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Full text of "Catalogue of Australian mammals, with introductory notes on general mammalogy"



AUSTRAM MUSEUM, SYDNEY 

.A.TALOGUE No. 16. 




CATALOGUE 



OF 



AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 



WITH INTRODUCTORY NOTES 



ON 



GENERAL MAMMALOGY 



BY 



J. DOUGLAS OGILBY, 

Fellow of the Linnean Society of London. 



FEINTED BY ORDER OF TIIE TRUSTEES. 
E. P. RAMSAY, F.R.S.E., CURATOR. 

1892. 



F. W. WHITB, PRINTER. 



AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM, SYDNEY. 

CATALOGUE No. 16. 



CATALOGUE 



OP 



AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 



WITH INTRODUCTORY NOTES 



ON 



GENERAL MAMMALOGY 



BY 



J. DOUGLAS OGILBY, 

Fellow of the Linnean Society of London. 



FEINTED BY OEDEE OP THE TRUSTEES. 
E. P. EAMSAT, F.E.S.E., CURATOR. 

1892. 



PREFACE. 




MR. J. DOUGLAS OGILBY having been engaged by the Trustees 
of the Australian Museum to prepare a Catalogue of the Aus- 
tralian Mammals, the work now issued is the result. It contains 
careful descriptions of all known Mammals indigenous to Australia, 
with notes also on allied fossil forms, compiled from various sources 
of which the author gives due acknowledgment in his Introduction. 
Nearly all the species are represented by one or more specimens 
in the Museum, and those which are not so are indicated by an 
asterisk placed against their names in the Index. Mr. Ogilby has 
found it necessary to alter many of the generally recognised names, 
for reasons which he gives in each case, consequently some of 
the specimens exhibited in the Museum may not bear the same 
designation as in the Catalogue. These differences will, however, 
be remedied on the labels as speedily as possible. 

E. P. RAMSAY. 

December, 1892. 




PAGE 

Introduction ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... v ii. 

General Introduction to Mammals ... ... ... ... ... ix. 

Prototheria 1 

Metatheria ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Eutheria ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 60 

Sirenia 62 

Cetacea ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 64 

Chiroptera ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Rodentia ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 99 

Carnivora ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 122 

Index 131 



LIST OF WOODOTJTS 



FIG. PAGE 

1. Lower jaw of Dasyurus viverrinus ... ... ... ... ... 16 

2. Side view of skull of Pliascolarctos cinereus ... ... ... 26 

3. Side view of skull of Bettongia gaimardi ... ... ... ... 42 

4. Under surface of skull of Hydromys chrysogaster, showing palate 

and dentition ; 4a. Upper molars enlarged ; 46. Side view 

of same ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 

5. Side view of skull of same 101 

6. Lower jaw of same ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 



9 



LI8RAI 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE "Handlist," here submitted to the public, has been compiled 
more for the use of students and collectors than for scientists, for 
whom it contains little that is new or of special interest ; but it 
is believed that it will prove helpful, to the student in his earlier 
endeavors to unravel the mysteries of Nature, and to the collector 
that it may enable him, round his camp fire in the evening, to 
determine the specimens which he has obtained during the day. 
There are, howerer, besides the student and the collector, scattered 
over the length and breadth of these Colonies hundreds of educated 
men, chiefly of the medical profession, who, with all the thirst for 
research which the study of that profession necessarily engenders, 
are unable, except at rare intervals, to consult the numerous 
works which are now indispensable to its comprehension ; to 
these also it is hoped that these pages will prove of assistance by 
bringing, in however imperfect a manner, the history of Australian 
Mammalogy up to date, and thus supplying a much needed want. 
To all I trust that the short introductory notice on mammalian 
Osteology may be of value, but especially to collectors, on whom 
the author would wish to impress the imperative necessity of 
conserving the skeletons, even to the very smallest bone those 
of the wrist and the ankle, and the so-called "marsupial bones" 
should be specially looked after of all Mammals obtained. 

To all, again and again, I must impress the fact that, however 
beautiful or strange the outside covering of the body may be, 
the skeleton is of infinitely more value to science; and not to the 
mammalogist alone but to everyone who sincerely endeavors to com- 
prehend the relationship between the various Families, Orders, and 
Classes of living creatures with which our earth is peopled. 

Since the publication of Mr. Gerard Krefft's "Australian Verte- 
brata Fossil and Recent," published in the Catalogue Nat. 
Industrial Prods. N.S. Wales (1877), no work dealing systemati- 
cally with Australian Mammalogy as a whole has been attempted^ 
In Mr. KreflVs list 174 recent species are catalogued as against 



Vlll. 



209 species and 8 well marked varieties in the present list, but 
several of those entered in the former list as good species, or at 
least as good species with a query, are here treated as varieties 
or synonyms of other species. 

If this little work should in any degree draw the attention of 
some at least of those who are fortunate enough to live in the 
country districts, to the extraordinary richness and the marvellous 
forms of mammalian life, of which the land of their birth or their 
adoption is the home, the author's aspirations will have been 
amply fulfilled. 

With two of the Orders of the Eutherian Mammals, the CETACEA 
and the RODENTIA, the want of material and of works of reference, 
and, more especially among the Muridce, the multiplication of 
species and the number of species insufficiently described, have 
made the task exceptionally difficult, and the author, therefore, 
trusts that any shortcomings in these Orders will be leniently 
dealt with. 

The work has been compiled from various sources, the chief 
of which are the British Museum Catalogues of Messrs. Thomas, 
Dobson, and Gray, the different articles relating to Mammals in 
the Encyclopedia Britannica, especially that under the heading 
" MAMMALIA" by Professor Flower; but numerous other works 
and papers by the same authors, as well as by Owen, Huxley, 
Mivart, Allen, Scott, Stirling, and others have been consulted 
and freely drawn from. 

In conclusion, I have to tender my best thanks to many 
friends, in Zoology chiefly to Dr. Ramsay, and in Paleontology 
to Mr. R. Etheridge, Junr., for valuable hints received and 
acted on. 

J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



Class. MAMMALIA. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 



Mammals are the most highly organized forms of vertebrate 
animals, and may conveniently be defined as follows : 

Warm-blooded animals, having the heart divided into four 
cavities, two auricles and two ventricles, and with a complete 
double circulation ; having the lungs separated from the abdomen 
by a complete muscular partition, termed the diaphragm ; having 
the skin, more or less clothed with hair in its different modifi- 
cations ; and with the young produced alive (except in the case 
of the very few aberrant forms, which constitute the Monotremes 
or PROTOTHERIA, see p. 1), and nourished for some time after 
birth by means of the mammary glands with which the female is 
provided. 

Limbs. -In the majority of Mammals the two pairs of limbs are 
well developed, and specially adapted for progression on the surface 
of the earth, but they are, in many cases modified to suit the re- 
quirements of the particular mode of life to which each individual 
genus has become habituated. For instance : in some the fore 
limbs are specially formed for burrowing, as in the Wombat and 
Mole ; in others for climbing, as in the Opossums and Monkeys ; 
in others for flying, as in the Bats ; and in others again for 
swimming, as in the Seals and Whales, in which case the hind 
limbs are rudimentary or more often entirely suppressed. 

Tail. Most Mammals are provided with a tail, which, however, 
may be rudimentary, and therefore functionless, as is the case 
with the Koala, the Ape, the Deer, and many other genera ; 
prehensile, or formed for grasping, as with the American Opossums, 
the Cuscus, and certain families of Monkeys ; or fluke-like and so 
formed for rapid motion through water, as with the Whales and 
Dolphins. 

TEGUMENTARY STRUCTURES. 

Epidermis. Almost all Mammals are clothed, and in the 
majority of cases thickly clothed, with a peculiarly modified 
form of the outer skin, or epiderm, variously known as hair, fur, 
wool, etc., which has its root at the bottom of a cavity in the 
derm or true skin. This substance assumes various forms, and 
is of various sizes and degrees of rigidity, from the soft fur of 
our Flying Squirrels to the spines of the Echidnas. The obvious 
purpose of this covering is to protect the skin against external 
influences, such as cold and damp, and in some cases against the 



X. 



attacks of enemies. On the Pangolins (Manidce) of Africa and 
southern Asia alone, true imbricated scales, for the protection of 
the body, are present ; between which, however, isolated hairs 
occur. Similarly imbricated epidermal productions are also found 
on the tails of many Rodents, such as the Beaver and the Rat ; 
of some Insectivores, such as Myogale ; and of some Marsupials, 
such as the Didelphyidie ; among these Groups, however, these 
scales are frequently confined to the under surface of the tail. 
Only the Armadillos of South America possess a true bony exo- 
skeleton (somewhat similar to that of the Tortoises), which is 
covered with scutes of horny epiderm, and which is eminently 
fitted for defence against all ordinary enemies. The horns of the 
Ruminants and Rhinoceroses are also modified forms of epidermis, 
as also are nails, claws, and hoofs, and the perforated spur of the 
Monotrernes. 

DENTAL SYSTEM. 

Dentition. In all mammals, except the Narwhal, the teeth of 
the opposite sides of each jaw are alike in number and character. 
There are two distinct forms of dentition, the Homodont and the 
Heteroclont ; the former, of which the Dolphins are the best 
exemplars, being, as its name implies, the more simple; in these 
the crowns are single-pointed and slightly curved, the roots also 
single and tapering, and all of similar formation, those in the 
middle of the series being, however, as a rule longer than those at 
either extremity. In the Heterodont dentition, on the contrary, 
the teeth are of different forms ; the front teeth, or Incisors, are 
simple and one-rooted, and are adapted for cutting and seizing, 
while the back teeth, or Molars, have tuberculated or ridged 
crowns, are supported by two or more roots, and are specially 
formed for crushing and grinding the food ; between these two 
series there is frequently a longer and more sharply pointed tooth, 
popularly known as the "eye-tooth," and technically on account 
of its having attained to its highest development in the Wolves and 
their allies (Canidw) termed the Canine. By a similar process 
of development, though under widely different circumstances, the 
Marsupial Wolf or Tiger of Tasmania (ThylacimisJ has arrived at 
a precisely similar tooth ; the use of the canines is principally 
the tearing of the flesh of their victims and the holding of struggling 
prey. The molariform series is divisible into two parts, such of the 
posterior teeth as are without milk-predecessors being termed 
' Molars," such as have milk predecessors " Premolars." In the 
Eutherian Mammals this series is generally constituted of four 
premolars and three molars, with a milk dentition normally con- 
sisting of three, the last premolar having invariably a predecessor ; 
but among the Marsupials this order is reversed in the permanent 
teeth, the number of premolars being one less and of molars one 
more, while the milk dentition, if present, is limited to a single 



XI. 



tooth on either side of each jaw, which is the predecessor of the 
third and last pre-niolar. Only in the Anteaters (Myrmeco- 
phagidtr), the Pangolins (Manidce), and the Echidna, are teeth 
entirely absent at all stages of growth. 

SKELETON. 

Skeleton. The skeleton may be briefly denned as that portion 
of the body of vertebrate animals which forms the framework on 
which the muscles are supported. In the adult state the 
greater part of this framework consists of osseous tissue, or bone, 
the remainder being cartilage. Bone is mainly built up on a 
gelatinous basis, strongly impregnated with salts of lime, chiefly 
phosphate. After the teeth, the bones are the most imperishable 
of all the organs of the body, and are, therefore, of great value in 
affording reliable means of affixing the affinities of extinct with 
recent forms. The skeleton is divided into two parts, the axial, 
consisting of the skull and vertebral column, and the appendicular, 
pertaining to the limbs. 

Skull. In the skull, or cranium, of adult Mammals, all the 
bones, with the exceptions of the lower jaw, the auditory ossicles, 
and the bones of the hyoid arch, are immovably articulated 
together. The cranium, thus formed of numerous originally 
independent ossifications, consists of a brain-case for the enclosure 
and protection of that organ, and a face for the support of the 
organs of sight, smell, taste, mastication, defence, and offence. 
The brain-case articulates directly with the first cervical vertebra 
by means of a pair of oval prominences, called condyles, placed on 
each side of the large median foramen, which transmits the spinal 
cord ; this method of articulation is termed dicondylian, and is 
only present in one other class of Vertebrate Animals, the 
BATRACHIA, and this, together with several other characters, com- 
mon to these classes only, has given authority to the apparently 
well-founded assertion of the remote common origin of the Mam- 
malian and Batrachian types. 

Vertebral. The vertebral column consists of a series of distinct 
bones, called " vertebrcc," arranged in close connection with one 
another along the dorsal aspect of the body in the median line, and 
extending from the posterior margin of the cranium (to which it 
is firmly articulated) to the tip of the tail. The number of distinct 
bones varies greatly, principally owing to the elongation, or other- 
wise, of that appendage. In the mammalian vertebras the ends 
of the centra are usually flattened, but in the cervical region of 
some UNCULATA certain of the vertebra may be opisthoccelous, 
that is having the hinder surface concave. The vertebral column 
is for convenience divided into five regions, cervical, dorsal, 
lumbar, sacral, and caudal. 

Cervical. The cervical region forms the anterior portion of 
the column, and its first vertebra, called the atlas, articulates 



Xll. 



with the occipital region of the cranium ; these vertebrae con 
stitute the framework of the neck, and in all known recent 
Mammals, except three the Manatee (Manatus australis), the 
Two-toed Sloth ( Choloepus hojfmanni) with six, and the Three-toed 
Sloth fBradypus tridactylusj with nine consists of seven distinct 
bones, which, however, are in the case of several genera, notably 
belonging to the Cetacea, in a greater or less number ankylosed 
together so as to form a solid mass. The second cervical vertebra 
is termed the axis, and, except in certain CETACEANS, always de- 
velops a well denned odontoid process. 

Dorsal, or Thoracic. Behind these lie the dorsal, or, since to 
its vertebrae only are articulated the movable ribs which form 
the arch of the thorax, as it would be more correct to term it, 
thoracic region; the anterior rib is attached below to the sternum 
(vide infra), as are also usually several of those which follow. 

Lumbar. The lumbar region consists of those vertebrae in 
front of the sacrum which bear no movable ribs. The number of 
vertebrae in the conjoined thoracic and lumbar regions is tolerably 
constant in any given group of animals, any increase of the one 
being at the expense of the other ; the smallest number of 
thoracico-lumbar vertebrae occurs in the Armadillos ( Dasypodidm) 
which have only fourteen, while the greatest number is found in 
the Hyrax or Rock-Babbit, the supposed Cony of the Scriptures, 
in which no less than thirty are present ; in Man, the higher 
Apes, and most Bats, the number is seventeen ; in nearly all 
Marsupials, nineteen. 

Sacral, The sacral region is that which is situated between 
the lumbar and caudal regions ; in it the vertebrae are ankylosed 
together so as to form a single mass ; the number of vertebrae 
included in the sacrum is variable, even in different individuals 
belonging to the same species, especially as age advances, when 
certain of the caudal vertebras become incorporated with those of 
the true sacrum. These bones are absent in the CETACEA. 

Caudal. The caudal vertebrae are those placed behind the 
sacrum, and terminate the vertebral column. They naturally vary 
greatly in number, there being usually four only in Man, and those 
rudimentary, whereas in the West African Long-tailed Pangolin 
(Manis longicaudata) there are as many as forty-six. They are 
also, for obvious reasons, numerous and highly developed in the 
Macropodidce and the CETACEA. 

Chevron Bones. To the under-surface of the caudal vertebrae 
of many Mammals, in which the tail is well developed, are 
attached by articulation small bones, of the shape of an inverted 
arch, which have received the name of " chevron bones" 

Sternum. The mammalian breast-bone (sternum) is a bone, or 
series of bones, placed longitudinally in the mesial line, on the 
inferior aspect of the thorax, and connected with the vertebral 
column by a series of more or less ossified ribs. It is divided 



Xlll. 



into three portions, the anterior segment or presternum, the 
posterior or xiphisternum, and a varying number between the two 
called the mesosternum. In the Whalebone Whales ( Balcenidce) 
only the presternum, supporting a single pair of ribs, is developed. 

Ribs. The ribs form a series of long, narrow, more or less 
flattened bones, extending laterally from the sides of the vertebral 
column and mostly joined directly or indirectly to the sternum. 
Those which articulate directly are known as " true " ribs, and 
always belong to the anterior portion of the series, while the 
posterior ribs, which are either attached each to the edge of its 
preceding rib, or are free, are called, in the former case "false," 
in the latter, "floating " ribs. The portion of each rib nearest 
to the sternum is usually imperfectly ossified or permanently 
cartilaginous, and such parts are termed the "costal cartilages"; 
in the rare cases in which they are completely ossified, as in the 
Armadillos, they are known as "sternal ribs." 

Appendicular Skeleton. The appendicular portion of the frame- 
work consists, when fully developed, of two pairs of limbs, an 
anterior and a posterior. 

Anterior Limb. The anterior limb is present and fully de- 
veloped in all Mammals, and is composed of a shoulder-girdle and 
three segments of the limb proper, the upper arm (brachium), 
the fore-arm (antibrachium), and the hand (manus). 

Shoulder-girdle. The shoulder girdle is in most Mammals in a 
modified condition, compared with that in which it exists among 
the four remainingclasses of Vertebrate Animals. In all Mammals, 
except the Monotremes in which it is complete and articulated 
with the sternum the coracoid is only present in the form of a 
process or even minute tubercle. The blade-bone (scapula) is 
always well developed, has a ridge on its outer surface the 
so-called spine of the scapula which generally terminates exter- 
nally in a free curved process called the "acromion." The form 
of the scapula and the development of its processes largely 
depends on the uses to which the limb is put, for instance 
whether it be for burrowing, climbing, swimming, or merely for 
the support of the body. The collar-bone (clavicle), an accessary 
bar which connects the scapula with the sternum, may be present, 
as in Man and all Marsupials, except the Bandicoots ( PeramelidceJ; 
rudimentary and floating free in the flesh, as in the Dog, Cat, &c.; 
or entirely absent, as in Seals, Whales, Ungulates, &c. 

Brachium and Antibrachium. The proximal segment of the 
limb consists of a single bone, the humerus, and the second 
segment of two bones, the radius and ulna, placed side by side, 
and articulating with the humerus at their proximal, and with 
the carpus at their distal extremities. In most Mammals these 
bones cross each other, the radius in front of the ulna, so that the 
former, though nominally in vertebrates external at the upper 
end is internal at the lower. In the majority of Mammals the 



XIV. 



bones are fixed in this position, but in a few, as in Man, a free 
movement of crossing and uncrossing technically known as pro- 
nation and supination is allowed. In most Quadrupeds the 
ulna is much reduced in size, and the radius, especially at its 
upper end, correspondingly increased, so that the articular surface 
of the latter extends across the entire anterior surface of the 
humerus, and thus the bones become anterior and posterior, 
instead of external and internal. 

Manns, The skeleton of the terminal section of the anterior 
limb consists of three divisions : (1) the carpus, a group of 
small, more or less rounded or angular bones, with flattened 
surfaces contiguous to one another, which, though articulating by 
synovial joints, that is joints enclosing a capsule which secretes a 
lubricating fluid, have, nevertheless, scarcely any motion between 
them ; (2) the metacarpus, a series of bones, placed side by side, 
and with their proximal ends articulating by almost immovable 
joints with the carpus; and (3) the plialcinyvs, or bones of the 
digits proper, which are usually three in number to each digit, 
and articulate to one another, and the first to the distal end of 
the corresponding metacarpal bone, by freely movable hinge- 
joints. 

Carpiis. The mammalian carpus consists of two transverse 
series of bones, of which the upper or proximal, series contains 
three bones, that on the radial side, from which side all these 
bones are counted, being known as the scaphoid, that in the 
middle the lunar, and that on the left the cuneiform bone ; the 
lower or distal series contains five bones, of which the two outer 
are always united into a single bone, and receive a common name ; 
these have been respectively termed the trapezium, Irapezoid, 
magnum, and unciform ; between these two series a single bone, 
the central, may or may not be present. Two additional bones are 
generally developed in the tendons of the flexor muscles, one on 
each side of the carpus, which may be called the radial and ulna 
sesamoid bones ; the latter of these, which is the more constant, 
and generally the larger, has received the distinctive title of the 
pisiform bone. 

Metacarpus and Phalanges. The metacarpal bones are never 
more than five in number, nor are the digits which they assist in 
supporting ; they are described numerically as first, second, etc. 
The digits have each a distinguishing name, the pollex (thumb), 
index, medius, annulus, and minimus. One or more of these 
may be in a rudimentary condition, or altogether suppressed, 
and where only one is absent it is generally the pollex. No 
Mammals, except the CETACEA, have more than three phalanges 
to each digit, while in the pollex one of the three is constantly 
absent. The terminal phalanges are usually specially modified 
to support the nail, claw, or hoof, and are termed uncrual 
phalanges. Distinguishing terms ai*e applied to the mode of 



XV. 



progression employed by various quadrupeds, according to the 
amount of palmar and plantar surfaces in contact with the 
ground ; thus those, as the Bears, which use the whole of 
the lower surface of the carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges, 
are termed "plantigrade"] those, as the Horse, which apply the 
distal surface of the ungual phalanx and the horny structures 
surrounding it, " unguligrade" ; intermediate forms exist, such 
as "phalangigrade" for the Camel, and " subplantigrade " for 
most Carnivores. In the Bats the digits are enormously elongated 
for the purpose of supporting a cutaneous expansion constituting 
the organs of flight ; while in the Whales and Dolphins the manus 
is formed into a paddle, covered by continuous integument, and 
without any trace of nails or claws, and the number of phalanges 
belonging to the second and third digits always exceeds the 
normal number in Mammals, and sometimes very considerably. 

Posterior limb. The posterior limb consists of a pelvic girdle, 
and three segments belonging to the limb proper, the thigh 
(femur) , the leg (tibia and fibula), and the foot (pes) . 

Pelvic girdle. The pelvic girdle is present in some form in all 
Mammals, but in the Sirenians and Cetaceans it is in a very 
rudimentary condition. Each half of this girdle consists of three 
bones, which in the adult state are ankylosed together into a 
solid mass, and the single bone thus formed is technically known 
as the " os innorninatum." Of the three sections of which this 
bone is composed, the upper (ilium) is firmly articulated to the 
sacrum, and of the two lower, the antero-inferior f pubis) forms a 
symphysis with its fellow of the opposite side, except in the 
Insectivorous genera, Soricidrr, Talpidfc, and Ckrysochloridcr, 
where these bones are entirely separated, while the postero- 
inferior f ischium) are never united. These three sections unite 
around a cup-shaped cavity, the acetabulum, into which the 
proximal end of the femur is received. Between the pubis and 
ischium there is a large opening known as the "obturator foramen." 
The two innominate bones, in conjunction with the sacral, form 
the pelvis. By this direct articulation of the innominate bones 
with the vertebral column, greater strength is given to the 
hind limbs to increase their powers of supporting and propeling 
the body. In the Monotremes and Marsupials an additional 
pair of thin, flat, elongated bones, called the " epipubic " or 
" marsupial " bones, the exact function of which is but im- 
perfectly understood, is attached to the fore part of the pubis, 
and projects forward into the muscular wall of the abdomen. 

Thujli and Ley. As with the fore-limb, the proximal segment 
of the hind limb has but one bone, the femur, and the second 
two, the tibia and the fibula : these lie parallel to one another, 
the former, which is much the more strongly developed being on 
the inner side and more to the front, while the latter is on the 
outer side and behind. They are never either permanently 




XVI. 



crossed or capable of any considerable amount of rotation, as 
in the cori-esponding bones of the antibrachium. In many 
Mammals the fibula is rudimentary, and in some, as certain 
ruminants, it forms, in old animals, a more or less complete 
ankylosis with the tibia. A large sesamoid bone, known as the 
knee-cap or "patella" is developed in the tendon of the extensor 
muscle of the thigh, in front of and for the protection of the 
knee-joint, and is present in an ossified condition in all Mammals, 
excepting some of the Marsupials. 

Foot. The terminal segment of the hind limb, like that of 
the fore limb, consists of three parts, of which the proximal is 
termed the tarsus, the median the metatarsus, and the distal the 
phalanges. In the tarsus the proximal series always consists of 
two bones, the astrafagus, representing the coalesced scaphoid 
and lunar of the hand, and the calcaneum. The former is placed 
more to the dorsal side of the foot, and almost exclusively 
furnishes the tarsal portion of the ankle joint ; the latter is 
situated more towards the plantar side of the foot, and is 
elongated backwards to form a more or less prominent tuberosity 
(the heel) to which the tendon of the great extensor muscles of 
the foot is attached. The navicular bone is interposed between 
the proximal and distal series on 'the inner side of the foot, thus 
leaving the two series in contact on the outer side. The distal 
series, when complete, contains four bones, which, beginning as 
usual on the inner side, are the three cuneiform, the internal 
being known as the first or ento-cuneiform, the median as the 
second or meso-cuneifonn, and the external as the third or ecto- 
cuneiform ; of these the second is the smallest, and all three are 
articulated to the distal surface of the navicular ; the fourth bone 
is the cuboid, and articulates with the calcaneum ; in Mammals 
where the hallux is wanting, the ento-cuneiform may be rudi- 
mentary or altogether absent. The three cuneiform bones support 
the first, second, and third metatarsal bones, and the cuboid the 
fourth and fifth ; as in the hand sesamoid bones are developed in 
addition to the constant bones of the tarsus. The formation of 
the phalanges of the foot is in all respects similar to that of the 
hand, and, with the one exception of the inner digit which is 
termed the hallux, and corresponds to the pollex of the hand 
the names applied to the other digits of the foot are the same as 
those by which the corresponding digits of the hand are known. 
In the hallux, as in the pollex, one bone of the normal mamma- 
lian four including the metacarpals and metatarsals is wanting, 
and it is still a disputed question whether the missing bone is the 
first metatarsal, or the proximal phalanx. In the SIKENIA and 
CETACEA no traces of the third or distal segment of the hind limb 
have been discovered, and only in certain members of the litter 
Order have even rudiments of the proximal and median segments 
been detected. 



Subclass I. PROTOTHERIA. 

The MONOTREMATA or ORNITHODELPHIA, as the Prototherian 
Mammals have been variously, and more or less misleadingly 
termed, comprise the lowest, and in point of time the most ancient, 
types of mammalian life. Two families only, consisting of three 
genera, exist at the present time, the extent of their range being 
confined to Australia and Tasmania ( Ornithorhynchus and 
Echidna) and New Guinea (Proechidna and Echidna) . They are 
oviparous, and the young are nourished after emerging from the 
egg by milk expressed from the mammary glands into a temporary 
pouch; these glands are not provided with nipples, the milk being 
forced out through numerous apertures in the spongy skin. The 
method employed in hatching out the eggs differs materially in the 
two families, for while the Platypus forms a nest in its burrow on 
which to deposit its eggs, and hatches them out by the warmth 
of its body in the same manner as birds do, the pouch being at 
no time sufficiently developed to enable the animal to retain the 
eggs therein the Echidna carries its eggs about with it and 
hatches them out in its more highly specialized pouch. The 
males are provided with a perforated spur on the inside of the 
heel, which is connected by a duct with a postfemoral gland, 
and the functions of which are not as yet clearly understood ; the 
assumption that it is a poison-organ is not however borne out by 
actual evidence, while on the contrary it is difficult to imagine of 
what possible value such an organ could be to animals so consti- 
tuted; it is, however, possible that it may develop such a function 
in a greater or less degree during the breeding season, and be used 
as a weapon of defence in contesting for the favor of the females. 
The Monotremes possess an additional clavicular bone, in the 
shape of a large T-shaped interclavicle, which bone is not 
represented in either of the other mammalian Subclasses ; the 
coracoid bone is complete and articulates with the sternum, 
Epipubic bones are present. True functional teeth are absent in 
the adults. 

Order I.-MONOTREMATA. 

Muzzle produced into a beak, which is either flattened or 
cylindrical. External ear-opening without a conch. Limbs sub- 
equal in length, short and powerful. Tail either short and 
broad or rudimentary. Mammae rudimentary. 



2 ORNITHORHYNCHIDjE. 

Family I. ORNITHORHYNCHIIXE. 

Muzzle in the shape of a broad, flattened, horny beak. Tongue 
not extensile. Fur not mixed with spines. Tail well developed, 
broad, and flattened. Hands and feet modified as swimming- 
organs, the toes broadly webbed. Palms and soles naked, without 
pads. Teeth rudimentary, only found in young animals, in which 
there are two on either side of the upper jaw and three on either 
side of the lower jaw, these being persistent till the animal is 
rather more than one-third grown ; never cutting the gum ; multi- 
cuspid ; replaced in the adults by strong, horny plates. Cerebral 
hemispheres smooth. 

Genus I. ORNITHORHYNCHUS, Slunienbach (1800). 

Form elongate and depressed. Toes 5 5, all with long claws, 
which on the fore feet are broad and blunt, on the hind feet 
compressed and pointed. Beak short, with a basal projecting 
leathery flap both above and below. Cheeks pouched. 

Vertebras. C. 7, D. 17, L. 2, S. 2, Cd. 20 or 21 = 48 or 49. 

Habits. Aquatic ; fossorial ; feeding on crustaceans, mollusks, 
water-insects, worms, &c. 

Note. Under the name of Ornithorhynchus agilis, Mr. C. W. 
De Vis has described (Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, 1885, p. 35, 
pi. iv.) from a right tibia and the distal half of a right mandible, 
what appears to be a very distinct species of fossil Platypus ; re- 
versing the general laws in such cases, this extinct species, which 
from the dentition is unquestionably adult, must have been of a 
considerably smaller size than its living representative. The 
fossils were excavated on King's Creek, au affluent of the Conda- 
mine River, near Pilton, South Queensland. Shaw's name Platypus 
(1799) having been employed by Herbst six years previously for 
a genus of Coleopterous Insects is inadmissable. 

1. ORNITHORHYNCHUS ANATINUS, Shaiv, sp. (1799). 
Duck-billed Platypus ; Water Mole. 

Male much larger than female. Fur short, close, and velvety. 
General color above deep umber- or blackish-brown ; below 
grayish-white ; a white or yellowish spot round the eye ; tail 
colored above like the back, generally naked below ; bill black 
above, yellow and black below. 

Dimensions. Head and body of male, about eighteen, of female 
about fourteen inches ; tail of male about six, of female about 
five inches. 

Habitat. Queensland southwards of 18 S. lat., New South 
Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania. 

A A 



ECHIDNA. 6 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 388 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. i. 

Family II. ECHIDNID^. 

Muzzle in the shape of a slender cylindrical beak. Tongue 
extensile. Fur mixed with stout spines. Tail rudimentary. Toes 
not webbed. Palms and soles forming broad, fleshy cushions, 
without distinct pads. Teeth wholly absent, without functional 
successors. Palate and tongue spinous. Cerebral hemispheres 
convoluted. 

Genus I. ECHIDNA, G. Cuvier (1798). 

Form stout and depressed. Toes 5 5, all clawed, those on the 
fore feet broad, but little curved, and directed forwards ; on the 
hind feet slenderer, curved outwards, the second, or second and 
third, very long, much exceeding the fourth and fifth ; that of 
hallux short, blunt and rounded. Beak straight or with a slight 
upward curve. Tongue tapering at the tip, the spines restricted 
to the basal portion. 

Vertebra}. C. 7, D. 16, L. 3, S. 3, Cd. 12 = 41. 

Habits. Terrestrial ; fossorial ; feeding chiefly on ants and 
their eggs. 

Note.I\\ 1868 Mr. Gerard Krefft described (Ann. Nat. Hist. 
(4) i. p. 113) from a fragment of a humerus a fossil species from 
New South Wales for which he proposed the name Echidna oweni ; 
subsequently numerous examples were obtained from the Welling- 
ton Caves, N.S.W., and were separated from the original species 
by Prof. Owen under the name of E. ramsayi. Palaeontologists 
now, however, seem to be agreed that the two forms are identical. 

1. ECHIDNA ACULEATA, Shaw, sp. (1792). 
Common Echidna ; Native Porcupine. 

Sexes not markedly differing in size. General color of hair 
above black or dark brown ; below brown. Spines of back long 
and stout, generally quite hiding the hair, their color normally 
yellow wibh a black tip. Tail short and conical, terminally naked. 

Several different species of Echidna have been described, but 
recent researches tend to prove that these are at best but geo- 
graphical races. The Port Moresby variety (E. lawesi, Ramsay) 
the type of which is in the Australian Museum, Sydney, differs 
in its smaller size and shorter dorsal spines ; the Tasmanian 
variety (E. setosa, E. Geoffroy) in its larger size, longer hair 
which almost conceals the spines, and the much longer third claw 
of the hind feet, which almost equals the second claw. 



4 METATHEBIA. 

Dimensions. Head and body, E. lawesi, about fourteen inches; 
E. aculeata, about seventeen, and E. setosa about twenty. 

Habitat. From South-eastern New Guinea throughout the 

o 

whole of Australia to Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 377 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pis. ii. (E. aculeata), iii. (E. setosa), 

Subclass II. METATHERIA. 

The Metatherian Mammals, more generally known as the 
DIDELPIIIA or MARSUPIALIA, are at the present time, with the ex- 
ception of the True Opossums (DidelphyidwJ of the New World, 
confined to the Australian, Papuasian, and the eastern islands of 
the Austro-Malayan subregions ; the easternmost point to which 
their range extends being the Island of San Christoval, belonging 
to the western section of the Solomon Archipelago, where the short- 
headed variety of the Gray Cuscus (Phalanger orientalis var. 
breviceps) is found ; the Group was however at a former period 
much more generally distributed over the surface of the earth, 
species having been discovered in a fossil state in Europe, South 
Africa, and America. They differ from all other Mammals by the 
presence in the female of a permanent pouch (marsupium) 
obselete in Myrmecobius and practically so in Phascologale 
formed by a fold in the integument, and which is furnished with 
a varying number of teats, to which the young are attached at 
a very early stage of growtli by the mother, who, by means of 
specially adapted muscles, forces the milk from the mammas into 
their mouths, their condition being for a considerable period so 
imperfect as to preclude the possibility of their obtaining nutri- 
ment of their own volition. Both sexes are provided with long 
epipubic bones, generally known as " marsupial bones," though 
having in reality no connection whatever with the pouch ; these 
bones are rudimentary in Thylacinus, while in the Bandicoots 
fPeramelidce) the clavicles are wanting. 

Order I. -MARSUPIALIA. 

Limbs subequal, or the hinder pair much the larger and form- 
ing the chief agents in progression. Tail almost invariably present, 
generally long, and often prehensile. Teeth very variable in 
structure. Mammse in varying numbers. 

Suborder I Polyprotodontia. 

Incisors numerous, four or five in the upper, three or four in 
the lower jaw, subequal, much smaller than the canines. Molars 
generally sharply cuspidate. 

Habits. Carnivorous ; insectivorous ; rarely omnivorous. 



NOTORYCTES. O 

Family I. NOTOEYCTID^. 

Limbs subequal, short, and very strong. Fore feet with five 
digits ; hind feet asyndactylous, with five toes ; hallux clawed ; 
the other toes unequal in size. No visible external eyes. Ears 
without conch. Clavicle well developed. Chevron bones present. 

Genus I. NOTORYCTES, Stirling (1891). 

Dorsal aspect of snout covered by a hard horny shield, which 
is divided into two segments by a transverse ridge. Mouth ven- 
tral in position. Ear openings present, but almost completely 
concealed by the overhanging fur. Tail hard, tough, and leathery, 
marked by conspicuous annular rings, thick at its insertion but 
rapidly decreasing in size towards its extremity, which is blunt 
and knob-like. The four inner toes of both fore and hind feet 
clawed, the fifth with a short, broad, horny nail. Palms and soles 
naked, covered with tough, leathery, wrinkled skin ; the latter 
traversed by oblique folds. The claws of the third and fourth 
digits enormously developed ; those of the corresponding toes 
curved outwards and backwards. Pouch opening backwards. 
Mammae two, minute. 

Vertebrae. C. 7, D. 15, L. 4, S. 6, C. 12 = 44. 
Dentition.-l. ^, C. , P. JMi^ M. gJ-J x 2 = 40 to 42. 
Habits. Terrestrial; fossorial ; insectivorous. 

Note. The axis and four succeeding cervical vertebrae are firmly 
ankylosed together, as are also all the sacral vertebrae. In the 
dental formula given above I have preferred to consider the teeth, 
which Dr. Stirling figures as an upper and lower canine, as a 
fourth upper and third lower incisor. 

1. NOTORYCTES TYPHLOPS, Stirling (1888). 

Marsupial Mole. 

Size small, form stout. Fur long, soft, of a bright lustrous 
silken appearance ; sometimes darker across the loins ; a patch of 
darkish red fur surrounding the pouch; interior of pouch sparsely 
lined with reddish fawn-colored hairs. Upper surface of tail 
clothed with fur similar to that of the back on its anterior half; the 
sides and lower surface naked. 

Dimensions. Head and body about five inches; tail about one 
and one-fifth inch. 

Habitat. Central South Australia. 

References. Stirling, Trans. Roy. Soc. South Austr. 1888, p. 
21, and 1891, p. 154, pis. ii. -ix. 

Note. In the attempt to formulate the above divisional and 
generic definitions for Dr. Stirling's Notoryctes typhlops, I have 



6 NOTORYCTES. 

experienced considerable difficulty in the selection of such char- 
acters as appear to be most suitable for the purpose. Dr. Stirling, 
in his papers quoted above, though at present the only scientist 
who has had the opportunity of examining the anatomical charac- 
ters, offers no suggestion as to the definite place which it should 
take in the zoological system, and I have therefore endeavored to 
intercalate it among those forms to which it seems to me to make 
the nearest approach from a structural point of view. The con- 
clusion at which I have arrived, after an exhaustive study of 
Dr. Stirling's pamphlet, is that in this animal we have at last 
obtained a definite connecting link between the Monotremes and 
Marsupials. In the present initial state of our knowledge it 
would, in my judgment, be presumptuous to class Notoryctes 
among the Monotremes proper, nevertheless several of our leading 
naturalists incline to the opinion that its affinities are closer to 
these Mammals than to the Marsupials ; at present, however, I 
pi'efer to look upon it as an aberrant Polyprotodont. If the 
former view be correct we have here an adult Monotreme possess- 
ing fully developed teeth, and it must not be lost sight of that in 
Ornithorhynchus, as previously mentioned (vide p. 2), teeth are 
developed in both jaws until the animal is fully one-third grown, 
though our knowledge of the early life of this latter animal is not 
sufficient to enable us to decide whether these teeth are functional 
or otherwise ; it is, however, on this character, and so far as I can 
determine with the slender means at my disposal, on this character 
alone, that I base my opinion of its polyprotodont affinities ; the 
absence of canine teeth, if I am correct in my suggestion that 
those considered by Dr. Stirling to be canines are respectively 
the fourth upper and third lower incisors, militates against its 
position as a typical Polyprotodont, but strengthens its position 
as a true connecting link between the MONOTREMATA and POLY- 
PROTODONTIA ; if on the other hand Dr. Stirling has taken the 
correct view of the nature of the teeth in question, my contention 
as to the polyprotodont character of Notoryctes is materially 
strengthened; in any case our knowledge is so limited, and our lack 
of information as to its milk dentition, if any, so absolute, that it 
would not be wise to separate it from the polyprotodont Mammals. 
Further the semirudimentary nature of the pouch, which wholly, 
or at any rate partially, disappears when not in use, points to a 
connection on the one hand with Myrmecobius and Phascologale, 
and on the other hand with the PROTOTHERIA ; Dr. Stirling 
informs me in literis that a pair of minute mammary elevations are 
present, situated near the corners of the posteriorly expanded pouch 
The form of the feet and the character of the horny shield on the 
snout also ally Notoryctes to Echidna. Putting aside these external 
characters, we have not far to seek in the skeleton for confir- 
matory evidence of its affinity to the Monotremes, the considerable 



DASYURID.E. 7 

development of the clavicle, which is connected by a ligament to 
the sternal apparatus, along with the rudimentary character of the 
epipubic bones, being also monotreinatous ; this latter character, 
however, it shares with the Dasyurine Thylacinus. Referring 
back to the clavicular development the fact must not be lost sight 
of that this bone is reduced to a mere knob-like process in the 
Dasyures and is entirely absent in the Bandicoots, while in the 
Monotremes it connects by true ossification with the sternum. It 
may be sought to explain away this difference in the strength of 
the shoulder-girdle on the grounds that Notoryctes, Echidna, and 
Ornithorhynchus have the fore-limbs strengthened, in order to 
enable them to burrow with the greater ease, but the superficiality 
of such a view is demonstrable at a glance if we take into con- 
sideration the fact that the Peramelidce, which are also of fossorial 
habits, though not in so marked a degree as the genera mentioned 
above, are absolutely without rudiments of these bones. The 
method of reproduction in Notoryctes is undeniably one of the 
most interesting problems of the day in the world of science, and 
when solved will at once set at rest the question of its affinities. 

It seems probable that, though so essentially a burrowing 
animal, Notoryctes does not live in a burrow, but makes a nest in 
tussocks of grass, or at the roots of small shrubs, burrowing, like 
the Peramelidce, for food only. Its method of progression is some- 
what analogous to that of a Dolphin as, according to Dr. Stirling's 
informants, it travels for varying distances at very few inches 
beneath the surface, then emerging crawls along the surface for a 
few feet, and again dives below ; this seems to be necessary to the 
act of respiration. As fast as it bores by means of the fore feet 
and horny snout it closes up the burrow behind it with its hind 
feet. 

Finally, should the theory above advanced prove correct, we 
have now obtained a definite link between the proto- and meta- 
therian Sub-classes a link which is somewhat analogous in 
position to that held by Branchiostoma between the vertebrate 
and invertebrate animals and which will perhaps eventually 
bridge over the gulf which at present separates the Monotremes 
from the Marsupials. It is, however, probable that it is to 
embryological and palteontological research alone that we must 
look for the elucidation of the problem briefly hinted at above. 

In a work of this kind it is impossible to go more fully into 
the subject of this interesting animal. 

Family II. DASYURDXE. 

Thylacine ; Native Cats ; Pouched Mice, &c. 

Limbs subequal. Fore feet with five digits ; hind feet asyn- 
dactylous, with four or five toes ; hallux small and clawless, or 



8 MYRMECOBIIN^E. 

absent; the other toes subequal. Stomach simple. Ccecum absent. 
Pouch, when present, opening forwards or downwards, sometimes 
rudimentary, rarely obsolete. 

Subfamily I. MYRMECOBIINJE. 

Tongue long, cylindrical, and extensile. Rhinarium naked, 
grooved below. Lower lip pointed, projecting beyond the teeth. 
Chest with a complex gland opening to the surface by several large 
and distinct apertures. Molars small and delicate, more than four 
in number in each ramus, those of the lower jaw with the inner 
cusps larger than the outer. 

Genus I. MYRMECOBIUS, Waterhouse (1836). 

Form graceful and squirrel-like. Ears long and narrow. Toes 
5-4, provided with long fossorial claws; hallux absent externally. 
Palms naked, soles partially so; pads small and granulated. Tail 
long and bushy. Pouch obsolete. Mammae four (Thomas), but 
Gilbert states /'Gould. Mamm. Austr.) that he has " observed 
seven young attached to the nipples." 

r> ... T 1.2.3.4 n 1 -D 1.0.3.4 -* 1.2.3.4.5.0 o p- n , R O 

Dentition. 1. ^^, C. p P. ^j^, M. 1-2 . 3A5 . 6or0 x 2 = 50 to 52. 

Habits. Terrestrial ; arboreal ; insectivorous. 

Note. A fourth incisor is rarely present in the lower jaw. 

