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Full text of "Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field Museum of Natural History"

XI E> R.AFLY 

OF THE 
UNIVERSITY 

or ILLINOIS 

5^0.5 
FI 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XIII 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS 



PART X 
ICTERIDAE 



WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 
EDITOR 



PUBLICATION 381 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
APRIL 12, 1937 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XIII 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 
AND THE ADJACENT ISLANDS 

IN 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

INCLUDING ALL SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES KNOWN TO OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA, 

MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, SOUTH AMERICA, THE WEST INDIES, AND 

ISLANDS OP THE CARIBBEAN SEA, THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO, 

AND OTHER ISLANDS WHICH MAY BE INCLUDED ON 

ACCOUNT OF THEIR FAUNAL AFFINITIES 

BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS 



PART X 

ICTERIDAE 
WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OP ZOOLOGY 
EDITOR 



PUBLICATION 381 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
APRIL 12, 1937 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



v.13 



EDITOR'S NOTE 

As a matter of convenience, the present part of the "Catalogue 
of the Birds of the Americas" is confined to the treatment of the 
family Icteridae. As prepared by the author, the manuscript cover- 
ing this family was included with that of the Fringillidae, and only a 
single introduction was written. In this, he states that "the families 
treated are fairly circumscribed, but their further classification 
offers unusual difficulties. In the case of the Troupials, the author 
is bound to agree with the late Robert Ridgway's view that splitting 
into subfamilies serves no practical purpose, since no fast lines 
can be drawn between the minor groups proposed by certain 
systematists." 

Various museums and individuals, as heretofore, have cooperated 
in the preparation of this part by supplying material and information. 
Full acknowledgment to these will be made in the part (Part XI) 
devoted to the families Fringillidae, Ploceidae, Catamblyrhynchidae, 
and Paradiseidae, which will go to press in the near future. 

WILFRED H. OSGOOD 
January 5, 1937 



iii 



CONTENTS 



Orders, Families, and Genera Included in Part X 

ORDER PASSERIFORMES 
SUBORDER OSCINES 



FAMILY ICTERIDAE 

(Troupials) PAGE 

Ocyalus Waterhouse 1 

Zarhynchus Oberholser 2 

Clypicterus Bonaparte 4 

Gymnostinops Sclater 5 

Xanthornus Pallas 10 

Cacicus Lacepede 24 

Archiplanus Cabanis 35 

Amblycercus Cabanis 41 

Cassiculus Swainson 45 

Psomocolax Peters 46 

Tangavius Lesson 50 

Molothrus Swainson 54 

Macroagelaius Cassin 72 

Hypopyrrhus Bonaparte 73 

Quiscalus Vieillot 74 

Holoquiscalus Cassin 77 

Cassidix Lesson . . 88 



Euphagus Cassin 94 

Dives Cassin 96 

Ptiloxena Chapman 99 

Lampropsar Cabanis 100 

Icterus Daudin 102 

Gymnomystax Reichenbach 157 

Agelaius Vieillot 159 

Xanthopsar Ridgway 184 

Nesopsar Sclater 185 

Xanthocephalus Bonaparte 186 

Amblyramphus Leach 187 

Gnorimopsar Richmond 188 

Notiopsar Oberholser 192 

Pseudoleistes Sclater 194 

Leistes Vigors 197 

Pezites Cabanis 202 

Sturnella Vieillot 209 

Dolichonyx Swainson 220 



CATALOGUE 

OF 
BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



BY CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 



PART X 



Order PASSERIFORMES Continued 
Suborder OSCINES Continued 

Family ICTERIDAE. Troupials 
Genus OCYALUS Waterhouse 

Ocyalus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., "1840," p. 183, pub. July, 1841 
type, by monotypy, Cassicus (Ocyalus) popayanus Waterhouse=CsstCMS 
latirostris Swainson. 

Ocyalus latirostris (Swainson). SWAINSON'S OROPENDOLA. 

Cassicus latirostris Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 358, Dec. 31, 1837 
Peru (type in coll. of W. Hooker); 1 Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1867, p. 71 "New Grenada" (crit.). 

Cassicus (Ocyalus) popayanus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., "1840," 
p. 183, pub. July, 1841 "Popayan," Colombia, errore (type in coll. of 
Zoological Society of London, now in British Museum). 

Ocyalus latirostris Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 427, 1850 "Brazil, 
Pebas" (descr.); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 127, 1862 "Upper 
Amazon"; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 
upper Ucayali, near Cashaboya, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Nauta, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 265 Peru (Nauta, upper Ucayali, Chamicuros, 
Santa Cruz); Sclater, Ibis, (5),1, 1883, p. 146 Peru (Nauta, Sarayacu, 
Chamicuros, Santa Cruz, Iquitos), Ecuador (Sarayacu), and "Popayan" 
(monog.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 402, 1884 Peru (Nauta, upper 
Ucayali, Chamicuros, Santa Cruz); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 311, 1886 Colombia ("Popayan"), Ecuador (Sarayacu), and Peru 
(Iquitos, upper Ucayali, Sarayacu, Nauta); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 86, 1922 near Archidona, Ecuador; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 690, 1926 eastern Ecuador. 

Present location unrecorded. The type may be either at Liverpool or at 
Cambridge (Engl.). 



2 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Ecuador 1 and northeastern 
Peru. 2 

Genus ZARHYNCHUS Oberholser 3 

Eucorystes (not of Bell, 1862) Sclater, Ibis, (5), 1, p. 147, 1883 type, by 

monotypy, Cacicus wagleri Gray and Mitchell. 
Zarhynchus Oberholser, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 215, 1899 new 

name for Eucorystes Sclater, preoccupied. 

*Zarhynchus wagleri wagleri (Gray and Mitchell). WAGLER'S 
OROPENDOLA. 

Cacicus wagleri Gray and Mitchell, Genera of Birds, 2, p. 342, pi. Ixxxv, 
October, 1844 no type or locality indicated (the type in the British 
Museum is from Coban, Guatemala). 4 

Zarhynchus wagleri mexicanus Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 151 , 
1901 Motzorongo, Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 178, 1902 southern Mexico 
to Guatemala (monog.); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
p. 112, 1907 Finca Chapulco, near Los Amates, Guatemala; Austin, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 392, 1929 Cayo District, British Hon- 
duras; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 337, 1932 Chiloma 
and San Pedro, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 386, 
1932 Guatemala (Finca Sepur, Finca Sepacuite, Secanquim, Finca 
Concepcion). 

Ocyalus wagleri Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 228 San Andres 
Tuxtla, Vera Cruz, Mexico; Moore, I.e., 1859, p. 57 Chiloma, Hon- 
duras; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 19 Cahabon, Guatemala; Salvin, 
Ibis, 1861, p. 141 Lanquin, Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 127, 1862 Guatemala; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 837 Honduras. 

Cassicus wagleri Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 72 part, 
Mexico. 

Ocyalus waglerii Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 553, 1869 
Cerro de la Defensa, Vera Cruz, Mexico; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 
(n.s.), 25, p. 45, 1878 Guatemala. 

1 The locality "Popayan" (in the Temperate zone of Colombia!) is unques- 
tionably erroneous. 

2 Material examined. Ecuador: Archidona, 1. Peru: Maynas, 1; Iquitos, 
2; Rio Contanamo, Rio Ucayali, 2. 

3 This genus hardly deserves recognition, Z. wagleri being clearly the western 
and northern representative of Ocyalus latirostris. 

4 Careful examination of the series in the British Museum by Mr. N. B. 
Kinnear, to whom I am greatly indebted for his assistance in the matter, led to an 
unexpected result. Gray's type, a male presented by Leadbeater in 1843 and 
marked "Coban(?)," proved to be an example of the northern form with dark chest- 
nut head and rump, agreeing well with individuals from Teapa (Chiapas) and 
Choctum (Guatemala). Z. w. mexicanus thus becomes a synonym of C. wagleri, 
and the paler form of southern Central America to Ecuador needed a new name. 
This was recently provided by van Rossem, who independently came to the same 
conclusion by personal examination of the type specimen. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 3 

Eucorystes wagleri Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 147 part, Mexico (Vera Cruz) to 
Honduras; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 312, 1886 part, spec, 
a-f, Mexico and Guatemala (Coban, Choctum); Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 436, 1886 part, Mexico (Cerro de la 
Defensa), Guatemala (Cahabdn, Lanquin, Choctum), and Honduras 
(Chiloma, San Pedro); Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, p. 222, 
1899 Chocan River, Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera 
Cruz (Cerro de la Defensa, Motzorongo) and Chiapas (Teapa), 
Guatemala, British Honduras, and Honduras. 1 

1: Guatemala (Los Amates, 1). 

*Zarhynchus wagleri ridgwayi van Rossem. 2 PALE-NAPED 
OROPENDOLA. 

Zarhynchus wagleri ridgwayi van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 405, 
Dec., 1934 Limon, Costa Rica (type in the California Institute of 
Technology, Pasadena). 

Ocyalus wagleri (not Cacicus wagleri Gray and Mitchell) Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Avium, 1, (2), p. 427, 1850 "Venezuela" (diag.); Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1855, p. 153 "Bogota," Colombia; Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 138 Rio Truando and Rio Nercua, 
Colombia; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 
Panama Railroad; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 9, 1861 Costa Rica; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 353 Panama; Salvin, 
I.e., 1867, p. 142 Santa Fe, Veragua; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 9, p. 104, 1868 Costa Rica (San Jose 1 , Turrialba, San Carlos); 
Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 302, 1869 Costa Rica (San Mateo, Agua- 
cate, Or6si); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 190 Chitra and 
Calobre, Veragua; Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 317 Chontales, Nicaragua; 
Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 58 Orosi, Costa Rica; Sclater 
and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 508, pi. 43, fig. 3 (egg) Pocune" and Remedios, 
Colombia; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 393, 1882 San Jose" 
to Puntarenas, Costa Rica; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 476 Santo Do- 
mingo, Ecuador (habits). 

Cassicus wagleri Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 72 part, 
Costa Rica (San Jose, Angostura, Turrialba, San Carlos), Panama, and 
"New Grenada." 

Eucorystes wagleri Sclater, Ibis, (5), 1, 1883, p. 147 part, Nicaragua (Chontales), 
Costa Rica, Veragua, Panama, Colombia (Antioquia), and Ecuador 
(Balzar); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 312, 1886 part, spec, g-s, 
Nicaragua (Chontales), Costa Rica (Tucurriqui), Panama (Santa Fe, 

^Material examined. Mexico: Vera Cruz (unspecified), 1. Guatemala: 
Los Amates, 1; Coban, 4; unspecified, 2. Honduras: San Pedro, 1; La Pita, 1; 
Chamelicon, 2. 

^Zarhynchus wagleri ridgwayi van Rossem: Similar toZ. w. wagleri, but chest- 
nut of head, rump, and flanks decidedly paler, particularly in the female sex. 
The alleged divergency in the width and shape of the frontal shield proves to be 
individual rather than geographic. 



4 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chitra, Chiriqui, Lion Hill), Ecuador (Balzar), Colombia (Pocune), and 
"Peru (Piura)"; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 436, 
1886 part, Nicaragua south to Colombia and Ecuador; Zeledon, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 Costa Rica (Alajuela, Cartago); 
Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 249, 1892 San Jose, Costa Rica (descr. of young); 
Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 493, 1893 Costa Rica (San 
Juan River, Rio Frio) and Nicaragua (Rio Escondido); Salvadori and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 28, 1899 Rio Peripa, 
Ecuador. 

Zarhynchus wagleri Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 2, p. 34, 1900 Loma 
del Leon, Panama; idem, Auk, 18, p. 370, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui, Panama; 
Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 279, 1910 Costa Rica 
(Turrialba Station, Guayabo, Coliblanco); Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. 
Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 107, 1911 Lelia (Santo Domingo), 
Ecuador; Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 320, 1924 Panama (Tiger Hill and New 
Culebra); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 58, pp. 123-166, 1928 
Panama (ecology). 

Zarhynchus wagleri wagleri Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
176, 1902 part, Nicaragua to Colombia and Ecuador; Thayer and Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 221, 1906 savanna of Panama; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 835, 1910 Costa Rica (habits, nest, and 
eggs); Crandall, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 342, 1914 Costa Rica (nest and 
eggs); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 623, 1917 Colombia 
(Novita, Barbacoas, Buenavista, Puerto Valdivia, La Frijolera); Bangs 
and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 1922 Jesusito, Darien; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 691, 1926 Esmeraldas, Ecuador; 
Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 38, p. 463, 1928 Almi- 
rante, Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 343, 1931 Almi- 
rante, Panama; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 369, 1932 Perme" and Ranchon, 
Panama; Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 247, 1932 Eden and 
Great Falls, Pis Pis River, Nicaragua. 

Range. Tropical zone of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, 
western Colombia (east into Antioquia), and western Ecuador. 1 

11: Costa Rica (Coliblanco, 1; Guayabo, 1; Limon, 1; Peralta, 
Limon, 2; San Jose", 1; Turrialba, Cartago, 2); Panama (Colon, 1); 
Colombia (Puerto Valdivia, Rio Cauca, Antioquia, 1; Novita, Rio 
San Juan, Cauca, 1). 

Genus CLYPICTERUS Bonaparte 

Clypicterus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 426, end of 1850 type, 

by monotypy, Cassicus oseryi Deville. 
Clypeicterus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 750, 755 

(emendation). 

'The reported occurrence in "Piura," northwestern Peru, requires confirma- 
tion. The fact that the bird is not infrequently seen in native "Bogota" collec- 
tions speaks for its existence in the Magdalena Valley, although it has not yet 
been obtained by any traveler in that region. Costa Rica birds agree with others 
from Ecuador. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 5 

Clypicterus oseryi (Deville). OSERY'S OROPENDOLA. 

Cassicus oseryi Deville, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 1, p. 57, 1849 Pebas, Peru 
(type in Paris Museum examined); Des Murs, in Castelnau, Exp. Ame>. 
Sud, Ois., livr. 17, p. 66, pi. 18, fig. 3, 1856 Pebas; Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 72 (ex Deville). 

Clypicterus oseryi Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 426, 1850 Pebas. 

Clypeicterus oseryi Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 
750, 755 Xeberos, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 146 Peru (Pebas, 
Xeberos, Chamicuros) and Ecuador (Sarayacu); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 
2, p. 402, 1884 Peru (Xeberos, Chamicuros, Pebas); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 310, 1886 Peru (Chamicuros, Huallaga, Pebas) and 
Ecuador (Sarayacu, Andoas); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 
112, 1906 Saniaca and Rio Cadena [Paucartambo], Peru; Hellmayr, 
Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 33, 1920 Chaquimayo, Carabaya, 
Peru; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 690, 1926 Rio Suno, 
Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 242, 1932 
Sarayacu, Ecuador. 

Clypeicterus oserii Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 265 
Chamicuros and Xeberos, Peru; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 476 mouth 
of the Coca, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Ecuador and eastern Peru, 
south to Carabaya. 1 

Genus GYMNOSTINOPS Sclater 

Gymnostinops Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 312, 1886 type, by subs, 
desig. (Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 178, 1902), Cacicus 
montezuma Lesson. 

*Gymnostinops montezuma (Lesson). MONTEZUMA 
OROPENDOLA. 

Cacicus montezuma Lesson, Cent. Zool., livr. 2, p. 33, pi. 7, Oct., 1830 
Mexico (type now in coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia; cf. Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 139, and 1867, 
p. 71, also Stone, I.e., 51, p. 61, 1899). 

Cacicus montezumae Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, p. 300 Cordova, 
Vera Cruz (diag.); idem, I.e., 1858, p. 358 "Tanlavi" [=Taulevi], Hon- 
duras; Moore, I.e., 1859, p. 57 Omoa, Honduras; Sclater, I.e., 1859, p. 365 
Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 19 Taulevi, 
Honduras, and Iguana (near Izabal), Guatemala; Taylor, Ibis, 1860, 
p. Ill Taulevi, Honduras. 

Cassicus montezumae Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 71 
Mexico (Vera Cruz), Nicaragua (San Juan), and Costa Rica (Angostura, 
San Carlos). 

1 Material examined. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 1; mouth of the Rio Coca, 1. 
Peru: Pebas, 1 (the type); Chaquimayo, 2; Marcapata, 2; Rio Cadena (Paucar- 
tambo), 1. 



6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ostinops montezumae(a) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, p. 380 
Playa Vicente, Oaxaca; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 139 
Mexico and Nicaragua (descr.); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 128, 
1862 Jalapa; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 
Panama Railroad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 
p. 353 Panama; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 279 Bluefields River, Nicaragua; 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 104, 1868 San Carlos and 
Angostura, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 202, 1869 Costa 
Rica (San Carlos, Angostura, Sarapiqui, Tucurriqui); Sumichrast, Mem. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 553, 1869 hot region of Vera Cruz; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 836 Honduras; Boucard, 
I.e., 1878, p. 58 Costa Rica (San Carlos and Naranjo); idem, Ann. Soc. 
Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 45, 1878 Guatemala; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 
148 Mexico to Panama (monog.); Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, 
pp. 383, 401, 1884 Sucuya and Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; Ferrari-Perez, 
I.e., 9, p. 149, 1886 Actopam, Barra de Santa Ana, and Paso de la 
Milpa, Vera Cruz. 

Gymnoslinops montezumae(a) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 313, 1886 
Mexico to Panama (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 437, 1886 Mexico to Panama; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 Jimenez and Cartago, Costa Rica; Goss, 
Auk, 5, p. 27, 1888 Santo Tomas, Guatemala (habits, nest, and eggs); 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 588, 1888 Segovia River, Hon- 
duras; Richmond, I.e., 16, p. 494, 1893 Nicaragua (habits, song); idem, 
I.e., 18, p. 630, 1896 Alta Mira, Tamaulipas; Underwood, Ibis, 1896, 
p. 437 Miravalles, Costa Rica; Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, 
p. 223, 1899 Santo Tomas, Guatemala; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 180, 1902 (monog.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, 
p. 154, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. 
Ser., 1, p. 112, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala; Ferry, I.e., p. 279, 1910 
Guayabo, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 834, 1910 
Costa Rica (Guayabo, Turrialba, Jimenez, Carrillo, Miravalles, Gua- 
piles, La Hondura); Peters, Auk, 30, p. 378, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quin- 
tana Roo; Crandall, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 339, 1914 Costa Rica 
(habits, nest, and eggs); Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 28, 1919 
Costa Rica (Sipurio, Talamanca) and Nicaragua (G. Granada and Los 
Isletoz, I. de Vega); Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
38, p. 464, 1928 Almirante, Panama; Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
69, p. 392, 1929 Mountain Cow, Cayo District, British Honduras; 
Peters, I.e., 69, p. 474, 1929 Tela and Lancetilla, Honduras; idem, I.e., 
71, p. 343, 1931 Sixaola, Almirante Bay, Panama; Huber, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 247, 1932 Eden, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 337, 
1932 Lancetilla, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 
386, 1932 Puebla, Guatemala. 

Cassicus bifasciatus (not of Spix) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 
427, 1850 part, Mexico. 

Ostinops bifasciata Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 187, 1851 Mexico. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico (in states of 
Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, and Quintana Roo), Guatemala, 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 7 

British Honduras, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, 
east to the Canal Zone. 

21: Mexico (unspecified, 1); British Honduras (La Tita, 1); 
Honduras (San Pedro Sula, 1); Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal, 5; 
Bobos, Izabal, 2); Costa Rica (Guayabo, 9; Sipurio, 1); Panama 
(Aspinwall, Canal Zone, 1). 

Gymnostinops cassini Richmond. 1 CASSIN'S OROPENDOLA. 

Gymnostinops cassini Richmond, Auk, 15, p. 327, 1898 Camp Albert, Rio 

Truando, Colombia (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 181, 1902 Rio Truando. 
Ostinops guatimozinus (not of Bonaparte) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., 1860, pp. 138, 139 Rio Truando (descr.); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, 

p. 149 part, Rio Truando. 

Cassicus guatimozinus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 71 
part, "younger" specimen from the Rio Truando. 

Gymnostinops guatimozinus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 439, 1886 part, Camp Albert, Rio Truando. 

Range. Northwestern Colombia (Camp Albert, on the Rio 
Truando). 

Gymnostinops guatimozinus (Bonaparte). BLACK OROPENDOLA. 

Ostinops guatimozinus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Nat. Sci. Paris, 37, 
p. 833, Dec., 1853 "Guaripata" [= Garrapata, lower Magdalena River], 
Colombia (type in Paris Museum examined); idem, Not. Orn. Coll. 
Delattre, p. 10, 1854 (reprint); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 149 part, Colombia 
(Guaripata, Remedios). 

Cassicus guatimozinus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 71 
part, Turbo, Colombia. 

Ostinops guatemozinus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 
508 Remedios, Antioquia, Colombia (eggs descr.). 

Gymnostinops guatimozinus Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 314, 1886 
Remedios; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 439, 
1886 part, Turbo and Remedios, Colombia; Robinson, Flying Trip to 
Tropics, p. 160, 1895 lower Magdalena River; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 182, 1902 northern Colombia (monog.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 623, 1917 Colombia (Alto 
Bonito, lower Atrato; Malena, Magdalena Valley) and eastern Panama 
(El Real, Tapaliza, Chepigana). 

1 Gymnostinops cassini Richmond, of which I examined the type several 
years ago, differs from G. guatimozinus very strikingly by much longer and stouter 
bill, light-colored basal portion of frontal "casque," and chestnut sides of the body. 
In coloration, it is in fact to a certain extent intermediate to G. montezuma. Its 
occurrence in the range of G. guatimozinus, which it resembles in the development 
of the narrow, recumbent crest feathers, and the fact that the type remains 
unique cast serious doubts on its validity. 



8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Panama (Rio Tuyra, Darien), 
and northern Colombia (Alto Bonito, lower Atrato; Turbo; Remedies, 
Rio It; Garrapata and Malena, Rio Magdalena). 1 

Gymnostinops bifasciatus (Spix). 2 SPIX'S OROPENDOLA. 

Cassicus bifasciatus Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 65, pi. 61, 1824 "in 
sylvis prope Maranhao et Param," Brazil (type in Munich Museum 
examined); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 427, 1850 part, 
Brazil; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 70 Para (descr., 
crit.). 

Psarocolius bifasciatus Wagler, Syst. Av., fol. 22, p. [3], spec. 2, 1827 
Brazil (monog.). 

Ostinops bifasciatus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 139 
Para (descr.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 192, 1870 Para; Sclater, Ibis, 
1883, p. 149 Para (crit.). 

Gymnostinops bifasciatus Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 313, 1886 
Lower Amazonia; Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, 
No. 3, p. 612, 1906 Par (crit.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 393, 
1907 (range); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 523, 1908 Arumatheua, 
Rio Tocantins; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
26, No. 2, pp. 17, 88, 1912 Peixe-Boi and Para, Para (crit.); Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 417, 1914 Para and Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua). 

Range. Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon River, from the 
Rio Tocantins east to Para and probably the adjoining parts of 
Maranhao. 

Gymnostinops yuracares neivae Snethlage. 3 NEIVA'S 
OROPENDOLA. 

1 Specimens from the Tuyra Valley in eastern Panama are stated by Chapman 
to be identical with others from Colombia. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Guaripata," 1 (the type); Remedies, 2; 
Alto Bonito, 1. 

2 Gymnostinops bifasciatus (Spix) is closely similar to G. montezuma, but differs, 
nevertheless, by brighter rufous under parts, the tibial feathers notably being 
bright rufous like breast and under tail coverts instead of mainly dusky, and by 
lacking the feathered stripe across the bare space on the sides of the head. Fur- 
thermore, this area seems to be uniform flesh-color, while in G. montezuma the 
portion above the dividing feathered stripe is for the greater part or wholly light 
bluish. Spix's Oropendola, besides, possesses, like G. guatimoziniis, in the middle 
of the crown a number of lengthened, narrow crest feathers, which, if present at 
all, are barely suggested in G. montezuma. 

There is so much general resemblance in coloring and pattern that, notwith- 
standing certain structural characters, one is tempted to regard G. montezuma, 
G. guatimozinus, and G. bifasciatus as mere geographical representatives of a single 
specific entity, but, until the status of the puzzling G. cassini has been ascertained, 
they may provisionally be accorded specific rank. 

Material examined. Brazil: Para, 3; Peixe-Boi, 1. 

3 Gymnostinops yuracares neivae Snethlage: Very similar to G. y. yuracares, 
but darker throughout; the pileum deep olive with almost blackish crest feathers; 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 9 

Gymnostinops neivae Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 73, p. 265, 1925 Rio Iriri, 
westerly tributary of the Rio Xingu, Brazil (type, now in Berlin Museum, 
examined). 

(l)Ostinops yuracarium (not Cassicus yuracares Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny?) 
Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 79, 1876 Santarem. 

(l)Gymnostinops yuracarium Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 
Santarem (ex Allen). 

Range. Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon, in State of Para 
(on the Rio Iriri, a westerly affluent of the Rio Xingu, extending 
possibly to the Rio Tapajoz). 

*Gymnostinops yuracares yuracares (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 
OLIVE OROPENDOLA. 

Cassicus yuracares Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 2, 1838 Yuracares, Bolivia (types in Paris Museum examined); 
d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 365, pi. 51, fig. 1, 1844 Yura- 
cares; Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 293, 1844 Peru; idem, Faun. 
Peru., Aves, p. 230, 1846 wooded region of Peru; Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 427, 1850 Bolivia. 

Cassicus devillii Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 427, end of 1850 
Pebas, "Brazil" [ = Peru] (type in Paris Museum examined; descr. of 
female); Des Murs, in Castelnau, Exp6d. Amer. Sud, Ois., livr. 18, p. 67, 
pi. 19, fig. 1, 1856 Pebas. 

Cassicus yuracarium Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 69 
"New Grenada," Rio Napo, and Bolivia (monog.). 

Cacicus yuracarius Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 265 Rio 

Javarri. 
Cacicus yuracarium Sclater, I.e., 1858, p. 72 Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

Ostinops devillii Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 128, 1862 Barra do Rio 
Negro, Brazil. 

Ostinops yuracarium Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 128, 1862 upper 
Amazon; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 Rio 
Ucayali, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 192, 1870 Engenho do Gama 
and Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 185 Cosnipata, Peru; idem, I.e., p. 265 upper and 
lower Ucayali, Sarayacu, Chamicuros, and Santa Cruz, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1879, p. 608 Yuracares, Bolivia; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 150 Bolivia 
and Matto Grosso north to "Bogota" (monog.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 
2, p. 403, 1884 Peruvian localities. 

the sides of the head and neck darker olive; the green of the throat, breast, and 
upper back also darker, less yellowish. Otherwise exactly like the typical race. 
Wing (female), 202; tail, 155; bill, 54^. 

By the dusky coloration of the head this form would seem to mark a step in 
the direction of G. bifasciatus. 

Material examined. Brazil: Rio Iriri, 1 (the type). 



10 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Gymnostinops yuracarium Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 314, 1886 
Bolivia, Matto Grosso (Engenho do Gama), Ecuador (Sarayacu), Barra 
[do Rio Negro], and "Bogota"; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 28, 1899 Rio Santiago, Ecuador; Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 112, 1906 Rio Cadena, Marcapata, Peru; 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 11, 1908 Rio Purus; idem, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 417, 1914 Rio Purus. 

Gymnostinops yuracares Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 84, 1889 
lower Beni, Bolivia; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 30, 1902 
Suapure and Nicare, Caura River, Venezuela; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
6, p. 433, 1905 Rio Jurua; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 393, 1907 
Rio Jurua (range); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 282, 1910 Maroins, 
Rio Machados, Brazil; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 
624, 1917 Florencia and La Morelia, Colombia (crit.); idem, I.e., 55, 
p. 691, 1926 Rio Napo, Rio Suno, and below San Jose, Ecuador; Laub- 
mann, Wissens. Ergeb. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 279, 1930 
Buenavista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 

Gymnostinops yuracares caurensis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 26, p. 170, 
1913 Rio Mocho, Caura, Venezuela (type in Carnegie Museum, Pitts- 
burgh); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 203, 1916 Suapure, 
Nicare, and Rio Mocho, Venezuela. 

Gymnostinops yuracares yuracares Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
60, p. 389, 1930 Campos Novos, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Amazonia, from the eastern slope of the east Colombian 
Andes and southern Venezuela (Caura Valley) through eastern 
Ecuador, Peru, and western Brazil south to Bolivia and western 
part of Matto Grosso, east to the Rio Negro and Rio Madeira 
(Rio Machados). 1 

1: Bolivia (Jatumpampa, 1). 

Genus XANTHORNUS Pallas 

Xanthornus Pallas, 2 Spic. Zool., fasc. 6, p. 1, 1769 type, by virtual mono- 
typy, Xanthornus decumanus Pallas. 

further subdivision of the Olive Oropendola seems to me impracticable, 
and I am unable to discover any constant difference between four Caura examples 
(caurensis) and a series from Amazonia, although the Venezuelan birds may have 
on average slightly weaker bills. Color is exceedingly variable in the same locality, 
decidedly yellowish and more greenish individuals being found alike in Bolivia, 
Brazil, and Venezuela. Specimens from the Rio Machados are perhaps more 
greenish than all the rest, but the divergency is insignificant. C. devillii, of which 
I have seen the type, is merely the female of G. yuracares. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Yuracares, 2 (the types); Juntas, 
Cochabamba, 1; Buenavista, Santa Cruz, 1. Peru: Marcapata, 4; Pebas, 1 
(type of C. devillii); Ucayali River, 2; Chuchurras, Dept. Huanuco, 1. Brazil: 
Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore, Matto Grosso, 5; Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, 
2; Maroins, Rio Machados, 6. Ecuador: Rio Napo, 2; Rio Santiago, 1. Colom- 
bia: "Bogota," 3. Venezuela, Caura River: Suapure", 3; Nicare, 1. 

2 Xanthornus Pallas was originally proposed as a substitute for Icterus Brisson 
and, consequently, regarded as synonymous with that term. According to the 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 11 

Psarocolius Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 22, 1827 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, 
Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 68, 1855), Oriolus cristatus "Gmelin"= Xan- 
thornus decumanus Pallas. 

Ostinops Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 187, October, 1851 type, by subs, 
desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 148), Xanthornus decumanus Pallas. 

*Xanthornus decumanus insularis (Dalmas). 1 CARIBBEAN 
CRESTED OROPENDOLA. 

Ostinops decumanus insularis Dalmas, Mm. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 137, 
1900 Tobago Island (descr. of first annual plumage; type in coll. of 
R. de Dalmas, now in Munich Museum); Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 63, p. 39, 1919 Tobago, Trinidad, and Paria Peninsula, 

Venezuela (crit.). 

Cassicus cristatus (not Oriolus cristalus Boddaert) Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 20, p. 333, 1847 Tobago. 

Ostinops cristatus Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 63 Trinidad; Finsch, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., p. 578, 1870 Trinidad. 

Cacicus cristatus Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 271, 1866 Trinidad. 

Cassicus citreus (not Oriolus citrius Miiller) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1867, p. 68 part, Trinidad. 

Ostinops decumanus (not Xanthornus decumanus Pallas) Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 315, 1886 part, spec, u, Tobago; Cory, Auk, 10, p. 
220, 1893 Tobago; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 35, 
1894 Moruga, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumanacoa, 
Venezuela; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 19, 1906 Caparo, Trinidad 
(crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 184, 1902 part, 
Trinidad and Tobago; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 104, 1909 Rio 
Guarapiche and Guanoco, Venezuela; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
65, p. 211, 1913 Cariaquito, Paria Peninsula, Venezuela; Williams, Bull. 
Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 135, 1922 Maracas Valley, Trinidad 
(habits, nest). 

Ostinops decumanus decumanus Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 98, 1934 
Trinidad. 

vote of the Zoological Congress at Padua, Brissonian names are, however, no 
longer recognized as valid. Xanthornus Pallas must, therefore, be classed as a 
new genus, of which the only species, X. decumanus, becomes the type, and thus 
replaces Ostinops of much later date. 

1 Xanthornus decumanus insularis (Dalmas) is exceedingly close to X. d. 
decumanus, but perhaps distinguishable by slightly paler, less deeply brownish 
black coloration with somewhat lighter castaneous rump. 

While the characters used by Dalmas for separating the Tobago race are those 
of the first annual plumage, it seems, as has been pointed out by Bangs and Penard, 
that birds from Tobago, Trinidad, and the Paria Peninsula are slightly paler with 
a more brownish hue, and have the rump not quite so intensely chestnut, although 
various individuals are hardly distinguishable. Pending the receipt of more 
adequate material, the series of adult birds being rather small, we have provisionally 
recognized insularis as possibly maintainable. 

Additional material examined. Tobago: Man o' War Bay, 6; unspecified, 8. 
Trinidad: Caparo, 10. Venezuela: Yacua, Paria Peninsula, 2. 



12 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Islands of Tobago and Trinidad, and the opposite dis- 
tricts of northeastern Venezuela (Paria Peninsula; Cumanacoa; Rio 
Guarapiche, Orinoco delta). 

6: Trinidad (Oropouche Heights, 1); Tobago, 5. 

*Xanthornus decumanus decumanus Pallas. CRESTED 
OROPENDOLA. 

Xanthornus decumanus Pallas, Spic. Zool., fasc. 6, p. 1, pi. 1, 1769 Surinam; 

Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 122, 1908 Cayenne; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 

Goeldi, 8, p. 418, 1914 part, Amap& and Cunany, Brazil. 
Xanthornus maximus [Xanthorni maximi] Pallas, Spic. Zool., fasc. 6, p. 3, 

1769 substitute name for Xanthornus d-ecumanus Pallas. 
Oriolus citrius P. L. S. Mtiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 87, 1776 based on 

"Cassique huppe, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 344. 
Oriolus cristatus Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 21, 1783 based on "Cassique 

hupp6, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 344. 
Cassicus cristatus Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 1, p. 187, 1847 Barima 

River (nesting habits); Cabanis, I.e., 3, p. 680, 1848 British Guiana. 
Ostinops cristata Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 187, 1851 part, Guiana and 

Venezuela; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 455, 1858 Gualaquiza, 

Ecuador. 
Cacicus cristatus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 72, 1858 Rio Napo, 

Ecuador. 

Ostinops cristatus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 153, 1855 "Bogota"; 
Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne; Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 127, 1862 "Bogota"; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 978 Pebas, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 191, 1870 part, Barra do Rio Negro, Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 265 part, Pebas, Peru; Goodfellow, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 476 Coca, upper Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

Cassicus citreus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 68- part, 
Brazil, Ecuador, and New Grenada (monog.). 

Ostinops decumanus Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 151 part, British Guiana, Ecuador 
(Sarayacu), Peru (Pebas), and Brazil (Barra do Rio Negro); Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 2, p. 404, 1884 part, Pebas, Peru; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 217 
Bartica Grove, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 315, 
1886 part, spec, j-1, p-t, Ecuador (Sarayacu), Peru (Pebas), Brazil 
(Barra do Rio Negro), and British Guiana (Bartica Grove); Goeldi, 
Ibis, 1897, p. 162 Cunany, northern Brazil; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 28, 1899 Gualaquiza and Zamora, 
Ecuador; Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 175, 
1901 Cucuriti and San Julian (La Guaira), Venezuela; Berlepsch and 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 30, 1902 Munduapo and Maipures, Rio 
Orinoco, Venezuela; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 184, 
1902 part, Guiana (monog.); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 298, 1907 
part, Cunany and Amapa, Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 13 

2, p. 203, 1916 above the falls of the Orinoco, Venezuela; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 624, 1917 part, Barrigon, Florencia, 
and La Morelia, eastern base of eastern Andes, Colombia; Chubb, Bds. 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 549, 1921 Ituribisci River, Bartica, Great Falls of 
Demerara River, and Georgetown; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
(2), 4, p. 242, 1932 Sarayacu, Ecuador. 

Ostinops decumanus decumanus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, p. 85, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, p. 691, 1926 below San Jose and Rio Suno, Ecuador. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; Venezuela (except 
the extreme northeastern section comprising the former state of 
Bermudez); northern Brazil south to the Amazon; eastern Colombia, 
east of the eastern Andes; eastern Ecuador south to the north bank 
of the Maranon. 1 

14: British Guiana (Kartabo, 4; Mazaruni River, 2; unspecified, 
1); Venezuela (Encontrados, Zulia, 3; Catatumbo, Zulia, 1; Lake 
Valencia, 3). 

*Xanthornus decumanus melanterus (Todd). 2 BLACKISH 
CRESTED OROPENDOLA. 

Ostinops decumanus melanterus Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 3, 1917 
Las Vegas, Santa Marta, Colombia (type in Carnegie Museum, Pitts- 
burgh); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 480, 1922 
La Conception, Chirua, Fundacion, Bonda, Masinga, Masinga Vieja, 
Cincinnati, Las Vegas, Minca, Agua Dulce, and La Tigrera, Colombia; 
Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 417, 1931 Rio Frio, Magda- 
lena, Colombia. 

Ostinops cristatus (not Oriolus cristatus Boddaert) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 138 Turbo and Atrato River, Colombia; Lawrence, 

1 Birds from eastern Ecuador and Manaos seem to be identical with a Guianan 
series. In the considerable number of specimens from north of the Amazon there 
are only two or three with traces of yellowish edgings to some of the feathers of the 
body plumage. The gloss is somewhat variable, though generally of a more 
bronzy or coppery hue than in birds from Bolivia and southern Brazil (maculosus). 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3. Dutch Guiana: 
Paramaribo, 2. British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 2; Demerara, 3. Brazil: Manaos, 
4. Venezuela: Munduapo, Orinoco River, 2. Ecuador: Rio Napo, 4. 

2 Xanthornus decumanus melanterus (Todd): Exceedingly close to X. d. 
decumanus, but general coloration is blacker and more decidedly glossed with 
bottle green. 

There is much divergency of opinion regarding the validity of this form 
among ornithologists. While the describer insists on the constancy of its char- 
acters, Chapman declares himself unable to separate Colombian birds from typical 
decumanus as represented by Paramaribo examples. The ten skins that we have 
seen from west of the east Colombian Andes and Panama are undeniably deeper 
black with more greenish gloss than a Guianan series as a whole, though one adult 
from Paramaribo indeed is barely distinguishable. Under these circumstances 
we have deemed it advisable to keep the form separate, at least provisionally. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Aracataca, 2; Bonda, 1; near 
Honda, 2; "Bogota," 2. Panama: Lion Hill, 1; Chiriquf, 1. 



14 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama Railroad; 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 190 Bugaba, Chiriqui; Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 328 San Nicolas, Colombia. 

Ostinops decumanus (not Xanthornus decumanus Pallas) Salvin and Godman, 
Ibis, 1879, p. 200 San Jose and Atanquez, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 508 Remedies, Colombia (eggs descr.); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 151 part, Panama (Chiriqui) and Colombia 
(Santa Marta, Antioquia); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 315, 1886 
part, spec, a-i, Bugaba (Chiriqui), Panama (Lion Hill, Chepo), and 
Colombia (Atanques, "Bogota," Antioquia); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 440, 1886 Panama (Bugaba, Lion Hill, Chepo) 
and Colombia (Turbo, etc.); Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 160, 
1895 Rio Magdalena, Colombia; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, 
p. 177, 1898 Palomina (Santa Marta), Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 307 Honda (Rio Guali) and Rio Combeima 
(Tolima), Colombia; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 339, p. 5, 1899 Rio Lara, Darien, Panama; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 13, p. 163, 1900 Onaca, Colombia; Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 
370, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
2, p. 184, 1902 part, Chiriqui, Panama, and Colombia; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 624, 1917 Colombia (part, Peque, La 
Manuelita, below Miraflores, Rio Frio, La Palma, near Honda, Algo- 
donal, Opon). 

Ostinops decumanus decumanus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 190, 
1929 El Tigre (Rio Cupe) and Cana, Panama. 

Range. Panama, west to Chiriqui, and Colombia, west of the 
eastern Andes. 

3 : Colombia (Palmira, Cauca, 1 ; San Jose de Cucuta, Santander, 1 ; 
Cauqueta River, 1). 

*Xanthornus decumanus maculosus (Chapman). 1 PIED 
CRESTED OROPENDOLA. 

l Xanthornus decumanus maculosus (Chapman): Similar to X. d. decumanus, 
but general tone of coloration on average browner and with a variable number of 
yellow or whitish feathers distributed irregularly through the body plumage and 
wing coverts. 

The presence of yellow or whitish feathers in the plumage, apparently a kind 
of partial albinism, is most strongly developed in Bolivian birds, which formed the 
basis of the race. It is, as a rule, less marked in those from eastern Brazil, which, 
besides, in more blackish coloration frequently approach typical decumanus, and 
the same may be said with respect to the few individuals we have seen from Peru 
south of the Amazon. Birds from the Amazon Valley are more or less intermediate, 
and the delimitation of the two forms, one north, the other south of the Amazon, 
is purely arbitrary. 

Additional material examined. Para: Rio Muria, 1. Piauhy: Castelliano, 
Rio Parnahyba, 2. Bahia: 1. Rio de Janeiro: Sapitiba, 1; Marambaya, 1. 
Espirito Santo: Victoria, 1. Sao Paulo: Ypanema, 5. Parana: Capivari, 1; 
unspecified, 2. Santa Catharina: Blumenau, 2; Joinville, 1. Matto Grosso: 
Cuyaba, 1. Bolivia: Santa Cruz, 2; San Jose, 1; Buena Vista, 2. Peru: La 
Merced, Chanchamayo, 1; Shanusi (Yurimaguas), 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 15 

Ostinops decumanus maculosus Chapman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 33, p. 26, 
1920 Yungas, Prov. Cochabamba, Bolivia (type in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 123, 1921 Rio Cosireni and Chauillay, Urubamba, Peru; Naumburg, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 390, 1930 Matto Grosso; Laubmann, 
Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 280, 1930 San Jose 
and Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (crit.); Stone and Roberts, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 393, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Cassicus cristatus (not Oriolus cristatus Boddaert) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3, (2), p. 1220, 1831 Espirito Santo (Villa Velha) and Bahia (Belmonte, 
Ilh^os) (habits); Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 2, 1838 Bolivia (Yungas) and Corrientes; Tschudi, Faun. 
Peru., Aves, p. 232, 1846 wooded region of Peru; Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 275, 1856 Rio de Janeiro (Serra dos Orgaos) 
and Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 248, 
1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina. 

Ostinops cristata Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 187, 1851 part, Brazil; idem, 
Journ. Orn., 22, p. 85, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro. 

Ostinops cristatus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 
lower Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 750 Chyavetas, Peru; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 191, 1870 part, Rio de Janeiro (Isla de Marambaya, 
Sapitiba), Sao Paulo (Mattodentro, Ypanema, Capivari), Matto Grosso 
(Cuyaba), and Para (Rio Muria); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Natur- 
hist. Foren., 1870, p. 401 Minas Geraes (Paracatu, Lagoa Santa); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 265 part, lower 
Ucayali, Chyavetas, Chamicuros, and Santa Cruz, Peru; Allen, Bull. 
Essex Inst., 8, p. 79, 1876 Santarem, Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 608 Tilotilo, Yungas, Bolivia. 

Cacicus cristatus Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 523 Mon- 
terico, Peru. 

Ostinops decumanus (not Xanthornus decumanus Pallas) Sclater, Ibis, 1883, 
p. 151 part, Peru (Santa Cruz) and Brazil (Bahia, Sao Paulo, Matto 
Grosso); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 404, 1884 part, Peru (Ucayali, 
Chyavetas, Chamicuros, Santa Cruz, Monterico); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 315, 1886 part, spec, m-o, v-x, Peru (Santa Cruz), 
Bolivia (Tilotilo), and Brazil (Bahia, Ypanema); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 
35, p. 10, 1887 Lambare, Paraguay; idem, I.e., 37, p. 299, 1889 Shanusi 
(Yurimaguas), Peru; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 84, 1889 
lower Beni, Bolivia; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 Santarem, 
Brazil; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3, p. 376, 1891 Chapada, 
Matto Grosso (crit.; eggs descr.); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 353 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru; Salvadori, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 7, 1895 Yhu, Paraguay; idem, 
I.e., 15, No. 378, p. 6, 1900 Urucum, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 3, p. 169, 1899 Piquete, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 154, 1900 
Cantagallo, Rio; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 184, 
1902 part, Peru (excl. Pebas), Bolivia, and Brazil; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, 
p. 498 Capim River, Para; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 298, 1907 
part, Marajo and Maranhao (Guimaraes); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 



16 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 393, 1907 Sao Paulo (Piquete, Ubatuba, Barretos), Goyaz (Ipe 
Arcado), and Espirito Santo (Porto Cachoeira); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
14, p. 46, 1907 Teffe, Rio Solimoes, Brazil; Liiderwaldt, Zool. Jahrb. 
(Syst.), 27, p. 359, 1909 below Mont Serrat, Itatiaya; Reiser, Denks. 
Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 79, 1910 Castelliano, Rio 
Parnahyba, Piauhy; Menegaux, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 2, p. 11, 1911 
Tocache, Peru; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
26, No. 2, p. 88, 1912 Rio Muria and Rio Capim, Para; Dabbene, 
Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, 365, 1914 Santa Ana, Misiones; Sztolcman, Ann. 
Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 194, 1926 Parana (Candido de Abreu 
and Salto de Uba); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 429, 
1930 Puerto Bermudez, Dept. Junin, Peru. 

Ostinops decumanus subsp. Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 272, 1929 Piauhy (ex Reiser). 

Xanthornus decumanus Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, pp. 11, 524, 1908 Rio 
Purus (Cachoeira) and Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua) ; Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, (3), 11, p. 401, 1910 Rio Pilcomayo, 
Chaco; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 418, 1914 part, Rio Tocantins 
(Arumatheua), Rio Purus (Cachoeira), Marajo (Soure, Santa Anna), 
and Maranhao; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 66, 1914 Puerto Bertoni, 
Paraguay. 

Ostinops decumanus auslralis (not Ostinops sincipitalis australis Todd) Pinto, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 20, p. 149, 1936 Goyaz, Brazil (type in Museu Paulista). 

Range. Brazil, south of the Amazon, from Para and the Rio 
Solimoes to Matto Grosso and Santa Catharina; Paraguay; north- 
eastern Argentina (Corrientes and Misiones); eastern Peru; eastern 
Bolivia. 

12: Peru (Puerto Bermudez, Junin, 2; Yurimaguas, Loreto, 1; 
Lagunas, Loreto, 1); Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1; Jatum- 
pampa, 1); Brazil (Chapada, Matto Grosso, 2; Urucum de Corumba, 
Matto Grosso, 2; Candido de Abreu, Parana, 1); Paraguay (Yba- 
pobo, 1). 

*Xanthornus viridis viridis (P. L. S. Muller). GREEN 
OROPENDOLA. 

Oriolus viridis P. L. S. Muller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 87, 1776 based on 

"Cassique vert, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 328; Boddaert, 

Tabl. PL Enl., p. 20, 1789 based on the same. 
Oriolus rufirostris Shaw, Gen. Zool., 7, (2), p. 416, 1809 based on "Cassique 

vert, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 320. 
Xanthornus virens [Schreber], Der Naturforscher, 18, p. 1, pi. 1, 1782 

probably Surinam. 
Psarocolius viridis Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 22, sp. 1, 1827 part, adult, 

Brazil. 
Cassicus viridis Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 448, 1848 Beaba, 

system of the Morocco River, British Guiana; Cabanis, I.e., 3, p. 680, 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 17 

1848 British Guiana; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 427, 1850 
(descr.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 68 South America 
(monog.). 

Ostinops viridis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 187, 1851 Venezuela; Bonaparte, 
Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne; Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 128, 1862 Para; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, pp. 573, 750 Para, Brazil, and Xeberos, Peru; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 192, 1870 Borba (Rio Madeira), Barra do Rio Negro 
[ = Manaos], Marabitanas (Rio Negro), Rio Branco (Sao Joaquim, Rio 
Cauame), and Para, Brazil (spec, examined); Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 38 
near Para; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 265 
Xeberos and Chyavetas, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 152 Brazil (Rio 
Negro, Para, "Maranhao"), Peru (Xeberos, Chyavetas), British Guiana, 
and Ecuador (Sarayacu); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 405, 1884 
Peru (Xeberos, Chyavetas); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 217 British Guiana 
(Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains, Camacusa, Roraima); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 316, 1886 Cayenne, British Guiana (Bartica, 
Camacusa, Roraima), Brazil (Para, "Maranhao," Barra), Peru (Xeberos), 
Ecuador (Sarayacu), and (?) "Bogota"; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, 
p. 299, 1889 Shanusi, near Yurimaguas, Peru; Berlepsch and Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 9, p. 30, 1902 Mato River and Nicare, Caura, Venezuela; 
Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 498 Rio Capim, Para; Men6gaux, Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 183, 1S04 Saint Georges d'Oyapock and Camopi, 
French Guiana; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 433, 1905 Rio Jurua, 
Brazil; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 394, 1907 Rio Jurua (range); 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 298, 1907 Para and Ourem (Rio Guama), 
Para; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 104, 1909 Guanoco, Orinoco delta, 
Venezuela; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 281, 1910 Calama and Jamary- 
sinho, Rio Madeira; idem, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
26, No. 2, pp. 18, 88, 1912 Peixe-Boi, Para (Para localities); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 211, 1913 Vagre River and Isla 
Morocitico, Manimo River, Orinoco delta, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 203, 1916 Caura Valley, Venezuela; Beebe, 
Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 102, 1916 Utinga, Para; Chubb, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 552, 1921 British Guianan localities (habits); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 691, 1926 below San Jos6, eastern 
Ecuador; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 176, 1928 Pinheiro, 
Para. 

Xanthornus viridis Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 122, 317, 1908 Ipousin 
(River Approuague), Cayenne, St. Georges d'Oyapock, and Camopi, French 
Guiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 524, 1908 Arumatheua, Rio 
Tocantins; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 418, 1914 Para, Capanema, 
Rio Guama (Ourem), and Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Brazil. 

Ostinops viridis viridis Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 85, 
1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam. 

Ostinops viridis flavescens Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 85, 1918 Xeberos, eastern Peru (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 



18 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana ; southern Venezuela 
(Orinoco delta; Caura River); northern Brazil, south to Para 1 and 
the Rio Madeira; eastern Ecuador; northeastern Peru (Iquitos, 
Xeberos, Chyavetas, Yurimaguas). 2 

7: British Guiana (Demerara River, 2; unspecified, 3); Brazil 
(Conceicao, Rio Branco, Amazonas, 1; Rio Tocantins, Para, 1). 

Xanthornus atro-virens (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 3 D'OR- 
BIGNY'S OROPENDOLA. 

Cassicus atro-virens Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 1, 1838 Yungas, Bolivia (types in Paris Museum examined); 
d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 366, pi. 51, fig. 2, 1844 prov. 
Yungas on the eastern side of the Andes (Yanacachi, Chulumani, Iru- 
pana, Cajuata); Tschudi, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 230, 1846 part, descr. 
of "adult," wood region of Peru; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), 
p. 427, 1850 Yungas, Bolivia; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1867, p. 69 Bolivia (crit.). 

1 The locality "Maranhao" affixed to a specimen in the British Museum 
requires corroboration. 

- Subdivision of the Green Oropendola appears to me impracticable. The 
color tone of the green parts of the plumage varies considerably within the same 
locality, greenish as well as decidedly yellowish individuals being found together. 
Birds from the Rio Madeira and Para are evidently inseparable from others col- 
lected in Guiana and north of the Amazon. A single topotype of flavescens secured 
in June, 1866, at Xeberos by Edward Bartlett is indeed more yellowish on the 
pileum and upper back than any other specimen examined, but this appears to be 
due to fading rather than local influence, since another (more recently collected) 
adult bird from the same general district (near Yurimaguas) does not differ at all 
from various Amazonian individuals. Mr. Zimmer (in litt.), however, considers 
X. v. flavescens as possibly maintainable, but would extend its range all along the 
south bank of the Amazon as far east as the Rio Tapajoz, and in the west north to 
Ecuador. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 2; Ipousin, 3. 
British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 2. Venezuela: Matp River, 1 ; Nicare, Caura River, 
1. Ecuador: "Rio Napo," 2. Brazil: Para, 1; Peixe-Boi, 3; Borba, Rio Madeira, 
1; Jamarysinho, Rio Madeira, 2; Manaos, 2; Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco, 1; Rio 
Cauam6, Rio Branco, 1; Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 1. Peru: Iquitos, 1; Xeberos, 
1; Yurimaguas, 1. 

3 Xanthornus atro-virens (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) seems to be specifically 
distinct, differing from the members of the X. "alfredi" group by the uniform 
olive green coloring (except the tawny rump and under tail coverts) and by having 
the outermost as well as the two central pairs of the rectrices olive green (without 
any yellow). It is probably more nearly related to 0. viridis. 

Its range appears to be confined to southern Peru and eastern Bolivia, X. a. 
alfredi being likewise found in that region. Birds from southeastern Peru agree 
well with a Bolivian series, and a single adult male from the Vitoc Valley (La 
Garita del Sol) does not appreciably differ. 

Material examined. Peru: La Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Dept. Junin, 1; Callanga, 
Cuzco, 5; Marcapata Valley (alt. 6,000 ft.), Cuzco, 2; Chuhuasi, Carabaya, 3. 
Bolivia: Chaco, Yungas of La Paz, 1; San Jacinto, 2; Quebrada Onda, Yungas of 
Cochabamba, 4; "Yungas," 3; unspecified, 2. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 19 

Ostinops atrovirens Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 598 
Cosnipata, Dept. Cuzco, Peru; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 308, 1873 
Bolivia and "western" Peru [= Amable Maria] (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 16 Huiro, Urubamba, Peru; idem, 
I.e., 1879, p. 608 Simacu and Tilotilo, Yungas, Bolivia; Sclater, Ibis, 
1883, p. 152 Bolivia and Dept. Cuzco, Peru (monog.); Taczanowski, 
Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 406, 1884 Peru (part, Amable Maria, Carabaya, Huiro); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 317, 1886 Bolivia (Tilotilo, Simacu) 
and Peru (Huiro); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 84, 1889 Yungas, 
Bolivia; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 353 
La Gloria and Garita del Sol, Dept. Junin, Peru; idem, Ornis, 13, pp. 
85, 112, 1906 Idma (Urubamba), Sanaca and Huaynapata (Marcapata), 
Dept. Cuzco, Peru; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 34, 
1920 Chuhuasi, Carabaya, Peru (crit.); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 117, p. 123, 1921 Idma and San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru. 

Cacicus atrovirens Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 523 Amable 
Maria, Peru. 

Range. Subtropical zone of southern Peru (in depts. of Junin 
and Cuzco) and Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz and Cochabamba). 

Xanthornus angustifrons angustifrons (Spix). BLACK-BILLED 
OROPENDOLA. 

Cassicus angustifrons Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 66, pi. 62, 1824 
"in confinibus fl. Amazonum" (type in Munich Museum examined; 1 
cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 2. Kl., 22, No. 3, p. 612, 
1906); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 427, 1850 Brazil; Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 70 Rio Napo, Ecuador, and Pebas, 
Peru (monog.). 

Ostinops angustifrons Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 128, 1862 "Bogota," 
Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 
lower and upper Ucayali, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 192, 1870 
Matari, Rio Amazonas, Brazil (spec, examined); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 
21, p. 308, 1873 upper Ucayali and "Bogota" (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 265 Sarayacu, upper and lower Ucayali, 
Nauta, and the whole of the Huallaga, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 155 
Peru, eastern Ecuador, and "Bogota" (monog.); Taczanowski, Orn. P6r., 
2, p. 410, 1884 Peru (Iquitos, Loretoyacu, Sarayacu, upper and lower 
Ucayali, Nauta); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 319, 1886 Peru 
(Iquitos, Sarayacu, upper Ucayali, Santa Cruz), Ecuador (Sarayacu), 
and Colombia ("Bogota"); Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 476 Rio Coca, 
Ecuador; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 433, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil; 
idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 394, 1907 Rio Juru& (range); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 627, 1917 Villavicencio, La Morelia, 
and above Florencia, eastern Colombia (crit.); Lonnberg and Rendahl, 
Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 87, 1922 Baeza road to Napo, Ecuador; Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 692, 1926 eastern Ecuador (Macas 

1 A cotype collected by Spix we have examined in the Vienna Museum. 



20 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

region, Rio Suno, Baeza, and below Oyacachi); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 242, 1932 Mera, Ecuador. 

Ostinops atrovirens (not Cassicus atrovirens Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 upper Ucayali, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1873, p. 266 upper Ucayali and Santa Cruz, Peru. 

Ostinops alfredi (not Cassicus alfredi Des Murs) Taczanowski and Berlepsch, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 85 Mapoto, eastern Ecuador. 

Psarocolius viridis (not Oriolus viridis P. L. S. Miiller) Wagler, Syst. Av., 
1, fol. 22, sp. 1, 1827 part, "Juv. hornot.," Brazil. 

Xanthornus angustifrons Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 418, 1914 (range). 

Range. Tropical (and lower Subtropical) zone of eastern 
Colombia (at the eastern base of the eastern Andes), eastern Ecuador 
(excepting the basin of the Rio Santiago and its tributaries in the 
southeastern section), northeastern Peru (south at least to Sarayacu 
on the Ucayali), and the adjacent parts of western Brazil (Rio 
Solimoes; Rio Jurua). 1 

*Xanthornus angustifrons alfredi (Des Murs). ALFRED'S 
OROPENDOLA. 

Cassicus alfredi Des Murs, in Castelnau, Exp&l. Amer. Sud, Zool., 1, Ois., 
livr. 18, p. 67, pi. 19, fig. 2, June 30, 1856 no locality stated (the type 
examined in the Paris Museum is from the Valley of Santa Ana, Dept. 
Cuzco, Peru). 

Cassicus atrovirens (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 
10, (1), p. 293, 1844 Peru; idem, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 230, 1846 
part, descr. of "juv.," wooded region of Peru. 

Ostinops atrovirens Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 128, 1862 part, spec. 
a, c, "Upper Amazon" and Peru. 

Cacicus alfredi Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 523 Monterico, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 230 Tambillo, Peru. 

1 Birds from "Bogota," eastern Ecuador, and northern Peru agree fairly well 
together, and are unquestionably of the same race as two authentic specimens 
from Spix's expedition. They generally have dusky or blackish bills, and no 
yellow whatever on the forehead. One specimen from the Rio Suno, Ecuador, is 
however, intermediate in coloration of bill between angustifrons and alfredi, and 
Mr. Zimmer (in litt.) tells me that another individual (with dusky bill) from the 
same locality has yellow patches on the sides of the forehead. 

Intergradation, thus, seems to be established and, although the exact ranges 
of the two Oropendolas, particularly in extreme northwestern Brazil, remain to 
be worked out in detail, the only logical course is apparently to unite them in a 
single "formenkreis," as has been proposed by Zimmer. 

From copies of Bartlett's original labels kindly supplied by Mr. Kinnear it 
appears that his 0. angustifrons and O. atrovirens refer to male and female of the 
present race. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 1. Ecuador: Rio Coca, 4; Rio 
Suno, 4. Peru: Iquitos, 1; Samiria, 1; lower Ucayali, 1; Onega, Rio Ucayali, 1; 
upper Ucayali, 1. Brazil: unspecified, 2 (ex Spix); Matari, Rio Solimoes, 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 21 

Ostinops alfredi Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 407, 1884 Peru (Monterico, 
Tambillo, Velota, Chirimoto, Huambo, Guadalupe, and Carabaya); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 318, 1886 part, spec, c-f, Ecuador 
(San Jose") and eastern Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 353 La Merced and Borgona, Chanchamayo, Peru; 
Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 29, 1899 
Rio Santiago, Rio Zamora, and Cuchipamba (San Jose"), southeastern 
Ecuador; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 112, 19"06 Huaynapata, 
Dept. Cuzco, Peru; Me'ne'gaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 11, 1911 
Nuevo Loreto, Prov. Pataz, Peru; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 21, p. 161, 
1914 Santa Ana, Peru (crit. note on type). 

Ostinops alfredi alfredi Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 21, p. 162, 1914 (range); Bangs 
and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 Perico and Bellavista, Rio Maran6n, 
Peru; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 692, 1926 Zamora, 
Ecuador. 

Ostinops angustifrons alfredi Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 429, 1930 Vista Alegre, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Ostinops atrocastaneus (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 153 part, 
upper Amazonia and San Jos6, Ecuador. 

Ostinops sincipitalis australis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 3, 1917 
Buenavista, Bolivia (type in Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of southeastern Ecuador, 
eastern Peru, and eastern Bolivia (Rio San Mateo, Dept. Cocha- 
bamba; Buenavista, Dept. Santa Cruz). 1 

4: Peru (San Ramon, Chanchamayo, 2; Pozuzo, Huanuco, 1; 
Vista Alegre, Huanuco, 1). 

*Xanthornus angustifrons atrocastaneus (Cabanis). 2 CHEST- 
NUT OROPENDOLA. 

Ostinops atrocastaneus Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 309, 1873 "Equador" 
= Nanegal, western Ecuador (type in Berlin Museum); Sclater, Ibis, 

1 There is some variation, largely individual, to be observed in this form, 
but with the rather limited material before me I am unable to correlate the slight 
divergencies (extent of yellow on the forehead and general tone of the body plum- 
age) with particular geographic areas. Two adults from San Mateo, Bolivia, 
which iriay reasonably be supposed to represent X. s. australis, are certainly 
inseparable from a nearly topotypical example taken by Whitely at Guadalupe in 
the Urubamba region. Birds from more northern localities are possibly slightly 
less rufescent in coloration. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: San Mateo, Cochabamba, 2. Peru: 
Santa Ana Valley, 1 (the type); Guadalupe, Urubamba, 1; Marcapata, 2; La 
Merced, Chanchamayo, 1; Pozuzo, Huanuco, 3; Tambillo, 1. Ecuador: Rio 
Santiago, 1. 

2 Xanthornus angustifrons atrocastaneus (Cabanis) differs from X. a. alfredi 
by wholly green outer rectrices, much darker and more rufous general coloration, 
as well as by greater amount of yellow on the forehead. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 5; 
Gualea, 5; Nanegal, 2; unspecified, 6. 



22 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1883, p. 153 part, PalJatanga and Nanegal, Ecuador; Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 294 Pedregal; Salvador! 
and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 28, 1899 La Con- 
cepcion (Chota), Gualea, and Intac; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. 
Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 107, 1911 Gualea and Tandapi. 

Ostinops alrovirens (not Cassicus atrovirens Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 140, 1859 Pallatanga; idem, I.e., 28, 
p. 88, 1860 Nanegal; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 128, 1862 part, 
spec, d, Pallatanga. 

Ostinops alfredi (not Cassicus alfredi Des Murs) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 318, 1886 part, spec, a, b, "Quito" and Pallatanga, Ecuador; 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 485, 1898 Chimbo and Paramba; Goodfellow, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 477 Milligalli, San Nicolas, and Gualea; Lonnberg and 
Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 87, 1922 near Gualea. 

Ostinops alfredi atrocastaneus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 21, p. 162, 1914 western 
Ecuador (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 692, 
1926 Gualea, Mindo, El Chiral, Zaruma, Las Pinas, and Salvias. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Ecuador. 

2: Ecuador (Prov. Esmeraldas, 1; Huigra, Carchi, 1). 

*Xanthornus angustifrons salmoni (Sclater). 1 SALMON'S 
OROPENDOLA. 

Ostinops salmoni Sclater, Ibis, (5), 1, p. 153, pi. 6, 1883 Antioquia, Colombia 
(cotypes from Concordia and Envigado in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 317, 1886 Con- 
cordia, Envigado, and Frontino, Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 51, p. 307, 1899 Rio Combeima, Tolima; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 625, 1917 Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Gallera, La 
Sierra, Miraflores, Salento, Laguneta, and La Frijolera, Colombia (crit.). 

Ostinops alfredi salmoni Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 21, p. 162, 1914 western 
Colombia. 

Ostinops atrocastaneus (not of Cabanis) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1879, p. 509, pi. 43, figs. 1, 2 (eggs) Envigado, Concordia, and 
Frontino, Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western and central Andes, Colombia. 
2: Colombia (Salento, Cauca, central Andes, 2). 

Xanthornus angustifrons sincipitalis (Cabanis). 2 YELLOW- 
FRONTED OROPENDOLA. 

1 Xanthornus angustifrons salmoni (Sclater) is even darker than X. a. atro- 
castaneus, with very deep olive head and under parts, and deeper chestnut back, 
being in fact the most intensely colored member of the group. 

In addition to eight skins from the western and central Andes of Colombia, 
we have seen a single example of typical "Bogota" preparation. 

2 This form is known to us only from five "Bogota" trade-skins. All of them 
have the anterior portion of the crown and conspicuous superciliaries bright yel- 
low, thus agreeing with Cabanis's description. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 23 

Ostinops siticipitalis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 309, 1873 "Neu-Granada" 
(the type in the Berlin Museum is a native "Bogota" skin); Sclater, 
Ibis, 1883, p. 154 "Bogota" (in part); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 296, 
1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 318, 
1886 "Bogota" (in part). 

Cassicus alfredi (not of Des Murs) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1867, p. 69 "Bogota" (in part). 

Ostinops atrovirens (not Cassicus atrovirens Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 128, 1862 part, spec, b, "Bogota." 

Ostinops alfredi sincipitalis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 21, p. 162, 1914 part, 
"BogotA"; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 626, 1917 Agua- 
dita (above Fusugasuga) and Anolaima, Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the western slope of the eastern 
Andes of Colombia, in states of Santander and Cundinamarca. 

*Xanthornus angustifrons neglectus (Chapman). 1 OLIVE- 
BELLIED OROPENDOLA. 

Ostinops sincipitalis neglectus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 33, 
p. 190, 1914 Monteredondo, eastern slope of eastern Andes, Colombia 
(type in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Ostinops alfredi neglectus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 626, 
1917 Monteredondo and Andalucia, Colombia. 

Cassicus alfredi (not of Des Murs) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1867, p. 69 "Bogota" (in part). 

Ostinops sincipitalis (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 154 "Bogota" 
(in part); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 318, 1886 "Bogota" (in part). 

Ostinops alfredi sincipitalis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 21, p. 162, 1914 part, 
western Venezuela (MeYida). 

Range. Subtropical zone of the eastern slope of the eastern Andes 
of Colombia, and western Venezuela (Tachira, Merida, and Lara). 
1: Venezuela (La Azulita, MeYida, 1). 

*Xanthornus angustifrons oleagineus (Sclater). 2 OLEAGINOUS 
OROPENDOLA. 

l Xanthornus angusiifrons neglectus (Chapman): Very close to X. a. sincipi- 
talis, but back more olivaceous, less rufescent; yellow of forehead more restricted 
and rarely continued backward in short superciliaries; under parts likewise more 
olivaceous. 

Birds from Venezuela do not appear to be separable, though one or two, by 
more olivaceous coloring, verge in the direction of X. a. oleagineus. The yellow 
frontal patch, while variable in extent, is as a rule more restricted than in X. a. 
sincipitalis, and the superciliaries, if present at all, are much less developed. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 5. Venezuela: Pedre- 
gosa, MeVida, 1; Conejos, MeYida, 1; Montana de Aricagua, Me>ida, 1; Montana 
Culata, Merida, 1; Guarico, Lara, 1. 

2 Xantkornus angusiifrons oleagineus (Sclater) is even more decidedly oliva- 
ceous than the preceding form, from which it differs, furthermore, by its grayish 



24 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ostinops oleagineus Sclater, Ibis, (5), 1, p. 154, pi. 7, 1883 Venezuela (type 

in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 319, 1886 Venezuela; Robinson and Richmond, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 175, 1901 San Julian, near La Guaira, Venezuela. 
Ostinops atrovirens (not Cassicus atrovirens Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, 

Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 128, 1862 part, spec, e, Venezuela. 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Venezuela, from Aragua 
east to Monagas. 

3: Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 3). 

Genus CACICUS Lace'pede 

Cacicus Lacepede, Tabl. M6th. Mamm. et Ois., p. 6, 1799 type, by subs. 

desig. (Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 434, 1930), 

Oriolus haemorrhous Linnaeus. 
Cassicus Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., p. 214, 1811 emendation of 

Cacicus Lacepede. 

*Cacicus cela cela (Linnaeus). YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE. 

Parus Cela Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 191, 1758 "in Indiis," 
errore; Surinam substituted as type locality (auct. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
13, p. 20, 1906). 

Tanagra albirostris Linnaeus, Mus. Ad.-Frid., 2, Prodr., p. 31, 1764 
"America" = Surinam (auct. Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 30, 
1902). 

Oriolus persicus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 161, 1766 based on 
"Le Cassique jaune" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 100, pi. 9, fig. 1, Cayenne), 
"Jupujuba" Marcgrave (Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 193, northeastern Brazil), etc. 

Cassicus icteronotus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 365, 
1816 new name for Oriolus persicus Linnaeus; Swainson, Orn. Draw., 
Part 1, pi. 3, 1834; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 4, 1838 Chiquitos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined); 
Tschudi, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 228, 1846 wood region of Peru; Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 273, 1856 Brazil; Bonaparte, 
Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne. 

Cacicus icteronotus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 455, 1858 Guala- 
quiza, Ecuador. 

Cassicus persicus Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 1234, 1831 Belmonte 
and Ilheos rivers, Bahia (habits, nest) ; Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 
1, pp. 90, 249, 1847 Isl. Wakenaam and Rio Tapacuma; idem, I.e., 2, 
p. 364, 1848 Aripai, Rio Rupununi (nesting); Cabanis, in Schomburgk, 
I.e., 3, p. 681, "1848" British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 128, 1862 Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 84 Trinidad and Venezuela 
(habits); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 upper 
and lower Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 573 Para; Cassin, Proc. 

(light plumbeous) bill. The absence of the yellow frontal band is not an abso- 
lutely constant feature, since some specimens have just as much yellow on the 
forehead as X. a. neglectus. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 25 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 65 (monog.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 193, 1870 Goyaz (Nas Areas, Boa Vista, Goyaz), Matto Grosso (Es- 
trella, Rio dos Piloens, Cuyaba, Villa Maria), and Amazonia (Borba, 
Rio Madeira; Barra do Rio Negro [ = Manaos], Forte do Rio Branco), 
Brazil (spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1873, p. 266 upper and lower Ucayali, Nauta, and Santa Cruz, Peru 
(nest and eggs descr.); Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 381 Para; Allen, Bull. 
Essex Inst., 8, p. 79, 1876 Santarem, Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 608 Bolivia (Chiquitos; Maipiri, Yungas); 
Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 338 near Recife, Pernambuco; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, 
p. 157 (monog.); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1884, p. 433 Angostura (Orinoco) and 
Rio Apure, Venezuela; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 411, 1884 Peru 
(Ucayali, Nauta, Santa Cruz, Moyobamba); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 217 
Bartica Grove, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 321, 
1886 "Bogota," Trinidad, British Guiana (Bartica Grove), Cayenne, 
Para, Mexiana, Iquitos (Peru), Sarayacu (Ecuador), Mapiri (Bolivia), 
and Brazil (Pernambuco, Bahia, Goyaz); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, 
pp. 99, 299, 1889 Fonte Boa and Tonantins, Rio Solimoes, Brazil, and 
Sarayacu, Ucayali, Peru; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 
Santarem; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2, pp. 72, 84, 1889 
Rio Napo, Ecuador, and lower Beni, Bolivia; idem, I.e., 3, p. 377, 1891 
Abrilongo and Chapada, Matto Grosso (eggs); idem, I.e., 4, p. 53, 1892 
El Pilar [Sucre], Venezuela; Chapman, I.e., 6, p. 36, 1894 Princestown, 
Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San Antonio [Sucre], Venezuela; 
Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, pp. 152, 154, 162 Cunany and Amapa, Brazil; 
idem, Ibis, 1897, p. 361 (nest and eggs); Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
12, p. 138, 1898 "Santa Marta," Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 13, p. 163, 1900 Cacagualito, Santa Marta, Colombia; 
Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 477 upper Rio Napo, Ecuador; Goeldi, Ibis, 
1903, p. 498 Capim River; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, 
p. 183, 1904 French Guiana (St. Georges, Ouanary, Sinnamary); Hag- 
mann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 28, 1907 Mexiana Island, Brazil; 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 298, 1907 Amapa, Para, Santo Antonio 
do Prata, Marajo, and Monte Alegre; Beebe, Zoologica, 1, p. 104, 1909 
Orinoco delta, Venezuela; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 352, 1910 
Surinam (habits). 

Cassiculus flavicrissus (not of Sclater, 1860) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 129, 1862 part, spec, c, Bolivia. 

Casicus persicus Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 135, 1922 
Palo Seco and Penal, Trinidad. 

Casicus persicus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 114, 1854 Quijos, 
Ecuador; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 273, 1866 Trinidad. 

Cassicus albirostris Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 353 La Merced, Peru; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 30, 
1902 Orinoco Valley (Ciudad Bolivar, Altagracia, Caicara) and La 
Union, Caura, Venezuela; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 433, 1905 
Rio Jurua, Brazil. 

Cacicus cela Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 20, 1906 Caparo and Seelet, 
Trinidad (crit., nomencl.); idem, I.e., 13, p. 359, 1906 Santo Antonio 



26 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

do Prata, Para; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 394, 1907 Rio Jurua 
(range); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 10, 1907 Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz; 
idem, I.e., 15, p. 37, 1908 Rio Araguaya, Goyaz; Berlepsch, I.e., 15, 
pp. 122, 317, 1908 French Guiana (Approuague, Roche-Marie, St. 
Georges d'Oyapock, Ouanary, Sinnamary) ; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. 
Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 80, 1910 Maranhao (below Nova York, 
Rio Parnahyba) and Piauhy (Therezina); Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 
2, p. 11, 1911 Tocache, Rio Huallaga, Peru; idem, Miss. Serv. Geogr. 
Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 107, 1911 upper Napo, Ecuador; 
Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 
19, 88, 119, 1912 Ipitinga (Rio Acara), Para localities, and Mexiana; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 211, 1913 Cariaquito, Paria 
Peninsula, Venezuela; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 419, 1914 
Para, Ilha das Oncas, Providencia, Capanema, Quatipuru, Santo Antonio 
do Prata, Marajo (Soure, Pindobal, Sao Natal), Amapa, Monte Alegre, 
and Maranhao; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 204, 1916 
lower Orinoco and Caura Valley, Venezuela (nesting habits, eggs) ; Beebe, 
Zoologica, 2, p. 102, 1916 Utinga, Para; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 36, p. 627, 1917 Barrigon, Florencia, and La Morelia, Co- 
lombia; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 85, 1918 
vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; Lima, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 101, 
1920 Ilheos to Belmonte, Bahia; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 554, 
1921 British Guianan localities; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 479, 1922 Don Diego, Santa Marta, Colombia; Lonnberg 
and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 87, 1922 Baeza road to Napo, 
Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 693, 1926 below 
San Jose and Rio Suno, Ecuador; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de 
Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 61, 1926 Tury-assu, Maranhao; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 176, 1928 Para; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 272, 1929 Maranhao (Sao Bento, Miritiba) and 
Goyaz (Philadelphia). 

Cacicus cela cela Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 282, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira; 
Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 431, 1930 Rio Colorado, 
Chanchamayo, Peru; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 60, p. 390, 
1930 Rio Sao Lourenco, Matto Grosso, and Rio Solimdes; Roberts, 
Trop. Agric., 11, p. 98, 1934 Trinidad; Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 393, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Island of Trinidad; the Guianas; Venezuela; eastern 
Colombia (eastern base of eastern Andes; Don Diego and Dibulla, 
north coast of Santa Marta region); eastern Ecuador and Peru; 
Brazil, south to Bahia, Goyaz, and Matto Grosso; eastern Bolivia. 1 

1 1 have not been able to make out any geographic variation, though it appears 
that birds from Peru and Bolivia as a rule have the body plumage more decidedly 
glossed with greenish. Size is an unreliable feature, and the extensive material at 
hand does not corroborate Pelzeln's finding of lesser dimensions and slenderer, 
straighter bill in the inhabitants of central Brazil. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 7. French Guiana: Ap- 
prouague, 10; Roche-Marie, 1; Cayenne, 2. British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 2. 
Brazil: Forte do Rio Branco, 1; Para, 1; Ipitinga, Rio Acara, 1; Itaituba, Rio 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 27 

56: Colombia (Florencia, Caqueta, 2); Peru (Moyobamba, San 
Martin, 7; Yurimaguas, Loreto, 3; Chanchamayo, Rio Colorado, 
Junin, 1); Venezuela (Rio Aurare, Zulia, 1; Encontrados, Zulia, 8; 
Catatumbo, Zulia, 3; Maracay, Aragua, 1; La Ceiba, Trujillo, 1; Va- 
lera, Trujillo, 1; Caracas, 2; Pedernales, Amacuro, 1; Piacoa, 
Amacuro, 1; Cocollar, Sucre, 1); British Guiana (Potaro Landing, 
3; Kartabo, 1; Mazaruni River, 1); Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 2); 
Brazil (Serra da Lua, Rio Branco, 3; Serra Grande, Rio Branco, 1; 
Porto Velho, Rio Madeira, 2; Utinga, Para, 1; Sao Bento, Maran- 
hao, 1; Philadelphia, Goyaz, 2; Nova Roma, Goyaz, 3; Ilha, Rio 
Parana, Goyaz, 1; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 2). 

"Cacicus cela flavicrissus (Sclater). 1 WESTERN YELLOW-RUMPED 
CACIQUE. 

Cassiculus flavicrissus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 276, 1860 
Babahoyo, Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum) ; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 129, 1862 part, spec, a-b, Babahoyo; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 67 (ex Sclater). 

Cassicus melanurus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 66 Guaya- 
quil, Ecuador (descr. of female; type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia). 2 

Cassicus flavicrissus Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 322 
Lechugal, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 158 part, western Ecuador; 
Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 552 
Yaguachi, Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 411, 1884 Lechugal, 
Peru; idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 86 Yaguachi, 
Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 322, 1886 part, spec, 
d-g, western Ecuador (Babahoyo, Guayaquil); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 441, 1886 part, western Ecuador and Peru; 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 29, 1899 
Playas (Guayas) and Vinces, Ecuador. 

Cacicus flavicrissus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 693, 1926 
western Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Chone, Bahia de Caraques, Daule, 

Tapajoz, 4; Manaos, 1; Borba, Rio Madeira, 2; Calama, Rio Madeira, 4; Marme- 
llos, Rio Madeira, 1; Nova York, Rio Parnahyba, Maranhao, 2; Bahia, 2; Cuyaba, 
Matto Grosso, 4; Villa Maria, Matto Grosso, 1. Colombia: "Bogota," 3. Ecua- 
dor: Rio Napo, 4. Venezuela: Carupano, 4; Puerto Cabello, 2; Caicara, Rio 
Orinoco, 4. Peru: Juanfue, Rip Huallaga, 1; Sarayacu, Ucayali, 1; La Merced, 
Chanchamayo, 1. Bolivia: Chiquitos, 1; Santa Cruz, 1. 

1 Cacicus cela flavicrissus (Sclater), the western representative, differs from the 
nominate race by smaller size; slenderer, less curved, also duskier bill; slightly 
deeper tone of the yellow areas; and by the yellow basal color of the tail being of 
the same limited extent on the lateral rectrices as on the inner ones. 

Nine specimens from western Ecuador have been examined. 

2 Although described as having "the tail and under tail coverts entirely black," 
Stone (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 34, 1899) pronounces this supposed 
species to be identical with C. c. flavicrissus. 



28 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Guayaquil, Duran, Santa Rosa); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
(2), 4, p. 235, 1932 La Silva, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador and extreme north- 
western Peru (Lechugal, Prov. Tumbez). 
2: Ecuador (Milagro, Guayas, 2). 

*Cacicus cela vitellinus (Lawrence). 1 LAWRENCE'S CACIQUE. 

Cassicus vitellinus Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 107 
Isthmus of Panama, New Granada 2 (type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Cassin, 
I.e., 1867, p. 66 Panama, Turbo, and Atrato River (monog.). 

Cassicus icteronotus (not of Vieillot) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1860, p. 139 Turbo and Atrato River, Colombia. 

Cassiculus icteronotus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 
Panama Railroad. 

Cassicus chrysonotu&CT) (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 139 Turbo, Colombia. 

Cacicus persicus (not Oriolus persicus Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 353 Panama Railroad. 

Cassicus flavicrissus (not Cassiculus flavicrissus Sclater) Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 329 Lake of Paturia, Magdalena, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 329 (crit.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 509 
Remedios, Antioquia, Colombia (eggs descr.); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 1P8 
part, Panama and Colombia (Magdalena Valley and Antioquia); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 441, 1886 part, 
Panama (Lion Hill) and Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 322, 1886 part, spec, a, b, h-1, Panama (Lion Hill) and Colombia 
(Magdalena Valley, Remedios); Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 160, 
1895 Magdalena Valley. 

Cacicus vitellinus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 188, 1902 
Colombia and Panama (monog.); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, 
p. 64, 1902 Sona, Panama; Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
46, p. 221, 1906 savanna of Panama (young descr.); Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 627, 1917 Rio Salaqui and Algodonal 
(Magdalena), Colombia (crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, 
p. 280, 1918 Agua Clara, Trinidad River, Panama; Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 480, 1922 Fundacion and Valencia, Santa 
Marta region, Colombia; Hallinan, Auk, 46, p. 320, 1924 Panama 

1 Cacicus cela vitellinus (Lawrence) agrees with C. c. flavicrissus in tail pattern, 
but differs by larger, ivory yellowish bill without any plumbeous at the base; 
deeper, more orange (light cadmium rather than lemon chrome) tone of the 
yellow areas; much smaller orange patch on the upper wing coverts, etc. 

In spite of its pronounced characters and geographic isolation, this is clearly 
a local representative of C. cela. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Lion Hill, 4. Colombia: Remedios, 4. 

2 Lawrence's remark that he has also seen the species from "Nicaragua" is 
clearly an error. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 29 

Canal Zone (Tiger Hill, Rio Algarrobo, Rio Caimitillo) ; Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 369, 1932 Perme and Obaldia, Panama. 
Cacicus flavicrissus vitellinus Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 28, 1919 
Pacora, Panama (crit.). 

Cacicus cela vitellinus Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 226, 

1922 Rio Esndpe and Jesusito, Darien. 
Cacicus vitellinus vitellinus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 190, 

1929 El Tigre (Rio Cupe) and Cana, Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Panama, from the Canal Zone 
eastward, and northern Colombia, from the lower Atrato (Rio 
Salaqui; Turbo) east to the western and southern base of the Santa 
Marta Mountains (Fundacion, Valencia) and the Magdalena Valley 
(Lake Paturia; Algodonal) and its affluents (Remedios, Rio Ite"). 

4: Panama (Aspinwall, Colon, 1; Agua Dulce, Code", 1); Colom- 
bia (Fundacion, Magdalena, 1; Lorica, Bolivar, 1). 

*Cacicus haemorrhous affinis (Swainson). BRAZILIAN RED- 
RUMPED CACIQUE. 

Cassicus affinis Swainson, Ornith. Draw., Part 1, pi. 2, 1834 "Brazil" 
(descr. of adult male; type lost). 1 

Cassicus haemorrhous (not Oriolus haemorrhous Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 3, (2), p. 1230, 1831 Belmonte River, Bahia (habits); Bonaparte, 
Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 428, 1850 Brazil (diag.); Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 
1, p. 186, 1851 Brazil; Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, 
p. 833, 1853 Brazil (crit.); idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 11, 1854 
Brazil (crit.); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 274, 1856 
southeastern Brazil (habits, nest, eggs); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1867, p. 63 Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and Santa Catharina, Brazil 
(diag.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 193, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba) 
and Sao Paulo (Rio Tybaya, Tejuco, Cubatao); Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 400 Minas Geraes; Berlepsch, Journ. 
Orn., 21, p. 248, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina; Cabanis, I.e., 22, 
p. 85, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 160 
Bahia to "Rio Grande do Sul" (crit.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 324, 1886 Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Geraes (Santa F6), Sao Paulo 
(Rio Tybaya, Rio Claro), and "Rio Grande do Sul (Pelotas)"; Ihering, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 170, 1899 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo; Miranda- 
Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 255, 1923 Mont-Serrat, 
Itatiaya; Velho, I.e., p. 263, 1923 Mont-Serrat. 

