danria) ; 

Balk, J. /. O. 185S, p. 305 (Spain), 1856, p. 232 (Provence) ; 

Kittl. Denkwurd. ii. p. 313 (1868) ; P Walker, Ibu, 1860, p. 166 

(Godhavn); Heual. J. f. O. 1862, p. 287; Homey. J.f. 0.1870, 

p. 433 (E. Siber.) ; GiA. Tha. Om. i. p. 352 (1872) ; " * " 

Stfiw. iii. p. 229,pl. ci. '■■^°-- •" — '■■-' '-'■''■ 

p. 27 (Banian) (1890). 
Anatra col ciuffo, Gerini, Star, degli Uee. v. tov. 591, 592 (1776). 
Anae clang^a ibem., Gerini, Star. degU lice. tav. 694 (1776). 
Tufted Duck, Penn. Brit. Zuol. ii. n.274 (1776); Lath. Sm. iii. 2, 

p. 540, n. 79 (1785). 
Aau leucotia, Berm. Tab. Aff. An. p. 161 (1783) ; id. Obserc. Zool. 

p. 144(18041. 
Moiillon, D'Aitbent. PI. Enl. 1001 ; Buff. nia. N<tl. Oii. ix. pp. 227, 

231, pi. 15(1783). 
P Lapmark Duck, Penn. Arct. Zool. ii. p. f>76 (1786). 
Aaaa daudon, Bimn, (nee Linn.) Enc. Mfth. \. p. 149, pi. 33. f. 3 

(1791) ; Dum. Diet. Sc. Nat. ri. p. 875 (1817). 
Atuu cotymluti, Fidl Zongr. Eouo-At. ii. p. 266 (1811). 
Anas cri8lat*.i>ncA (nMGni.),.^«(.C<tf. AT ^^B.^BrifiM. p. 30(1816). 
Njroc* fnlifnda, /Vem. Phil, of Zool. iL p, 260 (1822) ; id. Brit. An. 

p. 122 (1828), 
Aythja fuligula. Bole, Im, 1822. p. 664 ; Brekm, 2m, 1830, p. 908; 

id. rUg. Deut»rU. p. 914 (1831); Stejn. BaU. U.S. Nat. Mm. 

no. 29, p. 160 (KamUchatka, Bering [.) (1886) ; IMffw. Man. N. 



; Boml. Om. 



Am. B. p. 103 (1887) ; Syn. Pr. U.H. Nat. Mut. x. p. 137 (1887) 
(CommiindeT 1.). 
FiUigula cristBta, SUph. Gm. Zool. xn. S, p. 190 (1824) (a^n. 
emend.) ; Savi, Om. Tosc. iii. p. 1.11 (1831) ; Suka. P. Z. «. 1832, 
p. 170, n. 223 (Diikkun) ; Gould, B. Eur. v. pL 370 (1837) : E>it. 
jtfon. .,47i<i(. p. 159(BVD.emeiHl.), pl.8. f.6(stemum)(le38); Bp. 
Comp. lilt, p. 58 (1838); K. * B. Wirbelth. Eur. pp. liiiT:i, 
230 (1840) ; Jtrd. Madr. Jbttm. iji. p. •222, n. 390 (l&IO) ; £Wr, 
P. Z. S. 1842, p. ft); Blifth, ibid. p. 04; l^riekt. ibid. p. 167 
(China); Bp. Cat. .Vtt. Uec. Eur. p. 73 (1842); Harfl. f'en^ Get. 
Mm. p. 121 (1844): G- R- Or. Gn. B. iii. p. 621, n. 1 (syn. 
emend.) (1844) ; id. LUl B. Brit. Mw. iii, p. 142 (1844) ; RUpp. 
Sutt. Ueben. p. 1-38, n. 499 (Abvwinio) (1845) ; Rehnb. Syn. Ar., 
Natntores, t. *6. if. 11»-123 (igifi) ; G. R. Or. Cat. Hodgi. CoB. 
B. M. p. 147 (1846); Btytk, Cat. B. M«s. A. S. B. p. 306, 
n. 1788 {1848) (dyn. emeDd.) ; Echtb. Ar. SyU. Nat. p, viii (1862) ; 
Watlmgr. Kaumannia, 1854, p. 275 ; BoUe, J. f. O. 1856, p. 314 
(Spain) : Bp. Compt. Eend. xtiii. p. 651, n. m (1856) • ; Beuffl. 
Sutt. Ueberi. n. 703 (1856) ; Lochf, Cat. M. H O. Aigfr. p. 143 
(1858) ; Antin. J. /. O. 1853, p. 484 (Smyrna) ; Sak. Ibit, 18.59, 
p. 363 (Kzerta) ; SmnA. Ibit, I860, p. 07 (Auot) ; Trittr. Ibit, 
1860, p. 81 (N, Africa) ; Pmcyt, ibid, p, 354 {Ion, li.) ; Simpi. ibid. 

LSai (W. Gnwe); i BanA. Ihir, 1801, p. 14 (Greenlaad*); 
!nh.Jbi», ' — "■■ ■ "■' " 

1863, p. 434 (] 

Sodit. CoU. B. M. 2Qd ed. p. 77 (18(3) ; Jerd. A o//b«. u.. 
876 (India) (1864) ; Tritle. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 454 (Palestine) ; 
'onhn. J. f. O. 1864, p. 370 (Finland, Lapland) ; Droete, ibid. 
p. 428 (Borkum) ; Schb'ff. Mvt. P.-B., Anscn-a, p. 28 (1866) ; 
IV. 4- Gerbe, Om. Eur. ii. p. .5.33 (1867) ; Shrink. Ibit, 1867, 
p 309 (Anioy)j Prsra-. Toy. a. 209 (1867); Hartl. * FittfA, 
P. Z. S. 1868, pp. 4, 9 (Pelew Isl.) ; Triitr. Ibit, 1868, p. 328 
(Falertine); Drake, Ibi*, 1869. p. 16 (Morocco); Sclat. P. Z. & 
'""" 62« (brefdiinf) : Elirr* iy Biickl. llAn, 1870, p. ;*'" 
' "■ """ ■— "' yjn, 



fc 




45. 



ytir. 



Bumt^ Marih.OameB. of Ind. Hi. V. '277, ni.ST [ISSO) ; Blakut. 

^Prytr, Tr. Ai. &><^. Jap. viii. p, 168 (ISm), x. p. 09 (1882); 

Bolmt.J./. O. 1881. p. W: Bchnw. Ont. Centralbt. 1882, p. o; 

id. Vog. tool. Giirf. p. 45 {1«8:!) ; SrverU. Ibii, 18Cl3, p. 77 (Pftmir 

H»n(re); B. O. U. List Br. B. p. 120 {18S3) ; Sclat. Lift Vert. An. 

Btii ed. p. 439 (188.1) ; Taa. Bill. &>c. Zool. /V. 1883, p. 344 
KamtDCbaUiii) : Bi/b. ^ Tatx. BhU. Soc. ZoaU Fr. 1884, p, 147 ; 

Saltitd. Ann. Mui. Ch: Otn. (2) i. p. 247 (Shoo) (1884); Saimd. 

YarrelTi Hut. Brit. B. iv. p. 430 (1884-85) ; See/,. Hill. Brit. 

B. iu. ». 683, pi. 61 (egg) (1885) ; Eiiib. ih Sundeo. Smmka Fogt. 

U, p. 1484, pi. licii. I. 3 (1880) ; Salvad. El. Uce. Itai. p, 284 

(1886); Tait, Ibis, 1887, p. 377 (Portugal); Dorrin, J. f. 0. 

1888, p, 9.^ (E. Siberia) ; Satead. Ann. Mut. Ciii. Gen. (2) n. 

p. ^& (Shoft) (1888) ; Triitr. Cat. Coll. B. p. 46 (1869) ; EnertAt, 

mt, 18S», p. 263 iBoroeo) ; Mchnic. J. f. O. 1890, pp. 8-% SI 

Zajbrd, Col. Fig. Br. B. pt. xiii. pi. — (1800) ; ««*. B. Jap. 

Emp. p. 355 (1890) ; E»am, Ibii, 1881, p. 73 (iocubiitiun) ; Sb/an. 

ibid. np. 318, 497 (Lower Yangtse); Dub. Faan. Vert. Beta., 

OiM. ii. p, 465, pi. ^GO (1892). 
PUtypua fuliguluB, BreAm, Lehrb. d. Naturg. *ur. C^. ii. p. 833 

n'^) ; Pdttler, J.f. O. 18611. p. 87 ; Hiatz, J.f. O. 1861, p. 467, 

1863, p. 430, WM, p. 97 (Pomerania). 
Anas (Fuligula) fuligula, Lesi. Man. iTOrn. ii. p. 416 (1838). 
Aythva criiiUta, BrtJim, Im, 1830, p. 008; H. Viig. Deal. p. 916 (1831). 
Hoiillon des Mas Muiiitiines, Las. Tr. d'Ont. p. 633 (1831) 

(Marianne Is., Q, Jj- «.) ' ; B<eher. ifc.-. tt Mas. ^ Zonl 1860, 

p. 636 (juv. ap. iucogn.) ; UaHl. J.f. O. 185.5, p. 420 ; ir^ffewo. 

.^HTiBjfyn. p.lM(189I). 
Fulix fuIiKula, Sun(icK.(ubi?); LnBt«,(Efii. K. ret.-Ak. Fork. 1864, 

p.3U;B.,B..^R.Wat.-B.N.Afn.a.p.l8(Ttoti>){l8i^);Q^l.Avi/. 

Itai. p. 316, n. 307 (1886) ; Taa. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 460 (Cowa). 
Fuligula vulgaris, Hodvi. in Gray'* Zool. Mite. p. 86, a. 373 (1844). 
Fulinila fuliguk, LicAI. Nommel. An. p. 102 (1854) ; Barttrt. Kat. 
r>pe/mmm/. p. 232(1891); id. Wis. 1892. p. 618 ; OjUett, Mindre 

Mfdd. wdr. Norgei Fui,lrf. 1981-92. p. 274 (1894). 
FuUgtila patngiata, Brihm, Voge(f. p. 381 (1665) ; it;. Xaiimannia, 

1855, p. 298. 
Nyroca lalirontris. Bp. Compt. Btnd. xliii. p. 667, n. 148 (1656) (ri 

l.tston, lies Mariannes). 
Anas (Fuliaula) ruligula, Schratek, Vag. Amurl p, 484 (I860) ; 

Radde, Beit. S. O.-Sibir. ii. p. 376 (1883). 
Anas arctica, " Ltik/i " [errorA, Degl, S^ Gerbe, Om. Eur. ii. p. 533 

{in Sim. F. crielatre) (1867) ; Oitb. Tha. Om. i. p. 353 (in sun. 

A. fuligulw) (1872). 
Platypus fuiigiila, />vi. * Parr. J.f. 0. 1868. p. 339 (Dauria). 
Fulix criBtata, SioinA. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 419 (China); Q. R. Or. 

Band-lilt, iii. p. 86, n. 10684 (btd. emend.) (1871); David, N. 

Arrii. Muf. Bull. vii. Cat. n. 453 (1871) ; Simnk. IU,, 1873, 

p..«7; BeHffl. Om. N.O.-Afr. u. 2, p. 1336 (1873); Dmid ^ 

Outt. OiM. cm™, p. 608 (1877); Ptjev. in Sowtty'i Om. Miit. iii. 

p. 106 (1878) (Alon^ilia); Jiaddt. Ormi Caucat. p. 461 (1884); 

S/iarjK, Oi/. OnUol. Sptcim. Coll. Surg. iii. p. 305 (1891). 
anemia (!) eristnta, Dre-^, IbU, 1876, p. 420. 
Fuligula linnpi. Malm. GbUb. och Bokml. Faun. p. 350 (1877). 

* It appean both tu Dr. OusliJnt and mjMlf that the iiiMiiiien from tbe 
UarianDS tilands, itill preeerval in the Parii Muwuia, is a joung bird, in a 
TBfy bad state. <if Ihc present apnciei. 



Hybridt. 
? Canard morillon ^ (Fuligula cristate) X Sarcelle da U Caroline $ 

(Aix spoDsa), Gtoffr. St.-Hii, Ann. Mai. Hut. Nat. tu. pp. 223, 

226 (1806) ; Selyi-L., Bull. Soc. Jtou. Selo. udii. 2, p. 21, n. 23 

(1866) ; Zeverk. J.f. O. 1890, p. 226. 
Fuligula criitete X Nyroea leucophtbaloia, Sclal. P. Z. S. 1880, 

p. 694; id. Lut Vert. An. 8th ed. pp. 624, 625 (1883). s. 
Fiuigula criatate Px Fuligula ferina (J, Saiaid. P. Z. 1886, 

p. 660; iewrt. J./ 0. 1P90, p. 225. 
Fuligula criatataX Fuligula nyroea, Ltverh. I. e. 
Fuligula cristataxFuliguta marila, Leverk. I. c. 
Fuligula cristetaxADU querquedula, Leverk. I. c 

Advlt male. Head, neck, upper parts, aod breast black ; occi- 
pital feathers considerably elongated, forming a crest or tuft; eides 
of tlie head with a purple gloes ; a white spot on the chin ; back and 
scapnlars with obecore traces of pale rermicnlations ; lower breast, 
belly, sides, and flanks white ; vent and under tail-coverts black ; 
wings black ; specnlnm on the secondaries whit«, with a black 
band at the tip ; under wtng-coverts, except the marginal ones 
which ore dusky, and azillaries white ; primariee brown-grey, with, 
the tips and the outer weba more or less blackish ; tail block : 
bill pale bine, with the nail block ; indes brilliant golden yellow ; 
lege and toes dork blue, the webs black. Total length abont 17 
inches, wing 8, tail 2'5, culmen 1*75, tarsus 1'12. 

Pemaie. Crest smaller than in the mole ; npper parts and npper 
breast brown ; the nnderparts dull white or pale ashy brown, and 
less clearly defined from the brown upper breast ; flanks brown ; 
speculum as in the male ; inner secondaries glossed with green. 

Young in Jtril plumage. Closely resemble adult females, bnt are 
paler brown, especially on the chin and throat, and have no metallic 
green gloss on the innermost secondaries; there are many white 








I, t. a i ad. at 

u. i ad.ac. 

V. (S ad. ak. 
a. tf ad. sk. 



Hickling, Nurfolk, Jwl ( T. E. 

Ounn). 
MuitOD, Norfolk, Juoe. 

Liverpool, Jan, 

Cambridfre Market, Not. 

Wiltshire, 

Avington, Feb., Dec. {R. B. 8. 

Se G. E. Shelifs). 
AvinptOD, Dec. [G. E. S.). 
Devonshire, Jwi. 



Tunis. 



in, Egj'pt, March (0. 

.6. S.). 
f. tl imm, ak. et Efn-pt. 

f'-t. i'i ad. et AngoUalnh, May (ITorrM). 



<.'. 5 jUT. sk. 

\'. M!*^'k. 
r*. 2 ad. 8k. 
t*. £ ad. sk. 

f. tJ ad,sk. 
tl'. ^ ad. sk. 
«',«/. <J 2 ad.sk. 

x*. 1^ BcL sk. 

y'. J ad. Bk. 

■". (f ad. sL 

a". $ ad. sk. 

A", r". 2 ad. et 
juT. sk. 

tf' cf ad. sk. 
*",/". tf »d. sk. 
y". (f ad. ak. 
A", .■■,*". dad. et 

2iuv.sk. 
r,W'. d2in'n'- 

ak. 
i",o",j'".<J9»d. 

-", *^, •". (J ad. 
« OimB.sk. 

" - ' » 8 



Lenkoran, Dec. 
Langiorak&ja, Ob, Sept. 
Obdorak, W. Sibraia, Aug. 
Lndak {Straokey). 
Wooler Lake, Cashmere, Nov. 

(&. He/idenon). 
Kftahgar {Brlleit). 
Afchsnistaii {Griffiths). 
Kokenin, Mftrch. 



Lord WftUn 

[P.]. 
H. J. ElwM, Vmi. 

Salvin-Qodman CoD. 

Montagu OolL 

Dr. R. Bowdte 

Sbarpe [P.l 
Shelle; CoE 
E. Rej^olda, Etq. 

[P.]. 
FraaerCoD. 
SbeUej Coa 

J. Bowling, Eiq. 

India UusetUD [P.]. 

Eupbratea Ezp. 

C. Chevalier, Eiq. 

[P.l ^ 

Seebobm ColL 
Dr. O. FiDschrCJ. 
Dr. 0. Fiiiaeb fCj 
India MiuUeum [P.]. 
HufflL- ColL 

India Museum [P.]. 
India >[u9eum [P.} 
Lt.-Col. Swinhoe 

[P.j. 
Seebonni OoH. 



-^•i*^ 



Kandabar, Ft;b. 

Kandahar, Feb 

SivitJioe). 
Jubbee R. near Hassan Abdal, 

March (R. W. Sleker). 
Indus R. near Attock, Jan. 

(A, H'. Stoker). 
R. Jhelum, March. 
Muncba Lake, Sind, Jan. 

Gurffitoo, Jan., Feb., March 

( B'. N. ChlU). 
Delhi, Jan. 

Etawali. 

Ondb, Dec, Jan., FeK 

TUvfA 



Lt.-Col. Swinhoe 

[P.l. 
(Lt.-Col. Seebohm Coll. 

Htune CoU. 

Hume Coll. 



Hu> 



!CoU. 



CoU. 
Hume ColL 
Hume CoU. 
HnmoOoU. 
B. H. HodnoB, Bm. 



et $ imm. ak. 

y". rf ad. ak. 
<", a*. (J 5 Bd. 



m*. ({ ftd. sk. 

»'. $ ad. sk. 

o'lD*. cJ imm. et 

S jUT. sk. 
?', H. cf 5 Bd. sk. 

j'. $ ad. ak. 

*•,«". (J J ad. sk. 

D", Bj". rf ? ad. 
ik. 

i", y". J ad. et 
juT. ak. 

«•, «*. 6*. J 5 
imm. etjuv. sk. 

c*. (J imm. sk. 

d'. Skaleton. 

e*. Skeleton. 

/*. Skeleton {im- 
perfect). 

J*. Skull. 



Ntitive Sikhtm, March, April, 

May (L. MamUlli). 
Assam (McCUOand), 
Gwnlior. 

Titana. Khandeisb, Feb. (/. 

Daiiidton). 
Raipor. Central Provinces. 
Lake Logtak, Manipur, Feb., 

March (A. 0. H.). 
Kiukiang, Chine, March. 

Kiukianf^, March {R. Stein- 
hoe). 
Amoj, Chins, Feb. (A. Smiii- 

hoe). 
Shanf^hai, China, March (S. 
Siemhoe). 

Hakodadi, Japan, Maj, Sept. 

(Blakulon). 
Yokohama, Japan (S. Pryer). 

Yezo, Japan, June. 

Laf!:unade Bat, Manilla {Mail- 
land Hfriat). 
Labuan, Nov. 
England. 
8. Germany. 



C. Maries, Esq. [R]. 
Hume CoU. 



F. W. Styan, Esq. 
Seebolim OoU. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 
C.W. Campbell, Esq. 
Seebt^bm Coll. 
Seebohm Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Tweeddale Coll. 

A. Everett, Esq. [P.]. 

Dr. A. Gunther \P.\ 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

[P.]. 




JUu. p. 142 (1814) iid. GeiuS. iii, p. 631, n. 6 (1944) ; id. log. 
End. 4r Terr., Birds, p. 10, pi. 18 (184fj) ; RrJmJ,. Sun. Ae., 
Natatorw, t. 77. f. 890 (1&-) {ex £rfb. ^ Ter».r); G. R. Sr. 
Ibti, \m>. p. 243 ; Heiior. Nem Zeal. K,hib. p. 277 (Otairti) (l^tK>) i 
*««. MvM. P.-B., Anseres, p. 20 (18661 ; PUla, Tram. N. Z. 
/i«r.ii.ie6B, p. 73(1670); Hutton, Ibit, 1870, p. .195 (Auckland): 
Fimf.h.J.f. O. 1870, p. 356; Hutton. Oat. B. Nea Zeal. jp. 38 
(IWl); 7VimT«,rran».y.Z.i«*/.iv.l871,p.20e(1873); /WeA, 
/./. O. 1672, p. ly8 ; BuQer, Hist. B. Aew Zeai. p. 259, pi. 27. f. 2 
(IWa); /l'n«vl, J./. O. 1874, p. 303: fOiarpe, Voy.Breb.^ Terr., 
Bird*, ■a. 31 (1676) : Scl>il. P. Z. S. 1660, p. 627 ; FiaKh, Hut, 
1882, pp. 392, 397 ; Bii}ltr, Man, B. iStvi Zeal. p. 72 (1882) ; id. 
HiMl. B. A'eip Zeal 2nd ed. ii. p. 274, pi. ilv. flower fig.) (1888) ; 
Smirt, Trann. N. Z. Itut. xii. 1888, p. 321 (Lake brunner) 
{I860); Triatr. Cot. Coil. B. p. 48 (1888) ; Foriei, Ibit, 1893, 
p. &45 (Chatham lal.^. 

Anas atriciltn, Fortl. letm, rnerf. t. 76; id. Deter. An, {ed. Licht.) 
p.fl5(lS44). 

Mftiila novffl lelandiiB, Bp. O'mpl. Bend, itiij, p. 051, n. 137 (1850). 

P Aaa« atia, Ellma?i, Zooli^. 1861 , p. 7471. 

Fulix novffi Beelaadiie, tf. -H. Gr. Sand-litt, iii. p. 66, n. 10688 
(1671). 

Adull male. Hea>l and neck black, glossed with purple above, 
with greea on tbe sides ; chin while ; upper parts and bre^t black, 
the former more or less glossed with green, npper back and Bcapulars 
QUDiitelj dusted witli white ; breast freckled with whitu on the 
lower portion ; abdomen brown, the edges of the feathers paler 
or dull whitish ; sides of the vent and under tail-covcrta black ; 
sides and long feathers overkpping the thigbu brown with a chest- 
nut tinge ; winga glossy black ; secondaries with a narrow white 
speculum, broadly edged wilh black, each feather has the outer 
edge of the outer web narrowly edged with black ; primaries grey, 
with the tips and also the outer weba of the first three or four 
black : marginal under wing-coverts dark brown, the inner ones 
and axillaries white ; tail durk brown ; >' irides bright yellow ; bill 
Bsb'blue, tipped with black ; legs and toes grey, membranes black, 
bordered near each loc with grey " {Hutton). Total length about 
17 inches, wing H*, tail 2'7, cnlmen 1'65, tarsns \-25. 

Femah. " A broad band surrounding the base of the upper man- 
dible white; heojJ, neck, breast, and sides of the body blackish 
brown, changing to castaneous on the luwer part of the breast and 
flftoks, on the abdomeu lighter brown, mottled with fulvous white, 
darker brown in the ventral region ; under tail-coverts blackish 
brown, largely roarked witli white ; shoulders dark brown, margined 
with castaneous ; hack and upper surface of wings blackish brown, 
^osaed with green ; speculum as in the male ; tail dark brown." 
(fluftr.) 

There is no specimen in the British Uitseum which would answer 
to the above description, but one supposed to bo a female is as 
follows i — He^, neck, upper parts, and wings brown ; brea.st and 
ndcfldull chcstnut-btown; abdamen sad under tail-oovorts whitish, 

toIm xxrii. 2 B 



J 



370 AXATID2. 

the palo brown haaes of the feathers more or less showing through 
the white tips ; apeculum as is the male, but of a. duller white ; 
tertials brown with a green gloss ; tail brown. 

Also in the Rothsdiild Aluaenm there is no female with a broad 
white band surrouadiDg the base of the upper mandible, but oae 
has a slight indication of it. 

young in down. " Has the down thickset ; the upper parts pale 
dove-brown, the undcrparta white ; a dueky collar round the neck ; an 
obscure white spot on each wing, and a emailer one oa each side of 
the rump ; the hair-like filaments on the upper parts rather long, 
Tcr}^ fine in texture, and perfectly black ; irides dark hrown ; bill 
reddish brown, the under mandible yellow, with a brownish tip ; 
feet light brown." (Buller.) 

Sir W. Buller notices a amaller form, from Lake Ellesmere, 
having a more chestnnt hne. 

Hab. New Zealand, with the Auckland and Chatham Islands. 



I, b. <? ad. gk. et 2 Kew Zealand. 



c, d. (f ad. sk. 
/^i». cJ?ad.st. 



New Zealand, 
New ZcRland, 
Bay of Islands. 



Capt. Stokes [P.]. 

Sir E. Home [P.]. 
Antarctic Eiped. [C 
Antarctic Exped. [C 



S. Fnlignla collaris. 
Ansa coUaris, Donov. Brit. B. vi. pi. 147 (England] (1809) ; Gitit. 

TAei. Om. i. p. 3ia (1872) (ayu. emend.). 
Anas fuligula, WU*. {nee Linn.) Am. Om. viii. p. 66, pi. 67. t S 

(1814) ; nmm. Man. d'Orn. 3nd ed. ii. p. 873 (part.) (ISlJO). 
Anas (Fulijiruln) rufitorquee, Bp. Joum. PMlad. Acad. iii. p. S31 

(iS-2i} : Gun,U. J. f. U. 1.S71, p. -it^i (CaU). 
Ansa nilitorqucB, Ord, cd. If'ik. viii. p. lil 1 1825) ; Sp. Speed. Gww. 




45. nrtiOFU. 



371 



p. OSI, n. 3 (ISU); Schnb. %n, ^c, NatBtoree. t, 76, f. 836 

(18Jo) (ej- Dwtwan P) i BnAm, Naumamia, 1S65, p. 298 ; 

Cab. 4f Cumf/. J./. O. 1957, p. 330 (CuU) ; Sale. ^ Sclat. lbi», 
1860, p. 377 (Ouiiteniftln} ; Gundt. J. f. O. 1861, p. 346; Bla*. 

Lilt S. Eur. p. 21 11862); O. R. Gr. Lial Bnt. B. p, 1»8 

(1863): SrhUg.Mui. P.-5..Aiui«i*8, p, 20(1806) ; Degl^Gfrhe. 

Om. £nr. a. p. 536 (1887); TumS. if. £. Pfl. p. 48 (1808); 

Couw, JTiry y. Am. B. p. 389 (1872) ; id. Check-lot K Am. B. 

n. aai (1873); id. Bir<b N.-We$t, p. 574 (1874) ; Sclat. ^ Sah. 

P. Z. 8. 1876, p. 400; Gurn. Zootugi^, XHn, p. 341; Sclat. 

P. Z. 8. 1880. p. 625; Coty, B. BaAamat, p. 188 (1880) j Saia. 

Cat. B. StHckl. CoU. p. 6Sf (1882) ; Cobm, Check-li»t iV. ^nt. 5. 

2nd ed. p. lU, n. 722 (1882); B. O. U. Lid Brit. B. p. 129 

(1883) ; Cory, Liit B. W. Ind. p. 31 (188^) ; Steb. Hitt. Jiril. B. 

iii. pp. 581, 610 (1885) ; Tritfr. CW. CulL B. p. 48 (1889). 
P Fuligula criatata, Uewi^ (twc LfacAj, P. Z. 8. 1847, p. 40. 
Marila coIIartB, Bp. Otmpt. Bend, xliii. p. 661, a. 134 (1866). 
Fulk collaria, Baird. B. X. Am. p. 792 (1868); id. Qrf. N. Am. B. 

n. 590(1859); H. Mex. Bound. Surv..Birdi,f. in (IS^H); Bryant, 

J'r. Bolt. Soc. y. B. vii. p. 122 (Baljumas) (1850) ; Mitt, Cmad. 

A«(«r., April 1862 ; rerriU, Pr. Eis. Intt. iii. p. 153 (18B2) ; 

BhkUt. ait, 1863, p. 148 (Brit. N. Am.); Mareh, Pr. I^Uai. 

AeaiL 18W, p. 72 (Jamaicftl ; Drea. Ibii, 1866, p, 43 (Tosas); 

Lmoi: Ann. Lye. N. Y. vui. p. 207 (1860) ; Gtmdl. JUprrl. 

Fimx-yat. Cuba, i. p. 390 (1866) ; Browi, Ihii, 1808, p. 420 

(Vancottvet); Slav. U.S. Gtol. Stirv. Terr. 1870, p. 466; O. R. 

Gr. Hand-m, iii. p. 86, n. 10685 (1871) ; AScen, Pr. Bf>»t. Soc. If. 

a. IV. p. 210 {Coloradu) (1872) ; Tr^tpt. ibid. p. 241 (Iowa) (1872) ; 

Snow, B. Kimt. p. 11 (1873) ; Sclat. Jj-Su/a, Nomaurl. At. Neotmp. 

p. 130 (1S72) : Zaior. Mem. Bust. Soc. X. R. ii. p. 315 (MaMtlan) 

(1874) ; Giindl. J. f. O. 1874, p. 814 (Porto Rioo), 1875, p. "383 

((Julia), 1878, p. 190 (Porto Rico); id. An. Soc. Eap. Silt. Nat. 

vii. p. 400 (Porto liico) (1878) ; Xidgw. N<nn. N. Am. B. n. 016 

(1881); B.,B.,^ B. Water-B. K.Am. a. p. 25 (1884); Cue*, 

S^ X. Am. B. 2Dd ed. p. 701 (1884); Fraa. J. f. O. 1885, 

p. 147 (Illinois) ; SAarpe, Cat. Otltol. Specim. Call. Surg. iii. 

p. 308(1891). 
Fuligula affinis, Sdat. {nee Eyt.) P. Z. S. 1859, p. 305 (Jalapa, -De 

Oca). 
Njroca eollaris, A. ^ E. Ketet. Handb. Jam. p. 113 (1881), 
AjthvB collariB, Jlidgw. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mm. viii. p. 3.56 (1885); 

A.'0. U. Cheek-lilt N. Am. B. p. 119. n. 150 (1880); T«mer, 

Contr. N. H. Alaika, p. 133 (1886); Nelton, Sat. Hat. Call, in 

Alatka, p. 72 (1307) ; Sennett, Auk, 1867. p. 24 (itownv stB^re) ; 

Bidffw. Man. N. Am. B. pp. 103, 101 (18*7) ; Cory. Auk, 1888, 

p. 67 (W, In<l.); id. B. W. : ■ "■•• 

Minne*. p. 02 (1892). 



W. lad. p. 207 U889) ; Hatch, B. uf 



Hyhrid. 

I, A. Ntiot. P. Z. S. 1860, pL cbrii. ; 



Fuli)rula coUarb ) 

Leverk. J./. O. 1800, p. 224. 

Adult male. Head, neck, upper hieaet, and upper parls black, the 
d nock glossed with purple; a white sjiot on the chin; 
« lower Deck a cheslaut collar ; lower breast and abdomeo 
2b2 



878 INITIDS. 

white, sharply defined from the black uppter breast, and gradually 
chaoging into the black of the sides of the vent and under tail- 
coverts, through a graduated barring of white and dusky i sides 
delicately undulated with greyish dusky ; upper witig-coverta dusky 
grey, ving-apoculum on the secondaries grey, darker eubt«rtninally, 
and very narrowly tipped with white ; tertiala black with a green 
gloss : primaries dusky grey, the outer quiila on the outer webs 
and the others at the tips blackish ; under wing-ooverte pale grey, 
more or less edged with white, axillariea white ; tail dusky black : 
" bill lead-colour, with a narrow basal and broad subterminal band 
of bluish white, the end black ; iris bright yellow ; legs and feet 
pale slaty " (B., B., ^ R.}. Total length 17 inches, wing 7-8, tail 3, 
culmea I'SS, tarsus I'3. 

Female. Crown and nape dull dark brown, becoming gradually 
light below, rest of head paler and greyer, the anterior half of the 
lores, the chin, and throat white ; jugulum, sides, and finnks raw 
umber-brown ; breast and abdomen white ; anal region dull brown, 
longer under tail-coverts whitish; wings as in the male ; remaining 
upper parts dull dark brown, the feathers of the back and the 
scapulars with pale olive-brown edges ; bands on the bill narrower 
and less distinct than in the male ; iris yellow ; feet slaty. 

Young in doum. " Above greyish umber- brown, relieved by seven 
spots of light buff as follows : — a small and iuconapicuous spot in 
the middle of the back, (1) between, and a little anterior to, the 
wings ; a lai^ patch on each side of the back, another on each 
side of the rump, at the base of the tail, and a bar acroes the 
posterior border of eat^h wing; crown, occiput, and nape crossed 
longitudinally by a white stripe of deep greyish umber ; a roundish 
isolated spot of light greyish brown, including the forehead, and 
lower paita generally, lif;ht diiiilT buff, tbu tlanks crossed by i 




46. TkCHJtBM. 878 

i»i d ad. ak. Lomp Muid Sound, New SalYin-GodmAo CdL 

Yoik (J. H. BcOty). 
f>r. <f ad. aL Brownsville, Texas, Feb., 8alviii-Gk>dnian ColL 

March (jP. B. AnnHnmg), 
1^ I. <f ad. et $ Corpus Chrisd, Texas, Oct., Sal^n-Godman ColL 

imm. sk. Nov. (F, B. A.). 

ik 2 ad. sk. Duefias, Guatemala (O. S.). Salvin-Godman ColL 

«. $ ad. ak. Coban, Vera Pa«, Nov. Salvin-Godman ColL 

(0.A). 



46. TACHYERES. »^ 

Micropterus (subpren.), JLese, Man. d'Om. p. 416 (1828) 
(nee LacSp, 1802) T. dnereus. 

Micropterus, King, P. Z, S. 1830, p. 15 (nee Lac4p. 
1802), 

Tachyeres, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. ix. p. 254 (1875) . . T. cinereus. 

Bange. Confined to Straits of Magellan and Falklands. 



1. Tachyerea cinerena. 

Giseau grise, on Oie de plain, Pemety, Toy. ii. c. 19, p. 21 (1769) 

(Falklands). 
Race-horse Duck, Pemetg, Joum. pp. 213, 214 (1771) ; Buff. Hist. 

Nat Ois, ix. p. 414 (17«3). 
Log^rhead, Clayton, Phil. Trans. Ixvi. p. 104 (1776); Penrose, 

Falkl IsLf.Si}; Forster, Voy. ii. p. 493 (1777). 
Loggerhead (jfoose, Lath, Syn, iii. 2, p. 439, n. 4 (1785). 
Anas cinerea, Gm, 8, N, i. 2, p. 506, n. 60 (1788) (e,r Pemety ; 

Falklands) j Brehm, Vog. Deutschl, p. 903 (note) (1891) ; Merrein 

in Ersch u. Grub, Encycl, i. sect, vol xxxv. pp. 29, 80 (1841) ; 

Gieb. Thei. Om, i. p. 347 (1872). 
Anas brachypt<?ra, Lath. Ind, Orn, ii. p. 834, n. 5 (1790) ; Quay ^ 

Gaim. Voy, Uran., Zool. p. 139, pi. 39 (1824). 
Anser cinereus, Bonn, Enc. MHh, i. p. 112 (1790). 
Anser brachjpterus, Vieill. N, D, xxiii. p. 344 (1818) ; Dum. Diet, 

So, Nat. xxxv. p. 470 (1825). 
Anas (Micropterus) brachyptera, Less. Mnn,d^Om, ii. p. 416 (1828) ; 

id. Tr, d'Om, p. 630, n. 28 (1831) ; id. Compl. de Buff. 2nd ed. 

p. 720 (1838). 
Gidemia patachonica, King, Zool, J(mm, iv. p. 100 (1828) ; Stricki. 

