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Full text of "Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field Museum of Natural History"

I B R.ARY 

OF THE 

U N I VERSITY 
Of ILLINOIS 

59O.5 



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'(J.O 

: r 

13'* 

CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS, 1922-1944 
AND 

BOARDMAN CONOVER 

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE, BIRDS 



PART I, NUMBER 3 

JACANIDAE-ROSTRATULIDAE-HAEMATOPODIDAE 

CHARADRIIDAE-SCOLOPACIDAE-RECURVIROSTRIDAE 

PHALAROPODIDAE-BURHINIDAE-THINOCORIDAE-CHIONIDIDAE 

STERCORARIIDAE-LARIDAE-RYNCHOPIDAE-ALCIDAE 




ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME XIII, PART I, NUMBER 3 

DECEMBER 16, 1948 
PUBLICATION 616 V 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 
AND THE ADJACENT ISLANDS 

IN 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

INCLUDING ALL SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES KNOWN TO OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA, 

MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, SOUTH AMERICA, THE WEST INDIES AND 

ISLANDS OP THE CARIBBEAN SEA, THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 

AND OTHER ISLANDS WHICH MAY BE INCLUDED ON 

ACCOUNT OP THEIR FAUNAL AFFINITIES 

BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS, 1922-1944 
AND 

BOARDMAN CONOVER 

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE, BIRDS 



PART I, NUMBER 3 

JACANIDAE-ROSTRATULIDAE-HAEMATOPODIDAE 

CHARADRIIDAE-SCOLOPACIDAE-RECURVIROSTRIDAE 

PHALAROPODIDAE-BURHINIDAE-THINOCORIDAE-CHIONIDIDAE 

STERCORARIIDAE-LARIDAE-RYNCHOPIDAE-ALCIDAE 




ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME XIII, PART I, NUMBER 3 

DECEMBER 16, 1948 
PUBLICATION 616 

THE LIBRARY OF THE 
JAN 5 1949 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 






PREFACE TO PART I, NUMBER 3 

In style and arrangement this installment of Part I closely follows 
the guiding principles of the previous parts. However, because of 
the war and the death of Charles E. Hellmayr in 1944, the method 
of collaboration had to be changed somewhat from that followed in 
Part I, Number 1. As before, the senior author is mainly responsible 
for the compilation of the bibliographic references and for the out- 
line of geographical distribution. Because of war conditions, how- 
ever, his manuscript did not reach this country until after his death. 
It was impossible, therefore, to submit to him any changes found 
necessary because of material in Field Museum and certain critical 
specimens examined in other American collections. Such emenda- 
tions have been kept as few as possible. 

In the case of some of the Charadriiformes, I prepared the manu- 
script and submitted it to Dr. Hellmayr, who made certain additions 
and suggestions. Likewise, I am responsible for the compilation of 
the list of specimens in Field Museum and in the Conover Collection, 
and for additions to the bibliography after 1939. Literature has 
been taken into account up to December 31, 1944 (as given in the 
Zoological Record). Some new forms described since that date and 
before December 31, 1946, and a few important papers will be 
found mentioned in the footnotes. 

As before, the authors have been greatly benefited by the cordial 
co-operation of many institutions and individuals, who have lent 
material and submitted information. To all of them we wish to 
express our appreciation. Among those who have helped are Dr. 
John W. Aldrich, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Dr. Arthur Allen, 
Cornell University, Ithaca; Dr. Alfred M. Bailey, Colorado Museum 
of Natural History; Professor J. Berlioz, Musee* d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris; Mr. James Bond, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; 
Mr. H. W. Brandt, Cleveland, Ohio; the late Major Allan Brooks, 
Okanagan Landing, Canada; the Chicago Academy of Sciences; Dr. 
Herbert Friedmann, United States National Museum; Professor 
0. Fuhrmann, University of Neuchatel; Count Nils Gyldenstolpe, 
Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm; the Museum of the University 
of Kansas, Lawrence; Captain N. B. Kinnear, British Museum 
(Natural History); Professor A. Laubmann, Zoological Museum, 
Munich; Messrs. F. C. Lincoln and W. L. McAtee, U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service; Mr. J. D. Macdonald, British Museum (Natural 

iii 



History); Dr. Alden H. Miller, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 
Berkeley, California; the late James Moffitt, California Academy of 
Sciences, San Francisco; Mr. Olaus Murie, U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service; Dr. Robert T. Orr, California Academy of Sciences; Dr. 
James L. Peters, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts; Mr. William H. Phelps, Caracas, Venezuela; Dr. 
R. A. Philippi-B., Museo Nacional de Chile, Santiago; Professor 
William Rowan, University of Edmonton, Alberta; Mr. R. M. de 
Schauensee, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Count Josef 
Seilern, Lukov; Professor Morriz Sassi, Naturhistorisches Museum, 
Vienna; Mr. L. L. Snyder, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto; the 
late P. A. Taverner, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa; Mr. 
W. E. Clyde Todd, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh; Mr. A. J. van 
Rossem, Los Angeles, California; Dr. Josselyn Van Tyne, Museum 
of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Dr. Alexander 
Wetmore, United States National Museum; Dr. John T. Zimmer, 
American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

We are also indebted to Dr. Charles Baehni, Director of the 
Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Geneva, Switzerland, for his 
custodianship of the manuscript after Dr. Hellmayr's death. 

Of the Museum Staff, especial acknowledgment is due to the late 
Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator Emeritus, Department of Zoology; 
Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Chief Curator, Department of Zoology; and 
Dr. Austin L. Rand, Curator, Division of Birds, for their help and 
advice to the junior author; to Mr. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., Asso- 
ciate, Division of Birds; to Mr. Emmet R. Blake, Associate Curator, 
Division of Birds, who was responsible for the compilation of the 
index; and to Miss Lillian A. Ross, Associate Editor of Scientific 
Publications, for reading proof and seeing through the press the last 
six parts of the Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. 

The final volume, Part I, No. 4, containing the Falconiformes, 
is now in course of publication. 

BOARDMAN CONOVER 



iv 



CONTENTS 
Orders, Families, and Genera Included in Part I, Number 3 



ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES 



Suborder CHARADRII 
Superfamily JACANOIDEA 

Family JACANIDAE 
(Jacanas) 

Jacana Brisson . . 



PAGE 

. 1 



Superfamily CHARADRIOIDEA 

Family ROSTRATULIDAE 

(Painted Snipes) 
Nycticryphes Wetmore and Peters . . 13 

Family HAEMATOPODIDAE 

(Oyster-Catchers) 
Haematopus Linnaeus 15 

Family CHARADRIIDAE 
(Lapwings and Plovers) 

Subfamily VANELLINAE 
(Lapwings) 

Vanellus Brisson 28 

Belonopterus Reichenbach 29 

Hoploxypterus Bonaparte 37 

Ptiloscelys Bonaparte . 39 

Subfamily CHARADRIINAE 
(Plovers) 

Squatarola Cuvier 41 

Plurialis Brisson 44 

Charadrius Linnaeus 51 

Eupoda J. F. Brandt 76 

Oreopholus Jardine and Selby 77 

Eudromias C. L. Brehm 80 

Zonibyx Reichenbach 81 

Pluvianellus G. R. Gray 84 

Phegornis G. R. Gray 85 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE 
(Woodcocks, Snipes, Sandpipers, etc.) 

Subfamily TRINGINAE 
(Curlews, Godwits, Yellowlegs, etc.) 

Bartramia Lesson 86 

Numenius Brisson . . 90 



Limosa Brisson 99 

Tringa Linnaeus 105 

Aditis Illiger 122 

Catoptrophorus Bonaparte 126 

Heteroscelus Baird 130 

Subfamily ARENARIINAE 
(Turnstones and Surfbirds) 

Aphriza Audubon 132 

Arenaria Brisson 134 

Subfamily ScOLOPACiNAB 
(Snipes and Woodcocks) 

Limnodromus Wied 140 

Capella Frenzel 145 

Chubbia Mathews 160 

Scolopax Linnaeus 163 

Philohela G. R. Gray 164 

Lymnocryptes Kaup 165 

Subfamily EROLIINAE 
(Sandpipers) 

Calidris Merrem 166 

Crocethia Billberg 169 

Ereunetes Illiger 173 

Eurynorhynchus Nilsson 178 

Erolia Vieillot 179 

Micropalama Baird 202 

Tryngites Cabanis 205 

Philomachus Merrem 208 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE 
(Avocets and Stilts) 

Subfamily RECURVIROSTRINAE 

Himantopus Brisson 209 

Recurvirostra Linnaeus 214 

Family PHALAROPODIDAE 
(Phalaropes) 

Phalaropiis Brisson 216 

Lobipes Cuvier 219 

Steganopus Vieillot 221 



Superfamily BURHINOIDEA 

Family' BURHINIDAE 
(Thick-Knees) 

PAGE 

Burhinw Illiger 224 

Superfamily THINOCOROIDEA 

Family THINOCORIDAE 

(Seed-Snipes) 

Attagis (Saint-Hilaire and) Lesson . 228 
Thinocorus Eschscholtz 232 

Superfamily CHIONIDOIDEA 

Family CHIONIDIDAB 

(Sheath-bills) 
Chionis J. R. Forster 240 

Suborder LARI 

Family STERCORARIIDAE 
(Skuas and Jaegers) 

Catharacta Briinnich 241 

Stercorarius Brisson 246 

Family LARIDAE 
(Gulls and Terns) 

Subfamily LARINAE 
(Gulls) 

Leucophaeus Bruch 250 

Pagophila Kaup 252 

Larus Linnaeus 253 

Rhodostethia Macgillivray 285 

Rissa Stephens 286 

Creagrus Bonaparte 288 

Xema Leach.. . 289 



Subfamily STERNINAE 
(Terns) 

PAGE 

Chlidonias Rafinesque 291 

Phaetusa Wagler 293 

Gelochelidon C. L. Brehm 297 

Hydroprogne Kaup 300 

Sterna Linnaeus 301 

Thalasseus Boie 323 

Laroslerna Blyth 329 

Procelsterna Laf resnaye 330 

Anoiis Stephens .- 331 

Gygis Wagler 337 

Family RYNCHOPIDAE 

(Skimmers) 

Rynchops Linnaeus 339 

Suborder ALCAE 

Family ALCIDAE 
(Auks) 

Plotus Gunnerus 345 

Pinguimts Bonnaterre 346 

Alca Linnaeus 347 

Una Brisson 348 

Cepphus Pallas 351 

Brachyramphus Brandt 355 

Synthliboramphus Brandt 359 

Ptychoramphus Brandt 360 

Cyclorrhynchus Kaup 361 

Aethia Merrem 362 

Cerorhinca Bonaparte 364 

Fratercula Brisson 365 

Lunda Pallas.. . 367 



VI 



CATALOGUE 

OF 

BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



PART I 
NO. 3 

BY CHARLES E. HELLMAYR AND BOARDMAN CONOVER 



Order CHARADRIIFORMES 

Suborder CHARADRII 

Superfamily JACANOIDEA 

Family JACANIDAE. 1 Jacanas 

Genus JAGANA Brisson 

Jacana Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 48, 5, p. 121, 1760 type, by tautonymy, "Jacana" 

Brisson= Parra Jacana Linnaeus. 
Parra Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 259, 1766 type, by subs, desig. 

(Gray, List. Gen. Bds., p. 70, 1840), Parra Jacana Linnaeus. 
Asarcia Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 68, 86 (after July 10), 1896 

type, by monotopy, Parra variabilis Linnaeus = Parra spinosa Linnaeus. 

*Jacana spinosa lowi van Rossem. 2 Low's JACANA. 

Jacana spinosa lowi van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 9, p. 11, 
Nov. 21, 1938 Santiago, Tepic (=Nayarit), Mexico (type in British 
Museum examined). 

1 About the anatomy, cf. Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, pp. 639-647. 

2 Jacana spinosa lowi van Rossem: Similar in coloration to J. s. spinosa but 
somewhat smaller. Wing, 110-116 (in a male from Jalisco, 120); (females) 128- 
130 mm. 

The difference in size separating this recently segregated race is much less 
marked than would appear from the describer's figures. Wings of males from 
Sinaloa and Tepic measure 110, 112, 112, 112, 115, 116; (females) 128, 129, 130, 130. 
A single male from Jalisco (Zapotlan) has longer wings (120 mm.) and cannot be 
told from one or two Vera Cruz males with the same length. It is probable that 
complete intergradation takes place in Jalisco and Colima, whence no material 
is available. 

Additional material examined. Sinaloa: Mazatlan, 4; Presidio de Mazatlan, 3. 
Nayarit: San Bias, 1; Santiago, 1; Tepic, 5. Jalisco: Zapotlan, 2. 



2 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Parra gymnostoma (not of Wagler) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 283, 
1856 part, Mazatlan; Finsch, Abhandl. Naturw. Ver. Bremen, 2, p. 363, 
1871 Mazatlan; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 312, 1874 
part, Sinaloa (Mazatlan). 

Jacana spinosa gymnostoma Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 12, 
1919 part, Jalisco (Zapotlan; Ocotlan; Guadalajara), Sinaloa (Mazatlan; 
Presidio), and Tepic (San Bias; Santiago; Tepic); Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 228, 1934 (in part). 

Range. Tropical zone of northwestern Mexico, from Sinaloa 
south through Nayarit (Santiago, San Bias, Tepic) to Jalisco 
(Zapotlan, Ocotlan, etc.). 

Field Miiseum Collection. 1: Mexico (Tepic, Tepic, 1). 

*Jacana spinosa spinosa (Linnaeus). CENTRAL AMERICAN 
JACANA. 

Fulica spinosa Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 152, 1758 based on 
"The Spur-winged Water Hen" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 1, p. 48, pi. 48 
(=young); brought from Carthagena in South America, errore. 1 

Parra variabilis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 260, 1766 based upon 
"The Spur-winged Water Hen" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 1, p. 48, pi. 48; 
"Carthagena," Colombia, errore. 1 

Parra gymnostoma Wagler, Isis, 1831, col. 517 Mexico (type in Munich 
Museum examined; descr. of young); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 283, 1856 part, Acapulco, "New Grenada, Santa Martha" and Hon- 
duras (crit.); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, p. 66, 1865 Mexico, Costa 
Rica, "Nouvelle Grenade," and "St. Thomas"; Merrill, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1, p. 167, 1878 Fort Brown, Texas; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 428 Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico; Cory, Bds. Haiti and San 
Dom., p. 159, col. pi., 1885 "Le Coup," Haiti. 

Parra cordifera Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 135, 1842 Acapulco, Guerrero, 
Mexico; Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 7, sig. 9, pi. 42, 1846 Acapulco 
(fig. of type which is stated to be in Paris Museum). 

Parra hypomelaena(l) (not of Gray) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 143, 1856 David, Chiriqui (one young). 

Parra violacea Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, pp. 130, 155, July, 1881 near 
Gantier, Haiti (type in collection of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum 
of Natural History, examined). 

Jacana violacea Cory, Auk, 5, p. 51, 1881 Cuba, Haiti, and San Domingo 
(descr.). 

"The Spur-winged Water Hen" of Edwards, based upon a spirit specimen 
in Sir Hans Sloane's possession, seems to be referable to the Central American 
form, judging from the absence of rictal wattles and from the trifid posterior margin 
of the frontal lappet, although its locality is given as "Cartagena," Colombia, 
where only the black Jacana (hypomelaena) is met with. Mr. Todd (Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 10, p. 219, 1916) accordingly proposed Panama as corrected type locality. 
This was a very unfortunate choice, not only on account of the improbability that 
this region supplied the type, but also because spinosa merely occurs in extreme 
western Panama (Chiriqui), while in the east hypomelaena occurs, as will be shown. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 3 

Jacana spinosa Elliot, Auk, 5, p. 297, 1888 (monog.); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 252, 1889 Cuba and Hispaniola; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 92, 
1892 Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico; Scott, 
Auk, 9, p. 15, 1892 Westmoreland, Jamaica; Cory, I.e., p. 272, 1892 
San Diego de los Banos, Cuba; Cherrie, Field Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 
1, p. 25, 1896 Rio Ozama, Dominican Republic; Mearns, Auk, 19, p. 79, 
1902 Pelican Bay, Lake Okeechobee, Florida (Oct., 1899); Peters, Kc., 
30, p. 371, 1913 Xcopen, Quintana Roo; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. 
Agric., 326, p. 38, 1916 Puerto Rico; Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 42, 
p. 532, 1925 Brownsville, Texas. 

Asarcia variabilis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 86, 1896 part, a-f, 
o'-t*, Texas (Brownsville), Jalapa (Santa Ana), Vera Cruz (Jomotla; 
Teapa), Yucatan (Buctzotz; Cozumel Island), British Honduras (Orange 
Walk; Belize River), Guatemala (Huamuchal; Lake Peten), Nicaragua 
(Momotombo; Escondido River), Honduras, Costa Rica and Haiti; Bangs, 
Auk, 18, p. 358, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 342, 1903 part, Mexico (excepting Sinaloa, 
Tepic, and Jalisco) and Central America to Chiriqui; Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 39, p. 142, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras; idem, Auk, 24, p. 291, 
1907 Puntarenas, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 424, 
1910 Costa Rica (Tenorio, Barranca de Puntarenas, Ichomogo, Mira- 
valles, mouth of Matina River). 

Asarcia spinosa Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Nat., 39, p. 196, 1905 Santa 
Rosalia Lagoon, Laguna Grande, Pasadita, and the Cienaga, Isle of Pines 
(habits). 

Jacana spinosa violacea Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 217, 1916 Santa 
Ana and Pasadita, Isle of Pines (crit.); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
61, p. 406, 1917 El Batey, Dominican Republic; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 13, 1919 Greater Antilles (monog.; full bibliog.); 
Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 71, 1923 Cuba (habits); Wetmore, 
Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 349, 1927 Trujillo, Puerto 
Rico; Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 495, 1928 Lake Mira- 
goane and near Forte Liberte, Haiti; Danforth, Auk, 46, p. 363, 1929 
Haina, Laguna del Salodillo, Etang Miragoane and Gonaives, Hispaniola; 
Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, p. 312, 1929 Rio Haina, Hispaniola; 
Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 142, 1931 Hispaniola 
(monog.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 228, 1934 (range); Conover, Condor, 
47, p. 211, 1945 (not valid race). 

Jacana spinosa spinosa Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 9, 1919 
Guatemala to Chiriqui (monog.; full bibliog.); Kennard and Peters, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 448, 1928 Almirante, Panama; Peters, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 409, 1929 Toloa Lagoon, Honduras; idem, I.e., 
71, p. 303, 1931 Changuinola River, Almirante, Panama; Griscom, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 137, 1932 Hacienda California, Guatemala; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 303, 1932 Laguna Toloa, Hon- 
duras; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 229, 1934 Guatemala to western Panama; 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 305, 1935 Chiriqui (Pacific 
slope east to Remedios) and Almirante, Panama; Van Tyne, Misc. Publ. 



4 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 27, p. 15, 1935 Flores, Peten, Guatemala; 
Carriker and de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87, p. 415, 
1935 El Pilar, Guatemala; Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 165, 1938 Lake Olomega, San Sebastian, and 
Lake Guija, El Salvador. 

Jacana spinosa gymnostoma Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 12, 
1919 part, southern and eastern Mexico and lower Rio Grande Valley, 
Texas (monog.; full bibliog.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 228, 1934 part, 
lower Rio Grande to Yucatan; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, 
p. 373, 1934 Acapulco and Pi de la Cuesta, Guerrero. 

Range. Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, and south through 
eastern and southern Mexico and Central America to extreme 
western Panama (Almirante Bay region; Chiriqui, east to Remedies). 1 
Also Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica, and Hispaniola. 2 Accidental in 
Puerto Rico. 

Field Museum Collection. 66: Mexico (Tampico, Tamaulipas, 36; 
Matamoros, Campeche, 1; San Felipe, Yucatan, 2; Yucatan, 2); 
Cuba (Oriente, 1; Palacios, Pinar del Rio, 4); Hispaniola (Gantier, 
Haiti, 1; San Luis de San Domingo, Santo Domingo, Dominican 
Republic, 2); Guatemala (Pete*n, 1); El Salvador (San Sebastian, 
La Paz, 4; Laguna Olomega, San Miguel, 2); Nicaragua (Grenada, 
Grenada, 1; San Emilio, Rivas, 1); Costa Rica (Puntarenas, 2; 
Bebedero, Guanacaste, 2; Ballina, Guanacaste, IjLimon, Limon, 3). 

Conover Collection. 14: Mexico (Cruz, Tamaulipas, 1; Tamau- 
lipas, 1 ; Apatzingan, Michoacan, 1); Cuba (Cunaga, Isle of Pines, 2); 
Guatemala (Iztapa, Santa Rosa, 4; Quezaltenango, 1); Panama 
(Cricamola, Bocas del Toro, 2; Bocas del Toro, 2). 

1 After closely comparing ninety-six adults from numerous localities between 
Brownsville, Texas, and Costa Rica, I am quite unable to maintain the distinction 
of J. s. gymnostoma from Mexico. The size of the frontal lappet varies a good deal 
individually but is not connected with any particular geographic area, the shield 
being largest in one bird from Brownsville and in another from Crooked-Tree 
Lagoon, British Honduras. There is no constant difference in the tone of the under 
plumage, nor does the larger size of the Mexican birds exist. A single female from 
Acapulco (cordifera) resembles in size (wing, 135) others of the same sex from 
eastern Mexico (Vera Cruz), being decidedly larger than J. s. lowi. About the 
"Santa Marta" record of P. gymnostoma by Sclater (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 24, 
p. 283, 1856), cf. Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 187, 1922, under Jacana 
spinosa spinosa. C.E.H. 

1 A comparison of twenty-nine examples from the Greater Antilles with a good 
series from Central America does not show any constant difference in coloration 
or in the size of the lappets, as stated by Ridgway. B.C. 

Additional material examined. Isle of Pines: Nueva Girona, 3. Cuba: Ca- 
banas, 5. Dominican Republic: Enriguillo, 2; Lake of Rincon, 1. Haiti: Lake 
Assuei, 3; Etang Saumatre, 1; Miragoane, 1; Fort Liberty, 2. Jamaica: Hodges, 
Long Pond, 1. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 5 

*Jacana spinosa hypomelaena (Gray). 1 BLACK JACANA. 

Parra hypomelaena Gray (and Mitchell), Gen. Bds., 3, p. [589], pi. 159, 1846 
no locality given (type from Bogota in British Museum examined); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 283, 1856 Santa Marta, Cartagena, 
and Bogota, Colombia 2 (crit.); idem, I.e., 25, p. 20, 1857 Bogota; Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 196 Atrato River, Colombia; 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 218 Calobre, Panama (crit.); 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, pp. 116, 383 Cienaga, Lake Paturia, and delta of the 
Magdalena River, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 546 "Santa Elena," 3 Antioquia, Colombia (eggs descr.). 

Parra melanopygia (not of Sclater) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
7, p. 301, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1864, p. 372 Lion Hill; Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 161 Santa Fe, 
Veraguas; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 218 Calobre and Castello, Veraguas (crit.); 
idem and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 341, 1903 Veraguas 
(Castillo, Santa Fe, Calobre). 

l jacana spinosa hypomelaena (Gray) in typical appearance has the body 
plumage uniform black with a more or less pronounced bottle-green gloss, especially 
above, and a purplish sheen on scapulars and inner secondaries. Specimens 
with this "extreme" type of coloration are, however, less frequent than individuals 
with a varying amount of purplish or maroon suffusion on middle back, scapulars, 
upper wing coverts and secondaries. The under wing coverts are always uniform 
olivaceous black. There are two well-developed rictal wattles, and the posterior 
margin of the frontal lappet is distinctly bifid. Birds from the Panama Railroad 
and Agua Dulce agree perfectly with the type and other Colombian skins. In 
juvenile plumage, J. s. hypomelaena is readily distinguished from spinosa, inter- 
media, and jacana by sooty blackish instead of rufous rump, sides, and under 
wing coverts. 

A small series from Veragua is very interesting, showing as it does complete 
intergradation between hypomelaena and spinosa. While two from Calobre may 
be termed typical hypomelaena in respect to black coloration of plumage, rictal 
lobes and bifid frontal lappets, two others, both with rictal appendages, have 
more or less purplish maroon suffusion on middle back and wings, and in one of 
them there is a small median lobe between the two large lateral divisions of the 
frontal lappet. In two others, finally, the rictal lobes are greatly reduced in size; 
the posterior margin of the frontal lappet is distinctly trifid as in spinosa; and 
the middle back and scapulars are just as extensively rufous as in the Central 
American form, though of a darker tone (between morocco red and claret brown), 
the upper tail coverts being either chestnut or taupe brown. Below they are 
olivaceous black like hypomelaena on throat and breast, but shaded with purplish 
on the abdomen and with more or less claret brown on the flanks, particularly in 
the Castillo bird, where it also involves most of the under wing coverts. Such 
specimens, which are clearly intergrades with the northern form, are probably 
responsible for Griscom's record otJ.s. spinosa from Remedies Lagoon in Veraguas. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Santa Fe, Veraguas, 1; Calobre, 
Veraguas, 6; Castillo, Veraguas, 1; Agua Dulce, 6; Lion Hill, 2. Colombia: 
Barranquilla, 2; Antioquia, 1; St. Elena, Antioquia, 2; Bogota, 9; Santa Marta, 2; 
La Playa, 7; Puerto Berrio, 2; Monteria, 1. 

1 The locality "David, Panama," based on a young bird secured by T. Bridges, 
refers, of course, to J. s. spinosa. 

8 This locality is certainly a mistake. It does not occur on Salmon's original 
label, which merely bears "Antioquia." The bird probably came from Remedies 
on the Rio Ite, which flows into the Magdalena River. 



6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Parra nigra (not Parra nigra Gmelin) 1 Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, p. 65, 
1865 New Granada (crit.); Salvador! and Festa, Bull. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 339, p. 12, 1899 Laguna Pita, Darien, Panama; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 342, 1903 part, Panama 
(Calobre; Lion Hill; Laguna de Pita) and Colombia. 

Jacana nigra (not Parra nigra Gmelin) 1 Elliot, Auk, 5, p. 296, 1888 Colombia 
(Cartagena; Antioquia; Barranquilla; Santa Marta) and Panama (descr.; 
synon. in part); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 84, 1896 Panama 
(Lion Hill; Calobre, Veraguas) and Colombia (Antioquia; Bogota); 
Bangs, Proc. New Eng. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 14, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 126, 1900 Cienaga, Colombia; 
Chapman, I.e., 36, p. 226, 1917 Puerto Barrio, Calamar, Magdalena 
River, Barranquilla, and La Playa, Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 70, p. 246, 1918 Lake Agua Clara (Trinidad River) and 
Mindi, Canal Zone, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 15, 1919 part, Panama and Colombia (excl. of Guabinas, Rio Cauca); 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 187, 1922 Cienaga, 
Mamatoco, Don Diego, and Fundacion, Colombia (crit.); Hallinan, Auk, 
41, p. 309, 1924 Rio Chilibre and Darien Radio Station, Canal Zone, 
Panama; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 377, 1931 Cienaga 
and Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 321, 1932 
Perme, Panama. 

Jacana spinosa hypomelaena Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 229, 1934 Panama 
(from the Veraguas eastward) and northern Colombia. 

Jacana hypomelaena Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 305, 1935 
Panama (Veraguas and eastward). 

Range. From Veraguas, Panama, east through northern Colom- 
bia to the Santa Marta region and south to the lower Cauca (Nechi) 
and the upper Magdalena valleys. 

Field Museum Collection. 10: Panama (Colon, 4); Colombia 
("Bogota," 3; Monteria, 1; "St. Elena," Antioquia, 2). 

Conover Collection. 5: Colombia (Nechi, Antioquia, 4; Cuturu, 
Antioquia, 1). 

*Jacana spinosa melanopygia (Sclater). 2 BLACK-RUMPED 
JACANA. 

1 Parra nigra Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 708, 1789) is exclusively based 
upon "Le Chirurgien noir" Brisson (Orn., 5, p. 124), which is based in its turn 
on "Jacana tertia species" of Marcgrave (Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 191), a bird of 
northeastern Brazil (cf. Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 490, 
note 7, 1929). Schneider (Journ. Orn., 86, p. 85, 1938), who recently unearthed 
Marcgrave's original drawing, claims that it represents Gallinula chloropus galeata 
(Lichtenstein). However, the description in Marcgrave's work is evidently a 
composite of characters of the ordinary Brazilian Jacana (J. s. jaeana) and of the 
Gallinule. In no case does Parra nigra Gmelin refer to the Black Jacana of north- 
western South America and Panama. 

1 Jacana spinosa melanopygia (Sclater): Nearest to J. s. hypomelaena and 
agreeing in olivaceous black under parts; but back, scapulars, proximal wing coverts 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 7 

Parra melanopygia Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," p. 283, pub. 

Jan., 1857 "Santa Marta in New Grenada" (type in collection of E. and 

J. Verreaux, its present location unknown). 
Jacana melanopygia Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 225, 1917 

Cali and Rio Frio, Cauca, Colombia (crit.). 
Jacana nigra (not Parra nigra Gmelin) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 

(8), p. 15, 1919 part, Guabinas, Cauca, Colombia; Osgood and Conover, 

Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 43, 1922 Rio Cogollo, Catatumbo, 

Maracaibo, Rio Aurare, and Encontrados, Zulia, Venezuela. 
Jacana spinosa melanopygia Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 229, 1934 Cauca Valley, 

Colombia, and Maracaibo region, Venezuela. 

Range. Known from the upper and middle Cauca Valley in 
western Colombia and from the region about Lake Maracaibo and 
Merida, western Venezuela. 

Field Museum Collection. 10: Venezuela (Rio Aurare, Zulia, 1; 
Maracaibo, Zulia, 1; Encontrados, Zulia, 4; Rio Catatumbo, Zulia, 2; 
Lagunillas, Merida, 1; Emigrante, Merida, 1). 

Conover Collection. 8: Colombia (Timba, Valle, 6); Venezuela 
(Rio Cogollo, Peri j a, Zulia, 2). 

*Jacana spinosa intermedia (Sclater). 1 INTERMEDIATE JACANA. 

and tertials maroon, this area being abruptly defined from the greenish black color 
of the hindneck and rump. Wing, 115-120, (female) 125-138 mm. The series 
at hand is quite constant in its characters, differing decidedly from J. s. hypo- 
melaena; but, what is even more remarkable, we cannot find any difference what- 
soever between the Maracaibo birds and those from the Cauca Valley in spite of 
the fact that the intervening Magdalena Valley is tenanted by the entirely black 
form (hypomelaena). As both Chapman and Ridgway likewise insist on the fact 
that the population of the Cauca Valley (whence a series totaling nearly twenty 
specimens from Cali, Rio Frio and Guabinas was available) consists exclusively 
of maroon-backed birds, there can be no question about the geographical nature 
of this character and even if similar examples occasionally turn up in the range 
of J. s. hypomelaena one has been recorded by Todd from Bonda in the Santa 
Marta region this cannot materially affect the situation. Although we cannot 
explain its disrupted distribution, the claims of the present form to recognition 
must be sustained. On the other hand, the applicability of the name melanopygia 
is altogether uncertain. The type, whose present whereabouts are unknown, was 
received from the brothers Verreaux, together with specimens of J. s. hypomelaena 
and J. s. spinosa, as being from Santa Marta, where only hypomelaena is now 
known to occur. Perhaps the true origin of the lot was Panama, in which case 
the type might have been an intergrade of the kind discussed under the preceding 
heading. Compared to the rufous-backed Veraguan skins, the present series differs 
by much darker maroon to Victoria Lake instead of between morocco red and 
claret brown, dorsal area; dusky green gray instead of claret brown to Victoria 
Lake rump. 

1 Jacana spinosa intermedia (Sclater): Exactly like J. s. Jacana but smaller 
and rufous dorsal area decidedly darker, morocco red rather than mahogany red. 
Wing, 112-120, (female) 128-136. 

By the darker coloration above, this form leads in the direction of J. s. melano- 
pygia of the Maracaibo region, but it is easily distinguished by the much lighter 



8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Parra intermedia (Verreaux MS.) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," 
p. 282, pub. Jan. 1857 Venezuela; (type in collection of E. and 
J. Verreaux, its present location unknown). 

Parra jacana (not of Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 282, 
1856 part, Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 96 Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco, 
Venezuela; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 486, 1866 Trinidad; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 252 Lake of Valencia, Carabobo, 
Venezuela; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1884, p. 440 Angostura, Orinoco; idem and 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 129, 1902 Altagracia, Quiribana de Caicara, 
Suapure, and Mato River, Orinoco region, Venezuela. 

Jacana jacana Elliot, Auk, 5, p. 294, 1888 part, Trinidad and Venezuela 
(Angostura); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 82, 1896 part, Vene- 
zuela; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 75, 1909 La Brea, Orinoco Delta; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 192, 1913 Cano Corosal and 
La Pedrita (Rio Uracoa), Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 369, 1916 Orinoco region. 

Parra jacana jacana Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 53, 1906 Caroni Swamp 
and Seelet, Trinidad (crit.). 

Jacana spinosa (not Fulica spinosa Linnaeus) Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 225, 1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; Williams, Bull. 
Dept. Agric. Trin. and Tob., 20, p. 179, 1922 Trinidad; Delacour, Ibis, 
1923, p. 139 ponds of states of Guarico and Apure, Venezuela. 

Jacana jacana intermedia Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 31, p. 3, 1922 Vene- 
zuela (Sacupana; Lara) and Colombia (La Morelia); Roberts, Trop. 
Agric., 11, p. 90, 1934 Trinidad; Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 87, 
p. 191, 1939 (crit.); Niceforo, Caldasia, 3, p. 373, 1945 Colombia (various 
localities). 

Jacana spinosa intermedia Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 229, 1934 Venezuela; 
Conover, Condor, 47, p. 211, 1945 (disc.). 

Jacana spinosa jacana Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 286 Trinidad 
(nest and egg descr.). 

Range. Northern Venezuela, from the eastern slope of the Andes 
to the Paria Peninsula, south to the Orinoco Valley, west to eastern 
Colombia (La Morelia, Caqueta) and the island of Trinidad. 

Field Museum Collection. 5: Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 4; 
Lake Valencia, Aragua, 1). 

Conover Collection. 5: Colombia (Morelia, Caqueta, 3; Belen, 
Caqueta, 1; Villavicencio, Meta, 1). 

tone of the dorsal area and the entirely rufous flanks and under wing coverts, 
both of which are mostly, if not wholly, greenish black in its western ally. A 
single bird from Trinidad and three from Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco, are typical 
of intermedia. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: La Morelia, Caqueta, 1. Vene- 
zuela: El Cuji, Lara, 1; Duaca, Lara, 1; Valencia, Carabobo, 2; Guanoco, Sucre, 2; 
San Antonio, Sucre, 3; Altagracia, 3; Sacupana, Orinoco Delta, 2. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 9 

*Jacana spinosa peruviana Zimmer. 1 PERUVIAN JACANA. 

Jacana spinosa peruviana Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 253, Dec. 10, 1930 Masiseo, lower Ucayali River, Loreto, Peru (type 
in Conover Collection, Field Museum of Natural History); Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 230, 1934 (range). 

Parra jacana (not of Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1866, p. 200 Nauta, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 309 Nauta and Santa 
Cruz, Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 331, 1886 part, Nauta and 
Santa Cruz. 

Parra melanopygia (not of Sclater) Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 320, 1889 
Sarayacu, lower Ucayali River. 

Jacana jacana Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 82, 1896 part, spec, 
m-n, Pebas and Elvira, Peru (spec, examined). 

Range. Tropical zone of northern Peru (Pebas; Nauta; Elvira; 
lower Ucayali River). 

Conover Collection. 6: Peru (Masiseo, Loreto, 1; Yarinacocha, 
Rio Ucayali, 5). 

Macana spinosa scapularis Chapman. 2 BLACK-STRIPED JACANA. 

Jacana scapularis Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 31, p. 3, March 2, 1922 
Chone, Manavi, Ecuador (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 201, 1926 
Chone and Santa Rosa, Ecuador. 

Parra jacana (not of Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 290, 
1860 Babahoyo, Ecuador; Taczanowski, I.e., 1877, p. 329 Pozo de 

1 Jacana spinosa peruviana Zimmer: Similar to J. s. intermedia, but rufous 
dorsal area slightly darker, claret brown rather than morocco red; sides of body 
with less, if any rufous; under wing coverts either wholly or partly black. Wing, 
(female) 135-138. 

Judging from the few specimens at hand, this is rather an unsatisfactory race 
which needs substantiation by an adequate series. One of the two adult Ucayali 
birds has no rufous either on flanks or under wing coverts, while the other 
specimen, like one from Pebas, has both these parts just as extensively rufous 
(though slightly darker in tone) as J. s. intermedia. Size is apparently the same. 
From J. s. melanopygia it is easily separated by markedly lighter (claret brown, 
rather than maroon) back, scapulars and tertials, and particularly by purplish 
instead of greenish black rump and upper tail coverts. 

It would not be surprising to find that this form intergrades with intermedia 
in eastern Ecuador. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Pebas, 1; Elvira, 1; Sarayacu, Rio 
Ucayali, 1. 

2 Jacana spinosa scapularis Chapman: Nearest to J. s. jacana, but distinguished 
by lighter back, the presence of a broad black stripe across the scapulars, and by 
having the light zone of the three outer primaries very nearly white (instead of 
pale green as on the other remiges). On the under parts the black of the chest 
generally extends in an irregular line down the center of the breast and belly. 
Immatures can be identified by the light outer primaries. Wing, 116, (female) 
134. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Balzar, 1; Vinces, "Yanayacu," 1; 
Isla la Silva, 2. 



10 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Lamberedo, near Lechugal, Tumbez, Peru; idem and Berlepsch, I.e., 
1885, p. 112 Yaguachi, Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 331, 
1886 part, Tumbez; MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 209 Guayaquil, 
Ecuador; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, 
p. 42, 1900 Naranjal and Vinces, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1902, 
p. 231 "Rio Napo," Ecuador (errore). 

Parra intermedia (not of Sclater) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
10, p. 238, 1869 Puna Island, Ecuador (crit.). 

Jacana jacana Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 82, 1896 part, spec, 
o, "Yanayacu," Ecuador. 

Jacana jacana scapularis Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 229, 
1932 Isla Silva, Rio Babahoyo, Ecuador. 

Jacana spinosa scapularis Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 229, 1934 (range). 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador 1 and northwestern 
Peru (Lechugal, Prov. Tumbez). 

Conover Collection. 15: Ecuador (Vinces, 3; Isla Silva Sur, 
Province de los Rios, 12). 

* Jacana spinosa jacana (Linnaeus). COMMON JACANA. 

Parra Jacana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 259, 1766 based on 
"Jacana quarta species" Marcgrave (Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 191; north- 
eastern Brazil), "Spurwinged Water-hen" Edwards (Glean. Nat. Hist., 
3, p. 305, pi. 357, Surinam), and "Le Chirurgien brun" Brisson (Orn., 
5, p. 125 in part), 2 Surinam (ex Edwards) accepted as type locality 
(auct. Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 304, 1908); Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 4, (1), p. 786, 1832 eastern Brazil (habits); Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 394, 1856 Brazil; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 282, 1856 part, Brazil, Guiana and Cayenne (crit.); Burmeister, 
Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 506, 1861 Tucuman; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 145 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Lee, Ibis, 1873, 
p. 137 banks of the Rio Gato, Entre Rios; Layard, I.e., 1873, p. 396 
Para; Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 82, 1876 Santarem, Brazil; Hudson, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 103 Buenos Aires (habits); Durnford, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 196 Buenos Aires; Forbes, I.e., 1881, p. 359 near Recife 
and Parahyba, Brazil; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 627 
Buenos Aires; Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 277, 1884 Concepcion del Uruguay, 
Entre Rios; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 181, 1885 
Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Salvin, Ibis, 1886, p. 177 British Guiana; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 35, 1887 lower Pilcomayo, Paraguay; 
Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 163, 1889 Argentina (habits); 
Frenzel, I.e., 39, p. 125, 1891 Cordoba; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 150 lower 

1 The localities "Yanayacu" (whence a typical scapularis is at hand) and "Rio 
Napo" are undoubtedly incorrect. If any Jacana occurs in eastern Ecuador, it 
may be either intermedia or peruviana but certainly not scapularis, which is 
restricted to the west side of the Ecuadorian Andes. 

* Neither the reference to Hernandez's work nor the specimen from Santo 
Domingo in the Reaumur Collection belongs to the present form. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 11 

Pilcomayo, Paraguay; Aplin, I.e., 1894, p. 205 Rio Negro, Uruguay; 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 24, 1895 San Jos6 
and Colonia Risso, Paraguay; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 35, 1897 Caiza, 
Bolivia; Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 163 Amapa, Brazil; Kerr, I.e., 1901, p. 
235 Villa Conception, Paraguay; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 57, 
1907 Sao Paulo (Ubatuba, Pirituba, Itapura) and Parana (Ourinho); 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 304, 1908 Cayenne; Hartert and Venturi, 
I.e., 16, p. 249, 1909 La Soledad (Entre Rios), San Vicente (Buenos 
Aires), and Saladillos (Santiago del Estero); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 463 
Tayru, above Villa Pilar and Curuzu-Chica, Paraguay; Gibson, I.e., 1920, 
p. 53 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires. 

(t)Parra brasiliensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 708, 1789 based on 
"Jacana alia species" Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 191, northeastern 
Brazil (descr. of young in transitional plumage). 

Parra jassana Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 759, 1849 (habits); Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 262, 1860 Tucuman. 

Parra jacana Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 132, 1865 Lake 
Paratininga, Rio de Janeiro; idem, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 313, 1870 Rio de 
Janeiro (Sapitiba), Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Rio Parana), Goyaz, and 
Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Caicara, Matto Grosso); Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 36 Minas Geraes; Cabanis, Journ. 
Orn., 22, p. 231, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Berlepsch, I.e., p. 276, 
1874 Blumenau, Santa Catharina; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 500 Rio Capim, 
Para; Lonnberg, I.e., 1903, pp. 444, 460 Laguna del Sauzal, Quinta, 
Jujuy, and Tatarenda, Bolivia; Chubb, I.e., 1910, p. 68 Ybitimi, Para- 
guay; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 94, 1914 Para, Salvaterra, Rio 
Capim, Cussary, Marajo (Pindobal, Arary), and Maranhao, Brazil. 

Jacana jacana Elliot, Auk, 5, p. 294, 1888 (monog.; in part); Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 108, 1889 Reyes, Rio Beni, Bolivia; Riker and 
Chapman, Auk, 8, p. 163, 1891 Santarem, Brazil; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 5, p. 149, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 24, p. 82, 1896 part, spec, a-1, p-b', British Guiana (Cari- 
mang River, Quonga), Brazil (River Amazon, Para, Maranhao, Rio 
Tocantins, Chapada, Cachoeira, Corumba, Pernambuco, Caicara, Bahia) 
and Bolivia (Salinas); Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 149, 
1899 Rio Grande do Sul (Mundo Novo, Pedras Brancas, Barra do Rio 
Camaquam); idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 425, 1899 Sao Paulo; idem, 
I.e., 4, p. 164, 1900 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. 
(Syst.), 26, p. 43, 1907 Mexiana, Brazil; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 222, 1910 (range in Argentina); Reiser, Denks. 
Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 70, p. 95, 1910 Bahia (Cabula; 
Joazeiro; Lagoa do Boqueirao, Rio Grande; Santa Rita, Rio Preto) and 
Piauhy (Lagoa de Parnagua), Brazil; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. 
Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 97, 122, 1912 Para, Rio Capim 
and Mexiana; Chrostowski, C. R. Soc. Scient. Varsovic, 5, pp. 463, 493, 
1912 Santa Cruz, Parana; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, p. 43, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 
2, p. 14, 1920 Uruguay (Canelones, Cerro Largo, Rocha); Wetmore, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 141, 1926 Chaco (Las Palmas), Formosa 



12 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Riacho Pilaga), and Uruguay (Razcano); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 80, p. 153, 1928 Para. 

Jacana jacana jacana Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 23, p. 288, 
1912 Villa Rica, Paraguay; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, 
p. 617, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
60, p. 83, 1930 Paraguay (Rio Negro, Puerto Pinasco) and Matto Grosso 
(Palmiras); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 17, (2), p. 714, 1932 Aquidauana; 
Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 375, 1934 Matto 
Grosso. 

Jacana spinosa (not Fulica spinosa Linnaeus) Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 1, 
p. 136, 1916 upper Takutu Mountains, Supenaam, Abary, Rupununi 
River and Georgetown. 

Jacana spinosa jacana Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 
489, 1929 Maranhao (Sao Bento; Sao Francisco, Rio Parnahyba), 
Piauhy (Ibiapaba, Deserto), and Ceara (Quixada), Brazil; Laubmann, 
Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 62, 1930 Formosa 
(Lapango, San Jose, and Las Taperas, Santa Cruz); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 229, 1934 (range, excl. of Trinidad); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 19, 
p. 89, 1935 Rio Gongogy and Cahype, Bahia; idem, I.e., 20, p. 44, 1936 
Inhumas, Goyaz; idem, I.e., 22, p. 124, 1938 Para (Santarem), Maranhao 
(Miritiba), Bahia (Rio Gongogy; Cahype), Goyaz (Inhumas), Matto 
Grosso (Miranda; Coxim; Aquidauana), Sao Paulo (Itapura; Ubatuba; 
Ypiranga; Jundiahy; Sao Carlos; Pirituba), Paran (Jacar6zinho) ; idem, 
I.e., 23, p. 545, 1938 Manacapuru, Rio Solimoes, Brazil; Gyldenstolpe, 
K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., (3), 22, p. 42, 1945 Joao Pessoa, 
Rio Jurua, Brazil (disc.); idem, I.e., (3), 23, p. 70, 1945 Bolivia (Victoria, 
Reyes and Bresta, El Beni; Tatarenda, Tarija), (disc.). 

Jacana jacana intermedia (not Parra intermedia Sclater) Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. ^83, 1930 Rio Solimoes, Brazil. 

Jacana spinosa dorsalis(a) Brodkorb, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 52, p. 185, 
Dec. 15, 1939 Horqueta, Paraguay (type in Museum of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of Michigan). 1 

Range. From the Guianas over the greater" part of Brazil and 
eastern Bolivia to Argentina (south to the provinces of Cordoba and 
Buenos Aires), Paraguay and Uruguay. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 40: British Guiana (Buxton, 14; 
Potaro Landing, 1; Georgetown, 3; New Amsterdam, 5; unspecified, 
1); Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 2; Wanika Kreek, 1); Brazil (Boa 
Vista, Amazonas, 5; Sao Bento, Maranhao, 1; Jua, Ceara, 1; Quixada, 

1 Birds from the tableland of Brazil and the adjoining districts of Argentina 
and Paraguay agree well with a Guianan series, while those from the Amazon 
Valley have a tendency to darker dorsal coloration. Some individuals come very 
close to J. 8. intermedia, but others are not distinguishable from Guiana skins. 
The latter, moreover, vary a good deal and certain birds are just as dark as the 
Amazonian examples, one from near Paramaribo being even darker. The specimen 
taken near Frejus, southern France, recorded by Gurney (Ibis, 1901, p. 400), 
must have been an escape from captivity. 

Ninety additional specimens from the entire range examined. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 13 

Ceara, 3; Santa Rita, Bahia, 1); Paraguay (Patino, 1); Argentina 
(Lagunas de Malvina, Tucuman, 1). 

Conover Collection. 46: British Guiana (Buxton, E. C., Deme- 
rara, 5); Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 1); Brazil (Sao Francisco, 
Maranhao, 1; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 2; Deserto, Piauhy, 2; Rio Mana- 
capuru, Amazonas, 3; Caxiricatuba, Para, 6; Rio Parana, Goyaz, 1; 
Vaccaria, Matto Grosso, 1); Paraguay (Villa Rica, 7; Colonia Nueva 
Italia, near Villeta, 3; 20 km. east of Islapoi, Chaco, 1); Bolivia, 
Santa Cruz (Comparapa, 1; Nueva Moka, 3; Rio Surutu, 1); Argen- 
tina (Alvarez Yonte, Buenos Aires, 1; Conception, Tucuman, 7). 

Superfamily CHARADRIOIDEA 
Family ROSTRATULIDAE. 1 Painted Snipes 

Genus NYCTICRYPHES Wetmore and Peters 2 

Nycticryphes Wetmore and Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 36, p. 143, May 1, 
1923 type, by orig. desig., Totanus semi-collaris Vieillot. 

*Nycticryphes semi-collaris (Vieillot). SOUTH AMERICAN 
PAINTED SNIPE. 

Totanus semi-collaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 6, p. 402, 
1816 based upon "Chorlito golas obscura y blanca" Azara, No. 405, 
Paraguay. 

Tringa atricapilla Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 34, p. 474, 
1819 based on "Chorlito cabeza y cuello obscures" Azara, No. 406, 
Buenos Aires. 

Rhynchaea hilairea Lesson, 3 in Ferussac, Bull. Sci. Nat. G&>1., 26, p. 191, 
July, 1831 no locality (type in collection of M. Pecquet-Deschamps, 
Caen); idem, Illust. Zool., livr. 6, pi. 18, Feb. 23, 1833 "in provincia 
San-Paulo," Brazil; Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 300, 1846 
"forests of central Peru." 

J For characters of the family, cf. Lowe, Ibis, 1931, pp. 507-530, 762; 1932, 
pp. 390-391. 

2 Nycticryphes Wetmore and Peters differs markedly from Rostratula Vieillot, 
an Old-World group, by having the bill more curved at the tip, the tip expanded 
on both mandibles, with the distal end distinctly pitted; a median groove to the 
distal end of the gonys; a slight web between outer and middle toes; and the tail 
strongly wedge-shaped, the median rectrices tapered and soft in structure at the 
tip with the median upper and lower tail coverts longer than the lateral tail- 
feathers. 

8 Rhynchaea hilairea Cuvier (Reg. Anim., 2nd e"d., 1, p. 524, 1829) and R. 
hilairea Lesson (TraitS d'Orn., p. 557, 1831) are nomina nuda. The specimen 
in the Paris Museum (cf. Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 294, 1891), 
therefore, has no claim to be the type. 



14 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Rhynchaea occidental-is King, Zool. Journ., 4, No. 13, p. 97, April-July, 1828 
"Straits of Magellan" (type apparently lost). 

Rhynchaea semicollaris Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 131, 1841 Monte- 
video, Rio Plata; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 118, 1843 Chile; 
Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 429, 1847 central 
provinces of Chile; Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 226, 1848 Chile; Bibra, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 131, 1853 near San- 
tiago, Chile; Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 194, 1855 vicinity 
of Santiago; Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 313, 1860 Santiago 
(breeding habits); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 27 (Scolopaces), p. 18, 
1864 Buenos Aires and Santiago de Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, p. 339 Chile; idem and Salvin, I.e., 1868, p. 144 Conchitas, 
Buenos Aires; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 277, 1868 central 
provinces [of Chile] "to Straits of Magellan"; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. 
Naturh. Foren., 1870, p. 38 (note), 1870 Province of Sao Paulo; Durn- 
ford, Ibis, 1876, p. 164 Belgrano, Buenos Aires (nest and eggs); Reed, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 567, 1877 Laguna de Cauquenes, Colchagua, 
Chile; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, pp. 42, 199 Chubut Valley, Patagonia, and 
Buenos Aires Province; idem, I.e., 1878, p. 403 Chubut Valley (rare); 
Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 16 Coquimbo, Chile; Salvin, 
Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 608, 1882 Valparaiso, Chile; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 429 Coquimbo; Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 314, 1884 
Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 378, 
1886 "Peru" (ex Tschudi); Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 459, 
pi. 19, 1887 (crit.); Withington, Ibis, 1888, p. 472 Lomas de Zamora, 
Buenos Aires; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 182, 1889 Argentina 
(habits); Holland, Ibis, 1891, pp. 16, 20 Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires; 
idem, I.e., 1892, p. 211 same locality (breeding); Waugh and Lataste, 
Act. Soc. Scient. Chile, 5, p. Ix, 1895 Penaflor, Santiago; Reed, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Chile; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 310 Arauco, 
Chile (habits); Kerr, I.e., 1901, p. 236 Paraguayan Chaco; Grant, I.e., 
1911, p. 467 Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires; Gibson, I.e., 1920, p. 65 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (breeding habits); Jaffuel and Pirion, 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, p. 113, 1927 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso, Chile. 

Rhynchaea hilaerea Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 378, 1856 
Paraguay, Chile, and the La Plata region. 

Rhynchaea hilarea Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 261, 1860 Rio Parana, 
Argentina; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 504, 1861 Rio Parana. 

Rostratula semicollaris Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 690, 1896 
Argentina (Buenos Aires, Lomas de Zamora, Cordova, Mendoza), Uruguay 
(Montevideo), Chile (Coquimbo, Santiago, Arauco), and "Peru"; Lillo, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 214, 1902 Rio Salf and Laguna de 
Malvinas, Tucuman; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, p. 288, 1902 Sao 
Paulo and "Rio de Janeiro (Sarapuhy)"; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 56, 1907 (range); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 252, 1909 
Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, and Laguna de Malvinas, Tucuman; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 221, 1910 (range in 
Argentina); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 
2, p. 342, 1910 Ensenada, Buenos Aires (descr.); Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 15 

p. 148, 1918 Mendoza; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 14, 1920 Uruguay (Monte- 
video, Canelones, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo); Daguerre, I.e., p. 263, 
1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 41, 1923 Santa 
Elena, Entre Rios; Giacomelli, I.e., p. 80, 1923 La Rioja. 
Nycticryphes semicollaris Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 298, 1923 
Huanuluan, Rio Negro; Pereyra, El Hornero, 3, p. 163, 1923 Zalaya, 
Buenos Aires; Wilson, I.e., p. 353, 1926 Venado Tuerto, Santa F6; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 163, 1926 Buenos Aires (Lavalle) 
and Uruguay (below San Vicente); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 24, 1927 
Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 391, 1932 Coquimbo to Arauco, Chile; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 230, 
1934 (range); Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 267, 1934 Hersilia, 
Santa Fe; Pereyra, El Hornero, 5, p. 366, 1934 Argentina (descr. plum- 
ages, habits); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 125, 1938 La Plata and Rio 
Negro. 

Range. Central provinces of Chile (from Coquimbo to Arauco), 
and from the Paraguayan Chaco and Uruguay south to the Rio 
Negro Territory, Argentina. 1 Also recorded from Sao Paulo, Brazil 
(A. de Saint Hilaire, Lund). 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Argentina (Tunuyan, Mendoza, 1). 

Conover Collection. 5: Paraguay (Laguna General Diaz, Chaco, 
2); Chile (Paine, Santiago, 1); Argentina (Conception del Uruguay, 
Entre Rios, 1; Rosas, Province of Buenos Aires, 1). 

Family HAEMATOPODIDAE. Oyster-Catchers 

Genus HAEMATOPUS Linnaeus 

Haematopus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 152, 1758 type, by mono- 

typy, Haematopus ostralegus Linnaeus. 
Ostralega Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 38, 1760 type, by tautonymy, "Ostralega"= 

Haematopus ostralegus Linnaeus. 

Ostralaga Bonnaterre, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., 1, p. Ixxxii, 1791 (emendation). 
Ostralegus Macgillivray, Man. Brit. Orn., 2, p. 58, 1842 (emendation). 
Prohaematopus Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, (1), p. 12, Apr. 2, 1913 type, 

by orig. desig., Haematopus quoyi Brabourne and Chubb= Haematopus 

ater Vieillot and Oudart. 

*Haematopus ostralegus bachmani Audubon. BLACK OYSTER- 
CATCHER. 

Scolopax nigra (not Scolopax niger Menschen, 1787) Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, 
(2), p. 659, 1789 based on "Black Snipe" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 

ir The records of the Painted Snipe from "Peru," where Tschudi claims to 
have shot examples in "the forests," and "Straits of Magellan" (King) are obvi- 
ously erroneous. 



16 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

469, and Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 153, "islands between northern 
Asia and America" = Aleutian Islands. 

Haematopus bachmani Audubon, Bds. Amer., folio ed., 4, pi. 427, fig. 1, 1838 
(present location of type unknown); 1 idem, Orn. Biogr., 5, p. 245, 1839 
"mouth of the Columbia River"=near Puget Sound, Washington (cf. 
Burns, Auk, 51, p. 403, 1934); Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 2, p. 151, 
1886 Alaska (Aleutian Islands west to Kiska and islands south of 
Aliaskan Peninsula); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 40, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, 
p. 81, 1923 St. George Island, Pribilof Islands; Low, Bull. Brit. Orn. 
CL, 44, p. 19, 1923 (range); Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, p. 13, 1925 
(crit.); Bailey, Auk, 44, p. 197, 1927 southern Alaska (nesting); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 100, 1928 Lower California; Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 320, 1929 (range; life hist.); Webster, Wilson 
Bull, 53, p. 141, 1941 Sitka (nesting habits); idem, Condor, 43, p. 175, 
1941 Alaska (status; life hist.); idem, I.e., 44, p. 205, 1942 (growth; pis.); 
idem, Wilson Bull., 55, p. 42, 1943 (descr. pullus and comparison with that 
otpalliatus); Gabrielson, Auk, 61, p. 122, 1944 Aleutian Islands (nesting). 

Haematopus ostralegus bachmani Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 35, p. 73, 
1927 (char.; range); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 231, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in the Aleutian Islands and on the west coast of 
North America from the Alaska Peninsula south to the Pacific coast 
of central Lower California; winters from southern Alaska to Lower 
California. 

Field Museum Collection. 22: Alaska (Morzhovoi Bay, 1; Wolf 
Rocks, 1; Ball Island, 1; Craig, Prince of Wales Island, 2; Walrus 
Island, 1; unspecified, 1); British Columbia (Bear Island, 1; Van- 
couver Island, 1); Washington (Bird Rock, San Juan County, 1; 
Clallam Bay, 1); California (Eureka, 1; Carmel Bay, 4; Santa Cruz 
Island, 3; unspecified, 1); Mexico, Lower California (Santa Rosa 
Island, 1; San Geronimo Island, 1). 

Conover Collection. 9: British Columbia (Sidney Island, 1; 
Queen Charlotte Islands, 3); Washington (Jefferson County, 2); 
Oregon (Netarts, 2); California (San Luis Obispo County, 1). 

*Haematopus ostralegus frazari Brewster. 2 FRAZAR'S OYSTER- 
CATCHER. 

Haematopus frazari Brewster, Auk, 5, p. 84, Jan., 1888 Carmen Island, 
Gulf of California (type in collection of W. Brewster, now in Museum of 

1 Probably lost; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 17 (note). 

* Haematopus ostralegus frazari Brewster, though very similar to H. o. gala- 
pagensis, is clearly the southern representative of H. o. bachmani, with which 
it hybridizes or intergrades in the central parts of Lower California (cf. Bancroft, 
Condor, 29, pp. 51-54, 1927). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 17 

Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 175, 1930); Bryant, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (2), 2, p. 275, 
1889 Magdalena Bay and Santa Margarita Island, Lower California; 
Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 13, p. 138, 1890 Conception Bay, 
Lower California; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 117, 730, 1896 
part, spec, a, i, Tres Marias Islands and Colima (Rio Zacatula) ; Brewster, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 74, 1902 Lower California; Grinnell and 
Daggett, Auk, 20, p. 33, 1902 Los Coronados Islands; Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 348, 1903 part, Lower California 
and Tres Marias Islands; Bailey, Auk, 23, p. 384, 1906 near San Bias, 
White Rock, and Isabel Island, Tepic; Thayer and Bangs, Condor, 9, 
pp. 78, 80, 1907 Cerros and Natividad Islands, Lower California (crit.); 
McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 15, p. 294, 1926 Tres Marias 
(Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena) and Isabel Island; Bancroft, Condor, 
29, p. 51, 1927 Scammons Lagoon, Lower California (breeding; crit.; 
disc, relationship with bachmani; black phase). 

Haematopus palliatus (not of Temminck) Grayson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
14, p. 284, 1872 Tres Marias Islands; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
2, p. 308, 1874 Sinaloa (Mazatlan), Isabel Island, Tres Marias Islands, 
and Colima (Rio Zacatula); Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 527, 
1883 Los Coronados Islands; idem, I.e., 6, p. 351, 1883 La Paz, Lower 
California; Evermann, Auk, 3, p. 92, 1886 Ventura County, California; 
Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 34, 1899 Tres Marias Islands, Isabel 
Island, and coast near San Bias, Tepic (crit.; meas.); Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 347, 1903 part, Tres Marias Islands, 
Isabel Island, Sinaloa (Mazatlan), and Colima (Rio Zacatula). 

Haematopus palliatus frazari Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 37, 
1919 Lower California to Guerrero (monog.; full bibliog.); Low, Bull. 
Brit. Orn. Cl., 44, p. 19, 1923 (range); Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, 
p. 9, 1925 (crit.; range); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 12, 
1927 San Bias to Matanchen, Nayarit; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
32, p. 99, 1928 Lower California (range); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
146, p. 316, 1929 (life hist.); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 
7, p. 133, 1932 Tiburon Island, Sonora; (?)Griscom, Auk, 50, p. 299, 
1933 Puerto Jimenez, Costa Rica (crit.); Webster, Wilson Bull, 55, 
p. 41, 1943 (descr. pullus and relationship shown by it); van Rossem, Occ. 
Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 77, 1945 Sonora (distr.). 

Haematopus ostralegus frazari Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 39, p. 73, 1927 
(char.; range); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 231, 1934 (range). 

Range. Coast and islands of Lower California (Natividad and 
San Luis Islands being the most northerly recorded breeding stations 
on the west and east sides, respectively) and the west coast of Mexico, 
including the Tres Marias Islands and Isabel Island, south to 
Colima and Guerrero; casual on migration to northern Lower Cali- 
fornia and southern California (San Diego, Santa Barbara Islands, 
San Clemente Island, and Ventura County); (?)accidental in Costa 
Rica (Puerto Jimenez, Sept. 29, 1926). 



18 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Field Museum Collection. 12: Mexico, Lower California (Los 
Coronados Islands, 6; San Martin Island, 2; San Bonito Island, 1; 
Natividad Island, 1; Espiritu Santo, 1; unspecified, 1). 

Conover Collection. 3 : Mexico, Lower California (Los Coronados 
Islands, 1; Ildefonso Island, 1; La Paz, 1). 

"Haematopus ostralegus prattii Maynard. 1 BAHAMA OYSTER- 
CATCHER. 

Haemotopus (sic) prattii Maynard, App. to Cat. W. Ind. Birds, p. 34, 1899 
Flemmings Key, Bahama Islands (cotypes in collection of C. L. Maynard, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 175, 1930); Bangs, Auk, 17, p. 284, 1900 
Flemmings Key (crit.). 

Haematopus palliatus (not of Temminck) Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, 
p. 121, 1859 Bahama Islands; Newton, Ibis, 1861, p. 115 St. Thomas; 
Sundevall, Oefvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forh., 1869, p. 588 St. Bartholomew 
(crit.); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 331, 1875 Cuba; idem, I.e., 26, 
p. 188, 1878 near San Juan, Cuba; Cory, Bds. Bahama Is., p. 158, 
1880 Andros and Inagua; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charad., p. 305, 1887 
part, Cuba and Bahama Islands; Cory, Auk, 4, p. 230, 1887 Cuba, 
Puerto Rico, St. Bartholomew, and Bahama Islands (descr.); idem, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 230, 1889 (descr.); Northrop, Auk, 8, p. 76, 1891 Andros; 
Cory, I.e., pp. 297, 334, 351, 1891 Caicos Island, Abaco, and Inagua; 
Ridgway, I.e., p. 334, 1891 Abaco; Cory, I.e., 9, p. 48, 1892 Maraguana; 
Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 301 Grassy Creek, Andros (crit.); Riley, Auk, 
22, p. 354, 1905 Long Island. 

Haematopus palliatus prattii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 37, 
1919 Bahama Islands (monog.); Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, p. 7, 
1925 Bahama Islands (crit.); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 155, p. 144, 1931 Jevero, Dominican Republic (Nov. 28; crit.). 

Haematopus palliatus pratii (sic) Low, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 44, p. 19, 1923 
Bahama Islands. 

Haematopus ostralegus prattii Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 35, p. 73, 1927 
Bahama Islands; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 231, 1934 (range); Bond, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 94, p. 94, 1942 Abaco to Grenadines. 

Haematopus palliatus palliatus Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, 9, p. 349, 1927 Puerto Rico, Desecheo, Culebra, Culabrita, and 
St. Thomas. 

1 Haematopus ostralegus prattii Maynard may be separated from H. o. palliatus 
by its thicker, less tapering bill. Wing, 250-270; depth of bill, 13^-15; width of 
bill, 7.5-8.3 mm. 

Two birds from St. Thomas and St. Croix agree in shape of bill with the 
Bahama series, but have shorter wings (242-245). As Wetmore has lately recorded 
this form also from Hispaniola (Jevero), it appears pretty certain that the records 
of Oyster-Catchers from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and St. Bartholomew belong here 
likewise. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 19 

Range. Bahama Islands (Flemmings Cay; Exuma Cay; Long, 
Abaco, Andros, Inagua, Caicos, and Maraguana Islands); Greater 
Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico), Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, 
St. Croix), and Lesser Antilles (St. Bartholomew; "Abaco to Grena- 
dines"). 

Field Museum Collection. 10: Bahama Islands (Long Island, 1; 
Andros, 6; Great Inagua, 1; Caicos Island, 1; Maraguana, 1). 

Conover Collection. 2: Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, 1; St. Croix, 

1). 

*Haematopus ostralegus palliatus Temminck. AMERICAN 
OYSTER-CATCHER. 

Haematopus palliatus Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 2nd ed., 2, p. 532, 1820 
Brazil 1 (restricted to Rio de Janeiro by Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 304, 
1908, type probably in Leyden Museum); 2 Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3, (2), p. 746, 1833 seacoast of eastern Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 366, 1856 coast of Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 
p. 228 mouth of the Rio Nagualate, Pacific coast of Guatemala; Salvin, 
I.e., 1865, p. 190 Chiapam, Guatemala; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 29, 
(Cursores), p. 74, 1865 part, spec. 3-7, Cajutuba (Para) and "Brazil"; 
Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 398, 1866 Trinidad (Aug. to Oct.); Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 141, 1868 Costa Rica; idem, I.e., p. 
210, 1869 Merida, Yucatan; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 298, 1870 
Sapitiba (Rio de Janeiro) 3 and Cajutuba (Para), Brazil; Lawrence, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 46, 1876 Tehuantepec (San Mateo, San Francisco; 
Feb., April), Oaxaca, Mexico; Sumichrast, La Naturaleza, 5, p. 232, 1881 
Oaxaca (Tehuantepec, Santa Maria del Mar) and Chiapas (Tonala); 
Salvin, Ibis, 1889, p. 379 Cpzumel Island, Mexico; Hartert, I.e., 1893, 
pp. 308, 325 Aruba and Curacao; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, 
pp. 114, 730, 1896 Virginia (Cobb's Island), Texas (Corpus Christi), 
Mexico (Cozumel Island), Guatemala (Chiapam), Veragua, Florida (Indian 
River), Costa Rica and Brazil (Santa Catharina); Ihering, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 3, p. 426, 1899 Iguap6, Sao Paulo; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 307, 
1902 Aruba and Curacao; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 3, p. 347, 1903 part, North America, Mexico (Tehuantepec, Santa 
Maria del Mar, San Mateo, and San Francisco, Oaxaca; Tonala, Chiapas; 

1 Temminck, in a preceding paragraph of the same page, speaks of this Oyster- 
Catcher as being "une race distincte . . . du Br6sil et de toute I'Ame'rique meridi- 
onale." It is thus clear that Brazil must be regarded as type locality, which 
Berlepsch was perfectly justified in restricting to Rio de Janeiro, while Brabourne 
and Chubb's later action (Bds. S. Amer., 1, p. 37, 1912), in arbitrarily selecting 
"Venezuela," may well be ignored. 

2 Although not listed as such, spec. No. 5, from "Br^sil" in the Leyden Mu- 
seum (cf. Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 29, p. 75, 1865) is most probably Temminck' s 
type. 

3 Sapitiba, a place on the seacoast near Rio de Janeiro, was erroneously 
located in Matto Grosso by both Sharpe and Ridgway. 



20 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Me'rida, Yucatan; Cozumel Island), Guatemala (Nagualate, Chiapam), 
Costa Rica (Bahia de Salinas), Veraguas, and Brazil; Thayer and Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 146, 1905 San Miguel Island, Pearl 
Archipelago, Panama; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 45, 1907 Iguape, 
Sao Paulo; Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 314 Testigo Grande, off Venezuela; 
Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 197, 204, 216, 230, 238, 
253, 1909 Aruba (one male), Curacao, Los Roques, Testigos, and Mar- 
garita Island; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 415, 1910 Costa Rica 
(Bahia de Salinas); Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 13, No. 4, p. 24, 1920 Bayoneta 
Island, Pearl Archipelago, Panama (crit.). 

Haematopus brasiliensis Lichtenstein, 1 Verz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 73 
(in text), Sept., 1823 Brazil (type in Berlin Museum). 

Haematopus articus (sic) Jardine, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., 3, p. 35, pi. 64, 
fig. 2, 1832 North America 2 (type in collection of Sir W. Jardine, present 
location unrecorded). 

Haematopus arcticus Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., Part 9, pi. 125, Feb., 
1833 North America. 

Haematopus palliatus palliatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 32, 
1919 North America to Yucatan (monog.; full bibliog.); Todd and 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 187, 1922 Rio Hacha, La Goajira, 
Colombia (May 2); Low, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 44, p. 19, 1923 (range); 
Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, p. 5, 1925 (crit.; range); Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 309, 1929 (life hist.; range in part); Webster, 
Wilson Bull., 55, p. 41, 1943 (descr. pullus and relationship as shown by 
same); Murphy, Auk, 62, p. 116, 1945 Pearl Islands, Panama (Pacheca; 
San Miguel). 

Haematopus ostralegus palliatus Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 35, p. 73, 
1927 (char.; range); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 231, 1934 (range in part); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 126, 1935 Primeira Cruz, Maranhao, 
and Iguape, Sao Paulo; Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 287 Trinidad 
(ex Leotaud) and Little Tobago (ex Kirk); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 78, p. 306, 1935 Veraguas and Pearl Islands, Panama; Murphy, 
Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 975, 1936 (crit.; range). 

Haematopus palliatus subsp. Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 130, 
1932 Champerico, Guatemala. 

Range. Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North and Central America 
from Virginia to Yucatan; Pacific coast of America from the Isthmus 
of Tehuantepec, Mexico, to the Bay of Panama; locally on the coast 

1 Haematopus brasiliensis Wied (Reise Bras., 1, pp. 105, 173, 1820; 2, p. 338, 
1821) is a nomen nudum. 

1 North American specimens, in spite of a tendency to greater development 
of the white markings on primaries and the white chin-spot, do not seem to be 
separable from those of South America, though it is interesting to note that 
Bonaparte (Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 420, 1856) tried to distinguish 
between H. arcticus and H. palliatus. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 21 

of Colombia (La Goajira), Venezuela (including the Leeward Islands 
from Aruba to Los Roques), and Brazil south to Santa Catharina. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 15: North Carolina (Pea Island, Dare 
County, 2); South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 7; Dewees Island, 
Charleston County, 1; Bull's Bay, Charleston County, 1; Santee 
Sound, 1); Texas (Padre Island, 1); Mexico (Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, 
1); Dutch West Indies (Aruba Island, 1). 

Conover Collection. 7: South Carolina (Cape Romain, 2; Dewees 
Island, 2; Caper's Island, 1; Santee Sound, 1; Copahee Sound, 1). 

*Haematopus ostralegus galapagensis Ridgway. 2 GALAPAGOS 
OYSTER-CATCHER. 

Haematopus galapagensis Ridgway, Auk, 3, p. 331, July, 1886 Chatham 
Island, Galapagos (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 9, p. 325, 1886 Chatham Island (full descr.); idem, I.e., 12, 
pp. 116, 120, 123, 128, 1889 James, Chatham, and Indefatigable Islands; 
idem, I.e., 19, p. 621, 1896 (monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, 
p. 116, 1896 Indefatigable Island (char.); Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 6, p. 186, 1899 Albemarle, Hood, Bindloe, James, Indefatigable, 
Tower, and Chatham Islands; iidem, I.e., 9, p. 412, 1902 Indefatigable 
Island (young descr.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, 
p. 262, 1904 Seymour Island; Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, 
pp. 47, 114, 1913 Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Charles, Chatham, 
Gardner-near-Hood, Hood, Indefatigable, James, Narborough, Seymour, 
Tower, Delano Rock, and islets near Jervis (habits; meas.). 

Haematopus palliatus (not of Temminck) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1870, p. 323 Indefatigable Island; Sundevall, I.e., 1871, p. 125 
Galapagos Islands; Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 8, p. 502, 1876 
Indefatigable Island (habits). 

Haematopus leucopus galapagensis Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charad., p. 307, 
1887 (crit.). 

Haematopus palliatus galapagensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 39, 1919 (monog.); Low, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 44, p. 19, 1923 Galapagos 
Islands; Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, p. 9, 1925 (crit.); Swarth, Occ. 
Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 57, 1931 (crit.); Webster, Wilson Bull., 55, 
p. 41, 1943 (descr. of pullus). 

Haematopus ostralegus galapagensis Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 35, p. 19, 
1927 Galapagos Islands (crit.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 232, 1934 
(range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 981, 1936 (crit.). 

1 A specimen from Santa Catharina in the British .Museum is typical palliatus. 
No material is available from Rio Grande do Sul. A single example from Aruba 
Island, Dutch West Indies, in shape of bill, is somewhat intermediate to H. o. 
prattii. 

2 Haematopus ostralegus galapagensis Ridgway: Very close to H. o. frazari, 
but upper parts darker with less white on the wing coverts, and feet larger. From 
H. o. palliatus, the Galapagos Oyster-Catcher is immediately separable by lacking 
all trace of white on the primaries. 



22 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Galapagos Archipelago (excepting Culpepper and Wen- 
man Islands). 

Field Museum Collection. 7: Galapagos Archipelago (Hood 
Island, 3; Indefatigable Island, 2; Tower Island, 1; James Island, 1). 

*Haematopus ostralegus pitanay Murphy. 1 PERUVIAN OYSTER- 
CATCHER. 

Haematopus palliatus pitanay Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, p. 1, Nov. 17, 
1925 Pisco Bay, lea, Peru (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York); idem, I.e., p. 8, 1925 Chile (Algarroba, Cruz 
Grande) to Guayaquil, Ecuador (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 190, 1926 Santa Elena and Tembleque Island, Guayas, 
Ecuador; Webster, Wilson Bull., 55, p. 41, 1943 (relationship as shown by 
pullus). 

Haematopus palliatus (not of Temminck) Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, 
p. 116, 1843 sandy shores north of Valparaiso, Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, 
Hist. Fls. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 406, 1847 Chile; Cassin, in Gilliss, 
U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 197, 1855 Chile; Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
7, p. 314, 1860 near the seacoast, Santiago (nesting habits); Philippi, 
Reise Wuste Atacama, p. 163, 1860 Chanaral, Atacama, Chile; Pelzeln, 
Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 117, 1865 Chile (egg); Schlegel, Mus. 
Pays-Bas, 29, (Cursores), p. 74, 1865 part, spec. nos. 1, 2, Algarroba, 
Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 339 Chile; Philippi, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 272, 1869 central provinces of Chile; Sclater 
and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 Ancud, Chiloe; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 748 Santa Lucia, Tumbez, Peru; Salvin, I.e., 1883, 
p. 429 Paracas Bay, lea, Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 350, 1886 
Peruvian localities; Macfarlane, Ibis, 1887, pp. 204, 205 bays of San 
Nicolas and San Juan, lea, and San Lorenzo Island, Lima, Peru; Seebohm, 
Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 305, 1887 part, Chile; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 
1888 Chanaral, Atacama, Chile; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 
1896 Chile; idem, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 9, p. 50, 1905 Chile; Chubb, 
Ibis, 1919, p. 261 San Lorenzo Island, Peru; Coker, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 56, p. 495, 1919 Chincha Islands, Chilca Bay, and Isla Vieja, 
Peru (breeding); Gigoux, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 87, 1924 Caldera, 
Atacama, Chile. 

Haematopus frazari (not of Brewster) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 
117, 730, 1896 part, spec, b-h, k, 1, Chile (Arauco, Santiago) and Peru 

1 Haematopus ostralegus pitanay Murphy: Most similar to H. o. palliatus, 
but smaller, and white subterminal markings on inner primaries absent or greatly 
reduced. Resembling H. o. frazari in the last-named character, but smaller, and 
with the black of the foreneck abruptly defined against the white belly, whereas 
the Mexican form has a black-and-white mottled zone on the lower end of the 
blackish gular area. Wing, 230-248, (female) 240-260. 

Birds from Peru and Chile agree well together. Specimens from Ecuador, 
according to Murphy, show an approach to H. o. palliatus by having a slight 
suggestion of white on the inner primaries. 

Additional material examined. Peru: San Lorenzo Island, 1; Paracas Bay, 1. 
Chile: Arauco, 1; Prov. Santiago, 1; unspecified, 6. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 23 

(Paracas Bay); Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 303 Arauco, Chile; Schalow, Zool. 
Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 663, 1898 Chile. 

Haematopus ostralegus pitanay Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 35, p. 73, 
1927 (crit.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 382, 1932 
Cucao and Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, Chile (crit.; range); Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 232, 1934 (range); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 247, 
pi. 16, 1935 Isla la Mocha (nesting); Zotta, El Hornero, 6, p. 289, 1936 
Mendoza (Feb., 1918); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 978, 1936 
(crit.; range). 

Haematopus ostragelus (sic) pitanay Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 41, p. 201, 
col. pi. 8, fig. 11, 1937 (egg). 

Range. Pacific coast of South America from the Gulf of Guaya- 
quil, Ecuador, to Chiles' Island, Chile; accidental in Argentina 
(Mendoza). 

Conover Collection. 4: Chile (Cucao, Chilo^ Island, 2; Rio Inio, 
Chiles' Island, 2). 

*Haematopus ostralegus durnfordi Sharpe. 1 DURNFORD'S 
OYSTER-CATCHER. 

Haematopus durnfordi Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 107, 117, pi. 6, 
1896 Tambo Point, Chubut (type in the British Museum); Scott and 
Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 270, 1910 
Tambo Point; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 215, 1910 
Patagonia. 

Haematopus palliatus (not of Temminck) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, 
p. 128, 1841 Rio de la Plata; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, p. 403 Tambo 
Point and mouth of Chubut River, Chubut; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. 
Charad., p. 305, 1887 part, Patagonia (Tovar Harbor, Chubut); Sclater 
and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 176, 1889 Tambo Point; Oustalet, Miss. 
Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 289, 1891 Tambo Point and Tovar Harbour; 
Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 207 Uruguay; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, 
p. 250, 1909 near Chiquita, coast of Buenos Aires; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 215, 1910 Patagonia and Buenos Aires; Grant, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 466 Tuyu and Cape San Antonio, Ajo, Buenos Aires; 
Gibson, I.e., 1920, p. 61 Lagoon de Palenque and Lagoon de Milan, 
Buenos Aires (breeding habits); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 
Colonia, Uruguay; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 144, 1926 
Buenos Aires (Rio Aj6, near Lavalle) and Uruguay (near Montevideo; 
La Paloma, Rocha). 

1 Haematopus ostralegus durnfordi Sharpe: Differs from H. o. palliatus, which 
it resembles in the white-marked primaries, in having the breast along the junction 
of the black and white areas heavily mottled. It is very similar to H. o. gala- 
pagensis, but has much smaller feet and at least some white on the primaries. Six 
birds from Buenos Aires (Tuyu and Cape San Antonio) show considerable variation 
in the extent of white on remiges and in the color of the shafts of the primaries. 

A little-known race. 



24 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Haematopus palliatus durnfordi Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 294, 
1923 San Antonio del Oeste, Rio Negro; Low, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 44, 
p. 73, 1923 (range); Murphy, Amer. Mus: Nov., 194, p. 7, 1925 Lavalle 
and Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (crit.); Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 24, p. 427, 1926 San Antonio del Oeste, Rio Negro (June 29); 
Renard, El Hornero, 4, p. 412, 1931 Mar Chiquita, Buenos Aires. 

Haematopus ostralegus durnfordi Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 35, p. 73, 
1927 (range); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 232, 1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. 
Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 983, 1936 (crit.). 

Range. Atlantic coast of South America from Uruguay to 
Chubut (Tambo Point; Puerto Tovar) and Santa Cruz (Deseado). 

Conover Collection. 1: Argentina (Deseado, Santa Cruz, 1). 

Haematopus ostralegus malacophaga Salomonsen. 1 ICELAND 
OYSTER-CATCHER. 

Haematopus ostralegus malacophaga Salomonsen, Ibis, (12), 6, p. 58, Jan., 

1930 Thorsa, Iceland (type in Copenhagen Museum) ; Peters, Bds. World, 

2, p. 232, 1934 (range). 
Haematopus ostralegus (not of Linnaeus) Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Natur- 

hist. Foren., 1853, p. 71 Julianehaab and Godthaab, Greenland; idem, 

Ibis, 1861, p. 9 Julianehaab, Godthaab, and Nanortalik, Greenland; 

Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 305, 1929 (life hist.). 
Haematopus ostreologus (sic) Winge, Medd. Grjzfnl., 21, p. 157, 1898 Greenland. 
Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 

p. 30, 1919 part, Iceland, Faroe Islands, and Greenland; Murphy, 

Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, p. 5, 1925 part, Greenland. 

Range. Resident on Iceland and the Faroe Islands; accidental 
in Greenland (about six records). 

*Haematopus leucopodus Garnot. 2 MAGELLAN OYSTER- 
CATCHER. 

Haematopus leucopodus Garnot, Ann. Sci. Nat., 7, p. 47, 1826 "baie des 
Frangais, ile de la Soledad, Malouines"=East Falkland Island (type in 
Paris Museum); idem, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 12, p. 542, July 4, 
1829 Falkland Islands; Low, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 44, p. 19, 1923 (range); 
Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, p. 11, 1925 (crit.; meas.; plumages); 

1 Haematopus ostralegus malacophaga Salomonsen: Similar to H. o. ostralegus 
Linnaeus, of Scandinavia, etc., but larger, while the bill, in thickness, is inter- 
mediate between the nominate race and H. o. occidentalis Neumann, of the 
British Isles. Wing, 252-276. 

Two females from Greenland (Jacobshaven, Godthaab) were found by 
Salomonsen to be identical with Icelandic specimens. 

'Haematopus leucopodus Garnot is quite distinct specifically, and differs from 
H. o. pitanay by glossy black (instead of hair brown) back and wings; wholly 
white upper tail coverts (the median ones not variegated with brown); black 
(instead of white) under wing coverts; the extension of the black color all over 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 25 

Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 427, 1926 Beagle Channel, 
Tierra del Fuego; Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 35, p. 73, 1927 (char.; 
range); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool Ser., 19, p. 383, 1932 
Chiloe Island, Chile (crit.); Reynolds, Ibis, 1932, p. 37 Snipe Island, 
Beagle Channel; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 234, 1934 (range); Reynolds, 
Ibis, 1935, p. 87 Barnevelt, Otter Islands, etc., Cape Horn region; 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 985, 19^6 (crit.; range); Webster, 
Wilson Bull., 55, p. 42, 1943 (descr. pullus). 

Haematopus leucopus Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (1), livr. 5, p. 210, 
Oct. 17, 1827 Falkland Islands (diag.); Boeck, Naumannia, 1855, p. 
509 Chiloe Island, Rio Pudeto, and Bay of Reloncavf, Llanquihue, 
Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 386, 1860 East Falkland 
Island; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 156 Falkland Islands (breeding); Philippi, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 272, 1868 southern Chile to Straits of Magellan; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 437 Penguin Island 
(Messier Channel), Tom Bay, and Elizabeth Island, Straits of Magellan; 
Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 15 Cape Sambo (Trinidad Channel), Tom Bay, 
and Hugh Bay, Straits of Magellan; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charad., 
p. 306, 1887 Falkland Islands, Straits of Magellan, and Chile ("near 
Valparaiso") (crit.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 136, 1889 
Elizabeth Island, Straits of Magellan; Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 
6, p. B. 121, 1891 Patagonia (Missioneros), Tierra del Fuego (Bahia 
Orange), and Straits of Magellan (Elizabeth Island; Packewaia and Burnt 
Island, Beagle Channel; Bourchier Bay; Wollaston and Hermit Islands); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 113, 730, 1896 Chile, Straits of 
Magellan (Tom Harbour, Elizabeth Island, Penguin Island, Hermit 
Island, Tom Bay, Hugh Bay, Cape Sambo), and Falkland Islands (San 
Salvador Bay, Berkeley Sound); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 
1896 Magellania and southern Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, 
p. 663, 1898 Punta Anegada, Tierra del Fuego; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 40, p. 625, 1900 Penguin Rookery (Staten 
Island) and Rio Pescado, Straits of Magellan; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 373, 1902 Tierra del Fuego (Packewaia, Isla Wol- 
laston) and Staten Island; Vallentin, Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. 
Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 39, 1904 Falkland Islands (eggs descr.); Reed, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 9, p. 50, 1905 Chile; Crawshay, Birds Tierra del Fuego, 
p. 123, 1907 Useless Bay and San Sebastian Settlement (breeding); 
Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 265, 
1910 Montez Ranch, near Rio Coy, Santa Cruz, and Valle del Lago 
Blanco, Chubut (Sept. to Nov.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 215, 1910 (range); Blaauw, Not. Leyden Mus., 35, p. 70, 1912 
island east of Achao, Chiloe; Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 149, 
1917 Falkland Islands (nesting habits); Wace, El Hornero, 2, p. 198, 
1921 Falkland Islands; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, -p. 322 Falkland Islands. 

the chest; yellow (instead of crimson) eyelids; decidedly shorter, stouter tarsi; 
and wider nails with prominent lateral flange. 

Birds from Chiloe Island are identical with others from Magellania and the 
Falkland Islands. The locality "Valparaiso" is very questionable. 

Additional material examined. Falkland Islands, 10. Magellania: Tom Bay, 
4; Hugh Bay, 1; Penguin Island, 1; Elizabeth Island, 2; Hermit Island, 1. 



26 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ostralega leucopus Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 301, 1828 Falkland Islands; 

idem, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 16, p. 721, May, 1830 Falkland 

Islands. 
Haem[atopus] luduosus Cuvier, Reg. Anim., nouv. e"d., 1, p. 504, 1829 

Falkland Islands (type in Paris Museum); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 29, 

Cursores, p. 74, 1865 Falkland Islands (crit.). 

Range. Southern South America, from Chilo4 Island on the 
west coast and the Chubut River on the east side of the Andes 
south to the Cape Horn region; Falkland Islands. 

Field Museum Collection. 2: Argentina (Rivadavia, Chubut, 1); 
Falkland Islands (unspecified, 1). 

Conover Collection. 4: Chile (Rio Inio, Chiloe* Island, 3; Lomas 
Bay, Tierra del Fuego, 1). 

*Haematopus ater Vieillot and Oudart. 1 QUOY'S BLACK OYSTER- 
CATCHER. 

Haemaiopus niger (not Scolopax nigra Gmelin, 1789) Quoy and Gaimard, in 
Freycinet, Voy. Uranie et Physic., Zool., livr. 4, p. 129, pi. 34, Sept., 
1824 part, Falkland Islands (specimen in Paris Museum examined); 
Garnot, Ann. Sci. Nat., 7, p. 47, 1826 Falkland Islands; Fraser, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 116, 1843 along rocky shores of Chile; Des Murs, 
in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 406, 1847 Chile; Hartlaub, 
Naumannia, 3, p. 215, 1853 Valdivia, Chile; Boeck, I.e., 1855, p. 509 
Corral, Valdivia, Chile; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 29, Cursores, p. 76, 
1865 part, Nos. 1-3, Magellania and Chile (Algarroba) (crit.); Pelzeln, 
Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 117, 1865 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 272, 1868 central provinces of Chile; Housse, Rev. Chil. 
Hist. Nat., 28, p. 51, 1924 Isla la Mocha, Arauco, Chile; Gigoux, I.e., 
p. 87, 1924 Caldera, Atacama, Chile. 

Haemaiopus ater Vieillot and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 2, p. 88, pi. 230, 1825 
part, "au de"troit de Magellan" (type in Paris Museum examined by C. 
E. H.); 2 Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 245, 1848 Valparaiso, Chile; Cassin, 

1 Haemaiopus ater Vieillot and Oudart is readily distinguished from the other 
entirely black species of the genus by its elevated, excessively compressed bill. 
As pointed out by Murphy, it has no genetic relationship to H. o. bachmani. 

* Vieillot's description is not diagnostic, while the range as given includes that 
of several species. Inspection of the material in the Paris Museum shows that he 
did not distinguish between the Magellanic and the Australian species ( H. fuli- 
ginosus). Neither of the two mounted specimens labeled "Huitrier noir. H. ater, 
Vieill.," is marked as "type," but the one bearing "No. 258. par MM. Quoy et 
Gaimard. Exp6d. Freycinet. De la baie des Chiens Marins, Nouvelle Hollande" 
has a note "Gal. 230," which, according to the early custom in the Paris Museum, 
means that it is the original of pi. 230 in the "Galerie des Oiseaux." This bird 
is the Magellanic Black Oyster-Catcher with very deep and excessively compressed 
bill, and agrees perfectly with specimens from Tierra del Fuego. "Shark's Bay, 
Australia," of course, is incorrect; the bird was doubtless secured on the Falkland 
Islands, which may be accepted as type locality. The second specimen, collected 
by Pe>on during the voyage of Le Naturaliste under Captain Baudin in "Nouvelle 
Hollande" is the Australian species. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 27 

in Gilliss, U. S. Ast. Exp., 2, p. 198, 1855 Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 28, p. 386, 1860 Falkland Islands; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 
155 East Falkland (breeding); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 
pp. 331, 339 Chile; idem and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 Puerto Laguna, 
Chonos Archipelago, Chile; Salvin, I.e., 1875, pp. 372, 377 Mas Afuera; 
Durnford, I.e., 1878, p. 403 Tambo Point and mouth of Chubut River, 
Chubut; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 438 Eliza- 
beth Island, Straits of Magellan; Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 15 Port Henry, 
Straits of Magellan; Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 429 San Lorenzo Island, Lima, 
Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 351, 1886 same locality; Macfarlane, 
Ibis, 1887, p. 205 San Lorenzo Island, Peru; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. 
Orn., 2, p. 176, 1889 Tambo Point, Chubut; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 12, p. 136, 1889 Elizabeth Island, Straits of Magellan; Oustalet, 
Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 119, 1891 Santa Cruz (Puerto Deseado), 
Hermit and Wollaston Islands, and Tierra del Fuego (Ushuaia; Bahia 
Orange); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 121, 731, 1896 Falkland 
Islands (Johnson Harbour, Berkeley Sound, Stanley), Chubut (Tambo 
Point), Straits of Magellan (Elizabeth Island, Port Henry), Chile, Mas 
Afuera, and Peru (Callao, Mollendo, San Lorenzo Island); Reed, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb. Suppl., 4, 
p. 664, 1898 Isla de los Pajaros, Coquimbo, Chile; Salvadori, Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 40, p. 624, 1900 Staten Island (Penguin 
Rookery) and Rio Pescado, Straits of Magellan; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 374, 1902 Tierra del Fuego and Staten Island; 
Vallentin, Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 40, 
1904 Falkland Islands (eggs descr.); Reed, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 9, 
p. 50, 1905 coast of Chile; Crawshay, Birds Tierra del Fuego, p. 125, 
1907 Admiralty Sound; Paessler, Orn. Monatsber., 17, p. 103, 1909 
Arica, Tacna, Chile; Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Pata- 
gonia, 2, Orn., p. 272, 1910 Straits of Magellan (descr.); Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 215, 1910 (range in Argentina); Murphy, 
Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, p. 13, 1925 Falkland Islands, Chile, and Peru 
(Independencia Bay, Chincha Islands, An con) (crit.; meas.; plumages); 
Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 35, pp. 72, 73, 1927 (char.; range); Hell- 
mayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 381, 1932 Caldera, 
Atacama, and Rio Inio, Chiloe" Island, Chile (crit.); Reynolds, Ibis, 1932, 
p. 37 Snipe and Woodcock Islands, Beagle Channel, Magellan Straits; 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 234, 1934 (range); Reynolds, Ibis, 1935, p. 87 
islands in the Cape Horn region; Castellanos, El Hornero, 6, p. 29, 1935 
Puerto Parry, Staten Island; Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 247, 
1935 Isla la Mocha (nesting); Philippi, I.e., 6, p. 234, 1936 Arica, 
Tacna, Chile; Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 988, 1936 (monog.); 
Webster, Wilson Bull., 55, p. 42, 1943 (descr. pullus). 

Haematopus townsendi Audubon, Birds Amer., folio ed., 4, pi. 427, fig. 3, 
1836 (or later); idem, Orn. Biog., 5, p. 247, 1839 no locality given (type 
now in U. S. National Museum); idem, Birds Amer., 8vo ed., 5, p. 245, 
1842 "coast of California;" 1 Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 31, 

According to Cassin (U. S. Ast. Exp., 2, p. 198, 1855), said to be from 
"Oregon." The type collected by Townsend was undoubtedly one of the birds 



28 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 47, 1918 (nomencl.); Low, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 44, pp. 16, 19, 1923 
(synon.; range). 

Haematopus unicolor? (not of J. R. Forster, 1844) Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 27, p. 96, 1859 Falkland Islands (egg descr.). 

Haematopus quoyi Brabourne and Chubb, Birds S. Amer., 1, p. 37, 1912 
new name for Haematopus ater Sharpe; Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
61, p. 150, 1917 Falkland Islands; Coker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 56, 
p. 496, 1919 Peru (Chincha Islands, Chilcay Bay, Asia Island, Indepen- 
dencia Bay, Paracas Bay, and [?]Lobos de Tierra); Wace, El Hornero, 
2, p. 198, 1921 Falkland Islands; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 322 Falkland 
Islands. 

Range. Coasts of South America, from lat. 7 S. in Peru, on 
the Pacific side, and from Chubut 1 on the east, south to Cape Horn; 
Falkland Islands; occasional on Mas Afuera. 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Chile (Caldera, Atacama, 1). 
Conover Collection. 5: Chile (Rio Inio, Chilce", 5). 

Family CHARADRIIDAE. Lapwings and Plovers 

Subfamily VANELLINAE. Lapwings 

Genus VANELLUS Brisson 

Vanellus Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 48; 5, p. 94, 1760 type, by tautonymy, "Vanel- 

lus" Brisson=Tringa Vanellus Linnaeus. 

Gavia (not of Forster, 1788) Gloger, Hand- und Hilfsbuch Naturg., 1, p. 433, 
1842 substitute name for Vanellus Brisson. 

*Vanellus vanellus (Linnaeus). LAPWING. 

Tringa Vanellus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 148, 1758 based chiefly 

on Faun. Svec., No. 148, Sweden. 
Vanellus Capella Schaeffer, Mus. Orn., p. 49, 1789 no locality cited. 

Vanellus vulgaris Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., 2, p. 313, 1805 new name for 
Tringa vanellus Linnaeus; Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 495 Barbados (Dec. 24, 
1886). 

Vanellus cristatus Wolf and Meyer, Naturg. Vog. Deuts., 1, p. 110, with pi., 
1805 new name for Tringa vanellus Linnaeus; Holb011, Naturhist. 

obtained by him during his voyage around South America. Oberholser (Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 31, p. 47, 1918) suggests Falkland Islands as type locality of H. 
townsendi. 

1 In the absence of specimens we hesitate to accept Smith's record of a "black 
oyster-catcher" (Zoologica, N. Y., 9, p. 288, 1927) from the Coronilla Islands, off 
Uruguay, as pertaining to H. ater. 

Additional material examined. Peru: San Lorenzo Island, Callao, Mollendo, 
5. Chile, 9. Straits of Magellan, 6. Falkland Islands, 8. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 29 

Tidskr., 4, p. 371, 1843 Fiskenaesset, Greenland (Jan.); Reinhardt, 
Ibis, 1861, p. 9 Greenland (Fiskenaesset, Jan. 7; Julianehaab) ; Schi01er, 
Dansk. Orn. Foren. Tidssk., 11, p. 174, 1917 Nanortalik, Sukkertoppen 
and Godthaab, Greenland. 

Vanellus vanellus Dutcher, Auk, 3, p. 438, 1886 Merrick, Long Island 
(Dec., 1883); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 166, 735, 1896 (monog.); 
Piers, Auk, 15, p. 195, 1898 Ketch Harbour, Nova Scotia (March 17, 
1897); Fleming, I.e., 18, p. 272, 1901 Hog Island, Bahamas (Nov., 1900); 
Beebe, I.e., 23, p. 221, 1906 Meccox Bay, Waterville, Long Island (fall, 
1905); Brewster, I.e. White Hills, Newfoundland (Nov. 23, 1905); Ridg- 
way, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 65, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); 
Brimley, Auk, 44, p. 248, 1927 Siler City, North Carolina (Nov. 11, 
1926); Ingersoll, I.e., 45, p. 208, 1928 Newfoundland (Dec., 1927, flocks 
seen); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 144, 1929 (life hist.); Taverner, 
Auk, 46, p. 231, 1929 St. Augustine, Quebec (Dec. 15, 1927); Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 235, 1934 (range); Salomonsen, Dansk. Orn. Foren. 
Tidssk., 29, p. 112, 1935 Angmagssalik, Greenland (descr.); Cottam 
and Knappen, Auk, 56, p. 153, 1939 (food of in North America); Reimann, 
I.e., p. 332, 1939 Long Island, New York (fall, 1910); Cooke, Bd. Banding, 
16, p. 126, 1945 Newfoundland (banded in England); Soper, Auk, 63, 
p. 226, 1946 Cumberland Sound, Arctic Canada (Oct., 1926). 

Range. Breeds in Europe and northern Asia; winters in southern 
Europe, northern Africa, and southern Asia; casual in Greenland, 
Cumberland Sound, Labrador (Cartwright, Jan., 1917; Anatalok 
Bay, Dec. 22, 1927), Quebec (St. Augustine, Dec. 15, 1927), New- 
foundland (White Hills, Nov. 23, 1905; Bonavista, Dec., 1927), New 
Brunswick (North Head, Jan. 6, 1928), Nova Scotia (Ketch Harbour, 
March 17, 1897), Long Island, New York (Merrick, Dec., 1883; 
Meccox Bay, Waterville, fall, 1905; fall, 1910), North Carolina 
(Siler City, Nov. 11, 1926), Bahamas (Hog Island, Nov., 1900), 
Barbados (Dec. 24, 1886). * 

Field Museum Collection. 2: Labrador (Hopedale, 2). 



Genus BELONOPTERUS Reichenbach 

Belonopterus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., p. xviii, "1852" (=1853) type, 
by orig. desig., Tringa cajennensis Latham=Parra cayennensis Gmelin. 

Belanopterus Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, 
p. 278, 1910 (emendation). 

*Belonopterus cayennensis cayennensis (Gmelin). CAYENNE 
LAPWING. 

1 The range "small islands in Norton Sound, Alaska" as given by both Bent 
and Ridgway was evidently based on the account of Dall and Bannister (Trans. 
Chicago Acad. Sci., 1, p. 293, 1869) who in turn based their record on the descrip- 
tion of a bird seen by a Russian some time before. 



30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Parra cayennensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 706, 1789 based on "Vanneau 
arme', de Cayenne" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 8, p. 65, Daubenton, PI. 
Enl., pi. 836, and "Vanneau" Fermin, Descr. Surinam, 2, p. 193, 1769, 
Cayenne. 

Tringa cajennensis Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 727, 1790 same basis. 

Vanellus cayanensis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 35, p. 206, 
1819 part, Cayenne. 1 

Charadrius lampronotus Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 5, Genus Charadrius, sp. 48, 
1827 part, descr. "avis adult, tempestate pluviarum?," Cayenne. 

Vanellus cayennensis Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 750, 1849 savannas; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 163, 1855 
"Bogota"; Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 39, 1857 
Cayenne, French Guiana; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 29, Cursores, 
p. 57, 1865 part, spec. Nos. 1, 2, Guiana; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 591 Mexiana Island, Brazil; iidem, I.e., 1869, 
p. 252 Lake Valencia, Venezuela; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 La Cruz 
(alt. 4,000 ft.) and Lake Paturia, Rio Magdalena, Colombia; Harting, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 450 part, Venezuela, Guiana, and 
Amazonia (descr.); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 546 Retiro, Con- 
cordia, and Frontino, Colombia; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1884, p. 441 Angostura, 
Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; Salvin, I.e., 1886, p. 178 British Guiana; 
Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charad., p. 216, 1887 (in part); Grant,' Ibis, 1912, 
p. 274 (range). 

Belonopterus cayennensis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 163, 735, 
1896 part, spec, a-i, v-x, Colombia (Cartagena, Antioquia), British 
Guiana (Quonga, Annai), and Brazil (Mexiana Island); Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 302 Plain of Tolima, Colombia; Berlepsch and 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 129, 1902 Altagracia, Caicara, and Quiribana 
de Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 44, 
1907 Mexiana Island (nest and eggs descr.); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, 
p. 305, 1908 Cayenne; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 192, 
1913 La Pedrita, Rio Uracoa, Venezuela; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 84, 1914 part, Mexiana Island, Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. 
Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 370, 1916 Orinoco region; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 222, 1917 Colombia (Atrato River, Caldas, Las 
Lomitas, San Antonio, Cali, La Manuelita, El Roble, Salento, Puerto 
Berrio, and Barrigon); Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 41, 1922 Rio Cogollo and Catatumbo, Zulia, Venezuela; 
Delacour, Ibis, 1923, p. 139 llanos of Guarico and Apure, Venezuela. 

Belonopterus cayennensis cayennensis Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 

14, p. 186, 1922 Fundacion, Colombia; Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. 

Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 60, 1930 (char.; range); Darlington, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 376, 1931 Aracataca, Magdalena, Colombia. 
Belonopterus chilensis cayennensis Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 296, 

1923 (char.; range); idem, Bds. World, 2, p. 236, 1934 (range); Brodkorb, 

1 The bird (whose divergencies from Cayenne specimens are noted) sent from 
Brazil (i.e. Rio de Janeiro) by Delalande to Paris, and Azara's "Terute>o o Teteu" 
(No. 386) are referable to B. c. lampronotus. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 31 

Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 293, p. 2, 1934 (crit.); Griswold, Auk, 
53, p. 457, 1936 La Jagua, Panama (May 17, 1936; range); Brodkorb, 
Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 349, p. 2, 1937 Caviana Island, Brazil 
(crit.); Brandt, Auk, 55, p. 288, 1938 Port Obaldia, Panama (Aug. 27, 
1934); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 126, 1938 (range); Wetmore, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 87, p. 192, 1939 El Sombrero, Guarico, Venezuela. 
Belonopterus chilensis cayannensis Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 
170, 1926 (char.; range). 

Range. Savannas of Panama (La Jagua, near Pacora), Colombia, 
Venezuela, the Guianas, and Brazil north of the lower Amazon (Rio 
Branco; Rio Maecuru; Obidos; Caviana and Mexiana Islands). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 4: Venezuela (Catatumbo, Zulia, 1; 
Culata, Merida, 1; Rio Chama, Merida, 1); Brazil (Boa Vista, 
Amazonas, 1). 

Conover Collection. 17: Colombia (Nechi, Antioquia, 3; El Tam- 
bo, Cauca, 4; Popayan, Cauca, 2); Venezuela (Rio Cogollo, Zulia, 2); 
Brazil (Obidos, Para, 6). 

*Belonopterus cayennensis lampronotus (Wagler). 2 BRAZILIAN 
LAPWING. 

Charadrius lampronotus Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 5, Genus Charadrius, sp. 48, 
1827 part, "mas. et fern, ptilosi aestiv.," Paraguay and Brazil (type, 
from southern Brazil, formerly in Munich Museum, 3 examined by the 
senior author). 

1 Adults from Obidos and one from Mexiana Island are in every respect 
typical cayennensis, agreeing with skins from the Rip Branco, Guiana, and Vene- 
zuela. One out of four adults from the Caura River has the throat and the 
pectoral area connected by a narrow black stripe, thus pointing to lampronotus. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 1; Retire, 1. Vene- 
zuela: Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, 3; Caura Valley, 4. Brazil: Obidos, 1; Mexiana 
Island, 1. British Guiana: Quonga, 1; Annai, 3; savannas, 5. 

2 Belonopterus cayennensis lampronotus (Wagler) differs from the nominate 
race in shorter tarsus, more grayish sides of head and neck, and especially in having 
the black gular stripe connected with the black pectoral area by an uninterrupted 
broad band, while the black tail-band is on average narrower. Birds from Matto 
Grosso and the northern parts of Brazil frequently approach typical cayennensis 
in the color of the sides of the head, but this is at best an average difference. A 
couple of adults from Marajo Island are typical of the present form, while a single 
bird from Mexiana, like others from Caviana recorded by Brodkorb, is just as 
unequivocally cayennensis. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Natal, Marajo, 2; Bahia, 3; Campos, 
Rio de Janeiro, 4; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 4; Jaguaraiba, Parana, 1; Cuyaba, 
Matto Grosso, 1. Paraguay: Villa Rica, 1. Uruguay: Santa Elena, Soriano, 1; 
Colonia, 1; Montevideo, 1; Paysandu, 1. Argentina: Los Yngleses, Ajo, 13; 
Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires, 1; Misiones, 2; Est. La Germania, Santa F, 2; 
San Jos6, Formosa, 2; Lapango, Formosa, 1; Colonia Vedia, Rio de Oro, Chaco 
Austral, 1; Neuquen City, NeuquSn, 1. 

3 The type was in the Munich Museum, when the senior author was in charge 
of its bird collection, but has since been lost, as we are told by Laubmann (Wiss. 
Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 61, note 1, 1930). 



32 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Vanellus cayennensis (not Parra cayennensis Gmelin) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 4, (2), p. 754, 1832 southeastern Brazil (Bahia, etc.); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 144 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; 
Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 35 Lagoa Santa 
and Sete Lagoas, Minas Geraes; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 296, 1870 
Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba), Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Itarare, Irisanga), 
Parana (Registo Velho, Jaguaraiba), and Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Caicara); 
Hudson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 6 Buenos Aires; Harting, I.e., 
1874, p. 450 part, Brazil, Uruguay, and Buenos Aires; idem, I.e., p. 457 
Uruguay (egg descr.); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 253, 1874 Blumenau, 
Santa Catharina; Durnford, Ibis, 1876, p. 164 near Belgrano, Buenos 
Aires; idem, I.e., 1877, p. 196 Province of Buenos Aires; Gibson, I.e., 
1880, p. 161 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (breeding); Dalgleish, 
Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb., 6, p. 253, 1881 Est. de la Tala, Uruguay 
(eggs descr.); White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 627 Rio Lujan 
and Salto, Buenos Aires; Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 278, 1884 Concepcion del 
Uruguay, Entre Rios (breeding); Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 282 Paysandu, 
Uruguay; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 181, 1885 
Tequara, Rio Grande do Sul; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 216, 
1887 part, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, and Buenos Aires; Sclater 
and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 165, 1889 Argentina (in part); Dalgleish, 
Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., 10, p. 88, 1889 Est. Itanu, Paraguay; 
Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425 Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires; idem, I.e., 
1892, p. 210 Est. Espartillar (breeding); Kerr, I.e., p. 150 lower Pilco- 
mayo, Chaco; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 5, p. 149, 1893 Cuyaba, 
Matto Grosso; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 205 Uruguay; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 24, 1895 Villa Rica, Paraguay; Kerr, Ibis, 
1901, p. 235 Villa Concepcion and Paraguayan Chaco; Lonnberg, I.e., 
1903, p. 460 Tatarenda, Tarija, Bolivia; Grant, I.e., 1911, p. 464 Los 
Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires (breeding); Gibson, I.e., 1920, p. 55 Cape 
San Antonio, Buenos Aires (habits). 

Philomachus cayanus (not Charadrius cayanus Latham) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 
3, Birds, p. 127, 1841 part, La Plata. 

Vanellus cayanensis (not of Vieillot) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, 
p. 363, 1856 Brazil; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 260, 1860 Argentina; idem, 
Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 502, 1861 Argentina; Doering, in Roca, Inf. 
Ofic. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., p. 55, 1881 northern parts of the pampas; 
Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 87, 1884 Province of 
Buenos Aires. 

Belonopterus cayennensis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 163, 735, 
1896 part, spec, k-m, y, z, Brazil (Para, Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de 
Janeiro, Matto Grosso), Buenos Aires, and Uruguay (Montevideo, 
Maldonado); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 35, 
1897 Cara-huassi, puna of Salta; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 
16, p. 149, 1899 Mundo Nova, Barra do Rio Camaquam, and Pedras 
Brancas; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 428, 1899 Iguape, Sao Paulo; 
Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 212, 1902 Famailla and Tapia, 
Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 231, 1904 Santa Ana and Tapia, Tucuman; 
Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 250, 1904 Salta; Ihering, Cat. Faun. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 33 

Braz., 1, p. 46, 1907 Sao Paulo (Rio Grande, Barretos); Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 250, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 216, 1910 part, Salta; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 94, 1910 
Joazeiro, Bahia; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 67 Sapucay, Paraguay; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 216, 1910 Cordoba, 
Buenos Aires, and Entre Rios; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 84, 
1914 part, Marajo (Pindobal, Magoary, Soure); Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 223, 1910 Bahia and Piauhy; 
Castellanos, El Hornero, 4, p. 375, 1931 Valle de los Reartes, 
Cordoba. 

Vanellus chilensis (not Parra chilensis Molina) Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 444 
Quinta, Jujuy. 

Vanellus grisescens (not of Prazak) Grant, Ibis, 1912, p. 274 (crit.; range in 
part). 

Belonopterus cayennensis grisescens Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 89, 1918 
Isla San Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 13, 1920 
Uruguay (numerous localities); Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 262, 1922 Rosas, 
Buenos Aires; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 41, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre 
Rios; Renard, I.e., 3, p. 286, 1924 San Cristobal, Santa Fe". 

Belonopterus chilensis lampronotus Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 296, 
1923 (char.; range); Pereyra, El Hornero, 3, p. 162, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos 
Aires; Wilson, I.e., 3, p. 352, 1926 Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe; Wetmore, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 429, 1926 Valcheta, Rio Negro; idem, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, pp. 169, 170, 1926 Argentina and Uruguay 
(char.; range); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 169, 1927 
Bovril Islands, Santa Fe, and Rio Gastone, Tucuman; Marelli, El Hornero, 
5, p. 194, 1933 Fortin Chaco, Bahia Blanca, and Arroyo Parejas, Buenos 
Aires; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 236, 1934 (range); Brodkorb, Occ. Pap. 
Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 293, p. 4, 1934 (char.; range); Pinto, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 20, p. 42, 1936 Rio das Almas, Goyaz; idem, I.e., 22, p. 127, 
1938 Para (Marajo), Maranhao (Boa Vista), Bahia (Rio Gongogy), 
Minas Geraes (Pirapora), Goyaz (Rio das Almas), Rio de Janeiro (Sao 
Joao da Barra), Sao Paulo (Barretos), and Matto Grosso (Aquidauana, 
Sant'Anna do Paranahyba); Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. 
Handl., (3), 23, p. 70, 1945 Bolivia (Reyes and Bresta, El Beni) (disc. 
Parra chilensis Molina). 

Belonopterus cayennensis lampronotus Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 491, 1929 Miritiba, Maranhao (crit.); Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 76, 1930 Matto Grosso; Laubmann, Wiss. 
Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, pp. 59, 61, 1930 Formosa (San 
Jose, Lapango) and Santa Fe (Est. Germania) (range; char.); Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 17, (2), p. 713, 1932 Sant'Anna do Paranahyba and Aqui- 
dauana, Matto Grosso; Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 268, 
1934 Est. La Geraldina, Santa Fe; Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 86, p. 376, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso; Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 19, p. 78, 1935 Rio Gongogy, Bahia. 

Belonopterus cayennensis intermedius Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 5, p. 203, Dec. 31, 1926 "Brazil" (type in Warsaw Museum). 



34 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Belonopterus chiknsis (not Parra chilensis Molina) Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. 

Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 119, 1926 Fazenda Durski and Invernadinha, 

Parana. 
Belonopterus cayennensis chilensis Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 404, 1931 

Maimara, Jujuy (breeding). 

Range. Tableland of Brazil north to the Island of Marajo and 
the south bank of the lower Amazon (Santare'm; Rio Tocantins); 
Uruguay; Paraguay; eastern Bolivia; Argentina in the northwest, 
south at least to Tucuman and in the pampa region to northern 
Rio Negro (Valcheta). 

Field Museum Collection. 16: Brazil (Cidade do Barra, Rio 
Sao Francisco, Bahia, 1; Conceicao, Matto Grosso, 1; Vaccaria, 
Matto Grosso, 6); Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 2); Uruguay 
(San Vicente da Castillos, Rocha, 2; Garzon, Rocha, 1; Treinte-y- 
Tres, 1); Argentina (Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 2). 

Conover Collection. 19: Brazil (District Monte Alegre, Para, 2; 
Miritiba, Maranhao, 2; Vaccaria, Matto Grosso, 5); Paraguay 
(Orloff, Chaco, 1; 265 km. west of Puerto Casado, 2; Villa Rica, 1); 
Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 2; 1 Santa Ana, Misiones, 2; 
Cambaceres, Buenos Aires, 2). 

*Belonopterus cayennensis occidentalis (Harting). 2 CHILEAN 
LAPWING. 

Vanellus occidentalis Harting, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 451 Chile, 
Patagonia, and (?) Falkland Islands (type, from Chile, in British Museum 
examined); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1878, p. 437 Elizabeth Island, 
Magellan Straits; Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 14 Peckett Harbour, Magellan 
Straits, and Talcaguano, Chile; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 335, 1886 
"cote PSruvienne"; Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 117, 1891 
Isla de los Leones, Patagonia, and Elizabeth Island, Straits of Magellan. 

1 These two specimens agree in color with birds from southern Brazil but have 
the more extensively feathered tibia of occidentalis. 

2 Belonopterus cayennensis occidentalis (Harting): Resembles B. c. lampronotus 
by the presence of a distinct jugular band, which is frequently even broader and 
more compact; but has a shorter crest, clear gray top and sides of head, abdominally 
more extended black pectoral area, more extensively feathered tibia, and wider 
black-and-white terminal tail-bands; wings and tail longer; tarsus shorter. 

Birds from southwestern Argentina (Mendoza, Chubut) are perfectly identical 
with a Chilean series. An adult male from La Picaza, western Neuquen (Oct. 28, 
1907), is typical of the present form, while one from farther east (Neuquen City) 
unquestionably pertains to lampronotus. 

Brodkorb sought to separate the birds from southern Patagonia on account 
of smaller size and shorter tarsus, but while admitting a tendency in that respect 
among the inhabitants of the southern extremity of South America we believe 
the difference too inconstant for the recognition of B. c. fretensis. It is rather 
suggestive that the author, without any comment, refers a specimen from Tierra 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 35 

Parra cayennensis (not of Gmelin) Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (1), p. 242, 
1828 Penco, Chile. 

Charadrius cayanus (not of Latham) Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.- 
Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, Suppl., 1, p. 106, 1834 Chile. 

Philomachus cayanus Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 127, 1841 part, 
Chile. 

Vanellus cayennensis Bridges, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 94, 1841 Col- 
chagua, Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Ffs. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 400, 
1847 Chile; Bibra, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, 
p. 131, 1853 Quillota and Santiago, Chile; Hartlaub, Naumannia, 3, 
p. 215, 1853 Valdivia, Chile; Boeck, I.e., 1855, p. 509 Valdivia, Chile; 
Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 195, 1855 interior of Chile; 
Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 313, 1860 Santiago (nesting 
habits); Frauenfeld, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 10, Abhandl., p. 639, 
1860 Lake Aculeo, Santiago; Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, 
p. 115, 1865 Chile; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 29, p. 57, 1865 part, 
spec. nos. 2-9, Chile (Santiago) and Falkland Islands (Abbott collection) ; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; Philippi, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 31, p. 271, 1868 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, 
p. 284 Gregory Bay, Straits of Magellan; Durnford, I.e., 1877, p. 42 
Chubut, Patagonia; idem, I.e., 1878, p. 402 Chubut; C. Burmeister, 
Ann. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 3, p. 319, 1889 Fortin Villegas, Chubut; 
Lataste, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 3, pp. cxv, cxvi, 1893 Bureo (Chilian), 
Nuble, and Ninhue (Itata), Maule, Chile; Waugh and Lataste, I.e., 4, 
pp. Ixxxviii, clxxii, 1894 Penaflor, Santiago, and San Alfonso (Quillota), 
Valparaiso; Lataste, I.e., 5, p. Ixii, 1895 Maule, Chile; Johow, Est. Flora 
Isl. Juan Fernandez, p. 238, 1896 Mas A Tierra Island. 

Philomachus chilensis (not Parra chilensis Molina) 1 Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 11, p. 117, 1843 Chile. 

Vanellus chiliensis Yarrell, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 15, p. 54, 1847 Chile 
(egg descr.). 

Hoplopterus cayanus (errore) Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 155 near Port Stanley, 
Falkland Islands; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 46 Falkland 
Islands (ex Abbott). 

Vanellus cayanus Cunningham, Ibis, 1868, p. 490 Gregory Bay, Straits of 
Magellan. 

Vanellus chilensis Reed, -Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 566, 1877 Cauquenes, 
Colchagua, Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 666, 1898 Ovalle, 

del Fuego (Porvenir) to B. c. occidentalis, and regards certain small Chilean birds 
as migrants from the south. 

Measurements (wing and tarsus). Ten from Central Chile (Valparaiso, 
Santiago), 240-258, 65-76; one (adult male), from Concepcion, 250, 66; six from 
Temuco, Cautin, 240-250, 60-70. Three adults from Valley del Lago Blanco, 
Chubut, 242-247, 63-65; one adult from Santa Cruz (Monte Leon), 240, 60. 
Four from the Straits of Magellan, 238, 240, 242, 252, 60-64. 

Forty specimens from the range of B. c. occidentalis examined. 

1 Parra chilensis Molina (Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 258, 344, 1782) is a 
hopeless mixture of B. c. occidentalis and Jacana s. jacana and should be rejected 
(cf. Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 367, 1932). 



36 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Coquimbo; Grant, Ibis, 1912, p. 274 (range); Gigoux, Rev. Chil. Hist. 
Nat., 28, p. 84, 1924 Caldera, Atacama, Chile. 

Vanellus cayennensis chilensis Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charad., p. 218, 1887 
(crit.; range). 

Belonoptenis chilensis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 136, 1889 
Gregory Bay, Magellan Straits; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 165, 
735, 1896 Chile (Valparaiso, San Pedro, San Antonio, Talcaguano, 
Santiago) and Straits of Magellan (Elizabeth Island); Lane, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 302 San Pedro (Conception) and San Antonio (Valparaiso), Chile; 
Crawshay, Birds Tierra del Fuego, p. 116, 1907 San Sebastian Settlement 
and Useless Bay (breeding); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 
250, 1909 Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut, and Carpinteria, San Juan; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 216, 1910 part, Tierra 
del Fuego and Patagonia; Barrow, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, p. 44, 1920 
Nilahue, Curico, Chile; Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 444, 1922 Coronel, 
Chile (breeding habits); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 28, 1927 San Rafael, 
Mendoza; Castellanos, I.e., 6, p. 30, 1936 Tierra del Fuego. 

Vanellus grisescens Prazak, Orn. Monatsber., 4, p. 23, 1896 northern Chile. 1 

Belcmopterus chilensis Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 
2, Orn., p. 279, 1910 "Guer" Aike, Santa Cruz, and Lago Blanco, Chubut. 

Belonopterus cayennensis chilensis Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 148, 1918 San 
Carlos, Mendoza; Wace, I.e., 2, p. 198, 1921 Falkland Islands (ex 
Abbott); Barrow, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 172, 1921 Cordillera of 
Aconcagua, Chile; Giacomelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 80, 1923 La Rioja; 
Bullock, I.e., p. 92, 1923 Chile (nest); Reed, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 27, 
p. 146, 1923 Teno, Chile; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 322 Falkland Islands 
(Mar. 28, 1913; Mar. 10, 1924). 

Belonopterus cayennensis molina Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 41, p. Ill, Apr. 27, 
1921 new name for B. chilensis auct. (not Parra chilensis Molina). 

Belonopterus chilensis chilensis Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, pp. 295, 
296, 1923 western Rio Negro (char.; range); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 133, pp. 168, 169, 1926 Neuquen (Zapala), Mendoza (Tunuyan), 
and Chile (Con con, Valparaiso) (char.; range); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 24, p. 429, 1926 Lago Moschitos, Cholila, Chubut; Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 236, 1934 (range); Brodkorb, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. 
Mich., 293, p. 6, 1934 (char.; range). 

Belonopterus cayennensis Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 51, 1924 
Isla la Mocha, Arauco, Chile; idem, I.e., 29, p. 149, 1925 San Bernardo, 
Santiago; Bullock, I.e., 33, p. 201, 1929 Angol, Malleco, Chile. 

Belonopterus cayamensis (sic) Jaffuel and Pirion, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, 
p. 113, 1927 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso, Chile. 

Belonopterus cayennensis occidentalis Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 60, 1930 (char.; range); Hellmayr, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 367, 1932 Chile (Atacama to Straits of 

1 The type cannot be traced and probably never existed. It is quite possible 
that the description was purely imaginary, as the author proved to be of unsound 
mind. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 37 

Magellan); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 245, 1935 Isla la Mocha 
(resident). 

Belonopterus chilensis fretensis Brodkorb, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 
293, p. 12, June 29, 1934 Cheaike, Rio Chico, Magallanes, Chile (type 
in collection of Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan). 

Belanoplerus cavennensis (sic) occidentalis Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 41, 
p. 201, col. pi. 8, fig. 10, 1937 (egg). 

Range. Chile (from Atacama southward) and the Andean region 
of Argentina from Mendoza south to Tierra del Fuego, and in the 
plains of Patagonia north to the Chubut River; 1 accidental on the 
Falkland Islands and on Mas A Tierra. 

Field Museum Collection. 5: Chile (Concepcion, Concepcion, 1; 
Curacautin, Cautin, 1; Pucon, Cautin, 1); Argentina (Valle del Lago 
Blanco, Chubut, 1; Tierra del Fuego, 1). 

Conover Collection. 11: Chile (Concepcion, 1; Petal, Cautin, 1; 
Angol, Province Bio Bio, 3; Cucao, Chilo Island, 1; Quellon, Chiloe" 
Island, 1; Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, Llanquihue, 1; Porvenir, 
Magallanes, 1); Argentina (Tunuyan, Mendoza, 1; Tierra del Fuego, 

1). 

Genus HOPLOXYPTERUS Bonaparte 

Hoploxypterus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 418, 1856 
type, by monotypy, Charadrius cayanus Latham. 

*Hoploxypterus cayanus (Latham). CAYENNE PLOVER. 

Charadrius cayanus Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 749, 1790 based on "Le Pluvier 
arme de Cayenne" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 8, p. 102, and Daubenton, PI. 
Enl., pi. 833, Cayenne; Burmeister, Syst. Unters. Th. Bras., 3, p. 358, 
1856 Sette Lagoas, Minas Geraes. 

Charadrius stolatus Wagler, Syn. Av., 1, fol. 4, Charadrius, spec. 12, 1827 
substitute name for Charadrius cayanus Latham. 

Charadrius spinosus (not of Linnaeus, 1758) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, 
(1), p. 764, 1832 eastern Brazil (Rio Belmonte, etc.). 

Hoplopterus cayanus Hartlaub, Syst. Index Azara, p. 24, 1847 Paraguay 
(ex Azara, No. 391); Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
"1848," p. 750,- 1849 sand banks of the Takutu River; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 290, 1860 Babahoyo, Ecuador; idem and Salvin, 
I.e., 1866, p. 199 lower Ucayali, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1867, pp. 591, 979 
south bank of Amazon, Brazil, and Pebas, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 

1 For many years, the sole basis for including "Peru" in the range of this form 
was a specimen in the Raimondi Collection said to be from the "cote Peruvienne." 
More recently, however, Menegaux (Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 1, p. 320, 1910) has 
recorded B. chilensis from Lopuna, Rio Tocache, Dept. Loreto, Peru, rather a 
singular occurrence for a species of the Temperate Zone. 



38 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 296, 1870 Sao Paulo (road to Taubat, Itarar6, Rio Parana), Goyaz 
(Goyaz), Matto Grosso (Cuyaba), and Barra do Rio Negro [=Manaos], 
Brazil; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 35 
Lagoa Santa and Sete Lagoas, Minas Geraes; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 309 lower Ucayali, Santa Cruz, and Pebas, 
Peru; Salvin, Ibis, 1886, p. 177 Roraima, British Guiana; Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 3, p. 335, 1886 (Peruvian localities); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 5, p. 149, 1893 Cachoeira and Corumba, Matto Grosso; Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 14, p. 29, 1907 Urucurituba, Rio Tapajoz; idem, I.e., 15, 
p. 101, 1908 Fazenda Esperanca, Goyaz. 

Hoploxypterus cayanus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 418, 
1856; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 135, 732, 1896 British 
Guiana (Roraima, Ourumee), Ecuador (Sarayacu), Peru (Pebas, lower 
Ucayali), and Brazil ("Omega," south side of Amazon; Corumba, Matto 
Grosso; Rio Parana, Sao Paulo; Rio de Janeiro); Ihering, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 3, p. 428, 1899 Sao Paulo; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 43, 1900 Rio Daule (Balzar), Ecuador; Berlepsch 
and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 129, 1902 Venezuela (Ciudad Bolivar, 
Mato River, Altagracia, and Caicara, Orinoco region) ; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 349, 1903 "Aloor, Rio Ulua, Honduras" 
and South America; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, "1904," p. 452, 1905 
Rio Jurua, Brazil; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 102, 1906 
Santa Ana, Urubamba, Peru; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 46, 1907 
Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Iguape, Franca, Itapura) and Amazonia (Rio 
Jurua); Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 44, 1907 Mexiana Island, 
Brazil; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 304, 1908 Cayenne; Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 56, pp. 23, 538, 1908 Bom Lugar, Rio Purus, and Aruma- 
theua, Rio Tocantins, Brazil; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, pp. 93, 223, 1910 Bahia (Joazeiro, Sambaiba, Rio Sao 
Francisco; Barra, Rio Grande), Piauhy (Parnagua), and Maranhao 
(Miritiba), Brazil; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 424, 1910 Calama, Rio 
Madeira; idem, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, 
pp. 97, 122, 1912 Capim River and Mexiana, Brazil; Chrostowski, 
Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. Varsovie, 5, pp. 462, 492, 1912 Vera Guarany, 
Parana; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 258, 1913 Misiones; Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 38, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 83, 1914 Rio Guama (Santa Maria de Sao Miguel, Ourem), 
Rio Capim, Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Rio Tapajoz (Goyana), Rio 
Purus (Cachoeira, Bom Lugar), and Rio Maecuru, Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. 
Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst. Arts Sci., 2, p. 370, 1916 Orinoco region; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 70, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); 
Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 118, 1926 Corredeira 
de Ferro (Rio Ivahy), Parana; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 191, 1926 Ecuador; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 491, 1929 Piauhy (Deserto, Ibiapaba) and Goyaz (Philadelphia, 
lower Tocantins), Brazil; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 76, 
1930 Rio Sao Lourenco, Matto Grosso; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 17, 
(2), p. 801, 1932 Alto Rio Parana, Sao Paulo; Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 241, 1934 (range); Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
86, p. 37, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso; Brodkorb, Occ. Pap. Mus. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 39 

Zool. Univ. Mich., 349, p. 6, 1937 Marajo, Brazil; Pinto, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 22, p. 127, 1938 Amazonas (Rio Jurua), Maranhao (Miritiba), 
Goyaz (Pte. Ipe" Arcado), and Sao Paulo (Iguape", Franca, Itapura, Rio 
Parana, Presidente Epitacio) ; Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 87, p. 192, 
1939 Independencia and El Sombrero, Venezuela; Nice"foro, Caldasia, 
3, p. 373, 1945 Colombia (Llanos del Meta; La Morelia, Caqueta); 
Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., (3), 22, p. 42, 1945 
Brazil (Santo Antonio, Rio Juru& and various Amazonian localities); 
idem, I.e., (3), 23, p. 71, 1945 Bolivia (Victoria, El Desierto and La 
Laguna, El Beni). 

Vanellus cayanus Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 29, Cursores, p. 62, 1865 
Brazil (crit.); Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 229, pi. [10], 1887 (crit.). 

Hoplopterus spinosus Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 500 Rio Capim, Para. 

Range. Eastern Colombia, southern Venezuela (Orinoco basin) 
and the Guianas south through Amazonia to eastern Bolivia, northern 
Paraguay, northeastern Argentina (Misiones), and southern Brazil 
(Matto Grosso and Sao Paulo) ; also in western Ecuador (Babahoyo, 
Rio Daule). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 12: Brazil (Conceicao, Rio Branco, 
Amazonas, 2; Serra Grande, Rio Branco, Amazonas, 1; Boa Vista, 
Amazonas, 3; Deserto, Piauhy, 1; Sao Marcello, Bahia, 5). 

Conover Collection. 11: Ecuador (Rio Bobonaza, !); Brazil (Rio 
Maycuru, Monte Alegre, Para, 2; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 1; Philadelphia, 
Goyaz, 4; Cavalcanti, Goyaz, 1); Bolivia, Santa Cruz (Buena Vista, 
1; Cerro del Amboro, 1). 

Genus PTILOSCELYS Bonaparte 

Ptiloscelys Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 419, 1856 
type, by monotypy, Charadrius resplendens Tschudi. 

Ptiloscelis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 137, 1896 (emendation). 
*Ptiloscelys resplendens (Tschudi). ANDEAN LAPWING. 

Charadrius resplendens Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 388, 1843 Andes 
of Peru (type in Neuch&tel Museum); idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., 
p. 295, 1846 puna zone of Peru and highlands of Ecuador (Riobamba, 
Quito, Ibarra). 