1. MYRMECOBIUS FASCIATUS, Waterhouse (1836). 
Marsupial Anteater. 

Fur short, close, and hispid. General color above bright 
rufous, grizzled on the head, darkening posteriorly, where it is 
transversely banded with white ; a white stripe over each eye ; 
below clear pale yellow. Ears pointed, clothed with close, short 
hairs, rufous behind, yellowish inside. Claws dark horn-color. 
Third finger shorter than second or fourth. Palms with five 
small, round, finely granulated pads; soles hairy along the edges, 
with only three pads. Tail long-haired above, shorter-haired 
below ; the former grizzled yellow and black, the latter rich rufous. 

Dimensions. Head and body about ten inches ; tail about 
seven inches. 

Habitat. South and West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 312, pi. xxiii. fig. 10 (sole); 
Gould, Marnm. Austr. i. pi. iv. 

Note. Mr. Thomas remarks : The chief interest of this 
remarkable genus lies in its close resemblance and, presumably, 
relationship to the Mesozoic Polyprotoclont Marsupials (Phascolo- 
therium, Amphilestes, &c.) of the English Jurassic beds, the resem- 



SMITHOPSIS. 9 

blance being so close as to suggest that Myrmecobius, like Ceratodus, 
is actually an unmodified survivor from Mesozoic times. 

Subfamily II. DASYURINJE. 

Tongue short, simple, not extensile. Lower lip rounded, not 
produced. Chest without gland. Molars large, four in number 
in each rauius ; those of the lower jaw with the outer cusps larger 
than the inner. 

Genus II. ANTECAINOMYS, Krefft (1866). 

Body unspotted. Ears very large. Tail very long, tufted. 
Limbs unusually elongated ; the fore-arm, lower leg, and hind 
foot disproportionately long. Toes short and subequal ; hallux 
absent. Palms and soles without distinct pads, the greater part 
of the latter hairy. Mammas? Canines very small. 

n ... T 1.2.3.4 n 1 -p 1.0.3.4 -,.- 1.2.3.4 o AK 

Dentition. 1. j^-g-, C. ^ P. j-^-^ M. j-^ x 2 = 4b. 
Habits. Terrestrial ; saltatory ; insectivorous, 

1. ANTECHINOMYS LANIGER, Gould, sp. (1856). 
"Woolly Pouched Mouse; Jerboa Pouched Mouse. 

Size small ; form slender and graceful. Fur long, soft, and fine. 
General color above slaty gray ; below white ; a fawn-colored 
patch behind the ear. Ears ovoid, almost entirely clothed with 
short, fawn-colored hairs. Lower part of limbs, hands, and feet 
white. Tail very long, slender, short-haired, fawn-colored except 
the terminal inch which is tufted and black. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three and a half inches ; 
tail about five inches. 

Habitat. Interior of New South Wales and Southern Queens- 
land. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 309, pis. xxiii. fig. 9 (sole), 
xxv. figs. 11 & 12 (skull); Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xx.xiii.; 
Alston, P.Z.S. 1880, p. 545, pi. xlv. 

Note. Through want of information respecting its habits, 
Gould's figure represents a pair seated on the bough of a tree ; 
the figures also are very misleading. 

Genus III. SMINTHOPSIS, Thomas (1887). 

Body unspotted. Form slender and delicate. Ears large and 
broad. Tail moderate or short, short-haired, sometimes incras- 
sated. Feet slender and delicate. Toes subequal, with small, 
delicate claws ; hallux present, short and clawless. Soles partially 



10 SMINTHOPSIS. 

x 

hairy, the naked part granulated, with or without pads, which, 
when present, are not or but indistinctly striated. Pouch well 
develoved. Mammee eight or ten. 

r> .-, T 1.2.3.4 n 1 TJ 1.0.3.4 TVT 1.2.3.4 _ ,./? 

Dentition. 1. I ^- ) G. s , P. ^-^ M. j-^ x 2 = 46. 

Habits. Terrestrial ; insectivorous. 

j\T ^ e . Goulds name Podabrus (1845) cannot stand, having 
been previously (1840) bestowed upon a genus of Coleopterous 
Insects by Fischer. 

1. SMINTHOPSIS CBASSICAUDATA, Gould, sp. (1844). 
Thick -tailed Pouched Mouse. 

Size small ; form light and delicate. Fur very soft and fine. 
General color above clear ashy-gray ; below grayish-white ; chin 
white. Ears very large and rather pointed, their backs dark 
brown anteriorly, strongly contrasting with the lighter hues 
posteriorly. Hands and feet white. Greater part of soles clothed 
with velvety hairs ; naked parts granulated, without distinct 
striated pads. Tail short, incrassated, tapering, gray above, white 
below. Mamrnse ten. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three and a half inches ; 
tail about two inches. 

Habitat. All Australia except the extreme North. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 303, pis. xxiii. fig. 8 (sole), 
xxv. fig. 10 (teeth J; Gould, Mamrn. Austr. i. pis. xlvi. (S. mac- 
rurusj, xlvii. (S. crassicaudata). 

2. SMINTHOPSIS MURINA, Waterhouse, sp. (1837). 
Common Pouched Mouse. 

Size small ; form very slender and delicate. Fur soft and fine. 
General color above finely grizzled mouse-gray ; below grayish- 
white ; chin white. Ears very variable in size, their backs uni- 
formly slaty flesh-color. Hands, feet, and sometimes fore-arms 
white. Greater part of soles naked, finely granulated, without 
distinct striated pads. Tail moderate, slender, not incrassated, 
brown above, gray or white below. Mammae eight. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three and a half inches ; 
tail about the same. 

Habitat. Australia south of the tropics. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 303, pi. xxiii. fig. 7 (sole); 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pis. xli. (S.fuliginosus), xlii. (S.Albipes), 
xliii. (S. murinus). 



PHASCOLOGALE. 11 

3. SMINTHOPSIS LEUCOPUS, Gray, sp. (1842). 
White-footed Pouched Mouse. 

Size medium ; form slender. Fur close, fine, and straight. 
General color above uniform dark grayish-brown or mouse-color, 
with no prominent markings ; below white. Ears large and 
broad, their backs uniform slaty-gray. Hands and feet pure white. 
Palms finely granulated with six pads. Soles finely hairy 
posteriorly, coarsely granulated anteriorly ; the pads small, four 
in number, and finely striated transversely. Tail moderate, 
slender, shorter in southern than in extreme northern specimens, 
gray or brown above, white below. Mammse ? 

Dimensions. Head and body about four inches ; tail in southern 
examples about three and a half, in northern about four inches. 

Habitat. Eastern Australia from Cape York to Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 302, pis. xxiii. figs. 5 (ear), 
6 (sole), xxv. figs. 7 (teeth), 8 and 9 (skull) ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. 
i. pis, xxxv. (S. leucopus), xxxvi. (S.ferrugineifrons). 

4. SMINTHOPSIS VIRGINIA, De Tarragon, sp. (1847). 

Striped-faced Pouched Mouse. 

Size large. Fur rather short, very soft and silky. General 
color above grizzled gray ; below white or pale yellow. Face sandy 
rufous, ornamented with a central and on each side a lateral black 
longitudinal line. Cheeks, sides of neck, and basal ear-tufts bright 
rufous. Ears very large and nearly naked. Outside of upper 
arms and thighs like the back ; rest of limbs white. Sole-pads 
probably similar to those of S. leucopus. Tail short-haired, dark 
brown above, paler below. Mammae 1 

Dimensions. Head and body about five inches ; tail about the 
same. 

Habitat. Herbert River District, Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 300; Collett, P.Z.S. 1886, 
p. 548, pi. lx. (animal, skull and teeth). 

Genus IV. PHASCOLOGALE, Temminck, (1827). 

Body unspotted. Form slender and graceful. Ears rounded. 
Tail long, bushy, crested, or nearly naked. Feet broad and short. 
Toes subequal, with sharp, curved claws ; hallux present, short 
and clawless. Soles naked, granulated, with five transversely- 
striated pads ; the hallucal pad often divided into two. Pouch 
practically obsolete. Mammse four, six, eight, or ten. 

Dentition I L2 - 3 - 4 C l P ^^ M ^^ V 2 - 46 
1.2.3 ' 1' 1.0.3.4' 1.2.3.4 X ~ 

Habits Arboreal ; insectivorous. 

Note. The fourth premolar is absent in P. cristicaudata. 



12 PHASCOLOGALE. 

1. PHASCOLOGALE CALURA, Gould, (1844). 
Lesser Brush-tailed Pouched Mouse. 

Size medium ; form slender. Fur long, soft, and tine. General 
color above gray with a faint rufous tinge ; below white. Ears 
very large, almost naked, with well-marked basal tufts of red hair. 
Hands and feet white. Soles with five pads, the hallucal very 
long, but undivided ; claws small and weak. Tail long ; the basal 
half short-haired, rufous above, dark brown below ; the terminal 
half black, and slightly bushy all round. Mammse ? 

Dimensions. Head and body about five inches ; tail about six 
inches. 

Habitat. South and West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 296, pis. xxiv. fig. 9 (upper 
mew of skull), xxv. fig. 6 (teeth); Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xxxii. 

2. PHASCOLOGALE PENICILLATA, Shaw, sp. (1800). 
Gieater Brush-tailed Pouched Mouse. 

Size large ; form stout and strong. Fur short and coarse. 
General color above finely grizzled pale gray ; below, chin white, 
chest, belly, and innerside of limbs white or pale gray, the pouch- 
hairs dull rufous. Muzzle with an indistinct darker stripe. Ears 
very large, nearly naked. Feet and hands gray. Soles with the 
five primary pads very long, the hallucal pad undivided, and a 
minute supplementary pad posteriorly on the outer margin ; claws 
long and strong. Tail long and thick, the terminal half or three- 
fifths thickly clothed all round with long black hairs, forming a 
prominent brush. Mam rate ten. 

Dimensions. Head and body about ten inches ; tail about 
nine inches. 

Habitat. All Australia, except the extreme North. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 294, pis. xxiii. fig. 4 (sole), 
xxiv. fig. 4 (teeth) ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xxxi. 

3. PHASCOLOGALE MINUTISSIMA, Gould, sp. (1851). 

Pigmy Pouched Mouse. 

Size very small. Fur short, soft, and fine, mainly composed of 
underfur. General color above finely grizzled mouse-gray ; below, 
chin white, chest and belly similar to, but paler than back. Ears 
of medium size, thinly clothed with short hairs. Hands and feet 
pale brown. Soles naked, with seven pads. Tail of moderate 
length, short-haired. Pouch fairly developed. Mamma? eight. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three inches ; tail about 
two and a half inches. 

Habitat. Central and Southern Queensland. 



PHASCOLOGALE. 13 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 292, pis. xxiv. fig. 8 (upper 
view of skull), xxv. fig. 3 (teeth) Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pis. 
xliv. (P. maculata), xlv. (A minutissima). 

4. PHASCOLOGALE FLAVIPES, Waterhouse (1837). 

Yellow-footed Pouched Mouse. 

Size small or medium ; form stout. Fur close and rather crisp. 
General color above gray suffused with yellow or rufous ; below 
yellow or rufous. Ears rather large, naked above, their bases 
tufted externally with yellow or gray. Limbs and feet more or 
less like the belly. Soles naked, with six pads, the hallucal 
usually divided. Claws small and delicate. Tail short-haired, 
brown or yellow above, paler below, the terminal inch sometimes 
black. Mammae eight. 

Dimensions. Head and body about five inches ; tail about 
three and a half inches. 

Habitat. From New Guinea throughout Eastern Australia to 
South Australia. 

Refere nces. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 289, pi. xxv. fig. 5 (teeth) 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pis. xl. (P.flavipes), xxxvii. (P. unicolor). 

4a. P. FLAVIPES var. LEUCOGASTER, Gray (1841). 

White-bellied Pouched Mouse. 

Differs from the typical form only in the underside and limbs 
being white. 

Habitat. Northern and Western Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 291 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. xxxviii. 

5. PHASCOLOGALE MINIMA, Geoffroy, sp. (1804). 

Little Pouched Mouse. 

Size medium ; form murine. Fur thick and close, but rather 
harsh. General color above gray, suffused with yellow or rufous, 
more strongly posteriorly ; below, chin white, chest and belly 
dirty yellowish-gray. Ears short, nearly naked, generally tufted 
at the base. A yellow patch on the front and outside of the hips. 
Hands and feet gray, yellow, or brown. Soles naked, with five 
pads, but the hallucal sometimes divided. Claws very long and 
strong. Tail short, closely short-haired, brown above, paler 
below. Mammae ? 

Dimensions. Head and body about five and a half inches ; 
tail about three and a half inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania and the adjoining Islands. 
References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 287. 



14 PHASCOLOGALE. 

6. PHASCOLOGALE SWAINSONI, Waterhouse (1840). 

Swainson's Pouclied Mouse. 

Size medium. Fur very long, soft, and thick. General color 
above deep rufous- or umber-brown, below dull brownish-gray. 
Muzzle long. Ears short and broad, covered with short dark 
brown hairs. Hands and feet dark brown. Soles with five pads, 
the hallux not, or scarcely divided. Fore claws very long and 
strong. Tail moderate, short-haired, uniformly dark brown. 
Mammaa probably ten. 

Dimensions. Head and body about five inches ; tail about 
four inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania ; South-east Victoria. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 285, pis. xxiv. fig. 7 (upper 
view of skull), xxv. fig. 4 (teeth); Gould, Marnm. Austr. i. pi. xxxiv. 

7. PHASCOLOGALE APICALIS, Gray (1842. 
Freckled Pouclied Mouse. 

Size medium. Fur coarse. General color above freckled 
reddish-gray, below dull white or yellowish. A whitish ring 
round the eye. Ears short and rounded, clothed inside and out- 
side with short gray hairs. Front and outside of fore-arm rufous ; 
rest of outsides of limbs dull gray. Hands and feet gray. Soles 
granulated ; hallucal pad rarely subdivided. Tail short, hairy, 
colored above like the back, below gray or yellowish-gray ; the 
extreme tip black. Mammae eight. 

Dimensions. Head and body about five inches ; tail about 
three and a half inches. 

Habitat. West and probably North Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 277, pis. xxiv. fig. 5 (upper 
view of skull), xxv. fig. 1 (teeth); Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xxxix. 

8. PHASCOLOGALE CRISTICAUDATA, Krefft, sp. (1866). 

Krefft's Pouclied Mouse. 

Size medium. Fur close and soft. General color above sandy- 
brown, below paler. Ears short, rounded, and very broad. Tail 
short, a prominent crest of black hairs, becoming longer towards 
the tip, on the upper side of its terminal half. Mammse ? 

Dimensions. Head and body about five inches ; tail about 
three and a half inches. 

Habitat. South Australia. 

Type, In the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 276 ; Krefft, P.Z.S. 1866, 
p. 435, pi. xxxvi. 



DASYUEUS. 15 

Note. As the only specimen known is mounted, it is impossible 
to give any description of the palms and soles and their pads. In 
the type specimen, according to Krefft, the fourth premolar is 
absent, but seeing that it is present in all other members of the 
subfamily (except P. thorbeckiana, in which it is a variable 
character), this is doubtless an individual variation or peculiarity. 

Genus V. DASYURUS, E. Geo/roy (1796). 

Body spotted. Form stout or slender, graceful. Ears long 
and narrow. Tail long, evenly- and thickly-haired throughout. 
Feet plantigrade. Toes subequal, with sharp, curved claws ; 
hallux very small or wanting. Soles granulated, nearly or wholly 
naked. Pouch opening vertically downwards. Mamma? six or 
eight. 

Dentition T 1 ' 2 - 3 ' 4 O l P 1 -- 3 - M 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 v 9 - 49 
ion. i. La _ 3 , ^. v . j^Q, ivi. YJJ^ x J ~ * J> 

Habits. Terrestrial and arboreal ; carnivorous and insecti- 
vorous. 

Note. The " Native Cats " of the Australian region take the 
place of the Mustelidce of the palee- and ne-arctic regions, and are 
equally destructive to poultry &c. 

1. DASYURUS HALLUCATUS, Gould (1842). 

North-Australian Native Oat. 

Size small ; form slender. Fur short and coarse. General 
color above yellowish-brown spotted with white ; below pale gray 
or yellow. Ears large, thinly clothed with fine yellow hairs. 
Hallux present. Sole-pads smooth, well-defined, and transversely 
striated. Tail long, rather short-haired, its base colored like the 
body, but unspotted, the remainder black. Mammse eight. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eleven inches ; tail about 
eight inches. 

Habitat. Tropical Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 269 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. lii. 

2. DASYURUS GEOPFROYI, Gould (1840). 

Black-tailed Native Cat. 

Size medium ; form slender. Fur thick and soft. General 
color above olive-gray tinged with rufous and spotted with white ; 
below white. Ears large, their backs brown with white margins. 
Hallux present. Soles granulated, the pads marked by rounded 
unstriated prominences. Tail long and rather bushy, the basal 
half above and fourth below colored like the back, but unspotted, 
the remainder black. Mammae six. 



16 



DASYURUS. 



Dimensions. Head and body about sixteen inches ; tail about 
twelve inches. 

Habitat. All Australia except the extreme North, and the 
coastal districts of the South-East. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Oatal. p. 268, pi. xxiii. figs. 1 (ear), 
2 (sole) ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. li. 

3. DASYURUS VIVERRINUS, Shaw, sp. (1800). 

Common Native Cat. 

Fig. 1. 




Lower jaw of Dasyurus riverrinus, showing 1 typical polyprotodont den- 
tition (natural size). 

Size medium ; form slender. Fur thick and soft. General 
color above and below either pale gray or black, spotted with 
white. Ears large. Hallux absent. Soles granulated, without 
distinct pads. Tail bushy, its proximal three-fourths like the 
back, but unspotted, its tip white. Mammpe six. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eighteen inches; tail about 
twelve inches. 

Habitat. Eastern watershed of New South Wales ; Victoria ; 
South Australia ; Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 265 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. 1. 

Note. This species, in both varieties, but mostly in the light- 
colored form, is as much, if not more, terrestrial than arboreal, 
living in dead logs under rocks, or in holes in the cliffs, in which 
latter place they feed on dead fish, and probably crustaceans, 
mollusks, &c., and are thus frequently caught in baited fish-traps 
left bare by the tide or hauled up during bad weather. Fossil 
remains of this species have been discovered in the Wellington 
Caves, New South Wales, the Pleistocene Deposits of Gowrie, 
Queensland, and in Tasmania. 



DASYURUS. 17 

4. DASYURUS GRACILIS, Ramsay (1888). 
Slender Native Cat. 

Size small ; form light and graceful. Fur short, close, and 
somewhat harsh to the touch. General color above and below 
deep blackish-brown, spotted with white, the spots on the sides 
and on the basal third of the tail largest and sometimes confluent. 
Ears rather short, thinly haired proximally outside, the inside 
with a tuft of long hairs on the anterior margin. Hallux present. 
Claws long and powerful. Tail long, slender, the terminal inch 
tufted, colored like the body. Marnmaj 1 

Dimensions. Head and body thirteen inches ; tail nine and a 
half inches. 

Habitat. Bellenden-Ker Range, Northern Queensland. 

Type. In the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Reference. Ramsay, P.L.S. N.S. Wales, (2) iii. p. 1296 (1888). 

Note. Were it not for the indisputably adult dentition of the 
unique specimen on which Dr. Ramsay has founded his new species, 
and that evidence, presumably reliable, points to the existence in 
the same district of a Spotted-tailed Dasyure as large as or even 
larger than the southern D. maculatus, I should have been inclined 
to consider this specimen as merely an aborted tropical form of 
that species ; until, however, further research has undeniably 
proved the presence there of two so widely separated races it is 
perhaps better to keep them apart. It is worth mentioning that 
both in its fauna and flora the Bellenden-Ker Ranges shew more 
distinct affinities to the Papuan than to the restricted Australian 
Subregion ; for instance the Rhododendron flourishes in a wild 
state in these mountains only of Australia, having evidently 
travelled round from the Himalayas along the highlands of New 
Guinea, and so down the northern Queensland Ranges ; similarly 
such typical Papuan forms as Dendrolagus among Mammals, 
Casuarius among Birds, Papuina among Molluscs, Perichceta 
among Earthworms, with many others, have found their way into 
our fauna. 

5. DASYURUS MACULATUS, Kerr, sp. (1792). 
Spotted-tailed Native Cat. 

Size large ; form stout and heavy. Fur thick and close. General 
color above dark brown with a rufous or orange tinge, but never 
black, with large white spots ; below white or pale yellow. Ears 
rather short and very thinly haired. Hallux present. Claws 
large and powerful. Tail very long, brown or rufous brown, 
spotted like the body. Mamma? six. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-five inches ; tail 
about nineteen inches. 



18 SARCOPHILUS. 

Habitat. From Central Queensland to Victoria, principally on 
the Ranges but extending to the coast line ; Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 263, pi. xxiv. fig. 3 (right 
molar 3 ); Gould, Mamin. Austr. i. pi. xlix. 

It seems to me that there must have been some extraordinary 
misapprehension on the part of Mr. Thomas, or some misrepre- 
sentation on the part of his correspondents, when he penned 
the sentence (loc. cit. p. 265) asserting the "great rarity on the 
continent " i.e. the mainland of Australia of this species in 
comparison with its " commoness in Tasmania ;" as a matter of 
fact D. maculatus is by no means uncommon nor seemingly has 
it any present intention of dying out in the mountainous and 
coastal districts of eastern Australia from northern Queensland, 
through New South Wales and Victoria to South, and possibly 
West Australia. It may be worth mentioning that the largest, 
stoutest, and heaviest example I have yet seen was caught, in 
company with five others, on Manly Beach, a suburb of Sydney. 
For these and other reasons I cannot in any wise agree with Mr. 
Thomas as to the approaching extermination of this species on the 
mainland, nor can I allow, though confessedly unable to promulgate 
a more ostensible theory, that the causes which conduced to the 
annihilation, at what must have been a very recent period, of 
Sarcophilus and Thylacinus from Eastern Australia, can have in 
any degree affected D. maculatus, the former having been purely, 
or at the least mainly terrestrial, while the latter is most emphati- 
cally an arboreal Mammal. If the Dingo, as suggested by Mr. 
Thomas, had anything whatever to do with the extermination of 
our Native Cats, the first to disappear would have been D. viver- 
rinus by far the most terrestrial of all the Dasyures. 

Genus VI. SARCOPHILUS, F. Cuvier (1837). 

Body blotched with white. Form very stout and powerful. 
Muzzle short and broad. Ears broad and rounded. Tail moderate, 
evenly hairy. Feet plantigrade. Toes subequal, with well- 
developed curved claws ; hallux absent. Soles naked, without 
defined pads. 

Dentition I --^ 4 C X P * - 3 - M L2 ' 3 - 4 x 9 _ 19 

- 1 - 1.2.3 ' 1' r - 1.0.3.0' iVJ " L2^4 > 

Habits. Fossorial ; carnivorous. 

Note. A fossil species, S. latiiarius, Owen, sp., is found in the 
Wellington Caves and at Gowrie, Queensland. 

1. SARCOPHILUS URSINUS, Harris, sp. (1808). 

Tasmanian Devil. 

Fur thick and close, consisting largely of soft woolly underfur. 
General color above and below black or blackish-brown, with a 

B B 



PERAMELID.E. 19 

variable number of white patches on the neck, shoulders, rump, 
and chest, the pectoral patch only being constant. Ears hairy, 
with well-marked basal tufts. Soles naked, coarsely granulated, 
and without pads ; a small transversely-striated pad at the extreme 
tip of each toe. Tail short, uniformly thickly hairy. Mammae 1 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-eight inches ; tail 
about twelve inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 259, pi. xxiv. fig. 2 (right 
molar*}; Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xlviii. 

Genus VII.THYL ACINUS, Temminck (1827). 

Back transversely banded with black. Size large; form wolf-like. 
Muzzle long and slender. Ears of medium size. Tail well 
developed, short-haired. Feet markedly digitigrade. Toes sub- 
equal, with short, thick, conical claws. Hallux absent. Pouch 
opening backwards. Mammie four. Marsupial bones rudimentary. 

Dentition.-l. gf 4 , C. J, P. J|* M. J-Jf 4 x 2 = 46 
Habits. Terrestrial ; carnivorous. 

Note. Thylacinus speheus, Owen, a fossil form of larger size 
than the living representative is also known from the Wellington 
Caves and the Queensland Pleistocene. 

1. THYLACINUS CYNOCEPHALUS, Harris, sp. (1808). 
Tasmanian Wolf. 

Fur short, close, and crisp. General color above pale finely 
grizzled gray-brown, with a faint yellowish or tawny tinge ; below 
slightly paler. Round the eyes, edges and base of the ears nearly 
white. Posterior part of back with about sixteen blackish-brown 
transverse bands, descending on the rump nearly to the knee. 
Soles naked, coarsely granulated, without defined pads. Tail 
with indistinct crests above and below, its tip blackish. 

Dimensions. Head and body about forty-four inches ; tail 
about twenty-one inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 255, pi. xxiv. fig. 1 (right 
*nolar 3 ); Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pis. liii. (head), liv. 

Family IL PERAMELID^E. 

Bandicoots. 

Hind limbs decidedly the longer. Fore feet with two or gener- 
ally three of the middle digits long, and clawed, the others rudi- 



20 CHCEROPUS 

mentary or absent. Hind feet syndactylous, with four or five 
toes very unequal in size ; hallux rudimentary or absent ; second 
and third toes slender, united ; fourth strongest, long, with a large 
claw ; fifth present, clawed. Clavicles absent. Ccecum present. 
Pouch present, opening backwards. 

Genus I. CHCEROPUS, W. Ogilby (1838). 

Form light and slender. Muzzle short and narrow. Ears long 
and narrow. Fore feet with the first and fifth digits absent, the 
fourth rudimentary, the second and third fully developed with 
long, slender claws. Hind feet with the hallux absent, the fifth 
toe rudimentary, and the fourth very large. Tail cylindrical, 
slightly crested along the upper surface. Mammse eight. 

Dentition. I. ^jff, C. {, P. 1 r g* M. g| x 2 = 48. 
Habits. Terrestrial ; fossorial ; omnivorous. 

1. CH<EROPUS CASTANOTIS, Gray (1842). 
Pig-footed Bandicoot. 

Size small ; form delicate. Fur coarse and straight, but not 
spiny. Ears thinly haired, dull chestnut-brown behind, darkening 
towards the tip. General color above coarse grizzled gray with 
a tinge of fawn ; below white. Limbs long and slender. Tail 
short, black above, gray on the sides and below. 

Dimensions. Head and body about ten inches ; tail about four 
inches. 

Habitat. Western New South Wales and Victoria ; South 
and West Australia ; (Northern Territory 1). 

Type. In the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 250 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. vi. 

Genus II. PERAMELES, Geoffroy (1803). 

Form varying from stout and clumsy to light and delicate. 
Muzzle long and pig-like. Ears variable in size. Fore feet with 
the first and fifth digits short and clawless, and the three middle 
digits long and subequal with curved fossorial claws. Hind feet 
with the hallux short and clawless, the second and third toes with 
flat twisted nails, the fourth long and powerful with a stout pointed 
claw, and the fifth similar but smaller. Tail tapering ; short- 
haired or nearly naked. Mammae six or eight. 



Dentition.-! l -^^-, C. \, P. $j& M. \% x 2 = 4Gor 48. 
Habits. Terrestrial ; fossorial ; omnivorous. 

Note. The Bandicoots do a great amount of damage to culti- 
rated lands and gardens, not only by digging up and consuming 



PERAMELES. 21 

large quantities of the seeds, roots, and bulbs planted by the 
farmers, but also by being the especial enemy of earth-worms, 
which by their constant and equable trituration of the soil, and 
their introduction below the surface by means of their excreta of 
such foreign substances as decaying leaves, &c., are generally ac- 
cepted now as most potent friends of agriculture. These animals 
fall natui^ally into two very distinct groups, the former of which, 
represented by P. yunni and its allies, inhabits the " stony ridges 
of the hotter and more exposed parts," while the latter, repre- 
sented by P. obesula and its allies, is restricted to "low swampy 
grounds covered with dense vegetation." 

From the Caves of the Wellington Valley, N.S. Wales, numer- 
ous remains of Bandicoots have been secured in a fossil state, but 
agreeing so intimately with recent forms as to make it injudicious 
to separate them ; the species represented are as follows : Pera- 
meles bougainvillii, P. nasnta, P. obesula, an undescribed species 
of Perameles and Peragale lagotis. 

1. PERAMELES BOUGAINVILLII, Qtioy & Gaimard (1821). 
Western Striped Bandicoot. 

Size small ; form light and delicate. Fur coarse, but not spinous. 
Muzzle long and slender. Ears long, narrow, and pointed, reach- 
ing when laid forward beyond the eye ; their backs grayish-flesh- 
color, slightly darker on the anterior portion of their terminal 
half. General color above grizzled olive-gray ; below white ; 
sides of rump with ill-defined stripes. Soles hairy and black 
posteriorly ; naked, granulated, and flesh-colored anteriorly; con- 
spicuous round pads at bases of fourth and fifth toes. Tail 
moderate, brown above, white below. Mammae eight. 

Dimensions. Head and body about nine inches ; tail about 
four and a quarter inches. 

Habitat. West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 246, pi. xxi. figs. 7 (ear], 
S (sole) ; Gould, Mamin. Austr. i. pi. x. 

la. P. BOUGAINVILLII, var. FASCIATA, Gray (1841). 
Eastern Striped Bandicoot. 

Difl'ers from the typical form only in the stronger contrast 
between the dark and light patches on the back of the ears, and 
in the rump-stripes being well defined and conspicuous. 

Habitat. South-eastern and southern Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 248 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. viii. 



22 PERAMELES. 

2. PERAMELES GUNNI, Gray (1838). 
Tasmanian Striped Bandicoot. 

Size large; form slender. Fur soft, not spinous. Muzzle long 
and slender. Ears long and pointed, reaching when laid forward 
beyond the eye ; their backs yellowish-brown, with a darker blotch 
on the anterior portion of their terminal half. General color 
above grizzled yellowish-brown; below white or yellowish-white ; 
sides of rump with four vertical light bands. Soles hairy and 
black posteriorly, naked and white anteriorly; small round striated 
pads at bases of fourth and fifth toes. Tail very short, slender, 
white except on a short basal portion of the upper surface. 
Mammae "? 

Dimensions. Head and body about sixteen inches ; tail less 
than four inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania, and probably the coastal region of South- 
eastern Victoria. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 245 ; Gould, Mauim. 
Austr. i. pi. ix. 

3. PERAMELES NASUTA, Geoffroy (1804). 

Long-nosed Bandicoot. 

Size large ; form slender. Fur coarse, hispid, and slightly 
spinous. Muzzle very long and slender. General color above 
dull olivaceous-brown ; below white. Ears long, narrow, and 
pointed. Inner side of limbs and feet white. Soles granulated, 
black and thinly hairy posteriorly, white and naked anteriorly. 
Tail of moderate length, brown above, paler below. Mammae ? 

Dimensions. Head and body about sixteen inches ; tail abou 
five inches. 

Habitat. Eastern Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 242, pi. xxii. figs. 5 <k 6 
(skull) ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xi. 

4. PERAMELES MACRURA, Gould (1842). 
North Australian Bandicoot. 

Size large ; form rather stout. Fur short, coarse, and spiny. 
General color above coarsely grizzled yellow and black ; below 
white or yellowish-white. Ears short and broad, their backs 
brown, narrowly margined with white. Hands and feet brown, 
or mixed brown and white. Soles naked and coarsely wrinkled. 
Tail rather long, brown above, white below. Mamma; eight. 

Dimensions. Head and body about sixteen inches ; tail about 
seven inches. 

Habitat. Northern Australia. 
References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 234. 



PERAGALE. 23 

5. PERAMELES AURATA, Ramsay (1887). 

Golden Bandicoot. 

Size small ; form rather stout. Fur coarse and spiny. General 
color above rich golden brown pencilled with black ; below white. 
Ears short and broad. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eight and a half inches. 
Habitat. North-western Australia. 
Type. In the Macleay Museum, Sydney University. 
Reference. Ramsay, P.L.S., N.S. Wales (2) ii. p. 551 (1887). 

6. PERAMELES OBESULA, Shaw, sp. (1793). 

Short-nosed Bandicoot. 

Size medium ; form stout. In all other respects externally 
resembling the P. macrura, except that the tail is shorter, the 
feet rather less heavy, and the general color lighter. 

Dimensions. Head and body about fourteen inches ; tail about 
five and a half inches. 

Habitat. Australia south of the tropics ; Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 231, pi. xxi. fig. 5 (ear); 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xii. 

Genus III. PERAGALE, Gray (1841). 

Form light and delicate. Muzzle long and narrow. Ears very 
long. Fore feet with the first and fifth toes rudimentary and 
claw less, and the three middle toes long, with powerful curved 
claws. Hind limbs much longer than the fore. Hallux absent 
externally. Soles hairy. Tail long, conspicuously crested on the 
terminal half above. 

Dentition I 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 ' 5 C x P 1 -- 3 - 4 M L2 - 3 ' 4 x 2 - 48 
' ' OlS ' U- 1' ' 1.0.3.4? 1.2.3.4 5 

Habits. Terresti-ial ; fossorial ; omnivorous. 

1. PERAGALE LEUCURA, Thomas (1887). 

White-tailed Rabbit-Bandicoot. 

Size small ; form slender. Fur long, soft, and silky. General 
color above pale yellowish-fawn ; below white. Ears thinly 
clothed with fine silvery hairs. Limbs white. Greater part of 
the soles hairy. Tail moderate, slender, tapering, short-haired 
except on the terminal third above, uniform white. 

Dimensions. Of adult unknown. 

Habitat. Unknown ; probably Central or North-Central 
Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 225, pis. ii., xxi. figs. 9 
(palm), 10 (sole). 



24 PERAGALE. 

2. PERAGALE LAGOTIS, Reid, sp. (1836). 
Common Rabbit -Bandicoot. 

Size large ; form light and delicate. Fur very long, soft, and 
silky. General color above fawn-gray ; below white. Cheeks 
and bases of ears white or pale fawn. Ears nearly naked, their 
edges and the anterior part of the backs thinly clothed with pale 
brown hairs. An indistinct darker vertical band on the sides of the 
rump. Outer sides of the fore and backs of the hind limbs dark 
gray grizzled with white ; remainder of limbs white. Soles almost 
entirely thickly hairy. Tail of moderate length, thickly hairy 
throughout, the basal third colored like the body, the middle third 
black or dark brown, the terminal third white and prominently 
crested above. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eighteen inches; tail about 
nine inches. 

Habitat. South and West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 223, pi. xxii. fig. 1 (skull); 
Gould, Mainm. Austr. i. pi. vii. 

Suborder II. Diprotodontia, 

Normal characters. Incisors three in the upper, one in the 
lower jaw, the latter long and powerful. Canines usually small, 
much smaller than the incisors, almost invariably absent below. 
Molars bluntly tuberculate or ridged. 

Frugivorous, graminivorous, phytophagous, herbivorous, rhizo- 
phagous ; rarely insectivorous and mellivorous. 

Exceptions. One upper incisor only in each ramus in PJiasco- 
lomys ; second lower incisor present in Phalanger, Trichosurus, 
Gymnobelideus, Dromicia, Distoschurus, and Acrobates : occa- 
sionally in Pseudochirus and Petauroides ; second and third in 
Dactylopsila ; second and occasionally third in Petaurus. 

Family III. PHASCOLOMYID^. 

Wombats. 

Form stout and clumsy. Muzzle short and broad. Limbs 
subequal, very thick and strong. Fore feet with five subequal 
digits, each with a stout claw. Hind feet with the hallux short 
and clawless ; the other toes with long, curved claws; the second 
and third with a slight tendency to syndactyly. Tail rudimentary. 
Stomach simple. Coacum present. Pouch present. Mammae 1 

Genus I. PHASCOLOMYS, E. Ceoffroy (1803). 
Characters as those of the family. 



PHALANGERIDjE. 25 

n .... T 1.0.0 n -p 0.0.0.4 -si- 1.2.3.4 o OA 

Dentition. 1. ^ C. - , P. 5 ^ y - 4 , M. j^ x 2 = 24. 
Habits. Fossorial ; rhizophagous. 

1. PHASCOLOMYS MITCHELLI, Owen (1838). 

Common Australian Wombat. 

Size large. Rhinarium large, naked, and black. Fur coarse, 
harsh, and hispid. Color above and below either yellow, grizzled 
yellow and black, or black. Ears short, rounded, and well- 
haired. Ribs of the exceptional number of fifteen. 

Dimensions. Head and body about forty-four inches. 
Habitat. New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. 
References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 213; Gould, Manim. 
Austr. i. pis. Ivii. (head), Iviii. 

2. PHASCOLOMYS URSINUS, Shaw, sp. (1800). 
Tasmanian Wombat. 

Difters in no respect from the preceding except in its smaller 
size. Color above and below uniform dark grizzled grayish-brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirty-eight inches. 
Habitat. Tasmania, and Islands in Bass' Straits. 
References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 215 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pis. Iv. (head), Ivi. 

3. PHASCOLOMYS LATIFROXS, Owen (1845) 
Hairy-nosed Wombat. 

Size moderate. Rhinarium hairy, velvety to the touch, and white. 
Fur straight, soft, and silky. General color above mottled gray ; 
tip of muzzle, a spot above and below the eyes, cheeks, throat, 
and chest white ; chin black ; rest of underside dirty gray. Ears 
comparatively long, narrow, and pointed ; outwardly sparsely 
clothed with black hairs, inwardly naked. Ribs of the normal 
number of thirteen. 

Dimensions. Head and body about forty inches. 

Habitat. South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 217 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pis. lix. (head), Ix. 

Family IV. PHALANGERID^. 

All the feet with five digits, those of the fore limbs generally 
subequal ; those of the hind limbs syndactylous, fairly stout and 
well developed ; fourth toe the longest, the fifth but little smaller ; 



26 



PHASCOLARCTIN^. 



hallux present, large, widely opposable, with a broad, nailless, 
terminal pad. Tail (except in Phascolarctus) very long, and 
almost always prehensile. Stomach simple. Co3cum present 
(except in Tarsipes). Pouch well developed, opening backwards. 

Subfamily I. PHASCOLARCTINJE. 

Tail wanting. Muzzle short and broad. Tongue not extensile. 
Cheek-pouches present. Ccecum large and complicated. Teeth 
large. 

Genus I. PHASCOLARCTUS, Blainwlk (1816). 

Size large ; form very stout and clumsy. Fur thick and woolly. 
Ears large, thickly furred. Flanks without flying-membrane. 
Fore toes subequal, their lengths in the following relative order 
4, 3, 5, 2, 1 ; the first and second opposable to the others. Claws 
thick, strong, and sharply pointed. Palms and soles granulated 
without striated pads. Tail rudimentary. Mamnue two. Ribs 
numbering eleven only. 

T\ . T 1-2.3 r\ 1 T> 0.0.0.4 -m t 1.2.3.4 ,T A 

Dentition. 1. 1 _ , C. , P. ^^ M. r ^ x 2 = 30. 

Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

Note. A fifth lower molar is occasionally developed. 

1. PHASCOLARCTUS CINEREUS, Gold/., sp. (1819). 
Koala ; Native Bear. 



Fig. 2. 




Side view of skull of Phascolarctus cinereus, reduced one half. 

General color above gray ; below white or yellowish-white. 
Rhinarium thinly clothed with minute hairs. Ears rounded, the 
hairs 011 their backs black tipped with white ; elsewhere white, 
rump dirty yellowish- white, sometimes irregularly spotted. Hands 
and feet white. 



TRICHOSURUS. 27 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirty-two inches. 
Habitat. Eastern Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 210 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pis. xiii. (head), xiv. 

Subfamily II. PHALANGERIN.E. 

Australian Opossums. 

Tail well developed, generally prehensile. Muzzle short and 
broad. Tongue not extensile. No cheek-pouches. Ccecum 
present, large. Stomach simple. Teeth large. 

Genus II. PHALANGER, Storr (1780). 

Size large or medium ; form stout. Fur thick and woolly. 
Ears medium or short. Flanks without flying-membrane. Fore 
toes subequal, their lengths in the following relative order 
4, 3, 5, 2, 1. Claws long, stout, and curved. Soles naked, 
striated ; pads large and ill-defined. Tail strong, its terminal 
portion naked all round, smooth or granulated, prehensile. 
Mammae four. 

/-> , . T 1.2.3 pi 1 T> 1.03.4 -\r 1.2.3.4- -i /? . i . . .) A A 

Dentition. 1. T ^, C. , P. T ^, M. ^4=16 + 4 x 2 = 40. 
Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

1. PHALANGER MACULATUS, E. Geoffroy, sp. (1803). 

Spotted Cuscus. 

Size large. Fur soft. Top of muzzle above rhinarium thinly 
haired. Ears small, thinly clothed both inside and outside with 
soft woolly hair. General colors above various combinations of 
white, rufous, and black ; below white tinged with yellow or 
rufous. Tail generally deep yellow, furry from one-half to three- 
fourths of its length above, and from one-third to one-half below. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty -six inches ; tail 
about nineteen inches. 

Habitat. Northern Australia (Cape York District); Southern 
New Guinea ; Austro-Malayan subregion from Saleyer eastward. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 197, pi. xxi. fig. 2 (ear); 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xxi. ( ? ). 

Genus III. TRICHOSURUS, Lesson (1828). 

Size large ; form stout. Fur thick and woolly. Ears medium 
or short. Flanks without Hying membrane. Fore toes subequal, 
their lengths in the following relative order 4, 3, 2, 5, 1. 
Claws large and strong. Soles thickly hairy under the heels ; the 
rest naked, with low rounded ill-defined pads. Tail strong, its 



28 TRICHOSURUS. 

terminal third or half naked beneath ; its extreme tip naked all 
round. A gland on the chest. Mammae 1 

Dentition. I. ^f| 0. -J, P. ^|, M. J|f| = (at most) 16 + 2 

x 2 = 36. 
Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

1. TRICHOSURUS CANINUS, W. Ogilby, sp. (1835). 
Short-eared Opossum. 

Size large. Fur comparatively short. Ears short, evenly 
rounded, not so long as broad. General color above clear grizzled 
gray or deep umber-brown with a rufous tinge, paler on the fore- 
quarters, sides, and below, darker along the posterior back. 
Tail very thick and bushy, nearly wholly black. 

Dimensions.- Head and body about twenty-two inches ; tail 
about fifteen inches. 

Habitat. New South Wales ; Southern Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 191 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. xvii. 

2. TRICHOSURUS VULPECULA, Kerr, sp. (1792). 
Common Opossum. 

Size small. Fur close, thick, and woolly. General color above 
clear grizzled gray ; below, chin more or less blackish ; throat, 
chest, and belly white or dirty yellow ; a median chest-patch in 
adults rusty red. Ears long and narrow, much longer than 
broad, nearly naked inside and terminally outside. Hands and 
feet white, gray, or brown. Tail thick, cylindrical, and bushy, 
terminal half or two-thirds gray, its end black ; the extreme tip 
occasionally white, the naked part below transversely wrinkled, 
from three to six inches in extent. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eighteen inches ; tail about 
eleven inches. 

Habitat. All Australia except the Cape York District. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 187 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. xvi. 

Note. The Phalangista johnstonii of Dr. Ramsay is now con- 
sidered by its author as a larger and more brightly colored local 
variety of T. mdpecula. 

T. VULPECULA, var. FULIGINOSUS, W. Oyilbi/, sp. (1831). 
Tasmanian Opossum. 

Size larger, and form stouter and heavier than in the typical 
form. Fur longer and thicker. General color rufous-gray or 
deep umber-brown. Ears with little or no white behind. Tail 
very thick and bushy, almost wholly black. 



PSEUDOCHIRUS. 29 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-three inches ; tail 
about fifteen inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 190 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. xv. 

Genus IV. PSEUDOCHIRUS, W. Ogilby (1836). 