Ann. qr Mag. N. H. vii. p. 80 (1841) ; Gibson, Pr. Phys. Soc. 

Edinb. iv. pp. 1^5, 186 (1878). 
Micropterus patachonicus, King, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 15 (W. part of 

Magellan Strait) ; Less. Conipl. de Buff,, Ois. ix. p. 533 (\ 837) ; 

Eyt, Mon, Anat. p. 143, pi. 2. f. 4 (trachea) (1838) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 

1861, p. 46 (Fslklands) ; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 161 (Falklands) ; 

Eyt. Syn. Anat. p. 100 (1869) ; Cunningh. Notes on Nat, Hist, Str, 

qfMagell. pp. 95, 475 (1871) ; Gigl. Viagg. Magenta, pp. 934, 

§42 (1876); Oust. Miss. Sc. Cap Horn, vi. Ois. p. 229, pi. v. 

(1891). 
Microptema brachypterus, King, L e. ; Less. Compl. de Buff. Ois. iz. 



4 miTiDS. 

p. C33 (1837) ; id. op. dl. 9nd ed. p. 730 (1838) ; j?jrf- ^f^- '<•»«'■ 
p. 144 (1838); Dana. Foy. JleagU, iii. Birds, p. 166 (1811); 
Zii:Ai. Nomenct. Av. p. 100 (1854); £ut. &m. ^nnt p. 101 
(1869). 

Steamei^Dack, P. P. King, Voy. • Adventure; i. p. 36(1839); </. 
A. Nnct. Did. of. B. p. 618. 

Micropterua cineruus, G. M. Gr. Lia Gen. B. p. 74 (1840) ; id. op. 
n't. 3nded.p. «5(1841); ti. Xitt £. £rtf. Jtfui. iii. p. 140(1844); 
id. Gen. B. iii. p. 623 (1844) ; Bchnh. Syn. Av., Natalores, t. 77. 
f. 894 (1845) ; Hwa. Ertt. Nachtr. Vers. VogeU, p. 19, n. 2L>9 
(1848) ; Det Mur* in Gay, Hi»t. de Chile, Zod. i. p. 467 (1847) ; 
Bcknb. Av. Sytt. Nat. p, Tiii, tab. vii. (1862) ; Bp. Compt. Send. 
xUii.p. 661, n. 161 (1856) ; Go«td, P. Z. S. 18-59, p. 96 (egg, Falk- 
kndfl) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 389 (FalkUnds) ; AMott, Ibi», 
1861, p. 161 (Falklands) ; St^lal. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 367 (Zool. 
Gard.) ; Pelz. Eeiie Novara, Vdg. p. 139 (Chiloe) (1865) ; Sdat. 
P. Z. S. 1867, pp. 335, 310 ; Phil. ^ Landb. Cat. Av. ChU. p. 43 
(1868); Cunningham, Ibis, 1868, p. 127; Sclaf. §■ &ilv. ibid. 
p. 189 (SandT Point) ; Giffl. ibid. p. 498 ; Sclat. ^ &ih. Ibit, 1870, 
p. 499 (Gallegoa Rjver, Str. ol Magellan) ; Cunningh. Notet vn 
Sat. Hist, of the Str. of Magelt. etc. p, 84 (1871) ; id. P. Z. S. 
1871, p. 262; id. Ti-. Zool. Soe. vii. pp. 493-501. pK 58-62 
(anatomy) (1871); Sundeo. Mttk. not. Ar. dim. Tent. p. 149 
(1872) ; Sclat. 4" Sale. Nomenfi. Ar. Neotrop. p. 130 (1873) ; Gigl. 
rtojji). AfoyCT! (a, pp 93;J, 934, 9.t6, 037, 939, 941, 046. 063 (1876) ; 
Qua. Miu. Sc. Cap Horn, vi. Ow. p. 212, pi. iv. (1801). 

Anas pleneroa, Font. Icon. ined. t. 68 ; id. Deter. An. p. 338 (1844) 
(MarellaD). 

Fuligula cinerea, Schleg. Dierent. p. 274, with fig. (1861) ; id. Mtu 
P.-B., Anserea, p. 13 (1866). 

Camptolaimus ( ] cinereus, G. R. Or. Hand-Utt, iii. p. 88, 

no. 10704(1871). 

Tacbjerea brachjpterDs, Oteen, Trant. Zool. Soe. \x. p. 254 (1876). 

Tach.viTea cinereus, Sclat. ^- Snlr. P. Z. S. ]ft76, p. 402, 1878, 
I. 437 (Meggii^r Obnnnel, Tom Harbour, Fort Chumicbn, Fnlk- 




46. 



375 



yelloWy webs mixed with blaok; irides brown'* (OigVol^ Total 
leDgtJi about 90 inches, wing 11, tail5'5, culmen 2*5, tanas 2*4. 

Female, Similar to the male, but somewhat smaller. 

Taung in down. Head, neck, breast, upper parts, sides, and 
flanks dusky grey; abdomen and under tail-coverts white; two 
white spots on the sides of the head, one behind the eye on the 
temporal region, and another lower down behind the ear-coverts 
(Mue. Turin). 

I have not been able to satisfy myself that there are more than 
one species of Steamer Ducks. 

Ii<A, Falklands, Magellan Straits, and Chili as far north as 
Yaldivia ♦. 



a. Ad. St. 

b, (J ad. sk. 

c. 5 juv. sk. 

d, e, ? Q ad. et 
pull. sk. 

/. c^ pull. sk. 

y. $ ad. sk. 

A. $ ad. sk. 

i, Juv. sk. 

k, ^ ad. sk. 

L Ad. st. 

jh. Ad. sk. 
n. Ad. sk. 
o. S juv. sk. 
Pf q. Ad. St. et sk. 

r. $ ad. sk. 

». Skeleton. 

t Skeleton. 
u. Skeleton. 

9. Skeleton. 
w. Skeleton. 
X, Skull. 
y. Sternum. 



Straits of Magellan. The Admiraltv [P.]. 

Straits of Maj^ellan, Jan. * Challenger ' £xp. 

Messier Channel. * Challenger ' Exp. 

Tom Harbour, Messier Chan- ' Challenger ' Exp. 

nel, Jan. 
Tom Bay, W. coast of Pata- Dr. Coppinger [C.]. 

gonia. 
Port Churucha, Str. of Magel- ' Challenger ' Exp. 

Ian, Jan. 
Puerto Bueno, Str. of Magel- Dr. Coppinger [C.]. 

Ian, Jan. 
Elizabeth Island, Str. of Ma- Dr. Coppinger [C.]. 

gellan, Jan. 
W iilney Sound, Str. of Magel- Dr. Coppinger [C]. 

Ian, Feb. 
E. Falkland Island. J. Macgillivray, Esq. 

[P.l. 
Salvin-Godman ColL 
Tweeddale Coll. 
Challenger * Exp. 



Falkland Islands [Eyton ColL], 

Falkland Islands. 

Falkland Islands. 

S. Salvador Bay, Falkland I., The Admiralty [P.]. 

Aug. (Antarctic Exp.), 
Uranie Bay, Falkland 1., Nov. McCormick Bequest. 

(R. McC). 
Falkland Islands. 



Str. of Magellan. 
W. of Cape Froward ( W, D. 
Wodstcorth), 



Cockle Cove. 
Str. of Magellan. 



E. A. Holmstead, 

Esq. [P.]. 
Dr. Coppinger [C.]. 
Voy. of H.M.S. 

* Sylvia.' 
Zool. Soc. 

Dr. Coppinger [C."]. 
Dr. Coppinger [C.]. 



* Aooordiog to G. E. Cox (Anales de la Universidad de Chile, 18^3, Viage 
a la Patagonia septentrional), the Andean Lakes Nahuclhuapi, Todos Lub 
Santos, and others are covered with Bying Micropteri, 



47. CLASQVIjA. 

Clanarula, Lsach* tn Somfi Toy. Ditcov. App. p, xlviii 
(1819) [ex Getner) ; FUm. Philo*. of Zool. W. p. 200 
(1822) J Boie, Itui, 1822, p. 664 C. glftudou. 

OUucioD, Eaup, Natiirl. Butt., p. 63(1829) (nee Oken, 
1810) C. glauebn. 

Bucephalft, Bnird, B. of N. Am. p. 706 (IStifl) (nee 

Bucephalus, Baer, 1827, neqve Smtth, 1829) C. albeola. 

QlaudonetU, S(e7*n. iV. U.8. Nat. Mui. viii.p.409 (1885). C. glaucion. 

Chftritonertft, St^in. Butt. U.S. Nat. Mm. no. 29, p. 103 
(1886) C. albMlft. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere. 

Key to the Speeiei. 

a. Nostrils Dearer to the tip than to the base of the 

bill. 

a'. Hend and upper neck glosav greenish black, with 
a large roundish or oral spot of white on loner 
part of loiee (mafe] ; htwd of the female deep 
bair-brown] greater wing-coverte usuallj with- 
out distinct blackish tips jflaueion, p. 376. 

6'. Heed and upper nccli glassy blue-black, with a 
large vBTticnl triangular patch of white across 
lores {male) ; female similar to that of the pre- 
ceding species, but somewhat larger and with 
the grey chest-band broader; greater wing- 
coveits. usually, not always, tipped with 
blackisD ulandica, p. S8S. 

b. Nostrils nearer to the base of the bill than to the 
tip; male: head and upper neck rich silky dark 

' "' 'n. brfinze, niid violet-purple, with a 



IHBtBllic 




■ri. p. 872 (1817) ; Temtn. Man. 2nd ed. ti. p, 870 (1820) ; Lkht. 
Fen. Doubt, p. 6a(ld23j ; MhiUr, Cat. Sato. Caue.p 5ii (Uakou) 
(1832): TVmm. Man. 2iid ed. it. p. 560 (1840); Kaum. fHf/. 
DeuUchl. xii. p. I02.pl. 311] |1&14); StJilt<i- Sep. Cril. p. 118 
(1844); Temm. * S-A/ey. Faun. Jap., Art*, p. 128 (18.50); 
Muidtnd. Siirir. Ilei». ii. 2, p. 287 (185a) ; Br,hm, J. /. O. 1854, 
p. 84 (Egypt) ; Wieae. J.f. O. 1865, p. 608 lPoaiemui&); Buvry, 
7./. O. 1857. p. I2tt {AlfKTia)-, KifU. Dmkw. ii. pp. 248,278 
(1658); AUum, J.f. 0. 1801, p. 74; Steinh. ihj, 186S, p, 324; 
SehUg. Mm. P.-B.. AneereB, p. 20 (I860) ; Uruite. t'oye'io. 
B-Tkum.v. 300 (1869); IfwH^y. J./. 0. 1870, p. 433; jl/ei'ea, 
C^o. K. FfC-Akad. Fdrh. 1871, p. 182 ; Oieft. TSb*, O™. i. p. 34fl 
(part,) (1872). 

Anas iflaucion, Liim. S. N. i. p. 201, n. 26 { 5 ) (1780) ; Soop. Ann. 
I. SUl. Nat. a. 72 (1700) ; Gm.S.N.\.X p. 626, n. 20 (17881 : 
Lalh. Ind. Om. ii. p. 868, d. 88 (1700) ; VmU. A". D. v. p. 118 
(1810) ; Dutn. Diet. Se. Nat. ri. p, 375 (1817); La». Drier. Mamm. 
et Om. p. 248(1847). 

AnM pfrefrius. S. G. Omel Seu. d. Swal. ii- p. 183, pL 10 (1774). 

Anns mtuiln, PaU. ttifcLbm.) Seiu ii. p. i^ (1773). 

Garroi, D'Auhent. Pt. £nl. 803 ( J ) ; i'lgf. i/«(. An(. Ou. is., p. 222 
(1-83). 

Golden-eje, fWm. J?ri(. Zoo/, ii. n. 276 (1785) ; Lath. Syn. iii. 2. 
p. 535, D. 76 (1785). 

Anaa meUnocfphslft, JTerm. (n« Gm.) OU. Znol. p. U5 (1804). 

Anas hvemalis, i^//. {itec Linn.) Zoogr. Honmi-Ae. ii. p. 270 (1811). 

Clonffuln daogula, Flem. PAU. ofZeol. ii. p. 2W (1822): Bote, Iiu, 
1822, p. 564; Licht. Nommci. Av. v. 109 (1854); Sltju. Bull. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 20. p, 163 {Boring I.) (1885). 

OlanfiiU chrjMplithRlmiis, Stetii. Oirri. Zool. xii. 2. p. 182, jil. 56 
(1824); An. .Wan. p. 346 (1835); £>(. C'a(. J?ri"i. £. p. Mt (1838); 
Marj/Ul. Man. Om. ii. p. 183 (1842). 

Platypus friauciiin, Brehm, Lchrb. Eur. Viig. p. 837 (1824), 

Fuiigula rianirula, Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. p. 803 (1826) j id. St/n. 
p. 393 (1828) ; Lcm. Tr. d'Om. p. 631 (1831) : Snvi, Om. Tote. 
lii. p. 1:13(1831); Bp.Im, l8S2,p. 1189 (part.); WaUengr. Nim- 
vtanaia, 1854. p. 276; ZM- On>. J?ur. ii. p. 443 (1840); Brandt 
in JfiifimiiH. Jke yordt. t'ro/, ii. p. 71 (WWhrra) (1856): Wted, 
J. /. 0. 1859, p. 178 (pMt) i Seta/. P. Z. S. 1865, p. 018 (Haltn- 
dadi) ; SiAUff. Mat. F.-B., Anseres, p. 20 (part.) (1866) ; Pnete. 
Fou. n. 307 (1867) ; SmUh, Iba, 1868. p. 457; Pm-w. Putmrk. 
£7«n4r.n. 207(1870): Oorf. ^/. O. I871,p.l40; Putvxin,J./.0. 
1876, p. 68 (Fiotand) ; *ei. ^ H.-Brown, Ibit, 1870, p, 445 (Pet- 
cho») ; Finxh, Verh. t.-h. Get. Wien, 1879, p. 162 (W. Siberia) ; 
Brandt, J. /. O. 1880, p. 249 (St. Petewburit) ; S«A. Silt. Brit 
B. iii. p. 500, pi. 03 (egg) (1885): ZHJbnl, CW. F!v. Brit. B 
pt. si. (1880) ; 8tt6. B. Jap. Emp. p. 268 (1800) ; Jli-AntB. J. /. 0. 
1^, p. ea; Martert, Eat. FogtbamtU. p. 232 (1891). 

Clnnsfiiln vnlgnrit. Flem. Brit. An. p. 120 (1828); ffould, P. Z. S. 
1834. p, 134 (Tr»bi»oad) ; Striekl. P. Z. S. 1836, p. 102 (Smynia) : 
0«(/</.fi.£«r.v.pl, 870(1837); &p, Claa. fi.ii. p, 360 (18.17) ; 
Sut. Man. Anat. p. 186, pi. iii. f. 4 (sternum), pi. 12. f, 4 (cjccaj, 
pL 16. f. 2 (trnchea) ( I8S8) ; Alibolt, P. Z. S. 1834, p. \U (Tnbi- 
iood) ; Blakiit. Ibit, 1868, p. 148 ; Oai^rod, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 420 
(tracW). 

Glaucioii elaiigiila, Eaup, Nutiirl. Syil. p, 53 (IBlli) ; E. ^ B. Wir- 



8 AViTLDM, 

Mth. Eur. pp. Imvi, 229 {1840); Nordm. J. f. 0. 1S64, p. 378 
(Finland and Lnpland) ; Sound. Ibu, 1671, p. 397 (Spain) ; Taez. 
J.f. 0. 1873, p. 110, 1874, j>. 337 (E. Siberia) ; SteirA. Ibii, 1874, 
p. 434 (Chefou) ; Severiz. J. /. O. 1675, p. 185; Tacz. Ont. faun. 
>W. Sibir. p. 71 (J877) ; id. Bull. Soc. Zool. JV. ii. p. 47 (1877), 
viii. p. 344 (Kamtschatka) (1883) ; Sadde, Omu Caucru. p. 4C2 
(1881). 

Clannula peregrina, Ilrehm, Iiu, 1830, p. 999, n. 2 ; id. Vog. DetOtchl. 
p. 929 (1831). 

Clanjcula tflnuoioa. Srehm, Iiii, 1830, p. 999, n. 3 ; id. Vog. DadseM. 
p. 929 (1831) ; Bp. Comp. LUt, p. 68, n. 427 (1638) ; HarU. Verz. 
Get. Mwi. p. 121 (1844) ; G. E. Gr. List B. Brit. Miu. iii. p. 144 
(1844); id. Gen. B. iil. p. 022, n. 1 (1844); Bchnb. Si/n. As., 
Natatores, t. 74. ff. 96-98 (1845) ; Blgth, Cat. B. Mtu. A. S. B. 
p. .'iO? (1849) ; Rfhnb. Ac. St/tl. Nat. p. viii (1862) ; BoUe,J.f. O. 
1856, p. 376 (Spain); if;). Conyrf. .Reii^. lUii. p. 651, n. 148(1866) ; 
Lathe, Cat. M. et O. Algfr. p. 145 (1858) ; Homey. J. f. O. 1859, 
p. 373; Powyt, Ihit, 1660, p. 3^4 (Ionian I.) ; Swinh. Ibii, 1861, 
p. 345 (China), 1803, p. 434 (Fonnoaa) ; More, Ibii, 1865, p. 447 
(GreatBritain); B/y«, 76w, 1867, p. 176 (Indus) ; WlaUly, Ibie, 
1867, p. 206(Ilakodadi); Dtgl. ^ Gerb. Om. Eur. ii. p. 642 (1807) ; 
Byb. 4- Parr. J. f. O. 18(58, p. 339 (Dauria) ; MiiU. * Dro»te, 
J. /. O. 1869, p. 347 (Faroe) ; Gould, B. of Great BrU. v. pi. 31 
(1869); B'u>..JifHi;W.iiw,1870, p.340(Turl£ey)i D-ifich, J./. O. 
1872, p. 371 (Bohemia); Seoertt. Turkeit. Jevotn. p. 70 (1873); 
Brew. B. of Eur. vi. p. 595, pi. 440 (1876) ; id. Ibis, 1876, p. 42i 
(Turkestan) ; Blanf. East. Pen. ii. "p. 30-2 (1870) ; Hvme, Str. 
Eeath. iy. p. 235 (Oudh) (1876); Briiggem. Zool. Gart. 1876, 
p. 366 ; £., SI., R., ii S., J.f. 0. 1877, p. 336 ; Blahtl. ^ Fryer, 
Ibii, 1878, p. 215 ; Pleske, J. f. O. 1878, p. flS (E. Russia) ; Seeb. 
Ibit, 1879, p. 23 (Japan) ; H"me, Str. Fealh. vii. pp. 441,484, 505 
(1879) ; BuMil. ^ Pn/er, Tr. A». Soc. Jap. viii. p. 186 (1880) ; 
Sdat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 627 (parL); Salv. Cat. B. Strickl. 
CuH. p. 538 (iaS5) ; Blal-Ut,. 3- Pryrr. Tr. As. Soc. Jnp. s. b. 90 
(1862) ; B. O. U. Liit Brit. B. p. I.'i7 (1883) ; Sclat. LUt Vert. 




47. CLAveuLA. 879 

Fbtypm ckogQlm, Hmtx, J. /. 0. 1861, p. 464, 1808, p. 480, 1864, 

pp. 07, 191, 1866, p. 155. 
BiicephaU daDffala, G. E. Or. Band-Hat^m. p. 87, n. 10606 (1871) ; 

Swmk, P. Z S. 1871, p. 419 (China) ; Sundeo, Metk. not, Av. dup. 

Tent p. 149 (1872) ; Salvad. Faun. dTItal., Uce. p. 267 (1872) ; 

ihmnh. Ibis, 1878, p. 867 ; ffeuffl. Om. N.O.-Afr. ii. 2, p. 1845 

(18781 ; CbMM, B. A.- West, p. 576 (part) (1874) ; David §• Oust. 

Oi$. Chmey p. 506 (1877) ; Swmh. Ait, 1877, p. 147 (Hakodadi) ; 

Gigl Icon. Avif. Ital. fasc. i. sp. & tav. 862 (18/9) ; Bolau, J.f. O. 

1881, p. 64 (Suifun) ; Fiori, Atti Soc. Nat. Mod. (3) iii. pp. 31-64, 

tav. 1 (1884)* ; DdrrieSy J.f. O. 1888, p. 96. 
Glangula hyemalis, Blar^. (nee Linn.) East. Pers. ii. p. 302 (1876) 

{ex Polios). 
Buoephaliu clangula, Pnev. in Bowl. Om. Misc. iii. p. 106 (Mon- 
golia) (1878). 
Clangula fflaucium, Hume, Str. Feath. viii. p. 116, n. 971 bis (1879) ; 

Hume 4f Marsh. Game B. of Ind. iii. p. 286, pi. 38 (1880) ; Coues, 

BuU. Nutt. Om. Club, 1880, p. 101. 
Fuligula (Glaucion) clangula, Kchnw. Om. CentroSd. 1882, p. 6 ; id, 

Voff. zool. Gdrt. p. 40 ( 1882). 
Glaucionetta clangula, /S^/?;;i. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. viii. p. 409 (1886) ; 

Bidgw. Man. N. Am. B. p. 105 (1887) ; Stejn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

X. p. 137 (1887) (Commander I.). 

Hybrids. 

Mergus anatarius, FinU>. Isis, 1831, p. 800, Taf. iii. ff. a, b (Braun- 
schweig) ; Bp. Git. Met. Ucc. Eur. p. 74 (1842) ; ScMeg. Bev. 
Crit. p. 109 (1844) (=Ana8clangu lax Mergus albellus); JDegl. 8f 
Gerbe, Om. Eur. ii. p. 674, obs. ( 1867) ; Schmidt, Arch. d. Naturg. 
in Mecklenb. 1875, pp. 145-146; B. Bias. MT. om. Ver. Wien, 1884, 
p. 119 (Kalmarsund) ; Kolthof, (Kfv. K. Vet-Ak. Forh. 1884, no. 9, 
pp. 186-189, pis. xxxi., xxxii. (1885) ; B. Bias. Monat. Schufze, 
Vogelw. 1887, pp. 377-406, pis. v., vi., and cut (=M. albellus X 
Glaucion clangula). 

Clangula angustirostris, Brehm, Isis, 1830, p. 909, n. 4 (descr. nulla) ; 
id. Handb. Vog. Deutschl p. 930 (1831) ( = 2 M. anatarius, Eimb.) ; 
Bchnb. Syn. Av., Natatores, t. 74. ff. ia% 104 (1845). 

Muthmasslicher Bastard von Anas clangula nnd Merprus albellus, 
Naum. Vog. Deutschl. xil pg. 194-197, Titelkupfer (d) (1844). 

Anas (Clangula) mergoides, Kjdrb. Om. Danica, Danmark's Fugle, 
Suppl. t 30 (t. xlix) (1851 ?) ; id. Naumannia, 1853, p. 329. 

Clangula mergoides, Kjdrb. Naumannia, 1853, pp. 11(5, 327 ; id. 
J. f. O. 1853, Extraheft, p. 29 ; iii. Om. Danica, Supplement- 
tavle Iv. f. 7 (1858). 

Anas mergoides, Kjdrbolling ; Wolschke, JB. Annab. Ver. 1883-85, 
pp. 112-127, pi. 1 (1886). 

Clangula glaucion X Fuligula ferina, Leverk. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 222, 
n. 1. 

Clangula glaucion X Fuligula marila, Leverk. J. f O. 1890, p. 222, 
n.2. 



* " Studii anatomici e fisiologioi Bulla trachea della Bucepkala dangula^ 
eonoparativameote oon quella di altri Anatini "(Ac). 



America (Clangula araericana). 

Aww clangula, Font. PhU. Tran*. Isii. p. S66 (1772); ffm. 

S. N. i. 2, p. 523, u. 23 (port., America) (1788); Latk. I»d. 

Ont. ii. p. 807, u. b7 (part) (1790) ; WiU. Am. Om. viiL p. 62, 

pi. 67. f. 6 (1814) i Vieill. If. D. v. p. 117 (part, America) (1816) ; 

Doughty » Cab. N. H. i. p. 110, pi. 10 (1830). 
ClanruU cluTsopljthalmos, part., SUph. Gen. Zool. xii. 2, p. 162 

(1§24). 
FuU(fula clanfTula, Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. p. 393 (part., 182B) ; id. 

Syn. p. 393 (ISiiS) ; id. UU, 1832, p. 1189 (part.); Aud. Om. 

.ffiiy/-. iv. p. 318, pi. 34-2 lims); id. Syn. p. 292 (1839); id. B. 

.4nt.vi, p. 362 (part), pi. 406(1843); Gi>aiid,B. iony W. p.S-W 

(1844); Wi^,J.f.O.\mi,^. 178; Wtdd^rb.^ Hurdi»,}iaturaL 

in Bermvda, p. 49 (1869), cf. J. f. O. 1859, p. 221 (Bermiuia) ; 

Schlfff. Mta. P.-B., Anseres, p. 20 (part.) (1806); Turnh. B. 

B. Pa. 1869, p. 80 ; FintcA, Abh. nat. Ver. Brem. iu. p. 66 

(1872). 
ClaDBTila Tulgans, 8w. ^ Sieh, Faim. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 460 

(1831). 
FuligiiU (ClanfTula) clan^la, Nutt. Man. ii. p. 441 (1834). 



Claa^rula ameiicana, Bp. Comp. Lut, p. 68, n. 392 (1838) ; Egt, 
Mon. Annt. u. 167 (1838); O. R. Gr. Gen. B. iii. p. 622, n. 2 
(1844); Bp. Com/it. Bend, xxxviii. p. 664 (Notei Coil. DelaUre 
p, 94) (18o4); id. Compt. Bend, illii. p. 661, n. 147 (1856); 
2/einb. P. £. B. Rep. vi. p. 104 (lb57) ; Cab. ^ Gundl. J. /. O. 
1857, p. 230 (Cuba?) ; Gundl. J. f. 0. 1862, pp. 93, 191, 1871, 
p. 290; ISuirpe, Git. OUeoL Specim. Call. Surg. iii. p. 310 (1891). 

Bucpphala americana, Baird, B. N. Am. p. 706 (1858) ; id. Cat. N. 
Am. B. n. fi03 (1861)) ; Coep. % Sudd. N. H. Wash. Terr. p. 258 
(1860) ; Blahist. IbU, 1862, p. 10 (Brit. N. Am.) ; Rou, Canad. 
Nat., Apr. 1862 ; Verr. Pr. E»». Ingt. iii. p. 153 (1862) ; E/tiol, 
Ann. Lye. N. K vii. pp. 451-4.>1 (18l!2) ; Blakiit. Ibit, 1863, 
'- - . Lie N.r. viii, p 297 (18G6) ; ifro 




I 



0886) : Tuner, Omtr. N. Jl. Alalia, p. 134 (1886) ; yehm, Kat. 
But. CoU. in AUuko, n. 72 (1887): llidgm. Mim. N. Am. B. 
0.105(1887); Cny, A>ik,\^g»,^. KJ (Cuba?, RarbiidB); SrA"fcw, 
J./O. I891,p. 269; IIatch,B.vf .Miiiaa.a.m (16y2); MacTiay, 
Auk, IBM, p. 226. 

Hybrids. 

Clanjrulft mergifomiia, Cabut, Pr. Sort. Sae. N. JI. v. pp. 6T, 118- 
120 (1854) ( = C'laDKiiIaaiueriiuuiaxMer)iuaCLiculI&tus|. 

Fuligula aiutricana (l;xMergua cucuUatus, Xcivr^. J. y^ O. 1890, 
p 224. 

AduU male. Head and upper neck dark glossy green, tlie feathere 
on the iTOwn and nape somewliat elongiiied ; chin and throat black ; 
a roundish whilo paub on the cheeks near the base of the upper 
msndible ; lower neck, breast, and underparts white ; on iho sides 
of the vent the feathers have the basea slaty grey showing through ; 
fealhera of (ho flanks edged aboyo with Idack, the longer ones on both 
webs ; back, rump, and upper tail-coverta black ; inner scapulars 
black, the out«r ones white, longer scapulars with a white bond 
along the middle ; wings black, with a large white patch covering 
Uie central wing-coverta and the outer sccoudariea; the inner 
Mcondurics black: under wing-coTcrts greyish black; tail blackish 
grey : bill bluish black ; iridcs golden yellow ; feet orange-yellow, 
the webs dusky. Total length about IS inches, wing 8-U, tail 4, 
cnlmen 1'4, tarsus 1'45. 

Pemah. Head and upper neck bair-brown ; a dull white collar 
round the lower neck ; upper parts blackish ; mantle. scBpulors, and 
upper wing-coverta with palo greyish edges : breast greyish, with 
the edges of the feathers whitish ; lower parts white ; aides and 
tinnks dull grey, the feathers edged with white ; median wirg- 
coverts brown tipped with whitish, the greater ones white tipped 
with brown; outer secondaries whit«: the white on the wiug is 
defined by the brown band at the tip of the greater coverts ; iguills 
dusky brown ; toil dull greyish : bill brownish black, in some 
specimens the tip, except the nail, is yellow ; irides and le)>s and 
toes as in the male. Total length 17 inches, wing 7'~, culmen 1'33. 

Young injirgt plvmage resemble adult females, but are duller in 
colour ; the polo collar round the neck is much more obscure, the 
grey feathers on the breast have white margins. 

Malu in Jirtt nt'idial drefs have less white on the scapulars, the 
whit« on the hind lower neck is mottled with brown, as u altio the 
whito spot at the base of the bill. 

MnUt in tnouhitu/ jilumar/e reaomblo adult females, except that 
they retain tho while wing of the adult male. 

young in <lown are dark brown on the npper psrta, and paler 
brown on the breast and flanks, shading into while on the throat 
and into p«lo grey on the belly. 

I have not b*'cn nble to distinguish specifically the American from 
the I'aliL-arctic Uulden-oye. 



Soft. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the Arctic and Subarctio 
regione, in Europe as far south as N. Oennany, Fomerania, the 
Caucasus, Siberia; migrates aoath as far as Southern Europe, 
rare in Northern Africa, Asia Minor, Persia, N. India, China, 
and Japan; in North America breeds from Kaine and Canada north- 
ward; in winter south to Mexico and Cuba. 



o. cf ad.ak. 


Orkneys. 


H. J. Elwes, Esq. 

[P.]. ^ 

J. G. Childien, E^. 

ZnoLSoc. 


t>. ? ad. sk. 


Great Britmn. 


e. $ ad. Bt. 


No locahty. 


d. 2 ad. sk. 


Scotland. 




e-A. d S ad. et 


England. 


Hume Coll. 


<J jUT. sk. 






t,*. cJ2ad.8t. 


Norfolk, Jan. 


Baker Coll. 


I. $ ad. sk. 


Gt. Yarmouth, Jan. (G. Smith), 


Seebohm Coll. 


m,n. 6 ad. et ^ 


Wales. 


Earl of Cawdor [P.]. 








0. 2 ad. sk. 


R. Dovpy, Wales, Jan. 


Editor of 'Land and 
Water ' [P.]. 


p,q.6 2 ad-Bk. 


Carmarthen. 


Montsjni Coll. 


r. i ad. sk. 


Cauibridgi: Market, Nov. 


Salvin-Uodman Coll. 


.. rfjuv.ak. 


Pagham Harbour, March (J. 

B. Harting). 
Palestine. 


H. J. Elfres, Esq. 


t. $ iuv. sk. 
«.Vjuy.»l'. 


Dr. Merrill [P.l 




Seebohm Coll. 


». 1 id. sk. 


Lake SirikuL May (F. Sto- 
liczka). 


India Museum [P.]. 


». i juv. sk. 




Afghan Delimitation 

Conim. [P.]. 
CoL Yerbury tP.]. 


X. e juv. sk. 


Banks of Indus, Dec. 


y. 9tmm.sk. 


Ilassanpore, Dec (R. N. 


HumeColL 




47. OLAirevLi. 883 

tf*. $ ad. tk. N. Americft. Lord Ampthill [P.l 

o*. J ad. aL Nnkto, Alaska, apring {E. W. SalYin-Godman GolL 

Net§on\ 

lb*. dadaL Big Island. B. H. Roes, Esq. [P.]. 

jr*. (f ad. ak. Canada. Govemment of d- 

nadaTP.]. 
If*. (fad.aL Godbout, Canada, March (i^.^. Salvin-Godman ColL 

Comeau), 
s^.o". d $ ad. 8t Nova Scotia. Old ColL 

b • (f ad. ak. Lyons Falls, New York, April Salvin-Godman Coll. 

A, J, Dayan). 
d\ Pall. ak. Adirondacks, New York, June Salvin-Godman ColL 

(C H, Merriam), 
d\ $ ad. sk. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Jan. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

( W. Brewster). 
«"• $ ad. sk. Massachusetts, Oct. (H, W. Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Henshaw). 
'". (^ ad. sk. Illinois (J?. W.Nelson ^Jencks). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

y. $ ad. sk. Chicago, Dlinois (Nelson ^ Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Jencks). 
A", »". cJjuv.sk. Penistons Pond, Bermuda,Feb., Capt. S. G. Reid [P.]. 

Dec. 
A;",/". Skeletons. Europe. Salvin-Godman CoU. 

m". Skeleton. England. Purchased. 

n". Skeleton. England. Dr. Giinther [P.]. 

o". Skeleton. England. Purchased. 

p"-s^'. Sterna. England. M. Lefebvre [C.]. 

f'-w". Sterna. 

2. Clangnla islandica. 

Clangula, Brtss. Om. vi. p. 416, pi. xxxvii. f. 2 (1760). 

Iceland Duck, Lath. Syn. lii. 2, p. 545, n. 83 (1785). 

Anas islandica, Gm. Syst. N. i. 2, p. 541, n. 116 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. 

Om. ii. p. 871, n. 05 (1790) ; Bonn. Enc. MM. i. p. 133 (1700) ; 

VieUl. N. D. V. p. 121 (1816) ; Dum. Diet. So,. Nat. vi. pp. 376, 

878 (1817) ; Naum. rdy. DeuUchl. xii. p. 186, Taf. 317 (1842) ; 

Thtenem. liaise, ii. p. 251, tab. iii. (1827); Kriiper, Naumannia, 

1857, i. p. 40; Gieb. Thes. Om. i. p. a54 (1872). 
Anas clangula, Faber (nee Linn.), Prodr. Island, Om. p. 71, sp. 5 

(1822). 
Fuliffula islandica, Steph. Oen. ZooL xii. 2, p. 192 (1824); Schley. 

Mus. P.'B., Anseres, p. 121 (1866) ; Finschy Abh. nat. Ver. Brem. 

iii. p. 67 (1872) ; ^^6. HUt. Brit. B. iii. p. 593 (18a5). 
Clangula scapularis, Brehniy Isis, 1830, p. 999, n.ljid. Voy. Deutschl. 

p. 932 (18:31). 
Clan^rula barrovii, Sw. ^ Rich. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 456, pi. 70 

(ia31), cf. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 132; Gould, B. Fur. v. pi. 380 

(1837); Less. Conipl. de Buff., Ois. 2nded. p. 721 (183e5) ; Sw, 

An. in Menay. p. 271 (1838) : Bp. Comp. List, p. 58 (1838) ; 

^. Mon. Anat. p. 165 (18:38) ; Holhodl, Kroyer's Naturhist. 