1 Although the type appears to be lost, since it is not in the Swainson Collection 
at Cambridge (Engl.), as I am informed by Mr. N. B. Kinnear, who took great 
pains in trying to tocate this important specimen, I think there is hardly any 
doubt as to C. affinis being the earliest name for the dull-colored form of eastern 
Brazil, as has first been intimated by Mr. Zimmer. Poor as the plate is, however, 
it agrees much better with the Brazilian than with the Guianan form. Besides, 
it must be remembered that Swainson himself visited that part of Brazil where C. 
aphanes auct. is of common occurrence. 



30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Icterus haemorrhous Swainson, Ornith. Draw., Part 1, pi. 1, 1834 "Brazil" 
(= female). 

Cassicus aphanes Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 300 (in text), 1889 Santa 
Catharina (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum). 

Ostinops cherrieanus Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, p. 82, Jan., 1901 
Mondaih, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. W. de Bertoni). 

Cassicus haemorrJious aphanes Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 154, 1900 
Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro. 

Cacicus haemorrhous aphanes Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 395, 1907 
Sao Paulo (Caconde, Itarare, Itapura, Rio Mogy-guassu, Alto da Serra, 
Botucatu), Bahia, and Minas Geraes (Marianna, Andrades); Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 401, 1910 Misiones, "Chaco 
Santafecino," and Alto Parana; Dabbene, I.e., 23, p. 369, 1912 Itape- 
mini, Paraguay; Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, 
pp. 489, 500, 1912 Rio Ivahy, Parana; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 
1914 Paraguay; Lima, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 101, 1920 -Ilheos 
to Belmonte, Bahia; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, 
p. 194, 1926 Candido de Abreu, Parana; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 57, p. 323, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya, Brazil. 

Cacicus aphanes Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 365, 1914 (range). 

Range. Wooded region of eastern Brazil, from Pernambuco, 
Bahia, and Minas Geraes south to Santa Catharina; Paraguay and 
the adjoining parts of Argentina (Chaco and Misiones). 1 

24: Brazil (Macaco Secco, Bahia, 6; Bahia, 1; Rio das Velhas, 
Minas Geraes, 3; Fazenda Cayoa, Sal to Grande, Sao Paulo, 1; 
Candido de Abreu, Parana, 1; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 8); 
Argentina (Rio Paranay, Misiones, 1; Iguazu, Misiones, 3). 

*Cacicus haemorrhous haemorrhous (Linnaeus). RED-RUMPED 
CACIQUE. 

Oriolus haemorrhous Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 161, 1766 based 
on "Le Cassique rouge" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 98, pi. 8, fig. 2, "Brasilia et 
Cayana" (type, from Cayenne, in the Reaumur Collection). 

Cassicus haemorrhous Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 1, p. 249, 1847 
Rio Tapacuma; idem, I.e., 2, pp. 364, 365, 1848 Aripai, Rio Rupununi 
(nesting habits); Cabanis, I.e., 3, p. 681, "1848" [ = 1849] British Guiana; 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 129, 1862 Cayenne; Berlepsch, Journ. 
Orn., 37, p. 300, 1889 (crit., nomencl.); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 9, p. 31, 1902 Orinoco River (Nericagua) and Caura Valley 
(Suapure, Nicare), Venezuela; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 498 Capim River, 
Para; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 499, 1908 Villa Braga, Rio Tapajoz. 

"Cassicus affinis Sw. (crassirosiris, aliq.)" [sic] Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. 
Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, p. 833, 1853 (diag.); idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, 
p. 11, 1854 Cayenne (diag.). 

1 Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 5; Sapitiba, Rio de Janeiro, 
1; Rio Tibaya, Sao Paulo, 2; Cubatao, Sao Paulo, 1; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 19. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 31 

Cassicus affinis (not of Swainson) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, 
p. 64 Cayenne (crit.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 193, 1870 Castanha 
Parana, Orinoco, Venezuela, and Para, Brazil; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 381 
Para; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 161 part, Cayenne, British Guiana, Para, 
Rio Negro, and Sarayacu (Ecuador); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 414, 
1884 part, Cayenne (descr.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 218 Bartica Grove 
and Camacusa, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 325, 
1886 British Guiana (Demerara, Bartica Grove), Cayenne, Para, and 
eastern Ecuador (Sarayacu); Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 478 Baeza, 
Ecuador; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 298, 1907 Para, Rio Capim, 
and Rio Guama, Brazil; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 356, 1910 Surinam 
(habits). 

Cacicus haemorrhous Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 
573 Para; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 279, 1905 Igarape-Assu, Para; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 395, 1907 "Venezuela, Trinidade" 
(range in part); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 123, 1908 Cayenne; Sneth- 
lage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 419, 1914 Para, Ananindeua, Rio Guama 
(OurSm), Rio Capim, and Rio Tapaj6z (Villa Braga); Chubb, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 557, 1921 Abary River, Mazaruni, and Bartica. 

Cacicus haemorrhous haemorrhous Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 360, 1906 
Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; (?)idem, I.e., 14, p. 354, 1907 Humayta, 
Rio Madeira; idem, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, 
No. 2, pp. 19, 88, 1912 Para localities; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 205, 1916 upper Orinoco; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 102, 
1916 Utinga, Para; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 85, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo and Javaweg, Surinam. 

(l)Cacicus haemorrhous subsp. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 282, 1910 
Humayta, Rio Madeira. 

Cacicus haemorrhous affinis [sic] Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, 
p. 628, 1917 Florencia and La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia. 

Cacicus haemorrhous affinis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, 
p. 693, 1926 eastern Ecuador; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, 
p. 176, 1928 Pinheiro, Para. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; southern Venezuela 
(Orinoco Valley and its tributaries); southeastern Colombia 
(Caqueta); eastern Ecuador; northeastern Brazil, south to the Para 
region and (?)west to the Rio Madeira (Humayta). 1 

1 Birds from the Para region agree with a Guianan series. A single adult 
male from the Rio Madeira (Humayta), however, is much larger (wing, 209; 
tail, 125; bill, 40), and has a much stronger, more powerful bill. While the signifi- 
cance of this divergency remains to be determined by additional material, it seems 
well to state that the bird is quite different from C. u. uropygialis, having another 
wing formula, more glossy plumage, the red of the rump deeper in tone, as well as 
much more extended towards the back, and the culminal ridge slightly flattened 
in the middle. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3. Surinam: 5. 
British Guiana: Demerara, 3; Bartica Grove, 2. Venezuela: Nericagua, Orinoco, 
4; Suapure, Caura, 4. Brazil: Para, 8; Humayta, Rio Madeira, 1. 



32 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

12: British Guiana (Mazaruni River, 2; Potaro, 1; unspecified, 
7); Dutch Guiana (Overtoom, Para District, 2). 

*Cacicus uropygialis uropygialis (Lafresnaye). 1 CURVE-BILLED 
CACIQUE. 

Cassicus uropygialis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 290, 1843 Colombia= 
"Bogota" (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 417, 1930); idem, I.e., 10, p. 218, 2 1847 "Bogota" (crit.); Bona- 
parte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 428, 1850 Colombia ("Bogota") and 
Peru (diag.); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 129, 1862 "Bogota"; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 64 part, "Bogota" (crit.); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 509 Jerico, Antioquia, 
Colombia; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 162 Ecuador ("Jima") and Colombia 
("Bogota"; Antioquia); Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1885, p. 88 Machay and Mapoto, eastern Ecuador (crit.); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 325, 1886 part, spec, a-e, Colombia 
("Bogota"; "Remedies") and Ecuador ("Jima"); Salvador! and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 29, 1899 San Jose, eastern 
Ecuador. 

Cacicus uropygialis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 153, 1855 
"Bogota." 

Cassicus curvirostris Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 218 (in text), 1847 
proposed as a substitute for C. uropygialis. 

1 Cacicus uropygialis uropygialis (Lafresnaye): Superficially not unlike C. 
haemorrhous affinis, but the black body coloration duller, with the glossy metallic 
blue apical edges to the dorsal feathers (so conspicuous in the allied species) barely 
suggested by a faint satiny sheen; red color above restricted to the rump proper 
and much paler, grenadine red rather than deep scarlet; the white at the base of 
the hind neck feathers more extensive as well as purer; culminal ridge higher and 
evenly convex instead of flattened or indented in the middle; wing formula some- 
what different, the first (outermost) primary being shorter and falling between the 
sixth and seventh instead of between the fifth and sixth, the fourth and fifth form- 
ing the tip of the wing. 

I am unable to separate, at least with the available material, Peruvian birds 
(pachyrhynchus) from those of Colombia (uropygialis). In coloration they are 
absolutely the same, and size does not afford any useful criterion for the differen- 
tiation of two forms either. Two adult males from Peru (Chinchao; Cueva Seca, 
Huallaga region) measure: wing, 160; tail, 130; others from Colombia ("Bogota"; 
Rio Lima; Andalucia), wing, 153, 157, 165; tail, 125, 130, 137. The bird from 
Cueva Seca, almost topotypical pachyrhynchus, agrees in every respect with ours 
from Chinchao. 

For the present, I have maintained the specific distinctness of C. uropygialis, 
since both C. u. uropygialis and C. h. affinis are reported to occur in eastern Ecua- 
dor, although it remains to be determined by further researches if they are really 
found together in the same altitudinal zone. It should be noted, however, that an 
immature bird from Tarapoto (Cumbase) resembles C. h. affinis in wing formula, 
though otherwise it is a typical uropygialis. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 9; Rio Lima, Cauca, 
1; Andalucia, west slope of eastern Andes, 2. Ecuador: below Oyacachi, 2; 
Baeza, 2. Peru: Tarapoto (Cumbase), 1; Cueva Seca, Rio Tocache, Huallaga 
drainage, 1. 

Misprinted "uropigyalis." 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYB 33 

"Cassicus uropygialis Lafr. (curvirostris Aliq.)" [sic] Bonaparte, Compt. 

Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, p. 833, 1853 "Nouvelle Grenade" (crit.); 

idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 11, 1854 (reprint). 
Cassicus haemorrhous (not Oriolus haemorrhons Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 266 Chamicuros, Peru. 
Cassicus affinis (not of Swainson) Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 414, 1884 

part, Chamicuros, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 161 part, Chamicuros. 
Cassicus pachyrhynchus Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 299, 1889 Tarapoto 

(Cumbase), Rio Huallaga, Peru (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now 

in Frankfort Museum). 
Cacicus uropygialis Mene'gaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 11, 1911 Cueva 

Seca, Rio Tocache, Huallaga drainage, Peru (spec, in Paris Museum 

examined); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 87, 1922 

Baeza and Cuyuco, Ecuador. 
Cacicus uropygialis uropygialis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, 

p. 628, 1917 Colombia (Rio Lima and Los Jambos, Cauca; Salento; 

Andalucia; Fusugasuga); idem, I.e., 55, p. 694, 1926 below Oyacachi, 

Baeza, and lower Sumaco, Ecuador; Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Zool. Ser., 17, p. 432, 1930 Chinchao, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical (and rarely Tropical) zone of Colombia 
(excepting Pacific slope), eastern Ecuador, and northern Peru 
(Chamicuros; Tarapoto, Rio Huallaga; Cueva Seca, Rio Tocache; 
Chinchao, Dept. Huanuco). 

1: Peru (Chinchao, Dept. Huanuco, 1). 

*Cacicus uropygialis pacificus Chapman. 1 PACIFIC CURVE- 
BILLED CACIQUE. 

Cacicus uropygialis pacificus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 34, 
p. 657, Dec., 1917 Alto Bonito, Rio Sucio, Colombia (type in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 629, 1917 
Rio Salaqul, Alto Bonito, Baudo, La Vieja, Barbacoas, Buenavista 
(Narifio), and Puerto Valdivia (lower Cauca), Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, 
p. 694, 1926 Esmeraldas and La Chonta, western Ecuador. 

Cassicus uropygialis (not of Lafresnaye) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1860, p. 139 falls of the Rio Truando, Colombia; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 64 
part, lower Atrato; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 552 Chimbo, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 325, 

1 Cacicus uropygialis pacificus Chapman: Similar to C. u. uropygialis, but 
much smaller; agreeing in dimensions with C. u. microrhynchus, but with the bill 
of the same size and shape as in C. u. uropygialis. Wing, (male) 133-140, (female) 
118-124; tail, 93-100, (female) 86-91; bill, 28-30, (female) 25-28. 

This form combines the general dimensions of C. u. microrhynchus with the 
powerful bill of C. u. uropygialis, thus occupying in its characters an intermediate 
position as it does geographically. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: mouth of the Rio Calima, 3; 
Noanama, 1; near Sipi, 1. Ecuador: Bulun, Prov. Esmeraldas, 3; Santo Domingo, 
1 ; Chimbo, 1. 



34 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1886 part, spec, f, "northwest coast of South America"; Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 5, p. 486, 1898 Cachabi, Ecuador. 

Cacicus uropygialis Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 108, 1911 Santo Domingo, Ecuador; Hellmayr, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lend., 1911, p. 1121 mouth of Rio Calima, Noanama, and 
near Sipi, Choco, Colombia (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of the Pacific slope of Ecuador and 
Colombia, north to the lower Atrato, east into Antioquia (Puerto 
Valdivia, lower Cauca). 

3: Colombia (Tado, Rio San Juan, Choco, 1; Barbacoas, Narifio, 
1); Ecuador (Bulun, Prov. Esmeraldas, 1). 

*Cacicus uropygialis microrhynchus (Sclater and Salvin). 
SMALL-BILLED CACIQUE. 

Cassiculus microrhynchus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. SOQ. Lond., 1864, 
p. 353 Panama Railroad (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 181, 1865 
Greytown, Nicaragua. 

Cassiculus uropygialis (not Cassicus uropygialis Lafresnaye) Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama. 

Cassicus microrhynchus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 65 
Panama (monog.); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 303, 1869 Tucurriqui, 
Costa Rica; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 162 Panama, Costa Rica, and 
Nicaragua (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 325, 1886 
Nicaragua (Chontales), Costa Rica (Peje), Veragua (Santiago, Cordillera 
de Tole), and Panama (Bugaba, Lion Hill); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 442, 1886 Nicaragua to Panama (excl. of 
Turbo); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 Pozo 
Azul de Pirris and Pacuare, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. 
y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 140, 1893 Lagarto, Costa Rica; Richmond, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 495, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua, and 
Rio Frio, Costa Rica (habits, nest). 

Cacicus microrhynchus Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 142 Veragua 
(Santa Fe" ( Santiago, Cordillera de Tole"); idem, I.e., 1870, p. 190 Bugaba, 
Chiriqui; idem, Ibis, 1869, p. 319 Peje, Costa Rica; idem, Ibis, 1872, 
pp. 313, 317 Chontales, Nicaragua; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 
2, p. 34, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; idem, Auk, 18, p. 370, 1901 
Divala, Chiriqui; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 189, 
1902 Nicaragua to Panama (excl. of Turbo) (monog.); Bangs, Auk, 24, 
p. 308, 1907 Pozo del Rio Grande and Lagarto, Costa Rica; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 834, 1910 Costa Rica (Bonilla, Jimenez, Pozo 
Azul de Pirris, La Vijagua, Cariblanco de Sarapiquf, Limon, Guapiles, 
Carrfllo, Rio Sicsola, Cuabre, Guacimo, El Hogar; habits); Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 29, 1919 Talamanca (Sipurio), Costa Rica; Hallinan, 
Auk, 41, p. 320, 1924 Tiger Hill, Panama; Kennard and Peters, Proc. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 38, p. 464, 1928 Almirante and Boquete Trail, 
Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 343, 1931 Changuinola, 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR .' 35 

Almirante, Western River, Boquete Trail, Guabo, and Crimacola, Panama; 
Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 369, 1932 Permd and Obaldia, Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, 
east to Darien. 

17: Costa Rica (Matina, Limon, 2; Siquirres, Limon, 2; Limon, 
10; El Pozo, Rio Terraba, 1; Old Harbor, 1); Panama (Veragua, 1). 

Genus ARCHIPLANUS Cabanis 1 

Archiplanus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 186, October, 1851 type, by mono- 
typy, Cassicus albirostris Vieillot. 

* Archiplanus albirostris (Vieillot). WHITE-BILLED CACIQUE. 

Cassicus albirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 5, p. 364, 
1816 based on "Japu negro y amarillo" Azara, No. 59, no locality 
specified, presumably Paraguay; Hartlaub, Syst. Index Azara, p. 4, 
1847 Rio Grande do Sul; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 272, 
1856 Santa Catharina, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraguay, "Guyana," and 
"Colombia," errore; 2 Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 68 
Rio Parana, Brazil (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 159 Paraguay and 
Brazil (monog.); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 126, 1885 
Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 323, 
1886 southern Brazil (Sao Paulo; "Rio Claro, Goyaz;" Rio Grande do 
Sul); Dalgleish, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., 10, p. 77, 1889 Ytanu, 
Paraguay (nest and eggs descr.) ; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 126 lower Pilcomayo, 
Chaco; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 7, 1895 
Baranquera la Novia, Paraguay; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 10, 1897 
Tala, Salta; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 122, 1899 
Mundo Novo and Sao Lourenco, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 3, p. 169, 1899 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo; Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 224 
Villa Conception and Gran Chaco, Paraguay; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 8, p. 181, 1902 San Pablo and Vipos (Cerro del Choro), 
Tucuman; idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 45, 1905 same locali- 
ties; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 218, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman; Luderwaldt, Zool. 
Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, p. 359, 1909 Itatiaya, Sao Paulo; Grant, Ibis, 1911, 
p. 103 Paraguay (Arjerichi, Villa Oliva, Villa Franca); M6negaux, Rev. 
Franc. d'Orn., 11, p. 8, 1918 Villa Lutetia, near San Ignacio, Misiones. 

Xanthornus chrysopterus Vigors, Zool. Journ., 2, No. 6, p. 190, Suppl., pi. 9, 
July, 1825 Brazil (location of type not stated). 

C[assicus] J. dubius Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss., 15, 
p. 279, 1826 based on "Japu negro y amarillo," Azara, No. 59. 

1 Archiplanus Cabanis: Similar to Cacicus, but bill smaller, the culmen nearly 
straight, usually not distinctly elevated or expanded basally, relatively broader 
and more depressed terminally; commissure nearly straight; mandible not expanded 
laterally; nostrils larger, the postnasal membrane thickened immediately back 
of nostrils, forming a slight rim which coalesces with the operculum; wing tip 
shorter and more rounded; aftershaft of feathers usually better developed; plum- 
age duller and more lax, the frontal feathers somewhat longer and less dense. 

2 Burmeister's record (in Journ. Orn., 8, p. 258, 1860) from Mendoza and 
Parana is a mistake (cf. Burmeister, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 494, 1861). 



36 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cassiculus albirostris Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 428, 1850 
Brazil and Paraguay; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 129, 1862 Rio 
Grande; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 193, 1870 Sao Paulo (Butuhuru, 
Ponte Alta) and Parana (Lanca, Sao Luiz, Campo Comprido, Curytiba) ; 
Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 255, 1874 Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes. 

Archiplanus albirostris Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 186, 1851 Rio Grande. 

Cacicus chrysopterus Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 394, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Iguape, Ubatuba, Itarare, Alto da Serra, Campo de Jordao) and Buenos 
Aires; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 401, 1910 Tucu- 
man (San Pablo), Misiones, Chaco, and Isles del Delta del Parana, Argen- 
tina; Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 489, 500, 
1912 Vera Guarany, Parana; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 365, 
1914 (range in Argentina); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Alto 
Parana, Paraguay; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 24, 1920 Uruguay 
(Flores, Soriano, Rio Negro); Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 
island near Santa Elena, Entre Rlos (breeding) ; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. 
Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 194, 1926 Rio Claro and Salto Guayra, Parana. 

Archiplanus chrysopterus Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 183, 1909 
Tucuman (habits); Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 662, 
1924 Delta del Parana, Buenos Aires. 

Archiplanus albirostris Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 388, 1926 
Chaco Argentine (Resistencia, Las Palmas, Riacho Pilaga) and Paraguay 
(Puerto Pinasco); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 33, 1927 Chaco Santafecino; 
Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 57, p. 322, 1928 Itatiaya, Sao Paulo; 
Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 282, 1930 
San Jose and Tapikiole, Formosa, and Holguin, Bolivia (crit.). 

Range. Eastern Bolivia (Holguin, Prov. Valle Grande, Dept. 
Santa Cruz); northern Argentina (Tala, Salta; Tucuman; Chacc 
Santa FC"; Corrientes; Entre Rios; Misiones; islands in the delta of 
the Parana, Buenos Aires); Paraguay; Uruguay; southeastern 
Brazil, from Sao Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul. 1 

3: Argentina (Vala, Jujuy, 1; Concepcion, Tucuman, 1; Rio Para- 
nay, Misiones, 1). 

* Archiplanus leucoramphus leucoramphus (Bonaparte). BONA- 
PARTE'S YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE. 

Xanthornus leucoramphus Bonaparte, Atti Sesta Riun. Sci. Ital. Milano, 1S44, 
p. 405, 1845 Santa-Fe-de-Bogota, Colombia (type in coll. of O. Antinori, 
Perugia). 

1 This species varies somewhat in size, but I have not been able to correlate 
dimensions with particular geographic areas. Adult males from various localities 
measure on the wing as follows: Parana (Lanca, Curytiba), 98, 102, 103, 104; 
Formosa, Argentina, 103, 105, 108; Tucuman, 104; Concepcion, Paraguay, 95 
(female?), 98, 99; Holguin, Bolivia, 103. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Lanca, Parana, 2; Curytiba, Parana, 
5- Paraguay: Concepcion, 3. Argentina: Tucuman, 2; San Jose, Formosa, 4. 
Bolivia: Holguin, 2. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 37 

Cassiculus leucoramphus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 428, 1850 
Santa-F-de-Bogota. 

Archiplanus leucorhamphus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 153, 1855 
Bogota; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 694, 1926 Ecuador 
(above Loja, upper Sumaco, above Baeza, and below Papallacta). 

Cassiculus leucorhamphus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 552, 1858 
Matos, near Riobamba, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 129, 
1862 Ecuador (Matos) and New Granada. 

Cassicus leucorhamphus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 67 
"Bogota" and Ecuador (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 509 Envigado, Concordia, and Santa Elena, Antioquia, Co- 
lombia; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 159 Colombia ("Bogota," Antioquia) and 
Ecuador (Matos, San Lucas); Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 86 San Rafael, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 323, 1886 Colombia ("Bogota," Envigado) and Ecuador 
(Matos, San Lucas); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 357, p. 29, 1899 Pun, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 478 
Baeza, Ecuador. 

Cacicus leucoramphus Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 108, 1911 Oyacachi, Ecuador. 

Cacicus leucorhamphus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 628, 
1917 Colombia (Andes west of Popayan, Almaguer, Laguneta, El Eden, 
and Subia); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 87, 1922 
Baeza, Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 628, 
1932 El Portete de Tarqui, Ecuador. 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of Colombia (excepting Santa 

Marta region) and eastern Ecuador. 1 
<* 

7: Colombia ("Bogota," 2; Paramo de Tama, Santander, 4; 

Almaguer, Cauca, 1). 

*Archiplanus leucoramphus peruvianus (Zimmer). 2 PERUVIAN 
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE. 

Cassicus leucoramphus peruvianus Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 66, 1924 mountains near Panao, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (type in 
Field Museum). 

Cacieus leucoramphus peruvianus Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
17, p. 432, 1930 near Panao, Peru. 

1 Ecuadorian specimens agree with others from Colombia. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Almaguer, Cauca, 2; Laguneta, 
Cauca, 4; "Bogota/' 6. Ecuador: Oyacachi, 1; Pun, 4; unspecified, 3. 

2 Archiplanus leucoramphus peruvianus (Zimmer): Similar to A. I. leucoramphus, 
but bill heavier, with the bluish coloration at the basal portion more restricted and 
less abruptly defined anteriorly; concealed white collar above and below restricted 
to the neck, the bases of the feathers of the adjoining areas dark gray. Size 
the same. 

Additional material examined. Peru, Dept. Junin: Rumicruz, 2; Chilpes, 1. 



38 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cassiculus chrysonotus (not Cassicus chrysonotus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 523 Chilpes, Vitoc, Peru. 

Cassicus leucorhamphus (not Xanthornus leucoramphus Bonaparte) Taczanow- 
ski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 17 Tamiapampa, Peru; idem, Orn. 
. Per., 2, p. 413, 1884 Peru (Chilpes, Chachapoyas) ; Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 354 Chilpes and Maraynioc, 
Peru. 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of Peru, from Amazonas south 
to Junin. 

1: Peru (mountains near Panao, Huanuco, 1). 

Archiplanus chrysonotus (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 1 BOLIVIAN 
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE. 

Cassicus chrysonotus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 3, 1838 Yungas, Bolivia (types in Paris Museum examined); 
d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Mend., Ois., p. 367, pi. 52, fig. 1, 1844 eastern 
side of the Cordillera at Charapacce (between Suri and Enquisivi), Prov. 
Yungas, and Morochata, Prov. Ayupaya; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1867, p. 67 Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny) ; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1873, pp. 780, 781 Huasampilla, Dept. Cuzco, Peru (crit.); Sclater and 
iSalvin, I.e., 1879, p. 608 Ramosani and Tilotilo, Yungas, Bolivia; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 159 Bolivia and southern Peru (monog.); Tacza- 
nowski, Orn. Pr., 2, p. 412, 1884 Peru (Huasampilla; Pariahuanca, 
Montana of Huancayo); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 322, 1886 
Bolivia (Tilotilo, Ramosani) and southern Peru (Huasampilla) ; Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 112, 1906 Marcapata, Peru; Chapman, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 124, 1921 Torontoy, Urubamba, Peru. 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of Bolivia and southern Peru 
(Dept. Cuzco, north to the southern border of Dept. Junin). 

Archiplanus sclateri (Dubois). 2 SCLATER'S BLACK CACIQUE. 

Agelaeus sclateri Dubois, Bull. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belg., 5, No. 1, p. 1, pi. 1, 
1887 "Republique de 1'Equateur" (type in Brussels Museum). 

1 Archiplanus chrysonotus (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny), in spite of its differently 
shaped bill and larger size, may prove to be conspecific with A. leucoramphus. 
Several Bolivian specimens show faint traces of yellowish fringes to some of the 
upper wing coverts, while as a rule these are practically uniform black. A single 
specimen from Huasampilla, Dept. Cuzco, does not differ from the Bolivian 
average. According to Taczanowski, the present form ranges north to the southern 
border of Junin, though the single example examined by him (from Pariahuanca, 
near Huancayo) is described as having larger yellow markings on the wing coverts 
than two from Bolivia, which seems to suggest intergradation. 

Material examined. Peru: Huasampilla, 1. Bolivia: Chaco (La Paz), 4; 
Pasana, 6; Cocapata, 7; Cillutincara, 1; Sandillani, 1; Pucyuni, 2; unspecified, 2. 

2 Archiplanus sclateri (Dubois): Uniform black, body plumage with a slight 
silky gloss; bill grayish, tip yellowish. Wing, (male) 108, (female) 98; tail, 96, 
(female) 90; bill, 23. 

In certain characters, such as more expanded basal part of the culmen and 
longer gonydeal rami, this very distinct species approaches the genus Cacicus, but 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 39 

Archiplanus sclateri Miller, Auk, 41, p. 465, 1924 (crit.); Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 694, 1926 eastern Ecuador (Rio Suno 
and San Jose). 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Ecuador (Rio Suno, San Jose", 
El Juno, Archidona). 

*Archiplanus solitarius (Vieillot). 1 AZARA'S BLACK CACIQUE. 

Cassicus solitarius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 5, p. 364, 1816 
based on "Japu negro" Azara, No. 58, Paraguay; 2 Lafresnaye and d'Or- 
bigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 3, 1838 Yuracares, Bolivia 
(spec, in Paris Museum examined); Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 4, 
1847 Paraguay; Burmeister, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 493, 1861 
"Mendoza" and Parana; Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 255, 1874 
Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 608 Yuracares (ex d'Orbigny); Barrows, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Cl., 8, p. 133, 1883 Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rios; Tacza- 
nowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 415, 1884 Peru (Nauta, Pebas). 

Cassicus nigerrimus Spix, Av. Sp. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 66, pi. 63, fig. 1, 1824 
"ad ripam fl. Amazonum" (type in Munich Museum; cf. Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 612, 1906); Swainson, 
Orn. Draw., Part 1, pi. 4, 1834. 

C[assicus] T. bursarius Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss., 
15, p. 277, 1826 based on "Japu negro" Azara, No. 58. 

Amblycereus solitarius Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, p. 832, 
1853 Paraguay; idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 10, 1854 Paraguay; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 73 Brazil, Paraguay, and 
Ecuador (monog.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 326, 1886 Peru 
(Ucayali, Pebas, Iquitos), Bolivia, Brazil (Cuyaba, Pernambuco, Ceara), 
and Buenos Aires; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 10, 1887 Lambare, 
Paraguay; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 72, 1888 Concepcion, 
Entre Rios; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 Santarem; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3, p. 379, 1891 Corumba, Matto Grosso, 
and Piedra Blanca, Bolivia; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 126 Fortin Nueve, lower 
Pilcomayo; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 171 Rio Negro, Uruguay (nest); Sal- 
vadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 Paraguay 
(Colonia Risso), Matto Grosso (Corumba), and Chaco (Resistencia); 

has the short, rounded wing tip and the nearly perfectly straight culmen of the 
other members of Archiplanus. In coloration it is surprisingly like Amblycereus 
holosericeus, from which it may, however, be easily distinguished by quite differ- 
ently shaped, much shorter bill, proportionately shorter tail, and deeper, more 
glossy black plumage. 

Material examined. Eastern Ecuador: Archidona, 1; El Juno, 1 (both in 
the Munich Museum). 

1 Archiplanus solitarius (Vieillot), although differing by slightly more flattened 
bill with blunter, less pointed tip, is so similar in other structural characters to the 
genotype, that its reference to the same genus seems to be justified, as has clearly 
been explained by Wetmore (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 390, 1926). 

2 Vieillot's description is based on Azara's account. The species seen by him 
in Santo Domingo and believed to be the same bird does not belong here at all. 



40 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 354 La 
Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru; Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 224 Villa Concepcion, 
Paraguay; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 395, 1907 "Mendoza" (range); 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 298, 1907 Marajo and Monte Alegre, 
Brazil; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 80, 
1910 Therezina, Piauhy; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 103 Paraguay (Puerto 
Pinasco, Villa Pilar); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Paraguay; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 419, 1914 Marajo (Pindobal, Sao 
Natal), Arumanduba, Monte Alegre, and Rio Jamund& (Faro), Brazil; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 629, 1917 Villavicencio, 
Colombia; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 24, 1920 Uruguay (Soriano, 
Rio Negro); Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 island near Santa Elena, 
Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 173, 1923 San Isidro, Buenos Aires 
(breeding); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 695, 1926 
Rio Suno and below San Jose, Ecuador; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio 
de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, pp. 42, 61, 1926 Ceara and Maranhao (Sao Bento); 
Serie, El Hornero, 5, p. 46, 1932 (life in captivity). 

Cassiculus solitarius Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 130, 1862 Bolivia; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 Nauta, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1867, p. 978 Pebas, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 194, 1870 
Goyaz (Porto do Rio Araguay) and Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Barbado, 
Villa Bella de Matto Grosso), Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 266 Nauta and Pebas, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, 
p. 162 Paraguay, Argentina (Buenos Aires), Brazil (Ceara and Matto 
Grosso), Peru (Nauta, Pebas), and Bolivia (monog.). 

Amblycercus solitarius solitarius Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 46, 1907 
Teffe", Rio Solimoes, Brazil; idem, I.e., 15, p. 38, 1908 Rio Araguaya, 
Goyaz; Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 183, 1909 Barracas al Sud 
(Buenos Aires) and Santa Fe (San Vicente, Ocampo) (nest and eggs 
descr.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 402, 1910 (range 
in Argentina); Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 662, 1924 
islands and coast of Rio Parana, Buenos Aires. 

Archiplanus solitarius Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 389, 1926 
Chaco (Las Palmas), Formosa (Riacho Pilaga), and Paraguay (Puerto 
Pinasco); Smyth, El Hornero, 4, p. 149, 1928 Santa Elena (egg descr.); 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 272, 1929 Jua, near 
Iguatu, Ceara; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 60, p. 391, 1930 
Matto Grosso (Urucum, Fazenda do Sao Joao, Rio Cuyaba) (nest and 
eggs); Laubmann, Wiss. Ergeb. Deut. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 283, 
1930 Bolivia (Trinidad, Chiquitos, Santa Cruz; Fortin Esteros, Tarija) 
and Formosa (San Jose); Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
86, p. 393, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Brazil, from the valley of the Amazon and the island 
of Marajo south to Pernambuco, Goyaz, and Matto Grosso; eastern 
Bolivia; northeastern Peru south to Junin (La Merced, Chanchamayo 
Valley); eastern Ecuador and eastern Colombia (Villavicencio); 
Paraguay; northeastern Argentina, from Formosa and Corrientes 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 41 

south to the vicinity of Buenos Aires, 1 and the adjacent parts of 
Uruguay (Soriano and Rio Negro). 2 

7: Brazil (Jua, near Iguatu, Ceara, 2; Urucum de Corumba, 
Matto Grosso, 2; Descalvados, Rio Paraguay, Matto Grosso, 2); 
Uruguay (Soriano, 1). 

Genus AMBLYCERCUS Cabanis 

Amblycercus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 190 (footnote **), Oct., 1851 type, 
by orig. desig., Amblyramphus prevostii Lesson =Sturnus holosericeus 
Lichtenstein. 3 

* Amblycercus holosericeus holosericeus (Lichtenstein). PRE- 
VOST'S CACIQUE. 

Sturnus holosericeus Lichtenstein, Preis-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, 
p. 1, (after Sept. 1) 1830 Mexico (type, from Alvarado, Vera Cruz, in 
Berlin Museum); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 11, p. 55, 1863 (reprint); van 
Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 419, 1934 (note on type). 

Amblyramphus prevostii Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 159, pi. 54, 1831 4 Mexico 
(type in coll. of F. PreVost, actual location unknown). 

Cassiculus prevosti(i) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 428, 1850 
Mexico; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 801, 1856 -southern 
Mexico (Vera Cruz); Moore, I.e., 27, p. 57, 1859 Omoa, Honduras, and 
Peten, Guatemala; Sclater, I.e., pp. 365, 380, 1859 Jalapa (Vera Cruz), 
Teotalcingo and Playa Vicente (Oaxaca); Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 
p. 19 Duenas, Guatemala; idem, Ibis, 1860, p. 34 Duenas and Izabal, 
Guatemala; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 
Lion Hill, Panama; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 129, 1862 part, 
spec, b, Guatemala; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 174 "vicinity 
of Mexico City"; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1864, p. 353 Panama Railroad; 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 181, 1865 Greytown, Nica- 
ragua; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 142 Santa F6, Veragua; 
Sumichrast, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 1, p. 553, 1869 hot and 

1 The locality "Mendoza" mentioned by Burmeister and Ihering is doubtless 
erroneous. 

1 Amazonian birds (nigerrimus) seem to be exactly like those from the south 
(typical solitarius). 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Marajo, 3; Amazon, 1; Teff6, Rio 
Solimoes, 2; Therezina, Piauhy, 2; Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, 2; Cuyabd, Matto Grosso, 
8; Villa Bella, Matto Grosso, 2. Peru: Rio Samiria, 3; Juanfu6, Rio Huallaga, 
1. Ecuador: San Jose, 2. Bolivia: Guarayos, 1; Trinidad, Chiquitos, 1. 
Paraguay: Concepcion, 2. Argentina: San Jos, Formosa, 2; Barracas al Sud, 
Buenos Aires, 1 ; Corrientes, 2. 

'Cabanis expressly gives A. prevostii as the genotype, and it has no bearing 
on the case if, in a subsequent paragraph, that species is erroneously identified 
with Cassicus nigerrimus Spix. 

4 While the exact date of publication is hard to determine, Lichtenstein's 
name appears to have priority, since Lesson's article is signed "October, 1830," 
which probably indicates the date when the manuscript was compiled. 



42 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

temperate regions of Vera Cruz; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 190 Calovevora and Calobre, Veragua; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1870, 
p. 836 Honduras. 

Amblycercus prevosti(i) Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 10, 1861 Costa Rica 
(crit.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 73 Mexico (Mirador, 
Vera Cruz), Costa Rica, and Panama (monog.); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 104, 1868 Costa Rica (San Jose, Turrialba); 
Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 302, 1869 Costa Rica (Turrialba, Tucu- 
rriqui, San Jose). 

Cassicus prevosti Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 23, 1876 Guichicovi, 
Chiapas, and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1878, p. 58 San Jose, Costa Rica; idem, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 
25, p. 45, 1878 Guatemala; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 383, 1883 
Sucuya, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., p. 402, 1884 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua. 

Cacicus holosericeus Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 262, 1882 Guatemala. 

Cassicus holosericeus Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 163 part, southern Mexico to 
Panama (monog.); Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 445 
Yucatan (habits); Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 149, 1886 
Jalapa, Mexico. 

Amblycercus holosericeus Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 327, 1886 
part, spec, b-p, Mexico (Jalapa; Tonala, Chiapas; Yucatan), British 
Honduras (Belize), Guatemala (Choctum, Duenas, Retalhuleu), Costa 
Rica (Irazu), and Panama (Santa Fe, Calovevora, Paraiso Station, Lion 
Hill); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 446, 1886 
part, Mexico to Panama; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 
1887 Costa Rica (Pozo Azul de Pirris, Las Trojas, Alajuela, Jimenez); 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 588, 1888 Segovia River, Hon- 
duras; Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 249, 1892 Costa Rica (both sides up to 6,000 
ft.); idem, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 140, 1893 
Costa Rica (Palmar, Boruca, Buenos Aires); Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 16, p. 494, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (habits); idem, I.e., 
18, p. 630, 1896 Alta Mira, Tamaulipas; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 8, p. 280, 1896 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Bangs, Proc. New 
Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 33, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; idem, Auk, 18, 
p. 370, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 64. 
1902 Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 194, 1902 part, southern Mexico to Panama (monog.); 
Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 221, 1906 savanna 
of Panama; Cole, I.e., 50, p. 141, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Bangs, 
Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Costa Rica (Boruca and Pozo del Rio Grande); 
Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 112, 1907 Guatemala 
(Los Amates, Lake Amatitlan, Lake Atitlan, Patulul, San Jose) ; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 833, 1910 Costa Rica (both sides up to 8,000 ft., 
habits); Peters, Auk, 30, p. 378, 1913 Camp Mengel and Xcopen, Quin- 
tana Roo; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 280, 1918 Gatun, 
Panama; Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 29, 1919 San Juan del Norte, 
Nicaragua; Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. S2D, 1924 Gatun and Farfan, Panama; 
Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 486, 1927 Presidio 
and Motzorongo, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 43 

Amblycercus holosericeus holosericeus Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 115, 
1924 Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz (crit.); Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 
235, p. 18, 1926 Vigia Chica, Yucatan; Kennard and Peters, Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., 38, p. 464, 1928 Almirante, Panama; Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 190, 1929 Cana, Darien; Peters, I.e., 69, 
p. 474, 1929 Lancetilla, Honduras (crit.); idem, I.e., 71, p. 343, 1931 
Almirante and Crimacola, Panama; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 369, 1932 Perme, 
Panama; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 64, p. 386, 1932 Guatemala 
(Chama, Concepci6n, Secanquim, Sepacuite, La Primavera, Puebla, San 
Lucas, Panajachel, El Soche, El Cipres, California, San Jose", Pantaleon); 
Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 248, 1932 Eden and Santa 
Rosita, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 335, 1932 Lancetilla and Cantarranas, 
Honduras. 

Amblycercus holosericeus centralis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 29, p. 95, 
1916 Rio Sicsola, Costa Rica (type in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh) ; 
idem, I.e., 37, p. 115, 1924 Costa Rica to northern Colombia (Turbaco, 
Cartagena, Punta Zapote) (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zone of southeastern Mexico, 
from southern Tamaulipas (Alta Mira) through Vera Cruz, Puebla, 
Oaxaca, Yucatan, and Quintana Roo to Chiapas, and south through 
Central America to Darien and along the Caribbean coast of 
Colombia to the delta of the Magdalena River (Turbaco, Cartagena, 
Punta Zapote). 1 

24: Mexico (Tampico, Tamaulipas, 4; Yucatan, 1; unspecified, 2); 
Guatemala (Los Amates, 2; Lake Amatitlan, 2; Lake Atitlan, Solola, 
1; Patulul, Solola, 1; Laguna, Guatemala, 1; San Jose", Escuintla, 2); 
Costa Rica (Volcan Turrialba, Cartago, 1) ; Nicaragua (San Emilio, 
Rivas, 1; San Geronimo, Chinandega, 3); Panama (Colon, 2; Balboa, 
Canal Zone, 1). 

*Amblycercus holosericeus flavirostris Chapman. 2 YELLOW- 
BILLED CACIQUE. 

Amblycercus holosericeus flavirostris Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
34, p. 659, Dec., 1915 Barbacoas, Narifto, southwestern Colombia (type 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, 

1 While we admit that there is a general difference in proportions, birds from 
Honduras and northwards having the wing shorter than the tail, whereas in a 
goodly number from Costa Rica and Panama just the reverse is the case, variation 
in this part of the range is so considerable that only a certain percentage of indi- 
viduals could be properly assigned to either of the two races. We, therefore, agree 
with the conclusions set forth by Mr. Peters (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, pp. 
474-476, 1929) that it is unexpedient to maintain the distinction of A. h. centralis. 

Forty-eight specimens covering the entire range have been examined in the 
present connection. 

^Amblycercus holosericeus flavirostris Chapman: Similar to A. h. holosericeus, 
but rather smaller; bill (even in skins) mustard-yellow, instead of plumbeous 
tipped with yellowish, with the culmen generally broader and less pointed apically. 



44 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 629, 1917 part, Alto Bonito and Barbacoas, Pacific Colombia; idem, 

I.e., 55, p. 695, 1926 western Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, Bucay, 

Chimbo, Naranjo, Rio Jubones, Santa Rosa, Guainche, Alamor, Cebollal). 
Cassiculus prevosti(i) (not Amblyramphus prevosti Lesson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 28, pp. 276, 293, 1860 Babahoyo and Esmeraldas, Ecuador; 

idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 129, 1862 part, spec, a, Babahoyo. 
Cassicus prevosti Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 322 Tumbez, 

Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 552 Chimbo, Ecuador. 
Amblycercus prevosti Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 

357, p. 29, 1899 Rio Peripa, Ecuador. 
Cassicus holosericeus (not Sturnus holosericeus Lichtenstein) Sclater, Ibis, 

1883, p. 163 part, western Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Babahoyo) and western 

Peru (Tumbez); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 415, 1884 Peru (Tumbez, 

Lechugal). 
Amblycercus holosericeus Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 327, 1886 part, 

spec, q-s, western Ecuador (Babahoyo, Monji); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, 

p. 486, 1898 Chimbo and Cachavi, Ecuador; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 194, 1902 part, western Ecuador (Guayaquil); 

Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1122 Guineo, Rio Calima, 

Colombia. 
Amblycercus flavirostris Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 116, 1924 

Pacific Tropics of Colombia and Ecuador (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of the Pacific slope of Colombia (north to 
the Rio Sucio), Ecuador, and extreme northwestern Peru (Tumbez). 
1: Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, Guayas, 1). 

*Amblycercus holosericeus australis Chapman. 1 CHAPMAN'S 
CACIQUE. 

Amblycercus holosericeus australis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
41, p. 333, Sept., 1919 Incachaca, Dept. Cochabamba, Bolivia (type in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 55, 
p. 695, 1926 upper Sumaco and above Baeza, eastern Ecuador (crit.). 

Wing, 92-99, (female) 86-92; tail, 88-96, (female) 83-92; bill, 28-31, (female) 
27-30. 

The decidedly yellow bill is the most striking character of this form, which 
replaces typical holosericeus in the Pacific Tropics of Colombia and Ecuador. 
Relative proportions of wing and tail are just as variable as in southern Central 
America. In the majority of specimens the wing is distinctly longer than the tail, 
but there are several from western Ecuador in which the tail is equal to, or even 
exceeds, the wing in length. 

Material examined. Colombia: Guineo, Rio Calima, 1. Ecuador: Prov. 
Esmeraldas (Pambilar, San Javier, etc.), 7; Rio Peripa, 3; Chimbo, 3. 

1 Amblycercus holosericeus australis Chapman: Very close to A. h. holosericeus, 
but with shorter wing and decidedly longer tail; bill slenderer and more yellowish 
with the plumbeous color more restricted to the basal portion. Wing, 92-95; 
tail, 102-110; bill, 25-28. 

This race nearly approaches A. h. flavirostris in coloration of bill, which is, 
however, not quite so bright yellowish and has more or less dusky at the 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 45 

Cassiculus prevostii (not Amblyramphus prevosti Lesson) Sclater, Cat. Coll. 

Amer. Bds., p. 129, 1862 part, spec, c, New Granada. 
Cassicus prevosti Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, 

p. 86 Banos, Ecuador. 
Cassicus holosericeus (not Sturnus holosericeus Lichtenstein) Sclater, Ibis, 

1883, p. 163 part, "Bogota." 
Amblycercus holosericeus Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 327, 1886 

part, spec, t-v, "Bogota" and "Aragua," Venezuela; Goodfellow, Ibis, 

1901, p. 478 upper Rio Napo and mouth of the Rio Coca, eastern 

Ecuador; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 194, 1902 part, 

Colombia and Venezuela. 
Amblycercus holosericeus flavirostris (not of Chapman) Chapman, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 629, 1917 part, Los Jambos (western Andes), 

Rio Toch6 (central Andes), and El Pinon (eastern Andes), Colombia. 
Amblycercus australis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 116, 1924 Colombia 

(Ramirez, eastern Andes; Sancudo, western Andes; Santa Marta region), 

Venezuela (La Cuchilla, Merida), and Bolivia (crit.). 
Amblycercus holosericeus subsp. Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 

14, p. 478, 1922 Heights of Chirua, Santa Marta region, Colombia (crit., 

habits). 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of Colombia (all 
three ranges and Santa Marta region) and adjoining parts of western 
Venezuela (Sierra of Me'rida) ; l south through eastern Ecuador and 
Peru (Urubamba Valley) to Bolivia (Incachaca, Dept. Cochabamba). 

4: Colombia (Paramo de Tama, Santander, 3) ; Venezuela (Culata, 
Merida, 1). 

Genus CASSICULUS Swainson 

Cassiculus Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 436, June, 1827; idem, 
Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, Sept.-Dec., p. 352, 1827 type, by orig. desig., 
Cassiculus coronatus Swainson = Icterus melanicterus Bonaparte. 

*Cassiculus melanicterus (Bonaparte). MEXICAN CACIQUE. 

Icterus melanicterus Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, p. 389, April, 
1825 Mexico (type in coll. of C. L. Bonaparte, now in Paris Museum, 
examined). 

Cassiculus coronatus Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 436, June, 1827 
Temascaltepec, Mexico (type in coll. of W. Bullock, now probably in 
University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.); idem, Zool. Journ., 3, p. 353, 
1827 Mexico. 

base. The absolutely longer tail serves to distinguish it, furthermore, without 
difficulty. While we have not seen any material from Bolivia or Peru, birds from 
eastern Ecuador, "Bogota," and Merida agree well together and correspond to 
Chapman's and Todd s descriptions. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Sierra of Me'rida, 2. Colombia: 
"Bogota," 2. Ecuador: Upper Rio Napo, 2. 

1 The locality "Aragua" requires confirmation. 



46 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Icterus diadematus Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 81, pi. 482, Oct., 
1829 Mexico (type in Leiden Museum). 

Cassiculus melanicterus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 428, 1850 
Mexico; Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 186, 1851 Mexico; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 380, 1859 Rio Grande, Oaxaca; idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 129, 1862 Oaxaca; Duges, La Naturaleza, 1, p. 139, 1869 
Guanajuato; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 278, 1874 
Mazatlan (Sinaloa), Tepic, and Rio de Coahuana (Colima), Mexico 
(habits, nest, and eggs); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 23, 1876 
Tehuantepec City, Barrio, and Chihuitan, Oaxaca; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, 
p. 156 Oaxaca and Mazatlan (monog.); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 422 Acapulco; Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 149, 
1886 Yanhuitlan, Oaxaca; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 328, 1886 
Mexico (Oaxaca; Tonala, Chiapas; Acapulco; Presidio; Mazatlan); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 443, 1886 Mexico 
(monog.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 218 La Playa, 
base of Jorullo Volcano; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 191, 1902 Mexico, from Sinaloa to Chiapas; Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 21, p. 360, 1905 Sinaloa (Cosala, Escuinapa, Arroyo de 
Limones, and Juanna Gomez River); Bailey, Auk, 23, p. 389, 1906 
San Bias, Nayarit (nest); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 
48, 1927 Labrados, Sinaloa, and San Bias, Nayarit; Bangs and Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 403, 1928 Chivela, Almoloya, and Tapa- 
natepec, Oaxaca; Griscom, I.e., 75, p. 402, 1934 Acapulco and Coyuca, 
Guerrero. 

Cassicus melanicterus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 66 
Mazatlan and Acapulco (monog.); Finsch, Abhandl. Naturw. Ver. Bremen, 
2, p. 363, 1870 Mazatlan. 

Range. Western Mexico, from Sinaloa south to Oaxaca and 
Chiapas (Tonala). 

15: Mexico (Sinaloa, 1; Escuinapa, Sinaloa, 1; Colima, 12; Putla, 
Oaxaca, 1). 

Genus PSOMOCOLAX Peters 

Scaphidura (not Scaphidurus Swainson, 1827) Swainson, Classif. & Nat. Hist. 

Bds., 2, p. 272, 1837 type, by virtual monotypy, Scaphidura barita 

Swainson =Oriolus oryzivorus Linnaeus. 
Psomocolax Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 123, 1929 type, by orig. 

desig., Oriolus oryzivorus Gmelin. 

*Psomocolax oryzivorus impacifus Peters. MEXICAN RICE 
GRACKLE. 

Psomocolax oryzivorus impacifus Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 123, 
1929 Pasa Nueva, Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 476, 
1929 Tela, Honduras; idem, I.e., 71, p. 343, 1931 Almirante, western 
Panama; Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 248, 1932 Great 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 47 

Falls, Pis Pis River, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 337, 1932 Honduras 
(Tela, Lancetilla Valley, Chiloma); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 376, 1932 Guatemala. 

Cassidix oryzivora (not Oriolus oryzivorus Gmelin) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 26, p. 98, 1858 southern Mexico; Moore, I.e., 27, p. 57, 1859 
Chiloma, Honduras; Salvin, Ibis, 1861, p. 353 Honduras (ex Moore); 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 142, 1862 part, spec, c, Orizaba, Mexico; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 279 Bluefields River, 
Nicaragua; Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 191 Veragua (CaloveVora, Chitra, 
Calobre); Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 46, 1878 Guate- 
mala; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 165 part, Central America; idem, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 329, 1886 part, spec, d-i, Mexico (Orizaba), Guatemala 
(Choctum), and Veragua (Chitra, CaloveVora); Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 445, 1886 part, Mexico (Orizaba), 
Guatemala (Choctum), Honduras (Chiloma), Nicaragua (Bluefields 
River), and Panama (Chitra, CaloveVora, Calobre); Richmond, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 496, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua. 

Cassidix mexicanus (not Corpus mexicanus Gmelin) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 416 part, Mexico and Guatemala (crit.). 

Cassidix oryzivora mexicana Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 370, 1901 David, Panama; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 199, 1902 southern 
Mexico to British Honduras (monog.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 832, 1910 Costa Rica (Reventaz6n, Guapiles); Peters, Auk, 30, 
p. 378, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo. 

Cassidix oryzivora violea (not of Bangs) Kennard and Peters, Proc. Boston 
Soc. N. H., 38, p. 464, 1928 Almirante, Panama. 

Range. Caribbean slope of southeastern Mexico (in State of 
Vera Cruz) and southwards through Guatemala, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, and Costa Rica (Reventazon, Guapiles) to western Panama 
(David, Chiriqui; Almirante; Veraguas). 

1: Guatemala (Bobos, Izabal, 1). 

*Psomocolax oryzivorus oryzivorus (Gmelin). RICE GRACKLE. 

Oriolus oryzivorus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 386, 1788 based on "Rice 

Oriole" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 1, (2), p. 423; Cayenne (type in coll. 

of Miss Blomefield). 
Cassicus ater Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 5, p. 363, 1816 

based on "Tordo Grande" Azara, No. 60; Paraguay. 
C[assicus] J[apus] azarae Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss., 

15, p. 276, 1826 based on "Tordo Grande," Azara, No. 60; Paraguay. 
Psarocolius palliatus Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 22, spec. 4, 1827 new name 

for Cassicus ater Vieillot; Cayenne, Brazil, and Paraguay. 
Scaphidura crassirostra Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 301, Dec. 31, 1837 

Brazil (type in coll. of W. Swainson; descr. of female). 
Cassicus palliatus Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 293, 1844 Peru; idem, 

Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 229, 1846 "coast" of Peru. 



48 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Scaphidurus vieilloti Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 426, 1850 
"Cayenna, Antillis" (type in Darmstadt Museum; descr. of female 01 
young). 

Cassidix vieilloti Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 417 (crit.). 

Cassicus niger (not Oriolus niger Boddaert) Lichtenstein.Verz. Doubl. Berlinei 
Mus., p. 19, 1823 (in part); Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 1241 
1831 Belmonte, Bahia. 

Scaphidura atra Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 683 
"1848" [ = 1849] British Guiana. 

Scaphidurus ater Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 426, 1850 Brazi 
and Paraguay (diag.); Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 269, 1866 Trinidad. 

Cassidix ater Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 415 Brazil 
Cayenne, Ecuador, and New Grenada (crit.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p 
201, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba, Monjolinho), Sao Paulo (Ypanema 
Rio Parana), Matto Grosso (Caicara, Engenho do Gama, Villa Bella) 
Amazonas (Manaos, Rio Amazonas), and Para, Brazil; Taczanowski 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 323 Lechugal, Rio Zurumilla, Peru. 

Cassidix oryzivora Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 194, 1851 Brazil, Surinam 
Cayenne, and Puerto Cabello; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 140 
1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 142, 1862 
part, spec, a, b, d, Para, Pallatanga, and "Bogota"; Sclater and Salvin 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 354 Panama Railroad; idem, I.e., 1867 : 
pp. 573, 978 Para, Brazil, and Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1869, p. 252 
plain of Valencia, Venezuela; idem, I.e., 1873, pp. 185, 267 Cosnipata 
Pebas, upper Ucayali, and Santa Cruz, Peru; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21 
p. 251, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 510 Concordia, Antioquia, and Remedies, 
Colombia; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1879, p. 201 Manaure, Colombia 
idem, Ibis, 1880, p. 123 Minca, Colombia; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2 
p. 435, 1884 Peru ("coast," Pebas, Ucayali, Santa Cruz, Lechugal): 
Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 165 part, South America (monog.); Salvin, Ibis, 
1885, p. 219 Bartica Grove, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit, 
Mus., 11, p. 329, 1886 part, spec, a, j-y, Panama and South America; 
Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 Santarem, Brazil; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 37, 1894 Trinidad; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 Caaguazu, Paraguay; Kuschel, 
Journ. Orn., 45, p. 168, 1897 Ourem, Para (eggs and parasitic habits); 
Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 361 Brazil (parasitic habits); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 

5, p. 485, 1898 Paramba and Chimbo, Ecuador; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 12, pp. 159, 178, 1898 Pueblo Viejo and Palomina, Colombia; 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 30, 1899 
Rio Peripa and Rio Daule, Ecuador; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 170, 
1899 Sao Paulo; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 13, p. 163, 1900 
Valparaiso, Colombia; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 479 Santo Domingo 
and San Nicolas, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 
33, 1902 Orinoco (Caicara) and Caura (Suapure, La Pricion), Venezuela; 
Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 499 Rio Capim, Para; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 

6, p. 433, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, pp. 21, 360, 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 49 

1906 Seelet, Trinidad, and Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 396, 1907 Sao Paulo (Itapura, Bauru) and Rio Jurua, 
Brazil; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 298, 1907 Ourem, Rio Guama; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 123, 1908 Cayenne; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 
2, p. 357, 1910 Surinam (habits); Menegaux, Miss. Serv. GSogr. Armee 
Mes. Arc Me'rid. Equat., 9, p. B. 108, 1911 Rio Blanco, Santo Domingo, 
and Pachijal, Ecuador; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 420, 1914 
Rio Guama (Ourem) and Monte Alegre, Brazil; Bertoni, Anal. Soc. 
Cient. Arg., 75, p. 101, 1913 Misiones; idem, Faun. Parag., p. 66, 1914 
Alto Parana, Paraguay; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 366, 1914 Santa 
Ana to the Rio Iguazu, Misiones; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 559, 
1921 Upper Takutu Mountains, Ituribisci River, Abary River, and 
Bartica; Bertoni, El Hornero, 3, p. 397, 1926 Alto Iguazu, Paraguay. 

Scaphidura barita (not Gracula barita Linnaeus) Swainson, Anim. Menag., 
p. 301, Dec. 31, 1837 Brazil. 

Cassidix baritus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 296, 1861 
Isthmus of Panama. 

Cassidix oryzivora violea Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 11, 1900 
La Concepcion, Santa Marta, Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and O. 
Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 418, 1930); Ridgway, Bull. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 197, 1902 Colombia to Panama (monog.); 
Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1122 Novita and Pueblo Rico, 
Pacific Colombia (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 630, 
1917 Novita, Noanama, La Manuelita, Miraflores, Guengue, La Palma, 
Malena, Buena Vista, Barrigon, and Florencia, Colombia (crit.); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 280, 1918 Gatun Lake, Panama; 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 477, 1922 Pueblo Viejo, 
Fundacion, and Chirua, Colombia (crit.). 

Cassidix violea Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 87, 1922 
Canchacoto (road to Chones), near Mindo, and road to Nanegal, Ecuador. 

Cassidix oryzivora oryzivora Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 38, 1908 Rio 
Araguaya, Goyaz; idem, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
26, No. 2, pp. 19, 88, 1912 Ipitinga, Rio Acara, and Para localities; 
Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 210, 1916 Caicara, Orinoco 
River; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 85, 1918 
vicinity of Paramaribo and Javaweg, Surinam; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 696, 1926 Daule, El Chiral, Alamor, Zamora, 
below San Jose, and Rio Napo, Ecuador (crit.); Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. 
Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 194, 1926 Barra do Rio Peixe (Rio Ivahy) and 
Candido de Abreu, Parana; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 
176, 1928 Rio Guama. 

Cassidix oryzivora limitis Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 
234, 1926 Lechugal, Rio Zurumilla, Prov. Tumbez, Peru (type in War- 
saw Museum). 

Cassidix oryzivora garleppi Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, 
p. 234 (in text), 1926 Bolivia=Santa Cruz (type in Warsaw Museum). 



50 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Psomocolax oryzivorus oryzivorus Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 123, 
1929 (crit.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 393, 1930 Matto 
Grosso; Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 98, 1934 Trinidad. 

Psomocolax oryzivorus violeus Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 123, 1929 
Canal Zone to Colombia and Venezuela (crit.); Laubmann, Wissens. 
Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 283, 1930 Buena Vista, Santa 
Cruz, Bolivia (crit.); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 416, 
1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 369, 1932 
Perme, Darien. 

Range. From the Panama Canal Zone south to western Ecuador 
and extreme northwestern Peru (Lechugal, Rio Zurumilla, Prov. 
Tumbez) and east through Colombia and Venezuela to the island 
of Trinidad, thence through the Guianas to Brazil as far south as 
Santa Catharina and Matto Grosso, and the adjacent districts of 
Paraguay (Alto Parana) and Misiones, and west through Amazonia 
to eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, and eastern Bolivia. 1 

9: Colombia ("Bogota," 2); Peru (Lagunas, lower Huallaga, 1); 
Venezuela (Orope, Zulia, 2; Cocollar, Sucre, 1); British Guiana 
(Demerara, 1; Mazaruni River, 1); Brazil (Serra Grande, Rio 
Branco, 1). 

Genus TANGAVIUS Lesson 

Tangavius Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, No. 2, Feb., p. 41, pub. March, 1839 type, 
by monotypy, Tangavius involucratus Lesson = Psarocolius aeneus Wagler. 

Callothrus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 18 type, by subs, 
desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 3), Psarocolius aeneus Wagler. 

1 Subdivision of the South American Rice Grackle seems to be impracticable, 
although I formerly advocated the recognition of P. o. violeus from Colombia and 
western Ecuador. Messrs. Chapman and Todd had already demonstrated the 
non-existence of color differences between birds from the supposed range of violeus 
and typical oryzivorus, purple-tinged as well as mainly bronze-colored individuals 
being found alike in the Guianas and on the Pacific coast. Mr. Peters thought it 
possible to maintain violeus on account of larger size. While admitting that adult 
males in Colombia and western Ecuador frequently attain measurements which 
are slightly superior to the maximum figures of typical oryzivorus, I find much 
individual variation in that respect, so much indeed, that the character appears to 
me of questionable value. Ten adult males from Sao Paulo, Brazil, for instance, 
vary in the length of the wing from 176 to 200, while an equal number from Colom- 
bia (Santa Marta and Pacific coast) and western Ecuador range from 186 to 210. 
An adult from Cayenne is matched in size and coloration by numerous specimens 
from the Pacific coast. Sztolcman's C. o. limitis, based on a single male from the 
Ecuadorian boundary of Peru near the Pacific, is merely the bronze-colored variant 
occasionally met with in various parts of the range. Nor can I recognize the 
tentatively proposed C. o. garleppi of the same author, the shape of the maxilla 
being extremely variable. Three birds from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, differ nowise 
from the ordinary type, while one (out of two) from Santa Catharina shows the 
peculiar shape of the bill described by Sztolcman. Some of the strongly purple- 
glossed individuals from the Pacific side of Colombia are almost indistinguishable 
from P. o. impacifus. 

Fifty-nine specimens from the entire range exclusive of Panama examined. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 51 

Tangavius aeneus milleri van Rossem. 1 BRONZED COWBIRD. 

Tangavius aeneus milleri van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 
355, 1934 Tucson, Arizona (type in coll. of D. R. Dickey, Pasadena). 

Molothrus aeneus (not Psarocolius aeneus Wagler) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 18 part, Mazatlan, Mexico; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 2, p. 281, 1874 part, Mazatlan; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 334, 1886 part, spec, j-m, Presidio and Mazatlan; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 451, 1886 part, Mazatlan and 
Presidio. 

Callothrus aeneus aeneus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 203, 
1902 northwestern Mexico, from Sonora to Tepic (monog.). 

Tangavius aeneus aeneus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 126, 1905 
western Mexico; Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 363, 1905 
Escuinapa and Juanna Gomez River, south Sinaloa; Bailey, Auk, 23, p. 389, 
1906 San Bias, Nayarit; Visher, Auk, 27, p. 210, 1910 near Tucson and 
Sacaton, Arizona (breeding); idem, I.e., 27, p. 283, 1910 west of Tucson; 
Gilman, Condor, 16, p. 255, 1914 near Sacaton and Santan, Arizona 
(breeding); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 17, p. 48, 1927 
Mazatlan (Sinaloa) and Labrados (Nayarit); Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 
507, 1927 (range); idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 320, 337, 340, 1929 (monog.); 
van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 290, 1931 Sonora (Saric, 
Obregon, Tesia, Guirocoba, Guaymas, El Alamo). 

Tangavius aeneus involucratus (not of Lesson) Visher, Auk, 26, p. 307, 1909 
near Tucson, Arizona; Gilman, Condor, 11, p. 173, 1909 Sacaton, 
Arizona. 

Range. Southern Arizona (vicinity of Tucson) south through 
Sonora and Sinaloa to Nayarit, western Mexico. 

*Tangavius aeneus assimilis (Nelson). LESSER BRONZED 
COWBIRD. 

Callothrus aeneus assimilis Nelson, Auk, 17, p. 266, 1900 Acapulco, Guerrero, 
Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 204, 1902 southwestern Mexico (monog.). 

Tangavius aeneus assimilis Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 126, 1905 
(nomencl.); Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 508, 1927 (range); Bangs and Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 403, 1928 Chivela and Tapanatepec, 
Oaxaca; Friedmann, The Cowbirds, pp. 322, 339, 342, 1929 (monog.); 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 402, 1934 Chilpancingo and 
Coyuca, Guerrero. 

Molothrus aeneus (not Psarocolius aeneus Wagler) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 18 part, Manzanillo, Colima; Lawrence, Mem. 

1 Tangavius aeneus milleri van Rossem: Adult male similar to T. a. aeneus, 
but rump violet or at least mixed with violet (instead of bronze con color with 
back) and anterior under parts decidedly more bluish (less brassy); female very 
much darker, nearly blackish above. This form, in coloration of both sexes, seems 
to resemble T. a. assimilis, which is autoptically unknown to us but is apparently 
larger in all proportions. 



52 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 281, 1874 part,/ Manzanillo and mountains of 
Colima, Colima; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 24, 1876 Tapana, 
near Tehuan tepee, Oaxaca; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 451, 1886 part, Manzanilla Bay (Colima) and Tapana 
(Oaxaca). 

Range. Southwestern Mexico, in states of Jalisco, Colima, and 
Guerrero, south to the Pacific lowlands of Oaxaca (Tapana, Chivela, 
Tapanatepec). 

1: Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 1). 

Tangavius aeneus aeneus (Wagler). RED-EYED COWBIRD. 

Psarocolius aeneus Wagler, Isis, 22, Heft 7, col. 758, July, 1829 Mexico 
(type, from Laguna, Vera Cruz, in Berlin Museum examined; cf. van 
Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 354, 1934). * 

Tangavius involucratus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, No. 2, Feb., p. 41, pub. March, 
1839 Mexico, probably Vera Cruz (type in coll. of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux); 
Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 125, 1905 (crit.). 

Molothrus robustus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 193 (note), Oct., 1851 Mexico 
(descr. of female; type in Berlin Museum). 

Agelaius aeneus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1848, p. 90 Puente 
Nacional, Vera Cruz. 

Molothrus aeneus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 300, 1856 Cordoba, 
Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 27, pp. 365, 381, 1859 vicinity of Jalapa, Vera 
Cruz, and Yetla, Oaxaca; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, I860, p. 34 Duenas, 
Guatemala; Owen, Ibis, 1861, p. 61 San Geronimo, Guatemala (eggs 
descr.); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 81, 1861 San Jose, Costa Rica (crit., 
plumages) ; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 18 part, Panama, 
Nicaragua, and Jalapa; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 104, 
1868 San Jose, Costa Rica; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 
552, 1869 Vera Cruz; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 191 
Chitra and Calobre, Veraguas; Merrill, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 1, p. 78, 1876; 
idem, I.e., 2, p. 85, 1877 Fort Brown, Texas (habits); idem, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1, p. 130, 1878 (reprint) ; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 59 San Jose, Costa Rica; idem, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 
46, 1878 Guatemala; Coues and Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. 
Surv. Terr., 4, p. 23, 1878 Brownsville and Hidalgo, Texas (habits, 
synon., diag.); Sennett, I.e., 5, p. 396, 1879 Lomita, Texas (habits); 
Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 392, 1882 La Palma de Nicoya, 
Costa Rica; Ferrari-Perez, I.e., 9, p. 151, 1889 Puebla (Izucar de Mata- 
moros, Chietla, Acatlan) and Vera Cruz (Jalapa); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 
4 part, southern Mexico to Veraguas; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 334, 1886 part, spec, d-i, o-z, Mexico (Orizaba, Oaxaca, Yucatan), 

1 In addition to the specimen discussed by van Rossem, I have examined in 
the Vienna Museum a paratype collected by Deppe and received in exchange from 
the Berlin Museum. This is in more perfect condition than the type, and fully 
bears out van Rpssem's conclusion as to the applicability of Wagler's name, the 
two Deppe specimens being unquestionably identical with others from eastern 
Guatemala and Costa Rica. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 53 

..--Guatemala (Choctum, Duenas), Costa Rica (Orosi), and Veraguas (Calo- 
bre, Chitra); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 451, 
1886 part, eastern Mexico, Yucatan, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa 
Rica, and Panama. 

Callothrus robustus Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 
Costa Rica (San Jos6, Naranjo de Cartago, Cartago, Alaju&a); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, pp. 208, 212 Yucatan and Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz; Cherrie, Auk, 7, p. 334, 1890 San Jos6, Costa Rica; Attwater, 
Auk, 9, p. 237, 1892 San Antonio, Texas (breeding); Cherrie, Auk, 9, 
p. 250, 1892 San Jose, Costa Rica; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
16, p. 496, 1893 San Carlos, Nicaragua; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 8, p. 280, 1896 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 201, 1902 (monog.); Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, 
p. 31, 1919 Granada, Nicaragua; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
84, p. 336, 1932 Cantarranas, Honduras. 

Tangavius aeneus involucratus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 126, 1905 
(crit.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 141, 1906 Chichen Itza, 
Yucatan; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 831, 1910 Costa Rica 
(Guayabo, Bonilla, San Jose, Cartago, Alajuela, Bebede>o, Juan Vinas); 
Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 487, 1927 Presidio and 
Motzorongo, Vera Cruz; Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 23, 1926 
Brownsville, Texas; Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 507, 1927 (range); idem, The 
Cowbirds, pp. 321, 338, 341, 1929 (monog.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 387, 1932 Guatemala (many localities). 

Tangavius involucratus Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 113, 
1907 El Rancho, Lake Atitlan, and Tecpam, Guatemala; Peters, Auk, 
30, p. 379, 1913 Xcopen and Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo. 

Range. Southern Texas, north to San Antonio, and south 
through eastern Mexico (in states of Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, 
Vera Cruz, Puebla, Yucatan, Quintana Roo, and Chiapas), Guatemala, 
Honduras (Cantarranas), Nicaragua (Granada, San Carlos), and 
Costa Rica to western Panama (Veraguas): 

22: Texas (Lometa, Lampasas County, 1); Mexico (Valles, San 
Luis Potosi, 5; San Felipe, Yucatan, 1; Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, 1); 
Guatemala (Salama, Baja Vera Paz, 2; Tecpam, Chimaltenango, 5; 
Lake Atitlan, Solola, 1); Costa Rica (Lim6n, 1; San Jose", 2); Nica- 
ragua (San Rafael del Norte, Matagalpa, 3). 

Tangavius armenti (Cabanis). 1 ARMENT'S COWBIRD. 

Molothrus armenti Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 192 (note), Oct., 1851 Car- 
tagena, Colombia (descr. of young; type in Berlin Museum examined); 
idem, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 82, 1861 Cartagena (crit.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 18 Sabanilla, Colombia, and "Demarara," 

1 Tangavius armenti (Cabanis) is probably conspecific with T. aeneus, but 
owing to its excessive rarity (only two specimens are known to exist in collections) 
nothing definite can be said regarding its relationship. 



54 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

errore (descr. of adult); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 5 Colombia (Cartagena, 
Sabanilla) and "Demerara" (ex Cabanis and Cassin); idem, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 335, 1886 coast region of Colombia and "Venezuela" 
(ex Cassin). 

Tangavius armenti Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 506, 1927 coast region of Colombia 
(crit.); idem, The Cowbirds, p. 318, 1929 (monog.); idem, Ibis, 1933, 
p. 492, pi. 16 (adult and young) Colombia (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of the Caribbean coast of Colombia 
(Cartagena, Sabanilla). 

Genus MOLOTHRUS Swainson 

Molothrus Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, 

"1831," pp. 277, 494, pub. Feb., 1832 type, by orig. desig., Fringilla 

pecoris Gmelin =Orio Jits ater Boddaert. 
Hypobletis Gloger, Gemeinn. Hand- und Hilfsbuch, 1, p. xxxvii, 1841 type, 

by orig. desig., Fringilla pecoris Gmelin=OrioZMS ater Boddaert. 
Cyrtotes Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 73, June, 1850 type, by subs. 

desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 69, 1855), Icterus maxillaris 

Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 
Molobrus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 192 (note), Oct., 1851 emendation of 

Molothrus Swainson. 
Agelaioides Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 15 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 3), Agelaius badius Vieillot. 
Cyanothrus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 19 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 3), Tanagra bonariensis Gmelin. 
Demelioteucus Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 

10, p. 399, 1890 type, by monotypy, Agelaius badius Vieillot. 
Strepitovagus Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 496, 1927 type, by orig. desig., Molo- 

thrus rufo-axillaris Cassin. 

*Molothrus ater ater (Boddaert). EASTERN COWBIRD. 

Oriolus ater Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 37, Dec., 1783 based on "Troupiale, 
de la Caroline" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 606, fig. 1; Carolina. 

Oriolus fuscus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 393, 1788 based on "Brown- 
headed Oriole" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 259; New York. 

Oriolus minor Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 394, 1788 part, "female" 1 (ex 
Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 606, fig. 1). 

Fringilla pecoris Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 910, 1789 based on "Cowpen 
Bird" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 34, pi. 34, and "Cowpen Finch" 
Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 371; "in America septentrionali, hieme in 
Virginia and Carolina, maio in Noveboraco" (=female). 

Icterus emberizoides (Bosc MS.) Daudin, Traite Elem. Orn., 2, p. 350, 1800 
Carolina (descr. of male and female). 



alleged male, Buffon's "Le petit Troupiale noir," I am unable to make 
out for certain, although it might be referable to one of the races of the South 
American Cowbird. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 55 

Frlngilla ambigua Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, 1, p. 484, 1832 
(= young). 

Molothrus pecoris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 17 (crit.); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 3 (part). 

Molothrus pecoris subsp. typica Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 334, 
1886 part, North America and Mexico. 

Molothrus ater ater Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 207, 1902 
part, excluding mountain states and Mexican references (monog., full 
bibliog.); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 Matamoros, Tamaulipas; Ober- 
holser, Auk, 34, p. 327, 1917 (range); Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 504, 1927 
(range); idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 145, 301, 1929 (monog., ecology, full 
bibliog.). 

Range. Breeds from southern Ontario and Quebec, Nova Scotia, 
and New Brunswick south to central Virginia, southeastern Ken- 
tucky, central Tennessee, southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and 
central Texas, and west to Minnesota, northeastern Iowa, south- 
eastern Nebraska, southwestern Kansas, and New Mexico; winters 
from the Ohio and Potomac valleys (casually to New York and 
Michigan) south to Florida, the Gulf coast, and northeastern 
Mexico (Matamoros, Tamaulipas). 

81: Maine (Lincoln, 1); Massachusetts (Boston, 1; Cambridge, 
1; Arlington, 1; Watertown, 1); Connecticut (East Hartford, 6); 
New Jersey (Englewood, 1) ; New York (Shelter Island, 7) ; Indiana 
(Kouts, 1); Illinois (Lake Forest, 9; Chicago, 5; Grand Chain, 2; 
Joliet, 5; Fox Lake, 1; Lewistown, 1; Ravinia, 1; Brainerd, 1; Worth, 
1; unspecified, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 22); Missouri (Appleton 
City, 3); Texas (Port Lavaca, 1; Corpus Christi, 1; Ingram, 1; 
Brownsville, 1; Fort Worth, 3) ; Florida (Gainesville, 1; Enterprise, 1). 

*Molothrus ater artemisiae Grinnell. 1 NEVADA COWBIRD. 

Molothrus ater artemisiae Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 5, p. 276, Dec. 31, 
1909 Quinn River Crossing, Humboldt County, Nevada (type in 
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley); Oberholser, Auk, 34, p. 327, 
1917 (crit., range); Dickey and van Rossem, Condor, 24, p. 207, 1922 
(range in California); Grinnell, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 13, p. 76, 1923 
Death Valley, California; Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 505, 1927 (range); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 149, 1928 Lower California 
(Miraflores and Los Coronados Islands); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego 
Soc. N. H., 6, p. 290, 1931 Saric, Sonora; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 75, p. 402, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

1 Molothrus ater artemisiae Grinnell: Similar to M. a. ater, but larger, with 
longer, relatively slenderer bill; female nearer to that of M. a. obscurus in colora- 
tion, but paler, more brownish, with usually more whitish throat. Wing, 111-118, 
(female) 96-104; tail, 73-82, (female) 64-70; bill, 17-19^, (female) 



56 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Molothrus ater dwighti Bishop, Auk, 37, No. 1, pi. 61, Jan. 4, 1910 Crane 

Lake, Saskatchewan (type in coll. of L. B. Bishop). 
Molothrus ater artemisiae Friedmann, The Cowbirds, pp. 152, 314, 1929 

(monog., full bibliog.). 
Molothrus ater ater (not Oriolus ater Boddaert) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 207, 1902 part (mountain states and Mexican 

localities and references). 

Range. Breeds chiefly in the Transition and Upper Austral 
zones from southern Manitoba, southwestern Mackenzie, and 
central British Columbia south to east-central California (from 
Death Valley, the Panamint Mountains, and Independence north to 
Mono Lake), southern Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, and from 
central Minnesota, southeastern South Dakota, and western Nebraska 
west to Washington, central Oregon, and northeastern California 
(Modoc region) ; winters south to Texas, Vera Cruz, and Michoacan. 

10: Canada (Okanagan, British Columbia, 5); Colorado (Fort 
Lyon, 4; Troublesome, 1). 

Molothrus ater calif ornicus Dickey and van Rossem. 1 CALI- 
FORNIA COWBIRD. 

Molothrus ater californicus Dickey and van Rossem, Condor, 24, p. 208, Nov., 
1922 Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, California (type in coll. of D. R. 
Dickey, Pasadena); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 149, 1928 
North Island, Los Coronados group, Lower California. 

Molothrus ater obscurus (not Sturnus obscurus Gmelin) Friedmann, Auk, 44, 
p. 505, 1927 part, California; idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 152, 315, 1929 
part, California. 

Range. Lower Austral zone of the San Joaquin Valley of 
California, from Merced County south to Kern County; casual in 
Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Barbara counties and on Los 
Coronados Islands, Lower California. 

*Molothrus ater obscurus (Gmelin). DWARF COWBIRD. 

Sturnus obscurus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 804, 1789 based on 
"L'Etourneau de la Nouvelle Espagne" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 448, 1760), 
which, in its turn, rests on "Tolocatzenatl" Hernandez, Hist. Nov. Hisp., 
p. 22; Mexico. 

Sturnus junceti Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 326, 1790 same basis as S. obscurus 
Gmelin. 

1 Molothrus ater californicus Dickey and van Rossem: Similar to M. a. obscurus, 
but larger with much heavier legs; coloration of female darker, especially below, 
and streaking more conspicuous. From M. a. artemisiae distinguished by smaller 
size and narrower streaking of under parts in the female. Wing, 100-108, (female) 
93-100; tail, 68-78, (female) 59-68; tarsus, 23-26; bill, 16-18, (female) 14^-17- 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 57 

Molothrus obscurus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 18 Colima, 
Manzanillo, and Miraflores (Lower California), Mexico (crit.). 

Molothrus pecoris (not Fringilla pecoris Gmelin) Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 3 
part, western Mexico (Mazatlan). 

Molothrus pecoris subsp. obscura Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 334, 
1886 City of Mexico and Mazatlan. 

Molothrus ater obscurus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 210, 
1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Oberholser, Auk, 34, p. 328, 1917 (range); 
Grinnell, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 13, p. 76, 1923 Furnace Creek 
Ranch, Death Valley, California (crit.); Dickey and van Rossem, Condor, 
24, p. 206, 1922 (range in California); Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 505, 1927 
(range, in part); idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 152, 315, 1929 (range, full 
bibliog. in part); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 148, 1928 
Lower California (breeding in the Colorado delta region, in winter in the 
Cape district); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 290, 1931 
Sonora (Saric, Obregon, Tesia, Guirocoba, Guaymas); Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 402, 1934 Tixtla and Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Range. Lower Austral zone of southern California (from Ven- 
tura and Inyo counties southward), southern Arizona, extreme 
southwestern New Mexico, and southern Texas south to northern 
Lower California, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Vera Cruz; in winter to 
the Cape district of Lower California. 

46: Texas (Corpus Christi, Nueces County, 26); Arizona (Tucson, 
Pima County, 1; Tempe, Maricopa County, 1; Calabasas, Cochise 
County, 7; Huachuca, Cochise County, 4); Mexico (Mazatlan, 
Sinaloa, 1; Rancho Correza, 1; Iguala, Guerrero, 5). 

*Molothrus bonariensis minimus Dalmas. 1 LESSER SHINY 
COWBIRD. 

Molothrus minimus Dalmas, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 138, 1900 
Tobago (type in coll. of R. de Dalmas). 2 

Icterus niger (not Oriolus niger Boddaert, 1783, nor of Gmelin, 1788) Daudin, 
Traite" Ele"m. d'Orn., 2, p. 351, 1800 " a Cayenne et dans toute la Guiane" 
(descr. of male). 

Molothrus atronitens (not Cassicus T. atronitens Merrem, 1826) Cabanis, in 
Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 682, 1849 coast of 
British Guiana (type in Berlin Museum examined); idem, Mus. Hein., 1, 
p. 193, 1851 Cayenne; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 200, 1870 Rio Cauame" 
(Rio Branco) and Cajutuba (Para), Brazil (spec, examined); Finsch, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 576 Trinidad (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 6 

1 It is possible that "Le petit Troupiale noir" Buffon, upon which the descrip- 
tion of the male sex of Oriolus minor Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, [1], p. 394, 1788) is 
based, refers to the present form. In the absence of measurements and locality 
other than "Amerique" this assumption is, however, altogether problematical. 

2 1 have no record as to whether the type passed into the Tring Museum or was 
among those specimens of the Dalmas Collection which were destroyed by accident. 



58 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Guiana, "Venezuela," and Trinidad (monog.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 
218 British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 337, 1886 
"Venezuela," Trinidad, Guiana (Georgetown, Demerara; Oyapoc, 
Cayenne), and Brazil (Mexiana); Stone, Auk, 8, p. 346, 1891 (monog.); 
Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
6, p. 36, 1894 Trinidad; Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 164 Amapa, Brazil; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 211, 1902 Guiana, "Vene- 
zuela," Trinidad, Tobago, Carriacou, and Vieques (monog., full bibliog.); 
Wells, Auk, 19, p. 347, 1902 Carriacou, Grenadines; Clark, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 32, p. 281, 1905 Grenada and Grenadines (Carriacou, Union 
Island, Petit Martinique, Mayreau, Tobago Keys, and Canouan); Hell- 
mayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 20, 1906 Caparo, Caroni River, and Seelet, 
Trinidad (crit.); Lowe, Ibis, 1909, pp. 312, 323 Grenada and Cariaco 
Peninsula, Venezuela; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 366, 1910 Surinam 
(habits, eggs); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 421, 1914 part, Quati- 
puru, Marajo (Arary, Sao Natal), Amapa, and Monte Alegre, Brazil; 
Wetmore, Auk, 33, p. 419, 1916 Vieques (ex Newton); Beebe, Trop. 
Wild Life, 1, p. 137, 1917 Bartica, British Guiana; Chubb, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 563, 1921 Anarica River, Abary River, Georgetown, and 
Bartica; Wood, Auk, 40, p. 128, 1923 Barbados; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico & Virgin Is., 9, p. 543, 1927 Vieques Island. 

Molothrus sericeus (not Icterus sericeus Lichtenstein) Newton, Ibis, I860, 
p. 308 "Bieque or Crab Island" [= Vieques, near St. Thomas]; Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 135, 1862 part, spec, b, c, Trinidad; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 573 Mexiana. 

Molothrus bonariensis (not Tanagra bonariensis Gmelin) Leotaud, Ois. Trini- 
dad, p. 277, 1866 Trinidad; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 220, 1886 "Bisque, 
Virgin Islands" [=Vieques] (ex Newton); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 107, 1889; 
idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 124, 1892 Vieques; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
55, p. 299, 1907 Amapa and Marajo, Brazil. 

Molothris [sic] atronitens Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 137, 
1922 Trinidad. 