Vanellus ptiloscelis Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Bds., 3, p. [541], pi. 145, 1847. 

1 The record of Hoplopterus cayanus from East Falkland Island (Abbott, Ibis, 
1861, p. 155; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Spc. Lpnd., 1861, p. 46) is no doubt due to con- 
fusion with Belonopterus cayennensis occidentalis (cf. Wace, El Hornero, 2, p. 198, 
1921). Its reported occurrence on the "Aloor River, Honduras" (cf. Moore, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 63, 1859) is likewise open to doubt. The specimen 
cannot be found (cf. Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brjt. Mus., 24, p. 136 [note *], 1896). 



40 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Vanellus resplendens Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 556, 1858 above 
Punin (near Riobamba), Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 82, 1860 vicinity of 
Quito, Ecuador; idem and Salvin, I.e., 1869, p. 156 Tinta, Dept. Cuzco, 
Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 560 Junln and Maraynioc, Junln, Peru; 
Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 356, 1876 Moho, Lake Titicaca; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1886, p. 403 Sitani and Sacaya, Tarapaca, 
Chile; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 336, 1886 Peruvian localities; 
Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 228, 1887 (crit.; range); Philippi, 
Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 Cana, Antofagasta, Chile; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, p. 108, 1889 La Paz, Bolivia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1891, p. 136 Tarapaca, Chile; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 21, 1895 near 
Cajamarca, Peru; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 209, 1896 Tarapaca, 
Chile; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 303 Sayac and Sitani, Tarapaca. 

Ptiloscelis respkndens Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 137, 733, 1896 
Ecuador ("Sarayacu"), Peru (Maraynioc, Tinta, Paucartambo), and Chile 
(Sitani, Sacaya); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 35, 
1897 Cara-huassi, Salta; idem and Festa, I.e., 15, No. 368, p. 43, 1900 
Malchingui, Chaupi, Vallevicioso, and Aloag, Ecuador; Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), p. 51 Ingapirca and 
Maraynioc, Junln, Peru; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 212, 
1902 La Cienaga, Tucuman; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 446 Moreno, 
Puna de Jujuy; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 250, 1904 Santa 
Catalina, Jujuy; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 231, 1904 Lara, Tucuman; Mengaux, 
Bull. Soc. Phil. Paris, (10), 1, p. 219, 1909 Oruro (Huancani; vicinity of 
Pazna; "Tamarape" [=Pomarape]) and Potosi, Bolivia; Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 250, 1909 Lagunas Grandes and Las Cienagas, 
Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 216, 1910 
(range in Argentina); Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 1, p. 319, 1910 
Huamachuco, Peru; idem, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 9, 1911 Narihuna, Ecuador; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 
1, p. 258, 1913 (range in Argentina); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 
14, No. 25, p. 23, 1922 Chaupicruz and Chillogalla (Antisana), Ecuador; 
Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 404, 1931 Rio Humahuaca and Sierras de 
Zenta, Jujuy (breeding). 

Ptiloscelys resplendens Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 262 Paramo near Cajamarca, 
Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 50, 1921 Lucma, Uru- 
bamba, Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 191, 1921 Antisana, 
Pichincha, Mount Chimborazo, and Bestion, Ecuador; Zimmer, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 254, 1930 Huanuco Viejo, Peru; 
Hellmayr, I.e., 19, p. 369, 1932 Antofagasta and Tarapaca, Chile; 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 242, 1934 (range); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Santiago, 16, p. 52, 1938 Vegas de Chacalluta, Tacna, Chile; Morrison, 
Ibis, 1939, pp. 464, 646 Huancavelica and Lake Junin, Peru. 

Range. Puna and Temperate zones of Ecuador, Peru, and 
Bolivia to northern Chile (south to Antofagasta) and northwestern 
Argentina. 

Field Museum Collection. 27: Ecuador (unspecified, 1; Paramo 
del Chimborazo, 2) ; Peru (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, 1 ; Leimebamba, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 41 

Amazonas, 2; Huanuco Viejo, Huanuco, 2; Junin, Junin, 2; Cailloma, 
Arequipa, 2); Bolivia (Huaqui, La Paz, 1; Aiquile, Cochabamba, 1; 
Tiraque, Cochabamba, 4; Colomi, Cochabamba, 8); Argentina 
(unspecified, 1). 

Conover Collection. 23: Ecuador (Turubamba, 2; Romerillos, 
Pichincha, 1; Cerro Cotopaxi, 1; Sambiza, Pichincha, 1; Cerro 
Mojanda, Pichincha, 2); Peru (Huanuco Viejo, Huanuco, 2; Puno, 
Puno, 2; Chucuito, Puno, 1); Bolivia (Esperanza, Pacajes, La Paz, 2; 
Tiraque, Cochabamba, 2; Aiquile, Cochabamba, 1; Vacas, Cocha- 
bamba, 1); Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 4; Sierra de Trenta, 
Jujuy, 1). 

Subfamily CHARADRIINAE. Plovers 
Genus SQUAT AROLA Cuvier 

Squatarola Cuvier, Reg. Anim., 1, p. 467, "1817" (=Dec. 7, 1816) type by 
tautonymy, Tringa squatarola Linnaeus. 

*Squatarola squatarola (Linnaeus). BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER. 

Tringa squatarola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 149, 1758 based on 

Faun. Svec., No. 155, Sweden. 
Tringa helvetica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 250, 1766 based on 

"Le Vanneau de Suisse" Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 106, pi. 10, fig. 1, Switzerland 

(type in Reaumur Collection). 
Tringa varia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 252, 1766 based on "Le 

Vanneau varie 1 " Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 103, pi. 9, fig. 2, France (type in 

Reaumur Collection). 
Charadrius hypomelus Pallas, Reisen Russ. Reich., 3, p. 699, 1776 "colit 

paludes borealis orae" (new name for Tringa helvetica Linnaeus). 
Charadrius naevius Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 692, 1789 based on Beseke, 

Schrift. Berliner Naturf. Gesells., 7, p. 464, Courland. 
Vanellus melanogaster Bechstein, Gemeinn. Naturg. Deutschl., 4, p. 356, 

1809 new name for Tringa helvetica Linnaeus; Holboell, Naturhist. 

Tidskr., 4, p. 406, 1843 Greenland (Nanortalik, Sept.; Amaralik, Aug.). 
Charadrius hypomelanus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, p. 138, 1811 emenda- 
tion of C. hypomelus Pallas. 
Charadrius pardela Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, p. 142, 1811 new name 

for Tringa varia Linnaeus. 
Squatarola cinerea Fleming, Hist. Brit. Anim., p. Ill, 1828 new name for 

Tringa squatarola Linnaeus and Tringa helvetica Linnaeus. 
Squatarola helvetica australis Reichenbach, Nov. Syn. Av., No. 5, p. 3, 1851 

based on Squatarola helvetica Gould, Bds. Australia, 6, pi. 12, Australia. 
Squatarola megarhynchos Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 284, 1855 migrates from north- 
eastern to southwestern Europe and Egypt (type, from Menzaleh Lake, 



42 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Egypt, in Tring Collection now in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 25, p. 53, 1918). 

Squatarola helvetica a. wilsoni Bonaparte, 1 Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 
46, p. 416, 1856 based on Vanellus helveticus Wilson, Amer. Orn., Ord. 
ed., 7, p. 42, America. 2 

Squatarola rhynchomega Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 46, p. 416, 
1856 "Abyssinia" (type in Frankfurt Museum); Hartert, Kat. Vogels. 
Mus. Senckenb. Ges., p. 217, 1891 "Australia(?)" (crit.). 3 

Squatarola helvetica Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 296, 1870 Cajutuba, Para, 
Brazil; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 330 Chimbote, 
Ancachs, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 338, 1886 Chimbote; Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 182, 737, 1896 (monog.); Salvadori and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 43, 1900 Santa Elena, Ecuador 
(Jan.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 350, 1903 
North America, Mexico (Mazatlan; Valley of Mexico; San Mateo, Tehuan- 
tepec; Merida, Yucatan), Guatemala (Chiapam), and South America; 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 361, 1905 Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo 
(Jan. 6); idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 47, 1907 same locality. 

Charadrius megalorhynchus Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 25, p. 11, 1877 new 
name for Squatarola rhynchomega Bonaparte and Squatarola megarhynchos 
Brehm. 

Charadrius squatarola Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 307 Aruba (June 24); Winge, 
Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 148, 1898 Greenland (various records); Dwight, 
Auk, 17, p. 383, 1900 (plumages); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 307, 1902 
Aruba; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 94, 
1910 (1926) coast of Piauhy, Brazil (Sept. 19); idem, I.e., p. 224, 1923 
(1926) same locality. 

Squatarola squatarola Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 187, 1899 
Albemarle and Charles Islands, Galapagos; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
32, p. 248, 1905 Barbados (Sept. 22), Carriacou, and Grenada, Lesser 
Antilles; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 305, 1908 Cayenne, French Guiana 
(Nov. 2); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 197, 1909 Aruba; 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 416, 1910 mouth of Matina River 
(Nov. 14) and Lepanto (Mar. 16), Costa Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 72, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 
263 Callao, Peru (Jan. 10); Rowan, Condor, 25, p. 21, 1923 Alberta 
(migration); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 192, 1926 coast 
of Manavi (Feb. 16), Chone (Dec. 14), Jambeli (Nov. 27; July 15, 20), 
and Santa Elena (Feb. 21), Ecuador; Conover, Auk, 43, p. 312, 1926 
Hooper Bay, Alaska (common breeder; weights); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 146, p. 154, 1929 (life hist.); Snyder, Auk, 47, p. 79, 1930 (sexual 
difference in breeding plumage); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 

1 Squatarola wilsoni Lichtenstein (Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol., p. 95, 1854) 
is a nomen nudum. 

1 Cf. Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, p. 103, 1825. 

3 The locality of the type appears to be in doubt. While Bonaparte, evidently 
in error, ascribes it to "Abyssinia," Hartert tells us that the label bears the note 
"Australia(?)." 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 43 

p. 58, 1931 Galapagos Islands; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, 
p. 130, 1932 Champerico, Guatemala (Sept. 10); Peters, Condor, 36, 
p. 27, 1934 (crit.; meas.; nomencl.); idem, Bds. World, 2, p. 243, 1934 
(range); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 306, 1935 Panama 
(winter); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 128, 1938 Bahia (Rio de Suape 
and Corupe"ba, Feb.) and Sao Paulo (Sao Sebastiao, Jan.); Steullet and 
Deautier, Not. Mus. La Plata, 3, No. 7, p. 1, 1938 General Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires (Apr. 5); Zotta, El Hornero, 7, p. 46, 1938 General Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires; Low, Ibis, 1938, p. 154 (crit.; meas.); Dickey and van 
Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 170, 1938 Puerto del 
Triunfo (Dec. 30, 31) and Barra de Santiago (Apr. 4), El Salvador; 
Dementiev, Ibis, 1939, p. 352 (crit.; meas.); Bray, Auk, 60, p. 519, 1943 
Baffin Island (nesting); Soper, I.e., 63, p. 227, 1946 northern Baffin 
Island (breeding). 

Squatarola squatarola cynosurae Thayer and Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 
5, p. 23, Apr. 9, 1914 Baillie Island, Mackenzie, Arctic America (type 
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Brooks, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 377, 1915 Arctic coast of Alaska (breed- 
ing); Peters, I.e., 61, p. 404, 1917 Monte Cristi, Hispaniola; Wetmore, 
Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 356, 1927 Puerto Rico 
(transient); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 176, 1930 (crit.); 
Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 153, 1931 Hispaniola; 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 369, 1932 Caldera, 
Atacama, Chile (Dec. 2); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 19, p. 79, 1935 
Corupeba (Feb. 5, 6) and Ilha Madre de Deus (Feb. 2), Bahia, Brazil; 
Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 52, 1938 mouth of Rio Maipo, 
Santiago, Chile. 

Squatarola squatarola squatarola Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 96, 
1928 Lower California (transient); Salomonsen, Medd. Gr0nl., 93, (6), 
p. 9, 1935 Carlshavn, northeastern Greenland (other Greenland records 
listed). 

Range. Breeds in North America from the Bering Sea coast 
(Hooper Bay) of Alaska north and east along the Arctic coast and 
islands to Baffin and Southampton Islands, also on the Arctic tundra 
of Europe and Asia; migrates south to winter quarters in Africa, 
Madagascar, India, Australia, southern United States, West Indies, 
and South America to the Galapagos Islands, Peru, Chile (Caldera, 
Atacama; mouth of the Rio Maipo, Santiago), and Brazil (Para; 
Piauhy; Bahia; Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo); accidental in Greenland 
(various records) and Argentina (General Lavalle, Buenos Aires; 
April 5). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 151: Alaska (Barrow, 4; Smith Bay, 2; 
Chipp River, 1; Nome, 4; St. Michaels, 1; Bethel, 1); Arctic Canada 

1 From the investigations of Peters (Condor, 36, pp. 27-29), Low (Ibis, 1938, 
pp. 154-158), and Dementiev (Ibis, 1939, p. 352), it results that subdivision of 
the Black-bellied Plover is impracticable, the measurements being too variable 
individually, while the alleged color differences prove to be non-existent. 



44 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Franklin Bay, 1); Manitoba (Sandy Bay, 1); Quebec (Magdalen 
Islands, 22); Prince Edward Island (unspecified, 1); Nova Scotia 
(Barrington, 1); Massachusetts (unspecified, 1; North Truro, 2; 
Monomoy Island, 31); Connecticut, New Haven County (North 
Haven, 1 ; New Haven, 1 ; West Haven, 2) ; New York (North Hamlin, 
Monroe County, 1; Cayuga Lake, 2); Virginia (Cape Charles, 1); 
North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 8; Pea Island, 7); 
North Dakota (Stump Lake, Nelson County, 2; Rock Lake, Towner 
County, 2; Towner County, 2); Nebraska (Keith County, 1); 
Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 1); Illinois (Waukegan, 1); Indiana (Miller, 
2); Texas (Corpus Christi, 1; Port Lavaca, 1); California (San 
Francisco, 1; Monterey County, 1; Del Monte Forest, 1; Monterey, 
1; Ventura County, 1; Redwood City, 1; Trinidad, 1; Eureka, 3; 
San Clemente Island, 3; Sunset Beach, 2; Pacific Beach, 3; San 
Diego County, 1; Palo Alto, 1; Hyperion, 2; Los Angeles County, 1; 
Goleta, 1; La Patera Point, 1; Santa Barbara, 1); Florida (Amelia 
Island, 2; Pilot Town, 1; Key West, 2); Mexico (Yucatan, 1); Costa 
Rica (Piedra de Blanca, 1; Point Jiminez, 1); Virgin Islands (St. 
Croix, 1; Virgin Gorda, 1); Lesser Antilles (Anegada, 1); Dutch 
West Indies (Aruba, 4); Chile (Atacama, 1). 

Conover Collection. 30: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 8; 
Kashunuk River, Bering Sea, 2) ; Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 
3); Ontario (Rossport, Thunder Bay, 1); Nebraska (Lincoln, 1); 
Illinois (Mud Lake, Cook County, 1); Indiana (Miller, 2); California 
(Point Magie, Ventura County, 5; Moss Landing, Monterey County, 
1); Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, Guanacaste, 5); British Guiana 
(Buxton, Demerara, 1). 

Genus PLUVIALIS Brisson 

Pluvialis Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 46; 5, p. 42, 1760 type, by tautonymy, "Pluvialis 
aurea" Brisson=Charadrius pluvialis Linnaeus =Charadrius apricarius 
Linnaeus. 

Pluvialis apricaria 1 altifrons (Brehm). 2 NORTHERN GOLDEN 
PLOVER. 

1 We fully concur with Witherby and Jourdain (Ibis, 1933, pp. 349-351) that 
Charadrius apricarius Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 150, 1758) refers to 
the southern form of the Golden Plover subsequently named C. a. oreophilos by 
Meinertzhagen (Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 42, p. 6, 1921). Linnaeus' account of No. 156 
in the Fauna Svecica, the principal source of C. apricarius, was clearly based on 
the Oeland bird described at length s.n. "Alwargrim" in Olanska Resa, p. 72, 
1741, and not on Rudbeck's picture, as claimed by Lonnberg (Ibis, 1931, p. 306). 

2 Pluvialis apricaria altifrons (Brehm) differs from the nominate race by 
having the under parts solidly black, not marbled with white. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 45 

Charadrius altifrons Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 542, 1831 
Faroes "and other northwestern islands, visiting Riigen in late summer" 
(type, from Faroe, July, 1828, in Tring Collection [cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
25, p. 52, 1918], now in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York). 

Charadrius apricarius (not of Linnaeus) Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. 

Foren., 1874, p. 181 Sakak, Greenland (one specimen in summer 

plumage); idem, I.e., 1881, p. 184 Nanortalik and Sakak, Greenland; 

Chamberlain, Auk, 6, p. 217, 1889 southern Greenland (ex Hagerup). 
Charadrius pluvialis typicus (sic) Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, pp. 148, 150, 

1898 Greenland (various records; meas.). 
Pluvialis apricarius Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 80, 1919 (in 

part; monog.; full bibliog.). 

Pluvialis apricaria altifrons Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 171, 1929 

Greenland (life hist.). 

Pluvialis apricaria apricaria Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 244, 1934 (range). 
Pluvialis apricarius apricarius Tcherniakofsky, Oiseau, Paris, 1939, p. 343 

Scoresby Sound, Greenland. 

Range. Breeds in Iceland, the Faroes, northern Scandinavia 
(south to Jemtland, Sweden, and Trondhjem, Norway), and east 
through northern Europe and Asia to the Yenessei; winters chiefly 
in the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea; casual in Green- 
land. 

*Pluvialis dominica dominica (P. L. S. Miiller). AMERICAN 
GOLDEN PLOVER. 

Charadrius dominicus P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 116, 1776 
based on "Le Pluvier dore, de Saint-Domingue" Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 48, 
pi. 6, fig. 1, Saint Domingue=Hispaniola; Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 
3, p. 123, 1887 upper Yukon, Point Barrow and Bering Sea coast, Alaska; 
Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 227, 1889 West Indies; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, p. 109, 1889 lower Beni, Bolivia (August); Aplin, Ibis, 1894, 
p. 206 Uruguay (visitor); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 195, 
738, 1896 (in part; monog.; full bibliog.); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 35, 1897 Aguairenda and San Francisco, Tarija, 
Bolivia (Nov.); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 429, 1899 Sao Paulo, 
Brazil; Dwight, Auk, 17, p. 383, 1900 (plumages); Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 
235 Paraguayan Chaco (Nov. 21); Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
8, p. 212, 1902 Famailla, Tucuman; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 446 
Moreno, Jujuy (Dec. 1); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
3, p. 352, 1903 Mexico (Jalapa, Huertas de San Javier, Puebla, Nativitas, 
Tlaxcala), Guatemala (Duenas), Costa Rica (San Jos6), etc.; Riley, Smiths. 
Misc. Coll., 47, p. 280, 1904 Barbuda (Sept. 2); Clark, Auk, 22, p. 134, 
1905 (theory of migratory route); idem, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 248, 
1905 Barbados, Grenada, and Grenadines (transient); Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, pp. 125, 131, 1906 Huaynapata, Marcapata 
(Nov. 13), and Puno (March 27), Peru; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 



46 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 47, 1907 Sao Paulo (IguapS, Itapura, Ipiranga); Berlepsch, Nov. 
Zool., 15, p. 305, 1908 (not yet recorded from French Guiana); Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 416, 1910 Caribbean beach of Costa Rica 
(winter visitor); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 216, 
1910 Tucuman and Buenos Aires; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 464 Tuyu 
(Dec. 2), Los Yngleses (Dec. 17), and Cape San Antonio (Dec. 17), 
Buenos Aires; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 38, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 85, 1914 Marajo (Ilhe dos Machados) 
and Amapa, Para, Brazil; Gibson, Ibis, 1920, p. 57 Cape San Antonio, 
Buenos Aires (Sept. to March). 

Charadrius virginicus Bechstein, Allg. Ubers. Vogel, 3, (1), p. 173, pi. 84b, 
1796 Virginia and Louisiana; idem, Kurze Uebers. Vogel, 2, p. 455, 
1812 same localities; Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 761, 1833 
eastern Brazil; Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 
16, Suppl., 1, p. 106, pi. 18, 1834 South America; Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1859, p. 227 Duenas, Guatemala; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 394, 
1866 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 567 
eastern Peru; Sclater, I.e., 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; idem and Salvin, 
I.e., 1868, pp. 176, 570 Tambo Valley, Arequipa; iidem, I.e., 1869, p. 598 
Cosnipata, Cuzco; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 272, 1869 central 
provinces of Chile; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, 
p. 34 Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1873, p. 309 Nauta, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 559 
Chorillos, Peru; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 254, 1874 Blumenau, 
Santa Catharina; Gundlach, I.e., 23, p. 332, 1875 Cuba (Sept. to April); 
Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 197 Buenos Aires (Feb., Mar.); Gundlach, 
Journ. Orn., 26, p. 189, 1878 Arecibo, Puerto Rico (Nov.); Lawrence, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, pp. 67, 197, 238, 241, 276, 1878 Dominica, St. 
Vincent, Antigua, Barbuda, and Grenada; idem, I.e., 1, p. 461, 1879 
Guadeloupe; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 547 
Medellin, Colombia; White, I.e., 1882, p. 628 Punta Lara, Buenos 
Aires (Feb. 22); Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 313, 1884 Bahia Blanca and Sierra 
de la Ventana, Buenos Aires (Feb. 8 to Mar. 19); Taczanowski, Orn. Pr., 
3, p. 340, 1886 Peruvian localities; Salvin, Ibis, 1886, p. 178 British 
Guiana; Withington, I.e., 1888, p. 472 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires 
(Feb.); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 209, 1896 Chile. 

Charadrius pectoralis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 27, p. 145, 
1818 based on "Mbatuitui pecho listado" Azara, No. 389, Paraguay and 
Rio de la Plata. 

Charadrius marmoratus Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 5, Charadrius, sp. 42, 1827 
based on Azara, Nos. 389 and 390, and specimens from Brazil and Guiana 
in the Munich Museum; Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 
1, p. 403, 1847 Chile; Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 51, 1924 
Isla la Mocha, Arauco, Chile. 

Charadrius virginiacus Bonaparte, Geog. Comp. List, p. 45, 1838 based on 
Audubon, Bds. Amer., pi. 300, America generally; Jardine, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., 20, p. 375, 1847 Tobago (Sept.). 

Charadrius virgininus Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 126, 1841 banks of the 
Rio de la Plata. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 47 

Charadrius virginianus (not of Jardine and Selby) Eraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 11, p. 118, 1843 Chile; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 750, 1849 estuary of rivers; Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 357, 1856 Santa Catharina, Brazil; idem, Journ. 
Orn., 8, p. 260, 1860 Mendoza and Parana; idem, Reise La Plata St., 
2, p. 501, 1861 same localities; Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 587 "Trinidad" (crit.); Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. C6rdoba, 
5, p. 86, 1884 Tandil, Buenos Aires. 

Charadrius virginianicus Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 296, 1846 
coast region and east slope of Cordillera, Peru. 

Charadrius pluvialis (not of Linnaeus) Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 239, 
1848 coast of Chile; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 297, 1870 Sao Paulo 
(Ypanemd; Sept., Oct.), Parana (Curytiba, Nov.), Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, 
Jan.; Villa Maria, Sept.; Engenho do Gama, Sept.), and Amazonia (Barra 
do Rio Negro [=Manaos], Sept.), Brazil. 

Charadrius pluvialis americanus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Faun. 
Japon., Aves, Part 9, p. 106, 1849 North America (type, not specified, 
probably in Ley den Museum). 

Pluvialis fulvus americanus Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, Cursores, p. 53, 
1865 North America, Labrador, Surinam, Mexico, and Venezuela (crit.). 

Charadrius fulvus americanus Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 100, 1887 
(crit.). 

Charadrius pluvialis var. fulvus virginicus (sic) Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, pp. 
148, 150, 1898 Greenland (meas.). 

Charadrius dominicus dominicus Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 251, 
1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (Oct., Nov.); Hellmayr, I.e., 17, 
p. 425, 1910 Sao Isabel (Rio Preto), Rio Machados, Brazil (Oct. 6); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 221, 1917 Buena Vista, 
Narino (Sept. 27), and Cali, Cauca (Dec. 22), Colombia; Rowan, Condor, 
25, p. 21, 1923 Alberta (migration); Hurley, Murrelet, 13, p. 20, 1932 
Bristol Bay, Alaska (nesting). 

Pluvialis dominicus dominicus Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 377, 
1915 Collinson Point and Demarcation Point, Alaska, to Herschel Island 
(breeding); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 83, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 115, 1920 (winter range in 
Argentina and adjacent countries); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
133, p. 166, 1926 Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco, Sept. 6-25), Buenos 
Aires Province (Oct. to Dec.), Uruguay (Jan., Feb.), Tucuman (Apr. 5), 
and Mendoza (Tunuyan, Mar. 23) ; idem, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, 9, p. 355, 1927 Puerto Rico and St. Croix (fall); Friedmann, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 169, 1927 Bovril Island, Santa F6 (Jan. 
19); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 59, 1930 
Formosa (Tacaagle, Nov. 14) and Bolivia (Las Taperas, Santa Cruz, 
Oct. 16); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 153, 1931 
Hispaniola; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 130, 1932 Duenas, 
Guatemala (Apr.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 369, 
1932 Chile (central provinces, Arauco); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 20, 
p. 43, 1936 Jaragua, Goyaz (Nov. 7); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 



48 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Paris, (2), 9, p. 355, 1937 Andoas, Rio Pastaza, Ecuador (Oct. 15); 
Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 53, 1938 Vegas de Chacalluta, 
Tacna, Chile (April); Morrison, Ibis, 1939, p. 646 Lake Junfn, Peru 
(Mar. 7). 

Plurialis dominicus Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 San Jose and 
Montevideo, Uruguay; Daguerre, I.e., p. 62, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires 
(Sept., Dec., Feb.); Seri6 and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 41, 1923 Santa Elena, 
Entre Rios; Wilson, I.e., p. 352, 1923 Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe"; Young, 
Ibis, 1928, p. 768 Blairmont, British Guiana. 

Pluvialis dominica dominica Bailey, Condor, 28, p. 84, 1926 Alaska (disc.; 
ranges); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 175, 1929 (life hist.); Urner, 
Auk, 50, p. 420, 1933 (calls); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 245, 1934 (range); 
Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 287 Trinidad and Tobago; Pinto, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 128, 1938 Sao Paulo (Iguape", Dec.; Itapura, 
Oct.; Ypiranga, Dec.; Sao Carlos), Rio Grande do Sul (Itaquy, Feb.), 
and Goyaz (Jaragua, Sept.; Inhumas, Nov.); Morrison, Ibis, 1939, p. 
464 Santa Inez, Huancavelica, Peru (Nov. 10); Porsild, Canad. Field 
Nat., 57, p. 27, 1943 Mackenzie Delta (prob. breeding); Conover, Auk, 
62, p. 569, 1945 Alaska (breeding range; dist. chars.); Borrero, Caldasia, 
3, (14), p. 413, 1945 Sabana de Bogota, Colombia. 

Pluvialis dominicus fulvus Conover, Auk, 43, p. 313, 1926 part, Alaska, 
Bering Sea (Askinuk Range, 1 adult, 2 young; Hooper Bay, 1 adult); 
Swarth, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 22, p. 27, 1934 Nunivak Island, part 
(4 adults, 1 immature, 2 young); Dixon, Bds., Mammals Mt. McKinley 
Nat. Park, p. 66, 1938 (breeding; specimens examined by junior author). 

Range. Breeds from the coast of western Alaska, including the 
closely adjacent islands in Bering Sea (Nelson and Nunivak Islands) 
and suitable localities in the interior (above timber line), south to 
the Alaska Peninsula, east along the Arctic coast to the Melville 
Peninsula, north to Melville and North Devon Islands and south to 
Churchill on the west side of Hudson Bay; migrates south through 
the interior (mostly birds of the year) and from Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, etc., over the Bermuda Islands and the West Indies 
to winter quarters in Chile (sparingly), Bolivia, Argentina (south 
to provinces of Mendoza and Buenos Aires), Uruguay, and southern 
Brazil; casual in Greenland (Jacobshavn, Godthaab, etc.); occasional 
in British Isles. In spring migrates north mostly through the interior 
of North America. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 88: Alaska (Barrow, 7; Collinson 
Point, 1; Nome, 2); Arctic America (Franklin Bay, 1); Alberta 
(Beaverhill Lake, 1); Manitoba (Churchill, 1); Quebec (Magdalen 

1 Additional material examined. Alaska: Barrow, 62; Wainwright, 50; Cape 
Lisburne, 2; Tigara, Point Hope, 3; Kotzebue Sound, 4; Port Clarence, 2; Nome, 2; 
Golovin Bay, 1; St. Michaels, 7; Nelson Island, 1; Nunivak Island, 7; Mount 
McKinley, 2; Rampart House, 1; Fairbanks, 1. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 49 

Islands, 1); North Dakota (Towner County, 19; Nelson County, 1); 
Iowa (Burlington, 1); Minnesota (Wilder, 1; Heron Lake, 1); Illinois 
(Chicago, 1); Indiana (Liverpool, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy 
Island, 13); New Hampshire (Seabrook, 1); Connecticut (West 
Haven, 27); California (Eureka, 2; La Patera Point, 1); Colorado 
(New Castle, 1); Texas (Corpus Christi, 1); Colombia (Magdalena, 
1); Bolivia (Cerro San Benito, Cochabamba, 1); Argentina (Cara- 
guatay, Misiones, 1). 

Conover Collection. 53: Alaska (Barrow, 7; Chipp River, Barrow, 
11; Cape Simpson, Barrow, 2; Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 1; Igiak Bay, 
Bering Sea, 3); 1 Yukon Territory (Marsh Lake, 1); Alberta (Tofield, 
7); Manitoba (Churchill, 6); Kansas (Hamilton, 1); Massachusetts 
(East Orleans, 8); Colombia (Popayan, Cauca, 3); Brazil (Jagua- 
riahyva, Parana, 1); Paraguay (Orloff, Chaco, 1); Bolivia (Vacas, 
Cochabamba, 1). 

*Pluvialis dominica fulva (Gmelin). 2 PACIFIC GOLDEN PLOVER. 

Charadrius fulvus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 687, 1789 based on "Fulvous 
Plover" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 211, 1785, Otaheite Island. 

Charadrius taitensis Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 321, 1828 substitute name 
for Charadrius fulvus Gmelin. 

Charadrius xanthocheilus Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 5, Charadrius, sp. 36, 
1827 based on ^Charadrius fulvus var. /3. Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), 
p. 687, 1789 (type in Museum Leverianum). 

Charadrius glaucopus (Forster MS.) Wagler, Isis, 1829, col. 649 substitute 
name for Charadrius fulvus "Latham" (= Gmelin). 

Charadrius virginianus Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., 2, (6), pi. 85, Aug., 
1830 India, East Indian Islands and New Holland. 

1 Two half grown young and the male parent, wing 181 mm. Adult is partially 
in winter dress and neither it nor the young have any of the yellow wash on the 
under parts found in fulva. 

2 Pluvialis dominica fulva (Gmelin) : In breeding plumage the only reliable 
character is its smaller size, wings of males running 162-177, females 160-176 mm., 
as against 171-192 and 174-195, respectively, in P. d. dominica. Immatures and 
winter adults have the dorsal surface yellower, more golden, less lemonish, and the 
under parts much yellower and lighter throughout, especially on the belly and 
vent, whereas P. d. dominica has the abdomen pale dusky brown like the ground 
color of the foreneck and chest. Downies of the Pacific form have the upper 
parts much more profusely spotted with yellow, and are more golden (less greenish) 
in tone. There is also a very distinct yellow wash covering the broad white 
collar on the hindneck, the sides of the face, neck and chest, all of which color is 
entirely lacking in the American race. 

Additional material examined. Alaska: Barrow, 4; Wainwright, 5; Kotzebue 
Sound, 1; Wales, 14; Port Clarence, 1; Kruzgamepa, 2; Port Townsend, 1; St. 
Lawrence Island, 3; Nome, 36; Port Safety, 2; St. Michaels, 22; Igiak Bay, 1; 
Hooper Bay, 1; Nelson Island, 2; Nunivak Island, 15; Nushagak, 1. 



50 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Charadrius pluvialis orientalis Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Faun. 
Japon., Aves, (9), p. 104, pi. 62, 1849 Japan (type in Leyden Mu- 
seum). 1 

Charadrius dominions fulvus Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 125, 1887 
islands and coast of Bering Sea, Alaska (dist. chars, of immatures); 
Henshaw, Auk, 27, p. 245, 1910 (migration, Alaska to Hawaii); Haviland, 
Ibis, 1915, p. 716 (descr. downy) ; Brooks, Condor, 22, p. 31, 1920 Comax, 
Vancouver Island; Rowan, Brit. Bds., 20, p. 39, 1926 Tofield, Alberta; 
H0rring and Salomonsen, Medd. Gr0nl., 131, p. 29, 1941 Angmagssalik, 
eastern Greenland (immature, wing 163 mm.). 

Charadrius dominicus (not of Miiller) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, 
pp. 195, 738, 1896 (in part; monog.; full bibliog.). 

Pluvialis dominicus fulvus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 88, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Brooks, Condor, 23, p. 153, 1921 Masset, 
Queen Charlotte Islands; Conover, Auk, 43, p. 313, 1926 part, Hooper 
Bay (migration), Askinuk Range (male with eggs); Swarth, Pac. Coast 
Avifauna, 22, p. 27, 1934 Nunivak Island, part (7 adults, 8 im- 
matures). 

Pluvialis dominica fulva Bailey, Condor, 28, p. 84, 1926 Wainwright and 
Wales, Alaska; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 193, 1929 (life hist.); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 244, 1934 (range); van Rossem, Condor, 38, p. 
217, 1936 Clallam Bay, Washington (Oct. 28, 1921); Grinnell, I.e., 38, p. 
219, 1936 Bay Farm Island, Alameda County, California (Jan. 15, 1922); 
Brooks, I.e., 39, p. 176, 1937 Queen Charlotte Islands (list of Pacific 
coast and interior records); Miller, I.e., 46, p. 130, 1944 Humboldt 
County, California (plumages) ; Conover, Auk, ,62, p. 570, 1945 Alaska 
(breeding range; dist. chars.). 

Range. Breeds in northern Siberia from the Yalmal Peninsula 
and the Yenessei River (overlapping the range of P. a. apricaria) 
east to western Alaska on the shores of (?)Kotzebue Sound and 
Bering Sea (overlapping the range of P. d. dominica); winters in 
India, southern China, Indo-Chinese countries, Malay Archipelago, 
Oceania, Australia, and the Hawaiian Islands; casual in British 
Columbia (Queen Charlotte and Vancouver Islands), Alberta 
(Tofield), Washington (Clallam Bay, Oct. 28, 1921) and California 
(Bay Farm Island, Jan. 15, 1922). 

Field Museum Collection. 19: Alaska (St. Lawrence Island, 2; 
Nome, 4; St. Michaels, 10; Bethel, 3). 

Conover Collection. 7: Alaska (Point Barrow, I; 2 Nome, 2; 
Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 3; Kashunuk River, Bering Sea, 1). 

1 Cf. Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, Cursores, p. 51, 1865 (spec. no. 5, of 
Pluvialis fulvus, Japan). 

J An adult male with large brood patches, taken June 22 (wing 162 mm.). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 51 

Genus CHARADRIUS 1 Linnaeus 2 

Charadrius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 150, 1758 type, by tauto- 
nymy, "Charadrios s. Hiaticula" Aldrovandi=C7iaradntts hiaticula 
Linnaeus. 

Aegialitis Boie, Isis, 1822, col. 558 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. 

Subgen. Bds., p. Ill, 1855), Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus. 
Aegialites Boie, Isis, 1826, col. 978 (emendation). 

Hiaticula "Moehring" G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 65, 1840 type, by 

orig. desig., Hiaticula annulata G. R. GTay=Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus. 

Aegialeus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., p. xviii, "1852" (=1853) type, by 

orig. desig., Charadrius semipalmatus "Aud." (= Bonaparte). 
Oxyechus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., p. xviii, "1852" (=1853) type, by 

orig. desig., Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus. 

Ochthodromus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., p. xviii, "1852" (=1853) type, 
by orig. desig., Charadrius wilsonia Ord. 

Cirrepidesmus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 417, 1856 
type, by tautonymy, Charadrius pyrrhothorax "Temminck" Gould= 
Charadrius cirrhepidesmos Wagler= Charadrius atrifrons Wagler. 

Leucopolius Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 417, 1856 
type, by tautonymy, Charadrius niveifrons Cuvier= Charadrius leucopolius 
Wagler = Charadrius marginatus Vieillot. 

Aegialophilus Gould, Handb. Bds. Austr., 2, p. 234, 1865 type, by orig. 
desig., Ae. cantianus of Europe, i.e. Charadrius cantianus Latham = 
Charadrius alexandrinus Linnaeus. 

Pagolla Mathews, Bds. Austr., 3, p. 83, 1913 substitute name for Ochtho- 
dromus Bonaparte, on account of an earlier Ochthedromus Le Conte, 1848 
(Col.). 

Pernettyva Mathews, Bds. Austr., 3, p. 114, May 2, 1913 type, by orig. 
desig., Charadrius falklandicus Latham. 

*Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula Linnaeus. RINGED PLOVER. 

Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 150, 1758 principally 
based on Faun. Svec., No. 159, Sweden; Reinhardt, Naturhist. Tidskr., 
4, p. 406, 1843 Godthaab, Greenland (May); Walker, Ibis, 1860, p. 167 
Port Kennedy, Greenland (June); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 

1 We are not sure that Charadrius dubius curonicus Gmelin deserves a place 
in the American fauna. As pointed out by Grinnell (Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
38, p. 318, 1932), the origin of the type specimen of Aegialitis microrhynchus 
(Amer. Nat., 8, No. 2, p. 109, Feb., 1874), alleged to have been taken at San 
Francisco, California, is altogether obscure and it appears more than doubtful 
that the bird was shot on American soil. Schalow's record (Journ. Orn., 39, 
p. 259, 1891) of "C. alexandrinus," which, according to Brandt's manuscript, 
was sent by Billing from Kodiak Island, Alaska, to Pallas, has been referred to 
the Little Ringed Plover, but in the absence of specimens it cannot be identified 
with any degree of certainty. 

1 Charadrius flavirostris Wied (Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 772, 1833), 
described from memory, is unidentifiable. 



OF ILL LIB. 



52 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(8), p. 120, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 146, p. 229, 1929 (life 

hist). 
Aegialitis septentrionalis Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 548, 1831 

"Iceland and Germany" (reputed type, from Kiel, Germany, in Tring 

Collection, now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; 

cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 25, p. 52, 1918). 
Hiaticula annulata Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 65, 1840 new name for Charadrius 

hiaticula Linnaeus. 

Aegialitis hiaticula Kumlien, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 15, p. 83, 1879 Cumber- 
land Sound, Baffin Island (common and nesting with A. semipalmatus); 

Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 491 Chancery Lane, Barbados (Sept. 10, 1888); 

Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 152, 1898 Greenland (crit.); Clark, Proc. 

Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 249, 1905 Barbados (ex Feilden). 
Aegialitis hiaticola Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 256, 1896 (monog.). 
Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula Soper, Bull. Nat. Mus. Canada, No. 53, p. 103, 

1928 Ponds Inlet, Baffin Island; Bray, Auk, 60, p. 518, 1943 Arctic 

Bay. 
Charadrius hiaticula psammodroma Salomonsen, Journ. Orn., 78, p. 71, 1930 

Faroes, Iceland, Greenland, and Cumberland Sound (no type designated) ; 

L0ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, p. 51, 1932 Greenland (meas.); 

Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 247, 1934 (range). 

Charadrius hiaticula septentrionalis Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 141 Green- 
land (crit.; char.; meas.). 

Range. Breeds in the region about Cumberland Sound, Baffin 
Island, Greenland, Iceland, and the Faroes; also in Europe from the 
British Isles, Sweden, and the Baltic states south to the Mediter- 
ranean; accidental in Barbados (Chancery Lane, Sept. 10, 1888). * 

Field Museum Collection. 5: Greenland (Musk-ox Fjord, Hudson 
Land, 5). 

Conover Collection. 1: Greenland (Godthaab, 1). 

*Charadrius hiaticula semipalmatus Bonaparte. SEMIPALMATED 
PLOVER. 

Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, (1), 
p. 98, Aug., 1825 based on Tringa hiaticula (not Charadrius hiaticula 
Linnaeus) Ord, in Wilson's Amer. Orn., Ord repr., 7, p. 65, 1824, coast 

1 There is no evidence whatever that the Ringed Plover ever occurred in Chile 
(cf. Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 377, note, 1932). The 
specimens stated to have been collected by Kittlitz on the island of Sitka, Alaska 
(cf. Schalow, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 259, 1891), are more likely to be C. h. tundrae 
Lowe, but, if still extant, they should be critically examined before that form is 
admitted to the American fauna. 

Birds from Cumberland Sound east to the Faroes were separated by Salo- 
monsen on account of averagingly smaller size as C. h. psammodroma, but this 
disputable race has recently been dropped by the author himself (in Jensen, 
Zool. Faroes, p. 71, 1935) as not worthy of recognition, a conclusion in which 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 53 

of New Jersey (type in collection of I. R. Peale, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
59, p. 133, 1915, and Bangs, I.e., 70, p. 176, 1930) ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 
No. 29, Cursores, p. 30, 1865 Labrador and Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 297, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba, Feb.; Restinga, March), 
Parana (Paranagua, Dec.), and Para (Praia de Cajutuba, April 18), 
Brazil; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 123, 1887 (monog.); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 116, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Chubb, 
Ibis, 1919, p. 263 Trujillo, Peru (Sept., Dec.); Dabbene, El Hornero, 
2, p. 124, 1920 Argentina (Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz; Moreno, Jujuy); 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 185, 1922 Buritaca, 
Cienaga, Gaira, and Don Diego, Santa Marta, Colombia (Sept., Oct., 
Jan.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 193, 1926 Ecuador 
(Esmeraldas, coast of Manavf, Chone, Bahia de Caraguas, Santa Elena; 
Dec. to Feb.); Conover, Auk, 43, p. 313, 1926 Point Dall, Bering Sea, 
Alaska (nesting); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 
9, p. 351, 1927 Puerto Rico, Vieques, and Anegada; Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 97, 1928 Lower California; Bent, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 146, p. 217, 1929 (life hist.); Dabbene, El Hornero, 4, p. 312, 
1929 Quequen, Province of Buenos Aires (Jan. 24, 1928); Wetmore and 
Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 147, 1931 Hispaniola (winter 
visitor); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 376, 1931 Cienaga 
Grande, Magdalena, Colombia (Oct. 13); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., 18, p. 58, 1931 Galapagos and Cocos Island; Hellmayr, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 377, 1932 Chile (Coquimbo to Llanquihue); 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 131, 1932 Chiapam, Guatemala; 
idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 306, 1935 Panama (winter); 
Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 27, 1943 Mackenzie Delta (breeding); 
Bray, Auk, 60, p. 518, 1943 Melville Peninsula (breeding); Kelly, 
Condor, 46, p. 243, 1944 San Francisco (wintering). 

Charadrius brevirostris Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 769, 1833 
coast of eastern Brazil (type lost; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
2, p. 271, 1889) s 1 Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 296, 1846 
littoral of Peru; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 750, 1849 coast of British Guiana; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. 
Bras., 3, p. 359, 1856 coast of Brazil. 

Aegialeus semipalmatus(a) Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 39, 
1857 Cayenne; Gundlach, in Poey, Repert. Fis.-Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 359, 
1866 Cuba (rare visitor); idem, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 335, 1875 Cuba; 
idem, I.e., 26, p. 189, 1878 near Mayagiiez and Arecibo, Puerto Rico; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 250, 743, 1896 (monog.); Robinson, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 656, 1896 Margarita Island, Venezuela 
(July 7); Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 6.65, 1898 Punta Teatina, 

we heartily agree. The figures given by L0ppenthin (Medd. Gronl., 91, No. 6, p. 
52, 1932) seem to support this view. C. G. Bird (Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 55, p. 80, 
1934) and Low (I.e., 59, p. 49, 1939), however, are inclined to maintain it. 

1 A cotype in immature plumage no doubt the young male bird described 
by Wied is in the Leyden Museum (cf. Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, p. 30, 
1865). 



54 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Coquimbo, and Calbuco, Llanquihue, Chile; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 357, 1903 Mexican and Central American 
localities; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 48, 1907 Cubatao, coast of 
Sao Paulo, Brazil; Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 146, 
1905 San Miguel Island, Pearl Islands, Panama; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 217, 1910 (?)Moreno, Puna de Jujuy (sight 
record ex Lonnberg); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 85, 1914 Santa 
Anna, Marajo, Brazil; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 223, 
1917 Tumaco, Colombia (July 28). 

Aegialitis hiaticula var. semipalmatus Ridgway, Amer. Nat., 8, p. 109, 1874 
(crit.). 

Aegialitis semipalmata Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 560 
Chorillos, Lima, Peru; Kumlien, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 15, p. 83, 1879 
Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island (nesting with A. hiaticula); 1 Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 428 Paracas Bay, Peru (Oct.) and 
Coquimbo Lagoon, Chile (Nov.); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe"r., 3, p. 345, 
1886 Peru; Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 491 Barbados (Aug. to Nov.); 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 395 Ancon, 
Peru (Jan. 29); Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, pp. 446, 453 (?)Moreno, Jujuy 
(sight record), and San Luis, Tarija, Bolivia (Feb.); Clark, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 32, p. 249, 1905 Barbados, St. Vincent, and Grenada (Aug. 
to Nov.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 53, 1906 Seelet, Trinidad; Lowe, 
Ibis, 1907, p. 553 Margarita Island, Venezuela (Jan. 9); Berlepsch, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. 305, 1908 Cayenne, French Guiana (Oct. 19, 31); 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 417, 1910 Herradura de Puntarenas 
and Coronado de Te>raba, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 370, 1916 delta region of the Orinoco, Venezuela (Oct. to 
April). 

Aegialitis hiaticula (not Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus) Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 100, 1910 (1926) Miritiba, Maran- 
hao, Brazil; idem, I.e., p. 225, 1923 (1926) Miritiba. 2 

Charadrius hialicula tundrae (not Aegialitis hiaticula tundrae Lowe) Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 493, 1929 Miritiba (ex Reiser); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 129, 1938 Miritiba (ex Reiser). 2 

Charadrius hiaticula semipalmatus Salomonsen, Journ. Orn., 78, p. 72, 1930 
(crit.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 247, 1934 (range); van Rossem, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 433, 1934 Guaymas, Sonora; Belcher and 
Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 288 Trinidad (winter visitor); Pinto, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 22, p. 129, 1938 Bahfa (Ilha Madre Deus) and Sao Paulo (Casquei- 

1 If Kumlien's observations are correct, semipalmatus would not appear to 
be conspecific with hiaticula. B. C. 

2 This specimen, a molting female taken by the late F. Schwanda on October 
11, 1907, was found by the senior author and Dr. Carmichael Low, on comparison 
with the material in the British Museum, to be a perfectly normal specimen of 
the Semipalmated Plover. In size (wing, 119) it agrees particularly well with a 
female from Chatham Island, Galapagos (Oct. 19, 1897; Brit. Mus. Reg. 99.9.1.575). 
Its feet are damaged, the webs between the toes having disappeared through moth- 
eating, and this no doubt accounts for Hartert's erroneous identification as C. h. 
tundrae. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 55 

rinho, Piassaguera) ; Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Sen, 23, p. 168, 1938 Lake Olomega, Puerto del Triunfo, and Barra 
de Santiago, El Salvador (Sept., Dec., April); Peters and Burleigh, Auk, 
62, p. 564, 1945 Newfoundland (nesting); Soper, I.e., 63, p. 226, 1946 
Baffin Island (common breeder). 

Range. Breeds on the Arctic Coast of North America from 
Bering Sea to southern Baffin Island, south to the Queen Charlotte 
Islands, northern British Columbia, James Bay, north shore of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfound- 
land; winters from central California, the Gulf coast, and South 
Carolina to Chile (Coquimbo; near Puerto Montt), Bolivia (San 
Luis, Tarija), and Argentina (?Moreno, Jujuy; Queque"n, Province 
of Buenos Aires; Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz); Cocos Island and 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

Field Museum Collection. 190: Alaska (Seward, 1; Bethel, 3); 
Yukon Territory (Yukon River, 2; Caribou Crossing, 1; Lake Marsh, 
1); Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 1); Ontario (Toronto, 1); Labrador 
(Port Manvers, 10; Indian Harbor, 9; Curlew Bay, 1; Bowdoin 
Harbor, 1); Nova Scotia (Barrington, 1; Seabright, 1; Clark's 
Harbor, 1); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 15); North Dakota (Stump 
Lake, 5); Illinois (Libertyville, 1; Chicago, 2; Worth, 2); Indiana 
(Liverpool, 1; Miller, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 39); 
Connecticut (New Haven County, 3; New Haven, 1; East Haven, 1; 
East Hartford, 3); New York (Shinnecock Bay, 1); Virginia (Busk 
Roc Beach, 1); North Carolina, Dare County (Pea Island, 9; Bodie 
Island, 7) ; South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 4) ; California (Trinidad, 
3; Carmel, 5; Monterey, 7; Moss Landing, 1; Westport, 2; Los 
Angeles County, 2); Texas (Corpus Christi, 2); Florida (Nassau 
County, 2; Amelia Island, 4; Banana River, 1; Anclote, 3); Bahama 
Islands (Eleuthera, 3; Great Inagua, 4; Abaco, 1; Andros, 2); 
Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1); Lesser Antilles (Dominica, 1; Anegada, 
1; Guadeloupe, 2); Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 5); Jamaica (Grand 
Cayman, 1); Mexico (La Paz, Lower California, 1); El Salvador 
(Puerto del Triunfo, 1); Costa Rica (Piedra de Blanca, 6); Venezuela 
(Colon, 1). 

Conover Collection. 21: Alaska (Alaktak River, near Barrow, 1; 
Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 4); Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 2); 
Indiana (Wolf Lake, 2); California (Moss Landing, Monterey 
County, 1); Florida (Banana Creek, 1); Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, 
Guanacaste, 5); Panama (Perme, Darien, 1); Ecuador (Isla Silva 
Sur, Province de los Rios, 2; Rio San Antonio, 2). 



56 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Charadrius melodus Ord. PIPING PLOVER. 

Charadrius melodus Ord, in Wilson's Amer. Orn., Ord repr., 7, p. 71, 1824 
based on Charadrius hiaticula var. Wilson, Amer. Orn., 5, p. 30, pi. 37, 
fig. 3, 1812, Great Egg Harbour, New Jersey (type apparently lost); 
Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, Cursores, p. 29, 1865 (crit.); Seebohm, 
Geog. Distr. Charadr., p. 121, 1887 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 128, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 350, 1927 Puerto Rico; Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 236, 1929 (life hist.); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 146, 1931 Tercero Island, Seven Brothers group, 
Hispaniola (Jan. 31); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 248, 1934 (range); Peters 
and Burleigh, Auk, 62, p. 564, 1945 Little Codroy River, Newfoundland 
(nesting). 

Charadrius okenii Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 4, Charadrius, sp. 24, 1827 
based on Wilson, Amer. Orn., 5, p. 30, pi. 37, fig. 3, 1812. 

Aegiakus melodus Gundlach, in Poey, Repert. Hist.-Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 359, 
1866 Cuba (on passage); idem, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 336, 1875 Cuba 
(April); idem, I.e., 25, p. 189, 1878 Puerto Rico. 

Aegialitis melodus var. circumcinctus Ridgway, Amer. Nat., 8, No. 2, p. 109, 
Feb., 1874 Loup Fork of the Platte, Nebraska (type in United States 
National Museum). 

Charadrius melodus circumcinctus Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charadr., p. 122, 
1887 Missouri basin (crit.); Pickwell, Auk, 42, p. 326, pi. 16, 1925 
Lincoln, Nebraska; Oberholser, Bull. Dept. Conserv. State Louisiana, 28, 
p. 215, 1938 (char.; range); Moser, Nebraska Bd. Review, 10, p. 31, 1942 
(race reinstated); Burleigh, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 
20, p. 367, 1944 (good race). 

Aegialitis melodus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 292, 1896 (monog.). 

Range. Breeds from southern Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, 
southern Ontario, southern Quebec, the Magdalen Islands, and 
Newfoundland south to central Nebraska, the south end of Lake 
Michigan, the south shore of Lake Erie, and on the Atlantic coast 
to North Carolina; winters chiefly on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
from South Carolina to Texas, northern Mexico, and the Bahama 
Islands; occasional during migration in Bermuda Islands, Cuba, 
Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. 

Field Museum Collection. 90: Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 5; 
Quill Lake, 1); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 4; Grosse Island, 4; 
Grindstone, 1); Nova Scotia (Sea Isle, 1; Barrington, 1; Clark's 
Harbor, 4); North Dakota (Stump Lake, Nelson County, 11; 
Pelican Point, Ramsey County, 1; Rock Island, Ramsey County, 1; 
Minnewaukan, Benson County, 2); Minnesota (Marshall County, 
2); Illinois (Waukegan, 2); Indiana (Miller, Lake County, 6); 
Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 18; Chatham, 1); North Carolina, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 57 

Dare County (Pea Island, 9; Bodie Island, 7); South Carolina 
(Charleston, 1); Texas (Port Lavaca, 2; Aransas County, 2); Florida 
(West Jupiter, 1; Grove City, 1; Amelia Island, 1); Bahama Islands 
(Andros, 1). 

Conover Collection. 11: Massachusetts (East Orleans, 2; Mono- 
moy, 1; Muskeget Island, 1); New York (Shelter Island, 4); Indiana 
(Miller, 2); Florida (Nassau County, 1). 

*Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus (Cassin). SNOWY PLOVER. 

Aegialitis nlvosa(us) Cassin, in Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, pp. 
xlvi, 696, 1858 Presidio, San Francisco County, California (type formerly 
in United States National Museum, present whereabouts unknown; cf. 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 271, 1932); Lawrence, Mem. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 307, 1874 Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico; Goss, 
Auk, 3, p. 409, 1888 salt plains of Cimarron River, Oklahoma, and 
Comanche County, Kansas (breeding); Bryant, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(2), 2, p. 274, 1889 Santa Margarita Island, Lower California; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 290, 748, 1896 part, spec, a-1', Texas 
(Corpus Christi), California (Santa Cruz, Monterey, Santa Barbara, San 
Diego, San Francisco, San Jacinto) and Lower California (San Jos6 del 
Cabo); Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 72, 1902 Island of San 
Jose and San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower California; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 359, 1903 part, Kansas, Gulf states (except 
Florida), western United States, Mexico (Mazatlan, Sinaloa), and "Costa 
Rica"; Lincoln, Condor, 10, p. 197, 1908 Buena Vista Lake, Kern 
County, California (breeding); Bowles, Auk, 28, p. 172, 1911 Gray's 
Harbor, Washington (Sept. 3, 1899); Townsend, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
48, p. 12, 1923 Lower California (Abreojos Point, Magdalena Bay, 
Carmen Island). 

Aegialitis cantianus var. nivosus Ridgway, Amer. Nat., 8, No. 2, p. 109, 
1874 (crit.). 

Aegialites alexandrinus nivosus Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, "1882," 
pp. 528, 530, 545, 1883 Lower California (San Quintin Bay, Santa Rosalia 
Bay, and Cape region). 

Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus Hartert and Jackson, Ibis, 1915, p. 529 
part, western United States (crit.); Neumann, Nov. Zool., 35, p. 215, 
1929 (range; crit.); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N, H., 7, p. 133, 
1932 Tiburon Island, Sonora; idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 433, 
1934 Guaymas, Sonora (Jan. 19); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 250, 1934 
(range); Conover, Condor, 47, p. 212, 1945 (disc.; ranges east to Alabama); 
van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 78, 
1945 Sonora (winter visitor). 

Charadrius nivosus nivosus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 136, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 97, 
1928 Lower California; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 246, 1929 
(life hist.); Wolfe, Condor, 33, p. 59, 1931 Utah (nesting habits); Bailey 
and Niedrach, I.e., 41, p. 127, 1939 Barr, Adams County, Colorado; 



58 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bailey and Brandenburg, I.e., 42, p. 128, 1940 Kiowa County, Colorado 

(nesting). 
Charadrius nivosus tenuirostris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 

p. 139, 1919 part, Kansas, Oklahoma and Gulf coast from Texas to 

Alabama. 
Charadrius nivosus Oberholser, Auk, 39, p. 73, 1922 (race C. alexandrinus); 

Bancroft, Condor, 29, p. 49 (in text), 1927 Scammons Lagoon, Lower 

California (nesting). 

Range. Breeds locally in suitable localities from Washington, 
northern Utah, Colorado and Kansas south to Lower California and 
the Gulf coast from Texas to Alabama; winters from central Cali- 
fornia along the Pacific coast south to western Mexico (Guaymas, 
Sonora; Mazatlan, Sinaloa); also the Gulf coast from Texas to 
Alabama; occasionally to Florida. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 126: California (Laguna de la Merced, 
San Francisco County, 1; Monterey, 20; mouth of Carmel River, 7; 
Carmel, 3; Moss Landing, 15; Pacific Grove, 5; Huntington Beach, 
4; Anaheim Landing, 2; Sunset Beach, 4; Eureka, 1; La Patera Point, 
6; Santa Barbara, 6; Pacific Beach, 18; Oceanside, 1; San Diego, 6; 
Santa Monica, 1; El Secundo, 1; Hyperion, 2; Manhattan Beach, 2); 
Utah (Bear River marshes, 2) ; New Mexico (White Sands National 
Monument, 1); Texas (Port Isabel, 2; Port Lavaca, 3; Rockport, 2; 
Aransas County, 1; Corpus Christi, 1); Florida (Mary Esther, 
Okaloosa County, 1; St. Andrew, Bay County, 2); Mexico (Lower 
California, 2; La Paz, Lower California, 2; San Jos del Cabo, Lower 
California, 1; Mazatlan, Sinaloa, 1). 

Conover Collection. 26: Oregon (Netarts, Tillamook County, 1); 
California (Anaheim Landing, 7; Moss Landing, 1; Wilmington, 1; 
Playa del Rey, 1); Utah (Brigham, 12); Mexico, Lower California 
(San Jos6 del Cabo, 1; La Paz, 2). 

*Charadrius alexandrinus tenuirostris (Lawrence). 2 CUBAN 
SNOWY PLOVER. 

1 Though nominally included among the birds of Costa Rica by Zeledon 
(Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 129, 1887), the Snowy Plover has never been 
obtained in that country. 

Additional material examined. Colorado: Adams County, 1; Kiowa County, 
6. Kansas: Stafford County, 1; Clark County, 2. Oklahoma: Cimarron River, 1; 
Greer County, 3; Cherokee, 3; Edith, 1; unspecified, 1. Texas: Frijole, 3; Corpus 
Christi, 3; Port Aransas, 3. Louisiana: Cameron Parish, 6; Lafourche Parish, 4; 
Jeff Davis Parish, 1. Mississippi: Horn Island, 1; Deer Island, 2; Gulfport, 1. 
Alabama: Dauphine Island, 1. 

* Charadrius alexandrinus tenuirostris (Lawrence) : A very unsatisfactory race, 
its supposed lighter coloration probably resulting from wear and fading. Before 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 59 

Aegialitis tenuirostris Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 455, Feb., 
1862 near Guantanamo, Cuba (type, breeding female, in collection of 
J. Gundlach, now in the Havana Museum); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 10, p. 
181, 1862 Guantanamo (crit.). 

Aegialeus tenuirostris Gundlach, in Poey, Repert. Hist. Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 359, 
1866 near Guantanamo, Cuba; idem, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 336, 1875 
Guantanamo (crit.; eggs descr.). 

Aegialites nivosus? (not of Cassin) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, 
p. 209, 1869 Celestin, Yucatan (crit.). 

Aegialitis nivosa (not of Cassin) Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 229, 1889 Cuba; 
idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 95, 1892 Cuba; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 24, p. 290, 1896 part, Cuba; Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
18, p. 656, 1896 Margarita Island, Venezuela (July 2); Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 359, 1903 part, Yucatan (Celestin). 

Charadrius nivosus tenuirostris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 139, 1919 part, West Indies, Florida, Yucatan, Venezuela (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 146, 1928 
Etang Saumatre, Haiti; Danforth, Auk, 46, pp. 231, 363, 1929 Etang 
Bois-Neuf, near St. Marc, Haiti (July 25); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
146, p. 252, 1929 part, Florida (life hist.); Wetmore and Swales, I.e., 
155, p. 146, 1931 Etang Saumatre (March 9) and near St. Marc, Haiti. 

Charadrius alexandrinus tenuirostris Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 250, 1934 
part, Florida, West Indies, Yucatan and northern Venezuela; Conover, 
Condor, 47, p. 212, 1945 Florida, West Indies, Yucatan (doubtful race). 

Range. Breeds in Florida, also sparingly in Cuba, Hispaniola, 
Puerto Rico, and St. Croix; winters in Yucatan (Celestin) and 
Venezuela (Margarita Island). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 19: Florida (Santa Rosa Island, Santa 
Rosa County, 6; Mary Esther, 8; East Pass, 2); Bahama Islands 
[Great Inagua, 2); Mexico (Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, 1). 

"Charadrius alexandrinus occidentalis (Cabanis). 2 CHILEAN 
SNOWY PLOVER. 

Aegialitis occidentalis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 20, p. 158, 1872 no locality 
stated (type, from near Santiago, Chile, in Berlin Museum examined); 

ts validity can be ascertained some specimens from Cuba in fresh breeding 
>lumage must be obtained and compared with similar birds from California. 

Additional material examined. Florida: Mary Esther, 1; Big Pass, 2; Santa 
Rosa Island, 1; St. Andrew, 1. Bahama Islands: Great Inagua, 1; Grand Turk 
[sland, 1; Grand Caicos, 2; Crooked Island, 2; Fortuna Island, 2. Haiti: Etang 
3ois Neuf, 1; Lake Assuei, 1. Puerto Rico: Cabo Rojo Light, 5. Virgin Islands: 
3t. Croix, 1. 

1 Berlepsch's inclusion (Journ. Orn., 35, p. 134, 1884) of Aegialitis nivosa in 
;he fauna of Paraguay is an obvious error. 

2 Charadrius alexandrinus occidentalis (Cabanis) : Similar to C. a. nivosus, but 
vings on average longer; occiput and hindcrown more heavily washed with buffy; 



60 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

idem, I.e., 32, p. vi, pi. 6, fig. 1, 1885 (figure of type); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 24, p. 295, 1896 part, spec, h, i, Laraquete, "Tarapaca" 
(=Arauco), Chile (spec, examined); Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 303 part, Lara- 
quete, Arauco. 

Hiaticula azarae (not Charadrius azarai Temminck) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, 
Birds, p. 127, 1841 part, Valparaiso, Chile (spec, examined); Cassin, in 
Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 195, 1855 Chile. 

Charadrius collaris Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 402, 
1847 Chile (excl. of description). 

Charadrius azarae Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, p. 116, 1865 Chile. 

Charadrius cantianus (not of Latham) Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, 
Cursores, p. 31, 1865 part, spec. nos. 25, 26, Algarroba, Chile (July, 
1863); Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 51, 1923 Isla la Mocha, 
Chile. 

Aegialites nivosus (not Aegialitis nivosa Cassin) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile (crit.); idem and Salvin, I.e., 1868, p. 176 
Tambo Valley, Arequipa, Peru (spec, examined). 

Aegialitis nivosa Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 559 Chorillos, 
near Lima, Peru (crit.); Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 15 Coquimbo, Chile; 
Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 428 Chile; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 346, 1886 
Chorillos, Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 292, 748, 1896 
part, spec, n'-w', a'-c", Peru (Tambo Valley) and Chile (Valparaiso); 
Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 209, 1896 Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., 
Suppl., 4, p. 665, 1898 Chile (Cavancha [Iquique], Tarapaca; Totoralillo, 
Coquimbo; and Calbuco [near Puerto Montt], Llanquihue) (spec, ex- 
amined); Coker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 56, p. 497, 1919 Paracas Bay, 
lea, Peru (June 27). 

Charadrius nivosus Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 264 Lurin, Lima, Peru (July 29). 

Charadrius alexandrinus occidentalis Neumann, Nov. Zool., 35, p. 215, 1929 
Chile to Peru (crit.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 373, 1932 Chile (Caldera, Atacama; Papudo, Aconcagua) (crit.; 
meas.; range); Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 36, p. 163, 1932 Dunas 
de Llico, Chile (Dec., Jan., Feb.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 250, 1934 
(range); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 245, pi. 15, 1935 Isla 
la Mocha, Arauco (breeding); Philippi, El Hornero, 6, p. 234, 1936 
Erizera and north of Arica, Tacna, Chile; Bullock, Auk, 53, p. 170, 1936 
Isla la Mocha, Chile (breeding habits); Morrison, Ibis, 1940, p. 255 

black post-frontal band generally wider; back darker grayish brown; non-breeding 
plumage resembling the nuptial dress. Wing, 104-111, rarely 100-103; tail, 46-53; 
bill, 14^-16. 

The breeding range of the Chilean Snowy Plover has recently been shown by 
Morrison to extend to Llanquihue (Maullin, west of Puerto Montt) and Chilo6 
Island. We have also examined adults and downy young from the Isla la Mocha, 
Arauco. 

Additional material examined. Peru: An con, Lima, 1; Lurin, Lima, 1; Mol- 
lendo, Arequipa, 1; Tambo Valley, Arequipa, 3. Chile: Cavancha (Iquique), 
Tarapaca, 1; Totoralillo, Atacama, 1; Valparaiso, 2; near Santiago, 1 (the type); 
Laraquete, Arauco, 2; Isla la Mocha, Arauco, 3; Maullin, Llanquihue, 2; unspeci- 
fied, 7. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 61 

Maullin, Llanquihue, Chile; Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 41, p. 201, 
col. pi. 8, fig. 3, 1937 (egg). 

Range. Resident on the littoral of Peru and Chile from Lima 
(Ancon, Chorillos, Lurin) to Llanquihue (Maullin) and Chiloe" 
Island. 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Chile (Puerto Inglesia, Atacama, 1). 

Conover Collection. 4: Chile (Caldera, Atacama, 1; Papudo, 
Aconcagua, 1; Llolleo, Santiago, 2). 

*Charadrius falklandicus Latham. PATAGONIAN PLOVER. 

Charadrius falklandicus Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 747, 1790 based on "Rusty- 
crowned Plover" Portlock, Voyage round the World, p. 36 (with plate), 
1789 Port Egmont, Falkland Islands; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, 
Cursores, p. 36, 1865 Falkland Islands and Chile (Algarrobo); Seebohm, 
Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 155, 1887 (monog.); Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool, 61, p. 151, 1917 Port Stanley and Port Stephens, Falkland Islands 
(downy young descr.); Wace, El Hornero, 2, p. 198, 1921 Falkland 
Islands; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 322 Falkland Islands; Wetmore, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 165, 1926 Buenos Aires (Rio de la Plata, near 
Berazategui; Lake Epiquen, near Carhu6; near Guaminf), Neuquen 
(Zapala), Uruguay (between Carrasco and Montevideo; La Paloma), 
Chile (Concon, Valparaiso); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 428, 
1926 San Antonio Oeste, Nahuel Niyeu, and Bariloche, Rio Negro; 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 371, 1932 Chile 
(Coquimbo, Santiago, Cucao, Rio Nirehuau) (crit.); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 251, 1934 (range); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 245, pi. 15, 
1935 Isla la Mocha (nesting); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 130, 1938 
(range). 

Charadrius trifasciatus Lichtenstein, Verz. Dubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 71, 
1823 Montevideo, Uruguay (type in Berlin Museum); Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 360, 1856 Montevideo, "Brazil"; Pelzeln, Reise 
Novara, Zool., 1, p. 116, 1865 Valparaiso, Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 271, 1868 coast of Santiago "to Peru." 

Charadrius pyrocephalus Garnot, Ann. Sci. Nat., 7, p. 46, 1826 Falkland 
Islands (type lost; cf. Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 115, 1891); 
Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 331, 1828 Falkland Islands; Garnot, Voy. 
Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 12, p. 54, July 4, 1829 Falkland Islands. 

Charadrius annuligerus Wagler, Syst. Nat., 1, fol. 4, Charadrius, sp. 13, 1827 

substitute name for Charadrius falklandicus Latham. 
Charadrius pyrrocephalus Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 16, p. 719, 

May, 1830 Falkland Islands. 
Hiaticula trifasciatus Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 127, 1841 Bahia 

Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires. 
Hiaticula bifasciata (lapsu) Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 118, 1843 

shores and margins of lakes in Chile. 



62 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hiaticula trifasciata Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 195, 1855 
vicinity of Santiago, Chile. 

Aegialitis falklandica(us) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 386, 1860 
St. Louis and Uranie Bay, Falkland Islands; idem and Salvin, Ibis, 1868, 
p. 188 Sandy Point and Gregory Bay, Straits of Magellan; iidem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 144 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Sclater, I.e., 
1872, p. 549 Rio Negro, Patagonia; Harting, I.e., 1874, p. 457, pi. 60, 
fig. 1 (egg) Falkland Islands; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, p. 402 Lake 
Colguape and Rio Sengel, Chubut (breeding in Sept.); Gibson, I.e., 1880, 
p. 163 Cape San Antonio, Province of Buenos Aires (nest and egg 
descr.); Doering, in Roca, Inf. Ofic. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., p. 56, 1881 
Carhu6, Puan, and Galinas Chicas, Buenos Aires; Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 313, 
1884 Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios (April); Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 2, p. 172, 1889 Argentina; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
12, p. 136, 1889 Laredo Bay, Magellan Straits; Holland, Ibis, 1891, 
pp. 16, 19 Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires (April); idem, I.e., 1892, p. 210 
Est. Espartillar (Mar. to Sept.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 295, 
748, 1896 Falkland Islands (Uranie Bay, Port Stanley), Patagonia (San 
Julian, Rio Negro, Chubut, Bahia Blanca), and Chile (Santiago, Co- 
quimbo); Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 664, 1898 Punta Arenas; 
Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 150, 1899 Rio Grande, Rio 
Grande do Sul, Brazil (March, May); Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. 
Nat. Geneva, 40, p. 624, 1900 Santa Cruz, Patagonia; Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 375, 1902 Tierra del Fuego; Vallentin, 
Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 39, 1904 Falkland 
Islands (eggs descr.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 49, 1907 (range, 
incl. Rio Grande do Sul); Crawshay, Birds Tierra del Fuego, p. 120, 
1907 Useless Bay Settlement; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, 
p. 251, 1909 Barracas al Sud and Bahfa Blanca, Buenos Aires; Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 217, 1910 (range in Argentina); 
Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 293, 
1910 Rio Coy and twelve miles from Sandy Point, Patagonia; Grant, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 465 Cape San Antonio, Los Yngleses, and Tuyu, Ajo, 
Buenos Aires (Nov. to April); Gibson, I.e., 1920, p. 59 Cape San Antonio, 
Buenos Aires (winter visitor, April to August; very rarely breeding; eggs 
descr.) ; Marelli, El Hornero, 5, p. 195, 1923 Bahfa Blanca, Buenos Aires. 

Aegialites falklandicus Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 155 Falkland Islands (breeding 
in October); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile. 

Charadrius pyrrhocephalus Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 271, 1868 
from the Straits of Magellan to "Peru"; (?)idem, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 
La Brea, Antofagasta, Chile. 

Charadrius (Aegialitis) falklandicus Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. 
B. 114, 1891 Falkland Islands (French Bay); Straits of Magellan (Elisa- 
beth Island), Patagonia (Arroyo Moreno; Puerto Deseado), and Brazil 
(Rio Grande [do Sul]). 

Pernettyva falklandica Oberholser, Trans. Wise. Acad. Sci., 19, (1), p. 518, 
1918 (crit.). 

Leucopolius (Pernettyva) falklandica Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 
Montevideo, Canelones, and Colonia, Uruguay. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 63 

Leucopolius falklandicus Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 296, 1923 
San Antonio, Huanuluan, and Laguna de Neluan, Rio Negro; Lowe, 
Ibis, 1931, p. 722. 

Oegialitis (sic) falklandica Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 51, 1924 
Isla la Mocha, Arauco, Chile. 

Range. Breeds in southern South America from Isla la Mocha 
and Chilo Island, Chile, in the west and from the Rio Negro (rarely 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires) in the east south to Tierra del 
Fuego; the Falkland Islands; migrates in winter to central and north- 
ern Chile, eastern Argentina (provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre 
Rios), Uruguay, and extreme southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Argentina (Rivadavia, Chubut, 1). 

Conover Collection. 13: Chile (Llolleo, Santiago, 1; Cucao, Chilo 
Island, 2; Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, Aysen, 8; Skyring Water, 
Magallanes, 1); Argentina (Laguna Alsina, Buenos Aires, 1). 

*Charadrius alticola (Berlepsch and Stolzmann). 2 PUNA PLOVER. 

Aegialitis alticola Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, 
(2), p. 51 Ingapirca, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in Branicki Museum, now 
in Warsaw Museum); 3 iidem, Ornis, 13, p. 132, 1906 Puno, Peru; 
Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 260, 1919 Lago Helado, Catamarca. 

Aegialitis ocddentalis (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1886, 
p. 403 Sitani, Huasco, and Cueva Negra, Tarapaca, Chile; idem, I.e., 
1891, p. 137 -Sacaya, Tarapaca; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 
295, 748, 1896 part, descr. and spec, a-g, k, 1, Sitani and Huasco, Tara- 
paca; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 303 part, Sacaya, Tarapaca. 

1 In addition to a good series from Chile, Argentina, and the Falkland Islands, 
we have examined an adult male and an immature female collected by H. von 
Ihering on May 21 and March 8, 1884, at Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, both in 
the Berlepsch Collection, now in the Frankfurt Museum. 

2 Charadrius alticola (Berlepsch and Stolzmann): Nearest to C. falklandicus 
but much smaller, with shorter, weaker bill; upper parts much paler, more grayish 
brown with the rufescent tinge on pileum and hindneck light pinkish cinnamon 
to pinkish cinnamon instead of orange cinnamon; and the lower surface without 
the two broad black cross bands, so conspicuous in the southern species. Wing, 
119-123, (female) 115-123; tail, 53-57, (female) 51-55; bill, 14^-16. 

This species, in spite of a superficial resemblance, is quite distinct from C. 
alexandrinus ocddentalis and may be readily separated by larger size; much 
longer and stronger, deep black (instead of light-colored) tarsi and toes; much 
more buffy or cinnamomeous suffusion about the head; grayish-brown (instead of 
black) patch on the sides of the foreneck; and finally by the presence of a more or 
less distinct cinnamon or grayish brown pectoral band. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Santa Inez, Huancavelica, 2. Bolivia: 
Oruro, 1; Challapata, 3. Chile, Tarapaca: Huasco, 2; Cueva Negra, 1; Sitani, 2; 
Sacaya, 2; Cancosa, 1. 

3 Not listed by Sztolcman and Domaniewski among the types of the Warsaw 
Museum (Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, pp. 95-194, 1927). 



64 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Charadrius occidentalis Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 174, 1887 Tara- 
paca (crit.); Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 264 Challapata, Oruro, Bolivia (spec. 
examined). 

Charadrius alticola Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 372, 
1932 Antofagasta (Ojo de San Pedro, twenty miles east of San Pedro) 
and Tarapacd (Huasco, Cueva Negra, Sitani, Cancosa, Sacaya), Chile 
(crit.; range; meas.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 251, 1934 (range); Morrison, 
Ibis, 1939, pp. 464, 646 Santa Inez, Huancavelica, and Lake Junin, 
Peru. 

Range. Puna zone of southern Peru (Ingapirca, Junin; Santa 
Inez, Huancavelica; Puno), western Bolivia (Challapata, Oruro), 
northern Chile (Tarapaca and Antofagasta), and northwestern 
Argentina (Lago Helado, Catamarca). 

Field Museum Collection. 6: Bolivia (Vacas, Cochabamba, 1; 
Esperanza, Pacajes, 1; Mount Sajama, Carangas, 1); Chile (Ojo de 
San Pedro, Antofagasta, 1; San Pedro, Antofagasta, 2). 

Conover Collection. 8: Peru (Puno, Puno, 1); Bolivia (Laguna 
de Taxara, Tarija, 1; Esperanza, Pacajes, La Paz, 2); Chile (San 
Pedro, Antofagasta, 4). 

*Charadrius collaris Vieillot. AZARA'S COLLARED PLOVER. 

Charadrius collaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 27, p. 136, 
1818 based on "Mbatuitui collar negro" Azara, No. 392, Paraguay; 
Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, Cursores, p. 37, 1865 Venezuela (Ca- 
racas), Bolivia, and Paraguay; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. 
Foren., 1870, p. 34 Minas Geraes; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 173, 
1887 (monog.); Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 126, 1891 Cordoba; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 140, 1919 (monog.); Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 185, 1922 Cienaga, Don Diego, Punta 
Caiman, Gaira, and Fundacion, Colombia; Seri4 and Smyth, El Hornero, 
3, p. 41, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rfos; Giacomelli, I.e., p. 80, 1923 
La Rioja; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 193, 1926 Ecuador; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 164, 1926 Argentina (Santa Fe; 
Resistencia, Chaco; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, etc.) and Uruguay (various 
localities); 1 Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 169, 1927 Rio 
de Gastone, Tucuman; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 493, 1929 Ibiapaba, Piauhy; Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 57, 1930 Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Darlington, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 376, 1931 CiSnaga Grande, Colombia; Griscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 131, 1932 Ocos, Guatemala; Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 17, (2), p. 801, 1932 Rio Parana, Sao Paulo; Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 251, 1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, 
p. 372, 1934 Acapulco, Guerrero; Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

1 We cannot help thinking that the birds observed at Concon, Chile, belonged 
to some other species, probably C. alexandrinus occidentalis. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 65 

Sci. Phila., 86, p. 376, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso; Belcher and 
Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 288 Trinidad and Tobago (eggs descr.); Griscom, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 306, 1935 Canal Zone of Panama; Pinto, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 19, p. 80, 1935 Ilha Madre do Dios, Corupe'ba, and 
Joazeiro, Bahia; idem, I.e., 22, p. 130, 1938 Rio Jurud, Bahia, Sao Paulo, 
Matto Grosso, and Tucuman; Philippi, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 43, p. 198, 
1940 Chile (status); idem, I.e., 44, p. 150, 1940 Chile (July, perhaps a 
resident); Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., (3), 22, p. 42, 
1945 Rio Jurua, Brazil (disc.); idem, I.e., 23, p. 71, 1945 El Beni, 
Bolivia (Cachuela Esperanza; Victoria). 

Charadrius azarai Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 31, pi. 184, Feb., 
1823 Brazil and Paraguay. 

Charadrius azarae Lichtenstein, Verz. Dubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 71, Sept., 
1823 Brazil and Montevideo; Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 772, 
1832 eastern Brazil; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
"1848," p. 751, 1849 British Guiana; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. 
Bras., 3, p. 360, 1856 Lagoa Santa and Sette Lagoas, Minas Geraes; 
idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 260, 1860 Argentina; idem, Reise La Plata St., 
2, p. 501, 1861 Argentina; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 297, 1870 Rio 
de Janeiro (Piehy, Marambaya), Parana (Cimeterio [do Lambari], Castro), 
Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Caicara), Amazonas (Barra do Rio Negro), and 
Para (Cajutuba). 

Charadrius larvatus (Temminck MS.) Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 318, June, 
1828 "Bresil, coll. Delalande"=Rio de Janeiro (type in Paris Museum; 
cf. Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., [2], 3, p. 570, 1851). 

Hiaticula azarae Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 127, 1841 part, banks 
of the La Plata; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 298, 1860 Es- 
meraldas, Ecuador. 

Hiaticula collaris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 290, 1860 Babahoyo, 
Ecuador. 

Aegialitis azarae Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 334, 1862 
Lion Hill, Panama. 

Aegialites nivosus (not Aegialitis nivosa Cassin) Salvin, Ibis, 1865, p. 191 
Chiapam, Guatemala. 

Aegialitis collaris Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 199 
lower and upper Ucayali, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 309 lower and upper 
Ucayali and Santa Cruz, Peru (egg descr.); Harting, I.e., 1874, p. 458, 
pi. 60, fig. 7 (egg) Peru (egg descr.); Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
4, p. 46, 1876 Tehuantepec City, Oaxaca, Mexico; Allen, Bull. Essex 
Inst., 8, p. 83, 1876 Anjos, lower Amazon; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, p. 67 
Province of Buenos Aires; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 628 
Punta Lara, Buenos Aires; Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 313, 1884 Concepci6n 
del Uruguay, Entre Rios; Salvin, Ibis, 1886, p. 178 Bartica Grove, 
British Guiana; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 344, 1886 Peruvian locali- 
ties; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 36, 1887 Rio Pilcomayo, Paraguay; 
idem, I.e., 37, p. 320, 1889 Tarapoto, Peru (crit.); Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 2, p. 109, 1889 Reyes and Falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia; 
Riker and Chapman, Auk, 8, p. 163, 1891 Santare"m, Brazil; Kerr, Ibis, 



66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1892, p. 150 Fortfn Donovan, Chaco Paraguayo; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 5, p. 149, 1893 Corumba, Matto Grosso; Richmond, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 526, 1893 Rio Frio, Costa Rica; Aplin, Ibis, 
1894, p. 206 Rio Negro, Uruguay; Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
18, p. 657, 1896 Margarita Island, Venezuela; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 24, pp. 288, 744, 1896 Mexico (Playa Vicente and La Antigua, 
Vera Cruz), Guatemala (Chiapam), Nicaragua (Momotombo), Grenada 
Island, Colombia (Bogota, Santa Marta), Ecuador (Intac), Peru (Iquitos, 
Chamicuros, Cosnipata), Venezuela (Laguna de Valencia), British Guiana 
(Bartica Grove), Brazil (Island of Mexiana, Rio Tocantins, Pernambuco, 
Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Corumba, Marambaya, Sao Paulo, Rio Grande 
do Sul), Argentina (Punta Lara, Mendoza), and Uruguay (Colonia); 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 35, 1897 Caiza, 
Bolivia, and Tala, Salta; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 149, 
1899 Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 430, 1899 Sao 
Sebastiao and Iguape, Sao Paulo; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, 
p. 126, 1900 Cienaga, Santa Marta, Colombia; Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 235 
Paraguayan Chaco; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1902, (2), p. 51 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru; Lillo, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 212, 1902 Rio Sail, Tucuman; Berlepsch and 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 129, 1902 Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; 
Hartert, I.e., p. 307, 1902 Aruba Island (crit.); Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, 
p. 444 Quinta, Jujuy; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
3, p. 359, 1903 Mexico to Panama and Grenada; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 
p. 40 Bahia, Brazil; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 231, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucu- 
man; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 250, 1904 Oran, Salta; Ihering, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 452, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil; idem, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 48, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape, Sao Sebastiao, Ubatuba, 
Itapura), Amazonas (Rio Jurud), and Matto Grosso (Porto da Faya); 
Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb., (Syst.), 26, p. 44, 1907 Mexiana Island, Brazil; 
Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 291, 1907 El Pozo de Terraba, Barranca de Punta- 
renas, and Herradura de Puntarenas, Costa Rica; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
55, pp. 23, 517, 1908 Cachoeira, Rio Purus, and Goyana, Rio Tapajoz, 
Brazil; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 101, 1908 Rio Araguaya, Goyaz; 
Berlepsch, I.e., p. 305, 1908 Cayenne (no definite record); Hartert and 
Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 250, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, and near 
Tucuman; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 237, 1909 
Margarita Island; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, 
p. 94, 1910, p. 225, 1923 Bahia (Joazeiro, Barra do Rio Grande) and Piauhy 
(below Therezina, Ilha Sao Martin, Amaracao); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
17, p. 425, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 417, 1910 Cuabre and Rio Sicsola, Costa Rica; Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 217, 1910 (range in Argentina); Grant, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 465 Monte Alto, Desaguadero, Colonia Risso, and Puerto 
Braga, Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 38, 1914 Alto Parana, 
Paraguay; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 86, 1914 Quati-Puru, Rio 
Tapajoz (Goyana, Boim), Rio Purus (Cachoeira), Marajo (Dunas, Sao 
Natal), Mexiana, and Rio Jamunda (Faro), Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 370, 1916 Orinoco region; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 223, 1917 Cali, Cauca, and La Morelia, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 67 

Caqueta, Colombia; Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 148, 1918 Sunlunla, Men- 

doza; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 13, 1920 Montevideo, Canelones, and 

Maldonado, Uruguay; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 173, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; 

idem, I.e., 4, p. 28, 1927 San Rafael, Mendoza. 
Aegialites nivosus? Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 196 Chiapam (crit.). 
Aegialites collaris Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 591 

Mexiana Island and Rio Tocantins, Brazil; iidem, I.e., 1869, p. 252 

Lake Valencia, Venezuela; iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 186 Cosnipata, Peru; 

Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 335 Bonaire, Dutch West Indies. 
Aegialitis gracilis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 20, p. 158, 1872 Tehuantepec, 

Mexico (type in Berlin Museum); idem, I.e., 33, p. vi, pi. 6, figs. 3a, 3b, 

1885. 
Charadrius collaris collaris Hartert and Jackson, Ibis, 1915, p. 531 (crit.; 

range); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 77, 1930 Rio Sao 

Lourenco, Matto Grosso. 
Charadrius collaris gracilis Hartert and Jackson, Ibis, 1915, p. 531 (crit.; 

range). 

Range. Tropical America from southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Guer- 
rero, and Vera Cruz) through Guatemala (Chiapam, Ocos), Honduras 
(Chamelicon), Nicaragua (Momotombo, San Emilio, Tipitapa), 
Costa Rica, and Panama (Lion Hill) south to western Ecuador, Peru, 
Bolivia, and northern Argentina (south to Mendoza, Cordoba, and 
Buenos Aires) j 1 islands of Grenada, Tobago, Trinidad, and Bonaire. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 23: Nicaragua (San Emilio, Rivas, 3); 
Venezuela (Catatumbo, Zulia, 1); Ecuador (Quevedo, Rio Palenque, 
1); British Guiana (Rockstone, 3; Rupununi River, 1); Srazil (Boa 
Vista, Amazonas, 3; Conceicao, Rio Branco, Amazonas, 1; Itacoa- 
tiara, Amazonas, 1; Arravia Island, Solimoes River, 1; Sao Luis, 
Maranhao, 1; Tres Lagoas, Matto Grosso, 1); Paraguay (Colonia 
Nueva Italia, 2); Bolivia (San Carlos, Santa Cruz, 1; Rio Surutu, 
Santa Cruz, 1; Cercado, Cochabamba, 1; Capinota, Cochabamba, 1). 

Conover Collection. 19: Colombia (Cie*naga, Santa Marta, 1); 
Ecuador (Milagro, Guayas, 1 ; Isla Silva Sur, Province de los Rios, 2) ; 
British Guiana (Rockstone, Essequibo River, 3); Brazil (Caxirica- 
tuba, Rio Tapajoz, Para, 6; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 1); Bolivia, Santa 
Cruz (Buena Vista, 1; Rio Surutu, 1); Argentina (Rio, Tucuman, 3); 
Paraguay (80 km. east of Orloff, 3). 

1 Records from Chile are probably due to confusion with C. alexandrinus 
occidentalis. 

2 We cannot see our way clear of splitting Azara's Collared Plover into two races, 
as has been proposed by Hartert and Jackson. While birds from Amazonia, Cen- 
tral America, and Mexico are generally smaller, there are so many exceptions to 
this rule that subdivision would serve no practical purpose. Sixty-seven additional 
specimens examined. 



68 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"Charadrius vociferus vociferus Linnaeus. KILLDEER. 

Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 150, 1758 based 
on "Chattering Plover" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 71, pi. 71, 
South Carolina; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, Cursores, p. 23, 1865 
Ohio, Wisconsin, Mexico, and Costa Rica (crit.); Seebohm, Geog. Distr. 
Charad., p. 120, 1887 (monog.; part, excl. of Peru). 

Oxyechus vociferus Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 44 valley of 
San Jose, Costa Rica; Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 627, 1886 
Grenada (rare migrant); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 242, 742, 
1896 (part, excl. of Peru and Chile); (?)Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 43, 1900 Rio de San Pedro, Tumbaco 
(July) and Chaupi (June), Ecuador; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 3, p. 355, 1903 part, Mexican and Central American 
localities; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 249, 1905 Carriacou and 
Grenada (rare migrant); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 162, 1906 
Rio Sestin and Rancho Baillon, Durango, Mexico (breeding); Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 416, 1910 Costa Rica (Cerro de Santa Maria, 
Jan. 6; vicinity of San Jose; Azahar de Cartago; Cariblanco de Sarapiqui; 
Guacimo, El Hogar, Nov. 15); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, 
No. 25, p. 23, 1922 San Pedro River, Chillo Valley (Dec. 4), and La 
Carolina (Feb. 20), Ecuador; Rowan, Brit. Birds, 20, p. 9, pi. 2, 1926 
(downy young descr.); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 202, 1929 
(life hist.); Sugden, Auk, 49, p. 81, 1932 (incubation period); Ticehurst, 
Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 53, pp. 203, 205, 1933 (descr. downy young). 

Aegialitis vocifera Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 547 
Medellin, Colombia; Bonhote, Ibis, 1899, p. 518 New Providence (Oct., 
Nov.); idem, I.e., 1903, p. 300 New Providence (Jan.) and Little Abaco 
(MaK), Bahama Islands. 

Oxyechus vociferus vociferus Worthington, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, p. 449, 
1911 Bahama Islands (winter visitor); Todd, I.e., 10, p. 215, 1916 
Isle of Pines (Nov. to Feb.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 99, 1919 part, North America to Panama and the Bahama Islands 
(full bibliog.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 193, 1926 Lago 
San Pablo, Ecuador (Mar. 21); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and 
Virgin Islands, 9, p. 353, 1927 Virgin Gorda and Anegada (Dec.; crit.); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 97, 1928 Lower California; 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 132, 1929 Great Corn Island (Dec. 
12; crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 131, 1932 Sacapulas, 
Guatemala (Oct. 15 to April). 

Charadrius vociferus vociferus Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 252, 1934 (range); 
van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 433, 1934 Sonora (Alamos, 
Feb. 22; Oposura, April 4 and 23) and Chihuahua (Chihuahua, Oct., Nov.), 
Mexico; Griscom, I.e., 78, p. 306, 1935 Panama (winter); Belcher and 
Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 288 Tobago (visitor); Dickey and van Rossem, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 170, 1938 Puerto del Triunfo 
(Jan. 14) and Lake Olomega (Feb. 3, Apr. 6), El Salvador; Sutton, Auk, 
59, p. 304, 1942 Nain, Newfoundland Labrador; van Rossem, Occ. 
Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 78, 1945 Sonora (resident). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 69 

Range. Breeds from northern British Columbia, southern Mac- 
kenzie, Ontario, and southern Quebec south to southern Lower 
California, northern Mexico, the Gulf coast, and Florida; winters 
south to the Bahama Islands, West Indies, Colombia, and Ecuador; 
casual in Newfoundland; accidental in the British Isles and in 
Labrador. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 164: British Columbia (Okanagan, 4); 
Alberta (Walsh, 1) ; Saskatchewan (Prince Albert, 1; Maple Creek, 1; 
Big Stick Lake, 1); Ontario (Doe Lake, 1); North Dakota (Towner 
County, 26; Stump Lake, Nelson County, 17; Cando, Towner 
County, 3); California (Moss Landing, 3; Monterey, 1; Hyperion, 2; 
Motordrome, Los Angeles County, 3; Thermal, 1; Corona, 1; 
Poway, 1; Witch Creek, 1; Rencan, 2; Los Banos, 1; Redlands, 3; 
La Patera Point, 3) ; New Mexico (Rincon, 1) ; Arizona (Calabasas, 2; 
Palmerlee, 2); Texas (Cameron County, 2; Corpus Christi, 3); 
Colorado (Fraser, 4; Troublesome, 1; New Castle, 1); Arkansas 
(Fayetteville, 1); Kansas (Lawrence, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 
10); Illinois (Worth, 1; Lake Zurich, 1); Massachusetts (Nantucket, 
3; Essex, 3; Chatham, 3; Great Island, 1); Connecticut (West Haven, 
4; East Haven, 1; New Haven, 2; Cheshire, 1; Stony Creek, 1; 
Bloomfield, 2; East Hartford, 2); New York (Cayuga Lake, 1); 
North Carolina (Pea Island, Dare County, 5); Georgia (Mclntosh 
County, 1); Florida (Talbot Island, Duval County, 1; Eau Gallic, 
Brevard County, 2; Miami Beach, 3; Amelia Island, Nassau County, 
2); Bahama Islands (interior of San Salvador, 3; Southwest Point, 
San Salvador, 2; Coban Bay, San Salvador, 2; Norman Key, 1); 
Jamaica (Port Antonio, 1); Virgin Islands (Virgin Gorda, 2); Lesser 
Antilles (Anegada Island, 2); Mexico (La Paz, Lower California, 1; 
Sabinas, Coahuila, 1; Chichen Itza, Yucatan, 1); Guatemala (Bobos, 
Izabal, 1); Honduras (Utila Island, 1); Costa Rica (Limon, Limon, 1). 

Conover Collection. 22: California (Wilmington, 1; Goleta, 3; 
Moss Landing, 2); Utah (Brigham, 2); Illinois (Wheaton, 5;Wau- 
kegan, 1; Warrenville, Du Page County, 2; Grant Park, Chicago, 1); 
New York (Sennett, 1; Owasco Lake, 1); Florida (Tamiami Trail, 2; 
Miami Beach, 1). 

*Charadrius vociferus ternominatus Bangs and Kennard. 2 
WEST INDIAN KILLDEER. 

1 The locality "Paraguay" attached to a specimen in the British Museum 
is probably erroneous. 

z Charadrius vociferus ternominatus Bangs and Kennard: Similar to the nomi-. 
nate race, but differing by smaller size and grayer upper parts, with the rufescent 



70 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Charadrius torquatus (not of Pontoppidan, 1763) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th 
ed., 1, p. 255, 1766 based on "Le Pluvier a collier de S. Domingue" 
Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 70, pi. 6, fig. 2, Santo Domingo (type in Reaumur 
Collection). 1 

Oxyechus vociferus (not Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 242, 742, 1896 part, spec. m 3 -p 3 , b 4 , Jamaica and 
Cuba (San Cristobal). 

Oxyechus vociferus torquatus Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 39, p. 195, 
1905 Laguna Grande and Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines (crit.). 

Oxyechus vociferus rubidus (not Charadrius rubidus Gmelin, 1789) Riley, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 22, p. 88, April 17, 1909 new name for Charadrius 
torquatus Linnaeus, preoccupied; Todd and Worthington, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 7, pp. 414, 449, 1911 Great Inagua (crit.); Todd, l.c., 10, p. 215, 
1916 Santa Rosalia Lagoon, Hato, and Jacksonville, Isle of Pines (crit.); 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 326, p. 39, 1916 Puerto Rico (habits; 
food); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 404, 1917 Jaibon, His- 
paniola; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 103, 1919 Greater 
Antilles (monog.; full bibliog.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, 9, p. 354, 1927 Puerto Rico, Vieques, and St. Thomas (crit.; 
habits; bibliog.); idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 150, 
1931 Hispaniola (monog.); Beatty, Journ. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 
25, p. 34, 1941 St. Croix, Virgin Islands (breeding); idem, Auk, 60, 
p. 110, 1943 St. Croix, Virgin Islands (nesting notes). 

Charadrius vociferus ternominatus Bangs and Kennard, Handb. Jamaica, p. 
684 (repr. p. 8), 1920 new name for Oxyechus vociferus rubidus Riley, 
preoccupied; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 252, 1934 (range). 

Range. Resident in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles (islands of 
Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico) and Virgin 
Islands (Vieques, St. Thomas, St. Croix). 

Field Museum Collection. 39: Bahama Islands (Acklin Island, 1; 
Mariguana, 2; Eleuthera, 1; Great Inagua, 27); Dominican Republic 
(Maniel, Azua, 2; San Cristobal, 1; San Luis, 4); Puerto Rico 
(Laguna Cartagena, 1). 

Conover Collection. 8: Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, 2; St. Croix, 6). 
*Charadrius vociferus peruvianus (Chapman). 2 PERUVIAN 

KlLLDEER. 

edgings to the feathers slightly more pronounced. Wing, 139-148, (female) 
139-153. 

Breeding Bahama birds agree with others from the Greater Antilles. 

1 Charadrius lamaicensis P. L. S. Mviller (Vollst. Natursyst., Suppl., p. 117, 
1776), based on "The larger Grey Snipe" Browne (Civil and Nat. Hist. Jamaica, 
p. 477; about the lagoons in St. George's, Jamaica), while probably referring to 
the Killdeer, is not identifiable with certainty. 

2 Charadrius vociferus peruvianus (Chapman) : Agreeing in small size with 
C. v. ternominatus, but differing, in postnuptial plumage, in the greater extent of 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 71 

Oxyechus vodferus peruvianus Chapman, Auk, 37, p. 106, 1920 Paletillas, 

near Payta, Piura, Peru (el. 1,550 ft.) (type in the American Museum of 

Natural History, New York); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 

Ser., 19, p. 378, 1932 Chile; Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, 

p. 53, 1938 Arica, Tacna, Chile (Aug. 10). 
Aegialites vodferus (not Charadrius vodferus Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, pp. 176, 570 Tambo Valley, near Islay, 

Arequipa, Peru. 
Aegialitis vodfera Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 244 Pacas- 

mayo, Peru (June); idem, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 342, 1886 Pacasmayo. 
Oxyechus vodferus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 242, 742, 1896 

spec, u 3 , v 3 , c 4 , d 4 , Peru (Tambo Valley) and Chile. 

Charadrius vodferus Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 263 Trujillo, Peru (Nov. 17). 
Charadrius vodferus peruvianus Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 253, 1934 Peru. 

Range. Resident on the littoral of the Pacific coast from Piura, 
Peru, to Tacna, Chile (Arica). 1 

Conover Collection. 2: Peru (Parinas Valley, Talera, Piura, 2). 
Charadrius mongolus mongolus Pallas. MONGOLIAN PLOVER. 

Charadrius mongolus Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs., 3, p. 700, 
1776 salt lakes toward the Mongolian border; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 132, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bailey, Condor, 28, 
p. 85, 1926 Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska (June 11); Swarth, Pac. Coast 
Avifauna, No. 22, p. 27, 1934 Nunivak Island. 

Charadrius mongolus mongolus Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 17, p. 248, 
1928 Nunivak Island, Alaska (Aug. 14, Sept. 1); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 146, p. 253, 1929 (life hist.); Friedmann, Condor, 36, p. 89, 193'4 
Goodnews Bay, Alaska (June 10); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 253, 1934 
(range); Friedmann, Condor, 38, p. 173, 1936 Gambell, St. Lawrence 
Island (May, 1935), Goodnews Bay (June 10, 1933, breeding). 

Range. Breeds from eastern Siberia, Kamchatka, and the Com- 
mander Islands, south to Mongolia; occasional in Alaska (Cape 
Prince of Wales, June 11, 1922; Nunivak Island, Aug. 14 and Sept. 1, 
1927; Goodnews Bay, June 10, 1933 [breeding]; St. Lawrence Island, 
May, 1935). 2 

the rusty margins of the upper parts, particularly of the lesser and median wing 
coverts. 

1 The breeding range possibly extends into Ecuador, since Salvadori and Festa 
(Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 43, 1900) record the capture of a specimen 
in June at Chaupi. 

2 As has been pointed out by Dixon (Auk, 35, p. 390, 1918), it is somewhat 
doubtful whether the birds recorded by Harting (Ibis, 1870, p. 389) from the 
Choris Peninsula, Alaska, were actually taken on the Alaskan side of Bering Sea. 
The Alaskan birds are most likely referable to C. m. littoralis Stegmann (Orn. 
Monatsber., 45, p. 25, 1937 Bering Island; type in Leningrad Museum), which is 
described as being darker, less grayish above, with the rufescent jugular band and 
the reddish color about the head of a deeper tone. 



72 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
"Charadrius wilsonia beldingi (Ridgway). BELDING'S PLOVER. 

Pagolla wilsonia beldingi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 112, 
1919 La Paz, Lower California (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 193, 1926 Jambeli Island, 
Ecuador (July 22, Oct. 31); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, 
p. 12, 1927 San Bias, Nayarit (Oct. 2); Bancroft, Condor, 29, p. 49 
(in text), 1927 Scammons Lagoon, Lower California (breeding); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 98, 1928 southern half of Lower California 
(resident); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 130, 1932 Chiapam, 
Guatemala; van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 133, 1932 
Tibur6n Island, Sonora; Griscom, Auk, 50, p. 299, 1933 Puerto Jimenez, 
Costa Rica (Sept. 30, Oct. 10, 1926). 

Aegialites wilsonianus (not Charadrius wilsonia Ord) Salvin, Ibis, 1865, p. 191 
lagoon of Chiapam, Guatemala; idem, I.e., 1866, p. 197 Chiapam. 

Aegialitis wilsonius Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 307, 1874 
Mazatlan, Sinaloa. 

Aegialitis wilsoniana Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 330 
between Tumbez and Santa Lucia, Tumbez, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 3, 
p. 343, 1886 same locality. 

Ochthodromus wilsonius Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 545, 1883 
Cape district of Lower California. 

Ochthodromus wilsoni Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 214, 739, 1896 
part, spec, w', e'-g", i", k*, t 2 , u 2 , Mexico (San Bias, Tepic), Guatemala 
(Chiapam), and Ecuador (Pund Island); Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 43, 1900 Bahia de Ballenita, Ecuador (Jan.); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 354, 1903 part, 
Mexico (Mazatlan, Sinaloa; San Bias, Tepic), Guatemala (Chiapam), 
and south to Peru; Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, (1), p. 53 (in 
text), 1913 Cocos Island, Costa Rica (Sept. 4 and 11). 

Aegialitis wilsonia Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 73, 1902 La Paz, 
Carmen Island, and San Jose del Cabo, Lower California (crit.). 

Charadrius wilsonia beldingi Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 254, 1934 (range); 
van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 433, 1934 Guaymas, Sonora 
(Jan. 14); Griscom, I.e., 78, p. 306, 1935 Panama and Pearl Islands; 
van Rossem and Hachisuka, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 8, p. 330, 
1937 Agiobampa, Sonora; Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 169, 1938 Puerto del Triunfo (Jan. 5) and Barra 
de Santiago (Apr. 1, 2), El Salvador; van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. 
Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 79, 1945 Sonora (resident). 

Range. Locally resident on the Pacific coast from Lower Cali- 
fornia to northwestern Peru (Tumbez). 

Field Museum Collection. 24: Mexico (La Paz, Lower California, 
15; Coronado Islands, Lower California, 1); Costa Rica (Punta 
Piedra, Guanacaste, 8). 

Conover Collection. 11: Mexico (La Paz, Lower California, 6); 
Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, Guanacaste, 5). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 73 
*Charadrius wilsonia wilsonia Ord. WILSON'S PLOVER. 

Charadrius wilsonia Ord, in Wilson's Amer. Orn., 9, p. 77, pi. 73, fig. 5, 1814 
"shores of Cape Island," New Jersey (probable cotypes now in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 59, p. 133, 1915, and Bangs, I.e., 70, p. 176, 1930). 

Charadrius crassirostris Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 77, pi. 94, 1825 
Brazil (type in Munich Museum; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. 
Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, p. 715, 1906 [crit.]); Cabanis, in Schomburgk, 
Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 750, 1849 coast of British Guiana; 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 359, 1856 Brazil (ex Spix). 

Charadrius wilsonii Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, fol. 4, Charadrius, sp. 26, 1827 
(emendation). 

Aegialites wilsonianus Salvin, Ibis, 1864, p. 387 Grassy Cay, off British 
Honduras (May; breeding). 

Aegialites wilsonius March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 66 Jamaica 
(breeding). 

Ochthodromus wilsonius Gundlach, in Poey, Repert. Fis.-Nat., Cuba, 1, p. 359, 
1866 Cuba (resident); idem, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 333, 1875 Cuba (habits, 
eggs, and young descr.) ; idem, I.e., 26, p. 189, 1878 Caborojo and Arecibo, 
Puerto Rico. 

Charadrius wilsonius Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 297, 1870 Praia do Cajutuba 
and Rio Muria, Para, Brazil (spec, examined by senior author); Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 306, 1916 Cayman Islands (breeding). 

Aegialitis wilsonius var. rufinucha Ridgway, 1 Amer. Natur., 8, No. 2, p. 109, 
Feb., 1874 Spanishtown, Jamaica (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Aegialitis wilsonia Cory, Auk, 4, p. 228, 1887 West Indian localities and 
references (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Indies, p. 228, 1889 (descr.); idem, Cat. 
W. Ind. Birds, p. 95, 1892 Bahama Islands and Greater Antilles; Bonhote, 
Ibis, 1899, p. 518 New Providence, Bahama Islands (May 7, July 2; 
breeding); Bangs, Auk, 17, p. 285, 1900 Little Pimlico and Andros, 
Bahama Islands; Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 300 Andros and Little Abaco, 
Bahama Islands. 

Charadrius wilsoni Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 154, 1887 (monog.); 
Young, Ibis, 1928, p. 768 Blairmont, British Guiana (Oct. 25, Dec. 22). 

Ochthodromus wilsoni Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 214, 739, 1894 
part, spec, a-v', x'-d', n"-s 2 , v 2 , United States, Anegada Island, Yucatan, 
Honduras (Grassy Cay), French Guiana (Oyapoc River) and Brazil 

1 This race is not a valid one as the describer himself must have discovered, 
for he omitted it from his later work, Birds of North and Middle America. A 
comparison of forty-eight specimens from the West Indies with thirty-eight from 
North America shows that there is no constant difference in coloration between 
the two series. 

Additional material examined. Bahama Islands: Andros, 1; Green Turtle 
Cay, 1. Cuba: Cabanas, 4; Mariel, 1. Haiti: Gran Boucan, 1; Aquin, 2; Etang 
Saumatre, 2. Puerto Rico: Cabo Rojo Lighthouse, 1. Lesser Antilles: Little 
Saba, 1. 



74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Bahia and "Cumana" [= Camamu]) ; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 305, 
1908 Oyapoc River, French Guiana. 

Ochthodromus wilsonia Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 47, 1907 part, Bahia; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 85, 1914 Brazil (no specified locality). 

Eudromias wilsoni Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
76, p. 94, 1910 coast of Piauhy, Brazil (Sept. 14, 15, 17). 

Octhodromus wilsonius wilsonius Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, p. 415, 1911 
Watlings Island, Bahama Islands (crit.). 

Pagolla wilsonia wilsonia Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 216, 1916 
Los Indies, Isle of Pines; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 108, 
1919 United States, Gulf coast of Mexico, Bahama Islands, West Indies 
(Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, "Guadeloupe"), 1 
Grassy Cay off Honduras and Brazil (full bibliog.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 352, 1927 Puerto Rico, Vieques, 
Culebra, St. Thomas, Virgin Gorda, and Anegada (crit.; habits); Bent, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 257, 1929 (life hist.; range in part); Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 492, 1929 Mangunca Island, 
Maranhao (March 8), and Amaragao, Piauhy (Sept. 14, 15, 17), Brazil 
(crit.); Tomkins, Auk, 61, p. 259, pi., 1944 (habits). 

Pagolla wilsonia rufinucha Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 405, 1917 
Monte Christi and Gaspar Hernandez, Dominican Republic (crit.); Wet- 
more and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 148, 1931 Hispaniola 
(habits; crit.). 

"Charadrius wilsoni=Ochthodromus wilsonia" Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. 
Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 224, 1923 Amaracao, Piauhy, Brazil. 

Charadrius wilsonia rufinucha Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 254, 1934 (range). 

Charadrius wilsonia wilsonia Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 254, 1934 (range); 
Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 288 Trinidad (winter visitor) ; Pinto, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 131, 1938 Maranhao to Bahfa, Brazil (winter); 
Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 169, 
1938 Barra de Santiago, El Salvador (Apr. 2), and Punta Piedra, Pacific 
coast of Costa Rica (Feb.). 

Charadrius wilsonius rufinucha Conover, Condor, 47, p. 212, 1945 (not valid 
race). 

Range. Breeds on the coast of the southeastern and southern 
United States from Virginia to Florida and west to Texas; also on the 
Bahama Islands, Greater Antilles, Virgin Islands, Anegada Island 
and cays off the coast of British Honduras; winters from the Gulf 
coast south along the Caribbean coast of Central America (also 
recorded from the Pacific coast of El Salvador and Costa Rica) and 
the Atlantic coast of South America to eastern Brazil (Cape 

1 The reported occurrence of Charadrius wilsonius on the island of Guadeloupe 
(cf. Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 450, 1879 ex L'Herminier's manu- 
script) has yet to be confirmed. No representative of this group breeds there, 
but it is very probable that the Wilson Plover visits the island on its southward 
migration. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 75 

Orange; Praia de Cajutuba and Rio Muria, Para; Mangunca Island, 
Maranhao; Amaracao, Piauhy; Camamu, Bahia). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 59: Virginia (Northampton County, 
2); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 2; Pea Island, 5); 
Florida (Amelia Island, Nassau County, 4; Banana River, Brevard 
County, 2); Bahama Islands (Great Inagua Island, 5; Andros Island, 
4; Mariguana Island, 5; Aklin Island, 2; Great Bahama Island, 2; 
Eleuthera Island, 4); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1; Virgin Gorda, 2; 
Anegada Island, 5); Louisiana (A very Island, Iberia County, 1); 
Texas (Corpus Christi, 5; Port Isabel, 1; Port O'Connor, Calhoun 
County, 2; Cameron County, 2); Mexico (Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, 1); 
Brazil (Mangunca Island, Maranhao, 2). 

Conover Collection. 29: South Carolina (Caper's Island, Charles- 
ton County, 1); Florida (Nassau County, 2; Brevard County, 2); 
Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 16); Texas (Corpus Christi, 3; Port 
O'Connor, Calhoun County, 2; Cameron County, 1); Mexico 
(Matamoros, Tamaulipas, 2). 

*Charadrius wilsonia cinnamominus (Ridgway). 2 CARIBBEAN 
PLOVER. 

Pagolla wilsonia cinnamomina Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), pp. 
108, 113, 1919 Sabanilla, Colombia (type in U. S. National Museum). 

1 Eight specimens taken in winter (between September and April) on the 
coast of Brazil agree well with the type of C. crassirostris, and, while matched by 
numerous individuals from the United States, look very different from C. w. 
cinnamominus, of the Dutch West Indies and Margarita Island, as has been pointed 
out by Hellmayr (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 492, 1929), the difference 
being particularly marked in the female sex. Five (out of six) Brazilian females 
have the jugular band entirely grayish brown and no rufescence whatsoever on 
sides of head, while the sixth individual shows a slight rusty tinge on both these 
parts, the series being thus exactly similar to females from the United States. In 
view of these facts, we cannot but maintain Hellmayr's contention that the birds 
occurring in winter time on the Brazilian coast are migrants from North America. 
A single unsexed adult from British Guiana likewise seems to be of the same form. 

Additional material examined. British Honduras: Grassy Cay, 2. British 
Guiana: coast of Demerara, 1. Brazil: Praia de Cajutuba, Para, 1 (Feb.); Rio 
Muria, Para, 3; Amaracao, Piauhy, 5 (Sept. 14-17); Camamu, Bahfa, 1 (Sept. 22); 
unspecified, 1 (type of C. crassirostris). 

*Charadrius wilsonia cinnamominus (Ridgway): Similar to C. w. wilsonia, 
but adult male with the crown, cheeks, auriculars and jugular crescent richer 
rufous; female readily distinguished from the other races by having the jugular 
band bright rusty (sayal brown to dull cinnamon) instead of grayish brown, and 
the pileum and sides of head more or less suffused with rusty. The Caribbean 
race, like the Chilean C. alexandrinus occidentalis, seems to lack a non-nuptial 
plumage. Immature birds are not certainly separable from the corresponding 
stage of Wilson's Plover. 

Additional material examined. Aruba, 2; Bonaire, 2; Seelet, Trinidad, 6; 
Mustique, Lesser Antilles, 2. 



76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Aegialites wilsonius (not Charadrius wilsonia Ord) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 169 Carupano [Sucre], Venezuela. 
Ochthodromus wilsonius rufinuchus (not Aegialitis wilsonius var. rufinucha 

Ridgway, 1874) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 177, 1884 Saba- 

nilla; Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 552 Margarita Island, Venezuela (crit.; Jan.); 

Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 197, 210, 214, 238, 1909 

Aruba, Bonaire, Isla de Aves, and Margarita Island. 
Aegialitis rufinucha Hartert, Ibis, 1893, pp. 307, 335 Aruba and Bonaire 

(crit.). 
Ochthodromus wilsoni Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 214, 1896 part, 

spec. I", m", Carupano, Venezuela. 

Aegialitis wilsonia rufinucha Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 656, 
1896 Margarita Island. 

Aegialitis wilsonius rufinucha Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 387, 1902 Aruba 

and Bonaire. 
Ochthodromus wilsonia rufinucha Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 53, 1906 

Seelet, Trinidad (April; crit.). 
Octhodromus wilsonius crassirostris (not Charadrius crassirostris Spix) Todd, 

Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, p. 416, 1911 part, Buritaca. 

Pagolla wilsonia crassirostris Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, 
p. 186, 1922 CiSnaga, Buritaca, and Punto Caiman, Colombia (crit.). 

Charadrius wilsonia cinnamominus Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 254, 1934 (range, 

excl. of Guiana). 
Charadrius wilsonia dnnamomina Belcher and Smboker, Ibis, 1935, p. 289 

Caroni, Trinidad (June- July, breeding). 
Charadrius wilsonius cinnamominus Conover, Condor, 47, p. 213, 1945 

Island of Mustique. 

Range. Resident on the Caribbean coast -of Colombia and Vene- 
zuela, including the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Isla de Aves, Marga- 
rita, and Trinidad. Also, the island of Mustique, Lesser Antilles. 

Field Museum Collection. 15: Venezuela (Nueva Esparta, 
Margarita Island, 5; Aves Island, Colon, 1); Dutch West Indies 
(Aruba Island, 8; Bonaire Island, 1). 

Genus EUPODA J. F. Brandt 

Eupoda J. F. Brandt, in Tchihatchev, Voy. Sci. Altai, p. 444, 1845 type, 
by monotypy, Charadrius caspius Pa.\las=Charadrius asiaticus Pallas. 1 

Podasocys Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 96 type, by orig. 
desig., Charadrius montanus Townsend. 

Eupodella Mathews, Bds. Austr., 3, (1), p. 83, Apr. 2, 1913 type, by orig. 
desig., Charadrius veredus Gould (proposed as a substitute for Eupoda 
Brandt, if considered preoccupied by Eupodes Koch, 1835). 

1 We have been unable to consult this work. 






1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 77 

*Eupoda montana (J. K. Townsend). MOUNTAIN PLOVER. 

Charadrius montanus J. K. Townsend, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 7, (1), 
p. 192, 1837 "central table-land of the Rocky Mountains" =near Sweet- 
water River, Wyoming (type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 14); Seebohm, 
Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 153, 1887 (crit.). 

Podasocys montanus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 96 Arizona 
(Fort Whipple) and New Mexico (habits); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, pp. 240, 742, 1896 Rocky Mountains and Mexico (La Paz, Lower 
California; Hermosillo, Sonora; Zacatecas); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 74, 
1911 Matamoros, Tamaulipas (Nov. 30); Brooks, Auk, 34, p. 86, 1917 
Chatham, Massachusetts; Bradbury, Condor, 20, p. 157, 1918 Colorado 
(nesting notes); Grinnell, Bryant and Storer, Game Bds. California, p. 481, 
1918 California (winter visitor); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
(8), p. 105, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 146, p. 263, 1929 (life 
hist.). 

Eupoda montana Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 98, 1928 Lower 
California (winter visitor); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 256, 1934 (range); 
Van Tyne and Sutton, Misc. Pub. Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., 37, p. 28, 
1937 near Marathon, Brewster County, Texas (breeding); Soper, Canad. 
Field Nat., 55, p. 137, 1941 Alberta; van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. 
Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 73, 1945 Sonora (Hermosillo, Dec.; Santa 
Rosa, Jan.; Punta Penascosa, Feb.). 

Range. Breeds in arid plains of western United States from 
northern Montana and western Nebraska south to northern New 
Mexico and northwestern Texas; winters from northern California, 
southern Arizona and southern Texas to Lower California and 
Mexico (Hermosillo, Sonora; Matamoros, Tamaulipas; Zacatecas). 
Accidental in Massachusetts (one record) and Florida. 

Field Museum Collection. 44: Colorado (Fort Lyon, Bent 
County, 4; Lincoln County, 1); Texas (Brownsville, 6; Nueces 
County, 1); Arizona (Phoenix, 6); California (Chino, San Bernardino 
County, 15; Witch Creek, San Diego County, 1; Grayson, Stanislaus 
County, 1; Santa Barbara, 1; San Clemente Island, 1; Rio Vista, 
Solano County, 6); Florida (Key West, 1). 

Conover Collection. 10: Montana (Jordan, Garfield County, 1); 
Colorado (Denver, 1; Larimer County, 1; Morgan County, 2); 
California (Santa Monica, 1; Helm, Fresno County, 1; Corcoran, 
Kings County, 2; San Diego Bay, 1). 

Genus OREOPHOLUS Jardine and Selby 

Oreopholus Jardine and Selby, Illustr. Orn., 3, (10), pi. 151, Dec., 1835 
type, by monotypy, Oreopholus totanirostris Jardine and Selby = Charadrius 
ruficollis Wagler. 






78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Oreophilus Agassiz, Nomencl. Zool., Aves, p. 53, 1842 (emendation). 

Dromicus Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, No. 26, col. 616, April 4, 1844 
type, by orig. desig., Dromicus lessonii Lesson =Charadrius ruficollis 
Wagler. 

*Oreopholus ruficollis (Wagler). SLENDER-BILLED DOTTEREL. 

Charadrius ruficollis Wagler, Isis, 22, col. 653, 1829 Canelones, Uruguay 
(type in Berlin Museum); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 361, 
1856 Maldonado, Uruguay; C. Burmeister, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 3, p. 319, 1889 Trelew, Chubut. 

Oreopholus totanirostris Jardine and Selby, Illustr. Orn., 3, (10), pi. 151, 
Dec., 1835 Andes of Chile (type in collection of J. Gould, present location 
unknown). 

Oreophilus totanirostris Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 125, 1841 Maldo- 
nado, Uruguay, and Valparaiso, Chile; Eraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
11, p. 117, 1843 Chile, "probably a native of the Andes"; Des Murs, 
in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 399, 1847 Straits of Magellan 
to Valparaiso; Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 114, 1865 Chile; 
Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 271, 1868 Chile; Hudson and Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 549 Rio Negro, Patagonia; Cabanis, 
Journ. Orn., 26, p. 199, 1878 Sierra de Cordoba, Argentina; Doering, 
in Roca, Inf. Ofic. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., p. 56, 1881 Nueva Roma, Rin- 
con Grande, and Rio Colorado. 

Dromicus lessonii Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, No. 26, col. 617, April 4, 
1844 environs of Valparaiso, Chile (type in Paris Museum; cf. Oustalet, 
Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 116, 1891). 

Morinellus totanirostris Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, Cursores, p. 47, 
1865 Bolivia and Chile (Santiago; crit.). 

Oreophilus ruficollis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; 
idem and Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 989 Islay, Arequipa, Peru (spec, examined); 
iidem, I.e., 1868, p. 570 western Peru; iidem, Ibis, 1868, p. 189 Sandy 
Bay, Straits of Magellan; iidem, I.e., 1870, p. 499 Rio Gallegos, Patagonia; 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 560 Junin, Peru; Reed, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 566, 1877 Colchagua, Chile; Durnford, Ibis, 
1877, p. 42 Chubut Valley, Patagonia; idem, I.e., 1877, p. 197 Province 
of Buenos Aires; idem, I.e., 1878, p. 402 Sengel Valley and Tambo Point, 
Chubut (nesting); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe"r., 3, p. 347, 1886 Junfn, Peru; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1886, p. 403 "Llalcalhuay," Tarapaca, 
Chile; idem and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 174, 1889 Argentina; Oustalet, 
Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 116, 1891 Patagonia (egg descr.); Holland, 
Ibis, 1891, p. 16 Est. Espartillar, near Ranchos, Province of Buenos 
Aires; idem, I.e., 1892, p. 210 same locality (April to July); Reed, I.e., 
1893, p. 596 Chile (resident); Aplin, I.e., 1894, p. 207 Santa Ana, 
Uruguay; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 209, 1896 Chile; Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 123, 731, 1896 Falkland Islands, Patagonia 
(Tambo Point, Chubut, Rio Negro), La Plata, Mendoza, Uruguay 
(Montevideo), Chile (Santiago, Tarapaca), and Peru (Islay); Schalow, 
Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 664, 1898 Concepcion and Punta Arenas, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 79 

Chile; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, 
p. 42, 1900 Puntilla de Santa Elena, Ecuador (Jan.); Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), p. 51 between Tarma and 
Oroya, Junin; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 249, 1904 Santa 
Catalina, Jujuy; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 132, 1906 
Puno, Peru; M&iegaux, Bull. Soc. Phil. Paris, (10), 1, p. 219, 1909 
Bolivia; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 250, 1909 Barracas al 
Sud, Buenos Aires, and Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut; Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 215, 1910 (range in Argentina); Scott and 
Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 274, 1910 
near Mount Tigre, Rio Deseado, and Rio Chico, Patagonia; Grant, 
I.e., 1911, p. 466 Luiconia and Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires; Sanzin, 
El Hornero, 1, p. 148, 1918 San Carlos, Mendoza; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, 
p. 13, 1920 Montevideo and Canelones, Uruguay; Gibson, Ibis, 1920, 
p. go Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (winter visitor, April to August); 
Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, p. 44, 1920 cerros near Nilahue, Curico, 
Chile; Daguerre, El Hornero, 2, p. 262, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; 
Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 80, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., p. 162, 1923 
Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Gigoux, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 84, 1924 
Caldera, Atacama, Chile (winter visitor); Housse, I.e., 29, p. 150, 1925 
San Bernardo, Santiago, Chile; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 191, 1926 Ecuador (Puntilla de Santa Elena); Wilson, El Hornero, 
3, p. 352, 1926 Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe; Jaffuel and Pirion, Rev. Chil. 
Hist. Nat., 31, p. 113, 1927 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso, Chile; Bullock, 
I.e., 33, p. 201, 1929 Angol, Malleco, Chile (winter visitor); Budin, 
El Hornero, 4, p. 404, 1932 Jujuy; Castellanos, I.e., 6, p. 29, 1935 
Tierra del Fuego and Isla de los Estados (sight records). 

Charadrius totanirostris Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. Ill, pi. 4, 1887 
(monog.). 

Oreophilus ruficollis ruficollis Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 261 Chuput Valley, 
Patagonia (descr. of young); Wace, El Hornero, 2, p. 199, 1921 Falkland 
Islands; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 322 Falkland Islands; Marelli, El Hornero, 
5, p. 195, 1933 Coronel Dorrego, Buenos Aires. 

Oreophilus ruficollis simonsi Chubb, Ibis, (11), 1, p. 262, April, 1919 Chal- 
lapata, Oruro, Bolivia (type in British Museum examined); Bond and 
de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95, p. 184, 1943 Uyuni, 
Llica, Bolivia. 

Oreophilus ruficollis totanirostris Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 42, p. 19, 1921 
Chile (crit.). 

Oreopholus ruficollis ruficollis Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 294, 
1923 Rio Negro (Rio Colorado, San Antonio, Maquinchao); Wetmore, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 167, 1926 near Zapala, Neuque"n; idem, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 428, 1926 Rio Negro (Arroyo Seco, 
Cabaza de Vaca, Arroyo Anecon Grande) and Santa Cruz (Rio Belgrano) 
(descr. young); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, 
p. 58, 1930 Est. La Germania, Santa F6. 

Oreopholus ruficollis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 378, 
1932 Chile to the Straits of Magellan (crit.; meas.); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 256, 1934 (range). 



80 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(l)Oreophilus ruficollis pallidus Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87, 
p. 343, Oct. 25, 1935 San Jose (near Pimentel), Dept. Lambayeque, 
Peru (type in collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Range. Breeds in the Cordillera and high plateaus of southern 
South America from southern Peru (Puno), northern Chile and 
Bolivia south to the Straits of Magellan; in winter descending to the 
plains and migrating north to southern Ecuador (Puntilla de Santa 
Elena, province of Guayas), Peru, eastern Argentina (provinces of 
Buenos Aires and Santa F4), and Uruguay; accidental on the 
Falkland Islands. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 16: Bolivia (Vacas, Cochabamba, 4; 
Tiraque, 1; Esperanza, Pacajes, 2); Chile (Caldera, Atacama, 1; 
Pica, Tarapaca, 1; Cabrero, 1; Santiago, 1; Rio Ciaike, Magallanes, 
2); Argentina (Pilcaniyen, Rio Negro, 1; Paso Ibanez, Santa Cruz, 1; 
Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, 1). 

Conover Collection. 24: Peru (Puno, Puno, 2); Bolivia (Esper- 
anza, Pacajes, La Paz, 2; Tiraque, Cochabamba, 4); Chile (Caldera, 
Atacama, 1; Angol, Bio Bio, 4; Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 3); 
Argentina (Sierra de Tafi, Tucuman, 1; Tunuyan, Mendoza, 1; La 
Plata, Buenos Aires, 1; Arroyo Verde, Chubut, 1; Rio Gallegos, 
Santa Cruz, 4). 

Genus EUDROMIAS C. L. Brehm 

Eudromias C. L. Brehm, Isis, 23, col. 987, 1830 type, by monotypy, Chara- 
drius morinellus Linnaeus. 

Morinellus (not Morinella Meyer and Wolf, 1810) Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. 
Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 417, 1856 type, by tautonymy, Charadrius 
morinellus Linnaeus. 

1 As the senior author has pointed out in another connection (Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 379, 1932), neither O. r. totanirostris nor 0. r. simonsi 
can be maintained. Since then, Carriker has separated three (evidently migrating) 
individuals from San Jose (near Pimentel), Dept. Lambayeque, as O. r. pallidus. 
Aside from alleged color-characters, notably deeper rufous throat, which are 
utterly worthless, its chief distinctive feature is smaller size (wing, 145-151). 
The figures given by the describer are indeed smaller than in the majority of the 
fifty-odd specimens examined, though an adult male from the Rio Negro (Pil- 
canyen) with a wing of 153 mm. runs close to the measurements of "pallidus." 
However, what makes us even more strongly doubtful of its validity is the fact 
that an adult female from Lobos de Tierra Island, off Lambayeque, which should 
surely belong to pallidus, is nowise distinguishable either in color or size (wing, 
170) from Argentine examples. Birds from Islay and Lurin are likewise typical 
of ruficollis. 

Additional material examined (wing measurements in parenthesis). Peru: 
Lobos de Tierra, Lambayeque, 1 (170); Lurin, Lima, 1 (173); Islay, Arequipa, 1 
(173). Bolivia: Uyuni, Potosi, 3 (163, 165, 175); Challapata, Oruro, 1 (177). 
Chile: "Lalcalhuay," Tarapaca, 1 (167); Cordillera of Santiago, 1 (165); Cabrero, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 81 

Eudromias morinellus (Linnaeus). EUROPEAN DOTTEREL. 

Charadrius morinellus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 150, 1758 based 
chiefly on Faun. Svec., p. 58, Nos. 158, 160, Sweden. 

Eudromias morinellus Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1900, p. 22 
King Island, Alaska (July 23); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 95, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 146, p. 150, 1929 (life hist.); 
A. M. Bailey, Condor, 32, p. 161, 1930 Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska 
(June 15 and 19, 1929); idem, I.e., 34, p. 47, 1932 Cape Prince of Wales, 
Alaska (June 6, 1931; third record); Friedmann, I.e., 34, p. 257, 1932 
Gambell, St. Lawrence Island (May and June, 1931); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 257, 1934 (range); Brown, Murrelet, 15, p. 79, 1934 Washington 
(Westport); idem, Condor, 37, p. 82, 1935 Washington (Westport). 

Range. Breeds on the tundras, mountains, and plateaus of 
northern Europe and Asia, from Scotland, the lake district of Eng- 
land, Scandinavia, and Russia south to Germany, Austria (Styria, 
Carinthia), Rumania (Transylvania), the Urals, Ala-tau, Altai, 
Sayan Mountains, and probably to the mountains of Transbaikalia; 
winters in the countries bordering the Mediterranean, in Arabia 
and Persia; probably of more or less regular occurrence in Alaska 
(King Island, July 23, 1897; Cape Prince of Wales, June 15 and 19, 
1929 and June 6, 1931), and on St. Lawrence Island (Gambell, 
May and June, 1931); accidental in Washington (Westport). 

Genus ZONIBYX Reichenbach 

Zonibyx Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., p. xviii, "1852" (=1853) type, by orig. 
desig. and monotypy, Vanellus cinctus Lesson =Charadri us modestus 
Lichtenstein. 

*Zonibyx modestus (Lichtenstein). FALKLAND ISLAND DOTTEREL. 

Charadrius modestus Lichtenstein, Verz. Dubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 71, 1823 
Montevideo, Uruguay (type in Berlin Museum); Wagler, Syst. Av., 1, 
fol. 5, Charadrius, sp. 44, 1827 "Brazil" (descr.); idem, Isis, 1829, col. 
654 (plumage descr.); Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 105, 1887 
Falkland Islands and Santa Lucia, La Plata (crit.). 

Tringa urvillii Garnot, Ann. Sci. Nat., 7, p. 46, Jan., 1826 near Port Louis, 
Falkland Islands (type in Paris Museum); idem, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 
1, (2), livr. 12, p. 541, July 4, 1829 Falkland Islands (nuptial plumage). 