Tidsskr. iv. p. 437 (1843) ; id. Om. Beitr. Fatrn. Griinl. (Paulsm'% 

Uebers.)ia. 66 (1846); Licht Nomencl. Av. p. 102 (1^54). 
Fuligula (Cflangula) barrovii, Nutt. Man. ii. p. 444 (1834) ; Sely9,'L. 

Faun. Bely. p. 146 (l^<42) ; Z>eyl. Om. Eur. ii. p. 446 (1849; ; 

F^er, Beite, p. 409 (1862) ; Bree, B. Eur, iv. p. 104 (186S). 



FktTpus barrowi, Heink. (len.), K. Dansk. Seltk. Natvrmd. Aflt. 

1«W, p. 103 ; id. Fatm. Groefd. p. 21, ap. 8, f. 8 (!&«). 
Fuligula clangula, var., Aud. Orn. Biogr. t. p. 105, pi. 403 (1S39) ; 

id. Sya. p. iSii (part.) (1U39); id. B. Am. vii. p. 8^ (part.; 

(1843). 



B ImiTOirii, Temm. Mm. d'Om. 2Dd ed. iv. p. 661 (1S40) ; 
" /. Jiev. CHI. p. csviii (1844) ; Pwal. J./. 0. 18.>% p. 319. 
n iBlnndicmn, E. f U. Wirbellh. Ear. pp. Imvi, *i9 (18401. 



ClHDgula ukndica, Bp. Cat. Mel. Ucc. Eur. p. 74, d. 4-^9 (1^42) ; 
G. R. Gr. Li»t B. BrU. Mm. iii. p. 145 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. 
p. 62-J, n. 3 (IS44) ; Schnb. Sgn. Av., Natatory, t. 74. IT. 90-102 
(184.5); Stlnh. J.f. 0. 18.74, p. 441 (Givanland); Bp. C'(mpt. 
Send, xliii. p. 661, n. 148 (1850) : Stinh. Jftw, 1801, p. 14 (Green- 
land, bretdinB) ; Baird, Ihis, 1867: p. 284 ; Drgt. Sf Ovrb. Om. 
E»r. ii. p. 544 (1867) ; Sound. BuU. Soc. Zoo/. Fr. ii. p. L>00 
(Vaknria!){1877); Drea. B. of Ear. y\. p. 003, pi. 441 (1878); 
Sdnl. P. X. S. 1880, p. 527 ; Bidgw. Norn. A". Am. B. a. 619 
(1881): Sah. Cat. B. Strickl. CoU. p. 5.38 (188l>); Coutt. CAei-k- 
U»t, 2nd cd. p. 116, n. 726 (1882) : B. O. U. Lint Brit. B. p. 131 
(1888); Sort/. J./. O. 1883, p. 282(Ala«k«l; Coua, S>a X. Am. 
B. 2nd ed. p. 704, n. 726 (1884) ; B., B.,l^ B. Water-B. JV. Am. 
ii p. 41 (1884); Sautid. in Yarr^s Hi»t. Brit. B. iv. p. 43« 
(ieey-86) ; Trittr. Cat. CoU. B. p. 47 (1889) ; Duboit, Favn. Vtrt. 
Bflq., Oil. ii. p. 486, pi, 265 (1892) ; A. Newt. Diet, of B. p. 3l-9 
(pt. 2, 18(13). 

Bucephfila islandica, Baird, B. N. Am. p. 796 (18.o8) ; id. Cat. N. 
Am. B. -a. 504 (1*>0) ; EUia, Ana. Lpc. Ifat. Hitt. X. F. vii. 
pp. 449-454 (1862); Boardm. Pi: Bo»t. Soc. N. H. ix. p. 129 
(Maine) (1862) ; Blalaet. Ibi», 18(13, p. 148 ; ElUot, B. A". Am. ii. 

E: ilvi. (pt. 11, 1866); Couen, Pr. En. Imt. v. p. 300 (X^w 
njtlaLd) ; l)aU 4" Bonn. Tr. Chie. Acad. i. p. 08 (Sitlta and the 
Yultonj (1869) ; G. R. Gr. Hand-Kit, iii. p. 87. n. 10698 (187H ; 
Vouft, Key, p. 290 (1873J ; id. Oeefc-fi^, n. 606 (1873) ; id. Bird* 
-".- HVsf, II. 577 (18741. 




47. 



385 



I 



wing, formed by the median win^r-coTerts, the tips of the greater 
ones, and by the Becondaries, obliquely divided by a black bttod 
formed by the base of tho greater coverts ; inner secondaries or 
tertials black with a purple gloss ; under wing-coTerts and asil- 
laries black ; feathers of the flanks broadly edged with black ; Bides 
of the romp black ; eidea of the vent and ont«r under tail-coverts 
tinged with dark gre)- ; tail dark brown-grey, with a slight gloss : 
bill dark plumbeoas; iris rich yellow; legs and toes yellow, webs 
daaky. Total length about 20 inches, wing 9-6, tail 4'5, calmeii 
1-45, tarsus 1-55. 

Female. Similar to that of C. i/laueioa, but larRcr, the grey of the 
chest broader and iiaually deeper, and the white collar narrower ; 
greater wing-coverta always (?) distinctly tipped with blackish. 
Total length 18 inches, wing S'25-8-75. 

Hab. Iceland, occasionally straying to Europe ; Northern Ame- 
rica &om Greenland to Alaska, south in winter to New Tork. 
Illinois. Utah, &c. 



a, b, c. (J ad. Iceland. 



Purchased. 



d. d ad. sk. Iceland. Prof, A- Newton [P.]. 

e. rf Ml. ek. N. America {U. H", Henthaw). Salvin-Godraftn Coll. 
/, g. cf ad. et Godbout, Canada, March, July Sairin-Godman Coll. 



pull. tik. (iV. A. (.hmeau), 

k,i,k. (J 2 ad. W. side of Rucky M 



:. (J 2 ad. W. side of Rucky Mts. J, K. Lord, Esq. [P,]- 
2 imm.sLi. 

il $ Hd. sk. Alkali Lake, W. side of Rocky J. K. Lord, Esq. [P.]. 
Hts. 

>. (f ad. sk. OrcM Island, near Vancouver I., Dr. Lyall [P.]. 

B, p. cJ $ ad. Upper Klamnth Lake, Uregon, Salrin-Godman OoU. 

ak. January (A. Forrer). 



3. Clangula albeola. 
Little Black and White Duck, Eda. Xat. RUt. B. iL pi. 100 (1747) 

(Newfoundland), 
Buffel'e Head Duck, CaUfb. Card. i. t. 96 ({J){C««>lin«) (1754) ; 

Lath. Syn. iii. 2, p. 633, n. 7fi (1785). 
Little Brown Duck, CatttA. Coral, i. t. 08 { $ ) (1754) ; Lath. Syn. 



Qnerquedula ludoviciana, Briit. Om. vi. p. 431, y\. xli. f. 1 (1760). 

Querqueduk carolinensia, Bnu. Om. vi. p. 464 (I'liO). 

Anu albeola, Linn. S. !/. i. p. 199, n. 19 ll7Gtt)jer EdiPardt) -, 



(. Enc. Mm. i. p. 167, pi. 41. f. 1 (1791) ; Wiii. Am. <Mi. 
Tiii. p. 61, pi. 62. B. 2, 3 (1814) ; FunU. N. D. v. p, 119 (1816) ; 
Xhiin. DuA. Se. Nat. vi. p. SOS (1817) ; Donotmn, Brit. B. x. 
pi. 226(1819); Leu. TV. JOrrt. p. 631 (1831); SchUg. Sea. Cnt. 
p. ciii (1844) ; Gitb. Tha. Om. i. p. 344 (1872). 
Abm buoephala, imn. S. iV. i. p. 200, n. ai (<J)(1706) [^v CattAy, 
t 96) i atn.8.N.i.2, p. 621, n. 21 (1788) ; B<mt. Ene. Mith. L 
VOL. zxm. 2 



p. 127, pi. 35. f. 2 (1790) ; Vieill. N. D. v. p. 169 (1816); Dvm. 

Diet. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 382 (1817). 
Adu rustjm, Zins. S. N. i. p. 201, n. 24(5) (1766) (tr Catetijf, 

t 08); Gm. & N. i. 2, p. 624, n. 24 (1788) ; VieiU. N. B. v. 

p. 170 (1816) ; Dum. Diet. Sc. Nat. tI. p. 398 (1817). 
Sonelle de la Louisiana, ditto la Religieuse, D'AtAent. PI. Eni. 918 

(6). 
SareeUe blanche et noire. Buff. Hia. Nat. Ow. ix. p. 284 (1783). 
Petit canard tigTo»Betete,£u^. I. e. p. 249 (tj). 
Sarcelle de la Caroline, Buff I. c. p. 286 ( 2 )- 
CUnftula albeok, Sttph. Gen. Zool. lii. 2, p. 184 (1824); Boie, Iiit, 

1826, p. 980; Sw. ^ Xic/t. Faun. Sor.-Am. ii. p. 468 (1831) ; 

Jen. Man. p. 246 (1886) (Eogland) ; Eyt. Mon. AntU. p. 164 

(1838) ; Bp. (hmp. Liit, p. 58 (1838) ; Vig. Zool. Beech. Voy. 

p. S2 (1839) ; Bv. Cat. Met. Ucc. Evr. p. 74 (1B42) ; Harll. Verz. 

Get. Mtu. p. 121 (1844) ; G. S. Gr. Uit B. Brit. Mut. iii. p. 144 

(1844) i id. Gm. B. iii. p. 692, n. 5 (1844) ; Sclinb. ^. Av., 

Nfttatores, t. 74, ff. 105-106 (1845) ; Bp. Bn. Crit. p. 106 (1850) ; 

Baird, Stansbury'i lUp. p. 324 (1852) ; Lickt. NomencL Av. p. 102 

(1854); Beivh. J. f. O. 1864, p. 442 (Greenland); Bp. Compt. 



Send, xixviii. p. 664 (Not. Call. Delattre, p. 94) (1854) ; 
Compt. Rend, iliii. p. 651, n. 149 (1856) ; Nev:b. P. B. R. 1 
Ti. p. 104 (1867) ; Cab. ^ Gundl. J. f. 0. 1867, p. 230 (Cuba) ; 



Heerm. P. S. S. Rep. x. pt vi. p. 70 (1869) ; Murr. Edinb. New 
PhU. Joum. 1869, p. 230; Brewer, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. M. vii. 
p. 308 (CuU) (1860); Seinh. Ibi», 1861, p. 14 (Greenland); 
OundL J. f. 0. 1861, p. 346 (Cuba), 1862, p. 93; Degl 
4- Qerbe, Om. Eur. ii. p. 545 (1867); Newt. P. Z. S. 1871, 
p. 67 (egg) ! Sartinff, Man. Br. Birds, p. 161 (Great Britain) 
(1872) ; Pelz. Ibit, 1873, p. 46 ; Sclal. ^ Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, 
p. 401 ; Dreit. B. of Eta-, vi. p. 569, pi. 439 (1877) ; Scl. P.Z.S. 
1880, p. 527; Ridgw. Nirni. N. Am. B. n. 621 (1881); Bran, Pr. 
U.S. Nat. Ma>.y. p. 16^ (liS-J) (Un;Ju-"La) ; Coues. Check-lift, 
727 (!882); &j/t. Cat. B. Striekl. C-U.x. ~~^ 




47. 

Bucephalti slbeola, Batrd, B. If. Am. p. 797 (1858) ; id. Cat. N. 
Am. S. a. 595 (1859) ; Chop. Ji- Sacld. N. H. Wa»h. Terr. p. 259 
(1860); Blakist. Ibi», 1862, p. 10, 1863, p. 148; Oras. Ibi», im6, 
p. 44 (Texas); Cbua. Pr. Ac. PhUad. 1866, p. 99 (ArixonB): 
-. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. p. 297 (1666) ; (haiM. JUpert. Fu.- 



I 
I 



breeding) (1869): Steo. [r.S. Geol. Sun. Terr. 1870, p. 466 

(Wyomia?); O. R. Or. Hand-Hit, n. p. 87, n. 10699 (1871); 

Aikm, Pr. Soil. Sue. it. p. 210 (CoIorBdo) (1872); C<m», 

Key. p, 290 (1872); id. CAtek-iid N. Am. B. n. 507 (1873); 

^ow.B.Eaat.^. 11 (1873); Srlat.^SatB. Nomencl. Av.Neotrap. 

p. 130(1873); Cfauea, 2).>d* JV.-JffJf.p. 677 (1874); OuwCV./. O. 

1875, p. 383 (Cuba) : Salt. P. Z. S. 1883, p. 428 (Eequiomlt). 
Fuliffula (Glauclon) albeola, Bchtm. Orn. Cfntralbi. 1882, p. &. 
Cbantonetlaalbeola, «<^.. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mui. no.29,p. 166(1885) 

(Oommaader IglaniL!) ; A. O. U. Chech-litt N. Am. B. p. 120, 

n. 153 (1886); Tunitr, Cbntr. If. H. of Aiatka, p. 134 (1886) ; 

NeUon, Nat. Hist. CoU. in,Ala»ka, p. 72 (1887) : SidfftB. Man. N. 

Am. B. p. 106 (1887); Sti^'a. Pr. n.S. Nat. Mui. ±. p. 137 (1887) 

(Commander L) ; Cory, Auk, 1888, p. 67 {Caha) ; Satci, B. of 

jVmn«. p.66(1892). 

Ailulc male. Head and upper half of the neck metallic green, 
with H porplo gloes on the crown, sidea of the neck, and throat ; a 
large patch of pure white on the sides of the head, eitendiiig from 
the eje back to the occiput ; lower neck all round, breast, and 
nnderparts pure white; back and mmp black; upper tail-covorta 
pearl-jfrt-y ; scapulnrs white, the longer ones tipped with black : 
wings black, with a large white patch covering Ihe central wing- 
coverts and the Becondariee ; marginal wing-coverts blauk, edged 
with white ; under wing-coverts blackish, more or less edged with 
white ; BJcillarieB black ; tail dark grey : bill bluish black ; irides 
dark brown ; legs and toee pinkiah, the weba and joinU darker. 
Total length about 15 iachea, wii^ 7, tail 3'5, culmen 1, tarsus 1*1. 

Female. Head and neck brown, with a alight purple glosa ; a 
white longitudinal patch on the cheeks and ear-coverts ; uppw 
parte blackish brnwn, mmp blacker; upper tail-coverts greyish; 
nnderparta white : sides, flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts dull 
greyish, alao the breast slightly tinged with grey ; apical half of 
the secondaries white, forming the speculum; the greater wing- 
coverts have subapicol white spots, and are edged with white at the 
tip ; tail brownish grey : bill dnaky, inclining to plumbeous at end 
and along commissure ; iris dark brown ; legs and toes dilute 
lilao-pink, the weba and joints darker. Total length about 12*5 
inches, wing 6, culmen 1, tarsus 1. 

Toting mala in the first autumn resemble females. 
. Bah. North America, breeding northward from Labrador to 
Alaska ; migrating south in wint«r to Mejdco ; occasionally straying 
to Cuba, Europe, and U) Asia (Commander Islands). 




e. a »d.H 

e. e ad-ak. 

f. $ Ad. ak. 

g. (J ad. sk. 
A. 6 ad. ak. 

i,1i. 69.fA.tii. 
I. $ ad. ak. 

Bl, M. P cJ jUT. 

ak. 

0. <; ad. ak. 

p. (J ad. sk. 

q,r. (J ad. et 
jnv, ak. 

1. <; ad. ak. 



N. America. 

N. America. 
N. America. 
N, America. 
VoDcouver's Island. 
Semiahmoo Bay, Vancouver I., 

North Land ExpediUoD. 

Fort Reliance, Upper Yukon, 

Oct. (E. W. NehoH). 
British Columbia. 

Eequimalt, Brit Columbia (Qtpt. 

Markham). 
Potomac B., Eequimalt IJ. J. 

Albert). 



Clark EenDedr, En. 

[CI. 
Lord Ampthill [F.]. 
Salvin-Oodman CoU. 
HJ.Elwe8,aq.[P.1. 
J. K. Lori,EM.[P.l. 
Dr. Ljall [P.]. 



(, w. (J? ad. 

at. 
V. $ ad-ak. 

w. e ad-ak. 

j^. (f ad. ak. 

y. $ ad. ak. 

«. ^ad.BL 



Little Masquaah Harlwur, New 
BrunawicE, March (S. E. 



4MhParaUeL 

Fort Dufierin, April. 

North Dakota, May. 

Big Moose Lake, New York, 
OcL (C. H. Merriam). 

Maaaachneette, Oct. {H. W. 
Hentkme). 

Gibwn, Indiana, April {W. 



J.K. Lord,Eaq.[P.]. 

SalviD-Qodman ColL 

Salvin-Godman CoU. 

Qovemment of Ca- 
nada fP.]. 
H. J. Elwes, Esq. 

[P.]. 

Old CoU. 

N. America Boundarf 

Comm. [P.]. 
N. America Boundaij 

Comm. [P.]. 
£. S. Cameron, Esq, 

[P.]. 
SalTin-Godman ColL 

Salvin.Qodman CaiL 

Salvin-Oodman ColL 




48. 



1. Harelda glacialis. 

LoDg-teiled Dock from Hudson's Bav, Edm. Birdt, iii, pi. 156 (<J) 

(1750). 
Long-tailed Duck from New-FoundJnnd, Edw. Glean, of ffat. Hut. 

ii. p. ]46, pi. 280 (<f ) (1755) ; Lath. Syn. iu. 2, p. 528, n. 72 

(i7Sa). 

Adim longicauda islandico, Bruf. Orn. vi. p. 379 (1760). 

Auns longicaudn ar Iiwula Terrie-novie, Srui, op, eit. p, 882 

(1760). 
Querquedula feiroenus, £ci«. ou. ci. p, 466, pL xL f.a ($ or ij juv.) 

(1760), 
Ana8hyemalw,L«n.S.JV. Lp. 202, n. a>{176(l)i Seop.Am.I.Bitt. 

Aat. p. 61, n. 74 (1760) ; Fadr. Faua. Granl. p. 71 (1780) ; Om. 

*•. Ji^.i. 2, p, 521", n.29(1788); Bam-Enc. Mm.i.p.l^ [1790); 

Uum. Diet. Se. Xat. vi. p. 393 (1817) ; P MinUr. Cat. Rail. Cave. 

p. E8(Bakou)(1832). 
Aqbs glaciaUs, Lirm. 8. N. i. p. 203, n. 30 (1766) ; Fortt. Xinn. Tran: 

Itii. p. 418 (1773) ; Gm. S. JV. i. 2, p. 529, n. 30 (1788) ; Lath. 

Ind. On. ii. p. 864, n. 82 (1790) ; Bonn. Erie. JUifh. i. p. 129, 

5L 37. t. 4 (1790): PalL Zocyr. Itoiio-Ai. ii. p. 276 (1811); 
fettt. Om. Diet. Suppl., dsf. pi. — . f. iii. (tntchen) (1813) ; 

WHi-Am. Om. viiL pp. 93, 96, pi. 70. £ 1 (tJ), 3 (2 ) (1814); 

r«mni.Mai(.(rOrn. p. 658(1815); FieiU. N. D. y. ^. 122 (1816); 

Dum. Diet. Se. Nat. vi. p. 386(1817); Sabintt, Tr. Liim. Soc. x^. 

p. 655, pL 30. ff. 3, 4 (tincheft) (1817) ; Temm. Man. 2nd ed. ii. 

p. 860 (1820) ; Sabine, App. to Parn/t Ut Vay. p. ecviii (1821) ; 

Liekt. Vtn. DpuAl. p. 85 (1823) ; Jtich. App. to ParryU 'ind Voy. 

p. 373 (1825) ; Bp. SpercA. Camp. p. 73, n. 269 (1827) : iess, Tr. 

•rOrtt. p. 631 (1881); Temm. Man. aOm. \\. p, 653 (1840); 

ScUeg. Ecu. CHt. p. cxrii (1844) ; JVaum. Vog. Jieutgcht. xii. 

p. 210, pi. 319 (1844) : .«hW. Sidir. Rat. ii. 2, p. 236 (18531. 
SMcellB de rial« Ferroe, IfAulxmt. PI. Enl. 999 ( ? ) (17— ?).' 
Coiiftrd de Miclon, D'Aubm/.. PL Enl. 1008 (J) (17—?). 
Canard ik lonsiie queue de Terre-neuve, Buff, Sitt Nat. Oia. ii. 

p.202(ira-i). 
AuBB Bswktt, Lfpeeh. Itiner. iii. icoo. bon« {fide PaO. Zooar. R.-A. ii. 

p. 276). 
Anas miclooia, Bod,t. TaN. Pt. Enl. p. B8, ^l 1008(1783). 
Anas bmchyrhynchos, Beteke, Veij/. Kurl. p. 60. pi, 6 (1792). 
Adbb leueowpbala, Bcehtt. TatiAmii. ii. Taf. 29 (juv.) (1803). 
Anas loogicBuda, Ltath (nee BriM.), Cai. M. ^ B. Brit. Mua. p. 37 

(1816). 
C\tuiguie,n\aciB.\\f, Leach, in Bou'e Foy.Ditcov., Afip. p.xlviii (1819); 

Flem. Phito$. of ZooL ii, p. 260 (1822) ; Boie, Uit, 1822, p, 6W, 

n, 1 ; firrAm, Voj/. De>Uichl. p. 837 (1831) ; HM. Faun. Griml. 

iPauhen'i frantl) p. 04 (1846). 
Platypus Rlncialis. Brehn, Lehrb. tot. Vo>/. ii. p. 840 (1824) ; Faber, 

Imi, 1826, p. 323; ScJiHUnff, J. f. O. 1853, p, 378. 
Platypus (uberi, Brehm, op. cit. p. 1001 (1824) ; Faber. UU, 1826, 

Mareld* (tlacialig, Slvph. Oen. Zool. i 
Ste. S[ Rich. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. p. ' 
(1835) ; Est. Cat. Brit. B. p. 50 (18; 

(1837) j ^t. Man. Anal. pp. 66, 162. pi. 14 (skeleton and trachea) 
(leaSji Bp. Cbmp. Xirf, p. 69 (1838); K. ^ B. Wirbelth. Ew. 



.. 2, p. 175, pi. 58 (1 
50 (18.31) ; Jen. Man. i 
■ ; aouid.B.Eur.\ 



pp. Izxzvii, S29 (1840) ; Bp. Cat. Met. Vcc. Bur. p. 74 (1842) ; 
Sara. Yen. Get. Mu». p. 121 (1B44); O. R. Gr. Lut B. BrU. 
Mut.m.'p. 145(1844); id ^ni. £.m. p.622 (1844) ; ifcAni.fbn. 
Av., Nfttatorea, t. 76. ff. 112-115 (1846); Blyth, Cat. B. JBiw. 
A. S. B. p. 307 (1849); Schnb. Av. StfU. Nat. p. Tiii (1962); 
lacKt. Nommcl. Av. p. 103 (1864) ; Bp. Compt. Rend, zliii. p. 661, 
n. 146 (1866) ; Neicb. P. R. R. Rfp. vi. p. 104 (1867) ; Bmrd, B. 
S. Am.y. 800 (1868) ; id. Cat. K. Am. B. n. 697 (1869) ; Murr. 
Bdinb. JV. jaa. Joum. 1869, p. aSO (Hudson's Bay) ; Coop. * 
Sueki. JV. H. Waih. Terr. p. 281 (1860) ; Reinh. IbU, 1801, p. 14 
(Greenland) ; Mou, Canad. Natw. Apr. 1862 (Mackenzie) ; Vrrr. 
Pr. Eu. Inst. iii. p. 163 (1862) ; Boardm. Pr. Boat. Soc. ix. p. 139 
(1862) ; G. E. Or. List Brit. B. p. 203 (1863) ; Blakitt. Ibia, 
1863, p. 149 (Brit. N. Am.) ; Smnh. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 824 ; 
Malmgr. (Efe. K. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1863, p. 108, 1864, p. 389 ; 
id. J. f. O. 1863, p. 379 (Spitebergen) ; A. Nemt. Ibis, 1865, 
p. 516 (SpitabeiKBn) ; Laipr. Ann. Lye. JV. F. riii. p. 297 
(1866) ; Whittly, Ibis, 1867, p. 208 (Hakodadi) ; Degl. ^ Otrbe, 
Om. Eur. \\. p. 549 (1867) ; Ows, Pr. Eu. Inst. t. p. i08 
(1868) ! Broim, Ibis, 1868, p. 426 (Vancouver) ; Dro^e, J.f. O. 
1868, p. 43 (Borkum), 1869, p. 347 (Faroe); Eyl. 8m. Anat. 
p. 121 (1869); Dall^Rann. Tr. Ckic. Aead. i. p. 298 (1869); 
aUUU, Ml, 1870, p. 309 (Nova-Zenilia) ; Gould, B. Great Brit. 
T. pi. 33 (1870) ; Sainh. P. Z. 8. 1871, p. 419 (Takoo) ; G. R. Gr. 
Hand-lilt, iii. p. 87, n. 10701 (1871) ; Hevgl. J.f.0. 1871, pp. 89,92, 
106 (SpiWbergen) ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 63 ; FiTUch, AbA. Brtm. Ver. 
iu. p. 67 (1872) ; Set^L J. /. 0. 1872, p. 122 (NoTBJa Semlja and 
WigBtoch) ; Frittch, J. /. 0. 1872, p. 371 ; Couei, Efy, p. 291 
(1872) ; id. ChedUia, n. 608 (1873) ; Finsdi, Die Zweite deutieie 
yordpolarfa/irt, ii. Vogel, p. 208 (1873) ; Dali, Avif. Aleut. Isl. 
Unal. eas/.V!. p. 6 (1873) ; ii. Avif. AUut. Isl. Unal. welt. p. 7 
(1874); fiajw. Ann. Lye. JV. Y. x. p. 390 (Lake Michigan) 
(1874) i Couei, B. N.-Weit, p. 679 (1874) ; id. ia EUiott't Af. 
Alaska. \\ 191 (1875) : Dreu. li. Eur. vi. p. 617, pU. 443 ( £ & 
jur.), 444 (J ad.) (1875); Heeb. ^ Harvie Brown, Ibis, 1876 




Sharp', Cat- Otteol. Sptcim. Coil. Surg. ni. p. 807 (1801) ; (^Sm'f. 
Zooloff. 1892, p. 100 (Suffolk); Dub. Fa»n. Vert, lielg., Oa. ii. 

8 489. pi. 2«7 (180i>) ; Peari. Jj- £id». Ibii, \mk, p. I'Sa (N. 
«rwav); CoiUlt, Mindrt Mcdd. vedr. Norgu FugUf. 1881-S2, 
p. i-ii (IS94). 
Auas (Kalipiik) gUciftlia, Bp. Ohi. Nomenel WHi. n. 275 (IffiS), 
Fuiijiiiln gluLirJis, Up. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hut. JV. I'ork, ii. p. 396 
(182^1) ; id. Im, 1832, p. 1190 ; Savi, Ont. Tok. iii. p. 140 (I&11) : 
Idmt. On. Diet, find ed. ii. p. 51B, t. c, p. SIS (trachea] (1831) ; 
Aud.Om.BioQT.\v.v.im,f[.i\l%0SSB); ta.fljfli. p.296(1839) ; 
id. B. Am. ti. p. 379, pL dlO (1843) ; Seh/»-L. Faun. B^. i. 

L148 (18i2) : De Kay, V. Y. Zool. ii. p. 328 (1844) ; Oiraud, B. 
ng Id. p. 337 (1844); Degl. Om. Eur. H p. 447 (1844); 

WaUengr. Naumannia, irf54, p, 275; SchUg. MiM.P.-B., Anseroa. 

p, 23 (1866) : David. N. Arth. du Mui., Bull. vii. Qit. n. 458 

(1871) ; Palm^, J./. O. 1876, p. 59 (Flnliud) : Brandt, J./. 0. 

1880, p. 240 (Si. Petersburg) ; Sfrb. Sitt. Brit. B. iii. p. 5B8, 

pi. 66 (1835) : id. Ibii, 1888, p. 351 (U&kaff Isl.) ; id. B. Jap. 

Sinp. p. 252 (N. Japan) (1890); Brandt, J. f. O. 1891, p. 369 

(Sitka). 
Fuligula (Clan^la) glacialin, Bp. Syn. p. 395 (1828). 
Pagonettii Rlaci^lifl, Kmp, Natiirl. Syit. p. 66 (1829). 
Cl&DffulH bieitinlis, Brehm, Iiin, 1830, p. 099, u. I ; id. Vog. DmiscU. 

p. 033 (1821). 
ClaD)iula faberi, Brehm. Iii*, 1830, p. 099, n. 2; id. Viig. DndteM. 

p. 935 (Oreenlund) (1831). 
ClMgulft toegauios, Brtkm, Itia, 1830, p. 990, n. 3 ; id. Viig. Dadicht. 

p. 036 (1831). 
CUngula miwicR, BreAm, Im, 1830, p. 900, o, 4 ; id. lUg. DeattM. 

p.i&37(1831). 
Clnngnlft bnKhjThvnchos. Brthtn, leit, 1830, p. 000, n. 6 ; iJ. Fog. 

Deutteia.p.93a\l831). 
FuliKula (Hareldn) glacialia, y'utt. Man. ii 

Mini. Ac. St. PtUrib. (tf) Sc. Nat. Vi. 1 

Om. Cmtralbl. 1882, p. 17 ; id. T'dg. tool. Oart. p. 47 (1882). 
Hnraldn glacinlis, Eou, App. to Narr. of a »ee. Voy.,Nat. Bitl, p. xl 

(1835) ; &P. Cbut. B. ii. p. 369 (1837). 
CTUooDMsa glocinlia, MargiU. Man. Brit. B. ii. p. 186 (1842). 
Harclda hiemalis, BreAm, Vogelf. p. 386 (1855) ; id. Naumannia, 

1865, p. 299. 
H*relda faberi, Brehm, Vogelf. p. 386 (1865) ; id. Naumannia, 1855, 

p. 299. 
Hweldft brachyrliynchos, Brthm, Vogelf. p, 386 (1855) ; id. JVaw- 

maania, 18^5, p. 290. 
Horelda meffacerus, Brehm, Vogelf. p. 387 (1856) ; id. Naunuinnia, 

1856, p. 200. 
Harelda musica, Brehm, II. cc. (1865), 

Anaa (Hnrclda) Klacialis, Radde, Sei». S. O.-Sibir. ii. p. 374 (1SG3), 
iifloai:ttaglac\alif,Sundev.MetA.nat.Aj>.disp. Tail.p. 140 (1872); 

Move), J.f. O. 1875. pp. 433, 434. 
GlaucioD byeuialis, ISeixrU. J.f. O. 1875, p. 185. 
Hwelda hTerofiliB, Slejn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus. t. p. 38 (1882) ; B., B., 

* S. Water-Birdt N. Am. ii. p. 67 (1884) ; Tumrr, Auk, 1886, 

p. 158 ; 6/yn. Bull. U.S. Nat. .Vw. no. 29, p. 160 (1886). 
CbuiRuln bj-euialis, ^. O, U. CAeck^tl N. Am. B. p. 120, n. 154 

(1886); Turner, Omtr. Nat. Hitt. of Alaska, p. 134 (1886); 

Nebmt, Nat Hist. Coll. m AUuka, p. 72 (1887) ; RtdgiD. Man. N. 



B. p. 106 (1887) ; atejn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mm. x, p. 137 (1887) 
in^IOi Hatch, S. of Minnei. y. 67 ('"~" 



Am.i 

(BerinK , , , , . . 

Fuligula hyemalis, ScAmo. Sgtl. Ven. Viig. JkutKhl p. 67 (1869) j 

id. J. f. O. 1890, pp. 83, 84 ; Mackay, Auk, 1802, pp. S3&-3S7. 
ClM^ula (Harelda) hyemidis, SarUrt, Kat. Vogeteamml. p. 233 

Advit male in viinter and tpring nuptitd drett. Head and neck 
-white ; forehead and sides of the head pale eooty grey ; on each 
tdde of the neck an oral patch, dark brown on the upper part, paler 
brown on the lower part ; mantle, back, rump, and median upper 
tail-coTorta, breast and winga dark brown, almost black ; rest of 
the lower parts, scapulars, and sides of the upper tail-coverts white ; 
aides and flanks with a slight grey tinge ; secondaries paler brown 
than the rest of the wing ; under win^-coverta brown-black \ central 
tail-feathers very long and pointed, black, the next feathers blackish 
brown edged with white, the white increases towards the outer 
feathers, which are entirely white : nail and basat half of the bill 
blackish lead-colour, the intermediate part pale pinkish orange : 
irides reddish brown ; legs and feet lead-blue, witJi the weba and 
joints blackish. Total length about 22 inches, wing 9, tail 3-5, 
central rectrices from 7 to 8, culmen 1-15, tarsus 1-2.5. 

FtmaU. Forehead, crown, and back of the neck dark brown; 
lores, region behind the eyes, throat, and a ring ronnd the neck 
greyish white ; rest of the npper parts dark brown, with pale olive- 
brown margins to the feathers of the rump, to the scapulars, wing- 
ooverts, and outer web of secondaries ; jugulum brown, changing 
into white on the lower parts ; tail greyish brown, with the edges 
of the feathers whitish ; the centr^ feathers are not elongated. 
Total length about 16 inches. 

Towng in firtl plumage resemble adult females, hut the brown 
parts are psler and the white ones less white. 




Btukal. in Northern 
American coatinent 
Northern Statee and 

a. <f ad.8k. 

b, c. cf ad. St 
d. Jnv. Bt. 

#. <f ad. St 
/, S juT. A. 

j). cf ad.Bk. 

A. (f ad. Ht 

il S juT. ale. 

k.^ad.tk. 
I. a ad. sk. 
m. $ ad. bIi. 



Japan, and occasionally 
it migrates in winter a 
thu Great Lakes. 

No locality. 
Great Britain. 
Great Britain. 



in China; on the 
Ear Bouth as the 



P. Meyer, Esq, [P.]. 
"■ " "rej Egerton 



Sir P. Grey I 

[P.l. 
Old CoTi. 
H. J. Elwes, Esq. [P.]. 



Orkneys. 

Orkneys, winter {T. H. 

Graemsny, Orkney, Sept. Hargitt ColL 

{T.H. Dunn). 
Shetland, n inter. 



Scotland, Oct. 



p. 2 imm. sk, 
q. d ad. ek. 
r. cf ad. ak. 



Edinburgh Market. 
WbUb, Norfoik. Jan. 
yamwutii, NorfoUf, Jan. 

{Ovmi). 
DevoDHhire. 
Norway, June (H. *). 
Norwav, July. 
Bodo, Norway, May. 
Alexievka, Petchora, June 

(H. «.). 
Petchora, June [H. S.). 
Valley of the Yen-e-say, R 

Siberia, let. 89'', July 

(ff. S.). 
. Schlschutechja, July. 



Theodore Fisher gEsq. 
[P.]. 