Molothrus tanagrinus (not Icterus tanagrinus Spix) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 22 "Brazil" (crit.). 

Molothrus guianensis (not Lampropsar guianensis Cabanis) Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 22 (crit.,=young; cf. Stone, Auk, 8, 
p. 346, 1891). 

Molothrus bonariensis atronitens Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 397, 1907 
(range); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 123, 1908 Cayenne; Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 88, 119, 128, 
1912 Cajutuba (Para), Mexiana, and Marajo (Cachoeira); Bangs and 
Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 86, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, 
Surinam. 

Molothrus bonariensis minimus Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 14, p. 281, 
1920 (nomencl.); Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 501, 1927 (range); Bond, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 541, 1928 Barbados; Friedmann, 
The Cowbirds, pp. 64, 136, 142, 1929 (monog., range excl. Ceara and 
Maranhao); Danforth, Auk, 49, p. 96, 1932 Vieux Fort, Santa Lucia; 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 59 

Bond, Auk, 49, p. 496, 1932 Kingston, St. Vincent; Roberts, Trop. Agric., 
11, p. 98, 1934 Trinidad. 

Molothrus brevirostris (not of Swainson) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 200, 1870 
Cajutuba, Pard (spec, examined ;= young). 

Range. Extreme northeastern Brazil, from the vicinity of Belem 
(Para) through Mexiana, Marajo, and along the north bank of the 
Amazon west to the Rio Branco; French, Dutch, and British Guiana; 
extreme northeastern Venezuela (Laguna del Obispo, Cariaco pen- 
insula); Trinidad; Tobago; Grenada, Grenadines, Barbados, St. 
Vincent, and Santa Lucia, Lesser Antilles; accidental on Vieques 
Island, near St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. 1 

2: Lesser Antilles (Tobago, 1); British Guiana (Georgetown, 1). 

*Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis (Gmelin). SHINY 
COWBIRD. 

Tanagra bonariensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 898, 1789 based on "Tan- 

gavio" Buffon (Hist. Nat. Ois., 4, p. 241) and Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 

710; Buenos Aires. 
Xanthornus purpurascens Hahn, Vogel aus Asien, Afr., etc., livr. 5, pi. 4, 

1819 "South America" (type in coll. of J. Wagler, doubtless lost). 
Passerine discolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 552, 1819 

principally based on Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 710, and "Tordo comun" 

Azara, No. 61; Paraguay. 2 
Icterus sericeus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 19, 1823 

"Brazil" (descr. of male and female; types in Berlin Museum). 
Cassicus T. atronitens Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss. und 

Kunste, 26, p. 276, 1826 new name for Tanagra bonariensis Gmelin, 

Xanthornus purpurascens Hahn, etc.; South America. 
Molothrus brevirostris Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 305, Dec. 31, 1837 Brazil 

(types in coll. of W. Swainson). 
Icterus maxillaris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, 

cl. 2, p. 6, 1838 Cochabamba, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined); 

d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Me~rid., Ois., p. 367, pi. 52, figs. 2 (male), 3 (bill), 

1844 Cochabamba; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 

p. 643 (ex d'Orbigny). 

1 Birds from Tobago, Trinidad, British Guiana, and Rio Branco agree per- 
fectly together, and two males from the estuary of the Amazon also seem to be the 
same. The Lesser Shiny Cowbird is gradually spreading northwards on the 
Lesser Antilles. First noticed on the island of Carnacou by Wells in June, 1899, 
it has since established itself in Grenada, on many of the Grenadines, as well as in 
Barbados. Quite recently it has reached St. Vincent and Santa Lucia. Its occur- 
rence (one record) on Vieques, Virgin Islands, however, seems to be accidental. 

Additional material examined. Tobago: 16. Trinidad: Caparo, 12; Caroni 
River, 1; Chaguanas, 1; Seelet, 7. British Guiana: unspecified, 1. French 
Guiana: Cayenne, 1. Brazil: Rio Cauame", Rio Branco, 1; Cachoeira, Marajo, 
1; Cajutuba, Para, 2. 

2 Some of the localities quoted by Vieillot, such as Porto Rico and Santo 
Domingo, refer to species of other genera. 



60 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Molothrus maxillaris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 21 Bolivia 
(crit.); Berlepsch and Leverkiihn, Ornis, 6, p. 9, 1890 Lesbato, Rio 
Grande, Dept. Santa Cruz, Bolivia (crit.). 

Molothrus bonariensis melanogyna Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 
5, p. 194, 1926 Invernadinha, Parana, Brazil (type in Warsaw Museum); 
Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 503, 1927 Rio de Janeiro (La Raiz, Serra dos 
Orgaos; Serra do Itatiaya) and Parana; idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 64, 144, 
1929 (crit.). 

Molothrus bonariensis milleri Naumburg and Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 494, 1927 
Urucum, near Corumba, Matto Grosso, Brazil (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 503, 
1927 Matto Grosso; idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 63, 144, 1929 Matto 
Grosso (crit.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 394, 1930 
Urucum, Descalvados, and Cuyaba, Matto Grosso; Stone and Roberts, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 393, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Icterus minor (not Oriolus minor Gmelin) Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 
67, pi. 63, fig. 1, 1824 Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, Brazil (spec, in Munich 
Museum examined). 

Icterus violaceus Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 1212, 1831 Rio Para- 
hyba and Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro (types in Wied Collection, now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 2, p. 226, 1889). 

Molothrus niger (not Oriolus niger Boddaert) Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 
3, Part 15, p. 107, 1841 La Plata (habits). 

Molobrus sericeus Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 279, 1856 
Brazil (Nova Friburgo, Rio; Minas Geraes); idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 
258, 1860 Argentina; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 494, 1861 Argentina 
(egg descr.); Sternberg, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 125, 1869 Buenos Aires (nest- 
ing habits); Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 255, 1874 Barrancas, Rio 
Guayquiraro, Corrientes. 

Molothrus sericeus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 437, 1850 Brazil 
and Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 135, 1862 part, spec, a, 
d-f, Brazil, Chile, and Bolivia; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 
p. 21 Bahia (crit.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 200, 1870 Sao Paulo 
(Ypanema, Itarare, Joanna Leite), Parana (Curytiba), Goyaz (Goyaz, 
Tenente Borges), Matto Grosso (Cuyaba), and Amazonia (Santarem; 
Borba, Rio Madeira); idem, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Fri- 
burgo, Rio; Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 126 (note), 1885 Bahia 
(crit.). 

Molothrus murinus Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 199, 1870 Sao Cristovao, Rio 
de Janeiro (spec, examined; =nomen nudum). 

Molothrus (Molobrus) bonariensis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 85, 1874 
Cantagallo, Rio. 

Molothrus bonariensis Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 347, 
1847 Chile; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 19 Buenos 
Aires and Rio Paraguay (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 601 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Hudson, I.e., 1872, p. 809 
Argentina (habits); idem, I.e., 1874, p. 153 Buenos Aires (breeding habits 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 61 

and eggs); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 249, 1873 Blumenau, Santa 
Catharina (crit.); Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 79, 1876 Santarem, 
Brazil; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, pp. 33, 174 Chubut (Patagonia) and Buenos 
Aires; idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 394 Chubut; Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 14 Cape 
San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 339 Pernambuco, 
Brazil; Doering, in Roca, Inf. Of. Exp. Rio Negro, 1, Zool., p. 41, 1881 
CarhuS, Buenos Aires; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 601 
Monte Grande, Buenos Aires; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 133, 
1883 Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rios; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 5 
(monog.); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 126, 1885 
Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 278 Paysandu, 
Uruguay; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 335, 1886 (monog.); Sclater 
and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 72, 1888 Argentina (habits); Withington, 
Ibis, 1888, p. 463 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; Riker and Chapman, 
Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 Santare"m; Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 4 Estancia 
Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Stone, Auk, 8, p. 345, 1891 (monog.); Boucard 
and Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 44, 1892 Porto Real, Rio; 
Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 127 Fortin Donovan, lower Pilcomayo; Holland, 
Ibis, 1892, p. 198 Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 172 
Uruguay (eggs descr.); Holland, Ibis, 1895, p. 215 Santa Elena, Entre 
Rios; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 Para- 
guari, Paraguay; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 10, 1897 Bolivia (Caiza) 
and Salta (Lesser); idem, I.e., 15, No. 378, p. 6, 1900 Urucum, Matto 
Grosso; Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 101, p. 923, 1898 Chile; Ihering, 
Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 122, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul (Mundo 
Novo, Rio Grande, Sao Lourenco, Pedras Brancas); idem, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 3, p. 171, 1899 Sao Paulo (Tiete", Itatiba, Ilha de Sao Sebastiao, 
Iguape); idem, I.e., 4, p. 154, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, 
Rio; Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 224 Gran Chaco; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 8, p. 181, 1902 Tucuman; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 457 San Luis, 
Tarija, Bolivia; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 218, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman; Lillo, 
Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 45, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 396, 1907 Sao Paulo (Sao Sebastiao, Campos de Jordao, 
Iguape, Itapura, Tiete, Campinas, Jaboticabal), Minas Geraes (Vargem 
Alegre, Marianna), and Espirito Santo (Rio Doce); Snethlage, Journ. 
Orn., 56, p. 11, 1908 Monte Verde, Rio Purus (one female); Luderwaldt, 
Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, p. 359, 1909 Serra do Itatiaya, Sao Paulo; 
Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 644 Ybitimi and Sapucay, Paraguay; Grant, Ibis, 
1911, p. 103 Buenos Aires (Los Yngleses, Ajo), Corrientes (Bella Vista), 
Paraguay (Villa Pilar), and Bolivia (Cabo Emma, Alto Paraguay); idem, 
Ibis, 1912, p. 278 (egg descr.); Rahmer, Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 4, p. 207, 
1912 Machali (Rancagua), O'Higgins, and Banos de Cauquenes (Col- 
chagua), Chile; Reed, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 17, p. 173, 1913 Coronel, 
Concepcion, and Limache, Valparaiso, Chile; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., 
p. 66, 1914 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 390 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 152, 1918 
Mendoza (Rodriguez Pena, Las Catitas); Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 24, 1920 
Uruguay (Montevideo, Canelones, Maldonado, Minas, Colonia, Flores, 
San Jose, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo); idem, I.e., 2, p. 60, 1920 Canuelos, 
Buenos Aires; Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires ;Paessler, 



62 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Journ. Orn., 70, p. 479, 1922 Coronel, Chile (eggs descr.); Serie and 
Smyth, El Hornero, 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rlos; Giacomelli, 
I.e., 3, p. 70, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 172, 1924 Zelaya, Buenos 
Aires; Renard, I.e., 3, p. 287, 1924 San Cristobal, Santa Fe; Housse, 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 29, p. 148, 1925 San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel 
and Pirion, I.e., 31, p. 109, 1927 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock, 
I.e., 33, p. 188, 1929 Angol, Malleco; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de 
Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 42, 1926 Ceara, Brazil; Wilson, El Hornero, 3, 
p. 362, 1926 General Lopez, Santa Fe; Smyth, Lc., 4, p. 152, 1928 
(eggs and foster parents); Aravena, I.e., 4, p. 163, 1928 (food); Budin, 
I.e., 4, p. 411, 1931 Maimara, Jujuy; Castellanos, I.e., 5, p. 331, 1934 
Valle de los Reartes, Cordoba. 

Molobrus bonariensis Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 262, 1868 Prov. 
Santiago, Chile; Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 251, 1877 vicinity of 
Santiago; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 84, 1884 
Prov. Buenos Aires; Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. 
Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 Cordoba. 

Molothrus bonariensis sericeus Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
22, No. 3, p. 613, 1906 Bahia (crit.). 

Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 10, 1907 
Urucurituba, Rio Tapajoz, Brazil; idem, I.e., 15, p. 38, 1908 Rio Ara- 
guaya, Goyaz; Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 184, 1909 Chaco (eggs 
descr.); Hellmayr, I.e., 17, p. 282, 1910 Borba, Rio Madeira; Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 402, 1910 (range in Argentina); 
idem, I.e., 23, p. 370, 1912 San Rafael, Paraguay; Hussey, Auk, 33, 
p. 399, 1916 La Plata; Marelli, El Hornero, 1, p. 80, 1918 Curuzu- 
Cuatia, Corrientes; Dabbene, I.e., 1, p. 247, 1919 Isla Martin Garcia, 
Buenos Aires; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 336, 1923 Rio 
Negro (Huanuluan, Maquinchao, Puesto Homo, Bariloche); Marelli, 
Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 662, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires 
south to Chubut; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 383, 1926 
Argentina (Santa Fe; Resistencia and Las Palmas, Chaco; Riacho Pilaga, 
Formosa; Dolores, Buenos Aires; General Roca, Rio Negro; Potrerillos 
and Tunuyan, Mendoza), Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco), and Uruguay 
(Carrasco, La Paloma, San Vicente, Lazcano, Rio Negro) (habits); idem, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 457, 1926 Valcheta, Rio Negro; Fried- 
mann, Auk, 44, p. 500, 1927 (crit., range); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
68, p. 224, 1927 Tucuman (Conception, Rio de Gastone), Santa Fe 
(Bovril Islands), and Entre Rios (Santa Elena) (habits, eggs, foster 
parents); Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 323, 1928 Serra do 
Itatiaya; Stone, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patagonia, Orn., p. 848, 1928 
Rio Negro to "Straits of Magellan"; Friedmann, The Cowbirds, pp. 59, 
141, 1929 (monog.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 273, 1929 Maranhao (Sao Bento), Piauhy (Ibiapaba), and Ceara 
(Quixada; Jua, near Iguatu); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 286, 1930 Santa Fe" (La Germania), Formosa 
(Lapango, San Jose, Tapikiole), and Bolivia (Villa Montes, Tarija); 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 98, 1932 Chile 
(monog.); Marelli, El Hornero, 5, p. 199, 1933 southern Buenos Aires 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 63 

(Saldungaray, Fortin Chaco, Dorrego, Puerto Belgrano); Laubmann, 
Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 330, 1934 Estancia La Geraldina, northern 
Santa Fe\ 

Molothrus atronitens (not of Cabanis) Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 421, 
1914 part, Cussary and Rio Tapaj6z (Pinhel), Brazil. 

(l)Molothrus bonariensis atronitens Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 631, 1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia (one immature male). 

(l)Molothrus bonariensis subsp. Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 
697, 1926 Rio Suno, Ecuador. 

Range. The whole of Argentina south to the Chubut; Uruguay; 
Paraguay; Bolivia; the whole of Brazil north to the south bank of 
the Amazon west of the Rio Tocantins. Introduced into Chile, now 
distributed over the country from Coquimbo south to Valdivia. 1 

52: Bolivia (Santa Cruz, 1); Brazil (Rio do Peixe, Bahia, 2; Sao 
Bento, Maranhao, 1; Quixada, Ceara, 2; Jua, Ceara, 1; Ibiapaba, 
Piauhy, 2; Rio das Velhas, Minas Geraes, 1; Joinville, Santa 
Catharina, 1) ; Paraguay (Villa Rica, 1) ; Uruguay (Quebrada de los 
Cuervos, Treinta y Tres, 2; Montevideo, 2; Soriano, 1; Arazati, San 

1 Further subdivision of the Shiny Cowbird seems impracticable, though 
several attempts at recognizing local races based chiefly on the females have been 
made. It is well known that the females present two principal types of coloration : 
(a) grayish brown with dull metallic glossy spots on the dorsal surface and indis- 
tinct dusky streaks on the somewhat paler under parts; (6) deep fuscous with a 
silky gloss above. These two varieties have been discussed by Berlepsch (Zeits. 
Ges. Orn., 2, p. 126, note, 1885) and Hellmayr (Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
22, No. 3, pp. 613-614, 1906), both authors applying Lichtenstein's term sericeus 
to the pale-colored females. The first ornithologist who plainly described the 
grayish-brown type appears to be Swainson. Under the name M . brevirostris he 
gives a good diagnosis of its characters, his description being based on specimens 
from "Brazil," probably obtained by himself during his collecting trip either in 
Bahia or Pernambuco, where this type of coloration prevails among the females. 
Recently, the same variety has been redescribed as M . b. milleri by Naumburg 
and Friedmann. The fuscous color type was named melanogyna by Sztolcman 
from examples collected by Chrostowski in the South Brazilian State of Paran&. 
While I admit that females from Sao Paulo to Santa Catharina average slightly 
darker, particularly below, than others from Rio Grande do Sul to Argentina, 
exceptions are far too frequent to justify their separation under a distinct name, 
and I have no hesitation in sinking melanogyna as a synonym of bonariensis. 
The pale-colored variety (brevirostris=sericeus) I have not yet seen from any part 
of Argentina, Uruguay, or Rio Grande do Sul, but only from Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, 
and Matto Grosso. From the same localities, however, there are also fuscous 
females (melanogyna) at hand. For instance, from Ceara two are "brevirostris," 
two others "melanogyna." The same applies to Matto Grosso (Urucum), whence 
I have examined two grayish-brown females (brevirostris=sericeus= milleri) and 
one ultra-typical melanogyna. In trade-collections from Bahia the pale-colored 
variety is the predominating one, but two birds collected by Reiser on the Rio 
Grande in the same state are again "melanogyna." Of three females from the 
vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, one is fully as deep fuscous as any from Sao Paulo or 
Parana, and another is just as typical "brevirostris," while the third stands exactly 
between the two varieties, being above more like the one and below closely re- 
sembling the other. It appears, therefore, that the female of bonariensis is dimor- 
phic, and that the variation, to a certain extent, is geographic, in so far as one type 
of coloration may prevail in some parts of the range, even to the exclusion of the 



64 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Jose", 2; Polanco, Minas, 3; Rocha, 2; Maldonado, 5; La Lata, 
Colonia, 1; Ciudad de Pando, Canelones, 1); Argentina (Conception, 
Tucuman, 5; Las Rosas, Santa F, 4; Ajo, Buenos Aires, 1; Gua- 
mini, Buenos Aires, 1; Marco Paz, Cordova, 1; La Plata, 1); Chile 
(Romero, Coquimbo, 1; Palmilla, Valparaiso, 2; Lampa, Santiago, 
1; San Jos de Maipo, Santiago, 1; Pelequen, Colchagua, 3). 

*Molothrus bonariensis venezuelensis Stone. 1 VENEZUELAN 
SHINY COWBIRD. 

Molothrus venezuelensis Stone, Auk, 8, p. 347, 1891 Venezuela=San Esteban, 
Carabobo (type in U. S. National Museum); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 
p. 20 (in text), 1906 -Puerto Cabello, Lagunillas, Merida, and Quiribana 
de Caicara, Venezuela (crit.). 

Molothrus sp. ind. Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 
Caracas. 

Molothrus discolor (not Passerina discolor Vieillot) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 20 "Trinidad and Cuba (Port Gibara, Prov. of 
Holguin)" (crit.). 

Molothrus bonariensis venezuelensis Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 33, 1902 Quiribana de Caicara and Altagracia, Orinoco, Venezuela; 
Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 164, 1912 Puerto 
Cabello, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 210, 
1916 lower and middle stretches of the Orinoco (crit., eggs); Friedmann, 
Auk, 44, p. 501, 1927 Venezuela (crit., range); idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 
63, 136, 143, 1929 Venezuela (monog.). 

other, though in other regions both types are found associated. I do not see, 
however, any practical advantage in designating the various populations by differ- 
ent names, when only a certain percentage of individuals can be distinguished. 

The Bolivian form, the type of which was a specimen with a deformed bill 
(maxillaris) , does not seem to be separable, as has been pointed out by Friedmann. 

The status of the birds of eastern Ecuador and southeastern Colombia (Ca- 
queta) remains to be determined by adequate series. 

Additional material examined. Argentina: Tucuman, 6; Formosa, 5; Santa 
Fe, 3; Buenos Aires, 15; Neuquen, 9. Bolivia: Villa Montes, Tarija, 11; Valle 
Grande, 2; Samaipata, 1; Santa Cruz, 5; Lesbato, 2; Cochabamba, 2. Brazil: 
Rio Grande do Sul, 9; Santa Catharina, 2; Parana, 3; Sao Paulo, 14; Rio de Janeiro, 
3; Goyaz, 8; Matto Grosso, Urucum, 5; Cuyaba, 3; Bahia, 16; Pernambuco, 2; 
Ceara, 8; Piauhy, 1; Santarem, 1; Borba, Rio Madeira, 1. 

1 Molothrus bonariensis venezuelensis Stone: Similar in size to M. b. bonariensis, 
but with decidedly slenderer, more elongated bill ; female resembling in coloration 
the pale variety of the typical race, viz., with grayish brown, dusky-streaked under 
parts and nearly dull brown dorsal surface. Wing, 110-119, (female) 101-105; 
tail, 84-92, (female) 75-81; bill, 20-22. 

While the extent and tone of the metallic gloss is just as variable as in M. b. 
bonariensis, Venezuelan males are in most cases recognizable by their slenderer 
and more elongated bills, a character which also holds in the females. The four 
specimens I have seen of the latter sex are typical of the light-colored variety. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, 5; 
Valencia, Carabobo, 1; Caracas, 1; Lagunillas, Merida, 1; Merida, 6; Ciudad 
Bolivar, 1; Altagracia, Orinoco, 2; Quiribana de Caicara, Orinoco, 6. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 65 

Molothrus cassini (not of Finsch) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 337, 
1886 part, spec, j, Caracas, Venezuela. 

Range. Tropical zone of Venezuela, from the north coast (states 
of Carabobo and Aragua, and Dept. Federal) south to the Orinoco 
Valley (east to the Caura and San German de Upata), and west 
through Lara and Trujillo to Me"rida. 

5: Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 2; Caracas, 1; Rio Chama, 2). 

*Molothrus bonariensis cabanisii Cassin. 1 CABANIS'S SHINY 
COWBIRD. 

Molothrus cabanisii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 22 "Guiana" 
(errore) and Santa Marta, Colombia; 2 Stone, Auk, 8, p. 346, 1891 
Colombia and "Venezuela," errore (crit.). 

Molothrus cassini Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 577 (in text) 
Barranquilla, Colombia (type in Bremen Museum); 3 Sclater, Ibis, 1884, 
p. 6 Colombia (Barranquilla, Santa Marta, Antioquia) and "Venezuela" 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 337, 1886 part, spec, a-i, 
Colombia (Arihueca, Medellin, Barranquilla, "Bogota"); Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 476, 1900 Cacagualito; idem, I.e., 21, p. 291, 
1905 Santa Marta region (eggs descr.). 

Molothrus discolor (not Passerina discolor Vieillot) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 509 Concordia, Medellin, and Santa Elena, 
Colombia (eggs descr.); Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 123 Arihueca. 

Molothrus bonariensis cabanisi(i) Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 631, 1917 Caldas, San Antonio, Cali, Miraflores, and San Agustin, 
Colombia; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 476, 1922 
Santa Marta and Fundacion (crit.); Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 502, 1927 
Colombia (range); idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 62, 143, 1929 Colombia 
(monog.); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 416, 1931 Sevillano, 
Santa Marta, and west of Aracataca, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of Colombia, from the 
western slope of the eastern Andes west to the Pacific coast (except- 

1 Molothrus bonariensis cabanisii Cassin is the largest of all the races of the 
Shiny Cowbird. The female resembles M. b. venezuelensis in coloration, but is 
larger in all dimensions. Wing, 126-134, (female) 105-110; tail, 100-112, (female) 
84-90; bill, 21-22. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 8; Cartagena, 8; Barran- 
quilla, 5; Las Cruzes, western Andes, 1. 

2 In addition to several examples without locality, Cassin had two adult males 
before him, one supposed to be from "Guiana" in the Academy's collection, and 
another from Santa Marta, Colombia, in the collection of Geo. N. Lawrence, now 
in the American Museum of Natural History. Both are claimed to be "the type" 
(cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 34, 1899, and Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 631, 1917). In any case, Santa Marta may be taken as the 
type locality. 

3 Though the name was intended as a substitute for Molothrus discolor of 
Cassin, Finsch used the Barranquilla specimen for the description, as his remarks 
on coloration plainly show. 



66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

ing the extreme southwestern section), south in the Magdalena Valley 
to San Agustin, north to the Caribbean coast (Santa Marta, Mag- 
dalena; Barranquilla, Cartagena, Monteria, Lorica, etc., Bolivar). 

6: Colombia (Lorica, Bolivar, 2; Miraflores, Cauca, 2; Rio Barra- 
tau, 1; "Bogota," 1). 

Molothrus bonariensis aequatorialis Chapman. 1 EQUATORIAL 
SHINY COWBIRD. 

Molothrus bonariensis aequatorialis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 34, 
p. 661, Dec., 1915 Barbacoas, Narino, southwestern Colombia (type in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, 
p. 631, 1917 Tumaco and Barbacoas, Narino, Colombia; idem, I.e., 
55, p. 697, 1926 Esmeraldas, Chone, Manta, Daule, and Puna Island, 
Ecuador; Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 502, 1927 (range); 2 idem, The Cowbirds, 
pp. 63, 143, 1929 Ecuador and southwestern Colombia (monog.). 2 

Molothrus purpurascens (not Xanthornus purpurascens Hahn) Taczanowski 
and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 86 Yaguachi, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Colombia, south of the 
Rio Patia, and western Ecuador south to Guayaquil and Puna 
Island. 

*Molothrus bonariensis occidentalis Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 3 
WESTERN SHINY COWBIRD. 

Molothrus occidentalis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, 
p. 378 Lima, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and 
Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 192, 1927). 

Molothrus purpurascens (not Xanthornus purpurascens Hahn) Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 20 Callao and Lima, Peru (monog.); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 148 vicinity of Lima; Tacza- 

1 Molothrus bonariensis aequatorialis Chapman: Nearest to M. b. occidentalis, 
but larger; coloration of males on average more violet, less steel blue; under parts 
of females much darker, between drab and hair-brown, and without the buffy 
whitish postocular streak, etc. This form is, in fact, much nearer to M. b. cabanisii, 
but differs by smaller size. Wing, 117-123, (female) 100-105; tail, 93-100, (female) 
78-80; bill, 21-22. 

Material examined. Ecuador, Prov. Esmeraldas: San Javier, 2; Carondelet, 
1; Rio Cayapas, 2; Vaqueria, 1. 

* The young individual from Boca de Cupe, Tuyra River, Darien, cannot 
possibly belong to M. b. aequatorialis. If at all referable to this section of cow- 
birds, it is more likely to be M. b. cabanisii. 

3 Molothrus bonariensis occidentalis Berlepsch and Stolzmann: Male hardly 
distinguishable from M. b. venezuelensis, but possibly more bluish; female different 
from any other form by reason of its pale dorsal surface, very pale drab, dusky- 
streaked under parts, and very conspicuous buffy whitish postocular stripe. Wing, 
110-115, (female) 98-102; tail, 78-83, (female) 73-75; bill, 21-22, (female) 19. 

A single adult male from Callacate agrees in every respect with a series from 
Lima. The species doubtless reached the Maranon side of the Andes by way of 
Huancabamba Pass. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 67 

nowski, I.e., 1874, p. 523 Lima; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 200 Callaeate, 
Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 422, 1884 Peru (Lima, Tumbez, Callaeate, 
Cutervo); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 7 western Peru (monog.); idem, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 337, 1886 Lima; Stone, Auk, 8, p. 347, 1891 
western Peru (monog.). 

Mololhrus bonariensis occidentalis Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 
Sullana, Piura, Peru; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 697, 
1926 Rio Casanga [Loja], Ecuador; Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 502, 1927 
(range); idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 63, 143, 1929 (monog.). 

Range. Tropical (and Subtropical) zone of extreme south- 
western Ecuador (Casanga Valley, Prov. Loja) and western Peru, 
extending east to the Province of Jaen (Callaeate, Cutervo) and 
south to Lima. 

7: Peru (Hacienda Llagueda, northeast of Otuzco, Libertad, 7). 
*Molothrus rufo-axillaris Cassin. SCREAMING COWBIRD. 

Icterus brevirostris (not Molothrus brevirostris Swainson, 1837) Lafresnaye 
and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 7, 1838 Maldonado 
(Uruguay) and Corrientes (descr. of adult; type, from Corrientes, in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Molothrus rufo-axillaris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 23 
Buenos Aires, Argentina (type in U. S. National Museum); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1868, p. 140 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; 
Hudson, I.e., 1874, p. 161 (parasitic habits); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 174 
Buenos Aires; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 601 Fuerte 
de Andalgala and city of Catamarca, Catamarca; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Cl., 8, p. 134, 1883 Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rlos; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 7 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 338, 1886 
Buenos Aires (Conchitas, Quilmes) and "Rio Negro, Patagonia"; Sclater 
and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 86, pi. 6, fig. 2 (=young), 1888 Argentina 
(habits); Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 127 Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; Holland, 
Ibis, 1892, p. 198 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, 
p. 172 Uruguay (Santa Elena, Soriano; Santa Ana, Flores); Ihering, Ann. 
Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 122, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul (spec, 
examined); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 104 Los Yngleses, Aj6, Buenos Aires; 
idem, Ibis, 1912, p. 278 (eggs descr. and fig.); Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 390 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
68, p. 222, 1927 Santa Elena (Entre Rios), Aj6 and Rosas (Buenos 
Aires), and Concepcion (Tucuman) (habits); idem, Auk, 44, p. 498, 
1927 (range); idem, The Cowbirds, p. 38, 1929 (monog.). 

Molobrus brevirostris Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. 
C6rdoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 C6rdoba. 

Molothrus brevirostris Berlepsch, Joura. Orn., 35, p. 10, 1887 Lambare, 
Paraguay; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 
Baranqueria la Nova, Paraguay, and Santa Rosa, Salta; idem, I.e., 12, 
No. 292, p. 11, 1897 Caiza, Bolivia, and Tala, Salta; Lillo, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 181, 1902 Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 218, 



68 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 46, 
1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 397, 1907 (range) ; Hartert 
and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 184, 1909 Tucuman (eggs descr.); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 402, 1910 (range in 
Argentina); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 644 Sapucay, Paraguay; Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 66, 1914 Paraguay; Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 247, 
1919 Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 242 
Canelones and Maldonado, Uruguay; Daguerre, I.e., p. 271, 1922 - 
Rosas, Buenos Aires; Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 70, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, 
I.e., p. 172, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. 
for 1922-23, p. 662, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 386, 1926 Formosa (Riacho Pilaga), Buenos Aires 
(Lavalle), and Uruguay (San Vicente, near Lazcano, and Rio Negro); 
Wilson, El Hornero, 3, p. 362, 1926 General Lopez, Santa Fe; Smyth, 
I.e., 4, p. 151, 1928 (eggs) ; Aravena, I.e., 4, p. 164, 1928 (food); Castellanos, 
I.e., 5, p. 331, 1924 Valle de los Reartes, Cordoba. 

Molothrus (Strepitovagus) rufo-axillaris Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 288, 1930 Formosa (Lapango, Tapikiole, San 
Jose, Yunca Viejo) (crit.); idem, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 330, 1934 
Estancia La Geraldina, Santa Fe Santiago del Estero boundary. 

Range. Extreme southern Brazil, in State of Rio Grande do Sul ; 
Uruguay; Paraguay; northern Argentina, south to Buenos Aires, 
Cordoba, La Rioja, and Catamarca, 1 and extreme southeastern 
Bolivia (Caiza, Bolivian Chaco). 2 

15: Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman, 7; Iguazu, Misiones, 1; 
Noetinger, near Marco Paz, Cordoba, 1) ; Uruguay (Treinta y Tres, 
1; Montevideo, 3; Ciudad de Panzo, Canelones, 2). 

*Molothrus badius 3 badius (Vieillot). BAY-WINGED COWBIRD. 

Agelaius badius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 535, 1819 
based on "Tordo pardo-roxizo" Azara, No. 63; Paraguay and La Plata 
River. 

C[assicus] T. badius Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss., 15, 

p. 276, 1826 based on Azara, No. 63. 
Icterus badius Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, 

cl. 2, p. 7, 1838 part, Maldonado, Uruguay. 
Agelaius fringillarius (not Icterus fringillarius Spix) Gould, in Darwin, Zool. 

Beagle, 3, Part 15, p. 107, 1841 Maldonado and banks of the Rio Parana. 

1 The locality "Rio Negro of Patagonia" appears to be open to doubt. 

2 Additional material examined. Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul: Rio Grande, 2; 
Sao Lourenco, 1. Paraguay: Bernalcue, near Asuncion, 5; San Rafael, 5; Mbuvero, 
1. Argentina: Corrientes, 1; Buenos Aires, 2; Tucuman, 2; Tafi Viejo, 
Tucuman, 1. 

3 Molothrus badius is the most primitive type within the genus, as has been 
correctly emphasized by Friedmann, though I still think generic separation to be 
unnecessary, the short, rounded wings and the similarity of the sexes constituting, 
to my mind, no more than excellent specific characters. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 69 

Molobrus badius Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 258, 1860 Parana; idem, 
Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 495, 1861 Paran& and Tucuman; Doering, 
Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 255, 1874 Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corri- 
entes; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 85, 1884 
Tandil, Buenos Aires. 

Dolichonyx badius Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 15 (monog.). 

Molothrus badius Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 140 
Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Hudson, I.e., 1874, p. 163 (nesting habits); 
Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 174 Buenos Aires; Dalgleish, Proc. Roy. Phys. 
Soc. Edin., 6, p. 245, pi. 7, fig. 4 (egg), 1881 Estancia de la Tala, Durazno, 
Uruguay (breeding habits, nest, and eggs); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 8 part, 
Buenos Aires (monog.); Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 278 Paysandu, Uruguay; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 338, 1886 part, spec, a-d, Conchitas 
and Quilmes, Buenos Aires; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 11, 1887 
Lambare', Paraguay; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 95, pi. 6, fig. 1, 
1888 Argentina (habits); Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425 Estancia Esparti- 
llar, Buenos Aires; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 127 opposite Goya in Prov. Santa 
F6; Holland, Ibis, 1892, p. 198 Estancia Espartillar (breeding habits); 
Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 172 Uruguay (breeding habits); Koslowsky, Rev. 
Mus. La Plata, 6, p. 279, 1895 Chilecito, La Rioja; Ihering, Ann. Est. 
Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 122, 1899 Jaguarao, Rio Grande do Sul; Kerr, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 224 Paraguayan Chaco; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 8, p. 181, 1902 Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 258, 
1904 SaltajBaer, Ornis, 12, p. 218, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. 
Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 46, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 397, 1907 Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Buenos 
Aires (range); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 185, 1909 Cata- 
marca, Entre Rios (La Soledad), Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud), and 
Tucuman (Tapia, Los Vasquez) (nesting habits, eggs); Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 403, 1910 (range in Argentina); Grant, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 104 Buenos Aires (Los Yngleses, Ajo), Santa F6 (Riacho 
Ancho), Corrientes (Goya), and Paraguay (Villa Mortero); idem, Ibis, 
1912, p. 278 (eggs descr. and fig.); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 66, 1914 
Paraguay; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 399, 1916 La Plata; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, 
p. 390 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (nest and eggs); Sanzin, El 
Hornero, 1, p. 152, 1918 Mendoza (Rodriguez Pefta and Las Catitas); 
Marelli, I.e., 1, p. 227, 1919 Curuzu-Cuatia, Corrientes (food); Dabbene, 
I.e., 1, p. 247, 1919 Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, I.e., 
2, p. 24, 1920 Uruguay (Montevideo, Canelones, Florida, Maldonado, 
Cerro Largo); Renard, I.e., 2, p. 60, 1920 Canuelos, Buenos Aires; 
Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Seri6 and Smyth, 
I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 70, 
1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 172, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; 
Renard, I.e., 3, p. 287, 1924 San Crist6bal, Santa F6; Marelli, Mem. 
Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 663, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Wilson, 
El Hornero, 3, p. 362, 1926 General L6pez, Santa F6; Smyth, I.e., 4, 
p. 151, 1928 (eggs); Aravena, I.e., 4, p. 164, 1928 (food); Budin, I.e., 
4, p. 411, 1931 Maimara, Jujuy; Castellanos, I.e., 5, p. 330, 1934 Valle 
de los Reartes, C6rdoba. 



70 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Demelioteucus badius Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cor- 
doba, 10, p. 399, 1890 C6rdoba. 

Molothrus badius badius Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 387, 1926 
Chaco (Las Palmas), Pampa (Victorica), Mendoza (Potrerillos, Tunuyan), 
Tucuman (Tapia), Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco), and Uruguay 
(San Vicente, Rio Negro) (crit., habits); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 19, p. 99, 1932 Curico, Chile. 

Agelaioides badius badius Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 497, 1927 (range) ; idem, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 220, 1927 Tucuman (Rio Gastone, Concepcion) 
and Entre Rios (Santa Elena, San Sofia) (habits); idem, The Cowbirds, 
pp. 4, 33, 1929 (monog., ecology); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, 
p. 394, 1930 Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco) and Matto Grosso (Fazenda do 
Sao Joao); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, 
p. 285, 1930 Santa Fe (La Germania) and Formosa (Tacaagle, Lapango) 
(crit.); Marelli, El Hornero, 5, p. 199, 1933 Fortin Chaco, southern 
Buenos Aires; Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 330, 1934 Estancia 
La Geraldina, Santa Fe; Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
86, p. 393, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Extreme southern and southwestern Brazil, in states 
of Rio Grande do Sul (Jaguarao, Jaculy, Novo Hamburgo) and 
Matto Grosso (Descalvados; Sao Joao, Rio Cuyaba); Paraguay; 
Uruguay; northern Argentina to southern Buenos Aires (Fortin 
Chaco), Pampa, and Mendoza. Introduced in Chile (Curico). 1 

29: Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman, 16; Noetinger, near 
Marco Paz, Cordoba, 3); Uruguay (Maldonado, 2; Polanco, Minas, 
2; Quebrados de los Cuervos, Treinta y Tres, 1; Canelones, 1; 
Soriano, 4). 

*Molothrus badius bolivianus Hellmayr. 2 BOLIVIAN BAY- 
WINGED COWBIRD. 

Molothrus badius bolivianus Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. 108, Sept. 
20, 1917 Chuquisaca, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum). 

1 Specimens from Tucuman agree in size with a series from Uruguay and 
Argentina, and a single male from Curico is similar. While no material is available 
from extreme northern Argentina, the wing measurement of 91 mm. given by 
Wetmore for an adult male from Jujuy seems to indicate that the typical race 
ranges up to the northern frontier. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Sao Joao, Matto Grosso, 1; Jaguarao, 
Rio Grande do Sul, 1. Uruguay: Maldonado, 1. Paraguay: Lambare, 3; San 
Rafael, 2. Argentina: Buenos Aires, 5; La Germania, Santa Fe, 6; lower Pil- 
comayo, Chaco, 4. Chile: Curico, 1. 

2 Molothrus badius bolivianus Hellmayr: Similar to M. b. badius, but consider- 
ably larger with stronger bill, and slightly browner above. Wing, 99-104 (against 
88-96), (female) 95-98 (against 84-91); tail, 79-82, (female) 77-80; bill, 19-20. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Cochabamba, 1; Valle Grande, 1; 
Chuquisaca, 3; unspecified, 3. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 71 

Icterus badius (not Agelaius badius Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. 
Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 7, 1838 part, Cochabamba and Sicasica, 
Bolivia (spec, examined). 

Molothrus badius Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 608 
"Tilotilo, Prov. Yungas," Cochabamba, and Sicasica; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, 
p. 8 part, Bolivia; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 338, 1886 part, 
spec, e, f, "Tilotilo," Bolivia; (?)L6nnberg, Ibis, 1903, pp. 457, 471 San 
Luis (near Tarija) and Fortin Crevaux, Tarija, Bolivia. 

Agelaioidts badius bolivianus Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 497, 1927 Bolivia 
(range); idem, The Cowbirds, pp. 5, 34, 1929 Bolivia (monog.). 

Range. Highlands of central Bolivia, in depts. of La Paz 
(Sicasica), Cochabamba (Cochabamba, Parotani, Arque, Mizque), 
Santa Cruz (Valle Grande), and Chuquisaca (Sucre). 1 

3: Bolivia (Parotani, Cochabamba, 2; Arque, Cochabamba, 1). 
*Molothrus badius fringillarius (Spix). 2 PALE COWBIRD. 

Icterus fringillarius Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 68, pi. 65, 1824 "in 
campis Minas Geraes," errore 3 (types in Munich Museum examined; cf. 
Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 616, 1906) 
(crit.). 

DolicJionyx fuscipennis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 16 
Ceara (type in U. S. National Museum); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 199 
(note), 1870 Bahia. 

Dolichonyx badius (not Agelaius badius Vieillot) Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. 
Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 397 (occurrence in Minas Geraes denied). 

Molothrus fringillarius Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 8 "Minas Geraes," Ceara, 
and Pernambuco (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 339, 1886 
Pernambuco; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 397, 1907 (range); Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 80, 1910 Joazeiro 
and Carnahyba, Bahia (spec, examined); idem, I.e., p. 175, 1925 same 
localities. 

1 1 cannot help thinking that there is some mistake about the locality "Tilo- 
tilo, Prov. Yungas," this settlement being in the midst of the subtropical forests 
which offer no suitable habitat for this cowbird. The specimens are more likely 
to have been obtained at Cinti [ = Camargo], where Buckley also did some collecting 
on his Bolivian trip. The Tarija birds recorded by Lonnberg need reexamination 
in order to determine their subspecific pertinence. 

2 Molothrus badius fringillarius (Spix) : Very similar to, and about the same 
size, as M. b. badius, but general coloration, especially the under parts, decidedly 
paler and more sandy with the rufous of the wings lighter in tone, and with loral, 
subocular, and auricular regions blackish brown. Wing, 87-90, (female) 84-87; 
tail, 64-70; bill, 17-18. 

This well-marked race replaces the Bay-winged Cowbird in northeastern 
Brazil. Its occurrence in Minas Geraes requires corroboration. 

Additional material examined. Ceara, 2. Bahia: Joazeiro, 1; Carnahyba, 1; 
unspecified, 1. "Minas Gereas," 3. 

3 Oeiras, Piauhy, suggested as type locality by Hellmayr (Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 273, 1929). 



72 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Molothrus badius fringillarius Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 273, 1929 Piauhy (Ibiapaba) and Ceara (Quixada) (crit.). 

Agelaioides fringillarius Friedmann, Auk, 44, p. 498, 1927 eastern Brazil; 
idem, The Cowbirds, p. 35, 1929 (monog.). 

Range. Campo region of northeastern Brazil, in states of 
Piauhy, Ceara, Pernambuco, and Bahia. 

3: Brazil (Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 2; Quixada, Ceara, 1). 

Genus MACROAGELAIUS Cassin 

Macroagelaius Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 13 type, by 

monotypy, Quiscalus sub-alaris Boissonneau. 
Macragelaeus Sclater, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 162, 1884 emendation. 
Pseudagelaeus Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 155, 1901 type, by 

orig. desig., Agelaeus imthurni Sclater. 
Sciopsar Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 62, p. 289, 1914 type, by orig. desig., 

Agelaeus imthurni Sclater. 
Macraglaeus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 635, 1917 

emendation of Macroagelaius Cassin. 
Pseudoagelaeus Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 567, 1921 emendation of 

Pseudagelaeus Ridgway. 

*Macroagelaius subalaris subalaris (Boissonneau). COLOMBIAN 
MOUNTAIN CRACKLE. 

Quiscalus sub-alaris Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 70, 1840 Santa-Fe-de- 
Bogota, Colombia (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 421, 1930); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 425, 1850 
"Bogota"; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 153, 1855 "Bogota"; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 141, 1862 "Caraccas," errore; Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, pp. 127, 330 below the Paramo of Pamplona, Santander, 
Colombia. 

Agelaius subalaris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 13 "Bogota" 
(crit.). 

Macragelaeus subalaris Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 403 Paramo of Pamplona, 
Colombia (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 403, 1886- - 
Colombia. 

Macraglaeus subalaris Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 635, 1917 
Subia, eastern Andes, Colombia. 

Range. Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia, in 
states of Santander and Cundinamarca. 1 
2: Colombia (Cachiri, Santander, 2). 
1 Nine additional specimens from "Bogota" examined. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 73 

*Macroagelaius sub-alar is imthurni (Sclater). 1 IMTHURN'S 
GRACKLE. 

Agelaeus imthurni Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 213 Kaieteur 
Falls, Potaro River, British Guiana (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum); Imthurn, Indians of Guiana, p. 71, pi. 5, 1883 
Kaieteur Falls; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1883, p. 203 Roraima; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 13 British Guiana (monog.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 218 
Merume Mountains and Roraima, British Guiana. 

Agelaeus imthurni Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 344, 1886 British 
Guiana (Kaieteur, Roraima, Merume Mountains). 

Pseudoagelaeus imthurni Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 567, pi. 10, 1921 
same localities. 

Macroagelaius imthurni Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 135, 
1931 Roraima (Arabupu, Philipp Camp) and Mount Duida (Laterite 
Valley, Savanna Hills, Valley Head), Venezuela. 

Range. Subtropical (and occasionally Tropical) zone of British 
Guiana (Kaieteur Falls, Potaro River; Merum6 Mountains; Roraima; 
Mount Twek-quay, Caramang River) and southern Venezuela 
(Mount Duida). 

1: British Guiana (Roraima, 1). 

Genus HYPOPYRRHUS Bonaparte 

Hypopyrrhus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 425, 1850 type, by 
monotypy, Cassicus pyrohypogaster Tarragon. 

*IIypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster (Tarragon). RED-BELLIED 
GRACKLE. 

Cassicus pyrohypogaster Tarragon, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 252, 1847 "Nouvelle 
Grenade" (type in coll. of de Tarragon, present whereabouts unknown). 

Hypopyrrhus pyrrhogaster Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 425, 1850 
"Bogota"; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 154, 1855 "Bogota"; 
Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 510, pi. 43, fig. 4 (egg) Envigado and 
Santa Elena, Colombia (eggs descr.); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 163 Antio- 
quia, Colombia (monog.). 

1 Macroagelaius subalaris imthurni (Sclater) : Similar in form to M. s. subalaris, 
but slightly smaller with somewhat larger bill, and under wing coverts much 
paler, Sanford's brown or tawny passing terminally into light cadmium instead of 
being uniform chestnut-bay. Wing, 126-130, (female) 121-125; tail, 117-123, 
(female) 115-120; bill, 27-31, (female) 26-28. 

Many years ago, the late Count Berlepsch pointed out to me the close affinity 
of this bird to M. subalaris, a conclusion since arrived at independently by Messrs. 
Zimmer and Chapman. The similarity, in structure as well as in color pattern, 
is so striking indeed that I have no hesitation in associating the two birds in a 
single specific unit. While chiefly occurring in the subtropics of the mountains, 
Imthurn's Grackle has also been found in flocks, probably on migration, in the 
vicinity of Kaieteur Falls, Potaro River, in the Tropical zone. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Merume" Mountains, 3; Roraima, 5; 
Mount Twek-quay, Caramang River, 2. 



74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hypopyrrhus pyrypogaster Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 403, 1886 
Envigado, Colombia. 

Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 307 
Nevada de Tolima, Colombia; Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 
p. 1123 Pueblo Rico and Siato, western Andes, Colombia; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 635, 1917 Peque, La Frijolera, 
Finlandia, Salento, Rio Toche, and below Andalucia, Colombia. 

Hypopyrrhus pyrhypogaster Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 
1914 La Camelia, near Angelopolis, Colombia. 

Quiscalus pyrrhogaster Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 141, 1862 New 
Grenada. 

Quiscalus pyrohypogaster Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 412 
New Grenada (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (except Santa Marta 
region). 1 

2: Colombia (Amalfi, Antioquia, 1; Salento, west Quindio Andes, 
Cauca, 1). 

Genus QUISCALUS Vieillot 

Quiscalus Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 36, 1816 type, by subs. 
desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 41, 1840), Gracula "quiscala" [=quiscula] 
Linnaeus. 

Quiscala Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 18, 1823 type, by 
monotypy, Gracula quiscula Linnaeus. 

Chakophanes Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 20, Gen. Gracula, spec. 3, 4, 1827 
type, by subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 153), Quiscalus versicolor 
Vieillot =Gracula quiscula Linnaeus. 

Scaphidurus Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 437, June, 1837 new 
name for Quiscalus Vieillot. 

Scaphura Gloger, Gemeinn. Hand- und Hilfsbuch Naturg., 1, p. 261, 1841 
new name for Quiscala Lichtenstein. 

*Quiscalus quiscula quiscula (Linnaeus). PURPLE GRACKLE. 

Gracula quiscula Linnaeus, 2 Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 109, 1758 based on 
"The Purple Jack-Daw" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 12, pi. 12; 
South Carolina. 

1 Additional material examined. Colombia: Pueblo Rico, western Andes, 2; 
Siat6, western Andes, 5; Envigado, central Andes, 2; "Bogota," 5. 

* The late A. T. Wayne (Auk, 35, p. 440, 1918) proposed to transfer the 
specific term quiscula to the Florida Grackle. This procedure was adopted by 
Oberholser, who, accordingly, provided the new name Q. q. ridgwayi for the Purple 
Grackle. The Committee appointed for the compilation of the Fourth Edition 
of the A. O. U. Check List (p. xi), however, has chosen a more conservative stand 
in the cases of names based on Catesby, and we are inclined to concur with their 
reasoning. 

Since the above was written, Dr. Chapman's highly interesting paper on the 
relationship of the Grackles appeared in "The Auk," 52, pp. 21-29, 1935. While 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 75 

Slurnus quiscala Daudin, Traite Elem. Orn., 2, p. 316, 1800 new name for 

Gracula quiscula Linnaeus. 
Quiscalus versicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 28, p. 488, 1819 

new name for Gracula quiscula Latham (Ind. Orn., 1, p. 191, 1790) = 

Gracula quiscula Linnaeus; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 154 (monog.); idem, Cat. 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 394, 1886 (part). 
Quiscala nitens Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 18, 1823 new 

name for Gracula quiscula Linnaeus. 
Quiscalus purpureus Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 14, (1), p. 48, 1826 new 

name for Gracula quiscula Shaw (Gen. Zool., 7, (2), p. 458, 1809) and 

Gracula quiscala Wilson (Amer. Orn., 3, p. 44, pi. 21, fig. 4, 1811) = Gracula 

quiscula Linnaeus. 

Quiscalus purpuratus Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 298, Dec. 31, 1837 North 
America (type now in University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.; cf. Sclater, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 154). 

Quiscalus quiscula ridgwayi Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 552, 1919 Washington, 

D.C. (location of type not stated). 

Quiscalus quiscula Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 3, 1892 (crit.). 
Quiscalus quiscula quiscula Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 

p. 215, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Breeds in the upper Austral zone of North America 
from the north shore of Long Island Sound and the lower Hudson 
Valley west to the Alleghenies and south to northern Georgia, 
northern Alabama, and eastern Tennessee; winters mainly south of 
the Delaware Valley. 

49: Massachusetts (Chatham, 1; unspecified, 1); Connecticut 
(East Hartford, 23); Rhode Island (Portsmouth, 1); New York 
(Shelter Island, 14; Albion, 1; Brockport, 1; Suffolk County, 1; 
Holley, 1; Boonville, 1); Pennsylvania (Gwynedd, 2; Edge Hill, 1); 
District of Columbia (Washington, 1). 

attributing the variation observable in certain parts of the range to hybridization 
between the Bronzed Grackle and the Purple Grackle, the author considers the 
populations resulting from this mingling over long periods as sufficiently estab- 
lished to be designated by separate names. On the basis of much new material 
acquired since the publication of his study in 1892 and discussed at length on 
pp. 26-29, Chapman proposes to recognize four races with breeding ranges as follows: 

(a) Quiscalus quiscula quiscula (sensu Wayne and Oberholser): Florida to 
South Carolina and along the southern part of the Gulf states to south- 
eastern Texas. 

(b) Quiscalus quiscula ridgwayi Oberholser: southern New England states to 
Louisiana. 

(c) Quiscalus quiscula stonei Chapman (type from Lakehurst, New Jersey, 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York) : from southern 
Louisiana to southern New York. This is the form with the head vary- 
ing from greenish to purplish blue (rarely violet), the back and sides 
bronze purple with more or less concealed iridescent bars, and the rump 
purplish bronze, sometimes with bluish spots. 

(d) Quiscalus quiscula aeneus Ridgway. 



76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Quiscalus quiscula aglaeus Baird. FLORIDA CRACKLE. 

Quiscalus aglaeus Baird, 1 Amer. Journ. Sci., (2), 41, p. 84, 1866 based on 

Quiscalus baritus (notGracula barita Linnaeus) Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. Pacif. 

R. R., 9, p. 556, 1858; Key Biscayne, Cape Florida, Florida (type in U. S. 

National Museum); Ridgway, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869, p. 135 

southern Florida (crit.). 

Quiscalus versicolor aglaeus Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 154 Florida (crit.). 
Quiscalus quiscula aglaeus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 5, 1892 

(crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 217, 1902 (monog., 

full bibliog.). 
Quiscalus quiscula quiscula (not Gracula quiscula Linnaeus) Oberholser, Auk, 

36, p. 549, 1919 (crit.). 

Range. South Atlantic coast of the United States from South 
Carolina to Florida, and west in the southern part of the Gulf states 
to southeastern Texas. 

46: Florida (Wilson, Brevard County, 8; Indian River, Brevard 
County, 1; Mary Esther, Okaloosa County, 1; Saint Lucie, Saint 
Lucie County, 1; Seven Oaks, Hillsborough County, 1; Pine Island, 
7; Key West, Monroe County, 12; New River, Bradford County, 6; 
West Jupiter, Bade County, 6; Grove City, 2; unspecified, 1). 

*Quiscalus quiscula aeneus Ridgway. BRONZED CRACKLE. 

Quiscalus aeneus Ridgway, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 21, No. 2, p. 134, 
July, 1869 "Mississippi region of U. S., east to Allegheny Mountains, 
west to Fort Bridger, etc." (type, from Mount Carmel, Illinois, in U. S. 
National Museum); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 3, 1892 
(crit.). 

Quiscalus versicolor aeneus Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 154 (crit.). 

Quiscalus versicolor subsp. aenea Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 395, 
1886 (crit.). 

Quiscalus quiscula aeneus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 219, 
1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 554, 1919 (crit., range). 

Range. Breeds in North America from Great Slave Lake, 
northern Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland south to 
Montana and Colorado (east of the Rocky Mountains) and south- 
east to northwestern Georgia, Pennsylvania (west of the Alleghenies), 
New York, Massachusetts, and northern Connecticut; winters mainly 
from the Ohio Valley south to southern Texas; casual in migration 
and winter east of the Alleghenies. 

1 0riolus ludovicianus Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 387, 1788) and Oriolus 
leucocephalus Latham (Ind. Orn., 1, p. 175, 1790) are both based on "Cassique 
de la Louisiane" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 646, which represents a partial albino 
Grackle. There is, of course, no means of telling whether it refers to the Purple 
Grackle or to the Florida Grackle. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 77 

46: Maine (unspecified, 1); New Hampshire (Tilton, 1); Rhode 
Island (Portsmouth, 1); Connecticut (East Hartford, 3); Illinois 
(Chicago, 5; Grand Chain, 2; Wilmette, 1; Olive Branch, 1; Dun- 
ning, 1; Deerfield, 1; Hyde Park, 1; Diamond Lake, 1); Indiana 
(English Lake, 1); Wisconsin (Woodruff, 1; Neenah, 3; Beaver Dam, 
17); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 3); Texas (Fort Worth, 2). 

Genus HOLOQUISCALUS Cassin 

Holoquiscalus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 404 type, by 
subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 153), Quiscalus crassirostris Swainson. 

"Holoquiscalus niger crassirostris (Swainson). 1 JAMAICAN 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus crassiroslris Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 355, Dec. 31, 1837 Jamaica 
(type in coll. of W. Hooker, present location unknown); Gosse, Bds. 
Jamaica, p. 217, 1847 Jamaica (habits); idem, Illust. Bds. Jam., pi. 43, 
1849; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 359, 1862 Jamaica; March, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 298 Jamaica (habits, nest, eggs); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 159 Jamaica (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 398, 1886 Metcalfe Parish and Spanishtown, Jamaica; Cory, Auk, 
3, p. 225, 1886 Jamaica (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 110, 1889 
Jamaica; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 130, 1892 Jamaica; Scott, 
Auk, 10, p. 179, 1893 Port Antonio and Priestman's River; Field, Auk, 
11, p. 126, 1894 Rio Cobre (Passage Fort), Congreve Park, and Half- 
way Tree Pen; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 577 near Kingston. 

Quiscalus vulgaris Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., Tabl. Meth., p. 10, 1838 
based on "Pie de la Jamaique" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. (6d. Impr. Roy.), 
3, p. 138. 

Holoquiscalus jamaicensis (not Sturnus jamaicensis Daudin) Ridgway, Proc. 
Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 151, 1901; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 227, 1902 Jamaica (monog.). 

Holoquiscalus jamaicensis jamaicensis Peters, Auk, 38, p. 437, 1921 Jamaica 
(monog.); Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 490, 1928 Hope Gardens and Lumsden. 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 

13: Jamaica (Priestman's River, 7; Port Antonio, 5; Kingston, 1). 

1 Ridgway and Peters have adopted for this form the subspecific name jamai- 
censis of Daudin (Traite Elem. Compl. Orn., 2, p. 317, 1800), a procedure that 
appears to me hardly justifiable. Daudin based his name by no means exclusively 
on Brown's "Merops niger, iride sub-argentea" from Jamaica, but this is merely 
one of the references which he believed to pertain to one and the same bird, for 
which "plusieurs lies des Antilles, la Jamaique et le Labrador" are given as habitat. 
The only specimens actually seen by Daudin, upon which the description of his 
Sturnus jamaicensis was probably based, are those sent to the Paris Museum by 
Mauge from Porto Rico and "St. Thomas" [= H. n. brachypterus]. I do not advo- 
cate, however, transferring Daudin's name to the Porto Rico form, and would 
rather consider it an unidentifiable mixtum compositum. 



78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Holoquiscalus niger gundlachii (Cassin). GUNDLACH'S 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus gundlachii 1 Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 406 
Cuba (type in coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; 
cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 35); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, 
p. 159 Cuba (in part); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 398, 1886 
Cuba (in part); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 226, 1886 Cuba (in part); idem, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 113, 1889 Cuba (in part); idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 
129, 147, 1892 part, Cuba (in part); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
4, p. 306, 1892 Trinidad, Cuba. 

Chalcophanes gundlachii Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 135, 1874 part, 
eastern Cuba. 

Holoquiscalus gundlachii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 226, 
1902 part, Cuba (in part). 

Holoquiscalus jamaicensis gundlachii Peters, Auk, 38, p. 439, 1921 eastern 
Cuba (monog.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 122, 1923 east- 
ern Cuba; Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 38, 1932 Gibara 
and Rio Moa, Cuba. 

Range. Central and eastern parts of the island of Cuba, Greater 
Antilles. 

4: Cuba (Preston, 2; unspecified, 2). 

*Holoquiscalus niger caribaeus Todd. 2 WEST CUBAN GRACKLE. 

Holoquiscalus caymanensis dispar (not Holoquiscalus dispar Clark) Todd, Ann. 

Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 276, 1916 Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines (type in 

Carnegie Museum). 
Holoquiscalus caymanensis caribaeus Todd, I.e., erratum slip opp. p. 276, 

1916 new name for H. c. dispar Todd, preoccupied. 
Chalcophanes baritus (not Gracula barita Linnaeus) Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 

4, p. 15, 1856 western Cuba (habits). 
Chalcophanes gundlachii (not Quiscalus gundlachii Cassin) Gundlach, Journ. 

Orn., 22, p. 135, 1874 western Cuba. 
Quiscalus gundlachii Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 159 Cuba (in part); idem, Cat. 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 398, 1886 Cuba (in part); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 226, 

1886 Cuba (in part); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 113, 1889 Cuba (in part); 

idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 129, 147, 1892 part, Cuba (in part). 
Holoquiscalus gundlachii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 226, 

1902 part, western Cuba and Isle of Pines; Bangs and Zappey, Amer. 

Natur., 39, p. 211, 1905 Santa Fe, Isle of Pines (crit.). 
Holoquiscalus jamaicensis caribaeus Peters, Auk, 38, p. 440, 1921 western 

Cuba and Isle of Pines (monog.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 122, 

1923 western Cuba. 

1 Frequently spelled gundlachi. 

2 Holoquiscalus niger caribaeus Todd: Similar to H. n. gundlachii, but smaller; 
adult male glossed wholly or predominatingly with steel blue; female also more 
bluish. Wing, 137-146 (against 144-155), (female) 122-128 (against 125-132); 
tail, 121-136, (female) 110-116; bill, 32-37, (female) 29-32. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 79 

Range. Western Cuba (Bolandron, Cojimar, Pinar.del Rio, 
Marianao, El Guama) and Isle of Pines, Greater Antilles. 

11: Cuba (San Diego de los Banos, Pinar del Rio, 2; Artemisa, 
Pinar del Rio, 2; Minas, Habana, 1; Cojimar, 1); Isle of Pines, 5. 

*Holoquiscalus niger bangs! Peters. 1 BANGS'S GRACKLE. 

Holoquiscalus jamaicensis bangsi Peters, Auk, 38, p. 442, 1921 Cayman Brae, 
south of Cuba (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.). 

Quiscalus gundlachi (not of Cassin) Cory, Auk, 6, p. 31, 1889 Cayman Brae; 

idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 147, 1892 part, Little Cayman and 

Cayman Brae; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 587 Little Cayman. 
Holoquiscalus gundlachii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 226, 

1902 part, Little Cayman and Cayman Brae; Lowe, Ibis, 1911, p. 161 

Little Cayman and Cayman Brae. 
Holoquiscalus caymanensis caribaeus (not of Todd) Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., 60, p. 317, 1916 Little Cayman and Cayman Brae. 

Range. Islands of Little Cayman and Cayman Brae, south of 
Cuba, Caribbean Sea. 

10: Cayman Brae, 2; Little Cayman, 8. 

*Holoquiscalus niger caymanensis (Cory). 2 GRAND CAYMAN 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus caymanensis Cory, Auk, 3, pp. 499, 502, 1886 Grand Cayman 
(type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 10, p. 574, 1887 Grand Cayman; Cory, Auk, 5, p. 158, 1888 
Grand Cayman; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 291, 1889 Grand Cayman; 
idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 129, 147, 1892 Grand Cayman; Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1904, p. 581 Grand Cayman. 

Holoquiscalus caymanensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 229, 
1902 Grand Cayman (monog.); Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 347 Grand Cay- 
man (crit.); idem, Ibis, 1911, p. 161 Grand Cayman; English, Ibis, 1916, 
p. 26 Grand Cayman (habits). 

Holoquiscalus caymanensis caymanensis Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 
280, 1916 (crit.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 317, 1916 
Grand Cayman. 

1 Holoquiscalus niger bangsi Peters: Similar to H. n. crassirostris, but smaller; 
bill longer and fully as stout; violaceous gloss less brilliant, the steel blue tinge 
on the abdomen extending up to the lower breast, throat faintly washed with 
blue; upper parts with an almost imperceptible bluish tinge. Wing, 141-147, 
(female) 118-128; tail, 126-134, (female) 107-120; bill, 35-39, (female) 30-32. 

Our specimens not being in very good condition, we have taken the racial 
characters from Mr. Peters's excellent review. 

2 Holoquiscalus niger caymanensis (Cory): Not unlike H. n. caribaeus, but 
much smaller, the bluish gloss of the males having a purplish tinge. Wing, 
128-135, (female) 115-118; tail, 114-118, (female) 100-105; bill, 31-34, (female) 
28-30. 



80 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Holoquiscalus jamaicensis caymanensis Peters, Auk, 38, p. 443, 1921 Grand 
Cayman (monog.); Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 

10, p. 22, 1931 Grand Cayman. 

Range. Island of Grand Cayman, south of Cuba, Caribbean Sea. 
99: Grand Cayman, 99. 

*Holoquiscalus niger 1 niger (Boddaert). HISPANIOLAN GRACKLE. 

Oriolus niger Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 31, 1783 based on "Troupiale noir, 
de St. Domingue" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 534; Santo Domingo. 2 

Quiscalus barita (not Gracula barita Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
25, p. 232, 1857 Santo Domingo. 

Quiscalus ater ("Baird") Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 94, 1866 
Jeremie, Haiti; Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 153, 1881 Haiti; Tristram, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 168 Santo Domingo. 

Quiscalus niger Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 407 Jeremie, 
"Santo Domingo" (monog.); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 159 (ex Cassin); Cory, 
Bds. Haiti & San Dom., p. 73, pi. [22], fig. 1, 1885 Haiti (Le Coup) and 
Santo Domingo (Samana, Puerto Plata); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

11, p. 398, 1886 Santo Domingo; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 226, 1886 Hispaniola; 
idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 131, 1892 Santo Domingo; Cherrie, 
Field Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 17, 1896 Catare, Aguacate, and 
Santo Domingo City, Santo Domingo; Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 326 Sanchez, 
Santo Domingo (habits); Verrill and Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
61, p. 362, 1909 Santo Domingo; Kaempfer, Journ. Orn., 72, p. 180, 
1924 Santo Domingo (song). 

Holoquiscalus niger Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 228, 1902 
Haiti (monog.); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 424, 1917- 
Sosua, Dominican Republic. 

Holoquiscalus niger niger Peters, Auk, 38, p. 444, 1921 Hispaniola (monog.); 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 515, 1928 Haiti and Gonave 
Island; Danforth, Auk, 46, p. 373, 1929 Hispaniola (many localities); 
Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, p. 325, 1929 Bonao and San Juan; 
Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 410, 1931 Hispaniola 
(monog., habits); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 38, 1932 
Montet, Baraderes, Petit Trou de Nippes, and lie a Vache, Haiti; Wetmore 
and Lincoln, I.e., 82, art. 25, p. 61, 1933 Hispaniola. 

Quiscalus sp. Verrill and Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 362, 1909 
Santo Domingo. 

Range. Island of Haiti (including Gonave and He a Vache), 
Greater Antilles. 

29: Dominican Republic (Santo Domingo City, 8; Catare, 1; 
Aguacate, 4; Samana, 1; La Vega, 1; Puerto Plata, 5; Magua, 1); 
Haiti (Lake Gantier, 5; Kenskoff, 1; Bird Point, Tortuga, 2). 

1 Holoquiscalus niger and H. crassirostris, heretofore specifically separated, 
according to my point of view, may well be united in one taxonomic entity. 

2 Port au Prince designated as type locality by Peters (Auk, 38, p. 445, 1921). 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 81 

*Holoquiscalus niger brachypterus (Cassin). PORTO RICAN 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus brachypterus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 406 
Porto Rico (type in U. S. National Museum); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 160 
Porto Rico (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 399, 1886 
Porto Rico; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 224, 1886 Porto Rico (descr.); idem, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. Ill, 1889 Porto Rico; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 132, 
147, 1892 Porto Rico; Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 12, 1903 Aguadilla, Porto 
Rico (habits, nest, eggs). 

Quiscalus barita (not Gracula barita Linnaeus) Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 168 
part, Porto Rico (eggs descr.). 

Quiscalus crassirostris (not of Swainson) Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
10, p. 254, 1866 Porto Rico; Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forh., 26, 
p. 598, 1869 Porto Rico (ex Bryant). 

Chalcophanes lugubris (not Quiscalus lugubris Swainson) Sundevall, Ofvers. 
Vetensk.-Akad. Forh., 26, p. 598, 1869 Porto Rico. 

Chakophanes brachypterus Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 177, 1878 Porto 
Rico (eggs descr.); idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 213, 1878 
Porto Rico (habits). 

Holoquiscalus brachypterus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
228, 1902 Porto Rico (monog.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 
326, p. 117, pis. 8, 9, 1916 Porto Rico (habits, food); idem, Auk, 33, 
p. 419, 1916 Vieques; idem, Auk, 34, p. 62, 1917 Culebra (questionable 
occurrence); Struthers, Auk, 40, p. 477, 1923 Porto Rico. 

Holoquiscalus niger brachypterus Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 280, 1916 
Porto Rico (diag.); Peters, Auk, 38, p. 445, 1921 Porto Rico, Vieques, 
and "Culebra" (monog.); Danforth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 
10, p. 102, 1926 Porto Rico (habits); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & 
Virgin Is., 9, p. 539, 1927 Porto Rico and Vieques (monog., habits). 

Range. Islands of Porto Rico and Vieques, Greater Antilles. 
16: Porto Rico (Mayagiiez, 6; unspecified, 10). 

*Holoquiscalus lugubris lugubris (Swainson). SWAINSON'S 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus lugubris Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 299, Dec. 31, 1837 "Brazil," 
errore, =British Guiana 1 (location of type unknown); 2 Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 424, 1850 (ex Swainson); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 283, 1856 (ex Swainson); 3 Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 

1 Substituted as type locality by Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 32, 
1902. 

2 Swainson's short diagnosis, "plumage black, obscurely glossed with purple, . . . 
a very obscure greenish tinge on the wings and tail," is none too good, but measure- 
ments and outline of bill correspond very well to the continental form of Grackle, 
if we assume with Cabanis (Mus. Hein., 1, p. 197, 1851) that the quotation of 
"fig. 50. c" is a misprint for "fig. 54c." Reexamination of the type, which might 
be in the University Museum at Cambridge, Engl., is nevertheless desirable. 

3 The assigned range, "northern Brazil, near Pernambuco, Para, and on the 
Amazon River," is purely imaginary. 



82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 141, 1862 Cayenne and Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 84 Trinidad; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 408 Trinidad (monog.); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 162 Venezuela and Cayenne (monog.); Salvin, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 219 British Guiana (ex Cabanis); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 402, 1886 Cayenne, Georgetown, Demerara, Trinidad, and 
Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 37, 1894 mouth of 
the Cipero River, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumana, 
Venezuela; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, 
p. 5, 1899 Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
9, p. 33, 1902 Ciudad Bolivar and Caicara, Orinoco River, Venezuela; 
Hellmayr, I.e., 13, p. 21, 1906 Caroni River, Trinidad; Berlepsch, I.e., 
15, p. 124, 1908 Cayenne; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 380, 1910 
Dutch Guiana (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Chalcophanes minor Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 683, 1849 British Guiana (descr. of female; type in Berlin Museum); 
idem, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 197, 1851 Guiana and Surinam (crit.). 

Chalcophanes jamaicensis (not Sturnus jamaicensis Daudin) Cabanis, in 
Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 683, 1849 coast of 
British Guiana (=male). 

Quiscalus barita (not Gracula barita Linnaeus?) 1 Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, 
p. 268, 1866 Trinidad. 

Quiscalus rectirostris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 409 
habitat unknown (type in coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia); Peters, Occ. Pap. Bost. Soc. N. H., 5, p. 176, 1925 (crit.). 

Holoquiscalus rectirostris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 233, 
1902 (ex Cassin); Peters, Auk, 38, p. 453, 1921 (ex Cassin). 

Chalcophanes lugubris Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 577 Trinidad. 

Quiscalus sp. Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 84 on the Orinoco and coast of Venezuela. 

Holoquiscalus lugubris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 225, 
1902 coast of Venezuela, Guiana, Trinidad, and "Tobago" (diag.); 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 212, 1913 Boca Uracoa, Ma- 
nimo River, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 211, 1916 Ciudad Bolivar and Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela 
(habits, nest, and eggs); Beebe, Trop. Wild Life, 1, p. 585, 1917 Bartica, 
British Guiana; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 584, 1921 Abary River, 
Lamaca, Georgetown, and Bartica. 

Quisqualis [sic] lugubris Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 139, 
1922 Trinidad (Port-of-Spain, Williams ville, Princestown; habits, food). 

Holoquiscalus lugubris lugubris Peters, Auk, 38, p. 446, 1921 (monog.) ; Roberts, 
Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Venezu- 
ela, south to the Orinoco Valley, and the island of Trinidad. 2 

1 Gracula barita Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 109, 1758 "America"), 
based on an unpublished drawing of Rolander, seems unidentifiable from the 
description. Cf. Peters, Auk, 38, p. 447, 1921. 

2 Specimens from Trinidad agree with Venezuelan and Guianan birds. There 
is no authentic record from Tobago, although this island is included by Ridgway 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 83 

22: Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 11; Lake Valencia, Carabobo, 
1; Cocollar, Sucre, 8); British Guiana (Georgetown, 2). 

*Holoquiscalus lugubris insularis (Richmond). 1 MARGARITAN 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus insularis Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 675, Aug. 12, 1896 
Margarita Island, off Venezuela (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Clark, Auk, 19, p. 265, 1902 Porlamar and El Valle, Margarita; Lowe, 
Ibis, 1907, p. 570 Margarita Island. 

Holoquiscalus insularis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 225, 
1902 Margarita (diag.); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 
248, 254, 1909 part, Margarita. 

Holoquiscalus lugubris insularis Peters, Auk, 38, p. 448, 1921 part, Mar- 
garita (monog.). 

Range. Island of Margarita, off Venezuela. 

11 : Margarita Island (Porlamar, 8; La Asuncion, 2; unspecified, 1). 

*Holoquiscalus lugubris orquillensis Cory. 2 ORQUILLA GRACKLE. 

Holoquiscalus orquillensis Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 227, 
254, 1909 Orquilla, Los Hermanos Islands, Caribbean Sea (type in Field 
Museum). 

in the range of H. I. lugubris. Neither John Kirk nor any of the subsequent 
collectors (Ober, W. W. Brown, R. de Dalmas, E. Andre", S. M. Klages) ever 
met with the species there, and not a single Tobago specimen exists in any museum, 
so far as I am aware. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Caroni River, 1; Chaguanas, 6. 
Venezuela: Cumana, 4; Ciudad Bolivar, 4; Caicara, 4. French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. 

1 Holoquiscalus lugubris insularis (Richmond): Similar to H. I. lugubris, but 
wings and tail longer, and bill slenderer, as well as somewhat longer; female 
above and below fully as dark as the nominate race, throat frequently, though 
not always, paler than the rest of the under parts. Wing, 122-126, (female) 
105-110; tail, 115-120, (female) 90-100; bill, 28-30, (female) 24-27. 

The pale-throated females tend slightly towards H. L orquillensis, though 
the remainder of the under parts is considerably darker. 

2 Holoquiscalus lugubris orquillensis Cory: Similar to H. L insularis, but 
wings and tail slightly snorter; females underneath not so dark and less uniform, 
the throat and foreneck being grayish brown, decidedly paler than the hair brown 
or mouse gray breast, and the flanks being fuscous rather than fuscous black. 
Wing, 117-122, (female) 101-106; tail, 108-112, (female) 85-96; bill, 28-32, 
(female) 26-30. 

I do not see how the Testigos birds, which have been referred to the Grenada 
form (luminosus) by Lowe and to H. I. insularis by Cory, can be separated from 
those of Orquilla. The three original specimens of H. orquillensis, breeding 
birds in very worn plumage, agree in dimensions, shape and proportion of bill, as 
well as in the coloration of the female, with the Testigos series. The reduction of 
the greenish gloss on tail and wings is easily accounted for by their extremely 
worn condition. Besides, an abraded female from Testigos Grande does not 
differ in the least from the Orquilla bird on this score. H. I. orquillensis, by the 
coloration of the under parts in the female sex, occupies exactly an intermediate 
position between the two neighboring races, being lighter than insularis, but 
darker than luminosus. 



84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Holoquiscalus luminosus (not Quiscalus luminosus Lawrence) Lowe, Ibis, 1909, 

p. 321 Testigos Grande. 
Holoquiscalus insularis (not Quiscalus insularis Richmond) Cory, Field 

Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 231, 254, 1909 part, Testigos Grande 

(crit.); Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 329 Orquilla, Los Hermanos (crit.). 
Holoquiscalus lugubris insularis Peters, Auk, 38, p. 448, 1921 part, Testigos 

(crit.). 
Holoquiscalus lugubris orquillensis Peters, Auk, 38, p. 448, 1921 Orquilla 

(ex Cory). 

Range. Islands of Orquilla (Los Hermanos) and Testigos 
Grande (Testigos), Caribbean Sea. 
16: Orquilla, 3; Testigos Grande, 13. 

*Holoquiscalus lugubris luminosus (Lawrence). GRENADA 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus luminosus Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1, p. 162, 1878 
Grenada (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1, pp. 270, 278, 1878 Grenada and Grenadines (Balliceaux and Bequia); 
idem, I.e., 1, p. 487, 1879 part, Grenada; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 161 
Grenada and Grenadines (ex Lawrence); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 402, 1886 same localities (monog.); Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, 
p. 615, 1886 Grenada (habits, nest, and eggs); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 225, 
1886 Grenada (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 112, 1889 Grenada; 
Wells, Auk, 19, p. 546, 1902 Carriacou. 

Quiscalus inflexirostris (not of Swainson) Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 
146, 1892 part, Grenada and Grenadines (crit.). 

Holoquiscalus luminosus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 232, 
1902 Grenada and Grenadines (monog.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
32, pp. 284, 305, 306, 1905 Grenada and Grenadines. 

Holoquiscalus lugubris luminosus Peters, Auk, 38, p. 449, 1921 Grenada and 
Grenadines (monog.) ; Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 542, 1928 
Kingstown, St. Vincent. 

Range. Islands of Grenada and the Grenadines (Carriacou, 
Union, Bequia, Petit Martinique, Mustique, Tobago Keys), Lesser 
Antilles; accidental (or introduced?) on St. Vincent (one record). 

8: Lesser Antilles (Grenada, 6; Union Island, 2). 

Holoquiscalus lugubris contrusus Peters. 1 ST. VINCENT 
GRACKLE. 

Holoquiscalus lugubris contrusus Peters, Occ. Pap. Bost. Soc. N. H., 5, p. 175, 
Dec., 1925 base of Bonhomme Mountains, St. Vincent (type in Museum 

1 Holoquiscalus lugubris contrusus Peters: Similar to H. I. inflexirostris, but 
smaller; female much darker, upper parts with a distinct sooty wash becoming 
black on rump and tail coverts, and somewhat glossed on the interscapular 
region; under parts shading from deep mouse gray on the abdomen to light mouse 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 85 

of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 80, p. 542, 1928 (crit.). 

Quiscalus sp. Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 191, 1878 St. Vincent. 
Quiscalus luminosus (not of Lawrence) Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, 

pp. 270, 487, 1879 part, St. Vincent. 
Quiscalus inflexirostris (not of Swainson) Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 

146, 1892 part, St. Vincent. 
Holoquiscalus inflexirostris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 

230, 1902 part, St. Vincent. 

Holoquiscalus dispar Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 284, 1905 St. 
Vincent (part, as to male). 

Holoquiscalus fortirostris dispar Peters, Auk, 38, p. 452, 1921 St. Vincent 
(part, descr. of male). 

Range. Island of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. 

*Holoquiscalus lugubris inflexirostris (Swainson). 1 SANTA 
LUCIA GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus inflexirostris Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 300, fig. 52, Dec. 31, 1837 

habitat unknown (type in coll. of W. Swainson, now apparently in 

University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.; cf. Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 160); 

Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 407 (monog.); Sclater, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 175 part, Santa Lucia; idem, Ibis, 1884, p. 

160 part, Santa Lucia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 401, 1886 

part, spec, f, g, Santa Lucia; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 224, 1886 part, Santa 

Lucia; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. Ill, 1889 part, Santa Lucia; Ridgway, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 130, 1890 Santa Lucia; Cory, Cat. W. Ind. 

Bds., pp. Ill, 146, 1892 part, Santa Lucia; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 561 

Castries, Santa Lucia. 
Quiscalus lugubris (not of Swainson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 

271 Santa Lucia (crit.); Semper, I.e., 1872, p. 650 Santa Lucia (habits, 

nest). 
Quiscalus luminosus (not of Lawrence) Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 166, 

1880 Santa Lucia. 
Holoquiscalus inflexirostris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 

230, 1902 part, Santa Lucia (monog.). 
Holoquiscalus lugubris inflexirostris Peters, Auk, 38, p. 450, 1921 Santa 

Lucia (monog.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 542, 1928 

Santa Lucia. 

gray on the throat. Wing, 112-119H, (female) 99-102; tail, 107^-113, (female) 
86-93; bill, 30V^-31^, (female) 29-30 (Peters, I.e.). 

This form, which Bond considers to be the only native grackle on St. Vincent, 
we have not before us at the time of writing. We are not acquainted with the 
female, but judging from the notes made some years ago the only male in Field 
Museum appears to belong to the race recently separated by Mr. Peters. This 
specimen cannot now be found. 

1 Holoquiscalus lugubris inflexirostris (Swainson) is similar to H. L luminosus, 
but has a decidedly shorter, stouter bill, and the female is of a paler, more grayish 



86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Island of Santa Lucia, Lesser Antilles. 
23: Lesser Antilles (Santa Lucia, 23). 

"Holoquiscalus lugubris guadeloupensis (Lawrence). 1 GUADE- 
LOUPE GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus guadeloupensis Lawrence, 2 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 457, April, 
1879 Guadeloupe (type in U. S. National Museum) ; idem, I.e., p. 487, 1879 
Guadeloupe; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 160 Guadeloupe (crit.); idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 401, 1886 Guadeloupe; Cory, Ibis, 1886, p. 
474 Marie Galante; idem, Auk, 3, p. 226, 1886 Guadeloupe; idem, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 113, 1889 Guadeloupe; idem, Auk, 8, p. 49, 1891 Guade- 
loupe; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 147, 1892 Guadeloupe and 
Marie Galante. 

Quiscalus barita (not Gracula barita Linnaeus) Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 168 
part, Martinique. 

Quiscalus inflexiroslris (not of Swainson) Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, 
p. 355, 1878 Martinique; idem, I.e., p. 487, 1879 Martinique; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 175 part, Martinique; Sclater, Ibis, 
1884, p. 160 part, Martinique; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 401, 
1886 part, spec, a-e, Martinique; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 224, 1886 part, 
Martinique; idem, Auk, 4, p. 96, 1887 Martinique; idem, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. Ill, 1889 part, Martinique; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. Ill, 146, 
1892 part, Martinique; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 567 Martinique. 

Holoquiscalus martinicensis Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 151, April, 
1901 Martinique (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 231, 1902 Martinique (monog.). 

Holoquiscalus guadeloupensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 232, 1902 Guadeloupe and (?)Marie Galante (monog.); Noble, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 383, 1916 Sainte Rose and Basse Terre, Guade- 
loupe (crit.). 

Holoquiscalus lugubris guadeloupensis Peters, Auk, 38, p. 450, 1921 Guade- 
loupe, Martinique, and (?)Marie Galante (monog.). 

tone underneath. I have not been able to compare it with the St. Vincent race. 
Swainson's description, while not absolutely certain, seems to agree better with 
the present than the next form, as far as the characters of the bill are concerned. 

1 Holoquiscalus lugubris guadeloupensis (Lawrence): Similar to H. I. inflexi- 
rostris, but on average smaller; female underneath much more buffy with the 
throat frequently buffy white and, furthermore, easily distinguished by having 
the loral region and broad superciliaries dingy buff. Birds from Marie Galante 
(wing of males, 124-128; of females, 108-110) are identical with those from Guade- 
loupe. Martinique birds, on the other side, average very slightly smaller (wing 
of males, 120-124), and the females are a faint shade more grayish on foreneck 
and breast, but the differences are so completely bridged by individual variation 
that the recognition of an additional form (martinicensis) seems unwarranted. 

2 A possible earlier name is Quiscalus mexicanus Cassin (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 408 type from "Mexico" in coll. of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia), but as the specimen cannot be positively identified because 
the tip of the mandible has been broken off, the name should not come into use. 
Cf. Peters, Occ. Pap. Bost. Soc. N. H., 5, p. 176, 1925. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 87 

Range. Islands of Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, and Martinique, 1 
Lesser Antilles. 

71: Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, 51; Marie Galante, 9; Marti- 
nique, 11). 

*Holoquiscalus fortirostris 2 fortirostris (Lawrence). BARBADOS 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus fortirostris Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, p. 360 
Barbados (type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); Sclater, Ibis, 1873, p. 334 Barbados; 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 175 Barbados; idem, Ibis, 1884, 
p. 161 Barbados (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 400, 1886 
Barbados (crit.); Cory, Ibis, 1886, p. 472 Barbados; idem, Auk, 3, p. 
223, 1886 Barbados (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 110, 1889 (descr.); 
Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 485 Barbados (habits); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., 
pp. Ill, 134, 146, 147, 1892 Barbados (crit.); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 557 
Barbados. 