Size large or medium. Fur short and rather woolly. Ears 
medium or short, hairy behind. Flanks without flying membrane. 
Fore toes subequal, the two inner ones markedly opposable to the 
outer three, their relative lengths as follows 4, 3, 5, 2, 1. 
Claws moderate. Palms and soles naked, with large rounded 
and striated pads. Tail long and tapering ; its tip naked under- 
neath for a varying distance; markedly prehensile. Mammas 
four. 

n .-,- T 1.2.3 or n lorO -r> 1.0.3.4 -n/r 1.2.3.4 -, * -, . 

Dentition. I. ^-^ , C. g , P. fy^, M. j^ =15 or 17 + 

(at most) 3 x 2 = 36 or 40. 

Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

1. PSEUDOCHIRUS ARCHERI, Collett, sp. (1884). 
Archer's Opossum. ' Tula ' of the Aborigines. 

Size moderate. Fur soft, close, and thick. General color above 
grizzled grayish-green ; below, chin grayish-white, remainder pure 
white. A distinct pale yellow spot both above and below the 
eyes. Ears very short, broader than long, rounded, their posterior 
edges and a spot beneath their bases white. A black central 
line on the nape and back ; two indistinctly dark-edged whitish 
lines bordering the central line. Distal third of tail white. 
Naked part beneath tip less than half the length of tail. 

Dimensions. Head and body about fourteen inches ; tail about 
thirteen inches. 

Habitat. Herbert River District, Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 177 ; Collett, P.Z.S. 1884, 
p. 381, pi. xxix. 

2. PSEUDOCHIRUS COOKI, Desmarest, sp. (1817). 

Tasmanian Ring-tailed Opossum. 

Size moderate. Fur very thick, close, and -woolly. General 
color above dark smoky-brown ; below white. Ears large, rounded, 
the anterior part of the back brown, the posterior margin 
generally white. Hands and feet dark brown or black. Tail 
dark brown, the distal two to four inches white ; the naked part 
below smooth, from three to five inches long. 



30 PSEUDOCHIRUS. 

Dimensions. Body and head about fourteen inches, tail nearly 
the same length. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 176, pis. xviii. fig. 7 
(jaws) ; xix. fig. 4 (upper view of skull) ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. 
i. pi. xix. 

3. PSEUDOCHIRUS OCCIDENTALIS, Thomas (1888). 
Western Ring-tailed Opossum. 

Size moderate. General color above deep smoky-gray; below 
white. Ears thinly hairy, the white spot on the posterior margin 
small. Hands and feet darker than the rest of the limbs. White 
tip of tail extending over five or six inches ; naked part below 
smooth, about four inches long. 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirteen inches ; tail about 
twelve inches. 

Habitat. West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 174, pis. xviii. fig. 6 
(upper jaw); xix. fig. 3 (upper view of skull). 

4. PSEUDOCHIRUS PEREGRINUS, Boddaert, sp. (1785). 

Common Ring-tailed Opossum. 

Size large. General color above gray or rufous in varying 
proportions ; below white, grayish-white, or rufous. Region 
round the eyes often prominently rufous. Ears rather large, 
their backs usually gray anteriorly with the posterior white patch 
distinct, sometimes uniform rufous. Outer side of arms and legs 
rufous. Hands and feet white or pale rufous. Middle third of 
tail black or nearly so ; from one to four inches of the tip white ; 
naked part beneath smooth, transversely striated, from one to 
four inches long. 

Dimensions. Head and body about sixteen inches ; tail about 
fourteen inches. 

Habitat. Eastern Australia from Southern Queensland to 
South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 172, pis. xvii. fig. 4 
(ear) ; xviii. fig. 5 (jaws) ; xix. fig. 2 (upper view of skull) ; 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pis. xviii. (P. cooki), xx. (P. lanuginosa). 

5. PSEUDOCHIRUS HERBERTENSIS, Collett, sp. (1884). 
Herbert River Opossum. ' Oota ' of the Aborigines 

Size moderate. Fur thick, close, and woolly. General color 
above dark umber-brown ; below, chin brown, chest and belly 
white, or grayish-white with irregular white patches, Ears short. 



PETAUROIDES. 31 

Limbs dark brown sometimes with white rings. Clothing of tail 
woolly ; from one to three inches of tip white ; naked part beneath 
from five to six inches long, coarsely shagreened. 

Dimensions. Head and body about fourteen inches ; tail about 
thirteen inches. 

Habitat. Herbert River District, Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 170; Collett, P.Z.S. 1884, 
p. 383, pi. xxx. 

6. PSEUDOCHIRUS LEMUROIDES, Collett, sp. (1884). 

Sombre Opossum. ' Yap-pi ' of the Aborigines. 
Size rather large. Fur soft and woolly. General color above 
dark brownish-gray ; below dirty yellowish-gray. Ears of moderate 
length. Limbs dark brown becoming black terminally. Tail 
rather short, clothed with uniform thick black fur ; its naked 
part below short. 

Dimensions. Head and body about fifteen inches ; tail about 
twelve inches. 

Habitat. Herbert River District, Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 170; Collett, P.Z.S. 1884, 
p. 385, pi. xxxi. 

Genus V. PETAUROIDES, Thomas (1888). 

Size large. Fur very long, soft, and silky. Ears very large, 
oval, naked inside, hairy outside. Flanks with a fiying-membrane. 
Fore toes subequal, their respective lengths as follows 4, 3, 5, 
2, 1. Claws vei'y long, strongly curved, and sharply pointed. 
Tail long, cylindrical, evenly bushy ; the extreme tip beneath 
naked and prehensile. 

Dentition. I. J||, C. -J, P. |'f*, M. }-|f|= 17 + (at most) 3 (or 
16 + 4) x 2 == 40.' 

Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

Note. Both the genera whose names have been associated with 
the Great Flying Opossum prove to be inadmissable, Voluccella 
(Bechstein, 1800) having been used by Fabricius six years 
previously for a genus of Dipterous insects, -while the better 
known name of Petaurista (Desmarest, 1820) had been used as a 
synonym of Pteromys by G. Fischer a few years earlier. 

1. PETAUROIDES VOLANS, Kerr, sp. (1792). 

Greater Flying Opossum. 

Fur long, soft, and fluffy. General color dark ashy gray, 
varying from nearly black to pale whitish-gray. Ears very large, 



32 . PETAUROIDES. 

oval, and evenly rounded, their inner surf ace entirely naked, their 
outer thickly covered with fur similar to that on the head. Under 
surface white or pale yellowish. Outer sides and backs of limbs 
black or dark brown, inner sides white or pale gray. Hands and 
feet thickly fringed with black hairs. Fingers and toes very 
thick. Palms and soles naked, the pads low, rounded, and finely 
striated. Tail ashy-gray or blackish, generally darkest terminally. 
Naked part beneath short, not sharply separated from the hairy 
part, its surface not roughened. Upper canine and first premolar 
larger than in the succeeding form. 

Dimensions. Head and body about seventeen inches ; tail 
about twenty inches. 

Habitat. Eastern Australia from Queensland to Victoria. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 164, pis. xvii. figs. 2 
(palms), 3 (naked portion of tail) ; xviii. figs. 1 (upper view of 
skull), 2 (dentition) ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xxii. 

la. P. VOLANS, var. MINOR, Collett, sp. (1887). 

Lesser Flying Opossum. 

Differs from the typical form only in its smaller size, in the 
feebler development of the upper canine and of the first premolar, 
which latter is quite minute and sometimes absent. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twelve inches ; tail about 
eighteen inches. 

Habitat. Central Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 1GG, pi. xviii. fig. 3 
(dentition) . 

Note. I do not think that it is advisable to separate Dr. 
Ramsay's P. cinereus from this variety. 

Genus VI. DACTYLOPSILA, Gray (1858). 

Size medium. Ears oval, nearly naked terminally. No trace 
of a flying-membrane. Fore toes very unequal, the fourth much 
the longest, the others respectively as follows 3, 5, 2, 1. Fourth 
and fifth hind toes much longer than the others. A prominent, 
proximal pad on the carpus. Claws long. Tail long, cylindrical, 
evenly bushy, the extreme tip naked below. 

Dentition. 1. J-Jf, C. -J, P. Jf M. J-JJJ =15 + 5 x 2 = 40. 
Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

1. DACTYLOPSILA TRIVIRGATA, Gray (1858). 

Striped Opossum. 

Fur close, thick, and woolly, but rather harsh. General color 
above, white with black stripes ; below, chin with a black spot, 



PETAURUS 33 

chest, belly, and inner side of limbs white or pale yellow. Three 
black stripes above, the median one from the occiput along the 
back and tail, broadest centrally ; the lateral stripes commencing 
on the sides of the snout passing along the neck and back, and 
sending off-shoots downwards in front of the shoulder, and along 
the limbs to the hands and feet, which are brown. Soles finely 
granulated. Pads large, rounded, and finely striated, except the 
carpal pad, which is narrow, smooth, and unstriated. Terminal 
third of tail wholly black, or with a prominent white tip ; its 
naked part more than an inch in length. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twelve inches ; tail about 
thirteen inches. 

Habitat. Central Queensland to Waigiou. 
References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 160, pis. xvii. fig. 1 
(hand) ; xxi. fig. 1 (sole showing pads) ; Gould, Marnm. Austr. i. 1 

Genus VII. PETAURUS, Shaw (1791). 

Size medium or small. Fur very soft and silky. Ears fairly 
large, oval, nearly naked. Flanks with a broad flying-membrane. 
Fore toes evenly lengthening outwardly, the fifth being the longest 
in the larger species, the fourth in the smaller. Claws very 
strong, sharp, and much curved. Tail long, evenly bushy every- 
where. Sexual crown- and chest-glands present. 

T\ t-t- r !- 2 - 3 n ! T> 1-0.3.4 Tt/r 1.2.3.4 T a , A ., O Af\. 

Dentition. L j-^, C. ^ P. j-^-j, M. j-^ = 
Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

1. PETAURUS AUSTRALIS, Shaw (1791). 
Yellow-bellied Flying-Opossum. 

Size large. Fur long. Rhinarium large, naked, finely granu- 
lated. General color above brown, variously marked with orange 
and black ; below, chin and inner sides of wrists and ancles 
blackish ; rest of under surface deep orange. Ears long, narrow, 
naked inside and terminally outside, with a prominent yellow 
patch along the posterior margins. Median line of back and 
upper surface of parachutes dark brown ; edges of the latter 
orange, except near its origin and insertion where it is broadly 
fringed with black. Hands and feet above black. Palms and 
soles naked and finely striated, the pads broad, rounded, ill-defined. 
Length of fore toes as follows 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. Tail very long, 
very bushy, gray above ; below at the base orange, darkening to 
black at the tip. Mamnue two 1 ? 

Dimensions. Head and body about twelve inches ; tail about 
seventeen inches. 

Habitat. Coast ranges of New South Wales and Victoria. 



34 PETAURUS. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 151, pi. xv. fig. 11 
(palm) ; Gould, Mamrn. Austr. i. pi. xxiii. 

2. PETAURUS SCIUREUS, Shaw, sp. (1794). 

Squirrel-like Flying-Opossum. 

Size moderate. Fur soft and silky, slightly woolly. General 
color above a soft pale gray, with a well defined dark brown or 
black dorsal band ; below white with a tinge of yellow. Ears 
rather variable in size, nearly naked inside, and terminally outside ; 
a deep black patch present along their external bases, succeeded 
posteriorly by a prominent white or pale yellow spot. Upper 
surface of parachute dark brown or grayish, the edges fringed 
with white or pale yellow. Hands and feet above white or pale 
gray. Palms and soles much as in P. australis, as also is the 
proportionate length of the toes. Tail moderate, very bushy, its 
color above and below gray, darkening terminally into black. 
Mammse (?) 

Dimensions. Head and body about ten inches ; tail about 
eleven inches. 

Habitat. Eastern Australia from Queensland to Victoria. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 153 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. xxiv. 

3. PETAURUS BREVICEPS, Waterhouse (1838). 
Lesser Flying-Opossum. 

Size small. Fur soft and silky. General colors as in P. sciureus, 
but with the dorsal band generally indistinct. Ears large. Length 
of fore toes as follows 4, 5, 3, '2, 1. Tail markedly more bushy 
basally. 

Dimensions. Head and body about seven inches ; tail about 
eight inches. 

Habitat. Northern and eastern Australia. Tasmania (intro- 
duced in 1835.} 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 156, pis. xv. fig. 9 (ear); 
xvi. figs. 9 (palatal view of skullj, 10 f dentition J ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pis. xxv. (P. breviceps), xxvi. (P. notatns), and xxvii. 
(P. arielj. 

Genus VIIL GYMNOBELIDEUS, McCoy (1867). 

Size small. General appearance as in Petanrns. Ears larg'e, 
naked, untufted. No flying-membrane. Toes of normal propor- 
tions ; their respective lengths as follows 4, 3, 5, 2, 1. Claws 
less developed than in Petaurus. Tail long, cylindrical, and 
bushy. 

Cc 



DROMICIA. 35 



Dentition. 1. || C. *, P. i|ff, M. J|JJ= 16 + 4 x 2 = 40. 
Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

1. GYMNOBELIDEUS LEADBEATERI, McCoy (1867). 

Leadbeater's Opossum. 

Fur soft and close. General color above brownish-gray ; below 
dull yellowish. A central dusky streak along the nape and back. 
A dark patch under base of ear, and fainter ones before and 
behind the eye. Ears large, semi-elliptical, nearly naked towards 
the tip. Terminal toe-pads of fore feet large and wrinkled. 
Palm- and sole-pads large, low, and finely striated. Tail pale 
brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body about five and a half inches; 
tail about one inch longer. 

Habitat. Victoria (Bass River). 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 149 ; McCoy, Prodr. Zool. 
Vic. pi. xci. (animal, skull, and feet J. 

Genus IX. DROMICIA, Gray (1841). 

Size small. Ears large and thin, almost naked. No flying- 
membrane. Fingers and toes normally proportioned, without 
broad terminal pads, the respective lengths of the former as 
follows 3, 4, 2, 5, 1. Fore claws short and rudimentary ; hind 
claws as usual. Tail cylindrical, its base furry, the remainder 
finely scaly, and clothed with short hairs ; the extreme tip beneath 
roughened, naked, and prehensile. MarnmEe four. 

n ... T 1.2.3 n 1 -p 1 or 7.0.3 or 3.4 TI^ 1.2.3.0or4 / , 

Dentition. I. ^, C. , P. 1 -- ^^ M. i ^^ = ( a t most 
normally) 17 + 3 x 2 = 40. 

Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

1. DROMICIA CONCINNA, Gould (1845). 
Western Dormouse-Opossum. 

Size small ; form very light and delicate. General color above 
bright fawn ; the belly hairs pure white throughout. Dark eye- 
mark almost obsolete. Ears long, rather narrow, evenly oval. 
Outsides of limbs fawn, insides white. Tail slender, not 
incrassated. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three inches ; tail rather 
longer. 

Habitat. South and West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 146, pi. xvi. fig. 8 
( dentition J; Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pi. xxx. 



36 DROMICIA. 

2. DROMICIA NANA, Desmarest, sp. (1817). 
Common Dormouse-Opossum. 

Size large ; form rather thick and clumsy. Fur thick and soft, 
rather woolly. Rhinarium naked, finely granulated. General 
color above uniform dull fawn, below slate color, tipped with 
dirty white. Dark eye-mark indistinct. Ears large, narrow, 
evenly oval. Limbs gray ; hands brown, feet whitish. Tail 
rather long ; the basal inch incrassated. 

Dimensions. Head and body about four inches; tail rather more. 
Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 144, pis. xv. figs. 5 (sole}, 

6 (palm), 7 (back of hand) ; xvi. figs. 6 flipper view of skull j, 

7 (dentition} ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. i. pis. xxvi. xxix. 

3. DROMICIA LEPIDA, Thomas (1888). 

Lesser Dormouse-Opossum. 

Size small ; form slender and graceful. Fur fine, soft, and 
silky. Rhinarium finely granulated. General color above pale 
bright fawn, below dark slaty tipped with white. Dark eye- 
mark inconspicuous. Ears large and broad ; almost naked. 
Palms and soles naked, finely granulated. Tail rather long, the 
basal half inch furry. 

Dimensions. Head and body rather less than the tail which 
is about three inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 142, pis. xv. fig. 8 (ear}: 
xvi. figs. 2 (palatal vieiv of skull), 3 (upper view of do.), 4 & 5 
(dentition). 

Genus X. ACROBATES, Desmarest (1817). 

Si/.e very small. Ears medium. Flanks with a narrow flying 
membrane. Toes of normal proportions, all provided with a 
broadened, striated, terminal pad ; length of fore toes as follows 
4, 3, 5, 2, 1. Claws sharp and well developed, though but little 
prominent. Tail with a broad fringe of hairs on each side. 
Mamrnse four. 

TX .... T 1-2.3 r, 1 Tj 1.0.3.4 -m/r 1.2.3 -i / 0,0 if 

Dentition. I. j-^, C. 5, P. ^-^ M. j-^ = 16 + 2 x 2 == 30, 
Habits. Arboreal ; insectivorous. 

1. ACROBATES PYGM^EUS, Shaw, sp. (1794). 
Pigmy Flying-Opossum. 

Form very light and delicate. Fur soft, straight, and silky. 
Rhinarium naked and well-defined. General color above grayish- 



TARSIPES. 37 

brown, below and inner side of limbs white. Area round and 
just in front of eyes brown. Tufts of hairs just behind the eye, 
and inside the ears, which are of medium size, fawn color on the 
outside anteriorly, white posteriorly. Edges of parachute fringed 
with longer hairs. Hands and feet brown. Tail rather long, 
fawn color, its extreme tip below naked, probably prehensile. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three inches ; tail about 
the same length. 

Habitat. Queensland, south of 20 S. lat., New South Wales, 
and Victoria. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 136; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. xxviii. 

Subfamily III. TARSIPEDIN^E. 

Tail long. Snout very long and slender ; tongue extensile. No 
coacum. Cheek-teeth minute and rudimentary. 

Genus XI. TARSIPES, Gervais & Verreaux (1842). 

Size small ; form slender. Head long and narrow ; muzzle 
elongate ; tongue long. Ears medium, thinly haired. Palms and 
soles naked and granulated. All the claws rudimentary, except 
those on the syndactylous second and third hind toes. Pouch 
pi'esent. Tail very long, thinly haired, prehensile. Mammse 
four. Upper canines and lower incisors comparatively well 
developed. 

Dentition (apparently)-!. JfJ, C. i P. * M. (at most) g 
X2 = 22. 
Habits. Arboreal ; insectivorous ; mellivorous. 

1. TARSIPES ROSTRATUS, Gerv. & Verr. (1842). 
Long-snouted Pouched Mouse. 

Fur short, coarse, and hispid. Rhinarium naked, finely granu- 
lar, sharply defined. General color above gray, striped with black 
or brown ; below yellowish-white. An indistinct pale area round 
each eye. Ears rounded. Arms and legs gray ; hands and feet 
white. Palms and soles, each with five distinct pads. Fourth 
and fifth toes disproportionately long and practically clawless, 
like the hallux ; junction of second and third toes very complete. 
Tail brown above, white or pale yellow on the sides and below ; 
the extreme tip below naked. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three inches ; tail about 
four inches. 

Habitat. West Australia. 



38 HYPSIPRYMNODON. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 132 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. i. pi. v. 

Family V. MACROPODID^E. 

Progression generally saltatorial. Hind limbs much the longer. 
Fore feet with fire digits ; hind feet syndactylous, the fourth toe 
very large with a strong claw ; the fifth similar but smaller; the 
second and third slender and united. Stomach sacculated. Coecum 
present. Pouch large, opening forwards. 

Subfamily I. HYPSIPRYMNODONTIN^E. 

Size very small. Claws small, feeble, and subequal. Hcdlux 
present, opposable. Tail naked and scaly. 

Genus I. HYPSIPRYMNODON, Eammy (1876). 

Form rat-like. Rhinarium wholly naked. Ears large, thin, 
and naked. Limbs subequal, not saltatorial. Hind feet with a 
long opposable clawless hallux ; fourth toe not disproportionately 
larger than the others, the fifth and combined second and third 
toes all well developed. Tail cylindrical, tapering, only the 
extreme base hairy. 

Dentition. -I. fc C. i P. f!, M. Jf x 2 = 34. 

Habits. Terrestrial, and at least partially arboreal ; insecti- 
vorous, frugivorous, and rhizophagous. 

1. HYPSIPRYMNODON MOSCHATUS, Ramsay (1876). 
Australian Musk Rat. 

Fur close, crisp, and velvety. Ears rounded, naked except at 
their bases behind, blackish, flesh-color. General color above and 
below finely grizzled rusty orange-gray, the orange deepest on the 
back. Fingers naked and scaly ; palms with five large transversely 
ridged pads ; upper surface of fourth toe only hairy ; soles with 
five transversely striated pads. Tail naked except on the proxi- 
mal inch, scaly, black above, paler below. 

Dimensions. Head and body about ten inches ; tail about 
six and a half inches. 

Habitat. Herbert River District, Queensland. 
Type. In the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 123, pis. xiv. fig. 11 (fourth 
premolar), xv. fig. 1 (hind foot); Ramsay, P.L.S. N.S.W. i. p. 34. 



POTOROUS. 39 

Subfamily II. POTOROIN.E. 

Rat-Kangaroos. 

Size small. Claws of fore feet very large, those of the three 
median digits disproportionately larger than those of the outer. 
Hallux wanting. Tail long and hairy. Canines always present, 
generally well developed. 

Genus II. POTOROUS, Desmarest (1804). 

Size variable. Rhinarium naked. Ears very short, rounded. 
Fore claws long and rather slender. Hind limb not dispropor- 
tionately longer than the fore limb ; hind feet very short, shorter 
than the head, the soles naked and coarsely granulated. Tail 
tapering, hairy, without trace of crest. 

Dentition.-!. J-g, 0. -J, P. ^, M. J-g-J x 2 = 34. 



Habits. Terrestrial ; herbivorous. 

1. POTOROUS PLATYOPS, Gould, sp. (1844). 

Broad-faced Rat-kangaroo. 

Size very small. Naked part of rhinarium not extending back- 
wards along the top of the muzzle. Face very short and broad. 
Fur long, coarse, and straight. Hind feet very short, long-haired. 
General color above grizzled dark grayish-brown ; below white or 
grayish-white. Back of ears dark brown. Tail black above, 
dirty-white below. 

Dimensions. -Head and body about fourteen inches; tail about 
eight inches ; hind foot less than two-thirds of an inch. 

Habitat. West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 121, pi. xiii. fig. 13 (upper 
view of skull) ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pi. Ixx. 

2. POTOROUS GILBERT:, Gould, sp. (1841). 

Gilbert's Rat-Kangaroo. 

Size medium. Naked part of rhinarium extending backwards 
along the top of the muzzle. Face long and narrow. Hind feet 
long, short-haired. Fur and general colors as in P. platyops. Tail 
gray at base, deepening in color to black terminally. 

Dimensions. Head and body about fifteen and a half inches; 
tail about seven inches; hind foot more than two-thirds of an inch. 

Habitat. South-west Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 120; Gould, Mainm. Austr 
ii. pL Ixix. 



40 POTORUS. 

3. POTOROUS TRIDACTYLUS, Kerr, sp. (1792). 
Common Rat-Kangaroo. 

Size variable, large, or medium. Other external characters a s 
in P. gilberti, but the naked part of the rhinarium extends rathe r 
further backwards. 

Dimensions. Head and body about sixteen and a half inches ; 
tail about nine inches ; hind foot from two-thirds to four-fifths of 
an inch. 

Habitat. New South Wales, Yictoria, South Australia and 
Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 117, pis. xi. fig. 13 (rhin- 
arium), xiii. fig. 12 (fourth premolar), xiv. fig. 10 (nasals); Gould, 
Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. Ixvii. (P. murinus), Ixviii. (P. apicalis). 

The two Tasmanian forms, P. apicalis which is larger and P. 
rufus which is smaller than continental examples may prove to 
be good species. 

Genus III. CALOPRYMNUS, Thomas (1888). 

Rhinarium naked. Ears short and rounded. Fore-claws long 
and strong. Hind feet longer than the head, their soles naked 
and coarsely granulated. Tail thin, cylindrical, evenly short- 
haired, without trace of crest. 

Denfitim T 1 2 ' 3 O \ P ' 3 ' 4 M L2 - 3 - 4 v 2-34 
" i- iTO> u< o' r ' 00X4' 1V1 - O^4 x J ~ 

Habits. Terrestrial ; herbivorous. 

1. CALOPRYMNUS CAMPESTRIS, Gould, sp. (1843). 
Plain Rat-Kangaroo. 

Size large. Form slender and delicate. Face broad between 
the orbits. Fur soft and straight. General color above grizzled 
sandy, darker on the back, brighter on the sides ; below pale 
sandy-white. Ears with close, short, yellow hairs. Arms and 
legs bright sandy rufous ; hands and feet white, the hairs quite 
short. Tail sparsely clothed with pale yellowish hairs, which are 
closest on the underside of the tip. Centre of chest naked and 
apparently glandular. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eighteen inches ; tail about 
fourteen inches. 

Habitat. South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 115, pis. xiii. lig. II (fourth 
premolar), xiv. fig. 9 (upper view of skull); Gould, Mamm. Austr. 
ii. pi. Ixvi. 



BETTONGIA. 41 

Genus tV. BETTONGIA, Gray (1837). 

Rhinariuru wholly naked. Ear very short and rounded. Fore 
claws long and strong. Hind feet longer than the head, the soles 
naked and coarsely granulated. Tail more or less prehensile, 
thickly hairy, with a more or less distinct crest. 

n .-, T 1.2.3 /-i 1 -D 0.0.3.4 I.. 1.2.3.4 o Q) 

Dentition. i. ^ C. , P. ^^, M. ^^ x 2 = 34. 
Habits. Terrestrial ; herbivorous. 

Note. It occasionally happens that a fifth molar is present 
either in one or both rami of the upper jaw, or even in both rami 
of both jaws, so that, as Mr. Oldfield Thomas remarks, while 
having the comparatively highly specialized characters of the 
other members of the family, this genus presents the remarkable 
condition of retaining such an ancient and generalized character 
as the possession of more than four molars. On the other hand 
the fourth molar is often aborted. The members of this genus 
alone among terrestrial mammals possess prehensile tails, which 
they use for carrying grass, sticks, <fcc., these being firmly held by 
the tail being twisted downwards upon them. The four species 
are very similar to each other externally, so much so that no 
reliance can be placed on any determination which does not rest 
upon an examination of the cranial and dental characters. 

1. BETTONGIA LESUEURI, Quoy & Gaimard, sp. (1824). 
Lesueur's Rat -Kangaroo. 

Fur soft, close, and thick. General color above grizzled gray ; 
below white ; sometimes an indistinct white hip-mark. Arms 
and legs white ; hands and feet white or pale brown ; hairs of the 
latter long and bristly, nearly covering the claws. Tail colored 
above like the back, the upper hairs not forming a distinct crest ; 
below pale brown or white ; the tip white. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eighteen inches; tail about 
twelve inches. 

Habitat. South and West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 112, pis. xiii. figs. 6 and 7 
(teeth), xiv. fig. 7 (nasals), 8 (bulla); Gould, Manim. Austr. ii. 
pi. Ixiv. 

2. BETTONGIA CUNICULUS, W. Ogilby, sp. (1838). 

Tasmanian Bat-Kangaroo. 

Fur and general color as in B. lesueuri, but without trace of 
hip- mark. Arms, legs, hands, and feet white ; hairs of latter as 
in B. lesueuri. Tail above as in B. lesueuri, except that towards 
the end it occasionally becomes dark brown or black ; below dirty 
white ; tip sometimes white all round. 



42 



BETTONGIA. 



Dimensions. Head and body about eighteen inches; tail about 
fifteen inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 106, pis. xiii. fig. 8 (fourth 
jjremolar), xiv. figs. 1 (nasals), 2 (bulla); Gould, Mamrn. Austr. 
ii. pi. Ixiii. 

3. BETTONGIA GAIMARDI, Desmarest, sp. (1822). 

G-aimard's Rat-Kangaroo. 

Fig. 3. 




Side view of skull, showing dentition. 

Fur woollier than in the other species. General colors as in 
B. lesueuri, but the general tone rather more yellowish or fawn. 
Hind feet white. Distal two-thirds of^the tail growing gradually 
darker, and the hairs lengthening, till, on the terminal third, 
there is a distinct black crest ; below'short-haired, white. 

Dimensions. Head and body about sixteen inches ; tail about 
eleven inches. 

Habitat. New South Wales. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 108, pis. xiii. fig. 10 (fourth 
premolar), xiv. figs. 3 (nasals), 4 (bulla); Gould, Mamm. Austr. 

4. BETTONGIA PENICILLATA, Gray (1837). 
Brush-tailed Kangaroo-Rat. 

Fur and general colors not definitely different from the other 
species. Hands and feet pale brown. Bristly hairs of feet not 
hiding the claws. Tail long, with a prominent black crest along 
the terminal one-third or two-thirds of its upper surface ; below 
pale brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body about fourteen inches; tail about 
twelve inches. 



LAGOSTROPHUS. 43 

Habitat. Australia except the extreme north. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 110, pis. xi. fig. 12 
(rhinarium), xiii. fig. 9 (fourth premolar), xiv. figs. 5 (nasals), 
6 (bulla); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. Ixi. (B. penicillata), Ixii. 
(B. ogilbyi). 

Genus V. ^PYPRYMNUS, Garrod(l875). 

Rhinarium partially hairy. Ear rather long. Fore claws very 
long and strong. Hind feet longer than the head, the soles narrow, 
naked, and coarsely granulated. Tail evenly hairy, without trace 
of crest. 

n ... . T 1.2.3 n ! T> 0.0.3.4 TIT 1.2.3.4 o OA 

Dentition. 1. ^ C. - Q , P. - 5 ^ M. ^^ x 2 = 34. 
Habits. Terrestrial ; herbivorous. 

1. ^BPYPRYMNUS RUFESCENS, Gray, sp. (1837). 
Rufous Rat-Kangaroo. 

Size large. Rhinarium partially hairy to about half-way down 
the nasal septum. Fur long and coarse. General color above 
rufescent gray ; below dirty white ; an indistinct white stripe 
across the sides just in front of the hips. Back of ears black or 
dark brown. Outside of hind legs gray, rest of limbs white. 
Hairs on back of hands long and coarse, partly hiding the claws. 
Feet brown or grayish-brown; central claw long and strong. Tail 
thickly hairy, without trace of crest, pale gray above, white below. 

Dimensions. -Head and body about twenty-one inches ; tail 
about fifteen inches. 

Habitat. New South Wales. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 103, pis. xi. fig. 11 (rhin- 
arium), xiii. fig. 5 (molars); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pi. Ixv. 

Subfamily III. MACROPODIN^E. 

Kangaroos ; Wallabies. 

Size variable. Claws of fore feet of moderate size and subequal. 
Hallux wanting. Tail long and hairy. Canines generally minute 
or absent, rarely well developed. 

Genus VI. LAGOSTROPHUS, Thomas (1886). 

Form macropine. Rhinarium naked. Hind feet covered with 
long bristly hairs, hiding the claws. Back cross-banded. 

T\ .-.- T 1.2.3 n -n 0.0.3.4 A , T 1.2.3.4 o oo 

Dentition.!. Tm , C. -, P. ^^ M, j^ x 2 = 32. 
Habits. Terrestrial ; herbivorous. 



44 LAGOSTROPHUUS. 

1. LAGOSTROPHUS FASCIATUS, Peron & Lesson, sp. (1807). 

Banded Hare -"Wallaby. 

Size small ; form light and graceful. Hair of muzzle growing 
downwards to level of upper internal angle of nostril. Fur thick 
and soft. General color above grizzled grayish-brown, arranged 
posteriorly in black and white transverse bands ; below mixed 
gray and white. Ears short, their backs gray. Arms and backs 
of legs gray with a reddish tinge ; hands and feet yellowish-gray. 
Tail uniformly clothed with close-set short hairs, yellowish-gray 
above, dull yellow below. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eighteen inches ; tail about 
thirteen inches. 

Habitat. West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 100, pis. xi. fig. 10 (rhin- 
arium), xiii. fig. 4 (upper incisors, &c.)\ Gould, Mamm. Austr. 
ii. pi. Ivi. 

Genus VII. DENDROLAGUS, Schlegelti Matter (1839 - 44). 

Form not macropine. Rhinarium broad, only partially naked, 
very short scattered hairs being present down to the upper part 
of the nasal septum. Fur on nape and sometimes on back directed 
forwards. Anterior limbs stout and strong, nearly as large as 
the posterior. Hind feet broad, the syndactylous second and third 
toes not disproportionately smaller than the two outer. Claws 
stout and strong, those on the fourth and fifth hind toes curved 
like those on the hand. Tail very long, evenly and thickly haired. 

Dentition.-!. {-?, C. \, P. gj M. gg x 2 = 34. 
Habits. Arboreal ; phytophagous. 

1. DENDROLAGUS LUMHOLTZI, Collett (1844). 
Queensland Tree-Kangaroo. 

Size thick. Fur long and rather coarse, reversed from withers 
to crown. Face black ; a paler band across the forehead. Ears 
black without, yellow within ; the hairs short and coarse. Back 
pale grizzled gray, sides and belly pale yellowish-white ; chin 
black, chest white. Arms to wrists, and legs to ankle pale yellow; 
wrists and ankles darker ; fingers and toes black. Tail mixed 
black and pale yellow, the upper side the paler, but with a darker 
patch near the base. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-six inches ; tail 
about the same length. 

Habitat. Herbert River District, Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 96, pi. xiii. fig. 1 (molars); 
Collett, P.Z.S. 1884, p. 387, pi. xxxii. 



LAGORCHESTES. 45 

Note. There is not at present sufficient evidence to justify the 
retention of Mr. De Vis' two supposed species D. bennettianus 
and D. rufus as distinct from Collett's animal. 

Genus VIII. LAGORCHESTES, Gould (1841). 

Form macropine. Rhinarium wholly or partly hairy. Central 
hind claws long and strong, not hidden by the hair. Tail rather 
short, evenly short-haired throughout. No trace of a caudal spur. 

n ... . T 1.2.3 n lorl -p 0.0.3.4 -.jr 1.2.3.4 o <,A 

Dentition. 1. j-^ C. -g-, P. ^^ M. j-^ x 2 = 34. 
Habits. Terrestrial ; herbivorous. 

1. LAGORCHESTES HIRSUTUS, Gould (1844). 

Rufous Hare -Wallaby. 

Form light and slender. Rhinarium nearly wholly hairy. 
Muzzle narrow and light. Fur long and coarse ; under fur of 
back dark -slate, with pale or rufescent tips. General color above 
finely grizzled gray, becoming rich rufous on the rump ; below 
yellowish-gray. Band round eye but slightly rufous. Ears long, 
more than one-third of the hind foot, their backs grizzled-gray, 
insides and edges white. Lateral bands inconspicuous. No black 
patch on the elbow. Arms, hands, front of legs and feet pale 
yellowish-white or gray ; outsides and backs of legs rufous. Tail 
dull grizzled-gray, short-haired. Canines small. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eighteen inches; tail about 
fifteen inches. 

Habitat. West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 87 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. ii. pi. Iviii. 

2. LAGORCHESTES LEPOROIDES, Gould, sp. (1840). 
Common Hare-Wallaby. 

General color above coarsely grizzled yellowish- brown ; below 
dirty yellowish-gray. Rufous band round the eye prolonged for- 
wards on the sides of the muzzle. Backs and insides of ears 
whitish. A black patch on the elbow. Legs colored like the 
body; hands and feet finely grizzled grayish- white. Tail brownish- 
gray above, nearly white on sides and below. Other characters 
as in L. hirsutus. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty inches ; tail about 
thirteen inches. 

Habitat. interior of New South Wales ; South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 82, pis. ix. fig. 13 (tipper 
front teeth), xi. fig. 4 (rhinarium); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pi. 
Ivii. 



46 LAGORCHESTES. 

3. LAGORCHESTES CONSPICILLATUS, Gould (1841). 
Spectacled Hare -Wallaby. 

Form comparatively thick and heavy. Rhinarium with lower 
half of nasal septum and edges of nostrils naked. Muzzle broad 
and heavy. Fur long and coarse ; under fur of back uniform 
blackish-brown. General color above coarsely grizzled yellowish- 
gray,; below mixed white and slaty-gray. Chestnut band round 
the eye well defined, not prolonged forwards on the sides of the 
muzzle. Ears short, less than one-third of the hind foot, their 
backs grizzled-gray, the insides and edges nearly white. Two 
whitish lateral bands. Arms, hands, legs, and feet gray, tinged 
with rufous. Tail above and on the sides clothed with scattered 
white hairs, except at the very base where they are gray ; below 
more closely set and tinged with fawn. Canines well developed 
and functional. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty inches ; tail about 
seventeen inches. 

Habitat. Islands off the North-west coast of Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 80, pis. ix. fig. 12 (upper 
front teeth), x. fig. 16 (fourth premolar), xiii. fig. 3 (upper view 
of skull); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pi. lix. 

4. LAGORCHESTES LEICHHARDTI, Gould (1863). 
Leichhardt's Hare -Wallaby. 

Essential characters as in L. conspicillatus, but with the ears 
slightly longer, and the coloration much more brilliant. Back 
deep fawn color ; band round the eye rich bright rufous. Under 
side and lateral bands nearly pure white. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-one inches ; tail 
about eighteen inches. 

Habitat. North Australia. 

Type. In the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 82 ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. 
ii. pi. Ix. 

Note. My reason for continuing to keep the continental form 

at least provisionally separate from the insular, notwithstanding 
the opinions of such eminent mammalogists as Messrs. Collett and 
Thomas, is that the skull of an undoubted specimen of L. con- 
spicillatus which has been recently received at the Museum from 
Cambridge Gulf, is much stouter and shorter than that figured by 
Thomas (loc. cit.) as L. leichhardti. 



ONYCHOGALE. 47 

Genus IX. ONYCHOGALE, Gray (1841). 

Rhinariurn hairy or nearly so. Central hind claws long, narrow, 
compressed, and very sharp. Tail long, tapering, short-haired, 
more or less crested towards the tip, the extremity provided with 
a spur or nail. Canines small or absent. 

n ,-. T 1.2.3 r( or 1 T> 0.0.0.4 -/r 1.2.3.4 oo 

Dentition. I. -^ C. -, P. ^ & - 4 , M. ^-^ x 2 == 32. 

Habits. Terrestrial ; herbivorous. 

1. ONYCHOGALE LUNATA, Gould, sp. (1840). 

Crescent Wallaby. 

Size small ; form very light and delicate. Rhinarium narrow, 
the base of the internasal septum naked. Fur soft and woolly. 
General color above dark gray; below whitish. Ears short, brown 
outside, white inside. Back and sides of neck rich rufous. White 
shoulder-stripe very prominent, not continued along the back of 
the neck. Two inconspicuous hip-stripes. Arms, legs, and feet 
pale gray ; fingers and toes brown. Tail short, uniform gray, its 
terminal nail consisting of a very short, rounded point. Canines 
generally present, quite functionless. 

Dimensions. -Head and body about twenty inches; tail about 
thirteen inches. 

Habitat. West and South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 77, pi. ix. fig. 11 (upper 
front teeth); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pi. Iv. 

2. ONYCHOGALE FRENATA, Gould, sp. (1840). 

Bridled Wallaby. 

Size small ; foi'in very small and delicate. Rhinarium narrow, 
wholly hairy. Fur soft and thick. General color above clear 
gray ; below, chin and chest white, belly pale gray. Ears short, 
grayish-brown outside, white inside. Middle of back of neck 
black. White shoulder stripe prominent, continued along the 
sides of the back of the neck to just behind the ear. Sides of 
neck gray with a rufous tinge. An inconspicuous pale hip-stripe. 
Arms and outside of legs and feet white. Tail of medium length 
uniform gray, the extreme tip black. Terminal nail as in 0. 
lunata. Canines nearly always absent. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-two inches ; tail 
about eighteen inches. 

Habitat.^ Interior of southern Queensland, New South Wales, 
and Victoria. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 75, pi. xi. fig. 7 (nail of 
tail) ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pi. liv. 



48 ONYCHOGALE. 

3. ONYCHOGALE UNGUIFERA, Gould, sp. (1840). 
Nail-tailed Wallaby. 

Size large ; form light and slender. Rhinariuin broad, partially 
hairy, the hair extending downwards barely to the level of the 
lower edge of the nostril. Fur thick, close, and rather short. 
General color above rich sandy fawn, with a median darker band 
of varying intensity on the back and rump ; below white. Ears 
thinly clothed with white hairs. An indistinct white mark behind 
the elbow. White hip-stripe present. Arms, hands, feet and 
fromt of legs white ; back of legs fawn color. Tail very long, 
white above, sandy-gray below ; the terminal third with brown 
rings which gradually darken posteriorly, and finally coalesce with 
the black tail tip, the black hairs forming a crest on the upper 
side, and a well marked pencil at the tip ; terminal nail large and 
flattened laterally, hidden by the black pencil. Canines present, 
perhaps to some extent functional. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-six inches ; tail 
about the same length. 

Habitat. North-western and northern Central Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 74, pis. ix. fig. 10 (upper 
front teeth), xi. figs. 5 frhinarium), 6 (nail of tail); Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. ii. pis. Hi., liii. 

Genus X. PETROGALE, Gray (1837). 

Rhinarium naked. Fur on back of neck directed downwards. 
Central hind claws very short. Tail long, cylindrical, thickly 
haired, its extremity pencilled. No canines. 

n .... T 1.2.3 n T> 0.0.3.4 TV,- 1.2.3.4 o qo 

Dentition. 1. ^ C. - Q , P. 5 ^ 1> M. j-^ x 2 = 32. 

Habits. -Terrestrial ; herbivorous. 

1. PETROGALE CONCINNA, #01^(1842). 

Little Rock- Wallaby. 

Size small ; form slender. Fur short, soft, and silky. General 
color above rich orange rufous ; below white or grayish-white. 
Face markings obsolete. Ears very short, their backs pale fawn. 
No shoulder or flank markings. Arms, legs, and feet grayish- 
fawn. Terminal pencil of tail yellowish-brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body of <^itnm. about fourteen inches. 

Habitat. North-west Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 71, pis. ix. fig. 9 (upper 
front teeth), xii. fig. 4: (upper view of skull); Gould, Mamm. Austr. 
ii. pis. xlviii. 



PETROGALE. 49 

2. PETROGALE INORNATA, Gould (1842). 

Plain-colored Rock-Wallaby. 

Size medium. General color above sandy-gray ; below sandy- 
white. Face markings indistinct. Ears sandy-gray. A dusky 
red patch behind the elbow. No shoulder or flank markings. 
Basal half and greater part of the sides of the tail sandy-brown, 
the remainder black. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-three inches ; tail 
about twelve inches. 

Habitat. North coast of Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 70 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. ii. pis. xlv., xlvi. 

3. PETROGALE BRACHYOTIS, Gould (1840). 

Short-eared Rock-Wallaby. 

Size medium ; form light and slender. Fur short and thin. 
General color above grayish-fawn, below grayish-white. Face 
markings almost obsolete. Ears very short, their backs fawn- 
gray, their edges and extreme tips white. Body markings present 
but not prominent ; a dark brown blotch behind the elbow, suc- 
ceeded by a whitish band. Limbs pale gray. Tail gray above, 
whitish below ; the terminal fourth below tufted with longer dark 

' O 

brown hairs. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-two inches ; tail 
about sixteen inches. 

Habitat. North-west coast of Australia. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 69, pi. xii. fig. 2 (upper 
mem of skull); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pi. xlvii. 

4. PETROGALE LATERALIS, Gould (1842). 

West Australian Rock-Wallaby. 