R. fi. Sbarpe, EHq. 

Tweeddale Coll. 



Monta^ ColL 
Seebobm Coll. 
Salvio-Godraan Coll 
Sal\in-Godiuao Coll. 
Seebohm ColL 



y. rf ad. sk. 

*, a', (f £ ad. ak. 

b'. d ad. ak. 

e'. $ ad. sk 

If, e'. tf ad. sk. 

/.Sad. St 
g', k'. i ad.* et imm, 
ak. 

f,k'. d ad. et djnv. ak 
v. m'. d $ ad. ak. 
»'. SjUT.sk. 



Yezo, Japan. 

Hnkodadi, Japan, Jan., 

Feb. {makuton). 
Hakodadi, Japan, March 

{Hettfim). 
HeJiodadi, Japan, Jao. 

[H. WhUelii). 
N. America (H. W. Hen- 

W. side of Rocky Mta. 
N. America (Dr. Li/aU). 



[, N.W. America. 
Point Barrow, Ju 
Kotsebue. 

. St. Michael's, Alaska, June, 
Auv., and Oct (E. W. 

NrUon). 



Dr. O. Finsch \G.\ 
Kenneth Loftua, Esq. 

[P.]. 
Tweeddale ColL 
Seebohm ColL 

Seebohm Coll. 

Tweeddale Coll. 

Salrin-Godman Coll. 

J. K. Lord, Effl. \?.\ 
Lord Ampthill [P.]. 

Capt. ColLnson [P.], 
Salvin-Oodman Con. 
CBptKellett& Lieut. 

Wood. 
Saliin-Godman Coll. 



y', i", S ad. Bk. 

a''. (J ad. at. 
b". {} ad. ak. 
e". e "d- <*. 
d". c; ad. ak. 
«",/". (J 2 ad. ak. 

o". PuU. ak. 
A", t". cT ? ad. ak. 
k". $ ad. ak. 
r, m". d ad. ak. 
■'. rf ad. ak. 



Stevart'a la., Alaska, June, 
Sept. {E. W. Ntbm). 

Northern Ezpeditioii. 

Vancouver Island. 

VanconveT Island. 

Repulse Baj. 

Lat. 82° 26' 22", Sept. 
(Feilden). 

BellotIsland,AaK.(J^«>AJn)). 

SiscoTery Bav, June. 

Safety CoTt, Sept 

Greenland. 



SalTin-Qodman ColL 



SalTin^Oodman () ^ 
J. K. Lord, Eaq. [P.]. 
Dr. J. Eae [P * 
Voy. H.M.8. 



'Alert* 



o", p", j". cf $! ad. sk. Nova Scotia. 
r",«", c'. d id. et Labrador. 

,^^ J ad air 



Bar of Fundy, Marcli (Zf. 

E. Dretier). 
Putnam lUTcr (O. M. 

Stowy). 
Branbord,Connecticut,I>ec. 

{A. J. Dayan). 
: NewIIaven, Connecticut, 

Nov. (C. H. Merriam ^ 

A. J. Dayan). 
Lake Umbago^, Maine, Oct. 

(W. Brewtter). 
Lyon's Falls, New York 

{,A. J. Damn). 
Bridgewater,Massachueett8, 

Nov. ( W. Brewater). 
Massscbusetts, winter. 
Chicago, niinoifl (JJ. W. 

Menfkain) , 



Voy.H.M.S. 'Alert' 

J. Hart, Esq. [C.l. 

Old CoU. 

Hume ColL 

J. Hart Esq. fCl. 

Old Coll. 

Seebohm Coll. 

Salvin-Qodman ColL 

Salviil-Oadniaa C<dL 

Salvin-Qodman ColL 

SalTiD-Godmnn ColL 

Salrin-Godman ColL 
Salvin-Oodmaa ColL 
Salvin-Oodman ColL 




1. Cosmonetta hiatrioiiica. 
Harlequin Duck. 
Dueky and Spotted Duck, Edw. Nat. Hut. £. ii. pi. 99 ( J) (1746) 

(Newfouadland). 
Little Brown and White Duck, £tf«-. op. ctt. iii. pi. 167 f 5 ) (1750). 
Ana-i torquata ex Insula Tetre-novie, Briit. Om. ti. p. 362 (1760) 

{ex Edieards) ; Gerini, Star, dtyli Uce. v. tav. 580 (1776). 
Querqueduta Freti Uudsonis, Brm. r^. cti. \i. p. 400 (1760) (&r 

Sditar/h, -p]. 157). 
Anas histriouicB, Linn. S. N. i. p. 204, a. 35 (g) (176(!); Font. 

Linn. Tram. btii. pp. 383, 41» (1772); Gm. H. JV. i. 2, p. 534, 

n. 35 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 8Jfl, n. 4S (17aO) ; Bonn. 

Enc.mth. 1. P.I46, pi. 36. f. 2 ((J), pi. 31t. f . 2 (2) (1790); 

Pall. Zoogr. SotiihM. ii. p. 273 (IHll); WiU. Am. Om. viii. 

p. 139, pL. 72. f. 4 (1814) ; Temm. Man. tCOm. p. 678 (1815) ; 

rieiTl. a: D. t. p. Ill (1816) i Bum. Diet. Sc. tfat. ri. p. 381 

(1817); Temm. Man. 2nd ed. ii. p. ftl78 (1820); LicAt. Fen. 

DouiU. p. 85 (Iceland) (1823); iew. Tr.iTOm. p, 631 (1831); 

Temm. Man. 2ad ed. it. p. 549 ( 1840) ; Naum. t'dt/. DrutKhl. xij. 

p. 199, Taf. 318 (1844) ; &^hley. Ser. Crit. p. cxix (1844) ; Tetmn. ^ 

SeMeg. Fatm. Jap., Ai'^, pp. 129, 141 (I860J ; Jfiddrnd. SAir. 

JReU. iL 2, p. 237 (1853) ; Kriip^, Nauuutnnia, 1857, 3, p. 1 

(leel&ad); Kiia. Z)e7i£u>. iL p. 347 (1858); Sidnh. P. Z. 8. 1863, 

p. 324 : Gir-A. The«. Om. i. p. 354 (1872) ; van Kanptn, Bull. Soc. 

Zool. Fr. 1889, p. 106 (Dunkerque !). 
Anas rainuta, Linn. S. A', i. u. 201, ii. 36 ( 5 ) (1760) ; Gm. S. N. i. 

2, p. 534, n. 36 (1788); Vieill. N. D. v. pp. 1<H», 170 (1816); 

Bum. Diet. Sc. Nat. vi. pp. 385, 398 (1817). 
Canard A collier de Torre-neuve, ITAubent. PI. Enl. 793 (rf), 799 

( 2 ) (17— :-) : Bug-. Hiit. Nat. Git. ix. p. 250 (1783). 
Swcelle hruno el blanche, Buf. op. dt. p. 287 (17d3). 
Arlequin Duck, Penu. Aret. Zool. ii. p. 5li0, o. 490 (1785) ; Lath. 

Syn. iii. 2, p. 484, n, 37 (1785). 
CUnffula histrionica, FUm. Phil, of Zool. li. p. 260 (1822) ; Bine, 

hit, 1822, p. 564; Slepk. Oe». Zool. iii. 2, p. 180, pi. 67 (1824) ; 

Flem. Brit. Anim. p. 120 (1828) [ Sib. ^ Suih. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. 

p. 459 (1631) ; Jen. Man. Brit. VerC. An. p. 243 (1835) ; R,t. Cat. 

Brit. B. p. 69 (1836); iJ. Hi*t. Bai-er BrU. B. p. 84 (1836); 

Omld, B. Eur. v. pi. 380 (1837) ; Bp. Comp. Li>l, p. 58 (1838) ; 

&f. Mon. Anal. p. 163 (sjn. emend.), pi. lu. a. 1 (akeleton) 

(1838) ; MacgiU. M<m. ii. p. 184 (1842) ; G. B. Gr. Li»t B. Bnt. 

Mtu. iii. p. 146 (1844); if2. Gen. B. iii. p. 622, n. 4 (1844); 

JfcAnA. S^. Av., Natalores, t. 74. ff. 107-111, 885 (1846) ; Beinh. 

J.f. O. 1854, p. 442 (Greenland); Lieht. Nomend. Av. p. 103 

(1854) ; Bp. Compt. Bend. ii*riii. p. 664 (Notet VoU. Delattm, 

p. 94) (1854); lUirJ,. Ibis, 1861, p. 14 (Greenland); WkUelu, 

Ibii, 1867, p. 208 (Hakodadi) ; Dyb. ^ Parr. J.f. O. 1808, p. 339 

(Dauria); Wright, Ibi,, I860, p. 264 (Malta!); Hnrtiag, P. Z. S. 

1871, p. 119 (N. Coast ai Greenland); Gorrod, P. Z. S. 1875, 

p. 154 (trachea) ; Stoinh. Ibia, 1876, p. 335 (KamUcliatka), 1877, 

p. 147 (Japan); Garrod,P. Z. S.\%l&,'O.A'ie {Xietichea) ; Blakitt. 
■ 5- Pryer, Ibii, 1878, p. 215; Seeb. Ibu, 1879, p. 22; BlakUt. * 

Pryer, Tr. At. Sor. Jap. viii. p. 186 (1880), x. i>.99 (1882) ; Sartl. 

J.f O. 1883. p. 283 (Alaska) ; Triar. Cat. OU.B. p. 47 (1889); 

Duboii, Faun. Vert. Bdg., Oi*. ii. p. 488, pi. a66 (1892). 



Pl&typiu miDutiu, Brehm, Ldarb. ear. VSg. \\. p. 84S (1824). 
HatTpus huUioniciu, Brekm, I. c. p. 848 (1624). 

la (Ftiligula) hiBtrionica, Bp. 06t. Nomend: Will. n. 377 (18S5). 



Fiiligula biBtrionica, Bp. Ann. Ltfc. If. T. ii. p. 394 (1626) ; id. Su». 
p. 894 (18281 ; id. Iiis, 1832, p. 1190 ; Aud. Om. Biogr. iti. p. 613 
hSSfi), T. p. 617 (1839) ; id. Syn. p. 304 (1839) ; Selyg-L. Fawt. 
Bdg. p. 147 (1842) ; Aud. B. Amer. vi. p. 374, pi. 409 (1843) ; 
De Kay, N. Y. Zool. ii. p. 331 (1844) ; Giraud, B. Long I,L p. 339 
(1844) ; Deal. Om. Eur. ii. p. 451 (1849) ; l&:lat. P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 618 (Hnkodadi) ; Sehleg. Mus. P.-B., Anseree, p. 22 (1866) ; 
lV3no.iW<«<;A.t/MW.n. 308 (1867); Palmtn,J.f. O. 1876, p. 68 
(PFiDland); &e6. Ifiu, 1883, p. 384 (Archangel) ; id. Hitt.BriL 
B. iii. p. 594, pi. 65 (egg) (1885) ; id. B. Japan. Emp. p. 258 
(1890); BeknJB. J. f. O. 1890, p. 84; Brandt, J. f. O. 1891, 
p. 2l<9. 

Anas (IlutrioDicus) hialrionica, Lei». Man. d'Om. ii. p. 416 (1828). 

Gofimoneaw histrionica, Kaup, Natiirl. Si/tt. p. 46 (1829). 

CoBmoQetta hietrionica, Kaup, Natiirt. Syit. p. 190 (1829) ; Sundeti. 
Metk. nat. Av. ditp. Tent. p. 149 (1872) ; Dreti. B. of Mir. vL 
pp. 609, 613 (1877) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 627; Salv. Cat. B. 
Striekl Coll. p. 538 (1882) ; B. O. U. Litt Brit. B. p. 132 (1883) ; 
Sound, in Yarrelit Hitt. BriL B. iv. p. 4fi3 (1884-85) ; TWvt, 
Zo-Oog. 1887, p. 70; Saand. P. Z. S. 1887, p. 319 (Fame Isl.) ; 
Gu/l. 4- Salvad. ibid. p. 591 (Olga Bay) ; Salvad. ^ Gigl. Mem. R. 
Ae. Se. Tor. (3) sxiii. pp. 119 (Cores), 131 (JKpau) (1888) ; Sawtd. 
Ibii, 1881, p. 184 (Switzerland). 

FuliguU (Clangnlii] hietrionica, Nuti. Man. Om, U.S. and Canada, 
u. p. 448 (1834). 

HaMlda Mitrionica, K. * B. WirbfltA. Ettr. pp. Uxivii, 330 (1840) : 
Bp. Oil. Met. Uec. Eur. p. 74 (1842) ; Finseh, Abh. Bran. Ver. 
iii. p. 67 (Alaska) (1872); Taa:. J!/. 0. 1873, p.llO, ie74,p.337, 
1875, p. 267 (Ussuri) ; id. Om. Faun. Volt. S3>ir. p. 71 (1877) ; 
id. BhU. Soc. Zool. JV. ii. p. 47 (1877) ; id. J.f. O. 1878, p. 4SS 
(lloleteia) ; id. Bull. Soc. Zoul. Fr. viii. p. B44 (KamtscbatliB) 
(1883). 




49. COSHONETTA, 



iyc. N. y. viii. p. -jaT (18W)) ; Sroicii, IbU, 18«8, p. 426 (Van- 
couver I.) ; Tuntb. B. R Pa. p. 40 (1808) ; Doll ^ Bann. Tr. 
Okie. Ac. 1869, p. :!»8 {Yukon, breeding) ; Geuld, B. af Great 



Srit. V. pi. 32 (1869) ; Cvuet, &^ N. Am. B. p. 291 (1872) ; id. 
(Aeck-lut.a. 610 (ISTB) ; Ball, Avif. Aleut, lit. Vnal. mistw. p. 5 
(1873); Jlidffio. Atm. Lye. N. ¥. z. p. 300 (Lake Michi^] 



I 



H whitish 



(1874)i CbuM, B. N.-WeA, p. 578 (1874); id. in EUiot/^g 

Aloik. Affairs, p. 191 (1875) ; Dreii. B. of Eur. vi. pi. 442 

(18":) ; «.««, BuU. GtiA. * Gcogr. Sun. W. n. 3, p. 653 (Dakota & 

Mont»n«) [isral; J'rt.'ott, Monoyr. Sfai-I»l. p. 130 (1881). 
BistrioalciiB torquatue, a. minutft, Sp. Cotnpt. Rettd. xliii. p. 651 

(IBoU), 
Anas (llutelda) histrionica, Sehrmick, Rfit. Amuri. i. p. 483 (1660) ; 

Saddr, Reii. 8. O.-SUnr. ii. p. 374 (1863) (Biuk&l). 
Buceplialn (Ilintriouicus) histrioaica, G. R. Gr. Hand-titt, iii, p. 67, 

n. 10700(1871). 
HialrioDicuB niiiiutua, Drea. B. of Eur. m. p. 613 (1877) ; Ctmet, 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, y. p. 101 (1880); Ridj/a. Nam. N. Am. B. 

n. am (1881) ; Couee, Chrck-ttst, 2ad ed. p. 115, d. 730 (1683) ; 

Steamt, Pr. U.S. Ifal. Mu». 1883, p. li» (Ubrador) ; jtfemom. 

Bull. NiOt. Orn. Ctah, viii. p. 220 (1883) (Newfoundland) ; 

Heltim, Crime ' Condn,' p. 98 (1883) ; B., B., ^ R. Walei-B. N. 

Am. ii. p. 52 (1884) ; Coa^n, Ky N. Am. B. '2uA ed. p. 707 

(1884); Nehrl. J.f. 0. 1885. p. 147 (lUinoi*). 
Bucephala hialrionica. Bolau, J.f O. 1880, p. 132 (Afikoid), 1886, 

p. 46. 
Fuligula (Cosmoncttn) liistriontca, Rch-niB. Orn. Centratbl. 1882. 

p. 5; id. Fog. cool. Gart. p. 47 (1882). 
Adalt male. General pluraage oF a bluish riate or plumbeous 
ooloar, almost black on the neck, rump, upper and under tidl- 
oorerts ; from the base of the culmeu over the crown to the occiput 
K black band, margined anteriorly with white, posteriorly with 
oheatnut on each Hide ; at the base of the bill a broad patoh of 
irhite ; a spot on the ear-coverts and a band on the aides of the 
neck white ; round the lower part of the neck a white collar, 
margined with black, incomplete anteriorly ; on the sides of the 
breast a crescentic white baud, margined with black anteriorly and 
posteriorly ; a white baud along the middle of the scapulars ; abdo- 
men greyish brown; Hanks chestnut; a white spot just at the base 
of the under taU-0OTert«, on each side ; wings dark slaty grey ; 
seoondaries dark metallic blue, forming the speculum ; the inner 
Moondaries broadly white, margined with black on the outer web ; 
a wbttu subupioal baud at the tip of the greater wing-coverts, and 
a few hidden while round spots on the anterior median wing- 
coverts ; under wing-coverta and axillnries dusky grey; tail slaty 
black : bill deep leud-blue, the nail lighter; iris dark brown ; legs 
brown, the webs blackish. Total length about I7'5u inches, wing 8, 
toil 4'5, culmen 1-2, tarsus 1*35. 

Female. Upper parts dark brown, with an olivaceous tinge; a 
whitish patch in front and below the eyes : another on the ear- 



corerts; vings and tail blackisli; underparta brown, bat the ftdgen 
of the feathera whitish, prodaoiDg a mottled appearance ; lower 
flanks brown-olive; under tail-coverts with a rusty tinge. Total 
length about 13'5 inches, wing 6-75, tail 3-5, onlmen 1, tarsus 1*2. 

Toung mala are slightly darker than female on the upper parts. 

Mala in Jirit n-aptial drat are mottled with white on the chla 
and throat, the belly is suffused with brown, and there is scarcely 
any chestnut on the flanks, and the white on the scapulars is very 
restricted. 

Mala in numlting drat resemble the females, but show a lai^ 
whitish pat«h on the anterior part of the sides of the head, extended 
even under the eyes ; there are traces of the chestnut bands on the 
sides of the crown posteriorly; some black feathers among the 
brown of the neck, a narrow white band on the sides of the nape ; 
a few white feathera edged with black on the aides of the breast 
(Mut. Turin). 

Toung in down have the upper parts dark brown ; underparta 
white, but the brown extending slightly on the breast and fianhs, 
a pair of white spots on the sides of the rump, and a second pair 
on the wings ; a whitish spot above and anteriorly to the eyes ; 
throat white, abruptly defined firom the brown upper half of the 
head. 

Hob. Iceland, accidentally in Europe ; Northern North America, 
south in winter to the Uiddle States and California ; North-eastern 
Asia, south in wint«r to Japan ; west of Lake Baikal ; is reported to 
breed in the Ural. 

Furehaaed. 
H. J. Elwes, Esq. 
[P.]. 
^, «. (^ $ ad. sk. Amoorland {Dr. Middm- Seebohm Coa 




^^^^^^^^^^^^p 


399 ^H 


^^M «'- cf jUT. sk. Lickenasset, Greenland 


Hatgitt Coll. ^^1 


Hume ColL ^^| 


^M f. 9 nd. «k. Labrfldor. 


Gould Coll. ^H 


^H g\ cf uL sk. Labrador. 


Seebohm Coll. ^H 


^H A', .-. d 2 ad. *. Bay of Fundy, Nov. (IT. £. 


Salvin-Godman ColL ^H 


^H &'. ^ ad. Bk. Hudson's Ba;. 


Hudson Bay Com- ^^| 


^H r, Jiiv. Bk. Chief Mountiun Lake, Aug. 


panv [P.I. ^H 
\sl E: (^ou^b [C.l ^H 
N.America Boundary ^^H 


^H m'. 9 ad. sk. 4»ch ParaUel. 


^1 n', •>'. (J £ nd. sk. Godbout, Canada, April, May 


Comm. [P-l ^H 
SalTin-Oodman ColL ^H 


^H (N. A. Conuau). 




^M «'. S ad. ak. Ciuitula. 


Govt, of Canada [P.]. ^H 
Salvin-Qodman Coll ^H 


jH^ q\ ? 2 ad. ak. Maine, Feb. {if. Hardy). 

IE f', »'. if ad. et cf Hancock Co., Maine, Jan., Feb. 


Solvin-Oodman ColL ^^1 


jiiT.ek. (M.mrd„). 




t. Skeleton. GreeoJand. 


M. MtillerrC.]. ^H 
M. I^febWe [6.]. ^H 


■If «', V. Sterna. Europe. 


to'. Trachea with larynx. 


^H 


50. (EDEHIA. 


_ .Type. ^1 
1 . . (E. mgm. ^^H 


Oidemia, Fleming, Phil, of Zool. ii. p. 260 (1832 


Melanitta, Soio, I«s, 1822, p. 584 


... (E. niDTn. ^^H 


Ania, Leaeh m Mat. Brit., fide SUph. Gen. Zool. ^^M 


xiL 3, p, 312 (1824). 






^H 


(1828) .....^.. .*.. 


... (E. fuscaP ^H 


HacroTbaropbus (eubgun.), Leu. op. dl. p. 


414 H 


(1828) 


... (E. perspicdlata. ^H 


CEdemia, Strick Ann. S( Mag. N. if. vii. p. 

(1841). 




1 


^H 


p, 149 (1872) (nomen emend. =Melamlta). 


^H 


Bange. Confined to Northern Hemisphere. 


^H 




and 0. pert^Uala) iu New England " (Auk, viit. pp. 279-290, ^H 


1891). Tnmbull, G., " Our Seotera " (Auk, is. 


pp. 153-160, 1892). ^m 


Mnckay. Q. H.. •' The Spring Migration of the Scoters in 1892 " ^H 


(I. e. pp. 292-294). 


^H 


Reij to the Speekt. 


^^k 


a. Length of commissure much less than inner 


^^H 


loe without claw ; bill of adult male much 




■wollen on top at base ; wing without white 




tpeculum ((Edeuia). 
<!■. Nail of bill much flattened, scarcely hooked 






at tip. Adult tnalf. Bill black, with a 




yellow or oranjre spot or band on culmen 
U) front of the basal knob, or even extended 


^^^^H 


along the middle of it AdaU femaU : 


1 



400 AltATIDX. 

Above aooij blown, beouth palar ; bill 
wboUy duekj, the boeal half of tbu culmen 
level, or Bcarcelv if at all elevated at ba«e . Mtfpra, p. 401. 
A*. Nail of tdll less natteued, Bumewb&t BTcbed, 
and hooked at tip. Adall male : Basal 
half of upper mandible, including -whole 
knob, yellow or oTsn^fe ; r«Bt, including 
entire edge, black. Aduit female : Above 
dutkj greyish biown, the feathers of dorsal 
region with paler tipH ; bill uniform 

blackish amerkaria, p. 4 

b. Length of commissure much more than length 

of mner toe without claw, 

o*. Feathering of bead advancing farther forward 

on lores than on forehead ; wing with a 

white speculum (Melanetta). 

c". Loml feathers separated from nostril by 

a space nearly or quite equal to length of 

nostril. Adult mate : Lower part of 

swollen basal portion of upper mandible 

OD udes unfeathered ; basal portion of 

culmen elevated, but not forming an 

abrupt knob; plumage black,iilso on the 

flanks. Adutl female: Sooty greyish, or 

dudcy gtevish brown, darker above ; no 

white on need fi^ca, p. 400. 

~". Loral feathering separated &om nostrils 

' y a space much narrower than length 

f nostril. Male with swollen lateral 

_aseof upper mandible entirely feathered. 

(f". Lateral outlines of bill convex ; knob 

of the male with anterior outline 

sloping backwards; plumage black, 

but flanks olive-brown deglandi, p. 40! 

'. Lateral outlinesof bill nearly 



S; 




1. (Edemia nigra. 

Whilk, iMter, PhU. Trans, nv. p. 1160, n. 4 (1685). 

Anas nigra, Briu. Om. vi. p. 420, pi. jtiiviii. f. 2 (1760). 

Anna niCTB, Linn. S. N. i. p. 196, n. 7 (1766) i Gm. $. N. i. 2, p. 608, 
n. 7 (1786); Lath. Ind. O™. ii. p. 848, n. 43(1700); Bonn. Enc. 
MHJx. i. p. 130. pi. 85. f. 4 (1790); Tfmm. Man. p. 664 (1815) ; Lrack, 
Cat. M. 4- B. Brit. Mas. p. 39 (1816) ; VieiS. N. D. v, p, 123 
(1816) J Oum. Biel. Se. Nat. vi. p. 347 (1817) ; Tetnm. Man. 2nd 
ed. ii. p. 866 (1820) : Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 86 (18^3) ; Bp. Speech. 
Comp. p. 72, n. 22» (1827) ; Leu. Man. itOm. ii. p. 414 (1828) ; 
id. tr. JOrn, p. 630, n. 25 (part.) (1S31) ; Temm. Man. 2nd ed. 
iv. p. 543 (part,) (1840) ; Ekhta. Famt. Ca^no-Otuc. p. 43 (1841): 
SAltg. Bee. Crit. p. ciTii (JSi4); Ifmtm. rUg. Deutscht. wi. 
p. 108, Tftf. 312 (1844) ; Middend. S&ir. Ret*, il p. 236 (Bnga- 
nidn) (1863); Martin, J.f. 0. 18$3, p. 208: ffii*. Thn. Om. i. 
p. 358 (1872). 

F Alma cinereo, i 

Gem. Nat. Deutichl. ii. p. 660, no. I6 (1791). 

Hadi Diver or Scoter, Pimn. Bril. ZooL ii. p. 684, n. 273 (1776) ; 
Lath. Syn. iii. 2. p. 480, n, 36 (1786). 

Macrause, D'Aubrnt. PI. Enl. 978 { tf ) (17— ?) ; Buff. Hitt. Nat. Oil. 
is. p. 234. pi. 16 (1783). 

WeiBsbockenente, Naum. Nalurff. d. Land- u. Wruterv. iii. p. 374, 
t.70. fl'. 91 (2),92((JjuT.K1799>; Bfehtt. Taiehfnb. u. p. 445 
(Anm.) (1803), iv. p. 5»0 (1812). 

Anas cineniscens, Sechtt. Om. TascAfnb. ii. p, 437 (1803) ; id. 
Naturg. Drultehi. iv. p. 1026 (1809) ; Temm. Man. iTOm. p. 6S5 
(1815) ; rieiU. N. D. v. p, Ufi (1816) ; id. Em. Mitk. i. p. 358, 
D. 107 (1826) (rf. Naum. Vby. Deutechl. xii. p. 108, 1844). 

Anas atra. Patt. Zoogr. Souo-At. ii. p. 247 (1811) (Caapian). 

Oidemia nij^o, Flem. Phil, of Zaoi. ii. p. 260 (1822) ; Steph. Oen. 
Zool. Iii. 3, p. 213 (1824) ; JV«n. BrU. An. p. 119 (1S28) ; Sw. 
CUiu. B. ii. p. 368 (1887) ; Goh«, B. Eur. t. pi. 378 (1837); Bp. 
Cwnp. Zirf.p, 58, n. 421(1838); R^B. Wir6elth.Eii.-.m.ixsiyi, 
228 (1840) ; Uartl. Verz. Oa. Mm. p. 120 (1844) ; G. R. Or. Luit 
B. Brit. Mat. iii. p. 140 (1844) ; Id. Oen. B. iii. p. 625, n. 1 
(1844); Rcha. San. Av., Natatorea, t 81. ff. 141-144 (1846); 
Bli/th, Cat. B. Mta. A. 8. B. p. 307, n. 1792 (1849) ; Boll-, J.f. O. 
IS-'ifi, p. 315 (Spain); Bp. Compt. Read, xliii. p. 651, a. 131 
(1856) ; Loehe. Oat. Mamm. et Oii. Afyir. p. 143 (1858) ; Povi/*, 
Ibis, 1860, p. 3'>4 (Ionian IbI.) ; Gould, B. of Grtat Brit. v. pi. 28 
(pL II, 1862); Nnrdm. J.f. O. 1864, p. 378 (FinlaDd and Up- 
land); De-jl. S( Gerhe, Om. Eur. ii p. S60 (1867;; G. R. Or. 
Hand-lut, iii. p. 89, n. 10710 (1871) ; Salead. Faun, d'llal, Use. 
p. 269 (1872) ; FriUrh, J.f. O. 1872, p. 372 (Bohemia) ; Bogdan. 
aHiigeth. u. Vdg. der m. u. unl. Wolga (Rum.), p. 151; K/id(U, 
Omit Caucai. p. 459 (1884) (Caspian ¥) ; Dub. linm. Vert. Belg., 
Oit. ii. p. 500, pi. 270 (1893) ; CoUett, Nut Mag.f. Naiura. xxxv. 
p. 294 (1894). 

Helanitta nigra, Bote. Iai», 1822, p. 664, n. 396 ; Brehm, Ima, 1830, 
p. 998, D. 4; la. Vog. lieuUckl. p, 903 (1831); Egt. Mm. Anat. 
p. 146, pi. 12. f. 1 (oemiphaKUS, proventriculua, stomach, and 
trachea), r. 2 (c»ca) (1838); ^.i^.Anat.f. 102(1869). 

Flatvpns niger, Brehm. Lekrh. Nalurg. eur. Vog. p. 820 (1824) ; 
'■'-"- ^ ' " ""=% p. 377 1 Bikk, J.f. O. 1854, p, 309. 



liger, Brel 
, J.f. 0. 11 



Fnligula nigra, part, Bp. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hut. N. Y. ii. p. 880 
(1826); &r.",f>m. Toitciii. p. 127(1831); P A««. Jtton. ii. p.42S 
(Coast of United SUtea) (1834) ; Begl Om. Ear. ii. p. 470(1849) ; 
Brandt, yordl. Ural, etc. ii. -p. 71 (KaraSea) (1866); &A6y.3rw. 
P.-S., Anseres, p, 18 (IStW); Palmitt, J./. O. 1876, p. 57 
{Finland} ; Seeb. Hilt. Brit. B. iii. p. 602, pt OS (egg) (1886) : 
Brandt, J./. O. 1880, p. 249 (St Petersburg). 

Uelaoitta Qigripes, Brehm, liu, 1630, p. 998, n. 1 ; tJ. Fog. DeuttcH. 
p. 901 (1831). 

Uelanitta megauroa, Brekm, Ita, 1830, p. 998, n. 2; id. Fog. 
DniUda. p. 902 (1831). 

Melmiitta gibbers, Srtkm, Isis, 1830, p. 098, □. 3 ; id. Vbg. DaatdU. 
p. 902 (1831). 

<Edemia nigra, Bp. Cat. Mel. Uec. Eur. p. 73, n. 448 (1842); 
Xirft. Nommci. Av. p. 103 (1854) ; Brehm, Vogetf. p. 383 {18.56) ; 
More, Ibi», 1805, p. M5 (breeding in Scotland) ; Godm. Ibit. Ie66, 
p, 102 (Azores ■[*); Ztrogi*, J!/. O. 1866, p. 390 (Borkum) ; Triilr. 
xbit, 1868, p. 328 (Paleatine ?) ; Smith, ibid. p. 456 (Portugal); 
Gadm. Nat. Hid. Azora, p. 37 (1870) ; ?GiUdt, Ibis, 1870, p. 308 
(Novaya Zemlya P) ; Elw. \ Buckl. Aid. p. 340 (Albsnia) ; Saund. 
Ibit, I87I, p. 397 (S. Spain); Hetu/l. Ibii, 18T2, p. 64 (Nova 
Zranlia and Wajgatsch) ; id. J.f. 0. 187a, p. 123 ; Sujidfo. Meth. 
nat. Av. digp. Tent. p. 149 (1872) ; AUt. ^ H.-Brtmm, Ibit, 1873, 
p. 71 ; Irby, Om. Sir. Oibr. p. 206 (1876) ; Serf. ^ H.-Broum, 
IbJi, 1876, p. 447 (Lower PetAora) ; Bbmf. East. Pert. ii. p. 303 
(1876) ; Drets. B. of Ew. vi, p. 663, pL 449 (1877) ; Finsch, Ibit, 
1877, pp 68,69,61; Seeb. Ibis. 1879, p. 160 (Siberia); J"inic*, 
Vtrh. z.-b. Ga. Wien, 1879, p. 153 (W. Siberia) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 
1880, p. 628; G^l. Ibis, 1881, p. 215 (Italy); Sclat. P. Z. S. 
1882, p. 184 (P) ; Seeb. Ibis, 1882, p. 229 (Astrakhan) ; Sate. Cat. 
B. StridcL Coll. p. 540 (part.) (1882); Seeb. Ibis, 1883, p. 35 
(Caspian P) i Irby, ibid. p. 189 f Santander) ; B. O. V. Hal Brit. 
£. p. 136 (18S3); &/n(. iMf I W(. ^n. Htb .il. p. 441 (1883); 
'■■ I. IbU, 1884, p. 70 (Ouadalquivir) ; ? Tristr. Frnai. if Flor. 
>. lie (1884) ; B., B.. i R. Water-B. N. Am. i 




Adult female. Entire plumage velvety black, with u dark purplo 
glosK OD bead and neck aad a ^eeniah one on the back ; nuderparts 
rather duller, with a brownish tinge ; biU black, except a yellow 
patch on the culmen round the noatrilfi, the base Bwollen into a 
roundish bulb ; iris dark brown : legs and £eet brownish black, 
darkest on the webs. Total lengti about 20 inches, wing 9'5, tail 
6% culmen 19, tardus lo. 

naU. Dark brown, paler below, the feathers with lighter 
edges : sides of the head and of the upper part of the neck and throat 
dull grey, with a brownish tinge ; bill without the bulb at the base, 
only slightly swollen towards thu base of Iho upper mandible, dull 
black in colour. 

Ttmng. Resembles the female, but it is duller and rather more 
nniform in colour, and much more white on the abdomen. 

A ;/otiny male resembles the female, but lias many black feathers. 

SlaltB in moulting-dress nrs unknown. 

Tomu/ in down are unspotted dark brown on the upper parts and 
■cross the breast; throat white ; belly greyish brown ; bill blackish 
jilumbeous ; legs olivaceous. 

tfa6. Northern parts of the Paleearctic Region, cast to the Taimyr 
Peninsula ; winters in the Baltic and on the coasts of W»eteni 
Europe, occasionally straying aa far aonth as the Azores and the 
Mediterranean. 



$ ad. St. 

1 dad.ak. 

5 juT. flk, 

dad. 8k. 



(ireat Britain, 
r^ndon Market, Feb. 
Aberdeenshire ( W. C. 

Ai^iu). 
Otuthness, June. 

Holkham Bay, Norfolk, 



Somenetshire, 

Somersetehire. 

KintTEbury Reservoir. 
Cambridge Market, Feb., 

Nov, 
Devonshire, Jan. 
Fowey, Cornwall, Aug. 
Southampton Water, Jan. 
Ih-thp, Ni>v. 
Tiingier. 

Tangier (Olcem). 
Tunis. 
Archangel. 

Tetchora, 



Purchased. 

Seebohm Coll. 

H. J. Elwes, Esq. [P.]. 

Colonel Irby Koi Cspt, 

Beid [P.]. 
Capt. Feilden [P,], 

H. J. Elwes, ] 

Bev. A. Morgan [P.]. 
Hon. W. C. Fit«- 

maorice[P.]. 
Montagu Coll. 



io^Si 



i 



E. Reynolds, Esq. [P.' 
Dr. Giinther [P.]. 
R. E. Colea, Esq. [P. 
H. J. Elwea, Esq. " 

F. J, Favier, Esq. 
Shelley Coll. 
L. Fraserf C], 
R. B. Sharpe, 

[P.]. 
Seebohm Coll. 
2d2 



ASATIDA. 