Holoquiscalus fortirostris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 229, 
1902 Barbados (monog.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, pp. 282, 
302, 1905 Barbados (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Holoquiscalus fortirostris fortirostris Peters, Auk, 38, p. 451, 1921 Barbados 
(monog.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 542, 1928 Barbados. 

Range. Island of Barbados, Lesser Antilles. 
7: Lesser Antilles (Barbados, 7). 

Holoquiscalus fortirostris dispar Clark. 3 CLARK'S GRACKLE. 

Holoquiscalus dispar Clark, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 61, Feb., 1905 
near Kingstown, St. Vincent (type now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 421, 1930); idem, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, pp. 248, 303, 1905 St. 
Vincent (part, as to female). 

1 On the probable occurrence of some grackle on the island of Dominica, 
where no species of the genus has yet been collected, cf. Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 80, p. 542, 1928. 

- Holoquiscalus fortirostris is here provisionally regarded as specifically distinct, 
although the close resemblance of certain dark-colored females of H. I. lugubris 
to the duller type of the Barbados female suggests conspecific relationship. Until 
the status of the supposed St. Vincent race of H. fortirostris has been positively 
determined, the matter must be left in abeyance. 

3 Holoquiscalus fortirostris dispar Clark, known only from two females taken 
by the describer near Kingstown in October, 1903, is stated to differ from Bar- 
bados specimens by blacker (less sooty) upper, and browner (more sooty) under 
parts. Considering the variation exhibited by a series of Barbados females, some 
of which answer pretty well to the diagnosis of dispar, I am inclined to endorse 
Bond's suggestion that this supposed race is not a native of St. Vincent, but 
may have been introduced from Barbados. 



88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Holoquiscalus fortirostris dispar Peters, Auk, 38, p. 453, 1921 St. Vincent 
(part, descr. of female); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 542, 
1928 (crit.). 

Range. Island of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. 
Genus CASSIDIX Lesson 

Cassidix Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 433, 1831 type, by monotypy, Corvus 

mexicanus Gmelin. 1 
Megaquiscalus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 18, p. 409, 1866 type, by 

subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 153), Quiscalus major Vieillot. 

Cassidix mexicanus nelsoni (Ridgway). SONORAN BOAT-TAILED 
GRACKLE. 

Scaphidurus major nelsoni Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 151, 1901 
Alamos, Sonora, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Quiscalus palustris (not Scaphidurus palustris Swainson) Belding, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 6, p. 343, 1883 Guaymas, Sonora. 

Megaquiscalus major nelsoni Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 242, 
1902 coast district of Sonora (Alamos, Camoa, Guaymas). 

Cassidix mexicanus nelsoni Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 122, 1929 
(nomencl.); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 289, 1931 
Sonora (Obregon, Tesia, San Jose de Guaymas, Tobari Bay, Guirocoba, 
Guaymas, six miles north of Guaymas). 

Range. Northwestern Mexico, in the coast district of Sonora. 

Cassidix mexicanus graysoni (Sclater). GRAYSON'S BOAT-TAILED 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus graysoni Sclater, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 157, 1884 Mazatlan and Presidio, 
Sinaloa, Mexico (type, from Presidio, in Salvin-Godman Collection, now 
in British Museum); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 397, 1886 
"Mazatlan" = Presidio; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 484, 1887 part, Mazatlan, Sinaloa. 

Quiscalus palustris (not Scaphidurus palustris Swainson) Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 411 Mazatlan (monog.). 

Quiscalus major var. palustris Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 282, 
1874 Mazatlan (crit., habits, nest, and eggs). 

Quiscalus macrourus (not of Swainson) Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 52, 
1899 Maria Madre, Tres Marias. 

1 As pointed out by Peters (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 122, 1929), it seems 
hardly avoidable under present rules to use the generic name Cassidix for the 
group of birds known as Megaquiscalus. Although the generic characters were 
clearly taken from the Rice Crackle (Oriolus oryzivorus Gmelin), of which Lesson 
had seen specimens from "Cayenne (M. Martin)," his citing of Corvus mexicanus 
Gmelin as the only species (Cassicus niger Vieillot is merely given as a doubtful 
synonym, and not as a second species) appears to fix the genotype in an unequivocal 
sense. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 89 

Megaquiscalus major graysoni Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 241, 1902 coast plain of Sinaloa (monog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 21, p. 359, 1905 Escuinapa and Juanna Gomez River, Sinaloa; 
McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 50, 1927 north of Mazatlan 
and Labrados, Sinaloa. 

Range. Western Mexico, in coast district of Sinaloa (Mazatlan, 
Presidio, Culiacan, Labrados, Escuinapa, Juanna Gomez River); 
accidental on Maria Madre, Tres Marias Islands. 

*Cassidix mexicanus obscurus (Nelson). COLIMA BOAT-TAILED 
CRACKLE. 

Quiscalus macrourus obscurus Nelson, Auk, 17, p. 267, 1900 Acapulco, 

Guerrero, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Quiscalus major (not of Vieillot) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 

p. 409 part, Colima, Mexico; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 

1281, 1874 Manzanilla Bay and plains of Colima, Colima. 
Quiscalus graysoni (not of Sclater) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 484, 1887 part, San Bias. 

Megaquiscalus major obscurus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
241, 1902 coast district of western Mexico from Guerrero to Tepic 
(monog.); Bailey, Auk, 23, p. 390, 1906 San Bias, Nayarit; McLellan, 
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 49, 1927 San Bias, Nayarit. 

Cassidix mexicanus obscurus Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 122, 1929 
(nomencl.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 74, p. 402, 1934 Chil- 
pancingo, Guerrero. 

Range. Coast district of southwestern Mexico, from Nayarit 
and Colima south to Guerrero. 
3: Mexico (Iguala, Guerrero, 3). 

*Cassidix mexicanus major (Vieillot). BOAT-TAILED CRACKLE. 

Quiscalus major Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 28, p. 487, 1819 
Louisiana; 1 Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 409 part, 
Georgia, South Carolina, and other states and localities in southern 
North America (excl. of Colima, Mexico); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 155 
coast region of South Atlantic states (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 395, 1886 (monog.). 

Quiscalus corvinus Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 300, Dec. 31, 1837 North 
America (location of type not stated). 

Megaquiscalus major major Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 236, 
1902 (monog., full bibliog.). 

(l)Cassidix mexicanus westoni Sprunt, Charleston Mus. Leaflet, No. 6, p. 4, 
Feb. 24, 1934 St. John's River Marshes, Indian River County, Florida 
(type in Charleston Museum). 

1 Brisson's "Petite pie du Mexique" quoted as possibly referring to "La 
Grande Quiscale" is another form. Vieillot's description, however, was doubtless 
based on specimens secured by him in Louisiana. 



90 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

C!)Cassidix mexicanus torreyi Harper, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 1, 
Mar. 8, 1934 Chincoteague, Virginia (type in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Range. Lower Austral zone of the South Atlantic and Gulf 
states of North America from southern Delaware and Chesapeake 
Bay to the Florida Keys and west to the east coast of Texas. 1 

54: South Carolina (Frogmore, 1); Florida (West Jupiter, 6; 
Palm Beach, 2; Merritt, 1; Enterprise, 3; Georgiana, 1; Indian 
River, 1; Pine Island, 1; Lantana, 3; Wilson, 12; Nassau County, 2; 
Eau Gallic, 1; St. Johns Prairie, 1; unspecified, 1); Louisiana (Buras, 
5; Morgan City, St. Mary Parish, 1); Texas (Port Lavaca, 12). 

*Cassidix mexicanus mexicanus (Gmelin). GREAT-TAILED 
GRACKLE. 

Corvus mexicanus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 375, 1788 based on "Hocit- 
zanatl" Hernandez, Hist. Nov. Hisp., p. 21; Mexico (cf. Peters, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 121, 1929). 

Quiscalus macrourus 1 * Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 299, Dec. 31, 1837 Real 
del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico (location of type not stated, possibly in 
University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.); Baird, Rep. Pac. R. R. Surv., 
9, p. 554, 1858 Texas (Brownsville, Fort Brown, Eagle Pass) and Mexico; 
idem, Bds. N. Amer., pi. 58, 1860; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 300, 1856 Cordoba, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 26, p. 358, 1858 Coma- 
yagua, Honduras; Moore, I.e., 27, p. 58, 1859 Omoa, Honduras; Sclater 
and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 20 Duenas, Guatemala (breeding, nest, and 
eggs); Taylor, Ibis, 1860, p. 112 Comayagua, Honduras; Sclater, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 141, 1862 Mexico (Orizaba) and Guatemala (Choc- 
turn, Vera Paz); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 175 City of 
Mexico; Dresser, Ibis, 1865, p. 493 Matamoros, Tamaulipas, to Nueces 
River, Texas; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 410 part, 
Texas, Mexico (Yucatan), and Guatemala (Vera Paz); Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 181, 1865 Greytown, Nicaragua; Sumi- 
chrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 553, 1869 Cordoba and Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 837 
Honduras; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 24, 1876 Barrio and 
Juchitan, Oaxaca; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 46, 1878 
Guatemala; Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. & Geog. Surv. Terr., 4, p. 27, 
1878 Brownsville and Corpus Christi Pass, Texas (habits); idem, I.e., 
5, p. 400, 1879 Lomita, Texas; Merrill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 135, 

1 The different color of the iris in the Boat-tailed Crackle of the southeastern 
United States has given rise to the naming of two supposed races, the term westoni 
being bestowed on the brown-eyed bird, while the yellow-eyed variety was de- 
scribed as C. m. torreyi. Until the status of the typical Louisiana form has been defi- 
nitely determined, it is impossible to decide which of the two names is to be 
retained. The significance of the variation, moreover, appears to be not at all 
well established. Cf. also Stone, Auk, 51, pp. 265-266, 1934. 

2 Frequently spelled "macrurus." 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 91 

1879 Fort Brown, Texas (habits, nest, and eggs); Boucard, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 446 Yucatan; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, 
pp. 383, 392, 402, 1883 Sucuya, Ometepe, and Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 156 Mexico and Guatemala (monog.); Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 570, 1885 Cozumel Island; Ferrari-Perez, 
I.e., 9, p. 152, 1886 Puebla (Izucar de Matamoros) and Vera Cruz 
(Plan del Rio); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 396, 1886 Mexico 
(Jalapa; Orizaba; Oaxaca; Merida, Yucatan; Cozumel), British Honduras 
(Belize, Half Moon Cay), Guatemala (Choctum), and Honduras; Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 482, 1887 part, Texas to 
Nicaragua; Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 265 Mugeres, Cozumel, and Ruatan 
Islands (crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, pp. 209, 212 
Yucatan and Orizaba (Vera Cruz); Attwater, Auk, 9, p. 238, 1892 San 
Antonio, Texas; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 496, 1893 
San Carlos and Bluefields, Nicaragua; Jouy, I.e., p. 781, 1893 Soledad, 
San Luis Potosi. 

Chakophanes macrourus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 196, 1851 part, Mexico. 

Quiscalus major (not of Vieillot) Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 194 cays of the 
Belize coast. 

Megaquiscalus major macrourus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 238, 1902 part, southern Texas to Nicaragua (monog.); Miller, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 170, 1906 Rosario and La Boquilla, Durango; 
Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 141, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; 
Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 113, 1907 Guatemala 
(El Rancho, etc.); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 Matamoros, Tamaulipas; 
Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 18, 1926 north of Tuluum and 
Culebra Key, eastern Yucatan; idem and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 23, 1926 
Brownsville, Texas; Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, 
p. 487, 1927 Presidio, Vera Cruz; idem, 68, p. 404, 1928 Chivela, 
Oaxaca; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 400, 1932 Guatemala 
(Nebaj, San Lucas, Antigua, Panajachel, Finca Carolina, Hacienda Cali- 
fornia, Finca El Cipres; crit.). 

Cassidix mexicanus mexicanus Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 122, 1929 
(nomencl.); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 478, 1929 Lancetilla 
and Tela, Honduras; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 337, 
1932 Tegucigalpa, Cantarranas, and San Juancito, Honduras. 

Range. Southern Texas and south through the tableland and 
lowlands of Mexico, Guatemala, British Honduras, and Hon- 
duras to northern Nicaragua. 1 

68: Texas (Corpus Christi, 34; Brownsville, 3; Point Isabel, 2); 
Mexico (Chihuahua, 4; Achotal, Vera Cruz, 1; Tampico, Tamaulipas, 
1; San Felipe, Yucatan, 1; Mugeres Island, Yucatan, 1; Cozumel 

1 There is some variation in size and coloration between birds from different 
parts of the range, but my series being altogether insufficient I cannot but recom- 
mend the subject for further study to someone equipped with the necessary 
material. Twenty-two additional specimens from Vera Cruz (Jalapa), Yucatan 
(Temax), Guatemala, and Honduras (Chamelicon) have been examined. 



92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Island, Yucatan, 2; Yucatan, unspecified, 4); Guatemala (Lake 
Atitlan, Solola, 1; Lake Amatitlan, 1; Bobos, Izabal, 1; Los Amates, 
Izabal, 1; El Rancho, Zacapa, 1; Conception del Mar, Escuintla, 1; 
Volcan Tajumulco, San Marcos, 1) ; Honduras (Ruatan Island, Bay 
of Honduras, 3); Nicaragua (San Rafael del Norte, Matagalpa, 2; 
San Geronimo, Chinandega, 3). 

*Cassidix mexicanus peruvianus (Swainson). 1 PERUVIAN 
GRACKLE. 

Quiscalus peruvianus Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 354, Dec. 31, 1837 Peru 
(cotypes in coll. of W. Hooker and W. Swainson, present location un- 
known); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 412 (ex Swainson). 

Quiscalus assimilis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 141, 1862 "Bogota," 
Colombia (cotypes in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 410 (ex Sclater); Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 330 Cienaga, Magdalena, Colombia; Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, pp. 323, 751 Santa Lucia, Rio Tumbez, Peru 
(nest and eggs descr.); idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 431, 1884 Santa Lucia and 
Tumbez, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 156 Veragua and Panama to 
western Peru (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 396, 1886 
Veragua (Calobre, Calovevora), Panama (Lion Hill), and Colombia 
("Bogota"); Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 161, 1895 Barran- 
quilla, Colombia; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 339, p. 5, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Darien, Panama; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 162, 1900 Cienaga, Colombia. 

Chalcophanes macrourus (not Quiscalus macrourus Swainson) Cabanis, Mus. 
Hein., 1, p. 196, 1851 part, Cartagena, Colombia; idem, Journ. Orn., 
9, p. 82, 1861 "Leponto" [ = Lepanto], Costa Rica. 

Quiscalus macrourus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 138 
Turbo and Cartagena, Colombia; idem, I.e., 1866, p. 410 part, Panama; 

1 Cassidix mexicanus peruvianus (Swainson): Similar to C. m. mexicanus, but 
somewhat smaller; males scarcely distinguishable in coloration, though generally 
of a more steel blue gloss; females much more buffy (between tawny olive and 
Isabella color) beneath, particularly on the breast, and more brownish, less sooty 
above. Wing, 180-190, (female) 132-148. 

I cannot but endorse Mr. Todd's contention that the southern form is well 
worthy of separation, the much more buffy under parts of the adult female being its 
most striking feature. Although Swainson's originals have not been found either 
at Cambridge or at Liverpool, his description based on Peruvian specimens in 
the W. Hooker Collection (no doubt obtained by the orchid hunter Matthews) 
clearly refers to the male of the present species, and as a couple of specimens 
from Santa Lucia, Tumbez, agree in every respect with others from Ecuador and 
Cartagena, I do not see why his term peruvianus, having many years' priority, 
should not be adopted. The range of the form is extended here to Costa Rica 
on Mr. Todd's authority, as we ourselves have not been able to examine any 
material from that country. A single female from Darien (Punta de Sabana), 
an extremely buff-bellied example, compares well with another from Ecuador. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Punta de Sabana, Darien, 1. 
Colombia: Cartagena, 4; Cienaga, 2. Ecuador: La Tola, coast of Esmeraldas, 
5. Peru: Santa Lucia, Tumbez, 2. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 93 

Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 104, 1868 Costa Rica 
(ex Cabanis); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 303, 1869 Costa Rica; 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 191 Calobre and Calovevora, 
Veragua (crit.); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 
Puntarenas and Tarcoles, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 482, 1887 part, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and 
Peru. 

Megaquiscalus major macrourus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 238, 1902 part, Costa Rica to northern Colombia; Thayer and Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 157, 1905 San Miguel and Saboga Islands, 
Pearl Archipelago; idem, I.e., p. 221, 1906 savanna of Panama; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 831, 1910 Pacific coast of Costa Rica (Pigres, 
Palo Verde, Puntarenas, Las Trojas, Bebedero, El Coronado de Terraba) ; 
Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 30, 1919 Pacora, Panama; Halli- 
nan, Auk, 41, p. 320, 1924 Venado Island and Balboa, Panama. 

Megaquiscalus major assimilis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 635, 
1917 La Play a and Buenaventura, Colombia (crit.); Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 475, 1922 Buritaca, Don Diego, Gaira, 
Mamatoco, Trojas de Cataca, Dibulla, Rio Hacha, Cartagena, and Punto 
Zapote (Bolivar), Colombia (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 700, 1926 western Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Manavf, and Jambeli Island). 

Cassidix mexicanus assimilis Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 416, 
1931 Cienaga and Santa Marta, Colombia. 

Range. Pacific coast districts of Costa Rica and Panama south 
to northwestern Peru, and along the Caribbean coast of Colombia 
east to the foot of the Santa Marta Mountains. 

1: Colombia (Sinu Delta, Bolivar, 1). 
Cassidix palustris (Swainson). SLENDER-BILLED GRACKLE. 

Scaphidurus palustris Swainson, 1 Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 437, June, 
1827 marshes and borders of lakes around [City of] Mexico (type in 
coll. of W. Bullock, apparently lost). 

Quiscalus tenuirostris Swainson, 1 Anim. Menag., p. 299, Dec. 31, 1837 
marshes adjoining Mexico (type in coll. of W. Swainson, now probably 
in University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 411 Mexico (monog.); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 157, 
pi. 5 (male, female) vicinity of Mexico City (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 397, 1886 vicinity of Mexico City; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 485, 1887 same locality. 

1 There seems to be hardly any doubt that Swainson, by confusion or negli- 
gence, described the Slender-billed Crackle twice under different names. The 
two descriptions, including the measurements, are very nearly the same, except 
that the coloration is given as "glossy blue black" in the "Philosophical Magazine," 
and as "black, slightly glossed with violet" in "Animals in Menageries." Without 
doing much violence to facts, either term might easily be applied to the bird in 
question. The (reddish) brown tibial feathers mentioned in the diagnosis of S. 
palustris are well shown by two of my specimens, and as both supposed species 
came from marshes near Mexico City, I am giving preference to the older name. 

Five specimens from the type locality examined. 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Megaquiscalus tenuirostris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
243, 1902 Mexico (monog.). 

Range. Central Mexico (marshes near the City of Mexico). 

Cassidix nicaraguensis (Salvin and Godman). 1 NICARAGUAN 
CRACKLE. 

Quiscalus nicaraguensis Salvin and Godman, Ibis, (6), 3, p. 612, 1891 
Momotombo, Lake Managua, Nicaragua (type in Salvin-Godman 
Collection, now in British Museum); Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
16, p. 496 (in text), 1893 San Carlos, Nicaragua (only seen). 

Megaquiscalus nicaraguensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 244, 1902 Momotombo and Managua, Nicaragua (monog.); Rendahl, 
Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 30, 1919 San Carlos and Granada, Nicaragua 
(crit.). 

Range. Shores of lakes Managua (Momotombo, Managua) and 
Nicaragua (Granada, San Carlos), Nicaragua. 

\ 

Genus EUPHAGUS Cassin 

Scolecophagus (not of Geoffrey, 1795) Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, 
Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, pp. 286, 494, Feb., 1832 type, by orig. desig., 
Oriolus ferrugineus Gmelin = Turdus carolinus P. L. S. Miiller (cf. Rich- 
mond, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 128, 1903). 

Euphagus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, No. 5, p. 413, pub. 
July, 1867 type, by monotypy, Psarocolius cyanocephalus Wagler. 

*Euphagus carolinus (P. L. S. Muller). RUSTY BLACKBIRD. 

Turdus carolinus P. L. S. Muller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 140, 1776 based 
on "Mauvis de la Caroline" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 556, fig. 2 (=female 
in autumnal plumage); Carolina. 

Turdus brunneus Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 32, 1783 based on "Mauvis 
de la Caroline" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 556, fig. 2. 

Oriolus ferrugineus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 393, 1788 based on "Rusty 
Oriole" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 260; New York. 

Oriolus fuscus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 393, 1783 based on "Brown- 
headed Oriole" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 259; New York. 

Turdus hudsonius Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 818, 1789 based on "Hud- 
sonian Thrush" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 339; Hudson's Bay (type in 
Leverian Museum, now in Vienna Museum, examined ;"= young). 

1 This very distinct species, though allied to C. palustris, is very much smaller, 
also much less purplish, and the female (unknown to us) appears to be very 
differently colored. Wing, 125; tail, 130; bill, 30-33. 

Material examined. Nicaragua: Managua, 2. 

2 Accidentally omitted in Pelzeln's paper, "On the Birds in the Imperial 
Collection at Vienna obtained from the Leverian Museum" (Ibis, 1873, pp. 
14-54, 105-124). 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 95 

Turdus noveboracensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 818, 1789 based on 
"New York Thrush" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 205 (=male in autumnal 
plumage); New York. 

Turdus labradorius Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 832, 1789 based on "Labra- 
dor Thrush" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 206 (= adult male in spring); 
Hudson's Bay and New York (cotype, from Hudson's Bay, in Museum 
Leverianum, now in Vienna Museum, examined). 1 

Pendulinus ater Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 320, 1816 
new name for Turdus noveboracensis Gmelin, Oriolus ferrugineus Gmelin, 
and Turdus labradorius Gmelin, all considered to represent plumages of 
the same species; Hudson's Bay (in summer). 

Scolecophagus niger Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 423, 1850 new 
name for Pendulinus ater Vieillot, etc. 

Scolecophagus ferrugineus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 412 
(monog.); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 150 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 390, 1886 (monog.); Winge, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 
47, p. 65, 1896 Yderoerne, near Frederikshaab, Greenland; idem, Medd. 
Gr0nland, 21, p. 297, 1899 same locality. 

Scolecophagus carolinus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 246, 
1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 153, 
1928 Valladares, Lower California. 

Range. Boreal zone of North America from the Kowak River, 
Alaska, and northern Mackenzie, Manitoba, and Quebec south to 
central British Columbia, central Alberta, Manitoba, and Ontario, 
New York, northern New England, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, 
and Nova Scotia; winters mainly south of the Ohio and Delaware 
valleys to the Gulf coast; accidental in California, Lower California 
(one record from Valladares, Dec. 12, 1888), and Greenland (one 
record from near Frederikshaab, July 13, 1889). 

69: Maine (Lincoln, 1); Massachusetts (Wollaston, 1; Natick, 1; 
unspecified, 1); Connecticut (East Hartford, 13); Rhode Island 
(Pawtucket, 1); New York (King's County, 2); Indiana (Liverpool, 
3); Illinois (Chicago, 9; Chicago Ridge, 8; Wolf Lake, 1; Calumet 
Lake, 2; Beach, Lake County, 2; Worth, 3; Roby, 2; Morris, 1); 
Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 15; Jefferson County, 1); Texas (Cooke 
County, 1); Georgia (Roswell, 1). 

*Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler). BREWER'S BLACKBIRD. 

Psarocolius cyanocephalus Wagler, Isis, 22, Heft 7, col. 758, July, 1829 
Mexico (type, from Temascaltepec, in Berlin Museum; cf. van Rossem, 
Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 354, 1934). 

Scolecophagus mexicanus Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 302, Dec. 31, 1837 
Mexico (location of type not stated). 

See footnote 2, page 94. 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Quiscalus breweri Audubon, Bds. Amer., 8vo ed., 7, p. 345, pi. 492, 1843 

"upper Missouri River and Yellowstone" (type, from Fort Union, in 

the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 17, 1899). 
Scolecophagus cyanocephalus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 413 

(monog.); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 151 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

11, p. 390, 1886 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 

p. 248, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.). 
Euphagus cyanocephalus minusculus Grinnell, Condor, 22, p. 153, July, 1920 

Palo Alto, California (type in Museum of Zoology, Berkeley) ; idem, Univ. 

Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 153, 1928 northwestern Lower California. 
Euphagus cyanocephalus aliastus Oberholser, Sci. Pub. Clevel. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., 4, p. 9, 1932 Twenty Mile Creek, Warner Valley, Oregon (type 

in Cleveland Museum of Natural History). 
Euphagus cyanocephalus Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 64, p. 399, 

1932 Hacienda Chancol, Guatemala. 

Range. Western North America from central British Columbia, 
Athabasca Landing, southern Alberta, and central Manitoba to 
northern Lower California, New Mexico, and western Texas, and 
from the Pacific to northwestern Minnesota, western Nebraska, 
Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and Kansas; winters from southern 
British Columbia, Wisconsin, and Kansas south to Guatemala 
(one record from near the Chiapas border). 1 

56: Canada (Okanagan, British Columbia, 2; Deermound, 
Alberta, 2; Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, 1); Oregon (Tillamook, 
2); North Dakota (Minot, 1); Minnesota (Kinbrae, 1); Colorado 
(Troublesome, 1 ; Fraser, 1 ; Los Gatos, 1 ; Fort Lyon, 6) ; California 
(Nicasio, 6; Monterey, 7; Sargents, 2; Berryessa, 1; San Geronimo, 
1; Clipper Gap, Placer County, 1) ; Arizona (Fort Thomas, 1; Phoenix, 
1; Fort Lowell, 1); New Mexico (Mimbres, 2; Rincon, 1; Deming, 1); 
Texas (Port Lavaca, 6; Corpus Christi, 6); Mexico (Bustillos, 
Chihuahua, 1). 

Genus DIVES Cassin 

Dives Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 18, p. 413, Dec., 1866 type, by 
tautonymy, Icterus dives Lichtenstein. 

*Dives dives dives (Lichtenstein). SUMICHRAST'S BLACKBIRD. 

Icterus dives Lichtenstein, Preis-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 1, 1830 
Mexico (type in Berlin Museum); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 11, p. 56, 1863 
(reprint). 

1 Two races of Brewer's Blackbird have lately been segregated: (a) E. c. 
minusculus (from the Pacific slope of California and northern Lower California), 
distinguished by (on average) smaller size and more bluish gloss of the male 
plumage; (b) E. c. aliastus (from the Pacific coast region of British Columbia to 
northern California), characterized by darker, less rufescent female. Neither 
has been recognized by the authors of the latest edition of the A. 0. U. Check List. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 97 

Lampropsar dives Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 425, 1850 Mexico; 
Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 194, 1851 Mexico (Chiltepec, Cosamaluapan, 
Real del Monte; descr.); Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 446 
Merida, Yucatan. 

Quiscalus sumichrasti Saussure, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 11, p. 119, pi. 3, figs. 
2-4, 1859 Mexico (type in Geneva Museum); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 27, pp. 365, 381, 1859 vicinity of Jalapa, Vera Cruz, and Playa 
Vicente, Oaxaca; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 398 Coban and Tactic, 
Vera Paz, Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 140, 1862 Orizaba 
and Jalapa, Mexico; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 175 vicinity 
of City of Mexico; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 553, 
1869 hot and temperate regions of Vera Cruz. 

Quiscalus (?) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 300, 1856 near 

Cordoba, Vera Cruz. 

Scolecophagus dives Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 413 
Mexico (crit.). 

Dives dives Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 152, 1886 Plan del 
Rio, Vera Cruz; Ridgway, I.e., 14, p. 570, 1891 Guaruma, Honduras; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 209 interior of Yucatan; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 8, p. 281, 1896 Chichen Itza, 
Yucatan; idem, I.e., 10, p. 30, 1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 254, 1902 Mexico to Honduras (monog.); 
Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 141, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; 
Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 1913 Camp Mengel and Xcopen, Quintana Roo; 
Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 18, 1926 Chunyaxche, Yucatan; 
Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 487, 1927 Presidio, 
Vera Cruz; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 393, 1929 Mountain Cow, Cayo District, 
British Honduras; Peters, I.e., 69, p. 477, 1929 Lancetilla, Honduras; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 336, 1932 Cantarranas, 
Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 64, p. 399, 1932 
Guatemala (Finca Chama, Finca Conception, Finca El Soche, Sepacuite, 
Secanquim, La Primavera, Barrillos, Puebla). 

Dives sumichrasti Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 152 southern Mexico to Guatemala 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 392, 1886 Mexico (Jalapa; 
Orizaba; Me>ida, Yucatan), British Honduras (Belize), and Guatemala 
(Choctum, Coban); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 481, 1887 Mexico (Chiltepec, Cosamaluapam, Valle Real, Plan del 
Rio, Jalapa, Orizaba, Playa Vicente, Merida), British Honduras (Belize), 
and Guatemala (Choctum, Achil, Coban, Tactic). 

Quiscalus mexicanus (not of Cassin) Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, 
p. 24, 1876 Guichicovi, Chiapas. 

Range. Arid Tropical (and lower Subtropical) zone of south- 
eastern Mexico, in states of Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, 
Oaxaca, Chiapas, Yucatan, and Quintana Roo, and south through 
British Honduras and Atlantic Guatemala to Honduras and northern 
Nicaragua. 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

15: Mexico (Tampico, Tamaulipas, 9; San Felipe, Yucatan, 2; 
Yucatan, unspecified, 3); Guatemala (Coban, Alta Vera Paz, 1). 

*Dives dives warszewiczi (Cabanis). 1 WARSZEWICZ'S BLACKBIRD. 

Lampropsar warczewiczi (sic) Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 83, 1861 Peru 

(type in Berlin Museum). 2 
Quiscalus aequatorialis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 140, 1862 Babahoyo, 

Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum). 
Lampropsar warszewiczi Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1885, p. 86 Yaguachi, Ecuador. 
Scolecophagus (?) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 277, 1860 

Babahoyo, Ecuador. 
Aphobus chopi (not Agelaius chopi Vieillot) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1877, p. 323 Tumbez, Peru. 
Dives warcewiezi Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 152 part, western Ecuador (Babahoyo, 

Balzar); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 392, 1886 part, spec, a-e, 

Ecuador (Santa Rita, Balzar, Babahoyo). 
Dives warszewiczi Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 433, 1884 part, Tumbez 

and Guadalupe, Peru; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 

No. 357, p. 30, 1899 Balzar and Playas (Guayas), Ecuador; Chapman, 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 699, 1926 Ecuador (Chone, Chon- 

goncito, Guayaquil, Daule, Santa Rosa, Lunama, Casanga, Alamor, 

Loja; crit.); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, (2), 4, p. 235, 1932 

Rio San Antonio, Ecuador. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of southwestern Ecuador, south of 
the Chone River, and northwestern Peru south to Tumbez. 
1: Ecuador (Milagros, Prov. Guayas, 1). 

*Dives dives kalinowskii Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 3 KALINOW- 
SKI'S BLACKBIRD. 

1 Dives dives warszewiczi (Cabanis), though widely separated geographically 
from the nominate race, is clearly an offspring of the same ancestral stock. The 
only difference from D. d. dives consists in its decidedly smaller size. The distri- 
bution of these blackbirds offers an interesting parallel to that of Melopelia 
asiatica. 

While the locality of the type is unrecorded, it probably originated in some 
part of northwestern Peru. Birds from Tumbez agree in size with the Ecuadorian 
ones. Wing, (male) 106-114, (female) 98-104; tail, 86-95, (female) 82-87; 
bill, 24-26. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Yaguachi, 2; Balzar, 3; Loja, 1. 
Peru: Tumbez, 2. 

2 Cabanis's name seems to have slight priority. The description appeared 
in No. 50 of the "Journal fur Ornithologie," dated March, 1861, while the signature 
of the sheet containing the diagnosis of Quiscalus aequatorialis Sclater reads 
"August 24, 1861." 

Although Cabanis spells the specific term "warczewiczi," the correct orthog- 
raphy of the collector's name is Warszewicz. 

3 Dives dives kalinowskii Berlepsch and Stolzmann: Much larger than D. d. 
warszewiczi, being even larger than D. d. dives, with much longer, heavier bill, 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 99 

Dives kalinowskii Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, 
p. 378 lea, Dept. lea, Peru (type, from Huamani, near lea, in Warsaw 
Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 6, p. 192, 1927). 

Lampropsar warceunczii (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1877, p. 523 (note) Lima, Peru. 

Dives warszewczi Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 433, 1884 part, Lima. 

Dives warcewiezi Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 152 part, Lima; idem, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 392, 1886 part, spec, f, Lima. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of western Peru, from Libertad to 
lea. 

6: Peru (Hacienda Llagueda, northeast of Otuzco, Libertad, 2; 
Macate, Ancachs, 4). 

Genus PTILOXENA Chapman 

Pliloxena Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 4, p. 307, 1892 type, by 
orig. desig., Quiscalus atroviolaceus d'Orbigny. 

*Ptiloxena atroviolacea (d'Orbigny). D'ORBIGNY'S BLACKBIRD. 

Quiscalus atroviolaceus d'Orbigny, in Sagra, Hist. He Cuba, Orn., p. 121, 
pi. 19, 1839 Cuba (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 420, 1930); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 227, 1886 Cuba (descr.); 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 114, 1889 Cuba (monog.). 

Scolecophagus atroviolaceus Cabanis and Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 15, 
1856 Cuba (habits, nest); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 
p. 415 Cuba (monog.); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 134, 1874 Cuba 
(habits, nest, and eggs). 

Dives atroviolaceus Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 152 Cuba (monog.); idem, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 393, 1886 San Crist6bal, Cuba; Cory, Cat. W. 
Ind. Bds., p. Ill, 1892 Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Ptiloxena atroviolaceus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 4, p. 307, 
1892 Trinidad, Cuba. 

Ptiloxena atroviolacea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 252, 
1902 Cuba and Isle of Pines (monog.); Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 
39, p. 211, 1905 Isle of Pines; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 276, 

and gloss of plumage stronger as well as more bluish. Wing, 142-149, (female) 
137-139; tail, 130-138, (female) 125-126; bill, 34-36, (female) 31-32. 

Adult males from Macate agree, even in measurements, perfectly with topo- 
types from lea. Females are somewhat smaller, the tail notably shorter and 
the bill slightly weaker. Two adults (in worn plumage) from the Otuzco region, 
Libertad, have bills of about the same size as two females from lea, but the other 
dimensions are decidedly less (wing, 132; tail, 115, 125). Though marked "male" 
and "female," they evidently represent one sex, but whichever is wrongly sexed, 
Otuzco birds would appear to be smaller than those from farther south, thus 
verging in the direction of D. d. warszeunczi. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Lima, 1; lea, 3. 



100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1916 Isle of Pines; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 122, 1923 
Cuba (habits); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 38, 1932 
near Gibara, Cuba. 

Range. Island of Cuba (including Isle of Pines), Greater Antilles. 

8: Cuba (Trinidad, Santa Clara, 2; Palacios, Pinar del Rio, 2; 
Santiago de los Banos, Pinar del Rio, 1 ; Santiago de Cuba, Oriente, 
1; unspecified, 2). 

Genus LAM PROPS AR Cabanis 

Lampropsar Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 13, (1), p. 333, 1847 j 1 idem, in Schom- 
burgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 682, 1849 type, by monotypy, 
Lampropsar guianensis Cabanis. 

Potamopsar Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 141, 1862 type, by monotypy, 
"Quiscalus minor Spix" = Icterus tanagrinus Spix. 2 

Lampropsar tanagrinus guianensis Cabanis. 3 GUIANAN VEL- 
VETY-FRONTED GRACKLE. 

Lampropsar guianensis Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
"1848," p. 682, 1849 British Guiana (type in Berlin Museum); idem, 
Mus. Hein., 1, p. 194, 1851 Guiana; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Carupano [Sucre], Venezuela; Chubb, Bds. 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 583, 1921 British Guiana. 

Lampropsar tanagrinus (not Icterus tanagrinus Spix) Sclater, Ibis, 1884, 
p. 149 part, Guiana and Venezuela; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 219 British 
Guiana (ex Cabanis); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 388, 1886 
part, spec, a, b, Venezuela and "Trinidad," errore; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 4, p. 53, 1892 El Pilar, near Carupano [Sucre], Vene- 
zuela; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 33, 1902 Munduapo, Rio 
Orinoco, Venezuela (spec, examined); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 403, 
1907 part, Orinoco, Venezuela. 

Lampropsar tanagrinus guianensis Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 616, 1906 Guanoco and Munduapo, Orinoco Valley 
(crit.); Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 109, 1909 Rio Guarapiche and 
Cano Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 65, p. 212, 1913 Cano de Vagre and Guinipa River, Orinoco Delta; 
Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 210, 1916 Orinoco Valley. 

1 Generic characters in comparison to Molothrus outlined, the genotype L. 
guianensis being a nomen nudum. Genus and species were not properly diagnosed 
until two years later, as quoted above. 

2 Although the genotype was misidentified with Icterus minor Spix, the ap- 
pended diagnosis, "Plumis frontalibus brevissimis erectis, nares fere tegentibus 
notabilis," clearly indicates Icterus tanagrinus Spix. 

3 Lampropsar tanagrinus guianensis Cabanis: Similar to L. t. tanagrinus, 
but on the average smaller, and plumage, especially below, more strongly glossed 
with bluish. Wing, 97-103, (female) 97; tail, 93-98, (female) 92. 

Material examined. British Guiana: unspecified, 1 (the type). Venezuela: 
Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, 2; Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco River, 1; Munduapo, Orinoco 
River, 7. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 101 

Range. British Guiana (exact distribution unknown, probably 
only in the northwestern parts) and Venezuela (Orinoco Valley, from 
the delta up to above the falls of Maipures, extending north to 
Carupano, State of Sucre). 1 

*Lampropsar tanagrinus tanagrinus (Spix). AMAZONIAN VEL- 
VETY-FRONTED GRACKLE. 

Icterus tanagrinus Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 67, pi. 64, fig. 1, 1824 
"in locis sylvaticis Parae," sc. Amazon Valley, Brazil (cotypes in Munich 
Museum; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, 
p. 615, 1906). 

Lampropsar tanagrinus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 194, 1851 "Para" (ex 
Spix); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 140, 1862 Amazon River; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 200, 1870 part, Borba, Rio Madeira, and Barra 
do Rio Negro [= Manaos], Brazil (spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 267 Sarayacu, upper Ucayali, and Santa 
Cruz, Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 433, 1884 same localities; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 149 part, Amazonia; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 388, 1886 part, spec, c-h, Brazil (Barra do Rio Negro, Rio Javarri) 
and Peru (Amazons, upper Ucayali, Santa Cruz); Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 403, 1907 part, Amazonia; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, 
p. 11, 1908 Rio Purus (Cachoeira, Bom Lugar, Ponto Alegre); idem, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 424, 1914 same localities; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 738, 1926 Rio Curaray, Ecuador. 

Quiscalus lugubrisCi) (not of Swainson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, 
p. 265, 1857 Rio Javarri. 

Quiscalus minor (not Icterus minor Spix) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 141, 
1862 Rio Javarri. 

Potamopsar minor Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 415 Rio 
Napo, Ecuador, and Rio Javarri (crit.). 

Quiscalus sp.(?) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 
upper Ucayali, Peru. 

Lampropsar tanagrinus tanagrinus Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 616, 1906 Brazil ("Para," Borba, Barra do Rio 
Negro) and Peru (Rio Samiria); idem, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 46, 1907 
Teffe, Rio Solimoes (crit.); idem, I.e., 14, p. 354, 1907 Humayta and 
Borba, Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, p. 283, 1910 Manicore, Rio Madeira. 

Range. Valley of the Amazon and its tributaries, east to Manaos 
and the Rio Madeira, west to northern Peru, extending to Ecuador. 2 
1: Peru (Lagunas, lower Huallaga, 1). 

1 The locality "Trinidad" attached to a specimen in the British Museum is 
untrustworthy. It seems to be a Venezuelan trade skin, and the species has yet to 
be taken on that island. 

2 Peruvian specimens agree with a Brazilian series, including the cotypes. No 
material has been available from eastern Ecuador. 

Material examined. Brazil: "Para," 3 (the cotypes); Manaos, 1; Borba, 
Rio Madeira, 5; Humayta, Rio Madeira, 1; Manicore, Rio Madeira, 1; Teffe, 
Rio Solimoes, 1. Peru: Rio Samiria, 3; Pacaya, Ucayali, 1. 



102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Lampropsar tanagrinus violaceus Hellmayr. 1 PURPLISH VEL- 
VETY-FRONTED GRACKLE. 

Lampropsar tanagrinus violaceus Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
22, No. 3, p. 616, 1906 Rio Guapore, western Matto Grosso, Brazil 
(type in Vienna Museum); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 403, 1907 
Rio Guapore (ex Hellmayr); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
60, p. 399, 1930 Rio Guapore. 

Lampropsar lanagrinus (not Icterus tanagrinus Spix) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 200, 1870 part, Brago do Jaracatea, Rio Guapore, Brazil. 

Range. Interior of Brazil, in western Matto Grosso (Braco do 
Jaracatea, Rio Guapore*). 

Genus ICTERUS Daudin 

Icterus Daudin, 2 Traite d'Orn., 2, p. 330, 1800 type, by tautonymy, Icterus 

vulgaris Daudin =Oriolus icterus Linnaeus. 
Oriolus (not of Linnaeus, 1766) Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., p. 214, 1811 

type, by subs, desig. (Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 

p. 435, 1930), Oriolus icterus Linnaeus. 
Pendulinus Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 33, 1816 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 353), Oriolus spurius Linnaeus. 
Yphantes Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 33, 1816 type, by monotypy, 

"Baltimore franc" Buffon=Coracios galbula Linnaeus. 
Trupialis Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Enc. Wiss., 15, p. 275, 1826 

new name for Oriolus Illiger. 
Hyphantes Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 183, Oct., 1851 emendation of Yphantes 

Vieillot. 
Bananivorus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, p. 834, 1853 

type, by orig. desig., Oriolus bonana Linnaeus. 
Euopsar Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 19, p. 47, 1867 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 353), Psarocolius croconotus Wagler. 
Andriopsar Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 19, p. 49, 1867 type, by 

subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 353), Psarocolius gularis Wagler. 
Ateleopsar Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 19, p. 53, 1867 type, by 

subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 353), Psarocolius melanocephalus 

Wagler. 
Cassiculoides Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 19, p. 54, 1867 type, by 

monotypy, Icterus parisorum Bonaparte. 
Poliopsar Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 19, p. 55, 1867 type, by 

subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 353), Icterus wagleri Sclater. 

1 Lampropsar tanagrinus violaceus Hellmayr: Nearest to L. t. tanagrinus, but 
plumage strongly glossed with purplish. Wing (adult male), 100; tail, 92. 

Though known only from a single specimen, this race seems to be well-marked, 
the type differing from the numerous individuals examined of the two other 
allied forms by the strong purplish or violaceous gloss of the plumage. 

Material examined. Brazil: Braco do Jaracatea, Rio Guapore', 1 (the type). 

2 First used in a non-binomial sense by Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 85, 1760). 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 103 

Melanopsar Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 19, p. 56, 1867 type, by 
subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 353), Oriolus chrysocephalus Linnaeus. 

Icterioides Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 19, p. 60, 1867 type, by 
subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 353), Icterus auricapillus Cassin. 

Aporophantes Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 19, p. 63, 1867 type, by 
monotypy, Agelaius pyrrhopterus Vieillot. 

"Icterus galbula (Linnaeus). BALTIMORE ORIOLE. 

Coracias galbula Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 108, 1758 based on 
"The Baltimore-Bird" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 48, pi. 48; 
"America" = Virginia. 

Oriolus baltimore Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 162, 1766 based on 
"Le Baltimore" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 109, pi. 12, fig. 1) and "The Baltimore- 
Bird" Catesby (Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 48, pi. 48); Virginia, Maryland, 
and Canada. 

Oriolus tricolor P. L. S. Muller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 87, 1776 based on 
"Le Baltimore batard, du Canada" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 506, fig. 2 
(= female). 

Oriolus viridis (not of Muller, 1776) Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 393, 1788 
based on "Yellow-throated Oriole" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 261, No. 150 
(= young); Hudson's Bay. 

Icterus virescens Daudin, Traite d'Orn., 2, p. 339, 1800 new name for Oriolus 
viridis Gmelin. 

Icterus baltimorus Wilson, Amer. Orn., 6, p. 88, pi. 53, fig. 4, 1812 emenda- 
tion of Oriolus baltimore Linnaeus. 

Yphantes baltimorensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 142, Aug., 1856 
David, Chiriqui (new name for Yphantes baltimore Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, p. 432, l85Q;=Oriolus baltimore Linnaeus). 

Icterus baltimore Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 354 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 364, 1886 (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 460, 1887 North America to Colombia. 

Icterus galbula Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 310, 1902 
(monog., full bibliog.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 827, 1910 
Costa Rica (Bonilla, Pigres, San Jose, Cerro de Santa Maria, Tenorio, 
Guapiles, Cuabre, La Hondura, El Hogar); Todd and Carriker, I.e., 14, 
p. 469, 1922 Don Diego, Santa Marta, Colombia; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. 
Orn. Cl., 6, p. 124, 1923 Cuba; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, 
p. 415, 1931 Rio Frio, Donjaca, and Aracataca, Magdalena, Colombia; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 390, 1932 Guatemala. 

Range. North America, from central Alberta and Saskatchewan, 
southern Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia 
south to southern Texas, central Louisiana, northern Alabama, and 
Georgia, and west to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the 
Rocky Mountains; winters from southern Mexico to northern 
Colombia; casually in Massachusetts, Ohio, and Pennsylvania; 
accidental at York Factory, Hudson's Bay, and in Cuba. 



104 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

66: Canada (Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, 1); Massachusetts 
(Natick, 1) ; New Jersey (Englewood, 1) ; New York (Shelter Island, 
5; Cayuga County, 1); Connecticut (East Hartford, 9); Wisconsin 
(Beaver Dam, 11; Neenah, 5); Illinois (Fox Lake, 2; Joliet, 2; Mound 
City, 1; Warsaw, 1; Chicago, 1); Michigan (Watervliet, 1); Indiana 
(Kouts, 1; Liverpool, 1; unspecified, 1); Ohio (Columbus, 1); 
Tennessee (Waverly, 2); Mississippi (Vicksburg, 1); Georgia (Ros- 
well, 1); Florida (Gainesville, 1); Guatemala (Volcan Tajumulco, 
San Marcos, 1; Patulul, Solola, 2; Samac, Alta Vera Paz, 1; Maza- 
tenango, Suchitepequez, 2); Nicaragua (San Geronimo, 2); Costa 
Rica (Limon, 3; Guayabo, 3; Buenos Aires, 1). 

*Icterus bullockii bullockii (Swainson). BULLOCK'S ORIOLE. 

Xanthornus bullockii Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 436, June, 
1827 tableland of Mexico 1 (type in coll. of W. Bullock). 

Psarocolius auricollis Wied, Reise Nordamerika, 1, p. 367, 1839 Fort Pierre, 
South Dakota (type in coll. of Prince Wied, now in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York). 

Hyphantes bullockii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 62 (monog.). 

Icterus bullocki Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 354 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 365, 1886 western North America to Mexico; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 462, 1887; Phillips, Auk, 28, 
p. 87, 1911 Tamaulipas (Guiaves, Galindo, Yerba Buena, Montelunga). 

Icterus bullockii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 314, 1902 
(monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 153, 1928 
extreme northern Lower California; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 390, 1932 Chichicastenango and Finca Carolina, western Guate- 
mala (October 20); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 407, 1934 
Guerrero (Taxco, Chilpancingo; Oct. 7-April 7). 

Icterus bullockii bullockii Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 361, 1905 
Escuinapa, Sinaloa; idem, I.e., 22, p. 171, 1906 Rio Sestin and Rancho 
Baillon, Durango (crit., variation); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. 
N. H., 6, p. 289, 1931 Sonora (San Javier, Tesia, Guaymas, Guirocoba). 

(l)Icterus bullockii abeillei Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 361, 1905 
Juan Lisiarraga Mountains and Escuinapa, Sinaloa (females and young 
males). 

Range. Western North America from southern British Columbia, 
southern Alberta, and southern Saskatchewan to southern Texas, 
northern Lower California, and northwestern Mexico (Sonora, 
Sinaloa, and northern Durango), 2 and from the Pacific to eastern 
South Dakota, central Nebraska, and western Kansas; winters in 
Mexico and western Guatemala; accidental in New York and Maine. 

1 Real del Monte, Hidalgo, accepted as type locality. 

2 In northern Durango it completely intergrades with /. b. abeillei, as has 
been set forth by the late W. Dew. Miller (1906, p. 171). 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 105 

69: Canada (Okanagan, British Columbia, 2); Oregon (Jackson 
County, 1); California (Lake Side, 2; Alecio, Ventura County, 1; 
Nicasio, 4; Palcines, San Benito County, 2; Palo Alto, 2; San Jose", 
1; Santa Clara, 1; Mendocino County, 1; Los Angeles, 1; Clipper 
Gap, 1; Amador County, 1); Arizona (Calabasas, 28; Huachuca 
Mountains, 1; Huachuca Plains, 3; Phoenix, 1; Florence, 1; Tucson, 
4); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 6; Lay, 1); Mexico (Carriso Valley, Lower 
California, 1; Iguala, Guerrero, 3). 

*Icterus bullockii abeillei (Lesson). 1 ABEILLE'S ORIOLE. 

Xanthornus abeillei Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 101, 1839 Mexico (type in coll. 
of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux). 

Pcndulinus abeillii Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 433, 1850 Mexico 
(diag.). 

Icterus abeillii Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 252 Orizaba, Vera 
Cruz; idem, I.e., 1864, p. 175 vicinity of Mexico City; Duges, La Natura- 
leza, 1, p. 139, 1868 Guanajuato; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 366, 
1886 Mexico. 

Icterus abeillaei Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 362 
Mexico City; idem, Exot. Orn., p. 187, pi. 94, 1869 tableland of Mexico 
(Orizaba, Mexico City); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 355 (monog.); Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 462, 1887 Mexico (Orizaba; 
Guanajuato; Mexico City). 

Hyphantes abeillei Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 62 Mexico 

(monog.). 
Icterus abeillei Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 781, 1893 Hacienda El 

I Molina, Jalisco (June); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 

p. 318, 1902 southern Mexico (monog.). 
Range. Southern portion of Mexican plateau, in states of San 
Luis Potosi (Jesus Maria), Guanajuato, Puebla, Mexico, Morelos, 
Vera Cruz, and Jalisco (Hacienda El Molina). 

*Icterus spurius (Linnaeus). ORCHARD ORIOLE. 

Oriolus spurius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 162, 1766 based on 
"The Bastard Oriole" Catesby (Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 49, pi. 49) 
and "Le Baltimore bastard" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. Ill, pi. 10, fig. 3); "in 
America septentrionali" = South Carolina (ex Catesby). 

Oriolus varius Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 390, 1788 based on "Carouge, 
de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 607, fig. 1 (=male). 

1 An earlier name is possibly Oriolus costototl Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, [1], p. 385, 
1788), based on "Le Troupiale de la Nouvelle Espagne" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 95) 
and "Le Xochitol et le Costototl" Buffon, both of whom gained their knowledge 
from Hernandez (Hist. Nov. Hisp., pp. 20, 39). The description of the latter 
author being by no means clear, it seems expedient to discard Gmelin's name 
altogether. 



106 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Oriolus capensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 392, 1788 based on "Le 
Carouge du Cap de Bonne Esperance" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 128) and 
Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 607, fig. 2 (=female; cf. Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. 
Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 5, p. 321, 1816). 

Oriolus castaneus Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 181, 1790 based on "Carouge, 
de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 607, fig. 1 (=male). 

Oriolus mutatus Wilson, Amer. Orn., 1, p. 64, pi. 4, 1808 new name for 
Oriolus spurius Linnaeus. 

Yphantes solitaria Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 3, p. 215, 

1816 "depuis les Florides jusqu'au Canada." 
Pendulinus nigricollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 318, 

1816 North America (= immature male). 

Xanlhornus affinis Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 5, p. 113, 1852 
Rio Grande, Texas (type in coll. of G. N. Lawrence, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1860, p. 140 Rio Atrato, Colombia. 

Icterus spurius Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 357 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 366, 1886 (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 464, 1887 North America to Colombia and Cuba; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 275, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.); 
Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 172, 1906 Rio Sestin, Durango, 
Mexico (May 4); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 829, 1910 Costa 
Rica (Pigres, San Jose, El Pozo de Terraba, Guacimo, Buenos Aires); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 633, 1917 Algodonal, Magda- 
lena, Colombia; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 474, 
1922 Dibulla and Fundacion, Colombia; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. 
Cl., 6, p. 124, 1923 Cuba; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, 
p. 416, 1931 Cienaga and Fundacion River, Magdalena, Colombia; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 390, 1932 Guatemala; idem, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 407, 1934 Guerrero (Acapulco, Coyuca, 
Chilpancingo). 

Range. North America, from North Dakota, Minnesota, Wis- 
consin, Michigan, southeastern Ontario, New York, and Massa- 
chusetts south to Florida, the Gulf coast to southern Texas, and in 
western Mexico to Jalisco and Oaxaca; also west to Nebraska, 
northeastern Colorado, and western Kansas; winters from southern 
Mexico to northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela; occa- 
sional in New England, New Brunswick, and Cuba. 1 

70: Massachusetts (Ipswich, 1); New Jersey (Englewood, 1); 
Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 2); Illinois (Joliet, 2; Fox Lake, 1; Lewis- 
town, 1; Grand Tower, 1); North Carolina (Raleigh, 1); Georgia 
(Chataw County, 1; Savannah, 1); Florida (Nassau County, 2; 

1 The reported occurrence of the Orchard Oriole in French Guiana (Cayenne) 
has not been corroborated, and whether it breeds anywhere in eastern Mexico 
appears to be open to doubt. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 107 

Key West, 1); Alabama (Elmore County, 1); Mississippi (Vicksburg, 
8); Texas (Fort Worth, 7; Cameron County, 2; Corpus Christi, 1; 
Ingram, Kerr County, 1; Dallas, 1); Mexico (Iguala, Guerrero, 3; 
unspecified, 1); Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal, 2; Mazatenango, 
Suchitepequez, 3; Gualan, Zacapa, 2; El Rancho, Zacapa, 1; Lake 
Amatitlan, Solola, 1; Patulul, Solola, 1; San Jos, Escuintla, 1; 
Tiquisate, Escuintla, 3); Costa Rica (San Jose", 6); Nicaragua (San 
Geronimo, Chinandega, 7); Panama (Darien, Canal Zone, 1; Colon, 
1); Venezuela (Rio Aurare, Zulia, 1). 

Icterus fuertesi Chapman. 1 FUERTES'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus fuertesi Chapman, Auk, 28, p. 3, pi. 1, 1911 Paso del Haba, south 
bank of Tamesi River, thirty-five miles northwest of Tampico, Tamaulipas, 
Mexico (type in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Eastern Mexico, in State of Tamaulipas (Tamesi River, 
northwest of Tampico). 

"Icterus bonana (Linnaeus). MARTINIQUE ORIOLE. 

Oriolus bonana Linnaeus, 2 Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 162, 1766 based pri- 
marily on "Le Carouge" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 115, pi. 12, fig. 2; Martinique 
(type in coll. of M. de Reaumur). 

Pendulinus banana Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 5, p. 316, 
181 6 M artinique . 

Pendulinus rufigaster Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 321, 
1816 "1'Amerique meridionale," errore (type in Paris Museum ex- 
amined; descr. falsa); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 55 
(crit.). 

1 Icterus fuertesi Chapman: Similar to /. spurius, but smaller, and the chestnut 
areas of the adult male replaced by a color which varies from buff to ochraceous; 
female and immature male resembling in coloration the corresponding stages of 
/. spurius, but smaller. Wing, 71-72 Y 2 , (female) 68; tail, 64-66 M, (female) 
63 M; bill, 14^-16. 

Nothing is known of this species beyond its description. Chapman and 
Fuertes took four specimens on the Tamesi River early in April, 1910, which the 
collectors believed to have been about to breed. It may prove to be a southern 
race of the Orchard Oriole, such affinity being suggested by the nature of the 
distinguishing character, as well as by the similarity of the female and immature 
male. The breeding in eastern Mexico of the Orchard Oriole does not seem to 
be established beyond doubt. The few specimens taken in May and July in 
Oaxaca and Vera Cruz might well have been belated migrants or individuals 
which have failed to leave their winter quarters. 

2 Although various references quoted by Linnaeus, such as Sloane (Voy. 
Jam., 2, pp. 299, 300, pi. 257, fig. 1, and pi. 258, fig. 3), Browne (Nat. Hist. Jam., 
p. 477), and Hernandez, pertain to other species, and the habitat is given as 
"America meridionalis," it plainly results from his diagnosis, which is almost 
word for word that of Brisson, that the "Carouge" of the latter author formed 
the principal basis of O. bonana. Brisson has a very accurate description of the 
present species from specimens forwarded from Martinique by M. Thibault de 
Chanvalon. 



108 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bananivorus rufigaster Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, p. 834, 
1853 "Guadeloupe" (crit. on type); idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, 
p. 12, 1854 (reprint). 

Icterus banana Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 167 Martinique. 

Icterus bonana Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 355, 1879 Martinique; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 358 Martinique (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 368, 1886 Martinique; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 215, 1886 Marti- 
nique (descr.); idem, Auk, 4, p. 96, 1887 Martinique; idem, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 102, 1889 Martinique; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 133, 1892 
Martinique; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 279, 1902 
Martinique (monog.). 

Icterus bonanae Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 131, 1862 "Antilles." 

Pendulinus bonana Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 54 Marti- 
nique (monog.). 

Range. Island of Martinique, Lesser Antilles. 1 
11: Lesser Antilles (Martinique, 11). 

Icterus cayanensis cayanensis (Linnaeus). CAYENNE ORIOLE. 

Oriolus cayanensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 163, 1766 based 
on "The Yellow-winged Pye" Edwards (Glean. Nat. Hist., 3, p. 239, 
pi. 322; Guiana) and "Le Carouge de Cayenne" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 123, 
pi. 9, fig. 2; Cayenne); 2 type locality, therefore, Cayenne. 

Agelaius chrysopterus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 539, 
1819 part, Cayenne (descr. of male). 

Xanthornus flavaxilla Hahn, Vogel aus Asien, Afrika, etc., livr. 6, p. 1, pi. 2, 
1820 new name for Oriolus cayanensis Linnaeus. 

Pendulinus cayanensis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 433, 1850 
(diag.); idem, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 57 Cayenne and northern 
Brazil (monog.). 

Xanthornus chrysopterus Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 271, 
1856 part, Guyana and Amazonas. 

Icterus cayanensis Daudin, Traite d'Orn., 2, p. 336, 1800 part, Cayenne; 
Swainson, Zool. 111., (n.s.), 1, pi. 22, 1829 no locality; Sclater, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 131, 1862 Cayenne; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 573 island of Marajo, Brazil; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 266 
Rio Ucayali, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 359 Cayenne, lower Amazon, 
and Ucayali, Peru (monog.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 417, 1884 
Ucayali, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 369, 1886 Cayenne, 

1 The occurrence of this species on Guadeloupe is open to doubt. The type 
of P. rufigaster is in every respect a normal individual of the Martinique Oriole, 
Vieillot's description being faulty, as so frequently happens in this author's 
writings. The specimen sent to the Paris Museum by Mr. Moreau de Jonnes 
may have been a cage-bird, or possibly an individual straggler. 

2 The bird from "St. Thomas" described by Feuillee and quoted in the synon- 
ymy does not belong here. Brisson described the specimen sent by M. des 
Essars from Cayenne to M. de Reaumur. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 109 

Surinam, Para, Marajo, and "Peruvian Amazon"; Berlepsch and Stolz- 
mann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 354 La Merced, Chanchamayo, 
Peru; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 433, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 124, 1908 Cayenne; Snethlage, Journ. 
Orn., 55, p. 299, 1907 Para and Santo Antonio do Prata; idem, I.e., 
56, pp. 520, 524, 1908 Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; idem, I.e., 61, 
p. 522, 1913 Para district and Rio Tocantins; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 423, 1914 Para, Providencia, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Tocan- 
tins (Cameta, Arumatheua, Ilha Araramanha). 

Icterus cayennensis Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 377, 1910 Surinam. 

Xanthornus cayanensis Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 401, 1907 Rio Jurua 
(range). 

Xanthornus cayanensis cayanensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 39, 1908 
(range). 

Icterus cayanensis cayanensis Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 20, 88, 1912 Ipitinga, Rio Acara (Para localities); 
idem, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 35, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Cha- 
quimayo, and San Gaban, Carabaya, Peru (sexual difference); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 176, 1928 Castanhal, Para. 

Range. French and Dutch Guiana, and Amazon Valley from 
Marajo and the Para region west to eastern Peru (from the Ucayali 
to Carabaya). 1 

"Icterus cayanensis tibialis Swainson. 2 YELLOW-THIGHED ORIOLE. 

Icterus tibialis Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 302, Dec. 31, 1837 "Brazil" 
(type in coll. of W. Swainson, now in University Museum, Cambridge, 
Engl.); Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 339 Quipapa, Macuca, Garanhuns, and 
Cabo, Pernambuco; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 360 Pernambuco to Rio 
de Janeiro (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 370, 1886 

1 Birds from southeastern Peru do not seem to differ from six Cayenne and 
lower Amazonian skins except in having the tibial feathers often tipped with 
yellow. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3. Brazil: Bemfica, Para, 1; 
Santo Antonio do Prata, Para, 2; Ipitinga, Rio Acara, 1; Rio Jurua, 1. Peru, 
Carabaya: Chaquimayo, 2; Yahuarmayo, 4; San Gaban, 2. 

2 Icterus cayanensis tibialis Swainson : Differs from the nominate race by 
smaller size; stouter and much shorter bill; entirely yellow axillars and under 
wing coverts; and by having the tibial feathers largely tipped with yellow. Wing, 
87-95; tail, 93-100; bill, 17-19. 

Birds from the northern parts of the range generally have more yellow on 
the tibial feathers than those from Bahia, though there is some variation in that 
respect. One (of two) adult males from northwestern Bahia (Sao Marcello, Rip 
Preto), by partly dusky under wing coverts, approaches /. c. valencio-buenoi, 
while others from Bahia very nearly resemble the latter in the ochraceous tone 
of the humeral area. 

Additional material examined. Maranhao: Miritiba, 3. Piauhy: Parnagua, 
1. Pernambuco: Quipapa, 1; Macuca, 1. Ceara: unspecified, 2. Bahia: La- 
marao, 1; Sambaiba, Rio Sao Francisco, 1; Fazenda da Serra, Rio Grande, 1; 
Rio Preto, 2; unspecified, 14. Rio de Janeiro: unspecified, 1. 



110 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pernambuco, Bahia, "Rio," and "Rio Claro, Goyaz"; 1 Ihering, Cat. 

Faun. Braz., 1, p. 402, 1907 Bahia and Pernambuco (range excl. of 

Minas Geraes); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, 

p. 42, 1926 Ceara. 
Icterus cayanensis (not Oriolus cayanensis Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 

Braz., 3, (2), p. 1204, 1831 Rio Itapemirim, Espirito Santo, and Rio 

Belmonte, Bahia (habits). 
Xanthornus chrysopterus (not Agelaius chrysopterus Vieillot) Burmeister, 

Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 271, 1856 part, descr. and hab. Nova 

Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro. 
Pendulinus tibialis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 57 Bahia 

and Ceara (monog.); Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. 

Wien, 76, p. 80, 1910 Bahia (Sambaiba, Rio Sao Francisco; Fazenda 

da Serra, Rio Grande; Santa Rita, Rio Preto) and Piauhy (Parnagua). 
Xanthornus cayanensis tibialis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 39, 1908 Rio 

de Janeiro to Ceara. 
Icterus (Pendulinus) tibialis Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss., 

Wien, 76, p. 176, 1925 northeastern Brazil. 
Icterus cayanensis tibialis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 

p. 275, 1929 Maranhao (Rosario, Miritiba, Fazenda Inhuma), Piauhy 

(Arara, Ibiapaba), and Ceara (Varzea Formosa; Jua, near Iguatu; Quixada; 

Serra de Baturite) (crit.). 

Range. Eastern Brazil, from Maranhao, Piauhy, and Ceara 
south through Pernambuco, Bahia, and Espirito Santo to Rio de 
Janeiro. 2 

22: Brazil, Maranhao (Rosario, 1; Fazenda Inhuma, Alto Par- 
nahyba, 1); Piauhy (Arara, 1; Ibiapaba, 2); Ceara (Varzea Formosa, 
1; Jua, near Iguatu, 5; Quixada, 2; Serra de Baturit^, 3); Bahia 

1 This is a Bahia trade skin. 

2 It seems appropriate to mention in this connection Pendulinus rufaxillus 
Bonaparte (Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 432, end of 1850), a "species" completely 
lost sight of in literature since it was quoted by Cassin (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1867, p. 55). The type, an unsexed adult, is still preserved in the Paris 
Museum. Acquired in 1835, it is stated to be from "Mexico." Mr. J. Berlioz, 
to whom I am greatly indebted for his assistance, carefully compared it with 
specimens of the allied forms, which were submitted to him for that purpose, 
and reports that in the uniform light-colored under wing coverts and tibial feathers 
the type resembles I. c. tibialis, but differs by having the humeral area ochraceous 
like valencio-buenoi from Goyaz ("d'un cannelle-jaunatre, passant au jaune un 
peu plus clair et plus net sur la f range"). Mr. Berlioz adds that the yellow on the 
thighs and under the wings is paler, almost whitish, than in any specimen of /. c. 
tibialis, a divergency which he attributes to fading of the mounted type exposed 
to the light for nearly a century. While resembling /. c. valencio-buenoi in the 
coloration of the smaller upper wing coverts, it has, as stated above, the axillars, 
under wing coverts, and tibial feathers entirely light, which is never the case in 
the form peculiar to the interior districts of Brazil described by Ihering. Whether 
P. rufaxillus represents an individual variant of I. c. tibialis or an intergrade 
between it and /. c. valencio-buenoi, cannot be determined, since the origin of the 
type specimen is shrouded in mystery, the locality "Mexico" being an obvious 
mistake. For the present, the status of P. rufaxillus must, therefore, be left in 
abeyance. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 111 

(Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, 2; Sao Marcello, Rio Preto, 2; 
unspecified, 2). 

Icterus cayanensis valencio-buenoi Ihering. 1 VALENCIO 
BUENO'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus cayanensis valencio-buenoi Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, "1901," p. 268, 

1902 Piracicaba and Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo (type, from Piracicaba, 

in Museu Paulista). 
Xanthornus cayanensis valencio-buenoi Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 402, 

1907 Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Itarar, Bebedouro, Jaboticabal); Hellmayr, 

Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 38, 39, 1908 Goyaz and Fazenda Esperanga, Goyaz 

(crit.; range excl. of Cuyaba, Matto Grosso). 
Hypliantes pyrrhopterus (not Agelaius pyrrhopterus Vieillot) Pelzeln, Orn. 

Bras., 3, p. 194, 1870 part, Sao Paulo (Porto do Rio Parana) and Goyaz 

(spec, examined). 
Icterus pyrrhopterus Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 358 part, Goyaz; Ihering, Rev. 

Mus. Paul., 3, p. 172, 1899 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 222, 

1900 (nest and eggs). 
Xanlhornus pyrrhopterus Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 401, 1907 part, 

Sao Paulo and Goyaz. 
Icterus cayanensis (not Oriolus cayanensis Linnaeus) Reinhardt, Vidensk. 

Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 397 Minas Geraes (Uberuba, Paracatu, 

Sete Lagoas). 

Range. Interior of Brazil, from southern Goyaz (Goyaz; 
Fazenda Esperanga) south to Minas Geraes (Uberuba; Paracatu; 
Sete Lagoas; Agua Suja, near Bagagem) and Sao Paulo (Porto do 
Rio Parana; Victoria do Botucatu; Jaboticabal; Bebedouro; Piraci- 
caba; Itarare"). 

1 Icterus cayanensis valencio-buenoi Ihering: Similar to /. c. periporphyrus, 
but humeral area paler and yellower, dull ochraceous-orange instead of tawny; 
axillars and under wing coverts broadly edged or tipped with yellow, not uniform 
black. Wing, 94-100, (female) 88-91; tail, 100-107, (female) 95-102; bill, 17^-20. 

This interesting form connects the yellow-shouldered group (cayanensis- 
tibialis) and the pyrrhopterus section with cinnamon-rufous to chestnut numeral 
area. In the basally blackish, yellow-edged under wing coverts it resembles /. c. 
cayanensis, having thus less yellow under the wing than /. c. tibialis, from which it, 
furthermore, differs by the black tibial feathers which very rarely show just a few 
yellow edges or tips. The humeral area varies between "cadmium yellow" and 
"raw sienna" to "mars yellow," and though certain individuals of /. c. tibialis 
from Bahia run very close, the tone in valencio-buenoi as a whole is more ochraceous. 
Wings and tail are somewhat longer, the bill on average is very slightly longer 
than in 7. c. tibialis. 

Birds from Goyaz and western Minas Geraes are identical with topotypes 
from Sao Paulo. A male (in first annual plumage) from the Rio Paranapanema, 
Sao Paulo, in color of shoulder patch very nearly approaches /. c. periporphyrus, 
of Matto Grosso. Two immature specimens from Cuyaba, which I formerly 
assigned to the present form, prove on reexamination to be referable to /. c. 
periporphyrus. 

Material examined. Sao Paulo: Porto do Rio Parana, 2; Fazenda Cayoa, 
Salto Grande, Rio Paranapanema, 1; Victoria do Botucatu, 1. Minas Geraes: 
Agua Suja, near Bagagem, 8. Goyaz: Goyaz, 6; Fazenda Esperanga, 1. 



112 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"Icterus cayanensis periporphyrus (Bonaparte). 1 TAWNY- 
SHOULDERED ORIOLE. 

Pendulinus periporphyrus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 432, 1850 
Bolivia (type, from Chiquitos, eastern Bolivia, in Paris Museum examined). 

Icterus pyrrhopterus compsus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 68, 
1902 Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, Brazil (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 398, 1920 Matto Grosso 
(Chapada, Cuyaba, Rio das Flechas, Abrilongo, Caceres, Pocone"). 

Hyphantes pyrrhopterus (not Agelaius pyrrhopterus Vieillot) Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 63 Chiquitos, Bolivia (monog.); Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 194, 1870 part, Cuyaba and Rio das Flechas, Matto 
Grosso (spec, examined). 

Icterus pyrrhopterus Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 358 part, Cuyaba; idem, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 368, 1886 part, spec, g, Brazil; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 3, p. 378, 1891 part, Abrilongo and Chapada, Matto Grosso. 

Xanthornus pyrrhopterus Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 401, 1907 part, 
Matto Grosso. 

Icterus cayanensis valencio-buenoi (not of Ihering) Menegaux, Rev. Frang. 
d'Orn., 5, p. 88, 1917 Caceres and Pocone, Matto Grosso. 

Icterus pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterus Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 295, 1930 part, San Jose and La Crecencia, Chi- 
quitos, Bolivia (crit.); Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
86, p. 394, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Central Brazil, in State of Matto Grosso (excepting 
extreme southwestern section), and adjacent parts of eastern Bolivia 
(Chiquitos). 

4: Brazil, Matto Grosso (Piraputanga, 1; Descalvados, 1; Cha- 
pada, 2). 

*Icterus cayanensis pyrrhopterus (Vieillot). CHESTNUT- 
SHOULDERED ORIOLE. 

Agelaius pyrrhopterus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 543, 
1819 based on "Tordo negro cobijas de canela" Azara, No. 74, Paraguay; 
Hartlaub, Syst. Index Azara, p. 5, 1847 Paraguay. 

1 Icterus cayanensis periporphyrus (Bonaparte) : Very similar to /. c. pyrrhop- 
terus, but with somewhat smaller, slenderer bill, and with humeral area, sex for 
sex, of a lighter tone, cinnamon-rufous rather than chestnut. Wing, 90-95, 
(female) 85-89; tail, 90-98, (female) 87-91; bill, 17-19. 

Bonaparte's type from Chiquitos (in eastern Bolivia) and other specimens 
from the same district agree with a topotypical series of I. p. compsus from Cuyaba 
in having the smaller upper wing coverts of a markedly lighter ferruginous color, 
when compared to typical pyrrhopterus, of Paraguay and the adjacent parts of 
Argentina. Immature individuals of the present form have the humeral area much 
duller as well as more ochraceous, and resemble in that respect /. c. valencio- 
buenoi in adult plumage, while the juvenile stage of the latter race has this patch 
much more yellowish, more like /. c. tibialis. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Chiquitos, 1; Santa Cruz, 4. 
Brazil, Matto Grosso: Chapada, 2; Abrilongo, 1; Cuyaba, 10; Rio das Flechas, 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 113 

Icterus pyrrhopterus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 6, 1838 Corrientes (spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 140 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Durnford, Ibis, 
1878, p. 59 Baradero, Buenos Aires; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 605 "Tilotilo," Bolivia; Salvin, Ibis, 1880, p. 356 
Salta; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 133, 1883 Concepcion del 
Uruguay, Entre Rios (nest); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 358 part, Paraguay, 
Argentina (Buenos Aires, Corrientes), and Bolivia ("Tilotilo"); idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 368, 1886 part, spec, a-d, Conchitas, Buenos 
Aires, Salta, and "Tilotilo" (Bolivia); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 11, 
1887 LambarS, Paraguay; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 107, 1888 
Buenos Aires (habits); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 378, 
1891 part, Corumba, Matto Grosso, and Piedra Blanca, Bolivia; Kerr, 
Ibis, 1892, p. 128 lower Pilcomayo; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 Carpegua, Paraguay, and Corumba, Matto 
Grosso; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 11, 1897 Salta (Campo Santo, Tala), 
Jujuy (San Lorenzo), and Bolivia (Caiza); Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 224 Gran 
Chaco; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 182, 1902 Tucuman; 
Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 143, 1902 Sapucay, Paraguay; 
Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 471 Tatarenda, Bolivian Chaco; Baer, Ornis, 
12, p. 218, 1904 Lules and Tapia, Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La 
Plata, 11, p. 258, 1904 Oran, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, 
No. 13, p. 46, 1905 Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 404, 1910 (range in Argentina); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 644 Sapucay, 
Paraguay; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 109 Paraguay (Villa Franca), Formosa 
(Puerto Maria, Rio Paraguay), and Entre Rios (Santa Elena); Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 66, 1914 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay; Marelli, Mem. 
Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 664, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires. 

Xanthornus periporphyrus (not Pendulinus periporphyrus Bonaparte) Bur- 
meister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 258, 1860 Tucuman. 

Xanthornus pyrrhopterus Burmeister, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 493, 1861 
near Parana and Tucuman, also on the Rio Uruguay; Doering, Period. 
Zool. Arg., 1, p. 255, 1874 Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; 
Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 
1890 Cordoba (one sight record); Serie", El Hornero, 1, p. 35, 1917 
Punta Lara, La Plata (life in captivity); Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 24, 
1920 Canelones and Paysandu, Uruguay; Seri6 and Smyth, I.e., 3, 
p. 54, 1923 island near Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 
70, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 173, 1923 San Isidro, Buenos 
Aires. 

Xanthornus pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterus Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, 
p. 187, 1909 Ocampo, Santa F6, and Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires 
(nest and eggs); Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 248, 1919 Isla Martin 
Garcia, Buenos Aires. 

Icterus pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterus Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 382, 
1926 Chaco (Resistencia, Las Palmas), Formosa (Riacho Pilaga, 
Formosa), Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco), and Tucuman (Tapia); Friedmann, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 219, 1927 Concepcion, Tucuman; Naum- 
burg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 397, 1930 Paraguay (Trinidad, 



114 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Rio Negro), Matto Grosso (Urucum, Belvedere de Urucum), and Bolivia 
(Piedra Blanca) (nest and eggs); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 295, 1930 part, Formosa (Lapango, San Jose, 
Yuncii Viejo, Tapikiole, Chaves) and Bolivia (Villa Montes, Tarija). 
Icterus pyrrhopterus argoptilus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 68, 
1902 Conchitas, Buenos Aires (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Range. Extreme southeastern Bolivia (Villa Montes, Tatarenda, 
and Caiza, headwaters of the Rio Pilcomayo, Tarija; Piedra Blanca, 
near Bahia Negra, upper Rio Paraguay); southwestern Matto 
Grosso (Corumba, Urucum, Belvedere de Urucum); Paraguay; 
northern Argentina, south to La Rioja, Cordoba (one sight record), 
Santa Fe, and Buenos Aires (littoral of La Plata River); Uruguay. 1 

14: Brazil, Matto Grosso (Urucum de Corumba, 5; Descalvados, 1; 
Corumba, 1; Chapada, 1); Uruguay (Rio Uruguay, Dept. Soriano, 1); 
Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman, 5). 

*Icterus chrysocephalus (Linnaeus). MORICHE ORIOLE. 

Oriolus chrysocephalus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 164, 1766 
based on "Le Carouge a teste jaune d'Amerique" Brisson, Orn., 6, Suppl., 
p. 38, pi. 2, fig.- 2; "Amerique" = Cayenne 2 (type in coll. of D. Mauduyt). 

Gracula chrysoptera Merrem, Icon. Av., livr. 1, p. 10, pi. 3, 1786 South 
America (location of type not stated). 

Icterus chrysocephalus Daudin, Traite d'Orn., 2, p. 336, 1800 "Amerique"; 
Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 68, pi. 67, fig. 1, 1827 Rio Negro; 
Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 680, 1849 
British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 131, 1862 Cayenne; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 Sarayacu, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 266 Sarayacu; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 359 
(monog.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 416, 1884 Sarayacu, Peru; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 218 Bartica Grove and Roraima, British Guiana; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 369, 1886 British Guiana (Demerara, 
Bartica Grove, Roraima), Cayenne, Peru (Sarayacu, Ucayali), Ecuador 
(Sarayacu), Colombia ("Bogota"), and Venezuela ("Caracas"); Ber- 
lepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 300, 1889 Shanusi (Yurimaguas), Peru; 

1 Two adults from southwestern Matto Grosso (Corumba) are "extreme" 
examples of pyrrhopterus, having the humeral area just as deeply chestnut-rufous 
as any from Paraguay, hence much darker than a series from Cuyaba. Size appears 
too variable a feature to maintain the supposedly larger argoptilus. Adult males 
from Paraguay measure on the wing from 90 to 95; two from Corrientes, 89, 90; 
two from Buenos Aires, 89, 92; two from Tucuman, 91, 94. 

A single specimen from "Tilotilo, Yungas," identical in coloration with 
topotypes, is probably wrongly labeled, and is more likely to have originated in 
southern Bolivia (possibly at Camargo, another of Buckley's collecting stations). 

Additional material examined. Brazil, Matto Grosso: Corumba, 2. Para- 
guay: island near Concepcion, 6; Carpegua, 2; unspecified, 1. Argentina: Corrien- 
tes, 2; Ocampo, Santa Fe, 1; Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 3; Tucuman, 3. 
Bolivia: "Tilotilo," 1. 

2 Suggested by Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 31, 1902. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 115 

Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 617, 1906 
Rio Negro and Cayenne; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 124, 1908 Cayenne; 
Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 109, 1909 La Brea, Orinoco Delta; Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 212, 1913 Guinipa River, Orinoco 
Delta, Venezuela; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 376, 1910 Surinam; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 423, 1914 (range); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 205, 1916 Orinoco Valley, Venezuela; Bangs 
and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 86, 1918 vicinity of Para- 
maribo, Surinam; Delacour, Ibis, 1923, p. 150 Apure, Venezuela; Chap* 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 699, 1926 Rio Suno and below San 
Jose, Ecuador. 

Pendulinus chrysocep}ialus Vieillot and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 1, (2), p. 122, pi. 86, 
circa 1823; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 432, 1850 (diag.); Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 56 Cayenne, Demerara, and Ecuador 
(monog.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 194, 1870 Sitio do Hilario Monteiro 
and Marabitanas, upper Rio Negro, and Forte do Rio Branco, Brazil 
(spec, examined). 

Xanthornus chrysocephalus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 184, 1851 Guiana; 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 271, 1856 Rio Negro, Guiana, 
and Colombia; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 31, 1902 Perico, 
Rio Catanapa, and Maipures, Orinoco, and Suapure, Caura, Venezuela; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 401, 1907 (range). 

Melanopsar chrysocephalus Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 578, 1921 
Takutu Mountains, Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Bonasika River, Deme- 
rara, Roraima, Bartica, and Hoorie Creek. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; Venezuela, in the 
valley of the Orinoco and its tributaries; 1 extreme northern Brazil 
(upper stretches of the Rio Branco and Rio Negro) ; eastern Colombia 
(not uncommon in native "Bogota" collections); eastern Ecuador; 
northeastern Peru (lower Ucayali and lower Huallaga). 2 

4: Venezuela ("Cumana," Sucre, 1); British Guiana (Mazaruni 
River, 2); Brazil (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, Amazonas, 1). 

*Icterus prosthemelas prosthemelas (Strickland). 3 LESSON'S 
ORIOLE. 

1 1 cannot help questioning the locality "Caracas" attached to a specimen in 
the British Museum. The Moriche Oriole, an inhabitant of the tropics of the 
Guianan-Amazonian subregion, is not likely to find a suitable abode in the 
coast ranges. The species is not mentioned in Sclater and Salvin's report on 
Goering's collections, and if really contained in his series, the specimen might 
have been a captive individual of this favorite cage-bird. 

2 A single Peruvian example does not materially differ from a series of more 
eastern origin. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 2. British Guiana: 
Bartica Grove, 2. Venezuela: SuapurS, Caura, 2; Perico, Orinoco, 2; Maipures, 
Orinoco, 2. Brazil: Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco, 4; upper Rio Negro, 
1. Colombia: "Bogota," 4. Eastern Ecuador: "Rio Napo," 1. Peru: Yuri- 
maguas, 1. 

3 An earlier name is possibly Icterus melanocephalus Hahn (Vogel aus Asien, 
Afrika, etc., livr. 6, pi. 3, 1820) described from a specimen in the collection of the 



116 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Xanthornus prosthemelas Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1850, p. 120, pi. 62, 
1850 Guatemala (type in coll. of T. Wilson, now in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
51, p. 47, 1899). 

Pendulinus lessoni Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 432, end of 1850 
Mexico (type in Paris Museum); Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 6, 
p. 66, 1854 (crit.). 1 

Xanthornus lessoni Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 184, 1851 Jalapa, Mexico. 

Icterus prosthemelas Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, p. 301 Cordoba, 
Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 1857, p. 7 (crit.); Moore, I.e., 1859, p. 58 
Comayagua, Honduras; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 20 Guatemala; 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 279 Bluefields River, Nicaragua; 
idem, I.e., 1870, p. 837 [San Pedro], Honduras; (?)Lawrence, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 4, p. 23, 1876 Chihuitan, Oaxaca; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. 
Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 46, 1878 "dans les terres chaudes" of Guatemala; 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 59 Naranjo, Costa Rica; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1883, p. 363 Mexico to Costa Rica (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 373, 1886 British Honduras (Corozal, Belize), Guatemala 
(Choctum, Rio Pasion), Honduras (San Pedro), and Costa Rica (Peje, 
Tucurriqui); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 
Jimenez and Naranjo de Cartago, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 466, 1887 Mexico to Costa Rica; Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, pp. 580, 588, 1887 Trujillo and Segovia River, 
Honduras; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 495, 1893 Rio 
Escondido, Nicaragua; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 269, 
1902 southeastern Mexico to Panama (monog., full bibliog.); Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 153, 1903^-Ceiba and Yaruca, Honduras; 
Cole, I.e., 50, p. 140, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Bangs, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 19, p. Ill, 1906 Costa Rica (crit.); Dearborn, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 113, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 830, 1910 Caribbean Costa Rica (Talamanca, 
Juan Vinas, San Carlos, Jimenez, Birris, Pacuarito, Cachi, Cariblanco de 
Sarapiqui, Guacimo, Guapiles, El Hogar); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, p. 279, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 
1913 Xcopen and Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 
12, No. 8, p. 30, 1919 Siquirres and Sipurio de Talamanca, Costa Rica; 
Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 464, 1928 Almirante, 
Panama; Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 392, 1929 Mountain 
Cow, Cayo District, British Honduras; Peters, I.e., 69, p. 477, 1929 

Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The figure shows a remarkably strong and heavy 
bill, wholly unlike that species. As the type is no longer in the Munich Museum, 
in which the old collection of the Academy was incorporated, I am afraid Hahn's 
name will always remain unidentifiable. Unfortunately, it bars further use of the 
specific name melanocephalus for the green-backed Icterus and its northern ally 
(auduboni). 

