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Full text of "Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field Museum of Natural History"

LI B RARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 
OF ILLINOIS 



FI 



Co. 2. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

PUBLICATION 347 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 



VOLUME XIII 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OP BIRDS 



PART VIII 

ALAUDIDAE - HIRUNDINIDAE - MOTACILLIDAE - BOMBYCILLIDAE 

PTILOGONATIDAE - DULIDAE - VIREONIDAE - VIREOLANIIDAE 

CYCLARHIDAE - LANIIDAE - STURNIDAE - COEREBIDAE 

COMPSOTHLYPIDAE 



WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OP ZOOLOGY 
EDITOR 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 
SEPTEMBER 16, 1935 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 

VOLUME XIII 

PART VIII 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 
1935 




PUBLICATION 347 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 



VOLUME XIII 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 
AND THE ADJACENT ISLANDS 

IN 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

INCLUDING ALL SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES KNOWN TO OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA, 

MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, SOUTH AMERICA, THE WEST INDIES, AND 

ISLANDS OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA, THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO, 

AND OTHER ISLANDS WHICH MAY BE INCLUDED ON 

ACCOUNT OF THEIR FAUNAL AFFINITIES 

BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS 



PART VIII 

ALAUDIDAE - HIRUNDINIDAE - MOTACILLIDAE - BOMBYCILLIDAE 

PTILOGONATIDAE - DULIDAE - VIREONIDAE - VIREOLANIIDAE 

CYCLARHIDAE - LANIIDAE - STURNIDAE - COEREBIDAE 

COMPSOTHLYPIDAE 



WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 
EDITOR 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

SEPTEMBER 16, 1935 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



3 8 

PREFACE TO PART VIII 

The present installment continues the enumeration of the 
American Oscines. It contains the list of the recognized species 
and subspecies of thirteen families, including several important ones, 
such as the Swallows, Vireos, Honey Creepers, and Wood Warblers. 
While the majority of the groups treated in this part form well- 
defined natural units, the delimitation of the Honey Creepers and 
Wood Warblers presents unusual difficulties. Particularly, the first- 
named family, as now understood, is a rather heterogeneous assem- 
blage of birds showing wide divergencies in structure as well as in 
habits. The genus Diglossa, for instance, looks very different from 
the other generic groups classified in the same family. Ateleodacnis 
and Conirostrum, on the other hand, bear some remarkable resem- 
blances to certain Wood Warblers, and it is likely that their natural 
affinities are with the latter family, to which they have tentatively 
been referred by the late Robert Ridgway and others. The Wood 
Warbler family also is far from being uniform, and some species of 
the genus Basileuterus strikingly recall certain small tanagers in 
general aspect and color-pattern. Anatomical researches may 
ultimately help in determining the systematic position of these birds 
of disputed relationship. 

Style and scope of this part closely follow the standard adopted 
for the preceding volumes. The author has again attempted to 
indicate the actual (or in case of loss, the former) location of types, 
and it is hoped that the results of this time-consuming, frequently 
unsuccessful investigation may be of some service to ornithologists. 

In perusing the list of specimens in Field Museum, it is well 
to keep in mind that, owing to his absence from Chicago, the author 
has not been able to examine every specimen himself, and it is 
requested that any errors of identification or allocation be treated 
with leniency. 

Various museums and individuals have very generously cooper- 
ated in the preparation of this volume, either by the loan of material 
or by supplying information. To the names listed in the preceding 
parts must be added those of Professor Herman Michel, Director, 
and Dr. Moriz Sassi, Curator of Birds, in the Museum of Natural 
History in Vienna, Austria, to whom the author owes a large debt 
of gratitude for giving him free access to the collections and libraries 
under their care. 

June SO, 1983 C. E. HELLMAYR 

iii 



CONTENTS 

Orders, Families, and Genera Included in Part VIII 

ORDER PASSERIPORMES 
SUBORDER OSCINES 



FAMILY ALAUDIDAE 

(Larks) PAGE 

Alauda Linnaeus 1 

Chionophilos Brehm 2 

FAMILY HIRUNDINIDAE 
(Swallows) 

Progne Boie 11 

Phaeoprogne Baird 25 

Petrochelidon Cabanis 29 

Stelgidopteryx Baird 38 

Alopochelidon Ridgway 48 

Neochelidon Sclater 50 

Pygochelidon Baird 52 

Notiochelidon Baird 59 

Atticora Boie 60 

Orochelidon Ridgway 62 

Riparia Forster 63 

Hirundo Linnaeus 65 

Delichon Moore 67 

Jridoproene Coues 68 

Tachycineta Cabanis 78 

Callichelidon Baird 80 

Lamprochelidon Ridgway 81 

FAMILY MOTACILLIDAE 
(Wagtails and Pipits) 

Motacilla Linnaeus 82 

Anthus Bechstein 83 

FAMILY BOMBYCILLIDAE 

(Waxwings) 

Bombycilla Vieillot 103 

FAMILY PTILOGONATIDAE 
(Silky Flycatchers) 

Ptilogonys Swainson 105 

Phainopepla Baird 107 

Phainoplila Salvin 109 

FAMILY DULIDAE 

(Palm Chats) 

Dulus Vieillot 110 

FAMILY VIREONIDAE 
(Vireos) 

Vireo Vieillot Ill 

Neochloe Sclater 157 

Laletes Sclater 157 

Hylopkilus Temminck 157 

Lawrencia Ridgway 186 



FAMILY VIREOLANIIDAE 

(Shrike-Vireos) PAGE 

Vireolanius Bonaparte 186 

Smaragdolanius Griscom 188 

FAMILY CYCLARHIDAE 

(Pepper Shrikes) 

Cyclarhis Swainson 193 

FAMILY LANIIDAE 

(Shrikes) 

Lanius Linnaeus 211 

FAMILY STURNIDAE 
(Starlings) 

Sturnus Linnaeus 217 

Acridotheres Vieillot 218 

FAMILY COEREBIDAE 
(Honey Creepers) 

Diglossa Wagler 218 

Chlorophanes Reichenbach 242 

Iridophanes Ridgway 250 

Cyanerpes Oberholser 252 

Dacnis Cuvier 267 

Hemidacnis Sclater 283 

Xenodacnis Cabanis. 283 

Coereba Vieillot 284 

Ateleodacnis Cassin 314 

Conirostrum Lafresnaye and 

d'Orbigny 321 

Oreomanes Sclater 330 

Euneornis Fitzinger 331 

FAMILY COMPSOTHLYPIDAE 
(Wood Warblers) 

Mniotilta Vieillot 331 

Protonotaria Baird 333 

Limnothlypis Stone 334 

Helmitheros Rafinesque 335 

Vermivora Swainson 336 

Compsothlypis Cabanis 347 

Peucedramus Henshaw 359 

Dendroica G. R. Gray 362 

Catharopeza Sclater .* 414 

Seiurus Swainson 414 

Oporornis Baird 419 

Teretistris Cabanis 423 

Leucopeza Sclater 424 



PACK PAGB 

Microligea Cory 424 Cardellina Bonaparte 455 

Geothlypis Cabania 426 Setophaga Swainson 456 

Chamaethlypis Ridgway 443 Myioborus Baird 459 

Icteria Vieillot 446 Euthlypis Cabanis 473 

Granatettus Bonaparte 448 Ergaticus Baird 474 

Wilsonia Bonaparte 451 Basileuterus Cabanis 476 

LIST OF NEW NAMES PROPOSED IN PART VIII 

Vireo rirescens tobagensis subsp. nov 144 

AMeodacnis bicolor minor subsp. nov 320 



vi 



CATALOGUE 
OF 

BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



BY CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 



PART VIII 



Order PASSERIFORMES Continued 
Suborder OSCINES Continued 

Family ALAUDIDAE. Larks 
Genus ALAUDA Linnaeus 

Alauda Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 165, 1758 type, by subs, desig. 
(Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, p. 344, 1827), Alauda artensis Linnaeus. 

Alauda arvensis arvensis Linnaeus. SKYLARK. 

Alauda artensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 165, 1758 "in Europae 

apricis"; restricted type locality, Sweden. 
Alauda arvensis arvensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 292, 

1907 (monog., full bibliog.); Eaton, Bds. New York, 2, p. 201, 1914 

Long Island. 

Range. Europe (except Mediterranean region) and the British 
Isles. Accidental in (?) Greenland 1 and Bermuda. Introduced and 
resident on Vancouver Island, British Columbia; also introduced, 
but not permanently established at several localities in the United 
States, although breeding for several years on Long Island, New 
York. 

1 Whether the Skylark really ever occurred in Greenland is open to doubt. 
Neither Winge nor Helms nor Schalow know of any definite record, and its inclusion 
in the Greenlandic fauna appears to rest on Droste's vague statement (Journ. 
Cm., 17, p. 117, 1869) that two isolated specimens were shot "in America and 
Greenland." (Cf. Winge, Medd. Gr0nland, 21, p. 316, 1899.) 



2 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Genus CHIONOPHILOS Brehm 1 

Eremophila (not Eremophilus Humboldt, 1811) Brehm, Isis, p. 322, 1828 

type, by subs, desig. (Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 13, p. 528, 1890), 

Alauda alpestris Linnaeus. 
Phikremos (not Phileremus Latreille, 1809) Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. 

Deutschl., p. 312, 1831 new name for Eremophila Boie. 
Chionophilos (Pete'nyi MS.) Brehm, Handb. Liebh. Stuben- und Hausvogel, 

p. 296, 1832 type, by monotypy, Alauda alpestris Linnaeus. 

Niphophilos (Pete'nyi MS.) Brehm, Handb. Liebh. Stuben- und Hausvogel, 
p. 296, 1832 substitute name for Chionophilos Brehm. 

Otocoris 1 Bonaparte, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat. Bologna, 2, p. 407, 1838 type, 
by monotypy, Alauda cornuta Wilson = Alauda alpestris Linnaeus. 

Philammus Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 47, 1840 type, by orig. desig., Alauda 
alpestris Linnaeus. 

*Chionophilos alpestris arcticola (Oberholser). PALLID HORNED 
LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris arcticola Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 816, 
1902 Fort Reliance, Yukon River, British America (type in U. S. National 
Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 307, 1907 
(monog., full bibliog.); Brooks and Swarth, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 17, p. 75, 
1925 British Columbia. 

Range. Breeds in northwestern North America from Alaska 
(except Pacific coast strip) and in the upper Yukon Valley, south 
on high mountains through British Columbia to Washington; winters 
south to Oregon, Utah, and Montana. 

3: British Columbia (Okanagan Landing, 2; Sumas, 1). 

*Chionophilos alpestris enthymius (Oberholser). 3 SASKATCHE- 
WAN HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris enthymia Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 817, 1902 
St. Louis, Saskatchewan (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 308, 1907 (monog., bibliog.); Bailey, 
Bds. New Mex., p. 452, 1928 New Mexico. 

Range. Breeds from central Saskatchewan, eastern Montana, 
Wyoming, and Colorado south to northwestern Texas, central 
Kansas, central Nebraska, and central North Dakota; winters south 
to Texas; casually to Utah and Arizona. 

1 Cf. Laubmann, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 15, p. 222, 1922. 
1 Emended variously to Otocorys, Otocoryx, and Otocornis. 

a Rather a questionable race, not admitted in the new A. O. U. Check List 
of 1931. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 3 

25: Alberta (Whitla, 2); Saskatchewan (Quill Lake, 2); North 
Dakota (Braddock, 3; Jamestown, 2; Bottineau, 2; Minot, 1; Dickin- 
son, 7); Nebraska (Greenwood, 1; Fort Sidney, 5). 

*Chionophilos alpestris hoyti (Bishop). HOYT'S HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris hoyti Bishop, Auk, 13, p. 130, 1896 Cando, Towner County, 
North Dakota (type in Bishop Collection); Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 24, p. 812, 1902 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 4, p. 306, 1907 (monog., full bibliog.) ; Saunders, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 
14, p. 94, 1921 Montana; Brooks and Swarth, I.e., 17, p. 77, 1925 
British Columbia. 

Otocorys alpestris leucolaema (not Eremophila alpestris b. leucolaema Coues) 
Henshaw, Auk, 1, p. 258, 1884 part, "interior of British America." 

Otocoris alpestris leucolaema Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 142, 1890 part, Alaska and 
western British America, in winter into western United States to about 
latitude 40. 

Range. Breeds in middle northern Canada, north to Boothia 
Peninsula, west to the Mackenzie Valley, east to Hudson Bay, south 
to northern Alberta and Manitoba; winters south to Nevada, Utah, 
Kansas, Michigan, Ohio, New York, and Connecticut. 

1: Wyoming (Fort Washakie, 1). 

*Chionophilos alpestris alpestris (Linnaeus). NORTHERN 
HORNED LARK. 

Alauda alpestris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 166, 1758 based on 
"The Lark" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 32, pi. 32; Virginia and 
Carolina (in winter). 

Alauda cornuta Wilson, Amer. Orn., 1, p. 87 (in text), pi. 5, fig. 4, 1808 
new name for Alauda alpestris Linnaeus. 

Otocorys alpestris Henshaw, Auk, 1, pp. 257, 263, 1884 (monog.); Dwight, 
Auk, 7, p. 141, 1890. 

Otocoris alpestris alpestris Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 807, 1902 
(monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 303, 1907 
(monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Breeds in northeastern North America, east of Hudson 
Bay and south to head of James Bay, Labrador, southeastern 
Quebec (Gaspe"), and Newfoundland; winters south to the Ohio 
Valley and Georgia, west to Manitoba; casual in Louisiana and 
Bermuda; accidental in Greenland. 

42: Labrador (Indian Harbor, 4; Battle Harbor, 3); Quebec 
(Bryon Island, Magdalen Islands, 1); Maine (New Vineyard, 1); 
Massachusetts (Wellington, 1; Somerville, 1; Scituate, 1; Chatham 



4 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Island, 1; Great Island, 6); Connecticut (Lyme, 2; Stratford, 1); 
New York (Shelter Island, 9; Suffolk County, 3; Brockport, 1); 
Illinois (Chicago, 3); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 4). 

*Chionophilos alpestris leucolaema (Coues). DESERT HORNED 
LARK. 

Eremophila alpestris var. leucolaema Coues, Birds Northwest, p. 38, 1874 
Fort Randall, South Dakota (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Otocorys alpestris arenicola Henshaw, Auk, 1, pp. 259, 265, 1884 (no type 
specimen or type locality specified; type from Denver, Colorado, in U. S. 
National Museum). 1 

Otocoris alpestris arenicola Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 142, 1890 (monog.). 

Otocoris alpestris leucolaema Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 820, 
1902 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 309, 1907 
(monog., full bibliog.); Saunders, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 14, p. 91, 1921 
Montana; Grinnell, I.e., 11, p. 95, 1911 California; idem, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 32, p. 144, 1928 Lower California; Bailey, Bds. New Mex., 
p. 448, 1928 New Mexico. 

Range. Breeds in the interior of the western United States, north 
to southern Alberta, west to western Montana and Nevada, south 
to Utah, southern Colorado, eastern and central-southern New 
Mexico, and central-western Texas, east to central-northern Texas, 
central Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana; winters south to south- 
eastern California, extreme northern Lower California, Sonora, 
Chihuahua, and southern Texas. 

23: Wyoming (Hat Creek, 3); Colorado (Loveland, 1; Fort 
Lyon, 3; Fraser, 3; Rocky Ford, 3; Larimer County, 2; Colorado 
Springs, 1; Fort Morgan, 1; Morgan County, 1; Fort Collins, 1; 
Mount Flora, 2); New Mexico (Mesilla, 1; Fort Union, 1). 

*Chionophilos alpestris praticola (Henshaw). PRAIRIE HORNED 
LARK. 

Otocorys alpestris praticola Henshaw, Auk, 1, p. 264, 1884 Mount Carmel 
and Richland County, Illinois, and Gainesville, Texas (type from Richland 
County, Illinois, in U. S. National Museum). 

Otocoris alpestris praticola Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 144, 1890 (monog.); Oberholser, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 825, 1902 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 311, 1907 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Breeds in the northeastern United States and south- 
eastern Canada, from southwestern Quebec and southern Manitoba 

1 Cf. Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 311 (footnote), 1907. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 5 

to eastern Kansas, central Missouri, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, 
and Connecticut; winters south to Texas, Tennessee, Georgia, and 
Florida, casually to Arizona and Colorado. 

44: Connecticut (New Haven, 1); New York (Sennett, 1; Onaco, 
1; Brockport, 1); Ohio (Garrettsville, 1); Indiana (Bluffton, 1; 
Tracy Station, 1); Illinois (Chicago, 4; Lavergne, 2; Clearing, 1; 
Turner Park, 1; Beach, 1; Waukegan, 2; Lewistown, 1; Stickney, 1); 
Iowa (Knoxville, 1) ; Michigan (Ann Arbor, 1) ; Wisconsin (Beaver 
Dam, 16); Minnesota (Tintah, 1; Minneapolis, 1; Pipestown 
County, 1); North Dakota (Bismarck, 1); Nebraska (Gresham, 1); 
Texas (Dallas, 1). 

*Chionophilos alpestris giraudi (Henshaw). TEXAS HORNED 
LARK. 

Otocorys alpestris giraudi Henshaw, Auk, 1, p. 266, 1884 Corpus Christi, 
Texas (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Otocoris alpestris giraudi Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 145, 1890 (monog.); Oberholser, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 831, 1902 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 314, 1907 (monog., full bibliog.); Phillips, Auk, 
28, p. 79, 1911 Matamoros, Tamaulipas; Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 
43, p. 22, 1926 coastal prairie of Brownsville region, Texas. 

Range. Permanent resident in the coastal prairie region of 
extreme southeastern Texas (Galveston Bay) south to extreme north- 
eastern Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

33: Texas (Corpus Christi, 27; Brownsville, 3; Port O'Connor, 2; 
San Pedro County, 1). 

Chionophilos alpestris strigatus (Henshaw). STREAKED HORNED 
LARK. 

Otocorys alpestris strigata Henshaw, Auk, 1, p. 267, 1881 Fort Steilacoom, 
Puget Sound, Washington, and Yuba County, California (type from Fort 
Steilacoom in U. S. National Museum). 

Otocoris alpestris strigata Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 151, 1890 (monog.); Oberholser, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 837, 1902 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 316, 1907 (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Pac. 
Coast Avifauna, 11, p. 94, 1915 California localities; Jewett and 
Gabrielson, I.e., 19, p. 28, 1929; Burleigh, Auk, 46, p. 515, 1929. 

Range. Breeds in the Pacific coast belt of Washington and 
Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, south to Siskiyou County, 
California; winters in eastern Washington and Oregon south to 
northern California. 



6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Chionophilos alpestris merrilli (Dwight). DUSKY HORNED 
LARK. 

Olocoris alpestris merrilli Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 153, 1890 Fort Klamath, 
Oregon (type in Brewster Coll., now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.); Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 833, 1902 
(monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 315, 1907 (monog., 
full bibliog.); Grinnell, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 11, p. 95, 1915 California 
localities; Saunders, I.e., 14, p. 93, 1921 Montana; Brooks and Swarth, 
I.e., 17, p. 76, 1925 British Columbia; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
35, p. 285, 1930 (crit.). 

Otocoris alpestris sierrae Oberholser, Condor, 22, p. 34, 1920 head of Pine 
Creek, Lassen County, California (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Range. Breeds from southern British Columbia and north- 
western Idaho to northeastern California, east of the Cascades and 
in northwestern Nevada; winters south to central California. 1 

9: British Columbia (Okanagan Landing, 2); Washington (Pull- 
man, 1; Kiana, 1; Prescott, 1); Oregon (Portland, 1; Enterprise, 1; 
Eagle Point, 1; Medford, 1). 

*Chionophilos alpestris insularis (Dwight). ISLAND HORNED 
LARK. 

[Otocoris alpestris] insularis (Townsend MS.) Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 152 (in text), 
April, 1890 "Santa Cruz group of islands," California (the type in the 
U. S. National Museum is from San Clemente Island); Townsend, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 13, p. 140, Sept., 1890 San Clemente Island. 

Otocoris alpestris insularis Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 839, 
1902 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 317, 1907 
(monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 11, p. 95, 1915; 
Howell, I.e., 12, p. 67, 1917 California coastal islands. 

Chionophilos alpestris insularis Underdown, Auk, 48, p. 441, 1931 (crit.). 
Range. Resident on the Santa Barbara Islands, California; in 
winter on the adjacent mainland. 

15: California (San Clemente Island, 12; Santa Cruz Island, 3). 

* Chionophilos alpestris actius (Oberholser). CALIFORNIA 
HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris actia Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 845, 1902 
Jacumba, San Diego County, California (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 320, 1907 (monog., full 
bibliog.); Grinnell, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 11, p. 94, 1915; idem, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 143, 1928 Lower California (distribution). 

1 Another form, nearly allied to C. a. merrilli, has lately been separated by 
Oberholser as O. a. lamprochroma (Sci. Pub. Clevel. Mus. Nat. Hist., 4, p. 4, 1932; 
type from Warner Valley, Oregon). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 7 

Otocorys alpestris rubeus Henshaw, Auk, 1, pp. 263, 267, 1884 part, Santa 
Rosalia Bay, Lower California. 

Range. Resident in middle and western California, from San 
Francisco south to northern Lower California, east to the San Joaquin 
Valley. 

28: California (San Pedro, 4; San Diego, 2; Monterey, 4; Milton, 
1; Sonoma, 1; San Bruno, 5; Santa Cruz, 2; Port Ballona, 1; Big 
Bear Valley, 2; Nicasio, 2; Los Bafios, 1; Los Angeles County, 1); 
Lower California (San Pedro Martir, 1; San Fernando, 1). 

Chionophilos alpestris enerterus (Oberholser). 1 MAGDALENA 
HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris enertera Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 20, p. 41, 1907 
Llano de Yrais (near Magdalena Bay), Lower California (type in U. S. 
National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 890, 
1907 central Lower California; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, 
p. 144, 1928 Lower California. 

Otocorys alpestris chrysolaema (not Alauda chrysolaema Wagler) fielding, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, "1882," p. 530, 1883 Santa Rosalia Bay, Lower 
California. 

Otocoris alpestris pallida Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 154, 1890 part, Magdalena 
and Santa Margarita Islands. 

Otocoris alpestris actia (not of Oberholser) Townsend, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
48, p. 17, 1923 San Bartolome Bay; Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
24, p. 845, 1902 part, Santa Rosalia Bay; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 4, p. 320, 1907 part, northern Lower California. 

Range. Resident locally from Santa Rosalia Bay south to 
Magdalena Bay, Lower California. 

*Chionophilos alpestris rubeus (Henshaw). 2 RUDDY HORNED 
LARK. 

Otocorys alpestris rubeus Henshaw, Auk, 1, pp. 260, 267, 1884 Stockton, 
California (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Otocoris alpestris rubea Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 150, 1890 (monog.); Oberholser, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 851, 1902 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 322 (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Pac. Coast 
Avifauna, 11, p. 94, 1915. 

1 Chionophilos alpestris enerterus (Oberholser): "Similar to C. a. ammophilus, 
but smaller; the upper parts paler and more grayish; the cinnamomeous of nape, 
upper tail coverts, and bend of wing more pinkish." (Oberholser, I.e.). 

2 As pointed out by Neumann (Journ. Orn., 75, pp. 374-376, 1927), it is not 
at all unlikely that the unique specimen of Otocoris berlepschi Hartert (Journ. Orn., 
38, p. 103, 1890; Ibis, 1892, p. 522, pi. 13), said to be from "Caffraria," might 
prove to be a melanistic mutant of C. a. rubeus. 



8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Sacramento Valley in central-northern California. 

3: California (Marysville, 1; Nicasio, 1; Calaveras County, 1). 

"Chionophilos alpestris occiden tails (McCall). MONTEZUMA 
HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris occidentalis McCall, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, p. 218, 1851 
near Santa Fe, New Mexico (type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 21). 

Otocoris alpestris occidentalis Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 855, 
1902 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 324, 1907 
(monog., full bibliog.); Swarth, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 10, p. 44, 1914 
Arizona; idem, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 312, 1929 Arizona; 
Bailey, Bds. New Mex., p. 452, 1928 New Mexico (distribution). 

Range. Breeds from central Arizona to central New Mexico; 
winters south into western Texas and Chihuahua. 

28: Arizona (Phoenix, 9); New Mexico (Deming, 10); Chihuahua 
(Bastillos, 8; Chihuahua, 1). 

*Chionophilos alpestris adustus (Dwight). SCORCHED HORNED 
LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris adusta Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 148, 1890 Camp Huachuca, 
southern Arizona (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.); Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 858, 1902 (monog.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 325 (monog., full bibliog.); 
Swarth, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 10, p. 44, 1914 Arizona; idem, Proc. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 311, 1929 Arizona; Oberholser, Sci. Pub. 
Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 92, 1930 Huachuca Mountains, Arizona; 
van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 266, 1931 fifteen miles 
northwest of Nogales, Sonora. 

Range. Breeds in central-southern Arizona (on the plains and 
in the foothills of the Huachuca and Santa Rita Mountains) ; winters 
south to Sonora and Chihuahua. 

20: Arizona (Huachuca Plains, 16; Fort Huachuca, 1; Bonita 
Canyon, 2; Santa Cruz County, 1). 

*Chionophilos alpestris ammophilus (Oberholser). MOHAVE 
HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris ammophila Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 849, 
1902 Coso Valley, southeastern California (type in U. S. National 
Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 321, 1907 
(monog.); Grinnell, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 11, p. 95, 1915. 

Otocoris alpestris arenicola (not of Henshaw) Fisher, N. Amer. Fauna, 7, 
p. 66, 1893 part, Coso Valley, Mohave Desert, and Darwin, southeastern 
California. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 9 

Otocoris alpestris chrysolaema (not Alauda chrysolaema Wagler) Fisher, N. 
Amer. Fauna, 7, p. 67, 1893 part, Panamint Mountains, southeastern 
California. 

Range. Breeds in southeastern California from Owens Valley 
south to the Mohave Desert; winters south to the Mexican border. 
2: California (Santa Isabel, San Diego County, 2). 

Chionophilos alpestris leucansiptilus (Oberholser). BLEACHED 
HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris leucansiptila Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 864, 
1902 Yuma, Arizona (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 327, 1907 (monog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 32, p. 144, 1928 Lower California. 

Range. Extreme southern Nevada south along the Colorado 
River in western Arizona and eastern California to northeastern 

Lower California. 

/ 

Chionophilos alpestris dwighti Stresemann. 1 SONORAN HORNED 
LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris pallida (Townsend MS.) Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 154, 1890 
near mouth of Colorado River, Sonora (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 863, 1902 (monog.); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 326, 1907 (monog., full bibliog.); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 146, 1928 (crit.). 

Chionophilos alpestris dwighti Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 30, p. 88, 1922 
new name for 0. a. pallida Dwight, preoccupied. 2 

Range. Resident in coastal district of the Gulf of California in 
northwestern Sonora. 

*Chionophilos alpestris aphrastus (Oberholser). CHIHUAHUA 
HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris aphrasta Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 860, 
1902 Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Mexico (type in U. S. National Mu- 
seum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 326, 1907 (monog., 
full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 168, 1906 north- 
western Durango; Bailey, Bds. New Mex., p. 452, 1928. 

Range. Resident in extreme southeastern Arizona, southwestern 
New Mexico, and southeast through Chihuahua to Durango and 
Coahuila. 

1 Chionophilos alpestris dwighti Stresemann: "Similar to 0. a. aphrastus, but 
paler above, the nape less pinkish, the back less dusky." (Oberholser, I.e.). 
Grinnell (I.e., p. 146), however, considers its distinctness from C. a. leucansiptilus 
as extremely doubtful. 

2 Otocoris alpestris pallida Dwight is rendered untenable by Phileremos pallidus 
Brehm (Isis, 1842, p. 504 mountains of Siberia), which refers to one of the Asiatic 
races of the Horned Lark. 



10 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

3: Arizona (forty miles southeast of Tucson, 1; Ramsay Canyon, 
1; Wilcox, 1). 

Chionophilos alpestris diaphorus (Oberholser). TAMAULIPAS 
HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris diaphora Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 829, 
1902 Miquihuana, Tamaulipas (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 313, 1907 (monog., full 
bibliog.)- 

Range. Eastern Mexico, in southern Tamaulipas and Hidalgo; 
in winter to Oaxaca. 

*Chionophilos alpestris chrysolaema (Wagler). MEXICAN 
HORNED LARK. 

Alauda chrysolaema Wagler, Isis, 1831, p. 530 Mexico (type in Munich 
Museum). 

Alauda minor (not of Gmelin) Giraud, Sixteen Species N. Amer. Bds., p. 33, 
1841 "Texas" (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Otocorys alpestris chrysolaema Henshaw, Auk, 1, p. 260, 1884 (monog.). 

Otocoris alpestris chrysolaema Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 149, 1890 part (monog.); 
Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 842, 1902 (monog.); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 319, 1907 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Resident in the southern portion of the Mexican plateau, 
in states of Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, Tlaxcala, Zacatecas, Guana- 
juato, and eastern Jalisco. 

1: Jalisco (Tuxpan, 1). 

Chionophilos alpestris oaxacae (Nelson). OAXACA HORNED 
LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris oaxacae Nelson, Auk, 14, p. 54, 1897 San Mateo del Mar, 
Oaxaca (type in U. S. National Museum); Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 24, p. 854, 1902 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 4, p. 323, 1907 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Eremophila alpestris oaxacae Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, 
p. 401, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca. 

Otocorys chrysolaema (not Alauda chrysolaema Wagler) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 27, p. 372, 1859 Oaxaca, Mexico (crit.). 

Otocoris alpestris pallida Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 154, 1890 part, Tehuantepec, 
Oaxaca (crit.). 

Range. Resident in southern Oaxaca, Mexico. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 11 

*Chionophilos alpestris peregrinus (Sclater). 1 BOGOTA HORNED 
LARK. 

Otocorys peregrina Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 110, 1855 Bogota 

(type in British Museum). 
Otocoris chrysolaemos (not Alauda chrysolaema Wagler) Bonaparte, Atti Sesta 

Riun. Sci. Ital., p. 405, 1845 Bogota. 

Otocoris alpestris chrysolaema Dwight, Auk, 7, p. 149, 1890 part, Bogota. 
Otocoris alpestris peregrina Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 841, 

1902 vicinity of Bogota (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 

Part 4, p. 300 (footnote), 1907 highlands of Colombia; Chapman, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 554, 1917 Bogota savannah, La Mar, La 

Holanda, and El Carmen, Colombia. 

Range. Resident in the savannah of Bogota, Colombia. 
3: Colombia ("Bogota," 1; El Carmen, 1; La Mar, 1). 

Family HIRUNDINIDAE. Swallows 
Genus PROGNE Boie 

Progne Boie, Isis, 1826, col. 971 type, by virtual monotypy, Hirundo 

purpurea Linnaeus= Hirundo subis Linnaeus. 
Procne Des Murs, in Chenu, Encycl. Hist. Nat., Ois., 2, p. 229, 1852 

emendation. 

*Progne subis subis (Linnaeus). 2 PURPLE MARTIN. 

Hirundo subis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 192, 1758 based on 

"The Great American Martin" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 3, p. 120, 

pi. 120; Hudson's Bay. 
Hirundo purpurea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 344, 1766 based on 

"Purple Martin" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 51, pi. 51; Virginia 

and Carolina. 
Hirundo violacea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1026, 1789 based on "Hiron- 

delle de la Louisiane" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 722; Louisiana. 
Hirundo caerulea Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., 1, p. 57, pis. 26, 27, 

1807 new name for Hirundo subis Linnaeus, H. purpurea Linnaeus, and 

H. violacea Gmelin. 
Hirundo versicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 14, p. 509, 

1817 new name for Hirundo subis Linnaeus, H. violacea Gmelin, and 

H. caerulea Vieillot. 
Progne subis floridana Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 918, 1902 Lake 

Kissimmee, Florida (type in U. S. National Museum). 

1 Chionophilos alpestris peregrinus (Sclater): Most closely resembling C. a. 
insularis, but much smaller; throat paler yellow; bend of wing slightly brighter 
rufescent. 

2 Hirundo ludoviciana Cuvier (Regne Anim., 1, p. 374, "1817" [=Dec. 7, 
1816]), based on "Martinet, de la Louisiane" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 725, fig. 1, 
and "Purple Martin" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 51, refers only in part 
to the present species, since the bird figured by Daubenton is unquestionably 
a swift. 



12 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Progne subis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 274, 1865 North America (monog.; 
excl. Cape San Lucas); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 14, 1902 
Suapure^ Caura River, Venezuela (March, April); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 471, 1914 Cussary and Rio Jamunda (Faro), Brazil; Chubb, 
Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 330, 1921 upper Takutu Mountains, Ituribisci, 
and Supenaam. 

Progne subis subis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 31, 1904 
(monog.); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 159, 1916 Suapure, 
Venezuela; Grinnell, Condor, 30, p. 122, 1928 (crit., range). 

Progne purpurea Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 16, 1868 Barra do Rio Negro 
[=Manaos] and Manaqueri, Rio Solimoes, Brazil (Dec., Jan., Feb.; spec, 
in Vienna Museum examined); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 223, 1883 part (excl. Bolivian and Argentine records); Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 173, 1885 part (excl. Cuba and Cape San 
Lucas); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 439, pi. 87, 1893 (monog., 
excl. Cuba); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, "1901," p. 264, 1902 Iguap6, 
Sao Paulo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 340, 1907 Bahia (range); 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 77, 1910 
Joazeiro, Bahia, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Progne subis hesperia (not of Brewster) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 3, p. 35, 1904 part, Pacific coast district of North America from 
Mexican boundary to Vancouver Island. 

Range. North America from Alberta, Saskatchewan, southern 
Manitoba, northwestern Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia 
west to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Alaska (Cape Prince 
of Wales), and south to the Mexican boundary, the Gulf coast, 
Florida, and (very doubtfully) to eastern Mexico; 1 migrating through 
Central America (very few, if any authentic records), Venezuela 
(Suapure', Caura Valley), and British Guiana (Takutu Mountains, 
Ituribisci, Supenaam); wintering in northern and eastern Brazil 
(Manaqueri, Rio Solimoes; Manaos; Cussary, opposite Montalegre, 
lower Amazon; Rio Jamunda, Faro; Joazeiro, Rio Sao Francisco, 
Bahia; Iguape', Sao Paulo). 2 

1 In the absence of specimens from Mexico I am unable to make out whether 
the purple martins reported to breed in the "alpine region of Vera Cruz" (P. subis 
Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 547, 1869), in Guadalajara and Tepic 
(P. subis Lawrence, I.e., 2, p. 271, 1874) are really referable to the present form. 
It will be noted that Ridgway had only three breeding females from Guanajuato, 
which admittedly were badly soiled with fatty exudation of the skin. Breeding 
birds from Durango and Sonora have since proved to pertain to P. s. hesperia, a 
circumstance that casts serious doubts on the identification of the purple martins 
of southern Mexico. More information is urgently desired, the problem being 
furthermore complicated by the occurrence in Sinaloa of a white-bellied form 
(sinaloae). 

2 Females taken in winter in northern Brazil agree fully with others from the 
eastern United States. 

Material examined. Brazil: Manaqueri, Rio Solimoes, 2; Manaos, 5; Joazeiro, 
Bahia, 3. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 13 

38: Connecticut (East Hartford, 1; Hadeyme, 1); Massachusetts 
(Denbay, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 11); Illinois (Chicago, 2; 
Joliet, 1; Highland Park, 1; Deerfield, 1); Florida (Key West, 2; 
Gainesville, 1; New River, 1; Kissimmee River, 1); Texas (Corpus 
Christi, 2); California (Santa Isabel, 1; Riverside, 1; Paicines, 
San Benito County, 1); Mexico (Babicora, Chihuahua, 8; Cozumel 
Island, Yucatan, 1). 

*Progne subis hesperia Brewster. WESTERN MARTIN. 

Progne subis hesperia Brewster, Auk, 6, p. 92, 1889 Sierra de la Laguna, 
Lower California (types in collection of W. Brewster, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 291, 1930); Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 485, 
1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (Sept. 13); Anthony, Zoe, 4, p. 243, 1893 
San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California; idem, Auk, 12, 
p. 141, 1895 San Fernando, Lower California; Brewster, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 41, p. 164, 1902 Lower California (habits); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 35, 1904 part, Lower California; 
Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 177, 1906 Arroyo del Buey, 
Durango (May 29; crit., range); Grinnell, Condor, 30, pp. 122, 124, 1928 
Lower California (crit., range); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 188, 
1928 Lower California; van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, 
p. 269, 1931 Saric, Tobari Bay, El Alamo, and Tibur6n Island, Sonora, 
and Tucson, Arizona (crit.). 

Progne hesperia Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 455, pi. 88, 1893 
part, Lower California. 

Progne purpurea (not Hirundo purpurea Linnaeus) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 10, p. 173, 1885 part, Lower California. 

Range. Lower California and adjoining parts of Arizona (Tucson) 
and Sonora, possibly extending into western Texas (Fort Davis) ; : on 
migration in Nicaragua (Rio Frio; Sept. 13); winter home unknown. 

2: Lower California (San Basilic, 1; San Jose" del Cabo, 1). 

*Progne subis cryptoleuca Baird. 2 CUBAN MARTIN. 

1 The range of P. s. hesperia has yet to be determined. Grinnell restricts 
it to Lower California, and refers Arizona birds to typical subis, although a slight 
tendency to the characters of hesperia is admitted. Miller, on the other hand, 
unhesitatingly calls them hesperia, with which he also places a single breeding 
female from Fort Davis in western Texas. Van Rossem identifies a series of 
supposedly breeding birds from Tucson as hesperia, but claims that four others 
from the Chiricahua Mountains "are good subis." Specimens from Babicora, 
Chihuahua, I cannot separate from subis. Though the females, by their slightly 
whiter belly, vary in the direction of hesperia, these birds are among the largest 
I have seen, the length of their wings measuring fully 150 mm. or more. 

2 Progne subis cryptoleuca Baird is so decidedly intermediate between P. s. 
subis and P. s. dominicensis that I do not hesitate to unite the Caribbean Martin 
in the same specific group. Cuban females cannot be told by any character from 
those of dominicensis, while five males, by the varying amount of white below, 
form a nearly unbroken chain between the two "species." 

Material examined. Cuba, 8. 



14 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Progne cryptoleuca Baird, Rev. Amer. Bets., 1, p. 277, May, 1865 Cuba and 
Cape Florida, Florida (type from Remedies, Cuba, in U. S. National 
Museum); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 20, p. 431, 1872 Cuba (habits, nest, 
and eggs); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 37, 1904 
Cuba, accidental in Florida (monog., bibliog.) ; Bangs and Zappey, Amer. 
Natur., 39, p. 209, 1905 Manigua, Isle of Pines; Todd, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 10, p. 260, 1916 Los Indios, Isle of Pines; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. 
Orn. Cl., 6, p. 109, 1923 Cuba. 

Hirundo purpurea (not of Linnaeus) d'Orbigny, in Sagra, Hist. Cuba, Ornith., 
p. 94, 1840 part, Cuba. 

Progne purpurea Gundlach and Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 3, 1856 Cuba; 
Gundlach, I.e., 9, p. 328, 1861 Cuba; Brewer, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
7, p. 306, 1860 Cuba; (?) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 223, 1883 part, Belize, British Honduras (crit.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 173, 632, 1885 part, Cuba, and (?) spec, b', British 
Honduras; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 439, 1893 part, 
Cuba and (?) British Honduras. 

Progne subis (not Hirundo subis Linnaeus) Cory, Auk, 3, p. 56, 1886 Cuba; 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 70, 1889 Cuba. 

Progne dominicensis (not Hirundo dominicensis Gmelin) Cory, Auk, 8, p. 294, 
1891 Cuba (seen). 

Range. Island of Cuba, including the Isle of Pines, Greater 
Antilles; occasional in southern Florida (Cape Florida, May 18, 
1858; Key West, May 9, 1895; Clearwater, date not recorded); 
(?) British Honduras (Belize). 

3: Cuba (unspecified, 2); Florida (Key West, 1). 

*Progne subis dominicensis (Gmelin). CARIBBEAN MARTIN. 

Hirundo dominicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1025, 1789 based on 
"Hirundo dominicensis" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 493, and "Hirondelle d'Amer- 
ique" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 545, fig. 1, Santo Domingo; Vieillot, Hist. 
Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., 1, p. 59, pis. 28, 29, 1807 Porto Rico and Santo 
Domingo; Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, p. 252, 1866 Porto Rico; 
idem, I.e., 11, p. 94, 1867 Dominican Republic. 

Hirundo albiventris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 14, p. 533, 
1817 new name for Hirundo dominicensis Gmelin. 

Progne dominicensis Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 18, p. 120, 1846 Tobago 
(breeding); Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 69, 1847 Jamaica (habits); Salle, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 232, 1857 Santo Domingo; Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 38, 1862 part, spec, b, Jamaica; March, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 295 Jamaica (habits, nest, and eggs); 
Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 166 Porto Rico; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 279, 
1865 Jamaica (Spanishtown) and Porto Rico (crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 14 Santa Lucia; Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 172, 
1878 Porto Rico (eggs); idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 196, 1878 
Porto Rico (habits); Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, pp. 56, 
190, 269, 1878 Dominica, St. Vincent, and Grenada; idem, I.e., 1, p. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 15 

354, 1879 Martinique; Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 166, 1880 
Santa Lucia; Lister, Ibis, 1880, p. 40 St. Vincent; Cory, Bds. Haiti and 
San Dom., p. 44, [pi. 21], fig. 2, 1885 Samana, Santo Domingo; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 176, 633, 1885 (monog.); Cory, Auk, 3, 
p. 56, 1886 Santo Domingo and Antilles (descr.); Wells, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 9, p. 612, 1887 Grenada (habits); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. 
Hirund., 2, p. 465, pi. 91, 1889 (monog.); Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 483 
Barbados; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 70, 1889 Santo Domingo and Antilles; 
idem, Auk, 8, pp. 47, 48, 1891 St. Eustatius and St. Kitts; Verrill, Trans. 
Conn. Acad., 8, p. 340, 1892 Dominica; Scott, Auk, 10, p. 181, 1893 
Priestman's River, Jamaica; Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago; 
Field, Auk, 11, p. 127, 1894 Port Henderson, Jamaica; Wells, Auk, 
19, p. 347, 1902 Carriacou; Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 15, 1903 Mona, Porto 
Rico, and Vieques; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 38, 
1904 (monog.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, pp. 289, 304, 305, 306, 
1905 St. Vincent, Grenadines (Canouan, Carriacou), Grenada; Verrill, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 364, 1909 Dominican Republic; 
Wetmore, Auk, 33, p. 416, 1916 Vieques; idem, U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull., 
326, p. 88, 1916 Porto Rico (habits, food); Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 60, p. 388, 1916 Guadeloupe and Grande Terre; Peters, I.e., 61, 
p. 418, 1917 Sosua, Rio San Juan, Dominican Republic; Struthers, Auk, 
40, p. 475, 1923 Porto Rico; Danforth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 
10, p. Ill, 1926 Cartagena Lagoon, Porto Rico; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico and Virgin Is., 9, p. 477, 1927 Mona, Porto Rico, Vieques 
(habits); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, pp. 507, 535, 1928 
Haiti (Lake Euriquillo), Santa Lucia, St. Vincent, and Barbados; Dan- 
forth, Auk, 45, p. 488, 1928 Jamaica (Kingston, Lumsden, Black River); 
idem, Auk, 46, p. 371, 1929 Hispaniola; Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. 
Nat., 68, p. 320, 1929 Moca, Santo Domingo; Bond, Auk, 47, p. 271, 
1930 Fredericksted, St. Croix; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 155, p. 323, 1931 Hispaniola (habits). 

Progne chalybea chalybea (not Hirundo chalybea Gmelin) Hellmayr, Nov. 
Zool., 13, p. 13 (in text), 1906 part, "male" [=female] from Castare, 
Tobago (spec, reexamined). 

Range. Greater and Lesser Antilles (islands of Jamaica, Haiti, 
Mona, Porto Rico, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Martin, St. Eustatius, 
St. Christopher, Dominica, Martinique, Santa Lucia, St. Vincent, 
Grenadines [Canouan, Carriacou], Grenada, Barbados) and the 
island of Tobago. 1 

1 A single adult male from Tobago has the throat and sides more suffused 
with dark brown, less "solidly" violaceous steel blue, than is the rule in Antillean 
specimens, but similar individuals also occur on other islands, one from St. 
Eustatius being hardly distinguishable on this score. Such examples closely 
approach P. c. chalybea, which is already found in Trinidad. A female from 
Tobago, however, seems to be exactly like West Indian birds. 

Additional specimens examined. Jamaica, 1; Porto Rico, 2; Grenada, 3; 
Tobago (Castare), 1. 



16 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

11: Jamaica (Kingston, 1; unspecified, 1); Haiti (Samana, 5); 
St. Eustatius, 2; St. Kitts, 1; Tobago, 1. 

Progne (subis?) sinaloae Nelson. 1 SINALOA MARTIN. 

Progne sinaloae Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 59, 1898 Plomosas, 
Sinaloa, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S- 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 40, 1904 Plomosas, Sinaloa (crit.); Holt, Auk, 
43, p. 550, 1926 Laguna Perdida, Dept. Peten, Guatemala (crit.). 

Range. Western Mexico, in State of Sinaloa (Plomosas), and 
Guatemala (Laguna Perdida, Dept. Peten, March 14, 1920). 

*Progne chalybea chalybea (Gmelin). 2 WHITE-BELLIED MARTIN. 

Hirundo chalybea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1026, 1789 based on 
"L'Hirondelle de Cayenne" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 495, pi. 46, fig. 1) and 
Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 545, fig. 2; Cayenne. 

Hirundo purpurea (not of Linnaeus) Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 3, p. 671, "1848" [=1849] coast of British Guiana. . 

Progne purpurea Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 92, 1866 Trinidad (part, descr. 
of "female" and "young male" 1 ). 

Progne dominicensis (not Hirundo dominicensis Gmelin) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 25, p. 201, 1857 San Andres Tuxtla, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 
27, p. 364, 1859 Jalapa, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 28, p. 292, 1860 
Esmeraldas, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 38, 1862 part, 
spec, a, c, e, Esmeraldas, Jalapa, and Guatemala; Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1859, p. 13 Guatemala; Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 466 Belize, British 
Honduras; Taylor, Ibis, 1860, p. 110 Comayagua, Honduras; Owen, 
Ibis, 1861, p. 61 San Geronimo, Guatemala (egg descr.). 

Progne chalybea Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 402, 1860 San Jose, Costa Rica 
(crit.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 133 Cartagena; 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 318, 1862 Panama Rail- 
road; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 348 Panama 
Railroad; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 258 Xeberos, Yurimaguas, Chyavetas, 

1 Progne (subis?) sinaloae Nelson is stated by Ridgway to be similar in colora- 
tion to P. s. dominicensis, but to differ by smaller size (wing of males, 136-138; 
tail, 67-72). Without any material from Sinaloa it is, of course, impossible to 
express an opinion on the validity of the form, but it should be noted that various 
individuals from the West Indies (St. Kitts, St. Eustatius) have even shorter 
wings (132-133), though at the same time longer tails (77-84). Nelson's original 
specimens, shot late in July, were probably breeding birds, while the only other 
recorded example, a male in the Shufeldt Collection taken at Laguna Perdida, 
eastern Guatemala, on March 14, 1920, may have been a migrant. The female 
is still unknown. As in neighboring parts of Mexico (Tepic, Guanajuato, Durango, 
Sonora) P. s. subis and P. s. hesperia are reported to breed, the status of P. sinaloae 
is shrouded in considerable obscurity. 

2 It is not impossible that "L'Hirondelle tachete de Cayenne" Daubenton, 
PI. Enl., pi. 546, fig. 1, upon which Hirundo maculata Boddaert (Tabl. PL Enl., 
p. 32, 1783) and Hirundo maculosa Kuhl (Buff, et Daub. Fig. Av. Nom. Syst., 
p. 10, 1820) are based, might have been intended for the juvenile plumage of the 
White-bellied Martin. 

* The adult male "dScrit d'apres les auteurs" is, of course, that of P. 8. subis. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 17 

and Chamicuros, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 495 Remedies, Colombia; 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 282, 1865 Cayenne (crit.); Layard, Ibis, 
1873, p. 377 Para; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 224, 1883 part, Mexico to the Amazon, and Ecuador (excl. syn. 
H. domestica, Brazil and Paraguay); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 237, 
1884 Peruvian localities; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 205 Bartica Grove, 
British Guiana; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 178, 633, 1885 
(monog.); idem and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 473, pi. 92, 1887 
(monog.); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 107, 1887 Panama 
and Costa Rica (San Jos6); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 
p. 210 Shkolak, Yucatan; Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 22, 1892 San Jos6, Costa 
Rica (nesting); Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 486, 1893 
Bluefields, Nicaragua; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 28, 1894 
mouth of Cipero River, Moruga, and Monos Boca, Trinidad; Robinson 
and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, pp. 678, 685, 1896 Porlamor 
and El Valle, Margarita Island, and La Guaira, Venezuela; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 26, 1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Robinson 
and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 176, 1901 La Guaira, 
Venezuela; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 14, 1902 Venezuela 
(Quiribana de Caicara and Altagracia, Orinoco; Suapure, Caura); Bangs, 
Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 3, p. 59, 1902 Boquete and Bugaba, Panama; 
Clark, Auk, 19, p. 266, 1902 Margarita Island; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat., Paris, 10, p. 116, 1904 Mahury, French Guiana; Miller, Auk, 
23, p. 226, 1906 Rio Grande City and Hidalgo, Texas; Dearborn, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 123, 1907 El Rancho, Guatemala; 
Cory, I.e., p. 249, 1909 Porlamor, Margarita Island; Ferry, I.e., p. 273, 
1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 110, 316, 
1908 Cayenne and Mahury, French Guiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
56, p. 9, 1908 Cachoeira, Rio Purus; Jewell, Auk, 30, p. 428, 1913 
Panama; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 206, 1913 Cano 
Corosal, Venezuela; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 471, 1914 Para, 
Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Guama (Ourem), Maraj6 (Livramento), 
Amapa, Monte Alegre, and Rio Purus (Cachoeira); Chubb, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 331, 1921 numerous localities (habits); Griscom and 
Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 27, 1926 Hidalgo, Texas. 

Procne chalybea Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, 
p. 10, 1899 Vinces and Balzar, Ecuador. 

Progne chalybea chalybea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 40, 
1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
46, p. 155, 1905 San Miguel Island; idem, I.e., p. 220, 1906 savanna 
of Panama; Cole, I.e., 50, p. 134, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 13, p. 13, 1906 Seelet, Trinidad; Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 305, 
1907 Boruca and Paso Real de Terraba, Costa Rica; Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 1, p. 98, 1909 Rio Guarapiche, Orinoco Delta; Hellmayr, Nov. 
Zool., 17, p. 269, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 6, p. 792, 1910 Costa Rica; Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 
p. 1093 Novita, Choco, Colombia; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 377, 1911 
Xcopen and Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. 
Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 5, 87, 118, 1912 Peixe-Boi, 



18 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Para, and Mexiana; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 103, 1916 Utinga, 
Para; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 160, 1916 Orinoco 
River (Altagracia, Caicara, Quiribana, de Caicara, Las Guacas, San Felix 
River) and Caura, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 502, 1917 Cali, Malena, Algodonal (Magdalena River), and Florencia, 
Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 270, 1918 Gatun, 
Panama; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 82, 1918 
vicinity of Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana; Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, 
p. 35, 1919 Pacora, Panama; idem, I.e., 13, No. 4, p. 45, 1921 Pearl 
Islands; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 438, 1922 
Mamatoco and Fundaci6n, Santa Marta, Colombia; Hallinan, Auk, 41, 
p. 323, 1924 Farfan, Balboa, and Darien Radio Station, Panama; Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 555, 1926 Bucay and Santa Elena, 
Ecuador; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 171, 1928 Rio 
Inhangapy, Para; Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 458, 
1928 Almirante, Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 456, 1929 
Martinez Creek and Tela, Honduras; idem, I.e., 71, p. 329, 1931 
Swan Key, Panama; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 66, p. 316, 
1930 Calama, Rio Madeira, and Utiarity, Matto Grosso; Griscom, I.e., 
64, p. 283, 1932 Hacienda California, Guatemala. 

Progne leucogaster Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 280, May, 1865 San Andres 
(near Vera Cruz), Tehuantepec, Guatemala (Cahab6n, Duefias), Salvador 
(Acajutla), Costa Rica (San Jos6), Cartagena, Panama (type from 
Cahab6n, Vera Paz, Guatemala, in U. S. National Museum); Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 8, p. 96, 1868 San Jos<, Costa Rica; Frantzius, 
Journ. Orn., 17, p. 294, 1869 Costa Rica; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 1, p. 547, 1869 Orizaba, Vera Cruz; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 4, p. 17, 1876 Tehuantepec (Barrio); Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 9, p. 139, 1886 Jalapa, Vera Cruz. 

Progne leucogastra Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 569 
Mexiana Island and Para; idem, I.e., 1867, pp. 749, 754 Xeberos and 
Yurimaguas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 836 San Pedro, Honduras; Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 323 Catamucho, Magdalena River, Colombia; Nutting, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 391, 1882 La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica. 

Progne domestica (not Hirundo domestica Vieillot) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, 
p. 17, 1868 part, Obidos (spec, examined). 

Range. From the lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas 1 through 
eastern Mexico, 2 in states of Coahuila (Sabinas), Tamaulipas (Vic- 

1 Two specimens on record: a male from Rio Grande City (April 25) and a 
female from Hidalgo (May 18, 1889). 

*We have not seen any Mexican material. Birds from Guatemala and 
Costa Rica appear to be inseparable from those of South America. Specimens 
from Para and Maranhao (Miritiba), by somewhat larger dimensions, approach 
the southern race, P. c. domestica. Some individuals from Guiana and Venezuela 
come so very close to certain specimens of P. s. dominicensis that one is tempted 
to assume their conspecific relationship. Cf., however, the footnote to P. modesta 
murphyi (p. 23). 

Material examined. Sixty-nine specimens from the whole range except 
Mexico and Texas. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 19 

toria), Vera Cruz, Oaxaca (Tehuantepec), Chiapas, Yucatan 
(Shkolak, Chichen Itza), and Quintana Roo (Xcopen, Camp Mengel), 
and Central America south to western Ecuador; eastern Peru; 
northern Brazil (the most southerly locality being Utiarity, in 
northern Matto Grosso), east into northern Maranhao; Venezuela; 
Guianas; island of Trinidad. 

24: Mexico (Temax, Yucatan, 1); Guatemala (El Rancho, 
Zacapa, 1); Costa Rica (Miravalles, 2; Las Caiias, 1; Guayabo, 2; 
Limon, 1; San Jose", 2); Nicaragua (San Emilio, 1); Panama, Canal 
Zone (between Frijoles and Darien, 3; Colon, 1); Venezuela (Por- 
lamor, Margarita Island, 1; Encontrados, Zulia, 2); Brazil, Amazonas 
(Boa Vista, 1; Serra da Lua, 1); Peru (Moyobamba, 1; Lagunas, 3). 

*Progne chalybea domestica (Vieillot). 1 AZARA'S MARTIN. 

Hirundo domestica Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 14, p. 520, 
1817 based on "Golondrina domestica" Azara, No. 300; Paraguay and 
La Plata River. 

Hirundo purpurea (not of Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 
1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 68, 1837 part, Guarayos, Chiquitos, and 
Corrientes (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Progne purpurea Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 38, 1839 part, Monte- 
video; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 168 Buenos Aires (Sept. to Feb., breeding); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 595 part, Guarayos 
and Chiquitos (ex d'Orbigny); Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 22 Cape San 
Antonio, Buenos Aires (in part, breeding). 

Hirundo violacea (not of Gmelin) Wied, Reise Bras., 1, p. 198 (8vo ed., p. 
195), 1820 Quartel do Riacho, Espirito Santo. 

Hirundo chalybea (not of Gmelin) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 354, 
1830 part, descr. of female and young, eastern Brazil. 

Progne chalybea Sclater and Hudson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 606 
part, Buenos Aires; Lee, Ibis, 1873, p. 133 Rio Gato, Entre Rios; White, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 595 Flores, Buenos Aires; Barrows, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 88, 1883 Conception del Uruguay, Entre 
Rios (breeding); Dalgleish, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb., 8, p. 78, 1884 
Tala, Uruguay (nest and eggs descr.); Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 277 
Paysandu, Uruguay; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 25, 1888 part, 
Argentina; Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 118, 1891 Cordoba; Holland, 
Ibis, 1891, p. 16; idem, Ibis, 1892, p. 195 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos 
Aires; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 123 Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; Koslowsky, 
Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, p. 278, 1895 Chilecito, La Rioja; Salvadori, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 5, 1897 Caiza, Bolivia; Gibson, Ibis, 
1919, p. 380 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires. 

1 Progne chalybea domestica (Vieillot) differs from the typical form only in 
larger size and paler throat and foreneck. 



20 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Progne dominicensis (not Hirundo dominicensis Gmelin) Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 141, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; Sclater, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 38, 1862 part, spec, d, Brazil. 

Progne domestica Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 Argentina (in part); 
idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 477, 1861 Argentina (part, "young"); 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 282, 1865 Paraguay and Bolivia (crit.); 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 17, 1868 part, Rio de Janeiro, Marambaya, 
Ypanema, and Caigara (spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 159 Conchitas, Buenos Aires (crit.); Sternberg, 
Journ. Orn., 17, p. 269, 1869 Buenos Aires (breeding habits); Reinhardt, 
Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 442 Minas Geraes (crit.); 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 234, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina; 
Doering, Per. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 Barrancas, Corrientes; Holm- 
berg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 81, 1884 Tandll, Buenos 
Aires; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 177, 633, 1885 Santa 
Catharina and Buenos Aires; idem and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 469, 
1887 (monog.); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 346, 1891 Chapada, 
Matto Grosso; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 3, 
1895 Colonia Risso, Paraguay; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 
16, p. 118, 1899 Mundo Novo and Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do 
Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 139, 1899 Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Piraci- 
caba, Sao Sebastiao); idem, I.e., 4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo, Rio; Lillo, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 174, 1902 Tucuman; idem, Rev. 
Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 40, 1905 Tucuman; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 607 
Sapucay, Paraguay; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien, 76, p. 77, 1910 Bahia (Joazeiro), Pernambuco (Pao d'Alho), and 
Piauhy (Parnagua) (spec, examined); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 90 Los 
Yngleses, Ajo, and Colonia Mihanovitch, Formosa (breeding). 

Progne chalybea domestica Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 116, 
1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 5, 
1887 Lambare, Paraguay; Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. 
Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 400, 1890 Cordoba; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 
1, p. 340, 1907 Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Jundiahy, Jaboticabal, Sao 
Sebastiao), Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre), and Parana (Ourinho); 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 25, 1908 Rio Araguaya, Goyaz; Hartert 
and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 168, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 351, 1910 (range in Argen- 
tina); Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 485, 499, 
1912 Vera Guarany, Parana; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 61, 1914 Alto 
Parana, Paraguay; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 395, 1916 La Plata; M6negaux, 
Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 9, p. 58, 1917 Pocone and Corumba, Matto Grosso; 
Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 51, 1918 Tunuyan, Mendoza; Dabbene, I.e., 
1, p. 240, 1919 Isla Martin Garcia; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 22, 1920 
Uruguay (Montevideo, Canelones, San Jose, Colonia, Rio Negro, Rocha) ; 
Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 269, 1922 Rosas, Prov. Buenos Aires (breeding); 
Serte and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 51, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios (November 
to March); Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, 
p. 171, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 
1922-23, p. 651, 1924 northern and eastern Buenos Aires (breeding); 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 21 

Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 346, 1926 Formosa (Formosa), 
Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco), Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires, Dolores, Lavalle, 
Santo Domingo), Mendoza, Uruguay (Carrasco, La Paloma, Lazcano, 
Corrales, Rio Negro); Wilson, El Hornero, 3, p. 359, 1926 Dept. General 
Lopez, Santa Fe; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 181, 
1926 Fazenda Ferreira, Parana; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 265, 1929 Parnagua, Piauhy; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 60, p. 316, 1930 Matto Grosso; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. 
Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 306, 1930 San Jos6, Formosa (crit.). 

Progne chalybea chalybea Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., 
Vogel, p. 305, 1930 Bolivia (San Jose and Ignacito, Santa Cruz; crit.). 

Progne furcata (not of Baird) Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 165 Uruguay (spec, in 
British Museum examined). 

Range. Brazil, from the interior of Piauhy (Parnagua) and 
Pernambuco through the eastern states south to Rio Grande do 
Sul and Matto Grosso; eastern Bolivia; Paraguay; Uruguay; and 
northern Argentina south to Buenos Aires, Cordoba, and Mendoza. 1 

14: Bolivia (Buenavista, Santa Cruz, 8); Brazil (Piraputanga, 
Matto Grosso, 2; Fazenda Cayoa, Salto Grande do Rio Parana- 
panema, Sao Paulo, 2) ; Uruguay (Maldonado, 1) ; Argentina (Puerto 
Segundo, Misiones, 1). 

*Progne modesta elegans Baird. PATAGONIAN MARTIN. 

Progne elegans Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 275, May, 1865 Rio Vermejo, 
Argentina (descr. of young male and female; cotypes in U. S. National 
Museum); Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 89, 1883 Bahia Blanca 
and Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires; Todd, Auk, 42, p. 276, 1925 
(crit.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 346, 1926 General 
Roca (Rio Negro), Carhue (Buenos Aires), Victorica (Pampa), and Monte 

1 Birds from southern Brazil agree with a series from Paraguay in size, but 
have the throat and foreneck, on average, less variegated with whitish. This 
character, however, depends largely on seasonal conditions, the whitish edges 
being apt to disappear gradually as abrasion advances, and certain Paraguayan 
individuals are fully as dark-throated as any from Brazil. Birds from the plains 
of eastern Bolivia (Santa Cruz, Chiquitos), while not quite so large, appear to me 
better referred to domestica, although it must be admitted that no sharp and 
fast line can be drawn between Azara's Martin and typical chalybea. Specimens 
from Bahia and Piauhy (Parnagua) are hardly larger than others from Para and 
northern Maranhao (Miritiba), which we have ranked with P. c. chalybea, but 
have the paler throat and foreneck with whitish edges of domestica. In Argentina 
the breeding range of P. c. domestica is evidently more northerly than that of P. 
modesta elegans, but in Bolivia it appears to replace the latter, which breeds in the 
highlands, in the hill country and plains of the east. 

Additional specimens examined. Piauhy: Parnagua, 2. Bahia: Joazeiro, 1. 
Sao Paulo: Ypanema, 5; Fazenda Cayoa, Salto Grande do Rio Paranapanema, 1; 
Alambary, 1; Iguape, 1. Rio de Janeiro: Marambaya, 1. Goyaz: Rio Araguaya, 
4. Bolivia: Chiquitos, 1; San Jose, Chiquitos, 1; San Ignacito, Santa Cruz, 4. 
Paraguay: Villa Rica, 1; Puerto Casado, Chaco, 2; Nueva Germania, 1; San Luis 
de la Sierra, Apa Highlands, 5. Uruguay: Santa Elena, Monzon, 1. Corrientes, 
1. Entre Rios: La Soledad, 1. Buenos Aires: Estancia Espartillar, 1; Aj6, 2. 
Formosa: San Jos6, 1. 



22 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ralo (Cordoba); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 453, 1926 Corral 
Chico, Rio Negro; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 45, 
1932 Paine, O'Higgins, Chile. 

Progne furcata Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 278, May, 1865 Chile (descr. 
of adult male; type in U. S. National Museum); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, pp. 321, 337 Chile (ex Baird); Philippi, I.e., 1868, p. 531 
Chile (occurrence denied); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 195, 1876 
Sierra de Cordoba; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 175, 633, 1885 
"Chile," Mendoza, and Rio Negro; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, 
p. 24, 1888 Argentina; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 459, 
pi. 89, 1889 Patagonia to Mendoza (monog.); C. Burmeister, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 3, p. 317, 1890 Cerrito D6ctor, Chubut; 
Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 400, 
1890 Cordoba; Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 118, 1891 Cordoba; Reed, 
Ibis, 1893, p. 595 Chile; Holland, Ibis, 1895, p. 214 Santa Elena, 
Entre Rios (spec, examined); idem, Ibis, 1896, p. 315 Santa Elena (spec, 
examined); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 199, 1896 Paine, O'Higgins, 
Chile; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 5, 1897 Caiza 
and Aguairenda, Bolivia (spec, examined); Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 
100, p. 879, 1898 Chile (monog.); Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 456 San 
Luis, Tarija, Bolivia; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 174, 
1902; idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 40, 1905 Tapia, Tranquitas, 
and Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 215, 1904 Santa Ana and Tapia, 
Tucuman (spec, in Paris Museum examined); Bruch, Rev. Mus. La 
Plata, 11, p. 256, 1904 Molinos, Salta; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 351, 1910 (range in Argentina); Grant, Ibis, 1911, 

p. 89 Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires (spec, examined); Gibson, Ibis, 
1918, p. 380 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Dinelli, El Hornero, 
1, p. 61, 1918 Tucuman (breeding; nest and eggs descr.); Peters, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 327, 1923 upper Rio Cumayo, down to the 
Limay, and Puesto Horno to Talagapa, Rio Negro (breeding); Tremoleras, 
El Hornero, 2, p. 22, 1920 Montevideo, Canelones, and San Jose, 
Uruguay; Wace, I.e., 2, p. 204, 1921 Falkland Islands (visitor); Gia- 
comelli, I.e., 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. 
for 1922-23, p. 651, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Wilson, El Hornero, 3, 
p. 359, 1926 General Lopez, Santa F6; Pereyra, I.e., 4, p. 32, 1927 
Conhelo, Pampa; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 331 Falkland Islands (visitor); 
Stone, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patagonia, Orn., 2, p. 816, 1928 
Patagonia. 

Hirundo (Progne) furcata Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B. 258, 1891 
Patagonia. 

Hirundo purpurea (not of Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, 
in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 68, 1837 part, Mizque, Bolivia, and Patagonia 
(spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Progne purpurea Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 38, 1839 part, Bahia 
Blanca, Buenos Aires; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 120, 1843 
Mendoza and Villa Vicencia (breeding); Sclater, I.e., 1872, p. 548 Rio 
Negro (spec, examined); Sclater and Hudson, I.e., 1872, p. 607 Bahia 
Blanca and Carmen de Patagones (breeding); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 32 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 23 

Tosca cliffs and Ninfas Point, Chubut Valley; idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 392 
Tambo Point, Chubut (breeding); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1879, p. 595 part, Mizque, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); Gibson, Ibis, 
1880, p. 22 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (part, "two entirely black 
specimens"); White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 595 Fuerte de 
Andalgala, Catamarca; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 
5, p. 81, 1884 Tandfl and La Tinta, Prov. Buenos Aires. 
Progne domestica (not Hirundo domestica Vieillot) Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 
8, p. 253, 1860 Argentina (part); idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 477, 
1861 La Plata countries (part). 

Range. Southern and western Argentina, breeding from the 
southern border of Buenos Aires Province south to the Chubut, 
west to the Andes, and north to the highlands of Bolivia (Tarija; 
Valle Grande; Santa Cruz; Mizque, Cochabamba) ; on migration 
spreading through Buenos Aires Province north to Entre Rios, 
Santa FC", and Uruguay, and south to the Falkland Islands; accidental 
in Chile (one record from Paine, O'Higgins). 1 

1: Argentina (San Cristobal, Santa Fe", 1). 

Progne modesta murphyi Chapman. 2 PERUVIAN MARTIN. 

1 Breeding birds have been examined from the Rio Negro, Chubut, Tucuman 
(Tapia, Santa Ana), and southeastern Bolivia (Caiza, Tarija). Adult females 
are bright steel blue above like the males, while the under parts are very dark 
sooty brown, the feathers being apically edged with whitish. 

A female from Santa Fe (San Cristobal; Nov. 26, 1916. Robin Kemp) tends 
toward P. c. domestica by having a distinct white abdominal area and broader 
white edges to the under tail coverts, and raises once more the question of possible 
conspecific relationship. 

Material examined. Argentina: Santa Elena, Entre Rios, 2 (adult male, 
Oct. 11, 1894; young male, June 21, 1894. A. H. Holland); Los Yngleses, Ajo, 
Buenos Aires, 1 (adult male, Jan. 3, 1909. C. B. Grant); Mendoza, 5; Tapia, 
Tucuman, 2 (adult male and female, Dec. 2, 12, 1902. G. A. Baer); Santa Ana, 
Tucuman, 1 (adult male, Nov. 20, 1902. G. A. Baer); Rio Negro, 3 (two males, 
one female, Sept., Oct., 1871. H. W. Hudson) ; Rio Negro, 3 (d'Orbigny) ; Chubut, 
1 (adult female, Nov. 9, 1875. H. Durnford). Bolivia: Mizque, Cochabamba, 1; 
Valle Grande, 1; Santa Cruz, 4 (two males, two females, Oct., 1889. G. Garlepp); 
Caiza, Tarija, 2 (adult male and female, Feb. A. Borelli). 

2 Progne modesta murphyi Chapman: Nearest to P. m. elegans, but with much 
shorter and less deeply forked tail. Adult male without any, or with merely a 
slight suggestion of the white patch on the sides of the flanks. Female very 
differently colored, the upper parts mouse-gray, excepting a broad shining steel 
blue band across the middle of the back involving the scapulars; crown and hind- 
neck centered with dusky; longer uropygial feathers apically faintly glossed with 
steel blue; lesser upper wing coverts and longest tail coverts steel blue, somewhat 
duller than the dorsal area; lores and sides of the head blackish, becoming dusky 
posteriorly; wings and tail duller than in the male; under parts mouse gray, 
somewhat paler than the crown, the under tail coverts scarcely lighter than the 
abdomen, apically edged with whitish. Wing, 136-139, (female) 134^; tail, 
70, (female) 63; furca, 15^-17; bill, 10^-12. 

This interesting martin occupies an intermediate position between P. m. 
modesta and P. m. elegans. The male sex, while agreeing with the former in the 
absence of the conspicuous white patch on the sides of the flanks, differs never- 
theless by much longer wings; less violaceous (approximately dusky slate-blue) 



24 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Progne murphyi Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 187, p. 6, 1925 cliffs near 

Talara, Dept. Piura, northwestern Peru (type in the American Museum 

of Natural History, New York). 
Hirundo purpurea (not of Linnaeus) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 269, 

1844 Peru; idem, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 132, 1846 coast of Peru. 
Progne purpurea Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 236, 1884 coast of Peru 

(ex Tschudi); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1892, 

p. 374 lea, Peru. 

Range. Coast of Peru, from Piura (Talara) south to Lima 
(Huaral) and lea (Hacienda Ocucaje). 

Progne modesta modesta Darwin. 1 GALAPAGOS MARTIN. 

Hirundo concolor (not of Sykes, 1832) Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 22, 
Nov., 1837 "in insulis Galapagorum" (descr. of male; types from James 
Island in collection of Zoological Society of London, now in British 
Museum). 

Progne modestus Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Part 3, pi. 5, 1838 new name. 

Progne modesta Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Part 9, p. 39, July, 1839 
James Island; PreVost and Des Murs, Voy. Venus, 5, Zool., p. 182, 1855 
Charles Island (female); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 505, 
1897 Charles, Indefatigable, and James (monog.); Baur, Amer. Natur., 
31, pp. 782, 783, 1897 Albemarle, Duncan, and Barrington Islands; 
Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 347, 1904 Charles, 
Chatham, Barrington, Indefatigable, Seymour, James, and Albemarle 
Islands; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 43, 1904 Gala- 
pagos Islands (monog.). 

Hirundo modesta Neboux, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 291, 1840 Charles Island (descr. 
of female); Sundevall, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 125 James Island 
(crit.). 

gloss of the body plumage, which, moreover, is much duller and less extensive on 
the lower parts, being confined to relatively narrow apical margins, especially 
on throat and foreneck; mainly fuscous under tail coverts with but slightly glossy 
apical edges; and horn brown instead of whitish under side of the shafts of the 
primaries. A topotype from Talara lacks all trace of white on the flanks, but 
a male from lea shows there a few scattered white-tipped feathers. The female 
looks very different from that of P. m. modesta, being much grayer both above 
and below, with a broad shining blue band across the back. While modesta, 
murphyi, and elegans are clearly representative forms, certain analogies in the 
coloration of subis and murphyi in the female sex raise the question if all the 
purple martins of North and South America are not merely races of a single 
taxonomic entity. This point, however, cannot be settled before the breeding 
ranges and interrelationship of the Mexican forms (subis, sinaloae, chalybea) have 
been satisfactorily worked out, and in the meantime I prefer to maintain the 
modesta group and P. chalybea as separate specific units. 

Material examined. Piura: Talara, 1 (adult male). lea: Hacienda Ocucaje, 
2 (adult male and female, Nov. 29, Dec. 12, 1889. J. Kalinowski). 

1 Progne modesta modesta Darwin is characterized among its affines by small 
size, purplish blue gloss of the adult male without trace of silky white feathers 
on the sides of the flanks, and uniform dark brown body plumage of the female 
without conspicuous white edges (except on the under tail coverts). Wing, 121- 
129, (female) 116-123; tail, 64-69, (female) 57-61; furca, 14-17; bill, 10-11. 

Material examined. Indefatigable, 5; Albemarle, 3; Charles, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 25 

Progne concolor Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 278, 1865 Galapagos Islands; 
Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 476, 1876 James and Charles 
Islands; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 176, 1885 "Chatham" = 
James Island; idem and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 463, pi. 90, 1889 
James, Charles, and Indefatigable Islands (monog.); Ridgway, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 105, 1890 Eden Rock, Indefatigable Island; 
Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 152, 1899 Charles, Chatham, 
and Albemarle (crit.); idem, I.e., 9, p. 386, 1902 Gardner Bay, Hood 
and Daphne Islands (eggs descr.); Gifford, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 
2, p. 205, 1919 (life history); Swarth, Occas. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 
p. 102, 1931 Galapagos (crit.). 

Range. Central and southern islands of the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago (James, Albemarle, Duncan, Daphne, Seymour, Indefa- 
tigable, Barrington, Chatham, Charles, and Hood). 

Genus PHAEOPROGNE Baird 

Phaeoprogne Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 283, 1865 type, by subs, desig. 
(Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 172, 1885), Hirundo tapera Linnaeus. 

*Phaeoprogne tapera tapera (Linnaeus). BROWN-CHESTED 
MARTIN. 

Hirundo tapera Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 345, 1766 based chiefly 
on "L'Hirondelle d'Amerique" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 502, pi. 45, fig. 3; 
Cayenne) and "Tapera" Marcgrave (Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 205; northeastern 
Brazil). 1 

Hirundo pascuum Wied, Beitr. Naturg., Bras., 3, (1), p. 360, 1830 campos 
of Bahia (type lost; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 216, 1889). 

Phaeoprogne tapera immaculata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 31, p. 156, 
1912 Chicoral, near Giradot, Magdalena River, Colombia (type in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 502, 
1917 Colombia (Chicoral, Bogota), Ecuador (Duran), Venezuela 
(Maripa), and Brazil (Bahia, Rio Xingu) (crit.); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. 
Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 160, 1916 Caicara, Orinoco, and Caura Valley 
(Suapure, Maripa), Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 555, 1926 Duran, Ecuador, and Pilares and Lamor, northwestern 
Peru; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 234, 1932 Isla 
Silva, Ecuador. 

1 Linne's rather vague diagnosis leaves it an open question whether he used 
Marcgrave as his principal basis. While Marcgrave correctly says "totum corpus 
superius, collum, dorsum, alae et cauda pennas habent coloris ex fusco cum gryseo 
mixti" and "sub gutture et in pectore grysei est coloris, cum albo mixti, venter 
est albus, uti et sub cauda albet," Linnaeus describes the bird as "corpore nigri- 
cante, subtus albo" and adds "alba sunt gula, crissum, rachis subtus remigum, 
abdomen." Since he accepts Marcgrave's vernacular name as specific term, 
we may, however, follow Berlepsch and Hartert (Nov. Zool., 9, p. 14, 1902) in 
taking eastern Brazil as type locality. The "Hirundo americana tapera" of Sloane 
(Nat. Hist. Jamaica, 2, p. 212), also quoted by Linnaeus, does not belong here at 
all, and may be a swift. 



26 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Progne tapera Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 672, "1848" 
[=1849] Essequibo River, British Guiana; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 
1, p. 286, 1865 (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1866, 
p. 178 upper Ucayali, Peru (eggs descr.); idem, I.e., 1867, p. 569 Rio 
Tocantins, Brazil; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Xeberos, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1868, p. 627 Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 323 
Magdalena Valley, Colombia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, 
p. 606 part, Bogota and Puerto Cabello; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1873, 
p. 258 Ucayali and Xeberos, Peru (eggs descr.); Taczanowski, I.e., 
1877, p. 320 between Tumbez and Santa Lucia, Peru; Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 1, p. 236, 1884 Peruvian localities; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 10, pp. 180, 633, 1885 (monog., in part); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. 
Hirund., 2, p. 479, pi. 93, 1889 part, northern South America; Berlepsch 
and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 14, 1902 Caicara, Orinoco, and Suapure, 
Caura, Venezuela; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 499 Rio Capim, Para; Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1904, p. 40 Bahia; MSnegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 10, 
p. 116, 1904 Oyapock, French Guiana; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 
110, 316, 1908 Approuague and Oyapock, French Guiana; Hellmayr, 
I.C., 17, p. 269, 1910 Allianca, Rio Madeira; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
56, pp. 9, 497, 1908 Cachoeira, Rio Purus, and Villa Braga, Tapajoz; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 77, 1910 
Pernambuco (Pao d'Alho, Recife) and Bahia (Joazeiro); Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. KJ., 26, No. 2, p. 87, 1912 
Rio Capim; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 471, 1914 Para, Quati- 
Puru, Rio Capim (Araproaga), Rio Xingu (Victoria), Rio Tapajoz (Villa 
Braga), Rio Purus (Cachoeira), Marajo (Pindobal), Cunany, Monte Alegre, 
and Rio Maecuru. 

Phaeoprogne tapera Todd, Auk, 46, p. 186, 1929 Venezuela (Maripa, Alta- 
gracia, San Felix, Sabana de Mendoza), Colombia, and northern Brazil 
(crit.). 

Phaeoprogne tapera tapera Chapman, Auk, 46, pp. 348, 356, 1929 (crit.); 
Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 410, 1931 Fundaci6n River, 
near Aracataca, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Petrochelidon tapera Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 17, 1868 part, Barra do Rio 
Negro [=Manaos] (Feb. 2; spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 

Range. Breeding in northern Brazil, through the eastern states 
south to Bahia, and throughout Amazonia west to eastern Peru; 
in French Guiana, Venezuela, and northern Colombia (Magdalena 
Valley), and probably in southwestern Ecuador (Chimbo, Duran) 
and northwestern Peru (Tumbez, Pilares, and Lamor, Dept. 
Tumbez). 1 

1 Birds from eastern Brazil (Pernambuco and Bahia), Colombia (Bogota and 
Magdalena Valley), and Venezuela agree well together, not one of the specimens 
taken during the presumed breeding period showing a trace of the dusky spots in 
the middle of the breast. The grayish brown pectoral band is rather pale, and 
this color extends up over the sides of the neck. A single adult female from Chimbo, 
Ecuador the only one we have seen from the Pacific coast has this grayish 
pectoral zone reduced in extent and medially almost interrupted by whitish apical 
margins to the feathers, and differs, besides, from all other examples by whitish 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 27 

3: Peru (Lagunas, lower Huallaga, 1); Venezuela (Rio Mucujon, 
Me"rida, 1); Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, 1 [Sept. 4]). 

*Phaeoprogne tapera fusca (Vieillot). 1 SOUTHERN BROWN- 
CHESTED MARTIN. 

Hirundo fusca Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. eel., 14, p. 510, 1817 
based on "Golondrina parda" Azara, No. 301, Paraguay; Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 68, 1839 Chiquitos, 
Bolivia, and Corrientes, Argentina (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Progne fusca Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 285, 1865 Rio Vermejo (crit.). 

Cotyle tapera (not Hirundo tapera Linnaeus) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. 
Bras., 3, p. 143, 1856 southern Brazil; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 
1860 Parana; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 477, 1861 Parana; Stern- 
berg, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 270, 1869 Est. San Juan Jose, Prov. Buenos 
Aires (nest descr.); Doering, Per. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 Barrancas, 
Corrientes; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 81, 1884 
Tandil and La Tinta, Buenos Aires. 

Cotyle tapera fusca Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 
10, p. 400, 1890 Cordoba. 

sides of the neck and more distinct pale edges to the crown. The middle of the 
breast is as heavily spotted with dusky as in P. t. fusca, but this is clearly an 
individual feature, as Chapman noticed traces of these markings in only three 
out of ten birds from the Pacific coast. 

Additional specimens examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. Venezuela: 
Suapure, Caura, 3; Merida, 2. British Guiana: Annai, 1 (June 12). Colombia: 
Bogota, 10; Chicoral, Magdalena River, 2. Peru: Iquitos, 1. Eastern Ecuador: 
unspecified, 1 (March 26). Brazil: Manaos, 1 (Feb. 2); Pao d'Alho, near Recife, 
Pernambuco, 1 (Feb. 17); Joazeiro, Bahia, 1 (March 11); Bahia, 10. 

1 Phaeoprogne tapera fusca (Vieillot) differs from the typical race by slightly 
darker upper parts; darker brown and more abruptly defined pectoral band 
continued along the middle of the breast by a row of coarse dark brown spots; 
more purely white throat, this color also encroaching on the sides of the neck; 
and, on average, longer wings. 

The color characters are quite constant in a series from Uruguay, Paraguay, 
northern Argentina, and extreme southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). Dimen- 
sions, on the other hand, do not afford an absolutely reliable criterion, although 
the present form frequently attains larger measurements than the northern P. t. 
tapera. Specimens from central Brazil (Goyaz and Matto Grosso) are variously 
intermediate between the two races in size as well as in coloration, but taken as 
a whole seem to be nearer to fusca. As has been pointed out by Chapman, the 
Southern Brown-chested Martin, on its winter migration, spreads into the breeding 
range of its northern ally as far north as British Guiana, Venezuela, and Colombia. 
Careful comparison of a number of specimens with a series of P. t. fusca fails to 
disclose the slightest difference, and strengthens the belief that they are merely 
migrants from the south. 

Additional specimens examined. Argentina: Flores, Buenos Aires, 1; Cor- 
rientes, 1; Tacaagle, Formosa, 1; San Jose (Clorinda), Formosa, 4; Lapango, 
Pilcomayo, 3. Paraguay: Puerto Sastre, Rio Paraguay, Chaco, 1; Zanja Moroti, 
Apa, 1; San Luis de la Sierra, Apa, 3. Uruguay: Montevideo, 1. Brazil: 
Taquara do Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul, 2; Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 1; 
Caigara, Matto Grosso, 1; Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, 2; Sao Bento, Maranhao, 1 
(Aug. 28); Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 2 (April 7). British Guiana: George- 
town, 1 (June). 



28 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Progne tapera Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 139 
Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 
1870, p. 444 Minas Geraes; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 606 
part, Buenos Aires; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 168 Buenos Aires; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 595 Chiquitos, Bolivia 
(ex d'Orbigny); Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 23 Cape San Antonio, Buenos 
Aires; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 595 Monte Grande and 
Pacheco, Buenos Aires; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 8, p. 89, 1883 
Concepci6n del Uruguay, Entre Rios; Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 277 Pay- 
sandu, Uruguay; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 116, 1885 
Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 
180, 633, 1885 part, Brazil (Curytiba, Rio Grande do Sul), Buenos Aires, 
La Plata, and Oran (Salta); Sclater and Hudson, Argent. Orn., 1, p. 26, 
1888 Argentina (habits); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, 
p. 479, 1889 part, Rio Grande, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Oran (Salta), 
and Bolivia; Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425; idem, Ibis, 1892, p, 195 Est. 
Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 118, 1891 Cordoba; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 346, 1891 Chapada, Corumba, 
and Uacuryzal, Matto Grosso; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 166 Uruguay; 
Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 117, 1899 Mundo Novo, 
Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 139, 1899 Sao Paulo; 
Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 174, 1902 Tucuman; Baer, 
Ornis, 12, p. 215, 1904 Santa Ana and Tapia, Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. 
Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 41, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 

1, p. 340, 1907 Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Caconde), Minas Geraes (Vargem 
Alegre), and Buenos Aires (Punta Lara); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 25, 
1908 Rio Araguaya, Goyaz; Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 168, 1909 
Barracas al Sud (Buenos Aires) and Tucuman (breeding); Grant, Ibis, 
1911, p. 90 Buenos Aires (Los Yngleses, Ajo), Matto Grosso (Rabiche), 
Paraguay (Villa Pilar), and Corrientes (near Esquina); Bertoni, Faun. 
Parag., p. 61, 1914 Asuncion, Paraguay; M6n6gaux, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 
9, p. 58, 1917 Corumba, Matto Grosso; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 381 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (habits) ; (?) Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 

2, p. 342, 1921 Ituribisci and Corentyn rivers; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 Sao Bento, Maranhao; (?) 
Young, Ibis, 1929, p. 237 Berbice, British Guiana (visitor, May to Aug.). 

Phaeoprogne tapera Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 352, 
1910 (range in Argentina); Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 395, 1916 La Plata; 
Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 22, 1920 Canelones, Uruguay; Daguerre, 
I.e., 2, p. 269, 1922 Rosas, Prov. Buenos Aires (Oct. to April); Serie 
and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 51, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Giacomelli, 
I.e., 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 171, 1923 Tigre, Buenos 
Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 652, 1924 Prov. 
Buenos Aires; Wilson, El Hornero, 3, p. 359, 1926 Dept. General Lopez, 
Santa Fe. 

Phaeoprogne tapera tapera Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 345, 1926 
Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco), Uruguay (Carrasco, Montevideo, La Paloma, 
San Vicente, Lazcano, Rio Negro), and Buenos Aires (Lavalle, Dolores); 
Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 210, 1927 Bovril Islands, 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 29 

Santa F6; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 265, 1929 
Sao Bento, Maranhao (Aug. 28). 

Phaeoprogne tapera fusca Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 
266 (in text), 1929 southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina (crit.); 
Chapman, Auk, 46, pp. 348, 357, 1929 (crit., range); Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 316, 1930 Paraguay (Fort Wheeler) and Matto 
Grosso (Descalvados, Urucum, Agua Blanca de Corumba, Rio Sao 
Lourenco, Palmiras); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., 
Vogel, p. 304, 1930 Formosa (Lapango, San Jose, Tacaagl6). 
Phaeoprogne fusca Todd, Auk, 46, p. 188, 1929 Bolivia (Puerto Suarez, 
Buenavista, Rio Surutu) and Venezuela (El Trompillo, Guachi) (crit.). 
Petrochelidon tapera Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 17, 1868 part, Rio de Janeiro, 
Porto do Rio Araguay (Goyaz), Matto Grosso (Engenho do Cap Antonio 
Correia, Cuyaba, Caicara), and Marabitanas, Rio Negro (spec, in Vienna 
Museum examined). 