!, a'. (J juT. et Fetchora River. Colonel Feildoi [P.l 

pull.Bk. 

V. c-. 2 aa. et Schtochnlaclij*, W. Si- Dr. 0. FiiiBch [C.]. 

pull. ME. beria, July. 



2. (Edemia americana. 

Anu nisra, WiU. (nee Linn.) Amrr. Om. viii. p^ 135, pi. 73 (1814) ; 
Bp. Spteck. Comp. p, 72, n. 249 (1827); Ttmm. Man. rfOm. 
2nd Bd. IT. p. 643 (purt., Japan) (1840). 

Ansa (FuligiJa) nigra, Bp. Oi*. Nomencl. WiU. n. 267 (1826). 

FulifiTila nigra, part., Bp. Aim. Lye. Nat. Hut. N. Y. ii. p. 390 
(1826) i id. Syn. p. 390 (1828). 

Petite MacreuBe,i:<M. Tr. d'Om. p. 630, n. 26 (1831) (Newfound- 
land) ; Pucker. See. et Mag. de Zool. 1860, p. 6»5 (=<£. ameri- 
cana) ; Hartt. J./. O. 1856, p. 420. 

Oidemia americana, Sa. ^ Bich. Faun. Bor.-Am. ii. p. 4oO (1831); 
Bp. Camp. Lint, p. 68, n. 386 (1838) ; G. B. Gr. Liit B. Brit. 
Mut. iii. p. 140 (1844); id. Gen. B. iii. p. 626, n, 2 (1844); 
Behrd). Syn. At., NatatoreB, t. 81. f. 140 (1846) ; Bp. Compt. Rend. 
xixviii. p. 664 (Not. CoU. Delattre, p. 944) (1654) ; id. Compt. 
Rend. xBi. p. 061 , n. 132 (1856) ; Nejd,. P. R. R. Bep. vi. p. 1(M 
(1867) ; Baird, B. N. Am. p. 807 (1868) ; id. Cat. N. Am. B. 
n. 604 (1869) ; Murr. Edinb. N. Phil. Joum. 1859, p. 231 ; Coop. 
^ Suckl N. B. Wash. Terr. p. 203 (1860) ; Verr. A. £m. Intr. 
iii. p. 169(1862): Blakiit, Ibis, 1863, p. 149 (Hudson's Bar); 
Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. p. 297 (1866) ; Degl ^ Oerbe, fti. 



2 (obaerv.) (1867) ; Ball ^ Batm. Tr. Chic. Ac. Se. i- 
p^ 300 (1869) ; G. R. Gr. Hand-Uit, iii. p. 89, n. 10711 (1871) ; 
Too. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. viii. p. 344 (Eamtschatka) (1683); 
Ndtrl J.f. O. 1886, p. 148 (lUiiiois) ; Stem. BuU. U.S. Nat. Miu. 
no. 29, p. 174 (Commander IbI.) (1886) ; Turner, Cbntr. N. H. of 
Alaxkn, p. 137 ( 188(i) ; A. O. U. Check4i»t N. Am. B. p. 133, 
I. lOa (1886) ; Jrrfyio. Mm. N. Am. B. p. Ill, n. 163(1887): 




50. (EDEKU. 405 



Ibig, 1873, p. 367 (Aleutian Iri.) ; DaU, Am/. AleuL Id. Phai 
easta. p. 6 (1873) ; Cou-ji, B. N.- Wt*t, p. 581 ( 1874) i Dreu. B. of 
Eur. ¥1. p, 687 (1877) i Blakid. ^ Pryer, lint, 1878, p. 216 
(Japan); Adanu, ibid. p. 433 (Micholaski) ; Sttb. Ibi», 1879, 
p. 23 (Hakodate) ; BUikitt. ^ Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap. riii, p. 187 
(ISSO); Selal. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 529; Ridow. Norn. If. Am. B. 
0.030(1881); G>ue», OtecMitt, 2od ed. p. 116, n. 737(1882); 
BhiUl. * Pryer, Tr. Ai. Soe. Jap. x. p. 100 (1882) (Kurile Isi, 
breeding) ; SUarm. Pr. U.S. Nat. Miu. 1883, p. 121 (Labrador) j 
Nfb^, Cruae • Cbnom,' p. 102 (1883) ; BiafcU. Amend. Litt B. 
Jap. p. 9 (1884) : B., B., ^ R. Water-B. N. Am. ii. p. 89 (1884) ; 
Couf», Key N. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 713, n. 737 (1884) ; Savnd. 
TarreiTt Silt. BrU. B. iv. p. 474 (1884-86); Tamtr, Atik, 1885, 
p. 158 (Nearer lal, Alaska) ; Mattehie * Ziemer, J. f. 0. 1885, 
p. 192 ; Salvad. ^ Oigi. Mem. R. Ac. Se. Tor. (2) uuix. p. 131 
(^Yamada, Japan) (1888) ; Trialr. Cat. CoU. B. p. 47 (1888). 

(Edemia nigra, part., Swinh. P. Z. S. 1883, p. 324 (Japan) ; Sak. 
Cat. B. Strickl. Coll. p. 540 (™ecim. a, PennBylvania) (1882). 

[CKdemUl minor, Leu. tide G. R. Or. Hand-list, iii, p. 89 (in mm. 
0.ainericanai)(1871). 

Anas wiUoni, GiA. Thes. Orn. i. p. 365 (1672). 

Uixlemia nigra, vnr, ameriuaoa, Rldgw. Anm. Lye. y. T. s. p. 390 
(1874) (Lake Mjcbigau) ; Dub. Faun. Vert. Belg., Oi». ii. p. fiOO 
(1892). 

Fo^gula ((Edamift) americana, RcAmo. Om. Ctnlralbl. 1882, p. 17. 

FuliguJa nigra americana, Sab. Jlisl. Brit. B. iu. p. 602 (1885). 

Similar to (E, niijra, but nail of bill distinctly arched and deddedly 
liookod at the tip. 

Adult malt. Similar to the male of (E. nipnif but basal half of 
iqtper maudible, including whole of kuob, " light yellow or canary- 
jeUow, riolily dyed at the sides with scarlet vermilion, deeply at 
and near the uostrils, and lightly towards the base ; irides deep 
brown ; feet dark brown, shaded with black, webs black" (TVum- 
hdt). Total length 17-21-50 inches, wing 8-75-9-50, culmen 
1-65-1-80, tarsus 1-65-2-OU. 

Female. Above dusky greyish brown ; the feathers of the back 
with paler tips ; lower parts paler greyish brown, the lighter tips 
Itroader bat wunting on the posterior portions ; lateral and under- 
parta of head nearly uniform light greyish browri, in decided 
contrast with dark brown of pileum and nape (Au^wai/) : "bill 
llhuik or blackish, irregularly marked with yellow; feet warm olive- 
lirown, shaded with black on the inner aide ; webs black" (T'rum- 
Jufl). 

Youiui in aatninn. Eesembles the fetoalo, but light part of head 
considerably lighter ; throat, pale buff or dull whitish ; lower surface 
of the body very pale, approaching whitish, and faintly spotted 
with the brown or greyish brown of the fore breast and posterior 
legion ; bill greyish black {Trumball). 

Young in down. Apparently indistinguishable from the same 
tage of (E. nigra. 

Bah. North America and North-eastern Asia ; in America 
"breeding in the north, in winter migrating south to New Jersey, the 



Great LakM, and CalifomiB ; in Asia breeding in the Eoriles, in 
winter sonth to Japan. 

a~4. d $ ad. et N. America. HudsoD's Bay Co. 

inun, ak. et«L [P.]. 

*. <J ad. ak. Eepulae Bay. Dr. J. Rae [P.J. 

^. <f ad. ak. Nova Scotia. Capt. Blakiaton rP.]. 

0, A, 1. <; $ ad. Lvon'H Fall^, New York, Sept. Salvin-Oodman CoIL 
A. iA. J. Dmatt). 

k. (} juT. ak. Biauford, Connectieut, Nor. Salriu-Godnian Coll. 
(A. J. Dayan). 

1. Jut. ak. Chicago, niinoia (S. W. Sen- Salvin-Godnian Coll. 

m-v. cf $ ad., St. Michael's, Alaska, June, SalTin-Godman CoU. 

juv.,et pull. ak. Aug., Sept.,Oct.(£. W. Jfelum). 
v>,x. cf $ ad. ^ Aleutian Ib. ( Vomtseiukt/). Seebohm CoU. 

y, (. (f ad. sk. Hokodadi, Jaran, Feb., March Seebohm CoIL 

(Henton ^ Bidkuton). 
a', b'. J $ ad. ak. Yokohama, Japan (IT. Pryer). Seebohm CoU. 

3. (Edemia fusca. 
Velvet Scoter. 

Anaa nigra major, Britt. Orn. vi. p. 423 (1760). 
Anaa fusca, Lxnn. S. N. i. p. 196, n. 6 (1766) ; Gm. 8. N. i. 3, p. 507, 

n. e (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 848, q. 44 (1790) ; Bonn. Bne. 

JIfflA. i.p. 140, pi. 36. f. lC(J),pl 31. f. 4 (2) (1790); Lath. TV. 

Lmn. Soe. iv. p. 119, t. xt. S. 3-7 (tnchea) (1798) ; Tenm. Man. 

(fOrn. p.d62(1616); VieiU. N. D. n. f. 124(1816); Dum. Diet. 

Sc. Nat. Ti. p. 348 (1817) ; Temm. Man, d'Om. 2nd ed. ii. p. 854 

(1820) ; Bp. ^toch. Comp. p. 72, d. 228 (1827) ; Leal. Man. kOrn. 

ii. p. 414 (1828) ; Ym-r. Tr. Linn. Soc. ivi. 2, p. 321, pL xxi. fi. 2, S 

(trachea) (1830); Len. Tr. d'Om. p. 630(1831); Temm. Man. 

<rOni.iv.p.64;)(1840); &vt;w.£fG. 6Vit.p.cxTii(1844); Naum. 




50. (EDEUA. 



407 



Lid B. BrU. Mm. iii. p. 141 (part) (1844); id. Otn. B. iii. 
p. 623, n. S (1644) ; Rchob. ^/«. Av., Natatores, t. 81. 
ff. 137-139 (184S); id. Av. Svit. Nat. p. viii, t. riii. (1852); 
BolU, J./. O. 1855, p. 315 (Spain) ; Sclat. P. Z. S. 1660, p. 442 
(Zoiil. Gard.) ; Nordm. J. f. O. 11564, p. 378 (Finland uid Lap- 
Uud) ; Satead. J.f. 0. 1866, p. 326 (Slirdinia) ; Df /H. Viaffi/io 
in Pn-i. p. ai2 (1865) (Lake Gotbaha) ; Gould, B. Great Brit. 
T. pi, 29 (1867); Degl. $ Gerbr, Oni. £w. u. p. 562 (1867); 
CW&«, Horff. Fagk. p. 67 (1868) ; Miilla; J.f. O. 1869, p. 347 
(Furoe) ; DroiU, Vogtlvi. Sorkum'i, p. 309 (1869) ; Coltett, Om. 
Bemarkn. 1%1\, p, 217; Mew, (Efi>. K. f'ft.-Ak. FSrh. 1871, 
p. 783 (ArchftngBl) ; Salead. Faun, d'ltal., Ucc. p. 369 (1872) ; 
Fi-UtcA, J.f. O. 1872, p. 372 (Bohemifi); Fi»eher, J.f. O. 1873, 
p. 890 (St. Petoreburg); ffmgl. On. If.O.-A/r. ii. 2, p. 1347 
(1873); DeFii.J.f.0. 1876, p. 189 (Lake Gotksha); Beinh. Fid. 
Med. Xat. For. Kjobuni. 1879-80, p. 7 (3. Oreeoland) ; Sadde, 
Omig Caaeoi. p. 459 (1884); Haiiert, Eat. ViigeUammL p. 233 
(1891); CiUett, Mindre Medd. vedr. Norge» FigUf. 1881-92, 



Melimitta fiuca, Boie, Int. 1822, p. 584, n. 3 
Iti». 1830, p. 998 ; i^. Viig. DeuUehl. p. ' 



,1826,p.980iJr«Ani, 
U, p. 998 ; \d. fog. DeuUehl p. 905 (1831) ; F^t. Mm. 

Anat. p. 147 (part.), pi. i. f. 2 (trachea) (ia?8) ; id. Syn. Anal. 

p. 104(1869); G. R. Gr.JIand-iia, iii. p. 89, n. 10714(1871); 

Oarrod, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 164 (trachea), 1878, p. 479. 
Platypus fuacufl, BreAm, Lehrb. Naturg. eitr. Vag. ii. p. 822 (1834) ; 

Schilling, J.f. 0. 1863, p. 378 ; Si:hia, J.f. 0. 1861, p. 239. 
Fuligula fiucB, port., Bp. Ann. Luc. N. 1^ ii. p. 390 (183C) ; id. 

^n. p. 300 (part.) (1828); Savi, Om. Tote. iii. p. 128 (1831); 

Bp. Im, 1832, p. U88 (part., Italy); Degl. Om. Eur. ii. p. 472 

(1849) ; Suhleg. Mia. P.-B., Aoietes, p. 16 (part.) (1866) j Senerts. 

Turkeit. JeBotn. -p. 70 (1870); Palmin, J.f. 0. 1876, p. 68 (Fin- 
land) ; Brandt, J. f. O. 1880, _p. 249 (St. Petersbuin) ; Seeb. 

Bid. Brit. B. iii. p. 60G{part.), pr.65 (egg) (1885) ; id. B. Japan. 

Emp. p. 250 (part.), %. p. 2-51 (head) (1890). 
Melamtta homschuchii. Brehm, his, 1830, p. 998, n. 1 ; id. Vog. 

/tntfi'M. p. 904(1831). 
Uelaoiita megapus, Brehm, his, 1830, p. 998, n. 3 ; id. Fog. DeuUehl. 

p. 906 (1831), 
Melanitu pUtyrhynchos, Brehm, Itit, 1830, p. 998, n. 4 j «. VSg. 

Deut-M. p,'e07 (1831). 
UelnnetM (uses, Bp. lam. Amf. Ital., Uce. Introd.p. 17(1841); id. 

Compt. Send, iliii. p. 661, n. 129 (1856); LocAe. Cat. M. et O. 

Algir. p, 143 (1868) ; B., B., ^ R. WaUr-B. N. Am. U. pp. 93, 

97 (pan.) (1884). 
(Edamia fusca, Bp. Cat. Met. Uee. Eur. p. 73, n. 447 (1842) ; Jtapp. 

Sgtt. Ueberi.jp. 138, n. 600 (1845) (EWpt); Rep. Caune. Z. R. 

1863. p. 16 (Zool. Card.) ; Ucht. Nomend. Ae. p, 103 (1851) ; 

Botif, J.f. O. 1855, p. 315 {Spain); Htugl. mtt. Ueb. p. 07 

(1856) ; Droite, J.f. 0. 1866, p. 391 (Borkum) ; ? Toffl. J. f. O. 

i870,p.3l2(Daun»); Ooebel, J.f. O. 1871, p. 25 (N. RuBsla) ; 

Hfffl. Ibis, 1872, p. 64; id. J.f. O. 1872, p. 123 (Noraja Semlis 

u. WigalMh) : Shell. B. of Egypt, p. 202 (1872) : Ai<t. * M.-Brown. 

JAM, 1873, p. 71 : Brooke, ibid. p. 345 (Sardinia) ; Dattf. ^ 

H.-Brown, Ibii, 1875, p. 428 (TtanBylvania) ; Dreu. Ibi*. 1876, 

p^ 420; Seeb. * S.-Broum, Ibii, 1876, p, 448 (Lower Petchora) ; 

Btmf. Batt. Pen. iL p. 303 (1876) ; Dresf. B. of Eur. \i. p. 657, 



pL 448 (1877) ; Tiiuch, IbtM, 1877, pp. 58, 50, 61 ; id. rerh. =.-6. 

Oet. Wien, 1879, p. 153 (W. Siberia) ; Setb. IbU, 1880, p. 194 

{ Yen-e-Mi) ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 529 ; Gigl. Ibi», 1881, p. 216 

(Jtftl;); Sah. Cat. B. StricM. Coll. p. 540 (1682)1 StA. Ibit, 

1882, p. 229 (ABtrakan), 18^3, p. 189 (Caspian P) j Irby, ibid. 

p. 189 (Saataoder) ; R O. U. Lit! Brit. B. p. 136 (1863) ; Sound. 

m rairetr» Hi»t. Brit. B. iv. p. 476 (1684-85) ; Salted. El. Uee. 

Ital. p. 267 (1886) ; Trittr. Cat. CoU. B. p. 47 (1889) ; BchKK. 

J.f. O. 1800, pp. 83, 84 ; Skarpe, Oat. Otteol. Spftam. R. C. S. 

u[. p. 308 (laSl); LUford, Cot. Fig. Brit. B. pt nil pL — 

(1892). 
CEdemia hornechuchii, Brehm, VogeU. p. 388 (1865) j id. Aoumannia, 

1856, p. 299. 
<Edpmia ineirapiui, Brehm, Vogelf. p. 383 (1866) ; id. A'aumanma, 

1866, p. 299. 
<Edemia plamhjDcbos, Brehm, Vogelf. p. 384 (1865) ; id. Nau- 

mamia, 1865, p. 299. 
FuliRula (<Edeii]ia) fueca, Jtchnm. Orn. CaUraibl. 1882, p. 17 ; id 

Voff. tool. Gdrt. p. 48 (1883). 
Melanonetta fusca, Heine ^ Bcinio. Nomend. Mu». Ilein. Orn. p. 349 

(1890). 

Hybrid. 

(EdamiB fiiscaxClanguU Klaucion, Leverk. J. f. O. 1890, pp. 222, 
223. 

Adtdt malt. Geoeral plumage uniform Telvet-btack ; eyelids 
and a small patch under each eje white ; BecoDdarieB and tipe 
of the greater wing-coTerta white, forming a conspicuous band 
acroea the wing ! beak pale orange, baaed and edged with black, a 
diagonal line of the same black colour running from each noetril to 
the uail of the beak ; iridea chalk-white ; legs and toes dull orimson- 
red, mcmbraneB nearlj' binds. Totiil length 22 inches, wing ll-2(i. 




n. (J ad. Bk. 
*. cf juv. 8t 
c,d,e. (Jaietjuv. 

/,S. d ad. St. 

A. Juv. at 

i. PuU. Hk. 

F*. $ ad. sk. 

P J Hd. .^. 

Pk Skeleton. 

' n, o,p. Sterna 'with 

snouldeivgirdlBs. 
g. Trachea with 

larjM. 



Orkaeys. H. J. Elwes, Esq 

Great Britain. Piirchaaed. 

St. Audraws, Fifeahire, Tweeddale Coll, 
Jan. (-fi. G. W. R.). 



Abbeville, Franc«. 
Volga. 
SchlachutachjajW. Siberia, 

July. 
?N. America. 



Purchased. 

M. BaiUon [C.]. 

Gould Coll. 

I>r. O. Finsch [C,]. 

Hudson's Bsj Co. 

Zool. Soc. 

M. Lefebrre'fl ColL 



4. (Edemia deg^landi. 



i.p. 137, pi. 73 (1814) ; 



Anas fusca. Wilt, (jtrc Linn.) Am. Orn. 

Bp. Speah. Comp. p. 72, n. 348 (1827); Leu. Tr. d'Om. p. 

(part.) (1831) : Gieb. The*. Orn. i. p. 352 (part.) (1872). 
Anas (Fuligula) fiisca, Bp. Obi. Nomencl. Wilton, u. 266 ( 
Fuligula fuaea, port., Bp. Ann. Ijye. N. Y. ii. p. 300(1826; 

5^. p. 390 (1828); id. Ina, 1832, p. llf" 

Biogr. iii. p. 4&4, pi. 247 (1836) ; id. Syn. 

Am. vi. p. 332, pi. 401 (1843) ; IhKuv, 

). 328 (18«) ( Wied, J. /. O. 



. . '^ 
i (part) ; Aud. Orn. 
, pi. 247 (1836) ; Mf. *>», p. 2!SI (1839); id. B. 
. yi. o. 332, pi. 401 (1843) ; IhKuv, JV. F. Zool. ii. p. 337 
(1844); Gir. B. Long hi. p. 328 (l&M); Wi, 
p. 178 i Sehlfg. Mm. P.-S., Anseres, p. 17 (port.) (1866). 
LHdeoia fiisca, Sw. ijr Sich. (nee ' " - " - ■ " 
(1831) ; Bp. Comp. Litt, p. 57, i 

i! 617 (1972). 

Fuligula (Oidemia) fusca. JVutt. Man. ii. p. 419 (1834). 
Melaoitta fusca. part., Ei/t. Man. Anai. p. 147 (1838). 
Fuligula bimaculaia, Herbert, Field Sportt, 2nd ed. ii. p. 366, with 

fig- (immature) (^1848). 
Double Macreuse d'Ani^riqne, Degl. Orn. Eur. ii. p. 474 (1849). 
Oidemia deglandi, Bp. Rn\ Crit. p. 108 (1850); id. Compl. Bend. 

niviii. p. 604 (AW. CoO. DdaUre, p. 94) (part.) (1854) ; Df^l. 

5- Gerbe. Oiti. Eur. ii. p. 8C3 (1867) ; A. O. U. Ckech-liit N. An. 

B. p. 124, n. im (1886) ; flirfjro. Man. JV. Am. B. p. 112 (1887) ; 

Mackag, Auk, ISOl, p. 27a ; TntmbuU. Auk, 1892. pp. 157-160; 

Mackay, ibid. p. 305; Hatch. B. of Minna, f. 70 (1892). 
Wdemia velvetino, Ca*r. Pr. Acad. PIdlad, v, p. 126 (Doc. 1850) 

{Atl. roast uf N. Am.). 
Melanetta deirlondi, Bp. Compl. Bend, xliii. p. ^51, n. 130 (1866). 
Melanetta velvetias, Baird, B. N. Am. p. 806 (1858) ; id. Cat. N. 

Am. B. n 601 (1859) ; Coop. * Sucki. X H. Wash. Terr, p, 269 

(1860) ; Wheat. Ohio Agrie. Ra>. do. 268 (18W) (Uke Erie) 
" ■ ■ ■^hiiaJ. 18"* — - - - -- 



I, iV. Acad. Phila. 



t, Oanad. Nalur. i 



(1862); Fm-. />.£».. /nrf. iii. p. 153(1862); Boardm. Pr.Bott. 
Sao. U. p. 130 (1802) ; Blakid. Ibis, 1863, p. 149 (part., Brit. N. 
America); Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. p. 297 (1866) ; Brovnt, 
Ibit, 1868, p. 426 (Vancouver Isl.) ; Oaua, Pr. Eit. Inst. v. p. SCO 
(1608) i ttf. Pr. £oH. Soc. N. O. xii. p. 126 (1868) ; Sidgw. Am. 



i«e.jr. F.x.p.300(1874)(La]ieMii;liigan}; Eidgv).Nom.N.Ani. 

B. n. 633 (1881) ; Steams, Fr. U.S. Nat. Mm. 1883, p. 121 

(Labrador) ; B., B., ^ S. Water-B. N. Am. ii. p. 93 (1884); 

Nehrl. J.f. O. 1885, p. 148 (Illinoia). 
CKdemia (Pelionetta) bunaculaU, Saird, B. JV. Am. p. 808 (1868). 
Melsnitto deglfuidii, put., O. S. Or. Hand-litC, iii. u. SU, n. 10715 

(1871). 
(Edemia fused, var. (P), Couei, Key, p. 294 (1872) ; ut. ChmskJut, 

no. 617 (1873) ; id. B. S.-West, p. 581 (1874). 
CEdemia fuses, b. volvetina, Coue$, B. N.-Wat, p. 682 (1874). 
CEdemia TslvetinB, Sciat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 629. 
(Edemia fusca, Couei (nee Linn.), Ckeckriitt, 2nd ed. p. 116, n. 738 

(1882) : id. Key N. Am. B. p. 714, d. 738 (1884). 
Fuligula (Oikieiiiia) velvetina, Schnw. Om. Centralbl. 1882, p. 17. 
Fullgula fusca velTetica, &^. Hut. Brit. B. iii. p. 006 (1885) ; id. 

B. Jap. Emp. p. 261 (tig. of the head) (1890). 

Adult male, Bimilar to (S.ftuea, bnt the whit« mark under the 
fljes more extended and the flanks olive-brown ; the base of the 
cnlmen much higher, and the feathering at the base of the bill much 
more extended, the loral feathering being separated from noetrila 
by a space much narrower than length of nostril ; male vith 
eiroUen lateral base of upper mandible entirely feathered, bo that 
the feathers come down nearly to the edge of upper mandible; 
width of bill at widest part equal to or greater than distanoe from 
noetril to tip, the lateral outlines atronglf convex; knob with 
ant«rior ontline sloping backward ; distance from frontal feathering 
to where outline of knob b^ins to incline downward not more than 
0*45; colour of bill, in life, orange-red. Length iy-76'23'00 inches, 
wing 10-65-11-40, culmen 1-4O-1-70, tarsus 1-80-2-10. 

Female. Similar to that of (B. fusea, but easily to be reoognixed 
by the space separating the loral feathers being narrower than the 




5. (Edemia carbo. 

Aniw carbo, pnrt., Pall. Zoogr. Jionso-At. ii. p, 244 (1811) (Kamt- 

schBlka) ; VBp. Compi. Jtend. xxsviii. p. 664 (A'lX. Colt. Ifelatin, 

p. 04) (1854). 
AoAsfuBCB, part., Trmrn. Man. ifOrn. 2nd ed. It. p. 543 (1840) 

(Japan); Midd. Sihir. Jia^. ii. p. 238 (1863) (South coaat of 

Ocbutek Bea); Kitll. Dmkw. i. p. L>60 (1868) (SiUia); Homey. 

J./. O. 1870, p. 43a (E. Siberin). 
Oidemia de^^lauiTi, part., Bp. Compt. Rend, ixxviii. p, 064 {Not. Coll. 

Xklanrf,-^.^) (1854) (specim. from California?); UteJH. (nw 

Bp.) Om. Rcpl. m the Conwu III. and KamtxJtatka, p. 174 [188S) 

(Kaiatscbfttka, Beriug I.) ; A. 0. U. Check-iitt N. Am. B. p. 124 

(1886) (partimP specim. from CaUfoniia ?) : ? Tvmrr, C^tr. N. 

B. of Alaska, p. 1»7 (1886) (Aleutitm Islimde, St. MicLael'B, 

Unalaelis) ; f Ifeltm, Ifat. Hut. CaU. in At<uka, p. 81 (1887) 

(Alaaka, Lower Yukon, Silka) ; Gigl. ^ Sati-ad. P. Z. S. 1887, 

p. 690 (Posaietle Bay Wid Japan): Sihal. J.f. O. 1891, p. a08 

(Sitka). 
P Oidemia carbo, Oim. U.S. Expl. Exjieil., Mamm. ^ Om. p. 344 (1858) 

(OreffOD, California). 
An** (Oidemia) fusca, Bndde, Beu. S. O.-Slbir. ii. p. 373 (1863) 

(Mongolia, K. Mandshuria, Port Ma;). 
MeUnetla velvetioa, BtalM. Ibii, 1863, p. 140 (YoDetaie) ; Daa ^ 

Bonn, {nee Caia.) Tr. Chic. Aead. i. p. 300 (18l!0) (Yukon, Sitka) ; 

DaU, Avif. Aletd. Itl. Unal. eaMw. p. U (1873) ; Ridgw. Pr. V.tS. 

Nat. Mu». vii. p. 68 (1884) (Alaska). 
(Edemia aniericana, Sun'nA. (nee Sw.) IMb, 1803, p. 435 ( Yaiig-t«2e) ; 

id. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 334, 1871, p. 419, 
FuUgula fiuca. Dart., Schltg. Mut. P.-B., Ansere!>, p. 16 (1866) 

(gpecimena 14, 15 from Japan) ; Seeb. B. Jap, Emp. p. 250 (pa«.) 

(1800) ; Brandt. J.f. 0. 1891, p, 268 (Sitka). 
(Edemia fuaca, Smnh. (net iiVm.) P. '£. S. 1863, p. 324 (Amoor- 

land): tt-hitelu {nee Linn.), Ibii,lBli7, p. 2m {Rakoditdt); Sumth. 

P.Z.S. 1871, p. 419; Fimch, Ahh. Fer. fir«.i. iii. p. B9 (1872) ; 

Steinh. Ibis, 1873, p. 307 (China) ; ? Dyb. J.f. O. 1873, p. 110 (E. 

Siberia) ; ? Hfual. J.f. O. 1874, p. 402 (Sbanghai) ; Smnh. Ibit, 

1874, p. 424 (Cdefoo), 1875, p. 457 (HnkodadiO; Toes. BuU. Soe. 

Zoot. Fr. ii. p. 48 (1877) (E. aiberia) ; id. Om. /bun. Vott. Sibir. 

p. 71 (1877)1 David^ Oust. Oi». Chine, p. 504 (1877) ; Slatdit. ^ 

PrytT, Ibis, 1878, p. 25 (Veto, Sendai) ; lid. Trant. As. Soc. Jap. 

X. p. 100 (1882) (Japan, Kuriles) ; Blakiit. ChryMnth. 1883, p. 27; 

BUtkist. Amend. List B. Jap. p. 9, n. 62 (1884); Sl^. BuU. U.S. 

Nat. Mu». BO. S0. p. 176 (188S) ; NfUon, N. H. Coll. in Alaska, 

p. 23 (1887) (ef. Ilns, 1889, p. 249); Stgan, Ibis, 1891, pp. 828, 

497 (Nankin). 
CEdemia velvetina, part,, Finseh, Abh. Vtr. Brem. lit. p. 68 (1872) 

( Alexandra vsk) ; SteinA. Ibis, 1875, p. 457 (Yxng-tMe) ; Blalaet. 

tr Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap. x. p. 101 (1882) (Yang-twe) ; Stuan, 

Ibu, 1891, pp. 328,498. 
Mdanetla fiisca, Nelimi (nee Zimi.), Cruise ' Cwtmn,' p. 102 (1883) 

(Bering Str., Kolzebue Sound); IHt^. Pr. f/S. Nat. Mus. vii. 

fc68 (1884) (Alaaka) ; B., B., * B. Hatrr-B. N. Am. ii. pp. 93. 
(pBrt.l(1884); Matichie v. Ziemer.J.f. O. 1885, p. IS2(Una- 
laaka, Norton Sound), 
Oidemia atejnei,'eri, Bidsw. Man. N. Atu. B. p. 112 (1887) (Kamt- 



Bchdtka, Japan); Slfjn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Miu. i. p. 188 (1887) 
(Coromander Islande) ; Gigl.^ Saivod. P.Z.S. 1887, p. 592 (note); 
Salvad. ^ Gigl. Mem. R. Ac. Sc. Tor. (2) mii. p. 119 (PossUtto 
Bay), p. 132 (Jajwa) (1888). 
Fuliffala fiiBcs Btein«£reri, Seeli. 'B. Jap. Etna. pp. 2S0 (Sfrare of tbe 
head), 262 (181»). 

AiaU male. Bimilar to the male of (E. deglandi, but black of the 
plumage tunallymuch more inteuBe, and white mark under tlie eye 
more extended backwards on the temporal region ; knob on tiie 
oulmen much more olcrated, and with anterior outline decidedly 
concave, the top forming a more or less conspicuous projection ; 
distance from frontal feathers along top of knob to ant«ior extre- 
mity not lesB than 0'5d ; sides of bill bright red in life. 

Female. Similar to the female of (E. deglandi, but the line of the 
frontal feathering almost transverse, not forming an angle protruding 
anteriorly ; in that respect resembles the female of (E. funM, from 
which it differs in the feathering of the loral region descending 
lower than the nostril. 

Sab. North-eastern Asia, south in winter to Japan and China ; 
? North-weBt«m America, south in winter to California. 

(There are no adult Bpecimens from Alaska in the British 
Hnsenm, so that I am unable to decide whether Alaskan birds 
really belong to <E, earbo.) 



a,b. c;Sad.Bk. 
e. a ad. sk. 
d. (J ad. Bt. 
e-A. tJ 2 ad. et 



AmooMand (Jl. Maack). 

China. 

Slianghai, China. 

Shan gh si, China, March 

(S. SwiTihoe). 
Foochow, Jan. 
Kiirile Island (0.. 
llakodadi. Janan. Feb. 



SeebohmColL 

Purchased. 

F. Webb, Esq. [P.]. 

Saebohni ColL 




50. SOBUM. 



413 



p. 312 (egg) (1800): id. Ibii, 1862, p. 72 (lieligoktid) ; OW. 

Thfi. Om. i. p. aSfl (1872). 
Canard du Nord, apeUS la Mwchand, D'Aubent. B. Enl. 996 (17— ?). 
Macreuee & large bee. Buff. Hint. Nat. Oil. ii. p. 344 (1783). 
Anas latirostrifl, £odd. Tabt. Fl. Bnl. p. 56. d. 1)96 ( I7d3]. 
Black Duck, Pmn, Arct. Zool. ii. p. 660, n. 48» 11765) ; Lath. ^n. 

iii. 2, p. 479, n.35(1786). 
MeUnitM pecspicillata, Bote, lag, 1823, p. S64; &/t. Man. Anat. 

p. 146 (1838) ; Eyt. Syn. Anat. p. 103 (1669). 
Plntypufl perspicilUlus, Brehm, LrArb. AW. rur. Vog. u.p. 823 (1824). 
(Hdemia perapicillata, Strpi. Gen. Zvol. zii. S, p. 219 (1824) ; i%fn. 

£r. vln. p. 119 (1828); &w. 4- JtieA. -Faun. Jior.-Am. ii. p. 449 

(1831) ; Jard. 4- Stlb. lU. Orn. iii. pL ckxxv. (1835) ; Jen. Man. 

p. 240 (1835); Eyt. Gt/. fn'f. i7. p. o9 (1836) : id. Hitt. a/ Bar. 

Sril. B. p, 81 (1830) j Svi. Class. B. iL n. 3tJ8 (1837) ; Gould, 3. 

Bur. V. pi. 376 {1»J7); £p. Campt. LUt, p. 67 (1838); K. It 

£. Wirbekh. Bur. pp. twiri, 228 (1840) : Ma^L Man. ii. 

p. 181 (1842) ; HaM. Vers. Ga. Mtu. p. 120 (1844) ; G. S. Gr. 

lilt B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 141 (1844) ; id. Gen. B. iii. p. 63d, a. 4 

(1844); Gone, if. Am. p. 408 (1847); UarU. Arch./. Naturg. 

18S2, i. p. 122 (1852): Bp. Compt. Bend, xliii. p. 664 (185ij) 

(CMifomia) i Neieb. Pr. R. S. Rep. vi. p. 104 (1857) ; Ntlst. Skandin. 

Btun. (ed. 1868> p. 465 ; Cat. U.S. Krplor. Erped., Mamm. Jj- Om. 

p. 344 (18681 ; Beerm. Pr. B. E, Rep. x. pi. n. p. 70 (1868) ; Murr. 