1 Although Pucheran claims that the specimen described by Lesson (Traite 
d'Orn., p. 429, 1831) as "Troupiale noir a ventre jaune" formed the basis of P. 
lessoni Bonaparte, there are certain discrepancies between the two descriptions. 
Mr. Berlioz (in litt.) informs me that Bonaparte's type is somewhat immature, 
having some yellowish-olive feathers on the hind neck ("cervice flavo-viridi"). 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 117 

Lancetilla and Tela, Honduras; idem, I.e., 71, p. 344, 1931 Changuinola, 
Almirante, Western River, and Chiriquicito, western Panama; Huber, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 248, 1932 Eden, Neptune Mine, 
and Prinzapolka, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 335, 1932 Lancetilla, Hon- 
duras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 392, 1932 Secanquim, 
Finca Sepacuite, Finca Chama, Chimoxan, and Puebla, Guatemala. 

Pendulinus prosthemelas Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 56 
southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica (monog.); Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 104, 1869 Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 302, 1869 Costa Rica. 

Icterus waglerii (not of Sclater) Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 552, 
1869 hot region of Vera Cruz (C6rdoba up to 1,000 meters). 

Range. Caribbean lowlands (rain forest) of southeastern Mexico, 
in states of Vera Cruz (Cordoba, Jalapa), (?)0axaca (Chihuitan), 
Chiapas, Yucatan (Chichen Itza), and Quintana Roo, and south- 
wards through British Honduras, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
and Costa Rica to western Panama (Almirante Bay). 1 

7: Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal, 1; Xepac, 1; unspecified, 2); 
Costa Rica (Limon, 2; Guayabo, 1). 

"Icterus prosthemelas northropi Allen. 2 NORTHROP'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus northropi Allen, Auk, 7, p. 344, 1890 Andros Island, Bahamas (type 
in coll. of the American Museum of Natural History, New York) ; Northrop, 
Auk, 8, p. 71, pi. 1 (adult and young male), 1891 Andros; Cory, Auk, 
8, p. 350, 1891 Abaco; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 127, 146, 1892 
Andros and Abaco; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 266, 
1902 (monog.); G. M. Allen, Auk, 22, p. 128, 1905 Andros (Mangrove 
Cay) and Little Abaco; Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama Islands, pp. 355, 
367, 1905 Abaco and Andros (crit.); Todd and Worthington, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 7, pp. 439, 463, 1911 Andros (Staniard Creek) and 
Abaco (crit.). 

Range. Bahamas (islands of Andros, Abaco, and Little Abaco). 
7: Bahamas (Abaco, 5; Andros, 2). 

*Icterus dominicensis melanopsis (Wagler). 3 CUBAN ORIOLE. 

Icterus virescens (not of Daudin, 1800) Vigors, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, p. 441 
(in text), Dec., 1827 near Havana, Cuba (type in coll. of N. A. Vigors, 
present location unknown; descr. of young). 

1 The record from Guanajuato by Duges (La Naturaleza, 1, p. 139, 1868) 
probably refers to /. w. wagleri. 

1 Icterus prosthemelas northropi Allen: Adult plumage similar in coloration to 
/. p. prosthemelas, but wings longer, and bill decidedly longer as well as stouter. 
Wing, 96-100, (female) 92-94; bill, 23-25. 

The only difference separating the Bahaman Oriole from the mainland form 
consists of the larger bill and longer wings. Otherwise, they are so very much 
alike that I have no hesitation in associating them in the same specific group. 

3 The earliest name for the Cuban Oriole is the one given above. Vigors, 
after describing what was apparently an immature bird, tentatively proposed for 



118 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Psarocolius melanopsis Wagler, Isis, 1829, col. 759- new name for Icterus 
virescens Vigors. 

Pendulinus hypomelas (Dubus MS.) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), 
p. 433, 1850 "Mexico" (errore) and Cuba (type in Brussels Museum; 
descr. of adult); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 59 Cuba 
(monog.). 

Icterus dominicensis (not Oriolus dominicensis Linnaeus) Vigors, Zool. Journ., 
3, No. 11, p. 441, 1827 near Havana, Cuba; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 268, 1860 Cuba (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 131, 1862 part, spec, b, Cuba. 

Xanthornus dominicensis d'Orbigny, in Sagra, Hist. Nat. Cuba, Ois., p. 115, 
pi. 19 bis, 1839 part, Cuba; Gundlach, Journ. Bost. Soc. N. H., 6, 
p. 318, 1852 Cuba; idem, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 10, 1856 Cuba (nest and 
eggs). 

Icterus hypomelas Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 360 Cuba (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 370, 1886 San Cristobal, Cuba; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 215, 
1886 Cuba (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 102, 1889 Cuba (descr.); 
idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 129, 1892 Cuba and Isle of Pines; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 305, 1892 near Trinidad, Cuba 
(plumages, habits); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 271, 
1902 Cuba (monog.); Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 39, p. 211, 
1905 Isle of Pines (Jucaro, Hospital, Callebonita, Santa Fe); Todd, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 275, 1916 Nueva Gerona, Bibijagua, and Los 
Indios, Isle of Pines (crit.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 123, 
1923 Cuba (habits); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 37, 
1932 Gibara and Rio Moa, Cuba. 

Range. Island of Cuba, including the Isle of Pines, Greater 
Antilles. 

12: Cuba (Palacios, Pinar del Rio, 5; San Diego de los Bafios, 
Pinar del Rio, 1; La Vega, Isle of Pines, 2; unspecified, 4). 

*Icterus dominicensis dominicensis (Linnaeus). HISPANIOLAN 
ORIOLE. 

Oriolus dominicensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 163, 1766 based 
on "Le Carouge de S. Domingue" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 121, pi. 12, fig. 3; 
S. Domingue (type in coll. of M. de Reaumur). 

Turdus ater Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 830, 1788 based on "Merle a 
gorge noire de Saint-Domingue" Buffon and Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 559 
(=young in change of plumage); Santo Domingo. 

Turdus jugularis Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 351, 1790 based on the same 
references. 

it the term I. virescens. This was subsequently changed to P. melanopsis by 
Wagler, who, although he does not state so, was evidently aware that /. virescens 
was previously employed by Daudin for another species of the same genus. 

The Cuban and Porto Rican Orioles are clearly representative races of /. 
dominicensis. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 119 

Pendulinus flavigasier Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 317, 
1816 based on "Le Carouge de Saint-Domingue" Daubenton, PI. Enl., 
pi. 5, fig. 2. 

Icterus dominicensis Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 232 Santo 
Domingo; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 131, 1862 part, spec, a, 
Santo Domingo; Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 94, 1866 Santo 
Domingo; Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 152, 1881 Potion ville, Haiti; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 361 Santo Domingo (monog.); Tristram, Ibis, 
1884, p. 168 Dominican Republic; Cory, Bds. Haiti & San Dom.,* p. 71, 
pi. [12], 1884 Le Coup, Puerto Plata, and La Vega; idem, Auk, 3, p. 216, 
1886 Hispaniola (descr.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 371, 1886 
Santo Domingo (Puerto Plata) and Haiti; Tristram, Cat. Coll. Tristram, 
p. 250, 1889 Samana and Rivas; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 103, 1889 
Hispaniola; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 131, 1892 Hispaniola; 
Cherrie, Field Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 16, 1896 Santo Domingo; 
Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 325 La Vega and Sanchez (song); Verrill and 
Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 362, 1909 Santo Domingo; 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 423, 1917 Monte Cristi, Sosua, 
and Arroyo Salado; Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 515, 1928 
Haiti, Gonave, and Tortuga (song, nest, and eggs); Danforth, Auk, 
46, p. 373, 1929 Vazquez; Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, p. 325, 
1929 Haina, Moca, and San Juan; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 155, p. 408, 1931 Hispaniola (monog.); Wetmore and Lincoln, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 82, art. 25, p. 61, 1933 Hispaniola. 

Pendulinus dominicensis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 58 
Port-au-Prince, Haiti (monog.). 

Pendulinus viridis (not Oriolus viridis Gmelin) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. 
Nat., nouv. e'd., 5, p. 321, 1816 Santo Domingo (location of type not 
stated ;= young). 

Range. Island of Haiti, including Gonave and Tortue (Tortuga), 
Greater Antilles. 

76: Haiti (Le Coup, 10; Jacmel, 1); Dominican Republic (Santo 
Domingo City, 9; Catare, 3; Aguacate, 4; La Vega, 3; Honduras, 14; 
Maniel, 16; Puerto Plata, 16). 

*Icterus dominicensis portoricensis Bryant. PORTO RlCAN 
ORIOLE. 

Icterus dominicensis var. portoricensis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, 
p. 254, 1866 Porto Rico (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, 
p. 207, 1925, and Bangs, I.e., 70, p. 419, 1930); Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.- 
Akad. Forh., 26, p. 597, 1869 Porto Rico (crit.). 

Icterus dominicensis (not Oriolus dominicensis Linnaeus) Taylor, Ibis, 1864, 
p. 167 Porto Rico. 

Pendulinus portoricensis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 58 
Porto Rico (monog.). 



120 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Icterus portoricensis Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 361 Porto Rico (monog.); idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 371, 1886 north side of Porto Rico; Cory, 
Auk, 3, p. 217, 1886 Porto Rico (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 104, 
1889 Porto Rico (descr.); idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 132, 1892 
Porto Rico; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 272, 1902 
Porto Rico (monog.); Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 12, 1903 Aguadilla, Porto 
Rico, and (?)Vieques; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 326, p. 115, 
1916 Porto Rico (ecology); Struthers, Auk, 40, p. 477, 1923 Porto 
Rico; Danforth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 10, p. 100, 1926 
Porto Rico (habits); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Is., 9, 
p. 535, 1927 Porto Rico (monog.). 

Xanthornus portoricensis Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 312, 1874 Porto 
Rico; idem, I.e., 26, pp. 160, 176, 1878 Porto Rico (habits, nest, eggs); 
idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 210, 1878 Porto Rico (habits). 

Range. Island of Porto Rico, Greater Antilles. 1 
43: Porto Rico (Mayagiiez, 2; unspecified, 41). 

*Icterus laudabilis laudabilis Sclater. SANTA LUCIA ORIOLE. 

Icterus laudabilis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 270, pi. 21 Santa 
Lucia (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); Semper, 
I.e., 1872, p. 649 Santa Lucia (habits); Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, 
p. 166, 1880 Santa Lucia; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 361 (monog.); idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 372, 1886 Santa Lucia; Cory, Auk, 3, 
p. 217, 1886 (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 104, 1889 Santa Lucia; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, p. 395 Santa Lucia; Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 130, 1890 Santa Lucia; Cory, Cat. W. 
Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 133, 1892 Santa Lucia; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 274, 1902 (monog.); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 561 
Santa Lucia; Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 541, 1928 
Santa Lucia. 

Range. Island of Santa Lucia, Lesser Antilles. 
20: Lesser Antilles (Santa Lucia, 20). 

*Icterus laudabilis oberi Lawrence. 2 MONTSERRAT ORIOLE. 

Icterus oberi Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 3, p. 351, Nov., 1880 Mont- 
serrat (type in U. S. National Museum); Grisdale, Ibis, 1882, p. 487, 
pi. 13 Montserrat; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 362 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 372, 1886 Montserrat; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 218, 1886 
(ex Lawrence); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 105, 1889 Montserrat; idem, Cat. 
W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 132, 1892 Montserrat; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 265, 1902 Montserrat (monog.). 

Range. Island of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles. 
7: Lesser Antilles (Montserrat, 7). 

1 The record from Vieques by Bowdish appears to be a pen-slip. 

2 Icterus laudabilis oberi Lawrence: Very similar to /. L laudabilis, but with 
markedly shorter wings, also distinguished by lacking the deep yellow area on the 
upper wing coverts, and by having the orange yellow color underneath farther 
extended over the breast. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 121 

*Icterus parisorum Bonaparte. SCOTT'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus parisorum Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., "1837," p. 110, pub. 
June, 1838 Mexico (type in coll. of Paris brothers, present location 
unknown); 1 Baird, Rep. Pac. R. R. Surv., 9, p. 544, 1858 New Mexico 
(Santa Catarina, New Leon) and Texas (Pecos River) ; idem, Bds. N. Amer. , 
Atlas, pi. 57, fig. 1, 1860; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, 
p. 54 (monog.); Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 553, 1869 
Orizaba, Vera Cruz; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 365 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 374, 1886 Lower California (Cape San Lucas) and 
Mexico; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 463, 1887; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 308, 1902 (monog., full 
bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 151, 1928 Lower 
California; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 407, 1934 Chil- 
pancingo, Guerrero; van Rossem, I.e., 77, p. 476, 1934 Sonora (Mina 
Abundancia, Bravo, Nacozari, Oposura, Durazno). 

Icterus melanochrysura Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 105, 1839 Mexico (location 
of type not stated). 

Icterus scottii Couch, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 7, p. 66, 1854 western 
New Leon and Coahuila (location of type unknown); Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 6 (crit.). 2 

Range. Upper Austral zone from interior southern California, 
southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, central eastern New Mexico, 
and central western Texas south to Lower California, Michoacan, 
Hidalgo, and Vera Cruz, Mexico; probably only a winter visitant 
in parts of Mexico. 

28: California (Hesperia, San Bernardino County, 2); Arizona 
(Tucson, Pima County, 2; Huachuca Mountains, Cochise County, 
17); Texas (unspecified, 1); Mexico (El Sauz, Sierra de las Lagunas, 
Lower California, 4; Cape San Lucas, 1; San Luis Potosi, 1). 

Icterus maculi-alatus Cassin. 3 BAR-WINGED ORIOLE. 

Icterus maculi-alatus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 3, p. 332, 1847 
"Mexico, prope Vera Cruz," misprint for [Coban], Vera Paz, Guatemala 
(type in coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 34, 1899); idem, Journ. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., (2), 1, p. 137, pi. 16, fig. 1, 1848 (fig. of type); Sclater and 
Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 398 Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. 

1 Possibly in the Liverpool Museum. 

2 Sclater appears to have examined the type, probably at the Smithsonian 
Institution, since Stone (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 22, 1899) states that 
none of Couch's types are at Philadelphia. 

3 Icterus maculi-alatus Cassin seems to be more nearly related to /. parisorum 
than to any other member of the genus, and may prove to be conspecific. The 
interrelationship of the orioles of northern Central America is, however, rather a 
complicated problem, and requires more time than I can possibly devote to its 
investigation. Cf. Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, pp. 391-392, 1932. 



122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 132, 1862 Aguna and Escuintla, Guatemala; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1883, p. 363 Pacific "coast" of Guatemala (monog.); idem, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 373, 1886 Pacific Guatemala (Volcan de Fuego, 
Volcan de Agua, San Pedro Martir, Escuintla, Aguna); Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1 , p. 467, 1887 Pacific slope of Guatemala ; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 265, 1902 Pacific slope of 
Guatemala (monog.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. EL, 64, p. 391, 1932 
Chanquejelve, San Lucas, and San Antonio, Guatemala (crit.; descr. of 
female). 

Pendulinus maculi-alatus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 433, 1850 
"Mexico" (ex Cassin); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 56 
Vera Paz, Guatemala (monog.). 

Range. Pacific slope of Guatemala. 1 

Icterus wagleri castaneopectus Brewster. 2 CHESTNUT-BREASTED 
ORIOLE. 

Icterus wagleri castaneopectus Brewster, Auk, 5, p. 91, 1888 Oposura, Sonora 
(type in coll. of W. Brewster, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 419, 1930); 
van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 288, 1931 San Javier, 
Chinobampo, Guirocoba, and Agiabampo, Sonora (crit.); idem, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 475, 1934 Sonora (Alamos, Mina Abundancia, 
Hacienda de San Rafael, Bravo, Oposura, Carmen, Durazno). 

Icterus wagleri (not of Sclater) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 267, 1902 part, Chihuahua (near Batopilas) and Sonora (Oposura, 
Alamos) . 

Range. Northwestern Mexico, in Sonora and Chihuahua. 
*Icterus wagleri 3 wagleri Sclater. WAGLER'S ORIOLE. 

Psarocolius flavigaster (not of Vieillot, 1816) Wagler, Isis, 1829, col. 756 
Mexico (type in Berlin Museum). 

Icterus wagleri(i) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 7, 1857 Mexico (type 
in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, I.e., 27, p. 381, 
1859 Villa Alta, Oaxaca; Baird, Rep. Pac. R. R. Surv., 9, p. 545, 1858 
Coahuila (Saltillo) and Guatemala (crit.) ; idem, Bds. N. Amer., Atlas, pi. 
61, fig. 2, 1860; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 20 Duenas, Guatemala; 

1 The record from Guanajuato, Mexico, by Duges (La Naturaleza, 1, p. 139, 
1868) s. n. I. maculi-alatus must refer to some other species. 

2 Icterus wagleri castaneopectus Brewster: Differs from the nominate race in 
larger size and richer coloration of the under parts, the breast being more strongly 
suffused with chestnut. Wing, (male) 105-112, (female) 99-102. 

This race, which we have not seen, is recognized by both van Rossem and 
Griscom (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 393, 1932). 

3 Icterus wagleri, although closely allied to I. prosthemelas, may provisionally 
be regarded as a distinct species. In opposition to its relative, it prefers higher 
altitudes, and while it may prove to be an altitudinal representative, available 
data are not complete enough to permit of final conclusions. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 123 

Finsch, Abhandl. Naturw. Ver. Bremen, 2, p. 338, 1870 Guadalajara, 1 
Jalisco; Lawrence, Mem. Boston Soc. N. H., 2, p. 279, 1874 Tepic and 
Guadalajara 1 (habits); Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 263, 1882 Guate- 
mala; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 362 Mexico and Guatemala (monog.); idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 372, 1886 Mexico (Oaxaca; "Presidio") 
and Guatemala (Duenas; Calderas, Volcan de Fuego); Ferrari-Perez, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 150, 1886 Tecali and Huehuetlan, Puebla; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 466, 1887 Mexico 
(Saltillo, Coahuila; "Presidio;" Guadalajara; Tepic; Temascaltepec; 
Huehuetlan; Villa Alta, Oaxaca) and Guatemala (Duenas, Calderas, San 
Geronimo); Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 781, 1893 Barranca 
Ibarra, Jalisco; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 267, 1902 
part, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, etc., to Guatemala (monog.); Dearborn, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 113, 1907 Lake Amatitlan, Lake 
Atitlan, and Tecpam, Guatemala; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
84, p. 335, 1932 San Juancito, Honduras. 

Icterus dominicensis (not Oriolus dominicensis Linnaeus) Swainson, Phil. 
Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 436, 1827 Temascaltepec, Mexico. 

Pendulinus dominicensis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 432, 1850 
(diag.). 

Pendulinus wagleri Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 55 Mexico 
(Coahuila; "Mazatlan") and Guatemala (San Geronimo) (monog.). 

Icterus wagleri wagleri Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 392, 1932 
Finca La Primavera, Sacapulas, Nebaj, Chichicastenango, Huehuete- 
nango, Chanquejelve, San Antonio, Panajachel, San Lucas, and Lake 
Amatitlan, Guatemala (crit.); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 407, 
1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Range. Highlands of Mexico, from Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, and 
Tepic south through Guatemala to northern Nicaragua. 2 

12: Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 3); Guatemala (Tecpam, Chimal- 
tenango, 2; Lake Amatitlan, Amatitlan, 2; Lake Atitlan, Solola, 2; 
Salama, Baja Vera Paz, 1; unspecified, 2). 

*Icterus mesomelas mesomelas (Wagler). YELLOW-TAILED 
ORIOLE. 

Psarocolius mesomelas Wagler, Isis, 1829, col. 755 Mexico (type in Berlin 

Museum). 
Icterus atrogularis Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 73, pi. 22, Jan., 1831 Mexico 

(type in coll. of M. de Longuemare). 
Oriolus musicus Cabot, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 155, 1843; idem, Bost. 

Journ. N. H., 4, p. 465, 1844 Ticul and Macoba, Yucatan (cotypes now 

1 Not "Mazatlan," as quoted by authors (Salvin and Godman, Ridgway, 
Cassin). Grayson expressly states that he never met with this oriole in the western 
coast region. 

- Birds from Tepic, Jalisco, and Colima are stated by Griscom to approach 
I. w. castaneopectus in size. 



124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 420, 1930). 

Xanthornus mesomelas Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 434, 1850 
"Tobasco" = Tabasco, Mexico. 

Icterus mesomelas Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, p. 301 Cordoba, 
Mexico; Moore, I.e., 1859, p. 58 Omoa, Honduras; Sclater and 
Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 34 part, Coban, Guatemala; 1 Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 133, 1862 part, spec, a, Orizaba, Mexico; Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 51 Mexico (Cordoba, Orizaba), Yucatan, 
and Guatemala (monog.); Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 553, 
1869 hot region of Vera Cruz, Mexico; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 837 [San Pedro], Honduras; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 4, p. 23, 1876 Guichicovi, Chiapas; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. 
Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 46, 1878 Guatemala; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 445 Calotmul, Yucatan; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 367 part, 
Mexico and Guatemala; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 378, 1886 
part, spec, a-k, Mexico (Orizaba, Yucatan), Guatemala (Choctum, Vera 
Paz), British Honduras (Corozal), and Honduras (San Pedro); Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 470, 1887 part, Mexico to 
Honduras. 

Icterus mesomelas mesomelas Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
305, 1902 Mexico to Honduras (monog.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 50, p. 140, 1905 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Dearborn, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 115, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala; Peters, 
Auk, 30, p. 379, 1913 Camp Mengel and Xcopen, Quintana Roo; Bangs 
and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 487, 1927 Presidio, Vera 
Cruz; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 393, 1929 Cayo District, British Honduras; 
Peters, I.e., p. 477, 1929 Lancetilla and Tela, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 393, 1932 Secanquim and Finca Concepcion, 
Guatemala; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 336, 1932 Laguna 
Toloa, Honduras. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera 
Cruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Tabasco, Yucatan, and Quintana Roo, and 
south through eastern Guatemala and British Honduras to Honduras. 2 

4: Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal, 3; unspecified, 1). 

*Icterus mesomelas salvinii Cassin. 3 SALVIN'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus salvinii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 51 part, Costa 
Rica (Turrialba, San Carlos) and Greytown, Nicaragua (type, from Costa 

1 The young bird from Duenas is /. w. waglerL Cf. Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 471 (note), 1887. 

2 Twelve additional specimens from Mexico (Vera Cruz), Guatemala, and 
Honduras (San Pedro) examined. 

* Icterus mesomelas salvinii Cassin: Similar to J. m. mesomelas, but larger and 
without trace of yellowish white edges to inner secondaries. Wing (adult males), 
95-100; tail, 106-112; bill, 24-26. 

Birds from eastern Costa Rica (Puerto Limon; Siquirres; Jimenez) and Nica- 
ragua are identical. A single unsexed specimen from the Panama Railroad is slightly 
smaller (wing, 94; tail, 102), but has the extensive black gular area of salvinii. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 125 

Rica, in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 34, 1899). 

Icterus mesomelas (not Psarocolius mesomelas Wagler) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama; idem, I.e., 8, p. 
181, 1865 Greytown, Nicaragua; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1864, p. 354 Panama; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 279 Bluefields River, 
Nicaragua; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 367 part, Costa Rica; Nutting, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 402, 1884 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 378, 1886 part, spec. 1-p, Costa Rica ("Valza" = 
Balsa) and Panama (Chepo, Lion Hill); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 470, 1887 part, Nicaragua (Bluefields River, Grey- 
town), Costa Rica ("Valza," San Carlos, Turrialba), and Panama (Lion 
Hill, Chepo); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 
Sipurio de Talamanca, Costa Rica; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
16, p. 495, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (habits). 

Icterus salvini Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 104, 1868 Turri- 
alba and San Carlos, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 302, 
1869 Costa Rica. 

Icterus mesomelas salvini Bangs, Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 34, 1900 Loma 
del Leon, Panama; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 827, 1910 Carib- 
bean lowlands of Costa Rica (Jime'nez, Limon, Banana River, Zeut, 
Guapiles, Guacimo, Cuabre, Rio Sicsola, El Hogar). 

Icterus mesomelas salvinii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 307, 
1902 part, Nicaragua to Panama (monog.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 70, p. 280, 1918 Gatun and Toro Point, Panama; Rendahl, 
Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 30, 1919 Costa Rica (Siquirres, Sipurio de 
Talamanca) and Nicaragua (San Juan del Norte); Kennard and Peters, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 465, 1928 Almirante and Chiriquicito, 
Panama; (?)Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 190, 1929 Cana, 
Darien; Peters, I.e., 71, p. 344, 1931 Changuinola, Almirante, Western 
River, and Guabo, Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of Caribbean Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and 
Panama east to the Canal Zone. 1 

6: Costa Rica (Matina, Limon, 1; Limon, Limon, 3; Boca Rio 
Matina, Limon, 2). 

"Icterus mesomelas carrikeri Todd. 2 CARRIKER'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus mesomelas carrikeri Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 4, Jan., 1917 
Fundaci6n, Magdalena, Colombia (type in Carnegie Museum); Todd 

1 Griscpm's reference of specimens from Cana, eastern Darien, to 7. m. salvinii 
requires reinvestigation in view of the fact that examples from the Rio Atrato 
unquestionably pertain to 7. m. carrikeri. 

* Icterus mesomelas carrikeri Todd: Very close to 7. m. salvinii, but black 
gular area more restricted (just as in 7. m. taczanowskii) and not extending onto 
the middle of the foreneck; general coloration slightly more orange; bill decidedly 
smaller. Wing (adult males), 93-99; tail, 102-108; bill, 20-22. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Rio Atrato, 1; Quibd6, 1; Condoto, 
1; Guineo, Rio Colima, 1; Aracataca, 1; "Bogota," 6. 



126 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 470, 1922 Fundacion, Mag- 
dalena, and Jaraquiel, Bolivar, Colombia (crit.); Darlington, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 71, p. 415, 1931 Rio Frio and Aracataca, Magdalena, 
Colombia (nest descr.). 

Icterus mesomelas (not Psarocolius mesomelas Wagler) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1855, p. 154 "Bogota"; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1860, p. 140 Rio Atrato; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 133, 1862 
part, spec, b, "Bogota"; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 509 Neche, Antioquia, Colombia; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 367 part, 
Colombia (Antioquia); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 378, 1886 
part, spec, q-s, "Bogota"; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 162, 1900 
Cacagualito. 

Icterussalvinii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 51 part, "Bogota" 
and Rio Atrato, Colombia. 

Icterus mesomelas salvinii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 307, 
1902 part, Colombia (Rio Atrato, "Bogota," Antioquia) and "Venezuela." 

Icterus mesomelas salvini Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 633, 1917 
Atrato River, Quibdo, Remolino (lower Magdalena), Puerto Berrio, 
and Guaduas, Colombia. 

Xanthornus mesomelas salvinii Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 
1122 Condoto (Rio Condoto) and Guineo (Rio Calima), Pacific Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of extreme northwestern Venezuela (Zulia) 
and Colombia (Magdalena Valley; Caribbean coast west to the 
Atrato and south along the Pacific to the Rio San Juan). 

5: Colombia (Rio Atrato, Antioquia, 2; "Bogota," 1); Venezuela 
(Encontrados, Zulia, 2). 

Icterus mesomelas taczanowskii Ridgway. 1 TACZANOWSKI'S 
ORIOLE. 

Icterus mesomelas taczanowskii Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 153, 
1901 Guayaquil, Ecuador (type in U. S. National Museum); Bangs and 
Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 Perico and Bellavista, Maranon River, 
Peru; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 699, 1926 Esmeraldas, 

1 Icterus mesomelas taczanowskii Ridgway: Differs from /. m. carrikeri by 
lesser extent of black at the base of the lateral rectrices, this being especially 
noticeable on the outermost pair, where the black area is replaced by a much 
smaller, ill-defined dusky spot, and by having the inner secondaries very con- 
spicuously edged with yellowish white. In the last-named character it resembles 
/. m. mesomelas, but is smaller and has much less black at the base of the lateral 
rectrices, while the black gular area is decidedly more restricted. 

I do not see how /. m. maranonicus can be separated. The alleged difference 
in size is non-existent. Adult males from western Ecuador vary in the length 
of the wing from 86 to 94, while two from the Maranon Valley measure 86 and 91, 
respectively. The markings of the lateral rectrices are the same, and the yellow- 
ish basis of the dorsal feathers is likewise variable, it being present in one of the 
Maranon birds as well as in several from the Pacific coast. 

Material examined. Ecuador: San Javier, Prov. Esmeraldas, 4; Vinces, 2; 
Babahoyo, 1; Chimbo, 1; Zaruma, 3. Peru: Tumbez, 2; Callacate, 1; Vina, 
Huamachuco, 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 127 

Chone, Chongoncito, Duran, Bucay, Rio Jubones, Santa Rosa, Portovelo, 
Punta Santa Ana, Casanga, Rio Pindo, Lunama, Guainche, Alamor, and 
Cebolall, western Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, 
p. 235, 1932 Rio San Antonio, Ecuador. 

Icterus mesomelas maranonicus Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 85, 
p. 31, 1933 Chaqual, Rio Maran6n, Dept. Libertad, Peru (type in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Icterus mesomelas (not Psarocolius mesomelas Wagler) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1860, pp. 277, 293 Babahoyo and Esmeraldas, Ecuador; 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1877, p. 323 Tumbez, Peru; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 200 
Callacate, Peru; Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 422 Payta, Peru; Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 552 Chimbo, Ecuador; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, 
p. 367 part, western Ecuador and Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, 
p. 417, 1884 Peru (Tumbez, Lechugal, Callacate, La Huanca, Rio la 
Chira, Sechura); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 378, 1886 part, 
spec, t-w, Ecuador (Santa Rita, Chiquinda) and Peru (Payta); Salvin, 
Nov. Zool., 2, p. 10, 1895 Vina (Huamachuco), Dept. Libertad, Peru; 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 29, 1899 
Babahoyo and Vinces, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador and western Peru 
south to Piura, extending east to the upper Maranon Valley. 

*Icterus auricapillus Cassin. 1 ORANGE-CROWNED ORIOLE. 

Icterus auricapillus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 3, No. 12, Nov.-Dec., 
1847, p. 332, pub. 1848 "Mexico" (errore) and "South America" 2 (type 
in coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 34, 1899); idem, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., (2), 1, p. 137, pi. 16, fig. 2 (fig. of type), 1848; Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 132, 1862 "Trinidad"; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Caripe [Sucre"], Venezuela; Finsch, I.e., 1870, 
p. 553 "Trinidad" (ex Sclater); Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 
123 Santa Marta, Colombia; Salvin, Ibis, 1883, p. 363 coast region of 
Venezuela (Caripe') and Colombia (Santa Marta, "Bogota") (monog.); 
idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 377, 1886 Venezuela (Caripe", Maturin) 
and Colombia (Santa Marta, Bogota); Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 
San Antonio [Sucre], Venezuela; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 
139, 1898 Santa Marta; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 162, 1900 
Bonda and Cacagualito, Colombia; Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 175, 1901 vicinity of La Guaira, Venezuela; Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 211, 1913 Cariaquito, south shore 
of Paria Peninsula, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 
2, p. 205, 1916 Caicara, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 633, 1917 Honda and west of Honda, Magdalena 

1 A species of doubtful affinity. Though it resembles the Central American 
/. cucullatus in certain respects, I can hardly believe that there is any genetic 
relationship between the two species. 

2 Santa Marta, Colombia, suggested as type locality by Berlepsch and Hartert 
(Nov. Zool., 9, p. 31, 1902). 



128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Valley, Colombia; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 473, 
1922 Bonda, Cacagualito, Mamatoco, Fundacion, Dibulla, Don Diego, 
and Santa Marta (nest and eggs descr.); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 71, p. 415, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Pendulinus auricapillus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 433, 1850 
"Mexico" (diag.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 60 
New Grenada, Venezuela, "Trinidad," and "Mexico" (monog.). 

Xantfiornus auricapillus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 184, 1851 Puerto Cabello, 
Venezuela; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 31, 1902 Caicara, 
Rio Orinoco, Venezuela. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Colombia (Santa Marta region 
and Magdalena Valley up to Honda) and northern Venezuela east 
to the Paria Peninsula and south to the Orinoco Valley. 1 

9: Colombia (Puerto Zapote, Bolivar, 1; "Bogota," 3; Fundacion, 
Santa Marta, 1); Venezuela (Macuto, Caracas, 2; Cocollar, Sucre, 1; 
Mount Turumiquire, Sucre, 1). 

*Icterus grace-annae Cassin. 2 GRACE'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus grace-annae Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 52 Ecuador 
or Peru (type in coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; 
cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 34, 1899); Salvin, Ibis, 1874, 
p. 323 Machala, "near Guayaquil," Ecuador (crit.); Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 323 Tumbez, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 
1878, p. 137 Pacasmayo and Tumbez, Peru; Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 422 
Payta, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 368, pi. 11 littoral of Ecuador and 
Peru (monog.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 419, 1884 Peru (Tumbez, 
Santa Lucia, Guadalupe, Pacasmayo, Payta); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 378, 1886 Ecuador (Machali) and Peru (Tumbez, Payta); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 698, 1926 Ecuador (Manta, 
Santa Elena, Puna Island, Casanga) and Peru (Chilaco, Lamor). 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Ecuador, from Manta, 
southern Manavi, southwards, and western Peru south to Pacasmayo, 
Dept. Libertad. 

1: Peru (Hacienda Llagueda, Libertad, 1). 

Icterus xantholemus Gil Lletget. 3 YELLOW-THROATED ORIOLE. 

Icterus xantholemus Gil Lletget, Bol. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 18, p. 340, 1918 
Ecuador (type in Madrid Museum). 

1 Although trade skins are sometimes labeled "Trinidad," there is no authentic 
record of the occurrence of this oriole on that island. Native "Bogota" skins agree 
with a Venezuelan series. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Bonda, 2; "Bogota," 5. Vene- 
zuela: Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, 5; hinterland of Cumana (Cumanacoa, San 
Antonio, etc.), 8; Maturin, Monagas, 1. 

2 A very distinct species of rather limited distribution. Three additional speci- 
mens from Ecuador and two from Peru (Tumbez) examined. 

3 Icterus xantholemus Gil Lletget: Throat and head light cadmium yellow, 
brighter on the pileum; the remainder of the under parts, the edge of the wing, 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 129 

Icterus xantholaema Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 698, 1926 
Ecuador (ex Lletget). 

Range. Ecuador (no precise locality recorded). 
"Icterus chrysater chrysater (Lesson). 1 LESSON'S ORIOLE. 

Xanthornus chrysater Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, anne"e, 2d se"m., No. 
9, p. 204, Aug. 1, 1844 Mexico (type in coll. of Dr. Abeille", Bordeaux); 
idem, Oeuvr. Buffon, 6d. LeVeque, 20 (Descr. Mamm. Ois.), p. 332, April, 
1847 (reprint); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 434, 1850 Mexico. 

Icterus gualanensis Underwood, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 7, p. lix, June 30, 1898 
Gualan, Guatemala (type in British Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 295, 1902 (ex Underwood); Bangs, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 18, p. 167, 1905 (crit.). 

Icterus giraudii (not of Cassin, 1848) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 133, 
1862 part, spec, a, Guatemala; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1867, p. 52 part, Mexico and Guatemala; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. 
Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 46, 1878 Guatemala; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 293, 1902 part, southern Mexico to Honduras 
(monog.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 140, 1906 Chichen 
Itza, Yucatan; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 114, 1907 
Lake Atitlan and Tecpam, Guatemala; Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
69, p. 393, 1929 Augustine, Cayo District, British Honduras. 

Icterus giraudi Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 228 Santeco- 
mapam, Vera Cruz; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 20 Guatemala; 

upper and under wing coverts, as well as the rump wax yellow, uropygial feathers 
tipped with black; nape, lores, "neck" (cuello), back, scapulars, flanks, remiges, 
and rectrices black; under tail coverts black edged with white. All the feathers of 
the body plumage are basally white, this being particularly noticeable on the lower 
neck and on the interscapular region. Wing, 104; tail, 70; bill (approximately) 
20-22 (free translation from the Spanish original). 

The type was collected by Manuel Villavicencio during his travels in Ecuador 
between 1862 and 1865. Although the description is none too clear in various 
respects, the yellow throat seems to distinguish this oriole from all other Ecua- 
dorian species. 

1 Icterus chrysater chrysater (Lesson) differs from I. c. giraudii in rather larger 
size, and by the females having the pileum and back decidedly greenish, while 
the males are uniform bright cadmium yellow above. Wing, 102-109, (female) 
95-100; tail, 105-113, (female) 98-106; bill, 22-24. 

The variation named I. gualanensis by Underwood, in which the black of 
the forehead more or less invades the anterior pileum, is of a mutational nature, 
and although it has not yet been found in Mexico, material from the latter country 
in collections is so scarce that no definite conclusion is permissible. The possi- 
bility of splitting the northern form into two races seems altogether very slight, 
since various Guatemalan individuals are indistinguishable from others taken in 
Mexico and Nicaragua. There is no record of this oriole from either Costa Rica 
or Chiriqui. 

Lesson's Xanthornus chrysater is by no means a nomen nudum, but is accom- 
panied by an excellent description which leaves no doubt whatever as to its being 
applicable to the present species. The note on its identity recognized by the 
writer as long ago as 1920 remained unpublished, and in the meantime Mr. 
Griscom has independently reached the same conclusion. 

Twenty-five additional specimens examined. 



130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Salvin, Ibis, 1873, p. 373 Chontales, Nicaragua; idem, Cat. Strickland 
Coll., p. 263, 1882 Guatemala; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1883, 
p. 445 Yucatan; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 366 part, Mexico, Yucatan, and 
Guatemala; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 379, 1886 part, spec, a-e, 
Yucatan, Guatemala (Tactic, Vera Paz; Volcan de Fuego), and Nicaragua 
(Chontales); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 469, 
1887 part, Mexico (Santecomapam; Yucatan), Guatemala (Volcan de 
Fuego, Duenas, Motagua Valley, Tactic, Coban), Honduras (Omoa, 
Ruatan Island), and Nicaragua (Chontales); Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 264 
Meco and Ruatan Islands, Bay of Honduras; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 10, p. 588, 1888- Segovia River, Honduras; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 8, p. 280, 1896 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 336, 1932 San Juancito, Honduras. 

Icterus melanopterus (not of Hartlaub) Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1859, p. 58 Omoa, Honduras. 

Icterus chrysater chrysater Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 393, 1932 
Finca La Primavera, Finca Sepacuite, El Soche, Finca Concepcion, 
Barrillos, Nebaj, La Montanita, Chichicastenango, Momostenango, 
Zanzon, and Tecpam, Guatemala (crit.). 

Range. Southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz (Sante- 
comapam), Chiapas (San Cristobal), and Yucatan, and southwards 
through Guatemala, British Honduras, and Honduras to northern 
Nicaragua, in the Tropical and Subtropical zones. 

13: Guatemala (Samac, Alta Vera Paz, 1; Lake Atitlan, Solola, 1; 
Tecpam, Chimaltenango, 4; unspecified, 3); Honduras (unspecified, 
1); Nicaragua (Matagalpa, 1; San Rafael del Norte, Matagalpa, 2). 

*Icterus chrysater giraudii Cassin. 1 GIRAUD'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus giraudii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 3, No. 12, Nov.-Dec., 
1847, p. 333, pub. 1848 "prope Bogota, in Nova Grenada" (type in coll. 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 34, 1899); idem, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., (2), 
1, p. 138, pi. 17, 1848 Bogota; idem, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, 
p. 140 Rio Truando and Nercua, Colombia; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama; Sclater, Cat. Coll. 

1 Icterus chrysater giraudii Cassin: Similar to /. c. chrysater, but rather smaller; 
males identical in coloration; females very nearly as bright cadmium yellow as the 
males, the pileum and upper back being by no means washed with greenish, as is 
invariably the case in the females of I. c. chrysater. Wing, 95-103, (female) 91-97; 
tail, 99-110, (female) 92-100; bill, 22-25. 

Specimens from the coast ranges of Venezuela (melanopterus}, as shown by 
an excellent series, are nowise different. Both sexes from the Caracas region, 
in opposition to Bonaparte's statement, have the bright yellow shoulder spot just 
as well-marked as those from Colombia; the dimensions are absolutely the same; 
and the bill, though slightly stouter in some individuals, does not furnish any 
useful point of distinction either. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Lion Hill, 2. Colombia: Cali, 2; 
Rio Cauqueta, Cauca, 1; "Bogota," 17. Venezuela: El Valle, Merida, 5; Galipan, 
Cerro del Avila, Dept. Federal, 13; Loma Redonda, near Caracas, 2. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 131 

Amer. Bds., p. 133, 1862 part, spec, b, Bogota; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 52 part, Rio Atrato, Panama, and Bogota (monog.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 293, 1902 part, Panama, 
Colombia, and Venezuela. 

Icterus melanopterus Hartlaub, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 1, p. 275, 1849 Caracas, 
Venezuela (type in Bremen Museum); Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 185, 
1851 Colombia and Venezuela. 

Xanthornus melanoplerus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 434, 1850 
Colombia; idem, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, p. 835, 1853 
Venezuela (crit.); idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 13, 1854 (reprint). 

Icterus giraudi Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1855, p. 154 Bogota 
(crit.); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1864, p. 353 Panama Railroad; Salvin, 
I.e., 1867, p. 142 Santa Fe, Veraguas; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1868, p. 
167 Caracas, Venezuela; Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 190 Chitra and Castillo, 
Veraguas; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 330 Andes of Santander, Colombia 
(up to 7,000 ft.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 509 
Envigado, Concordia, and Medellin, Colombia (eggs descr.); Sclater, Ibis, 
1883, p. 366 part, Colombia and Venezuela; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 379, 1886 part, spec, f-t, Veragua (Chitra, Santa Fe), Panama 
(Chepo, Lion Hill, Paraiso Station, Colon), Colombia (Medellin, Bogota), 
and Venezuela; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 469, 
1887 part, Panama and Colombia; Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 Veraguas; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1899, p. 307 Ibague, Colombia; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 5, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Darien; Piguet, Mem. 
Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 Cafetal La Camelia, near Ange- 
lopolis, Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 633, 1917 
San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, La Sierra, Miraflores, Salento, Barro 
Blanco, La Frijolera, Chicoral, San Agustin, Andalucia, Fusugasuga, El 
Carmen, El Alto de la Paz, Panama (above Pacho), San Antonio (south 
of Bogota), Quetame, Buena Vista, and Villavicencio, Colombia (crit.); 
Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 320, 1924 Farfan and Balboa, Panama. 

Icterus giraudii giraudii Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 369, 1932 
Perme and Obaldia, eastern Panama. 

Range. Panama (from Veraguas eastwards), Colombia (except- 
ing the Santa Marta region), and western Venezuela east to the 
Caracas region, chiefly in the Subtropical zone. 

10: Colombia (San Antonio, Cundinamarca, 1; Rio Cauca, 1; 
Cali, Cauca, 1; San Antonio, Cauca, 1; "Bogota," 2); Venezuela 
(Maracay, Aragua, 2; Colon, Tachira, 1; Rio Chama, MeYida, 1). 

Icterus hondae Chapman. 1 HONDA ORIOLE. 

1 Icterus hondae Chapman: Male similar to I. chrysater giraudii, but consid- 
erably smaller and with the orange areas much darker, just as deeply colored as 
in /. auratus. Wing, 90; tail, 92; bill, 24. 

This species is known only from two males in first nuptial plumage taken in 
the Tropical zone of the Magdalena Valley near Honda at an elevation of 3,000 



132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Icterus hondae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 33, p. 191, March, 1914 
Honda, Magdalena River, Colombia (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 634, 1917 Honda. 

Range. Tropical zone of the Magdalena Valley, Colombia. 
*Icterus nigrogularis nigrogularis (Hahn). YELLOW ORIOLE. 

Xanthornus nigrogularis Hahn, Vogel aus Asien, Africa, etc., livr. 5, pi. 1, 
1819 "Jamaica, Mexico, and Cayenne" (type from "Brazil," in Munich 
Museum examined). 

Psarocolius xanthornis Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 22, sp. 15, 1827 Cayenne, 
"Mexico," and "Antilles" (good descr.; synon. in part). 

Xanthornus linnaei Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 434, 1850 part, 
Brazil and Cayenne. 1 

Icterus xanthornus (not Coracias xanthornus Linnaeus) 2 Cabanis, in Schom- 
burgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 680, 1849 coast of British 
Guiana (nest descr.); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 269, 
1856 north of the Amazon; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 133, 1862 
part, spec, b, c, Cayenne and "New Granada"; Casein, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 50 part, Cayenne and Venezuela (monog.); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Carupano 
[Sucre], Venezuela; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 195, 1870 Forte do Sao 
Joaquim do Rio Branco and Rio Mahu, Brazil; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 329 
Santa Marta, Colombia; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 123 
Santa Marta; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 368 part, coast region of Colombia 
and Venezuela, Guiana, and Rio Branco; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 380, 1886 part, spec, a-i, k, Cayenne, British Guiana (Georgetown, 
Demerara), Venezuela (Carupano), and Colombia (Santa Marta); Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 53, 1892 Carupano, Venezuela; Robinson, 
Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 160, 1895 Barranquilla, Colombia; Phelps 
and Chapman, Auk, 14, pp. 364, 368, 1897 Cumana and Cumanacoa, 
Venezuela (plumages); Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 138, 1898 
Santa Marta; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 162, 1900 Bonda 
and Santa Marta; idem, I.e., 21, p. 290, 1905 Bonda (nest and eggs); 

feet. The occurrence of a second species of this group in the heart of the range of 
/. c. giraudii is very puzzling, and more information regarding its status seems 
badly needed. We have no material. 

1 Bonaparte's account refers in part to Icterus leucopteryx Wagler for instance 
pi. 243 of Edwards' Glean. Nat. Hist., 5, p. 68, where the Jamaican Oriole is well 
figured and his description is somewhat ambiguous. 

2 Coracias xanthornus Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 108, 1758), prin- 
cipally based on "The Black-headed Indian Oriole" of Edwards (Nat. Hist. Bds., 
2, p. 77, pi. 77), refers to Oriolus melanocephalus Linnaeus, an Indian species, as 
we have pointed out in another connection (Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 14, pp. 131- 
132, 1919). The latter bird becoming now Oriolus xanthornus (Linnaeus), the 
use of Oriolus xanthornus Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 391, 1788) for the Yellow 
Oriole is barred under present rules. Oriolus xanthornus Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 
12th ed., 2, unpaged "Errata" sheet at the end of the volume, 1767) is a new name 
for Oriolus mexicanus Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 162, No. 13 [not No. 8], 
1766), a composite species of obscure identity, and this brings us up to X. nigro- 
gulans as the earliest name of unquestionable applicability. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 133 

Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 124, 1908 Cayenne; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 
2, p. 377, 1910 Surinam; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 212, 
1913 Cariaquito, Buelta Triste, and Cafto de Corosal, Venezuela; 
Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 576, 1921 upper Takutu Mountains, 
Ituribisci, Supenaam, Abary River, Quonga, Georgetown, and Bartica 
Grove. 

Icterus xanthornus var. /3. marginalis Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., (2), 
40, No. 12 (seance du 4 decembre 1875), p. 800, 1876 "Isthme de Panama" 
(type in Brussels Museum). 1 

Xanthornus xanthornus Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 31, 1902 
Altagracia and Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela (nest and eggs) ; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 402, 1907 (range). 

Icterus xanthornus xanthornus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 300, 1902 part, coast of northern South America from Cayenne to 
Colombia; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 206, 1916 Orinoco 
region (habits, nest, and eggs); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 634, 1917 Turbaco, La Playa, Calamar, Boca de Chimi, Puerto 
Berrio, and Barrigon, Colombia. 

Icterus nigrogularis nigrogularis Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
14, p. 471, 1922 Santa Marta, Bonda, Mamatoco, Punto Caiman, 
Fundacion, and La Tigrera, Colombia (crit., habits); Darlington, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 415, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Icterus xanthornus helioeides (not of Clark) Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 323 Cariaco 
Peninsula, Venezuela. 

Range. Extreme northern Brazil on the confines of British 
Guiana (Rio Branco and Rio Mahu); French, Dutch, and British 
Guiana; Venezuela south to the Orinoco Valley and west to the 
eastern foot of the east Colombian Andes (Barrigon, Rio Meta); 
and Caribbean coast region of northern Colombia south to the lower 
Magdalena. 2 

1 1 cannot make out Icterus xanthornus var. a. dubusii Dubois, Bull. Acad. 
Roy. Belg., (2), 40, No. 12, p. 799, 1875 [=1876]. Judging from the description, 
it seems to be similar to /. n. nigrogularis in good plumage, viz., in haying con- 
spicuous white edges to secondaries and greater upper wing coverts, but is stated 
to have drop-like spots of black on the back, thereby approaching /. pustulatus. 
The type supplied by J. Verreaux is said to be from the Isthmus of Panama, 
where no representative of this group of orioles has ever been taken. Sclater 
(Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 381, 1886) describes as I. dubusi a somewhat similarly 
marked specimen bought from a dealer in 1846. Its origin is unknown. 

2 Birds from the Orinoco Valley, Venezuela, and extreme northern Brazil 
(upper Rip Branco) agree in size and proportions of bill with the type of X. 
nigrogularis and Guianan specimens. Those from northeastern Venezuela (Cu- 
mana; San Felix; Yacua, Gulf of Paria), however, form the passage to /. n. trini- 
tatis. While certain individuals are fully as small-billed as others from the Orinoco, 
the majority have decidedly longer and heavier bills, and a couple from Yacua 
cannot be distinguished on this score from the Trinidad race. The few speci- 
mens from northern Colombia that we have seen differ from all the numerous 
Venezuelan individuals (and also from the insular races) by larger white alar 
speculum, which extends as a very conspicuous area from the second to the eighth 
primaries inclusive. They correspond to the description of /. xanthornus var. 
marginalis, and I should have been inclined to separate them under Dubois's 



134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

62: Colombia (Fundacion, Santa Marta, 1; Lorica, Bolivar, 1); 
Venezuela (Rio Aurare, Zulia, 4; Rio Catatumbo, Zulia, 8; Encon- 
trados, Zulia, 7; Lake Valencia, Carabobo, 1; Puerto Cabello, 
Carabobo, 3; Macuto, Caracas, 3; Caracas, Caracas, 4; Maracay, 
Aragua, 9; Cocollar, Sucre, 5; Cumana, Sucre, 7); British Guiana 
(Georgetown, 2; unspecified, 2); Brazil (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 
Amazonas, 4; Serra do Lua, Rio Branco, 1). 

*Icterus nigrogularis trinitatis Hartert. 1 TRINIDAD ORIOLE. 

Icterus xanthornus trinitatis Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 33, p. 76, 1913 
Savannah Grande, Trinidad (type in Tring Collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Icterus xanthornus (not Coracias xanthornus Linnaeus) Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 133, 1862 part, spec, a, Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 
84 Trinidad; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 275, 1866 Trinidad; Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 50 part, Trinidad; Finsch, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 578 Trinidad; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 368 
part, Trinidad; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 380, 1886 part, spec, j, 
Trinidad; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 36, 1894 Princes- 
town and Monos Island. 

Xanthornus xanthornus xanthornus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 20, 1906 
Chaguaramas, Seelet, Caparo, Pointe Gourde, and Laventille. 

Icterus xanthornus xanthornus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 300, 1902 part, Trinidad; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 
1, p. 360, 1908 Pointe Gourde, Trinidad. 

Icteris xanthornis [sic] Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 136, 
1922 Trinidad (nest descr.). 

Icterus nigrogularis nigrogularis (not Xanthornus nigrogularis Hahn) Roberts, 
Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Range. Island of Trinidad, including Monos Island. 
1: Trinidad. 

name had not Mr. Todd, who has a good series from Santa Marta at his disposal, 
denied the constancy of this divergency. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Rio Mahu, 2; Forte do Sao Joaquim, 
Rio Branco, 5. British Guiana: Quonga, 1. Dutch Guiana: Leonsberg, near 
Paramaribo, 1; east of Paramaribo, 1. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3. Venezuela: 
Altagracia, Orinoco, 9; Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco, 3; Quiribana de Caicara, Orinoco, 
1; Guiria, Yacua, Gulf of Paria, 2; plains of Cumana, 5; San Felix, near Cumana, 
5; Rio Mame>a, near Caracas, 1. Colombia: Santa Marta, 1; Cartagena, 2. 

1 Icterus nigrogularis trinitatis Hartert: Similar to /. n. nigrogularis, but with 
decidedly heavier as well as longer bill, and slightly longer wings; the whitish edges 
to the distal halves of the primaries either absent or but faintly suggested. Similar 
in size of bill to I. n. helioeides, but wings and tail shorter, and whitish external 
edges to primaries much less developed or even lacking. The racial characters 
are much less pronounced in females and immatures, which are, however, generally 
distinguishable by their different proportions. Wing (adult males), 94-97; tail, 
89-94; bill, 21-23. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Savannah Grande, 1 (the type); Caparo, 9; 
Caroni, 1; Icacos, 2; Santa Cruz, 1; Port-of-Spain, 1; Seelet, 1; Pointe Gourde, 
1; Laventille, 1; Chaguaramas, 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 135 

*Icterus nigrogularis helioeides Clark. 1 MARGARITA ORIOLE. 

Icterus xanthornus helioeides Clark, Auk, 19, p. 265, 1902 El Valle, Mar- 
garita Island (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 420, 1930); Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 569 Margarita Island (crit.); 
Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 248, 1909 Margarita Island. 

Icterus xanthornus (not Coracias xanthornus Linnaeus) Robinson and Rich- 
mond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 675, 1896 Margarita Island (crit.). 

Icterus xanthornus xanthornus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
300, 1902 part, Margarita Island. 

Range. Island of Margarita, off Venezuela. 

37: Venezuela (Margarita Island, 37). 

*Icterus nigrogularis curasoensis Ridgway. 2 CURACAO ORIOLE. 

Icterus curasoensis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 174, July 29, 1884 

Curasao Island (type in U. S. National Museum); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 381, 1886 (ex Ridgway). 
Icterus xanthornus curasoensis Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, pp. 142, 165, 

with col. pi., 1895 Curasao. 
Icterus xanthornus cura^aoensis Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 40, p. 82, 1892 

Curasao (crit.); Hartert, Ibis, 1893, pp. 295, 317, 328 Aruba, Curasao, 

and Bonaire (crit., nest, and eggs). 

Icterus curacoensis Peters, Journ. Orn., 40, p. 114, 1892 Savonet, Curasao. 
Icterus xanthornus curasoensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 

303, 1902 Curasao, Bonaire, and Aruba (monog.); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. 

Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 201, 207, 212, 254, 1909 Aruba, Curacao, and 

Bonaire. 
Xanthornus xanthornus cura^aoensis Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 299, 1902 

Curasao, Aruba, and Bonaire. 

Range. Islands of Curasao, Bonaire, and Aruba, southern 
Caribbean Sea. 

15: Dutch West Indies (Curasao, 7; Bonaire, 2; Aruba, 6). 

*Icterus leucopteryx leucopteryx (Wagler). 3 JAMAICAN ORIOLE. 

Oriolus mexicanus (not of Linnaeus, 1766) Leach, Zool. Misc., 1, p. 8, pi. 2, 
1814 St. Andrews, Jamaica (location of type unknown). 

1 Icterus nigrogularis helioeides Clark: Similar in size of bill to /. n. trinitatis, 
but with longer wings and tail, and the white wing-markings more strongly pro- 
nounced, especially the outer webs of the primaries conspicuously edged with 
white. Wing (adult males), 98-105; tail, 93-100; bill, 21-23. 

Four additional specimens examined. 

2 Icterus nigrogularis curasoensis Ridgway: Nearest to /. n. helioeides and 
about the same size, but bill slenderer and longer, and the white wing-edgings 
still broader. Wing (adult male), 95-103; tail, 90-98; bill, 23-25. 

Additional material examined. Aruba, 1 ; Curasao, 8. 

3 Oriolus nidipendulus Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 390, 1788), sometimes 
quoted as a doubtful synonym, appears to me unidentifiable. It is exclusively 
based on "The Watchy Picket or Spanish Nightingale" of Sloane (Voy. Jamaica, 



136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Psarocolius leucopteryx Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 22, Genus Psarocolius, sp. 16, 
1827 new name for Oriolus mexicanus Leach, preoccupied. 

Icterus personatus Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 81, text to pi. 482, 
Oct., 1829 Jamaica (type in Leiden Museum). 

Icterus leucopteryx Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 226, 1847 Jamaica (habits); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 74 Jamaica; idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 134, 1862 Jamaica; March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1863, p. 299 Jamaica (habits, nest, and eggs); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 374 
Jamaica (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 387, 1886 Mon- 
eague, Jamaica; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 218, 1886 Jamaica (descr.); idem, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 105, 1889 Jamaica (descr.); idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 110, 
1892 Jamaica; Scott, Auk, 10, p. 178, 1893 Stony Hill and Priestman's 
River, Jamaica (sexes); Field, Auk, 11, p. 126, 1894 Port Henderson, 
Jamaica (nest); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 303, 
1902 Jamaica (monog.); Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 489, 1928 Jamaica 
(Kingston, Lumsden, Williamsfield, Black River). 

Pendulinus leucopteryx Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 59 
Jamaica (monog.). 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 

15: Jamaica (Kingston, 5; Port Antonio, 3; Priestman's River, 
3; unspecified, 4). 

*Icterus leucopteryx bairdi Cory. 1 BAIRD'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus leucopteryx bairdi Cory, Auk, 3, p. 500, 1886 Grand Cayman (type 
in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); idem, Auk, 5, p. 158, 1888 
Grand Cayman; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 291, 1889 Grand Cayman; idem, 
Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 129, 146, 1892 Grand Cayman; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 304, 1902 Grand Cayman; Lowe, 
Ibis, 1909, p. 340; idem, 1911, pp. 143, 161 Grand Cayman; English, 
Ibis, 1916, p. 18 common in the northern part of Grand Cayman; Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 317, 1916 Grand Cayman (crit.). 

Range. Island of Grand Cayman (south of Cuba), Caribbean 
Sea. 

6: Grand Cayman. 

2, p. 299), described as being above "light brown or gray inclining to red," and 
below "dirty yellow or feuille morte color" with a black line in the middle of the 
foreneck, while the "beginning of the bill" is said to have "a little ring of black." 
Although the "other sort of Watchy Picket" of Sloane (I.e., 2, p. 300, pi. 258, 
fig. 3), considered by him as possibly identical with the above-described bird, 
seems to be the Jamaican Oriole, Gmelin's diagnosis is obviously based on "The 
Watchy Picket or Spanish Nightingale," which I am unable to make out, and his 
name should, consequently, be discarded as indeterminable. 

1 Icterus leucopteryx bairdi Cory : Similar to /. I. leucopteryx, but slightly smaller 
with slenderer bill; coloration much brighter, the under parts lemon chrome with- 
out any olivaceous tinge on chest and sides; black loral area not extending to fore- 
head, etc. Wing, 103, (female) 95-97; tail, 85, (female) 80-82. 

This well-marked race is restricted to Grand Cayman and, according to 
English, not uncommon locally in the northern parts of the island. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 137 

*Icterus leucopteryx lawrencii Cory. 1 ST. ANDREWS ORIOLE. 

Icterus lawrencii Cory, Auk, 4, pp. 178, 181, 1887 St. Andrews Island, 
Caribbean Sea (type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); Ridg- 
way, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 305, 1902 St. Andrews (monog.) ; 
Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 21, 1931- 
St. Andrews (crit.). 

Range. St. Andrews Island, Caribbean Sea. 
5: St. Andrews Island. 

*Icterus auratus Bonaparte. 2 ORANGE ORIOLE. 

Icterus auratus (DuBus MS.) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 435, 1850 
Yucatan (type in Brussels Museum); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 9, p. 271, 1869 Merida, Yucatan (crit.); Boucard, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 445 Yucatan; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 369 Yucatan 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 382, 1886 northern Yucatan; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 473, pi. 33, fig. 2, 
1887 Yucatan; Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 264 Meco Island, off Yucatan 
(crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 208 near Tekanto, 
Yucatan; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 8, p. 281, 1896 Chichen 
Itza, Yucatan; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 299, 1902 
Yucatan and Meco Island (monog.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, 
p. 140, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan. 

Range. Yucatan (Merida, Tekanto, Chichen Itza, Temax, El 
Campo, etc.) and the island of Meco. 

11: Yucatan (San Felipe, 5; Rio Lagartos, 1; unspecified, 5). 
*Icterus icterus icterus (Linnaeus). TROUPIAL. 

Oriolm icterus Linnaeus, 3 Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 161, 1766 based primarily 
on "Le Troupiale" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 86, pi. 8, fig. 1; "in America cali- 
diore"= "Cayenne" (ex Brisson). 

Icterus vulgaris Daudin, 4 Traite 1 d'Orn., 2, p. 340, 1800 new name for Oriolus 
icterus Linnaeus; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 434, 1850 (diag.); 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 46 part, Venezuela, Guiana, 
and "Rio Negro" (monog.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 167 Carupano [Sucre], Venezuela; Finsch, I.e., 1870, p. 578 

1 Icterus leucopteryx lawrencii Cory: Very similar to I. I. bairdi and agreeing 
in bright lemon chrome coloration of under parts, but wings and tail longer; bill 
stronger; white wing area (in adult plumage) more "solid" without any, or with 
very few small dusky spots. Wing, 108, (female) 100; tail, 92, (female) 85-87. 

2 1 am not acquainted with this species. 

3 Although the majority of the references quoted by Linnaeus do not belong 
to the Troupial, his diagnosis is clearly based on Brisson's account of a bird sent 
by Mr. Artur from "Cayenne" to the Reaumur Collection. 

4 Several of the synonyms again do not refer to the Troupial. However, 
the author's long description is unmistakable, and, furthermore, the new name 
vulgaris was evidently given in the intention of avoiding the combination Icterus 
icterus. 



138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"Trinidad"; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 369 part, Venezuela (Carupano) and 
"Trinidad"; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 382, 1886 part, spec, c, 
Carupano, Venezuela, and "Trinidad"; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 
Guanaguana [Sucre], Venezuela. 

Pendulinus longirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 319, 
1816 based on "Le Troupiale" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 532. 

Icterus icterus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 355, 1885 (nomencl.); 
Robinson, I.e., 18, p. 674, 1896 Margarita Island; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 263, 1902 part, Venezuela (La Guayra, Caru- 
pano, Guanaguana, Margarita Island), "Guiana," and "Trinidad"; Clark, 
Auk, 19, p. 264, 1902 El Valle, Margarita; Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 569 
Margarita Island; idem, Ibis, 1909, p. 323 Cariaco Peninsula, Venezuela; 
Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 107, 1909 Guanoco, Orinoco Delta; Cory, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 248, 1909 Margarita Island; 
Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 207, 1916 Orinoco Valley 
(nest and eggs); Delacour, Ibis, 1923, p. 150 Apure and Portuguesa 
rivers, Venezuela. 

Xanthornus icterus Hartert and Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 32, 1909 Alta- 
gracia and Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela. 

Range. Northern Venezuela, from Carabobo east to the Paria 
peninsula and Margarita Island, south to the Orinoco Valley, ex- 
tending up to the mouth of the Rio Meta. 1 

30: Venezuela (Margarita Island, Nueva Esparta, 23; Cocollar, 
Sucre, 2; Maracay, Aragua, 5). 

*Icterus icterus ridgwayi (Hartert). 2 RIDGWAY'S TROUPIAL. 

Xanthornus icterus ridgwayi Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 299, 1902 Aruba 
Island, Caribbean Sea (type in Tring Collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

1 Birds from Margarita, the Orinoco Valley, and the Cumana region agree 
well together. Although described from "Cayenne," this bird has not since been 
found anywhere in the Guianas, and it is more than probable that the specimens 
mentioned by the early French authors were cage-birds. There is no authentic 
record of the occurrence of the Troupial on the island of Trinidad either. The 
indications "Rio Negro" and "Brazil" are unquestionably erroneous, while the 
observations at Charleston, South Carolina, and Santa Barbara, California 
(Bowles, Condor, 13, p. 109, 1911), refer almost certainly to escaped cage-birds. 

Fifty specimens examined. 

2 Icterus icterus ridgwayi (Hartert): Similar to /. i. icterus, but on average 
larger and paler, and with decidedly longer, slenderer bill. Bill, 31^-34^. 

Two skins from Santa Marta seem to agree with topotypical specimens. This 
is confirmed by Mr. Todd, who refers series from Colombia and northwestern 
Venezuela (Tocuyo) to /. i. ridgwayi. Birds from St. Thomas and Jamaica, 
where this species is said to have been introduced, have the long, slender bill of 
ridgwayi, but are paler yellow throughout, thus resembling the variety of the 
Troupial frequently met with among cage-birds. Although a name has been pro- 
posed by the late C. Cory, it seems altogether unlikely that they represent a valid 
race which, at all events, requires corroboration by adequate material before it 
can be admitted. One of the races of the Troupial is said to have been introduced 
also on the island of Dominica (cf. Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 
541, 1928). 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 139 

Icterus longirostris (not Pendulinus longirostris Vieillot) 1 Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 46 Cartagena, Colombia (monog.). 

Icterus vulgaris (not of Daudin) Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, pp. 160, 176, 1878 
near Quebradillas, Porto Rico (habits); idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. 
Nat., 7, p. 209, 1878 Porto Rico; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1879, p. 
200 Valle Dupar, Colombia; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 369 part, Valle 
Dupar; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 382, 1886 part, spec, a, b, 
"Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta" and Valle Dupar, Colombia; Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 172, 1884 St. Thomas; Hartert, Bull. Brit. 
Orn. Cl., 1, p. xii, 1892 Curacao and Aruba. 

Icterus icterus Cory, Auk, 3, p. 219, 1886 Porto Rico, Jamaica, and St. 
Thomas (introduced; descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 106, 1889 same 
localities; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 146, 1892 same localities 
(crit.); Scott, Auk, 10, p. 178, 1893 (not now in Jamaica); Hartert, Ibis, 
1893, pp. 297, 298, 317 Aruba, St. Thomas, and Curacao (crit.); Robin- 
son, Flying Trip to Tropics, pp. 160, 165, 1895 Magdalena River, 
Colombia, and Curacao; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 263, 1902 part, Colombia (Valle Dupar), St. Thomas, Porto Rico, 
Jamaica, and Curacao; Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 12, 1903 Porto Rico (intro- 
duced); Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 340 (in text) St. Thomas. 

Icterus icterus ridgwayi Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 200, 207, 
1909 Aruba and Curacao; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
14, p. 474, 1922 Rio Hacha and Fonseca, Colombia (crit.); Wetmore, 
Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Is., 9, p. 538, 1927 Porto Rico and St. 
Thomas (crit.). 

Icterus icterus harterti Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 201 (in 
text), 1909 St. Thomas (type in Field Museum). 

Range. Northern Colombia (Cartagena; lower Magdalena 
Valley; Santa Marta region; La Goajira) and northwestern Vene- 
zuela (east to Tocuyo, Lara); the islands of Aruba and Curacao, 
Dutch West Indies; introduced on St. Thomas, Porto Rico, and 
Jamaica (here probably extinct). 

8: Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, 3); Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 2); 
Venezuela (Maracaibo, Zulia, 2; Rio Aurare, Zulia, 1). 

"Icterus jamacaii 2 jamacaii (Gmelin). JAMACAI ORIOLE. 

Oriolus jamacaii Gmelin, Syst. Nat!, 1, (1), p. 391, 1788 based on "Jamacaii" 
(Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 120, ex) Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 198; north- 
eastern Brazil=Ceara (as suggested by Hellmayr, 1929). 

Xanthornus aurantius Hahn, Vo'gel aus Asien, etc., livr. 6, pi. 1, 1820 
"America, von Carolina an bis Brasilien und auf alien Caraibischen 
Inseln . . . ," errore (type in coll. of J. Wagler). 

1 It is not impossible that Vieillot, when describing his Agelaius longirostris 
in Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 547, 1819, had a specimen of the 
present form in mind. However, the name being preoccupied in the genus, we 
need not worry about its exact application. 

2 Icterus jamacaii is probably conspecific with /. icterus. 



140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Icterus jamacaii Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 1199, 1831 Tamburil, 
Rio Pardo, southern Bahia; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 435, 1850 
Brazil; Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 185, 1851 Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 268, 1856 Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 195, 1870 Bahia and "Cayenne" (errore); Reinhardt, 
Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 399 Rio Sao Francisco 
(mouth of the Rio Abaete and Porto das Barreiras), Minas Geraes; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 370 Ceara, Minas, and Bahia (monog.); idem, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 383, 1886 Ceara and Pernambuco; Reiser, Denks. 
Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 80, 1910 Bahia (Joazeiro, 
Barrinha, Barra do Rio Grande, Fazenda da Serra, Lagoa do Boqueirao) 
and Piauhy (Parnagua); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, 
No. 6, p. 42, 1926 Ceara; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 276, 1929 Maranhao (Codo, Cocos; Barra do Corda), Piauhy 
(Ibiapaba), and Ceara (Jua, near Iguatu; Serra do Baturite; Quixada). 

Icterus aurantius Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 47 Bahia and 
Ceara (monog.). 

Xanthornus jamacai Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 402, 1907 Bahia (range 
excl. of Amazonas and Cayenne). 

Range. Eastern Brazil, from Maranhao, Piauhy, and Ceara 
south to Bahia and Minas Geraes. 1 

18: Maranhao (Codo, Cocos, 2; Barra do Corda, 1); Piauhy 
(Ibiapaba, 2); Ceara (Jua, near Iguatu, 2; Serra do Baturite*, 2; 
Quixada, 3); Bahia (Santo Amaro, 1; Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, 
2; Rio do Peixe, near Queimadas, 3). 

*Icterus jamacaii croconotus (Wagler). 2 ORANGE-BACKED 
ORIOLE. 

Psarocolius croconotus Wagler, Isis, 22, Heft 7, col. 757, 1829 "patria speciei 
precedentis," sc. "in Mexico," errore (the cotypes in the Berlin Museum 

1 Additional specimens examined. Ceara: unspecified, 1. Piauhy: Parnagua, 
1. Bahia: Joazeiro, 2; Barra, 1; Fazenda da Serra, Rio Grande, 2; Lagoa do 
Boqueirao, Rio Grande, 2 ; unspecified, 8. 

2 Icterus jamacaii croconotus (Wagler) differs readily from /. j. jamacaii by 
having the pileum (excepting a narrow frontal band) orange like the back, while 
the black band across the back is much narrower, frequently interrupted in the 
middle. Size about the same. 

The black transverse band on the back is such a decided step in the direction 
of /. jamacaii that it seems logical to associate /. croconotus with it in the same 
specific group. The character is most strongly marked in specimens from British 
Guiana and the adjoining districts of Brazil (Rio Branco, Rio Mahu), while those 
from the Amazon Valley have this band much reduced in extent or only suggested 
by some black spots. A single male from Loreto, Rio Maranon, Peru, compares 
well with the average from the lower Amazon, and one from the upper Rio Napp 
is not different either. /. hauxwelli was evidently based upon an immature indi- 
vidual of the present form. 

The birds recorded from the falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia, and the Rio 
Araguaya, Goyaz, should be reexamined. 

Additional material examined. Brazil : Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco, 
5; Rio Mahu, 1; Monte Alegre, 2; Bom Lugar, Rio Purus, 1. British Guiana: 
Takutu Mountains, 1. Peru: Loreto, 1. Ecuador: Suno, upper Rio Napo, 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 141 

are from "Para" and Guiana; cf. Lichtenstein, Nomencl. Av. Mus. Zool. 
Berol., p. 51, 1854). i 

Icterus croconotus Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 133, 1862 upper Amazon; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 47 part, Rio Huallaga, 
Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 195, 1870 Sao Joaquim do Rio Branco 
and Rio Mahu, Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, 
p. 266 Nauta, Peru; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 381 "Para" (sight record); 
Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 79, 1876 lower Amazon; Sclater, Ibis, 
1883, p. 370 part, Rio Branco, Guiana, and Ecuador (Sarayacu); Tacza- 
nowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 420, 1884 Nauta and Carabaya, Peru; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 383, 1886 part, spec, a-f, Guiana, Sarayacu 
(Ecuador), and upper Amazon; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 
72, 85, 1889 Rio Napo, Ecuador, and (?) falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia; 
Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 Santarem; Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1901, p. 478 Suno, upper Rio Napo, Ecuador; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
55, p. 299, 1907 Monte Alegre, lower Amazon; idem, I.e., 56, p. 11, 1908 
Bom Lugar, Rio Purtis; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 424, 1914 Rio 
Puriis (Bom Lugar), Monte Alegre, Rio Maecuru (Igarape de Paituna), 
and Rio Jamunda (Faro); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 699, 
1926 Rio Suno and below San Jos6, eastern Ecuador. 

Xanthornus croconotus Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 402, 1907 part, 
Amazonia, "Para," Rio Branco, and Guyana; (?)Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
15, p. 39, 1908 Rio Araguaya, Goyaz. 

Icterus jamacaii (not Oriolus jamacaii Gmelin) Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 12, 1848 near Pirara; Cabanis, I.e., 3, p. 679, "1848" 
[ = 1849] banks of the savanna rivers (Takutu, Mahu, Pirara). 

Euopsar croconotus Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 1, p. 582, 1921 Takutu 
Mountains and "Georgetown." 

Icterus hauxwelli Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 671, pub. early in 
1886 Chamicuros, Peru (type in British Museum; descr. of immature); 
idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 377, pi. 18, 1886 Chamicuros. 

Range. Southern British Guiana (Pirara, Takutu, and Mahu 
rivers) and northern Brazil throughout the Amazon Valley (from 
the Rio Tapajoz and Monte Alegre upwards) and its tributaries to 
eastern Peru and (?)northeastern Bolivia, north to eastern Ecuador. 

3: Peru (Moyobamba, San Martin, 3). 

"Icterus jamacaii strictifrons Todd. 2 SOUTHERN ORANGE-BACKED 
ORIOLE. 

1 "Para" means doubtless the province and not the city of that name. We 
suggest, therefore, Rio Tapajoz as type locality, since it appears that Wagler, 
when describing the species, had only the Brazilian specimen before him, while 
the Guianan ones reached the Berlin Museum much later. 

2 Icterus jamacaii strictifrons Todd: Very similar to /. j. croconotus, but white 
alar patch generally more extensive, and median back without trace of a black 
transverse band or at best with a few faint fringes. 

Birds from Matto Grosso are absolutely identical with others from Bolivia. 
The frontal band is extremely variable in width and appears to be useless as 



142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Icterus croconotus strictifrons Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 122, 1924 
Palmarito, Chiquitos, Bolivia (type in Carnegie Museum); Naumburg, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 398, 1930 Agua Blanca de Corumba and 
Descalvados, Matto Grosso; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 294, 1930 San Jose and La Crecencia, Santa Cruz, 
Bolivia; Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 394, 1934 
- Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Icterus croconotus (not Psarocolius croconotus Wagler) Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 47 part, Bolivia and Rio Parana [ = Paraguay], 
Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 195, 1870 part, Cuyaba and Rio das 
Flechas, Matto Grosso; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 608 Santa Cruz, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 370 
part, Bolivia and Cuyaba; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 383, 1886 
part, spec, g, h, Cuyaba and Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, 
p. 378, 1891 Uacuryzal, Rio Paraguay, and Cachoeira, Matto Grosso; 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 Corumba, 
Matto Grosso. 

Xanthornus croconotus Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 402, 1907 part, 
Matto Grosso. 

Icterus jamaicensi (not Oriolus jamacaii Gmelin) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 6, 1838 Santa Cruz, Bolivia (spec, 
examined). 

Range. Southwestern Brazil, in State of Matto Grosso, and the 
adjacent parts of eastern Bolivia (Chiquitos and Santa Cruz). 
3: Brazil (Descalvados, Rio Paraguay, Matto Grosso, 3). 

*Icterus graduacauda graduacauda Lesson. BLACK-HEADED 
ORIOLE. 

Icterus graduacauda Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 105, April, 1839 Mexico (loca- 
tion of type not stated). 

Psarocolius melanocephalus (not Icterus melanocephalus Hahn, 1820) Wagler, 
Isis, 1829, col. 756 Mexico (type in Berlin Museum). 

Icterus melanocephalus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, p. 90, 1848 
Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 185, 1851 Jalapa; Cassin, 
111. Bds. Calif., Texas, etc., p. 137, pi. 21, 1854 part, Jalapa, Vera Cruz; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, p. 301 [Cordova], Mexico; 
idem, I.e., 1858, p. 97 part, tierra caliente of Vera Cruz (crit.); idem, 
I.e., 1859, p. 365 Jalapa, Mexico; Baird, Rep. Pacif. R. R. Surv., 9, 
p. 543, 1858 Mexico (crit.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, 
p. 53 Jalapa, Mirador, and Orizaba, Mexico (monog.); Sumichrast, 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 553, 1869 temperate region of Vera Cruz; 
Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 23, 1876 Guichicovi, Chiapas; 

a criterion for distinguishing the two races. In juvenile plumage, this race has a 
broad brownish black band across the middle of the back, which is hardly narrower 
than in the corresponding stage of /. j. jamacaii another evidence of their close 
genetic affinity. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Mojos, 1; Chiquitos, 1; Santa Cruz, 
3. Brazil, Matto Grosso: Cuyaba, 9; Rio das Flechas, 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 143 

Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 365 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 375, 1886 part, subsp. typica, Mexico (Jalapa, Orizaba, Oaxaca); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 468, 1887 part, 
southern Mexico (Orizaba, Jalapa, Mirador, Juquila, Guichicovi); Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 30, 1898 Jalapa (song); Lantz, 
Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., 16, p. 222, 1899 Santo Tomas, Guatemala. 

Icterus auduboni(i) (not of Giraud) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, p. 381 
Juquila, Oaxaca; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 132, 1862 Jalapa 
and Orizaba, Mexico; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 553, 1869 
temperate region of Vera Cruz; Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
9, p. 150, 1886 Jalapa. 

Icterus melanocephalus melanocephalus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 280, 1902 southern Mexico (monog.); Bangs and Peters, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 404, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca. 

Icterus virescens (not of Vigors, 1828) Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg., 
(2), 40, No. 12, Dec., 1875, p. 798, pub. 1876 Mexico (type in Brussels 
Museum). 

Range. Southern portion of the Mexican plateau, from southern 
San Luis Potosi (Valles), Jalisco (San Sebastian), and Vera Cruz 
south to Oaxaca (Pluma, Mount Zempoaltepec, Chivela) and Chiapas 
(Guichicovi), and extreme northwestern Guatemala (one record from 
Santo Tomas). 

3: Mexico (Pueblo Viejo, Vera Cruz, 3). 

"Icterus graduacauda audubonii Giraud. AUDUBON'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus audubonii(i) Giraud, Descr. Sixt. N. Amer. Bds., p. [3], 1841 Texas 
(type now in U. S. National Museum); Baird, Rep. Pacif. R. R. Surv., 
9, p. 542, 1858 Tamaulipas (Charco Escondido, Matamoros) and Texas 
(Ringgold Barracks) (crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 175 
"vicinity of Mexico City;" Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, 
p. 53 Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, and Texas (monog.); Sennett, Bull. 
U. S. Geol. Geog. Surv. Terr., 4, p. 26, 1878 Brownsville and Hidalgo, 
Texas (habits); idem, I.e., 5, p. 399, 1879 Lomita, Texas (habits, nest, 
and eggs); Merrill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 134, 1879 Fort Brown, 
Texas (song); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 366 Rio Grande to "Orizaba and 
Oaxaca"; Attwater, Auk, 9, p. 238, 1892 San Antonio, Texas; Jouy, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 781, 1893 Hacienda Angostura, San Luis 
Potosi. 

Icterus melanocephalus (not of Hahn) Cassin, 111. Bds. Calif., Texas, etc., 
p. 137, 1854 part, lower Rio Grande, Texas; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 468, 1887 part, lower Rio Grande, Tamaulipas, 
Nuevo Leon, and "valley of Mexico." 

Icterus melanocephalus subsp. auduboni Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
375, 1886 Matamoros, Tamaulipas. 

Icterus melanocephalus audubonii(i) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
2, p. 282, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 
Tamaulipas (Galindo, San Fernando, Altamira, Rio Martinez, Santa 



144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Leonor, Rio Cruz, Realito); Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 23, 1926 
Brownsville, Texas. 

Range. Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas (casually to San An- 
tonio), and south in Mexico to Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon, and, 
at least in winter, to San Luis Potosi and (?)the Valley of Mexico. 

9: Texas (Brownsville, Cameron County, 3; Harlingen, Cameron 
County, 2; Cameron County, unspecified, 1); Mexico (Tampico, 
Tamaulipas, 3). 

Icterus pectoralis pectoralis (Wagler). SPOTTED-BREASTED 
ORIOLE. 

Psarocolius pectoralis Wagler, Isis, 1829, col. 755 Mexico (location of type not 
stated). 

Icterus guttulatus Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 6, pi. 52, 1844 Mexico (type 
in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 420, 1930). 

Icterus pectoralis Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 2, pi. 10, Feb., 1846 "Santa 
F6 de Bogota," errore; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 435, 1850 
(diag.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 205 southern Mexico; 
Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 20 Vera Paz, Guatemala; Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 48 part, Guatemala (Coban, Vera Paz) and 
Nicaragua (San Juan); Salvin, Ibis, 1873, p. 373 Chontales, Nicaragua; 
Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 23, 1876 Juchitan and Santa 
Efigenia, Oaxaca; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 264, 1882 Guatemala; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 373 part, southern Mexico ("Tehuantepec," 
Chiapas), Guatemala (Vera Paz), and Nicaragua (Chontales); idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 385, 1886 part, spec, a-d, f, g, i, j, Mexico 
(Putla; Tonala, Chiapas), Guatemala (San Geronimo, Vera Paz), and 
Nicaragua (Chontales); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 474, 1887 part, Mexico (Putla, Juchitan, Santa Efigenia, Tonala), 
Guatemala (Vera Paz, San Geronimo), and Nicaragua (Chontales, San 
Juan). 

Icterus pectoralis pectoralis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 283, 
1902 part, southern Mexico and Guatemala (part, San Geronimo); 
Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 404, 1928 Tapanatepec, 
Oaxaca; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 18, 1930 Mexico (Oaxaca), 
Guatemala (east of the Pacific Cordilleras), Honduras (Copan), and 
northern Nicaragua (Matagalpa, San Rafael del Norte); idem, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 398, 1932 Guatemala (Finca Chama, Sacupulas, 
Lake Amatitlan, San Lucas, Gualan, Finca Carolina); Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 336, 1932 Cantarranas, Honduras. 

Icterus pectoralis espinachi (not of Ridgway, 1882) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 284, 1902 part, Nicaragua. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in states 
of Oaxaca (Putla, Juchitan, Santa Efigenia, Tapanatepec) and 
Chiapas (Tonala), Guatemala (east of the Pacific Cordilleras), 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 145 

Honduras (Copan, Cantarranas), and eastern Nicaragua (Matagalpa, 
San Rafael del Norte, Chontales, San Juan). 