Range. Breeding in northern Argentina (south to Buenos Aires, 
west to La Rioja and Tucuman), Uruguay, Paraguay, eastern Bolivia, 
and southern Brazil, north to Matto Grosso, Goyaz, and Minas 
Geraes; spreading in winter north to British Guiana, Venezuela, 
Amazonia (Orosa, Rio Maranon, Peru; Marabitanas, Rio Negro), 
and Colombia (Turbaco, near Cartagena). 

10: Uruguay (Rio Uruguay, southwest of Dolores, Dept. Soriano, 
2; El Corte, Dept. Maldonado, 2; Maldonado, 2); Argentina (Con- 
ception, Tucuman, 1) ; Brazil (Chapada, Matto Grosso, 1; Sao Bento, 
Maranhao [March 28], 1); British Guiana (Georgetown [June], 1). 

Genus PETROCHELIDON Cabanis 
Petrochelidon Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 47, 1851 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, 

Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 13, 1855), Hirundo melanogaster Swainson. 
Haplochelidon Todd, Auk, 46, p. 245, 1929 type, by orig. desig., Hirundo 

andecola Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 

*Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pyrrhonota (Vieillot). NORTHERN 
CLIFF SWALLOW. 

Hirundo pyrrhonota Vieillot, 1 Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 14, p. 519, 
1817 based on "Golondrina rabadilla acanelada" Azara, No. 305, 
Paraguay. 

1 With the exception of the blackish lower belly which may easily be con- 
strued as referring to the dusky under tail coverts, Azara's description, upon which 
Vieillot's name was based, is quite accurate, and the fact that he uses different terms 
for the color of the frontal band and that of the sides of the head and throat clearly 
indicates the Northern Cliff Swallow, in which the forehead is much paler than the 
other parts, and not P. p. melanogaster. Furthermore, specimens from southern 
Brazil (Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul) and Buenos Aires, in coloration and dimen- 
sions agree perfectly with birds from the eastern United States, the wing of the 
males ranging from 110 to 117 mm., while their breast is as strongly tinged with 
ochraceous as that of others from New England and Illinois. Even if P. p. hypopolia 
be recognized, Vieillot's name would seem to be strictly applicable to the ordinary 
eastern form of the cliff swallow. 



30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hirundo albifrons Rafinesque, Kentucky Gazette, (n.s.), 1, No. 7, p. 3, 
Feb. 14, 1822 Newport, Kentucky, and Madison, Indiana. 

Hirundo lunifrons Say, in Long's Exped. Rocky Mts., 2, p. 47, 1823 Rocky 
Mountains (type deposited in Peale's Museum, doubtless lost). 

Hirundo ojrifex De Witt Clinton, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1, p. 161, 1824 
new name for H. lunifrons Say. 

Hirundo republicana Audubon, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1, p. 164, 1824 
new name for H. lunifrons Say. 

Petrochelidon albifrons hypopolia Oberholser, Canad. Field Natur., 33, p. 95, 
Jan., 1920 Fort Norman, Mackenzie (type in U. S. National Museum). 1 

Petrochelidon americana (not Hirundo americana Gmelin 2 ) Pelzeln, Orn. 
Bras., 1, p. 17, 1868 Sao Paulo (Ytarare 1 , Parnapitanga, Irisanga) and 
Matto Grosso (Engenho do Gama). 

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 169 thirty miles west of 
Buenos Aires; idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 58 Moreno (March) and Lujan 
Bridge (April), Buenos Aires; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 595 
Flores, Buenos Aires (Dec. 11); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 226, 1883 (monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 
193, 635, 1885 (monog.); Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 277 Paysandu, Uruguay 
(breeding?); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 30, 1888 part, Buenos 
Aires; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 531, pi. 104, 1890 (monog., 
excl. Texan records); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 140, 1899 Sao 
Paulo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 342, 1907 Sao Paulo; Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 168, 1909 La Plata and Barracas al Sud, 
Buenos Aires (Feb.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 354, 
1910 part, Barracas al Sud; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 91 Luiconia, Ajo, 
Buenos Aires (March); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 61, 1914 Paraguay; 
Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 395, 1916 La Plata (Oct.); Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 
381 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Castellanos, El Hornero, 2, 
p. 228, 1921 Flores, near Buenos Aires; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 51, 
1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 171, 1923 Zelaya, 
Buenos Aires (Dec., Feb.); Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, 
p. 652, 1924 Buenos Aires (Nov. to March); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 60, p. 319, 1930 Matto Grosso. 

Cotyle pyrrhonota Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 81, 1884 
Tandfl, Prov. Buenos Aires. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
3, p. 47, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, 
p. 110, 1923 Guantanamo, Cuba; Griscom, Auk, 50, p. 300, 1933 
Puerto Jimenez, Costa Rica. 

1 Cf. also P. a. aprophata Oberholser, Sci. Pub. Clevel. Mus. N. H., 4, 
p. 6, 1932 (type from near Adel, Oregon). 

2 Hirundo americana Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1017, 1789) is exclusively 
based on the "Hirondelle a croupion roux et queue carree" of Montbeillard in 
Buffon's Hist. Nat. Ois. (ed. Impr. Roy.), 7, p. 346. This swallow, observed by 
Commerson in May, 1765, on the banks of the La Plata River, is so incompletely 
described no mention being made of the pale-colored forehead or of the rufous 
color on throat and sides of the head that I concur with Sclater and Salvin in 
considering it unidentifiable. Of course, there is a possibility that the variety 
with rufous throat might have been the present species, but even this is doubtful. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 31 

Petrochelidon lunifrons Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 271, 1874 
Mazatlan and Tepic, Mexico (breeding); Ramsden, Auk, 29, p. 396, 
1912 Guantanamo, Cuba (Nov. 11, 1911). 

Range. Breeding from central Alaska, the upper Yukon Valley, 
northern Mackenzie, northern Ontario, southern Quebec, Anticosti 
Island, and Cape Breton Island south over nearly all of the United 
States, except Florida and the Rio Grande Valley, and along the 
coast district of western Mexico to Nayarit; migrates through 
Florida, Cuba (one record from Guantanamo), Costa Rica (one 
record from Puerto Jime'nez), and apparently eastern South 
America, and winters in southern Brazil (states of Sao Paulo 
and Matto Grosso to Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, and north- 
eastern Argentina (Buenos Aires, Entre Rios). 1 

26: Connecticut (East Hartford, 1); Massachusetts (no locality, 
1); New York (Cayuga, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 5); Illinois 
(Lewistown, 1; St. Charles, 1; Worth, 1; Warsaw, 1; Joliet, 1; Olive 
Branch, 1); Arizona (Calabasas, 5); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 2); 
California (Oakland, 1; Claremont, 1; Sacramento, 1; Corona, 1); 
Canada (Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, 1). 

*Petrochelidon pyrrhonota tachina Oberholser. LESSER CLIFF 
SWALLOW. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons tachina Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 15, 
1903 Langtry, Texas (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 50, 1904 southwestern Texas to eastern 
Mexico, in winter to Panama (monog., full bibliog.); Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 792, 1910 Laguna de Cartago and La Estrella de 
Cartago, Costa Rica; Thayer, Auk, 32, p. 103, 1915 Japonica, Kerr 
County, Texas; Smith, Auk, 33, p. 191, 1916 Kerr County, Texas; 
Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 27, 1926 Brownsville, Rio Grande 
River, Texas (breeding). 

1 Further subdivision of the Northern Cliff Swallow, as recently advocated 
by Oberholser, seems to be impracticable, the distinctive features claimed for the 
birds of the northwest being altogether too unstable to be expressed in nomen- 
clature. Very little is known regarding its migration routes. There is but a single 
authentic record of its occurrence in Central America and only one from the 
West Indies (Cuba), while it has not been found anywhere in western South 
America. The only specimen affording any clew as to its southward route is an 
adult male in the Munich Museum secured by S. Briceno in the Sierra of Merida 
on October 16, 1898. Though common in winter, from November to April, in 
southern Brazil (Sao Paulo) and northeastern Argentina (provinces of Buenos Aires 
and Entre Rios), this swallow has not been met anywhere else in the intervening 
country. Gibson's record of its breeding at Paysandu, Uruguay, is, no doubt, 
erroneous. 

South American material examined. Brazil, Sao Paulo: Itarare, 3 (Feb. 2, 8; 
March 13); Irisanga, 1 (Dec. 5); Parnapitanga, 1 (Dec. 22); Rio Grande do Sul, 1 
(no date). Argentina: Pacheco, Buenos Aires, 1; La Plata, 1 (Feb. 28); Barracas 
al Sud, 1 (Feb. 27). Venezuela: montanas, Sierra of Merida, 1 (Oct. 16, 1897). 



32 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Petrochelidon lunifrons (not Hirundo lunifrons Say) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 

Nat. Hist. N. Y., p. 317, 1862 Panama Railroad; Baird, Rev. Amer. 

Bds., 1, p. 288, 1865 part, Panama (crit.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 11, p. 540, 1888 San Jos6 (Sept. 3) and Talamanca, Costa Rica; 

Mearns, Auk, 19, p. 73 (footnote), 1902 Rio Grande Valley, Texas. 
(?) Petrochelidon swainsoni(i) (not of Sclater?) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, 

p. 290, 1865 part, Mirador, Vera Cruz (Aug.); Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. 

Soc. N. H., 1, p. 547, 1869 plateau region of Vera Cruz. 
Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (not Hirundo pyrrhonota Vieillot) Salvin and Godman, 

Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 226, 1883 part, Panama; Salvin, Ibis, 

1888, p. 256 Cozumel Island; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 

Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 3, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Darien (Sept.). 

Range. Breeds in western Texas, the Rio Grande Valley, and 
supposedly through eastern Mexico to Vera Cruz; on migration in 
Costa Rica and Panama; winter home unknown. 1 

7: Texas (Ingram, 2; Kerrville, 1); Costa Rica (Puerto Jime'nez, 
Golfo Dulce, 4). 

*Petrochelidon pyrrhonota melanogaster (Swainson). SWAIN- 
SON'S CLIFF SWALLOW. 

Hirundo melanogaster Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 366, 1827 tableland 
of Mexico (type in Bullock Collection). 

Petrochelidon melanogaster Mearns, Auk, 19, p. 73 (footnote), 1902 Mexican 
boundary line to the westward, from the San Luis Mountains to Nogales. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons melanogaster Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 3, p. 51, 1904 western portion of Mexican plateau (monog., bibliog.); 
Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 177, 1906 Rio Sestin, Durango 
(crit.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 358, 1932 Obaldia, 
Panama (Oct. 6). 

Petrochelidon swainsoni(i) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 296, 1858 
Oaxaca, Mexico (type in British Museum); idem, I.e., 27, p. 376, 1859 
Oaxaca; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 40, 1862 Mexico; Baird, Rev. 
Amer. Bds., 1, p. 290, 1865 part, Mexico (crit.); Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 
192 Duefias, Guatemala; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 17, 
1874 Tehuantepec City, Oaxaca (Oct.); Duges, La Naturaleza, 1, p. 141, 
1869 Guanajuato; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 227, 1883 Mexico and Guatemala (Duenas, Godines); Sharpe, Cat. 

1 It remains to be proved by an adequate series whether it is really the present 
form which breeds in eastern Mexico. The extension of its breeding range to 
Vera Cruz rests on a single example obtained by Sartorius in August at Mirador, 
which may, however, have been an early migratory individual. None of the South 
American specimens examined can be referred to P. p. tachina, all being consider- 
ably larger and paler on the forehead than a series from Texas. 

While one might be tempted by their close similarity to regard P. pyrrhonota 
and P.fulva as conspecific, the breeding ranges of P.p. tachina and P.fulva pallida 
so nearly approach each other, if they do not actually overlap, that it seems pre- 
mature to propose such a radical change without more ample information than is 
at present available. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 33 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 194, 635, 1885 Oaxaca, "Costa Rica," and 
Guatemala (Duenas); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 555, 
pi. 105, 1888 (monog.). 

Cotyle pyrrhonota (not Hirundo pyrrhonota Vieillot) Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 
8, p. 253, 1860 Tucuman; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 477, 1861 
Tucuman (good descr.). 

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 30, 1888 
part, Tucuman (ex Burmeister); Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
8, p. 175, 1902 Tucuman; idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 41, 1905 
Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 354, 1910 
part, Tucuman. 

Range. Breeds in southern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, 
the western portion of the Mexican plateau south to Michoacan 
and Oaxaca, and (?) Guatemala; winters in northwestern Argentina 
(Tucuman). 1 

10: Arizona (Sonoita, 1; Calabasas, 1); Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 
6); Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman, 2). 

*Petrochelidon fulva fulva (Vieillot). HISPANIOLAN CLIFF 
SWALLOW. 

Hirundo fulva Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Ame"r. Sept., 1, p. 62, pi. 32, "1807" 
Santo Domingo and Porto Rico (type from Santo Domingo in collec- 
tion of P. L. Vieillot); March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 295 
Jamaica (habits); Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, p. 252, 1866 
Porto Rico. 

Hirundo poeciloma Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 64, 1847 Jamaica (type now in 
British Museum). 

Petrochelidon fulva Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 72 Jamaica; 
Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, pp. 159, 172, 1878 Porto Rico; idem, Anal. 
Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 198, 1878 Porto Rico; Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Cl., 6, p. 152, 1881 Gonaives, Haiti; idem, Bds. Haiti and San Dom., 
p. 47, [pi. 21], fig. 3, 1884 Gonaives, Haiti, and Almercen, Santo Domingo; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 228, 1883 part, 
(?) Yucatan, Haiti and Jamaica; (?) Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 442 Yucatan; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 196, 1885 
part, (?) Yucatan, Santo Domingo, Jamaica, and Porto Rico; Sharpe and 
Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 561, 1887 part, (?) Yucatan, Santo 
Domingo, Jamaica, Porto Rico; Scott, Auk, 10, p. 181, 1893 Jamaica; 
Field, Auk, 11, p. 127, 1894 Port Henderson, Jamaica; Cherrie, Field 
Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 12, 1896 Santo Domingo City (habits); 

1 Five birds from Tucuman, all taken in December, February, and March 
appear to be inseparable from Mexican examples, with which they agree not 
only in small size, but also in having the forehead chestnut like the cheeks and 
throat. Burmeister, who was the first to obtain specimens in Argentina, recorded 
it under the name of C. pyrrhonota, though definitely stating its characters. Griscom 
has lately listed a specimen of this swallow taken on its southward migration at 
Obaldia, eastern Panama, on October 6, 1930. 



34 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 15, 1903 Porto Rico; Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 61, p. 364, 1909 Santo Domingo. 

Petrochelidon poeciloma Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 292, 1865 Spanish- 
town, Jamaica (crit.). 

Petrochelidon fulva fulva Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 418, 1917 
Monte Cristi and San Juan, Dominican Republic; Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 507, 1928 Haiti, Gonave, and Tortuga; Danforth, 
Auk, 46, p. 371, 1929 Santo Domingo City, Citadelle, and Gonave; 
Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, p. 320, 1929 San Juan, Sabana 
San ThomS; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 319, 
1931 Hispaniola (monog., habits). 

Petrochelidon fulva poeciloma Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 55, 
1904 Jamaica and Porto Rico (monog.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. 
Agric., 326, p. 85, 1916 Porto Rico (habits); Struthers, Auk, 40, 
p. 475, 1923 Porto Rico; Danforth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 
10, p. Ill, 1926 Cartagena Lagoon, Porto Rico; idem, Auk, 45, p. 488, 
1928 Lumsden, Jamaica; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Is., 
9, p. 474, 1927 Porto Rico (crit., habits). 

Range. Islands of Jamaica, Haiti (including Gonave and Tortue), 
and Porto Rico, Greater Antilles; 1 (?) coast of Yucatan (Chichen 
Itza, Izamal). 2 

42: Jamaica, 20; Santo Domingo (Santo Domingo City, 15); 
Haiti (Gonaives, 1); Porto Rico (Mayagiiez, 6). 

Petrochelidon fulva coronata (Lembeye). 3 CUBAN CLIFF 
SWALLOW. 

Hirundo coronata Lembeye, 4 Aves Isl. Cuba, p. 45, 1850 Cafetal Fundador, 
Rio Canimar, Cuba (type in coll. of J. Gundlach); Gundlach, Journ. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 6, p. 318, 1852 Cuba (eggs descr.). 

1 1 fail to detect the slightest difference between specimens from Haiti (fulva), 
Jamaica (poeciloma), and Porto Rico. Both Baird and Ridgway separated the 
Jamaican birds from those of Cuba, which they believed to represent P. f. fulva, 
but, although P. /. poeciloma has of late been generally recognized, nobody ever 
stated how this form can be distinguished from typical fulva, of the island of Haiti. 

8 A Cliff Swallow of this group is reported by Boucard and Gaumer to be 
resident in northern Yucatan. While Salvin and Godman (I.e.) claim a single 
specimen from there to be similar to Cuban birds, Ridgway refers four skins to 
"P./. poeciloma" of Jamaica, from which they are stated to differ only by smaller 
size. Considering this divergency of opinion, it seems that the status of the 
Yucatan form requires further investigation with the help of adequate series. 
The record of a Cliff Swallow from Panama is extremely doubtful. 

3 Petrochelidon fulva coronata (Lembeye) : Exceedingly similar to P. /. fulva, 
but the chestnut area of the rump decidedly more extensive. The amount of 
rufous on the under surface, upon which Barbour and Brooks laid so much stress 
for the discrimination of the Cuban form, is subject to great individual variation, 
and does not hold when an adequate series of typical fulva is compared. Six 
specimens from Cuba examined. 

4 Hirundo coronata Lembeye, described from Gundlach's manuscript, is the 
earliest name for the Cuban Swallow and supersedes P. /. cavicola, since Hirundo 
coronata Lichtenstein (Preis-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 3, 1830) proves 
to be a nomen nudum without nomenclatorial standing. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 35 

Petrochelidon fulva cavicola Barbour and Brooks, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 
6, p. 52, 1917 San Antonio de los Banos, Province of Havana, Cuba 
(type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.) ; Barbour, 
Mem. Nutt. Orn. CL, 6, p. 110, 1923 Cuba (habits). 

Petrochelidon fulva (not Hirundo fulva Vieillot) Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 4, 
p. 3, 1856; I.e., 20, p. 432, 1872; I.e., 22, p. 113, 1874 Cuba (habits); 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 291, 1865 Cuba (crit., excl. hab. Santo 
Domingo); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 228, 
1883 part, Cuba; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 196, 1885 part, 
Cuba; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 561, 1887 part, Cuba; 
Scott, Auk, 7, p. 264, 1890 Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida (March 
20 and 25, 1890); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 309, 1892 
San Juan and San Pablo, Cuba. 

Petrochelidon fulva fulva Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 53, 
1904 Cuba and Isle of Pines (excl. Haiti); Bangs and Zappey, Amer. 
Natur., 39, p. 209, 1905 Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines; Todd, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 259, 1916 Bibijagua and Nueva Gerona, Isle 
of Pines (habits). 

Range. Island of Cuba, including the Isle of Pines, Greater 
Antilles; accidental on Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida (March 
22 and 25, 1890). 

*Petrochelidon fulva pallida Nelson. COAHUILA CLIFF SWALLOW. 

Petrochelidon fulva pallida Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 15, p. 211, 1902 
Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 56, 1904 northeastern Mexico 
(Coahuila and Tamaulipas); Bishop, Auk, 27, p. 459, 1910 Kerrville, 
Texas; Thayer, Auk, 31, p. 401, 1914 Kerr County, Texas; idem, Auk, 
32, p. 102, 1915 Japonica, Kerr County, Texas (nest and eggs); Smith, 
Auk, 33, p. 191, 1916 six miles west of Ingram, Texas. 

Range. Northeastern Mexico, in states of Tamaulipas (Miqui- 
huana) and Coahuila (Saltillo), north to Kerr County, western Texas. 
2: Texas (Kerrville, 2). 

Petrochelidon fulva rufocollaris (Peale). 1 PERUVIAN CLIFF 
SWALLOW. 

Hirundo rufocollaris Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 175, 1848 near Callao, 
Peru (type in U. S. National Museum). 

1 Petrochelidon fulva rufocollaris (Peale), in spite of its widely separated habitat, 
is clearly conspecific with the West Indian and Mexican Cliff Swallows. Its principal 
characters are the reduction of the bright rufous area on the forepart of the crown 
to a dull chestnut brown frontal band; the white (or at best slightly buff-tinged) 
color of the throat, cheeks, and auriculars; the deeper bluish black crown; and the 
darker, auburn to chestnut (instead of orange-cinnamon to tawny) tone of the 
prepectoral band and streaking of the sides. The axillaries and under wing coverts 
are generally more grayish brown, less tinged with ochraceous. Wing, 99-102; 
tail, 47-51. 

Material examined. Peru: Lima, 5; Huaral, 3. 



36 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Petrochelidon ruficollaris Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 292, 1865 Callao 
(note on type) ; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 196, 636, pi. 3, 1885 
Lima; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 503, 1886 Lima; Sharpe and Wyatt, 
Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 567, pi. 108, 1887 Lima; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 374 Lima. 

Petrochelidon ruficollis (lapsus) Nation, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 277 
vicinity of Lima (nesting habits). 

Range. Western Peru, in the vicinity of Lima (Callao, Lima, 
Vitarte, Huaral). 

Petrochelidon fulva aequatorialis Chapman. 1 ECUADORIAN 
CLIFF SWALLOW. 

Pelrochelidon rufocollaris aequatorialis Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 138, 
p. 12, 1924 Alamor, Prov. Loja, Ecuador (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 
558, 1926 Alamor, Guainche, and Pullango, Ecuador. 

Range. Southwestern Ecuador, in Province of Loja (Alamor, 
Guainche, Pullango). 

Petrochelidon andecola andecola (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 2 
ANDEAN SWALLOW. 

1 Petrochelidon fulva aequatorialis Chapman: Very close to P. /. rufocollaris, 
but slightly smaller; prepectoral band and sides of the body more extensively and 
deeper chestnut; throat and auriculars washed with tawny. Wing, 91-97; tail, 
46-48. 

Only one of the two specimens before me differs from eight Peruvian skins 
by having the rufous of the lower parts more extended as well as decidedly deeper 
chestnut, and the throat (medially) and the auriculars tinged with tawny, thereby 
approaching P. /. fulva. The other example (from Alamor) can be matched, except 
in size, by various individuals from Peru. I must confess I am not quite convinced 
of its validity as a race. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Alamor, 1; Guainche, 1. 

2 Petrochelidon andecola andecola (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) is a very distinct 
species, differing from the other members of the genus by the absence of rufous in 
its plumage and by the lack of the whitish edges to the dorsal feathers, but aside 
from its larger dimensions and slightly wider rectrices I fail to find any structural 
character to separate it generically (Haplochelidon Todd). In coloration of 
upper parts it is not unlike Orochelidon murina, though the metallic gloss on pileum 
and back is bottle green rather than steel blue, while the upper tail coverts are 
hair brown with hardly a trace of greenish sheen. The two species are, however, 
quite different underneath, P. a. andecola having only the throat light hair brown 
in strong contrast to the buffy white breast and abdomen, and the under tail 
coverts, at least the longer ones, grayish brown or dusky, apically margined with 
whitish; whereas in Orochelidon murina the whole under surface is dark brown 
(between drab and hair brown) with broad glossy metallic blue tips to the tail 
coverts. Besides, P. andecola has a much larger bill, and the tail, composed of 
wider, bluntly rounded feathers, is much less forked, while the under tail coverts 
are much longer, reaching to within 11 to 15 mm. from the tip of the tail. Sharpe, 
curiously, regarded the present species as juvenile plumage of Orochelidon murina. 

Material examined. Bolivia: La Paz, 1 (the type); Chililaya, Lake Titicaca, 
2. Peru: Arequipa, 2 (females, May 31, 1867. H. Whitely); Tinta, 1 (Feb. 13, 
1869. H. Whitely). Chile: Sacaya, Tarapaca, 1 (female, April 2, 1890. A. A. 
Lane). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 37 

Hirundo andecola Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 69, 1837 "in Andibus, La Paz (Bolivia)" (type in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Hirundo andicola Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 984 
Arequipa, Peru (crit.; spec, examined); idem, I.e., 1869, p. 151 Tinta, 
Cuzco, Peru (spec, examined); Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 353, 
1876 Moho, Lake Titicaca, Dept. Puno, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 595 La Paz, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny). 

Atticora andecola Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 126, 1906 Puno, 
Peru. 

Orochelidon andecola Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 10, 1920 
(crit.); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 101, 1921 La Raya, 
southern Peru. 

Haplochelidon andecola andecola Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
19, p. 47, 1932 Sacaya, Tarapaca, Chile (crit.). 

Atticora cinerea (not Hirundo cinerea Gmelin) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
10, pp. 184, 634, 1885 part, descr. "young" and spec, i, k, o, Tinta and 
Arequipa, Peru (spec, examined); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 
2, p. 499, pi. 96, left fig., 1892 (monog., part, descr. of "young"); Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 132 Sacaya, Tarapaca, Chile (spec, 
examined). 

Range. Puna zone of southern Peru (in depts. of Arequipa, 
Cuzco, and Puno), extreme northern Chile (Tarapaca), and Bolivia 
(depts. of La Paz and Cochabamba). 

Petrochelidon andecola oroyae Chapman. 1 OROYA SWALLOW. 

Petrochelidon andecola oroyae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 138, p. 12, Oct., 
1924 Oroya, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York). 

Hirundo andecola (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 
10, (1), p. 269, 1844 Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 132, 
1846 Sierra of Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 242, 1884 between 
Cucas and Palcamayo. 

Hirundo andicola Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 510 between 
Cucas and Palcamayo, Junin. 

Atticora andecola Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 333 Queta, near Tarma, Dept. Junin (crit.). 

1 Petrochelidon andecola oroyae Chapman: Very similar to P. a. andecola, 
but perhaps distinguishable by larger bill and more bluish reflections on pileum 
and back. Wing, 123, (female) 116; tail, 60, (female) 55; bill, 1Y 2 . 

With only two specimens for comparison it is hardly possible to pass a definite 
judgment on the merits of this form. I notice, however, that the male is just as 
green-glossed above as any typical andecola, while the female shows decidedly 
bluish reflections. The color of the shafts of the primaries does not seem to be of 
much importance, it being very nearly whitish in one specimen from Bolivia and 
in another from Arequipa. 

Material examined. Peru, Junin: Queta, near Tarma, 2. 



38 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Puna zone of central Peru, in Dept. of Junin (Oroya; 
Chipa; Queta, near Tarma; between Cucas and Palcamayo). 

Genus STELGIDOPTERYX Baird 

Stelgidopteryx Baird, in Baird, Cassin, and Lawrence, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. 
Pac., 9, p. 312, 1858 type, by monotypy, Hirundo serripennis Audubon. 

*Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ruficollis (Vieillot). RUFOUS-THROATED 
ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW. 

Hirundo ruficollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 14, p. 523, 
1817 "Bresil," coll. Delalande, Jr. = vicinity of Rio de Janeiro (type 
in Paris Museum; cf. Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 442, 1853). 

Hirundo flavigastra Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 14, p. 534, 
1817 based on "Golondrina vientre amarillazo" Azara, No. 306, Paraguay 
(excl. variety); 1 Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 69, 1837 Corrientes (spec, examined). 

Hirundo jugularis Wied, Reise Bras., 1, p. 345 (8vo ed., p. 342), 1820 
Cachoeirinha, Rio Grande de Belmonte, Bahia, Brazil (type in Wied 
Collection, now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; 
cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 217, 1889); Temminck, Nouv. 
Rec. PI. Col., livr. 27, pi. 161, fig. 2, 1822 Brazil; Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 3, (1), p. 365, 1830 eastern Brazil. 

Hirundo hortensis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 57, 1823 
Bahia (type in Berlin Museum). 

Hirundo flaviventer Lesson, Traite" d'Orn., livr. 4, p. 269, Sept., 1830 "Bresil 
(Delalande) "= Rio de Janeiro (type in Paris Museum; cf. Pucheran, Rev. 
Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 444, 1853 (crit.)). 

Cotyle flavigastra Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 144, 1856 
Congonhas, Minas Geraes; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 17, 1868 Rio de 
Janeiro, Sao Paulo (Casa Pintada, Ypanema), and Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, 
Caicara). 

Cotyle ruficollis Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 439 
Minas Geraes (Lag6a Santa) and Sao Paulo (Hytu); Berlepsch, Journ. 
Orn., 21, p. 235, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina. 

Cotik ruficollis Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 8, p. 90, 1883 Conception 
del Uruguay, Entre Rios (nesting habits). 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 315, 1865 "La Plata" 
region and Brazil (crit.) ; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 
p. 178 upper and lower Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Yuri- 
maguas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 185 Cosnipata, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, 
p. 259 Ucayali and Yurimaguas, Peru (nest and eggs descr.); Layard, 
Ibis, 1873, p. 377 Para (spec, examined); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 510 Monterico, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, 

1 This variety, of which Azara states having seen but one example, appears 
to be Alopochelidon fucatus (Temminck). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 39 

p. 596 Yuyo, Bolivia; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 330 Recife and Parahyba 
inland to Macuca, Pernambuco; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 246, 1884 
Peruvian localities; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 117, 
1885 Linja Piraja, Rio Grande do Sul; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
10, pp. 208, 636, 1885 part, spec, a-m, p-z, Ucayali, Yurimaguas, 
Iquitos, Para, Rio Pernambuco, Bahia, Yuyo, and Rio Napo; Sharpe 
and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 647, pi. 126 (left fig.), 1888 part, 
Bahia, Para, Rio de Janeiro, Iquitos, Ucayali, Yurimaguas, Copataza 
River, Rio Napo, Yuyo; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 36, 1888 
Entre Rios; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 334 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 11, 1899 Rio Zamora, eastern Ecuador; 
Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 118, 1899 Linja Piraja 
and Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 140, 
1899 Piquete, Iguape, and Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, 
p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 316 
Archidona, Ecuador; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 499 Rio Capim, Par&; Bruch, 
Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 256, 1904 Oran, Salta, Argentina; Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 342, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape, Piquete, Cachoeira, 
Jundiahy) and Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre); Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturwiss. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 77, 1910 Pernambuco (Beberibe, 
near Recife), Bahia (Boa Vista and Lag&a de Boqueirao, Rio Grande), 
and Piauhy (Santo Antonio de Gilboez); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 92 Rabicho, 
Matto Grosso, and Colonia Mihanovitch, Formosa; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 472, 1914 part, Pari, Maguary, Apehy, Peixe-Boi, Rio 
Capim (Resacca), Rio Xingu (Victoria), Rio Jamauchim (Conceicao), 
and Rio Tapajoz (Boim) ; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 61, 1914 Alto Parana, 
Paraguay; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 
1926 Anil and Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ruficollis Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 58, 
1901 (char., range); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 13, 1906 Brazil north 
to Para, west to Peru and Ecuador (crit.); idem, I.e., 15, p. 25, 1908 
Goyaz (crit.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 354, 1910 
Entre Rios, Misiones (Posadas), Salta (Oran), and "Catamarca" (errore); 
Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, 
p. 87, 1912 Par4 and Rio Capim, Para; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 
1, p. 351, 1914 (range in Argentina); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
36, p. 505, 1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 2, p. 103, 1916 Utinga, Para; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, 
Heft 10, p. 10, 1920 Chaquimayo, Carabaya, Peru; Chapman, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 102, 1921 below San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, 
Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 559, 1926 Zamora and Rio 
Suno, eastern Ecuador; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 171, 
1928 Para; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 312, 1928 Monte 
Serrat, Itatiaya; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 266, 
1929 Tranqueira, Maranhao; Zimmer, I.e., 17, p. 399, 1930 Rio Colo- 
rado, Chanchamayo, Peru (crit.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
60, p. 319, 1930 Descalvados and Tapirapoan, Matto Grosso, and 
Calama, Rio Madeira. 



40 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Stelgidopteryx uropygialis (not Cotyle uropygialis Lawrence) Ihering, Cat. 

Faun. Braz., 1, p. 342, 1907 "Bahia." 1 
(?) Stelgidopteryx ruficollis uropygialis Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 458, 

1918 Bellavista, Rio Maranon, Peru. 

Range. Extreme northern and eastern Argentina, in provinces 
of Salta (Oran), Jujuy (Ledesma), Formosa (Colonia Mihanovitch), 
Entre Rios (Conception del Uruguay), Corrientes, and Misiones 
(Posadas); Paraguay; eastern Bolivia (Yuyo); Brazil, north to the 
Amazon; eastern Peru; and north through eastern Ecuador to 
southeastern Colombia (La Morelia, Caqueta). 2 

17: Brazil (Tranqueira, Maranhao, 1; Sao Marcello, Rio Preto, 
Bahia, 8; Piraputanga, Matto Grosso, 1); Peru (Rioja, 1; Moyo- 
bamba, 4; Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, 1; San Ram6n, Chancha- 
mayo, 1). 

*Stelgidopteryx ruficollis cacabatus Bangs and Penard. 3 
GUIANAN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW. 

1 The occurrence of S. uropygialis in Brazil rests upon a specimen supposed 
to be from "Bahia" in the British Museum (spec. i). This example, which we have 
carefully examined, pertains to S. r. aequalis, but it certainly never came from 
Bahia, having the characteristic preparation of the skins imported from Cartagena 
and Barranquilla, in northern Colombia. 

2 Birds from eastern Peru and eastern Ecuador appear to me inseparable 
from Brazilian skins. A single specimen from Para likewise resembles the average 
from Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, while one from Jujuy is among the palest in the 
whole series examined, so far as the upper parts are concerned. 

Additional specimens examined. Paraguay: San Luis de la Sierra, Apa High- 
lands, 3. Argentina: Ledesma, Jujuy, 1. Brazil: Caicara, Matto Grosso, 2; 
Puerto Sastre, Rio Paraguay, 1; Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo, 1; Casa Pintada, Sao 
Paulo, 2; Rio de Janeiro, 5; Bahia, 3; Rio Grande, Bahia, 3; Beberibe, Pernambuco, 
1; Santo Antonio de Gilboez, Piauhy, 1; Para, 1. Peru: Chaquimayo, Carabaya, 
2; La Aroya, Inambari Val, 1; Chanchamayo, 1; Nauta, 2. Ecuador: Archidona, 3. 

3 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis cacabatus Bangs and Penard: Similar to S. r. ruficollis 
in having the lower rump concolor with the back, but upper parts including 
wings and tail darker, fuscous rather than hair brown; chest and sides also slightly 
darker; size perhaps on average smaller. 

With the limited material at my command, I am hardly in the position to 
pass a definite judgment on the merits of this form. A topotype from near Para- 
maribo and a single trade skin from Cayenne, while decidedly darker than the great 
majority in a considerable series of ruficollis, can very nearly be matched by certain 
individuals, notably one from Pernambuco (Beberibe, near Recife) and one from 
Chanchamayo, Peru. Birds from Roraima are doubtful. The five specimens now 
before me, all collected by H. Whitely in the early eighties, are appreciably paler 
and browner above than any other example from South America and have the 
rump buffy brown, these peculiarities haying already been noticed by Sharpe 
(1888). Chapman, however, in discussing recently collected material from 
Roraima, describes the upper parts as being as dark as in ruficollis, which leads me 
to believe that the coloration of the Whitely skins must have undergone some 
post-mortem change. I concur with Dr. Chapman that the Roraima birds, which 
I had formerly referred to S. r. aequalis, cannot well be united to that form, although 
by their somewhat lighter rump they mark a certain approach in their direction. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. Dutch Guiana: near 
Paramaribo, 1. British Guiana: Roraima, 5. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 41 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis cacabatus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, p. 83, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam (type in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). / 

Cotyle ruficollis (not Hirundo ruficollis Vieillot) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 41, 1862 part, spec, e, Cayenne. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 208, 1885 
part, spec, n, Cayenne; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 206 Roraima; Sharpe and 
Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 647, pi. 126 (right fig.), 1888 part, Cayenne 
and Roraima; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 110, 1908 Cayenne; Penard 
and Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 506, 1910 Surinam; (?) Snethlage, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 472, 1914 part, Rio Maecuru, Brazil. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis aequalis (not of Bangs) Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 
p. 13, 1906 part, Roraima. 

Stelgidopteryx aequalis Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 350, 1921 Roraima 
and upper Takutu Mountains. 

Stelgidopteryx uropygialis (not Cotyle uropygialis Lawrence) Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 209, 637, 1885 part, spec, g, h, q-v, Roraima 
and Cayenne; Penard and Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 507, 1910 Surinam. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ruficollis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 
105, 1931 Arabupu, Roraima (crit.). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, possibly extending 
south to the north bank of the Amazon, Brazil (Rio Maecuru). 
1: Dutch Guiana (vicinity of Paramaribo, 1). 

*Stelgidopteryx ruficollis aequalis Bangs. 1 CARIBBEAN ROUGH- 
WINGED SWALLOW. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis aequalis Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 58, 
1901 Santa Marta, Colombia (type in collection of E. A. and O. Bangs, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 292, 1930); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 
p. 13, 1906 Laventille, Chaguaramas, Caroni, and Cangrejal, Trinidad 
(crit., range excl. Roraima); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, 
p. 357, 1908 Aripo and Carenage, Trinidad; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 65, p. 206, 1913 Marimo River, Orinoco Delta; Cherrie, Sci. 

1 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis aequalis Bangs: Nearest to S. r. uropygialis in having 
the lower rump pale grayish brown or dull whitish, in strong contrast to the much 
darker color of the back; but throat paler rufous, and chest and sides conspicuously 
paler brownish gray. 

Birds from Santa Marta, Venezuela, and Trinidad agree well together. Two 
from the Caura Valley (La Pricion and Maripa) are typically pale-rumped indi- 
viduals of this form, showing no approach to S. r. cacabatus, and so are several 
skins from the Magdalena Valley. Intermediates between aequalis and uropygialis 
occur, however, according to Chapman, in the lower Cauca Valley and on the Rio 
Sucio, in western Colombia. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Carenage, 4; Caparo, 7; Chaguanas, 
1; Laventille, 1; Chaguaramas, 1; Caroni, 1; Cangrejal, 1. Venezuela: Guiria, 
Paria Peninsula, 1; Cumanacoa, Sucre, 5; Maripa, Caura, 1; La Pricion, Caura, 1; 
Caicara, Orinoco, 4; Merida, 2. Colombia: "Bogota," 3; Bucaramanga, 1; 
Santa Marta, 2; Cartagena, 3. 



42 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 160, 1916 middle and lower Orinoco; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 505, 1917 Dabeiba (Rio 
Sucio), Puerto Valdivia and Rio Frio (Cauca Valley), Calamar, Varrud, 
Banco, Puerto Berrio, Malena, and Chicoral (Magdalena Valley), Anda- 
lucia, and Villavicencio, Colombia (crit.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 437, 1922 Bonda, Santa Marta, Don Diego, 
Tucurinca, and Fundaci6n, Santa Marta, Colombia (nest and eggs); 
Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 410, 1930 Rio Frio, Magdalena. 

Cotyle flavigastra (not Hirundo flavigastra Vieillot) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 133 part, Cartagena. 

Cotyle uropygialis (not of Lawrence) Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 94, 1866 
Trinidad. 

Stelgidopteryx uropygialis Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 323 Ocana and Bucaramanga; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 496 Remedios, Antio- 
quia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 285, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 209, 637, 1885 part, spec, f, o, p, 
Venezuela, Bogota, and Santa Elena, Colombia; Sharpe and Wyatt, 
Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 651, pi. 127 (fig. of adult from Ocana), 1889 part, 
Venezuela and Colombia (Bogota, Ocana, Remedios, Santa Elena); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 28, 1894 Trinidad; Phelps, 
Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumanacoa and San Antonio, Sucre, Venezuela; 
Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 142, 1898 Santa Marta; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 171, 1900 Bonda, Santa Marta; Williams, 
Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. and Tobago, 20, p. 129, 1922 Williamsville and 
Harmony Hall, Trinidad (food). 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis uropygialis Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 15, 1902 Caicara and Altagracia, Orinoco, and La Pricion, Caura, 
Venezuela; Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 322 Cariaco, Venezuela. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (not Hirundo ruficollis Vieillot) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 10, p. 208, 1885 part, spec, o, Caracas, Venezuela. 

Range. Trinidad; northern Venezuela south to the Orinoco 
Valley and its tributaries; Colombia, from the Caribbean coast south 
to the lower Cauca, throughout the Magdalena Valley, and through 
the eastern Andes to Villavicencio. 

12: Colombia (Fundacion, 1; Puerto Berrio, Magdalena, 1; 
Andalucia, Huila, 1; "Bogota," 1); Venezuela (Orope, Zulia, 1; 
Colon, Tachira, 2; Maracay, Aragua, 1; Macuto, Caracas, 4). 

*Stelgidopteryx ruficollis uropygialis (Lawrence). PANAMA 
ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW. 

Cotyle uropygialis Lawrence, Ibis, 5, p. 181, 1863 Panama (type in collection 
of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York); idem, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 3, 1863 Panama; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 348 Isthmus of 
Panama (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 278 Bluefields River, 
Nicaragua. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 43 

Cotyle flavigastra (not Hirundo flavigastra Vieillot) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 133 part, Rio Truando, Colombia; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 274, 1860 Babahoyo, Ecuador; Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 317, 1862 Panama Railroad. 

Cotyle ruficollis (not Hirundo ruficollis Vieillot) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
28, p. 292, 1860 Esmeraldas, Ecuador. 

Stelgidopteryx uropygialis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 317, 1865 Isthmus 
of Darien and Panama (crit.); Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 109 Costa Rica; 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 744 Lechugal, near 
Tumbez, Peru; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 238, 
1883 part, Costa Rica (Angostura), Panama (railroad line, Obispo 
Station), and Rio Truando; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 543 Chimbo, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1884, p. 75 
Yaguachi, Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 247, 1884 Lechugal 
and Paucal, Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 209, 637, 1885 
part, spec, a-e, j, m, n, Panama, Esmeraldas, and Babahoyo; Sharpe 
and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 651, pi. 127 (fig. of young), 1889 
part, Costa Rica, Panama, western Ecuador, and western Peru; Richmond, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 486, 1893 Rio Frio, Costa Rica; Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 5, p. 480, 1898 Cachabi and Chimbo, Ecuador; Salvadori 
and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, pi. 11, 1899 Vinces, 
Ecuador; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 26, 1900 Loma del 
Leon, Panama. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis uropygialis Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 2, p. 59, 
1901 part, Panama and Costa Rica (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 63, 1904 Nicaragua to western Ecuador (excl. 
Venezuela and Trinidad); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 13, 1906 Costa 
Rica to western Ecuador (crit., excl. Chiriqui); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 6, p. 790, 1910 Costa Rica (in part); HfiUmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1911, p. 1093 Sipf, western Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 506, 1917 Juntas de Tamana, Novita, San Jose, 
Caldas, Las Lomitas, Barbacoas, Buenavista (Narino), La Frijolera, 
Barro Blanco, Salento, and Rio Toche, Colombia (crit.); Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 291, 1918 Gatun, Panama; Bangs and 
Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 224, 1922 Jesusito, Darien; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 559, 1926 Esmeraldas, Daule, 
Duran, Naranjo, Bucay, Rio Jubones, Santa Rosa, Casanga, and Rio 
Pullango, Ecuador; Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 11, p. 69, 1929 
southeastern Nicaragua to western Ecuador (crit.); idem, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 69, p. 181, 1929 Cana, Darien; Peters, I.e., 71, p. 330, 
1931 Crimacola, Panama; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 358, 1932 Perme, Panama; 
Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 234, 1932 Isla Silva, 
Ecuador. 

Stelgidopteryx fulvigula Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 318, 1865 Angostura, 
Costa Rica (=juv.; type in U. S. National Museum); Salvin, Ibis, 1874, 
p. 307 (crit.). 

Range. Chiefly Tropical zone of southern Central America, from 
eastern Costa Rica south through Panama to western Colombia 



44 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(extending east, according to Chapman, to the Subtropical zone 
of the central Andes), western Ecuador, and northwestern Peru 
(Tumbez; Paucal). 1 

9: Costa Rica (Siquirres, 1); Panama (Colon, 2; between Frijoles 
and Darien, 1); Colombia (San Jose", 1; Buenavista, Narino, 1); 
Ecuador (Pambilar, Prov. Esmeraldas, 2; Puente de Chimbo, 1). 

*Stelgidopteryx ruficollis decolor Griscom. 2 CnmiQUf ROUGH- 
WINGED SWALLOW. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis decolor Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 11, p. 69, 
1929 Divala, Chiriqui, Panama (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Stelgidopteryx uropygialis (not Cotyla uropygialis Lawrence) Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 184 Chitra, Veragua; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 238, 1883 part, Chitra; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 209, 637, 1885 part, spec. 1, Chitra; Sharpe and Wyatt, 
Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 651, 1889 part, Chitra, "Chiriqui." 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis uropygialis Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 2, p. 59 > 
1901 part, Chiriqui; idem, Auk, 18, p. 368, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui 
(crit.); idem, Auk, 24, p. 305, 1907 Pozo del Rio Grande, Costa Rica; 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 790, 1910 part, Pozo Azul de Pirris 
and El General de Te>raba, Costa Rica. 

Stelgidopteryx salvini (not of Ridgway, 1903) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 3, p. 62, 1904 part, Divala, Chiriqui. 

1 Series from Pacific Colombia and western Ecuador agree perfectly with 
birds from Panama Canal Zone. The Siquirres specimen merely differs by its 
slightly paler cinnamomeous throat. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Colon, 3. Colombia: Sipi, 3; Rio 
Dagua, 2. Ecuador: Rio Cayapas, 2; Carondelet, 2; San Javier, 1; Paramba 
(alt. 3,500 ft.), 1. 

2 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis decolor Griscom: Very near to S. r. uropygialis, but 
slightly paler brown above, with the pileum less blackish; rump as a rule nearly 
concolor with, or only little paler than, the back, but sometimes fully as whitish 
as in uropygialis; throat frequently paler cinnamomeous; middle of belly less 
tinged with yellowish; under tail coverts sometimes unspotted. Wing (males), 
110-113. 

This is a very unstable form, consisting of intergrades of varying degree 
between uropygialis and fulvipennis and its recognition in nomenclature appears 
to be highly disputable. Of five birds from Chiriqui (Bugaba), two are hardly 
distinguishable from Panama examples of uropygialis, haying a distinct whitish 
brown uropygial area, bright cinnamomeous throat, yellowish abdominal line, and 
long blackish tips to the under tail coverts. Two others, which have the rump 
brown like the back, the throat faintly tinged with pale vinaceous-buff, and the 
abdominal line as well as the unspotted under tail coverts nearly white, cannot 
be told apart from fulvipennis. The fifth specimen is exactly halfway between the 
two other sets. Similar conditions exist in the Te>raba Valley of Costa Rica. Cf. 
also Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 110, 1906. 

Material examined. Panama: Bugaba, Chiriqui, 5. Costa Rica: Punta 
Mala, 1; El P6zo de Rio Te>raba, 1; Pozo Azul de Pirris, 3. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 45 

Range. Pacific slope of Central America, from Veraguas (Chitra) 
to the TeYraba Valley in extreme southern Costa Rica. 

2: Costa Rica (Punta Mala, delta of the Rio Diquis, T&raba 
district, 1; El Pozo, Rio Te*rraba, 1). 

*Stelgidopteryx ruficollis fulvipennis (Sclater). 1 SALVIN'S 
ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW. 

Cotyle fulvipennis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 364, 1859 Jalapa, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in collection of P. L. Sclater, now in British Muse- 
um;=young); Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 31 Duefias, Guatemala. 

Stelgidopteryx salvini Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 107, 1903 
Duenas, Guatemala (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 62, 1904 southwestern Mexico (La Barca, 
Jalisco) to Guatemala (Duenas) (monog., excl. Divala, Chiriqui); Ferry, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 273, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica. 

Stelgidopteryx fulvipennis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 316, 1865 part, 
Duenas, Guatemala (crit.); Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 67 
San Jose, Costa Rica (spec., now in Munich Museum, examined). 

Stelgidopteryx fulvigula (not of Baird) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
9, p. 96, 1868 Atirro, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 295, 
1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 108 Atirro, Costa Rica (crit.). 

Cotyle serripennis (not Hirundo serripennis Audubon) Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1859, p. 13 Rio Gualacate and Duenas, Guatemala. 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 237, 1883 Guatemala (part); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, 
pp. 206, 636, 1885 part, spec, c', e'-f , San Ger6nimo, Guatemala (June), 
Irazu and Atirro, Costa Rica; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, 
p. 635, pi. 125 (adult), 1890 part, Costa Rica (Atirro, San Jos6); Cherrie, 
Auk, 7, p. 335, 1890 San Jose, Costa Rica; idem, Auk, 9, p. 22, 1892 
San Jose (breeding; spec, examined); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, p. 123, 1907 part, Lake Atitlan, Guatemala. 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis serripennis Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 791, 
1910 Juan Vinas, Miravalles, and Cachi, Costa Rica 2 (breeding). 

1 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis fulvipennis (Sclater) is another connecting link to S. r. 
serripennis, closing the gap between the North American form and S. r. decolor. 
Certain specimens with a minimum amount of cinnamomeous color on the throat 
run exceedingly close to the former, while the opposite extreme is not separable 
from some Chiriqui birds (decolor). The fact that both S. r. fulvipennis and S. r. 
uropygialis are reported to occur in the highland region of Costa Rica traversed 
by the Caribbean Railroad renders the desirability of further information strongly 
felt. As Mr. Bangs has quite correctly stated, the Rough-winged Swallows of 
Central America constitute an aggregate of intermediates between the grayish- 
throated serripennis and the rufous-throated uropygialis, varying to such an extent 
that the discrimination of the several races proposed by Mr. Griscom and provi- 
sionally accepted by the present author remains more or less problematical. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Monte Aguacate, 1; Cachi, 1; 
San Jos6, 3. 

2 The locality P6zo Aztil de Pirris refers, of course, to S. r. decolor. 



46 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis salvini Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 796, 
1910 Chiriqui and Costa Rica; McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 
16, p. 38, 1927 Labrados, Sinaloa (Sept.). 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis salvini Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 11, p. 70, 
1929 from western Vera Cruz and western Guatemala to Costa Rica 
(crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 285, 1932 Antigua (breed- 
ing), Huehuetenango, and Panajachel, western Guatemala. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis fulvipennis van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, 
p. 394, 1934 (crit.). 

Range. Highlands of south central Mexico (Labrados, Sinaloa; 
La Barca and Tuxpan, Jalisco; "western Vera Cruz"), western 
Guatemala, and highlands of Costa Rica (except TeYraba Valley). 

8: Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco [May 9], 4); Guatemala (Lake 
Atitlan [Apr. 8], 1); Costa Rica (Miravalles [March 30], 1; San 
Jose" [July 9], 1; Guayabo [Feb. 1], 1). 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ridgwayi Nelson. 1 YUCATAN ROUGH- 
WINGED SWALLOW. 

Stelgidopteryx ridgwayi Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 14, p. 174, 1901 
Chichen Itza, Yucatan (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 61, 1904 southeastern Mexico 
and Guatemala (monog.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 134, 1906 
Chichen Itza, Yucatan; McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, 
p. 38, 1927 Labrados, Sinaloa (Sept.). 

Cotyle serripennis (not Hirundo serripennis Audubon) Owen, Ibis, 1861, 
p. 61 San Geronimo, Guatemala (breeding; eggs descr.). 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 54, 
1878 Guatemala (spec., now in Munich Museum, examined); Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 237, 1883 part, San 
Geronimo, Guatemala (breeding); Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 
p. 442 Yucatan; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 635, 1890 
part, Yucatan and San Geronimo, Guatemala (breeding); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 8, p. 278, 1896 Chichen Itza, Yucatan. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ridgwayi Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
67, p. 479, 1927 Motzorongo and Texolo, Vera Cruz (crit.); Austin, I.e., 
69, p. 384, 1929 Augustine, British Honduras (breeding; crit.); Griscom, 
Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 11, p. 71, 1929 Yucatan, British Honduras, 

1 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ridgwayi Nelson: Nearest to S. r. serripennis, but 
conspicuously larger and much darker, the upper parts being deep sooty brown 
instead of hair brown; breast and sides much more extensively and darker brown, 
the light area restricted to the center of the lower abdomen. Differs from S. r. 
fulvipennis by larger size and much darker coloration with less cinnamomeous on 
the throat. Wing, 120-122. 

Judging from two specimens, this appears to be a well-marked race, though 
the exact limits of its breeding range have yet to be ascertained. 

Material examined. Guatemala: Vera Paz, 2. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 47 

and Guatemala (crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 286, 1932 
Finca Sepacuite and Secanquim, Vera Paz, Guatemala (breeding). 

Stelgidopteryx fulvipennis (not Cotyle fulvipennis Sclater) Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 200, 1869 Me>ida, Yucatan. 

Range. Breeds in the hills of Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala, and in 
western British Honduras (Augustine) ; migratory and winter speci- 
mens have been recorded from Tabasco (Teapa), Yucatan, Vera 
Cruz (Motzorongo, Texolo), and even Sinaloa (Labrados [Sept.]). 

*Stelgidopteryx ruficollis serripennis (Audubon). ROUGH- 
WINGED SWALLOW. 

Hirundo serripennis Audubon, Orn. Biog., 4, p. 593, 1838 Charleston, South 
Carolina (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis psammochrous Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 
11, p. 72, 1929 near Oposura, Sonora, Mexico (type in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis aphractus Oberholser, Sci. Pub. Clevel. Mus. N. H., 4, 
p. 5, 1932 Warner Valley, south of Adel, Oregon (type in Cleveland 
Museum) . 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 314, 1865 United 
States to Mexico (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 237, 1883 North America and Central America (part); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 206, 1885 (monog.): Sharpe and Wyatt, 
Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 635, pi. 215, 1890 (monog., part); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 58, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 134, 1905 Escuinapa, Sinaloa; idem, I.e., 
22, p. 176, 1906 Rio Sestin, Durango (crit.); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 123, 1907 part, Mazatenango and Patulul, Guate- 
mala; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 377, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 270, 1918 Gatun, Panama. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis serripennis Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 60, 
1901 (crit.); Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 458, 1928 
Almirante, Panama; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 191, 1928 
Lower California; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 457, 1929 
Lancetilla, Honduras; Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 11, p. 72, 
1929 (monog.); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 268, 
1931 Saric, T6sia, Guaymas, and San Jos6 de Guaymas, Sonora (crit.); 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 285, 1932 San Lucas, Guatemala. 

Range. North America, from British Columbia, Montana, 
North Dakota, Minnesota, central Wisconsin, southeastern Ontario, 
southern New York, western Massachusetts, and Connecticut south 
to the southern United States, from southern California to central 
Florida and to northern Mexico (northern Lower California, Sonora, 
Chihuahua, northwestern Durango; (?) Tamaulipas, (?) Vera Cruz); 



48 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

wintering from southern Arizona and Mexico southward to Panama. 1 

24: Oregon (Tillamook, 1); South Dakota (Moody County, 1); 
Arizona (Calabasas, 1; Tucson, 2); Texas (Corpus Christi, 1); 
Mississippi (Vicksburg, 1); Illinois (Grand Chain, 1; Warsaw, 1; 
Fox Lake, 1; Joliet, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 1); New York 
(Ramapo, 1; Shelter Island, 1; Peterboro, 1); Mexico (Sabinas, 
Coahuila, 2; Mexico City, 2; Tampico, Tamaulipas, 1); Guatemala 
(Patulul, Solola, 3; Mazatenango, 1). 

Genus ALOPOCHELIDON Ridgway 2 

Alopochelidon Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 106, 1903 type, by 
orig. desig., Hirundo fucala Temminck. 

*Alopochelidon fucata (Temminck). TAWNY-HEADED SWALLOW. 

Hirundo fucata Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 27, pi. 161, fig. 1, Oct., 
1822 "au Bresil" (location of type not stated). 

Cotyle fucata Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 Mendoza; idem, Reise 
La Plata St., 2, p. 478, 1861 Mendoza; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 18, 
1868 Casa Pintada, Ypanema, and Itarare, Sao Paulo; Doering, Period. 
Zool. Argent., 1, p. 254, 1874 Barrancas, Corrientes; Stempelmann and 
Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 400, 1890 Cordoba. 

Cotile fucata White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 596 Santo Tome, Cor- 
rientes; idem, I.e., 1883, p. 37 Cosquin, Cordoba; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 206 Roraima, British Guiana. 

Atticora fucata Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 308, 1865 (crit.); Reinhardt, 
Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 441 Sao Paulo (Franca), 
Minas Geraes (Paracatu, Lagda Santa), and Venezuela; Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 188, 635, 1885 Brazil (Ypanema), Argentina 
(Cordoba, Mendoza), and British Guiana (Roraima); Berlepsch and 
Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 117, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; 
Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 35, 1888 Argentina (Mendoza; 
Santo Tome', Corrientes; Cosquin, Cordoba); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. 
Hirund., 2, p. 515, pi. Ill, 1888 (monog.); Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 
118, 1891 Cordoba; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 346, 1891 

1 As pointed out by van Rqssem (I.e.), the Sonoran form (S. r. psammochrous) 
is not separable, its alleged distinctive characters being due to fading of the typical 
series. Birds from Jalisco (May 9), while similar to serripennis in coloration, are 
decidedly larger, and I am inclined to refer them to S. r. fulvipennis, though more 
adequate material is yet required to establish their proper status. 

2 Alopochelidon Ridgway is closely allied to Stelgidopteryx, but differs never- 
theless in lesser extent of adhesion of toes, and in the absence of the recurved tips 
to the barbs of the outer web of the outermost primary. It must be remarked, 
however, that the last-named character is developed only in adult males of Stel- 
gidopteryx. The style of coloration, too, is very similar in the two groups, though, 
in Alopochelidon, the rufous color also largely involves the head, it being confined 
to the throat and f oreneck in Stelgidopteryx. It is hard to conceive how this swallow 
could ever have been associated with the genus Atticora. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 49 

Chapada, Matto Grosso; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 167, pi. 5, fig. 2 (egg) Cuchi- 
lla Grande and near Monzon River, Uruguay (nesting habits); Salvadori, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 5, 1897 Caiza, Bolivia; Ihering, 
Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 118, 1899 Mundo Novo and 
Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 139, 
1899 Piracicaba, Itapetininga, and Ypiranga, Sao Paulo; Kerr, Ibis, 
1901, p. 223 Paraguayan Chaco; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
8, p. 174, 1902 Tucuman; idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 41, 1905 
Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 215, 1904 Tapia, Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. 
Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 256, 1904 Rosario de Lerma, Salta; Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 170, 1909 Pinde" (Chaco), Tucuman, and 
Santo Tome, Corrientes (nesting habits, eggs); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 92 
Mortero, Paraguay. 

Alopochelidonfucatus(a) Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 342, 1907 
Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Itapetininga, Piracicaba, Franca, and San Bernardo) ; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 553, 1910 (range in Argen- 
tina); Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 151, 1918 Mendoza; Tremoleras, I.e., 
2, p. 22, 1920 Uruguay; Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja; 
Dinelli, I.e., 3, p. 253, 1924 Tucuman (nest and eggs descr.); Pereyra, 
I.e., 4, p. 32, 1927 San Rafael, Mendoza; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 117, p. 102, 1921 below San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 342, 1926 Formosa, Formosa, 
and Tunuyan, Mendoza; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 319, 
1930 Matto Grosso (range); Chapman, I.e., 63, p. 105, 1931 Philipp 
Camp, Roraima (crit.). 

Atlicora fucata roraimae Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 40, p. 155, June, 1920 
Mount Roraima, British Guiana (type in British Museum examined); 
idem, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 348, 1921 Roraima. 

Range. Northern Argentina, south to Mendoza, Cordoba, Santa 
Fe", and Corrientes; Uruguay; Paraguay; southern Brazil, from Rio 
Grande do Sul north to Matto Grosso, Sao Paulo, and Minas Geraes; 
Bolivia (Caiza); Peru (Urubamba Canyon); British Guiana 
(Roraima); Venezuela (mountains near Cumana, Sucre* V 

1 1 am unable to make out any racial variation. Birds from Roraima and 
Venezuela are absolutely identical in coloration with southern examples, but 
average perhaps slightly smaller. Adults (sexes not different in size) measure 
as follows: 

Wing Tail 

One from Paraguay (Bernalcue 1 ) 99 47 

Eight from Brazil (Sao Paulo) 98-104 45-49 

Five from Roraima 96-101 42-47 

Two from Venezuela (near Cumana) 94, 96 42, 45 

This swallow had already been recorded by Reinhardt from Venezuela, but 
the locality was questioned by Sharpe. The late Eugene Andr6, however, secured 
two adults in the mountains near Cumana in March, 1897, which are now in the 
Munich Museum, thus confirming its occurrence in Venezuela. It remains, on 
the other hand, an open question , whether this species breeds in Venezuela and on 
Roraima or appears there only as a migrant from the south. 

Additional specimens examined. Paraguay: Bernalcue", 1. Brazil, Sao Paulo: 
Ypanema, Casa Pintada, etc., 10. British Guiana: Roraima, 5. Venezuela: 
mountains near Cumana, 2. 



50 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

7: Argentina (Concepci6n, Tucuman, 5); Uruguay (Treinta y 
Tres, 1); Brazil (Victoria, Sao Paulo, 1). 

Genus NEOCHELIDON Sclater 1 

Microchelidon (not of Reichenbach, 1853) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 39, 1862 type, by monotypy, Petrochelidon tibialis Cassin. 

Neochelidon Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. [XVI], 1862 new name for 
Microchelidon Sclater, preoccupied. 

Neochelidon tibialis tibialis (Cassin). 2 BRAZILIAN WHITE- 
THIGHED SWALLOW. 

Petrochelidon (?) tibialis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 6, p. 370, 1853 
habitat unknown, "probably South America"; we suggest vicinity of Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil (type in Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; 
cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 44, 1899). 

Microchelidon tibialis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 39, 1862 Brazil. 

Neochelidon tibialis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Prov. 
Rio de Janeiro (spec, in Berlin Museum examined). 

Atticora tibialis Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 231, 
1883 part, Brazil (spec, in Swainson Collection, Cambridge, England); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 185, 1885 part, Brazil; Sharpe and 
Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 501, 1889 part, Brazil; Ihering, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo (ex Cabanis); idem, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 341, 1907 part, Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro. 

1 Neochelidon Sclater forms a well-marked group, recognizable by its propor- 
tionately short tail, short wing-tip, and remarkably short hallux. In coloration 
it bears a striking resemblance to some of the smaller swifts of the genus Chaetura. 

2 Neochelidon tibialis tibialis (Cassin) is very little known to ornithologists. 
Cassin described it from an adult of unknown origin in the Rivoli Collection, but 
a young bird believed to be conspecific and contained in the same collection was 
labeled as coming from "Brazil." It was reserved for Dr. Chapman to point out 
that Cassin's type did not wholly agree with either the Amazonian or the Pacific 
race. This author speculates on the habitat of the typical form, but, like Sharpe 
and Wyatt, completely overlooks Cabanis's record from Cantagallo, inland of 
Rio de Janeiro, where Carlos Euler had observed a flock of this swallow resorting 
to holes in a steep bank. A specimen collected by Euler (Berlin Museum, No. 
19719), when compared to the two other races, shows exactly the differences alluded 
to by Chapman, and so does a skin of the characteristic "Rio" preparation in the 
Vienna Museum. The University Museum in Cambridge, England, also has a 
specimen from the Swainson Collection, which, according to its "make," originated 
in southern Brazil. There can be little doubt, therefore, that N. t. tibialis is an 
inhabitant of southeastern Brazil. The depth of the furca varies much within the 
same limits as in N. t. griseiventris, which it also resembles in size, but the Brazilian 
race is apparently darker underneath, nearly hair brown or olive brown on throat, 
chest, and tail coverts. Since only a few old skins are available for comparison, 
the difference may, however, be merely due to post-mortem change, and fresh 
material from Brazil is urgently desired to settle the question definitely. 

Measurements. Adult female, Cantagallo: wing, 89; tail, 49; furca, 9; bill, 6. 
Adult, Rio de Janeiro: wing, 96; tail, 58; furca, 15; bill, 6. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 51 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, in State of Rio de Janeiro 
(Cantagallo). 

Neochelidon tibialis griseiventris Chapman. 1 AMAZONIAN 
WHITE-THIGHED SWALLOW. 

Neochelidon griseiventris Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 138, p. 9, Oct., 1924 
Candamo, southeastern Peru (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 556, 1926 
Zamora, Ecuador. 

Neochelidon tibialis (not Petrochelidon tibialis Cassin) Sclater and Salvin, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, pp. 597, 598 Cosnipata, Dept. Cuzco, 

Peru (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 67, 1904 
part, Cosnipata, Peru. 

Atticora tibialis Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 242, 1884 part, Peru 
(Cosnipata); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 185, 1885 part, spec. 
c, Cosnipata, Peru; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 501, 1889 
part, Peru (Cosnipata) ; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 334 La Gloria, Chanchamayo, Dept. Junin, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of upper Amazonia, from the eastern base 
of the eastern Andes of Colombia south through eastern Ecuador 
(Zamora) to eastern Peru (La Gloria, Chanchamayo, and Tulumayo, 
Vitoc, Dept. Junin; Cosnipata, Candamo, and Marcapata, Dept. 
Cuzco). 

*Neochelidon tibialis minimus Chapman. 2 PACIFIC WHITE- 
THIGHED SWALLOW. 

1 Neochelidon tibialis griseiventris Chapman: Similar to N. t. tibialis in size 
and depth of tail-furca, but under parts decidedly paler and more grayish, about 
mouse gray with a slight brownish or drab cast. 

Native "Bogota" skins agree with Peruvian birds and doubtless come from 
the eastern foot of the eastern Andes. One or two specimens are more brownish 
below, thus verging in the direction of typical tibialis, though being still paler. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Wing Tail Furca BUI 

Adults (unsexed), "Bogota". 90, 92, 96 49, 49, 57 9, 10, 15 5, 6, 6 

Male, La Gloria, Chancha- 
mayo, Peru 97J-3 56 15 6 

Female, La Gloria, Chancha- 
mayo, Peru 89M 47 10 5% 

Male, Marcapata, Cuzco, 
Peru 90 50 11 6 

Unsexed, Marcapata, Peru . . 89 49 12 5 

* Neochelidon tibialis minimus Chapman: Nearest to N. t. tibialis in coloration, 
but under parts even darker, ranging from olive brown to near clove brown; 
urppygial area darker, sometimes barely different from color of back; wings and 
tail markedly shorter; tail-furca shallower. Wing, 83 (female) to 89 (male); 
tail, 38 (female) to 47 (male); furca, 7-11; bill, 5-6. 

Material examined. Panama: Panama Railroad, 1. Colombia: San Jose, 
1. Ecuador: Paramba, 3; Santo Domingo, 3; Chimbo, 2. 



y. OF ILi: UK 



52 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Neochelidon tibialis minimus Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 138, p. 9, Oct., 
1924 Juntas de Tamana, Rio San Juan, Choco, western Colombia (type 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 556, 1926 Rio Sapayo, Ecuador. 

Neochelidon tibialis (not Petrochelidon tibialis Cassin) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 347 Panama Railroad; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 67, 1904 part, Isthmus of Panama, Colombia, 
and western Ecuador (Chimbo); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
36, p. 504, 1917 Juntas de Tamana and San Jose, western Colombia; 
Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 282, p. 7, 1927 Sambu River, Panama. 

Atticora tibialis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 307, 1865 Panama Railroad 
(crit.; excl. hab. Brazil); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 495 Remedies, Colombia (nest descr.); Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 
I.e., 1883, p. 543 Chimbo, Ecuador; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 231, 1883 part, Isthmus of Panama and Colombia 
(Remedies); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 242, 1884 part, Panama, 
Colombia (Remedies), and Ecuador (Chimbo); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 10, pp. 185, 634, 1885 part, spec, a, b, d-f, Panama and Colombia 
(Remedies); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 501, pi. 97, 1889 
part, Panama and Colombia (Remedios); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 480, 
1898 Chimbo and Paramba, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 316 
Santo Domingo, Ecuador; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geog. Armee Mes. 
Arc Mend. Equat., 9, p. B. 66, 1911 Santo Domingo. 

Range. Tropical zone from Panama (Panama Railroad) through 
western Colombia, extending east into Antioquia (Remedios), to 
western Ecuador (as far south as Chimbo). 

1: Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, 1). 

Genus PYGOCHELIDON Baird 

Pygochelidon Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 308, May, 1865 type, by orig. 
desig., Hirundo cyanoleuca Vieillot. 

*Pygochelidon cyanoleuca cyanoleuca (Vieillot). BLUE-AND- 
WHITE SWALLOW. 

Hirundo cyanoleuca Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 14, p. 509, 
1817 based on "Golondrina de los timoneles negros" Azara, No. 303, 
Paraguay; 1 Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 68, 1837 "Buenos Aires" [=Maldonado] and "Moxos" [=Cocha- 
bamba], Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined); Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, 
p. 90, 1866 Trinidad. 

1 As has been pointed out by Bertoni (Faun. Parag., p. 61, 1914) and Wetmore 
(Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 343, 1926), Azara's description, the sole basis of 
Hirundo cyanoleuca Vieillot, is not definite enough to decide whether it refers to 
the species commonly designated by that name or to P. c. patagpnica. In view 
of the fact that the Spanish naturalist calls "los timoneles inferiores negros" it 
appears, however, preferable to adhere to current usage until more extended 
collecting has been done in Paraguay and the adjoining parts of Argentina. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 53 

Hirundo minuta Wied, Reise Bras., (4to ed.), 2, p. 336, 1821 Rio de Janeiro 
(types in Wied Collection, now in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 216, 1889); 
Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 35, pi. 209, fig. 1, 1823 Brazil; 
Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 369, 1830 Rio de Janeiro. 

Hirundo melampyga Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 57, 1823 
Bahia (type in Berlin Museum); Tschudi, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 133, 1846 
wood region of Peru. 

Hirundo melanopyga Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 269, 1844 Peru 
(emendation of H. melampyga Lichtenstein). 

(?) Pygochelidon fiavipes Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 30, p. 8, 1922 Mar- 
aynioc, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York;=juv.). 

Atticora cyanoleuca Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 147, 1856 
southeastern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, and Congonhas and 
Lag6a Santa, Minas Geraes); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 401, 1860 San 
Jose, Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 9, p. 91, 1861 Costa Rica (descr. juv.); 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 309, 1865 Bahia Negra, Rio Paraguay, 
and Bahia, Brazil (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 
p. 627 Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 18, 1868 
Rio de Janeiro and Ypanema, Sao Paulo (spec, examined); Reinhardt, 
Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 442 Lag6a Santa, Minas 
Geraes; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 184 CaloveVora, Veragua; 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 323 Ocana, Colombia; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 510 part, Amable Maria, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, 
I.e., 1876, p. 16 Maranura, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1879, p. 224 part, 
Tambillo, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 495 Frontino, Colombia 
(eggs descr.); idem, I.e., 1879, p. 595 "Moxos," Cangalli, and Tilotilo, 
Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 1880, p. 192 Callacate, Peru; idem, I.e., 

1882, p. 8 Huambo, Peru; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 329 Pernambuco and 
Parahyba, Brazil; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1883, p. 543 Chimbo, Ecuador; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 229, 1883 Costa Rica (San Jose, Barranca), Veragua (Calove'- 
vora), etc.; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 244, 1884 part, Amable Maria, 
Callacate, Huambo, Maranura; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 
186, 634, 1885 (monog., part); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 206 Camacusa and 
Roraima, British Guiana (spec, examined); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. 
Ges. Orn., 2, p. 117, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Sharpe and 
Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 505, pi. 99, 1889 part (excl. Chilean, 
Argentine, and some Peruvian localities) ; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
3, p. 346, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 4, 
1895 Cajabamba, Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 333 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru; Robinson, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 18, p. 685, 1896 La Guaira, Venezuela; Phelps, Auk, 14, 
p. 364, 1897 Cumana, Venezuela; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 480, 1898 
Cayambe and Ibarra, Ecuador; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, p. 105, 
1899 La Concepcion, Colombia; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 11, 1899 Gualaquiza, La Concepcion (Chota), 
Ottavalo, Chillo Valley (Quito), Sig-sig, Cuenca, Quito, and Niebli, 



54 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ecuador; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 118, 1899 Mundo 
Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 140, 1899 Sao 
Paulo (Ypiranga, Sao Sebastiao, Iguap6); idem, I.e., 4, p. 152, 1900 
Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro; Robinson and Richmond, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 177, 1901 La Guaira, Venezuela; Good- 
fellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 316 Ecuador (alt. 600-10,000 ft.); Lillo, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 174, 1902 Tucuman; idem, Rev. Letr. 
Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 41, 1905 Tucuman; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturwiss. 
Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 77, 1910 Parnagua, Xingu, and Queimadas, 
Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy (spec, examined); M6n6gaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. 
ArmSe Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 66, 1911 Nono, Tumbaco, and 
Chambo, Ecuador; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 347, 1921 Roraima 
and Camacusa; Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 128, 1922 
Caroni and Harmony Hall, Trinidad. 

Petrochelidon cyanoleuca Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 551, 1858 
Riobamba, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 27, p. 138, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; 
idem, I.e., 28, pp. 75, 85, 1860 Quito, Nanegal, and Perucho, Ecuador; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 40, 1862 Bogota, Riobamba, Bolivia, 
and Brazil. 

Pygochelidon cyanoleuca Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 69, 
1904 Costa Rica to Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru (monog., full bibliog.); 
Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 306, 1907 Boruca, Paso Real, and Barranca, Costa 
Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 789, 1910 Guayabo, Guayabal, 
San Jose, Escazu, Carrillo, La Hondura, Juan Vinas, and Boruca, Costa 
Rica; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 352, 1910 Tucu- 
man; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 505, 1917 Caldas, San 
Antonio, Popayan, Cerro Munchique, Gallera, Ricaurte, Salento, Santa 
Elena, Barro Blanco, Rio Toch6, El Eden, La Palma, and El Carmen, 
Bogota, Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 270, 1918 
Gatun, Panama; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 458, 1918 Huancabamba, 
Perico, and Charapi, Peru (crit.); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 
10, p. 9, 1920 San Gaban, Peru (crit.); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
117, p. 102, 1921 San Miguel Bridge and Torontoy, Peru; idem, Amer. 
Mus. Nov., 30, p. 1, 1922 (monog.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 435, 1922 San Miguel, Paramo de Mamarongo, and Rio 
Hacha, Colombia; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 164, 1924 
Silla de Caracas and Galipan, Cerro del Avila, Venezuela (crit.); Chapman, 
Amer. Mus. Nov., 191, p. 10, 1925 San Antonio, Sucr6, Venezuela; 
idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 556, 1926 Ecuador and northwestern 
Peru (crit.); Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 181, 1926 
Fazenda Ferreira and Candido de Abreu, Parana; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 343, 1926 Lazcano, Uruguay (crit.); Holt, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 57, p. 311, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya, Brazil; Zimmer, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 398, 1930 Huanuco and Huachipa, 
Peru; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 318, 1930 Matto Grosso 
(Chapada); Chapman, I.e., 63, p. 105, 1931 Roraima (Paulo) and Mount 
Duida (Savanna Hills), Venezuela. 

Pygochelidon cyanoleuta cyanoleuca Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 61, 1914 Alto 
Parana, Paraguay. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 55 

Diplochelidon cyanoleucus Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 341, 1907 Sao 
Paulo (Ypiranga, Cachoeira, Sao Sebastiao), Rio de Janeiro (Ilha Grande), 
and Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre). 

Atticora cyanoleuca var. montana Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 310, 1865 
Costa Rica (Barranca, San Jose") and Bogot (type, from Barranca, Costa 
Rica, in U. S. National Museum) ; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
9, p. 96, 1868 San Jose and Barranca, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 294, 1869 Costa Rica; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1878, p. 67 San Jose and Cartago, Costa Rica. 

Atticora cyanoleuca montana Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 107, 
1887 Navarro de Cartago, Zarcero de Alajuela, and Alajuela, Costa 
Rica; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 80, 1889 "near Valparaiso, 
Chile," errore, = Bolivia; Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 22, 1892 San Jos6, Costa 
Rica (nesting habits, descr. juv.); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, 
p. 60, 1902 Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama. 

Range. Eastern Brazil, from Piauhy and Parahyba south to 
Rio Grande do Sul; Matto Grosso (recorded from Bahia Negra and 
Chapada); Uruguay; Paraguay; extreme northwestern Argentina 
(Tucuman); and thence extending north through Bolivia, Peru 
(excepting the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de la Costa), Ecuador, 
and Colombia to Costa Rica and east through the Caribbean moun- 
tain ranges of Colombia (Santa Marta region) and Venezuela to 
Trinidad and British Guiana. 1 

55: Brazil (Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1; Rio das Velhas, near 
Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, 1); Argentina (Aconquija, Tucuman, 2; 
Conception, Tucuman, 5); Bolivia (Parotani, Cochabamba, 1); 
Peru (Huanuco, 3; Huachipa, Huanuco, 1; Hacienda Llagueda, 
northeast of Otuzco, 1; Hacienda Limon, ten miles west of Balsas, 1; 

1 Further subdivision of the small form with fuscous under wing coverts and 
wholly black lower tail coverts appears to be impracticable. There is no constant 
difference between specimens from such widely separated localities as Costa Rica 
and Argentina (Tucuman), nor am I able to distinguish a good series of skins 
from eastern Brazil. The gloss of the upper parts is exceedingly variable, changing 
from violaceous and deep indigo blue to greenish blue, but this variation is wholly 
independent of geographic areas. I cannot help thinking that P. flavipes was based 
on a juvenile individual of the present form with unusually glossy upper surface. 
We have two specimens (and I have seen others) that correspond pretty well to 
the description except for having the throat dingy whitish, the yellowish feet and 
the soft yellow gape being unmistakable signs of immaturity. They were collected, 
along with a series of adults, in the Tropical zone at Moyobamba. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Chaguanas, 2. Venezuela: Campos 
Alegre, Sucre, 1; Los Palmales, Sucre, 4; Silla de Caracas, 2; Galipan, Cerro del 
Avila, 12; Merida, 5. British Guiana: Roraima, 2 (July). Costa Rica: 6. 
Ecuador: Ibarra, 11; Cayambe, 3; Paramba, 2; near Quito, 2; Gualea, 1; Santo 
Domingo, 2. Peru: Nuevo Loreto, 2; Santo Domingo, Marcapata, 3; La Aroya, 
Inambari Val, 1; San Gaban, Carabaya, 1. Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul, 2; Ro?a 
Nova, Serra do Mar, Parana, 1; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 5; Rio de Janeiro, 5; Petro- 
polis, Rio de Janeiro, 1; Victoria, Espirito Santo, 1; Parnagua, Piauhy, 2; Xingu, 
near Parnagua, Piauhy, 2; Queimadas, Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy, 1. Uruguay: 
Maldonado, 1. Bolivia: Yungas, 1; Cochabamba, 1. 



56 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Moyobamba, 14); Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, 1); Colombia (San 
Antonio, Cauca, 1; Caldas, 1; "Bogota," 2); Venezuela (Tabay, 
M4rida, 1; Caracas, 2; Macuto, Caracas, 11); Costa Rica (Boruca, 
1; San Jose*, 1; Cartago, 1; Peralta, 3). 

*Pygochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny). 1 PATAGONIAN SWALLOW. 

Hirundo patagonica Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 69, 1837 Patagonia=Rio Negro (type in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Atticora hemipyga Burmeister, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 479, 1861 Mendoza 
(types in Halle Museum examined). 

Hirundo cyanoleuca (not of Vieillot) Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 41, 
1839 Bahia Blanca (breeding) and Valparaiso, Chile; Des Murs, in Gay, 
Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 267, 1847 Chile; Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 321 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 248, 
1868 Chile; Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 235, 1877 Chile. 

Attiroca cyanoleuca Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 Parana and 
Mendoza (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 178 
Nauta, Peru (spec, in Tring Museum examined); Sclater, I.e., 1867, pp. 
321, 337 Chile; (?) Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Chyavetas, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1869, p. 159 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; idem, I.e., 1873, 

1 Pygochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) : Similar to 
P. c. cyanoleuca, but larger; wings, greater wing coverts, and tail paler, less blackish; 
axillars and under wing coverts mouse gray rather than fuscous; shorter under 
tail coverts white, even the longer ones basally whitish. The supposed characters 
of the juvenile plumage appear to require corroboration, for I find much individual 
variation among immature birds of the members of the genus. 

Although Dr. Chapman has taken great pains in establishing its specific 
distinctness, I cannot believe that the Patagonian Swallow is anything but the 
southern representative of P. cyanoleuca. While admitting that the status of 
P. c. cyanoleuca and P. c. patagonica in Uruguay and northwestern Argentina, 
whence both have been recorded, has yet to be determined, the breeding range of 
the latter is evidently more southerly, comprising as it does the greater part of 
Argentina and the whole of Chile, where P. c. cyanoleuca has never been met with 
during the nesting period. Certain individuals, moreover, are decidedly inter- 
mediate, and the characters of P. c. peruviana tend to support the view of their 
close relationship. Swallows being great wanderers, it is not at all surprising that 
P. c. patagonica, on its winter migration, should invade the breeding territory 
of the allied form, since similar conditions are known to exist in other species of 
this family, e.g., Phaeoprogne tapera fusca. Its occurrence in the Tropical zone 
at this time of the year does not seem of much importance in birds gifted with 
such unusual powers of flight. 

Additional material examined. Chile: Huasco, Tarapaca, 1; Calama, Anto- 
fagasta, 1 (March 1); unspecified, 5. Argentina: Rio Negro, Patagonia, 1 (the 
type); Paso Limay, Neuquen, 3 (Nov. 11); Mendoza, 2; Puente del Inca, Mendoza, 
1; Buenos Aires, Bahia Blanca, 2; Barracas al Sud, 1 (Sept. 21); Est. San Martino 
Monte, 3 (Dec.-Jan.); Estancia Espartillar, 1 (Nov. 10); Los Yngleses, Ajo, 2 
(Feb. 20); Santa Elena, Entre Rios, 1 (Sept. 15); Chilecito, La Rioja, 1 (March 
27); Est. La Germania, Santa F6, 2 (Aug. 6). Uruguay: Santa Elena, 1 (Nov. 
18, 1892. O. V. Aplin). Peru: Cosnipata, 5 (Sept. 20-Oct. 17); Yurimaguas, 1 
(Apr. 16); Nauta, 2 (Apr. 22, 25). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 57 

p. 258 Nauta, Yurimaguas, and (?) Chyavetas, Peru; Durnford, Ibis, 
1876, p. 158 Flores, Buenos Aires (breeding); idem, Ibis, 1877, pp. 32, 
170 Chubut Valley, Patagonia, and Buenos Aires (breeding); Reed, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 543, 1877 Hacienda de Cauquenes, Colchagua, 
Chile; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, p. 392 Chubut Valley; White, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 596 Salto, Buenos Aires, and Catamarca; Salvin, I.e., 
1883, p. 420 Coquimbo, Chile; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 90, 
1883 Conception, Entre Rios (visitor) and Buenos Aires (Azul and Bahia 
Blanca); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 244, 1884 part, Yurimaguas and 
(?) Chyavetas, Peru; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, 
p. 81, 1884 Tandil, Prov. Buenos Aires; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
10, pp. 186, 634, 1885 part, Chile, Buenos Aires, Cosquin (Cordoba), 
and Peru (Cosnipata, Nauta); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1886, p. 
397 Huasco, Tarapaca, Chile (spec, examined); Sclater and Hudson, 
Argent. Orn., 1, p. 33, 1888 Buenos Aires (habits); Sharpe and Wyatt, 
Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 505, 1889 part, Cosnipata (Peru), Chile, and 
Argentina (Cosquin, Cordoba, etc.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, 
p. 131, 1889 Port Elizabeth and Gregory Bay, Straits of Magellan; 
Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 400, 
1890 Cordoba; Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos 
Aires (spec, examined); Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 166 Uruguay (breeding; spec, 
examined); Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, pp. 278, 289, 1895 
Chilecito, La Rioja, and Catamarca (spec, examined); Reed, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 93, p. 199, 1896 Chile; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, 
No. 292, p. 5, 1897 Caiza, Bolivia (crit.); Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 15 
Sacaya, Tarapaca, Chile; Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 100, p. 870, 1898 
Chile (monog.); Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 728, 1898 Chile 
(nest and eggs descr.); Gosse, in Fitzgerald, The Highest Andes, p. 343, 
1899 Puente del Inca, Mendoza (spec, examined); (?) Lonnberg, Ibis, 
1903, pp. 450, 456 Moreno, Jujuy, and San Luis, Tarija, Bolivia; (?) 
Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 215, 1904 Santa Ana (Oct.-Nov.) and Lara (alt. 
4,000 meters, Feb.), Tucuman; Crawshay, Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 48, 
1907 Tierra del Fuego; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 92 Los Yngleses, Ajo, 
Buenos Aires (spec, examined); Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 383 Cape San 
Antonio, Buenos Aires; Passler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 470, 1922 Coronel, 
Chile (nest and eggs descr.); Bullock, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 183, 
1929 Angol, Malleco, Chile. 

(?) Pygochelidon cyanoleuca Dinelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 254, 1924 Tucuman 
(breeding habits). 

Alticora patagonica Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 311, 1865 Uruguay and 
Patagonia (crit.); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 169, 1909 
Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud, Bahia Blanca, San Martino Monte) (crit.). 

Atticora cyanoleuca hemipyga Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. 
Cordoba, 10, p. 400, 1890 Cordoba. 

Hirundo melampyga (not of Lichtenstein) Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 
Zool., 15, p. 24, pi. 20, fig. 3, 1902 Chile (crit.). 

Pygochelidon patagonica Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 69, 
1904 Chile, Patagonia, Uruguay, and Argentina (crit.); Giacomelli, 



58 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

El Hornero, 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja; Bullock, I.e., 3, p. 93, 1923 Chile 
(nest descr.). 

Pygochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 353, 1910 (range in Argentina); Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, 
p. 147, 1920 Nilahue, Curico, Chile; idem, I.e., 25, p. 186, 1921 Los 
Andes and Rio Blanco, Aconcagua, Chile; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, 
p. 22, 1920 Montevideo, Colonia, Flores, and Rio Negro, Uruguay; 
Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 269, 1922 Rosas, Prov. Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. 
Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 652, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Wilson, 
El Hornero, 3, p. 359, 1926 Dept. General Lopez, Santa F6. 

Pygochelidon palagonica patagonica Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 30, p. 3, 
1922 (monog.); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 327, 1923 Huanu- 
luan, Rio Negro; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 344, 1926 
Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco), Buenos Aires (Carhue, Guamini), 
Rio Negro (General Roca), Neuquen (Zapala), and Mendoza (Potrerillos) ; 
idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 453, 1926 Rio Negro (Anecon Grande, 
Arroyo Cumallo) and Chubut (Rio Pico); Stone, Rep. Princet. Univ. 
Exp. Patagonia, 2, Zool., p. 816, 1928 Patagonia; Barros, Rev. Chil. 
Hist. Nat., 34, pp. 315, 319, 1930 above Portillo, Santiago, Chile, and 
Cordillera de Mendoza; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco 
Exp., Vogel, p. 303, 1930 Estancia La Germania, Santa F6; Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 45, 1932 Chile (crit.). 