Vanellus cinctus Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, livr. 2, pi. 43, Jan. 17, 1827 
(location of type unrecorded); idem, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 309, June, 1828 

Concepci6n, 1 (164); Angol, Malleco, 1 (160). Tierra del Fuego: Viamonte, 1 
(160). Argentina: Chubut, 1 (162); Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut, 2 (165, 166); 
Rio Negro, 2 (165, 167); Papin, Buenos Aires, 1 (170); Ajo, Buenos Aires, 10 
(158-170); Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 3 (160, 163, 166); Est. Espartillar, Buenos 
Aires, 1 (165); Mendoza, 3 (160, 165, 170). Falkland Islands, 2 (163, 167). 
Uruguay: Santa Lucia, 1 (165). 



82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Falkland Islands (nuptial plumage); idem, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), 
livr. 16, p. 720, May 1, 1830 Falkland Islands (descr.). 

Charadrius nebulosus Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 315, June, 1828 "Bresil" 
(type in Paris Museum; descr. of non-nuptial plumage). 

Charadrius rubecola King, Zool. Journ., 4, No. 13, p. 96, Apr. to July, 1828 
Straits of Magellan (type apparently lost) ; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., 
pi. 1 (nuptial plumage), 1887. 

Squatarola rubecola Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., Part 7, pi. 110, Dec., 1830 
Straits of Magellan (fig. of type). 

Squatarola cincta Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 126, 1841 
Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Islands, and Chiloe Island; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 27, p. 95, 1859 Falkland Islands (egg descr.). 

Squatarola fusca Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, Part 15, p. 126, 

1841 Maldonado, Uruguay (type now in British Museum ;= non-nuptial 

plumage). 
Squatarola urvillii(ei) Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 118, 1843 Chile; 

Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 401, 1847 Chile; 

Hartlaub, Naumannia, 3, p. 215, 1853 Valdivia, Chile; Philippi, Anal. 

Univ. Chile, 31, p. 271, 1868 coast of Chile. 

Vanellus modestus Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 362, 1856 
"southern Brazil" and Montevideo south to Patagonia and Straits of 
Magellan; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 363, 1861 pampas, Rio Cuarto. 

Hiaticula fusca Cassin, U. S. Expl. Exp., Zool., p. 328, 1858 Tierra del 
Fuego. 

Vanellus cinctus Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 260, 1860 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba 
(descr. of young). 

Eudromias urvillii Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 386, 1860 Berkeley 
Sound, Falkland Islands; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 155 East Falkland 
Island (breeding). 

Morinellus modestus Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, Cursores, p. 48, 1865 
Falkland Islands, Port Famine, and Santiago, Chile (crit.). 

Squatarola modesta Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 115, 1865 Chile. 

Eudromias modesta Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; 
idem and Salvin, I.e., 1868, p. 144 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; iidem, Ibis, 
1868, p. 188 Sandy Point and Gregory .Bay, Straits of Magellan; iidem, 
I.e., 1870, p. 500 Sandy Point; Durnford, I.e., 1876, p. 164 Flores 
Island, Buenos Aires (May 30); idem, I.e., 1877, p. 197 Province of Buenos 
Aires (autumn and winter visitor); idem, I.e., 1878, p. 402 Chubut 
Valley (mid-April); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 438 Gray Harbour, Tom Harbour, Puerto Bueno, Port "Fanuris" 
[= Famine], and Falkland Islands; Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 15 Tom Bay, 
Puerto del Morro, Port Henry and Cockle Cove, Straits of Magellan; 
Doering, hi Roca, Inf. Ofic. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., p. 56, 1881 Azul, 
Puan, and Choele-Choel, Pampa; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. 
Cordoba, 5, p. 87, 1884 La Tinta, Buenos Aires; Barrows, Auk, 1, 
p. 313, 1884 Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rios (April, May) ; Withing- 
ton, Ibis, 1888, p. 472 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; Sclater and 

I 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 83 

Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 171, 1889 Argentina; Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 
39, p. 126, 1891 Cordoba; Holland, Ibis, 1891, pp. 16, 19 Est. Espar- 
tillar, Buenos Aires (April 30); idem, I.e., 1892, p. 210 Est. Espartillar 
(Mar. to August); Aplin, I.e., 1894, p. 206 Uruguay (Mar. 29); Reed, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 209, 1896 Chile (winter visitor); Lane, Ibis, 
1897, p. 303 near Arauco, Chile; Nicoll, I.e., 1904, p. 46 Port Gallant, 
Magallanes, Chile; Crawshay, Birds Tierra del Fuego, p. 118, 1907 
Cheena Creek Settlement; Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 202, 
1929 Angol, Malleco, Chile. 

Squatarola durvillei Leybold, Exc. Pamp. Arj., p. 20, 1873 Laguna de los 
Piuquenes, Santiago, Chile. 

Charadrius modestus rubecola Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 106, 1887 
Chile to Straits of Magellan (crit.). 

Zonibyx modesta(us) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 137, 1889 Port 
Otway, Chile; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 238, 742, 1896 
Falkland Islands (Berkeley Sound), Tierra del Fuego, Straits of Magellan 
(Hermit Island, Port Famine, Gray Harbour, Puerto Bueno, Puerto del 
Morro, Cockle Cove, Tom Bay), Chubut, Chile (Valparaiso, "Tarapaca" 
[= Arauco]), Buenos Aires, Santa Lucia, and Maldonado; Salvadori, Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, 40, p. 624, 1900 Penguin Rookery (Staten 
Island) and Punta Arenas; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, p. 287, 1902 
Iguap6, Sao Paulo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 48, 1907 Iguape, 
Sao Paulo; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 250, 1909 Barracas 
al Sud, Buenos Aires (Aug. 15, Sept. 27) and Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 217, 1910 (range in Argen- 
tina); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., 
p. 286, 1910 near Mount Tigre, Cape Fairweather, and Arroyo Eke, 
Santa Cruz (descr.); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 465 Luiconia, Ajo, Buenos 
Aires; Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 150, 1917 Falkland Islands 
(descr. of downy young); Gibson, Ibis, 1920, p. 58 Cape San Antonio, 
Buenos Aires (winter visitor, April to Sept.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 
2, p. 13, 1920 Montevideo and Soriano, Uruguay; Wace, I.e., p. 198, 
1921 Falkland Islands; Daguerre, I.e., p. 262, 1922 Rosas, Buenos 
Aires (Apr. 23); Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 162, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires (May, 
Aug.); Wilson, I.e., 3, p. 352, 1926 Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (winter 
visitor); Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 428, 1926 head of the 
Rio Gallegos, Santa Cruz (January); Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 322 Falkland 
Islands; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 370, 1932 
Chile (Caldera, Atacama, to the Guaitecas Islands); Marelli, El Hornero, 
5, p. 195, 1933 Saldungaray, Buenos Aires; Reynolds, I.e., 5, p. 351, 
1934 Tierra del Fuego; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 257, 1934 (range); 
Reynolds, Ibis, 1935, p. 86 Otaries Island, Jerdan Island, etc., Cape 
Horn; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 131, 1938 Iguape", Sao Paulo (May). 

Charadrius (Eudromias) modestus Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. Ill, 
1891 Bahfa Orange, Tierra del Fuego, and Bourchier Bay, False Cape 
Horn. 

Zonybyx modesla Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 666, 1898 Ushuaia, 
Tierra del Fuego, and Port Stanley, Falkland Islands; Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 375, 1902 Tierra del Fuego. 



84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Breeds in extreme southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, 
and on the Falkland Islands; winters in Chile (north to Atacama), 
Argentina (north to Cordoba, Santa F6, and Entre Rios), Uruguay, 
and extreme southern Brazil (one record each from Rio Grande do 
Sul and Iguap, Sao Paulo). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 5: Chile (Huanillo, Antofagasta, 1; 
Penco, 1; Rio Ciaike, Magallanes, 2); Argentina (unspecified, 1). 

Conover Collection. 16: Chile (Angol, Bio Bio, 4; Melinka, 
Guaitecas Islands, 1; Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 2; Rio Ciaike, 
Magallanes, 1); Argentina (Cambaceres, Buenos Aires, 6; Cape 
Penas, Tierra del Fuego, 2). 

Genus PLUVIANELLUS G. R. Gray 

Pluvianellus G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, p. [549], Dec., 1846 type, by mono- 
typy, Pluvianellus socialis G. R. Gray; Pucheran, in Hombron and 
Jacquinot, Voy. P61e Sud, Zool., 3, p. 124, 1853 type, by orig. desig., 
Pluvianellus sociabilis Pucheran (generic characters). 

*Pluvianellus socialis G. R. Gray. MAGELLANIC PLOVER. 

Pluvianellus socialis? "Hombron and Jacquinot" G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, 
p. [549], Dec., 1846 based on "Pluvianelle sociable" Hombron and 
Jacquinot, Voy. Pole Sud, Atlas, Ois., pi. 30, fig. 1, Jan., 1845, no locality 
stated (type, from Straits of Magellan, in Paris Museum). 

Pluvianellus sociabilis Pucheran, in Hombron and Jacquinot, Voy. P61e Sud, 
Zool., 3, p. 125, 1853 "de'troit de Magellan (type in Paris Museum); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 303, 1896 Patagonia; Crawshay, 
Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 121, col. pi., 1907 Useless Bay Settlement 
(Sept. 16, Nov. 5; breeding); Sharpe and Scott, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. 
Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 298, 1910 near Rio Coy, Santa Cruz (Sept. 30); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 217, 1910 Patagonia 
and Tierra del Fuego (Useless Bay); Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 33, 
p. 21, 1925 Punta Anegada, Straits of Magellan; Kinnear, Bull. Brit. 
Orn. Cl., 48, p. 52, 1927 Tierra del Fuego (adult and immature, Jan.). 

Charadrius sociabilis Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 107, pi. 2, 1887 
Tova Harbour (lat. 45 S.), Chubut; Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, 
p. B. 288, 1891 Straits of Magellan (type) and Tova Harbour, Patagonia. 

Pluvianellus socialis Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 258, 1934 (range). 

1 We have not been able to make out any constant differences, either in colora- 
tion or in size, between birds from the Falkland Islands and others from the 
mainland. 

Additional material examined. Falkland Islands, 8. Tierra del Fuego, 4. 
Straits of Magellan, 8. Argentina: Chubut, 3; Province of Buenos Aires, 5. 
Chile: Valparaiso, 1; Arauco City, 2; Maquegua, Arauco, 1; Nige, Tolten Viejo, 1; 
Almagro, Cautin, 2. 






1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 85 

Range. Eastern Patagonia, from southern Chubut (Tova 
Harbour, lat. 45 S.) to Tierra del Fuego (Useless Bay). 1 

Conover Collection. 2: Argentina (Rio Gallegos, 2). 

Genus PHEGORNIS G. R. Gray 2 

Leptopus (not of Latreille, 1809) Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 12, "1844," 

p. 157, pub. Feb., 1845 type, by monotypy, Leptopus mitchellii Fraser. 
Leptodactylus (not of Fitzinger, 1826) Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 12, 

"1844," p. 157, pub. Feb., 1845 (proposed in footnote as substitute for 

Leptopus Fraser). 
Phegornis G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, p. [545], 1846 type, by orig. desig., 

Leptopus mitchellii Fraser. 
Leptoscelis (not of Halliday, 1831) Des Murs, Icon. Orn., Hvr. 7, pi. 41, 1847 

new name for Leptopus and Leptodactylus Fraser, preoccupied. 
Leptosceles Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 331 emendation of 

Leptoscelis Des Murs. 

*Phegornis mitchellii (Fraser). MITCHELL'S SANDPIPER. 

Leptopus mitchellii Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 12, "1844," p. 157, Feb., 
1845 Chile, probably Andes of Colchagua (type now in collection of 
British Museum); idem, Zool. Typ., pi. 63, circa 1848 Andes of central 
Chile. 

Phegornis mitchelli(i) Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, p. [545], pi. 145, fig. 1, 1846; Tac- 
zanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 561 Lake Junin, Peru; Sclater, 
I.e., 1886, p. 403 Sitani, Tarapaca, Chile; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, 
pi. 372, 1886 Lake Junin, Peru; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 450, 
pi. 16, 1887 Chile (monog.); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 
Chile; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 682, 1896 Chile and Peru 
1 (Junin); Arribalzaga, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, (3), 1, p. 154, 1902 
Yaucha, Dept. San Carlos, Province of Mendoza; Berlepsch and Stolz- 
mann, Ornis, 13, p. 132, 1906 Pujuni and Titiri, Puno, Peru; Neveu- 
Lemaire, Les Lacs des Hauts Plateaux Amer. Sud, p. Ill, 1906 Lake 
Titicaca; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 221, 1910 
"western Chubut" and Sierra de Mendoza, Argentina; idem, Bol. Soc. 
Physis, 1, p. 260, 1913 (range in Argentina); Reed, Av. Prov. Mendoza, 
p. 12, 1916 Mendoza and Chile ("Conception"); Barros, Rev. Chil. 
Hist. Nat., 25, p. 172, 1921 Cordillera of Aconcagua, Chile; idem, I.e., 
33, p. 357, 1929 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 392, 1932 Antofagasta (Silala) and Coquimbo 
(Banos del Toro), Chile (crit.) ; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 258, 1934 (range); 
Morrison, Ibis, 1939, p. 464 Talahuarra, Huancavelica, Peru (Oct., 
Nov.). 

1 Additional material examined. Patagonia: Straits of Magellan, 1 (the type); 
Tova Harbour, Chubut, 1; unspecified, 1. Tierra del Fuego: Useless Bay Settle- 
ment, 1. 

2 About the systematic position, cf. Lowe, Ibis, 1931, p. 722. 



86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Leptoscelis mitchellii Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 7, pi. 41, 1847 "California"; 
idem, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 404, 1847 Chile (ex 
Fraser); Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, p. 163, 1860 Rio Frio, Anto- 
fagasta, and Cordillera of Santiago, Chile; Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 
1, Vogel, p. 117, 1865 Cordillera of Santiago; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 
31, p. 272, 1868 Cordilleras of central provinces north to the desert of 
Atacama; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 Rio Frio, Antofagasta. 

Leptosceles mitchelli Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile. 

Range. Puna zone of southern Peru (Lake Junin; Talahuarra, 
Huancavelica; Puno), western Bolivia (Lake Titicaca; Silala, Potosi), 
and northern Chile south to Colchagua; also recorded from western 
Argentina (Yaucha, Province of Mendoza; Aconquija, Province of 
Tucuman). 

Field Museum Collection. 4: Bolivia (Silala, Potosi, 3); Chile 
(Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, 1). 

Conover Collection. 2: Chile (Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, 2). 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE. Woodcocks, Snipes, Sandpipers, etc. 

Subfamily TRINGINAE. Curlews, Godwits, Yellowlegs, etc. 

Genus BARTRAMIA Lesson 1 

Bartramia Lesson, Traits d'Orn., livr. 7, p. 553, April, 1831 type, by mono- 
typy, Bartramia laticauda ~Lesson= Tringa longicauda Bechstein. 

Actidurus Bonaparte, Giorn. Arcad., 52, p. 208, 1831 type, by orig. desig., 
Tringa bartramia Wilson =T. longicauda Bechstein; idem, Sagg. Distr. 
Met. Anim. Vert., p. 143, 1831 (reprint). 

Euliga Nuttall, Man. U. S. and Canada, Water Birds, p. 167, 1834 type, 
by orig. desig., Totanus bartramius Temminck=T'nn0a longicauda Bech- 
stein. 

Actiturus Bonaparte, Geog. Comp. List, p. 51, 1838 emendation of Actidurus 
Bonaparte. 

Bartramius Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 9, p. 59, 1857 emendation of 
Bartramia Lesson. 

Euligia Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 10, p. 86, 1862 emendation of Euliga Nuttall. 

*Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein). UPLAND PLOVER. 

Tringa longicauda Bechstein, Kurze Uebers. Vogel, 2, p. 453, pi. 42, 1812 
North America. 

Tringa bartramia Wilson, Amer. Orn., 7, p. 63, pi. 59, fig. 2, 1813 Schuylkill 
River, Pennsylvania (type evidently lost). 

1 About anatomy and affinities, cf. Lowe, Ibis, 1931, pp. 759-761. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 87 

Totanus variegatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 6, p. 397, 
1816 "dans I'Amerique septentrionale et aux lies Antilles" (no type 
specified); idem and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 2, p. 107, pi. 239, circa 1825 
same localities. 

Totanus campestris Vieillot, 1 Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 6, p. 400, 
1816 based on "Chorlito ribetes blancos acanelados" Azara, No. 398, 
Paraguay. 

Bartramia laticauda Lesson, Traite d'Orn., livr. 7, p. 553, April, 1831 new 
name for Tringa longicauda Bechstein. 

Actitis bartrami Naumann, Naturg. Vog. Deuts., 8, p. 43, pi. 196, 1836 
emendation of Tringa bartramia Wilson. 

Actlturus bartramius Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 230 Duefias, Gua- 
temala; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 253, 1860 Vera Cruz, 
Mexico; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 334, 1862 Lion 
Hill, Panama; Salvin, Ibis, 1864, p. 385 Turneff Island, British Hon- 
duras; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 567 eastern 
Peru; iidem, I.e., 1867, p. 979 Pebas, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1868, p. 169 
Caracas, Venezuela; iidem, I.e., 1869, p. 598 Cosnipata, Peru; iidem, 
I.e., 1870, p. 783 south of Me>ida, Venezuela; Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 38 Andrequece', Minas Geraes, Brazil 
(Oct. 26); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 309 Nauta, 
Chamicuros, and Pebas, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 560 Chorillos, 
Lima, Peru; Hudson, I.e., 1876, p. 104 Buenos Aires; Durnford, Ibis, 
1877, p. 199 Buenos Aires (Dec. to April); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 26, 
p. 199, 1878 Sierra of Cordoba; Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 315, 1884 Con- 
cepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rlos (Nov. to April); Taczanowski, Orn. 
Per., 3, p. 371, 1886 Peruvian localities; Withington, Ibis, 1888, p. 472 
Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires (fall); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 
2, p. 189, 1889 Argentina (habits); Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425 Est. 
Espartillar, Buenos Aires; idem, I.e., 1892, p. 212 Est. Espartillar (Oct. 
to Mar.); Aplin, I.e., 1894, p. 209 Santa Elena (Jan. to Mar.) and 
Porongos (Nov.), Uruguay; Kerr, I.e., 1901, p. 236 Paraguayan Chaco 
(Nov. 27); Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 65, 1902 Cordillera 
of Santiago, Chile. 
Totanus bartramia Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 260, 1860 Mendoza; idem, 

Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 503, 1861 Rio Tunuyan, Mendoza. 
Actitis bartramius Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 27, Scolopaces, p. 78, 1864 

Ohio and Wisconsin (crit.). 

Tringoides bartramius(a) LSotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 463, 1866 Trinidad; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 310, 1870 Sao Paulo (Mattodentro, Sept., 
Nov.; Irisanga, Dec.), Matto Grosso (Barra do Jauru, Oct.; Engenho do 
Cap Gama, Sept.; Villa Bella, Oct.), and Amazonia (Marabitanas, Rio 
Negro, Mar.). 

Actiturus longicaudatus Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 260, 1874 Blumenau, 
Santa Catharina, Brazil; Gundlach, I.e., 29, p. 401, 1881 Puerto Rico. 

1 Totanus melanopygius Vieillot (Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 6, p. 401, 
1816 "au centre des Etats-Unis, dans les mois d'octobre et de novembre, et a la 
Louisiane pendant toute 1'anneV'), sometimes quoted in synonymy, can hardly 
refer to the Upland Plover. 



88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Adiiurus longicaudus Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 326, 1875 Cuba (Aug. 
to May); Salvin, Ibis, 1889, p. 379 Ruatan Island, Honduras. 

Actiturus longicauda Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 547 
Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia; Doering, in Roca, Inf. Ofic. Exp. Rio 
Negro, Zool., 1, p. 57, 1881 southern parts of Pampa; Holmberg, Act. 
Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 87, 1884 Tandil, Buenos Aires. 

Bartramia longicauda Cory, Auk, 4, p. 319, 1887 West Indies (descr.); 
Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 129, 1887 Alajuela, Costa 
Rica; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 240, 1889 Cuba, Jamaica, and Grenada; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 109, 1889 "Lake Titicaca (Aug.)"; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 101, 1889 Tonantins, Rio Solimoes, Brazil 
(May 7); Cherrie, Auk, 7, p. 332, 1890 San Jose, Costa Rica (Sept. 25 
to Nov. 25); idem, I.e., 9, p. 329, 1892 San Jos6, Costa Rica; Cory, l.c., 
p. 48, 1892 Maraguana, Bahama Islands; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 94, 
1892 West Indian localities; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 395 Magdalena Vieja and Lima, Peru (March); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 5, p. 150, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso; 
Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 526, 1893 Rio Escondido, 
Nicaragua (Nov. 26); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 509, 765, 
1896 (monog.); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 435, 1899 Sao Paulo; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 125, 1900 Cienaga, Magdalena, 
Colombia (Sept. 15); idem, Auk, 17, p. 364, 1900 same locality; Bangs, 
I.e., 18, p. 358, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui, Panama; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 8, p. 213, 1902 Rio Sail, Tucuman; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 380, 1903 Mexico (Valley of -Mexico; 
Guanajuato; Zacatecas; Chapala, Jalisco; Cacoprieto and Tapanatepec, 
Oaxaca; Orizaba, Las Vegas, and Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Pinal, Puebla), 
British Honduras (Turneff Island), Guatemala (Duefias, Sakluk), Hon- 
duras (Ruatan Island), Nicaragua (Rio Escondido), Costa Rica, and 
Panama; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 460 Tatarenda, Tarija, Bolivia (April); 
Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 254, 1905 Barbados (Aug. to March), 
Grenada, and Carriacou (Sept., Oct.), Lesser Antilles; Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 125, 1906 Huaynapata, Marcapata, Peru (Sept., 
Oct.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 54, 1906 Seelet, Trinidad (April); 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 52, 1907 Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Iguap6, 
Itapura) and Venezuela (Merida); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 307, 
1908 Cayenne, French Guiana (Oct. 27); Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, 
p. 251, 1909 Wilde (Dec. 30) and Barracas al Sud (Dec. 26), Buenos 
Aires; Hellmayr, I.e., 17, p. 425, 1910 Allianca, Rio Madeira, Brazil 
(Nov. 9); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 420, 1910 San Jos6 (Sept. 
15, 18) and Guacimo (Oct. 13), Costa Rica; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 219, 1910 (range in Argentina); Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 95, 1910 Joazeiro, Bahfa (Mar. 20); 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 90, 1914 Baiao, Rio Tocantins, Brazil; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1918, p. 245 Gatun, Panama (Oct. 
12); Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 44, 1918 vicinity 
of Paramaribo, Surinam (April); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
(8), p. 379, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 14, 
1920 Montevideo and Colonia, Uruguay; Dabbene, I.e., p. 119, 1920 
(winter range in Argentina and neighboring countries); Daguerre, I.e., 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 89 

p. 263, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires (Jan. 18); Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 181, 1922 Ci^naga, Colombia; Lonnberg 
and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. "24, 1922 Chaupicruz, near La 
Carolina (Mar. 20), and Carapungo (Aug. 10), Ecuador; Giacomelli, El 
Hornero, 3, p. 80, 1923 La Rioja (Feb., March); Pereyra, I.e., p. 163, 
1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires (Nov.); Dabbene, I.e., p. 197, 1923 Decep- 
tion Island, South Shetlands (Feb. 8); Wilson, I.e., p. 352, 1926 Venado 
Tuerto, Santa Fe"; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 198, 1926 
Cerro Compania, Ecuador (Sept. 24); Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 323 
Deception Island, South Shetlands (Feb. 9, 1923); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 146, 1926 Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco, Sept. 29; Villa 
Conception, Oct. 3), Uruguay (below Rocha, Jan. 23; Lazcano, Feb. 7), 
Entre Rios (Concordia, Feb. 22), and Buenos Aires; idem, Tech. Bull. 
U. S. Dept. Agric., 26, p. 13, 1927 same localities; idem, Sci. Surv. Porto 
Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 362, 1927 Puerto Rico (Santa Isabel, 
Sept. 13); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 55, 1929 (life hist.); Laub- 
mann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 53, 1930 Tacaagle", 
Formosa (Nov. 24); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 375, 
1931 Sevillano, Magdalena, Colombia (Oct. 20); Hellmayr, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 397, 1932 Santiago, Chile; Griscom, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 135, 1932 Guatemala; Ticehurst, Bull. Brit. 
Orn. Cl., 53, p. 204, 1933 (downy young descr.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 259, 1934 (range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 289 Trinidad 
and Tobago; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 1935 Panama; 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 132, 1938 Bahia (Joazeiro), Sao Paulo 
(Iguape, Ypiranga, Itapura), and Venezuela (Me>ida); Bennett, Ibis, 1938, 
p. 764 Falkland Islands; Dixon, Bds. Mammals, Mt. McKinley Nat. 
Park, p. 74, 1938 (nesting); Gabrielson, Auk, 61, p. 123, 1944 Mt. 
McKinley Nat. Park; Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 
(3), 23, p. 71, 1945 Bolivia, El Beni (Cachuela Esperanza, Sept.; Victoria, 
Oct.). 

Range. Breeds from northwestern Alaska, southern Mackenzie, 
southern Ontario, Quebec, and central Maine south to Oregon, Utah, 
Colorado, southern Oklahoma, Missouri, southern Indiana, and 
northern Virginia; winters in southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argen- 
tina south to the Rio Negro; casual in Chile (Santiago); occasional 
in Bermuda Islands, and western Europe; accidental in the Falkland 
and the South Shetland Islands (Deception Island, Feb. 9, 1923). 

Field Museum Collection. 82: Alberta (Walsh, 2); Saskatchewan 
(Maple Creek, 3; Prince Albert, 1); North Dakota (Towner County, 
19; Rock Lake, Towner County, 2; Peoples Lake, Towner County, 1; 
Cando, Towner County, 1; St. John, Towner County, 1; Stump 
Lake, Nelson County, 10; Belcourt, Rolette County, 1; Rolla, 
Rolette County, 1; Taller's Bay, Ramsey County, 1; Cannonball, 
Slope County, 1; Brinsmade, Benson County, 2); Colorado (Fort 
Lyon, Bent County, 1); Iowa (Iowa City, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver 



9*0 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Dam, 4); Illinois (Mud Lake, Cook County, 1; Joliet, Will County, 
2); Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 1; Cohasset, 1; Ashfield, 1; 
unspecified, 1); Connecticut (New Haven County, 1); New York 
(Southampton, 1); Pennsylvania (unspecified, 1); Texas (Corpus 
Christi, 8; Brownsville, 5; Travis County, 1); Bahama Islands 
(Mariguana, 1); Venezuela, Merida (Culata, 4; Conejos, 1). 

Conover Collection. 15: Yukon Territory (head of Big Salmon 
River, 1); Illinois (Calumet, 2; Warrenville, Du Page County, 5); 
Georgia (Montezuma, Macon County, 1); Colombia (Popayan, 
Cauca, 1); Ecuador (Rio Blanco, Esmeraldas, 1; Sara Yaco, Rio 
Bobonaza, 1; Macas, Santiago-Zamora, 1); Brazil (Vaccaria, Matto 
Grosso, 2). 

Genus NUMENIUS Brisson 

Numenius Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 48, 5, p. 311, 1760 type, by tautonymy, 

"Numenius" Brisson =Scolopax torquata Linnaeus. 
Phaeopus Cuvier, Reg. Anim., 1, "1817," p. 485, publ. Dec. 7, 1816 type, 

by tautonymy, Scolopax phaeopus Linnaeus. 
Neomenius Billberg, Syn. Faun. Scand., 1, (2), tab. A and p. 159, 1828 

emendation of Numenius Brisson. 
Cracticornis Gray, List Gen. Subgen. Bds., 2nd ed., p. 88, 1841 type, by 

orig. desig., Scolopax torquata Linnaeus. 
Mesoscolopax Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 371, 1896 type, by mono- 

typy, Numenius minutus Gould. 

*Numenius borealis (J. R. Forster). ESKIMO CURLEW. 

Scolopax borealis J. R. Forster, Phil. Trans., 62, pp. 411, 431, 1772 Fort 
Albany, Keewatin, Hudson Bay (type formerly in collection of Royal 
Society of London). 

Tringa campestris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 34, p. 454, 
1819 based on "Chorlito campesino" Azara, No. 397, Paraguay (Sep- 
tember). 

Numenius brevirostris Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 75, 
Sept., 1823 Montevideo, Uruguay (type in Berlin Museum); Temminck, 
Nouv. Rec. PL Col., livr. 64, pi. 381, Dec. 21, 1825 Brazil and Paraguay; 
Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 129, 1841 Buenos Aires; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 387, 1860 Falkland Islands; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, 
p. 156 Falkland Islands (one record); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 308, 
1870 Sao Paulo (Lagoa do Campo Largo, near Ypanemd, Sept., Oct., 
Nov.), Matto Grosso (Xavier, Oct. 7), and Amazonas (south bank of 
Amazon River between mouth of Rio Madeira and mouth of Rio Negro, 
Sept. 4), Brazil. 

Numenius borealis Salvin, Ibis, 1861, p. 356 San Geronimo, Guatemala 
(April); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 27, p. 101, 1864 (crit.); LSotaud, 
Ois. Trinidad, p. 444, 1866 Trinidad (one male; Sept.); Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 333, 339 Chile (crit.); Newton, I.e., 1871, 



L948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 91 

p. 56, pi. 4, fig. 1 (egg) Arctic coast east of Anderson River, Mackenzie; 
Durnford, Ibis, 1878, p. 404 Chubut Valley, Patagonia (Oct. 8-10); 
Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, pp. 161, 188, 1878 Puerto Rico; idem, Anal. 
Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 367, 1878 near San Juan, Puerto Rico (one 
spec.); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1881, p. 185 
Greenland (Julianehaab, Nanortalik, Ikamiut); Reid, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 25, p. 241, 1884 Bermuda Islands; Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 316, 
1884 Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rios (Sept. 9 to middle October), 
and pampas between Azul and Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires (Feb.); 
Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 2, p. 149, 1886 sixty miles west of 
Nunivak Island, Bering Sea; Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 121, 
1887 Alaskan coast of Bering Sea (migr.) ; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., 
p. 333, 1887 (crit.); Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 629, 1887 Grenada; 
Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 498 Barbados (end of Aug. and Sept.); Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 368, 755, 1896 (monog.); Winge, Medd. 
Gr0nl., 21, p. 159, 1898 Greenland (several records); Philippi, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 62, 1902 Chile (crit.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 32, p. 255, 1905 Barbados (ex Feilden) and Harvey Vale, Carriacou 
(Sept. 5, 1904); Barbour, Auk, 23, p. 459, 1906 Lat. 49 06' N., Long. 
27 28' W. (May 26, 1906); Thayer, I.e., 26, p. 77, 1909 Newburyport, 
Massachusetts (Aug., 1908); Knight, I.e., 27, p. 79, 1910 Hog Island, 
Hancock, Maine (Sept., 1909); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. 
Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 300, 1910 (descr.; range); Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat., 18, p. 218, 1910 (range in Argentina); Lamb, Auk, 
30, p. 581, 1913 East Orleans, Massachusetts, Sept. 5, 1913 (in Conover 
collection); Swenk, Smiths. Inst. Ann. Rep. for 1915, pp. 325-340, pi. 1, 
1916 (hist.; former distr.; migr.); Gibson, Ibis, 1920, p. 71 Linconia 
(Feb. 13, 1899; April 8, 1901) and near Palenque (Apr. 16, 1901), Ajo, 
Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 26, p. 15, 1927 
(account of former wintering grounds in Argentina and Chile); Albert, 
Auk, 45, p. 95, 1928 Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin (1903); Bent, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 146, p. 125, 1929 (life hist.; range; migr.); Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 78, 1930 Matto Grosso; Griscom, I.e., 64, 
p. 132, 1932 San Geronimo, Guatemala; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 398, 1932 Chile (Arica, Tacna; Chiloe" Island); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 260, 1934 (range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 
1935, p. 289 Trinidad (ex Leotaud) and Tobago (ex Kirk); Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 22, p. 132, 1938 (range); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 16, 
p. 54, 1938 Playa de Chacalluta, Tacna (Sept., 1851). 

Numenius microrhynchus Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 32, (1), 
p. 129, 1866 Chiloe Island (Oct., 1858) and "Arica" (=Playa de Chacal- 
luta), Tacna, Chile (cotypes in Museo Nacional, Santiago; cf. Gigoux and 
Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, p. 24, 1930); Philippi, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 275, 1868 Chiloe and "Peru" (= Arica). 

Mesoscolopax borealis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 412, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 Monte- 
video and Colonia, Uruguay; Dabbene, I.e., p. 125, 1920 (range in Argen- 
tina); idem, I.e., 3, p. 284, 1924 Rosas, Province of Buenos Aires (Sept. 7, 
1924); idem, I.e., 3, p. 420, 1926 Rosas, Province of Buenos Aires (Jan. 11, 



92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1926); Bradlee and Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 322, 1931 
Bermuda Islands. 

Phaeopus borealis Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, 
p. 360, 1927 Puerto Rico (ex Gundlach); idem, Auk, 56, p. 475, 1939 
Lavalle, Buenos Aires (Feb. 16-28, 1937; Jan. 17, 1939); Cottam and 
Knappen, I.e., 56, p. 154, 1939 (food); Scott, I.e., 57, p. 566, 1940 (cor- 
rected list of records). 

Range. Bred formerly on the barren grounds of Arctic America, 
from Norton Sound, Alaska, to northern Mackenzie (valley of 
Anderson River, Point Lake); wintered in southern Brazil (states 
of Sao Paulo and Matto Grosso), Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, and 
Argentina (Entre Rios, Buenos Aires, Chubut) ; accidental in Guate- 
mala (San Geronimo), on the Falkland Islands (one record), and in 
Greenland. 1 The southward migration was through the eastern 
United States and the West Indies (Bermuda Islands; Puerto Rico; 
Barbados; Carriacou; Grenada; Tobago; Trinidad), returning north- 
ward across the Gulf of Mexico and up the Mississippi Valley. Now 
exceedingly rare. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 10: Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 1); 
Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 5; Cape Cod, Barnstable County, 
1; Great Island, Hyannis, 2); Kansas (Emporia, 1). 

Conover Collection. 5 : Massachusetts (Cape Cod, 1 ; East Orleans, 
Barnstable County, 1); Colorado (Smith's Lake, Denver, 1); un- 
specified, 2. 

Numenius phaeopus phaeopus (Linnaeus). WHIMBREL. 

Scolopax phaeopus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 146, 1758 based 
principally on Faun. Svec., No. 140, Sweden. 

Numenius islandicus C. L. Brehm, Handb. Vog. Deuts., p. 610, 1831 
Iceland (type in Tring Collection, now in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York; cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 25, p. 56, 1918).' 

Numenius phaeopus Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 159, 1898 Greenland 
(various records); Brewster, Auk, 26, p. 190, 1909 south of Sable Island, 

1 Salvin's record (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 429) from Charles Island, 
Galapagos, refers to N. phaeopus hudsonicus (cf. Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 6, p. 189, 1899). 

2 The last specimen was shot on January 11, 1926, at Rosas, Buenos Aires, 
but others were seen by E. R. Runnacles at Lavalle, in the same province, in 
February, 1937, as well as on January 17, 1939 (fide Wetmore, Auk, 56, p. 475, 
1939). 

3 Numenius melanorhynchus Bonaparte (Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, 
pp. 597, 1021, 1856), from Greenland and Iceland, is a nomen nudum without 
nomenclatorial standing. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 93 

Nova Scotia (May 23, 1906); Miller, I.e., 32, p. 226, 1915 Great South 

Bay, Long Island (Sept. 4, 1912). 
Phaeopus phaeopus phaeopus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 397, 

1919 (monog.; full bibliog.). 
Numenius phaeopus phaeopus Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 136, 1929 

(life hist.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 260, 1934 (range in part). 
Numenius phaeopus islandicus Salomonsen, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 

90, pp. 365, 366, 1931 Iceland and Greenland (crit.; meas.). 1 

Range. Breeds in Iceland, the Faroes, Orkney and Shetland 
Islands, northern Scandinavia, and northern (European and Asiatic) 
Russia; frequent on migration in Greenland; accidental on Sable 
Island, south of Nova Scotia (May 25, 1906), and Long Island, 
New York (Sept. 4, 1912) ; winters in Africa, Madagascar, and India. 

Numenius phaeopus variegatus (Scopoli). 2 EASTERN WHIMBREL. 

Tantalus variegatus Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Ins., fasc. 2, p. 92, 1796 

based on "Courly tachete de 1'isle de Lucon" Sonnerat, Voy. Nouv. Guinee, 

p. 85, pi. 48, Luzon, Philippine Islands. 

Scolopax luzoniensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 656, 1789 same basis. 
Numenius atricapillus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 8, p. 303, 

1817 new name for Numenius luzoniensis Latham = Scolopax luzoniensis 

Gmelin. 
Numenius phaeopus variegatus Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 261, 1934 (range); 

Bailey, Auk, 56, p. 333, 1939 Point Barrow, Alaska (June 10, 1938). 

Range. Breeds in eastern Siberia west to the Lena River; 
winters from eastern China throughout the Indo-Australian Archi- 
pelago to New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Australia, Tasmania, 
New Caledonia, and the Caroline, Marianna, and Pelew Islands. 
Accidental in Alaska (Point Barrow, June 10, 1938). 

*Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus Latham. HUDSONIAN 
CURLEW. 

Numenius hudsonicus Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 712, 1790 based on "Eskimaux 
Curlew" Tennant, Arct. Zool., 2, No. 364, pi. 19, Hudson Bay; Darwin, 
Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 129, 1841 Chiloe Island, Chile; Fraser, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 117, 1843 shores of Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, 

1 Breeding specimens from Iceland and migratory birds from Greenland are 
on average larger (wing of males, 240-260, against 231-250 in Scandinavia), but 
there is much overlapping in measurements, and the slight difference, considering 
the size of the bird, seems altogether too insignificant to justify the separation of 
2V. p. islandicus, inasmuch as Faroes specimens completely bridge the gap. 

2 Numenius phaeopus variegatus (Scopoli) differs from the nominate race by 
having the feathers of lower back and rump broadly spotted with brown, while 
the foreneck, breast, flanks, and under wing coverts are generally more coarsely 
marked. 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 419, 1847 Chile; Boeck, Naumannia, 
1855, p. 510 Chile ("Arend" [=Ancud], Chiloe" Island; Calbuco and 
"Reloncaoi" [=Reloncavf], Llanquihue); Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. 
Exp., 2, p. 194, 1855 Chile; Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, p. 10 Greenland 
(Godthaab, Julianehaab, Fiskenaesset, Jacobshavn); Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 333, 339 Chile; idem and Salvin, I.e., 1868, p. 176 
Tambo Valley, Arequipa, Peru; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 275, 
1869 coast of Chile; Taczanowski, I.e., 1877, p. 330 Chimbote (Ancachs) 
and Santa Lucia (Tumbez), Peru; Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 16 Talcaguano, 
Chile; Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 429 Paracas Bay, Peru (Oct.); Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 3, p. 380, 1886 Peruvian localities; Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. 
Alaska, 3, p. 120, 1887 St. Michaels, Alaska; MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, 
p. 208 Chimbote, Peru (Aug.); Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 
331, 1887 (monog.); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1892, p. 395 Lima, Peru (Oct. 6); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 
1896 Chile (especially Chiloe" Island); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, pp. 364, 754, 1896 North America, Mexico (Mazatlan), Guatemala 
(Chiapam), Barbados, Brazil (Para, Cajutuba), Peru (Tambo Valley, 
Paracas Bay), Chile (Vina del Mar, Arauco, Chiloe, Talcaguano, Santiago), 
and Galapagos Islands; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 312 Vina del Mar, Valparaiso, 
Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 659, 1898 Chile; Winge, Medd. 
Gr0nl., 21, p. 159, 1898 Greenland (three records); Salvador! and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 43, 1900 Santa Elena, Ecuador 
(Jan.) ; Grinnell, Pac. Coast Avifauna, No. 1, p. 27, 1900 Kowak River, 
Alaska (nesting); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 365, 
1903 Mexico (Mazatlan; Rio Zacatula, Colima; Ventosa Bay, Oaxaca), 
Guatemala (Laguna de Chiapam), Honduras (Fonseca Bay), Costa Rica 
(Punta Arenas and San Lucas), Galapagos Islands, and South America; 
Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 280, 1904 Barbuda (Sept., Nov.); 
Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 255, 1905 Barbados and Grenada 
(arr. in August); Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 146, 
1905 San Miguel and Saboga Islands, Pearl Archipelago, Panama; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 305, 1908 Cayenne, French Guiana (Nov. 
21); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 214, 1909 Islas de Aves, 
Caribbean Sea (Jan. 23); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 418, 1910 
Costa Rica (San Jose", Sept. 15; El Coronado de Terraba, July 3); Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 94, 1910, p. 226, 1923 
Amaracao and Ilha Grande, Piauhy (Sept.); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 87, 1914 Marajo (Pacoval) and Maranhao (Guimaraes), Brazil; 
Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 371, 1916 Altagracia, Rio 
Orinoco, Venezuela (Nov.); Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, p. 43, 1918 Fort Niew Amsterdam, Surinam (April); Chubb, Ibis, 
1919, p. 264 Trujillo, Peru (Mar. 18); Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 13, No. 4, 
p. 25, 1920 Pajaros Island, Pearl Archipelago, Panama; Lonnberg and 
Rendahl, I.e., 14, No. 25, p. 24, 1922 La Carolina, Ecuador (Oct. 18); 
Gigoux, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 87, 1924 Caldera, Atacama, Chile; 
Conover, Auk, 43, p. 311, 1926 Hooper and Igiak Bay, Alaska (migr.; 
weights; imm. plumage); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 194, 
1926 Vaqueria (Feb. 14, 22; Sept. 13, 14), Jambeli (July 20, Nov. 1, 
2), and Puna Island (July 17), Ecuador; Wetmore, Tech. Bull. U. S. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 95 

Dept. Agric., 26, p. 15, 1927 Concon, Chile (April 25); Young, Ibis, 
1928, p. 769 Berbice River, British Guiana (Oct. 15 to Nov. 15); Bent, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 113, 1929 (life hist.; range); Swarth, Occ. 
Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 61, 1931 Galapagos and Cocos Island 
(winter visitor); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 397, 
1932 Atacama (Caldera) and Chilo6 Island (Quellon, Rio Inio), Chile; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 132, 1932 Ocos, Guatemala; 
idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 373, 1934 Acapulco, Guerrero 
(Jan. 1); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 289 Caroni Swamp, Trini- 
dad; Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 249, 1935 Isla la Mocha, Chile; 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 19, p. 81, 1935 Ilha Madre de Deus (Jan. 29, 
Feb. 4) and Corupe"ba (Feb. 4, 16), Bahia, Brazil; Philippi, El Hornero, 
6, p. 235, 1936 Pocas de la Erizera, Arica, Chile (July 1); Dickey and 
van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 172, 1938 Puerto 
del Triunfo, El Salvador (Dec. 31, Jan. 12); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Chile, 16, p. 54, 1938 Arica and Playa de Chacalluta, Tacna, Chile (Sept.). 

Numenius hudsonius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 8, p. 304, 
1817 (emendation of Numenius hudsonicus Latham); Pelzeln, Reise 
Novara, Zool., 1, pp. 128, 163, 1865 Chilce" Island, Chile; Gundlach, 
Journ. Orn., 26, p. 187, 1878 near Mayagtiez, Puerto Rico; idem, Anal. 
Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 367, 1878 Punta Arenas, near Mayagiiez, 
Puerto Rico. 

Numenius rufus Vieillot and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 2, p. 118, pi. 245, circa 1825 
part, descr. of spec, in collection of P. L. Vieillot. 1 

Numenius rufiventris Vigors, Zool. Journ., 4, No. 15, p. 356, 1829 western 
shores of North America (type lost); idem, Zool. Voy. Blossom, p. 28, 
1839 no locality given. 

Numenius brasiliensis Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 708, 1833 
eastern Brazil (type now in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 272, 1889). 

Numenius intermedius Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, Water Birds, 
p. 100, 1834 North America. 

Numenius phaeopus (not Scolopax phaeopus Linnaeus) Cabanis, in Schom- 
burgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 757, 1849 mouth of the Waini 
River; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 308, 1870 Praia de Cajutuba, Para, 
Brazil (March). 

Numenius phaeopus var. hudsonica Pelzeln, Ibis, 1873, p. 121 Cayenne 
(crit.). 

Numenius borealis Snyder, Auk, 30, p. 269, 1913 Fox Lake, Dodge County, 
Wisconsin, Sept. 10, 1912 (=N. hudsonicus; cf. Scott, I.e., 57, p. 566, 
1940). 

Phaeopijs hudsonicus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 402, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 124, 1921 Chile 

1 It is extremely doubtful whether, as claimed by Sharpe (Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 24, p. 366, 1896), spec, c, Hudson's Bay, from the Riocour collection, m 
the British Museum, is the type. The individual described and figured by Vieillot 
is evidently the one brought back by himself from New York (cf. Nouv. Diet. Hist. 
Nat., nouv. 6d., 8, p. 307, 1817, in text of 2V. melanopus). Latham's description 
quoted by Vieillot refers to N. americanus. 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and Tierra del Fuego (Cape San Sebastian, Feb. 5, 1896); Wetmore, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 146, 1926 Concon, Valparaiso, Chile (April 25); 
idem, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 360, 1927 Puerto 
Rico and Anegada (transient); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 96, 
1928 Lower California (transient); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 155, p. 157, 1931 Hispaniola (transient); Taverner and 
Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 23, p. 36, pi. 1, 1934 Churchill, Manitoba 
(nesting; col. pi. of adult and young); Dixon, Bds. and Mammals, Mt. 
McKinley Nat. Park, p. 72, 1938 (nesting); Taverner, Wilson Bull., 54, 
p. 1, 1942 (breeding range and migration routes); Porsild, Canad. Field 
Nat., 57, p. 28, 1943 Caribou Hills and Richards Island, Mackenzie 
Delta (nesting). 

Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 261, 1934 (range); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 132, 1938 Maranhao (Primeira Cruz; 
Oct.) and Bahia (Ilha Madre de Deus, Corupeba); Hope and Shortt, 
Auk, 61, p. 573, 1944 west coast of James Bay (migr.). 

Numenius (Phaeopus) hudsonicus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 306, 
1935 Panama (winter). 

Range. Breeds on the Arctic coast of North America, from 
Norton Sound to the Anderson River, in Mt. McKinley National 
Park and locally to Fort Churchill; winters from southern California, 
south on the Pacific coast of America to Chiloe" Island, Chile, and 
on the east coast from British Guiana to Bahia, Brazil, and also on 
the Galapagos Islands; accidental in Tierra del Fuego (Cape San 
Sebastian, Feb. 5, 1896), on the Pribilof Islands, Bermuda Islands, 
and in Greenland. 

Field Museum Collection. 87: Alaska (Nome, 2; St. Michaels, 1; 
Yukon Delta, 2; Hairise, 2; Teller, 1); British Columbia (Graham 
Island, 1); Washington (Jefferson County, 1); California (Moss 
Landing, 3; Monterey, 3; Rincon, 2; Sunset Beach, 2; Redwood 
City, 5; Hyperion, 6; Point Firman, 1; Pacific Beach, 1); Manitoba 
(Churchill, 1) ; Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 13) ; Maine (Rock Pond, 
Hancock County, 1); Connecticut, New Haven County (West 
Haven, 1; unspecified, 1); New Hampshire (Seabrook, 1); Massa- 
chusetts (Monomoy Island, 6; Chatham, 1); North Carolina, Dare 
County (Pea Island, 5; Bodie Island, 2); Georgia (Chatham County, 
2); Mexico (La Paz, Lower California, 1; Matamoros, Tamaulipas, 
3); Costa Rica (Piedra de Blanca, Guanacaste, 3); Dominica (un- 
specified, 1); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 2); Lesser Antilles- (Anegada, 
1); Venezuela (Nueva Esparta, Margarita Island, 3; Los Aves Island, 
Colon, 1); British Guiana (Buxton, 2); Peru (Tambo Valley, Are- 
quipa, 1); Chile (Caldera, Atacama, 1; Chilce", Chiloe" Island, 1). 

Conover Collection. 31: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 2; 
Barrow, 1; Alaktak River near Barrow, 2); Alberta (Beaverhill 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 97 

Lake, 1); Manitoba (Churchill, 9); California (Anaheim Landing, 1; 
Rincon, 5; Playa del Rey, 2); Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, Guana- 
caste, 3) ; Panama (Perme, Darien, 1) ; Chile, Chilo Island (Quellon, 
3; Rio Inio, 1). 

*Numenius tahitiensis (Gmelin). BRISTLE-THIGHED CURLEW. 

Scolopax tahitiensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 656, 1789 based on 
"Otaheite Curlew" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 122, Tahiti, Society 
Islands (cf. Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 83, 1887; crit.). 1 . 

Numenius tahitensis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 8, p. 308, 
1817 (emendation). 

Numenius femoralis Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 233, 1848 Vincennes 
Island, Paumotu Islands (type in United States National Museum); 
Cassin, I.e., p. 316, pi. 37, 1858 Vincennes Island. 

Numenius tibialis Layard and Layard, Ibis, (6), 4, p. 533, July, 1882 lapsus 
for N. femoralis Peale. 

Numenius tahitiensis Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 121, pi. 9, 1887 
St. Michaels, Alaska (descr.; second American record); Seebohm, Geog. 
Distr. Charad., p. 332, 1887 (crit.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, 
p. 367, 1896 (monog.); Hanna, Auk, 37, p. 253, 1920 St. George Island, 
Pribilofs; Bailey, Condor, 28, p. 84, 1926 Cape Mountain and Lopp 
Lagoon, Alaska; Conover, Auk, 43, p. 311, 1926 Hooper Bay (May 22, 
July 6, July 31, Aug. 4 [common]; migr.; voice; weights), Nome (Aug. 21; 
plumage of young of the year) ; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 140, 
1929 (habits; range); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 261, 1934 (range). 

Phaeopus tahitiensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 407, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Townsend and Wetmore, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
63, p. 179, 1919 Paumotu, Gilbert, and Marshall Islands (crit.) ; Swarth, 
Pac. Coast Avifauna, 22, p. 28, 1934 Nunivak Island (migrant Aug. 15 
and 20); Gabrielson, Auk, 61, p. 123, 1944 Kvichak River, Alaska Penin- 
sula. 

Range. Only known to breed on some barren ridges about 25 
miles north of Mountain Village on the lower Yukon River, Alaska, 
at an elevation of approximately 1,000 feet. 2 Found around Nome 
and the tundra back of Hooper Bay, Alaska, during fall migration. 
Winters on islands in the Pacific Ocean from Lisiansky and the 
Hawaiian Islands south to the Marshall, Gilbert, Phoenix, and 
Society Islands. 

Conover Collection. 14: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 12; 
Cape Nome, Norton Sound, 2). 

1 As pointed out by Stejneger, Latham's description is rather ambiguous. 

2 This information has been furnished by Professor Arthur A. Allen, the 
leader of the expedition which discovered the long sought nesting grounds of the 
Bristle-thighed Curlew. He has been kind enough to allow us to include it in 
this volume. 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Numenius arquata arquata (Linnaeus). EUROPEAN CURLEW. 

Scolopax arquata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 145, 1758 chiefly 

based on Faun. Svec., No. 139, Sweden. 
Numenius arquatus Marshall and Butcher, Auk, 9, pp. 390, 392, 1892 

Long Island (1853); Helms and Schigler, Schiller, Dansk. Orn. Foren. 

Tidssk., 11, pp. 173, 174, 1917 Angmagsalik (Aug. 23, 1913) and Nanor- 

talik (Nov. 16, 1915), Greenland; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 

(8), p. 386, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.). 

Numenius arquata arquata Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 109, 1929 
Gife hist.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 262, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in the British Isles, Scandinavia, Brittany, 
Holland, Belgium, coasts of the Baltic Sea, Poland, and northern 
Russia, south to Switzerland, Austria, and the mouth of the Danube; 
accidental in Greenland (Angmagsalik, Aug. 23, 1913; Nanortalik, 
Nov. 16, 1915) and (?) on Long Island, New York; winters chiefly 
in the Mediterranean countries, Africa, Madagascar, India, and 
Ceylon. 

*Numenius americanus Bechstein. 1 LONG-BILLED CURLEW. 

Numenius americanus Bechstein, Kurze Uebers. Vogel, 2, p. 432, 1812 
New York and Hudson Bay; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 95, 
1928 Lower California; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 97, 1929 
(life hist.; range; migr.); Wolfe, Condor, 33, p. 56, 1931 Utah (breeding 
habits); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 132, 1932 Guatemala. 

Numenius longirostra Wilson, Amer. Orn., 8, p. 23, pi. 64, fig. 4, 1814 
New Jersey (type lost). 

Numenius melanopus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 8, p. 306, 
1817 part, mainly based on Numenius arquata var. B, Latham, Ind. 
Orn., 2, p. 710, 1790, and Scolopax arquata var. B, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 
1, (2), p. 556, Hudson Bay (breeding) to New York (on migr.). 2 

Numenius longirostris Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, No. 1, 
p. 74, 1825 (emendation of N. longirostra Wilson); March, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 68 Jamaica (breeding?); Salvin, Ibis, 1866, 
p. 197 Chiapam and Duenas, Guatemala; Gundlach, in Poey, Repert. 
Fis.-Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 352, 1866 Cuba; idem, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 320, 
1875 Cuba (Cardenas, Rio Canto); Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
9, p. 179, 1886 Laguna de Baltazar, Puebla (Sept.); Seebohm, Geog. 
Distr. Charad., p. 327, 1887 (crit.); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 94, 1892 
Cuba, Jamaica, and "St. Vincent" (ex Ober); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

| Subdivision of the Long-billed Curlew is impracticable. While more northern 
specimens tend to smaller size and shorter bill, there is so much overlapping in 
measurements that even of breeding birds only a certain percentage can be dis- 
tinguished, whereas the identification of migratory or wintering individuals is 
almost impossible. 

2 The bird in the author's collection, whose divergencies are incidentally 
explained, evidently belonged to AT. p. hudsonicus. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 99 

24, pp. 352, 753, 1896 (monog.) ; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 3, p. 364, 1903 Mexico (numerous localities) and Guatemala 
(Duenas, Chiapam); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 301, 1905 
(occurrence in St. Vincent denied); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, 
p. 162, 1906 Rancho Santuario, Durango (Feb. 22). 

Numineus (sic) occidentalis Woodhouse, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 6, p. 194, 
1852 Rio Grande, near Albuquerque, New Mexico (Aug. 20, 1851) 
(type destroyed, formerly in United States National Museum). 
Numenius americanus parvus Bishop, Auk, 27, p. 59, Jan., 1910 Crane 
Lake, Saskatchewan (type in collection of L. B. Bishop, now in Field 
Museum, examined); Phillips, I.e., 28, p. 75, 1911 Matamoros, Tamau- 
lipas (Jan.); Bishop, Condor, 40, p. 226, 1938 (nomencl.; crit.). 
Numenius americanus americanus Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 74, 1911 Matamoros, 
Tamaulipas (Feb.); Oberholser, I.e., 35, p. 188, 1918 (char.; range); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 390, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 263, 1934 (range); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. 
Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 80, 1945 Sonora (winter visitor). 
Numenius americanus occidentalis Oberholser, Auk, 35, p. 191, 1918 (char.; 
range); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 394, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Grinnell, Condor, 23, p. 21, 1921 (race not valid); Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 262, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds from eastern British Columbia to Manitoba and 
south to Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and South Dakota, formerly 
east to Wisconsin and Illinois; winters from the southwestern 
United States to Guatemala; accidental in Newfoundland, Cuba, 
and Jamaica. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 73: British Columbia (Okanagan, 3); 
Alberta (Walsh, 2); Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 4); California 
(Humboldt County, 1; Orange County, 1; Monterey County, 9; 
Los Angeles County, 2; Santa Barbara County, 1); Arizona (Santa 
Cruz County, 3); Idaho (Teton County, 1); Utah (Salt Lake County, 
4; Bear River, 4) ; New Mexico (Coif ax County, 1) ; Wyoming (Crook 
County, 2); Colorado (Denver Mills, 1); Texas (Cameron County, 
20; Clay County, 1; Port Lavaca, 1; Nueces County, 7; Aransas 
County, 4); Mexico (La Paz, Lower California, 1). 

Conover Collection. 20: California (Ventura County, 2; Orange 
County, 3); Utah (Brigham, 11); Texas (Willacy County, 4). 

Genus LIMOSA Brisson 2 

1 The reported occurrence of the Long-billed Curlew in the Lesser Antilles, 
on St. Vincent and Guadeloupe (cf. Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, pp. 197, 
451, 1879) has never been confirmed, and Kirk's record from Tobago (cf. Belcher 
and Smooker, Ibis, 1934, p. 289) is perhaps also questionable. 

2 There is no justification for subdividing the genus, as has been set forth 
by Townsend and Wetmore (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, pp. 181-182, 1919). 
The admission of the Black-tailed Godwit, Limosa I. limosa (Linnaeus), to the 



100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Limosa Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 48, 5, p. 261, 1760 type, by tautonymy, "Limosa" 
~Bnsson= Scolopax limosa Linnaeus. 

Fedoa (not of Leach, 1816) Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 12, (1), p. 70, 
1824 type, by tautonymy, Fedoa americana Stephens =Scolopax fedoa 
Linnaeus. 

Vetola Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, (2), p. 191, May 2, 1913 type, by orig. 
desig., Scolopax lapponica Linnaeus. 

*Limosa haemastica (Linnaeus). 1 HUDSONIAN GODWIT. 

Scolopax haemastica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 147, 1758 based on 
"Red-breasted Godwit" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 138, pi. 138, 
Hudson Bay. 

Scolopax hudsonica Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 720, 1790 based on "Hudsonian 
Godwit" Latham, Gen. Syn. Birds, Suppl., 1, p. 246, and Pennant, Arct. 
Zool., Suppl., p. 68, 1787, Hudson Straits. 

Limosa hudsonica(us) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 129, 1841 Chiloe 
Island, Chile, and Falkland Islands; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, 
p. 118, 1843 Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, 
p. 420, 1847 coast of Valparaiso, Chile; Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
27, p. 96, 1859 Falkland Islands; Sclater, I.e., 28, p. 387, 1860 Falk- 
land Islands; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 156 Mare Harbour, Port Louis, 
East Falkland (May 20); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 27, p. 22, 1864 East 
Falkland (Abbott) and Mexico (crit.); Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, 
Vogel, pp. 128, 163, 1865 Chiloe Island, Chile; Gundlach, in Poey, 
Repert. Fis.-Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 353, 1866 Cuba (one spec.); Leotaud, 
Ois. Trinidad, p. 448, 1866 Trinidad; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, pp. 332, 339 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 275, 1868 
coast of Chile (abundant at Vichuquen, Curico); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 252 Lake Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela; 

North American fauna appears to rest on very slender evidence. It was first 
listed as Scolopax iardreka by Fabricius (Faun. Groenl., p. 107, 1780), who states 
that he had seen one specimen from Greenland. However, his diagnosis is copied 
word for word from O. F. Muller (Zool. Dan. Prodr., p. 23, 1776) who based 
his Scolopax Jadreka mainly on "Jadreka" Olafsen and Povelsen, Reise Island, 
p. 896, pi. 48, 1772, from Iceland and it appears, therefore, that the author was 
not too well acquainted with the bird. The second record is by Holboll (Naturhist. 
Tidsskr., 4, p. 409, 1843), who claims to have received a specimen of Limosa 
melanura shot on the Kok Islands near Godthaab. The bird cannot be found in 
the Copenhagen Museum (cf. Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, p. 11). Winge (Medd. 
Gr0nl., 21, p. 160, 1898) suggests the record might be due to confusion with 
L. haemastica, of which Holboll sent several specimens, including one from God- 
thaab, to Copenhagen (cf. also Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 304, 1927). 

1 Scolopax alba Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 247, 1766 based on 
"White Godwit from Hudson's Bay" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 139, 
pi. 139, posterior fig.; Hudson's Bay) and Scolopax Candida Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 
12th ed., 1, p. 247, 1766 based on "The White Redshank or Poole-Snipe" Edwards, 
Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 139, pi. 139, anterior fig.; Hudson's Bay), doubtfully quoted 
in the synonymy of the Hudsonian Godwit, do not seem to be identifiable with 
certainty. Richardson (in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, p. 398, 
note, Feb., 1832) provided Edwards' "White Godwit from Hudson's Bay" with 
the name Limosa edwardsii, which is a synonym of Scolopax alba Linnaeus. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 101 

iidem, Ibis, 1870, p. 500 Ancud, ChiloS; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 308, 
1870 Caicara, Engenho do Gama, and Cidade de Matto Grosso, Matto 
Grosso, Brazil (Sept., Oct., Nov.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1873, p. 456 (winter range); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 320, 
1875 Cuba (one specimen); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, pp. 43, 200 Chubut 
Valley, Patagonia (Nov. 13) and Buenos Aires (Apr. to Sept.); Lawrence, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 450, 1879 Guadeloupe (ex L'Herminier MS.); 
Doering, in Roca, Inf. One. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., 1, p. 57, 1881 Azul, 
Buenos Aires; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 42 La Plata (Nov.); 
Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 392, 1887 (crit.); Macfarlane, Ibis, 
1887, p. 204 Bay of San Nicolas, lea, Peru (Nov. 9); Reed, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 coast of Chile; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, pp. 388, 756, 1896 North America, Venezuela (Lake Valencia; Oct.), 
and Argentina (La Plata, Nov. 10; Chuput, Nov. 13; Port Desire, Mar.); 
Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., SuppL, 4, p. 659, 1898 Calbuco, Llanquihue, 
Chile; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 432, 1899 Sao Paulo; Crawshay, 
Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 130, 1907 Useless Bay; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 
15, pp. 306, 322, 1908 (no record from French Guiana); Scott and Sharpe, 
Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 304, 1910 Patagonia 
(habits); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 470 Los Yngleses, Ajo (Nov. 1) and Cape 
San Antonio, Buenos Aires (Dec. 20); Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
28, p. 52, 1924 Isla la Mocha, Arauco, Chile; Wetmore, Auk, 48, 
p. 596, 1931 Rio Yoque del Norte, Dominican Republic. 

Limosa australis G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., Part 3, p. 95, 1844 San 
Salvador Bay, East Falkland Island (nomen nudum). 

Limosa haemastica Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Water Bds. N. Amer., 1, 
p. 260, 1884 (monog.); Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 117, 1887 
Nulato and Yukon mouth (ex Dall), Alaska; Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 495 
Barbados (Oct., transient); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 191, 
1889 Argentina (habits); Holland, Ibis, 1892, p. 212 Est. Espartillar, 
Buenos Aires (July, Aug.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 253, 1905 
Barbados (transient); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 50, 1907 Iguape", 
Sao Paulo; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 218, 1910 
Buenos Aires, Chubut, and Tierra del Fuego (Useless Bay); Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 38, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Gibson, Ibis, 1920, 
p. 70 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 
1920 Uruguay (Montevideo, Canelones); Dabbene, I.e., p. 122, 1920 
(winter range in Argentina and adjacent countries); Wace, I.e., p. 198, 
1921 Falkland Islands; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 323 Falkland Islands; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 159, 1926 Rio Ajo, below Lavalle 
(Nov. 13-15) and Laguna del Monte, near Guamini (Mar. 3-12), Buenos 
Aires; Dabbene, El Hornero, 3, p. 420, 1926 Dolores, Buenos Aires 
(June, July); Pereyra, I.e., 4, p. 24, 1927 Maipu, Buenos Aires (June); 
Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 295, 1927 (life hist.); Wetmore, Tech. 
Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 26, p. 11, 1927 Guamini, Buenos Aires (March 
3-8); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 79, 1930 Matto Grosso; 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 397, 1932 Chile 
(winter); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 263, 1934 (range) ; Belcher and Smooker, 
Ibis, 1935, p. 290 Trinidad; Brooks, Auk, 53, p. 80, 1936 Atlin, British 
Columbia (first record) and New Zealand; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, 



102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 133, 1938 Sao Paulo (range); Hope and Shortt, Auk, 61, p. 575, 
1944 west coast of James Bay (July 20-25; migration route to Gulf of 
St. Lawrence). 

Vetula haemastica Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 191, 1919 
(monog.; full bib Hog.). 

Range. Breeds on the Barren Grounds of arctic North America 
from northeastern Alaska east to Southampton Island and the west 
shore of Hudson Bay (Churchill); winters in Chile, Argentina, 
Paraguay, Uruguay, and southern Brazil (in states of Sao Paulo, 
Matto Grosso, and Rio Grande do Sul); accidental in the Bermuda 
Islands, the West Indies (Dominican Republic, Cuba, Dominica, 
?Guadeloupe, Barbados), Trinidad, Venezuela (Lake Valencia), 
the Falkland Islands, and New Zealand. 

Field Museum Collection. 20: Manitoba (Churchill, 2); Labrador 
(Mullon Bay, 1); Nova Scotia (Sambro, 1; Halifax, 1); Quebec 
(Magdalen Islands, 2); Massachusetts (Cape Cod, 1); Nebraska 
(unspecified, 1); Minnesota (unspecified, 1); North Dakota (Towner 
County, 3; Graham Island, Ramsey County, 1; North wood, Grand 
Forks County, 2; Rock Lake, Towner County, 1; Cando, Towner 
County, 1); Kansas (Burlington, 1); Texas (Brownsville, 1). 

Conover Collection. 13: Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, 4); Massa- 
chusetts (East Orleans, 5; Chatham, 1; Eastham, 1; Sea View, 2). 

*Limosa lapponica novaezealandiae G. R. Gray. PACIFIC 

GODWIT. 

Limosa lapponica var. novae zealandiae G. R. Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and 
Terror, 1, Birds, p. 13, 1846 New Zealand (type in British Museum). 

Limosa foxii Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 231, 1848 Rose Island, Samoan 
group (type in United States National Museum). 

Limosa uropygialis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 16, p. 38, pub. Nov. 14, 
1848 Australia=New South Wales (type now in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Austr. Av. Rec., 1, p. 141, 1913). 

Limosa baueri (Natterer MS.) 1 Pelzeln, Sitzungsber. Math.-Naturw. Kl. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, 41, No. 15, p. 326, June, 1860 Norfolk Island (type 
in Vienna Museum; cf. Pelzeln and Lorenz, Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. 
Wien, 3, p. 55, 1888). 

1 First published by Naumann (Naturg. Vog. Deuts., 8, p. 429 [in text], 
1836), who, in speaking of L. meyeri Leister (=L. lapponica lapponica (Linnaeus)), 
says (trans.) : "Near relatives are Limosa adspersa (of the Berlin Museum) from 
Mexico, and Limosa baueri (of the Vienna Museum), from New Holland, both of 
which, though having likewise a narrowly-barred tail, may be distinguished by 
considerably larger size and longer legs." Thus, two subspecies, belonging to two 
different specific units, are covered by the diagnosis, and the names proposed in 
this form can hardly be regarded as anything but nomina nuda. L. baueri was 
not properly characterized until 1860, when Pelzeln explained its supposed 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 103 

Limosa rufa var. uropygialis Ridgway, Amer. Nat., 8, p. 110, 1874 Alaska 
(crit.). 

Limosa lapponica baueri Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 122, 1885 
Bering Island (nomencl.); Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 2, p. 148, 
1886 St. Michaels (breeding), Aleutian Islands (migr.); Nelson, Nat. 
Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 115, 1887 Unalaska (migr.), St. Michaels (nest- 
ing; plumage var.); Bailey, Condor, 28, p. 36, 1926 Wales, Alaska (nest- 
ing); Conover, Auk, 43, p. 310, 1926 Hooper Bay, Alaska (nesting habits; 
plumage var.; weights); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 289, 1927 
(life hist.); Swarth, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 22, p. 34, 1934 Nunivak Island 
(not breeding); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 264, 1934 (range); Munro, 
Condor, 37, p. 178, 1935 Colebrook, Fraser Valley, British Columbia; 
Partenko (sic), Auk, 53, p. 195, 1936 (dist. chars.; range). 

Limosa rufa uropygialis Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 387, 1887 (crit.). 

Limosa lapponica subsp. a. Limosa novae zealandiae Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 24, pp. 377, 755, 1896 (monog.). 

Vetola lapponica baueri Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 187, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.). 

Range. Breeds in northeastern Asia and northwestern North 
America from the Taimyr Peninsula 1 east to the Colville Delta, 
south to Kamchatka and Unalaska Island; winters in New Guinea, 
Australia, and New Zealand. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 35: Alaska (Barrow, 3; Nome, 18; 
St. Michaels, 10; Nuluk, 1; Unalaska, 1; Meade River, 1; unspecified, 

1). 

Conover Collection. 17: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 9; 
Cape Romanzoff, Bering Sea, 4; Igiak Bay, Bering Sea, 2; Point 
Barrow, 2). 

Limosa lapponica lapponica (Linnaeus). BAR-TAILED GODWIT. 
Scolopax lapponica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 147, 1758 Lapland. 

Limosa lapponica lapponica Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 295, 1927 
Cape Cod, Massachusetts (Sept. 1, 1907); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 264, 

characters in comparison to L. uropygialis. We do not know why Mathews (Nov. 
Zool., 18, p. 220, 1912) suggested Victoria as type locality, since it clearly results 
from Pelzeln's account that the type (and only specimen) has been collected by 
Bauer on Norfolk Island. As Limosa brevipes Gray and Limosa australasiana G. R. 
Gray (List Bds. Brit. Mus., Part 3, pp. 95, 96, 1844) are both nomina nuda, novae- 
zealandiae Gray becomes the valid term for the Pacific Godwit. 

1 Portenko (Auk, 53, p. 195, 1936) restricts the range of the present form 
called by him L. I. baueri to the coasts of Bering Sea, and separates the popula- 
tion from the Lena Delta to the Anadyr region as L. I. menzbieri (type from the 
Indigirsa delta). 

2 About the alleged occurrence of the Pacific Godwit in Lower California, cf. 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 239, 1928. 



104 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1934 (range); idem and Hagar, Auk, 54, p. 537, 1937 Eastham, Cape 
Cod, Massachusetts, July 16, 1937 (account of Sept. 16, 1907, specimen, 
also). 

Range. Breeds in northern Europe and Asia east probably to 
the Taimyr Peninsula. Winters from Africa to northwestern India. 
Two records from Massachusetts. 

*Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus). MARBLED GODWIT. 

Scolopax fedoa Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 146, 1758 based on 
"The Greater American Godwit" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 137, 
pi. 137, Hudson's Bay. 

Scolopax marmorata Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 720, 1790 based on "Marbled 
Godwit" Latham, Gen. Syn. Birds, Suppl., 1, p. 245, and Pennant, Arct. 
Zool., Suppl., p. 68, Hudson Straits. 

Fedoa americana Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 12, (1), p. 71, 1824 new 
name for Scolopax fedoa Linnaeus. 

Limosa adspersa Reichenbach, Vollst. Naturg. Sumpfvogel, pi. 76, fig. 573, 
circa 1846 Mexico (type in Berlin Museum). 1 

Limosa fedoa Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 64, 1859 Belize, British 
Honduras; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 230 Belize and Guatemala; 
Salvin, I.e., 1865, p. 190 Chiapam, Guatemala; Gundlach, in Poey, 
Repert. Fis.-Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 353, 1866 Cuba; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, 
p. 447, 1866 Trinidad (Aug. to Oct.); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 9, p. 210, 1869 Merida, Yucatan; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 456 coasts of Honduras and Guatemala; Lawrence, 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 308, 1874 Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Gundlach, 
Journ. Orn., 23, p. 320, 1875 Cardenas, Cuba; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 4, p. 47, 1876 San Mateo, Oaxaca (Aug., Feb.) ; Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 748 Santa Lucia, Tumbez, Peru (Oct. 27", 
Nov. 23); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1878, p. 141 Santa Rosa, Ecuador; 
Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 188, 1878 Boqueron, Puerto Rico; Tacza- 
nowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 379, 1886 Santa Lucia, Peru; Wells, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus., 9, p. 628, 1887 Grenada; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., 
p. 388, 1887 (crit.); Salvin, Ibis, 1889, p. 379 Cozumel Island; Cory, 
Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 93, 1892 Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Grenada; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 391, 756, 1896 (monog.); Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 367, 1903 Mexico (Matamoros, Tamau- 
lipas; Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Guanajuato; Valley of Mexico; Merida and 
Cozumel Island, Yucatan), British Honduras (Belize), Guatemala 
(Chiapam), and Cuba; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 253, 1905 
Grenada and Carriacou (rare migrant); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 194, 1926 Ecuador; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, 9, p. 374, 1927 Puerto Rico; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, 
p. 277, 1927 (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 92, 1928 

According to Naumann (Naturg. Vog. Deuts., 8, p. 429 [in text], 1836), 
who first published the name, "Limosa adspersa (des Berliner Museums)" as a 
nomen nudum. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 105 

Lower California; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 132, 1932 
Champerico, Guatemala (Sept. 10); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 264, 1934 
(range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 290 Trinidad and Tobago; 
Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 54, 1938 Playa de Chacallata, 
Tacna, Chile (Sept.); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State 
Univ., 21, p. 80, 1945 Sonora (winter). 

Vetolafedoa Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 184, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.). 

Range. Breeds from central Alberta, Saskatchewan, and south- 
ern Manitoba south to North Dakota (formerly to Utah, Nebraska, 
Iowa, and Wisconsin); winters from Lower California, Louisiana, 
and Georgia south to Peru and northern Chile (Playa de Chacalluta, 
Tacna); casual in Cuba (Cardenas), Puerto Rico (Boqueron), 
Grenada (Aug. 29, 1881), Tobago, and Trinidad. 

Field Museum Collection. 66: Alberta (Walsh, 2); Saskatchewan 
(Big Stick Lake, 2; Hay Lake, 3; Maple Creek, 1; Crane Lake, 3; 
Lake Johnson, 1; Quill Lake, 1); Nova Scotia (Sambro, 1); North 
Dakota (Hope, Steele County, 1; Towner County, 8; Rock Lake, 
Towner County, 2; Stump Lake, Nelson County, 13); South Dakota 
(Miner County, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 1); North 
Carolina (Pea Island, Dare County, 4) ; California (Rincon, Ventura 
County, 1; Carmel River mouth, Monterey County, 4; La Patera 
Point, Santa Barbara County, 1; San Diego, 5; Motordrome, Los 
Angeles County, 1; Alamintos Bay, Los Angeles County, 1; Hyperion, 
2; Nigger Slough, Los Angeles County, 3; unspecified, 1); Texas 
(Corpus Christi, 1; Padre Island, 1); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1). 

Conover Collection. 22: Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 10); 
North Dakota (Devil's Lake, Ramsey County, 1) ; California (Ana- 
heim Landing, Orange County, 5; Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, 
1; San Diego Bay, 5). 

Genus TRINGA Linnaeus 

Tringa Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 148, 1758 type, by tautonymy, 

"Tringa" =Tringa ocrophus Linnaeus. 
Totanus Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. Deutschl., 2, p. 282, 1803 type, by 

tautonymy, Totanus maculatus Beehstein=Scofopa:c totanus Linnaeus. 
Glottis Koch, Syst. Baier. Zool., pp. xlii, 304, 1816 type, by tautonymy, 

Totanus glottis Bechstein =Scolopax nebularius Gunnerus. 
Rhyacophilus Kaup, Skizz. Entw. Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierw., p. 140, 1829 

type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. Subg. Bds., 2nd ed., App., p. 14, 

1841), Tringa glareola Linnaeus. 
Helodromas Kaup, Skizz. Entw. Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierw., p. 144, 1829 

type, by monotypy, Tringa ocrophus Linnaeus. 



106 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Rhynchophilus Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 40, 1857 type, 
by monotypy, Totanus chloropygius Vieillot=Tnngra solitaria Wilson. 

Neoglottis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), pp. 148 (diag.), 329, 1919 
type, by orig. desig., Scolopax melanoleuca Gmelin. 

Tringa totanus robusta (Schiller). 1 ICELANDIC RED-SHANK. 

Totanus calidris robustiis Schiller, Dansk Orn. Foren. Tidskr., 13, p. 211, 
1919 Iceland (type in collection of Lehn Schi01er, now in Copenhagen 
Museum). 

Totanus totanus (not Scolopax totanus Linnaeus) Gronberger, Auk, 29, p. 110, 
1912 Kililtorajivit, near Angmagsalik, Greenland; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 343, 1919 part, Iceland and Greenland; Bent, I.e., 
142, p. 315, 1927 Greenland (Angmagsalik, May 29, 1902, and Apr. 4, 
1909). 

Tringa totanus robusta Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 265, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in Iceland and on the Faroes; accidental in 
eastern Greenland (near Angmagsalik, May 29, 1902, and April 4, 
1909). 2 

*Tringa flavipes (Gmelin). LESSER YELLOW-LEGS. 

Scolopax flavipes Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 659, 1789 based on "Yellow- 
shanks" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 468, 1785, New York. 

Totanus fuscocapillus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 6, p. 400, 
1816 based on "Chorlito pardo mayor" Azara, No. 399, Paraguay. 

Totanus flavipes Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 727, 1833 eastern 
Brazil; Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 129, 1841 Montevideo, Uru- 
guay; Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 312, 1844 Peru; Jardine, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 375, 1847 Tobago (July to Nov.); Cabanis, in 
Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 757, 1849 coast region; 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 369, 1856 Nova Friburgo, 
Rio de Janeiro; Moschler, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 335, 1856 Greenland; 
Burmeister, I.e., 8, p. 261, 1860 Mendoza and Parana; idem, Reise La 
Plata St., 2, p. 503, 1861 same localities; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 
6, Scolopaces, p. 69, 1864 United States, Costa Rica, Haiti, Surinam, 
and Brazil (crit.); Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 131, 1865 
Chile; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 452, 1866 Trinidad; Philippi, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 31, p. 275, 1868 Chile; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 309, 1870 
Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Feb., Sept., Oct.; Irisanga, Feb.), Matto Grosso 
(Caicara, Sept., Oct.; Engenho do Gama, Sept.), Amazonas (Barra, Sept.), 
and Para (Cajutuba); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 

1 Tringa totanus robusta (Schi01er) differs from the nominate race by somewhat 
longer wings, as well as stouter bill and feet. Besides, in nuptial plumage the 
upper parts are darker, more brownish, while chest and sides are more heavily 
spotted. Wing, 160-170, rarely 157; bill, 36^-43 (Schi01er, I.e.). 

1 There can be hardly any doubt that the two specimens shot in Angmagsalik 
Fjord, which unfortunately have not been preserved, belonged to the Icelandic 
race. 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 107 

1870, p. 37 Lag6a Santa, Minas Geraes (Apr. 16); Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 560 Chorillos (Lima) and Lake Junin, Peru; 
Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 87, 1884 Tandil, 
Buenos Aires (Feb.); Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 315, 1884 Conception del 
Uruguay, Entre Rios (Nov. to April); Salvin, Ibis, 1886, p. 180 Bartica 
Grove and Camacusa, British Guiana; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 367, 
1886 Peruvian localities; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 364, 1887 
(crit.); Cory, Auk, 4, p. 317, 1887 West Indian localities and references; 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 238, 1889 (descr.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 12, p. 137, 1890 Gregory Bay, Straits of Magellan; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 137 Tarapaca, Chile; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 151 
Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo (Sept. 13); Holland, I.e., 1892, p. 212 
Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Hartert, I.e., 1893, p. 308 Aruba; Rich- 
mond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 526, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua 
(Oct. 16); Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 24, 1895 
Colonia Risso, Paraguay; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 22, 1895 Malca, 
Cajabamba, Peru (April); Waugh and Lataste, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 5, 
p. Ix, 1895 Penaflor, Santiago, Chile; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 
1896 Chile (winter); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 431, 759, 
1896 (monog.); Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 311 Huasco, Sacaya, and Cancosa, 
Tarapaca, Chile; Winge, Medd. Grjzinl., 21, p. 161, 1898 Greenland 
(Nanortalik); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 434, 1899 Sao Sebastiao, 
Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 164, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, 
Rio de Janeiro; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 126, 1900 Cienaga, 
Santa Marta, Colombia; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
15, No. 368, p. 44, 1900 Laguna de Kingora (Nov.),- Canar (Oct.), 
Quito (Aug.), and Vinces (Sept.), Ecuador; Salvadori, I.e., No. 378, p. 15, 
1900 Carandasinho, Matto Grosso; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
8, p. 213, 1902 Laguna de Malvinas, Tucuman; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), p. 52 Ingapirca (May) and La Merced 
(Sept.), Junin, Peru; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 130, 1902 
Altagracia, Orinoco, Venezuela (Jan.); Hartert, I.e., p. 307, 1902 Aruba; 
Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 15, p. 63, pi. 30, 1902 Chile; Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 374, 1903 Mexico to 
Panama; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 253, 1905 Barbados, 
Grenada, Grenadines, and St. Vincent; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 
13, p. 132, 1906 Puno, Peru (Dec., Mar.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 
p. 54, 1906 Caroni Swamp, Trinidad (March); Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 554 
Margarita Island, Venezuela (Mar. 23); Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 
26, p. 45, 1907 Mexiana Island, Brazil; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 51, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguap, Sao Sebastiao, Itapura) and Matto 
Grosso (Porto da Faya) ; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 306, 1908 Cayenne, 
French Guiana (Oct., Nov.); Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 251, 1909 
Barracas al Sud (Nov., Jan.) and Est. San Martino Monte (Jan.), Buenos 
Aires, and Lagunas de Malvinas, Tucuman (March); Me"ne"gaux, Bull. 
Soc. Phil. Paris, (10), 1, p. 219, 1909 Lake Poopo, Bolivia (June 3); 
Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 197, 209, 1909 Aruba and 
Bonaire; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 419, 1910 Azahar de 
Cartago (Nov. 23, Mar. 2), La Estrella de Cartago (Jan. 24), and Banana 
River (Oct. 10), Costa Rica; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 



108 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 94, 1910 Joazeiro (Mar. 20) and Lagoa Boca da 
Catinga de Cima, Rio Preto (Apr. 26), Bahia, Brazil; Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 219, 1910 (range in Argentina); Grant, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 469 Argentina (Los Yngleses, Aj6, Buenos Aires, Sept. 
to Feb.; Esquina, Corrientes, Nov. 14), Paraguay (Santa Rosa, Aug. 14), 
and Brazil (Porto Esperanga, Matto Grosso, Sept. 25); Bertoni, Faun. 
Parag., p. 39, 1914 Alto Parana; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 89, 
1914 Maraj6 (Livramento, Sao Natal) and Mexiana, Brazil; Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 371, 1916 Altagracia, Venezuela 
(Dec. to Feb.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 223, 1917 
Quibdo (Sept. 1), Barbacoas (Aug. 18), and La Manuelita (Apr. 12), 
Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1918, p. 245 Gatun (May 
21) and Mindi (Oct. 7), Panama; Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 265 Eten (Sept. 
21) and Trujillo (Mar., Sept.), Peru; Gibson, I.e., 1920, p. 69 Cape San 
Antonio, Buenos Aires; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 
p. 24, 1922 La Carolina (Oct., Dec., May) and Tumbaco (Sept. 10), 
Ecuador; Street, Auk, 40, p. 577, 1923 Alberta (nesting habits); Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 196, 1926 coast of Manavi (Feb. 13), 
Chone (Dec. 21), Puna Island (April), and Santa Rosa (Sept. 10), Ecuador; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 149, 1926 Paraguayan Chaco, 
Chaco (Las Palmas), Buenos Aires, Mendoza, Tucuman and Rio Negro; 
Bent, I.e., 142, p. 336, 1927 (life hist.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico 
and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 366, 1927 Puerto Rico, Vieques, St. Thomas, 
St. Croix, and Anegada (winter); idem, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 
26, p. 12, 1927 Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina (wintering dates); 
Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 168, 1927 Saladero M. Cabal, 
Santa Fe" (Jan. 20); Jaffuel and Pirion, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, p. 113, 
1927 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso, Chile; Bullock, I.e., 33, p. 203, 1929 
Angol, Malleco, Chile; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 79, 
1930 Matto Grosso; Bradlee, Mowbray, and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 39, p. 320, 1931 Bermuda Islands; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 161, 1931 Hispaniola (winter); Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 396, 1932 Conception, Chile (Apr. 7, 
14); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 134, 1932 Guatemala 
(winter); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 55, 1938 Vegas de 
Chacalluta, Tacna, Chile (March); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 28, 
1943 Mackenzie Delta (breeding); Sperry and Cottam, Wilson Bull., 
56, p. 45, 1944 (eating fish); Gabrielson, Auk, 61, p. 124, 1944 Yakutat, 
Alaska (breeding). 

Totanus stagnatilis (not of Bechstein) Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fls. Pol. Chile, 
Zool., 1, p. 122, 1847 Chile (in part); Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, 
p. 163, 1860 Chanaral de las Animas, Atacama, Chile. 

Gambetta flavipes Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 195 Car- 
thagena, Colombia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 290, 1860 
Babahoyo, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1867, pp. 332, 339 Chile; idem and 
Salvin, I.e., p. 592 Mexiana, Brazil; iidem, I.e., 1868, p. 144 Conchitas, 
Buenos Aires; iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 310 Chamicuros, Peru; Allen, Bull. 
Essex Inst., 8, p. 83, 1876 Maraj6, Brazil (Aug. 10-20); idem, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 357, 1876 Moho, Lake Titicaca; Durnford, 
Ibis, 1876, p. 165 Buenos Aires (Oct.); idem, I.e., 1877, pp. 43, 199 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 109 

Chubut Valley and provinces of Buenos Aires; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 
49, p. 68, 1877 Cauquenes, Colchagua, Chile; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, 
p. 404 Rio Sengel, Chubut; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 547 Medellin, Colombia; Sclater, I.e., 1886, p. 404 Sacaya, 
Tarapaca, Chile; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1902, p. 232 marshes near Quito, 
Ecuador. 

Totanus stagnalis (sic) (T. flavipes?) Waugh and Lataste, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 
4, p. Ixxxviii, 1894 Penaflor, Santiago, Chile. 

Tringa flavipes Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 43, 1918 
Tijgerbank, Surinam (Sept.); Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 323 Port Stanley, 
Falkland Islands (May 5, 1924); Rowan, Brit. Bds., 23, p. 2, pis., 1929 
Alberta (life hist.; nesting); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 266, 1934 (range); 
Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 290 Trinidad and Tobago (winter); 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 1935 Panama (Agua Dulce, 
Canal Zone); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 133, 1938 Bahfa (Corupe"ba), 
Sao Paulo (Sao Sebastiao, Itapura, Ypiranga), Rio Grande do Sul (Porto 
Alegre), and Matto Grosso (Porto Faia); Dickey and van Rossem, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 174, 1938 Lake Olomega (Aug. 19, 
Sept. 4), Puerto del Triunfo (Jan. 14), and Barra de Santiago (Apr. 5), 
El Salvador; Morrison, Ibis, 1939, p. 647 Lake Junin, Peru (wintering); 
Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Hand!., (3), 22, p. 43, 1945 
Joao Pessoa and Santo Antonio, Rio Jurua; idem, I.e., 23, p. 72, 1945 
Bolivia, El Beni (Cachtiela Esperanza; Puerto Salinas). 

Neoglottis flavipes Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 337, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 Uruguay 
(Montevideo, San Jose, Colonia, Canelones, Maldonado); Dabbene, l.c., 
p. 110, 1920 (winter range in Argentina and neighboring countries); 
Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 42, 1922 
Altagracia and Rio Cogollo, Zulia, Venezuela; Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 182, 1922 Bonda, Cienaga, Gaira, Mamatoco, 
and Punto Caiman, Colombia (transient); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
65, p. 296, 1923 Huanuluan, Rio Negro (Sept.); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. 
Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 55, 1930 San Jose, Santa Cruz, 
Bolivia (Sept. 9). 

Range. Breeds from Kotzebue Sound, northern Mackenzie, 
northern Manitoba, and Ungava to northern British Columbia, cen- 
tral Alberta, and southern Manitoba (formerly to Illinois and New 
York) ; migrates chiefly east of the Rocky Mountains over the West 
Indies, Mexico, and Central America, and winters south to Chile 
and Argentina (casually as far south as the Straits of Magellan); 
accidental on the Falkland Islands (Port Stanley, May 5, 1924) 
and in Greenland (Nanortalik). 

Field Museum Collection. 187: Yukon Territory (Yukon River, 
4); British Columbia (Okanagan, 4); Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 
3) ; Manitoba (Churchill, 2) ; Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 3) ; Massa- 
chusetts (Monomoy Island, 14; West Yarmouth, 1; Newburyport, 1) ; 



110 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

New Hampshire (Seabrook, 1); Connecticut (New Haven County, 3; 
West Haven, 3; North Haven, 4; Guilford, 6; Grove Beach, Middle- 
sex County, 1); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 10; 
Pea Island, 2); Georgia (Roswell, Fulton County, 1); Florida (un- 
specified, 1; Bassenger, Okeechobee County, 2; Amelie Island, 
Nassau County, 2; Wilson, Brevard County, 1); North Dakota 
(Towner County, 26; Stump Lake, Nelson County, 15; Devil's 
Lake, Ramsey County, 2; Cando, Towner County, 4; Mauvais 
Bay, Benson County, 2); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 4); Illinois 
(Worth, Cook County, 3; Hyde Park, Chicago, Cook County, 2; 
Blue Island, Cook County, 1; Waukegan, 1; Libertyville, 1); Indiana 
(Liverpool, Lake County, 2); Arkansas (Winslow, 1; Fort Smith, 1); 
Colorado (Fort Lyon, Bent County, 1; Troublesome, Grand County, 
1; unspecified, 1); Texas (Port O'Connor, 2; Seadrift, 1); California 
(Carmel River mouth, Monterey County, 2; Carmel Lagoon, 1); 
Bahama Islands (Great Inagua, 2) ; Hispaniola (Port de Paix, Haiti, 
1); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 2); Jamaica (Grand Cayman, 1); 
Lesser Antilles (Bonaire, 1; St. Christopher, 1; Anegada, 1; Dominica, 
1; Aruba, 1); El Salvador (Laguna Olomega, San Miguel, 1); Hon- 
duras (Utila Island, 1); Costa Rica (Piedra de Blanca, Guanacaste, 2; 
Bebedero, 1); Venezuela (Catatumbo, Zulia, 2); Brazil (Vaccaria, 
Matto Grosso, 1); Ecuador (Ibarra, Imbabura, 6); Peru (Lagunas, 
Loreto, 1); Bolivia (Guaqui, La Paz, 6; Desaguadero, La Paz, 1; 
Vacas, Cochabamba, 5; Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1); Argentina (Rio 
Paranay, Misiones, 2; Isla Ella, Delta del Parana, 1; San Cristobal, 
Santa FC", 1); Chile (Hacienda Gualpencillo, Concepcion, 2). 

Conover Collection. 42: Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 1; 
Cooking Lake, 1; Fawcett, 4); Manitoba (Churchill, 1); Minnesota 
(Grand Marais, Cook County, 1) ; Illinois (Mud Lake, Cook County, 
1; Hyde Lake, Cook County, 1; Wheaton, 4; Henry, 1); Costa Rica 
(Punta Piedra, Guanacaste, 5); Panama (Perme, Darien, 2); Co- 
lombia (Popayan, Cauca, 2; Cumbal, Narino, 1); Brazil (Obidos, 
Para, 4); Ecuador, Province de los Rios (Isla Silva Sur, 2; Rio San 
Antonio, 1); Bolivia (Guaqui, La Paz, 3; Desaguadero, La Paz, 1); 
Paraguay (Villa Rica, 1; 30 km. west of Puerto Casado, 1; Orloff, 
Chaco, 2); Argentina (La Plata, Buenos Aires, 2). 

*Tringa melanoleuca (Gmelin). GREATER YELLOW-LEGS. 

Scolopax melanoleuca Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 659, 1789 based on 
"Stone Snipe" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 468, 1785, Chateau Bay, La- 
brador. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 111 

Scolopax vociferus Wilson, Amer. Orn., 7, p. 57, pi. 58, fig. 5, 1813 Atlantic 
coast of the United States (type evidently lost). 

Totanus natator Vieillot, 1 Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 6, p. 409, 1816 
based on "Chorlito pardo picado de bianco" Azara, No. 308, Paraguay. 

Totanus sasashew Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 6, p. 412, 1816 
based on Scolopax totanus (not of Linnaeus) Forster, Phil. Trans., 62, 
p. 410, 1772, Fort Albany, Keewatin. 

Totanus maculatus (not of Bechstein, 1803) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
4, (2), p. 727, 1833 Barra Velha, near Villa Vicoza, Bahia, Brazil (type 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 271, 1889). 

Totanus melanoleucus Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 130, 1841 Mal- 
donado, Uruguay; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
"1848," p. 757, 1849 coast region; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 
3, p. 368, 1856 Brazil; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 261, 1860 Mendoza, 
Parana, and Tucuman; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 503, 1861 same 
localities; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 63, 1864 
United States, Cuba, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Surinam, and Chile 
(crit.); Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 131, 1865 Chile; 
Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 454, 1866 Trinidad; Philippi, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 275, 1867 Chile; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 308, 1870 Matto 
Grosso (Caicara, Oct., Nov.; Villa Bella, Oct.) and Para (Praia de Caju- 
tuba, Feb. 23), Brazil; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 560 
Chorillos (Lima) and Junin, Peru; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 257, 
1874 Blumenau, Santa Catharina; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. 
Cordoba, 5, p. 87, 1884 mouth of Collon-gueyu, Buenos Aires (Feb. 19); 
Berlepsch, Ibis, 1884, p. 441 Angostura, Orinoco, Venezuela; Barrows, 
Auk, 1, p. 315, 1884 Entre Rios (Conception del Uruguay, Aug. to Nov.) 
and Buenos Aires (Azul, Jan.; Bahia Blanca, Feb. 8; Puan, Mar. 28; 
Carhue 1 , April); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 365, 1886 (Peruvian locali- 
ties); Cory, Auk, 4, p. 317, 1887 (West Indian localities and references); 
Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 363, 1887 (crit.); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 238, 1889 (descr.); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 109, 1889 
falls of the Madeira, Bolivia (Oct.); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, 
p. 186, 1889 Argentina; Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425 Est. Espartillar, 
Buenos Aires; Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 129, 1891 Bahia 
Orange, Tierra del Fuego (Mar. 7, Oct. 22, Nov. 18); Kerr, Ibis, 1892, 
p. 151 Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo (Sept. 13); Holland, I.e., 1892, 
p. 212 Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Hartert, I.e., 1893, p. 334 
Bonaire; Aplin, I.e., 1894, p. 209 Santa Elena, Uruguay (Mar., Apr., 
Oct.); Waugh and Lataste, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 5, p. Ix, 1895 Penaflor, 
Santiago, Chile; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Chile (winter); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 426, 759, 1896 (monog.); Lane, 
Ibis, 1897, p. 311 Rio Pilmaiquen, Valdivia, Chile (Feb.); Ihering, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 3, p. 433, 1899 Iguape", Sao Paulo; Salvadori and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 44, 1900 Lagoon of Kingora 

1 Totanus natator Vieillot has sometimes been synonymized with T. flavipes, 
but Azara's measurements are too large for this species, and seem to fit much 
better the Greater Yellow-legs. 



112 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Nov.) and Cafiar (Oct.), Ecuador; Salvador!, I.e., No. 378, p. 15, 1900 
Carandasinho, Matto Grosso; Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 236 Paraguayan Chaco 
(Nov. 21); Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 213, 1902 Rio Sail, 
Tucuman; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9', p. 130, 1902 Altagracia, 
Orinoco, Venezuela (Nov.); Hartert, I.e., p. 307, 1902 Bonaire; Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), p. 52 Ingapirca, Junin, 
Peru (May); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 373, 
1903 Mexico to Panama; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 253, 
1905 Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Grenadines (transient); 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 132, 1906 Puno, Peru (Dec.); 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 51, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape, Sao Sebas- 
tiao, Itapura) and Matto Grosso (Porto da Faya); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 

15, p. 306, 1908 Cayenne (Oct. 19); Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 252, 
1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (June 5), and Laguna de Malvinas, 
Tucuman (Mar. 31); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 197, 
209, 1909 Aruba and Bonaire; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 219, 1910 (range in Argentina); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 419, 1910 Costa Rica (rare winter visitor); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 
469 Los Yngleses (Mar. 8-17) and Luiconia (Apr. 29), Buenos Aires; 
Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 39, 1914 Djaguarasapa, Paraguay; Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 89, 1914 Marajo (Pacoval) and Amapa, Para, 
Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 371, 1916 Altagracia, 
Orinoco, Venezuela (Nov.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 223, 1917 Cali, Colombia (Dec. 25); Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 148, 
1918 Guanacache, Mendoza (Mar., 1918); Stuart, Auk, 37, p. 292, 
1920 Grand Lake, Newfoundland (nesting); Gibson, Ibis, 1920, p. 68 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 
14, No. 25, p. 24, 1922 La Carolina, Ecuador (Oct.); Conover, Auk, 
43, p. 311, 1926 Igiak Bay (June 18, July 10), Point Dall (July 3, 
Aug. 8), Alaska; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 196, 1926 
Ecuador; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 150, 1926 Paraguay 
(west of Puerto Pinasco, Sept.), Buenos Aires (Dolores, Lavalle, Carhu, 
Oct. to Dec.), Uruguay (San Vicente, Jan., Feb.), Mendoza (Tunuyan, 
Mar.), Tucuman (Apr. 5), and Chile (Concon, April); idem, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 24, p. 427, 1926 Valcheta Creek, Rio Negro (May 21); 
idem, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 368, 1927 Puerto 
Rico (winter); idem, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 26, p. 11, 1927 
Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina (wintering); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
142, p. 321, 1927 (life hist.); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 203, 
1929 Angol, Malleco, Chile; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, 
p. 79, 1930 Matto Grosso; Bradlee, Mowbray, and Eaton, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 39, p. 319, 1931 Bermuda Islands (transient); Wetmore and 
Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 162, 1931 Hispaniola (winter); 
Farley, Auk, 48, p. 261, 1931 Alberta (nesting account); Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 395, 1932 Rio Inio, Chiloe" Island 
(range in Chile); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 133, 1932 
Champerico and Ocos, Guatemala; Ticehurst, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 53, 
p. 206, 1933 (downy young descr.); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 

16, p. 54, 1938 Laguna de Chacalluta, Tacna, Chile (July 27); Gabrielson, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 113 

Auk, 61, p. 124, 1944 Yakutat, Alaska (nesting); Sperry and Cottam, 
Wilson Bull., 56, p. 45, 1944 (eating fish). 

Totanus stagnatilis (not of Bechstein) Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. 
Chile, Zool., 1, p. 122, 1847 Chile (in part); Frauenfeld, Verh. Zool. 
Bot. Ges. Wien, 10, Abh., p. 639, 1860 Lake Aculeo, Santiago, Chile; 
(?)Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 29, p. 150, 1925 San Bernardo, San- 
tiago, Chile. 
Glottis melanoleuca Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 163, 1855 Bogota, 

Colombia; idem, I.e., 26, p. 461, 1858 Cuenca, Ecuador. 
Totanus chilensis Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 14, p. 182, 1857 Chile= coast 
of Valparaiso (type in National Museum, Santiago de Chile; cf. Gigoux 
and Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, p. 24, 1930); idem, Arch. Naturg., 
23, (1), p. 264, 1857 coast of province of Valparaiso; idem, Reise Wiiste 
Atacama, p. 163, 1860 Paposo, Antofagasta, Chile (descr.); idem, 
Ornis, 4, p. 160, 1888 Paposo; idem, Anal. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 15, 
p. 63, pi. 29, fig. 1, 1902 Chile (descr. and fig. of type). 
Gambetta melanoleuca Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 195 
Carthagena, Colombia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 332, 
339 Chile (crit.); idem and Salvin, I.e., 1868, p. 144 Conchitas, Buenos 
Aires; iidem, I.e., 1869, p. 156 Tinta and Tungasuca, Cuzco, Peru; 
Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 219 Chitra, Veraguas, Panama; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 383 La Cruz, Santander, Colombia; Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
3, p. 357, 1876 Moho and Conima, Lake Titicaca, Peru; Durnford, Ibis, 
1877, p. 199 province of Buenos Aires; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, 
p. 567, 1877 Cauquenes, Colchagua, Chile; Selater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 457 Cauca and Medellin, Colombia; Doering, 
in Roca, Inf. Ofic. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., 1, p. 56, 1881 lagoons of the 
Rio Negro; Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 16 Talcaguano, 
Chile (April); White, I.e., 1882, p. 628 Pacheco, Buenos Aires (Mar. 15); 
Sclater, I.e., 1886, p. 404 Sitana, Tarapaca, Chile; Withington, Ibis, 
1888, p. 472 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; Goodfellow, I.e., 1902, 
p. 232 marshes near Quito, Ecuador. 

Totanus melanoleucus frazari Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 65, 
Sept., 1902 San Jose del Cabo, Lower California (type in collection of 
W. Brewster, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 177, 1930); Miller, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 21, p. 341, 1905 Escuinapa, Sinaloa (crit.); Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, pp. 92, 240, 1928 Lower California (crit.). 
Neoglottis melanoleuca Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 330, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 Uruguay 
(Montevideo, Canelones, Maldonado) ; Dabbene, I.e., p. 109, 1920 (winter 
range in Argentina and neighboring countries); Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 183, 1922 Rio Hacha, La Goajira, Colombia 
(May 4); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 297, 1923 Huanuluan, 
Rio Negro (Oct.). 

Tringa melanoleuca Rowan, Brit. Birds, 23, p. 13, pi. 4, 1929 (habits; chicks); 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 90, 1930 (nesting); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 266, 1934 
(range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 290 Trinidad (winter); 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 1935 Panama (winter); 



114 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 134, 1938 Bahia (Corupe"ba, Ilha Madre 
Deus), Sao Paulo (Iguape", Sao Sebastiao, Rio Parana), Rio Grande do 
Sul (Itaquy), and Matto Grosso (Rio Parana); Dickey and van Rossem, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 28, p. 174, 1938 Olomega Lake, El 
Salvador (Sept. 9); Morrison, Ibis, 1939, p. 647 Lake Junin, Peru 
(wintering); Herring and Salomonsen, Medd. Grjzfnl., 131, No. 5, p. 34, 
1941 Greenland. 

Range. Breeds from Cook Inlet, Alaska, east through Mac- 
kenzie to Labrador and Newfoundland, south to southern British 
Columbia, central Alberta, southern Manitoba, Mingan Islands, 
and Anticosti Island; winters from California, the Gulf states, and 
South Carolina over the West Indies, Mexico, Central and South 
America to Tierra del Fuego. 

Field Museum Collection. 165: Alaska (Nome, 1; Tocatna Forks, 
2; Bethel, 2); British Columbia (Masset, Graham Island, 2; Oka- 
nagan, 4; Sumas, 4); Labrador (Battle Harbor, 5; Anatolak Bay, 2; 
Jack Lane's Bay, 3); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 9); Nova Scotia 
(Seal Island, 1); North Dakota (Towner County, 3; Rock Lake, 
Towner County, 1; Sweetwater Lake, Ramsey County, 1); Maine 
(Lincoln, Penobscot County, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 
21; Duxbury, 1; Chatham, 1; Ipswich, 1); Rhode Island (Narragan- 
sett, 1); Connecticut (New Haven County, 8; West Haven, 14; 
North Haven, 1; Stamford, 1); New York (North Hamlin, Monroe 
County, 2); Indiana (Bluffton, 1); Texas (Corpus Christi, 4; Tivoli, 
Refugio County, 2); New Mexico (Mimbres, Grant County, 2); 
Arizona (Phoenix, 2); California (Westport, Mendocino County, 2; 
Nigger Slough, Los Angeles County, 1; Carmel River mouth, Mon- 
terey County, 1; Moss Landing, Monterey County, 1; Red Bluff, 
Tehama County, 2); Mexico (La Paz, Lower California, 1); North 
Carolina, Dare County (Pea Island, 20; Bodie Island, 9); South 
Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 1); Florida (Nassau County, 2; Jupiter, 
Palm Beach County, 1; Amelie Island, Nassau County, 4); Bahama 
Islands (Great Inagua, 1; Andros, 2); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1); 
Lesser Antilles (Antigua, 1; Anegada, 2); Dutch West Indies 
(Bonaire, 1; Aruba, 3); Colombia (unspecified, 1); Peru (Puno, 
Puno, 1); Bolivia, Cochabamba (Vacas, 2; Yungas, El Palmar, 2). 

Conover Collection. 32: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 2); 
Alberta (Fawcett, 6) ; Wisconsin (Big Muskego Lake, 2) ; Nebraska 
(Brownlee, Cherry County, 1); Illinois (Wheaton, 5); Michigan 
(Ann Arbor, 2); California (Yermo, San Bernardino County, 4; 
Anaheim Landing, Orange County, 1); Mexico, Lower California 
(San Jose" del Cabo, 1; La Paz, 3); British Guiana (Buxton, 2); 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 115 

Bolivia (Cerro San Benito, Cochabamba, 1); Chile, Chiloe" Island 
(Quellon, 1; Rio Inio, 1). 

Tringa nebularia (Gunnerus). GREENSHANK. 

Scolopax nebularia Gunnerus, in Leem, Beskr. Finm. Lapper, p. 251, 1767 
District of Trondhjem, Norway (cf. Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
5, p. 37, 1882). 

Glottis floridanus Bonaparte, Geog. Comp. List, p. 51, 1838 based on Totanus 

glottis Audubon, Orn. Biog., 3, p. 483, pi. 269, 1835, Sand Key, near Cape 

Sable, Florida; Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 730, 1858 (crit. 

note on type in United States National Museum). 

Glottis nebularia Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 323, 1919 (monog.; 

full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 142, p. 309, 1927 (life hist.). 
Tringa nebularia Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 266, 1934 (range). 
Range. Breeds in northern Europe and Asia from Scotland to 
Kamchatka; winters in the Mediterranean countries, Africa, India, 
southern China, Japan, Philippines, and Sunda Islands east to 
Australia and New Zealand; accidental in Florida (Sand Key, near 
Cape Sable). 1 

Tringa ocrophus Linnaeus. GREEN SANDPIPER. 

Tringa ocrophus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 149, 1758 based princi- 
pally on Faun. Svec., No. 146, Sweden; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 353, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 146, p. 16, 1929 
(life hist.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 267, 1934 (range). 
Totanus ochropus Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 368, 1887 (crit.). 
Helodromas ochropus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 437, 1896 (monog.); 
Coues, Auk, 14, p. 210, 1897 (record of British Museum specimens from 
North America). 

Range. Breeds in northern Europe and Asia and winters from 
the British Isles and the Mediterranean region south to Africa, 
southern Asia and the Philippines; alleged to have occurred as an 
accidental visitor to northeastern North America (Hudson Bay; 
Halifax, Nova Scotia). 2 

1 The claim of the Greenshank to a place in the American fauna rests exclu- 
sively on Audubon's taking of three specimens on Sand Key, near Cape Sable, 
Florida. Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 63, 1864) lists under 
Totanus glottis a male (in nearly complete summer garb!) from near Buenos Aires, 
another (in change of plumage) from the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, and a third 
(in winter dress) from "Chile." In neither of these countries in fact nowhere 
in South America has the Greenshank ever been met with since, and until cor- 
roborative evidence is forthcoming, these records must be regarded as highly 
questionable. 

*Both records being highly unsatisfactory, it is very questionable whether 
the species deserves a place in the American fauna.* 



116 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Tringa solitaria solitaria Wilson. 1 SOLITARY SANDPIPER. 

Tringa solitaria Wilson, Amer. Orn., 7, p. 53, pi. 58, fig. 3, 1813 Pennsylvania 
(Pocono Mountain), Kentucky, and New York (type lost); Chubb, Ibis, 
1919, p. 265 Cochabamba, Bolivia (Apr. 19); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 
2, p. 14, 1920 San Jose", Uruguay; Dabbene, I.e., p. 114, 1920 (winter 
range in Argentina and neighboring countries); Osgood and Conover, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 42, 1922 Altagracia, Zulia 
(Feb.), and Culata Mountains, Me>ida (Mar.), Venezuela; Brooks, Condor, 
29, p. 112, 1927 part (dist. chars.); Wetmore, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. 
Agric., 26, p. 12, 1927 part, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina (wintering 
dates); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 152, 1928 Rio Guamd 
(Apr. 15) and Para (Apr. 20), Brazil; Young, Ibis, 1928, p. 770 Blair- 
mont, British Guiana (transient and winter); Swarth, Condor, 37, p. 199, 
1935 part (crit.). 

Totanus chloropygius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 6, p. 401, 
1816 Hudson Bay to Santo Domingo (no type specified); Jardine, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 375, 1847 Tobago; Le'otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 450, 
1866 Trinidad; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 560 
Chorillos (Lima), Peru; idem, I.e., 1877, p. 330 Lechugal (Tumbez), 
Peru. 

Totanus punctatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 6, p. 411, 1816 
based on "Chorlito pardo menor" Azara, No. 400, Paraguay. 

Totanus caligatus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 74 (in text), 
1823 based on Azara, No. 400, Paraguay; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 370, 1856 southern Brazil (descr.). 

Tringa macroptera Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 76, pi. 92 (not 93), 1825 
provinces of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, Brazil (co types in Munich Museum; 
cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, p. 714, 
1906). 

Totanus macropterus Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 129, 1841 Monte- 
video, Uruguay; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 163, 1855 Bogota, 
Colombia; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 38 
Minas Geraes (near Lagoa Santa, Apr. 14), Rio de Janeiro (Taipu, Oct. 
27), and Sao Paulo (Taubate", Nov. 5). 

Rhynchophilus chloropygius Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, 
p. 40, 1857 Cayenne. 

1 For the distinctive characters of this form see the footnote on page 120. 

It has been found impossible to tell, especially where South America is con- 
cerned, which race or races much of the synonymy refers to. In such cases the 
references have been listed under this, the typical race. 

Additional material examined. Alaska: Griffin Point, Arctic Ocean, 1. 
Yukon Territory: Echamamish, 1. British Columbia: Atlin, 1; Cariboo, 1. 




Abitibi, 1; Moosonee, 5; James Bay, 6. Quebec: Fort Chimo, Ungava, 1. 
Labrador: Flowers Bay, north of Hopedale, 2. 



L948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 117 

Totanus solitarius Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 461, 1858 Guala- 
quiza, Ecuador; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 73, 
1864 (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 979 
Pebas, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1868, p. 169 Venezuela; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 309, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba, Mar., Apr.; Teixeira, Nov.), 
Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Nov.; Irisanga, Jan.), Parana (Curytiba, Nov.; 
Pitangui, Dec. 9), Matto Grosso (Caicara, Mar.; Engenho do Gama, 
Aug.), and Amazonas (Barra, July); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1873, p. 309 Peru (Nauta, Chamicuros, Pebas); Layard, Ibis, 
1873, p. 396 Para, Brazil; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 258, 1874 
Blumenau, Santa Catharina; idem and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 182, 
1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul (Mar., Oct.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 
3, p. 368, 1886 (Peruvian localities); Salvin, Ibis, 1886, p. 180 Roraima, 
British Guiana; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 364, 1887 (crit.); 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 37, 1887 Rio Pilcomayo, Chaco (Dec. 14); 
idem, I.e., 37, p. 321, 1889 Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, Peru (Dec. 8); Cory, 
Bds. W. Ind., p. 239, 1889 (West Indian references and localities); Salvin, 
Ibis, 1889, p. 379 Ruatan Island, Honduras; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 5, p. 150, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso (Sept. to April); Rich- 
mond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 526, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua, 
and Rio Frio, Costa Rica; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 22, 1895 Malca, 
Cajabamba, Peru (Apr.); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, 
p. 24, 1895 Colonia Risso, Paraguay; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 35, 
1897 Aguairenda (Nov.) and Caiza (Feb., Mar.), Tarija, Bolivia; Winge, 
Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 161, 1898 Greenland (Godthaab, Aug. 1, 1878); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 126, 1900 Cienaga and Santa 
Marta, Colombia; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
76, p. 94, 1910 near Joazeiro (Mar. 5) and Cantinho, Rio Preto (Apr. 24), 
Bahia, Brazil; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 24, 1922 
La Carolina (Jan. to Mar.) and Chilco, San Pedro River (Apr. 15), Ecuador. 

Rhyacophilus solitarius Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 
199 Nauta, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1867, p. 592 Mexiana Island, Brazil; 
iidem, I.e., 1869, p. 598 Cosnipata, Cuzco, Peru; Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 
219 Castillo, Veraguas, and Volcan de Chiriquf, Panama; Gundlach, 
Journ. Orn., 23, p. 324, 1875 Cuba (Sept. to April); Durnford, Ibis, 
1878, p. 68 Buenos Aires (Oct. to March); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 547 Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia; Salvin 
and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 178 Santa Marta (Dec. 16); Barrows, Auk, 
1, p. 315, 1884 Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rios (Aug. 20 to Oct.), 
and Azul, Buenos Aires (Jan. 25); Holland, Ibis, 1891, pp. 16, 20 Est. 
Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Kerr, I.e., 1892, p. 151 Fortin Page, lower 
Pilcomayo (Sept. 13); Holland, I.e., 1892, p. 212 Est. Espartillar, Buenos 
Aires (March to June); Aplin, I.e., 1894, p. 209 Uruguay (Nov. to April); 
Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 469 Paraguay (Monte Alto, Aug. 25) and Matto 
Grosso (Porto Esperanca, Sept. 25; Riacho Paraguay Mirim, Oct. 2-3). 

Helodromas solitarius Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 444, 760, 1896 
part, except specimens a-c (monog.); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 434, 
1899 Sao Paulo; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, 
No. 368, p. 44, 1900 Gualaquiza (Apr.) and Altiplano de Tarqul, Cuenca 
(Sept.), Ecuador; Salvadori, I.e., No. 378, p. 15, 1900 Urucum, Matto 



118 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Grosso; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1902, p. 232 marshes near Quito, Ecuador; 
Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 213, 1902 Rio Sali and Rio 
Calera, Tucuman; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 129, 1902 
Ciudad Bolivar (Aug. 10), Altagracia (Dec., Jan.), and Caicara (Oct.), 
Orinoco, Venezuela; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1902, (2), p. 52 La Merced, Junin, Peru (May 21); Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 375, 1903 Mexico to Panama; Bruch, 
Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 250, 1904 Oran, Salta (May 25); Baer, Ornis, 
12, p. 231, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
32, p. 253, 1905 Barbados, St. Vincent, and Grenadines (July to Dec.) ; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, pp. 102, 125, 1906 Santa Ana 
(Sept.) and Huaynapata, Cuzco, Peru; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 52, 1907 Sao Paulo (Rio Mogy-guassu, Franca, Itapura) and Parana 
(Ourinho); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 307, 1908 Cayenne (Oct. 20); 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 517, 1908 Goyana, Rio Tapajoz, Brazil 
(Dec. 23); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 204, 1909 
Curagao Island (March 25); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 67 Sapucay, Paraguay 
(Aug. 26); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 425, 1910 Jamarysinho (Sept. 
25) and Sao Isabel (Oct. 5), Rio Machados, Brazil; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 219, 1910 (range in Argentina); Chrostowski, 
Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. Varsovie, 5, pp. 462, 492, 1912 Santa Cruz, 
Parana, Brazil; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 38, 1914 upper Rio Parand, 
Paraguay; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 89, 1914 Capanema, 
Braganca, Rio Guama (Ourem), Maraj6 (Pindobal, Pacoval, Sao Natal), 
and Rio Tapaj6z (Goyana), Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 371, 1916 Las Barrancas, Agua Salada de Ciudad Bolivar, 
Ciudad Bolivar, Altagracia, and Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela. 

Helodromas solitarius solitarius Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 39, p. 196., 
1905 Isle of Pines, Cuba (May); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, 
p. 251, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (Jan. 1, Mar. 23, Oct. 4); 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 419, 1910 Costa Rica (Tenorio, 
Jan. 29; San Jose", Sept. 15; Bolson, Dec. 10; El Hogar, Dec. 12); Todd, 
I.e., 7, p. 413, 1911 Great Inagua, Bahama Islands; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 223, 1917 Quibdo (Nov. 14), Novita (Dec. 21), 
Buena Vista, Narino (Sept. 28), San Antonio (Jan. 20), Cali (Dec. 25), 
La Manuelita (Apr. 11), San Agustin (Apr. 9), Puerto Berrio (Jan. 30), 
and Barro Blanco (Nov. 29), Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1918, p. 245 Gatun (Sept. 10) and near Mount Hope (Apr. 13), 
Panama. 

Tringa solitaria solitaria Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 43, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 358, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 182, 1922 Bonda, Cienaga, Mamatoco, and 
Fundaci6n, Colombia (winter); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 196, 1926 below Oyacachi (Feb. 4, Sept. 30), Ecuador (crit.); Wetmore, 
Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 364, 1927 Puerto Rico 
and St. Croix (winter); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 93, 1928 
Lower California (transient); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 1, 1929 
(life hist.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 80, 1930 Tapi- 
rapoan, Matto Grosso; Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 119 

Vogel, p. 53, 1930 Formosa (Lapango, Sept. 18; Yunca Viejo, Feb. 4) 
and Bolivia (San Jose", Santa Cruz, Sept. 8) (crit.); Bradlee and Eaton, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 320, 1931 Bermuda Islands (transient); 
Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 159, 1931 Hispaniola 
(winter); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 134, 1932 Finca 
Sepacuite, Guatemala (Dec. 16); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, 
p. 304, 1932 Honduras; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 267, 1934 (range); 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 1935 Panama (winter); 
Van Tyne, Misc. Pub., Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 27, p. 14, 1935 Uaxactun 
(Apr. 20, May 5) and La Libertad (Sept. 28), Pete'n, Guatemala; Carriker 
and de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87, p. 415, 1935 
Gualan, Guatemala (Feb. 18); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 290 
Trinidad and Tobago (winter); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 134, 1938 
Amazonas (Manacapuru, Aug.), Bahfa (Ilha de Madre Deus, Feb.), Sao 
Paulo (Rio Mogy-guassu, Sept.; Olympia, Feb.; Ypiranga, Nov.; Itatiba, 
Mar.; Sylvania, Dec.), Matto Grosso (Miranda, Sept.), Parana (Jacar6- 
zinho, Mar.), and Goyaz (Rio das Almas, Oct.; Inhumas, Nov.); Dickey 
and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 173, 1938 
El Salvador (San Sebastian, July 27; Lake Olomega, Aug. 8; Rio San 
Miguel, Feb. 5); Taverner, Condor, 42, p. 215, 1940 part (distr.; dist. 
chars.); Conover, Auk, 61, p. 538, 1944 (dist. chars.; range; plumages); 
Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., (3), 22, p. 43, 1945 
Joao Pessoa, Rio Jurua, Brazil; idem, I.e., 23, p. 72, 1945 Victoria, El 
Beni, Bolivia (Oct.). 

Tringa solitarius Street, Auk, 40, p. 577, 1923 Alberta (nesting habits); 
Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 30, p. 70, 1926 (crit.). 

Range. Breeds from northern British Columbia, northern Al- 
berta (Wood Buffalo National Park), central Saskatchewan, central 
Manitoba (Ilford), northern Ontario (Moosonee) and Labrador 
(Flower's Bay near Hopedale) south probably to about 50 N. lat. 
Migrates through the United States (mostly east of the Rocky 
Mountains), the West Indies and Central America to southern South 
America (Bolivia, Paraguay, and northern Argentina); accidental 
in Greenland (Godthaab, Aug. 1, 1878). 

Field Museum Collection. 122: British Columbia (Okanagan, 12); 
Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 5); North Dakota (Nelson County, 8; 
Towner County, 4); Iowa (Burlington, 1); Missouri (Koshkonong, 
1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 6; Fox Lake, 1); Illinois (Libertyville, 
1; Diamond Lake, 1; Worth, 2; Chicago, 2; Joliet, 3; Grand Chain, 
1); Ohio (Circleville, 1); Labrador (Bowdoin Harbor, 1); Quebec 
(Magdalen Islands, 1); Maine (Lincoln, 2); Massachusetts (Mono- 
moy Island, 1); New Hampshire (Ossipee, 1); Connecticut (East 
Hartford, 4; New Haven County, 15; Grove Beach, 1); New York 
(Suffolk County, 3; Kings County, 1); Pennsylvania (Tioga, 1); 
North Carolina (Bodie Island, Dare County, 2); South Carolina 



120 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Mount Pleasant, 1); Georgia (Chatham County, 1); Florida 
(Brevard County, 1); Dominican Republic (San Luis, 2); Jamaica 
(Surrey, 1); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1); Lesser Antilles (Guade- 
loupe Island, 1; Dominica, 3); Dutch West Indies (Curacao, 1); 
Mexico (Yucatan, 1); Costa Rica (Guanacaste, 2; Limon, 1); 
Panama (Chiriqui, 2); Venezuela (Maracaibo, 1; Catatumbo, 5; 
Encontrados, Zulia, 1; Culata, Merida, 2; Maracay, Aragua, 1); 
Ecuador (Banos, 1); Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 1); Brazil (Boa 
Vista, Amazonas, 2; Quemadas, Bahia, 1; Sao Paulo, 1; Urucum de 
Corumba, Matto Grosso, 1; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 1; Vaccaria, 
Matto Grosso, 1); Bolivia (Arque, Cochabamba, 1; El Palmar, 
Cochabamba, 1; Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1). 

Conover Collection. 18: Illinois (Libertyville, 1; Wheaton, 1; 
Clark County, 1; Warrenville, 1); Massachusetts (East Orleans, 1); 
New York (Suffolk County, 2); South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 1); 
Panama (Perme, Darien, 1); Colombia, Cauca (Popayan, 1; Coco- 
nuco, 1; El Tambo, 1); Brazil (Boim, Rio Tapajoz, 1; Cavalcante, 
Goyaz, 1; Sao Paulo, 1); Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1); 
Paraguay (Villa Rica, 1; Orloff, Chaco, 1). 

*Tringa solitaria cinnamomea (Brewster). 1 NORTHERN SOLITARY 
SANDPIPER. 

Totanus solitarius dnnamomeus Brewster, Auk, 7, p. 377, October, 1890 
San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower California (type in collection of W. Brewster, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 177, 1930). 

Helodromas solitarius Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 444, 1896 part, 
specimens a-c; (?)Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 188, 1899 
Chatham Island, Galapagos (Oct. 12). 

Helodromas dnnamomeus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 760, 1896 
(descr.). 

1 Tringa solitaria cinnamomea (Brewster) in fresh unfaded adult plumage 
differs from the nominate race by having the ground color of the upper parts 
lighter, more grayish, as against a more dusky olive; by usually having the loral 
region covered with fine dusky specklings instead of being crossed by a well- 
defined dusky streak; and by larger size. Wings of males 128-139, of females 
137-148, as against 123-132.5 and 127-140 mm., respectively, in T. s. solitaria. 
This form generally (about 85 per cent) has the inner webs of the outermost 
primaries mottled with white but this character is found also in about 10 per cent 
of the specimens of the typical race. 

In immature plumage cinnamomea has the ground color of the upper parts 
more of an Olive Brown rather than a dark Hair Brown, but the most distinctive 
feature is the coloration of the spotting of the dorsal surface, which is buffy in 
this form and grayish white in T. s. solitaria. 

Additional material examined. Alaska: Circle, 7; north fork Kuskoquim River, 
1; Chitna River Glacier, 3; Nulato, 2; Bethel, 1; Yakutat, 1; Charlie Creek, Yukon 
River, 5. Northwest Territory: Finnic River, 1; Mackenzie Delta, 4; Fort 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 121 

Helodromas solitarius cinnamomeus Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, 
p. 67, 1902 San Jose del Cabo (Aug. 25 to Sept. 2). 

Tringa solitaria cinnamomea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 363, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 197, 1926 Guayaquil (Mar. 26), Loja (Oct. 14), Alamor (Aug. 30), 
Cebollal (Sept. 23), and Carolina Marshes, Quito (Aug. 10), Ecuador; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 148, 1926 Paraguay (west of 
Puerto Pinasco), Uruguay, and Argentina (Formosa, Aug. 23; Entre 
Rios; Buenos Aires; and General Rocha, Rio Negro); Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 93, 1928 Lower California (transient); Bent, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 13, 1929 (life hist.); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. 
Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 55, 1930 Formosa (Lapango, Sept. 
16) and Bolivia (San Jose", Santa Cruz, Sept. 8, 9); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 267, 1934 (range); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 135, 1938 Sao 
Paulo (Crystaes, March; Itapura, Sept.); Dickey and van Rossem, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 173, 1938 Lake Olomega (Sept. 5, 
April 8) and San Salvador (April 25), El Salvador; Taverner, Condor, 
42, p. 215, 1940 (dist. chars.; nesting range); Conover, Auk, p. 541, 1944 
(dist. chars.; plumages; range); Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. 
Handl., (3), 22, p. 43, 1945 Santo Antonio, Rio Jurua, Brazil. 

Tringa solitaria (not of Wilson) Brooks, Condor, 29, p. 112, 1927 part 
(dist. chars.); Taverner and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 23, p. 38, 1934 
Churchill, Manitoba (probably breeding; cinnamomea a valid but 
northern rather than western race); Swarth, Condor, 37, p. 199, 1935 
part, Atlin, British Columbia (crit.; cinnamomea not valid race). 

Range. Breeds in Alaska and Canada from the limit of trees 
south to about 60 N. lat. and from Bering Sea to the west coast 
of Hudson Bay (Churchill). Migrates through the United States, 
mostly west of the Mississippi, and Central America to Bolivia, 
Paraguay and south-central Argentina (Rio Negro). Rare on the 
Pacific coast of North America north of southern California and 
probably also in eastern South America. (?) Casual on the Galapagos 
Islands (Chatham Island). 

Field Museum Collection. 48: Alaska (Tocatna Forks, 3; Bethel, 
4) ; Yukon Territory (Yukon River, 1) ; British Columbia (Okanagan, 
8; Rollings Lake, 3); Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 5); North Dakota 
(Towner County, 3) ; Wisconsin (Meridean, 1) ; Illinois' (Grand Chain, 
1); Massachusetts (Somerville, 1); California (Los Angeles County, 
1); Arizona (Tucson, 2); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 2; Troublesome, 1); 
Texas (Cameron County, 1); El Salvador (San Salvador, 1); Costa 
Rica (Volcan Turrialba, 1; Miravalles, 1; Limon, 1); Ecuador 

Simpson, 1; Fort Providence, 1. Yukon Territory: Whitehorse, 2; 60 mile Creek, 
1. British Columbia: Atlin, 14; Shuswap, 3; Cariboo, 1; Okanagan, 1. Alberta: 
Lac la Nonne, 6; Henry House, 1 ; Edmonton, 1. Manitoba: Churchill, 6; Gypsum- 
ville, 1. 



122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Paramba, 1; Banos, 2); Peru (Yurimaguas, Loreto, 1); Bolivia 
(Cercado, Santa Cruz, 3). 

Conover Collection. 11: California (Yermo, 1); Peru (Pucallpa, 
Rio Ucayali, 1); Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1); Paraguay 
(265 km. west of Puerto Casado, 1; Orloff, Chaco, 4; Horqueta, 2); 
Argentina (Rio Sali, Tucuman, 1). 

Tringa glareola Linnaeus. WOOD SANDPIPER. 

Tringa glareola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 149, 1758 based on 
Faun. Svec., No. 152, Sweden; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 267, 1934 (range). 

Totanus glareola Littlejohn, Condor, 6, p. 138, 1904 Sanak Island, Alaska 
(May 27, 1894). 

Rhyacophilus glareola Hanna, Auk, 33, p. 401, 1916 St. George Island, 
Pribilof group, Alaska (May 19, 1914); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 347, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Preble and McAtee, N. 
Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 75, 1923 St. George, Pribilof Islands; Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 22, 1929 (life hist.). 

Range. Breeds in northern Europe and Asia from Norway, 
Belgium, and northern Germany to Kamchatka and the Kurile 
Islands; winters in Africa, India, southeastern Asia, and Australia; 
accidental in Alaska (Sanak Island, Aleutian chain, May 27, 1894; 
St. George Island, Pribilof group (May 19, 1914). 



Genus ACTITIS Illiger 

Actitis Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., p. 262, 1811 type, by subs, desig. 

(Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 131, 1885), 1 Tringa hypoleucos 

Linnaeus. 
Tringoides Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 2, No. 2, p. 326, Feb. 5, 

1828 type, by subs, desig. (Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 53, p. 

627, 1917), Tringa macularia "Wilson" (=Linnaeus). 
Guinetta G. R. Gray, List Gen. Birds, p. 68, 1840 type, by orig. desig., 

Tringa hypoleucos Linnaeus. 
Trgngodes Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein. Orn., p. 327, 

1890 emendation of Tringoides Bonaparte. 

*Actitis macularia (Linnaeus). 2 SPOTTED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa macularia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 249, 1766 based on 
"Spotted Sandpiper" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 139, pi. 277, 

*We are not certain that Stejneger's designation is a valid one, as it was 
determined by elimination. 

2 Actitis macularia (Linnaeus) is probably conspecific with A. hypoleucos of 
the Palaearctic region, the juvenile and winter plumages of the two birds being 
strikingly similar. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 123 

lower figure; near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Herring and Salomonsen, 
Medd. Gr0nl., 131, No. 5, p. 34, 1941 Greenland (Godthaab, Sept. 27; 
Nanortalik, April 18). 

Totanus macularius Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 375, 1847 Tobago; 
Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 372, 1887 (crit.); Hartert, Ibis, 1893, 
p. 325 Curasao; Butterfield, Auk, 21, p. 485, 1904 Kent, England; 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 54, 1906 Trinidad (Jan. to April). 