Size medium ; form slender and light. Fur long, soft, close, of 
a rather woolly texture. General color above light gray, below 
yellowish-gray. A well defined dark whisker-mark with a whitish 
or yellowish cheek-stripe below. A narrow black or browu stripe 
from the occiput to the centre of the back. Ears short, the inside, 
base and extreme tip of outside yellow, the rest brown. A 
prominent black or brown mark behind the elbow, succeeded by 
a white stripe running down to the hip. Front of knee brown, 
connected by a brown band to shoulder spot. Arms, legs, and 
feet gray ; fingers and toes black. Tail gray for the proximal, 
black for the terminal half. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-four inches ; tail 
about seventeen iiiches. 




LIBRARY 



50 PETROGALE. 

Habitat. West Australia . 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 68, pis. ix. fig. 8 (upper 
front teeth), x. fig. 1 5 (fourth premolar), xii. fig. 3 (upper mew of 
skull); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. xli., xlii. 

5. PETROGALE PENICILLATA, Gray, sp. (1827). 

Brush-tailed Rock-Wallaby. 

Size large; form stout and heavy. Fur long, thick, and coarse- 
General color above dull brown, more rufous on the rump; below, 
chin and chest pale gray, belly brown tinged with yellow ; anal 
region rich yellowish-rufous. Whisker-mark and cheek-stripe ill- 
defined. Occipital streak black, not extending on to neck. Ears 
short, their insides and posterior margins yellow ; remainder gray 
at base, black terminally. A black mark behind the shoulder, 
succeeded by a pale gray one, both often inconspicuous. Arms 
and legs brown or rufous-brown ; fingers and toes black. Tail 
long, more or less bushy, the basal three or four inches rufous, 
the rest black, the extreme tip sometimes yellow. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty -nine inches ; tail 
about twenty-three inches. 

Habitat. Coastal Districts of Queensland, New South Wales, 
and Victoria. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 66, pis. ix. fig. 7 (upper 
front teeth), x. fig. 14 (fourth premolar); Gould, Mamm. Austr. 
ii. pis. xxxix., xl. 

6. PETROGALE XANTHOPUS, Gray (1854). 

Yellow-footed Rock-Wallaby. 

Size large. Fur long, soft, and silky. General color above 
gray, below white. White cheek stripe well defined ; a rich 
orange spot above each eye. Ears long, uniform yellow behind. 
A well defined black streak from the occiput to the middle of the 
back. A triangular brown blotch behind the elbow, succeeded 
by a white stripe running down to the hip : top of knee brown, 
with a white patch outside it. Limbs uniform rich yellow ; tips 
of fingers and toes brown. Tail above and on the sides with 
alternate rings of dark brown and pale yellow, the brown gradu- 
ally coalescing above posteriorly to form a blackish crest ; below 
uniform yellowish- or brownish-white ; extreme tip sometimes 
yellow. 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirty-two inches ; tail 
about twenty-four inches. 

Habitat. South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 64, pi. xii. fig. 1 (upper 
view of skull); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. xliii., xliv. 

D D 



MACROPUS. 51 

Genus XI. MACROPUS, Shaw (1790). 

Size variable. Rhinarium generally wholly naked. Ears well 
developed. Fur on nape normally directed downwards. Limbs 
very unequal, the hind much longer and stronger than the fore. 
Central hind claws long. Tail thick, tapering, evenly haired 
(except in M irma). Mammse four. 

j*. ... r 1.2.3 n Oor/ T> 0.0.3.4 - 1.2.3.4 o Q n 

Dentition. 1. ,-7^, C. ^ , Jr. ooH> JU - 1234 x ^ = ^2. 



Habits. Terrestrial ; herbivorous. 

1. MACROPUS BRACHYURUS, Quoy & Gaimard, sp. (1830). 
Short-tailed Wallaby. 

Size small ; form short and squat. Rhinarium with a central 
upward projection. Fur long, thick, and coarse. General color 
above coarsely grizzled gray-brown ; below slaty-gray. Ears very 
short and rounded ; the backs thickly haired, grizzled gray. Hands 
and feet brcwn. Tail very short, about twice the length of the 
head ; brown above ; grayish-white beneath. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-three inches ; tail 
about ten inches. 

Habitat. West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 60, pis. vii. fig. 4 (upper 
mew of skull); ix. fig. 6 (upper incisors); x. fig. 13 (fourth pre- 
molar); Gould, Marnm. Austr. ii. pis. xxxvii., xxxviii. 

2. MACROPUS BILLARDIERI, Desmarest (1822). 

Rufous-bellied Wallaby. 

Size small ; form stout and heavy. Fur long, 'thick, and soft. 
General color above grayish-brown with an olive tinge, especially 
on the head and rump ; below yellow, orange, or rufous, most 
intense on the anal region. Ears very short, their backs olive- 
gray, margined anteriorly with black. An indistinct nuchal 
stripe often, and a faint yellowish hip-stripe sometimes, present. 
Arms and legs gray-brown ; hands and feet brown. Tail very 
short, about two and a half times as long as the head ; above 
proximally orange, below distally grayish-white ; the remainder 
grayish-brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-six inches, tail 
about fourteen inches. 

Habitat. South-eastern South Australia ; Victoria; Tasmania; 
Islands in Bass' Straits. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 58, pi. x. fig. 12 (fourth 
premolar) ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. xxxv., xxxvi. 



52 MACROPUS. 

3. MACROPUS EU GENII, Desmarest, sp. (1817). 
(Halmaturus derluanus, Gould.) 

Size small ; form light and graceful. Rhinarium ending 
some distance from the mouth. Fur rather short in mainland, 
longer in island, specimens. General color above grizzled gray 
with rufous shoulders ; below white or grayish-white. Generally 
an indistinct white cheek-stripe. Ears long in mainland, short in 
island, specimens, dark gray. An ill-defined dark streak from the 
occiput to the back. Shoulders, sides of neck, and arms rufous. 
Hands, feet, and tail gray; nearly black at their extremities. 

Dimensions. Head and body from about twenty-four inches in 
mainland to twenty -eight in island examples; tail about seventeen 
inches in both forms. 

Habitat. Mainland of Western Australia; Islands off the coast 
of West and South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 54, pis. vii. fig. 3 (upper 
view of skull), x. fig. 10 (fourthpremolar),&nd xi. fig. 3 (rhinarium); 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. xxix., xxx. 

4. MACROPUS PARMA, Waterhouse (1846). 
White -throated Wallaby. 

Size small. Essential characters as in M. eugenii, but with 
the back more rufous, not contrasting with the nape. White 
cheek-stripe and brown nuchal stripe clearer. Front of throat 
pure white, sharply contrasting with sides of neck. Belly grayish- 
white. Ears short their backs rufous gray. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-six inches ; tail 
about seventeen inches. 
Habitat. New South Wales. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 57, pis. ix. fig. 5 (upper 
incisors) and x, fig. 11 (fourth premolar); Gould, Mam. Austr. ii. 
p. xxviii. 

5. MACROPUS THETIDIS, Lesson (1827). 

Pademekm. 

Size sinall ; form light and agile. Rhinarium broad to the 
lip, the latter little developed. Fur of medium length, thick and 
soft, its direction on the neck variable, sometimes directed for- 
wards. General color above grizzled gray, the neck rufous ; below 
white. No nuchal streak. Ears long, their backs gray, edged 
anteriorly with brown or black. Sometimes a faint light hip- 
stripe. Arms and legs gray or rufous; hands and feet pale brown. 
Basal fourth of tail gray; the remainder brown above, white 
below. 



MACROPUS. 



53 



Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-five inches; tail 
about sixteen inches. 

Habitat. Victoria; New South Wales ; South Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 52, pis. viii. fig. 3 (upper 
vieiv of skull) and x. fig. 9 (fourth premolar) ; Gould, Mamni. 
Austr. ii. pis. xxxi., xxxii. 

6. MACROPUS STIGMATICUS, Gould, sp. (1860). 
Branded Wallaby. 

Size medium; form light and slender. Rhinarium with a central 
upward projection; lower part continued tothelip. Fur short, close, 
and rather coarse. General color above rufous-gray, the gray 
predominating in front, the rufous behind; below white. Crown, 
cheeks, and region round the base of the ear deep rust-color. An 
indistinct pale cheek-stripe with a rufous line below it. Back of 
ears, occiput, and nape brown; an indistinct darker nuchal stripe, 
two lateral longitudinal bright rusty bands. Hip-stripe yellowish, 
very prominent. Arms rufous, legs brilliant rust-color, hands 
and feet gray or rufous-gray ; tips of toes brown. Tail gray- 
brown above ; whitish below. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-eight inches ; tail 
about fifteen inches. 

Habitat. North-eastern Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 47, pi. x. fig. 7 (fourth 
premolar); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. xxxiii., xxxiv. 

7. MACROPUS WILCOXI, McCoy, sp. (1866). 
Bed-legged Wallaby. 

Size small; essential characters as in L. stigmaticus, but the 
fur is longer and softer and the colors less brilliant. Base of 
outside of ear rusty. Flanks gray ; legs from the thighs rusty- 
red. Hip-stripe almost or wholly obsolete ; tip of tail usually 
white. Belly grayish-white. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-four inches ; tail 
about fourteen inches. 

Habitat. New South Wales ; Southern Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 48, pis. viii. fig. 2 (upper 
view of skull), and x. fig. 8 (fourth premolar). 

8. MACROPUS COXENI, Gray, sp. (1866). 

Cape York Wallaby. 

Size small ; form rather stout and thick. Rhinarium with a 
central upward projection. Fur short, close, and coarse. General 
color above dark sandy-gray ; below white. Face-markings 
inconspicuous ; a faint light cheek-stripe. Back of ears, occiput, 



54 MACROPUS. 

back of neck, withers, and a patch behind the forearm dark brown. 
A well marked white hip-stripe. Arms and legs sandy ; tips of 
toes brown. Tail black above ; white below and at the extreme 
tip. 

Dimensions. Head and body about twenty-eight inches ; tail 
about fifteen inches. 

Habitat. Northern Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 44, pis. viii. fig. 1 (upper 
view of skull), x. fig. 6 (fourth premolar), and xi. fig 1 (rhinarium) 
Gray, P.Z.S. 1866, p. 220, pi. xxv. 

9. MACROPUS AGILIS, Gould sp. (1841). 
Agile Wallaby. 

Size medium ; form rather stout and heavy. Rhinarium partly 
hairy between the nostrils. Fur short and coarse. General color 
above dark grizzled sandy, below white or grayish-white. Face- 
markings inconspicuous. An ill-defined dark nuchal stripe. Ears 
very short, the interior and base white or yellowish, the back 
dark sandy, tipped and edged anteriorly with black. Flanks 
paler than the back. A dark brown mark from the nape to 
behind the elbow. White hip-stripe well marked. Arms and 
legs white or light sandy-gray. Tail long; its proximal third sandy; 
the rest whitish, extreme tip blackish. 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirty-seven inches ; tail 
about thirty-four inches. 

Habitat. North Queensland ; Northern Territory ; South- 
eastern New Guinea. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 42, pis. v. fig. 7 (rhinarium), 
vii. fig. 1 (upper view of skull), and x. fig. 5 (fourth premolar) ; 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. xxiv., xxv. 

10. MACROPUS IRMA, Jourdain, sp. (1837). 

(Halmaturus manicatus, Gould.) 

Black-gloved. "Wallaby. 

Size small ; form slender and graceful. Rhinarium partly 
hairy between the nostrils. Fur thick and soft. General color 
above dark bluish-gray ; below pale gray tinged with yellow or 
rufous. Face markings distinct; two dark whisker-marks; cheek- 
stripe yellow, continued backwards to the ear. Ears long, their 
backs and the crown of the head black ; a dark nuchal stripe ; 
inside of ears yellow, with a prominent black tip. A pale incon- 
spicuous hip-stripe. Arms and outside of legs gray; hands, feet, 
and front of legs bright yellow ; fingers and toes pure black. 
Proximal fourth and sides of tail gray ; distal three-fourths above 
and below with a well defined crest of stiff black hairs ; extreme 
tip sometimes white. 



MACROPUS. 55 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirty-one inches ; tail 
about twenty-nine. 

Habitat. Southern parts of West Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 40, pi. x. fig. 6 (rhinarium); 
Gould, Marnm. Austr. ii. pis. xx., xxi. 

11. MACROPUS PARRYI, Bennett (1834). 
Parry's "Wallaby. 

Size medium ; form slender and graceful. Fur soft, almost woolly. 
General color above clear gray with a bluish tinge ; below, chin 
white, chest, belly, and inner sides of limbs grayish- white. Face 
markings distinct. Two dark whisker-marks. Cheek-stripe pure 
white, passing backwards to beneath the eye. A white nuchal 
stripe reaching to half-way down the neck, with a darker mark on 
each side of it. Ears long, white inside, basal half and extreme 
tips of outside brown, the rest white. Arms and legs gray, hands 
and feet becoming nearly or quite black on the digits. Tail very 
long, pale gray ; an inconspicuous black or gray crest below the 
tip. 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirty-seven inches ; tail 
about thirty-two inches. 

Habitat. Mountain Ranges of New South Wales and Queens- 
land. 

References. Thomas, B. M. Catal. p. 39, pi. x. fig. 4 (fourth 
premolar] ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. xii., xiii. 

12. MACROPUS DORSALIS, Gray, sp. (1837). 
Black-striped "Wallaby. 

Size medium; forms light and delicate. Rhinarium wholly naked. 
General color gray ; rich rufous on the fore-quarters ; below 
white or grayish-white. A narrow black line from the occiput to 
the centre of the back. Face-markings nearly obsolete ; upper 
lip white ; a white spot at the base of the outer edge of the ear. 
Back of ears rufous darkening towards the tips. A distinct white 
hip-stripe, Arms rufous ; legs gray ; fingers and toes becoming 
black towards their tips. Claw on the central hind toe shorter 
than usual. Tail gray ; the extreme tip black. 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirty-two inches ; tail 
about twenty-four inches. 

Habitat. Interior of New South Wales and Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 37, pis. v. fig. 5 (rhinarium) 
and x. fig. 3 (Jourth premolar); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. 
xxvi., xxvii. 



56 MACROPUS. 

13. MACROPUS GREYI, Gray, sp. (1843). 

Grey's Wallaby. 

Size medium ; form slender and delicate. General color above 
grayish-fawn on the back, more rufous on the nape and back of 
the head; below pale gray tinged with rufous. Ears rufous 
behind, their edges blackish. -Face-markings distinct. A black 
band bordering the naked rhinariurn. A black whisker-mark 
from the nose to the eye, bordered below by a white cheek-stripe, 
which reaches nearly to the ear. An indistinct light hip-stripe. 
Arms, hands, legs, and feet white or yellowish, becoming abruptly 
black on fingers and toes. Central hind claws unusually slender 
and long. Tail very pale gray becoming lighter towards the tip ; 
indistinct upper and lower crests of white hair on the distal half. 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirty-two inches ; tail 
about twenty-nine inches. 

Habitat. South-eastern and South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 36, pis. vii. fig. 2 (upper 
view of skull] and ix. fig. 3 (upper incisors); Gould, Mamin. Austr. 
ii. pis. xviii., xix. 


14. MACROPUS RUFICOLLIS, Desmarest, sp. (1817). 

The Red-necked Wallaby. 

Size medium; form slender. Rhinarium naked. General color 
above grayish-fawn, the back of the neck and the rump bright 
rufous ; below white or grayish-white. Face-markings inconspicu- 
ous. Ears rather long, their backs rufous ; blacker towards the 
tip. Sometimes an indistinct whitish hip-mark. Hands and feet 
gray, grading into black on the digits. Tail gray above ; white 
below, with an inconspicuous black pencil. 

Dimensions. Head and body about forty -two inches; tail about 
thirty inches. 

Habitat. Southern parts of Queensland, New South Wales, 
and Victoria. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 32, pis. v. fig. 4 (rhinarium} 
ix. fig. 2 (upper incisors), and x. fig. 2 (fourth premolar); Gould, 
Marnm. Austr. ii. pis. xiv., xv. 

14a. M. RUFICOLLIS, var. BENNETTI, Waterhouse (1837). 
Tasmanian Red-necked Wallaby. 

Colors as in typical variety, but much more sombre in tone 
Fur much longer and thicker. Nape and rump dull rufous-brown ; 
back of ears nearly black ; face-markings scarcely visible; under 
parts dirty grayish-white ; tail darker gray. 

Dimensions. As in typical form. 



MACROPUS. 57 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 34 ; Gould, Mamni. Austr. 
ii. pis. xvi., xvii. 

15. MACROPUS UALABATUS, Lesson & Garnot, sp. (1826). 
Common Scrub or Black-tailed Wallaby. 

Size medium ; form rather stout. Fur long, thick, and rather 
coarse. General color dark rufous-gray, the rufous predominating 
behind. Crown of head, round base of ear, outside of elbows, 
chin, chest, and belly pale rufous or yellow, varying in extent and 
intensity. Face-markings vague and indistinct. Ears short, 
colored like the top of head. A dark mark behind the elbow. 
Hands and feet brown, becoming black on the toes. Tail black. 

Dimensions. Head and body about thirty-three inches ; tail 
about twenty-six inches. 

Habitat. Coast regions of New South Wales and Victoria. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 30, pis. ix. lig. 1 (upper 
incisors), and x. fig. 1 (fourth premolarj ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. 
ii. pis. xxi., xxii. 

15a. M. UALABATUS, var. APICALIS, Giinther (1874). 

Queensland Scrub "Wallaby. 

Size and colors like those of the typical variety, but the fur 
shorter and coarser, and the markings more sharply defined. 
Brown mark on side of face continued through eye nearly to the 
ear, sharply separated from white whisker-mark. Rufous of lower 
back richer and brighter. Tail generally C?) tipped with white. 

Dimensions. As in typical form. 
Habitat. North-eastern Queensland. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 34; Giinther, P.Z.S., 
1874, p. 653, pi. Ixxvii. 

16. MACROPUS MAGNUS, Owen (1874). 

Owen's Kangaroo. 
External characters unknown. 
Habitat. Northern Territory. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 27, pi. vi. figs. 1 (roof of 
mouth), and 2 (two posterior molars ); Owen, Phil. Trans. 1874, 
p. 247, pi. xx. figs. 12, 19, and 26 f teeth J. 

Note. This animal, which is only known from a single skull, 
may prove to be identical with the almost equally little-known 
J/. isabellinus, of North-west Australia, of which only an imperfect 
skin is to be found in any Museum. 



58 MACROPUS. 

17. MACROPUS RTJFUS, Desmarest, sp. (1822). 

Great Red Kangaroo. 

Size very large ; form robust, in the female rather slender. 
Fur of back and sides short, close, and woolly, composed almost 
entirely of under fur , the direction variable, especially on the 
head. Rhinarium naked. General color above brilliant rufous 
in the male, bluish slaty-gray in the female ; below white or pale 
gray with the fur coarse and straight. A black whisker-mark, 
with a whitish blotch below it. Ears gray or brown outside, 
whitish inside. Fingers and toes black ; central hind claw short. 
Tail gray. 

Dimensions. Head and body about sixty-five inches ; tail about 
forty-two inches. 

Habitat. Eastern, South-eastern, and South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 25, pis. v. fig. 3 (rhinarium) 
and vi. fig. 5 (third molar); Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. vi., vii. 

18. MACROPUS ISABELLINUS, Gould, sp. (1841). 

Isabelline Kangaroo. 

Size large ; fur of medium length, very soft and fine but not 
woolly. General color above rich foxy red ; underside and limbs 
white. Front of neck pure white, sharply defined from the rufous 
nape by a ridge of opposed hairs. Tail rufous gray. 

Dimensions. About the same as those of M. rufus. 
Habitat. North-western Australia, and Islands off the coast. 
References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 25. 

19. MACROPUS ROBUSTUS, Gould (1840). 
"Wallaroo. 

Size large ; form stout and heavy. Fur of medium length, 
rather thick and coarse. Rhinarium naked. General color above 
dark smoky-brown ; below lighter. Nasal region and back of 
ears nearly black ; lips, inside and base of ears white or pale gray. 
Arms, legs, and tail very dark brown, gradually becoming black 
distally. Central hind toe very short. 

Dimensions. Head and body about sixty inches; tail about 
thirty-six inches. 

Habitat. Mountain Ranges of Queensland, New South Wales, 
Victoria, and South Australia. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 22, pi. v. fig. 2 (rhinarium); 
Gould, Mamm. Austr., ii. pis. x., xi. 



MACROPUS. 59 

20. MACROPUS ANTILOPINUS, Gould, sp. (1841). 
Antilopine Kangaroo. 

Size large ; form stout and heavy. Fur very short, coarse, and 
straight ; no under fur. Rhinarium large and naked. General 

O ^ *-' 

color above rich rufous ; below whitish. Face-markings absent. 
Ears short. Hands and feet rufous-brown, becoming black on 
the lingers and toes. Tail colored like the body, but rather darker 
at the extreme tip. Feet rather short ; central hind claw very 
short. 

Dimensions. Head and body about fifty -six inches ; tail about 
thirty-six inches. 

Habitat. Northern Territory. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 21, pi. vi. fig. 3 (muzzle); 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. viii., ix. 

21. MACROPUS GIGANTEUS, Zimmermann, sp. (1777). 

(M. major, Shaw.) 

Kangaroo. 

Size very large ; form robust. Fur short close, and rather 
woolly ; variable in direction on the fore part of the body. 
Rhinarium almost entirely hairy. General color above grayish- 
brown ; underside and inside of limbs whitish. A slight dark 
whisker-mark on the sides of the nose. Fingers and toes nearly 
black at their tips. Tail brown, gradually darkening to the 
extreme tip, which is black. Central hind claw long and strong. 

Dimensions. Head and body about sixty inches ; tail about 
thirty-seven inches. 

Habitat. All Australia except the extreme north. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 15, pi. v. fig. 1 (rhinariuni); 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. ii. pis. i., ii. (M. major) ; iii., iv. (M. ocy- 
dromus). 

2 la. M. GIGANTEUS, var. FULIGINOSUS, Desmarest. 
Tasmanian Kangaroo. 

Differs only from the typical form in the much longer, coarser, 
and darker fur, the pure white belly, the hands and feet grizzled- 
gray without black tips, and the terminal fourth of the tail being 
deep black. 

Dimensions. Much as in typical form. 
Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 19; Gould, Mamm. Austr. 
ii. pi. v. 



60 MACROPUS. 

21b. M. GIGANTEUS, var. MELANOPS, Gould (1842). 

Black-faced Kangaroo. 

Differs from the typical form only in the much smaller size, 
lighter build, and darker color. A brown patch on the face con- 
necting the two dark whisker-marks. Arms and legs not paler 
than the body ; fingers and toes black. 

Dimensions. Head and body about forty inches ; tail about 
thirty inches. 

Habitat. Eastern and South-eastern, perhaps extending its 
range to Northern Australia. 

References. -Thomas, B.M. Catal. p. 20. 

Subclass III. EUTHERIA. 

The Eutherian Mammals are, as their name implies, by far 
more specialized than either of the preceding Subclasses. The 
name here adopted was bestowed upon them by Prof. Huxley in 
exchange for the older terms MONODELPHIA (one wombedj and 
PLACENTALIA, in order to keep the nomenclature of the three 
Subclasses as uniform as possible, and in view of the fact that 
equivalent names for the remaining Subclasses, namely, DIDELPHIA 
(tivo u-ombedj for the Marsupials, and ORNITHODELPI, ; v (bird- 
wombed) for the Monotremes were manifestly incorrect and 
therefore misleading. They differ from other Mammals in that 
the foetus is nourished for a considerable, but varying length of 
time within the uterus of the mother, and when brought forth is 
in such an advanced stage of growth as to be able of its own 
volition to draw nourishment from the teat, without the inter- 
vention of muscles specially adapted for forcing the milk into 
its mouth, as in the Marsupials. 

In their mode of life the Eutherian Mammals show a great 
divergence, much more so than the Metatherian Mammals do, 
some, for instance, as the SIRENIA (Dugong, &c.), and especially 
the CETACEA (Whales, Dolphins, &c.) being fitted for a purely 
aquatic life; others like the PINNIPEDIA (Seals and Walruses) for 
a mixed aquatic and terrestrial existence, the former predomin- 
ating; others again like the CHIROPTERA (Bats, and Flying-foxes) 
for an at-rial existence ; while the habits, food, &c of the purely 
terrestrial forms are diverse in the extreme, and necessitate many 
and startling changes in their form, structure, dentition, organs 
of digestion <fcc. 

In order to meet these diverse conditions of existence it became 
necessary to divide this large and complex Subclass into various 
sections, technically known as " Orders," of which scientists now 
recognise ten, as at the present time existent on our planet, these 
being classified as follows: (i.) EDENTATA, the Sloths, Armadillos 



EUTHERIA. 61 

Anteaters, &c.; (ii.) SIRENIA, the only existing species of which 
are the Manatees and Dugongs ; (iii.) CETACI A, the Baleen and 
Sperm Whales, Narwhal, Dolphins, &c.; (i\.) INSECTIVORA, the 
Hedgehogs, Moles, Shrews, &c.; (v.) CHIROPTERA, the Flying- 
Foxes, Bats, Vampyres, etc.; (vi.) RODENTIA the Porcupines, 
Rats, Rabbits, <fcc.; (vii.) UNGULATA, the Elepha.its, Swine, Deer, 
Cattle, Sheep, Horse, c., by far the most import ~nt Order ; (viii.) 
CARNIVORA, the Lion, Wolf, Weasel, Walrus, Seal, &c. ; (ix.) 
QUADRUMAXA, the Monkeys, Apes, Lemurs, &c. ; and (x. ) 
PRIMATES, Man. 

Of these ten Orders only five, the second, third, fifth, sixth, 
and eighth have to be dealt with here as Australian, four of the 
others not having as yet been recorded from this Subregion, while 
Man is relegated to a different the anthropological branch of 
the science. 

The range of this Subclass is, as may be supposed, cosmopolitan 
no region having been visited by man, whether the ice-bound 
wastes of the arctic seas, or the burning sands and miasmatic 
swamp-forests of the tropics, in. which widely different forms of 
mammalian life, from the Rein-Deer and Musk-Ox. the White 
Bear and the Walrus of the inhospitable polar shores on which so 
many of the bravest and best of the intrepid heroes of our Anglo- 
Saxon race have left their sad and but surmisable record of im- 
perishable fame, to the A.ye-Aye and the Armadillo, the Tapir 
and the Gorilla of lands which teem with so exuberant a life as 
to be actually more deadly to man than the barren, the shud- 
dering silences of the. long winter night of the polar seas. 

In point of numbers and importance the Eutherian Mammals 
greatly exceed the two preceding divisions of the class, except in 
Australia, this wondrous relic of an older era in our planet's 
history, the latest and the most marvelous of our discoveries. 
Leaving the marine mammals which are naturally cosmopolitan 
for the present out of the question, the truth of this assertion 
may be seen at a glance by the fact that in Australia and its 
attendant islands only about seventy species of terrestrial Eu- 
therian Mammals, one of which, the Dingo, is more than doubt- 
fully indigenous have been differentiated with any degree of 
certainty, and, with the exception of the Australian Water-Rats 
(Hydromys) and the more closely allied genera, none are of any 
special interest, while not a single species is of any commercial 
value whatever. As an illustration of the poverty of the Australian 
fauna in this respect it is only necessary to call the attention of 
my readers to the obvious fact that all domesticated mammals, 
one at least of which has placed Australia in the proud position 
which she now holds, have their origin in far distant lands. As 
a set-off to this, from a naturalist's point of view, unsatisfactory 
state of affairs we can of course point with pride to the great 



62 SIRENIA. 

preponderance of the Marsupial Group in these Colonies, no 
less than ninety-three species, exclusive of nine well-marked 
varieties, belonging solely to the fauna of Australia and its out- 
lying islands, while three (Macropus agilis, Dactylopsila trivirgata, 
and Phalanger maculatus) are common to it and the Papuasian 
or Austro-Malayan sub-regions ; the number of known Marsupials 
being but one hundred and fifty-one, with twelve recognizable 
varieties, it therefore follows that Australia possesses almost two- 
thirds of the total. 

Order I.-SIRENIA. 

Head rounded, not disproportionate in size as compared with 
the trunk, from which it is inconspicuously separated by any 
externally visible neck. Nostrils valvular, separate, placed above 
the fore part of the obtuse truncated muzzle. Eyes very small, 
with a well developed nictitating membrane. Ear without pinna. 
Mouth small or moderate, with tumid lips beset with stiff bristles. 
General form of body depressed and fusiform. No dorsal fin. 
Tail flattened and horizontaly expanded. Fore limbs paddle- 
shaped, the digits enveloped in a common cutaneous covering. 
No trace of hind limbs. Skin wrinkled, rugose, naked, or with 
fine hairs sparsely scattered over it. Clavicles absent. Pelvis 
rudimentary. 

The Sirenians are inhabitants of bays, estuaries, lagoons, and 
large rivers, in the shallow waters of which they find abundance 
of the marine algse and fresh- water grasses on which entirely they 
feed. They are as a rule gregarious, are slow and inactive in 
their movements, and in disposition mild, inoffensive, and 
apparently without much intelligence, for which latter reason they 
are within a measurable distance of total extinction, being valu- 
able for their flesh as food, and for their hides, but especially for 
the excellent oil which is extracted from the thick layer of fat 
immediately underlying the cuticle, as a fact they are already 
becoming very scarce and difficult to obtain in all settled districts. 
Members of the two existing genera, Manatus and Halicore, are 
natives of the tropical shores of Eastern America and the "West 
Indies, Africa, Asia, and Australia, but the genus Jthytina, from 
Behring Straits, a much larger animal than either of the others, is 
supposed to have been exterminated through the agency of man 
within the last hundred and twenty-three years, but it is reported 
(Nordenskiold, Voyage of the Vega) to have been seen in its 
original home so late as 1854. 

During the Miocene and early Pliocene epochs Sirenians 
abounded in the coastal waters of Europe and North America, 
and a species has also been discovered in the nummulitic limestone 
of the Mokattam Hills near Cairo. 



HALICORE. 63 

Genus I. HALICORE, Illiger (1811). 

Incisors in the male large, tusk-like, with bevelled off cutting 
edges, and the roots provided with persistent pulp cavities ; in 
the female not penetrating the gum. Not more than three molars 
in each ranius in use simultaneously. Limbs without nails. Tail 
fin lunate. Head in front of the eyes bent abruptly downwards. 

Vertebras. C. 7, 1). 15 - 18, L. & C. 30 = 52-55. 
Dentition. 1. f , C. |j, P. 5, M. |^| x 2 = 22 to 26. 

1. HALICORE DUGONG, Gmelin, sp. (1788). 
Dugong. 

Skin thick and smooth with a few scattered hairs ; upper lip 
large, its lower edge obliquely truncated, tuberculated, and bristly. 
Flippers short, thick, and fleshy. Colors, above slaty- or brownish- 
black, below lighter. 

Habitat. Northern Australia, descending on the eastern coast 
as far south as Moreton Bay; from New Guinea through Malaysia 
and along the southern shores of Asia to the Red Sea ; East coast 
of Africa, and Mauritius. 

Dimensions. Total length up to eight feet. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales,p. 261; Scott, 
Seals and Whales, p. 52. 

Note. For many years the idea was prevalent that the Dugongs 
were able to come on shore at will for the purpose of browsing on 
grasses and other terrestrial plants ; but a cursory examination of 
the weakness of the fore-limbs, coupled with the total absence of 
even the internal rudiments of hind limbs, should have been 
sufficient to have at once dispelled a view so incompatible with 
the structure of the animal. By some the flesh is said to be excel- 
lent, while others maintain that it is almost inedible, a difference 
for which it is easy to account if the sex and age of the individual 
eaten be taken into consideration, or perhaps, though hardly likely 
with a class of animals whose diet is necessarily so restricted, to 
the nature of food consumed. There is, however, no such diversity 
of opinion as to the excellent quality of the oil expressed from 
the subcuticular fat of the Dugong, which is with one accord pro- 
nounced to be pure, clear, free from disagreeable odor, and further 
more, when properly prepared, to possess many, if not all, of the 
remedial properties of cod-liver oil. Dugongs are much more 
strictly marine than Manatees, and their food is therefore chiefly 
restricted to sea-water algte. 

These animals have been by some systematists divided into three 
species, (the basis, apparently, of this opinion being mainly the 
difference of locality) namely, H. tabernaculi from African, H. 



64 CETACEA. 

dugony from Indian, and H. anstralis from Australian seas, but 
no valid characters by which to distinguish the various forms 
appear to have been adduced. 

Order II. -GET ACE A. 

Body fusiform, passing anteriorly into the head without any 
distinct neck, posteriorly tapering off gradually to the base of the 
tail, which is provided with a pair of lateral, pointed expansions 
of skin, forming together a horizontally placed triangular propell- 
ing organ, notched in the middle line behind. Head generally 
large, sometimes more than one-third of the total length ; aperture 
of mouth always wide, bounded by stiff immobile lips. Fore limbs 
modified into flattened ovoid paddles, encased in a continuous 
integument. No external signs of hind limbs. General surface 
of skin smooth and glistening, devoid of hair. A compressed 
median dorsal fin almost always present. Eye small ; no nictita- 
ting membrane nor true lachrymal apparatus. Auditory opening 
consisting of a minute aperture in the skin situated a short distance 
behind the eye, without vestige of pinna. Nostrils opening 
separately or by a single crescentic valvular aperture near the 
vertex. Teeth generally present but very variable in number, of 
simple, uniform character, having conical, compressed crowns, 
and single roots, and never preceded by milk teeth. Among the 
Mystacoceti the teeth are absent (seep. 65). No clavicles. Im- 
mediately beneath the skin and intimately connected with it, is a 
thick layer of fat, held together by a dense mesh of areolar tissue 
constituting the blubber, which serves the purpose of the hairy 
covering of other mammals in retaining the heat of the body. 

Cetaceans abound in all seas and in some of the larger rivers of 
Asia, such as the Ganges, Indus, and Irrawaddy, and of South 
America where the " Inia " of the natives of Bolivia ascends the 
Amazon even to its remote sources among the Peruvian Lakes. 
Necessarily from the structure of their limbs they are purely 
aquatic mammals and once stranded, from any cause whatever, 
are absolutely at the mercy of their smallest enemy. For the 
purpose of respiration it is necessary that they should rise fre- 
quently to the surface, and since this necessitates a frequent 
upwardly rising motion and a subsequent plunging downwards 
the tail is therefore expanded horizontally, not vertically as in 
Fishes where no such motion is requisite. For an equally benefi- 
cent reason the respiratory orifice is placed on the highest point, 
or vertex, of the head, with the purpose of enabling the animal to 
breathe without trouble while at the same time exposing the 
smallest possible portion of its body above the surface, where it 
might necessarily expect to meet with its most dangerous foes and 
where its powers of vision, such as they are, would be hopelessly 



MYSTACOCETI. 65 

handicapped. The prevalent idea that Whales spout " water " 
from the blowhole is erroneous, the so-called "spouting" or "blow- 
ing " being caused merely by the forcible expulsion of the air taken 
at the last inspiration, and which, charged by the action of the 
lungs with humid vapor, changes, upon contact with the colder air, 
into a jet of combined steam and spray. All the Cetaceans are 
predacious, living entirely on animal food of one form or another, 
this consisting of fishes, small swimming and floating crustaceans, 
pteropods, jelly fish ( 'Medusfp,), and cephalopods, the latter form- 
ing almost the sole food of the Sperm Whales, without doubt the 
largest of living animals, and from the non-assimilization of cer- 
tain portions of these Cephalopods the valuable substance known 
as " ambergris " is derived ; one genus fOrcaJ, however, habitu- 
ally feeds also on the larger mammals, such as Seals, Porpoises, 
Dolphins, and even attacks the larger Whales. With few excep- 
tions they are timid and inoffensive, active in their movements, 
and markedly affectionate towards one another, especially in the 
case of the mother to her young, which, if harpooned, she will 
never desert, even when she herself receives the fatal stroke. The 
young number generally one, never more than two, at a birth, 
and the mother at the time of gestation seeks the protection of 
shallow sheltered bays and inlets, and is therefore all the more 
liable to these murderous attacks at the very time that the law 
should most stringently and sternly protect her. Most of the 
species of Cetaceans are gregarious, in the case of some of the 
Delphinidce as many as thousands hunting in a single pack. 

The earliest fossil Cetacea, of whose organization anything like 
a complete knowledge is evident, are the Zeuglodons of the Eocene 
period. 

Suborder I. Mystacoceti. 

Whale-bone "Whales. 

Teeth never functionally developed, disappearing before the 
birth of the foetus. Palate provided with plates of baleen, 
(whalebone). Skull symmetrical. Nasal bones forming a roof to 
the anterior nasal passages, which are directed upwards and for- 
wards. External openings of nostrils distinct from each other, 
longitudinal. Olfactory organ distinctly developed. Maxilla 
produced in front of, but not over, orbital process of frontal. 
Lachrymal bones small, distinct from the jugal. Tympanic bone 
anchylosed to the periotic, which is attached to the base of the 
cranium by two strong diverging processes. Kami of mandible 
arched outwards, their anterior ends meeting at an angle, and 
without true symphysis. Ribs articulating only with the trans- 
verse processes of the vertebrse. Sternum composed of a single 
piece, and articulating with a single pair of ribs only. No ossified 
sternal ribs. A short conical crecum. 

E 



66 

Baleen, more commonly but erroneously called "whale-bone" 
consists of numerous transversely placed flattened horny laminse, 
numbering between three hundred and four hundred on either 
side of the palate. Each of these laminte is composed of many 
soft vascular papillae, circular in outline, each of which is surrounded 
by concentrically arranged epidermic cells, the whole being bound 
together by other cells of a similar character, which constitute 
the smooth cortical surface of the blade, erroneously considered 
to be enamel, and which, by the disintegration of its free margin 
allows the individual fibres to become loose and assume a hair-like 
appearance. The baleen only makes its appearance after the birth 
of the young Whale, these in the fcetal state possessing numerous 
minute calcified teeth which are absorbed before birth. Its func- 
tion is to strain the water from the small marine animals on 
which the whales subsist and at the same time prevent the escape 
of the enclosed prey. 

Family I. BALJENHXE. 

Characters similar to those of the Suborder. 

Genus I. BALyENA, Linncens (1735). 

Skin of throat smooth. Head very large. No dorsal fin. Fore 
limb short, broad, pentadactylous. Baleen very long and narrow, 
highly elastic, black. Cervical vertebrae united into a single mass. 
Scapula high, with a distinct coracoid and coronoid process. 

Vertebra. C. 7, D. 14, L. 10, Cd. 23; total 54. 

1. BALDEN A AUSTBALIS, Desmoulins (1822). 
Southern Right Whale. 

General color black or blackish-gray ; the anterior part of the 
lower jaw, and part of the throat and belly white. 

Dimensions. Attains, to a length of from sixty to seventy feet. 

Habitat. Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans south of the 
tropics. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 91 ; Scott, 
Seals and Whales, p. 136. 

Note. The food of the Right Whales consists principally of 
minute molluscous and crustaceous animals. 

Genus II. NEOBAUENA, Gray (1871). 

Skin of throat smooth. A small falcate dorsal fin. Fore limb 
tetradactylous, the pollex absent. Skull rather depressed ; brain 
cavity nearly as long as the beak, depressed, much expanded on the 
sides, with a very deep notch on the middle of each side over the 
condyles of the lower jaw, and with a subtriangular crown-plate. 

E E 



MEGAPTERA. 67 

Nose as bi'oad as the expanded brain cavity at the base, regularly 
attenuated to a tine point in front, and slightly arched downwards. 
Lower jaw laminar, compressed, and high; the upper edge thin 
and inflexed on the greater part of its length, erect in front ; the 
lower edge inflexed in front the rest of the edge simple. Baleen 
elongate, slender, several times as long as broad, with a fringe of a 
single series of tine fibres; enamelled surface smooth and polished, 
thick. Cervical vertebne united into a single mass. Ribs ex- 
panded and flattened. Scapula low and broad, with well developed 
coracoid and coronoid process. 

Vertebrae. C. 7, ]). 17, L. 3, Cd. 16 = 43. 

1. NEOBAL.ENA MARGINATA, Gray, sp. (1866). 

Pigmy Right Whale. 

Head about one-fourth of the total length. Baleen pale yellow 
with a dark margin. Although two fresh specimens have recently 
come ashore at or near Adelaide, S. A., no measurements or 
descriptions of the external characters appear to have been taken, 
and until Dr. Gray's diagnosis of the genus, which is taken solely 
from photographs supplied by Dr. Hector, can be supplemented 
by original observations, no reliable description of the external 
characters is possible. 

Dimensions. Said to be up to twenty feet. 
Habitat. Southern Australian and New Zealand Seas. 
Reference. Gray, Suppl. to B. M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 
40, figs. 1 (side view of skull) and 2 (top view of ditto). 

Genus III. MEGAPTERA, Gray (1846). 

Skin of throat plicated. Head of moderate size. A low dorsal 
fin present. Fore limbs very long and narrow, about a fourth of 
the total length of animal, tetradactylous, the phalanges very nume- 
rous. Baleen short and broad. Cervical vertebne free. Scapula 
with the acromion and coracoid process absent or rudimentary. 

Vertebra. C. 7, D. 14, L. 10 or 11, Cd. 21 ; total 52 or 53. 

1. MEGAPTERA BOOPS, Fabricins (1780). 

Hump-back "Whale. 

Back and sides black ; belly yellowish-white, sometimes with 
irregular black spots. Anterior and posterior edges of pectoral 
fin irregularly notched. 

Dimensions. Up to at least sixty feet. 

Habitat. -All seas except the tropical and subtropical. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 126, fig. 
19 (fifth cervical vertebra) arid p. 128, fig. 20 (ear-bones); Scott, 
Seals^and Whales, p. 128. 



68 BALING PTERA. 

Note. Gray's M. novce-zealandice may be a good species, but, 
according to Prof. Flower, no distinctive characters have as yet 
been defined. 

Genus IV. BAL^NOPTERA, Lacepede (1804). 

Skin of throat plicated. Head small, flat, and pointed in front. 
Body long and slender. A small falcate dorsal fin. Fore limbs 
small, narrow, and pointed ; tetradactylous. Baleen short and 
coarse. Cervical vertebrae free. Scapula low and broad with the 
acromion and coracoid process large. 

Vertebra. G. 7, D. 12, L. 13, Cd. 16 ; total 48. 

1. BAL^NOPTERA HUTTONI, Gray (1874). 
Sulphur-bottom. 

Dark green above, shading off gradually to yellowish-white 
below. Baleen yellow with a narrow black margin. 

Dimensions. Up to thirty feet "? 

Habitat. Seas of New South Wales and New Zealand. 

References. Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4) 1874 xxxi. p. 316, pi. 
xvi. (animalj and p. 450, pi. xviii. 

Note. This is possibly identical with the Northern B. rostrata. 

Suborder II. Odontoceti. 

Calcified teeth always present after birth, generally numerous, 
but sometimes a limited number, or even in rare cases none, are 
functional. No baleen. Upper surface of skull more or less 
asymmetrical. Nasal bones in the form of nodules or flattened 
plates, closely applied to the frontals, and not forming any part 
of the roof of the narial passage, which is directed upwards and 
backwards. Olfactory organ rudimentary or absent. Posterior 
end of maxilla expanded, covering the greater part of the orbital 
plate of the frontal bone. Lachrymal bone either inseparable 
from the jugal, or, when distinct, very large and forming part of 
the roof of the orbit. Tympanic bone not anchylosed to the 
periotic, which is usually attached to the skull by ligament only. 
Rami of mandible nearly straight, much expanded in height 
posteriorly, with a wide funnel-shaped aperture to the dental 
canal, and coming in contact in front by a flat surface of variable 
length, always constituting a true symphysis. Several of the true 
ribs with well-developed capitular processes, which articulate with 
the bodies of the vertebrae. Sternum almost always composed of 
several pieces, placed one behind the other, with which several 
pairs of ribs are always connected by the intervention of well- 
developed cartilaginous or ossified sternal ribs. External respira- 
tory aperture single, the two nostrils uniting before they reach 



PHYSETEE. 

the surface, usually in the form of a transverse, subcrescentic, 
valvular opening, situated on the top of the head. Hand always 
pentadactylous, the first and fifth digits however but little 
developed. No ccecum, except in Platanista. 