Edmb. N. i%/. Jmtra. 1869, p. 230 ; Reinh. Ibia, 1861, p. 14 

(UreenlaDd); Nordm. J.f. O. 1864, p. 378; J)egi. ^ Oerbt, Om. 

Eur. ii. p. 663 (1867) ; Gould, B. of Great Brit. v. pi, 30 (1867) ; 

Tumi. Birds E. Fa. p. 37 (1869) ; Mull. J. f. O. 18U9, p. 347 

(Faroe P) ; Cmes, Pr. Phiiad. Ai'ai 1871, p. 27 ; id. Kty S. Am. 

B. p. 294, n. 518 (1872); Harting, Br. B. p. 163 (1872) (Great 

Brilun) ; Feild. Zoulog. 1872, p. 3!i55 (Faeroe, accidanta]) ; 

Raah. Vidauk. Medd. EjUbenh. 1861, p. 183 (UrBenland); 

TWrorr, Contr. Nat. But. ^Alaska, p. 137 (1886) (Yukon and Aleu- 

tLuiIsL); A. O. U. Chttk-ti$t N. Am. B. p. 124, n, 166 (1886); 

I^w. Man. N. Am. B. p. 113 (1887); A'elsan, Nat. Bitl. Cbll. 

in Alaska, p. 61, pi. r. f. 6 (head) (1887) (both shores of Bering 

Stiuu. Norton ^ouad.aod KoUebue Sound); Mackay.Aiik, 1891, 

p. 279 (NewEDgiaodl; MarteH, Kat. Voyelsamml.-f.-2M&aS>iil]; 

IVuvA. Auk, 18112, pp. 157-160; Ouhoit, Faun. Vert. Belg., Oia. 

ii. p, 606 (1893) ; CiiUett, CkrUt. Vid.-lieUk. Fork. 1805 (Eiir. p. (I) 

(Norway). 
Ana* (Fuligula) ipen-picilUu, Bp. Obt. WUi. a. 265 (1828). 
Fuliguta (Oidemia) perepicillata, Bp, Ann. Lye. a. Y. ii. p. 389 

(1826) ; id. ^n. p. 389 (1828) ; Nutt. Man. li. p. 416 (1834). 
AlUB (Macrorlianiphus) perspicillaia, Let*. Man. if Om. ii, p, 414 

(1823). 
Pdionetta penpicillata, Kaup, Natiirl. Sgtt. p. 107 (1829) ; Rclmb. 

Sun. Av., Natatores, t. 82. ff. OU&-907 (1846) ; id Av. Suit. Nat. 

p. viii (1862); Bp. Campt. Rend. Jtiiii. p. 651, n. 128 (1866): 

Baird, B. N. Am. p. 6U6 (1858) ; id. Vat. N. Am. B. a. 602 

0860) ; Coop. 4- Si«-kl. N, H. Wash. Terr. p. 262 (1680) ; Caues, 

Pf. PMIad. Aead. 1861, p. 239; KirUy, cf. Ibis, 1862, p. 308; 

Jtos», Canad. Natur. TiL p. 163 (Uackenzia) (1662) ; id. Nat. Hist. 

Rm. (2) i. p. 286 (1862) ; Vtrr. Pr. Est. Inst. »{. p. 153 (1862) ; 

Boardm. Pr. Boa. Hoc. N. H. ix. p. l;iO (l«02) ; Blakiit. Ibis. 

1863, p. 149 (Brit. N.Am.): Cbivs, if'ta. 16(H(, p. 270: Loan: Ann. 

I^.N. r. Tiii. p.297(1860)i itiirrf, ;6m, 1867, pp. 271,283,284, 



286; Brown, Ibli, 1868, p. 430 {Vancouver) ; Couei, Pr. Em. Intl. 
T. p. 200 (18*58) ; id. Pr. BotC. Soe. N. H. xii. p. 126 (1868) ; Daa 
^ Bona. Tr. Chic. Acad. i. p. 300 (1B69) ; Sttndev. Meth. not. Av. 
di»p. Tent. p. 149 (1872) ; Jiidffui. Ifom. y. Am. B. a. 633 (1881) ; 
SUamt, Pr. U. S. Nat. Miu. 1883, p. 121 ; Btm, Pr. U. S. Nat. 
Mm. y. p. 107 (188a) (Alaska) ; B., B., ^ P. Waler-B. N. Am. ii. 
p. 98 (1S&4) ; Nehrl. J./. O. 1885, p. 148 (niinois) ; MatKhU «. 
Ziemer, ibid, p. 192 : Shtajx, Qit. Oiteol. Specim. R. C. S. iii. p. 308 
(1891). 

FulisiilB penpicillata, £p. /«u, 1832, p. 1188, n. 333; Aud. Om. 
Buigr. IT. p. 101, pi. 3l7 (1838) ; i^. St/n. p. 380 (1339) : Sefyt- 
L. Faun. Belq. i. p. 143 (1842); AaA. B. vim. vi. p. 337, pL 402 
(1843) ; Be Kay, Ii. Y. Zool. ii. p. 336 (1844) ; Qiraud, B. Long 
Id. p. 329 (1844); Degl. Om. Eur. ii. p. 474 (1349); SckUg. 
Mu». P.-B., Anseres, p. 16 (1866); Falmin, J.f. O. 1876, p. 58 
(Finland) ; Seefi. Ilitt. Brit. B. iii. p. 607, pi. 65 (ene) (1^) ; 
Brandt, J. f. O. 1891, p. a68 (Sitka) ; Swink. Ihii, 1892, p. 27 
(Heligoland). 

(Edemia perajMcillata, Sp. Cat. Met. Uce. Eur. p. 72, n. 446 (1842) ; 
LicAt. Nomencl. Av. p, 103 (1864) (Meiico); Seinh. J.f. 0. 1854, 
p. 142 (Greenland); id. Ibii, 1861, p. 14 (Greenland); AlhrteH, 
J.f. O. 1862, p. 207 ; March, Pr. BtUad. Acad. 1864, p. 72 ; A. 
Neict. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 167 (e^) ; Couet, Kty, p. 294 (1872) ; id. 
Check-Hit, n. 518 (1873) ; Sdat. Sf Sale. NomencL Av. Neotrop, 
p. 130 (1873); Cii«ei, B. ^.-JFeri, p. 682 (1874); Sclat. ^ Safe. 
P. Z. S. 1876, p. 402 (Jamaica) ; Brai. S. of Ew. -n. p. 669, 
pL 450 (1877) ; Sdat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 629 ; Lanaton, Zoolog. 
1881, p. 60 (Orkney, trachea) ; A. ^ E. Ntuit. Bandb. Jam. p. 118 
(1881) ; Cotum, Check-liei, 3nd ed. p. 110, n. 739 (1882) ; Sate. Cat. 
B. Strickl. CoU. p. 640 (1S82); B. O. U. List Brit. B. p. 136 
(1883) ; Hartl J. f. O. 1883. p. 283 (Alaska) ; Cbw*, Ki-y N. 
Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 714, n. 738 (1884) ; Thompson, Zoolog. 1884, 
" ' " .- "^- . " . " ■ ^j 




50. lEDEMU. 



415 



one of a trian^ilnr shape on the nape : "npper mandible above at 
base, including noatrils, dull crimson, this changed to flame-scarlet 
oyer the front of the mandihle. nail cadmium-yellow, narrowly 
edged anteriorly with lighter yellow, and Bometimes posteriorly with 
light lavender, nides wi^ large squarish patch of black at base, thia 
separated from the black feathering above itby orange and from the 
feathering behind by a naJTOwer edging of crimson ; beneath this 
black patch and in front of it ae far as anterior edge of nostril, or 
thereabouts, continuously white, the remainder of the side (anteriorly 
to the white portion) pure orange; lower mandible-nail like its 
fellow above ; back of this for a short distance reddish fleah-colour, 
tenninating irregularly in white, the white continued to the base, 
Trith more or less black on the naked skin between the rami ; feet: 
outer sides of tarsus and toes, excepting inner toe, crimson ; the 
inner side, with both sides of inner toe, orange-chrome, deepening 
in part to orange-vermilion ; joints and other portions blotchily 
marked with black; webs solidly black" (Tnimbull). Total length 
about 21 inches, wing 9-5, tail 3'5, cnlmen 1-65, tarsus 1-6. 

Occasionally in some specimens, apparently fully adult, the white 
patch on the crown is entirely absent. 

FemaU. Plumage dull brown, lightest about the cheeks ; the 
feathers of the back sometimes show paler tips ; lower parts greyish 
brown, becoming nearly white on the abdomen, the feathers of the 
breast and sides tipped with the same ; vent and under tail-covorts 
uniform dusky : biU greenish black ; iris yellowish white ; " feet 
yellowish orange, webs greyish dusky '' {Audubon), 

Young. Similar to the adult female, but bead with two quite 
distinct whitbh patches, one against the lateral base of the bill, the 
other over the auriculars, behind and below the eye ; plumage 
above more uniform than in the adult female. 

Taiatg in Jlrit plumage closely resemble adult female, but have 
trocea of the white on the nape. 

Timng in down appears to be andeecribed. 

Hab. Northern North America, in winter south to Jamaica, the 
XIarolinas, Ohio Uiver, and Lower California; the Asiatic coast of 
Bering Straits ; accidental in Northern Europe, cast as far as 
Swedish Lapland. 



0. a sd. SI. 


N. Amprfca, 


Old Coll. 


ft, c, d. tf ad. St. 


N. America. 


Hudson's Bay Co. [P.]. 


etak. 






•. 2 JUV. 8k. 


Kcitxebue Sound. 


CspLKellett and Lieut. 
-h'ood[P.]. 


f~k. (f 2 ad. et 
iuv. sk. 


St. Michael's, Alaska. June, 


Salvin-Godman Coll. 


Aug.,8ept.(£'. W.Ndion). 




t Sjuv.sk. 


Sept. 


Salvin-Godman Ool!. 


M. rf ad. sk. 


Bear Lake. 


B. R. Ross, Esq. f P. . 


». (T ad. sk. 


Fort Simpson. 
Big laUnr 


B. R Ross, Esq. P. . 


o. J ad. sk. 


B. R Boss, Esq. P. . 


.. a ad. sk. 


I^tfHuUc Bav. 


Dr. Rae. 


^5. cJ«d.ak. 


Oodboul, Canada (N. A, 


Salvin-Godman Coll. 



r. (J $ Kd. ak. 

(. (J $ kd. Hk. 



I . g od. ek. 
i'. (J imm. ak. 

r. ,; ad. sk. 
'. 2 »^- sk. 
'. (J ad. Bk. 
^ A', tl ad. et cf 



Bay of Fundy (S. E. 

Bay of Fuady, April {B. E. 

Dmver). 
UassachuBotts, Sept. 
Boston, MBssachu8etta,Sept. 

(S. W. HoMhmc). 
Ipawich llBy,Mas8acliu»etts 

(C J. Mmptard). 
Branford, Connecticut, Not. 

[A. J. Damn). 
Bermudas, Nov. 
VancouTer Island. 
VancoUTer Island. 
VancouTei laland. 
St Juan Island. 
Nauaimo, May. 
California. 
San DiE«o, Oalifomia, Dec. 

{H. W.Hemhaw). 



H. J. Elwea, Esq. [P.]. 
Salvin-Oodman Coll 



SalTm-Godman CoD. 
SalTin-Oodnian CoU. 



Saliin-Godman C 

Old CoU. 

J. K. Lord. Esq. [P.]. 



61. CAHPT0L93EUS. 
Eyt. Afon. Anat. p. 67 (1836) (n« 



Kajnptorhyncln 

Cud.) 

Camptorhynchus, Sp. Comp. Lot, p. 68 (1838). 
Camptalaimtu, 6. E. Or. Lot Gen. B. ed. 2, p. 91 

(1841) 

Sange. Confined to North-eastern America. 

1. CunptoIttmoB labiadoriQB. 



Type. 
C. labradoriiit. 




51. 



mnoLMuva. 



4ir 



I 



Oi-oud. B. Long M. p. 327 (1844); Sekkg. Mut. P.-B., AiwereB, 

p. 19(1866). 
SomAteria labradoris Boie, Im, 1828, p. 328 ; A. Xetel. Ene. Brit. 

ei. 9, iviii. p. 7S5, f. 48 ^1875). 
KtunptorhjDchus Iftbradotue, Eijt. Mvn. Anat. p. 151 (1838) ; Q. R. 

Or. Lut Gen. B. p. 75 (1840) ; Eyt. Syn. Anat. p. 108 (1869). 
CunptorhjiichuB labmdonu, Bp. Comp. Lift, p. 5«, u. 391 (1888), 
Fuligula grisea, LeOi, Jout^. Ae. Sc. Philad. yiii. p. 170 (1840> 

(young-) ( = labratb>ra joan^). 
Ca^ptolaiinus labradorua, fi. A Gr. itii Om. S. ed.a,p.95(I84l; : 

id. Litt B. Brit. Mta. iii. p. 141 (1844) ; id. Gm. B. iii. p. BSS 

(1844); Behnb. Syn. At:, Nftlatores, t 77, fl'. 896-9li (Mub. 

Dreed.) (1845); id. Av. Sifit. yat.f.Tui (1852); 6. R. Gr. Litt 

Qtn. ^ &i6gn. B. v. 124, gen. ^066 (1855); id. HaadJitt. 

iii. p, 88, n. 10703 (1871) ; — fl'omt and Sir/am, May 4tii, 187« 

(Ddhi Mill, MichicBO, 1872); A. O. U. Ch^k-list N. Am. B. p. 121, 

n. 156 (1886) ; Ridgv. Man. N. Am. B. p. 107 (1887) ; DtUeAer, 

Aufi, 1891, pp. 201-216, pi. ii. ; — P SAootiTtg and Finking, 1891,. 

no. 22, p. 425 [cf. Auk, 1893, p. 294) ; B. G. [A. V. Goutd], Sitoatiiig 

and Fidiing, 1892, no. 18, p. 845 ; Mayer, Auk, 1892, p. -^189 (Mu8. 

Dreed., one female); AUm, Auk, 1893, p. 125; JDufcher, Auk, 

1863, p, 2/0; Stone, Auk, 1893, p. 363; Dutchtr, Auk, 1894. 

pp. 4-12 ; Hartl. AM. naturv. Ver. Brem. xir. 1, p. 33 (1896). 
CamptolKmua laliradonu, Lichf. Nomencl. Av. p. lOS (one, Mua. 

Berlin) (1864); Bp. Comae. Bmd. xliii. p. fiSl, n. 152 (1856); 

Sund^B. Mtth. nat. Av. dttp. Tenl. p. 148 (187^) ; Solv. Cat. B. 

StrickL Coll. p. 539 (1683) (one Bpeciraen). 
Camplolieraus labradorins, Baird, B. jV. Am. p. 808 (1868) (two 

Bpecim.); id. Cat. N.Am. B. u, 600 (1859); Coua, Fr. Acad, 

Philad. 18«lj p. 239; Va-r. Pr. Ess. lnit. iii. p, 158 (1863); 

Lawr. Am. Lye. N. F. viii. 1806, p. 297 (1807) ; Couei, Fr. Ea. 

/»jrf. V. Comm. p. 300 (1868) ; TumbuU, B. E. Pa. p. 37 (1869) 

(raie); Coua, Ka/ N. Am. B.-p.-2iaHm7&): id. C/ieck-litt,n.&» 

(1873) ; Baroek, Bull. Eta. In»t. v. p. 38 (1873) ; Coma, B. N.- 

Wftt,-^. 679 (1874) ; Oregg, American Natural, xiii, p. 138(1879) ; 

CWw, Beaut, and Curiout B.y\.\v.-a\.~ (1881); Mtdgv). Nom. 

y. Am. B. n. 624 (1881) ; Couu, CheckJiil, 2nd ed. n. 720 (1883) ; 

id. Key N. Am. B. p. 700 (1884) ; B., B., ^ B. Water-B. N. Am. 

ii. p. SS (1884) ; Milne-Edw. ^ Oust. Notice $ur guelques Eipiim 

(TOif, p. 51,pl. ir. (1893). 
Anna labradoricft, Hall. Canad. Natur. vii. p. 437 (1862) (B»j of 

Laprairie, Montreal Diatrict) ; cf. Dutcher, Auk, 1894, p. 176. 
Labrador Duck, Boardm. Amer. Natural, iii. no. 7, p. 383 (1869). 
SomHterialabTBdoria,ii(»w/.Or>i.jlfuc.ii. pp. 205-228, pi. 55 (cJ, $, 

and (J juv.) (1877) ; A. Neiet. Did. o/Birde, p. 222 (1893). 
Fuligula labradoria, Seebohm, Hitl. Bnt. B. iii. p. 61 1 (note) ( 1885). 
CaniptolffiniuB kbradoricua, «ofa(. P. Z. S. 1880, p, 628 ; Triilr. Cat. 

CoU. B. p. 47 (1889) (one specimen). 
CamptolsJmuB labradoriuB, Stnn. KingaL Stand. Nat. Hist. it. p. 161 

(1885); Lucax, Report Nation. Mua. 1688-89, p. 036, pi. cii. (d) 

(1891) ; Field, Cotumb. Mas. Sub. i. no. 1 (1894) (c/. Om. MonoM. 

1696, p. 100). 

AdtiU malt. Head, neck, jngulum, acapulars, and wings, except 
pimaries, wbite ; lougitudinal attipc on the crown and occiput, 
ooUar round lower part of neck, back, rump, upper tail-covert«, 
primarice, toil, and entire lower parts black, tho tail and lower 



TOL. xxvn. 



2b 



418 abiuds. 

surface, except laterally and anteriorly, more p«yieli ; breast and 
aides dusted with wUtuili pointa ; the black collar composed of soft 
velvety feathers ; on the anterior part of the cheeks a patch of stifF 
feathers; soapularH and tcrtials edged with black: "bill with the 
basal Bpace between the nostrils, running into a rounded point in 
the middle, pale greyish blue ; the sides of the base and the edgea 
of both mandibles for two thirds of their length doll pale orange, 
the rest of the bill black ; iris reddish ha»l ; feet %ht greyish 
blue; web and claws dusky" (Avduixm)} "cere flesh-colour, 
remainder of l^e bill blackish hom-colour ; tarsi and irides yellow " 
{Bait). Total length about 22 inches, wing 8-75, tail 3-3, culmen 
l"?) tarsus 1'5. 

Adult female. Uniform brownish grey, the wing-coverts with 
dark mesial lines ; wing-speculum formed by the secondaries and 
by the greater wing-coverts white ; tertials e^ed with blackish ; 
primaries dnsky. Total length about 18 inches, wing 8*4, tail 3, 
«ubnen 1'65, tarsus 1'4. 

Young male. " Similar to adult female, hut chin and throat white, 
and the white of the chest strongly indicated ; greater wing-coverts 
white " (Jtidgvirof). 

A specimen in ike Rothschild collection, marked as young maU, is 
mmilar to the adult female : general plumage greyish brown ; head 
and neck with indistinct undulated dusky cross-lines; chin and 
throat dull whit«, sharply defined; lower breast slightly tinged 
witli black ; speculum white ; longer scapulars aud tertials silver)' 
grey, the latter edged with dusky on the outer web ; tail brown- 
giey ; qulUs brown. 

It is sapposed that the Labrador Duck is now nearly, if not quite, 
extinct ; the specimens known in Museums are 41. 

Hah. Formerly northern Atlantic coast of North America, soatli 




UEKICONEITA, 



^ Gtrt 

H p.36 



1. Heniconetta, Btelleri. 
.\iiag Btelleri, Pall. Spic. Zool. faac. ti. p. 36, tab. v. (1769) ; Qtn. S. N. 
i. 2, p. 518, n. m (1788) ; Pan. Zoogr. Houe-Ai. U. p. 238 (syn, 
emend.), tab. Ixviii. (1811); Schlm. Bev. Crit. p. civi (1844); 
Middend. Sibir. Seu. ii. 2, p. 234, Taf. «iii. ff. 3-fi (e^) (1863) ; 
L. Srehm, J./. O. 1857. p. 358 ; Btat. Naumatmia, 1858, p. 316 
(Heligoland) (1869) j id. Navmann'e Vdg. DadKlU. xiii. p. 313 
(1860) ; id. Ibit, 1862, p. 72 (HeLgoIand) ; Sieinh. P. Z. S. 1863, 
p. 324; Midd. mir. JUise, iv. p. 988 (1867); Homey. J.f. 0. 
1870, p. 432; Nerdvi, J. /. 0. 1871, p. 208 (Fiumark, breeding) ; 
Giefi. Ties. On. i. p. 362 (1872). 
Western Duck, ftnn. Arel. Zoot. ii. p. 564, a. 4»7, pi 23 (1785); 
Lath. Syn. iii. 2, p. 532, n. 74 (17&5) ; id. Suppl. i. p. 275 (1787). 
Adm diBpnr, ^rrm. Mm. Carbon, tabb. 7 & 8 (1786) ; Om. S. If. 
I 2. p, 535, n. 107 (1788) ; Lath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 866, n. 8;) 
(1790) J Bonn. Enc. Mith. i. p. 145, pi. 30. f. 3 (1790) ; VieiU. 
A*. D. T. p. 157 (1816) J />«.«. Diet. Se. Nat. vi. p. 377 (1817) ; 
Temm. Man. ^Orn. 3nd ed. iv. p. 547 (1840) : Naum. VUg. 
DmdicU. xii. p. 240, Taf. 320 (1844) ; Pa»>l. J.f. O. 1853, p, 320 
lUpland) ; Oidke, J.f. 0. I860, p. 377 fHeligoland), 
.\n»s (fceidua. Bonn. Enir. Mith. i. p. 130 (1790); Sham, Nat. Mi*c. 

pi, 32 (iriW) ; Ymrea, P. Z. S. 1831, p. ai (Dorking), 
Cltuigula fltelleri, BoU, Iiii, 1822, p. 564 ; Macgitt. Man. Om. a. 

p. 183 (1842). 
Fuligula dispsr, SUph. Oat. Zool. xii. 2, p. 206 (1824) ; Jard. j- Selb. 
Jit. Om.ui. pi. 136 (18&5); Jen. Man. p. 243 (1835); Gould, 
B. Eur. V. pi. 372 (1817) ; Aud. Om. Biogr. t. p. 253, pi. 480 

■ " '" ■■ ■■ B.Am. vi. p. 868, d. 407 

(1844) ; &*£tf. Mut. F.~S., 

FaUgula steUeri,' Bp. Am. Lye. If. T. il. p. 394 (1826) ; id. Ban. 
p. 384(1828); id. hi», 1832, p. 1180; i%/, 0™. Eur. u. p. 469 
(1840) i Ptttmin, J.f. 0. 1876. p. 59 (Finland) ; Bnmdt, J.f. O. 
1880, p. 24(1 (now) ; ReAnw. J.f. O. 1890, p. 84 ; Brandt, J.f. O. 
1891, p. 263 (Kamtscbatka). 
Fuligulft (Macropiw) stelleri, Nutt. Man. ii, p. 451 (1834). 
yoUaHcla Btelleri, Eyt. Cat. Brit. B. p. 58 (1836) ; id. Hut. Rarer 
Brit. B. p. 79 (1836); id. Mim. Anat. p. 150 (1838); Baird, 
B. X. Am. p. 801 (1858) ; id. Cat. N. Am. S. n. 598 (1859) ; 
Bnirrf, J./. 0.1866. p, 344; W. fti.. 1867, p. 286; DaU ^ Bam,. 
Tr. Oiie. Acad. i. p. 290 (1869) ; Dall. Avif AUut. Itl. Vnat. 
cflfhff. p. 6(1873); id. Arif. Aleut. ULvtif. Unat. p. 7 (1874); 
NeUoH, CnuM ' Corwin,' p. 99 (1883) ; MunlocA, Erped. to Pi>tnt 

I88r- " ■ -■■ "■ . , ^ . 

p. 191. 

SteHaria disuar, Bp. Comp. Li»t, p. 67 (1838). 
Hareldft rtelleri, E. ^ B. WirMth. Eur. pp, Ixxxvii, 280 (1840) ; 

Hoigl. J.f. O. 1872, p. 123 (Taimir). 
Emconetta stfUeri, O. A. Or. Lilt Gen. B. p. 75 ( 1840) ; ia. op. eit. 
2ml ed. p. 95 ( 1841 ) i id. Gen. B. iii. p. 024 (1844) ; fleAsi. Syn. 
Av., HaMtoTna, t, 82. ff. 008-910 (18*6) ; id. A«. Syil. Nat. p. viii 
(1863) ; O. R. Or. Li^ Br. B. p. 304 (1863) ; Gould, B. Great 
Brit. \. pi. 25 (1863); Eut. Sya. Anat. p. 107 (18<»); Dtgt.^ 
Gerbe. Om. Eur. ii. p. 553 (1869) ; Stejn. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mvt. r. 
(1882) ; B., B., ^ R. Watrr-B. N. Am. ii. p. 66 (1884) ; Tvmtir, 
^uA, 1885, p. 168 ; Sttjn. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mui. no. 29, p. 170 (Berii« 
2b2 



) id. Sj/n. p. 293 (1839) ; id. B. A 

(1843); DeKay.N.T.Zool." " " 

Ansena, p. 15 (1806). 



t, Alaska, p. 118 (1885) ; Matiehie u. Ziemer, J.f. O. 1886, 



I.) (1886) ; A. O. U. Check4u,t N. Am. B. p. 121, n. 167 (1886) ; 
7ton«r, Contr. N. B. of Alatka, p. 13fi (1888) ; Nekon, Nat. Hut. 
CoU. « Aladm, n. 75 (1887) ; Ridffia. Man. JV. Am. B. p. 106 

S87) ; Sfon. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mu». x. p. 137 (1887) (Commandw 
)iSarUrt,&it. Vogeltamml. p. 2m (1891) ; Alien, Auk, leOS, 
p. 123. 
Stolleria diewir, Bp. Cat. Met. Ucc Sur. p. 74, n. 457 (1842) ( 
Marpm. Hid. Brit. B. t. p. 164 (1862): Bp. Compt. Rend, ilui, 
p. 650, n. 127 (1856) ; Frilich, Naturg. rUg. Eur. p. 436, Taf. 47. 
f. 10 (J), 12(2) (1870); G. A Gr. flimrf-Jirf, iii. p. 88, n. 10706 
(1871) i Strjn. J.f. 0. 1873, p. 307 (Norway) ; GoAel, ibid. p. 422 ; 
Reiitk. Vid. Medd. Siobmh. 1881, p. 188 (Qreenliind); if^alter. 
J.f. O. 1890, pp. 234, 236 (Norway). 
Somateria etellen, Jard. Brit. B. iv, p, 73 (1843) ; Netct. P. Z. S. 1861, 
p. 400, pi. axiix. f. 4 (egg) ; Sharpe ^ Dreis. B. of Evr. yi. p. 648, 
pi. 447 (1871) i Ret/, ^<m. Eur Briiti: u. Giule, p. 133 (1872) ; 
Oiuet, Ibit, 1872, p. 53 ; Gum. Und. p. 330 (tlaxmon's Isl.) ; Owm, 
Key N. Am. B. p. 291 (1872) ; id. Check-lilt, n. 511 (1873); id. 
B. N.- West, p. 680 (1874) ; Cordeaux, Ibit, 1876, p. 186 {Helipo- 
Und) ; Taa. Om. Faun. Va»t. Sibir. p. 72 (1877) ; id. BiUl. Hoc. 
Zooi. Fr. ii. p. 48 (1877); Coilett, Nyt Mag. Naturvid. %vn. 
p. 376(1881); ElSot, Mm. Seal Ul. v. 130(1881); CoueK,Check- 
lUt, 2Dd ed. p. 116, n. 731 (1882) ; Taa. Bali. Soc. Zoot. Fr. viii. 
p. 344 (Kamtscliatka) (1883) ; Sound, in YarreWi Hitt. Brit. B. 
IV. p. 468 (1884-86) ; &rf. Biat. Brit. B- iii. p. 613, pi. 59 (egg) 
(1886) ; Dedit. J.f. O. 188.% p. 207 (8. Petentburg) ; Seeb. Ibu, 
1888, p. 360 (Great Liakofflsl); Trirtr. Ca/. CW/. .B. p. 47 (1889); 
Smnd. la. Man. Brit. B. p. 451 (1889) ; ScAoI. J.f. 0. 1890, p. 79; 
&eb.B.Jman. Emp. p. 257 (1800); id. Ibit, 1892, p. 28 (Heligo- 
land) ; OdUtt, Mindre Medd. aed. Norvet Fugkf. 1881-02, p. §Sa 
(1894). 
SomateriadiBpar, Farr. Bitt. Bril. £. Sad ud. iii. p. 305 (1845), Sid 
ed. iii. p. 306 (1860) ; Sdat. (?) Ibui. 1603, p. 477 ; Homey. J. f. 0. 
1872, p. 308 (Daniig, KomKabeig, and Pillau) ; Blakigt. Ibi», 1876, 
). 335 (KamtacfafttkA) ; Homey. J.f. O. 1878, p. 120; Bialasl. ^ 




52. HKinCONETTi. 421 

black, separated from the collar by a. narrow white band ; another 
white band edgea the black cuilar below ; middlo of the back, rump, 
and npper tail-coverts black, with a. purple gloss ; lower parts deep 
tawny, becoming dusky or blackish on belly and &ding into a more 
buOy or ochreoos tint on chest, sides, and flanks ; a black roand 
spot on each side of the breast ; lower abdomen, vent, and ander 
toil-coverts black, the latter somewhat glossy ; scapulars long and 
narrow, bent downwards, i^losay blue-black on the outer web, satiny 
whitt- on the inner one, which is very narrow ; all the wing-coverts 
and anterior scapulars white ; speculum on the secondariee glossy 
blue-black, edged with a white band at the tip ; tertials rather 
broad and resemble the larger scapulars, having the outer web glossy 
blae-black and the inner one white; primaries blackish brown; 
under wing-coverts white : asillaries white ; tail blackish brown : 
" bill of a lead-oolour, homy white at the tip ; feet and toes dark 
lead-colour, webs black-grey ; irides dark brown " (Schrader). Total 
length about IS inches, wing 8-5, tail 4-5, culmen 1"6, tarsus 1'4. 

FftiiaJe. Dark rufous brown, an iudistinet collar round the neek 
formed by rufous-chestnut indistinct bars ; interscapular region 
with irr^ular rufous-brown bars, almost hidden on the occiput and 
nape ; rump almost uniform dark brown, usually with indistinct 
rufous bars ; some irregular indistinct bars on the breast ; abdomen 
and under tail-coverts uniform brown ; wings dark brown, speculum 
dark metallic blue, bounded (as in the male) anteriorly by a white 
band at the tip of the liistrow of upper wing-coverts, and posteriorly 
by a similar band at the tip of the secondaries ; falcate tertials 
dusky, with the outer web metallic blue and a silvery-grey band 
along the middle ; marginal under wing-ooverts brown, edged vrith 
white, the inner ones with the aiLllariea white ; tail brown. 

Voun/j. Similar to adult female, bnt much paler brown ; sides of 
the hcact and throat dull whitish buff, with some dusky streaks ; 
tertials much less falcate, and speculum dusky greyish brown, 
boanded anteriorly by a white band at the tip of the greater wing- 
ooverts and posteriorly at the tip of the secondaries. 

Hob. Arctic and Subarctic coasts of the Northern hemisphere, 
breeding on the Varanger Fjord (Norway), in Russian Finmark, 
and from the Taimyr Peninsula eastward to Bering Strait and Alaska. 
It has been found in Cumberland Bay, in Disco Fjord (Greenland), 
along the coasts of Kamtachatka, and in the Eurile Islands ; 
occasionally it straggles to the temperate portions of Europe. 

'To locality. Solvin-Qodmsn CoU. 

celand. Dr. Thienemanu [P.]. 




Norway iChriitiania Afui.). 
Vardo, N. Norway. 
VuBDger Fjord, N. Norway, 

Uxj (AfcMtl. 

KuBsian America. 

I'oint Barrow, N. Alaska, 



Salvin-Godman Coll. 
Salvin-Oodmsn Coll. 
Seebohm CoU. 

Capt OoUinBon[P.]. 

Salvin-G.draan Coll. 



m-p. e $ imm. St. Alichael's, Alaaka, Sept., SalTm-Oodnwn OolL 

«t jttT. ak. Oct. {K W. Neltm). 

7, r, «. ({ $ ad. St. Paul, Kodiok 1., June SAlriii-Oodinsn ColL 

sk. (W.J. FUha-). 

t, *h V. (f $ ad. TJnalashka Island, Dec. (L. SalTin-Oodnuut ColL 

«k. M. Turner ^ M. W. Ear- 
nagton). 



53. AECTOHBTTA. „,_ 

Lampronetta (Hiibireii.), Brandt, Mtn. Aead. St. PiUrib. 
(6) (Se. Nat.) vi. 1849, p. 6 (publ. 1847) [nee Lampro- 

neiM, Wagl.) A. fischeri. 

Aictonetta, G. M. Or. P.Z. S. 1866, p. 212 (=Umpro- 
aetta, Brandt). 

Range. Confined to North-weat America. 

1. Arctanetta fischen. 
fUigula (LamproDetta) fischeri, Brandt, Siim. Ac. St. PHerib. (6) 

Ti. (1849) pp. 6, 10, 14, ri. i. ff. 1-4 (1847) •. 
SoroBteria fiacheri, O. E. Gr. Oen. B., App. p. 28 (1849) ; Eyt. ^n. 

Anal. p. 106 (1809) ; Couet, Key N. Am. B. p. 292 (1873) ; id. 

(»«<*-&(, n. 612 (1873); <d. B. N.-Wett, p. 680 (1874); id. 

Chtek-liA, 2nd ed. p. 116, n. 732 (1882) ; Sound. Ibit, 1883, p. 348. 
Lampronetta tischeri, G. R. Or. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 211, pi. criii. ( cf , S , 

& joung dli Bp. Compt. Bend, iliii.p. 660, n. 126 (1866); 

Batrd, B. N. Am. p. 803 (1858) ; la. Cat. JV. Am. " 

ae69)i EUiot, Iliuttr. B. o/r 

DaU & Bonn. Tr. Chte. Acad, i 

Acad. T. p. 30 (1873) ; Adams, Jb'ia, 18; 

1880, ^. oiS ; Jiidffti: Ntnn. a: Am " 




I 



I 



54. 80MATEBIV 423 

AdvH male. On the orbital region a satinj white pad, bordered 
1^ a velvety black edge, broader anteriorly and posteriorly than 
Above, wanting below ; lores and forehead covered by stiffened 
feathers, white anteriorly, shading into otire-green, and this into 
light greenish buff ; crown and occiput covered by a cowl or hood of 
pendent, atiffened, hair-like featheia of a light olive-green colour; 
a broad stripe of darker green beneath the eye ; throat, neck, back, 
■mailer upper wing-ooverts, scapulars, and falcated tortials white; 
lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and lower part^ dark smoky 
grey ; a patch on each side of rump white ; greater wing-coverts and 
quills brown, edge of the wing and under wing-oovt^rts pale brown : 
ImI brown : "iris bright milky white ; feet and legs dull olive- 
brown, except the scales in front of tarsus, which are dingy 
yellowish ; bill dull orange " {DIelton). Total length about 21-5 
inches, wing 10, tail 3, culmen 1, tarsus 1-7. 