Tringoides macularius(a) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 461, 1858 
Gualaquiza, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 298, 1860 Esmeraldas, Ecuador; 
Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 592 Mexiana Island, Brazil; iidem, 
I.e., 1868, p. 629 Tucacas, Falcon, Venezuela; iidem, I.e., 1870, p. 783 
south of Me>ida, Venezuela; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 309, 1870 Rio 
de Janeiro (Sapitiba, March), Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Nov.), Parana 
(Paranagua, Dec.), Matto Grosso (Engenho do Gama, Sept.), Amazonas 
(Marabitanas, Rio Negro, May), and Para (Praia de Cajutuba, Apr. 12), 
Brazil; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 Ocana, Colombia; Allen, Bull. Essex 
Inst., 8, p. 83, 1876 Santarem, Brazil (Apr. 12); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 547 Retiro, Colombia; Taczanowski, 
I.e., 1882, p. 49 Huambo, Peru (March); Salvin, Ibis, 1886, p. 180 
Bartica Grove and Camacusa, British Guiana; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 24, pp. 468, 762, 1896 (monog.); Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
12, No. 292, p. 36, 1897 San Francisco, Tarija, Bolivia (Dec.); Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 5, p. 503, 1898 Cachabf, Ecuador (Nov. to Jan.); Salvadori 
and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 44, 1900 Ecuador 
(Rio Santiago; Ibarra, Cuenca, Oct.; Rio Peripa, Nov.; Santa Elena, 
Jan.); Dalmas, Me"m. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 144, 1900 Tobago; Ber- 
lepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 130, 1902 Venezuela (Ciudad 
Bolfvar, Dec.; Altagracia, Nov., Dec.; Caicara, Mar., Oct.; Orinoco River; 
and Suapure, Caura, Sept. 14); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), p. 52 La Merced, Junin, Peru (Aug., Sept., Mar.); 
Goodfellow, Ibis, 1902, p. 232 Santo Domingo and San Nicolas, Ecuador 
(Oct.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 378, 1903 
Mexican and Central American localities and references; Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, pp. 102, 126,' 1906 Santa Ana (Dec. 4) and Huay- 
napata (Oct. 15), Peru; Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 553 Margarita Island, Vene- 
zuela (Jan. 6); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 52, 1907 Iguape", Sao 
Paulo; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 307, 1908 Cayenne, French Guiana; 
Me"ne"gaux, Miss. Serv. Geog. Arm^e Mes. Arc Equat., 9, p. B. 9, 1911 
Tumbaco, Ecuador; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 90, 1914 Para, 
Marajo (Pacoval, Soure), Mexiana, Cunany, and Guimaraes (Maranhao), 
Brazil. 

Actitis macularius(a) Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 83, 
1864 (crit.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 330 Tumbez, 
Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 577 Chimbo, Ecuador 
(Nov.); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 109, 1889 lower Beni, 
Bolivia (Aug.); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, 
p. 395 Lima, Peru (Sept., Nov.); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 5, 
p. 150, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Dwight, Auk, 17, p. 375, 1900 
(plumages); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 255, 1905 Barbados, 



124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Grenada, and St. Vincent; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
pp. 197, 204, 237, 1909 Aruba, Curacao, and Margarita Island; Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 95, 1910 Amaracao, 
coast of Piauhy (Sept. 14-16); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 420, 
1910 Bolson, San Jos6, Carrillo, Gapiles (Mar. 5), Ujurras de Terraba 
(Sept. 16), Tucurriqui (Nov. 1), and La Estrella de Cartago (Nov. 5), 
Costa Rica; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 192, 1913 Caria- 
quito, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 371, 1916 
Orinoco River (Aug. to April); Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 366, 
1916 Sainte Rose, Guadeloupe (July 15); Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
10, p. 213, 1916 Isle of Pines; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
36, p. 224, 1917 Dabeiba (Feb. 14), Novita (Dec. 23), San Jose (Dec. 4), 
Barbacoas (Aug. 30-Sept. 4), Caldas (Nov. 20), Cali (May 8), and Salento 
(Sept. 28), Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1918, p. 245 
Gatun (Feb., Sept., Oct.), Pedro Miguel (Apr. 23), and Toro Point (Aug. 
4), Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 372, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 265 Ecuador (Riobamba, Jan. 3) 
and Peru (Eten, Lambayeque, Sept. 17; Rio Perene, Junin, March 9; 
Trujillo, Libertad, Sept. 1); Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 124, 1920 
Conception, Tucuman (Mar. 4); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 50, 1921 Rio Comberciato (Sept. 22) and Calca (Apr. 25), Urubamba, 
Peru; Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 42, 
1922 Altagracia, Zulia, Venezuela; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 
14, No. 25, p. 24, 1922 La Carolina (May 14, June 19, July 10, Nov. 7), 
Rio San Pedro (Oct. 18), Machangara (Apr. 11), and Mindo (Nov. 21), 
Ecuador; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 182, 1922 
Bonda, Buritaca, and Fundacion, Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 197, 1926 Ecuador (many localities); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 147, 1926 Rio Ajo below Lavalle, Buenos Aires (Oct. 
25); idem, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 362, 1927 
Mona, Desecheo, Puerto Rico, Vieques, Culebra, St. Croix, St. Thomas, 
and Tortola (winter visitant); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 24, 1927 Zelaya, 
Buenos Aires (April); Young, Ibis, 1928, p. 771 Blairmont, British 
Guiana (winter); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 95, 1928 Lower 
California (transient and winter visitor); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 80, p. 152, 1928 Pinheiro, Para (Apr. 23); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 146, p. 78, 1929 (life hist.); Wetmore and Swales, I.e., 155, p. 157, 
1931 Hispaniola (winter); Bradlee, Mowbray, and Eaton, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 39, p. 321, 1931 Bermuda Islands (transient and winter 
visitor); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 61, 1931 Albemarle 
(Jan.) and Abingdon Islands, Galapagos; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 71, p. 375, 1931 Donjaca (Sept. 15) and Rio Frio River (Sept. 9), 
Magdalena, Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 304, 
1932 Honduras (Rio Choluteca, Aug. 5; Trujillo; Tela; Ceiba; Ruatan 
Island); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 134, 1932 Panajachel 
and La Primavera, Guatemala; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 269, 1934 (range); 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 1935 Panama (winter); 
Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 290 Trinidad and Tobago (winter); 
Mousley, Auk, 54, p. 445, pis. 27, 28, 1937 (nesting habits); Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 22, p. 135, 1938 Bahia (Rio Aratuhype), Sao Paulo (Iguape, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 125 

Piassaguera, Raiz da Serra, Ilha dos Alcatrazes), and Rio Grande do Sul 
(Porto Alegre); Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 23, p. 172, 1938 El Salvador (many localities); Philippi, Bol. Mus. 
Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 57, 1938 Chacalluta, Tacna, Chile (Aug. 10, 
1851); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 28, 1943 Mackenzie delta 
(breeding); Stevenson, Auk, 61, p. 247, 1944 (does not breed south of 
central Tennessee and western North Carolina); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. 
Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 82, 1945 Sonora (wintering). 

Tringites macularius Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 309 
Chamicuros, Peru. 

"Actitis notata 111. (wiedi, Bp.)" 1 Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 
43, No. 2, p. 597, 1856; idem, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 40, 1857 
Cayenne, French Guiana. 

Range. Breeds throughout North America from limit of trees in 
northwestern Alaska, northern Mackenzie and Manitoba, the Un- 
gava Peninsula, and Newfoundland, south to southern California, 
southern New Mexico, southern Texas, Tennessee and North Caro- 
lina; winters from southern British Columbia, Louisiana, and South 
Carolina throughout Mexico and the West Indies to southern Peru, 
Bolivia, southern Brazil, and occasionally to Argentina (Concepcion, 
Tucuman, Mar. 4, 1918; Rio Ajo below Lavalle and Zelaya, Buenos 
Aires) and Chile (Chacalluta, Tacna, Aug. 10, 1851). 

Field Museum Collection. 207: Alaska (Bethel, 2); Yukon 
Territory (Yukon River, 11); British Columbia (Okanagan, 2); 
Alberta (Walsh, 1); Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 1); Labrador 
(Bowdoin Harbor, 1); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 5); Oregon (Salem, 
2); Idaho (Priest Lake, 1); Montana (Custer County, 1); North 
Dakota (Stump Lake, Nelson County, 15; Carpenter Lake, Rolette 
County, 1 ; Sweetwater Lake, Ramsey County, 1 ; Rocklake, Towner 
County, 1; Cannonball River, Sioux County, 1; Towner County, 3); 
Colorado (New Castle, 2; Fort Lyon, Bent County, 4); Texas (Travis 
County, 2); New Mexico (Reserve, 2); Arizona (Calabasas, Santa 
Cruz County, 1; Tucson, 3); California (McCloud, Siskiyou County, 
1; Rincon, Ventura County, 1; Point Fermin, Los Angeles County, 4; 
San Pedro, 1; Whistle Point, Los Angeles County, 1; Clifton, Los 
Angeles County, 2; San Diego County, 1; Coronado Beach, 1; 
Pacific Beach, San Diego County, 2); Massachusetts (Monomoy 
Island, 4); Connecticut (New Haven County, 12; East Hartford, 2; 
New Haven, 2; West Haven, 1; North Haven, 2; Hamden, 2; 

1 This is a pure nomen nudum, as it stands. Bonaparte, in parentheses, 
quotes as synonym "macularia Wied," but, as far as we are aware, Wied's descrip- 
tion of Totanus macularius did not appear until a few years later (Journ. Orn., 
7, p. 90, 1859). In the report on Desplanches' Cayenne collection, published in 
1857, even the reference to Wied is omitted. 



126 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Stamford, 2) ; New York (Bedford, Westchester County, 1 ; Rochester, 
2; Shelter Island, Suffolk County, 1); Illinois (Chicago, 1; Wolf 
Lake, Cook County, 2; Lake Forest, 2; Libertyville, 3); Wisconsin 
(Neenah, 2; Beaver Dam, 10); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie 
Island, 8; Pea Island, 1); South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 2; Beau- 
fort County, 1); Georgia (Roswell, 1); Florida (West Jupiter, Palm 
Beach County, 4; Amelie Island, Nassau County, 2; Merritt's 
Island, Brevard County, 3); Bahama Islands (Acklin, 1; Andros, 1; 
Great Bahama, 1; Old Providence, 4; St. Andrews, 1); Hispaniola 
(San Cristobal, Dominican Republic, 2; Catarey, Dominican 
Republic, 1; Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1; Jacmel, Haiti, 
3); Puerto Rico (unspecified, 1; Mayaguez, 1; Mona Island, 2); 
Jamaica (Priestman's River, 1; Cayman Brae, 1; Grand Cayman, 4); 
Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1; Tortola, 1); Lesser Antilles (St. Chris- 
topher, 2; Guadeloupe, 1; Dominica, 5); Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 
1); Mexico (Chihuahua, Chihuahua, 1; Sabinas, Coahuila, 1; Tam- 
pico, 1; Apatzingan, Michoacan, 1); El Salvador (Laguna Olomega, 
San Miguel, 1; San Salvador, 1); Guatemala (Lake Atitlan, Solola, 2; 
Salama, Baja Vera Paz, 1; Bobos, Izabal, 1); Costa Rica (Buenos 
Aires, Puntarenas, 1); Venezuela (Paramo Conejos, Merida, 1; En- 
contrados, Zulia, 2; Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, 1; Colon, Tachira, 1); 
British Guiana (Rockstone, 1); Brazil (Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1); 
Ecuador (La Carolina, 1); Bolivia (Capinota, Cochabamba, 1; 
Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1). 

Conover Collection. 32: British Columbia (Stuie, Bella Coola 
area, 2) ; Manitoba (Churchill, 2) ; Oregon (Salem, 1) ; Utah (Brigham, 
1); California (Myers, Eldorado County, 2; Ocean Beach, San Diego 
County, 1); Wisconsin (Milwaukee River, 1); Illinois (Waukegan, 1; 
Chicago, 1); New York (Cayuga Lake, 1); Mexico (San Jos del 
Cabo, Lower California, 1); Panama (Perme, Darien, 1); Colombia 
(Cuturu, Antioquia, 1; El Tambo, Cauca, 1; Rio Timbio, Cauca, 1; 
Ricaurte, Narino, 1); Ecuador (Milagro, Guayas, 1; Valle de Rojas, 
5; Isla Silva Sur, Province de los Rios, 4); Peru (Puerto Bermudez, 
Junin, 1); Brazil (Santarem, Para, 3). 

Genus CATOPTROPHORUS Bonaparte 

Catoptrophorus Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 2, No. 2, p. 323, 
Feb. 5, 1828 type, by monotypy, Totamis semlpalmatus Temminck= 
Scolopax semipalmatus Gmelin. 

Hodites Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierw., p. 155, 1829 
type, by orig. desig. and monotypy, Scolopax semipalmata Gmelin. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 127 

*Catoptrophorus semipalmatus semipalmatus (Gmelin). 
EASTERN WILLET. 

Scolopax semipalmata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 659, 1789 based on 
"Semipalmated Snipe" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 469, pi. 20, fig. 2, 
New York. 1 

Catatrophorus (sic) semipalmatus Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 375, 
1847 Tobago (October). 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 
3, "1848," p. 758, 1849 coast of British Guiana; Riley, Auk, 22, p. 353, 
1905 Andros, Rum Cay, and Long Island, Bahama Islands (breeding); 
Bangs, I.e., 24, p. 291, 1907 Puntarenas, Costa Rica (Aug. 13, 1906); 
Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 237, 1909 Margarita Island, 
Venezuela (March 12); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 418, 1910 
Puntarenas, Costa Rica (ex Bangs); Bradlee and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 39, p. 221, 1931 Bermuda Islands (visitor). 

Totanus semipalmatus Le"otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 456, 1866 Trinidad; 
Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 358, 1887 (crit.). 

Symphemia semipalmata Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 309, 1870 Praia de 
Cajutuba, Para, Brazil (March); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 322, 1875 
Cuba (June, July); idem, I.e., 26, p. 188, 1878 Puerto Rico (Boqueron, 
San Juan Bay); Cory, Auk, 7, p. 374, 1890 Anegada Island; idem, 
I.e., 8, p. 47, 1891 Antigua (April to July); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, pp. 405, 757, 1896 (in part); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 3, p. 371, 1903 (in part); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 254, 
1905 St. Vincent (Oct.), Barbados, Carriacou, and Grenada (visitor); 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 54, 1906 Seelet, Trinidad (April); Lowe, 
Ibis, 1907, p. 553 Margarita Island, Venezuela (March 24); Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 51, 1907 "Matto Grosso," errore (= Cajutuba, 
Para!). 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus semipalmatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 315, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto 
Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 366, 1927 Puerto Rico (crit.); Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 27, 1929 (life hist.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 60, p. 79, 1930 "Matto Grosso (Rio Guapore)," errore 
(= Cajutuba, Para!); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, 
p. 160, 1931 Hispaniola; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 270, 1934 (range); 
Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 291 Trinidad and Tobago (visitor); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 136, 1938 Cajutuba, Para (ex Pelzeln); 
Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 175, 
1938 Puerto del Triunfo, El Salvador (Dec. 31, Jan. 1); Beatty, Auk, 
60, p. 110, 1943 St. Croix, Virgin Islands (nesting). 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus longicaudis Danforth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto 
Rico, 10, p. 76, 1926 Boqueron, Puerto Rico (type in collection of 
Cornell University, Ithaca). 

1 Totanus crassirostris Vieillot (Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 6, p. 406, 
1816 Louisiana) has been quoted as a possible synonym, but there are various 
discrepancies in the description. No type appears to exist. 



128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Breeds in Nova Scotia, on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
of the United States from New Jersey to Texas, and in the Bahama 
and Virgin (St. Croix) Islands, and Antigua, 1 possibly also in Cuba, 
Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola; winters from the Gulf states south 
through the West Indies and the Caribbean coast of Mexico and 
Central America (rarely on the Pacific side) to Trinidad, Guiana, 
and northeastern Brazil (Cajutuba, Para). 2 

Field Museum Collection. 47: Nova Scotia (Seal Island, 1); 
Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 1); Virginia (Northampton 
County, 2; Cobb's Island, 1); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie 
Island, 2; Pea Island, 1); Florida (Indian River, Brevard County, 1; 
Nassau County, 4; Amelie Island, Nassau County, 5; Anclote, 
Pasco County, 1; Canaveral, Brevard County, 1; Merritt's Island, 
Brevard County, 2); Texas (Port Isabel, 2; Seadrift, Calhoun 
County, 1; Brownsville, 1; Port O'Connor, Calhoun County, 1); 
Bahama Islands (Northwest Point, Great Inagua, 3; Northeast 
Point, Great Inagua, 3; Mathew Town, Great Inagua, 2; Salt Pans, 
Great Inagua, 1; Betsey Bay, Mariguana, 1; Middle Point, Mari- 
guana, 1; Piriton Well, Mariguana, 1; Caicos Island, 1); Virgin 
Islands (St. Croix, 1); Lesser Antilles (Anegada Island, 2); Costa 
Rica (Piedra de Blanca, Guanacaste, 2; Oso Peninsula, 1); Venezuela 
(Margarita Island, 1). 

Conover Collection. 17: South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 
Charleston County, 2; Copahee Sound, 1); Florida (Nassau County, 
3) ; Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 6) ; Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, Guana- 
caste, 4); Ecuador (Isla Silva Sur, Province de los Rios, 1). 

*Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus (Brewster). 3 
WESTERN WILLET. 

Symphemia semipalmata inornata Brewster, Auk, 4, No. 2, p. 145, April, 
1887 Larimer County, Colorado (cotypes now in Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 177, 1930). 

1 In files of U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, a record by H. McDonald of nest 
and four eggs, May 26, 1943. 

2 The locality, "Rio Guapore, Matto Grosso," is due to confusion with 
Natterer's (only Brazilian) record from Cajutuba, coast of Para, while "Bolivia," 
quoted by Ridgway, is most certainly erroneous. 

3 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus (Brewster) differs from the nominate 
race by larger size (wing of males 201-209, of females 212-220, against 180-195 
and 192-200, respectively), slenderer and longer bill, and by having the upper 
parts paler, more ashy gray, and much less heavily spotted with dusky, while 
the lower neck, chest, and flanks have the dusky barring narrower as well as lighter 
in tone. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 129 

Symphemia semipalmata (not Scolopax semipalmata Gmelin) Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., I860, p. 195 Cartagena, Colombia; Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 748 Santa Lucia, Tumbez, Peru (Nov. 27, 
Dec. 13); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 405, 1896 part, Mexico 
(Tres Marias Islands and San Bias, Tepic; Presidio, Sinaloa; "Tehuan- 
tepec" [=San Mateo], Oaxaca) and Guatemala (Chiapam and San Jose); 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 44, 1900 
Bay of Santa Elena, Ecuador (Jan.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 3, p. 371, 1903 (in part); Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(4), 2, p. 55, 1913 Albemarle (Villemil, Nov. 1, Sept. 3) and Abingdon 
(Sept. 21), Galapagos Islands. 

Totanus semipalmatus speculiferus 1 Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 359, 
1887 (crit.). 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
(8), p. 319, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 195, 1926 Tembleque, Ecuador (July 18; crit.); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 94, 1928 Lower California; Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 36, 1929 (life hist.); Wolfe, Condor, 33, p. 54, 
1931 Utah (breeding habits); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 
60, 1931 Abingdon and Albemarle Islands, Galapagos; Peters, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 71, p. 303, 1931 Cricamola, Almirante, Panama (Sept. 19); 
Darlington, I.e., p. 375, 1931 near Donjaca, Santa Marta, Colombia 
(Sept. 15); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 133, 1932 Cham- 
perico, Guatemala (Sept. 10); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 269, 1934 (range); 
van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 433, 1934 Guaymas, Sonora 
(Jan. 19); Griscom, I.e., 78, p. 307, 1935 Panama; Dickey and van 
Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 175, 1938 Puerto del 
Triunfo (Dec. 31) and Barra de Santiago (Apr. 2), El Salvador; van 
Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 83, 1945 
Sonora (wintering). 

Range. Breeds from central Oregon, south-central Alberta, 
Saskatchewan, and southern Manitoba south to northeastern Cali- 
fornia, Colorado, Nebraska, and northern Iowa; winters on the 
Pacific coast of America from California to northwestern Peru 
(Tumbez), the Galapagos Archipelago, and on the Gulf and Carib- 
bean coasts to northern Colombia (Cartagena, Donjaca). In autumn 
migration occurs on the Atlantic coast of the United States. 

1 Sclater (Ibis, 1862, p. 199, note) suggested that Totanus speculiferus Cuvier 
(Reg. Anim., nouv. ed., 1, p. 531, footnote, 1829 no locality; Lesson, Traite" 
d'Orn., p. 552, 1831 'TAme'rique septentrionale") may turn out to be an earlier 
name for the Western Willet. Pucheran (Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 369, 1851) 
gave a full description of the type in the Paris Museum, and his measurements 
(bill, 66; tarsus, 75 mm.) point to its identity with inornatus. 

However, Professor J. Berlioz has kindly compared the type of Totanus speculi- 
ferus Cuvier with a specimen of Catoptrophorus s. semipalmatus and a specimen 
of C. s. inornatus, both in winter plumage. He states: "The coloration of plumage 
in our type seems quite as dark as in semipalmatus, with heavy shaft streaks and 
freckling. Briefly, as concerns coloration, the type looks more like semipalmatus, 
but the proportions and particularly the long and slender bill are those of in- 
ornatus." A change in nomenclature, therefore, appears to be inadvisable. 



130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Field Museum Collection. 116: Alberta (Walsh, 2) ; Saskatchewan 
(Maple Creek, 7; Hay Creek, 1; Quill Lake, 1; Lake Johnston, 2); 
Ontario (Pule Point, 1); North Dakota (Stump Lake, Nelson 
County, 13; Towner County, 18; Rocklake, Towner County, 1); 
Colorado (Larimer, Huerfano County, 1; Fort Lyon, Bent County, 
1); Utah (Salt Lake City, 1); Indiana (Miller, Lake County, 1); 
California (Westport, Mendocino County, 3; Redwood, San Mateo 
County, 6; Moss Landing, Monterey County, 3; Carmel, Monterey 
County, 2; Sunset Beach, Orange County, 1; Palo Alto, Santa Clara 
County, 1; Eureka, Humboldt County, 1; Pacific Beach, San Diego 
County, 1; San Diego, 2; The Rincon, Ventura County, 5; Playa 
del Rey, Los Angeles County, 1); Texas (Rockport, Aransas County, 
1; Brownsville, 2; Seadrift, Calhoun County, 2; Port Lavaca, Cal- 
houn County, 2; Padre Island, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 
4); Connecticut (West Haven, 1); North Carolina, Dare County 
(Pea Island, 15; Bodie Island, 2; Cape Hatteras, 2); Georgia (Chat- 
ham County, 1); Florida (Talbot Island, Duval County, 1; Palm 
Beach, 1; Anclote, Pasco County, 1); Costa Rica (Piedra de Blanca, 
Guanacaste, 2); Guatemala (San Jose", 2). 

Conover Collection. 35: Alberta (Tofield, 5); Idaho (Mont- 
pelier, Lake County, 1); North Dakota (Devil's Lake, Ramsey 
County, 2) ; Utah (Brigham, 15) ; California (Anaheim Landing, 
Orange County, 6); Massachusetts (Chatham, 1); New Hampshire 
(Seabrook, 1); South Carolina (Copahee Sound, 2); Costa Rica 
(Punta Piedra, Guanacaste, 1); British Guiana (Buxton, Demerara, 
1). 

Genus HETEROSCELUS Baird 

Heteroscelus Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, pp. 728, 734, 1858 
type, by monotypy, Totanus brevipes Vieillot. 

Heteractitis Stejneger, Auk, 1, p. 236, July, 1884 new name for Heteroscelus 
Baird, believed to be preoccupied by Heteroscelis Latreille, 1825. 

Heteroscelus brevipes (Vieillot). POLYNESIAN TATTLER. 

Totanus brevipes Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 6, p. 410, 1818 
"pays inconnu" (type, from Timor, in the Paris Museum; cf. Pucheran, 
Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 571, 1851). 

Heteractitis brevipes Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 137, 1885 
Bering Island (crit.); Townsend and Wetmore, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
63, p. 180, 1919 (no intergradation with H. incanus); Hanna, Condor, 22, 
p. 174, 1920 Kitovi Rookery, St. Paul Island (Sept. 17, 1919). 

Totanus incamis brevipes Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 361, 1887 (crit.). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 131 

Heteroscelus brevipes Hanna, Auk, 37, p. 250, 1920 St. Paul Island, Pribilofs 
(Oct. 4, 1911; Sept. 2, 1917); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 48, 
1929 (life hist.); Friedmann, Condor, 35, p. 78, 1933 St. Lawrence 
Island (July, 1932); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 270, 1934 (range). 

Tringa incana brevipes Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 139, 1920 Bering Island 
(crit.). 

Heteroscelus incanus brevipes Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 76, 
1923 St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands. 

Heteractitis incanus brevipes Belopolski, Journ. Orn., 81, p. 425, 1933 
Anadyr Bay, Siberia (Aug.). 

Range. Breeds probably in the alpine zone of northeastern Asia 
(northern Baikal Range, Werchojansk Range, and mountains of 
interior Kamchatka); winters in the Philippines, Caroline Islands, 
Malay Archipelago, and Celebes to New Guinea and Australia; 
accidental in the Pribilof Islands (St. Paul Island [Oct. 4, 1911; 
Sept. 2, 1917; Sept. 17, 1919]) and on St. Lawrence Island (July, 
1932). 

*Heteroscelus incanus (Gmelin). WANDERING TATTLER. 

Scolopax incana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 658, 1789 based on "Ash- 
coloured Snipe" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (2), p. 154, Eimeo (=Moorea), 
Society Group, and Palmerston Islands, Pacific Ocean. 

Totanus fuliginosus Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, Part 15, p. 130, 

March, 1841 Galapagos Archipelago (Oct.; type now in British Museum). 
Scolopax pacifica Forster, Descr. Anim. It. Mar. Austr., (ed. Lichtenstein), 

p. 174, 1844 Tongatabu, Tonga Islands. 
Totanus oceanicus Lesson, Suppl. Oeuvr. Buffon, e"d. Levgque, 20, (Descr. 

Mamm. Ois.), p. 244, 1847 Oualan Island, Caroline Islands (type in 

Paris Museum). 

Totanus polynesiae Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 237, 1848 Fiji Islands 
and Paumotu group, Pacific Ocean (type, from Fiji Islands, in United 
States National Museum; cf. Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, pp. 135, 
136, 1885). 

Heteroscelus incanus Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 429 Acapulco, 
Mexico (March); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 367, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Murie, Auk, 41, p. 231, pis. 17, 18, 1924 Savage 
River, Alaskan Range, Alaska (nest, eggs, and downy young descr.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. EL, 55, p. 197, 1926 Santa Elena (Dec. 
19, Feb. 16, 21) and La Plata Island (Feb. 11), Ecuador; Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 94, 1928 Lower California (wintering); Bent, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 41, 1929 (life hist.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 61, 1931 Galapagos, Cocos, and Clipperton 
Islands; Dixon, Condor, 35, p. 173, 1933 Alaska (nesting habits); 
Ticehurst, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 53, pp. 203, 206, 1933 (downy young 
descr.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 270, 1934 (range); Dixon, Bds. Mam- 
mals Mt. McKinley Nat. Park, p. 76, 1938 (nesting habits). 



132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Heteractitis incanus Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 132, 1885 
Bering Island (crit., meas., range, etc.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, pp. 453, 761, 1896 (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 3, p. 377, 1903 Acapulco, Mexico; Osgood, Auk, 24, p. 340, 1907 
upper MacMillan River, Yukon Territory (immature taken, probably 
breeds). 

Totanus incanus Seebohm, Geog. Dist. Charad., p. 360, 1887 (crit.). 

Tringa incana incana Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 139, 1920 Bering Island 
(May 29 to June 12). 

Heteroscelus incanus incanus Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 75, 
1923 Pribilof Islands. 

Range. Breeds from south-central Alaska to east-central Yukon 
Territory and south to Prince William Sound; winters on Pacific 
coast and islands of America from southern California to Ecuador 
and the Galapagos, also in Hawaiian Islands, Polynesia, Micronesia, 
New Hebrides, and New Caledonia, and occasionally to New Guinea, 
Australia, and New Zealand. 

Field Museum Collection. 57: Alaska (St. George Island, 1; 
King Island, 2; Nome, 1; St. Michaels, 1; Bethel, 1; Unalaska, 3; 
Kodiak Island, 1; Skagway, 1); British Columbia (Graham Island, 
Queen Charlotte Islands, 2; Quatsino, 1); Washington (Clallam Bay, 
1); California (Point Fermin, Los Angeles County, 7; Laguna Beach, 
Orange County, 1; Arch Beach, Orange County, 1); Trinidad Bay, 
Humboldt County, 2; Point Reyes, Marin County, 1; Bolinas, 
Marin County, 1; Castle Rock, Del Norte County, 1; Del Monte 
Forest, Monterey County, 11; Carmel Bay, 2; Monterey, 1; West- 
port, Mendocino County, 6; San Clemente Island, 6); Galapagos 
Islands (Narborough Island, 1; Cocos Island, 1). 

Conover Collection. 18: Alaska (Cape Nome, 1; Topkok, Norton 
Sound, 2); California (Redondo, Los Angeles County, 2; Santa 
Monica, 7; Point Fermin, Los Angeles County, 2; Balboa, Orange 
County, 1; Port Harford, 1; San Nicholas Island, 1; San Clemente 
Island, 1). 

Subfamily ARENARIINAE. Turnstones and Surf Birds 
Genus APHRIZA Audubon 1 

Aphriza Audubon, Orn. Biog., 5, p. 249, 1839 type, by monotypy, Aphriza 
toumsendi Audubon = Tringa virgata Gmelin. 

1 For anatomical characters and affinity, cf. Lowe, Ibis, 1937, pp. 748-750. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 133 

*Aphriza virgata (Gmelin). SURF BIRD. 

Tringa virgata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 674, 1789 based on "Streaked 
Sandpiper" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 180, "Sandwich Sound"= 
Prince William Sound, Alaska (summer plumage). 

Tringa borealis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 674, 1789 based on "Boreal 
Sandpiper" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 181, King George Bay 
(winter plumage); Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 51, 1924 Isla 
la Mocha, Chile. 

Tringa townsendi Audubon, Orn. Biog., 5, p. 249, 1839 Cape Disappoint- 
ment, Washington (type now in Vassar College Museum, Poughkeepsie; 
cf. Orton, Amer. Natur., 4, p. 716, 1871). 

Charadrius Winterfeldti Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 388, 1843 "in 
Oceani Magni littoribus"= coast of Peru (type now in Liverpool Museum; 
cf. Forbes and Robinson, Bull. Liverpool Mus., 2, p. 66, 1899) ; l 
idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 295, pi. 34, 1846 coast of Peru 
(= winter plumage). 

Aphriza townsendii Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 12, p. 157, 1844 Chile. 

Strepsilas borealis Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 408, 
1847 coast of Chile; Philippi, Reise Wuste Atacama, p. 163, 1860 
Paposo, Antofagasta, Chile; idem, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 273, 1868 
from Valdivia, Chile, to Peru; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 Paposo, Chile. 

Aphriza virgata Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, pi. 147 (winter plumage), 1847; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 15 
Van Islands', Trinidad Channel, Territory of Magallanes, Chile (Feb. 15); 
Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 348, 1886 coast of Peru; Nelson, Nat. Hist. 
Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 127, 1887 St. Michaels (migr.); Reed, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Chile; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 208, 
1896 Alaska (St. Michaels), Vancouver Island, Orcas Island, Chile, and 
Van Islands; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 605, 1902 seashore near Vacqueria, 
Province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador (Sept. 16); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 353, 1903 (monog.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 216, 1910 "Straits of Magellan"; Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 58, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Townsend, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 48, p. 12, 1923 Lower California (Abreojos 
Point, San Josef Island) and Sonora (Tiburon Island); Murie, Auk, 41, 
pp. 235-237, 1924 Forty Mile River and Savage River, Alaskan Range, 
Alaska, July (nesting habits); Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 30, p. 73, 
1926 Carcross, Yukon (May 27); Conover, Auk, 43, p. 314, 1926 
Point Dall, Alaska (May 18); Dixon, Condor, 29, pp. 3-16, col. pi., 1927 
Mount McKinley district, Alaskan Range (breeding habits; nest; eggs; 

1 This specimen is doubtless the type, as claimed by Forbes and Robinson. 
Mr. Jean J. Baer, of the Neuchatel Museum, in fact, informs us that the species 
is not (and never was) represented in Tschudi's collection in that Museum. 
C. E. H. 

Friedmann and Deignan (Zoologica, N.Y., 27, (2), p. 49, 1942) claim that the 
type of Charadrius Winterfeldi (sic) Tschudii is in the United States National 
Museum, having been received by it in the year 1866 in a shipment from the 
Neuchatel Museum. This specimen and the one in the Liverpool Museum are 
undoubtedly cotypes. 



134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

food); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 98, 1928 Lower California; 
Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 269, 1929 (life hist.); Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 380, 1932 Chile (winter); Griscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 129, 1932 Champerico, Guatemala (Sept. 
10); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 271, 1934 (range); Friedmann, Condor, 36, 
p. 89, 1934 Goodnews Bay, Alaska (Aug. 12); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. 
Nat., 39, p. 247, 1935 Isla la Mocha, Chile; Dixon, Bds. Mammals, 
Mt. McKinley Nat. Park, p. 67, 1938 (nesting habits); van Rossem, Occ. 
Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 83, 1945 Sonora (Tiburon 
Island, April; Punta Penascosa, Jan.). 

Strepsilas virgata Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, No. 29, Cursores, p. 45, 1865 
Algarroba, Chile (crit.). 

Strepsilas virgatus Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 412, 1887 (monog.). 

Range. Breeds on mountains in south-central Alaska (Mount 
McKinley district, Alaskan Range, and doubtless other adjoining 
ranges to the Yukon border); winters along the Pacific coast of 
America south to Chile (Paposo, Antofagasta; Isla la Mocha, 
Arauco; Valdivia; Van Islands, Trinidad Channel, "Territory of 
Magallanes). 

Field Museum Collection. 28: Alaska (Sea Otter Harbor, Ball 
Island, 6; Wrangell, 1); British Columbia (Barclay Sound, Vancouver 
Island, 3); Washington (Jefferson County, 2; Gray's Harbor, West- 
port, 1); Oregon (Netarts, Tillamook County, 3; Yaquina Bay, 
Lincoln County, 1) ; California (Del Monte Forest, Monterey County, 
6; Carmel Highlands, Monterey County, 1; North Island, San 
Diego County, 1; Pacific Beach, San Diego County, 1; San Diego 
Harbor, San Diego County, 1; Hyperion, Los Angeles County, 1). 

Conover Collection. 15: Alaska (Craig, Prince of Wales Island, 3; 
Sea Otter Harbor, Dall Island, 2; Wrangell, 2) ; Washington (Jefferson 
County, 4); Oregon (Netarts, Tillamook County, 4). 

Genus ARENARIA Brisson 

Arenaria Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 48, 5, p. 132, 1760 type, by tautonymy, "Are- 
naria" Brisson= Trinket interpres Linnaeus. 

Morinella Meyer, in Meyer and Wolf, Taschenb. Deuts. Vogelk., 2, p. 383, 
1810 type, by monotypy, Morinella collaris Wolf=Tnn{/a interpres 
Linnaeus. 

Strepsilas Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., p. 263, 1811 new name for 
Arenaria Brisson. 

Cinclus "Moehring" (not of Borkhausen, 1797, nor of Bechstein, 1802) Gray, 
List Gen. Subgen. Bds., 2d ed., p. 85, 1841 type, by orig. desig., Tringa 
morinella Linnaeus. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 135 

*Arenaria interpres interpres (Linnaeus). TURNSTONE. 

Tringa interpres Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 148, 1758 in part, 
based chiefly on It. Gotl. 217 and Faun. Svec., No. 154, restricted type 
locality, Gotland, Sweden. 1 

Morinella collaris Wolf, in Meyer and Wolf, Taschenb. Deuts. Vogelk., 2, 
p. 383 (footnote), 1810 new name for Tringa interpres Linnaeus. 

Charadrius Cinclus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, p. 148, 1811 Siberia to 
Kamchatka (in part, as far as based on Tringa interpres Linnaeus). 

Tringa oahuensis Bloxham, in Byron's Voy. Blonde, p. 251, 1826 Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands (location of type unknown, probably once in the British 
Museum). 

Strepsilas collaris Holboell, Naturhist. Tidskr., 4, p. 407, 1843 South and 
North Greenland (May to Sept.). 

Arenaria interpres Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 92, 728, 1896 part, 
Old World and Greenland; Lp'ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, p. 54, 
1934 Greenland (crit.; meas.). 

Strepsilas interpres Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 155, 1898 Greenland; 

Manniche, I.e., 45, No. 1, p. 127, 1910 Greenland (breeding habits). 
Arenaria morinella (not Tringa morinella Linnaeus) Palmer, Fur Seals and 

Fur Seal Islands, North Pacific Ocean, Part 3 (Avifauna Pribilof Islands), 

pp. 412-418, 1899 (crit.; descr.). 

Arenaria interpres interpres Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 45, 
1919 part, except northwestern Alaska and Pacific coast of America 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 146, pp. 278, 293, 1929 part, except 
North American mainland (life hist.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 271, 
1934 part, except North and South America and Galapagos Islands; 
Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 143 Greenland (crit.); Leach, Brit. Bds., 
38, (19), p. 376, 1945 (specimen taken at Proven, northwestern Greenland, 
May 30, 1945, was banded at Antrim, Ireland, Jan. 1, 1942). 

Range. Breeds on the coasts of Greenland, Iceland, northern 
Europe and Asia; migrates through the St. Lawrence, Pribilof and 
Aleutian Islands; winters from southern Europe, India, Japan and 
the Hawaiian Islands to South Africa, Madagascar, Australia and 
New Zealand. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 7: Alaska (Dutch Harbor, 1; Unalaska, 
1; St. Paul Island, 2); Greenland (Holsteinborg, west coast, 1; 
Musk-ox Fjord, Hudson Land, 2). 

1 The quotation, "Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 3, p. 141, pi. 141," refers to A. I. 
morinella. 

2 After examining several hundred specimens of Turnstones we are unable 
to recognize A. i. oahuensis of northern Siberia and Alaska (cf. Mathews, Bds. 
Australia, 3, pp. 5, 10, 1913). 

Additional material examined. Greenland: east coast, 1. Bering Sea: St. 
George Island, 1; Hall Island, 1; Unalaska, 1. 



V 

136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Arenaria interpres morinella (Linnaeus). 1 RUDDY TURNSTONE. 

Tringa Morinella Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 249, 1766 based on 
"Turnstone or Sea-Dotterel" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 72, pi. 
72, coast of Georgia. 

Tringa hudsonica P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 114, 1776 based on 
"The Turnstone from Hudson's Bay" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, 
p. 141, pi. 141, Hudson's Bay. 

Strepsilas interpres (not Tringa interpres Linnaeus) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, 
Birds, p. 132, 1841 Iquique (Tarapaca), Chile, and Galapagos Islands; 
Frazer, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 118, 1843 Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, 
Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 407, 1847 Chile; Jardine, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., 20, p. 375, 1847 Tobago (Jan.); Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 333, 
1847 Jamaica; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 751, 
1849 coast region; Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, p. 163, 1860 Paposo, 
Antofagasta, Chile; Salvin, Ibis, 1865, p. 191 Chiapam, Guatemala; 
Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 117, 1865 Chile; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 339 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 
31, p. 273, 1868 coast of Chile; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 297, 1870 
Sapitiba (near Piehy), Rio de Janeiro (Feb.), Cajutuba, Para (Feb., Mar., 
Apr.), and Para (Nov.), Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 323 Galapagos Islands; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 560 Choril- 
las, Lima, Peru; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 308, 1874 Rio 
Zacatula, Colima, Mexico; Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 331, 1875 
Cuba (Sept. and winter); Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 46, 
1876 San Mateo, Oaxaca, Mexico; Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 188, 
1878 Puerto Rico (Mayaguez, Cabo Rojo, Quebradillas, Vega Baja); 
Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 15 Talcaguano, Chile; Salvin, 
I.e., 1883, p. 429 Paracas Bay, Peru (Oct.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 

3, p. 349, 1886 part, Peru (Chorillos); Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 
Paposo, Chile; Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 307 Aruba Island (July 2); Reed, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 209, 1896 Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 

4, p. 664, 1898 Isla de los Pajaros, Coquimbo, Chile (Oct.); Bonhote, 
Ibis, 1903, p. 301 Andros, Little Abaco, and Green Cay, Bahama 
Islands (crit.); Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 51, 1924 Isla la 
Mocha, Arauco, Chile; Gigoux, I.e., p. 67, 1924 Caldera, Atacama, Chile. 

Strepsilas collaris (not Morinella collaris Wolf) Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., 
Orn., p. 297, 1846-"on both sides of the Cordillera," Peru (crit.); Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 364, 1856 Santa Catharina, Brazil. 

Cinclus interpres L^otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 399, 1866 Trinidad. 

Arenaria interpres Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 129, 1887 
Las Trojas, Costa Rica; Cory, Auk, 4, p. 231, 1887 West Indies (descr.); 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 231, 1889; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 95, 1892 

1 Arenaria interpres morinella (Linnaeus) in breeding plumage can be distin- 
guished from the nominate race by having the dorsal surface much redder. In 
winter it is indistinguishable except for its average smaller size. 

Additional material examined. Alaska: Barrow, 6; Wainwright, 2; Cape 
Lisbourne, 1; Coal Land, 1; Wales, 2; Nulato, 1; Kotlik, 1; Carbon Creek, 1; 
Port Clarence, 1. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 137 

West Indies; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, 
p. 395 Ancon, Peru (Jan. 21); Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Ffs.-Geog. Mus. 
Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 55, 1893 Punta Mala, Delta del Rio Dagua, Costa 
Rica; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 92, 728, 1896 part, North 
and South American mainland, West Indies and Galapagos Islands; 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 42, 1900 
Puntilla de Santa Elena and Bahla de Ballenita, Ecuador (Jan.); Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 345, 1903 Mexico (Rio 
Zacatula, Colima; San Mateo and Santa Maria del Mar, Oaxaca; Tonala, 
Chiapas; Mugeres and Cozumel Islands, Yucatan), Guatemala (Chiapam), 
British Honduras (Curlew Cay; Saw-pit Cay; Turneffe Island), Antilles, 
Costa Rica (Las Trojas), Veraguas, etc.; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
32, p. 250, 1905 Lesser Antilles; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 53, 1906 
Seelet, Trinidad (April); Berlepsch, I.e., 15, p. 304, 1908 Cayenne, 
French Guiana; Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 314 Testigo Grande; Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 415, 1910 Costa Rica (rare visitant on Pacific 
coast); Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 95, 
1910 [Amaracao], coast of Piauhy, Brazil (Sept. 14, 15); Snethlage, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 82, 1914 Guimaraes, Maranhao, Brazil; Chubb, Ibis, 
1919, p. 261 Puna Island, Ecuador (Nov. 10) and Chancay, Lima, Peru 
(Dec. 30). 

Arenaria morinella Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 74, 1902 
Carmen Island (March 12) and San Jose" del Cabo (Aug. 31 to Oct. 21), 
Lower California. 

Morinella interpres Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 45, 1907 (range); Lima, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 96, 1920 Ilheos, Bahia. 

Arenaria interpres morinella Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 197, 
214, 230, 1909 Aruba, Islas de Aves, and Testigo Grande; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 51, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 228, 1923 coast of 
Piauhy, Brazil; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 190, 1926 
coast of Manavi, Santa Elena (Dec. 17, Feb. 25), and Jambeli (Nov. 1), 
Ecuador; Conover, Auk, 43, p. 314, 1926 Point Dall, Bering Sea, Alaska 
(nesting; descr. pullus); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, 9, p. 357, 1927 Puerto Rico, St. Croix, Culebra, and Culebrita; 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 99, 1928 Lower California; 
Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, pp. 278, 294, 1929 (life hist.; range, 
except Greenland); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 490, 
1929 near Amaracao, Piauhy; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 155, p. 154, 1931 Hispaniola (winter visitant); Darlington, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 377, 1931 Donjaca, Santa Marta, Colombia 
(Sept. 15); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 380, 1932 
Caldera, Atacama (Mar. 26), and Papudo, Aconcagua (Dec. 1), Chile; 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 272, 1934 (range, in part); Belcher and Smooker, 
Ibis, 1935, p. 291 Trinidad and Tobago; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 78, p. 306, 1935 Veraguas and Canal Zone, Panama; Bullock, 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 247, 1935 Isla la Mocha; Pinto, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 19, p. 77, 1935 Ilha de Madre de Deus (Feb.), Corupe"ba (Feb.), 
Cahype (Feb.), and Ilheos (Apr.), Bahia; Philippi, El Hornero, 6, p. 235, 



138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1936 Rocas de la Erizera, Tacna, Chile (June 24); Pinto, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 22, p. 136, 1938 Ilheos, Ilha Madre de Deus, and Cahype, Bahia; 
Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 55, 1938 Playa de Chacalluta, 
Tacna, Chile (Sept.); Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 23, p. 171, 1938 Puerto del Triunfo, El Salvador (Dec. 31, 
Jan. 5, 6), and Punta Piedra, Costa Rica; Conover, Condor, 47, p. 213, 
1945 (dist. chars.; ranges on both coasts of the Americas); Soper, Auk, 
63, p. 227, 1946 Baffin Island (nesting). 

Arenaria interpres interpres Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, .(8), p. 45, 
1919 part, northwestern Alaska and Pacific coast of America; Bent, 
I.e., 146, p. 293, 1929 part, Alaska; Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
18, p. 59, 1931 Galapagos Islands and Cocos Island; Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 271, 1934 part, North and South America and the Galdpagos Islands. 

Arenaria interpres subsp. Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 64, p. 129, 1932 
Champerico, Guatemala. 

Range. Breeds on the Arctic coasts and islands of North 
America from Point Barrow to Baffin Island, south to Bristol Bay, 
Bering Sea and Southampton Island ; winters in the southern United 
States, the West Indies, Galapagos Islands and both coasts of South 
America south to Chile (Isla la Mocha, Arauco) and southern 
Brazil (Santa Catherina). Found in the interior of the United States 
during migration. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 182: Alaska (Barrow, 6; Nome, 4; 
St. Michaels, 1; Teller, 1; Morzhovoi Bay, 1); British Columbia 
(Queen Charlotte Islands, 2); Saskatchewan (Lake Johnson, 1); 
Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 20); Nova Scotia (Clark's Harbor, 3); 
Washington (Westport, 2); North Dakota (Towner County, 2; 
Rocklake, 1; Devil's Lake, 1; Lake Irwin, 2); Wisconsin (Beaver 
Dam, 1); Illinois (Chicago Heights, 2); Massachusetts (Monomoy 
Island, 28; Chatham, 1); Connecticut (West Haven, 2; New Haven 
County, 1; Stamford, 1; Norwalk, 1); New York (Miller Place, 1; 
Suffolk County, 2; Auburn, 1; Cayuga Lake, 3); North Carolina, 
Dare County (Pea Island, 18; Bodie Island, 1); Georgia (St. Simons 
Island, 2); Florida (Eau Gallie, 3; Canaveral, 1; Amelie Island, 4; 
Nassau County, 2; Anclote, 1; Grove City, 2); Louisiana (Buras, 2); 
Texas (Aransas Pass, 1); California (Moss Landing, 1; Del Monte 
Forest, 1; mouth of Carmel River, 4; Carmel Lagoon, 1; Carmel, 2; 
Humboldt Bay, 1; Pacific Beach, 1); Bahama Islands (Great Inagua, 
3; Mariguana, 1; Eleuthera, 3; Great Bahama, 1; Cay Sal Bank, 1; 

1 Wace (El Hornero, 2, p. 198, 1921) lists A. i. morinella as a "rare visitant" 
among the birds of the Falkland Islands. We cannot find any definite record 
from this region in literature, and as the Ruddy Turnstone has not even been taken 
in Argentina, we hesitate to accept this statement. Bennett (Ibis, 1926, .pp. 306- 
333) does not mention this species at all. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 139 

Abaco, 1); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1; Anegada, 3); Jamaica (Grand 
Cayman, 6; Cayman Brae, 2); Lesser Antilles (Tobago, 1); Dutch 
West Indies (Aruba, 7); Venezuela (Los Aves Island, Colon, 1); 
Surinam (Seashon, 1); Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, Guanacaste, 4; 
Point Jiminez, Peninsula del Oro, 2) ; Ecuador (Vaqueria, 2) ; Chile 
(Caldera, Atacama, 3). 

Conover Collection. 44: Alaska (Barrow, 8; Hooper Bay, Bering 
Sea, 12; False Pass, 1); North Dakota (Stump Lake, Nelson County, 
4); Illinois (Chicago, 3); Texas (Seadrift, 1); California (Point 
Magie, 1; Portuguese Bend, 1; Eureka, 1); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 
5); Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, Guanacaste, 5); Ecuador (Vaqueria, 
1); Chile (Papudo, Aconcagua, 1). 

*Arenaria melanocephala (Vigors). BLACK TURNSTONE. 

Strepsilas melanocephalus Vigors, Zool. Journ., 4, No. 15, p. 356, Jan., 1829 
western shores of North America 1 (type originally in collection of Zoo- 
logical Society of London, present whereabouts unknown; cf. Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 292, 1932); idem, Zool. Voy. "Blossom," 
Birds, p. 29, 1839 no locality indicated; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., 
p. 411, 1887 (crit.). 

Arenaria melanocephala Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 2, p. 150, 1886 
St. Michaels and mouth of Kuskoquim River; Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. 
Alaska, 3, p. 129, 1887 St. Michaels (breeding); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 24, pp. 103, 729, 1896 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 55, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Conover, Auk, 43, p. 315, 
pi. 7, 1926 Point Ball, Alaska (common breeder; pi. and descr. of chick); 
Bailey, Condor, 28, p. 86, 1926 St. Michaels and Wales (breeding), 
Alaska; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 298, 1929 (life hist.); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 99, 1932 Lower California; Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 272, 1934 (range); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana 
State Univ., 21, p. 84, 1945 Sonora (winter). 

Range. Breeds on the western seacoast of Alaska from Cape 
Prince of Wales to Bristol Bay (?Cook Inlet) ; winters from south- 
eastern Alaska to southern Lower California; casual at Point Barrow, 
Alaska, and in northeastern Siberia (Wrangel Island; Chaun Bay). 2 

Field Museum Collection. 99: Alaska (St. Michaels, 8; Kelp 
Bay, 1; Kotlik, 1; Kuskokwim River, 3; Bethel, 1); British Columbia 
(Comox, 2; Quatsino, 6); Washington (Jefferson County, 2); Oregon 
(Newport, Lincoln County, 2) ; California (White Point, Los Angeles 

1 Monterey, California, suggested as type locality by Grinnell (Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 38, p. 292, 1932). 

1 The record from "India" is open to doubt (cf. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, 
p. 1569, 1920). 

' 



140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

County, 9; San Clemente Island, 9; Santa Cruz Island, 2; Monterey 
County, 1; Del Monte Forest, Monterey County, 13; Carmel, 
Monterey County, 7; Carmel Bay, Monterey County, 15; Monterey, 
Monterey County, 6; Westport, Mendocino County, 4; La Patera 
Point, Santa Barbara County, 1; St. Nicholas Island, Santa Barbara 
County, 1; Trinidad, Humboldt County, 3; Farallon Islands, 1); 
Mexico (Coronados Island, Lower California, 1). 

Conover Collection. 17: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 7); 
Washington (Clallam Bay, 1); Oregon (Netarts, Tillamook County, 
2); California (Anaheim Landing, Orange County, 1; Pismo, San 
Luis Obispo County, 5; Eureka, Humboldt County, 1). 

Subfamily SCOLOPACINAE. Snipes and Woodcocks 

Genus LIMNODROMUS Wied 

Macrorhamphus (not of G. Fischer, 1813) F. Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. Bds., 

p. 22, 1817 type, by monotypy, Scolopax grisea Gmelin. 
Limnodromus "Wagler" Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 716, 1833 

type, by monotypy, Scolopax noveboracensis Gmelin=S. grisea Gmelin. 
Longirostris S. D. W., Analyst, 4, No. 15, p. 119, April 1, 1836 new name 

for Macrorhamphus "Leach." 
Macroramphus Bonaparte, Geog. Comp. List, p. 52, 1838 emendation of 

Macrorhamphus Forster. 
Lymnodromus Bonaparte, Iconog. Fauna Ital., 1, fasc. 25, text of Gallinago 

brehmi (p. 2), 1839 emendation of Limnodromus Wied. 

*Limnodromus scolopaceus (Say). 1 LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER. 

Limosa scolopacea Say, in Long's Exped. Rocky Mts., 1, p. 170, 1823 

Engineer Cantonment, near Boyer Creek, near Council Bluffs, Iowa 

(type lost). 2 
Scolopax longirostris Bell, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 5, p. 3, 1852 Long 

Island, New York (type in collection of Geo. N. Lawrence; cf. Lawrence, 

I.e., p. 5, 1852). 

1 Limnodromus scolopaceus (Say), in breeding plumage, differs from L. g. 
hendersoni by much darker dorsal coloration, the buff edging and barring of the 
feathers being much narrower as well as more reddish, especially on scapulars 
and tertials; darker tail with the light bars narrower and the dark ones wider; and 
by the heavier spotting (in the form of bars rather than dots) below being confined 
to throat and upper breast, while the flanks are more strongly barred. In winter 
plumage distinguishable by darker tail and in the female sex by longer bill. In 
immature plumage L. scolopaceus is always recognizable by the very sparse light 
markings on the longer (or outer) tertials, which markings are very narrow and 
confined to the edges of the feathers. 

2 Orr (Condor, 42, pp. 62-63, 1940) has clearly shown that Say's account 
on the basis of the bill-length (2% in. = 70 mm.) must refer to the Long-billed 
Dowitcher, as this measurement is greater than the maximum for the griseus 
complex. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 141 

Macroramphus scolopaceus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 5, p. 4, 
pi. 1, 1852 Long Island (crit.; figs, of male and female); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 455 Guatemala (crit.). 

Macrorhamphus griseus (not Scolopax grisea Gmelin) Salvin, Ibis, 1865, p. 191 
lagoon of Chiapam, Guatemala; (?)Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1877, p. 748 Santa Lucia, Tumbez, Peru (Oct. 28, Nov. 22); (?)Sclater 
and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 547 Medellin, Colombia; (?)Salvadori and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 44, 1900 Canar, Ecuador 
(October). 

Macrorhamphus scolopaceus Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 2, p. 146, 
1886 St. Michaels and Yukon Delta (breeding), Kuskokwim River; 
Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 100, 1887 Norton Sound and 
Yukon mouth (nesting; descr.; comparison with griseus). 

Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus Howe, Auk, 18, p. 161, 1901 (dist. chars.). 

Limnodromus griseus scolopaceus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 201, 1919 part (monog.; full bibliog.); Bailey, Condor, 27, p. 236, 
1925 Wales (nesting), Cape Simpson and Cape Blossom, Alaska; Conover, 
Auk, 43, p. 305, 1926 Hooper Bay, Alaska (nesting habits; weights); 
(?)Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 194, 1926 Vacqueria (Aug. 
3, 31; Sept. 4) and Tembleque (July 18), Ecuador (crit.); Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 115, 1927 part (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 32, p. 90, 1928 Lower California (transient); Griscom, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 133, 1932 Guatemala; Hurley, Murrelet, 13, 
p. 17, 1932 Bristol Bay, Alaska (nesting); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 272, 
1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 78, p. 307, 1935 Agua 
Dulce, Panama; Brooks, Ibis, 1939, p. 452, pi. 8, fig. 3 Point Barrow, 
Alaska (downy young descr.); Swenk, Nebraska Bd. Review, 8, p. 63, 
1940 Nebraska (status; tax. hist.); Orr, Condor, 42, p. 61, 1940 (dist. 
chars.; tax. disc.; abundance in California); Zotta, El Hornero, 8, p. 171, 
1942 Santo Domingo, Buenos Aires (first Argentine record). 

Limnodromus scolopaceus Rowan, Auk, 49, pp. 21, 25, pis. 2, 3, 1932 (char.; 
distr.); Conover, I.e., 58, p. 377, 1941 (char.; range); van Rossem, Occ. 
Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 84, 1945 Sonora (wintering 
and transient in fresh water). 

Limnodromus griseus fasciatus Brodkorb, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 46, p. 124, 
1933 Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, Alaska (type in collection of H. B. 
Conover in Field Museum, examined). 

Range. Breeds in northwestern North America from Franklin 
Bay, Mackenzie, west to Point Barrow and south to Bristol Bay, 
Alaska; in migration commonest on the Pacific coast and in the 
western part of the continent, but occurring throughout the interior 
and sparingly even on the Atlantic coast; supposed to winter as 
far south as northwestern Peru (Santa Lucia, Tumbez), Cuba, and 
Jamaica; 1 one record for Argentina (Santo Domingo, Buenos Aires, 
Oct. 25). 

1 The winter range remains to be ascertained by critical study of material 
from the West Indies and Pacific South America. 



142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Field Museum Collection. 51: Alaska (Barrow, 13; St. Michaels, 
2; Nome, 2; Resurrection Bay, 1; Collinson Point, 2); British 
Columbia (Sumac Lake, 1); Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 3; 
Lake Johnson, 5); California (Nigger Slough, Los Angeles County, 
10; Motordrome, Los Angeles County, 1); Colorado (Barr Lake, 
Adams County, 1); Kansas (Burlington, 1); Texas (Brownsville, 2; 
Seadrift, 2; Rockport, 2; Tivoli, 2); North Carolina (Pea Island, 1). 

Conover Collection. 31: Alaska (Barrow, 6; Point Tangent, 
Barrow, 2; Chipp River, Barrow, 3; Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 9); 
Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 6; Camrose, 1); Saskatchewan 
(Liberty, 1); Illinois (Swan Lake, Henry, 1); California (Buena 
Vista Lake, Kern County, 1); Mexico (San Jose* del Cabo, Lower 
California, 1). 

*Limnodromus griseus hendersoni Rowan. 1 INLAND DOWITCHER. 

Limnodromus griseus hendersoni Rowan, Auk, 49, p. 22, pis. 2, 3, Jan., 1932 
type, from Devil's Lake, Alberta, in National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, 
(W. Rowan, in litt.); Bunyard, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 53, p. 90, 1933 
Alberta (eggs descr.); Low, I.e., p. 165, 1933 (crit.; char.); Brooks, Murrelet, 
15, p. 23, 1934 Pacific coast (most common form); Swenk, Nebraska 
Bd. Review, 8, p. 63, 1940 Nebraska (status; tax.); Conover, Auk, 58, 
p. 379, 1941 (chars.; range). 

Macrorhamphus griseus Howe, Auk, 18, p. 158, map, 1901 part, west Hudson 
Bay. 

C!)Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus Howe, Auk, 18, p. 272, 1901 Button 
Bay, near Fort Churchill, Hudson Bay (immature, July). 

Limnodromus griseus griseus (not Scolopax grisea Latham) Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 197, 1919 (in part); Bent, I.e., 142, p. 106, 
1927 (range in part); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 272, 1934 (range in part); 
Orr, Condor, 42, p. 61, 1940 (dist. chars.; crit.). 

Range. Breeds in the interior of North America in central and 
northern Alberta from Lake Athabasca south to about lat. 53 N., 
and at Fort Churchill, Manitoba; on migration in British Columbia, 

1 Limnodromus griseus hendersoni Rowan, in breeding plumage, may be 
separated from L. scolopaceus by much lighter upper parts and by the dark spots 
on the ventral surface being rounded, very sparse, and widely scattered, not con- 
centrated on the chest. In females the culmen has a maximum length of 66 mm. 
as against a minimum of 68 in scolopaceus. The principal difference in comparison 
to L. g. griseus is found in the coloration and spotting of the under parts, the entire 
ventral side being salmon color, with perhaps a little white in the center of the 
abdomen, and the spotting being rounded, sparse or even evanescent, and scattered 
all over the surface, while the barring on the sides and flanks is less pronounced. 
In typical griseus the lower breast, belly, and flanks are white or only lightly tinted 
with salmon. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 143 

California, all the prairie provinces and states, Illinois, and the 
Carolinas; winters from the southeastern states to Costa Rica. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 78: Manitoba (Fort Churchill, 1); 
California (Moss Landing, Monterey County, 7; mouth of Carmel 
River, Monterey County, 1; Carmel, Monterey County, 9; San 
Diego County, 4; Pacific Beach, San Diego County, 2; Trinidad, 
Humboldt County, 7; Eureka, Humboldt County, 2; Santa Barbara, 
Santa Barbara County, 1; Alamitos Bay, Los Angeles County, 1; 
Motordrome, Los Angeles County, 2) ; North Dakota (Stump Lake, 
Nelson County, 10; Mauvis Bay, Benson County, 2; Towner 
County, 2; Cando, Towner County, 2; Rocklake, Towner County, 1) ; 
Illinois (Hyde Lake, Cook County, 4); Texas (Corpus Christi, 2; 
Rockport, 1); North Carolina (Pea Island, Dare County, 8); South 
Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 1; Charleston, 1); Florida (Banana 
River, Brevard County, 1); Costa Rica (Piedra de Blanca, Guana- 
caste, 5); El Salvador (Puerto del Triunfo, Usulutan, 1). 

Conover Colkction. 55: British Columbia (Comox, Vancouver 
Island, 2); Alberta (Fawcett, 9; Edmonton, 2; Beaverhill Lake, 
Tofield, 3; Camrose, 5); Manitoba (Churchill, 9); California (Point 
Magie, Ventura County, 2; Goleto, Santa Barbara County, 3; 
Anaheim Landing, Orange County, 1; San Diego Bay, 6; Playa del 
Rey, Los Angeles County, 2) ; Illinois (Hyde Lake, Cook County, 5) ; 
South Carolina (Copahee Sound, 1); Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, 
Guanacaste, 5). 

*Limnodromus griseus griseus (Gmelin). EASTERN DOWITCHER. 

Scolopax grisea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 658, 1789 based on "Brown 

Snipe" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 464, coast of New York. 
Scolopax noveboracensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 658, 1789 based on 

"Red-breasted Snipe" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 464, coast of New York 

(= nuptial plumage). 
Scolopax nutans Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 659, 1789 based on "Nodding 

Snipe" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 465, Chateaux Bay, coast of Labrador 

(= young). 
Scolopax leucophaea (not of Latham) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 

e~d., 3, p. 358, 1816 "dans 1'etat de New York"; idem and Oudart, Gal. 

Ois., 2, p. 110, pi. 241, 1825 New York. 
Totanus ferrugineicollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 6, p. 401, 

1816 new name for Scolopax noveboracensis "Lath." (= Gmelin). 
Scolopax paykullii Nilsson, Orn. Svec., 2, p. 106, pi. 11, 1821 Lappland 

(type in Stockholm Museum; cf. Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, 

p. 101, 1927; =young). 

1 The winter range cannot be indicated at present with any degree of certainty. 



144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Macroramphus punctatus Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 556, 1831 new name for 
Scolopax grisea Gmelin and S. noveboracensis Gmelin. 

Limnodromus noveboracensis Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 717, 1833 
mouth of Rio Peruhype, near Villa Vicoza (lat. 18 S.), Bahia, Brazil. 

Macrorhamphus griseus Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
"1848," p. 758, 1849 coast region; Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, p. 11 Fisk- 
enaesset, Greenland (one specimen); Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 482, 
1866 Trinidad (Aug. to Oct.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 313, 1870 
Praia de Cajutuba, Para, Brazil (April); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 455 Panama and Para (Cajutuba); Turner, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 246, 1885 Fort Chima and Davis Inlet, Ungava; 
Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 233, 1889 New Providence, Bahama Islands, 
and Jamaica; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 394, 757, 1896 
part, eastern North America, Bermuda Islands, Para (Cajutuba), Bahia, 
British Guiana, etc.; (?)Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 160, 1898 Fiskenaes, 
Greenland; Howe, Auk, 18, p. 158, map, 1901 part, east of Hudson Bay; 
Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 250, 1905 Barbados (ex Feilden) 
and Grenada (ex British Museum); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 50, 
1907 Pard and Bahia; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 418, 1910 
Alaju&a, Costa Rica; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 88, 1914 
Marajo (Pacoval, Magoary), Brazil. 

Limnodromus griseus griseus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 197, 
1919 (monog., full bibliog., in part); Bent, I.e., 142, p. 106, 1927 (life 
hist.; range in part); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 493, 1929 Mangunga Island, Maranhao, Brazil (March); Bradlee, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 317, 1931 Bermuda Islands (autumn 
visitor); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 322, 1932 PermS, 
Panama; Rowan, Auk, 49, pp. 23, 26, pis. 2, 3, 1932 (char.; disc.; range); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 272, 1934 (range in part); Belcher and Smooker, 
Ibis, 1935, p. 291 Trinidad and Tobago (winter visitor); Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 1935 Canal Zone and Perme, Panama; 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 137, 1938 Para to Bahia; Dickey and 
van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 177, 1938 Puerto 
del Triunfo, El Salvador (Dec. 31, Jan. 16); Swenk, Nebraska Bd. Review, 
8, p. 63, 1940 Nebraska (status; tax.); Conover, Auk, 58, p. 380, 1941 
(char.; range). 

Range. Breeding grounds unknown 1 (nests probably east of 
Hudson's Bay in the interior of Ungava and the Labrador Peninsula) ; 
on migration chiefly in the Atlantic states, but also occurring in 
Ontario (Toronto) and California; winters in the West Indies and 
south through Central America, the Guianas, and eastern Brazil 
as far south as Bahia; (?)accidental in Greenland (Fiskenaes). 

1 There has recently been discovered in the collections of the United States 
National Museum, an adult specimen of Limnodromus griseus, taken at Fort 
Chimo, Quebec, on June 10, 1883. The specimen is in breeding dress and is said 
to be typical of the eastern race (cf. J. W. Aldrich, Auk, 65, p. 285, 1948). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 145 

Field Museum Collection. 97: Nova Scotia (Barrington, 2; Shel- 
burne, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 6; Chatham, 1; Great 
Island, 2); Connecticut (Grove Beach, 2; Guilford, 1; Madison, 1); 
North Carolina (New Inlet, Dare County, 6; Bodie Island, Dare 
County, 15; Pea Island, 32; Cape Hatteras, 2); South Carolina 
(Copahee Sound, Charleston County, 2; Sullavan's Island, Beaufort 
County, 1; Dewees Island, Charleston County, 2; Mount Pleasant, 
6); Georgia (Chatham County, 1); Florida (Amelie Island, 2); 
California (Motordrome, Los Angeles County, 5); Bahama Islands 
(Great Inagua, 2; Andros Island, 1); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 2); 
Brazil (Mangunca Island, Maranhao, 2). 

Conover Collection. 19: Massachusetts (East Orleans, Barn- 
stable County, 10); New York (Cayuga Lake, 1); South Carolina 
(Copahee Sound, 3); Florida (Amelie Island, 2); Virgin Islands 
(St. Croix, 2); Colombia (Pizarro, Choco, 1). 

Genus CAPELLA Frenzel 

Capella Frenzel, Beschr. Vogel und Eyer Wittenb., p. 58, 1801 type, by 
monotypy, Scolopax coelestis Frenzel = Scolopax gallinago Linnaeus. 

Gallinago Koch, Syst. Baier. Zool., p. 312, 1816 type, by tautonymy, Gal- 
linago media Koch=Scolopax gallinago Linnaeus. 

Telmatias Boie, Isis, 1826, col. 980 type, by virtual monotypy, Scolopax 
gallinago Linnaeus. 

Xylocota Bonaparte, Icon. Fauna Ital., fasc. 25, sig. 127, p. [2], 1839 type, 

by orig. desig., Scolopax paludosa Gmelin= Scolopax undulata Boddaert. 
Homoptilura G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 78, 1840 type, by orig. desig., 

Scolopax undulata Boddaert. 
Macrodura Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, (3), p. 294 (in text), Aug. 18, 1913 

type, by orig. desig., Gallinago nobilis Sclater. 
Odurella Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, (3), p. 294 (in text), Aug. 18, 1913 

type, by orig. desig., Scolopax braziliensis Swainson= Scolopax paraguaiae 

Vieillot. 

Capella media (Latham). GREAT SNIPE. 

Scolopax media Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., Suppl., 1, p. 292, 1787 based on 

"Great Snipe" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 133, Lancashire, England. 
Scolopax major Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 661, 1789 based on Latham 

(Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, p. 133), Frisch (Vorst. Vog. Deuts., pi. 228), etc., 

England, Germany, and northern Siberia. 
Scolopax leucurus Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer., 

2, "1831," p. 501, Feb., 1832 Hudson Bay (type now in British Museum). 
Gallinago major Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 626, 1896 (monog.); 

Coues, Auk, 14, p. 209, 1897 Hudson Bay (ex Sharpe). 



146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Gallinago media Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 161, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.). 

Capella media A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 490 (monog.); Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 98, 1927 (life hist.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 
275, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in northern Europe and northern Asia from 
northern Norway, southern Finland, the White Sea and the lower 
Yenessei south to Denmark, East Prussia, Poland, Bessarabia, the 
Kirghiz Steppes, and the Altai; winters in Africa; accidental in 
Canada (Hudson Bay). 1 

Capella gallinago faeroeensis (C. L. Brehm). 2 FAROE SNIPE. 

Telmatias Faeroeensis C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 617, 
1831 Faroe Islands (type in Tring Collection [cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
25, p. 57, 1918], now in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York). 

Gallinago media (not Scolopax media Latham) Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. 
Naturhist. Foren., 1853, p. 83 Greenland; idem, Ibis, 1861, p. 11 
Greenland. 

(T)Gallinago russata Gould, Bds. Great Britain, 4, text to pi. 79, 1863 
Dartmoor, England (type hi British Museum; cf. A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 
1926, p. 490). 

Gallinago scolopacina Bonap. typica Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 175, 1898 
Greenland (Nanortalik, Sept. 6, 1840; Fiskenaes, Oct., 1845); Helms, 
Dansk. Orn. Foren. Tidsskr., 11, p. 173, 1917 Angmagsalik, East Green- 
land (April 30, May 15). 

Gallinago gallinago (not Scolopax gallinago Linnaeus) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 165, 1919 part, Iceland, Faroes, Greenland, and 
Bermudas. 

Capella gallinago faeroeensis A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 489 (crit.; range); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 276, 1934 (range); Herring and Salomonsen, 
Medd. Gr0nl., 131, No. 5, p. 42, 1941 Angmagssalik, eastern Greenland. 

Capella gallinago gallinago Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 78, 1927 
(life hist.); (?)H0rring and Salomonsen, Medd. Gr0nl., 131, No. 5, p. 43, 
1941 Angmagssalik, eastern Greenland. 

1 The claim of the Great Snipe to a place in the American fauna rests on a 
specimen, the type of S. leucurus, obtained from the Hudson's Bay Company in 
Canada many years ago and now in the collection of the British Museum. 

1 Capella gallinago faeroeensis (C. L. Brehm) differs from C. g. gallinago 
(Linnaeus), of Europe and Asia, by more reddish coloration; the black portions 
on back, scapulars, and tertials being more profusely speckled with brighter 
tawny; the lateral edges to the scapulars narrower and more deeply ochraceous; 
the foreneck and breast darker, more rufescent; the dusky stripes on lower throat 
evanescent. 

There seems little doubt that the specimens taken in Greenland and Bermuda 
are referable to C. g. faeroeensis rather than to C. g. gallinago. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 147 

Range. Breeds in Iceland and the Faroes; occasional in autumn 
and winter in the British Isles; casual in Greenland; (?)accidental 
in Bermuda Islands (Dec. 24 and 29, 1847). l 

*Capella gallinago delicata (Ord). WILSON'S SNIPE. 2 

Scolopax delicata Ord, in reprint, Wilson, Amer. Orn., 9, p. ccxviii, 1825 

Pennsylvania. 
Scolopax Wilsonii Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 68, text to pi. 403, 

p. [2], note, Sept. 16, 1826 based on Scolopax gallinago Wilson, Amer. 

Orn., 6, p. 18, pi. 47, fig. 1, Pennsylvania; Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

20, p. 375, 1847 Tobago (Oct. to Jan.). 
Scolopax trachydactyla Wagler, Isis, 1831, col. 521 Mexico (type in Munich 

Museum examined). 3 
Scolopax fasciolata Wagler, Isis, 1831, col. 522 (in text) Mexico (type no 

longer extant). 4 

Scolopax drummondii Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.- 
Amer., 2, p. 400, Feb., 1832 Rocky Mountains and Fur Countries 
(location of type unknown). 

Scolopax douglasii Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 
2, p. 400 (note), Feb., 1832 Columbia River (type in collection of W. 
Swainson, now in University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.). 

Scolopax americanus Hadfield, Zoologist, 21, p. 8446, 1863 new name for 
Scolopax wilsonii Temminck. 

Gallinago wilsoni(i) Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 5, Scolopaces, p. 6, 1864 
Labrador, Philadelphia, Wisconsin, Costa Rica, and Mexico (crit.); 

1 The inclusion of one of the European races in the fauna of the Bermudas 
(cf. Gallinago media Reid, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 233, 1884, and Capella 
gallinago Bradlee and Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 316, 1931) rests 
on the taking by Wedderburn of two specimens in Pembroke Marsh on Dec. 24 
and 29, 1847, respectively. Both were said to possess fourteen tail-feathers, but 
Hurdis (Rough Notes and Memoranda Nat. Hist. Bermudas, pp. 55-56, 1897), 
who examined one of Wedderburn's specimens, found it had only eleven! From 
this meagre information it seems impossible to allocate the record with any degree 
of finality. 

2 Wilson's Snipe, though generally recognizable without difficulty by more 
heavily barred axillaries, transverse rather than longitudinal pectoral markings, 
shorter bill, narrower outer rectrices, and sixteen instead of fourteen tail-feathers, 
is so closely approached by certain European individuals, as pointed out by See- 
bohm (Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 487) and Hartert (Vog. Palae. Fauna, 2, p. 1660, 
1921), that its conspecific relationship to C. gallinago can hardly be questioned. 

3 The type, an unsexed adult (wing, 131; tail, 65; bill, 63%), agrees very well 
with specimens from the United States. 

4 The specimen, which formed the basis for the tentatively proposed name 
S. fasciolata and which, according to Wagler, was in poor condition, no longer 
exists in the Munich Collection. It was stated to differ from the type of S. trachy- 
dactyla by longer wings, a brown tip to the white exterior margin of the outermost 
primary, blacker upper back, and slenderer, longer claws. These divergencies are 
of little consequence in Wilson's Snipe, the only species of Snipe occurring in 
Mexico, and were probably of an individual nature. 



148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 484, 1866 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 547 Medellin, Colombia; Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1881, p. 186 Niakornat, Greenland (spring, 
1877); Reid, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 232, 1884 Bermuda Islands. 
Gallinago scolopadna var. wilsonii Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 8, p. 110, 1874 
(crit.); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 175, 1898 Niakovnak, Greenland 
(spring, 1877, and July, 1891). 

Scolopax gallinago wilsoni Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 140 (crit.); idem, Geog. 
Distr. Charad., p. 486, 1887 (crit.). 

Gallinago delicata Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 642, 1896 (in part; 
monog.); Henshaw, Bds. Hawaiian Is., p. 94, 1902 Naalehu, Kau, 
Island of Hawaii; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 
392, 1903 Mexican and Central American references and localities; 
Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 250, 1905 Barbados, Grenada, and 
Grenadines (autumnal visitor); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 308, 1908 
(no Cayenne record); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 423, 1910 
Tenorio (Jan. 23), Azahar de Cartago (Nov. 10), Cartago (Dec. 13), and 
La Estrella de Cartago (Nov. 5), Costa Rica; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 224, 1917 Novita (Dec. 25) and Puerto Berrio (Jan. 30), 
Colombia; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 171, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 548, 1919 New- 
foundland (breeding); Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 42, 1922 Rio Cogollo (Merida), Encontrados (Zulia), and 
Colon (Tachira), Venezuela; Conover, Auk, 43, p. 305, 1926 Hooper 
Bay, Alaska (nesting); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 136, 
1932 Guatemala. 

Capella delicata Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 185, 1922 
Taquina and Pueblo Viejo, Santa Marta, Colombia (March 17, 29); 
A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 504 (crit.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto 
Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 358, 1927 Puerto Rico and St. Croix 
(migrants); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 90, 1928 Lower 
California (winter visitor); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
155, p. 155, 1931 Hispaniola (migrants); Bradlee and Mowbray, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 316, 1931 Bermuda Islands; Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 322, 1932 Perme, Panama (Oct. 25); van 
Rossem, I.e., 77, p. 433, 1934 Chihuahua and Granados, Chihuahua, 
Mexico (Oct. 9 to Nov. 17); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 276, 1934 (range); 
Mousley, Auk, 52, p. 408, 1935 Montreal, Quebec (nesting data); 
Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 291 Trinidad (rare winter visitor); 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 1935 Panama (winter); 
Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 171, 
1938 El Salvador (Jan. to Apr.); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 28, 
1943 Mackenzie Delta (breeding); Van Tyne, Wilson Bull., 56, p. 170, 
1944 (sex ratio); Borrero, Caldasia, 3, (14), p. 413, 1945 Sabana de 
Bogota, Colombia. 

Capella gallinago delicata Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 81, 1927 (life 
hist.); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 132, 1929 Corn Islands, 
Caribbean Sea; Darlington, I.e., 71, p. 376, 1931 Sevillano (Oct. 20), 
Rio Frio (Nov.), and Cienaga (Nov., Feb., March), Magdalena, Colombia; 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 149 

Wolfe, Condor, 33, p. 52, 1931 Utah (nesting habits); (?)H0rring and 
Salomonsen, Medd. Gr0nl., 131, No. 5, p. 40, 1941 Greenland. 

Range. Breeds from western Alaska, northern Yukon, northern 
Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, Ungava, and Newfoundland south 
to southern California, northern Nevada, southern Colorado, 
northern Iowa, northern Indiana, Ontario, and northwestern Penn- 
sylvania; winters from the southern parts of its breeding range 
south through Central America and the West Indies to Colombia, 
Venezuela (in the states of Tachira, Me>ida, and Zulia), and rarely 
to Tobago, Trinidad, and the Guianas; 1 accidental in Greenland 
(Niakornat), the Bermudas, and the Island of Hawaii (Naalehu, 
Kau). 

Field Museum Collection. 165: Alaska (St. Michaels, 2; Bethel, 
1; Bluff City, 1; Yukon River, 2; Tocatna Falls, 1); British Columbia 
(Graham Island, 1; Okanagan, 1); Oregon (Salem, 1); Montana 
(Bozeman, 2); Idaho (Couer d'Alene, 1); North Dakota (Rolette 
County, 1; Stump Lake, 1; Towner County, 4); Iowa (Burlington, 
1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 13; Delavan, 1); Illinois (Worth, 3); 
Indiana (Liverpool, 1); Oklahoma (Dodge, 1); Colorado (Cochetopa, 
1; Fort Lyon, 3); Texas (Brownsville, 3); New Mexico (Reserve, 1); 
Arizona (Tucson, 1); California (Monterey County, 1; Thermal, 1; 
Corona, 1; Paradise, 1; Sisson, 1; Motordrome, Los Angeles County, 
1; Witch Creek, 2); Ontario (Saint Clair Junction, 1); Quebec 
(Magdalen Islands, 3); Maine (Lincoln, 2); Connecticut (East 
Hartford, 9; North Haven, 3; Woodbridge, 2; New Haven, 1; 
New Haven County, 16; Hamden, 29); New York (Cayuga Lake, 3; 
Suffolk County, 1); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 9; 
Pea Island, 8); Georgia (Roswell, 1); Florida (Anclote, 1; Amelie 
Island, 4; Tallahassee, 1; Santa Rosa Island, 1; West Jupiter, 1; 
Wilson, 1; Jupiter, 1); Bahama Islands (Andros, 1; Great Inagua, 1); 
Virgin Islands (Saint Croix, 1); Lesser Antilles (Martinique, 1); 
Mexico (Tampico, 1); Guatemala (Santa Elena, 1); Costa Rica 
(Limon, 1); Venezuela (Tachira, Colon, 1; Encontrados, Zulia, 2; 
Valle, 1). 

Conover Collection. 28: Alaska (Igiak Bay, Bering Sea, 1); 
Yukon Territory (Marsh Lake, 2); California (Yermo, 1); Utah 
(Brigham, 6); Nebraska (Wood Lake, Cherry County, 2); Illinois 

1 Records of Wilson's Snipe from Brazil are due to misidentification. The 
specimens in the British Museum from Rio Negro, Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro all 
prove to be unequivocally pcCraguaiae, whereas the bird secured by Kappler on 
the Maroni River, Surinam, is just as decidedly delicata. Wilson's Snipe must, 
therefore, be struck from the list of Brazilian birds. 



150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Wheaton, 5; Hyde Lake, Cook County, 2; Homewood, 1); Mexico 
(San Jos4 del Cabo, Lower California, 3); Colombia (Popayan, 
Cauca, 3); Venezuela (Rio Cogollo, Perija, 2). 

*Capella paraguaiae 1 paraguaiae (Vieillot). PARAGUAYAN SNIPE. 

Scolopax paraguaiae Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 3, p. 356, 
1816 based on "Becasina No 1," Azara, No. 387, Paraguay. 

Scolopax frenata (Illiger, MS.) Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., 
p. 75, 1823 based on "Becassime" (sic) Azara, No. 387; Wied, Beitr. 
Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 712, 1833 eastern Brazil; Cabanis, in Schom- 
burgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 758, 1849 coast region; Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 377, 1856 Lagoa Santa, Minas 
Geraes; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 261, 1860 part, Parana and Tucuman; 
idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 503, 1861 part, same localities; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 312, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba), Sao Paulo (Sao 
Paulo, Ypanema, Irisanga), ParanS, (Castro), Matto Grosso (Caicara), 
and Amazonas (Manaos, Santarem), Brazil; Dalgleish, Proc. Roy. Phys. 
Soc. Edin., 6, p. 253, 1881 Est. de la Tala, Durazno, Uruguay (eggs 
descr.); Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 494, 1887 (monog.; crit.). 

Scolopax braziliensis Swainson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, p. 400 (note), Feb., 
1832 equinoctial Brazil (type in collection of W. Swainson, now in 
University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.). 

Scolopax (Telmatias) paraguaiae Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 131, 1841 
part, Maldonado, Uruguay. 

Gallinago frenata "111." Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 
579, 1856; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 9, 1864 
Surinam and Brazil (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, pp. 783, 788 lagoon of Uroa, south of Merida, Venezuela; Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 22, p. 252, 1874 Blumenau, Santa Catharina (crit.); Allen, 
Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 83, 1876 Marajo, Brazil; Durnford, Ibis, 1876, 
p. 164 Buenos Aires (breeding); Forbes, I.e., 1881, p. 359 marshes of 
Pernambuco; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 182, 1885 
Taquara do Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; Salvin, Ibis, 1886, p. 179 
Bartica Grove, Merume" Mountains, and Roraima, British Guiana; Riker 
and Chapman, 8, p. 163, 1891 Santarem, Brazil; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 5, p. 150, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 24, p. 646, 1896 part, spec, a-y, Venezuela (Merida), Trinidad, 
British Guiana (Roraima, Merume Mountains, Bartica Grove, Annai), 
Cayenne, Brazil ("Para;" Pernambuco; Santa Fe", Minas Geraes; Pelotas, 
Rio Grande do Sul; Ypanema; Bahia; Rio de Janeiro), and Uruguay; 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 439, 1899 Sao Paulo; Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 221, 1910 C6rdoba, Mendoza, Misiones, 
and Chaco. 

Scolopax brasiliensis Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, 
p. 39 Minas Geraes, Brazil (crit.). 

1 Capella paraguaiae is probably conspecific with C. gallinago. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 151 

Gallinago paraguaiae 1 Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 314, 1884 Concepcion del Uruguay, 
Entre Rfos (breeding, Sept.-Oct.), and (?)Carhue", Buenos Aires (April); 
Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 282 Paysandu, Uruguay; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 
35, p. 36, 1887 Pilcomayo, Paraguay (crit.); Dalgleish, Proc. Roy. Phys. 
Soc. Edin., 10, p. 88, 1889 Est.Itanu, south of Asuncion, Paraguay (crit.); 
Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 181, 1889 Argentina (in part); 
Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p.* 150 Timbo and Rio Pilcomayo, Gran Chaco; Aplin, 
I.e., 1894, p. 207, pi. 5, fig. 8 (egg) Uruguay (drumming; breeding 
habits); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 24, 1895 
Paraguari, Paraguay; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 650, 1896 
part, spec, a-c, "Para," Pernambuco, and Rio de Janeiro; Lillo, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 213, 1902 Lagunas de Malvinas and 
Famailla, Tucuman; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 130, 1902 
Altagracia, Quiribana de Caicara, and Munduapo, Orinoco, Venezuela 
(crit.); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), p. 
53 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru (crit.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 
1, p. 55, 1907 part, Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Sao Caetano, Penha, Itapura, 
Cachoeira, Campos de Jordao), Santa Catharina (Sao Francisco do Sul), 
Rio Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo), and Argentina (La Plata); Hell- 
mayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 101, 1908 Fazenda Esperanga and Rio Araguaya, 
Goyaz; Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 252, 1909 Barracas al Sud, 
Buenos Aires, and Laguna de Malvinas, Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 221, 1910 part, Tucuman, Buenos Aires, and 
Entre Rios; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, 
p. 95, 1910 Pernambuco (Pao d'Alho, near Recife), Bahfa (Santa Rita, 
Rio Preto), Maranhao (above Pintados, Rio Parnahyba), and Piauhy 
(Amaracao), Brazil; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 68 Ybitimi, Paraguay; Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 372, 1916 Orinoco region, Venezuela; 
MSnegaux, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 5,' p. 25, 1917 Caceres, Matto Grosso; 
Gibson, Ibis, 1920, p. 64 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (breeding); 
Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 14, 1920 Uruguay (Canelones, Florida, 
Maldonado, San Jose', Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo); Daguerre, I.e., p. 
263, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires (sedentary); Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, 
p. 41, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 5, p. 369, 1934 
Buenos Aires (habits, eggs, young descr.). 

Scolopax frenata brasiliensis Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 138 Venezuela and 
Guiana to Paraguay (crit.). 

Gallinago delicata (not Scolopax delicata Ord) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, p. 642, 1896 part, spec. y*-c 3 , Brazil (Rio Negro; Bahfa; Rio de 
Janeiro). 

Gallinago braziliensis Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 308, 1908 Cayenne; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 225, 1917 Villavicencio, 
Colombia; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 44, 1918 
vicinity of Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana. 

Gallinago paraguaiae consp.? Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. Varsovie, 
5, pp. 463, 492, 1912 Santa Cruz, Parana (crit.). 

Gallinago brasiliensis Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 192, 1913 
Cano Corosal, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 

1 Sometimes spelled paraguayae. 



152 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

8, p. 93, 1914 Para (Braganca), Marajo (Sao Natal), and Monte Alegre, 
Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 372, 1916 Cano 
Corosal (ex Stone); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 153, 1928 
Para. 

Gallinago braziliensis braziliensis Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 91, 1918 Isla 
Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires (Dec.). 

Capella paraguaiae Pereyra, El Hornero, 3, p. 163, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos 
Aires (breeding); Wilson, I.e., p. 352, 1926 Venado Tuerto, Santa F6 
(breeding). 

Capella paraguaiae brasiliensis A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 509 (monog.). 

Capella braziliensis Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, pp. 161, 162, 1926 
Paraguay (km. 80, west of Puerto Pinasco) and Uruguay (between Lazcano 
and Rio Cebollati) (crit.); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 24, 1927 Zelaya, 
Buenos Aires (breeding). 

Capella paraguaiae paraguaiae Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 496, 1929 Sao Bento, Maranhao, and Sao Marcello (Rio Preto), 
Bahia (crit.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 82, 1930 
Agua Blanca de Corumba, Matto Grosso; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 276, 
1934 (range); Laubmann, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 265, 1934 Est. 
La Geraldina, Santa Fe (crit.); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 291 
Caroni, Trinidad (eggs descr.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 19, p. 88, 1935 
Corupe'ba and Cidade da Barra, Bahia; idem, I.e., 20, p. 44, 1936 Rio 
das Almas, Goyaz; Brodkorb, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 349, 
p. 2, 1937 Caviana Island, Para, Brazil; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 
138, 1938 Amazonas (Manacapuru), Maranhao (Boa Vista), Bahia 
(Cidade da Barra, Corupeba), Minas Geraes (Theophilo Ottoni, Pirapora), 
Sao Paulo (Cachoeira, Ypiranga, Penha, Itapura, Sao Caetano, Campo do 
Jordao, Itatiba, Sylvania, Tabatinguara), Santa Catharina (Sao Francisco 
do Sul), Rio Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo), Matto Grosso (Sao Luiz 
de Caceres), Goyaz (Rio das Almas, Inhumas), and La Plata; idem, I.e., 
23, p. 546, 1938 Manacapuru, Amazonas; Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. 
Vetensk. Akad. Handl., (3), 23, p. 72, 1945 Bolivia, El Beni (El Consuelo; 
Bresta). 

Capella brasiliensis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 63, 1931 
Arabupu, Roraima, Venezuela. 

Range. Island of Trinidad and South America (east of the 
Andes) from Colombia (Villavicencio), Venezuela, and the Guianas 
through Peru (two records San Martin, Moyobamba, and La Merced, 
Chanchamayo, Dept. Junin), Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay to 
Uruguay and the plains of eastern Argentina south to Cordoba and 
Buenos Aires. 1 

1 Birds from Guiana, Venezuela, and various parts of Brazil agree perfectly 
with a topotypical series from Paraguay. Two breeding specimens from Uruguay 
(Soriano) as well as single individuals from Santa Fe and Entre Rfos are likewise 
similar. It is also the present form which, according to Dabbene (in litt.), breeds 
in the province of Buenos Aires. The length of the bill varies considerably, 
irrespective of locality. Forty-nine additional specimens examined. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 153 

Field Museum Collection. 26: Colombia (Villavicencio, Meta, 1); 
Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 1); British Guiana (Buxton, 8); 
Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 2); Brazil (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 1; 
Sierra da Lua, Rio Branco, 1; Itacoatiara, Amazonas, 1; Sao Bento, 
Maranhao, 2; Sao Marcello, Rio Preto, Bahia, 4); Peru (Moyo- 
bamba, San Martin, 1); Uruguay (Polanco, Minas, 1; Rio Cebollati, 
Minas, 1; San Vicente, Rocha, 1; Arazati, San Jose', 1). 

Conover Collection. 43: British Guiana (Buxton, Demerara, 3); 
Brazil (Itacoatiara, Rio Amazonas, 8; Pinhel, Rio Tapajoz, 1; 
Labrea, Rio Purus, 2; Buenos Aires, Rio Acara, 1; near Cavalcanti, 
Goyaz, 4) ; Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 5) ; Paraguay (30 km. 
west of Puerto Casado, 1; Horqueta, 6; Villa Rica, 12). 

*Capella paraguaiae magellanica (King). 1 MAGELLANIC SNIPE. 

Scolopax magellanicus King, Zool. Journ., 4, No. 13, p. 93, July, 1828 

Straits of Magellan (type evidently lost). 
Scolopax (Telmatias) paraguaiae (not of Vieillot) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, 

Birds, p. 131, 1841 part, Valparaiso, Chile. 
Scolopax (Telmetias) magellanicus Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 131, 

1841 Maldonado (Uruguay) and East Falkland (crit.). 
Scolopax paraguaiae Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 118, 1843 Chile; 

Yarrell, I.e., 15, p. 54, 1847 Chile (egg descr.); Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. 

Astr. Exp., 2, p. 194, 1855 Chile. 
Scolopax frenata (not of Lichtenstein) Tschudi, Peru, Reiseskizzen, 1, p. 35, 

1846 Valparaiso, Chile; Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 261, 1860 part, 

Mendoza. 

Gallinago magellanica Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Ffs. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 
427, 1847 (ex King); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 387, 1860 
Berkeley Sound, Falkland Islands; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 156 East 
Falkland Islands (breeding). 

Gallinago paraguaiae 2 Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 
426, 1847 Chile; Boeck, Naumannia, 1855, p. 510 Valdivia, Chile; 
Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 313, 1860 Santiago (breeding 
habits); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, No. 27, Scolopaces, p. 11, 
1864 Chile, Arique (Valdivia), Santiago, and East Falkland (crit.); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 332, 339 Chile; Philippi, Anal. 

l Capella paraguaiae magellanica (King) differs from the nominate race in 
less blackish dorsal surface caused by the greater amount of buff markings; more 
deeply buff foreneck and chest, with less prominent blackish spotting; deeper 
rufous tail; and narrower outermost rectrix. 

We are unable to discover any constant difference between specimens from 
the Straits of Magellan (magellanica') and those from Chile (chilensis), dimensions 
as well as the proportion of the tertials being extremely variable within the same 
locality. 

2 Variously spelled paraguaiae, paraguayae, paraguiae, paraguia, and (lapsu) 
parguiae. 



154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Univ. Chile, 31, p. 277, 1868 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1868, 
p. 189 Sandy Point, Straits of Magellan; iidem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 144 Conchitas, Buenos Aires (crit.); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 
49, p. 567, 1877 Cauquenes, Colchagua, Chile; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, 
p. 198 Buenos Aires (April to Aug.) ; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1878,' p. 438 Puerto Bueno, Magellan Straits, and Falkland 
Islands; Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 15 Cockle Cove, Straits of Magellan; 
Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 88, 1884 Tandfl, 
Buenos Aires; Withington, Ibis, 1888, p. 472 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos 
Aires; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 181, 1889 Argentina (in 
part); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 137, 1889 Gregory Bay 
and Laredo Bay, Straits of Magellan; Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, 
p. B. 124, 1891 Patagonia (Missioneros), Tierra del Fuego (Bahia 
Orange), and Packewaia, Beagle Channel; Holland, Ibis, 1891, p. 16 
Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires (specimen examined); idem, I.e., 1892, 
p. 211 Est. Espartillar; Lataste, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 3, p. cxv, 1894 
Bureo (Chilian), Nuble, Chile; Waugh and Lataste, I.e., 4, p. Ixxxviii, 
1894 Penaflor, Santiago; Lataste, I.e., 5, p. Ixiii, 1895 Junquillos (San 
Carlos), Nuble; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 650, 1896 part, 
spec, d-u', Lomas de Zamora, Bahia Blanca, Maldonado, Montevideo, 
Falkland Islands, Straits of Magellan (Puerto Bueno, Cockle Cove), 
and Chile (Coquimbo, Santiago, Valparaiso, "Tarapaca" [=Arauco and 
Valdivia]); Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 309 part, Rio Bueno and Rio Pilmaiquen 
(Valdivia), Arauco, and Concepcion, Chile; Salvador!, Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Stor. Nat. Genova, 40, p. 625, 1900 Santa Cruz (Patagonia), Gregory 
Bay (Straits of Magellan), Cape Colnett (Staten Island), and Shyring 
Mountain, Melville Island (Cape Horn); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 8, p. 376, 1902 Tierra del Fuego; Vallentin, Mem. Proc. 
Manchester Litt. Phil. Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 40, 1904 Falkland Islands 
(eggs descr.); Crawshay, Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 126, 1907 Useless 
Bay, San Sebastian Settlement, and Cheena Creek (nest and eggs); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 221, 1910 part, Patagonia 
and Tierra del Fuego; Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Pata- 
gonia, 2, Orn., p. 332, 1910 near head of Rio Mayer, Santa Cruz; Grant, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 467 Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires (May 16); Brooks, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 151, 1917 Falkland Islands; Sanzin, El 
Hornero, 1, p. 148, 1918 Mendoza; Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, 
p. 44, 1920 Nilahue, Curico; Wace, El Hornero, 2, p. 198, 1921 Falkland 
Islands; Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 52, 1924 Isla la Mocha, 
Arauco; Jaffuel and Pirion, I.e., 31, p. 113, 1927 Marga-Marga, Val- 
paraiso; Bullock, I.e., 33, p. 203, 1929 Angol, Malleco. 

Gallinago frenata Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 132, 1865 Chile. 

Gallinago paraguaiae var. pallida Doering, in Roca, Inf. Ofic. Exp. Rio Negro, 
Zool., 1, p. 56, 1881 mouths of the Rio Colorado and Rio Negro (sub- 
stitute name for Scolopax magellanicus King). 

Scolopax frenata magellanica Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 136 Falkland Islands 
and Straits of Magellan (crit.); idem, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 496, 1887 
Falkland Islands, Straits of Magellan, Buenos Aires (Bahia Blanca), and 
Uruguay (Maldonado) (crit.). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 155 

Scolopax frenala chilensis Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 496, 1887 
Chile (type in British Museum). 

Gallinago frenata chilensis Deichler, Journ. Orn., 45, p. 153, 1897 Chile, 
Patagonia, and Uruguay (crit.). 

Gallinago paraguayae magellanica Deichler, Journ. Orn., 45, p. 154, 1897; 
Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 661, 1898 Seno Almirantazgo, 
Tierra del Fuego, and Ushuwaia, Beagle Channel. 

Gallinago paraguayae chilensis Deichler, Journ. Orn., 45, p. 154, 1897; Schalow, 
Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 661, 1898 La Serena, Coquimbo, and Punta 
Arenas, Straits of Magellan. 

Capella paraguaiae Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 445, 1922 Coronel, Chile 
(habits); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 297, 1923 Huanuluan, 
Rio Negro (breeding); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 161, 1926 
Buenos Aires (Berazategui, etc.), Neuque"n (Zapala), and Mendoza 
(Tunuyan) (crit.); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 428, 1926 
Paja Alta, Rio Negro, and Lago Fetalaufquen, Chubut; Bennett, Ibis, 
1926, p. 324 Falkland Islands. 

Capella paraguaiae paraguaiae A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 506 (monog.); 
Reynolds, I.e., 1932, p. 38 Snipe and Woodcock Islands, Beagle Channel. 

Capella paraguaiae magellanica Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
19, p. 387, 1932 Atacama to Straits of Magellan (crit.); Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 277, 1934 (range); Reynolds, El Hornero, 5, p. 352, 1934 
Isla de los Conejos, Tierra del Fuego; Castellanos, I.e., 6, p. 30, 1935 
Isla de Afio Nuevo, Cape Horn region; Reynolds, Ibis, 1935, p. 89 
Guffern Island, Cape Horn region; Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, 
p. 247, pi. 16, 1935 Isla la Mocha (nesting); idem, I.e., 41, p. 202, col. 
pi. 8, fig. 2 (egg), 1937. 

Range. Breeds in southern South America from Chile (most 
northerly recorded locality Copiapo, Atacama, but northern limit 
of breeding area undetermined) and southern Argentina (Goberna- 
cion del Rio Negro) south to Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland 
Islands; some migrating in winter north to Mendoza, province 
of Buenos Aires, and Uruguay. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 6: Chile (Curacautin, Cautin, 1; 
Gualletue Lake, Cautin, 2; Quellon, dittos' Island, 2; Melinka, 
Ascension Island, 1). 

Conover Collection. 24: Chile (Ramadilla, Atacama, 1; Lautaro, 
Cautin, 5; Santiago, Santiago, 1; Angol, Bio Bio, 1; Quellon, Chiloe' 
Island, 3; Cucao, Chilo^ Island, 4; Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 4; 
Rio Ciaike, Magallanes, 2); Argentina (Tunuyan, Mendoza, 2; 
Cambacere's, Buenos Aires, 1). 

1 Unequivocal winter specimens of the Magellanic Snipe have been examined 
by us from Uruguay (Montevideo, April; Maldonado, July), Buenos Aires (Cam- 
baceres, June; Est. Espartillar, Apr., July; Lomas de Zamora, May; Los Yngleses, 
Ajo, May), and Mendoza (Tunuyan, June). 

Fifty-two specimens examined. 



156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Capella paraguaiae andina (Taczanowski). 1 ANDEAN SNIPE. 

Gallinago andina Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 561 Lake 
Junin, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, 
Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 103, 1927); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, pp. 17, 19 Tinta, Cuzco, Peru (crit.); 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1880, p. 213 Cutervo, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 
375, 1886 Peru (Lake Junin, Cutervo, Tinta); Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, 
p. 22, 1895 near Cajamarca (alt. 10,000 ft.), Peru; Berlepsch and Stolz- 
mann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), p. 53 Ingapirca, Junfn, Peru; 
Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 268 south of Huamachuco, Peru. 

Scolopax frenata (not of Lichtenstein, 1823) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), 
p. 312, 1844 Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 299, 1846 sierra 
and puna regions. 

Gallinago frenata Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 156 
Tungasuca (near Tinta), Cuzco, Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, p. 646, 1896 part, spec, a', Sacaya, Tarapaca (spec, examined). 

Scolopax frenata andina Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 138 (crit.); idem, Geog. 
Distr. Charad., p. 497, 1887 Peru (crit.). 

Gallinago paraguaiae (not Scolopax paraguaiae Vieillot) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 137 Sacaya, Tarapaca, Chile; Lane, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 309 part, Sacaya. 

[Gallinago frenata} subsp. a. Gallinago andina Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, p. 648, 1896 Peru (Junin, Tungasuca). 

Gallinago braziliensis andina Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 50,' 
1921 La Raya and Ttica-Ttica, Peru. 

Capella paraguaiae paraguaiae A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 506 part, 
Sacaya, Chile. 

Capella paraguaiae andina A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 508 Peru (crit.); 
Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 255, 1930 mountains 
near Huanuco, Peru; Hellmayr, I.e., 19, p. 390, 1932 Sacaya, Tarapaca, 
Chile (crit.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 277, 1934 (range); Zotta, El Hornero, 
6, p. 289, 1936 Lago Colorado, Catamarca (alt. 3,400 m.), Argentina; 
Morrison, Ibis, 1939, pp. 465, 647 Huancavelica and Lake Junin, Peru. 

Capella paraguaiae Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 404, 1931 Rio Humahuaca and 
Maimara, Sierra del Zenta, Jujuy. 

Range. Puna zones of Peru, extreme northern Chile (Tarapaca), 
Bolivia, and western Argentina (Sierra del Zenta, Jujuy; Lago 
Colorado, Catamarca). 

Field Museum Collection. 6: Peru (Leimebamba, Amazonas, 1; 
Junin, Junin, 2); Bolivia (Colomi, Cochabamba, 3). 

1 Capella paraguaiae andina (Taczanowski) : Similar to C. p. magellanica, but 
with decidedly shorter wings and tarsi, and shorter as well as slenderer bill. Wing, 
115-117, (female) 116-121; tarsus, 25-28; bill, 48-56, (female) 53-61. Two birds 
from Tarapaca (Sacaya) are exactly like the Peruvian series. 

Additional material examined. Peru: near Cajamarca, 1; eight miles south 
of Huamachuco, 1; Lake Junin, 1; Maraynioc, 1; Huancavelica, 8; Tungasuca, 
1. Chile: Sacaya, Tarapaca, 2. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 157 

Conover Collection. 10: Peru (Huanuco Mountains, 2; Puno, 
Puno, 1; Sorapa, Rio Have, Puno, 1; Huacullani, Puno, 1); Bolivia 
(Colomi, Cochabamba, 1; Tiraque, Cochabamba, 1; Cerro Juna, 
Cochabamba, 2; Laguna de Taxara, Tarija, 1). 

*Capella paraguaiae innotata Hellmayr. 1 ANTOFAGASTA SNIPE. 

Capella paraguaiae innotata Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
19, p. 389, June 13, 1932 Rio Loa, Antofagasta, Chile (type in Field 
Museum of Natural History); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 277, 1934 (range). 

Gallinago paraguiae (not Scolopax paraguaiae Vieillot) Philippi, Reise Wiiste 
Atacama, p. 164, 1860 Tilopozo, Salar de Atacama, Antofagasta; idem, 
Ornis, 4, p. 160, 1888 Tilopozo. 

Range. Puna zone of Antofagasta (Rio Loa, Tilopozo), northern 
Chile. 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Chile (Rio Loa, Antofagasta, 1). 
Conover Collection. 1: Chile (Rio Loa, Antofagasta, 1). 

*Capella nobilis (Sclater). NOBLE SNIPE. 

Gallinago nobilis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 31, June 16, 1856 
Bogota, Colombia (type in British Museum); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 
livr. 6, p. 9, 1864 Bogota (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 196, 
pi. 98, 1869 Bogota (monog.); Pelzeln, Ibis, 1875, p. 332 "Spanish 
Guiana" = Bogota (spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 547 Retire, Antioquia, Colombia (eggs descr.); 
Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, p. 313 Yoyacsi (9,000 ft.), 
Ecuador; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 648, 1896 Colombia 
(Retire, Bogota) and Ecuador (Maravina); Salvador! and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 45, 1900 Paramos of Canar, El Troje, 
and Chaupi, Ecuador; Rhoads, Auk, 29, p. 143, 1912 Paramo of Pi- 
chincha, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 225, 1917 
Santa Isabel (12,700 ft.), Valle de las Pappas, and Chipaque (10,000 ft.), 
Colombia; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 25, 1922 
Tumbaco, north side of Guamini Road to Papallacta, Pichincha, and 
Cotopaxi, Ecuador; Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 43, 1922 Paramo de Tama, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 200, 1926 Hacienda Garzon, Cumbaya, El 
Paso (near Nabon), and Yanacocha, Ecuador. 

1 Capella paraguaiae innotata Hellmayr: Similar to C. p. andina in proportions, 
but distinguished by nearly plain white (not broadly black-barred) under wing 
coverts and by having all of the primaries (not only the two outermost) exteriorly 
and apically edged with hoary white. Wing, (males) 118; bill, 53, 58. 

By the almost unmarked under wing coverts, the two specimens from Rio 
Loa may readily be told from any in a series of twenty andina, whereas the white 
markings on the primaries are found to the same extent only in a bird from 
Tungasuca, Peru. 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"Gallinago nobilis (granadensis Bp. Mus. Brit.)" Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. 

Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 579, 1856. 
Scolopax nobilis Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 133 (crit.); idem, Geog. Distr. Charad., 

p. 498, 1887 (crit.). 
Capella nobilis A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 503 (monog.); Berlioz, Bull. 

Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 621, 1932 Las Palmas, Azuay, Ecuador; 

Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 277, 1934 (range). 

Range. Paramo zone of western Venezuela, the central and 
eastern Andes of Colombia and the Temperate zone of Ecuador. 

Field Museum Collection. 6: Venezuela (Tachira, Paramo de 
Tamd, 4); Colombia (unspecified, 2). 

Conover Collection. 13 : Colombia (El Tambo, Cauca, 6) ; Ecuador 
(Leon, Cerro Cotopaxi, 2; Santiago, Volcan Sangay, Province of 
Zamora, 5). 

Capella undulata undulata (Boddaert). GUIANAN GIANT SNIPE. 

Scolopax undulata Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 54, 1783 based on "Becasse 
des Savanes, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 895; Seebohm, Ibis, 
1886, p. 131 (crit.); idem, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 492, 1887 Guiana 
(crit.). 

Scolopax paludosa Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 661, 1789 based on "Be'casse 
des Savanes" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 895, and Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 
7, p. 481, Cayenne; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
"1848," p. 758, 1849 marshy places near the coast. 

Xylocota paludosa Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 579, 
1856. 

Gallinago paludosa Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, p. 8, 1864 part, Cayenne 
(crit.). 

Gallinago undulata Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 196, 1869 Guiana; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1886, p. 179 MerumS Mountains and Roraima (3,500 ft.), 
British Guiana; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 659, 1896 same 
localities; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 308, 1908 Cayenne. 

Scolopax gigantea (not of Temminck) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 312, 1870 
part, upper Rio Branco, Brazil. 1 

Homoptilura undulata undulata A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 511 French 
and British Guiana (crit.). 

Homoptilura undulata Young, Ibis, 1928, p. 772 Blairmont, British Guiana. 

Capella undulata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 63, 1931 Arabupu 
and Paulo, Roraima, Venezuela. 

Capella undulata undulata Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 277, 1934 (range); Phelps, 
Bol. Soc. Venez. Cien. Nat., No. 36, p. 91, 1938 Mount Roraima, Vene- 
zuela. 

1 There is hardly any doubt that the Giant Snipe, whose nightly call-note 
was heard by Natterer when staying at the Forte do Sao Joaquin on the upper 
Rio Branco, pertained to the Guianan, and not to the South Brazilian form. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 159 

v 

Range. French and British Guiana and the adjacent parts of 
Brazil (upper Rio Branco) and Venezuela (Roraima). 

*Capella undulata gigantea (Temminck). 1 BRAZILIAN GIANT 
SNIPE. 

Scolopax gigantea (Natterer MS.) Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PL Col., livr. 68, 
pi. 403, Sept. 16, 1826 Brazil= State of Sao Paulo (type in Leyden 
Museum); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 376, 1856 Con - 
gonhas, Minas Geraes; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 312, 1870 part, Sao 
Paulo (Itarare, Ypanema, Murungaba), Paran (Jaguaraiba), and Goyaz 
(Nos Puritis), Brazil. 

"Xylocota gigantea, Natt. (lacunosa Licht.)" Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. 
Sci. Paris, 43, p. 579, 1856. 

Gallinago gigantea Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, p. 8, 1864 Brazil (crit.); 
Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 196, 1869 Brazil; Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 39 Congonhas de Sahara, Minas 
Geraes (ex Burmeister); Boucard and Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 
2, p. 41, 1892 "Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro"; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 5, p. 149, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 24, p. 658, 1896 Goyaz (Puritis), Paraguay (Villa Rica), and 
Buenos Aires; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 151, 1899 
Pedras Brancas; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 440, 1899 Sao Paulo; 
idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 56, 1907 Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo, Penha, 
Sao Caetano) and Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 221, 1910 Chaco and Buenos Aires, Argentina; 
Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. Varsovie, 5, pp. 462, 492, 1912 
Vera Guarany, Parana. 

Scolopax undulata gigantea Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 131 (crit.); idem, Geog. 
Distr. Charad., p. 493, 1887 Brazil and Buenos Aires (crit.). 

Homoptilura undulata gigantea A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 512 (monog.). 

Capella gigantea Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 82, 1930 Matto 
Grosso, Brazil. 

Capella undulata gigantea Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 277, 1934 (range); Pinto, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 139, 1938 Sao Paulo (Penha, Avare", Sao Caetano) 
and Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre). 

Range. Southern Brazil, from Minas Geraes (Congonhas), 
Goyaz (Nos Puritis), and Matto Grosso (Chapada) south to Rio 
Grande do Sul, and Paraguay (Villa Rica) ; allegedly also in parts of 
Argentina (Chaco and Buenos Aires). 2 

1 Capella undulata gigantea (Temminck) differs from the nominate race by 
longer wings (170-180, against 155-165), longer, heavier bill (125-145, against 
108-115), wider rufous edges to scapulars and interscapulars, and broader bars 
on under parts, with, however, the center of breast and abdomen unbarred. 

Six additional specimens from southern Brazil (Sao Paulo, Parana), one from 
Paraguay (Villa Rica) and one from "Buenos Aires" examined. 

2 The occurrence in Argentina is perhaps somewhat doubtful. No authentic 
example appears to exist in collections, and Venturi, who recorded it from the 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Conover Collection. 4: Paraguay (Itape, 1; Molinasque, 1; Rio 
Tebicuary, 1; Horqueta, 1). 



Genus CHUBBIA Mathews 1 

Chubbia Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, (3), p. 291 (in text), Aug. 18, 1913 
type, by orig. desig., "G. stricklandi Gray" = Scolopax stricklandii G. R. 
Gray. 

Homoscolopax Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, (3), p. 291 (in text), Aug. 18, 
1913 type, by orig. desig., Gallinago imperial-is Sclater [and Salvin]. 

Chubbia imperialis (Sclater and Salvin). 2 IMPERIAL SNIPE. 

Gallinago imperialis Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 419 
Bogota, Colombia (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British 
Museum examined); iidem, Exot. Orn., p. 193, pi. 97, 1869 Bogota 
(fig. of type); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 664, 1896 Bogota. 

Scolopax imperialis Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 130 (crit.); idem, Geog. Distr. 
Charad., p. 491, 1887 Bogota (crit.). 

Homoscolopax imperialis A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 514 Bogotd 

(monog.). 
Chubbia imperialis Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 277, 1934 (range). 

Range. Colombia (known only from the unique type, a native 
Bogota skin). 

*Chubbia jamesoni (Bonaparte). JAMESON'S SNIPE. 

Xylocota jamesoni "Jard. et Bp." Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 
41, No. 17, p. 660, October, 1855 High Andes of Quito, Ecuador 
(cotypes originally in collection of Sir William Jardine, now in British 
Museum [ex Seebohm collection] and Liverpool Museum [ex Tristram 
collection] respectively); 3 idem, I.e., 43, p. 579, 1856. 

Gallinago sp. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 82, 1860 Panza, Chimbo- 
razo, Ecuador. 

Chaco as well as from Buenos Aires, evidently did not preserve any specimen. 
The origin of the bird in the British Museum, said to have been collected together 
with eggs by Mr. L. Hardy du Dre'ssent near Buenos Aires, is not established 
beyond doubt. It is certainly singular that this striking bird has never been ob- 
tained again in the well-explored region around the Argentine capital. 

1 Genus Chubbia Mathews: Like Scolopax in having the tarsus posteriorly 
covered with small hexagonal scales, but bill longer, tarsus much stouter, and tail 
composed of fourteen feathers. 

2 This remarkable bird is still known only from the type. Its differences from 
C. jamesoni have been well explained by Mrs. Meinertzhagen. We do not see 
any valid ground for its generic separation. 

3 Cf. Seebohm (Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 490 [note], 1887) and Tristram (Cat. 
Coll. Tristram, p. 11, 1889). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 161 

Gallinago jamesoni Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 196, 1869 Ecuador; 
iidem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 641 Cillutincara, Dept. La Paz, 
Bolivia; Taczanowski and Berlepsch, I.e., 1885, p. 112 Chimborazo, 
Ecuador; idem, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 376, 1886 (Peruvian localities); Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 661, 1896 Colombia (Sierra Nevada), Ecuador 
(Andes of Quito, Panza), and Bolivia (Cillutincara); Salvador! and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 45, 1900 Paredones and Mount 
Mirador (Huaca), Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1902, p. 231 Lloa (11,500 
ft.), Ecuador; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), 
p. 53 Maraynioc (Pariayacu) and Malao, Dept. Junfn, Peru; Me'ne'gaux, 
Miss. Serv. Ge"ogr. Armee Mes. Arc. Equat, 9, p. B. 9, 1911 Paramo 
of Pichincha; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 225, 1917 
Santa Isabel, Colombia; Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 268 Guallabamba (Chim- 
borazo), Pichincha, and Coraz6n, Ecuador; Lonnberg and Rendahl, 
Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 25, 1922 Pichincha; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 200, 1926 Mount Pichincha, Corazon, Mount Chimborazo, 
and Bestion, Ecuador. 

Scolopax jamesoni Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 130 (crit.); idem, Geog. Distr. 
Charad., p. 489, 1887 (crit.). 

Capella jamesoni Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 184, 1922 
Taquina, Santa Marta, Colombia; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
71, p. 376, 1931 Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia. 

Chubbia jamesoni A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 515 Colombia (Sierra 
Nevada), Venezuela, Ecuador to Bolivia (monog.; plumages); Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 278, 1934 (range). 

Chubbia jamesoni chapmani Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 50, p. 151, Sept. 10, 
1937 Santa Isabel, Quindio Andes, Colombia (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 1 

Range. Paramo zone of western Venezuela (Sierra of Me'rida), 
Colombia (Santa Marta Mountains and central Andes), Ecuador, 
Peru, and Bolivia (Dept. La Paz). 2 

Field Museum Collection. 2: Ecuador (Llanganate, Tunguragua, 
1; unspecified, 1). 

1 The variation in size seems too erratic to justify the segregation of C. j. 
chapmani, though birds from the central Andes of Colombia have, on average, 
longer bills, as may be gathered from the subjoined figuVes. No constant color- 
differences exist between specimens from so widely separated localities as northern 
Colombia (Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta) and Venezuela (Me'rida) on one side 
and Bolivia on the other. Males: Sierra Nevada of Santa 'Marta, Colombia, 87; 
Cordillera of Me'rida, Venezuela, 84; Ecuador (fourteen), 72-86; northern Peru 
(two), 77, 78; Maraynioc, Junfn, Peru, 90 H- Females: Santa Isabel, Colombia 
(three), 91-95K; Cordillera of Merida, Venezuela, 85; Ecuador (six), 79-85; 
Malao, Junfn, Peru, 91 H 5 Bolivia (two), 88, 93. 

2 The large snipe observed (but not collected) by Lane at Huasco and Sacaya, 
Tarapaca, northern Chile, which he erroneously referred to the Patagonian 
C. stricklandi (Ibis, 1897, p. 310), might have been C. jamesoni or else an unknown 
species. 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Conover Collection. 20: Venezuela (Paramo Frias, Merida, 2); 
Colombia (Nevada de Tolimo, 3); Ecuador (Pichincha, 3; Paramo 
del Pichincha, 9; Bosques Pichincha, 1; Cerro Guamani, 1); Bolivia 
(Cerro San Benito, Cochabamba, 1). 

*Chubbia stricklandii (G. R. Gray). STRICKLAND'S SNIPE. 

Scolopax stricklandii G. R. Gray, 1 Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, 1, Birds, 
Part 8, pi. 23, April, 1845 2 no locality stated (type, from Hermit Island, 
Cape Horn, in British Museum; cf. Sharpe, I.e., Part 22, p. 37, 1875); 
Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 130 (crit.); idem, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 488, 
1887 Cape Horn to Chile (crit.). 

Gallinago stricklandii(i) Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Ffs. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, 
p. 427, 1847 "Straits of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego" (ex Gray); 
Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, p. 18, 1864 (crit.); Philippi, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 277, 1868 Straits of Magellan, Chiloe", and Valdivia, Chile; 
Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 196, 1869 Hermit Island, Tierra del 
Fuego (Ant. Exp.), Orange Bay (ex Peale), Straits of Magellan, and 
Valdivia (ex Philippi); Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 15 
Swallow Bay, Straits of Magellan; Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, 
p. B. 293, 1891 Hermit Island and Swallow Bay (ex Sharpe); Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 660, 1896 Tierra del Fuego, Hermit Island 
(Martin's Cove), and Straits of Magellan (Swallow Bay, Puerto Bueno, 
Isthmus Bay); Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, 40, p. 625, 
1900 Punta Arenas, Straits of Magellan; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 8, p. 377, 1902 Tierra del Fuego; idem, I.e., 18, p. 221, 
1910 Tierra del Fuego; Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. 
Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 339, 1910 (descr.). 

Scolopax meridionalis Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 229, 1848 Orange Bay, 
Tierra del Fuego (type in United States National Museum); Cassin, I.e., 
2nd ed., 8, p. 310, pi. 35, fig. 1, 1858 same locality. 

Scolopax spectabilis Hartlaub, Naumannia, 3, p. 216, 1853 Hualves, Valdivia, 
Chile (type not preserved). 

Xylocota stricklandi Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 579, 
1856. 

Gallinago paludosa (not Scolopax paludosa Gmelin) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, pp. 332, 339 Chile. 

Gallinago nobilis (not of Sclater) Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 126, 
1891 Orange Bay and Wollaston Bay, Tierra del Fuego; Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 376, 1902 Orange Bay (ex Oustalet); 
idem, I.e., 18, p. 221, 1910 Tierra del Fuego (ex Oustalet). 

Gallinazo (sic) stricklandi Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Chile 
("rare in the central provinces"). 

1 Gallinago stricklandii Gray (List Spec. Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, p. 112, 1844) is 
a nomen nudum. 

2 Cf. Mathews, Ibis, 1930, pp. 120-121; 1938, p. 760. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 163 

Gallinago gigantea (not Scolopax gigantea Temminck) Wace, El Hornero, 2, 
p. 199, 1921 Falkland Islands. 

Capella stricklandi Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 324 Falkland Islands; Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 387, 1932 Ascension Island, 
Guaitecas Islands, Chile (range); Reynolds, Ibis, 1935, p. 87 Guffern, 
Freycinet, Deceit, Herschel, Jerdan, and Barnevelt Islands, Cape Horn 
(eggs descr.). 

Chubbia stricklandii A. Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1926, p. 512 (monog.); Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 278, 1934 (range). 

Range. Southern Chile from Valdivia 1 to Tierra del Fuego and 
the Cape Horn region; Falkland Islands. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Chile (Melinka, Ascension Island, 
Guaitecas Islands, 1). 

Genus SCOLOPAX Linnaeus 

Scolopax Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 145, 1758 type, by tautonymy, 

Scolopax ruslicola Linnaeus. 
Rusticola (not of Houttuyn, 1770) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 

6d., 3, p. 348, 1816 new name for Scolopax "Latham" (=Linnaeus). 
Rusticula "Gesner" Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 24, p. 124, 

1818 new name for Scolopax Linnaeus. 

Scolopax rusticola rusticola Linnaeus. EUROPEAN WOODCOCK. 

Scolopax Rusticola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 146, 1758 principally 
based on Faun. Svec., No. 141, Sweden; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 150, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 142, p. 54, 1927 
(life hist.). 

Rusticola vulgaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 3, p. 348, 1816 
new name for Scolopax rusticola "Latham" (=Linnaeus). 

Rusticola europaea Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 555, 1831 new name for Scolopax 
rusticola "Gmelin" (= Linnaeus). 

Scolopax rusticula Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 671, 1896 (monog.). 
Scolopax rusticola rusticola Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 278, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in Europe and Asia south to the Pyrenees, Alps, 
northern Balkans, Himalayas, Ussuri, and Japan; winters in the 
southern part of its breeding range, the Mediterranean region, Egypt, 

1 Whether the specimens picked up by H. Berkeley James in the market at 
Valparaiso really came from the vicinity of that city is extremely doubtful. No 
authentic record exists for the actual taking of this snipe in the central provinces 
of Chile, although it is ascribed to that section by Edwyn Reed with the caption 
"rare." 

2 Additional material examined. Tierra del Fuego: Orange Bay, 1; unspecified, 
1. Straits of Magellan: Swallow Bay, 1; Puerto Bueno, 1; Punta Arenas, 1. 
Hermit Island, 1 (the type). 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

India, Ceylon, southern China, and Japan; occasional in eastern 
North America (Newfoundland; Chambly, Quebec; Chester and 
Northampton counties, Pennsylvania; Shrewsbury, New Jersey; 
Loudoun County, Virginia). 

Genus PHILOHELA G. R. Gray 

Microptera (not of Gravenhorst, 1802) Nuttall, Man. Bds. U. S. and Canada, 
Water Birds, p. 192, 1832 type, by orig. desig., Rusticola minor =Scolopax 
minor Gmelin. 

Rusticola (not of Vieillot, 1816) Bonaparte, Geog. Comp. List, p. 52, 1838 
type, by monotypy, Scolopax minor Gmelin. 

Philohela G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds., 2nd ed., p. 90, 1841 type, by orig. 
desig., Scolopax minor Gmelin. 

*Philohela minor (Gmelin). AMERICAN WOODCOCK. 

Scolopax minor Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 661, 1789 based on "Little 
Woodcock" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 463, pi. 19, and Latham, Gen. 
Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 131, New York (ex Pennant) accepted as type locality; 
Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 504, 1887 (crit.). 

Microptera americana Audubon, Syn. Bds. N. Amer., p. 250, 1839 new name 
for Scolopax minor Gmelin. 

Philohela minor Reid, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 232, 1884 near Hamilton, 
Bermuda (Oct., 1842); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 679, 1896 
(monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 155, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Bradlee and Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 316, 
1931 Bermuda Islands (near Hamilton, Oct., 1842; near Old Ferry, 
St. George); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 279, 1934 (range); Pettingill, Mem. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 9, No. 2, pp. 173-392, pis. 12-21, 1936 (monog.; life 
hist.); Studholme and Norris, Auk, 59, p. 229, 1942 central Pennsylvania 
(breeding populations). 

Rubicola 1 minor Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 61, 1927 (life hist.). 

Range. Breeds (chiefly east of the 100th meridian) in southern 
Canada and the United States from southern Manitoba, northern 
Michigan, southern Ontario and Quebec, New Brunswick, and 
Nova Scotia south to eastern Texas (Sonolake), southern Louisiana, 
and northern Florida; winters from southern Missouri, the Ohio 
Valley, and southern New Jersey to the Gulf coast and Florida; 
casual in the Bermuda Islands (Hamilton; Old Ferry, St. George). 2 

1 Rubicola "Vieill." Jameson (in Jameson's ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., 3, p. 98, 
1831) seems to be a misprint for Rusticola Vieillot. 

2 The reported occurrence in Jamaica (cf. Rusticola minor Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, 
p. 354, 1847; Philohela minor March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 68) 
is too indefinite to be accepted without substantiation by specimens. 






1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 165 

Field Museum Collection. 60: Nova Scotia (Stony Hill, King's 
County, 1); Connecticut (New Haven County, 19; New Haven, 4; 
Woodbridge, 4; North Haven, 2; Orange, 2; Hamden, 1; Newtown, 
1; Stamford, 1; Watertown, 1; unspecified, 2); New York (Shelter 
Island, Suffolk County, 1) ; North Carolina (Raleigh, Wake County, 
1); Georgia (Alpharetta, 2; Roswell, 2); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 1); 
Ohio (Columbus, 1); Illinois (Chicago, 2; Worth, Cook County, 1; 
Hyde Park, Cook County, 1; Momence, 2; Deerfield, 1; Lake Forest, 
1; unspecified, 2); Indiana (Smith, La Porte County, 1); Iowa 
(Decorah, Winneshiek County, 1); Arkansas (Stuttgart, 2). 

Conover Collection. 11: New Brunswick (Scotch Lake, 1); 
Illinois (Tessville, Cook County, 2; Chicago, 2; Ravinia, Lake 
County, 4); Mississippi (Macon, Noxubee County, 2). 

Genus LYMNOCRYPTES Kaup 

Lymnocryptes Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierw., p. 118, 
1829 type, by monotypy, Scolopax gallinula Linnaeus =Scolopax minima 
Briinnich. 

Lymnocryptes minima (Briinnich). JACK SNIPE. 

Scolopax minima Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 49, 1764 Christianso, Denmark 
(quotes also "La Petite Beccasine" Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 303, pi. 26, fig. 2, 
France). 

Scolopax gallinula Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 244, 1766 based on 
"Gallinago minima" Bellon, Willoughby, etc., "La Petite Be"cassine" 
Brisson, etc., Europe. 

Limnocryptes gallinula Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 665, 1896 (monog.); 
Hanna, Condor, 22, p. 173, 1920 St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, 
Alaska (April, 1919). 

Lymnocryptes minimus Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 101, 1927 St. 
Paul, Pribilof Islands (habits; range); Austin, Auk, 46, p. 209, 1929 
Jack Lane's Bay, Labrador; McLean, Condor, 41, p. 164, 1939 Marys- 
ville Buttes, Butte County, California. 

Lymnocryptes minima Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 279, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in northern Europe and Asia from Norway east 
to the Kolyma Delta, south to Denmark, East Prussia, the Baltic 
States, central Russia, and Siberia; winters in western Europe, the 
Mediterranean region, Egypt, and southern Asia; accidental in 
Alaska (St. Paul, Pribilof Islands, April, 1919), California (Butte 
County) and Labrador (Jack Lane's Bay). 



166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Subfamily EROLIINAE. Sandpipers 
Genus CALIDRIS Merrem 

Calidris Anonymous= Merrem, 1 Allg. Lit. Zeitung, 2, No. 168, col. 542, 
June 8, 1804 type, by tautonymy, Tringa calidris Gme\in=Tringa canutus 
Linnaeus. 

Canutus Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 653, 1831 type, by tau- 
tonymy, Tringa canutus Linnaeus. 

Anteliotringa Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, (3), p. 274, Aug. 18, 1913 type, 
by orig. desig., Totanus tenuirostris Horsfield. 

Canus Riley, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 54, p. 613, Oct., 1918 (lapsus for Canutus 
Brehm). 

*Calidris canutus rufus (Wilson). 2 AMERICAN KNOT. 

Tringa rufa Wilson, 3 Amer. Orn., 7, p. 43, pi. 57, fig. 5, 1813 Middle Atlantic 
States=New Jersey (type evidently lost). 

Tringa cinerea (not of Bninnich) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 735, 
1833 sea coast of eastern Brazil. 

Tringa canutus(a) (not of Linnaeus) Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 758, 1849 coast of British Guiana; Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 373, 1856 sea shore of Brazil; LSotaud, 
Ois. Trinidad, p. 468, 1866 Trinidad (Aug. to Oct.); Seebohm, Geog. 
Distr. Charad., p. 422, 1887 part, America; Cory, Auk, 4, p. 365, 1887 
West Indian references and localities; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 236, 1889 
West Indies; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 593, 1896 part, North 
America (except Alaska), and Barbados; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 
4, p. 660, 1898 Cabo Espiritu Santo, Tierra del Fuego (Feb.); Ihering, 
Ann. Est. Rio Grando do Sul, 16, p. 150, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul, 
Brazil (descr.); idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, p. 288, 1902 Iguape", Sao 
Paulo; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 251, 1905 Barbados (Dec. 7, 
17, 27, 1886; Sept. 6, 1888); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 55, 1907 

1 Cf. Schnurre, Orn. Monatsber., 39, pp. 65-68, 1931. 

2 Calidris canutus rufus (Wilson) differs from the nominate race by paler 
rusty under parts and somewhat lighter dorsal surface, the pale edgings to the 
feathers being broader as well as more whitish. Brazilian winter birds are like- 
wise more heavily mottled with white above than European specimens, as are 
immatures from eastern North America. 

Riley (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 54, p. 613, 1918) refers Alaskan specimens as 
well as a single male from Fort Simpson, Mackenzie (May 13), to the doubtfully 
separable C. c. rogersi Mathews (Birds Australia, 3, (3), pp. 270, 273, pi. 163, 
Aug. 18, 1913 "Siberia [breeding], migrating to Australia in winter"), for which 
an earlier name may exist in Tringa lomatina "Lichtenstein" Bonaparte (Compt. 
Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, No. 12, p. 596, 1856 no locality; type, from Bengal, 
in Berlin Museum; cf. Lichtenstein, Nomencl. Mus. Berol., p. 92, 1854), charac- 
terized as differing from T. canutus Linnaeus by "rostro longiore," an indication 
which takes it out of the class of nomina nuda. 