Family L PHYSETERIDJE. 

No functional teeth in the upper jaw. Mandibular teeth 
various, often few in number. Bones of the cranium raised so as 
to form an elevated prominence behind the nostrils. Pterygoid 
bones thick, not involuted to form the outer wall of the post- 
palatine air-sinuses. Transverse processes of the arches of the 
dorsal vertebra?, to which the tubercles of the ribs are attached, 
ceasing abruptly near the end of the series, and replaced by pro- 
cesses on the vertebra; at a much lower level, not on a line or 
serially homologous with them, but anteriorly with the heads of 
the ribs, posteriorly with the transverse processes of the lumbar 
vertebrae. Costal cartilages not ossified. 

Subfamily I. PHYSETERINJE. 

Numerous teeth in the mandible which are not set in distinct 
bony alveoli, but in a long groove imperfectly divided by partial 
septa, and held in place by the strong fibrous gum which surrounds 
them. No distinct lachrymal bone. Cranium strikingly asym- 
metrical in the region of the narial apertures, in consequence of 
the left opening greatly exceeding the right in size. 

Genus I. PHYSETER, Linnaeus (1748). 

Upper teeth of uncertain number, embedded in the gum; man- 
dibular teeth from twenty to twenty-five in each ramus, stout, 
conical, recurved, and pointed, without a coating of enamel. 
Upper surface of cranium concave. Rostrum greatly elongated, 
tapering gradually to the apex from its broad base. Mandible 
very long and narrow, the symphysis more than half the length 
of the ramus. Atlas free, the remaining cervical vertebra? united 
into a single mass. Eleventh pair of ribs rudimentary. Head 
about one-third of the length of the body, very massive, high, and 
truncated. Nasal opening single, longitudinal, slightly to the left 
of the median line of the head. Fore limb short, broad, and 
truncated. Dorsal fin a mere low protuberance. 

Vertebra;. C. 7, D. 11, L. 8, Cd. 24; total 50. 

1. PHYSETER MACROCEPHALUS, Linnceus (1766). 

Sperm. Whale ; Cachalot. 

Body above very dark, occasionally black, fading gradually on 
the sides and belly, silvery gray on the chest. 



70 KOGIA. 

Dimensions. Up to eighty-five feet at least. 
Habitat. Cosmopolitan. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 202, fig. 
54 (side view of skull); Scott, Seals and Whales, p. 111. 

Genus II. KOGIA, Gray (1866). 

Upper teeth absent or reduced to a rudimentary pair in front. 
Mandibular teeth nine to twelve in each ramus, long, slender, 
recurved, and pointed, with a coating of enamel. Upper surface 
of the cranium concave. Rostrum not longer than the cranial 
portion of the skull, broad at the base and rapidly tapering to the 
apex. Mandible with symphysis less than half the length of the 
ramus. All the cervical vertebrse united. Head about one-sixth 
of the length of the body, obtusely pointed in front. Spiracle 
crescentic, to the left of the median line. Pectoral tins obtusely 
falcate. A triangular dorsal fin. 

Vertebra. C. 7, D. 13 or U, L. 9, Cd. 21 ; total 50 or 51. 

1. KOGIA BREVICEPS, Ulainville, sp. (1838). 

Short-headed Sperm Whale. 
Black above, yellowish below. 
Dimensions. Up to eleven feet. 
Habitat. Australia ; Timor ; Cape of Good Hope. 
References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 217, fig. 
56 (skull and lower jaw) and p. 218; Scott, Seals and Whales, 
p. 208 ; Wail, Mem. No. 1, Austr. Mus. (1851). 

Subfamily II. ZIPHIINJE. 

Mandibular teeth rudimentary and concealed in the gum, with 
the exception of one, very rarely two, pair which may be largely 
developed, especially in the males. A distinct lachrymal bone. 
Spiracle single, crescentic, and median. Pectoral fin small, ovate, 
all five digits moderately developed. A small obtusely falcate 
dorsal fin, situated considerably behind the middle of the back. 
Longitudinal grooves 011 the skin of the sides of the throat nearly 

O O * 

united in front, but divergent behind. 

Genus III. HYPEROODON, Lacepede (1803). 

Mandible with a small, conical, pointed tooth at the apex of 
each ramus, concealed by the gum. Skull with the upper ends of 
the premaxilla) rising suddenly behind the nares to the vertex ; 
the right larger than the left. Anteorbital notch distinct. 
Mesethmoid but slightly ossified. All the cervical vertebrae united. 



MESOPLODON. 71 

Upper surface of head iu front of spiracle very prominent and 
rounded, rising abruptly from the small, distinct snout. 

Vertebra*. C. 7, D. 9, L. 10, Cd. 19 ; total 45. 

1. HYPEROODON PLANIPRONS, Flotver (1882). 

Southern Bottlenose Whale. 

This species is only known from a mutilated skull found on the 
beach of Lewis Island, Dampier's Archipelago, and described at 
length by Prof. Flower in the Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society for 1882, p. 392, who figures the upper surface and the 
side view of the skull. 

Genus IV. MESOPLODON, Gervais (1850). 

A mandible with a much compressed and pointed tooth 011 each 
side, variously situated, but generally at some distance behind 
the apex ; its point directed upwards and often somewhat back- 
wards, occasionally developed to a great size. Skull not greatly 
differing from that of Hyperoodon. Anteorbital notch not very 
distinct. Mesethmoid cartilage ossified in adults, coalescing with 
the surrounding bones of the rostrum, which is long and narrow. 
Two or three anterior cervicals united, the remainder usually free. 

Vertebras. C. 7, D. 10, L. 10 or 11, Cd. 19 or 20; total 46 to 48. 

1. MESOPLODON LAYARDI, Gray, sp. (1865). 

Long-toothed. Whale. 

Mandibular tooth strongly compressed, with the apex everted, 
and seated upon a flat strap-like base, which grows upwards, 
backwards, and finally inwards, closing in adult males (?) over the 
upper jaw, and sometimes actually meeting. Lateral basirostral 
groove slight. Premaxillary foramen level with the maxillary. 

Dimensions. -Up to about fifteen feet. 
Habitat. Nesv South Wales; Cape Seas. 

References. -Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 353, fig. 
72 a., b. (skull and lower jaw); c. (inandibular teeth from the front); 
Scott, Seals and Whales, p. 117. 

Note. In Mr. Krefft's MSS. occurs a notice of a Ziphiid Whale, 
which he names M. thomsoni, but which is probably the female of 
this species. It was stranded at Little Bay, near Sydney. 

2. MESOPLODON DENSIROSTRIS, Blainville, sp. (1817). 

Massive-toothed Whale. 

Mandibular tooth with the apex directed vertically, placed on 
a very massive base, which is implanted in a greatly expanded 
alveolar margin of the jaw, not found in any other species. Lateral 



?2 MESOPLODON. 

basirostral groove deep. Premaxillary foramen behind the 
maxillary. 

Dimensions. Up to about fifteen feet. 
Habitat. Lord Howe Island Seychelles. 

References. Gray, Suppl. B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 102, 
fig. 103 (skeleton); Scott, Seals and Whales, p. 118. 

3. MESOPLODON GRAYI, Haast, sp, (1876). 
Small-toothed Whale. 

Mandibular tooth small, triangular, vertical, opposite posterior 
edge of symphysis ; a series of small conical teeth set in the gum 
of the upper jaw, commencing opposite the lower tooth and extend- 
ing nearly to the gape of the mouth. Lateral basirostral groove 
deep. Back black getting a little lighter near the tail, where it 
assumes a dark slate tint ; below reddish-brown. 

Dimensions. Up to eighteen feet. 

Habitat. New South Wales ; New Zealand. 

References. Haast, Trans. N.Z Institute 1876, ix. p. 450, pi. 
xxvi. fig. 3 (side view of skull) ; Flower, Trans. Zool. Soc. x. pis. 
Ixxi., fig. 2 (tipper view of skull), Ixxii. fig. 2 (side vieiv of ditto), 
and Ixxiii. figs. 1 (skeleton) and 2 (sternum). 

Family II. DELPHINID^. 

Teeth usually numerous in both jaws. Symphysis of mandible 
short or moderate, never exceeding one-third of the length of the 
ratnus. Lachrymal bone not distinct from the jugal. Anterior 
ribs attached to the transverse processes of the dorsal vertebra; by 
the tubercle, and to the bodies of the vertebrse by the head ; the 
latter attachment lost in the posterior ribs. Sternal ribs firmly 
ossified. External respiratory aperture transverse and crescentic, 
the horns of the crescent pointing forwards. 

Genus I. DELPHINAPTERUS, Lacepede (1804). 

Pterygoid bones very small, not meeting in the middle line, 
approaching each other posteriorly. Cervical region comparatively 
long, all the vertebrae distinct or with irregular unions towards 
the middle of the series. Fore limb small, short, and broad ; 
second and third digits nearly equal, the fourth slightly shorter. 
No dorsal fin. 

Vertebrce. C. 7, D. 11, L. 6, Cd. 26 = 50, subject to individual 
modifications. 

Dentition. to 1. 



PSEUDORCA. 73 

1. DELPHINAPTERUS KINGI, Gray (1827). 
Southern (White P) Whale. 

A skull of a Dolphin, generically inseparable from the D. leucas 
of the Arctic Seas is in the British Museum, said to be from the 
coast of New Holland, and was described by Dr. Gray under the 
above name. No other specimen has been obtained. 

References. Gray, B. M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 309, 
and Suppl. p. 95. 1 

Genus II. ORCA, Gray (1846). 

Pterygoicl bones of normal form, but not quite meeting in the 
median line. First, second, and sometimes the third cervical 
vertebra united, the rest free. Fore-limb large, ovate, nearly as 
broad as long. Dorsal tin very high and pointed, situated near 
the middle of the back. Anterior part of the head very broad 
and depressed. 

Vertebra. C. 7, D. 11 or 12, L. 10, Cd. 23 = 51 or 52. 

Dentition. About H, occupying nearly the whole length of the 
beak, very large and stout, with conical, recurved crowns, and 
large roots, expanded laterally, and flattened or rather hollowed 
on their anterior or posterior surfaces. 

1. ORCA GLADIATOR, Bonnaterre (1789). 
Killer. 

Black above, shading into white on the abdomen, with a more 
or less developed white patch above and somewhat behind the eye. 

Dimensions. Males up to twenty feet ; females much smaller. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 279; Scott, 
Seals and Whales, p. 88. 

Note. These are powerful and rapacious animals frequenting 
all seas from Greenland to Tasmania ; many species have been 
described but no specific differential characters have been clearly 
defined. 

Genus III. PSEUDORCA, Reinhardt (1862). 

First to sixth or seventh cervical vertebrae united. Bodies of 
the lumbar vertebrae elongated. Fore limb of moderate size, 
narrow, and pointed. Dorsal fin situated near the middle of the 
back, of moderate size, falcate. Head in front of blow-hole high 
and compressed anteriorly. Snout truncate. 

Vertebrae. C. 7, D. 10, L. 9, Cd. 24 = 50. 
Dentition. About -A-, their roots cylindrical. 



74 PSEUDORCA. 

1. PSEUDORCA CRASSIDENS, Oiven (1846). 

Tasmanian Killer. 
Black above, whitish below. 
Dimensions. Same as preceding species, 

Habitat. Coast of Tasmania, New South Wales, Lord Howe 
Island. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 80; Scott, 
Seals and Whales, pp. 91, 92. 

Genus IV. GLOBICEPHALUS, Lesson (1842). 

Pterygoid bones of normal form, meeting or very nearly so in 
the median line. Upper surface of beak broad, flat, and concave 
in front of the nostrils. Premaxillaj as wide, or wider, at the 
middle of the beak as at its base. Bodies of the five or six anterior 
cervical vertebrae united. 

Vertebra. C. 7, D. 11, L. 12 to 14, Cd. 28 or 29; total 58 or 59. 

Dentition. J^g to g=j| rarely J^; slightly curved at the tips. 

1. GLOBICEPHALUS MELAS, Traill (1809). 

Ca'ing or Pilot Whale. 

Smooth shining jet black above, paler below, with a white stripe 
along the throat and abdomen. 

Dimensions. Up to twenty -five feet. 
Habitat. Seas beyond the tropics ; Tasmania. 
References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 314, and 
Suppl. p. 83 ; Scott, Seals and Wales, pp. 99, 100, 139. 

Genus V. DELPHINUS, Linnceus (1776). 

Beak long and narrow, greatly exceeding the brain cavity in 
length, its basal width about one-third of its length. Forehead 
rounded. Dorsal fin falcate, situated on the middle of the back. 
The two anterior cervical vertebrae united, the rest free. Palate 
with lateral grooves. 

Vertebra. C. 7, D. 12 - 14, L. & Cd. 54 ; total 73-75. 

Dentition. J- - f . 

Note. Prof. Flower (P.Z.S. 1883, p. 502) appears to consider 
the four following species as forms of a single widely disseminated 
one. 

1. DELPHINUS DELPHIS, Linnmus (1766). 

Common Dolphin. 
Black above ; sides gray ; beneath white. 



DELPHINUS. 



75 



Habitat. Cosmopolitan 1 Tasmania (Flower). 

Dimensions. Total length generally from six to eight feet, 
sometimes as much as ten feet. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 242 ; Scott, 
Seals and Whales, p. 72. 

2. DELPHINUS NOV^E-ZEALANDI^E, Quoy & Gaim. (1832-4). 
New Zealand Dolphin. 

Teeth ^i'li- Body rounded in front, tapering behind, becoming 
much compressed and carinated above from about half-way 
between the end of the dorsal and the caudal fins ; snout narrow, 
cylindrical, depressed above, pointed in front. Upper part of 
body glossy rich black to half-way between dorsal and tail, beyond 
which the entire body is dark slate color ; edge of upper jaw, 
lower jaw, and belly dull whitish ; pectorals blackish above, 
whitish below ; dorsal dull whitish or leaden-gray in the middle, 
the margins darker ; eye margined with black, from which a 
narrow black white-edged band extends forwards to join the black 
of the head ; a large dull ochraceous patch, tapering behind, from 
the eye to beneath the hinder margin of the dorsal. Palate deeply 
concave along each side behind. (McCoy.) 

Dimensions. Total length up to at least seven feet. 

Habitat. Southern coasts of Australia ; Tasmania New 
Zealand. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 246; Quoy 
k Gaim. Voy. Astrolabe, Mamm. pi. xxviii. fig. 1 ; McCoy, Prodr. 
Zool. Viet. dec. iii. pi. xxii. 

3. DELPHINUS FULVIFASCIATUS, Hombr. & Jacq. (1842 et seq.). 

Dusky-banded Dolphin. 

Teeth HiH- Blackish ; sides of back fulvous ; throat and 
beneath white ; beak, orbit, streak from angle of mouth to pectoral 
fin blackish. Palate deeply channeled on each side behind. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 253, and 
Suppl. p. 68 ; Hombr. & Jacq. Voy. Dumont d'Urville, pis. xxi. 
fig. 1 and xxiii. figs. 1, 2. 

4. DELPHINUS FORSTEEI, Gray (1845). 

Forster's Dolphin. 

Teeth H;H-. Body round, thickest behind ; pectoral tapering 
at both ends ; head rounded, shelving in front, beaked ; beak 
straight, pointed, cylindrical, depressed, attenuated and blunt at 
the tip. Above dark rust color, beneath dirty white. 



76 TURSIOPS. 

Habitat. Tasmania ; New South Wales. 
Dimensions. Total length to eight feet at least. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 248, and 
Suppl, p. 69 ; Scott, Seals and Whales, p. 76. 

Note. The coloration agrees with that of a herd of large 
Dolphins seen off Port Stephens by the author, individuals of 
which while racing the steamer were frequently within less than 
ten feet of the lookers-on ; one specimen was shot, upon which 
the whole scattered herd instantly disappeared. 

Genus VI. TURSIOPS, Gervais (1855). 

Form stout. Beak short, distinctly marked off from the pre- 
narial adipose elevation by a V-shaped groove. Pectoral fins 
lanceolate ; dorsal fin high and falcate. No lateral grooves on 
the palate. Beak tapering moderately from base to apex. Ptery- 
goid bones united in the median line. Symphysis of lower jaw 
short. Teeth large, numbering from 21 to 25 on each ramus of 
each jaw. 

Vertebra. C. 7, D. 13, L. 17, Cd. 27, = 64. 

Note. Gray's generic name " Tursio" (1846) having been used 
by Wagler sixteen years previously for a very distinct Cetacean 
is inadmissable. 

1. TURSIOPS CATALANIA, Gray, sp. (1862). 
Southern Bottle-nose. 

Teeth f-f;M - li:f t- Upper surfaces and sides light lead-color, 
which gradually passes into dirty leaden white below, the latter 
marked, as also are the nippers, with longitudinally elongated 
blotches of dark lead-color. 

Habitat. Australia. 

Dimensions. Total length to eight feet at least. 

References. Gray, B.M. Catal. Seals and Whales, p. 262; Scott, 
Seals and Whales, p. 82. 



Genus VII. SOTALIA, Gray (1866). 

Beak depressed, rather longer than the brain cavity. Palate 
without lateral grooves. Lower jaw rather broad behind. Sym- 
physis short. Teeth slender, conical. Pectoral fin obliquely 
truncated. Pterygoid bones separated. 

Vertebra. C. 7, D. 12, L. 10, Cd. 22 = 51. 



PTEROPUS. 77 

1. SOTALIA GADAMU, Owen, sp. (1865). 

Beak rather short, equal in length to the distance between its 
base and the eyes ; its apex obtuse. Lower jaw a little longer 
than the upper. Blow-hole crescentic, situated on the middle of 
the vertex between the eyes. Dorsal and pectoral fins falcate, 
of nearly equal size. Body above dark plumbeous gray, almost 
black on the fins; below pinkish ashy-gray with a few small 
irregular blotches of light plumbeous gray. 

Dentition. g~ == 96 - 108. 

Dimensions. Total length about seven feet. 

Habitat. Indian and West Australian Seas. 

Reference. Owen, Tr. Z.S. vi. p. 17, pi. iii. figs. 1 and 2. 

Order III.-CHIROPTERA. 

Mammals with the fore limbs specially modified so as to adapt 
them for flight. The fore arm consists of a rudimentary ulna, a 
long curved radius, and a carpus of six bones, which supports a 
thumb and four greatly elongated fingers, between which, the sides 
of the body, and the hinder extremities the wing-membrane is 
spread out. A peculiar elongated cartilaginous process, the cal- 
caneum, which is rarely rudimentary or absent, rises from the 
inner side of the ankle-joint, is directed inwards, and supports the 
interfemoral membrane. Mammae thoracic. 

Suborder I Megachiroptera. 

Crowns of molar teeth smooth with a longitudinal furrow. 
Bony palate narrowing slowly backwards, continued behind last 
molar. Second finger generally terminating in a claw. Sides of 
ear-conch forming a complete ring at the base. Pyloric extremity 
of the stomach elongated. 

Habits. Frugivorous ; mellivorous ; anthophagous. 

Family I. -PTEROPODHLE. 

*/ 

Flying Foxes ; Fruit-eating Bats. 
Characters similar to those of the Suborder. 

Genus I PTEROPUS, Brisson (1756). 

Size large or medium. Muzzle long, narrow, and cylindrical. 
Nostrils projecting by their inner margins, the extremity of the 
muzzle deeply emarginate between them. Tongue of moderate 
length. Upper lip with a vertical groove in front, bounded 
laterally by rounded naked ridges. Ears variable in size. Index 
finger with a distinct claw. Metacarpal bone of middle finger 



78 PTEBOPUS. 

shorter than the index finger. Wing-membrane from the sides 
of the back and the back of the first phalanx of the second toe. 
Tail none. Fur of the nape of the neck and shoulders differing 
conspicuously from that of the back. Molars well developed. 

Dentition.!. |, C. ^ P. f=| M. g == 34. 

Note, The Pteropine Bats form one of the greatest pests with 
which orchardists have to contend, the amount of injury done in 
a single night by a flock of these animals being almost incalculable, 
and, so far as I am aware, no feasible proposal has as yet been 
put forward either for their destruction or for the protection of 
the orchards from their ravages. They live in enormous com- 
munities, choosing for their resting places the most inaccessible 
parts of dense scrubs and gullies, from whence they sally forth in 
flocks towards sunset and return about the break of day, traversing 
frequently in the interval great distances in their search for food. 
As an instance of their powers of locomotion Dr. Ramsay ( ' Proc. 
Linn. Sac. N.S. Wales, ii. p. 8, 1877) mentions, speaking oiPteropus 
gouldi, that they habitually cross at dusk from the mainland to 
the islands in Torres' Straits returning in the early morning to 
the scrubs. He also states that during the month of August 
many of the females had young of considerable size attached to 
the teats. Of Pteropus conspicillatus Mr. John Macgillivray says 
that, on apparently the only occasion on which he met with them, 
prodigious numbers were flying about in the bright sunshine. All 
these Bats have a most disagreeable musky odor, and the stench in 
and about the neighborhood of their rookeries, arising from the 
accumulation of their freces and from the putrefying young, is 
said, in an old camp, to be almost unbearable. In these camps 
they may be seen by thousands on each tree, hanging head down- 
wards, quarreling for the best places, keeping up all the while an 
incessant chattering or bickering inter se; and so great are their 
numbers that frequently large branches are broken off by the 
mere weight of the clinging Bats. 

1. PTEROPUS POLIOCEPHALUS, Temminck (1827;. 
Gray-headed Flying-Fox. 

Size large. Ears much longer than the muzzle ; the upper 
third of the conch narrow and subacutely pointed ; the backs 
finely hairy. Interfemoral membrane very narrow in the middle 
and concealed by the fur. Fur everywhere long and dense, ex- 
tending on both sides of the legs above to the ankles, below to 
the ends of the tibije ; on the back directed backwards and slightly 
adpressed, quite three inches wide across the loins, and nearly 
two inches wide behind the elbow ; on the legs and rump woolly ; 
the membrane between the humerus and thigh hairy. Fur of the 
head gray with a yellowish tinge ; neck, shoulders, and anterior 



PTEROPUS. 79 

part of breast bright reddish-yellow ; breast from shoulder to 
shoulder blackish-gray ; back grayish-black, many of the hairs 
with shining extremities. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eight and a half inches ; 
forearm about six and a fifth inches. 

Habitat. Australia. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal.Chiropt.p. 31 ; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. iii. pi. xxviii. 

2. PTEROPUS BRUNNEUS, Dobson (1878). 
Dusky Flying-Fox. 

Size large. Ears scarcely longer than the muzzle, triangular 
above, obtusely pointed, naked, Interfemoral membrane very 
narrow in the centre and concealed by the fur. Fur rather short 
throughout, longer on the neck than on the back, where it is 
directed backwards and slightly adpressed, nearly two inches wide 
across the middle of the back. A few fine erect hairs on the 
membrane between the humerus and thigh. Fur of the head, 
back, breast, and abdomen yellowish-brown, with a few shining 
hairs, the neck above brighter. 

Dimensions. Head and body about eight inches ; forearm 
about four and a half inches. 

Habitat. Percy Island, North-east Australia. 

Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 37, pi. iii. fig. 4* 
(ear). 

3. PTEROPUS GOULDI, Peters (1867). 
Gould's Flying-Fox. 

Ears long, narrow, and pointed. Interfemoral membrane very 
narrow behind and concealed in the middle by the fur. Thighs 
clothed with fur both above and below. Wing-membranes quite 
three inches apart at the middle of the back ; beneath, as far as 
a line drawn from the elbow to the knee, clothed with long black 
fur. General color intensely black intermixed with a few grayish 
or yellowish hairs. Back of head and neck dark ferruginous-brown, 
the latter sometimes bright yellow in adult males. 

Dimensions. Head and body about nine inches; forearm about 
six and a half inches. 

Habitat. North-east Australia and the islands off the coast. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 60; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. iii. pi. xxx. 
Note. See p. 78. 

* Erroneously " 2 " in letterpress. 



80 PTEROPUS. 

4. PTEROPUS CONSPICILLATUS, Gould (1849). 
Spectacled Flying-Fox. 

Ears short, obtusely pointed, abruptly narrowed above. Inter- 
femoral membrane very narrow behind, and concealed in the 
middle by the fur. Fur short, scarcely extending on to the fore- 
arms or legs, slightly more than two inches wide across the loins. 
Face and crown of head black with a ring of pale brownish-yellow 
fur round each eye ; back of head, nape, and shoulders pale 
yellowish. Back and entire under surface black with a few shin- 
ing yellowish hairs. 

Dimensions. Head and body from ten to twelve inches ; fore- 
arm about seven inches. 

Habitat. North-east Australia and the islands off the coast; 
Yule Island, New Guinea. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt.p. 61; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. iii. pi. xxix. 

Note. See p. 78. 

5. PTEROPUS SCAPULATUS, Peters (1862). 
Collared Flying-Fox. 

Size large. Ears longer than the muzzle, narrow and subacutely 
pointed, naked. Muzzle long and rather narrow. Interfemoral 
membrane narrow behind, but its posterior margin beneath not 
concealed by the fur. Fur about an inch wide at the origin of 
the wings, about two inches on the middle of the back ; the wing 
membrane between the humerus and thigh covered with long 
woolly hair. General color of fur reddish- or yellowish-brown, 
with a much paler collar round the neck ; adult males with a light 
buff-colored tuft of hairs on each shoulder ; back, breast, and 
abdomen dark reddish-brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body about nine inches; forearm about 
five and a half inches. 

Habitat. North-east Australia. 

Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 41. 

Note. In the length of the muzzle, and the very narrow uni- 
cuspidate teeth, this species differs so much from all its congeners, 
and so closely resembles the long-tongued Macroglossi, as to make 
it probable that its food is similar to that of those forms. 

Genus ILURONYC PERIS, Gray (1862). 

Size medium. Muzzle short, obtuse, and very thick. Nostrils 
tubular, projecting abruptly for a considerable distance from the 
upper extremity of the muzzle. Tongue of moderate length. 



MACROGLOSSUS. 81 

Upper lip very deep, divided by a narrow groove, which is con- 
tinuous with the emargination between the bases of the nasal tubes. 
Ears oval, well developed. Index finger with a large claw. Wing 
membrane from the sides of the back and from the base of the 
second toe. Tail short, half concealed in the interfemoral mem- 
brane. Molars well developed. 

Dentition. I. \, C. ~, P. g, M. f=f = 24. 



Note. The generic name Harpyia bestowed on these Bats by 
Illiger in 1811 cannot be used, since it had been bestowed in the 
preceding year upon a genus of Lepidopterous Insects by Ochsen- 
heimer. 

1. URONYCTERIS CEPHALOTES, Pallas, sp. (1767). 
Pallas' Fruit Bat. 

Nostrils in the form of cylindrical tubes, projecting abruptly 
from the extremity of the muzzle high above the margin of the 
upper lip, with slightly dilated, notched apertures. Eyes large, 
placed high up on the sides of the head. Ears longer than the 
muzzle, their summit rounded. Fur above reddish-brown with an 
ashy tinge, below dull yellowish-white : a narrow, almost black, 
streak from between the shoulders to the base of the interfemoral 
membrane. 

Dimensions. Head and body about four and a half inches; tail 
about nine-tenths of an inch; forearm about three inches. 

Habitat. York Peninsula, North Australia. 
Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 88. 

Genus III. MACROGLOSSUS, F. Cuvier (1825). 

Size small. Muzzle very long, narrow, and cylindrical. Nos- 
trils not projecting. Upper lip not grooved in front. Tongue 
very long, attenuated. Ears simple, separated at their inner 
bases. Index finger with a distinct claw. Metacarpal bone of 
middle finger equal to or longer than index finger. Wing-mem- 
brane from the sides and base of the fourth toe. Tail very short. 

Dentition. I. -J, C.^J, P. *=?, M. gj = 34. 

1. MACROGLOSSUS AUSTRALIA Peters (1867). 
Little Fruit Bat. 

Ears scarcely more than half the length of the head, narrow 
and rounded at the tip. Face abruptly narrowed in front of the 
eyes. Upper lip deeply and distinctly grooved. Lower jaw 
slightly projecting beyond the upper. Tongue covered with 

F 



82 MICROCHIROPTERA. 

numerous long brush-like papillse. Interfemoral membrane very 
narrow. Tail generally quite concealed by the fur. Fur reddish- 
brown, unusually long for this family. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two and a third inches ; tail 
about a third of an inch ; forearm about one and two-fifths inch. 

Habitat. North and West Australia. From the Philippine 
Islands through the Malay Archipelago eastward to New Ireland 
and the Solomon Islands. 

Reference. Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1888, p. 476. 

Note. Though of so small a size, this Bat is said to be very 
destructive to fruit. 

Suborder II. Microchiroptera. 

Crowns of molar teeth acutely tubercular with transverse fur- 
rows. Bony palate narrowing abruptly, not continued behind 
last molar. Second finger not terminating in a claw. Sides of 
ear-conch separated at the base anteriorly. Stomach simple, or 
with the cardiac extremity more or less elongated. 

Habits. Carnivorous ; principally insectivorous ; rarely frugi- 
vorous or sanguinivorous. 

Family II. BHINOLOPHIME. 

Leaf-nosed Bats. 

Nasal apertures situated in a depression upon the upper surface 
of the muzzle, and surrounded with well developed foliaceous 
cutaneous appendages. Ears large, generally separated, without 
tragi. Index finger imperfect, without a phalanx. Tail distinct 
produced to the outer margin of the interfemoral membrane. Pre- 
maxillary bones rudimentary, suspended from the nasal cartilage. 
Upper incisors rudimentary, close together. 

Subfamily I. KHINOLOPHIN/E. 

First toe with two joints ; others with three each. Iliopectineal 
spine not connected by bone with the antero-inferior surface of 
the ilium. 

Genus I. RHINOLOPHUS, Geoffroy (1803). 

Nose-leaf very complicated, consisting of three distinct portions; 
the anterior horizontal, horseshoe-shaped, usually angularly 
emarginate in front, containing within its circumference the 
nasal orifices, and the central erect nasal processes ; the posterior 
erect, triangular, with cells on its anterior surface ; the central 



RHINONYCTERIS. 83 

process rises between and behind the nasal orifices, is flattened 
anteriorly, and posteriorly sends backwards a vertical laterally 
compressed process, which is either connected with the front sur- 
face of the posterior nose-leaf or free. Base of the outer side of 
the ear expanded, forming a large antitragus. 

Dentition 1. | C.-g, ? ^ M. gj = 32. 
Habits. Insectivorous. 

1. RHINOLOPHUS MEGAPHYLLUS, Gray (1834). 
Greater Horseshoe Bat. 

Ears subacutely pointed ; the tip not attenuated ; antitragus 
large. Horseshoe-shaped membrane broad, concealing the muzzle, 
and with a small but distinct notch in front. Sides of the terminal 
process of the posterior leaf concave. Lower lip with three grooves. 
Wings from the metatarsus. Interfemoral membrane square 
behind or slightly convex. Tail scarcely projecting. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two inches ; tail about 
one inch ; forearm about, but not quite two inches. 

Habitat. Queensland; Richmond and Clarence Rivers District. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 110; Gould, 
Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xxxiii. 

Subfamily II. HIPPOSIDERIN.E. 

Toes equal, of two phalanges each. Iliopectineal spine united 
by a bony isthmus to a process derived from the antero-inferior 
surface of the ilium. 

Note. Owing to the compulsory rejection of the generic title 
Phyllorrhina it has become necessary to substitute for it the 
above term. 

Genus II. RHINONYCTERIS, Gray (1847). 

Nose-leaf horseshoe-shaped in front, the horizontal membrane 
consisting of two laminae, the upper one deeply emarginate in 
front, the sides of the emargination bent upwards, supporting the 
anterior portion of a small flat horizontal longitudinal process, 
which ends behind and between the deeply sunken nasal orifices ; 
from the centre of the base of the horseshoe, behind the nostrils, 
a pointed process projects forwards, behind which is the opening 
of a deep central cell, bounded on each side by a longitudinal cell, 
beyond which and above the eye are two smaller cells ; behind 
the central cell is a longitudinal depression. Ears separate with- 
out antitragus. 



84 RHINONYCTERIS. 

Dentition. I. |, C. ^, P. |=?, M. f5 = 30. 
Habits. Insectivorous. 

1. RHINONYCTERIS AURANTIA, Gray, sp. (1845). 
Orange Horseshoe Bat. 

Head long ; muzzle thick, obtuse, and flattened laterally. Ears 
shorter than the head, with acutely pointed tips ; the inner margin 
of the conch regularly convex. Nose-leaf broad, overhanging the 
muzzle, the sides of the horseshoe with a slight notch succeeded 
by a small rounded projection in the centre of each side, and from 
the centre of the base a small pointed process projects forwards 
and upwards. Wings from the distal extremity of the tibia or 
from the ankles. Calcanea feeble. Extreme tip of tail projecting. 
Fur everywhere golden. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and six-sevenths inch ; 
tail rather more than an inch. 

Habitat. North and North-west Australia. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 126, pi. viii. fig. 
2 (front view of head); Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xxxv. 

Genus III. HIPPOSIDERUS, Gray (1831). 

Anterior nose-leaf like that of Rhinolophus, but not emarginate 
in front ; the posterior erect, with a convex, lobed, or incised free 
edge, concave in front, the concavity simple, or divided by narrow 
vertical ridges into shallow cells ; the middle portion forming the 
posterior boundary of the depression at the bottom of which the 
nasal orifices are placed, is usually broadly cordiforin with the 
base upwards, the sides thickened, the centre with or without a 
projecting point or narrow longitudinal ridge in front. No 
antitragus. 

Dentition. I. f , C. -}-=-}, P. |=| M. f=f = 30. 
Habits. Insectivorous. 

Note. The generic title Phyllorrhina used by Bonaparte in 
1831 for these Bats is inadraissable, no description having been 
given (see Blanford, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1887, p. 635). 

1. HIPPOSIDERUS CERVINUS, Gould, sp. (1853). 
Fawn- colored Horseshoe Bat. 

Ears much shorter than the head ; lower third of the outer 
margin of conch with a small, acutely pointed projection. Horse- 
shoe much narrowed in front of the nasal apertures with two 
external secondary leaflets. Frontal glandular sac large. Thumbs 



MEGADERMA. 85 

and feet small. Wing-membrane extending to the tarsus. Inter- 
femoral membrane of moderate size, triangular. Extreme tip of 
tail free. Fur reddish-brown, darkest above. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two inches ; tail about 
one inch ; forearm about one and three-fourths inch. 

Habitat. York Peninsula ; Aru Islands ; Waigiou ; New 
Guinea ; Duke of York Islands. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 142, pi. ix. fig. 7 
(front view oj head); G-ould, Marnrn. Austr. iii. pi. xxxiv. 

2. HIPPOSIDEBUS BICOLOK, Temminck, sjj. (1835 1841). 

var. a. H. aruensis, Gray (1858). 

Brown Horseshoe Bat. 

Ears moderate, about equal in length to the head, oval ; the 
upper third of the outer margin straight. Horseshoe small and 
square, scarcely as wide as the transverse terminal leaf, the concave 
front surface of which is divided into four cells by three distinct 
vertical ridges ; no secondary leaflets ; frontal glandular sac well 
developed in males, rudimentary in. females. Wing-membrane 
extending to the ankle or tarsus. Interfemoral membrane slightly 
angular behind. Extreme tip of tail free. Fur above very dark 
brown, almost black ; below grayish-brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and three fourths inch; 
^ail rather less than an inch; forearm about one and a half inch. 

Habitat. Albany Island, Cape York ; Aru Islands. 
Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 150. 

Family III. NYCTEKID^. 

Nasal apertures situated upon the upper surface of the muzzle, 
and margined by distinct cutaneous appendages. Ears large, 
united, with well developed tragi. Index finger with or without 
a short phalanx. Premaxillary bones cartilaginous or small. 
Upper incisors absent or very small ; when present close together. 

Subfamily I. MEG ADEEMING. 

Nostrils at the bottom of a concavity near the extremity of the 
muzzle, concealed by the base of a large cutaneous process ; tail 
very short, in the base of the large interfemoral membrane ; pre- 
maxillaries cartilaginous. 

Genus I. MEGADERMA, Geoffrey (1810). 

Muzzle cylindrical, elongated. Nostrils in a slight depression 
near the extremity of the muzzle, surrounded by a naked cutane- 



86 MEGADERMA. 

ous expansion, which forms a vertical process posteriorly. Lower 
lip projecting slightly beyond the upper. Ears large, partially 
connected ; tragus long, bifid. Index finger with a short bony 
phalanx. Toes subequal ; the outer with two, the others with 
three phalanges. Calcaneum distinct. Tail very short, only 
discernible in skeletons. Interfernoral membrane large, concave 
behind. 

Dentition. I. j, C.'^j P- ^(Australian and Oriental Regions) 
or J-=| (Ethiopian Region), M. |j= 28 or 26. 

Habits. Carnivorous and insectivorous. Some, probably all, 
of the members of this genus are sanguinivorous and carnivorous, 
feeding not only on insects but also on smaller kinds of Bats and 
other small Mammals, and even Frogs and Fishes, while it may 
be presumed that small Birds and Reptiles would prove equally 
acceptable. This habit has been specially noticed by several 
observers in the Indian M. lyra. 

1. MEGADERMA GIGAS, Dobson (1880). 
Great Blood- sucking Bat. 

Lower jaw projecting beyond the upper. Ears considerably 
longer than the head, conjoined for nearly half the length of the 
inner margin, oval and rounded off above. Tragus large, bifid, 
the posterior lobe long, narrow, and acutely pointed, the anterior 
lobe scarcely half the length of the posterior, broad at the base, 
convex in front, and obtusely rounded above. Nose-leaf with 
convex sides, the anterior concave disc large, the external margin 
thickened and adherent to the muzzle beneath ; base of the longi- 
tudinal process cordate. Extremity of the second finger extending 
beyond the middle of the first phalanx of the third finger. Wing- 
membrane from the back of the foot. Tail rudimentary. Inter- 
femoral membrane large. A well marked postorbital process not 
perforated by a foramen. Terminal third of the fur above pale 
grayish-brown, beneath almost white, as also are the ears, nose- 
leaf, and membranes. 

Dimensions. Head and body about five and a third inches ; 
forearm about four and a fifth inches. 

Habitat. Wilson's River, Central Queensland. 

Reference. Dobson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1880, p. 461, pi. xlvi. 

figs, a (animal), b (upper vieiv of skull). 

Family IV. VESPERTILIONID^E. 

Nasal apertures simple, crescentic or circular 1 , situated at th e 
extremity of the muzzle, without cutaneous appendages. Ear 8 
large or medium, generally separate, with rather large tragi. 



NYCTOPHILUS. 87 

long, produced to the hinder margin of the large interfenioral 
membrane. Upper incisors distant from one another. 

Genus I. NYCTOPHILUS, Leach (1822). 

Muzzle narrow, thinly covered with short hairs ; glandular 
prominences well developed. Crown of the head slightly elevated 
above the face line. Nostrils with their upper margins continu- 
ous with the base of a small cordate nose-leaf. Ears large, oval, 
and connected ; tragus short and triangular. Eyes large. Wings 
from the bases of the toes. Tail slightly projecting beyond the 
interfemoral membrane. Upper incisors unicuspidate, close to 
the canines. 

Dentition. 1. 1 C. J=-J, P. ^, M. g -30. 
Habits. Insectivorous. 

Note. This genus takes the place in the Australian Region of 
the Palse- and Ne-arctic Plecotus. 

1. NYCTOPHILUS TIMORIENSIS, Geoffroy, sp. (1806). 
Australian Long-eared Bat. 

Ears longer than the head, connected on the forehead by a well 
developed band ; the tip rounded ; upper third of outer margin of 
conch straight. Tragus short, triangular, and subacute. Glandular 
elevation behind the short nose-leaf longitudinally grooved in the 
middle. Broad extremity of nose-leaf upwards and free. Extreme 
tip of tail free. Fur above varying from dark to light brown ; 
below from pale brown to white. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two inches ; tail and fore- 
arm about one and four-fifths inch each. 

Habitat. All Australia, Tasmania, and the neighboring 
Islands ; from Timor to the Fiji Islands. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 172, pi. xi. fig. 
7 (front view of head) ; Gould, Mamin. Austr. iii. pis. xxxvi., (N. 
geoffroyi); xxxvii. (N. gouldi); xxxviii. (N. unicolor); xxxix. (IF. 
timoriensis). 

Note. Owing to the great variation in size, coloration, and the 
development of the glandular prominences Tomes divided N. 
timoriensis into four distinct forms under the specific names 
geoffroyi, timoriensis, gouldi, and unicolor; these however can at 
the most be only regarded as races of Geoffrey's original species. 

2. NYCTOPHILUS WALKERI, Thomas (1892). 

Walker's Bat. 

Ears when laid forwards not quite reaching to the nose-leaf, 
connected by a band across the forehead ; the small lobe on the 



00 VESPERUGO. 

inner surface of the base of the outer margin short and well 
defined. Fur shorter and paler in color than in the preceding 
species, especially on the under surface, where the hairs are tipped 
with dirty white. 

Dimensions. Head and body of type specimen ( $ ) rather less 
than two inches; tail one and a half inch ; forearm one and one- 
third inch. 

Habitat. Northern Territory (Adelaide River). 
Reference. Thomas, Ann. Nat. Hist. (6) ix. p. 405. 

Note. The almost entire absence of a transfrontal band, along 
with the larger size, longer and broader ears with a more convex 
inner margin, separate the N. microtis, Thms. (Ann. Nat. Hist. 
(6) ii. p. 226) of South-eastern New Guinea from this species. 

Genus II. VESPERUGO, Keyserling & Blasius (1839). 

Form comparatively stout. Muzzle very broad and obtuse ; 
glandular prominences well developed. Crown of head flat or 
very little elevated above the face line. Nostrils sublateral, simple, 
crescentic. Ears short, broad, and triangular, obtusely pointed, 
separate ; tragus generally short and obtuse. Calcaneum with a 
small postcalcaneal lobe on its posterior margin. Feet short and 
broad. Upper incisors in pairs separated by a wide interval. 

Dentition.-!. |, C. g, P. g or g, M. |=| = 34 or 32. 
Habits. Insectivorous. 

1. VESPERUGO PUMILUS, Gray, sp. (1841). 
Little Bat. 

Muzzle not very obtuse, A shallow furrow between the muzzle 
and the glandular prominences. Ear-conches short and funnel- 
shaped ; middle third of outer margin and lower two-thirds of 
inner margin very convex ; the tips short and rather abruptly 
rounded off. Tragus well developed and rather broad. Wings 
extending to the bases of the toes. Postcalcaneal lobe long and 
convex behind. Tip of tail free. Fur above and below black, 
the extreme tips above ashy or grayish, the terminal fifth below 
white or pale ash-color. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and a half inch ; tail 
about one and a third inch ; forearm about one and a fourth inch. 

Habitat. All Australia and Tasmania. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 201, pi. xii. fig. 2 
(ear); Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xlvi. 