Range. Chile, from Tarapaca to the Straits of Magellan and 
Tierra del Fuego; Argentina north to the Paraguayan and Bolivian 
boundaries; Uruguay; in winter spreading northwards to eastern 
Peru, Venezuela (Cumana; May 23), and even Panama (Juan Mina, 
Rio Chagres; July 17). 

15: Chile (Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, 1; Papudo, Aconcagua, 1; 
Lake Gualletue", Cautin, 1); Argentina (Laguna Blanca, Catamarca, 
2; Las Pavas, Tucuman, 1; Conception, Tucuman, 7); Peru (San 
Ramon, Chanchamayo, 1; Yurimaguas, 1). 

*Pygochelidon cyanoleuca peruviana Chapman. 1 PERUVIAN 
SWALLOW. 

1 Pygochelidon cyanoleuca peruviana Chapman: Very similar to P. c. patagonica, 
but slightly smaller; axillars and under wing coverts even paler grayish brown; 
under tail coverts mostly black, with bluish reflections on the apical margins, 
only the basal series with little white at the extreme base. Wing, 95-97, (female) 
93-94; tail, 52-54, (female) 50-51. 

While every one of the above characters may also be found in occasional 
individuals of P. c. patagonica from Chile and Argentina, the series from the 
Peruvian coast is so uniform that its recognition as a distinct race seems perfectly 
justified. Birds from Arequipa are slightly larger (wing of males, 100-101; tail, 
53-54), but agree in coloration with those from more northern localities. 

Additional specimens examined. Peru: Arequipa, 3; lea, 2; Lima, 2; Vitarte, 
2; Huaral, 6. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 59 

Pygochelidon patagonica peruviana Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 30, p. 7, 
Feb., 1922 Huaral, Prov. Lima, Peru (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 17, p. 398, 1930 Matucana and Santa Eulalia, Lima (crit.). 

Atticora cyanoleuca (not Hirundo cyanoleuca Vieillot) Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 984 Arequipa (spec, in British Museum 
examined); idem, I.e., 1868, p. 568 Arequipa (spec, examined); Tacza- 
nowski, I.e., 1874, p. 510 part, Lima; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 224 part, 
Pacasmayo; idem, Orn. P6r., 1, p. 244, 1884 part, Lima; Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 186, 634, 1885 part, spec, k, m, r', Arequipa 
(spec, examined); idem and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 505, 1889 
part, coast of Peru (Pacasmayo, Lima, Arequipa). 

Atticora cyanoleuca montana (not of Baird) Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 374 Lima and lea. 

(?) Pygochelidon patagonica (peruviana Chapman?) Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, p. 557, 1926 Jambeli Island, southwestern Ecuador 
(crit.). 

Range. Coast district of Peru, from Libertad (Pacasmayo, 
Trujillo) south to Moquegua; (?) southwestern Ecuador (Jambeli 
Island, off Machala). 

2: Peru (Santa Eulalia, 1; Matucana, 1). 

Genus NOTIOCHELIDON Baird 1 

Notiochelidon Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 306, May, 1865 type, by orig. 
desig., Atticora pileata Gould. 

*Notiochelidon pileata (Gould). COBAN SWALLOW. 

Atticora pileata Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 355, Nov., 1858 Guate- 
mala (type in collection of J. Gould, now in the British Museum) ; Sclater 
and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 13 Guatemala; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, 
p. 307, 1865 Coban, Vera Paz (crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 230, pi. 15, fig. 2, 1883 Coban, Quich6, Totonicapam, 
Quezaltenango, Barranco de Los Chocoyos, Calderas, ridge above Barsinas, 
Villa Lobos, and Aceytuno, Guatemala; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
10, pp. 188, 635, 1885 Coban, Guatemala; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. 
Hirund., 2, p. 513, pi. 100, 1887 Guatemala (monog.). 

Notiochelidon pileata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 66, 1904 
Guatemala (monog.); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
p. 123, 1907 Tecpam; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 284, 
1932 Zanjon, Momostenango, Chichicastenango, Nebaj, Volcan San 
Lucas, Antigua, Panajachel, and La Montanita, Guatemala. 

Range. Highlands of Guatemala. 
1: Guatemala (Tecpam, 1). 

1 This genus comes very close to Atticora, differing principally by the lesser 
development of the tibial feathers, and is hardly worthy of recognition. 



60 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Genus ATTICORA Boie 

Atticora Boie, Isis, 1844, p. 172 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. 
Subgen. Bds., p. 13, 1855), Hirundo fasciata Gmelin. 

Diplochelidon Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 106, 1903 type, by 
orig. desig., Hirundo melanoleuca Wied. 

*Atticora fasciata (Gmelin). WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW. 

Hirundo fasciata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1022, 1789 based on "Hiron- 
delle a ceinture blanche" Buffon and Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 724, fig. 2, 
Cayenne; Swainson, Zool. 111., (2), 1, pi. 17, 1829 Cayenne; Schomburgk, 
Reisen Brit. Guiana, 1, pp. 178, 294, 1847 Barima and Essequibo rivers, 
British Guiana. 

Atticora fasciata Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 672, 1849 Barima and Barama rivers; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. 
Bras., 3, p. 146, 1856 northern Brazil, near Para, and Guiana; Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 39, 1862 Cayenne; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 
1, p. 306, 1865 Cayenne; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1866, p. 178 upper Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 569 Rio Negro, 
Brazil; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Yurimaguas, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
1, p. 18, 1868 Rio Guapore", above Tres Barras, and Rio Negro (Lama- 
longa); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 258 upper 
Ucayali, Yurimaguas, and lakes of Santa Cruz, Peru (crit.); idem, I.e., 
1879, p. 595 Yuyo, Cangalli, and Yungas, Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 
1882, p. 8 Yurimaguas, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 244, 1884 Peruvian 
localities; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 205 Merume" Mountains and Atapuraw 
River, British Guiana; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 183, 634, 
1885 Ecuador (Sarayacu, Copataza River), Cayenne, British Guiana 
(Merume" Mountains, River Atapuraw), Rio Negro, Peru (upper Ucayali, 
Yurimaguas, Chanchamayo), and Bolivia (Cangalli, Yuyo); Sharpe and 
Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 495, pi. 95, 1889 (monog.); Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 333 La Merced, Chancha- 
mayo, Peru; Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, pp. 154, 159 Counany, Brazil; idem, 
Ibis, 1903, p. 499 Rio Capim; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 15, 1902 Mato River and Nicare, Caura, Venezuela; Snethlage, Journ. 
Orn., 56, p. 9, 1908 Bom Lugar, Rio Purus; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, 
p. 110, 1908 Cayenne; Hellmayr, I.e., 17, p. 269, 1910 Maroins, Rio 
Machados (crit.); idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. Kl., 
26, No. 2, p. 87, 1912 Rio Capim; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 470, 
1914 Rio Capim, Counany, and Rio Purus (Bom Lugar); Cherrie, Sci. 
Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 162, 1916 Caura Valley and Mato River, 
Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 504, 1917 La 
Morelia, Colombia; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 345, 1921 Kurubung 
River, Roraima, Caramang River, Merume Mountains, Hoorie River, 
Aremu River, and Abary savannas; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
117, p. 101, 1921 Rio Cosireni, Urubamba, Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, pp. 555, 736, 1926 Curaray junction of Rio Napo, 
Ecuador; Naumburg, I.e., 60, p. 318, 1930 Rio Roosevelt, Matto Grosso. 



L935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 61 

Range. French and British Guiana; southern Venezuela (Caura 
Galley) ; the Amazonian basin from the Rio Capim and the Counany 
vestwards, south to northern Matto Grosso (Rio Roosevelt) ; south- 
eastern Colombia (La Morelia, Caqueta); eastern Ecuador; eastern 
3 eru; and northeastern Bolivia (Yuyo and Cangalli, Dept. La Paz). 1 

5: British Guiana, 1; Brazil (Serra da Lua, Rio Branco, 2); Peru 
Ramon, 1; Yurimaguas, 1). 



'Atticora melanoleuca (Wied). 2 BLACK-COLLARED SWALLOW. 

Hirundo melanoleuca Wied, Reise Bras., 1, p. 345 (8vo ed., p. 342), 1820 
Rio Belmonte, Bahia, Brazil (type in collection of Prince Wied, now in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 216, 1889); Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., 
livr. 35, pi. 209, fig. 2, 1823 Brazil (fig. of type in Wied Collection); 
Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 371, 1830 Rio Grande de Belmonte; 
Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 672, "1848" British 
Guiana. 

Atticora melanoleuca Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 146, 1856 
Rio Belmonte (ex Wied); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 18, 1868 Borda do 
Matto do "Paranaiva" [=Paranahyba] (Goyaz), Forte do Principe (Rio 
Guapor6), Bananeira (Rio MamorS), Salto Theotonio (Rio Madeira), 
Rio Negro, and Marabitanas, Brazil (spec, examined); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 10, p. 185, 1885 Forte do Principe; Sharpe and Wyatt, 
Monog. Hirund., 2, p. 503, pi. 98, 1888 (monog.); Berlepsch and Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 9, p. 15, 1902 Orinoco River (Caicara and Altagracia) and 
Caura Valley (La Pricion, La Union), Venezuela (spec, examined); 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 269, 1910 Salto Theotonio, Rio Madeira; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 470, 1914 Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), 
Rio Jamauchim (Cahy, Recreio), and Rio Xingu, Brazil; Chubb, Bds. 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 346, 1921 Ireng River, Ituribisci, Arawai, Kamakabra, 
and Makauria River. 

Diplochelidon melanoleucus(a) Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 341, 1907 (range); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 161, 
1916 Caicara, Orinoco (habits, nest, and eggs); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 60, p. 318, 1930 Rio Branco, Matto Grosso. 

1 This swallow is possibly divisible into two races, birds from south of the 
Amazon being somewhat smaller with less deeply forked tail, the upper parts 
ess purplish blue, and the white pectoral band slightly wider. The available 
ieries is, however, not large enough to make sure of this distinction. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 2. British Guiana: 
VIerume Mountains, 1. Venezuela: Caura Valley, 4. Brazil: Maroins, Rio 
Machados, 2; Rio Guapore', 1. Peru: Chaquimayo, Carabaya, 1. 

2 Generic separation of this swallow seems to me unwarranted. The only 
livergency of importance lies in the shape of the lateral rectrices, which are more 
ilongated as well as more attenuated, producing a more deeply forked tail. I am 
inable to appreciate the alleged difference in the degree of adhesion of the toes. 



62 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. British Guiana; southern Venezuela (Orinoco-Caura 
basin); and the greater part of Brazil, east to the Rio Tocantins, 
south to Bahia (Rio Grande de Belmonte), Goyaz (Borda do Matto, 
Rio Paranahyba), and Matto Grosso (Rio Branco). 1 

2: British Guiana (Mazaruni River, 2). 

Genus OROCHELIDON Ridgway 2 

Orochelidon Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 106, 1903 type, by 
orig. desig., Petrochelidon murina Cassin. 

"Orochelidon murina (Cassin). BROWN-BELLIED SWALLOW. 

Petrochelidon murina Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 6, p. 370, 1853 
Republic of Ecuador (type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 36, 1899); Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 74, 1860 Quito, Ecuador (nest and egg). 

Atticora cyanophaea Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 92, 1861 Santa F6 de Bogota, 
Colombia (type in Berlin Museum examined). 

Atticora cinerea (not Hirundo cinerea Gmelin 3 ) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 39, 1862 Quito; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, 
p. 599 Tinta, Peru (spec, examined); Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 510 
between Cucas and Palcamayo, Junm, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 8 
Tamiapampa, Peru; Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 353, 1876 
Moho, Lake Titicaca, Dept. Puno, Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 1, 
p. 243, 1884 Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 184, 634, 1885 
part, descr. "adult" and spec, a-h, 1, m, n, p, Bogota, Quito, Sical 
(Ecuador), and Tinta (Peru); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, 
p. 499, pi. 96, right fig., 1892 part, descr. "adult" and hab., Colombia, 
Ecuador, and Peru (Tinta); Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 4, 1895 Cajabamba 
and near Cajamarca, Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 11, 1899 Pun, Laguna de Kingora (Sig-sig), Canar, and 
Lloa, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 316 Nanegal (spec, examined); 
Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 34, p. 72, 1928 Cerro Mojanda, 
Ecuador. 

1 A single adult from southern Brazil (Borda do Matto, Goyaz), except in 
having a slightly wider pectoral band and more glossy upper parts, agrees well 
with more northern examples. 

Material examined. Brazil: Borda dp Matto, Rip Paranahyba, Goyaz, 1; 
Bananeira, Rio Mamor6, 1 ; Salto Theotonip, Rio Madeira, 1 ; Rio Negro, between 
Thomar and Santa Izabel Nova, 1; Marabitanas, 1. Venezuela: Altagracia, Rio 
Orinoco, 1; Caicara, Rio Orinoco, 5; La Pricion, Caura Valley, 8; La Union, 
Caura Valley, 4. 

2 This genus is closely allied to Atticora, but seems to be separable by differ- 
ently shaped tail, free sub-basal phalanx of middle toe, and other peculiarities. 

J Hirundo cinerea Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1026, 1789), based on "L'Hirpn- 
delle du Perou" Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 498, 1760) and "La Petite Hirondelle noire, 
a ventre cendre" of Buffon, both being founded on "Hirundo minima Peruviana, 
cauda bicorni" Feuillee (Journ. Observ. Phys., ed. 1725, p. 33), is too vaguely 
described to be referred to the above species. Cf. Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, 
p. 312, 1865, and Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 287. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 63 

Aiticora murina Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, 
p. 287 Ticsan, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, I.e., 1896, p. 333 
Acobamba, Peru; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 480, 1898 Cayambe, Ecuador; 
Mengaux, Miss. Serv. G6og. Arm6e Mes. Arc MSrid. Equat., 9, p. B. 65, 
1911 Tumbaco, Ecuador. 

Orochelidon murina Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 504, 1917 
western Andes (Paramillo) and eastern Andes (El Pinon, La Herrera, 
Puente Andalucia, Suba), Colombia; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, 
Heft 10, p. 10, 1920 Ollachea, near Macusani, Dept. Puno, Peru (crit.); 
Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 101, 1921 Ollantaytambo, 
Matchu Picchu, and La Raya, Urubamba, Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 555, 1926 above Chambo, Hacienda Garzon, El Coraz6n, 
Valle de Cumbaya, Chimborazo, Pichincha, and Quito, Ecuador (crit.); 
Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 398, 1930 moun- 
tains near Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Orochelidon murina cyanophaea Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
14, p. 436, 1922 San Lorenzo, Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia (crit.). 

Range. Temperate zone of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, 
south to Puno. 1 

3: Colombia (Puente Andalucia, 1); Peru (near Leimabamba, 1; 
Hudnuco Mountains, Hudnuco, 1). 

Genus RIPARIA Forster 

Riparia Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. Bds., p. 17, 1817 type, by monotypy, 

Riparia europaea Forster = Hirundo riparia Linnaeus. 
Cliricola Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. Bds., p. 55, 1817 type, by monotypy, 

Clivicola europaea Forster = Hirundo riparia Linnaeus. 
Cotile Boie, Isis, 1822, (1), p. 550 type, by monotypy, [C.] riparia= Hirundo 

riparia Linnaeus. 
Cotyle Boie, Isis, 1826, (2), p. 971 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. 

Bds., p. 9, 1840), Hirundo riparia Linnaeus. 

*Riparia riparia riparia (Linnaeus). BANK SWALLOW. 

Hirundo riparia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 192, 1758 "in Europae 
collibus arenosis abruptis"; restricted type locality, Sweden. 

1 In agreement with Chapman I am unable to appreciate any racial variation 
in this species. The more bluish or greenish gloss alluded to in my paper on 
Watkins's Peruvian collections appears to be a purely accidental feature, as it 
is not borne out by additional material since examined. The type of A. cyanophaea 
Cabanis, an adult bird from Bogota, does not differ in any way from various 
Peruvian and Ecuadorian examples, nor can series from Colombia on one side 
and from Ecuador and Peru on the other be distinguished by the coloration of 
the under parts or any other character. What Sharpe described and figured as 
"Atticora murina, juv.," is not the present bird, but Petrochelidon a. andecola. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Bogota, 5; El Pinon, 4. Ecuador: 
Cayambe, 2; Tumbaco, 1; Mojanda, 3; Corazon, 1; "Nanegal," 1. Peru: Tinta, 
Dept. Cuzco, 3 (male, May 22, 1868; female and unsexed adult, April 1, 1869); 
Ollachea, twenty miles north of Macusani, Dept. Puno, 6. 



64 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Riparia europaea Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. Bds., p. 17, 1817 new name for 
Hirundo riparia Linnaeus. 

Hirundo cinerea (not of Gmelin, 1789) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 
6d., 14, p. 526, 1817 based mainly on Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 543, 
fig. 2; Europe, chiefly France. 

Cotyle fluriatilis Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 142, 1831 river 
banks of middle Germany, especially those of the Saale. 

Chelidon microrhynchos Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 143, 
1831 probably "north of Germany." 

Clivicola riparia cinerea Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 268, 1885 
North America (crit.). 

Clivicola riparia maximiliani Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29, p. 378 
(footnote), 1885 new name for Clivicola riparia cinerea Stejneger. 

Riparia riparia fuscocollaris Tschusi, Orn. Jahrb., 23, p. 216, Dec., 1912 
Castelnuovo, Dalmatia (type in coll. of Tschusi ii, now in Munich Museum, 
examined). 

Cotile riparia Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 18, 1868 Caigara, Matto Grosso, and 
Marabitanas, Rio Negro, Brazil (spec, examined); Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 240, 1883 (monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 10, p. 96, 1885 (monog.). 

Cotyle riparia Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 319, 1864 North America (crit.); 
Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 192 Duenas, Guatemala; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 258 Nauta, Peru. 

Clivicola riparia Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 73, 1889 Cuba, Jamaica; Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 76, 1910 Joazeiro, 
Bahia (spec, examined). 

Riparia riparia Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 73, 1904 
(monog., full bibliog.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 788, 1910 
Los Cuadros de Irazu, San Jose, Los Cuadros de San Pedro, and Juan 
Vinas, Costa Rica; Worthington, I.e., 7, p. 459, 1911 Abaco, Bahama 
Islands (sight record) ; Todd, I.e., 10, p. 259, 1916 Isle of Pines (occurrence 
doubtful); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 501, 1917 Cali, 
Colombia; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 323, 1921 Bartica Grove; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 167, 1925 
Joazeiro, Bahia; Dabbene, El Hornero, 3, p. 391, 1926 Concepcion, 
Tucuman (March 2); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 358, 1932 
Obaldia, Panama (Oct. 2-17). 

Riparia riparia riparia Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. Ill, 1923 
Cardenas, Cuba; Struthers, Auk, 40, p. 475, 1923 Anegado Lagoon, 
Porto Rico; Danforth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 10, p. 112, 1926 
Cartagena and Anegado Lagoons, Porto Rico; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto 
Rico and Virgin Is., 9, p. 472, 1927 Porto Rico; idem and Swales, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 318, 1931 Haiti (ex Ritter); Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 314, 1930 Tapirapoan, Matto^Grosso, Brazil. 

Range. Breeds in North America from northern Alaska and 
northern Quebec south to southern California, Arizona, Texas, 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 65 

central Alabama, and Virginia; migrates through Mexico, Central 
America, and the West Indies (scattered records from Jamaica, 
Cuba, Porto Rico, and Haiti) to Colombia (Cali, Feb. 6), Peru 
(Nauta), British Guiana (Bartica Grove), Brazil (Marabitanas, Rio 
Negro; Caicara and Tapirapoan, Matto Grosso; Joazeiro, Rio Sao 
Francisco, Bahia), and Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman; March 2); 
breeds also in Europe and Siberia, wintering in Africa and India. 1 

22: New York (Cayuga, 1; Piermont, 1; Shelter Island, 6); New 
Jersey (Englewood, 1); Illinois (Chicago, 2; Lake Forest, 1; Liberty- 
ville, 1 ; Mound City, 1 ; Olive Branch, 1) ; Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 5) ; 
Arizona (Calabasas, 1); Venezuela (Encontrados, Zulia, 1). 

Genus HIRUNDO Linnaeus 

Hirundo Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 191, 1758 type, by subs, desig. 
(Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 8, 1840), Hirundo rustica Linnaeus. 

Chelidon Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. Bds., p. 17, 1817 type, by monotypy, 
Chelidon procne Forster= Hirundo rustica Linnaeus. 

Hirundo rustica rustica Linnaeus. EUROPEAN SWALLOW. 

Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 191, 1758 "in Europa," 
restr. type locality, Sweden; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 79, 1904 (monog., bibliog.). 

Hirundo rustica L., typica Winge, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren. for 
1895, p. 64, 1896 Sydpr0ven, Greenland (June 12, 1882); idem, Medd. 
Gr0nland, 21, p. 273, 1898 Sydpr^ven, south of Julianehaab (June 12, 
1882). 

Range. Palaearctic region, wintering in India, China, the Malay 
Peninsula, and Africa; accidental in Greenland (two records, one 
from Sydpr0ven, near Julianehaab, June 12, 1882, and another from 
an unspecified locality). 

*Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert. BARN SWALLOW. 

1 North American birds generally have shorter wings and less deeply forked 
tails, as has been pointed out by Baird and Stejneger, but the divergency does 
not seem to be constant enough to justify the recognition of a separate race, for 
which the name R. r. maximiliani Stejneger would be available. 

A. M. Bailey (Auk, 46, p. 551, 1929) records R. r. ijimae Lonnberg (Journ. 
Coll. Sci. Tokyo, 23, art. 14, p. 38, 1908 Saghalin; type in Stockholm Museum) 
from Point Barrow, Alaska, on the basis of a single juvenile example taken on 
Sept. 15, 1928. The distinguishing characters of this supposed form, however, 
are so slight, judging from a series from Petropawlowsk, Kamchatka, and other 
localities in eastern Siberia, that certain identification of a single individual must 
be open to serious doubt. 

Additional American material examined. Pennsylvania: Williamsport, 2. 
Illinois: Chicago, 1. Brazil: Joazeiro, Bahia, 2; Caigara, Matto Grosso, 1. 



66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hirundo erythrogaster Boddaert, Tabl. PL Enl., p. 45, Dec., 1783 based on 
"Hirondelle a ventre roux de Cayenne" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 724, 
fig. 1, Cayenne; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 232, 
1883; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 469, 1914 Para, Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Maraj6 (Sao Natal), Mexiana, Rio Jamundd (Faro); 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 283, 1932 Guatemala. 

Hirundo rufa Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1018, 1789 based on Daubenton, 
PL EnL, pi. 724, fig. 1, and "Rufous-bellied Swallow" Latham, Gen. 
Syn. Bds., 2, (2), p. 566; Cayenne and New York. 

Hirundo horreorum Barton, Fragm. Nat. Hist. Penn., p. 17, 1799 
Pennsylvania. 

Hirundo americana (not of Gmelin, 1789) Wilson, Amer. Orn., 5, p. 34, pi. 
38, figs. 1, 2, 1812 Pennsylvania (type in Peale's Museum). 

Hirundo cyanopyrra [sic] Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 14, 
p. 510, 1817 based on "Hirondelle bleue et rousse" Sonnini, Oeuvr. 
Buffon, 55, p. 212, French Guiana, and "Golondrina vientre roxizo" 
Azara, No. 302, Paraguay, between 27 and 29 lat. (December and 
September). 

Hirundo fumaria Lichtenstein, Preis-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 
1830 new name for Hirundo americana Wilson. 

Hirundo erythrogastra unalaschkensis (not Hirundo unalaschkensis Gmelin 1 ) 
W. Palmer, Fur Seals and Fur-Seal Is. North Pacif. Ocean, 3, p. 422, 
1899 Pribilof Islands and Unalaska (crit.); Allen, Auk, 18, p. 176, 1901 
(crit.). 

Hirundo erythrogastra palmeri Grinnell, Condor, 4, p. 71, 1902 Amaknak 
Island, Unalaska Harbor, Alaska (type in collection of J. Grinnell, now 
in Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley). 

Hirundo erythrogastra Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 18, 1868 Minas, Matto 
Grosso (Engenho do Gama), and Rio Negro (Marabitanas) ; Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 420 Callao, Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 10, p. 137, 1885 (monog., excluding records from Lake Baikal, 
Burma, and Cochin China); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1892, p. 374 Lima and lea, Peru (crit.); Sharpe and Wyatt, 
Monog. Hirund., 1, p. 253, pi. 42, 1893 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 80, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 340, 1907 (winter range); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 351, 1910 (winter range in Argentina). 

Hirundo rustica erythrogastra Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien, 76, p. 76, 1910 Joazeiro, Bahia. 

Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 315, 
1930 Matto Grosso; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 47, 1932 Chile (winter visitor). 

1 Hirundo unalaschkensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1025, 1789 based on 
"Aoonalashka Swallow" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (2), p. 571; Aoonalaschka 
(type in the Leverian Museum). This species is utterly unidentifiable. The type 
did not come to the Vienna Museum. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 67 

Hirundo rustica var. horreorum Winge, Medd. Gr^nland, 21, p. 273, 1898 
Greenland (Frederikshaab, Nanortalik, Godhavn, Umanak and 
Jakobshavn). 

Range. Breeds from Alaska, northern Mackenzie (Great Bear 
Lake), southern Manitoba, and Quebec south to southern Cali- 
fornia, Texas, northern Arkansas, Tennessee, northern Alabama, 
and North Carolina, and in Mexico south to Jalisco and Nayarit; 
migrates through the Bahamas and the West Indies and winters 
from Mexico to Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, 1 and Chile; accidental 
in Greenland, the Galapagos, and Bermuda. 2 

55: Maine (Upton, 1); Connecticut (East Hartford, 2); New 
York (Peterboro, 2; Ellicottville, 1; Shelter Island, 2); New Jersey 
(Englewood, 1); North Carolina (Raleigh, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver 
Dam, 10); Indiana (Bluffton, 1); Illinois (Chicago, 2); Texas (Gal- 
veston, 1; Fort Davis, 1); New Mexico (Silver City, 1; Mimbres, 3); 
California (Santa Monica Canyon, 1); Mexico (Babicora, Chi- 
huahua, 1; Yucatan, 1); Bahama Islands (Cay Sal, 4; Mariguana, 1); 
West Indies (Cayman Brae, 2; Grand Cayman, 4); Costa Rica 
(Limon, 1; San Jose", 1); Venezuela (Encontrados, Zulia, 4); Brazil 
(below Teffe", 1; Serra da Lua, Rio Branco, 2); Peru (Pacasmayo, 1); 
Chile (Ramadilla, Atacama, 2). 

Genus DELICHON Moore 3 

Delichon Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, "1854," p. 104, pub. April, 1855 
type, by monotypy, Delichon nipalensis Moore. 

Chelidonaria Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 187, 1889 type, by orig. desig., 
Hirundo urbica Linnaeus. 

Delichon urbica urbica (Linnaeus). EUROPEAN MARTIN. 

Hirundo urbica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 192, 1758 "in Europa," 
restr. type locality, Sweden. 

1 The American Barn Swallow extends its winter migration to the southern 
extremity of South America, as is shown by an adult male in the British Museum 
secured by P. W. Reynolds on Dec. 11, 1929, at Viamonte, Tierra del Fuego. 

2 Records of H. rustica tytleri Jerdon from America (Duenas, Guatemala; 
"Pard") are due to Sharpe's misidentification of certain unusually dark-bellied 
individuals of the American Barn Swallow. A specimen taken by Natterer at 
Rio de Janeiro and one of those collected by Reiser at Joazeiro, Bahia, could easily 
be referred to that form, were it not for the fact that similar examples occur also 
in the United States. There is no reason to assume that the so-called "tytleri" 
are anything but migrants from North America. H. r. erythrogaster and H. r. 
tytleri, moreover, are very close to each other, single birds being often quite 
indistinguishable. 

8 1 do not see sufficient grounds for generic separation of the European Martin 
from D. nipalensis, type of the genus Delichon. 



68 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chelidon urbica Helms, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., (6), 6, p. Ill, 
1904 Sermilikfjord, East Greenland (June 13, 1902). 

Range. Europe and western Asia, winters in Africa and north- 
western India; accidental in Greenland (one record from Sermilik- 
fjord, on the east coast; June 13, 1902). 

Genus IRIDOPROCNE Coues 

Iridoprocne Coues, Bds. Colorado Valley, 1, p. 412 (in text), 1878 type, 
by orig. desig., Hirundo bicolor Vieillot. 

*Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieillot). TREE SWALLOW. 

Hirundo bicolor Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Ame>. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 61, pi. 
31, 1808 "au centre des Etats-Unis" ; New York accepted as type 
locality (type in collection of P. L. Vieillot). 

Hirundo viridis Wilson, Amer. Orn., 5, p. 44, pi. 38, fig. 3, 1812 Penn- 
sylvania (type in Peale's Museum, doubtless lost). 

Hirundo leucogaster Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 10, (1), p. 106, 1817 
new name for Hirundo viridis Wilson. 

Hirundo prasina Lichtenstein, Preis-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 

1830 new name for Hirundo viridis Wilson; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 11, 

p. 58, 1863 (reprint). 
Hirundo bicolor var. vesperlina Cooper, Amer. Natur., 10, p. 91, Feb., 1876 

"Haywood" [=Haywards], Alameda County, California (no type extant; 

cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 287, 1932). 

Tachycineta bicolor Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 117, 631, 1885 
(monog.); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 1, p. 155, pi. 24, 1889 
(monog.). 

Iridoprocne bicolor Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 87, 1904 
(monog., full bibliog.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. CL, 6, p. Ill, 1923 
Cuba; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 456, 1929 Toloa, Honduras. 

Range. North America, from northwestern Alaska, Mackenzie, 
northern Manitoba, and northern Quebec to southern California, 
Colorado, Kansas, northeastern Arkansas, and Virginia; winters 
from central California, southern Texas, coast region of the Gulf 
and South Atlantic states, and North Carolina (frequently to New 
Jersey) south over Mexico and Guatemala to Honduras and Cuba. 

44: Connecticut (East Hartford, 5); Massachusetts (Dedham, 1; 
near Boston, 1); New York (Jamaica Bay, 1; Cayuga, 2); Indiana 
(Davis Station, 2); Illinois (Fox Lake, 1; Lewistown, 1); Wisconsin 
(Beaver Dam, 7) ; Florida (Wilson, 5; Key West, 3; Nassau County, 3; 
Gainesville, 1; Banana River, 1; Tamiami Trail, 1); Texas (Corpus 
Christi, 2); California (Chaparral, 1; Monterey, 4); Canada (Prince 
Albert, Saskatchewan, 1); Guatemala (Panajachel, Lake Atitlan, 1). 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 69 

*Iridoprocne albilinea 1 albilinea (Lawrence). MANGROVE 
SWALLOW. 

Petrochelidon albilinea Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 2, May, 
1863 Panama (type in collection of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 347 Isthmus of Panama; Salvin, Ibis, 
1866, p. 192 Guatemala to Panama. 

Petrochelidon littorea Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 189 "low 
rivers and seacoasts of both oceans, from Belize to Colon on the Atlantic, 
and from Soconosco to Panama on the Pacific" (type from Belize, British 
Honduras, in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Museum; cf. 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 631, 1885). 

Petrochelidon leucoptera (not Hirundo leucoptera Gmelin) Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 317, 1862 Panama. 

Hirundo albilinea Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 300, 1865 Mazatlan, San 
Jose (Guatemala), and Panama (crit.). 

Tachycineta albilinea Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 271, 1874 
Mazatlan (habits); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 235, pi. 15, fig. 1, 1883 Mexico (Mazatlan), British Honduras (Belize 
River and Cayo), Guatemala (Peten, Yaxha, Rio Dulce, Huamuchal, 
Chiapam, San Jose), Salvador (La Union), Honduras (Amapala), Nicara- 
agua (Corinto), Costa Rica, and Panama (Panama, Matachin); Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 115, 631, 1885 part, a-c, e-k, Vera Cruz 
(Mexico), Belize River (British Honduras), Chiapam (Guatemala), 
Puntarenas (Costa Rica), Panama; idem and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 
1, p. 149, pi. 22, 1887 (monog., excl. Chepen, Peru); Salvin, Ibis, 1888, 
p. 257 Meco and Holbox Islands, off Yucatan; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 210 Progreso, Yucatan; Richmond, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 486, 1893 Rio Frio, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Anal. 
Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 Rio Grande de 
Te>raba between Lagarto and Palmar, Costa Rica; Bangs, Auk, 18, 
p. 368, 1901 David, Chiriqui; idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 
152, 1903 Ceiba and Yaruca, Honduras. 

Iridoprocne albilinea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 90, 
1904 coast districts of Mexico (Vera Cruz and Sinaloa) to Panama 
(monog., excl. northern Peru); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 
134, 1905 Escuinapa, Sinaloa; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 
787, 1910 Limon, La Junta, and El Pozo de Terraba, Costa Rica; 
Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 35, 1919 San Carlos, Rio Ometepe, 
Muyogalpa, and Isla de Vela, Nicaragua; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 
235, p. 15, 1926 eastern Quintana Roo; McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., (4), 16, p. 37, 1927 San Bias, Nayarit; Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 69, p. 385, 1929 Belize River and El Cayo, British Honduras; 
Peters, I.e., 71, p. 329, 1931 Changuinola, Panama; van Rossem, 
Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 268, 1931 Tobari Bay, Agiabampo, 

1 Iridoprocne albilinea (Lawrence) is probably conspecific with /. albiventer, 
but I am unwilling to reduce it to subspecific rank until we have become better 
acquainted with its southern representative, /. a. stolzmanni. 



70 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Lobos Island, and Guasimas Lagoon, Sonora; Griscom, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 64, p. 282, 1932 Ocos and San Jos6, Guatemala. 

Iridoprocne albilineata Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 305, 1907 Barranca de Puntare- 
nas, Costa Rica; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 377, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana 
Roo; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 270, 1918 Gatun, 
Panama. 

Range. Coast districts of Mexico, from Sonora on the Pacific, 
and from southern Tamaulipas (Tampico) on the Atlantic side, 
south through Central America (both coasts) to the Isthmus of 
Panama. 

14: Mexico (Tampico, Tamaulipas, 2; Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, 
2; Holbox Island, 3); Nicaragua (San Emilio, Lake Nicara- 
gua, 1); Costa Rica (Punta Piedras, Guanacaste, 4); Panama 
(Balboa, 2). 

Iridoprocne albilinea stolzmanni (Philippi). 1 STOLZMANN'S 
SWALLOW. 

Hirundo leucopygia (not H. leucopyga Meyen, 1834) Taczanowski (ex Stolz- 
mann MS.), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 192 Chepen, Dept. Libertad, 
Peru (type lost, formerly in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Doman- 
iewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 152, 1927); idem, Orn. 
Per., 1, p. 240, 1884 Chepen; idem, I.e., 3, p. 503, 1886 (excl. synon.). 

Hirundo stolzmanni Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, Zool., 15, p. 23 (in text), 
1902 new name for Hirundo leucopygia Taczanowski, preoccupied. 

1 Iridoprocne albilinea stolzmanni (Philippi) : Similar to /. a. albilinea in the 
restriction of the white wing-markings to comparatively narrow edges on the 
tertials and adjoining inner secondaries, but easily distinguished by very much 
smaller, apically more constricted, bill; absence of the white supraloral streak; 
duller and less bluish, andover green rather than lily green gloss on pileum and 
mantle, the latter with the basal portion of the feathers grayish instead of white; 
duller and more brownish, chaetura drab rather than chaetura black outer wing 
coverts, remiges, and rectrices; grayish brown instead of glossy metallic bluish 
green upper tail coverts; decidedly grayish under parts, particularly on the breast, 
with the dusky shaft-streaks more numerous as well as more conspicuous; and 
smoke gray, instead of nearly white axillaries and under wing coverts. The 
uropygial band also is more shaded with grayish and more strongly streaked with 
dusky. Wing (one unsexed adult), 92; tail, 48; furca, 6 1 A', bill, 5 1 A. 

Although I have but one specimen, an adult bird just completing its annual 
molt, there is no question that stolzmanni constitutes an excellent local form of 
/. albilinea, its habitat being separated from the range of its ally by thousands of 
miles. The exceedingly small bill which, in bulk, is less than half as large as that 
of the Mangrove Swallow, serves to distinguish it at a glance. It is hard to conceive 
how Sharpe could mistake it for the "immature" plumage of /. albilinea. Curiously 
enough, no representative of this group has ever been found in either Colombia 
or Ecuador. 

/. a. stolzmanni has never been met with again since its discovery by the 
naturalist after whom it is named, who secured four specimens in September, 
1878, at Chepen, on the coast of Peru, one of which I have been permitted to 
examine through the good offices of Dr. Mertens, of the Senckenberg Museum, 
at Frankfort. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 71 

Tachycineta albilinea (not Petrochelidon albilinea Lawrence) Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 115, 1885 part, spec, d, Chepen, Peru; idem and 
Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 1, p. 149, 1887 part, Chepen, Peru. 

Iridoprocne albilinea Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 554, 1926 
"Ecuador" (ex Brabourne and Chubb) and Chepen (ex Taczanowski). 

Range. Coast region of western Peru (Chepen, Dept. Libertad). 
*Iridoprocne albiventer (Boddaert). 1 WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW. 

Hirundo albiventer Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p, 32, 1783 based on "Hiron- 
delle a ventre blanc de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 546, fig. 2, 
Cayenne; LSotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 91, 1866 Trinidad. 

Hirundo leucoptera Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1022, 1789 part, based on 
Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 546, fig. 2, Cayenne (excl. var. /3); Wied, Beitr. 
Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 362, 1830 rivers Parahyba, Mucuri, Belmonte, 
and Ilhe'os, Brazil; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 69, 1837 Moxos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined); 
Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 269, 1844 Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. 
Peru., Ornith., p. 132, 1846 forests of eastern Peru; Cabanis, in Schom- 
burgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 672, "1848" [=1849] British Guiana. 

Cotyle leucoptera Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 143, 1856 
Brazil; (?) idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 Mercedes, Rio Negro, 
Uruguay; (?) idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 478, 1861 same locality. 

Hirundo aequatorialis 2 Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 400, 
1867 "Quito"=Rio Napo, Ecuador (type in coll. of G. N. Lawrence, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 977, 979 Pebas (crit.). 

Petrochelidon albiventris Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 
p. 178 lower Ucayali, Peru (eggs descr.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 17, 
1868 Sao Paulo (Pirahy, Ypanema); idem, Ibis, 1873, p. 108 Cayenne; 
Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 440 Parahyba 
River, Brazil. 

Hirundo albiventris Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 302, 1865 Bahia (crit.); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 569 Para; Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 323 Magdalena River and Lake Paturia, Colombia; 
Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 378 Para; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1873, p. 258 lower and upper Ucayali, Santa Cruz, and Pebas, 
Peru (crit.); idem, I.e., 1879, p. 595 Moxos, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, p. 8 Yurimaguas, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, 
p. 239, 1884 Peruvian localities (descr.). 

Tachycineta albiventris(er) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 215 Bartica Grove and 
Camacusa, British Guiana; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 113, 
630, 1885 Oyapock, British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Dem- 
erara), Para, Pernambuco, Pebas, and Copataza River (Ecuador); Allen, 

1 "L'Hirondelle tachete'e de Cayenne" of Daubenton (PI. Enl., pi. 546, fig. 1), 
the basis of Hirundo maculata Boddaert (Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 32, 1783) and Hirundo 
maculosa Kuhl (Buff, et Daub., Fig. Av. Nom. Syst., p. 10, 1820), appears to be 
unidentifiable. 

2 Misprinted "aequitorialis." 



72 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 79, 1889 Reyes, Bolivia; Riker and Chap- 
man, Auk, 7, p. 266, 1890 Santarem; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. 
Hirund., 1, p. 139, pi. 20, 1890 (monog.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 6, p. 28, 1894 Cipero River, Trinidad; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 333 La Merced, Peru; Goeldi, Ibis, 
1897, pp. 150, 153, 154, 159, 162 Counany and Amapa, northern Brazil; 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 138, 1899 Iporanga, Sao Paulo; idem, 
I.e., 4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
15, No. 378, p. 3, 1900 Carandasinho, Matto Grosso; Berlepsch and 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 14, 1902 Altagracia and Caicara (Orinoco), 
Mato River, and Suapure, Caura, Venezuela; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 
499 Rio Capim, Brazil; Me"negaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, 
p. 116, 1904 Sinnamarie, French Guiana; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 
p. 12, 1906 Seelet, Trinidad; idem, I.e., 14, p. 6, 1907 Itaituba and 
Urucurituba, Rio Tapajoz; idem, I.e., 15, p. 25, 1908 Rio Araguaya, 
Goyaz; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 339, 1907 Sao Paulo (Rio 
Ribeira, Rio Mogy-Guassu) ; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, pp. 9, 521, 
1908 Rio Purus (Cachoeira, Monte Verde) and Rio Tocantins (Alco- 
bac.a); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 110, 316, 1908 Cayenne, Oyapock, 
and Sinnamarie, French Guiana; Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 323 Cariaco, 
Venezuela; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 99, 1909 Guanoco, Venezuela; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 76, 1910 
Bahia (Joazeiro) and Piauhy (Parnagua, Amaracjio); Hellmayr, Abhandl. 
Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. KL, 26, No. 2, pp. 6, 87, 1912 Ipitinga, 
Rio Acara, and Para localities; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 469, 
1914 Rio Guama, Rio Capim, Rio Moju, Rio Tocantins (Alcobaca), 
Rio Maecuru, Rio Jamauchim, Rio Purus (Cachoeira, Monte Verde), 
Marajo (Rio Arary, Sao Natal, Pindobal, Livramento), Rio Macujubim, 
Amapa, and Rio Jamunda (Faro); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, 
Heft 10, p. 9, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Peru; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 
2, p. 325, 1921 British Guiana (numerous localities); Marelli, Mem. 
Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 651, 1924 (?) Buenos Aires. 

Iridoprocne albiventris(er) Bertoni, Seg. Contrib. Orn. Parag., in Rev. Inst. 
Parag., 1907, p. 2 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 351, 1910 (?) Ocampo, Chaco, and (?) Barracas 
al Sud, Buenos Aires; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 206, 
1913 Guinipa River and Pedernales, Venezuela; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. 
Physis, 1, p. 350, 1914 Misiones (Santa Ana), (?) Chaco Austral 
(Ocampo), and (?) Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., 
p. 61, 1914 Rio Parana, Iguassu, etc.; Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. 
Bull., 2, p. 162, 1916 Orinoco River (nesting habits, eggs); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 501, 1917 La Playa, Magdalena River, 
and La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 435, 1922 Fundacion, Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, p. 554, 1926 "Quito" = Rio Napo, Ecuador; Sztolcman, 
Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 181, 1926 Therezina and Salto 
de Uba, Parana; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 171, 1928 
Ourem, Para; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 410, 1931 
Sevillano, Cienaga Grande, and Fundacion, Colombia. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 73 

Iridoprocne albiventer albiventer Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 266, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Hirundo leucorrhoa (not of Vieillot) Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 329 Recife and 
Parahyba, Brazil. 

Range. Eastern South America, from Trinidad (rare), the 
Guianas, Venezuela, and Colombia (west of the Andes only in 
the Magdalena Valley), through eastern Ecuador and Peru and the 
greater part of Brazil south to Bolivia, Paraguay, northeastern 
Argentina (Misiones), 1 and the states of Matto Grosso and Parana. 2 

15: Venezuela (Encontrados, Zulia, 1); Colombia (La Playa, near 
Barranquilla, 1); Peru (Lagunas, lower Huallaga, 5; Yurimaguas, 1); 
Brazil (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 1; Serra da Lua, near Boa Vista, Rio 
Branco, 2; Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1; Fazenda Cayoa, Salto Grande 
do Rio Paranapanema, Sao Paulo, 1; Descalvados, Matto Grosso, 1); 
Argentina (Puerto Segundo, Misiones, 1). 

Iridoprocne leucorrhoa (Vieillot). WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW. 

Hirundo leucorrhoa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 14, p. 519, 
1817 based on "Golondrina rabadilla blanca" Azara, No. 304, 3 Paraguay 

1 It is extremely doubtful if this swallow really occurs in any other part of 
Argentina. Dabbene cites the Argentine Chaco (Ocampo, Mocovi) and Barracas 
il Sud, Buenos Aires, on the authority of the late S. Venturi, but it should be noted 
that the species is not represented in this naturalist's collections acquired by the 
Fring Museum. It is somewhat significant that no other person ever met with it 
in the vicinity of the Argentine capital, though it is admitted to the fauna of 
Buenos Aires by Marelli, whose entry is, however, rather vague. I am likewise 
inclined to question Burmeister's record from Uruguay (Mercedes, Rio Negro), 
where /. albiventer has not been found again. It appears to be absent also from 
the extreme south of Brazil, viz., the states of Santa Catharina and Rio Grande 
io Sul. 

2 1 am unable to recognize an upper Amazonian form (aequatorialis Lawrence). 
Birds from Pebas and other Peruvian localities, which may be assumed to represent 
that race, have just as much white on the wings as a series from eastern Brazil 
ind Guiana, and do not differ in any other respect, so far as I can see. The amount 
rf white on the tertials becoming greatly reduced with the progress of wear, partic- 
ular care should be taken in using only specimens in comparable plumage. A 
single example from the Magdalena River (La Playa) has by no means less white 
than certain Peruvian birds in similarly abraded condition, though it is, of course, 
luite possible that adequate material may show that the inhabitants of that region 
verge in the direction of /. albilinea. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Seelet, 1. British Guiana: Cama- 
cusa, 5. French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. Brazil: Ceara, 1; Piauhy, Amaracjio, 1; 
Parnagua, 1; Joazeiro, Bahia, 2; Bahia, 1; Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, 2; 
Sao Paulo, Ypanema, 6; Pirahy, 1. Peru: Pebas, 1. 

8 Though Azara's description is not absolutely accurate in every particular, 
since the color terms used for the upper parts would seem to be better applicable 
to /. leucopyga, the presence of the white supraloral streak attributed to his 
"Golondrina rabadilla blanca" enables us to identify the bird with tolerable 
certainty. 



74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and La Plata River; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 144, 1856 
(crit.); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 301, 1865 Buenos Aires (crit.); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1868, p. 139 Conchitas, 
Buenos Aires (spec, examined); idem, I.e., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata, Peru 
(spec, examined); idem, I.e., 1873, p. 185 Cosnipata; Durnford, Ibis, 
1876, p. 158 Flores and Belgrano, Buenos Aires (breeding); idem, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 169 province of Buenos Aires; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1882, p. 596 Santo Tom6, Corrientes; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, 
p. 241, 1884 Cosnipata, Peru; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 
5, p. 81, 1884 Tandil and La Tinta, Buenos Aires; Berlepsch and Ihering, 
Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 116, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul. 

Hirundo frontalis (not of Quoy and Gaimard, 1830) Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 5, p. 22, Nov., 1837 Montevideo, Uruguay (type lost, formerly 
in collection of Zoological Society of London); idem, in Darwin, Zool. 
Beagle, 3, p. 40, 1839 Montevideo. 

Hirundo gouldii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, No. 4, p. 69, 1850 
new name for Hirundo frontalis Gould, preoccupied. 

Cotyle leucorrhoea [sic] Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 Parana, 
Santa Fe; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 478, 1861 near Parana; Stern- 
berg, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 270, 1869 Buenos Aires (nesting habits) ; Doering, 
Period. Zool. Argent., 1, p. 254, 1874 Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; 
Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 400, 
1890 Cordoba. 

Petrochelidon leucorrhoa Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 17, 1868 Sao Paulo 
(Taubat, Ypanema) and Matto Grosso (Villa Bella), Brazil (spec, 
examined); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 441 
Minas Geraes (Lag6a Santa) and Sao Paulo (Franca). 

Hirundo (Tachycineta) leucorrhoa Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 89, 
1883 Concepcion del Uruguay (breeding) and Buenos Aires. 

Tachycineta leucorrhoa(us) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 114, 631, 
1885 Uruguay, Argentina (La Plata, Conchitas), Brazil (Pelotas, Rio 
Grande do Sul), and Peru (Cosnipata); idem and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 
1, p. 143, pi. 21, 1887 (monog., excl. Chuput Valley); Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 1, p. 30, 1888 Argentina (excl. Chuput Valley); Frenzel, 
Journ. Orn., 39, p. 118, 1891 Cordoba; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 124 Fortin 
Page, lower Pilcomayo (spec, examined); Holland, Ibis, 1892, p. 195 
Estancia Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 166 Santa 
Elena, Rio Monzon, Uruguay (spec, examined); Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. 
La Plata, 6, p. 289, 1895 Catamarca; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande 
do Sul, 16, p. 117, 1899 Mundo Novo, Pedras Brancas, and Sao Lour- 
enco, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 138, 1899 Sao 
Paulo (Ypiranga, Iguape); Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 
174, 1902 Tucuman; idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 40, 1905 
Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 256, 1904 Rosario, Salta 
(spec, examined); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 339, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Ypiranga, Iguape, Cachoeira, Jundiahy) and Minas Geraes (Marianna) ; 
Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 168, 1909 Buenos Aires 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 75 

(Barracas al Sud, Estancia San Martino Monte) and Entre Rios (La 
Soledad) ; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 607 Sapucay, Paraguay (spec, examined); 
Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 91 Los Yngleses, Aj6, Buenos Aires (breeding; 
spec, examined); Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 381 Cape San Antonio, Buenos 
Aires (habits); Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 650, 1924 
Prov. Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 22, 1920 Monte- 
video, Colonia, San Jose, and Flores, Uruguay; Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 269, 
1922 Rosas, Prov. Buenos Aires (breeding); Serie" and Smyth, I.e., 
3, p. 51, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios (breeding); Pereyra, I.e., 3, 
p. 171, 1923 Zelaya, Prov. Buenos Aires; Wilson, I.e., 3, p. 359, 1926 
Dept. General Lopez, Santa F6. 

Iridoprocne leucorrhoa Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 350, 
1910 (range in Argentina, excl. Patagonia); Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 394, 
1916 La Plata (breeding); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 61, 1914 Para- 
guay; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 341, 1926 Paraguay 
(west of Puerto Pinasco) and Uruguay (San Vicente and Banado de la 
India Muerta, near Lazcano); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, 
p. 315, 1930 Villa Bella de Matto Grosso; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. 
Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 304, 1930 San Jose, Formosa. 

Hirundo leucopyga Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Leop.-CaroL, 16, Suppl., p. 73, 
1834 part, spec, from Montevideo. 

Hirundo meyeni (not Petrochelidon meyeni Cabanis) Dalgleish, Proc. Roy. 
Phys. Soc. Edinb., 6, p. 142, 1881 Tala, Uruguay (breeding; eggs descr.). 

Range. Southern Brazil, north to Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, 
and Matto Grosso (Villa Bella) ; eastern Bolivia (Buenavista, Dept. 
Santa Cruz) ; southeastern Peru (Cosnipata, Dept. Cuzco) ; northern 
Argentina, south to Buenos Aires Province, west to Cordoba, 
Catamarca, and Tucuman; Paraguay; Uruguay. 1 

6: Bolivia (Buenavista, Dept. Santa Cruz, 1); Argentina (Con- 
ception, Tucuman, 5). 

1 This is the Tree Swallow breeding in Uruguay, southern Brazil, and northern 
Argentina (Entre Rios, Santa F6, Buenos Aires). Evidently it also nests in the 
northwestern section of the latter country, for our series from Concepcion, Tucu- 
man, besides adult birds (Sept., Oct.), contains a female in the brown-backed 
juvenile plumage taken by J. Mogensen on January 22, 1918. A single adult 
female, secured by H. Whitely on October 1, 1868, at Cosnipata, Peru, probably 
a migrant from the south, is in every respect similar to Paraguayan examples. 
Its range in the south does not seem to extend beyond Buenos Aires Province. 
The Chubut record of this swallow by Durnford, perpetuated in literature by 
various authors, pertains to /. leucopyga, as shown by one of his specimens in the 
British Museum. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, Matto 
Grosso, 3; TaubatS, Sao Paulo, 1; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 2; Pelotas, Rio Grande 
do Sul, 1. Uruguay: Santa Elena, Monzon, Soriano, 1 (O. V. Aplin); unspecified, 
1 (Alan Peel). Paraguay: Sapucay, 1; Mision Inglesa, Chaco, 1; lower Pilcomayo, 
1; Villa Rica, 1. Argentina: Santa Elena, Entre Rios, 2 (Oct. 4, 1895; Dec. 18, 
1893. A. H. Holland); Conchitas, Buenos Aires, 2 (Sept., 1866. W. Hudson); 
Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires, 3 (Sept.-Dec. C. B. Grant); Rosario, Salta, 1 
(Sept. 14, 1896. F. Gerling); San Jose 1 , Formosa, 2 (Oct. 19). Peru: Cosnipata, 1 
(Oct. 1, 1868. H. Whitely). 



76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Iridoprocne leucopyga (Meyen). 1 CHILEAN SWALLOW. 

Hirundo leucopyga Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Leop.-Carol., 16, Suppl., p. 73, 
pi. 10, fig. 2, 1834 Santiago, Chile (type in Berlin Museum); Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 144, 1856 Chile (crit.); Philippi, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 31, p. 249, 1868 Chile; Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 235, 
1877 Chile; Gigoux, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 87, 1924 Caldera, 
Atacama. 

Petrochelidon meyeni Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 48, 1851 new name for 
Hirundo leucopyga (Meyen). 2 

Hirundo leucorrhoa (not of Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 
1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 69, 1837 Valparaiso (spec, in Paris Museum 
examined); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 32; idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 392 Chubut 
Valley (spec, examined). 

Iridoprocne leucorrhoa Stone, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patag., Zool., 2, p. 
813, 1928 Chubut (ex Durnford). 

Tachycineta leucorrhous Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 359, 
1902 Chubut Valley (ex Durnford). 

Hirundo leucopygia Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 40, 1839 Port 
Famine, Tierra del Fuego, and Valparaiso, Chile; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1 Iridoprocne leucopyga (Meyen) differs from /. leucorrhoa by decidedly blue 
gloss of the upper parts, more blackish wings and tail, absence or mere suggestion 
of the white frontal band and supraloral streak, deeper (velvety) black loral 
spot, and generally darker grayish brown under wing coverts. The bill is, as a 
rule, smaller, but I am unable to appreciate any divergency in the amount of adhe- 
sion of the toes. It is hardly more than subspecifically distinct, being probably 
the western and southern representative of /. leucorrhoa. Though much remains 
yet to be learned about its distribution, it is evident from published records that 
this tree swallow nests in Tierra del Fuego and along the Straits of Magellan. 
The northern limit of its breeding area has yet to be determined, but it seems 
to extend at least to the Rio Negro. As shown by an adult bird in the British Mu- 
seum, it is the present species, and not /. leucorrhoa, as erroneously recorded by 
Durnford, that lives in the valley of the Chubut. If Holland (Ibis, 1892, p. 196) 
claims its breeding at the Estancia Espartillar, Prov. Buenos Aires, his observations 
doubtless refer to the other species, I. leucorrhoa, well known to do so in that region. 
Of the two specimens collected by him, which we have examined in the British 
Museum, one, an adult in full molt, was taken in winter (May 15, 1888), while 
the other, an adult male in newly molted condition, shot on October 6, 1889, 
may well have been a migratory individual. C. B. Grant expressly states that the 
Chilean Swallow is merely a winter visitor in the Ajo district of Buenos Aires. 
His specimen, now in the British Museum, was collected on May 9, hence in 
winter. 

Additional material examined. Chile: Coquimbo, 1; San Alfonso, Quillota, 
Valparaiso, 1; Penaflor, Santiago, 1; Santiago, 1; Rancagua, O'Higgins, 1; Caillihue, 
Curico, 1; Concepci6n, 1; Maquegua, Arauco, 1; Corral, Valdivia, 3; Valdivia, 1. 
Argentina: Tierra del Fuego, Via Monte, 1; Punta Arenas, Straits of Magellan, 4; 
Laguna Colguape, Chubut, 1 (Nov., 1877. H. Durnford); Valle del Lago 
Blanco, Chubut, 3 (Oct. 18, Nov. 26, 28, 1901. J. Koslowsky); Los Yngleses, 
Ajo, Buenos Aires, 1 (May 9, 1909. C. B. Grant) ; Estancia Espartillar, Buenos 
Aires, 2 (May 15, 1888, and Oct. 6, 1889. A. H. Holland); Barracas al Sud, 1 
(July 20, 1904). 

1 The renaming of the species described by Meyen was quite unnecessary, 
as we have pointed out in another place (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 48, 1932). 



L935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 77 

Lond., 11, p. 110, 1843 Chile; Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 29, p. 143, 
1925 San Bernardo, Chile. 

Cypselus (!) leucopygius Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, 
p. 266, 1847 Chile; Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 309, 1860 
Santiago (nesting habits). 

Hirundo meyeni Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 41, 1865 Chile; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 321, 337 Valparaiso, Chile; 
Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 Sandy Point, Straits of Magellan; 
Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 543, 1877 Cauquenes, Colchagua; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 432 Sandy Point 
(spec, examined). 

Tachycineta meyeni Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 420 Coquimbo, 
Chile; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 116, 631, 1885 Chile 
(Coquimbo, Colchagua), Patagonia (Sandy Point), and "Bolivia" 
(errore); idem and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 1, p. 153, pi. 23, 1889 
(monog.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 131, 1889 Laredo 
Bay, Straits of Magellan; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 79, 1889 
"Falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia," errore, probably Valparaiso; Holland, 
Ibis, 1891, p. 16; idem, Ibis, 1892, p. 196 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos 
Aires (spec, examined); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 199, 1896 Chile; 
Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 15 Corral, Valdivia, and Maquegua, Arauco, Chile 
(spec, examined); Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 100, p. 866, 1898 
Chile (monog.); Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, 40, p. 616, 
1900 Penguin Rookery, Staten Island; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 8, p. 360, 1902 Puerto Hope, Clarence Island, Tierra del 
Fuego; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 42 Punta Arenas (spec, examined); Craw- 
shay, Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 48, 1907 Rio McClelland Settlement; 
Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 91 Los Yngleses, Aj6, Buenos Aires (spec, examined); 
Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 470, 1922 Coronel, Chile (habits, nest, and 
eggs); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 326, 1923 Rio Colorado, 
Huanuluan, Paso Flores (Rio Limay), and Lake Nahuel Huapi, Pata- 
gonia; Jaffuel and Pirion, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, p. 105, 1927 
Marga-Marga, Valparaiso (=juv.); Bullock, I.e., 33, pp. 124, 182, 1929 
Cerro Nahuelbuta and Angol, Malleco. 

Hirundo (Tachycineta) meyeni Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, Zool., 6, p. 
B. 49, 1891 Punta Arenas, Orange Bay, and Santa Cruz, Patagonia. 

"Hirundo leucopyga Licht. (H. meyeni Cab.)" Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Chile, 15, p. 23, pi. 20, fig. 2, 1902 Chile (crit.). 

Iridoprocne meyeni Bertoni, Seg. Con. Orn. Parag., in Rev. Inst. Parag., 
1907, p. 2 Asuncion, Paraguay; idem, Faun. Parag., p. 61, 1914 
Asuncion; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 350, 1910 
(range in Argentina); Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, p. 147, 1920 
Nilahue, Curico; idem, I.e., 25, p. 186, 1921 Cordillera of Aconcagua; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 341, 1926 Guamini, Buenos 
Aires, and Concon, Chile; idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 453, 1926 
Rio Fetaleufu and Rio Pico, Chubut (crit.); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 68, p. 210, 1927 Concepci6n, Tucuman; Pereyra, El 



78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hornero, 4, p. 32, 1927 San Rafael, Mendoza; Stone, Rep. Princet. Univ. 
Exped. Patag., Zool., 2, p. 815, 1928 Punta Arenas (breeding). 

Hirundo leucoptera (not of Gmelin) Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 48, 
1924 Isla Mocha, Chile. 

Hirundo cyanoleuca (not of Vieillot) Frauenfeld, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges., 10, 
Abhandl., p. 637, 1860 near Santiago, Chile (spec, examined); Lataste, 
Act. Soc. Scient. Chili, 3, p. CXV, 1894 Ninhue, Maule, Chile; idem, 
I.e., 5, p. XXXIII, 1895 Caillihue, Curic6, Chile (spec, examined); 
Waugh and Lataste, I.e., 4, p. LXXXIV, 1894 Penaflor, Santiago, 

, Chile (spec, examined); idem, I.e., 4, p. CLXX, 1895 San Alfonso, 
Quillota, Chile (spec, examined). 

Range. Breeds in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, up to the Rio 
Negro, and Chile north to Atacama; migrates in winter northwards 
to Buenos Aires (Guamini, Est. Espartillar, Rosas), Mendoza, 
and Tucuman, and even as far as Paraguay (one record from 
Asuncion). 

8: Chile (Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, Atacama, 1; Mafil, Valdivia, 
1; Rio Inio, Chilo Island, 1; Quellon, Chilo Island, 2); Argentina 
(Conception, Tucuman, 3). 

Genus TACHYCINETA Cabanis 

Tachycineta Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 48, 1851 type, by orig. desig., 
Hirundo thalassina Swainson. 

Tachycineta thalassina thalassina (Swainson). MEXICAN 
VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW. 

Hirundo thalassinus Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 5, p. 366, 1827 
tableland and Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico (type probably in Uni- 
versity Museum, Cambridge, England). 

Tachycineta thalassinus(a) Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 547, 
1869 Vera Cruz region; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 233, 1883 part, Mexican localities and references; Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 119, 1885 part, Puebla, Mexico; Sharpe and 
Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 1, p. 175, 1892 part, Mexico (Sierra de 
Bolanos, Jalisco; valley of Mexico, Puebla, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca). 

Tachycineta thalassina thalassina Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
3, p. 93, 1904 Mexican plateau, north to Chihuahua, south to Vera 
Cruz, Mexico, and Oaxaca (monog., full bibliog.); van Rossem, Trans. 
San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 266, 1931 Tecoripa and Tesia, Sonora, and 
Pacheco, Chihuahua (crit.). 

Tachycineta thalassina lepida (not of Mearns) Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 22, p. 176, 1906 Rio Sestin and Arroyo del Buey, northwestern 
Durango (crit.). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 79 

Range. Mexican plateau, from Sonora, Chihuahua, and Durango 
south to the states of Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, and Oaxaca. 1 
9: Mexico (Babicora, Chihuahua, 8; Tuxpan, Jalisco, 1). 

"Tachycineta thalassina lepida Mearns. VIOLET-GREEN 
SWALLOW. 

Tachycineta lepida Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 15, p. 31, 1902 Camp- 
bell's ranch in the Laguna Mountains (Coast Range), twenty miles north 
of Campo, San Diego County, California (type in U. S. National 
Museum). 

Tachycineta thalassina lepida Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 95, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 
787, 1910 Costa Rica (Matina River and Bebede'ro); Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 190, 1928 northern Lower California (breeding); 
van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 267, 1931 El Doctor, 
Tecoripa, Tesia, and Guirocoba, Sonora (migrant); Griscom, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 64, p. 282, 1932 Zanjon, San Mateo, Chanquejelve, and 
Chichicastenango, Guatemala (winter visitor). 

Tachycineta thalassinus (not Hirundo thalassina Swainson) Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 233, 1883 part, western North 
America and Guatemala; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 119, 1885 
part, western North America; idem and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 1, 
p. 175, pi. 25, 1892 part, western North America, in winter to Guatemala. 

Range. Breeds from central Alaska, Yukon, and central Alberta 
south to northern Lower California and the Mexican boundary, 
west to western South Dakota and western Nebraska; winters in 
Mexico south to Guatemala and Costa Rica, migrating through 
western Texas; accidental in Illinois. 

22: British Columbia (Okanagan Landing, 4); California (Menlo 
Park, 1; Mount Diablo, l;San Geronimo, 1; Monterey, 2; Nicasio, 3); 
Arizona (Huachuca Plains, 1; Huachuca Mountains, 2); Colorado 
(Hot Sulphur Springs, 6; Colorado Springs, 1). 

Tachycineta thalassina brachyptera Brewster. SAN LUCAS 
SWALLOW. 

Tachycineta thalassina brachyptera Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, 
p. 167, Sept., 1902 Sierra de Laguna, Lower California (type in collection 
of W. Brewster, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 290, 1930); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 98, 1904 Cape district of Lower 

1 Birds from northwestern Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango) are more 
1 or less intermediate between thalassina and lepida, and their reference to one rather 
i than the other is largely a matter of personal opinion. Ridgway and van Rossem 
; call them thalassina, while Miller, mainly on account of their smaller size, assigns 
i specimens from Durango to lepida. A good series of properly sexed breeding birds 
i from the disputed region is required to determine which one is the better course. 



80 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

California (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, 
p. 190, 1928 southern Lower California; van Rossem, Trans. San Diego 
Soc. N. H., 6, p. 267, 1931 Guaymas (breeding) and Tesia, Sonora 
(crit.). 

Range. Southern half of Lower California, north to El Rosario 
and Sierra Juarez, and opposite coast of Sonora (about Guaymas). 



Genus GALLICHELIDON Baird 

Callichelidon (Bryant MS.) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 303, May, 1865 
type, by orig. desig., Hirundo cyaneoviridis Bryant. 

*Callichelidon cyaneoviridis (Bryant). BAHAMA SWALLOW. 

Hirundo cyaneoviridis Bryant, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H., 7, p. Ill, 1859 
Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas (cotypes from the collection of H. W. 
Bryant now in U. S. National Museum, the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, and Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 204, 1925); Baird, 
Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 303, 1865 Nassau (monog.); Cory, Bds. Bahama 
Is., p. 79, 1890 Andros and New Providence (Nassau). 

Callichelidon cyaneoviridis Cory, Auk, 3, p. 59, 1886 Bahamas (descr.); 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 73, 1889 Bahamas; idem, Auk, 8, pp. 294, 297, 
350, 352, 1891 New Providence, Berry Islands, Great Bahama, Abaco, 
Anguilla, and Cay Sal, Bahamas; Ridgway, Auk, 8, p. 334, 1891 Abaco; 
Brewster, Auk, 14, p. 221, 1897 Tarpon Springs, Florida (Sept. 3, 
1890); Bonhote, Ibis, 1899, p. 511 Nassau, New Providence; Bangs, 
Auk, 17, p. 288, 1900 New Providence (Nassau) and Current Island, 
Eleuthera; Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 287 Nassau, New Providence; Ridg- 
way, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 99, 1904 Bahamas (monog., 
full bibliog.); Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama Islands, pp. 354, 365, 
1905 Great Bahama, Abaco, Berry Islands, New Providence, Andros, 
Cay Sal, Current Island, and Anguilla (crit.); Todd and Worthington, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, pp. 431, 459, 1911 New Providence, Great 
Inagua, Andros, and Abaco (habits); Bangs, Auk, 31, p. 401, 1914 
Nipe Bay, Cuba; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 112, 1923 Cuba. 

Calichelidon cyaneoviridis Scott, Auk, 7, pp. 265, 312, 1890 Garden Key, 
Dry Tortugas (male adult, Apr. 7, 1890); Northrop, Auk, 8, p. 70, 1891 
New Providence and Andros. 

Tachycineta cyaneoviridis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 121, 1885 
Bahamas; Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 1, pp. 185, 193, pi. 26, 
Dec., 1889 Bahamas and Dry Tortugas (monog.). 

Range. Bahamas (Great Bahama, Abaco, Berry Islands, New 
Providence, Andros, Cay Sal, Current Island, Anguilla, Great Inagua) 
and Cuba (Nipe Bay); accidental in southern Florida (Tarpon 
Springs, Sept. 3, 1890; Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Apr. 7, 1890). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 81 

18: Bahamas (Nassau, New Providence Island, 11; Abaco Island, 
3; Cay Sal Island, 2; Great Bahama, 1; Berry Islands, 1). 

Genus LAMPROCHELIDON Ridgway 

Kalochelidon (not Callichelidon Baird, 1865) Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
11, p. 95, Dec., 1866 type, by monotypy, Hirundo euchrysea var. dom- 
inicensis Bryant. 

Lamprochelidon Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 106, 1903 type, 
by orig. desig., Hirundo euchrysea Gosse. 

"Lamprochelidon euchrysea euchrysea (Gosse). GOSSE'S 
SWALLOW. 

Hirundo euchrysea Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 68, 1847 "higher mountains 
formed by the limestone range of the very centre of the island, as in 
Manchester and St. Ann's" (type in collection of P. H. Gosse, now in 
British Museum); idem, Illust. Bds. Jamaica, pi. 12, 1849; March, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 295 Content, Jamaica; Baird, Rev. 
Amer. Bds., 1, p. 304, 1865 Trelawny and Spanishtown, Jamaica (crit.); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 170, 632, 1885 Jamaica; Sharpe 
and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, pp. 407, 426, pi. 76, 1890 Jamaica 
(monog.). 

Petrochelidon euchrysea Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 72 Free- 
man's Hall, Trelawny, Jamaica. 

Tachycineta euchrysea Cory, Auk, 3, p. 58, 1886 Jamaica (descr.); idem, 
Bds. W. Ind., p. 72, 1889 Jamaica (monog.); Scott, Auk, 10, p. 181, 
1893 higher altitudes of Jamaica. 

Lamprochelidon euchrysea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 101, 
1904 Jamaica (monog.). 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 

3: Jamaica (St. Georges, Portland, 2; unspecified, 1). 

*Lamprochelidon euchrysea sclateri (Cory). 1 SCLATER'S 
SWALLOW. 

Hirundo sclateri Cory, Auk, 1, p. 2, 1884 Santo Domingo (type, from La 
Vega, in collection of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); idem, Bds. 
Haiti and San Dom., p. 45, col. pi., 1884 La Vega, Santo Domingo; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 171, 1885 Santo Domingo (ex 
Cory); Sharpe and Wyatt, Monog. Hirund., 2, pp. 409, 426, pi. 76, 1890 
Santo Domingo (monog.); Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 322 La Vega; Verrill, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 364, 1909 Camu River. 

Tachycineta sclateri Cory, Auk, 3, p. 58, 1886 Santo Domingo (descr.); 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 72, 1889 Santo Domingo (descr.). 

1 This is a strongly marked race, recognizable by larger size, bluish green 
instead of mainly golden green dorsal plumage and edges to the wings, as well 
as more deeply forked tail. 



82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Lamprochelidon sclateri Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 102, 
1904 Haiti (monog.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 507, 
1928 La Selle and La Hotte, Haiti; Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 
68, p. 320, 1929 Puente Yuna, near Bonao, Haiti; Wetmore and Swales, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 315, 1931 Hispaniola (monog., habits). 

Hirundo euchrysea var. dominicensis (not Hirundo dominicensis Gmelin, 
1789) Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 95, Dec., 1866 Port au 
Prince, Haiti (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Range. Island of Haiti, Greater Antilles. 
23: Santo Domingo (La Vega, 23). 

Family MOTACILLIDAE. Wagtails and Pipits 
Genus MOTAGILLA Linnaeus 

Motacilla Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 184, 1758 type, by tautonymy, 
"Motacilla"= Motacilla alba Linnaeus. 

Budytes Cuvier, Regne Anim., 1, p. 371, "1817" [=Dec. 7, 1816] type, by 
subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 24, 1840), Motacilla flava Linnaeus. 

Motacilla alba alba Linnaeus. WHITE WAGTAIL. 

Motacilla alba Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 185, 1758 Europa= 
Sweden; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1853, p. 70 
Greenland; idem, Ibis, 1861, p. 6 southern Greenland; Turner, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 236, 1885 Hunting Bay, near Fort Chimo, Ungava; 
Helms and Peterson, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1898, p. 174 
Angmagsalik, Greenland; Winge, Medd. Gr0nland, 21, p. 278, 1898 
Godthaab and Angmagsalik, Greenland; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 3, p. 4, 1904 (monog., bibliog.). 

Range. Breeds in Europe generally, winters in tropical Africa, 
Madeira, and the Canary Islands; accidental in northern Ungava 
(Fort Chimo, Aug. 29, 1883) and Greenland (Godthaab and 
Angmagsalik). 1 

Motacilla alba ocularis Swinhoe. SWINHOE'S WAGTAIL. 

Motacilla ocularis Swinhoe, Ibis, 2, p. 55, 1860 Amoy, China (type in collec- 
tion of R. Swinhoe, now in the British Museum); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 4, p. 414, 1882 La Paz, Lower California; idem, I.e., 6, p. 145, 
1883 part, La Paz; Belding, I.e., 5, p. 535, 1883 La Paz; (?) Turner, Auk, 
2, p. 157, 1885 Attu Island, Aleutians (May 14, 1881); (?) Turner, 
Contrib. Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 178, pi. 11, 1886 Attu Island, Aleutians; 
(?) Bishop, N. Amer. Fauna, 10, p. 91, 1900 Aphoon mouth of the 
Yukon, Alaska; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 6, 1904 
(monog., bibliog.); (?) Bent, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 66, No. 2, p. 32, 1916 

1 Walker's record (Ibis, 1860, p. 166) from Godhavn (Aug., 1857), according 
to Winge (Medd. Gr0nland, 21, p. 279), turned out to refer to the Wheatear 
(Oenanthe o. leucorhoa). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 83 

between Kotzebue Sound and Cape Lisburne, Alaska; Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 206, 1928 La Paz, Lower California. 

Range. Breeds in northeastern Siberia, migrating in winter 
south to southern China and India; accidental in Lower California 
(La Paz, Jan. 9, 1882). [Sight records from Attu Island, Aleutians 
(May 14, 1881) j 1 Chamisso Island (Aug. 1) ; and mouth of the Yukon, 
Alaska (Aug. 28) 1 ]. 

Motacilla alba lugens Kittlitz. BLACK-BACKED WAGTAIL. 

Motacilla lugens (Pallas MS.) Kittlitz, Kupfert. Naturg. Vog., Heft 2, p. 16, 
pi. 21, fig. 1, 1833 Kamchatka (type in Frankfort Museum; cf. Hartert, 
Kat. Vogels. Mus. Senckenb. Naturf. Ges., p. 44, 1891); Thayer and 
Bangs, Auk, 38, p. 460, 1921 "Attic" [=Attu] Island, Aleutians (May 4, 
1913). 

Range. Kamchatka, Kurile and Commander Islands, Askold, 
and northern Japan; winters in China and Japan; casual on Attu 
Island, Aleutian chain (May 4, 1913). 

Motacilla flava alascensis (Ridgway). ALASKA YELLOW 
WAGTAIL. 

Budytes flavus alascensis Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 105, 1903 
St. Michael, Alaska (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 8, 1904 Alaska (monog., full bibliog.); Bent, 
Smiths. Misc. Coll., 66, No. 2, p. 33, 1916 Yukon Delta to Nome, and 
Cape Espenberg, Alaska; Sushkin, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 32, 
1925 western Alaska and extreme northeastern Siberia (crit.). 

Budytes flavus simillimus (not of Hartert) Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
59, p. 403, 1915 Providence Bay, Chukchi Peninsula (crit.). 

Range. Arctic zone of extreme northeastern Siberia (Emma 
Harbor, Plover Bay, and Providence, Chukchi Peninsula) and 
western Alaska, from Point Barrow and Kotzebue Sound to Nushagak 
River; winters probably in the tropical parts of eastern Asia (Philip- 
pine Islands?). 2 

Genus ANTHUS Bechstein 

Anihus Bechstein, Gemein. Naturg. Deutschl., 2nd ed., 2, p. 302 (footnote), 
1805 type, by subs, desig. (Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 534, 
1885), Alauda trivialis Linnaeus. 3 

Neocorys Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 5, 1857 type, by orig. desig., 
Anihus spragueii Audubon. 

1 Possibly M . alba lugens Kittlitz. Both records based on field observations 
only. 

* Material examined. Alaska: St. Michael, 2; mouth of Yukon, 1. 
3 Cf. Laubmann, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 15, p. 222, 1922. 



84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Notiocorys Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, pp. 151, 156, 1864 type, by monotypy, 
Anthus rufus auct.=Anthus lutescens parvus Lawrence. 

Pediocorys Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, pp. 151, 157, 1864 type, by orig. 
desig. (p. 153, in text), Anthus bogotensis Sclater. 

Xanthocorys Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 619, 1885 type, by mono- 
typy, Anthus natiereri Sclater. 

Anthus spinoletta japonicus Temminck and Schlegel. JAPANESE 
PIPIT. 

Anthus pratensis japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Faun. Japon., 
Aves, p. 59, pi. 24, 1847 Japan (type in Leiden Museum). 

Anthus spinoletta japonicus Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 17, p. 250, 
1928 Nunivak Island, Alaska. 

Range. Kamchatka, eastern Siberia, and the Kurile Islands; 
winters in Japan and China; casual on Nunivak Island, Alaska 
(Sept. 10, 1927). 1 

*Anthus spinoletta rubescens (Tunstall). AMERICAN PIPIT. 

Alauda rubescens Tunstall, Orn. Brit., p. 2, 1771 based on "The Lark 

from Pensilvania" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 185, pi. 297; 

Pennsylvania. 
Alauda pensilvanica Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., Suppl., 1, p. 287, 1787 based 

on "Red Lark" Latham (Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (2), p. 376), which in its 

turn is based on "The Lark of Pensilvania" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 

2, p. 185, pi. 297; Pennsylvania. 
Alauda ludoviciana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 793, 1789 based on "La 

Farlouzanne" Buff on; Louisiana. 
Alauda rubra Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 794, 1789 based on "Red Lark" 

Latham (Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (2), p. 376) and Pennant (Arct. Zool., 2, 

p. 393); Pennsylvania. 
Motacilla hudsonica Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl., 2, p. 503, 1801 based on 

"Hudsonian Wagtail" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., Suppl., 2, p. 231; "ad 

Sinum Hudsonis." 
Alauda rufa (not of Gmelin, 1789) Wilson, Amer. Orn., 5, p. 89, pi. 42, fig. 4, 

1812 Pennsylvania (type in Peale's Museum, probably lost). 
Anthus rubens Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allgem. Encycl. Wiss. und 

Kuenste, 4, p. 290, 1820 new name for Alauda rubra Gmelin and Alauda 

ludoviciana Gmelin; Louisiana and Pennsylvania. 
Anthus pipiens Audubon, Orn. Biog., 1, p. 408, 1831 the prairies of our 

northwestern states; idem, I.e., 5, p. 449, 1839 Texas, Saskatchewan, 

and coast of Labrador. 

1 This is the only record of the Japanese Pipit from North America. The 
bird recorded by Hanna (Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 9, p. 176, 1919; Auk, 37, p. 25, 
1920) from St. Paul Island, Pribiloff group, under the name of A. s. japonicus 
was shown by Riley and Wetmore (Condor, 30, p. 193, 1928) to be a specimen 
of A. 8. rubescens with somewhat unusual coloring. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 85 

Anthus reinhardli Holboll, Naturhist. Tidskr. (Kr0yer), 4, p. 393 (in text), 
1843 new name for Anthus ludovicianus "Lichtenstein"=AJattda ludo- 

viciana Gmelin. 

Anthus hypogoeus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 65, 
1854 new name for Alauda ludoviciana Gmelin; San Francisco, California. 

Anthus pensilvanicus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 12, 
1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 180, 
1906 Villa Ocampo and Rio Sestin, Durango. 

Anthus spinoletta rubescens Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 406, 1919 (crit.). 

Range. Arctic zone from northeastern Siberia, northern Alaska, 
northern Mackenzie, latitude 68 on the west coast of Davis Strait, 
and latitude 70 on the west coast of Greenland south to Great 
Slave Lake, northern Manitoba, Quebec (Gaspe"), and Newfound- 
land, and from the Aleutian Islands to Prince William Sound; 
also in the Rocky Mountains south to Oregon, Colorado, and New 
Mexico; winters from northern California and the Ohio and lower 
Delaware river valleys as far south as the Gulf coast, Lower 
California, and Guatemala; casual in Bermuda, accidental in 
Heligoland. 1 

56: Baffin Land (Peter Force Sound, Frobisher Bay, 2); Labrador 
(Battle Harbor, 4; Indian Harbor, 3; Nain, 1); Maine (New Vine- 
yard, 2) ; Connecticut (East Hartford, 1) ; Massachusetts (unspecified, 
1); New York (Cayuga, 1; Owasco, 2); South Carolina (Frogmore, 
2; Aiken County, 2); Florida (Key West, 3); Texas (Port O'Connor, 
1; Corpus Christi, 3; Fort Davis, 1; Port Lavaca, 1; Ingram, 1); 
Colorado (Mount Flora, 2; Fort Lyon, 4; unspecified, 1); Arizona 
(Tucson, 1); California (Nestor, 1; Pacific Beach, 3; Livermore, 1; 
San Pablo Valley, Berkeley, 1; Los Gatos, 1; San Pedro, 2; Oakland, 
1); Oregon (Pineville, 1); Washington (Clallam Bay, 1); Wisconsin 
(Beaver Dam, 4); Illinois (Worth, 1). 

Anthus pratensis (Linnaeus). MEADOW PIPIT. 

Alauda pratensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 166, 1758 "in Europae 
pratis' ' = Sweden . 

Anthus pratensis Paulsen, in Holboll, Orn. Beitr. Faun. Gronl., pp. 6, 24, 
1846 Greenland (one spec.); Winge, Medd. Gr^nland, 21, p. 275, 1898 
west coast of Greenland (one spec.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 3, p. 18, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.). 

1 According to Mr. W. E. C. Todd (in litt.), the American Pipit is divisible 
into several races. It is to be hoped that Mr. Todd will soon make known the 
results of his investigation. 



86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Iceland, the Faroes, the greater part of Europe, western 
Siberia, and Turkestan; winters in northern Africa; accidental in 
Greenland (one record from the west coast, fall of 1844). 

An thus cervinus (Pallas). RED-THROATED PIPIT. 

Motacilla cervina Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1, p. 511, "1811"= 1827 
"in Siberia tantum maxime orientali, circa Covyma fl. itemque in Cam- 
tschatca et insulis versus Americana sitis frequens est, unde speci- 
mina attulit amic. Billings" (type locality, therefore, Kamchatka); 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 156, 1883 San Jose" del Cabo, 
Lower California (Jan. 26, 1883); Belding, I.e., 6, p. 350, 1883 San Jose 
del Cabo (date wrongly given as Feb. 7, 1883); Turner, Contrib. Nat. 
Hist. Alaska, p. 180, pi. 9, 1886 St. Michael, Alaska; Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 15, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 207, 1928 San Jose" del Cabo, Lower 
California. 

Range. Tundras of northern Siberia and locally in northern 
Europe; winters southward to southern China, Egypt, and Abyssinia; 
accidental in western Alaska (St. Michael, 1867, date not recorded) 
and Lower California (San Jos6 del Cabo, Jan. 26, 1883). * 

*Anthus spragueii (Audubon). SPRAGUE'S PIPIT. 

Alauda spragueii Audubon, Bds. Amer. (8vo ed.), 7, p. 334, pi. 486, 1844 
near Fort Union, western North Dakota (cotypes in U. S. National 
Museum and Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 18, 1899). 

Anthus spraguei(i) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 155, 1864 plains of Yellow- 
stone and upper Missouri to Saskatchewan (monog.); Ferrari-Perez, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 136, 1886 Puebla, Mexico; Salvin and 
Godman, Ibis, 1889, p. 236 near Vera Cruz City, Vera Cruz; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 20, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Neocorys spraguei Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 620, 1885 (monog.). 

Range. Transition zone of North America, from west-central 
Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba south to western Montana 
and North Dakota; winters from Texas, southern Louisiana, and 
southern Mississippi through eastern and central Mexico to Vera 
Cruz, Puebla, and Michoacan; casual in Florida, Georgia, and 
South Carolina. 

6: Saskatchewan (Quill Lake, 1); Texas (Kendall County, 1; Cor- 
pus Christi, 1; Port O'Connor, 1; Harlingen, 1); Guerrero (Iguala, 1). 

1 "Aleutian Islands" is credited to Zander (Journ. Orn., 1, Extraheft, p. 64, 
1853). This author, however, does not say a word about the occurrence of the 
species on those islands, but merely repeats Pallas's statement that it ranges as 
far as the "islands toward America." 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 87 

*Anthus furcatus furcatus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 1 SHORT- 
CLAWED PIPIT. 

Anthus furcatus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 27, 1837 Patagonia= Carmen, lower Rio Negro (type in Paris 
Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 227, 1838 
part, Carmen, Patagonia; Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 85, 1839 
northern bank of the La Plata; Sclater, Ibis, 1878, p. 364 part, Con- 
chitas, Buenos Aires, and Patagonia (crit.); Doering, in Roca, Inf. Of. 
Exp. Rio Negro, Zool., p. 37, 1881 Rio Azul, Carhue, Nueva Roma, 
etc., southern Buenos Aires; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cor- 
doba, 5, p. 80, 1884 Tandil, Prov. Buenos Aires; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 10, p. 605, 1885 part, from Patagonia to the La Plata; 
Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 19, 1888 Conchitas, Prov. Buenos 
Aires; Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, 
p. 398, 1890 Cordoba; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, 
p. 367, 1910 (range); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 87 Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos 
Aires (habits, breeding); Bertoni, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 17, p. 220, 1917 
Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay; idem, Faun. Parag., p. 60, 1914 Puerto 
Bertoni; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 379 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires 
(eggs descr.); Daguerre, El Hornero, 2, p. 270, 1922 Rosas, Buenos 
Aires; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 171, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Niedfeld, 
I.e., p. 189, 1923 Santa Fe; Wilson, I.e., p. 360, 1926 General Lopez, 
Santa Fe. 

1 This appears to be the earliest certain name for this species, which is easily 
recognizable among its affines by the stout, basally widened bill, and the short, 
strongly curved hind claw. There is a possibility that Anthus chii Vieillot (Nouv. 
Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 26, p. 490, 1818), based on "Chii" Azara, No. 146, 
might apply to the present species, as Azara's note on its song would seem to 
indicate. However, his description of the bird is so ambiguous that it is deemed 
best to drop the name altogether as unidentifiable. Bertoni (Rev. Chil. Hist. 
Nat., 17, p. 219, 1913) claims to have rediscovered at Asuncion and "in the southern 
region explored by Noceda" Azara's species, which, he adds, is probably of very 
limited distribution and unknown to European ornithologists. Judging from 
his remarks and measurements (wing, 62; tail, 47), I am inclined to believe that 
he had in hand worn specimens of A. I. lutescens. Anthus turdinus Merrem (in 
Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss., 4, p. 290, 1820) is another name exclusively 
based on "Chii" Azara, and cannot be used for any other species. 

It remains to say a few words on the much disputed "Variole" of Buffon (Hist. 
Nat. Ois., 5, p. 63) and "Petite Alouette, de Buenos Ayres" of Daubenton (PI. Enl., 
pi. 738, fig. 1). Both were based on Commerson's drawing of a bird from the vicinity 
of Buenos Aires, and no type exists. The figure is so poor that Ridgway (Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 22 [footnote a], 1904) even suggested it might 
represent a young shorelark, and every attempt at its identification seems futile. 
The various names bestowed on it, a list of which is given below, must consequently 
be disregarded as unidentifiable. 