"Icterus pectoralis anthonyi Griscom. 1 ANTHONY'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus pectoralis anthonyi Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 18, Dec. 15, 
1930 Finca El Cipres, near Ocos, Pacific coast of Guatemala (type in 
coll. of J. Dwight, Jr., now in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 398, 1932 Pacific 
Guatemala (Ocos, Finca El Espino, Finca El Cipres, Hacienda California, 
San Felipe, Pantaleon). 

Icterus pectoralis (not Psarocolius pectoralis Wagler) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 385, 1886 part, spec, e, h, Savanna Grande and Retalhuleu, 
Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 474, 
1887 part, Pacific Guatemala (Retalhuleu, Escuintla, Savanna Grande) 
and Salvador (Acajutla); Lantz, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., 16, p. 222, 1899 
Palin, Guatemala. 

Icterus pectoralis pectoralis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
283, 1902 part, Guatemala (Retalhuleu, Escuintla, Savanna Grande) 
and Salvador (Acajutla); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 
1, p. 114, 1907 Patulul, Guatemala. 

(l)Icterus mentalis (not of Lesson, 1831) Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 136, 1842 
San Carlos, El Salvador (crit.). 

Range. Pacific lowlands of Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nica- 
ragua (Leon, Chinandega, Volcan Viejo, Managua). 

8: Guatemala (Patulul, Solola, 4; San Jose", Escuintla, 1; unspeci- 
fied, 3). 

Icterus pectoralis espinachi Ridgway. ESPINACH'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus pectoralis espinachi Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 392, Sept., 
1882 La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 Liberia, Costa 
Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 284, 1902 part, 
Costa Rica (La Palma, Liberia); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 
829, 1910 Costa Rica (Bols6n, Tenorio, Bebede>o). 

Icterus pectoralis (not Psarocolius pectoralis Wagler) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 48 part, Costa Rica; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 104, 1868 Costa Rica (ex Cabanis); Frantzius, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 302, 1869 "San Carlos and Turrialba," errore; Sclater, Ibis, 

1 Icterus pectoralis anthonyi Griscom: Similar to /. p. pectoralis in amount of 
black pectoral spotting, but decidedly smaller; nearer to I. p. espinachi, but chest 
more heavily spotted with black, and dimensions somewhat larger. Wing (adult 
males), 102-106. 

The color of the head is too variable a feature to be of diagnostic value, the 
most intense coloration (approaching "orange") being found in two adults of 
/. p. espinachi from Bebede"ro, Costa Rica. 

A single bird from Acajutla, El Salvador, agrees with others from Guatemala 
and Nicaragua (Managua). 



146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1883, p. 372 part, Costa Rica; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 385, 
1886 part, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 474, 1887 part, Costa Rica (La Palma); Underwood, Ibis, 1896, 
p. 437 near Bagaces and Bebedero. 

Icterus guttulatus (not of Lafresnaye) Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 9, 1861 
Costa Rica (crit.). 

Range. Pacific coast region of northwestern Costa Rica from 
Guanacaste to Nicoya. 1 

*Icterus gularis 2 tamaulipensis Ridgway. ALTA MIRA ORIOLE. 

(l)Icterus mentalis Lesson, 3 Cent. Zool., p. Ill, pi. 41, Jan., 1831 Mexico 
(type in Paris Museum). 

Icterus gularis tamaulipensis Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 152, 1901 
Alta Mira, Tamaulipas (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 286, 1902 eastern Mexico from Tamaulipas 
and San Luis Potosi to Puebla and Vera Cruz (monog.); Phillips, Auk, 
28, p. 87, 1911 Alta Mira, Santa Leonor, and Guiaves, Tamaulipas. 

Icteric gularis (not Psarocolius gularis Wagler) Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 2, 
pi. 9, 1846 Mexico; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 435, 1850 
Mexico (diag.); Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 185, 1851 Jalapa; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 228 San Andres Tuxtla, Vera Cruz 
(crit.); idem, I.e., 1859, p. 365 Jalapa, Vera Cruz; idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 133, 1862 Jalapa; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 175 
vicinity of Mexico City; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, 
p. 49 part, Mirador, Vera Cruz, and Mexico City; Sclater, Ibis, 
1883, p. 371 Mexico (in part); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 384, 1886 
part, spec, c, d, Jalapa (Vera Cruz), Mexico; Ferrari-Perez, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 150, 1886 Actopam, Vera Cruz; Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 475, 1887 part, Temascaltepec and 
Vera Cruz (Actopam, San Andres Tuxtla, Jalapa); Richmond, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 16, p. 630, 1896 Alta Mira, Tamaulipas. 

"Icterus gularis flammeus" Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, p. 222, 1899 
Rinconada, Vera Cruz (nomen nudum). 

Icterus mexicanus (notOriolus mexicanus Leach) Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 
1, p. 436, 1827 Temascaltepec, Mexico. 

1 A series from Guanacaste (Bebedero) examined. 

? 2 The presence of a palatal knob in the bill of this species used by some authors 
(\\etmore, Auk, 36, p. 196, 1919) for generic separation appears to me a strong 
specific character. 

3 Icterus mentalis Lesson, while possibly an earlier name for the present race, 
cannot be identified with absolute certainty. Mr. J. Berlioz, to whom I am greatly 
indebted for assistance in the matter, courteously compared the type with speci- 
mens of the various Mexican forms and writes that, in coloration and dimensions, 
it comes nearest to an example from Orizaba (tamaulipensis). Its exact locality, 
however, is unrecorded, the label bearing merely "Mexico" as patria, and as 
the length of the wing, 117 mm., of the unsexed specimen is not conclusive either 
as to its subspecific pertinence, the adoption of the name mentalis in lieu of 
Ridgway's subsequent term (tamaulipensis) of unquestionable applicability does 
not seem to be advisable. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 147 

Range. Eastern Mexico, from southern Tamaulipas and San 
Luis Potosi south to Puebla and Vera Cruz. 

16: Mexico (Tampico, Tamaulipas, 16). 
"Icterus gularis yucatanensis Berlepsch. 1 YUCATAN ORIOLE. 

Icterus gularis yucatanensis Berlepsch, Auk, 5, p. 454, 1888 Yucatan (type 
in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 287, 1902 Yucatan (monog.); Cole, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 140, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Peters, 
Auk, 30, p. 379, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; Griscom, Amer. 
Mus. Nov., 235, p. 18, 1926 eastern Quintana Roo. 

Icterus gularis (not Psarocolius gularis Wagler) Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 371 
part, Yucatan; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 384, 1886 part, spec, 
k, 1, s-y, Yucatan, Corozal (British Honduras), and Cozumel Island; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 475, 1887 part, 
Corozal, British Honduras; Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 264 Cozumel Island; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 208 interior of Yucatan; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 8, p. 281, 1896 Chichen Itza, Yucatan. 

Range. Extreme northern British Honduras (Corozal) and 
Yucatan Peninsula, including Cozumel Island. 

9: Mexico (San Felipe, Yucatan, 2; Cozumel Island, 2; Yucatan, 
unspecified, 5). 

Icterus gularis gularis (Wagler). LICHTENSTEIN'S ORIOLE. 

Psarocolius gularis Wagler, Isis, 1829, col. 757 Mexico (type, from Tehuan- 
tepec, Oaxaca, in Berlin Museum; cf. Cabanis, in Berlepsch, Auk, 5, p. 
454, in text, 1888). 

Icterus gularis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 49 part, "Barcio" 
[ = Barrio], Oaxaca; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 23, 1876 Barrio, 
Chihuitan, Juchitan, and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 
371 southern Mexico (in part); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 384, 
1886 part, spec, e-g, i, j, Tonal& (Chiapas), Putla and Tehuantepec, 
Oaxaca; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 475, 1887 
part, Chiapas (Tonala) and Oaxaca (Barrio, Chihuitan, Juchitan, Santa 
Efigenia). 

Icterus gularis gularis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 284, 1902 
part, Oaxaca and Chiapas (Tonala, Huehuetan); Bangs and Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 404, 1928 Chiveld and Tapanatepec, 
Oaxaca; Griscom, I.e., 75, p. 408, 1934 Coyuca, Guerrero. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of southwestern Mexico, from 
Guerrero (Coyuca) through Oaxaca to extreme western Chiapas 
(Tonala, Huehuetan). 

1 This form comes pretty close to certain individuals of /. g. tamaulipensis, 
but is generally recognizable by richer coloration and narrower bill. 



148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
"Icterus gularis troglodytes Griscom. 1 PACIFIC ORIOLE. 

Icterus gularis troglodytes Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 13, 1930 San 
Felipe, Retalhuleu, Pacific slope of Guatemala (type in coll. of J. Dwight, 
Jr., now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 396, 1932 Ocos, Finca El Cipres, Haci- 
enda California, Pantaleon, San Felipe, San Jose, Antigua, and San Lucas, 
Pacific Guatemala. 

Icterus gularis (not Psarocolius gularis Wagler) (?)Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 49 part, San Salvador and Nicaragua (San Juan); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 371 Guatemala (in part); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 384, 1886 part, spec, m, n, q, Savanna Grande and San 
Pedro Martir, Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 475, 1887 part, Retalhuleu, Savanna Grande, and San 
Pedro Martir, Guatemala, and (?)Salvador (Acajutla); Dearborn, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 114, 1907 part, Mazatenango, Guatemala. 

Icterus gularis gularis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 284, 1902 
part, Pacific Guatemala (Retalhuleu, Savanna Grande, and San Pedro 
Martir), (?)Salvador (Acajutla), and (?)Nicaragua (San Juan). 

Range. Pacific slope of Guatemala (and possibly south to El 
Salvador and Nicaragua). 

2: Guatemala (Mazatenango, Solola, 1; Tiquisate, Escuintla, 1). 
"Icterus gularis gigas Griscom. 2 GUATEMALAN ORIOLE. 

Icterus gularis gigas Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 13, 1930 Sacapulas, 
Rio Negro Valley, Guatemala (type in coll. of J. Dwight, Jr., now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 64, p. 396, 1932 Sacapulas, Guatemala. 

Icterus gularis xerophilus Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 14, 1930 
Progreso, Motagua Valley, Guatemala (type in coll. of J. Dwight, Jr., 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 396, 1932 Progreso, Guatemala. 

Icterus gularis (not Psarocolius gularis Wagler) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1858, p. 358 Comayagua, Honduras; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 

1 Icterus gularis troglodytes Griscom: Similar to /. g. gularis in coloration, but 
markedly smaller; even closer to /. g. tamaulipensis, but somewhat larger with 
proportionately slenderer bill and coloration not quite so intense. Wing (adult 
male), 112-118. 

Five specimens from Pacific Guatemala examined. 

2 Icterus gularis gigas Griscom: Similar to /. g. gularis, but decidedly larger. 
This, the largest form of the group, is exceedingly variable in coloration, some 
specimens being nearly of the same shade of yellow as the nominate race, others 
rich cadmium-orange as /. g. yucatanensis. While there is a certain tendency to 
the predominance of one color-type or the other in different parts of the range, 
further splitting seems impracticable, as no definite range could be assigned to the 
various color varieties. 

A single Honduran specimen resembles the average from Guatemala, but 
additional material should be studied. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 149 

p. 19 Vera Paz (Guatemala) and Comayagua (Honduras); Salvin, Ibis, 
1859, p. 468 Yzabal Road, Guatemala; Taylor, Ibis, 1860, p. Ill- 
Honduras; Owen, Ibis, 1861, p. 62 San Ger6nimo, Guatemala (eggs 
descr.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 49 part, Guatemala 
(San Geronimo); Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 371 Guatemala (in part); idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 384, 1886 part, spec, o, p, San Geronimo, 
Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 475, 
1887 part, Guatemala (Vera Paz, San Ger6nimo, Zacapa) and Honduras 
(Comayagua); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 114, 1907 
part, El Rancho, Zacapa. 

Icterus gularis gularis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 284, 
1902 part, Guatemala (Vera Paz, San Ger6nimo, Zacapa) and Honduras 
(Comayagua); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 395, 1932 
Gualan, Motagua Valley, Guatemala; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 84, p. 336, 1932 Comayagua, Honduras. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of Guatemala, north of the Pacific 
Cordillera, and Honduras. 

8: Guatemala (El Rancho, Zacapa, 6; Salama, Baja Vera Paz, 2). 
*Icterus cucullatus sennetti Ridgway. SENNETT'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus cucullatus sennetti Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 152, April 
15, 1901 Brownsville, Texas (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 289, 1902 lower Rio Grande Valley, 
in winter to Morelos (monog., full bibliog.); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 
Matamoros, Tamaulipas; Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 23, 1926 
Brownsville, Texas; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 407, 1934 
Taxco, Guerrero (Nov. 1). 

Icterus cucullatus (not of Lawrence) Cassin, 111. Bds. Calif., Texas, etc., 
p. 42, pi. 8, 1854 Texas; Baird, Rep. Pacif. R. R. Surv., 9, p. 546, 1858 
Charco Escondido, Tamaulipas; Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. Geog. Surv. 
Terr., 4, p. 25, 1878 Brownsville and Hidalgo, Texas (habits); idem, I.e., 
5, p. 398, 1879 Lomita, Texas (habits, nest, and eggs); Merrill, Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 134, 1879 Fort Brown, Texas; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, 
p. 364 part, Texas, Tamaulipas, and Nuevo Le6n; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 376, 1886 part, Texas; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 471, 1887 part, Texas and Mexico (Charco Escondido, 
Tamaulipas). 

Pendulinus cucullatus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 60 part, 
Texas (Brownsville, Ringgold Barracks), Tamaulipas, and Coahuila 
(monog.). 

Range. Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and adjoining parts 
of Mexico (in states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, and Coahuila), 
in winter south to Morelos and Guerrero (Taxco). 

5: Texas (Brownsville, Cameron County, 2); Mexico (Iguala, 
Guerrero, 3). 



150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"Icterus cucullatus calif ornicus (Lesson). CALIFORNIAN HOODED 
ORIOLE. 

Pendulinus californicus Lesson, 1 Rev. Zool., 7, p. 436, 1844 California 
(type in coll. of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux). 

Icterus cucullatus nelsoni Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 19, 1885 
Tucson, Arizona (type in U. S. National Museum) ; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 290, 1902 part, excl. of Cape San Lucas records 
(monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 362, 1905 
Escuinapa, southern Sinaloa (crit.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
32, p. 152, 1928 northern Lower California; van Rossem, Trans. San 
Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 289, 1931 San Javier, Saric, Tesia, Chinobampo, 
Guirocoba, Guaymas, San Jose de Guaymas, Tobari Bay, and Agiabampo, 
Sonora. 

Icterus nelsoni Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 472, 
1887 part, Arizona, Lower California (in part), and western Mexico 
(Mazatlan). 

Icterus cucullatus (not of Swainson) Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, 
p. 279, 1874 part, Mazatlan. 

Icterus cucullatus subsp. nelsoni Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 376, 
1886 part, spec, a, c-e, Arizona, California, and Mazatlan, Mexico. 

Icterus cucullatus californicus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, pp. 408, 
409, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero (nomencl.); van Rossem, I.e., 77, 
p. 475, 1934 Sonora (Alamos, Nacozari, Oposura). 

Range. Southwestern California, southern Arizona, and south- 
western New Mexico south to northern Lower California (north from 
about lat. 28) and through western Mexico to Nayarit (Santiago) and 
Guerrero (Chilpancingo) ; wintering in the southern part of the range. 

41: California (Arch Beach, Orange County, 1; Laguna Beach, 
Orange County, 1; Claremont, Los Angeles County, 1; Riverside, 
Riverside County, 3); Arizona (Huachuca Mountains, Cochise 
County, 15; Calabasas, Cochise County, 12; Fort Grant, Graham 
County, 1 ; Catalina Mill, 1 ; Final County, 3 ; Tucson, Pima County, 3) . 

"Icterus cucullatus trochiloides Grinnell. 2 SAN LUCAS HOODED 
ORIOLE. 

Icterus cucullatus trochiloides Grinnell, Auk, 44, p. 70, 1927 Triunfo, about 
lat. 23 45', Lower California (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 152, 1928 
southern Lower California. 

1 It is incomprehensible that Lesson's name ever should have been referred 
to /. pustulatus, since the description, notably that of the tail-markings, clearly 
indicates Nelson's Oriole, as has been pointed out by Griscom (Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 75, p. 408, 1934). 

* Icterus cucullatus trochiloides Grinnell: Similar in both sexes to /. c. cali- 
fornicus, but bill longer, more attenuated and more decurved towards the tip; 
coloration of males in summer on average duller, more yellow and less orange. 
Wing (adult males), 89; tail, 88; bill, 21-22. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 151 

Pendulinus cucullatus (not Icterus cucullatus Swainson) Cassin, Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 60 part, Lower California [ = Cape San Lucas 

region]. 

Icterus cucullatus Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 364 part, Cape San Lucas. 
Icterus cucullatus subsp. nelsoni (not 7. c. nelsoni Ridgway) Sclater, Cat. 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 376, 1886 part, spec, b, La Paz, Lower California. 
Icterus nelsoni Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 472, 1887 

part, La Paz, Lower California. 
Icterus cucullatus nelsoni Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 290, 

1902 part, Lower California (La Paz); Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., 41, p. 131, 1902 Triunfo, San Jose" del Rancho, La Paz, and San 

Jose del Cabo, Lower California; Townsend, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 48, 

p. 18, 1923 Cape San Lucas, Agua Verde Bay, and Carmen Island, 

Lower California. 

Range. Southern Lower California, from Cape San Lucas north 
to about lat. 27. 

3: Mexico (Lower California, La Paz, 1; Lower California, Cape 
San Lucas, 1; unspecified, 1). 

*Icterus cucullatus cucullatus Swainson. HOODED ORIOLE. 

Icterus cucullatus Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 436, June, 1827 
Temascaltepec, State of Mexico, Mexico (type in coll. of W. Bullock); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, p. 301 C6rdoba; idem, I.e., 1864, 
p. 175 valley of Mexico; Duges, La Naturaleza, l,p. 139, 1869 Guana- 
juato; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 553, 1869 hot region of 
Vera Cruz; Lawrence, I.e., 2, p. 279, 1874 part, plains of Colima; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1883, p. 364 Mexico (in part); Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
9, p. 150, 1886 Chietla and Atlixco, Puebla; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 471, 1887 part, Temascaltepec, Valley of 
Mexico, Guanajuato, Chietla, Atlixco, and Vera Cruz; Jouy, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 16, p. 781, 1893 Barranca Ibarra, Jalisco. 

Pendulinus cucullatus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 60 part, 
Mexico. 

Icterus cucullatus subsp. typica Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 376, 1886 
Mexico. 

Icterus cucullatus cucullatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
287, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 
123, 1923 Cuba (occurrence questioned); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 75, p. 407, 1934 Taxco and Chilpancingo, Guerrero (Oct.-March). 

Range. Eastern and southern Mexico, from Nuevo Leon 
(Monterey and vicinity) and southern Tamaulipas (La Cima, Alta 
Mira) south through San Luis Potosi, Guanajuato, and Mexico to 
Vera Cruz, Guerrero, and Colima. 1 

9: Mexico (Valles, San Luis Potosi, 1; Tampico, Tamaulipas, 2; 
"Tamaulipas," 1; Iguala, Guerrero, 5). 

1 Gundlach's Cuban record probably refers to an escaped cage-bird. 



152 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Icterus cucullatus igneus Ridgway. FIERY ORIOLE. 

Icterus cucullatus igneus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 19 (in text), 

1885 Yucatan (type in U. S. National Museum); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 209 Progreso, Yucatan; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 291, 1902 part, Yucatan and Campeche; Cole, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 140, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan. 
Icterus cucullatus (not of Swainson) Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 

445 Yucatan; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 471, 

1887 part, Yucatan (Merida, Silam). 
Icterus cucullatus subsp. ignea Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 377, 1886 

part, spec, c-e, Merida and Silam, Yucatan. 

Range. Northern parts of Peninsula of Yucatan. 
6: Mexico, Yucatan (Temax, 1; Buenavista, 1; San Felipe, 2; 
unspecified, 2). . 

Icterus cucullatus masoni Griscom. 1 MASON'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus cucullatus masoni Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 18, 1926 
Manatee, British Honduras (type, though its location is not stated, 
probably in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Icterus cucullatus (not of Swainson) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 20 
Belize, British Honduras; Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 466 Belize; Sclater, Ibis, 
1883, p. 364 part, Belize; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 471, 1887 part, British Honduras (Belize). 

Icterus cucullatus subsp. ignea Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 377, 1886 
part, spec, a, b, Belize, British Honduras. 

Icterus cucullatus igneus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 291, 
1902 part, British Honduras (Belize). 

Range. Southeastern parts of Quintana Roo (Palmul, Chun- 
yaxche, Vigia Chica) and British Honduras (Belize, Manatee). 

"Icterus cucullatus duplexus Nelson. MUGERES ORIOLE. 

Icterus cucullatus duplexus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 14, p. 173, 1901 
Mugeres Island, Yucatan (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 292, 1902 Mugeres. 

Icterus cucullatus (not of Swainson) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 471, 1887 part, Holbox and Mugeres Islands; Salvin, Ibis, 
1888, p. 264 part, Meco, Holbox, and Mugeres Islands. 

1 Icterus cucullatus masoni Griscom: "Adult male similar to I. c. cucullatus, 
but slightly less orange, intermediate in this respect between cucullatus and sen- 
netti; differing from /. c. igneus in being even paler proportionately, smaller, and 
with more extensive white edgings on the wings, especially the primaries; female 
very similar to igneus, but smaller and slightly deeper yellow both above and below 
with more extensive lighter edgings on the primaries." (Griscom, I.e.) 

This form, which we have not seen, should be compared with /. c. duplexus, 
to which no reference is made by the describer. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 153 

Range. Islands of Mugeres, Holbox, and Meco, off Yucatan. 1 
1: Mexico (Holbox Island, 1). 

Icterus cucullatus cozumelae Nelson. COZUMEL ORIOLE. 

Icterus cucullatus cozumelae Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 14, p. 173, 1901 
Cozumel Island, Yucatan (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 292, 1902 Cozumel (monog.); 
Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 236, p. 13, 1926 Cozumel. 

Icterus cucullatus (not of Swainson) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 570, 
1885 Yucatan; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p.471, 1887 part, Cozumel; Salvin, Ibis, 1888,p. 264 part, Cozumel (crit.). 

Icterus cucullatus subsp. ignea (not of Ridgway) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 377, 1886 part, spec, f-k, Cozumel. 

Range. Cozumel Island, off Yucatan, Mexico. 

*Icterus pustulatus pustulatus (Wagler). SCARLET-HEADED 
ORIOLE. 

Psarocolius pustulatus Wagler, Isis, 1829, col. 757 Mexico (cotypes from 
Cuernavaca and San Mateo, Mexico, in Berlin Museum; cf. Griscom, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 408 [in text], 1934). 

Icterus pustulatus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 435, 1850 Mexico; 
(?)Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, p. 303 La Parada, Oaxaca; 
Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 47, pi. 24, 1867 part, Atlisco, Mexico; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 48 Mexico (in part); 
Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 552, 1869 hot region of Vera 
Cruz; Lawrence, I.e., 2, p. 280, 1874 Manzanilla Bay, Colima; Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 422 Acapulco, Guerrero; Sclater, Ibis, 
1883, p. 373 part, Vera Cruz, (?)Oaxaca, and Guerrero (Acapulco) 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 386, 1886 part, spec, f-o, 
Acapulco, Puebla, (?)Tonala (Chiapas), and Atlisco, Mexico; Ferrari- 
Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 150, 1886 Chietla, Puebla, and 
(?)Janhuiatlan, Oaxaca; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 477, 1887 part, Colima (Manzanilla Bay), Guerrero (Acapulco), 
Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico (Atlisco), (?)0axaca, and (?)Chiapas (Tonala); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 295, 1902 part, Colima, Gue- 
rrero, (?)Oaxaca, (?)Chiapas, Morelos, Puebla, and Vera Cruz (monog.). 

Range. Tropical zone of southern Mexico, in Colima, Guerrero, 
Mexico, Morelos, Puebla, Vera Cruz, (?)0axaca. and (?)Chiapas. 2 

20: Mexico (Iguala, Guerrero, 17; Colima, Guerrero, 1; un- 
specified, 2). 

1 Birds from Holbox and Meco need comparison with typical Mugeres ex- 
amples. The three Yucatan races (/. c. igneus, I. c. masoni, I. c. duplexus) are 
evidently very closely related one to another, and their interrelationship and status 
cannot be considered as established until adequate series have been studied. 

2 It is extremely doubtful if this form really extends into Oaxaca and Chiapas, 
where its place appears to be taken by /. sclateri formosus. From Tonala, Chiapas, 
as well as from Janhuiatlan, Oaxaca, immature males only were secured, which 
might easily have been misidentified, and the same may have occurred in the case 



154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Icterus pustulatus microstictus Griscom. 1 WESTERN SCARLET- 
HEADED ORIOLE. 

Icterus pustulatus microstictus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 408, 
1934 Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); van Rossem, I.e., 77, p. 476, 1934 Sonora 
(Alamos, Oposura, Durazno). 

Icterus pustulatus (not Psarocolius pustulatus Wagler) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 228 Mazatlan; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1867, p. 48 part, Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. 
Orn., p. 47, 1867 part, "Cape San Lucas, Lower California"; Lawrence, 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 280, 1874 part, Tepic and Mazatlan (habits); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 373 part, Sinaloa (Mazatlan, Presidio) and "Cape 
San Lucas"; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 386, 1886 part, spec, 
a-e, "Cape San Lucas," Mazatlan, and Presidio; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1 p. 477, 1887 part, Mazatlan, Presidio, 
Tepic, and "Lower California"; Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 781, 
1893 Barranca Ibarra, Jalisco; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 296, 1902 part, Chihuahua, Sonora, Sinaloa, Durango, Jalisco, 
and Tepic (monog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 361, 1905 
Escuinapa, Arroyo de Limones, and Juanna Gomez River, southern 
Sinaloa; Bailey, Auk, 23, p. 390, 1906 San Bias, Nayarit; McLellan, 
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 49, 1927 Labr ados, Sinaloa, and San 
Bias, Nayarit; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 243, 1928 "Cape 
San Lucas, Lower California" (record questioned); van Rossem, Trans. 
San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 289, 1931 Tecoripa, San Javier, Tesia, 
Chinobampo, San Jose de Guaymas, Guirocoba, and Guaymas, Sonora. 

Icterus graysoni (not of Cassin) Finsch, Abhandl. Naturw. Ver. Bremen, 2, 
p. 336, 1870 Mazatlan, Sinaloa (descr.). 

Icterus sclateri (not of Cassin) Lantz, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., 16, p. 222, 
1899 Altata and Culiacan, Sinaloa. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Mexico, from Chihuahua and 
Sonora south to Nayarit (Tepic) and Jalisco. 

3: Mexico (Escuinapa, Sinaloa, 3). 

Icterus pustulatus graysonii Cassin. 2 GRAYSON'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus graysonii(i) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 48 Tres 
Marias Islands, off Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); Grayson, 

of the La Parada specimen recorded by Sclater s. n. J. pustulatus, long before /. 
sclateri was described. In recent times /. s. formosus only has been collected in the 
disputed region. 

1 Icterus pustulatus microstictus Griscom: Similar to /. p. pustulatus, but dorsal 
spots reduced to small lanceolate markings, these spots becoming frequently 
evanescent in the female sex. 

By the lesser amount of spotting above, this race forms the passage to /. p. 
graysonii of the Tres Marias Islands. A specimen (in the British Museum) la- 
belled by the dealer F. Gruber (of San Francisco) "Cape San Lucas, May, 1861" 
seems to be of the present form. However, the locality is extremely doubtful 
(cf. Grinnell, I.e., p. 243). 

2 A very well-marked insular race. Three specimens examined. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 155 

Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 14, p. 280, 1871 Tres Marias (habits); Lawrence, 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 280, 1874 Tres Marias; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, 
p. 374 Tres Marias (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 387, 
1886 Tres Marias; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 478, 1887 Tres Marias; Nelson, N. Amer. Faun., 14, p. 50, 1899 
Tres Marias (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 298, 
1902 Maria Madre and Maria Cleofa, Tres Marias (monog.); Bailey, 
Auk, 23, p. 390, 1906 Cleofa Island; McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(4), 15, p. 306, 1926 Maria Madre (Arroyo Hondo) and Maria Mag- 
dalena Islands; idem, I.e., (4), 16, p. 49, 1927 Maria Madre. 

Range. Tres Marias Islands (islands of Maria Madre, Maria 
Magdalena, and Maria Cleofa), western Mexico. 

Icterus sclateri 1 formosus Lawrence. 2 OAXACA ORIOLE. 

Icterus formosus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 10, p. 184, 1872 
"Tuchitan" [= Juchitan], Oaxaca, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum) ; 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 23, 1876 Santa Efigenia and Juchitan, 
Oaxaca; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 372 Tehuantepec (crit.). 

Icterus sclateri (not of Cassin) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 385, 1886 
part, spec, g, h, Tonala, Chiapas, and San Juan, Oaxaca; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 476, 1887 part, Mexico (San 
Juan del Rio, Santa Efigenia, Juchitan, Tonala); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 297, 1902 part, southern Mexico, in states of 
Oaxaca and Chiapas. 

Icterus sclateri sclateri Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 404, 
1928 Chivela and Tapanatepec, Oaxaca. 

Icterus sclateri formosus Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 16, 1930 Oaxaca, 
Chiapas, and extreme northern Guatemala (crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 64, p. 397, 1932 Chanquejelve, Guatemala. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in states of 
Oaxaca (Tehuantepec, Cuicatlan, Santa Efigenia, Juchitan, Chivela, 
Tapanatepec) and Chiapas (Tonala), and extreme northwestern 
Guatemala (Chanquejelve). 

*Icterus sclateri alticola Miller and Griscom. 3 GUATEMALAN 
ORIOLE. 

1 1 fully agree with van Rossem's contention (Condor, 29, p. 76, 1927) that /. 
sclateri is conspecific with /. pustulatus, and if I do not employ trinomials here 
it is mainly on account of the conflicting records from certain localities in south- 
eastern Mexico (cf. footnote 2, p. 153). 

2 Icterus sclateri formosus Lawrence differs in the male sex from the more 
southern races by having the upper back marked with distinctly guttate or tear- 
shaped spots of black. Size about the same as in /. 8. sclateri. Wing (adult males), 
102-106. Three specimens from Oaxaca examined. 

3 Icterus sclateri alticola Miller and Griscom : Similar to /. s. formosus, but 
somewhat larger, and interscapular region in adult males mostly black relieved 
by yellow margins. The general coloration, irrespective of locality, varies from 
yellow to orange as in typical sclateri. Wing (adult males), 112-118. 

Subdivision of this form is impracticable. Twenty-two specimens examined. 



156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Icterus sclateri alticola Miller and Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 184, p. 4, 1925 
Progreso, Guatemala (type in coll. of J. Dwight, Jr., now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); Griscom, I.e., 438, p. 17, 1930 
Progreso (crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 397, 1932 Pro- 
greso, Motagua Valley. 

Icterus mentalis (not of Lesson) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 275 San 
Geronimo, Guatemala; Owen, Ibis, 1861, p. 62, pi. 2, fig. 5 (egg) San 
Geronimo (nest and eggs descr.); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 134, 
1862 San Geronimo, Guatemala. 

Icterus sclateri Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 49 part, San 
Geronimo, Guatemala; Sclater, Ibis, 1883, p. 371 San Geronimo 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 385, 1886 part, spec, a-f, 
San Geronimo, Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 476, pi. 33, fig.,1, 1887 part, Guatemala (San Geronimo); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 297, 1902 part, Guatemala 
(San Geronimo); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 114, 
1907 El Rancho, Guatemala (crit.). 

Icterus sclateri maximus Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, pp. 15, 17, 1930 
Sacapulas, Rio Negro Valley, Guatemala (type in coll. of J. Dwight, Jr., 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 397, 1932 Sacapulas. 

Icterus sclateri subsp. Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 18, 1930 
Iguana and Gualan, Motagua Valley, Guatemala; idem, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 64, p. 397, 1932 Gualan. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of Guatemala (except extreme north- 
western section). 

9: Guatemala (El Rancho, Zacapa, 6; Salama, Baja Vera Paz, 3). 

Icterus sclateri flammulatus Griscom. 1 FLAMMULATED ORIOLE. 

Icterus sclateri flammulatus Griscom, Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Cl., 13, p. 62, 1932 
Monte Redondo, Honduras (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge). 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of Honduras (Monte Redondo). 
*Icterus sclateri sclateri Cassin. SCLATER'S ORIOLE. 

Icterus sclateri Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 49 part, "San 
Juan" [del Sur] and near Granada, Nicaragua (type in coll. of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
51, p. 34, 1899); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 476, 
1887 part, San Juan, Nicaragua; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 297, 1902 part, Nicaragua (Managua, San Juan, Granada) 
and Costa Rica (Liberia); Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. Ill, 1906 
Miravalles, Costa Rica (crit.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 828, 

1 Icterus sclateri flammulatus Griscom, based on a single adult male, is described 
as being similar in size to 7. s. alticola, but having the interscapular region more 
profusely flammulated with yellow. The merits of this recently segregated race 
cannot be appreciated until adequate material comes to hand. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 157 

1910 Miravalles, Bagaces, Mojica, Liberia, Bebedero, and Ciruelas, 
Costa Rica. 

Icterus sclateri sclateri Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 16, 1930 Nicaragua 

and Costa Rica (crit.). 
Icterus pustulatus (not Psarocolius pustulatus Wagler) Zeledon, Anal. Mus. 

Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 Liberia, Costa Rica; Underwood, Ibis, 

1896, p. 437 (in text) near Bagaces, Costa Rica. 
Icterus sclateri pustuloides van Rossem, Condor, 29, p. 76, 1927 Volcan San 

Miguel, El Salvador (type in coll. of Donald R. Dickey, Pasadena); 

Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 17, 1930 San Salvador (crit.). 
Icterus sclateri connectens Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, pp. 15, 17, 1930 

San Salvador, El Salvador (type in coll. of Donald R. Dickey, Pasadena). 

Range. Pacific lowlands of El Salvador, Nicaragua, and north- 
western Costa Rica (Guanacaste and Nicoya Peninsula). 1 
2: Costa Rica (Las Canas, Guanacaste, 2). 

Genus GYMNOMYSTAX Reichenbach 

Gymnomystax Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 73, June, 1850 type, by 
subs, desig. (Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 189, 1851), Agelaius melanicterus 
Vieillot =OnoJws mexicanus Linnaeus. 

*Gymnomystax mexicanus (Linnaeus). BLACK- AND- YELLOW 
ORIOLE. 

Oriolus mexicanus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 162, 1766 based on 
"Le Troupiale brun de la Nouvelle Espagne" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 105; 
"Nouvelle Espagne" = Mexico, errore 2 (type in coll. de Reaumur ; = descr. 
of young). 

Agelaius melanicterus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 34, p. 556, 
1819 based on "Troupiale jaune a calotte noire, de Cayenne" Daubenton, 
PI. Enl., pi. 533 (=young). 

Icterus citrinus Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 69, pi. 66, 1824 "ad ripam 
flum. Solimoens," Brazil (descr. of adult; type in Munich Museum; cf. 
Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 617, 1906). 

Psarocolius gymnops Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 22, sp. 14, 1827 new name 
for Icterus citrinus Spix, Oriolus mexicanus Linnaeus, and Agelaius mela- 
nicterus Vieillot. 

Gymnomystax mexicanus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 431, 1850 
Brazil and Cayenne; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1854, p. 114 
Quijos, eastern Ecuador; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 32, 

1 The usual amount of individual variation in intensity of coloration has 
given rise to the separation of pustuloides. Two Salvador birds I am quite unable 
to distinguish from various individuals in a series from Nicaragua and Costa Rica 
(Bebedero). Intergrades to /. s. alticola have been named /. s. connectens. 

2 Cayenne substituted as type locality by Berlepsch and Hartert (Nov. Zool., 
9, p. 32, 1902). 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1902 Venezuela (Altagracia, Caicara, Quiribana de Caicara, and Ciudad 
Bolivar, Orinoco River); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 401, 1907 (range); 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 524, 1908 Alcobaga, Rio Tocantins, 
Brazil; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 124, 1908 Cayenne; Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 119, 128, 
1912 Mexiana and Marajo (Cachoeira); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 65, p. 211, 1913 Corozal, Venezuela; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
61, p. 522, 1913 Lower Amazonia (ecology); idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 422, 1914 Rio Tocantins (Alcobaca), Rio Tapajoz (Pinhel), Marajo 
(Pindobal, Pacoval, Arary, Sao Natal), Mexiana, and Monte Alegre, 
Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 208, 1916 Ciudad 
Bolivar and Caicara, Rio Orinoco, and Maripa, Rio Caura, Venezuela 
(nest and eggs descr.); Chubb, Birds British Guiana, 2, p. 575, 1921 
Demerara; Delacour, Ibis, 1923, p. 150 llanos of Venezuela; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 698, 1926 eastern Ecuador. 

Gymnomystax melanicterm Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 189, 1851 Brazil 
(synon.); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 266, 1856 (descr. 
of adult and young); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 137, 1862 Cay- 
enne; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 upper and 
lower Ucayali, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 197, 1870 Rio Amazonas 
and "Para," Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, 
p. 267 upper and lower Ucayali and Santa Cruz, Peru; Allen, Bull. 
Essex Inst., 8, p. 79, 1876 Rhomes (sixty miles from Santarem) and 
Marajo, Brazil; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 426, 1884 Peru (Ucayali, 
Santa Cruz, Sarayacu, Pebas, Iquitos); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 19 Cay- 
enne and Amazonia (Para, Iquitos); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
362, 1886 Cayenne, Demerara, and Peru (Iquitos); Riker and Chapman, 
Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 Santarem, Brazil; Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 164 
Amapa, Brazil; idem, Ibis, 1897, p. 365 Marajo and Mazagao, estuary 
of the Amazon (nesting habits and eggs); Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 479 
Coca, upper Napo, Ecuador; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 
28, 1907 Mexiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 299, 1907 Mexiana 
and Marajo; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 375, 1910 Surinam. 

Leistes melaniderus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 14 Cayenne 
and Brazil. 

Pseudoleistes melaniderus Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 575 
"Trinidad," errore. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Venezuela 
and valley of the Orinoco and its tributaries; northern Brazil, south 
to the Amazon Valley and its southerly affluents, east to Para; 
northeastern Peru, south to the Ucayali and Huallaga (Santa Cruz) ; 
eastern Ecuador (Coca, upper Napo; Quijos). 1 

6: Venezuela (Cocollar, Sucre, 6). 

1 Amazonian specimens agree well with two from Cayenne. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 2. Venezuela: 
Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco River, 4; Maturin, 1. Brazil: Cachoeira, Marajo Island, 
1; Rio Amazonas, 4. Peru: Nauta, 2; Iquitos, 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 159 

Genus AGELAIUS Vieillot 

Agelaius Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn. E16m., p. 33, 1816 type, by subs, desig. 

(Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 42, 1840), "Troupiale commandeur" Buffon = 

Oriolus phoeniceus Linnaeus. 

Agelaeus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 188, Oct., 1851 emendation. 
Agelasticus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 188, Oct., 1851 type, by virtual 

monotypy, Turdus thilius Molina. 
Thilius Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 36, p. 833, 1853 new 

name for Agelasticus Cabanis. 
Chrysomus (not Chrysoma Risso, 1826) Swainson, Nat. Hist. & Classif. Bds., 

2, p. 274, July, 1837 type, by monotypy, 1 Oriolus icterocephalus Linnaeus. 
Xanthosomus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 189, 1851 new name for Chrysomus 

Swainson. 
Erythropsar Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 17 type, by virtual 

monotypy, Agelaius ruficapillus Vieillot. 
Melanophantes Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 63 type, by 

monotypy, Icterus xanthomus Sclater. 

* Agelaius tricolor (Audubon). TRICOLORED RED-WING. 

Icterus tricolor Audubon, Birds Amer. (folio), pi. 388, fig. 1, 1837; idem, Orn. 
Biog., 5, p. 1, 1839 Santa Barbara, California (type in U. S. National 
Museum; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 302, 1932). 

Agelaeus tricolor Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 11 California (monog.); idem, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 342, 1886 "coast" of California and Oregon. 

Agelaius tricolor Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 324, 1902 
northern Lower California to Oregon (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 150, 1928 northwestern Lower California. 

Range. Valleys of northwestern Oregon (west of the Cascade 
Range) south through California (west of the Sierra Nevada) to 
northwestern Lower California. 

2: California (Nicasio, Marin County, 1; Point Reyes, Marin 
County, 1). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus arctolegus Oberholser. 2 GIANT RED-WING. 

1 The second species mentioned by Swainson, C. zanthopygius, is a nomen 
nudum here, and was not characterized until six months later (Anim. Menag., 
p. 345, Dec. 31, 1837). 

2 Agelaius phoeniceus arctolegus Oberholser: Similar to A. p. fortis, but female 
decidedly darker below, the streaks more blackish and more extensive, about as 
broad as the white interspaces; above more blackish; male with wing and tail on 
average shorter, bill larger, and buff of wing coverts somewhat paler. 

This form is much like A. p. phoeniceus in coloration, the male being practi- 
cally indistinguishable, and the female barely less blackish above and below, 
but differs by its markedly greater dimensions. From A. p. neutralis it may be 
separated by larger size, more blackish upper parts, broader and darker streaks 
on the lower surface of the female, and paler buff on the shoulder of the male. 

Wing, 122-130, (female) 97-107; tail, 91-100, (female) 72-79; bill, 22-26, 
(female) 17-20. 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Agelaius phoeniceus arctolegus Oberholser, Auk, 24, p. 332, 1907 Fort Simp- 
son, Mackenzie (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Auk, 35, p. 64, 
1918 (range). 

Agelaius phoeniceus fortis (not of Ridgway, 1901) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 338, 1902 part, Mackenzie, Athabasca, and other 
districts of British America. 

Range. Breeds from Mackenzie and Keewatin (rarely to Cape 
Prince of Wales, Alaska) south to Montana, North Dakota, Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan; in winter to Kansas, 
Arkansas, Louisiana, Alabama, Texas, and Illinois; accidental in 
Connecticut. 

11: Canada (Quill Lake, Saskatchewan, 1; Prince Albert, Sas- 
katchewan, 4) ; North Dakota (Grafton, Walsh County, 3) ; Illinois 
(Beach, Lake County, 1; Chicago, 1); Missouri (Alton, Oregon 
County, 1). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus fortis Ridgway. THICK-BILLED RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus fortis Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 153, 1901 
Omaha, Nebraska (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 338, 1902 (monog., full bibliog., in part); Ober- 
holser, Auk, 35, p. 64, 1918 (range). 

Range. Breeds from Idaho, Wyoming, and South Dakota to 
Colorado and northern Texas; winters principally in the southern 
part of its breeding range, wandering to Louisiana and Arkansas. 

9: Colorado (Windsor, Weld County, 2; Fort Lyon, Bent 
County, 7). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus nevadensis Grinnell. 1 NEVADA RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus nevadensis Grinnell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 27, p. 107, 
1914 Quinn River Crossing, Humboldt County, Nevada (type in Museum 
of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley); idem, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 13, 
p. 78, 1923 Death Valley; van Rossem, Condor, 28, p. 228, 1926 (crit., 
range); Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 317, 1929 Sonoita 
Valley, Arizona (crit.); Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 35, p. 382, 1930 Lassen Peak Region, California (crit., habits). 

Agelaius phoeniceus neutralis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 339, 1902 part, Great Basin. 

Range. Breeds in the Great Basin region, from southeastern 
British Columbia and northern Idaho, south through California 

1 Agelaius phoeniceus nevadensis Grinnell: In shape of bill and general charac- 
ters closely similar to A. p. sonoriensis; male scarcely distinguishable, but female 
conspicuously darker on account of the relative width of black streaking both 
above and below; female in this respect similar to A. p. caurinus, but bright 
rusty edgings on back and wings replaced by ashy and pale ochraceous; bill 
more like A. p. sonoriensis. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 161 

(chiefly east of the Sierra Nevada) to San Bernardino County and 
through Nevada to eastern Arizona, New Mexico, and western 
Texas; winters in the southern part of its breeding range south at 
least to Chihuahua, Mexico. 

19: California (Los Bafios, Merced County, 2); Arizona (Prescott, 
Yavapai County, 3); New Mexico (Mimbres, Grant County, 9; 
Rincon, Donna Ana County, 3); Mexico (El Paso del Norte, 2). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus caurinus Ridgway. NORTHWESTERN 
RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus caurinus Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 153, 
1901 Cedar Hill, Vancouver Island, British Columbia (type in U. S. 
National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 341, 1902 
(monog., full bibliog.); van Rossem, Condor, 28, p. 230, 1926 Oregon 
to Humboldt Bay (crit.). 

Range. Breeds on the northwest coast of North America, from 
southwestern British Columbia to Mendocino County, California; 
winters in the southern parts of California (from San Francisco Bay 
south to Buena Vista Lake). 1 

3: Canada (Okanagan, British Columbia, 2); Oregon (Multno- 
mah County, 1). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus mailliardorum van Rossem. 2 SAN FRAN- 
CISCO RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus mailliardorum van Rossem, Condor, 27, p. 223, Sept., 

1926 Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, California (type in coll. of Donald 

R. Dickey, Pasadena). 
Agelaius gubernator californicus (not of Nelson) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 327, 1902 part, central coast region of California 

(monog.). 

Range. Central coast region of California, from Sherwood, 
Mendocino County, south to central Monterey County, and east- 
wards including Suisun Bay and the valleys between the inner 
Coast ranges. 

21: California (Sebastopol, Sonoma County, 2; Suisun, Solano 
County, 1; Nicasio, Marin County, 2; Point Reyes, Marin County, 1; 

1 According to van Rossem, Californian individuals in the main are more or 
less intermediate to A. p. mailliardorum. 

2 Agelaius phoeniceus mailliardorum van Rossem: Similar to A. p. californicus, 
but bill smaller and less swollen at the base; females with wing averaging slightly 
longer, coloration darker and posterior under parts rarely streaked; males with 
exposed portion of median upper wing coverts usually entirely black. Wing, 
120-131, (female) 104-108; tail, 82-92, (female) 70^76^; bill, 20-23 M, (female) 
18-20. 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Alameda, 1; Los Gatos, Santa Clara County, 1; Palo Alto, Santa 
Clara County, 2; Monterey, Monterey County, 10; Chino, San Ber- 
nardino County, 1). 

Agelaius phoeniceus californicus Nelson. 1 BICOLORED 
RED-WING. 

Agelaius gubernator californicus Nelson, Auk, 14, p. 59, Jan., 1897 Stockton, 

California (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 327, 1902 part (monog., full bibliog.); Mailliard, 

Condor, 12, p. 63, 1910 (crit., variation). 
Agelaius phoeniceus californicus van Rossem, Condor, 28, p. 221, 1926 (crit., 

range). 

Range. Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys of California from 
Tehama County south to Kern County and extreme northern Los 
Angeles County. 

Agelaius phoeniceus aciculatus Mailliard. 2 KERN RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus aciculatus Mailliard, Condor, 17, p. 13, 1915 Isabella, 
Kern County, California (type in coll. of J. and J. W. Mailliard, now on 
deposit in the Museum of the California Academy of Sciences); van 
Rossem, Condor, 28, p. 225, 1926 (crit., range). 

Range. South Fork of Kern River and tributary streams in Kern 
County, California, from Walker Basin north and east to Weldon. 

*Agelaius phoeniceus neutralis Ridgway. 3 SAN DIEGO 
RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus neutralis Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 153, 
April, 1901 Jacumba, San Diego County, California (type in U. S. 

1 Agelaius phoeniceus californicus Nelson: Bill similar in shape and size to 
A. p. neutralis, but males with exposed portion of median upper wing coverts 
more extensively black, rarely clear buff, sometimes entirely black, though usually 
with a small amount of buff visible, particularly on distal median coverts; females 
on average much darker throughout and less streaked (more blackish) below. 
Differs from A. p. mailliardorum by much heavier bill in both sexes; males with 
longer tails, and with median wing coverts less frequently entirely black; females 
with slightly shorter wings, under parts usually more streaked, and coloration 
paler throughout. Wing, 121-131, (female) 102-106; tail, 87^-97^, (female) 
73-77; bill, 21-25, (female) 19-20; depth at base, 11^-13, (female) 10-11^ 
(van Rossem, I.e.). 

-Agelaius phoeniceus aciculatus Mailliard: Size larger and bill longer than in 
any other Calif ornian race; males very similar to A. p. californicus both in indi- 
vidual and average amount of black present on exposed portion of median wing 
coverts; females paralleling A. p. californicus in variability, but coloration richer; 
feather edgings, where present, deeper in tone, with rich browns and buff at a 
maximum, and grays at a minimum. Wing, 123-131, (female) 102-107; tail, 
89-103, (female) 73^-81; bill, 25-30, (female) 22-24^; depth at base, 11^-13, 
(female) 10^-11 (van Rossem, I.e.). 

3 Agelaius phoeniceus neutralis Ridgway: Similar to A. p. californicus in size 
and shape of bill; males with exposed portions of median upper wing coverts 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 163 

National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 339, 1902 

part, southern California and northern Lower California (monog., full 
bibliog.); van Rossem, Condor, 28, p. 218, 1926 Pacific drainage from 
Sierra Juarez, Lower California, to southern California (crit., range); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 150, 1928 northwestern Lower 
California. 

Range. Pacific slope of southern California and Lower Califor- 
nia, from San Luis Obispo County south to El Rosario, lat. 30. 

3: California (Corona, Riverside County, 1; San Diego, San Diego 
County, 2). 

* Agelaius phoeniceus sonoriensis Ridgway. 1 SONORA RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus sonoriensis Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 370, 1887 

"northwestern Mexico and lower Colorado Valley, in southern Cali- 
fornia, and Arizona, south to Mazatlan" (type, from Camp Grant, Arizona, 2 
in U. S. National Museum); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 5, p. 37, 
1893 Nacory, Arizona, San Diego and Pacheco, Chihuahua; Nelson, 
Auk, 17, p. 125, 1900 part, Arizona and Culiacan, Sinaloa (crit.); Ridg- 
way, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 337, 1902 part, lower Colorado 
Valley, southern Arizona, and Lower California; Miller, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 21, p. 360, 1905 Escuinapa, Sinaloa; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 12, p. 161, 1914 lower Colorado Valley; van Rossem, Condor, 
28, p. 226, 1926 lower Colorado Valley, Arizona, and Sinaloa (crit.); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 150, 1928 Lower California; 
van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 288, 1931 Sonora (Teco- 
ripa, Obregon, Te"sia). 

Agelaius phoeniceus longirostris (not of Salvador!, 3 1874, nor of Vieillot, 1819) 
Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., 2nd ed., p. 370, 1896 northwestern 
Mexico and lower Colorado Valley. 

more extensively buffy, often without any black; females more streaked (less 
blackish) below and paler throughout. Differs from A. p. nevadensis in heavier 
bill, sex for sex, and in broader streaking on under parts of the females. Wing, 
120-130J4 (female) 100^-105^; tail, 86^-98^, (female) 72^-77; bill, 22-24, 
(female) 19-203^; depth of bill, 11^-13, (female) 10^-11 (van Rossem, I.e.). 

1 Agelaius phoeniceus sonoriensis Ridgway: Slender-billed like A. p. nevadensis 
and A. p. caurinus, but bill even longer and slenderer than in the former and of 
different shape than in the latter; males with median upper wing coverts more 
often and more extensively marked with black than in nevadensis; pale tipping 
of feathers in fall plumage more extensive and paler than in the other Californian 
races, and very frequently even persisting on the interscapular region until the 
bird is worn; females paler and with narrower central streaking than in nevadensis, 
paler and less buffy than in caurinus, with markings more diffused. Wing, 120- 
130^, (female) 101^-112; tail, 86-97J4 (female) 72^-80^; bill, 22^-27, 
(female) 19-21 H; depth of bill, 10^-12^, (female) 9^-lOH (van Rossem, I.e.). 



2 Cf. van Rossem, Condor, 28, p. 227 (in text), 1926, and Swarth, Proc. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 318, 1929. Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 338 (in text), 1902) erroneously gives "Mazatlan, Sinaloa" as type locality. 

3 What Agelaius longirostris Salvadori (Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 9, p. 632, 
1874), described from a single male from "western Mexico" in the Turati Col- 
lection, now in the Milan Museum, may be, is hard to determine, although judging 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Southern California (lower Colorado Valley), north- 
eastern Lower California, and southern Arizona, south to Sonora, 
Chihuahua, and Sinaloa, and in winter to Cape San Lucas. 

3: Arizona (Mesa City, Maricopa County, 2); Mexico (Cerro 
Blanco, Sonora, 1). 

Agelaius phoeniceus nyaritensis Dickey and van Rossem. 1 
NAYARIT RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus nyaritensis Dickey and van Rossem, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 38, p. 131, Nov., 1925 Santiago, Nayarit, western Mexico (type 
in U. S. National Museum). 

Agelaius phoeniceus sonoriensis (not of Ridgway) Nelson, Auk, 17, p. 125, 
1900 part, Tepic (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 337, 1902 part, Tepic. 

Range. Coastal plains of western Mexico, in State of Nayarit 
(Santiago, San Bias, Tepic). 

Agelaius phoeniceus grinnelli Howell. 2 GRINNELL'S RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus grinnelli Howell, Auk, 34, p. 196, 1917 San Sebastian, 
El Salvador (type in coll. of D. R. Dickey, Pasadena); Griscom, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 388, 1932 Antigua and San Antonio, Guatemala. 

Agelaeus phoeniceus (not Oriolus phoeniceus Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1859, p. 19 Duenas, Guatemala; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 10 (monog., 
in part); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 340, 1886 part, spec, q'-t', 
Duenas; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 453, 1887 
descr. and hab. in part, Duenas, Guatemala. 

Agelaius phoeniceus sonoriensis (not of Ridgway) Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, 
No. 8, p. 29, 1919 Rio Menco, western Nicaragua. 

from the measurements, it is not likely to be referable to A. p. sonoriensis, as has 
been pointed out by Nelson. Fortunately, we need not trouble about its exact 
meaning, since Salvadori's name is preoccupied by Agelaius longirostris Vieillot 
(Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 34, p. 547, 1819). 

1 Agelaius phoeniceus nyaritensis Dickey and van Rossem, which belongs to 
the red-and-buff-shouldered section of races, approaches A. p. fortis in stoutness 
of bill, but has a longer bill than that form. Compared to A. p. neutralis, the 
outline of the oilmen is straighter and the bill is larger in all measurements; 
compared to A. p. sonoriensis, the bill is slightly longer and very much heavier. 
Female unknown. Wing, 126-129; tail, 93-100 M; bill, 24^-26^; its depth at 
base, 12^-13 H (Dickey and van Rossem, I.e.). Its relationship to A. p. grinnelli 
remains to be determined when a series of the female is available for study. 

2 Agelaius phoeniceus grinnelli Howell: Differs from A. p. richmondi in larger 
size, especially longer wings and much heavier, thicker as well as deeper, bill; 
female without the pinkish tinge of the throat, with broader dark streaking of 
the under parts, and with the auriculars grayish rather than buffy. Resembles 
A. p. sonoriensis, but wings and tail are shorter, the bill is longer and heavier, 
and there are certain differences of coloration in the female sex. Wing, 120-126, 
(female) 94-99; tail, 90-96J4 (female) 68-78^; bill, 24-27^, (female) 19^-22; 
depth at base, llj^-12^, (female) 10-11 (after Howell and van Rossem, I.e.). 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 165 

Range. Pacific slope of Guatemala (Duenas, Antigua, San 
Antonio) and El Salvador (San Sebastian), and probably also in 
western Nicaragua (Rio Menco). 1 

Agelaius phoeniceus costaricensis van Rossem. 2 COSTA RICAN 
RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus costaricensis van Rossem, Condor, 32, p. 162, May, 
1930 Bebedero, Guanacaste, Costa Rica (type in collection of D. R. 
Dickey, Pasadena). 

Agelaius phoeniceus (not Oriolus phoeniceus Linnaeus) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 

Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 104, 1868 Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. 
Agelaeus phoeniceus Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 303, 1869 Costa Rica; 

Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 392, 1882 La Palma, Gulf of 

Nicoya; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 10 part, Nicoya; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 340, 1886 part, spec, v', w', Bebedero, Costa Rica; Salvin 

and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 453, 1887 part, Costa 

Rica (La Palma, Bebede'ro). 
Agelaius phoeniceus sonoriensis (not of Ridgway) Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 

Mus., 6, p. 826, 1910 Costa Rica (Guanacaste and Bebede'ro). 

Range. Fresh- and tidewater marshes about Bebede'ro and La 
Palma, Gulf of Nicoya, northwestern Costa Rica. 

* Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus (Linnaeus). EASTERN 
RED-WING. 

Oriolus phoeniceus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 161, 1766 based 

primarily on "Sturnus niger, alis superne rubentibus" Catesby, Nat. 

Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 13, pi. 13; "America septentrionalis" = Charleston, 

South Carolina (as designated by Howell and van Rossem, Auk, 45, 

p. 157, 1928). 
Sturnus predatorius Wilson, Amer. Orn., 4, p. 30, pi. 30, fig. 1, 1811 new 

name for Oriolus phoeniceus Linnaeus. 
Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 

p. 330, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.) ; Howell and van Rossem, Auk, 45, p. 156, 

1928 (crit., range). 
Agelaius phoeniceus predatorius Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 24, p. 227, 

1911 North Carolina and Virginia north to Nova Scotia (crit.). 3 

1 From the measurements of two adult males from the Rio Menco given by 
Rendahl (wing, 122, 125; tail, 97, 102(7); bill, 23), Nicaraguan birds would seem 
to be nearer to A. p. grinnelli than to A. p. costaricensis, though study of an 
adequate series is imperative to establish tneir status. 

2 Agelaius phoeniceus costaricensis van Rossem: Much like A. p. grinnelli, 
but wings and tail snorter; females darker brown above, and more sooty (less 
grayish) on lower abdominal region and under tail coverts. Wing, 1 14-122 J/jz, 
(female) 90-92 H; tail, 85-94 H, (female) 62-70; bill, 23-26, (female) 20-21; 
depth at base, 11^12,!^, (female) 10-10H (van Rossem, I.e.). 

3 As has been pointed out by Howell and van Rossem, it is evident that the 
late E. A. Mearns was misled by inadequate material in his interpretation of the 
nomenclature of the Red-wings breeding on the Gulf coast. 



166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Breeds from Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Quebec south to 
the northern parts of the Gulf states; winters mainly south of the 
Ohio and Delaware valleys, locally north to Massachusetts. 

102: Massachusetts (Dedham, 3; Chatham, 1; Great Island, 1); 
Connecticut (East Hartford, 21); New York (Shelter Island, 8; 
Cayuga, 1; Rochester, 1); Ohio (Garrettsville, 1); Indiana (Liver- 
pool, 2; Davis Station, 1; Miller, 1; Roby, 1); Illinois (Chicago, 14; 
Lewiston, 2; Henry, 1; Grand Tower, 1; Grand Crossing, 3; Grand 
Chain, 1; Roby, 2; Auburn, 2; Beach, 2; Worth, 3; Sparland, 1; 
Woodlawn, 1; Fox Lake, 4; Joliet, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 19; 
Neenah, 1; Woodruff, 1); Missouri (Appleton City, 1). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus mearnsi Howell and van Rossem. 1 
FLORIDA RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus mearnsi Howell and van Rossem, Auk, 45, p. 159, 1928 
Alligator Bluff, Kissimmee River, Florida (type in U. S. National 
Museum). 

Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus (not of Maynard) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 333, 1902 part, Florida. 

Range. Greater part of the Florida peninsula, south to the lower 
Kissimmee Valley and the Caloosahatchee River, north at least to 
Putnam County (San Mateo) and Anastasia Island; west on the 
Gulf coast to the mouth of the Chattahoochee River (Apalachicola). 

38: Florida (Nassau County, 5; Banana Creek, 1; Banana River, 
Brevard County, 9; Palm Beach, Beach County, 4; Wilson, Brevard 
County, 6; Pine Island, Lee County, 11; Puntarasa, Lee County, 
1; Jupiter, Beach County, 1). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus Maynard. 2 MAYNARD'S 
RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus Maynard, Birds East. North Amer., 2nd ed., 
Part 40, p. 698, 1895 Key West, Florida (cotypes in Museum of Com- 

1 Agelaius phoeniceus mearnsi Howell and van Rossem: Nearest to A. p. 
phoeniceus, but smaller, with longer and more slender bill; coloration of upper 
parts in females more brownish (less blackish); under parts more buffy (less 
whitish), the dark streaks more brownish. Wing, 109-118, (female) 89-96; tail, 
81-93, (female) 66^-74^; bill, 24-27, (female) 19^-22; depth of bill, 10J^-12, 
(female) 9-10. 

Specimens from the Gulf coast of Florida have somewhat thicker bills than 
those from central and eastern Florida, thus inclining to A. p. littoralis, while 
others from the Caloosahatchee Valley (Alva and Fort Myers), in paler coloration, 
approach A. p. floridanus. 

2 Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus Maynard: Similar in size and proportions to 
A. p. mearnsi, but upper parts of females paler, less brownish, and more exten- 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 167 

parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Howell and van Rossem, Auk, 
45, p. 160, 1928 Florida keys and southern end of Florida peninsula 
(crit.). 

Agelaius phoeniceus bryanti (not of Ridgway, 1887) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 334, 1902 part, Key West, Lake Worth, and 
Miami, Florida; Holt and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 16, p. 433, 1926 
Tamiami Trail, west of Miami, Florida. 

Range. Florida keys and the southern end of the Florida pen- 
insula, north at least to Lake Worth on the east coast, and to Ever- 
glade, Collier County, on the west coast. 

9: Florida (Lake Worth, Beach County, 3; Key West, Monroe 
County, 2; West Jupiter, Dade County, 1; Cutler, Bade County, 3). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus littoralis Howell and van Rossem. 1 GULF 
COAST RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus littoralis Howell and van Rossem, Auk, 45, p. 157, 1928 
Santa Rosa Island, opposite Mary Esther, Florida (type in U. S. 
National Museum). 

Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus (not of Maynard) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 333, 1902 part, Gulf coast west to Galveston, Texas. 

Range. Gulf coast region, from extreme western Florida (from 
Choctawatchee Bay westwards) at least to Galveston, Texas. 

27: Florida (Town Point, Santa Rosa County, 1; Santa Rosa 
Island, Santa Rosa County, 1; Mary Esther, Okaloosa County, 2); 
Mississippi (Vicksburg, Warren County, 1); Louisiana (Chef Men- 
teur, 15; New Orleans, Orleans Parish, 2; Buras, Plaquemines 
Parish, 5). 

sively marked with whitish; superciliaries on average broader and more whitish 
(less buffy); under parts less tinged with buffy; similar also to A. p. bryanti, but 
bill on average shorter; females decidedly more brownish below and less exten- 
sively flecked with whitish above. Wing, 107^-119, (female) 89-96; tail, 77-92, 
(female) 65V6-75M; bill, 23-27, (female) 19-21; depth of bill, 10^12, (female) 
9-10 (Howell and van Rossem, I.e.). 

1 Agelaius phoeniceus littoralis Howell and van Rossem: Nearest to A. p. 
phoeniceus, but females darker, both above and below, particularly on the rump; 
general tone of upper parts fuscous-black, with median crown-stripe and buffy 
edgings on nape and interscapular region nearly obsolete; ground color of under 
parts less buffy, the dark streaks broader and on average more blackish; wing 
and tail slightly shorter; bill slightly more slender. In comparison to A. p. mearnsi, 
coloration of females throughout very much more blackish, the brown and buffy 
edgings to the feathers of the head, nape, interscapular region, and wings very 
much reduced; streaks on under parts decidedly more blackish, the ground-color 
less buffy; bill shorter and thicker at base; wings slightly longer. Wing, 110-118, 
(female) 90-98; tail, 85-93, (female) 68-73; bill, 23-27, (female) 19^-23; depth 
of bill, 11H-13, (female) 10-11^. 

Birds from the Louisiana coast (Gueydan) and Whitfield, Florida, are stated 
by the describers to be not quite typical, though nearer to this than any other race. 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Agelaius phoeniceus bryanti Ridgway. BAHAMAN RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus bryanti Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 370, 1887 
part, Bahamas 1 (no type nor type locality specified; type from Bahamas 
[= Abaco] in the U. S. National Museum); Northrop, Auk, 8, p. 71, 1891 
Andros (habits); Ridgway, Auk, 8, p. 334, 1891 Abaco; Cory, Auk, 
8, pp. 297, 298, 350, 352, 1891 Berry, Biminis, Great Bahama, Abaco, 
and Cay Sal, Bahamas; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 110, 1892 part, 
Bahamas (Great Bahama, Abaco, Biminis,- Berry, New Providence, 
Andros, Cay Sal); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 334, 
1902 part, Bahama Islands; Allen, Auk, 22, pp. 128, 133, 1905 Ba- 
hamas; Riley, Auk, 22, p. 359, 1905 Lake Killarney, New Providence 
(nest and eggs descr.); Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama Islands, p. 367, 
1905 Great Bahama, Abaco, Little Abaco, Biminis, Berry, New Provi- 
dence, Andros, and Cay Sal; Todd and Worthington, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
7, pp. 439, 463, 1911 New Providence (Blue Hills), Andros (Staniard 
Creek), and Abaco (Sand Bank, Spencer's Point). 

Agelaius bryanti Bangs, Auk, 17, p. 293, 1900 Fresh Creek, Andros. 

Agelaeus phoeniceus bryanti Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 290 New Providence 
(Nassau), Andros (Spanish Wells, Grassy Creek), Great Abaco, and Little 
Abaco. 

Agelaeus phoeniceus (not Oriolus phoeniceus Linnaeus) Cory, Bds. Bahama 
Is., p. 98, 1880 Hawk's Nest, Andros. 

Range. Bahamas (Great Bahama, Abaco, Little Abaco, Biminis, 
Berry, New Providence, Andros, and Cay Sal). 

86: Bahamas (Great Bahama, 75; Berry, 3; Andros, 2; Nassau, 
2; Abaco, 2; Bimini, 1; Cay Sal, 1). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus assimilis Lembeye. 2 CUBAN RED-WING. 

Agelaius assimilis 3 (Gundlach MS.) Lembeye, Aves Isla Cuba, p. 64, pi. 9, 
fig. 3, 1850 Cuba (type in coll. of J. Gundlach, now in Havana Museum); 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 10 Cuba (crit.); Gundlach, 
Journ. Orn., 22, p. 131, 1874 Cardenas and Cienaga de Zapata, Cuba 
(nest and eggs); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 221, 1886 Cuba (descr.); idem, Cat. 
W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 129, 146, 1892 part, Cuba; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 342, 1902 part, Cuba. 

Agelaeus assimilis Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 12, 1856 Cuba (crit.); idem, 
I.e., 9, p. 413, 1861 Cuba (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 10 Cuba (crit.); 
idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 340, 1886 Cuba. 

Agelaius assimilis assimilis Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 125, 1923 
Cardenas and Cienaga de Zapata, Cuba. 

1 The specimens from Key West and Miami, Florida, do not belong here, 
being referable to A. p. floridanus. The type is stated by Riley (Auk, 22, p. 359, 
1905) to be from Abaco Island. 

2 Agelaius phoeniceus assimilis Lembeye to my mind is nothing but a small 
race of the American Red-wing with a very dark female. 

3 The specific name is misprinted "assimiles" in the text. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 169 

Range. Island of Cuba, Greater Antilles. 1 
2: Cuba (Cienaga de Zapata, Santo Tomas, 2). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus subniger Bangs. 2 ISLE OF PINES 
RED-WING. 

Agelaius subniger Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 4, p. 92, 1913 Cienaga, 
Isle of Pines (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 419, 1930). 

Agelaius assimilis (not of Lembeye) Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 127, 
1892- part, Isle of Pines; Gundlach, Orn. Cub., p. 120, 1895 part, Isle 
of Pines; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 342, 1902 part, 
Isle of Pines; Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 39, p. 212, 1905 Cienaga, 
Isle of Pines; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 273, 1916 Siguanea and 
Pasadita, Isle of Pines (crit., plumages, habits). 

[Agelaius assimilis] subniger Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 125 (in text), 
1923 Isle of Pines (crit.). 

Range. Isle of Pines, near Cuba, Greater Antilles. 
7 : Isle of Pines. 

*Agelaius phoeniceus megapotamus Oberholser.' Rio GRANDE 
RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus megapotamus Oberholser, Wilson Bull., 31, No. 1, p. 20, 
March, 1919 Brownsville, Texas (type in U. S. National Museum); 
van Tyne, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 255, p. 4, 1933 Browns- 
ville (descr. of young). 

Agelaius phoeniceus richmondi (not of Nelson) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 335, 1902 part, southern Texas, Tamaulipas (Matamoros, 
Alta Mira), and Nuevo Leon (Monterey); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 
Matamoros and San Fernando, Tamaulipas; Griscom and Crosby, 
Auk, 43, p. 23, 1926 Brownsville, Texas. 

Range. Southern coast of Texas and lower Rio Grande Valley 
south through eastern Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas to 
northern Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

1 The alleged occurrence of Agelaeus phoeniceus in Cuba, as recorded by 
Cabanis (Journ. Orn., 4, p. 11, 1856) and repeated by various subsequent writers, 
is a mistake, as has been clearly pointed out by Gundlach (Journ. Orn., 9, 
p. 413, 1861). 

Agelaius phoeniceus subniger Bangs, though rejected by Todd, seems to 
be distinguishable from the Cuban form by decidedly rounded, instead of flattened 
culmen. 

3 Agelaius phoeniceus megapotamus Oberholser: Nearest to A. p. richmondi, 
but larger; female more grayish above and less ochraceous below. Wing, 113-120, 
(female) 84-98; tail, 83-92, (female) 63-72 H; bill, 22-24, (female) 18^-22 
(Oberholser, I.e.). 

This form is described as differing from A. p. littoralis by shorter bill and 
much lighter coloration of the female, while the decidedly smaller size serves to 
separate it from A. p. sonoriensis and A. p. fortis. 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

9: Texas (Corpus Christi, Nueces County, 1; Harlingen, Cameron 
County, 3; Brownsville, Cameron County, 1); Mexico (Tampico, 
Tamaulipas, 4). 

*Agelaius phoeniceus richmondi Nelson. RICHMOND'S 
RED-WING. 

Agelaius phoeniceus richmondi Nelson, Auk, 14, p. 58, 1897 Tlalcotalpam, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 335, 1902 part, Vera Cruz (Tlalcotalpam, 
Guiterrez, Zamara) to Yucatan, British Honduras (Belize), and eastern 
Guatemala (Lake Peten and ?Coban) ; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 1913 Camp 
Mengel, Quintana Roo; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 19, 1926 
Vigia Chica and Chunyaxche, Yucatan; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 388, 1932 Guatemala (Peten and ?Coban) and southeastern Nica- 
ragua (crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 335, 1932 
Laguna Toloa, Honduras (breeding). 

Agelaeus phoeniceus (not Oriolus phoeniceus Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 205 Tlalcotalpam, Vera Cruz; Moore, I.e., 1859, 
p. 58 British Honduras (Belize) and Guatemala (Peten); Boucard, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 446 coast of Yucatan; Sclater, Ibis, 
1884, p. 10 (monog., in part); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 340, 
1886 part, f'-p', Yucatan, Cozumel Island, British Honduras (Belize), 
and Guatemala (Peten); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 453, 1887 part, Yucatan, Cozumel, British Honduras (Belize), 
and Guatemala (Peten and ?Coban); Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 263 Cozumel 
Island; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 496, 1893 San Carlos, 
Nicaragua, and Rio Frio, Costa Rica. 

Agelaius phoeniceus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 10 part, 
Yucatan (crit.); Stone, I.e., 1890, p. 208 Progreso, Yucatan. 

Range. Caribbean slope of southeastern Mexico (Vera Cruz) 
south through Tabasco (Montecristo), Yucatan (including Cozumel 
Island), Quintana Roo, British Honduras (Belize), Guatemala 
(Pet&i), 1 and Honduras to southeastern Nicaragua (San Carlos) and 
the adjacent parts of Costa Rica (Rio Frio). 2 

17: Mexico, Yucatan (San Felipe, 2; Rio Lagartos, 9; Cozumel 
Island, 2); Nicaragua (San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua, Rivas, 4). 

Agelaius phoeniceus gubernator (Wagler). BICOLORED 
RED-WING. 

Psarocolius gubernator Wagler, Isis, 1832, Heft 3, col. 281, 1832 Mexico 
(location of type not stated). 3 

1 It is quite probable that birds from Coban, whence no material exists in 
collections, may also be referable to the present form. 

2 Nicaraguan specimens are stated by Griscom to have shorter tails and more 
slender feet. 

3 Not in the Munich Museum (Laubmann, in litt.). 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLM AYR 171 

Agelaeus gubernator Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 341, 1886 part, 
Mexico; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 454, 1887 
part, Mexico (Valley of Mexico; Orizaba, Jalapa, Laguna del Rosario, 
Nati vitas). 

Agelaius phoeniceus grandis Nelson, Auk, 14, p. 57, 1897 Atlixco, Puebla, 
Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Agelaius gubernator gubernator Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 326, 1902 southwestern Mexico (monog., full bibliog.). 

Agelaius gubernator grandis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 329, 
1902 southeastern Mexico (monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Highlands of Mexico, from Durango and Zacatecas south 
to Oaxaca. 1 

*Agelaius humeralis humeralis (Vigors). TAWNY-SHOULDERED 
BLACKBIRD. 

Leistes humeralis Vigors, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, p. 442, Nov., 1827 near 
Havana, Cuba (type in coll. of N. A. Vigors, present location unknown). 

Icterus humeralis d'Orbigny, in Sagra, Hist. He de Cuba, Orn., p. 114, pi. 20, 
1839 Cuba (habits). 

Agelaius humeralis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 11 Cuba 
(crit.); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 130, 1874 Cuba (descr., habits, 
nest, and eggs); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 220, 1886 Cuba (descr.); idem, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 107, 1889 Cuba (descr.); idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 110, 
129, 1892 Cuba; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 303, 1892 
near Trinidad, Cuba (habits); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
2, p. 343, 1902 Cuba (monog.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 
124, 1923 Cuba; Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 514, 1928 
Port-de-Paix and lower Artibonite, Haiti; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 406, 1931 Port-de-Paix and near the mouth of 
the Artibonite River, Haiti (crit.); Wetmore and Lincoln, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 82, art. 25, p. 60, 1933 Pont de 1'Estere, Haiti. 

Agelaeus humeralis Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 13, 1856 Cuba (nest and 
eggs); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 11 Cuba (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 342, 1886 San Cristobal, Cuba. 

Agelaius quisqueyensis Danforth and Emlen, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 40, p. 
147, Dec., 1927 Artibonite Sloughs, near St. Marc, Haiti (type in coll. 
of S. T. Danforth, now in U. S. National Museum); Danforth, Auk, 46, 
p. 373, 1929 Artibonite. 

Range. Islands of Cuba and Haiti (Port-au-Prince and Arti- 
bonite River), Greater Antilles. 2 

1 It appears to me that the distinction between gubernator and grandis cannot 
be maintained. The supposed color-characters in the males as well as in the 
females are exceedingly variable individually, and as to size I have not been able 
to correlate dimensions with geographic areas in the series of twenty-four speci- 
mens from various parts of Mexico. 

2 According to Wetmore and Swales, birds from Haiti (A. quisqueyensis) are 
inseparable from those of Cuba. 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

15: Cuba (Trinidad, Santa Clara, 3; Palacios, Pinar del Rio, 8; 
San Diego de los Banos, Pinar del Rio, 1; unspecified, 3). 

* Agelaius humeralis xanthomus (Sclater). 1 YELLOW-SHOUL- 
DERED BLACKBIRD. 

Icterus xanthomus Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 131, 1862 "Mexico," 
errore (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); Taylor, 
Ibis, 1864, p. 168 Porto Rico; Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, p. 254, 
1866 Porto Rico; Sundevall, Oefvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, 
p. 598, 1869 Porto Rico (crit.). 

Agelaius chrysopterus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 539, 
1819 part, 'Tile Saint-Thomas," errore; 2 Gundlach, Anal. Soc. Esp. 
Hist. Nat., 7, p. 211, 1878 Porto Rico (habits); idem, Journ. Orn., 26, 
p. 177, 1878 Porto Rico (nest and eggs); Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 12, 1903 
Porto Rico (Mayagiiez) and Mona. 

Agelaeus chrysopterus Sundevall, Oefvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, 
p. 597, 1869 Porto Rico (crit.). 

Hyphantes xanthomus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 63 Porto 
Rico (monog.). 

Agelaeus xanthomus Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 12 Porto Rico (monog.); idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 343, 1886 Porto Rico. 

Agelaius xanthomus Cory, Auk, 3, p. 221, 1886 Porto Rico (descr.); idem, 
Bds. W. Ind., p. 108, 1889 Porto Rico; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 
110, 132, 1892 Porto Rico and Mona Island; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 344, 1902 Porto Rico (monog.); Struthers, Auk, 
40, p. 477, 1923 Porto Rico; Wetmore, U. S. Dept. Agric., Bull., 326, 
p. 113, 1926 Mona and Porto Rico (habits); Danforth, Journ. Dept. 
Agric. Porto Rico, 10, p. 99, 1926- Cartagena Lagoon and Mayagiiez, 
Porto Rico; Schmidt, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 151, 1926 
Mona; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Is., 9, p. 532, 1927 
Porto Rico and Mona Islands (habits); Struthers, Auk, 44, p. 543, 
1927 Mona. 



Range. Islands of Porto Rico and Mona, Greater Antilles. 
14: Porto Rico (Mayagiiez, 1; unspecified, 11); Mona Island, 2. 

*Agelaius thilius alticola Todd. 3 ANDEAN YELLOW-SHOULDERED 
MARSH BIRD. 

Agelaius thilius alticola Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 45, p. 219, 1932 
Desaguadero, Bolivia (type in Carnegie Museum). 

1 Though well marked, this is clearly a representative form. 

2 Vieillot^s name, though comprising Icterus cayanensis (Linnaeus), Agelaius 
thilius petersi Laubmann, and a species said to be from "St. Thomas," probably 
A. humeralis xanthomus with an erroneous locality, appears to refer primarily to 
the last-named, as may be gathered from the passage, "couvertures supe'rieures 
et inferieures des ailes . . . d'un beau jaune." 

3 Agelaius thilius alticola Todd: Similar to A. t. thilius, but decidedly larger; 
male without any pale superciliaries, of which there are at least traces even in 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 173 

Icterus chrysopterus (not Agelaius chrysopterus Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Or- 

bigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 5, 1838 part, Bolivia (spec. 

from Cochabamba in Paris Museum examined). 
Agelasticus thilius (not Turdus thilius Molina) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 153 Tungasuca, near Cuzco, Peru. 
Agelaius thilius Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 424, 1884 Carabaya, Peru; 

Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 398, 1907 part, Bolivia; Chapman, 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 124, 1921 Calca, Peru. 
Agelaeus thilius Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 12 part, southern Peru; Berlepsch and 

Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 103, 1906 Suriti and Cuzco, Peru (crit.). 
Agelaeus thilius a. subsp. typica Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 344, 

1886 part, spec, a, Tungasuca, Peru. 
Agelaeus thilius b. subsp. chrysocarpa (not Xanthornus chrysocarpus Vigors) 

Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 344, 1886 part, spec, i, Bolivia. 
Agelaeus thilius chrysocarpus MSnegaux, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (10), 1, 

p. 209, 1909 Chililaya, Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. 
(l)Icterus cayanensis (not Oriolus cayanensis Linnaeus) Allen, Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 3, p. 354, 1876 Moho, Lake Titicaca, Peru. 

Range. Temperate zone of southeastern Peru (depts. of Cuzco 
and Puno) and Bolivia (depts. of La Paz and Cochabamba). 
IrPeru (Puno, 1). 

* Agelaius thilius thilius (Molina). CHILEAN YELLOW-SHOUL- 
DERED MARSH BIRD. 

Turdus thilius Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 250, 345, 1782 Chile 
(descr. of male); Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, 1, p. 175, 1858 Quillota, 
Valparaiso. 

Xanthornus chrysocarpus Vigors, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
2, p. 3, pub. Mar., 1832 Chile (descr. of male and female; cotypes in 
coll. of H. Cuming, present location unknown); Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, 
1, p. 177, 1858 Quillota, Valparaiso. 

Agelaius xanthocarpus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 430, 1850 
"Peru," errore; the cotypes examined in the Paris Museum were collected 
by Claudio Gay in Chile (descr. of immature male only). 1 

fully adult birds of the nominate race; female darker, and underneath more heavily 
streaked with blackish. Wing, 98-102, (female) 88-94; tail, 80-84, (female) 72-75. 

Birds from the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes seem to be separable by the above 
characters, this divergency having been confirmed by Mr. Todd after studying a 
large series from Bolivia. 

An earlier name may be Thilius major Bonaparte (Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 
Paris, 37, p. 833, 1853), described as "Caeteris duplo [!] major, nigerrimus; humeris 
aureo-flavis; superciliis nullis; rostro breviore" from a specimen in the Brussels 
Museum, which appears to be lost (cf. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 
214). As the description is too indefinite, and the patria of the species unrecorded, 
the name cannot be determined with any degree of certainty. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Suriti, Cuzco, 2; Cuzco, 1. Bolivia: 
Chililaya, Lake Titicaca, 4; Cochabamba, 1. 

1 The description of the "female" appears to have been based upon a young 
A. cyanopus obtained by d'Orbigny in Chiquitos, Bolivia. 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Xanthornus chiknsis (Reichenbach MS.) Bibra, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 130, 1853 twelve hours from Valparaiso in a 
low swampy region. 

Icterus chrysopterus (not Agelaius chrysopterus Vieillot) Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 5, 1838 part, Chile. 

Xanthornus chrysopterus Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 106, 
1841 part, Chile north to the valley of Copiapo. 

Icterus thilius Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Curios., 16, 
Suppl., p. 84, 1834 northern Chile; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1843, p. 113 Chile (habits); Yarrell, I.e., 15, p. 53, 1847 Chile (eggs 
descr.). 

Cacicus chrysocarpus Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 245, 
1847 Chile (ex Vigors); Waugh and Lataste, Act. Soc. Scient. Chile, 4, 
pp. Ixxxvi, clxxi, 1894 Penaflor, Santiago, and San Alfonso, Quillota 
(plumages). 

Xanthornus cayennensis (not Oriolus cayanensis Linnaeus) Des Murs, in Gay, 
Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 346, 1847 Copiapo Valley; Boeck, 
Naumannia, 1855, p. 503 near Valdivia; Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 21, 
(1), p. 13, 1855 Chile (crit.); Frauenfeld, Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesell. Wien, 
10, Abh., p. 637, 1860 near Valparaiso; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, 
p. 262, 1868 Chile (crit.); Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 251, 1877 
Chile (habits); Lataste, Act. Soc. Scient. Chile, 5, pp. xxxiv, Ixii, 1895 
Caillihue, Curico, and Llohue, Maule. 

Agelaius thilius Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 431, 1850 Chile; 
Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Nav. Astron. Exp., 2, p. 179, pi. 16, fig. 1, 1855 
Chile; idem, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 12 Chile (crit.); 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 422 Coquimbo; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 84, 1889 Valparaiso; Lane, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 25 Hacienda Mansel (Santiago), Arauco, and Rio Bueno (Valdivia); 
Schalow, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), Suppl., 4, p. 721, 1898 Ovalle (Coquimbo) 
and Santiago (eggs descr.); Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 101, p. 919, 1898 
Chile (monog.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 398, 1907 part, Argen- 
tina and Paraguay; Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 49, 1924 Isla La 
Mocha; idem, I.e., 29, p. 148, 1925 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Agelaius theleus Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 7, p. 311, 1860 
Santiago (nesting habits). 