CHALINOLOBUS. 89 

2. VBSPERUGO ABRAMUS, Temminck, sp. (1835 - 1841). 
Yellow-headed Bat. 

Muzzle obtuse. Glandular prominences on the sides large and 
rounded, causing a furrow between them and the crown of the 
head. Ear-conches broadly triangular, rounded at the tips ; the 
outer margin almost straight. Tragus moderate. Wing-membrane 
attached to the bases of the toes. Postcalcaneal lobe distinct and 
rounded. Tip of tail free. Head and face between the eyes 
densely covered with moderately long fur ; space in front of the 
ears, about the eyes, and extremity of muzzle generally almost 
naked. Fur above dark brown, tipped with light yellowish-brown; 
head and neck wholly yellowish-brown ; below sooty-brown, the 
tips lighter than those of the upper surface. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and four-fifths inch ; 
tail about one and a half inch : forearm about one and a third inch. 

Habitat. North Australia ; the Oriental Region from Ceylon 
to Southern Japan, and the Malay Archipelago ; and in summer 
entending westwards to Middle Europe. 

Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 226. 

3. VESPERUGO KREFFTI, Peters (1869). 
Krefft's Bat. 

Ear-conches shorter than the head, triangular, the tips rounded 
and, owing to a deep and abrupt emargination on the upper third 
of tlae outer margin, distinct, Tragus acutely pointed and curved 
inwards, with a distinct, acutely triangular lobe at the bases of the 
outer margin. Wing-membrane attached to the bases of the toes 
or to the metatarsus. Postcalcaneal lobe very shallow. Cartila- 
ginous extremity of tail only free. Face in front of the ears 
nearly naked, the glandular prominences with a few long hairs. 
Fur above dark reddish-brown ; below paler. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two and two-fifths inches; 
tail about two inches ; forearm rather shorter than the tail. 

Habitat. New South Wales ; Tasmania. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 232; Gould, 
Marnni. Austr. iii. pi. xlviii. 

Genus III. CHALINOLOBUS, Peters (1866). 

Muzzle broad, generally very short and obtuse : glandular 
prominences well developed. Crown of head slightly raised above 
face-line. Nostrils sublateral, forming a prominent flattened 
central ridge on the upper surface of the muzzle, separated from 
the glandular prominences by a distinct groove. Ears short, 
broad, rhomboidal or ovoid; the tragus expanded above and 



90 CHALINOLOBUS. 

curved inwards. Lower lip with a distinct fleshy lobule on either 
side near the angle of the mouth, projecting horizontally outwards. 
Wings from the bases of the toes. Upper incisors unequal and 
unicuspid ; the outer ones short, the inner long. 

Dentition. I. |, C. ~^, P. ^| (Australian) or ^ (African), 
M. = 34 or 32. 



Habits. Insectivorous, 

1. CHALINOLOBUS MORIO, Gray, sp. (1841). 
Chocolate or Small-toothed Bat. 

Ears small, rounded off above. Tragus narrow at the base, 
expanded in the middle. Nostrils opening slightly downwards, 
the margins of the apertures sharply cut and projecting above, 
separated by a rather wide concave space having a small median 
ridge. Postcalcaneal lobe well developed, supported internally by 
a cartilaginous prop, the curved extremity of which forms its 
posterior margin. Tail wholly contained within the interfemoral 
membrane. Fur above dark brown, almost black, on the head 
and anterior half of the body, passing into dark chestnut-brown 
posteriorly ; below similar but slightly paler. Body fur rather 
long and thick. Base of interfemoral membrane between the 
thighs only furry. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and four-fifths inch; 
tail about one and seven-tenths inch ; forearm about one and a 
half inch. 

Habitat. From southern Queensland through New South 
Wales and Victoria to South Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 248, pi. xiv. figs. 

1 (ear), la (muzzle); Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xli. (S.morio), 
xlii. (S. microdonj; Thomas, Ann. Nat. Hist. (6) iv. p. 462. 

2. CHALINOLOBUS SIGNIFER, Dobson (1876). 

Dobson's Bat. 

Ears and nostrils as in C. tuberculatus. An erect transverse 
process on the face between and slightly in front of the eyes ; its 
free upper margin regularly convex. All other characters similar 
to those of the preceding species. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two inches ; tail about 
one and three-fourths inch; forearm about one and two-fifths inch. 

Habitat. South Central Queensland. 

Reference. Dobson, B. M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 250, pi. xiv. figs. 

2 (front view of head), 2a (muzzle). 

Note. Probably not distinct from the preceding species. 



SCOTOPHILUS. 91 

3. CHALINOLOBUS GOULDI, Gray, sp. (1841). 
Gould's Bat. 

Ears rather angular on the upper half, the tips rounded. Tragus 
broad above, the tip subtruncate. Nostrils prominent above, 
separated on each side by a small sulcus from the well developed 
glandular prominences. Lower lip with a distinct fleshy lobe. 
Postcalcaneal lobe well developed and rounded. Extreme tip of 
the tail projecting. Fur above on the head, neck, and shoulders 
black with a very faint reddish tinge ; the back yellowish-brown; 
below, the breast reddish or ashy, the abdomen, sides, wing- and 
interfemoral membranes pale yellowish-white. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two and a half inches ; tail 
about two and a quarter inches; forearm about one and four-fifths 
inch. 

Habitat. Eastern and South-eastern Australia, and Tasmania. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 250, pi. xiv. figs. 
4 (side vieiv of head), 4a (interfemoral membrane J, 4b (upper 
incisors); Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xl. 

4. CHALINOLOBUS NIGEOGRISEUS, Gould, sp. (1863). 

Pied or Blackish-gray Bat. 

Ears very rhomboidal ; the tip rounded. Tragus expanded 
outwards above. Nostrils prominent on the upper surface of the 
muzzle, projecting slightly by their inner margins in front, and 
closer together than those of any other species of the genus. Post- 
calcaneal lobe well developed and rounded. Last rudimentary 
joint of the tail free. Fur above deep black with gray or pale 
brown tips to the hairs ; below similar but with ashy tips. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and three-fourths inch; 
tail and forearm each one and one-third inch. 

Habitat. Northern and Eastern Australia. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 251, pi. xiv. figs. 3 
(ear], 3a (muzzle); Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pis. xliii. (Scotophilus 
picatus), xliv. fS. nigrogriseus}. 

Genus IV. SCOTOPHILUS, Leach (1822). 

Form stout. Muzzle short, obtusely conical, naked; glandular 
prominences variable. Crown of the head but little elevated 
above the face line. Nostrils close together, simple, lunate, open- 
ing to the front or sublaterally, their inner margins projecting. 
Ears short, longer than broad, with rounded tips. Tragus taper- 
ing, subacutely pointed, and curved inwards. Terminal rudi- 
mentary vertebra of tail protruding beyond the interfemoral 
membrane. Calcaneum weak. Wings attached to, or close to 



92 SCOTOPHILUS. 

bases of toes. Upper incisors long, unicuspidate, acute, basally 
close to'the'canines. 

Dentition. I. | C. J-=, P. J=J M. f=J = 30. 
Habits. Insectivorous. 

1. SCOTOPHILUS RUEPPELLI, Peters, sp. (1866). 

Ruppell's Bat. 

Ears short, the tips obtusely rounded. Tragus rather narrow, 
subacutely pointed, the basal half of the outer margin with two 
distinct emarginations, the upper half slightly convex and sloping 
inwards ; no transverse ridge on its outer surface. Fur short, on 
the upper surface almost wholly confined to the body; dark brown 
above and below, the extreme tips above and the terminal fourth 
below ashy ; sometimes with a chesnut tinge throughout. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two and three-fourths 
inches ; tail not quite two inches ; forearm two inches. 

Habitat. New South Wales. 

Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 263, pi. xv. fig. 2 
(side view of head). 

2. SCOTOPHILUS GREYI, (Gray) Dobson (1875). 

Grey's Bat. 

Ears short, triangular, the tips rounded. Tragus broad, obtuse, 
the basal half of the outer margin straight, the terminal half 
convex and sloping inwards ; no transverse ridge on its outer 
surface. Postcalcaneal lobe small, but distinct, rounded. Fur 
short, the face in front of the eyes nearly naked ; chestnut-brown 
above and below, the extreme tips of the latter ashy. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and three-fourths inch; 
tail and forearm about one and one-fifth inch. 

Habitat. Port Essington ; Liverpool Ranges, 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 263, pi. xv. fig. 4 
(ear); Gould, Marnm. Austr. iii. pi. xlv. 

Genus V. VESPERTILIO, Keyserling & Blasius (1839). 

Muzzle long, thickly hairy; glandular prominences small. Crown 
of head vaulted, slightly elevated above face-line. Nostrils sub- 
lateral, simple, crescentic. Ears oval, longer than broad, separate; 
tragus long, generally acute and attenuated upwards. Postcal- 
caneal lobe absent or very small. Upper incisors nearly equal, 
in pairs close to the canines. 

Dentition. 1. 1, C. |=J, P. *=i, M. |=i = ; 
Habits. Insectivorous. 



KBRIVOULA. 93 

1. VESPERTILIO ADVERSUS, Horsfield (1824). 
Great-footed Bat. 

Extremity of ear broadly triangular, with the angle rounded 
off; upper half of outer margin straight. Tragus well developed, 
the extremity straight. Wings from the ankles and the sides of 
the body. Interfemoral membrane forming a very acute angle 
behind. Feet very large. Tail projecting beyond the membrane 
to some extent. Calcaneum very long, extending at least three- 
fourths of the distance between the ankle and the tail. Fur of 
moderate length. Second upper premolar extremely small, placed 
quite inside, in the angle between the first and third premolars, 
not visible from without. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two inches ; tail about 
one and three-quarters inch ; forearm about one and a half inch ; 
foot about half an inch. 

Habitat. From Siam through Java, Borneo and the Celebes to 
the northern half of Australia. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 292, pi. xviii. fig. 
4 (ear enlarged); Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xlvii. 

2. VESPERTILIO AUSTRALIS, Dobson (1878). 
Small-footed Bat. 

Extremity of ear broad and very obtusely rounded ; upper third 
of outer margin deeply concave. Tragus well developed, the 
narrow extremity rounded and slightly curved outwards. Wings 
from the bases of the toes. Interfemoral membrane forming an 
obtuse angle behind. Feet of moderate size. Only the extreme 
tip of the tail projecting. Calcaneum extending about half-way 
between the ankle and the tail. Fur short. Second upper pre- 
molar small, but in the normal position and so visible from without. 
Brown, the extreme tips above and the terminal third below lighter. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and four-fifths inch ; 
tail and forearm about one and one half inch ; foot about one-third 
of an inch. 

Habitat. New South Wales. 

Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 317. 

Genus VI. KERIVOULA, Gray, (1842). 

Muzzle narrow and elongated ; glandular prominences very 
small and indistinct. Crown of the head considerably vaulted. 
Nostrils simple, circular, sublateral. Ears funnel-shaped, dia- 
phanous, studded with glandular papillae ; tragus long, narrow, 
and acutely pointed. Wings from the bases of the toes. Calcaneum 



94 KERIVOULA. 

long and strong, curved backwards, without postcalcaneal lobe. 
Outer incisor shorter than the inner one, sometimes minute. 



Dentition. I. | C.-g, P. g, M. f=f = 38. 



Habits. Insectivorous ; forest-haunting. 

1. KERIVOULA PAPUENSIS, Dobson (1878). 
Eastern Forest Bat. 

Ears extending nearly to the end of the muzzle when laid for- 
wards, the tips rounded, the outer margin with a deep concavity 
occupying its upper fourth. Tragus with a distinct rounded lobe 
at the base of its outer margin, succeeded by a deep notch. Fur 
above dark brown, with the terminal fourth shining yellow ; below 
paler brown, with the extreme tips shining gray ; forearm clothed 
with short adpressed golden hairs. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and four-fifths inch ; 
tail about the same length ; forearm about one and a half inch. 

Habitat. North-eastern Australia ; South-eastern New Guinea. 
Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 339. 

Genus VII. MINIOPTERUS, Bonaparte (1837). 

Muzzle rather short and broad ; glandular prominences well 
developed. Crown of the head abruptly and considerably elevated 
above the face-line. Nostrils simple, lunate, sublateral. Ears 
rhomboidal, separate ; tragus short and obtuse. First phalanx 
of middle finger very short. Wings to the ankles or the tibiae, 
attached to the inferior surface. Feet long and slender ; toes 
subequal. Upper incisors short, weak, separated from the canines. 



Dentition. -I. |, C.-j=J, P. g, M. ^ = 36. 
Habits. Insectivorous. 

1. MINIOPTERUS SCHREIBERSI, Natterer (1819). 
Schreibers' Bat. 

A deep horizontal groove beneath the eye. Ears much shorter 
than the head, very much rounded above, the outer margin straight 
above. Tragus rather more than twice as long as broad, rounded 
above. Wings to the ankles or to the extremity of the tibiae. 
Feet long and slender. Tail wholly contained within the inter- 
femoral membrane, which is nearly naked above. Fur above and 
below grayish, sometimes reddish, the basal half of the hairs dark 
grayish-brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two and one-fifth inches ; 
tail about the same ; forearm about one and three-fourths inch. 



TAPHOZOUS. 95 

Habitat. Australia and the Islands of Torres Straits ; from 
New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago westward through the 
whole of southern Asia and Europe; Africa from the Mediterranean 
to the Cape of Good Hope. 

Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 348. 

2. MINIOPTERUS AUSTRALIS, Tomes (1858). 

Differs chiefly from M. schreibersi in its smaller size and the 
distribution of the fur. Interfemoral membrane clothed as far 
back as a line drawn from one ankle to the other ; tibiee covered 
with fine hairs. Fur dark reddish-brown throughout above; below 
darker brown basally, the extremities grayish. 

Dimensions. Head and body about one and three-fourths inch; 
tail about the same ; forearm about one and three-fifths inch. 

Habitat. Australia ; Loyalty Islands. 
Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 351. 

Family V. EMBALLONURIDJE. 

Nasal apertures simple or valvular, situated at the extremity 
of the muzzle, without distinct cutaneous appendages. Ears large, 
often united, with short tragi. Tail partially free, either perfor- 
ating the interfemoral membrane and appearing upon its upper 
surface, or produced far beyond its posterior margin. Upper 
incisors separated in front. 

Subfamily I. EMBALLONURIN.E. 

Tail slender, perforating the interfemoral membrane and appear- 
ing upon its upper surface, or terminating in it. Legs Inog ; 
fibulee very slender. Upper incisors weak. 

Genus I. TAPHOZOUS, Geoffroy (1812). 

Muzzle very conical, broad behind, very narrow in front, ter- 
minated by the slightly projecting inner margin of the valvular 
nostrils. Ears separate ; tragus short, narrow in the middle, 
expanded above. Lower lip as long or slightly longer than the 
upper. Generally a glandular sac, opening anteriorly, between 
the angles of the lower jaw, more or only developed in the males. 
Tail perforating the interfemoral membrane, and appearing on its 
upper surface, capable of being partially withdrawn. Upper 
incisors often absent in adults. 

Dentition. 1. f, C. =J, P. g, M. J=f = 30. 
Habits. Insectivorous. 



96 TAPHOZOUS. 

1. TAPHOZOUS AUSTRALIS, Gould (1853). 
Sharp-nosed Bat. 

Lower lip scarcely grooved. Gular sac distinct but rather 
small in the males, absent in the females. Ears large, as long as 
or longer than the head. Radio-metacarpal pouch well developed. 
Wings from the ankles or tarsus. Tail slender. Interfemoral 
membrane clothed with fur as far as the point perforated by it. 
Fur rather long and dense, basally pure white above and below, 
the remaining three-fourths above dark brown, below paler. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three inches ; tail about 
one and a third inch ; forearm about two and three-fourths inches. 

Habitat. Australia and New Guinea. 

References. Dobson, B. M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 382 ; Gould, 
Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xxxii. 

2. TAPHOZOUS FLAVIVENTRIS, (Gould) Peters (1866). 
Yellow-bellied Bat. 

Differs only from T. australis, in its color and superior size. 
Fur above uniform dark brown, below pale ochraceous yellow, 
whitish basally. 

Habitat.^New South Wales. 

Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 382. 

Note. Dr. Ramsay's T. hargravii, of which the type is in the 
Australian Museum, Sydney, is founded on a dried skin in very 
bad condition, and is possibly identical with this species ; in any 
case until good specimens in the flesh are obtained and an extended 
examination and comparison thus rendered possible, it is premature 
to give it a place in our fauna. The specimen was obtained in 
the Wollongong District, N. S. Wales. It is but right to state 
that Dr. Ramsay still considers the species to be good ; for the 
reason given above 1 can venture on no opinion. 

3. TAPHOZOUS AFFINIS, Dobson (1875). 

Var. a. T. insignis, Leche (1884). 

Leche's Bat. 

Lower lip deeply grooved. Gular sac large in the males, 
rudimentary in the the females ; behind its aperture a small 
duplication of the integument provided with thickened edges. 
Ears shorter than the head. Upper margin of tragus jagged. 
Radio-metacarpal pouch absent. Wings from the ankles. Inter- 
femoral membrane naked. Fur above black with white bases, 
below pure silky white. Antebrachial and interfemoral membranes 
and the portion of the wing-membrane between the forearm and 



NYCTONOMUS. 97 

the third finger white, between the first and third fingers black 
mottled with white along the latter. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three inches; tail about 
one inch ; forearm nearly three inches. 

Habitat. South Australia. 

Reference. Leche, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1884, p. 51, fig. 4 A. (side 
view of head showing lobature of left tragus); B. (right tragus)', C. 
(under view of head shoiving subsidiary sac). 

Note. In enumerating the points of difference between the 
typical T. affinis of Dobson and his variety insignis, Prof. W. 
Leche lays stress on the color of the wing-membrane between the 
forearm and the third finger, but his description is word for word 
that of Dr. Dobson, so that, unless some clerical error has been 
committed, this difference (?) must be excised. In regard to the 
tragus it is noticeable that the form of the lobature in the, pre- 
sumably typical, example figured is totally different on either 
side, as indeed is noticed by its describer, leading us to surmise 
that this may be the result of accident, or else an individual 
peculiarity ; if this should prove to be the case there is nothing 
by which to separate this form from the typical species, except a 
rudimentary subsidiary gular sac in the male, hardly a sufficient 
difference on which to form even a variety. Prof. Leche can in 
any case be congratulated on having added a very distinct species 
of Taphozous to the Australian Fauna. 

Subfamily II. MOLOSSINZE. 

Tail thick, produced far beyond the posterior margin of the 
interfemoral membrane, which is movable upon it. Legs short 
and strong with well developed fibuhe. Feet large ; the first toe 
and often the fifth, much larger than the others. Upper incisors 
strong. 

Genus II. NYCTONOMUS, Geoffrey (1812). 

Extremity of muzzle broad, very obliquely truncated, projecting 
considerably beyond the lower lip, and terminated by the sharply 
cut margin of the nostrils. Ears united on the muzzle, or close 
together by the bases of their inner margins ; tragus short, never 
linear. Upper lip expansible, generally deeply grooved by vertical 
wrinkles. First and fifth toes much thicker than the others; backs 
of all the toes with long curved hairs. Upper incisors close to 
the canines at their bases, separate in front, their cusps converg- 
ing inwards and forwards. 

Dentition. I. \ or |, C. g, P. Q, M. J=? = 30 or 32. 
Habits. Insectivorous. 
G 



98 NTCTONOMUS. 

1. NYCTONOMUS PLICATUS, Buchanan-Hamilton, sp. (1800). 

Plicated Bat. 

Ears united by a low band in front, evenly and broadly rounded 
off above. Tragus very small and quadrate, the upper margin 
slightly concave. Upper lip very thick, deeply grooved by vertical 
wrinkles. No gular sac. Wing-membrane from the lower end 
of the tibia. Fur very soft and dense ; above bluish- or smoky- 
black, below paler. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two and three-fourths 
inches ; tail about one and three-fourths inch ; forearm nearly 
two inches. 

Habitat. South Australia; Tasmania; Malay Peninsula; Java; 
Sumatra; Borneo; Philippine Islands; India. 

References.- Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt p. 425 ; Leche, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1884, p. 51. 

2. NYCTONOMUS AUSTRALIS, Gray, sp. (1838). 
"White -striped Bat. 

Ears large, their inner margins not united, but rising close 
together from distinct points of origin. Integument of the ear- 
conch rather thin. Tragus short and broad, the outer margin 
distinctly concave mesially. Upper lip with short vertical wrinkles. 
A large gular sac with outwardly projecting hairs in the male, 
and but little developed in the female. Wing-membrane from 
the distal third of the tibia. Fur moderately long and dense ; 
above dark reddish-brown, below paler ; in the male the fur cover- 
ing the wing-membrane beneath the humerus and femur, from the 
sides of the body outwards is pure white ; in the female white 
largely mixed with brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body about three inches ; tail about 
one and three-fourths inch ; forearm about two and a third inches. 

Habitat. Australia ; New Guinea. 

References. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 433, pi. xxii. fig. 
9 (head); Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xxxi. 

3. NYCTONOMUS ALBIDUS, Leche, (1884). 
Leche's White-striped Bat. 

Differs from JV. australis in the following particulars : Ears 
much longer than the head, and united by a low band. Integu- 
ment of ear-conch thick and opaque. The gular sac and the white 
band of fur along the inner margin of the wing beneath fully 
developed in the female. 

G a 



RODENTIA. 99 

Dimensions. Head and body about three and a half inches ; 
tail about two inches ; forearm about two and two-fifths inches. 

Habitat. South Australia. 

Reference. Leche, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1884, p. 50, fig. 3. A. (front 
and lower view of head) ; B. {side view of 'upper jaw); c< (side view 
of lower jaw) . 

4. NYCTONOMUS NORFOLCENSIS, Gray, sp. (1839). 
Norfolk Island Bat. 

Ears triangular, shorter than the head, separate, the outer 
margin of the conch straight, the tip broadly rounded. Tragus 
triangular, rounded above. Muzzle flat and obtuse. Upper lip 
with shallow vertical wrinkles. Nostrils opening sublaterally. 
Gular sac small in the male, rudimentary in the female . Wing- 
membrane from the ankle. Fur reddish-brown above, paler 
beneath. Lower incisors six. 

Dimensions. Head and body rather more than two inches ; 
tail about one and a fourth inch ; forearm about one and a half inch. 

Habitat. Eastern Australia ; Norfolk Island. 
Reference. Dobson, B.M. Catal. Chiropt. p. 439 ; 

5. NYCTONOMUS PETEPSI, Leche (1884). 
Peters' Bat. 

Differs from N. norfolcensis in the following particulars only. 
Nostrils opening forwards. Gular sac absent in both sexes. 
Wing-membrane arising from the tibia a short distance behind 
the ankle. 

Dimensions. Head and body about two and two-fifths inches; 
tail and forearm about one and a third inch. 

Habitat. South Australia. 

Reference. Leche, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1884, p. 49, fig. 1. A. (side 
vieio of upper jaw); B. (front view of lower jaw}. 

Order IV. -RODENTIA. 

Terrestrial, rarely arboreal or natatorial, diphyodont, placental 
mammals of small size ; with plantigrade or semiplantigrade, 
generally pentadactyle, unguiculate, rarely subungulate feet ; 
with clavicles (sometimes imperfect or rudimentary) with never 
more than two incisors in the mandible, and without canines ; 
premolars and molars rooted or rootless ; with tuberculated or 
laminated crowns, and arranged in an unbroken series. 



100 MURID.E. 

To the RODENTIA belong the greater number of living Mammals, 
and their distribution is practically cosmopolitan, but, as with 
the remaining Orders of EUTHERIA, they are not well represented 
in Australia, only one of the eighteen recognised Families being 
indigenous. The absence of canines and the large chisel-shaped 
incisors distinguish them from all other Mammals. 

The dental formula is, as a rule, very constant, and may be 
cited typically as I. , C. , PM. i or -, M. f . 

There are usually five digits in the hand, the pollex, however, 
being sometimes rudimentary or even absent. 

Family I. MURIDJE. 

Rodents of various habit, but generally terrestrial ; with con- 
tracted frontals ; with the lower root of the maxillary zygomatic 
process more or less flattened into a perpendicular plate. Malar 
short and slender, generally reduced to a splint between the 
maxillary and squamosal processes. Typically with a high per- 
pendicular infraorbital foramen, wide above and narrow below. 
Lower incisors compressed ; molars rooted or rootless, tuberculate 
or with angular enamel folds; premolars none, except in Sminthns; 
pollex rudimentary ; tail -generaly subnaked and scaly. 

The Rats constitute more than a third of the known Rodents, 
and are represented by thirty-five genera with a cosmopolitan 
distribution. The presence or absence of roots to the molars 
divide these into two distinct sections. 

Subfamily I. HYDROMYINJE. 

Molars t>, divided into transverse lobes ; infraorbital opening 
variable ; incisive foramina very small. 

Genus I. HYDROMYS, Geoffroy (1805). 

Molars two only in each ramus, divided into transverse lobes. 
Infraorbital opening crescentic, scarcely narrowed above, its 
external wall without an anteriorly projecting plate. Incisive 
foramina very small. Toes partially webbed. 

Distribution. Australia ; Tasmania ; New Guinea. 
Dentition. I. \, M.| == 12. 

Habits. -Strictly aquatic, frequenting banks of rivers, creeks, 
water-holes, and inlets of the sea. In their habits they are rather 
shy, and strictly nocturnal or crepuscular. 

Note. This and the succeeding genus differ from all other 
Rodents in the paucity of their molar teeth. Their food consists 
of niollusks, crustaceans, and other aquatic animals, along with 
vegetable products. 



HYDROMYS. 



101 



1. HYDROMYS CHRYSOGASTER, Geoffroy (1805). 

Eastern Water Eat. 

Fig. 4. 





FiL 



Fig. 6. 




Fig. 4. Under surface of skull to show palate and dentition (natural 
size), a, Upper molars, enlarged, b, Side view of same, enlarged. 

Fig. 5. Side view of skull and ramus (natural size). 
Fig. 6. Lower jaw. 

Head, ears, back, outer surface of hind limbs, the body behind 
them, and the root of the tail grizzled black and buff", the former 
color predominating ; sides of face and body, the entire under 
surface, and the inner side of the limbs rich deep reddish-orange 
or buffy-white ; outer surface of arms deep brown ; upper surface 
of hind feet pale glaucous-buff, passing into brown on the tips of 
the toes ; basal half of tail black, apical half white. 

Habitat. Eastern Australia and Tasmania, ranging at least 
as far northwards as the Herbert River District. 

References. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pis. xxiv. (H. chtyso- 
gaster) and xxvi. (H. leucog aster); Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, 
p. 247, pi. xxix. fig. 7 (anterior zygoma-root]. 

Note. The two forms here mentioned, though for many years 
kept separate as distinct species, are now generally allowed to 
be mere color varieties of one species. 



102 HYDROMYS. 

2. HYDROMYS FULVOLAVATUS, Gould (1863). 
"Western Water Rat. 

General color of fur orange-buff or buffy-brown, but the 
numerous black hairs which are dispersed over the upper surface 
give those parts a dusky hue ; the whiskers, which in the other 
species are entirely black, are in this mixed black and white , 
outer surface of limbs dark brown ; upper surface of hind limbs 
pale brown, deepening towards the toes ; nails white ; tail black, 
except the extreme tip which is white. 

Habitat. South and West Australia. 

Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pis. xxv.(H.fulvolavatus) 
and xxvii. (H. fuliyinosus). 

Note. As with its eastern representative there are two distinct 
color varieties of the Western Water Rat. Mr. Oldfield Thomas 
apparently considers ^v. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1889, p. 247) all six 
described forms of Hydromys to belong to one and the same 
species. His words are as follows : " One of the most singular, 
and at the same time the most isolated genera of Mur-idcr, is 
Uydromys, of which the only species is the well-known Australian 
Water-rat." According to this H. chrysogaster is the name by 
which the sole species should be known. 

Genus II. XEROMYS, Thomas (1889). 

External form murine. Tip of muzzle as in Mus, not as in 
Hydromys. Toes unwebbed. Tail scaly, very finely haired. 
Skull as in Mus, except that the supraorbital edges are rounded, 
teeth both in number and structure as in Hydromys. Infra- 
orbital foramen typically murine, the outer wall broad and 
slightly projecting forwards. 

Distribution. Queensland. 
Dentition. I. j, M. \ = 12. 
Habits. Terrestrial. 

1. XEROMYS MYOIDES, Thomas (1889). 
Thomas' Bat. 



External appearance like that of an ordinary Rat. Ears short 
and rounded, laid forward they only reach to within three or 
four millimetres of the posterior canthus of the eye ; their 
anterior edge without the supplementary Hap found in Hydromys. 
Fur very short, uniform in length. Whiskers as in Mus, fewer 
and slenderer than in Hydromys. General color above dark 
slaty-gray, below white. Ears gray. Arms and legs like the 
back ; hands and feet very thinly haired, almost naked terminally, 



MUS. 10S 

white. Palrns and soles naked, the former with five, the latter 
with six pads, the last hind pad elongate. Pollex with a short 
broad nail, all the other digits with claws : fifth digit on each 
foot without claw, reaching just to the base of the fourth. Tail 
about the length of the body without the head, slender, scaly, 
the scales rather irregularly disposed, very small, averaging about 
twenty to twenty-two to the centimetre, the whole tail very 
thinly covered with fine white hairs ; its substance pale flesh 
color above and below. Palate-ridges as in Hydromys, i.e. three 
predental, the third notched in the centre, three interrupted inter- 
dental ridges, and one uninterrupted posterior ridge. Mammae 
0-2 = 4. Upper incisors long, less curved than in Mus ; their 
front surfaces smooth, ungrooved, and orange in color : lower 
incisors very long, their front surfaces white. 

Habitat. Port Mackay, Queensland. 

Dimensions. ? ad. Head and body about four and a half 
inches ; tail about three and a half inches. 

References, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 247, pi. xxix. 
ff. 1 4 (skull), 5 ( palate-ridges), 6 (anterior zygoma-root), 8 (ear), 
9 (right hind foot), and 10 12 (left upper and lower molars). 

Subfamily II. MURING. 

Rats and Mice. 

Molars tuberculate, at least in youth. Cheek-pouches absent. 
Tail scaly, more or less naked. 

This sub-family contains about two hundred and fifty species 
belonging to eighteen well defined genera. 

Genus III. MUS, Linnceus (1766). 

Incisors narrow, not grooved : molars small, with three series 
of cusps across each tooth. Incisive foramina long. Coronoid 
process of lower jaw well developed. Eyes and ears large. Fur 
soft, sometimes mixed with spines. Pollex with a short nail 
instead of a claw. No cheek-pouches. Tail long, nearly naked, 
with rings of overlapping scales. 

Distribution. Eastern Hemisphere, except Madagascar. 
Dentition. I. , M. \ = 16. 

JL o 

Mammce. Varying from six to twenty. 

Habits. Terrestrial or seniiaquatic ; fossorial ; normally grani- 
vorous, but under pressure of hunger, or when a semidomesticated 
existence has been taken up such, for instance, as in the case of 
the House Mouse, Mus musculus, and the Brown Rat, Mus 
decumanus omnivorous. 



104 MUS. 

Note. "This, the typical genus of the Family (RODENTIA) is," 
Mr. Oldfield Thomas writes, " by far the largest of the Order, 
and indeed of the whole Class MAMMALIA, containing not less 
than one hundred and twenty species spread over the whole of 
the Old World with the exception of Madagascar. The number 
of species is, on the whole, much more considerable in tropical 
than in temperate regions, while but few are found where the 
climate is excessively cold." The following paragraph from the 
same pen is of more than ordinary interest, and to it we would 
call the attention of our northern zoologists, whose opportunities 
of examining the t animals at different seasons and different 
altitudes so far exceeds ours. " It is an interesting fact in 
connection with climate that many of the species living in hot 
countries have their fur more or less mixed with flattened spines, 
and that these spines appear to be shed during the winter and to 
be replaced by hairs, the latter naturally affording a warmer 
covering for the animal than the former." 



1. Mus FUSCIPES, Waterh. (1840). 

Dusky-footed Eat. 

Form stout ; ears moderate ; tail equal in length to the body ; 
tarsi moderate ; fur very long. General color above blackish- 
brown with an admixture of gray ; below grayish-white. Feet 
brown : tail black, sparingly covered with short bristly hairs. 
Incisors orange. 

Dimensions. Head and body to six and a half inches ; tail to 
four and a quarter inches. 

Habitat. The entire southern half of Australia ; Tasmania ; 
Islands of Bass' Strait. 

References. Waterhouse, Voy. Beagle, Mamm. p. 66, pi. xxv. ; 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. ii. 

Note. This Rat is partial to the neighborhood of water, 
frequenting the banks of streams and lagunes, swampy localities 
among long grass and dense brush, and swims with great ease 
and rapidity. 

2. Mus VELLEROSUS, Gray (1847). 

Tawny Rat. 

Form stout ; ears moderate ; tail shorter than the body ; fur 
very long, close, and rather soft. General color above reddish- 
brown with interspersed whitish hairs ; below paler. Feet and 
tail brown, the latter with a few short bristly hairs. Incisors 
yellow. 



MUS. 105 

Dimensions. Head and body to seven and a half inches; tail 
to four and a half inches. 

Habitat. Plains between the Murray and Glenelg Rivers, 
South Australia. 

References. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 5; Gould, Mamm. 
Austr. iii. pi. xii. 

3. Mus LINEOLATUS, Gould (1845). 
Plain Rat. 

Ears moderate ; tail longer than the body ; fur long and very 
soft. General color above deep slate-gray, with the tips and the 
longer interspersed hairs black ; below grayish-white more or less 
suffused with yellow ; eye encircled with black. Feet rather 
small and white. Tail well clothed with small hairs, blackish 
above, white below. 

Dimensions. Head and body to five and a-half inches ; tail to 
four and a half inches. 

Habitat. Darling Downs, frequenting the open parts of the 
grassy plains. 

Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xviii. 

4. Mus ASSIMILIS, Gould (1857). 
Allied Rat. 

Fur soft and silky. General color above light brown, very 
finely pencilled with black, below grayish-buff. Feet clothed 
with very fine silvery hairs. Tail nearly naked, slightly longer 
than the body. 

Dimensions. Head and body to seven and a quarter inches ; 
tail to six inches. 

Habitat. From North-eastern Queensland to South-western 
Australia. 

References. -Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xiii.; Collett, Zool. 
Jahr. ii. 1886-7, p. 838. 

5. Mus MANICATUS, Gould (1857). 
White-footed. Rat. 

Habit medium ; ears rather large. General color above black, 
gradually shading into the deep gray of the under surface ; nose, 
fore part of the lips, stripe down the centre of the throat and 
chest, and all the feet, white ; whiskers deep black. Tail naked, 
a little shorter than the body. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to seven inches ; tail up to 
five inches. 



106 MUS. 

Habitat. York Peninsula ; Mount Kosciusko. 1 
Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xvi. 

6. Mus SORDIDUS, Gould (1867). 
Sordid Rat. 

Habit stout. Ears rather large. Hair rather coarse and 
wiry. General color above grizzled black and brown, the former 
prevailing on the dorsal aspect; below grayish-buff; fore feet 
grayish-brown ; hind feet silvery-gray ; tail thinly clothed with 
extremely fine black hairs, about equal in length to the body. 

Dimensions. Head and body to six and three-fourths inches ; 
tail to five inches. 

Habitat. Darling Downs. 

Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xvii. 

Note. According to Gilbert its food consists mostly of the 
roots of stunted shrubs, and while it is common on the plains it 
is also found occasionally on the banks of creeks. 

7. Mus LONGIPILIS, Gould (1863;. 
Long-haired Rat. 

Fur very long, hairy, and somewhat harsh to the touch, of a 
grayish-brown at the base and tawny-buff at the tip, numerously 
interspersed especially along the back with very long, fine black 
hairs ; below buffy-gray ; feet flesh color, sparingly clothed with 
silvery hairs. Tail thinly beset with fine, stiff, black hairs. 

Dimensions. Head and body to seven and three-fourths inches; 
tail to five and three-fourths inches. 

Habitat. Victoria River ? 

Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xiii. 

8. Mus VELUTINUS, Thomas (1882). 

Velvet-furred Rat. 

Fur very long, soft, and velvety. General color above yellowish 
olivaceous gray, the hairs dark slaty-gray for nine-tenths of their 
length, with their extreme tips yellow, and intermixed with 
many longer black hairs : below bluish-gray, the bases of the 
hairs light slate color, and the tips dirty white. Ears, feet, and 
tail uniform dark brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to six and a third inches ; 
tail to four inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

Reference. Thomas, Ann. Nat. Hist. (5) ix. 1882, p. 415, fig. 
4 (front edge of anterior zygoma-root J. 



MUS. 107 

9. Mus BURTONI, Ramsay (1887). 
Burton's Bat. 

Fur close, thick, soft, of uniform texture, almost woolly. Ears 
moderate. Tail not quite the length of the body, naked. General 
color above uniform dull ashy-gray or mouse color, below lighter 
gray. Whiskers black, reaching to behind the ears. 

Dimensions. Head and body of type specimen four and 
four-fifths inches ; tail four and one-tenth inches. 

Habitat. Derby, North-western Australia. 

Reference. Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, (2) ii. p. 553, 
pi. xvii. tigs. 1-3. (skull), 4 (hind foot) and 5 (fore foot}. 

10. MUS TERR.E-REGIN.E, Alston (1879). 

Gray's White-footed. Eat. 

Fur stiff and harsh both above and below, most of the hairs 
being developed into flattened channelled spines ; many longer 
cylindrical hairs on the back. Tail almost naked, considerably 
shorter than the head and body. W'hiskers mixed black and 
white. Ears rather large, rounded, and naked. Feet very large 
and stout. General color above dark reddish-brown, the longer 
hairs black : lips, lower parts of cheeks, all the under surfaces, 
and feet yellowish-white ; tail dusky, irregularly marked with 
yellowish patches and rings. 

Dimensions. Head and body to eight and a quarter inches; tail 
to rather more than seven inches. 

Habitat. Cape York, Queensland. 

References. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 598 (as Acanthomys 
leucopus); Alston, op. cit. 1879, p. 646. 

11. Mus GOULDI, Waterhouse (1840). 
Gould's Kat. 

Ears rather large ; tail shorter than the head and body ; tarsi 
slender ; fur long and soft. General color pale ochreous-yellow, 
interspersed above with numerous long black hairs ; entire lower 
surfaces, the feet, and the claws, white ; ears brown ; tail brown 
above, yellowish-white below ; upper incisors deep orange, lower 
yellow. 

Dimensions. Head and body to four and two-thirds inches ; 
tail to three and a half inches. 

Habitat. Southern and Eastern Australia. 




108 MUS. 

Note. Gould (I.e.) gives Mus greyi, Gray, in Grey's Travels in 
Australia (App. ii. p. 410, 1841), as a synonym of Mus gouldi ; 
this, however, appears to be an error, Gray's species being, 
according to Thomas and Collett, valid. 

12. Mus GREYI, Gray (1841). 

Grey's Rat. 

General color above intense reddish-brown, interspersed with 
long, slender, pale tipped, black hairs ; sides yellowish-brown ; 
lower surfaces yellowish ; feet reddish-brown ; ears nearly naked, 
with short grayish hairs ; tail brown, much shorter than the head 
and body. 

Dimensions. Head and body to six inches; tail to four and 
three-fourths inches. 

Habitat. From South Australia to North-eastern Queensland. 

References. Waterhouse, Voy. Beagle, i. p. 67, pi. xxxiv. fig. 
18 (molars); Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xix. 

References. Gray, Grey's Trav. Austr. App. ii. p. 410; Collett, 
Zool. Jahr. ii. 1886-7, p. 837. 

Note. Prof. Collett observes that this species " takes the 
place in houses of Mus decumanus " in the Herbert River 
District. 

13. Mus NANUS, Gould (1857). 

Little Eat. 

Fur coarse. General color above and the outer sides of the 
limbs brown, with numerous interspersed fine black hairs ; below 
grayish-white, becoming lighter and forming a conspicuous patch 
beneath the tail ; feet light brown ; base of the fur bluish-gray ; 
tail brown, shorter than the head and body. 

Dimensions. Head and body to four inches ; tail to three and 
a fourth inches. 

Habitat. West Australia. 

Reference, Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xx. 

14. Mus ALBOCINEREUS, Gould (1845). 

Grayish-white Mouse. 

Habit rather stout ; ears moderate ; tail nearly equal in length 
to the head and body ; tarsi very slender ; fur very long and 
soft. General color pale ashy-gray, with a slight brownish tint 
on the hinder part of the back ; below white with a faint grayish 
tinge ; head grayish-white, pencilled with black ; feet and tail 
white, the latter with scattered black hairs above. 



MUS. 109 

Dimensions. Slightly larger than Mus musculus. 

Habitat. West Australia. 

References. Gould, Marnm. Austr. iii. pi. xxi. 

Note, Gould remarks : " This pretty little Mouse inhabits 
the sandy districts bordering the sea-shore, particularly those 
at the back of the sand-hills to the northward of Freemantle." 

15. Mus NOV^;-HOLLANDI^E, Waterhouse (1842). 
Common Field Mouse. 

Tail not nearly so long as the head and body. Tarsi rather 
long and slender ; fur rather long and very soft. General color 
above deep gray, tipped with brownish-yellow ; below less deep 
gray, tipped with white ; tail dusky above, white below. 

Dimensions. Head and body to three inches; tail to two inches. 

Habitat. New South Wales. 

References. Waterh., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 146; Gould, 
Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xxii. 

16. Mus DELICATULUS, Gould (1842). 

Pigmy Mouse. 

Ears small ; tarsi delicate ; tail slender, nearly as long as the 
head and body ; fur soft and short. General color above pale 
yellowish-brown ; sides delicate yellow ; lower part of the sides 
of the muzzle, entire under surfaces, and feet, white ; fur of 
uniform color on the throat and mesial line of the abdomen. 

Dimensions. Head and body to two and a half inches ; tail to 
two and a fourth inches. 

Habitat. Port Essington. 

Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xxiii. 

17. Mus TOMPSONI, Ramsay (1881). 

Tompson's Rat. 

Tail longer than the head and body ; fur above rather harsh, 
.below soft. General color above light gray, with a fulvescent 
tinge, pencilled with black ; whiskers long and black, some near 
the angle of the mouth white ; lower surfaces pure white ; hands 
rather small, gray above ; feet and claws white ; tail blackish, 
the hairs very short. 

Dimensions. Head and body to six and two-thirds inches; tail 
to seven and a half inches. 

Habitat. Interior of New South Wales. 

Reference. Ramsay, Proc. Zool. Soc. N.S. Wales, vi. p. 763, 
figs. 1 (pinna), 2 (under surface of hand) and 3 (ditto of foot). 



110 MUS. 

Note. Dr. Ramsay is undecided as to whether this species 
should be placed in the genus Mus or in Hapalotis (Conilurus 
of this work). 

18. Mus ARGURUS, Thomas (1889). 

White-tailed Rat. 

Tail rather longer than the head and body. Ears rounded, 
reaching just beyond the middle of the eye when laid forward. 
General color above pale sandy-rufous, the hairs slate-colored 
basally ; muzzle and underside of body white, the hairs of the 
chest and belly rufous basally ; hands and feet pure white ; tail 
wholly white, more thickly clothed than usual, the tip slightly 
pencilled. 

Dimensions. Head and body to three and a third inches; tail 
to four inches. 

Habitat. South Australia. 

Reference. Thomas, Ann. Nat. Hist. (6) iii. 1889, p. 433, fig. 
p. 434 (upper -molar teeth). 

Note. As in the case of Dr. Ramsay's species just described, 
Mr. Thomas was undecir'ed as to the exact position to which to 
assign this curious form ; he remarks : " Mus argurus has the 
external characters and the skull of Mus, with the molars of 
Hapalotis ; and I am somewhat in doubt as to which of the two 
it should be put into. It seems indeed probable that the charac- 
ters of these two genera will be found so to blend together in the 
different species as to necessitate their ultimate union, notwith- 
standing the very striking characters presented by the more 
typical species of Hapalotis." 