Alauda rufa (not Alauda rufa Gmelin, p. 792) Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), 

p. 798, 1789 based on "La Variole" Buffon and "Petite Alouette, de 

Buenos Ayres" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 738, fig. 1. 
Alauda bonariensis Bonnaterre, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., 1, p. 317, 1792 

based on "La Variole" Buffon. 
Alauda variolata Suckow, Anfangsgr. Naturg. Thiere, 2, (2), p. 717, 1801 

based on "La Variole" Buffon and Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 738, fig. 1. 
Anthus variegatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 26, p. 499, 1818 

based on the same references. 



88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Anthus furcatus furcatus Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 165, pi. 2, 
figs. 13-16 (eggs), 1909 part, Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires; Hellmayr, 
El Hornero, 2, p. 181, 1921 Santa F6 (Ocampo), Buenos Aires, and 
Rio Negro (monog.); idem, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 224, 1923 Patagonia 
(crit. note on type); Peters, El Hornero, 3, p. 197, 1923 Tunuyan, 
Mendoza; idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 329, 1923 Huanuluan, 
western Rio Negro; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 655, 
1924 Prov. Buenos Aires to Patagonia; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 133, p. 360, 1926 Uruguay (Rio Negro, Banado de la India 
Muerta, south of Lazcano, San Vicente), Argentina (Berazategui, fifteen 
miles south of Cape Antonio, Carhue, Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires; 
Victorica, Pampa), and Brazil (Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul) (habits, 
nest and eggs); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., 
Vogel, p. 302, 1930 Estancia La Germania, Santa F6. 

Anthus variegatus (not of Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, 
in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 26, 1837 "avis junior," part, La Plata. 

Anthus correndera (not of Vieillot) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 
1868, p. 139 Conchitas, Buenos Aires (part; spec, examined in British 
Museum and Berlepsch Collection); Hudson, I.e., 1873, p. 771 Buenos 
Aires (in part; habits); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 32 part, Flores, Buenos 
Aires (spec, in British Museum examined); idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 168 
Buenos Aires (in part); White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 594 
Flores, Buenos Aires (spec, in Berlepsch Collection examined); Holland, 
Ibis, 1890, p. 425 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos Aires; idem, Ibis, 1892, 
p. 195 Estancia Espartillar (spec, in British Museum examined) ; Aplin, 
Ibis, 1894, p. 163, pi. 5, fig. 1 Uruguay (song, nest, and eggs descr.; 
spec, in British Museum examined). 

Anthus rufus (not Alauda rufa Gmelin) Durnford, Ibis, 1876, p. 158 Buenos 
Aires (in part). 

Range. Northern Argentina, south to the Rio Negro; Paraguay; 
Uruguay; and extreme southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). 1 

33: Argentina (La Independencia, Las Rosas, Prov. Santa FC", 1; 
Torrecita, Prov. Buenos Aires, 1; Concepcion, Tucumdn, 31). 

*Anthus furcatus brevirostris Taczanowski. 2 SHORT-BILLED 
PIPIT. 

1 Birds from Concepcion, Tucuman, when compared with others in correspond- 
ing plumage from Buenos Aires prove to be inseparable, though a few have as much 
white in the tail as A. /. brevirostris. 

Additional material examined. Argentina, Santa F6: Ocampo, 1. Buenos 
Aires: Barracas al Sud, 7; Conchitas (H. W. Hudson), 2; San Jos6 de Flores (H. 
Durnford and E. W. White), 4; La Plata (E. W. White), 1; Avellaneda, 2; Buenos 
Aires, 4; Estancia Espartillar (adult female, worn breeding; A. H. Holland), 1; 
Carmen, Rio Negro, 1 (the type). Uruguay: Colonia (Campbell), 1; Santa Elena 
(O. V. Aplin), 5. 

'Anthus furcatus brevirostris Taczanowski: Similar to A. f. furcatus, but 
upper parts much more rufescent, tawny olive rather than buffy drab, passing 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 89 

Anthus brevirostris Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 507 Junln, 
Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. 
Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 166, 1927). 

Anthus variegatus (not Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in 
Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 26, 1837 "avis junior," part, Cochabamba, 
Bolivia. 

Anthus furcatus (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame'r. 
M6rid., Ois., p. 227, 1838 part, Cochabamba, Bolivia; Sclater, Ibis, 
1878, p. 364 part, Peru and Bolivia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 593 Cochabamba (ex d'Orbigny); Taczanowski, 
Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 459, 1884 Junfn, Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
10, p. 605, 1885 part, Bolivia and Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
Ornis, 13, p. 126, 1906 Puno, Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
117, p. 108, 1921 Ttica-tica, Cuzco, and Tirapata, Puno, Peru. 

Anthus furcatus furcatus Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 165, 1909 
part, Valle Grande, Bolivia. 

Anthus furcatus brevirostris Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 330 Ingapirca, Junin, Peru (crit.); Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, 
p. 182, 1921 Peru and Bolivia (crit.); idem, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 223, 1923 
Cochabamba, Bolivia (crit.); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 17, p. 413, 1930 Huanuco Viejo, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Puna zone of Peru (in depts. of Huanuco, Junin, Cuzco, 
and Puno) and Bolivia. 1 

6: Peru (Huanuco Viejo, Huanuco, 2; Puno, Puno, 4). 

*Anthus lutescens lutescens Pucheran. YELLOWISH PIPIT. 

Anthus lutescens (Cuvier MS.) 2 Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, 
p. 343, 1855 "Bresil"= vicinity of Rio de Janeiro (type in Paris Museum 
examined); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 114, 1885 
Taquara do Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio 
Grande do Sul, 16, p. 116, 1899 Mundo Novo; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
3, p. 132, 1899 IguapS, Sao Paulo; Ihering, I.e., 4, pp. 152, 202, 1900 
Nova Friburgo, Rio (nest); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 307, 1906 (crit. 

into clay color on the lower back and rump; chest and sides deeper buff; white 
area on external rectrices slightly more extensive; size somewhat larger. 

Mr. Zimmer cast doubts on the validity of this race, but all the specimens 
in Field Museum except one happen to be in worn plumage, when the subspecific 
characters are obliterated through abrasion. With an ample series of freshly 
molted birds from Peru and Bolivia I have no difficulty in distinguishing A. f. 
brevirostris from its southern ally. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Ingapirca, Junin, 2; Anta, Cuzco, 11. 
Bolivia: Vacas, 1; Valle Grande, 5; Cochabamba, 2. 

1 Anthus sp. inc. Sclater (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1886, p. 397 Sacaya, Cordil- 
lera of Tarapaca, northern Chile) may possibly belong to A. f. brevirostris. Ambrose 
Lane obtained a single young male, which Sclater thought to be nearest to A. 
furcatus. Unfortunately, this specimen cannot now be found in the collection of 
the British Museum. 

* Anthus lutescens ("Cuvier") Lesson (Traite" d'Orn., p. 424, 1831) is a nomen 
nudum. 



90 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

note on type); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 330, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Iguape, Cachoeira, Sao Sebastiao, Barretos, Bebedouro), Matto Grosso 
(Porto da Faya), and Espirito Santo (Rio Doce); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 
614 Sapucay, Paraguay; Bertoni, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 17, p. 220, 
1913 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
65, p. 208, 1913 La Pedrita, Uracoa, Delta Amacuro, Venezuela; Sneth- 
lage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 473, 1914 Para, Benevides, Quati-Puru, 
Marajo (Chaves, Pacoval, Pindobal), Cussary, and Rio Maecuru, Brazil; 
SeriS and Smyth, El Hornero, 3, p. 52, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 Sao 
Bento, Maranhao; Smyth, El Hornero, 4, p. 144, 1928 Cacharl, Buenos 
Aires (eggs descr.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 173, 1928 
Para, Brazil. 

Anthus lutescens lutescens Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 307, 1906 Brazil 
(from Para to Sao Paulo), west to Corrientes and Tucuman; Hartert 
and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 164, pi. 2, figs. 8-12 (eggs), 1909 Barracas al 
Sud, Buenos Aires (nesting habits, eggs); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 367, 1910 Tucuman and Barracas al Sud; Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 99, 118, 123, 
1912 Mexiana and Marajo, Brazil (crit.); idem, El Hornero, 2, p. 183, 
1921 (range, crit., meas.); idem, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 223, 1923 Corrientes 
and Rio de Janeiro; idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 267, 
1929 Maranhao (Sao Bento, Mangunca Island); Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturwiss. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 172, 1925 Rio Parnahyba and 
Amaragao, Piauhy; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 363, 1926 
Chaco (Las Palmas), Formosa (Riacho Pilaga), and Paraguay (Puerto 
Pinasco); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 214, 1927 Con- 
cepcion, Tucuman; Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 33, 1927 San Rafael, 
Mendoza; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, 
p. 302, 1930 Estancia La Germania, Santa F6; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 60, p. 341, 1930 Matto Grosso; Chapman, I.e., 63, p. 118, 
1931 Roraima (Paulo and Arabupu). 

Anthus lulescens subsp. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 307, 1906 British 
Guiana (Roraima, Rio Rupununi, Annai) and Colombia (Bogota); 
Berlepsch, I.e., 15, p. 109, 1908 Cayenne, French Guiana. 

Anthus (Alauda) chii (not of Vieillot) Spix, Av. Bras., 1, p. 75, pis. 76-77, 
fig. 2, 1824 Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia; Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. 
Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 625, 1906 (crit.). 

Anthus chii Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 631, 1830 southern Brazil; 
Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 26, 
1837 Corrientes; d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 225, 1838 
Banda Oriental (Maldonado, Montevideo), La Plata, and Corrientes; 
Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 85, 1839 part, Rio de Janeiro; 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 24, 1862 Mexiana and southern Brazil; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 569 Mexiana (spec, 
examined); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 69, 1868 Rio de Janeiro (spec, 
examined); (?) Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, 
p. 446 Minas Geraes (Lag6a dos Porcos, near Paracatu; Sete Lagoas). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 91 

Anthus rufus (not Alauda rufa Gmelin) Burmeister, Syst. Ueber. Th. Bras., 
3, p. 118, 1856 Nova Friburgo; (?) Sternberg, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 268, 
1869 Buenos Aires (nesting habits); (?) Holtz, I.e., 18, p. 9, 1870 (egg 
descr.); Sclater, Ibis, 1878, p. 360 part, Brazil (Rio, Bahia, Mexiana) and 
Guiana, "Trinidad"; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1884, p. 432 Angostura, Orinoco 
River, Venezuela (spec, examined); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 202 Merume" 
Mountains and Roraima, British Guiana; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
10, p. 606, 1885 part, Rio Grande do Sul (Pelotas), Rio de Janeiro, 
Pernambuco, Mexiana, MerumS Mountains, and Roraima; Riker and 
Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 266, 1890 Diamantina, Santare'm; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 344, 1891 Corumba, Matto Grosso; Salvador!, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 3, 1900 Matto Grosso; Lillo, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 173, 1902 Rio Sali, Tucuman; 
idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 40, 1905 Rio Sali; Reiser, Denks. 
Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 79, 1910 Bahia (Sam- 
baiba, Rio Sao Francisco) and Piauhy (Queimadas, Rio Parnahyba, and 
coast strip) ; Penard and Penard, Voy. Guyana, 2, p. 491, 1910 Surinam. 

Notiocorys abariensis Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 41, p. 79, 1921 Abary 
River, British Guiana (type in McConnell Collection, now in British 
Museum, examined); idem, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 420, 1921 Abary 
River, Roraima, and Merume Mountains; Young, Ibis, 1929, p. 241 
Blairmont and Abary River (habits, song). 

Range. Northern Argentina east of the Andes, south to Mendoza, 
Santa F6, Corrientes, and Buenos Aires; Uruguay; Paraguay; eastern 
Bolivia; the greater part of Brazil, locally in the Amazon Valley; 
Guianas and Venezuela (locally in the Orinoco basin), west apparently 
to the llanos of the Rio Meta, eastern Colombia. 1 

1 Further subdivision of this form seems impracticable. Birds from Bolivia 
and Tucuman are on average more deeply yellowish below, with heavier dusky 
markings on chest and sides, and somewhat darker, less brownish on the upper 
parts, when compared with Brazilian skins. The two series being, however, not 
quite comparable as to season, more comprehensive material of this notoriously 
variable group should be studied before any formal separation is proposed. Birds 
from the Guianas and the adjacent parts of Brazil (B6a Vista and Serra da Lua, 
Rio Branco), a single specimen from the Orinoco ( Angostura =Ciudad Bolivar), 
and a skin of the well-known "Bogota" preparation, while identical with those 
from eastern Brazil in coloration of upper parts and markings of lower surface, 
differ nevertheless by the reduction of the dusky inner margin on the two lateral 
rectrices, the outermost feather being almost entirely white as in A. I. parous. 
Numerous individuals, however, can hardly be told apart, and the propriety of 
maintaining A. I. abariensis on such a slight divergency seems extremely question- 
able. Specimens from Roraima and Merum6 Mountains have, as a rule, larger 
bills, but I have failed to discern any difference in coloration that is not attributable 
to season. Chubb 's description of N. abariensis is fairly confused and, in several 
points, at variance with the characters of the marked type. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, 8; Taquara, Rio 
Grande do Sul, 2; Bahia, 12; Island of Sambaiba, Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, 2; 
Queimadas, Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy, 1; Amaracao, Piauhy, 9; Mexiana, 2; Marajo, 
5. Paraguay: Villa Rica, 1. Bolivia: Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1. Argentina: 
Corrientes, 1; Tucuman, 3. French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. British Guiana: 
Roraima, 11; Merume Mountains, 1; Annai, 3; Rio Rupununi, 2; Abary River, 
5. Venezuela: Angostura, 1. Colombia: "Bogota," 1. 



92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

31: Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 13); Bolivia (Buenavista, 
Santa Cruz, 2; Todos Santos, 3); Brazil (Bahia, 1; Sao Marcello, 
Rio Preto, Bahia, 1; Sao Bento, Maranhao, 2; Mangunca Island, 
Maranhao, 1; Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 7; Serra da Lua, near Boa 
Vista, Rio Branco, 1). 

*Anthus lutescens parvus Lawrence. 1 PANAMA PIPIT. 

Anthus (Notiocorys) parvus Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 17, p. 106, 
June, 1865 savannah near Panama City (type in coll. of Geo. N. 
Lawrence, now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Anthus rufus (not Alauda rufa Gmelin) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 

N. Y., 7, p. 322, 1862 savannahs near Panama City; Baird, Rev. Amer. 

Bds., 1, p. 156, 1864 Panama (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 346 Panama (ex Lawrence); Sclater, Ibis, 1878, p. 

360 part, Panama (crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 

Aves, 1, p. 108, 1880 part, Panama (Santa F6 and Panama Railroad); 

Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 606, 1885 part, Panama and Veragua 

(Santa F6). 
Anthus parvus Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 135 Santa F6, Veragua 

(crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 22, 1904 Isthmus 

of Panama (Panama City), Chiriqul (Divala), and Veragua (Santa Fe); 

Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 220, 1906 savannah 

of Panama. 

Anthus rufus parvus Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 368, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui. 
Anthus lutescens parvus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 307, 1906 Panama, 

Veragua, and Chiriqul (crit.); idem, El Hornero, 2, p. 184, 1921 Panama 

(diag.). 

Range. Panama, from the Isthmus (Panama City, Balboa) west 
to Chiriqui (Divala, Frances). 
2: Panama (Balboa, 2). 

*Anthus lutescens peruvianus Nicholson. 2 PERUVIAN PIPIT. 

1 Anthus lutescens parvus Lawrence: Differs from A. I. lutescens by darker, 
brownish rather than buffy chest with heavier dusky markings; distinct dusky 
streaks on the flanks; the reduction of the dusky inner margin on the lateral 
rectrices, which is nearly evanescent on the outermost pair; darker brown edges 
to the upper parts, etc. 

Additional material examined. Panama: savannah near Panama, 3; Frances 
(alt. 2,000 ft.), Chiriqui, 6; "Chiriqui," 2. 

1 Anthus lutescens peruvianus Nicholson: Similar to A. I. lutescens, but on 
average larger; upper parts with broader as well as more whitish edges to the 
lateral interscapulars and paler markings to the wing coverts; ventral surface 
whiter, with paler, if any, buffy suffusion across chest and along flanks; dusky 
margin to inner web of lateral rectrices much reduced in extent, even more so than 
in A. I. parvus. 

Birds from northern Chile agree with a Peruvian series. This form appears 
to be restricted to the arid Tropical zone. The localities "Tinta" and "Arequipa," 
as recorded by Sclater, Salvin, and Sharpe, are erroneous. There is no specimen 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 93 

Anthus peruvianus Nicholson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 390 Catarindos 
Valley and Islay, Dept. Arequipa, southern Peru (type, from Catarindos 
Valley [near Islay], in British Museum examined); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 10, p. 609, 1885 Catarindos Valley, Islay, "Tinta" (errore), 
and Lima, Peru, Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, 
p. 374 Lima. 

Anthus chii (not of Vieillot) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 283, 1844 
Peru; idem, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 191, 1846 Peru; Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 506 Lima (habits). 

Anthus sp. (?) Nation, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 97 near Lima (spec, 
examined). 

Anthus rufus (not Alauda rufa Gmelin) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 984 Islay; idem, I.e., 1868, p. 173 Tambo River, thirty 
miles south of Islay; idem, I.e., 1868, pp. 568, 569 "Arequipa"; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1878, p. 360 part, Peru (Lima, Islay, "Arequipa"); Taczanowski, 
Orn. P6r., 1, p. 460, 1884 Lima (eggs descr.). 

Anthus lutescens peruvianus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 307, 1906 coast 
region of Peru from Trujillo to Islay; idem, El Hornero, 2, p. 184, 1921 
littoral of Peru (crit.); idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 44, 
1932 Chacalluta, Tacna, Chile (crit.). 

Range. Littoral of extreme northern Chile (Tacna Province) 
and Peru north to Trujillo. 

5: Chile (Chacalluta, Tacna, 5). 

Anthus correndera calcaratus Taczanowski. 1 TACZANOWSKI'S 
PIPIT. 

Anthus calcaratus Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., Nov., 1874, p. 507, 
pub. 1875 Junln, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and 
Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 167, 1927); Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, I.e., 1896, p. 330 Ingapirca, Junin; idem, Ornis, 13, 
p. 126, 1906 Puno, Peru. 

Anthus correndera (not of Vieillot) Sclater, Ibis, 1878, p. 362 part, Peru; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 458, 1884 Junin; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 10, p. 610, 1885 part, Peru. 

from either of these places in the British Museum, and I suppose they both refer 
to a male collected on October 25, 1867, in the Tambo Valley, preserved in that 
collection. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Trujillo, 7; Lima, 5; Catarindos Valley, 
1 (the type); Islay, 2; Tambo Valley, 1. 

1 Anthus correndera calcaratus Taczanowski: Nearest to A. c. chilensis, but 
coloration much more fulvous throughout, this being particularly noticeable on 
the edges to the feathers of the dorsal plumage, on the rump, and on the chest; 
light area on the lateral rectrices more extensive and more purely white, the dusky 
inner margin on the outermost pair being restricted to the extreme base and 
wholly concealed by the under tail coverts; bill longer and slenderer. Wing, 
76-78, (female) 74-76; tail, 54-57; bill, 13-14. 

Material examined. Peru: Ingapirca, Junin, 3; Anta, Cuzco, 2. 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Anthus correndera calcaratus Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 187, 1921 Ingapirca 
(Junin), Anta (Cuzco), and Puno, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Puna zone of Peru, from Junin to Cuzco and Puno. 
*Anthus correndera catamarcae Hellmayr. 1 CATAMARCA PIPIT. 

Anthus correndera catamarcae Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 186, 1921 Lago 
Colorado (alt. 3,400 meters), Catamarca, Argentina (type in Munich 
Museum); idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 42, 1332 
Calama, Rio Loa, Ojo de San Pedro, and twenty miles east of San Pedro, 
Antofagasta, Chile (crit.). 

Anthus chii (not of Vieillot) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 Antofagasta. 

Anthus calcaratus (not of Taczanowski) Berlepsch and Leverkiihn, Ornis, 
6, p. 8, 1890 Calama, Antofagasta (crit.; spec, examined). 

Range. Puna zone of northern Chile (Antofagasta) and extreme 
northwestern Argentina (Los Andes and Catamarca). 

10: Chile, Antofagasta (Rio Loa, 6; Ojo de San Pedro, 1; twenty 
miles east of San Pedro, 3). 2 

*Anthus correndera chilensis (Lesson). 3 CHILEAN PIPIT. 

Corydalla chilensis Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 101, 1839 Chile (type in Abeille 
Collection, Bordeaux); idem, Oeuvr. Compl. Buff on, ed. Leveque, 20, 
[=Descr. Mamm. et Ois.], p. 298, 1847 Chile (full descr.); Des Murs, 
in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 325, 1847 Chile (ex Lesson). 

Anthus chii (not of Vieillot) Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, 1, pp. 163, 178, 1858 
Lagunilla Valley and Quillota, Valparaiso, Chile. 

Anthus furcatus (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Pelzeln, Reise Novara, 
Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 69, 1865 Chile (spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 

1 Anthus correndera catamarcae Hellmayr: Very similar to A. c. calcaratus in 
coloration except for the slightly paler, not quite so deeply ochraceous upper parts 
and chest, but decidedly larger. Wing, 79-83, (female) 77-79; tail, 58-63, (female) 
57-59; bill, 12^-14. 

Additional material examined. Chile: Calama, Antofagasta, 1. Argentina: 
Lago Colorado, Catamarca, 3; Lago Blanco, Catamarca, 1; Antofagasta, Los 
Andes, 1. 

1 A specimen in Field Museum received from Juan Mogensen is marked "Rio 
Gallegos, Patagonia, Nov. 20, 1914," doubtless owing to an accidental transposi- 
tion of the label. 

1 Anthus correndera chilensis (Lesson): Very similar to A. c. correndera, but 
general coloration more buffy. Specimens from the Straits of Magellan (Punta 
Arenas) and extreme southern Patagonia (Rio Gallegos) are precisely like the 
Chilean ones. According to Wetmore (1926, p. 456), breeding birds from western 
Santa Cruz (Lago San Martin), while showing a certain tendency toward correndera, 
are nearest to the present form. 

Additional material examined. Chile: Oyalle, Coquimbo, 1; Santiago, 4; 
Tumbes, Conception, 1; Valdivia, 2; unspecified, 6; Punta Arenas, Straits of 
Magellan, 2. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 95 

Anthus correndera (not of Vieillot) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 85, 1839 
part, Chile; Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 112, 1843 Chile; Des 
Mure, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 323, 1847 Chile; Frauen- 
feld, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 10, Abhandl., p. 636, 1860 near Santiago; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 321, 337 Chile; Philippi, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 31, p. 258, 1868 Chile; Reed, I.e., 49, p. 542, 1877 Cau- 
quenes, Colchagua; Landbeck, Zool. Gart., 18, p. 244, 1877 Chile; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1878, p. 362 part, Chile; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 419 Coquimbo, Chile; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 610, 
1885 part, Chile; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 131, 1889 
Gregory Bay and Point Elizabeth, Straits of Magellan; C. Burmeister, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 3, p. 317, 1890 Rio Chico de Santa Cruz 
and Camp Chonquek-ai'k, southern Patagonia; Oustalet, Miss. Scient. 
Cap Horn, 6, p.B. 77, 1891 Punta Arenas and Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego; 
Waugh and Lataste, Act. Soc. Scient. Chili, 4, p. LXXXV, 1894 Penaflor, 
Santiago; idem, I.e., 4, p. CLXXI, 1895 San Alfonso, Quillota; Reed, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 199, 1896 Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 
4, p. 728, 1898 Tumbes (Talcaguano) and Punta Arenas, Chile; Albert, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 101, p. 934, 1898 Chile (monog.); Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 360, 1902 Tierra del Fuego; Crawshay, 
Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 45, 1907 Useless Bay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 367, 1910 part, Tierra del Fuego; Barros, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 187, 1921 Los Andes, Aconcagua, Chile; Housse, 
I.e., 29, p. 145, 1925 San Bernardo, Santiago; idem, I.e., p. 226, 1925 
Isla La Mocha, Chile; Barros, I.e., 30, p. 142, 1926 Nilahue, Curico; 
Bullock, I.e., 33, p. 185, 1929 Angol, Malleco; Barros, I.e., p. 362, 1929 
Aconcagua. 

Anthus correndera correndera Stone, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patag., 2, p. 827, 
1928 Rio Coy, Mount Tigre, and Cape Fairweather, Patagonia. 

Anthus correndera chilensis Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 186, 1921 Chile 
(crit.); Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 475, 1922 Coronel, Chile (nest and 
eggs); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 363, 1926 near Concon, 
Valparaiso (crit.); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 456, 1926 Lago 
San Martin, Santa Cruz, Patagonia (crit.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 40, 1932 Chile, from Atacama to the Straits of 
Magellan (crit.). 

Range. Chile, from the Copiapo Valley, Atacama, south to the 
Straits of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego, and extreme southern 
Patagonia, north to about latitude 48 south (Lago San Martin 
and Rio Chico, Dept. Santa Cruz). 

26: Chile (Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, Atacama, 3; Romero, 
Coquimbo, 6; Batuco, Santiago, 1; Conception, 6; Lake Gualletue", 
Cautin, 7; Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, Llanquihue, 1); Argentina 
(Rio Gallegos, Patagonia, 2). 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Anthus correndera grayi Bonaparte. 1 FALKLAND PIPIT. 

Anthus grayi Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 249, 1850 based on Alauda 
novae zealandiae, var. /3, of Latham (Ind. Orn., 2, p. 497, 1790), which, 
in its turn, is based on "Cinereous Lark" [of the Falkland Islands] Port- 
lock, Voy. round the World, 1789, pi. facing p. 38; "Oceania" = near Port 
Egmont, Falkland Islands; Mathews and Iredale, Austr. Av. Rec., 4, 
p. 150, 1921.* 

Anthus phillipsi Brooks, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 6, p. 26, June, 1916 
Port Stanley, East Falkland Island (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 159, 
1917 Falkland Islands. 

Anthus correndera (not of Vieillot) Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 85, 
1839 part, Falkland Islands; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 95, 1859 
Falkland Islands; Sclater, I.e., 28, p. 384, 1860 Falkland Islands; 
Abbott, Ibis, 1861, p. 153 East Falkland (habits); Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 24, 1862 Falkland Islands; idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 362 part, 
Falkland Islands; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 610, 1885 
part, Falkland Islands; C. Burmeister, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 3, 
p. 244, 1888 part, Islas Malvinas; Dabbene, I.e., 8, p. 360, 1902 part, 
Islas Malvinas; Vallentin, in Boyson, The Falkland Islands, p. 333, 1924 
(nest and eggs descr.). 

Anthus antarcticus (not of Cabanis) Vallentin, Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. 
Philos. Soc., 48, No. 23, p. 42, 1904 Falkland Islands. 

Anthus correndera phillipsi Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 186, 1921 Malouines 
(crit.); Wace, I.e., p. 204, 1921 Falkland Islands; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, 
p. 332 Falkland Islands. 

Anthus correndera grayi Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 
41, 1932 (crit.). 

Range. Falkland Islands. 

2: West Falkland Island (Port Stephens, 2). 

*Anthus correndera correndera Vieillot. CORRENDERA PIPIT. 

Anthus correndera Vieillot, 3 Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 26, p. 491, 
1818 based on "La Correndera" Azara, No. 145; "Paraguay" down 

1 Anthus correndera grayi Bonaparte: Nearest to A. c. chilensis, but slightly 
larger with stronger bill and smaller dusky pectoral markings. Wing, 79-82; 
tail, 60-64; tars., 22-24; bill, 12-13. 

Additional specimens examined. West Falkland: Port Stephens, 3. "Falk- 
land Islands," 5. 

2 The pertinence of the Falkland Islands "variety" of Portlock's "Cinereous 
Lark" to the Pipit was first pointed out by Mathews and Iredale, although the 
wording of their explanation is hardly intelligible. 

a Azara's account of "La Correndera" is by no means clear and has been 
referred to A. nattereri by Bertoni (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 17, p. 218, 1913). Still, 
various details in his description, taken in conjunction with the habitat, which 
is said to extend to the La Plata River, where Natterer's Pipit is not known to 
occur, point rather to the species we are accustomed to call by Vieillot's name. 
I do not think there is any necessity for making a change in current nomenclature. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 97 

to the Rio de La Plata; d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Mend., Ois., p. 225, 1838 
Buenos Aires to Patagonia; Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 85, 1839 part, 
La Plata; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 139 
Conchitas, Buenos Aires (in part); Sclater, I.e., 1872, p. 548 Rio Negro; 
Hudson, I.e., 1873, p. 771 Buenos Aires (in part; habits); Durnford, Ibis, 

1877, p. 32 Chubut Valley, Patagonia, and Punta Lara, Buenos Aires 
(in part); 1 idem, Ibis, 1877, p. 168 Buenos Aires, up the Parana to 
Baradero (in part); idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 392 Chubut Valley; Sclater, Ibis, 

1878, p. 362 part, Argentina and Uruguay; Doering, in Roca, Inf. Of. Exp. 
Rio Negro, Zool., p. 37, 1881 Rio Azul, Rio Negro; (?) Barrows, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. CL, 8, p. 87, 1883 Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios; 
(?) Dalgleish, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., 8, p. 81, 1884 Tala, south 
bank of Rio Negro, Uruguay (nest and eggs descr.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 10, p. 610, 1885 part, Mendoza, Rio Negro, Maldonado, 
and Buenos Aires; (?) Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 277 Paysandu, Uruguay; 
Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 17, 1888 Argentina (habits) ; Stempel- 
mann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 398, 1890 
Cordoba; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 117, 1899 Rio 
Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, "1901," p. 264, 1902 Iguap6, 
Sao Paulo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 330, 1907 part, Brazil 
(Iguape, Sao Paulo; Nova Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul) and Argentina 
(Buenos Aires); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 164, pi. 2, figs. 
17-19 (eggs), 1909 part, Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, and Sao 
Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 367, 
1910 (range, excl. Tierra del Fuego) ; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 86 Los Yngleses, 
Ajo, Buenos Aires (breeding); Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 396, 1916 La Plata; 
Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 378 Cape San Antonio (eggs descr.); Marelli, 
El Hornero, 1, p. 79, 1918 Curuzu Cuatia, Corrientes; Sanzin, I.e., p. 
151, 1918 Alto Verde and Los Arboles, Mendoza; (?) Tremoleras, I.e., 
2, p. 22, 1920 Uruguay (Montevideo, Canelones, San Jose, Florida, 
Maldonado); Daguerre, I.e., p. 270, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Serie 
and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 52, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 
p. 170, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Niedfeld, I.e., p. 189, 1923 Santa 
Fe; Wilson, I.e., p. 360, 1926 General Lopez, Santa Fe; Smyth, I.e., 4, 
p. 143, 1928 Cachari, Buenos Aires (eggs descr.). 

Anthus correndera correndera Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 185, 1921 Argen- 
tina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil (monog.); idem, Nov. Zool., 30, p r 223, 
1923 Buenos Aires; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 329, 1923 
Huanuluan, western Rio Negro; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922- 
23, p. 655, 1924 (range, excl. Chile); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
133, p. 361, 1926 Uruguay (San Vicente), Buenos Aires (Dolores, Lavalle, 
Guamini), Neuquen (Zapala), and Tunuyan, Mendoza (crit., habits); 
idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 456, 1926 Paja Alta, Rio Negro 
(crit.); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 303, 
1930 Estancia La Germania, Santa Fe. 

1 Durnford did not distinguish between this species and A. f. furcatus. A 
specimen in the British Museum collected by him on September 27, 1875, at 
Flores, Buenos Aires, pertains to the latter. 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Anthus variegatus (not of Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, 
in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 26, 1837 part, Buenos Aires (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Anthus rufus (not Alauda rufa Gmelin) (?) Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 
252, 1860 Parand and Mendoza; (?) idem, Reise La Plata Staaten, 

2, p. 474, 1861 Mendoza, Parana, and Montevideo; Durnford, Ibis, 1876, 
p. 158 Buenos Aires (in part). 

Anthus correndera chilensis (not Corydalla chilensis Lesson) Pereyra, El 
Hornero, 4, p. 33, 1927 San Rafael, Mendoza. 

Range. Northern half of Argentina, south to the Chubut 
River; Uruguay; southern Brazil, from Rio Grande do Sul north to 
Sao Paulo (Iguape*, Sao Sebastiao). 1 

19: Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 19). 

Anthus antarcticus Cabanis. 2 SOUTH GEORGIAN PIPIT. 

Anthus antarcticus Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 254, 1884 South Georgia 
(type in Berlin Museum); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 604, 1885 
South Georgia; Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Wiss. Anst. Hamburg, 2, p. 10, 
pi., figs. 1, 2 (adult and egg), 1885 South Georgia (crit., nest and eggs); 
Lonnberg, Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 40, No. 5, p. 54, 1906 Moraine 
Fjord and West Fjord, Cumberland Bay (habits); Murphy, El Hornero, 

3, p. 56, 1923 South Georgia (habits); Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 332 South 
Georgia. 

Range. Island of South Georgia. 
Anthus nattereri Sclater. 3 NATTERER'S PIPIT. 

1 Specimens from southern Brazil are identical with an Argentinean series. 
An adult female from Chacabuco, Neuquen, taken on the nest with three eggs 
on November 14, 1907, also agrees in every respect with others in corresponding 
plumage from Buenos Aires. Birds from Conception, Tucuman, all except two 
(that were shot in June) obtained in August, appear to be likewise inseparable. 
They are smaller, with shorter bills, and less fulvescent throughout, and have 
considerably less white on the lateral rectrices than A. c. catamarcae, though one 
or two individuals exhibit a certain tendency towards this form. 

Additional specimens examined. Argentina: Buenos Aires, 7; La Plata, 2 
(females, Nov. 6 and 15, 1882. E. W. White); Barracas al Sud, 6; Chacabuco, 
Neuquen, 1 (breeding female with nest and eggs). Brazil: Sao Lourenco, Rio 
Grande do Sul, 1; Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, 1; Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo, 5. 

2 Anthus antarcticus Cabanis, a very distinct species, differs from all other 
South American pipits by its gigantic size, heavy feet and bill, as well as by the 
rich warm buff under parts, coarsely marked with blackish all over, excepting 
the throat and a small area in the anal region. 

Two specimens examined. 

3 Anthus nattereri Sclater, though resembling A. correndera in the excessively 
long, moderately curved hind claw, is a very distinct species, differing, as it does, 
by shorter wings, the absence of the buffy white interscapular stripe, and the 
peculiar shape of the rectrices. The upper parts are strongly fulvescent or ochra- 
ceous, more like A. c. catamarcae; the chest bright ochraceous, almost buff yellow, 
with dusky streaks, which are merely suggested on sides and flanks; the light 
areas on the lateral rectrices tinged with buffy or grayish buff. The tail feathers 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 99 

Anthus nattereri Sclater, Ibis, (4), 2, p. 366, pi. 10, 1878 Pescaria, Rio Verde, 
and ItararS, Sao Paulo (type, from Rio Verde, in collection of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum) ; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, 
p. 3, 1895 Paraguari, Paraguay; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do 
Sul, 16, p. 117, 1899 Sao Lourenco, Rio Grande do Sul (spec, examined); 
idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 133, 1899 Ypiranga, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 
4, p. 202, 1900 (nest and eggs descr.); idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 331, 
1907 Ypiranga and Itarare, Sao Paulo; Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, 
p. 188, 1921 southeastern Brazil and Paraguay (crit.); Sztolcman, Ann. 
Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 187, 1926 Invernadinha, Parana. 

Xanthocorys nattereri Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 619, 1885 Rio 
Verde, Sao Paulo (monog.). 

Anthus correndera (not of Vieillot) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 69, 1868 Rio 
Verde, Pescaria, and Itarar6, Sao Paulo (spec, examined). 

Anthus correndera correndera Bertoni, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 17, p. 218, 1913 
Paraguay, "Argentina (parte fronteriza)," and "Matto Grosso?" (crit.). 

Anthus correndera nattereri Bertoni, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 17, p. 219, 1913 
Paraguari, Paraguay (ex Salvadori); idem, Faun. Parag., p. 60, 1914 
Paraguari. 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, in states of Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, 
Rio Verde, Pescaria, Itarare"), Parana (Invernadinha, Monte Alegre), 
and Rio Grande do Sul (Sao Lourengo), and Paraguay (Paraguari). 

*Anthus hellmayri hellmayri Hartert. 1 HELLMAYR'S PIPIT. 

are attenuated on the apical third and distinctly acuminate. The lower mandible 
is yellow, with mere traces of a dusky tip. Wing, 72-74 Hi (female) 69-70; tail, 
63-65, (female) 58-65; bill, 12-13. 

The characters of this peculiar species have been explained at length in 
"El Hornero," 2, p. 188. 

Material examined. Brazil, Sao Paulo: Itarar6, 4; Ypanema, 1; Parana, 
Fazenda de Monte Alegre, 1; Sao Lourenco, Rio Grande do Sul, 1. 

1 Anthus hellmayri hellmayri Hartert, while agreeing with A. furcatus in the 
strongly curved hind claw and the absence of the buff y white longitudinal dorsal 
stripe, differs by having the chest and sides narrowly streaked instead of spotted 
with dusky, and the outermost rectrix only marked with a cuneate grayish buffy 
stripe, there being very rarely (in two out of twenty specimens) a suggestion of 
a small apical spot of the same color on the penultimate pair. It is, no doubt, 
quite distinct specifically, and in general appearance more like A. bogotensis 
shiptoni, from which it may, however, be distinguished by smaller size, slenderer 
bill, heavily streaked sides, and more extensively striped pectoral zone, the mark- 
ings being, besides, narrower and more elongated. J. Mogensen having obtained 
breeding specimens of both in December, 1924, at Las Pavas, A. h. hellmayri 
and A. bogotensis shiptoni clearly are specifically different. 

A. h. hellmayri breeds in the Puna zone of Tucuman. In addition to the 
specimens in Field Museum, I have examined an adult male in very worn breeding 
plumage shot by the late G. A. Baer in February, 1903, at Lagunita (alt. 13,000 
ft.). During the severe season this pipit descends to lower altitudes. 

Additional material examined. Tucuman: Lagunita, 1; Puerto Viejo, Norco, 
Vipos (alt. 4,000 ft.), 1; Rio Sali (alt. 1,800 ft.), 3. 



100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Anthus hellmayri Hartert, 1 Nov. Zool., 16, p. 165, 1909 Tucuman=Rio 
Sali, Prov. Tucuman (type in Tring Museum) ; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 
1, p. 244, 1913 Argentina; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 26, p. 168, 1919 
Tucuman. 

Anthus bogotensis (not of Sclater) Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos 
Aires, 8, p. 173, 1902 Agua de la Tipa (alt. 880 meters), Tucuman; 
idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 40, 1905 Agua de la Tipa; Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 367, 1910 Agua de la 
Tipa (ex Lillo). 

Anthus correndera (not of Vieillot) Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 214, 1904 Lagunita, 
Tucuman (spec, in Berlepsch Collection examined). 

Anthus hellmayri hellmayri Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 189, 1921 Norco, 
Vipos, Rio Sali, and Lagunita, Tucuman (monog.). 

Range. Northwestern Argentina, in Province of Tucuman 
(Lagunita, Las Pavas, Norco, Vipos, Rio Sali, Concepcion, etc.); 
(?) Bolivia. 

15: Argentina, Tucuman (Concepcion, 13; Las Pavas, 2). 
*Anthus hellmayri dabbenei Hellmayr. 2 DABBENE'S PIPIT. 

Anthus hellmayri dabbenei Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 191, 1921 Rio Traful, 
Neuquen, western Argentina (type in Senckenbergian Natural History 
Museum, Frankfort); Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 67, 1923 La Rioja; Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 43, 1932 Rio Lolen (Lonquimai 
Valley), Cautin, Chile, and Valle del Lago Blanco, western Chubut (crit.). 

Range. Breeds in western Chubut (Valle del Lago Blanco), 
western Neuquen (Rio Traful) (and doubtless other parts of western 
Argentina), and in the adjacent section of Chile (Lonquimai Valley, 
Cautin); winters in the provinces of Santa F6 (Las Rosas), La Rioja, 
and Tucuman (Concepcion). 

1 Although the Brazilian form, " Anthus chii" auct., was considered the same, 
Hartert's diagnosis was exclusively based on three examples from the vicinity of 
Tucuman City. 

1 Anthus hellmayri dabbenei Hellmayr: Similar to A. h. hellmayri, but light- 
colored apical area on lateral rectrices nearly pure white, at best with a faint 
buffy tinge. In opposition to what obtains in the typical form, the penultimate 
rectrix always shows a distinct white apical spot. Wing, 76-77, (female) 70-76; 
tail, 58-64; bill, 10-11. 

Breeding adults of this form we have seen from western Chubut (Valle del 
Lago Blanco, Nov. 6, 1900) and Neuquen (Rio Traful, Dec. 12, 1907), and a 
full-grown young bird was obtained by C. C. Sanborn on. February 11, 1924, 
at Rio Lolen, Lonquimai Valley, in the Chilean Province of Cautin. In winter, 
this pipit migrates northward and hibernates in the plains of Tucuman, where 
numerous specimens have been collected at Concepcion in May, June, and August. 
A male shot by Robin Kemp on October 18, 1916, at Las Rosas, Santa Fe, probably 
was on migration. 

Additional specimens examined, Argentina: Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut, 
1; Rio Traful, Neuquen, 1; Concepcion, Tucuman, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 101 

5: Argentina (Las Rosas, Santa F^, 1; Conception, 3); Chile 
(Rio Lolen, Lonquimai Valley, Cautin, 1). 

*Anthus hellmayri brasilianus Hellmayr. 1 BRAZILIAN PIPIT. 

Anthus hellmayri brasilianus Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 190, 1921 Campos 
do Itatiaya, "Rio de Janeiro," Brazil (type in Munich Museum); Holt, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 315, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya. 

Anthus chii (not of Vieillot) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 119, 
1856 Brazil (good descr.); Sclater, Ibis, 1878, p. 359 Curytiba, Parana 
(crit.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 608, 1885 Curytiba; Ihering, 
Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 116, 1899 Sao Lourengo, Rio Grande 
do Sul (spec, examined); idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 132, 1899 Ypi- 
ranga, Sao Paulo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 330, 1907 Espirito 
Santo (Santa Leopoldina), "Rio de Janeiro" (Itatiaya), Sao Paulo 
(Ypiranga), and "Buenos Aires"; Miranda Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. 
Rio de Janeiro, 13, p. 184, 1906 Morro dos Carneiros and Retiro do 
Ramos, Itatiaya; Liiderwaldt, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, p. 355, 1909 
Itatiaya; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 367, 1910 
part, Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires. 

Anthus rufus (?) (not Alauda rufa Gmelin) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 69, 
1868 Casa Pintada, Lanza, Campo Largo, and Curytiba, Parana 
(spec, examined). 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, from Espirito Santo (Santa Leo- 
poldina) and Sao Paulo (Serra do Itatiaya) south to Rio Grande do 
Sul; Uruguay; (?) Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud). 

1: Uruguay (Estancia El Corte, 15 km. north of San Carlos, Dept. 
Maldonado, 1). 

* Anthus bogotensis bogotensis Sclater. BOGOTA PIPIT. 

Anthus bogotensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 109, pi. 101, Aug., 
1855 Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia (type in collection of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum); idem, I.e., 26, p. 550, 1858 near Riobamba, 
Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 24, 1862 Bogota and Titiacun; 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 157, 1864 Ecuador (crit.); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 780 upper Paramo region, 
Merida, Venezuela; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 322 Paramos of eastern Andes 
[=Pamplona], Colombia; Sclater, Ibis, 1878, p. 358 part, Ecuador 
(Titiacun, Quito), Colombia (Bogota, Paramo de Pamplona), and Vene- 
zuela (Andes of Merida); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 603, 1885 

1 Anthus hellmayri brasilianus Hellmayr: Much like A. h. hellmayri, especially 
in the grayish buffy color of the tail markings, but smaller; the upper parts decidedly 
buffy brownish, less grayish; the lower parts more evenly washed with buffy, not 
whitish on the abdomen; the penultimate rectrix always with a grayish buffy 
apical spot. Wing, 72-75, (female) 66-71; tail, 54-62; bill, 11-12. 

Additional material examined. Sao Paulo: Itatiaya, 2; Ypiranga, 1; Itarare, 
1. Parana: Casa Pintada, 1; Lanza, 1; Curytiba, 3; Fazenda Monte Alegre, 1. 
Rio Grande do Sul: Sao Lourenco, 2; Camaquam, 1. 



102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

part, Venezuela (Merida), Colombia (Paramo de Pamplona, Bogota, 
Pasto), and Ecuador (Titiacun, Sical); Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 285 Cechce, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885 
p. 74 San Rafael and Chimborazo, Ecuador; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, 
p. 479, 1898 Cayambe, Ecuador; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 7, 1899 Chaupi (Illiniza), Ecuador; Goodfellow, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 313 Valle de Viciosa, Ecuador; Rhoads, Auk, 29, p. 144, 
1912 Paramo of Pichincha, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 554, 1917 Subia and Choachi, eastern Andes of Colombia; 
Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 78, 1922 Pichincha, 
Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 604, 1926 Cerro 
Huamani, Antisana, Chimborazo, Taraguacocha, and Bestion, Ecuador. 

Anthus bogotensis bogotensis Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 192, 1921 part, 
Venezuela (Sierra of Mrida), Colombia, and Ecuador (crit.). 

Range. Paramo zone of extreme western Venezuela (Sierra of 
Me"rida), eastern Andes of Colombia, and Ecuador. 1 

3: Venezuela (Teta de Niquitao, Trujillo, 2; Paramo de Tama, 
Tachira, 1). 

*Anthus bogotensis immaculatus Cory. 2 UNSTREAKED PIPIT. 

Anthus bogotensis immaculatus Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 
345, 1916 mountains east of Balsas, Dept. Amazonas, Peru (type in 
Field Museum); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 108, 1921 
La Raya, Puno, and Junin, Peru (crit.); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 17, p. 412, 1930 mountains above Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Anthus rufescens (not of Temminck, 1820) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. 
Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 27, 1837 Yungas, Bolivia (type in 
Paris Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame"r. M6rid., Ois., p. 226, 
1838 Mount Biscachal, near Carcuata, Dept. La Paz, Bolivia. 

1 Birds from western Venezuela agree with "Bogota" skins, and an Ecuadorian 
series does not differ either. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela, Merida: Culata, 2. Colombia: 
"Bogotd," 5. Ecuador: Cechce, 1; "Govinda," 1; "Jima," 4; "Quito," 2. 

1 Anthus bogotensis immaculatus Cory: Exceedingly similar to A. b. bogotensis, 
but perhaps distinguishable by having the flanks less streaked with dusky or 
even wholly unstreaked, and by the broader as well as more deeply rufescent 
inner margin to the remiges. 

I have not enough material to pass a definite judgment on the merits of this 
form. While the type and an adult female from the Cuzco region have the sides 
practically unstreaked, and one of our two males from the Huanuco Mountains 
as well as an adult from Biscachal (near Carcuata), Bolivia, shows only a few 
scattered streaks on the lower flanks, another male from near Huanuco very closely 
approaches birds from more northern localities, notably one from Ecuador. The 
broader, deeper rufescent quill-lining may be a more constant feature of A. 6. 
immaculatus, but again several Ecuadorian skins are barely separable on this 
score. For the present I must look upon immaculatus as a rather questionable race. 

Additional specimens examined. Peru: Lauramarca, Cuzco, 1. Bolivia, 
Dept. La Paz: Biscachal, near Carcuata, 1 (type of A. rufescens Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny); Iquico, Illimani, 2 (juv.)- 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 103 

Anthus bogotensis (not of Sclater) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, 
p. 508 Maraynioc, Junin, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1878, p. 357 part, Peru 
(Maraynioc, Junin) and Bolivia (Biscachal); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 593 Mount Biscachal, near Carcuata, Bolivia 
(ex d'Orbigny); Taczanowski, I.e., 1880, p. 191 Cutervo, Peru; idem, 
Orn. Per., 1, p. 457, 1884 Peru (Maraynioc and near Cutervo); Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 603, 1885 part, Peru (Junfn) and Bolivia; 
Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 3, 1895 Cajamarca and Huamachuco, Peru; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 330 Mar- 
aynioc (crit.). 

Anthus bogotensis bogotensis Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 192, 1921 part, 
Peru (Lauramarca) and Bolivia (Iquico and Carcuata, Yungas of La 
Paz); idem, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 225, 1923 Yungas, Bolivia (crit.). 

Range. Paramo zone of Peru, from depts. of Amazonas and 
Cajamarca southwards, and western Bolivia (Dept. La Paz). 1 

3 : Peru (mountains east of Balsas, 1 ; mountains above Huanuco, 2). 
*Anthus bogotensis shiptoni (Chubb). 2 SHIPTON'S PIPIT. 

Notiocorys bogotensis shiptoni Chubb, El Hornero, 3, No. 1, pp. 34, 35, pi. 1, 
fig. 3, Feb., 1923 Aconquija (alt. 13,000 ft.), Tucuman (type in British 
Museum). 

Anthus bogotensis subsp. nov. Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 193, 1921 Acon- 
quija (crit.). 

Range. Puna zone of northwestern Argentina, in Province of 
Tucuman (Aconquija, Las Pavas). 

11: Argentina (Aconquija, 6; Las Pavas, 5). 

Family BOMBYCILLIDAE. Waxwings 
Genus BOMBYCILLA Vieillot 

Bombycilla Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Amer. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 88, pub. 1808 
type, by monotypy, Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot. 

Bombycivora Temminck, Hist. Nat. Pig. Gall., 2, p. 249, footnote, 1813 
species, B. garrula and B. cedrorum; idem, Man. d'Orn., p. 76, 1815. 

1 An additional race, based on a single specimen from Oconeque, Dept. Puno, 
Peru, has recently been described as Anthus bogotensis pallidus by Carriker (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 85, p. 34, 1933). 

1 Anthus bogotensis shiptoni (Chubb): Similar to A. b. immaculatus in absence 
or reduction of dusky streaks on the flanks; but considerably paler below, the 
throat, middle of breast, and abdomen decidedly whitish, the chest and flanks 
paler buffy, and the dusky pectoral streaks smaller as well as less numerous; 
the rufescent inner margin to the remiges obsolete, even more so than in A. b. 
bogotensis. Wing, 81-85, (female) 78-82; tail, 59-65; bill, 11-12. 

Additional material examined. Tucuman: Aconquija, 5. 



104 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bombyciphora Meyer, Beschr. Vog. Liv.- und Esthlands, p. 104, 1815 
type, by monotypy, Bombyciphora poliocoelia Meyer=AmpeJis garrulus 
Linnaeus. 

*Bombycilla garrula pallidiceps Reichenow. BOHEMIAN 
WAXWING. 

Bombycilla garrula pallidiceps Reichenow, Orn. Monatsber., 16, p. 191, 1908 
Shesly River, northern British Columbia (type in Berlin Museum); 
Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 333, 1917 North America (crit.). 

Ampelis garrulus (not Lanius garrulus Linnaeus) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
10, p. 212, 1885 part, Nearctic region; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 105, 1904 part, American references and localities 
(monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Northern North America, from western Alaska to 
northern Mackenzie and northeastern Manitoba south to southern 
British Columbia and southern Alberta; in winter east to Nova 
Scotia and south irregularly to Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, 
Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Colorado, California, and Arizona. 

22: Canada (Red Deer, Alberta, 1; Okanagan Landing, British 
Columbia, 3) ; Montana (Townsend, 1) ; Colorado (El Jerbel, Eagle 
County, 3); Nebraska (Gresham, York County, 1); Minnesota 
(Hewitt, 1; Minneapolis, 5); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 2); Illinois 
(Waukegan, 3); Indiana (Kouts, 1); New York (Mexico, 1). 

*Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot. CEDAR WAXWING. 

Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Amer. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 88, pi. 
57, pub. 1808 "en Ame'rique depuis le Canada jusqu' au Mexique, 
et meme ... a Caienne" (errore). 

Ampelis americana Wilson, Amer. Orn., 1, p. 107, pi. 7, fig. 1, 1808 (later 
than Sept. 1) Pennsylvania (type in Peale's Museum, probably lost). 

Bombyciphora xanthocoelia Meyer, Beschr. Vog. Liv.- und Esthl., p. 105 
(in text), 1815 North America. 

Ampelis pinetorum Meyer, Beschr. Vog. Liv.- und Esthl., p. 105 (in text), 
1815 (erroneous quotation of B. cedrorum Vieillot). 

Bombycilla carolinensis Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 10, (2), p. 422, 1817 
Carolina to Mexico. 

Ampelis cedrorum Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 215, 1885 (monog.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 109, 1904 (monog., full 
bibliog.). 

Range. North America, from central British Columbia, Alberta, 
and Manitoba, northern Ontario, southern Quebec, and Cape Breton 
Island south to northwestern California, northern New Mexico, 
Kansas, northern Arkansas, North Carolina, and northern Georgia; 



L935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 105 

frintering throughout the United States and southward to Cuba, 
Mexico, Lower California, and Panama; accidental in the Bahamas, 
Bermudas, Jamaica, and the British Isles. 

73: Maine (Upton, 3); Massachusetts (Duxbury, 2; Brookline, 1); 
New York (Peterboro, 3; Auburn, 1); New Jersey (Englewood, 1); 
Florida (Santa Rosa, 6; Mary Esther, 4; Key West, 1; Nassau 
County, 4; Amelia Island, 4); Mississippi (Holly Springs,!); Cali- 
fornia (San Jose", 1 ; Corona, 1) ; Oregon (Salem, 1) ; Canada (Okanagan 
Landing, British Columbia, 1; Hastings Lake, Alberta, 1); Wisconsin 
[Beaver Dam, 13; Milton, 1); Illinois (Joliet, 3; Mound City, 1; 
Lake Forest, 2; South Chicago, 2; Henry, 1; Momence, 1); Bahama 
Islands (Berry Islands, 1) ; West Indies (Little Cayman, 1) ; Mexico 
'Iguala, Guerrero, 3; Mexico City, 2; Jalapa, 1); Guatemala (Volcan 
Fajamulco, San Marcos, 3); Nicaragua (San Rafael del Norte, 2). 

Family PTILOGONATIDAE. Silky Flycatchers 
Genus PTILOGONYS Swainson 

Ptilogonys Swainson, "Cat. Exhib. called Modern Mexico, App., p. 4, 1824" 1 

type, by monotypy, Ptilogonys cinereus Swainson; idem, Nat. Hist. 

Class., Bds., 2, p. 224, 1837. 
Ptiliogonys Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 368, May, 1827 type, by 

monotypy, Ptiliogonys cinereus Swainson. 
Ptilogonatus Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 10, p. 164, Sept., 1827 type, by 

orig. desig., P. cinereus Swainson. 
Sphenotelus Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 412, 1866 type, by orig. desig., 

Ptilogonys caudatus Cabanis. 

"Ptilogonys cinereus cinereus Swainson. MEXICAN PTILOGONYS. 

Ptilogonys cinereus Swainson, "Cat. Exhib. called Modern Mexico, App., p. 
4, 1824" 1 Mexico (type in Bullock Collection); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 
1, p. 412, 1866 part, Mexico (Sierra de Colima; Orizaba and Cordova, 
Vera Cruz); Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 548, 1869 alpine 
region of Vera Cruz; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 217, 1883 part, Mexico; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 222, 
1883 part, Mexico; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 26, 1898 
Jalapa (habits). 

Ptiliogonys cinereus Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 368, May, 1827 
tableland of Mexico, Real del Monte; idem, Zool. Illust., (2), 2, pi. 62 

1 1 have not been able to consult this scarce publication. Sherborn (Ind. 
A.nim., 2nd sect., p. XXXIV, 1922) states that not one of the various copies seen 
by him contains the appendix, in which Swainson is supposed to have first de- 
scribed the Mexican Ptilogonys, and quotes the spelling "Ptilogonys" from Nat. 
Hist. Class. Bds., 2, p. 224, 1837. I am consequently in doubt as to the correct 
Drthography of the generic name. 



106 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(=female), 1831 Mexico; idem, I.e., (2), 3, pL 102 (= male), 1833 
Real del Monte, Mexico; Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 
139, 1886 Teziutlan, Puebla, and Jalapa, Vera Cruz. 

Hypothymis chrysorrhoea (Lichtenstein MS.) Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PL 
Col., livr. 76, pi. 452, 1828 Mexique (type in the Leiden Museum). 1 

Ptilogonys cinereus dnereus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 
115, 1904 part, central and southern Mexico (monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of central and southern 
sections of Mexico, in states of Durango, Zacatecas, Guanajuato, 
Hidalgo, Puebla, Mexico, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, Colima, Jalisco, and 
Morelos. 2 

4: Mexico (Jalapa, 1; Mexico City, 1; unspecified, 2). 

*Ptilogonys cinereus molybdophanes Ridgway. GUATEMALAN 
PTILOGONYS. 

Ptiliogonys cinereus molybdophanes Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Bds., p. 464 
(footnote 1), 1887 Guatemala (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Ptilogonys cinereus molybdophanes Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
3, p. 117, 1904 Guatemala (monog.); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, p. 123, 1907 above Tecpam and road from Lake Atitlan to 
Tecpam, Guatemala; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 322, 1932 
San Mateo, Guatemala City, and San Lucas, western Guatemala. 

Ptilogonys cinereus (not of Swainson) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 13 
Guatemala; idem, Ibis, 1860, p. 31 "Coban" and Volcan de 
Fuego, Guatemala; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 412, 1866 part, Duenas, 
Guatemala; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 41, 1878 
oak forests of Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 217, 1883 part, Guatemala (Volcan de Fuego, Duenas, 
Volcan de Agua, Sumpango, Barranco Hondo, and above Totonicapam) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 222, 1885 part, Guatemala. 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of western Guatemala. 

11: Guatemala ("Coban, Alta Vera Paz," 1); Tecpam, Chimal- 
tenango, 10). 

*Ptilogonys caudatus Cabanis. COSTA RICAN PTILOGONYS. 

Ptilogonys caudatus Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, for Nov., 1860, p. 402, pub., 
May, 1861 Irazu, Costa Rica (type in Berlin Museum); Baird, Rev. 
Amer. Bds., 1, p. 413, 1866 "San Jose" and Rancho Redondo, Costa 

1 Hypothymis mexicanus Lichtenstein (Preis-Verz. Saug., Vog., etc., Mexico, 
p. 2, 1831; Journ. Orn., 11, p. 58, 1863), cited as a synonym by authors, is a 
nomen nudum without nomenclatorial standing. 

2 Since the above was written, a race from Chilpancingo, Guerrero, has been 
separated as P. c. pallescens by Griscom (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 398, 
1934). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 107 

Rica; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 11, pi. 6, 1866 Costa Rica 
(Rancho Redondo, Volcan de Cartago); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 9, p. 97, 1868 "San Jose" and Volcan "Yrazei" [= Irazu], Costa 
Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 295, 1869 Volcan de Irazu (habits); 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 185 south slope of Volcan de 
Chiriqui, Panama; Boucard, I.e., 1878, p. 53 Volcan de Irazu and Navarro, 
Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 219, 1883 
Costa Rica and Panama (Volcan de Chiriqui) ; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 10, p. 224, 1885 Costa Rica and Panama; Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 108, 1887 Costa Rica (Volcan de Irazu, La Palma 
de San Jose 1 , Rancho Redondo de San Jose 1 ); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. 
Zool. Cl., 3, p. 58, 1902 Volcan de Chiriqui (alt. 10,000 to 11,000 ft.), 
Panama (habits); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 118, 
1904 Costa Rica and Chiriqui (monog.); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, p. 273, 1910 Volcan de Turrialba, Costa Rica; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 785, 1910 Costa Rica (high volcanoes, just 
below timberline). 

Range. Upper Subtropical and Temperate zones of Costa Rica 
and extreme western Panama (Volcan de Chiriqui). 1 

10: Costa Rica (Volcan de Irazu, 1; Volcan de Turrialba, 8); 
Panama (Chiriqui, 1). 

Genus PHAINOPEPLA Baird 

Phainopepla (Sclater MS.) Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 923, 1858 
type, by orig. desig., Ptilogonys nitens Swainson; Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 26, "1858," p. 543, pub. Jan. to May, 1859 same type. 

Phaenopepla Coues, Ibis, (n.s.), 1, p. 163, 1865 emendation. 

Phainopepla nitens nitens (Swainson). MEXICAN PHAINOPEPLA. 

Ptilogonys nitens Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 285, Dec. 31, 1837 Mexico 
(type in coll. of W. Swainson, now in University Museum, Cambridge, 
England). 

Lepturus galeatus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 42, 1839 "Mexico republicana" 
(type in coll. of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux). 

Cichlopsis nitens Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 320, 1858 part, 
Coahuila, Mexico. 

Phainopepla nitens Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 173 Mexico 
City; Duges, La Naturaleza, 1, p. 141, 1868 Guanajuato; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 220, 1883 part, Mexico (Coa- 
huila, Guanajuato, valley of Mexico, Orizaba, Cimapan, Mirador); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 220, 1885 part, central Mexico; 
Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 139, 1886 Rancho del Aguacate 

*A single specimen from the Volcan de Chiriqui appears to agree with a 
Costa Rican series. 



108 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and Huehuetlan, Puebla; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 120, 1904 part, Mexican plateau and references to localities in south- 
ern Mexico; Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 178, 1906 Rosario, 
Las Bocas, Matalotes, and Rancho Baillon, northwestern Durango (crit., 
meas.). 

Phaenopepla nitens Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 416, 1866 part, Mexico 
(Mirador); Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 548, 1869 valley 
of Orizaba, and Tehuantepec, Puebla. 

Range. Central and southern Mexico, in states of Coahuila, 
San Luis Potosi, Durango, Guanajuato, Mexico, Puebla, and Vera 
Cruz. 

*Phainopepla nitens lepida van Tyne. 1 NORTHERN 
PHAINOPEPLA. 

Phainopepla nitens lepida van Tyne, Occas. Pap. Bost. Soc. N. H., 5, p. 149, 
1925 Riverside, California (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 191, 1928 
Lower California; van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 279, 
1931 Saric, Obreg6n, Tesia, Chinobampo, El Alamo, about ten miles 
west of Magdalena, fifteen miles southwest of Nogales, and Guaymas, 
Sonora. 

Cichlopsis nitens (not Ptilogonys nitens Swainson) Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. 
R. R. Pac., 9, p. 320, 1858 part, California, New Mexico, and Colorado 
Delta (crit.). 

Phainopepla nitens Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 220, 
1883 part, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Lower and southern California; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 220, 1885 part, southern United 
States; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 120, 1904 part, 
southwestern United States (monog.). 

Phaenopepla nitens Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 416, 1866 part, North 
American localities (crit.). 

Range. Southwestern United States, from central California, 
southern Utah, and central western Texas southwards to Cape San 
Lucas in Lower California and into extreme northwestern Mexico 
(Sonora and Chihuahua); casual in central Nevada and northern 
California. 

46: Arizona (Phoenix, 7; Gila County, 1; Tucson, 1; Fairbank, 
1; Fort Lowell, 2; Calabasas, 16); California (Oroville, Butte County, 
2; Amador County, 2; Newcastle, 3; Corona, 2; Claremont, 1; New 
River, 1; Paicines, 1; near Plymouth, 1); Mexico (La Paz, Lower 
California, 3; Cerro Blanco, Sonora, 1; Bastillos, Chihuahua, 1). 

1 Phainopepla nitens lepida van Tyne: Similar to P. n. nitens, but decidedly 
smaller. Wing, 88-96, (female) 87-95; tail, 86-98, (female) 84-93. . 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 109 

Genus PHAINOPTILA Salvin 

Phainoptila Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 367 type, by orig. desig., 
Phainoptila melanoxantha Salvin. 

*Phainoptila melanoxantha melanoxantha Salvin. SALVIN'S 
PHAINOPTILA. 

Phainoptila melanoxantha Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 367 Costa 
Rica [= San Francisco] (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British 
Museum); Rowley, Orn. Misc., 2, Part 7, p. 439, pi. 79, 1877 Costa 
Rica; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 53 Navarro and Rancho 
Redondo, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 219, pi. 14, 1883 Costa Rica (San Francisco, Irazu; Navarro, 
Rancho Redondo); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 219, 1885 
Costa Rica (Irazu); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 108, 
1887 La Palma de San Jos6 and Rancho Redondo de San Jos6, Costa 
Rica; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 3, 
1899 Chiriqui; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 58, 1902 
Boquete and Volcan de Chiriquf, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 124, 1904 highlands of Costa Rica and Chiriqui 
(monog.); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 273, 1910 
Volcan de Turrialba, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 786, 1910 Volcan de Turrialba, San Juan de Irazu, La Estrella de 
Cartago, Burgos de Irazu, Escazu, Azahar de Cartago, Volcan de Irazu, 
Ujurras de T&raba, and La Hondura, Costa Rica (habits). 

Range. Highlands of Costa Rica and extreme western Panama 
(Volcan de Chiriqui). 

10: Costa Rica (Volcan de Turrialba, 7; Volcan de Irazu, 3). 

Phainoptila melanoxantha minor Griscom. 1 LESSER 
PHAINOPTILA. 

Phainoptila melanoxantha minor Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 141, p. 8, 1924 
Cerro Flores, eastern Chiriqui, Panama (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Highlands of western Panama (Cerro Flores, eastern 
Chiriqui). 

1 Phainoptila melanoxantha minor Griscom: "Similar to P. m. melanoxantha, 
but on average smaller; female with hindneck more extensively gray of a slightly 
darker shade; rump, upper tail coverts, and edgings to tail feathers slightly greener, 
less yellow. Wing, 94^-97, (female) 92-96; tail, 78-85, (female) 76-84; bill, 
14-15." (Griscom, I.e.). 

We are not acquainted with this race. Specimens from Chiriqui are obviously 
inseparable from typical Costa Rican birds. 



110 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Family DULIDAE. Palm Chats 
Genus DULUS Vieillot 

Dulus Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 42, 1816 type, by orig. desig., 
"Tangara esclave" Buffon = Tanagra dominica Linnaeus. 

*Dulus dominicus dominicus (Linnaeus). PALM CHAT. 

Tanagra dominica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 316, 1766 based on 
"Le Tangara de S. Domingue" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 37, pi. 2, fig. 4, and 
"Tangara, de St. Domingue" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 156, fig. 2; Santo 
Domingo. 

Tanagra mancipium Hermann, Tab. Aff. Anim., p. 211, 1783 based on 
"L'Esclave" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. (ed. Impr. Roy.), 5, p. 21; Saint 
Domingue. 

Turdus gujanensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 809, 1789 based on "La 
Grive de la Guyane" Buffon and Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 398, fig. 1; 
"Guiana," errore. 

Dulus palmarum Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 10, p. 435, 1817 
new name for Tanagra dominica Linnaeus; Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. ZooL, 
(2), 3, p. 583, 1851 (habits, affinities). 

Dulus nuchalis Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 345, Dec. 31, 1837 "Brazil" 
(type in coll. of Swainson, now in University Museum, Cambridge, 
England); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 219, 1885 "said to be 
from Brazil" (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 127, 
1904 (ex Swainson); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 510 (in 
text), 1928 (crit.; = albinistic specimen). 

Dulus dominicus Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 103 (systematic position); 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 403, 1866 Haiti (Jeremie and Port-au- 
Prince) and Santo Domingo; Cory, Bds. Haiti and San Dom., p. 51, 
pi. 21, fig. 4, 1885 Santo Domingo (Samana) and Haiti (Le Coup); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 218, 1885 Santo Domingo (monog.); 
Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 78, 1889 Haiti (monog.); Cherrie, Field Columb. 
Mus., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 13, 1896 Santo Domingo (habits); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 126, 1904 Haiti (monog.) ; Verrill and 
Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 364, 1909 Santo Domingo 
(habits); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 61, p. 417, 1917 Monte Cristo, 
Bulla, and Sosua, Santo Domingo (habits); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 80, p. 509, 1928 part, Haiti (from sea level to 6,000 ft. alt., habits); 
Danforth, Auk, 46, p. 372, 1929 Santo Domingo and Haina, Hispaniola; 
Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 345, pi. 23, 1931 
island of Haiti (monog., full bibliog., habits, food, nest, and eggs); Wet- 
more, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 32, 1932 Petit Trou de Nippes, 
Haiti. 

Range. Island of Haiti, Greater Antilles. 

105: Santo Domingo (Santo Domingo, 37; Aguacate, 21; Hon- 
duras, 6; San Cristobal, 5; Fuerte Resoli, 1; Catare, 11; Samana, 7; 
Puerto Plata, 4); Haiti (Kenscoff, 2; Diquini, 1; unspecified, 10). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 111 

Dulus dominicus oviedo Wetmore. 1 GONAVE PALM CHAT. 

Dulus dominicus oviedo Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 117, 1929 

Pikmy [=Picmy], Gonave Island (type in U. S. National Museum); 

idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 351, 1931 Gonave 

Island (monog.). 
Dulus dominicus (not Tanagra dominica Linnaeus) Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 80, p. 509, 1928 part, Gonave Island. 

Range. Gonave Island, off Haiti, Greater Antilles. 

Family VIREONIDAE. Vireos 
Genus VIREO Vieillot 

Vireo Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Ame"r. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 83, pub. 1808 

type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 33, 1840), Vireo musicus 

Vieillot = Muscicapa noveboracensis Gmelin = Tanagra grisea Boddaert. 
Vireosylva Bonaparte, Geog. Comp. List Bds. Eur. North Amer., p. 26, 

1838 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 2nd ed., p. 44, 1841), 

Vireo olivaceus auct. = Vireo virescens Vieillot. 
Phyllomanes Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 13, (1), p. 321, 1847 new name for 

Vireosylva Bonaparte. 
Vireosylvia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 329, 1850 emendation of 

Vireosylva Bonaparte. 
Lanivireo Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 329, 1858 type, by orig. 

desig., Vireo flavifrons Vieillot. 
Vireonella Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 369, 1866 type, by orig. desig., 

Vireo gundlachii Lembeye. 

*Vireo atricapillus Woodhouse. BLACK-CAPPED VIREO. 

Vireo atricapilla Woodhouse, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 6, p. 60, 1852 
San Pedro River, 208 miles from San Antonio, on the road to El Paso 
del Norte, Texas (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, in Sitgreaves' 
Expl. Zuni and Col. R., p. 75, pi. 1, 1853 San Pedro River. 

Vireo atricapillus Cassin, Illust. Bds. Calif., etc., p. 153, pi. 24, 1854 Texas; 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 353, 1866 southern border of Texas (crit.); 
Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 4, p. 99, 1879 Comal County, Texas 
(nest and eggs descr.); Coues, I.e., 4, p. 193, pi. 1, 1879 Comal County, 
Texas; Ragsdale, I.e., 5, p. 239, 1880 Red River, Texas; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 199, 1881 Texas and Mazatlan, 
Mexico; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 300, 1883 Texas to Mexico; 
Goss, Auk, 2, p. 274, 1885 Comanche County, Kansas (nesting habits); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 181, 1904 Kansas to 
Texas and Mexico (monog.); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 83, 1911 Santa Leonor, 

1 Dulus dominicus oviedo Wetmore: Similar to D. d. dominicus, but on average 
somewhat larger with heavier bill, and upper parts more grayish brown, especially 
rump and tail coverts less extensively washed with greenish. Wing, 90-92, (female) 
88-94; tail, 72-80. 



112 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tamaulipas; Lacey, I.e., p. 215, 1911 Kerrville, Texas; Smith, Auk, 
33, p. 191, 1916 Kerr County, Texas. 

Range. Breeds from southwestern Kansas to central Texas, and 
winters probably in Mexico (Santa Leonor, Tamaulipas; Mazatlan, 
Sinaloa; Volcano of Toluca, Mexico). Accidental in Nebraska. 

5: Texas (Kerrville, 4; Gainesville, 1). 

*Vireo bairdi Ridgway. BAIRD'S VIREO. 

Vireo bairdi Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 3, p. 22, 1885 Cozumel Island 
(type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 
565, 1885 Cozumel (full descr.); Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 254 Cozumel; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 180, 1904 Cozumel 
(monog.); Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 236, p. 11, 1926 Cozumel (crit., 
song). 

Range. Cozumel Island, Yucatan. 
3: Cozumel Island. 

*Vireo griseus griseus (Boddaert). 1 WHITE-EYED VIREO. 

Tanagra grisea Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 45, Dec., 1783 based on "Tan- 
gara olive, de la Louisiane" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 714, fig. 1; Louisiana. 

Muscicapa noveboracensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 947, 1789 based on 
"Green Fly-catcher" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 389; New York. 

Vireo musicus Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 83, pi. 52, 
1808 North America (type in coll. of P. L. Vieillot). 

Muscicapa cantatrix Wilson, Amer. Orn., 2, p. 166, pi. 18, fig. 6, 1810 
Pennsylvania (type in Peale's Museum, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 
344, 1930). 

Vireo noveboracensis Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 3, p. 469, 1855 Cuba (one 
record); Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 274 Coban, Guatemala (one 
spec.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 200, 1881 
part, United States, Mexico, Guatemala (Coban), and Cuba; Cory, Auk, 
4, p. 181, 1887 St. Andrews. 

Vireo noveboracensis noveboracensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
3, p. 183, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, 
p. 16, 1926 Yucatan; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 318, 1932 
Coban, Guatemala. 

Vireo griseus griseus Todd and Worthington, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, pp. 428, 
458, 1911 Staniard Creek, Andros Island, Bahamas; Phillips, Auk, 28, 

1 Messrs. Worthington and Todd (Wilson Bull., 38, pp. 222-223, 1926), after 
studying a series of breeding birds from southern Florida and Key West, came 
to the conclusion that they were inseparable from topotypical Louisiana specimens. 
They consequently consider V. g. maynardi to be synonymous with V. g. griseus, 
the range of which would seem to extend along the Atlantic coast as far north 
as South Carolina (Summerville), whereas the name V. g. noveboracensis (Gmelin) 
is revived for the form of the northern United States, which differs in brighter 
upper parts and deeper as well as more extensive greenish yellow sides and flanks. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 113 

p. 83, 1911 San Fernando and Altamira, Tamaulipas; Peters, I.e., 30, 
p. 377, 1913 Xcopen and Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; Todd, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 256, 1916 Caleta Grande and Nueva Gerona, Isle 
of Pines; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 108, 1923 Cuba (acci- 
dental); Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 483, 1927 
Presidio, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 68, p. 400, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca; Peters, 
I.e., 69, p. 460, 1929 Tela, Honduras (March). 

Range. Breeds chiefly in Austral zones from southeastern 
Nebraska, southern Wisconsin, Ohio, New York, and Massachusetts 
to central Texas and southern Florida; winters from Texas, Alabama, 
southern Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina south through 
eastern Mexico to eastern Guatemala (Coban; one record) and 
Honduras (Tela; one record); casual in Michigan, Vermont, Ontario, 
New Brunswick, Bahama Islands (Andros), Cuba, the Isle of Pines, 
and St. Andrews. 

96: Massachusetts (Maldon, 1; Ipswich, 1); New York (Shelter 
Island, 1); District of Columbia (Washington, 1); North Carolina 
(Raleigh, 3); Tennessee (Waverly, 1); Florida (Puntarasa, 5; 
Seven Oaks, 1; Banana River, 1; Town Point, Santa Rosa Island, 2; 
Mary Esther, 7; East Pass, 4; Rosewood, 2; Enterprise, 2; West 
Jupiter, 2; Merritt, 1; Gainesville, 1; Palm Beach, 1; Lake Worth, 
1); Georgia (West End, 1); Mississippi (Vicksburg, 9; Holly Springs, 
8); Louisiana (Buras, 1); Texas (Corpus Christi, 11; Fort Clark, 1; 
Fort Worth, 5); Arkansas (Winslow, 1; Cleburne, 1); Illinois 
(Henry, 2; Grand Chain, 7; Mound City, 1; Olive Branch, 6); 
Mexico (Cozumel Island, 1; Vera Cruz, 1); St. Andrews, 2. 

*Vireo griseus maynardi Brewster. KEY WEST VIREO. 

Vireo noveboracensis maynardi Brewster, Auk, 4, p. 148, 1887 Key West, 
Florida (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 186, 1904 (monog.). 

Range. Florida Keys. 1 
18: Florida (Key West, 18). 

Vireo griseus bermudianus Bangs and Bradlee. BERMUDA VIREO. 

Vireo bermudianus Bangs and Bradlee, Auk, 18, p. 252, 1901 Hamilton, 
Bermuda (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

1 Birds from the west coast of Florida, north to Tarpon Springs, which are 
more or less intermediate between griseus and maynardi, have been referred to 
the latter form by Scott and Ridgway. Cf. Scott, Auk, 5, p. 187, 1888; idem, 
Auk, 7, pp. 15, 312, 1890. The fourth edition of the A. O. U. Check List (1931) 
restricts the range of V. g. maynardi to the Florida Keys. Cf., however, 
Worthington and Todd (Wilson Bull., 38, pp. 222-223, 1926), whose conclusions 
appear to be well founded. 



114 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Vireo noteboracensis bermudianus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
3, p. 185, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Vireo griseus bermudiamts Bradlee and Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, 
p. 350, 1931 Bermudas (habits). 

Range. Resident on the Bermuda Islands. 
*Vireo griseus micrus Nelson. SMALL WHITE-EYED VIREO. 

Vireo noveboracensis micrus Nelson, Auk, 16, p. 30, 1899 Victoria, Tamau- 
lipas (type in U. S. National Museum); Mearns, Auk, 19, p. 87, 1902 
southern Texas (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 186, 
1904 Rio Grande Valley of Texas and northeastern Mexico (monog., 
full bibliog.). 

Vireo griseus micrus Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 83, 1911 Matamoros, San Fernando, 
Guiaves, Rio Santa, Caballeros, Santa Leonor, Rio Martinez, Rio Cruz, 
and Altamira, Tamaulipas (crit.). 

Range. Rio Grande Valley, Texas, south to Tamaulipas, Nuevo 
Leon, and San Luis Potosi, eastern Mexico. 

8: Texas (Ingram, 1; Harlingen, 2; Brownsville, 1); Mexico 
(Matamoros, 2; Tamaulipas, 2). 

Vireo griseus perquisitor Nelson. 1 VERA CRUZ VIREO. 

Vireo perquisitor Nelson, Auk, 17, p. 267, 1900 Papantla, Vera Cruz (type 
in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 187, 1904 Papantla. 

Range. Tropical zone of northern Vera Cruz (Papantla), eastern 
Mexico. 

* Vireo griseus crassirostris (Bryant). 2 LARGE-BILLED VIREO. 

Lanivireo crassirostris Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 112, 1859 New 
Providence, Bahama Islands (cotypes in U. S. National Museum and in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs and 
Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 206, 1925); Cory, Bds. Bahama 
Isl., p. 83, 1890 Bahamas. 

1 Vireo griseus perquisitor Nelson, known from a single specimen taken at 
Papantla in March, appears to be a dark-colored race, with strongly yellowish 
under parts, of the White-eyed Vireo. 

* I cannot see in this "species" anything but a well-marked resident form of 
the North American bird with larger bill and more uniform under parts, since it 
is approached in certain characters by V. g. maynardi, of the Florida Keys. 

I fully agree with Mr. Todd that subdivision of the Bahama birds is un- 
warranted, the larger percentage of the yellowish "phase" among the inhabitants 
of the more eastern islands being hardly of sufficient importance to maintain 
the distinction of V. g. flavescens. Specimens from the Cayman Islands (alleni) 
are pronounced by Mr. Bangs, who had ample material for comparison, to be 
identical with those from the Bahamas. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 115 

Vireo alleni Cory, Auk, 3, p. 500, 1886 Grand Cayman (type in coll. of 
C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); idem, Auk, 6, p. 31, 1889 Little 
Cayman and Cayman Brae; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 75, 1889 Grand 
Cayman. 

Vireo crassirostris flavescens Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 476, 1887 
Conception Island, Cat Island, Green Cay, Rum Cay, and Eleuthera 
Island, Bahamas (type from Concepci6n Island in U. S. National Museum) ; 
idem, Auk, 8, pp. 336, 338, 339, 1891 Cat Island, Rum Cay, Green 
Cay, and Conception Island; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 191, 1904 eastern Bahamas (monog.); Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama 
Islands, p. 365, 1905 Eleuthera, Green Cay, Long Island, Cat Island, 
Concepci6n Island, Rum Cay, Great Inagua. 

Vireo crassirostris Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 368, 1866 Bahamas (monog.); 
Cory, Auk, 3, p. 188, 1886 Bahamas (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 75, 
1889 Bahamas; Northrop and Allen, Auk, 8, p. 70, 1891 Andros 
Island; Cory, Auk, 8, pp. 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 350, 351, 1891 New 
Providence, Caicos Island, Inagua, Abacos, Berry Islands, Bimini Islands, 
Great Bahama, and Eleuthera; Ridgway, Auk, 8, pp. 334, 335, 336, 338, 
1891 Abaco, New Providence, Eleuthera, Cat Island, and Green Cay; 
Cory, Auk, 9, pp. 48, 49, 1892 Mariguana and Inagua; Bangs, Auk, 17, 
p. 289, 1900 Nassau, New Providence (crit.); Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 
287 Nassau; Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama Islands, p. 365, 1905 
Abaco, Eleuthera, New Providence, Highborn Cay, Andros, Green Cay, 
Pimlico Cay, Cat Island, and Great Inagua. 

Vireo crassirostris crassirostris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 189, 1904 western Bahama Islands (monog.); Todd and Worthington, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, pp. 428, 458, 1911 New Providence, Great Inagua, 
and Andros (crit.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 314, 1916 
Grand Cayman, Little Cayman, and Cayman Brae (crit.); Fisher and 
Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 16, 1931 Grand Cayman. 

Vireo crassirostris alleni Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 192, 
1904 Grand Cayman and Cayman Brae (monog.); Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 
344 Grand Cayman (crit., song); idem, Ibis, 1911, p. 154 Cayman 
Islands. 

Range. Bahama Islands and Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman, 
Little Cayman, Cayman Brae), Greater Antilles. 

171: Bahama Islands (Great Bahama, 9; Abaco, 11; Eleuthera, 
33; Berry Islands, 6; Nassau, New Providence, 11; Andros, 18; 
Inagua, 38; Caicos, 8; Mariguana, 17; Bimini, 3); Cayman Islands 
(Cayman Brae, 11; Grand Cayman, 6). 

*Vireo griseus approximate Ridgway. 1 OLD PROVIDENCE VIREO. 

1 Vireo griseus approximans Ridgway is extremely close to V. g. crassirostris, 
but perhaps distinguishable by its paler coloration and lighter bill. 



116 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Vireo approximans Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 179, 1884 Old 
Providence Island (type in U. S. National Museum); Cory, Auk, 4, p. 180, 
1887 Old Providence. 

Vireo crassirostris approximans Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 192, 1904 Old Providence (monog.); Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 16, 1931 Old Providence. 

Range. Old Providence Island, Caribbean Sea. 
9: Old Providence Island, 9. 

Vireo griseus tortugae Richmond. 1 TORTUGA VIREO. 

Vireo crassirostris tortugae Richmond, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 68, No. 7, p. 2, 
1917 Tortuga Island, off the northwest coast of Haiti (type in U. S. 
National Museum); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 510, 1928 
Tortuga (habits, nest, and eggs); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 155, p. 352, 1931 Tortuga Island (crit.). 

Range. Tortuga (Tortue) Island, off the northwest coast of 
Hispaniola, Greater Antilles. 

*Vireo griseus gundlachii Lembeye. GUNDLACH'S VIREO. 

Vireo gundlachii(i) Lembeye, Aves Isl. Cuba, p. 29, pi. 5, fig. 1, 1850 Cuba 2 
(type presumably in the Havana Museum); Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 3, 
p. 468, 1855 Cuba; Thienemann, I.e., 5, p. 147, 1857 Cuba (nest and 
eggs); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 369, 1866 Fermina, western Cuba; 
Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 20, p. 404, 1872 Cuba (descr., habits, nest); 
Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 304, 1883 Cuba; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 188, 
1886 Cuba; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 75, 1889 Cuba; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 309, 1892 Trinidad, Cuba (crit., song); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 188, 1904 Cuba; Bangs and Zappey, 
Amer. Natur., 39, p. 209, 1905 Cayo Bonito, Isle of Pines (crit.); Barbour, 
Mem. Nutt. Orn. CL, 6, p. 107, 1923 Cuba (crit.). 

Vireo gundlachii gundlachii Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 255, 1916 
Caleta Grande and Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines (crit.). 

(?) Vireo gundlachii orientalis Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 256, 1910 
Arroyo Hondo, "Los Canos," Guantanamo, eastern Cuba (type in Car- 
negie Museum); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 32, 1932 
Rio Gibara, Cuba (crit.). 

1 Vireo griseus tortugae Richmond: Nearest to V. g. crassirostris, but dorsal 
surface buffy brown rather than grayish; auriculars and sides of neck Isabella 
color instead of yellowish olive; under parts decidedly tinged with buff. Dimen- 
sions about the same. 

Material examined. Tortuga Island, 5. 

2 Cienfuegos has been suggested as type locality by Todd (Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 10, p. 256, in text, 1916). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 117 

Range. Island of Cuba, including Isle of Pines, Greater Antilles. 1 
5: Cuba (Trinidad, 1; Yzaga, Province of Santa Clara, 1; unspeci- 
fied, 3). 

*Vireo griseus modestus Sclater. 2 JAMAICAN VIREO. 

Vireo modestus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 462, 1860 Jamaica 
(type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, I.e., 1861, 
p. 72, pi. 14, fig. 1 Freeman's Hall and Mahogany Hall, Trelawny, 
Jamaica; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 43, 1862 Jamaica; March, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 294 Jamaica (nest and eggs); Baird, 
Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 362, 1866 Jamaica (monog.); Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 303, 1883 Jamaica; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 187, 1886 Jamaica 
(descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 74, 1889 Jamaica; Scott, Auk, 10, p. 339, 
1893 Jamaica; Field, Auk, 11, p. 127, 1894 Port Henderson, Jamaica 
(nest); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 200, 1904 Jamaica 
(monog.); Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 489, 1928 Lumsden, Jacksontown, 
Duncan's Bay, Mandeville, and Black River, Jamaica. 

Vireo noveboracensis (not Muscicapa noveboracensis Gmelin) Gosse, Bds. 
Jamaica, p. 192, 1847 Jamaica (habits, song). 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 
9: Jamaica. 

*Vireo griseus semiflavus Salvin. 3 PETEN VIREO. 

Vireo semiflavus Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 188 Peten, eastern 
Guatemala (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Museum); 
idem, Ibis, 1866, p. 193 Peten. 

Vireo ochraceus semiflavus Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 319, 1932 
Caribbean lowlands from Yucatan to Nicaragua (crit.). 

Vireo ochraceus (not of Salvin) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 366, 1866 
part, eastern Guatemala (Sakluk, Peten) and Merida, Yucatan (crit.); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 201, 1882 part, 

1 Mr. Todd separated the inhabitants of eastern Cuba as V. g. orientalis, 
on account of more grayish (less greenish) dorsal surface, paler yellow lores and 
postocular spot, and duller yellow under parts with more buffy suffusion and dark 
shading on the sides. Barbour claims that the large series from various parts 
of the island examined by him show the variation to be individual (dichromatic) 
rather than geographic, while Wetmore is inclined to recognize two races. We 
have not enough material to decide the question independently. 