3 Tringa australis Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 679, 1789 based on "Southern 
Sandpiper" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 187; Cayenne), while possibly 
an earlier name, is not identifiable with certainty. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 167 

Iguape", Sao Paulo; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 308, 1908 Surinam; 
Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 251, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires 
(Nov. 1, 1901); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 220, 
1910 Tierra del Fuego (Cabo Espiritu Santo) and province of Buenos 
Aires; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 468 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (Dec. 
19, 1908). 

Tringa canuti Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, 
p. 94, 1910 coast of Piauhy, Brazil (Sept. 19, 1903). 

Canutus canutus rufus Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, (3), p. 273 (in text), 
1913 America (crit.); Oberholser, Auk, 34, p. 200, 1917 (crit.); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 90, 1928 Lower California (near La 
Paz, Sept. 19, 24, 1923; near San Felipe, Apr. 2, 1926); Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 494, 1929 near Amaragao, Piauhy 
(Sept.); Zotta, El Hornero, 7, p. 48, 1938 San Clemente, Ajo, Argentina. 

Canutus canutus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 231, 1919 
part, North America (except Alaska and Pacific coast) and South America 
(monog.; full bibliog.). 

Calidris canutus Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 120, 1920 winter range in 
province of Buenos Aires, Argentina (Barracas al Sud, Nov. 1, 8; Cape 
San Antonio, Dec. 19; Pereyra, Feb. 22) and Tierra del Fuego (Cabo 
Espiritu Santo, Feb.). 

Tringa canuti rufa Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, 
p. 227, 1923 Piauhy (crit.). 

Calidris canutus rufus Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 157, 1926 
south of Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (Nov. 7); Bent, I.e., 142, p. 131, 
1927 part, except Alaska, Pacific coast of North America and Greenland 
(life hist.); Bradlee, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 317, 1931 Bermuda 
Islands (Sept., 1911); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 280, 1934 part; Belcher 
and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 292 Trinidad; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, 
p. 148, 1938 Iguape", Sao Paulo (Nov.); Conover, Condor, 45, p. 229, 
1943 (dist. chars.; range). 

Range. Breeds from northern Ellesmere Land south to south- 
eastern Victoria Island and Melville Peninsula; migrates along the 
Atlantic coast of America and more sparingly throughout the interior 
(in the West Indies recorded only from Jamaica, Barbados, and 
Trinidad) to South America, where it has been found wintering at 
various scattered localities on the coasts of (?)Peru (Santa Lucia, 
Tumbez, Oct. 31), (?)Chile (Arica, Tacna, Sept. 21), Brazil (Ama- 
racao, Piauhy, Sept. 19; Iguape", Sao Paulo, Nov.; Rio Grande do 
Sul), Argentina (province of Buenos Aires, Feb., Nov., Dec.), and 
Tierra del Fuego (Cape Espiritu Santo, Feb.). 

Field Museum Collection. 76: Canada (Magdalen Islands, 
Quebec, 7; Toronto, Ontario, 2; Lake Johnson, Saskatchewan, 7); 
Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 19; unspecified, 1); Connecticut 
(West Haven, 1); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 11; 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pea Island, 19) ; Georgia (Mclntosh County, 1) ; Florida (Canaveral, 
Brevard County, 2; Grove City, De Soto County, 1); North Dakota 
(Graham Island, Ramsey County, 1); Texas (San Patricio County, 1; 
Nueces County, 3). 

Conover Collection. 22: Canada (Victoria Land, 5; Beaverhill 
Lake, Alberta, 4); Illinois (Waukegan, 1); Indiana (Miller, 4; Wolf 
Lake, 2); New York (Cayuga, 2; Cayuga Lake, 1); South Carolina 
(Dewee's Island, Charleston County, 1 ; Mount Pleasant, Charleston 
County, 1); Mexico (La Paz, Lower California, I). 1 

*Calidris canutus canutus (Linnaeus). EUROPEAN KNOT. 

Tringa Canutus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 149, 1758 Europe, restricted 
type locality Sweden. 

Tringa canutus(a) Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, p. 11 Greenland; (?)Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 748 Santa Lucia, Tumbez, Peru (Oct. 
31); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 593, 1896 part, Greenland and 
Alaska; Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 167, 1898 Greenland; Manniche, 
I.e., 45, No. 1, p. 130, 1910 Stormkap, northeastern Greenland (breeding 
habits). 

Tringa islandica (not of Linnaeus) Holboell, Naturhist. Tidskr., 4, p. 407, 
1843 Greenland. 

Canutus canutus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 231, 1919 
part, Alaska, west coast North America and Greenland (full bibliog.); 
(?)Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 199, 1926 Santa Lucia, 
Peru. 

Calidris canutus rufus Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 131, 1927 part, 
Alaska, west coast of North America and Greenland; Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 280, 1934 part, Greenland and Pacific coast of North America; 
(?)Philippi, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 40, p. 104, 1937 Chile; (?)idem, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 55, 1938 Playa de Arica, Tacna, Chile 
(Sept. 21). 

Calidris canutus L0ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, p. 57, 1932 Green- 
land (crit.); Pederson, I.e., 100, No. 11, p. 19, 1934 northeastern Green- 
land (breeding); Congreve, Ibis, 1935, p. 435 Roseneath Bay, eastern 
Greenland (nesting). 

Canutus canutus canutus Bird and Congreve, Bull. Brit. Ool. Assoc., 5, p. 86, 
1938 Greenland (eggs described). 

Calidris canutus canutus Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 145 northeastern Greenland; 
Conover, Condor, 45, p. 228, 1943 (dist. chars.; range). 

Range. Breeds in Greenland (Spitzbergen and across Arctic 
Europe and Siberia) to Point Barrow, Alaska. Migrates down the 
Pacific coast of North America and probably also the west coast 
of South America (and through Europe and Asia). 

1 This specimen, an immature in fresh plumage, is typical of rufus, suggesting 
that both races may winter on the Pacific coast of Central and South America. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 169 

Field Museum Collection. 11: Alaska (Barrow, 4; 1 St. Michaels, 
2); California (Humboldt Bay, 1; Trinidad, Humboldt County, 1; 
Pacific Beach, San Diego County, 2; Moss Landing, Monterey 

County, 1). 

Conover Collection. 4: Alaska (Golovin Bay, Norton Sound, 2; 
Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 1); California (Anaheim Landing, Orange 
County, 1). 

Calidris tenuirostris (Horsfield). ASIATIC KNOT. 

Totanus tenuirostris Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 13, (1), p. 192, 1821 
Java (type in British Museum; cf. Mathews, Birds Australia, 3, p. 277, 
1913, and Hartert, Vog. Palae. Fauna, 2, p. 1588, 1920). 

Schoeniclus magnus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 16, p. 39, Nov. 14, 1848 
Australia (type in British Museum). 

Tringa crassirostris Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Japon., Aves, 
Part 9, p. 107, pi. 64, 1849 Japan (cotypes in Leyden Museum; cf. 
Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopacidae, p. 28, 1864); Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 600, 1896 (monog.). 

Calidris tenuirostris Bailey, Condor, 26, p. 195, 1924 Cape Prince of Wales, 
Alaska (May 28, 1922); idem, I.e., 27, p. 236, 1925 (same record); Bent, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 145, 1927 (ex Bailey); Portenko, Arctica 
(Leningrad), 1, p. 75, col. pi., 1933 Anadyrland (breeding range; habits); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 280, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in the alpine zone of northeastern Siberia; 
winters in India, the Malay Archipelago, Moluccas, and Australia; 
accidental in Alaska (Cape Prince of Wales, May 28, 1922). 

Genus CROCETHIA Billberg 

Arenaria (not of Brisson, 1760) Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., 2, p. 462a, 1803 

type, by monotypy, Arenaria 'vulgaris Bechstein -Tringa arenaria Linnaeus. 
Calidris (not of Merrem, 1804) Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mam. Av., p. 249, 1811 

type, by tautonymy and monotypy, Charadrius calidris Linnaeus=Trynga 

alba Pallas. 
Crocethia Billberg, Syn. Faunae Scand., 1, (2), p. 132, tab. A, 1828 new 

name for Calidris Illiger. 

*Crocethia alba (Pallas). SANDERLING. 

Trynga (alba) Pallas, in Vroeg's Cat. Rais. d'Ois., Adumbr., p. 7, 1764 
coast of North Sea. 

1 The Bishop Collection in Field Museum contains a downy young knot taken 
at Barrow, Alaska, on July 17, 1936. 

Additional specimens examined Alaska: St. Michaels, 7; Wainwright, 1; 
Port Safety, 2; Sitka, 1. Washington, Long Beach, 1. Greenland: Parker Snow 
Bay, 4; unspecified, 4. 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII - 

Tringa arenaria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 251, 1766 based on 
"Arenaria" Willoughby (Orn., p. 225), "La Petite Maubeche grise" 
Brisson (Orn., 5, p. 236, pi. 20, fig. 2), etc., Europe; Des Murs, in Gay, 
Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 425, 1847 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 276, 1868 Chile. 

Tringa calidris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 255, 1766 based on 
"La Petite Maubeche grise" Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 236, pi. 20, fig. 2, 
coast (type in Mauduyt Collection). 

Charadrius rubidus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 688, 1789 based on "Rude 
Plover" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 486, and Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 
3, (1), p. 195, Hudson's Bay. 

Arenaria vulgaris Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., 2, p. 462a, 1803 new name 
for Tringa arenaria Linnaeus. 

(l)Totanus nigellus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 6, p. 409, 
1816 based on "Chorlito pies roxos" Azara, No. 402, Paraguay. 

Calidris americana Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 675, 1831 
North America to Brazil (type, from Brazil, in Tring Collection [cf. 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 25, p. 54, 1918], now in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York). 

Calidris arenaria Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 750, 1833 sea shore 
of eastern Brazil; Holboell, Naturhist. Tidskr., 4, p. 406, 1843 Disco 
and Nanortalik, Greenland; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 12, p. 157,' 
1844 Chile; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 758, 1849 sand banks of the Waini River; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 371, 1856 sea coast of middle Brazil; Reinhardt, Ibis, 
1861, p. 11 Disco Island, Greenland (breeding); Pelzeln, Reise Novara, 
Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 131, 1865 Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, p. 339 Chile; idem and Salvin, I.e., 1868, pp. 176, 570 Tambo 
Valley, Arequipa, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 312, 1870 Sao Paulo 
(Ypanema, Nov.) and Para (Cajutuba), Brazil; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 560 Chorillos, Peru; Feilden, Ibis, 1877, p. 406 
Grinnell Land and Smith Sound (habits, nest, eggs, and downy young 
descr.); Durnford, I.e., 1878, p. 404 Tambo Point, Chubut (Dec. 30); 
Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 16 Talcaguano, Chile (Sept.); 
Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 429 Coquimbo Bay, Chile (Nov.); Cory, Auk, 4, 
p. 315, 1887 West Indian references and localities; idem, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 236, 1889 West Indies; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 109, 
1889 "lower Beni, Bolivia (Aug. 1886)" j 1 Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, 
p. 210, 1896 Chile; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 526, 766, 
1896 (monog.); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 170, 1898 Greenland; 
Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 659, 1898 Cavancha (Iquique), 
Tarapaca, Chile (May); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 437, 1899 
IguapS, Sao Paulo; Dwight, Auk, 17, p. 379, 1900 (plumages); Salvadori 
and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 44, 1900 Santa 
Elena, Ecuador (Jan.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
3, p. 385, 1903 Mexico (various localities), British Honduras (Cays), 

1 Label no doubt interchanged, as is the case with other specimens in the 
same collection. The bird was probably obtained on the Chilean coast. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 171 

and Guatemala (Carranza, Chiapam, Rio Nagualate); Allen, Auk, 21, 
p. 79, 1904 (example with hind toes); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, 
p. 252, 1905 Lesser Antilles (Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada); Clarke, 
Brit. Bds., 3, p. 33, 1909 (col. pi. of chick); Hartertand Venturi, Nov. 
Zool., 16, p. 251, 1909 San Vicente, Buenos Aires (Jan. 1); Manniche, 
Medd. Gr0nl., 45, No. 1, p. 139, pis. 4-6, 1910 Stormkap, Greenland 
(breeding habits; chicks and eggs descr.; fig.); Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 95, 1910 Amaracao, Piauhy 
(Sept. 14, 15); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 
2, Orn., p. 316, 1910 Tambo Point, Chubut; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 469 
Cape San Antonio (Dec. 19) and Tuyu, Ajo (Jan. 12), Buenos Aires; 
Madsen, Dansk. Orn. Foren. Tidssk., 19, p. 37, 1925 (nesting in eastern 
Greenland); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 28, 1927 San Rafael, Mendoza 
(May). 

Calidris grisea Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 276, 1868 Chile; Gigoux, 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 87, 1924 Caldera, Atacama, Chile. 

Calidris alba Richmond, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 347, 1903 (crit.) ; Berlepsch, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. 307, 1908 (no record from French Guiana); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 308, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); 
Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 14, 1920 Colonia, San Jose, Montevideo, 
Canelones, and Maldonado, Uruguay; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
32, p. 92, 1928 Lower California (winter visitant). 

Arenaria alba Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 53, 1907 Sao Sebastiao, Rio 
Parana, and Itapura, Sao Paulo. 

Calidris leucophaea 1 American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, 25, 
p. 367, 1908 (nomencl.); Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 266 Callao (Jan. 12) 
and Trujillo (Oct. 20, March 12), Peru. 

Arenaria arenaria Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 219, 1910 
Patagonia, Misiones, and Buenos Aires. 

Crocethia alba Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 121, 1920 Misiones (Nov. 30), 
Buenos Aires (San Vicente, Jan. 1; La Plata, Nov.; Cape San Antonio, 
Dec. 19; Tuyu, Ajo, Jan. 12), Chubut (Tambo Point, Dec. 30), Uruguay, 
Chile (Cavancha, May), and Brazil (Sao Paulo); Daguerre, I.e., p. 263, 
1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Wilson, I.e., 3, p. 352, 1926 Venado Tuerto, 
Santa Fe; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 199, 1926 Esmeraldas 
and Santa Elena (Feb. 15), Ecuador; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
133, p. 153, 1926 Buenos Aires (south of Cape San Antonio, Nov. 6) 
and Chile (Concon, Valparaiso, Apr. 29); idem, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. 
Agric., 26, p. 11, 1927 (same localities); idem, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and 
Virgin Islands, 9, p. 374, 1927 Puerto Rico, St. Croix, and Anegada 
(rare transient); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 265, 1927 (life hist.); 
Wetmore and Swales, I.e., 155, p. 167, 1931 Hispaniola (transient); 
Bradlee, Mowbray and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 319, 1931 
Bermuda Islands (autumn transient); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
18, p. 60, 1931 Galapagos (winter); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 

1 "Tringa leucophaea" Anonymous (in Vroeg's Cat. Rais. d'Ois., p. 32, 1764 
northern coast of Holland) is not binomial. Cf. Stone, Auk, 29, pp. 205-208, 
1912. 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Zool. Ser., 19, p. 395, 1932 Chile (Caldera, Atacama, Apr. 11-18; Papudo, 
Aconcagua, Dec. 8; Cucao, Chiloe 1 Island, Dec. 25); Griscom, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 64, p. 135, 1932 Ocos, Guatemala (Sept., Oct.); L0ppenthin, 
Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, p. 62, 1932 Greenland (meas.; breeding habits); 
Pedersen, I.e., 100, No. 11, p. 20, 1934 northeastern Greenland (breed- 
ing habits); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 281, 1934 (range); Belcher and 
Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 292 Trinidad and Tobago (winter); Bullock, 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 247, 1935 Isla la Mocha, Chile; Philippi, 
El Hornero, 6, p. 235, 1936 Playa de Arica, Tacna, Chile (July); Pinto, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 140, 1938 Rio de Janeiro (Atafona, Nov.) and 
Sao Paulo (Sao Sebastiao, Nov.; Rio Parana, Nov.; Ypiranga, Dec.); 
Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 56, 1938 Arica, Tacna, Chile 
(Apr., June); Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
23, p. 178, 1938 Puerto del Triunfo (Jan. 14) and Barra de Santiago 
(Apr. 4), El Salvador; Hamilton, Ibis, 1939, p. 139 Falkland Islands; 
Bird and Bird, I.e., 1941, p. 148, pi. 3 (nest and eggs) Greenland. 

Range. Breeds in Arctic islands north of North America, 
Southampton Island, and northern Greenland, also along the Arctic 
coast of Siberia to Spitsbergen; in the western hemisphere winters 
from California, the Gulf coast, and Virginia south to southern Chile 
(Chiloe" Island) and southern Argentina (Tambo Point, Chubut). 
Falkland Islands. 

Field Museum Collection. 214: Alaska (Barrow, 4; St. Michaels, 
1); Arctic America (Franklin Bay, Mackenzie, 1); Saskatchewan 
(Maple Creek, 3; Lake Johnson, 1; Quill Lake, 1); Manitoba (Sandy 
Bay, 1); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 4); Nova Scotia (Barrington, 2); 
North Dakota (Stump Lake, Nelson County, 5; Rocklake, Towner 
County, 1); Illinois (Lake Forest, 1; Waukegan, 4; Chicago, 1); 
Indiana (Miller, Lake County, 4); Michigan (Harbert, Berrien 
County, 1; Mears, Oceana County, 1); New York (Cayuga Lake, 1; 
Fair Haven, Cayuga County, 1) ; Mississippi (Ocean Springs, Jackson 
County, 1); Texas (Corpus Christi, 3; Port Lavaca, Calhoun County, 
2; Cameron County, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 45; 
Chatham, 4; Cohasset, 1; Martha's Vineyard, 1); New Hampshire 
(Seabrook, 1); Connecticut (New Haven County, 1; West Haven, 2; 
Branford, 1; Fairfield Beach, Fairfield County, 1); California (Sun- 
set Beach, Orange County, 17; Hyperion, Los Angeles County, 7; 
Redondo Beach, Los Angeles County, 3; Laguna de la Merced, San 
Mateo County, 1; Westport, Mendocino County, 1; San Francisco, 1; 
Pacific Grove, Monterey County, 6; Moss Landing, Monterey 
County, 5; Carmel, Monterey County, 2; Del Monte Forest, Monte- 
rey County, 1; La Patera Point, Santa Barbara County, 1; The 
Rincon, Ventura County, 2; Pacific Beach, San Diego County, 4; 
San Diego, 1); North Carolina, Dare County (Pea Island, 29; 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 173 

Bodie Island, 4); Florida (southern part, 1; Mary Esther, Okaloosa 
County, 3; East Pass, Okaloosa County, 1; Amelie Island, Nassau 
County, 5; Eau Gallic, Brevard County, 1); Bahama Islands (Acklin 
Island, 1; Andros Island, 6); Lesser Antilles (Anegada, 1; St. Chris- 
topher, 1); Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 1); Chile (Puerto Ingles, 
Atacama, 2; Caldera, Atacama, 2; Penco, 2). 

Conover Collection. 29: British Columbia (Masset, Queen Char- 
lotte Islands, 2) ; Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 1) ; North Dakota 
(Stump Lake, Nelson County, 1); Massachusetts (East Orleans, 
Barnstable County, 3); New York (Cayuga, 1; Cayuga Lake, 1); 
Illinois (Beach, Lake County, 1); Indiana (Miller, Lake County, 7); 
Florida (Amelie Island, Nassau County, 2; Nassau County, 1); 
California (Anaheim Landing, Orange County, 4; Sunset Beach, 
Orange County, 1; Moss Landing, Monterey County, 1; Carpenteria, 
Ventura County, 1); Mexico (Todos Santos, Lower California, 1); 
Chile (Papudo, Aconcagua, 1). 

Genus EREUNETES Illiger 1 

Ereunetes Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mam. Av., p. 262, 1811 type, by monotypy, 
Ereunetes petrificatus l\\\ger=Tringa pusilla Linnaeus. 

Symphemia Rafinesque, Journ. Physique, 88, p. 418, June, 1819 type, by 
orig. desig., Tringa semipalmata Wilson=T. pusilla Linnaeus (cf. Rich- 
mond, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 75, 1905). 

Hemipalama Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, p. 87, 1825 type, 
by orig. desig., Tringa semipalmata Wilson =T r . pusilla Linnaeus. 

Heteropoda Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, Water Birds, p. 135, 1834 
type, by orig. desig., Tringa semipalmata Wilson =T. pusilla Linnaeus. 

*Ereunetes pusillus (Linnaeus). SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa pusilla Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 252, 1766 based on 
"La Petite Alouette-de-mer de S. Domingue" Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 222, 
pi. 25, fig. 2, Santo Domingo (type in Reaumur Collection). 

Ereunetes petrificatus Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mam. Av., p. 262, 1811 Bahia, 
Brazil (type in Berlin Museum) (cf. Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 421 [in 
text], 1856); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 592 
Mexiana, Brazil; Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 83, 1876 Marajo, Brazil 
(Aug.); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 429 Paracas Bay, Peru 
(Oct.). 2 

Tringa semipalmata Wilson, Amer. Orn., 7, p. 131, pi. 63, fig. 4, 1813 Lake 
Champlain, New York, and coast of New Jersey (type lost). 

1 For osteological characters and affinities, cf. Lowe, Ibis, 1915, pp. 609-616. 

2 Dr. G. C. Low writes that these specimens are certainly pusillus, the bill 
measuring 19 mm. in the male, 19.5 mm. in the female. 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tringa brevirostris Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 76, pi. 92 (not 93, as 
quoted), 1825 no locality stated (type lost; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 
Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, p. 715, 1906). 

Pelidna Brissonii Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 277, 1828 new name for Tringa 
pusilla Linnaeus. 

Ereunetes semipalmatus Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
"1848," p. 758, 1849 sand banks along the coast; Cabanis and Gundlach, 
Journ. Orn., 4, p. 419, 1856 Cuba (descr.; Sept. to April); Pelzeln, Orn. 
Bras., 3, p. 312, 1870 Praia de Cajutuba, Para, Brazil (Mar., April). 

Hemipalama minor (Gundlach MS.) Lembeye, Aves Isla Cuba, p. 97, 1850 
Cuba (type in Gundlach Collection); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 420 
(in text), 1856 Cuba (crit.). 

Ereunetes pusillus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, p. 233 (crit., 
nomencl.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 177, 1884 Sabanilla, 
Colombia; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 402, 1887 Cayenne, Bahia, 
and Patagonia, "Unevo Gulf (lat. 43 south)"=Bahia Nueva, Chubut 
(crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 77, 1894 Moruga, Trini- 
dad; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 514, 766, 1896 part, North 
and Central America, Cayenne (spec, e 4 , f 4 , f 6 ), Brazil (Bahia), and Pata- 
gonia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 126, 1900 Cienaga, Colombia; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 382, 1903 part, 
Guatemala (Duenas, San Jose) and Panama; Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 
47, p. 280, 1904 Barbuda (Sept. 22); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
32, p. 252, 1905 Barbados, St. Vincent, and Grenada (mid-July to Nov.); 
Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 102, 1906 San Jose 1 , Costa Rica 
(Sept. 15); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 307, 1908 Cayenne, French 
Guiana (Oct. 19); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 197, 
237, 1909 Aruba and Margarita Island; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. 
Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 95, 1910 Amaragao, Piauhy, Brazil (Sept. 
16, 19); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 421, 1910 Coronado de 
Terraba, Costa Rica (July 3); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 219, 1910 Patagonia; Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 7, p. 52, 
1911 Thomas Bay, southeast Alaska (Aug. 19; crit.); Murphy, Auk, 29, 
p. 238, 1912 (albino); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 91, 1914 
Marajo (Ilha dos Machados, Santa Anna), Brazil; Brooks, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 59, p. 380, 1915 between Collinson Point and Herschel 
Island, and Hula-hula River, Arctic coast, Alaska (breeding; descr. of 
nest); Hersey, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 66, No. 2, p. 24, 1916 Imaruk Basin, 
Alaska (July 28); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1918, p. 245 
Toro Point, Panama (Sept. 4); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 210, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 125, 
1920 Patagonia ("Rio Chubut, March") ; Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 184, 1922 Buritaca and Rio Hacha, Santa Marta, 
Colombia; Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 42, 1922 Lagunillas, Merida, Venezuela (May 10); (?)Housse, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 51, 1924 Isla la Mocha, Arauco, Chile; Bailey, 
Condor, 28, p. 34, 1926 Wainwright and Lopp Lagoon (nesting), Alaska; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 198, 1926 Esmeraldas (Oct. 
23) and Chone (Dec. 14), Ecuador (crit.); Conover, Auk, 43, p. 308, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 175 

1926 Point Ball, Alaska (nesting with E. mauri; courtship and young 
different); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 244, 1927 (life hist.); 
Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 372, 1927 
Mona, Puerto Rico, St. Croix, St. Thomas, and Anegada (migratory 
transient); idem, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 26, p. 10, 1927-Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay; idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 165, 
1931 Hispaniola (migrant); Bradlee, Mowbray, and Eaton, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 39, p. 318, 1931 Bermuda Islands (late July to October); 
(?)Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 51, 1932 Isla la 
Mocha, Chile (ex Housse); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, 
p 209, 1932 Prinzapolka, Nicaragua (May 7); Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 281, 1934 (range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 292 Trinidad 
and Tobago (winter); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 308, 1935 
Panama (winter); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 141, 1938 (range in 
Brazil); Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, 
p. 177, 1938 Puerto del Triunfo, El Salvador (Dec. 21-Jan. 6); Philippi, 
Bol Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 56, 1938 Vegas de Chacalluta, Tacna, 
Chile (Sept. 21); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 29, 1943 Mackenzie 
Delta (breeding); Bray, Auk, 60, p. 525, 1943 Southampton Island 
(nesting); Soper, I.e., 63, p. 231, 1946 Baffin Island (nesting). 
Heteropoda semipalmata Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 477, 1866 Trinidad. 
Ereunetes pusillus pusillus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 54, 1906 Seelet 

(April) and Caroni Swamp (March), Trinidad. 
Erolia pusilla Ticehurst, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 53, p. 206, 1933 (downy young 

descr.). 

Range Breeds from extreme northeastern Siberia (Plover Bay) 
across Arctic North America to southwestern Baffinland, south to 
Point Ball, Alaska, Hudson Bay (Severn River), and northern 
Labrador; winters from the Gulf and southern Atlantic coasts of 
the United States through Central America and the West Indies to 
Colombia (Sabanilla), western Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Chone), Peru 
(Paracas Bay), northern Chile (Chacalluta, Tacna), Venezuela 
(Lagunillas, MeYida), French and British Guiana, and Brazil 
(Marajo and Mexiana Islands; Cajutuba, Para; Amaragao, Piauhy; 
Bahia); occasional in Patagonia (one record from Bahia Nueva, lat. 
43 S., Chubut), 1 and (?)southern Chile (Isla la Mocha). 

Field Museum Collection. 184: Alaska (Barrow, 2; Chipp River, 
Barrow, 2; Collinson Point, Barrow, 2; Nome, 1); British Columbia 
(Okanagan, 4; Sumas, 1); Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 5; Quill 
Lake, 1) ; Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 4) ; Nova Scotia (Barrington, 
2; Clark's Harbor, 5); Montana (Miles City, 1); North Dakota 

1 The specimen now in the British Museum (ex Coll. Seebohm) is labeled 
"Unevo Gulf, Patagonia, March, 1883, female, Capt Harrison. The locality 
should really read "Nuevo Gulf"=Bahla Nueva. Sharpe (I.e.,. p. 766) credits 
the bird to Henry Durnford, who had died several years before it was collected. 



176 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Towner County, 16; Stump Lake, Nelson County, 8); Colorado 
(Fort Lyon, Bent County, 3); Iowa (Burlington, 1); Wisconsin 
(Beaver Dam, 8; Edithton Beach, Kenosha County, 1; Lake Kosh- 
konong, 1); Illinois, Lake County (Grass Lake, 1; Libertyville, 1); 
Michigan (Harbert, 1); New York (Jamaica Bay, 1; Cayuga Lake, 2) ; 
Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 32; Cape Cod, 1; Cohasset, 1; 
Chatham, 1; Everett, 1); Rhode Island (Point Judith, Washington 
County, 1); Connecticut (New Haven County, 31; Guilford, 5; 
West Haven, 2; North Haven, 4; East Hartford, 1) ; Virginia (Buckree 
Beach, Elizabeth City County, 1); North Carolina (Pea Island, 
Dare County, 8) ; Florida (West Jupiter, 4) ; Bahama Islands (Great 
Inagua, 4); Jamaica (Grand Cayman, 1); Lesser Antilles (Dominica, 
2; Guadeloupe, 2); Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 3); Costa Rica 
(Piedra de Blanca, Guanacaste, 4); Venezuela (Margarita Island, 1). 

Conover Collection. 30: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 6); 1 
Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 2); Manitoba (Churchill, 2); 
Massachusetts (East Orleans, Barnstable County, 10); New York 
(Cayuga Lake, 2); Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, Guanacaste, 2); 
Ecuador (Rio San Antonio, Sur, Province de los Rios, 5); British 
Guiana (Buxton, Demerara, 1). 

*Ereunetes mauri Cabanis. WESTERN SANDPIPER. 

Ereunetes Mauri Cabanis, 2 Journ. Orn., 4, p. 420, 1856 South Carolina (May) 3 
(type in Berlin Museum); Allen, Auk, 23, p. 98 (in text), 1906 (crit.; 
nomencl.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 421, 1910 Barranca de 
Puntarenas, Costa Rica (ex Bangs); Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 7, 
p. 53, 1911 Kuiu Island, Prince of Wales Island, Coronation and Warren 
Islands, Alaska (Apr. 28-May 23); Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
59, p. 381, 1915 East Cape (July 14) and Cape Serdze (July 16), north- 
eastern Siberia; Hersey, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 66, No. 2, p. 24, 1916 
Norton Sound to the Yukon mouth (breeding); Brooks, Auk, 34, p. 36, 
1917 Chilliwack, British Columbia (crit.; migratory visitor); Bartsch, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 132, 1917 near Port-au-Prince, Haiti 
(April 25); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 215, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 184, 1922 
Buritaca (Sept. 20) and Punto Caiman (Sept. 28, Oct. 1), Colombia; 

1 Four downy young. 

*Heteropoda mauri Bonaparte (Geog. Comp. List, p. 49, 1838) is a nomen 
nudum. 

3 Cabanis's remarks on the longer bill and slightly larger measurements 
(which make his name identifiable), were exclusively based upon the specimens 
shot by himself in South Carolina, for he expressly states (p. 421) that he has 
not yet seen any from Cuba. Accordingly, South Carolina is the type locality, 
and not Cuba, as claimed by authors (cf. also Palmer, Condor, 33, pp. 243-244, 
1931). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 177 

Danforth, Auk, 42, p. 562, 1925 Cartagena Lagoon, Puerto Rico (Aug. 
26); Bailey, Condor, 28, p. 35, 1926 Nome, Wales, and Point Barrow, 
Alaska (nesting); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 198, 1926 
Bahia de Caraques (Feb. 24), Chone (Dec. 14), and Jambeli (Oct. 31), 
Ecuador (crit.); Conover, Auk, 43, p. 309, 1926 Hooper Bay, Alaska 
(common nester with E. pusillus; incubation period); Bent, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 142, p. 255, 1927 (life hist.); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(4), 16, p. 14, 1927 Labrados and San Bias, Mexico; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 373, 1927 Cartagena Lagoon, Puerto 
Rico; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 92, 1928 Lower California 
(spring and fall migrant); Peters, Auk, 47, p. 562, 1930 Massachusetts 
(in spring); Palmer, Condor, 33, p. 243, 1931 (nomencl. hist.); Wetmore 
and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 166, 1931 Hispaniola (Port- 
au-Prince, Apr. 25; Seven Brothers Islands, Feb. 1, 2); Griscom, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 135, 1932 Guatemala; Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 281, 1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 308, 1935 
Pacific coast of Panama; Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 292 Trini- 
dad; Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 177, 
1938 El Salvador (Puerto del Triunfo, Dec. 31 to Jan. 6; Barra de 
Santiago, Apr. 1); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 87, p. 193, 1939 
Ocumare de la Costa, Venezuela (Oct. 22-31). 

Tringa Cabanisii Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 420 (in text), 1856 South 
Carolina (May) (type in Berlin Museum). 1 

Ereunetes occidentalis Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for April, 1864, 
p. 107, June 30, 1864 "Pacific coast, California, Oregon" (type, from 
San Francisco, California, in collection of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 272, 1932); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, 
p. 178, 1884 Sabanilla, Colombia; Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, 
p. 113, 1887 Norton Sound and mouth of Yukon (nesting habits; descr. 
imm. plumage); Robinson, I.e., 18, p. 656, 1896 east of Porlamor, 
Margarita Island, Venezuela (July 7); Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 46, p. 147, 1905 San Miguel, Pearl Islands, Panama (Mar. 
8); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 291, 1907 Barranca de Puntarenas, Costa Rica 
(Aug. 12 and 20). 

Heteropoda longirostris (Gundlach MS.) L6otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 480, 1866 
Trinidad (type probably in Leotaud Collection, since destroyed by fire). 

Ereunetes pusillus var. occidentalis Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 47, 
1876 San Mateo and Tehuantepec City, Oaxaca (Aug., Oct., Feb.). 

Ereunetes pusillus occidentalis Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 403, 1887 
(crit.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 54, 1906 Seelet, Trinidad (April). 

Ereunetes pusillus (not Tringa pusilla Linnaeus) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, pp. 514, 766, 1896 part, North, Central, and South America; Chubb, 
Ibis, 1919, p. 266 Trujillo, Peru (Mar. 13, Sept. 3, Dec. 22). 2 

1 The same specimen that served as basis for the diagnosis of Ereunetes mauri. 

2 Dr. G. Carmichael Low, who has kindly examined these birds, writes that 
they are unquestionably E. mauri. The bill measures, in the male, 25; in the 
females, 22, 22.5, 26, and 26.5 mm., respectively. 



178 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Breeds on the coast of Alaska from Hooper Bay to 
Point Barrow; winters on both coasts of the Americas from Wash- 
ington and North Carolina to Peru (Trujillo) and Venezuela and 
perhaps farther south; also in Cuba, Hispaniola, and Trinidad; 
occasional in northeastern Siberia (East Cape and Cape Serdze). 

Field Museum Collection. 179: Alaska (Point Hope, 1; Cape 
Prince of Wales, 2; Nome, 5; Bethel, 5; St. Michaels, 2); British 
Columbia (Cowichan Bay, 4; Chilliwash, 1; Quatsino, 1; Okanagan, 
2; Sumas, 2); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 1); Nova Scotia (Barring- 
tpn, 1); Washington (Puget Sound, 3); Oregon (Netarts Bay, 3); 
Colorado (Fort Lyon, Bent County, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy 
Island, 3); Connecticut (North Haven, 1); North Carolina (Pea 
Island, Dare County, 4); South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 3); 
Florida (Amelie Island, Nassau County, 2; Nassau County, 1; 
Anclote, Pasco County, 6; West Jupiter, Palm Beach County, 1); 
Texas (Corpus Christi, 30; Port Lavaca, Calhoun County, 2; Rock- 
port, 1); Arizona (Tucson, 1); Oklahoma (Alva, Woods County, 1); 
California (Moss Landing, Monterey County, 8; Seaside, Monterey 
County, 1; Monterey, 9; Carmel, Monterey County, 11; Pacific 
Beach, San Diego County, 5; Nigger Slough, Los Angeles County, 
17; Fairmont, Los Angeles County, 1; Los Angeles County, 2; 
Alamitos Bay, Los Angeles County, 4; Hyperion, 3; Hayward, Ala- 
meda County, 4; San Bruno, San Mateo County, 3; Westport, 
Mendocino County, 2; San Diego County, 1; Dulzura, San Diego 
County, 1; San Diego, 1; Los Banos, Merced County, 1; Santa 
Barbara, 1; Eureka, 1; Trinidad, 1); Bahama Islands (Andros, 1); 
Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1; Anegada, 1); Costa Rica (Puerto 
Jiminez, Puntarenas, 2; Piedra de Blanca, Guanacaste, 7). 

Conover Collection. 27: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 8); 1 
South Carolina (Copahee Sound, 2) ; California (Yermo, San Bernar- 
dino County, 1; Wilmington, Los Angeles County, 4; San Diego 
Bay, 1; Goleta, Santa Barbara County, 1; Newport, Orange County, 
2); Mexico (La Paz, Lower California, 1); Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, 
Guanacaste, 6); Panama (Perme, Darien, 1). 

Genus EURYNORHYNCHUS Nilsson 

Eurynorhynchiis 2 Nilsson, Orn. Svec., 2, p. 29, 1821 type, by monotypy, 
Eurynorhynchus griseus Nilsson =Platalea pygmea Linnaeus. 

1 Four downy young. 

'Variously "emended" (cf. Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), pp. 
302-303, 1919). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 179 

Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Linnaeus). SPOON-BILLED SANDPIPER. 

Plataka pygmea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 140, 1758 "Surinam," 
errore,= eastern Asia (type now in Upsala Museum; cf. Lilljeborg, Journ. 
Orn., 8, p. 299, 1860); idem, Mus. Adolph.-Frid., 2, Prodr., p. 26, 1764. 

Eurynorhynchus griseus Nilsson, Orn. Svec., 2, p. 29, 1821 new name for 
Platalea pygmea Linnaeus. 

Eurhinorhynchus orientalis Blyth, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, p. 179, 1844 
based on Eurinorhynchus griseus Pearson, Asiat. Res., 19, p. 69, pi. 9, 
1836, Edmonstone Island, Bengal (type now in Liverpool Museum). 1 

Eurynorhynchus pygm(a)eus Harting, Ibis, 1869, p. 427, pi. 12 (nuptial plum- 
age) Behring's Straits (monog.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, 
pp. Ill, 114 "Choris Peninsula, Alaska"; (?)Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. 
Alaska, 3, p. 112, 1887 Choris Peninsula, Kotzebue Sound, Alaska (one 
doubtful record, 1849); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 535, 1896 
(monog.); Thayer, Auk, 28, pp. 153-155, pis. 2, 3, 1911 Wrangel Island, 
Siberia (breeding; descr. of nest and eggs); Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
59, p. 382, 1915 Providence Bay and Cape Serdze, Siberia (breeding); 
Dixon, Auk, 35, pp. 387-404, 1918 Wain wright Inlet, Alaska (Aug. 15, 
1914), and Chukchi Peninsula, Siberia (habits, food, nest, etc.); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 303, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, 
I.e., 142, p. 237, 1927 (life hist.); Belopolski, Journ. Orn., 81, p. 424, 1933 
Anadyr Bay, Siberia (Aug. 13; young descr.); Ticehurst, Bull. Brit. Orn. 
Cl., 53, p. 206, 1933 (downy young descr.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 282, 
1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in northeastern Siberia on the Chukchi Peninsula 
from Cape Vankarem to Plover Bay; winters in southern China, 
Hainan, and casually to Tenasserim, Arrakan, and Bengal; accidental 
in Alaska (Wainwright Inlet, Aug. 15, 1914). 



Genus EROLIA Vieillot 

Erolia Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn., p. 55, April, 1816 type, by monotypy, 
Erolia variegata Vieillot =Scolopax testacea Pallas. 

Pelidna Cuvier, Reg. Anim., 1, p. 490, "1817" (=Dec. 7, 1816) type, by 
monotypy, 2 Tringa cinclus Linnaeus Tringa alpina Linnaeus. 

Oerolia Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 24, p. 123 1818 emenda- 
tion of Erolia Vieillot. 

Pisobia Billberg, Syn. Faun. Scand., 1, (2), p. 136, tab. A, 1828 type, by 
subs, desig. (A. 0. U. Committee, Auk, 25, p. 366, July, 1908), Tringa 
minuta Leister. 

Leimoniies Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Thierw., p. 37, 1829 type, 
by monotypy, Tringa temminckii Leisler. 

1 Cf. Forbes and Robinson, Bull. Liverpool Mus., 2, p. 72, 1899. 

2 The two "species" listed by Cuvier are both referable to Tringa alpina. 



180 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ancylocheilus Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Thierw., p. 50, 1829 
type, by monotypy, Scolopax subarquata Guldenstadt=ScoJopaz testacea 
Pallas. 

Actodromas Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Thierw., p. 55, 1829 
type, by monotypy, Tringa minuta Leisler. 

Schoeniclus G. R. Gray, List Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, p. 104, 1844 type, by 
subs, desig., Tringa cinclus Linnaeus =Tringa alpina Linnaeus. 

Arquatella Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, pp. 714, 717, 1858 type, 
by orig. desig., Tringa maritima Briinnich. 

Heteropygia Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, p. 190 type, by orig. 

desig., Tringa bonapariei Schlegel=Tnnj7a fuscicollis Vieillot. 
Delopygia Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, p. 190 (footnote) 

substitute name for Heteropygia Coues. 

Limnocinclus Gould, Handb. Bds. Australia, 2, p. 254, 1865 type, by subs. 

desig. (Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, p. 254, 1913), Totanus acuminatus 

Horsfield. 
Actia Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Orn. Hein., p. 329, 

1890 new name for Arquatella Baird. 
Neopisobia Mathews, Bds. Australia, 3, (3), p. 245 (in text), Aug. 18, 1913 

type, by orig. desig., Totanus damacensis auct. (not of Horsfield) =Tringa 

subminuta Middendorff. 

*Erolia ruficollis (Pallas). RUFOUS-NECKED SANDPIPER. 

Trynga ruficollis Pallas, Reisen Russ. Reich., 3, p. 700, 1776 "circa lacus 
salsos Davuriae campestris"=Kulussutai, southern Transbaikalia; cf. 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 290, 1919. 

Limonites ruficollis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 545, 767, 1896 
(monog.); Thayer, Condor, 11, p. 173, 1909 Nome, Alaska (July 10, 
1908); Buturlin, I.e., 12, p. 44, 1910 (?) "America septentrionalis" 
(Branicki Collection). 

Pisobia minuta ruficollis Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 382, 1915 
Providence Bay and Cape Serdze, northeastern Siberia (breeding). 

Pisobia ruficollis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 290, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Bailey, Condor, 26, p. 195, 1924 Cape Prince of Wales 
(June 11, 1921) and Wainwright (Aug. 15, 1922), Alaska; idem, I.e., 28, 
p. 32, 1926 same localities (breeding); Swarth, I.e., 29, p. 200, 1927 
St. Paul Island, Pribilofs (Aug. 27, 1920); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
142, p. 215, 1927 (life hist.); Ford, Auk, 51, p. 232, 1934 Cape Prince 
of Wales, Alaska (nest and eggs descr.); Hanna, Condor, 42, p. 122, 1940 
near Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska (eggs descr.). 

Erolia ruficollis Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 282, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in northeastern Siberia (Cape Serdze, Kooshka, 
Providence Bay, etc.) and northwestern Alaska (Cape Prince of 
Wales, Wainwright, Nome); winters from China and Japan south 
to Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Malay 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 181 

Archipelago, and Australia. One record for the Pribilof Islands 
(St. Paul, Aug. 27, 1920). 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Alaska (Nome, 1). 

Erolia subminuta (Middendorff). LONG-TOED STINT. 

Tringa subminuta Middendorff, Reise N. 0. und OstSibirien, 2, (2), p. 222, 
pi. 19, fig. 6, 1853 west slope of Stanovoi Mountains (May 19) and mouth 
of Uda River (June 30), Siberia (cotypes probably in Leningrad Museum); 
Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 438, 1887 (crit.); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
23, pp. 92-93, 1916 (nomencl.). 

Tringa damacensis (not Totanus damacensis Horsfield) 1 Ridgway, Auk, 3, 
p. 275, 1886 Otter Island, Alaska (June 8, 1885). 

Pisobia subminuta Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (9), p. 300, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 73, 
1923 Otter Island; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 213, 1927 (lite 
hist.). 

Erolia subminuta Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 283, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in eastern Siberia south to Kamchatka and on 
the Commander and Kurile Islands, perhaps also on Sakhalin; 
winters in India, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Sunda Islands, and 
Philippines; accidental in Alaska (Otter Island, Pribilof group, 
June 8, 1885). 

*Erolia minutilla (Vieillot). LEAST SANDPIPER. 

Tringa minutilla Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 34, p. 466, 1819 
"en. Ame'rique jusqu'au dela du Canada, . . . souvent vu a Halifax, dans 
la Nouvelle-Ecosse, . . . dans les iles An tilles";= Halifax, Nova Scotia 
(as designated in A.O.U. Check-List, 4th ed., p. 120, 1931); Schlegel, 
Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 48, 1864 Wisconsin, Costa Rica, 
and Mexico (crit.); Le"otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 476, 1866 Trinidad; 
Newton, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 165, pi. 15, fig. 3 (egg) = Arctic 
coast east of Anderson River, Mackenzie (eggs descr.); Sclater and Salvin, 
I.e., p. 591 Mexiana Island, Para, Brazil; iidem, I.e., 1870, p. 323 In- 
defatigable Island, Galapagos; iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 456 (geog. distr.); 
Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 396 near Para; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Natur- 
hist. Foren., 1874, p. 179 near Niakornaet, Omenakfjord, Greenland 
(spring, 1867); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 561 
Laguna Villa, near Chorillos, Lima, Peru; idem, I.e., 1877, p. 330 
between Tumbez and Santa Lucia, Tumbez, Peru; Cory, Auk, 4, p. 313, 
1887 West Indies (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 234, 1889 (descr.); 
Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 335 Bonaire Island (July 23); Richmond, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 526, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (Dec.), 

1 Totanus damacensis Horsfield (Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 13, p. 192, 1821 
Java; type in British Museum) is a synonym of Trynga ruficollis Pallas (cf. Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 23, p. 92, 1916). 



182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and Rio Frio, Costa Rica (Feb. 29); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
6, p. 77, 1894 Moruga, Trinidad; Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 162, 
1898 Niakornak, Greenland; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 126, 
1900 Cienaga, Colombia; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 307, 1902 Bonaire; 
Hellmayr, I.e., 13, p. 54, 1906 Seelet, Trinidad (April); Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 224, 1917 Quibdo (Aug. 20 to Nov. 11), 
Juntas de Taman& (Dec. 20), Novitd (Dec. 24), Cali (Dec. 25), Palmira 
(Apr. 13), and Rio Frio (Dec. 2), Colombia. 

Tringa wilsonii Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, Water Birds, p. 121, 
1834 based on Tringa pusilla (not of Linnaeus) Wilson, Amer. Orn., 5, 
p. 32, pi. 37, fig. 4, Nootka Sound, west coast of America (type now in 
coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 299, 1919); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1860, p. 196 Carthagena, Colombia; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 311, 1870 Cuyabd (Apr.) and Engenho do Cap Gama (Sept.), Matto 
Grosso, Brazil. 

Pelidna minutilla Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 141, 1841 Galapagos 
Islands (crit.). 

Tringa pusilla (not of Linnaeus) Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 375, 
1847 Tobago. 

Tringa nana Burmeister, 1 Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 375, 1856 Brazil 
(new name for Tringa minutilla Vieillot). 

Limonites minutilla Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 548, 767, 1896 
(monog.); Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, 
p. 44, 1900 Santa Elena, Ecuador (Jan.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 387, 1903 Mexico to Panama; Thayer and 
Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 147, 1905 San Miguel Island, 
Pearl Archipelago, Panama (Mar. 10); Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 553 Margarita 
Island (Jan. 8); Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 45, 1907 Mexiana 
Island, Brazil; Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 291, 1907 Barranca (Aug. 10) and 
El Pozo de Terraba (April), Costa Rica; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. 
Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 95, 1910 Bahia (Joazeiro, March 7; Santa 
Rita, Rio Preto, May 4), Maranhao (above Pintados, Rio Parnahyba, 
Sept. 6), and Piauhy (Amaracao, Sept. 16-17), Brazil. 

Actodromas minutilla Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 252, 1905 Bar- 
bados (July to October), Grenada, and San Vincent. 

Leimonites minutilla Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 54, 1907 (range); Lowe, 
Ibis, 1909, p. 315 Testigo Grande. 

Pisobia minutilla Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 308, 1908 Cayenne; Cory, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 197, 209, 236, 1909 Aruba, 
Bonaire, and Margarita Island (March 12); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 422, 1910 Costa Rica (Chomez, Jan.; La Estrella de Cartage, Nov. 
5); Todd, I.e., 7, p. 413, 1911 New Providence and Great Inagua, 
Bahama Islands; Moore, Auk, 29, p. 210, 1912 Magdalen Islands (nest- 
ing habits); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 92, 1914 Marajo (Tapera, 
Sao Natal), Brazil; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 246, 1918 

1 Tringa nana Lichtenstein (Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol., p. 92, 1854) is a nomen 
nudum. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 183 

Toro Point, Panama (Sept. 4); Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 267 Eten 
(Oct. 10) and Trujillo (Dec. 29), Peru; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 294, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 183, 1922 Cie"naga, Don Diego, Punto Caiman, 
and Gaira, Colombia (winter); Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 42, 1922 Rio Cogollo, Zulia, Venezuela (Feb., Mar.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 199, 1926 Esmeraldas and 
Lago San Pablo (May 20-21), Ecuador; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico 
and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 369, 1927 Mona, Puerto Rico, and St. Croix; 
Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 202, 1927 (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 91, 1928 Lower California (chiefly transient); 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 494, 1929 Maranhao 
(Mangunca Island, Mar. 8) and Piauhy (Ibiapaba, Jan. 8), Brazil; Swarth, 
Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 59, 1931 Charles, Albemarle, and 
Abingdon Islands, Galapagos; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
155, p. 163, 1931 Hispaniola (winter); Bradlee, Mowbray, and Eaton, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 318, 1931 Bermuda Islands (transient); 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 135, 1932 Guatemala; Sutton, 
Mem. Carnegie Mus., 12, (2), sec. 2, p. 138, 1932 Southampton Island 
(not found, doubts records). 

Erolia minutilla Ticehurst, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 53, p. 206, 1933 (downy 
young descr.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 283, 1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 1935 Panama (winter); Belcher and 
Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 292 Trinidad and Tobago (winter); Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 22, p. 141, 1938 Ilha de Madre Deus (Jan.) and Cidade da 
Barra (Oct.), Bahia, Brazil; Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 176, 1938 El Salvador (Lake Olomega, Aug., 
Sept.; Puerto del Triunfo, Dec. 31, Jan. 8; Barra de Santiago, Apr. 1, 2); 
Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., (3), 23, p. 73, 1945 
Bolivia, El Beni (Cachuela Esperanza, Sept.). 

Range. Breeds in North America south of the Barren Grounds 1 
from northwestern Alaska to Labrador, south to the upper Yukon 
Valley, northern part of British Columbia, Fort Churchill, the 
Magdalen Islands, Newfoundland, and Sable Island; winters from 
southern California, Texas, and North Carolina south through 
Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America to 
the Galapagos Islands, Peru (Eten, Lambayeque; Trujillo, Libertad; 
Chorillos, Lima), 2 and southern Brazil (Matto Grosso and Bahia); 
casual in Greenland (three records) and in the British Isles. 

Field Museum Collection. 297: Alaska (Bethel, 2); Yukon Terri- 
tory (Yukon River, 5); British Columbia (Sumas, 5; Okanagan, 4); 

1 There would seem to be grave doubts as to the validity of the nesting records 
from Southampton Island and northward (cf. Sutton, Mem. Carnegie Mus., 12, 
(2), sec. 2, p. 138, 1932). 

2 There is no record from Chile, included by certain authors in the winter 
range of the Least Sandpiper. 



184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 1); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 2); 
Nova Scotia (Clarks Harbor, 5; Harrington, 2); Labrador (Indian 
Harbor, 3; Battle Harbor, 2); Montana (Miles City, 1); North 
Dakota (Towner County, 10; Rocklake, Towner County, 9; 
Stump Lake, Nelson County, 3; Oakes, Dickey County, 1; Devil's 
Lake, Ramsey County, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 4); Illinois 
(Rondout, Lake County, 1; Libertyville, 1; Mud Lake, Cook County, 
4; Hyde Park, Cook County, 1; Chicago, 1; Worth, Cook County, 2); 
Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 12); Connecticut (New Haven 
County, 25; North Haven, 21; West Haven, 1; New Haven, 2; 
East Hartford, 5); New York (Suffolk County, 4); Colorado (Fort 
Lyon, Bent County, 3); North Carolina, Dare County (Pea Island, 
12; Bodie Island, 1); South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 1); Georgia 
(Roswell, Cobb County, 1); Florida (Anclote, Pasco County, 19; 
Amelie Island, Nassau County, 4; East Pass, Okaloosa County, 1; 
Key West, 1); Texas (Corpus Christi, 13; Austin, 1; Rockport, 4); 
Arizona (Fort Lowell, Pima County, 2) ; California (Carmel, Monte- 
rey County, 1; Salt Lagoons, Monterey County, 2; Moss Landing, 
Monterey County, 3; La Patera Point, Santa Barbara County, 5; 
Pacific Beach, San Diego County, 4; Sunset Beach, Orange County, 
3; Corona, Riverside County, 4; Inverness, Marin County, 3; Red 
Bluff, Tehama County, 3; Rincon, Ventura County, 1); Mexico 
(La Paz, Lower California, 1; Salinas, Coahuila, 2; Pacaitun, Cam- 
peche, 1); Bahama Islands (Andros Island, 27; Great Inagua Island, 
4; Nassau, New Providence Island, 2; Eleuthera Island, 2; Mari- 
guana Island, 3) ; Jamaica (Grand Cayman Island, 4) ; Virgin Islands 
(St. Croix, 1); Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, 4); Dutch West Indies 
(Aruba, 5); Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal, 2; San Jose", 1); El 
Salvador (Laguna Olomega, 1); Costa Rica (Lim6n, Limon, 1); 
Venezuela (Lake Valencia, Aragua, 1; Margarita Island, 1); 
Brazil (Mangunca Island, Maranhao, 1); Peru (Pacasmayo, Liber- 
tad, 1). 

Conover Collection. 29: Manitoba (Churchill, 6); North Dakota 
(Grafton, Walsh County, 2) ; Nebraska (thirty miles south of Wood 
Lake, Cherry County, 1); Massachusetts (East Orleans, 3; Rock- 
port, 1; Pigeon Cove, 1); California (Yermo, San Bernardino County, 
3; Point Magie, Ventura County, 1; Goleta, Santa Barbara County, 
2); Mexico (Altamira, Tamaulipas, 1); Venezuela (Rio Cogollo, 
Perija, 1); Ecuador (Milagro, Guayas, 2; Malacatos, Loja, 1; 
Brazil (Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 1; Santare'm, Para, 3). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 185 
Erolia fuscicollis (Vieillot). 1 WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa fuscicollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 34, p. 461, 
1819 based on "Chorlito pestorejo pardo" Azara, No. 404, Paraguay; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 263, 1874 Blumenau, Santa Catharina 
(crit.); Durnford, Ibis, 1878, pp. 68, 404 province of Buenos Aires 
(April, Oct.) and Patagonia (valleys of the Sengel and Sengelen rivers, 
Chubut); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 438 
Falkland Islands; Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 16 Peckett Harbour, Straits of 
Magellan (Jan. 4); White, I.e., 1883, p. 42 La Plata, Buenos Aires 
(Nov. 3); Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 314, 1884 Entre Rios (Concepcion del 
Uruguay) and Buenos Aires (Carhu6, Mar.- April); Berlepsch, Journ. 
Orn., 35, p. 36, 1887 Rio Pilcomayo, Chaco (Jan. 22); Salvin, Ibis, 
1889, p. 379 Cozumel Island; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 109, 
1889 falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia (Oct.); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 235, 1889 (descr.; West Indian references and localities); Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 137, 1890 Gregory Bay, Straits of Magellan; 
Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 127, 1891 Punta Arenas (Nov. 7), 
Tierra del Fuego (Bahia Orange, Sept. 9; Bahia Buen Suceso, Oct. 30), 
and Falkland Islands (French Bay, Mar. 7); Holland, Ibis, 1891, pp. 16, 
20 Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Kerr, I.e., 1892, p. 151 Rio Pilcomayo, 
Chaco; Holland, I.e., 1892, p. 211 Est. Espartillar (Mar. to Aug.); Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 5, p. 150, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso (Oct.); 
Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 163, 1898 Greenland; Crawshay, Bds. 
Tierra del Fuego, p. 128, 1907 Useless Bay Settlement (Sept. 17, 1904); 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 425, 1910 Engenho do Gama, Rio GuaporS, 
Brazil (ex Pelzeln); Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
76, p. 94, 1910 Rio Grande near Barra, Bahia (Apr. 8); Grant, Ibis, 
1911, p. 468 Buenos Aires (Los Yngleses, Aj6, Jan. 23, Mar. 15, Oct. 27; 
Cape San Antonio, Dec. 17) and Corrientes (Esquina, Nov. 14); Gibson, 
I.e., 1920, p. 67 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (Oct. to Mar.). 

Tringa campestris (not of Vieillot, 1819) Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Zool. 
Mus. Berlin, p. 74, 1823 Montevideo, Uruguay (type in Berlin Museum); 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 374, 1856 Brazil (descr.); 
Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 199, 1878 C6rdoba. 

Pelidna schinzi (not Tringa schinzii Brehm, 1822) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, 
Birds, p. 131, 1841 Tierra del Fuego. 

Tringa bonapartei(ii) Schlegel, Rev. Crit. Ois. d'Eur., p. Ixxxix, 1844 based 
mainly on Tringa schinzii "Bonaparte" (not of Brehm) Temminck, Man. 
d'Orn., 4, p. 401, 1840, North America, accidental in England (type in 
Leyden Museum; cf. Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 42, 
1864); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 387, 1860 Falkland Islands; 
Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 156 East Falkland (said to breed!); Schlegel, 
Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 42, 1864 Labrador, Illinois, Wis- 
consin, Mexico, Surinam, Chile (Santiago, Sept.), and East Falkland 
(crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 332, 339 Chile; idem 

1 Tringa cooperi Baird (Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 716, 1858 Raynor 
South, Long Island, New York; type in U. S. National Museum), known from a 
single example, differs only by decidedly larger size; cf. Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 289, 1919. Its status remains doubtful. 



186 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and Salvin, I.e., p. 591 Mexiana Island, Brazil; iidem, I.e., 1868, p. 144 
Conchitas, Buenos Aires (winter); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 311, 1870 
Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Nov.), Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Sept.; Caigara, 
Oct.; Engenho do Gama, Sept.; Villa Bella, Aug., Oct.), and Amazonas 
(Marabitanas, Rio Negro, May), Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 186 Cosnipata, Cuzco, Peru; iidem, I.e., p. 455 
(South American localities; crit.); Taczanowski, 'I.e., 1874, p. 560 
Laguna Villa, near Chorillos, Lima, Peru; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., 
p. 445, 1887 (crit.). 

Pelidna americana Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, p. 292 new name for Tringa 
schinzii "Bonaparte" (not of Brehm, 1822). 

Tringa melanotus (not Tringa melanotos Vieillot) Le"otaud, Ois. Trinidad, 
p. 472, 1866 Trinidad. 

Heteropygia fuscicollis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 574, 768, 1896 
(monog.); Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 660, 1898 Punta Anegada, 
Tierra del Fuego (Jan.); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 438, 1899 
Ypiranga and Iguape", Sao Paulo; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 
Genova, 40, p. 626, 1900 Penguin Rookery, Staten Island (Feb.); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 391, 1903 Mexico 
(Tizimin, Yucatan; Cozumel), Nicaragua (Momotombo), and Panama 
(Lion Hill); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 54,. 1907 Sao Paulo and 
Iguape", Sao Paulo; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 251, 1909 
Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (May 16, Sept. 10), and Mocovi, Santa Fe" 
(Jan. 18); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 220, 1910 
(range in Argentina); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Pata- 
gonia, 2, Orn., p. 327, 1910 Palaike, near Port Gallegos, Santa Cruz 
(Jan. 18). 

Actodromas fuscicollis Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 252, 1905 
Barbados and St. Vincent. 

Pisobia fuscicollis Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 308, 1908 Cayenne (Oct. 19); 
Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 39, 1914 upper Rio Parana, Paraguay; Sneth- 
lage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 92, 1914 Braganca, Para; Cherrie, Sci. 
Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 372, 1916 Las Guacos, San Felix River, 
Orinoco, Venezuela (May); Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 151, 
1917 Port Stanley, Falkland Islands (Oct.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 284, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 
2, p. 14, 1920 Montevideo and Canelones, Uruguay; Dabbene, I.e., p. 
113, 1920 (range in Argentina and neighboring countries); Osgood and 
Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 42, 1922 Lagunillas, 
Me>ida, Venezuela (May 10); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, 
p. 154, 1926 Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco) and Argentina (Dolores, 
Cape San Antonio, Bahfa Blanca, Guamini, Buenos Aires) (crit.); idem, 
Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 371, 1927 Puerto Rico 
and Culebrita (transient); idem, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 26, p. 9, 
1927 Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco), Argentina (Rio Ajo and Carhue, 
Buenos Aires; Bahia Blanca); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 181, 
1927 (life hist.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 494, 
1929 Carolina, lower Tocantins, Goyaz (Nov. 6); Laubmann, Wiss. 
Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 57, 1930 Las Taperas, Santa 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 187 

Cruz, Bolivia (Oct. 16); Bradlee and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
39, p. 318, 1931 Bermuda Islands (fall transient); Hellmayr, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 393, 1932 Chile (Santiago); Sutton, Mem. 
Carnegie Mus., 12, (2), sec. 2, p. 128, 1932 Southampton Island (nesting); 
Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 376, 1934 Des- 
calvados, Matto Grosso (Sept. 4); Taverner and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 23, p. 41, 1934 Churchill (common transient); Laubmann, Verh. 
Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 264, 1934 Est. La Geraldina, Santa F6 (April); 
Reynolds, Ibis, 1935, p. 89 Otaries Island and Cape Austin, Cape Horn 
region; Beatty, Auk, 53, p. 456, 1936 St. Croix (transient); Bray, I.e., 
60, p. 522, 1943 Crozier River, Melville Peninsula (breeding). 

Erolia fuscicollis Wace, El Hornero, 2, p. 198, 1921 Falkland Islands; 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 284, 1934 (range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 
1935, p. 292 Trinidad; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 
1935 Panama; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 141, 1938 Bahia (Cidade 
da Barra, Oct.; Ilha Madre Deus, Jan., Feb.; Corupe"ba, Jan.), Goyaz (In- 
humas, Nov.), and Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, June; Sao Carlos; Ilha dos 
Alcatrazes, Oct.; Iguape", Mar.); Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. 
Akad. Handl., (3), 23, p. 73, 1945 Brazil (lower Rio Purus) and Bolivia, 
El Beni (Cachuela Esperanza; Riberalta; Victoria); Soper, Auk, 63, 
p. 229, 1946 Baffin Island (nesting). 

Calidris fuscicollis Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 323 Falkland Islands (Sept. to 
Apr.). 

Range. Breeds along the Arctic coast of North America from 
Point Barrow, Alaska, to Baffin Island and Southampton Island; 
migrates, east of the Rocky Mountains, chiefly through the Missis- 
sippi Valley and winters in southern South America (chiefly east of 
the Andes) from Paraguay and southern Brazil to Cape Horn and 
the Falkland Islands; casual in Greenland (various records). 

Field Museum Collection. 120: Saskatchewan (Quill Lake, 1); 
Labrador (Anatolak Bay, 2); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 29); 
Massachusetts (South Chatham, 4; Monomoy Island, 9; Great 
Island, 1); Connecticut (North Haven, 3; West Haven, 3; New 
Haven County, 5; Branford, 1; Guilford, 2); North Dakota (Towner 
County, 42; Hope, Steele County, 1; Stump Lake, Nelson County, 
2); Colorado (Fort Lyon, Bent County, 2); North Carolina (Pea 
Island, Dare County, 1) ; Bahama Islands (Great Inagua, 1) ; Lesser 
Antilles (Dominica, 1; Martinique, 2); Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 3); 
Costa Rica (El Pozo, Rio Terraba, 1); Paraguay (Colonia Nueva 
Italia, 3); Argentina (Rio Parana, Misiones, 1). 

Conover Collection. 25: Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 2); 
Keewatin, Southampton Island (Koodlootook River, 1; Coral Inlet, 
2); Manitoba (Churchill, 3); South Dakota (Harrison, Douglas 
County, 1); Massachusetts (East Orleans, 8); New York (Owasco 



188 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Lake, Cayuga County, 1); Kansas (Douglas County, 2); Venezuela 
(Lagunillas, Zulia, 1); Brazil (Carolina, Maranhao, 3); Paraguay 

(Horqueta, 1). 


*Erolia bairdii (Coues). BAIRD'S SANDPIPER. 

Actodromas (Actodromas) bairdii Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 
p. 194 "North America, east of the Rocky Mountains" (type, from 
Fort Resolution, Great Slave Lake, Mackenzie [May 19], in U. S. National 
Museum). 

Schaeniclus schinzii (not Tringa schinzii Brehm, 1822) G. R. Gray, List Spec. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, p. 105, 1844 Chile (spec, examined). 

Tringa sp. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 556, 1858 Riobamba, 
Ecuador. 

Tringa bairdi(i) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 332, 339 Chile; 
idem and Salvin, I.e., 1868, p. 144 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; iidem, 
I.e., 1868, pp. 176, 570 Tambo Valley, Arequipa, Peru; Harting, Ibis, 
1870, p. 151 Walvisch Bay, Damara Land (Oct. 24, 1863); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 455 Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, 
and Chile; Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 357, 1876 Moho Lake, 
Titicaca; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 547 
Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia; Sclater, I.e., 1886, p. 404 Huasco, 
Sacaya, and Cueva Negra, Tarapaca, Chile; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 
3, p. 359, 1886 (Peruvian localities); Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., 
p. 444, 1887 (crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 137 Tarapaca, 
Chile; Cherrie, Auk, 12, p. 87, 1895 Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica (June 8); 
Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Chile; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 
311 Cancosa, Sacaya, and Lake Huasco, Tarapaca, Chile; Jourdain, 
I.e., 1907, p. 518, pi. 11, fig. 6 (egg) Point Barrow, Alaska (eggs descr.); 
Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 468 Tuyu (Nov. 22) and Los Yngleses (Dec. 19), 
Ajo, Buenos Aires. 

Tringa maculata (not of Vieillot) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, p. 754 Xeberos, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 309 part, Xeberos; 
Sclater, I.e., 1886, p. 404 Huasco, Tarapaca, Chile (spec, examined). 

Tringa melanotos (not of Vieillot) Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 199, 1878 
Cordoba. 

Heteropygia bairdii(i) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 570, 768, 1896 
(monog.); Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 188, 1899 Barrington 
Island, Galapagos (Oct. 6) ; Salvadori and festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
15, No. 368, p. 45, 1900 marshes near Canar (Oct.) and Vinces (Sept.), 
Ecuador; Butterfield, Auk, 18, p. 190, 1901 Sussex, England; Lillo, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 213, 1902 Rio Sail, Tucuman; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 390, 1903 Mexico 
(Sonora; Aguas Calientes; Zacatecas; Tres Marias; City of Mexico; 
Puebla; Las Vegas and Jalapa, Vera Cruz); Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
19, p. 102, 1906 Cerro de la Candelaria, near Escazu, Costa Rica (Oct.); 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 126, 1906 Huaynapata, Peru 
(Nov.); Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 1, p. 32, 1909 San Carlos, Cuba 
(Oct. 15); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 220, 1910 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 189 

Cordoba, Tucuman, "Misiones," and Buenos Aires; Scott and Sharpe, 
Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 324, 1910 near Rio Coy, 
western Santa Cruz (Sept. 30); Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 268 Peru (Lurin, 
Aug. 30) and Bolivia (Chililaya, Titicaca, Oct. 26; Challapata, Oruro, 
Oct. 11-12); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 25, 1922 
La Carolina (Oct. to March, June 7) and Tumbaco (Oct. 7), Ecuador. 

Pisobia bairdi(i) Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 423, 1910 -San Jose, 
Costa Rica (Sept. 18); Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 384, 1915 
northeastern Alaska (Demarcation Point, June, breeding; Herschel Island, 
Aug.) and Chukchi Peninsula, Siberia (Providence Bay, June 11); Dixon, 
Condor, 19, p. 77, 1917 Griffin Point, Alaska (breeding habits); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 279, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.) ; Dabbene, 
El Hornero, 2, p. 114, 1920 (winter range in Argentina); Barros, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 173, 1921 Vega Redonda (Calle de los Piuquenes), 
Aconcagua, Chile; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 297, 1923 
Huanuluan, Rio Negro (Sept. 12, Oct. 21); Giacomelli, El Hornero, 3, 
p. 80, 1923 La Rioja; Conover, Auk, 43, p. 308, 1926 Igiak Bay, Bering 
Sea, Alaska (nesting); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 199, 
1926 Lake Colta (Apr. 5), Loja, and Lake Papallacta (Oct. 22), Ecuador; 
Bailey, Condor, 28, p. 31, 1926 Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska (breeding); 
Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 427, 1926 Arroyo Seco, Rio 
Negro (Sept. 6); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 154, 1926 near 
Guaminf, Buenos Aires (March 5); idem, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 
26, p. 10, 1927 Argentina (wintering range); Bent, I.e., 142, p. 193, 
1927 (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 91, 1928 Lower 
California (rare transient); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco 
Exp., Vogel, p. 56, 1930 San Jose" (Sept. 9) and Las Taperas (Oct. 16), 
Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 393, 1932 Ojo de San Pedro, Antofagasta (range in Chile); Wetmore, 
Auk, 50, p. 433, 1933 (extralimital records); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
39, p. 247, 1935 Isla la Mocha, Chile; Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 
16, p. 56, 1938 Arica, Tacna, Chile (Oct.); Dixon, Bds. Mamm., Mt. 
McKinley Nat. Park, p. 83, 1938 (nesting); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 87, p. 194, 1939 Ocumare de la Costa, Venezuela (Oct. 27); 
Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 28, 1943 Mackenzie Delta (nesting); 
Bray, Auk, 60, p. 523, 1943 Melville Peninsula (nesting). 

Erolia bairdii(i) Wa.ce, El Hornero, 2, p. 198, 1921 Falkland Islands; Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 284, 1934 (range); van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
77, p. 434, 1934 Chihuahua, Mexico (Oct. 3); Griscom, I.e., 78, p. 307, 
1935 Canal Zone, Panama; Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 176, 1938 Lake Olomega, El Salvador (Aug. 19); 
Morrison, Ibis, 1939, pp. 465, 646 Huancavelica (Sept. 18), Astobamba 
(Nov. 3), Santa Inez (Nov. 11), and Lake Junfn (Jan. 20 to Apr. 9), 
Peru; Soper, Auk, 63, p. 230, 1946 Baffin Island (nesting). 

Calidris bairdii Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 323 Falkland Islands. 

Range. Breeds in northeastern Siberia (Koljuchin Bay, Chukchi 
Peninsula) and along the Arctic coast of North America from north- 
western Alaska to Baffin Island, south to central Alaska (Igiak Bay, 



190 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bering Sea; Mount McKinley), Mackenzie (Aylmer Lake) and 
Southampton Island; migrates chiefly between the Rocky Mountains 
and the Mississippi Valley and winters in Chile, western (rarely in 
eastern) Argentina, and Patagonia; casual in Central America (a 
few records from El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Panama), Galapagos 
Islands (Barrington Island, Oct. 6), Cuba (San Carlos, Oct. 15), 
Dominica (Oct. 1), and Venezuela (Ocumare de la Costa, Oct. 27); 
accidental in the Falkland Islands (one record), British Isles, and 
southwestern Africa (Walvisch Bay, Damara Land, Oct. 24, 1863). 

Field Museum Collection. 127: Alaska (Barrow, 8; Prince of 
Wales, 1; Nome, 2; Yukon River, 1); British Columbia (Okanagan, 
7; Sumas Lake, 4); Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 13; Lake Johnson, 
1); North Dakota (Towner County, 16; Cando, Towner County, 1; 
Stump Lake, Nelson County, 19); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 4); 
Nebraska (Gresham, York County, 1); Colorado (Troublesome, 
Grand County, 1; Windsor, Weld County, 1; Fort Lyon, Bent 
County, 2) ; Illinois (Hyde Park [Chicago], Cook' County, 1) ; In- 
diana (Miller, Lake County, 2) ; Michigan (Harbert, Berrien County, 
1); Connecticut (West Haven, 1); Texas (Corpus Christi, 1); Cali- 
fornia (Carmel, Monterey County, 10; Trinidad, Humboldt County, 
1; Seaside, Monterey County, 1; Pacific Beach, San Diego County, 
1); Costa Rica (Tierra Blanca, Cartago, 1); Ecuador (Paramba, 1); 
British Guiana (Georgetown, 1); Peru (Lake Junin, 1; Cailloma, 
Arequipa, 2; Puno, Puno, 1); Bolivia (Oruro, Oruro, 1; Vacas, Cocha- 
bamba, 11; Esperanza, Pacajes, La Paz, 4; Mount Sajama, Carangas, 
Oruro, 1); Chile (Ojo de San Pedro, Antofagasta, 1); Argentina 
(Estancia Via Monte, Tierra del Fuego, 1). 

Conover Collection. 31: Alaska (Point Barrow, 5; Alaktak River, 
Barrow, 4; Igiak Bay, Bering Sea, 4; False Pass, Alaska Peninsula, 
1); British Columbia (Sumas Lake, 1); Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, 
Tofield, 2; Camrose, 2); Nebraska (thirty miles south of Wood Lake, 
Cherry County, 1); Colorado (Windsor, Weld County, 1); California 
(Playa del Rey, Los Angeles County, 1); Costa Rica (Volcan Tur- 
rialba, 2); Colombia (Popayan, Cauca, 1); Bolivia (Esperanza, 
Pacajes, La Paz, 5; Cacas, Cochabamba, 1). 

*Erolia melanotos (Vieillot). PECTORAL SANDPIPER. 

Tringa melanotos Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 34, p. 462, 1819 
based on "Chorlito lomo negro" Azara, No. 401, Paraguay. 

Tringa maculata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 34, p. 465, 1819 
"aux lies Antilles et dans les parties me'ridionales des Etats-Unis" (no 
type extant); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 39, 1864 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 191 

(crit.); L6otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 474, 1866 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 199 upper Ucayali, Peru; iidem, I.e., 
1869, p. 598 Cosnipata, Cuzco, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 311, 
1870 Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Sept., Nov.) and Matto Grosso (Caicara, 
Sept., Oct.; Engenho do Gama, Sept.; Villa Bella, Aug.); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 309 part, upper Ucayali and 
Chamicuros, Peru; iidem, I.e., p. 455 Guatemala, Panama, Peru, and 
southern Brazil; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 560 Chorillos (Lima) and 
Lake Junin, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., p. 678 Paucartambo, Cuzco, 
Peru; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 261, 1874 Blumenau, Santa 
Catharina; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 43 Chubut Valley, Patagonia; 
idem, I.e., 1878, p. 68 Buenos Aires (Oct. to April); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 641 Tilotilo, Bolivia; Barrows, Auk, 1, 
p. 314, 1884 Entre RIos (Conception del Uruguay) and Buenos Aires 
(Carhue", Mar .-Apr.); Taczanowski, Orn. P6r., 3, p. 356, 1886 (Peruvian 
localities); Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 108, pi. 8, 1887 St. 
Michaels, Alaska (nesting; descr. mating display); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 235, 1889 (West Indian references and localities); Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 2, p. 109, 1889 falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia (Oct.); 
Cherrie, Auk, 7, p. 332, 1890 San Jose", Costa Rica (Sept. to Nov.); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 137 Tarapaca, Chile; Kerr, 
Ibis, 1892, p. 151 Fortm Page, lower Pilcomayo, Chaco; Holland, I.e., 
1892, p. 211 Est. Espartillar (March to Aug.); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 24, 1895 Colonia Risso, Paraguay; idem, 
I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 35, 1897 Caiza, Tarija, Bolivia (Feb.); Lane, Ibis, 
1897, p. 310 Rio Pilmaiquen, Valdivia, Chile (Feb. 22); Winge, Medd. 
Gr0nl., 21, p. 162, 1898 Greenland; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, 
p. 126, 1900 Cie"naga, Colombia; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1902, p. 232 
marshes near Quito, Ecuador; Jourdain, I.e., 1907, p. 518, pi. 11, fig. 5 
Point Barrow, Alaska (egg descr.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 425, 
1910 Sao Isabel, Rio Preto, Rio Machados, Matto Grosso, Brazil (Oct. 
3); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 468 Buenos Aires (Los Yngleses, Ajo, Jan. 6, 
Sept. 11-Mar. 19), Paraguay (Medano, Sept. 16), and Matto Grosso 
(Porto Esperanca, Sept. 25); Gibson, I.e., 1920, p. 66 Cape San Antonio, 
Buenos Aires (Sept. to March). 

Pelidna pectoraHs Say, Long's Exp. Rocky Mts., 1, p. 171, 1823 near Council 
Bluffs, Iowa (type lost); Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 195, 
1855 Chile. 

Tringa dorsalis (Lichtenstein MS.) Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.- 
Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, Suppl., 1, p. 107, 1834 based on "Chorlito a dos 
noir" Azara, No. 401, plateaux of southern Peru; 1 Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 374, 1856 southern Brazil, Montevideo and Chile 
(descr.); idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 261, 1860 Mendoza; idem, Reise La 
Plata St., 2, p. 503, 1861 Mendoza. 

1 Meyen states that his Peruvian specimen differs from those of Mexico 
and Montevideo by smaller size, but does not describe either of them. Tringa 
dorsalis, here published for the first time from Lichtenstein's manuscript, thus 
stands as a name proposed for Azara's No. 401, quoted by Meyen as "Chorlito 
a dos noir" from the French translation of the "Apuntamientos," and becomes a 
synonym of T. melanotos, having the same basis. 



192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIIT 

Tringa pedoralis Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 375, 1847 Tobago; 

Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 556, 1858 Riobamba, Ecuador; 

Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, p. 11 Nanortalik, Greenland; Cabanis, Journ. 

Orn., 26, p. 199, 1878 Cordoba (March). 
Tringa dominicensis Degland, Orn. Europ., 2, p. 232, 1849 based on "Alouette 

de mer de S. Domingue" Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 219, pi. 24, fig. 1, San Domingo 

(type in Reaumur Collection). 
Tringa acuminata pedoralis Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 443, 1887 

(crit.). 

Tringa bairdi (not Actodromas bairdi) Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 209 Uruguay 
(April 3). 

Heteropygia maculata Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 562, 767, 1896 
(monog.); Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 660, 1898 Cavancha 
(Iquique), Tarapaca, Chile; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 437, 1899 
Sao Paulo; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, 
p. 44, 1900 lagoon of Kingora (Nov.), near Canar (Oct.), and Quito 
(Aug.), Ecuador; Salvadori, I.e., 15, No. 378, p. 15, 1900 Carandasinho, 
Matto Grosso; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 213, 1902 
Rio Sali, Tucuman; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc.. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1902, (2), p. 52 Ingapirca, Junin, Peru (May); Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 389, 1903 Mexico (numerous localities), 
Guatemala (Duenas), Costa Rica (San Jose 1 , Laguna de Cartago, Re- 
ventazon), and Panama; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, pp. 446, 453 Jujuy 
(Moreno, Dec.) and Bolivia (San Luis and Zapataro, Tarija, Feb., March) ; 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, "1904," p. 452, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 132, 1906 Puno, Peru (March); 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 54, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape", Sao Sebas- 
tiao), Amazonas (Rio Jurua), and Venezuela (Merida); Hartert and Ven- 
turi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 25, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (Feb. 11); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 220, 1910 (range in 
Argentina); Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 267 Peru (Junin, Feb. 20; Chorillos, 
May 5); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 25, 1922 
La Carolina, Quito, Ecuador (Oct., Nov.). 

Actodromas maculata Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 251, 1905 Barbados 
(July to Nov.), Grenada, Grenadines, and St. Vincent; Snethlage, Journ. 
Orn., 56, p. 23, 1908 Bom Lugar, Rio Purus, Brazil (Aug. 15). 

Pisobia maculata Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 308, 1908 (no records from 
French Guiana); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 196, 1909 
Aruba, Dutch West Indies; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 422, 
1910 Costa Rica (San Jose, Sept. 7; Ochomogo; Buenos Aires de Terraba, 
May 26-29; San JosS, May 19; Azahar de Cartago, Oct. 20, Nov. 3); 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 92, 1914 Bom Lugar, Rio Purus, 
Brazil; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 39, 1914 upper Rio Parana; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 224, 1917 Quibd6, Colombia (Sept. 1- 
Nov. 11); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 246, 1918 Mindi, 
Panama (Oct.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 269, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 14, 1920 San Jose 
and Montevideo, Uruguay; Dabbene, I.e., p. 112, 1920 (winter range in 
Argentina and neighboring countries); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 193 

Mus., 14, p. 183, 1922 Cienaga, Colombia (Sept. 12-14); Peters, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 297, 1923 Huanuluan, Rio Negro (Oct.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 199, 1926 Quito, Ecuador 
(Aug. 17); Bailey, Condor, 27, p. 31, 1926 Alaska (breeding); Conover, 
Auk, 43, p. 307, 1926 Hooper Bay, Alaska (nesting; courtship); Bent, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 169, 1927 (life hist.); Wetmore, Tech. Bull. 
U. S. Dept. Agric., p. 9, 1927 Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco), Uruguay, 
Argentina (Tunuyan; Rio Negro); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, 
p. 91, 1928 Lower California (fall transient); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 135, 1932 Guatemala. 

Pisobia pectoralis Thayer and Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 5, p. 15, 
1914 Nijni Kolymsk, Siberia (breeding); Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 59, p. 383, 1915 Humphrey and Demarcation Points, Alaska 
(breeding). 

Pisobia melanotos Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 153, 1926 Para- 
guay (west of Puerto Pinasco), Buenos Aires (near Lavalle, Oct.; Carhu6, 
Dec. 15), Uruguay (Lazcano), and Mendoza (nomencl.); idem, Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 370, 1927 Puerto Rico and St. 
Croix (transient); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 168, 1927 
Bovril Islands, Santa Fe (Jan. 19); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
60, p. 81, 1930 Paraguay (Fort Wheeler) and Matto Grosso (Agua 
Blanca de Corumba); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., 
Vogel, p. 56, 1930 San JosS, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (Sept. 9); Bradlee, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 318, 1931 Bermuda Islands (fall transient); 
Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 164, 1931 Hispaniola 
(visitor); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 394, 1932 
Chile (winter); Brooks, Auk, 53, p. 81, 1936 New Zealand, Australia; 
idem, Ibis, 1939, p. 452, pi. 8, fig. 2 Point Barrow, Alaska (downy 
young descr.); Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 264, 1939 Est. 
La Geraldina, Santa Fe (Mar., April); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, 
p. 28, 1943 coast east of Mackenzie Delta (nesting). 

Erolia melanotos Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 284, 1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 307, 1935 Panama (transient); Belcher and 
Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 293 Trinidad (Oropuche Lagoon, Oct. 12) and 
Tobago; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 142, 1938 Amazonas (Rio Jurua, 
Aug.), Sao Paulo (IguapS, Nov.; Sao Sebastiao, Nov.), and Rio Grande 
do Sul (Itaquy, Oct., Nov.); Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 175, 1938 Lake Olomega (Aug. 1, 29 and Sept. 4, 
6) and Barra de Santiago (Apr. 4), El Salvador; Morrison, Ibis, 1939, p. 
647 Lake Junm, Peru (Jan. to April 9); Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. 
Vetensk. Akad. Handl., (3), 22, p. 44, 1945 Joao Pessoa, Rio Jurua, 
Brazil; idem, I.e., (3), 23, p. 73, 1945 Bolivia (Cachuela Esperanza and 
Victoria, El Beni; San Luis, Tarija). 

Pisobia melanotis Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 56, 1938 Vegas 
de Chacalluta, Tacna, Chile (April). 

Range. Breeds on the Arctic coasts of northeastern Siberia 
(Nijni Kolymsk) and North America from Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 
to Southampton Island, and on the west shore of Hudson Bay to the 
Nelson River; migrates chiefly through the interior and along the 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Atlantic coast; winters in South America from Peru, Bolivia, and 
Argentina to Chile and Patagonia (Chubut Valley); occasional in 
Greenland; casual in British Isles, France, and Norway; accidental 
in Hawaiian Islands (Kaahualu, Kau, Hawaii, Oct. 14, 1900). 

Field Museum Collection. 221: Alaska (Barrow, 4; Point Hope, 
1; Nome, 4; St. Michaels, 4; Tocatna, 4; Bethel, 1; Unalaska, 1; 
Yukon Delta, 1) ; Arctic America (Franklin Bay, 2) ; Alberta (Beaver- 
hill Lake, 2); Saskatchewan (Lake Johnston, 2; Maple Creek, 2); 
North Dakota (Towner County, 44; Stump Lake, Nelson County, 4; 
Oakes, Dickey County, 1; Island Lake, Rolette County, 1; Hope, 
Steele County, 1); Maine (Scarboro, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy 
Island, 10; Chatham, 1); New Hampshire (Seabrook, 1); New York 
(Cayuga Lake, 1); Connecticut (Guilford, 13; West Haven, 3; 
North Haven, 1; East Hartford, 3; New Haven County, 10; Hamden, 
2); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 9); Illinois (Worth, Cook County, 6; 
Hyde Park [Chicago], Cook County, 2; Chicago, 1); Indiana (Liver- 
pool, Lake County, 1); Kansas (Ottawa County, 1); Arkansas 
(Winslow, 2) ; Colorado (Fort Lyon, Bent County, 2) ; North Carolina 
(Bodie Island, Dare County, 6; Pea Island, Dare County, 1; Hatteras, 
1); Florida (Amelie Island, Nassau County, 2); Texas (Corpus 
Christi, 3); California (Trinidad, Humboldt County, 1); Bahamas 
(Mariguana Island, 1) ; Puerto Rico (unspecified, 1) ; Jamaica (Grand 
Cayman Island, 2); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1); Lesser Antilles 
(Dominica, 2; Guadeloupe, 1); El Salvador (Laguna Olomega, San 
Miguel, 1); Nicaragua (San Emilio Lake, Rivas, 1); Costa Rica 
(El Pozo, Rio Terraba, 1); Panama (Frances, Chiriqui, 1); Vene- 
zuela (Culata, Merida, 5; Catatumbo, Zulia, 12); Ecuador (Ibarra, 
Imbabura, 1); Peru (Yurimaguas, Loreto, 2; Lagunas, Loreto, 1); 
Bolivia (Desaguadero, La Paz, 9; Guaqui, La Paz, 9; Vacas, Cocha- 
bamba, 1) ; Paraguay (Colonia Nueva Italia, 2) ; Argentina, Misiones 
(Rio Parana, 2; Caraguatay, 1). 

Conover Collection. 34: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 8); 
Yukon Territory (Marsh Lake, 1) ; Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 
2); Illinois (Lake George, Cook County, 1; Wheaton, Du Page 
County, 5); Mexico (Ocosingo, Chiapas, 2); Colombia (Popayan, 
Cauca, 3); Brazil (Obidos, Para, 6); Bolivia (Guaqui, La Paz, 2; 
Desaguadero, La Paz, 1); Paraguay (Orloff, Chaco, 4); Argentina 
(Sierra de San Javier, Tucuman, 1). 

*Erolia acuminata (Horsfield). SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER. 

Totamis acuminatus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 13, (1), p. 192, 1821 
Java (type apparently lost). 



1948 BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 195 

Tringa acuminata Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 441, 1887 (crit.); Nelson, 
Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 106, pi. 7, 1887 St. Michaels (common fall 
migrant); Grinnell, Condor, 3, p. 20, 1901 St. Paul Lagoon, Pribilof 
Islands (second record). 

Heteropygia acuminata Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 566, 1896 (monog.). 

Pisobia acuminata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 276, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 70, 
1923 Pribilof Islands (fall migrant); Bailey, Condor, 27, p. 238, 1925 
Unalaska Island; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 167, 1927 (life hist.); 
Ball, Auk, 47, p. 417, 1930 Olema, California (1870); Swarth, Pac. Coast 
Avifauna, 22, p. 32, 1934 Nunivak Island; Slipp, Condor, 45, p. 198, 
1943 Washington (Westport; Nisqually). 

Pisobia aurita Anthony, Auk, 39, p. 106, 1922 Mission Bay, San Diego 
County, California. 

Erolia acuminata Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 284, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in northeastern Siberia from the mouth of the 
Indigirka to the Chukchi Peninsula; winters in the eastern part of 
the Malay Archipelago, New Guinea, Australia, and on South 
Pacific Islands; during autumn migration in Alaska (Kotzebue 
Sound and Bering Sea coast), on the Pribilof and Aleutian Islands; 
occasional in British Columbia (Comox, Oct. 4, 1903; Masset, Queen 
Charlotte Islands), Washington (Westport, Nisqually), and Cali- 
fornia (San Diego, Sept. 16, 1921); casual in the Hawaiian Islands 
(three records) ; accidental in the British Isles. 

Field Museum Collection. 9: Alaska (St. Michaels, 4; St. George 
Island, 1; Bethel, 2; Unalaska, 2). 

*Erolia maritima (Briinnich). PURPLE SANDPIPER. 

Tringa maritima Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 54, 1764 Christianso and Norway; 
Holboll, Naturh. Tidskr. (Kr0yer), 4, p. 408, 1843 Greenland; Seebohm, 
Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 428, 1887 (crit.); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, 
p. 164, 1898 Greenland. 

Arquatella maritima Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 578, 1896 (monog.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 239, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); 
Bent, I.e., 142, p. 146, 1927 (life hist.); Bradlee, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
39, p. 317, 1931 Bermuda Islands (St. George's Harbor; sight record). 

Calidris maritima maritima L0ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, p. 55, 
1932 Shannon, Sabine, and Clavering Islands, Greenland (breeding). 

Erolia maritima Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 285, 1934 (range); Trautman, 
Wilson Bull., 56, p. 46, 1944 Ohio; Soper, Auk, 63, p. 228, 1946 
Baffin Island (migration; probably nesting). 

Range. In North America breeds from Melville and Ellesmere 
Islands south to Melville Peninsula and Baffin Island and in Green- 
land; also in Iceland, on the Faroes, and on the Arctic coasts of 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

northern Europe and Asia east to the Taimyr Peninsula, including 
Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya, and Franz Josef Land; winters on 
the Atlantic coast of America from southern Greenland to Long 
Island, casually to southern Florida and shores of the Great Lakes 
(Cleveland, Ohio, June, 1895; Cook County, Illinois, Nov., 1886); 
also in Iceland, northern and western Europe. 

Field Museum Collection. 29: Greenland (Godhaven, Disko 
Island, 4; Godthaab, 1; Nanortalik, 1); Baffin Land (Franklin, 2); 
Prince Edward Island (Malpeque, 1); New Brunswick (Grand 
Manan Island, 8; unspecified, 2); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 1); 
Maine (unspecified, 1; Matinicus, Knox County, 1); Massachusetts 
(Bristol County, 2); Connecticut (Stamford, 1; New Haven County, 
1; Branford, 1; Stony Creek, New Haven County, 1; New Haven 
Harbor, 1). 

Conover Collection. 21: Greenland (Godthaab, 7; Nanortalik, 1); 
Massachusetts, Essex County (Rockport, 8; Pigeon Cove, 4); Con- 
necticut (Branford, New Haven County, 1). 

*Erolia ptilocnemis tschuktschorum (Portenko). 1 ALASKAN 
SANDPIPER. 

Arquatella maritima tschuktschorum Portenko, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 22, 
p. 225, 1937 "Terrae Tschuktschorum" (type from Uelen in coll. of 
L. Portenko). 

Tringa couesi Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 2, p. 147, 1886 part, St. 
Michaels; Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 103, 1887 St. Michaels 
(migration Aug., Oct.). 

Tringa ptilocnemis Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 105, 1887 part, 

St. Lawrence Island (nesting). 
[Arquatella maritima] subsp. o. Arquatella couesi Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 24, p. 583, 1896 part, spec, a-w, St. Michaels and Port Etolin, 

Alaska. 

l Erolia ptilocnemis tschuktschorum (Portenko): Nearest to E. p. couesi but 
in breeding plumage is darker, more reddish, less ochraceous, above, with the white 
tips to the feathers broader and more conspicuous because of the generally darker 
appearance of the bird as a whole. This darker hue is brought about by the light 
edges to the feathers being narrower and dark reddish instead of dark buff. 
Winter and immature birds are indistinguishable. Size slightly larger. 

From the typical race it differs in breeding dress by having the light edges 
to the feathers of the upper parts dark reddish, not reddish clay color; the rump, 
primaries, secondaries and upper wing coverts darker, with narrow white edges 
to latter; and the crown of the head darker, less grayish. The under parts also 
have a darker appearance. The winter and immature plumages are much darker. 

Additional material examined. Siberia: Emma Harbor, 14; East Cape, 3; 
Cape Serdze, 1. Alaska: St. Lawrence Island, 18; Wales, 22; Norton Sound, 1; 
St. Michaels, 19; Hooper Bay, 1; Nunivak Island, 16; St. Paul Island, 4; Admiralty 
Island, 3; Sitka, 1; Juneau, 1; Forrester Island, 9. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 197 

Arquatella ptilocnemis ptilocnemis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 247, 1919 part, St. Lawrence Island and Norton Sound; Friedmann, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 80, art. 12, p. 19, 1932 St. Lawrence Island 
(nesting); Gabrielson, Auk, 61, p. 124, 1944 Nunivak Island (nesting). 

Arquatella ptilocnemis couesi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 247, 
1919 part, northeastern Siberia, St. Lawrence Island, and coast of Alaska 
(Kotzebue Sound to Sitka); Bent, I.e., 142, p. 159, 1927 part, except 
Aleutian Islands; Swarth, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 22, p. 29, 1934 Nunivak 
Island (part, breeding population); Slipp, Condor, 45, p. 198, 1943 
Smith Island, San Juan County, Washington. 

Arquatella maritima couesi Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 66, 
1923 Pribilof Islands (St. Paul, Sept. to Nov.; Northeast Point, April 24; 
St. George Island, Feb. 12); Bailey, Condor, 27, p. 236, 1925 Wales, 
Alaska (nesting); Conover, Auk, 43, p. 306, 1926 Point Dall (migration), 
Igiak Bay (nesting?). 

Erolia ptilocnemis ptilocnemis Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 285, 1934 part, 
St. Lawrence Island only. 

Erolia ptilocnemis couesi Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 285, 1934 part, except 
Aleutian Islands. 

Erolia ptilocnemis tschuktschorum Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
29, p. 174, 1944 (dist. chars.; plumages; range). 

Range. Known to nest in Siberia (Emma Harbor, on Providence 
Bay), on St. Lawrence and Nunivak Islands and at Wales, Alaska, 
but probably breeds on the Chukchi Peninsula, Siberia, and in suit- 
able localities between Cape Prince of Wales and Hooper Bay, 
Alaska. Winters on the Pacific coast of North America from the 
Alaska Peninsula south to Washington and occasionally north- 
western Oregon; probably also on the Kamchatka Peninsula. 

Field Museum Collection. 71: Siberia (Kolintschin Bay, 1); 
Alaska (St. Lawrence Island, 3; Nome, 1; St. Michaels, 58; St. 
George Island, 1; Forrester Island, 5); British Columbia (Queen 
Charlotte Islands, 2). 

Conover Collection. 26: Alaska (Nome, 1; Topkok, 2; Hooper 
Bay, 12; False Pass, 1; Wrangell, 3; Craig, Prince of Wales Island, 
1); British Columbia (Comox, Vancouver Island, 2); Washington 
(Jefferson County, 4). 

*Erolia ptilocnemis ptilocnemis (Coues). PRIBILOF SANDPIPER. 

Tringa ptilocnemis Coues, in H. W. Elliot, Rep. Seal Ids., Alaska, unpaged, 
note "1873"=Jan., 1874 St. George Island, Pribilof Islands (type in 
U. S. National Museum); idem, Amer. Nat., 8, p. 500, 1874 (reprint 
orig. descr.); Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 105, 1887 part, 
Fur Seal Islands and St. Mathews. 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tringa gracilis Harting, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 242, pi. 40, figs. 4-6, 
after June 20, 1874 St. Paul Island, Pribilof group (type in collection 
of J. E. Harting, now in British Museum). 

Arquatella ptilocnemis Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 163, 1880 (diag.; 
crit.); Hanna, Condor, 23, p. 50, 1921 part, except St. Lawrence Island 
(life hist.). 

Tringa maritima ptilocnemis Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 431, 1887 
(crit.). 

[Arquatella maritima] subsp. /3. Arquatella ptilocnemis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 24, p. 584, 1896 part, spec, a-e, St. George and St. Paul Islands, 

Pribilof group (monog.). 
Arquatella ptilocnemis ptilocnemis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 

p. 244, 1919 part, except St. Lawrence Island and Norton Sound (monog.; 

full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 142, p. 152, 1927 part, except St. Lawrence 

Island (life hist.); Swarth, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 22, p. 29, 1934 Nunivak 

Island (Oct. 5). 
Arquatella maritima ptilocnemis Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, 

p. 67, 1923 Pribilof Islands (nesting; habits; food); Conover, Auk, 43, 

p. 307, 1926 Point Dall (May 23), Igiak Bay (July 23). 

Erolia ptilocnemis ptilocnemis Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 285, 1934 part, 
except St. Lawrence Island; Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
29, p. 170, 1944 (dist. chars.; plumages; range). 

Range. Breeds in Bering Sea on the Pribilof, St. Matthew and 
Hall Islands. Winter range not well known, but the bird leaves the 
Pribilofs by October and has been found sparingly either on migra- 
tion or wintering at Hooper Bay (May 23), Nunivak Island (Oct. 5), 
and on the Alaska Peninsula and southern Alaska. 

Field Museum Collection. 15: Pribilof Islands (St. Paul Island, 
11; St. George Island, 4). 

Conover Collection. 2: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 2). 

*Erolia ptilocnemis couesi (Ridgway). ALEUTIAN SANDPIPER. 

Arquatella couesi Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 5, No. 3, p. 160, July, 1880 
"Aleutian Islands and coast of Alaska, north to St. Michael" (type from 
Chicagoff Harbor, Attu Island, Aleutian Islands, in the U. S. National 
Museum). 

Tringa couesi Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 2, p. 147, 1886 part, Aleutian 
Islands; Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 103, pi. 6, 1887 Aleutian 
Islands (nesting; life hist.). 

Tringa maritima couesi Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 430, 1887 (crit.). 

[Arquatella maritima} subsp. a. Arquatella couesi Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, p. 583, 1896 part, spec, x-a 1 , Unalaska and Atka Islands. 

Arquatella maritima couesi Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 38, p. 50, 1911 
Atka, Agattu and Attu Islands. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 199 

Arquatella ptilocnemis couesi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 247, 
1919 part, Aleutian Islands only (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 142, 
p. 159, 1927 part, Aleutian Islands only (life hist.). 

Erolia ptilocnemis couesi Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 285, 1934 part, Aleutian 
Islands only; Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 29, p. 173, 
1944 (dist. chars.; plumages; range); Sutton and Wilson, Condor, 48, 
p. 88, 1946 Attu Island (wintering, Feb. 20-Mar. 18). 

Range. Resident on the Aleutian and Shumagin Islands. Prob- 
ably intergrading with E. p. tschuktschorum on the Alaska Peninsula. 
Perhaps straggling in winter to the coast of southeastern Alaska. 

Field Museum Collection. 7: Aleutian Islands (Unalaska, 6); 
Alaska Peninsula (Pavlof Bay, 1). 

Conover Collection. 3: Aleutian Islands (Shemya Island, Semichi 
Islands, 3). 

Erolia ptilocnemis quarta Hartert. 1 COMMANDER ISLAND SAND- 
PIPER. 

Erolia maritima quarta Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 137, 1920 Bering Island 

(type in the Tring Collection, now in the American Museum of Natural 

History, New York, examined). 
[Arquatella maritima] subsp. 0. Arquatella ptilocnemis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 24, p. 584, 1896 part, spec, f, Bering Island. 
Arquatella ptilocnemis couesi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 247, 

1919 part, Bering Island. 
Arquatella maritima couesi Bailey, Condor, 27, p. 236, 1925 part, Wales, 

Alaska, No. 8962 only. 
Erolia ptilocnemis quarta Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 285, 1934 (range) ; Conover, 

Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 29, p. 177, 1944 Wales, Alaska (dist. 

chars.; range). 

Range. Breeding and probably resident on the Commander 
Islands. One record for Alaska (Wales, June 8). 

Erolia alpina arctica Schi01er. 2 GREENLAND DUNLIN. 

1 Erolia ptilocnemis quarta Hartert: This race has the light edgings to the 
mantle, scapulars and tertials so broad that the dorsal surface has the appearance 
of being almost solid rufescent. Males, wing 117-126, culmen 25-28; females, 
wing 120-128, culmen 27-32.5 mm. 

The specimen taken on Attu Island and referred provisionally by Bent (Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 160, 1927) to quarta has been examined by the junior 
author and in his opinion is not nearly rusty enough for that race but simply 
a rather aberrant specimen of couesi. The example mentioned by Bailey (Condor, 
27, p. 238, 1925) from Wales, Alaska, however, agrees in size and the redness of 
the dorsal surface with a breeding series from Bering Island. 

Specimens examined. Bering Island, 9. Alaska, Wales, 1. 

2 Erolia alpina arctica Schi01er: Nearest toE. a. alpina, but smaller, being about 
the size of E. a. schinzii, of the Baltic countries; dorsal coloration less reddish, 
more brownish. Wing, 107-113, (female) 109-118; bill, 24-28, (female) 29-32. 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Erolia alpina arctica Schiller, Dansk. Orn. Foren. Tidsskr., 16, Nos. 1-2, 
p. 19, May, 1922 northeastern Greenland (type, not specified, in coll. 
of E. L. Schi01er, now in Copenhagen Museum); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 285, 1934 (range); Griscom, Auk, 54, p. 70, 1937 Massachusetts 
(dist. chars.). 

Tringa schinzii (not of Brehm, 1822) Holboll, Naturh. Tidskr., 4, p. 409, 
1843 Nanortalik; Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, p. 11 Greenland. 

Tringa alpina (not of Linnaeus) Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 169, 1898 
Greenland; Manniche, I.e., 45, No. 1, p. 136, 1910 Stormkap, north- 
eastern Greenland (breeding habits). 

Calidris alpina arctica L0ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, p. 60, 1932 
northeastern Greenland (crit.; habits); Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, Ergan- 
zungsband, p. 472, 1936 (crit.); Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 144 Green- 
land (crit.; meas.); H0rring and Salomonsen, Medd. Gr0nl., 131, p. 38, 
1941 Greenland. 

Range. Eastern Greenland (migration route and winter range 
unknown). 1 (?) Accidental in Massachusetts. 

*Erolia alpina pacifica (Coues). RED-BACKED SANDPIPER; 
AMERICAN DUNLIN. 

Tringa alpina var. americana (not Pelidna americana Brehm 1855) Cassin, 
in Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 719, 1858 temperate regions 
of North America (crit.; no type designated). 

Pelidna pacifica Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, p. 189 (in text) 
Semiahmoo, Whatcom County, Washington (type in U. S. National 
Museum, No. 9540; cf. Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 121, 1885). 

Pelidna alpina pacifica Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 120, 1885 
Bering Island (crit.; nomencl.); Oberholser, Auk, 34, p. 200, 1917 (crit.); 
Bishop, Condor, 40, p. 225, 1938 (correct name for American birds). 

Tringa alpina pacifica Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 427, 1887 (crit.); 
Dwight, Auk, 17, p. 381, 1900 (plumages). 

Pelidna americana Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 608, 769, 1896 
(monog.; in part). 

Pelidna alpina sakhalina (not of Vieillot) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 262, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Conover, Auk, 43, p. 308, 
1926 Hooper Bay, Alaska (nesting); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, 
p. 221, 1927 (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 91, 1928 
Lower California (winter); Hurley, Murrelet, 13, p. 19, 1932 Nakeen, 
Bristol Bay, Alaska (nesting); Van Tyne, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. 

1 It is probable that most, if not all, of the records of Erolia alpina alpina 
(Linnaeus) from eastern North America (Fort Churchill, Keewatin; Shinnecock 
Bay, Long Island, Sept. 15, 1892; Chatham, Mass., Aug. 11, 1900) really pertain 
toE. a. arctica (cf. Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 257, 1919; Bent, 
I.e., 142, p. 221, 1927, s.n. Pelidna a. alpina). Griscom (Auk, 54, pp. 71-72, 1937), 
in fact, on reexamination found the Chatham bird to be arctica. Another (crippled) 
example shot at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, on August 16, 1936, he believes to be 
referable to the European E. alpina alpina (Linnaeus), mainly on account of its 
long bill (culmen 37.2 mm.). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 201 

Mich., 255, p. 2, 1933 Brownsville, Texas (wintering); Swarth, Pac. 
Coast Avifauna, 22, p. 33, 1934 Nunivak Island (nesting). 

Erolia alpina sakhalina Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1577, 1920 (monog.); 
Buturlin, Alauda, 4, p. 266, 1932 (char.; range); Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 286, 1934 (range); Griscom, Auk, 54, p. 70, 1937 (dist. chars.); Soper, 
I.e., 63, p. 230, 1946 Baffin Island (rare). 

"Pelidna alpina parifica; P. a. sakhalina" Bailey, Condor, 28, p. 33, 1926 
northern Alaska (breeding). 

Erolia alpina pacifica Conover, Condor, 47, p. 214, 1945 (dist. chars.; American 
birds differ from those of Siberia). 

Range. Breeds from Point Barrow, Alaska, east to the Boothia 
Peninsula and south to Bristol Bay and the west coast of Hudson 
Bay (Churchill); winters on the west coast of North America from 
British Columbia to Lower California and on the Gulf and South 
Atlantic coasts of the United States; casual in the West Indies 
(Dominica, Oct. 1, 1904) and in Nicaragua (Momotombo, May 23). 

Field Museum Collection. 92: Alaska (Barrow, 2; Point Hope, 1; 
St. Lawrence Island, 3; Nome, 2; St. Michaels, 37); British Columbia 
(Queen Charlotte Islands, 2); North Dakota (Towner County, 3); 
Minnesota (Heron Lake, 2); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 6); Illinois 
(Chicago, 2; Waukegan, 2; Meredosia, 1); Massachusetts (Chatham, 
6; Monomoy Island, 9); Connecticut (West Haven, 4; Stony Creek, 
1; New Haven County, 1); New York (Cayuga Lake, 2); Virginia 
(Cape Charles, 6; Cobb's Island, 1); North Carolina, Dare County 
(Pea Island, 31 ; Bodie Island, 1) ; South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 
5); Florida (Amelia Island, 5; Anclote, 6); Texas (Cameron County, 
1; Aransas Pass, 1; Port Lavaca, 2; Port O'Connor, 1; Seadrift, 2); 
California (San Francisco, 1; Miller, 8; mouth of Carmel River, 
Monterey County, 1; Monterey, 5; Trinidad, 4; Redwood, 1; 
Anaheim, 1; La Patera Point, 10; Hook's Point, 1; Alviso, 1; Pacific 
Beach, 1; San Diego, 4; Nigger Slough, Los Angeles County, 3; 
Motordrome, Los Angeles County, 1) ; Mexico (La Paz, Lower Cali- 
fornia, 2). 

Conover Collection. 37: Alaska (Hooper Bay, 9; Igiak Bay, 2); 
North Dakota (Grafton, 2) ; Indiana (Wolf Lake, 1) ; Illinois (Calumet 
Lake, 1); Michigan (Thunder Bay Island, Alpena County, 1); 
Massachusetts (Chatham, 1; Ipswich, 1); New York (Cayuga, 1; 
Cayuga Lake, 2); North Carolina (Hatteras, 1); South Carolina 
(Copahee Sound, 2); Florida (Nassau County, 2; Amelia Island, 2); 
California (Moss Landing, 4; Goleta, 1; Point Magie, 1); Mexico 
(La Paz, Lower California, 1). 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Erolia ferruginea (Pontoppidan). CURLEW SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Ferrugineus Pontoppidan, 1 Danske Atlas, 1, p. 624, 1763 Iceland and 
Christiansoe Island (cf. Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 54, 1764). 

Scolopax testacea Pallas, in Vroeg's Cat. Rais. Coll. d'Ois., Adumbratiuncula, 
p. 6, 1764 Blankenburg Island, Holland. 

Scolopax subarquata Giildenstadt, Nov. Comm. Petrop., 19, p. 471, pi. 18, 
1775 near Caspian Sea to Tanain and River Choper. 

Tringa subarquata Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 419, 1887 (crit.). 

Ancylochilus subarquatus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 586, 1896 
(monog.); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, 
Orn., p. 330, 1900 Patagonia (Burnett and Fitzroy). 

Erolia ferruginea Childs, Auk, 21, p. 485, 1904 Barnegat Bay, New Jersey; 
Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 252, 1905 Carriacou (Sept., Oct.) 
and Grenada, Lesser Antilles; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 250, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 125, 1920 
Patagonia; Helmuth, Auk, 41, p. 340, 1924 Mecox Bay, Long Island; 
Fuertes, I.e., 41, p. 340, 1924 Fisher's Island, New York; Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 232, 1927 (life hist.). 

Erolia testacea Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 286, 1934 (range); Brooks, Condor, 
39, p. 177, 1937 Masset, Queen Charlotte Islands; Griscom, Auk, 58, 
p. 95, 1941 Cape Cod, Massachusetts. 

Range. Breeds in northern Asia at the mouth of the Yenesei, 
in western Taimyr, on Cape Bolschoi Baranov, and the New Siberian 
Islands; winters in Africa, Madagascar, India, Burma, Malay Archi- 
pelago, and Australia; casual in eastern North America (many 
records), Alaska (Point Barrow, June 6, 1883), Queen Charlotte 
Islands, in the Lesser Antilles (Grenada and Carriacou), and allegedly 
even in eastern Patagonia. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 1: New Brunswick (unspecified, I). 3 
Genus MICROPALAMA Baird 

Micropalama Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, pp. 714, 726, 1858 

type, by monotypy, Tringa himantopus Bonaparte. 
Micropelama G. R. Gray, Hand-list Bds., 3, p. 48, 1871 (emendation). 

*Micropalama himantopus (Bonaparte). STILT SANDPIPER. 

Tringa himantopus Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 2, No. 1, p. 157, 
March, 1826 Long Branch, New Jersey (type in coll. of C. L. Bonaparte); 4 

1 See Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 49, p. 21, 1941. 

2 A specimen without date and exact locality in the British Museum (W. 
Burnett and Fitzroy). 

3 This specimen is in the Cory Collection. Original label: "Smithsonian Insti- 
tute. Exploration in and near New Brunswick. George A. Boardman. May 1863." 

4 The fate of the type is uncertain. We do not know whether it remained in 
Bonaparte's private collection, part of which passed into the Paris Museum 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 203 

Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor. Amer., 2, p. 380, 1831 Hayes 
River, Keewatin; Bonaparte, Amer. Orn., 4, p. 89, pi. 25, fig. 3, 1833 
Long Island; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 54, 1864 
Cuba (crit.). 

Tringa douglasii Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer., 
2, p. 379, pi. 66, Feb., 1832 Saskatchewan River (location of type not 
stated; descr. of adult summer plumage). 

Tringa (Hemipalama) audubonii Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, 
Water Birds, p. 140, 1834 Hayes River, countries of Hudson's Bay, lat. 
57 (based on Tringa himantopus Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.- 
Amer., p. 380, 1831). 

Hemipalama multistriata (Lichtenstein MS.) G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, p. 
[578], pi. 156, fig. 2, 1845 high northern latitudes (of North America), 
Hudson's Bay and northern and middle states of the American Union; 
Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 466, 1866 Trinidad; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 311, 1870 Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, Matto Grosso, Brazil (Oct.). 

Micropalama himantopus Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 229 Duenas, 
Guatemala; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 290, 1860 Babahoyo, 
Ecuador (Sept.); idem, I.e., 1862, p. 369 Mexico; Gundlach, in Poey, 
Repert. Fis.-Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 356, 1866 Cuba ("Sept. to May"); Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 199 eastern Peru (=Nauta); 
iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 309 Nauta, Peru; Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 326, 
1875 Cuba (Sept., April); Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 47, 
1876 San Mateo, Oaxaca (Aug.); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 188, 
1878 Puerto Rico; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 363, 1886 Chorillos 
and Nauta, Peru; Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 178, 1886 
Laguna del Rosario, Tlaxcala, Mexico (Jan.); Cory, Auk, 4, p. 312, 1887 
West Indian localities (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 233, 1889 (descr.); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 109, 1889 falls of the Rio Madeira, 
Bolivia (Oct.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 401, 1896 United 
States, Mexico (Zacatecas, Aug.), Guatemala (Duenas), Nicaragua 
(Momotombo, May), Grenada, Anegada, Uruguay (Colonia), Peru 
(Iquitos), and "Chile"; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, 
No. 368, p. 44, 1900 Vinces, Ecuador (Sept.); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 13, p. 126, 1900 Cie"naga, Colombia (Sept. 13); idem, Auk, 17, 
p. 364, 1900 same locality; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 3, p. 370, 1903 Mexico (Matamoros; Zacatecas; Laguna del 
Rosario, Tlaxcala; San Mateo, Oaxaca), Guatemala (Duenas), and 
Nicaragua (Momotombo); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 251, 1905 
Barbados, Grenadines, and Grenada (transient); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 
15, p. 306, 1908 (no record from French Guiana); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 218, 1910 Buenos Aires; Grant, Ibis, 1911, 
p. 470 Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires (Feb. 24), and near Esquina, 
Corrientes (Nov. 14); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 80, 1914 Rio Paraguay, 
Corrientes; Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 379, 1915 Demarca- 
tion Point, Alaska (May 23-26, June 8), and Herschel Island (Aug. 2); 
Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 264 Trujillo, Peru (Aug. 18, Sept. 8); Ridgway, 

after his death, or whether it was deposited in Peale's Philadelphia Museum, in 
which case it may be regarded as lost. 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 205, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Gibson, 
Ibis, 1920, p. 70 Aj6, Buenos Aires (Dec. 27); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 
2, p. 13, 1920 Maldonado, Uruguay; Dabbene, I.e., p. 119, 1920 
Argentina (Esquina, Corrientes; Belgrano [Aug. 7], Aj6, and Los Yngleses, 
Buenos Aires) and Uruguay (Colonia and Maldonado) ; Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 184, 1922 Cie"naga, Colombia (ex Allen); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 195, 1926 Ecuador; Wetmore, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 158, 1926 Paraguayan Chaco (Sept.); 
idem, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 26, p. 8, 1927 west of Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay (Sept. 20-25); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 122, 1927 
(life hist.; range); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 
9, p. 371, 1927 Puerto Rico and Anegada (transient); Pereyra, El 
Hornero, 4, p. 201, 1928 Rosas, Buenos Aires (Oct. 20); Wetmore and 
Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 165, 1931 Hispaniola (ex Cory); 
Bradlee, Mowbray and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 317, 1931 
Bermuda Islands (transient); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, 
p. 133, 1932 Duenas, Guatemala; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 287, 1934 
(range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 293 Trinidad (ex Leotaud); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 143, 1938 Rio Guapore", Matto Grosso, 
Brazil; Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 87, p. 194, 1939 Ocumare de 
la Costa, Venezuela (Oct. 24-28); Philippi, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 44, 
p. 147, 1940 Las Vegas de Chacalluta, Arica, Chile. 

Totanus himantopus March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 67 
Jamaica (April, June, August). 

Hemipalama himantopus Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 561 
Chorillos, Peru. 

Ereunetes himantopus Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 400, 1887 (crit.). 

Range. Breeds in Arctic North America from Coronation Gulf 
to the west shore of Hudson Bay (Churchill); migrates chiefly 
through the interior (less frequently on the Atlantic coast of 
the United States), Florida, West Indies, Mexico, Guatemala 
(Duenas), Nicaragua (Momotombo), Colombia (Cie"naga), Vene- 
zuela (Ocumare de la Costa), western Ecuador (Babahoyo, Vinces), 
and Peru (Nauta, Iquitos, Trujillo, Chorillos); winters in Bolivia 
(falls of the Rio Madeira), southern Brazil (Matto Grosso), Paraguay, 
Uruguay, and northern Argentina (Corrientes and Buenos Aires). 
One record for Chile (Arica). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 76: Saskatchewan (Quill Lake, 2); 
Manitoba (Churchill, 3); North Dakota (Stump Lake, Nelson 
County, 34; Graham Island, Ramsey County, 2; Cranberry Lake, 1; 
Towner County, 6); Minnesota (Heron Lake, Jackson County, 1); 

1 The other alleged occurrence in "Chili," based on a specimen without history 
in the Salvin-Godman Collection (ex J. Gould), is open to doubt. The winter 
range of the Stilt Sandpiper is still very imperfectly known, there being but a 
few scattered records from northern Argentina and adjacent countries. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 205 

Wisconsin (Jefferson County, 1); Illinois, Cook County (Calumet 
Lake, 1; Hyde Park [Chicago], 1); New York (Southampton, 2); 
Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 2; Great Island, 1); Connecticut 
(Grove Beach, New Haven County, 1; New Haven County, 1); 
Colorado (Laramie County, 1; Windsor, Weld County, 1; Fort 
Lyon, Bent County, 1); Texas (Brownsville, 5; Padre Island, 1); 
Florida (Banana River, Brevard County, 1; Indian River, Brevard 
County, 1; Merritt Island, Brevard County, 1; unspecified, 1); 
Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1; Anegada Island, 2); Bolivia (Vacas, 
Cochabamba, 1). 

Conover Collection. 43: Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 3); 
Manitoba (Churchill, 11); North Dakota (Grafton, Walsh County, 
4); South Dakota (Eden, Marshall County, 5; Sanborn County, 7); 
Wisconsin (Big Muskego Lake, 3); Massachusetts (East Orleans, 
3); Nebraska (Brownlee, Cherry County, 1); Colorado (Windsor, 
Weld County, 1); Texas (Tivoli, Refugio County, 1); Virgin 
Islands (St. Croix, 3); Bolivia (Vacas, Cochabamba, 1). 

Genus TRYNGITES Cabanis 

Tryngites Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 4, No. 24, "Nov., 1856," p. 418, 1857 
type, by orig. desig., Tringa rufescens Vieillot =Triw0a subruficollis Vieillot. 

Tringites Sclater, Ibis, 4, p. 277, 1862 emendation. 

Tryngites subruficollis (Vieillot). BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa subruficollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 34, p. 465, 
1819 based on "Chorlito garganta blanca acanelada" Azara, No. 403, 
Paraguay (Nov.). 

Tringa rufescens (not of Bechstein, 1809) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
nouv. ed., 34, p. 470, 1819 Louisiana (location of type not stated); 
idem and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 2, p. 105, pi. 238, 1825 Louisiana; Darwin, 
Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 130, 1841 Montevideo, Uruguay; Le"otaud, 
Ois. Trinidad, p. 470, 1866 Trinidad (Aug. to Oct.); Seebohm, Geog. 
Distr. Charad., p. 446, 1887 (crit.). 

Actidurus naevius Heermann, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 7, p. 178, 1854 
near San Antonio, Texas (type in U. S. National Museum; cf. Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 22). 

Tryngites rufescens Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 418, 1856 Cuba (April); 
idem, in Poey, Repert. Fis.-Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 355, 1866 Cuba; Dresser, 
Ibis, 1866, p. 39 Matamoros, Tamaulipas (Aug., Sept.); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 199 upper Ucayali, Peru; 
Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 377, 1869 Costa Rica; Gundlach, Journ. 
Orn., 23, p. 325, 1875 Cardenas, Cuba (early April); Durnford, Ibis, 
1877, p. 200 west of Buenos Aires (= Moreno) (Feb. 20); Cabanis, Journ. 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Orn., 26, p. 199, 1878 Rio Parana, Argentina; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 547 Remedies, Antioquia, Colombia; Salvin, 
Ibis, 1889, p. 587 Ruatan Island, Honduras; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. 
Orn., 2, p. 190, 1889 Argentina. 

Actitis rufescens Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 79, 1864 
Fort Simpson, Canada (crit.). 

Tringites rufescens Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 754, 
979 Xeberos and Pebas, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 309 upper Ucayali, 
Xeberos, Chamicuros, and Pebas, Peru. 

Tringoides rufescens Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 310, 1870 Sao Paulo (Lagoa 
do Portao, Ypanema, Nov.), Matto Grosso (Villa Bella, Oct.); and 
Amazonas (Borba, Rio Madeira, Apr.; Marabitanas, Rio Negro, Mar.). 

Tryngites subruficollis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 356, 1885 (no- 
mencl.); Cory, Auk, 4, p. 319, 1887 Cuba (descr.); Nelson, Nat. Hist. 
Coll. Alaska, 3, p. 119, 1887 St. Michaels (migration), Point Barrow 
(breeding); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 240, 1889 Cuba; Cherrie, Auk, 7, 
p. 332, 1890 San Jose, Costa Rica (Sept. 25 to Nov. 15); idem, I.e., 9, 
p. 329, 1892 San Jose; Allen, I.e., 17, p. 364, 1900 Cienaga, Colombia 
(Sept.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 125, 1900 Cienaga; Clark, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 255, 1905 Barbados (fall transient); 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 422, 1910 San Jose, Costa Rica 
(Sept., Oct.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, IS, p. 219, 1910 
Cordoba, Misiones, and Buenos Aires; Bowles, Condor, 19, p. 187, 1917 
Westport, Washington; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1918, p. 246 
Gatun, Panama (Oct. 18); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 226, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 121, 1920 
Cordoba, Buenos Aires (Platanos, Mar. 28; Barracas al Sud, June 14, 
Dec. 10; Ajo, Mar. 8; Moreno, Feb. 20; Chascomus, Mar. 5), and 
Misiones; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 25, No. 14, p. 25, 1922 
plains of Carapungo, Ecuador (July 10) ; Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 42, 1922 Lagunillas, Merida, Venezuela 
(May 10); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 183, 1922 
Cienaga, Magdalena, Colombia (ex Allen); Bailey, Condor, 28, p. 36, 
1926 Point Barrow, Alaska (nesting); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
133, p. 157, 1926 Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco, Sept. 21) and Buenos 
Aires (Lavalle, Nov. 13; Guaminf, Mar.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 198, 1926 Ecuador; Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 80, 1927 
Rio Lujan, Buenos Aires (Feb.); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 69, 
1929 (life hist.); Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, p. 313, 1929 near 
San Juan, Hispaniola (Oct. 1); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco 
Exp., Vogel, p. 57, 1930 Mision Tacaagle, Formosa (Nov. 14-15); 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 80, 1930 Matto Grosso; 
Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 167, 1931 San Juan, 
Hispaniola (ex Moltoni); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 288, 1934 (range); 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 308, 1935 Canal Zone, Panama 
(transient); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 293 Trinidad and 
Tobago; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 143, 1938 Sao Paulo; Dickey 
and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 178, 1938 
Lake Olomega, El Salvador (Aug. 19); Brooks, Ibis, 1939, p. 451, pi. 8, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 207 

fig. 1 Point Barrow, Alaska (downy young descr.); Gyldenstolpe, K. 
Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., (3), 23, p. 73, 1945 Riberalta and 
Victoria, El Beni, Bolivia (Sept., Oct.). 

Tringites subruficollis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 521, 1896 North 
America, Mexico (Matamoros), Honduras (Ruatan Island), Colombia 
(Remedios), Peru (Iquitos, Sept. 2, 30; Pebas, Aug. 3; Cosnipata; Xeberos, 
Oct.; Chamicuros, Sept.), and Buenos Aires (Moreno, Feb. 20); Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 5, p. 503, 1898 Paramba, Ecuador (Apr. 22); Ihering, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 3, p. 436, 1899 Sao Paulo; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 3, p. 384, 1903 North America, Mexico (Matamoros, 
Guanajuato), Ruatan Island, and Costa Rica (San Jose); Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 53, 1907 Sao Paulo; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 307, 
1909 (no record from French Guiana); Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, 
p. 251, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (June 14); Hellmayr, I.e., 
17, p. 425, 1910 Borba, Rio Madeira; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 39, 
1914 upper Rio Parana, Paraguay; Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
59, p. 381, 1915 Demarcation Point and Humphrey Point, Alaska. 

Range. Breeds on the Arctic coast of North America from 
Point Barrow, Alaska, to Mackenzie; migrates chiefly through the 
interior of North America, Central America (a few records from 
Mexico, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Panama), and South America 
(scattered records from Colombia, western Ecuador, Venezuela, 
Peru, and Brazil) to Paraguay, Uruguay, and northern Argentina 
(Cordoba, Formosa, Buenos Aires, and Misiones); in the West 
Indies only recorded from Cuba (Cardenas), Hispaniola (near San 
Juan), Barbados, Tobago, and Trinidad; 1 found in summer on the 
Bering Sea coast of eastern Siberia (Cape Wankarem), occasional to 
shore of Okhotsk Sea and northern Japan (Owari) ; frequent straggler 
to the British Isles. 

Field Museum Collection. 62: Siberia (Cape Surge, 1); Alaska 
(Point Barrow, 1); British Columbia (Chilliwack, 1); Alberta 
(Beaverhill Lake, 6); Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 2; Duxbury, 
1; Marshfield, 1); North Dakota (Maza, Towner County, 6; Towner 
County, 2); Kansas (Salina, 7; Hamilton, 1; Burlington, 1); Texas 
(Brownsville, 19; Corpus Christi, 9; Galveston, 1); Costa Rica 
(San Jose", 3). 

Conover Collection. 31: Alaska (Point Barrow, 8; Chipp River, 1; 
Alaktak River, 4); Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 5); Massa- 
chusetts (Chatham, 1; North Eastham, 1; East Orleans, 1); New 
Hampshire (Seabrook, 1); Kansas (Salina, Saline County, 2); 
Texas (Brownsville, 4; Tivoli, Refugio County, 1); Venezuela 
(Lagunillas, Zulia, 2). 

1 The reported occurrence in the Bermuda Islands is questionable (cf. Bradlee, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 362, 1931). 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Genus PHILOMACHUS Merrem 1 

Philomachus Anonymous = Merrem, 2 Allg. Lit. Zeitung, 2, No. 168, col. 542, 
June 8, 1804 type, by monotypy, Tringa pugnax Linnaeus. 

Pavoncella Leach, Cat. Mam. Bds. Brit. Mus., p. 29, 1816 type, by mono- 
typy, Tringa pugnax Linnaeus. 

Machetes Cuvier, Reg. Anim., 1, p. 490, "1817" (=Dec. 7, 1816) type, by 
monotypy, Tringa pugnax Linnaeus. 

Machophilus Thienemann, Rhea, Heft 1, p. 117, 1846 substitute name for 
Philomachus "G. R. Gray" (= Merrem). 

Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus). RUFF. 

Tringa pugnax Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 148, 1758 based chiefly 
on Faun. Svec., No. 145, Sweden. 

Machetes pugnax Pelzeln, Ibis, 1875, p. 332 "Spanish Guiana" = Bogota, 
Colombia (spec, in Vienna Museum); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 161, 
1898 Nanortalik, Greenland; Evermann, Auk, 30, p. 18, 1913 St. 
Paul Island, Pribilof Islands (Sept. 7, 1910); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 219, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.). 

Totanus pugnax Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 373, 1887 (crit.; range). 

Pavoncella pugnax Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 500, 764, .1896 
(monog.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 254, 1905 Barbados 
(Graeme Hall Swamp, 1878); Deane, Auk, 22, p. 410, 1905 (complete 
list of North American records); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 307, 1908 
"Surinam." 

Philomachus pugnax Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 77, 1923 
St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 146, p. 49, 
1929 (life hist.); Gould, Auk, 49, p. 468, 1932 (North American records 
since 1906); Friedmann, Condor, 36, p. 42, 1934 Gambell, St. Lawrence 
Island (June, 1933); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 288, 1934 (range); Mayaud, 
Alauda, 6, p. 266, 1934 Sept lies, Saguenay, Quebec (May 27, 1923); 
Salomonsen, Medd. Gr0nl., 93, (6), p. 9, 1935 (three Greenland records 
listed; Peterkin, Auk, 52, p. 185, 1935 Barbados; Danforth, I.e., 53, 
p. 80, 1936 Grenada. 

Range. Breeds in northern Europe and Asia; occasional in 
Greenland (Nanortalik, Upernivik, etc.), on St. Lawrence Island 
(June, 1933), the Pribilof Islands (St. Paul Island, Sept. 7, 1910), 
and in eastern North America; 3 casual in Barbados, Grenada, and 
Colombia (native Bogota collections). 4 

1 For osteological characters, cf. Lowe, Ibis, 1915, pp. 609-616. 

* Cf. Schnurre, Orn. Monatsb., 39, pp. 65-68, 1931. 

Cf. Deane, Auk, 22, p. 410, 1905, and Gould, I.e., 49, p. 468, 1932. 

4 Schomburgk (Hist. Barbados, p. 681, 1848) received from a Mr. Bishop a 
Barbados specimen which is now in the British Museum, and Feilden (Ibis, 1889, 
p. 494) records an adult in full breeding plumage shot in Graeme Hall Swamp in 
1878. Lawrence's record from Guadeloupe (ex L'Herminier MS., in Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1, p.. 451, 1879) requires confirmation. The inclusion of Colombia 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 209 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE. Avocets and Stilts 
Subfamily RECUR VIROSTRINAE 

Genus HIMANTOPUS Brisson 

Himantopus Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 46, 5, p. 33, 1760 type, by tautonymy, 
" Himantopus" =Charadrius himantopus Linnaeus. 

Macrotarsus Lacepede, Tabl. Meth. Ois., p. 18, 1799 type, by subs, desig. 
(Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 309, 1896), Charadrius himantopus 
Linnaeus. 

Himantellus Rafinesque, Anal. Nat., p. 219, 1815 substitute name for 
Himantopus "R." (=Brisson). 

Hypsibates Nitzsch, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss., 16, sec. 1, 
p. 150, 1827 substitute name for Himantopus Brisson, thought to be 
preoccupied. 

*Himantopus himantopus mexicanus (P. L. S. Miiller). BLACK- 
NECKED STILT. 

Charadrius mexicanus P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 117, 1776 
based on "L'Echasse du Mexique" Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 36, 1760, Mexico 
(ex "Comaltecatl" Hernandez). 