The following eight forms of Mus, which have been described 
by Messrs. Higgins k Petterd from Tasmania, are here introduced 
for the sake of comparison with southern continental species, as 
it is impossible for the writer with the data, to hand to form an 
opinion as to their validity or otherwise. It is not, however, at 
all probable that the small island of Tasmania should possess no 
less than eleven indigenous species of Mus, while but seventeen 
have been described from Australia, one only being common to 
both islands. 

19. MUS GRISEOC/ERULEUS, //. & P. (1882). 

Blue Rat. 

Ears naked and moderately long ; tail shorter than the head 
and body, sparsely clothed ; fur long. General color above 
bluish-gray, sides and below ashy-gray ; feet clothed with short 
yellow hairs, tail with short stiff black hairs. 



MUS. Ill 

Dimensions. Head and body to seven and a half inches ; tail 
to six and three-fourths inches. 

Habitat. Northern Tasmania. 

Reference. Higgins & Pettercl, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. 1882, 
p. 173, with plate, figs. 2, 2. 

20. Mus LEUCOPUS, H. & P. (1882). 
Short-tailed Rat. 

Ears long ; tail very much shorter than head and body ; fur 
long and soft. General color above dark brown tipped with pale 
fulvous-brown, below dirty ashy-gray ; snout gray, the extreme 
tip nearly white ; ears clothed with almost black hairs ; tail 
above with short dark hairs mixed with paler, below with white 
hairs ; feet white. 

Dimensions. Head and body to five and three-fourths inches ; 
tail to three and three-fourths inches. 

Habitat. Northern Tasmania. 

Reference. Higgins & Pettercl, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. 1882, 
p. 174, with plate, figs. 4, 4a. 

Note. Should this prove to be a good species the name will 
require to be altered. 

21. Mus VARIABILIS, //. & P. (1882). 
Swan's Rat. 

Ears rather large, broad, very much rounded above, and almost 
naked ; tail equal in length to the head and body ; fur rather 
long and soft. General color above dark bluish-gray or fawn, 
below pale bluish-gray or white ; feet brownish, fawn color, or 
white ; tail dark brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body to eight inches ; tail to the same 
length. 

Habitat. Tasmania (St. Leonards). 

Reference. Higgins & Petterd, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. 1882, 
p. 174, with plate, tigs. 3, 3. 

22. Mus SIMSONI, H. & P. (1882). 
Simson's Rat. 

Ear moderately long ; tail longer than the head and body, 
thickened at the base. General color above grayish-brown inter- 
spersed with darker hairs, paler below ; face bluish-gray ; chin 
white ; ears brown ; feet yellowish-white ; tail pale brown. 



112 MUS. 

Dimensions. Head and body to two and five-eighths inches; 
tail to two and seven-eighths inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania (Ringarooma). 

Reference. Higgins & Petterd, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. 1882, 
p. 175, with plate, figs. 5, 5a. 

23. Mus PACHYURUS, H. & P. (1883). 
Thick-tailed Rat. 

Ear moderate, rounded ; tail thick, sparsely clothed, much 
shorter than the head and body ; fur moderately long and rather 
soft. General color above dark brown, below paler, especially 
behind, where it is grayish-brown. Fore feet thickly clothed 
with long brown hair, hind feet moderately so ; tail brown. 
Incisors yellow at the tip, white at the base. 

Dimensions. Head and body to six and three-fourths inches ; 
tail to four and one-eighth inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania (Long's Plains). 

Reference. Higgins & Petterd, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. 1883, 
p. 182, with plate, figs. 1 - Ib. 

Note. The molar teeth, if correctly figured, would necessitate 
the exclusion of this animal from the genus Mus as now restricted. 

24. Mus CASTANEUS, H. & P. (1883). 
Chestnut-colored Rat. 

Form very robust. Ears broad and roundly pointed ; tail 
much shorter than the head and body ; fur very long, dense, and 
soft. General color above chestnut, interspersed with longer 
black hairs, below yellowish-ash ; nose, chin, and throat leaden- 
gray ; fur on the cheeks excessively long and bushy ; tail brown 
above, lighter below ; hands and feet leaden-gray. Upper 
incisors orange, lower yellow. 

Dimensions. Head and body to six and three-fourths inches ; 
tail to four and three-eighths inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania (Long's Plains). 

Reference. Higgins & Petterd, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. 1883, 
p. 185, with plate, figs. 2-26. 

25. Mus TAMARENSIS, //. & P. (1883). 
Tasmanian Water Rat. 

Ears rounded ; tail a trifle shorter than the head and body ; 
fur somewhat coarse and moderately long. General color above 



CONILURUS. 



113 



mottled yellowish-brown, below grayish-white ; a dark patch 
at the anterior portion of the base of the ear ; fore feet 
grayish-white, hind feet and toes long and slender, pure white ; 
tail brown above, grayish-white below, with the tip almost black. 

Dimensions. Head and body to six and three-fourths inches ; 
tail to six and a half inches. 

Habitat. Northern Tasmania. 

Reference. Higgins & Petterd, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. 1883, 
p. 185. 

Note. The authors of the species state that M. tamarensis is 
" extremely abundant on the banks of the river Tamar, and 
probably widely distributed over the island. Settlers residing 
near the river suffer much from its destructive propensities." 

In a later paper by the same authors describing yet another 
new Tasmanian species of Mus, a list of the " Terrestrial Animals 
of Tasmania " is given. From this list the name of M. tamarensis 
is omitted, although no comment is made by the authors on the 
reason for the excision of this their latest species. 

26. Mus TETRAGONUEUS, H. & P. (1883). 
Quadrangular-tailed Rat. 

Form stout ; ears short and broadly rounded ; tail short, 
quadrangular ; fur very long and soft. General color above dark 
ashy-gray, thickly interspersed with longer blackish hairs ; lips 
and entire under surface slaty-gray ; hands and feet ashy-gray ; 
tail brown. 

Dimensions. Head and body to six inches ; tail to less than 
four inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

Reference. Higgins and Petterd, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. 1883, 
p. 195. 

Genus IV. CONTLURUS, W. Ogilly (1838). 

Hind limbs more or less elongated. Incisive foramina very 
large. No coronoid process to the lower jaw. Ears and tail 
long. 

Distribution. Australia. 
Dentition. I. -.. M. | x 2 = 16. 

1 o 

Note. I have been reluctantly obliged to abandon the better 
known name Hapalotis (Lichtenstein, 1829), in favor of the 
above, proposed by my father, since the former name was used 
by Hiibner in 1816 for a genus of Lepidopterous insects, and 



114 CONILURUS. 

cannot, therefore, be utilized again. The species on which the 
genus Conilurus was founded was named by its describer (7. 
constructor, but further researches have proved its identity with 
the Hapalotis albipes of Lichtenstein. Major Mitchell's original 
specimens were forwarded to the British Museum under the name 
of " Native Rabbit," and the generic term selected above is 
intended to signify a " small rabbit with a long tail." 

These graceful little animals supply in Australia the place of 
the Jerboas of Africa, South-eastern Europe, and Southern and 
Central Asia. 

1. CONILURUS ALBIPES, Lichtenstein, sp. (1827). 
White-footed Jerboa-Eat. 

Tail equal in length to the head and body or but little shorter ; 
fur long, soft, and close. Upper surface of the head and body, 
the ears, flanks, and outer surface of the limbs gray, tipped with 
ashy-brown, interspersed with numerous fine black-tipped hairs ; 
whiskers and a narrow band encircling the eye black ; under 
surface of body, inner surface of limbs, hands, and feet white ; 
tail above dark brown, sides, below, and extreme tip white. 

Dimensions. Head and body to ten inches ; tail about the 
same length. 

Habitat. South-eastern Australia ; southern portion of South 
Australia. 

References. Ogilby, Trans. Linn. Soc. 1838, xviii. (description) 
p. 126, as C. constructor ; Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 1839, p. 308; 
Gould, Mamrn. Austr. iii. pi. i. 

Note. According to Gould this species, though widely dis- 
persed within the limits indicated above, is nowhere very abun- 
dant. It is "strictly nocturnal in its habits, sleeping during the 
day in the hollow limbs of prostrate trees, or such hollow branches 
of the large Eucalypti as are near the ground, in which situations 
it may be found curled up in a warm nest of dried leaves." Fossil 
remains of this species have been obtained in the Pleistocene of 
New South Wales. 

The following remarks from the pen of Sir George Grey touch- 
ing the method of carrying its young, adopted by this species and 
possibly by others of its congeners, but so totally at variance with 
the habits prevailing in the intimately allied genus Mus, are 
worthy of reproduction ; he writes, " The specimen I send you, 
a female, had three young ones attached to its teats when it was 
caught : the mother has no pouch, but the young attach them- 
selves with the same or even greater tenacity than is observable 
in the young of Marsupiata (METATHERIA of this Hand-list, 

HE 



CONILURUS. 115 

vide p. 4). " While life remained in the mother," he continues, 
" they remained attached to her teats by their mouths, and 
grasped her body with their claws, thereby causing her to present 
the appearance of a Marsupial minus the pouch. On pulling the 
young from the teats of the dead mother, they seized hold of my 
glove with the mouth, and held on so strongly that it was diffi- 
cult to disengage them." 

Should the above account be correct, and with an observer 
whose veracity and accuracy are unquestionable, there can be no 
reason for doubting the statement, and should the same habit 
be common to all, or even some, members of the genus, I have 
failed to elicit any further information on the subject, either 
confirmatory or rebutting, from experienced zoologists and col- 
lectors it raises the question whether Conilurus, a genus purely 
belonging to, and even in a fossil state so far confined to, con- 
tinental Australia, may not originally have been a marsupial 
Rodent, which is even now in a transition stage between the 
Metatherian and Eutherian types. The fact of Thomas' Mus 
argurus having such close affinities (vide p. 110) to both genera, 
that even that talented writer is unable to say for certain to 
which genus this South Australian mammal belongs, would seem 
to strengthen the position here put forward. The discovery also 
by Dr. Stirling of the so-called " Marsupial Mole " (Notoryctes), 
a form, which some of the foremost scientists of the age consider 
to be closely allied to the South African Golden Mole (Chryso- 
chloris), and in which the pouch is aborted or at the least 
rudimentary, again points to a gradual supersession of the older 
marsupial forms, and their immergence with the more recent and 
more highly developed monodelphian type. 

2. CONILURUS MACRURUS, Peters, sp. (1876). 
Peters' Jerboa-Rat. 

Ears large and rounded ; tail much longer than the head and 
body ; fur soft. General color above reddish-brown, intermixed 
with scattered longer black hairs ; below white ; ears rust-colored ; 
feet clothed with short white hairs : proximal fourth of the tail 
brown, clothed with short scattered bristles ; the rest densely 
covered with gradually lengthening white hairs, which at the tip 
exceed an inch in length. 

Dimensions. Head and body to eight and a quarter inches; 
tail to twelve and a half inches. 

Habitat. North-western Australia. 

Reference. Peters, Mon. Ak. Berl. 1876, p. 355, plate, p. 366. 



116 CONILURUS. 

3. CONILURUS BOWERI, Ramsay, sp. (1886). 

Bower's Jerboa-Rat. 

Ears small, with the tips rounded, and almost naked ; tail 
longer than the head and body. General color above light gray, pen- 
cilled with long black hairs ; a broad, distinct, irregular, median 
band, rufescent on the nape and basal inch of the tail, golden- 
brown on the intervening portions ; next two inches of tail 
blackish, the rest white, terminating in a well defined brush ; 
under surfaces and feet white. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to eleven inches ; tail to 
about thirteen inches. 

Habitat. North-western Australia. 

Reference. Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2) i. 1886, 
p. 1153, pi. xviii. 

Note. This species is very closely allied to the preceding ; in 
fact, if it were not for the difference in the comparative dimen- 
sions of trunk to tail, I should have no hesitation in considering 
them identical. 

4. CONILURUS APICALIS, Gould, sp. (1851). 

"White-tipped Jerboa-Rat. 

General color above pale brown, interspersed with numerous 
fine black hairs ; below white ; face and sides of neck bluish-gray ; 
flanks mixed gray and buffy-white ; fore feet white with a dark 
brown spot on the fore-arm, hind feet and tarsi white ; proximal 
three-fourths of the tail brown, the remaining portion thinly 
clothed with white hairs. 

Dimensions. Head and body to eight inches ; tail to eight 
and a half inches. 

Habitat. South Australia. 

Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. ii. 

Note. This species has been found in a fossil state in the 
Pleistocene of New South Wales. 

5. CONILURUS HEMILEUCURUS, Gray, sp. (1857). 
Elsey's Jerboa-Rat. 

Ears short ; tail shorter than the head and body ; fur harsh 
and wiry. General color above light sandy-brown, with numerous 
scattered fine long black hairs; below buffy-white, the feet, fore- 
arms, and tarsi even lighter ; basal portion of the tail brown, 
deepening into black about the middle, beyond which it is white 
with a short apical tuft. 



CONILURUS. 117 

Dimensions. Head and body up to eight inches; tail to six 
and a half inches. 

Habitat. Central Queensland. 

Reference. Gould, Marnm. Austr. iii. pi. iii. 

6. CONILURUS HIRSUTUS, Gould, sp. (1842). 
Long-haired Jerboa-Eat. 

Tail much longer than the head and body ; fur coarse and 
shaggy. General color above yellowish-brown with very numerous 
longer interspersed black hairs ; below rusty yellow tinged with 
brown on the neck and chest ; feet black, the claws whitish ; 
basal three-fourths of tail black, the remainder rusty white, the 
apical tuft exceeding an inch in length. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to ten and a third inches; tail 
to thirteen inches. 

Habitat. Northern Queensland. 

References. Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 12, and Mamm. 
Austr. iii. pi. iv. 

7. CONILURUS PENICILLATUS, Gould, sp. (1842). 
Black-tailed Jerboa-Rat. 

Tail slightly longer than the head and body ; fur rather spiny. 
General color above grayish-brown grizzled with buff, the occiput 
and neck tinged with rusty ; entire under surfaces, inner surfaces 
of the legs, and the feet white with a faint yellow tint ; apical 
half of the tail black and moderately tufted. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to seven and a quarter inches ; 
tail to seven and three-fourths inches. 

Habitat. Northern Queensland. 

References. Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 12, and Mamm. 
Austr. iii. pi. v. 

Note. Writing of the habits of C. penicillatus, Mr. Gilbert 
(vide Gould) remarks, " this little animal is only seen on the 
beach where there are large Casuarina trees, in the dead hollow 
branches of which it forms a nest of fine dry grass, and retires 
during the day ; in the evening it leaves its retreat and proceeds 
to the beach, where it may be seen running along at the edge of 
the surf as it rolls up and recedes, apparently feeding upon any 
animal matter washed up by the waves." Personally Gould 
states that " its habits would seem to be somewhat singular, 
inasmuch as it is frequently found among the swamps on the 
sea-shore ; / have no evidence, however, that it is not also found in 
the interior of the country." 



118 CONILURUS. 

8. CONILURUS PERSONATUS, Krefft, sp. (1867). 
Krefft's Jerboa-Rat. 

Tail much shorter than the head and body ; fur coarse. General 
color above reddish-brown, below sandy white ; a black mark 
surrounding the eye and continued along the side of the snout. 
Tail covered with coarse irregular scales, between which a few 
stiff hairs are visible. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to nine inches ; tail to six 
and a half inches. 

Habitat. Northern Queensland. 

Reference. Krefft, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 318. 

9. CONILURUS CONDITOR, Gould, sp. (1849). 

Nest-building Jerboa-Rat. 

Ears large ; tail equal in length to the head and body ; fur 
soft and silky. General color above grayish-brown, darkest down 
the middle of the head and back ; below pale buff ; hands brown ; 
feet very large, pale brown ; tail brown above, paler beneath. 

Dimensions. Head and body six inches. 
Habitat. Interior of Eastern Australia. 

References. Ogilby, Trans. Linn. Soc. 1838, xviii. p. 127 
(habits); Gould, in Sturt's Exped. into Centr. Austr. i. p. 120, 
and ii. App. p. 7, and Marnrn. Austr. iii. pi. vi. 

Note. This species has received its specific name from its 
habit of constructing a large nest in which one or more families 
dwell ; in the latter case, however, each family occupies a separate 
compartment, but with a passage communicating between them ; 
these nests are built of small sticks, and are so firmly put together 
as to defy the attacks of a dog. The nests are somewhat in the 
form of a beehive, with a diameter of about four feet and a 
height of about three, and the method of construction is thus 
described by Major Mitchell : " For this purpose the little animal 
chooses some small bush or shrub as a fixed point d'appui to 
commence its operations ; and by gradually working round this, 
and interlacing the materials of its fortalice, first of all with the 
growing branches of the centre bush, and afterwards with one 
another gradually extends it to the enormous dimensions speci- 
fied." The inhabited compartments are warmly lined with grass. 

10. CONILURUS MURINUS, Gould, sp. (1845). 

Mouse-like Jerboa-Rat. 

Ears large. Tail much shorter than the head and body ; fur 
remarkably soft and delicate. General color above delicate 



CONILURUS. 119 

ochraceous-yellow with a considerable admixture of black ; below 
buffy-white, as also are the hands and feet ; tail moderately 
clothed, above mixed black and white, below pure white. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to five and a half inches ; 
tail to three and three-fourths inches. 

Habitat. Interior of New South Wales and South Australia. 
Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. vii. 

11. CONILURUS LONGICAUDATUS, Gould, sp. (1844). 
Long-tailed Jerboa-Rat. 

Ears large and naked. Tail much longer than the head and 
body ; fur close and very soft. General color above pale sandy, 
intermixed with numerous fine black hairs, which are longest 
posteriorly ; below white ; ears dark brown ; feet and tarsi 
white ; basal half of the tail clothed with short dark brown hairs, 
apical half with longer black hairs tipped with white, the extreme 
tip white. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to seven inches; tail to nine 
inches. 

Habitat. Interior of Western Australia. 
References. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. viii. 

Note. Gould on the authority of Gilbert states that " the 
favorite haunt of this species is a stiff and clayey soil. It is 
also very partial to the mounds thrown up by Bettongia grayi 
(B. lesueuri of this work) and Perayale lagotis. It is less des- 
tructive to the sacks and bags of the storerooms, but, like 
H. mitchelli, is extremely fond of raisins." 

12. CONILURUS MITCHELLI, Ogilby, sp. (1838). 
Mitchell's Jerboa-Eat. 

Ears moderate, naked, and somewhat pointed ; tail longer than 
the head and body ; fur close and very soft. General color above 
very pale sandy, intermixed with fine black hairs which are 
longest posteriorly ; sides of face, under surface, inner side of the 
limbs, and the feet grayish-white ; a broad patch down the middle 
of the throat and chest pure silky white ; ears dark brown ; upper 
surface of the tail dark brown, and crested towards the tip ; 
lower surface white. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to four and three-fourths 
inches ; tail to six inches. 

Habitat. South and West Australia. 



120 CONILURUS. 

References. Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. 1838, xviii. p. 130 ; 
Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. ix. 

Type. In the Australian Museum. 

Note. Gould remarks that this species differs from the pre- 
ceding in preferring sandy districts, frequenting the sides of 
grassy hills tolerably well clothed with small trees growing in a 
light soil, in which it forms its burrow. 

13. CONILURUS CERVINUS, Gould, sp. (1851). 
Fawn-colored Jerboa-Rat. 

Ears very large, pointed, and nearly naked ; tail longer than 
the head and body. General color above delicate fawn inter- 
mixed with numerous tine black hairs ; nose and under surfaces 
white ; tail pale brown above, lighter below. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to four and a half inches ; 
tail to five and a half inches. 

Habitat. Interior of South Australia. 
Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. x. 

Genus V. MASTACOMYS, Thomas (1882). 

Similar to Mus, but with the molars remarkably broadened 
and the mammae reduced in number to four. 

1. MASTACOMYS FUSCUS, Thomas (1882). 
Broad-toothed Eat. 

Ears rather large ; tail shorter than the head and body ; fur 
extremely long and soft. General color both above and below 
dark grayish-brown ; tail and upper side of feet clothed with dark 
brown hairs, those on the former not lighter below. Sole-pads 
five on the fore and six on the hind feet. Molars remarkably 
broad and heavy, the anterior ones each more than half as broad 
again as the palatal space between them ; middle lamina of the 
first molar and anterior lamina of the second with three cusps ; 
the additional ones external and very small. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to five and three-fifths inches; 
tail to three and three-fourths inches. 

Habitat. Tasmania. 

Reference. Thomas, Ann. Nat. Hist. (5) ix. p. 413, figs. 1 
(inner view of upper jaw, &c.), 2 (molars), and 3 (front edge of 
anterior zygoma-root J. 

Note. Fossil remains of this Rat have been obtained from the 
Wellington Caves, New South Wales. 



UROMYS. 121 

Genus VI. UROMYS, Peters (1867). 

Difters from Mus in having the scales of the tail not over- 
lapping, but set edge to edge, so as to form a sort of mosaic work. 

Distribution. From Eastern Australia to the Aru Islands. 

1. UROMYS MACROPUS, Gray, sp. (1866). 

Giant Eat. 

Ears moderate ; tail equal to or a little shorter than the head 
and body ; fur moderately soft, the long hairs rather bristly. 
General color above grayish-brown tinged with reddish, with 
coarse black-tipped hairs intermixed ; below white ; whiskers 
very long, stiff, and black ; feet white ; tail black on the basal, 
white or pale yellow on the apical half. 

Dimensions. Head and body up to fourteen and a half inches; 
tail to about the same length. 

Habitat. North-Eastern Australia. 

Reference. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1866, p. 221, and 1867, 
p. 597; Krefft, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 316, figs. 1-7 (skull); 
Peters, Mon. Ac. Berl. 1867, p. 344 ( 'animal, skull, and feet 
figured). 

2. UROMYS CERVINIPES, Gould, sp. (1852). 

Buff-footed Rat. 

Fur short, soft, and adpressed, without lengthened hairs. 
General color of adult : above sandy-brown, below mottled buffy- 
white and gray ; feet and tarsi fawn color ; tail purplish-flesh 
color. Young bluish-gray above, grayish-white below. 

Dimensions. Head and body about six inches ; tail about 
five and a half inches. 

Habitat. Eastern Australia. 

Reference. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xiv. 

In 1867 Gray (Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 599) described, under the 
name of Eehiothrix leucurus (lege Echinothrix leucura) a remark- 
able Rat, having an extremely elongated muzzle, supposing it to 
have come from North Australia ; it is now believed to be 
confined to the Celebes, whence only has it since been recorded. 

Numerous fossil Murine remains have been obtained in various 
parts of Australia, chiefly in the Wellington Caves, but no 
systematic attempt has been made as yet to work these out. 



122 CARNIVORA. 

Order V.-CARNIVORA. 

Unguiculate Mammals with never less than four well developed 
toes on each foot, all of which are usually clawed. Pollex and 
hallux never opposable to the other digits. Dentition diphyodont 
and heterodont, the teeth always rooted, consisting, in each 
ramus, of generally three incisors, the outer one being always the 
largest ; of a strong, conical, pointed, recurved canine, and of a 
variable but usually more or less compressed, pointed, and 
trenchant series of molars. Brain never destitute of well marked 
convolutions. Stomach simple. Coecum absent or short and 
simple. Mammae abdominal and variable in number. Clavicle 
often entirely absent, and when present never complete. 

Habits. Carnivorous and sanguivorous, sometimes omnivorous. 

Suborder I. Fissipedia. 

Carnivores fitted for a terrestrial or mainly terrestrial pro- 
gression and mode of life. Incisors almost always f on each side. 
In the molar series there is always one specially modified tooth 
in each ramus, which is termed the "sectorial " or "flesh-tooth," 
and is usually enlarged ; in the upper this tooth is the last pre- 
molar, in the lower the first molar. 

Group OYNOIDEA. 

Head elongate ; tail moderate or rather long ; limbs fairly 
developed, the feet digitigrade. Fore toes, except in the African 
genus Lycaon, five, the pollex, however, being short and non- 
functional hind toes in all wild species four. Claws blunt, 
nearly straight, and non-retractile. Organs of scent, sight, and 
hearing highly developed. Auditory bulla much dilated, rounded, 
and subdivided. Paroccipital process flattened against the bulla 
and projecting behind. Condyloid and glenoid foramina distinct. 
Co3cum elongate and generally folded on itself. Clavicles rudi- 
mentary. 

Vertebra^. C. 7, D. 13, L. 7, S. 3, Cd. 17 - 22. 

Habits. Carnivorous, but some, especially of the smaller forms, 
are omnivorous. Many of the species, such as the Wolf and the 
Cape Hunting Dog, are gregarious and hunt in packs, others, as 
for instance the Fox, hunt singly or at most in pairs, and show 
extraordinary cunning both in avoiding danger to themselves and 
in securing their prey ; many are fossorial. 

Note. Prof. Huxley has divided this Group into two parallel 
series, the Thooid or Lupine forms and the Alopecoid or Vulpine 
forms, characterised by the presence of frontal air-sinuses in the 



CANIS. 123 

former, which not only affect the external contour but to a still 
greater degree the shape of the anterior part of the cranial cavity. 
It is to the first of these series that the Australian species belongs. 
Thooid forms are not found in Africa or South America. 



Family I. 

Characters similar to those of the Group of which this is the 
only family. 

Genus I. CANIS, Linnaus (1766). 

Pupil, when contracted, round in some species, elliptical and 
vertical in others. Limbs of moderate proportions. Tail gener- 
ally forming a moderate brush. Mammae generally ten, more 
rarely eight. Teeth powerful. 

Dentition. I. f, C. \, P. *, M. |, x 2 = 42. 

Flower and Lydekker (Introduction to the Study of Mammals 
living and extinct, p. 546) remark: "The absence of the last 
upper molar (ra 3 ) alone distinguishes this from the generalised 
dentition of heterodonts, and this tooth is occasionally present in 
one species (C. cancrivorus ). In certain Asiatic species (C. 
primcevus and its allies) which on this account have been separated 
to form the genus Cyon of Hodgson, the last lower molar (m 3 ) 
appears to be constantly absent." The first permanent premolar 
in both jaws is without a milk-predecessor, and in the upper jaw 
is decidedly smaller than the second. 

Distribution. Cosmopolitan. 

1. CANIS DINGO, Blumenbach (1780). 
Warrigal ; Dingo ; Native Dog. 

Of this too well known animal it is hardly necessary to give a 
description, more especially as it is the only terrestrial Carnivore 
existing in a wild state on Australian soil ; nevertheless, the 
remarks of Prof. St. George Mivart on the subject may be suitably 
reproduced here. He writes : 

" The Dingo varies in its coloration from red to black. There 
is a grayish underfur, but, save in the black variety, the long 
hairs are generally yellow or whitish. The top of the head and 
dorsal region generally are of a darker reddish-yellow, often 
intermixed with black. The underparts are paler and may be 
whiteish. The end of the tail is very often white, as are frequently 



124 CANIS. 

the feet and sometimes the muzzle, though this is also sometimes 
black. The animal may be of an uniformly light reddish or 
yellowish brown, save that it is paler beneath, on the outside of 
the forelegs, below the elbow, as well as on the inside of the 
limbs and on the cheeks." 

In reference to the vexed question as to whether the Warrigal 
is an indigene or has been brought hither through human instru- 
mentality, we consider, notwithstanding that the greater number 
of authors incline to the latter theory, that the recognition by 
Prof. McCoy of fossil remains, in no wise differing from those of 
recent individuals, and contemporaneous with similar remains of 
Thylacoleo, Diprotodott, &c., sets this question at rest, and goes 
far towards proving that this species is indigenous to continental 
Australia, and was an inhabitant thereof prior to its colonization 
by man, no human remains of such antiquity having as yet been 
discovered. 

As this question is so intimately connected with that of the 
origin of the domestic dog and its many varieties, no apology is 
needed for quoting largely from Prof. McCoy's article (Prod. 
Palaeont. Viet. dec. vii. pp. 7 - 10). He says : 

" The origin of the domestic dog is a question of great difficulty 
and interest, which it has been suggested can be best investigated 
by a study of the Dog known to the lowest types of the human 
race ; and the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia were thought 
to afford these conditions. On the other hand the remarkable 
absence of the higher forms of Mammalian Quadrupeds in Aus- 
tralia was supposed to render it highly probable that the Dingo 
was not really a native of the place, but was brought at some 
remote period from some other country by human savage races 
arriving to constitute the population of Australia. Taking the 
case of the Dingo, it was certain that the native dogs of con- 
tinental Asia were not clearly related, to the extent of specific 
identity, with the Australian one, nor could any near analogies 
be found elsewhere ; while on the other hand the facts are beyond 
dispute : (1st) that the Dingo is singularly averse to domestication 
and man's society when compared with other dogs ; (2nd) that it 
is extremely abundant, with little or no variation, over the whole 
of Australia ; and (3rd) that the further you go from human 
haunts, near the coast, into the desert interior, the more numerous 
do the Dingoes appear, indicating that the species was a really 
indigenous one." 

And again, alluding to its contemporaneity, mentioned above, 
with the great fossil Mammals of Australia, he remarks " that 
the Dingo was really one of the most ancient of the indigenous 
mammals of the country, and abounded as now most probably 
before man himself appeared Our present species, 



PINNIPEDIA. 125 

although still living in great numbers, I have no doubt dates 
from the Pliocene Tertiary time, and I find, on the most minute 
comparison and measurements, no difference between the fossil 
and recent individuals, either of the adult age, or of the younger 
periods before the milk-teeth were shed to give place to the 
permanent molar teeth." 

These remarks from so high an authority on Australian 
Zoology, having the concurrence of Prof. Mivart, cannot be 
ignored, and, until proof to the contrary is forthcoming, we shall 
consider the honor of being the original progenitor of our house- 
hold favorite as the due of the Australian Warrigal. 

Furthermore, Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., has kindly supplied the 
following note, extracted from Smyth's Aboriginals of Victoria, 
i. p. 149, 1878 : " In a well section at Tower Hill, Western Vic- 
toria, sixty -three feet of volcanic ash was passed through, and 
then sixty feet of blue and yellow clay; here were found the skull 
and bones of the Dingo." Again : "At Lake Timboon, Western 
Victoria, bones of the Dingo were found associated with those of 
the Tasmanian Devil ( /Sarcophilus ursinus), those of Macropus 
titan, and bones and teeth of Diprotodon." 



Suborder II. Pinnipedia. 

Seals ; Walruses. 

External form fitted for an aquatic life ; limbs modified into 
swimming organs ; digits of the hand decreasing in length from 
the first to the fifth : of the foot first and fifth largest and longest, 

' O O ? 

the three middle ones subequal in length. Dentition simple, 
generally unspecialized, the molar series similar to each other in 
size and form. 

Habits. More or less purely aquatic ; carnivorous, feeding on 
fishes, molluscs, and crustaceans, to all of which they are very 
destructive owing to their exceptional voracity. The develop- 
ment of the brain is very great, and they are, therefore, easily 
domesticated, becoming much attached to their keepers and 
readily learning various tricks ; they are also affectionate parents, 
and courageously defend their progeny from threatened attack. 
A curious habit, common to all Pinnipeds, and the reason of 
which is still a matter for conjecture, is that of swallowing 
numerous stones up to the size of a hen's egg. 

Distribution, Seas of the circumpolar and temperate regions 
of the Globe chiefly, only one genus (Monachus) being strictly 
tropical, while but few species, one of which is the Australian 
Zalophus lobatus, range into tropical waters. 



126 GRESSIGRADA. 

Group I. GRESSIGRADA. 

Bared Seals ; Walruses. 

Hind limbs capable of being turned forwards, and used in 
terrestrial locomotion. Neck lengthened. Anterior feet nearly 
as large as the posterior, their digits rapidly decreasing in length 
from the first to the fifth, without distinct claws, and with a 
broad cartilaginous border extending beyond the digits. Only 
the three middle digits of the hind feet clawed, and all terminating 
jn long narrow cartilaginous flaps. 

Family I. OTARIID^. 

Eared Seals. 

Fore limbs placed far back and comparatively free ; palms and 
soles and the greater part of the upper digital surface hairless. 
Scapula large. Ears with a subcylindrical external conch. Testes 
scrotal. 

Dentition. I. f, C, \, M. | or | x 2 = 34 or 36. 

Note. The Group to which this Family belongs are gregarious 
and polygamous, and the males greatly exceed the females in 
size. During the breeding season they resort in large numbers 
to favorite breeding grounds, technically known to sealers as 
"rookeries," where they leave the water and pass some weeks on 
land, often at a considerable distance from the shore ; at this 
period they rarely enter the water and consequently do not feed ; 
the males especially, on their return to what must be considered 
their natural element, are greatly emaciated. 

Genus I. ZALOPHCJS, Gill (1866). 

Molars , large, closely approximated, the last under the hinder 
edge of the zygomatic process of the maxillary. Muzzle narrow. 
Hinder edge of the palatine bones deeply concave. Sagittal crest, 
in very old males, forming a remarkably high, thin, bony plate, 
unparalleled in its great development in any other genus in the 
Family. 

1. ZALOPHUS LOBATUS, Gray, sp. (1828). 
Australian Sea Lion. 

In the adult the face, front and sides of the neck, all the under 
surface, sides, and back dark- or blackish-brown, passing into 
dark slaty-gray on the extremities of the limbs ; the hinder half 
of the crown, the nape, and back of the neck rich deep fawn 
color ; eyes black. 



ARCTOCEPHALUS. 127 

Dimensions. Adult males up to ten feet ; females much 
smaller. 

Habitat. South and West Australia ; Japan. 

References. Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. xlix. ; Quoy & 
Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. i. p. 95, Atlas, 1833, pis. xiv., xv. 

Note. Gilbert, writing to Gould, says, speaking of some thirty 
years ago : " This animal is extremely numerous on all the low 
islands of the Houtmann's Abrolhos, particularly those having 
sandy beaches ; but it does not confine itself to such places, being 
often found on the ridges of coral and madrepores, over which we 
found it very painful walking, but over which the seals often 
outran us. On many of the islands they have been so seldom 
(perhaps, indeed, never before) disturbed, that I frequently came 
upon several females and their young in a group under the shade 
of the mangroves ; and so little were they alarmed, that they 
allowed me to approach almost within the reach of my gun, when 
the young would play about the old ones, and bark and growl at 
us in the most amusing manner ; and it was only when we struck 
at them with clubs that they shewed any disposition to attack us 
or defend their young. The males, however, would generally 
attack the men when attempting to escape ; but, generally speak- 
ing, the animal may be considered harmless, for even after being 
disturbed, they seldom attempt to do more than take to the water 
as quickly as possible." 

In the Prodromus of the Palaeontology of Victoria (dec. v. 
pis. xli., xlii.) Prof. McCoy figures, under the name of Arcto- 
cephalus ivilliamsi, a fossil Seal from the Pliocene of Victoria 
obtained at Queenscliff and Cape Otway. Referring to this 
Allen remarks : " The skull figured, which he (i.e. McCoy) refers 
to as an ' old male skull ' bears a close resemblance to the skull 
of a female of Zalophus lobatus, from which, judging from his 
description and figures, it does not very materially differ. 

Genus II. ARCTOCEPHALUS, F. Cuvier (1824). 

Molars f , triangular, pointed, and compressed, the last entirely 
behind the hinder edge of the zygomatic process of the maxillary. 
Muzzle slender, elongated, and pointed. 

1. ARCTOCEPHALUS PORSTERI, Lesson, sp. (1828). 
Australian Sea Bear. 

In the adult male the entire upper surfaces are dark brown, 
the belly, limbs, tail and lips chestnut ; the female is of a gener- 
ally lighter coloration. The young are blackish-brown above, 
with the muzzle and throat yellowish, and the belly rust color. 



128 REPTIGRADA. 

Dimensions. Adult males up to eight feet ; females to five 
and a half feet. 

Habitat. Southern and South-eastern Australia ; New Zea- 
land ; Falkland Islands. 

References. Quoy & G-aimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. i. p. 89, 
Atlas, pis. xii., xiii and xv. ; McCoy, Proclr. Zool, Viet., decs. iv. 
pi. xxxi. and viii. pi. Ixxi. 

Note. Referring to the islands in Bass' Straits, where these 
animals are still plentiful, the following extracts taken from 
Prof. McCoy's later article (dec. viii.) on the subject, will be read 
with interest : " The Seals come to the Rocks about the 1st of 
October. The time of bringing forth the pups is between the 
10th of November and the 10th of December. They do not 
commence to breed until they are three years old. The male 
during the pupping season will ascend the rocks and remain for 
one or two months without food, and is extremely attentive to 
the female and pups. The cow generally brings forth one pup, 
sometimes two." 

Group II. REPTIGRADA. 

Earless Seals. 

Hind limbs incapable of being turned forwards, and not ser- 
viceable for terrestrial locomotion. Neck short. Anterior feet 
smaller than the posterior, the first digit little, if any, longer than 
the next succeeding ones, all armed with strong terminal claws. 
All the digits of the hind feet usually armed with strong claws, 
and without terminal cartilaginous flaps. 



Family II. PHOCID^E. 

Earless Seals. 

Fore limbs placed well forward. Hands and feet hairy. 
Scapula small. No external ear. Testes enclosed within the 
body. 

Note. The Earless Seals are monogamous, and there is no 
marked variation in size between the sexes. With the exception 
of the Sea Elephants (Macrorhinus), which in their habits during 
the season of reproduction resemble the Otariidce, by assembling 
in large numbers at well known resorts, these Seals do not so 
uniformly resort to particular breeding grounds on land, but, 
being confined almost entirely to the colder latitudes, usually 
bring forth their young on the ice, and leave the water only for 
short periods ; they are, however, as a general rule social in their 
habits and possessed of great affection for their young. A single 



OGMORHINUS. 129 

calf only is commonly brought forth, and the period of gestation 
is said to range from nine to nearly twelve months. Seals are 
greatly attracted by musical sounds, and in one instance the 
writer can personally vouch for a Seal fPhoca vitulina), which, 
by the simple medium of whistling was induced to follow his boat 
to and from the fishing grounds for several days in succession, 
the animal frequently rising within an oar's length of the boat ; 
strange to say it never attempted to seize any of the fish (mostly 
Cod and Ling) as they came up on the hook, though it was seen 
to hunt the small Sharks (Acanthias vulgar is and Galeus vulgaris) 
which at that season infested the waters ; this occurred on the 
North Coast of Ireland. The food of Seals does not consist so 
greatly of fishes as is generally supposed, molluscs, crustaceans, 
and medusae being staple articles in their diet, with an occasional 
bird thrown in as a bonne bouche. Some species, such as the 
Bearded Seal (Eriynathus barbatus), and the Ringed Seal (Phoca, 
foetida), neither of which are to any extent migratory, are said 
to feed almost exclusively on small crustaceans, chiefly of the 
genus Gammarus. 

Various theories have been adduced as to the remarkable power 
which permits these warm-blooded, air-breathing mammals to 
remain under water for the space of, according to different 
authorities, from eight to twenty minutes, but, Mr. Allen pro- 
perly remarks, " none of these theories seem satisfactory." 



Genus III. OGMORHINUS, Peters (1875). 

Molar teeth separated from one another, with distinct pointed 
cusps, the middle cusp being the largest and slightly recurved. 
Muzzle compressed and elongated. 

Dentition. 1. f, 0. -J, M. -. x 2 = 32. 



e. F. Cuvier's name, Stenorhynchus, having been pre- 
viously employed by Latreille for a genus of Coleopterous Insects, 
it becomes necessary to adopt the term proposed by Dr. Peters. 

1. OGMORHINUS LEPTONYX, Blainville, sp. (1820). 
Sea Leopard- 

Above ashy-gray with large spots and patches of yellowish- 
white, or greenish-gray shading into creamy-white on the sides 
which are blotched and spotted with black. Throat and belly 
grayish- or yellowish- white, with or without small dark spots. 

Dimensions. Total length up to ten feet ; sexes not markedly 
different in size. 



130 OGMORHINU8. 

Habitat. Antarctic Ocean, occasionally straggling as far north 
as the southern shores of Australia and New Zealand ; Lord 
Howe Island. 

References. Gray, Voy. Erebus & Terr. Mamm. p. 4, pis. iii. 
iv. ; Gould, Mamm. Austr. iii. pi. 1. ; McCoy, Prodr. Zool. Viet, 
dec. iii. pi. xxi. 



Xi 



ID IE ix:. 



Species not represented in the Australian Museum are marked * against their 

names in the Index. 



*abramus (Vesperugo) 

acetabulum 

Acrobates 



PAGE 

... 89 
... xv. 
24, 36 
acromion ... ... ... ...xiii. 

aculeata (Echidna) ... ...3,4 

adversus (Vespertilio)... ... 93 

JEpyprymnus ... ... ... 43 

*affinis (Taphozous) ... 96, 97 

Agile Wallaby 54 

agilis (Macropus) ... 54, 62 
agilis (Ornithorhynchus) ... 2 

*albidus (Nyctonomus) ... 98 

albipes (Conilurus) ... ... 114 

albipes (Hapalotis) ... ... 114 

(Sminthopsis) ... ... 10 

*albocinereus (Mus) 108 

Allied Eat ... 105 

Alopecoid Carnivores ... ... 122 

Ambergris ... ... ... 65 

American Opossums ... ... ix. 

Amphilestes ... ... ... 8 

anatinus (Ornithorhynchus) ... 2 
annulus ... ... ... ... xiv. 

Anteater, Marsupial ... ... 8 

Anteaters ... ... ... xi., 61 

Antechinomys 9 

anterior limb ... ... ...xiii. 

antibrachium ... ... ...xiii. 

Antilopine Kangaroo ... ... 59 

*antilopinus (Macropus) ... 59 

Ape ix. 

Apes xii.,61 

apicalis (Conilurus) 116 

(Macropus) 57 

(Phascologale) ... 14 

apicalis (Potorous) ... ... 40 

archeri (Pseudochirus) ... 29 

Archer's Opossum ... ... 29 

Arctocephalus 127 

*argurus (Mus) 110, 115 

ariel (Petaurus) ... ... ... 34 

Armadillo 61 

Armadillos x., xiii., 60 

*aruensis (Hipposiderus) ... 85 

assimilis (Mus) ... 105 

astralagus ... ... ...xvi. 

atlas ... ... ... ... xi. 

*aurantia (Ehinonycteris) ... 84 
*aurata (Perameles) 23 



PAGE 

Australian Long-eared Bat ... 87 

Musk Eat 38 

Opossums ... ... 27 

Sea Bear 127 

Sea Lion ... ... 126 

Australian Water Rats ... ... 61 

australis (Balsena) ... ... 66 

* (Macroglossus) ... 81 
(Miniopterus) ... 95 
(Nyctonomus) ... 98 
(Petaurus) ... 33,34 

* (Taphozous) 96 

* (Vespertilio) 93 

australis (Halicore) ... ... 64 

(Manatus) ... ... xii. 

axis ... ... ... ... xii. 

Aye-Aye ... ... ... ... 61 



Balsena 66 

Balsenidse... ... ... xiii., 66 

Balaenoptera 68 

Baleen 66 

Baleen Whales ... ... ... 61 

Banded Hare- Wallaby... ... 44 

Bandicoot, Eastern Striped ... 21 

Golden 23 

Long-nosed... ... 22 

North Australian ... 22 

Pig-footed 20 

Short-nosed ... 23 

Tasmanian Striped.. 22 

Western Striped ... 21 
Bandicoots xiii., 4, 7, 19, 20, 21 
barbatus (Erignathus) ... ... 129 

Bat, Australian Long-eared ... 87 

Blackish-gray ... ... 91 

Brown Horseshoe ... 85 

Chocolate 90 

Dobson's 90 

Eastern Forest 94 

Fawn-colored Horseshoe ... 84 

Gould's 91 

Great Blood-sucking ... 86 

Greater Horseshoe ... 83 

Great-footed 93 

Grey's 92 

Krefft's 89 

Leche's 96 

Leche's White Striped ... 98 



132 



INDEX. 