In spite of its pronounced characters we have no hesitation in regarding 
V. gundlachii as a geographical representative of the White-eyed Vireo. 

2 Vireo griseus modestus Sclater, though well characterized by the absence of 
the bright yellow frontal and loral streak and the duller, more greenish color 
of the sides, is clearly a geographic representative of the griseus group. 

3 Vireo griseus semiflavus Salvin: Similar to V. g. ochraceus, but slightly smaller 
(wing, 52-58, against 58-62) and under parts somewhat brighter, barita yellow 
rather than straw yellow; immature plumage much more grayish above. 

Material examined. Yucatan, 4; Ruatan Island, 3; Puerto Barrios, Guate- 
mala, 1. 



118 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Yucatan (Me"rida, Progreso), British Honduras (Corosa), and Guatemala 
(Sakluk, near Peten); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 302, 1883 (part); 
Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 255 Holbox, Mugeres, and Ruatan Islands (crit.); 
Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 486, 1893 Greytown, Nicaragua; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 8, p. 278, 1896 Chichen Itza, 
Yucatan; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 193, 1904 part, 
Mexico, in states of Campeche and Yucatan, eastern Guatemala (Sakluk, 
Peten), British Honduras (Belize), and Nicaragua (Greytown); Cole, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 136, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan (nest 
and eggs); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 124, 1907 
part, Puerto Barrios, Guatemala; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 377, 1913 Xcopen, 
Quintana Roo; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 16, 1926 Palmul 
and Xcaret, Yucatan. 

Range. Caribbean lowlands of southeastern Mexico, in states 
of Campeche (Campeche, Jaina), Quintana Roo (Xcopen), and 
Yucatan (MeYida, Progreso, La Vega, Chichen Itza, Palmul, Xcaret), 
including Holbox and Mugeres Islands; British Honduras (Corosal, 
Belize); Honduras (Ruatan Island); eastern Guatemala (Puerto 
Barrios; Sakluk, Peten); and eastern Nicaragua (Greytown). 

1: Guatemala (Puerto Barrios, 1). 
*Vireo griseus ochraceus Salvin. OCHRACEOUS VIREO. 

Vireo ochraceus Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1863, p. 188 San Jos6, 
Guatemala (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in the British Mu- 
seum); idem, Ibis, 1866, p. 193 San Jose", Guatemala; Baird, Rev. 
Amer. Bds., 1, p. 366, 1866 part, San Jose, Guatemala; Lawrence, Mem. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 272, 1874 Mazatlan, Mexico; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 201, pi. 12, fig. 1, 1882 part, Mazatlan, 
Mexico, and San Jose, Guatemala; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 302, 
1883 (part); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 193, 1904 
part, Mazatlan, Mexico, and western Guatemala (San Jose"); Dearborn, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 124, 1907 part, San Jose 1 , western 
Guatemala. 

Vireo ochraceus ochraceus Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 319, 1932 
San Jose and Ocos, Guatemala (crit.). 

Range. Pacific coast (mangrove swamps) of western Mexico 
(Mazatlan, Sinaloa) and Guatemala (Ocos, San Jose"). 

7: Guatemala (San Jose", Escuintla, 7). 
Vireo griseus pallens Salvin. 1 PALE VIREO. 

1 Vireo griseus pallens Salvin, though differing from the two other Central 
American vireos in duller (above less greenish, below less yellowish) coloration, 
is so closely approached by the juvenile plumage of V. g. semiflavus that its per- 
tinence as a geographical representative to the present group can hardly be doubted. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Puntarenas, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 119 

Vireo pollens Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 188 Realejo, Nicaragua, 
and Puntarenas, Costa Rica (type, from Puntarenas, in Salvin-Godman 
Collection, now in British Museum); idem, Ibis, 1866, p. 193 Realejo; 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 365, 1866 Realejo (monog.); Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 97, 1868 Puntarenas; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 202, pi. 12, fig. 2, 1882 Realejo 
and Puntarenas; Cherrie, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 14, p. 528, 1891 Punta- 
renas, Costa Rica (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 194, 1904 Realejo and Puntarenas (monog.) ; 'Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 6, p. 780, 1910 Pigres, Costa Rica. 

Vireo ochraceus subsp. a V. pallens Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 302, 
1883 Nicaragua and Costa Rica (crit.). 

Range. Pacific coast (mangrove swamps) of Nicaragua (Realejo) 
and Costa Rica (Puntarenas, Pigres). 

*Vireo huttoni huttoni Cassin. BUTTON'S VIREO. 

Vireo huttoni Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, p. 150, 1851 Monterey 
and Georgetown, California (type, from Monterey, in U. S. National 
Museum; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 31, 1899, and 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 298, 1932); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 
1, p. 357, 1866 part, California; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 203, 1882 part, California; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
8, p. 303, 1883 part, California. 

Vireo huttoni obscurus Anthony, Zoe, 1, p. 307, Dec., 1890 Beaverton, 
Washington County, Oregon (type in collection of A. W. Anthony, now 
in Carnegie Museum; cf. Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 18, p. 358, 1928); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 196, 1904 western Oregon 
to Vancouver Island (monog.); Grinnell, Condor, 24, p. 32, 1922 (crit.); 
Oberholser, Auk, 39, p. 77, 1922 (crit.). 

Vireo huttoni insularis Rhoads, Auk, 10, p. 239, 1893 Victoria, Vancouver 
Island, British Columbia (type in Provincial Museum of Victoria, British 
Columbia); Grinnell, Condor, 24, p. 32, 1922 (crit.); Oberholser, Auk, 
39, p. 78, 1922 (crit.). 

Vireo mailliardorum Grinnell, Condor, 5, p. 157, 1903 Friar's Harbor, Santa 
Cruz Island, California (type in coll. of J. Grinnell, now in Museum of 
Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, 
p. 298, 1932). 

Vireo huttoni mailliardorum Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 
743, 1904 (ex Grinnell). 

Vireo huttoni oberholseri Bishop, Condor, 7, p. 142, 1905 Witch Creek, San 
Diego County, California (type in coll. of L. B. Bishop); Grinnell, Condor, 
8, p. 148, 1906 Escondido, San Diego County, California (crit.); idem, 
I.e., 11, p. 66, 1909 (crit.). 

Vireo huttoni huttoni Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 195, 
1904 California (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
32, p. 195, 1932 Lower California. 



120 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Pacific coast strip of western North America, from 
extreme southern British Columbia (chiefly Vancouver Island) 
south through Washington, Oregon, and California, west of the 
high Sierra, to about latitude 30 in northwestern Lower California. 1 

17: California (Los Gatos, 1; San Geronimo, 2; Clipper Gap, 3; 
Monterey, 3; Nicasio, 5; Oakland, 1); Oregon (Tillamook, 1; 
Corvallis, 1). 

*Vireo huttoni Stephens! Brewster. STEPHENS'S VIREO. 

Vireo huttoni stephensi Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 7, p. 142, 1882 
Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona (type in coll. of W. Brewster, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 345, 1930); idem, Auk, 2, p. 197, 1885 Santa 
Rita Mountains, Arizona (juv. descr.); Scott, Auk, 2, p. 354, 1885 
Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 3, p. 197, 1904 southern Arizona to western Texas and northern 
Mexico (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 178, 
1906 La Cienaga de las Vacas and Arroyo del Buey, Durango; van 
Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 280, 1931 fifteen miles south- 
west of Nogales, Sonora. 

Vireo huttoni stephensoni Reichenow and Schalow, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 401, 
1884 (lapsus for V. k. stephensi Brewster). 

(?) Vireo huttoni mexicanus (not of Ridgway?) Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 83, 1913 
Yerba Buena, Galindo, and Rampahuila, Tamaulipas (Sept., Oct. to 
March). 1 

Range. Southern Arizona to central western Texas and south 
to Tamaulipas, Durango, Zacatecas, and Nayarit, Mexico. 

11: Arizona (Paradise, 1; Huachuca Mountains, 6; Chiricahua, 2); 
Mexico (Cerro Blanco, Sonora, 1; Coyotes, Durango, 1). 

*Vireo huttoni cognatus Ridgway. FRAZAR'S VIREO. 

Vireo huttoni cognatus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 107, 1903 
Sierra de la Laguna, Lower California (type in collection of W. Brewster, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 345, 1930); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 3, p. 199, 1904 Cape San Lucas district of Lower California 
(full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 195, 1928 Cape 
district. 

Range. Cape district of Lower California. 
3: Lower California (Sierra de la Laguna, 3). 

1 It is now an established fact that none of the described races (obscurus, 
insularis, mailliardorum, oberholseri) can be maintained. Cf. Grinnell and 
Oberholser, I.e. 

* These specimens should be carefully reexamined in view of Ridgway's 
explicit statement that breeding birds from Miquihuana (hill country west of 
Victoria), Tamaulipas, are "certainly referable" to V. h. stephensi. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 121 

Vireo huttoni mexicanus Ridgway. MEXICAN VIREO. 

Vireo huttoni mexicanus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 107, 1903 
Mount Orizaba, Puebla (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 196, 1904 part, southern portion of 
Mexican plateau (full bibliog.). 

Vireo huttoni (not of Cassin) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 357, 1866 part, 
Oaxaca; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 203, 1882 
part, Mexican references and localities; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
8, p. 303, 1883 part, Mexico. 

Vireosylvia huttoni Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 548, 1869 
alpine region of Vera Cruz. 

Vireo huttoni stephensi (not of Brewster) Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
10, p. 40, 1898 Las Vegas, Vera Cruz. 

Range. Temperate zone of more southern portions of Mexico, 
from San Luis Potosi (near Jesus Maria) and southern Tamaulipas 
to Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, and Michoacan. 

Vireo huttoni vulcani Griscom. 1 GUATEMALAN VIREO. 

Vireo huttoni vulcani Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 3, 1930 Quetzal- 
tenango, Guatemala (type in Dwight Collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 319, 1932 Momostenango, Chichicastenango, Tecpam, Zanjon, 
and Quetzaltenango, western Guatemala. 

Vireo huttoni (not of Cassin) Salvin, Ibis, 1874, p. 99 Volcan de Fuego, 
Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 203, 
1882 part, Guatemala (Calderas, Volcan de Fuego); Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 303, 1883 part, Guatemala. 

Vireo huttoni mexicanus (not of Ridgway, 1903) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 196, 1904 part, Guatemala. 

Range. Temperate zone of western Guatemala. 
*Vireo carmioli Baird. 2 CARMIOL'S VIREO. 

1 Vireo huttoni vulcani Griscom: "Similar to V. h. mexicanus, but olive-green 
above with a slight brownish tinge, entirely lacking the dull gray tint on the 
pileum and back, the rump scarcely brighter than the rest of the upper parts; 
under parts in breeding adults radically different from any other race in being 
almost uniform pale dirty yellowish olive." (Griscom, I.e.). 

2 Vireo carmioli Baird, though not unlike V. griseus semiflavus in general 
coloration, nevertheless differs very markedly by proportionately much longer 
wings, shorter and more convex bill, and shorter, stouter tarsus. The lengthened 
pale yellow superciliary streak is another striking peculiarity. Its habitat in the 
Subtropical zone, taken in conjunction with the different proportions, makes it 
probable that we have to deal here with a separate specific entity. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: south slope of Volcan de Irazu, 
1. Panama: Boquete, Chiriquf, 1. 



122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Vireo carmioli Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 356, 1866 Dota Mountains, 
Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 97, 1868 Dota Mountains; Frantzius, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 295, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 203, pi. 12, fig. 3, 1882 Costa Rica (Dota Mountains 
and Volcan de Irazu) and Panama (Volcan de Chiriqui); Gadow, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 303, 1883 Costa Rica and Panama; Bangs, Proc. 
New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 59, 1902 Boquete, Chiriqui; Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 199, 1904 Costa Rica and Chiriqui (monog.) ; 
Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 274, 1910 Coliblanco and 
Volcan de Turrialba, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 
779, 1910 Volcan de Turrialba, Coliblanco, San Juan de Irazu, El Copey, 
Las Vueltas de Dota, Azahar de Cartago, Cachf, and Volcan de Irazu, 
Costa Rica (habits). 

Vireo carmioli (?) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 411, 1884 "Pirris" 
=Birris, Costa Rica (crit.). 

Vireo superciliaris (Ridgway MS.) Cherrie, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 14, p. 340, 
1891 Birris, Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Costa Rica and extreme western 
Panama (Chiriqui). 

8: Costa Rica (Coliblanco, 3; Volcan de Turrialba, 1; Volcan de 
Irazu, 2; La Estrella de Cartago, 2). 

*Vireo hypochryseus hypochryseus Sclater. GOLDEN VIREO. 

Vireo hypochryseus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 369, pi. 46 Mexico 
(type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in the British Museum); Lawrence, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 18, 1876 Quiotepec, Oaxaca; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 204, 1881 part, Oaxaca (Quio- 
tepec); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 304, 1883 part, Mexico; 
Loomis, Auk, 19, p. 88, 1902 Rosario, Sinaloa. 

Vireo hypochryseus hypochryseus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 201, 1904 western Mexico (monog., bibliog.). 

Range. Western Mexico, in states of Chihuahua (Hacienda de 
San Rafael), Sinaloa (Plomosas, Rosario), Jalisco (Barranca Ibarra, 
San Sebastian, Tuxpan), and Oaxaca (Quiotepec). 

1: Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 1). 
Vireo hypochryseus sordidus Nelson. TRES MARIAS VIREO. 

Vireo hypochryseus sordidus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 10, 1898 
Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 54, 1899 Maria Madre and Maria Mag- 
dalena Islands (habits); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 
202, 1904 Tres Marias Islands (monog.); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., (4), 15, p. 311, 1926 Maria Madre Island. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 123 

Vireo hypochryseus (not of Sclater) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 370, 1866 
Tres Marias (monog.); Grayson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 14, p. 281, 1871 
Tres Marias; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 272, 1874 Tres 
Marias; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 264, 1881 
part, Tres Marias; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 304, 1883 part, 
Tres Marias Islands. 

Range. Tres Marias Islands, off western Mexico. 
*Vireo vicinior Coues. GRAY VIREO. 

Vireo vicinior Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 75 Fort Whipple, 
Arizona (type in U. S. National Museum); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, 
p. 361, 1866 Fort Whipple (crit.); Elliot, Illustr. New Unfig. N. Amer. 
Bds., Part 1, pi. 7, 1869 Fort Whipple; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
8, p. 300, 1883 Arizona; Scott, Auk, 2, pp. 321-326, 1885 Santa Catalina 
Mountains, Arizona (habits, nest, and eggs); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 202, 1904 southern California, Nevada, Arizona, New 
Mexico, and northwestern Mexico (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 196, 1928 Lower California; van Rossem, Trans. 
San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 281, 1932 Saric, Sonora. 

Vireo vicinior californiciLS Stephens, Auk, 7, p. 159, 1890 east of Riverside, 
California (type lost, formerly in collection of F. Stephens; cf. Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 298, 1932). 

Range. Southern California (south from Kern County), southern 
Nevada, the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, and southwestern 
Colorado south to northwestern Lower California, Sonora (Guaymas, 
Saric), and Durango; possibly wintering in the Cape district of 
Lower California and in the two other Mexican states. 

1: New Mexico (Lone Mountain, 1). 
Vireo minus Nelson. 1 DWARF VIREO. 

Vireo nanus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 59, 1898 Querendaro, 
Michoacan, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 204, 1904 Querendaro. 

Range. Southwest Mexico, in State of Michoacan (Querendaro). 
*Vireo bellii belli! Audubon. BELL'S VIREO. 

Vireo belli(i) Audubon, Birds Amer. (8vo ed.), 7, p. 333, 1844 near St. Joseph, 
Missouri (cotypes in U. S. National Museum and in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
51, p. 18, 1899); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 358, 1866 part, localities 
in Kansas, Arkansas, and Texas; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 200, 1881 part, North America (excl. Arizona) and Mexico 

1 Vireo nanus Nelson, known from a single adult male in worn breeding 
plumage, is of uncertain affinity. More information about this species is urgently 
desired. 



124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Mazatlan; Santa Efigenia and Tehuantepec City, Oaxaca); Gadow, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 301, 1883 (monog.); Dearborn, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 125, 1907 Gualan, San JosS, and Patulul, 
Guatemala. 

Vireo bellii(i) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 204, 1904 (monog., 
full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 366, 1905 
Escuinapa, southern Sinaloa; Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 83, 1911 Guiaves, 
Galindo, Caballeros, and Rio Santa, Tamaulipas; Bangs and Peters, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 483, 1927 Presidio, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 68, 
p. 400, 1928 Chivela and Tapanatepec, Oaxaca; Griscom, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 64, p. 318, 1932 Sacapulas, Ocos, Hacienda California, 
and San Jose, Guatemala. 

Range. Breeds in Austral zones from northeastern Colorado, 
southern North Dakota, northern Illinois, and northwestern Indiana 
to eastern Texas and Tamaulipas; winters from Mexico to Guate- 
mala and northern Nicaragua; accidental in New Hampshire and 
Michigan. 

9: Illinois (Hamilton, 2); Kansas (Topeka, 1); Mexico (Iguala, 
Guerrero, 1); Guatemala (San Jose*, Escuintla, 2; Patulul, Solola, 1; 
Gualan, Zacapa, 2). 

*Vireo belli! medius Oberholser. TEXAS VIREO. 

Vireo bellii medius Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 17, Feb. 21, 
1903 Boquillas, Texas (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 206, 1904 southwestern Texas, 
south into Mexico (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 22, p. 179, 1906 Rancho Baillon, Durango. 

Range. Southwestern Texas (Presidio, Brewster, and Kinney 
counties) and southward into Mexico, in states of Durango, Coahuila, 
and Guanajuato. 1 

1: Texas (near Pecos, 1). 
*Vireo bellii arizonae Ridgway. ARIZONA VIREO. 

Vireo bellii arizonae Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 108, Sept. 30, 
1903 Tucson, Arizona (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 207, 1904 Arizona to western Texas and 
northwestern Mexico (monog., full bibliog.); Oberholser, Auk, 34, p. 
322, 1917 (crit., range); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, 
p. 280, 1931 San Javier, Saric, Obregon, Tesia, Chinobampo, north of 
Guaymas, and Tdbari Bay, Sonora. 

1 1 do not know on what authority the fourth edition of the A. O. U. Check 
List, 1931 (p. 235) extends its range as far south as Guatemala, whence this form 
has not yet been recorded. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 125 

Range. Breeds in the Lower Austral zone of southeastern Cali- 
fornia (along the Colorado River), southern Arizona, southwestern 
New Mexico, and central-western Texas south to Chihuahua and 
Sonora. 

3: Arizona (Tucson, 2; Fort Lowell, 1). 
*Vireo belli! pusillus Coues. LEAST VIREO. 

Vireo pusillus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 76, 1866 Cape 
San Lucas, Lower California (type in U. S. National Museum; cf. Ridg- 
way, Auk, 25, p. 224, 1908); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 360, 1866 
part, Cape San Lucas and San Diego, California; Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 302, 1883 part, California (ex Baird). 

Vireo pusillus albatus Grinnell, Condor, 3, p. 187, 1901 Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia (type in coll. of J. Grinnell, now in Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 
Berkeley; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 298, 1932); idem, 
Auk, 25, p. 85, 1908 (crit.). 

Vireo bellii pusillus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 208, 1904 
(monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 196, 
1928 Lower California (crit.). 

Range. Breeds, chiefly in Lower Austral zone, from the upper 
Sacramento Valley, California, mainly west of the high Sierra, to 
about latitude 30 in Lower California; winters in southern Lower 
California. 

4: California (Kern County, 1; Riverside, 1; Stockton, 1; 
Dulzura, 1). 

*Vireo latimeri Baird. LATIMER'S VIREO. 

Vireo latimeri Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 364, 1866 north side of Porto 
Rico (type in U. S. National Museum); Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
10, p. 252, 1866 Porto Rico; Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forh., 
26, p. 596, 1869 Porto Rico; Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 165, 1878 
Porto Rico (nest and eggs); idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 167, 
1878 Porto Rico; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 304, 1883 Porto 
Rico; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 187, 1886 Porto Rico (descr.) ; idem, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 74, 1889 Porto Rico; Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 16, 1903 San Juan, 
Mayagtiez (habits, song); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 210, 1904 Porto Rico (monog.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 
326, p. 95, 1916 Porto Rico (food); Struthers, Auk, 40, p. 476, 1923 
Porto Rico; Danforth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 10, p. 114, 1926 
Cartagena and Anegada lagoons, Ensenada, Cabo Rojo Lighthouse, 
and between Utuado and Arecibo; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and 
Virgin Is., 9, p. 492, 1927 Porto Rico (monog.). 

Range. Island of Porto Rico (western parts), Greater Antilles. 
8: Porto Rico (unspecified, 8). 



126 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Vireo flavifrons Vieillot. YELLOW-THROATED VIREO. 

Vireo flavifrons Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 85, pi. 54, 
pub. 1808 "Etats Unis"= eastern United States (part, descr. of male; 1 
type in coll. of P. L. Vieillot); Audubon, Orn. Biog., 2, p. 119, pi. 119, 
1834 (monog., habits); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 324 Pirico, Colombia; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 194, 1881 eastern 
North America and Central America south to Panama and Colombia; 
Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 298, 1883 (monog.); Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 173, 1900 Onaca, Santa Marta, Colombia; 
idem, Auk, 17, p. 366, 1900 Onaca and Minca, Colombia; Griscom, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 317, 1932 Guatemala (winter). 

Vireosylvia flavifrons Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 346, 1866 eastern United 
States south to Costa Rica (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, 
p. 118 Minca, Colombia. 

Lanivireo flavifrons Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 163, 1904 
(monog.); Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama Is., p. 365, 1905 New 
Providence, Cay Lobos, and Andros; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, p. 124, 1907 Gualan and El Rancho, Guatemala; Ferry, 
I.e., p. 274, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 781, 1910 Pigres, Cachi, Carrfllo, Guapiles, and El Hogar, Costa 
Rica; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 540, 1917 Santa Elena, 
Colombia; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 431, 1922 
Minca and Onaca, Colombia; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 108, 
1923 Cardenas, Cuba, and Caballos Mountains, Isle of Pines; Griscom, 
Amer. Mus. Nov., 282, p. 7, 1927 GarachinS, Panama. 

Muscicapa sylvicola Wilson, Amer. Orn., 1, p. 117, pi. 7, fig. 3, 1818 (after 
Sept. 1) no locality stated, but apparently Pennsylvania (type in Peale's 
Museum, probably lost). 

Range. Transition and Austral zones of eastern North America, 
from Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, Ontario, southern Quebec, 
and Maine south to Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, and northern 
Florida; winters from eastern and southern Mexico through Central 
America to Panama and Colombia (Pirico; Santa Elena; Onaca and 
Minca, Santa Marta district), casually in the Bahamas (New Provi- 
dence, Cay Lobos, Andros), Cuba, and the Isle of Pines. 

51 : Connecticut (East Hartford, 9) ; Massachusetts (unspecified, 
1); New York (Cayuga, 1; Sennett, 1; Shelter Island, 2); Rhode 
Island (Fruit Hill, 1); New Jersey (Englewood, 1); District of 
Columbia (Washington, 1); Florida (Nassau County, 1; Key West, 
2; Puntarasa, 1); Mississippi (Holly Springs, 1); Louisiana (New 
Orleans, 1); Texas (Corpus Christi, 2; Fort Worth, 1); Illinois (Addi- 
son, 1; Grand Chain, 4; Waukegan, 2; Lake Forest, 1; Prairie View, 
1; Deer-field, 2); Indiana (Bluffton, 1; Brookville, 1); Wisconsin 

1 The alleged "female" unquestionably pertains to V. s. solitarius. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 127 

(Beaver Dam, 9); Guatemala (Gualan, Zacapa, 2); Costa Rica 
(Guayabo, 1). 

*Vireo solitarius solitarius (Wilson). 1 SOLITARY VIREO. 

Muscicapa solitaria Wilson, Amer. Orn., 2, p. 143, pi. 17, fig. 6, 1810 Bar- 
tram's Woods, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (location of type not 
indicated, probably lost). 

Vireosylvia solitaria Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 347, 1866 (part). 

Lanivireo solitarius solitarius Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 167, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 83, 1911 
Tamaulipas; 2 Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 108, 1923 Car- 
denas, Cuba. 

Vireo solitarius Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 196, 
1881 North America, in winter south to Guatemala; Gadow, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 298, 1883 (monog.). 

Vireo solitarius solitarius Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 317, 1932 
Guatemala (crit.). 

Lanivireo solitarius Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 124, 
1907 Lake Atitlan and road to Tecpam, Guatemala. 

Range. Canadian and Transition zones of North America from 
southern Mackenzie, Alberta, central Manitoba, northern Ontario, 
southern Quebec, and Cape Breton Island south to northern North 
Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan, the mountains of southern Pennsyl- 
vania, and Rhode Island; winters in the Gulf states from Texas 
to Florida and from eastern Mexico to northern Nicaragua; acci- 
dental in Cuba. 

32: Connecticut (East Hartford, 9); Massachusetts (Ipswich, 
1; Taunton, 1); New York (Miller Place, Suffolk County, 2); Wis- 
consin (Beaver Dam, 1; Woodruff, Vilas County, 1); Illinois (Deer- 
field, 2; Lake Forest, 3; Waukegan, 1; Ravinia, 1); Ohio (Columbus, 
1); Arkansas (Winslow, 1); Georgia (Sapelo Island, 1); Louisiana 

1 Vireo propinquus (Baird). VERA PAZ VIREO. 

Vireosylvia propinqua Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 348, 1866 Coban, Vera 

Paz (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Vireo propinquus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 197 

(in text), 1881 Coban (crit.). 
Lanivireo propinquus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 166, 

1904 Coban (crit.). 

This supposed "species," resting on a single specimen, obtained with numbers 
of V. flavifrons and V. s. solitarius in their winter quarters at Coban in Guatemala, 
and intermediate in wing structure and coloration, is probably a hybrid between 
these two species. 

2 Mr. Peters (in litt.) does not believe that any of the specimens, even those 
taken in May and June, were breeding birds. 



128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Buras, 1); Texas (Harlingen, 1); Mexico (San Luis Potosi, 1; 
Pueblo Viejo, Vera Cruz, 1); Guatemala (near Tecpam, 1; Lake 
Atitlan, 1; Coban, 1). 

*Vireo solitarius alticola Brewster. MOUNTAIN VIREO. 

Vireo solitarius alticola Brewster, Auk, 3, p. Ill, 1886 highlands of Macon 
County, North Carolina (type in collection of W. Brewster, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 344, 1930). 

Lanivireo solitarius alticola Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 
169, 1904 southern Allegheny Mountains (monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Canadian and Transition zones of the Alleghenies, 
from western Maryland to eastern Tennessee and northern Georgia; 
winters in the lowlands from South Carolina to Florida. 

12: Florida (Gainesville, 3; Town Point, Santa Rosa County, 1; 
Miami Beach, 1; Nassau County, 2; Lake Worth, 1); South Carolina 
(Mount Pleasant, 1); North Carolina (Raleigh, 3). 

*Vireo solitarius plumbeus Coues. PLUMBEOUS VIREO. 

Vireo plumbeus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 74 "High 
central plains to the Pacific" (type from Fort Whipple, Arizona, in U. S. 
National Museum); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 198, 1881 southern Rocky Mountains and Mexico (plains of Colima. 
and Oaxaca). 

Vireosylvia plumbea Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 349, 1866 southern 
Rocky Mountains, in winter to Colima, Mexico (monog.). 

Vireo solitarius subsp. /3 Vireo plumbeus Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 
299, 1883 Arizona to northern Mexico (crit.). 

Lanivireo solitarius plumbeus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 170, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
22, p. 179, 1906 Rio Sestin, Durango; McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(4), 16, p. 41, 1927 Labrados, Sinaloa. 

Vireo solitarius plumbeus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 40, 
1898 Las Vegas, Vera Cruz (breeding); Gary, Auk, 18, p. 237, 1901 
Black Hills, Wyoming; Oberholser, Auk, 19, p. 301, 1902 mountains 
west of Pecos River, Texas; van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 
6, p. 281, 1931 Tesia and Chinobampo, Sonora. 

Range. Rocky Mountains from northern Nevada, northern 
Utah, southern Montana, northeastern Wyoming, and southwestern 
South Dakota south through Arizona and western Texas to Chi- 
huahua and Vera Cruz, Mexico; winters south to Colima and 
Oaxaca. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 129 

11: Arizona (Huachuca Mountains, 4; Chiricahua Mountains, 1; 
Santa Rita Mountains, 2; Paradise, 1); New Mexico (Silver City, 1); 
Texas (Fort Davis, 1); Mexico (Babicora, Chihuahua, 1). 

*Vireo solitarius cassinii Xantus. CASSIN'S VIREO. 

Vireo cassinii(i) Xantus, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1858, p. 117 Fort 
Tejon, California (type in U. S. National Museum) ; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 197, 1881 California and Mexico. 

Vireo solitarius subsp. a Vireo cassini Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 299, 
1883 California, Nevada, "Arizona," and northern Mexico. 

Lanivireo solitarius cassinii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 172, 
1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, 
p. 179, 1906 La Cienaga de las Vacas and Rio Sestin, Durango. 

Vireo solitarius cassinii Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 195, 1928 
Sierra San Pedro Martir, Lower California (breeding); van Rossem, 
Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 281, 1931 Tecoripa, Saric, and 
Chinobampo, Sonora; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 318, 1932^ 
Finca La Primavera, Guatemala. 

Range. Transition zone from British Columbia, southwestern 
Alberta, Idaho, and western Montana south through California and 
western Nevada to the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Lower California; 
in winter south through Arizona to Jalisco, Michoacan, Guanajuato, 
Oaxaca, and Chiapas, Mexico, and western Guatemala (one record). 

8: Arizona (Chiricahua Mountains, 3; Huachuca Mountains, 1; 
Ciengo Station, 1); New Mexico (Mimbres, 1); California (Piute 
Mountains, Kern County, 1); Mexico (Lower California, 1). 

*Vireo solitarius lucasanus Brewster. SAN LUCAS VIREO. 

Vireo solitarius lucasanus Brewster, Auk, 8, p. 147, 1891 San Jos6 del Rancho 
[near Triunfo], Lower California (type in collection of W. Brewster, now 
in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 344, 1930); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, 
p. 174, 1902 San Jose del Cabo, San Jose del Rancho, etc., Cape region 
of Lower California (habits, nest, and eggs); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 32, p. 195, 1928 Cape district of Lower California. 

Lanivireo solitarius lucasanus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 175, 1904 Cape District (monog., full bibliog.); Townsend, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 48, p. 22, 1923 Miraflores and San Bernardo 
Mountains. 

Range. Resident in the Cape San Lucas district of Lower 
California. 

4: Mexico (Lower California, Sierra de la Laguna, 4). 



130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Vireo solitarius notius van Tyne. 1 PINE RIDGE VIREO. 

Vireo solitarius notius van Tyne, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 
256, p. 2, Feb., 1933 pine ridge region, twelve miles south of El Cayo, 
British Honduras (type in University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology). 

Range. Pine ridge region of British Honduras (south of El Cayo). 
Vireo solitarius montanus van Rossem. 2 MONTANE VIREO. 

Vireo solitarius montanus van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, No. 24, 
p. 285, Oct. 6, 1933 Hacienda Chilata, Dept. Sonsonate, El Salvador 
(type in California Institute of Technology, Pasadena). 

Vireo solitarius solitarius (not Muscicapa solitaria Wilson) Griscom, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 317, 1932 part, Finca La Primavera, mountains 
of Guatemala. 

Range. Mountains of Guatemala (Finca La Primavera) and El 
Salvador (San Jose" del Sacare; Hacienda Chilata). 

*Vireo virescens virescens Vieillot. 3 RED-EYED VIREO. 

Vireo virescens Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Ame'r. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 84, 
pi. 53, 1808 no locality given (type in coll. of P. L. Vieillot); idem, 

1 Vireo solitarius notius van Tyne: "Much like V. solitarius cassini, but charac- 
terized by a very short, rounded wing and proportionately longer tail. Wing 
tip shorter than tarsus; fifth primary longer than ninth; tenth (outermost) primary 
decidedly larger than in the other known forms of the species. Wing, 63-65, 
(female) 65-66; tail, 48^-50. Colored like V. s. cassini, but the upper parts, 
especially the crown darker; crown and auricular region pure gray, not washed 
with green; outer web of the outer tail feathers more extensively white." (van 
Tyne, I.e.). 

2 Vireo solitarius montanus van Rossem: "Nearest to V. s. notius, but decidedly 
larger and under parts more heavily overlaid with dusky olive green. Wing, 
68-69; tail, 52." (van Rossem, I.e.). 

This race, according to the describer, differs from V. s. cassinii in slightly 
darker, more leaden upper parts, darker and more greenish under parts, the 
lateral tail feathers having more white on both webs, in having a much longer 
outer primary, and more rounded wing, in which the fifth primary is longer than 
the ninth. 

3 Motacilla olivacea Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 327, 1766) has been 
universally accepted for the Red-eyed Vireo, following Baird (Rev. Amer. Bds., 
1, p. 335, 1866), who sought to restrict the name to that species. Linnaeus never 
handled a specimen himself, but based his description merely on the accounts 
of earlier authors. Of these, the "Olive-coloured Fly-catcher" of Edwards (Glean. 
Nat. Hist., 1, p. 54, pi. 54, lower fig.) is the Black-whiskered Vireo of Jamaica, 
whereas "The Red-ey'd Fly-catcher" of Catesby (Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 54, 
pi. 54, lower fig.) represents indeed the North American species. The third 
reference, Muscicapa jamaicensis Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 410, 1760), refers partly 
to the one, partly to the other species. As Linnaeus's diagnosis affords no clue 
as to which one served as his principal basis, I see no way but to reject the name 
Motacilla olivacea on account of its ambiguity rather than transfer it to the Black- 
whiskered Vireo, as has been proposed by Bangs and Penard (Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 67, p. 206, 1925). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 131 

Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 36, p. 104, 1819 type locality stated 
to be New Jersey. 1 

Vireo bogotensis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 227, 1860 Bogota, 
Colombia (type in coll. of H. Bryant, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 67, p. 205, 1925). 

Vireosylvia agilis (not Lanius agilis Lichtenstein) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, 
p. 73, 1868 part, Marabitanas, Rio Negro, Brazil (male, March 9; 
female, March 3; spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 

Vireosylv(i)a olivacea (not Motacilla olivacea Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 23, p. 151, 1855 Bogota; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1879, p. 495 Medellin and Remedios, Colombia; Salvin and 
Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 118 Santa Marta; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 
32, p. 285, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 147, 1903 (monog., full bibliog.); Riley, in Shat- 
tuck, The Bahama Islands, p. 365, 1905 New Providence, Cay Lobos, 
Watlings Island, and Great Inagua; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 783, 1910 Costa Rica; Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 
2, p. 156, 1916 Boca de Sina, Rio Cunucunuma, Venezuela; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 539, 1917 Santa Elena, Chicoral, and 
Villavicencio, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 586, 1926 Rio Suno, Ecuador; 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 432, 1922 Mamatoco, 
La Tigrera, and Fundacion, Santa Marta, Colombia; Bangs and Barbour, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 223, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darien. 

Vireo olivaceus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 188, 
1881; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 294, 1883 (monog.); Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 346, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; idem, 
Auk, 17, p. 366, 1900 Colombia; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, 
p. 277, 1905 Don Diego, Santa Marta; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 
1, p. 335, 1907 Matto Grosso and Venezuela (Merida); Chubb, Bds. 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 392, 1921 Ituribisci River, British Guiana. 

Vireosylva virescens virescens Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 333, 
1930 Matto Grosso (Chapada). 

Range. Breeds from British Columbia, Mackenzie, Manitoba, 
Ontario, Anticosti Island, and Cape Breton Island south to Oregon, 
Washington, Idaho, southern Montana, eastern Wyoming and 
Colorado, western Texas, northern Coahuila, southern Alabama, 
and central Florida; 2 migrates through Central America (casually 

1 Bangs and Penard (I.e., p. 205, 1925) suggest Pennsylvania as type locality. 
Vieillot (l.s. c., p. 104), however, quite explicitly says: "Je n'ai rencontre qu'un 
seul individu de cette espece dans un bosquet de New-Jersey." 

2 Salvin (Ibis, 1890, p. 84) claims to have "received, both from Mr. W. B. 
Richardson and Mr. Blancaneaux, eggs of this species [=Vireo olivaceus] along with 
the parent birds," and adds "that its residence in eastern Mexico and British 
Honduras is proved, and almost certainly extends to the Bay Islands, whence 
skins have been sent us." We cannot help thinking that there must be some 



132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cuba and the Bahamas) and winters in the northern half of South 
America, south to Bolivia and western Brazil (Matto Grosso). 1 

148: Maine (Upton, 1); Connecticut (East Hartford, 12); Massa- 
chusetts (Great Island, 1; Brookline, 1; Longwood, 1; Ipswich, 1; 
unspecified, 1); New York (Shelter Island, 7; Rochester, 1; Suffolk 
County, 1; Locust Grove, 1); Pennsylvania (Erie, 1); North Carolina 
(Raleigh, 3); Florida (East Pass, 1; Gainesville, 2; Puntarasa, 3; 
Mary Esther, 1; Key West, 1); Georgia (Altamaha River swamp, 1); 
Mississippi (Vicksburg, 4; Holly Springs, 10); Louisiana (New 
Orleans, 1); Texas (Fort Worth, 3; Ingram, 1); Arkansas (Winslow, 
1); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 2); Montana (Columbia Falls, 4); Iowa 
(Cedar Rapids, 2); Illinois (Grand Chain, 10; Olive Branch, 2; 
Mound City, 6; Cahokia River, St. Clair County, 1; Cook County, 
2; Chicago, 6; Lake Forest, 7; Lyons, 2; Deerneld, 4; Libertyville, 2; 
Ravinia, 2; Joliet, 6; Waukegan, 2; Hegewisch, 1; Glen Ellyn, 3; 
Addison, 1; Henry, 4); Wisconsin (Woodruff, Vilas County, 2; 
Beaver Dam, 10); Michigan (Harbert, 1); Mexico (Yucatan, Rio 
Lagartos, 1); Bahama Islands (Inagua, Horse Pond, 1; Watlings 
Island, Riding Rock, 1); Cuba, Isle of Pines (Nueva Gerona, 1); 
Brazil (Chapada, Matto Grosso, 1). 

*Vireo virescens flavoviridis (Cassin). 2 YELLOW-GREEN VIREO. 

Vireosylvia flavoviridis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, p. 152, 1851 
Panama and San Juan de Nicaragua, Nicaragua (type formerly in coll. 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 31, 1899); idem, I.e., 6, pi. 2, 1852; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 298, 1856 Cordoba, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 27, 

mistake here with respect to the identification of either eggs or birds, as the Red- 
eyed Vireo has not since been found breeding so far south. 

1 Unquestionable Red-eyed Vireos from yet unrecorded winter localities, 
which we have examined, are male and female, the latter in full molt, collected 
by J. Natterer on March 9 and 3, 1831, respectively, at Marabitanas, Rio Negro 
(Vienna Museum) ; an adult female shot by the brothers Watkins on November 
29, 1910, at Yahuarmayo, Sierra de Carabaya, southern Peru (Munich Museum) 
and two males obtained by S. Bricerio on October 20, 1902, at Merida, Venezuela 
(Hungarian National Museum, Budapest). 

2 1 cannot see in V. flavoviridis anything but a well-marked race of the Red- 
eyed Vireo. While very different from the North American form, it is closely 
connected with certain specimens of V. v. vividior as to color characters. The 
Mexican form (flavoviridis), I admit, is rather larger than any of the "chivi" 
races, but the gap is completely bridged by the smaller V. v. insulanus, the latter 
having about the same proportions as V. v. vividior. There is apparently less 
variation in the wing formula in the races of flavoviridis, the first primary falling 
always between the fourth and fifth. Numerous specimens of the "chivi" group, 
however, show the same shape of the wing. It will also be remembered that no 
other vireo of this group, neither the Red-eyed nor any of the "chivi" forms, breeds 
where a representative of the "flavoviridis" section occurs during the nesting period. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 133 

p. 375, 1859 Playa Vicente, Oaxaca; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 
p. 12 Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 44, 1862 Guate- 
mala; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 323, 1861 Panama 
Railroad; idem, I.e., 9, p. 96, 1868 San Jos6 and "Aterias" [=Atenas], 
Costa Rica; idem, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 272, 1874 Mazatlan 
and Rosario, Mexico; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 17, 1876 Te- 
huantepec (Tapana, Santa Efigenia); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 336, 
1866 part, Monterey, Rosario, near Colima, Mexico, and San Jose, 
Costa Rica; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 547, 1869 neigh- 
borhood of Orizaba, Vera Cruz; (?) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 
p. 137 Santa Fe and Cordillera de TolS, Veragua; Frantzius, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 295, 1869 Costa Rica; (?) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 184 Mina de Chorcha and Bugaba, Chiriqui, and Chitra, Ver- 
agua; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 509 Monterico, Peru; Boucard, I.e., 
1878, p. 53 San Jose, Costa Rica; idem, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, 
p. 41, 1878 Guatemala; Merrill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 125, 1878 
Fort Brown, Texas (Aug. 23); Nutting, I.e., 5, p. 391, 1882 La Palma de 
Nicoya, Costa Rica; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 7 
Yurimaguas, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 1, p. 445, 1884 Monterico and Yuri- 
maguas, Peru; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 124, 
1907 Mazatenango, Guatemala; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
34, p. 73, 1928 San Jose", Ecuador. 

Vireo flavoviridis Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 189, 
1881 part, excl. Tres Marias Islands; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, 
p. 295, 1883 Guajango (Peru), Rio Napo (Ecuador), (?) Veragua, (?) 
Panama, and Bolivia; Merriam, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 213, 1883 
Godbout, Quebec (May 13) ? Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, 
p. 108, 1887 Costa Rica (San Jose", Alajuela, Tambor de Alajuela) and 
(?) Panama; Price, Auk, 5, p. 210, 1888 Riverside, California (Oct. 1); 
Cherrie, Auk, 7, pp. 329, 335, 1890 San Jose, Costa Rica (habits, nest 
and eggs); Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 778, 1893 Barranca 
Ibarra, Jalisco; Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 434 Miravalles, Costa Rica; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 173, 1900 Bonda, Santa Marta, 
Colombia; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 3, p. 58, 1902 Boquete and 
Bugaba, Chiriqui; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 107, 1906 
Huaynapata and Rio Cadena, Peru. 

Vireosylva flavoviridis flavoviridis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 144, 1904 (monog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 366, 1905 
Escuinapa, southern Sinaloa (with nest); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
50, p. 136, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 784, 1910 Costa Rica (habits); Peters, Auk, 30, p. 377, 1913 
Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 539, 1917 Chicoral, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 586, 1926 below 
San Jose and lower Sumaco, eastern Ecuador; Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 434, 1922 Bonda, Buritaca, Mamatoco, Gaira, 
Punto Caiman, Tucurinca, and Fundacion, Colombia; Bangs and Peters, 

1 The measurements given for this specimen (wing, 72; tail, 48) are remarkably 
small. 



134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 482, 1927 Presidio, Vera Cruz; idem, 
I.e., 68, p. 399, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca. 

Vireo flavoviridis flavoviridis Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 183, 
1928 Cana, Panama; Peters, I.e., 71, p. 333, 1931 Changuinola, 
Panama; idem, Auk, 48, p. 576, 1931 (crit., range, migration); Darling- 
ton, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 410, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, 
Colombia; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 366, 1932 Perme, Panama; idem, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 315, 1932 Guatemala. 

Phyllomanes flavoviridis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 93, 1861 Costa Rica. 

Vireosylva insulanus (not Vireo insulanus Bangs, 1902) Thayer and Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 154, 1905 part, Saboga Island, Pearl 
Islands (April). 

Range. Breeds in Mexico, from Sinaloa, Nuevo Leon, and 
Tamaulipas, south on the Pacific coast to northwestern Costa Rica 
and on the Caribbean slope to eastern Guatemala; migrates through 
southern Central America and Colombia, and winters in upper 
Amazonia (eastern Ecuador; Iquitos, Guajango, Yurimaguas, Mon- 
terico, Rio Huaynapata, Rio Cadena, eastern Peru; Tres Arroyas, 
Bolivia). Accidental at Brownsville, Texas (Aug. 23, 1877); River- 
side, California (Oct. 1 [=Sept. 29], 1887); and Godbout, Quebec 
(May 13, 1883). 

12: Mexico (Valles, San Luis Potosi, 1; San Felipe, Yucatan 
[June 4, 1893], 1); Guatemala (Mazatenango, 1; unspecified, 1); 
Costa Rica (Las Canas, 5; BebedeYo, 1; San Jose", 1); Bolivia (Tres 
Arroyas [Feb. 24, 1915], I). 1 

Vireo virescens forreri Madardsz. 2 FORRER'S VIREO. 

Vireo forreri Madarasz, Termesz. Fiizet., 9, p. 85, pi. 6, 1885 Tres Marias 

Islands, western Mexico (type in Hungarian National Museum, 

Budapest). 
Vireo flavoviridis forreri Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 54, 1899 Tres 

Marias Islands (crit., habits); Peters, Auk, 48, p. 581, 1931 Tres Marias 

(crit.). 
Vireosylva flavoviridis forreri Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 

p. 146, 1904 Tres Marias (monog.); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 

(4), 15, p. 310, 1926 Maria Madre and Maria Magdalena Islands. 
Vireo flavoviridis (not of Cassin) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 

Aves, 1, p. 189, 1881 part, Tres Marias. 

1 Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Bebed6ro, 7 (including a fledgling, 
taken June 26); San Jose, 11. Colombia: "Bogota," 5. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 1. 

2 Vireo virescens forreri Madarasz: Most similar to V. v. flavoviridis, but even 
larger; superciliary streak obsolete; dusky border of the pileum merely suggested. 
Wing of (three) adult males, 83-87. 

As pointed out by Mr. Peters, Ferrer's Vireo is probably migratory, but, if 
so, dates of migration and winter home are unknown. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 135 

Range. Tres Marias Islands (Madre and Maria Magdalena), 
off western Mexico. 

*Vireo virescens insulanus Bangs. 1 SOUTHERN YELLOW-GREEN 
VIREO. 

Vireo insulanus Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 73, 1902 San Miguel 
Island, Gulf of Panama (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 343, 1930). 

Vireosylva insulanus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 147, 1904 
San Miguel Island; Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, 
p. 154, 1905 part, San Miguel, Pearl Islands. 

Vireosylva flavoviridis insulanus Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 13, No. 4, p. 43, 1920 
Viveros Island (crit.). 

Vireo flavoviridis insulanus Peters, Auk, 48, p. 582, 1931 Pearl Islands, 
Canal Zone, and Terraba Valley, Costa Rica (monog.). 

Vireo chivi agilis (not Lanius agilis Lichtenstein) Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 30, 
1901 San Miguel Island. 

Vireosylva flavoviridis flavoviridis (not of Cassin) Thayer and Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 220, 1906 savanna of Panama (May); Bangs, 
24, p. 305, 1907 Boruca, Paso Real and Barranca, southwestern Costa 
Rica; Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 223, 1922 
Mount Sapo, Darien; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 273, 
1918 Agua Clara, Panama; Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 324, 1924 Juan 
Mina, Balboa, and Corozal, Panama. 

Vireo flavoviridis Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, 
p. 136, 1893 Lagarto, Terraba, and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica. 

Vireosylvia flavoviridis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 336, 1866 part, Isthmus 
of Panama (Jan. 25); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 339, p. 3, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Darien (July). 

Range. Breeds in the T&raba Valley, southwestern Costa Rica, 
in the Canal Zone (chiefly on the Pacific side) and probably other 
suitable localities on the Pacific coast of Panama, as well as on 
San Miguel Island, Pearl Archipelago; probably migratory, but 
winter home unknown. 

1: Panama. 

1 Vireo virescens insulanus Bangs: Similar to V. v. flavoviridis, but smaller, 
and dusky lateral border to pileum obsolete. Wing, 74-79, (female) 71-78. 

In a very able paper, Mr. Peters has worked out the range and migration of 
this smaller, southern representative of the Yellow-green Vireo, which replaces 
its northern ally in southwestern Costa Rica, Panama, and on San Miguel Island. 
It is supposed to be migratory, though we know yet nothing about where it spends 
the winter months. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Buenos Aires, 2; Lagarto, 3; 
Terraba, 2. 



136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Vireo virescens chivi (Vieillot). 1 CHIVI VIREO. 

Sylvia chivi Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 11, p. 174, 1817 
based on "Gaviero" Azara, No. 152, Paraguay. 

Lanius agilis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 49, 1823 Bahia 
(type in Berlin Museum). 

Thamnophilus agilis Spix, Av. Bras., 2, p. 25, pi. 34, fig. 1, 1825 no locality 
indicated (spec, lost; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
22, No. 3, p. 656, 1906). 

Vireo bartramii Swainson, in Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, "1831," 
p. 235, Feb., 1832 Brazil and "South Carolina," errore (type from 
Brazil, latitude 12 S., in coll. of Swainson, now in University Museum, 
Cambridge, England). 

Curruca olivacea Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 15, p. 664, April, 
1830 "L'ile de Sainte-Catherine, Bresil" (type in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Muscicapa agilis Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 795, 1831 Brazil 
(nesting habits). 

Phyllomanes agilis Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 108, 1856 
Brazil. 

Vireo virescens (not of Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in 
Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 9, 1837 Corrientes and Bolivia (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Vireo olivaceus (not Motacilla olivacea Linnaeus) d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame>. 
Meiid., Ois., p. 162, 1838 Corrientes and Bolivia (Moxos, Chiquitos, 
Yungas, Yuracares). 

Vireosylv(i)a chivi Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 337, 1866 Bahia and Ver- 
mejo River, Paraguay; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, 
p. 160 Buenos Ayres; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 
1870, p. 439 Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, and Rio de Janeiro (Rio and 
Aldea da Pedra); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 232, 1873 Blumenau, 
Santa Catharina; idem and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 115, 1885 
Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 5, 1887 
Lambare, Paraguay; Sclater and Salvin, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 22, 1888 
Buenos Aires; Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 118, 1891 southeastern 
Cordoba; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 123 Fortin Page and Fortin Nueve, 
lower Pilcomayo; Holland, Ibis, 1895, p. 214 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 3, 1895 Colonia 
Risso, Paraguay, and Resistencia, Chaco Austral, Argentina; idem, 

1 1 fully concur with Mr. Zimmer (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 
414, 1930) in considering V. chivi to be conspecific with the Red-eyed Vireo. 
Neither general coloration nor pattern offer specific differences, though in fresh 
plumage the North American bird is distinguishable by its dull-colored ("washed 
out") upper parts and very pale yellowish under wing and under tail coverts. The 
shorter first primary of the South American races is very nearly bridged by indi- 
vidual variation, although in North American birds this feather obviously is never 
shorter than the fifth, which frequently obtains in the forms of tropical America. 
However, as insisted upon by Mr. Zimmer, certain specimens of the two continents 
run very close in that respect. 






1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 137 

I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 5, 1897 San Francisco, Bolivia; Lillo, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 174, 1902 Tucuman; Baer, Onus, 
12, p. 215, 1904 Tapia, Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, 
p. 40, 1905 Tucuman; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 89 Paraguay (Villa Franca), 
Corrientes (Bella Vista, Goya), and Entre Rios (Santa Elena); Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 61, 1914 Alto Parana; Dinelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 253, 
1924 Prov. Tucuman (eggs descr.). 

Vireosylva chivi chivi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 132, 1904 
Paraguay, Argentina, and southern Brazil; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 365, 1911 Cordoba, Tucuman, Pilcomayo, 
and Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud, Tigre); idem, El Hornero, 1, p. 243, 
1919 Isla Martin Garcia; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 170, 1923 San Isidro, 
Buenos Aires; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 105, 1921 Santa 
Ana, Idma, and San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, p. 586, 1926 below San JosS, Ecuador, and Chinchipe 
Valley, Peru (crit.); Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 
184, 1926 Marechal Mallet, Rio Claro, Faz. Firmiano, Durski, etc., 
Parana; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 313, 1928 Monte Serrat, 
Itatiaya; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, 
p. 308, 1930 Argentina (Tapikiole, Formosa) and Bolivia (San Jos6, 
Santa Cruz; Villa Montes and Fortin Esteros, Tarija); Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 333, 1930 Urucum, Belvedere de Urucum, 
Tapirapoan, and Utiarity, Matto Grosso. 

Phyllomanes chivi Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; 
idem, I.e., 26, p. 195, 1878 Sierra de Cordoba; Stempelmann and Schulz, 
Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 Cordoba. 

Vireo chivi Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 295, 1883 part; Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 37, p. 294, 1889 Yurimaguas, Peru; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 2, p. 79, 1889 Mapiri, Bolivia; idem, I.e., 3, p. 345, 1891 
Chapada, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, 
p. 117, 1899 Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
3, p. 136, 1899 Piracicaba and Iguape, Sao Paulo; Euler, I.e., 4, p. 15, 
1900 (nesting habits); Ihering, I.e., 4, pp. 152, 204, 1900 Cantagallo 
(nesting habits); idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 335, 1907 part, Sao 
Paulo (Ypiranga, Itapura, Bebedouro, Rio Feio, Iguape, Ubatuba, 
Piquete, Rincao), Matto Grosso (Porto da Faya), and La Plata; Ber- 
lepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 76, 1906 Santa Ana, Urubamba, 
Peru; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 22, 1908 Rio Araguaya, Goyaz; 
Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 167, 1909 Buenos Aires and Chaco 
(eggs descr.); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 612 Sapucay, Paraguay; Dabbene, 
Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 353, 1914 (range); M6n6gaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 
1917, p. 85 Pocon6, Matto Grosso; Giacomelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 68, 
1923 La Rioja; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 654, 1924 
Prov. Buenos Aires; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
2, No. 6, pp. 41, 59, 1926 Ceara and Maranhao (Anil, Tury-assu). 

Vireo chivi chivi Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 193, 1921 Mojos and Cor- 
rientes (crit.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 367, 1926 Para- 
guay (Cerro Lorito, near Puerto Pinasco), Uruguay (San Vicente, Rio 



138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cebollati), and Tucuman (Tapia); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

68, p. 216, 1927 Concepci6n, Tucuman. 
Vireosylvia agilis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 338, 1866 part, Buenos 

Aires and southern Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 73, 1868 part, 

Rio de Janeiro, Registo do Sai, Ypanema, Ytarar6, and Curytiba (spec. 

examined); Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 302 Sao Paulo. 
Vireosylva chivi agilis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 132, 

1904 part, Bahia and Matto Grosso; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Zool. Ser., 12, p. 260, 1929 Maranhao (Sao Luiz, Rosario, Tranqueira, 

Barra do Corda, Codo), Piauhy (Arara, Parnagua, Olho d'Agua), and 

Ceara (Jua). 
Vireosylvia olivacea Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 595 

Bolivia (Moxos, Chiquitos, Yungas, Yuracares, Guanai). 
Vireo olivaceus chivi Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 

76, p. 79, 1910 Bahia (Bahia, Barra, Barrocao on the Rio Preto) and 

Piauhy (Parnagua, Olho d'Agua, Oro). 
Vireosylva virescens chivi Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 

413, 1930 Vista Alegre and Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 
Vireosylva chivi griseibarbatus (not of Berlepsch and Taczanowski) Bangs 

and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 457, 1918 Bellavista and Perico, northern Peru. 

Range. Northern Argentina, south to La Rioja, Cordoba, and 
Buenos Aires; Uruguay; Paraguay; Brazil, north to Matto Grosso, 
Goyaz, Maranhao, and Ceara; Bolivia; eastern Peru 1 and eastern 
Ecuador. 2 

1 Various Peruvian records cannot be properly placed without reexamination 
of the specimens upon which they were based, as the respective authors did not 
clearly distinguish between the resident breeding form (V. v. chivi) and North 
American migrants (V. v. virescens). The principal references are as follows: 

Vireosylvia agilis Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 179 
upper Ucayali; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Chyavetas; idem, I.e., 1867, 
p. 977 Pebas. 

Vireosylvia olivacea Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 258 
upper Ucayali, Chyavetas, Chamicuros, Pebas; idem, I.e., 1876, p. 16 
Maranura and Huiro, Urubamba Valley; Taczanowski, I.e., 1879, p. 224 
Guajango, Rio Maranon; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 192 Callacate; idem, 
I.e., 1882, p. 7 Huambo; idem, Orn. Per., 1, p. 443, 1884 Peruvian 
localities. 

2 Further subdivision of this form seems hardly practicable. Birds from 
southern Brazil, as far north as Rio de Janeiro, agree perfectly with a series from 
Misiones, Paraguay, and the Chaco region. Peruvian and Bolivian specimens are 
possibly slightly duller above and less washed with greenish along the sides, thus 
displaying a slight tendency towards the characters of V. v. caucae. Two adults 
from the Rio Chinchipe, northwestern Peru, appear to me decidedly referable 
to the present form and not to V. v. griseobarbatus, with which birds of that 
region were identified by Bangs and Noble. In northeastern Brazil, from Bahia 
northward, these vireos are apt to become somewhat brighter in coloration, and 
while a good many are indistinguishable from southern examples, others run very 
close to the Amazonian race (V. v. solimoensis) . 

Additional material examined. Argentina, Prov. Buenos Aires: La Plata, 1; 
Barracas al Sud, 1; Tigr6, 1; Corrientes, 1; La Urbana, Formosa, 1; Tacaagle, 
Formosa, 1. Bolivia: Fortin Esteros, Rio Pilcomayo, Prov. Tarija, 2; Villa 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 139 

40: Argentina, Misiones (Rio Parana, 3; Caraguatay, Rio 
Parana, 3; El Dorado, 3; Puerto Segundo, 2; Iguazu, 2); Paraguay 
(Villa Rica, 1); Bolivia (Buena Vista, Dept. Santa Cruz, 1; Todos 
Santos, Rio Espirito Santo, 1); Peru (San Ramon, Chanchamayo, 1; 
Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, 2; Vista Alegre, Dept. Huanuco, 1; 
Hacienda Limon, ten miles west of Balsas, 2) ; Brazil, Bahia (Santo 
Amaro, 3; Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, 2); Matto Grosso 
(Chapada, 2); Ceara (Jua, near Iguatu, 1); Piauhy (Arara, 2); 
Maranhao (Barra do Corda, 2; Codo, Cocos, 1; Tranqueira, Alto 
Parnahyba, 1; Rosario, 2; Sao Luiz, 2). 

*Vireo virescens caucae (Chapman). 1 CAUCA VIREO. 

Vireosylva chivi caucae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 31, p. 159, 1912 
Cali, Cauca, Colombia (type in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 539, 1917 tropical zone of the Cauca Valley, 
Colombia. 

Vireosylvia virescens (not Vireo virescens Vieillot) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 23, p. 151, 1855 Bogota. 

Vireosylvia agilis (not Lanius agilis Lichtenstein) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 43, 1862 part, Bogota. 

Vireo caucae caucae Todd, Auk, 48, p. 412, 1931 western Colombia (Cauca 
Valley). 

Range. Tropical zone of western Colombia (western Andes; 
Dagua Valley; Cauca Valley; "Bogota"). 

2: Colombia ("Bogota," 2). 

Montes, 5; San Jos6, Santa Cruz, 1; Mojos, 1. Brazil: Ilha de Santa Catharina, 
1; Ararangua, Santa Catharina, 2; Roca Nova, Serra do Mar, Parana, 6; Curytiba, 
Parana, 2; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 4; Itarare, Sao Paulo, 1; Registre do Sai, Rio, 1; 
Bahia, 5; Barra, Bahia, 1; Rio Preto, 1; Parnagua, Piauhy, 2; Oro, Piauhy, 1. 

1 Vireo virescens caucae (Chapman) : Nearest to V. v. chivi, but back even duller, 
less greenish; superciliaries whitish instead of buffy; cheeks and auriculars dingy 
grayish rather than ecru drab; sides and flanks barely shaded with greenish. Wing, 
67-71; tail, 47-53; bill, 12J^-14. 

This appears to be a well-marked race, most closely resembling V. v, chivi, 
but of still duller coloration. From its geographical neighbor, V. v. griseobarbatus, 
with which it agrees in small bill and whitish superciliaries, it may be separated 
by the darker (mouse gray), posteriorly less defined cap; much darker (dull citrine 
to olive citrine instead of citrine to near warbler green) back; dingy grayish instead 
of yellowish citrine cheeks and auriculars; much paler, marguerite to primrose 
yellow instead of barium to citron yellow, under wing and under tail coverts; 
as well as by having hardly any greenish on the sides of the body. 

The range appears to be more extensive than was hitherto supposed, since 
two native "Bogota" skins agree in all essential characters with a topotypical 
series. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Las Lpmitas, western Andes, 1; 
Los Cisneros, Rio Dagua, 2; Caldas, Rio Dagua, 1; Cali, 1; Media Luna, Cauca, 1. 



140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Vireo virescens griseobarbatus (Berlepsch and Taczanowski). 1 
WEST ECUADORIAN VIREO. 

Vireosylv(i)a chid griseobarbata (Berlepsch MS.) Berlepsch and Taczanow- 
ski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 541 Chimbo, Ecuador (type in 
Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. 
Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 159, 1927); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 587, 1926 Esmeraldas, Manavl, Cuaque El Destino, Mindo, 
La Plata Island, Chongon Hills, Puna Island, and Pullango, Ecuador 
(crit.). 

Vireo griseobarbatus Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, 
p. 10, 1899 Intac, Babahoyo, Vinces, and Balzar (crit.). 

Vireosylvia agilis (not Lanius agilis Lichtenstein) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 28, pp. 64, 273, 1860 Pallatanga and Babahoyo; idem, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 43, 1862 part, Pallatanga. 

Vireosylvia chivi (not Sylvia chivi Vieillot) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 337, 
1866 part, "Quito" (Jameson). 

Vireo chivi Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 10, 
1899 La Concepci6n, Chota; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 316 San Nicolas. 

Vireo flavoviridis (not of Cassin) M6n6gaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. 

Arc Mend. Equat., 9, p. B. 70, 1911 Santo Domingo.* 
Vireo chivi vividior (not of Hellmayr and Seilern) Lonnberg and Rendahl, 

Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 77, 1922 Gualea. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador, from Esmeraldas to 
the Peruvian boundary. 

*Vireo virescens solimoensis Todd. 3 AMAZONIAN VIREO. 

Vireo caucae solimoensis Todd, Auk, 48, p. 412, 1931 Sao Paulo de Olivenca, 
Rio Solimoes, Brazil (type in Carnegie Museum). 

1 Vireo virescens griseobarbatus (Berlepsch and Taczanowski) : Resembles 
V. r. vividior in bright coloration (clear gray pileum ; bright citrine to warbler green 
back; barium yellow to citron yellow under wing and under tail coverts; yellowish 
citrine cheeks and auriculars, etc.), but differs by decidedly smaller size, particularly 
shorter and slenderer bill, and by having the greenish yellow suffusion on the 
sides of the body generally more extended. Wing, 66-70, rarely 71-72; tail, 47-53 ; 
bill, 12^-13^. 

In spite of the doubts cast by Mr. Todd (Auk, 48, p. 411, 1931) on its validity, 
I find little difficulty in separating the west Ecuadorian form by its smaller size 
and more extensively greenish yellow flanks from the Caribbean V. v. vividior, 
whereas the distinctness from the Amazonian race, V. v, solimoensis, is much less 
conspicuous. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Esmeraldas, 3; Paramba, 7; Lita, 1; Carondelet, 
4; Pambilar, 2; coast of Manavl, 1; Cuaque El Destino, 1; Isla La Plata, 1; Chimbo, 
1; Chongon Hills, 1; Porto velo, 2; Pullango, 1. 

* Mr. Berlioz, who very kindly reexamined the specimen at my request, 
informs me that it is in every respect a typical individual of the race griseobarbatus. 

'Vireo virescens solimoensis Todd: Similar in coloration to V. v. vividior, but 
decidedly smaller; closer still to V. v. griseobarbatus and agreeing with it in propor- 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 141 

Vireosylvia agilis (not Lanius agilis Lichtenstein) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 43, 1862 part, Para; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, p. 569 Para; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 73, 1868 part, Borba, Rio 
Madeira, and "Barra" [=Manaos] (spec, examined); Allen, Bull. Essex 
Inst., 8, p. 78, 1876 Rhomes, sixty miles from Santarem. 

Vireo chivi agilis Chapman and Riker, Auk, 7, p. 266, 1890 Santar6m. 

Vireosylva chivi agilis Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 334, 1930 
Barao Melgaco, northern Matto Grosso (crit.). 

Vireosylvia olivacea (not Motacilla olivacea Linnaeus) Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 377 
Para. 

Vireo chivi (not Sylvia chivi Vieillot) Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 295, 
1883 part; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 1905 Rio Jurua; idem, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 335, 1907 part, Para, Santar&n, and Rio Jurua; 
Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 25, 1907 Mexiana; Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 56, p. 521, 1908 Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 17, p. 268, 1910 Jamarysinho, Rio Machados; idem, Abhandl. 
Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 87, 118, 1912 Para 
and Mexiana; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 474, 1914 Para, Mos- 
queiro, Providencia, Rio Tocantins (Cameta, Baiao, Arumatheua), Xingu 
(Victoria), Tapajoz (Boim, Goyana), Purus (Bom Lugar), Mexiana, 
Monte Alegre, Rio Jary (S. Antonio da Cachoeira), Rio Jamunda (Faro); 
Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 96, 1916 Utinga, Para; Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 172, 1928 Para. 

Vireo chivi subsp. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 42, 1907 Teff6, Rio Solimoes. 

Vireo caucae vividior (not V. chivi vividior Hellmayr and Seilern) Todd, Auk, 
48, p. 412, 1931 part, Amazon Valley. 

tions, but distinguishable by paler yellow under tail coverts and less greenish yellow 
suffusion on sides and flanks. Wing, 66-70, (female) 61-66; tail, 47-53, (female) 
42-48; bill, 11-13. 

Mr. Todd distinguished this form on account of its smaller size, basing his 
separation upon a series from the Rio Solimoes, while specimens from the lower 
stretches of the Amazon were referred by him to V. v. vividior. I fail to see, how- 
ever, any difference whatsoever between birds from the Rio SolimSes on one side 
and those from Manacapurti and the Rio Tapaj6z on the other. They agree 
precisely in coloration and size, differing by their smaller dimensions from V. v. 
vividior, of Venezuela and Trinidad. In the same paper, Mr. Todd claims that 
these small, bright-colored birds are specifically distinct from V. v. chivi, since 
both forms have "actually been taken together at Manacapuru and localities on 
the Rio Tapajoz, as shown by specimens in the collection of the Carnegie Mu- 
seum." Thanks to Mr. Todd's kindness, I have been enabled to examine part of 
the material upon which his conclusions were based. While admitting that certain 
individuals, notably two from Manacapurti, two others from Santarem, and one 
from Miritituba, Rio Tapajoz, are strikingly like chivi from southern Brazil 
and Paraguay, I find several others decidedly intermediate, and as similar variation 
takes place within the range of V. v. vividior, e.g. in Trinidad, I cannot believe 
that the differences denote specific distinctness, and would rather attribute them 
to an unusual amount of variability, unless those dull-colored examples be migrants 
from more southern districts. Altogether, it seems unlikely that there is more 
than one specific group of these vireos in America. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Tonantins, Rio Solimoes, 6; Sao Paulo 
de Olivenga, 2; Teffe, Rio Solimoes, 3; Marrecao Island, Manacapuru, 1; Mana- 
capuru, 5; Manaos, 1; Obidos, 2; Santarem, 10; Miritituba, Rio Tapaj6z, 2; 
Villa Braga, 1; Itaituba, 1. 



142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Northern Brazil, in the valley of the Amazon, from 
Par& to the Rio Solimoes, south to the Rio Jurua, Rio Purus, and 
northern Matto Grosso (Barao Melgaco). 

10: Brazil (Itacoatiara, 2; Manaos, 8). 

*Vireo virescens griseolus (Todd). 1 GRAY-BELLIED VIREO. 

Vireosylva chivi griseola Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 124, 1924 
Pied Saut, French Guiana (type in Carnegie Museum). 

Vireosylvia chivi (not Sylvia chivi Vieillot) Mn6gaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 10, p. 180, 1904 St. Georges d'Oyapock, French Guiana; Berlepsch, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. 314, 1908 (ex Men6gaux). 

Range. French Guiana and apparently some of the adjacent 
parts of northern Brazil (Rio Branco). 

1: Brazil (Serra Grande, Rio Branco, 1). 

*Vireo virescens vividior Hellmayr and Seilern. 2 CARIBBEAN 
VIREO. 

1 Vireo virescens griseolus (Todd) : Exactly like V. v. solimoensis, but under 
parts distinctly washed with pale grayish, in particular on foreneck, chest, and 
sides. Wing, 66-70, (female) 64-68; tail, 47-51; bill, 12-13. 

I must confess that I am still a little doubtful whether griseolus and solimoensis 
can be kept separate, although eight specimens from French Guiana are uniformly 
more grayish beneath than the large series from the Amazon Valley. My suspicions 
as to its validity are mainly caused by its singularly restricted habitat. Mr. 
Todd, it is true, gives its range as extending to the north bank of the Amazon. 
Against this I have only to say that ten specimens from that region (Itacoatiara 
and Manaos) in Field Museum, as well as two from Obidos, courteously loaned 
by Mr. Todd, are much whiter beneath and, as far as I can see, absolutely indis- 
tinguishable from a topotypical series of V. v. solimoensis. A single (slightly worn) 
adult from the upper Rio Branco (Serra Grande) fits in, however, very well with 
the French Guianan birds. It seems to me that more material is yet required to 
establish the status of V. v. griseolus. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 4; Pied Saut, 
Oyapock, 2; Tamanoir, Mana River, 1; Saint-Jean-du-Maroni, 1. 

* Vireo virescens vividior Hellmayr and Seilern: Similar to V. v. chivi, but 
considerably larger, with longer as well as heavier bill; pileum clearer gray, more 
strongly contrasted with color of back; upper parts, including wings and tail, 
externally brighter green, almost warbler green; superciliaries whitish, rarely tinged 
with buffy anteriorly; auriculars brighter, yellowish citrine; under tail coverts and 
axillaries brighter yellow. Wing, 70 (female) to 77 (male); tail, 50-57; bill, 14-16. 

Though easily recognizable in a series, the color characters of this form are 
completely bridged by individual variation. Even in Trinidad, where the racial 
distinction is generally developed to the extreme, specimens are occasionally 
found that can hardly be separated from south Brazilian examples of V. v. chivi. 
Birds from British Guiana (V. roraimae) appear to be inseparable. They are fully 
as large as those from Trinidad and the Caribbean coast of Venezuela (wing, 72- 
76; tail, 52-57; bill, 15), but, together with birds from the upper Orinoco, they are 
not quite so bright green on the upper parts, the color approaching citrine rather 
than warbler green. A single adult from Marabitanas, on the Rio Negro, just 
beyond the Venezuelan border, seems likewise to be referable to V. v. vividior. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 13; Valencia, 1. Venezuela: 
plain of Cumana, 20; Caura River, 3; Ciudad Bolivar, 1; Caicara, Rio Orinoco, 4; 
Merida (Escorial, El Valle), 4. British Guiana: Roraima, 4. Brazil: Marabi- 
tanas, Rio Negro, 1. Colombia: Mamatoco, 2. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 148 

Vireo chivi vividior Hellmayr and Seilern, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 315, 

Dec., 1913 Caparo, Trinidad (type in Munich Museum). 
Vireosylva chivi vividior Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 433, 

1922 Bonda, Minca, Mamatoco, Dibulla, Don Diego, Santa Marta, 

La Tigrera, and Valencia, Colombia (crit., habits). 
Vireo caucae vividior Todd, Auk, 48, p. 412, 1931 part, Colombia and 

Venezuela. 
Vireo olivaceus (not Motacilla olivacea Linnaeus) L6otaud, Ois. Trinidad, 

p. 250, 1866 Trinidad. 
Vireosylvia agilis (not Lanius agilis Lichtenstein) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, 

p. 73, 1868 part, Marabitanas, Rio Negro, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Vireo agilis Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 204 Bartica Grove, Camacusa, and Roraima, 
British Guiana. 

Vireo chivi agilis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 27, 1894 Princes- 
town, Trinidad; Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, pp. 678, 685, 1896 
El Valle, Margarita Island, and La Guayra, Venezuela; Phelps, Auk, 
14, p. 364, 1897 Cumanacoa and San Antonio, Venezuela; Bangs, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 142, 1898 Santa Marta; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 13, p. 172, 1900 Bonda, Minca, Santa Marta, Quebrada Concha, 
and Cacagualito, Colombia; idem, I.e., 21, p. 293, 1905 Bonda (nest 
and eggs descr.); Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, 
p. 177, 1901 La Guayra. 

Vireosylva chivi agilis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 132, 
1904 part; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 249, 1909 
Margarita Islands; Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 155, 
1916 Orinoco region (nesting habits). 

Vireo chivi (not Sylvia chivi Vieillot) Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 
295, 1883 part; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 13, 1902 
Caicara, Quiribana de Caicara, Altagracia, and Ciudad Bolivar, Rio 
Orinoco, and Suapure and La Pricion, Rio Caura, Venezuela; Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 207, 1913 Cariaquito, Venezuela; Beebe, 
Trop. Wild Life, 1, p. 135, 1917 Bartica Grove. 

Vireo chivi subsp. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 11, 1906 part, Caparo and 
Valencia, Trinidad. 

Vireosylva chivi Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 1, p. 357, 1908 
Pointe Gourde and Carenage, Trinidad. 

Vireo roraimae Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 393, 1921 Roraima, upper 
Takutu Mountains, Camacusa, Bartica, and Annai, British Guiana (type, 
from Roraima, in British Museum examined). 

Vireo chivi roraimae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 113, 1931 
Arabupu, Roraima (crit.). 

Range. Island of Trinidad; British Guiana; Venezuela, south 
to the Orinoco basin and the confines of Brazil (Marabitanas, upper 
Rio Negro); northern Colombia (Santa Marta region). 

5 : Trinidad (St. Ann's Valley, 2) ; Venezuela (Lake Valencia, 2) ; 
British Guiana (Caramang River, 1). 



144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Vireo virescens tobagensis subsp. nov. 1 TOBAGO VIREO. 

Vireo gilvus (not Muscicapa gilva Vieillot) Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

20, p. 328, 1847 Tobago. 

Vireo chiri (not Sylvia chivi Vieillot) Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago. 
Vireo chivi subsp. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 11, 1906 part, Tobago. 
Range. Island of Tobago. 
10: Tobago. 

Vireo gracilirostris Sharpe. 2 SLENDER-BILLED VIREO. 

Vireo gracilirostris Sharpe, Journ. Linn. Soc., (Zool.), 20, p. 478, 1890 
Fernando Noronha Island (type in British Museum); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 
p. 38 Fernando Noronha; Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 335, 1907 Fernando Noronha; Murphy, Auk, 32, p. 50, 1915 Fer- 
nando Noronha. 

Range. Fernando Noronha Island, off Brazil. 

1 Vireo virescens tobagensis subsp. nov. 

Type from Tobago. No. 25100 Field Museum of Natural History. Adult 
male. Collected April 15, 1892, by W. W. Brown. 

Adult, Nearest to V. v. vividior, but on average larger with heavier though 
not always longer bill; back, including wings and tail externally, darker and duller, 
near dark citrine; auriculars and sides of neck less yellowish; axillars and under 
tail coverts decidedly paler, naphthalene yellow instead of barium yellow to 
Martius yellow; greenish suffusion of flanks paler as well as more restricted. Wing, 
76-80, (female) 74-77; tail, 54-60; bill, 14-16. 

Though heretofore united to the Caribbean form, V. v. tobagensis seems to 
be well worthy of separation. By the dull coloration of the upper parts and the 
pale yellow axillars and under tail coverts, it approaches V. v. chivi, but, besides 
being larger in all proportions, it may be distinguished from it by the much clearer 
gray, more strongly denned cap, whitish instead of buffy superciliaries, and 
paler, less buffy auriculars. 

Additional specimens examined. Tobago: Castare, 1; Mondland, 4. 

2 Vireo gracilirostris Sharpe: Upper parts nearly uniform grayish olive or deep 
grayish olive; wings and tail dusky hair brown, their external edges and the upper 
wing coverts of the same color as the back, the greater series of the latter exteriorly 
edged with paler; narrow, but very distinct superciliary streak (from the base 
of the bill to above the auriculars) and loral region ivory yellow; sides of head and 
neck deep olive buff; under parts olive buff, somewhat paler on middle of throat 
and abdomen; under wing coverts apically passing into pale yellow; inner margin 
to remiges very pale yellowish (marguerite yellow); bill dusky, lower mandible 
pale brownish. Wing, 67, (female) 63; tail, 61, (female) 57; bill, 15. 

This peculiar species is quite distinct from the continental V. virescens chivi, 
from which it differs, in addition to coloration, by proportionately much longer 
tail, very much slenderer as well as longer bill, and shorter first primary, the 
latter being either equal to, or a little longer than, the seventh. In general colora- 
tion it is indeed not unlike V. magister, though it may be readily distinguished from 
it by much shorter wings, slenderer tarsi, much smaller and slenderer bill, the 
absence of the dusky loral spot and the grayish suffusion on the sides of the body, 
etc. I cannot believe that any genetic relationship really exists between these 
birds, whose superficial resemblance is most likely to be explained by parallelism 
of development. The origin of V. gracilirostris is quite obscure, it being the only 
land bird of strongly pronounced characters occurring on Fernando Noronha. 

Material examined. Fernando Noronha: 2 (British Museum and Vienna 
Museum). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 145 

*Vireo magister magister (Lawrence). 1 BELIZE VIREO. 

Vireosylvia magister (Baird MS.) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 10, 

p. 20, 1871 Belize, British Honduras (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Vireosylvia cinerea Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 3, p. 22, 1885 Cozumel 

Island (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Vireo cinereus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 565, 1885 Cozumel 

(full descr.). 
Vireo magister Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 191, 1881 

Belize, British Honduras; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 295, 

1883 British Honduras; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 188 Cozumel Island; 

idem, Ibis, 1888, p. 254 Holbox, Mugeres, Ruatan, and Bonacca 

(crit.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 578, 1888 Ruatan 

Island (crit.). 
Vireosylva magister Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 15, 1926 coast of 

Yucatan, opposite Cozumel Island (habits, crit.). 
Vireosylva magister magister Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 

134, 1904 British Honduras and coast of Honduras (islands of Ruatan 

and Bonacca) (monog.). 
Vireosylva magister cinerea Ridgway, I.e., p. 136, 1904 Yucatan, islands of 

Cozumel and Mugeres (monog.). 

Range. Coast of Yucatan, including the islands of Holbox, 
Mugeres, and Cozumel; British Honduras (Belize); and the islands 
of Ruatan and Bonacca, in the Gulf of Honduras. 2 

4: Yucatan (Mugeres Island, 2); Bay of Honduras (Ruatan 
Island, 1; Bonacca Island, 1). 

*Vireo magister caymanensis Cory. 3 CAYMAN VIREO. 

Vireo caymanensis Cory, Auk, 4, p. 7, 1887 Grand Cayman (type in coll. 
of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
10, p. 573, 1887 Grand Cayman; Cory, Auk, 5, p. 157, 1888 Grand 
Cayman; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 288, 1889 Grand Cayman; idem, Cat. 
W. Ind. Bds., pp. 17, 116, 129, 153, 1892 Grand Cayman; Nicoll, Bull. 
Brit. Orn. Cl., 14, p. 94, 1904 Grand Cayman; idem, Ibis, 1904, p. 580 
Grand Cayman. 

Vireosylva caymanensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 136, 
1904 "Cayman Islands"; Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 344 Grand Cayman 
(crit.); idem, Ibis, 1911, p. 154 "Cayman Islands"; English, Ibis, 1916, 
p. 28 Grand Cayman (nest and eggs). 

1 V. magister is nearly allied to, and may even prove to be conspecific with, 
V. altiloquus. The investigation of their interrelationship requires, however, more 
time than I can at present bestow upon this subject. 

2 After examining the extensive series in the British Museum, I fully concur 
with Mr. Griscom that V. cinerea is inseparable from V. magister. Even birds 
from Ruatan Island appear to be the same. 

3 Vireo magister caymanensis Cory merely differs from the typical race by its 
paler coloration and more whitish under parts. 



146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Vireosylva magister caymanensis Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 314, 
1916 Grand Cayman (crit.). 

Vireo magister caymanensis Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, 
art. 10, p. 17, 1931 Grand Cayman (crit.). 

Range. Island of Grand Cayman, Greater Antilles. 1 
18: Grand Cayman. 

*Vireo altiloquus altiloquus (Vieillot). 2 JAMAICAN VIREO. 

Muscicapa altiloqua Vieillot,* Hist. Nat. Amer. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 67, pi. 
38, 1808 Jamaica, Santo Domingo, etc. (the types in coll. of M. Dufresne, 
now in the Edinburgh Museum, are from St. Thomas; cf. Stenhouse, 
Nov. Zool., 35, p. 271, 1930). 

Vireo longirostris Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 
2, "1831," p. 237, pub. Feb., 1832 part, Jamaica. 

Phyllomanes mystacalis Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 13, (1), p. 348, 1847 probably 
from one of the West Indian islands (type [alcoholic specimen] in the 
Museum of Anatomy, Berlin). 

Vireosylvia mystacalis Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 73, 1868 Borba, Rio Madeira 
(Feb. 10; spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 

Vireosylvia frenata Du Bus, 4 Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci., Lettr., Beaux Arts Belgique, 
22, (1), p. 150, 1855 Ocana, Colombia (type in Brussels Museum). 

Vireosylcia atripennis Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 15, p. 106, 
1863 Sombrero Island (type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Ann. Lye. 

1 Cory's record of this species from Little Cayman and Cayman Brae (Auk, 
6, p. 31, 1889), ignored by himself in his subsequent publications, is obviously 
a mistake. There are no specimens from either island in the collection of Field 
Museum. 

* Vireo altiloquus and its races are apparently geographical representatives 
of V. virescens in the West Indies and on islands in the Caribbean Sea, though 
the dusky submalar streak serves to separate them. It is, however, somewhat 
suggestive that this character is less pronounced in one of the forms (V. a. grandior), 
and perhaps the more logical course would be the combination of the Red-eyed 
Vireo and its West Indian allies in one "formenkreis." 

1 Messrs. Bangs and Penard (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 206, 1925) have 
clearly pointed out that Motacilla calidris Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 
184, 1758), principally based upon "The American Nightingale" of Edwards 
(Nat. Hist. Bds., 3, p. 121, pi. 121, fig. inf.; Jamaica), is unrecognizable. I cannot 
agree, however, to their proposition to apply the name olivaceus to the present 
species for reasons given on page 130. Turdiis virens Boddaert (Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 
16, 1783) and Turdus hispaniolensis Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 822, 1789), 
both based on "Le Merle olive de Saint-Domingue" of Daubenton (PI. Enl., pi. 
273, fig. 1) and Brisson (Orn., 2, p. 296, pi. 27, fig. 2), appear to me utterly 
unidentifiable. 

4 The passage, "Superciliis ad nucham productis et genis dilute fulvescentibus," 
clearly points to the typical race, to which a specimen from the same district 
(Bucaramanga) in the Berlepsch Collection actually pertains. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 147 

Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 98, 1865 Sombrero (cf. Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 
1, p. 330; crit.). 

Vireosylvia virginalis Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 98 (in 
text), 1865 Sombrero Island (type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Vireosylvia altiloqua Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 348 
Panama Railroad, Panama (one spec.). 

Vireo altiloquus LSotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 250, 1866 Trinidad. 

Vireosylvia calidris (not Motadlla calidris Linnaeus) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 
1, p. 329, 1866 Jamaica, Santo Domingo, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, 
Santa Cruz, and Sombrero (monog.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1875, p. 234 MSrida, Venezuela; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, 
p. 285, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia (crit.; spec, examined). 

Vireo calidris Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 204 Bartica Grove and Camacusa, British 
Guiana; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 76, 1889 part; Verrill and Verrill, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 364, 1909 Santo Domingo; Chubb, Bds. 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 391, 1921 same localities and Ituribisci River; 
Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 128, 1922 Brestin Castle 
Estate, Trinidad. 

Vireosylva calidris calidris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 137, 
1904 (monog.); Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 155, 1916 
Boca de Sina, Rio Cunucunuma, Venezuela; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 61, p. 417, 1917 Monte Cristi and Sosua, Dominican Republic; 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 434, 1922 Bonda and 
Masinga Vieja, Colombia. 

Vireo calidris calidris Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 277, 1905 
Bonda and Masinga [Vieja], Colombia; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 268, 
1910 Borba, Brazil (crit.). 

Vireo olivaceus olivaceus Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Is., 9, 
p. 494, 1927 Porto Rico, Vieques, Louis Pena, Culebrita, St. Croix, 
St. Thomas (habits); Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, 
p. 354, 1931 Hispaniola, Gonave, and Tortue (habits). 

Vireo olivacea olivacea Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 510, 1928 
Haiti, Gonave, and Tortuga. 

Range. Islands of Jamaica, Haiti, Porto Rico, Virgin Islands 
(Vieques, Louis Pena, Culebrita, St. Croix, St. Thomas), Sombrero, 
and (?) Saba, 1 Antilles; during migration and in winter on the 
island of Trinidad, in Panama (one record), Colombia (Santa Marta 
region; Ocana and Bucaramanga, Santander), Venezuela (Escorial, 
Me"rida; Boca de Sina, Rio Cunucunuma), British Guiana (Bartica 

1 According to Ridgway, who refers a single female from Saba to the Jamaican 
Vireo. 



148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Grove, Camacusa, Ituribisci River), and northern Brazil (Manaos; 
Borba, Rio Madeira). 1 

185: Haiti (Le Coup, 1); Dominican Republic (Santo Domingo 
City, 112; Samana, 23; Aguacate, 5; Catare, 13; Honduras, 3; San 
Cristobal, 9; Fuerte Resoli, 1); Porto Rico (Mayagiiez, 17); Brazil 
(Manaos, 1). 

*Vireo altiloquus barbadensis Ridgway. BARBADOS VIREO. 

Vireosyhia calidris var. barbadense Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 359, 1874 Barbados, Lesser Antilles (type in 
U. S. National Museum). 

Vireosylvia calidris var. dominicana Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1, p. 55, 1878 Dominica (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, I.e., 
p. 189 St. Vincent; idem, I.e., p. 268 Grenada; idem, I.e., p. 354 
Martinique; idem, I.e., p. 454 Guadeloupe; idem, I.e., p. 486 (range); 
Wells, I.e., 9, p. 611, 1887 Grenada (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Vireo laurae Nicoll, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 14, p. 95, 1904 Grenada (type in 
British Museum); idem, Ibis, 1904, p. 563, pi. 11, fig. 2 Grenada. 

Vireo longirostris Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 

2, "1831," p. 237, pub. Feb., 1832 part, St. Vincent. 