Adidf fcmaU. Above barred with tulvoua and black ; lower part* 
similar, the abdomen, however, plain greyish brown ; head and 
neck light greyish buff, finely streaked with dusky, the throat, how- 
ever, nearly immaculate ; there is a slight indication of the pad 
ronod the eyes, and the feathers of the lores and forehead have 
quite a velvety texture ; quills and greater coverts brown, the latter 
like the secondaries tipped with whitish : '' bill dull blue ; feet and 
torsi dull yellowish brown " (Nelton). 

Young. Similar to the female : " bill dark olive-brown ; legs and 
feet dull yellowish, shaded with olive-brown " (A>/«ui). 

Yon>ig in down. Grown, paler and more grepsh brown below; 
there is already indicated the peculiar ring round the eyes. 

Ball. Coast of Alaska, from Norton Sound to Point Harrow. 






6. $ ad. sL 



Northern Sound. N.W. Vov.of H.M.S.'Eotermiso.' 
America (Admm). (apecinienfiguredbyGray, 

P. Z, S, 1866, pi. 106.) 
Northern Sound, N.W. Vov, of H.M .8. ■Enterprise.' 
America (Adanu). (Type of female's descrip.. 

Gray, P.Z.S. 1855, p. 212, 
pi. 108.) 
e~o.iS 2ad.,juv., St.Michaers, Alaska, June- Salvin-Qodman CoU. 

et pull. ak. Sept. [£. W. Nehan). 

B. S ad. sk. Andrell^kv, Alaska, June Salvin-Godmon Coll. 

(if. W.'Nflaon). 
Q. 2iuv. ak. Stewart's IsUnd, Alfukii, SalTin-Oodman Coll. 

Sept. (E. W. NeUim). 



54. SOMATEBIA. 



Typ.. 



Somnt^ria, Learh in liot»'> Fuy. Ditfos., Append, 

p. siviii (I§I9) a. mollLBsima. 

Ouiim Merrem, in ErtcJt «. Oruber'n Bneyd. iii. p, 471 

(1819) (e.r Rin. /fi»/.na(. Libr. 10, Cap. aaj 8. inollissinia. 

Plaiypos, jSriAm, Lehrb. NaLeur. ii, Fc^. p. 805(1824) 

( =3omat«ria, part.). 
G^aza., " Mrrretn" {rrrore),0. R. Or. Hand-litl,io. 

p. 88 (1871). 



424 AHAIID^ 

Erionetta (nibgen.]) Ooua, Key N. Amtr. B. Slid «d. 
p. 709 (1884) S. ipeetahilia. 

Sange. Confloed to Arctic and Sabarctic regions. 

Kty to the Speeiei. 

a. Anterior point of feathering on forehend reaching 

a^Qt Iialfna; from Ihe poiat of the naked 

frontal angles to no«trilBj feathering of lores 

extending forward to beneath the middle or 

poBterior end of nostrils. MaUi with Bcapulars 

and tertials white ; the upper half of the head 

chiefly black. 

a'. Nahed frontal angles broad, and terminating in 

a broad round end. Male with the throat 

entirely white (but some ipecimens with a 

trace of a V-^^pod dusky marh) ; black of 

head bordered beneath by pale green for nearly 

its entire len^h dreiteri, p. 424. 

b'. Naked frontal angles narrow and more or less 
pointed. 
a". Throat of the adu^ maie entirely white; 
black of head with no green border beneath, 

except on the occiput molUuinui, p.42S. 

b". Throat of the adult with a large V-s'i&P^ 

mark of black ti^^/nmt, p. 430. 

i. Anterior point of feathering on forehead reaching 
as far as posterior end of noatrils. Adult maleM 
with lateral base of upper mandible enlarged 
into a very conS]acnous broad naked lobe (subgen. 
Erionetta) ; upper part of the head light bluish 
grey ; thniat with a V-^hsped black mark, as in 
the male of S. v-niffrum tpeetabilit, p. 432. 




54. BOMAIESIA. 

p. 88, n. 10706 (pwl) (1871); Coutt, Key 2f. Am. B. p. 293, 

D. 613 (part.) (187^). 
Fuligula Bpectabiiis x Fuligula moUisdoia, Sely», Bull. Ae. Boy. 

Bruz. xxiiL 2, p. 16 (Newfoundland) (1856). 
Somatem dressen, Sharpe, Ann. S( Mag. N. H. (4) vjii. pp. 51, f>-2, 

t. 2 (head) (N. Amenca) (1877) : SAarpe ^ Dree: B. of Eur. 

\\. p. 842. i. -i (head) (1871) ; B., B., ^ R. WaUr-B. N. Am. W. 

^76 (1884) ; Saundert, YmreWs Jlisl. Brit. Ji. ir. p. 459 (1884- 
); A.O. U. CAeck-lwt N. Am. B. p. 122, n. 100 (1886); 
MhtB. Man. If. Am. B. p. 110 (1887) ; ShiMdt, Pr. U. S. Xaf. 
Mtu. xi. pp. 232 and foU., E 8, 11, 12. 13, 14 (aat«glog?) (18B8) ; 
WhiU, Auk, 1890, p. 204 (Ottawa, Canada); Mackay, Avk, 
1890, pp. 315-310, 1^, p. 305; W. 8. J., FareA aiid Strtam, 
1893, p. 96 (Maine) ; Maetixty, Auk, 1893, pp. 77, 24S, 870, 1894, 
p. 223 (MoasachuHetlB) ; Whitfirld, ibid. p. 323. 
SoDUtteria molliMma, var. dr^seri, Comi, B. JV.- Wat, p. S60 

(1874). 
Somateria mollisdma dresseri, Eidgw. Pr. U.S. Nal. Mum. iii. pp. 206, 
222 (1880) ; id. Nam. N. Am. B. n. 027 a (1831) ; Couet, Ckeck- 
/M(,2Qded. p. 110, n. 734 (1882); StearM, Pr. U.S. Nat. Mum. 
1883, p. 120 (Labrador) ; Couei, Key N. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 712. 
n. 734, f. 2, p. 708 (1884) ; S«*. Hiit. BrU. B. iii. p. 616 (1885) ; 
Ncirl. J.f. n. 1885, p. 148 (Luke Mithigan). 

Adult Ttiale. Similar to that of S. niollisaima, but with angles on 
aides of forehead broad and rounded, instead of narrow and pointed ; 
black of head bordered beneath by palo green for nearly ita entire 
length ; throat, in some specimens, with a trace of a V-shaped 
dusky mark: bill from posterior end of noatril 1-35-1-48 inches, 
angle from anterior extremity of loral feathering l'7a--, ite width 
across not less than -45, depth of upper mandible at frontal apex 
1-1-28. 

Adult fcmalf. Similar to that of S. mollistiTna : bill from posterior 
end of nostril l-;{2 inches, angle 1*87, width Q'22 ; depth of upper 
mandible 0-78. 

HiA. Atlantic coast of North America, from Maine to Newfound- 
land and Bouthern Labrador ; south, in winter, to the Delaware and 
the Great Z^es. 

a. a bA. sk. Bay of Fiindj {H. E. Drauer). Salvin-Godman Coll. 

b. rf ad. sk. Boston .M.irket, Jan. (H. W. SalTin-Godman Coll. 

Heiakaw). 

c. <J jus. sL N. America. Old Coll. 



2. Somatsria molliasima. 
The Eider Duck. 

-Inas s. cutbttrti ». faraensis, Wiltugh. Om. p. 278, t. 76 ( 2 ). 
Anter lanuginoaua lire Eider, Briu. Om. vi. p. 294, pis. nil. ( tf ), 

«i.(2)(ir60). 
Eder fuglens, Briinn. Eder Fufflau bfikritieln, pp. 1-60 (1763). 
Aata mQllis.iima. Linn. S. N. i. p. 198, n. 15 (1766) i PMppi, 

Voyage, App. p. 186 (Spitsbergen) (1774) ; Sparrm. Mm. CarlKm. 

faae. 1. 1. 6 (iuD.) (1786); Gm. & N. i. 2, p. 514, n. 15 (1788); 

Zath. Ind. Om. ii. p. 845, n. 3S (1790); Temm. Man. dOn,. 



p. 549 (part.) (1815) ; Vieill. If. D. t. p. 113 fpart,) (1816) ; Dmn. 

Dkt. St. Nat xW. p. 271 (part.) (1810); Teirnn. Man. iTOnt. 

2nd ed. ii. p. 848 (1830) ; Scoreiini, Ace. of the Arct. lUg. *c. i. 

_ ™,„.r, . „„,^, „, „ ■■^■- -„. p. 68(1822): 

r Narrat,, App, 

!HaH.tfOn,. u "' ' 

19 (part.) (1831) ; Temm. Man. 

. p. 541 (ItflO) ; Naum. Fog. DtuUeAl. sii. p. 252, T»f. 321, 

322 (1844) : ScAliff. Hev. Crit. p. cxvi (1844) ; Oirb. Thes. Ora. 

i. p. 357 (pari.) (1H72). 
Oie B duvBt, oa Eider, IfAvbrnt. PL ^l. n. 309 ((f), 308 (?) 

(17—) : Buff. Sist. Nat. Oil. is. p. 103, pi. 6 (1763). 
mder or Cuthbert Duck, F^n. Snt. Ztmi. ii. d. 271, pi. 95 (1770) i 

Lath. Sjfli. iii. 2, p. 470, n. 20 (1785). 
Anser septentrianalis, Gerini, Stor. deffli Ua>. t. clzii. (1776). 
Anser mdlissimus, Bonn. Enc. MUk. i. p. 119, pi. SA. f. 2 (1790). 
Anas cuthberti, part., Pall. Zuoffr. Mauo-.4». ii. p, 335 (1811). 
ADser lantiginrieus, LeacA, Sgat. Cat. Mamm. ^ B. Brit. Mitt. p. 37 

(1816). 
Somateria (Cutbert'a Eider), Letich, in Ross's Vny. Di»c., App. 

p. ilTiii(1810). 
Somateria molliuima, Flem. PhU. of Zool. ii. p. 360 (1822) ; Bote, 

l$i», 1822, p. 564 ; Steph. Gen. Zool. sii. 2, p. 224, pi. 60 (1824) ; 

Jen. Man. p. 327 (1835) ; Lafrem. £cho du Moade tnv. no. 3, 1836, 

p. 5 {ef. Lett. Compl. de Bnf. 3nd ed. p. 720, 1838) ; GtnM, B. 

Eur. V. pi. 874 (1837) ; Sic. Oat*. B. ii. p. 368 (1837) ; Bp. Cotm. 

iw(, p. 57, n. 4111(1838); Rep. Counc. Z. S 1839, p. 39; K.^B. 

WirbfUA. Eur. pp. Ixxxri, 228 (1840) ; GuUiv. P.Z.S. 1842, p. 72 



Ge>. Mm. p. 120 (1844) ; G. R. Gr. 
(part.) (1844) i id. Gen. B. '" 
Rchnh. %t. Av. " 
B. Mui. A. S. 

Snid. xliii. p. h 
(Svlt) ; Evans . 



_. 'Brit. Mm. iii. p. 141 
1 (BTQ. emend.) (1844) ; 

KatRtorea, t. 8.^. ft. 162-153 (1845) ; BfytA, Oat. 

. p, 307, n. 1791 (1849) ; Scknd. Av. Si/it. Nat. 

iiAt. Nomencl. An. p. 103 (1864) ; Bp. Conmt. 

, n. 123 (1866) ; Safn, Naumannia, 1867, ii. p. 12$ 

, , , Stiuyt, l/>is, 1859, p. 167 (Spitsbergen) ; TorM. 

Bldr. till &»•(**«■. Molbukf. de. p. 67 (Spitsbflrgen) (1850) ; Q. B. 
Gr. List Brit. B.^. 205 {\Sm); Malmgr. (Efv. K. Vet.-Ah.Mrh. 
1863, p. 109 (Spitsbergen); id. J. f. 0. "186.3, p. 380; Newt. 
P. Z. S. 1864, p. 495 ; Mere, Hit, 1865, p. 444 (Great BritMn) ; 
A. Newt. Ibit, 1866, p. 515 (Sjwtsbergen) ; Oumingh. B>it, ISm. 
p. 16 ; Baird, Ibit. 1867, p. 286 (part.) ; Dej/l. ^ Gerbe, Om. Eu,: 
11. p. 555 (1867) ; ? Drmtf, J.f. O. 1868, p. 44 (Borkum) ; So 

~ ~ j. : breeding) ; JWaeA, /./. O. 

l p. 97 (Lofoten) ; S. MiUkr. 
ibid. p. 347 (Farcw) ; Gould, B. of Great Brit. \. pi. 26 (1870) ; 
GiUett, Ibit, 1870, p. 309 (Nowaja-Semlia) ; G. R. Gr. Uand-lnt. 
iii. p. 88, n. 10706 (part.) (1871) ; ^arpe. Aim. ^ Mag. N. H. (J) 
Tiii. pp. 51, 52, f. 1 (head) (1871) ; Sitarpe ^ Dreu. B. Bttr. vi, 
p. 620, pi. 446 (1871) ; SaUad. Fa*m. tCltai., Uec. p. 268 (1872) ; 
aundev. Meth. nat. An. dim. Tent. p. 140 (1872) ; FiUd. Zoolog. 
1872, p. 32.54 (Faeroe) ; iteugl. Ibi*, 1872, p. 03 (Novaja Zemlia) : 
id. J.f. O. 1872, p. 123 (Novaja Seiolja) ; FriUci. J. f 0. 1872, 
p. 372 (Bohemia) ; Fintdi, Ztceite DeuCichf Nordpolfahrt, ii. Vdg. 
p. 209 (1873) ; iWw/. m$, 1874, p. 403 (N. FiiBian I.) ; Hen-' 
JUii. Nordpolarjiuir, iii. p. 137 (1874); Cord. Ih», 1875, p. ■" 
(HeligoLmd) ; ScliU. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 628 ; Brandt, J.f. 0. 1 



54. flOMATBBIA. 



497 



p. 349 (note) ; — P J. /■. 0. 1880, p. 404 (Svlt) ; Gi>(. /6w, 1881 , p. 21 5 
hwlyt i T-Khiui Si SchmidA. J./. O. 1881, p. 212 (E. Hungary) ; 
Jtchnw. Om. CentrtdhL 1882, p. l«\ id. Viig. zool. Giirt. p. 49 
(ISSd); Seeb. IbU, 1882, p. 383 (Archwifret) ; Neale, P. Z. 8. 
1B82, p. U.54 (Franz Josef Land) ; Saiv. Cat. B. Strickl Coll. 
p. 530 (1882) ; J?. O. U. Liit Brit. B. p. 134 (1883) ; Sclat. Litt 
Ta-t. Alt. etii ed. p. 441 (1883) ; Ni«ni, Atti Sac. ItaL Se. Nat. 
xiTi. p. lUO (Venetian) (1883); Frittch, MT. on. Vef. Wien. 
1884, p. 31 (PiUeu) ; Sound. Yarreltt Hiit. SrH. S. iv. p. i67 
(ie84-86j; Dbim, Ibit, ie85, p. 87 (St. Kilda); Myiitomcs, MT. 
<mi. Ver. Wim, 1885, p. 6 (Styria) ; Serb. But. Brit. B. ii^P. 018, 
pi. 59 (egg) (1886); Saivad.£l. Utx. ItaJ. p. Sm [lim) ; Barting, 
Zootbg. 1887, p. 256 (Iceland) ; Sdtal. 7. f. O. 1887, p. 187 
(Jonalel.) ; BarUit, ibid. p. 268 (UusBcldorfj ; Hartwig. J.f. O. 
188H, p. 14« (North Cap); Tritlr. Cal. Coll. A p. 47 (1889); 
Miu/aud iTAtibuMon, BuU. Soc. Acclim. 1889. pp. 890-901 ; Sehal. 
Jl/O. 1890,p.9; fieAnw. iSirf, p. 83 ; H^afer, iJirf. pp. 234,235, 
236, 237, 238, 239,24^ 245, 247, 249, 252 (E. Spitsbergen); .Ewin*, 
Jbit, 1891, p. 73 (incubation) : l^drkk. ibid. p. 391 (rosail) : 
UaHert, Kat. Vogdiamnd. p. 233 (1891); Sharpe, Cat. Otteol. 
Spec. Coll. Surg. iii. p. 307 (1801) ; Seeb. Ibit, 1892, p. 28 (Heli- 
goland) ; Uarttrt, tbid. p, 510 ; Zii/ord, CoL Fig. Brit. S.vt. xxn. 
pi. — (18S2) ; Biagg, Jbii, 1803, p. 354 (SlieUand) ; Aart. ^ 
Bidte. Ibis, 1894, p. 233 (N. Norway) ; CoUett, Mindre Medd. vedr. 
Sorgea Fw/lff. 1881-92, p. 27T (1804). 

PUtypufl molliBsimHs, Brthm, Lehrb. rur. Vbg. p. 809 (1824); id. 
Omis, i. p. 38(1624); id. IsU, 182U, p. 993; Schilling, J./. O. 
1853, p. 377. 

Somatena danica, Brekm, Itia, 1830, p. 998, n. 1 ; id. Tog. DeuiicAI. 
V. 890 (1831) (Dnniah Mauds); «f. A'aumamtia, 1685, p. 299; 
id. Ftye;/. p. 388 (1855). 

Somateria norwegica, Brthm, Itii, 1830, p. 098, n. 2 (Norway) ; id. 
VSg. DcuUchl. pp. 802, 1035, Tftf. xliii. f. 1 (dad. in autumu) 
(1831) ; id. Naumanma, 1855, p. 290. 

Sooiateria plstyuros, Brthm, Itii, 1830, p. 998, n, 3; id. Vog. 
DeuUchl. p. 892 (1831) (Helsiogfora in winter) ; id. Ifaimaimta, 
1856, p. 299 ; id. Vngeif. p. 389 (1855). 

Somateria faeroeeuraa, Brdtm, I$ia, 1830, p. 998, a. i; id. VSu. 
DeuUchl. p. 893 (1831) (Faroe lal.); id. Naumannia, 1855, p. 20)1. 

Somateria megauros, Brthm, Iii», 1830, p. 998, a. 5; id. Viig. 
JJeutirhl. p. 894 (1831) (Insein dee Mhr liohen Norden). 

SomftteriH islondica, Brehm, liii, 1830, p. 096. n. U (Iceland) ; id, 
Viig. DeuUc&l. p. 695 (1831) (Iceland); ti^. A'aunumnia, 185-}, 
p. 209. 

Somateria Bt. eutbberti, £gt. Cat. Brit. B. p. 58 (1836) ; id. Mvi. 
Ama. p. 140 (1838); id. Sun. Anat.n. 100 (1869). 

Fuligula molli«imft, Setyf-L. Fam. Belg. i. p. 143 (1843); Degl. 
Om. E«r. ii. p. 463 (1^9); Sthltg. Mui. P.-B., An-*reB, p. 14 
(part) (1866); Pd>Hin,J./. O. 1876, p. 67 (Finland); Wallen- 
grm, J.f. O. 1893, p. 168 (Sweden). 

Somateria apectablliB, Beerh. (nee Linn.) Vog. of Ditcoverg etc. 
p. 100 (Spitsbergen) (184.')). 

Fulig"'" (S,imatena) rooUiBsima, Brandt, M4m. Ac. St. Piterib. (li) 
Ti. (1849) p. 5(1847). 

Somateria molliasima, vnr., Malmgr. <Efe. K. Vet.-Ak. Ftirh. 1804, 
p. 309 ; vi. J.f. O. 1865, p. 214 (Spilabergen). 

Somateria tbuleDsis, Malmgr. (Efe. K. Vtt.-Ak. PSrh. 1864, p. 380; 



id, J. /. O. 1865, p. 396 (SpiUber(Kin) ; A. Newt. J. f. 0. 1867, 
p, 310; fl«fli. J,f. O. ISn, pp. 88,98, 101, 106 (W. Spitebergea) ; 
id. Petmm. Geoar. Mitth. 1871. pp. 69. 65; Hmgl. Sett. n. d. 

Nordpolannfir, i. p. 103, iii. p. 137 (1874). 

Fo'- America (Somateria borealis). 

Great Hlack nnd White Duck, Edw. Nat. Hilt, of B. i. p. 08, pL 98 

(1750) (OreunJaad). 
Anns matron nigrn ft niba, Etlw. op. cit. p, 128, n, 98 (1760). 
AniiB moiliwinifv, part., &tbine, Tr. Linn. Soc. sii. 2, p. 654, pi. 30. 

If. 1, 2 (tncheit) (1818) (GrseiiUnd). 
Platypus borealifl, BrtAm, LeArb. evr. FHif. p. 813 (1824) (CoMts of 

BalliD's liaj and Davis's Stniit) ; id. Ornii, i. p. 38 (1824) ; td 

Itu, 1826, p. 095 (Ictland). 
Plati-pus leideri, Brehnt, Onia, i. p. 28 (1824) (Greenland); ^. 

B«l/. Sc. Nat. X. p. 151 (1827); Le*i. Comjd. de Buff., Oil. ix. 

p. 633 (1837) ; id. op. oU. Sod ed. p. 720 (Ift-fe). 
Somateria borefOis. Brehm, Itit, 1830, p. 908. a. 7 ; id. Vog. 

Dnittcht. p. 896 (1831); id. Naumannia, 1866, p. 299; AIUm, 

Auk, 1893, p. 123. 
Somateria leiBleri, BriAm,, Itii, 1830, p. 998, it.8; id. riy. DeiittehL 

p. 896 (Ureenland) (1831): id. Naumannia, 1866, p. 2M; id. 

Vogel/.p.3SS{imS). 
Somateria planifrona, Brehm, /m, 1830, p. 998, n. 9 ; id. Vog. 

DentaeM. p, 897 (Gwenliind) (1831) ; id. Naumannia, 1856, 

p. 290; id. Voptlf. p. 388 (1855). 
Somateria iiioUii«ima, HoUmlt, Kroi/er'n Natiirhigt. Tidsfcr. iv, 

p.44fi(]843)(Grepjilaiid); id- Fauna Gronlandt (Pauhm trantl) 

p. 73 (1846) ; id. On. Beitr. Fam. Griinl. p. 60 (1864) ; Baird. 

B. A', ^m. p. 809 (part) (1858) ; W. Cot. A'.^m. B.n. 600 (part.) 

(1859); ii>mA. (RffXmn.) JAu, 18m,p.l4 (Qre«Dland); BlalMt. 

Ibi», 1863, p. 150 (lIudeoD's Bay) ; Baird, Ibit, 1867, p. 286 

(part.): Jrown, P. Z. *. 1868, p. 360 ; Harling, P. Z. 8. \ST\. 

p. 118 (Baffin's Bay) ; Couet, Key N. Am. B. p. 303, n. 518 (paH.) 

(18721 ; FtUd. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 29 (Norman-Lockver I.) ; id. Ibi$, 

1877, p. 411; Kumlien, Bull. F.S. JVoC Jlfw. no, "l5,p, 80 (Cnni- 

bwrland Gulf) (1879); Bidgw. Pr. U.S. Jfeif. Mus. iii. p. 204 

(1880); id. Nom. N. Am. B. n. 627 (1881); Coue*, Chtck-tiit, 

2nd ed. p. 16, n. 733 (1882) ; t^. Key N. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 710 

(1884) ; S., B., ^ R. Wattr-B. If. Am. ii. p. 73 (1884) ; A. O. U. 

Check-lUi N. A. B. p. 122, n. 158 (pwl,) (1886). 
Somuteria tnolliatdma borealis, A. E. Brehm, Ven. Sammi. •ur. Viig. 

p. 14 (1866) ; Bidgw. Man. N. Am. B. p. 109 (1887) ; A. 0. U. 

(^ck-tid N. Am. B., Supplement, p. 20, n. 159 (1889). 
FuUgula iiiolliasima, part., Scklrg. Mia. P.-B., Anseres, p. 14, spec. 2, 

3, 7 (1866). 

Adult male. Upper part of the head deep velvety black, witi a, 
lino of white dividing the centre of the crown from the level of the 
eye to the napo; na|ie and hinder part of the auricular region 
covered with stiff feathers of a pale aea-grecn ; chocks, neck. 
back, and scapulars white; lower part of the centre of the 
back, rump, and upper tail-coverte black ; throat while, gradually 
shading into yellowish buff on the lower port of the fore-nock and 
upper breast ; rest of the under surface of the body black, vitli a 



1 



oonapicDOns white patch on citJier aide of the rump; amaller and 
median wmg-coverts white, th« greater coverts like the secondaries 
brown-black, primariea slighlly poler; inner secondariea white, 
broadly edged with brown-black on the outer weh ; tertUls white, 
alightly lalcatod ; marginal under wing-covert« pale brown, edged 
with white, the central ones and axiilaries white ; tail greyish 
brown : bili dull olive-grccn, almost olive-yellow in old birds, nail 
Drownish white ; feet light oLve-green, daws brownish black ; iris 
Urown. Total length about 22 inches, wing 12, tail 5, culmen 2-:;. 
tarsus l-a. 

Female. General plumage pale rufoos-browu, head and neck with 
narrow black streaks along the centres of the feathers, but the 
upper part of the head blacker ; upper and under patta banded with 
black and nifous-brown ; the black bands on the back broader ; 
greater wing-coverts and secondaries uniform dark brown, with 
narrow white tips, forming two white alar bars ; under wing- 
Gorerts brown, edged with ruibus, the central ones and axiUaiios 
dull grey; primaries and tail-leathers dark brown; abdomen 
almost uniform bruwn : bill and feet as in the male. 

Young in first j>luinag« closely resemble adtilt females, but the 
two white alar bars are very indistinct, and the margins of all the 
leathers are grey instead of brown -chestnut. Malt* may be distin- 
guished fxoai /tJiiaUs by the nearly black sides of tbeix heads. 

MaUe iitjiret nuptial dreta may he distingttished by the remains 
of greyish-brown feathers on both the white and black parts. 

Jfuie* in mouUing-drfts closely resemble males in first plumage, 
but generally have some white and black feathers ot the nuptial 
dress remaining. 

youru/ in down have the upper parta dark brown, and the nnder- 
porta, as well as a broad streak over each eye, pale brown. 

The American Eider Buck, so far as 1 can see, is scarcely 
different from the European ; but, according to Mr. Bidgway, 
it differs in having the " bill orange-yellowish in life ; the breast 
paler bud, the tertials more tulcate." As to the dimensions of the 
Qill, I cannot find that there is any constant diil'ercnce. 

Hab. Arctic regions of the Western Fahearctic Region, from 
Iceland eastwarda as far as the shores of the Kara ^Bi it migrates 
in winter to the Baltic, the shores of the North Sea, and the 
English Channel ; occasionally straying to Southern Europe. The 
Nearctic lonn, doubtfully distinct, inhabits Eastern Arctic America, 
including tireeuland ; south to Northern Labrador in summer, and 
to the northern boundaries of United States in winter. 

Purchased. 
Purchased. 
Theodore Fisher, Esq 

[P.} 
Purchased. 



/,jf. $«d.et ,J 

A, i,k. dk ^■ 

el puU. St. 
/. (fjav.sk. 



No locality. 

Reawick, Sbetlands, Aug. 

Damsa Holm, Orkneys. 

StromnesB, Orkney.'^, Oct. 
(J. H. DiaiH). 



Seobuhm ColL 



StromneM, OrknejB, June 

(J. H. Dunn). 
St. Hilda, June (C. Dixon). 
StEilda. 



p, 9. (f $ ad. at South Uiat 



r, *. tj S ad. at 
t. S tA.tk. 
u. $ ad. Bk. 
e, «, J. (T 2 ad. 

et pull. ek. 
y. ,; ad. Bk. 
>. <; ad. at 
o',4'. cJS«l.Hk 
c'. cJ juT. dk. 

tt,t',f'. Skeletona. 
jf'-M'. St«ma. 



Island of Coll, May. 
Fum la., March. 
lieHdnell, March, 
liodo, Norway. 

Lat79''30'>!.,'Long.4'>E. 
Spitabergen. 
Spitsbergen, Jul^, Aug. 
Nameless Day, INoTa Zembla, 



Seebohm Coll. 
Theodore Walker, 

TTiBQdoie HValkM, 

Esq. [P.]. 
Colonel Irby [P.]- 
Seebohm Colt 
Seebohm Coll. 
Salvin-Godman Coll. 

Capt. D. Gray [PJ. 
The Admiralty [P.]. 
McCormick Bequoai. 



H. Lefebvre Colt. 



9'. $ ad. ek. 
r'. tj ad. at. 
J. S ad. ak. 



N. America. 
Repulse Bay. 
Cape Fnuer, Aug. (H. 1 

Feilden). 
Doblnn Bay, Sept (H. 



Old Coll. 

H. J. Elwea, Eaq. 

RB.'Roa8,E«|.[P.l. 
Dr.J. Ra«pa 
Voy. H.M.S. 'Alert' 

Voy. H.M.S. 'Alert' 

Voy. H.M.S. 'Alert' 

Salrin-Qodman OoU. 




54. BOMAXB&IA. 



431 



(1862) ! EBiot, lUuttr. Am. B. pi. 48. (pta. liv., iv., 1869} ; Dofl 
$■ Bana. Tr. Okie. Acad. i. p. 300 (1869); Coue», Kty, p. 293 
(1872) ; id. Cheek-luC, a. 6U {1873) ; id. B. N.- Wat, p. 681 
(1874); Doll, All/. Aleut. Ul U«al. wala.p.7 (1874); SidyK. 
Worn. N. Am. B. n. 628 (1881) ; Coua, Chtek-Hst, 2nd ed. p. 116, 
n. 736 (1882) ; Sean, Pr. U.S. A'at. Mu». 1882, p. 167; fSteami, 
Pr. tT.8. Nat. Mia. 1883, p. 121 (Labrador); Neltrni, Cnt>*e 
'ConcB,' p. 101 (1883); Saund. FarreiCs Silt. Brit. S.iv.f. 459 
(1684-85) ; Seeb. Hut. Brit. B. iii. p. 617 (1885) ; Turner, Auk, 
1885, p. 158; Stfjn. Bull. U.S. Hat. Mui. no. 29, p. 173, pi, to. 
i. 3 (head, Copper Island) (188.^) ; Murdoch, Exped. to Point 
BarroK, Ata»ka, p. 110 (1886) ; Mattchie u. Ziimer, J.f. O. 1886, 
p. 192; A. 0. if. Cfcct-Cri S: Am. B. p. 123, u. 161 (1886); 
TumCT-, Qmtr. N. H. <tf Aliuka, p. 136 (1886); JViirwi, Nat. 
HiU. OoO. in Ahuka, p. 78, pi. v. f. 2 (head) (1887) ; Itidffic. Man. 
S. Am. B. p. 110 (1887): Sti^n. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mvt. x. p. 137 
(1887) (Copper lal. and Bering M.) ; Maefarl. Pr. U.S Nat. 
Mm. siT. p. 422 (Fnuiklin B«v) (1891); P&uw, Avk, 1892, 
p. 198 (Kansas I) ; AUen., Auk, ]893, p. 123. 

Somataria v-nigrum, Bp. Compl. Bend, zliii. p. 650, n. 124 (1366) ; 
Selii», BuU. Ac. Roy. Brur. Koii. 3. p. 16 (ISSOJ ; Blakist. Ibii, 
1863, p. 150; G. S. Gr. Hand-ltif, lii. p. 88, n. 10707 (1871) ; 
Adtimi, IbU, 1878, p. 434 (Michalaaki); Sah. ^ Sclal. Ibii, 1361, 
p. 491 ; BchruB. On. CentraM. 1882, p. 18; Saand. IbU, 1883, 
p. 347 j Slejn. Naturen, 1884, p. 61 ; A, B., * R. WaUr-B. N. 
Am. ii. p. 80 (1884) ; Coua, Key N. Am. B. 2nd ed. p. 712, 
n. 736 (1884) ; Edd. Ibii, 1886, p. 202 (note). 

Somateria molliNsinia, Taex. (n«e Linn.) Orn, Faun. Vott. SUtir. p. 71 
(1877) ; id. BuH. Soc. Zool. Ii-. ii. p. 48 (1877). 

Similar in plumage to S. moUueima and S. dreueri, but the 
adult vmle has a V-shaped mark of blatk on throat, tiko the male of 
S. tpeetahiHt ; besides, the male has tho black of head bordered 
beneath by pale green for nearly ita entire length, like S. dreueri : 
bill of adult male bright orange or orange-red in life, with paler 
tip. Wing 11-75-12-75 inchea, culmea l-aO-2-20, length of bill to 
point of baaat angle 2-50-3-IO, tarsus 200-230. 

The aduU frmaU is very similar to that of the allied apecieB, but 
it is aomewhat larger ; wing 1 1-50-12--5O. 

Youtuj in down. Very similar to the same stage of S. moUissima, 
but apparently paler brown, and with the feathered portion of the 
cnlmen narrower and more jwinted. 

Hah. North-western America, east to Great Slave Lake ; north- 
eastern Asia. 



a, b. e sd. "fe 
<r, rf, e. rf $ ad. 

flt.et(Jimm.sr 

f, g. PnlL at. 
A. (f ad. all. 



Old OoU. 
Voy.ofH,M.8. 'En- 



Butsian America {Adaiiu). 
Kotzebue Sound. 



(Typus of tlia api 
Voy. of H.M.S 



Wood rp.], 

(Ck>-type of uie ^>eciee.) 



*-p-(J $B^'< j"V-> St- MicbBel'H, Alnskft, Juae- Salvin-Oodmaii ColL 

et pull. 8k. Auk. (-EL W. Netton). 

o. $ &d. sk. St HichMl'i, Alaska, June (0. SftlTin-aodmBD Coll. 

r, i. Jut. ak. Stewart's I., Alaska, Sept. (£. SMvin-OodmaD Odl. 

W. A'eUon). 
f. $ aa. ak. Cape Sabine, Alaska, Aug. The Admiialt? [P.]. 

N. $ ad. ak. Arctic coast, £. of Ft Ander- SalTin-Oodnui Coll. 

son, July {It. MaeFarlaiu). 



4. Somateria spsctabilia. 

(Hudson'e Bay).' 

Anas freti budsonia. 

Anas spectabilis, lAnn. S. N. i. p, 

Voy. Pact/, iii. p. 356 (1784) ; Sparrm. Mua. QtrUon. fuse ii. 
t 39 ((J), t 40 (2) (1786); Om. S. ilf. i. 2, p, 607, n. 5 (1788); 
Lath. Ind. Ora. iL p. 846, n. 36 (1790) ; Bonn. Enc. MttA. i. 
p. 125, pi. 31. f. 3 (1790); PaB. Zoogr. Bono-A». ii. p. 236 
aab.lxTii.l(1811); Fwa/. i^. i). T.pp. 112, 162 (1816); Dvm. 
Diit. Sc. Sat. vi. p. .■152 (1817) ; Sa6oie, Linn. Tratu. xii. p. 563 
(Oreeii]aDd)(1818); TVmni. JVon. (i'Om. 2ad ed.ii.p. 851 (1620) 
Yarrell, Linn. Trmt. iv. 2, p. 391, pi. it. c, d (trachea) (1827) 
Leu. Man. d'Om. ii. p. 416 (1828) ; td. Tr. d'Om. p. 631 (1831) 
Ttmm. I. e. W. p. 541 (1840) ; Ifaum. Vdg. Deutidtl. xii. p. 286, 
Taf. 322. [. 1 (younp), Taf. 323 (1844) ; SchUg. Rev. Crit. p. cin 
(1844) ; Middend. Sibir. Rett. ii. p. 2a'),Taf. xxii. f. 1 pullus], 
i 2 (egg) (1863) ; Miinter, J.f. 0. 1863, p. 207 (Inseln Huden) ; 
Schroder, J. f. O. 1853, p. 322 {Lapland) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1863, 
p. 324 (Obina) ; jBimwy. J. f. 0. ISH p. 432 ; Qitb. Thes. Om. i. 
p. 362 (1872). 