Himantopus nigricollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 10, p. 42, 
1817 North America and Cayenne (no type specified); idem and Oudart, 
Gal. Ois., 2, p. 85, pi. 229, 1825 North America; Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 4, (2), p. 741, 1833 Rio Belmonte, Bahia, Brazil (descr.); Gosse, 
Bds. Jamaica, p. 386, 1847 Jamaica; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. 
Bras., 3, p. 367, 1856 Brazil (descr.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
25, p. 206, 1857 Jalapa, Mexico; idem and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 228 
La Antigua, Guatemala; Newton, I.e., p. 258 St. Croix; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 290, 1860 Babahoyo, Ecuador; March, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 67 Jamaica (breeding); Schlegel, Mus. 
Pays-Bas, livr. 7, Scolopaces, p. 107, 1864 part, spec. nos. 1, 2, Cali- 
fornia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 567 Rio 
Ucayali, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1867, p. 591 Mexiana Island, Brazil; Sundevall, 
Oefvers. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 26, p. 602, 1869 Puerto Rico (winter); 
Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 37 Minas Geraes 
(Lagoa Santa, Sept. 8; Lagoa de Sumidouro, Aug.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 310, 1870 part, Cajutuba, Para; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 Cienaga, 
Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 310 
upper Ucayali and Santa Cruz, Peru (breeding); iidem, I.e., p. 453 (char.; 
range); Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 307, 1874 Mexico 
(Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Rio de Coahuna, Colima); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 4, p. 46, 1876 San Mateo, Oaxaca; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 

rests on the single example sent to Vienna by Miinzberg. The collection reported 
upon by Pelzeln and rather vaguely attributed to "Spanish Guiana" turned out to 
consist of native made Bogota skins. Sharpe changed "Spanish" to Dutch Guiana, 
and after that time the Ruff was admitted to the Surinam fauna without any 
corroborative evidence. 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 748 Santa Lucia, Tumbez, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 
3, p. 383, 1886 (Peruvian localities); Salvin, Ibis, 1889, p. 379 Cozumel 
and Ruatan Islands; Feilden, I.e., p. 492 Barbados; Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 181, 1922 Punto Caiman and Gaira, Colombia. 

Himantopus leucurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 10, p. 42, 
1817 based on "Comaltecatl" Hernandez, Mexico. 

Hypsibates nigricollis Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
"1848," p. 758, 1849 coast region. 

Macrotarsus nigricollis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 422, 1856 Cuba; Gundlach, 
I.e., 23, p. 329, 1875 Cuba (breeding); idem, I.e., 26, p. 188, 1878 
Puerto Rico (Caborajo, Boqueron, Arecibo River). 

Himantopus mexicanus Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 232 North America, wintering 
in northern South America (crit.); idem, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 279, 
1887 (crit.); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 130, 1887 
Las Trojas, Costa Rica; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 8, p. 163, 1891 
Santarem, Brazil; Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 92, 155, 1892 Bahama 
Islands (New Providence, Andros, Mariguana, Great Inagua), Cuba, 
Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Tortola, St. Croix, St. Bartholomew, Bar- 
buda, Antigua, St. Vincent, and Barbados; Hartert, Ibis, 1893, pp. 325, 
334 Curacao and Bonaire; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 
526, 1893 Rio Frio, Costa Rica; Jouy, I.e., p. 791, 1893 Lake Patzcuaro, 
Michoacan, Mexico; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 320, 751, 1896 
(monog.); Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 164 Amapa, Para, Brazil; Salvadori 
and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 43, 1900 Vinces and 
Rio Daule, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1902, (2), p. 52 Ingapirca, Junin, Peru; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 307, 
1902 Curacao and Bonaire; Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 301 Green Cay 
(Andros), Bahama Islands; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 3, p. 361, 1903 Mexican and Central American localities; Bangs 
and Zappey, Amer. Nat., 39, p. 195, 1905 Salina at Bibeyhagua, Isle of 
Pines; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 255, 1905 Barbados and St. 
Vincent; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 45, 1907 Mexiana, 
Brazil; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 204, 209, 216, 1909 
Curacao, Bonaire, and Los Roques; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 417, 1910 Costa Rica (Las Trojas, Rio Frio); Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 94, 1910 (1926) Bahia (Joazeiro; 
Piripiri; salt-lagoon near Fazenda da Serra, Rio Grande) and Piauhy 
(Ilha Grande, Lagoa do Parnagua); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 86, 
1914 Marajo (Pacoval, Livramento, Magoary, Sao Natal), Mexiana, 
and Monte Alegro, Brazil; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 223, 
1917 Cali, Cauca, Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, 
p. 245, 1918 Gatun, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 442, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 41, 1922 Lagunillas, Zulia, Venezuela; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 225, 1923 
(1926) Bahia and Piauhy (crit.; meas.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 194, 1926 coast of Manavi, Chone, and Puna Island, 
Ecuador; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 47, 1927 (life hist.); 
McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 12, 1927 Sinaloa (Labrados), 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 211 

Nayarit (San Bias), and Tres Marias (Maria Madre); Wetmore, Sci. 
Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 375, 1927 Puerto Rico (breed- 
ing), Vieques, St. Croix, and Tortola; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
32, p. 89, 1928 Lower California (resident); Young, Ibis, 1928, p. 769 
coastal flats and mouth of Berbice River, British Guiana; Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 155, 1929 El Real, Panama; Darlington, I.e., 
71, p. 374, 1931 Cienaga and Sevillano, Magdalena, Colombia; Wolfe, 
Condor, 33, p. 51, 1931 Utah (breeding habits); Bradlee, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 39, p. 316, 1931 Bermuda Islands (spring visitor); Wetmore 
and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 168, 1931 Hispaniola (breed- 
ing); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 62, 1931 Galapagos 
Archipelago (James, Albemarle, Narborough, Indefatigable, Seymour, 
Chatham, Hood, Charles Islands) (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 131, 1932 Champerico and Ocos, Guatemala; idem, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 322, 1932 Perme, Panama; idem, I.e., 78, 
p. 308, 1935 Canal Zone, Panama; Oberholser, Bull. Dept. Conserv. 
Louisiana, 28, p. 275, 1938 Louisiana (breeding); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 84, p. 194, 1939 Independencia, Venezuela. 

Himantopus melanurus (not of Vieillot) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, 
p. 750, 1896 part, spec, r-v, Santa Cruz, Peru; Hellmayr, Abhandl. 
Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, p. 97, 1912 Cajutuba, Para. 

Himantopus himantopus mexicanus Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 495, 1929 Mangunca Island, Maranhao (crit.); Zimmer, 
I.e., 17, p. 255, 1930 Puerto Bermudez, Junin, Peru; Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 290, 1934 (range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 293 Trinidad 
(breed.; eggs descr.); Brodkorb, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 349, 
p. 2, 1937 Caviana Island, Brazil; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 143, 
1938 Maranhao (Primeira Cruz), Minas Geraes (Pirapora), and United 
States (Salton River, California; Enterprise, Florida); Dickey and van 
Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 178, 1938 Lake Olomega, 
El Salvador. 

Himantopus himantopus melanurus Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 144, 1938 
part, spec, from Cidade da Barra, Bahia, and Pirapora, Minas Geraes. 

Range. Breeds locally from Oregon, Utah, southern Nebraska, 
the coast of Louisiana, central Florida, and the Bahama Islands 
south to Lower California, Mexico, Central America, the West 
Indies and through South America south to northern Peru (Santa 
Lucia, Tumbez; Santa Cruz, Ucayali River; Ingapirca, Junin), 
Amazonia, and eastern Brazil, as far south as Minas Geraes (Rio 
Sao Francisco; Rio das Velhas) and Bahia (Rio Belmonte); also in 
the Galapagos Archipelago. 1 Probably only a migrant in the southern 
part of its range. 

1 Birds from lower Amazonia (Para) and Maranhao are typical, and certain 
individuals from Bahia (Rio Sao Francisco) are not distinguishable from Mexi- 
can specimens. A single male from Piauhy (near Parnagua), one from 
Pirapora, Minas Geraes (fide O. Pinto, in litt.) and two from Peru (Santa Cruz), 
by possessing an uncomplete white nuchal band, form the transition to H. h. 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Field Museum Collection. 80: Idaho (Payette, 1); Utah (Brig- 
ham, 1; Salt Lake City, 1); California (Seaside, Monterey County, 1; 
Pacific Beach, 1; Caswells, Los Angeles County, 1; Los Banos, 
Merced County, 14); Texas (Brownsville, 6; Cameron County, 3; 
Corpus Christi, 4; Tivoli, Refugio County, 1; Padre Island, 1); 
Florida (Wilson, Brevard County, 1; Marietta Island, Brevard 
County, 1; Banana Creek, Brevard County, 1; Lake Flirt, Glades 
County, 1; Cape Sable, 1; Bassenger, Okeechobee County, 3; Puggle 
Lake, Okeechobee County, 1); Bahama Islands (Acklin Island, 1; 
Great Inagua Island, 7; Mariguana Island, 1; Long Island, 2); 
Cuba (San Cristobal, 1); Haiti (Port de Paix, 1); Virgin Islands 
(St. Croix, 1); Lesser Antilles (Antigua, 1; Anguilla, 2); Jamaica 
(Cayman Brae, 1; Grand Cayman, 1); Mexico (Tampico, 2; Altamira, 
Tamaulipas, 1); Guatemala (San Jose", 2); Nicaragua (San Emilio, 
Rivas, 1); Venezuela (Los Roques, Colon, 1; Lake Valencia, Aragua, 
7) ; British Guiana (Buxton, 1) ; Brazil (Mangunga Island, Maranhao, 
1; Cidade do Barra, Bahia, 1). 

Conover Collection. 39: Utah (Brigham, 12); California (Buena 
Vista Lake, Kern County, 6); Texas (Cameron County, 3); Florida 
(Banana Creek, Brevard County, 1; Wilson, Brevard County, 1); 
Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 4) ; Costa Rica (Punta Piedra, Guanacaste, 
2); Venezuela (Lagunillas, Zulia, 1); British Guiana (Buxton, 
Demerara, 1); Ecuador (Isla Silva Sur, Province de los Rios, 5); 
Peru (Puerto Bermudez, Junin, I); 1 Brazil (Obidos, Para, 2). 

*Himantopus himantopus melanurus Vieillot. 2 SOUTH AMERI- 
CAN STILT. 

Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 10, p. 42, 
1817 based on "Zancudo" Azara, No. 393, Paraguay; Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 316, 750, 1896 part, spec, a-m, n, q, Chile 
(Santiago, Valparaiso), Uruguay, Buenos Aires, and Matto Grosso 

melanurus. Galdpagos birds generally have shorter tarsi, and may prove to be 
separable. 

1 This specimen is typical of the North American race, mexicanus, as it has 
a black crown and no white collar. 

2 Himantopus himantopus melanurus Vieillot is chiefly distinguished from its 
northern representative by having a conspicuous white collar across the upper 
mantle. The other characters, viz. larger size and the greater extent of white on 
the pileum, are somewhat variable, and cannot always be relied upon. Even in 
young birds, the white dorsal band is more or less suggested. Specimens from 
southern Brazil (Sao Paulo, Matto Grosso), Argentina, and Chile do not show 
any tangible differences, as far as we can see. We have not seen any material 
from Lake Titicaca. Birds from northeastern Peru (Santa Cruz), though inter- 
mediate, we are inclined to refer to H. h. mexicanus. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 213 

(Caicara); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 431, 1899 Iguape', Sao Paulo; 
Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 212, 1902 Rio Sail, Tucuman; 
Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, pp. 444, 460 Quinta, Jujuy, and Carapari (Tarija), 
Bolivia; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 49, 1907 Sao Paulo (IguapS), 
Matto Grosso (Fazenda da Faya), and Argentina (C6rdoba; Buenos 
Aires); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 252, 1909 Buenos Aires 
(Est. San Martlno Monte, Barracas al Sud) and Tucuman (Rio Sail); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 218, 1910 (range in 
Argentina); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 Uruguay (Monte- 
video, Canelones, Maldonado, Cerro Largo) ; Daguerre, I.e., p. 262, 1922 
Rosas, Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 143, 1926 
Paraguay, Santa Fe, and Buenos Aires (crit.); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 24, p. 426, 1927 Valcheta, Rio Negro; Friedmann, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 68, p. 167, 1927 Santa Fe (Saladero M. Cabal; San Joaquin, 
La Noria; Bovril Islands). 

Himantopus brasiliensis Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Deuts., p. 684, 1831 no 
type or locality stated; 1 Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, 
p. 454 southern Brazil (Caigara), Buenos Aires, and Chile (crit.); 
(?)Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 357, 1876 Juli, Lake Titicaca, 
Puno, Peru; Durnford, Ibis, 1876, p. 164 Belgrano and Punta Lara, 
Buenos Aires; idem, I.e., 1877, p. 198 Baradero, Buenos Aires; Gibson, 
I.e., 1880, p. 162 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Seebohm, I.e., 1886, 
p. 225 Chile and Brazil (crit.); idem, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 281, 
1887 Chile and Argentina (crit.); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, 
p. 179, 1889 Argentina (habits); Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425 Est. 
Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Kerr, I.e., 1892, p. 150 Fortin Page, lower 
Pilcomayo; Holland, I.e., 1892, p. 211 Est. Espartillar; Salvadori, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 24, 1895 Paraguari, Paraguay; 
Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 central provinces of Chile; 
Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 235 Paraguayan Chaco; Grant, I.e., 1911, p. 467 
Buenos Aires (Los Yngleses, Ajo) and Chaco (Riacho Ancho); Gibson, 
I.e., 1920, p. 62 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (breeding); Jaffuel 
and Pirion, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, p. 113, 1927 Marga-Marga, Val- 
paraiso, Chile; Bullock, I.e., 33, p. 202, 1929 Angol, Malleco, Chile. 

Himantopus nigricollis (not of Vieillot) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 130, 
1841 between Buenos Aires and Bahia Blanca; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 11, p. 117, 1843 Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Ffs.-Pol. Chile, 
Zool., 1, p. 424, 1847 Chile; Bibra, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 131, 1853 near Santiago, Chile; Cassin, in Gilliss, 
U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 196, 1855 Chile; Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
7, p. 313, 1860 Santiago, Chile (breeding habits); Burmeister, Journ. 
Orn., 8, p. 261, 1860 pampa of Argentina; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 
livr. 7, Scolopaces, p. 107, 1864 part, spec. nos. 3-7, Brazil and Chile; 
Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 131, 1865 Chile; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 339 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, 
p. 276, 1868 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 
p. 144 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 310, 1870 
part, Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba), Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Irisanga), and 

1 The type is not listed by Hartert (Nov. Zool., 25, p. 55, 1918) among the 
types in the Brehm Collection. 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Matto Grosso (Caicara, Pansecco); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 567, 
1877 Hacienda de Cauquenes, Colchagua, Chile; Doering, in Roca, Inf. 
Ofic. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., 1, p. 56, 1881 lagoons of the pampa and 
of the Rio Colorado; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 87, 
1884 province of Buenos Aires; Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 314, 1884 Entre 
RIos (Concepcion del Uruguay) and Buenos Aires (Azul, Puan); Lataste, 
Extr. Proc.-Verb. Seanc. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 1923, p. 171 Lake Aculeo, 
Santiago, Chile. 
Himantopus mexicanus (not Charadrius mexicamis Miiller) Sanzin, El Hornero, 

1, p. 148, 1918 Tunuyan, Mendoza. 

Himantopus melanurus melanurus Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, 

p. 402, 1930 Matto Grosso. 
Himantopus himantopus melanurus Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 

Ser., 19, p. 383, 1932 central provinces of Chile; Peters, Bds. World, 

2, p. 290, 1934 (range); Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 264, 
1934 Est. La Geraldina, Santa Fe (crit.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, 
p. 144, 1938 part, spec, from Sao Paulo (Porto Faia, Iguap6) and 
Argentina (Buenos Aires, Cordoba). 

Range. Breeds locally from southern Brazil (coast of Rio de 
Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Matto Grosso), Bolivia, and (?)central Peru 
south to Chile (most southerly record from Angol, Malleco) and 
Argentina (as far south as the Rio Negro). 

Field Museum Collection. 5: Brazil (Vaccaria, Matto Grosso, 1); 
Uruguay (Quebrada de los Cuervos, Triente y Tres, 2); Argentina 
(Conchitas, Buenos Aires, 1; Papin, near Bonifacio, Buenos Aires, 1). 

Conover Collection. 15: Brazil (Vaccaria, Matto Grosso, 2); 
Peru (Yarinacocha, Rio Ucayali, I); 1 Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa 
Cruz, 2); Paraguay (60 km. east of Orloff, Chaco, 2; Molinasque, 1); 
Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman, 2; Cambaceres, Buenos Aires, 5). 

Genus RECUR VIROSTRA Linnaeus 

Recurvirostra Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 151, 1758 type, by mono- 

typy, Recurvirostra avosetta Linnaeus. 
Avosetta Brisson, Orn., 6, p. 537, 1760 type, by tautonymy, Recurvirostra 

avocetta Linnaeus. 

*Recurvirostra americana Gmelin. AMERICAN AVOCET. 

Recurvirostra americana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 693, 1789 based 
principally on "American Avoset" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 502, pi. 21, 
North America; Gundlach, in Poey, Repert. Fis.-Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 357, 
1866 Cuba; Harting, Ibis, 1874, p. 253 (monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 330, 752, 1896 (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 

1 In this specimen the top of the head is white but the white collar is mixed 
with black, although clearly defined. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 215 

Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 363, 1903 North America, Mexico (Mata- 
moros, Tamaulipas; Oputo, Sonora; Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Rio de Coahuyana, 
Colima; Zacatecas; Guanajuato; Guadalajara, Jalisco; Valley of Mexico; 
Alvarado and Cordoba, Vera Cruz), and Guatemala (Chiapam); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 437, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, 
I.e., 142, p. 37, 1927 (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, 
p. 89, 1929 Lower California; Wolfe, Condor, 33, p. 50, 1931 Utah 
(breeding habits); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 132, 1932 
Champerico and Ocos, Guatemala (winter); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 291, 
1934 (range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 293 Tobago (ex Kirk). 

Recurvirostra occidentalis Vigors, Zool. Journ., 4, No. 15, p. 356, 1829 San 
Francisco, California (type lost; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
38, p. 272, 1932); idem, Zool. Voy. Blossom, Birds, p. 28, pi. 12, 1839 
San Francisco. 

Himantopus americanus Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 230 (crit.); idem, Geog. 
Distr. Charadr., pp. xxi, 291, 1887 (crit.). 

Recurvirostra avosetta americana H0rring and Salomonsen, Medd. Gr0nl., 131, 
No. 5, p. 35, pi., 1941 Kin-of-Sal, Sukkertoppen, Greenland (first occ.). 

Range. Breeds in western North America from eastern Wash- 
ington, central Alberta, and southern Manitoba south to southern 
California, southern New Mexico, southern Texas and northern 
Iowa; winters from central California and southern Texas to Guate- 
mala, also in Cuba, Jamaica, Barbados, and Tobago. One occurrence 
in Greenland (Sukkertoppen, Nov., 1937). 

Field Museum Collection. 62: Alberta (Walsh, 2; Many Island 
Lake, 1); Saskatchewan (Maple Creek, 6; Crane Lake, 3; Big Stick 
Lake, 7; Hay Lake, 2); North Dakota (Benson County, 1; Stump 
Lake, Nelson County, 1; Towner County, 2; Rocklake, Towner 
County, 1); Wyoming (Laramie, 1); Utah (Salt Lake City, 2); 
Oregon, Lake County (Dodson Lake, 1; Pelican Lake, 1); California 
(Los Banos, Merced County, 2; Motordrome, Los Angeles County, 
4; Moss Landing, Monterey County, 9; Trinidad, Humboldt County, 
1; Witch Creek, San Diego County, 5); Montana (Fort Ellis, Gallatin 
County, 1); Texas (Brownsville, 6); Florida (Tampa, 2); Mexico 
(La Paz, Lower California, 1). 

Conover Collection. 26: Alberta (Tofield, 1; Camrose, 1); 
Nebraska (thirty miles south of Wood Lake, Cherry County, 1); 
Utah (Brigham, 13); California (Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, 5; 
Los Banos, Merced County, 1; Point Magie, Ventura County, 2); 
Mexico (Matamoros, Tamaulipas, 2). 

*Recurvirostra andina Philippi and Landbeck. ANDEAN AVOCET. 

Recurvirostra andina Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 618, 
1861 Laguna "Parunicota" (=Parinacota), Tacna, Peru (type in National 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Museum, Santiago; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, 
p. 25, 1930); iidem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 131, 1863 "Parunicota" 
(German translation of orig. descr.); Harting, Ibis, 1874, pp. 241, 257, 
pi. 9 Parinacota (crit.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 384, 1886 
Parinacota; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1886, p. 404 Huasco, Tara- 
paca, Chile; Rahmer, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 161, 1887 Cordilleras of Tara- 
paca and Atacama (Maricunga, east of Copiap6), Chile; Philippi, Ornis, 
4, p. 160, 1888 northern Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, 
p. 137 Sacaya and Lake Huasco, Tarapaca, Chile; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 334, 752, 1896 Lake Huasco, Sacaya, and Cueva 
Negra, Tarapaca; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Tarapaca; 
Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 308 Lake Huasco and Sacaya, Tarapac (habits); 
Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 15, p. 64, pi. 32, 1902 Parinacota 
(Tacna), Inacaliri and Incahuasi (Antofagasta), Chile; Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), p. 52 Ingapirca, Junfn, 
Peru; iidem, Ornis, 13, p. 132, 1906 Laguna de Pahara, Puno, Peru; 
Neveu-Lemaire, Les Lacs des Hauts Plateaux Ame'r. Sud., p. Ill, 1906 
Lake Titicaca; Fontana, Enum. Aves Region Andina, p. 14, 1908 Cata- 
marca; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 259, 1913 Catamarca; Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 384, 1932 twenty miles east 
of San Pedro, Antofagasta (range in Chile) ; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 291, 
1934 Laguna Blanca, Catamarca (range); Anonymous, El Hornero, 6, 
p. 358, 1936 (range); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 53, 1938 
Laguna de Parinacota, Tacna, Chile. 

Himantopus andinus Seebohm, Ibis, 1886, p. 232 (crit.); idem, Geog. Distr. 
Charad., pp. xxi, 286, 1887 Chile (crit.). 

Range. Saline lagoons of the puna zone in southern Peru (from 
Junin to Puno and Tacna), western Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba, 
Oruro), northern Chile (south to Maricunga, Atacama), and north- 
western Argentina (Laguna Blanca, Catamarca; Salta; Jujuy). 1 ' 

Field Museum Collection. 4: Peru (Salinas, Arequipa, 1); 
Bolivia (Esperanza, Pacajes, La Paz, 2); Chile (San Pedro, Anto- 
fagasta, 1). 

Conover Collection. 9: Peru, Arequipa (Cailloma, 1; Salinas, 1); 
Bolivia (Vacas, Cochabamba, 2; Esperanza, Pacajes, La Paz, 3); 
Chile (San Pedro, Antofagasta, 2). 

Family PHALAROPODIDAE. Phalaropes 
Genus PHALAROPUS Brisson 2 

1 Additional material examined. Bolivia, Oruro: Esperanza, 12; Sajama, 6. 
Chile, Tarapaca: Huasco, 2; Sacaya, 1; Cueva Negra, 2. 

2 It is wholly a matter of personal opinion whether the phalaropes should 
be considered as congeneric or referred to three monotypic genera. The senior 
author would rather follow the former course. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 217 

Phalaropus Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 50, 6, p. 12, 1760 type, by tautonymy, 

"Phalaropus" Brisson Tringa fulicaria Linnaeus. 
Crymophilus Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 62, 1816 type, by orig. 

desig., "Phalarope a festons denteles" Buffon=TVw0a fulicaria Linnaeus. 
Crymophila Voigt, Thierreich, 1, p. 876 (footnote), 1831 (emendation). 

*Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus). RED PHALAROPE. 

Tringa fulicaria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 148, 1758 based on 
"The Red Coot-footed Tringa" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 3, p. 142, pi. 
142, Hudson's Bay. 

Phalaropus rufus Bechstein, Gemein. Naturg. Deutschl., 2nd ed., 4, p. 381, 
1809 substitute name for Tringa fulicaria Linnaeus. 

Phalaropus platyrhynchos Temminck, Man. d'Orn., p. 459, 1815 new name 
tor Tringa fulicaria "Brunnich" (= Linnaeus); Holboll, Naturhist. Tidskr., 
4, p. 411, 1843 Greenland (habits). 

Phalaropus platyrhynchus Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. 
Cur., 16, Suppl. 1, p. 107, 1834 Coquimbo, Chile. 

Phalaropus rufescens "Brisson" Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelth. Eur., 1, 
p. Ixxiii, 1840 based on "Le Phalarope roussStre" Brisson, Orn., 6, 
p. 20 (ex Tringa fulicaria Linnaeus). 

Phalaropus platyrostris "Temminck" Nordmann, in Demidoff, Voy. Russia 
Merid., 3, p. 250, "1840" l (doubtless lapsus for P. platyrhynchos Tem- 
minck). 

Lobipes hyperboreus (not Tringa hyperborea Linnaeus) Lesson, Echo du Monde 
Sav., 11, 2nd sem., No. 8, col. 183, July 28, 1844 Chile (transitional 
plumage). 

Phalaropus fulicarius Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 430, 
1847 Chile (ex Meyen); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, 
p. 58, 1864 (crit.); Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 278, 1868 (ex Meyen); 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 429 Coquimbo Bay, Chile (Nov.); 
Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 338, 1887 (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1893, 
p. 569 Chile; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Chile; Winge, 
Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 174, 1898 Greenland; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 50 
Valparaiso Bay, Chile (Feb. 18); Manniche, Medd. Gr0nl., 45, No. 1, 
p. 152, 1910 Stormkap, Greenland (breeding habits); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 418, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Dabbene, 
El Hornero, 2, p. 124, 1920 Chile (Coquimbo) and province of Buenos 
Aires (Aug. 12, 1879); Bailey, Condor, 27, p. 233, 1925 Wainwright and 
Wales, Alaska (breeding); Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1925, p. 326, pi. 8 (map) 
(breeding and winter range; migration routes); Conover, Auk, 43, p. 304, 
1926 Hooper Bay, Alaska (nesting habits); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
142, p. 1, 1927 (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 88, 
1928 Lower California (spring and fall transient); Bradlee, Mowbray, 
and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 315, 1931 Bermuda Islands 
(Fort Catherina, March 12; Castle Harbor, Feb. 6); Hellmayr, Field Mus. 

1 The volume must have been published much later (cf. the note on p. 733) 
or else was issued in parts. 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 385, 1932 Chile (winter visitor); Soper, 
Canad. Field Nat., 48, p. 66, 1934 Baffin Island (nesting); Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 292, 1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 996, 
1936 (winter range); Brodkorb, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 394, 
p. 3, 1938 Paraguay (March); Griscom, Auk, 56, p. 185, 1939 (migration 
off Massachusetts coast); Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 149 Greenland 
(breeding); Bray, Auk, 60, p. 526, 1943 Southampton Island (breeding); 
Soper, I.e., 63, p. 231, 1946 Baffin Island (breeding). 

Crymophilus fulicarius Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 693, 1896 (monog.); 
Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 662, 1898 Chile. 

Phalaropus fulicarius jourdaini Iredale, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 42, p. 8, 1921 
Liefde Bay, Spitzbergen (type in British Museum); L0ppenthin, Medd. 
Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, p. 65, 1932 northeastern Greenland (crit.); Peters, Con- 
dor, 36, p. 85, 1934 (crit.); Jourdain, I.e., p. 220, 1934 (crit.); Peters, I.e., 
p. 220, 1934 (crit.); Pedersen, Medd. Gr0nl., 100, No. 11, p. 21, 1934 
Hochstatters Vorland, Greenland; Brooks, Ibis, 1935, p. 887 (crit.); 
Jourdain, I.e., 1936, p. 202 (crit.). 1 

Range. Breeds locally on the Arctic coasts and islands of the 
Holarctic region; in North America, from northern Alaska to Melville 
Island, northern Ellesmere Island, Baffin Island, and Greenland, 
south to Hooper Bay, Alaska, and Southampton Island; also in Ice- 
land, Spitzbergen, Novaya Zemlya, along the Siberian coast from the 
mouth of the Yenessei to the Chukchi Peninsula, and on the New 
Siberian Islands; winters chiefly at sea off the coast of Africa, 2 
Arabia, and Chile; casual in the Hawaiian Islands (Kauai), Bermuda 
Islands, province of Buenos Aires (one record) and Paraguay. 
Occasionally on migration in the interior of North America. 

Field Museum Collection. 112: Alaska (Barrow, 8; Little 
Diomede Island, 1; Bering Sea, 6); Labrador (Hopedale, 1; un- 
specified, 1); Maine (Lincoln, 1); Massachusetts (Brant Rock, 
Plymouth County, 3; Chatham, 3); Connecticut (West Haven, 1; 
New Haven County, 1); Illinois (Waukegan, 1); North Carolina 
(Bodie Island, Dare County, 12); California (Carmel, Monterey 
County, 13; off Cypress Point, Monterey County, 2; Seaside, 
Monterey County, 6; Monterey, 38; mouth of Carmel River, 
Monterey County, 3; La Patera Point, Santa Barbara County, 4; 
Pacific Grove, Monterey County, 7). 

1 According to the researches of Peters and Brooks, it seems hardly worth- 
while to maintain this race, although Salomonsen (in Jensen, Zool. Faroes, Aves, 
p. 81, 1935) is still inclined to favor its recognition. L0ppenthin (Medd. Gronl., 91, 
No. 6, p. 65, 1932) refers birds from the east coast of Greenland to P. f. jourdaini, 
those from the west coast to the typical race. 

2 Cf. Taning, Ibis, 1933, p. 132, and Holmes, Ibis, 1939, p. 331. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 219 

Conover Collection. 19: Alaska (Point Barrow, 1; Hooper Bay, 
Bering Sea, 10); Massachusetts (Chatham, 1; Brant Rock, Plymouth 
County, 1); Nebraska (Dad's Lake, Cherry County, 1); Oregon, 
Tillamook County (Netarts, 1; Tillamook, 1); California (Moss 
Landing, Monterey County, 2; Playa del Rey, Los Angeles County, 
1). 

Genus LOBIPES Cuvier 

Lobipes Cuvier, Reg. Anim., 1, p. 495, "1817" (=Dec. 7, 1817) type, by 
orig. desig., Tringa hyperborea Linnaeus =Tringa lobata Linnaeus. 

*Lobipes lobatus (Linnaeus). NORTHERN PHALAROPE. 

Tringa lobata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 148, 1758 based on "The 
Cock Coot-footed Tringa" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 3, p. 143, pi. 143 
(=nuptial plumage), Hudson's Bay (and "The Coot-footed Tringa" Ed- 
wards, I.e., 1, p. 46, pi. 46 [=winter plumage]; off the coast of Maryland). 

Tringa hyperborea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 249, 1766 based chiefly 
on Tringa lobata Linnaeus, Faun. Svec. (ed. altera, 1761), No. 179, descr. 
posterior (= nuptial plumage), Lappland and Hudson Bay (ex Edwards, 
pi. 143). 

Tringa fusca Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 675, 1789 based on "Le Phalarope 
brun" Brisson (Orn., 6, p. 18, 1760), which, in its turn, rests on Tringa 
lobata Linnaeus. 

Phalaropus vulgaris Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., 2, p. 317, 1803 new name 
for Tringa hyperborea Linnaeus. 

Phalaropus cinereus Meyer, in Meyer and Wolf, Taschenb. Deuts. Vogelk., 
2, p. 417, 1810 new name for Tringa lobata Linnaeus and Tringa hyper- 
borea Linnaeus. 

Phalaropus ruficollis Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, p. 203, 1811 substitute 
name for Tringa hyperborea Linnaeus. 

Phalaropus cinerascens Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, p. 204, 1811 substitute 
name for Tringa fusca Gmelin. 

Phalaropus angustirostris Naumann, Naturg. Vog. Deuts., 8, p. 240, pi. 205, 
1836 new name for Tringa hyperborea Linnaeus. 

Phalaropus hyperboreus Holboll, Naturhist. Tidskr., 4, p. 410, 1843 Green- 
land (habits); Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 277 Lake Duenas, Guate- 
mala (August); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 58, 1864 
(crit.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 330 Tumbez, Peru 
(Jan. 20); idem, Orn. Per., 3, p. 381, 1886 Tumbez; Seebohm, Geog. 
Distr. Charad., p. 340, 1887 (crit.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, 
p. 698, 1896 (monog.); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 171, 1898 Greenland; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 394, 1903 Mexico 
(Bahia de la Ventosa, Oaxaca), Guatemala (Lake Duenas), and Costa 
Rica (Rio Desamparados). 

Lobipes antarcticus Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, 2nd sem., No. 8, col. 183 
(in text), July 28, 1844 Chile (type in Abeille Collection, Bordeaux); 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

idem, Compl. Oeuvr. Buffon, ed. Levgque, 20, (Descr. Mamm. Ois.), 
p. 238, 1847 Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 332 Chile 
(ex Lesson). 

Phalaropus antarcticus Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, 
p. 431, 1847 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 277, 1868 
Valdivia, Chile; idem, Verh. Deuts. Wiss. Ver. Santiago, 2, p. 267, pi. 4, 
1893 Santiago (April), Valdivia (November), and Chiloe (Feb.), Chile j 
(crit.); idem, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 66, pi. 27, fig. 2, 1902 Chile 
(Spanish version of preceding). 

Lobipes hyperboreus Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 46, 1876 Ventosa 
Bay, Oaxaca, Mexico (October). 

Phalaropus lobatus Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 257, 
1904 off the southeast point of Narborough Island, Galapagos (March 
29); Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1925, p. 334, pi. 9 (map) (breeding and winter 
range); Bird and Bird, I.e., 1941, p. 149 Greenland (breeding). 

Lobipes lobatus Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 423, 1910 Rio Desam- 
parados, Costa Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 424, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 125, 1920 Chaco 
(March) and Patagonia, Argentina; Bailey, Condor, 27, p. 234, 1925 
Wainwright, Alaska (nesting); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 200, 1926 coast of southern Ecuador (Dec. 6); Conover, Auk, 43, 
p. 304, 1926 Hooper Bay, Alaska (nesting; dist. char, pullus); Bent, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 142, p. 15, 1927 (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 32, p. 89, 1928 Lower California (spring and fall transient); 
Bradlee and Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 315, 1931 Bermuda 
Islands (near St. David's, April); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, 
p. 136, 1932 Lake Duenas, Guatemala; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 293, 
1934 (range); Pedersen, Medd. Gr0nl., 100, No. 11, p. 21, 1934 Hudson 
Land, northeastern Greenland; Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 997, 
1936 (winter range). 

Range. Breeds in the Holarctic region, in North America from 
northern Alaska, Melville Island, and Greenland south to the 
Aleutian Islands, upper Yukon Valley, northern Manitoba, southern 
James Bay, and Labrador; also in Iceland, Spitzbergen, Faroes, 
Hebrides, Scandinavia, northern Russia, and across northern Asia 
to the shores of the Okhotsk Sea, Commander Islands, and Sakhalin; 
winters at sea in the northwestern Indian Ocean, off the coasts of 
Ecuador, Peru, 1 and West Africa, as well as in the Papuan and in 
the Banda Sea; accidental in Argentina (Chaco and Patagonia). 
In migration found throughout the interior of North America. 

Field Museum Collection. 144: Alaska (Barrow, 2; Nome, 2; 
St. Michael's, 7; Bethel, 1; Iditarod, 1; Hot Springs, 1; St. George 
Island, 1); Yukon Territory (Yukon River, 1; Lake Labarge, 1); 

1 Taczanowski lists a single male from Tumbez (Jan. 20). Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann's record of P. lobatus from "Chorillos" (cf. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, 
p. 400) probably refers to the same specimen. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 221 

Labrador (Indian Harbor, 2); British Columbia (Okanagan, 3); 
Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, 3; Walsh, 3); Saskatchewan (Osier, 3; 
Maple Creek, 20); North Dakota (Rocklake, Towner County, 7; 
Towner County, 3; Stump Lake, 1); Minnesota (Pelican Rapids, 
Otter Tail County, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 3); Massachusetts 
(Monomoy Island, 3; Chatham, 2); Rhode Island (Sakonnet, New- 
port County, 1); Connecticut (East Haven, 2; Quinnipiac Marsh, 
New Haven County, 2; Fairfield Beach, Fairfield County, 1); 
Kansas (Blue Rapids, Marshall County, 1); Colorado (New Castle, 
Garfield County, 1); California (Eureka, 2; Santa Cruz, 1; Carmel, 
Monterey County, 16; Pacific Grove, Monterey County, 3; Moss 
Landing, Monterey County, 6; Monterey, 6; Seaside, Monterey 
County, 9; Trinidad, Humboldt County, 7; Nigger Slough, Los 
Angeles County, 9; Westport, Mendocino County, 2; Hayward, 
Alameda County, 2; Samoa, Humboldt County, 2). 

Conover Collection. 26: Alaska (Hooper Bay, Bering Sea, 8; 
Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 4); Oregon (Netarts, Tillamook 
County, 1); North Dakota (Devil's Lake, Ramsey County, 2); 
Massachusetts (Pigeon Cove, Essex County, 6) ; California (Wilming- 
ton, Los Angeles County, 5). 

Genus STEGANOPUS Vieillot 

Steganopus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 24, p. 124, 1818 (diag- 
nosis); idem, I.e., 32, p. 136, 1819 type, by monotypy, Steganopus tri- 
color Vieillot. 

Holopodius Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 2, No. 2, p. 342, Feb. 5, 
1828 type, by orig. desig., Phalaropus wilsonii Ssibine= Steganopus tri- 
color Vieillot. 

*Steganopus tricolor Vieillot. 1 WILSON'S PHALAROPE. 

Steganopus tricolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., $2, p. 136, 
1819 based on "Chorlito tarso comprimido" Azara, No. 407, Paraguay 
(December); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 332 Chile; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 705, 1896 (monog.); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
I.e., 1902, (2), p. 53 Ingapirca, Junin, Peru (young male, May); Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 395, 1903 Mexico (Tres 
Marias Islands; Valley of Mexico; Xochimilco, Ixtapalapa, Tlalpam, and 
Laguna de Chapulco, Puebla; Jerez, Zacatecas) and Guatemala (Lake 

1 Tringa glacialis Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 675, 1789 based on "Plain 
Phalarope" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 495; "in mari glaciali"), while possibly 
referable to Wilson's Phalarope (cf. Coues, Bds. Northwest, p. 467 [footnote], 
1874), is not identifiable with certainty. It is the genotype of Amblyrhynchus 
(not of Leach, 1816) Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, Water Birds, p. 247, 
1834. 



222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Duenas); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 251, 1909 Barracas al 
Sud, Buenos Aires (Sept. 13; Oct. 7); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 222, 1910 Chubut, Tucuman (Cumbre de Calchaquies), 
Mendoza, Misiones, and Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud); Scott and Sharpe, 
Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 345, 1912 Chubut 
Valley (descr.); Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, p. 57, 1913 
Albemarle Island, Galapagos (Nov. 3); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 39, 
1914 Paraguay; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 431, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Dabbene, El Hornero, 2, p. 123, 1920 Argentina 
(Cumbre de Calchaquies, Tucuman, Oct.; Mendoza; Buenos Aires, Feb.; 
Barracas al Sud, Sept. 13, Oct. 7; Chubut; Misiones, Nov.), Falkland 
Islands, Bolivia (Alto Paraguay, Oct. 15), and Paraguay; Wace, I.e., p. 
199, 1921 Falkland Islands; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 201, 1926 Esmeraldas and Guayaquil (Aug. 21), Ecuador; Wetmore, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 145, 1926 Rio Ajo, below Lavalle (Nov. 15) 
and Carhue (Dec. 15-18), Buenos Aires; idem, Tech. Bull. U. S. Dept. 
Agric., 26, p. 8, 1927 Rio Ajo (Nov.), Carhue (Dec.); Bent, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 142, p. 28, 1927 (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
32, p. 89, 1928 Lower California (spring and fall transient); Pereyra, 
El Hornero, 4, p. 201, 1928 Zelaya (Oct. 12) and Rosas (Oct. 23), Buenos 
Aires; Dabbene, I.e., p. 312, 1929 Rosas (Oct.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 60, p. 82, 1930 Matto Grosso; Wolfe, Condor, 33, p. 49, 
1931 Utah (breeding habits); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 19, p. 386, 1932 Chile (winter visitor); Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 292, 1934 (range); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 9, p. 118, 
1937 San Mateo, Esmeraldas, Ecuador (Sept. 9); Pinto, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 22, p. 144, 1938 Brazil (Matto Grosso); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Santiago, 16, p. 57, 1938 Vegas de Chacalluta, Tacna, Chile (Sept.); 
Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 179, 
1938 Lake Olomega, El Salvador (Sept.); Holmes, Ibis, 1939, p. 335 
Lake Langui (13,000 ft.; Aug. 25), Lake Titicaca (Puno Bay, Aug. 30; 
Guaquf, Sept. 28), lakes Lagunilla and Saracocha (13,000 ft.; early Sept.), 
Peru; Morrison, I.e., 1939, p. 465 Santa Inez (14,300 ft.), Huancavelica, 
Peru (Nov. 11). 

Phalaropus Wilsoni(ii) Sabine, in Franklin's Narr. Journ. Polar Sea, 1, App., 
p. 691, 1823 Cumberland / House, Saskatchewan (type probably in British 
Museum) ; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 118, 1843 Lake Quintero, 
Valparaiso, Chile; Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 101 Lake Duenas, Guatemala; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 179 Valley of Mexico; Schlegel, 
Mus. Pays-Bas., livr. 6, Scolopaces, p. 60, 1864 Canada, Wisconsin 
(Koskonong), Mexico (Vera Cruz), and Chile; Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 198 
Guatemala; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 339 Chile; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 313, 1870 Caicara, Matto Grosso, Brazil (Sept.); 
Durnford, Ibis, 1877, pp. 42, 198 Chubut River, Patagonia, and west 
of Buenos Aires (Feb.); Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 342, 1887 
(crit.); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 181, 1889 Argentina; 
Philippi, Verh. Deuts. Wiss. Ver. Santiago, 2, p. 270, pi. 5, 1893 Iquique, 
Tarapaca (Sept.), and Rancagua, O'Higgins (Sept.), Chile; Sclater, Bull. 
Brit. Orn. Cl., 4, p. vi, 1894 Falkland Islands; idem, Ibis, 1895, p. 145 
Falkland Islands; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Chile; 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 223 

Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 68, pi. 31, 1902 Iquique and 
Rancagua, Chile. 

Phalaropus fimbriatus Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 62, pi. 370, Sept. 
24, 1825 "Senegal" * and Mexico (cotypes in coll. of Count Riocour 
[Nancy] and coll. of Baron M. Laugier, their present location unknown). 

Phalaropus frenatus Vieillot (and Oudart), Gal. Ois., 2, p. 178, pi. 271, circa 
1826 New York (type in coll. of Count Riocour, actual location un- 
known; 2 Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 132, 1865 Chile (spec, 
examined). 

Lobipes incanus Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., Part 1, pi. 16, Feb., 1827 
Mexico (type in coll. of W. Jardine, now in British Museum). 

Phalaropus stenodactylus Wagler, Isis, 1831, col. 523 Mexico (type in Munich 
Museum ;= winter plumage). 

Phalaropus lobatus (not Tringa lobata Linnaeus) Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. 
Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 432, 1847 coast of Valparaiso, Chile; Philippi, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 277, 1868 Chile and "Peru" (=Tacna). 

Phalaropus tricolor Stejneger, Auk, 2, p. 183, 1885 (crit.); Ferrari-Perez, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 178, 1886 Laguna de Chapulco, Puebla (Sept., 

Oct.); Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1925, p. 342 (migration; winter range); 

Bennett, I.e., 1926, p. 324 Falkland Islands. 
Steganopus wilsoni Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 467 Alto Paraguay, Bolivia (Oct. 

15). 
Micropalama himantopus (errore) Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 24, 1927 Zelaya 

(Oct. 12) and Rosas (Oct. 23), Buenos Aires. 

Range. Breeds from southern British Columbia, central Alberta, 
southern Saskatchewan, and southern Manitoba to central Cali- 
fornia, Utah, Colorado, Nebraska, central Iowa (formerly to southern 
Kansas and Missouri), and northwestern Indiana; winters in the 
highlands of Peru 3 and Bolivia as well as in Chile and Argentina 
south to Chubut; accidental in the Falkland Islands (one record). 

Field Museum Collection. 124: Alberta (Walsh, 2) ; Saskatchewan 
(Maple Creek, 2; Big Stick Lake, 7; Hay Creek, 3; Lake Johnson, 2; 
Quill Lake, 1); North Dakota (Towner County, 26; Rocklake, 
Towner County, 8; Pensimer, Towner County, 1; Stump Lake, 
Nelson County, 19; Cando, Towner County, 2); South Dakota 
(Harrison, Douglas County, 5); Minnesota (Jackson County, 1); 
Colorado (Fort Lyon, Bent County, 4; Cochetopa, Saguache County, 
3); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 10; Lake Koshkonong, 1); Illinois, 

1 The locality is clearly erroneous. In fact, we are told by Vieillot, who 
doubtless described the very same specimen, that the bird in the Riocour Collec- 
tion came from New York. 

2 The type is probably in the mounted series at Tring, where the bulk of the 
Riocour Collection is preserved. 

3 Cf. Holmes and Morrison, Ibis, 1939, pp. 335, 465. 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cook County (Wolf Lake, 1; Hyde Lake, 1; South Chicago, 2; 
Chicago, 1); Oklahoma (Ponca Agency, Kay County, 1); Texas 
(Brownsville, 6); Oregon (Harney County, 1); California (Seaside, 
Monterey County, 2; Palo Alto Sports Club, Santa Clara County, 1; 
Moss Landing, Monterey County, 4); Brazil (Vaccaria, Matto 
Grosso, 1); Peru, Arequipa (Cailloma, 3; Salinas, 2); Bolivia (Guaqui, 
La Paz, 1). 

Conover Collection. 26: Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, Tofield, 2); 
Utah (Brigham, Box Elder County, 11); California (Yermo, San 
Bernardino County, 4; Wilmington, Los Angeles County, 2); 
Ecuador (Laguna Yaguarcocha, Imbabura, 1); Peru (Puno, Puno, 1; 
Salinas, Arequipa, 1; Cailloma, Arequipa, 1); Bolivia (Guaqui, La 
Paz, 1; Esperanza, Pacajes, La Paz, 1; Aiquile, Cochabamba, 1). 

Superfamily BURHINOIDEA 

Family BURHINIDAE. 1 Thick-Knees 

Genus BURHINUS Illiger 

Burhinus Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., p. 250, 1811 type, by monotypy, 

Charadrius magnirostris Latham. 
Oedicnemus Temminck, Man. d'Orn., p. 321, 1815 type, by tautonymy, 

Charadrius oedicnemus Linnaeus. 
Fedoa Leach, Cat. Mamm. Bds. Brit. Mus., p. 28, 1816 type, by monotypy, 

"Fedoa Oedicnemus" '= Charadrius Oedicnemus Linnaeus. 

*Burhinus bistriatus bistriatus (Wagler). MEXICAN THICK- 
KNEE. 

Charadrius bistriatus Wagler, Isis, 22, col. 648, 1829 Mexico (type, from San 
Mateo, in Berlin Museum; cf. van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, 
p. 388, 1934). 

Oedicnemus bistriatus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 397 Vera 
Cruz, Mexico; idem and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 60, 1867 part, Mexico; 
Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 45, 1876 Tapana (Tehuantepec), 
Oaxaca; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 85, 1887 part, Mexico; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 12, 721, 1896 part, spec, a, b, o, 
Misantla, Vera Cruz, and "Torula" (= Tonala), Chiapas, Mexico; Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 339, 1903 part, Mexico 
(Misantla, Vera Cruz; Tapana, Oaxaca; Tonala, Chiapas). 

Oedicnemus bistriatus bistriatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 20, 1919- part, southern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz (Misantla, 
Tlalcotalpam, Pasa Nueva), Oaxaca (Tapana, Huilotepec, Ishuatan), 
and Chiapas (Tonala). 

1 For family characters, cf. Lowe, Ibis, 1931, pp. 504-507. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 225 

Burhinus bistriatus bistriatus Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, 
p. 387, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 296, 1934 
part, Mexico. 

Range. Southern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, and 
Chiapas. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Mexico (Reforma, Oaxaca, 1). 

*Burhinus bistriatus vigilans van Rossem. 2 INTERMEDIATE 
THICK-KNEE. 

Burhinus bistriatus vigilans van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 388, 
Dec., 1934 Hacienda El Pelon, Guanacaste, Costa Rica (type in Dickey 
Collection at the University of California at Los Angeles) ; Dickey and van 
Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 179, 1938 Lake Olomega, 
El Carmen, Pasaquina, and Colima, El Salvador (habits). 

Oedicnemus ? Taylor, Ibis, 1860, p. 314 La Brea, Nacaome, and plain 

of Comayagua, Honduras (soft parts). 

Oedicnemus bistriatus (not Charadrius bistriatus Wagler) Owen, Ibis, 1861, 
p. 68 San Geronimo, Guatemala (eggs descr.); Salvin, I.e., 1861, p. 
356 Salama, Vera Paz, Guatemala; idem, I.e., 1865, p. 198 Huamuchal, 
Guatemala; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 60, 1867 part, Guatemala 
and Honduras; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 378, 1869 San Juan del 
Norte and "San Jose," Costa Rica; Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 85, 
1887 part, Guatemala and Honduras; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 1, p. 129, 1888 Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 3, p. 339, 1903 part, Guatemala (Huamuchal, San Gero- 
nimo), Honduras, Nicaragua (Sucuya, San Juan del Norte), and Costa 
Rica ("San Jose"); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 424, 1910 
"San Jose," Costa Rica (ex Frantzius). 

Oedicnemis bistriatus Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 389, 1884 Sucuya, 
Nicaragua. 

Oedicnemus bistriatus bistriatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 20, 1919 part, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua (Sucuya, San Juan 
del Norte), and Costa Rica; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 137, 
1932 Ocos, Guatemala. 

Burhinus bistriatus bistriatus Griscom, Auk, 50, p. 299, 1933 Filadelphia, 
Guanacaste, Costa Rica; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 296, 1934 part, 
Central America to western Costa Rica. 

Range. Central America from Guatemala to northwestern Costa 
Rica. 3 

1 Six specimens, including one from Tonala, Chiapas, examined. 

2 Burhinus bistriatus vigilans van Rossem: Very similar to B. b. bistriatus, but 
tarsus and toes on average slightly longer; upper parts and chest darker, more 
avellaneous, with the mesial streaking above broader and darker. Differs from 
B, b. vocifer by larger size, longer tarsus, stouter bill, and less brownish chest. 
Wing, 260-275; tail, 130-140; tarsus, 120-130; bill, 48-54. 

3 The occurrence of any form of Thick-Knee in Panama is open to doubt. 
The captive bird bought at Panama City by Festa (cf. Oedicnemus bistriatus 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Field Museum Collection. 6: El Salvador (Cuscatlan, Colima, 2); 
Costa Rica, Guanacaste (Filadelphia, 3; Hacienda El Pelon, 1). 

Conover Collection. 5: Costa Rica (Filadelphia, Guanacaste, 5). 

*Burhinus bistriatus vocifer (L'Herminier). 1 GUIANAN THICK- 
KNEE. 

Aedicnemus vocifer L'Herminier, Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, pi. 84, 1837 "llanos 
de Maturin, petite ville situee sur les bords du Guarapiche et dependante 
de la province de Cumana" = Maturin, State of Monagas, northeastern 
Venezuela (cotype in Paris Museum). 

Oedicnemus americanus Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 349, Dec. 31, 1837 
interior of [British] Guiana. 2 

Oedicnemus bistriatus (not Charadrius bistriatus Wagler) Cabanis, in Schom- 
burgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 749, 1849 savanna of British 
Guiana; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 7, Cursores, p. 19, 1865 "Guade- 
loupe" (= Maturin) and Forte do Rio Branco, Brazil (crit.); Sclater and 
Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 60, 1867 (range in part); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 296, 1870 Forte do [Sao Joaquim], Rio Branco, Brazil; Berlepsch, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 440 Angostura, Orinoco, Venezuela; Salvin, I.e., 1886, 
p. 177 British Guiana (ex Schomburgk); Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charadr., 
p. 85, 1887 part, Colombia, Venezuela, and northern Brazil; Robinson 
and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 656, 1896 Margarita Island, 
Venezuela; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 12, 721, 1896 part, 
spec, f-m, p-r, Colombia (Bogota), Venezuela (Meiida), British Guiana 
(Annai), and Brazil (Forte do Rio Branco); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 9, p. 128, 1902 Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 339, 1903 part, Colombia, Venezuela, 
Guiana, and "Amazonas"; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 57, 1907 
part, Amazonas, Guiana, Venezuela; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 75, 
1909 La Brea, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, p. 238, 1909 Margarita Island (ex Robinson); Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 95, 1914 "Para" (cage-bird); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 368, 1916 savannas of the Orinoco region, 
Venezuela; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 1, p. 243, 1916 Annai and Quonga. 

Burhinus bistriatus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 226, 1917 
Barranquilla, Colombia; Delacour, Ibis, 1923, p. 140 llanos of Guarico 
and Apure, Venezuela. 

Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 12, 1899) might 
have come from either Colombia or Costa Rica. 

1 Burhinus bistriatus vocifer (L'Herminier) differs from the northern races 
'by smaller size, slenderer bill, shorter tarsus, and darker, more brownish buffy 

chest with dusky mesial streaks more pronounced. Wing, 230-245; tail, 120- 
130; tarsus, 100-110; bill, 44-50. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 1. Venezuela: Maturin, 
1; Caicara, Orinoco River, 2. British Guiana: Annai, 2; unspecified, 1. Brazil: 
Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco, 5. 

2 Collected by the elder (Robert) Schomburgk. Specimen "2," from "British 
Guiana (Old Collection)," in the British Museum, is probably the type. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 227 

Oedicnemus bistriatus vodfer Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 20 
(in text), 1919 (range; char.); Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 43, 1922 Rio Cogollo, Zulia, Venezuela; Todd and 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 187, 1922 Rio Hacha, La Goajira, 
and Camperucho, Santa Marta region, Colombia. 

Burhinus bistriatus vocifer Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 377, 
1931 Cienaga, Magdalena, Colombia; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 296, 
1934 (range); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 145, 1938 (range). 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of northern Colombia (Barranquilla; 
Cie'naga, Magdalena; Camperucho; La Goajira; "Bogota") and 
Venezuela (south to the Orinoco), east to British Guiana and the 
adjoining districts of Brazil (upper Rio Branco). 

Field Museum Collection. 3 : Venezuela (Piacoa, Delta Amacuro, 
1); Brazil (Serra da Lua, near Boa Vista, Amazonas, 2). 

Conover Collection. 2: Venezuela (Rio Cogollo, Perija, 2). 

*Burhinus bistriatus dominicensis (Cory). 1 DOMINICAN THICK- 
KNEE. 

Oedicnemus dominicensis Cory, Quart. Journ. Bost. Zool. Soc., 2, p. 46, 1883 
La Vega, Dominican Republic (type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field 
Museum, examined); idem, Auk, 1, p. 4, 1884 (repr. orig. descr.); idem, 
Bds. Haiti and San Dom., p. 140, col. pi. [19], 1884 Dominican Republic; 
Thompson, Auk, 2, p. 110, 1885 (voice); Cory, I.e., 4, p. 226, 1887 (descr.); 
idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 95, 131, 1892 Haiti; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 24, p. 14, 1896 San Domingo; Cherrie, Field Columb. Mus., 
Orn. Ser., 1, p. 25, 1896 Dominican Republic; Christy, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 337 Almercen, Dominican Republic; Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 61, p. 356, 1909 Dominican Republic (habits; eggs); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 23, 1919 (monog.); Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 497, 1928 northern and central plains of Haiti; 
Danforth, Auk, 46, p. 363, 1929 Gonai'ves; Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. 
Sci. Nat., 68, p. 314, 1929 San Juan, Dominican Republic; Wetmore 
and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 169, 1931 Hispaniola (monog.). 

Oedicnemus bistriatus dominicensis Seebohm, Geog. Distr. Charad., p. 86, 
1887 Hispaniola (crit.). 

Burhinus bistriatus dominicensis Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 296, 1934 (range). 

Range. Island of Hispaniola, Greater Antilles. 

Field Museum Collection. 2: Hispaniola (La Vega, La Vega, 
Dominican Republic, 2). 

Conover Collection. 1: Hispaniola (Pimetel, Dominican Republic, 

1). 

1 Burhinus bistriatus dominicensis (Cory) differs from the continental races 
by considerably smaller size, slenderer bill and legs, and decidedly creamy or buffy 
instead of white posterior lower parts. Wing, 205-215; tail, 104-108; tarsus, 
90-95; bill, 40-44. 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Burhinus superciliaris (Tschudi). PERUVIAN THICK- KNEE. 

Oedicnenus (sic) superciliaris Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 387, 1843 

"in Oceani Pacifici littoralis"=Huacho, Dept. Lima, Peru (type in Neu- 

chatel Museum). 
Oedicnemus superciliaris Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 309, 1844 

Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 293, 1846 Huacho, Dept. 

Lima, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, pp. 176, 

570 Tambo Valley, near Islay, Dept. Arequipa; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 

3, p. 333, 1886 Lima to Tumbez, Peru; Seebohm, Geogr. Dist. Charad., 

p. 87, 1887 Pacific coast of Peru (crit.); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 395 lea and Lima, Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 24, p. 14, 1896 Peru (monog.). 
Burhinus superciliaris Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 269 Piura (Rio Chica, Amotape), 

Lambayeque (Eten), and Libertad (Trujillo), Peru; Chapman, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 202, 1926 Tumbez, Peru (ex Taczanowski); 

Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 296, 1934 (range); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. 

Santiago, 16, p. 58, 1938 near Arica, Tacna, Chile. 

Range. Arid littoral of the Pacific coast from Tumbez, Peru, 
to Arica, Chile. 

Superfamily THINOCOROIDEA 
Family THINOCORIDAE. Seed Snipes 

Genus ATTAGIS (I. Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire and) Lesson 

Attagis (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and) Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 130, by March, 
1831 type, by monotypy (p. 135), Attagis gayi I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 
and Lesson. 

* Attagis gayi latreillii Lesson. LATREILLE'S SEED SNIPE. 

Attagis latreillii Lesson, Bull. Sci. Nat. Geol., 25, No. 197, p. "243" (=343), 
June, 1831 "d'une collection expe"diee de Buenos-Ayres," errore,= 
Ecuador (type in Pecquet Collection, Caen, present location unknown); 
idem, Illust. Zool., livr. 4, pi. 11, Nov. 3, 1832 "Chile" (fig. of type in 
Pecquet Collection); 1 Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 189, 
1926 Mount Pichincha, Antisana, and Mount Chimborazo; Berlioz, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 33, p. 355, 1927 Antisana. 

Attagis chimborazensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 82, 1860 
Panza, Chimborazo (alt. 14,000 ft.), Ecuador (type in British Museum 
examined); idem and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 157, pi. 79, 1869 Ecuador 
(fig. of type); Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, 
p. 112 San Rafael, Ecuador; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 716, 

1 Although the plate is poor, there can be little doubt that the description 
refers to the Ecuadorian form. The origin of the type, once in the private collec- 
tion of a Mr. Pecquet at Caen, is shrouded in uncertainty. Lesson at first 
stated that it was received in a collection shipped from Buenos Aires, but sub- 
sequently he gave "Chile" as its habitat, which cannot be correct either. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 229 

1896 Chimborazo; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, 
No. 368, p. 45, 1900 Mount Corazon; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1902, p. 251 
Pichincha; Rhoads, Auk, 29, p. 148, 1912 Paramo de Pichincha; Lonn- 
berg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 21, 1922 Mount Pichincha 
(crit.). 

Attagis gayi latreillei Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 260 Chimborazo and Antisana. 
Attagis gayi latreillii Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 306, 1934 Ecuador. 

Range. Paramo zone of Ecuador. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 3 : Ecuador (Llanganata, Tunguragua, 
2; unspecified, 1). 

Conover Collection. 10: Ecuador (Pichincha, 1; Cerro Puntas, 
Cordillera Oriental, 3; Cerro Guamani, near Mount Antisana, 6). 

*Attagis gayi simonsi Chubb. 2 SIMON'S SEED SNIPE. 

Attagis gayi simonsi Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 38, p. 41, 1918 Cruzero, 
"Lake Titicaca," Peru (type in British Museum examined); idem, Ibis, 
1919, p. 260 Cruzero, Peru (crit.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 306, 1934 
Peru and northern Bolivia; Morrison, Ibis, 1939, p. 463 Talahuarra, 
Huancavelica, Peru (crit.; remarks on type). 

Attagis gayi (not of I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Lesson) Bridges, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 15, p. 29, 1847 Pass of Tapaquilcha (east of Ascotan), 

Potosi, Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 557 Ninarupa, Junm, Peru; 

idem, Orn. Per., 3, p. 284, 1886 Ninarupa; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1891, p. 137 southwest of Sacaya, Tarapaca, Chile; Sharpe, Cat. 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 715, 1896 part, Peru and Chile (Sacaya); Lane, 

Ibis, 1897, p. 307 near Sacaya, Tarapaca; Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 404, 

1921 Cumbre de Zenta, Jujuy. 
Attagis latreillii (not of Lesson) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1879, p. 641 Bolivia (ex Bridges). 
Attagis gayi gayi Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 50, 1938 Parina- 

cote, Tacna, Chile. 

Range. Paramo zone of central southern Peru (depts. of Junin, 
Huancavelica, and Puno), southwestern Bolivia (Dept. La Paz to 
Potosi), northern Chile and northern Argentina (south to Tarapaca 
and Jujuy). 

1 Additional material examined. Ecuador: Panza, Chimborazo, 1 (type of 
A. chimborazensis) ; Mount Guamani (alt. 14,000 ft.), 1; Antisana, 4; Chimborazo, 
1; unspecified, 2. 

2 Attagis gayi simonsi Chubb: A rather poor race. Nearest to A. g. gayi, but 
upper parts, breast and abdomen more deeply pinkish cinnamon. Wing, 190-192; 
tail, 80-90. 

A. g. simonsi has the light markings above more like gayi, buffy grayish rather 
than ochraceous as in the Ecuadorian race, and the coloring of the under parts, 
though somewhat darker than in the typical form, is far away from the deep 
cinnamon rufous of latreillii. The amount of dusky spotting on under wing coverts 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Conover Collection. 3: Peru (San Antonio de Esquilache, Puno, 
1); Argentina (Sierra de Trenta, Jujuy, 2). 

*Attagis gayi gayi (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and) Lesson. GAY'S 
SEED SNIPE. 

Attagis gayi (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and) Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 135, pi. 
47, by March, 1831 "San-Iago" = Santiago, Chile (type in Paris Museum 
examined); Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 117, 1841 Cordillera of 
Coquimbo and Andes behind Copiapo, Atacama, Chile; Fraser, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 12, p. 157, 1844 Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. 
Chile, Zool., 1, p. 384, pi. 7, 1847 Cordilleras of Chile; Bibra, Denks. 
Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 130, 1853 "Precordillera" 
of Santiago, Chile; Cassin, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 192, 1855 Andes of 
Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; Philippi, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 269, 1868 Cordillera of Chile; Reed, I.e., 49, 
p. 567, 1877 Cordillera of Cauquenes, Colchagua, Chile; Reed, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Cordilleras of Chile; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 24, p. 715, 1896 part, Chile (Santiago); Porter, Rev. Chil. 
Hist. Nat., 3, p. 179, 1899 Valle de San Antonio, Atacama; Albert, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 106, p. 581, 1900 Cordilleras of Chile (monog.); 
Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 231, 1904 Cerro Pelado, Tucuman; Menegaux, Bull. 
Soc. Phil. Paris, (10), 1, p. 217, 1909 Bolivia; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 213, 1910 Cumbres Calchaqufes, Tucuman; Scott 
and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 239, 1910 
Arroyo Gio, south of Lago Buenos Aires, Santa Cruz; Sanzin, El Hornero, 
2, p. 148, 1918 Cerro Pelado (alt. 3,500 m.), Mendoza; Barros, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 172, 1921 Cordillera of Aconcagua, Chile; idem, 
I.e., 30, p. 315, 1930 Caracoles (alt. 10,000 ft.), Santiago, Chile. 

Attagis latreillii (not of Lesson) Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 113, 
1865 Chile (spec, examined); Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, p. 292, 
1895 Catamarca (crit.). 

Attagis gayi fitzgeraldi Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 38, p. 40, 1918 Horcones 
Valley, Mendoza (type in British Museum examined). 

Attagis gayi gayi Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 430, 1926 Cerro 
Rojo and Planicir, south of Lago Buenos Aires, Santa Cruz; Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 401, 1932 Banos del Toro, 
Coquimbo (range in Chile); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 306, 1934 (range). 

Range. Puna zone of the Andes from (?)Antofagasta, Chile, 
and (?)Tucuman, Argentina, south to the Straits of Magellan. 1 

and carpal edge is about the same as in gayi, while these markings, in latreillii, 
are much more extensive as well as darker, more sooty, in tone. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Talahuarra, Huancavelica, 5; Cruzero, 
Puno, 2. Chile: three leagues southwest of Sacaya, Tarapaca, 1. Bolivia: 
Potosi, 2. 

1 Birds from Mendoza (A. g. fitzgeraldi) are not separable. The type is a 
shade darker underneath than the majority of Chilean birds, while another ex- 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 231 

Field Museum Collection. 4: Chile (Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, 
1; Landbeck, 1; Cerro Toro, Ultima Esperanza, Magallanes, 1); 
Argentina (Nevada del Cajon, Salta, 1). 

Conover Collection. 4: Chile (Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, 2; 
Cerro Torro, Ultima Esperanza, Magallanes, 1); Argentina (Acon- 
quija Mountains, Catamarca, 1). 

Attagis malouinus (Boddaert). WHITE-BELLIED SEED SNIPE. 

Tetrao Malouinus Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 13, 1783 based on "Caille 
des Isles Malouines" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 222, Falkland Islands. 

Tetrao falklandicus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 762, 1789 based on Dauben- 
ton, PL Enl., pi. 222, Falkland Islands. 

Attagis falklandica Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 117, 1841 mountains 
of southern Tierra del Fuego; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 188 
Peckett Harbour, Straits of Magellan; Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1881, p. 12 Cockle Cove, Straits of Magellan. 

Attagis falklandicus Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 385, 
1847 Tierra del Fuego and Falkland Islands. 

Attagis malouinus Gray, List Spec. Bds. Brit. Mus., Grallae, p. 51, 1844 
Straits of Magellan and Hermit Island; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 154 
Mara Harbour, East Falkland Island (Oct., 1859; one spec.); Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 716, 1896 Hermit Island and Straits of Magellan 
(Peckett Harbour, Cockle Cove); Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 
Genova, 40, p. 623, 1900 Santa Cruz, Patagonia and Straits of Magellan 
(Punta Arenas, Punta Delgada); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
8, p. 378, 1902 Tierra del Fuego; idem, I.e., 18, p. 213, 1908 Santa 
Cruz, Tierra del Fuego, and Falkland Islands; Crawshay, Bds. Tierra 
del Fuego, p. 130, pi., 1907 Cheena Creek Settlement; Scott and Sharpe, 
Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 242, 1910 Arroyo 
Gio and Killik Aike, Santa Cruz, and Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut 
(range; crit.); Wace, El Hornero, 2, p. 198, 1921 Falkland Islands (ex 
Abbott); Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 321 Falkland Islands; Wetmore, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 430, 1926 Arroyo Pilcaniyen, Rio Negro (June 8; 
crit.); Reynolds, El Hornero, 5, p. 352, 1934 mountains north of Bahia 
Moat, Tierra del Fuego; Castellanos, I.e., 6, p. 29, 1935 Puerto Cook, 
Staten Island; Reynolds, Ibis, 1935, p. 89 Herschel and Jerdan Islands, 
Cape Horn. 

Attagis molouina (sic) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 46 East 
Falkland Island (one spec.). 

Attagis maluina Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 107, 1891 above 
Bahia Orange, Tierra del Fuego. 

ample from the Horcones Valley is much lighter, being exactly like others from 
Santiago. 

Additional material examined. Chile: Santiago (Cordillera), 4; "Central 
Chile," 6; unspecified, 2. Argentina: Cumbre Calchaquies, Tucuman, 1; Horcones 
Valley, Mendoza, 2. 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Attagis cheeputi Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 41, p. 109, April 27, 1921 Valle 

del Lago Blanco, Chubut (type in British Museum examined). 
Attagis malouinus cheeputi Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 307, 1934 (range). 
Attagis malouinus malouinus Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 307, 1934 (range). 

Range. Patagonia, from the Cape Horn region and Tierra del 
Fuego north to Santa Cruz and in the foothills of the Andes north 
through Chubut (Valle del Lago Blanco) to western Rio Negro 
(Arroyo Pilcaniyen) ; accidental on the Falkland Islands (one definite 
record from Mara Harbour, East Falkland). 1 

Genus THINOCORUS Eschscholtz 

Thinocorus Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, Heft 1, p. 2, pi. 2, 1829 type, by mono- 

typy, Thinocorus rumicivorus Eschscholtz. 
Ocypetes Wagler, Isis, 1829, Heft 7, col. 762, July, 1829 type, by monotypy, 

Ocypetes torquatus Wagler =Thinocorus rumicivorus Eschscholtz. 
Tinochorus Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 132, by March, 1831 (emendation). 
Thinocorys Sharpe, Hand-List Bds., 1, p. 146, 1899 (emendation). 

*Thinocorus orbignyianus ingae Tschudi. 2 TSCHUDI'S SEED 
SNIPE. 

1 Study of a good series tends to show that A. m. cheeputi was based on an 
individual mutant. The type, with its buffy gray-vermiculated rump and upper 
tail coverts and buffy-barred rectrices, is matched by a bird from Peckett Harbour 
and another from Tierra del Fuego (Sara Settlement). The other specimens from 
Tierra del Fuego are exceedingly variable in the markings of the posterior upper 
parts, and form an uninterrupted series from the "cheeputi" type to what Lowe 
takes for malouinus. Birds from Hermit Island, Cockle Cove, Euston Bay, and 
Chubut (Lago Blanco) generally have wider and more rufescent markings on rump 
and tail coverts than Tierra del Fuego specimens. However, one from Lago 
Blanco is not distinguishable from the buffiest Tierra del Fuego bird. Barred 
rectrices also occur in other individuals, e.g., in a male from Cockle Cove, which 
combines the banded tail with the normal coloration of malouinus (viz., concentric 
reddish-brown markings on rump and tail coverts). It is thus seen that the var. 
cheeputi is not confined to any particular area. In fact, one of the Lago Blanco 
specimens shot on the same day (June 29) as the type of cheeputi is among the most 
reddish colored of the malouinus pattern. 

Material examined. Cape Horn region: Hermit Island, 3.- Tierra del Fuego: 
Hardy Peninsula, 1; Sara Settlement, 3; Est. Viamonte, 1; Valley of Rio Chico, 
1. Straits of Magellan: Cockle Cove, 1; Peckett Harbour, 1; Euston Bay, 1. 
Chubut: Valley del Lago Blanco, 6. 

2 Thinocorus orbignyianus ingae Tschudi: Similar to the nominate race, but 
somewhat smaller. Wing, 135-144; tail, 60-67, rarely to 73 mm. 

In coloration this form does not differ from the larger southern subspecies. 
Individuals with the feathers of the upper parts broadly edged and others with 
these feathers narrowly edged with buff occur together in Peru, Bolivia, and north- 
ern Chile. Recent study of ample material tends to show that, if the two races 
be maintained, birds from Tacna and Tarapacd must undoubtedly be placed with 
ingae. Specimens from southern Bolivia, including one from Cinti, are likewise 
the northern form. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Paramo of Huamachuco, 1 (wing, 139); 
Santiago, 2 (wing, 138, 144); Paramo south of Recuay, Ancachs, 1 (wing, 138); 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 233 

Thinocorus ingae Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 387, 1843 High Andes 
of Peru=Puna of Dept. Junfn 1 (type in Neuchfitel Museum); idem, 
Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 279, 1846 puna region of Peru (11,000- 
14,000 ft.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 556 Junfn, 
Peru (eggs descr.). 

Thinocorus orbignyanus (not of Lesson) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 989 Salinas; Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 357, 
1876 Lake Titicaca; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 641 Cinti (=Camargo), Bolivia (spec, examined); Taczanowski, Orn. 
Pe>., 3, p. 281, 1886 puna of Peru; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1886, 
p. 403 Sacaya, Tarapaca, Chile (eggs descr.); idem, I.e., 1891, p. 137 
Sacaya, Lake Huasco, and Canchosa, Tarapaca; Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. 
La Plata, 6, p. 292, 1895 Catamarca; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
24, p. 718, 1896 part, spec, d'-m', p'-u', Tarapaca (Lake Huasco, Sacaya, 
Canchosa, "Iquique" [=Abricoya]), Bolivia (Cinti), and Peru (Salinas, 
Junin); Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 306 part, Tarapaca; Albert, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 106, p. 586, 1900 Chile (in part); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), p. 53 Banos and Hacienda Queta, Junin, 
Peru; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 214, 1902 Sierras Altas 
de Tucuman; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 446 Moreno, Puna de Jujuy; 
Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 231, 1904 Lara, Tucuman; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. 
Zool., 16, p. 252, 1909 Cerro Parallon, Laguna Alta, and Cumbre Cal- 
chaquies, Tucuman; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 50, 1921 
Occobamba Pass, Urubamba, Peru. 

Thinocorys orbignlanus(!) Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 249, 1904 
Santa Catalina, Jujuy; Me"negaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 1, p. 319, 1910 
Tulpo (southeast of Huamachuco), Peru; (?)Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 404, 
1931 Cumbre del Zenta, Jujuy. 

Thinocorus orbignyanus ingae Brodkorb, Auk, 45, p. 500, 1928 (crit.); Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 307, 1934 (range); Morrison, Ibis, 1939, p. 464 Pultoc 
and Talahuarra, Huancavelica, Peru. 

Thinocorus orbignyianus orbignyianus Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 19, p. 400, 1932 part, Tacna to Tarapaca, Chile. 

Thynocorus orbignyanus orbignyanus Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, 
p. 50, 1937 Tacna and Parinacota, Tacna, Chile. 

Range. Puna zone of Peru, Bolivia, and extreme northern Chile 
(Tarapaca) and Argentina south to Catamarca. 

Field Museum Collection. 21: Peru (Junin, Junin, 1; Cailloma, 
Arequipa, 1; Sumbay, Arequipa, 1; San Antonio de Esquilache, 

Junin, 1 (wing, 140); Galera, Junfn, 1 (wing, 136); Paso de Aricoma, Puno, 1 
(wing, 139); Salinas, Arequipa, 1 (wing, 144); Cruzero, Puno, 1 (wing, 140). 
Bolivia: Challapata, Oruro, 2 (wing, 138, 144); Potosf, 1 (wing, 140); Cinti 
(=Camargo), Chuquisaca, 1 (wing, 138). Chile: Abricoya, Tarapaca, 1 (wing, 
139); Sacaya, Tarapaca, 4 (wing, 138-143). 

Birds from central Chile (Coquimbo to Santiago) measure from 142 to 154, 
those from the Sierra of Mendoza from 148 to 151, while five from Antofagasta 
have wings of 139, 144, 147, 150, and 157 mm. 

1 Cf. Tschudi, Peru, Reiseskizzen, 2, p. 99, 1846. 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Puno, 1); Bolivia (Esperanza, La Paz, 13); Argentina (Nevado de 
Cajon, Salta, 2); Chile (Chungara, Tarapaca, 2). 

Conover Collection. 23: Peru (Sumbay, Arequipa, 1; Rio Llave, 
Puno, 4; Chucuito, Puno, 1; Puno, Puno, 1); Bolivia (Esperanza, 
La Paz, 12) ; Argentina (Sierra de Trenta, Jujuy, 1 ; Laguna Blanca, 
Catamarca, 3). 

Thinocorus orbignyianus orbignyianus (Lesson). D'ORBIGNY'S 
SEED SNIPE. 

Tinochorus orbignyianus 1 (I. Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire and) Lesson, Cent. Zool., 
pp. 137, 139, pis. 48 (male), 49 (female), by March, 1831 "San-Iago" 
= Santiago, Chile (cotypes in Paris Museum); Bridges, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 9, p. 95, 1841 Andes of Chile; Eraser, I.e., 11, p. 115, 1843 Andes 
of Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 387, 1847 
vicinity of Santiago; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 269, 1868 
Cordilleras of Chile; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 Inacaliri and Pastes 
Largos, Antofagasta; Porter, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 4, p. ccxvi, 1894 
Chanarcillo, Atacama. 

Thinocorus orbignianus 1 Bibra, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
5, p. 130, 1853 Cordillera of Santiago; Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. 
Exp., 2, p. 191, 1855 Andes of Chile; Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 260, 
1860 Sierra de Mendoza (crit.); idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 500, 
1861 same locality; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 
Chile; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 567, 1877 Valle de los 
Cipreses, Colchagua, Chile; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 178, 
1889 Sierra de Mendoza; Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 126, 1891 Sierra 
de Cordoba; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 718, 1896 part, spec. 
a-c', n', o', Chile (Santiago) and Argentina (Mendoza) ; Reed, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 Colchagua; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 306 part, 
Santiago (habits); Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 662, 1898 Punta 
Arenas, Straits of Magellan; Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 106, p. 586, 1900 
Chile (in part); Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 40, p. 623, 
1900 Penguin Rookery, Staten Island; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 8, p. 378, 1902 Tierra del Fuego (Punta Arenas; Penguin 
Rookery); Crawshay, Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 134, 1907 Useless Bay 
and Rio McClelland; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 214, 
1910 (range in Argentina); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. 
Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 246, 1910 Rio Chico de Santa Cruz, near Lake 
Argentina; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 292, 1923 Huanuluan, 
Rio Negro; Giacomelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 80, 1923 Sierra de La Rioja; 
Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 29, p. 149, 1925 San Bernardo, Santiago; 
Bullock, l.c., 33, p. 193, 1929 Angol, Malleco, Chile. 

Thinochorus orbignyanus Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, p. 163, 1860 Agua 
de Varas, Antofagasta, Chile. 

1 Variously spelled d' orbignyanus, d" orbignianus, orbignyanus, orbignianus or 
orbignyianus. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 235 

Thinocorus ingae (not of Tschudi) Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, 

p. 113, 1865 Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 

Chile (ex Pelzeln). 
Thinocorys orbignyanus Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 148, 1918 San Carlos, 

Mendoza; Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 172, 1921 Cordillera of 

Aconcagua, Chile. 
Thinochorus orbignyianus Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 430, 

1926 Huanuluan and Arroyo Anecon Grande, Rio Negro. 
Thinocorus orbigny(i)anus orbigny(i)anus Brodkorb, Auk, 45, p. 500, 1928 

Chile (crit); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 400, 

1932 part, Coquimbo to Colchagua, Chile (crit.); Peters, Bds. World, 

2, p. 307, 1934 (range). 

Range. Puna zone of Chile (from Antofagasta southward) and 
western Argentina from La Rioja south to Tierra del Fuego and 
Staten Island. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 7: Chile (Antofagasta, 1; Banos del 
Toro, Coquimbo, 1; "Central Chile," 2; Los Condes, Santiago, 1); 
Argentina (Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, 2). 

Conover Collection. 8: Chile (Rio Loa, Antofagasta, 1; San 
Pedro, Antofagasta, 1; Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, 2; Los Condes, 
Santiago, 1); Argentina (Lago Argentina, Santa Cruz, 3). 

Thinocorus rumicivorus cuneicauda (Peale). 2 PACIFIC LESSER 
SEED SNIPE. 

Glareola cuneicauda Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 244, 1848 San Lorenzo 
Island, near Callao, Peru (type in U. S. National Museum examined). 

Thinocorus pallidus 3 Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 25, No. 631, 
p. 1, 1910 Santa Elena, Ecuador (type in Turin Museum). 

1 Birds from Mendoza as well as others from western Chubut agree in di- 
mensions with a Chilean series. 

Additional material examined. Chile: Cordillera de las Condes, 6; Santiago, 
2; Colchagua, 1; "Central Chile," 10. Argentina: Sierra de Mendoza, 2; Puente 
del Inca, Mendoza, 1; Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut, 2. 

2 Thinocorus rumicivorus cuneicauda (Peale) : Similar to the nominate race, 
but smaller and paler, the light markings to the dorsal plumage, wing coverts, 
and inner remiges being much paler, light buff instead of brownish, and the dusky 
brown central areas of the 'feathers being less extensive. Wing, 101-108; tail, 
51-56. 

8 T. pallidus appears to be inseparable from cuneicauda. An adult male 
topotype, in paleness of light edging above, is a good match for the type of T. 
peruvianus and a specimen from Arequipa, while the other available examples, 
including a second male from Santa Elena, have the edges darker buffy. It is 
well to remember that the Lesser Seed Snipe has not yet been found breeding in 
Ecuador, where it probably occurs only as a migratory visitor. Festa's specimens 
are in very fresh plumage. There is a possibility that Tinochorus swainsonii 
Lesson (Bull. Sci. Nat. Geol., 25, No. 197, p. "244" [=344], June, 1831; idem, 
Illust. Zool., livr. 6, pi. 16, Feb. 23, 1833) might be an earlier name. The type 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Thinocorus rumicivorus (not of Eschscholtz) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 989 Islay, Peru (crit.); iidem, I.e., 1869, p. 176 
Tambo Valley, Arequipa; iidem, I.e., p. 570 coast of Peru; Sclater, I.e., 
p. 148 Lima; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 557 Lima and Chorillos; 
idem, Orn. Pe"r., 3, p. 283, 1886 Pacasmayo to Islay, Peru; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 137 La Noria, Tarapaca, Chile; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 719, 1896 part, spec, a-k, Peru (near Lima, 
Arequipa, Islay, Tambo Valley) and Chile (Tarapaca); Lane, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 304 part, Tarapaca; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
15, No. 369, p. 45, 1900 Puntilla de Santa Elena, Ecuador (Jan.). 

Thinocorus peruvianus Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 41, p. 109, April 27, 1921 
Islay, Arequipa, Peru (type in British Museum examined); Wetmore, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 172 (in text), 1926 (crit.). 

Thinocorus rumicivorus pallidus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 
190, 1926 Santa Elena, Ecuador; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 307, 1934 
Ecuador. 

Thinocorus rumicivorus cuneicauda Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 19, p. 399, 1932 La Noria, Tarapaca, Chile; Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 308, 1934 (range). 

Range. Coast region of southwestern Ecuador (Santa Elena), 
Peru, and extreme northern Chile (Tarapaca). 

Thinocorus rumicivorus bolivianus Lowe. 1 BOLIVIAN LESSER 
SEED SNIPE. 

Thinocorus rumicivorus bolivianus Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 41, p. 109, 
April 27, 1921 Uyuni, Potosl, Bolivia (type in British Museum examined); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 308, 1934 (range); Zotta, El Hornero, 6, p. 290, 
1936 Abra Pampa, Puna de Jujuy. 

Range. Puna zone of southwestern Bolivia (Esperanza, Pacajes, 
La Paz; Challapata, Oruro; Uyuni, Potosi) and northwestern 
Argentina (Abra Pampa, Jujuy). 

was received from "Buenos Aires," by the proprietor, Mr. Pecquet, of Caen, 
in a shipment of birds which also contained the type of Attagis latreillii, a species 
restricted in its range to Ecuador. Lesson's description is ambiguous, gives no 
wing measurement, and unless the type can be found, his bird will remain unidenti- 
fiable. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Puntilla de Santa Elena, 3. Peru: San Lorenzo 
Island, off Callao, 3; vicinity of Lima, 1; Lurin, Lima, 2; pampas between Lurin 
and Villa, 1; Arequipa, 2; Islay, 1; Tambo Valley, 1. Chile: La Noria, Tarapaca, 1. 

1 Thinocorus rumicivorus bolivianus Lowe: Differs from T. r. rumicivorus by 
longer wings and much more buffy coloration, the light edges to the dorsal plumage, 
wing coverts, inner remiges, and tail-feathers being pinkish buff to (in female) 
cinnamon buff instead of avellaneous to sayal brown. Furthermore, the black 
stripes on sides of throat and down the middle of the foreneck are evidently wider. 
The six specimens are in fresh plumage. Wing, 122, 125, 127, 128, 129, (female) 
130. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Uyuni, Potosf, 1 (the type); Chal- 
lapata, Oruro, 2. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 237 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Bolivia (Esperanza, Pacajes, La 
Paz, 1). 

Conover Collection. 2: Bolivia (Esperanza, Pacajes, La Paz, 2). 

Thinocorus rumicivorus rumicivorus Eschscholtz. CHILEAN 
LESSER SEED SNIPE. 

Thinocorus rumicivorus Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, Heft 1, p. 2, pi. 2, May, 
1829 near the seacoast in the Bay of Conception, Chile (co types probably 
in Leningrad Museum); Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Expl. Exp., 2, p. 191, 
1855 "the higher mountain valleys" of Chile, errore; Burmeister, Journ. 
Orn., 8, p. 260, 1860 pampas near Rosario (Santa Fe) and Paran (Entre 
Rios); idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 501, 1861 Rosario; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1868, 
p. 143 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; iidem, Ibis, 1869, p. 188 Peckett 
Harbour, Straits of Magellan; iidem, I.e., 1869, p. 284 Gregory Bay, 
Straits of Magellan (Dec. 12); iidem, I.e., 1870, p. 499 Sandy Point 
(March); Durnford, I.e., 1876, p. 164 Belgrano, Buenos Aires (May to 
Sept.); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 567, 1877 plains of Cauquenes, 
Colchagua, Chile; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, pp. 42, 197 Chubut Valley, 
Patagonia, and Buenos Aires (winter visitor); idem, I.e., 1878, p. 403 
Chubut Valley (nest and eggs descr.); Doering, in Roca, Inf. Ofic. Exp. 
Rio Negro, Zool., p. 56, 1881 from Azul, Buenos Aires, to the Rio Sauce 
(Chico); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 429 Coquimbo, Chile; 
Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 86, 1884 province of 
Buenos Aires; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 176, 1889 Argentina 
(habits); Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 108, 1891 Santa Cruz, 
Lagune de la Lionne, and Missioneros, Patagonia (eggs descr.); C. Bur- 
meister, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 3, p. 319, 1889 Chubut, Rio 
Chico, and Rio Singuer, Patagonia; Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 126, 
1891 "Sierra" de Cordoba; Holland, Ibis, 1891, pp. 16, 19 Est. Es- 
partillar, Buenos Aires (visitor); idem, I.e., 1892, p. 211 Est. Espartillar 
(March to June); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 719, 1896 part, 
spec, m-g', Chile (Santiago, Coquimbo) and Argentina (Buenos Aires, 
Conchitas, Chubut); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 210, 1896 central 
provinces of Chile; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 304 part, Huasco, Atacama, and 
Laraquete, Arauco, Chile (habits) ; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 662, 
1898 Cabo Espiritu Santo and El Paramo Bahia, San Sebastian, Tierra 
del Fuego; Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 106, p. 589, 1900 Chile (monog.); 
Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, 40, p. 624, 1900 Punta 
Arenas (May); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 43 Punta Arenas, Straits of Magellan; 
Crawshay, Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 135, 1907 Cheena Creek; Hartert 
and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 253, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 
and Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 214, 1910 (range in Argentina); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. 
Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 248, 1910 near Mount 
Tigre (Sept.) and Rio Santa Cruz (March); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 466 
Luiconia, Aj6, Buenos Aires (April); Gibson, I.e., 1920, p. 61 Cape San 
Antonio, Buenos Aires (March to Sept.); Daguerre, El Hornero, 2, p. 
262, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires (March to July); Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 173, 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1928 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Gigoux, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 84, 

1924 Caldera, Atacama, Chile (winter visitor); Housse, I.e., 29, p. 149, 

1925 San Bernardo, Santiago; Wilson, El Hornero, 3, p. 352, 1926 

Venado Tuerto, Santa F6; Pereyra, I.e., 4, p. 24, 1927 Zelaya (July) 

and Rio Lujan (April), Buenos Aires. 
Ocypetes torquatus Wagler, Isis, 1829, Heft 7, col. 762, July, 1829 "Brazil" 

(the cotypes [females] in the Berlin Museum were obtained by Sellow at 

Montevideo, Uruguay). 1 
Tinochorus eschscholtzii Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 140, pi. 50, by March, 1831 

new name for T. rumicivorus Eschscholtz (descr. and fig. of spec. 2 from 

Buenos Aires in Paris Museum); Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 116, 

1843 plains of Chile. 
Tinochorus rumicivorus Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 117, 1841 Patagonia 

(Santa Cruz), Chile (near Concepcion; Copiapo), and Buenos Aires (Sierra 

Ventana); Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fls. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 387, 1847 

Concepcion, Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 269, 1868 Santiago 

to Valdivia, Chile. 
Thinocorus swainsoni (not of Lesson) Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, 

p. 113, 1865 Chile (spec, examined). 
Thinocorus ramicivorus (sic) patagonicus Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 68, p. 88, 

Jan., 1920 "South Patagonia" (type, from Santa Cruz River, in Berlin 

Museum). 
Thinocorus rumicivorus venturii Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 41, p. Ill, 

Apr. 27, 1921 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (type in Tring Collection, 

now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 
Thinocorus rumicivorus rumicivorus Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 

293, 1923 Huanuluan, Puesto Horno, and Bariloche, Rio Negro (crit.); 

Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 172, 1926 Zapala, Neuquen, 

and mouth of Rio Aconcagua, Valparaiso, Chile (habits); idem, Univ. 

Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 429, 1926 Arroyo Secco, Rio Negro (Sept.); 

Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 398, 1932 Chile 

(Atacama to Llanquihue); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 308, 1934 (range); 

Belcher, El Hornero, 6, p. 313, 1936 Pilcaniyen, Rio Negro (breeding). 
Thinocorus rumicivorus subsp. Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 324 Falkland Islands. 
Thinocorus rumicivorus patagonicus Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran 

Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 61, 1930 Est. La Germania, Santa Fe (crit.); 

Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 308, 1934 Santa Cruz to Tierra del Fuego. 

Range. Breeds in Chile and southern Argentina north to the 
Rio Negro; migrates in winter northward to Mendoza, Cordoba, 
Santa Fe", Entre Rios, and Uruguay; 3 accidental on the Falkland 
Islands (four records). 

1 Their wings measure 114 and 117 mm. respectively. 

2 Its wing measures 116 mm. 

3 The several races which have been described appear to be unsatisfactory. 
At the outset it may be said that we are unable to separate the general run of 
Argentine birds from a Chilean series either in size or color. Some specimens, e.g., 



Field Museum Collection. 11: Chile ("Central Chile," 2; unspeci- 
fied, 1; Rio Nirehuau, Aysen, 1); Argentina (Estancia Cullen, 
Tierra del Fuego, 1; Estancia Via Monte, Tierra del Fuego, 1; 
San Sebastian, Tierra del Fuego, 2; Paso Ibanez, Santa Cruz, 3). 

Conover Collection. 38: Chile (Batuco, Santiago, 3; Angol, Bio 
Bio, 5; Rio Nirehuau, Aysen, 13); Argentina (Bonifacio, Buenos 
Aires, 1; Rawson, Chubut, 1; Estancia Pampa Alta, Santa Cruz, 4; 
Cerro Fortaleza, Santa Cruz, 6; Rio Gallegos, Santa Cruz, 3; Estancia 
Cullen, Tierra del Fuego, 1; Estancia Via Monte, Tierra del 
Fuego, 1). 

one each from Tierra del Fuego (Viamonte; Feb. 17), Chubut Valley (Nov. 20), 
Est. Espartillar (May 11), and Ajo, Buenos Aires, have the edges to wing coverts 
and dorsal feathers somewhat paler, more whitish buff, as has been claimed by 
Rothschild for T. r. venturii, whose type was a migratory visitor taken, on June 4, 
near Buenos Aires. However, the majority of Argentine birds are just as dark 
as the Chilean specimens, and, with regard to the shade of gray on the rump, we 
cannot perceive the slightest difference between the two series. As to size, there 
is considerable variation, and this may be of some local significance, as a large 
percentage of long-winged individuals is found among breeding birds from certain 
parts of southeastern Patagonia (around the Rio Gallegos). If separable, this 
larger form is entitled to the name T. r. patagonicus, based upon a male from the 
Rio Santa Cruz. From the subjoined wing measurements, based upon our own 
material and data supplied by Messrs. Peters, Riley, Rogers, and Zimmer, it will 
be seen, however, that the variation is somewhat erratic, and hard to reconcile 
with particular geographic areas. The question is, furthermore, complicated by 
the fact that a large proportion of the available material consists of migratory 
specimens. 

WING MEASUREMENTS 

CHILE. Coquimbo, female 115; Santiago, males 112, 114, 118, 120, 120; Temuco, 
male 114; Arauco, males 114, 120; Rio Nirehuau, Llanquihue, males 114, 
118, 119, females 110, 116, 124. 

ARGENTINA. Neuquen: Zapala (Dec.), male 100, female 112. 

Rio Negro: Maquinchao, Huanuluan, Bariloche (Aug. to Feb.), males 113^, 
115, 115, 116, 118, females 118, 111, 11334 114, 117. 

Chubut: Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut (Aug. to Nov.), males 112, 113, 

114, 119, 123, 129. 

Chubut: Rio Chubut (Nov.), male 117; Rawson (Sept.), female 113. 

Buenos Aires: Barracas al Sud (June), males 112, 116, 120H; Laguna Alsina, 
Bonifacio (June), male 110, female 117; Est. Espartillar (May), male 

115, female 115; Chirilcay (August), female 112; Conchitas, male 125, 
female 123; Ajo (April), females 115, 118, 125, 128; Bahia Blanca (April), 
male 132. 

Santa Cruz: Rio Santa Cruz, males 124, 135 (type of patagonicus); Mount 
Pampa Alta (Sept., breeding), male 116, female 118; Cerro Fortaleza 
(March), males 114, 124, 126, females 113, 121; Rio Gallegos (Aug. to 
Jan.), 112, 114, 118, 119, 121, 123 (two), 124, 125-130 (twelve), 131 
(two), 133, females 119, 120 (two), 121-125 (nine), 126, 127, 128, 129; 
near Mount Tigre (Aug.), female 129. 

Straits of Magellan: Punta Arenas (Nov., Jan.), males 110, 113, 115, females 
113, 124. 

Tierra del Fuego: Viamonte (Sept., Feb.), males 115, 134. 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Superfamily CHIONIDOIDEA 
Family CHIONIDIDAE. Sheath-bills 

Genus CHIONIS J. R. Forster 

Chionis J. R. Forster, Enchirid. Hist. Nat., p. 37, 1788 (generic characters 
only) type, by subs, desig. (Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 705, 1789), 
Vaginalis (Chionis) alba Gmelin. 

Vaginalis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 705, 1789 type, by monotypy, 
Vaginalis alba Gmelin. 

Cokoramphus Dumont, Diet. Sci. Nat., 10, p. 36, 1818 type, by monotypy, 
Cokoramphiis nivalis Dumont. 

*Chionis alba (Gmelin). SNOWY SHEATH-BILL. 

Vaginalis alba Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 705, 1789 based on "White 
Sheath-bill" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 268, pi. 89, 1 "New Zea- 
land," errore,=Isla Afio Nuevo, Staten Island. 2 

Vaginalis chionis Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 774, 1790 based on "White Sheath- 
bill" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 268, pi. 89 (in part). 

Coleoramphus nivalis Dumont, Diet. Sci. Nat., 10, p. 36, 1818 new name 
for Vaginalis alba Gmelin. 

Chionis forsteri Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 12, (1), p. 281, 1824 new 
name for Vaginalis alba Gmelin. 

Chionis alba Quoy and Gaimard, ir> Freycinet, Voy. Uranie et Physic., Zool., 
p. 131, pi. 30, 1824 Falkland Islands; Lesson, in Duperrey, Voy. Coquille, 
Zool., 1, p. 724, 1830 Falkland Islands (Baie Franchise); Darwin, Zool. 
Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 118, 1841 Falkland Islands; Gould, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 27, p. 95, 1859 Falkland Islands; Sclater, I.e., 28, p. 386, 
1860 Berkeley Sound, Falkland Islands; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 154 
Falkland Islands; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1869, p. 284 Dungeness Spit, 
Straits of Magellan (Feb. 16, 1868); Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Hamb. Wiss. 
Anst., 2, p. 12, pi., fig. 3, 1885 South Georgia (breeding); Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 710, 1896 Straits of Magellan (Dungeness Spit) 
and Falkland Islands; Salvador!, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, 
40, p. 624, 1900 Rio Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Patagonia (July 22, 1882); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 378, 1902 Staten Island, 
Straits of Magellan, and Falkland Islands; Clarke, Ibis, 1906, p. 182, 
pis. 3, fig. 2 (chick), 12, 13 South Orkney Islands (eggs; breeding habits); 
Lonnberg, Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 40, No. 5, p. 56, pi. 1 (chick), 
1906 South Georgia; Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. 

1 Latham's account is composite, comprising also some race of C. minor. As 
Peters (Bds. World, 2, pp. 308-309, 1934) has restricted Gmelin's name to the 
plate, which unquestionably represents C. alba auct., nomenclature need not be 
disturbed. 

1 J. R. Forster discovered this species on Jan. 3, 1775, on the Isla Ano Nuevo, 
near Staten Island (cf. Descr. Anim., p. 330, 1844). Therefore, there was no need 
for a corrected type locality (Falkland Islands), as proposed by Brabourne and 
Chubb (Bds. S. Amer., 1, p. 36, 1912). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 241 

Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 234, 1910 Patagonia; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 213, 1910 (range in Argentina); Brooks, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 61, p. 149, 1917 Falkland Islands; Anon., El Hornero, 1, 
p. 41, 1917 Camarones, Chubut, Patagonia; Bennett, I.e., 2, p. 30, 1920 
Falkland Islands; Wace, I.e., p. 197, 1921 Speedwell Island, Falklands; 
Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 321, pi. 6 Falkland Islands; Mathews, Discovery 
Rep., 1, p. 584, pi. 47, figs. 8, 9, 1929 South Georgia (nesting; food); 
Ardley, I.e., 12, p. 375, pi. 12, fig. 4, 1929 South Orkney Islands (nesting; 
food); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 308, 1934 (range); Castellanos, El Hornero, 
6, p. 29, 1935 South Orkney (Laurie Island) and Ano Nuevo Islands; 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1000, 1936 (mpnog.). 

Chionis necrophagus Vieillot (and Oudart), Gal. Ois., 2, p. 146, pi. 258, 1825 
substitute name for Vaginalis alba Gmelin. 

Chionis vaginalis Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 86, pi. 509, Sept. 4, 
1830 Falkland Islands (type in Paris Museum). 

Chionis lactea Forster, Descr. Anim., p. 330, 1844 Isla Ano Nuevo, Tierra 
del Fuego. 

Range. Breeds on South Georgia, the South Sandwich, South 
Orkney, and South Shetland Islands, and on various islands of the 
Antarctic Archipelago; occurs regularly in the Falkland Islands, the 
Diego Ramirez Islets, along the Straits of Magellan, and on the 
coast of southern Patagonia (Santa Cruz; Camarones Bay, Chubut). 

Field Museum Collection. 4: Argentina (Cape Penas, Tierra del 
Fuego, 4). 

Conover Collection. 2: Argentina (Cape Penas, Tierra del Fuego, 

2). 

Suborder LARI 

Family STERCORARIIDAE. Skuas and Jaegers 
Genus CATHARACTA Brunnich 

Catharacta Brunnich, Orn. Bor., p. 32, 1764 type, by subs, desig. (Reichen- 

bach, Av. Syst. Nat., p. v, 1852), Catharacta skua Brunnich. 
Megalestris (Bonaparte MS.) Parzudaki, Cat. Ois. d'Europe, p. 11, 1856 

type, by monotypy, "Megalestris catarrhactes Bp. ex L." =Catharacta 

skua Brunnich. 
Buphagus "(Moehring, 1752)" Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 

p. 124 type, by orig. desig., Larus catarractes Linnaeus =Catharacla skua 

Brunnich. 

Catharacta skua skua Brunnich. NORTHERN SKUA. 

Catharacta skua Brunnich, Orn. Bor., p. 33, 1764 Faroes and Iceland; Bent, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 1, 1921 (life hist.); Garrison, Auk, 57, p. 
567, 1940 (New England records). 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Larus Catarractes Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 226, 1766 substitute 
name for Catharacta skua Brunnich. 

Lestris catarractes Holboll, Naturhist. Tidsskr., 4, p. 424, 1843 southern 
Greenland; Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 213, 1898 Umanak, Greenland. 

Buphagus skua Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 125 (monog.). 

Stercorarius catarrhactes Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 319 
(monog.). 

Megalestris catarrhactes Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 315, 1896 
(monog.). 

Megalestris skua Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 677, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.). 

Catharacta skua skua Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 309, 1934 (range); Wynne- 
Edwards, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 40, p. 310, 1935 (distr. in North Atlantic); 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1012, 1936 (descr.); Bird and Bird, 
Ibis, 1941, p. 154 Rio Treelva and Myggbukta, Greenland (June 3-15). 

Stercorarius skua skua Salomonsen, Medd. Gr0nl., 93, (6), p. 8, 1935 Sukker- 
toppen, Greenland. 

Range. Known to breed in Iceland, the Faroes, Shetlands, and 
Orkneys; reported to have bred on Lady Franklin Island, south- 
eastern Baffin Island, and Greenland; winters off the Atlantic coast 
of North America from Newfoundland to Massachusetts and in 
the eastern Atlantic south to Spain. 

*Catharacta skua chilensis (Bonaparte). 1 CHILEAN SKUA. 

Stercorarius antarcticus b. chilensis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 2, p. 207, 
1857 "Amer. merid."= Chile (type in Berlin Museum). 

Stercorarius antarcticus (not Lestris antarcticus Lesson) Des Murs, in Gay, 
Hist. Ffs. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 479, 1847 part, Magallania; Philippi, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 287, 1868 part, Magallania (ex Gay). 

Lestris antarctica Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 284 Sta. Magdalena, 
Straits of Magellan. 

Stercorarius chilensis Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 323, pi. 24 
Mejillones Bay, "Bolivia" (now Antofagasta), Valparaiso, Coquimbo, 
and Straits of Magellan (descr.; crit); idem, I.e., 1877, p. 800 Elizabeth 
Island, Straits of Magellan; Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 17 Straits of Magellan 
and Talcaguano, Chile; Saunders, I.e., 1882, p. 527 Callao Bay, Peru; 
MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 206 Callao Bay (Aug., Sept.); Oustalet, Miss. 
Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 172, 1891 Missioneros, Santa Cruz, Patagonia 
(Nov.); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 Chile. 

Megalestris chilensis Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 318, 1896 Brazil 
(Rio de Janeiro, Aug.; Santa Catharina, Aug.), Straits of Magellan (Eliza- 
beth Island), Chile (Talcaguano, Sept.; Mejillones Bay, Dec.-March; 

1 Catharacta skua chilensis (Bonaparte) differs from the nominate race by more 
cinnamomeous coloring, especially by having the axillaries, under wing coverts, 
and ventral surface mostly cinnamon or cinnamon-rufous, instead of grayish brown. 
Size smaller. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 243 

Iquique), and Peru (Callao Bay); Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 
655, 1898 Chile (Coquimbo, Oct.) and Tierra del Fuego (San Huivan- 
tazgo, Admiralty Sound); Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, 
40, p. 629, 1900 Santa Cruz, Patagonia; Gates, Cat. Birds' Eggs Brit. 
Mus., 1, p. 225, 1901 Sea Lion Island, Santa Cruz River, Patagonia; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 382, 1902 Tierra del 
Fuego (ex Schalow); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 47 Port Dixon and Gray's 
Harbor, Straits of Magellan; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 44, 1907 
Rio Grande do Sul to Rio de Janeiro; Paessler, Orn. Monatsber., 17, 
p. 101, 1909 Santa Maria Island (off Coronel), Chile (breeding), and 
Smythe's Channel; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 255, 1909 
Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (Sept. 18); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. 
Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 226, fig. 134, 1910 Patagonia (descr.); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 209, 1910 Patagonia and 
Buenos Aires; Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 444, 1922 Chile north to 
Arica (habits, eggs descr.); Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 53, 
1924 Isla la Mocha, Arauco, Chile. 

Catharacta chilensis Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, pp. 216, 218, 1918 (char.; range); 
(?)Wace, I.e., 2, p. 197, 1921 Falkland Islands (visitor); Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 7, 1921 California (Monterey Bay, Aug. 4, 7; 
Sept. 21), Washington (off Gray's Harbour, June 28), and British Co- 
lumbia (off Vancouver Island, June 20). 

Megalestris skua chilensis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 414, 1932 Chile (range); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 249, 
1935 Isla la Mocha, Chile; Philippi, El Hornero, 6, p. 236, 1936 
Arica (Tacna) to Valparaiso, Chile; Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, 
p. 169, 1936; Cowan, Murrelet, Seattle, 21, p. 69, 1940 British Columbia 

Catharacta skua chilensis Reynolds, Ibis, 1932, p. 36 Snipe and Woodcock 
Islands, Beagle Channel; idem, El Hornero, 5, p. 353, 1934 Isla de los 
Conejos, Tierra del Fuego; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 310, 1934 (range); 
Reynolds, Ibis, 1935, p. 89 islands around Cape Horn (breeding; eggs 
descr.); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1013, 1936 (monog.; range); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 145, 1938 (range); Brooks, Ibis, 1939, p. 
325 off Santa Cruz, California (March 14); Hamilton, I.e., 1945, p. 103 
off Santa Catharina Island, Brazil (sight record). 

Range. Breeds in Tierra del Fuego, the neighboring islets, and 
northward on the east coast of South America to the mouth of the 
Rio Santa Cruz (Sea Lion Island), Patagonia, and on the Pacific 
coast at least to Santa Maria Island, Bay of Arauco, Chile; outside 
the breeding season wanders north along the western coast of America 
to British Columbia and on the Atlantic coast to Rio de Janeiro. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 3: Chile (Porvenir, Magallanes, 1); 
Argentina, Santa Cruz (Puerto Deseado, 1; Rio Gallegos, 1). 

1 Migrant birds recorded from the Atlantic coast may, however, prove to be 
brown individuals of C. s. antarctica (cf. Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., p. 1015). 
Wace's record from the Falkland Islands requires confirmation. Bennett (Ibis, 
1926, p. 318) and Murphy (Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., p. 1009) emphatically deny its 
occurrence on these islands. 



244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Catharacta skua antarctica (Lesson). 1 FALKLAND ISLAND SKUA. 

Lestris antarcticus Lesson, Trait6 d'Orn., livr. 8, p. 616, 1831 Falkland 
Islands and New Zealand (type locality, as restricted by Mathews [Nov. 
Zool., 18, p. 212, 1918], Falkland Islands; cotypes in Paris Museum; 2 
cf. Milne Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., (6), Zool., 12, p. 21, 1881); Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 579 part, Falkland Islands. 

Lestris catarractes (not Larus catarractes Linnaeus) Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. 
"Uranie," Zool., p. 137, pi. 38, 1824 Falkland Islands. 

Magalestris antarctica Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 98, 1858 Falk- 
land Islands (egg descr.); (?)Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 139, 
1889 St. Peter and St. Paul Island, Straits of Magellan; Saunders, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 319, 1896 part, spec, s-y, Falkland Islands; 
Vallentin, Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 40, 
1902 Falkland Islands (eggs descr.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 8, p. 382, 1902 Orange Bay, Tierra del Fuego (ex Oustalet); 
idem, I.e., 18, p. 209, 1910 part, Tierra del Fuego (Orange Bay, Ushuaia); 
Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 228, 
1910 part, Falkland Islands and Straits of Magellan. 

Lestris antarctica Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 390, 1860 Falkland 
Islands; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 165 Falkland Islands (breeding in Decem- 
ber). 

Stercorarius antarcticus Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 321 part, 
Falkland Islands; idem, I.e., 1877, p. 779 part, Falkland Islands; idem, 
Rep. Voy. Challenger, 2, Birds, p. 139, 1881 part, Falkland Islands; 
Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., (6), Zool., 12, p. 21, 1881 Falkland 
Islands (crit.); Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 169, 1891 Falk- 
land Islands (French Bay, Edwards Bay), Tierra del Fuego (Orange 
Bay), and Straits of Magellan (Elizabeth Island). 

Megalestris antarctica falklandica I^onnberg, Wiss. Erg. Schwed. Siidpolar Exp., 
5, No. 5, p. 8, 1905 Hope Bay, Louis Philippe Land (type in Stockholm 
Museum); Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 103, 1937 (crit.). 

Catharacta antarctica Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 148, 1917 
Falkland Islands. 

Catharacta skua antarctica Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, pp. 217, 218, 1918 part, 
Falkland Islands; Wace, I.e., 2, p. 197, 1921 Falkland; Daguerre, I.e., 
p. 261, 1922 Rosas, Province of Buenos Aires (April to Aug.); Bennett, 
Ibis, 1926, p. 319 Falkland Islands; Lowe and Kinnear, Brit. Antar. 
(Terra Nova) Exped., Nat. Hist. Rep., Zool., 4, pp. 116, 117, 1930 part, 
Falkland Islands (meas.); Hamilton, Discovery Rep., 9, p. 169, 1934 
Falkland Islands (crit.; meas.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 310, 1934 

1 Catharacta skua antarctica (Lesson) most closely resembles C. s. lonnbergi 
and, though exceedingly variable in intensity of coloring, differs by the some- 
what streaky or spotty dorsal surface, while the dimensions are generally less. 
The variations of this form have been discussed at length by Murphy (Ocean. Bds. 
S. Amer., pp. 1020-1021). 

2 Lesson evidently based his description on two specimens obtained by the 
Uranie on the Falkland Islands. The locality New Zealand appears to have been 

added from the literature quoted by Quoy and Gaimard. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 245 

part, Falkland Islands to southern Argentina; Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. 
Amer., 2, p. 1020, 1936 Falkland Islands (monog.; variation; meas.). 

Range. Breeds on the Falkland Islands, wandering outside the 
breeding season north along the South Arnerican coast to beyond 
the latitude of Cabo Frio, Brazil; strays to the western Antarctic 
(Louis Philippe Land). 1 

Catharacta skua lonnbergi Mathews. 2 BROWN SKUA. 

Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi Mathews, Nov. Zool., 18, p. 212, Jan., 1912 
New Zealand seas (type in coll. of G. M. Mathews [cf. Hartert, I.e., 35, 
p. 20, 1927], now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Stercorarius antardicus (not Lectris antardicus Lesson) Saunders, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 321 part, excl. of Falkland Islands; Sclater, Ibis, 
1894, pp. 495, 497 Antarctica. 

Megalestris antardica Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Hamb. Wiss. Anst., 2, p. 24, 
1885 South Georgia (breeding; eggs descr.); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 25, p. 319, 1896 part, spec, a-p, Campbell, Chatham, Norfolk, 
and Kerguelen Islands; Clarke, Ibis, 1906, p. 180 Laurie and Saddle 
Islands, South Orkneys (breeding habits); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 209, 1910 part, South Orkney Islands. 

Catharada antardica Lonnberg, Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 40, No. 5, 
p. 58, 1906 South Georgia (crit.; descr. of chick and eggs; habits); 
Bennett, El Hornero, 2, p. 26, 1920 South Shetland Islands; Wilkins, 
Ibis, 1923, p. 490 South Georgia. 

Catharada lonnbergi darkii Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, p. 494, Jan. 31, 
1913 South Orkney Islands (type in Edinburgh Museum; cf. Stenhouse, 
Nov. Zool., 35, p. 275, 1930); Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, pp. 217, 218, 
1919 South Georgia and South Orkney Islands (char.); Bennett, Ibis, 
1926, p. 320 South Georgia, South Orkney, and South Shetland Islands; 
Mathews, Discovery Rep., 1, p. 580, pi. 47, figs. 3-4, pi. 53, fig. 4, pi. 54, 
fig. 1, 1929 South Georgia (nesting). 

Catharada skua darkei Lowe and Kinnear, Brit. Antar. (Terra Nova) Exped., 
Nat. Hist. Rep., Zool., 4, pp. 116, 117, 1930 South Georgia, South 
Orkney, and South Shetland Islands (crit.; meas.); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 310, 1934 (same range); Hamilton, Discovery Rep., 9, p. 173, 1934 
(crit.; range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1023, 1936 (monog.; 
char.; range). 

1 Birds from Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island, heretofore referred to 
C. s. antardica, are believed by Murphy (Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., p. 1033) to be 
more closely linked with C. s. lonnbergi, from which they might, however, prove 
to be separable. Two birds, collected by R. H. Beck at Mar del Plata in October, 
seem also to belong to this undetermined race. 

2 Catharada skua lonnbergi Mathews may be distinguished from the preceding 
races by larger size, notably longer, stouter bill and tarsus, and prevailing brown 
coloring with a minimum of chamois color and cinnamon. 

According to Hamilton and Murphy, the proposed races from the South 
Orkney Islands (C. lonnbergi clarkei) and Kerguelen Island (C. I. intercedens) are 
not separable. 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Catharacta skua lonnbergi Ardley, Discovery Rep., 12, p. 370, 1936 South 
Orkneys (nesting; crit.); Alcorn, Condor, 44, p. 218, 1942 (?) coast of 
Washington. 

Range. Circumpolar at islands in the Antarctic and Subant- 
arctic zones; breeding in the South Shetlands, South Orkneys, South 
Georgia, and in the West Antarctic Archipelago to about 65 S. Lat., 
extralimitally in Stewart, Chatham, Snares, Auckland, Campbell, 
Antipode, and Macquarie Islands, also in Kerguelen, Crozet, and 
Prince Edward Islands. 

Catharacta skua maccormicki (Saunders). SOUTH POLAR SKUA. 

Stercorarius maccormicki Saunders, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 3, p. xii, Dec. 30, 
1893 Possession Island, Victoria Land (type in the British Museum). 

Megalestris maccormicki Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 321, pi. 1, 
1896 Possession Island, Victoria Land, and Antarctic Sea; Clarke, Ibis, 
1906, p. 182 Laurie Island, South Orkneys (Nov. 11, 1904); Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 209, 1910 South Orkney Islands. 

Catharacta maccormicki wilsoni Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, p. 495, Jan. 31, 
1913 Weddell Sea (type, from 74 S. Lat., 22 W. Long., off Coat's 
Land, in Edinburgh Museum; cf. Stenhouse, Nov. Zool., 35, p. 275, 
1930); Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, pp. 217, 218, 1919 Laurie Island, 
South Orkneys (char.; range). 

Catharacta skua maccormicki Lowe and Kinnear, Brit. Antar. (Terra Nova) 
Exp., Nat. Hist. Rep., Zool., 4, pp. 121, 123, 1930 (crit.; meas.); Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 310, 1934 (range); Hamilton, Discovery Rep., 9, p. 174, 
1934 (crit.); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1016, 1936 (monog.; 
range); Eklund, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 89, No. 1, p. 302, 1945 King 
George VI Sound, Antarctica (life hist.). 

Range. Breeds on the shores of the Antarctic continent and in 
the West Antarctic Archipelago north to 65 S. Lat.; occasional in 
the South Shetland and South Orkney Islands. 

Genus STERCORARIUS Brisson 

Stercorarius Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 56, 6, p. 149, 1760 type, by tautonymy, 
"Stercorarius" =Larus parasiticus Linnaeus. 

Coprotheres Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., p. v, 1852 (1853) type, by orig. 
desig., Larus pomarinus Temminck. 

Atalolestris Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, (5), pp. 500, 508, Jan. 31, 1913 
type, by orig. desig., Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot. 

*Stercorarius pomarinus (Temminck). POMARINE JAEGER. 

Lestris pomarinus Temminck, Man. d'Orn., p. 514, 1815 Arctic regions of 
Europe, on migration in Holland and France (type or cotypes probably 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 247 

in Leyden Museum); 1 Holboll, Naturh. Tidsskr., 4, p. 424, 1843 northern 
Greenland. 

Stercorarius pomatorhinus Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 324 
(crit.; range); idem, I.e., 1882, p. 527 Callao Bay, Peru (Dec., 1881); 
MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 206 Callao Bay, Peru (Nov. 17 and 18); 
Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 322, 1896 (monog.). 

Lestris pomatorhina Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 218, 1898 Greenland. 

Stercorarius pomarinus Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 192, 1899 
Albemarle Island, Galapagos (Dec. 15, 1897); Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 
1, p. 96, 1916 Georgetown Harbor; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, 
p. 7, 1921 (life hist.); Bradlee, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 287, 1931 
Bermuda Islands (Sept. 26, 1908); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 311, 1934 
(range); Wynne-Edwards, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 40, p. 298, 1935 (distr. 
in North Atlantic); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 308, 1935 
off Colon, Panama; Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1035, 1936 
off Ancon, Peru (sight record); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 29, 
1943 Mackenzie Delta (rather rare); Southern, Ibis, 1944, p. 1 (dimor- 
phism). 

Coprotheres pomarinus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 681, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Brandt, Alaska Bird Trails, p. 400, 1943 Hooper 
Bay, Bering Sea, Alaska (breeding). 

Range. Breeds on Novaya Zemlya, the Yalmal Peninsula, 
Arctic coast of Siberia, 2 New Siberian Islands, Herald Island, and 
in northwestern Alaska, islands of the Arctic Archipelago, and the 
adjacent mainland south to Hooper Bay on the west, Southampton 
Island on the east, and central Greenland; winters off shore to 
western Africa, Mediterranean and Black Seas, Indian Ocean, 
Australia, Galapagos Islands (Albemarle Island, Dec. 15), coasts 
of Peru (Callao Bay, Nov. 17, Dec.; Ancon, May 8), Gulf of Mexico, 
the western Atlantic off the coast of Virginia, and British Guiana 
(Georgetown Harbor). 

Field Museum Collection. 19: Alaska (Barrow, 3; St. Lawrence 
Island, 2; King Island, 1; Nome, 3); California (Moss Landing, 1); 
Greenland (Davy's Sound, East Coast, 1); Labrador (Okak, 1); 
Nova Scotia (off Dover, Halifax County, 3); Massachusetts (Chat- 
ham, 1; Monomoy Island, 2; Cohasset, 1). 

*Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus). PARASITIC JAEGER. 

Larus parasiticus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 136, 1758 "intra 
Tropicum cancri: Europae, Americae, Asia" (restricted type locality, 
coast of Sweden; cf. Lonnberg, Zoologist, (4), 7, pp. 338-342, 1903). 

^chlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 4, p. 47, 1863) lists three "individus au 
plumage parfait, Mer du Nord," which are probably Temminck's originals. 

2 Stercorarius nigricapillus Bergman (Fauna och Flora, 18, No. 5, p. 232, 1923 
cotypes from Taporkof and Pianaja Bay, Kamchatka, in Stockholm Museum) has 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Catharada Cepphus Brunnich, Orn. Bor., p. 36, 1764 "in Cimbria ad littus 
maris germanici, prope praedium Lonborregaard." 

Catharada Coprotheres Brunnich, Orn. Bor., p. 38, 1764 Iceland and Norway 
(descr. of dark phase). 

Larus crepidatus 1 Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 602, 1789 based on Catharada 
cepphus Brunnich, "Le Labbe ou Stercoraire" Buffon, etc., "in mari 
Americae et Europae septentrionali." 

Lestris Schleepii C. L. Brehm, Lehrb. Naturg. Europ. Vogel, 2, p. 993, 1824 
Greenland (type in Tring Collection [cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 25, p. 60, 
1918], now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Lestris Richardsonii Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.- 
Amer., 2, "1831," p. 433, pi. 73, pub. Feb., 1832 Barren Grounds, lakes 
of Fur Countries, and [type from] Fort Franklin (descr. of dark phase; 
location of type unrecorded). 2 

Lestris parasitica Holboll, Naturh. Tidsskr., 4, p. 425, 1843 southern Green- 
land; Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 207, 1898 Greenland. 

Stercorarius parasiticus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 132 
(monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 687, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 14, 1921 (life hist.); Wetmore, I.e., 133, 
p. 129, 1926 15 miles south of Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (Nov. 4 
and 7, 1920); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 58, 1928 Pacific 
coast of Lower California (migrant); Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
39, p. 287, 1931 Bermuda Islands (Nov. 23, 1929; sight record) ; Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 413, 1932 Valparaiso Bay, 
Chile (ex Nicoll); L0ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, pp. 83, 124, 
1932 Greenland (breeding; crit.); Pedersen, I.e., 100, No. 11, pp. 7, 25, 
1934 Greenland (Hudson Land, Wollaston Vorland, Hochstetters 
Vorland; breeding); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 311, 1934 (range); Griscom, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 308, 1935 Colon Harbor, Panama; 
Wynne-Edwards, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 40, p. 303, 1935 (distr. in North 
Atlantic); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1037, 1936 coast of 
Peru, Chile (Valparaiso Bay, Corral, Chiloe Island, Straits of Magellan), 
and Argentina (Mar del Plata); Brooks, Ibis, 1939, pp. 326, 327 off 
American coasts (char.); Southern, I.e., 85, p. 443, 1943 (distr. of two 
color phases); Bray, Auk, 60, p. 527, 1943 Southampton Island (nesting); 
Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 29, 1943 Mackenzie Delta (breeding); 
Brandt, Alaska Bird Trails, p. 402, 1943 Hooper Bay, Alaska; McCabe, 
Auk, 61, p. 465, 1944 (habits); Soper, I.e., 63, p. 233, 1946 Baffin Island 
(nesting). 

Stercorarius tephras Malmgren, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 392, 1865 Spitzbergen and 
Bear Island (type, from Spitzbergen, in Stockholm Museum; cf. Gylden- 
stolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 102, 1927). . 

been shown by Gyldenstolpe (Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 101, 1927) to be insepara- 
ble from S. pomarinus. 

l Larus crepidatus Banks (Cook's Voyage, Hawkesworth ed., 2, p. 15, 1773) 
is a nomen nudum. 

2 Possibly in the University Museum, Cambridge, England. 



.948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 249 

Stercorarius crepidatus Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 326 (monog.); 
Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 503 Barbados (July 10, 1888); Saunders, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 327, 1896 (monog.); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
3, p. 449, 1899 Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 
pp. 51, 563 Valparaiso Bay, Chile (Feb. 14), and between St. Vincent 
and Carriacou, Lesser Antilles (Jan. 27); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. f 
32, p. 256, 1905 Barbados and near St. Vincent; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 
476 Tuyu, Ajo, Buenos Aires (Feb. 21, 1909). 

Stercorarius parasiticus parasiticus Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 219, 1919 
Argentina; Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 154 Myggbukta, Greenland 
(breeding). 

Range. Breeds in America from northwestern Alaska and Mel- 
rille Island across the Arctic Archipelago to Greenland, south to 
he Aleutian Islands, southern Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, and northern 
-<abrador (extralimitally in the arctic and subarctic regions of 
Europe and Asia); winters on the Pacific coast from California to 
he Straits of Magellan, and on the Atlantic coast from Florida to 
Argentina; occasional in the Bermuda Islands and the West Indies 
Barbados; between St. Vincent and Carriacou). Casually in the 
nterior of North America. 

Field Museum Collection. 30: Alaska (Barrow, 2; Chipp River, 
lear Barrow, 2; St. Michaels, 5; Yukon Delta, 2); Northwest Terri- 
ories (Baillie Island, Mackenzie, 1); California (Eureka, 1; Cypress 
5 oint, 1; San Pedro, 2); Illinois (Cook County, 2); Indiana (Miller, 
_/ake County, 1); Greenland (Agpamiut, 1; Egedesminde, 1; Sukker- 
,oppen, 2; Ymer Island, 1); Labrador (Rama, 1; unspecified, 1); 
Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 2; Chatham, 2). 

'Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot. LONG-TAILED JAEGER. 

Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 157, 
1819 based primarily on "Le Stercoraire a longue queue (Stercorarius 
longicaudus)" Brisson, Orn., 6, p. 155, northern Europe, Asia, and America 
(restricted type locality, northern Europe); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 694, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 21, 
1921 (life hist.); Wetmore, I.e., 133, p. 130, 192625 km. south of Cape 
San Antonio, Buenos Aires (Nov. 4-7); Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
39, p. 288, 1931 Nonsuch Island, Bermudas (May 8, 1929, and Sept. 11, 
1930; sight records); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 312, 1934 (range); Griscom, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 308, 1935 Colon Harbour, Panama; 
Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1935, p. 853 Jan Mayen (breeding) ; Wynne-Edwards, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 40, p. 306, 1935 (distr. in North Atlantic); Murphy, 
Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1038, 1936 California to Peru (150 km. west 
of Anc6n, June 11), Chile (Valparaiso Bay, Nov., Dec.; route to Juan 
Fernandez), and Argentina (off the coast of Mar del Plata, Oct.); Brooks, 
Ibis, 1939, p. 327 (migr.; char.); Bird and Bird, I.e., 1941, p. 154 Green- 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

land (crit.); L0ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 131, (12), p. 4, 1943 (monog.); 
Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 29, 1943 Mackenzie Delta (breeds 
north and east) ; Bray, Auk, 60, p. 527, 1943 Melville Peninsula (nesting) ; 
Brandt, Alaska Bird Trails, p. 404, 1943 Hooper Bay, Alaska (nesting) ; 
Soper, Auk, 63, p. 233, 1946 Baffin Island (breeding). 

Lestris buffonii Meyer, 1 Zusatze zu Meyer and Wolf, Taschenb. Deuts. Vogelk., 
p. 212, 1822 seas of the Arctic circle, Spitzbergen, Greenland, etc.; 
Holboll, Naturhist. Tidsskr., 4, p. 427, 1843 Greenland. 

Stercorarius buffoni Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 136 (monog.). 

Stercorarius parasiticus (not Larus parasiticus Linnaeus) Saunders, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 330 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 334, 
1896 (monog.). 

Lestris longicauda Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 209, 1898 Greenland; Man- 
niche, I.e., 45, No. 1, p. 173, 1910 northeastern Greenland (breeding 
habits). 

Stercorarius longicaudus pallescens L0ppenthin, 2 Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, 
pp. 85, 124, 1932 Cape Stosch, 74 N. Lat., 22 W. Long., northeastern 
Greenland (type in Copenhagen Museum); Pedersen, I.e., 100, No. 11, 
pp. 7, 26, 1934 Hochstetters Vorland, Greenland (breeding); Bird, 
Ibis, 1941, p. 154 (doubtful race); L0ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 131, p. 1, 
1943 (crit.). 

Range. Breeds in Spitzbergen, Jan Mayen, northern Scandi- 
navia, northern Russia, Novaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, 
northern and western Alaska, northern Mackenzie, Ellesmere Island, 
northern Labrador, and Greenland; winters off the coasts of Peru, 
Chile, and Argentina. Casual in the interior of North America. 

Field Museum Collection. 25: Alaska (Smith's Bay, near Point 
Barrow, 2; Nome, 4; Bethel, 3; St. Michaels, 1; Morzhovoi Bay, 1; 
St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, 1; Hot Springs, 1); Arctic America 
(Franklin Bay, 1); California (Pacific Beach, 1); Indiana (Dune 
Park, Porter County, 1); Greenland, east coast (Muskox Fjord, 8); 
New Brunswick (Grand Manan, 1). 

Family LARIDAE. Gulls and Terns 

Subfamily LARINAE. Gulls 
Genus LEUCOPHAEUS Bruch 3 

^Lestris buffoni Bois (Isis, 1822, (1), col. 562) is a nomen nudum. 

2 Birds with extensively white under parts are more frequent in America and 
Greenland than in the Old World, but this average difference is not sufficiently 
constant to warrant the recognition of a western form (pallescens L0ppenthin). 
Cf. Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 154. 

3 Although, in general, no advocate of monotypic genera, we are inclined to 
follow Dwight, Murphy, and Boetticher in recognizing Leucophaeus as distinct 
from Gabianus (type, Larus pacificus Latham). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 251 

Leucophaeus (Bonaparte MS.) Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 108, 1853 type, 
by monotypy, Larus haematorhynchus King=Larws scoresbii Traill. 

Procellarus Bonaparte, Naumannia, 1854, p. 211 type, by orig. desig., 
Procellarus neglectus Bonaparte =Larus scoresbii Traill. 

Epitelarus Bonaparte, Naumannia, 1854, p. 211 type, by orig. desig., E. [or 
Procellarus} neglectus Bonaparte Larus scoresbii Traill. 

Epitelolarus Heine and Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Orn. Hein., p. 359, 1890 
emendation of Epitelarus Bonaparte. 

*Leucophaeus scoresbii (Traill). DOLPHIN GULL. 

Larus scoresbii Traill, Mem. Wernerian Nat. Hist. Soc., 4, (2), p. 514, pi. 16, 
fig. 1, 1823 "New South Shetland" = South Shetland Islands (type in 
the Museum of the Liverpool Royal Institution); Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 28, p. 391, 1860 Falkland Islands; Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 
165 Falkland Islands (breeding); Schlegel, 1 Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 4, 
Lari, p. 33, 1863 Falkland Islands (crit.); Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 

1, Vogel, pp. 151, 163, 1865 Chiloe Island, Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 336, 340 Chile; Saunders, I.e., 1878, p. 184 (crit;. 
range); Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 179, pi. 3, 1891 Rio 
Santa Cruz, Patagonia; Gable Island, Packsaddle Island, and Orange 
Bay, Tierra del Fuego; Sclater, 1 Ibis, 1894, pp. 495, 497 "Lat. 64 S., 
Long. 55 W"; 2 Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 Magallania to 
Chiloe", Chile. 

Larus haematorhynchus King, Zool. Journ., 4, No. 13, p. 103, July, 1828 
Straits of Magellan (type now in British Museum); Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 
3, Birds, p. 142, 1841 Puerto San Julian, Santa Cruz, Patagonia; Des 
Murs, in Gay, Hist. Ffs. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 481, 1847 Magellan 
Straits (ex King) ; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 288, 1868 Magallanes 
to Chilo6. 

Leucophaeus haematorhynchus Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 108, 1853 (crit.); 
idem, I.e., 3, p. 287, 1855 (crit). 