Vireo calidris (not Motacilla calidris Linnaeus) Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 70, 
1889 part; Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., 8, p. 340, 1892 Dominica; 
idem, Auk, 8, pp. 47, 48, 49, 1891 St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, and Guadeloupe. 

Vireosylva calidris barbadensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 140, 1904 St. Eustatius, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, 
Martinique, Santa Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Barbados (nionog., 
full bibliog.); Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 288, 1904 Barbuda and 
Antigua; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 290, 1905 Lesser Antilles, 
from St. Eustatius to Grenada, Grenadines, and Barbados (crit.); Noble, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 388, 1916 Goyave and Soufriere, 
Guadeloupe. 

Vireo olivacea barbadensis Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 538, 
1928 Santa Lucia, Dominica, and St. Vincent. 

Range. Islands of St. Eustatius, St. Christopher [=St. Kitts], 
Barbuda, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, 

1 Specimens of this form have been examined from the following localities 
in South America: Colombia: Bucaramanga (no date), 1. Venezuela: Escorial, 
Merida (male, Sept. 14, 1902), 1 (Hungarian National Museum, Budapest). 
Brazil: Manaos (male, April 23, 1913), 1; Borba, Rio Madeira (male in full molt, 
Feb. 10, 1830), 1 (Vienna Museum). Williams (l.s.c.) records a male taken on 
Brestin Castle Estate, Trinidad, on July 14, 1919, which seems to be rather an 
early date. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 149 

Santa Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, including the Grenadines, and 
Barbados. 1 

59: Lesser Antilles (St. Eustatius, 11; St. Kitts, 9; Antigua, 1; 
Marie Galante, 2; Grande Terre, 2; Guadeloupe, 13; Martinique, 5; 
Santa Lucia, 10; St. Vincent, 5; Barbados, 1). 

*Vireo altiloquus barbatulus (Cabanis). BLACK-WHISKERED 

VlREO. 

Phyllomanes barbatulus Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 3, p. 467, 1855 Cuba (type 
in Berlin Museum); Gundlach, I.e., 30, p. 401, 1872 Cuba (habits, nest, 
and eggs). 

Vireosylvia barbatula Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 331, 1866 Cuba, Bahamas, 
and Charlotte Harbor, Florida (crit.); Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Amer. Bds., 1, pi. 17, fig. 1, 1874. 

Vireo calidris barbatula Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 77, 1889 Bahamas and Cuba; 
idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 115, 1892 Bahamas (Abaco, Biminis, Andros, 
New Providence, Samana Cay), Cuba, Isle of Pines, and Little 
Cayman; Bangs, Auk, 17, p. 288, 1900 New Providence and Eleuthera 
(molt); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 173, 1900 Bonda, Santa 
Marta, Colombia; idem, I.e., 21, p. 277, 1905 Bonda (crit.); Griscom, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 366, 1932 Obaldia, Panama. 

Vireosylva calidris barbatula Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 
141, 1904 Bahamas, Cuba, Isle of Pines, Little Cayman, and southern 
Florida (monog., full bibliog.); Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama Islands, 
p. 365, 1905 Abaco, Biminis, New Providence, Eleuthera, Current Island, 
Andros, Green Cay, Cay Lobos, Bird Rock, Long Island, Samana; Todd 
and Worthington, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, pp. 428, 458, 1911 Andros 
and Abaco, Bahamas; Todd, I.e., 10, p. 257, 1916 Nueva Gerona, Isle 
of Pines (crit.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 314, 1916 Little 
Cayman and Cayman Brae; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 434, 1922 
Mamatoco and Tucurinca, Colombia; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 
6, p. 108, 1923 Cuba. 

Vireo calidris (not Motacilla calidris Linnaeus) Bonhote, Ibis, 1899, p. 511 
Nassau, New Providence (crit.). 

Vireo caymanensis (errore) Cory, Auk, 6, p. 31, 1889 Little Cayman and 
Cayman Brae. 

Vireo altiloquus var. barbatulus Cory, Bds. Bahama Islands, p. 82, 1890 
Bahamas. 

Vireo olivaceus barbatula Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 33, 
1932 Gonave Island and lie a Vache (migrants). 

1 Individual and seasonal variation has been discussed at length by Austin 
Clark, who arrived at the conclusion that further subdivision of this form is 
impracticable. As far as our own material goes, I cannot but concur with this 
disposition of the case, and refer the inhabitants of the Lesser Antilles (from St. 
Eustatius to Grenada) to a single form, whose earliest name is barbadensis Ridgway. 



150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Bahamas (Abaco, Biminis, New Providence, Inagua, 
Eleuthera, Current Island, Andros, Green Cay, Cay Lobos, Bird 
Rock, Long Island, Samana); Cuba, including Isle of Pines; Little 
Cayman and Cayman Brae; west coast of southern Florida, as far 
north as Anclote Keys; Key West and Dry Tortugas; winters in 
Colombia (Santa Marta region) and Panama (one record from 
Obaldia). 

34: Cayman Islands (Little Cayman, 8; Cayman Brae, 7) ; Bahama 
Islands (Inagua, 9; Abaco, 1; Bimini, 1; Nassau, New Providence, 2) ; 
Cuba (unspecified, 3); Florida (Key West, 2); Dutch West Indies 
(Bonaire, 1). 

*Vireo altiloquus grand ior (Ridgway). 1 OLD PROVIDENCE VIREO. 

Vireosylvia grandior Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 178, 1884 Old 

Providence (type in U. S. National Museum); Cory, Auk, 4, p. 180, 1887 

Old Providence. 
Vireosylva calidris grandior Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 143, 

1904 Old Providence (monog.). 
Vireo olivaceus grandior Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, 

art. 10, p. 17, 1931 Old Providence. 

Range. Island of Old Providence, Caribbean Sea. 
7: Old Providence. 

*Vireo altiloquus canescens (Cory). 2 SAINT ANDREWS VIREO. 

Vireosylvia canescens Cory, Auk, 4, pp. 178, 180, 1887 St. Andrews Island 

(type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum). 
Vireosylva calidris canescens Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 

p. 143, 1904 St. Andrews. 
Vireo olivaceus canescens Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, 

art. 10, p. 17, 1931 St. Andrews (crit.). 

Range. Island of St. Andrews, Caribbean Sea. 
4: St. Andrews. 

*Vireo philadelphicus (Cassin). PHILADELPHIA VIREO. 

Vireosylvia philadelphica Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, p. 153, 1851 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 31, 1899); 
idem, I.e., 6, pi. 1, fig. 2, 1852. 

1 Vireo altiloquus grandior (Ridgway), the largest representative of the group, 
is not unlike V. a. barbadensis in coloration but is paler, with the dusky lateral 
stripe on the crown indistinct and the dusky submalar streak much narrower. 

2 Vireo altiloquus canescens (Cory) : Resembles V. a. grandior in size and reduc- 
tion of dusky submalar streak, but is decidedly more grayish, less olivaceous, 
on the dorsal surface. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 151 

Vireosylv(i)a philadelphica Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 340, 1866 (monog., 
range); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 151, 1904 (monog., 
full bibliog.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 782, 1910 Costa Rica 
(winter). 

Vireosylvia cobanensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 463, 1860 
Coban, Guatemala (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in Britisn Museum). 

Range. Canadian zone of North America, from northern 
Alberta, southern Manitoba, northern Ontario, New Brunswick, 
and Maine to North Dakota, Michigan, and New Hampshire; 
winters from Cozumel Island, Yucatan, and Guatemala to Panama. 

24: New York (Gaines, 1); Illinois (Deerfield, 4; Waukegan, 3; 
Lake Forest, 5; Calumet, 1; Henry, 3); Costa Rica (Guayabo, 2; 
Palmar, 1; Port Limon, 1; Terraba, 1; Boruca, 1; Punta Mala, Rio 
Duquis, 1). 

*Vireo gilvus gilvus (Vieillot). EASTERN WARBLING VIREO. 

Muscicapa gilva Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 65, pi. 34, 
1808 New York (type in coll. of P. L. VieiUot). 

Muscicapa melodia Wilson, Amer. Orn., 5, p. 85, pi. 42, fig. 2, 1812 Penn- 
sylvania (type now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 343, 1930). 

Vireosylvia gilva Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 342, 1866 (monog., range). 

Vireosylva gilva gilva Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 153, 

1904 (monog., full bibliog.). 
Vireo gilvus gilvus Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 316, 1932 

Guatemala. 

Range. Transition and Austral zones of North America, from 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Nova Scotia south to* 
northwestern Texas, southern Louisiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, 
and Virginia, west to North Dakota; winters in Guatemala. 

21: Connecticut (East Hartford, 1); Massachusetts (Cliftondale, 
1); Ohio (Columbus, 3); Indiana (English Lake, 1); Illinois (Wolf 
Lake, 2; South Chicago, 1; Henry, 1); Wisconsin (Lake Koshkonong, 
2; Beaver Dam, 8); Saskatchewan (Prince Albert, 1). 

*Vireo gilvus swainsonii Baird. WESTERN WARBLING VIREO. 

Vireo swainsonii Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 336 (in text), 
1858 "Pacific coast" (type, from Petaluma, California, in U. S. National 
Museum). 

Vireosylvia swainsoni Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 343, 1866 from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast (monog.). 

Vireosylva gilva swainsonii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 155, 
1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 



152 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1, p. 124, 1907 El Rancho and Patulul, Guatemala; Phillips, Auk, 28, 
p. 83, 1911 Galindo, Tamaulipas; Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 67, p. 483, 1927 Presidio, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 68, p. 400, 1928 
Chivela, Oaxaca; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 194, 1928 Lower 
California; van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 281, 1931 
Sonora; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 317, 1932 Progreso, 
Guatemala. 

Range. Western North America, from southern British Co- 
lumbia, southwestern Mackenzie, and northern Alberta south to 
Lower California, northern Sonora, Arizona, New Mexico, and 
central-western Texas, and east to western South Dakota and 
northwestern Nebraska; winters south to western Guatemala. 1 

44: Canada (Okanagan Landing, British Columbia, 3; unspecified, 
1); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 2; Hot Sulphur Springs, 1; Williams 
Range, 1; unspecified, 1); Arizona (Calabasas, 6; Chiricahua Moun- 
tains, 2; Huachuca Mountains, 4); California (Little Bear Valley, 
San Bernardino Mountains, 2; Millard's Canyon, 1; Claremont, 1; 
Los Gatos, 2; Nicasio, 1; Mount Diablo, 1; Alhambra, 2; near Niles, 
1); Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 1; Lower California, Sierra Laguna, 1; 
unspecified, 1) ; Guatemala (Patulul, Solola, 8; El Rancho, Zacapa, 1). 

Vireo gilvus brewsteri (Ridgway). 2 CHIHUAHUAN WARBLING 
VIREO. 

Vireosylva gilva brewsteri Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 107, 1903 
Bravo, Chihuahua, Mexico (type in coll. of W. Brewster, now in Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 343, 1930); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 158, 
1904 Chihuahua. 

Range. Mountains of Chihuahua, in northwestern Mexico. 

Vireo leucophrys 3 amauronotus Salvin and Godman. 4 ORIZABA 
VIREO. 

1 Oberholser (Sci. Publ. Clevel. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 9, 1932) has lately separated 
Vireosylva gilva leucopolia from Oregon (type from Barley Camp, Warner 
Mountains). 

1 We are not acquainted with this race. 

3 1 think it very likely that the V. leucophrys group will prove to be conspecific 
with the Warbling Vireo (V. gilvus), as was intimated long ago by Ridgway (Amer. 
Journ. Sci., (3), 4, p. 456, 1872). 

4 Vireo leucophrys amauronotus Salvin and Godman is clearly but a geographic 
race of the South American species. The palest specimens of V. I. mirandae 
are just a faint shade more yellowish on the abdomen than Jalapa birds, the latter 
differing only by rather longer wings, less dusky pileum, and warmer brownish, less 
olivaceous, back. Moreover, the Chiapas race, which is autoptically unknown 
to us, appears to form the passage between amauronotus and chiriquensis, combin- 
ing the pale (whitish) under parts of the former with the dark-colored dorsal surface 
of the latter. Adult males measure as follows: wing, 69-71; tail, 49-52; bill, 11-12. 

Material examined. Vera Cruz: Jalapa, 4. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 153 

Vireo amauronotus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 193, 
Dec., 1881 Orizaba, Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 298, 1883 Orizaba; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 25, 1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz (crit., song). 

Vireosylva amauronola amauronota Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 158, 1904 highlands of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Vireosylvia gilva var. josephae (not Vireo josephae Sclater) Baird, Brewer, and 
Ridgway, Hist. N. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 360 (footnote), 1874 part, Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Vera Cruz (Orizaba, Jalapa), south- 
eastern Mexico. 

Vireo leucophrys strenuus Nelson. 1 CHIAPAS VIREO. 

Vireo amauronotus strenuus Nelson, Auk, 17, p. 268, 1900 Tumbala, Chiapas 
(type in U. S. National Museum). 

Vireosylva amauronota strenua Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 159, 1904 Chiapas. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Chiapas (Tumbald), southern 
Mexico. 

*Vireo leucophrys chiriquensis (Bangs). 2 CHIRIQU! VIREO. 

Vireosylva josephae chiriquensis Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 4, p. 9, 
March 24, 1903 Boquete, Volcan de Chiriquf, Panama (type in coll. of 
E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 344, 1930); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 161, 1904 part, Chiriqui. 

Vireosylva josephae costaricensis Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 107, 
Sept. 30, 1903 San Jos6, Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 159, 1904 Costa Rica; Ferry, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 274, 1910 Coliblanco, Costa Rica; 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 782, 1910 El Copey, Santa Maria 
de Dota, La Estrella de Cartago, Puriscal, Volcan de Irazu, and Ujurras 
de T&raba, Costa Rica. 

1 Vireo leucophrys strenuus Nelson: Similar to V. I. amauronotus on the under 
parts, but with the pileum much darker, deep sooty brown or sepia, and the back 
more brownish olive. 

Known from a single adult female in the collection of the U. S. National 
Museum. 

2 Vireo leucophrys chiriquensis (Bangs) resembles V. I. leucophrys in the deep 
yellow coloration of the posterior under parts, but differs by brighter, more greenish 
back and slightly duller pileum. 

Though the characters are quite noticeable in a series, single individuals 
are not always easily told apart. Direct comparison of adequate material shows 
the alleged differences between chiriquensis and costaricensis to be non-existent. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: La Estrella, 4; Irazu, 2. Panama: 
Boquete, 4. 



154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Vireosylvia josephae (not Vireo josephae Sclater) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, 
p. 344, 1866 part, Costa Rica (Barranca and Dota); Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 96, 1868 Barranca, Rancho Redondo, and 
Dota, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 295, 1869 Costa Rica; 
Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 53 Naranjo, Costa Rica. 

Vireo josephae Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 194, 1881 
part, Costa Rica and Panama (Volcan de Chiriqui); Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 297, 1883 part, Costa Rica to Panama; Zeledon, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 108, 1887 Rancho Redondo de San Jose; 
Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl. f 3, p. 58, 1902 Boquete and Caribbean 
slope of Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama. 

Vireosylvia gilva var. josephae Ridgway, Amer. Journ. Sci., (3), 4, p. 456, 
1872 part, Costa Rica. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Costa Rica and extreme western 
Panama (Chiriqui). 

7: Costa Rica (La Estrella de Cartago, 2; Volcan de Irazu, 2; 
Coliblanco, 1); Panama (Boquete, 2). 

Vireo leucophrys mirandae Hartert. 1 MIRANDA'S VIREO. 

Vireo josephae mirandae Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 37, p. 32, 1917 "Gali- 
paro" [= Galipan], Cerro del Avila, Venezuela (type in Tring Museum, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Vireosylva josephae mirandae Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, 
p. 431, 1922 Las Nubes, El Libano, Valparaiso, Cincinnati, San Miguel, 
Cerro de Caracas, and Heights of Chirua, Santa Marta region, Colombia 
(crit., habits); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 159, 1924 
Loma Redonda and Galipan, Venezuela (crit.). 

Vireosylvia josephae (not Vireo josephae Sclater) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, 
p. 344, 1866 part, "Puerto Cabello," Venezuela. 

Vireo josephae Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, p. 105, 1899 "Paramo de 
Macotama," Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 172, 1900 
Valparaiso, El Libano, and Las Nubes, Colombia. 

Vireo josephae josephae Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, 
p. 49, 1912 Cumbre de Valencia, Venezuela. 

1 Vireo leucophrys mirandae Hartert: Exceedingly close to V. I. leucophrys, 
but on average paler yellow underneath, and the dorsal plumage also slightly 
lighter, less brownish. Wing, 66-69, (female) 63-65; tail, 48-52, (female) 45-49; 
bill, 11-12. 

This is a very poor race, barely distinguishable in series by its averagingly 
paler coloration, particularly below. Santa Marta birds, of which we have examined 
a small number, appear to be inseparable from those of the Caracas region. A 
single female from La Cumbre de Valencia, though not different from the general 
run of "Bogota" skins, must, on geographical grounds, be referred to V. I. mirandae, 
if this form be maintained at all. 

Material examined. Colombia: Santa Marta region, 5. Venezuela: Loma Re- 
donda, north of Caracas, 1; Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 16; La Cumbre de Valencia, 
Carabobo, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 155 

Vireosylva josephae chiriquensis (not of Bangs) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 161, 1904 part, Santa Marta region, Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Colombia (Santa Marta 
region) and northern Venezuela (Cumbre de Valencia; north coast 
mountains near Caracas). 

*Vireo leucophrys leucophrys (Lafresnaye). WHITE-BROWED 

VlREO. 

Hylophilus leucophrys Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 7, p. 81, 1844 "Colombie"= 
Bogota (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 
343, 1930); Bangs and Penard, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 226, 1922 
(crit.). 

Vireosylva leucophrys leucophrys Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 587, 1926 Sabanilla and Baeza, eastern Ecuador (crit.); Zimmer, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 414, 1929 Chinchao, Peru (crit.). 

Vireosylvia josephae (not Vireo josephae Sclater) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, 
p. 344, 1866 part, Bogota; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, 
p. 509 Paltaypampa, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 224 Tambillo, Peru 
(spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 495 Concordia and 
Medellin, Colombia; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 444, 1884 Paltay- 
pampa and Tambillo, Peru; Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 75 Machay, Mapoto, and Bafios, Ecuador; Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, I.e., 1896, p. 332 Garita del Sol, Dept. Junin, Peru. 

Vireosylva josephae josephae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 540, 
1917 part, San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, La Sierra, Miraflores, Salento, 
Santa Elena, El Eden, La Palma, La Candela, near San Agustin, Fusu- 
gasuga, and El Roble, Colombia; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 458, 
1918 Tabaconas, northern Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 105, 1921 Idma, San Miguel Bridge, and Santa Ana, Urubamba, Peru. 

Vireo josephae Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 297, 1883 part, Colombia 
and Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 76, 1906 Idma, Uru- 
bamba, Peru. 

Range. Subtropical zone of extreme western Venezuela (Andes 
of MeYida and Tachira), Colombia (excepting Santa Marta region), 
eastern Ecuador, and Peru. 1 

4: Venezuela (Rio Chama, Me"rida, 1); Colombia (Paramo de 
Tama, Santander, 1; La Candela, Huira, 1); Peru (Chinchao, Dept. 
Huanuco, 1). 

1 Specimens from various parts of Peru and the Meiida region, Venezuela, 
are obviously identical with a Colombian series. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela, Me>ida: Meiida, 1; El Valle, 1; 
Conejos, 1. Colombia: "Bogota," 14. Ecuador: Bafios, 1. Peru: Tambillo, 
2; Idma, Urubamba, 1; Marcapata, 2; Chuhuasi, Sierra de Carabaya, 2. 



156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Vireo leucophrys josephae Sclater. 1 ERASER'S VIREO. 

Vireo josephae Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 27, p. 137, pi. 154, 1859 
Pallatanga, Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum) ; 
idem, I.e., 28, pp. 47, 85, 1860 Chillanes and Nanegal; Gadow, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 297, 1883 part, Ecuador (Pallatanga, "Quito"); 
Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 77, 1922 Gualea, 
Ecuador. 

Vireosylvia josephae Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 344, 1866 part, Ecuador; 
Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 287 Pedregal 
and Cayandeled, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 316 Mindo and 
Canzacota, Ecuador. 

Vireosylca josephae josephae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 540, 
1917 part, Ricaurte, Narino, southwestern Colombia. 

Vireosylva leucophrys josephae Chapman, I.e., 55, p. 588, 1926 Huigra, Pagma 
Forest, Naranjo, Rios Coco and Chimbo, Pallatanga, El Chiral, Zaruma, 
Punta Santa Ana, San Bartolo, Las Pinas, Celica, and Alamor, Ecuador, 
and Palambla, northwestern Peru. 

Vireosylvia gilva var. josephae Ridgway, Amer. Journ. Sci., (3), 4, p. 456, 
1872 part, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of extreme southwestern Colombia 
(Ricaurte, Narino), western Ecuador, and northwestern Peru 
(Palambla, Dept. Piura). 

1: Colombia (Ricaurte, Narino, 1). 

Vireo leucophrys laetissimus (Todd). 2 BOLIVIAN VIREO. 

Vireosylva leucophrys laetissima Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 124, 
1924 Incachaca, Bolivia (type in Carnegie Museum). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Bolivia, in depts. of La Paz and 
Cochabamba. 

1 Vireo leucophrys josephae Sclater: Exactly like V. I. leucophrys, but with pileum 
darker, more fuscous black. West Ecuadorian birds, of which we have examined 
six, appear to be distinguishable by their more blackish cap. A single adult spec- 
imen from Ricaurte, near the southern extremity of the western Andes of Colombia, 
is similar. 

1 Vireo leucophrys laetissimus (Todd) : Similar to V. I. leucophrys, but perhaps 
separable by slightly paler coloration. 

We have not enough material to form a definite opinion on the merits of this 
race. The describer, who based it on ten specimens, calls it "the most strongly 
marked of all the races," while Chapman states that his five Bolivian skins, though 
on average paler, can be matched by east Colombian examples. The only adult, 
a male from Chaco, Yungas, of La Paz, that we have been able to examine, is 
indeed lighter, both above and below, than any other specimen from Peru, Ecuador, 
or Colombia, but can be matched by some unusually dark individuals of mirandae. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Chaco, 1; San Crist6bal, 2. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 157 

Genus NEOCHLOE Sclater 1 

Neochloe Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, "1857," p. 213, pub. Jan., 1868 
type, by monotypy, Neochloe brevipennis Sclater. 

Neochloe brevipennis Sclater. GREEN-WINGED VIREO. 

Neochloe brevipennis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, "1857," p. 213, pub. 
Jan., 1858 Orizaba, Vera Cruz (type in British Museum); Baird, Rev. 
Amer. Bds., 1, p. 372, 1866 Orizaba (monog.); Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 1, p. 547, 1869 Orizaba; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 205, pi. 13, fig. 2, 1881 Orizaba and Jalapa, Vera 
Cruz; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 305, 1883 Orizaba; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 26, 1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz (habits); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 212, 1904 mountains of 
Vera Cruz (monog.). 

Range. Mountains of Mexico, in Vera Cruz (Orizaba, Jalapa). 

Genus LALETES Sclater 2 

Laletes Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 72 type, by orig. desig., 
Laletes osburni Sclater. 

Laletes osburni Sclater. OSBURN'S VIREO. 

Laletes osburni Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 72, pi. 14, fig. 2 
Freeman's Hall, Trelawny, Jamaica (types in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now 
in British Museum); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 359, 1862 Freeman's 
Hall; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 383, 1866 Jamaica (monog.); Gadow, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 313, 1883 Jamaica; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 190, 
1886 Jamaica (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 77, 1889 Jamaica; 
Scott, Auk, 10, p. 339, 1893 Jamaica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 3, p. 213, 1904 Jamaica (monog.). 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 

Genus HYLOPHILUS Temminck 3 

Hylophilus Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 29, text to pi. 173, Dec., 
1822 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 23, 1840), Hylophilus 
poicilotis Temminck. 

1 We have not been able to make a close study of this genus and are not 
prepared to commit ourselves on its merits. So far as the species is concerned, 
it is a distinct one, however, and differs radically in coloration from any other 
vireo, as inspection of the type specimen in the British Museum clearly showed. 

2 According to Ridgway, this genus is "so nearly like Vireo that if Vireosylva 
and Lanivireo be not recognized Laletes certainly should not." 

There is no specimen available at present, but when we examined the species 
years ago we were not much impressed with the generic value of its structural 
divergencies, as compared to Vireo (s. strict.). 

3 Hylophilus Temminck, set aside for a while in favor of Pachysylvia, again 
becomes the proper term of this genus, since the supposedly earlier Hylophila 
Huebner (Verz. Bek. Schmetterlinge, p. 396) was not published until 1827 (cf. 
Hampson, Entom. News, 28, p. 466, 1917; Sherborn and others, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (10), 3, p. 568, 1929). 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pachysylvia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., i, p. 309, 1851 type, by monotypy, 
Sylvicola decurtata Bonaparte. 

*Hylophilus poicilotis poicilotis Temminck. RUFOUS-CROWNED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus poicilotis Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 29, pi. 173, fig. 2, 
Dec., 1822 "Bresil" (type from Ypanema, Sao Paulo, in Leiden Museum). 

Sylvia poicilotis Nordmann, in Erman's Reise, Naturhist. Atlas, pp. 13, 14, 
1835 Brazil. 

Hylophilus poecilotis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 67, 1851 Brazil; Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 110, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; Baird, Rev. 
Amer. Bds., 1, p. 375, 1866 part, spec, ex "coast of Brazil" (G. Horner 
Collection); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 70, 1868 part, Sao Paulo (Ypanema, 
YtararS) and Parana (Jaguaraiba, Curytiba); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. 
Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 446 part, Sao Paulo (Hytu, Sao Bento de 
Araraquara) and Rio de Janeiro (Macahe'); Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 300 
southern Brazil (monog.); White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 595 
San Javier, Misiones; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 308, 1883 
Brazil (descr.); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 23, 1888 San Javier, 
Misiones; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 136, 1899 Sao Paulo; idem, 
I.e., 4, p. 152, 1900 Nova Friburgo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 205, 1900 (nest descr.); 
(?) Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 89 Riacho Paraguay Mirim and Rabiche, near 
Corumba, Matto Grosso. 

Hylophilus poedlotes Miranda Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 13, 
p. 183, 1906 Retiro do Ramos, Itatiaya. 

Pachysylvia poecilotis Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 318, 1905 Paraguay; 
idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 336, 1907 Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Itatiba, 
Alto da Serra, Tiete, Rincao, Bauru, Rio Feio, Leme, Itarare) and southern 
Minas Geraes (Itatiaya); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 613 Sapucay, Paraguay; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 365, 1910 Misiones 
(San Javier) and Paraguay (Puerto Bertoni); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 61, 
1914 Alto Parana; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 353, 1914 San Javier, 
Misiones; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 184, 1926 
Banhados, Fazenda Durski, Cara Pintada, Therezina, Barra do Rio Bom, 
and Porto Mendes, Parana; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 314, 
1928 Serra do Itatiaya. 

Pachysylvia (Hylophilus) poecilotis Liiderwaldt, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, 
p. 356, 1909 Itatiaya. 

Pachysylvia poicilotis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 185, 1929 southern 
Brazil, Paraguay, and Misiones (monog.). 

(?) Pachysylvia poecilotis poecilotis Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, 
p. 335, 1930 Riacho Paraguay Mirim and Rabiche, Matto Grosso (ex 
Grant). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 159 

Serpophaga cinnamocephala Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 125, 1901 
Alto Parana, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. de W. Bertoni); Arribalzaga, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 7, p. 365, 1902 (crit). 1 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Rio de 
Janeiro and the confines of Minas Geraes (Serra do Itatiaya) south 
through Sao Paulo and Parand to Santa Catharina, extending west 
to Paraguay (Alto Parana, Sapucay) and northeastern Argentina 
(San Javier and Puerto Segundo, Misiones); (?) southwestern 
Matto Grosso (vicinity of Corumba). 2 

3: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 2); Argentina (Puerto 
Segundo, Misiones, 1). 

*Hylophilus poicilotis amaurocephalus (Nordmann). NORTH- 
ERN RUFOUS-CROWNED HYLOPHILUS. 

Sylvia amaurocephala Nordmann, in Erman's Reise, Naturhist. Atlas, p. 14, 
1835 "Brazil" (the type examined in the Berlin Museum was received 
from the Prince of Wied; type locality, therefore, boundary line of Minas 
Geraes and Bahia). 

Sylvia poicilotis (not Hylophilus poicilotis Temminck) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 3, (2), p. 715, 1831 Sertao of the provinces of Minas Geraes and 
Bahia; Nordmann, in Erman's Reise, Naturhist. Atlas, pi. 9, fig. 3, J 1835. 

Hylophilus poecilotis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 375, 1866 part, descr. 
spec, ex Bahia; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 70, 1868 part, Rio Parana, 
Sao Paulo; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 446 
part, Lag8a Santa, Minas Geraes. 

1 I now agree with Arribalzaga that Bertoni's bird is the Rufous-crowned 
Hylophilus, and not Euscarthmus meloryphus (Wied), as intimated in a preceding 
volume of this "Catalogue." 

2 Two adults from Paraguay (Sapucay) and one from Misiones agree with 
others from Santa Catharina in very dark (nearly blackish) auriculars, decidedly 
yellowish under parts, and in having very little grayish suffusion behind the rufous 
cap. In Sao Paulo, this form intergrades with H. p. amaurocephalus, which reaches 
the southern limit of its distribution in the northern part of that state. Of five 
specimens obtained by Natterer at Ypanema three are typical poicilotis, one is 
less yellowish on the under parts, while the fifth is just as buffy below as Bahia 
examples of amaurocephalus, from which it merely differs by proportionately 
longer tail. Another adult male from Jaguaraiba, Parana, cannot be distinguished, 
even in size, from the latter race. The fact that it is H. p. amaurocephalus which 
inhabits the Parand region on the northern confines of Sao Paulo casts serious 
doubts on Grant's identification of birds from the vicinity of Corumba, Matto 
Grosso, as P. poicilotis, and reexamination is imperative in order to establish 
their proper status. 

Additional material examined. Sao Paulo: Ypanema, 5; Itarar6, 1; Victoria 
de Botucatu, 1. Parana: Jaguaraiba, 1; Curytiba, 1; Roga Nova, Serra do Mar, 
1. Santa Catharina: Ararangua, 3. Paraguay: Sapucay, 2. 

8 In spite of Nordmann's assertion that the figure was made from Erman's 
south Brazilian example, it unquestionably represents the form named by him 
S. amaurocephala. 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hylophilus amaurocephalus Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 301 Bahia and Minas 
Geraes (monog.); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 308, 1883 eastern 
Brazil. 

Paehysylvia amaurocephala Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 336, 1907 
Bahia; Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 186, 1929 eastern Brazil, 
from Piauhy and Ceara to Sao Paulo (monog.). 

Pachysylvia (Hylophilus) poecilotis amaurocephalus Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 79, 1910 Bahia. 

Pachysylvia poidlotis amaurocephala Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 262, 1929 Arara, Piauhy, and Varzea Formosa, Ceara (crit.). 

Pachysylvia amaurocephala cearensis Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 73, p. 266, 
1925 Sao Paulo, Serra do Ibiapaba, Ceara (type probably in the Museo 
Nacional, Rio de Janeiro) ; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 
6, p. 41, 1926 (nomen nudum). 

Range. Eastern Brazil, from Piauhy and Ceara south through 
Bahia and Minas Geraes to northern Sao Paulo (Rio Parana). 1 

5: Brazil (Santo Amaro, Bahia, 1; Arara, Piauhy, 2; Varzea 
Formosa, Ceara, 2). 

Hylophilus thoracicus thoracicus Temminck. LEMON-CHESTED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus thoracicus Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 29, pi. 173, fig. 1, 
Dec., 1822 "Bresil" (type from Rio de Janeiro, coll. by Natterer, in the 
Leiden Museum; 2 Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 110, 1856 
coast district of Rio de Janeiro to the Rio Parahyba, "also in Sao Paulo"; 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 375, 1866 coast of Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. 
Bras., 2, p. 70, 1868 part, Sapitiba and Rio de Janeiro, Prov. Rio de 
Janeiro (spec, examined); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 137, 1899 
"Iguape, Sao Paulo" (no spec, extant). 

1 Birds from northern Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, while identical in colora- 
tion with more northern examples, are slightly larger (wing, 56-58, against 52-55; 
tail, 53-57, against 47-53) with stronger bills, and thus approach H. p. poicilotis. 
Nordmann's type, although partly discolored by preservation in alcohol, shows 
the same large proportions and, no doubt, came from Minas Geraes and not from 
Rio de Janeiro, as stated on the label. An adult male from Victoria de Botucatu 
and one from the Rio Parana, Sao Paulo, are typical of the present form, while 
another specimen from the first-named locality cannot be separated from poicilotis. 
Birds from Ceara (cearensis Snethlage) are indistinguishable from Bahia skins, 
but their slightly smaller size, in comparison to those from Minas and Sao Paulo, 
seems too insignificant a divergency to warrant their discrimination. 

Material examined. Piauhy: Arara, 2. Ceara: Varzea Formosa, 2. Bahia: 
Santo Amaro, 1; Lamarao, 1; Bahia, 9. Minas Geraes: Agua Suja, near Bagagem, 
2. Sao Paulo: Rio Parana, 1; Victoria de Botucatu, 1. 

1 According to the original registers of the Vienna Museum, the specimen 
sent in exchange to, and figured by, Temminck was a male taken by Natterer 
in August, 1818, at Rio de Janeiro. A second male collected at the same time is 
still preserved in the Vienna Museum. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 161 

Sylvia thoracica Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 717, 1831 Rio Parahyba, 
Rio de Janeiro. 

Pachysylvia thoracica Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 336, 1907 
"Sao Paulo," Rio de Janeiro, and "Matto Grosso" (errore); Todd, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 187, 1929 La Raiz, foot of Organ Mountains, 
Rio de Janeiro (monog.). 

Pachysylvia thoracica thoracica Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 20, 1908 State 
of Rio de Janeiro (crit.). 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, in State of Rio 
de Janeiro (Rio Parahyba; Rio de Janeiro; Sapitiba; Manguinhos; 
La Raiz), and probably in the adjacent section of Sao Paulo. 1 

*Hylophilus thoracicus aemulus (Hellmayr). 2 WESTERN GRAY- 
BELLIED HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia thoracica aemula Hellmayr, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bay., 1, No. 3, p. 15, 
Oct., 1920 Yahuarmayo, Sierra de Carabaya, southeastern Peru (type 
in Munich Museum); idem, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 8, 1920 
Yahuarmayo, Peru, and "Bogota," Colombia (crit.). 

Hylophilus thoracicus (not of Temminck) Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 297 part, 
"Colombia int. (Bogota)." 

Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 11, 1902 part, "Bogota." 

1 There is remarkably little variation among the ten specimens before us. 
In opposition to what obtains in H. t. aemulus and H. t. griseiventris, they all 
have the temporal region and sides of the neck dingy grayish, the cheeks pale 
gray freckled with white, and the auriculars soiled brownish gray, very rarely 
with a slight olivaceous tinge, which is, however, much less pronounced than in 
the allied races. H. t. thoracicus differs, besides, by somewhat duller greenish 
upper parts, grayish (instead of warbler green) sides of the head, more whitish 
throat, brighter yellow (wax yellow rather than pyrite yellow) pectoral band, more 
buffy instead of pale grayish abdomen, much longer tail, and darker horn-color 
(plumbeous in life, according to Natterer) bill and feet. Wing, 57-61, (female) 
55-58; tail, 55-60; bill, 12-13. 

Material examined. Rio de Janeiro: Sapitiba, 2; Manguinhos, 1; Rio de 
Janeiro, 7. 

2 Hylophilus thoracicus aemulus (Hellmayr): Similar to H. t. griseiventris in 
proportion of tail and pale-colored bill and feet; but occiput and hind neck mainly 
dull warbler green with very little grayish suffusion; throat more whitish; pectoral 
band brighter yellow as well as more extensive; posterior under parts medially 
more whitish, only the sides shaded with grayish. Wing, 54-58; tail, 46-48; 
bill, 12-13. 

By the coloration of the under parts this race forms the passage to H. t. 
thoracicus, partaking, as it does, of the whitish throat and wide bright yellow 
pectoral band; but aside from its shorter tail and greenish instead of grayish 
occiput and hind neck, it may be also distinguished by the less buffy, laterally 
distinctly grayish belly. "Bogota" skins seem to be inseparable. An immature 
bird from Rioja has dusky feet and bill, showing this character to be only of 
relative value. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 3. Peru: Rioja, 2; Yahuarmayo, 
Carabaya, 1. 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pachysylvia thoracica griseiventris Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 21, 1908 

part, "Bogota." 
Pachysylvia griseiventris aemula Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 190, 

1929 "Bogota," Colombia; La Pampa and La Rioja, Peru (monog.). 

Range. Tropical zone along the eastern base of the Andes, from 
Colombia ("Bogota") to southeastern Peru. 

3: Colombia ("Bogota," 1); Peru (Rioja, 2). 

Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris Berlepsch and Hartert. 1 
GRAY-BELLIED HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 11, 1902 Suapure, Caura River, Venezuela (type in Tring Museum 
examined). 

Pachysylvia thoracica griseiventris Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 
1, p. 336, 1907 part, Venezuela and Guiana; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, 
p. 21, 1908 part, Cayenne, Surinam, British Guiana (Bartica Grove, 
Camacusa, River Caramang), and Venezuela (Suapure and La Pricion, 
Caura) (crit.); Berlepsch, I.e., p. 315, 1908 Cayenne; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 156, 1916 Suapure and La Pricion, Caura River, 
Venezuela. 

Pachysylvia griseiventris Beebe, Trop. Wild Life, 1, p. 136, 1917 Bartica 
Grove, British Guiana; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 394, 1921 
British Guiana (Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Bartica, Makouria River, 
Abary River, River Caramang, Camacusa). 

Pachysylvia griseiventris griseiventris Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 189, 
1929 French Guiana (Tamanoir, Pied Saut) and Brazil (Obidos; Sao Paulo 
do Olivenca; Hyutanahan, Nova Olinda, and Arima, Rio Purus) (monog.). 

Hylophilus thoracicus (not of Temminck) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 44, 
1862 Cayenne; idem, Ibis, 1881, p. 297 part, Cayenne and British 
Guiana; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 307, 1883 part, A. Northern 
race, Bartica Grove, British Guiana; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 204 Bartica 
Grove and Camacusa, British Guiana; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 535, 
1910 Surinam. 

1 Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris Berlepsch and Hartert: Similar to H. t. 
thoracicus, but tail considerably shorter; bill and feet paler brownish; auriculars 
and orbicular region dull warbler green instead of grayish; jugular band narrower 
and duller, pyrite yellow rather than wax yellow; throat and posterior under parts 
white with a decided grayish shade. Wing, 56-60, (female) 52-55; tail, 44-50; 
bill, 11^-13. 

Specimens from the Rio Purus and Sao Paulo de Olivenca are stated by Todd 
to vary to a certain extent in the direction of H. t. aemulus. Guianan examples 
are in every respect similar to those from the Caura River. Mr. Todd not only 
separates this bird specifically from H. thoracicus, but goes even so far as to place 
between them H. pectoralis and H. sclateri, an arrangement which, according to 
my views, merely serves to obscure their natural affinities. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. Dutch Guiana: "Interior 
of Surinam," 1. British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 4; Camacusa, 1; River Caramang, 
1; unspecified, 1. Venezuela, Caura Valley: Suapure, 1; La Pricion, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 163 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and eastern Vene- 
zuela (Caura Valley), south to northern Brazil (Obidos; Sao Paulo 
de Olivenca, Rio Solimoes; Rio Purus). 

*Hylophilus semicinereus 1 semicinereus Sclater and Salvin. 
GRAY-NAPED HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus semicinereus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 
570, pi. 30, fig. 2 Para (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum, examined); Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 377 Para; Sclater, Ibis, 
1881, p. 308 Para (monog.); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 312, 
1883 Para (descr.). 

Pachysylvia thoracica semicinerea Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 355, 1906 
Santo Antonio do Prata, Para (crit.); Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 336, 1907 Para; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 5, 1907 
Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz, Borba and Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira (crit.); 
idem, I.e., 15, p. 21, 1908 lower Amazon, from Para to the Rio 
Madeira (crit.); idem, I.e., 17, p. 266, 1910 Santa Izabel, Rio Preto; 
idem, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 87, 
1912 Para localities; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 96, 1916 Utinga, 
Para; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 172, 1928 Para. 

Pachysylvia semicinerea Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 497, 1908 Itaituba, 
Rio Tapajoz; idem, I.e., 61, p. 518 (in text), 1913 (ecology); idem, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 476, 1914 part, Para, Mocajatuba, Providencia, 
Ananindeuba, Benevides, Maguary, Rio Guama (Santa Maria do Sao 
Miguel, Ourem), Rio Tocantins (Cameta, Baiao, Arumatheua), Rio 
Iriri (Santa Julia), and Rio Tapaj6z (Boim, Itaituba); Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 261, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao (crit.). 

Pachysylvia semicinerea semicinerea Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 190, 
1929 Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the Rio Madeira east to 
Maranhao (monog.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 334, 
1930 Barao Melgaco, Matto Grosso. 

Hylophilus thoracicus (not of Temminck) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 70, 1868 
part, Salto do Girao and Borba, Rio Madeira (spec, examined). 

Pachysylvia thoracica griseiventris (not Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris 
Berlepsch and Hartert) Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 336, 
1907 part, Borba, Rio Madeira. 

1 Hylophilus semicinereus, which I formerly regarded as a race of H. thoracicus, 
seems to be specifically distinct, since a closely allied representative, H. s. viridiceps, 
has been found living side by side with H. t. griseiventris in certain districts north 
of the Amazon. Though similar in general coloration, it may be distinguished 
from the last-named bird by lacking the yellowish jugular band and by having the 
auriculars as well as the sides of the neck grayish instead of greenish. 

Specimens from the Tapaj6z and Rio Madeira are obviously inseparable 
from Para birds, as has already been pointed out by Mr. Todd (I.e., p. 191). 

Material examined. Maranhao: Tury-assu, 1. Para: Para, 5; Santo Antonio 
do Prata, 2; Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz, 1. Amazonas: Borba, 2; Salto do Girao, 1; 
Santa Izabel, Rio Preto, Rio Madeira, 2. 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon, from northern 
Maranhao (Tury-assu) to the Rio Madeira, south to northern Matto 
Orosso (Barao Melgaco). 

1: Brazil (Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1). 

Hylophilus semicinereus viridiceps (Todd). 1 GREEN-HEADED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia semicinerea viridiceps Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 191, 
1929 Pied Saut, French Guiana (type in Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh). 

Pachysylvia semicinerea (not Hylophilus semicinereus Sclater and Salvin) 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 476, 1914 part, Rio Jary (Santo 
Antonio da Cachoeira), Obidos, and Rio Jamunda (Faro). 

Pachysylvia thoracicus semicinerea Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 
2, p. 157, 1916 foot of Mount Duida, Venezuela (spec, examined). 

Range. French Guiana (Pied Saut, Oyapock) and southern 
Venezuela (foot of Mount Duida, upper Orinoco), south to the 
north bank of the Amazon (Rio Jary; Obidos; Rio Jamunda; 
Manacapuru). 

Hylophilus flaviventris Cabanis. 2 YELLOW-BELLIED HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus flaviventris Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 64, 1873 Monterico, 
Dept. Ayacucho, Peru (type formerly in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman 
and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 159, 1927); 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 509 Monterico; Sclater, 

1 Hylophilus semicinereus viridiceps (Todd) : Very similar to H. s. semicinereus, 
but dorsal surface duller, less yellowish green; the greenish suffusion on the sides 
of the chest less extensive as well as duller in tone; the median portion of breast 
and abdomen slightly more whitish, less tinged with grayish. Size about the same. 

This is a very unsatisfactory race, not one of the above-mentioned characters 
being absolutely constant. For instance, a specimen from French Guiana (Pied 
Saut) is very nearly as bright yellowish green as Para birds, one of which, further- 
more, has hardly more greenish on the lateral portions of the chest, while one from 
Borba, Rio Madeira, has the abdominal line fully as whitish as northern examples. 
In the coloration of the pileum and hind neck I fail to appreciate any difference, 
gray-naped individuals as well as others with nearly uniform greenish upper part 
of the head being equally represented in the series of both forms. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Pied Saut, Oyapock, 2. Brazil: Obidos, 
1; Manacapuru, 1. Venezuela: foot of Mount Duida, 1. 

2 Hylophilus flaviventris Cabanis: Pileum and nape (abruptly defined poste- 
riorly) light earthy brown with a slight olivaceous tinge, caused by certain feathers 
being laterally edged with dull yellowish olive; back brownish olive green; rump 
and upper tail coverts clearer, light yellowish olive green, contrasting with the more 
brownish mantle; lesser wing coverts brownish like the upper back; median and 
greater coverts duller, more of a brownish gray, edged with greenish; remiges 
dusky, exteriorly margined with yellowish olive green, this margin passing into 
whitish along the apical half on the second to the sixth primaries; rectrices dull 
olive yellowish green, brighter on the edges; lores and orbital rim dingy white; 
sides of the head pale earthy brown, slightly variegated with whitish on cheeks 
and auriculars; throat and foreneck white, dingier laterally and posteriorly; 
remainder of under surface pale olive yellow (rather dull in tone), the flanks more 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 165 

Ibis, 1881, p. 302 Monterico (crit.); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
8, p. 309, 1883 central Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 446, 1884 
Monterico. 

Pachysylvia flaviventris Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 187, 1929 
Monterico (monog.). 

Range. Tropical zone of central Peru, in Dept. Ayacucho (Mon- 
terico, east of Huanta). 

*Hylophilus pectoralis Sclater. 1 CINEREOUS-HEADED HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus pectoralis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 321 "in Brazil 
merid. prov. Mattogrosso [et Rio de Janeiro," errore] (the type, an 
adult male obtained by Natterer in October, 1826, at Villa Bella de Matto 
Grosso, in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum, examined); 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 70, 1868 part, Villa Maria and [Villa Bella del 
Mattogrosso (Matto Grosso), Forte do Rio Branco, and Rio Amazonas, 
Brazil (spec, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 298 Matto Grosso 

greenish and the crissum more yellowish; axillars and under wing coverts pale 
yellowish; inner margin to remiges nearly white. Bill pale horn brown, lighter 
below; feet dark horn. Wing (adult), 62; tail, 49; bill, 14; tarsus, 16. 

This is a very peculiar species, not to be confused with any other member 
of the genus, and is particularly well characterized by its elongated, slender bill. 
By possessing a distinct cap, this species approaches H. pectoralis, but has a much 
longer, slenderer bill and considerably longer wings. It differs, besides, by 
brownish mantle, much duller olive yellow ventral surface without any white on 
the abdomen, earthy brown instead of clear gray head, etc. 

The above description was made from the type specimen long before its loss, 
when it was forwarded to me for inspection from the Warsaw Museum through 
the good offices of the late M. Jean Stolzmann. 

1 Hylophilus pectoralis Sclater differs from H. thoracicus (all races) by lacking 
the olivaceous color on forehead and anterior crown, the whole pileum being 
uniform light mouse gray like the sides of the head. The yellow pectoral area is 
even brighter and more extensive than in H. L thoracicus, but otherwise the colors 
are about the same in both. 

The present bird is obviously specifically distinct, since its range partly 
coincides with that of H. t. griseiventris. 

Subdivision of H. pectoralis seems to be impracticable. While two adults 
from Matto Grosso (Villa Maria) and one from Leopoldina, Goyaz, have paler 
bills and the yellow area underneath deeper in tone, the original specimens from 
Villa Bella, Matto Grosso, as well as the type of P. araguayae do not materially 
differ from a Guianan series. Moreover, birds from northern Maranhao vary 
considerably inter se, and one, an adult male from Tury-assu, very nearly matches 
the dark-breasted individuals mentioned above. The type of P. thoracicus (!) 
abariensis Chubb, which we have examined in the British Museum, is a perfectly 
normal specimen of H. pectoralis, agreeing particularly well with Sclater's original 
example from Villa Bella. If two forms were distinguishable, the northern one 
would be entitled to the name griseiceps Penard, based on Surinam birds. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Matto Grosso, Villa Bella, 1 (the 
type); Villa Maria [=Sao Luiz de Caceres], 2; Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya, 2; 
Rio Amazonas, 1; Santarem, 1; Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco, 1; Fazenda 
Nazareth, Mexiana, 3. British Guiana: Abary River, 1; Annai, 3; Quonga, 1. 
Dutch Guiana: Paramaribo, 7; Kwata, 2; Rijweg, 1. French Guiana: Cayenne, 
4; Roche-Marie, 1. 



166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(monog.); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 12 (in text), 1902 
(crit.); Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 25, 1907 Mexiana. 

Hylophilus thoracicus (not of Temminck) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 70, 1868 
part, Matto Grosso; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 307, 1883 part, 
B. "Southern race (H. pectoralis)," "interior of southern Brazil." 

Pachysylvia pectoralis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 356 (in text), 1906 (range, 
crit.); Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 336, 1907 Santar&n 
(range); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 20, 22, 1908 Rio Araguaya, 
Goyaz (range, crit.); Berlepsch, I.e., 15, p. 108, 1908 Cayenne and 
Roche-Marie, French Guiana, and Monte Alegre, Brazil; Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 99, 118, 
1912 Mexiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 518, 1913 (ecology); 
idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 475, 1914 Quati-puru, Rio Tocantins (Ilha 
Pae Lourenco), Maraj6 (Pacoval), Mexiana, Arumanduba, and Monte 
Alegre; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 82, 1918 
Paramaribo, Surinam; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, 
p. 59, 1926 Anil and Tury-assu, Maranhao; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 262, 1929 Tury-assu, Rosario, and Cod6, Cocos, 
Maranhao (crit.); Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 188, 1929 (monog.); 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 335, 1930 Matto Grosso 
(ex Pelzeln). 

Hylophilus griseiceps Penard and Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 538, 1910 
Surinam (location of type not stated). 

Hylophilus sclateri (not of Salvin and Godman) Penard and Penard, Vog. 
Guyana, 2, p. 535, 1910 Surinam (nest and eggs descr.). 

Pachysylvia araguayae Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 68, p. 88, 1920 Leopoldina, 
Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, Brazil (type in Berlin Museum examined). 

Pachysylvia thoracicus abariensis Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 395, 1921 
Abary River, Supenaam, Bartica, Bonasica, Annai, and Quonga, British 
Guiana (type, from Abary River, in McConnell Collection, now in British 
Museum, examined). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and Brazil from 
the Rio Branco east to northern Maranhao and south to western 
Matto Grosso (Villa Bella, Sao Luiz de Caceres) and Goyaz (Leopol- 
dina, Rio Araguaya). 

13: British Guiana (Georgetown, 2; unspecified, 1); Brazil (Boa 
Vista, Rio Branco, 3; Tury-assu, Maranhao, 4; Rosario, Maranhao, 
2; Codo, Cocos, Maranhao, 1). 

Hylophilus sclateri Salvin and Godman. 1 SCLATER'S HYLOPHILUS. 

1 Hylophilus sclateri Salvin and Godman, though not unlike H. pectoralis in 
some respects, viz. the uniform gray pileum and sides of the head, is nevertheless 
quite distinct specifically. Besides being larger, it differs by having the forehead 
and lores tinged with clay color; mouse gray instead of warbler green upper tail 
coverts, tail, and wing edgings; buffy white throat; narrower and darker, primuline 
yellow jugular band, etc. Wing, 63-65, (female) 58-62; tail, 53-56, (female) 
49-52; bill, 11-12. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 8. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 167 

Hylophilus sclateri Salvin and Godman, Ibis, (5), 1, p. 205, 1883 Roraima, 
British Guiana (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British 
Museum); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 204 Camacusa and Roraima; idem, 
Ibis, 1886, p. 500 Mount Twek-quay. 

Pachysylvia sclateri Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 397, 1921 Roraima and 
Camacusa, British Guiana; Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 189, 1929 
Mount Roraima (monog.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, 
p. 113, 1931 Mount Roraima (Paulo, Arabupu, Philipp Camp) and 
Mount Duida (north of Laterite Valley). 

Range. Upper Tropical and Subtropical zones of British Guiana 
(Camacusa; Mount Twek-quay; Roraima) and Venezuela (Laterite 
Valley, Mount Duida). 

Hylophilus muscicapinus 1 muscicapinus Sclater and Salvin. 
FLYCATCHER-LIKE HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus muscicapinus Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., p. 156, 
1873 St. Louis d'Oyapock, French Guiana (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum); Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 300, pi. 10, fig. 1 Oyapock 
and British Guiana (Corentyne River and Bartica Grove) (monog.); 
Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 113, 1882 Cayenne; Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 308, 1883 Bartica Grove; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 204 
Bartica Grove; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 12, 1902 Suapure, 
La Union, and Nicare, Caura River, Venezuela; Penard and Penard, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 535, 1910 Surinam. 

Pachysylvia muscicapina Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 315, 1908 Saint 
Louis d'Oyapock, French Guiana; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 476, 
1914 Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira) and Obidos; Beebe, Trop. 
Wild Life, 1, p. 136, 1917 Bartica Grove; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, 
p. 396, 1921 Ituribisci, Supenaam, and Bartica, British Guiana. 

Pachysylvia muscicapina muscicapina Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 268, 1910 
French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and Venezuela (Caura Valley); 
Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 157, 1916 Venezuela (Caura 
River and foot of Mount Duida); Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 203, 
1929 Guiana and eastern Venezuela, south to Obidos, north bank of 
lower Amazon (monog.). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and southern 
Venezuela (Caura Valley; Rio Cunucunuma, at the foot of Mount 

1 Hylophilus muscicapinus is rather an isolated species with very long bill 
and peculiar coloration. By certain characters, such as the rufescent forehead and 
lores, it recalls H. sclateri, but has a proportionately shorter tail and longer bill. 
Furthermore, it differs by buffy rufous (instead of grayish) sides of the head and 
superciliaries; green (not mouse gray) upper tail coverts, tail, and wing edgings; 
buffy rufous instead of primuline yellow foreneck, etc. Wing, 58-61, (female) 
55-57; tail, 46-49, (female) 44-47; bill, 13^-15. 

Birds from the Caura Valley agree well with others from the Guianas. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. Dutch Guiana: inland of 
Paramaribo, 2. British Guiana: Camacusa, 2; Bartica Grove, 1. Venezuela, 
Caura Valley: La Union, 2; Suapure, 6; Nicare, 1. 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Duida), south to the north bank of the lower Amazon, Brazil (Rio 
Jary; Obidos). 

Hylophilus muscicapinus griseifrons (Snethlage). 1 GREY- 
FRONTED HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia muscicapina griseifrons Snethlage, Orn. Monatsber., 15, p. 160, 
1907 Villa Braga, Rio Tapajoz (type in Museu Goeldi, Para, now in 
Berlin Museum); idem, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 497, 1908 Villa Braga; Hell- 
mayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 268, 1910 Maroins, Rio Machados, Rio Madeira 
(crit.); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 476, 1914 Boim and Villa 
Braga, Rio Tapajoz; Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 203, 1929 Rio 
Tapajoz (Villa Braga, Apacy) to the Rio Madeira (monog.); Naumburg, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 335, 1930 Rio Roosevelt, Broken Canoe 
Rapids, and Monte Cristo, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Brazil south of the Amazon, from the Rio Tapajoz west 
to the Rio Madeira, south to northern Matto Grosso (Rio Roosevelt). 

Hylophilus brunneiceps brunneiceps Sclater. 2 BROWN-HEADED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus brunneiceps Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 322 "in 
Brasil. merid., Ypanema (Natterer)," errore (type from the Rio VaupS, 
a tributary of the upper Rio Negro, 3 in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum, examined); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 70, 1868 Rio Vaupe" 
and Barcellos, Rio Negro; Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 305, pi. 11, fig. 1 Rio 
Negro and "Oyapock, Guiana" (monog.); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
8, p. 310, 1883 "Guiana"; Berlepsch and Leverkiihn, Ornis, 6, p. 7, 
1890 "Angostura," Orinoco (crit.; spec., now in Berlin Museum, ex- 
amined); Penard and Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 537, 1910 "Guiana." 

1 Hylophilus muscicapinus griseifrons (Snethlage): Differs from the typical 
race by slightly brighter green upper parts, deeper isabelline-rufous sides of the 
head, more rufescent throat, and especially by having the forehead gray like the 
crown, not tinged with buffy. Wing (male), 59-62; tail, 45-47; bill, 13-14. 

Birds from Maroins, east side of the Rio Madeira, agree well with a topotype 
from Villa Braga. 

Material examined. Brazil: Villa Braga, Rio Tapaj6z, 1; Maroins, Rio 
Machados, 2. 

2 A very distinct species, easily recognizable by its brown (raw umber to 
light sepia) head (the sides being somewhat paler than the top), very pale brownish 
throat and chest, and light grayish belly with pale yellowish under wing and under 
tail coverts. 

Four specimens from the upper Rio Negro agree very well together. An 
adult said to be from "Angostura," Orinoco, differs by paler, more grayish buff 
throat and foreneck, while a "male" from San Fernando de Atabapo has these 
parts washed with olive buff. Wing, 56-57, (female) 53-54; tail, 41-46; bill, 12-13. 

Material examined. Brazil, Rio Negro: Barcellos, 1; Rio Vaup6, 3. Vene- 
zuela: "Angostura," 1; San Fernando de Atabapo, 1. 

8 According to the registers of the Vienna Museum, the type, a male, was 
obtained by Natterer on the Rio Vaup6 on July 20, 1831. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 169 

Pachysykia brunneiceps Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 337, 
1907 "Guyana," "Amazonia," Rio Negro; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. 
Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 157, 1916 San Fernando de Atabapo, upper Orinoco; 
Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 192, 1929 Rio Negro to southern 
Venezuela (monog.). 

Range. Northwestern Brazil (upper Rio Negro and its tribu- 
taries) and the adjoining section of southern Venezuela (San Fer- 
nando de Atabapo, upper Orinoco). 1 

Hylophilus brunneiceps inornatus (Snethlage). 2 SOUTHERN 
BROWN-HEADED HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia inornata Snethlage, Orn. Monatsber., 22, p. 43, 1914 Cameta, 
Rio Tocantins, Brazil (type in Museu Goeldi, Para, now in Berlin Museum, 
examined); idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, pp. 478, 499, 1914 Cameta, Rio 
Tocantins, and Santa Elena, Rio Jamauchim; Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 42, p. 202, 1929 Rio Tapajoz to the Tocantins (monog.). 

Range. Northern Brazil south of the Amazon, from the Rio 
Tocantins to the Rio Tapajoz. 

Hylophilus semi-brunneus Lafresnaye. 3 RUFOUS-NAPED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

1 The locality "Oyapock," French Guiana, is doubtless erroneous. I have 
reason to believe that the collection, containing the two specimens in the British 
Museum, received from Madame Verdey of Paris, actually originated from the 
upper Orinoco. Todd also states that Klages failed to meet with the species in 
French Guiana. It is likewise questionable whether H. b. brunneiceps descends 
the Orinoco as far as "Angostura," whence the Berlin Museum has an example, 
acquired from the natural history dealer Brandt, of Hamburg. It is more likely 
to have been obtained farther up the river. 

2 Hylophilus brunneiceps inornatus (Snethlage): Very close to H. b. brunneiceps, 
but with slightly longer wings; throat nearly grayish white, not washed with buffy 
or brownish; the remainder of the under parts more or less strongly washed with 
yellowish citrine. Wing, 56-58; tail, 42-46; bill, 12-13. 

This is a slightly differentiated race, representing H. b. brunneiceps south 
of the lower Amazon, and distinguished by more grayish or whitish throat and 
yellowish abdomen. Certain specimens from the Rio Tapaj6z, which we have 
seen in the collection of the Carnegie Museum, run rather close to the "Angostura" 
bird mentioned under the preceding heading. Mr. Todd places this form in the 
vicinity of H. hypoxanthus, but we cannot see that the two species have anything 
in common except a superficial resemblance in the coloration of the pileum. 

Material examined. Brazil: Cameta, Rio Tocantins, 1 (the type); Santa 
Elena, Rio Jamauchim, 1; Rio Tapaj6z, 6. 

3 Hylophilus semi-brunneus Lafresnaye is allied to, possibly even conspecific 
with, H. aurantiifrons, its close resemblance in the immature plumage to the 
latter bird affording strong evidence for such relationship. 

A single topotype from eastern Ecuador (San Jos6 de Sumaco) is so closely 
matched by various Colombian examples that I am inclined to agree with Mr. 
Todd in not maintaining P. s, leucogastra. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 10; Primavera, Cauca, western 
Andes, 4; Miraflores, 2. Ecuador: below San Jos6 de Sumaco, 1. 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hylophilus semi-brunneus Lafresnaye, Rev. ZooL, 8, p. 341, 1845 Bogota, 
Colombia (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 70, p. 
345, 1930); Sclater, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 23, p. 144, 1855 Bogota; 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 374, 1866 Bogota; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 495 Concordia, Antioquia; Sclater, Ibis, 
1881, p. 302 Bogota and Concordia, Colombia (monog.); Gadow, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 309, 1883 Colombia. 

Pachysylvia semibrunnea Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 540, 1917 
Las Lomitas, San Antonio, La Manuelita, Miraflores, San Agustin, 
and Fusugasuga, Colombia; Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 201, 
1929 Colombia and eastern Ecuador (monog.). 

Pachysylvia semibrunnea leucogastra Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 143, p. 1, 
1924 below San Jose" de Sumaco, eastern Ecuador (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 588, 1926 same locality. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (except Santa Marta 
region) and eastern Ecuador. 

Hylophilus aurantiifrons aurantiifrons Lawrence. OCHER- 
FRONTED HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus aurantiifrons Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 324, 
1861 Panama Railroad (type in coll. of G. N. Lawrence, now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York); Baird, Rev. Amer. 
Bds., 1, p. 377, 1866 Panama (descr.); Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 303 part, 
Panama (crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 207, 
1882 part, Panama Railroad; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 310, 1883 
part, Panama; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 142, 1898 
Santa Marta, Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 172, 1900 
Bonda, Santa Marta. 

Hylophilus hypoxanthus (not of Pelzeln) Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, 
p. 118 Valencia, Santa Marta region. 

Pachysylvia aurantiifrons aurantiifrons Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 3, p. 220, 1904 from Santa Marta to Panama (monog.); Thayer 
and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 46, p. 220, 1906 savanna of Panama; 
Hellmayr, Nov. ZooL, 13, p. 12, 1906 Panama to Santa Marta (crit.); 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 273, 1918 Pedro Miguel, 
Panama; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 430, 1922 
Bonda, Don Diego, Dibulla, Fundacion, Minca, Mamatoco, La Tigrera, 
Tucurinca, and Valencia, Santa Marta region (habits); Hallinan, Auk, 
41, p. 324, 1924 Rio Velazquez, Panama; Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, 
p. 199, 1929 Caribbean coast of Colombia to Panama (monog.) ; Darling- 
ton, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 71, p. 410, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena. 

Range. Caribbean coast region of Colombia, west to the Isthmus 
of Panama (Canal Zone). 1 

1 Specimens from the Santa Marta region seem identical with Panama birds. 
Material examined. Panama: Panama, 3. Colombia, Santa Marta: Mama- 
toco, 2; Bonda, 8; Minca, 3. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 171 

"Hylophilus aurantiifrons saturatus (Hellmayr). 1 EASTERN 

OCHER-FRONTED HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia aurantiifrons saturata Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 12, 1906 
Caparo, Trinidad, and vicinity of Cumana, Venezuela (no type locality 
indicated; type from Rincon de San Antonio, State of Sucre, northeastern 
Venezuela, in Tring Museum); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 
1, p. 188, 1906 Aripo, Trinidad; idem, I.e., p. 357, 1908 Pointe Gourde, 
Carenage, and Aripo, Trinidad; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 100, 1909 
Guanoco, Gulf of Paria, Venezuela; Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 
78, A, Heft 5, p. 49, 1912 Las Quiguas, Carabobo (crit.); Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 207, 1913 Cariaquito, Paria Peninsula, 
Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 156, 1916 
Guanoco, Venezuela (ex Beebe); Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 200, 
1929 Caribbean coast of Venezuela, east to Trinidad, south to Colombia 
east of the eastern Andes (monog.). 

Hylophilus insularis (not of Sclater) Le"otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 186, 1866 
Trinidad; Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 305 part, Trinidad (ex Le"otaud). 

Hylophilus hypoxanthus (not of Pelzeln) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1868, pp. 627, 629 San Esteban, Carabobo. 

Pachysylvia aurantiifrons hypoxantha Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 3, p. 215, 1904 part, Venezuela, Trinidad, and "Guiana" (crit.). 

Hylophilus aurantiifrons (not of Lawrence) Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 303 
part, "Guiana (?)," Trinidad, and Venezuela (San Esteban, Valencia); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 207, 1882 part, 
Venezuela and "Guiana"; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 310, 1883 
part (descr.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 27, 1894 Princes- 
town, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumana, San Antonio, 
and Guanaguana, Venezuela; Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 24, p. 177, 1901 San Julian, near La Guaira, Venezuela. 

Range. Island of Trinidad and Caribbean coast district of Vene- 
zuela, from Sucre west to Zulia; (?) eastern Colombia (Palmar, 
Boyacd, eastern base of the eastern Andes). 2 

1 Hylophilus aurantiifrons saturatus (Hellmayr): Very close to H. a. aurantii- 
frons, but under parts brighter yellow and more strongly tinged with buffy or 
ochraceous across the chest. 

Comparison of large series from Trinidad and the Venezuelan mainland 
tends to demonstrate their identity. Neither is the pileum duller, nor are the 
under parts paler in Venezuelan birds, as has been claimed by Ridgway, who 
had, however, very little material. While individual specimens are not always 
distinguishable from aurantiifrons, the more richly colored under parts render 
the present form quite recognizable, when series are laid out side by side. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 14; Chaguaramas, 1; 
Icacos, 2; Aripo, 8. Venezuela, Sucr6: Cumana, 6; San Antonio, 1; Quebrada 
Secca, 1; Santa Ana, 2; Celci Puede, 1; Los Palmales, 1; La Tigrera, 3; Campos 
Alegre, 3; Carabobo, Las Quiguas, 3; Cumbre Chiquita, 1; San Esteban, 2; 
Tucacas, 1. 

2 According to Todd (I.e.), a single specimen from the above locality seems 
to be referable to H. a. saturatus. More material is, however, needed to establish 
its subspecific identity beyond doubt. "Guiana," indicated for this Hylophilus 
by certain early writers, refers to specimens of the so-called "Trinidad-make." 
The species does not occur anywhere in Guiana proper. 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

14: Trinidad, 1; Venezuela (Caracas, 9; Lake Valencia, 1; Mara- 
cay, Aragua, 3). 

Hylophilus hypoxanthus hypoxanthus Pelzeln. 1 DUSKY-CAPPED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus hypoxanthus Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 71, 136, 1868 Rio Icanna 
and Rio Vaup6, upper Rio Negro, Brazil (types in Vienna Museum 
examined). 

Hylophilus fuscieapillus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, 
p. 155 Sarayacu, eastern Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 303, pi. 10, fig. 2 
Sarayacu; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 309, 1883 Ecuador (descr.). 

Pachysylvia hypoxantha Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 337, 
1907 Rio Negro and Ecuador; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 477, 1914 
part, Amazonia. 

Pachysylvia hypoxantha hypoxantha Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 12 (in text), 
1906 Rio Icanna and Rio Negro (crit.); Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
42, p. 201, 1929 Tonantins and Manacapuru, Rio SolimSes (monog.). 

Pachysylvia hypoxantha fuscicapilla Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 12 (in text), 
1906 Sarayacu, Ecuador (crit.). 

Pachysylvia fuscicapilla fuscicapilla Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H. f 55, 
p. 588, 1926 Rio Suno and below San Jos6, eastern Ecuador, and La 
Merced, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from eastern Ecuador south to central 
Peru (La Merced, Chanchamayo, Dept. Junin) and east to the 
Rio Negro, Brazil. 

1 Hylophilus hypoxanthus Pelzeln, though related to H, aurantiifrons, differs 
nevertheless very markedly by the total absence of yellow on forehead and 
supraloral region; much darker, olive brown or sepia brown pileum, passing into 
buffy or brownish olive on the back and leaving only the rump and upper tail 
coverts greenish, the tone of this green as well as that of the wing coverts, tail, 
and wing feathers being considerably darker; dull brownish instead of bright 
Isabella color sides of the head and neck; much more greenish yellow under parts 
with just a faint buffy tinge across the foreneck; paler yellow under wing coverts; 
narrower and more whitish inner margin to the remiges, etc. Wing, 59-60, (female) 
54-57; tail, 45-46, (female) 40-43; bill, 12-13^. 

Specimens from Sarayacu (H. fuscieapillus) are not satisfactorily separable 
from the female type of H. hypoxanthus, obtained by Natterer on the Rio Vaup6, 
and an adult of the same sex from Pebas, Rip Maranon, is also similar. Natterer's 
male example from the Rio Icanna is considerably paler yellowish beneath with 
a more whitish throat, doubtless an individual variation. Both Chapman and 
Todd mention aberrant individuals from Manacapuru, just west of the mouth 
of the Rio Negro, and La Merced, Peru, respectively. Without adequate series 
from these localities it is, of course, impossible to properly explain the significance 
of this variation. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 3. Peru: Pebas, 1. Brazil: Rio 
Icanna, 1; Rio Vaup6, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 173 

Hylophilus hypoxanthus albigula (Chapman). 1 WHITE-THROATED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia fuscicapilla albigula Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 18, p. 11, 1921 

Santa Julia, Rio Iriri (branch of the Xingu), Brazil (type in Museu Goeldi, 

Para). 
Pachysylvia hypoxantha albigula Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 200, 

1929 Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the Xingu to the Rio Purus 

(monog.). 

Range. Brazil south of the Amazon, from the Rio Xingu to 
the Rio Purus. 

Hylophilus olivaceus Tschudi. 2 OLIVACEOUS HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus olivaceus Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 284, 1844 Peru 
(type in Neuchatel Museum); idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 195, 1846 
eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes (probably Dept. Junln) ; Baird, Rev. 
Amer. Bds., 1, p. 375, 1866 Peru (ex Tschudi); Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 
310 Peru (ex Tschudi); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, 
p. 7 Huambo; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 313, 1883 Huambo; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 447, 1884 Huambo and Chirimoto, Peru 
(crit.); Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 75 
Mapoto, Ecuador. 

1 Hylophilus hypoxanthus albigula (Chapman): Very similar to H. h. hypo- 
xanthus, but under parts richer and brighter, lemon yellow rather than barium 
yellow, without the faint buffy tinge across the foreneck; throat generally of a 
purer, more grayish white, less buffy; and back brighter, brownish citrine rather 
than buffy olive. Wing, 58-61, (female) 55-57; tail, 45-49, (female) 43-44; bill, 
12-13^. 

The best character by which to recognize this form is the brighter, richer yel- 
low color of the under parts. However, one specimen, a female from the Rio Purus 
(Nova Olinda), is much paler than the others, with slight whitish flammulations 
on the breast, and closely resembles the male of H. hypoxanthus from the Rio 
Iganna, which has also the throat very nearly as whitish. 

Material examined. Brazil: Caviana, Rio SolimSes, 1; Rio Purus, Hyutana- 
han, 2; Arima, 1; Nova Olinda, 1. 

1 Hylophilus olivaceus Tschudi, a little-known species, seems to be allied to 
H. flavipes. The proportions and the shape of the pale brown bill are about the 
same, and the general style of coloration, including the pale brown feet, is very 
similar. The Peruvian bird differs, however, by duller (yellowish olive) upper 
parts, more yellowish forehead, more greenish sides of the head, and uniform olive 
yellow under parts from chin to tail coverts, with just a few white-tipped feathers 
in the anal region. Wing, (male) 60 1 A, (female) 58; tail, 55, (female) 49; bill, 13. 

We have examined an adult male from Chirimoto and a molting female from 
Huambo, Dept. San Martin, Peru, which agree substantially with Tschudi's 
rather vague account. Moreover, they had been compared and found identical 
with the type, as stated by Taczanowski (Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 447), who, at the same 
time, corrects some inaccuracies in Tschudi's description. On the other hand, 
I am not quite certain that east Ecuadorian birds are the same, judging from 
Chapman's and notably Todd's remarks: "Below buffy whitish, the throat, breast, 
and sides heavily shaded with olive yellow" and "more brownish on the pileum." 
Their specimens may have been immature, however, since Taczanowski (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 75) pronounced a male from Mapoto to be "identique 
aux oiseaux pSruviens." 

Material examined. Peru: Chirimoto, 1; Huambo, 1. 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pachysylvia olivacea Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 589, 1926 
below Oyacachi and below San Jose", eastern Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. 
Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 34, p. 442, 1928 Chaco, eastern Ecuador; Todd, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 197, 1929 eastern Ecuador (monog.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Peru (Huambo and Chiri- 
moto, Huayabamba Valley, Dept. San Martin) and eastern Ecuador 
(Mapoto; below Oyacachi; below San Jose"). 

*Hylophilus flavipes viridiflavus Lawrence. 1 YELLOW-GREEN 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus viridiflavus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 324, 1861 
line of Panama Railroad (type in coll. of G. N. Lawrence, now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 348 Panama Railroad; Baird, Rev. 
Amer. Bds., 1, p. 380, 1866 Panama (crit.); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 137 Santa Fe", Veragua; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 184 Bugaba, 
Chiriqui; Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 309 Veragua and Panama (monog.); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 208, pi. 13, fig. 1, 
1882 Panama (Bugaba, Santa Fe, railroad line); Cherrie, Anal. Inst. 
Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 Buenos Aires, Costa 
Rica; Griscom, Auk, 50, p. 306, 1933 Rio Chepo, Darien. 

Hylophilus flavipes B. Northern race (H. viridiflavus} Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 312, 1883 Veragua and Isthmus of Panama. 

Hylophilus flavipes viridiflavus Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 368, 1901 Divala and 
David, Chiriqui. 

Pachysylvia viridiflava Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 221, 
1904 Isthmus of Panama to Veragua (monog.); Thayer and Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 220, 1906 savanna of Panama; Bangs, 
Auk, 24, p. 305, 1907 Boruca, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 777, 1910 Pigres, El General de Terraba, Pozo Azul de Pirris, and 
Buenos Aires de Terraba, southwestern Costa Rica (habits); Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 273, 1918 Mount Hope and Gatun, Panama; 
Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 324, 1924 Corozal, Panama; Todd, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 42, p. 199, 1929 Panama and southwestern Costa Rica 
(monog.). 

Hylophilus viridiflavus pallescens Davidson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 45, p. 
168, 1932 near Concepcion, Chiriquf, Panama (type in California 
Academy of Sciences). 

1 Hylophilus flavipes viridiflavus Lawrence is certainly nothing but a well- 
marked race, differing from H. f. flavipes by brighter, warbler green rather than 
dark citrine, upper parts; grayish instead of buffy yellow sides of the head with 
more whitish supraloral streak; grayish white throat and bright yellow (near amber 
yellow) under parts without any buffy posteriorly. 

While admitting that birds from Chiriqui and Costa Rica (pallescens) average 
slightly darker (olive citrine rather than citrine) above and a trifle more buffy 
on the chest, I do not consider this insignificant variation worthy of recognition 
in nomenclature. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Pozo Azul, 3. Panama: Chiriquf, 
2; Panama, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 175 

Range. Pacific lowlands of southwestern Costa Rica (from 
Pigres southward) and western Panama, east to Darien (Rio Chepo). 
5: Costa Rica (Buenos Aires, 3); Panama (Colon, 2). 

*Hylophilus flavipes flavipes Lafresnaye. PALE-LEGGED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus flavipes Lafresnaye, Rev. ZooL, 8, p. 342, 1845 Bogota, Colombia 
(type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 345, 1930); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 144, 1855 Bogota; Baird, Rev. 
Amer. Bds., 1, p. 375, 1866 Bogota; Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 309 part, 
Colombia, Bogota (monog.); Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 142, 
1898 Santa Marta; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 172, 1900 
Bonda, Colombia. 

Hylophilus flavipes A. Southern race (H. flavipes) Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 8, p. 312, 1883 part, Colombia. 

Pachysylvia flavipes Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 216, 1904 
coast district of Colombia, east of Gulf of Uraba (diag.). 

Pachysylvia flavipes flavipes Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 540, 
1917 La Playa (Barranquilla), Calamar and Chicoral, Magdalena 
Valley, and Villavicencio, eastern base of eastern Andes, Colombia; Todd 
and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 430, 1922 Bonda, Mamatoco, 
Dibulla, La Tigrera, Fundaci6n, Rio Hacha, Santa Marta, and Valencia, 
Colombia (habits); Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 198, 1929 
Colombia (monog.); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 410, 
1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena. 

Range. Tropical zone of Colombia (Caribbean coast from 
Barranquilla to Rio Hacha, La Goajira; Magdalena Valley; Villavi- 
cencio, at the eastern base of the eastern Andes). 1 

2: Colombia (Cartagena, Dept. Bolivar, 1; Fundaci6n, Santa 
Marta, 1). 

"Hylophilus flavipes acuticauda Lawrence. 2 BUFF-BELLIED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

1 Specimens from Santa Marta, though less yellowish on the abdomen than 
Bogota skins, appear, as a whole, to be nearer to flavipes than acuticauda. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 26; Mamatoco, 2; 
Bonda, 5. 

2 Hylophilus flavipes acuticauda Lawrence: Similar to H. f. flavipes, but colora- 
tion duller and less yellowish; upper parts duller citrine; under surface buffy, 
more brownish anteriorly, at best with a little yellowish on flanks and crissum. 

Birds from Margarita Island (H. griseipes) are identical with those from 
the opposite Venezuelan coast (vicinity of Cumana), whereas specimens from the 
banks of the Orinoco and from Caracas westwards have, on average, more yellowish 
or greenish suffusion on the flanks. However, this variation is too erratic and 
unstable to justify the recognition of an eastern form, for which Richmond's term 
would be available. In the Maracaibo basin intergradation to H. f. flavipes takes 
place, and certain individuals can very nearly be matched by Bogota skins. It is 



176 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hylophilus acuticauda(us) Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 

37 Venezuela 1 (descr. of immature; type in coll. of G. N. Lawrence, now 

in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Baird, Rev. 

Amer. Bds., 1, p. 378, 1866 Venezuela (descr. of type); Sclater and Salvin, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, pp. 166, 170 Caracas (crit.); idem, I.e., 

1869, p. 252 plain of Valencia, Venezuela; Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 304 

Venezuela (crit.). 
Hylophilus flavipes acuticauda Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 12, 

1902 Ciudad Bolivar, Altagracia, and Caicara, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela 

(crit.). 
Pachysylvia acuticauda Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 216, 

1904 Venezuela (diag.). 
Pachysylvia flavipes acuticauda Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, 

p. 156, 1916 Ciudad Bolivar and Caicara, Rio Orinoco; Todd, Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 197, 1929 Venezuela (monog.). 
Hylophilus griseipes Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 678, 1896 

Margarita Island, Venezuela (type in U. S. National Museum); Clark, 

Auk, 19, p. 266, 1902 Margarita Island. 
Pachysylvia griseipes Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 216, 

1904 Margarita Island (diag.); Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 561 Margarita 

Island; idem, Ibis, 1909, p. 323 Cariaco, Paria Peninsula, Venezuela; 

Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 249, 254, 1909 Margarita 

Island. 
Hylophilus flavipes (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 309 part, spec. 

ex Valencia, Venezuela (spec, examined) ; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 

Cumanacoa and San Antonio, Sucr6, Venezuela. 

Range. Venezuela, from Margarita Island and the Paria Penin- 
sula west to the Maracaibo basin, south to the Orinoco Valley. 

14: Venezuela (Margarita Island, 6; Caracas, 2; Macuto, Caracas, 
2; Maracay, Aragua, 1; Rio Aurare, Zulia, 1; Encontrados, Cata- 
tumbo River, Zulia, 2). 

*Hylophilus flavipes insularis Sclater. 2 TOBAGO HYLOPHILUS. 

needless to repeat that the present form, long confused with H. aurantiifrons 
saturatus, is totally different specifically, as first pointed out by J. A. Allen (Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 172, 1900). 

Additional material examined. Sucre: plain of Cumana, 9; San Felix, inland 
of Cuman&, 1; Cariaco, Paria Peninsula, 2. Orinoco Valley: Ciudad Bolivar, 6; 
Altagracia, 8; Caicara, 4. Caracas, 1. Carabobo: Puerto Cabello, 1; plain of 
Valencia, 1. 

1 Puerto La Cruz, Carabobo, suggested as type locality by Todd (Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 42, p. 198, 1929). 

1 Hylophilus flavipes insularis Sclater: Similar in coloration to H. f. acuticauda, 
but larger, with longer, heavier bill. Wing, 59-63, (female) 57-59; tail, 48-50, 
(female) 46-48; bill, 12^-13^. 

Examination of a large series shows the Tobago form to be exceedingly variable 
in coloration. When compared to H. /. acuticauda, the under parts are generally 
more uniform olive buff, though selected individuals run very close. The pileum 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 177 

Hylophilua insularis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 128 Tobago 
(type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum, examined); idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 45, 1862 Tobago; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds. f 
1, p. 379, 1866 Tobago (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 305 part, Tobago 
(crit.); Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 
p. 3 (note), 1906 Tobago. 

Pachysylvia insularis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 216, 
1904 Tobago (diag.); Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 196, 1929 
Tobago (monog.). 

Hylophilus aurantiifrons (not of Lawrence) Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
8, p. 310, 1883 part, type of H. insularis, erroneously ascribed to Trinidad. 

Hylophilus pallidifrons Dalmas, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 135, 1900 
Tobago (type in coll. of R. de Dalmas, now in Tring Museum, examined). 

Range. Tobago Island. 
13: Tobago Island. 

*Hylophilus ochraceiceps ochraceiceps Sclater. TAWNY- 
CROWNED HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus ochraceiceps Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 375, 1859 
Playa Vicente, Oaxaca, Mexico (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum) ; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 397 Choctum, Guate- 
mala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 44, pi. 5, 1862 Oaxaca and Choctum 
(Vera Paz); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 376, 1866 Mexico to Costa 
Rica; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 97, 1868 Angostura, 
Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 295, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 184 Bugaba, Chiriqui; Boucard, Ann. 
Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 41, 1878 Vera Paz, Guatemala; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 306 Mexico (Oaxaca), Guatemala (Choctum, Chisec, Rio 
de la Pasion), Costa Rica, Veragua, and Bugaba, Chiriqui (monog.); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 207, 1882 Mexico 
(Oaxaca) to Panama (Bugaba); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 310, 
1883 Mexico to Panama; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 
108, 1887 Rio Sucio, Costa Rica; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, 
p. 585, 1888 Segovia River, Honduras; Cherrie, I.e., 14, p. 529, 1891 
Guatemala, Honduras (Segovia River), Costa Rica, and Chiriqui (crit.); 
idem, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 136, 1893 
Lagarto, Boruca, and Terraba, Costa Rica (habits); Underwood, Ibis, 
1896, p. 435 Miravalles, Costa Rica; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. 
Cl., 3, p. 59, 1902 Caribbean slope of Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama. 

is frequently darker, more brownish, and this color also invades the upper part 
of the back, while the maxilla appears to be more blackish. However, similar 
specimens occur, also, on the Venezuelan mainland. Dalmas's description is dis- 
figured by a misleading misprint, the length of the tail being given as 57 instead 
of 47. We have examined the types of H. insularis and H, pallidifrons and found 
them both to belong to the present form, the first-named being slightly immature. 
There is no representative of this group on Trinidad. 

Additional material examined. Tobago: Man o' War Bay, 12; Castare, 4; 
Mondland, 2; Lecito, 1; unspecified, 2. 



178 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hylophilus ochraceiceps ochraceiceps Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, 
p. 320, 1932 Guatemala. 

Pachysylvia ochraceiceps ochraceiceps Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 3, p. 218, 1904 southern Mexico (states of Mexico (?), Oaxaca, 
Tabasco, and Campeche), Guatemala, and northern Honduras (monog.); 
(?) Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 16, 1926 Palmul, Yucatan (sight 
record); Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 483, 1927 
Presidio, Vera Cruz; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 388, 1929 Mountain Cow and 
Augustine, British Honduras; Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 196, 
1929 southern Mexico to western Panama (monog.). 

Pachysylvia ochraceiceps Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 778, 1910 
Costa Rica (crit., habits). 

Pachysylvia ochraceiceps pallidipectus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, 
p. 108, 1903 Angostura, Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 219, 1904 southern Honduras 
to Chiriqui (monog.); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 305, 1907 Boruca, Paso Real, 
Lagarto, Barranca, and P6zo del Rio Grande, Costa Rica (juv. descr.). 

Hylophilus ochraceiceps pallidipectus Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 
461, 1929 Lancetilla, Honduras (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of southern Mexico, in states of Vera 
Cruz (Presidio), Oaxaca (Playa Vicente), Tabasco (Teapa), and 
Campeche (Apazote), south through Guatemala, British Honduras, 
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica to western Panama (Bugaba; 
Volcan de Chiriqui). 1 

7: Guatemala (Vera Paz, 1); Nicaragua (San Rafael del Norte, 
1); Costa Rica (Lagarto, 2; Boruca, 2; T&raba, 1). 

Hylophilus ochraceiceps nelson i (Todd). 2 NELSON'S TAWNY- 
CROWNED HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia ochraceiceps brevipennis (not Helinai brevipennis Giraud) Nelson, 
Smiths. Misc. Coll., 56, No. 22, p. 1, 1911 Lion Hill, Panama (type in 
U. S. National Museum). 

Pachysylvia ochraceiceps nelsoni Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 195, 
1929 new name for P. o. brevipennis Nelson, preoccupied. 

1 In agreement with Carriker and Todd, I consider the alleged southern race, 
H. o. pallidipectus, to be inseparable. While admitting that certain Costa Rican 
examples are paler below, the majority of the southern birds cannot be distin- 
guished, a good many from the Terraba region being even darker ochraceous on the 
chest than two (out of four) Guatemalan skins. 

Additional material examined. Guatemala: Vera Paz, 4. Costa Rica: 
Miravalles, 4; Lagarto, 2; Boruca, 7; Te>raba, 1. Panama: Bugaba, 1. 

2 Hylophilus ochraceiceps nelsoni (Todd): "Similar to H. o. ochraceiceps, but 
upper parts and wings externally with less brownish wash, more greenish, under 
parts also slightly more greenish, the breast with less buffy shading." (Todd, I.e.). 

This form, which we have not seen, according to Todd is intermediate between 
ochraceiceps and bulunensis, differing from the latter by more brownish upper, and 
less yellowish under parts. Its supposedly smaller size is open to question, as the 
original specimens may have been wrongly sexed. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 179 

Hylophilus ochraceiceps nelsoni Griscom, Auk, 50, p. 305, 1933 Rio Chepo, 
Darien. 

Range. Eastern Panama (from Veragua to the Rio Chepo, 
Darien). 

Hylophilus ochraceiceps bulunensis Hartert. 1 BULUN 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus bulunensis Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 9, p. 617, Dec., 1902 Bulun, 
Prov. Esmeraldas, Ecuador (type in Tring Museum examined). 