Canard a, tele grit^;. Jivf. HUt. Nal. 0«. ii. p.SS.-] (1783) 




64. BOVAIEBU. 

0846); B^h, Cat. B. Mui.A.S.B. 
Bp. Oam^U Jiend. xUii. p. 660, n. 125 (li 



307, n. 1790 (18*9) 

)): Baird.B. N.Am. 

606 (lesa) : EooTU * StuTffe, 



p. SIO (1856) ; id. Oal. 

16u, 1869, p. 174 (Spitebergen P) ; Wheat. Ohio Agric. tUp. _ 
(UkB Eria 1) ( 1880) ; Rfinh. Ibu, 1801, p. 14 (Greenland) ; Torrll, 
Bidrag tiU Spilihay. Motlmkf. etc. p. 67 (185B) ; rerr. Ft. Eu. 
hut. m. p. 159 (18fi2): B^xirdm. Pr. Boit. Soc. N. H. ii. p. 140 
(1862) J Can. Pr. PhUad. Acad. 1862, p. 323 ; IT. C. M<iU. fid. 
Medd. (i) iv. p. S3 (Faem Jgl.) (1^); Bhti/tl. Ibu, 1663, 
p. 150 (Iludnon's Baj) ; G. A Or. Lid Brit. B. p. 300 (1863) ; 
Malmgren, (Eft. K. Vet.-Ak. Fdrh. 18(i3, p. 109 (StuUberj^n), 1864, 
p. 401; id.J.f. 0. 1663, p. 360; JVVuf. Am, 1865, p. 616 (Spits- 
bergen) ; Later. Ann. Lge. N. T. riji. p. 288 (1866) ; Baird, Ibit, 

1867, p. 286 ; Di^l ^ Oerbe, On. Bur. ii. p. 557 (1S67I ; Couet, 
Pr. Ei». Irut. y. p. 901 (1868) ; Colietl, Fid. Sfitk. Fdr/tandl. 

1868, p. 181 (Norway), tf.J./. O. 1889, p. 304; DaU ^ Batm. 
TV. CMe. Acad. i. p. 301 (1869) ; Tumb. B. E. Fa. p, 46 (New 
Jeraej in Bevere wtotere) (1869) ; Eylm, Syn. Anat. p. la's (1669) ; 
Sou, J. f. O. 1809, p, 07 (Lofoten) ; 8. Matter, ibid. p. 348 
(FSroe) J Gt^ld, B. of Great BrU. v. pi. 27 (1870) ; GUI^t. Ibis. 
1870, p. 309 (Novaia Semlju); Hartiny, P. Z " 

(ben' ' ■' -'."'."- 



J (Novaii Semlju); Hartiny, P. Z. S. 1871, f. 118, 
1 1_ (W of the 5); G. R. Gr. Band'litt,m.f.88,n.lQ'708 



nSiDiHeuffl. Ptterm. Geogr. MittK. 1871,pp.69.«5; rrf, J./. O. 
1871 , p. 105 (Spilabeiven) : id. Ibia, 1872, p. 63 (Novaia Semlja) ; 
id. J.f. O. 1872, p. 122 ; Feild. Zoolog. 1672, p. 3265 (F»roe I.) ; 



^L Slander). MeUt. not. Av. ditp. Ttnt. p, 149 (18>2) ; Comi, Key ff. 

^B Am. B. p. S93 (1872) ; Id. Cheelt-liat, a. 166 (1873) ; Finteh, 

^H ZteeiU tkuttrhe Nordpol/ahrl, ii. p. 216 (1873); Datt, Amf. 

^H AUut. hi. Unal. Eattte. p. 6 (1673) ; Omet, Birdi N.- Wetl, p. 6^1 

^B (1874) ; Tna. Bull. Soe. ZooL Fr. Ji. p. 48 (1877) ; id. Om. Faun. 

^m Voa. Sibir. p. 71 (1877) ; Feild. P. Z. 8. 1877, pp. 30, 32 (W. of 

^M Cape Uuiun) ; id. Ibi$, 1877, p. 412 (Floeberg Beach, kt 82^ 37' 

^1 N.) ; Ih-eu. B. of Eur. vii. p. 643, pi. 446 (1877) ; Seeb. Ibit, 

^M 1879, p. 161 (SiberiR) ; BriitA. Vid. Mtdd. 1879, p. 205 ; Sdat. 

^H p. Z. S. 1880, p. 626; Brartdt, J. f. O. 1880. p. 240 (nole); 

^^1 frn.Jlnin fhiU. Ktltt Om ntlJl. V n ]f4t) m.aKtnm\mn nn.jtl 

H Bb 

H Ex 

■ 
■ 

■ I; 

■ Ci> 

■ S 

L 



Sms/iaw, Bidl. Null. Om. Club, v. p. 189 (Calitornisn «MWt) 
(1860) ; Comeav, Caimd. Spoilim. and Natural, i, do. 7, p. 51 
(nesting on a small island nanr Mingan) (1861) ; Ridgv. Norn. N. 
j1m.jB. 0.629(1881); Bchnw. Om. CmtralU 1882, p. 18: id. 
VSg. tool. Oiirt. p. 49 (1882); Setii. Ibit, 1863, p. S83 (Kanin 
Peiunsula) ; 0»««, Cat. B. Sh'iekl. Coll. p. 640 (Iceland) (1882) ; 
Bean, Pr. U.S. Nat. Mas. 1882, p. 167 ; Paling, Intern. FitA. 
ExMb. London, 1883, Swtden 8pM. Cat. p, 100 (1883) ; Sound. Ibi», 
183, p. 341 i Nelion, Crmte • Conoin,' p. 101 (1883) ; Steai-ni, Pr. 
U.S. Nat. Mut. 1883, p. 121 (Labrador) ; B. O. U. ImI Brit. B. 
p. 134 (1883); Taa. Btdl. Soe. Zool. Fr. riii. p. 344 (Kamt- 
Khntka) (1883); B., B., ^ R. Wnter-BinU N. Am. U. p. 83 
(1864); S<amd. Yarreiri Hut. Brit. B. it. p. 463 (1864-86); 
Dixm, lbi», 1885, p. 88 (St. Kilda) ; Sseft. Hid. Brit. B. 

1, pi. 50 (eiw) (1685): Matiehie u. Zienur, J.f. O. 

103 ; Murdoch. Erped. to Point Barrow, Alatka, p. 120 
(1886)"; Utejiug. Om. Eipt. of the Comm. Itl. and Kamlaeliatka, 
p. 818 (1885); A. O. U. CheckJid N. Am. B. p. 133, n. 162 
(1886) ; Tuner, Contr. N. H. of AUitkn, p l.-i7 (1886) ; 
Payne, Pr. Canad. Ind. (3| v. p. 122 (Prince of Wales's Souod, 
Bndson'R Strait) (1837) ; Nelton, Nat. Ititt. Call, in Ala»kn, p. 70 
(1867) i Murdoch, Zookgitt, 1887, p. 108 [Point Bartow) ; Btdgw. 
„ xxTu. 2 r 



I. N. Am. B. p. 110 (1887J ; Lewk.J.f. 0.1b87,p.86(var.)! 
Stejnrg.Pr. U.S. Nat. Mui. 1867, p. 13S; Simti, BoUM. M 



Natural. 1888, p. 137 (Venetian) ; Seeb. Ibu, 1888, p. 3€1 (QtMt 
Liakoff IbL) ; Hartw. J.f. O. 1889, p. 163 ; TrUtr. Cat. ColL B. 
p. 47 (Labrador) (1888) ; Setb. B. Jap. Emp. p. 266 {Knrile U.) 
(1890); Rohnw.J.f. 0.1890, p. 83; WatUr, Aid. pp. 235,236, 
288, 339, 243, 245, 247 (E. Spitsbergen) ; Maffarl. Pr. U.S. NaL 
Mut. 1891, p. 422 (Franklin Ba^) ; Hartal, Sat. Fogfliamml. 
p. 233 (1891) ; SouihtoeU, Tr. Norw. &>c. v. pp. 68, 60 (Norfolk) 
(1891); SM£.iMi,1892,p. 28 (Heligoland); Hatch, B. of Mmna. 
p. 68 (1892) ; Allen, Auk, 1893, p. 123 ; W. S. J., Fore^ and 
Strtam, 1893, p. 911 (Maine) ; .Mociaj/, Auk, 1884, p. 224; Whit- 
field, ibid. p. 323 1 ColieU, Mindre Medd. ixdr. Noiyet FugUf. 
1881-92, p. 287 (1894). 

FlaUpus ipectabilia, Brekm, Lehrb. Naturg. eur. Vdg. ii. p. 816 
(1824) ; Biick, J.f. O. 1863, p, 371. 

FuIiguJa spectabili^ Bp. Ann. Lue. N. Y. ii. p. 369, d. 332 (1826) ; 
id. &n. p. 389 ( 1828} ; id. Itit, 1832, p. 1188 ; Awl. Om. Biogr. 
iii. p. 528, pi. 276 ; id. &flt. p. 291 (1839) ; Seb/g-Z. Faun. Belg. 
I. 143 (1842) ; And. B. Am. vi. p. 347, pL 404 (1843) ; De Kay, 
''. Y. Zool. ii. p. 334 (1844) ; Giraud, B. Long /ri.p. 333 (l&M) ; 
iJegl. Om. £W. ii. p. 466 (1649) ; Schleg. Mus. F.-B., Anaere*, 
p. IS (1866) ; Palmin, J.f. O. 1876, p. 67 (Finland) ; Brandt, 
J.f. 0. 1891, p. 268 (Sitka and Aleutians). 

Fuligula (Somateria) spectabilis, X«U. Man. ii. p. 414 (1834); 
Brandt, Mhn. Ae. St FOerA. (6) \Sc. Nat.) ri. 1649, p. 6 (1647). 

Somateria pectoralie {erroret), ZteJU. Ifomenol. Ac. p. 103 (1854) 
(Qreenland). 

Somateria megarbjDcbus, Brehm, Vege{f. p. 389 (1856) ; ti'. Nau- 
mannia, 1856, p. 299. 

Soniat«riB altenateini, Bnhm, Voge\f. p. 389 (1865) ; id. A 
1856, p. 299. 

"Anaasuperba,X«ic*, Suit. Cat.\S>\6* ."fde B., B.,^ B. WaUr- 
Birde N. Am. p. 83 (1864). 



Jv',! 




54. BOUATGSU. 



435 



upper mandible spread oat into a ehield on Ench iido, reddish 
oranj^e-colour ; irides yellow ; legs atid feet orauge-red, membrane 
darker. Total length about 24 incheB, wing 11*5, tail 4'2o, 
cnlmen 1-25, tarens l-'a, 

Femalt. lt«semblea that of S. moUUtima, bat U mddier and 
Bmallar, and besides ma; bo distinguished by the central line of 
feathers on the culmon running down to the nustrils, while iu the 
Common Eider it hardly reaches halfway. General plumage fosy 
rufoaa ; head and nock with narrow black streaks ; feathers of the 
back and upper wiug-coverta with black centrea ; breast and flanks 
vith crescentic black bands ; lower breast and abdomeu darker ; 
greater wing-coverta and quills blackish brown, the greater wing- 
coTert* and eecondariea with a narrow white band at the tip; 
tertiala somewhat bent downwards and edged with rufous-brown ; 
under wing-coverta greyish brown ; axillarios white, dusted with 
grey ; tail Ijlackish brown : bill greenish brown ; iris dull yellow ; 
feet dull ochre. Total length 22*5 inches, wing lO'O, culmcn 
1-25. 

I'ouny in jirit plumaiff resembles the females, but has traces of 
the dark lines on the throat and margin of the bill (Seehol'in). 

Malt* injlrtt. nuptial dress have very small shields at the base of 
the bill, and only a few of the wing-coverts are white. 

Males in moitttiiiff drat closely resemble males in first plumage, 
but may be diiitinguishcd by the broader shields at the base of the 

hill. 

Fmauf in down has the bill narrower than in the Common Eider ; 
the down of the central ridge runs down to the nostrils in the same 
characteristic manner as Ihe feathers in the adutt ; the upper parts 
are only a trifle mure rufous, but the cheeks, throat, and underpaxts 
are much lighter and yellower than in the Common Eider. 

Hah, Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere; in America, 
iKsCBtdonally in winter to New Jersey, the Great Lakes, and Cali- 
fornia; in Europe, rarely in the British Islands, franco, and 
Scandinavia. 



H. J. Elwee, Esq. 

[P.]. ^ 

Capt. Collinson [P.], 




Snlvin-Qodm&n Cull. 



I,m, n. 6 ad., Wbalelish Island (I>r. Bobert- The Admiralty [P.j. 



Franklin Bay, July (R. Mac- 9alvin-Godniiui Coll. 

Far/an^). 

Repulse Bay. Dr. J. Rta [P.] 

Lftt 82° 30', June (//. JT, The Ad.uiralty [P.]. 



t. S imm. sk. 


Lat. rO= N., Long. 68= 30' W, 
{FtUden). 


H. W. FeUden [P.]. 


u. ,; ad. Bk. 


Godbout, Canada, Jan. (N. A. 

Qmeau). 
Chicago Market fimported 

from Calumet MarBheB), Dec. 


Salrin-Godmia CoL 


c-rfjaT.ik. 


Salvin-Godman CoU. 


». $ ad. sk. 
r. Juv. ak. 


DuKovery Bay, July. 
Greenland. 


J. Hart, Em. fC.]. 
TweeddalTfcoU. 


y. (J«d.Bk 




Hume Coll. 


e. 9 ad. sk. 


Greenlsnd. 


Gould Coll. 


ad. bL 


Greenland. 


HolboU CoU. 


<r. <J imm. Bk. 


Nanortalik, Greenland, Feb. 
{R. Miilkr). 


Hatgitt Coll. 


€!,/: (J ad. Bk. 


Nanortalik, Greenland, Feb., 
MBKh (R. Miilkr). 


Seebohm CoU. 


Sf, h: 2 ad. at 


S. Greenland, Dec., Jan. 


Dr. R. Bowdler 


JUT. Bk. 

f. ,; ad. at 


Orknera. 


Sharps [P.]. 
W. Parke, F^. [P.]. 


1:4r^ 


Nova ilembla, June. 




No locality. 


Puichaaed. 



Subfamily IX. £RI8MATURIN.£. 

£«y to the Oenera. 
a. Bill about tbe langtb of the head; no 

Godent lobeou Uiechin; tail-feathers 
a than 24. 
a'. Nul of the bill perpendicular. 



', Tail shorter thaji t 



6>'>, That^asscdbnts, p. 436. 




55. IBALASStOBKIS. 437 

Thalauioriiig leuconotuB, G. JR. Gr. ^ Milch. Gm. B. iii. p. 620, 
pi. 169. t 1 (1844) i Udaib. Sgn. Ae., NttUtores, t. 70. ffi 232«- 
2»{1850)! id. Ac. Sytt. Nat. p. viii, tab. »iii. (16o2); Feh. 
-fin'*) h'oMra, Vcff. p. 13a (ISCo) (Cape cf tJood Hope); FinKh 
u. Marti. Viig. O.-A/r. p. 810 (1870) : Sartrrt, Eat. VoytUatHini. 
p. 234 (laH). 

Claogula leuconotua, thnith, 10. S. A/r., Zool., Aves, pi. 107 (1646). 

Anaa brevipeniik, Licht. Mu». JJerol., tette G, R. Gr. Gen. £., App> 
p. 28 (184fl). 

ThaludorDU leucouoIa.X^f.A'onww/. ^o. p. 103 (1854) ; Cab., v. 
d. Deck, Seite O.-Afr. p. SI (lOtW) ; Htmdtv. Meth. nat. Av. ditp. 
Tent. p. 160 (1872): HcAnio. J. f. O. 1887. p. 4Q (NjaoHi) ; 
MattcSi^, J. /. O. 1887, p. 157 ; Sdnv. J. /. O. 18*W, p. 2lK> 
(Quitimanci) ; id. Mitth. Natnrh. Mug. at Hamb. i. p. S (^Qiuli' 
mane) (1803) ; id. VOs. Ueuttck-Oit-Afr. p, 25 (1894). 

ThalftsaoraL) leucoDota, £p. Comut. Rend, iliii. p. 656, n. 194 
(18«); Hartl. J. f. O. 1860, p. 174; id. On. Seilr. Faiai. 
Madag. p. 83 (1601) ; Follat, N. T. D. i. p. 328 (1803) ; Vftr. iw 
KiMon'B Toy. ik Madag., App. 1), p. 4 (1866) ; Laijard, Bird* of 



B. Afr. I 
(Msaagtt 



(1867) ; Gratid. Rev. i* Mag. de Zocl. 1866, p. 6 
~ " 1871): 



^--sdagMCM) i a. R. Gr. Har,d4iit, iii. p. 90, n. 10717 (1871) ; 
Boc. Jom. Aead. 8c. Litb. 1873, p. 70 (lUo Coroca) ; Aym, Ibin, 
1874, p. 105 (Transvaal) ; Boc. u. Gad. J. f. O. 1876, p. 204; 



J. J. O. 1877, p. U (Lowjgo) ; HanL Die Vog. Madag. 

p. 366 (1877) : Sclat. P. Z. 8. 1880, pp. 529, 534 ; Fia^. h. lirhmn. 

J.f. O. 1880, p. 139 (ZaniiW) ; JSw. On. Angola, p. 505 (1881) ; 

Bull., Feiid., * Reid. Zootog. 1882, p. 428 (Natal) ; Bohm, JJ. 0. 

1882, p. 184 (ZBoiiW) ; Milne-£dm. ^ Grandid. Oit. Madag. 

p. 735, pi. 275a. f. 3 (1882) ; Skarpe, Lagard't B. of 8. Afr. 

P. 761 (1884); Bohm, J.f. O. 1885, p. 38 (UgftJlo. C. Afr.); 

FUcher, J.f. O. 1886, p. 115; Sifinondt, Ibie, lb87, p. 38« 

(Orange Free State) ; SaCvad. Arm. Mum. Civ. Gen. (2) vi. p. 324 

(Shoa) (1888); Trittr. Cat. CoU. B. p. 46(1888); Sibree, lbi», 

1892, pp. 205, 271 ; NiehalU ^ Egiinglon, SportUH. m & Afr. 

p. 125 (cote) (1893). 
Enamatura leuconota, Mont. P. Z. S. 1 S65, p. 89 (Benguela). 
Buiura leuconota, Schli^. Mat. P.-B. Andres, p. 8 (1606); Gieb. 

Tiei. On. i. p. 467 (1872). 
Clangula leuconota, (^in. Trae. in S. Afr. ii. App. p. 423 (1868). 
Anas leuconotua, Gieb. The*. Orn. i. p. 355 (1872). 
Emmatura (Thalaseiorais) leuconuta, Rchmc. Orn. Centralbl. 1882, 

p. 4. 
Aoaasp., Bohm, J.f O. 1885, p. 51, 1887, p. 157 f = P leuconota). 

Adith male. Upper part of the bend, uape, and throat black, 
varied with jtillow-oclinHjiiB ; a buHy-nbita spot at tho ontcrior 
part of tho checks just near the base of the bill, exlcnding to below 
tho gape ; sidua uf tho head oohreona yellow, with Uauk roundish 
spots ; Bides and anterior part of the upper nccic uniform bright 
ochreons yellow ; hack, scapulars, and wiiig-coTort« with black and 
rufous-ochreoua hands; rump white; upper tail-coverts black, with 
buff bands ; nnderparls ochreous yellow, the jugulum, sides of the 
breast, and flanks banded with block, the black bands broader on the 
flttnks ; centre of the breaat uniform, uuspolted ; abdomen and 
under tail-coverta dusky, the edges of the feathers buff; primaries 
greyish brown, tho secondaries spottt^ with rufous on the edges; 



438 AVATIDf. 

nnder wing-coverte brown-grey, the maifjnal onoB tinged with 
buff; axillaries buff, with a brown stripe along the middle ; tail- 
feathers blackiab brown, with narrow ochreoas edges; "bill blue 
cod slate colour, lower mandible yellowuh ; irides dark brown ; 
feet dark brown" (A^res). Total length 16-17 inches, wing 7, 
tail 2-5, culmeD 1-7, tarsus 1-3. 

Female. Similar to the male. 

Toung. Similar to the adult, but less ochreons and more brown 
on the abdomen. 

Hob. Sonthern Africa, north to Loango on the western coast, 
and to Sboa on the eastern ; Madagascar. 

E. WUson, Esq. [P.]. 
Sir A. Smith [P.]. 
(Types of the ppecies.) 
Sir A. Smith [P.]. 
Eyton Coll. 
Shelley Coll. 
Cftpt. Sarile Reid [CI. 
J.H.Gumey,E*q.[P.]. 



Shelley CoU. 
J. Monteiro [C.]. 



a. Ad. St 


Africa. 


6, c, d. Ad. et 


8. Africa. 


8. Africa. 


/. Juv. sk. 


S, Africa. 


f, A. 6 ad. sk. 


Newcastle, Katsl, Sept. 


t. $ ad. sk. 


Newcastle, Natal, Sept. 


*.rfad.8k. 


Kroonstad, Orange Free 




State, March <E. T. 






/. Ad. sk. 


Transvaal (T-.^arw). 


m. Juy. sk. 





56. N0M0N7X. ^ 

Nomonyz, SidffV). Pr. U. S. Nat. Mut. iii. p. 16 (1880). N. dom 
Bange. Tropical America, including the West Indies. 




56, uttxoxjx. 



489 



3 (1824). 



Soffra't Hid. Nat. Cuba, Oit. p. 297 (1840) (CuIm et BolivU) ; 

Burm. Syit. Veberi. iii. p. 440 (1856). 

FuIigiiU dominicB, Steph. Gen. Zuol. lii. 3, p. S03 

Cerconeclea spinoMt, Wr^l. Isu, lifi2, p. S82 (Par . 

Ensmstura dominicH, E}/t. Matt, Anat.y. 172 (1838) ; Hititl. Fen. 

Oa. Mm. p. 121 (1844) ; G. R. Gr. Utt B. Brit. Mat. iii. p. 14U 

(1844): id. Gen. B. iii. p. 627, n. 6 (1844); ficAnJ. Sm. Av., 

KalAtore^, t. 78. ff. 900-901 (ISIS) ; Lidtt. Nomencl. Av. p. 103 

(1854) (Montevideo, Chili); Bp. C<mpt. Send, iliii. p. 626, 

n. 162 (1856) ; Cab. ^ Gundl. J. f. 0. 1867, p. 231 (Cuba) ; Sctat. 

P. Z. 8. 1667, p. 30a (JaUwi) ; Cabot, Pr. Bmt. Sac. N. H. yL 

p, 376 (1858) (Lahe Chnmplain); Baird, B. N. Am. pp. 811, 925 

(1868) (Lake UhampUin) ; id. Cat. JV. Am. B. n. 010 (1869) ; A. 

^E. Ifewt. Ihui. 1859, p. 367 (St CrMx); Sclat. P. Z. S. 1860, 

S, 264 (OriMbo): Baird, B. N. Am. ed. 18^, pi. 92; Gundl, 
./. O. \ml, p. 340, 1862, p. 03 ; Rii, 1863, p. 289 (Maitimca ) 
OundL Bepert. Fivco-Xat. Cuba, i. p. 391 (1866); JUol. Oit. 

TVuui/. p, 625 (1806) ; EyC. Si/n. Ana/.p.laH (1869); Pek. Om. 

Bras. pp. 320, 321 (trachea), 460, li.\ (1870) ; BeirA. Fugl. Bras. 

Camp. p. 20 ( FuJ. Mtdd. 1870) (Lngoa dos Pitoa) ; EuirUten, Pr, 

Boa. Soe. N. H. ut. p. 164 (WieconSn) (1871) ; Brewer, Am. Nat. 

T. p. 441(1871); e.R. Gr.amrf-;M(, iii. p. 90, 11.10723(1871); 

Couet, Key N. Am. B. p. 396 (1872) ; id. Checklist, a. 620 

(18781 ; Zte, Ibi$, 1873, p. 137 (Entrerios. Ai>rent Rep.) ; Sclat. 

* Sale. Nommd. Av. Neolrop. p. 131 (1873); Lawr. Mem. Bosl. 

Soc.N. M.ii.f. 316(1874) (Mesico); Coaa, B. If.-Weit,f.6SS 

(note) (1874) ; OundL J./. O. 1874, p. 3U (Porto Bico), 1876, 

p. 884 (Cuba); Pi)ani/: i6«, 1876, p. 163 (ArgentineP) ; Selat. ^ 

Saiv. P. Z. S. 1876, pp. 406, 411 ; Gundl. Anal. Soc. Etp. Hitt. 

Nat. vii. p. 408 (1878) (Porto Kco) ; id. J.f. 0. 1878, pp. 162, 

191 ; Selat. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 630 ; Sale. Cat. B. Stride!. CoU. 

p. 641 (1882) ; Barrme, Auk, 1884, p. 274 (Lower UrupuiT) ; 

£mtt, Sev. Cienl. DWc. Centr. Ti^Bei. i, p. 43 (Veneiualft) (1887) ; 

Brrl. J.f. O. 1887, p. 13.3 (Pamguay). 
OxTura dominicR, Eot Mon. Anat. pf, 24. f. 2 (head of the femiUe) 

(1838). 
Ensmatiira spiaosa, Gone, B. Jam. p. 404 (1847) ; AUirecAt, J.f. O. 

1862, p. 2(n (Jaaaical. 
EriamatuTa ortjgoides, " Hill," Ooue, B. Jam. p. 406 (1847) ; Goue, 

JUtutr. B. Jam. pL 113 (1849) ; Jlchnb. Si/n. Ac, NaUtorei, t. 91. 

f. 2053 (1860) (ex ffowe) ; Bp. Compl. Bend. xUii. p. 662, a. 163 

(1856). 
DeDdrocjgnua npioosa, Brewer, Pr. Bott. Soe. K H. viL p. 808 

(I860) (Cuba). 
Biziura dominica, ScAleg. Mat. P.-B., Anaerea, p. 9 (1866) ; Gieb. 

Tha. Om. i. p. 467 (1872). 
NomonjTE dominicua, RiA/te. Pr. U.S. Nat. Mut. iii, p. 16 (1880) ; 

■a. Norn. N. Am. B. n. 635 (1881); B., B., * J!. WaUr-B. N. 

Am. ii. p. 109 (1884) ; Cory, Lilt B. W. hd. p. 31 (1886) ; 

A. O. U. Check-tiat N. Am. B. p. 125, n. 168 (1886); Ridgw. 

M<m.N. Am. B. p. 114, n. 125(1887); Cory. Auk, 1888, p. 68; 

id. B. Wett Ind. p. 260 (1889) ; Sclut Aryent. Om. ii. p. 138 

(18B9); Cory, A«k,\e89, p. 336 (Maaeacbuutts) ; Sclat. Bnt, 1890, 

p. 426 (Argentine) ; «ra«,.4i>A, 1801. p. 304 (Jamaica) ; BoUand, 

Ibis. 1802, p. 209 (Argentine, egg») ; Cory, Auk, 1892, p. 272 



(Cuba), 
Momouyx {er, 



'e) dominiciu, Ibii, 1880, p. 491 (lades). 



HomooTZ domiDica, Cout$, Cheek-titt If. Am, B. 2od ed. p. 117, 
n. 742 (1682) ; id. Eey N. Am. B. Sod ed. p. 715, n. 742 (18B4). 

AduUmaU. HeadbUck; neck and breast bright nutyciDnamon, 
shading into reddish white on the lower parts ; feathere of the back, 
scapulars, and feathers of the flanks broadly centred with black, 
the edges cinuamon ; wings brown, with a white band or speeolum 
formed by the tips of the anterior wing-coverts and by the basal 
portion of the auterior secondaries; some of the median wing- 
ooverts edged with rusty dnnamon ; under wing-coverts brown, 
with narrow whitish edges ; tail blaek : " bill blue ; nail, tip of both 
mandibles, and naked skin on chin black; remunder of the lower 
mandible reddish white ; outer aspect of tarsus and two outer toes 
dark brown or blaok, the inner side of the tarsus, inner toe, and 
membranes pale brown, spotted with black ; iris dark brown ; 
naked skin round the eyes bluish " (Gundlaeh), Total length 
about 15 inches, wing 5*7, tail 4, culmeu 1-26, tarsus 1. 

Female. Tpper parts brown ; pileum uniform ; a narrow super- 
Goliary stripe buff; a broader baud, also bufF colour, underneath the 
eyee from the bill to the occiput ; two dark bands from the bill to 
occiput, one through the eyes, the other lower down, starting from 
the gape ; throat buff ; neck buff mottled with brown ; feathers of 
the breast and flanks centred with brown, the edges buS ; abdomen 
buff, tbe brown bases of the feathers more or less showing through : 
feathers of the back more or less edged and spotted nith buff; 
wings brown ; wing-speculum white as in the male ; tail blackish ; 
>' bill horn-brown, with the tip black " (Oundlaeh). Size somewhat 
smaller than the male. 

Toung. Besembles the female, but there are no distinct brown 
centres to the feathers of the breast and flanks, and the whole of 
the lowur parts have the bases of the feathers much paler brown. 




r ^ 1 

57. EEIMAIUEA. ^^ M 
Oxjan. (gubffen.), Bp. Ann. Lye N. T. a. (1826), ^1 
Ensmiitura, Bp. Sagg.' Dittr. Met., Agg. « Can. ■ 






Gymnura (suhKen.), A'^it. 5fan. ii. p. 426 (18Si 
Uidina, GobW, B. <tf E>if. r. pi. 38;) (1837) . . . 
BTthoaesaa, Okgrr, Handr- u. HiTftA. p. 413 (18- 
EVimirtura ierrort't), DegL ^ Gerbe, Om. £ur 

p. 665 (1867). 

Range. Almost coBmopolitan. 

Key to Ih4 Species, 
a. Bretst, and usuailv also the back nnd flanks, 

lirwht chestnut {Adult Main). 
a'. Head partlv white. 

a". Head white, crown black 

b". Cheeks and chin white, upper part of the 

head lo the occiput Uack 

I b'. Head and upper part of the neck wholly 


.. E.iamaicensi.. ^ 
2). E. leuoocephala. 

jamaicenii*, p. 44d. ^H 
ma««a,p.44a ■ 

ferruginea, p. 449. ^| 

vitfata, p. 4.50. 
aiutralia, p. 4eL 

1 

leucBeephala, p. 443. 

mac^, p. 448. ^^H 
jatnaiceruii, p. 415. ^H 


^^^■^ tf: Aiillaries grcviah hrowa, edged with 

^^^V- a'". Chin white. 

^^^^^ a'. Under tail-coverts rusty red 

^^^H 6'. Under tail-coveru white 

^^■b ^". Chin Uke the head bUck. 

^^■P c*. Chestnut colour of the breast, flanks, 

^^^^V and upper parts lighter and 

^K- brighter 

^^^ d*. Chestnut colour of the brenat, flaoka, 


6. Breast and upper paita uot bright or deep 

chestnut, always more or less fi^ckl^I or 

barred with brown {Fftnale* and Young). 

<f. Upper mandible at base decidedly swollen on 

tio sides; usually upper parts distinctly 

, e". Cheeks not uniform with the upper part 
^^B* -• of the head, but crossed below the eyes 
^^HL by a whitish band from the bill to the 
^^■l ocdput. 

^^KT "'"■ Uuder tail-coverta whitish, not 
M sharply detined from the remainder 


I if". Under tail-coverta pure white, sharply 
[ defined from the remainder of the 
t abdomen. 
r e". Bill across at bmadest point 0-80-(M)0 


L "^ 


k 



/*. Bill across at broBdeet point 0-75-0-8( 



«"'. Cheekn dmk brown, almost unifoim . . \\l!Zi^!^!.-.'r. im 
/•'. ChMbuid uppmput. of th. b,«ll ''»""™'"'I'"'' 

brown, freckled and mottled witli 

paler markingH amtTalu,^. 4Sl. 



1. Eriflma,tnr& lencoceplLala. 
PWbite-head, SJum, Trae. p. 264 (1788). 
Anas leucDcepbaluB, Scop. Ann. I. Hut. Nal. ■p. 65, n. 79 (1789) ; 

Om. S. N. 1. 2, p. 516, n. 72 (1788) ; LatA. Jnd. Om. ii. p. 868, 

n. 84 {17801 ; Stmn. Ene. M&h. i. p. 131 (1790) ; Bechtt. Om. 

Tatehenb. ii. p. 444, Taf. 28 (tj) (1803); Beoha. Gem. Naturg. 

DnUtcAl. iv. p. 982 (1800) ; Sao^, Doer, de lEgypt, Hut. iV'at. 

i. pt. 4, p. 316, pi. 10. f. 2 (1809) ; Temm. Man. d'Om. p. 5fl6 

(1815) J Dum. Dtct. Sc. Nat. vi. p. 397 (1817) ; Temm. (^. cit. 

2nd ed. ii. p. 860 (1820) ; Banz. El. di Zool. iii. pt it p. 137, 

tav. 30. f. S ? $ ) (182H) ; Be. Speech. Comp. p. 72, n. 230 (1827) ; 

leg). Tr. dOra. p. ttSO (1831) ; Stridil. Ann. ^ Mag. N. H. viii. 

p.646{1842)i Naum. yi^.iWtjcAA lii. p. 149, TafT 316 (1844); 

Buory, J.f. 0. 1867, p. 131 (Algeria). 
Anas meraa, PaU. ReU. Bust. Seichs, ii. Ash. p. 713, n. 29, t. H 

(1773) ( Ealk, Beytr. t. Top. Kennt. Biiu. Btichs. ii. p. 349, n. 76, 

t. 23 (1786) ; Gm. S. N. i. 2, p. 620, n. 84 (marsa) (1788) ; 

if<»tti..Btc.Jlf«A.Lp. 127,pl.36.f.fl(<J 2) (1790); .Poll Zooffr. 

BoMO-Ai. ii. p. 283, L lixiii. (1811) ; VieilL N. D. v. p. 137 

(1816) ; Ihtmmt, Diet. Sc. Nat. vi. p, 376 (marea) (1817) ; .ScAAy. 

Ben. Crit. p. cxviii (1844) ; Badek. J.f. O. 1864, p. 370 (Volga) ; 

Piiukr, ibtd. p. 380 (tauris); Buiiry, J. f. O. 1857, p. '■'" 




S7. .IBISVATTrBi.. 



1855, p. 369 (N.E. Africa) ; L. Brthm, Vage^.;a. 393 a856) ; id. 
Naammmia, 1855, p. 298, n. 1 :