Bat, Little 
Little Fruit 
Norfolk Island 
Orange Horseshoe 
Pallas' Fruit 

Peters' 

Pied 

Plicated 

Riippell's 

Schreibers'... 
Sharp-nosed 
Small-footed 
S inall-toothed 
Walker's ... 
White-striped 
Yellow-bellied 
,, Yellow-headed 
Batrachia... 

Bats ... ix., xii., xv., 

Bats, Fruit-eating 
Leaf -nosed 
Pteropine... 
Bearded Seal 
Bear, Australian Sea ... 
Bear, Native 
Bears 

Bear, White 
Beaver 

bennetti (Macropus) ... 
bennettianus (Dendrolagus) 
Bettongia 

bicolor (Hipposiderus) . . . 
billardieri (Macropus) ... 
Black -faced Kangaroo . . . 
gloved Wallaby... 
striped Wallaby... 
tailed Jerboa- Rat 
tailed Native Cat 
tailed Wallaby ... 
Blackish-gray Bat 
Blood -sucking Bat, Great 

Blue Eat 

bones, epipubic 

marsupial ... 
boops (Megaptera) 
Bottlenose, Southern ... 
Bottlenose Whale, Southern 
bougainvillii (Perameles) 
*boweri (Conilurus) 
Bower's Jerboa-Rat 
brachium ... 

brachyotis (Petrogale)... 
brachyurus (Macropus) 
Branchiostoma 
Branded Wallaby 
breviceps (Kogia) 

(Petaurus) ... 



PAGE 
.. 88 

.. 81 
.. 99 
.. 84 
.. 81 
.. 99 
... 91 
.. 98 
.. 92 
,.. 94 
... 96 
... 93 
... 90 
,.. 87 
... 98 
... 96 
... 89 
... xi. 
60, 61 
... 77 
... 82 
... 78 
... 129 
... 127 
... 26 
... xv. 
... 61 
... x. 
... 56 
... 45 
... 41 
... 85 
... 51 
... 60 
... 54 
... 55 
... 117 
... 15 
... 57 
... 91 
... 86 
... 110 
xv., 4 
xv., 4 
... 67 
... 76 
... 71 
... 21 
... 116 
... 116 
. .. xiii. 
... 49 
... 51 
... 7 
... 53 
... 70 
34 



breviceps (Phalanger) .., 
Bridled Wallaby 
Broad-faced Rat-Kangaroo 
Broad-toothed Rat 
*brunneus (Pteropus) ... 
Brush-tailed Kangaroo-Rat 
Rock- Wallaby 

Buff-footed Rat 

*burtoni (Mus) 

Burton's Rat 



Cachalot ... 

Ca'ing Whale 

calcaneum 

Caloprymnus 

*calura (Phascologale) . . . 

Camel 

campestris (Caloprymnus) 

cancrivorus (Canis} 

Canidae ... 

canine tooth 

caninus (Trichosurus) ... 

Canis 

Cape Bunting Dog 

Cape York Wallaby ... 

Carnivora 

Carnivores 



carpus 

*castaneus (Mus) 
castanotis (Choeropus) . . . 
Casuarina 
Casuarius... 

Cat 

catalania (Tursiops) 
Cat, Black-tailed Native 

,, Common Native ... 

North Australian Native 

Slender Native 

Spotted-tailed Native 
Cats, Native ... ... 7, 

Cattle 

caudal vertebrae ... 

central bone 

Cephalopods 

cephalotes (Uronycteris) 

Ceratodus... 

cervical vertebra ... 

cervinipes (Uromys) 

*cervinus (Conilurus) ... 

* (Hipposiderus) 

Cetacea xii., xiv., xvi., 60, 61, 

Cetaceans... ... xii., xv., 

Chalinolobus 
Chestnut-colored Rat ... 
chevron bones 
Chiroptera ... ... 60, 

Chocolate Bat ... 



PAGE 

. 4 
. 47 
. 39 
. 120 
. 79 
. 42 
. 50 
... 121 
... 107 
... 107 

... 69 
... 74 
... xvi. 
... 40 
... 12 

... XV. 

... 40 
... 123 
... 123 
... x. 
... 28 
... 123 
... 122 
... 53 
61, 122 
... xv. 
... xiv. 
... 112 
... 20 
... 117 
... 17 
...xiii. 
... 76 
... 15 
... 16 
15 

... 17 
... 17 
15, 18 
... 61 
,. xii. 



...xiv. 
... 65 
... 81 
... 9 
... xi. 
... 121 
... 120 
... 84 
64,65 
64,65 
... 89 
... 112 
... xii. 
61,77 
90 



INDEX 



133 



Chceropua 

ChrysochloridtB ... 
Chrysochloris 
chrysogaster (Hydromys) 
cinereus (Petaurcides) ... 
cinereus (Phascolarctus) 



PAGE 
... 20 

... XV. 

... 115 
101, 102 
... 32 
... 26 
clavicle ... ... ... ...xiii. 

80 
25 
74 
36 
3 

109 
45 
16 
10 
24 
30 
40 
57 
35 
48 
118 



Collared Flying-Pox 

Common Australian Wombat.. 

Dolphin 

Dormouse Opossum.. 

Echidna 

Field-Mouse 

Hare- Wallaby 

Native Cat 

Pouched Mouse 

Kabbit-Bandicoot .. 

Ring-tailed Opossum. 

Rat-Kangaroo 

Scrub- Wallaby 
concinna (Dromicia) 

(Petrogale) 

conditor (Conilurus) 

condyles ... ... ... ... xi. 

Conilurus ...110, 113, 114, 115 

conspicillatus (Lagorchestes)... 46 
*conspicillatus (Pteropus) 78, 80 
constructor (Conilurus) ... ... 114 

Cony xii. 

cooki (Pseudochirus) ... 29, 30 
coracoid ... ... ... ...xiii. 

costal cartilages ... ... ...xiii. 

coxeni (Macropus) ... ... 53 

cranium ... ... ... ... xi. 

crassicaudata (Sminthopsis) 
crassidens (Pseudorca) .. 
Crescent Wallaby 
cristicaudata (Phascologale) 
cuboid bone 
cuneiform bones ... 
cuniculus (Bettongia) ... 
Cuscus 

Cuscus, Gray 
Cuscus, Spotted... 
cynocephalus (Thylacinus) 
Cynoidea ... 
Cyan 



... 10 
... 74 
... 47 
11, 14 
... xvi. 
... xvi. 
... 41 
... ix. 
... 4 
... 27 
... 19 
... 122 
. 123 



Dactylopsila 
Dasypodidce 
Dasyures ... 
Dasyuridse 
Dasyurinse 
Dasyurus... 
decumanus (Mus)... 
Deer 
*delicatulus (Mus) 



24, 32 
... xii. 

7,18 
... 7 
... 9 
... 15 
103, 108 
ix., 61 

. 109 



Delphinapterus ... 
Delphinidffi 
Delphinus 
delphis (Delphinus) 
Dendrolagus 

densirostris (Mesoplodon) 
dental system 
dentition, Heterodont 
Homodont 
Devil, Tasmanian 
dicondylian articulation 
Didelphia 
Didelphyidce 
Dingo 

dingo (Canis) 
Diprotodon 
Diprotodontia 
Distaechurus 
Dog 
Dog, Native 



FAOl 

... 72 
65, 72 
... 7-4 
... 74 
17,44 
... 71 
... x. 
... x. 

... X. 

18, IL'5 
... xi. 
4, 60 

x.,4 

18, 61, 123, 124, 125 

123 

124, 125 

21 

24 

...xiii. 
. 123 



Dolphin ... ... ... ... 7 

Dolphin, Common ... ... 74 

Dusky-banded ... 75 
Forster's ... ... 75 

New Zealand .. ... 75 

Dolphins ... x., xi., xv., 60, 61, 65 

Dormouse-Opossum, Common... 36 

Lesser ... 36 

Western... 35 

dorsalis (Macropus) ... ... 55 

dorsal verterbrce ... ... ... xii. 

Dromicia... ... ... 24,35 

Duck-billed Platypus 2 

Dugong 60, 63 

dugong (Halicore) ... 63,64 

Dugongs 61,63 

Dusky-banded Dolphin ... 75 

Flying-Fox 79 

footed Rat . 10-1 



Eastern Forest Bat 

Striped Bandicoot 

Water Rat ... 
Echidna ... ... xi., 1, 

Common 
Echidnas ... 
Echidnidse 
ecto-cuneiform bone 
Edentata ... 
Elephants... 
Elephants, Sea 
Elsey's Jerboa-Rat 
Eniballonuridse ... 
Emballonurinae ... 
ento-cuneiform bone 
epidermis ... 
epipubic bones 



... 94 
... 21 
... 101 
3,6,7 
... 3 
... ix. 
... 3 
...xvi. 
,.. 60 
... 61 
... 128 
... 116 
... 95 
... 95 
. xvi. 
... ix. 
xv., 4 



134 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Eucalypti ... ... ... ...114 

eugenii (Macropus) ... ... 52 

Eutheria 60,100 

Eutherian Mammals ... ... x. 

extensor muscle ... ... ...xvi. 

eye-tooth ... ... ... ... x. 

fasciata (Perameles) ... ... 21 

fasciatus (Lagostrophus) ... 44 

(Myrmecobius) ... 8 

Fawn-colored Horseshoe Bat ... 84 

,, Jerboa-Eat ... 120 

femur ... ... ... xv.. xvi. 

ferrugineifrons (Shninthopsis) ... 11 
fibula ... ... ... xv., xvi. 

Field Mouse, Common... ... 109 

Fissipedia ... ... ... 122 

flavipes (Phnscologale)... ... 13 

flaviventris (Taphozous) ... 96 

Flying-Fox, Collared 80 

Dusky 79 

Gould's 79 

Gray-headed ... 78 

Spectacled ... 80 

Flying-Foxes 60, 61, 77 

Flyiag Opossum, Greater ... 31 

Lesser ... 32 

Pigmy ... 36 

Squirrel-like 34 

Yellow-bellied 33 

Flying Squirrels ... ... ... ix. 

fcetida (Phoca) 129 

foot ... ... ... ...xvi. 

foramen, obturator ... ... xv. 

Forest Bat, Eastern ... ... 94 

forsteri (Arctocephalus) ... 127 

(Delphinus) 75 

Forster's Dolphin 75 

Fox 122 

Freckled Pouched Mouse ... 14 
frenata (Onychogale) ... ... 47 

Fruit-Bat, Little 81 

Pallas' 81 

Fruit-eating Bats ... ... 77 

*fuliginosus (Macropus) ... 59 

(Trichosurus) ... 28 

fuliyinosus (Hydromys) ... ... 102 

,, (Sminthopsis) ... 10 

fulvifasciatus (Delphinus) ... 75 
fulvolavatus (Hydromys) ... 102 
fuscipes (Mus) ... ... ... 104 

*fuscus (Mastacoruys) ... ... 120 



*gadamu (Sotalia) 
gaioiardi (Bettongia) ... 
Gaimard's Rat-Kangaroo 
Gammarus 



77 

42 

42 

129 



PAOS 

geoffroyi (Dasyurus) ... ... 15 

geoffroyi (Nyctophilus) ... ... 87 

Giant Eat 121 

giganteus (Macropus) ... ... 59 

var. fuliginosus 

(Macropus) ... 59 

var. melanops 

(Macropus) ... 60 

*gigas (Megaderma) 86 

gilberti (Potorous) ... 39, 40 
Gilbert's Rat-Kangaroo ... 39 

girdle, pelvic ... ... ... xv. 

shoulder ... ... ...xiii. 

gladiator (Orca)... ... ... 73 

Globicephalus ... ... ... 74 

Golden Bandicoot ... ... 23 

Golden Mole, South African ... 115 

Gorilla 61 

gouldi (Chalinoiobus) ... ... 91 

(Mus) 107, 108 

* (Pteropus) ... 78, 79 
gouldi (Nyctophilus) ... ... 87 

Gould's Bat 91 

Flying-Fox 79 

Rat 107 

gracilis (Dasyurus) ... ... 17 

Gray Cuscus ... ... ... 4 

Gray-headed Flying-Fox ... 78 
grayi (Bettongia) ... ... 119 

grayi (Mesoplodon) ... ... 72 

Grayish-white Mouse ... ... 108 

Gray's White-footed Rat ... 107 
Great Blood-sucking Bat ... 86 
Greater Brush-tailed Pouched 

Mouse ... ... 12 

Flying Opossum ... 31 

Horseshoe Bat ... 83 

Great-footed Bat ... ... 93 

Gressigrada ... ... ... 126 

greyi (Macropus) ... ... 56 

(Mus) 108 

* (Scotophilus) 92 

Grey's Bat 92 

Rat 108 

Wallaby 56 

*griseooo3ruleus (Mus).. ... 110 
gunni (Perameles) ... 21, 22 

Gymnobelideus ... ... 24, 34 

Hairy- nosed Wombat ... ... 25 

Halicore 62, 63 

hallucatus (Dasyurus)... ... 15 

hallux ... ... ... ...xvi. 

Hapalotis 110, 113 

Hare- Wallaby, Banded ... 44 

Common ... 45 

Leichhardt's .. 48 



INDEX. 



135 



P1GX 

Hare-Wallaby, Eufous 45 

Spectacled ... 46 

hargravii (Taphozous) ... ... 96 

Harpyia ... ... ... ... 81 

Hedgehogs ... ... ... 61 

heinileucurus (Conilurus) ... 116 
herbertensis (Pseudochirus) ... 30 
Herbert River Opossum ... 30 

heterodont dentition ... ... x. 

Hipposiderinse ... ... ... 83 

Hipposiderus ... ... ... 84 

hirsutus (Conilurus) 117 

*hirsutus (Lagorchestes) ... 45 
ho/manni (Cholcepus) ... ... xii. 

homodont dentition ... ... x. 

Horse ... ... ... xv., 61 

Horse-shoe Bat, Brown ... 85 

Fawn-colored.. 84 

Greater ... 83 

Orange ... 84 

humerus ... ... ... ...xiii. 

Humpback Whale 67 

huttoni (Balsenoptera) 68 

Hydromyinae ... ... ... 100 

Hydromys ... 61, 100, 102, 103 

Hyperoodon ... ... 70, 71 

Hypsiprymnodon ... ... 38 

Hypsipryninodontinse 38 

Hyrax ... ... ... ... xii. 



ilium ... ... ... ... xv. 

incisors ... ... ... ... x. 

index ... ... ... ...xiv. 

Inia ... ... ... ... 64 

innominatum, os ... ... ... xv. 

inornata (Petrogale) ... ... 49 

Insectivora ... ... ... 61 

Insectivores ... ... ... x. 

insignis (Taphozous) ... 96, 97 

interclavicle ... ... ... 1 

irma (Macropus) ... 51, 54 

Isabelline Kangaroo ... ... 58 

*isabellinus (Macropus) 57, 58 

ischium .. xv. 



Jerboa Pouched Mouse... 

Jerboa-Eat, Black-tailed 
,, Bower's 

Elsey's 

Fawn-colored 

Krefft's ... 
Long-haired 

Long-tailed 

Mitchell's... 

Mouse-like 

Nest-building 

Peters' 



9 

117 
116 
116 
120 
118 
117 
119 
119 
118 
118 
115 



Jerboa- Eat, White-footed 
White-tipped 

Jerboas 
johnstonii (Trichosurus)... 



Kangaroo... 

Antilopine ... 
Black-faced ... 
Broad-faced Eat- 
Brush-tailed Eat- 
Comnion Eat- 
Gaimard's Eat- 
Gilbert's Eat- 
Isabelline 
Lesueur's Eat- 
O wen's 

Plain Eat- ... 
Queensland Tree- 

Eed 

Eufous-tailed Eat- 
Tasmanian ... 
Tasmanian Eat- 

Kangaroos 

Kerivoula 

Killer ... 

*kingi (Delphinapterus) 

knee-cap ... 



Kogia 
Koala 
kreffti (Vesperugo) 

Krefft's Bat 

Jerboa-Eat 

Pouched Mouse 



IX 



PAG 
. 114 
. 116 
. 114 
. 28 

. 59 
. 59 
. 60 
. 39 
. 42 
. 40 
. 42 
. 39 
. 58 
. 41 
. 57 
. 40 
. 44 
,. 58 
. 43 
. 59 
. 41 
,. 43 
. 93 
.. 73 
.. 73 
..xvi. 
.. 70 
,26 
89 
89 
118 
14 



Lagorchestes ... ... ... 45 

Lagostrophus ... ... ... 43 

lagotis (Peragale) ...21,24,119 

laniarius (Sarcophilus) ... ... 18 

laniger (Antechinomys) ... 9 

lanuginosus (Pseudochirus) ... 30 

late rails (Petrogale) ... ... 49 

latifrons (Phascolomys) ... 25 

lawesi (Echidna)... ... ...3, 4 

layardi (Mesoplodon) ... ... 71 

*leadbeateri (Gyrunobelideus) ... 35 

Lead beater's Opossum... ... 35 

Leaf -nosed Bats 82 

Leche's Bat ... ... 96 

White-striped Bat ... 98 

leg... ... ... ... ... xv. 

leichhardti (Lagorchestes) ... 46 

Leichhardt's Hare- Wallaby ... 46 

lemuroides (Pseudochirus) ... 31 

Lemurs ... ... ... ... 61 

Leopard, Sea ... ... ... 129 

*lepida (Dromicia) ... ... 36 

leporoides (Lagorchestes) ... 45 



136 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

leptonyx (Ogmorhinus) ... 129 

Lesser Brush-tailed Pouched 

Mouse 12 

Lesser Dormouse-Opossum ... 36 
,, Flying Opossum ... 32 

*lesueuri (Bettongia) ... 41, 42 
Lesueur's Rat-Kangaroo ... 41 
leucas (Delphinapterus) ... 73 

leucogaster (Phascologale) ... 13 
leucogaster (Hydromys) ... ... 101 

*leucopus (Mus) ... ... Ill 

(Sminthopsis) ... 11 

leucura (Echinothrix) ... ... 121 

*leucura (Peragale) ... ... 23 

leucurus (Echiothrix) ... ... 121 

limb, anterior ... ... ...xiii. 

posterior ... ... ... xv. 

limbs ... ... ... ... ix. 

lineolatus (Mus) 105 

Lion ... ... ... ... 61 

Lion, Australian Sea ... ... 126 

Little Bat 88 

Fruit Bat 81 

Pouched Mouse ... ... 13 

Eat 108 

Eock-Wallaby 48 

*lobatus (Zalophus) 125, 126, 127 

Long-eared Bat, Australian ... 87 

haired Jerboa-Eat ...117 

haired Eat 106 

nosed Bandicoot... ... 22 

snouted Pouched Mouse.. 37 
tailed Jerboa-Eat ... 119 

toothed Whale 71 

Long-tailed Pangolin ... ... xii. 

longicaudata (Manis) ... ... xii. 

longicaudatus (Conilurus) ... 119 

longipilis (Mus) 106 

lumbar vert ebrce ... ... ... xii. 

lumholtzi (Dendrolagus) ... 44 
lunata (Onychogale) ... ... 47 

lunar bone ... ... ...xiv. 

Lupine Carnivores ... ... 122 

Lycaon ... ... ... ... 122 

lyra (Megaderma) ... ... 86 

macrocephalus (Physeter) ... 69 

Macroglossi ... ... ... 80 

Macroglossus ... ... ... 81 

Macropodidse ... ... xii., 38 

Macropodina? ... ... ... 43 

Macropus ... ... ... 51 

macropus (Urornys) ... ... 121 

Macrorhinus ... ... ... 128 

*macrura (Perameles) ... ... 22 

*macrurus (Conilurus)... ... 115 

macrurus (Sminthopsis) ... ... 10 



PAGE 

maculata (Phascologale)... ... 13 

maculatus (Dasyurus)... 17, 18 

(Phalanger) 27, 62 

magnum ... ... ... ... xii. 

*magnus (Macropus) ... ... 57 

major (Macropus) ... ... 59 

Mammalia ... ... ... 104 

Mammals, Eutherian ... 60, 61 

Metatherian ... 4, 60 

,, Prototherian . . . ... 1 

Man ... ... ... xii., xiii. 

Manatee ... ... ... ... xii. 

Manatees ... ... ... 61, 63 

Manatus ... ... ... ... 62 

rnanicatus (Mus) ... ... 105 

Manidce ... ... ... x., xi. 

manus ... ... ... xiii., xiv. 

marginata (Neobalsena) ... 67 

Marsupial Anteater ... ... 8 

,, Mole 5, 115 

marsupial bones ... ... xv., 4 

Marsupialia ... ... ... 4 

Marsupials... x., xii., xiii., xv., xvi., 

6, 7, 60 
Marsupials, Mesozoic Polyproto- 

dont ... ... ... ... 8 

Marsupiata ... ... ...114 

Marsupium ... ... ... 4 

Massive-toothed Whale ... 71 

Mastacomys ... ... .. 120 

medius ... ... ... ...xiv. 

Medusce ... ... ... ... 65 

Megachiroptera... ... ... 77 

Megaderma ... ... ... 85 

Megaderminte ... ... ... 85 

megaphyllus (Ehinolophus) ... 83 

Megaptera ... ... ... 67 

melanops (Macropus) ... ... 60 

melas (Globicephalus)... ... 74 

meso-cuneiform bone ... ...xvi. 

Mesoplodon ... ... ... 71 

mesosternum ... ... ...xiii. 

metacarpus ... ... xiv., xv. 

metatarsus ... ... ...xvi. 

Metatheria ... ... 4, 114 

Mice 103 

Mice Pouched ... ... ... 7 

Microchiroptera .. ... ... 82 

microdon (Chalinolobus) ... 90 

microtis (Nyctophilus) ... ... 88 

*ruinima (Phascologale) ... 13 

minimus ... ... ... ...xiv. 

Miniopterus ... ... ... 94 

minor (Petauroides) ... ... 32 

minutissima (Phascologale) 12, 13 

mitchelli (Conilurus) ... ... 119 

(Phascolomys) ... 25 



INDEX. 



137 



P1QE 

Mitchell's Jerboa-Rat 119 

Molars ... ... ... x. 

Mole, Marsupial ... 5, 115 

South African Golden ... 115 

., Water 2 

Mole ix. 

Moles 61 

Molossinse 97 

Monach us ... ... ... ... 125 

Monkeys ... ... ... ix.,61 

Monodelphia ... ... ... 60 

Monotreuiata ... ... ... 6 

Monotremes ... ix., xv., 6, 7, 60 

morio (Chalinolobus) 90 

moschatus (Hypsiprymnodon) .. 38 
Mouse, Common Field... ... 109 

Common Pouched ... 10 
Freckled Pouched ... 14 

Grayish-white 108 

Greater Brush-tailed 

Pouched 12 

Jerboa Pouched ... 9 

Krefft's Pouched ... 11 
,, Lesser Brush-tailed 

Pouched 12 

Little Pouched 13 

Long-snouted Pouched 37 

Pigmy 109 

Pigmy Pouched ... 12 

,, Striped-faced Pouched.. 11 

Swainson's Pouched ... 14 

Thick -tailed Pouched... 10 

White-bellied Pouched.. 13 

White-footed Pouched.. 11 

Wooly Pouched ... 9 

Yellow-footed Pouched 13 

Mouse-like Jerboa-Rat... ... 118 

Muridaj 100, 102 

murina (Sminthopsis) ... ... 10 

Murinse 103 

murinus (Conilurus) ... ... 118 

murinus (Potorous) ... ... 40 

Mus 102,103, 110,112,113,114,120,121 
musculus (Mus) ... ... 103, 109 

Musk-Ox 61 

Musk Rat, Australian ... ... 38 

Mustelid<e... ... ... ... 15 

Myogale ... ... ... ... x. 

*myoides (Xerornys) ... ... 102 

Myrmecobius ... ... 4, 6, 8, 9 

Myrmecobiinae ... ... ... 8 

Myrmecophagidce... ... ... xi. 

Mystacoceti ... ... 64, 65 



Nail-tailed Wallaby 
nana (Dromicia) 
*nanus (Mus) ... 



48 

36 

108 



PAGE 

Narwlial x., 61 

nasuta (Perameles) ... 21, 22 

Native Bear 26 

Cat, Black-tailed ... 15 
Cat, Common ... ... 16 

Cat, North- Australian... 15 

Cat, Slender 17 

Cat, Spotted-tailed ... 17 

Cats 7, 15, 18 

Dog 123 

Porcupine ... ... 3 

Native Rabbit ... ... ...114 

navicular bone ... ... ...xvi. 

Nest-building Jerboa- Rat ... 118 
New Zealand Dolphin ... ... 75 

nigrogriseus (Chalinolobus) ... 91 
*norfolcensis (Nyctonomus) ... 99 

Norfolk Island Bat 99 

North- Australian Bandicoot ... 22 

Native Cat... 15 

notatus (Pelaurus) ... ... 34 

Notoryctes 5, 6, 7, 115 

Notoryctidse ... ... ... 5 

*novse-hollandi8e (Mus) ... 109 

novse-zealandiae (Delphinus) ... 75 
novce-zealandio? (Megaptera) ... 68 
Nycteridse ... ... ... 85 

Nyctonomus ... ... ... 97 

Nyctophilus 87 

obesula (Perameles) ... 21, 23 

obturator foramen ... ... xv. 

*occident'alis (Pseudochirus) ... 30 

ocydromus (Macropus) ... ... 59 

ogilbyi (Bettongia) ... ... 43 

Ogmorhinus ... ... ... 129 

Onychogale 47 

Oota 30 

opisthocoslous vertebra ... ... xi. 

Opossum, Archer's ... ... 29 

Common ... ... 28 

Common Dormouse... 36 

Common Ring-tailed 30 

Greater Flying ... 31 

Herbert River ... 30 

Leadbeater's ... 35 

Lesser Flying ... 32 

Lesser Dormouse ... 36 

Pigmy Flying ... 36 

Short-eared 28 

Squirrel-like Flying 34 

Sombre ... ... 31 

Striped 32 

Tasmanian ... ... 28 

Tasrnanian Ring-tailed 29 

Western Ringtailed.. 30 

Western Dormouse. . . 35 
Yellow-bellied Flying 33 



138 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Opossums, Australian 27 

Opossums ... ... ... ix., x. 

American ... ... ix. 

True ... ... ... 4 

Orange Horseshoe Bat... ... 84 

Orca 65, 73 

orientalis (Phalanger) ... ... 4 

Ornithodelphia ... ... 1, 60 

Ornithorhynchidae ... ... 2 

Ornithorhynchus ... 1, 2, 6, 7 

os innominatum ... ... ... xv. 

Otariidae 126, 128 

oweni (Echidna) ... ... ... 3 

Owen's Kangaroo ... ... 57 



*pachyurus (Mus) 

Pademelon 

Pallas' Fruit Bat 

Pangolin, Long-tailed 

Pangolins... 

*papuensis (Kerivoula) 

Papuina ... 

parrna (Macropus) 

parryi (Macropus) 

Parry's Wallaby 

patella 

pelvis 

penicillata (Bettongia)... 

(Petrogale) . . . 

(Phascologale) 

penicillatus (Conilurus) 
Peragale ... 
Perameles 

Peramelidse ... xiii., 
peregrinus (Pseudochirus) 
Perichcrta ... 
personatus (Conilurus) 



... 112 

... 52 
... 81 
... xii. 
x., xi. 
... 94 
... 17 
... 52 
... 55 
55 



pes... 

Petaurista . . . 
Petauroides 
Petaurus ... 

Peters' Bat 

, , Jerboa-Rat 
*petersi (Nyctonomus) . . . 
Petrogale... 
Phalanger 

Phalangeridse 

Phalangerina3 ... 
phalanges ... 
phalangigrade 
Phascolarctina? ... 
Phascolarctus 
Phascologale 
PhascolomyidcB ... 
Phascolomys 
Phascolotherium ... 
Phocidse ... 



... xvi. 
... xv. 
42, 43 
... 50 
... 12 
... 117 
... 23 
... 20 
4, 7, 19 
... 30 
... 17 
... 118 
... xv. 
... 31 
24, 31 

24, 33, 34 
... 99 
... 115 
... 99 
... 48 
4, 24, 27 
... 25 
... 27 

xiv., xvi. 

... xv. 

... 26 

... 26 

4, 6, 11 

... 24 

... 24 

... 8 

. 128 



PAGK 

Phyllorrhina 83,84 

Physeter 69 

Physeteridse ... ... ... 69 

Physete rinse ... ... ... 69 

picatus (Scotophilus) 91 

Pied Bat 91 

Pigmy Flying Opossum ... 36 

Mouse 109 

Pouched-Mouse 12 

Eight Whale 67 

Pig-footed Bandicoot ... ... 20 

Pilot Whale 74 

Pinnipedia ... ... 60, 125 

pisiform bone ... ... ... xiv . 

Placentalia ... ... ... 60 

Plain-colored Rock- Wallaby ... 49 

Plain Rat 105 

Rat-Kangaroo ... ... 40 

*planifrons (Hyperoodon) ... 71 
plantigrade ... ... ... xv. 

Platanista ... ... ... 69 

platyops (Potorous) 39 

Platypus ... ... ... ... 1, 2 

Platypus, Duck-billed 2 

Plecotus ... ... ... ... 87 

Plicated Bat 98 

*plicatus (Nyctonomus) ... 98 

Podabrus ... ... ... ... 10 

poliocephalus (Pteropus) ... 78 
pollex ... ... ... ...xiv. 

Polyprotodontia ... ... ... 4, 6 

Porcupine, Native ... ... 3 

Porcupines ... ... ... 61 

Porpoises ... ... ... ... 65 

posterior limb 

Potoroinse 

Potorous... 

Pouched- Mouse, Common 

Freckled 

Greater Brush- 

tailed 

Jerboa 

Krefft's 

Lesser Brush- 

tailed 

Little 

Long-snouted . 

Pigmy 

Striped-faced.. 

Swainson's ... 

Thick-tailed... 
White-bellied. 

White-footed .. 

Wooly 



Yellow-footed.. 



Pouched Mice 



xv. 
39 
39 
10 
14 

12 
9 
Id 

12 
13 
37 
12 
11 
14 
10 
13 
11 

9 
13 

7 



premolars ... ... ... ... X. 



INDEX. 



139 



presternum 
primcevus (Gyon)... 
Primates ... 
Proechidna 
Prototheria 
Prototherian Mammals . 

Pseudochirus 

Pseudorca 

Pteromys ... 

Pteropodidae 

Pteropine Bats 

Pteropus ... 

pubis 

pumilus (Vesperugo) ... 

pyginaeus (Acrobates) ... 

Quadrangular-tailed Eat 
Quadrumana 

Queensland Scrub-Wallaby 
Tree-Kangaroo 



PAGE 
...xiii. 
... 123 
... 61 
... 1 
ix., 1, 6 
... 1 
24,29 
... 73 
... 31 
... 77 
... 78 
... 77 
... xv. 
... 88 
... 36 

... 113 
... 61 
57 

44 



Babbit-Bandicoot, Common ... 24 

White-tailed 23 

Rabbit, Native ... ... ... 114 

Rabbits 61 

radial sesamoid bones ... ...xiv. 

radius ... ... ... ...xiii. 

ramsayi (Echidna) ... ... 3 

Rat ... ... ... ...viii. 

Eat, Allied 105 

Australian Musk ... ... 38 

Blue 110 

Broad-toothed 120 

Buff-footed 121 

Burton's 107 

Chestnut-colored... ... 112 

Dusky-footed 104 

Eastern Water 101 

Giant 121 

Gould's 107 

Gray's White-footed ... 107 

Grey's 108 

Little 108 

Long-haired ... ... 106 

Plain 105 

Quadrangular-tailed ... 113 

Short-tailed Ill 

Simson's ... ... ... Ill 

Sordid 106 

Swan's Ill 

Tasmanian Water ... 112 

Tawny 104 

Thick-tailed 112 

Thomas' 102 

Tompson's 109 

Velvet-furred 106 

Western Water . 102 



PAGE 

Eat, White-footed 105 

White-tailed 110 

Eat-Kangaroo, Broad-faced ... 39 
Brush-tailed ... 42 
Common ... 40 
Gaimard's ... 42 
Gilbert's ... 39 
Lesueur's ... 41 

Plain 40 

Eufous ... 43 

Tasmanian ... 41 
Eat-Kangaroos ... ... ... 39 

Eats 61, 103 

Rats, Australian Water ... ... 61 

Eed Kangaroo ... ... ... 58 

Eed-legged Wallaby 53 

Eed-necked Wallaby 56 

Wallaby, Tasmanian 56 

Rein-Deer... ... ... ... 61 

Eeptigrada ... ... ... 128 

Rhinoceroses ... ... ... x. 

Ehinolophidse ... ... ... 82 

Ehinolophinse ... ... ... 82 

Ehinolophus ... ... ... 82 

Ehinonycteris ... ... ... 83 

Rhododendron ... ... ... 17 

Rhytina ... ... ... ... 62 

Ribs, false... ... ... ...xiii. 

floating ... ... ...xiii. 

sternal ... ... ...xiii. 

,, true ... ... ... ...xiii. 

Eight Whale, Pigmy 67 

Southern ... 66 

Ringed Seal 129 

Eing-tailed Opossum, Common.. 30 

Opossum, Tasmanian 29 

Opossum, Western.. 30 

robustus (Macropus) ... ... 58 

Rock-Rabbit ... ... ... xii. 

Eock- Wallaby, Brush-tailed ... 50 

Little 48 

Plain-colored... 49 

Short-eared ... 49 

,, West Australian 49 

Yellow-footed .. 50 

Eodentia 61,99,100,104 

Rodents ... ... ... ... x. 

rostrata (Balcenoptera) ... ... 68 

rostratus (Tarsipes) ... ... 37 

rueppelli (Scotophilus) ... 92 

rufescens (CEpyprymnus) ... 43 
ruficollis (Macropus) ... ... 56 

var. bennetti (Macropus) 56 
Eufous-bellied Wallaby ... 51 

Hare-Wallaby 45 

Eat Kangaroo ... ... 43 

rufus (Macropus) ... ... 58 



140 



INDEX. 



rufus (Dendrolagus) 
(Potorous) ... 
Ruminants 
Ruppell's Bat ... 

sacral vertebrtz 



sacrum 
Sarcophiius 
scaphoid bone 
scapula 

scapulatus (Pteropus) ... 
Schreibers' Bat ... 
*schreibersi, (Miniopterus) 
sciureus (Petaurus) 
Scotophilus 
Scrub Wallaby ... 
Common 

,, Queensland 

Sea Bear, Australian ... 

Elephants .. 

Leopard 

,, Lion 

Seal 



Seals ... ix., xiii., 60, 

Eared 

Earless 
Seal, Bearded 

,, Ringed 
sesamoid bones 
setosa (Echidna] ... 
Sharp-nosed Bat 
Sheep 
Short-eared Opossum ... 

eared Rock-Wallaby 

headed Sperm Whale 

nosed Bandicoot . 

tailed Rat... 

tailed Wallaby ... 
shoulder-girdle ... 
Shrews 

*signifer (Chalinolobus) 
simsoni (Mus) ... 
Sinison's Rat 
Sirenia ... ... xvi., 60 

Sirenians ... 
skeleton 

appendicidar 
skull 
Slender Native Cat 

Sloths 

Sloth, Three-toed... 

,, Two-toed ... 
Small-footed Bat 

,, toothed Bat 

toothed Whale .. 
Suiiuthopsis 
Sminthus .. 



PAGE 

... 45 

... 40 

x. 

... 92 

... xii. 
... xv. 
... 18 
... xiv. 
...xiii. 
... 80 
... 94 
94, 95 
... 34 
... 91 
... 56 
... 57 
... 57 
... 127 
... 128 
... 129 
... 126 
... 61 
65, 125 
... 126 
... 128 
... 129 
... 129 
... xiv. 
...3,4 
... 96 
... 61 
... 28 
... 49 
... 70 
... 23 
... Ill 
... 51 
...xiii. 
... 61 
... 90 
... Ill 
... Ill 
, 61, 62 
xv., 62 
... xi. 
...xiii. 
... xi. 
... 17 
... 60 
... xii. 
... xii. 
... 93 
... 90 
... 72 
... 9 
. 100 



PAQK 

Sombre Opossum 31 

Sordid Rat 106 

sordidus (Mus) 106 

Soricidw ... ... ... ... xv. 

Sotalia 76 

Southern Bottlenose 76 

Bottlenose Whale ... 71 

Right Whale ... 66 

(White ?) Whale ... 73 

Spectacled Flying- Fox ... 80 

Hare Wallaby ... 46 

spelceus (Thylacinus) ... ... 19 

Sperm Whale 69 

Short-headed ... 70 

Sperm Whales ... ... 61, 65 

Spotted Cuscus 27 

Spotted- tailed Native Cat ... 17 
Squirrel-like Flying-Opossum.. 34 
Squirrels, Flying... ... ... ix. 

Stenorhynchus ... ... ... 129 

sternal ribs ... ... ...xiii. 

sternum ... ... ... ... xii. 

stigmaticus (Macropus) ... 53 

Striped-faced Pouched Mouse... 11 

,, Opossum ... ... 32 

structures, tegumentary ... ... ix. 

subplantigrade ... ... ... xv. 

Sulphur- bottom ... ... ... 68 

swainsoni (Phascologale) ... 14 
Swainson's Pouched Mouse ... 14 

Swan's Rat Ill 

Swine ... ... ... ... 61 

system, dental ... ... ... x. 

tabernaculi (Halicore) ... ... 63 

tail ... ... ... ... ix. 

Talpido2 ... ... ... ... xv. 

*tamarensis (Mus) ... 112, 113 

Taphozoiis 95, 97 

Tapir 61 

Tarsipedinse ... ... ... 37 

Tarsipes 26, 37 

tarsus ... ... ... ...xvi. 

Tasmanian Devil ... 18, 125 

Kangaroo ... ... 59 

Opossum ... ... 28 

Rat-Kangaroo ... 41 

Red-necked Wallaby 56 

Ring-tailed Opossum 29 

Striped Bandicoot .. 22 

Water Rat 112 

Wolf 19 

Wombat 25 

Tawny Rat 104 

tegumentary structures ... ... ix. 

terrse-reginae (Mus) ... ... 107 

*tetragonurus (Mus) 113 



INDEX. 



141 



PAGE 

thetidis (Macropus) ... ... 52 

Thick-tailed Pouched Mouse ... 10 

Eat 112 

thigh ... ... ... ... xv. 

Thomas' Rat 102 

Thooid Carnivores ... 122, 123 

thoracic vertebrae ... ... ... xii. 

thorbeckiana (Phascologale) ... 15 

Three-toed Sloth xii. 

Thylacine 7 

Thylacinus ... x., 4, 7, 18, 19 

Thylacoleo 124 

tibia ... ... ... ... xv. 

Tiger, Marsupial... ... ... x. 

timoriensis (Nyctophilus) ... 87 
titan (Macropus)... ... ... 125 

*tompsoni (Mus) 109 

Tompson's Eat 109 

Tortoises ... ... ... ... x. 

trapezium... ... ... ...xiv. 

trapesoid ... ... ... ...xiv. 

Tree-Kangaroo, Queensland ... 44 

Trichosurus 24, 27 

tridactylus (Potorous)... ... 40 

tridactylus (Bradypus) ... ... xii. 

trivirgata (Dactylopsila) 32, 62 

True Opossums ... ... ... 4 

tuberculatus (Chalinolobus) ... 90 

Tula 29 

Tursio 76 

Tursiops ... ... ... ... 76 

Two-toed Sloth ... ... ... xii. 

typhlops (Notoryctes) ... ... 5 

ulna 

ulna sesamoid bones 
unciform bone 
ungual phalanges. .. 

Ungulata 

Ungulates... 

unguligrade 

unicolor (Nyctophilus) ... 

Uromys ... 

Uronycteris 

*variabilis (Mus) 
vellerosus (Mus) ... 
*velutinus (Mus) 
*virginiae (Sniinthopsis) 



*\valkeri (Nyctophilus)... 

Walker's Bat ... ... 

Wallabies 

Wallaby, Agile ... 

Banded Hare- 
Black-gloved 
Black-striped 
Black-tailed .. 



...Xlll. 

. . . xiv. 
...xiv. 
...xiv. 
xi., 61 
... xii. 
... xv. 
... 87 
... 121 
... 80 

...111 
... 104 
... 106 
... 11 

... 87 

... 87 

... 43 

... 54 

... 44 

... 54 

... 55 
57 



PAGE 

Wallaby, Branded 53 

Bridled 47 

Brush-tailed Eock- ... 50 

Cape York 53 

Common Hare- ... 45 
Common Scrub ... 57 
Crescent ... ... 47 

Grey's ... ... 56 

Leichhardt's Hare-... 46 

Little Eock- 48 

Nail-tailed 48 

Parry's ... ... 55 

Plain-colored Eock-.. 49 
Queensland Scrub ... 57 
Eed-legged ... ... 53 

Eed-necked ... ... 56 

Eufous-bellied ... 51 
Eufous Hare- ... 45 

Scrub 56 

Short-eared Eock- ... 49 

Short-tailed 51 

Spectacled Hare- ... 46 
Tasmania n Eed-necked 56 
WestAustralian Eock- 49 
White-throated ... 52 
Yellow-footed Eock... 50 

Wallaroo 58 

Walrus ... ... ... ... 61 

Walruses 60,125,126 

Warrigal ... 123, 124, 125 

Water-Mole 2 

Water Eat, Eastern 101 

Tasmanian ... 112 

Western 102 

Water-Rats, Australian... ... 61 

Weasel ... ... ... ... 61 

West Australian Eock Wallaby 49 

Western Dormouse Opossum... 35 

Eing-tailed Opossum.. 30 

Striped Bandicoot ... 21 

Water Eat 102 

Whale, Ca'ing 74 

Hump-back ... ... 67 

Long-toothed ... ... 71 

Massive-toothed ... 71 

Pigmy Eight 67 

Pilot 74 

Small-toothed 72 

Southern Bottlenose ... 71 
Southern Eight ... 66 

Southern (White ?) ... 73 
Whale-bone ... 65, 66 



Whales 



Whales 
ix. 
Baleen 
Sperm 
Whalebone 



xiii., 65 
xiii., xv., 60, 65 

61 

61, 65 
xiii., 65 



142 



INDEX. 



White Bear 

White-bellied Pouched Mouse, 
footed Pouched Mouse., 
footed Rat 
footed Rat, Gray's 
footed Jerboa-Rat 
striped Bat 

striped Bat, Leche's .., 
tailed Rabbit-Bandicoot 
tailed Rat 
throated Wallaby 
tipped Jerboa-Rat 

wilcoxi (Macropus) 

williamsoni (Arctocephalus) 

Wolf 61, 

Marsupial ... 

Wolf, Tasmanian 

Wolves 



PAGE 

. 61 
. 13 

. 11 
. 105 
. 107 
. 114 
. 98 


Wombat, Common Australian.. 
Hairy-nosed ... 
Tasmanian ... 
Woolly Pouched-Mouse 

xanthopus (Petrogale) ... 
Xeromys ... 


PAGE 

25 
25 
25 

9 

50 
10'? 


. 98 
b 23 
. 110 

EO 


xiphisternum 
Yap-pi 


xiii. 
31 


. 116 
. 53 
. 127 
122 

X. 

. 19 


Yellow-bellied Bat 
bellied Flying-Opossum 
bellied Rock- Wallaby... 
footed Pouched Mouse.. 
headed Bat 


96 
33 
50 
13 

89 



X. 



Wombat ... ... ... ... ix. 

Wombats 24 



Zalophus 126 

Zeuglodons ... ... ... 65 

Ziphiinse 70 



F. W. WHITE, PRINTER, 
MARKET STREET, STDNET. 



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