Agelasticus thilius Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 188, 1851 Chile; Pelzeln, Reise 
Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 89, 1865 Chile; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 136, 1862 Chile; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 323, 
338 Chile; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 545, 1877 Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; Gigoux, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 83, 1924 Caldera, 
Atacama. 

Agelaeus thilius Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 72 part, Chile; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 343, 1886 part, subsp. typica, spec, b-h, Chile; Reed, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 93, p. 200, 1896 central and southern Chile; Jaffuel and 
Pirion, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, p. 109, 1927 Marga-Marga Valley, 
Valparaiso; Bullock, I.e., 33, p. 187, 1929 Angol, Malleco. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 175 

Agelaius thilius thilius Barros, Rev. Chi). Hist. Nat., 24, p. 150, 1920 
Nilahue and Quiahue, Curico; idem, I.e., 25, p. 192, 1921 Cordillera of 
Aconcagua; Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 480, 1922 Coronel (habits, 
nest, and eggs); (?)Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 457, 1926 
Rio Fetaleufu and Lago Mosquitos, Cholila, Chubut; 1 Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 100, 1932 Chile (monog.). 

Range. Temperate zone of Chile from Atacama (Copiapo 
Valley) south to Valdivia; (?)northwestern Chubut (Cholila Valley). 1 

7: Chile (Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, Atacama, 1; Romero, 
Coquimbo, 1; Talca, 1; Hacienda Gualpencillo, Conception, 4). 2 

*Agelaius thilius petersii Laubmann. 3 ARGENTINE YELLOW- 
SHOULDERED MARSH BIRD. 

Agelaius thilius petersii Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 331, Oct. 1, 
1934 Saladillo, boundary line of Santa F6 and Santiago del Estero, 
Argentina (type in Munich Museum). 

Agelaius chrysopterus Vieillot, 4 Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 539, 
1819 part, descr. of female only (based on "Tordo negro cobijas ama- 
rillas" Azara, No. 67), "Paraguay." 

Icterus chrysopterus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 5, 1838 part, Corrientes and Buenos Aires (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Xanthornus chrysopterus Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 106, 
1841 part, La Plata; Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 258, 1860 Mendoza 
(descr. of young); idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 492, 1861 Mendoza and 
Parana (crit.). 

1 Identification is somewhat doubtful, as only a few molting females were 
available for study. 

2 Additional material examined, Chile: Santiago, 1; Talcaguano, 1; unspeci- 
fied, 18. 

3 Agelaius thilius petersii Laubmann: Similar to A. t. thilius, but decidedly 
smaller. Wing, 81-88, rarely 90, (female) 75-83; tail, 60-70. 

Birds from east of the Andes appear to be referable to a single form, though 
some variation in size is noticeable, in so far as the inhabitants of the western 
districts (Neuquen to Mendoza) attain slightly larger dimensions (wing of males, 
89-90) than those from eastern Argentina to Rio Grande do Sul, thus displaying 
a tendency in the direction of A. t. thilius. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul: Sao Lourengo, 2; 
Pedras Brancas, 2; Rio Grande, 3. Uruguay: Maldonado, 1; Canelones, 1. 
Argentina: Corrientes, 1; Buenos Aires, 4; Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 2; 
Rio Negro, 1; Chubut River, 1; Pantanitos, Neuquen, 1; Mendoza, 1. 

4 This name, as far as the description of the male is concerned, is a hopeless 
composite drawn from Agelaius xanthomus and Icterus cayanensis, whereas that 
of the female appears to have been taken from Azara. I am inclined to follow 
Laubmann in rejecting Vieillot's term, derived, as it is, from one of the principal 
characters of the male sex, a circumstance that seems to be opposed to its appli- 
cation for the basis of the female. 



176 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Agelasticus chrysapterus 1 Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 188 (footnote), Oct., 
1851 based on "Tordo negro cobijas amarillas" Azara, No. 67; "Para- 
guay" [=Corrientes] south to Buenos Aires. 

Agelasticus chrysopterus Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 196 (note 1), 1870 Cane- 
lones, Uruguay. 

Agelaius xanthocarpus (not of Bonaparte) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1866, p. 12 Buenos Aires and Santa Fe (crit.). 

Agelasticus thilius (not Turdus thilius Molina) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 159 Conchitas, Buenos Aires (crit.). 

Agelaeus thilius Durnford, Ibis, 1876, p. 159 Punta Lara and Belgrano, 
Buenos Aires; idem, Ibis, 1877, p. 33 Chubut Valley; idem, Ibis, 1877, 
p. 174 Baradero, Buenos Aires; idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 394 Chubut Valley 
(resident); White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 602 Rio Lujan, 
Buenos Aires; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 134, 1883 Concepcion 
del Uruguay, Entre Rios (breeding); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 12 part, Pata- 
gonia and Buenos Aires north to "Paraguay"; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 343, 1886 part, subsp. chrysocarpa, spec, a-h, j, k, Argentina (Men- 
doza, Buenos Aires, Conchitas, Punta Lara, Chubut, Rio Negro); Sclater 
and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 97, 1888 Argentina (habits); Withington, 
Ibis, 1888, p. 463 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; Holland, Ibis, 1891, 
p. 16; idem, I.e., 1892, p. 198 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos Aires (nesting) ; 
Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 173 Uruguay; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 
16, p. 123, 1899 Sao Lourenco and Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do Sul, 
Brazil; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 181, 1902 Tucuman; 
idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 46, 1905 Tucuman; Grant, Ibis, 1911, 
p. 105 Los Ynglases, Ajo, Buenos Aires; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 391 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (nesting habits). 

Agelaius thilius Doering, in Roca, Inf. Of. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., p. 40, 1881 
mouth of Rio Colorado; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, 
p. 84, 1884 La Tinta and Tandil, Buenos Aires; Burmeister, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 3, p. 318, 1890 Arroyos de los Tehuelches, Patagonia; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 398, 1907 part, Argentina, "Paraguay," 
and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 403, 1910 (range in Argentina); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 
(no certain record from Paraguay); Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 399, 1916 La 
Plata; (?)Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 411, 1931 Maimara, Jujuy; 2 Pereyra, 
I.e., 5, p. 189, 1933 Buenos Aires (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Agelaius thilius chrysocarpus Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 185, 
1909 Rio Grande do Sul (Sao Lourenco), Entre Rios (La Soledad), 
and Buenos Aires (San Martino Monte, La Plata, Flores, Barracas al 
Sud); Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 152, 1918 Alto Verde and La Paz, Men- 
doza; Dabbene, I.e., 1, p. 247, 1919 Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; 
Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 24, 1920 Uruguay (Montevideo, Canelones, Mal- 
donado, Flores); Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; 
Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, Buenos Aires; Gia- 

1 Misprint corrected to chrysopterus in the List of Errata at the end of the 
volume [p. 234], 

2 Refers probably to A. t. alticola. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 177 

comelli, I.e., p. 70, 1923 La Rioja (rare); Pereyra, I.e., p. 173, 1923 
Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 
663, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Wilson, El Hornero, 3, p. 362, 1926 
General Lopez, Santa Fe. 

Agelaius thilius chrysopterus Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 336, 
1923 Neluan (20 miles south of Maquinchao) and Huanuluan, Rio 
Negro; Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 456, 1926 Arroyo Seco, 
Rio Negro; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 379, 1926 Buenos 
Aires (Berazategui, Lavalle), Mendoza (Tunuyan), and Uruguay (near 
San Vicente); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 218, 1927 
Bovril Islands, Santa Fe; Smyth, El Hornero, 4, p. 150, 1928 (egg descr.). 

Range. Extreme southern Brazil (in State of Rio Grande do Sul) ; 
Uruguay; northern Argentina, west to the eastern base of the Andes, 
south to the Rio Chubut. 

8: Uruguay (Arazati, San Jose", 3); Argentina (Caraguatay, Rio 
Paranay, Misiones, 1; Rio Paranay, Misiones, 1; La Plata, 1; Belen, 
Catamarca, 1; Conception, Tucuman, 1). 

* Agelaius icterocephalus icterocephalus (Linnaeus). YELLOW- 
HEADED MARSH BIRD. 

Oriolus icterocephalus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 163, 1766 based 
on "Le Carouge a teste jaune de Cayenne" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 124, 
pi. 12, fig. 4; Cayenne (type in coll. of M. de Reaumur). 

Chrysomus icterocephalus Swainson, Nat. Hist. Classif. Bds., 2, p. 274, 1837 
based on "The Yellow-headed Starling" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 3, 
p. 241, pi. 323, "West Indies" = Trinidad; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, 
Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 681, "1848" [=1849] coast of British Guiana; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, p. 18 "Bogota," Colombia; 
Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne; Leotaud, 
Ois. Trinidad, p. 281, 1866 Trinidad; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, 
p. 565, 1921 Georgetown, Takutu River, Abary River, and Wakenaam. 

Xanthosomus icterocephalus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 189, 1851 Cayenne; 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 136, 1862 Trinidad, Cayenne, and 
"Bogota"; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 84 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 182 lower Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, 
pp. 573, 978 north of Amazon, Brazil, and Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1869, 
p. 252 Maruria, Lake Valencia, Venezuela; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 197, 
1870 Rio Amazonas (Ilha dos Macacos) and "Barra" [ = Manaos], Brazil; 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 330 Lake Paturia, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 266 lower Ucayali and Pebas, Peru; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 425, 1884 Rio Ucayali and Pebas, 
Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 15 (monog.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 218 British 
Guiana; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 Santarem, Brazil; 
Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 160, 1895 Barranquilla, Colombia; 
Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 209, 1916 Orinoco region, 
Venezuela. 



178 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Leistes icterocephalus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 14 Guiana 
and Trinidad; Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 576 Trinidad. 

Agelaeus icterocephalus Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 345, 1886 
Guiana (Georgetown, Cayenne), Peru (Pebas, Chamicuros), Colombia 
("Bogota"), Venezuela, and Trinidad; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 300, 
1889 Ucayali, Peru; Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 164 Lago Grande do Amapa, 
Brazil; Loat, Ibis, 1898, p. 562 Hoorabea Creek, British Guiana; Ber- 
lepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 32, 1902 Venezuela (Altagracia, 
Rio Orinoco; La Pricion, Caura River); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, 
p. 433, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 299, 
1907 Amapa and Marajo, Brazil; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 369, 
1910 Surinam (habits); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 421, 1914 
Marajo (Dunas, Livramento, Sao Natal), Amapa, Arumanduba, and 
Monte Alegre, Brazil. 

Agelaius icterocephalus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 36, 
1894 mouth of the Cipero River, Trinidad; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 
p. 21, 1906 Seelet and Caroni, Trinidad; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 398, 1907 Rio Jurua, Brazil (range); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 
123, 1908 Cayenne; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 211, 
1913 La Pedrita de Uracoa, Venezuela; Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. 
Trin. Tob., 20, p. 137, 1922 Harmony Hall, Usine Sainte Madeleine, 
Williamsville, and La Fortunee, Trinidad (food, nest) ; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 176, 1928 Para; Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 98, 
1934 Caroni Swamp, Trinidad. 

Agelaius icterocephalus icterocephalus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
36, p. 632, 1917 Colombia (Cali and La Manuelita, Cauca; Barran- 
quilla); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 468, 1922 
Fundacion and Dibulla, Santa Marta region, Colombia (crit., plumages, 
nest, and eggs); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 414, 1931 
Cienaga and Aracataca, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Xanthosomus icterocephalus icterocephalus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 62, p. 86, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Lelydorp, and 
Javaweg, Surinam. 

Range. Island of Trinidad; British, Dutch, and French Guiana; 
northern Brazil, south to the Amazon Valley and some of its southern 
tributaries (Rio Jurua) ; northeastern Peru (Pebas and lower Ucayali) ; 
Venezuela; Colombia (north coast and valleys of the Cauca and 
Magdalena rivers) ; also apparently at the eastern base of the eastern 
Andes. 1 

1 While noticing certain differences among birds from different localities, 
notably in the female sex, I find myself unable, with the relatively scanty material, 
to correlate them with separate ranges, the individual and seasonal variation 
being considerable. Males from Barranquilla and "Bogota" seem to have paler 
yellow heads, while females are conspicuous by the large extent of the yellow 
area underneath. Various eastern individuals run, however, pretty close. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad, 9. French Guiana: Cayenne, 10. 
Venezuela: Altagracia, Orinoco River, 4. Colombia: "Bogota," 5; Barranquilla, 
2. Brazil: Rio Amazonas (Ilha dos Macacos), 2; Manaos, 1; Rio Jurua, 2. 
Peru: lower Ucayali, 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 179 

20: Colombia (Fundacion, Santa Marta, 2; Rio Cauca, 2); 
Venezuela (Encontrados, Zulia, 6; Catatumbo, Zulia, 3; Rio Aurare, 
Zulia, 1; Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, 1); British Guiana (George- 
town, 3); Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 2). 

Agelaius icterocephalus bogotensis Chapman. 1 BOGOTA 
SAVANNA YELLOW-HEADED MARSH BIRD. 

Agelaius icterocephalus bogotensis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
33, p. 191, March, 1914 Suba marshes, Bogota savanna, Colombia 
(type in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, 
I.e., 36, p. 632, 1917 Bogota savanna. 

Range. Temperate zone of Colombia (Suba marshes in the 
Bogota savanna). 

*Agelaius cyanopus Vieillot. AZARA'S MARSH BIRD. 

Agelaius cyanopus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 34, p. 552, 
1819 based on "Tordo negro y vario," Azara, No. 71, Paraguay; Hart- 
laub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 5, 1847 Paraguay; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 12 Bolivia, Paraguay, and "Bogota" (crit.); Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 196, 1870 Sao Paulo (Porto do Rio Parana), Goyaz 
(Porto do Rio Araguay), and Matto Grosso (Cuyaba); Berlepsch, Journ. 
Orn., 35, p. 11, 1887 Lambare', near Asuncion, Paraguay; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3, p. 379, 1891 Corumba, Matto Grosso; Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 398, 1907 Itapura, Sao Paulo; Lillo, Apunt. 
Hist. Nat., 1, p. 44, 1909 San Vicente, Chaco, Argentina; Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 185, 1909 (?)Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires; 
Mocovi and San Vicente, Chaco (nest and eggs descr.); Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 403, 1910 San Vicente, Chaco; Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Asuncion, Paraguay; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 381, 1926 Las Palmas (Chaco), Formosa (Riacho 
Pilaga), and Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco) (habits); Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 274, 1929 Sao Bento, Maranhao; 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 60, p. 394, 1930 Paraguay 
(Fort Wheeler, Puerto Pinasco, Rio Negro) and Matto Grosso (Agua 
Blanca de Corumba, Descalvados, Palmiras, Fazenda do Sao Joao) 
(nest descr.); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, 
p. 290, 1930 San Jos6, Formosa (plumages); Pereyra, El Hornero, 
5, p. 192, 1933 Chaco and northern Santa Fe; Stone and Roberts, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 394, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

1 Agelaius icterocephalus bogotensis Chapman: Similar to A. i. icterocephalus, 
but decidedly larger; female much darker, with less yellow on the head and less 
distinctly streaked with dusky on the back, the edges to the feathers more grayish, 
less olivaceous; abdomen also less olivaceous. Wing, 91-94, (female) 80; tail, 
70-72, (female) 66. 

Judging from four topotypical examples, this is a well-marked form, con- 
siderably larger, as well as of darker coloration in the female sex. It obviously 
replaces in the Temperate zone of the east Colombian Andes the nominate race 
found in the tropics of the Magdalena Valley, several thousand feet lower down. 



180 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

. C[assicus] T. hybridus Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss., 
15, p. 279, 1826 based on "Tordo negro y vario" Azara, No. 71, Paraguay. 

(1)Icterus atro-violaceus Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 1216, 1831 
Coral de Batuba, near Lagoa Feia, Rio de Janeiro (descr. of female; 
type now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; 
cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 226, 1889). 1 

Leistes unicolor Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 304, Dec. 31, 1837 "Brazil" 
(cotypes in coll. of W. Swainson, now in University Museum, Cambridge, 
Mass.). 

Agelaius xanthoscarpus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 430, 1850 
"Peru," errore (part, descr. of female). 2 

Icterus cyanopus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, 
cl. 2, p. 5, 1838 "Corrientes" (errore) = eastern Bolivia (spec, examined; 
descr. of female). 

Agelaeus cyanopus Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 13, pi. 1 (male, female) southern 
Brazil (Rio Parana) and Paraguay (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 344, 1886 Brazil (Rio Parana, Araguay, Para?) and Paraguay; 
Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 127 Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; Ihering, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 3, p. 171, 1899 Porto do Rio Parana, Sao Paulo; Chubb, 
Ibis, 1910, p. 643 Sapucay, Paraguay; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 106 Bella- 
vista and Esquina, Corrientes; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 421, 
1914 Arumanduba, lower Amazon, Brazil; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio 
de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 61, 1926 Sao Bento, Maranhao. 

Agelaeus sp. Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 
Corumba, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Northern Argentina (in the provinces of Santa Fe, 
Corrientes, and Misiones; territories of Formosa and Chaco); Para- 
guay; eastern Bolivia; and interior of Brazil, in states of Matto 
Grosso, Goyaz, and Sao Paulo (Itapura and Porto do Rio Parana), 
extending (according to Snethlage) north to Maranhao (Sao Bento) 
and Para (Arumanduba, north bank of lower Amazon). 3 

1: Argentina (Puerto Segundo, Misiones, 1). 

1 Wied's description agrees none too well with the characters of the present 
species. Throat, foreneck, and middle of breast and abdomen are stated to be 
dingy olive green, passing into dusky olive gray on the sides, which is certainly 
not the case in A. cyanopus. The locality, coast of Rio de Janeiro, furthermore, 
is far away from its established range. Reexamination of the type seems, there- 
fore, imperative. 

2 The description of the female is obviously based on d'Orbigny's specimens 
from eastern Bolivia in the Paris Museum. 

3 Specimens from the Argentine Chaco, eastern Bolivia, and the interior of 
Brazil agree perfectly. The record from "Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires," based 
on a single young bird, is perhaps open to doubt, and we likewise hesitate, mainly 
on geographical grounds, to accept Allen's identification of Wied's /. atro-olivaceus, 
which, if correct, would extend the range of A. cyanopus to the Atlantic coast 
of Brazil. We have not seen any material from either Maranhao or Arumanduba. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Guarayos, 1; Chiquitos, 1. Argen- 
tina: San Vicente, Santa Fe, 6. Brazil: Porto do Rio Araguay, Goyaz, 8; 
Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 4; unspecified, 3. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 181 

Agelaius forbesi Sclater. 1 FORBES'S MARSH BIRD. 

Agelaeus forbesi Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 345, 1886 Pernambuco, 
Brazil (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum, examined). 

Aphobus chopi (not Agelaius chopi Vieillot) Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 339 
Vista Alegre and Macuca, Pernambuco. 

Agelaius forbesi Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 398, 1907 Pernambuco. 

Range. Eastern Brazil, in State of Pernambuco (Macuca, Vista 
Alegre). 

*Agelaius ruficapillus ruficapillus Vieillot. RED-HEADED MARSH 
BIRD. 

Agelaius ruficapillus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 536, 
1819 based on "Tordo corona de canela" Azara, No. 72; Paraguay. 

C[assicus] T. ruficeps Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss., 15, 
p. 282, 1826 based on Azara, No. 72. 

Agelaeus ruficollis (not of Swainson) Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. 1, 
No. 1, p. 81, Jan., 1901 Alto Parana, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. 
de W. Bertoni). 

Chrysomus frontalis (not Agelaius frontalis Vieillot) Hartlaub, Syst. Index 
Azara, p. 5, 1847 Paraguay; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 
431, 1850 Brazil and Paraguay; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 
3, p. 267, 1856 Rio Grande do Sul, Montevideo, and Paraguay; idem, 
Journ. Orn., 8, p. 258, 1860 Parana, Entre Rios; idem, Reise La Plata 
St., 2, p. 492, 1861 Parana; Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 255, 1874 
Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. 
Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 Cordoba. 

Dolichonyx ruficapillus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 17 
Paraguay (crit.). 

Xanthosomus ruficapillus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, 
p. 159 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; White, I.e., 1882, p. 602 Oran (Salta) 

1 Agelaius forbesi Sclater is known from a single adult bird just finishing 
its annual molt. The first (outermost) primary has not yet been renewed, the 
second is in the process of growing, the third still bears the sheaths at the base, 
and the rectrices are in full molt. Although marked "female," the type is of 
uniform black coloration like the male of A. cyanopus, from which it differs by 
larger size (wing, 101; tail, 100), by more decidedly flattened mesorrhinium, and 
by having the feathers of the head lanceolate with glossy shafts, not unlike Gnori- 
mopsar chopi. Whether the bare space at the base of the lower mandible is a 
reliable feature or merely due to its molting condition remains to be ascertained 
by further material. The describer has alluded to the possibility of its being 
the same as Agelaius pustulatus Swainson (Anim. Menag., p. 303, Dec. 31, 1837) 
from "the plains in the interior of Bahia, Brazil," but because of various discrep- 
ancies it cannot be referred to that species. Unfortunately, the type appears 
to be lost. The specimens marked as A. pustulatus, which were sent to 
me by Mr. Forske Cooper from the Swainson Collection at Cambridge, are 
all from Chile, and turned out to be Notiopsar curaeus, a species that can hardly 
have formed the basis of Swainson's description. A. forbesi, of which more ample 
material is urgently desired, may possibly have some relation to Icterus atro- 
olivaceus Wied, of Rio de Janeiro, which we have discussed under the preceding 
heading. Its pertinence to the genus Agelaius, as understood here, is by no 
means certain. 

Material examined. Brazil: Macuca, Pernambuco, 1 (the type). 



182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and Fuerte de Andalgala (Catamarca) ; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 17 Paraguay 
and Argentina (monog.). 

Agelaeus ruficapillus Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 347, 1886 Paraguay 
and Argentina; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 99, 1888 Argentina 
(habits); Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 127 Fortin Donovan, lower Pilcomayo; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1897, p. 261 Chaco Boreal, Paraguay; Ihering, Ann. Est. 
Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 123, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul; Kerr, Ibis, 
1901, p. 224 Gran Chaco, Paraguay; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 8, p. 182, 1902 Tucuman; idem, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, 
p. 46, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 398, 1907 
(range excl. Sao Paulo and Goyaz); Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 25, p. 114, 
1909 Ajo, Buenos Aires (descr. of female); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 642 
Sapucay, Paraguay; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 105 Mortero, Paraguay; 
Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 393 Ajo, Buenos Aires (ex Grant). 

Agelaius ruficapillus ruficapillus Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 185, 
1909 Barracas al Sud (Buenos Aires) and Tucuman; Laubmann, Wissens. 
Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 291, 1930 Bolivia (San Jose, 
Santa Cruz; Villa Montes, Tarija) and Formosa (Mision Tacaagle); 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 60, p. 395, 1930 Paraguay 
(Fort Wheeler) and Matto Grosso (Palmiras); Laubmann, Verh. Orn. 
Ges. Bay., 20, p. 330, 1934 Estancia La Geraldina, Santa Fe. 

Agelaius ruficapillus Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 403, 
1910 (range in Argentina); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Paraguay; 
Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 24, 1920 Canelones, Uruguay; Daguerre, 
I.e., 2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 173, 1923 
Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 
663, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, 
p. 382, 1926 Chaco (Las Palmas) and Paraguay (near Puerto Pinasco); 
Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 219, 1927 Bovril Islands 
(Santa Fe) and Concepcion (Tucuman); Smyth, El Hornero, 4, p. 150, 
1928 (egg); Pereyra, I.e., 5, p. 65, 1932 Zelaya, Buenos Aires (breeding); 
idem, I.e., 5, p. 191, 1933 Zelaya (nest and eggs). 

Range. Eastern Bolivia (in depts. of Santa Cruz and Tarija); 
northern Argentina, south to Catamarca, Cordoba, and Buenos 
Aires; Paraguay; Uruguay; extreme southwestern and southern 
Brazil (Palmiras, Matto Grosso; Rio Grande do Sul). 1 

9: Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman, 9). 

*Agelaius ruficapillus frontalis Vieillot. 2 NORTHERN RED- 
HEADED MARSH BIRD. 

1 Specimens from Bolivia and Argentina agree with Paraguayan topotypes. 
A single adult said to be from Rio Grande do Sul is not different either. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: San Jos6, Santa Cruz, 1; Villa Montes, 
Tarija, 2. Paraguay: Villa Rica, 4. Argentina: Mision Tacaagle, Formosa, 2; 
Parana, 1; Tucuman, 5; Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 1. Brazil: Rio Grande 
do Sul, 1. 

2 Agelaius ruficapillus frontalis Vieillot: Similar to A. r. ruficapillus, but 
adult male with crown and throat much paler, tawny rufous instead of chestnut, 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 183 

Agelaius frontalis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 34, p. 545, 
1819 Cayenne, French Guiana. 

Agelaius ruficollis Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 302, Dec. 31, 1837 "province 
of Pernambuco, in Brazil" (type in coll. of W. Swainson, now in University 
Museum, Cambridge, Engl.). 

Chrysomus frontalis Gray and Mitchell, Genera Bds., 2, p. 348, pi. Ixxxvi (= adult 
male), 1844; Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 
Cayenne. 

Xanthosomus frontalis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 189, 1851 Brazil (synon. 
in part) ; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 136, 1862 Brazil and "Bolivia" 
(errore); idem, Ibis, 1884, p. 16 Cayenne, Ceara, Pernambuco, and 
Bahia (monog.). 

Dolichonyx frontalis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 17 Cayenne 
and Ceara (crit.). 

Dolichonyx ruficapillus (not Agelaius ruficapillus Vieillot) Pelzeln, Orn. Braz., 
3, p. 199, 1870 Porto do Rio Parana, Sao Paulo, and Jaragua, near 
Goyaz, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Agelaeus ruficapillus Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 171, 1899 Rio Parana, 
Sao Paulo (ex Pelzeln). 

Agelaeus frontalis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 347, 1886 Cayenne, 
Ceara, Pernambuco, and Bahia; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 299, 1907 
Mexiana and Rio Guama (Ourem), Para; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 
26, p. 27, 1907 Mexiana Island; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 123, 1908 
Cayenne; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 370, 1910 Surinam; Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 80, 1910 Bahia 
(Joazeiro and island near Sambaiba, Rio Sao Francisco) and Piauhy 
(Therezina); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 422, 1914 Rio Guama 
(Ourem) and Mexiana; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, 
pp. 42, 61, 1926 Ceara and Maranhao (Sao Bento). 

Agelaius ruficapillus frontalis Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 399, 1907 
Bahia (range); Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
26, No. 2, p. 119, 1912 Mexiana; idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 274, 1929 Maranhao (Sao Bento) and Piauhy (Ibiapaba). 

Range. Dutch and French Guiana, and eastern Brazil, from 
Mexiana Island and the Para region (Rio Guama) south to Bahia, 
Goyaz (Jaragua), and northern Sao Paulo (Porto do Rio Parand). 

4: Brazil (Sao Bento, Maranhao, 1; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 2; 
"Bahia," 1). 

this area being, especially on the pileum, less extensive, and the black frontal 
margin more pronounced; female paler and less olivaceous throughout, the throat 
and foreneck light tawny-olive rather than chamois. 

An adult male collected by Natterer on the Rio Parana, in northern Sao 
Paulo, is in every respect similar to birds from Bahia and Piauhy. Two (out 
of three) from Cayenne, the only ones seen from north of the Amazon, possibly 
have the black frontal edge less marked, but Brazilian individuals vary a good 
deal on this score. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3. Brazil: There- 
zina, Piauhy, 5; Cear&, 1 ; Joazeiro, Bahia, 1; island near Sambaiba, Rio Sao Fran- 
cisco, Bahia, 1; Bahia, 7; Rio Parana, Sao Paulo, 1; Jaragua, near Goyaz, 1. 



184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Genus XANTHOPSAR Ridgway 1 

Xanthopsar Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 155, April, 1901 type, 
by orig. desig., Oriolus flavus Gmelin. 

*Xanthopsar flavus (Gmelin). YELLOW-HEADED MARSH BIRD. 

Oriolus flavus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 389, 1788 based upon "Le 
Troupiale jaune d'Antigue" Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guinee, p. 113, pi. 69 
(=adult male), 1776; "Antigue, Isl. of Panay, Philippines" (errore) and 
Rio de la Plata (the latter locality to be regarded as terra typica). 

Psarocolius flaviceps Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 23, spec. 9, 1827 based on 
"Tordo cabeza amarilla," Azara, No. 66; Paraguay to the La Plata 
River; idem, Isis, 1829, p. 754 Brazil (descr. of male and female). 

Chrysomus zanthopygius Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 345, Dec. 31, 1837 
habitat unknown (type in coll. of W. Swainson, now in University Mu- 
seum, Cambridge, Engl.). 

Icterus flavus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, 
p. 5, 1837 Montevideo, Maldonado, and Buenos Aires (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Xanthornus flavus Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 107, pi. 45, 1841 
Maldonado, Uruguay. 

Xanthosomus flavus Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 137, 1862 Rio Grande; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 632 Conchitas, 
Buenos Aires; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, p. 59 Alvear, Buenos Aires; Doering, 
in Roca, Inf. Of. Exp. Rio Negro, 1, Zool., p. 41, 1881 between Lavalle 
and Carhue, Buenos Aires; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 134, 
1883 Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios, and Rio Pigue, Buenos 
Aires (nest and eggs); Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, 
p. 84, 1884 Rio Vecino, Buenos Aires; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 16 Para- 
guay, Uruguay (Maldonado), and Conchitas, Buenos Aires (monog.); 
Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 278 Paysandu, Uruguay, and Cape San Antonio, 
Buenos Aires (breeding). 

Chrysomus flavus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 431, 1850 (synon.); 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 267, 1856 Paraguay and 
La Plata region. 

Leistes flavus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 14 "Brazil" 
(crit.). 

Agelaeus phoeniceus (not Oriolus phoeniceus Linnaeus) White, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 601 Adrogue, Buenos Aires. 

Agelaeus flavus Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 346, 1886 Rio Grande, 
Uruguay (Maldonado, Montevideo), and Argentina (Conchitas, Buenos 
Aires, Alvear); Withington, Ibis, 1888, p. 463 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos 
Aires; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 98, 1888 Argentina (habits); 

1 Xanthopsar Ridgway: Similar to Agelaius, but bill slenderer and much 
longer, equaling or even exceeding the head in length; wing more pointed, the 
outermost primary being very nearly as long as the two next primaries; tarsus 
relatively shorter; middle toe with claw longer than tarsus. 

These characters seem to afford sufficient reasons for separating this bird 
genencally. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 185 

Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 173 Uruguay; Holland, Ibis, 1896, p. 315 Santa 
Elena, Entre Rios (breeding); Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 
16, p. 123, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul (Campos de B8a Vista and Pelotas); 
idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 398, 1907 Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande 
do Sul; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 403, 
1910 (range in Argentina); Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 392 Cape San Antonio, 
Buenos Aires (visitant); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 24, 1920 Cerro 
Largo and Rocha, Uruguay; (?)Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 70, 1923 La Rioja 
(identification doubtful); Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, 
p. 663, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Smyth, El Hornero, 4, p. 150, 1928 
Santa Elena, Entre Rios (eggs). 

Agelaius flavus Pereyra, El Hornero, 5, p. 190, 1933 Zelaya, Buenos Aires 
(nest and eggs descr.). 

Range. Extreme southern Brazil (State of Rio Grande do Sul), 
Paraguay, Uruguay, and northeastern Argentina (in provinces of 
Entre Rios and Buenos Aires). 1 

3: Paraguay (Rape*, 2); Uruguay (Dolores, Soriano, 1). 

Genus NESOPSAR Sclater 

Nesopsar Sclater, Ibis, 1, p. 457 (footnote), 1859 type, by orig. desig., 
Icterus nigerrimus Osburn. 

*Nesopsar nigerrimus (Osburn). OSBURN'S BLACKBIRD. 

[Icterus] nigerrimus Osburn, Zoologist, 17, p. 6662 (in text), 1859 lower 
mountains of Jamaica (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum). 

Nesopsar nigerrimus Sclater, Ibis, 1859, p. 457 (footnote) Jamaica (descr.); 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 74 Jamaica; idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 139, 1862 Jamaica; March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1863, p. 299 Jamaica; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 353, 1886 
Jamaica (descr.); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 223, 1886 Jamaica (descr.); idem, 
Bds. W. Ind., p. 110, 1889 Jamaica; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. Ill, 
1892 Jamaica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 345, 1902 
Jamaica (monog.). 

Agelaius nigerrimus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 12 Jamaica 
(crit.). 

Agelaeus nigerrimus Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 14 Jamaica (crit.). 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 

3: Jamaica (New Castle, 1; Kingston, 1; unspecified, 1). 

1 The range of this peculiar bird seems to be rather restricted. It is appar- 
ently very rare in Paraguay proper, and even in Argentina it has yet to be taken 
outside the boundaries of Entre Rios and Buenos Aires, although the late S. 
Venturi, according to Dabbene, claims its presence in the province of Santa Fe. 
Specimens from Rio Grande do Sul and Uruguay agree with others from Buenos 
Aires. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, 2. 
Uruguay: Maldonado, 3; Montevideo, 1. Argentina: Buenos Aires, 3; unspeci- 
fied, 2. 



186 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 



Xanthocephalus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 431, end of 1850 
type, by monotypy, Psarocolius perspicillatusWa.g,\er= Xanthornus xantho- 
cephalus Bonaparte. 

*Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte). YELLOW- 
HEADED BLACKBIRD. 

Icterus xanthocephalus Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, p. 223, 
Feb., 1826 based on Icterus icterocephalus (not Oriolus icterocephalus 
Linnaeus) Bonaparte, Amer. Ornith., 1, p. 27, figs. 1 (male), 2 (female), 
1825; Pawnee villages on the Platte River, Nebraska. 

Agelaus longipes Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 436, June, 1827 table- 
land of Mexico (type in Bullock Collection). 

Psarocolius perspicillatus (Lichtenstein MS.) Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 753 

Mexico (type in Berlin Museum). 
Icterus frenatus (Lichtenstein MS.) Reinhardt, in Kr0yer's Naturhist. Tidsskr., 

4, Heft 1, p. 74, 1842 "Nennortalik," Greenland (type in Copenhagen 

Museum). 

Xanthocephalus longipes Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 14 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 11, p. 350, 1886 (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 

Amer., Aves, 1, p. 455, 1887 western North America to Mexico and 

Cuba. 
Xanthocephalus icterocephalus Winge, Medd. Gr0nland, 21, p. 296, 1899 

Nanortalik, Greenland (one female, Sept. 2, 1840). 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 347, 1902 (monog., full synon.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
32, p. 282, 1905 Barbados (ex Feilden); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 
6, p. 125, 1923 Cuba (Havana and Guantanamo); Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 149, 1928 Lower California. 

Range. Western North America, from southern British Colum- 
bia, southern Mackenzie, central Manitoba, and northern Minnesota 
south to northern Lower California, Arizona, Jalisco, Michoacan, 
and Mexico, east to southern Wisconsin, central Iowa, northern 
Illinois, and Indiana; accidental in Greenland (one record from 
Nanortalik, Sept. 21, 1840); various eastern localities from Ontario 
and Quebec to South Carolina, Florida, Cuba, and Barbados. 

57: Canada (Beaver Lake, Alberta, 1); North Dakota (Minne- 
waukon, 1); Iowa (Burlington, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 26); 
Illinois (Chicago, 2; Grand Crossing, 1; Fox Lake, 3); Kansas 
(Hamilton, 1); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 5; Windsor, 2; unspecified, 1); 
California (Lapen City, 1; Nigger Slough, Los Angeles County, 1); 
Arizona (Fort Thomas, 2; Tucson, 1); Mexico (Chihuahua, 3; 
Sonora, 4; Guerrero, 1). 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 187 

Genus AMBLYRAMPHUS Leach 

Amblyramphus Leach, Zool. Misc., 1, p. 81, 1814 type, by monotypy, 

Amblyramphus bicolor Leach = Xanthornus holosericeus Scopoli. 
Amblyrhynchus Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 41, 1840 emendation. 
Amblyrhamphus Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara's Apunt., p. 5, 1847 emendation. 

*Amblyramphus holosericeus (Scopoli). SCARLET-HEADED 
BLACKBIRD. 

Xanthornus holosericeus Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insub., 2, p. 88, 1786 
based upon "Le Troupiale rouge d'Antigue" Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. 
Guinee, p. 113, pi. 68, 1776; "Antigue, Isl. of Panay, Philippines," errore. 1 

Oriolus ruber Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 388, 1788 based on "Le Troupiale 
rouge d'Antigue" Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guinfe, p. 113, pi. 68, 1776. 

Amblyramphus bicolor Leach, Zool. Misc., 1, p. 82, pi. 36, 1814 "supposed 
to inhabit Cayenne," errore (type in coll. of W. Comyns, of Mount Pleas- 
ant, near Dawlish, Engl.); Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in 
Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 8, 1838 no locality stated (spec, examined 
in Paris Museum is from Mojos, Bolivia). 

Sturnus pyrrhocephalus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 18, 1823 
Montevideo (type in Berlin Museum). 

C[assicus] J. rubricapillus Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allgem. Encycl. 
Wiss., 15, p. 281, 1826 based on "Tordo negro cabeza roxa" Azara, 
No. 73, Paraguay to the La Plata River. 

Leistes erythrocephalus Swainson, Classif. & Nat. Hist. Bds., 2, p. 275, July, 
1837 new name for Amblyramphus bicolor Leach. 

Amblyr(h)amphus holosericeus Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara's Apunt., p. 5, 
1847 Paraguay; Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 190, 1851 southern Brazil; 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 137, 1862 Bolivia and Rio de la Plata; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 161 Buenos Aires; 
idem, I.e., 1869, p. 632 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Hudson, I.e., 1870, 
p. 114 Buenos Aires (habits); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 198, 1870 
Cuyaba, Barra do Jauru, and Pansecco, Matto Grosso, Brazil; Durnford, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 174 BaradeVo, Buenos Aires; Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 18 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (nest and eggs); White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1882, p. 602 Punta Lara and Rio Lujan, Buenos Aires; Barrows, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 135, 1883 Concepci6n del Uruguay, Entre 
Rios; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 18 Uruguay, Paraguay, and Buenos Aires 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 351, 1886 (monog.); Sclater 
and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 101, 1888 Argentina (habits); Withington, 
Ibis, 1888, p. 463 Buenos Aires; Holland, Ibis, 1891, p. 16 Est. Espar- 
tillar, Buenos Aires; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 128 lower Pilcomayo, Chaco; 
Holland, Ibis, 1892, p. 199 Est. Espartillar; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 173 
Uruguay (Santa Ana, Arroyo Grande, and Santa Elena); Salvadori, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 Colonia Risso and 
Barranquera la Novia, Paraguay; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do 

1 Islands of the Parana Delta suggested as type locality by Dabbene (Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 23, p. 372, 1912). 



188 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sul, 16, p. 123, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul; Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 6, 1900 Carandasinho, Matto Grosso; Kerr, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 224 Paraguayan Chaco; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 399, 1907 (range); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 186, 1909 
Argentina (breeding habits); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Hist. Nat. Buenos 
Aires, (3), 11, p. 403, 1910 (range in Argentina); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 
106 Los Ynglases, Ajo, Buenos Aires; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Buenos Aires, 23, p. 372, 1912 San Rafael, near Villa Rica, Paraguay; 
Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Paraguay; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 395 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (habits, nest, and eggs); Dabbene, 
El Hornero, 1, p. 104, 1918 (nest); Marelli, I.e., 1, p. 228, 1919 (food); 
Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 24, 1920 Uruguay (Treinta y Tres, Rocha, Cerro 
Largo); Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 271 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Serie and Smyth, 
I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 173, 
1923 Zelaya and Islas de Escobar, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. 
Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 664, 1924 Buenos Aires (range); Wetmore, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 377, 1926 Argentina (Las Palmas, Chaco; 
between Fontana and Formosa, Formosa; Dolores and Lavalle, Buenos 
Aires), Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco), and Uruguay (north of San 
Vicente); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 218, 1927 Deniz 
Island, Santa Fe; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 60, p. 396, 
1930 Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco) and Matto Grosso (Palmiras); Laub- 
mann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 291, 1930 
San Jose, Formosa, and opposite Rosario, Santa Fe; Pereyra, El Hornero, 
5, p. 384, 1934 (nest). 

Amblyrhamphus ruber Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 109, 1841 near 
Maldonado, Uruguay; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 429, 1850 
(synon.); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 263, 1856 Rio 
Grande do Sul and Montevideo; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 258, 1860 
Banda Oriental and Parana; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 491, 1861 
Banda Oriental, Entre Rios, Santa Fe, and along the banks of the 
Parana; Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 255, 1874 Rio Guayquiraro, 
Corrientes. 

Range. Marshes of eastern Bolivia (Mojos); extreme south- 
western and southern Brazil, in states of Matto Grosso and Rio 
Grande do Sul; Paraguay; Uruguay; and northeastern Argentina, 
from Formosa and Corrientes south to Buenos Aires. 1 

2: Brazil (Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, 1); Uruguay (Arazati, 
San Jose", 1). 

Genus GNORIMOPSAR Richmond 

Aphobus (not of Gistel, 1848) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 194, Oct., 1851 

type, by monotypy, Agelaius chopi Vieillot. 
Aaptus (not Aaptos J. E. Gray, 1867) Richmond, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 

15, p. 85, April, 1902 new name for Aphobus Cabanis, preoccupied. 

1 Additional material examined. Bolivia: Mojos, 1. Brazil: Rio Grande, Rio 
Grande do Sul, 3; Matto Grosso, Cuyaba, 2; Pansecco, 2; Barra do Jauru, 2. 
Argentina: San Jose, Formosa, 3; opposite Rosario, Santa Fe, 1; Buenos Aires, 5. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 189 

Gnorimopsar Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 35, p. 584, 1908 new name 
for Aaptus Richmond, preoccupied. 

*Gnorimopsar chopi chopi (Vieillot). CHOPI GRACKLE. 

Agelaius chopi Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 537, 1819 
based on "Chopi" Azara, No. 62, Paraguay to Buenos Aires; 1 Hartlaub, 
Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 4, 1847 Paraguay; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1866, p. 11 (crit.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 195, 1870 Rio de 
Janeiro (Engenho da Armac.ao, Ilha de Marambaya), Sao Paulo (Matto- 
dentro, Rio Parana), and Matto Grosso (Villa Bella de Matto Grosso); 
Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 396 Rio de 
Janeiro and Sao Paulo. 

Icterus unicolor Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 19, 1823 
Brazil (cotypes in Berlin Museum examined).* 

C[assicus] T. animosus Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allgem. Encycl. Wiss., 
15, p. 276, 1826 based on "Chopi" Azara, No. 62. 

Icterus chopi Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 1208, 1831 Angicos and 
Vareda, southern Bahia; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. 
Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 5, 1838 Corrientes (spec, examined). 

Aphobus chopi Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 194, 1851 Brazil (synon. in part); 
Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 303 Sao Paulo; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 
85, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 163 part, 
excl. of Pernambuco and western Peru (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 405, 1886 part, "female," spec, a, b, f-h, Brazil (Bahia; 
"Pelotas," Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, and Argentina; Sclater and 
Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 108, 1888 northern Argentina; Dalgleish, Proc. 
Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb., 10, p. 78, 1889 Ytanu, near Asuncion, Paraguay; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 379, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; 
Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 128 Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; Boucard and 
Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 44, 1892 Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro; 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 Villa Rica, 
Paraguay; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 124, 1899 Rio 
Grande do Sul (Sao Lourengo, Jaguarao); idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, 
p. 173, 1899 Ilha de Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 154, 
1900 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 109 Paraguay 
(Santa Rosa) and southeastern Bolivia (Cabo Emma, Alto Paraguay). 

Aaptus chopi Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 615, 
1906 Paraguay and Brazil (Matto Grosso, Sao Paulo, Minas Geraes) (crit., 
meas.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 403, 1907 Sao Paulo (Botucatu, 
Sao Sebastiao, Itarare) and Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre); Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 188, 1909 Ocampo, Santa Fe~ (nest and eggs 
descr.); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 645 Sapucay, Paraguay; Chrostowski, 
Compt. Rend. Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 490, 500, 1912 Vera Guarany, 
Parana; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay. 

1 The juvenile bird described in Noseda's communication does not belong 
to the present species. 

2 Two of the specimens are simply marked "Brazil, coll. Sellow," while the 
third was collected by von Olfers at Sao Joao del Rey, Minas Geraes. 



190 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Aaptus chopi chopi Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 39, 1908 Goyaz, Brazil 
(crit.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 405, 1910 Santa 
Fe (Mocovi, Ocampo) and Buenos Aires (Tigre). 

Gnorimopsar chopi Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 24, 1920 Rio Negro and 
Paysandu, Uruguay; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, 
Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 174, 1923 Corrientes; Marelli, Mem. 
Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 665, 1924 Tigre, Buenos Aires; Smyth, 
El Hornero, 4, p. 150, 1928 (eggs descr.). 

Gnorimopsar chopi chopi Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 
195, 1926 Fazenda Firmiano, Parana; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
133, p. 378, 1926 Chaco (Las Palmas, Riacho Pilaga, Formosa), Paraguay 
(Puerto Pinasco), and Uruguay (San Vicente); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, 
p. 27, 1927 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 60, p. 399, 1930 Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco) and Matto Grosso 
(Palmiras) (nest descr.); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco 
Exp., Vogel, p. 296, 1930 Formosa (San Jos6, Tapikiole, Tacaagle, 
Yunca Viejo). 

Psarocolius unicolor Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 281, 1856 
Brazil; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 258, 1860 "Mendoza" (only observed); 
idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 494, 1861 "Mendoza" and Parana (spec, 
from Parana examined in Halle Museum); Doering, Period. Zool. Argent., 
1, p. 255, 1874 Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes. 

Range. Southern half of Brazil, from central Bahia (Andarahy), 
Goyaz, and Matto Grosso south to Rio Grande do Sul; Uruguay; 
Paraguay; northern Argentina, in territories of Formosa and Chaco, 
and in provinces of Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Corrientes, and Buenos 
Aires. 1 

8: Brazil (Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, Bahia, 2; Chapada, 
Matto Grosso, 2; Piraputanga, Matto Grosso, 1; Veadeiros, Goyaz, 
2; Candido de Abreu, Parana, 1). 

1 Brazilian specimens, including two from near Andarahy, Bahia, and a 
series from western Minas Geraes, agree in dimensions and coloration with topo- 
typical Paraguayan material and other examples from the Argentine Chaco. 
Birds from Matto Grosso cannot be distinguished either, and a single adult male 
collected by H. von Ihering at Sao Lourenco, Rio Grande do Sul, in September, 
1886, falls well within the measurements of typical chopi, the wing being 127, 
the tail 94 mm. long. This fact seems to indicate that the Uruguayan male, 
with a wing of 136 mm., mentioned by Wetmore, is merely an unusually large 
individual, as the existence of a separate form in the heart of the distributional 
area occupied by typical chopi seems extremely unlikely. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Minas Geraes: Sao Joao del Rey, 1; 
Lagoa Santa, 1; Rio Jordao, Prov. Araguary, 3; Agua Suja, near Bagagem, 3; 
Monte Alegre, 1; Dvivadino, 1. Sao Paulo: Mattodentro, 1; Ypanema, 2; Quartel 
da Posse, 1; Rio Parana, 1. Rio Grande do Sul: Sao Lourenco, 1. Goyaz: 
Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya, 1; Goyaz, 2; Rio Parnahyba, 1. Matto Grosso: 
Rio Manso, 1; Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, 2. Paraguay: Bernalcue, near 
Asuncion, 1; Concepcion, 1; near Concepcion, 4. Argentina: Rio de Oro, Chaco 
Austral, 1; San Jose, Formosa, 1; Tapikiole, Formosa, 4; Yunca Viejo, Formosa, 
4; Corrientes, 1. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 191 

*Gnorimopsar chopi sulcirostris (Spix). 1 GREATER CHOPI 
GRACKLE. 

Icterus sulcirostris Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 1, p. 67, pi. 64, fig. 2, 1824 
"in campis Minas Geraes," errore; Oeiras, Piauhy, substituted as type 
locality by Hellmayr, 1929 (type in Munich Museum examined). 

Aphobus megistus Leverkiihn, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 104, 1889 Santa Cruz, 
de la Sierra and [Rio] San Miguel, Dept. Santa Cruz, Bolivia (cotypes in 
Kiel Museum, now in Berlin Museum, examined). 

Aphobus chopi (not Agelaius chopi Vieillot) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 141, 1862 Bolivia (spec, examined); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 405, 1886 part, "male," spec, c-e, Bolivia; Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 Bahia (Boa Vista near 
Chique Chique, Rio Sao Francisco) and Piauhy (Amaragao), Brazil. 

Aaptus sulcirostris Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, 
pp. 614, 615, 1906 (crit. note on type); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 403, 1907 (ex Spix). 

Aaptus megistus Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, 

p. 615, 1906 Santa Cruz and San Miguel, Bolivia (crit.). 
Gnorimopsar sulcirostris Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. 

Wien, 76, p. 177, 1925 Boa Vista, near Chique Chique, Bahia, and 

Amaragao, Piauhy. 
Aphobus chopi megistus Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, 

p. 42, 1926 Ceara (spec, examined). 

1 Gnorimopsar chopi sulcirostris (Spix) : Similar to G. c. chopi, but considerably 
larger, sex for sex, with heavier, basally more strongly sulcate bill, and plumage 
(in fresh condition) more glossy. Wing 140-150, (female) 134-140. 

The distribution of this race is rather singular. The type, said to be from 
"Minas Geraes" which is clearly a mistake, since a good series from that state 
undoubtedly belongs with G. c. chopi is certainly of the same form as specimens 
recently collected in northeastern Brazil (cf. the table of measurements in Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 277, 1929). On directly comparing this series 
with nine skins from Bolivia (megistus), I fail, however, to see how the distinction 
between sulcirostris and megistus can be maintained. In coloration as well as in 
the strength of the bill there is absolutely no difference, and the only variation 
consists of slightly lesser dimensions in the Bolivian birds, none of which attains 
the maximum figures shown by some of the Brazilian skins. This average is, 
however, quite insignificant and might easily disappear in larger series. The 
quasi identity of the inhabitants of Bolivia with those of northeastern Brazil is 
the more remarkable, as birds taken close to the Bolivian border at Villa Bella 
de Matto Grosso are much smaller (wings of males, 127; tail, 93) and do not 
differ at all from typical chopi of Paraguay and Argentina. I can hardly believe 
that G. c. sulcirostris has a discontinuous range, though according to our present 
knowledge there seems to be a wide gap between the two areas tenanted by this 
large form. 

The wings measure as follows: 

Adult males. Brazil: type, 152; Codo, Maranhao, 150; Ceara, 142; Ibiapaba, 
Piauhy, 140. Bolivia: Santa Cruz, 142, 143, 143, 144; unspecified, 140. 

Adult females. Brazil: Cod6, Maranhao, 140; B6a Vista, Bahia, 140. Bolivia: 
San Miguel, 136J^; Mojos, 135; Santa Cruz, 135; Fortin Esteros, Tarija, 134. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: unspecified, 1 (the type); Ceara, 1; 
Amarasao, Piauhy, 1; B6a Vista, Bahia, 1. Bolivia: Mojos, 1; Rio San Miguel, 
1; Santa Cruz, 5; Fortin Esteros, Tarija, 1. 



192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Gnorimopsar chopi sulcirostris Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 276, 1929 Codo, Cocos, Maranhao, and Ibiapaba, Piauhy, Brazil 
(crit.); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 
297, 1930 Bolivia (La Crecencia and Monte Grande, Santa Cruz; Fortin 
Esteros, Tarija) (crit.). 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, in states of Maranhao, Piauhy, 
Ceara, and extreme northern Bahia (Boa Vista, below Chique Chique, 
Rio Sao Francisco), and eastern Bolivia (in depts. of Santa Cruz, 
Beni, and Tarija). 

3: Brazil (Codo, Cocos, Maranhao, 2; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 1). 

Genus NOTIOPSAR Oberholser 

Curaeus (not Cureus Boie, 1831) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 139, 1862 

type, by monotypy, Turdus curaeus Molina. 
Notiopsar Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 34, p. 136, June, 1921 new 

name for Curaeus Sclater, preoccupied. 

*Notiopsar curaeus (Molina). CHILEAN BLACKBIRD. 

Turdus curaeus Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 252, 345, 1782 Chile. 
Sturnus aterrimus Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb., (sav. etr.), 2, p. 

467, pi. 2, Aug., 1835 near Valparaiso, Chile (type in Leningrad Museum; 

cf. Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 18, 1921); idem, 

Denkw. Reise, 1, p. 153, 1858 Valley of Los Sorres, near Valparaiso. 
LeMes niger Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 304, Dec. 31, 1837 Chile (type in 

coll. of W. Swainson, now in University Museum, Cambridge, Engl., 

examined); Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 112, 1848 Valparaiso. 
Quiscalus pilaris (Lichtenstein MS.) Bibra, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. 

Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 129, 1853 Chile (new name for Sturnus aterrimus 

Kittlitz andLeistes niger Swainson). 
Agelaius chopi (not of Vieillot) Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 107, 

1841 Chile; Bridges, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 94, "1841" [ = 1842] 

Chile. 
Agelaius curaceus [sic] Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 113, 1843 

"intermediate provinces of Chile." 
Agelaius aterrimus Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Ffs. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 348, 

1847 Chile (ex Kittlitz). 
Agelaius curaeus Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 348, 

1847 Chile; Boeck, Naumannia, 1855, p. 503 Valdivia; Frauenfeld, 

Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 10, Abhandl., p. 637, 1860 near Valparaiso; 

Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 263, 1868 Chile; Lataste, Act. Soc. 

Scient. Chili, 3, pp. cxiv, cxv, 1893 Bureo, Nuble, and Ninhue, Maule; 

Waugh and Lataste, I.e., 4, pp. Ixxxvi, clxxii, 1894 Penaflor (Santiago) 

and San Alfonso (Quillota), Chile; Lataste, I.e., 5, p. xxxiv, 1895 

Caillihue, Curico, Chile. 

Psarocolius curaeus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 425, 1850 Pata- 
gonia and Chile; Hartlaub, Naumannia, 3, p. 213, 1853 Valdivia, Chile; 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 193 

Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astron. Exp., 2, p. 178, pi. 15, 1855 Chile; Ger- 
main, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 7, p. 312, 1860 Santiago, Chile (breed- 
ing habits). 

Leistes curaeus Pelzeln, Reise Novara, 1, Zool., Vogel, p. 89, 1865 Chile; 

Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 15 Chile. 
Agelaius caracus [sic] Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 252, 1876 Chile (habits, 

nest, and eggs). 

Curaeus aterrimus Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 139, 1862 Chile; idem, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 323, 338 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1869, p. 283 Cape Negro, Straits of Magellan; Reed, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 49, p. 545, 1877 Cauquenes, Colchagua, Chile; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 432 Gray Harbour, Straits of Magellan; 
Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 7 Tom Bay and Isthmus Bay, Straits of Magellan; 
Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 423 Chile; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 21 Chile to 
Magellan Straits (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 354, 1886 
Chile to Straits of Magellan ("True" Bay, Gray Harbour); Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 84, 1889 Valparaiso; Oustalet, Miss. Sci. 
Cap Horn, 6, Ois., p. B. 101, 1891 Straits of Magellan (Orange Bay, Gable 
Island, Puntarenas, Wollaston Bay); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 
200, 1896 Chile; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 27 Hacienda Mansel (Santiago) 
and Calle-calle (Valdivia), Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, 
p. 720, 1898 La Serena, Coquimbo; Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 101, p. 
916, 1898 Chile (monog.); Salvadori, Anal. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 
(2), 20, p. 622, 1900 Gregory Bay and Puntarenas, Magellan Straits; 
Crawshay, Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 56, 1907 San Sebastian Settlement; 
Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 49, 1924 Isla La Mocha, Chile; 
Jaffuel and Pirion, I.e., 31, p. 108, 1927 Marga-Marga Valley, Val- 
paraiso; Bullock, I.e., 33, p. 125, 1929 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco, 
Chile; idem, I.e., 33, p. 187, 1929 Angol, Malleco, Chile. 

Curaeus curaeus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 132, 1890 Port 
Churruca and Laredo Bay, Magellan Straits; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 8, p. 361, 1902 Puerto Hope, Isla Clarence, Tierra del 
Fuego; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 187, 1909 Lapataia, 
Tierra del Fuego (eggs descr.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 404, 1910 Tierra del Fuego; Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, 
p. 150, 1920 Nilahue, Curico, Chile; idem, I.e., 25, p. 192, 1921 Cor- 
dillera de Aconcagua, Chile; Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 480, 1922 
Coronel, Chile (nest and eggs); Bullock, El Hornero, 3, p. 94, 1923 Chile 
(nest); Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 29, p. 148, 1925 San Bernardo, 
Santiago. 

Notiopsar curaeus Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 378, 1926 Con- 
con, Chile; idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 457, 1926 Rio Corcovado, 
Chubut; Stone, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patagonia, 2, (1), p. 854, 1928 
Patagonia (descr.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Sen, 19, 
p. 102, 1932 Chile (Coquimbo to Magellan Straits); Reynolds, El 
Hornero, 5, p. 343, 1934 Isla de los Conejos, Tierra del Fuego. 

Range. Chile, from Coquimbo south to the Straits of Magellan 
and Tierra del Fuego, and north through Patagonia to western Chubut. 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

12: Chile (Conception, 1; Curacautin, Malleco, 1; Mafil, Valdivia, 
4; Rio Inio, Chilo Island, 1; Quellon, Chilo Island, 5). 

Genus PSEUDOLEISTES Sclater 

Pseudoleistes Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 137, 1862 type, by subs, 
desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 19), "Pseudoleistes viridis" = Agelaius guira- 
huro (Vieillot). 

*Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot). YELLOW-RUMPED MARSH 
BIRD. 

Agelaius guirahuro Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 545, 
1819 based on "Guirahuro," Azara, No. 64; Paraguay and Rio de la 
Plata. 

Xanthornus Gasquet Quoy and Gaimard, in Freycinet, Voyage Uranie et 
Physicienne, Zool., livr. 3, p. 110, pi. 24, Aug., 1824 banks of the Rio 
de la Plata (type in Paris Museum). 

Leistes Suchii Vigors, Zool. Journ., 2, No. 6, p. 192, Suppl., pi. 10, July, 1825 
Brazil (type in coll. of W. Such). 

C[assicus] T. palustris Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allgem. Encycl. Wiss., 
15, p. 281, 1826 based on "Guirahuro" Azara, No. 64. 

Leistes oriolides Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 303, Dec. 31, 1837 Brazil 
(location of type not stated). 

Leistes brevirostris Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 304, Dec. 31, 1837 Brazil 
(type, collected by A. de Saint-Hilaire, in Paris Museum examined). 

Icterus dominicensis (not Oriolus dominicensis Linnaeus) Lichtenstein, Verz. 
Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 19, 1823 Sao Paulo. 

Icterus guirahuro Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, 
cl. 2, p. 4, 1838 Corrientes. 

Leistes viridis (not Oriolus viridis Gmelin) Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 5, 
1847 Paraguay; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 436, 1850 
Montevideo; Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 189, 1851 Brazil (synon.); 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 264, 1856 Minas Geraes 
(Sete Lagoas); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 14 Brazil 
(crit.); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 395 Lagoa 
Santa, Minas Geraes. 

Pseudoleistes viridis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 137, 1862 Brazil; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 198, 1870 Sao Paulo (Itarare, Rio Parana) 
and Parana (Scaramuza, Rio Verde, Fazenda Nova, Rio Piehy, Joaquim 
Carneiro, Curytiba, Castro, Murungaba); Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 303 
near Itapetininga, Sao Paulo; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 19 (monog.). 

Pseudoleistes guirahuro Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 127, 
1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 352, 1886 (monog.); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 
208, p. 8, 1895 Valenzuela, Paraguay; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande 
do Sul, 16, p. 123, 1899 Mundo Novo and Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande 
do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 172, 1899 Itapetininga, Sao Paulo; 
idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 400, 1907 Sao Paulo (Itarare, Itapetininga); 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 195 

Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 186, 1909 San Vicente and 
Ocampo, Santa Fe (nest and eggs); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 642 Sapucay, 
Paraguay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, (3), 
11, p. 404, 1910 Chaco (San Vicente) and "Buenos Aires (Barracas al 
Sud)"; idem, I.e., 23, p. 373, 1912 Villa Rica, Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. 
Parag., p. 66, 1914 Encarnaci6n, Paraguay; Marelli, El Hornero, 1, 
p. 228, 1919 (food); Serie" and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, 
Entre Rios; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 664, 1924 
"Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires" (range); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 133, p. 376, 1926 Uruguay (Lazcano and Rio Negro); Tremoleras, 
El Hornero, 4, p. 19, 1927 north of Pando, Dept. Canelones, Uruguay. 

Range. Southern Brazil, from the sources of the Rio Araguaya, 
Goyaz, and Minas Geraes, south through Sao Paulo and Parana to 
Rio Grande do Sul; Uruguay; Paraguay; northeastern Argentina 
(provinces of Santa Fe, Corrientes, Entre Rios, and (?)Buenos Aires). 1 

3: Brazil (Parana, 2) ; Uruguay (Quebrada de los Cuervos, Treinta 
yTres, 1). 

*Pseudoleistes virescens (Vieillot). 2 BROWN-RUMPED MARSH 
BIRD. 

Agelaius virescens Vieillot, 3 Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e'd., 34, p. 543, 
1819 based on "Dragon," Azara, No. 65; "on the confines of Brazil" 
and near Buenos Aires. 

Icterus anticus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 19, 1823 Monte- 
video, Uruguay (type in Berlin Museum). 

1 The length of the bill, in this species, varies considerably irrespective of 
locality, and I believe that Swainson's two "species," L. oriolides and L. brevi- 
rostris, refer to the same bird. At any rate, the type of the last-named, an adult 
with a bill of 30 mm., does not differ at all from Paraguayan specimens, with 
which other Brazilian individuals likewise agree. A single male from Cascata, 
Minas Geraes, the only one seen from that state, has a remarkably shorter, slen- 
derer bill. The occurrence of this species in Buenos Aires, as claimed by Venturi, 
appears to be open to doubt, while its inclusion in the Chilean fauna by Gay 
(Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 349, 1847) is an obvious mistake (cf. Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 102, 1932). 

Additional material examined. Brazil : Rio Bonito, Bororo country, Goyaz, 1 ; 
Cascata, Minas Geraes, 1; Rio Parana, Sao Paulo, 1; Parana, Fazenda Verde, 2; 
Fazenda Nova, 2; Scaramuza, 1; Murungaba, 2; Curytiba, 1; Rio Piauhy, 2; 
Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, 2. Paraguay: BernalcuS, 5. Argentina: San 
Vicente, Santa Fe, 2; Corrientes, 1. 

2 Pseudoleistes virescens (Vieillot) differs from P. guirahuro by much shorter 
wings and tail; slenderer, more elongated bill; absence of yellow on the rump; 
much paler, less saturated yellow of the under parts with the tibial feathers as 
well as brownish olive sides of breast and abdomen; smaller yellow humeral 
patch, etc. It is apparently specifically distinct from P. guirahuro, both being 
found in Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay, and parts of Argentina (Santa Fe, 
Corrientes). 

3 An earlier name is possibly Agelaius bicolor Vieillot (Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
nouv. e'd., 34, p. 535, 1819) from "I'Ame'rique meYidionale." However, one of the 
characters, "bee et les pieds rougeatres," being in direct opposition to the present 
species with black bill and feet, it seems undesirable to adopt the name, inasmuch 
as no type exists. 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

C[assicus] T. Draco Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allgem. Encycl. Wiss., 
15, p. 279, 1826 based on "Dragon," Azara, No. 65. 

Leistes tenuirostris Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 304, Dec. 31, 1837 "Brazil," 
probably Rio Grande do Sul (type, collected by A. de Saint-Hilaire, 
examined in Paris Museum). 

Icterus virescens Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, 
cl. 2, p. 4, 1838 Montevideo (spec, examined). 

Leistes virescens Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 5, 1847 (synon.); Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 15 "Brazil" (crit.). 

Leistes anticus Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, Birds, p. 107, 1841 plains 
of La Plata; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 436, 1850 "Brazil"; 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 265, 1856 Rio Grande do Sul, 
Montevideo, and "Paraguay"; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 258, 1860 Banda 
Oriental and Parana; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 491, 1861 same 
localities; Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 255, 1874 Barrancas, Rio 
Guayquiraro, Corrientes. 

Pseudoleistes virescens Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 137, 1862 "Brazil"; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 140 Conchitas, 
Buenos Aires; Hudson, I.e., 1870, p. 549 Argentina (foster parent of 
M. bonariensis) ; Lee, Ibis, 1873, p. 132 Frayle Muerto, Prov. Cordoba; 
Hudson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 156 Argentina; Durnford, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 175 Baradero, Buenos Aires; idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 59 
Buenos Aires (nest and eggs); Doering, in Roca, Inf. Of. Exp. Rio Negro, 
Zool., p. 41, 1881 Prov. Buenos Aires (Guamini, Rio Sauce, Rio Colo- 
rado); White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 602 Punta Lara, Buenos 
Aires; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 8, p. 135, 1883 Conception del 
Uruguay, Entre Rios (nest and eggs); Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. 
Cordoba, 5, p. 84, 1884 Prov. Buenos Aires (Rio Vecino, Tandil, Sierra 
de los Leones, etc.); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 20 Rio Grande do Sul, Uru- 
guay, and Argentina (monog.); Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 279 Paysandu, 
Uruguay; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 352, 1886 Rio Grande do 
Sul (Lagoa dos Patos), Uruguay, and Buenos Aires (Punta Lara, La 
Plata); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 102, 1888 Argentina (hab- 
its); Withington, Ibis, 1888, p. 463 Lo'mas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; 
Holland, Ibis, 1891, p. 16; 1892, p. 199 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos 
Aires (breeding); Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 173 Uruguay; Ihering, Ann. Est. 
Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 123, 1899 Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do Sul; 
idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 400, 1907 (range); Hartert and Venturi, 
Nov. Zool., 16, p. 186, 1909 Buenos Aires (Est. San Martino Monte, 
Barracas al Sud), Entre Rios (La Soledad), and Santa Fe (Ocampo); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, (3), 11, p. 404, 1910 
(range in Argentina); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 107 Los Ynglases, Ajo, Buenos 
Aires; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 399, 1916 La Plata; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 
396 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (breeding habits); Tremoleras, 
El Hornero, 2, p. 24, 1920 Uruguay (Canelones, Minas, Maldonado, 
Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo); Renard, I.e., 2, p. 60, 1920 Canuelas, 
Buenos Aires; Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; 
Smyth and Serie, I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, 
I.e., 3, p. 173, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 197 

Publ. for 1922-23, p. 664, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 376, 1926 Chaco (Las Palmas), Buenos Aires 
(Lavalle), and Uruguay (San Vicente, Lazcano, Rio Negro); Wilson, El 
Hornero, 3, p. 362, 1926 General L6pez, Santa Fe (nesting); Friedmann, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 218, 1927 Santa Elena, Entre Rios, and 
Ajo, Buenos Aires; Smyth, El Hornero, 4, p. 151, 1928 (eggs); Marelli, 
I.e., 5, p. 199, 1933 Fortin Chaco, Buenos Aires. 

Range. Extreme southern Brazil, in State of Rio Grande do Sul; 
Uruguay; and northern Argentina, from the Chaco through eastern 
Cordoba and Santa Fe, and from Corrientes through Entre Rios, 
south to southern Buenos Aires (Rio Colorado). 1 

10: Argentina (Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 1; Ocampo, Santa 
Fe, 1); Uruguay (San Vicente de Castillos, Rocha, 3; San Carlos, 
Maldonado, 1; La Lata, Colonia, 1; Arazati, San Jose", 1; Treinta y 
Tres, 2). 

Genus LEISTES Vigors 

Leistes Vigors, Zool. Journ., 2, No. 6, p. 191, July, 1825 type, by orig. desig., 
Oriolus americanus Gme\in=Emberiza militaris Linnaeus. 

Pedotribes Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 191, Oct., 1851 type, by monotypy, 
Oriolus guianensis Linnaeus =Emberiza militaris Linnaeus. 

*Leistes militaris militaris (Linnaeus). CAYENNE RED-BREASTED 
BLACKBIRD. 

Emberiza militaris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 178, 1758 based on 
"Turdus ater, pectore coccineo" Linnaeus, Mus. Adol. Frid., 1, p. 18, 
1754; "in America, Asia" 2 (type now in Upsala Museum; cf. Lonnberg, 
Bih. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 22, Afd. 4, No. 1, p. 29, 1896). 

Oriolus guianensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 162, 1766 based on 

"Lie Troupiale de la Guiane" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 107, pi. 11, fig. 1; 

"Guiane" (type in coll. of D. de Bandeville). 
Oriolus americanus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 386, 1788 based chiefly 

on "Troupiale de Cayenne" Buffon and Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 236, 

fig. 2. 
Xanthornus rubricollis Hahn, Vogel aus Asien, etc., Part 5, pi. 2, 1819 

Guiana (type in Munich Museum examined). 
Leistes erythrothorax (Natterer MS.) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, pp. 197, 326, 

1870 Rio Madeira, Borba, Forte do Rio Branco, and Cajutuba, Brazil 

(type, from Cajutuba, Para, in Vienna Museum examined). 
Sturnella guianensis Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 333, 1847 Tobago. 

1 Four specimens from Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, agree with an Argen- 
tine series. 

2 Surinam suggested as type locality by Berlepsch and Hartert (Nov. Zool., 
9, p. 33, 1902). 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Trupialis guianensis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 430, 1850 
Guiana and Brazil (crit.); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 260, 
1856 part, Guiana. 

Leistes guianensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, pp. 19, 265 
"Bogota," Colombia, and Santarem, Brazil; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 138, 1862 Trinidad, Cayenne, and "Bogota"; Taylor, Ibis, 
1864, p. 84 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 
pp. 573, 750 Brazil (north side of Amazon and Mexiana) and Peru 
(Xeberos); idem, I.e., 1869, p. 252 plain of Valencia, Venezuela; Salvin, 
I.e., 1870, pp. 176, 191 "Veragua" (locality not specified); Finsch, I.e., 
1870, p. 576 "Trinidad"; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1873, p. 267 Xeberos, 
Peru; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 381 Para; Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 79, 
1876 Santare"m, Brazil; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 427, 1884 
Xeberos, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 21 (monog.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 218 Yuruani River and Roraima, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 348, 1886 Panama (Mina de Chorcha), "Guayaquil" 
(errore), "Bogota," Trinidad, British Guiana (Georgetown), Cayenne, 
and Brazil (Mexiana, Rio Madeira, Cajutuba); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 458, 1887 Panama (Mina de Chorcha and 
Lion Hill); Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 269, 1890 Santare"m; Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 37, 1894 Cipero River, Trinidad; 
Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 64, 1902 David, Chiriqui; Mene- 
gaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 183, 1904 lower Mahury, 
French Guiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 299, 1907 Amapa, Mexi- 
ana, Marajo (Sao Natal), Monte Alegre, Cussary, and Maranhao (Juta- 
hizal); Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 28, 1907 Mexiana; Penard, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 370, 1910 Guiana (habits); Williams, Bull. Dept. 
Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 138, 1922 Trinidad (food). 

Leistes americanus Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 681, 
"1848" coast of British Guiana (habits); Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 
279, 1866 Trinidad. 

Leistes guyanensis Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 164 Amapa, northern Brazil. 

Leistes militaris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 14 Brazil, 
Guiana, and Trinidad; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 196, 1870 Santare"m; 
Lonnberg, Bih. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 22, Afd. 4, No. 1, p. 29, 1896 
(nomencl., note on type); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 33, 
1902 Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, and Suapure, Caura Valley, Venezuela; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 351, 1902 (monog.); Thayer 
and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 221, 1906 savanna of Panama; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 399, 1907 (range); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
13, p. 21, 1906 Trinidad (Caroni and El Socorro); idem, I.e., 14, p. 10, 
1907 Urucurituba, Rio Tapajoz (crit.); idem, I.e., 17, p. 283, 1910 
Rio Madeira (Marmellos), Rio Preto (Santa Isabel), and Rio Machados 
(Maroins), Brazil; Berlepsch, I.e., 15, pp. 123, 317, 1908 Cayenne and 
lower Mahury, French Guiana; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 100, 1910 Miritiba, Maranhao; Hellmayr, Abhandl. 
Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 88, 119, 128, 1912 
Para (Cajutuba, Peixe-Boi), Mexiana, and Marajo (Cachoeira); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 211, 1913 La Pedrita (Rio de Uracoa) 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 199 

and Cano de Corozal, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
61, p. 522, 1913 Lower Amazonia (ecology) ; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 
422, 1914 Peixe-Boi (Para), Rio Xingu (Victoria), Rio Iriri (Santa 
Julia), Cussary, Amapa, Mexiana, Marajo (Cambu, Pacoval, Rio Arary), 
Monte Alegre, and Erer6, Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 
2, p. 209, 1916 Orinoco Valley, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 632, 1917 Rio Sinu and Barranquilla, Colombia; Beebe, 
Trop. Wild Life, 1, p. 137, 1917 Bartica Grove, British Guiana; Rendahl, 
Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 30, 1919 Pacora, Panama; Chubb, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 569, 1921 upper Takutu Mountains, Ituribisci River, 
Supenaam, Abary River, Georgetown, Bartica, and Roraima; Todd and 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 468, 1922 Fundaci6n, Colombia 
(crit.); Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 320, 1924 Casa Largo, Panama; Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 61, 1926 Maranhao (Sao 
Bento, Tury-assu). 

Leistes militaris erythrothorax Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 24, p. 190 (in 
text), 1911 lower Amazon Valley (crit.). 

Leistes militaris militaris Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 
86, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 274, 1929 Maranhao (Tury-assu, Sao Bento, 
Miritiba, and Mangunca Island); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 60, p. 396, 1930 Maroins, Rio Machados, Matto Grosso; Darling- 
ton, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 414, 1931 Cienaga, Magdalena, 
Colombia; Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Range. Islands of Trinidad and Tobago; the Guianas; northern 
Brazil, east to the forested coast region of Maranhao, south to 
northern Matto Grosso (Rio Machados); northeastern Peru (Xebe- 
ros); Venezuela; northern Colombia (Cienaga and Fundacion, 
Magdalena; Rio Sinu and Barranquilla, Bolivar); Panama, west to 
Chiriqui (David; Mina de Chorcha). 1 

1 There is a certain amount of variation in size between specimens from differ- 
ent parts of the range. Trinidad birds exhibit the smallest measurements, while 
those from the Amazon Valley and adjacent districts frequently attain unusually 
large dimensions. The figures overlap, however, to such an extent that the recog- 
nition of a southern form, for which the name erythrothorax would be available, 
seems unwarranted. Certain aberrant individuals with traces of a white postocular 
streak have doubtless given rise to the record of L. superciliaris from Cayenne 
(Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 14; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 123, 
1908), but they merely indicate the close relationship between these two "species." 

Birds from Panama and "Bogota" (probably taken at the eastern base of the 
eastern Andes of Colombia) agree well with others from the Guianas. The locality 
"Guayaquil," affixed to a Kellett and Wood specimen in the British Museum, 
cannot be trusted, since the labels of many skins obtained by these collectors have 
evidently been transposed, and it is more likely to have originated in Panama. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Chaguanas, 4; Caroni River, 2; 
El Socorro, 2. British Guiana: Demerara, 2. French Guiana: Cayenne, 2. 
Dutch Guiana: near Paramaribo, 12. Venezuela: Altagracia, Orinoco, 6; SuapurS, 
Caura, 4. Brazil: Marajo Island, 3; Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco, 7; 
Cajutuba, Para, 2; Santarem, 1 ; Urucurituba, Rio Tapaj6z, 5; Borba, Rio Madeira, 
1; Rio Madeira, below the mouth of the Rio Mahissy, 1; Marmellos, 2; Maroins, 
Rio Machados, 1; Miritiba, Maranhao, 2. Colombia: "Bogota," 2. Panama: 
Tucumay, 4. 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

28: Panama (Balboa, Canal Zone, 3; Agua Dulce, Cods', 1); 
Colombia (Lorica, Bolivar, 2; "Bogota," 1); Venezuela (Encontra- 
dos, Zulia, 1); British Guiana (Georgetown, 2); Dutch Guiana 
(Paramaribo, 1); Brazil (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, Amazonas, 5; 
Serra do Lua, Amazonas, 1; Itacoatiara, Rio Amazon, Amazonas, 4; 
Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1; Sao Bento, Maranhao, 5; Mangunga 
Island, Maranhao, 1). 

*Leistes militaris superciliaris (Bonaparte). 1 SUPERCILIATED 
RED-BREASTED STARLING. 

Trupialis superciliaris (Natterer MS.) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), 
p. 430, 1850 "Mexico," errore; 2 Matto Grosso (ex Natterer), suggested 
as type locality by Berlepsch (Nov. Zool., 15, p. 123, 1908); Stempelmann 
and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 Cordoba. 

Icterus militaris (not Emberiza militaris Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 4, 1838 Maldonado, Uruguay, and 
Santa Cruz and Chiquitos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined); 
(?)Tschudi, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 225, 1846 Peru. 

Leistes americanus (not Oriolus americanus Gmelin) Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. 
Azara, p. 5, 1847 based on "Tordo degollado tercero" Azara, No. 70; 
Paraguay. 

Leistes superciliaris Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 138, 1862 Bolivia 
and Rio de la Plata; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 14 
part, Buenos Aires and Ceara; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 140 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Hudson, I.e., 1870, p. 333 Buenos 
Aires; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 196, 1870 Matto Grosso (Nos Puritis, 
Caigara, Pansecco, Engenho do Gama, Poruti, San Xavier); Durnford, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 175 Buenos Aires up the Parana to Baradero; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 608 Santa Cruz and Chiquitos, 
Bolivia; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 339 Cabo, south of Pernambuco; White, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 602 Salta and Buenos Aires (Salto); 
Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 136, 1883 Conception del Uruguay, 
Entre Rios (habits); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 22 Argentina, Bolivia and 
Brazil up to Pernambuco (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
349, 1886 Argentina (Conchitas, Punta Lara, Buenos Aires), Bolivia, 
and Brazil (Caigara, Pernambuco); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, 

1 Leistes militaris superciliaris (Bonaparte) chiefly differs from the nominate 
race by larger bill and by having a conspicuous buffy white (in abraded plumage 
nearly pure white) postocular stripe in the livery of the adult male. Females and 
young birds are hardly distinguishable. 

2 1 have not been able to trace the whereabouts of the type. Although Bona- 
parte ascribes the species to "Mus. Lugd." and Paris, it is not in the Paris Museum. 
While it may yet be found in the collections at Leiden, it should be mentioned 
that, according to the registers of the Vienna Museum, no specimen of Natterer's 
was sent to that Museum. On the other hand, the specific name originally given 
(in manuscript) by Natterer to the specimens collected by him in Matto Grosso 
strongly suggests that Bonaparte's description was based on one of his birds. 
Perhaps the describer's statement as to the location of the original examples was 
incorrect, errors of habitat and other slips being frequent throughout his writings. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 201 

p. 100, 1888 Argentina (habits); Withington, Ibis, 1888, p. 463 Lomas 
de Zamora, Buenos Aires; Kerr, Ibis, 1890, p. 360 Pilcomayo, Chaco; 
Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425; 1891, p. 16; 1892, p. 198 Estancia Espartillar, 
Buenos Aires; idem, Ibis, 1893, p. 485 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Sal- 
vadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 8, 1895 Colonia Risso, 
Paraguay; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 11, 1897 Caiza, Bolivia; Ihering, 
Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 123, 1899 Sao Lourenco, Rio Grande 
do Sul; Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 224 Gran Chaco, Paraguay; Lillo, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 182, 1902 Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. 
La Plata, 11, p. 258, 1904 Oran, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, 
No. 13, p. 46, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 399, 1907 
Sao Paulo (Itapura) and Rio Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 403, 1910 (range in Argentina); 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 80, 1910 
Petrolina, Rio Sao Francisco, Pernambuco; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 106 
Alto Paraguay, Bolivia; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 393 Cape San Antonio, 
Buenos Aires (eggs descr.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 375, 
1926 Formosa (Formosa), Santa Fe (Santa Fe), Las Palmas (Chaco), 
and Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco) (crit.). 

Trupialis guianensis (not Oriolus guianensis Linnaeus) Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 260, 1856 part, Santa Catharina and Monte- 
video; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 257, 1860 Banda Oriental; idem, Reise 
La Plata St., 2, p. 490, 1861 Banda Oriental; Doering, Period. Zool. 
Arg., 1, p. 255, 1874 Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes. 

Leistes superciliaris petilus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 24, p. 190, 1911 
Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rfos (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, 
p. 217, 1927 Concepcion, Tucuman, and Santa Elena, Entre Rios 
(crit.). 

Leistes militaris superciliaris Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 186, 
1909 Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud, San Martino Monte) and Entre 
Rios (La Soledad) (nest and eggs); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 23, p. 372, 1912 Itape-mini, Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., 
p. 66, 1914 Paraguay; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 399, 1916 La Plata; Dab- 
bene, El Hornero, 1, p. 104, 1918 Quilmes, Buenos Aires (nest); idem, 
I.e., 1, p. 248, 1919 Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, I.e., 
2, p. 24, 1920 Uruguay (Canelones, Flores, San Jos6); Hellmayr, Arch. 
Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 34, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, south- 
eastern Peru (crit.); Daguerre, El Hornero, 2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos 
Aires; Seri6 and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; 
Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 70, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 173, 1923 
Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 
663, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Wilson, El Hornero, 3, p. 362, 1926 
General Lopez, Santa F6; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 275, 1929 Quixada, Ceara; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 60, p. 396, 1930 Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco) and Matto Grosso; 
Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 292, 1930 
Bolivia (San Jose, La Crecencia, and Las Taperas, Santa Cruz; Villa 
Montes, Tarija) and Lapango, Formosa, Argentina (crit.); Marelli, El 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hornero, 5, p. 199, 1933 Sierra de la Ventana and Bahia Blanca, Buenos 

Aires; Castellanos, I.e., 5, p. 334, 1934 Valle de los Reartes, Cordoba; 

Laubmann, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 333, 1923 Estancia La 

Geraldina, Santa Fe". 
Leistes militaris (not Emberiza militaris Linnaeus) Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. 

Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 42, 1926 Ceara. 
Pezites(l) militaris superciliaris Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., 86, p. 394, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Extreme southeastern Peru (Yahuarmayo, Sierra de 
Carabaya); eastern Bolivia; northern Argentina, south to La Rioja, 
Cordoba, and Buenos Aires (Bahia Blanca); Paraguay; Uruguay; 
southern and eastern Brazil (Matto Grosso; Rio Grande do Sul; 
Santa Catharina; Sao Paulo; Bahia; Pernambuco; Ceara). 1 

11 : Brazil (Quixada, Ceara, 1) ; Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 
3; Caraguatay, Misiones, 1; Iguazu, Misiones, 1; Las Rosas, Santa 
Fe, 1; Quilmes, Buenos Aires, 1; Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 1); 
Paraguay (Villa Rica, 2). 

Genus PEZITES Cabanis 
Trupialis (not of Merrem, 1826) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av. f 1, (2), p. 429, 

1850 type, by subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 23), Sturnus militaris 

Linnaeus. 
Pezites Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 191, Oct., 1851 type, by subs, desig. 

(Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 68, 1885), Sturnus loyca Molina. 

*Pezites militaris bellicosa (Filippi). 2 PACIFIC RED-BREASTED 
STARLING. 