Procellarus [sive Epitelarus] neglectus Bonaparte, Naumannia, 1854, pp. 211, 
213; idem, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 7, p. 13, 1855; idem, Consp. Gen. Av., 

2, p. 211, 1857 "ex Maribus Antarcticis" (type in Paris Museum; descr. 
of young). 8 

Leucophaeus scoresbii Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 2, p. 231, 1857 Chile, 
"Peruvia, Ins. Falkland, Pacif. antarct." (diag.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 579 Patagonia (Puerto San Julian), 
Falkland Islands, and Chiloe (crit.); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 
p. 299, 1896 Falkland Islands, Straits of Magellan, coast of Patagonia 

1 Specific name spelled scoresbyi. 

2 This locality is erroneous, for the specimen was obtained at the Falkland 
Islands (cf. Clarke, Ibis, 1907, p. 347). 

3 The type, secured by d'Orbigny, who did not visit the Antarctic region, 
probably came from the coast of Patagonia. 



252 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Lat. 45 S., Chubut), and Lat. 64 S., Long. 55 45' W.; Salvador!, 1 
Anal. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 40, p. 629, 1900 Rio Pescado, Straits 
of Magellan; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 382, 1902 
Tierra del Fuego (Orange Bay; ex Oustalet); Vallentin, Mem. Proc. 
Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 41, 1904 Falkland Islands 
(breeding); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 213, 1910 
Rio Santa Cruz, Falkland Islands, and Tierra del Fuego; Scott and 
Sharpe, 1 Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 223, 1910 
Patagonia (descr.); Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 148, 1917 
Falkland Islands; Dabbene, 1 El Hornero, 1, p. 56 (range); Wace, 1 I.e., 
2, p. 197, 1921 Falkland Islands; Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
52, p. 134, 1925 (plumages; range); Bennett, 1 Ibis, 1926, p. 319 Falk- 
land Islands; Renard, El Hornero, 4, p. 412, 1931 Rio Deseado, Santa 
Cruz; Reynolds, Ibis, 1932, p. 36 eastern Woodcock Island, Beagle 
Channel (breeding); Hellmayr, Field- Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 413, 1932 Chile north to Chiloe" Island; Reynolds, Ibis, 1935, p. 89 
Cape Horn region; Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 249, 1935 
Isla la Mocha; Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1043, 1936 (plumages; 
range). 

Gabianus scoresbii Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 313, 1934 (range). 

Range. Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego and surrounding 
islets, the Atlantic coast of Patagonia north to Camarones Bay, 
Chubut, and the Pacific coast north to Chiloe* Island and even 
La Mocha Island, Arauco, Chile. 

Field Museum Collection. 5: Chile (Hermit Island, Magallanes, 
1; Cape Penas, Tierra del Fuego, 3) ; Falkland Islands (unspecified, 1). 



Genus PAGOPHILA Kaup 

Pagophila Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Eur. Thierw., pp. 69, 196, 
1829 type, by monotypy, Larus eburneus Phipps. 

Cetosparactes Macgillivray, Man. Brit. Orn., 2, p. 251, 1842 type, by mono- 
typy, Larus eburneus Phipps. 

Catosparactes G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, p. 655, 1845 (emendation). 
*Pagophila eburnea (Phipps). 2 IVORY GULL. 

Larus eburneus Phipps, Voy. North Pole, App., p. 187, 1774 coast of Spitz- 
bergen (no type extant); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 200, 1898 Green- 
land; Manniche, I.e., 45, No. 1, p. 163, 1910 Renskaeret, Greenland 
(breeding habits). 

Larus candidus 0. F. Miiller, Zool. Dan. Prodr., p. viii, 1776 Greenland. 

1 Specific name spelled scoresbyi. 

2 Larus albus Gunnerus (in Leem, Beskr. Finm. Lapp., p. 285, 1767) is unidenti- 
fiable. Cf. Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 301 (note), 1896, and Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1750, 1921. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 253 

Larus niveus Boddaert, Tabl. PL Enl., p. 58, Dec., 1783 based on "Le 
Goeland blanc du Spitzberg" Daubenton, PL EnL, pi. 994. 

Larus brachytarsus Holboll, Naturhist. Tidsskr., 4, p. 422, 1843 northern 
Greenland and Godthaab (specimens lost). 

Pagophila eburneus Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 106, 1853 Greenland (crit.). 

Pagophila brachytarsus Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 106, 1853 northern Green- 
land (crit.). 

Pagophila brachytarsa Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, p. 18 Greenland (crit.). 

Pagophila eburnea Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 301, 1896 (monog.); 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1750, 1921 (monog.); L0ppenthin, Medd. 
Gr0nL, 91, No. 6, pp. 69, 123, 1932 northeastern Greenland (breeding); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 313, 1934 (range); Soper, Auk, 63, p. 236, 1946 
southwestern Baffin Island (rare straggler). 

Pagophila alba (not Larus albus Gunnerus) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 576, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 29, 1921 
(life hist.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 138, 1925 (range; 
plumages); Langelier, Nat. Canad., Quebec, 68, p. 5, 1941 Gulf St. 
Lawrence (general account). 

Range. Breeds in Arctic America from Prince Patrick Island 
and Melville Island to northern Greenland and northern Baffin 
Land, and extralimitally on Spitzbergen, Franz Josef Land, Novaya 
Zemlya, etc.; winters south to British Columbia, Ontario, Massa- 
chusetts, and Long Island, New York. 

Field Museum Collection. 17: Alaska (Barrow, 11); Labrador 
(Okak, 3; West St. Modest, 2); Maine (Calais, 1). 

Genus LARUS Linnaeus 1 

Larus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 136, 1758 type, by subs, desig. 

(Selby, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Types Aves, p. 48, 1840), Larus marinus 

Linnaeus. 
Hydrocolocus Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Eur. Thierw., pp. 113, 

196, 1829 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 2nd ed., App., 

p. 15, 1841), Larus minutus Linnaeus. 
Chroicocephalus Eyton, Hist. Rar. Brit. Bds., Cat., p. 53, 1836 type, by 

subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 79, 1840), Larus capistratus Tem- 

minck=Lanis ridibundus Linnaeus. 
Dominicanus Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 100, 1853 type, by tautonymy, 

Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein. 
Glaucus (not of Forster, 1800) Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 101, 1853 type, by 

tautonymy, Larus glaucus Brunnich=L. hyperboreus Gunnerus. 
Adelarus (Bonaparte MS.) Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 106, 1853 type, by subs. 

desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subg. Bds., p. 130, 1855), Larus leucophthalmus 

Lichtenstein. 

1 A complete list of all generic synonyms proposed by authors is given by 
Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, pp. 67-68, 1925. 



254 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Blasipus (Bonaparte MS.) Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 108, 1853 type, by 
monotypy, Larus bridgesii Fraser=L. modestus Tschudi. 

Atricilla Bonaparte, Naumannia, 1854, p. 212, 1854 type, by tautonymy, 
Larus atricilla Linnaeus. 

Cirrhocephala Bonaparte, Naumannia, 1854, p. 213, 1854 type, by tau- 
tonymy, Larus cirrocephalus Vieillot. 

Melanolarus Heine and Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein. Orn., p. 359, 1890 
type, by orig. desig., Larus franklini Richardson =L. pipixcan Wagler. 

Pacificolarus Boetticher, Jenaische Zeits. Naturw., 69, (3), p. 465, July 4, 
1935 type, by orig. desig., Larus crassirostris Vieillot. 

*Larus fuliginosus Gould. DUSKY GULL. t 

Larus fuliginosus Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Voy. "Beagle," 3, Birds, Part 15, 
p. 141, March, 1841 James Island, Galapagos (type in British Museum); 1 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 323 Indefatigable 
and Abingdon Islands; Sundevall, I.e., 1871, p. 125 Charles and Inde- 
fatigable Islands; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., p. 573 Galapagos Islands 
(crit.); Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 505, pi. 87 (adult and young), 
1876 Indefatigable, Charles, and Abingdon Islands, Galapagos (crit.); 
Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 184 Galapagos Islands (crit.); 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 116, 1890 Indefatigable, James, 
and Chatham Islands; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 222, 1896 
(monog.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 635, 1897 Galapagos 
(descr.); Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 189, 1899 Galapagos 
(egg descr.); iidem, I.e., 9, p. 413, 1902 Indefatigable and Albemarle 
Islands; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 237, 1904 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island; Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, 
p. 42, 1913 Galapagos Islands (habits; meas.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 52, p. 140, 1925 (monog.); Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 41, 1931 Tower Island; Swarth, Occ. Pap. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 64, 1931 Galapagos Islands; Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 314, 1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1046, 1936 
Galapagos Islands. 

Blasipus fuliginosus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 656, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.). 

Range. Resident on the Galapagos Archipelago. 

Field Museum Collection. 4: Galapagos Islands (Mangrove 
Point, Narborough Island, 1; Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, 3). 

*Larus modestus Tschudi. GRAY GULL. 

Larus modestus Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 389, 1843 "in Oceani 
pacifici littoribus"=Lurm, south of Lima, Peru (type in Neuchatel 
Museum); idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 306, pi. 35, 1846 Lurin, 

1 There can be hardly any doubt that spec, b (Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 
p. 223), presented by C. Darwin, is the type, for Darwin says: "My specimen was 
killed at James Island." 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 255 

Peru; Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Ffs. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 483, 1847 
Valparaiso, Chile; Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 151, 1865 
Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 336, 340 Valparaiso; 
Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 288, 1868 Valparaiso to Peru; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 573 Peru and Chile (crit.); 
Saunders, I.e., 1878, p. 183 Callao to Valparaiso (crit.); Salvin, Cat. 
Strickl. Coll., p. 620, 1882 Chile; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 
1896 Chile; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 223, 1896 Chile 
(Valparaiso; Iquique, Tarapaca) and Peru (Callao Bay); Nicoll, Ibis, 
1904, p. 51 Valparaiso Bay; Chubb, I.e., 1919, p. 259 Trujillo, Peru; 
Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 144, 1925 Cautin (Valdivia) 
to the Chincha Islands, Peru (breeding), and the Gulf of Guayaquil, 
Ecuador (plumages); Chapman, I.e., 55, p. 188, 1926 Jambeli Island and 
Santa Elena, Ecuador; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 410, 1932 Chile (Tarapaca to Valdivia); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 229, 1932 Isla Silva, Rio Babahoyo, Ecuador; 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 314, 1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 

2, p. 1049, 1936 Manta Bay, Ecuador, to Corral, Valdivia, Chile (descr.; 
habits); Philippi, El Hornero, 6, p. 237, 1936 Arica, Tacna, Chile; 
idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 61, 1938 Arica Bay, Chile; Goodall, 
Philippi and Johnson, Auk, 62, p. 450, pi. 21, 1945 35 km. inland from 
Tocopilla, Antofagasta, Chile (nesting in desert). 

Larus fuliginosus (not of Gould) G. R. Gray, List Spec. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

3, p. 170, 1844 part, spec, b, c, Chile (=juv.); Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. 
Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 481, 1847 Chile (ex Gray). 

Larus bridgesii Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 13, p. 16, April, 1845 Valpa- 
raiso, Chile (type in coll. of Zoological Society of London, now in British 
Museum); idem, Zool. Typ., pi. 69, 1849 Valparaiso; Cassin, in Gilliss, 
U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 205, 1855 Chile. 

Blasipus bridgesii Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 108, 1853 (diag.; range imaginary); 
idem, I.e., 3, p. 280, 1855 (diag.; range imaginary). 

Range. From Manta Bay, Ecuador, south to Corral, Valdivia, 
Chile. Evidently nests in the deserts up to 100 km. inland from the 
coast (cf. Goodall, Philippi and Johnson, Auk, 62, p. 450, 1945). 

Field Museum Collection. 4: Ecuador, Province de los Rios 
(Rio San Antonio, 1; Isla Silva Sur, 3). 

*Larus heermanni Cassin. HEERMANN'S GULL. 

Larus heermanni Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 6, p. 187, for October, 
pub. Dec. 31, 1852 San Diego, California (type lost, once in coll. of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 38, p. 273, 1932); idem, Illust. Bds. Calif., Texas, etc., p. 28, 
pi. 5, 1856 harbor of San Diego, California; Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1878, p. 182 Vancouver Island to California, in winter to 
"Panama" (crit.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 225, 1896 North 
America to Guatemala (monog.); Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 23, 
1899 Isabel Island and Tres Marias (Maria Cleofa); Salvin and Godman, 



256 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 422, 1903 Pacific coast of North America 
to Guatemala (San Jose, Chiapam); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, 
p. 148, 1921 (life hist.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 147, pi. 13, 
figs. 3-6, 1925 (range; molts; plumages); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., (4), 15, p. 282, 1926 Isabel Island (breeding); Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 60, 1928 Lower California (breeding); Griscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 129, 1932 Pacific coast of Guatemala 
(winter); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 314, 1934 (range); van Rossem, Occ. 
Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 89, 1945 Gulf of Cali- 
fornia (resident), George Island (nesting). 

Adelarus heermanni Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 107, 1853 California (crit.); 
idem, I.e., 3, p. 279, 1855 California (crit.). 

Blasipus heermanni Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 654, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.). 

Range. Breeds on the west coast of Mexico, on Isabel Island, 
the Tres Marias, on islands in the Gulf of California, and on San 
Roque Island, Pacific coast of Lower California; strays northward 
to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and migrates in winter as 
far south as Pacific Guatemala (San Jose", Chiapam). 

Field Museum Collection. 93: British Columbia (Vancouver 
Island, 1); California (Westport, 4; Tiburon, 1; Sausalito, 1; Mon- 
terey, 13; Pacific Grove, 1; Carmel Bay, 12; Moss Landing, 5; 
Seaside, 6; San Clemente Island, 7; Bolea Chico, 2; San Nicholas 
Island, 1; San Pedro, 1; El Secundo, 2; Clifton, 1; Hyperion, 22; 
Manhattan Beach, 1; Pacific Beach, 3; Santa Barbara, 1; Santa 
Crufc Island, 4); Mexico, Lower California (Consag Rock, 1; Cape 
San Luis Island, 1; Isla Raya, 2). 

Larus belcheri Vigors. BELCHER'S GULL. 

Larus belcheri Vigors, Zool. Journ., 4, No. 15, Oct. 1828 to Jan. 1829, p. 358, 
1829 no locality given 1 (type once in coll. of Zoological Society of London, 
its present whereabouts unknown); idem, Zool. Voy. "Blossom," Orn., 
p. 39, 1839 no locality (repr. of orig. descr.); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 
livr. 4, Lari, p. 9, 1863 A Chile" (crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, p. 340 Chile; idem and Salvin, I.e., p. 991 coast near Islay, 
Arequipa, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1871, p. 575 Peru (Islay), Chile (Arica), 
and "Straits of Magellan" (crit.); Saunders, I.e., 1878, p. 182 Chorillos, 
near Callao, Peru (crit.); idem, I.e., 1882, p. 526 Peru (San Lorenzo 
Island, Aug., 1881; Callao Bay, Aug., 1881) and Chile (Coquimbo Bay, 
Nov., 1881); MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 205 San Lorenzo Island, Callao 
Bay, Peru (Aug. 28); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 226, 1896 
Chile (Coquimbo; Iquique, Tarapaca) and Peru (Mollendo, Islay, San 

1 The type was collected during Capt. Beechey's voyage and presented to 
the Zoological Society of London by Edward Belcher, First Lieutenant of the 
Blossom. It was probably secured on the coast of Peru. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 257 

Lorenzo, Callao Bay); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 Chile 
("Cape Horn" to Arica); Murphy, Bird Islands of Peru, p. 283, 1925 
Peru (breeding); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 158, 1925 
Ancon and San Gallen Island, Peru (plumages); Hellmayr, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 409, 1932 Chile (Coquimbo to Arica); 
Daguerre, El Hornero, 5, p. 214, 1933 San Bias, province of Buenos 
Aires (Feb. to April); MacDonagh, Not. Prelim. Mus. La Plata, 2, p. 312, 
1934 San Bias (Feb.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 314, 1934 (range); 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1052, 1936 Lobos de Tierra Islands, 
Peru, to Coquimbo, Chile (plumages and eggs descr.; habits; range); 
Philippi, El Hornero, 6, p. 237, 1936 Erizera (Arica), Tacna, Chile; 
idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 61, 1938 Arica, Chile; Steullet 
and Deautier, Not. Mus. La Plata, 3, Zool., No. 7, p. 2, 1938 Rio Ajo, 
Buenos Aires (June 13; descr. of adult); Casares, El Hornero, 7, p. 286, 
1939 Bahia San Bias and General Lavalle, Buenos Aires; Philippi, Rev. 
Chile. Hist. Nat., 44, p. 151, 1940 Arica and Punta Chucumata (nesting). 
Larus frobenii Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 18, No. 6, June, 
p. 732, 1861 Arica, Tacna, Chile (type, once in National Museum, San- 
tiago de Chile, no longer extant; cf. Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 
16, p. 61, 1938); iidem, Arch. Naturg., 27, (1), p. 292, 1861 Arica; 
Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 210, 1868 "Magellanes" and Peru 
(= Arica); idem, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 97, pi. 45, fig. 1, 1902 
Arica (descr. and fig. of type). 

Range. Coasts of Peru and Chile south to Coquimbo (breeding 
on rocky islets from Lobos de Tierra to Vieja and Santa Rosa Islands, 
Peru, and near Punta Chucumata, Chile), and Atlantic coast of 
province of Buenos Aires, Argentina (Rio Ajo, June 13, 1937; 
Bahia de San Bias, Feb. to April). 1 

*Larus delawarensis Ord. 2 RING-BILLED GULL. 

Larus delawarensis Ord, in Guthrie's Geogr., 2nd Am. ed., 2, p. 319, 1815 
Delaware River, below Philadelphia (no type extant); Saunders, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 176 (crit.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 

1 Belcher's Gull was supposed to be confined to the Pacific coast from Peru 
to northern Chile. While it is wholly unknown in the Falkland Islands, various 
sight records from the Straits of Magellan and Patagonia, unsubstantiated as 
they are by any specimen in European or American collections, were assumed 
to be due to confusion with some other species, notably Leucophaeus scoresbii in 
immature plumage (cf. Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1054, 1936, and 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 409 [note 1], 1932). Recently, 
however, seyeral examples have actually been secured on the coast of the province 
of Buenos Aires. Steullet and Deautier's notes on the coloration and bill-characters 
of two adults, taken on June 13, 1937, along the Rio Ajo, leave no doubt whatever 
as to the species. The collector, Sr. Runnacles, even believes thatL. belcheri nests 
on the coast of General Lavalle. Direct comparison of Argentine specimens with 
others from the Pacific coast would be interesting. 

2 Stegmann (Journ. Orn., 82, p. 343, 1934) advances good reasons for treating 
the Ring-billed Gull as a race of the European Mew Gull (L. canus), but the 
subject appears to require further investigation with respect to the geographic 
distribution of L. delawarensis andL. c. brachyrhynchus during the breeding period. 



258 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 273, 1896 (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, 
p. 424, 1903 Mexico (Guaymas, Mazatlan, Presidio, Guadalajara, coast 
of Tehuantepec); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 623, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 132, 1921' (life hist.); Dwight, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 168, pi. 14, figs. 1, 2, 1925 (range; plumages); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 60, 1928 Lower California 
(winter); Bradlee, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 289, 1931 Bermuda 
Islands (one record, Jan. 1, 1849); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 315, 1934 
(range); Stegmann, Journ. Orn., 82, p. 343, 1934 (crit.); Dickey and van 
Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 182, 1938 Acajutla, 
El Salvador (seen); Moffitt, Condor, 44, p. 105, 1942 Lassen County, 
California (breeding); Ludwig, Wilson Bull., 55, p. 234, 1943 (returns 
from birds banded on Great Lakes); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. 
Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 90, 1945 Sonora (winter visitant). 

Larus zonorhynchus Richardson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.- 
Amer., 2, "1831," p. 421, pub. Feb., 1832 Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
(type now in British Museum); Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 102, 1853 (crit.). 

Gavina bruchi Bonaparte, Naumannia, 1854, pp. 212, 216; idem, Rev. Mag. 
Zool., (2), 7, p. 16, 1855 Mexico (location of type not stated); Bruch, 
Journ. Orn., 3, p. 283, 1855 Mexico (crit.). 

Gavina zonorhynchus Bruch, Journ. Orn., 3, p. 282, 1855 North America 
(crit.). 

Larus zonorhynchus a. mexicanus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 2, p. 224, 
1857 Central America (type in Verreaux Collection). 

Range. Breeds in North America (chiefly in the interior) from 
southern Alaska, Great Slave Lake, northern Manitoba, and James 
Bay south to northern California, northern Utah, southern Colorado, 
North Dakota, southern Ontario, and Quebec (near Cape Whittle) ; 
winters from southern British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, the Great 
Lakes and the New England coast south to southern Mexico, (?)E1 
Salvador (Acajutla), and the Gulf coast; casual in the Bermuda 
Islands (one record). 

Field Museum Collection. 137: Alberta (Beaver Lake, 1); 
Saskatchewan (Quill Lake, 13; Maple Creek, 5; Big Stick Lake, 4); 
California (Tiburon, 1; Farallon Islands, 1; Redwood, 2; Monterey, 
9; Moss Landing, 6; Pacific Grove, 1; Seaside, 2; Sunset Beach, 4; 
Rincon, 1; San Diego Bay, 1; Hyperion, 32; Santa Barbara, 1); 
Colorado (Pueblo County, 1); Texas (Seadrift, 1; Port Lavaca, 1; 
Corpus Christi, 4); North Dakota (Nelson County, 17; Towner 
County, 3); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 1); Illinois (Waukegan, 1); 
Indiana (Miller, 1); Labrador (Kegashka, 7; Mullen Bay, 1); 
Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 1); Connecticut (New Haven County, 
2); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 5; Pea Island, 1); 
Florida (Pilot Town, 1; Mary Esther, 2; Santa Rosa County, 3). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 259 
*Larus canus brachyrhynchus Richardson. 1 SHORT-BILLED GULL. 

Larus brachyrhynchus Richardson, in Wilson and Bonaparte, Amer. Orn., 
Jameson ed., 4, p. 352, 1831 Great Bear Lake, Mackenzie (type now in 
U. S. National Museum; cf. Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 
634, 1919;= young); Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 302 
(monog.; disc, of type); Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 178 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 283, 1896 (monog.); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 632, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, 
I.e., 113, p. 140, 1921 (life hist.). 

Larus suckleyi Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 6, "1857," p. 264, 
pub. Feb., 1858 "North Pacific, Puget Sound," Washington (type in 
U. S. National Museum). 

Rissa septentrionalis Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 6, "1857," p. 
266, pub. Feb., 1858 "North Pacific, Puget Sound" (type, from Belling- 
ham Bay, Washington, in the U. S. National Museum). 

Larus canus brachyrhynchus Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 173, 
pi. 14, figs. 3, 4, 1925 (range; plumages); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 316, 
1934 (range); idem, Auk, 54, p. 205, 1937 Pleasant Bay, Chatham, 
Massachusetts (Feb. 8, 1908); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 30, 
1943 Mackenzie Delta (breeds in wooded part). 

Range. Breeds in northwestern North America from Kotzebue 
Sound east to the Anderson River, south to central British Columbia 
and Lake Athabaska; winters on the Pacific coast from southeastern 
Alaska to southern California (San Diego); accidental in Quebec, 
Wyoming, and Massachusetts (Pleasant Bay). 

Field Museum Collection. 59: Alaska (St. Michael, 6; Bethel, 1; 
Tocatna Forks, 3; Inako River, 1); Yukon Territory (Yukon River, 
4); British Columbia (Seymour Narrows, 1); Washington (Port 
Townsend, 5); Oregon (Bay City, 1); California (San Rafael, 1; 
Tiburon, 1; Pacific Grove, 5; Hyperion, 29; Clifton, 1). 

*Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus. GLAUCOUS GULL. 

Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, in Leem, Beskr. Finm. Lapper, p. 226 (footnote), 
1767 northern Norway; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 584, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 52, 1921 (life hist.); Dwight, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 243, 1925 (monog.; plumages; range); 
L0ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, pp. 66, 123, 1932 northeastern 
Greenland (breeding); Pedersen, I.e., 100, No. 11, pp. 6, 22, 1934 

1 The European Mew Gull (L. canus canus Linnaeus) has been admitted to 
the list of American birds on the basis of the taking of a young bird at Henley 
Harbor, Labrador (Aug. 21, 1860). Its identification is, however, by no means 
certain, and Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 629, 1919) strongly 
suspects it to be merely L. delawarensis. C.E.H. 

H0rring and Salomonsen (Medd. Gr0nl., 131, No. 5, p. 46, 1941) give three 
records for this gull from Greenland (Fiskenaes; Narssaq). However, two of the 
specimens are juveniles. B.C. 



260 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ulla Island, Grand jean Fjord, and Bredefjord, Greenland (breeding); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 320, 1934 (range); Swarth, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 
22, p. 36, 1934 Nunivak Island (disc.); Stegmann, Journ. Orn., 82, 
p. 351, 1934 (crit.; range); Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1935, p. 851 Jan Mayen 
(breeding); iidem, I.e., 1941, p. 151 Greenland (crit.); Rand, Canad. 
Field Nat., 56, p. 123, 1942 (range; dist. chars.; disc.). 

Larus glaucus (not of Pontoppidan, 1763) Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 44, 1764 
Iceland; Holboll, Naturhist. Tidsskr., 4, p. 415, 1843 Greenland (crit.; 
variation); Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 294 (monog.); 
Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 165 (monog.); idem, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 289, 1896 (monog.); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, 
p. 186, 1898 Greenland; Manniche, I.e., 45, No. 1, p. 160, 1910 north- 
eastern Greenland (breeding). 

Larus leuceretes Schleep, Ann. Wetterau. Ges. Naturk., 4, p. 314, 1819 
Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen, etc. (type [adult], from Greenland, in 
coll. of Herr Benicken, Schleswig, doubtless lost). 

"Larus consul Boie, in Wiedemann's Zool. Mag., 1, p. 126, 1819 Spitsbergen 
and Helsingor, Denmark." * 

Larus leucopterus Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Me'th., Orn., livr. 89, p. 346, 1820 
based on Larus glaucus of Briinnich (Orn. Bor., p. 44, No. 148, 1764) 
and Fabricius (Faun. Greenl., p. 100), and on an adult from Baffin's 
Bay in coll. of L. A. F. Baillon. 2 

Larus medius C. L. Brehm, Beitr. Vogelk., 3, p. 810, 1822 "extreme north, 
Iceland, Norway" (type, from Iceland, in Tring Collection [cf. Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 25, p. 60, 1918], now in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York). 

Larus islandicus Edmondston, Mem. Werner. Nat. Hist. Soc., 4, (1), p. 185, 
1822 Balta Sound, Shetland Islands (type in coll. of L. E. Edmondston). 

Larus glacialis Macgillivray, Mem. Werner. Nat. Hist. Soc., 5, (1), p. 270, 
1824 Shetland Islands (substitute name for Larus glaucus Temminck, 
Man. d'Orn., 2nd 6d., 2, p. 757, 1820=L. glaucus Briinnich). 

Larus minor C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 736, 1831 new 
name for Larus medius Brehm. 

Larus hutchinsii Richardson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 
2, "1831," p. 419, pub. Feb., 1832 Albany River, Hudson Bay (location 
of type unrecorded; descr. of immature plumage); Coues, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 294 (monog.). 

Larus barrovianus Ridgway, Auk, 3, p. 330, July, 1886 Point Barrow, 
Alaska (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Larus hyperboreus hyperboreus Oberholser, Auk, 35, p. 468, 1918 (char.; 
range); Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 33, 1923 Pribilof 
Islands (breeding); Soper, Auk, 63, p. 234, 1946 Baffin Island (breeding). 

1 This periodical was inaccessible to the authors. 

1 Dwight (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 256, 1925) is certainly mistaken in 
applying L. leucopterus to the Iceland Gull. Vieillot's references as well as Baillon's 
specimen apply without any question to the Glaucous Gull. The case has been 
very clearly set forth by Mayaud (Alauda, 6, pp. 370-375, 1934). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 261 

Larus hyperboreus barrovianus Oberholser, Auk, 35, p. 472, 1918 (char.; range); 
idem, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 22, p. 173, 1919 (crit.); Preble and McAtee, 
N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 34, 1923 St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands (June 
21); Rand, Canad. Field Nat., 56, pp. 123, 126, 1942 (crit.); Porsild, 
I.e., 57, p. 29, 1943 Arctic coast (breeds north and east of Mackenzie 
Delta). 

Range. Breeds in America from Point Barrow, Alaska, Elles- 
mere Island, Melville Island, and northern Greenland south to the 
Pribilof Islands, Mackenzie, James Bay, Labrador, and Newfound- 
land, and extralimitally in Jan Mayen, Iceland, Spitzbergen, Franz 
Josef Land, and Novaya Zemlya; 1 winters south to the coasts of 
California, the Great Lakes, and Long Island. 

Field Museum Collection. 51: Alaska (Barrow, 21; Little 
Diomede Island, 1; Nome, 1; St. Michael, 5; Bethel, 1; St. George 
Island, 1); California (Sunset Beach, 1; Hyperion, 1); Illinois 
(Chicago, 1); Arctic America (Franklin Bay, 3); Greenland (Sukker- 
toppen, 1; Ymer Island, 5); Labrador (Ailik, 1; Okak, 1; unspecified, 
1; Davis Inlet, 4; Indian Harbor, 2). 

*Larus glaucescens Naumann. 2 GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL. 

Larus glaucescens Naumann, 3 Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., 10, p. 351 (in text), 
1840 North America (type, from Bering Straits, in Berlin Museum); 
Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 295 (monog.); Saunders, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 167 (monog.); Stejneger, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 29, p. 62, 1885 Bering and Copper Islands (breeding); 
Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 284, 1896 (monog.); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 597, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, 
I.e., 113, p. 65, 1921 (life hist.); Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 
46, p. 34, 1923 Walrus Island, St. George Island, and Sealion Rock, 
Pribilof Islands (breeding); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 239, 
pi. 13, figs. 1, 2, 1925 (range; plumages); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 

1 On the Arctic coast of Asia, from the Taimyr Peninsula to the East Cape, 
this form is replaced byL. h. pallidissimus Portenko (Ibis, (14), 3, p. 266, April, 
1939 type, from Naukan, Chukchi Peninsula, in coll. of L. Portenko), said to 
be paler in all plumages. Whatever the value of this form may be, birds from 
Greenland, Arctic America, and Alaska are not separable from those of northern 
Europe. The Bird brothers contest the value of Portenko's race. The case of 
L. barrovianus, which Oberholser sought to revive, has been fully discussed by 
Dwight, with whom we agree that the slight difference in size is altogether too 
insignificant in such a large bird to justify further subdivision. 

2 Larus glaucescens Naumann, though nearly allied to L. hyperboreus, as has 
been insisted upon by Stegmann, breeds on the Pribilofs, especially Walrus Island, 
along with the latter species, a fact that speaks for their specific distinctness. 

3 Larus glaucopterus Kittlitz (in Liitke's Voy. Se'niavine, French transl., 3, 
pp. 272, 280, 1836 Unalaska) is too briefly diagnosed to allow of definite identi- 
fication. Unless the type can be found (in the Leningrad Museum?), the name 
will remain in doubt. 



262 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

32, p. 58, 1928 Lower California (winter); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 320, 
1934 (range); Stegmann, Journ. Orn., 82, p. 351, 1934 (crit.; range); 
Swarth, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 22, p. 36, 1934 Nunivak Island (disc.); 
Sutton and Wilson, Condor, 48, p. 89, 1946 Attu Island (wintering). 

Laroides chalcopterus (Lichtenstein MS.) Bruch, Journ. Orn., 3, p. 282, 1855 
part, Bering Sea (type probably in Berlin Museum). 

Range. Breeds in northwestern North America on the islands 
of Bering Sea from St. Lawrence Island to the Pribilof, Aleutian, 
and Commander Islands, and on the Pacific coast from Norton 
Sound, Alaska, to Destruction Island, Washington; 1 winters from 
the Aleutian Islands and southern Alaska to Lower California. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 74: Alaska (Bethel, 1; St. Michael, 
1; Dutch Harbor, 2; Unalaska, 1); British Columbia (Vancouver, 1; 
Victoria, 1; Vancouver Island, 3); Washington (Port Townsend, 4); 
California (Moss Landing, 5; Pacific Grove, 4; Seaside, 1; Carmel 
Lagoon, 1; Monterey, 6; Sunset Beach, 3; La Patera Point, 3; 
Hyperion, 35; El Secundo, 1; Redondo Beach, 1). 

*Larus glaucoides Meyer. 3 ICELAND GULL. 

Lams glaucoides (Temminck MS.) Meyer, in Meyer and Wolf, Taschenb- 
Deuts. Vogelk., Zus. Bericht., p. 197, 1822 "Seas of the Arctic Zone, 
f.i. Iceland, in winter coasts of the North and Baltic Seas" (no type 
extant); Mayaud, Alauda, 6, p. 375, 1934 (nomencl.). 

Larus leucopterus (not of Vieillot, 1820) Faber, Prodr. Isl. Orn., p. 91, 1822 
Iceland; Holboll, Naturh. Tidsskr., 4, p. 418, 1843 Greenland (range); 
Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 294 (monog.); Saunders, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 166 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 25, p. 295, 1896 (monog.); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 182, 1898 
Greenland; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 590, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 62, 1921 (life hist.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 52, p. 250, 1925 (range; plumages); Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 320, 1934 (range); Pedersen, Medd. Gr0nl., 100, No. 11, pp. 7, 22, 
1934 Ulla Island, Greenland (breeding). 

Larus Moltke Teilmann, Dan. og Isl. Fugle, p. 159, 1823 Iceland. 

1 According to Stegmann (Journ. Orn., 82, p. 352, 1934) this form is wholly 
absent from the Asiatic coast. 

2 Lams nelsoni Henshaw (Auk, 1, p. 250, July, 1884 St. Michaels, Alaska; 
type in U. S. National Museum; cf. Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 
595, 1919; Bent, I.e., 113, p. 76, 1921) is now regarded to be of hybrid origin. 
Dwight (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 249, 1925) believes L. hyperboreus and 
L. argentatus vegae to be its parents, while Stegmann (Journ. Orn., 82, p. 353, 
1934) considers it a cross between L. hyperboreus andL. glaucescens. Rand (Canad. 
Field Nat., 56, p. 123, 1942) believes it to be a good race, however. 

3 Larus glaucoides Meyer is not unlike L. argentatus thayeri in general colora- 
tion, but differs markedly by shorter bill, smaller (light flesh-colored) feet, and 
wholly white, basally pale gray primaries without any dark markings. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 263 

Larus arcticus Macgillivray, Mem. Werner. Nat. Hist. Soc., 5, (1), p. 268, 
1824 coast of Greenland (type in coll. of University of Edinburgh). 

Laroides subleucopterus C. L. Brehm, Isis, 1826, col. 936 no locality (skull 
char.); idem, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 746, 1831 Greenland (type 
in Tring Collection [cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 25, p. 60, 1918], now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Larus argentatus leucopterus Stegmann, Journ. Orn., 82, pp. 350, 364, 1934 
(char.; range). 

"Larus fuscus glaucoides=leucopterus" Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1935, p. 769 
(crit.). 

Range. Breeds in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago south to 
Victoria Island and possibly to Boothia Peninsula, on both coasts 
of Greenland, and on Jan Mayen; 1 winters south to the Great Lakes 
and Long Island, Iceland, Faroes, British Isles, France, etc. 

Field Museum Collection. 14: Greenland (Holsteinborg, 2; Suk- 
kertoppen, 2; Godthaab, 1; Nanortalik, 1); Labrador (Port Manvers, 
1); Quebec (He aux Grues, 1); Nova Scotia (Halifax, 2); New Bruns- 
wick (Grand Manan, 1; Mision Island, 3). 

*Larus argentatus smithsonianus Coues. 2 AMERICAN HERRING 
GULL. 

Lams Smithsonianus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 296 
eastern and western coasts of North America (no type or type locality 
indicated); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 387, 1875 Cuba (Matanzas, 
Cardenas); Rand, Canad. Field Nat., 56, p. 124, 1942 (range; dist. chars.; 
disc.). 

Larus argentatus Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 5, p. 236, 1857 Cuba (one speci- 
men); (?)Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, p. 17 Godthaab, Greenland; Saunders, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 167 part, America; idem, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 25, p. 260, 1896 part, spec. m 2 -o 3 , Ungava to California; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 423, 1903 Mexico 
(off Progreso, Yucatan; Isabel Island and Tres Marias, off San Bias); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 612, 1919 in part, America 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 102, 1921 (life hist.). 

1 No breeding record exists from the Arctic regions of Asia. 

2 Larus argentatus smithsonianus Coues may be distinguished from L. a. 
argenteus Brehm, of western Europe, by paler, at the same time slightly more 
bluish mantle (between "pallid neutral gray" and "light gull gray"), more black 
at the tips of the primaries (nearly always a black bar before the white tip of the 
first primary), and on average longer wings. 

About the unidentifiable names Laroides argentatoides C. L. Brehm (Beitr. 
Vogelk., 3, p. 791, 1822 northeastern part of Germany and west coast of North 
America) and Laroides Americanus C. L. Brehm (Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 
743, 1831 no locality), of which no types exist, the critical remarks by Coues 
(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 299) and Stegmann (Journ. Orn., 82, p. 362, 
1934) should be consulted. 



264 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Larus argentatus (typicus) Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 176, 1898 Godthaab, 
Greenland (June 28, 1886). 

Larus argentatus smithsonianus Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 23, 1899 
San Juanito, Isabel, and Tres Marias Islands, Mexico; Dwight, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 181, pi. 11, fig. 2, pi. 12, fig. 4, 1925 (plumages; 
range); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 59, 1928 Lower Cali- 
fornia (winter); Bradlee, Mowbray, and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
39, p. 288, 1931 Bermuda Islands (winter); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 172, 1931 Cap Haitien, Hispaniola (July 7, 
1775); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 316, 1934 (range); Stegmann, Journ. 
Orn., 82, p. 362, 1934 (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, 
p. 308, 1935 Bocas del Toro, Panama (Dec. 10, 1933); Hennessey, 
Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 97, 1943 (banded in Quebec, recovered in 
Florida); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, 
p. 90, 1945 northern Sonora (uncommon winter visitant); Poor, Auk, 
63, p. 135, pi. 5, 1946 (variations in plumage and color of soft parts); 
Soper, I.e., 63, p. 236, 1946 Baffin Island (breeding). 

Larus fuscus smithsonianus Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1935, p. 769 (char.). 

Larus argentatus subsp. Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 30, 1943 Mac- 
kenzie Delta (breeding in wooded part). 

Range. Breeds in North America, from south-central Alaska, 
northern Mackenzie, southern Baffin Island, and Southampton 
Island, south to northern British Columbia, southern Manitoba, 
central Minnesota, the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the 
New England coast; winters south to western Mexico, Yucatan, 
and Florida, rarely to the Bahama Islands, Cuba, and Hispaniola; 
accidental in Panama (Bocas del Toro, Dec. 10, 1933), and Green- 
land. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 105: Alaska (Charlie Creek, Yukon 
River, 1); Yukon Territory (Lake Tagish, 1); California (Monterey, 
6; Moss Landing, 1; Pacific Grove, 2; Seaside, 1; Sunset Beach, 1; 
Anaheim, 1; Hyperion, 34; Manhattan Beach, 1); Texas (Corpus 
Christi, 10); North Dakota (Nelson County, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver 
Dam, 3); Illinois (Lake Forest, 1; Cook County, 9); Indiana (Bluff- 
ton, 1); Labrador (Kegashka, 3); Ontario (Port Rowan, 1); Quebec 
(Magdalen Islands, 1); New Brunswick (Grand Manan, 1); Nova 
Scotia (Dover, 4); Maine (York County, 1); Massachusetts (Mono- 
moy Island, 2; Cohasset, 1; Boston, 1); Rhode Island (Narragansett, 
1); Connecticut (Stamford, 1; New Haven County, 7); North 

1 Here should be mentioned Larus affinis Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Natur- 
hist. Foren., 1853, p. 78 Nanortalik, Greenland (type in Copenhagen Museum); 
idem, Ibis, 1861, p. 17 (crit.). According to Jourdain (Nov. Zool., 35, pp. 82-84, 
pi. 4, 1929), the type is a specimen of L. a. argentatus, from which L. a. argenteus 
was not separated at that time. Considering the age of the type specimen and the 
close resemblance of the two North European races, it is impossible to allocate 
Reinhardt's name with certainty. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 265 

Carolina (Pea Island, Dare County, 4); Florida (Amelia Island, 1; 
Palm Beach, 1; Santa Rosa Island, 1). 

*Larus argentatus thayeri W. S. Brooks. 1 THAYER'S GULL. 

Lents thayeri W. S. Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 373, Sept., 1915 
Buchanan Bay, Ellesmere Island (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Dwight, Auk, 35, p. 413, pi. 15, 1917 (crit.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 600, 1919 (monog.; bibliog.); 
Bent, I.e., 113, p. 120, 1921 (habits; eggs); Rand, Canad. Field Nat., 56, 
p. 124, 1942 (range; dist. chars.; disc.). 

Larus argentatus thayeri Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 181, pi. 11, 
fig. 1, 1925 (plumages; range); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 316, 1934 (range); 
Stegmann, Journ. Orn., 82, p. 363, 1934 (crit.); A. Brooks, The Murrelet, 
18, p. 19, 1937 Pacific coast of British Columbia (coloration of soft 
parts); H0rring, Rep. Fifth Thule Exped., 2, No. 6, p. 68, 1937 (disc.); 
Bray, Auk, 60, p. 528, 1943 Fox Basin (nesting). 

Larus fuscus thayeri Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1935, p. 769 (char.). 

Range. Breeds in Arctic America from Banks Island to northern 
Ellesmere Island; on migration in Alaska; winters on the Pacific 
coast from British Columbia to California. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 14: Alaska (Barrow, 2; Nome, 1); 
British Columbia (Comox, Vancouver Island, 3) ; Washington (Port 
Townsend, 1); California (Pacific Grove, 2; Hyperion, 5). 

*Larus argentatus vegae Palme'n. 3 VEGA GULL. 

1 Larus argentatus thayeri W. S. Brooks differs from L. a. smithsonianus by 
paler coloration, especially of the mantle, and lesser extent as well as lighter 
(slaty rather than black) color of the dark markings on the primaries. According 
to Allan Brooks, the soft parts in life are somewhat different too, the straw-colored 
iris being thickly peppered with brown or grayish specks, the eyelids purplish 
pink instead of yellow to orange red, and the bill paler yellow to greenish. Dimen- 
sions and bill on average smaller. 

*Larus kumlieni Brewster (Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 8, p. 216, 1883 Cumberland 
Sound, Baffin Island; type in U. S. National Museum) seems to be a hybrid between 
L. glaucoides and L. a. thayeri (cf. Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, pp. 254- 
255, 1925), although Taverner (Canad. Field Nat., 47, pp. 88-90, 1933) maintains 
its possible specific distinction. Cf. also Taverner and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
23, p. 53, 1934 (Churchill, Manitoba; juvenile plumages). Description and synony- 
my in Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 593, 1919). C.E.H. 

For further discussion see also Hickey, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. Y., 49, p. 63, 
1938 (plumage changes in captive bird); H0rring and Salomonsen, Medd. Gr0nl., 
131, No. 5, p. 49, 1941; Rand, Canad. Field Nat., 56, p. 124, 1942 (crit.); Bishop, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 29, p. 186, 1944 (disc.); Soper, Auk, 63, p. 235, 
1946 Baffin Island (breeding). 

Field Museum has three adult specimens from Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia. 
B.C. 

3 Larus argentatus vegae Palme'n is decidedly darker on the back than the two 
preceding races, and the black markings on the primaries are even more extensive 
than in L. a. smithsonianus. 



266 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Larus argentatus Brtinn. var. vegae Palme'n, in Nordenskiold, Vega-Exp. 
Vetensk. lakttag., 5, p. 370, 1887 Pidlin (=Pitlekai), north coast of 
Chukchi Peninsula, northeastern Siberia (type in Stockholm Museum; cf. 
Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 104, 1927). 

Larus vegae Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 269, 1896 (monog.); Ridg- 

way, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 618, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); 

Bent, I.e., 113, p. 122, 1921 (life hist.). 
Larus argentatus vegae Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 52, p. 181, 

1925 (range; plumages); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 317, 1934 (range); 

Stegmann, Journ. Orn., 82, p. 364, 1934 (crit.). 

Larus fuscus vegae Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1935, p. 770 (char.). 

Range. Breeds in northeastern Siberia, from Cape Shelagski 
to Anadyr Bay; in migration on the coast of Alaska and in the 
Aleutian Islands; winters south to Japan and the coast of China, 
occasionally in India (Gurgaon, March 7, 1868). 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Alaska (Nome, I). 1 

*Larus californicus Lawrence. 2 CALIFORNIA GULL. 

Larus californicus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 6, p. 79, March, 
1854 San Joaquin River, near Stockton, California (type in coll. of 
Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 273, 1932); Coues, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 300 (monog.); Saunders, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 175 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 276, 
1896 (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 425, 
1903 Mexico (Alvarado, Vera Cruz; San Mateo, Oaxaca); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 620, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, 
I.e., 113, p. 124, 1921 (life hist.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, 
p. 197, pi. 11, figs. 3, 4, 1925 (range; plumages); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 32, p. 60, 1928 Lower California (winter); Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 319, 1934 (range); Tanner, Great Basin Nat., Provo, Utah, 
2, p. 98, 1941 (recoveries of birds banded in Utah); Beck, I.e., 4, p. 57, 
1943 (plumages); Brooks, Auk, 60, pi. 2, p. 15, 1943 (crit.); van Rossem, 
Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 91, 1945 Sonora 
(winter visitant). 

Larus argentatus californicus Stegmann, Journ. Orn., 82, p. 380, 1934 (crit.). 

Larus fuscus californicus Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1935, p. 773 (crit.). 

Range. Breeds in the interior of North America from the upper 
Mackenzie, Great Slave Lake, and northern Saskatchewan south to 
California, Great Salt Lake, northwestern Wyoming, and north- 

1 In the Museum Collection is a specimen of Larus nelsoni, now considered a 
hybrid between this species and Larus hyperboreus. It was taken at Bethel, Alaska. 

2 Larus californicus Lawrence, though certainly allied to L. argentatus, may 
well stand as a distinct species, since it is not quite established that its breeding 
range does not overlap to a certain extent that of L. a. smithsonianus. 



L948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 267 

eastern South Dakota; winters on the Pacific coast from southern 
British Columbia to southwestern Mexico (Oaxaca) and from Great 
Salt Lake to the Gulf of California; occasional in Kansas (Reno 
bounty) and on the coast of Texas; accidental in the Hawaiian 
[slands. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 138: Alberta (Beaverhill Lake, 1; 
Many Islands Lake, 2); Saskatchewan (Lake Johnston, 1; Big 
Stick Lake, 12) ; California (San Francisco, 1 ; Sausalito, 1 ; Tiburon, 
L; Monterey, 11; Pacific Grove, 5; Moss Landing, 9; Seaside, 15; 
3armel Bay, 6; Sunset Beach, 7; Trinidad, 3; Hyperion, 51); Utah 
;Salt Lake City, 2); North Dakota (Nelson County, 10). 

"Larus marinus marinus Linnaeus. GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL. 

Larus marinus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 136, 1758 "in Europa" 
(restricted type locality, Gotland, southern Sweden, after It. Gotl. 214, 
first reference); Holboll, Naturh. Tidsskr., 4, p. 414, 1843 Greenland; 
Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 295 (monog.); Saunders, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 179 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
25, p. 241, 1896 (monog.); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 179, 1898 
Greenland; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 601, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 77, 1921 (life hist.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 52, p. 234, 1925 (char.; range; plumages); Bradlee and 
Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 288, 1931 Bermuda Islands 
(several records); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 320, 1934 (range); Stegmann, 
Journ. Orn., 82, p. 353, 1934 (char.; affinities); Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1935, 
p. 851 Jan Mayen (July, Aug.); iidem, I.e., 1941, p. 151 Gromsdalen, 
Greenland (May 18, 1937); Wilcox, Auk, 61, p. 653, 1944 Maine and 
New York (nesting); Gross, I.e., 62, p. 241, 4 pis., 1945 coast of Maine 
(status). 

Larus Fabridi C. L. Brehm, Isis, 1826, col. 936 no locality given; idem, 
Handb. Naturg. Deuts., p. 730, 1831 Greenland (type in Tring Collec- 
tion [cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 25, p. 59, 1918], now in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York). 

Larus mulleri C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Deuts., p. 729, 1831 Iceland, 
in winter on the coast of the North Sea (no type extant). 

Range. Breeds in the western hemisphere from North Devon 
[sland and western Greenland southward along the coast of 

1 The admission of Larus fuscus fuscus Linnaeus to the North American 
!auna rests on two sight records from Beach Haven, Ocean County, New Jersey, 
Sept. 9, 1934 (cf. Edwards, Auk, 52, p. 85, 1935), and Key West, Florida, March 10, 
1938 (cf. Sprunt, Auk, 55, p. 672, 1938), respectively. Considering the difficulty 
if identifying this gull from mere observation in the field, we hesitate to allow it 
i place among American birds without further evidence. However, according 
;o Steullet and Deautier (Notas Mus. La Plata, Zool., 4, p. 245, 1939), an immature 
specimen of a gull taken on the coast of Argentina in March of 1931 has been 
identified by Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy as Larus fuscus. 



268 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Labrador to eastern Quebec, Anticosti Island, Newfoundland, Nova 
Scotia, and Massachusetts, also in Iceland, the Faroes, British Isles, 
Scandinavia, northern Russia, etc. ; winters south to the Great Lakes 
and New Jersey, more rarely to Florida (St. Augustine; Pilot Town) 
and the Bermuda Islands. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 17: Labrador (Kegashka, 3; unspeci- 
fied, 1; Indian Harbor, 2; Bowdoin Bay, 1; Windy Tickle, 1); 
Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 2); Nova Scotia (Dover, 1); New 
Brunswick (North Head, Grand Manan, 4); Massachusetts (Mono- 
moy Island, 1); Florida (Pilot Town, 1). 

*Larus marinus schistisagus Stejneger. 2 SLATY-BACKED GULL. 

Larus schistisagus Stejneger, Auk, 1, p. 231, July, 1884 Bering Island, Com- 
mander Group, Bering Sea (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 67, 1885 Bering Island and Petropaulski, 
Kamchatka (char.; habits); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 258, 
1896 (monog.); Preble, N. Amer. Fauna, 27, p. 264, 1908 Franklin 
Bay, Mackenzie (June 9, 1901); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
(8), p. 605, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 132, 
1920 Bering and Copper Islands (Apr. to June); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 113, p. 86, 1921 (life hist.); Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 
46, p. 36, 1923 Pribilof Islands (visitor); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 52, p. 229, 1925 (range; plumages); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 320, 
1934 (range); Stegmann, Journ. Orn., 82, p. 353, 1934 (char.; affinity; 
range). 

Range. Breeds in Kamchatka, on the Kurile Islands and 
Sakhalin, possibly on the Commander Islands; winters south to 
Japan; casual in Alaska (various records); accidental at Franklin 
Bay, Mackenzie (June 9, 1901). 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Alaska (Nome, 1). 

*Larus marinus occidentalis Audubon. WESTERN GULL. 

Larus occidentalis Audubon, Orn. Biog., 5, p. 320, 1839 Cape Disappoint- 
ment, Washington (type once in coll. of S. F. Baird [cf. Lawrence, in 
Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 845, 1858], but now lost; cf. 
Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 223, 1925); Coues, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 296 (monog.); Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1878, p. 172 (monog.; range in part); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 

1 The record from Cuba turned out to have been based upon an example of 
L. argentatus smithsonianus (cf. Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 388, 1875). 

2 Larus marinus schistisagus Stejneger differs from the nominate race by on 
average smaller size, lighter (less sooty) mantle, and darker primaries with a dis- 
tinct dusky subapical wedge in the white tip of the first remex. We fully agree 
with Stegmann in associating this gull with L. marinus, which, by certain characters, 
it connects with L. m. occidentalis. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 269 

p. 257, 1896 part, spec, a-e, California (Pacific Beach, Farallones, San 
Francisco Bay); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 610, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog., excl. of southern California and Lower California); 
Bent, I.e., 131, p. 89, 1921 (life hist.; range in part); Stegmann, Journ. 
Orn., 82, p. 354, 1934 (char.; affinity). 

Larus occidentalis occidentalis Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 217, 
pi. 12, figs. 1-3, 1925 (plumages; range in part); Dickey and van Rossem, 
Condor, 27, p. 164, 1925 (breeding range); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 
319, 1934 (range); Ferris, Condor, 42, p. 189 (2 maps), 1940 (movements 
traced by banding). 

Range. Breeds on the Pacific coast of the United States from 
Washington to northern California and the Farallon Islands (fide 
Peters); in winter to southern California. 

Field Museum Collection. 26: California (San Francisco, 1; 
Trinidad, 1; Monterey, 3; Pacific Grove, 2; Moss Landing, 9; Del 
Monte Forest, 1; Seaside, 3; mouth of Carmel River, 2; Hyperion, 4). 

*Larus marinus wymani Dickey and van Rossem. 1 WYMAN'S 
GULL. 

Larus occidentalis wymani Dickey and van Rossem, Condor, 27, p. 163, 
July 15, 1925 Santa Catalina Island, California (type in coll. of Donald 
R. Dickey, now in University of California at Los Angeles); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 59, 1928 Lower California (range); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 319, 1934 (range). 

Larus occidentalis (not of Audubon) Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 
p. 257, 1896 part, spec, f-p, California (Santa Cruz Island, San Miguel 
Island, Ventura, San Diego) and Lower California (Magdalena Bay); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 610, 1919 (in part). 

Range. Resident on the coast of California and Pacific coast 
of Lower California from Monterey County and the Santa Barbara 
Islands south to Asuncion Island, (possibly even to Magdalena Bay). 

Field Museum Collection. 80: California (Monterey, 2; Pacific 
Grove, 4; Carmel Bay, 11; Moss Landing, 4; Del Monte Forest, 
2; Seaside, 3; San Clemente Island, 2; Arch Beach, 1; Anaheim 
Landing, 2; Sunset Beach, 1; Hyperion, 45; Pacific Beach, 1; La 
Patera Point, 1; Santa Cruz, 1). 

*Larus marinus livens Dwight. 2 YELLOW-FOOTED WESTERN GULL. 

1 Larus marinus wymani Dickey and van Rossem: Similar to L. m. occidentalis, 
but differing by darker, deep neutral gray instead of light neutral gray mantle; 
similar in color of mantle to L. m. livens, but feet flesh-color, and eyelids (at least 
in breeding season), more orange. 

2 Larus marinus livens Dwight: In coloration of mantle similar toL. m. wymani, 
but legs and feet lemon-yellow. 



270 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Larus occidentalis livens Dwight, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 11, Feb. 14, 
1919 San Jose" Island, Lower California (type in coll. of L. C. Sanford, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. EL, 52, p. 217, 1925 part, islands in the Gulf of 
California; Dickey and van Rossem, Condor, 27, p. 164, 1925 (breeding 
range); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 59, 1928 Lower Cali- 
fornia (Gulf of California); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 319, 1934 (range); 
van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 91, 
1945 Sonora (resident and breeding). 

Larus occidentalis (not of Audubon) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
(8), p. 610, 1911 part, islands in the Gulf of California. 

Range. Breeds on islands in the Gulf of California from Consag 
Rock south to San Jos6 Island. 

Field Museum Collection. 3: Mexico, Lower California (San 
Luis Island, 2; Consag Rock, 1). 

*Larus marinus dominicanus Lichtenstein. 1 KELP GULL. 

Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 82, 
1823 coast of Brazil (type in Berlin Museum); Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 4, (2), p. 850, 1833 Ilhas Raza and Redonda, Rio de Janeiro 
(breeding); Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 142, 1841 Buenos Aires 
and Bahia Blanca, Argentina; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 119, 
1843 shores of Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 
1, p. 480, 1847 Chile; Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 289, 1848 Val- 
paraiso Bay; Boeck, Naumannia, 1855, p. 512 Chiloe 1 Island, Chile; 
Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, 1, p. 113, 1858 San-Tome", Conception, Chile; 
Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 97, 1859 Falkland Islands; Sclater, 
l.c., 28, p. 390, 1860 Falkland Islands; Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
7, p. 314, 1860 Chile (breeding habits); Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 165 
Falkland Islands (breeding); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 4, p. 13, 
1863 Falkland Islands, "Paraguay," Chile, and Peru (Chincha Islands); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 340 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 287, 1868 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1868, p. 189 
Sandy Point, Straits of Magellan; iidem, I.e., 1870, p. 284 Halt Bay, 
Straits of Magellan; iidem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 576 coast 
of Brazil, Buenos Aires, Chile, and Falkland Islands (crit.); Saunders, 
I.e., 1877, p. 799 Nassau Harbour and Elizabeth Island, Magellan 
Straits; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 45 mouth of Chubut River and Ninfas 
Point, Patagonia; idem, I.e., 1878, pp. 68, 405 Buenos Aires (soft parts) 
and Chubut Valley, Patagonia (nesting at Tombo Point); Saunders, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 180 (monog.); Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 163 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Doering, in Roca, Inf. Ofic. Exp. Rio 

1 Larus marinus dominicanus Lichtenstein is almost identical in coloration, 
notably in the dark shade of the mantle, with the far-away L. m, marinus, but 
differs by smaller dimensions, olivaceous feet, and longer white tips to the secon- 
daries. Wetmore (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 132, 1926) and Stegmann (Journ. 
Orn., 82, pp. 355-356, 1934) have already insisted on its close relationship to 
L. m. marinus, and we do not hesitate to group them together. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 271 

Negro, Zool., 1, p. 57, 1881 Laguna Epecren (Carhue"), Puan, and 
Salinas Chicas, Buenos Aires; Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 
17 Straits of Magellan (Tom Bay, Cockle Cove, Puerto Bueno, Puerto 
Henry) and Chile (Valparaiso); Saunders, I.e., 1882, p. 527 Coquimbo, 
Chile, and Callao, Peru; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, 
p. 92, 1884 Arroyo Collon-Gueyu, Buenos Aires; MacFarlane, Ibis, 
1887, pp. 202, 205 La Compania (Coquimbo), Chile, and Callao Bay, 
Peru; Withington, I.e., 1888, p. 472 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 139, 1889 Sandy Point and 
Elizabeth Island, Magellan Straits; Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425 Est. 
Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Holland, Ibis, 1892, p. 213 same locality 
(Jan. to Aug.); Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 173, 1891 Orange 
Bay, New Year Sound, and Rio Santa Cruz; Aplin, I.e., 1894, p. 210 
Montevideo, Uruguay; Sclater, I.e., p. 495 "lat. 64 15' S., long. 55 50' 
W.," errore= Falkland Islands (cf. Clarke, Ibis, 1907, p. 347); Waugh 
and Lataste, Act. Soc. Sci. Chile, 4, p. clxxiii, 1894 San Alfonso (Quillota), 
Valparaiso, Chile; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 245, 1896 
Peru (Callao Bay, Islay), Chile (Coquimbo, Laraquete, Valparaiso, 
Corral), Straits of Magellan (Cockle Cove, Tom Bay, Peckett Harbour, 
Port Churruca), Falkland Islands, and Buenos Aires; Reed, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 coast of Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 
4, p. 657, 1898 Cavancha (Iquique), Coquimbo, and Straits of Magellan 
(Beagle Channel); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 447, 1899 Iguape", 
Sao Paulo; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, 40, p. 629, 
1900 Staten Island (Penguin Rookery, Puerto Cook), Punta Arenas, 
and Santa Cruz, Patagonia; Lynch Arribalzaga, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 8, p. 160, 1902 Lago General Paz, Chubut; Dabbene, I.e., p. 380, 
1902 Tierra del Fuego; Vallentin, Mem. Pioc. Manchester Lit. Phil. 
Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 41, 1904 Falkland Islands (breeding); Nicoll, Ibis, 
1904, p. 46 Smythe's Channel and Straits of Magellan; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 44, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape, Santos) and Santa 
Catherina (Sao Francisco); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 254, 
1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 212, 1910 (range in Argentina); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. 
Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 215, 1910 Rio Gallegos, 
Santa Cruz, Patagonia (descr.); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 474 Cape San 
Antonio, Los Yngleses, and Tuyu, Buenos Aires; Brooks, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 61, p. 147, 1917 Falkland Islands (breeding), Straits of 
Magellan to Payta, Peru (March 30); Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 260 Est. 
La Maria Luisa, Buenos Aires; Coker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 56, p. 458, 
1919 Lobos de Tierra, Peru (breeding; habits); Gibson, Ibis, 1920, 
p. 77 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (breeding habits); Tremoleras, 
El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 Uruguay (Montevideo, Canelones, Maldonado, 
Rocha); Wace, I.e., 2, p. 197, 1921 Falkland Islands; Daguerre, I.e., 
p. 261, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 442, 
1922 Coronel, Santa Maria, and Quinquina Islands, Chile (breeding); 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 292, 1922 San Antonio Oeste 
and Lake Nahuel Huapi, Rio Negro (breeding); Dwight, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 52, p. 223, 1925 (monog.; plumages); Chapman, I.e., 55, 
p. 189, 1926 Gulf of Jambeli and Santa Clara Island, Ecuador; Wet- 



272 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

more, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 131, 1926 Rio de Janeiro, Monte- 
video, and Buenos Aires (crit.); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 425, 
1926 San Antonio Oeste and Bariloche, Rio Negro; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, 
p. 319 Falkland Islands; Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 163, 
1927 Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, and Buenos Aires; Jaffuel and Pirion, 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, p. 114, 1927 Marga Marga, Valparaiso, Chile; 
Bullock, I.e., 33, p. 207, 1929 Angol, Malleco, Chile; Reynolds, Ibis, 
1932, p. 36 Snipe and Woodcock Islands, Beagle Channel (breeding); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 319, 1934 (range in part); Stegmann, Journ. 
Orn., 82, p. 355, 1934 (char.; affinity); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 
2, p. 1057, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 146, 
1938 Rio de Janeiro (Pedras Brancas, Bahia de Guanabara), Sao Paulo 
(Iguape", Santos), and Santa Catharina (Sao Francisco), Brazil; Holmes, 
Ibis, 1939, p. 339 off La Libertad, Ecuador, and Santos and Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil. 

Dominicanus vociferus Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 100, 1853 "South America" 
(no type specified). 

Larus veneauxi Bonaparte, 1 Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 7, p. 16, 1855 Chile 
(location of type not stated). 

Dominicanus azarae "Lesson" Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 2, p. 214, 1857 
Brazil and Patagonia (co types in Frankfurt and Paris Museums). 

Larus azarae Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 151, 1865 Chile 
(eggs descr.); idem, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 323, 1870 Ilha de Marambaya and 
Praia do Sai (Sapitiba), Rio de Janeiro; idem, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 
23, p. 160, 1873 Callao Bay, Peru (July 12-15). 

Larus dominicanus dominicanus Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
19, p. 408, 1932 Chile; Reynolds, El Hornero, 5, p. 352, 1934 Yewin, 
Tierra del Fuego; idem, Ibis, 1935, p. 89 Freycinet and Herschel Islands, 
Cape Horn (breeding); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 39, p. 249, 1935 
Isla la Mocha (resident); Philippi, El Hornero, 6, p. 236, 1936 Arica, 
Tacna, Chile; Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 41, p. 202, col. pi. 8, fig. 8, 
1937 (egg); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 60, 1938 Chacal- 
luta, Arica, Chile. 

Range. Breeds locally off the coast of South America from Lobos 
de Tierra, Peru (on migration north to the Gulf of Guayaquil, 
Ecuador), on the west, and from Rio de Janeiro on the east, south 
to Tierra del Fuego, also on some of the Andean lakes in western 
Argentina, and on the Falkland Islands. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 3: Chile (Isla Hermite, Magallanes, 
1); Argentina (Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz, 2). 

1 Larus verreauxii Bonaparte (Naumannia, 4, p. 211, 1854) is a nomen nudum. 

2 It is not within the scope of this work to discuss the question whether or 
not the birds breeding in the African and New Zealand regions, etc., are the same 
as the South American Kelp Gull. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 273 

*Larus marinus austrinus Fleming. 1 SOUTH SHETLAND KELP 
GULL. 

Larus dominicanus austrinus Fleming, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 139, 
Dec. 29, 1924 Deception Island, South Shetland Islands (type in coll. 
of J. H. Fleming). 

Larus dominicanus (not of Lichtenstein) (?)Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Hamb. 
Wiss. Anst., 2, p. 24, 1885 South Georgia (chick and eggs descr.); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1894, pp. 495, 497 Antarctic region (64 15' S. Lat., 55 
50' W. Long.); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 245, 1896 part, 
spec, a', South Shetland Islands; Clarke, Ibis, 1906, p. 178 South Orkney 
Islands (breeding); (?)L6nnberg, Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 40, 
No. 5, p. 62, 1906 South Georgia (eggs descr.; habits); Bennett, El 
Hornero, 2, p. 26, 1920 South Shetland and South Orkney Islands 
(crit.); (?)Wilkins, Ibis, 1923, p. 489 South Georgia; Mathews, Dis- 
covery Rep., 1, p. 581, pi. 46, figs. 1-9, 1929 South Georgia (nesting); 
Bennett, Ibis, 1931, p. 13 South Shetland Islands (habits); Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 319, 1934 part, South Shetland, South Orkney, and (?)South 
Georgia Islands; Eklund, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 89, p. 303, 1945 (nests 
south to 67 56' S.-76 24' W. (life hist.). 

Range. South Shetland, South Orkney, and South Georgia 
Islands. 

Field Museum Collection. 1 : South Shetland Islands (Deception 
Island, 1). 

*Larus atricilla Linnaeus. LAUGHING GULL. 

Larus Atricilla Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 136, 1758 based on 
"Laughing Gull" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 89, pi. 89, Bahama 
Islands; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 323, 1870 Praia de Cajutuba, near 
Cintra, Para, Brazil (Feb. 20); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1871, p. 576 (range); Taczanowski, I.e., 1877, p. 749 Santa Lucia, 
Tumbez, Peru (Dec. 20); Saunders, I.e., 1878, p. 194 (monog.); Hartert, 
Ibis, 1893, pp. 311, 326, 337 Aruba, Curagao, and Bonaire, Dutch West 
Indies; Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 653, 1895 Margarita 
Island, Venezuela; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 194, 1896 
(monog.); Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 164, 
1901 La Guaira, Venezuela (summer); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 309, 
1902 Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 3, p. 421, 1903 Mexico to Costa Rica; Clark, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 32, p. 256, 1905 Barbados (casual), St. Vincent, Grenada, 
and Grenadines (breeding; eggs descr.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 55, 
1906 Port-of-Spain, Trinidad (June), and Tobago; Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 43, 1907 (range); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 310, 1908 
(no record from French Guiana); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 

1 Larus marinus austrinus Fleming differs from L. m. dominicanus by less 
sooty, more slaty coloration of the mantle, slightly larger size, and paler imma- 
ture plumage. From the material seen by us this form would seem to be worthy 
of recognition. 



274 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1, pp. 194, 233, 1909 Aruba and Margarita Islands; Snethlage, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 80, 1914 Dunas, Marajo, Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. 
Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 374, 1916 about the mouths of the 
Orinoco and shores of the Gulf of Paria, Venezuela; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 113, p. 154, 1921 (lite hist.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 188, 1926 Santa Elena, Ecuador; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico 
and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 376, 1927 Puerto Rico, St. Croix, and St. 
Thomas (crit.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 61, 1928 San 
JosS del Cabo, Lower California (Sept. 6); Young, Ibis, 1929, p. 768 
coastland of British Guiana; Bradlee and Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 39, p. 289, 1931 Bermuda Islands (accidental); Wetmore and 
Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 173, 1931 Hispaniola; Griscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 128, 1932 Guatemala (winter visitor); 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 304, 1932 Puerto Castilla, 
Honduras; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 321, 1934 (range); Belcher and 
Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 294 Soldado Rock (off Trinidad), Giles Rock 
(off Tobago; Mar. 27, June 23), and Little Tobago; Griscom, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 78, p. 309, 1935 Canal Zone, Panama; Murphy, Ocean. 
Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1071, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 22, p. 146, 1937 (range); Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 182, 1938 Acajutla, El Salvador (Jan. 13, 
26); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 87, p. 195, 1939 La Guaira, Vene- 
zuela (Oct. 16); Nichols and Bond, Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat., 17, p. 31, 
1943 Virgin Islands (nesting on Saba, Flat Kalkum, French Cap, and 
Cockroach Cay); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State 
Univ., 21, p. 92, 1945 Sonora (distr.). 

Xema wilsonii Boie, Isis, 1828, col. 358 St. Croix (new name for Larus 
ridibundus [not of Linnaeus] Wilson, Amer. Orn., 9, p. 89, pi. 74, fig. 4). 

Xema atricilla Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 378, 1847 Tobago; 
Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 761, 1849 
coast region. 

Atricilla catesbyi "Bonaparte" Bruch, Journ. Orn., 3, p. 287, 1855 "the 
warmer North America" (no type specified; evidently a new name for 
Larus atricilla Linnaeus). 

Atricilla megalopterus "Bonaparte" Bruch, Journ. Orn., 3, p. 287, 1855 
"Peru and the Gulf of Mexico" (type, from Peru, in Mayence Museum). 1 

Atricilla micropterus "Bonaparte" Bruch, Journ. Orn., 3, p. 288, 1855 

"southern part of North America" (no type specified). 
Atricilla catesbaei Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, No. 17, 

p. 771, April, 1856 new name for Lams atricilla Linnaeus. 
Atricilla macroptera Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, No. 17, 

p. 771, April, 1856 substitute name for Atricilla megalopterus Bruch. 
Chroicocephalus atricilla Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 309 

(monog.); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 385, 1875 Cuba (breeding; 

pullus descr.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 636, 1919 

1 Bruch states that A. megalopterus is the bird labeled as L. serranus in the 
collection under his care and described under the latter name in his former paper 
(Journ. Orn., 1, p. 106, 1853), where only Peru is mentioned as locality. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 275 

(monog.; full bibliog.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, 
p. 180, 1922 Buritaca and Trojas de Cataca, Colombia. 

Lams ridibundus (not of Linnaeus) LSotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 532, 1866 
Trinidad. 

Larus atricilla atricilla Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 367, 1916 
Guadeloupe (crit.; meas.). 

Larus atricilla megalopterus Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, pp. 367, 
368, 1916 United States (crit.; meas.). 

Hydrocoloeus atricilla Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 262, pi. 15, 
figs. 1, 2, 1925 (crit.; range; plumages). 

Range. Breeds locally along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of 
the United States from Nova Scotia to Texas, in southern Cali- 
fornia, on the Caribbean coast of Central America, Bahama Islands, 
Cuba, and in the Lesser Antilles south to the Grenadines; recorded 
in summer from islets near Tobago and Trinidad, the coast of Vene- 
zuela, and the islands of Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire; winters 
from South Carolina and the Gulf coast south to northeastern Brazil 
(Marajo Island; Cajutuba, near Cintra, Para) and northwestern 
Peru (Santa Lucia, Dept. Tumbez). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 94: Texas (Brownsville, 1; Port Isabel, 
3; Cameron County, 6; Corpus Christi, 20; Seadrift, 3); Massa- 
chusetts (Nantucket County, 2); Virginia (Northampton County, 
7); North Carolina, Dare County (Pea Island, 13; Bodie Island, 6); 
Florida (Pilot Town, 1; Punta Rassa, 2; Amelia Island, 2; Palm 
Beach County, 2); Bahama Islands (Acklin, 2; Great Bahama, 1; 
Mayaguana, 2; New Providence, 1; San Salvador, 1); Virgin Islands 
(Antigua, 14) ; Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, 2) ; Mexico (Rio Lagartos, 
Yucatan, 1); Venezuela (Margarita Island, 1); British Guiana 
(Buxton, 1). 

*Larus cirrocephalus cirrocephalus Vieillot. GRAY-HOODED 
GULL. 

Larus cirrocephalus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 21, p. 502, 
1818 Brazil, coll. Delalande jr., = Rio de Janeiro (type in Paris Museum); 
idem and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 2, p. 223, pi. 289, 1825 Brazil (fig. of type). 

1 Birds from the United States are generally larger, but as pointed out by 
Dwight (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, pp. 266-267, 1925) and again by Wetmore 
(Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, pp. 378-379, 1927) there is much 
overlapping in the wing measurements of North American and West Indian 
specimens. Until adequate series of authentic breeding birds from the West 
Indies are available for study, it will be difficult to recognize a northern race, 
L. a. megalopterus, which Noble (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, pp. 367, 368, 1916) 
sought to revive. 



276 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Larus poliocephalus Lesson, 1 Traite" d'Orn., p. 618, 1831 Brazil (substitute 
name for Larus cirrocephalus Vieillot); Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, 
(2), p. 854, 1833 coast of southeastern Brazil; Salvin, Ibis, 1874, p. 320 
(crit.). 

Cirrocephalus plumbiceps (not Larus plumbiceps Meyer, 1822) Bruch, Journ. 
Orn., 3, p. 288, 1855 "South America" (no type specified). 

Larus maculipennis (not of Lichtenstein) 2 Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. 
Bras., 3, p. 448, 1856 bay of Rio de Janeiro; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, 
p. 267, 1860 Rio Parana, Argentina; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 518, 
1861 Rio Parana. 

Larus cirrhocephalus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 146 
Conchitas, Buenos Aires; iidem, I.e., 1871, p. 578 La Plata; Saunders, 
I.e., 1874, p. 292 Buenos Aires and Chorillos, Peru (crit.); Durnford, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 201 north of city of Buenos Aires; Saunders, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 204 coast of Brazil, Rio de la Plata, and Peru 
(Chorillos; Chincha Islands); Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 163 Cape San 
Antonio, Buenos Aires; Doering, in Roca, Inf. Ofic. Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., 
1, p. 57, 1881 Azul to the Rio Negro; Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1882, p. 525 Payta, Peru (Jan.; crit.); Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. 
Cordoba, 5, p. 92, 1884 Collongueyu, between Tandll and Ayacucho, 
Buenos Aires; Macfarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 208 Payta, Peru; Holland, I.e., 
1890, p. 428 Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires; idem, I.e., 1892, p. 213 
Est. Espartillar (July to Feb.); Aplin, I.e., 1894, p. 211 Montevideo Bay, 
Uruguay; Holland, I.e., 1895, p. 216 Santa Elena, Buenos Aires (breed- 
ing); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 198, 1896 part, spec, a-s, 
Buenos Aires (Ajo, Belgrano) and Peru (Callao Bay, Payta); Holland, 
Ibis, 1897, p. 287 Santa Elena (breeding); Lonnberg, I.e., 1903, p. 444 
Laguna del Sauzal, Quinta, Jujuy; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 43, 
1907 La Plata (range); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 254, 
1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 475 Los 
Yngleses, Aj6, Buenos Aires; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 212, 1918 Quinta, Jujuy, and estuary of La Plata River; Chubb, 
Ibis, 1919, p. 259 Eten, Peru (Sept. 16); Gibson, I.e., 1920, p. 82 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 
Montevideo, Canelones, Maldonado, and Rocha, Uruguay; Daguerre, 
I.e., 2, p. 261, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 133, p. 135, 1926 Los Yngleses, Buenos Aires (crit.); Reiser, Denks. 
Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 242, 1923 (1926) Miritiba, 
Maranhao (Jan. 26); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 164, 
1927 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Quabicker, Orn. Monatsb., p. 57, 1939 
Ecuador (Guayaquil) and Peru (Pisca). 

1 Larus poliocephalus Temminck (Man. d'Orn., 2nd ed., 2, p. 780, note, 1820) 
is a nomen nudum. 

'Bonaparte (Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, No. 17, p. 771, 1856) in- 
troduced Cirrhocephalus major as a substitute name for Larus maculipennis Lichten- 
stein andL. cirrocephalus Vieillot, two perfectly distinct species, which he evidently 
regarded as identical. C. major, thus, is an unidentifiable composite without 
nomenclatorial standing. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 277 

Larus atricilla (not of Linnaeus) Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 

Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 100, 1910 Miritiba, Maranhao, Brazil. 
Hydrocoloeus cirrhocephalus cirrhocephalus Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 

52, p. 270, 1925 (monog.; range; plumages). 
Larus cirrocephalus cirrocephalus Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 

Ser., 12, p. 498, 1929 Miritiba, Maranhao (ex Reiser); Peters, Bds. 

World, 2, p. 321, 1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1074, 

1936 (monog.; life hist.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 147, 1938 B6a 

Vista, Maranhao (Nov.), and La Plata. 

Range. Breeds in southern South America from Rio de Janeiro 
to province of Buenos Aires, ranging up the rivers Parana and 
Paraguay; recorded outside the breeding season from northern 
Brazil (Miritiba and Boa Vista, Nov., Jan. 26), western Argentina 
(Quinta, Jujuy and Tucumdn), the coast of Peru (Chorillos, Dec.; 
Eten, Sept. 16; Chincha Islands; Payta, Jan., July), and Ecuador 
(Guayaquil). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 5: Argentina (Concepcion, Tucumdn, 
3; Rio Sali, Tucuman, 1; unspecified, 1). 

*Larus serranus Tschudi. ANDEAN GULL. 

Larus serranus Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 414, 1844 Peru (type 
in Neuchatel Museum); idem> Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 307, 1846 
Sierra and Puna region, Valley of Jauja, Junin; Philippi, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 288, 1868 Chile to Peru; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 158 Tinta, Cuzco, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1871, p. 577 
Peru (Islay and Tinta), Bolivia, and "Mendoza (ex Burmeister)," errore 
(crit.); Allen, Bull. Mus. Cpmp. Zool., 3, p. 359, 1876 Moho, Lake 
Titicaca; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 568, 1877 Laguna de los 
Pejerreyes, Colchagua, Chile; Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 196 (crit.; range); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 641 Bolivia; 
Saunders, I.e., 1882, p. 525 Callao Bay, Peru; Sclater, I.e., 1886, p. 404 
Huasco, Sitani, and Cueva Negra, Tarapaca, Chile; Macfarlane, Ibis, 
1887, pp. 204, 207 Callao Bay, Peru; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 160, 1888 
Antofagasta, Chile; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. Ill, 1889 Lake 
Titicaca, Bolivia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 137 Sacaya 
and Lake of Huasco, Tarapaca, Chile; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
25, p. 188, 1896 Chile (Sacaya, Huasco, Tarapaca), Peru (Lake Titicaca, 
Tinta, Laguna de Lanjui,' Tambo, Islay, Callao), and Ecuador (Colta); 
Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 Cordilleras of Chile; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1897, p. 312 Huasco and Sacaya, Chile; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 48, 1900 Canar and Vallevicioso, 
Ecuador; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, (2), 
p. 53 Ingapirca, Junin, Peru; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1902, p. 232 lake near 
Cotopaxi (alt. 13,700 ft.), Ecuador; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, 

1 A slightly smaller, darker race with smaller mirrors on the primaries, Larus c. 
poliocephalus Swainson, occurs in tropical Africa. 



278 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 249, 1904 Santa Catalina, Jujuy; Menegaux, Bull. Soc. Phil. Paris, 
(10), 1, p. 221, 1909 Lake Poopo and Huancani, Oruro, Bolivia; Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 212, 1910 Argentina (Cumbre de 
Calchaqufes, Tucuman, and Jujuy); Me'negaux, Miss. Serv. Ge'ogr. 
Armee Mes. Arc Me>id. Equat., 9, p. B. 8, 1911 Narinhuina, Ecuador; 
Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 258, 1913 (range in Argentina); Chubb, 
Ibis, 1919, p. 258 Peru (Banos, Cajamarca; Galera, Junin) and Bolivia 
(Cochabamba); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 49, 1921 
Ollantaytambo and San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru; Lonnberg and 
Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 21, 1922 Arcadia (six miles south of 
Quito), Lake Mica (Antisana), and La Carolina, Ecuador; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 188, 1926 Lake Colta, Antisana, and 
Lake San Pablo, Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 33, 
p. 354, 1927 Laguna Mojanda, Ecuador; Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 255, 1930 Huanuco Viejo, Huanuco, Peru; 
Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 404, 1931 Sierras de Zenta, Jujuy; Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 411, 1932 Chile (Tarapaca to 
Antofagasta, Colchagua); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 322, 1934 (range); 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1077, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); 
Philippi, El Hornero, 6, p. 237, 1936 Arica Bay, Tacna, Chile; idem, 
Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 61, 1938 Chile (Arica Bay and Laguna 
de Parinacota, Tacna; Santiago; Rio Nuble, near Chilian, Nuble); 
Morrison, Ibis, 1939, pp. 403, 645 Huancavelica and Lake Junin, Peru; 
Low, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 63, p. 5, 1942 Peru. 

Chroicocephalus personatus ("Natterer") Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 104, pi. 3, 
fig. 36, 1853 "western America within the tropical zone" (no type or 
type locality specified); idem, I.e., 3, p. 289, 1855 ! (young descr.). 

Larus personatus Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 4, p. 35, 1863 Bolivia (crit.). 

Larus bonapartii (not of Swainson and Richardson) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 178 Tambo Valley, Arequipa, Peru. 

Hydrocoloeus serranus Dwight, Bull.* Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 276, 1925 
(monog.; plumages; range). 

Range. Breeds around high Andean lakes from Ecuador to 
northern Chile and northwestern Argentina (Jujuy, Salta, Tucu- 
mdn) ; descends in the non-breeding period to the coast of Peru and 
Chile south to Nuble. 

Field Museum Collection. 6: Ecuador (Cerro Antisana, Pichin- 
cha, 2; Llanganate, Tunguragua, 1); Peru (Huanuco Viejo, Huanuco, 
1; Cailloma, Arequipa, 1; Tirapata, Puno, 1). 

*Larus pipixcan Wagler. FRANKLIN'S GULL. 

Larus Pipixcan Wagler, Isis, 1831, Heft 5, col. 515, May, 1831 Mexico 
(cotypes in Munich Museum examined ;= winter plumage); Swarth, 

1 Bruch cites as synonym L. serranus and goes on to say that the species has 
been found by Natterer "in the South American hot plains of Central America" 
(sic!) and by Tschudi in the puna region of Peru and Chile. Natterer, who, as 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 279 

Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 65, 1931 Galapagos (Narborough, 
Chatham, and Albemarle Islands); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 128, 1932 Guatemala (winter); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 19, p. 410, 1932 Arica to La Mocha, Chile (winter); Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 322, 1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
78, p. 309, 1935 Panama Canal Zone (one record); Murphy, Ocean. 
Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1079, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Griscom, Auk, 54, 
p. 193, 1937 Mugileca, Guerrero (Apr. 16); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Santiago, 16, p. 61, 1938 Chile (Arica; bay of Valparaiso, Jan.; San 
Vicente de Talcaguano, Feb.); Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 183, 1938 La Libertad, El Salvador (Jan. 13); 
Slipp, Condor, 45, p. 38, 1943 (juvenile plumage). 

Larus franklinii(i) Richardson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.- 
Amer., 2, "1831," p. 424, pi. 71, pub. Feb., 1832 Saskatchewan River, 
Manitoba (type [or at least one of the cotypes] in Edinburgh Museum; 
cf. Stenhouse, Nov. Zool., 35, p. 275, 1930); Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. 
Ffs. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 482, 1847 Valparaiso, Chile (ex Gray); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 336, 340 Chile (crit.); idem 
and Salvin, I.e., 1871, p. 577 (crit.; range; synonymy); Saunders, I.e., 1878, 
p. 195 (crit.); idem, i.e., 1882, p. 524 Coquimbo Bay, Chile (Nov.), 
and Payta, Peru (Jan.); Macfarlane, Ibis, 1887, pp. 204, 207 Callao, 
Peru (Jan. to Feb., April); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 
Chile; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 191, 1896 (monog.); Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 419, 1903 Mexico (various 
localities), Guatemala (Chiapam, Champerico), and Panama; Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1904, p. 50 Valparaiso, Chile; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. 
Acad. Sci., 5, p. 237, 1904 Mangrove Point, Narborough Island, Gala- 
pagos (March); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 415, 1910 Port 
Limon, Costa Rica; Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, p. 42, 1913 
Galapagos (Chatham Island, Feb. 10; Albemarle, March 6); Chubb, 
Ibis, 1919, p. 259 Callao, Peru (Jan. 10); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
113, p. 163, 1921 (life hist.); Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 53, 
1924 Isla la Mocha, Arauco, Chile; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 188, 1926 Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador (Dec. 6). 

Xema franklini G. R. Gray, List Spec. Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, p. 172, 1844 
Valparaiso, Chile. 

Larus cucullatus (Lichtenstein MS.) Reichenbach, Vollst. Naturg. Schwimm- 
vogel, pi. 23, fig. 296, 1848 no locality (type in Dresden Museum); 
Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, 1, p. 113, 1858 San-Tome" (Conception), Chile; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1865, p. 188 Champerico, Guatemala. 

Chroicocephalus Kittlitzii Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 104, 1853 southern Chile 
(based on a drawing in the Leningrad Museum). 

Larus cinereo-caudatus Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 18, No. 
6, p. 733, June, 1861 San-Tome" (Concepci6n), Valparaiso, and Arica, 
Chile (cotypes, from San-Tome", Valparaiso, and Arica, in National Mu- 

is well-known, never visited Central America, did not obtain it nor did he ever 
bestow any name on this bird. Bruch's type may possibly be in the museum at 
Mayence, where his private collection was deposited. 



280 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

seum, Santiago; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, 

p. 30, 1930); iidem, Arch. Naturg., 27, (1), p. 293, 1861 same localities, 

Concepcion to Peru; idem, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 12, p. 98, 1902 

San-Tome", Valparaiso, and Arica. 
Chroicocephalus cucullatus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 309 

Central America, Panama, and Louisiana (monog.). 
Chroicocephalus franklini Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 310 

(monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 641, 1919 (monog.; 

full bibliog.). 
Hydrocoloeus pipixcan Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 288, pi. 15, 

figs. 3, 4, 1925 (monog.; plumages). 

Range. Breeds in North America, from central Alberta, 
southern Saskatchewan, and south-central Manitoba to Utah, 
South Dakota, and southern Minnesota; winters on the Gulf coast 
of the United States, but chiefly on the Pacific coast of South 
America from the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador, to Concepcion, Chile; 
casual in the West Indies (St. Bartholomew), Galapagos Islands 
(three records), and in the Hawaiian Islands (Mauai). 

Field Museum Collection. 78: Alberta (Walsh, 1; Many Islands 
Lake, 6); Saskatchewan (Quill Lake, 2; Moose Jaw, 1; Maple Creek, 
3; Big Stick Lake, 1); Manitoba (Selkirk, 1); Texas (Corpus Christi, 
6); North Dakota (Nelson County, 22; Pierce County, 1; Ramsey 
County, 10; Rolette County, 2; Towner County, 12); South Dakota 
(Harrison, 1); Minnesota (Heron Lake, 1); Iowa (Loon Lake, 1); 
Kansas (Oberlin, 2); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 2); Illinois (Cook 
County, 1); Indiana (Liverpool, 1); Guatemala (San Jose', 1). 

*Larus ridibundus maculipennis Lichtenstein. 1 PATAGONIAN 
BROWN-HEADED GULL. 

Larus maculipennis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 411, Sept., 
1823 Montevideo, Uruguay (type in Berlin Museum); Pelzeln, Orn. 
Bras., 3, p. 323, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Registo do Sai, Santa Ana), Sao 
Paulo (Ypanema), and Matto Grosso (Cidade de Matto Grosso); 2 Durn- 

\Larus ridibundus maculipennis Lichtenstein is so close to the European 
nominate race that we do not hesitate to follow Laubmann in reducing it to sub- 
specific rank. 

Dwight has shown that L. glaucodes and L. maculipennis are the same, the 
former being the fully adult bird, while the latter represents an abnormal (re- 
versionary) type of second-year plumage. 

Falkland Island birds are slightly smaller, but the divergency is too insigni- 
ficant to justify the recognition of a distinct race (roseiventris). C.E.H. 

O. Murie (Auk, 62, p. 313, 1945) has recorded a specimen of Larus ridibundus 
sibiricus from Kiska Island in the Aleutians. B.C. 

2 According to Dr. M. Sassi, Natterer's specimens, including the one from 
Cidade de Matto Grosso, are unquestionably maculipennis. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 281 

ford, Ibis, 1877, pp. 43, 202 mouth of Rio Chubut, Patagonia (breeding), 
and province of Buenos Aires (Baradero, etc.); idem, I.e., 1878, p. 405 
Lake Colguape and Rio Sengel, Chubut (breeding); Saunders, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 201 (crit.; range); Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 163 Cape 
San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 
526 Talcaguano, Chile (crit.); White, l.c., p. 628 Punta Lara, Pecheco, 
and Salto, Buenos Aires; Withington, Ibis, 1888, p. 472 Lomas de 
Zamora, Buenos Aires; Holland, I.e., 1890, p. 425 Est. Espartillar, 
Buenos Aires; idem, I.e., 1892, p. 213 Est. Espartillar (breeding); Aplin, 
I.e., 1894, p. 211 Montevideo Bay; Holland, I.e., 1895, p. 216 Santa 
Elena, Buenos Aires (breeding); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 
p. 200, 1896 Brazil (Barra Grande, Alagoas; Rio de Janeiro; Pelotas, 
Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay (Montevideo), Buenos Aires (Partido del 
Ajo, Lomas de Zamora, Espartillar, Buenos Aires, Bahia Blanca), Chubut, 
and Chile (Arauco, Vina del Mar, Talcaguano); Holland, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 287 Santa Elena, Buenos Aires (breeding); Sclater, I.e., p. 312 
Vina del Mar (Valparaiso) and Laraquete (Arauco), Chile; Schalow, Zool. 
Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 657, 1898 Cavancha (Iquique), Tarapaca, Chile; 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 447, 1899 Iguape, Sao Paulo; Lillo, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 214, 1902 Rio Sali, Tucuman; Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 44, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape), Chubut (Carmen), 
and Buenos Aires; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 254, 1909 
Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, and Rio Salf, Tucuman; Paessler, Orn. 
Monatsber., 17, p. 101, 1909 Tocopilla and Antofagasta, Antofagasta, 
Chile; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 212, 1910 
(range in Argentina); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. 
Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 200, 1910 Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut (descr.); 
Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 475 Los Yngleses and Luiconia, Ajo, Buenos Aires; 
Chubb, I.e., 1919, p. 259 Papin, Bonifacio, Buenos Aires; Gibson, I.e., 
1920, p. 81 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (breeding habits); Tre- 
moleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 Montevideo and Canelones, Uruguay; 
Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 261, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Peters, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 65, p. 291, 1923 San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro; Reed, 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 29, p. 190, 1925 Villa Tolten, Cautin, Chile; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 133, 1926 Buenos Aires (Cape 
San Antonio, Guamini) and Uruguay (San Vicente) (crit.); idem, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 425, 1926 San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro; 
Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 164, 1927 Santa Elena, 
Entre Rfos; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 411, 1932 
Tarapaca to Straits of Magellan, Chile; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 323, 
1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1082, 1936 (monog.; 
life hist.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 147, 1938 Sao Paulo (Iguape, 
Pissaguera) and Argentina (Carmen, Chubut, Buenos Aires, La Plata). 

Larus glaucodes Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, 
Suppl., p. 115, pi. 24, 1834 coast of Chile (type in Berlin Museum); 
Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 204, 1855 Chile; Germain, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 314, 1860 southern Chile; Philippi, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 31, p. 288, 1868 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 578 coast of Chile and Falkland Islands (crit.); 
Saunders, I.e., 1877, p. 799 Messier Channel, Straits of Magellan; idem, 



282. FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

I.e., 1878, p. 203 (crit.; range); Sharpe, I.e., 1881, p. 16 Cape Gregory, 
Magellan Straits; Saunders, I.e., 1882, p. 526 (in text) Talcaguano, 
Chile (crit.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 139, 1889 Port 
Otway, Chile; Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 181, 1891 Tierra 
del Fuego (Sloggett Bay) and Santa Cruz; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 25, p. 203, 1896 Patagonia (Egg Harbour), Falkland Islands, 
Straits of Magellan (Cape Gregory, Messier Channel), and Chile (Col- 
chagua, Algarroba, Santiago, Valparaiso, Vina del Mar, Talcaguano, 
Coquimbo); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 Chile; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1897, p. 312 Vina del Mar (Valparaiso) and Laraquete (Arauco), 
Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 656, 1898 Tumbes and Tal- 
caguano (Concepcion), and Lago Llanquihue, Chile; Salvadori, Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 40, p. 630, 1900 Punta Arenas and Rio 
Pescado, Straits of Magellan; Vallentin, Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. 
Phil. Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 41, 1904 East Island, Falkland Islands (egg 
descr.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 212, 1910 Tierra 
del Fuego (Sloggett Bay); Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. 
Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 210, 1910 near Coy Inlet and Cape Fairweather, 
Santa Cruz; Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 147, 1917 Falkland 
Islands; Wace, El Hornero, 2, p. 197, 1921 Falkland Islands; Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 291, 1923 Maquinchao and Huanuluan, 
Rio Negro; Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 426, 1926 Arroyo 
Seco, Rio Negro; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 319 Falkland Islands. 

Xema (Chroicocephalum) drrhocephalus (not Larus cirrocephalus Vieillot) 
Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 142, 1841 Rio Plata, coast of Patagonia, 
and Straits of Magellan (crit.). 

Xema cirrhocephalum Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 119, 1843 Chile. 

Larus drrhocephalus Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 
482, 1847 Chile (part, young); Boeck, Naumannia, 1855, p. 512 
Valdivia and "Arend" (=Ancud), Chiloe, Chile; Frauenfeld, Verh. Zool. 
Bot. Ges. Wien, 10, Abh., p. 639, 1860 Lake Aculeo, Santiago, Chile; 
Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 151, 1865 Chile (eggs); Sharpe, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 16 Talcaguano, Chile; Reed, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 coast of Tarapaca, Chile. 

Larus albipennis Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 288, 1848 harbor of Val- 
paraiso, Chile (type in U. S. National Museum examined); Kittlitz, 
Denkw. Reise, 1, p. 133, 1858 Valparaiso. 

Chroicocephalum glaucotes Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 105, 1853 Chile (crit.); 
idem, I.e., 3, p. 291, 1855 Chile (crit.). 

Larus erythropus (not of Gmelin, 1789) Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, 1, p. 113, 
1858 San-Tome, Concepcion, Chile (substitute name for L. albipennis 
Peale). 

Gavia roseiventris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 97, 1859 Falkland 
Islands (type now in British Museum). 

Larus roseiventris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 391, 1860 Falkland 
Islands (crit.); Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 166 Falkland Islands (breeding). 

Larus serranus (not of Tschudi) Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 267, 1860 
Mendoza; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 519, 1861 Mendoza. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 283 

Larus glaucotis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 340 Chile. 
Hydrocoloeus maculipennis Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 295, 

1925 (monog.; plumages). 
Larus glaucoides Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 208, 1929 Angol, 

Malleco, Chile. 
Larus ridibundus maculipennis Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 22, p. 262, 

1934 Est. La Geraldina, Santa Fe (crit.). 

Range. Breeds in southern South America from Valdivia, Chile, 
and the La Plata estuary to Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland 
Islands; ranges north to Tarapaca, Chile, Alagoas, Brazil, and 
(according to Sassi) Matto Grosso. 

Field Museum Collection. 5: Chile (Concepcion, Talcaguano, 1; 
Lake Gualletue, Cautin, 1; Angol, Bio Bio, 1; Quellon, Chiloe* 
Island, 1; Chonchi, Chilo6 Island, 1). 

*Larus Philadelphia (Ord). BONAPARTE'S GULL. 

Sterna Philadelphia Ord, in Outline's Geogr., 2nd Am. ed., 2, p. 319, 1815 
no locality=near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (no type extant). 

Larus marginatus Rafinesque, Kentucky Gazette, n.s., 1, No. 8, p. 3, col. 5, 
Feb. 21, 1822 near Harrodsburg, Kentucky (no type extant). 

Larus melanorhynchus Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 85, pi. 504, 
1830 "Chile" (descr. of nuptial plumage; type in the Leyden Museum; 
cf. Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 4, p. 41, 1863). 

Larus bonapartii Richardson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 
2, "1831," p. 425, pi. 72, pub. Feb., 1832 "Great Slave Lake," Mac- 
kenzie (type, from Fort Franklin, Great Bear Lake, in Edinburgh Museum; 
cf. Stenhouse, Nov. Zool., 35, p. 275, 1930). 

Chroicocephalus bonapartii Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 105, 1853 North America 
(monog.); idem, I.e., 3, p. 292, 1855 (descr.; crit.). 

Chroicocephalus subulirostris (Bonaparte MS.) Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 105, 
1853 North America (type in Mayence Museum). 

Chroicocephalus Philadelphia Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 
310 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 645, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.). 

Larus philadelphiae Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 206 (monog.). 

Larus Philadelphia Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 185, 1896 (monog.); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 418, 1903 Mexico 
(Mazatlan, Guanajuato, Guadalajara, Jalisco); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 113, p. 175, 1921 (life hist.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
32, p. 61, 1928 Lower California; Bradlee, Mowbray, and Eaton, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 289, 1931 Bermuda Islands (winter); Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 324, 1934 (range); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, 
p. 30, 1943 Mackenzie Delta (nesting in wooded part); Beardslee, Wilson 
Bull., 56, p. 9, 1944 (habits; plumages); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. 
Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 92, 1945 Sonora (winter visitant). 



284 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hydrocoloeus Philadelphia Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 306, pi. 15, 
figs. 5, 6, 1925 (monog.; plumages). 

Range. Breeds in North America from northwestern Alaska and 
northern Mackenzie south to central British Columbia and central 
Alberta; winters on the Pacific coast from southeastern Alaska to 
Lower California and western Mexico, on the Atlantic from New 
England to Florida, the Bermuda Islands, and on the Gulf coast 
to Yucatan; accidental in the Hawaiian Islands and in Europe. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 144: Alaska (Bethel, 3; Inako River, 
1); Yukon Territory (Yukon River, 1); British Columbia (Seymour 
Narrows, 1; Saturna Island, 1; Victoria, 1); Alberta (Cooking Lake, 
1); Manitoba (Churchill, 1); California (San Francisco, 1; Eureka, 1; 
Monterey, 22; Pacific Grove, 2; Seaside, 1; Hyperion, 15; Motor- 
drome, Los Angeles County, 1; San Diego County, 1); North Dakota 
(Nelson County, 7; Rolette County, 8; Towner County, 2); Minne- 
sota (Pelican Rapids, 2) ; Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 9) ; Illinois (Lake 
County, 3; Cook County, 1); Indiana (Lake County, 1); Michigan 
(St. Joseph, 1); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 5); Maine (Portland, 1); 
Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 3); Connecticut (New Haven 
County, 3); New York (Cayuga Lake, 2; Suffolk County, 2); North 
Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 17; Pea Island, 1); Florida 
(Pilot Town, 5; Amelia Island, 4; East Pass, 8; Mary Esther, 3; 
Santa Rosa, 2). 

Larus minutus Pallas. LITTLE GULL. 

Larus minutus Pallas, Reisen Versch. Prov. Russ. Reiches, 3, p. 702, 1776 
rivers of Siberia and southern Russia (restricted type locality Berezof, 
Tobolsk, Siberia; cf. Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 650, 
1919); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 173, 1896 (monog.); Norton, 
Auk, 27, p. 447, 1910 (occurrences in America); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 113, p. 180, 1921 (life hist.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 324, 1934 
(range). 

Hydrocoloeus minutus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 649, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 309, 
1925 (monog.; plumages). 

Range. Breeds locally in northern Europe and northern Asia; 
accidental in the eastern United States; on Long Island, New York 
(Fire Island, Sept. 15, 1887; Rockaway Beach, May 2, 1902) and 

1 Bonaparte's Gull has never occurred anywhere in South America. The 
record from the Tambo Valley, Peru, turned out to be based on an immature 
bird of L. sen-arms, and Des Murs (in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 483, 
1847) is undoubtedly mistaken in including L. bonaparti among the birds of Chile. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 285 

in Maine (St. George, Aug. 12, 1904; Pine Point, near Scarborough, 
July 20, 1910). 1 

Genus RHODOSTETHIA Macgillivray 

Rossia (not of Owen, 1835) Bonaparte, Geog. Comp. List, p. 62, 1838 
type, by monotypy, Larus roseus Macgillivray. 

Rhodostethia Macgillivray, Man. Brit. Orn., 2, p. 252, 1842 type, by orig. 
desig., Larus rossii Richardson =Larus roseus Macgillivray. 

*Rhodostethia rosea (Macgillivray). Ross's GULL. 

Larus roseus Macgillivray, Mem. Wernerian Nat. Hist. Soc., 5, (1), p. 249, 
1824 no locality given = Melville Peninsula, Keewatin 2 (type in Edin- 
burgh Museum); Jardine and Selby, Illustr. Orn., 1, (1), pi. 14, Feb., 
1827 (fig. of type); Winge, Medd. Gr0nL, 21, p. 199, 1898 Greenland. 

Larus rossii Richardson, App. Parry's Second Voy., p. 359, 1825 Melville 
Peninsula, Keewatin (type, from Alagnak, 69 15' N., in Edinburgh 
Museum; cf. Stenhouse, Nov. Zool., 35, p. 275, 1930). 

Larus Richardsonii Lesson, Compl. Oeuvr. Buffon, 9, p. 516, 1837 Arctic 

Circle. 
Rhodostethia roseus Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 106, 1853 (diag.); idem, I.e., 3, 

p. 278, 1855 Kamchatka (crit.). 

Rhodostethia rosea Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 167, 1896 (monog.); 
Buturlin, Ibis, 1906, pp. 131, 333, 661 Kolyma Delta, Siberia (breeding 
grounds; habits; nest and eggs descr.); Dresser, I.e., p. 610, pi. 20 (eggs); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 669, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); 
Bent, I.e., 133, p. 183, 1921 (life hist.); Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, 
p. 1718, 1921 (monog.); Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 36, 
1923 St. George Island, Pribilofs (March 24, May 25); Dwight, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 314, 1925 (range; plumages); Helms, Dansk. 
Orn. Foren. Tidsskr., 27, p. 18, 1933 Ikamiut, Greenland; Ticehurst, 
Ibis, 1933, p. 785 islands near Ikamiut, Greenland (June 20; male, female 
with egg); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 325, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in northern Siberia at the mouths of rivers between 
Cape Swjatoi Noss and the Indigirka River, and in the valleys of 
the Indigirka, Alazei, and Kolyma south to about 67 30' N. Lat., 
also on islands near Ikamiut, Greenland (June 20, 1885) ; on migra- 
tion in Kamchatka, the Arctic coast of Alaska, and the Pribilofs 
(two records from St. George Island). 

Field Museum Collection. 20: Alaska (Barrow, 20). 

1 Records from the Bermuda Islands pertain to L. Philadelphia (cf. Bradlee, 
Mowbray, and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, pp. 289-290, 1931). 

2 Macgillivray's provisional name, based on the characteristic shape of the tail 
("subcuneate, the middle feathers being considerably longer, the rest graduated"), 



286 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Genus RISSA Stephens 

Rissa Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13, (1), p. 180, 1826 type, by mono- 

typy, Rissa brunnichii Stephens =Larus tridactylus. 
Cheimonea Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierw., pp. 84, 

196, 1829 type, by monotypy, Larus tridactylus Linnaeus. 

*Rissa tridactyla tridactyla (Linnaeus). KITTIWAKE. 

Larus tridactylus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 136, 1758 based on 
"The Coddy Moddy" Albin, Nat. Hist. Bds., 2, p. 80, pi. 87, and "Larus 
cinereus" Raius, Syn. Meth. Av., p. 128, Great Britain; Holboll, Naturh. 
Tidsskr., 4, p. 420, 1843 Greenland (Godthaab); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 
21, p. 190, 1898 Greenland. 

Larus Rissa Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 42, 1764 Iceland and Christiansoe 
Island, also near Copenhagen. 

Larus naevius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 225, 1766 based on 
Brisson (Orn., 6, p. 185, pi. 17, fig. 2), Aldrovandi, etc., "in Man 
Europaeo." 

Larus albus (not of Gunnerus, 1767) P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., 
p. 104, 1776 based on "Mouette cendree tachetee" Daubenton, PI. Enl., 
pi. 387. 

Larus cinerarius (not of Linnaeus, 1766) Fabricius, Faun. Greenl., p. 101, 
1780 Greenland (descr. of winter plumage). 

Larus Riga Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 594, 1789 based on Larus Rissa 
Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 42, No. 140, and "Kittiwake" of Pennant and 
Latham, northern America, Europe, and Asia. 

Rissa Brunnichii (Leach MS.) Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13, (1), p. 181, 
pi. 21, 1826 substitute name for Larus tridactylus Linnaeus. 

Rissa tridactylus Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 103, 1853 (diag.); idem, I.e., 3, 
p. 284, 1855 (descr.). 

Rissa borealis C. L. Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 341, 1855 Greenland, not rare in 
Europe (type, from Greenland, in Tring Collection [cf. Hartert, Nov, 
Zool., 25, p. 60, 1918], now in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York). 

Rissa tridactyla Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 305, 1896 (in part, 
excepting Bering Sea and North Pacific regions); Racey, Canad. Field 
Nat., 53, p. 25, 1939 (banded in Russian Arctic, recovered in Newfound- 
land); Hennessy, I.e., 57, p. 63, 1943 (banded in Iceland, recovered off 
Nova Scotia). 

Rissa tridactyla tridactyla Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 565, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 36, 1921 (life hist.); Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1751, 1921 (monog.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 52, p. 317, pi. 14, fig. 6, 1925 (range; plumages); Bradlee, Mow- 
bray, and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 288, 1931 Bermuda 

rests on the very same specimen from Parry's Arctic Expedition, which was 
subsequently described by Richardson as Larus rossii and is still preserved in 
the Edinburgh Museum. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 287 

Islands (regular winter visitor); L0ppenthin, Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, 
pp. 69, 123, 1932 eastern Greenland (breeding); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 325, 1934 (range); Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1935, p. 852 Jan Mayen 
(breeding); Wynne-Edwards, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 40, p. 319, 1935 
(distr. in North Atlantic); Soper, Auk, 63, p. 236, 1946 Baffin Island. 

Range. breeds in Arctic and Subarctic North America from 
Wellington Channel, northern Greenland, south to Somerset Island, 
east coast of Baffin Island, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and extra- 
limitally in Iceland, Jan Mayen, Spitzbergen, Franz Josef Land, 
Novaya Zemlya, northwestern Europe, and northern Asia; winters 
from the Gulf of St. Lawrence south to New Jersey and the Bermuda 
Islands. Accidental in the interior. 

Field Museum Collection. 33: Arctic Canada (Resolution Island, 
1); Greenland (Agpamiut, 3; Simiutak, 1; Godhavn, 1; Sukkertoppen, 
2; Godthaab, 2; Julianehaab, 1; east coast, 5) ; Labrador (Jack Lane's 
Bay, 1; Rama, 1); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 10); Nova Scotia 
(Halifax, 1); Massachusetts (Provincetown, 3); Illinois (Meredosia, 
Morgan County, 1). 

*Rissa tridactyla pollicaris Ridgway. PACIFIC KITTIWAKE. 

[Rissa tridactyla] b. pollicaris (Stejneger MS.) Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, 
and Ridgway, Water Bds. N. Amer., 2, p. 202, 1884 Kotzebue Sound, 
Alaska (new name for Rissa brachyrhynchus [not Larus brachyrhynchus 
Gould, 1843] Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 103, 1853). 

Rissa tridactyla pollicaris Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 78, 1885 
Bering Island and Staritskoff Island, Kamchatka (nomencl.; crit.; breed- 
ing); Ridgway, I.e., 50, (8), p. 571, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, 
l.c., 113, p. 44, 1921 (life hist.); Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1753, 
1921 (monog.); Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. Fauna, 46, p. 31, 1923 
Pribilof Islands (breeding); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 317, 
1925 (range; plumages); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 58, 
1928 Lower California (San Geronimo Island, March, 1897; vicinity of 
Los Coronados Islands, winter) ; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 325, 1934 (range). 

Rissa brachyrhynchus (not Larus brachyrhynchus Gould, 1843) Bruch, Journ. 
Orn., 1, p. 103, 1853 North America (diag.); idem, I.e., 3, p. 285, 1855 
northwest coast of America (diag.). 

Range. Breeds in northwestern North America, from Cape 
Lisburne and Point Barrow, Alaska, south to the Aleutian Islands, 
and extralimitally on Wrangel and Herald Islands, north coast of 
eastern Siberia west to Kolinchin Bay, the coast and islands of 
Bering Sea, the Commander Islands, Kurile Islands, and Kamchatka; 
winters from southeastern Alaska to northern Lower California and 
Japan. 



288 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Field Museum Collection. 17: Alaska (Barrow, 4; Little Diomede 
Island, 3; Nome, 5; St. Michaels, 4; Icy Strait, 1). 

*Rissa brevirostris Bmch. RED-LEGGED KITTIWAKE. 

Rissa brevirostris (Brandt MS.) Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 103, 1853 "North- 
west coast of North America" (type in Leningrad Museum); idem, I.e., 
3, pp. 285, 293, 1855 (diag.); Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 82, 
1885 Bering Island (breeding); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 
p. 312, 1896 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 573, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 49, 1921 (life hist.); Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1754, 1921 (monog.); Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. 
Fauna, 46, p. 32, 1923 Pribilof Islands (breeding); Dwight, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 52, p. 322, 1925 (range; plumages); Gabrielson, Auk, 50, 
p. 216, 1933 Delake, Oregon; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 326, 1934 (range). 

Larus brachyrhynchus (not of Richardson, 1832) Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
11, p. 106, Dec., 1843 "Russian America" (type now in British Museum); 
idem, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Birds, Part 2, p. 50, pi. 34, Jan., 1844 
"Russian America" (fig. of type). 

Rissa Kotzebuii Bonaparte, Naumannia, 1854, pp. 212, 217 "Ex Am. s. 
occ., California" (substitute name for Rissa brevirostris Bruch); idem, 
Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 7, p. 18, 1855 (reprint). 1 

Larus Warnecki Coinde, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 12, p. 401, 1860 St. Paul 
Island, Pribilof s (type in Paris Museum). 

Range. Breeds on the Pribilof, Near, and Commander Islands 
(more or less resident); casual in Alaska (St. Michaels), Yukon 
Territory (Forty Mile), and Oregon (Delake, Jan. 28, 1933). 

Field Museum Collection. 4: Alaska (St. George Island, 1; 
Bering Sea, 3). 

Genus CREAGRUS Bonaparte 

Creagrus Bonaparte, Naumannia, 1854, p. 213 type, by orig. desig., Larus 
furcatus Neboux. 

*Creagrus furcatus (Ne"boux). SWALLOW-TAILED GULL. 

"Mouette a queue fourchue" Neboux, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 290, 1840 "rade de 

Monterey (Haute-Californie)" (type in Paris Museum; cf. Grinnell, Univ. 

Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 318, 1932). 
Larus furcatus Neboux, Voy. "Ve'nus," Atlas, Zool., Ois., pi. 10, 1846; Prevost 

and Des Murs, Voy. "Ve'nus," 5, Zool., p. 277, 1849 "rade de Monterey 

(Haute-Californie) . ' ' 

Xema furcatus Bruch, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 103, 1853 California (crit.). 
Creagrus furcatus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 312 (ex 

Neboux); Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 506, 1876 Dalrymple 

1 Specific name spelled Kotzebui. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 289 

Rock, Chatham Island, Galapagos (crit.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 12, p. 117, 1890 Dalrymple Rock (generic char.; descr. of breeding 
plumage); Townsend, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 27, p. 125, 1895 Malpelo 
Island, off Bay of Panama (March); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
19, p. 638, 1897 Brattle, Hood, Chatham, off James, and Tower Islands, 
Galapagos, and Malpelo Island, Colombia (descr.; meas.); Baur, Amer. 
Nat., 31, p. 783, 1897 rock between Gardner and Hood Islands (breed- 
ing), Barrington Island, near Seymour Island and Abingdon Island, 
Galapagos; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 237, 
1904 Culpepper, Wenman, and Albemarle Islands (descr. of eggs); 
Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, p. 35, 1913 Galapagos (habits; 
plumages; meas.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 659, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 328, 
1925 (monog.; plumages); Chapman, I.e., 55, p. 187, 1926 off Talara, 
Peru, and off Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador (Dec. 6); Swarth, Occ. Pap. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 65, 1931 Galapagos; Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 42, 1931 Tower Island and Galapagos; 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 326, 1934 Galapagos; Murphy, Ocean. Bds. 
S. Amer., 2, p. 1086, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Bond and de Schauensee, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 90, p. 156, 1938 Malpelo Island, Colombia 
(breeding). 

Xema furcatum Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 210 Dalrymple 
Rock, Chatham Island (crit.); idem, I.e., 1882, p. 523, pi. 34 (adult and 
young) Paracas Bay, Peru (Oct.; descr. of young); Streets, Auk, 29, 
p. 233, 1912 off Chatham Island (habits). 

(l)Creagrus furcata Anthony, Auk, 12, p. 291, 1895 off San Diego, California 
(April 4, 1895). 

Xema furcata Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 165, 1896 Dalrymple 
Rock, Chatham Island, Galapagos, and Paracas Bay, Peru; Rothschild 
and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 190, 1899 Wenman, Culpepper, Tower, 
and Hood Islands (nest and eggs descr.); iidem, I.e., 9, p. 412, 1902 
Wenman, Daphne, Guy Fawkes, and Albemarle Islands. 

Range. Breeds in the Galapagos Islands and on Malpelo Island, 
off Bay of Panama; casual off the coast of Ecuador (Gulf of Guayaquil, 
Dec. 6) and Peru (off Talara; Paracas Bay, Oct.). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 8: Galapagos Islands (Wenman Island, 
1; Hood Island, 3; Champion Island, 3; Tower Island, 1). 

Genus XEMA Leach 

Xema Leach, in Ross, Voy. Disc. Baffin's Bay, App. 2, p. Ivii, 1819 type, 

by monotypy, Larus sabini Sabine. 
Zema Holboll, Naturhist. Tidsskr., 4, p. 423, 1843 (emendation). 

1 The occurrence of C. furcatus off the California coast is open to doubt. The 
locality of the type specimen, "Monterey, California," may be due to a confusion 
of labels, since the Venus also stopped at the Galapagos Islands. 



290 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chema Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 188, 1889 substitute name for Xema 
Leach. 

*Xema sabini (Sabine). SABINE'S GULL. 

Lams sabini Sabine, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 12, (2), p. 522, pi. 29, 1819 
"low rocky islands on the west coast of Greenland (lat. 75 29' N. and long. 
60 9' W.") (type, from Sabine Islands, near Melville Bay, in the British 
Museum); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 197, 1898 Greenland; Manniche, 
I.e., 45, No. 1, p. 167, pi. 6 (eggs), 1910 Renskaeret, Greenland (breeding 
habits). 

Xema sabini(i) Leach, hi Ross, Voy. Disc. Baffin's Bay, App. 2, p. Ivii, with 
col. plate, 1819 (descr. of type); Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, p. 19 north of 
Upernavik, Greenland (breeding); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1878, p. 141 Tumbez, Peru; Saunders, I.e., p. 209 (monog.); 
idem, I.e., 1882, p. 524 Callao Bay, Peru (Dec., 1881); MacFarlane, Ibis, 
1887, p. 207 San Lorenzo Island, Callao Bay, Peru (Jan., Feb.); Saunders, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 162, 1896 (monog.; full bibliog.); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 663, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, 
I.e., 113, p. 191, 1921 (life hist.); Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1717, 
1921 (monog.); Dwight, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 52, p. 327, pi. 14, fig. 5, 
1925 (plumages; range); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 61, 1928 
Lower California (San Quintfn, Aug. 14, 1905; near Los Coronados 
Islands, Aug. 20, 1910); Bradlee and Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
39, p. 290, 1931 St. George's, Bermuda Islands (one record); L0ppen- 
thin, Medd. Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, pp. 70, 123, 1932 Sand Island, Greenland 
(crit.; meas.; egg descr.; nesting habits); Pedersen, I.e., 100, No. 11, 
pp. 7, 23, 1934 Sand Island, Greenland (breeding); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 326, 1934 (range); Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 150 northeast Greenland 
(breeding; crit.); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 30, 1943 Arctic coast 
east of Mackenzie Delta (said to breed); Bray, Auk, 60, p. 529, 1943 
Southampton Island (nesting); Dalquist, Condor, 46, p. 34, 1944 Cali- 
fornia. 

[Xema. sabini] sabini Portenko, Ibis, 1939, p. 267 Greenland (crit.); Soper, 
Auk, 63, p. 237, 1946 Baffin Island (nesting). 

[Xema sabini] tschuktschorum Portenko, Ibis, (14), 3, p. 268, April, 1939 
Uelen, Chukchi Peninsula (type in coll. of L. Portenko). 

[Xema sabini] woznesenskii Portenko, Ibis, (14), 3, p. 268, April, 1939 
Hooper Bay, Alaska (type in Leningrad Museum). 

Xema sabini sabini Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 150 Greenland (crit.). 

Range. Breeds on Spitzbergen, the Arctic coast and islands of 
Siberia from the Taimyr Peninsula to Anadyr Gulf, the west coast 
of Alaska from Norton Sound to the Kuskokwim River, in northern 
Mackenzie, Victoria Island, Ellesmere Island, Baffin Island, South- 
ampton Island, and northern Greenland; 1 migrates off the Pacific 

1 The subdivision of this species attempted by Russian ornithologists appears 
to rest on very slender grounds. Birds from Alaska seem to us inseparable from 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 291 

coast of America and winters on the coast of Peru; of frequent occur- 
rence in the interior of the United States and on the shores of the 
North Atlantic Ocean; accidental in the Bermuda Islands (one 
record). 

Field Museum Collection Z%: Alaska (Barrow, 4; Chipp River, 
near Barrow, 1; King Island, 2; Nome, 4; St. Michaels, 7); Oregon 
(Tillamook County, 2; Netarts, 1); California (Eureka, 1; Monterey, 
3; Cypress Point, 5; off San Pedro, 4); Greenland (Godthaab, 1); 
Maine (near Calais, 1); Peru (Talara, 2). 

Subfamily STERNINAE. Terns 
Genus CHLIDONIAS Rafinesque 

Chlidonias Rafinesque, Kentucky Gazette, n.s., 1, No. 8, p. 3, col. 5, Feb. 21, 

1822 type, by monotypy, Sterna melanops Rafinesque =Sterna surina- 

mensis Gmelin. 
Hydrochelidon Boie, Isis, 1822, (1), col. 563, May, 1822 type, by subs, desig. 

(Gray, List Gen. Bds., 2nd ed., p. 100, 1841), Hydrochelidon niger (Linn.)= 

Sterna nigra Linnaeus. 

Viralva Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13, (1), p. 166, 1826 type, by subs, 
desig. (Salvin, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 5, 1896), Sterna nigra Linnaeus. 

Pelodes Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierw., p. 107, 1829 
type, by monotypy, Sterna leucopareia Temminck= Sterna hybrida Pallas. 

Chlidonias leucoptera (Temminck) . WHITE-WINGED BLACK TERN. 

Sterna leucoptera Temminck, Man. d'Orn., p. 483, 1815 shores of Mediter- 
ranean and lakes beyond the Alps (lakes of Locarno, Lugano, Como, 
and Geneva). 1 

Hydrochelidon leucoptera Brewer, Amer. Nat., 8, p. 188, 1874 Lake Kosh- 
konong, Wisconsin (July 5, 1873); Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 502 Barbados 
(Oct. 24, 1888); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 6, 1896 (monog.); 
Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 259, 1905 Barbados (ex Feilden); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 536, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.). 

those of Greenland, though they have the mantle on average slightly darker. 
Yet, according to Portenko, who distinguishes not less than four races on the basis 
of color-intensity, a single specimen from Griffin Point, Arctic Alaska, pertains 
to his dark-headed form tschuktschorum, while two (!) other skins from Hooper 
Bay, Alaska (June), stated to be even darker, are separated as woznesenskii. We 
strongly doubt the possibility of there being two distinct races in different parts 
of Alaska. Hartert (Vog. Pal. Fauna, Erganz., p. 493) is even unable to recognize 
X. s. palaeartica Stegmann (Orn. Monatsb., 42, p. 25, 1934). 

1 There seems little doubt that the two examples in adult plumage from the 
Lake of Geneva in the Leyden Museum (cf. Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 5, 
Sternae, p. 32, 1864, s.n. Sterna nigra) are the actual cotypes of Temminck s 
description. 



292 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chlidonias leucoptera Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 299, 1921 (American 
records, habits); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 328, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds in southeastern Europe and northern Asia; 
accidental in the United States (one record from Lake Koshkonong, 
Wisconsin, July 5, 1873) and the West Indies (Barbados, Oct. 24, 
1888). 1 

*Chlidonias nigra surinamensis (Gmelin). BLACK TERN. 

Sterna surinamensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 604, 1789 based on 
(Latham ex) "Hirondelle de mer, grande espece," Fermin, Descr. Surinam, 
2, p. 187, 1769, Surinam. 

Sterna plumbea Wilson, Amer. Orn., 7, p. 83, pi. 60, fig. 3, 1813 Schuylkill 
River, Pennsylvania (descr. of young; type lost). 

Sterna melanops Rafinesque, Kentucky Gazette, n.s., 1, No. 8, p. 3, col. 5, 
Feb. 21, 1822 near Harrodsburg, Kentucky (no type extant). 

Sterna exilis Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 389, 1843 "in Oceani Pacific! 
littoribus"= coast of Peru (type in Neuchatel Museum ;= winter plumage; 
cf. Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 21, 1896); idem, Unters. Fauna 
Peru., Orn., p. 306, 1846 coast and "eastern slope of Cordilleras," Peru. 

Hydrochelidon plumbea Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 479, 
1862 Lion Hill, Panama; Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 155, 
1865 Chile (vicinity of Santiago). 

Hydrochelidon fissipes (not Sterna fissipes Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, pp. 337, 340 Chile (ex Pelzeln); idem and Salvin, I.e., 1871, 
p. 573 coasts of Cuba, British Honduras, and Chile; Gundlach, Journ. 
Orn., 23, p. 393, 1875 Cuba (north coast and Zapata marsh). 

Hydrochelidon nigra (not Sterna nigra Linnaeus) Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1876, p. 642 part, America; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 
1896 Chile. 

Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, 
p. 133, 1887 Puntarenas, Costa Rica; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
70, p. 244, 1918 Gatun, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
(8), p. 532, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 180, 1922 Trojas de Cataca and Tierra Nueva, Colombia. 

Hydrochelidon surinamensis Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 20, 1896 
United States, Mexico, British Honduras (Cay Dolores Channel), Guate- 
mala (Coban), and Peru (Callao Bay); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 3, p. 398, 1903 Mexico (numerous localities), British 
Honduras (southern Water Cay, Curlew Cay, Cay Dolores Channel), 
Guatemala (Coban), Costa Rica (Puntarenas), and Panama (Lion Hill); 

1 The British Museum has a young bird of Chlidonias hybrida hybrida (Pallas) 
marked "Barbados," which was presented by Sir Robert H. Schomburgk who, 
however, did not include the species among the birds of that island in his History 
of Barbados, pp. 680-682, 1848. Cf. also Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, 
p. 259, 1905, s.n. Hydrochelidon hybrida, and Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 528, s.n. H. leucopareia. The evidence does not seem to be quite 
satisfactory. 



948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 293 

Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 308, 1908 (no Cayenne record); Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 414, 1910 Puntarenas, Costa Rica. 

Chlidonias nigra surinamensis Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 290, 1921 
(life hist.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 185, 1926 coast 
of Manavi, Ecuador (Feb. 13); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and 
Virgin Islands, 9, p. 385, 1927 Puerto Rico (San Juan; Cartagena Lagoon, 
Aug. 18 to Oct. 7); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 63, 1928 
Lower California (transient); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
155, p. 181, 1931 Saona Island, Hispaniola (Sept. 13); Bradlee, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 292, 1931 Bermuda Islands (Oct., 1876); Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 302, 1931 Cricamola, Panama (Sept. 19); 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 408, 1932 Chile; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 126, 1932 Ocos, Guatemala 
(Oct. 18); idem, Auk, 50, p. 300, 1934 Puerto Jime'nez, Costa Rica 
(Sept. 29); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 328, 1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 309, 1935 Panama; Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. 
Amer., 2, p. 1089, 1936 (monog.); Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p: 184, 1938 Lake Olomega, El Salvador 
(Sept. 4). 

Range. Breeds in North America from Alaska, Great Slave 
Lake, central Manitoba and Ontario to California, Nevada, Colorado, 
Kansas, northern Missouri and Tennessee, also in northern Ohio, 
lorthwestern Pennsylvania, and western New York; winters in 
South America to Surinam in the east and to Peru and Chile in the 
svest. 

Field Museum Collection 113: Alberta (Many Island Lake, 1); 
Saskatchewan (Quill Lake, 1; Crane Lake, 1); California (Los 
Banos, 3; Los Angeles County, 2); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 1); Texas 
(Tivoli, 2); North Dakota (Nelson County, 10; Ramsey County, 9; 
Rolette County, 3; Towner County, 13); South Dakota (Harrison, 
1); Kansas (Burlington, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 6); Illinois 
(Lake County, 7; Cook County, 6; Cairo, 1); Ohio (Sandusky, 2); 
Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 1); Massachusetts (Monomoy Island, 2; 
Duxbury Beach, 1); Connecticut (New Haven County, 3); New 
York (Cayuga Lake, 1) ; North Carolina (Pea Island, Dare County, 
20); Georgia (Montezuma, 1); Florida (Punta Rassa, 1; Lake 
Conday, 1; Palm Beach, 1; West Jupiter, 10); Mexico (Rio Lagartos, 
Yucatan, 1). 

Genus PHAETUSA Wagler 

Phaetusa Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1224 type, by monotypy, Sterna magnirostris 
Lichtenstein= Sterna simplex Gmelin. 

Thalassites Swainson, Nat. Hist. Class. Bds., 2, p. 372, 1837 type by mono- 
typy, Sterna magnirostris Lichtenstein=Stenuz simplex Gmelin. 



294 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Phaethusa Agassiz, Nomencl. Zool., Ind. Univ., p. 283, 1846 emendation of 

Phaetusa Wagler. 
Phoetusa Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, p. 772, 1856 

emendation of Phaetusa Wagler. 

*Phaetusa simplex (Gmelin). LARGE-BILLED TERN. 

Sterna simplex Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 606, 1789 based on "Simple 
Tern" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (2), p. 355, Cayenne (descr. of im- 
mature; cf. Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 140, 1926). 

Sterna chloropoda Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 173, 
1819 based on "Hatf cogote obscuro" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax., 

3, p. 372, No. 412, 1 Paraguay; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 537, 1866 
Trinidad. 

Sterna magnirostris Liechtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 81, 1823 
Brazil (type in Berlin Museum); Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 81, 
pi. 104, 1825 Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil; Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 

4, (2), p. 861, 1833 Rio Parahyba, Rio de Janeiro, to the Rio Belmonte, 
Bahia; Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru'., Orn., p. 305, 1846 "coast of Peru"; 
Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 761, 1849 
Rupununi River; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 450, 1856 
Brazil; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 267, 1860 Rio Parana, near Parana 
(Entre Rfos) and Santa F6; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 519, 1861 
same localities; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 5, Sternae, p. 12, 1864 
Rio de la Plata, Bolivia, and Brazil (crit.); Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 96 
Orinoco River, Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, pp. 393, 979 Mexiana, Brazil, and Pebas, Peru; Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 20 Rio das Velhas, Minas Geraes; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 324, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba), Matto 
Grosso (Cuyaba, Caicara), and Pard (Cajutuba); Layard, Ibis, 1873, 
p. 396 Para, Brazil; Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 643 
Para, Brazil (crit.); Durnford, Ibis, 1880, p. 412 Rosario, Santa F6; 
Barrows, Auk, 1, p. 316, 1884 Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rios; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 438, 1886 Peruvian localities; MacFarlane, 
Ibis, 1887, p. 209 Guayaquil, Ecuador; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
2, p. Ill, 1889 lower Beni, Bolivia. 

Sterna speculifera "Temminck" Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 622, 1831 Brazil 

(type in Paris Museum; cf. Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 2, p. 544, 

1850). 
Sterna albifrons (Cuvier MS.; not of Pallas, 1764) Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., 

(2), 2, p. 544, 1850 no locality (descr. of imm.; type in Paris Museum). 
Thalasseus magnirostris Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 

p. 200 lower Ucayali, Peru (eggs descr.). 
Phaetusa* magnirostris Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 567 

(range); iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 310 lower Ucayali and Huallaga, Pebas, 

1 Azara's description is none too good, but seems to have been taken, as he 
thought probable, from an immature individual of the species described by him 
under the name "Hati cabeza negra," No. 413, which is unquestionably the 
adult Large-billed Tern. 

2 Variously spelled Phaetusa, Phaetusa, or Phaethusa. 



18 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 295 

Peru; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 278, 1874 Blumenau, Santa 
Catharina; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 200 Belgrano and Baradero, Buenos 
Aires; Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 112 
Riobamba, Ecuador; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 2, p. 194, 1889 
Argentina (habits); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 84, 1894 
Trinidad; Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 24, 1895 
Bahia Negra, Paraguay; Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 150, 1895 
Magdalena River (Barranquilla to Puerto Berrio), Colombia; idem and 
Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 653, 1895 Margarita Island; 
Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 23, 1896 British Guiana (Rupununi 
River, Ourumee), Surinam, Brazil (Mexiana), Argentina (Rio Parana), 
Peru (upper Ucayali, Pebas), and Ecuador (Guayaquil); Ihering, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 3, p. 443, 1899 Iguape, Sao Paulo; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 16, 1900 Carandasinho, Matto Grosso; 
Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 132, 1902 Altagracia and 
Caicara, Orinoco, and La Pricion, Caura, Venezuela; Ihering, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 6, p. 452, 1904 Rio Jurua, Brazil; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 
p. 55, 1906 Port of Spain, Trinidad; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 39, 
1907 Sao Paulo (Sao Sebastiao, Iguape), Amazonas (Rio Jurud), and 
Matto Grosso (Porto Faya); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 102, 1908 
Rio Araguaya, Goyaz; Berlepsch, I.e., p. 309, 1908 Cayenne; Hartert 
and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 253, 1909 Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud) and 
Santa Fe" (San Vicente, Ocampo; nesting); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 194, 233, 1909 Aruba and Margarita Island; Beebe, 
Zoologica (N. Y.), 1, p. 74, 1909 mouth of San Juan River, Venezuela; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 97, 1910 
Bahia (near Barrinha, Joazeiro, Remanso, Rio Sao Francisco) and Piauhy 
(Lagoa do Parnagua, near Cocal, Rio Parnahyba); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 210, 1910 Cordoba (Mar Chiquiba), Chaco 
(San Vicente), Entre Rios, and Buenos Aires; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 471 
Tayru, Colonia Risso, and Puerto Braga, Paraguay (habits; nest and eggs); 
Ramsden, Auk, 29, p. 100, 1912 Laguna del Centeno, Nipe Bay, Prov. 
Oriente, Cuba (May 28, 1910); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 78, 
1914 Quati-puru, Marajo (Pindobal, Dunas, Cambu), and Monte Alegre, 
Para, Brazil; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 152, 1928 Rio 
Para, Para, Brazil. 