Pachysylvia ochraceiceps butunensis [sic] Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 65, p. 223, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darien (crit.). 

Pachysylvia ochraceiceps bulunensis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 589, 1926 Tacarcuna, eastern Panama, to northwestern Ecuador 
(crit.); Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 195, 1929 eastern Panama 
(Mount Pirri, Cana), western Colombia (Potedo and Malagita, Choc6), 
and Ecuador (monog.). 

Hylophilus ochraceiceps bulunensis Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 
366, 1932 Obaldia and Ranchon, Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of the Pacific coast region, from eastern 
Panama (Darien) through western Colombia (Potedo and Malagita, 
Choco) south to northwestern Ecuador (Bulun, Prov. Esmeraldas). 

Hylophilus ochraceiceps ferrugineifrons Sclater. RUFOUS- 
FRONTED HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus ferrugineifrons Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 110 
"Bogota," Colombia (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum) ; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 359, 1862 Bogota; Baird, Rev. Amer. 
Bds., 1, p. 377, 1866 Bogota (descr.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 70, 1868 
part, Rio Negro, below Santa Barbara, Brazil (spec, in Vienna Mu- 
seum examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 307, pi. 11, fig. 2 part, "Oyapock, 
Cayenne," Bogota, and Sarayacu, Ecuador; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 8, p. 311, 1883 (descr.); Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 10, 1899 Rio Santiago, Ecuador; Berlepsch and 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 12, 1902 Rio Orinoco (Nericagua, Munduapo) 
and Caura Valley (Suapure, Nicare, La Pricion), Venezuela; Penard and 
Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 537, 1910 "Guiana," errore. 

1 Hylophilus ochraceiceps bulunensis Hartert: Very similar to H. o. nelsoni, 
but still more greenish; back and upper wing coverts dark citrine, without any 
brownish wash; lower parts decidedly olive yellowish, the throat slightly more 
grayish. Wing (male), 57; tail, 39; bill, 13. 

Two specimens from eastern Panama (Mount Sapo), while not quite so 
greenish as the type, are near enough to be referred to the same form. H. o. 
bulunensis connects the Central American races with H. o. ferrugineifrons. It 
approaches the latter in the greenish edges to the remiges and the coloration of 
the dorsal surface, but is strongly tinged with olive yellow underneath, where 
H. o. ferrugineifrons is mainly dull whitish, shaded with ecru olive across chest 
and along flanks. 

Material examined. Panama: Mount Sapo, 2. Ecuador: Bulun, 1 (the type). 



180 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pachysylvia ferrugineifrons Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 1905 Rio 
Juru4, Brazil (spec, examined); idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 387, 1907 
Rio Jurua and Ecuador (hab. part, excl. Para); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 478, 1914 (range, excl. "Guyana"); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. 
Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 156, 1916 above the falls of the Orinoco and Caura 
Valley, Venezuela. 

Pachysylvia ochraceiceps ferrugineifrons Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 589, 1926 Rio Suno and below San Jos6, eastern Ecuador; Todd, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 194, 1929 Colombia and Ecuador (east 
of the Andes) east to the Guianan frontier of Venezuela and south to the 
Rio Purus, Brazil (monog.). 

Range. Southern Venezuela, from the Guianan frontier (Rio 
Yuruan) to the upper Orinoco, and eastern Colombia, and through 
eastern Ecuador and northwestern Brazil, west of the Rio Negro, 
south to the Rio Jurua and Rio Purus. 1 

"Hylophilus ochraceiceps viridior (Todd). 2 SOUTHERN RUFOUS- 
FRONTED HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia ochraceiceps viridior Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 194, 
1929 Rio Surutu, Dept. Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia (type in 
Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh). 

Hylophilus ferrugineifrons (not of Sclater) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1874, p. 509 Amable Maria, Dept. Ayacucho, Peru; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 307 part, Peru (ex Taczanowski); Taczanowski, Orn. 
Per., 1, p. 445, 1884 Amable Maria. 

1 Specimens from Venezuela (Orinoco-Caura basin) agree substantially with 
Bogot^ skins, but have rather more rufescent tails. A single bird from eastern 
Ecuador (Sarayacu) and one from the upper Rio Negro are similar except that the 
latter has more buffy yellowish under parts than any other individual we have 
seen. A female from the Rio Jurua, Brazil, by paler forehead and brighter greenish 
back closely approaches H. o. viridior. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Caura River (Suapure, La Pricion, Nicare, 
La Union), 9; Munduapo, Rio Orinoco, 3; Nericagua, Rio Orinoco, 1. Colombia: 
"Bogota," 5. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 1. Brazil: Rio Negro, below Santa Barbara, 
near the junction of the Rio Vaupe 1 , 1; Rio Jurua, 1. 

*Hylophilus ochraceiceps viridior (Todd): Similar to H. o. ferrugineifrons, 
but anterior crown paler, orange citrine rather than antique brown, and back 
and outer margins of remiges fresher, purer green (between citrine and dark 
citrine), without any brownish suffusion on the mantle. Wing (males), 58-61; 
tail, 42-44; bill, 12-13. 

Except for its slightly more yellowish under parts doubtless an individual 
variation a single adult male from southeastern Peru (Yahuarmayo) agrees 
perfectly with Bolivian topotypes courteously lent by Mr. Todd. Although 
approached by occasional individuals from within the range of ferrugineifrons, 
the present form is distinguishable by its paler russet forehead and fresh green, 
nearly uniform dorsal surface, whereas in the northern race the upper and middle 
portions of the back are always conspicuously suffused with brownish, the rump 
alone being of a duller green. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia, Dept. Santa Cruz: Rio Yapacani, 2; 
Rio Surutu, 2. Peru: Yahuarmayo, Sierra de Carabaya, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYE 181 

Pachysylvia ferrugineifrons Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 8, 
1920 Yahuarmayo, Sierra of Carabaya, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of southern Peru, in depts. of Ayacucho 
(Amable Maria), Cuzco, and Puno (Sierra of Carabaya), and northern 
Bolivia (Rio Espiritu Santo; Rio Surutu; Rio Yapacani). 

2: Bolivia (Rio Espiritu Santo, 2). 

"Hylophilus ochraceiceps luteifrons Sclater. 1 BUFF-FRONTED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus luteifrons Sclater, Ibis, (4), 5, p. 308, 1881 Bartica Grove, British 
Guiana (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Museum); 
Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 311, 1883 "Roraima" [=Camacusa], 
British Guiana; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 204 Bartica Grove, Merume" 
Mountains, and Camacusa, British Guiana; Penard and Penard, Vog. 
Guyana, 2, p. 537, 1910 Guiana (descr.). 

Pachysylvia luteifrons Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 109, 1908 Ipousin, River 
Approuague, French Guiana; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 477, 
1914 Santo Antonio da Cachoeira, Rio Jary, Brazil; Beebe, Trop. Wild 
Life, 1, p. 136, 1917 Bartica Grove, British Guiana; Chubb, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 398, 1921 British Guiana (Ituribisci, Supenaam, Makauria 
River, "Roraima," Merume 1 Mountains, Camacusa, Bartica Grove); 
Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 192, 1929 Guiana, south to the 
Amazon (monog.). 

Hylophilus surinamensis Penard and Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 538, 1910 
Surinam (location of type not stated). 

Pachysylvia ferrugineifrons (not Hylophilus ferrugineifrons Sclater) Beebe, 
Our Search for a Wilderness, p. 322, 1910 Aremu River, British Guiana. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and the adjacent 
parts of northern Brazil, south to the north bank of the lower 
Amazon (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira, Rio Jary). 

1: Brazil (Conceigao, Rio Branco, 1). 

*Hylophilus ochraceiceps rubrifrons Sclater and Salvin. 2 RED- 
FRONTED HYLOPHILUS. 

1 Hylophilus ochraceiceps luteifrons Sclater: Nearest to H, o. ferrugineifrons, 
from which it differs by lacking the rufous color on the anterior portion of the 
pileum, only the forehead and supraloral region being tinged with dull buffy 
yellow. Besides, the under parts are more yellowish, primrose yellow rather than 
grayish white, the chest washed with buffy instead of with ecru olive, and the flanks 
as well as the lower tail coverts much more strongly shaded with greenish yellow. 
The dorsal surface is not so greenish, and the external edges to the remiges are 
more brownish, orange citrine rather than dark citrine. Wing, 57-59, (female) 
54-57; tail, 41-43, (female) 39-41; bill, 12-13. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Ipousin, Approuague, 3. British Guiana: 
Camacusa, 3. Brazil: Conceigao, Rio Branco, 1. 

1 Hylophilus ochraceiceps rubrifrons Sclater and Salvin: Easily distinguished 
from H. o. luteifrons by a well-defined bright rufous (antique brown) frontal and 
supraloral band, strongly contrasted with the color of the crown and sides of 



182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hylophilus rubrifrons Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1867, p. 569, 
pi. 30, fig. 1 "River Amazons" = Para 1 (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 307 lower 
Amazon (monog.); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 311, 1883 
lower Amazon. 

Pachysylvia rubrifrons Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 337, 1907 
lower Amazon; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 267, 1910 part, Para; idem, 
Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 87, 1912 
Para; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 477, 1914 Para, Mocajatuba, 
Providencia, Ananindeuba, Santa Isabel, and Peixe-Boi, Par& district; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 172, 1928 Para. 

Pachysylvia rubrifrons rubrifrons Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 193, 
1929 Para region (monog.). 

Hylophilus ferrugineifrons (not of Sclater) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 70, 1868 
part, Par& (spec, examined). 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, in the Pard region, probably only 
east of the Rio Tocantins. 
1: Brazil (Utinga, Pard, 1). 

Hylophilus ochraceiceps lutescens (Snethlage). 2 WESTERN RED- 
FRONTED HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia rubrifrons lutescens Snethlage, Orn. Monatsber., 22, p. 43, 1914 
Boim, Rio Tapajoz, Brazil (type in Museu Goeldi, Para); idem, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, pp. 477, 489, 1914 Rio Xingu (Victoria) and Rio Tapaj6z 
(Boim, Villa Braga); Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 193, 1929 
Brazil, from the Xingu to the Rio Madeira (monog.). 

the head, and by having the throat and chest deep honey yellow, sometimes 
approaching brownish ochraceous, and much darker than the ecru olive abdomen. 
The tail is more rufescent, Brussels brown rather than medal bronze; the back 
duller, more greenish; the sides of the head are honey yellow instead of dull citrine, 
etc. Wing (average), 55; tail, 40; bill, 12-13. 

Material examined. Brazil: Para, 2; Ananindeuba, 1; Peixe-Boi, 1; "Amazon," 
1 (the type). 

1 The assumption that the type might have come from the "Rio Negro" 
proves to be fallacious. When advancing this theory (Nov. Zool., 17, p. 267, 
1910), I was misled by the date "1850" on the label, which I took for the year 
when the bird had been collected. I have since found out that it indicates the 
date when the specimen was received in London. Moreover, the type agrees with 
specimens from the Par region, where alone H. o. rubrifrons has been met with, 
whereas on the Rio Negro it is replaced by another form, H. o. ferrugineifrons. 

1 Hylophilus ochraceiceps lutescens (Snethlage) : Very similar to H. o. rubrifrons 
and agreeing in bright rufous (antique brown) frontal edge and supraloral streak; 
but upper parts clearer and purer green with tail paler brown; throat and foreneck 
without the honey yellow or ochraceous tinge, these parts being about the same 
primrose yellow color as the abdomen. Wing (males), 59-61; tail, 42-44; bill, 
12-13. By the coloration of the under parts, this form approaches H. o. lutei- 
frons, but is even brighter yellowish. 

Two adults from the Rio Madeira, on comparison, prove to be identical with 
a topotype from the Tapajoz. 

Material examined. Brazil: Villa Braga, Rio Tapaj6z, 1; Calama, Rio Ma- 
deira, 1; Maroins, Rio Machados, 2. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYB 183 

Pachysylvia rubrifrons (not Hylophilus rubrifrons Sclater and Salvin) Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 17, p. 267, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira, and Maroins, Rio 
Machados (crit.). 

Range. Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the Rio 
Xingu west to the Rio Madeira. 

*Hylophilus decurtatus decurtatus (Bonaparte). GRAY-HEADED 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Sylvicola decurtata Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. 118, 
pub. June, 1838 Guatemala (type in coll. of Col. Velasquez de Leon, 
now in Liverpool Museum). 

Helinai brevipennis Giraud, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 5, p. 40, pi. 3, fig. 1, 
1852 "Mexico and Texas" (type in U. S. National Museum?). 

Hylophilus cinereiceps Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 
299 Vera Paz, Guatemala (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in 
British Museum); idem, Ibis, 1860, p. 397 Choctum, Guatemala; idem, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 348 Panama Railroad (crit.); Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 44, 1862 Choctum, Guatemala, and Cordoba, 
Vera Cruz. 

Hylophilus pusillus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 323, 1862 
Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama (type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York) ; idem, I.e., 
8, p. 180, 1865 Greytown, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 9, p. 97, 1868 Dota 
and Angostura, Costa Rica; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 381, 1866 
Isthmus of Panama to Nicaragua (crit.). 

Hylophilus decurtatus Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 380, 1866 southern 
Mexico and Guatemala (crit.); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 
p. 137 Santa Fe, Veragua; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 184 Castillo, Chitra, and 
CaloveVora, Veragua; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 836 Honduras; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 313 Tucurriqui, Costa Rica; idem, Ibis, 1872, 
p. 314 Chontales, Nicaragua; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 18, 
1876 Tehuantepec (Chimalapa), Oaxaca; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1878, p. 53 San Jose, Costa Rica; idem, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 
25, p. 41, 1878 Vera Paz, Guatemala; Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 298 
southern Mexico to Panama (monog.) ; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 206, 1882 Mexico to Panama; Nutting, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 5, p. 391, 1882 La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica; Gadow, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 307, 1883 Central America (monog.); Zeledon, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 108, 1887 Pozo Azul de Pirris, Costa 
Rica; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 579, 1887 Trujillo, Hon- 
duras; Richmond, I.e., 16, p. 487, 1893 Greytown and Rio Escondido, 
Nicaragua; Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, 
p. 136, 1893 Lagarto, Boruca, and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica; idem, 
I.e., "6, p. 13, 1895 Rio Naranjo, Costa Rica"; Underwood, Ibis, 1896, 
p. 434 Miravalles to Bebedeio, Costa Rica; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. 
Zool. Cl., 3, p. 59, 1902 Boquete, Chiriqui. 



184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pachysyhia decurtata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 216, 
1904 southern Mexico to Isthmus of Panama (monog.); Bangs, Auk, 
24, p. 305, 1907 Boruca and El P6zo del Rio Grande, Costa Rica (crit.); 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 779, 1910 Costa Rica; Peters, Auk, 
30, p. 377, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 273, 1918 Gatun, Panama; Todd, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 42, p. 204, 1929 part, excl. Salvador and western Nicaragua; 
Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 388, 1929 Mountain Cow, British 
Honduras. 

Pachysylvia decurtata decurtata Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
67, p. 483, 1927 Presidio, Vera Cruz. 

Hylophilus decurtatus decurtatus Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 319, 
1932 Secanquim, Chimoxan, Finca Cham&, and Puebla, Guatemala 
(crit.). 

Hylophilus decurtatus pusillus Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 461, 
1929 Lancetilla, Honduras; idem, I.e., 71, p. 333, 1931 Almirante and 
Boquete Trail, Panama. 

Range. Southern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, 
Tabasco, Quintana Roo, and Yucatan; eastern Guatemala; Hon- 
duras; eastern Nicaragua; Costa Rica; and western Panama, east to 
the Canal Zone. 1 

19: Guatemala (unspecified, 2); Costa Rica (Miravalles, 1; Las 
Caiias, 1; Lagarto, 1; El General, 2; Boruca, 4; Pozo Azul, 1; Orosi, 
2; Siquirres, 1; Peralta, 2; Limon, 1); Panama (Boquete, Chiriqul, 1). 

*Hylophilus decurtatus pallidus (Dickey and van Rossem). 2 
WESTERN GRAY-HEADED HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia decurtata pallida Dickey and van Rossem, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
40, p. 4, 1927 Puerto del Triunfo, Dept. Usulutan, El Salvador (type 
in coll. of Donald R. Dickey, Pasadena). 

1 1 find it impracticable to recognize an alleged southern form (H. d. pusillus). 
Neither the smaller size nor the supposed color characters (paler gray and less 
sharply defined cap and more yellowish green back) appear to me sufficiently 
constant to justify its discrimination. A single adult from the Panama Railroad 
(topotypical pusillus) differs, it is true, from all the others by more yellowish dorsal 
surface and by having the hind part of the crown suffused with olivaceous, but 
whether this is a constant feature in birds from the Canal Zone or merely indicates 
intergradation to H. d. darienensis remains to be determined by an adequate 
series. Two specimens from Chiriquf (Boquete) show faint greenish edges on the 
crown; otherwise they resemble birds from the TSrraba Valley and eastern Costa 
Rica. 

Additional material examined. Mexico: Cordoba, Vera Cruz, 1. Guatemala 
(Teleman, Vera Paz): 6. Costa Rica: 37. Panama: Boquete, Chiriquf, 1; 
Panama Railroad, 1. 

2 Hylophilus decurtatus pallidus (Dickey and van Rossem): Similar to H. d. 
decurtatus, but dorsal plumage conspicuously more yellowish, citrine rather than 
warbler green; throat and chest less grayish; sides and flanks more yellowish. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 185 

Pachysylvia decurtaia (not Sylvicola decurtata Bonaparte) Todd, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 42, p. 204, 1929 part, El Salvador and western Nicaragua. 

Range. El Salvador and the adjacent parts of western 
Nicaragua. 

1: Nicaragua (San Geronimo, Chinandega, 1). 

Hylophilus decurtatus darienensis (Griscom). 1 DARIEN 
HYLOPHILUS. 

Pachysylvia minor darienensis Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 282, p. 7, 1927 
Cape Garachine, eastern Panama (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York); Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 204, 
1929 Colombia (Magdalena Valley and Pacific coast) north to eastern 
Panama (monog.). 

Hylophilus minor darienensis Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 367, 
1932 Perm6 and Obaldia, eastern Panama. 

Pachysylvia minor (not Hylophilus minor Berlepsch and Taczanowski) 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 541, 1917 Los Cisneros, Rio 
Dagua, Colombia; Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, 
p. 223, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darien. 

Range. Tropical zone of Colombia, from the Pacific coast (Los 
Cisneros, Rio Dagua; Andagoya, Malagita, and Cordoba, Choco) 
east to the Magdalena Valley (El Tambor, Rio Lebrija), and north 
to eastern Panama (Darien). 

*Hylophilus decurtatus minor Berlepsch and Taczanowski. 2 
LESSER HYLOPHILUS. 

Hylophilus minor Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 
p. 542 Chimbo, Ecuador (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and 
Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 160, 1927); Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 9, p. 617, 1902 Paramba and Pambilar, Ecuador. 

Pachysylvia minor Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 590, 1926 
Esmeraldas, Bucay, Chimbo, Naranjo, La Chonta, Santa Rosa, Portovelo, 
Punta Santa Ana, Las Pinas, and Guainche, Ecuador. 

Pachysylvia minor minor Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 203, 1929 
western Ecuador (monog.). 

1 Hylophilus decurtatus darienensis (Griscom): According to Todd (I.e.), 
similar in size and coloration to H. d. minor, but under parts not so brightly 
colored, the greenish yellow of the sides and flanks paler and more restricted. 

By the coloration of the under parts this form, which we have not seen, seems to 
approach H. d. decurtatus, thus supporting our view that H. decurtatus and 
H. minor are conspecific. 

2 Hylophilus decurtatus minor Berlepsch and Taczanowski: Nearest to H. d. 
pallidus in coloring of under parts, although the sides and flanks as well as the back 
are of a still brighter, more yellowish tone; but pileum, instead of being light gray, 
dark citrine, somewhat duller than the back. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Paramba, 2; San Javier, 1; Chimbo, 
1; unspecified, 2. 



186 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hylophilua (?) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 273, 1860 Babahoyo. 

Hylophilus aurantiifrons (not of Lawrence) Sclater, Ibis, 1881, p. 303 part, 
spec, from Babahoyo, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador. 
1: Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, 1). 

Genus LAWRENCIA Ridgway 1 

Lawrencia Ridgway, Auk, 3, p. 382, 1886 type, by orig. desig., Empidonax 
nanus Lawrence. 

Lawrencia nana (Lawrence). FLAT-BILLED VIREO. 

Empidonax nanus Lawrence, Ibis, (3), 5, p. 386, 1875 Santo Domingo (type 
in U. S. National Museum); Cory, Bds. Haiti and San Domingo, p. 82, 
pi. [22], fig. 5 (head), 1884 Santo Domingo; idem, Auk, 3, p. 233, 1886 
Santo Domingo. 

Lawrencia nana(us) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 233, 1888 Santo 
Domingo; Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 109, 1892 Santo Domingo; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 893, 1907 Santo Domingo 
(crit.); Verrill and Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 361, 1909 
Miranda; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 416, 1917 Sosua; Bond, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 511, 1928 Gonave Island and northern 
Haiti (habits); Danforth, Auk, 46, p. 370, 1929 Gonave Island; Lonnberg, 
Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 106 Gonave; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 155, p. 356, 1931 Haiti and Gonave (crit., anatomy, habits). 

Range. Island of Haiti, including Gonave Island, Greater 
Antilles. 

Family VIREOLANIIDAE. 2 Shrike-Vireos 
Genus VIREOLANIUS Bonaparte 

Vireolanius (Du Bus MS.) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 330, 1850 
type, by monotypy, Vireolanius melitophrys (Du Bus MS.) Bonaparte. 

*Vireolanius melitophrys melitophrys Bonaparte. Du Bus's 
SHRIKE-VIREO. 

1 Lawrencia Ridgway differs from the other genera of vireos, according to 
Wetmore, "in the broad, depressed, triangular bill, the width of which at the 
frontal antiae is more than twice the depth at this point." Another striking 
feature lies in the elongated, slender tarsus. In anatomical characters the bird 
offers likewise some peculiarities, the skull being distinctly broader, the lower 
margin of the lachrymals extending outward only to the inner margin of the 
zygoma, and the outer margin of the processus maxillaris of the premaxilla being 
decidedly convex (Wetmore, I.e.). Altogether, the Flat-billed Vireo seems to be 
rather an aberrant member of the family. 

2 Cf. Pycraft, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, pp. 352-379. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 187 

Vireolanius melitophrys (Du Bus MS. 1 ) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, 
p. 330, 1850 Mexico (type in Brussels Museum); Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 25, p. 213, 1857 Orizaba, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 27, p. 363, 
1859 Jalapa, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 1862, p. 19 Capulalpam, Vera 
Cruz; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 45, 1862 Jalapa; Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1860, p. 31 Coban, Guatemala; idem, Exot. Orn., p. 13, pi. 7, 
1866 Mexico (Orizaba, Jalapa) and Guatemala (Volcan de Fuego); 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 396, 1866 Volcan de Fuego; Sumichrast, 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 548, 1869 temperate region of Vera Cruz; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 209, 1883 part, 
Mexico, in State of Vera Cruz (Orizaba, Jalapa, Capulalpam), and Guate- 
mala (Volcan de Fuego); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 314, 1883 
Mexico and Guatemala (Coban); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 3, p. 225, 1904 part, Mexico, Vera Cruz (Orizaba, Jalapa, Jico, 
Capulalpam), and Guatemala (descr. of male only); Dearborn, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 125, 1907 Lake Atitlan, Guatemala; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 321, 1932 San Lucas, Tecpam, 
and Panajachel, Guatemala. 

Range. Subtropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in State of 
Vera Cruz (Orizaba, Jalapa, Jico, Capulalpam), and Guatemala 
(Coban, Volcan de Fuego, Lake Atitlan, Tecpam, San Lucas, 
Panajachel). 

1: Guatemala (Lake Atitlan, 1). 
Vireolanius melitophrys goldmani Nelson. 2 GOLDMAN'S SHRIKE- 

VlREO, 

Vireolanius melitophrys goldmani Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 115, 
1903 Huitzilac, Morelos, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 744, 1904 mountains 
bordering the valley of Mexico. 

Vireolanius melitophrys (not of Bonaparte) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 209, 1883 part, valley of Mexico; Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 225, 1904 part, valley of Mexico (descr. 
of female only). 

1 Plate 26 of Du Bus's "Esquisses Ornithologiques," quoted by Bonaparte, 
evidently was never published (cf. Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 13, 1866), 
although a few sample copies without text may exist. 

3 Vireolanius melitophrys goldmani Nelson: "Similar to V. m. melitophrys, 
but larger, with shorter bill; coloration paler and duller, the pileum and hindneck 
light brownish gray (nearly mouse gray) merging gradually into the olive green of 
the back, instead of clear slate gray, abruptly defined posteriorly; broad postocular 
stripe slate color instead of black; black submalar streak heavier; band across 
chest paler chestnut-rufous, not continued along sides, which are pale cinnamon- 
buffy anteriorly, passing into olive-gray on flanks. Wing (adult female), 83-84; 
tail, 72-73; bill, 17.5." (Nelson, I.e.). 



188 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Mountains bordering the southern side of the valley of 
Mexico, in states of Mexico and Morelos (Huitzilac). 

Genus SMARAGDOLANIUS Griscom 1 

Smaragdolanius Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 438, p. 3, Dec., 1930 type, 
by orig. desig., Vireolanius pulchellus Sclater and Salvin. 

*Smaragdolanius pulchellus pulchellus (Sclater and Salvin). 
GUATEMALAN GREENLET. 

Vireolanius pulchellus Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1, p. 12, 1859 Guatemala 
(type in British Museum); Salvin, Ibis, 1861, p. 147 above Lanquin, 
Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 45, 1862 Choctum, Vera 
Paz; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 15, pi. 8, 1866 above Lanquin 
and Choctum, Guatemala; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 397, 1866 part, 
Mirador, Vera Cruz, and Choctum, Guatemala; Boucard, Ann. Soc. 
Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 41, 1878 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 210, 1883 part, Mexico (Mirador) and 
Guatemala (Choctum, mountains of Rasche", Savanna Grande, and Volcan 
de Agua); Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 315, 1883 Guatemala 
(Choctum and Vera Paz); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 
1, p. 125, 1907 Patulul, Guatemala. 

Vireolanius pulchellus pulchellus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 223, 1904 Mexico, in State of Vera Cruz, and Guatemala (monog.); 
Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 483, 1927 Presidio, 
Vera Cruz. 

Smaragdolanius pulchellus pulchellus Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, 
p. 320, 1932 Secanquim, Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of southern Mexico, in State of Vera Cruz 
(Mirador, Buena Vista), and Guatemala. 2 

3: Guatemala (Patulul, Solola, 2; Vera Paz, 1). 

*Smaragdolanius pulchellus verticalis (Ridgway). CARMIOL'S 
GREENLET. 

Vireolanius pulchellus verticalis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 24, 
1885 Angostura, Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum); Zeled6n, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 108, 1887 Costa Rica; Cherrie, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 14, p. 529, 1891 Costa Rica (crit.); Richmond, I.e., 
16, p. 487, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 224, 1904 Nicaragua and Costa Rica (monog.); 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 776, 1910 eastern Costa Rica 
(Jime'nez, La Vijagua, and El Hogar). 

1 Genus Smaragdolanius Griscom: Similar to Vireolanius, but tail proportion- 
ately much shorter (only two-thirds as long as wing), bill slenderer, and rictal 
bristles much less developed, the longest hardly exceeding the bristly points of the 
frontal feathers. 

1 Additional material examined. Guatemala: Coban, Vera Paz, 4. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 189 

Vireolanius pulchellus (not of Sclater and Salvin) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 
1, p. 397, 1866 part, Angostura; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
9, p. 97, 1868 Angostura, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 295, 
1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 314 Chontales, Nicaragua; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 210, 1883 part, 
Nicaragua (Chontales) and Costa Rica (Angostura, Orosi). 

Range. Tropical zone of the Caribbean side of Nicaragua 
(Chontales, Rio Escondido, Bluefields) and Costa Rica (Angostura, 
Or6si, Jime'nez, La Vijagua, El Hogar, etc.). 

3: Costa Rica (Tuis, 1; Volcan de Turrialba, 1; Jime'nez, 1). 

Smaragdolanius pulchellus viridiceps (Ridgway). PANAMA 
GREENLET. 

Vireolanius pulchellus viridiceps Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 108, 
1903 Panama (type in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 224, 1904 Vera- 
gua to Panama (monog.); Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 109, 
1906 Pozo Azul [de Pirrls], Costa Rica (crit.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 6, p. 776, 1910 El General de Terraba, Costa Rica. 

Vireolanius pulchellus (not of Sclater and Salvin) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N.Y., 7, p. 468, 1862 Panama Railroad; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., 
p. 15, 1866 part, Panama; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 184 
CaloveVora, Veragua; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 210, 1883 part, Panama (CaloveVora and Calobre, Veragua; Panama 
Railroad). 

Range. Western Panama, east to the Canal Zone, and south- 
western Costa Rica (Pozo Azul de Pirris and El General de T&raba). 

Smaragdolanius pulchellus mutabilis (Nelson). 1 CANA 
GREENLET. 

Vireolanius eximius mutabilis Nelson, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 60, No. 3, p. 20, 
1912 Cana, eastern Panama (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Range. Eastern Panama (Cana, Darien). 

1 Smaragdolanius pulchellus mutabilis (Nelson): Similar to S. p. eximius, but 
supraloral part of yellow superciliary stripe broader; a tinge of yellowish green 
suffuses and nearly replaces blue on forehead back to about middle of orbits; 
auriculars bordered posteriorly with blue, of the same tone as the crown; chin and 
throat bright canary yellow changing rather abruptly into, and contrasting 
with, yellowish green of lower neck and breast (in eximius chin is more greenish 
yellow and shades gradually over throat to green of breast); rest of under 
parts paler and more yellowish; under tail coverts canary yellow like throat. 
Wing (female), 70; tail, 44; bill, 19. (Nelson, I.e.) 

This form, based on a single specimen from Cana, appears to be distinguished 
from S. p. eximius by yellowish green instead of blue forehead and much more 
yellowish under parts, particularly on throat, abdomen, and tail coverts. It is 
obviously a connecting link to S. p. viridiceps. 



190 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Smaragdolanius pulchellus eximius (Baird). 1 BAIRD'S 
GREENLET. 

Vireolanius eximius Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 398, 1866 Bogota, Colom- 
bia (type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia) ; Sclater and 
Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 16, 1866 New Granada; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 8, p. 316, 1883 Colombia; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 3, p. 223, 1904 Colombia (crit.). 

Vireolanius icterophrys (not of Bonaparte) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
23, p. 151, pi. 103, 1855 Bogota (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of Colombia (only known from native 
"Bogota" collections). 

1: Colombia ("Bogota," 1). 

Smaragdolanius leucotis leucotis (Swainson). WHITE-EARED 
GREENLET. 

Malaconotus leucotis Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 341, Dec., 1837 "Africa(?)," 
errore (type in coll. of W. Swainson, now in University Museum, Cambridge, 
England, examined); Salvin, Ibis, 1878, p. 443 (crit. note on type). 

Vireolanius icterophrys Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 
380, 1854; idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 60, 1854 Rio Negro (type 
in coll. of E. and J. Verreaux); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 399, 1866 
part (descr. spec, ex Cayenne in coll. of Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 2 ); 
Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 16, 1866 Rio Negro (ex Bonaparte) and 
Cayenne (ex Baird). 

Vireolanius chlorogaster Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 
380, 1854; idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 60, 1854 "South America" 
(the type examined in the British Museum is from Cayenne); Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 45, 1862 "eastern Peru" = Cayenne (spec, in 
British Museum examined); Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 399, 1866 
"eastern Peru"= Cayenne (descr. spec. No. 272a in coll. of P. L. Sclater); 
Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 16, 1866 "eastern Peru"= Cayenne 
(spec. No. 272a in coll. of P. L. Sclater); Salvin, Ibis, 1878, p. 444 
Cayenne (crit. note on type); Beebe, Trop. Wild Life, 1, p. 136, 1917 
Bartica Grove, British Guiana. 

Vireolanius leucotis Salvin, Ibis, 1878, pp. 444, 445, pi. 11 from the Rio 
Negro to Ecuador (Sarayacu) (crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1881, p. 212 Mazaruni River, British Guiana (crit.; spec, examined); 
Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1882, p. 77 British Guiana (spec, examined); 
Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 315, 1883 part, Rio Negro to Ecuador 

1 Smaragdolanius pulchellus eximius (Baird) differs from the northern races 
chiefly by the possession of well-marked yellow superciliaries, whereby it approaches 
the South American S. leucotis. The intermediate character of its coloration 
suggests conspecific relationship of the two groups, but without knowledge of its 
distribution it seems unwise to go beyond calling attention to their obvious close 
affinity. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 7. 

* The second specimen, said to be from the "head of Huallaga, Peru," coll. of 
W. S. Church, is indeterminable owing to its poor condition. It may belong to 
S. I. bolivianus. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 191 

and Cayenne; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 205 Bartica Grove and Merum6 

Mountains, British Guiana (spec, examined); M6n6gaux, Bull. Mus. 

Hist. Nat. Paris, 13, p. 494, 1907 French Guiana (spec, examined); 

Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 337, 1907 (range); Penard, 

Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 539, 1910 hinterland of Surinam; Snethlage, Bol. 

Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 478, 1914 Santo Antonio da Cachoeira, Rio Jary, Brazil. 
Vireolanius leucotis chlorogaster Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 13, 

1902 Suapure, Caura River, Venezuela (spec, examined); Berlepsch, 

I.e., 15, p. 109, 1908 Cayenne; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst, 

2, p. 157, 1916 Suapure, Caura River. 
Vireolanius chlorigaster Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 399, 1921 Ituribisci, 

Kamakabra Creek, Merume Mountains, and Bartica Grove, British 

Guiana. 
Vireolanius leucotis leucotis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 590, 

1926 Macas region and below San Jos6 de Sumaco, eastern Ecuador 

(crit.). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, south to the north 
bank of the lower Amazon (Rio Jary) and west through southern 
Venezuela (Suapure, Caura Valley) and northwestern Brazil (Rio 
Negro) to eastern Ecuador. 1 

1 Birds from British Guiana always have a conspicuous white mid-auricular 
stripe abruptly denned from the dark olive malar region and the slate gray ear 
coverts. The white tip to the bright yellow superciliaries is, as a rule, well- 
pronounced, though two specimens, from Arawai and Merum6 Mountains respec- 
tively, show mere traces of it. In the majority, the forehead is very dark olive, 
but in the Merume' bird and in one from Bartica Grove it is just as pale as in east- 
Ecuadorian specimens. Swainspn's type, kindly lent by the authorities of the 
Cambridge Museum, has the white stripe on the sides of the head fully as broad as 
any from Guiana, and while its deplorable condition renders it useless for further 
comparison, this character alone speaks for its Guianan rather than Peruvian 
origin. It may be mentioned in this connection that Brabourne and Chubb 
(Bds. S. Amer., 1, p. 351) quite erroneously credit me with the suggestion of 
"Peru" as type locality, which since has also been quoted by Chapman (Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 590, 1926). An adult bird from French Guiana (coll. by 
Rey, Paris Museum) is in every respect similar, the white mid-auricular stripe 
being even more strongly developed. In eastern Ecuador this feature seems to be 
less marked. Only two have the white stripe as distinct as Guianan birds, while 
in three others it is rather obsolete, more of a whitish gray, and in another barely 
suggested by a few light streaks. The frontal edge is never dark olive, but green 
like the back, and the yellow superciliaries are with or without a white tip. 

Birds with pale yellow, green-striped under parts are probably females or 
immature males, though the significance of the variation cannot be determined 
with the limited (mostly unsexed) material at my command. The type of V. chloro- 
gaster unquestionably is a young bird. Like another Cayenne skin and one from 
"Peru," erroneously listed by Gadow as type of V. icterophrys, to whose description 
it does not correspond at all, it has no white mid-auricular stripe, and the under 
parts are heavily streaked with greenish. An unsexed bird from the Mazaruni 
River and a "male" from Suapure, Caura, Venezuela, are similar underneath, the 
former having a broad white, the latter a narrower grayish white stripe on the sides 
of the head. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 2; unspecified, 1. British 
Guiana: Bartica Grove, 1; Mazaruni River, 1; Ituribisci, 2; Arawai River, 1; 
Camacabra Creek, 1; Tiger Creek, Essequibo River, 1; Merum6 Mountains, 1. 
Venezuela: Suapure, Caura Valley, 1. Ecuador: San Jose, 1; Sarayacu, 5. 



192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Smaragdolanius leucotis simplex (Berlepsch). 1 GRAY-EARED 
GREENLET. 

Vireolanius leucotis simplex Berlepsch, Orn. Monatsber., 20, p. 18, 1912 
Santa Elena, Rio Jamauchim, branch of the Rio Tapajoz, Brazil (type 
in Museu Goeldi, Para, examined) ; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 
479, 1914 Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Rio Jamauchim (Santa Elena), 
and Rio Tapajoz (Boim); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 335, 
1930 Barao Melgago, northern Matto Grosso. 

Range. Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the Tocantins to 
the Rio Madeira, south to northern Matto Grosso (Barao Melgaco). 

'Smaragdolanius leucotis bolivianus (Berlepsch). 2 BOLIVIAN 
GREENLET. 

Vireolanius bolivianus Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 49, p. 82, Jan., 1901 Quebrada 
Onda, Yungas of Cochabamba, Bolivia (type in Berlepsch Collection, now 
in Frankfort Museum, examined); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, 
p. 107, 1906 Huaynapata, Dept. Cuzco, Peru. 

Vireolanius chlorogaster (not of Bonaparte) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1874, p. 509 Monterico, near Huanta, Prov. Ayacucho, Peru; 
idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 447, 1884 Monterico. 

1 Smaragdolanius leucotis simplex (Berlepsch): Similar to S. I. leucotis, but 
without trace of white on sides of head, the whole auricular region being clear 
gray, and the pileum lighter gray; even nearer to S. I. bolivianus, but upper part of 
the head clearer gray, and the sides of the body much more extensively green. 
Wing, 71-73; tail, 51-54; bill, 17-18. 

Two adult males from Matto Grosso agree with topotypes. 

Material examined. Santa Elena, Rio Jamauchim, 4 (including the type); 
Barao Melgaco, Matto Grosso, 2. 

J Smaragdolanius leucotis bolivianus (Berlepsch) : Very similar to S. I. leucotis, 
but without any white in the auricular region. 

In the absence of adult males from Bolivia it is at present impossible to 
properly indicate the characters and range of this form. The type and a second 
specimen from Quebrada Onda in the Berlepsch Collection are both unsexed, but 
agree essentially with a "female" from Cerro Hosane, Dept. Santa Cruz, in the 
Carnegie Museum, except in having more blackish olive suffusion on the forehead. 
The under parts, in the three specimens, are of varying shades of pale yellow, more 
or less flammulated with greenish on the f oreneck and washed with the same along 
the flanks. A female from the Rio Purus (Hyutanahan) merely differs by lacking 
the dusky suffusion on the forehead; darker, more uniform slate gray cheeks and 
auriculars; slightly brighter green back; and brighter yellow under parts. Two 
adult males from the Rio Purus and two others from Peru (Rio Huacamayo, 
Carabaya; Huachipa, Huanuco) have deeper yellow under parts without greenish 
streaks on the foreneck, darker gray pileum, deeper yellow superciliaries, and still 
brighter green upper surface. They closely approach certain east-Ecuadorian 
males of S. I. leucotis without distinct white mid-auricular stripe. Whether these 
specimens simply represent the plumage of the adult male of S. I. bolivianus or 
should be classified as intermediates to leucotis remains to be determined by the 
examination of adult males from Bolivia. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Quebrada Onda, Yungas of Cochabamba, 2; 
Cerro Hosane, Dept. Santa Cruz, 1. Brazil, Rio Purus: Hyutanahan, 2; Nova 
Olinda, 1. Peru: Rio Huacamayo, Carabaya, 1; Huachipa, Huanuco, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 193 

Vireolanius leucotis (subsp.?) Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
17, p. 414, 1930 Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of northern Bolivia (Quebrada Onda, 
Yungas of Cochabamba; Cerro Hosane, Dept. Santa Cruz) and 
southern Peru (Rio Huacamayo, Carabaya; Huaynapata, Marcapata 
Valley; Monterico, Dept. Ayacucho; Rio Perene\ Dept. Junin; 
Huachipa, Dept. Hudnuco), and the adjoining section of western 
Brazil (Rio Purus). 

1: Peru (Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, 1). 

Smaragdolanius leucotis mikettae (Hartert). 1 MIKETTA'S 
GREENLET. 

Vireolanius miketlae Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 11, p. 38, Dec., 1900 
Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, Ecuador (type in Tring Museum examined); 
idem, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 616, 1902 Paramba. 

Vireolanius leucotis mikettae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 590, 
1926 Paramba (ex Hartert). 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador (Paramba, Prov. 
Imbabura; Rio Blanco, below Mindo, Prov. Pichincha). 

Family CYCLARHIDAE. 2 Pepper Shrikes 
Genus CYCLARHIS Swainson 3 

Cyclarhis Swainson, Zool. Journ., 1, No. 3, p. 294, Oct., 1824 type, by 

monotypy, Tanagra gujanensis Gmelin. 
Cyclorhis Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, p. 162, 1827 emendation. 

1 Smaragdolanius leucotis mikettae (Hartert) : Like S. I. bolivianus without any 
white on the sides of the head, but sides of breast and flanks much more extensively 
green; similar to S. 1. simplex in the latter character, but pileum and sides of head 
deeper slate gray, and back brighter green. Wing (males), 69-70; tail, 49-50; bill, 
17-18. 

This form is known only from two adult males. The type was obtained at 
Paramba (alt. 3,500 ft.), in northwestern Ecuador, and the British Museum has a 
specimen taken by W. Goodfellow in June, 1914, at Rio Blanco, below Mindo. 
The two birds are practically alike. The forehead and a narrow line along the 
upper border of the uniform yellow superciliaries are blackish olive, and the cheeks 
and auriculars deep slate gray like the pileum. 

More material is urgently required to establish the racial characters beyond 
doubt. 

* CL Pycraft, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, pp. 352-379. 

3 It is quite possible that this name should be corrected to Cyclorhis. When 
creating the genus, Swainson explicitly refers to the "round, naked nostrils," 
so that the etymology of the name is not in doubt, although the author fails to 
explain its derivation. Three years later, he uses the correct spelling Cyclorhis, 
but in another writing (Orn. Draw., Part 5, pi. 58, late in 1837) reverts to the form 
Cyclarhis. The case seems to be analogous to Chaemaepelia, which, according to 
the ruling of the International Commission on Nomenclature (Opinion 61), is to 
be amended to Chamaepelia. 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cyclaris Swainson, Classif. Bds., 2, p. 14, 1837 emendation. 
Laniagra Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 9, 
1837 type, by monotypy, Tanagra gujanensis Gmelin. 

*Cyclarhis gujanensis flaviventris Lafresnaye. MEXICAN PEPPER 
SHRIKE. 

Cyclaris flaviventris Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 133, 1842 "Santa Cruz," 1 
Mexico (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 345, 1930). 

Cyclarhis flaviventris Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, Ois., pp. 2, 3, of text to 
pi. 33, 1843 "Santa Cruz," Mexico; Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 11, (1), 
p. 363, 1845 Jalapa and "Santa Cruz," Mexico (diag.). 

Cyclorhis flaviventris Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 386, 1866 part, Mexico 
(Orizaba, Mirador) and Coban, Guatemala (monog.); Sumichrast, Mem. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 548, 1869 temperate region of Vera Cruz; Law- 
rence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 18, 1876 Guichicovi and Petapa, 
Oaxaca; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 41, 1878 Guate- 
mala; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 320, 1883 southern Mexico 
and Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 211, 1883 Mexico (excl. Yucatan) and Guatemala (part, Tactic, 
Coban, Choctum); Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 138, 1886 
Jalapa and Plan del Rio, Vera Cruz; Sclater, Ibis, 1887, p. 322 part, 
South Mexico (excl. Yucatan), Guatemala, and Honduras; Berlepsch, 
Ibis, 1888, pp. 84, 91 southern Mexico and Guatemala (crit.); Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 131, 134, 1889 part, southern Mexico 
(excl. Yucatan) and Guatemala; Chapman, I.e., 10, p. 26, 1898 Jalapa, 
Mexico. 

Cyclarhis flaviventris flaviventris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 228, 1904 southern Mexico, Guatemala, and (?) Honduras (monog., 
full bibliog.); Miller and Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 183, p. 6, 1925 
Mexico (Vera Cruz, Oaxaca), Guatemala, and Honduras (crit.); Bangs 
and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 483, 1927 Presidio and 
Motzorongo, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 68, p. 400, 1928 Almoloya, Oaxaca; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 321, 1932 Secanquim, Sepa- 
cuite, Chama, and La Primavera, eastern Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of southern Mexico, in states of Vera 
Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, Oaxaca, and Chiapas, eastern Guatemala, 
and Honduras. 2 

1: Mexico (unspecified, 1). 

=Vera Cruz (?). 

1 Specimens from eastern Guatemala are identical with a Mexican series. 
According to Miller and Griscom (I.e.), a single example from Honduras is typical 
flaviventris. This finding is corroborated by a male taken by Wittkugel on the 
Volcan de Puca, examined some years ago, which appeared to us inseparable from 
Jalapa birds. 

Additional material examined. Mexico: Jalapa, Vera Cruz, 8; Orizaba, Vera 
Cruz, 1; Tumbala, Chiapas, 1; unspecified, 3. Guatemala: Coban, Vera Paz, 6. 
Honduras: Volcan de Puca, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 195 

*Cyclarhis gujanensis yucatanensis Ridgway. 1 YUCATAN PEPPER 
SHRIKE. 

Cyclorhis flaviventris yucatanensis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 519, 
Nov., 1886 M6rida, Yucatan (type in U. S. National Museum); Ber- 
lepsch, Ibis, 1888, pp. 91, 92 Yucatan (crit.); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, pp. 132, 134, 1889 Yucatan (crit.); Chapman, I.e., 8, p. 278, 
1896 Chichen Itza, Yucatan. 

Cyclarhis flaviventris yucatanensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 229, 1904 Yucatan and Campeche (monog.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 50, p. 137, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Griscom, Amer. Mus. 
Nov., 235, p. 16, 1926 Palmul, Yucatan. 

Cyclorhis flaviventris (not of Lafresnaye) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 386, 
1866 part, Meiida, Yucatan; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. f 
9, p. 200, 1869 Merida, Yucatan; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 211, 1883 part, Yucatan; Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 255 
Meco Island, Yucatan; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 
p. 210 Tekanto and Calcehtok, Yucatan. 

Range. Yucatan (Me*rida, La Vega, Chichen Itza, Temax, 
Kangul, Tekanto, Izamal, etc.), including Meco Island, and 
Campeche. 

4: Yucatan (San Felipe, 1; unspecified, 3). 

*Cyclarhis gu janensis insular is Ridgway. 2 COZUMEL PEPPER 
SHRIKE. 

Cyclorhis insularis Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 3, p. 22, 1885 Cozumel 
Island (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
8, p. 566, Oct., 1885 Cozumel (full descr.); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, pp. 
84, 91 Cozumel (crit.); Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 255 Cozumel (crit.); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 132, 134, 1889 Cozumel (crit.). 

Cyclarhis insularis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 230, 1904 
Cozumel (monog.). 

Cyclarhis flaviventris insularis Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 236, p. 11, 1926 
Cozumel (crit.). 

Range. Cozumel Island, Yucatan. 
1: Cozumel Island. 

1 Cyclarhis gujanensis yucatanensis Ridgway: Similar to C. g. flaviventris in 
having no white on lower belly or under tail coverts, but upper parts slightly duller, 
more grayish green, and yellow of under surface decidedly paler. 

Additional material examined. Yucatan: Izamal, 3; Kangul, 1; unspecified, 2. 

1 Cyclarhis gujanensis insularis Ridgway: Immediately distinguished from 
C. g. flaviventris and C. g. yucatanensis by having the median portion of breast and 
abdomen extensively white; not unlike C. /. subflavescens in coloration of under 
parts, but with much larger bill, wider rufous frontal band, and much duller, more 
grayish green upper surface. The amount of yellow underneath is exceedingly 
variable in this form, as has been pointed out by Griscom, though there is always a 
considerable white area in the middle of the belly. 

Material examined. Cozumel Island, 10. 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"Cyclarhis gujanensis nicaraguae Miller and Griscom. 1 NICARA- 
GUAN PEPPER SHRIKE. 

Cyclarhis flaviventris nicaraguae Miller and Griscom, Amer. Mas. Nov., 183, 
p. 6, July 28, 1925 Matagalpa, Nicaragua (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 321, 1932 western Guatemala. 

Cyelarhis flaviventris mesoleucus Dickey and van Rossem, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 38, p. 135, Nov. 13, 1925 San Salvador, El Salvador (type in 
coll. of D. R. Dickey, Pasadena, California). 

Cyclorhis flaviventris (not of Lafresnaye) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 211, 1883 part, Volcan de Agua and Volcan de Fuego, 
Guatemala; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 125, 1907 
Mazatenango, Patulul, and Lake Atitlan, Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Guatemala, El Salvador, and 
Nicaragua. 

10: Guatemala (Mazatenango, 1; Patulul, 5; Lake Atitlan, 3); 
Nicaragua (San Ger6nimo, Chinandega, 1). 

"Cyclarhis gujanensis subflavescens Cabanis. 2 COSTA RICAN 
PEPPER SHRIKE. 

Cyclorhis subflavescens Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, for Nov., 1860, p. 405, pub. 
May, 1861 highlands of Costa Rica (type in Berlin Museum); idem, 
I.e., 9, p. 93, 1861 Costa Rica (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 359, 1862 Costa Rica; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 388, 1866 Dota, 
Barranca, and San Jos6, Costa Rica (crit.); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 97, 1868 San Jose and Dota, Costa Rica; Frantzius, 
Journ. Orn., 17, p. 295, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 184 Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama. 

Cyclorhis flaviventris (not of Lafresnaye) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y. f 9, p. 97, 1868 Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica (cf. Salvin, Ibis, 1869, 
p. 313). 

1 Cyelarhis gujanensis nicaraguae Miller and Griscom: Exactly intermediate 
between C. g. flaviventris and C. g. subflavescens; resembles the former in having 
the under parts for the greater part yellow, but the yellow is of a paler tone, par- 
ticularly on the flanks and under tail coverts, and fades into white in the middle of 
the lower abdominal and anal region; differs from C. g. subflavescens by much 
brighter, canary yellow instead of greenish lemon yellow under parts with but a 
limited white area on the vent. 

Material examined. Nicaragua: Matagalpa, 2; Managua, 1; San Rafael del 
Norte, 2; Rio Coco, 1. Guatemala (as specified above): 9. 

2 Cyelarhis gujanensis subflavescens Cabanis: Similar to C. g. canticus and C. g. 
flavipectus in having the posterior under parts, including the tail coverts, extensively 
white; but foreneck, chest, and sides much duller, greenish lemon yellow, and the 
superciliaries paler rufous. Specimens from Boquete, Chiriquf, agree with those 
from Costa Rica. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: San Jos6, 10. Panama: Boquete, 
Chiriqui, 5. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 197 

Cyclorhis flavipectus (not of Sclater) Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 53 San Jose", Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 212, 1883 part, Costa Rica and Chiriqui; Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 320, 1883 part, Costa Rica; Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, 1, p. 108, 1887 Dota, Costa Rica. 

Cyclorhis flavipectus subflavescens Sclater, Ibis, 1887, p. 322 Costa Rica and 
Veragua; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, p. 85 (crit.); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, pp. 131, 134, 1889 Costa Rica (crit.); idem, Auk, 9, p. 23, 
1892 San Jose, Costa Rica (song); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 
3, p. 59, 1902 Boquete, Panama. 

Cyclarhis flaripectus subflavescens Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 230, 1904 Costa Rica and Chiriqui (monog.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 6, p. 775, 1910 highlands of Costa Rica; Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 274, 1910 Coliblanco, Costa Rica. 

Cyclarhis flaviventris subflavescens Miller and Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 
183, p. 6, 1925 (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical and Upper Tropical zones of Costa Rica and 
western Panama (Chiriqui). 

8: Costa Rica (Las Caiias, 2; San Jose", 3; Cartago, 1; Turrialba, 
1; Coliblanco, 1). 

Cyclarhis gujanensis coibae Hartert. 1 COIBA ISLAND PEPPER 
SHRIKE. 

Cyclorhis coibae Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 12, p. 33, Dec., 1901 Coiba 
Island, off Panama (type in Tring Museum examined). 

Cyclarhis coibae Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 745, 1904 
Coiba Island (ex Hartert). 

Range. Coiba Island, off Veragua, western Panama. 

1 Cyclarhis gujanensis coibae Hartert: Most nearly related to C. g. subflavescens 
and with the same amount of buffy white underneath, but distinguished by much 
darker upper parts, the back and wings being dull brownish olive, the pileum 
suffused with sepia; much darker gray sides of the head; and by having the foreneck 
and lower throat, in contrast to the lemon yellow breast, much duller and more 
greenish. The rufous superciliaries are the same as in subflavescens, both as to 
extent and coloration. Wing (adult male), 75; tail, 56; bill, 17. 

This form was based on two males collected by the late J. B. Batty on April 20, 
1901, on the island of Coiba, off the south coast of western Panama. The type is 
an immature bird with pointed, apically as well as internally yellow-fringed rec- 
trices, and uniform blackish brown bill. The other specimen, an adult, has the 
bill pale horn brown with a plumbeous spot at the base of the lower mandible. In 
coloration it is similar, except that the gray basal portion of the crown feathers 
shows through. While the two birds look rather different from C. g. subflavescens, 
it is somewhat suggestive that an adult male from Hicaron Island, to the south of 
Coiba, does not appreciably deviate from the ordinary continental type. In view of 
this circumstance more material seems to be required for the proper understanding 
of the pepper shrike of these islands. 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Cyclarhis gujanensis canticus Bangs. 1 SANTA MARTA PEPPER 
SHRIKE. 

Cydarhis flavipectus canticus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 142, 1898 
Santa Marta, Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 70, p. 345, 1930); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 171, 
1900 Bonda; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 227, 1904 
Colombia (diag.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 541, 1917 
Chicoral, Magdalena Valley, Colombia (crit.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 428, 1922 Bonda, Santa Marta, Mamatoco, 
Valencia, and Rio Hacha, Colombia (crit., habits) ; Darlington, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 71, p. 409, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena. 

Cyclorhis flavipectus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 448, 1858 part, 
Santa Marta and "Bogota"; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 45, 1862 
part, spec, b, d, "Bogota" and Santa Marta; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, 
p. 389, 1866 part, Santa Marta; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 212, 1883 part, Colombia; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 8, p. 320, 1883 part, Santa Marta; Sclater, Ibis, 1887, p. 322 
part, Colombia; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, pp. 85, 91 "Bogota" (crit.); Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 130, 134, 1889 part, Santa Marta, Car- 
tagena, and "Bogota" (crit.). 

Cydarhis flavipedus flavipectus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 11, 1906 part, 
"Bogot4." 

Range. Tropical zone of northern and eastern Colombia (Carib- 
bean coast from Cartagena to La Hacha, La Goajira; Magdalena 
Valley; Rio Cesar Valley). 

1: Colombia ("Bogotd," 1). 

"Cyclarhis gujanensis flavipectus Sclater. 2 YELLOW-BREASTED 
PEPPER SHRIKE. 

1 Cydarhis gujanensis canticus Bangs: Most nearly related to C. g. flavipectus, 
but yellow of anterior under parts decidedly richer and brighter, less greenish, also 
more extensive, and the abdomen more strongly tinged with buffy; bill on average 
smaller. 

Single individuals are not always distinguishable, but taken as a whole the 
characters of the Colombian birds appear to be sufficiently constant to justify the 
recognition of C. g, canticus as a separate race. In native "Bogota" collections, 
both this and the next form are found, though the present one is much more common. 

Material examined. Colombia: Santa Marta, 6; Chicoral, Magdalena Valley, 
1; "Bogota," 18. 

1 Cydarhis gujanensis flavipectus Sclater varies locally to a certain extent, but 
the divergency between birds from different parts of its range is not sufficiently 
constant to warrant further subdivision. When describing this form, Sclater did 
not distinguish between specimens from Colombia (Santa Marta, Bogota) and 
others from Trinidad and Venezuela, and it was not until 1883 that Gadow defin- 
itely selected Trinidad as type locality, a procedure apparently overlooked by 
Allen, who renamed the same form as C. f. trinitatis. 

Birds from Trinidad, which have, thus, to be considered as typical flavipectus, 
are characterized by large, stout bills, fresh (somewhat yellowish) green back, and 
bright yellow anterior under parts. The inner margin to the remiges is frequently 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 199 

Cyelorhis flavipectus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 448, 1858 part, 
Trinidad and Venezuela, between La Guayra and Caracas (type from 
Trinidad in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum, as designated 
by Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 320, 1883); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 45, 1862 part, spec, a, c, Caracas and Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 
1864, p. 81 Trinidad; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 389, 1866 
part, Trinidad; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 263, 1866 Trinidad; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, pp. 166, 627 Carupano (SucrS) 
and San Esteban (Carabobo), Venezuela; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
8, p. 320, 1883 part, Trinidad and Caracas; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 212, 1883 part, Venezuela, Trinidad, and 
"Amazonia" (errore); Sclater, Ibis, 1887, p. 322 part, Venezuela and 
Trinidad; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, pp. 85, 91 part, Venezuela and Trinidad; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 134, 1889 part, Venezuela; Chap- 
man, I.e., 6, p. 26, 1894 Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 
Cumanacoa and San Antonio (Sucr6), Venezuela; Berlepsch and Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 9, p. 13, 1902 Altagracia, Caicara, Urbana, and Ciudad 
Bolivar, Rio Orinoco, and Suapure, Caura, Venezuela (crit., nest and 
eggs descr.). 

Cyelorhis flavipectus trinitatis Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 131, 134, 
1889 Trinidad (type probably in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York). 

Cyclarhis flavipectus Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 188, 1906 
Aripo, Trinidad. 

Cyclarhis flavipectus flavipectus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 11, 1906 part, 
Trinidad (Caparo, Laventille, Chaguaramas, Pointe Gourde, Valencia, 

brighter yellowish than in continental birds, but this feature holds only in eight 
out of twenty individuals. Specimens from Sucr6 (hinterland of Cumana), the 
Orinoco Valley, and the eastern base of the Colombian Andes (topotypical parvus) 
merely differ by their smaller bills. In coloration they agree inter se, and do not 
appreciably diverge from the Trinidad series. The pepper shrikes from north- 
western Venezuela (Caracas region; San Esteban; Tocuyo, Lara) are also small- 
billed, but with few exceptions they are duller, more grayish green above, and the 
jugular area is of a paler yellow. The larger bill is thus seen to be the only fairly 
constant feature of the Trinidad form, though various specimens from the main- 
land, such as two from the Caura and one from Ciudad Bolivar, are just as large- 
billed. If the island birds be separated on this score, the pepper shrikes of Sucre, 
the Orinoco basin, and eastern Colombia will have to be united under Chapman's 
term parvus, and those from northwestern Venezuela, with duller grayish green 
back and paler yellow under parts, will require a new name. Considering the fact, 
however, that very large numbers of birds from the various regions are not 
distinguishable with certainty, I do not advocate this splitting into three races, 
and prefer to keep them together under Sclater's subspecific designation flavi- 
pectus, as I have explained at length in Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, pp. 162-164. 
Two specimens from the Caura Valley, Venezuela, by more greenish yellow fore- 
neck and chest, exhibit a tendency in the direction of C. g. gujanensis. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 18; Icacos, 1; Laventille, 
3; Valencia, 1; Pointe Gourde, 1; Aripo, 1. Venezuela, Sucre: Campos Alegre, 8; 
Celci Puede, 3; Quebrada Secca, 2; Los Palmales, 2; La Tigrera, 1; La Montana 
del Guacharo, Caripe, 1; Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, 8; Ciudad Bolivar, 2; Caicara, 
Rio Orinoco, 2; Urbana, Rio Orinoco, 1; Caura Valley, 4; Rio Mamera, Caracas, 
1; Loma Redonda, Caracas, 8; Las Quiguas and San Esteban, Carabobo, 11; San 
Carlos, Zamora, 1 ; near Bucarito, Lara, 2. Colombia: Villavicencio, 1 ; "Bogota," 2. 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Seelet) and Venezuela (Cumana; Bucarito, Lara; San Esteban; San Car- 
los); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 357, 1908 Carenage, 
Trinidad. 

Cyclarhis gujanensis flavipectus Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, 
A, Heft 5, p. 59, 1912 Las Quiguas, Carabobo, Venezuela; Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 207, 1913 Cariaquito and Pedernales, 
Paria Peninsula, and Jocopita and Boca Uracoa, Manimo River, Orinoco 
Delta, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 158, 1916 
Orinoco region (nesting habits); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, 
p. 161, 1924 Loma Redonda, Venezuela (crit.). 

Cyclarhis flavipectus parvus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 741, 
1917 Villavicencio, foot of eastern Andes, Colombia (type in the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Cyclorhis guianensis (not Tanagra gujanensis Gmelin) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 
1, p. 64, 1851 part, Caracas. 

Range. Island of Trinidad and Venezuela, south to the Orinoco 
basin, and west to the eastern foot of the eastern Andes of Colombia 
(Villavicencio and Buenavista). 

9: Trinidad (St. Ann's Valley, 1) ; Venezuela (Cumana, 1; Caracas, 
3; Maracay, Aragua, 3; Colon, Tachira, 1). 

*Cyclarhis gujanensis gujanensis (Gmelin). GUIANAN PEPPER 
SHRIKE. 

Tanagra gujanensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 893, 1789 based on "Verde- 
roux" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. (Impr. Roy.), 5, p. 27; "Guyane"= French 
Guiana. 

Tanagra guianensis Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 427, 1790 based on "Verderoux" 
Buffon. 

Lanius superciliaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &!., 26, p. 153, 
1818 based on "Le Sourcirou" Levaillant, Ois. d'Afr., 2, p. Ill, pi. 76, 
fig. 2, 1799; probably Cayenne. 

Cyclarhis poliocephala Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 11, (1), p. 362, 1845 "Brasilia 
septentrionalis; Guyana, Surinam" (no type specified); idem, Unters. 
Faun. Peru., Aves., p. 169, 1846 forests of Peru. 

Cyclarhis guyanensis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 133, 1842 part, Cayenne 
and Brazil; idem, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, Ois., text to pi. 33, p. 2, 1843 part, 
Cayenne and Brazil. 

Cyclorhis guianensis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 64, 1851 part, Brazil; Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 106, 1856 part, Para and Ama- 
zonia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 26, p. 448, 1858 Guiana and 
northern Brazil; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 45, 1862 Ucayali, 
Peru, and Cayenne; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 389, 1866 Cayenne 
(crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 179 upper 
Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 569 Para; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, 
pp. 74, 138, 1868 Borba (Rio Madeira), Rio Negro, and Forte do Rio 
Branco, Brazil (diag.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 201 

p. 257 upper Ucayali; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 509 Paltaypampa, 
Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 448, 1884 Paltaypampa and upper Ucayali, 
Peru; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 319, 1883 Guiana and north- 
eastern Brazil (Para); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 205 Roraima, British Guiana; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1887, p. 323 Guiana, Cayenne, lower and upper Amazonia 
(crit.) ; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, pp. 86, 91 (crit., range); idem, Journ. Orn., 37, 
p. 294, 1889 Tarapoto, Peru; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 133, 
134, 1889 Cayenne, Para, and Santare'm (crit.); Riker and Chapman, 
Auk, 7, p. 266, 1890 Santar&n; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 332 La Gloria, Dept. Junm, Peru; M6n6gaux, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 10, p. 180, 1904 Oyapock River, French 
Guiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 9, 1908 Bom Lugar and Monte 
Alegre, Rio Purus; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 538, 1910 Surinam 
(nest and eggs descr.). 

Cyclorhis gujanensis Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 338, 1907 
(range); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 109, 316, 1908 Cayenne and 
Oyapock, French Guiana. 

Cyclarhis gujanensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 271, 1905 IgarapeVAssu, 
Para; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 479, 1914 Para, Providencia, 
Benevides, Maguary, Apehu, Santo Antonio do Prata, Braganca, Rio 
Guama (Santa Maria de Sao Miguel), Rio Tocantins (Ilha Pirunum), Rio 
Xingu (Forte Amb6), Rio Jamauchim (Santa Helena), Rio Tapajoz 
(Boim), and Monte Alegre; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 401, 1921 
Roraima and upper Takutu Mountains, British Guiana; Snethlage, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 59, 1926 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Cyclarhis gujanensis gujanensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 346, 1907; 
I.e., 17, p. 269, 1910 Borba and Humayta, Rio Madeira; idem, Abhandl. 
Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 87, 1912 Para and 
Igarap6-Assu, Para; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 96, 1916 Utinga, 
Para; Naumburg, Auk, 42, p. 346, 1925 (crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 80, p. 173, 1928 Para; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 263, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao; Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 336, 1930 Juruena River, Matto Grosso; Chap- 
man, I.e., 63, p. 113, 1931 Arabupu, Philipp Camp, and Rondon Camp, 
Roraima. 

Cyclarhis gujanensis albiventris (not of Sclater and Salvin, 1873) Carriker, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82, p. 375, 1930 Enefias, Dept. Junin, 
Peru (type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Brazil, 
from the wooded coast-belt of northwestern Maranhao (Tury-assu) 
throughout the Amazonian basin south to northern Matto Grosso 
(Juruena River) and west to eastern Peru 1 (Samiria, Rio Maran6n; 

1 Not yet taken in eastern Ecuador (cf. Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 590, 1926). 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tarapoto, Rio Huallaga; upper Ucayali; La Gloria, Enenas, and Rio 
PerenS, Dept. Junin). 1 

2: Brazil (Manaos, 1; Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1). 

*Cyclarhis gujanensis cearensis Baird. 2 EAST BRAZILIAN PEPPEB 
SHRIKE. 

Cyclorhis cearensis Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 391, May, 1866 Cear3 
(type in U. S. National Museum); Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 116 
(note 1), 1885 Ceara, Bahia, and "Nova Friburgo," errore (crit.); idem, 
Ibis, 1888, pp. 87, 91 Bahia and Goyaz (crit.); Ihering and Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 338, 1907 Barretos, Sao Paulo (range in part, 
excl. Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, and Para); Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 79, 1910 Pernambuco (Pac 
d'Alho, near Recife) and Bahia (Cabula; Fazenda Tab&a and Santa Rita, 
Rio Preto); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 41, 
1926 Ceara. 

Cyclarhis gujanensis cearensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 22, 23, 1908 
Rio Thesouras and Rio Araguaya, Goyaz (crit., synon., range, meas.); 
Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., No. 98, p. 85, 1917 PoconS, Matte 
Grosso; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 192, 1921 Chiquitos, eastern 
Bolivia; Naumburg, Auk, 42, p. 346, 1925 (crit.); idem, Bull. Amer 

1 Birds from various localities in northern Brazil agree with series from Frencl 
Guiana and Mount Roraima, but are perhaps not quite so greenish on the fore- 
neck. A single adult from the Rio Juruena, Matto Grosso, is quite typical ol 
gujanensis. On the other hand, a male from Tury-assu, Maranhao, tends to C. g 
cearensis by larger bill and greater extent of the greenish area on jugulum and sides 
of chest, thus connecting the two forms. I do not see how Peruvian birds, de- 
scribed by Carriker under the preoccupied name albiventris, can be separated. AE 
adult male from La Gloria, Chanchamayo, shows none of the characters assigned 
to the supposed race, the middle of the breast being, if anything, more grayish 
than in the Guianan average, while the chest is of the same tone as in numerous 
specimens from other localities. Two additional skins from northern Peru (Samiria 
and Tarapoto) do not differ either. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 5; Saint Jean dn 
Maroni, 1. Dutch Guiana: near Paramaribo, 1. British Guiana: Roraima, 7 
Rio Yuruani, 1. Brazil: Utinga, Para, 1; Igarape-Assu, Para, 1; Ourem, Ric 
Guama, 2; Faro, Rio Jamunda, 1; Forte Amb6, Rio Xingu, 1; Forte do Sao Joa- 
quim, Rio Branco, 2; Manaos, 1; Rio Negro, below Marabitanas, 1; Borba, Ric 
Madeira, 2; Humayta, Rio Madeira, 1; Rio Juruena, Matto Grosso, 1. Peru 
Samiria, 1 ; Tarapoto, Rio Huallaga, 1 ; La Gloria, Chanchamayo, Dept. Junin, 1 

* Cyclarhis gujanensis cearensis Baird is merely a small form of C. g. viridii 
with less powerful bill, somewhat brighter green back, and clearer yellow foreneck 
The buffy tinge of the abdomen is well-pronounced in fresh plumage, but graduallj 
disappears as the season advances. 

Birds from Bahia (albiventris) are identical with series from Ceara and interioi 
Maranhao, while the inhabitants of Minas Geraes, Goyaz, and Matto Grossc 
generally have slightly smaller bills, although this insignificant divergency is com- 
pletely bridged by individual variation. It is now an established fact that speci- 
mens without the plumbeous basal spot to the lower mandible, considered by 
certain authors as specifically different (C. unedii), merely represent an immature 
stage of the present form. Birds from the coast of Maranhao (Sao Bento, Miritiba] 
are intermediate to C. g. gujanensis, a race which actually stretches into the extremt 
northwestern section of that state. 



)35 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 203 

Mus. N. H., 60, p. 337, 1930 Urucum and Tapirapoan, Matto Grosso 
(crit.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 264, 1929 
Maranhao (Sao Bento, Sao Luiz, Barra do Corda, Cod6 [Cocos], Tran- 
queira, Fazenda Inhuma), Piauhy (Arara), Ceara (Varzea Formosa, 
Quixada, Serra de Baturite", Ju4), and Goyaz (Philadelphia) (crit.); 
Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 306, 1930 
San Jose", Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 

Thamnophilus guianensis (not Tanagra gujanensis Gmelin) Wied, Beitr. 
Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 1016, 1831 Campo Geral, southwestern Bahia. 

Laniagra guyanensis d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame"r. Me"rid., Ois., p. 160, 1836 
Chiquitos, Bolivia; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 9, 1837 part, Bolivia. 

Cycloris guianensis Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 106, 1856 
Brazil (part). 

Cyclorhis viridis (not Saltator viridis Vieillot) Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, 
p. 392, 1866 part, Rio Parana; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 
123, 126, 134, 1889 Chapada, Matto Grosso (range in part); idem, 
I.e., 3, p. 346, 1891 Chapada; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, 
No. 378, p. 3, 1900 Corumba, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 
1, p. 337, 1907 part, Matto Grosso; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 89 part, 
Pan de Azucar, Matto Grosso. 

Cyclorhis wiedii Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 74, 137, 138, 1868 Bahia, Rio 
Parana (Sao Paulo), Goyaz, Cuyaba and Engenho do Cap Gama, Matto 
Grosso (type, from Cuyaba, in Vienna Museum examined); Berlepsch, 
Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 116 (note 1), 1885 Rio Parand (crit.); idem, Ibis, 
1888, pp. 88, 91 Engenho do Cap Gama, Matto Grosso, and Rio Parana 
(crit.). 

Cyclorhis albiventris Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., p. 156, 
1873 Bahia, Brazil (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum) ; 
Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 329 Pernambuco; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
8, p. 319, 1883 Bahia, Pernambuco, and "Para" (errore); Sclater, Ibis, 
1887, p. 323 Pernambuco to Bahia (crit.); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, p. 86 
(crit.). 

Cyclorhis sp. inc. Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 595 
part, Chiquitos, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny). 

Range. Eastern Bolivia (plains of Chiquitos) and tableland of 
razil, from Matto Grosso and northern Sao Paulo (Rio Parana 
id Barretos) east to western Minas Geraes and Bahia, and north 
> Ceara, Piauhy, and Maranhao. 

39: Brazil, Maranhao (Sao Bento, 1; Sao Luiz, 1; Barra do Corda, 
;Codo, Cocos, 1; Tranqueira, 1; Fazenda Inhuma, Alto Parnahyba, 
i; Piauhy (Arara, 2); Ceara (Varzea Formosa, 2; Quixada, 3; Serra 
3 Baturite*, 4; Jua, near Iguatu, 5); Bahia (Santo Amaro, 3; Macaco 
ecco, near Andarahy, 1 ; Rio do Peixe, near Queimadas, 1) ; Goyaz 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(Philadelphia, 4); Matto Grosso (Chapada, 2; Descalvados, 2; 
Urucum de Corumba, 2). 1 

*Cyclarhis gujanensis viridis (Vieillot). STOUT-BILLED PEPPER 
SHRIKE. 

Saltator viridis Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Me"th., Orn., 2, livr. 91, p. 793, 1822 
based on "Habia verde" Azara, No. 89; Paraguay to the La Plata River. 

Laniagra guyanensis (not Tanagra gujanensis Gmelin) d'Orbigny, Voy. AmeY, 
Me>id., Ois., p. 160, 1836 part, Prov. Yungas, Ayupaya, and Rio Grande, 
Bolivia; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, 
p. 9, 1837 Bolivia (in part). 

Cyclaris guyanensis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 133, 1842 part, Paraguay 
and Bolivia. 

Cyclorhis viridis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 448, 1858 Paraguay 
and Bolivia (diag.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 46, 1862 Bolivia; 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 392, 1866 part, spec, ex Bolivia; Berlepsch, 
Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 116, 1885 Paraguay and Tucuman (crit.); idem, 
Journ. Orn., 35, pp. 5, 114, 1887 LambarS, Paraguay; idem, Ibis, 1888, 
p. 91 Paraguay, Tucuman, Salta, and Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, pp. 126, 134, 1889 part, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina; 
Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 
1890 Cordoba; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 3, 
1895 Carpegua, Paraguay; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 5, 1897 Tala, 
Salta; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 318, 1904 Paraguay; Bruch, Rev. 
Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 256, 1904 Dept. Rosario, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. 
Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 40, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 337, 1907 San Luis (range excl. Matto Grosso); Grant, Ibis, 1911, 
p. 89 part, Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. 

Cyclorhis viridis viridis Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 167, pi. 2, 
fig. 20 (egg), 1909 Chaco (Ocampo, Mocovf) and Tucuman. 

Cyclarhis viridis Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 140, 1902 Sapucay, 
Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 61, 1914 Paraguay. 

Cyclarhis gujanensis viridis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 24, 1908 Paraguay, 
northern Argentina, and Bolivia (crit., meas.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 366, 1910 Cosquin (Cordoba), San Luis, Salta, and 
Chaco; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 192, 1921 Yungas, Bolivia (crit.); 
Giacomelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 366, 1926 Chaco (Las Palmas), Formosa (Riacho 
Pilaga), and Tucuman (Tapia) (habits); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 68, p. 215, 1927 Concepci6n, Tucuman; Laubmann, Wissens. 
Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 307, 1930 Fortin Esteros and 
Villa Montes, Tarija, Bolivia (crit.). 

1 Additional material examined. Ceara, 2. Maranhao: Miritiba, 1. Pernam- 
buco: Pao d'Alho, near Recife, 1. Bahia: Cabula, 1; Bahia, 31; Santa Rita, Rio 
Preto, 1; Fazenda Tab6a, Rio Preto, 1. Goyaz: Porto Imperial, 1; Goyaz, 1; Rio 
Thesouras, 2; Rio Araguaya, 4. Minas Geraes: Agua Suja, near Bagagem, 12. 
Sao Paulo: Rio Parana, 1. Matto Grosso: Chapada, 18; Cuyaba, 1; Engenho do 
Cap Gama, 1; Urucum, 4; Tapirapoan, 2. Bolivia: Chiquitos, 2; San Jose", 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 205 

Cyclorhis altirostris Salvin, Ibis, (4), 4, p. 352, 1880 Salta (type in Salvin- 
Godman Collection, now in British Museum, examined); Gadow, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 319, 1883 Bolivia and Argentina; Sclater, Ibis, 1887, 
p. 323 (crit.; excl. White's record); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, p. 89 Paraguay, 
Salta, Tucuman, and Bolivia (excl. Chiquitos) (crit.) ; Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 1, p. 24, pi. 3, fig. 2, 1888 Paraguay and Salta; Lillo, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 174, 1902 Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 12, 
p. 215, 1904 Tapia, Tucuman. 

Cyclorhis ochrocephala (not of Tschudi) Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 118, 
1891 Rio Tercero, Cordoba; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 123 Fortin Page, 
lower Pilcomayo (spec, examined). 

Cyclorhis sp. inc. Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 595 
part, Yungas, Ayupaya, and Rio Grande, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); Kerr, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 223 Paraguayan Chaco. 

Range. Northern Argentina, west of the Rio Parana, from Santa 
F6, Chaco, and Formosa west to Cordoba, San Luis, La Rioja, Tucu- 
man, and Salta; Paraguay; highlands of Bolivia. 1 

6: Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 5) ; Paraguay (Villa Rica, 1). 

"Cyclarhis gujanensis ochrocephala Tschudi. OCHRE-CROWNED 
PEPPER SHRIKE. 

Cyclarhis ochrocephala Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 11, (1), p. 362, 1845 southern 
Brazil and Buenos Aires [excl. Bolivia and Peru] (no type specified); 
Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 140, 1902 Sapucay, Paraguay; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 366, 1910 Argentina 
(Corrientes, Entre Rios, Buenos Aires, Barracas al Sud); Bertoni, Faun. 
Parag., p. 60, 1914 Alto Parana; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 192, 
1921 Corrientes (crit., range); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 22, 1920 
Canelones, San Jos6, and Flores, Uruguay; Seri6 and Smyth, I.e., 3, 
p. 52, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 170, 1923 San 
Isidro, Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 366, 1926 
Berazategui, Buenos Aires, and San Vicente and Rio Negro, Uruguay 
(habits); Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 184, 1926 
Fazenda Durski, Invernadinha, Cara Pintada, and Therezina, Parana. 

1 There is no difference whatever between Paraguayan birds (typical viridis) 
and others from Argentina (altirostris). As has been pointed out long ago by the 
late Count Berlepsch (Ibis, 1888, p. 89), Azara's description of the "Habia Verde" 
clearly refers to the large-billed pepper shrike with plumbeous basal spot to the 
lower mandible. This form is chiefly found west of the Parana, though it is like- 
wise widely diffused in the northern and western parts of Paraguay proper. Birds 
from Bolivia, except those occurring in the plains of Chiquitos, agree very well 
with the present form, too. Measurements are given in Nov. Zool., 15, p. 24, 1908. 

Additional material examined. Paraguay: Bernalcu6 (near Asuncion), 3; 
Trinidad, 2; Fort Wheeler, Chaco, 3; General Pinedo, Chaco, 2. Argentina: 
Mocovi, Santa F6, 1; Ocampo, Santa Fe, 5; Cordoba, 1; Suncho Corral, Santiago 
del Estero, 1; Tucuman, 2; Tafi, Tucuman, 1; Sarmiento, Tucuman, 1; Salta, 4; 
Catadera, San Luis, 1. Bolivia: Santa Cruz, 2; Samaipata, 3; Chulumani, 1; 
Yungas, 2. 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cyclorhis ochrocephala Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 448, 1858 
southeastern Brazil; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 45, 1862 Brazil; 
Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 391, 1866 Rio de Janeiro and Tigre (crit.); 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 73, 138, 1868 Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo (Casa 
Pintada, Ypanema, Ytarar6), and Parana (Curytiba) (crit.); idem, 
Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 291, 1874 Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro; Reinhardt, 
Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 437 Lag&a Santa, Mocambo, 
and Paracatu, Minas Geraes; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, 
p. 116, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1887, 
p. 323 (crit.); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, pp. 87, 91 Rio de Janeiro, Sao 
Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Buenos Aires, and Corrientes (crit., range); 
Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 23, pi. 3, fig. 1, 1888 "middle 
Argentine"; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 127, 134, 1889 
southeastern Brazil and Argentina (crit.); Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 165 
Arroyo Grande and Rio Negro, Uruguay; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
2, p. 165, 1897 Villa Bella, Una de Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; idem, 
I.e., 3, p. 137, 1899 Sao Paulo, Tiete, and Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; 
idem, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 117, 1899 Mundo Novo and 
Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 152, 
1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro; Miranda Ribeiro, 
Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 13, p. 183, 1906 Morro dos Carneiros, 
Itatiaya; Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 338, 1907 Sao 
Paulo (Ypiranga, Rio Feio, Campos do Jordao, Ytarare, Bauru, Estacao 
do Rio Grande), Minas Geraes (Itatiaya and Vargem Alegre), and Argen- 
tina (Tigre'); Liiderwaldt, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, p. 356, 1909 Itatiaya; 
Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 167, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos 
Aires; Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 485, 499, 
1912 Vera Guarany, Parana. 

[Cyclorhis viridis] subsp. a C. ochrocephala Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, 
p. 318, 1883 south Brazil. 

Cyclarhis ochrocephala ochrocephala Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 243, 1919 
Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 
1922-23, p. 654, 1924 Prov. of Buenos Aires; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 57, p. 314, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya, Brazil. 

Laniagra guyanensis (not Tanagra gujanensis Gmelin) d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. 
Merid., Ois., p. 160, 1836 part, Corrientes; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 9, 1837 part, Corrientes, Argentina. 

Cyclarhis guianensis Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 5, pi. 58, 1837; Darwin, 
Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 58, 1839 Maldonado. 

Cyclorhis viridis (not Saltator viridis Vieillot) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 64, 
1851 southern Brazil and Paraguay (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 159 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Cabanis, Journ. 
Orn., 22, p. 84, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Doering, Period. Zool. 
Arg., 1, p. 253, 1874 Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, 
p. 58 Punta Lara, Prov. Buenos Aires; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1882, p. 595 Punta Lara; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 88, 1883 
Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios; Allen, Auk, 6, p. 269, 1889 (crit.). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 207 

Cycloris viridis Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 107, 1856 Rio de 
Janeiro and Nova Friburgo; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 251, 1860 Parana, 
Entre Rios; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 472, 1861 Parana. 

Cyclorhis wiedii (not of Pelzeln) Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 137, 1899 
Serra de Paranapiacaba, Sao Paulo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 338, 
1907 Alto da Serra, Sao Paulo. 

Cyclorhis wiedi Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 612 Sapucay, Paraguay (spec, 
examined). 

Cyclarhis wiedi Bertoni, Seg. Contrib. Orn. Parag., in Rev. Inst. Parag., 
1907 [Sep., p. 2] Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 435, 1910 Alto Parana (ex Bertoni); idem, Bol. 
Soc. Physis, 1, p. 353, 1914 Iguazu (ex Bertoni); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., 
p. 61, 1914 Asunci6n. 

Cyclarhis viridis wiedi Bertoni, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 75, p. 97, 1913 
Iguazu. 

Cyclarhis ochrocephala dabbenei Bertoni, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 17, No. 6, 
p. 220, Dec., 1913 northeastern Paraguay (type in coll. of A. W. de 
Bertoni). 

Cyclarhis jaczewskii Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 184, 
1926 Marechal Mallet, Parana (type in Warsaw Museum;=worn 
plumage). 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, from southern and eastern Minas 
Geraes (Marianna; Sao Francisco; Mocambo; Paracatu; Lag6a Santa) 
and Espirito Santo (Victoria) to Rio Grande do Sul; Uruguay; 
northeastern Argentina, in provinces of Corrientes, Entre Rios, 
Misiones, and Buenos Aires; Paraguay (southern and eastern parts). 1 

23: Brazil (Rio das Velhas, near Lagoa Santa, 2; Therezopolis, 
Rio de Janeiro, 6; Victoria, Sao Paulo, 1; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 

1 Birds from Corrientes, Entre Rios, and Misiones agree well with Brazilian 
specimens, whereas those from Uruguay and Buenos Aires generally have the yellow 
jugular band narrower and paler in tone. They are, however, closely approached 
by certain individuals from Sao Paulo. Occasionally the maxilla is dark brown 
and the mandible dusky, with or without a paler tip. Such specimens we have 
seen from Sao Paulo (Alambary), Parana (Serra do Mar), and Entre Rios (La 
Soledad). C. o. dabbenei Bertoni appears to have been based upon an individual 
of the same variety. In breeding plumage, when the brownish tips to the feathers 
have been worn off, the pileum becomes dingy gray, and we have little doubt that 
C. jaczewskii, described from a single January specimen taken in Parana, where 
the brown-headed C. g. ochrocephala is also found, refers to that stage. Though we 
heretofore regarded ochrocephala as specifically distinct, Paraguayan material 
recently examined tends to show that it is merely a geographical race of the 
gujanensis group. The British Museum has six specimens from Sapucay, Para- 
guay. Four are typical ochrocephala. The two remaining ones have stouter, more 
elevated bills, more like C. g. viridis, with suggestions of a dusky basal spot to the 
lower mandible, and in one the rufous superciliars are broader and carried as far 
back as the posterior margin of the auriculars, thus showing the same extent as in 
C. g. viridis. Two additional examples from Sapucay exhibit all the characters of 
the latter form. Intergradation is therefore established in southern Paraguay. 
Otherwise the two pepper shrikes replace each other geographically. In Minas 
Geraes, C. g. ochrocephala inhabits the southern districts (Marianna, Sao Francisco, 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1); Argentina, Misiones (Eldorado, 3; Puerto Segundo, 5); Uruguay 
(Quebrada de los Cuervos, north of Trienta y Tres, 3; Polanco, 
Minas, 1; Rio Uruguay, southwest of Dolores, Soriano, 1). 

Cyclarhis gujanensis virenticeps Sclater. 1 GREEN-CROWNED 
PEPPER SHRIKE. 

Cyclorhis virenticeps Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 274, pi. 164, 1860 
Babahoyo, Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 46, 1862 Babahoyo; Baird, Rev. Amer. 
Bds., 1, p. 393, 1866 Babahoyo (crit.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1877, p. 319 Tumbez, Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 
1883, p. 542 Yaguachi and Guayaquil, Ecuador; Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 317, 1883 Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 449, 
1884 Tumbez and Paucal, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1887, p. 322 western 
Ecuador (crit.); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, pp. 85, 91 western Ecuador and 
northern Peru; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 135, 1889 (range); 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 10, 1899 
Balzar, Ecuador; Berlioz, Bui). Mus. Nat. Hist., Paris, (2), 4, p. 234, 
1932 Isla Silva, Ecuador. 

Cyclarhis virenticeps Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 591, 1926 
Chone, Chongocito, Guayaquil, Duran, La Puente, El Chiral, Santa Rosa, 
Portovelo, Punta Santa Ana, Casanga, Salvias, Las Pinas, Alamor, 
Guainche, Rio Pullango, and Loja, Ecuador (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Ecuador, from the Rio 
Chone southward, and adjoining section of northwestern Peru, west 
of the Andes. 2 

etc.) and C. g. cearensis the extreme west, birds from the central part of the state 
(Lagoa Santa) being intermediate between the two. In Argentina, C. g. ochro- 
cephala lives east of the Parana in Corrientes and Entre Rios, while west of that 
river C. g. viridis takes its place. 