1 Subdivision of this form on the basis of size (there are admittedly no color- 
characters), as has been advocated by the late Outram Bangs, appears to be 
impossible, and I cannot recognize the race petilus. The wings of adult males 
render the following figures: 

Nine from eastern Bolivia 96, 97, 99, 99, 100, 101, 101, 102, 104 

Three from Yahuarmayo, Peru 98, 98, 102 

Five from Matto Grosso 95, 96, 97, 98, 100 

Two from Bahia and Ceara 100, 105 

One from Pernambuco 104 

Three from Buenos Aires 97, 98, 100, 102 

One from Corrientes 98 

One from Uruguay 95 

Three specimens from northeastern Brazil agree well with those from the 
south, although there seems to be a certain gap in the distribution. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, 3. Bolivia: 
Santa Cruz, 14; Villa Montes, Tarija, 6. Brazil: Ceara, 2; Petrolina, Rio Sao 
Francisco, Pernambuco, 1; Bahia, 1; Matto Grosso (Nos Puritis, Engenho do 
Gama, San Xavier, Pansecco, Caic.ara, Poruti), 8. Argentina: Buenos Aires, 
4; Corrientes, 1. Uruguay: Maldonado, 1. 

2 Pezites militaris bellicosa (Filippi) : Nearest to P. m. militaris, but with 
decidedly shorter bill, and the red area beneath more intensely colored, scarlet 
rather than pinkish. 

While the characters stand out quite well in a series, certain individuals ap- 
proach P. TO. militaris in length of bill as well as in coloration, as has been correctly 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 203 

Sturnella bellicosa Filippi, Mus. Mediol., Anim. Vertebr., cl. 2, Aves, pp. 15, 
32, 1847 "Amer. trop. occ."=Lima, Peru, suggested by Zimmer (Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 434, 1930) (type in Milan Museum; cf. 
Salvadori, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 3, pp. 274, 275, 1868); Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, p. 455 Cuenca, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1858, 
p. 552 Riobamba and Matos, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1860, p. 277 
Babahoyo, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 138, 1862 
Cuenca and Babahoyo; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 
p. 985 Arequipa, Peru; idem, I.e., 1868, p. 569 Arequipa; Sclater, I.e., 
1869, p. 147 Lima; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 523 Lima; Salvin, 
I.e., 1883, p. 423 Payta, Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, 
p. 552 Guayaquil, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 86 Riobamba, Ecuador; 
Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 479 Chimborazo, Ecuador. 

Pezites brevirostris Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 191, Oct., 1851 "Brazil," 
errore (type in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, Halberstadt). 

Leistes albipes Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 616, 1861 
"Peru"; idem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 128, 1863 Arica, Peru (type in 
National Museum at Santiago de Chile; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, p. 19, 1930). 

Sturnella militaris (not Sturnus militaris Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 8, 1838 part, Arica and Lima (spec, 
examined); Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 110, 1841 part, 
Lima; Tschudi, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 228, 1846 coast region of Peru up 
to Surco (above Lima). 

Trupialis militaris Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 101, p. 911, 1898 Chile (in 
part). 

Trupialis loyca (not Sturnus loyca Molina) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, 
(2), p. 429, 1850 Peru and "Bolivia" (crit.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 323 Tumbez, Peru; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 200 Cutervo, 
Peru. 

Sturnella loyca Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 25 (crit.). 

Trupialis bellicosa Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 429, 1884 Peru (Surco, 
Lima, Tumbez, Cutervo, Chota, Arequipa); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 24 
western Ecuador and Peru (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
357, 1886 western Ecuador (Cuenca, Babahoyo, Pun& Island, Guaya- 
quil) and Peru (Payta, Lima, Arequipa); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 378 Lima and lea, Peru; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 
2, p. 10, 1895 Cajamarca, Cajabamba, and Vina (Huamachuco), Peru; 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 29, 1899 
Ecuador (Sig-Sig, San Miguel de Chimbo, Balzar, Puntilla de Santa 
Elena); Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 Huancabamba, Peru; 

insisted upon by Mr. Zimmer. Birds from the Peruvian and Ecuadorian highlands 
differ from those of the coast district by, on average, larger size and more rosy, less 
scarlet tone of the pectoral area, but the variation appears to be due, in part at 
least, to seasonal rather than environmental influences. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Puna Island, 3; Sinche, Guaranda, 
2; Caraz, 2; Guallabamba, Riobamba, 1; Guayaquil, 5; Guichapa, Ona, 1; Loja, 
1. Peru: Tumbez, 3; Eten, 1; Huancabamba, 8; Banos, Cajamarca, 1; Lima, 
3; lea, 3. 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 698, 1926 Ecuador 
(Huigra, Chunchi, Riobamba, above Chambo, Esmeraldas, Chone, Manta, 
Bahia de Caraques, La Plata Island, Guayaquil, Duran, Puna Island, 
Santa Rosa, El Paso, Loja). 

Pezites militaris bellicosa Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 434, 1930 Huanuco, Peru (crit.); Hellmayr, I.e., 19, p. 105, 1932 
northern Chile (Tacna, Chacalluta, Arica); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 235, 1932 Rio San Antonio, Ecuador. 

Range. Western slope (from the sea coast to the Temperate 
zone) of Ecuador, Peru, and extreme northern Chile (Province of 
Tacna). 

25: Peru (Macate, 3; Cajamarca, 5; Menocucho, 4; Huanuco, 11); 
Chile (Chacalluta, Tacna, 2). 

*Pezites militaris militaris (Linnaeus). RED-BREASTED 
STARLING. 

Sturnus militaris Linnaeus, Mantissa Plant, altera, p. 527, 1771 based on 
"L'Etourneau des Terres Magellaniques" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 113, 
Straits of Magellan; Poeppig, in Froriep's Notiz. Geb. Natur- und Heil- 
kunde, 23, No. 18 [ = No. 502], p. 280, 1829 Rio Colorado, Santiago, 
Chile; Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, 1, pp. 147, 177, 1858 Valparaiso and 
Quillota, Chile; Jaffuel and Pirion, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, p. 109, 1927 
Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Sturnus loyca Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 254, 345, 1782 Chile. 

Oriolus albistriatus Hermann, Tabl. Aff. Anim., p. 204 (note), 1783 based 
on "L'Etourneau des Terres Magellaniques" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 
3, p. 197. 

Sturnus albiflorus Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 7, Dec., 1783 based on Dau- 
benton, PI. Enl., pi. 113. 

Icterus militaris Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Leop.-Carol., 16, Suppl., p. 83, 
1834 Chile; Cunningham, Ibis, 1868, p. 126 Gregory, S. Jago, and 
Possession Bays, Straits of Magellan. 

Sturnella militaris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 8, 1838 part, Patagonia and Chile; Vigors, Zool. Capt. 
Beechey's Voy., p. 20, 1839 Concepcion, Chile; Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 
3, Birds, p. 110, 1841 part, Straits of Magellan; Fraser, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1844, p. 157 Chile; Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 113, 
1848 Chile; Bibra, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, 
p. 129, 1853 Chile; Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Nav. Astron. Exp., 2, p. 179, 
pi. 16, fig. 2, 1855 Chile; Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, 1, p. 121, 1858 San 
Tome, Concepcion, Chile; Germain, Prbc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 312, 
1860 Santiago, Chile (breeding habits); Frauenfeld, Verh. Zool. Bot. 
Ges. Wien, 10, Abhandl., p. 637, 1860 near Valparaiso, Chile; Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 138, 1862 part, spec, a, c, Chile; Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 24 Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, pp. 323, 338 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1868, p. 186 Cape 
Possession, Magellan Straits; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 548 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 205 

Rio Negro, Patagonia; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 546, 1877 
plains of Cauquenes, Colchagua, Chile; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 33 
Chubut Valley, Patagonia (breeding); idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 394 Chubut; 
Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 7 Peckett Harbour, Straits of 
Magellan; Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 422 Coquimbo, Chile. 

Leistes americanus (not Oriolus americanus Gmelin) Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. 
Pol. Fis. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 350, 1847 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 
31, p. 263, 1868 Chile; Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 252, 1877 Chile 
(habits); Lataste, Act. Soc. Scient. Chili, 3, pp. cxiv, cxv, 1893 Bureo, 
Nuble, and Ninhue, Maule; Waugh and Lataste, I.e., 4, pp. Ixxxvi, clxxii, 
1894 Pefiaflor, Santiago, and San Alfonso, Quillota, Chile; Lataste, 
I.e., 5, p. xxxiv, 1895 Caillihue, Curico, Chile. 

Sturnus americanus Gay, Hist. Pol. Fis. Chile, Atlas, Ois., pi. 5; Boeck, Nau- 
mannia, 1855, p. 503 Valdivia, Chile. 

Sturnella brevirostris (not Pezites brevirostris Cabanis) Pelzeln, Reise Novara, 
Zool., 1, Vb'gel, p. 89, 1865 Chile (spec, examined ;= young). 

Trupialis loyca Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 257, 1860 Mendoza (breed- 
ing); idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 491, 1861 Mendoza; Stempelmann 
and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 Cordoba; 
C. Burmeister, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 3, p. 318, 1890 Rio 
Chubut, Patagonia. 

Trupialis militaris Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 23 part, Chile and Patagonia; 
idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 356, 1886 part, spec. a-, Coquimbo, 
Chile; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 104, 1888 part, Argentina 
(habits); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 84, 1889 Valparaiso; 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 132, 1889 Gregory Bay and 
Laredo Bay, Magellan Straits; Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, Zool., 6, 
p. B.103, 1891 Arroyo Moreno, Santa Cruz, Missioneros, and Punta- 
renas, Patagonia; Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, p. 291, 1895 
Catamarca; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 200, 1896 Chile; Holland, 
Ibis, 1896, p. 316; idem, Ibis, 1897, p. 286 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; 1 
Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 26 Hacienda Mansel (Santiago), Calle-calle (Val- 
divia), Colico (Arauco), and south to Chilo6; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., 
Suppl., 4, p. 721, 1898 Ovalle, Coquimbo, Serena, and Santiago, Chile; 
Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 101, p. 911, 1898 Chile (in part); Salvadori, 
Anal. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, 40, p. 622, 1900 part, Santa Cruz, 
Puntarenas, Gregory Bay, and Isla Pav6n, Patagonia; Arribalzaga, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 168, 1902 Lago del General Paz, 
Chubut; Crawshay, Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 57 (with col. plate), 1907 
San Sebastian Settlement; Lillo, Apunt. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 44, 1909 
Maimara, Jujuy; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 187, 1909 
Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 404, 1910 (range in Argentina); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 108 Los 
Ynglases and Tuju, Ajo, Buenos Aires ("breeding"); 1 Dabbene, Bol. Soc. 
Physis, 1, p. 366, 1914 Maimara, Jujuy; Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 152, 
1918 Jocoli, Mendoza; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 397 Cape San Antonio, 

1( The statement that the species breeds around Santa Elena is certainly 
erroneous, the nest and eggs described being no doubt those of T. defilippii. 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Buenos Aires ("breeding, nest, and eggs"); 1 Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
24, p. 150, 1920 Nilahue, Curico, Chile; idem, I.e., 25, p. 192, 1921 
Cordillera of Aconcagua, Chile; Renard, El Hornero, 2, p. 60, 1920 
Canuelas, Buenos Aires; Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos 
Aires; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 174, 1923 Conhello, F.C.O., Argentina; 
Bullock, I.e., 3, p. 94, 1923 Chile (nest); Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. 
for 1922-23, p. 664, 1924 Bahia Blanca, Prov. Buenos Aires; Reed, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 57, 1924 Lampa, Santiago; Housse, I.e., 29, 
p. 148, 1925 San Bernardo, Santiago, Chile; Wilson, El Hornero, 
3, p. 362, 1926 General Lopez, Santa Fe; Pereyra, I.e., 4, p. 34, 1927 
Conhello, Pampa; Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, pp. 125, 186, 1929 
Cerro de Nahuelbuta and Angol, Malleco, Chile; Budin, El Hornero, 4, 
p. 411, 1931 Maimara, Jujuy; Castellanos, I.e., 5, p. 333, 1934 Los 
Reartes, Cordoba. 

Leistes superciliaris (not Trupialis superciliaris Bonaparte) Fuentes, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Santiago, 7, p. 291, 1914 Easter Island (introduced); Lonn- 
berg, in Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan Fernandez, 3, p. 19, 1921 Easter 
Island (ex Fuentes). 

Trupialis militaris militaris Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 481, 1922 Coronel, 
Chile (habits, nest, and eggs); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 337, 
1923 Puesto Horno, San Antonio, Maquinchao, Huanuluan, and Bari- 
loche, north Patagonia; Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 456, 1926 
Rio Negro (Valcheta, Paja Alta, Nahuel Niyeu, Arroyo Cumallo); idem, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 373, 1926 Argentina (Cape San Antonio, 
Lavalle, Carhue, etc., Buenos Aires; General Roca, Rio Negro; Zapala, 
Neuquen; Victorica, Pampa; Tunuyan, Mendoza), and Chile (Con con, 
Valparaiso); Stone, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patag., 2, (1), Zool., p. 851, 
1928 Patagonia (Palaike, Rio Gallegos, Mount Observation); Laub- 
mann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 293, 1930 La 
Falda, Sierra de Cordoba; Marelli, El Hornero, 5, p. 199, 1933 southern 
Buenos Aires. 

Pezites militaris militaris Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 103, 1932 Chile (monog.). 

Range. Chile, from Atacama south to the Straits of Magellan, 
and throughout Patagonia north to the Rio Colorado, migrating in 
winter to northern Argentina (as far north as Entre Rios, Santa 
Fe, and Jujuy); 2 introduced on Easter Island. 

24: Chile (Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, Atacama, 1; Caldera, 
Atacama, 3; Romero, Coquimbo, 1; Paiguano, Coquimbo, 1; Pal- 

1 The breeding records by Grant and Gibson must be due to confusion with 
T. defilippii. 

2 Chilean birds are generally smaller than others from southern Patagonia, 
but as similarly short-winged examples are also found in Buenos Aires the geo- 
graphic nature of this variation remains to be proved. Taczanowski's record 
(Orn. Per., 2, p. 428, 1884) from Moquegua, Peru, based upon specimens in the 
Raimondi Collection, can hardly be correct. 

Additional material examined. Argentina: Maimara, Jujuy, 1; Casa Lata, 
Neuquen, 2; Bajada Colorada, Neuquen, 2; Rio Limay, Neuquen, 2; vicinity of 
Buenos Aires, 6. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 207 

milla, La Cruz, Valparaiso, 1; Hacienda Gualpencillo, Conception, 
1; Rifiihue, Valdivia, 1; Mafil, Valdivia, 5; Puerto Montt, Llanqui- 
hue, 1; Rio Nirehuau, Llanquihue, 1); Argentina (Maimard, Jujuy, 
1; Buenos Aires, 1; Rivadavia, Chubut, 2; Puesto Burro, Chubut, 1; 
San Jose", Catamarca, 1 ; Rio Gallegos, Patagonia, 1 ; Porvenir, Tierra 
del Fuego, 1). 

Pezites militaris falklandicus (Leverkiihn). 1 FALKLAND RED- 
BREASTED STARLING. 

Trupialis militaris (L.) subsp. falklandica Leverkiihn, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 108, 
1889 Insulas Falklandicas (type in Kiel Museum, now in Berlin Museum, 
examined). 

Sturnella militaris (not Sturnus militaris Linnaeus) Gould, in Darwin, Zool. 
Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 110, 1841 part, Falkland Islands; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1859, p. 94 Falkland Islands (nest and eggs descr.); Sclater, 
I.e., 1860, p. 385 Falklands; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 153 East Falk- 
land (breeding habits); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 138, 1862 
part, spec, b, Falkland Islands; Vallentin, Mem. & Proc. Manchester Lit. 
Philos. Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 44, 1904 Berkley Sound and Roy Cove 
(eggs descr.). 

Trupialis militaris Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 23 part, Falkland Islands; idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 356, 1886 part, spec, f-i, Falklands; Sclater 
and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 104, 1888 part, Falkland Islands; Salvadori, 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, 40, p. 622, 1900 part, Keppel Island, 
Falklands. 

Troupialis falklandicus Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 160, 1917 
Falklands. 

Trupialis militaris falklandicus Ware, El Hornero, 2, p. 204, 1921 Falklands. 

Trupialis falklandicus Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 333 Falkland Islands. 

Range. Falkland Islands. 

*Pezites defilippii (Bonaparte). FILIPPI'S RED-BREASTED 
STARLING. 

Trupialis defilippii Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 429, 1850 "ex 
Bras., Parag., Montevideo" (the type examined in the Paris Museum is 
from Montevideo, Uruguay); Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 24 Argentina 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 357, 1886 Argentina (Buenos 
Aires) and Uruguay (Montevideo); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, 
p. 105, 1888 northern Argentina and Uruguay (habits); Withington, 
Ibis, 1888, p. 464 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, 
p. 174 Uruguay (Santa Elena, Soriano; Porongos, Flores); Holland, Ibis, 
1895, p. 215 Santa Elena, Entre Rlos (nest and eggs); Ihering, Ann. 

1 Pezites militaris falklandicus (Leverkuhn): Similar to P. m. militaris, but 
with much longer, heavier bill, and outermost rectrix with apical half of outer 
web and a small spot on the tip of the inner web pure white. Wing (one unsexed 
adult, the type), 133; tail, 99; bill, 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 123, 1899 Sao Lourenco and Jaguarao, 
Rio Grande do Sul; Gosse, in Fitzgerald, The Highest Andes, p. 351, 
1899 Mendoza; Lillo, Revista Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 46, 1905 
Valle de Santa Maria, Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 400, 
1907 (range); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 404, 1910 
(range in Argentina); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 108 Los Ynglases, Ajo, 
Buenos Aires ("autumnal visitor"!); Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 397 Cape 
San Antonio, Buenos Aires ("autumnal visitor"); Marelli, El Hornero, 
1, p. 227, 1919 Buenos Aires (food); Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 24, 1920 
Uruguay (Canelones, Flores, San Jose', Cerro Largo); Daguerre, I.e., 2, 
p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 
Santa Elena, Entre Rios (breeding; nest and eggs descr.); Giacomelli, 
I.e., 3, p. 70, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 173, 1923 Zelaya, 
Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 664, 1924 
Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 374, 1926 Buenos 
Aires (Carhue, Guamini); Wilson, El Hornero, 3, p. 362, 1926 General 
Lopez, Santa Fe (breeding); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco 
Exp., Vogel, p. 294, 1930 La Germania, Santa Fe; Marelli, El Hornero, 
5, p. 199, 1933 southern Buenos Aires. 

Sturnella De Filippii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 25 
"Brazil" (crit.). 

Sturnella militaris (not Sturnus militaris Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, el. 2, p. 8, 1838 part, Montevideo and 
Corrientes; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 138, 1862 Rio de la Plata 
and Montevideo; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 161 
Buenos Aires; Lee, Ibis, 1873, p. 132 Frayle Muerto (west of Rosario), 
Cordoba; Durnford, Ibis, 1876, p. 159; idem, Ibis, 1877, p. 175 neighbor- 
hood of Buenos Aires; Doering, in Roca, Inf. Of. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., 
p. 41, 1881 Pampa of Buenos Aires; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 
8, p. 13.6, 1883 Pampa south of Buenos Aires; Holmberg, Act. Acad. 
Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 83, 1884 La Tinta and Collon-gueyu, Buenos 
Aires. 

Pezites militaris Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 191, 1851 (crit.). 

Trupialis militaris Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 261, 1856 
Rio Grande do Sul, Montevideo, and "Paraguay"; idem, Journ. Orn., 
8, p. 257, 1860 Banda Oriental; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 490, 
1861 Banda Oriental and Argentina (Rosario and Parana). 

Trupialis militaris defilippii Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, 
p. 196, 1926 Pinheirinhos, Parana. 

Range. Extreme southern Brazil (states of Rio Grande do Sul 
and Parana); Uruguay; northern Argentina, from Buenos Aires, 
Entre Rios, and Corrientes west to Mendoza, and north to 
Tucuman. 1 

1 The breeding range of Filippi's Red-breasted Starling remains yet to be 
determined. It apparently breeds in Santa Fe (Wilson), Entre Rios (Smyth and 
Seri6), as well as in the vicinity of Buenos Aires. Grant and Gibson, it is true, 
state that T. m. militaris breeds and is a common resident in the Ajo district, 
Buenos Aires, whereas T. defilippii appears there merely as an "autumnal visitor," 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 209 

13: Argentina (Las Rosas, Santa Fe, 6; Buenos Aires, 1) ; Uruguay 
(Piedra del Toro, Canelones, 6). 

Genus STURNELLA Vieillot 

Sturnella Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn. Ele"m., p. 34, 1816 type, by monotypy, 
"Stourne, ou Merle a fer-a-cheval" BuSon=Alauda magna Linnaeus. 

Cirulus Bredow, Arch. Naturg., 3, (1), p. 413 (in text), 1837 type, by orig. 
desig., Cirulus pratensis Bredow = A lauda magna Linnaeus. 

Pedopsaris Gloger, Gemeinn. Hand- und Hilfsbuch Naturg., 1, p. 292, 1841 
type, by orig. desig., Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus. 

*Sturnella magna magna (Linnaeus). EASTERN MEADOWLARK. 

Alauda magna Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 167, 1758 based on 

"The Large Lark" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 33, pi. 33; "in 

America, Africa" = South Carolina (ex Catesby). 
Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 290, 1766 based on 

"L'Etourneau de la Louisiane" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 449, pi. 42, fig. 2; 

Louisiana (type in Reaumur Collection). 
Cacicus alaudarius Daudin, Traite" Ele"m. d'Orn., 2, p. 325, 1800 new name 

for Alauda magna Linnaeus. 
Sturnella collaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 32, p. 203, 1819 

new name for Alauda magna Linnaeus. 
Cirulus pratensis Bredow, Arch. Naturg., 3, (1), p. 413, 1837 new name for 

Alauda magna Linnaeus and Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus. 1 

Sturnella ludoviciana Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 23 (monog.); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 25 (monog.). 

Sturnella magna a. subsp. typica Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 359, 

1886 eastern United States. 
Sturnella magna magna Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 357, 

1902 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Breeds in the Transition and upper Austral zones from 
eastern Minnesota, southern Ontario and Quebec, and New Bruns- 
wick south to northern Texas, Missouri, and North Carolina, and 

but this record is in absolute disagreement with the observations of Hudson, 
Durnford, Withington, and Venturi, all of whom list T. defilippii as the only Marsh- 
starling breeding in the neighborhood of the Argentine capital, and must be due to 
some confusion. The same remark applies to Holland's notes (in Ibis, 1895, p. 
215; 1896, p. 316), who claims that both T. defilippii and T. militaris are met with 
during the breeding season around Santa Elena, Entre Rlos, where only the first- 
named has since been found to nest. 

T. defilippii, with black under-wing coverts, is probably but a geographical 
race of the T. militaris group. Specimens from Rio Grande do Sul (Sao Lourenco) 
agree with others from Uruguay and Buenos Aires. 

1 Although Moritz's observations on the habits, nest, and eggs refer to the 
form of Meadowlark breeding on the savannas around Valencia, Venezuela (S. TO. 
paralios Bangs), Bredow's name, as it stands, is merely a rebaptizing of Alauda 
magna Linnaeus. 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

west to western Nebraska, Kansas, and northwestern Texas; winters 
from the Potomac and Ohio valleys south to the Gulf states, and north 
locally to the Great Lakes and Maine. 

51: Massachusetts (Chatham, 2; Yarmouth, 3); Connecticut 
(East Hartford, 6); New York (Auburn, 1; Long Island, 1; Suffolk 
County, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 13); Illinois (Grand Chain, 
6; Chicago, 3; Brainerd, 1; Glenview, 1; Fox Lake, 2; Momence, 1; 
Worth, 1; Lewiston, 1; Beach, 1; Olive Branch, 1; Joliet, 1); 
Indiana (Liverpool, 3; Bluffton, 1); Georgia (Roswell, 1). 

*Sturnella magna argutula Bangs. SOUTHERN MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella magna argutula Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 1, p. 28, Feb., 
1899 Dunedin, Hillsboro County, Florida (type in coll. of E. A. and O. 
Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 419, 1930); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 360, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Holt 
and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 16, p. 434, 1926 Long Pine Key, 
Flamingo, Everglades, and Cape Sable, Florida; Worthington and Todd, 
Wils. Bull., 38, p. 215, 1926 Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida (crit.). 

Range. Lower Austral zone from southern Illinois, southwestern 
Indiana, and South Carolina south to Florida and the coast of 
Louisiana and southeastern Texas. 

41: Florida (Gainesville, 6; Wilson, 8; Mary Esther, 3; Cutler, 4; 
W'est Jupiter, 2; Jupiter, 1; Indian River, 1; Banana River, 3; Pine 
Island, 2; Homestead, 1; New River, 1; Nassau County, 2; Enter- 
prise, 2; Georgiana, 1; New Berlin, 1; Dunedin, 1; Starke, 1); 
Louisiana (Buras, 1). 

*Sturnella magna hippocrepis (Wagler). 1 CUBAN MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnus hippocrepis Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 281 (in text) Cuba (location of 
type not stated). 

Sturnella hippocrepis Gundlach and Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 14, 1856 
Cuba (habits, nest, eggs, crit.); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
7, p. 266, 1860 Cuba (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1861, p. 179 Cuba (crit.); 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 24 Cuba (monog.); Gund- 
lach, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 133, 1874 Cuba (crit., habits); Cory, Auk, 3, 
p. 222, 1886 Cuba (descr.); idem, Auk, 8, p. 294, 1891 Cuba; idem, 
Bds. W. Ind., p. 109, 1889 Cuba (descr.); idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., 
pp. 110, 129, 1892 Cuba and Isle of Pines; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 4, p. 304, 1892 Trinidad, Cuba (crit., song); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 368, 1902 Cuba and Isle of Pines (monog.) ; 
Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 39, p. 212, 1905 Santa Fe, Isle of 
Pines. 

1 Sturnella magna hippocrepis (Wagler) is most closely related to S. m. argutula, 
as has been pointed out by Todd. We have nothing to add to his remarks. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 211 

Sturnella ludoviciana (not Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus) Vigors, Zool. Journ., 
3, p. 442, 1827 Cuba. 

Sturnella ludoviciana hippocrepis Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 25 Cuba (monog.). 

Sturnella magna subsp. hippocrepis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, pp. 359, 
360, 1886 San Cristobal, Cuba. 

Sturnella magna hippocrepis Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 272, 1916 
Bibijagua and Los Indies, Isle of Pines (crit.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. 
Orn. Cl., 6, p. 126, 1923 Cuba (habits); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 37, 1932 Gibara, Cuba. 

Range. Island of Cuba, including Isle of Pines, Greater Antilles. 

15: Cuba (eastern Cuba, 1; Havana, 2; Palacios, 4; San Diego 
de los Banos, 1; Artemisa, Pinar del Rio, 2; unspecified, 2); Isle of 
Pines, 3. 

*Sturnella magna hoopesi Stone. Rio GRANDE MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella magna hoopesi Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1897, p. 149, 
April, 1897 Brownsville, Texas (type in coll. of Josiah Hoopes, now 
in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 26, 1899); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 361, 1902 part, southeastern Texas; Griscom and Crosby, 
Auk, 43, p. 23, 1926 Brownsville. 

Range. Southeastern United States, in central-southern Texas 
to lower Rio Grande Valley and adjacent parts of Tamaulipas 
(Matamoros). 

30: Texas (Port O'Connor, 2; Seadrift, 1; Corpus Christi, 18; 
Port Lavaca, 5; Brownsville, 3; Cameron County, 1). 

*Sturnella magna lilianae Oberholser. 1 LILIANA'S MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella magna lilianae Oberholser, Sci. Pub. Cleveland Mus. N. H., 1, 
p. 103, pi. 18, Dec., 1930 Huachuca Mountains, Arizona (type in Cleve- 
land Museum). 

Sturnella magna hoopesi (not of Stone) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 361, 1902 part, New Mexico and southern Arizona. 

Sturnella magna mexicana (not of Sclater) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 5, 
p. 37, 1893 Chihuahua (San Diego) and Sonora (San Pedro, Cachuta, 
Nacory). 

Range. Arizona, New Mexico, and southwestern Texas, south 
to the northern plateau region of Sonora and Chihuahua. 
2: Arizona (Sonoita, Santa Cruz County, 2). 

1 Sturnella magna lilianae Oberholser: Similar to S. m. hoopesi, but wings 
longer, other proportions smaller, particularly the feet; upper parts much paler, 
more grayish ; the dusky bars on wings and tail still narrower and even more dis- 
connected; under parts on average still more deeply golden yellow. Wing of male 
(average), 119; tail, 69; bill, 32 (Oberholser, I.e.). 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Sturnella magna auropectoralis Saunders. 1 JALISCAN 
MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella magna auropectoralis Saunders, Auk, 51, p. 42, Jan., 1934 Tuxpan, 

Jalisco, Mexico (type in Field Museum). 
Sturnella magna mexicana (not of Sclater) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

50, Part 2, p. 362, 1902 part, Guanajuato, Durango, Jalisco, and Tepic; 

Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H. f 21, p. 360, 1905 Escuinapa, Sinaloa. 
Sturnella magna alticola (not of Nelson) Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

75, p. 404, 1934 part, Jalisco and Tepic. 

Range. Breeds in southwestern and central Mexico, from 
Michoacan and Guanajuato west and north to Jalisco, Durango, and 
Sinaloa; winters as far north as Mazatlan, Sinaloa. 

6: Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 6). 

*Sturnella magna alticola Nelson. ? HIGHLAND MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella magna alticola Nelson, Auk, 17, p. 266, 1900 Ocuilapa, Chiapas, 
Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 825, 1910 Costa Rica (Guayabo, Bonflla, Alaju&a, Carrillo, etc.; 
habits); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 389, 1932 Tecpam 
and San Antonio, western Guatemala; idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
75, pp. 402, 404, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero (crit., range in part). 

Sturnella magna (not Alauda magna Linnaeus) Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 
1, p. 436, 1827 Real del Monte, Hidalgo(?); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 456, 1887 part, Mexico (?Real del Monte, 
?Valley of Mexico, Llano de Chapulco, Chietla, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, 
Barrio, Santa Efigenia), Guatemala (Duenas), and Costa Rica; Under- 
wood, Ibis, 1896, p. 437 Miravalles, Costa Rica. 

Sturnella hippocrepis (not Sturnus hippocrepis Wagler) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1859, p. 381 Oaxaca; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 19 
Duenas, Guatemala; idem, Ibis, 1860, p. 34 Duenas. 

Sturnella mexicana Sclater, Ibis, 3, p. 179, 1861 part, Orizaba; idem, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 139, 1862 part, spec, c, d, "Mexico (Botteri" = 

1 Sturnella magna auropectoralis Saunders: Most closely related to S. m. 
lilianae, which it resembles in having the third rectrix (from without) entirely or 
almost entirely white; in golden orange tone of the breast (veiled with pale saffron 
in winter plumage) ; in whiteness of cheeks in breeding dress; in shortness of tarsus 
and tail; in shallow jugular crescent and restriction of yellow to the throat region; 
but differs by shorter wings, much darker upper parts, the interscapulars being 
dominantly black with relatively smaller distal spots and bars of brown, and by 
having the dark bars on upper tail coverts and median rectrices heavily confluent. 
It agrees with S. m. alticola in dark coloration of dorsal parts and upper tail coverts, 
as well as in markings of median rectrices, but has different proportions (longer 
wings, shorter tail and tarsus) and may also be separated by certain color-charac- 
ters (no dusky border to the third rectrix; yellow of throat more restricted; breast 
more orange yellow; cheeks pure white, etc.). Wing, (males) 114-118, (female) 
105; tail, 67 Y 2 , (female) 62; bill, 29-31 (Saunders, I.e.). 

2 Sturnella magna alticola Nelson, according to Griscom, is close to S. m. 
mexicana, but larger. The tail pattern is nearly the same, though averaging even 
more white, the outer webs of the lateral rectrices being often devoid of any ter- 
minal dusky streak or this greatly reduced. Wing (males), 113-116. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 213 

Orizaba; (?)idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 175 vicinity of Mexico 
City. 

Sturnella magna var. mexicana Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 24, 
1876 Barrio and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca. 

Sturnella magna mexicana Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 152, 
1886 Llano de Chapulco and Chietla, Puebla; Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 Costa Rica (San Jos6, Alajuela, Cartago, 
Santa Ana); Cherrie, Auk, 7, p. 334, 1890 San Jose 1 , Costa Rica; idem, 
Auk, 9, p. 250, 1892 San Jose"; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 362, 1902 Mexico and Guatemala (in part); Bangs and Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 403, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca. 

Sturna magna subsp. mexicana Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 
1886 part, spec. c(?), d, j-n, Mexico (near Mexico City?), Guatemala 
(Dueftas), and Costa Rica (San Jos6, Volcan de Cartago, Irazu). 

Sturnella ludoviciana (not Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus) Taylor, Ibis, 1860, 
p. 317 Siquatepeque, Honduras; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. f 
9, p. 104, 1868 San Jose, Costa Rica; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1878, p. 59 Cartago, Costa Rica. 

Sturnella (?) Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 552, 1869 part, 

temperate region of Vera Cruz. 

Sturnella magna inexpectata (not of Ridgway, 1888) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 364, 1902 part, Costa Rica; Ferry, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 280, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica. 

Range. Southern portion of the Mexican plateau, from western 
Vera Cruz (Orizaba) 1 and Puebla south to Oaxaca and southern 
Chiapas (Tonala) and through the highlands of Guatemala and 
Honduras to Nicaragua and Costa Rica. 2 

19: Nicaragua (San Rafael del Norte, Matagalpa, 2); Costa Rica 
(Guayabo, 5; San Jose*, 2; Or6si, Cartago, 4; Juan Vifias, Cartago, 1; 
Cartago, 2; Heredia, 1; Limon, 1; Agua Caliente, 1). 

*Sturnella magna mexicana Sclater. 3 MEXICAN MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella mexicana Sclater, Ibis, 3, p. 179, 1861 part, Jalapa, Vera Cruz, 
Mexico (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); 4 idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 139, 1862 part, spec, b, Jalapa (de Oca). 

1 Owing to absence of material, it is impossible to ascertain whether the birds 
recorded from the states of Hidalgo and Mexico are referable to S. m. alticola or 
S. m. auropectoralis. 

2 A large series from the highlands of Costa Rica compared with two from 
Oaxaca. Some specimens are barely distinguishable from S. m. inexpectata. 

3 Sturnella magna mexicana Sclater is characterized by Griscom as a small 
race with short blunt culmen, long slender legs, and long tail; the three outer tail 
feathers marked with a short, dusky streak near the end of the outer web, and the 
fourth rectrix with far more white than dusky on the inner web. 

Although I have not sufficient material upon which to base an opinion, I am not 
yet convinced of its distinctness from S. m. alticola, since both tail markings and 
size show considerable individual variation. Five specimens from Jalapa examined. 

4 Though not indicated as such, specimen b (Jalapa; de Oca) of subsp. mexi- 
cana (Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360) is evidently the type. 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sturnella hippocrepis (not Sturnus hippocrepis Wagler) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1856, p. 301 near Cordoba; (?)Moore, I.e., 1859, p. 58 

part, town of Mexico; Sclater, I.e., 1859, p. 365 Jalapa, Vera Cruz. 
(^Sturnella ludoviciana (not Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus) Boucard, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 446 Rio Lagartos, Yucatan. 
Sturnella magna (not Alauda magna Linnaeus) Salvin and Godman, Biol. 

Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 456, 1887 part, Mexico (Jalapa; ?Rio 

Lagartos). 
Sturnella magna subsp. mexicana Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 

1886 part, spec, b, Jalapa. 
Sturnella magna mexicana Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 404, 

1934 lowlands of Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, and Chiapas (crit.). 
C!)Sturnella magna subsp. Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 404, 

1934 Rio Lagartos, Yucatan (crit.). 
Sturnella (?) Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 552, 1869 part, 

hot region of Vera Cruz. 
Sturnella magna inexpectata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 

p. 364, 1902 part, lowlands of Vera Cruz (Minatitlan) and Chiapas 

(Palenque). 

Range. Caribbean slopes and lowlands of southeastern Mexico, 
in states of Vera Cruz (Minatitlan, Jalapa, etc.), Tabasco, Chiapas 
(Palenque), and (?) Yucatan (Rio Lagartos). 1 

1: Yucatan (Rio Lagartos, 1). 

Sturnella magna inexpectata Ridgway. 2 HONDURAN MEADOW- 
LARK. 

Sturnella magna inexpectata 3 Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 587, 
Aug., 1888 Segovia River, Honduras (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 364, 1902 part, Honduras 
(Segovia River); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 249, 1932 
savanna near Prinzapolka, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 335, 1932 part, 
Segovia River, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 404, 
1934 Caribbean lowlands from Peten to northeastern Nicaragua (crit.). 

1 The status of the Yucatan form is doubtful. A single example examined by 
Griscom resembles S. m. mexicana, but is considerably paler and duller yellow 
below. Boucard was the first to record it from the Rio Lagartos, and there are 
also two specimens in the British Museum obtained by Gaumer in the same district. 

2 Sturnella magna inexpectata Ridgway is exceedingly close to, and of the same 
small size as S. m. mexicana, but perhaps distinguishable, as pointed out by 
Griscom, by having the sides of the chest more heavily marked with blackish 
and in the greater amount of the dusky color on the distal portion of the lateral 
rectrices. Wing (male), 97-105. 

This rather ill-defined race is a southern ally of S. m. mexicana, which it re- 
places in the Caribbean lowlands of Guatemala to Nicaragua. It is said to "inter- 
grade" with S. m. alticola, found in the highlands of Central America. Material 
from its supposed range being altogether inadequate, more information regarding 
its characters and variation is urgently needed. I am rather skeptical about the 
existence of two zonal representatives of the Meadowlark in Central America. 

3 Misspelled "inexspectata." 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 215 

Sturnella hippocrepis (not Sturnus hippocrepis Wagler) Moore, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1859, p. 58 part, near Belize, British Honduras. 
Sturnella magna subsp. mexicana (not of Sclater, 1861) Sclater, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 1886 part, spec, i, Poctum, Guatemala. 
Sturnella magna (not Alauda magna Linnaeus) Salvin and Godman, Biol. 

Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 456, 1887 part, British Honduras (Belize) 

and Guatemala (Poctum). 
Sturnella magna mexicana Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 389, 

1932 savannas of Pet6n, Guatemala. 

Range. Pineland savannas of the Caribbean lowlands of Guate- 
mala (Pete"n), British Honduras, Honduras (Segovia River), and 
Nicaragua (Prinzapolka). 

Sturnella magna subulata Griscom. 1 CHIRIQU! MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella magna subulata Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 405, 1934 
Boquete, Pacific slope of Chiriqui, Panama (type in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Sturnella ludoviciana (not Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1856, p. 142 near David, Chiriqui; Salvin, I.e., p. 142, 
1867 David; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 191 Veraguas (CaloveVora, Chitra, 
Calobre). 

Sturnella mexicana (not of Sclater) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
8, p. 177, 1865 David, Chiriqui. 

Sturnella magna subsp. mexicana Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 
1886 part, spec, o-q, Veraguas (Castillo, Calove"vora) and Chiriqui. 

Sturnella magna inexpectata (not of Ridgway, 1888) Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 370, 
1901 David, Chiriqui; idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 64, 1902 
Boquete, Chiriqui; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 364, 
1902 part, Chiriqui and Veraguas. 

Sturnella magna (not Alauda magna Linnaeus) Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 456, 1887 part, Panama. 

Range. Pacific slope of western Panama, from the Volcan de 
Chiriqui east to Agua Dulce. 

*Sturnella magna meridionalis Sclater. SOUTHERN MEADOW- 
LARK. 

Sturnella meridionalis Sclater, Ibis, 3, p. 179, 1861 "New Granada and 
Venezuela" (type, from "Bogota," Colombia, in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum); 2 idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 138, 1862 
part, New Granada. 

1 Sturnella magna subulata Griscom : Nearest to S. m. alticola, but smaller, with 
slenderer bill and shorter tarsus; coloration pretty much the same, possibly the 
under parts very slightly deeper yellow. Wing (males), 100-103; tail, 62-66; 
tarsus, 40-42; bill, 22-24. 

Three specimens from Boquete, Chiriqui, examined. 

2 The type, though not indicated as such, is spec, d, Bogota (Bell) of subsp. 
meridionalis (Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 1886). A topotype from the same 
source, obtained in exchange from P. L. Sclater, is in the Vienna Museum. 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sturnella ludoviciana (not Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1856, p. 29 Bogota (crit.); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 330 
La Cruz and Cocuta Valley, Santander. 

Sturnella ludoviciana meridionalis Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 26 part, Bogota 
(crit.). 

Sturnella magna subsp. meridionalis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 
1886 part, spec, c, d, Bogota. 

Sturnella magna meridionalis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 632, 
1917 slopes below Fucatativa, Bogota savanna, La Holanda, La Herrera, 
Chipaque, Choachi, and Quetama, eastern Andes, Colombia (crit.); idem, 
I.e., 63, p. 133, 1931 eastern Andes of Colombia to Merida, Venezuela 
(crit.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 405, 1934 Colombia 
(crit.). 

Range. Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia (in 
states of Cundinamarca and Santander) and adjacent parts of 
western Venezuela (Sierra of MeYida). 1 

6: Colombia (La Holanda, Cundinamarca, 1; La Herrera, Cun- 
dinamarca, 1; "Bogota," 1); Venezuela (El Valle, Me"rida, 3). 

Sturnella magna paralios Bangs. 2 SANTA MARTA MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella magna paralios Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 56, 1901 
San Sebastian, Santa Marta, Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and 
O. Bangs, now in Museum 'of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 419, 1930); Hellmayr and 
Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 70, 1912 "Cumbre" [=savanna] 
of Valencia, Venezuela (crit.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
14, p. 466, 1922 Camperucho, Santa Marta, Colombia (crit.); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 133, 1931 Santa Marta Mountains 
(crit.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 405, 1934 Santa Marta 
and lower Magdalena, Colombia (crit.). 

1 Specimens from Merida agree precisely with Bogota skins. S. m. meridionalis 
in general coloration is much like S. m. alticola, of the Costa Rican highlands, but 
has a decidedly longer, also somewhat heavier bill, and the white apical markings 
are restricted to the three outer rectrices, the fourth pair having but a very narrow 
shaft-streak of white. I am unable to corroborate either the broader black jugular 
crescent or the less buffy coloration of the hindneck. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 15. Venezuela, Sierra 
of Merida: Valle, 9; Culata, 2. ' 

2 Sturnella magna paralios Bangs: Very similar to S. m. meridionalis, but with 
smaller bill and with more white in the tail, the third rectrix (from without) being 
wholly or almost wholly white, the fourth (and sometimes even the fifth) having 
a considerable amount of white on the distal portion. Wing (males), 108-114; 
tail, 70-75; bill, 32-34. In tail markings this form runs pretty close to S. m. 
subulata, but is larger in all proportions. It is even nearer to S. m. alticola, and 
certain individuals are not easy to distinguish. Three adults from Valencia, 
Venezuela, appear to me inseparable from two topotypes, with which they agree 
in measurements and tail-pattern. One of the San Sebastian birds has a white 
terminal spot on the fifth rectrix, but the other resembles the Venezuelan skins, 
and so does a series from Aguachica, in the tropical zone of the lower Magdalena, 
which we have seen in the Carnegie Museum. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 217 

Sturnella ludoviciana (not Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus) Salvin and Godman, 
Ibis, 1879, p. 201 San Sebastian, Colombia. 

Sturnella ludoviciana meridionalis (not of Sclater, 1861) Sclater, Ibis, 1884, 
p. 26 part, Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. 

Sturnella magna subsp. meridionalis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 
1886 part, spec, a, b, San Sebastian. 

Sturnella meridionalis Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 1, p. 79, 1899 
San Sebastian and El Mamon, Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
13, p. 163, 1900 Santa Marta region (ex Salvin and Godman, and Bangs). 

Cirulus pratensis Bredow, 1 Arch. Naturg., 3, (1), p. 413, 1837 savannas 
around Valencia, Venezuela (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Range. Northern Colombia, in State of Magdalena (Aguachica, 
lower Magdalena; San Sebastian, El Mamon, and Camperucho, Santa 
Marta Mountains), and northern Venezuela (savannas of Valencia). 

*Sturnella magna praticola Chubb. 2 GUIANAN MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella magna praticola Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 8, p. 445, October, 
1921 Abary River, British Guiana (type in coll. of F. V. McConnell, 
now in British Museum); idem, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 572, 1921 
Abary River, upper Takutu Mountains, Quonga, and Curawashinang; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 134, 1931 Maripa (Caura 
Valley) and Orinoco River, Venezuela (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 75, p. 406, 1934 British Guiana (crit.). 

Sturnella ludoviciana (not Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus) Schomburgk, Reisen 
Brit. Guiana, 1, pp. 394, 406, 1847 Pirara, British Guiana; Cabanis, 
in Schomburgk, I.e., 3, p. 682, "1848" [ = 1849] savannas of British 
Guiana; Brown, Canoe and Camp Life Brit. Guiana, p. 168, 1876 
Curawashinang, headwaters of Rupununi River. 

Sturnella meridionalis Sclater, Ibis, 1861, p. 178 part, Venezuela; idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 139, 1862 part, spec, c, d, "Trinidad" (errore); 

1 See footnote 1, page 209. 

2 Sturnella magna praticola Chubb: Very similar to S. m. paralios, but with 
decidedly shorter wings and tail; dusky margin to inner web of third rectrix 
usually broader, and white terminal spot on the fourth more restricted. Wing 
(males), 97-108; tail, 63-68; bill, 32-35. 

The smaller size is the only absolutely constant character separating this 
form from S. m. paralios, whereas the lesser amount of white in the tail, owing to 
its variability, holds in only about 50 per cent of the individuals examined. We 
have seen but one specimen from the lowlands of British Guiana (typical praticola), 
which seems to agree with a series from the Orinoco (Altagracia) and a single 
example from Carip6, Sucre, in size as well as in coloration. Eight skins from the 
upper Rio Branco (Forte do Sao Joaquim), Brazil, I am not able to separate 
satisfactorily either. Two males are just as small (wing, 97, 98) as any from Alta- 
gracia, while two others (with wings of 104 and 108 mm.) fully attain the measure- 
ments of the supposed Roraima race and cast serious doubts on its distinctness. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Caripe", Sucre, 1; Altagracia, 
Orinoco, 7; Maipures, Orinoco, 1. British Guiana: "Demerara," 1. Brazil: Sao 
Joaquim, Rio Branco, 8. 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Caripe, Vene- 
zuela; Finsch, I.e., 1870, p. 575 "Trinidad" (errore); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 198, 1870 Forte do Rio Branco, Brazil. 

Sturnella ludoviciana meridionalis Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 26 part, Rio Branco, 
Brazil. 

Sturnella magna subsp. meridionalis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 
1886 part, spec, e-h, Venezuela (Caripe) and "Trinidad." 

Sturnella magna meridionalis Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San Antonio, 
Sucre, Venezuela; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 32, 1902 
Orinoco River (Altagracia, Maipures, Quiribana de Caicara) and Caura 
River (Maripa), Venezuela; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 400, 1907 
part, Rio Branco; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 209, 1916 
Orinoco Valley from Ciudad Bolivar onwards (crit.); Snethlage, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, pp. 49, 51, 1926 Rio Tapajoz, Brazil. 

Range. Northeastern and southern Venezuela (Orinoco and 
Caura basin, north to Sucre and Monagas); British Guiana; north- 
eastern Brazil (Rio Branco and Rio Tapajoz). 1 

11: Venezuela (Cocollar, Sucre, 1); British Guiana (unspecified, 
1); Brazil (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, Amazonas, 9). 

*Sturnella magna monticola Chubb. 2 RORAIMA MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella magna monticola Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 8, p. 444, 
Oct., 1921 Mount Roraima, British Guiana (type in coll. of F. V. McCon- 
nell, now in British Museum); idem, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 573, 1921 
Mount Roraima; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, pp. 133, 134, 
1931 Roraima (Paulo, Arabupu, Philipp Camp, Glycom Swamp) and 
Brazil (Limao, Rio Cotinga; Frechal, Rio Surumu). 

Sturnella ludoviciana meridionalis (not of Sclater, 1861) Sclater, Ibis, 1884, 
p. 26 part, Roraima. 

Sturnella magna subsp. meridionalis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 
1886 part, spec, i-k, Roraima. 

Sturnella ludoviciana (not Sturnus ludovicianus Linnaeus) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 219 Roraima. 

1 There is no authentic record for the occurrence of any Meadowlark on the 
island of Trinidad. 

2 Sturnella magna monticola Chubb is stated by Chapman to differ from S. m. 
praticola by somewhat larger size and "blacker" upper parts. Wing (males), 
102-106; tail, 63-68; bill, 32-35. 

A single adult male from Roraima (wing, 104; tail, 64) does not differ in any 
way from the series of S. m. praticola, and in size it is closely approached by several 
individuals from Altagracia, while one from the upper Rio Branco is even larger. 
I am quite unable to appreciate any difference in the coloration of the upper parts 
between meridionalis and the more easterly races, unless freshly molted examples 
of one form be compared with worn ones of the other. The distribution of the 
two Guianan races being quite incomprehensible, I believe that further study will 
prove them identical. 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 219 

Range. Mount Roraima and the adjacent districts of Brazil 
(headwaters of the Cotinga and Surumu rivers). 
1: British Guiana (Mount Roraima, 1). 

*Sturnella neglecta Audubon. 1 WESTERN MEADOWLARK. 

Sturnella neglecta Audubon, Bds. Amer. (8vo ed.), 7, p. 339, pi. 489, 1844 
Missouri River above Fort Croghan = 01d Fort Union, North Dakota 
(type in U. S. National Museum; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
51, p. 17, 1899); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 365, 
1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 171, 
1906 Durango (Rosario, Las Bocas, La Cienaga de las Vacas, Rio 
Sestin [breeding]); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 Matamoros, Tamaulipas; 
Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 23, 1926 Brownsville, Texas; Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 151, 1928 Lower California; van Rossem, 
Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 287, 1931 Sonora (El Doctor; Pes- 
queira; Tecoripa; Tesia; twelve miles west of Magdalena; fifteen miles 
east of Nogales; Sasabe Valley). 

Sturnella neglecta confluenta Rathbun, Auk, 34, p. 68, 1917 Seattle, Wash- 
ington (type in coll. of S. F. Rathbun). 

Sturnella ludoviciana neglecta Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 25 (monog.). 

Sturnella magna subsp. neglecta Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 360, 
1886 western North America. 

Range. Breeds from southern British Columbia, central Alberta, 
and southern Manitoba south to northwestern Lower California, 
northern Mexico, and central Texas; winters from southern British 
Columbia and Iowa south to southern Lower California, Jalisco, and 
Guanajuato, east casually to Wisconsin, Michigan, and Illinois. 2 

55: Canada, Saskatchewan (Quill Lake, 2; Prince Albert, 2); 
Washington (Clallam Bay, 1); Montana (Jordan, 1; Fort Keogh, 1); 
North Dakota (Steele, 1); South Dakota (Wakonda, 1); Minnesota 
(Kinbrae, 1); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 2; Troublesome, 1; Denver, 1); 
California (Clipper Gap, 4; San Jose", 2; Nicasio, 2; San Diego, 1; 
Palo Alto, 1; Los Angeles, 1; Mountain View, 1; Carmel, 1; San 
Pedro, 1; San Geronimo, 1; Miller, 1; Pacific Beach, 1; San Clemente 
Island, 1; unspecified, 1); Arizona (Huachuca Mountains, 3; Yava- 
pai County, 2); New Mexico (Deming, 9; Rincon, 1; Mimbres, 1); 
Texas (Ingram, 1; Waring, 1; Kendall County, 1; El Paso, 1; Gaines- 
ville, 1); Mexico (Babicora, Chihuahua, 1). 

1 Sturnella neglecta Audubon appears to breed side by side with representatives 
of S. magna in parts of the southwestern United States and in northern Mexico. 
Still it is somewhat significant that certain South American races are reported to 
have a song similar to that of the Western Meadowlark. 

2 The characters of the birds breeding on the Pacific coast region of British 
Columbia to Oregon appear to be too unstable to warrant the recognition of S. n. 
confluenta. The form is not recognized in the Fourth edition of the A. O. U. 
Check List. 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Genus DOLICHONYX Swainson 

Dolichonyx Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 435, June, 1827 type, 
by monotypy, Fringilla oryzivora Linnaeus; idem, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 
11, Sept.-Dec., p. 351, 1827 (generic characters). 

*Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus). BOBOLINK. 

Fringilla oryzivora Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 179, 1758 based on 
"Hortulanus carolinensis" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 14, pi. 14, 
and "Emberiza carolinensis" Klein, Hist. Av. Prodr., p. 92; Cuba and 
Carolina= South Carolina. 

Icterus agripennis Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, p. 48, 1825 
new name for Fringilla oryzivora Linnaeus. 

Psarocolius caudacutus Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 23, spec. 32, 1827 new 
name for Fringilla oryzivora Linnaeus. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus var. albinucha Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., 5, No. 11, 
p. 192, Nov., 1873 "Missouri plains and Rocky Mountains, west to 
Ruby Valley, Nevada; Salt Lake Valley"; idem, I.e., 5, No. 12, p. 198, 
Dec., 1873 Ogden, Utah (type in coll. of R. Ridgway, now in U. S. 
National Museum). 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus(a) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 199, 1870 Matto Grosso 
(City of Matto Grosso) and Amazonia (Rio Madeira; Marabitanas, 
Rio Negro); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 421, 1884 Paucartambo, 
Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1884, p. 2 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 331, 1886 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
370, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, 
p. 184, 1909 Ocampo, Santa Fe; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 402, 1910 Argentina (Tucuman; Mocovl, Chaco); Todd and 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 466, 1922 Buritaca, Gaira, Mama- 
toco, Punto Caiman, and Fundacion, Santa Marta; Colombia; Chubb, 
Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 561, 1921 Camacusa; Pereyra, El Hornero, 3, 
p. 173, 1923 Isla de Escobar, Buenos Aires; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 697, 1926 Ecuador (Rio Napo) and Peru (Tru- 
jillo); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 393, 1930 Agua Blanca 
de Corumba, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Transition zone of North America, from southeastern 
British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, 
Quebec, and Cape Breton Island south to northeastern California, 
Nevada, Utah, Colorado, northern Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, 
West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey; winters in South 
America as far south as southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern 
Argentina (south to Buenos Aires); migrates through the West 
Indies and along the east coast of Central America; accidental in 
Greenland, Labrador, Bermuda, and the Galapagos. 

120: Maine (Brewer, 1; Upton, 1; Orono, 1); Connecticut (East 
Hartford, 20); Massachusetts (Natick, 1; Dedham, 1); New York 



1937 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 221 

(Shelter Island, 1; Peterboro, 1); Illinois (Chicago, 14; Wolf Lake, 1; 
Fox Lake, 4; Grand Crossing, 4; Joliet, 4; Hyde Lake, 1; Mud Lake, 
2; Addison, 2; Auburn Park, 1; Deerfield, 1; Homewood, 1; Lake 
Forest, 1; Brainerd, 1; Roby, 1); Indiana (Liverpool, 1); Wisconsin 
(Beaver Dam, 20); Florida (Gainesville, 2; Nassau County, 2; 
Merritt, 2; West Jupiter, 2; Key West, 1); Bahamas (Inagua, 4; 
Watlings, 1; Cay Sal, 2); Little Cayman, 2; Lesser Antilles (Anguilla, 
9); Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 2); Venezuela (MeYida, 3; Culata, 2). 



INDEX 



Bold-faced type denotes names adopted in this work. 



abeillei, Hyphantes 105 

abeillei, Icterus 105 

abeillei, Xanthprnus 105 

abeillii, Pendulinus 105 

aciculatus, Agelaius 162 

aeneus, Agelaius 52 

aeneus, Callothrus 51 

aeneus, Molothrus 52 

aeneus, Psarocolius 52 

aeneus, Quiscalus 76 

aeneus, Tangavius 52 

aequatorialis, Molothrus 66 

aequatorialis, Quiscalus 98 

affinis, Cacicus 29 

affinis, Cassicus 29 

affinis, Xanthornus 106 

Agelaioides 54 

Agelaius 159 

Agelasticus 159 

aglaeus, Quiscalus 76 

agripennis, Icterus 220 

alaudarius, Cacicus 209 

albiflorus, Sturnus 204 

albipes, Leistes 203 

albirostris, Archiplanus 35 

albirostris, Cassiculus 36 

albirostris, Cassicus 25 

albirostris, Tanagra 24 

albistriatus, Oriolus 204 

alfredi, Cacicus 20 

alfredi, Cassicus 20 

alfredi, Ostinops 21 

alfredi, Xanthornus 20 

aliastus, Euphagus 96 

alticola, Agelaius 172 

alticola, Icterus 155 

alticola, Sturnella 212 

ambigua, Fringilla 55 

Amblycercus 41 

Amblyramphus 187 

americanus, Leistes 198 

americanus, Oriolus 197 

americanus, Sturnus 205 

Andriopsar 102 

angustifrons, Cassicus 19 

angustifrons, Ostinops 19 

angustifrons, Xanthornus 19 

animosus, Cassicus 189 

anthonyi, Icterus 145 

anticus, Icterus 195 

anticus, Leistes 196 

aphanes, Cacicus 30 

apbanes, Cassicus 30 

Aporophantes 103 

Archiplanus 35 



arctolegus, Agelaius 159 

argoptilus, Icterus 114 

argutula, Sturnella 210 

armenti, Molothrus 53 

armenti, Tangavius 53 

artemisiae, Molothrus 55 

assimilis, Agelaeus 168 

assimilis, Agelaius 168 

assimilis, Callothrus 51 

assimilis, Cassidix 93 

assimilis, Megaquiscalus 93 

assimilis, Quiscalus 92 

assimilis, Tangavius 51 

Ateleopsar 102 

ater, Cassicus 47 

ater, Cassidix 48 

ater, Molothrus 54 

ater, Oriolus 54 

ater, Pendulinus 95 

ater, Quiscalus 80 

ater, Scaphidurus 48 

ater, Turdus 118 

aterrimus, Agelaius 192 

aterrimus, Curaeus 193 

aterrimus, Sturnus 192 

atrocastaneus, Ostinops 21 

atrocastaneus, Xanthornus. . ... 21 

atrogularis, Icterus 123 

atronitens, Cassicus 59 

atronitens, Molothrus 58 

atroviolacea, Ptiloxena 99 

atroviolaceus, Dives 99 

atroviolaceus, Quiscalus 99 

atroviolaceus, Scolecophagus 99 

atrovirens, Cacicus 19 

atro-yirens, Cassicus 18 

atrovirens, Ostinops 19 

atro-virens, Xanthornus 18 

audubonii, Icterus 143 

aurantius, Icterus 140 

aurantius, Xanthornus 139 

auratus, Icterus 137 

auricapillus, Icterus 127 

auricapillus, Pendulinus 128 

auricapillus, Xanthornus 128 

auricollis, Psarocolius 104 

auropectoralis, Sturnella 212 

australis, Amblycercus 44 

australis, Ostinops 21 

azarae, Cassicus 47 

badius, Agelaioides 70 

badius, Agelaius . . 68 

badius, Cassicus 68 

badius, Demelioteucus 70 



222 



INDEX 



223 



badius, Dolichonyx 69 

badius, Molobrus 69 

badius, Molothrus 68 

bairdi, Icterus 136 

baltimore, Icterus 103 

baltimore, Oriolus 103 

baltimorensis, Yphantes 103 

banana, Icterus 108 

banana, Pendulinus 107 

Bananivorus 102 

bangs!, Holoquiscalus 79 

baritus, Cassidix 49 

bellicosa, Pezites 202 

bellicosa, Sturnella 203 

bellicosa, Trupialis 203 

bicolor, Amblyramphus 187 

bifasciata, Ostinops 6 

bifasciatus, Cassicus 8 

hi fascia t us. Gymnostinops 8 

bifasciatus, Ostinops 8 

bifasciatus, Psarocolius 8 

bogotensis, Agelaius 179 

bolivianus, Agelaioides 71 

bolivianus, Molothrus 70 

bonana, Icterus 107 

bonana, Oriolus 107 

bonana, Pendulinus 108 

bonariensis, Molobrus 62 

bonariensis, Molothrus 59 

bonariensis, Tanagra 59 

brachypterus, Chalcophanes 81 

brachypterus, Holoquiscalus . . 81 

brachypterus, Quiscalus 81 

brevirostris, Leistes 194 

brevirostris, Molobrus 67 

brevirostris, Molothrus 59 

brevirostris, Pezites 203 

breweri, Quiscalus 96 

brunneus, Turdus 94 

bryanti, Agelaius 168 

bullockii, Hyphantes 104 

bullockii, Icterus 104 

bullockii, Xanthornus 104 

bursarius, Cassicus 39 

cabanisii, Molothrus 65 

Cacicus 24 

californicus, Agelaius 162 

californicus, Icterus 150 

californicus, Molothrus 56 

californicus, Pendulinus 150 

Callothrus.. 50 

capensis, Oriolus 106 

caribaeus, Holoquiscalus 78 

carol inus, Euphagus 94 

carolinus, Scolecophagus 95 

carolinus, Turdus 94 

carrikeri, Icterus 

Cassiculoides 102 

Cassiculus 45 

Cassidix 88 

cassini, Gymnostinops 7 



cassini, Molothrus 65 

castaneopectus, Icterus 122 

cast ancus, Oriolus 106 

caudacutus, Psarocolius 220 

caurensis, Gymnostinops 10 

caurlnus, Agelaius 161 

cayanensis, Icterus 108 

cayanensis, Oriolus 108 

cayanensis, Pendulinus 108 

cayanensis, Xanthornus 109 

cayennensis, Icterus 109 

caymanensis, Holoquiscalus. . . 79 

caymanensis, Quiscalus 79 

cela, Cacicus 24 

Cela, Parus 24 

centralis, Amblycercus 43 

Chalcophanes 74 

cherrieanus, Ostinops 30 

chilensis, Xanthornus 174 

chopi, Aaptus 189 

chopi, Agelaius 189 

chopi, Aphobus 189 

chopi, Gnorimopsar 189 

chopi, Icterus 189 

chrysater, Icterus 129 

chrysater, Xanthornus 129 

chrysocarpus, Agelaeus 173 

chrysocarpus, Agelaius 176 

chrysocarpus, Cacicus 174 

chrysocarpus, Xanthornus 173 

chrysocephalus, Icterus 114 

chrysocephalus, Melanopsar 115 

chrysocephalus, Oriolus 114 

chrysocephalus, Pendulinus 115 

chrysocephalus, Xanthornus 115 

chrysonotus, Archiplanus 38 

chrysonotus, Cassicus 38 

chrysoptera, Gracula 114 

chrysopterus, Agelaeus 172 

chrysopterus, Agelaius 108 

chrysopterus, Agelasticus 176 

chrysopterus, Archiplanus 36 

chrysopterus, Cacicus 36 

chrysopterus, Xanthornus 35 

Cirulus 209 

citrinus, Icterus 157 

citrius, Oriolus 12 

Clypicterus 4 

collaris, Sturnella 209 

compsus, Icterus 112 

confluenta, Sturnella 

connectens, Icterus 

contrusus, Holoquiscalus 

coronatus, Cassiculus 45 

corvinus, Quiscalus 89 

costaricensis, Agelaius 

cozumelae, Icterus 153 

crassirostra, Scaphidura 47 

crassirostris, Holoquiscalus ... 77 

crassirostris, Quiscalus 77 

cristatus, Cacicus 11 

cristatus, Cassicus 12 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 



cristatus, Oriolus 12 

cristatus, Ostinops 11 

croconotus, Euopsar 141 

croconotus, Icterus 140 

croconotus, Psarocolius 140 

cucullatus, Icterus 151 

curacaoensis, Icterus 135 

curagaoensis, Xanthornus 135 

curacoensis, Icterus 135 

curaeus, Agelaius 192 

curaeus, Curaeus 193 

curaeus, Leistes 193 

curaeus, Notiopsar 192 

curaeus, Psarocolius 192 

curaeus, Turdus 192 

curasoensis, Icterus 135 

curvirostris, Cassicus 32 

cyanocephalus, Euphagus 95 

cyanocephalus, Psarocolius 95 

cyanocephalus, Scolecophagus .... 96 

cyanopus, Agelaius 179 

cyanopus, Icterus 180 

Cyanothrus 54 

Cyrtotes 54 

decumanus, Ostinops 11 

decumanus, Xanthornus 12 

defilippii, Pezites 207 

De Filippii, Sturnella 208 

defilippii, Trupialis 208 

Demelioteucus 54 

devillii, Cassicus 9 

devillii, Ostinops 9 

diadematus, Icterus 46 

discolor, Passerina 59 

dispar, Holoquiscalus 87 

Dives 96 

dives, Dives 96 

dives, Icterus 96 

dives, Lampropsar 97 

dives, Scolecophagus 97 

Dolichonyx 220 

dominicensis, Icterus 118 

dominicensis, Oriolus 118 

dominicensis, Pendulinus 119 

Draco, Cassicus 196 

dubius, Cassicus 35 

du plexus, Icterus 152 

dwighti, Molothrus 56 

emberizoides, Icterus 54 

erythrocephalus, Leistes 187 

Erythropsar 159 

erythrothorax, Leistes 197 

espinachi, Icterus 145 

Euopsar 102 

Euphagus 94 

falklandica, Trupialis 207 

falklandicus, Pezites 207 

falklandicus, Troupialis 207 

ferruginous, Oriolus . . 94 



ferrugineus, Scolecophagus 95 

flammulatus, Icterus 156 

flavaxilla, Xanthornus 108 

flavescens, Ostinops 17 

flaviceps, Psarocolius 184 

flavicrissus, Cacicus 27 

flavicrissus, Cassiculus 27 

flavicrissus, Cassicus 27 

flavigaster, Pendulinus 119 

flavirostris, Amblycercus 43 

flavus, Agelaeus 184 

flavus, Agelaius 185 

flavus, Chrysomus 184 

flavus, Icterus 184 

flavus, Leistes 184 

flavus, Oriolus 184 

flavus, Xanthopsar 184 

flavus, Xanthornus 184 

flavus, Xanthosomus 184 

floridanus, Agelaius 166 

forbesi, Agelaeus 181 

forbesi, Agelaius 181 

formosus, Icterus 155 

fortirostris, Holoquiscalus 87 

fortirostris, Quiscalus 87 

fortis, Agelaius 160 

frenatus, Icterus 186 

fringillarius, Agelaioides 72 

fringillarius, Icterus 71 

fringillarius, Molothrus 71 

frontalis, Agelaeus 183 

frontalis, Agelaius 182 

frontalis, Chrysomus 183 

frontalis, Dolichonyx 183 

frontalis, Xanthosomus 183 

fuertesi, Icterus 107 

fuscipennis, Dolichonyx 71 

fuscus, Oriolus 54 

galbula, Coracias 103 

galbula, Icterus 103 

garleppi, Cassidix 49 

Gasquet, Xanthornus 194 

gigas, Icterus 148 

giraudii, Icterus 130 

Gnorimopsar 188 

grace-annae, Icterus 128 

graduacauda, Icterus 142 

grandis, Agelaius 171 

graysoni, Cassidix 88 

graysoni, Megaquiscalus 89 

graysoni, Quiscalus 88 

graysonii, Icterus 154 

grinnelli, Agelaius 164 

guadeloupensis, Holoquiscalus 86 

guadeloupensis, Quiscalus 86 

gualanensis, Icterus 129 

guatemozinus, Ostinops 7 

guatimozinus, Cassicus 7 

guatimozinus, Gymnostinops. . 7 

gubernator, Agelaius 170 

gubernator, Psarocolius 170 



INDEX 



225 



guianensis, Lampropsar 100 

guianensis, Leistes 198 

guianensis, Oriolus 197 

guianensis, Sturnella 197 

guianensis, Trupialis 198 

guirahuro, Agelaius 194 

guirahuro, Icterus 194 

guirahuro, Pseudoleistes 194 

gularis, Icterus 147 

gularis, Psarocolius 147 

gundlachii, Holoquiscalus 78 

gundlachii, Quiscalus 78 

guttulatus, Icterus 144 

guyanensis, Leistes 198 

Gymnomystax 157 

gymnops, Psarocolius 157 

Gymnostinops 5 

haemorrhous, Cacicus 30 

haemorrhous, Cassicus 30 

haemorrhous, Icterus 30 

haemorrhous, Oriolus 30 

harterti, Icterus 139 

hauxwelli, Icterus 141 

helioeides, Icterus 135 

hippocrepis, Sturnella 210 

hippocrepis, Sturnus 210 

Holoquiscalus 77 

holosericeus, Amblycercus 41 

holosericeus, Amblyramphus . . 187 

holosericeus, Cacicus 42 

holosericeus, Sturnus 41 

holosericeus, Xanthornus 187 

hondae, Icterus 131 

hoopesi, Sturnella 211 

hudsonius, Turdus 94 

humeralis, Agelaius 171 

humeralis, Icterus 171 

humeralis, Leistes 171 

hybridus, Cassicus 180 

Hypobletis 54 

hypomelas, Icterus 118 

hypomelas, Pendulinus 118 

Hypopyrrhus 73 

Icterioides 103 

icterocephalus, Agelaeus 178 

icterocephalus, Agelaius 177 

icterocephalus, Chrysomus 177 

icterocephalus, Leistes 178 

icterocephalus, Oriolus 177 

icterocephalus, Xanthocephalus . . . 186 

icterocephalus, Xanthosomus 177 

icteronotus, Cacicus 24 

icteronotus, Cassiculus 28 

icteronotus, Cassicus 24 

Icterus 102 

icterus, Icterus 137 

icterus, Oriolus 137 

icterus, Xanthornus 138 

igneus, Icterus 152 

impacif us, Psomocolax 46 



imthurni, Agelaeus 73 

imthurni, Macroagelaius 73 

imthurni, Pseudoagelaeus 73 

inexpectata, Sturnella 214 

inflexirostris, Holoquiscalus. ... 85 

inflexirostris, Quiscalus 85 

insular is. Holoquiscalus 83 

insularis, Ostinops 11 

insularis, Quiscalus 83 

insularis, Xanthornus 11 

involucratus, Tangavius 52 

jamacai, Xanthornus 140 

jamacaii, Icterus 139 

jamacaii, Oriolus 139 

jamaicensis, Holoquiscalus 77 

jugularis, Turdus 118 

junceti, Sturnus 56 



kalinowskii, Dives. 



98 



labradorius, Turdus 95 

Lampropsar 100 

latirostris, Cassicus 1 

latirostris, Ocyalus 1 

lamia nil is. Icterus 120 

lawrencii, Icterus 137 

Leistes 197 

lessoni, Pendulinus 116 

lessoni, Xanthornus 116 

leucopteryx, Icterus 135 

leucopteryx, Pendulinus 136 

leucopteryx, Psarocolius 136 

leucoramphus, Archiplanus. . . 36 

leucoramphus, Cacicus 37 

leucoramphus, Cassiculus 37 

leucoramphus, Cassicus 37 

leucoramphus, Xanthornus 36 

lilianae, Sturnella 211 

limitis, Cassidix 49 

littoralis, Agelaius 167 

longipes, Agelaus 186 

longipes, Xanthocephalus 186 

longirostris, Pendulinus 138 

loyca, Sturnella 203 

loyca, Sturnus 204 

loyca, Trupialis 205 

ludoviciana, Sturnella 209 

ludovicianus, Sturnus 209 

lugubris, Chalcophanes 82 

lugubris, Holoquiscalus 81 

lugubris, Quiscalus 81 

luminosus, Holoquiscalus 84 

luminosus, Quiscalus 84 

Macroagelaius 72 

macrourus, Quiscalus 90 

mam I i -a la us. Icterus 121 

maculi-alatus, Pendulinus 122 

maculosus, Ostinops 15 

mac ul us i is. Xanthornus 14 

magna, Alauda 209 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 



magna, Sturnella 209 

mailliardorum, Agelaius 161 

major, Cassidix 89 

major, Megaquiscalus 89 

major, Quiscalus 89 

maranonicus, Icterus 127 

martinicensis, Holoquiscalus 86 

masoni. Icterus 152 

maxillaris, Icterus 59 

maxillaris, Molothrus 60 

maximus, Icterus 156 

mearnsi, Agelaius 166 

megapotamus, Agelaius 169 

Megaquiscalus 88 

megistus, Aaptus 191 

megistus, Aphobus 191 

melanicterus, Agelaius 157 

melanicterus, Cassiculus 45 

melanicterus, Cassicus 46 

melanicterus, Gymnomystax 158 

melanicterus, Icterus 45 

melanicterus, Leistes 158 

melanocephalus, Icterus 142 

melanochrysura, Icterus 121 

melanogyna, Molothrus 60 

Melanophantes 159 

Melanopsar 103 

melanopsis, Icterus 117 

melanopsis, Psarocolius 118 

melanopterus, Icterus 131 

melanopterus, Xanthornus 131 

melanterus, Ostinops 

melanterus, Xanthornus 13 

melanurus, Cassicus 27 

meridional is, Sturnella 215 

mesomelas, Icterus 123 

mesomelas, Psarocolius 123 

mesomelas, Xanthornus 124 

mexicana, Cassidix 47 

mexicana, Sturnella 213 

mexicanus, Cassidix 90 

mexicanus, Corvus 90 

mexicanus, Gymnomystax. . . . 157 

mexicanus, Oriolus 157 

mexicanus, Scolecophagus 95 

mexicanus, Zarhynchus 2 

microrhynchus, Cacicus 34 

microrhynchus, Cassiculus 34 

microrhynchus, Cassicus 34 

microstictus, Icterus 154 

militaris, Emberiza 197 

militaris, Icterus 204 

militaris, Leistes 197 

militaris, Pezites 204 

militaris, Sturnus 204 

militaris, Trupialis 208 

milleri, Molothrus 60 

milleri, Tangavius 51 

minimus, Molothrus 57 

minor, Chalcophanes 82 

minor, Potamopsar 101 

minusculus, Euphagus 96 



Molobrus 54 

Molothrus 54 

montezuma, Cacicus 5 

montezuma, Gymnostinops. . . 5 

montezumae, Cassicus 5 

montezumae, Ostinops 6 

monticola, Sturnella 218 

murinus, Molothrus 60 

musicus, Oriolus 123 

mutatus, Oriolus 106 

neglecta, Sturnella 219 

neglectus, Ostinops 23 

neglectus, Xanthornus 23 

neivae, Gymnostinops 8 

nelsoni, Cassidix 88 

nelsoni, Icterus 150 

nelsoni, Megaquiscalus 88 

nelsoni, Scaphidurus 88 

Nesopsar 185 

neutralis, Agelaius 162 

nevadensis, Agelaius 160 

nicaraguensis, Cassidix 94 

nicaraguensis, Megaquiscalus 94 

nicaraguensis, Quiscalus 94 

niger, Holoquiscalus 80 

niger, Leistes 192 

niger, Oriolus 80 

niger, Quiscalus 80 

niger, Scolecophagus 95 

nigerrimus, Agelaeus 185 

nigerrimus, Agelaius 185 

nigerrimus, Cassicus 39 

nigerrimus, Icterus 185 

nigerrimus, Nesppsar 185 

nigricollis, Pendulinus 106 

nigrogularis, Icterus 132 

nigrogularis, Xanthornus 132 

nitens, Quiscala 75 

northropi, Icterus 117 

Notiopsar 192 

noveboracensis, Turdus 95 

nyaritensis, Agelaius 164 

oberi, Icterus 120 

obscurus, Cassidix 89 

obscurus, Megaquiscalus 89 

obscurus, Molothrus 56 

obscurus, Quiscalus 89 

obscurus, Sturnus 56 

occidentalis, Molothrus 66 

Ocyalus 1 

oleagineus, Ostinops 24 

oleagineus, Xanthornus 23 

oriolides, Leistes 194 

orquillensis, Holoquiscalus. ... 83 

oryzivora, Cassidix 48 

oryzivora, Fringilla 220 

oryzivorus, Dolichonyx 220 

oryzivorus, Oriolus 47 

oryzivorus, Psomocolas 47 

oseryi, Cassicus 5 



INDEX 



227 



oseryi, Clypicterus 5 

Ostinops 11 

pachyrhynchus, Cassicus 33 

pacificus, Cacicus 33 

palliatus, Cassicus 47 

palliatus, Psarocolius 47 

palustris, Cassicus 194 

pal ust ris, Cussidix 93 

palustris, Scaphidurus 93 

paralios, Sturnella 216 

parisprum, Icterus 121 

pecoris, Fringilla 54 

pecoris, Molothrus 55 

pectoralis, Icterus 144 

pectoralis, Psarocolius 144 

Pedopsaris 209 

Pedotribes 197 

Pendulinus 102 

periporphyrus, Icterus 112 

periporphyrus, Pendulinus 112 

persicus, Cassicus 24 

persicus, Oriolus 24 

personatus, Icterus 136 

perspicillatus, Psarocolius 186 

peruvianus, Archiplanus 37 

peruvianus, Cacicus 37 

peruvianus, Cassicus 37 

peruvianus, Cassidix 92 

peruvianus, Quiscalus 92 

petersii, Agelaius 175 

petilus, Leistes 201 

Pezites 202 

phoeniceus, Agelaius 165 

phoeniceus, Oriolus 165 

pilaris, Quiscalus 192 

Poliopsar 102 

portoricensis, Icterus 119 

portoricensis, Pendulinus 119 

portoricensis, Xanthornus 120 

Potamopsar 100 

pratensis, Cirulus 209 

praticola, Sturnella 217 

predatorius, Agelaius 165 

predatorius, Sturnus 165 

prevosti (i), Amblycercus 42 

prevosti, Cassiculus 41 

prevosti, Cassicus 42 

prevostii, Amblyramphus 41 

prosthemelas, Icterus 115 

prosthemelas, Pendulinus 117 

prosthemelas, Xanthornus 116 

Psarocolius 11 

Pseudagelaeus 72 

Pseudoleistes 194 

Psomocolax 46 

Ptiloxena 

purpurascens, Xanthornus 59 

purpuratus, Quiscalus 75 

purpureus, Quiscalus 75 

pustulatus, Icterus 153 

pustulatus, Psarocolius 153 



pustuloides, Icterus 157 

pyrohypogaster, Cassicus 73 

pyrohypogaster, Hypopyrrhus . 73 

pyrohypogaster, Quiscalus 74 

pyrrhocephalus, Sturnus 187 

pyrrhogaster, Quiscalus 74 

pyrrhopterus, Agelaius 112 

pyrrhopterus, Icterus 112 

pyrrhopterus, Xanthornus 113 

quiscala, Sturnus 75 

Quiscalus 74 

quiscula, Gracula 74 

quiscula, Quiscalus 74 

quisqueyensis, Agelaius 171 

rectirostris, Holoquiscalus 82 

rectirostris, Quiscalus 82 

richmondi, Agelaius 170 

ridgwayi, Icterus 138 

ridgwayi, Quiscalus 75 

ridgwayi, Xanthornus 138 

ridgwayi, Zarhynchus 3 

robustus, Callothrus 53 

robustus, Molothrus 52 

ruber, Amblyrhamphus 188 

ruber, Oriolus 187 

rubricapillus, Cassicus 187 

rubricollis, Xanthornus 197 

ruficapillus, Agelaeus 182 

r u ti ca pi 11 us, Agelaius 181 

ruficapillus, Dolichonyx 181 

ruficapillus, Xanthosomus 181 

ruficeps, Cassicus 181 

ruficollis, Agelaius 183 

rufigaster, Bananiyorus 108 

rufigaster, Pendulinus 107 

rufirostris, Oriolus 16 

rufo-axillaris, Molothrus 67 

salmoni, Ostinops 22 

salmoni, Xanthornus 22 

salvinii. Icterus 124 

salvinii, Xanthornus 126 

Scaphidurus 74 

Scaphura 74 

Sciopsar 72 

sclateri, Agelaeus 38 

sclateri, Archiplanus 38 

sclateri, Icterus 156 

scottii, Icterus 121 

sennet ti, Icterus 149 

sericeus, Icterus 59 

sericeus, Molobrus 60 

sericeus, Molothrus 62 

sincipitalis, Ostinops 23 

sine ipit.ilis. Xanthornus 22 

solitaria, Yphantes 106 

solitarius, Amblycercus 40 

solitarius, Amblycereus 39 

solitarius, Archiplanus 39 

solitarius, Cassiculus 40 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 



solitarius, Cassicus 39 

sonoriensis, Agelaius 163 

spurius, Icterus 105 

spurius, Oriolus 105 

Strepitovagus 54 

strictifrons, Icterus 141 

Sturnella 209 

subalaris, Agelaius 72 

subalaris, Macragelaeus 72 

subalaris, Macraglaeus 72 

subalaris, M acroagelaius 72 

sub-alaris, Quiscalus 72 

subniger, Agelaius 169 

subulata, Sturnella 215 

Suchii, Leistes 194 

sulcirostris, Aaptus 191 

sulcirostris, Gnorimopsar 191 

sulcirostris, Icterus 191 

sumichrasti, Dives 97 

sumichrasti, Quiscalus 97 

superciliaris, Leistes 200 

superciliaris, Pezites 202 

superciliaris, Trupialis 200 

taczanowskii, Icterus 126 

tamaulipensis, Icterus 146 

tanagrinus, Icterus 101 

tanagrinus, Lampropsar 101 

Tangavius 50 

tenuirostris, Leistes 196 

tenuirostris, Megaquiscalus 94 

tenuirostris, Quiscalus 93 

theleus, Agelaius 174 

Thilius 159 

thilius, Agelaeus 176 

thilius, Agelaius .... 173 

thilius, Agelasticus 174 

thilius, Icterus 174 

thilius, Turdus 173 

tibialis, Icterus 109 

tibialis, Pendulinus 110 

tibialis, Xanthornus 110 

tricolor, Agelaius 159 

tricolor, Icterus 159 

tricolor, Oriolus 103 

trinitatis, Icterus 134 

trochiloides, Icterus 150 

troglodytes, Icterus 148 

Trupialis 102 

unicolor, Icterus 189 

unicolor, Leistes 180 

unicolor, Psarocolius 190 

uropygialis, Cacicus 32 

uropygialis, Cassicus 32 

valencio-buenoi, Icterus Ill 

valencio-buenoi, Xanthornus Ill 



varius, Oriolus 105 

venezuelensis, Molothrus 64 

versicolor, Quiscalus 75 

vieilloti, Cassidix 48. 

vieilloti, Scaphidurus 48 

violaceus, Icterus 60 

violaceus, Lampropsar 102 

violea, Cassidix 49 

violeus, Psomocolax 50 

virens, Xanthornus 16 

virescens, Agelaius 195 

virescens, Icterus 103 

virescens, Leistes 196 

virescens, Pseudoleistes 195 

viridis, Cassicus 16 

viridis, Oriolus 16 

viridis, Ostinops 17 

viridis, Pseudoleistes 194 

viridis, Xanthornus 16 

vitellinus, Cacicus 28 

vitellinus, Cassicus 28 

vulgaris, Icterus 137 

vulgaris, Quiscalus 77 

wagleri, Cacicus 2 

wagleri, Icterus 122 

wagleri, Ocyalus 2 

wagleri, Pendulinus 123 

wagleri, Zarhynchus 2 

warszewiczi, Dives 98 

warszewiczi, Lampropsar 98 

xanthocarpus, Agelaius 173 

Xanthocephalus , 186 

xanthocephalus, Icterus 186 

xanthocephalus, 

Xanthocephalus 186 

xantholaema, Icterus 129 

xantholemus, Icterus 128 

xanthomus, Agelaius 172 

xanthomus, Hyphantes 172 

xanthomus, Icterus 172 

Xanthopsar 184 

xanthornis, Psarocolius 132 

Xanthornus 10 

xanthornus, Xanthornus 133 

Xanthosomus 159 

xerophilus, Icterus 148 

Yphantes 102 

yucatanensis, Icterus 147 

yuracares, Cassicus 9 

yuracares, Gymnostinops 9 

yuracarium, Ostinops 9 

yuracarius, Cacicus 9 

zanthopygius, Chrysomus 184 

Zarhynchus 2