Phaetusa 1 chloropoda Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 192, 1913 
Manimo River and La Pedrita (Rio Uracoa), Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. 
Bull., Mus. Brooklyn Inst., 2, p. 373, 1916 Orinoco Valley, Venezuela; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 37, p. 221, 1917 La Playa, Colombia; 
Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 44, 1918 Braamspunt, 
Surinam; Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 136, 1918 (range); Tremoleras, I.e., 
2, p. 13, 1919 coast of Montevideo, Uruguay; Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 180, 1922 Punto Caiman and Trojas de Cataca, 
Colombia; Delacour, Ibis, 1923, p. 139 Rio Apure", Venezuela; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 185, 1926 Ecuador; Young, Ibis, 1928, 
p. 765 coast of British Guiana; Davis, I.e., 1935, p. 530 coast and 

1 Variously spelled Phaetusa, Phaetusa, and Phaethusa. 



296 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

tidal waters of Essequibo River and Rupununi River, British Guiana 
(nest and eggs). 

Phaetusa chloripoda Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p". 541, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.). 

Phaethusa (magnirostris) chloropoda Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 240, 1923 northern Brazil (eggs and downy young 
descr.). 

Phaetusa simplex chloropoda Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 140, 
1926 Rio Paraguay, Chaco (crit.; nomencl.); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 68, p. 165, 1927 Bovril Islands, Santa Fe; Naumburg, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 75, 1930 Matto Grosso; Stone and 
Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 376, 1934 Descalvados, 
Matto Grosso; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 329, 1934 (range); Laubmann, 
Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 261, 1934 Est. La Geraldina, Santa Fe 
(crit.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 148, 1938 Minas Geraes (Pirapora) 
and Sao Paulo (Iguap, Sao Sebastiao, Santos, Presidente Epitacio, Rio 
Parand). 

Phaetusa simplex simplex Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 329, 1934 (range); Belcher 
and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 294 Caroni Swamp, Trinidad (nest and eggs); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 148, 1938 Amazonas (Rio Jurua, Mana- 
capuru) and Bahia (Cidade da Barra) ; Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. Vetensk. 
Akad. Handl., (3), 23, p. 74, 1945 Cachuela Esperanza, El Beni, Bolivia 
(disc.). 

Phaetusa simplex Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1090, 1936 (monog.). 

Range. Colombia, Venezuela, islands of Aruba and Trinidad, 
and the Guianas south through Amazonas, Brazil, eastern Bolivia, 
Paraguay, and eastern Argentina to the provinces of Cordoba and 
Buenos Aires; 1 Ecuador (Riobamba; Guayaquil; province de Los 
Rios); accidental in Cuba (Laguna del Centeno, May 28, 1910). 

Field Museum Collection. 25: Ecuador (Isla Silva Sur, province 
de Los Rios, 4) ; Venezuela (Lake Valencia, Aragua, 8) ; Dutch West 
Indies (Aruba, 1); British Guiana (Mazaruni River, 1; Buxton, 6); 
Dutch Guiana (Braamspunt, 1); Brazil, Amazonas (Conceicao, 1; 
Serra Grande, Rio Branco, 2); Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 1). 

1 The Large-billed Tern has been split by certain authors (Wetmore, 
Laubmann, Peters, Pinto) into two races, P. s. simplex and P. s. chloropoda, on 
the basis of the color of the upper parts. There is an undeniable tendency to a 
darker gray tone on hindneck, mantle, and tail in southern examples, but we 
find the difference to hold only when birds from the two extreme ends of the 
distributional area (Venezuela to lower Amazonia on one side, Argentina and 
Paraguay on the other) are compared, whereas the population of the enormous 
area of the Brazilian highlands is so variously intermediate that its assignation 
to one rather than the other race would be wholly arbitrary. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela, 6; British Guiana, 7; Trinidad, 2; 
Marajo, 3; Para, 1; Piauhy, 2; Pernambuco, 1; Bahia, 5; Rio de Janeiro, 3; Sao 
Paulo, 4; Santa Catharina, 2; Paraguay, 5; Buenos Aires, 3; Peru, 2. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 297 

Genus GELOCHELIDON C. L. Brehm 

Gelochelidon C. L. Brehm, Isis, 23, col. 994, 1830 type, by monotypy, "Gelo- 
chelidon meridionalis" Brehm=Sierna meridionalis C. L. Brehm=S<erna 
anglica Montague. 

Laropis Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1225 type, by monotypy, Sterna anglica 
Montague. 

*Gelochelidon anglica vanrossemi Bancroft. 1 VAN ROSSEM'S 
GULL-BILLED TERN. 

Gelochelidon nilotica vanrossemi Bancroft, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 5, 
p. 284, Dec. 10, 1929 Sal ton Sea, Imperial County, California (type in 
coll. of Donald R. Dickey, University of California at Los Angeles); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 330, 1934 (range). 

Gelochelidon anglica (not Sterna anglica Montague) Salvin, Ibis, 1865, p. 190, 
1866, p. 199 lagoon of Chiapam, Guatemala; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 572 part, Chiapam; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 4, p. 51, 1876 San Mateo, Tehuantepec, Oaxaca (Feb., 
Aug.); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 1896 part, spec, b 4 , c 4 , 
Chiapam; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 400, 
1903 part, Pacific coast of Mexico (San Mateo, Tehuantepec) and 
Guatemala (Chiapam). 

Gelochelidon nilotica (not Sterna nilotica Gmelin) 2 Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 604, 1902 seashore near Vaqueria, province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador 
(Sept.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 479, 1919 part, 
Pacific coast of Mexico (Gulf of Tehuantepec, San Mateo), Guatemala 
(Chiapam), and Ecuador (Vaqueria); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 
2, p. 1092, 1936 part, Ecuadorian localities. 

Gelochelidon nilotica aranea (not Sterna aranea Wilson) Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, p. 185, 1926 Gulf of Jambeli (July 17-18), Vaqueria 
(Sept. 13), and Puna Island (Feb. 26), Ecuador; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 32, p. 61, 1928 Cape San Lucas, Lower California (spec, 
lost); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 126, 1932 part, Chiapam, 

1 Gelochelidon anglica vanrossemi Bancroft; Similar in coloration to G. a. 
aranea, but decidedly larger in all dimensions. Wing, 303-315, (female) 280-295; 
tail, 107-123, (female) 102-114; bill, 40-43, (female) 39-41 H; depth of bill at 
angle of gonys, lOK-HH; tarsus, 32-35. 

Two birds from Pacific Guatemala (Chiapam) agree with Bancroft's measure- 
ments, being decidedly larger than specimens from eastern North America. A 
single adult from western Ecuador, however, hardly differs from the latter in 
size and depth of bill. Chapman (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 186) likewise 
insists on the resemblance of Ecuadorian birds to aranea, and his measurements 
(wing, 280-295; bill, 34-39) are apt to cast some doubt on the distinctness of the 
Pacific race, to which, if maintainable, those from Ecuador certainly ought to 
belong. 

2 Sterna nilotica Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 606, 1789; ex Hasselquist, 
Reise, p. 273, Egypt) is doubtful, being described as having flesh-colored feet 
besides other discrepancies, whereas S. anglica Montague (type, from Sussex, 
in the British Museum) is of unquestionable pertinence. 



298 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Guatemala; idem, Auk, 50, p. 299, 1934 Puerto Jimenez, Costa Rica 
(Sept. 29). 

Range. Breeds on Salton Sea, California, and probably on islands 
in the Gulf of California; winters on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 
Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Ecuador. 

Field Museum Collection. 2: California (Salton Sea, Imperial 
County, 2). 

*Gelochelidon anglica aranea (Wilson). 1 AMERICAN GULL- 
BILLED TERN. 

Sterna aranea Wilson, Amer. Orn., 8, p. 143, pi. 72, fig. 6, 1814 Cape May, 
New Jersey (type lost); (?)Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 540, 1866 Trinidad. 

Sterna nuttalli "Audubon" Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, Water 
Birds, p. 279 (footnote), 1834 Dry Tortugas, Florida. 

Gelochelidon anglica (not Sterna anglica Montague) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 572 part, Cuba and (?)Trinidad; Gundlach, 
Journ. Orn., 23, p. 388, 1875 Cuba (Cardenas, Guantanamo, July, 
Aug.; descr. of young); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 25, 1896 
part, spec, b^a 4 , d*-f 4 , Virginia (Cobb's Island); Texas (Corpus Christi), 
Barbados, and Grenada (Sept. 2); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 3, p. 400, 1903 part, United States and Mexico (Mata- 
moros); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 257, 1905 Barbados (ex 
Feilden). 

Sterna anglica Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 502 Graeme-Hall Swamp, Barbados 
(Oct. 6 and 7). 

Gelochelidon nilotica aranea Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, p. 330, 1912 North 
America (crit.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, 
p. 379, 1927 Puerto Rico (Cartagena Lagoon, July 9, May 20-Sept. 3; 
not nesting); idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 174, 1931 
Hispaniola (May, July, August); Bradlee, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, 
p. 290, 1931 Boaz Island, Bermudas (Apr. 29); Griscom, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 64, p. 126, 1932 part, Puerto Barrios, Caribbean Guatemala 
(Aug. 21); (?)Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1934, p. 295 Trinidad (winter 
visitor); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 330, 1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 78, p. 309, 1935 Agua Dulce, Panama (winter); Oberholser, 
Bird Life of Louisiana, p. 289, 1938 Gulf coast of Louisiana (breeding); 
Nichols and Bond, Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat., 17, p. 31, 1943 Cock- 
roach Cay, Virgin Islands. 

Gelochelidon nilotica (not Sterna nilotica Gmelin) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 479, 1919 part, North American and West Indian 
references and localities (monog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 197, 1921 (life hist.). 

Range. Breeds locally on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the 
United States from Virginia to Georgia, and from Mississippi to 

1 Gelochelidon anglica aranea (Wilson) differs from the nominate race of Europe 
by on average smaller size and particularly by smaller, less deep bill. Depth 
of bill at angle of gonys 8^-10 mm. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 299 

Texas, on the Bahama Islands (Andros, Eleuthera, Inagua, Long 
Island, etc.), and in Cuba; winters on the Caribbean coast of Central 
America to Panama, in the West Indies, and (?) Trinidad. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 43: Virginia (Cobb's Island, 2); 
Florida (Key West, 1); Bahama Islands (Great Inagua, 5; Long 
Island, 1; Mariguana Island, 1; Miraporvos Island, 1); Virgin Islands 
(St. Croix, 2); Texas (Aransas County, 4; Cameron County, 12; 
Corpus Christi, 11; Nueces County, 2); Mexico (Altamira, Tamau- 
lipas, 1). 

Gelochelidon anglica gronvoldi Mathews. 2 GRONVOLD'S GULL- 
BILLED TERN. 

Gelochelidon nilotica gronvoldi Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, (3), p. 331, Sept. 20, 
1912 "South America (breeding)" (neither type nor type locality speci- 
fied); Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 136, 1918 Argentina; Young, Ibis, 1928, 
p. 766 British Guiana (Blairmont, Sept.; Mahaica, Demerara, Sept. 12); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 330, 1934 (range); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, 
p. 149, 1938 part, Boavista, Maranhao (Nov.), and Iguape, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil. 

Sterna anglica (not of Montague) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 867, 
1833 lakes of Marica and Sagoarema, Rio de Janeiro; Holland, Ibis, 
1890, pp. 425, 428 Est. Espartillar, near Ranches, Buenos Aires; idem, 
l.c. t 1892, p. 212 Est. Espartillar. 

Viralva aranea (not Sterna aranea Wilson) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, 
p. 145, 1841 Bahia Blanca, province of Buenos Aires. 

Sterna aranea Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 452, 1856 Brazil 
(crit.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 325, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (July, Aug.). 

Gelochelidon anglica Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 572 
part, coast of Brazil; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 25, 1896 
part, spec. g 4 -n 4 , Demerara, Bahia, Santa Catharina, and Bahia Blanca; 
Holland, Ibis, 1897, p. 168 Santa Elena (near Media Luna), Buenos Aires 
(Oct. 12); idem, I.e., p. 286 Santa Elena (breeding; eggs descr.); Ihering, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 443, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul to Rio de Janeiro; 

1 No Trinidad specimens are available. Belcher and Smooker refer the Gull- 
billed Tern, which is stated to be a fairly common winter visitor on the island, 
to the Nearctic form, but the birds might just as well be wanderers from British 
Guiana (G. a. gronvoldi). 

2 Gelochelidon anglica gronvoldi Mathews differs from G. a. aranea by larger, 
deeper bill (depth at angle of gonys 9H~H mm.), which in bulk, approaches that 
of G. a. vanrossemi. Wing, 300-320. Three specimens from Rio de Janeiro and 
two from Buenos Aires, indeed, have bulkier (deeper) bills than any we have seen 
from the United States, but run very close to certain European individuals. A 
single adult from Demerara, while not especially large-billed, appears to be nearer 
to gronvoldi than to aranea. G. a. gronvoldi breeds (in August) abundantly on 
Mexiana Island, Para, and as it has also been found nesting by Holland at Santa 
Elena (near Media Luna) in Buenos Aires Province, other colonies doubtless 
exist on the coast of Brazil. The study of adequate series of breeding birds is 
required for the proper understanding of its characters. 



300 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hagmann, Orn. Monatsber., 14, p. 106, 1906 Mexiana Island, Para, 
Brazil (Aug. 18; eggs descr.); idem, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 45, 1907 
Mexiana Island (eggs and downy young descr.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 39, 1907 lower Amazon (range); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 
15, p. 309, 1908 (no Cayenne records); Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, 
p. 253, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (Feb., Sept.); Scott and 
Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 176, 1910 
Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires (Jan.); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 474 Luiconia, 
Aj6, Buenos Aires (March, Apr. 29), and Bellavista (Rio Parana), Cor- 
rientes (Nov. 12); Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 122, 1912 Mexiana, Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 77, 1914 Marajo (Pacoval, Lago de Tapera, Dunas) and 
Amapa, Para, Brazil. 

Gelochelidon nilotica (not Sterna nilotica Gmelin) Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 210, 1910 Est. Espartillar and estuary of La Plata, 
Buenos Aires; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 479, 1919 
part, Brazil and Argentina; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 136, 
1926 Buenos Aires (Lake Epiquen [near Carhue 1 ] and Bahia Blanca, Jan.) 
and Uruguay (Carrasco, near Montevideo, Jan. 9); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. 
S. Amer., 2, p. 1092, 1936 part, Argentine localities. 

Range. Atlantic coast of South America from British Guiana 
(Blairmont; Demerara) south to Bahia Blanca, province of Buenos 
Aires, extending up the La Plata River to Bellavista, Corrientes 
(found breeding on Mexiana Island, Para, Brazil, and at Santa 
Elena, near Media Luna, province of Buenos Aires). 

Genus HYDROPROGNE Kaup 

Hydroprogne Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Eur. Thierw., p. 91, 
1829 type, by subs, desig. (G. R. Gray, Gen. Bds., 3, p. [658], 1846), 
Sterna caspia Pallas=Sterna tschegrava Lepechin. 

Gylochelidon C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 767, 1831 
type, by monotypy, Sterna caspia Pallas. 

Helopus Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1224 type, by monotypy, Sterna caspia 
Pallas. 

Pontochelidon Hogg, Edinb. New Phil. Journ., 41, pp. 55, 69, July, 1846 
type, by subs, desig. (Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec., 2, p. 133, 1915), Sterna 
caspia Pallas. 

*Hydroprogne tschegrava tschegrava (Lepechin). CASPIAN 
TERN. 

Sterna Tschegrava Lepechin, Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Petrop., 14, (1), 
p. 500, pi. 13, fig. 2, 1770 Caspian Sea. 

Sterna caspia Pallas, Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Petrop., 14, (1), p. 582, pi. 22, 
fig. 2, 1770 Caspian Sea; Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 656 
(in part); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 202, 1921 (life hist.). 



, 

1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 301 

Thalasseus caspius Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 537 (monog.). 
Thalasseus imperator Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 538 (in 
text) North America (neither type nor type locality indicated). 

Hydroprogne caspia Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 32, 1896 (monog.); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 401, 1903 Mexico 
(Mazatlan, Presidio); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 461, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Witherby, Brit. Bds., 34, p. 184, 1941 Lake 
Michigan (banded), Yorkshire, England (recovered); Miller, Condor, 45, 
p. 220, 1943 San Francisco Bay (note on colony). 

Hydroprogne tschegrava imperator Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, p. 337, 1912 
North America (crit.); 1 Lincoln, Auk, 57, p. 569, 1940 Port au Prince, 
Haiti; Ludwig, Bds. Banding, Boston, 13, p. 1, 1942 Great Lakes 
(migration). 

Hydroprogne caspia imperator Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 62, 
1928 Lower California (breeding at Scammons Lagoon); Hayward, 
Condor, 37, p. 140, 1935 Great Salt Lake, Utah (breeding); Oberholser, 
Bird Life Louisiana, p. 305, 1938 Louisiana (breeding). 

Hydroprogne tschegrava tschegrava Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 331, 1934 (range); 
van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 93, 
1945 Guaymas and lower Colorado River, Sonora. 

Range. Nearly cosmopolitan. Breeds in North America at 
Great Slave Lake, Klamath Lake, Great Salt Lake, in Lower Cali- 
fornia (Scammons Lagoon), Lakes Winnipeg and Winnipegosis in 
Manitoba, Lakes Michigan and Huron, north shore of Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, coast of Virginia, South Carolina, and the Gulf coast 
from Mississippi to Texas; winters from the South Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts to Mexico. 

Field Museum Collection. 46: California (Moss Landing, 1); 
Texas (Cameron County, 6; Padre Island, 3; Corpus Christi, 5; 
Aransas County, 2; Seadrift, 4; Port Lavaca, 2); North Dakota 
(Nelson County, 1); Minnesota (Farm Island Lake, 1); Illinois (un- 
specified, 1); Louisiana (Buras, Plaquemines Parish, 2); Quebec 
(Magdalen Islands, 1); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 
11; Pea Island, 5); South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 1). 

Genus STERNA Linnaeus 

Sterna Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 137, 1758 type, by tautonymy, 

"Sterna" Sterna hirundo Linnaeus. 
Sternula Boie, Isis, 1822, (1), col. 563, Mar., 1822 type, by monotypy, 

Sterna minuta Linnaeus=Steraa albifrons Pallas. 

1 American specimens are on average slightly larger than those from Europe, 
but for a bird of this size this trifling divergency is altogether too slight to justify 
the retention of H. t. imperator. 



302 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chelido Billberg, Syn. Faun. Scand., 1, (2), p. 193, tab. A, 1828 substitute 

name for Sterna Linnaeus. 
Onychoprion Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 277 type, by monotypy, Sterna serrata 

Wagler (ex Forster MS. )= Sterna fuscata Linnaeus. 
Planetis Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1222 type, by monotypy, Sterna guttata 

Wagler = Sterna fuscata Linnaeus. 
Haliplana Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1224 type, by monotypy, Sterna fuliginosa 

Gmelin= Sterna fuscata Linnaeus. 
Melanosterna Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 15, p. 373, 1846 type, by 

monotypy, Sterna Anaethetus Scopoli. 
Dipsaleon Gistel, Naturg. Thierr. fur hohere Schulen, p. x, 1848 new name 

for Planetis Wagler. 

*Sterna hirundinacea Lesson. CASSIN'S TERN. 

Sterna hirundinacea (Cuvier MS.) Lesson, TraitS d'Orn., livr. 8, p. 621, 1831 
"c6tes du Bresil"= Santa Catharina (type in Paris Museum; cf. Pucheran, 
Rev. Mag. Zool., [2], 2, p. 539, 1850); Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1876, p. 647 (crit.; range); idem, I.e., 1877, p. 796 Messier Channel and 
Elizabeth Island, Straits of Magellan (breeding); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, 
p. 43 mouth of Chubut River, Patagonia; idem, I.e., 1878, p. 404 
Lake Colguape, Rio Sengel, and Tombo Point, Chubut (breeding); Sharpe, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 16 Tom Bay and Cockle Cove, Straits 
of Magellan; Saunders, I.e., 1882, p. 522 Callao Bay, Peru (Aug.), and 
Coquimbo Bay, Chile (Nov.); MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 208 Chimbote, 
Peru (Aug. 2-5); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 139, 1889 
Elizabeth Island and Point Grappler, Straits of Magellan; Oustalet, Miss. 
Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 183, 1891 Orange Bay and Ushuaia, Tierra del 
Fuego; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 210 coast off Montevideo, Uruguay; Reed, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 Chile; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 25, p. 52, 1896 Brazil (Bahia; Rio de Janeiro, May to Aug.; 
Santa Catharina), Argentina (80 miles south of Bahia Blanca; Chubut; 
Puerto Santa Cruz), Falkland Islands, Straits of Magellan, Chile (Co- 
quimbo), and Peru (Callao Bay, Chimbote); Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 
4, p. 658, 1898 Calbuco (Puerto Montt), Llanquihue (eggs descr.); 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 445, 1899 Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; 
Salvadori, Anal. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 40, p. 630, 1900 Rio 
de la Plata (Aug. 21); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 380, 
1902 Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego; Vallentin, Mem. Proc. Manchester 
Lit. Phil. Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 41, 1902 Falkland Islands (breeding); 
Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, pp. 42, 43 Straits of Magellan (Punta Arenas, etc.); 
Clarke, Ibis, 1906, p. 177 Saddle and Laurie Islands, South Orkneys 
(breeding); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 40, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape, 
Sao Sebastiao) and Patagonia (Santa Cruz); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. 
Zool., 16, p. 253, 1909 Isla de Lesner, mouth of Santa Cruz River, 
Patagonia; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 211, 1910 
Patagonia (Santa Cruz), Tierra del Fuego, South Orkney Islands, and 
estuary of La Plata River; Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. 
Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 180, 1910 Patagonia (descr.; range); Brooks, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 147, 1917 Falkland Islands (breeding); 



L948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 303 

Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, pp. 135, 138, 1918 (char.; range); Coker, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 56, p. 459, 1919 San Gallan Island and Islas de Santa 
Rosa, Peru (breeding); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 coast of 
Montevideo, Canelones, Maldonado, and Rocha, Uruguay; Bennett, I.e., 
p. 25, 1920 Falkland, South Shetland, and South Orkney Islands (breed- 
ing) ;'wace, l.c., p. 197, 1921 Falkland Islands; Paessler, Journ. Orn., 
70, p. 443, 1922 Isla Santa Maria, Arauco, and Coronel, Chile (eggs 
descr.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 138, 1926 below Cape 
San Antonio, Buenos Aires (Nov. 4); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, 
p. 426, 1926 San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 318 
part, Falkland Islands; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 405, 1932 Rio Inio, Chiloe Island, Chile (range in Chile); Reynolds, 
Ibis, 1932, p. 36 Woodcock Island, Beagle Channel (breeding); Peters, 
Eds'. World, 2, p. 332, 1934 (range); Reynolds, El Hornero, 5, p. 352, 
1934 Isla de los Conejos and Yewin, Tierra del Fuego; idem, Ibis, 
1935, p. 89 Cape Horn region (breeding); Ardley, Discovery Rep., 12, 
p. 373, 1936 South Orkney Islands; Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 
2, p. 1094, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul, 22, p. 149, 
1938 Sao Paulo (Iguape, Sao Sebastiao, Santos) and Patagonia (Santa 
Cruz); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 60, 1938 Arica, Tacna, 
Chile (crit.). 

Sterna hirundo (not of Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 865, 

1833 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (crit.); Bibra, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. 

Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 132, 1853 Valparaiso Bay, Chile. 

Sterna acutirostris Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 389, 1843-"in Oceani 

Pacifici littoribus"= coast of Peru (type in Neuchatel Museum); idem, 

Unters. Fauna Peru., Orn., p. 305, 1846 "highlands of Peru" (errore!). 

Sterna antarctica (not of Lesson, 1831) Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 280, 

1848 Orange Bay, "Cape Horn"=Tierra del Fuego (cotypes in U. S. 

National Museum and in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 

Mass cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 174, 1930); Philippi, 

Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 289, 1868 Straits of Magellan to Valdivia. 

Sterna wilsonii (not of Bonaparte) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, 

p. 451, 1856 coast of Brazil. 

Sterna meridionalis (not of Brehm, 1824) Cassin, U. S. Expl. Exp., Mamm. 

Orn, p. 385, 1858 Orange Bay, "Cape Horn" (substitute name for 

Sterna antarctica Peale); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 5, Sternae, p. 15, 

1864 Falkland Islands and Chile (crit.). 

Sterna aranea (not of Wilson) Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 314, 

I860 CMlo^ Island, Chile (breeding habits). 

Sterna cassinii Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 391, 1860-Falkland 
Islands (substitute name for Sterna antarctica Peale and S. mendionahs 
Cassin, preoccupied); Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 166-Falkland Islands (breed- 
ing); Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, pp. 153, 163, 1865-Chiloe 
Island, Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 336, 340-Chile; 
idem and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 284-Santiago Bay, Straits of Magellan 
(Dec. 7); iidem, I.e., 1870, p. 500-Coquimbo, Chile; iidem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 570 Falkland Islands, coast of Brazil 
Catharina), and Chile north to Valdivia. 



304 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sterna Trobeni (sic) Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 613, 
1861 Arica, Tacna, Chile (= winter plumage; type in National Museum, 
Santiago de Chile; cf. Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 60, 1938). 

Sterna frobeenii Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 125, 1863 
Arica Bay, Chile (German version of orig. descr.); Philippi, 1 Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 289, 1868 Valparaiso and Arica, Chile; Landbeck, 2 I.e., 41, 
p. 515, 1872 Arica and Corral (Valdivia), Chile (crit.); idem, 2 Arch. 
Naturg., 40, (1), p. 113, 1874 (German version); Philippi, 1 Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Chile, 15, p. 100, pi. 47, fig. 2, 1902 Arica (disc, of type). 

Range. Breeds on both coasts of South America from middle 
Peru (San Gallan Island, Pisco Bay) and the Patagonian coast of 
Argentina (north at least to the mouth of the Chubut River) south 
to Tierra del Fuego, also in the Falkland Islands; 3 winters north 
to Chimbote, Peru, and the bay of Bahia, Brazil. 

Field Museum Collection. 3: Chile (Rio Inio, Chiloe" Island, 1); 
Argentina (Quilmes, Buenos Aires, 1; Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz, 1). 

*Sterna hirundo hirundo Linnaeus. COMMON TERN. 

Sterna hirundo Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 137, 1758 based princi- 
pally on Fauna Svec., No. 127, Europe, restricted type locality, Sweden 
(cf. Lonnberg, Ibis, 1913, pp. 301-303); Hartert, Ibis, 1893, pp. 309, 
326, 337 Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire (crit.); idem, Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 309, 1902 Aruba and Bonaire; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. 
Ser., 1, p. 194, 1909 Aruba (crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
70, p. 244, 1918 Gatun Lake, Panama; Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 257 Lima, 
Peru (June 22); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 493, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 236, 1921 (life hist); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 186, 1926 Jambeli Island, Ecuador 
(July, Nov.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 63, 1928 Lower 
California (winter); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 127, 1932 
Puerto Barrios, Guatemala (Aug. 21); Clark, Auk, 61, p. 474, 1944 
Ohio. 

Sterna fluviatilis Naumann, Isis, 1819, col. 1847 rivers of Germany; Saunders, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 54, 1896 many localities from North America, 
Grenada (Sept. 14), Cayenne, Brazil (Bahia), and Guatemala (San Jose); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 403, 1903 San Jose", 
Guatemala (Dec. 8); Ihering, Cat. Fauna Braz., 1, p. 40, 1907 Bahia; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 309, 1908 Cayenne. 

Sterna wilsoni Bonaparte, Geog. Comp. List Bds., p. 61, 1838 based on 
Sterna hirundo Wilson, Amer. Orn., 7, p. 76, pi. 60, fig. 1, 1813, eastern 

1 Spelled frobeni. 

2 Spelled frobenii. 

3 Records from the South Shetland and South Orkney Islands are due to con- 
fusion with races of S. vittata (cf. Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, pp. 1095, 
1105, 1936). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 305 

United States; Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 134, 1859 Bahama 
Islands; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 325, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (July). 

Sterna fluviatilis (an subsp.?) Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 55, 1906 Seelet, 
Trinidad. 

Sterna hirundo hirundo Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 
9, p. 379, 1927 Puerto Rico (Johuda Bay, Aug. 28; near Cabo Rojo, 
March 4 to Oct. 29); idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 175, 
1931 Hispaniola (several records); Bradlee and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 39, p. 290, 1931 Bermuda Islands (visitant); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 332, 1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 309, 
1935 Canal Zone, Panama (two records); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 
1935, p. 295 Trinidad (winter visitant); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 
2, p. 1098, 1936 (monog.; range); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 149, 
1938 (range); Oberholser, Bird Life Louisiana, p. 293, 1938 (breeding); 
Palmer, Auk, 58, p. 164, pi. 7, 1941 (immature plumages); Williams, I.e., 
59, p. 578, 1942Bear River, Utah; Nichols and Bond, Mem. Soc. Cub. 
Hist. Nat., 17, p. 31, 1943 Virgin Islands (nesting); Peters and Burleigh, 
Auk, 62, p. 565, 1945 Newfoundland (nesting). 

Range. Breeds in North America from Great Slave Lake, 
northern Manitoba, central Ontario, Newfoundland, and the north 
shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence south locally to the Gulf of Mexico 
and southeastern Atlantic coasts, and the Florida keys, also Virgin 
Islands (Little Flat Cay) ; winters from Lower California and Florida 
south to the coasts of Ecuador and Peru (Lima) and on the Caribbean 
and Atlantic coasts of northern and eastern South America to Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil, and even to the coast of Patagonia (Puerto Deseado, 
Santa Cruz). 1 

Field Museum Collection. 173: Alberta (Walsh, 1) ; Saskatchewan 
(Quill Lake, 16; Maple Creek, 1); California (Eureka, 4; Pacific 
Grove, 1; Pacific Beach, 3); North Dakota (Benson County, 10; 
Nelson County, 13; Ramsey County, 3; Rolette County, 1); Wiscon- 
sin (Beaver Dam, 1); Illinois (Lake County, 3; Cook County, 6); 
Michigan (losco County, 1); Labrador (Kagaskka, 1); Quebec 
(Magdalen Islands, 4); New Brunswick (Grand Manan Island, 1); 
Nova Scotia (Pictou, 1; Clark's Harbor, 4; Seabright, 4; Dover, 
1) ; Prince Edward Island (Malpeque, 5) ; Massachusetts (Yarmouth, 
3; Chatham, 6; Monomoy Island, 22; Woepecket Island, 6); Rhode 
Island (Dyer Island, 1) ; Connecticut (New Haven County, 2) ; New 
York (Plum Island, 1; Shelter Island, 26; Napeague Harbor, 2; 
Suffolk County, 2); Virginia (Cobb's Island, 2); North Carolina (Pea 
Island, Dare County, 5); Florida (Amelia Island, 1; West Jupiter, 

1 No certain breeding record exists for any South American locality. Birds 
observed during the summer months in these countries were probably barren 
individuals lacking the physiological impulse to migrate. 



306 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1); Virgin Islands (St. Croix, 1); Mexico (Altamira, Tamaulipas, 3; 
Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, 1); Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 1); British 
Guiana (Kartabo, 1); Peru (Talara, 1). 

*Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan. ARCTIC TERN. 

Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan, Danske Atlas, 1, p. 622, 1763 no locality 
stated= Christiansoe, Denmark (cf. Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 46, 1764) j 1 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 499, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); 
Bent, I.e., 113, p. 249, 1921 (life hist.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 187, 1926 Tumbez, Peru (ex Taczanowski) ; Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 406, 1932 Arica (Oct. 4) and Valdivia, 
Chile; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 333, 1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. 
S. Amer., 2, p. 1099, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); idem, Amer. Mus. Nov., 
977, p. 6, 1938 (disc.; char.); Bray, Auk, 60, p. 529, 1943 Foxe Basin 
(nesting); Porsild, Canad. Field Nat., 57, p. 30, 1943 Mackenzie Delta 
(nesting); Eklund, Auk, 61, p. 648, 1944 Greenland (nesting); Soper, I.e., 
63, p. 237, 1946 Baffin Island (nesting). 

Sterna macrura Naumann, Isis, 1819, col. 1847 Island of Nordstrand, coast 
of Schleswig, Germany; Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 650 
off Bahia, Brazil (crit.; range); MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 203 Arica, 
Tacna, Chile (Oct. 4); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 62, 1896 
(monog.); Winge, Medd. Gr0nl., 21, p. 204, 1898 Greenland; Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 40, 1907 (range); Clarke, Ibis, 1907, p. 345 
Weddell Sea (wintering); Manniche, Medd. Gr0nl., 45, No. 1, p. 170, 
1910 northeastern Greenland (breeding habits); L0ppenthin, I.e., 91, 
No. 6, pp. 77, 123, 1932 Sand Island and Loch Fine, Greenland (nomencl.; 
meas.; breeding habits); Pedersen, I.e., 100, No. 11, pp. 7, 25, 1934 
northeastern Greenland (breeding); Bird and Bird, Ibis, 1941, p. 150 
eastern Greenland (range). 

Sterna arctica Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 2nd 6d., 2, p. 742, Oct., 1820 "les 
regions du cercle arctique" (no type extant); 2 Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 
31, p. 289, 1868 province of Valdivia, Chile. 

Sterna coccineirostris Reichenbach, Vollst. Naturg. Schwimmvogel, pi. 271, 
fig. 2262 (=Novit. viii=xxiic), 1836 "Mexico" (location of type not 
stated). 

Sterna pikei Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 6, p. 3, April, 1853 
vicinity of Monterey, California (type lost, formerly in coll. of Geo. 
N. Lawrence; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 273, 1932); 
Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 550 (disc, of type; crit.). 

1 Cf. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, Nachtrag 1, p. 85, 1923. L0ppenthin (Medd. 
Gr0nl., 91, No. 6, p. 77, note 1, 1932), however, considers the name S. paradisaea 
to be of questionable applicability. 

2 Temminck states that three specimens received through Mr. Sabine from 
Baffin's Bay and Davis Straits do not differ from others shot in Scotland and 
on the coast of England. None of these appear to exist nowadays in the Leyden 
Museum (cf. Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 5, Sternae, p. 15, 1864, s.n. S. para- 
disaea). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 307 

Sterna atrofasciata Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 21, p. 440, 
Nov., 1862 Laguna de Vichuquen, Curico, Chile (type in National 
Museum, Santiago; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, 
p. 30, 1930); iidem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 204, 1863 Llico, near the 
lagoon of Vichuquen, "Colchagua" (German version of orig. descr.); 
Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 102, pi. 47, fig. 1, 1902 Laguna 
of Vichuquen (=young). 1 

Sterna macroura Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 549 (monog.); 

Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 749 Tumbez, Peru (Sept. 

19). 
Sterna portlandica Ridgway, Amer. Nat., 8, No. 7, p. 433 (in text), July, 1874 

Portland Harbor, Maine (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, I.e., 9, 

pp. 54, 55, 1875 (crit.); Brewster, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 11, p. 201, 

1876 (crit. ;= immature). 
Sterna macrura antistropha Reichenow, Orn. Monatsber., 12, No. 3, p. 47, 

March, 1904 "coasts of the Antarctic continent" =Posadowsky Gulf, 

Lat. 66 S., [Long. 91 W.] 2 (type in Berlin Museum); Clarke, Ibis, 1907, 

p. 347 (crit.); Reichenow, Deuts. Sudpolar Exp., 9, p. 463, 1908 (fig. of 

head). 
Sterna paradisea Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, pp. 135, 138, 1918 (char.; range); 

Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 150, 1937 (range). 

Range. Circumpolar. Breeds in North America from the Arctic 
coast of Alaska, Parry Islands, northern Ellesmere Land, and north- 
ern Greenland south to the Aleutian Islands, northern British 
Columbia, lower Slave River, northern Manitoba, and Massa- 
chusetts; winters in the Antarctic Ocean; 3 accidental on the coasts 
of Peru (Tumbez), Chile (Arica, Tacna; Laguna of Vichuquen, 
Curico; Valdivia), and Brazil (off Caravellas, Bahia). 

Field Museum Collection 54: Alaska (Barrow, 5; Point Hope, 1; 
Nome, 5; St. Michaels, 7; Bethel, 1; Yukon River, 1; Stewart Island, 
1; Skagway, 1; Taku Glacier, 1); Yukon Territory (Tagish Lake, 4); 
Arctic Canada (Cumberland Sound, 1; Whale Point, Hudson Straits., 
1); Manitoba (Churchill, 1); Greenland (Godthaab, 1; Godhavn, 1; 
Egedesminde, 2; Sukkertoppen, 9; Musk-Ox Fjord, 1; Scoresby 
Sound, 1); Labrador (at sea, 1); California (Pacific Grove, 1; Moss 
Landing, 1); North Dakota (Nelson County, 1); Massachusetts 
(Chatham, 4; Muskeget Island, 1). 

1 S. atrofasciata, after all, seems to have been based upon a young Arctic Tern, 
since it is S. frobeni that proved to be S. hirundinacea. 

2 Cf. Reichenow, Sitzungsber. Gesells. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, 1904, No. 8, 
p. 172, Oct., 1904. 

3 Birds wintering in the Antarctic were erroneously supposed to belong to a 
breeding race (S. m. antistropha Reichenow). Cf. Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 
977, pp. 3-4, 1938. 



308 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sterna vittata georgiae Reichenow. 1 SOUTH GEORGIA TERN. 

Sterna vittata georgiae Reichenow, Orn. Monatsber., 12, No. 3, p. 47, March, 
1904 South Georgia (type in Berlin Museum); Lonnberg, Svensk. 
Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 40, No. 5, p. 64, 1906 South Georgia (crit.; 
habits); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 211, 1910 South 
Georgia; idem, El Hornero, 1, pp. 135, 138, 1918 part, South Georgia 
(char.); Wilkins, Ibis, 1923, p. 490 South Georgia; Mathews, Discovery 
Rep., 1, p. 582, pi. 54, fig. 2, 1929 South Georgia (nesting); Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 333, 1934 part, South Georgia; Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. 
Amer., 2, p. 1109, 1936 South Georgia (monog.; life hist.); (?)Ardley, 
Discovery Rep., 12, p. 373, 1936 South Orkneys (nesting); Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 22, p. 150, 1938 (range); Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 977, 
p. 12, 1938 South Georgia (char.; meas.). 

Sterna vittata (not of Gmelin) (?)Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 51, 
1895 part, spec, n., at sea, 147 miles southeast of Imbituba, Santa 
Catharina, Brazil (July); (?)Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 40, 1907 
off coast of Santa Catharina, Brazil (ex Saunders); Bennett, Ibis, 1931, 
p. 13 South Georgia (breeding); Eklund, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 89, 
No. 1, p. 304, 1945 Palmer Land (70 04' S.-68 W.). 

Range. Breeds in South Georgia; (?)accidental off the Brazilian 
coast (147 miles southeast of Imbituba, Santa Catharina). 2 

Sterna vittata gaini Murphy. 3 GAIN'S TERN. 

Sterna vittata gaini Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 977, p. 13, May 4, 1938 
Deception Island, South Shetlands (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York). 

Range. Breeds in the South Shetlands and probably other 
islands in the West Antarctic Archipelago. 4 

*Sterna trudeaui Audubon. TRUDEAU'S TERN. 

Sterna trudeaui(i) Audubon, Bds. Amer., fol. ed., 4, pi. 409, fig. 2, 1838; 
idem, Orn. Biog., 5, p. 125, 1839 "Great Egg Harbor in New Jersey"; 5 

1 Sterna vittata georgiae Reichenow differs from the extralimital nominate 
race (type locality, Kerguelen Island) by smaller bill, legs, and feet, and lesser 
development of the streamers of the outer rectrices. Wing, 246-270, (female) 
255-266; tail, 123-137, (female) 121-134; bill, 30-33, (female) 28^-30^; tarsus, 
16-18. 

2 This specimen possibly pertains to S. v. tristanensis Murphy (Amer. Mus. 
Nov., 977, p. 9, 1938 Tristan d'Acunha). 

3 Sterna vittata gaini Murphy: Similar to S. v. georgiae, but larger in all dimen- 
sions. Wing (male), 277-284; tail, 146-157; bill, 35-37; tarsus, 18-19. 

4 The breeding race of the South Orkney Islands (S. v. georgiae of Dabbene, El 
Hornero, 1, p. 138, 1918; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 333, 1934) is in doubt. Cf. 
Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 977, p. 12, 1938. 

8 There is some uncertainty about the present location of the type. Audubon, 
in describing the species, says: "The individual obtained was in company of a few 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 309 

Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 284, 1847 Chile 
(ex Gray); Lawrence, in Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 861, 
1858 "coasts of New Jersey and Long Island" (descr.); Coues, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 542 (monog.); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 
livr. 5, Sternae, p. 29, 1864 Brazil (crit.); Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, 
p. 289, 1868 coasts of Santiago and Colchagua, Chile; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 570 coast of Brazil and Chile (crit.); 
Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 41, p. 515, 1872 Chile (crit.); idem, Arch. 
Naturg., 40, (1), p. 113, 1874 Chile (crit.); Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1876, p. 660 southern Brazil, Argentina, and Chile (crit.); Durn- 
ford, Ibis, 1877, p. 200 Flores Island (La Plata), Punta Lara, and Monte- 
video; Holland, I.e., 1890, pp. 425, 428 Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires 
(breeding; eggs descr.); idem, I.e., 1892, p. 212 Est. Espartillar (Sept. 
to Feb.; breeding; eggs descr.); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 
1896 Chile; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 130, 1896 Brazil 
(Rio de Janeiro, Aug.; Santa Catharina, Aug.), Uruguay (Maldonado, 
Jan.), Argentina (Punta Lara, Oct.; Buenos Aires, Sept., Nov.; Ajo), 
and Chile; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 42, 1907 Sao Paulo (Sao 
Sebastiao) and Argentina (Buenos Aires; Santa Cruz, Patagonia); Hartert 
and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 253, 1909 Barracas al Sud and Est. San 
Martino Monte, Buenos Aires; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 211, 1910 "Chaco Austral" and estuary of Rio de la Plata; Scott 
and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 190, 1910 
(descr.); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 473 Los Yngleses, Luiconia, and Tuyu, 
Ajo, Buenos Aires; Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, pp. 134, 137, 1918 (char.; 
range); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 488, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 13, 1920 coasts of Monte- 
video, Canelones, and Maldonado, Uruguay; Gibson, Ibis, 1920, p. 75 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (breeding habits) ; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 113, p. 227, 1921 Argentina (La Plata to Punta Arenas), Brazil, 
and "St. Ambrose Island," Chile (life hist.; eggs descr.); Daguerre, El 
Hornero, 2, p. 261, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, 
p. 40, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., p. 162, 1923 Zelaya, 
Buenos Aires; Wilson, I.e., p. 351, 1926 Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe"; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 137, 1926 Buenos Aires (near 
Lavalle, Dolores) and Uruguay (near Carrasco; La Paloma, Rocha; 
Laguna Castillos, below San Vicente) (habits; soft parts); Friedmann, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 164, 1927 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 404, 1932 Chile 
(excl. of syn. S. frobeni); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 334, 1934 (range); 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1114, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 151, 1938 Sao Paulo (Sao Sebastiao), 

others of the same kind." Both Lawrence (in Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 
9, p. 861, 1858) and Coues (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 542) described 
"a typical specimen" in the collection of J. P. Giraud "supposed to be also the 
original of Audubon's plate and description" (Coues). This example is stated by 
Orton (Amer. Nat., 4, p. 716, 1871) to be in the collection of Vassar College, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and would seem to have ample claims for being the real 
type. Still, Ridgway (1919, p. 489) lists the type, though with a question mark, 
as being in the U. S. National Museum. 



310 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Patagonia (Santa Cruz), and Buenos Aires; Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
44, p. 130, 1940 (migration and other habits). 

Thalasseus Trudeaui G. R. Gray, List Spec. Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, p. 176, 1844 
Chile. 

Range. Breeds in province of Buenos Aires (Est. Espartillar; 
Cape San Antonio, district of Ajo); occurs on the Chilean coast 
from Valparaiso 1 to the Straits of Magellan (Punta Arenas) and on 
the Atlantic coast of South America north to Rio de Janeiro, and 
extends along the La Plata River inland to provinces of Santa F4 
and Entre Rios. 2 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Brazil (Santa Catharina, 1). 
*Sterna forsteri Nuttall. FORSTER'S TERN. 

Sterna forsteri Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, 2, p. 274 (note), 1834 
based on Sterna hirundo (not of Linnaeus) Swainson and Richardson, 
Fauna Bor.-Amer., 2, "1831," p. 412, pub. Feb., 1832, banks of the 
Saskatchewan between Cumberland House and Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba 
(no type extant); Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 544 
(monog.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 569 
Guatemala (Lake Duenas) and Brazil (300 miles off Pernambuco); 
Saunders, I.e., 1876, p. 651 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, 
p. 46, 1896 North America, Lower California (La Paz), Oaxaca (Tehuan- 
tepec), Guatemala (Lake of Duenas), and Brazil (200-300 miles off 
Pernambuco); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 402, 
1903 Mexico (Mazatlan, San Mateo, Ventosa Bay, Tehuantepec) and 
Guatemala (Lake of Duenas); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), 
p. 490, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Bent, I.e., 113, p. 229, 1921 (life hist.); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 63, 1928 Lower California; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 127, 1932 Lake of Duenas, 
Guatemala; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 334, 1934 (range); Pinto, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 22, p. 150, 1938 (range); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana 
State Univ., 21, p. 93, 1945 Sonora, Mexico (winter visitant). 

Sterna havelli Audubon, Bds. Amer., folio ed., pi. 409, fig. 1, 1838; idem, Orn. 
Biog., 5, p. 122, 1839 opposite New Orleans, Louisiana (descr. of winter 
plumage; type in U. S. National Museum?); 3 Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 543 (crit.). 

Range. Breeds locally in the interior of North America from 
Washington, Alberta, Manitoba, and western Ontario (formerly) 
south to California, Great Salt Lake, Colorado, northern Nebraska, 

1 The breeding on San Ambrosio Island, as reported by Bent, is open to 
doubt (cf. Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1115, 1936). 

2 Audubon's original locality, "Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey," is open to 
doubt. 

3 Oberholser appears to have seen the type, but does not state the collection 
where it is preserved. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 311 

Minnesota, and northern Illinois; also on the coasts of Virginia, 
Louisiana, and Texas; 1 winters from southern California, the Gulf 
coast and South Carolina to Guatemala; accidental off the coast of 
Brazil (200-300 miles from Pernambuco). 

Field Museum Collection. 86: Alberta (Walsh, 1); California 
(Redwood, 3; Moss Landing, 1; Los Banos, 8; Hyperion, 5; Los 
Angeles, 1; Los Angeles County, 3; Sunset Beach, 6; San Diego 
Bay, 2; San Diego, 1; Pacific Beach, 1); Texas (Cameron County, 4; 
Corpus Christi, 6; Port Lavaca, 1; Tivoli, 2) ; North Dakota (Ramsey 
County, 3); Illinois (Cook County, 1); Indiana (Miller, 1; Michigan 
City, 1); Louisiana (Buras, 1); Mississippi (Ocean Springs, 1); 
Virginia (Cobb's Island, 8); North Carolina, Dare County (Pea 
Island, 15; Hatteras, 2); South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 2); 
Florida (Pilot Town, 1; Punta Rassa, 1; Amelia Island, 2; Santa 
Rosa County, 2). 

*Sterna dougallii dougallii Montagu. ROSEATE TERN. 

Sterna Dougallii 2 Montagu, Orn. Diet. Suppl., unpaged text and plate, 1813 
Cumbrey Islands, Firth of Clyde, Scotland (cotypes in British Museum 
[cf. Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 73, 1896] and in Liverpool 
Museum [cf. Forbes and Robinson, Bull. Liverpool Mus., 2, p. 54, 1899]); 
Sundevall, Oefvers. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 26, p. 589, 1869 St. Bar- 
tholomew; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 571 coast 
of Cuba, St. Bartholomew, Belize, and Trinidad; Saunders, I.e., 1876, 
p. 652 part, Europe and America (crit.); Cory, Auk, 8, pp. 46, 48, 351, 
1891 Antigua, Guadeloupe, and Inagua (Bahama Islands) (crit.); idem, 
Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 82, 1892 Bahama Islands (New Providence, Great 
Inagua), Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, St. Bartholomew, Antigua, Guade- 
loupe, Dominica, Martinique, and Grenada; Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 310 
Aruba (breeding; crit.); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 70, 1896 
part, spec, a-h, i"-z", Great Britain, Madeira, United States, British Hon- 
duras (Grassy Cay), Antigua, Guadeloupe, and St. Vincent; Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 9, p. 308, 1902 Aruba (breeding; crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 404, 1903 Mexico (Ventosa Bay, Tehuantepec) 
and British Honduras (Belize, Grassy Cay); G. M. Allen, Auk, 22, p. 117, 
1905 Bahama Islands (outer cays; breeding); Bureau, Ornis, 14, pp. 289- 
346, pi. 13, 1907 (monog.; plumages; ecology; range in part); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 505, 1919 (monog.; in part); Bent, I.e., 
113, p. 256, 1921 (life hist.). 

1 Since the above was written, Dr. Oberholser (Bull. No. 28, Dept. Conserv. 
State of Louisiana, p. 290, 1938) has separated the breeding birds of the South 
Atlantic and Gulf coast, on account of smaller size and paler gray upper parts, 
as S. forsteri litoricola (type, from Smith Island, Northampton County, Virginia, 
in U. S. National Museum). Judging from a series of Texas breeding birds, this 
form seems to be quite recognizable. 

2 Frequently spelled dougalli. 



312 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sterna rosea Graves, Brit. Orn., 3, text and plate, 1821 new name for S. 

dougallii Montagu. 

Sterna Macdougalli Macgillivray, Man. Brit. Orn., 2, p. 233, 1842 emenda- 
tion of S. dougallii Montagu. 

Sterna paradisea (not S. paradisaea Pontoppidan) Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 551 (monog.); LSotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 539, 1866 
Trinidad; Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 199 Grassy Cay, off British Honduras; 
Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 391, 1875 coasts of Cuba and Puerto Rico. 

Sterna dougalli gracilis (not Sterna gracilis Gould) Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., 
pp. 82, 135, 1892 Antigua and Redonda (crit.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 32, p. 257, 1905 St. Vincent, Grenada, and Grenadines (Frigate 
Island and Rose Rock; breeding; nest and eggs descr.). 

Sterna dougalli(i) dougallii) Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 368, 
1916 Isles Les Saintes and Tete Anglaise, Guadeloupe (breeding); 
Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 379, 1927 
Puerto Rico; idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 176, 1931 
Cayos de los Pajaros, Hispaniola (breeding); Bradlee, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 39, p. 292, 1931 Bermuda Islands (rare visitor); Peters, Bds. 
World, 2, p. 334, 1934 (range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 295 
Trinidad and Tobago (winter visitor); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 
2, p. 1117, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 151, 
1938 Bahia, Brazil (ex Peters); Nichols and Bond, Mem. Soc. Cub. 
Hist. Nat., 17, p. 31, 1943 Virgin Islands (breeding in many localities). 

Range. Breeds on the Atlantic coast of America, 1 from Sable 
Island, off Nova Scotia, to Long Island, in Florida, the Bahama 
Islands, on cays off British Honduras, in Hispaniola, the Virgin 
Islands, on some of the Lesser Antilles south to the Grenadines, 
and on Aruba Island, off Venezuela; extralimitally in the British 
Isles, islands off Jutland, coast of Brittany, on islets off southern 
Tunisia, etc.; winters from Louisiana and the Bahama Islands to 
Tobago, Trinidad and even as far south as Bahia, Brazil; 2 accidental 
on the west coast of Mexico (Ventosa Bay, Tehuantepec). 

Field Museum Collection. 56: Massachusetts (Woods Hole, 1; 
Chatham, 11; Monomoy Island, 3; Raynham, 1; Woepecket Island, 
7; Nantucket, 1; Muskeget Island, 2); Connecticut (Guilford, 1); 
New York (Shelter Island, 6); North Carolina (Pea Island, Dare 
County, 1); Bahama Islands (Acklin, 2; Great Inagua, 3; Long 

1 Birds from North America do not differ in the least from the European 
ones. It is now established that the color of the bill, which gave rise to the segrega- 
tion of an alleged West Indian race, depends on season. Breeding birds from 
Antigua and St. Vincent cannot be separated from others taken in Massachusetts. 
For detailed information about plumage, molt, ecology, and geographical distribu- 
tion of the species in its entirety the reader is referred to Louis Bureau's admirable 
monographic essay. 

2 Specimens were collected by R. H. Beck off Bahia on April 28, 1916. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 313 

Island, 1); Virgin Islands (Antigua, 7; St. Thomas, 1); Lesser 
Antilles (Guadeloupe Island, 8). 

*Sterna aleutica Baird. ALEUTIAN TERN. 

Sterna aleutica Baird, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1, p. 321, pi. 31, fig. 1, 1869 
Kodiak Island, Alaska (type in U. S. National Museum); Saunders, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 665 (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
25, p. 98, 1896 St. Michaels, Alaska, and Inaboye (off Yedo), Japan 
(monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 513, 1919 (monog.; 
full bibliog.); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 132, 1920 Copper Island 
(Sept. 7); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 265, 1921 (lite hist.); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 337, 1934 (range). 

Range. Breeds on Sakhalin and on two small islands in Norton 
Sound, Alaska, and has also occurred on the Alaskan mainland, in 
northeastern Siberia, and on the Commander Islands (Copper 
Island, Sept. 7); winters on the west coast of the North Pacific 
Ocean to Sakhalin and northern Japan. 

Field Museum Collection 4: Alaska (St. Michaels, 4). 

*Sterna anaethetus recognita (Mathews). 1 CARIBBEAN BRIDLED 
TERN. 

Melanosterna anaethetus recognita Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, (4), p. 403, 
Nov. 1, 1912 Bahama Islands (location of type not stated). 

Onychoprion panayensis (not Sterna panayensis Gmelin) Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 572 cays of British Honduras and West 
Indies (Sombrero Island). 

Sterna anaestheta (not Sterna anaethetus Scopoli) Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1876, p. 664 (char.; range in part); Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 310 
coral reef off Cero Colorado, Aruba (breeding); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 25, p. 101, 1896 part, spec. q 3 -e 4 , Florida (Cape Canaveral), 
Bahama Islands (Clarence Harbor), Jamaica, Redonda, Guadeloupe, 
St. Vincent, Grenada, and British Honduras (Southern Water and Saddle 
Cays); Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 314 Washerwoman Cay, Andros, Bahama 
Islands (breeding); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, 
p. 408, 1903 cays off Belize coast (Lighthouse Reef, Saddle Cay, Curlew 
Cay, Southern Water Cay). 

Haliplana anaestheta Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 29, p. 400, 1881 Cayo Mono 
Grande, Cuba (breeding). 

Sterna anaethetus Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 632, 1887 Lee Rocks, 
Grenadines (breeding); Scott, Auk, 8, p. 360, 1891 Jamaica (breeding 
habits; eggs); Cory, Cat. West Ind. Bds., p. 83, 1892 Bahama Islands 

1 An earlier name is probably Sterna melanoptera Swainson (Bds. W. Afr., 
2, p. 249, 1837 West Africa; type in University Museum, Cambridge, &ngi.;, 
as intimated by Hartert (Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1711, 1921),. but until comparison 
of adequate breeding birds from both sides of the Atlantic has been made, it 
seems advisable to retain Mathews' term, which is of unquestionable pertinence. 



314 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Abaco, New Providence, Andros, Long Island, Miraporvos), Cuba, 
Jamaica, Sombrero, Guadeloupe, and Dominica; Field, Auk, 11, p. 119, 
1894 cays in Kingston Harbor, Jamaica (breeding); G. M. Allen, I.e., 22, 
p. 118, 1905 Long Rock, off Abaco, Bahama Islands; Riley, I.e., p. 353, 
1905 Andros, Eleuthera, and near Abaco, Bahama Islands; Clark, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 258, 1905 St. Vincent, Grenada, and Grena- 
dines (breeding on Lee Rocks and Rose Rock). 

Sterna anaetheta Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 309, 1902 Aruba; Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 287, 1921 (life hist.). 

Sterna anaetheta recognita Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 512, 
1919 (monog.; full bibliog.). 

Sterna anaetheta melanoptera Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, 9, p. 380, 1927 Mona and Desecheo Islands (breeding; eggs 
descr.); idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 177, 1931 
Hispaniola (various records) ; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 337, 1934 (range) ; 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1118, 1936 (monog.; life hist.). 

Range. Breeds in the Bahama Islands, Jamaica, Cuba (Cayo 
Mono Grande), Puerto Rico (Desecheo and Mona Islands), islets 
off St. Thomas, Dominica, Guadeloupe, the Grenadines (Lee Rocks, 
Rose Rock), on Aruba Island, in the southern Caribbean Sea, and 
on cays off British Honduras (Saddle Cay, etc.) ; occasional in Tobago; 
accidental in Florida (Cape Canaveral), Georgia, and South Carolina 
(Frogmore, Aug. 25, 1885). 

Field Museum Collection. 26: Bahama Islands (Grassy Creek 
Cays, 1; Long Island, 4; Miraporvos Island, 2); Virgin Islands (St. 
Thomas, 2); Lesser Antilles (Dominica, 6; Guadeloupe, 10; Martini- 
que, 1). 

Sterna anaethetus nelsoni Ridgway. PACIFIC BRIDLED TERN. 

Sterna anaetheta nelsoni Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), pp. 487, 
514, 1919 Sihuatanejo, Guerrero, Mexico (type in U. S. National Mu- 
seum); Wetmore, Condor, 25, p. 171, 1923 Cape Mala, Panama (Sept. 24, 
1922); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 309, 1935 off Cape 
Mala, Panama. 

Sterna anaethetus nelsoni Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 338, 1934 (range). 

Range. Pacific coast of Mexico (Sihuatanejo, Guerrero); also 
recorded from Cape Mala, Panama (breeding place unknown). 

*Sterna fuscata fuscata Linnaeus. SOOTY TERN. 

Sterna fuscata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 228, 1766 based on 
"L'Hirondelle-deMer brune" Brisson, Orn., 6, p. 220, pi. 21, fig. 1, San 
Domingo (type in Reaumur Collection); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
113, p. 279, 1921 (life hist.); Wilkins, Ibis, 1923, p. 510 Ascension Island. 

Sterna fuliginosa Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 605, 1789 based on "L'Hiron- 
delle de Mer a grande envergure" Buffon (Hist. Nat. Ois., 8, p. 345; 



L948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 315 

Ascension Island), "Sooty Tern" Latham (Gen. Syn. Bds., (3), 2, p. 352; 
New York), etc.; 1 Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 134, 1859 
Bahama Islands (breeding on the cays); Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1876, p. 666 (monog.; in part); idem, I.e., 1877, p. 796 part, Boatswain 
Island, Ascension; Penrose, Ibis, 1879, p. 277 Boatswain Island, Ascen- 
sion (breeding; descr. nest, eggs, and young); Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 9, p. 632, 1887 Grenadines (Isle de Rhonde, Kick-'em-Jenny, 
Lee Rocks, etc.; breeding); Young, Ibis, 1891, p. 145 Morant Cays, 
Jamaica; Scott, Auk, 8, p. 361, 1891 Jamaica (breeding; habits; descr. 
eggs); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 83, 1892 Bahama Islands, Greater 
and Lesser Antilles; Field, Auk, 11, p. 120, 1894 Morant, Pedro, and 
other cays, Jamaica (breeding); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 106, 
1896 part, spec, a-n, p, s-z, Texas (Corpus Christi), British Honduras 
(South Water Cay), Brazil (mouth of the Amazon, Fernando Noronha 
Island), and Ascension Island; Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 314 Washerwoman 
Cays, Andros Island, Bahamas (breeding); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 409, 1903 part, British Honduras (Curlew 
Cay, Saddle Cay, Southern Water Cay), Honduras (Ruatan Island), 
and Nicaragua (Greytown); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 39 Fernando Noronha 
(breeding); Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 280, 1904 Antigua; Clark, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 258, 1905 southern Grenadines (Isle de 
Rhonde, Kick-'em-Jenny, Lee Rocks, Bonaparte Rock, Isla de Large; 
breeding); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 309, 1906 Cayenne (ex Latham); 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 41, 1907 (range off Brazil); Cory, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 195, 226, 1909 Aruba and Los Her- 
manos Islands (breeding). 
Sterna spadicea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 610, 1789 based on "Brown 

Tern" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (2), p. 359, Cayenne. 
Anous L' Herminieri Lesson, Oeuvr. Buffon, ed. LevSque, 20, (Descr. Mamm. 

et Ois.), p. 255, 1847 Guadeloupe. 

Haliplana fuliginosa Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 556 (monog.; 
in part); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 393, 1875 Cayo Mono Grande, 
Cuba (breeding habits). 
Onychoprion fuliginosus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 

572 part, Cuba, Jamaica, and Belize. 

Sterna fuscata fuscata Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 369, 1916 
Guadeloupe (breeding on outlying cays); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 514, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto 
Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 381, 1927 Puerto Rico, Mona Island, 
and Tortola; idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 177, 1931 
Hispaniola (breeding); Bradlee, Mowbray, and Eaton, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 39, p. 292, 1931 Bermuda Islands (rare visitant); Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 304, 1932 Puerto Castilla, Honduras; 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 338, 1934 (range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 
1935, p. 295 Soledade Rock (off Trinidad) and Tobago (breeding); 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1121, 1936 (monog.; distr.; life hist.); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 151, 1938 Fernando Noronha and coast 
of Brazil. 
1 Some of the other references do not pertain to this tern. 



316 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Breeds from the Dry Tortugas, Florida, and the Bahama 
Islands through the West Indies and islands off the east coast of 
Central America to islands in the southern Caribbean Sea (Los 
Hermanos Islands; Soledade Rock, off Trinidad; Tobago), also on 
Fernando Noronha, Rocas Reef, South Trinidad, Martin Vas, 
Ascension Island, and other extralimital islands; on migration to 
the east coast of South America (Cayenne; mouth of the Amazon) 1 
and the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. 

Field Museum Collection. 15: Texas (Padre Island, Gulf coast, 
2; Corpus Christi, 4); Bahama Islands (Brown's Cay, 1; Miraporvos 
Island, 1) ; Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, 2) ; Lesser Antilles (Anguilla, 
1; Dominica, 1); Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 1); Venezuela (Orquilla 
Island, Nueva Esparta, 2). 

*Sterna fuscata crissalis (Lawrence). SOCORRO SOOTY TERN. 

Haliplana fuliginosa var. crissalis (Baird MS.) Lawrence, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 14, "1871," p. 285, pub. April, 1872 vicinity of Tres Marias 
Islands and (breeding) "Isabele" Island, near San Bias, Mexico (type, 
from Socorro Island, in U. S. National Museum); Grayson, I.e., p. 301, 
1872 Socorro Island; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 318, 1874 
Socorro and Tres Marias Islands. 

Haliplana fuliginosa (not Sterna fuliginosa Gmelin) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 161 Santiago de Veragua, Panama. 

Sterna fuliginosa Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 106, 1896 part, 
spec, o, q, r, Veragua, Panama, and Mazatlan; Anthony, Auk, 15, p. 316, 
1898 Socorro Island (breeding); Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
6, p. 191, 1899 Culpepper and Wenman Islands, Galapagos (crit.); 
iidem, I.e., 9, p. 413, 1902 Culpepper and Clipperton Islands (breeding); 
Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 4, p. 505, 1902 Clipperton 
Island (meas.; egg descr.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
3, p. 409, 1903 part, Socorro Island, Mexico (Mazatlan, Isabel Island, 
Tres Marias), and Panama (Veraguas); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. 
Acad. Sci., 5, p. 239, 1904 Wenman and Culpepper Islands, Galapagos; 
Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, p. 19, 1913 Grossman, Culpepper, 
and Wenman Islands, Galapagos; McLellan, I.e., (4), 15, p. 283, 1926 
Alijos Rocks (off Lower California), Roca Partida (breeding), Oneal 
Rock (near Socorro), and Isabel Island (breeding). 

Sterna fuliginosa crissalis Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 24, 1899 Isabel 
Island, off Mexico (breeding; habits; crit.); Bailey, Auk, 23, p. 378, 
1906 Isabel Island (breeding); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
(8), p. 519, 1919 (monog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 63, 
1928 off Abreojos Point and Alijos Rocks, off Lower California; Swarth, 
Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 66, 1931 Galapagos; Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 338, 1934 (range); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 309, 

1 The locality Falkland Islands, quoted by Ridgway, is a mistake. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 317 

1935 Panama (Canal Zone and Veragua); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 
2, p. 1121, 1936 (char.; range); Wetmore, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 98, No. 22, 
p. 5, 1939 Clipperton Island. 

Range. Breeds on Isabel Island, the Revillagigedo group, Clip- 
perton Island, and the northern Galapagos (Culpepper and Wenman 
Islands); on migration to the west coast of America from Lower 
California to Panama. 

Field Museum Collection 2: Pacific Ocean (3 27' N.-88 31' 
W., 1; 1 23' N.-90 02' W., 1). 

Sterna fuscata luctuosa Philippi and Landbeck. 1 CHILEAN 
SOOTY TERN. 

Sterna luctuosa Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 32, (1), p. 126, 1866 
Rio Valdivia, between Corral and Valdivia, Chile (type in National 
Museum, Santiago de Chile; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Boll. Mus. Nac. 
Santiago, 13, p. 29, 1930); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 337, 
340 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 289, 1868 Valdivia; 
idem, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 101, pi. 46, fig. 1, 1902 Rio Valdivia. 

Sterna fuscata luctuosa Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 
407, 1932 Rio Valdivia, Chile (crit.); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 
2, p. 1121, 1936 San Felix Island (breeding), Rio Valdivia, and off 
Valparaiso, Chile (char.). 

Range. Breeds at San Felix Island, Chile; known also from 
waters around the Juan Fernandez Islands and from the coast of 
Chile (off Valparaiso; Rio Valdivia). 2 

*Sterna superciliaris Vieillot. 3 YELLOW-BILLED TERN. 

Sterna superciliaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 32, p. 176, 
1819 based on "Hati ceja blanca" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax., 3, 
p. 377, No. 415, Paraguay; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1866, p. 200 Ucayali, Peru; iidem, I.e., 1867, p. 593 Rio Tocantins, 
Para; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturh. Foren., 1870, p. 19 Lagoa 
Santa and Lake Sumidouro, Minas Geraes; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 

1 Sterna fuscata luctuosa Philippi and Landbeck; Very close to S. f. crissalis, 
but larger, grayer on the under parts, and more dusky on the rectrices. Wing, 
306-327; tail, 170-187; bill, 42-48. While obviously separable from S. f. crissalis, 
the distinctness of this form from the Hawaiian S. f. oahuensis (Bloxham) remains 
to be ascertained by the comparison of adequate series. 

2 Birds observed at Independencia Bay, Peru, might have been this race. 

3 Sterna superciliaris Vieillot, though superficially resembling S. albifrons 
antillarum, is nevertheless quite distinct by reason of its darker gray upper parts, 
stouter bill, and olivaceous (not bright yellow) feet. The bill is always wholly yellow, 
and the black loral streak is more restricted. ' Saunders (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1876, p. 662) rightly insisted on the specific distinctness of the two birds, while 
our own remarks (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 497, 1929) on this 
subject miss the point. C.E.H. 



318 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 571 Cuyaba, Brazil, and Ucayali, Peru (crit.); 
iidem, I.e., 1873, p. 310 lower Ucayali and Santa Cruz, Peru; Salvin, 
Ibis, 1874, p. 319 (crit. note on type of S. argentea Wied); Saunders, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 662 (crit.; range); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 201 
Montevideo, Uruguay, and Baradero, Buenos Aires; White, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 628 Itapua, Misiones; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, 
p. 321, 1889 Sarayacu, Ucayali, Peru; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 
2, p. 197, 1889 Rio Parana, Argentina; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
25, p. 124, 1896 British Guiana (Rupununi River), Surinam, Brazil 
(Rio Tocantins, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo), Peru (Santa Cruz), Uruguay 
(Colonia), and Argentina (Baradero, Rio Parana); Ihering, Rev. Mus. 
Paul, 3, p. 446, 1899 Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 16, 1900 Carandasinho, Matto Grosso; 
Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 132, 1902 Caicara, Orinoco 
River, Venezuela; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 452, 1904 Rio Jurua, 
Brazil; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 41, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape, Sao 
Sebastiao) and Amazonas (Rio Jurua); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 23, 
1908 Cachoeira, Tapajo, and Monte Verde, Rio Purus; Berlepsch, I.e., 
p. 309, 1908 (no record from French Guiana); Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 
16, p. 253, 1909 Mocovi, Santa Fe, and Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires; 
Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, Orn., p. 187, 
1910 "northern Patagonia" (errore!); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 211, 1910 Chaco (Mocovi), Corrientes (Bella Vista), and 
Barracas al Sud; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
76, p. 97, 1910 Bahia (Barra do Rio Grande), Maranhao (Remanso do 
Arasa, Rio Parnahyba), and Piauhy (mouth of the Rio Poty near There- 
zina), Brazil; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 473 Argentine Chaco (Riacho Ancho) 
and Paraguay (Desaguadero, Colonia Risso, Puerto Braga); Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 138, 1912 
Marajo Island, Para, Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 80, 1914 
Peixe-Boi (Para) and Rio Purus (Cachoeira, Tapajo, Monte Verde), 
Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 374, 1916 Orinoco 
River, Venezuela; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 44, 
1918 Tijgerbank, Surinam; Gibson, Ibis, 1920, p. 77 Cape San Antonio, 
Buenos Aires; Delacour, I.e., 1923, p. 139 Rio Apure, Venezuela; Wet- 
more, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 139, 1926 Paraguay (Puerto 
Pinasco) and Uruguay (near Carraseo, San Vicente); Friedmann, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 165, 1927 Bovril Islands, Santa Fe; Young, 
Ibis, 1928, p. 766 coast land of British Guiana; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 60, p. 75, 1930 Matto Grosso; Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 339, 1934 (range); Davis, Ibis, 1935, p. 531 Rupununi River, British 
Guiana (nest and eggs); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1132, 1936 
(monog.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 151, 1938 Amazonas (Rio 
Jurua, Manacapuru), Para (Belem; Pau da Lettra, Rio Tapajoz), Minas 
Geraes (Pirapora), Sao Paulo (Piassaguera, Casqueirinho, Canan6a, 
Sao Sebastiao), and Rio Grande do Sul (Itaquy); Niceforo, Caldasia, 3, 
p. 374, 1945 Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia; Gyldenstolpe, K. Svensk. 
Vetensk. Akad. Handl., (3), 22, p. 44, 1945 Santo Antonio, Rio Jurua, 
Brazil; idem, I.e., (3), 23, p. 75, 1945 Puerto Salinas, El Beni, Bolivia. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 319 

Sterna maculata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 176, 1819 
based on "Hati manchado" Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Pax., 3, p. 379, 
No. 416, Paraguay (=young). 

Sterna argentea Wied, Reise Bras., 1, p. 67, 1820 Rio Parahyba, Rio de 
Janeiro (type now in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 272, 1889); idem, Beitr. 
Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 871, 1833 Sagoarema and Rio Parahyba, Rio 
de Janeiro; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 452, 1856 Brazil; 
idem Journ. Orn., 8, p. 267, 1860 Rio Parana, near Santa Fe and Parana, 
Argentina; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 419, 1861 Rio Parana; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 325, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba), Sao Paulo (Ypa- 
nema), Matto Grosso (Cuyaba), and Para (Cajutuba), Brazil. 

Sternula superdliaris Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 139, 1918 (range); Seri6 
and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 40, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Tremoleras, 
I.e., 2, p. 13, 1928 coasts of Colonia and Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Sterna superdliaris (subsp.?) Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 497, 1929 Sao Luiz, Maranhao, Brazil (crit.). 

Range. Rivers of South America east of the Andes from Co- 
lombia, Venezuela, and the Guianas south through Peru and Brazil 
to eastern Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and northeastern Argentina 
(Rio Parana to the coast of the province of Buenos Aires). 

Field Museum Collection. 6: Peru (Lagunas, Loreto, 4); British 
Guiana (Rockstone, 2). 

*Sterna lorata Philippi and Landbeck. PERUVIAN TERN. 

Sterna lorata Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, \9, p. 612, Nov., 
1861 Arica Bay, Tacna, Chile (type in National Museum, Santiago de 
Chile- cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, p. 30, 1930); 
idem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 124, 1863-Arica Bay (German version 
of orig. descr.); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 126, 1896-Peru 
(Callao Bay; Paracas Bay; coast near Lima) and Chile; Philippi, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 103, pi. 45, fig. 2, 1902-Arica (descr. and fig. 
of type); Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 258 Eten, Lambayeque, Peru (Sept.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 187, 1926-off Santa Clara 
Island, Ecuador (July); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p 407, 1932 Arica, Chile; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 340, 1934 (range); 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1134, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); 
Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, p. 60, 1938 Arica (Sept. 7). 
Sterna exilis (not of Tschudi) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 336, 
340-Chile; idem and Salvin, I.e., 1871, p. 572-coast of Peru (near Lima) 
and Chile (Arica) (crit.); Saunders, I.e., 1876, p. 663 (crit.); idem, I.e., 
1882, p. 522 Paracas Bay, Peru (Oct.; crit.); MacFarlane, Ibis, 1 87, 
p. 204 San Lorenzo Island, Callao Bay, Peru (Aug.). 

Sterna loricata G. R. Gray, Hand-List Gen. Spec. Bds., 3, p. 121, 1871 (lapsus 
for S. lorata Ph. and L.). 



320 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Breeds on the coast and islands of Peru, occurring north 
to Santa Clara Island, Ecuador, and south to Arica Bay, extreme 
northern Chile. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 1: Peru (Talara, 1). 

*Sterna albifrons antillarum (Lesson). LEAST TERN. 

Sternula Antillarum Lesson, Oeuvr. Buffon, ed. Leveque, 20, (Descr. Mamm. 
Ois.), p. 256, 1847 Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles (descr. of adult; location 
of type not designated). 

Sternula melanorhynchus Lesson, Oeuvr. Buffon, 6d. Leveque, 20, (Descr. 
Mamm. Ois.), p. 257, 1847 Guadeloupe (descr. of young; location of 
type not designated). 

Sterna frenata Gambel, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, for Dec., 1848, p. 128, 
pub. 1849 new name for Sterna argentea (not of Wied) Nuttall, Man. 
Orn. U. S. and Canada, Water Birds, p. 280, 1834, eastern United States. 

Sterna antillorum Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 552 (monog.); 
Salvin, Ibis, 1864, pp. 384, 387 Long Cay and Grassy Cay, British 
Honduras (breeding); Coues, I.e., 1864, p. 390 Glover's Reef, British 
Honduras (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 571 
Cuba, Trinidad, and British Honduras (crit.); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, 
p. 391, 1875 cays of Cuba (breeding habits; descr. of plumages) ; Saunders, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 661 (crit.; range); Feilden, Ibis, 1889, 
p. 502 Barbados (Chancery Lane, Sept. 8, Oct. 17); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. 
Bds., p. 83, 1892 Bahama Islands (Abaco, New Providence, Andros, 
Great Inagua, Cay Sal Islands), Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico, St. 
Bartholomew, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Barbados; Hartert, 
Ibis, 1893, pp. 310, 337 Aruba and Bonaire Islands (breeding); Robinson, 
Proc. U. 1 S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 653, 1895 Margarita Island, Venezuela 
(breeding); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 122, 1896 part, spec, 
a-q', United States, Antigua, Barbados, Venezuela, and British Honduras 
(Long Cay, Glover's Reef); Bonhote, Ibis, 1899, p. 520 New Providence, 
Bahama Islands; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 308, 1902 Aruba and Bonaire; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 410, 1903 part, 
Mexico (Matamoros), British Honduras (Long Cay, Grassy Cay, Glover's 
Reef), and Guatemala (Coban); Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 314 Grassy 
Creek, Andros, Bahama Islands; Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 280, 
1904 Antigua; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 258, 1905 Barbados 
(ex Feilden); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 195, 1909 
Aruba; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 97, 
1910 Amaragao, coast of Piauhy, Brazil (Sept.); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 79, 1914 Marajo (Ilha dos Machados), Brazil; Todd, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 209, 1916 mouth of Nuevas River and Cayo 
Largo, Isle of Pines, Cuba (sight record) ; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
60, p. 305, 1916 Little Cayman (breeding); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
113, p. 270, 1921 (life hist.); Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 

1 We have examined in the British Museum some fifteen specimens from Peru 
(Eten; Callao; Paracas Bay) and a single one from "Chile" without precise locality. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 321 

Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 241, 1923 Amaracao, Piauhy (summer and winter 
plumages descr.). 

Sterna argentea (not of Wied) Le"otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 645, 1866 Trinidad. 

Sterna minuta americana Sundevall, Ofv. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 
26, p. 589, 1869 St. Bartholomew (substitute name for S./renata Gambel). 

Sternula antillarum antillarum Oberholser, Auk, 34, p. 199, 1917 (crit.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 521, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.). 

Sterna albifrons antillarum Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 
9, p. 382, 1927 Puerto Rico (breeding near Cabo Rojo lighthouse); 
idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 178, 1931 Hispaniola 
(breeding); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 341, 1934 (range); Belcher and 
Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 295 Caroni Swamp, Trinidad (June); Murphy, 
Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1136, 1936 (monog.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
22, p. 152, 1938 (range); Dugand, Caldasia, 1, p. 58, 1941 mouth of 
Rio Magdalena; Burleigh, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 
20, p. 383, 1944 Mississippi Gulf coast (breeding). 

Sterna antillarum antillarum Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 292, 
1931 islands around Bermuda (breeding); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 127, 1932 Puerto Barrios, Guatemala (Aug. 21). 

Range. Breeds on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United 
States from Massachusetts to Florida and Texas; Bermudas; 
Bahamas; locally in the West Indies (Cuba, Little Cayman Island, 
Hispaniola, Puerto Rico), on islands off the coast of Venezuela 
(Aruba, Bonaire, and Margarita), and on the coast of British Hon- 
duras; winters from the Gulf coast south to northeastern Brazil 
(Marajo Island, Para; Amaracao, Piauhy). 

Field Museum Collection. 67: Texas (Port Isabel, 1; Cameron 
County, 3; Padre Island, 7); Massachusetts (Chatham, 5; Monomoy 
Island, 3); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 3; Pea 
Island, 1); South Carolina (McClellanville, 1); Florida (Brevard 
County, 2; Nassau County, 10; West Jupiter, 1); Bahama Islands 
(Acklin Island, 1; Great Inagua, 13); Lesser Antilles (Antigua, 10); 
Mexico (Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, 1) ; Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 3) ; 
Brazil (Sao Luis, Maranhao, 2). 

*Sterna albifrons athalassos 1 Burleigh and Lowery. MISSISSIPPI 
VALLEY LEAST TERN. 

Sterna albifrons athalassos Burleigh and Lowery, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. 
Louisiana State Univ., 10, p. 173, March 4, 1942 St. Francisville, West 
Feliciana Parish, Louisiana (type in Museum of Zoology, Louisiana State 
University); Mayfield, Wilson Bull., 55, p. 245, 1943 Monroe County, 
southeastern Michigan. 

1 Sterna albifrons athalassos Burleigh and Lowery is said to differ from antil- 
larum by having the upper parts much darker, with little or no distinction between 
the color of the back and that of the hind neck. Like staebkri but lacking the 



322 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sternula albifrons antillarum Oberholser, Bull. 28, Dept. Conserv. State 
Louisiana, p. 296, 1938 southern Louisiana (breeding). 

Range. Fresh-water lagoons of the lower Mississippi Valley 
from the Gulf coast to Iowa on the Missouri River and Ohio on the 
east. 

Field Museum Collection. 4: Mississippi (Rosedale, 4). 

*Sterna albifrons browni Mearns. 1 BROWN'S LEAST TERN. 

Sterna antillarum browni Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 29, p. 71, April 4, 
1916 near Monument No. 258, Mexican boundary line, on the edge of 
the Pacific Ocean, San Diego County, California (type now in U. S. 
National Museum; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 274, 1932); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 63, 1928 Lower California (breed- 
ing at Scammons Lagoon). 

Sterna antillarum (not Sternula antillarum Lesson) Grinnell, Pac. Coast Avif., 
11, p. 25, 1915 coast of California north to Monterey Bay (breeding). 

Sternula antillarum browni Oberholser, Auk, 34, p. 199, 1917 (crit.); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 525, 1919 part, California and Lower 
California (monog.). 

Sterna albifrons browni Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 341, 1934 part, California 
and Lower California. 

Range. Breeds on the Pacific coast of North America from 
Monterey Bay, California, to northern Lower California (Scammons 
Lagoon). 

Field Museum Collection. 26: California (Moss Landing, 15; 
Balboa Beach, 1; Orange County, 6; Los Angeles County, 4). 

Sterna albifrons mexicana van Rossem and Hachisuka. 2 SONO- 
RAN LEAST TERN. 

Sterna albifrons mexicanus van Rossem and Hachisuka, Trans. San Diego 
Soc. N. H., 8, p. 333, June 15, 1937 Tobari Bay, Sonora, Mexico (type 
in coll. of Donald R. Dickey, now in University of California at Los 
Angeles); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, 
p. 94, 1945 south of Guaymas, Sonora (April 26-May 16). 

extensive suffusion of pearl gray on the under parts and having the bill less exten- 
sively tipped with black. 

Our three adult specimens appear to bear out the above differences when com- 
pared with adults of antillarum. 

1 Sterna albifrons browni Mearns differs from the Caribbean race by darker, 
usually gray back, more grayish under parts, and by the three external primaries 
being dusky on the outer web. Wing, 168-178, (female) 168-174. 

2 Sterna albifrons mexicana van Rossem and Hachisuka: Nearest to S. a. 
browni, but smaller and darker, the under parts being more strongly suffused with 
pearl gray. Wing, 162-164, (female) 160-165 (van Rossem and Hachisuka, Trans. 
San Diego Soc. N. H., 8, p. 333, 1937). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 323 

Range. Coast of western Mexico from Guaymas, Sonora, south 
to Sinaloa and probably to Nayarit (San Bias) 1 and Colima (Manza- 
nillo). 2 

Sterna albifrons staebleri Brodkorb. 3 STAEBLER'S LEAST TERN. 

Sterna albifrons staebleri Brodkorb, Auk, 57, p. 542, Oct., 1940 Barra de 
Cahuacan, Chiapas, Mexico (type in Museum of Zoology, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor). 

Sterna antillarum (not Sternula antillarum Lesson) Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 199 
[Pacific coast of] Guatemala; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 52, 
1876 San Mateo, Oaxaca, Mexico; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 3, p. 410, 1903 part, Oaxaca (San Mateo) and Pacific 
coast of Guatemala. 

Sternula antillarum broumi (not Sterna antillarum browni Mearns) Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 525, 1919 part, Oaxaca and Pacific 
coast of Guatemala. 

Sterna antillarum browni Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 127, 1932 
Champerico and Ocos, Pacific coast of Guatemala. 

Range. Pacific coast of southern Mexico (in states of Oaxaca 
and Chiapas) and Guatemala. 4 

Genus THALASSEUS Boie 5 

Thalasseus Boie, Isis, 1822, (1), col. 563 type, by subs, desig. (Wagler, Isis, 
1832, col. 1225), "Th. cantiacus"= Sterna cantiaca Gme\m=Sterna sand- 
vicensis Latham. 

Actochelidon Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierw., p. 31, 
1829 type, by monotypy, Sterna cantiaca Gmelin=S. sandvicensis Latham. 

*Thalasseus maximus maximus (Boddaert). ROYAL TERN, y 

Sterna maxima Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 58, 1783 based on "Hirondelle 
de Mer, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 988, Cayenne; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 567 (range; crit.); Saunders, I.e., 

i Sterna antillarum Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 122, 1896 part, 
spec, r'-t', San Bias, Nayarit. 

* Sterna superciliaris (not of Vieillot) Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, 
p. 318, 1874 Manzanillo, Colima. 

* Sterna albifrons staebleri Brodkorb: Similar to S. a. mexicana, but larger in 
length of bill and tail; bill strongly tipped with black; exposed portion of usua ly 
only two (instead of three) outer primaries dusky. Wmg, 165-171, (female) 
166-177; tail, 82-97, (female) 71-83; bill 28-31, (female) 26^-28 (P. Brodkorb, 
Auk, 57, p. 542, 1940). 

< Bent's record (Bull. U. S.'Nat. Mus., 113, p. 279, 1921) from "the west coast 
of Peru (Sarayacu)" appears to be a mistake. 

B This genus hardly deserves recognition. 



324 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1876, p. 655 part, America (crit.; synon.); Taczanowski, I.e., 1877, p. 
749 Santa Lucia, Tumbez, Peru; Saunders, I.e., 1882, p. 521 Payta, 
Peru (Jan.; crit.); Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 632, 1887 islets 
off Grenada (breeding); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 82, 1892 Bahama 
Islands, Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Anegada, St. 
Croix, Sombrero, "Barbados," Antigua, Guadeloupe, St. Vincent, and 
Grenada; Hartert, Ibis, 1893, pp. 309, 326, 337 Aruba, Curacao, and 
Bonaire (crit.); Field, Auk, 11, p. 120, 1894 Jamaica; Saunders, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 80, 1896 part, spec, g-a 4 , United States, Mexico 
(Rio Rancho Nuevo, Vera Cruz; Rio Lagartos, Yucatan; Cozumel Island; 
Mazatlan; Manzanillo, Colima), British Honduras (Belize, Glover's 
Reef), Guatemala (Chiapam), Anegada, Grenada, Surinam, Brazil (Rio 
de Janeiro, Santa Catharina), and Peru (Payta); Nelson, N. Amer. 
Fauna, 14, p. 24, 1899 Maria Cleofa, Tres Marias Islands; Ihering, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 3, p. 444, 1899 Iguape, Sao Paulo; Salvador! and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 368, p. 48, 1900 Bay of Santa Elena, 
Ecuador (Jan.); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 308, 1902 Aruba, Curacao, 
and Bonaire; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 406, 
1903 Mexican and Central American references and localities; Thayer 
and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 147, 1905 San Miguel Island, 
Pearl Archipelago, Panama; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 257, 
1905 St. Vincent, Grenadines, and Grenada (breeding); Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 41, 1907 Iguape, Sao Paulo; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 
15, p. 309, 1908 Cayenne; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
pp. 194, 215, 1909 Aruba and Los Roques Islands; Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 414, 1910 near Puerto Limon, Costa Rica (Feb.); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 211, 1910 estuary of 
Rio de la Plata; Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 
2, Orn., p. 185, 1910 Patagonia; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 472 Tuyu, Buenos 
Aires (March 1); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 79, 1914 Para, 
Brazil; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 209, 1916 Los Indies, Majagua 
River, and Cayo Frances, Isle of Pines; Gibson, Ibis, 1920, p. 74 Cape 
San Antonio, Buenos Aires (Mar. 13); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, 
p. 211, 1921 (life hist.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 186, 
1926 Jambeli Island (July 20) and Santa Elena (Feb. 14), Ecuador. 

Sterna cayennensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 604, 1789 based on "Grande 
Hirondelle de Mer, de Cayenne" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 8, p. 346, and 
Daubenton, PI. EnL, pi. 988, Cayenne. 

Sterna cayana Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 804, 1790 based on "Cayenna Tern" 
Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (2), p. 352, Cayenne. 

Sterna galericulata Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 81, 1823 
coast of Brazil (type in Berlin Museum); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. 
5, p. 7, 1864 part, spec. No. 1, Brazil (crit.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 324, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba, Feb.; Marambaya, March) and 
Paran (Rio do Boraxudo, Dec.), Brazil. 

Sterna erythrorhynchos Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (2), p. 857, 1833 
Macahe" and Parahyba rivers, Rio de Janeiro (type, from Rio Parahyba, 
in American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 272, 1889); Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 325 

p. 305, 1846 coast of Peru; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, 
p. 450, 1856 coast of Brazil. 

Sterna regia Gambel, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, for Dec., 1848, p. 128, 
pub. 1849 based on Sterna cayana Audubon, Orn. Biog., 3, p. 505, and 
Giraud, Bds. Long Island, p. 355, southern coast of United States. 

Thalasseus regius Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 538 (monog.); 
idem, Ibis, 1864, p. 388 Chiapam, Guatemala, and British Honduras; 
Salvin, I.e., 1866, p. 199 coasts of Guatemala; Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 
23, p. 388, 1875 Cuba (breeding). 

Sterna erythrorhyncha Salvin, Ibis, 1874, p. 319 (crit. note on Wied's type). 

Thalasseus maximus Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, pp. 134, 137, 1918 Argentine 
coast south to Chubut (Puerto Piramide); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 467, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 
2, p. 13, 1920 coast of Montevideo, Canelones, and Maldonado, Uruguay; 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 180, 1922 Ci^naga, 
Colombia; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 62, 1928 Lower 
California (breeding). 

Thalasseus maximus maximus Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 139, 
1926 Buenos Aires (below Cape San Antonio, Nov. 4) and Uruguay 
(Carrasco, Jan. 16); idem, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 9, 
p. 383, 1927 Puerto Rico, Vieques, Culebra, Culebrita, St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, and Anegada; idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, 
p. 179, 1931 Hispaniola; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 342, 1934 (range); 
Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 295 Trinidad (winter visitor); 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 309, 1935 Canal Zone and 
Panama Bay (winter); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1138, 1936 
(monog.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 152, 1938 Piassaguera, Santos 
(Aug.), and Itanhaem, Sao Paulo; Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, p. 183, 1938 Puerto del Triunfo (Jan. 15), 
La Union (Mar. 8), and La Libertad (Jan. 14), El Salvador; Wetmore, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 87, p. 195, 1939 Independencia below Ocumara 
de la Costa, Venezuela (Oct. 22-31); van Rossem, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. 
Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 94, 1945 Sonora (resident). 

Sterna maxima maxima Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 126, 1932 
Guatemala. 

Range. Breeds in North America on the Pacific coast of Mexico 
and Lower California, and on the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
from Virginia to Texas; also on some of the Bahama Islands, and 
locally in the West Indies south to Grenada; winters from California 
to Peru on the Pacific coast, and from the Gulf coast, Florida, and 
the Bahama Islands south along the Atlantic coast of South America 
to Puerto Piramide, Chubut, Argentina. 1 

Field Museum Collection 7S: California (San Clemente Island, 
3; Hyperion, 1); Texas (Cameron County, 8; Corpus Christi, 3; 

1 Replaced on the west coast of Africa by T. maximus albididorsalis (Hartert). 



326 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Port Lavaca, 2) ; Louisiana (Marsh Island, 1 ; Buras, 4) ; Mississippi 
(Ocean Springs, 1); North Carolina, Dare County (Bodie Island, 1; 
Pea Island, 4); South Carolina (Long Island, 1; Mount Pleasant, 1); 
Georgia (Kings Bay, 1; Savannah, 1); Florida (Pilot Town, 6; Lee 
County, 2; Nassau County, 5; Palm Beach County, 5); Bahama 
Islands (Acklin Island, 1; Andros, 2; Crooked Island, 1; Eleuthera, 
6; Great Inagua, 1); Cuba (Isle of Pines, 4); Virgin Islands (Anegada, 
2; St. Croix, 2); Mexico (Georges Island, Lower California, 1; 
Yucatan, 1) ; Dutch West Indies (Aruba, 6) ; Venezuela (Los Roques 
Island, Colon, 1). 

Thalasseus eurygnathus (Saunders). 1 CAYENNE TERN. 

Sterna eurygnatha Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 654, fig. 1 Santa 
Catharina, Brazil (type in coll. of H. Saunders, now in British Museum); 
Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 653, 1895 Margarita Island, 
Venezuela (crit.); Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 85, 1896 
Venezuela, Brazil (Bahia; Camamu; Rio de Janeiro; Imbituba, Santa 
Catharina), and Patagonia (Puerto Deseado, Chubut); Ihering, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 3, p. 445, 1899 Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catharina; idem, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 41, 1907 Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; Cory, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 194, 234, 1909 Aruba and 
Margarita Island (ex Richmond); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 211, 1910 Puerto Deseado, Patagonia. 

Sterna elegans (not of Gambel) L6otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 542, 1866 Trinidad; 
Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago. 

Sterna cayanensis (not S. cayennensis Gmelin) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 324, 
1870 Sapitiba, Rio de Janeiro. 

Sterna galericulata (not of Lichtenstein) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1871, p. 568 part, Santa Catharina, Brazil. 

Thalasseus eurygnathus Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, pp. 134, 137, 1918 (char.; 
range); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 474, 1919 (monog.; 
bibliog.). 

Thalasseus sp. Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 181, 1922 
Buritaca, Santa Marta, Colombia (one young). 2 

Thalasseus eurygnatha Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 343, 1934 (range); Belcher 
and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 296 Soldado Rock, off Trinidad; Murphy, 
Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1140, 1936 (monog.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
22, p. 152, 1938 Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo. 

Range. Recorded from islands in the southern Caribbean Sea 
(Aruba, Margarita, Trinidad, Tobago) and from various localities 
on the coasts of Brazil (Bahia, Camamu, Rio de Janeiro, Santa 

1 Thalasseus eurygnathus (Saunders), while probably conspecific with T. elegans, 
is too little known to permit of any final judgment as to its status. 

2 A single young bird of very small size may pertain to the present species. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 327 

Catharina) and Argentina (Puerto Deseado, Chubut); breeding 
places unknown. 1 

"Thalasseus elegans (Gambel). ELEGANT TERN. 

Sterna elegans Gambel, 2 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, for December, 1848, 
p. 129, pub. 1849 Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico (type in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1899, p. 19); Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 653 Pacific 
coast from the Gulf of California to Chile (crit.); idem, I.e., 1882, p. 521 
Callao Bay, Peru (Sept.), and Coquimbo Bay, Chile (Nov.); idem, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 84, 1896 Texas (Corpus Christi, July), Oaxaca 
(San Mateo), El Salvador (La Union), Peru (Chorillos; Callao Bay), and 
Chile (Iquique; Coquimbo Bay; Vina del Mar, near Valparaiso; Valdivia); 
Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 24, 1902 Lower California 
(La Paz, Mar. 14) and Sonora (Guaymas; breeding); Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 407, 1903 Mexico (Guaymas, Mazatlan, 
Isabella Island, San Mateo), El Salvador (La Union), and Honduras 
(Gulf of Fonseca); Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 219, 1921 (life 
hist.). 

Sterna comata Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 614, Nov., 
1861 Bay of Arica, Tacna, Chile (=winter plumage; type in National 
Museum, Santiago de Chile; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Santiago, 13, p. 29, 1930); iidem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 126, 1863 
Arica (German version of orig. descr.); Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, 
p. 289, 1868 northern Chile and Peru; Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 41, 
p. 518, 1872 Corral, Chile (Nov.-Feb.; crit.); idem, Arch. Naturg., 40, 
(1), p. 114, 1874 (crit.); Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 99, pi. 46, 
fig. 2, 1902 Arica (disc, of type). 

Thalasseus elegans Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 540 (monog.); 
idem, Ibis, 1864, p. 389 San Salvador (=La Union) (Dec.); Salvin, I.e., 
1866, p. 198 Fonseca Bay, Honduras; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 472, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 32, p. 62, 1928 Lower California (breeding); Peters, Bds. World, 
2, p. 344, 1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1141, 1936 
(monog.); Dickey and van Rossem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 23, 
p. 183, 1938 La Union, El Salvador (winter visitant); van Rossem, Occ. 
Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., 21, p. 95, 1945 Sonora (resident). 

Sterna galericulata (not of Lichtenstein) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1871, p. 568 part, Tehuantepec, Pacific coast of Honduras, and 

1 There is no certainty that the eggs "from the coast of Brazil" described by 
Ihering (Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 294, 1900) were really of this species. 

2 According to Mathews (Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 58, p. 13, 1937), S. elegans is pre- 
occupied by Sterna elegans Wood (Analyst, 3, p. 211, 1836). Not being able to 
consult this scarce periodical, we cannot verify whether the name is validly pro- 
posed or is merely a nomen nudum (as is the case with Martula Wood revived by 
Mathews in the same note). However, if S. elegans Gambel is rendered invalid, 
the name of the Elegant Tern becomes S. comata, based on a bird wintering in 
Chile, and there was no need for the introduction of a new term (ichla). 



328 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Peru (Arica) (crit.); Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 317, 1874 

Mazatlan, Sinaloa, and Isabella Island, Mexico. 
Sterna elegans elegans Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 406, 

1932 Arica to Valdivia, Chile (winter visitor); Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. 

Chile, 16, p. 60, 1938 Arica, Tacna (Nov.), and San Vicente de Talca- 

guano, Conception (Feb.), Chile. 
Thalasseus ichla Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 58, p. 13, Nov. 5, 1937 new 

name for Sterna elegans Gambel. 

Range. Breeds in Lower California (Scammons Lagoon; San 
Roque Island), Sonora, and on islands in the Gulf of California 
(Raza and Cerralvo Islands); strays north to San Francisco Bay; 
winters off the Pacific coast of South America from Callao Bay, 
Peru, to Valdivia, Chile. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 15: California (Pacific Beach, 1); 
Mexico, Lower California (Isla Rasa, 1; Georges Island, 13). 

Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus (Cabot). CABOT'S TERN. 

Sterna acuflavida Cabot, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 257, 1847 Tancah, 
Yucatan (type now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 174, 1930); Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 210, 1869 Celestin, Yucatan. 

Thalasseus acuflavidus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 540 
(monog.); Salvin, Ibis, 1864, p. 381 Saddle Cay, British Honduras; 
Coues, I.e., 1864, p. 389 Chiapam, Guatemala; Salvin, I.e., 1866, p. 198 
coasts of Guatemala; Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 23, p. 390, 1875 Cuba 
(breeding). 

Sterna cautiaca (not of Gmelin) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 324, 1870 Rio de 
Janeiro (Bay of Rio de Janeiro, Aug.; Marambaya, March; Ilha do 
Pescador, Sapitiba, March; Praia do Sai, April), Parana (Rio do Boraxudo, 
Dec.), and Pard (Cajutuba), Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1871, p. 569 Cuba, British Honduras, and Pacific coast of Guate- 
mala (crit.); Saunders, I.e., 1876, p. 653 part, America south to Brazil 
(Bahia); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 75, 1896 part, q*-o 5 , United 
States, Mexico, British Honduras (Lighthouse Reef), Guatemala (Chia- 
pam), and Colombia (Carthagena, Feb.); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, 
p. 289, 1902 Iguape, Sao Paulo (June 18); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 405, 1903 Mexico (San Mateo, Oaxaca; 
Laguna Verde and La Antigua, Vera Cruz; Celestin, Yucatan; Cozumel 
Island), British Honduras (Lighthouse Reef, Saddle Cay, Northern Two 
Cays), and Guatemala (Chiapam); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 40, 
1907 Iguape, Sao Paulo. 

Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 82, 1892 Bahama 
Islands (Eleuthera, Acklin Island, Great Inagua), Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto 
Rico, and Antigua; Field, Auk, 11, p. 120, 1894 Jamaica; Todd, Ann. 

1 Thalasseus gayi Bonaparte (Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, p. 772, 
1856), quoted by authors, is a nomen nudum without nomenclatorial standing. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 329 

Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 209, 1916 Los Indies, Isle of Pines; Bent, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 221, 1921 (life hist.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 126, 1932 Puerto Barrios, Guatemala (Aug. 21); idem, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 322, 1932 Perme", Panama (Nov. 30). 
Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus(a) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
(8), p. 476, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico 
and Virgin Islands, 9, p. 384, 1927 Puerto Rico (rare); idem and Swales, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 180, 1931 Hispaniola (few records); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 344, 1934 (range); Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, 
p. 91, 1934 mouth of Oropuche River, Trinidad (Aug. 19) ; Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 309, 1935 Darien, Panama (two records); 
Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1142, 1936 (monog.); Sosa, Arch. 
Soc. Biol. Montevideo, 8, p. 74, 1937 coast of Uruguay; Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 22, p. 153, 1938 IguapS (June) and Piassaguera, Sao Paulo. 

Range. Breeds from the southern Atlantic and Gulf states to 
islands off the coast of British Honduras, on some of the Bahama 
Islands, and Cuba; winters from the Gulf coast, Florida, and the 
Bahama Islands south to Colombia (Carthagena), Brazil, and 
Uruguay, also on the Pacific coast of Mexico and Guatemala. 

Field Museum Collection. 40: Texas (Cameron County, 7; Gulf 
coast, 1; Corpus Christi, 6; Aransas County, 5); North Carolina, 
Dare County (Bodie Island, 2; Pea Island, 1); Florida (Punta Rassa, 
1); Bahama Islands (Acklin Island, 4; Great Inagua, 9); Cuba 
(Isle of Pines, 1); Lesser Antilles (Antigua, 1; Tobago, 1); Dutch 
West Indies (Aruba, 1). 

Genus LAROSTERNA Blyth 

Naenia (not of Stephens, 1829) Boie, Isis, 1844, col. 189 type, by monotypy, 

Sterna inca Lesson and Garnot. 
Inca (not of Lepeletier and Serville, 1825) Jardine, Contr. Orn., 1850, p. 33 

type, by tautonymy, Sterna inca Lesson and Garnot. 

Larosterna Blyth, Cat. Bds. Mus. Asiat. Soc., p. 293, 1849 (?= 1852) type, 

by monotypy, Sterna inca Lesson and Garnot. 
Sternolophota "Lesson" Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, No. 21, 

p. 993, Nov., 1856 substitute name for Inca Jardine, etc. 

*Larosterna inca (Lesson and Garnot). INCA TERN. 

Sterna inca Lesson and Garnot, Voy. Coquille, Zool., Atlas, livr. 3, pi. 47, 
April 18, 1827 "Lima, Peru"=San Lorenzo Island, Callao Bay (type in 
Paris Museum); Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 383, 1828 San Lorenzo 
Island (descr.); idem, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 16, p. 731, May 1, 
1830 San Lorenzo Island; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 13, p. 1, 1845 
Chile; Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 305, 1846 Fronton Islet, 
near San Lorenzo Island, Callao Bay, Peru. 



330 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Anous inca G. R. Gray, List Spec. Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, p. 181, 1844 Chile; 
Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 156, 1865 Chile; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 337, 340 Chile; idem and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, 
p. 500 Coquimbo, Chile; Cunningham, Not. Nat. Hist. Str. Magellan, 
p. 404, 1871 Pelican Rock, Coquimbo; Pelzeln, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. 
Wien, 23, p. 159, 1873 Callao Bay, Peru. 

Naenia inca Boie, Isis, 1844, col. 189; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1871, p. 567 coast of Peru and Chile; Saunders, I.e., 1876, p. 667 
(monog.); idem, I.e., 1882, p. 520 Callao Bay, Peru (Aug.); Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 3, p. 446, 1886 coast of Peru; MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 204 
Callao, Peru; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 132, 1896 Chile 
(Valparaiso), Peru (Chincha Islands, Callao Bay), and Ecuador (Guaya- 
quil). 

Noddi inca Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 486, 1847 
coast of Chile; Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, p. 165, 1860 coast of 
Atacama, Chile; idem, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 290, 1868 Corral, Chile, 
to Peru; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 160, 1888 Atacama. 

Inca mystacalis Jardine, Contr. Orn., 1850, p. 33 substitute name for Sterna 
inca Lesson and Garnot. 

Larosterna inca Blyth, Cat. Bds. Mus. Asiat. Soc., p. 293, 1849 (?=1852) 
Chile; Coker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 56, p. 460, 1919 Lobos de Afuera, 
Chincha Islands, and Isla Asia, Peru (breeding); Hellmayr, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 403, 1932 Chile (Coquimbo to Valdivia); 
Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 344, 1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 
2, p. 1143, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Philippi, El Hornero, 6, p. 236, 1936 
Erizera Rock, Arica Bay, Chile; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 16, 
p. 59, 1938 Chile (Arica, Aug.; Bocca del Rio Maipo, Santiago, Sept.; 
San Vicente de Talcaguano, Jan.; Corral); idem, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
44, p. 151, 1940 Iquique (nesting). 

Noenia inca Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 211, 1896 northern Chile. 

Range. Coasts of southern Ecuador (Guayaquil Bay), Peru, and 
Chile south to Corral, Valdivia; breeding on islands off the Peruvian 
coast as far south as Iquique. 

Field Museum Collection. 3: Peru (Talara, 3). 



Genus PROCELSTERNA Lafresnaye 

Procelsterna Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 4, text to pi. 29, 1842 type, by 
monotypy, Sterna tereticollis Lafresnaye=Steraa teretirostris Lafresnaye. 

Procelsterna cerulea skottsbergii Lonnberg. 1 SKOTTSBERG'S 
NODDY. 

Procelsterna caerulea skottsbergii Lonnberg, in Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan 
Fernandez and Easter Islands, 3, p. 20, 1921 Easter Island (type in 

1 Procelsterna cerulea skottsbergii Lonnberg: A very pale form with breast, 
belly, and under wing coverts pure white; under tail coverts likewise white, 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 331 

Stockholm Museum; cf. Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 103, 
1927). 
Procelsterna cerulea skottsbergii Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 345, 1934 (range). 

Range. Easter Island, South Pacific Ocean. 

Procelsterna cerulea imitatrix Mathews. 1 ST. AMBROSE NODDY. 

Procelsterna cerulea imitatrix Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, p. 431, Nov. 1, 
1912 San Ambrosio Island, off Chile (type in British Museum); Peters, 
Bds. World, 2, p. 345, 1934 (range). 

Anous cinereus (not Stolida cinerea Neboux) Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1881, p. 16 San Ambrosio Island (July). 
Procelsterna cinerea Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 135, 1896 part, 

spec, i, k, San Ambrosio Island. 
Procelsterna albivitta imitatrix Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1148, 

1936 (monog.). 

Range. San Felix and San Ambrosio Islands, off Chile. 



Genus ANOUS Stephens 2 

\ 
Anoiis Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13, (1), p. 139, 1826 type, by subs. 

desig. (G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 79, 1840), Anoiis niger Stephens= 

Sterna stolida Linnaeus. 
Megalopterus Boie, Isis, 1826, col. 980 type, by monotypy, Sterna tenuirostris 

Temminck. 

Noddi Berthold, in Latreille's Nat. Fam. Thierr., p. 85, 1827 type, by mono- 
typy, Sterna stolida Linnaeus. 
Stolida Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 620, 1831 type, by tautonymy, Sterna 

stolida Linnaeus. 
Aganaphron Gloger, Gemeinn. Hand- und Hilfsbuch, livr. 7, p. 463, 1842 

type, by subs, desig. (Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 544, 

1919), Sterna stolida Linnaeus. 
Micranous Saunders, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., No. 23, p. xix, Jan. 29, 1895 type, 

by orig. desig., Sterna tenuirostris Temminck. 

tinged with ashy only on the tips of the longest ones. Wing, 195-196 Yi, (female) 
193-194^; tarsus, 26, (female) 24>; bill, 26-27, (female) 27^- 

Said to be smaller than P. c. albivitta Bonaparte (extralimital) and to have 
the under tail coverts white instead of ashy gray (Lonnberg). 

1 Procelsterna cerulea imitatrix Mathews: Stated to resemble P. c. skottsbergii 
in paleness of coloring, but much larger (wing, 215; tarsus, 28; bill, 30H)- 

Direct comparison of adequate series of these two races is imperative to 
establish their status. 

1 Stone (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, p. 117) described from the sea off 
Montevideo, Uruguay, Anous atrofuscus (type, from the Rivoli Collection, in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). This seems to be one of the races 
of Anous tenuirostris, which has no representative in American waters, and the 
locality is probably erroneous. 



332 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Anousella Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, p. 412 (in text), Nov. 1, 1912 type, 
by orig. desig., Anous leucocapillus Gould= Arums minutus Boie. 

*Anoiis stolidus stolidus (Linnaeus). NODDY. 

Sterna stolida Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 137, 1758 based on 
"Hirundo marina minor, capite albo" Sloane, Voy. Jamaica, 1, p. 31, 
pi. 6, fig. 2 (Atlantic east of Barbados), "The Noddy" Catesby, Nat. 
Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 88, pi. 88 (breeding in the Bahama Islands), and 
"Anaethetus minor fuscus, vertica cinereo, rostro glabro" Browne, Civ. 
Nat. Hist. Jamaica, p. 481 (Jamaica), "in Americae Pelago" (we accept 
Bahama Islands [ex Catesby] as type locality); 1 Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 4, (2), p. 874, 1833 coast of Brazil south of the equator. 

Anous niger Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13, (1), p. 140, pi. 17, 1825 new 
name for Sterna stolida Linnaeus. 

Gavia leucoceps Swainson, Nat. Hist. Classif. Bds., 2, p. 373, 1837 based on 
"Mouette brune, de la Louisiane" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 997. 

Anous stolidus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 557 part, America 
(crit.); idem, Ibis, 1864, p. 392 Glover's Reef, British Honduras; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 566 Cuba, St. Bartholomew, 
British Honduras, coast of Brazil, and "Chile" (ex Lesson); Gundlach, 
Journ. Orn., 23, p. 395, 1875 cays of Cuba (breeding habits); Saunders, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 669 part, Gulf coast of America; Penrose, 
Ibis, 1879, p. 280 Ascension Island (breeding); Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 9, p. 632, 1886 Lee Rocks, Grenada (breeding); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. 
Bds., p. 83, 1892 Bahama Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Sombrero, 
St. Bartholomew, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Grenada; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, p. 116 part, Gulf coast of United 
States; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 136, 1896 part, spec, 
a-y, Florida, east coast of Mexico, Jamaica, Nevis, St. Vincent, Grenada, 
Redonda Island, British Honduras (Glover's Reef, Cay Dolores Channel), 
St. Paul's Rock, Fernando Noronha, Bahia, and Ascension Island; 
Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 515 Washerwoman Cays, Andros, Bahama 
Islands (breeding); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, 
p. 412, 1903 coast of Mexico, British Honduras, and Honduras; Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1904, p. 36 St. Paul's Rock (breeding); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 32, p. 259, 1905 Grenadines (breeding) ; Nicoll, Ibis, 1906, p. 670 
South Trinidad (breeding); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 42, 1907 
(range in part); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 226, 1909 
Los Hermanos Islands (breeding); Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 310 north of 
Chateau-Belair, St. Vincent (breeding); Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
60, p. 369, 1917 Guadeloupe (breeding on Les Saintes, Tete Anglaise, 
etc.); Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 22, p. 180, 1919 South 
Trinidad; Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 113, p. 301, 1921 (life hist.); 

1 As Linnaeus also quotes "Amoen. Acad., 3, p." (which refers to S. stolida 
Odhelius, Amoen. Acad., 4, p. 240, 1759), it is possible that he had a specimen 
from the Lagerstroem donation before him. This individual, however, is no longer 
in existence and was already missing in 1787 (cf. Lonnberg, Bihang Sv. Vetensk.- 
Akad. Handl., 22, Afd. 4, No. 1, p. 28, 1896). 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 333 

Wilkins, Ibis, 1923, pp. 477, 510 St. Paul's Rock and Ascension Island 
(breeding); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 153, 1938 (range). 

Anous superciliosus Sharpe, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 168, p. 468, 1879 
coast of Mexico, Nevis, and Jamaica (cotypes in British Museum; descr. 
of young). 

Anous stolidus stolidus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 546, 1919 
(monog.; full bibliog.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 
. 9, p. 385, 1927 Desecheo and Mona Islands (breeding); Bond, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 528, 1928 near Chateaubelair, St. Vincent; 
Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 182, 1931 Hispaniola 
(occasional); Bradlee, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 39, p. 293, 1931 Bermuda 
Islands (one record, Sept. 12, 1854); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 346, 1934 
(range); Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 296 Soldado Rock, off 
Trinidad, and Giles Islets, Tobago (breeding); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. 
Amer., 2, p. 1150, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Oberholser, Bird Life Louisiana, 
p. 311, 1938 (casual visitor). 

Range. Breeds on small islands in the Gulf of Mexico (Dry 
Tortugas, Florida Keys), in the Bahama Islands (Atwood's and 
Gaulding Cays, Dry and Booby Rocks, Acklin and Berry Islands, 
Washerwoman Cays, etc.), on islands off the coast of British Hon- 
duras (Glover's Reef, Cay Dolores) and in the Caribbean Sea (cays 
off Cuba; Jamaica; Desecheo and Mona Islands; small islets near 
Guadeloupe; St. Vincent; Grenadines; Lee Rocks, Grenada; Giles 
Islets, off Tobago; Soldado Rock, Trinidad; Los Hermanos Islands), 
on St. Paul's Rock, Fernando Noronha, Rocas Reef, South Trinidad; 
extralimitally on Ascension Island, St. Helena, Tristan d'Acunha, 
etc. 

Field Museum Collection. 22: Bahama Islands (Brown's Cay, 3; 
Miraporvos Island, 4; New Providence, 2); Jamaica (Grand Cayman, 
1); Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, 3); Lesser Antilles (Dominica, 4; 
Guadeloupe, 2); Venezuela (Orquilla Island, Nueva Esparta, 3). 

Anous stolidus ridgwayi Anthony. 1 SOCORRO NODDY. 

Anous stolidus ridgwayi Anthony, Auk, 15, p. 36, Jan., 1898 Socorro Island, 
Revillagigedo group, Mexico (type in collection of A. W. Anthony, now 
in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh; cf. Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
18, p. 336(8), 1928); idem, I.e., p. 316, 1898 Socorro (breeding); Nelson, 
N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 26, 1899 Isabella Island (breeding) and Tres 
Marias (habits); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 4, p. 507, 
1902 Cocos and Clipperton Islands (descr.; habits); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 550, 1919 (monog.; full bibliog.); Fisher and 
Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 46, 1931 Cocos Island 
(crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 128, 1932 off Pacific 

1 Anous stolidus ridgwayi Anthony differs from the nominate race merely by 
slightly darker coloration, darker gray pileum, and somewhat stouter bill. 



334 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

coast of Guatemala; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 346, 1934 (range); Murphy, 
Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1158, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Bond and de 
Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 90, p. 156, 1938 Malpelo 
Island, off Colombia; Wetmore, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 98, No. 22, p. 5, 
1939 Clipperton Island. 

Anous stolidus (not Sterna stolida Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 
p. 233 Pacific coast of Guatemala; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
2, p. 318, 1874 Isabella Island, Tepic, Mexico (breeding); Townsend, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 27, p. 125, 1895 Cocos Island; Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 415, 1910 Cocos Island; Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., (4), 2, p. 24, 1913 part, Oneal Rock (Socorro), Clipperton and 
Cocos Islands; McLellan, I.e., (4), 15, p. 284, 1926 Roca Partida, Revil- 
lagigedo Islands, and Isabella Island (breeding). 

Anous stolidus rousseaui (not of Hartlaub) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
19, p. 645 (in text), 1897 part, Cocos Island and Isabella Island, Mexico 
(meas.). 

Anous pileatus (not Sterna pileata Scopoli) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 3, p. 413, 1903 part, Revillagigedo Islands, Isabella Island, 
Tres Marias, Clipperton Island, and Pacific coast of Guatemala. 

Range. Breeds on the Revillagigedo Islands, Isabella Island (off 
the coast of Nayarit), Clipperton and Cocos Islands; ranges to the 
Pacific coast of Mexico and Guatemala and to Malpelo Island, off 
Colombia. 

*Anoiis stolidus galapagensis Sharpe. 1 GALAPAGOS NODDY. 

Anoiis galapagensis Sharpe, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., 168, p. 469, 1879 
Dalrymple Rock, Chatham Island, Galapagos (type in British Museum; 
descr. of young); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 430 Charles 
Island; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 116, 1890 Hood and 
Chatham Islands; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, pp. 116, 
117 Galapagos Islands; Saunders, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 143, 
1896 Dalrymple Rock (Chatham) and Charles Island (crit.); Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 642, 1897 Albemarle, Charles, Hood, 
Chatham, Tower, and Wenman Islands (descr.; meas.). 

Megalopterus stolidus (not Sterna stolida Linnaeus) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, 
Birds, p. 145, 1841 part, Galapagos Islands. 

Anous stolidus Sundevall, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 125 Galapagos 
Islands; Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 504, 1876 Dalrymple Rock; 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 116, 1890 Dalrymple Rock and 
Chatham Islands; Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, p. 25, 1913 
part, Galapagos Islands (habits). 

Anous stolidus galapagensis Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 191, 
1899 Culpepper and Wenman to Charles and Hood Islands (breeding; 

1 Anoiis stolidus galapagensis Sharpe: Very similar to A. s. ridgwayi, but 
slightly darker, more sooty, especially on back and upper tail coverts. 

Judging from the admittedly scanty material examined we are not much im- 
pressed with the validity of the Galapagos form when compared with A. s. ridgwayi. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 335 

crit.; eggs descr.); iidem, I.e., 9, p. 413, 1902 Wenman Island (nestling 
descr.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 239, 1904 
James Island (crit.; nest and eggs descr.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, (8), p. 551, 1919 (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 
p. 66, 1931 Galapagos Islands; Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 46, 1931 Tower Island; Peters, Bds. World, 2, 
p. 347, 1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1159, 1936 
(monog.). 

Range. Breeds in the Galapagos Archipelago. 1 

Field Museum Collection. 12: Galapagos Islands (Tagus Cove, 
Albemarle Island, 10; Abingdon Island, 1; Seymour Island, 1). 

Anoiis minutus diamesus (Heller and Snodgrass). 2 Cocos BLACK 
NODDY. 

Micranous diamesus Heller and Snodgrass, Condor, 3, p. 76, May 1, 1901 
Cocos Island (type in collection of Leland Stanford Jr. University); 
Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 4, p. 509, 1902 Cocos 
and Clipperton Islands (descr.; meas.); Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(4), 2, p. 29, 1913 Clipperton and Cocos Islands (crit.; habits; eggs descr.). 

Megalopterus minutus diamesus Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, p. 423, 1912; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 556, 1919 (monog.). 

Megalopterus minutus minutus (not Anous minutus Boie, 1844) Fisher and 
Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 45, 1931 Cocos Island 
(crit.). 

Anqus minutus diamesus Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 348, 1934 (range); Murphy, 
Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1163, 1936 (monog.); Bond and de Schauensee, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 90, p. 157, 1938 Malpelo Island; Wetmore, 
Smiths. Misc. Coll., 98, No. 22, p. 6, 1939 Clipperton Island. 

Range. Breeds on Clipperton and Cocos Islands and ranges 
south to Malpelo Island, off Colombia. 

Anoiis minutus americanus (Mathews). 3 CARIBBEAN BLACK 
NODDY. 

1 Anous stolidus has been recorded as breeding on Sala y Gomez Island by 
MacFarlane (Ibis, 1887, p. 210), and Lonnberg (in Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan 
Fernandez and Easter Island, 3, Zool., p. 20, 1921) lists "A. stolidus unicolor 
Nordm." as nesting on Motu Nui, a small islet near Easter Island. The sub- 
specific status of these forms remains to be determined. Another doubtful race 
breeds on San Felix Island, off Chile (cf. Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1160, 
1936). 

2 Anoiis minutus diamesus (Heller and Snodgrass): Nearest to A. m. melano- 
genys G. R. Gray, of the Hawaiian Islands, but darker on the scapulars, lower 
parts and sides of neck, and sides of head, and with longer, stouter bill. Wing, 
224, (female) 223-241; bill, 45, (female) 43-43^ (Heller and Snodgrass, Condor, 
3, p. 76, 1901). 

3 Anoiis minutus americanus (Mathews) is described as being close to A. m. 
minutus (extralimital), but "easily distinguished by its stouter bill and browner 
tail, while there is less bluish-plumbeous on the upper back and throat." 



336 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Megalopterus minutus americanus Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, (4), p. 423, 
Nov. 1, 1912 "Caribbean Sea, British Honduras" (type presumably in 
British Museum). 

Anous tenuirostris (not Sterna tenuirostris Temminck) Salvin, Ibis, 1864, 
p. 383 Southwest-of-all Cay, British Honduras; Coues, I.e., 1864, p. 
393 Glover's Reef, British Honduras (crit.); Salvin, I.e., 1866, p. 200 
Southwest-of-all Cay; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, 
p. 566 coast of British Honduras and Trinidad. 

Anous melanogenys (not of Gray, 1846) Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 547, 1866 
Trinidad; Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 670 part, coast of 
Central America; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, p. 117 part, 
British Honduras (crit.). 

Micranous leucocapillus (not Anous leucocapillus Gould, 1845) Saunders, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 145, 1896 part, spec, a-f, Glover's Reef, British 
Honduras; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 3, p. 415, 
1903 part, descr. and hab. British Honduras (Glover's Reef, Southwest- 
of-all Cay). 

Megalopterus minutus atlanticus (not of Mathews) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, (8), p. 554, 1919 part, British Honduras (Southwest-of-all 
Cay, Glover's Reef). 

Anous minutus americanus Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 348, 1934 (range); 
Belcher and Smooker, Ibis, 1935, p. 296 El Soldado Rock, Trinidad 
, (egg). 

Range. Breeds on islands off the coast of British Honduras; 

also said to breed on El Soldado Rock, near Trinidad. 1 

> 

Anous minutus atlanticus (Mathews). 2 ATLANTIC BLACK NODDY. 

Megalopterus minutus atlanticus Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, (4), p. 423, Nov. 1, 
1912 Ascension Island (type presumably in British Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 554, 1919 (monog., excl. of British 
Honduras). 

Anous melanogenys (not of Gray, 1846) Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 
p. 798 St. Paul's Rock and Inaccessible Island (breeding) ; Penrose, Ibis, 
1879, p. 280 Ascension Island (breeding; egg descr.); Sharpe, Journ. 
Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool., 20, p. 479, 1890 Fernando Noronha (breeding). 

Micranous leucocapillus (not Anous leucocapillus Gould) Saunders, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 25, p. 145, 1896 part, spec, g-s, St. Paul's Rock, Fernando 
Noronha, Ascension Island, St. Helena, and Inaccessible Island (Tristan 
d'Acunha); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 36 St. Paul's Rock (breeding); Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 42, 1907 part, Fernando Noronha. 

1 The Trinidad record rests on the identification of an egg found by T. Spencer 
on May 12, 1928. 

2 Anous minutus atlanticus (Mathews): Described as differing from A. m. 
americanus by longer wings, longer, stouter bill, noticeably more blackish tail, 
and the restriction of the white color above to the crown of the head. 

Birds from St. Paul's Rock are said to be somewhat darker, with the bills 
shorter and very stout. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 337 

Arums minutus atlanticus Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 348, 1934 (range); Murphy, 
Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1160, 1936 (monog.; life hist.); Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 22, p. 153, 1938 Fernando Noronha. 

Range. Breeds in the tropical South Atlantic Ocean on St. 
Paul's Rock and Fernando Noronha, off Brazil, Martin Vas Rocks, 
and extralimitally on Ascension Island, St. Helena, and Inaccessible 
Island. 

Genus GYGIS Wagler 

Gygis Wagler, Isis, 1832, col. 1223 type, by monotypy, Sterna Candida 

Gmelin. 
Leucanous Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, (4), p. 432 (in text), Nov. 1, 1912 

type, by orig. desig., Gygis microrhyncha Saunders. 
Alphagygis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec., 2, p. 110, Sept. 24, 1914-new name 

for Gygis Wagler (considered to be preoccupied by Gyges Bory de St. 

Vincent, 1825). 

Gygis alba alba (Sparrman). ATLANTIC FAIRY TERN. 

Sterna alba Sparrman, Mus. Carls., fasc. 1, pi. 11, 1786 "in India oriental!, 
ad promontorium Bonae Spei Insulasquae maris pacifici" * (type in 
Stockholm Museum; cf. Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 104, 
1927). 

Gygis Candida (not Sterna Candida Gmelin) Melliss, Ibis, 1870, p. 106 St. 
Helena (breeding); Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 797- 
Boatswain Island, Ascension Island; Penrose, Ibis, 1879, p. 279-Ascen- 
sion Island (breeding; eggs descr.); Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1 80, 
p 163 South Trinidad Island (breeding); Sharpe, Journ. Linn. ^oc. 
Lond Zool 20, p. 480, 1890 Fernando Noronha (breeding); Saunders, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 25, p. 149, 1896-part, spec, a-k, Fernando Noronha, 
South Trinidad, and Ascension Island. 
Gygis alba Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 217-South Trinidad (soft parts); Ribeiro, 

Arch Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 22, p. 182, 1919-South Trinidad. 
Gygi crawfordi Nicoll, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 16, p. 102, 1906-South Trinidad 
Island (type in British Museum); idem, Ibis, 1906, p. 669-South Trinidad 
(crit.; breeding habits). 

Gygis alba alba Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, p. 442, 1912-Fernando Noronha, 
Ascension, and South Trinidad (crit.); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 34, p. 20, 
1927 (range); Lowe and Kinnear, Brit. Antar. (Terra Nova) Exped 
Zool., 4, p. 112, 1930 South Trinidad; Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. d48, 



i Mathews (Bds. Australia, 2, p. 441, 1912) w. 

shafts of the primaries and extensive feathering ^^S^^S!aSSSL 
"New Zealand" on its label is obviously erroneous. In life, 1 he b ill i ls ^ ^^ 
not hyacinth-blue at the base as in the other races. It is unfortunate that I 
name crawfordi has to give way to alba of Sparrman. 



338 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1934 (range); Murphy, Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1164, 1936 (monog.; 
life hist.); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 22, p. 154, 1938 (range only). 

Range. Breeds on Fernando Noronha, South Trinidad, Martin 
Vas Rocks, and extralimitally on Ascension and St. Helena Islands, 
South Atlantic Ocean. 

Gygis alba Candida (Gmelin). PACIFIC FAIRY TERN. 

Sterna Candida Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 607, 1789 based on "White 
Tern" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (2), p. 363, Christmas Island and other 
parts of the South Sea 1 (cotypes, now in Vienna Museum, examined; cf. 
Pelzeln, Ibis, 1873, p. 123). 

Sterna Semi-alba Bonnaterre, Tabl. Enc. Me"th., Orn., livr. 38, p. 94, 1790 
based on "White Tern" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (2), p. 363, Christmas 
Island, etc. 

Sterna nivea Bennett, Narrative Whaling Exped., 1, p. 384, 1840 Christmas 
Island (breeding). 

Gygis Candida MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 210 Sala y Gomez Island (breeding); 
Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 4, p. 511, 1902 Cocos 
Island (nesting) and Clipperton Island. 

Gygis alba Candida Mathews, Bds. Australia, 2, p. 443, 1912 (crit.; range); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, (8), p. 559, 1919 (monog.); Fisher 
and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 46, 1931 Cocos 
Island (crit.); Peters, Bds. World, 2, p. 349, 1934 (range); Murphy, 
Ocean. Bds. S. Amer., 2, p. 1168, 1936 (monog.); Wetmore, Smiths. 
Misc. Coll., 98, No. 22, p. 6, 1939 Clipperton Island (crit.). 

Gygis alba (not Sterna alba Sparrman) Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 
2, p. 32, 1913 Tower Island, Galapagos (Sept. 14), Oneal Rock (near 
Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands), Cocos and Clipperton Islands 
(soft parts; habits; meas.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 66, 
1931 Tower Island (ex Gifford). 

Gygis alba royana Lonnberg, in Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan Fernandez and 
Easter Island, 3, Zool., p. 21, 1921 Easter Island (crit.). 

Range. Islands of the Pacific Ocean from the Caroline, Tonga, 
and Society Islands east to the Revillagigedo Islands (Oneal Rock, 
near Socorro Island), Clipperton, Cocos, Galapagos Islands (off 
Tower Island), Easter Island, and Sala y Gomez Island. 2 

1 The bird seen at St. Helena was, of course, G. a. alba. 

2 We do not find any difference between birds from the Caroline Islands and 
two from Cocos Island, and the cotypes in the Vienna Museum seem to be also 
the same. Cf. also Wetmore (Smiths. Misc. Coll., 98, No. 22, p. 6). Judging 
from the wide individual variation in measurements observable in specimens from 
the same island (cf. Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, p. 34, 1913), we doubt 
that either G. alba pacifica (Lesson) or G. alba royana Mathews (Bds. Australia, 
2, p. 443, 1912 type, from Kermadec Islands, in Tring Collection; cf. Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 34, p. 18, 1927) can be maintained. 



1948 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR AND CONOVER 339 

Family RYNCHOPIDAE. Skimmers 
Genus RYNCHOPS Linnaeus 

Rynchops Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 138, 1758 type, by monotypy, 
Rynchops nigra Linnaeus. 

Rygchopsalia Brisson, Orn., 6, p. 222, 1760 type, by monotypy, "Le Bec-en- 
ciseaux" Brisson= Rynchops nigra cinerascens Spix. 

Rhynchops Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 802, 1790 (emendation of Rynchops 
Linnaeus). 

Psalidorhamphos Dumont, Diet. Sci. Nat., 4, p. 173, 1816 substitute name 

for Rynchops Linnaeus. 
Rhincops Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y