Additional material examined. Brazil. Espirito Santo: Brago do Sul, Victoria, 
2. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, 7; Therezopolis, 8. Sao Paulo: Victoria, 9; 
Alambary, 2; Piquete, 3; Casa Pintada, 2; Ypanema, 4; Ytarare 1 , 1. Parana: 
Curytiba, 3; Roga Nova, Serra do Mar, 2; Castro, 1. Rio Grande do Sul: Taquara 
do Mundo Novo, 2; Sao Lourengo, 1; Camaquam, 1. Argentina: Corrientes 
(Santo Tome 1 ), 2; La Soledad, Entre Rios, 2; Buenos Aires (Avellaneda, Barracas 
al Sud, Platanos, etc.), 7. Paraguay: Sapucay, 8. 

1 Cyclarhis gujanensis virenticeps Sclater and its Peruvian allies (C. g. contrerasi, 
C. g. saturatus) differ from the C. gujanensis group proper by lacking the gray 
on the crown, which is replaced by green and chestnut; olive yellow or yellowish 
green instead of pale gray auriculars; much greater extent of the yellow on throat 
and chest, etc. However, an adult female from Huancabamba (Mus. Comp. Zool., 
No. 79898) has the forecrown, behind the chestnut frontal band, largely gray, 
and also the anterior auriculars grayish, suggesting intergradation with C. g. 
gujanensis, found in the Tropical zone of eastern Peru. I have, therefore, no hesita- 
tion in accepting Mr. Zimmer's proposal to unite the green-crowned and gray- 
crowned groups in one "formenkreis." 

2 Birds from Chone, Manayi, and Guayas (Guayaquil, Yaguachi, Rio Salado) 
are above brighter, more yellowish green, than those from more southern localities, 
one from Zaruma, Prov. del Oro, being just as decidedly green as C. g. contrerasi. 
Of four specimens from Loja, three agree with the northern birds in the coloration 



.935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 209 

'Cyclarhis gujanensis contrerasi Taczanowski. 1 CHESTNUT- 
CAPPED PEPPER SHRIKE. 

Cyclorhis contrerasi Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 224, pi. 21 
Tambillo, Prov. Jaen, northern Peru (type lost, formerly in Warsaw Mu- 
seum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 
5, p. 160, 1927); idem, I.e., 1880, p. 192 Call acate, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1882, p. 8 Chachapoyas, Dept. Amazonas (crit.); Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 321, 1883 Callacate; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 450, 
1884 Tambillo, Callacate, Cutervo, and Chachapoyas; Sclater, Ibis, 
1887, p. 322 western Peru (crit.); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, pp. 85, 91 
northern Peru; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 135, 1889 
northern Peru; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 3, 1895 Cajabamba and Succha, 
Huamachuco (spec, examined). 

Cyclarhis coutrerasi [sic] Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 458, 1918 Perico 
(near Tabaconas) and Huancabamba, Dept. Piura (spec, examined). 

Cyclarhis virenticeps (not of Sclater) Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 458, 1918 
Tabaconas, Dept. Cajamarca (spec, examined). 

Range. Northern Peru, in the mountains bordering the Maranon 
Valley, extending east into the Valley of Huayabamba, Dept. San 
Martin, chiefly in the Temperate zone. 

2: Peru (Hacienda Limon, ten miles west of Balsas, 2). 

"Cyclarhis gujanensis saturatus Zimmer. 2 SOUTHERN CHEST- 
NUT-CAPPED PEPPER SHRIKE. 

)f the pileum, viz., forehead and superciliaries only chestnut, the remaining portion 
iniform green like the back. The fourth, however, has the feathers of the center 
ind back of the crown margined with chestnut, and is barely distinguishable from 
certain individuals of contrerasi. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Chone, Manavf, 3; Yaguachi, Guayas, 1; Rio 
Salado, Guayas, 1; Guayaquil, 3; Zaruma, Prov. del Oro, 1; Loja, 4. 

1 Cyclarhis gujanensis contrerasi Taczanowski: Very near to C. g. virenticeps, 
but feathers on top and back of the crown more or less broadly margined with 
chestnut, this color sometimes concealing the green mesial disks; auriculars more 
greenish; size on average larger. 

This form is extremely variable individually, specimens with the least amount 
af chestnut edges being barely separable from certain south Ecuadorian birds 
with chestnut-edged crown feathers. The intensity of the chestnut on forehead 
and superciliaries is subject to much variation, while hardly two examples are 
alike as to tone and width of the yellow pectoral area. 

Material examined. Dept. Piura: Huancabamba, 2. Dept. Cajamarca: 
Perico, 1; Tabaconas, 1; Callacate, 1; Cajabamba, 2. Dept. San Martin: Guaya- 
bamba, 1. Dept. Libertad: Succha, Huamachuco, 1; Hacienda Lim6n, west 
of Balsas, 2; Choquisongo, north of Otuzco, 1. Dept. Amazonas: Leimabamba, 1. 

2 Cyclarhis gujanensis saturatus Zimmer: Exceedingly close to C. g. contrerasi, 
but yellow on sides of head and anterior under parts much brighter, deep strontian 
yellow rather than sulphine yellow, also more extended posteriorly over the breast, 
and sides of the body more strongly suffused with ochraceous. Wing, 83 M 
(female) 80-83; tail, 72-75; bill, 16^-17. 

Considering the great variability of C. g. contrerasi, this form needs confirma- 
tion by a larger series. Some specimens from Cajabamba are fully as large as the 
Cullcui birds, but not one of the northern examples has the flanks and sides so 
deeply ochraceous. 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cyclarhis gujanensis saturatus Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 107, 1925 Cullcui, Maran6n River, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (type in 
Field Museum of Natural History); idem, I.e., 17, p. 415, 1930 Cullcui. 

Range. Temperate zone of central Peru, in Dept. Huanuco 
(Cullcui, near Llata, sources of the Rio Maranon). 

3: Peru (Cullcui, 3). 

Cyclarhis nigrirostris nigrirostris Lafresnaye. BLACK-BILLED 
PEPPER SHRIKE. 

Cyclaris nigrirostris Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 133, 1842 "in Colombia" = 
Bogota (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 346, 1930). 

Cyclarhis nigrirostris Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, Ois., pi. 33, text, pp. 1, 3, 
1843 Bogot4; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 20, p. 234, 1913 part, Colombia 
(Bogota, Santa Elena) and eastern Ecuador (Baeza); Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 542, 1917 part, Salencio, San Antonio, Cerro 
Munchique, Gallera, Cocal, Salento, Santa Elena, Rio Toch6, La Palma, 
and Aguadita, Colombia. 

Cyclorhis nigrirostris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 151, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, I.e., 26, p. 448, 1858 Nova Grenada; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 46, 1862 Bogota; Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 394, 1866 Bogota 
(crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 495 Santa 
Elena, Colombia; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 317, 1883 Colombia; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1887, p. 324 Bogota and Antioquia; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, 
pp. 90, 91 Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 135, 1889 
Colombia; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 316 part, Baeza, eastern Ecuador. 

Cyclarhis nigrirostris nigrirostris Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 
591, 1926 Baeza and below Oyacachi, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Ecuador (Baeza; below 
Oyacachi) and Colombia, excepting Santa Marta region and extreme 
southwestern section (Nariiio). 1 

Cyclarhis nigrirostris atrirostris Sclater. 2 WESTERN BLACK- 
BILLED PEPPER SHRIKE. 

Cyclorhis atrirostris Sclater, Ibis, (5), p. 324, pi. 10, 1887 "Ecuador" (the 
type examined in the British Museum is from Camino de Manavf, western 

1 Specimens from eastern Ecuador agree with the Colombian ones in having 
the forecrown (behind the chestnut frontal edge) conspicuously gray, and the 
whole basal half of the lower mandible clear yellowish abruptly contrasted with 
the black apical portion. The size of the bill varies much individually. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota, 10; Santa Elena, Antioquia, 3. 
Ecuador: Baeza, 3. 

1 Cyclarhis nigrirostris atrirostris Sclater: Similar to C. n. nigrirostris, but 
with less gray on the anterior crown, and lower mandible almost wholly black 
with only the extreme base horn color. Size about the same. 

The type of C. atrirostris is a young bird partly in nestling plumage, and 
although the chief characters used for specific separation are due to immaturity 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 211 

Ecuador ;=juv.); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1888, pp. 90, 91 Ecuador (crit.); 

Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 135, 1889 Ecuador (ex Sclater). 
Cyclarhis nigrirostris mindoensis Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 143, p. 1, 

Nov., 1924 Mindo, western Ecuador (type in the American Museum of 

Natural History, New York). 
Cydorhis nigrirostris (not of Lafresnaye) Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 316 

part, Milligalli and Gualea, western Ecuador. 
Cyclarhis nigrirostris Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 20, p. 234, 1913 part, western 

Ecuador (Camino de Manavf, Gualea, Milligalli) (crit.); Chapman, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 542, 1917 part, Ricaurte (Narino), Colombia. 
Cyclarhis nigrirostris atrirostris Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 

592, 1926 Mindo, Ecuador (crit.); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 

34, p. 441, 1928 Ilambo, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Ecuador and extreme south- 
western Colombia (Ricaurte, Narino). 

Family LANIIDAE. Shrikes 

Genus LANIUS Linnaeus 

Lanius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 93, 1758 type, by subs, desig. 
(Swainson, Zool. Journ., 1, p. 294, 1824), Lanius excubitor Linnaeus. 

*Lanius excubitor borealis Vieillot. 1 NORTHERN SHRIKE. 

Lanius borealis Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Am6r. Sept., 1, "1807," p. 80, pi. 50, 
publ. 1808 North America: "le Canada et surtout la baie d'Hudson 
. . . sont les contrSes de 1'Ame'rique qu'elle prefere pour s'occuper d'une 
nouvelle ge'ne'ration" (type in coll. of P. L. Vieillot); Gadow, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 8, p. 240, 1883 part; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 3, p. 237, 1904 part (monog., full bibliog.). 

Collyrio chemungensia "Gregg, Proc. Almira Acad., 1 (p. 9 of reprint), 1870" 
Chemung County, New York (=juv.).* 

Lanius borealis americanus Bogdanow, Sorokoputui Russkoi, in Faunui 
Zap. Imp. Akad. Nauk, 39, pp. 102, 115, 1881 North America. 

Lanius excubitor borealis A. H. Miller, Condor, 32, p. 164, 1930 (crit.); idem, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 47, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Hudsonian zone and locally in the Canadian zone of 
North America, from northern Ungava to southern Ontario and 

Sclater's name must be adopted for the western form, which may be distinguished 
by having only the extreme base of the lower mandible dull brownish. 

Material examined. Colombia: Ricaurte, Narino, 1. Western Ecuador: 
Camino de Manavi, 1 (the type); Gualea, 1; Mindo, 3. 

1 1 quite agree with Hartert and Alden H. Miller that this shrike is merely 
a geographic race of the European Gray Shrike (L. excubitor}. 

2 Quoted from Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 240). We have 
not seen this publication. 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

southern Quebec, west at least to the east side of Hudson Bay; 
winters southward to Kentucky, Virginia, and North Carolina. 

23: Connecticut (East Hartford, 5); Massachusetts (Boston, 1; 
Wakefield, 1; Cambridge, 1); New York (Shelter Island, 1); Illinois 
(Chicago, 1; Waukegan, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 10; Milton, 2). 

"Lanius excubitor invictus Grinnell. 1 NORTHWESTERN SHRIKE. 

Lanius borealis invictus Grinnell, Pac. Coast Avifauna, 1, p. 54, 1900 Kowak 
River, Alaska (type in coll. of J. Grinnell, now in Museum of Vertebrate 
Zoology, Berkeley, Calif.); idem, I.e., 2, p. 61, 1902 in winter south to 
California (Nicasio, Marysville, and Calaveras); idem, Condor, 3, p. 22, 
1901 Kadiak Island, Alaska; idem, I.e., 11, p. 206, 1909 Forty 
Miles, Yukon Territory; idem, I.e., 12, p. 43, 1910 Fort Yukon; Bishop, 
I.e., 17, p. 189, 1915 British Columbia, Montana, etc. (crit.). 

Lanius borealis (not of Vieillot) Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 8, p. 240, 1883 
part; Hartlaub, Journ. Orn., 31, p. 270, 1883 mouth of the Chilcat 
River, Alaska; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 237, 1904 
part (monog., full bibliog.). 

Lanius excubitor invictus A. Miller, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 52, 1931 
(monog.). 

Lanius major (not of Pallas nor Gmelin) Schalow, Auk, 1, p. 292, 1884 
mouth of the Chilcat River, Alaska. 

Lanius mollis (not of Eversmann) Mailliard and Hanna, Condor, 23, p. 93, 
1921 west of Sitka, Alaska; Swarth, Condor, 29, p. 205, 1927 (crit.). 

Range. Hudsonian zone of northwestern North America, from 
northwestern Alaska and Mackenzie south to extreme northern 
British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan; winters irregularly 
south to northern California, Arizona (casually), New Mexico, and 
Texas, east to Minnesota. 

2: Colorado (Fort Lyon, 2). 

*Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus Linnaeus. LOGGERHEAD 
SHRIKE. 

Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 134, 1766 based on 
"La Pie-griesche de la Louisiane" Brisson, Orn., 2, p. 162, pi. 15, fig. 2; 
Louisiana (type in coll. of M. Re'aumur). 2 

1 Lanius excubitor invictus Grinnell: Similar to L. e. borealis, but larger, with 
more white on wings and tail; rump more conspicuously white; scapulars and 
extreme forehead more whitish; under parts also whiter and less distinctly 
vermiculated. 

2 As pointed out by A. H. Miller (Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 54, 1931), 
Brisson's description, the sole basis of the specific name proposed by Linnaeus, 
might refer with an equal degree of probability to either ludovicianus, migrans, 
or excubitorides. In view of the impossibility of a conclusive decision as to which 
of the three races mentioned should bear the name L. ludovicianus, the type speci- 
men forwarded by Count de la Galissoniere to M. Re'aumur being obviously lost, 
it seems highly desirable to conserve the current use of the name. 



L935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 213 

(?) Lanius septentrionalis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 306, 1788 based on 
"Northern Shrike" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 1, (1), p. 165; "from the 
northern parts of America" (type in Leverian Museum); Shaw, Gen. Zool., 
7, (2), p. 331, 1809 based on the same. 1 

Lanius americanus Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 69, 1790 based on "Pie-griesche 
de la Louisiane" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 397; Louisiana. 

Lanius ardosiaceus Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Am6r. Sept., 1, "1807," pi. 81, 
pi. 51, 1808 "a la Georgie, aux Florides, et a la Louisiane" (type in coll. 
of P. L. Vieillot). 

Lanius carolinensis Wilson, Amer. Orn., 3, p. 57, pi. 22, fig. 5, 1811 "the 
warmer parts of the United States" (type in Peale's Museum). 

Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus Palmer, Auk, 15, p. 248, 1898 (range, crit.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 241, 1904 (monog., full 
bibliog.); Miller, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 54, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Lower Austral zone of the Atlantic and Gulf states of 
North America from southern North Carolina to southern Florida 2 
and west through Georgia and Alabama to central Louisiana. 

26: Connecticut (Bridgeport, 1); Indiana (Miller, 1); Illinois 
(Joliet, 3; Chicago, 2; Momence, 1; Lewistown, 1; Olive Branch, 1); 
Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 14; Mendian, 1); Texas (El Paso, 1). 

"Lanius ludovicianus migrans Palmer. NORTHERN LOGGER- 
HEAD SHRIKE. 

Lanius ludovicianus migrans Palmer, Auk, 15, p. 248, 1898 Kingston, 
Ontario (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 243, 1904 (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 38, p. 59, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Transition and Upper Austral zones of eastern North 
America, from southeastern Manitoba, southern Ontario and Quebec, 
Maine, and New Brunswick south to northeastern Texas, eastern 
Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, southern Illinois, northwestern 
Pennsylvania, Kentucky, western North Carolina, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, and the interior of Virginia; winters chiefly in the Missis- 
sippi Valley and Texas, irregularly north to New England. 

1 Although L. septentrionalis is generally quoted in the synonymy of L. e. 
borealis, certain passages in the description of Latham's "Northern Shrike," 
such as total length, the extent of the white tips to the outer tail feathers, etc., 
point rather to L. ludovicianus. The type appears to be lost. At all events, it 
is not among the specimens secured by the Vienna Museum from Sir Lever's 
collection. It may be remarked that both Gmelin and Shaw based their descrip- 
tions exclusively on Latham's "Northern Shrike," and I do not understand why 
Ridgway, Hartert, and others quote L. septentrionalis Shaw (not Gmelin). 

2 A resident race from southern Florida has been separated as L. I. miamensis 
by Bishop (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 46, p. 203, 1933 type from Cutler, Bade 
County, Florida, in coll. of L. B. Bishop). 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

41: Florida (Lake Worth, 1; Starke, 1; Miami Beach, 6; Santa 
Rosa Island, 2; Pine Island, 3; Puntarasa, 6; City Point, 1; Wilson, 
7; New River, 1; Gainesville, 2; Enterprise, 1; Mary Esther, 4; 
Town Point, 1; West Jupiter, 1; Eau Gallic, 1); Georgia (Savannah, 
2); Louisiana (Chef Menteur, 1). 

*Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides Swainson. WHITE-RUMPED 
SHRIKE. 

Lanius excubitorides Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.- 
Amer., 2, "1831," p. 115, pi. 34, pub. Feb., 1832 Carlton House, Sas- 
katchewan (location of type not stated, probably lost). 

Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 246, 1904 part (monog., full bibliog.); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 83, 1911 
Matamoros and San Fernando, Tamaulipas (Nov., Oct.); Miller, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. ZooL, 38, p. 62, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. The Great Plains of North America, from central Alberta 
and Saskatchewan, south of latitude 54, southward through western 
Texas, exclusive of the region around El Paso, to northern Coahuila, 
Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas, east to about longitude 100 in 
Manitoba, North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Okla- 
homa, but in Texas east to the vicinity of Austin and the mouth of 
the Colorado River, possibly as far as Houston; wintering from 
eastern New Mexico and western Texas south through the eastern 
and central parts of Mexico to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (A. H. 
Miller). 

13: Texas (Corpus Christi, 11; Ingram, 1); Wyoming (Fort 
Laramie, 1). 

"Lanius ludovicianus mexicanus Brehm. MEXICAN SHRIKE. 

Lanius mexicanus Brehm, Journ. Orn., 2, pp. 145, 148, 1854 Mexico (type, 

collected by Deppe, in the Berlin Museum; probably from the highlands 

of Vera Cruz, where most of Deppe's collecting in Mexico was effectuated); 

Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 375, 1859 Oaxaca; Duges, La 

Naturaleza, 1, p. 141, 1869 Guanajuato. 
Lanius excubitoroides (not L. excubitorides Swainson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1864, p. 173 Mexico City. 
Collurio excubitoroides Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 445, 1866 Mexico 

(part); Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 548, 1869 temperate 

region of Vera Cruz. 
Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides Cox, Auk, 12, p. 398, 1895 foot of Peak 

Orizaba, Vera Cruz (one spec., summer). 
Lanius ludovicianus mexicanus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 

p. 248, 1904 southern Mexico (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Univ. Calif. 

Pub. Zool., 38, p. 64, 1931 (monog.). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 215 

Range. Resident in central and southern Mexico, from southern 
Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon, Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Tepic south 
through Vera Cruz and Oaxaca to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec 
(A. H. Miller). 

2: Mexico (Iguala, Guerrero, 2). 

"Lanius ludovicianus sonoriensis A. H. Miller. 1 SONORA SHRIKE. 

Lanius ludovicianus sonoriensis Miller, Condor, 32, p. 155, 1930 White-tail 
Canon, Chiricahua Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona (type in Museum 
of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, Calif.); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
38, p. 67, 1931 (monog.); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, 
p. 279, 1931 El Doctor, Saric, Tesia, Tecoripa, San Luis, fifteen miles 
southwest of Nogales, and twelve miles west of Magdalena, Sonora; 
Oberholser, Sci. Pub. Clevel. Mus. N. H., 1, p. 99, 1930 Huachuca 
Mountains, Arizona. 

Collurio excubitoroides (not Lanius excubitorides Swainson) Baird, Rev. Amer. 
Bds., 1, p. 445, 1866 part. 

Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 246, 1904 (part, full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 178, 
1906 Rosario, Las Bocas, La Boquilla, Santuario, Rio Sestin, and Rancho 
Baillon, northwestern Durango; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, 
p. 192, 1928 Colorado desert, Lower California. 

Range. Resident from the Colorado desert of California and 
Colorado Delta region of Lower California east through Arizona 
south of Mohave, Yavapai, Navajo, and Apache counties to southern 
Grant, Luna, and Dona Ana counties in New Mexico, southwest 
along the valley of the Rio Grande to Brewster County, Texas, and 
through the states of Sonora, Chihuahua, northern Durango, and 
Sinaloa to the vicinity of Mazatlan (A. H. Miller). 

33: New Mexico (Mimbres, 3; Deming, 11); Arizona (Calabasas, 
10; Phoenix, 3; Huachuca Plains, 4); Texas (Laredo, 1; El Paso, 1). 

Lanius ludovicianus grinnelli Oberholser. 2 GRINNELL'S SHRIKE. 

Lanius ludovicianus grinnelli Oberholser, Wils. Bull., 31, p. 87, Sept., 1919, 
San Fernando, Lower California (type in U. S. National Museum); Grin- 

1 Lanius ludovicianus sonoriensis A. H. Miller: Nearest to L. I. excubitorides, 
but wing slightly, tail proportionately much longer; upper parts markedly darker, 
neutral gray rather than near gull gray; white tips to outer rectrices less extensive, 
and white area on wings also smaller; under surface more purely white. Wing 
(adult male, type), 103.3; tail, 110; bill, 12. 

2 Lanius ludovicianus grinnelli Oberholser: "Similar to L. I. mearnsi, but bill 
longer; upper tail coverts on average slightly darker, not abruptly white, but 
light gray; little or no white on scapulars; lower parts darker, more strongly tinged 
with gray, particularly on breast, sides, and flanks; upper surface on average 
darker; white terminal area on outer rectrix slightly smaller." (Oberholser, I.e.). 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

nell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 192, 1928 northern Lower California; 
Miller, I.e., 38, p. 69, 1931 northern Lower California (monog.). 

Range. Northern Lower California, south to about latitude 29 
west of the Sierra Juarez, but extending east to the Gulf coast south 
of latitude 31 (resident). 

Lanius ludovicianus nelsoni Oberholser. 1 NELSON'S SHRIKE. 

Lanius ludovicianus nelsoni Oberholser, Condor, 20, p. 209, 1918 Todos 
Santos, southern Lower California (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 194, 1928 Lower California; 
Miller, I.e., 38, p. 71, 1931 Lower California (monog.). 

Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi (not of Ridgway, 1903) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 252, 1904 part, Santa Margarita Island. 

Range. Central and southern Lower California, from latitude 
28 south to Cape San Lucas, including Cedros and Santa Margarita 
and probably other adjacent islands (resident). 

*Lanius ludovicianus gambeli Ridgway. CALIFORNIA SHRIKE. 

Lanius ludovicianus gambeli Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 467, 1887 
"California, especially coast district" (lectotype in U. S. National Museum; 
type locality obviously Murphy, six miles northeast of Angels, Calaveras 
County; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 297, 1932); idem, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 249, 1904 (monog.; full bibliog.); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 192, 1928 Lower California; 
Miller, I.e., 38, p. 77, 1931 (monog.); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego 
Soc. N. H., 6, p. 280, 1931 Obreg6n, T6sia, Tecoripa, and fifteen miles 
south of Nogales, Sonora (erit.). 

Lanius ludovicianus nevadensis A. H. Miller, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 
156, 1930 Lone Pine Creek, Inyo County, California (type in Museum 
of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley); idem, I.e., 38, p. 74, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Western North America, from extreme southern British 
Columbia, Washington, and western Montana south through Oregon, 
Idaho, and parts of western Wyoming to California and the extreme 
northwest of Lower California; wintering in southern California, 
southern Arizona, western Mexico as far south as Morelos, and 
casually in southern Lower California. 2 

1 Lanius ludovicianus nelsoni Oberholser: Nearest to L. I. gambeli, but bill 
larger; upper parts on average darker, though with the upper tail coverts more 
conspicuously whitish; lower surface more tinged with grayish, especially on 
posterior portion. Judging from Miller's account, this form is obviously very 
close to L. I. gambeli, but distinguishable by more grayish ventral surface. 

2 In the absence of adequate material for independent investigation we have 
followed Mr. van Rossem in combining gambeli and nevadensis under one heading. 
According to his researches, the last named race is "simply an intergrade between 
gambeli and sonoriensis." 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 217 

16: Colorado (Paradox, 1); California (Los Angeles County, 1; 
Santa Clara, 1; Nicasio, 1; Victorville, 1; San Gabriel River, below 
El Monte, 1; Newcastle, 2; Corona, 1; Haywards, 1; Pasadena, 
1; Monterey, 1; West Side, 1; Solano County, 3). 

Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Mearns. ISLAND SHRIKE. 

Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Mearns, Auk, 15, p. 261, 1898 Santa Cruz 
Island, Santa Barbara group, California (type in U. S. National Museum) ; 
Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 22, p. 233, 1900 [Santa Cruz Island], 
Santa Barbara group (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, 
p. 251, 1904 Santa Cruz Island (monog., bibliog.); Miller, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., 38, p. 82, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Islands of Santa Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Rosa, and Santa 
Catalina, California (resident). 

Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Ridgway. SAN CLEMENTE SHRIKE. 

Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 108, 
1903 San Clemente Island, Santa Barbara group, California (type in 
U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 3, p. 252, 
1904 part, San Clemente Island; Miller, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, 
p. 84, 1931 San Clemente Island (monog.). 

Range. San Clemente Island, California (resident). 1 

Family STURNIDAE. Starlings 

Genus STURNUS Linnaeus 

Sturnus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 167, 1758 type, by tautonymy, 
"Sturnus"=Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus. 

1 Several Old World species of shrikes have been erroneously credited to 
North America. 

(1) Lanius elegans Swainson. 

Lanius elegans Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 
2, "1831," p. 122, pub. Feb., 1832 "the fur countries" (type in the 
British Museum). 

The type proved to be referable to the Gray Shrike of southern Algeria and 
Tunisia, long known under the name of L. hemileucurus Finsch and Hartlaub. 
Cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 457, 1902, and Hartert, Vog. Palaarkt. Fauna, 
1, p. 427, 1907. 

(2) Lanius ludovicianus robustus (Ridgway). 

Collurio ludovicianus var. robustus (Baird MS.) Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 7, 
p. 609, Oct., 1873 "California" (type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia). 

Lanius bairdi Stejneger, Arch. Math. Naturvid. Kristiania, 3, pp. 326, 330, 
1878 based on Collyrio elegans Baird, etc. 

This turned out to be the same as Lanius excubitor algeriensis Lesson, of 
northern Algeria. Cf. Ridgway, Auk, 14, p. 323, 1897. 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris Linnaeus. STARLING. 

Slurnus vulgaris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 167, 1758 "Europe"; 
restricted type locality, Sweden; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 4, p. 281, 1907 (monog., full bibliog.); Chapman, Nat. Hist., 
25, p. 480, 1925 (distribution in the United States); Cooke, U. S. Dept. 
Agric., Circular 336, 1925. 

Range. Europe. Introduced in 1890 in New York City, now 
distributed as far north as New Brunswick, southwestern Quebec, 
and southeastern Ontario, west to Iowa, Kansas, Arkansas, and 
Oklahoma, south to Texas and Florida. 1 

19: Connecticut (Fairfield, 1; Bridgeport, 1; Derby, 1); New 
York (Shelter Island, 15); Pennsylvania (Gynnedd, 1). 

Genus ACRIDOTHERES Vieillot 2 

Acridotheres Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn. Ele"m., p. 42, 1816 type, by subs, 
desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 67, 1855), Paradisea tristis 
Linnaeus. 

Acridotheres cristatellus cristatellus (Linnaeus). CRESTED 
MYNAL. 

Gracula cristatella Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 109, 1758 based on 
"The Chinese Starling" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 1, p. 19, pi. 19; China. 

Acridotheres cristatellus Monro, Canad. Field-Naturalist, 36, pp. 32, 54, 1922 
Vancouver, British Columbia. 

Range. Southern China. Introduced and naturalized in Van- 
couver, British Columbia, has spread thence up the Fraser River 
Valley and to other points. 

Family COEREBIDAE. Honey Creepers 
Genus DIGLOSSA Wagler 3 

Diglossa Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 280 type, by monotypy, Diglossa baritula 
Wagler. 

Serrirostrum Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, 
p. 24, 1838 type, by subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 206), Serrirostrum 
carbonarium Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 

1 For recent extensions in the westward migration of the Starling consult 
"The Auk" (43, 1926, and succeeding vols.). 

2 The recognition of the genus Aethiopsar Gates does not seem to be warranted. 

t Campylops Lichtenstein, "Abhandl. Berl. Acad. 1837, cum tab.," is quoted 
as a synonym by Cabanis (Mus. Hein., 1 , p. 97, 1851). The paper referred to does 
not appear to have been published. In Lichtenstein's Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol., 
1854, p. 56, Campylops is an unidentifiable nomen nudum. 



.935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 219 

Agrilorhinus Bonaparte, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat. Bologna, 1, No. 3, p. 408, 

1838 type, by monotypy, Agrilorhinus sittaeeus Bonaparte=Di0iossa 

baritula Wagler. 
Uncirostrum Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 100, 1839 new name for Serri- 

rostrum Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 
Ancylorhinus Sclater, Ibis, (3), 5, p. 204, 1875 emendation of Agrilorhinus 

Bonaparte. 
Diglossopis Sclater, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 17, p. 467, 1856 type, by orig. 

desig., Diglossopis caerulescens Sclater. 
Tephrodiglossa Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 16, p. 273, 1864 type, 

by monotypy, Serrirostrum carbonarium Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 
Pyrrhodiglossa Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 16, p. 274, 1864 type, 

by subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 206), Diglossa mystacalis Lafresnaye. 
Cyanodiglossa Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 16, p. 274, 1864 type, by 

subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 206), Agrilorhinus personatus Fraser= 

Uncirostrum cyaneum Lafresnaye. 
Melanodiglossa Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 16, p. 274, 1864 type, 

by subs, desig. (Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 206), Uncirostrum La Fresnayii 

Boissonneau. 

'Diglossa baritula baritula Wagler. MEXICAN DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa baritula Wagler, Isis, 1832, p. 281 Mexico (descr. male and female; 
types in Wiirzburg Museum, now in Munich Museum, examined); Hahn, 
Orn. Atlas, livr. 12, p. 2, pi., Nos. 1, 2, 1837 Mexico (types figured) ; 
Hartlaub, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 56, 1842 Mexico (crit., synon.); Gray and 
Mitchell, Gen. Bds., 1, p. 137, pi. XLII, 1846 Mexico; Cabanis, Mus. 
Hein., 1, p. 97, 1851 Mexico (synon.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 286, 1856 near Cordoba, Mexico; idem, I.e., 27, p. 364, 1859 
vicinity of Jalapa, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 27, p. 376, 1859 Juquila and 
Totontepec, Oaxaca; idem, I.e., 1864, p. 173 vicinity of Mexico City; 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 48, 1862 part, Jalapa, Mexico; Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 273 Mexico (crit.); Sumichrast, 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 548, 1869 alpine region of Vera Cruz; 
Duges, La Naturaleza, 1, p. 140, 1869 Guanajuato, Mexico; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1875, p. 207 part, southern Mexico; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 242, 1883 part, Mexico (valley of Mexico, 
above Vera Cruz, Jalapa, Juquila, Totontepec); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 3, 1886 part, spec, a-i, near Mexico City and Jalapa, 
Mexico; Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 140, 1886 San 
Salvador El Verde (Huejotringo), Puebla; Lantz, Trans. Kans. Acad. 
Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 Coatepec, Vera Cruz; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 380, 1902 part, southern Mexico. 

Agrilorhinus sittaeeus Bonaparte, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat. Bologna, 1, No. 3, 
p. 408, 1838 Mexico (type in Florence Museum). 

Uncirostrum brelayi Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 100, 1839 Mexico (type 
in coll. of M. Brelay, Bordeaux ;= male). 

Uncirostrum sittaceum Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 292, 1839 Mexico (crit.). 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Agrilorhinus olivaceus Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 8, p. 22, July, 1840 
Mexico (type in coll. of Zool. Soc., now in British Museum ;=female). 

Range. Highlands of southern Mexico, in states of Guanajuato, 
Michoacan, Colima, Mexico, Morelos, Puebla, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, 
and Guerrero. 1 

2: Mexico (unspecified, 2). 

*Diglossa baritula montana Dearborn. 2 GUATEMALAN DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa montana Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 125, 1907 
Sierra Santa Elena, near Tecpam, Guatemala (type in Field Museum). 

Diglossa baritula (not of Wagler) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 14 Guate- 
mala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 48, 1862 part, spec, a, Guate- 
mala; idem, Ibis, 1875, p. 207 part, Vera Paz and Volcan de Fuego, 
Guatemala; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 174, 1882 Guatemala; Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 242, 1883 part, Guatemala 
(Quezaltenango, Calderas, Volcan de Fuego, Santa Barbara); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 3, 1886 part, spec, j-o, Quezaltenango, 
Calderas, Coban, and Santa Cruz Mountains, Guatemala; Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 380, 1902 part, Guatemala. 

Diglossa baritula montana Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 371, 1932 
Santa Ilinia, San Lucas, and Tecpam, Guatemala (crit.). 

Range. Highlands of Guatemala and extreme southeastern 
Mexico, in State of Chiapas (Volcan de Tacana). 

3: Guatemala (Sierra Santa Elena, near Tecpam, 2; Tecpam, 1). 

Diglossa sittoides parva Griscom. 3 HONDURAN DIGLOSSA. 

1 Additional material examined (adult males, British Museum). Colima: 
Sierra Nevada de Colima, 3. Guerrero: Chilpancingo (Omilteme), alt. 8,000 
ft., 6. Mexico, valley of Mexico: Tetelco (Xochimilco), 3; Hacienda Eslava 
(Tlapam), 1; Chimalpa (Tacubaya), 2; Ajusco, 5. Oaxaca: Totontepec, 1; 
Villa Alta, 2. 

2 Diglossa baritula montana Dearborn: Adult male similar to D. 6. baritula, 
but under parts decidedly deeper rufous, with the slate gray extending down 
over the whole throat and foreneck instead of being confined to the upper throat; 
female evidently not distinguishable. 

The racial characters of this form are well marked in a series of thirteen adult 
males from Guatemala. Certain Mexican examples, notably one from Sierra 
Nevada de Colima and two from the valley of Mexico (Ajusco and Tetelco), 
closely approach montana in the extent of the slate gray throat, though they are 
not so deeply rufous below. Two adult males from Volcan de Tacana, Chiapas, 
are perfectly typical of the Guatemalan race. 

Material examined. Mexico, Chiapas: Volcan de Tacana, alt. 11,000 ft. 
(March, 1897. W. B. Richardson), 2. Guatemala: Sierra Santa Elena, 2; Quezal- 
tenango, 1; San Martin, 3; Chuipach6, alt. 10,000 ft., 4; Santa Maria, 3; Calderas, 
Volcan de Fuego, 1. 

3 Diglossa sittoides parva Griscom: Resembling D. s. montana, but smaller, 
with shorter and slenderer bill; adult male darker and duller cinnamon below; 
female and immature male with more cinnamon, less olive below. Wing, 

(female) 51^5 width of culmen at gape, 3-3J^ (Griscom, I.e.). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 221 

Diglossa baritula parva Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 13, p. 61, 1932 
Rancho Quemado, district of Achaga, Honduras (type in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Range. Highlands of Honduras. 
*Diglossa baritula plumbea Cabanis. 1 COSTA RICAN DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa plumbea Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 411, 1860 Costa Rica (type in 
Berlin Museum; descr. male); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, 
p. 275 Costa Rica (crit.); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 
97, 1868 San Juan and Quebrada Honda, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 Irazu, San Juan, and Las Cruzes de la Candelaria, 
Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 185 Volcan de 
Chiriqui, Panama; Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 217 Costa Rica and "Veragua" 
[= Chiriqui] (monog.); Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 54 Car- 
tago, Navarro, Naranjo, Irazu, and La Laguna, Costa Rica; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 243, pi. 15a, figs. 1, 2, 1883 
Costa Rica and Chiriqui; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1 1, p. 9, 1886 Costa 
Rica and Volcan de Chiriqui (monog.) ; Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 1, p. 108, 1887 Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 14, p. 529, 1891 Costa Rica (descr. young); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 381, 1902 Costa Rica and Chiriqui 
(monog.); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 3, p. 63, 1902 Boquete, 
Chiriqui; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 824, 1910 Costa Rica 
(habits); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 274, 1910 Coli- 
blanco and Volcan de Turrialba, Costa Rica (habits); Moller, Zeits. 
Mikr.-Anat. Forsch., 28, p. 372, 1932 (tongue). 

Range. Highlands of Costa Rica and extreme western Panama 
(Volcan de Chiriqui). 2 

30: Costa Rica (Volcan Turrialba, 11; Coliblanco, 16; Volcan 
Irazu, 3). 

Diglossa baritula veraguensis Griscom. 3 VERAGUAN DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa plumbea veraguensis Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 280, p. 16, 1927 
Chitra, Veragua, Panama (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York). 

1 This form, while differing in the male sex from its more northern allies by 
the uniform slaty coloration, without any rufous, of the under parts, is obviously 
but a strongly developed derivative of D. baritula. The Guatemalan race (D. b. 
montana), by its more extensively gray throat, marks a decided step in the direction 
of the Costa Rican bird, and the close resemblance of the females affords additional 
evidence for their genetic relationship. 

2 Five skins from Chiriqui (Boquete) agree with a Costa Rican series. 
Fifty specimens examined. 

3 Diglossa baritula veraguensis Griscom: Nearest to D. b. plumbea; adult male 
differing only in the blackish slate of the pileum being distinctly demarcated from 
the deep bluish slate of the back; female grayer olive both above and below, 
with a faint bluish cast above, especially on the wings (Griscom, I.e.). 



222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Western Panama (Chitra, Pacific slope of the Cordillera 
of Veragua). 

Diglossa baritula 1 hyperythra Cabanis. 2 CABANIS'S DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa hyperythra Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 97, 1851 Caracas (descr. 
male; type in Heine Collection, Halberstadt, examined). 

Diglossa sittoides hyperythra Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 165, 
1924 Galipan, Cerro del Avila, Venezuela (crit.). 

Diglossa similis (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, pp. 166, 170 Caracas (crit.). 

Diglossa sittoides similis Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 179, 1898 
San Miguel, Colombia; idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 1, p. 80, 1899 
San Sebastian and El Mam6n, Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
13, p. 174, 1900 Santa Marta region (ex Bangs); Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 465, 1922 Santa Cruz and Pueblo Viejo, 
Colombia (crit.). 

Diglossa sp. Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 119 San Sebastian, Colombia. 

Diglossa sittoides (not Serrirostrum sittoides Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, 
Ibis, 1875, p. 208 part, Caracas, Venezuela; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 4, 1886 part, spec, a, g, Caracas and San Sebastian. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the coast mountains of Venezuela 
(vicinity of Caracas) and Colombia (Santa Marta region). 

*Diglossa baritula d'orbignyi (Boissonneau). 3 D'ORBIGNY'S 
DIGLOSSA. 

J The South American representatives of this group, heretofore combined 
under the specific term sittoides, revert in the male sex to the rufescent under parts 
of the Mexican and Guatemalan races, though the coloration is of a much paler 
tone, lacking, besides, all gray on throat, cheeks, and malar region. The females 
are barely separable from those of D. 6. plumbea. 

1 Diglossa baritula hyperythra Cabanis: Adult male similar to D. s. d'orbignyi 
in having the under parts nearly uniform cinnamomeous without a buffy abdominal 
area, but sides of the head not so dark, plumbeous rather than blackish slate, 
and pileum hardly darker than the back. Female seemingly not distinguishable. 
Wing (adult males), 56-58; tail, 45-47; bill, 10-11. 

Three adult males from Caracas and three others from the Santa Marta 
Mountains, while closely resembling D. s. d'orbignyi, appear to differ by lighter, 
less blackish slate coloration of the top and sides of the head. Until further 
material demonstrates its invalidity, I prefer to keep this form separate. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Caracas, 2; Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 2. 
Colombia: El Mam6n, 2; San Sebastian, 1. 

3 Diglossa baritula d'orbignyi (Boissonneau) : Differs from D. b. sittoides by 
smaller size, by somewhat stouter bill, and in the male sex by darker plumbeous 
back; much darker (blackish slate) pileum, which forms a dark cap; more 
blackish sides of the head, passing often into velvety black in the loral region; 
finally by deeper, more uniform cinnamomeous under parts. Wing (adult males), 
55-59; tail, 44-47; bill, 10-11. 

Birds from Me>ida are identical with a series from the east Colombian Andes. 
According to Chapman, the inhabitants of the central and western Andes belong 
likewise to the present form. 

Material examined. Colombia: La Holanda, 2; Bogota, 16. Venezuela: 
Merida, 6; El Valle, 3; Culata, 4. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 223 

Uncirostrum d'Orbignyi Boissonneau, Rev. Zoo!., 3, p. 5, 1840 Santa Fe" 
de Bogota, Colombia (location of type unknown; descr. of young male). 1 

Diglossa similis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zoo]., 9, p. 318, 1846 Bogota (descr. of 
adult male; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 
394, 1930); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 138, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 48, 1862 Bogota; Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 273 Bogota (crit.). 

Diglossa sittoides (not Serrirostrum sittoides Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 208 part, Colombia; idem and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 496 Retiro and Concordia; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. 
Coll., p. 174, 1882 Bogota; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 4, 1886 
part, spec, b-f, n, o, Bogota. 

Diglossa sittoides similis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 579, 1917 
San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, Miraflores, Salento, Rio Toche", San 
Agustin, La Candela, La Holanda, and Quetame, Colombia. 

Diglossa d'orbignii Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 138, 1855 Bogota. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (except Santa Marta 
Mountains) and extreme western Venezuela (Cordillera of MeYida). 

6: Colombia (Bogota, 1; La Holanda, Cundinamarca, 1); Vene- 
zuela (Culata, Me"rida, 4). 

*Diglossa baritula decorata Zimmer. 2 PERUVIAN CINNAMON- 
BELLIED DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa sittoides intermedia (not Diglossa intermedia Cabanis, 1851) Cory, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 292, 1913 Cajamarca, Peru (type 
in Field Museum) ; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 637, 1926 
Pichincha, Tumbaco, Celica and Zamora, Ecuador. 

Diglossa sittoides decorata Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 
416, 1930 new name for D. sittoides intermedia Cory, preoccupied; 
Chinchao and Huachipa, Peru. 

Diglossa sittoides (not Serrirostrum sittoides Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 511 Auquimarca and 
Pumamarca, Dept. Junfn, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 8 Achamal, Peru; 

1 Although the type is not available for reexamination, I fully concur with 
Mr. Zimmer (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 416, 1930) that there is 
hardly any doubt as to the applicability of the name d'orbignyi. Boissonneau 
calls the under parts "blanc jaunatre, tirant un peu sur le roussatre a la gorge 
et aux tectrices infe>ieures de la queue," which fits the young male of "D. s. 
similis" auct. exceedingly well, and cannot possibly refer to the female of D. a. 
albilatera with deep clay colored lower surface and silky white axillary tufts. 

2 Diglossa baritula decorata Zimmer: Very close to D. 6. sittoides, but rather 
smaller; tertials tipped with buffy white to cinnamon; forehead and anterior 
part of crown lighter and brighter than the back instead of being uniform with 
the latter; female barely distinguishable. This is rather an unsatisfactory race, 
though its slightly smaller size, together with the buffy- or cinnamon-tipped 
tertials in the male sex may perhaps serve to distinguish it. These buffy spots 
are very rarely suggested in Bolivian examples, which, besides, are generally larger. 
The type is in abraded plumage with abnormally pale, faded under parts, while 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 417, 1884 Auquimarca, Pumamarca, and Achamal, 
Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 208 part, Ecuador (vicinity of Quito) and 
Peru (Junin); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 4, 1886 part, spec. 
h-1, "vicinity of Quito," Pallatanga, and "Jima," Ecuador; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 69, 1889 Quito (crit.); Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, 
p. 4, 1895 Cajabamba and Succha (Huamachuco), Peru; Goodfellow, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 316 Papallacta and Pichincha, Ecuador; Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 76, 1906 Idma, Urubamba, Peru; Lonnberg and 
Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 80, 1922 Lloa, Calacali, Pomasqui, 
Tumbaco, Pichincha, and road to Nanegal, Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat., Paris, 34, p. 74, 1928 Tumbaco, Ecuador. 

Diglossa sittoides sittoides Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 114, 1921 
Idma and San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru. 

Diglossa sittoides (tsimilis) Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 480, 1898 Ibarra, 
Ecuador. 

Diglossa sittoides similis (not of Lafresnaye) Mene'gaux, Miss. Serv. Geog. 
Armee Mes. Arc Me>id. Equat., 9, p. B. 84, 1911 Tumbaco, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Ecuador and Peru. 

6: Peru (Cajamarca, 1; Chinchao, Dept. Huanuco, 4; Huachipa, 
Dept. Huanuco, 1). 

Diglossa baritula sittoides (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). CINNA- 
MON-BELLIED DIGLOSSA. 

Serrirostrum sittoides Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 25, 1838 Yungas and Valle Grande, Bolivia (types in Paris 
Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Me>id., Ois., p. 374, pi. 58, 
fig. 3 (male), 1847 Chupe (Yungas), Chuquisaca, and Valle Grande, 
Bolivia. 

Diglossa sittoides Bridges, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 15, p. 29, 1847 Ticquepaya, 
valley of Cochabamba, Bolivia; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1864, p. 273 Bolivia (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 208 part, Chichalula, 
Prov. Yungas, and other localities in Bolivia (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 596 Bolivia (d'Orbigny's localities); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 4, 1886 part, spec, m, Yungas, 

other specimens from the same general district (Cajabamba, Succha) are just 

as deeply colored underneath as typical sittoides. Birds from southern Peru 

(Idma, Matchu Picchu) approach the latter in coloration of forecrown, whereas 

those from Ecuador average slightly smaller. 

WING MEASUREMENTS OF ADULT MALES 

D. b. sittoides 

Seven from Bolivia 61, 61, 62, 62, 63, 64, 64 

D. b. decorata 

Three from Urubamba, Peru 60, 61, 61 

One from Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru 60 

Four from Cajamarca and Cajabamba, Peru 59, 59, 59, 60 

Four from western Ecuador 57, 57, 58, 58 

Material examined. Peru: Idma, Urubamba, 2; Matchu Picchu, San Miguel 

Bridge, Urubamba, 4; Chinchao, 4; Huachipa, 1; Cajamarca, 1; Cajabamba, 2; 

Succha, Huamachuco, 1; Santiago, 1. Ecuador: Quito region, 6; Ibarra, 2. 



.935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 225 

Bolivia; Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 41, 1905 Cerro de Tafi Viejo, 

San Pablo, and La Cienaga, Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 

Aires, (3), 11, p. 370, 1910 same localities. 
Diglossa sittoides sittoides Dinelli, El Hornero, 1, p. 62, 1918 Tucuman and 

Jujuy (habits). 
Diglossa glauea (not of Sclater and Salvin, 1876) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

11, p. 11, 1886 Bolivia (part, descr. of female). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Bolivia and northwestern Argentina 
provinces of Jujuy and Tucuman). 1 

'Diglossa lafresnayii lafresnayii (Boissonneau). 2 LAFRESNAYE'S 
DIGLOSSA. 

Uncirostrum La Fresnayii Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 3, No. 1, p. 4, Jan., 1840 
Santa F6 de Bogota, Colombia (part, descr. of adult male; location of 
type unknown). 1 

Agrilorhinus bonapartei Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 8, p. 22, July, 1840 
Santa F6 de Bogota, Colombia (type in Derby Collection, now in Liver- 
pool Museum, examined); Bonaparte, Atti Sest. Riun. Sci. Ital. Milano, 
p. 404, 1845 Bogota. 

Diglossa LaFrenayii (sic) Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, No. 50, p. 1190, 
1844 Colombia. 

Diglossa lafresnayii(ei) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 138, 1855 
Bogota; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 49, 1862 Bogota; Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 274 Bogota and Pasto (crit.); Sclater, 
Ibis, 1875, p. 214 Colombia and Ecuador (monog.); Salvin, Cat. Strickl. 
Coll., p. 174, 1882 Bogota; Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1885, p. 75 San Rafael, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 7, 1886 Bogota, San Lucas, and vicinity of Quito, Ecuador; Sal- 
vadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 12, 1899 

1 Material examined. Bolivia: Yungas, 1; Chaco, Yungas of La Paz, 2; 
^.polobamba, 2; San Antonio, Yungas of La Paz, 1; Valle Grande, 1; Cocha- 
samba, 1; Cerro Hosane, Dept. Santa Cruz, 1. Argentina: Jujuy, 1. 

2 Characteristic of this species are the heavy, large bill, the light blue (burn 
blue) humeral patch, the absence of gray on the rump, and the peculiar metallic 
jloss of the pileum, which, by being confined to the apical portion of the feathers, 
produces a squamate effect. 

Specimens from Ecuador and the central Andes of Colombia are perfectly 
identical with series from the Bogota region and the adjoining section of Vene- 
zuela. The type of A. bonapartei Fraser belongs here, too. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Paramo de Rosas, Trujillp, 6; Cordillera of 
Merida, Culata, 3; Valle, 1; Escorial, 1; Paramo de Tama, Tachira, 2. Colombia: 
eastern Andes, Bogota, 5; Las Ventanas, Santander, 1; Ramirez, Santander, 2; 
central Andes, Almaguer, Cauca, 1; La Leonera, Caldas, 3. Ecuador: west side 
of Pichincha, 1; above Nanegal, 5; near Quito, 2; unspecified, 1. 

3 Boissonneau's description, "plumage entierement d'un noir profond, avec 
les petites tectrices alaires d'un gris cendr6 un peu bleuatre," evidently refers to 
the large, blue-shouldered bird for which we have retained the specific term. 
The individuals of smaller size with grayish rump, considered by him to be "jeunes 
males," pertain to D. carbonaria humeralis, as is shown by two specimens in the 
Vienna Museum received from Boissonneau in 1841. 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Nanegal and Frutillas, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 317 Nanegal, 
around Quito, and western Andes, up to 10,000 ft., Ecuador; M6ngaux, 
Miss. Serv. Geog. Arm. Mes. Arc Mend. Equat., 9, p. B. 85, 1911 Pongo 
and Lloa, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 581, 1917 
Almaguer, Laguneta, and Santa Isabel, central Andes, and Chipaque and 
Choachf, eastern Andes, Colombia; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 
14, No. 25, p. 81, 1922 Lloa, Pichincha, Nono, Tumbaco, Rio Machan- 
gara, and Cumbaya, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 638, 1926 Verdecocha, Pichincha, Oyacachi, upper Sumaco, Ecuador, 
and Chaupe, northwestern Peru; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
34, p. 74, 1928 Pilon, Ecuador. 

Diglossa lafresnayii lafresnayii Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 33, 1929 (range). 

Range. Temperate zone of extreme western Venezuela (Paramo 
de Rosas, State of Trujillo; Cordillera of Me"rida) ; eastern and central 
Andes of Colombia; Ecuador; and extreme northwestern Peru 
(Chaupe, Dept. Piura). 

6: Venezuela (Culata, Me*rida, 1; Paramo de Tama, Tachira, 2); 
Colombia (Bogota, 3). 

*Diglossa lafresnayii gloriosissima Chapman. 1 WEST ANDEAN 
DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa gloriosissima Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 31, p. 165, 1912 
Andes west of Popayan, Cauca, Colombia (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 580, 1917 Andes west 
of Popayan and Paramillo, western Andes, Colombia. 

Diglossa carbonaria (!) gloriosissima Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 34, p. 83, 
1926 (crit.). 

Diglossa lafresnayii gloriosissima Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 33, 1929 (range). 

Range. Temperate zone of the western Andes of Colombia, 
from the Coast Range west of Popayan north to Paramillo, Antioquia. 

1: Colombia (Coast Range west of Popaydn, 1). 

1 Diglossa lafresnayii gloriosissima Chapman: Agrees with the typical form in 
size, large heavy bill, squamate gloss of pileum, faint metallic gloss of back, and 
extensive pale blue humeral patch; but differs by having the rump strongly suffused 
with slate gray and the under parts, excepting the black throat and foreneck, 
light rufous, between burnt sienna and Sanford's brown. Wing, (adult males) 
71-75, (female) 68; tail, 63-66, (female) 64; bill, 13-14. 

The characters of this form are most strongly developed in birds from Para- 
millo, near the northern end of the central Andes, while specimens from the 
Coast Range west of Popayan vary somewhat in the direction of D. I. lafresnayii 
by the blackish suffusion along the sides of the breast and abdomen. The rufous 
of the under parts, besides, is rather deeper, tending to chestnut. This interesting 
bird is by no means related to D. carbonaria gloriosa, to which it merely bears a 
superficial resemblance in the coloration of the under parts, these being, however, 
of a quite different, much paler and more yellowish red tone. 

Material examined. Colombia: Paramillo, Antioquia, 6; Coast Range west 
of Popayan, 4. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 227 

*Diglossa lafresnayii unicincta Hellmayr. 1 SINGLE-BANDED 
DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa pectoralis unicincta Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 504, 1905 Levanto, 
Dept. Amazonas, Peru (type in Tring Museum, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 30, 1929 
(crit.). 

Diglossa unicincta MenSgaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Cumpang, 
northeast of Tayabamba, Dept. Libertad (spec, examined). 

Diglossa lafresnayii unicincta Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 33, 1929 (range). 

Range. Temperate zone of the central Cordillera of northern 
Peru, in depts. of Amazonas (Levanto, Chachapoyas, mountains 
east of Balsas) and Libertad (Cumpang, northeast of Tayabamba). 

2: Peru (mountains east of Balsas, alt. 10,000 ft., 2). 

*Diglossa lafresnayii pectoralis Cabanis. 2 WHITE-BANDED 
DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa pectoralis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 318, 1873 Maraynioc, Dept. 

Junln, Peru (type in Berlin Museum); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1874, p. 511 Maraynioc; Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 212, pi. 4 

Maraynioc (crit.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 419, 1884 Maraynioc; 

Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 6, 1886 Peru; Berlepsch and Stolz- 

mann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 334 Maraynioc. 
Diglossa lafresnayii pectoralis Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 33, 1929 (range); idem, 

Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 419, 1930 above Huanuco, 

Peru. 

Range. Temperate zone of central Peru, in depts. of Huanuco 
and Junin. 

3: Peru (Hudnuco Mountains, Dept. Huanuco, 3). 

Diglossa lafresnayii albilinea Chapman. 3 BUFF-MOUSTACHED 
DIGLOSSA. 

1 Diglossa lafresnayii unicincta Hellmayr: Nearest to D. I. pectoralis, but 
distinguished by the absence of the gray humeral patch, rather deeper tawny 
anal region and under tail coverts, and especially by having the pectoral band 
uniform tawny, though slightly paler posteriorly. Wing, (adult males) 71-74, 
(female) 70; tail, 63-65, (female) 61; bill, 12-13. 

Material examined. Dept. Amazonas: Levanto, 3; Chachapoyas, 1; moun- 
tains east of Balsas, 2. Dept. Libertad: Cumpang, 1. 

* Diglossa lafresnayii pectoralis Cabanis differs from D. L albilinea by smaller, 
darker gray humeral patch and more purely white malar stripe, and by having a 
broad, double (tawny and milky white) pectoral band. By the reduction of the 
gray humeral area it forms the transition to D. I. unicincta. 

Material examined. Dept. Huanuco: Huanuco Mountains, 3. Dept. Junfn: 
Maraynioc, 3. 

3 Diglossa lafresnayii albilinea Chapman: Differs from D. 1. mystacalis merely 
by paler mystacal stripe, which, instead of being uniform deep ochraceous buff, 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Diglossa mystacalis albilinea Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 41, p. 331, 
1919 Matchu Picchu, ruins of Cedrobamba, Peru (type in U. S. National 
Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 114, 1921 Cedrobamba. 
Diglossa lafresnayii albilinea Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 33, 1929 (range). 
Range. Temperate zone of southeastern Peru, in depts. of Cuzco 
(Matchu Picchu) and Puno (Quispicanchio, Marcapata; Limbani, 
Carabaya). 

Diglossa lafresnayii mystacalis Lafresnaye. MOUSTACHED 
DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa mystacalis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 318, 1846 Bolivia 1 (type 
in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 394, 1930); 
Bridges, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 15, p. 29, 1847 Yungas of La Paz, 
Bolivia; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 274 Bolivia; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 212 Yungas of La Paz, Bolivia (crit.); idem and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 596 Cillutincara, Bolivia; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 6, pi. 1, 1886 Bolivia. 

Diglossa lafresnayii mystacalis Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 33, 1929 (range). 

Range. Temperate zone of western Bolivia (Dept. La Paz). 2 

*Diglossa carbonaria gloriosa Sclater and Salvin. 3 M^RIDA 
DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa gloriosa Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 784, 
pi. 46, fig. 1 Paramo de Culata, Merida, Venezuela (type in British 

is between light buff and warm buff, rarely darkening posteriorly into light ochra- 
ceous buff. Wing, (adult males) 73-74, (females) 70-71; tail, 60-63; bill, 14-15. 

As far as the coloration of the mystacal stripe is concerned, this form con- 
nects mystacalis with the white-moustached D. I. pectoralis. The pale neutral 
gray humeral patch is just as extensive as in the Bolivian form. In one of the 
specimens the pectoral band, so characteristic of D. I. pectoralis, is suggested on 
the left side by a number of tawny edges to the lateral breast feathers. 

Material examined. Dept. Cuzco: Matchu Picchu, Cedrobamba, 4. Dept. 
Puno: Quispicanchio, Marcapata (alt. 10,850 ft.), 3; Limbani, Carabaya (alt. 
9,500 ft.), 1. 

1 The type was probably obtained by T. Bridges in the Yungas of La Paz 
(cf. Bridges, I.e., p. 29). 

2 Material examined. Bolivia: Cillutincara, Dept. La Paz, 1; unspecified, 6 
(including the type). 

3 Diglossa carbonaria gloriosa Sclater and Salvin: Agrees with D. c. humeralis 
in proportions, small slender bill, the faint silky gloss of the upper parts, and the 
pale gray humeral patch; but differs by slightly shorter wings, the possession of 
a distinct, though sometimes obsolete, pale gull gray superciliary streak, and 
chestnut breast, abdomen, and under tail coverts. Wing, (adult males) 63-67; 
tail, 55-60; bill, 10-11. 

The grayish superciliary streak and the occasional presence of rufous in the 
malar region disclose the intimate relationship to D. c. brunneiventris. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Tta de Niquitao, Trujillo, 11; Cordillera 
of Merida (Culata, Hechisera, Paramo de Santo Domingo, etc.), 15. 



.935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 229 

Museum); Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 210 Andes of Merida (crit.); idem, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 5, 1886 Andes of Merida. 

Diglossa carbonaria gloriosa Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 34, p. 83, 1926 
(crit.); Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 29, 1929 (range). 

Range. Temperate zone of western Venezuela, in states of 
rrujillo (Tta de Niquitao) and Me"rida (Cordillera of Merida). 
4: Venezuela, Me"rida (Culata, 2; Hechisera, 2). 

'Diglossa carbonaria nocticolor Bangs. 1 SANTA MARTA DIGLOSSA. 

Biglossa nocticolor Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 180, 1898 Macotama, 
Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia (type in coll. of E. A.andO. Bangs, now 
in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 394, 1930); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, 
p. 174, 1900 El Libano; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, 
p. 464, 1922 San Lorenzo, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, San Miguel, 
Cerro de Caracas, Macotama, Paramo de Mamarongo, Paramo de 
Chiruqua, and Heights of Chirua (crit., habits). 

Diglossa carbonaria nocticolor Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 29, 1929 (range). 

Diglossa aterrima (not of Lafresnaye) Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 119 
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (spec, examined) ; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 8, 1886 part, spec, a-d, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 174, 1900 (ex Salvin and Godman). 

Range. Temperate zone of the Santa Marta Mountains, 
Colombia. 

2: Colombia (San Lorenzo, Santa Marta, 2). 

"Diglossa carbonaria humeralis (Fraser). 2 GRAY-SHOULDERED 
DIGLOSSA. 

1 Diglossa carbonaria nocticolor Bangs: Closely allied to D. f. humeralis, but 
slightly larger and without the gull gray humeral patch. Wing, (males) 73-76, 
(female) 67-69; tail, 65-68, (female) 58-62; bill, 11. 

By the black smaller upper wing coverts, which show very rarely faint sugges- 
tions of grayish edges, the Santa Marta Diglossa approaches D. c. aterrima, but 
differs readily by the extensive slate gray uropygial area. The specimens obtained 
by Simons in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta prove, on reexamination, to be 
referable to the present form. 

Material examined. Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia: San Lorenzo, 8; 
Macotama, 2; Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 4. 

2 Diglossa carbonaria humeralis (Fraser), in spite of its superficial resemblance, 
is quite distinct specifically from D. I. lafresnayii, both being found in the Tem- 
perate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia. It differs from the latter bird 
by smaller size, much slenderer weaker bill, fainter (more silky) gloss of the pileum, 
extensively slate gray uropygial area, and pale gray (instead of decidedly blue) 
humeral patch. The difference in the bulk of the bill is particularly noticeable, 
when viewed from below. The gloss of the body plumage is more evenly distributed 
over the feathers, and does not produce any squamate effect on the pileum, 
while the back has a silky rather than metallic sheen. The humeral patch, which 
is less extended, varies in tone between deep gull gray and gull gray, passing into 
light gull gray towards the bend of the wing. The rump is largely dark gull gray 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Agrilorhinus humeralis Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 8, p. 22, July, 1840 
Santa Fe" de Bogota, Colombia (type in Derby Collection, now in Liver- 
pool Museum, examined); Bonaparte, Atti Sest. Riun. Sci. Ital. Milano, 
p. 404, 1845 Bogot4 (crit.). 

Diglossa intermedia Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 97 (note), 1851 no locality 
indicated (type from "New Granada" in Berlin Museum examined). 

Uncirostrum La Fresnayii Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 4, 1840 Santa F6 
de Bogota, Colombia (part, descr. of "jeune male"). 1 

Diglossa humeralis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 138, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 49, 1862 "Ecuador" and "Bogota"; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 275 "Venezuela" (crit.); 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 324 high regions [of Santander, near Ocana]; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 215 Colombia (Ocana, Bogota) and "Ecuador" 
(crit.); Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 175, 1882 Bogota; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 8, 1886 Colombia (Bogota, Pamplona) and 
"Ecuador"; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 581, 1917 Chip- 
aque, Subia, La Mar, Palo Hueco, and La Pradera, eastern Andes, Colombia. 

Diglossa aterrima (not of Lafresnaye) Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
36, p. 581, 1917 part, Chipaque, eastern Andes, Colombia (spec, examined). 

Diglossa carbonaria humeralis Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 34, p. 83, 1926 
(crit.); Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 29, 1929 (range). 

Range. Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia and 
the adjacent section of extreme western Venezuela (Paramo de 
Tama, Tachira). 2 

7: Colombia (Bogota, 2; La Pradera, Cundinamarca, 1; Palo 
Hueco, Cundinamarca, 1); Venezuela (Paramo de Tama, Tachira, 3). 

*Diglossa carbonaria aterrima Lafresnaye. 3 BLACK DIGLOSSA. 

or slate gray, and the black upper tail coverts are laterally edged with grayish. 
There is never a trace of a gray superciliary streak. The types of A. humeralis 
and D. intermedia, which we have carefully compared, are both typical of the 
present form. A male from Chipaque, eastern Andes, listed by Chapman as 
D. aterrima proves, on reexaminatipn, to be an immature bird of humeralis; 
witness the pale gray lesser upper wing coverts. 

Wing, (adult male) 68-71, (female) 64-67; tail, 58-64, (female) 56-59; bill, 
10-11. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Paramo de Tama, Tachira, 3. Colombia, 
eastern Andes: La Pica, Santander, 2; Ramirez, Santander, 10; Las Ventanas, 
Santander, 3; Lagunillas, Boyaca, 1; "Bogota," 8; Chipaque, 1; La Pradera, 
Cundinamarca, 1; Palo Hueco, 1. 

1 Two specimens in the Vienna Museum received in 1841 from Boissonneau 
show his "young males" to belong to D. c. humeralis, thus confirming Cabanis's 
suspicions. 

2 Sclater's record from "Ecuador" is untrustworthy. It was based on a 
dealer's skin, obtained from Dillwyn, without original label or definite locality. 

8 Diglossa carbonaria aterrima Lafresnaye: Nearest to D. c. nocticolor and like 
it without gray humeral patch, but smaller and lacking the slate gray uropygial 
area. Wing, (male) 67-70; tail, 55-61; bill, 10-11. 

Immature birds from the central Andes of Colombia appear to be inseparable 
from Ecuadorian specimens in corresponding plumage, though they have a few 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 231 

Diglossa aterrima Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 319, 1846 "in Nova Granada, 
Pasto" (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 394, 1930); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 138, 1855 Pasto 
(ex Lafresnaye); idem, I.e., 27, p. 440, 1859 "Rio Napo"; idem, I.e., 
28, p. 76, 1859 Panza, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 85, 1859 Calacali, 
Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 49, 1862 Titiacun; Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 275 "New Grenada" (crit.); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 216 Andes of Ecuador (crit.); Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 224 Tambillo, Peru; idem, I.e., 1880, 
p. 193 Cutervo, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 419, 1884 Tambillo and 
Cutervo; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, 
p. 287 Cechce, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 8, 1886 
part, spec, f-1, Ecuador and Peru; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 480, 1898 
Mount Cayambe, Ecuador; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 11, 1899 El Troje (Huaca), Lloa (Pichincha), and Papa- 
llacta, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 317 neighborhood of Quito 
(nest and eggs descr.); Me"negaux, Miss. Serv. Ge"og. Arm. Mes. Arc 
Me"rid. Equat., 9, p. B. 85, 1911 Guapulo and Lloa, Ecuador; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 581, 1917 part, Almaguer, Laguneta, 
and Santa Isabel, central Andes, Colombia; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 81, 1922 Lloa, Calacali, Tumbaco, Rio Machangara, 
and Quito, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 638, 
1926 Yanacocha, Guapulo, Lloa, Pichincha, Chimborazo, Urbina, El 
Chiral, Bestion, El Paso, San Bartolo, Salvias, Taraguacocha, Loja, and 
Oyacachi, Ecuador, and El Tambo, Peru; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 34, p. 74, 1928 Tumbaco, Cerro Mojanda, and Huila, Ecuador. 

Diglossa carbonaria aterrima Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 29, 1929 (range). 

Range. Temperate zone of the central Andes of Colombia (north 
to Quindiu), of the Andes of Ecuador, and northwestern Peru 
(Cutervo, Tambillo, El Tambo). 

1: Ecuador (unspecified, 1). 

*Diglossa carbonaria brunneiventris Lafresnaye. 1 BLACK- 
THROATED DIGLOSSA. 

obsolete grayish fringes to some of the outer lesser wing coverts. Birds from El 
Tambo, Peru, are identical with the Ecuadorian ones. 

Material examined. Colombia, central Andes: Laguneta, 2; Santa Isabel, 
1; Almaguer, 2. Ecuador: Chillo, 1; Pichincha, 2; Yanacocha, 1; Urbina, Chim- 
borazo, 1; El Paso, Prov. del Azuay, 1; Taraguacocha, Prov. del Oro, 2; El Chiral, 
1; Loja, 1. Peru: El Tambo, Dept. Piura, 5. 

1 Diglossa carbonaria brunneiventris Lafresnaye is the most strongly marked 
member of the group by reason of its rufous malar stripe and under parts, only 
the throat being black and the sides of the body pale gray. 

Distribution and relationship have been fully discussed by Mr. Zimmer 
(Auk, 46, pp. 24-28, 1929). It is generally diffused over Peru and extends into 
extreme northwestern Bolivia, where it intergrades with D. c. carbonaria; whereas 
intergradation with D. c. aterrima, whose distributional area it closely approaches 
or possibly even overlaps in certain parts of northwestern Peru, does not seem 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Diglossa brunneiventris Lafreenaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 318, 1846 "in Peruvia" 
(type in Paris Museum examined); Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 8, pi. 43, 
1847 "Chile" (figure of type); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, 
p. 274 Bolivia (crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 322 
(occurrence in Chile denied); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 984; I.e., 
1868, p. 596 Chihuata, Arequipa; Sclater, I.e., 1873, p. 780 Paucar- 
tambo, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 511 Maraynioc, Peru; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1875, p. 211 Peru (crit.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 225 Chota, northwestern Peru (spec, examined); Sclater and 
Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 496 Santa Elena, Colombia; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 596 
"Tilotilo" and Khapaguaia, Bolivia (spec, examined); Taczanowski, I.e., 
1882, p. 8 Tamiapampa, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 1, p. 420, 1884 Tarma, 
Pumamarca, Maraynioc, Paucal, Chota, "Cutervo" (errore), Tamiapampa, 
Chachapoyas, and Paucartambo, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 5, 1886 Bolivia (Khapaguaia, "Simacu"), Peru (Tinta, Paucar- 
tambo, "Cosnipata," Pumamarca), and Colombia (Santa Elena); Salvin, 
Nov. Zool., 2, p. 4, 1895 Cajamarca, Cajabamba, and Huamachuco, 
Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 334 
Palcomayo, Acobamba, Maraynioc, and Tarma, Peru; Mnegaux, Rev. 
Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Algamarca, Peru; Piguet, Mem. Soc. 
Neuchfit. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 Angelopolis, near Medellin, Colombia; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 580, 1917 Paramillo, western 
Andes, Colombia; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 114, 1921 Cuzco, 
Ttica-Ttica, Ollantaytambo, and Torontoy, Peru; Hellmayr, Arch. 
Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 11, 1920 Ollachea, Sierra of Carabaya, Peru. 

Diglossa carbonaria brunneiventris Zimmer, Auk, 46, p. 29, 1929 (range); 
idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 418, 1930 La Quinua, 
near Huanuco, Panao, and Cullcui, Rio Maran6n, Dept. Huanuco, Peru; 
Hellmayr, I.e., 19, p. 49, 1932 (crit. note on reported occurrence 
in Chile). 

Range. Temperate zone of Peru, excepting the extreme north- 
western section, and the adjacent districts of northwestern Bolivia 
(Sorata, Khapaguaia) ; an isolated colony at the northern end of the 
western Andes in Antioquia, Colombia. 

17: Peru (mountains east of Balsas, 1; Cullcui, Maranon River, 1; 
Panao Mountains, 1; Huanuco Mountains, 9; La Quinua, 2; Limbani, 
Carabaya, 2); Colombia (Paramillo, western Andes, 1). 

to take place. Specimens from the northern end of the west Colombian Andes, 
though slightly smaller, I am unable to properly distinguish in spite of their 
isolated habitat. The locality "Chile," assigned to the type, is probably 
erroneous. 

Additional material examined. Colombia, western Andes: Paramillo, 6; 
Santa Elena, 2. Peru: Chota, 1; Banos, near Cajamarca, 2; San Marcos, Libertad, 
1; Leimabamba, 2; Torontoy, 1; Ollantaytambo, 1; Ollachea, 5; Caradoc, Mar- 
capata, 1; Limbani, Carabaya, 4. Bolivia: "Khapaguaia," 3; Sorata, 1; 
"Chile," 1 (the type). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 233 

*Diglossa carbonaria carbonaria (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 1 
BOLIVIAN DIGLOSSA. 

Serriroslrum carbonarium Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. 
Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 25, 1838 Sicasica and Ayupaya, Bolivia (type from 
Sicasica, Dept. La Paz, in Paris Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. 
Amer. M6rid., Ois., p. 373, pi. 58, fig. 1, 1847 Cajapi (Prov. Yungas), 
Inquisivi (Prov. Sicasica), and Palca (Prov. Ayupaya), Bolivia. 

Diglossa carbonaria Bridges, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 15, p. 29, 1847 Ticque- 
paya, valley of Cochabamba; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1864, p. 273 Bolivia (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 213 Bolivia (crit.); 
idem and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 596 "Tilotilo," Bolivia; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 6, 1886 Bolivia. 

Diglossa carbonaria carbonaria Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 34, p. 83, 1926 
Bolivia, "Peru and Ecuador" (errore); Zimmer, Auk, 46, pp. 26-29, 
1929 Bolivia (variation, range). 

Range. Temperate zone of Bolivia, in depts. of La Paz, Cocha- 
bamba, and Chuquisaca. 

1: Bolivia (Iquico, Dept. La Paz, 1). 

*Diglossa venezuelensis Chapman. 2 VENEZUELAN DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa venezuelensis Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 191, p. 11, 1925 Carapas, 
Sucr6, Venezuela (type in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York). 

1 Specimens with rufous in the malar region and in the middle of the belly, 
which Berlepsch (Verh. Internat. Zool. Congr. Berlin, p. 550, 1902) regarded as 
hybrids between carbonaria and brunneiventris, are clearly intergrades, as set forth 
by Mr. Zimmer. 

In addition to fifteen specimens obtained by G. Garlepp at various localities 
in Dept. La Paz (La Paz; Sandillani; Iquico, a farm on the slope of Illimani; 
Cocapata; San Cristobal), we have examined two from Sicasica (the types) in 
the Paris Museum, and five from Cochabamba (Cochabamba and Incachaca) 
in the Carnegie Museum. 

2 Diglossa venezuelensis Chapman: Male similar to D. albilatera in having 
axillars, under wing coverts, and lateral breast feathers snowy white, but general 
coloration coal black instead of blackish slate. Female very differently colored; 
upper part and sides of the head dull olive citrine, brighter (more Roman green) 
on the forehead; back deep mouse gray, the feathers centered with dusky and edged 
with dull olivaceous; rump and upper tail coverts washed with brownish olive; 
smaller upper wing coverts deep neutral gray, the larger ones fuscous with narrow 
dull brownish olive margins; remiges and rectrices fuscous black, exteriorly 
edged with grayish or brownish; malar region brighter than the head, nearly dark 
olive buff; under surface dingy gray, lower throat and upper chest washed with 
buffy brown or dull Isabella color, flanks and lower tail coverts slightly tinged 
with brownish; axillars, under wing coverts, and lateral pectoral feathers white 
as in the male. Wing, 70, (female) 63-65; tail, 58, (female) 54-57; bill, 12. 

A very distinct form, which may ultimately prove to be conspecific with 
D. albilatera. The much larger size, the black plumage of the male, and the 
very peculiar coloration of the female render it, however, easily recognizable. 

Material examined. Venezuela, Sucre 1 : Carapas, 2; Los dos Rios, 1. 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Subtropical zone of northeastern Venezuela, in state of 
Sucr (Mount Turumiquire). 

18: Venezuela (Mount Turumiquire, Sucre", 18). 

Diglossa albilatera federalis Hellmayr. 1 CARACAS WHITE-SIDED 
DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa albilatera federalis Hellmayr, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bay., 1, No. 6, p. 45, 

June, 1922 Silla de Caracas, Venezuela (type in Munich Museum); 

idem, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 166, 1924 Silla de Caracas and 

Galipan, Cerro del Avila, Venezuela. 
Diglossa albilateralis (not Diglossa albilatera Lafresnaye) Sclater, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 11, p. 9, 1886 part, spec, a-c, Aragua, Venezuela. 

Range. North coast mountains of Venezuela in the vicinity of 
Caracas (Silla de Caracas; Galipan, Cerro del Avila) and in State 
of Aragua. 

*Diglossa albilatera albilatera Lafresnaye. WHITE-SIDED 
DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa albi-latera Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 99, 1843 "Colombie"= 
Santa F6 de Bogota (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 395, 1930); idem, I.e., 9, p. 317, 1846 Colombia. 

Diglossa albilateralis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 138, 1855 Bogotd; 
idem, I.e., 27, p. 138, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 65, 
1860 Puellaro and above Puellaro, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 48, 1862 Pallatanga and Puellaro; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 275 Bogota (crit., descr. male and female); Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 780 M6rida, Venezuela; 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 324 Herradura and Canuto, eastern Andes, Co- 
lombia; Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 216, pi. 5, figs. 1, 2 (male, female) Andes 
of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador (monog.) ; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 496 Retire, Medellin, and Santa Elena, Co- 
lombia (eggs descr.); Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 119 near San 
Sebastian, Colombia; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 175, 1882 Bogota; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 285, 1884 Bucaramanga; Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 287 Cayandeled, Cechce, 
and Chaguarpata, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 75 Banos, Ecuador; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 9, 1886 part, spec, d-s, Bogota, 
Antioquia, Retire, Santa Elena, San Sebastian, "Jima," Pallatanga, 

1 Diglossa albilatera federalis Hellmayr: Very similar to D. a. albilatera, but 
general coloration of males paler and more bluish, slate color rather than blackish 
slate, and under tail coverts more or less distinctly edged with white; females above 
paler, buffy olive rather than light brownish olive, with the throat and chest 
lighter, Isabella color instead of tawny olive, and the abdomen much paler, buffy 
rather than brownish. Wing, 60-62, (female) 55-58; tail, 49-52; bill, 10-11. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Silla de Caracas, 5; Galipan, Cerro del 
Avila, 12. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 235 

Puellaro, Colombia and Ecuador; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, 
p. 179, 1898 San Miguel, Santa Marta; idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. 
Cl., 1, p. 80, 1899 San Sebastian and El Mam6n; Salvador} and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 12, 1899 Niebli, Ecuador; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 174, 1900 El Libano and Las Nubes, 
Colombia; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 316 Papallacta and Pichincha, 
Ecuador; Mnegaux, Miss. Serv. Geog. Arm6e Mes. Arc MeVid. Equat., 
9, p. B. 85, 1911 "Quito," Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
36, p. 581, 1917 Paramillo Trail, San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, Gallera, 
Andes west of Popayan, Almaguer, Miraflores, Salento, Laguneta, Santa 
Elena, Barro Blanco, Rio Toch6, El Eden, Aguadita, El Roble, El Pinon, 
and Buena Vista, Colombia; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, 
No. 25, p. 81, 1922 road to Nanegal and Mindo, Ecuador; Todd and 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 465, 1922 San Miguel, Cerro de 
Caracas, San Lorenzo, Taquina, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Heights 
of Chirua, La Concepci6n, and Paramo de Macotama, Colombia. 
Diglossa albilatera albilatera Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 639, 
1926 junction of Chanchan and Chiguancay, Huigra, Chunchi, above 
Baeza, and below Papallacta, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of extreme western Venezuela (Cordil- 
lera of Me"rida), Colombia, and Ecuador, excepting the extreme 
southwestern section. 1 

6: Colombia (Gallera, 1; El Roble, 1; Bogota, 4). 

Diglossa albilatera schistacea Chapman. 2 PERUVIAN WHITE- 
SIDED DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa albilatera schistacea Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, p. 7, 1925 
Chaupe, northeast of Huancabamba, Peru (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 639, 
1926 San Bartolo, Ecuador, and Chaupe, Peru. 

(t)Diglossa albilateralis (not Diglossa albilatera Lafresnaye?) Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 224 Tambillo; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 193 
Cutervo; idem, Orn. Per., 1, p. 418, 1884 Tambillo and Cutervo, Peru. 

1 Birds from the Merida region agree perfectly with "Bogota" skins. Adult 
males from western Ecuador (Pichincha, Chaguarpata, Cayandeled) appear to 
me inseparable, being more blackish, both above and below, than specimens of 
D. a. schistacea from Chaupe and Chugur. No material is available from the Santa 
Marta Mountains. According to Chapman, the race of that region is typical 
albilatera. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 24. Venezuela, Cor- 
dillera of M6rida: La Culata, 1; MeYida, 4; Sierra, 2. Ecuador: Pichincha, 2; 
Chaguarpata, 1; Cayandeled, 2. 

2 Diglossa albilatera schistacea Chapman: Similar in the male sex to D. a. 
federalis, but under parts, especially posteriorly, still paler slate color and without 
white edges to the under tail coverts; female much darker throughout and obvi- 
ously not distinguishable from that of D. a. albilatera. 

An adult male from Chaupe (type locality) and another in first annual plumage 
from Chugur (Pacific slope fifty miles northwest of Cajamarca) are, as pointed 
out by Chapman, exceedingly similar to D. a. federalis, being decidedly paler, more 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Peru and extreme south- 
western Ecuador (San Bartolo). 

Diglossa duidae Chapman. 1 DUIDA DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa duidae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 380, p. 26, 1929 Mount Duida, 
Venezuela (type in the American Museum of Natural History, New York) ; 
idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 123, 1931 Agiiita, Savanna Hills, 
Central Camp, Desfiladero, etc., Mount Duida (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Mount Duida, southern Venezuela. 
*Diglossa major Cabanis. RORAIMA DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa major Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 676, 
"1848" [=1849] Roraima, British Guiana (type in Berlin Museum); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 214 Roraima (crit.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 206 
Roraima; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 7, 1886 Roraima; Chubb, 
Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 475, pi. 8, fig. 3, 1921 Roraima; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 123, 1931 Philipp Camp, Rondon Camp, and 
Summit, Mount Roraima. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Mount Roraima, on the confines 
of British Guiana and Venezuela. 2 

1: British Guiana (Mount Roraima, 1). 

slate color, less blackish than a series of typical albilatera, but agree in dimensions. 
Six males from Chachapoyas are conspicuously larger and much darker, some being 
even more blackish than D. a. albilatera. A single male from Tambillo, in the 
same region as Chaupe, is equally large, and, although its worn condition forbids 
final judgment, it more nearly resembles the Chachapoyas birds in coloration. 
More material from northern Peru is required to explain this seemingly somewhat 
erratic variation. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Wing Tail 

One adult male from Chaupe 60 45 

One male (first annual) from Chugur 59 46 

One adult male from Tambillo 65 53 

Five adult males from Chachapoyas 63, 63, 65, 65, 65 54, 54, 56, 56, 56 

One male (first annual) from Chachapoyas . 60 52 

1 Diglossa duidae Chapman: Upper part of the head black, crown feathers 
with the edges slightly glossy, passing into slate color on the back and tail coverts; 
tail and wings blackish, narrowly edged with slate color; median and greater 
wing coverts usually fringed with slate color; lesser wing coverts somewhat paler 
(slate gray) than the back, without forming a distinct humeral area; sides of the 
head and chin sooty black; throat and chest slate color, passing into slate gray 
on the sides and flanks; the feathers in the middle of the breast and abdomen 
centered with pale neutral gray, producing an indistinct light spotting; under 
tail coverts slate gray, margined with whitish; axillaries and under wing coverts 
light neutral gray; bill black, brownish horn color at base of lower mandible; 
feet dark brown. Wing, (male) 72-75, (female) 68-72; tail, 57-60, (female) 56- 
58; bill, 12-13. 

This very distinct species is more nearly related to D. major than to any 
other, but differs immediately by smaller size, blackish (instead of dull rufous) 
sides of the head, slate gray white-edged (instead of chestnut) lower tail coverts, 
and the absence of the bluish slate gray shaft streaks on pileum and back. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Mount Duida, 6. 

2 Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 10. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 237 

Diglossa indigotica Sclater. 1 INDIGO DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa indigotica Sclater, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 17, p. 467, 1856 
"in republica Equatoriana" (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum, examined); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 85, 1860 
Nanegal, Ecuador (spec, examined); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 49, 
pi. 6, 1862 Nanegal, Ecuador; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1864, p. 274 Ecuador (crit.); Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 218 Nanegal, 
Ecuador (crit.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 10, 1886 foot of 
Pichincha and Nanegal, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 318 below 
Canzacota, Ecuador; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 
p. 81, 1922 road to Nanegal; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 35, p. 267, 1930 
western Ecuador and western Andes, Colombia (crit.). 

Diglossa cryptorhis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 31, p. 164, 1912 
Gallera, Andes west of Popayan, Colombia (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York, examined); idem, I.e., 36, p. 582, 1917 
Gallera and trail between N6vita and Cartage, western Andes, Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Ecuador and of the western 
Andes of Colombia (Gallera and Novita Trail). 

Diglossa glauca glauca Sclater and Salvin. 2 GLAUCOUS DIGLOSSA. 

1 Diglossa indigotica Sclater, while related to D. glauca, is quite distinct by 
reason of the firmer texture of its plumage, more concealed nostrils, relatively 
shorter tail, absence of the black forehead, and much brighter, more glossy colora- 
tion, which is cyanine blue or Prussian blue, while the edges to the wing and tail 
feathers, instead of being uniform in tone with the back as in D. glauca, are dis- 
tinctly greenish blue (blackish green blue to marine blue). The female is much 
duller, the general coloration being about the same shade as the wing edges of the 
males; the margins to the flight quills are narrower and duller greenish blue, and 
the abdomen is suffused with dusky gray. Wing, (adult males) 58-65, (female) 
57; tail, 37-44; bill, 10^-12. 

Comparison of a series of skins from western and eastern Ecuador in the 
British Museum showed the type of D. indigotica to be a specimen of the Pacific 
form, which Chapman had described as D. cryptorhis. Two examples from the 
western Andes of Colombia seem to be inseparable from those of western Ecuador, 
although the male from N6vita Trail is a faint shade less purplish above than any 
other bird in the series. 

Material examined. Colombia, western Andes: N6vita Trail, 1; Gallera, 1. 
Western Ecuador: Nanegal, 1; foot of Pichincha, 1; Mindo, 5; Rio Blanco, below 
Mindo, 1; above Gualea, 1; Paramba (alt. 3,500ft.), Prov. Imbabura, 1; unspeci- 
fied, 1 (the type). 

* Diglossa glauca glauca Sclater and Salvin: General color bright purplish 
blue, nearest to dusky blue with, however, a slight dark dull violet blue hue; 
edges to upper wing coverts and inner remiges very nearly the same as the back, 
those of the primaries hardly different from dark dull violet blue; loral region and 
a distinct, though narrow, frontal band black. Wing, (adult male) 64-66, (female) 
60-62; tail, 45-51, (female) 44-47; bill, 11. 

The type is an immature bird with yellow basal half of the lower mandible 
and retaining, both above and below, a good deal of the sooty juvenile plumage, 
between which the new purplish blue feathers of the adult livery are just appearing. 
An adult collected by O. Garlepp at Songo, Yungas of La Paz, thus nearly topo- 
typical, agrees precisely with a series from Santo Domingo (D. g. incae). 

Material examined. Bolivia, Yungas of La Paz: Nairapi, 1 (the type); 
Songo, 1. Peru: Santo Domingo, Carabaya, 6; Rio Inambari, Dept. Puno, 1; 
Marcapata, Dept. Cuzco, 1; Peren6, Dept. Junin, 1. 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Diglossa glauca Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 253 
Nairapi, Bolivia (type in British Museum examined); idem, I.e., 1879, 
p. 596 Nairapi; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 11, 1886 part, 
Nairapi; 1 Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 107, 1906 Huaynapata 
and Rio Cadena, Marcapata, Peru (crit.). 

Diglossa indigotica incae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, p. 8, 1925 
Inca Mine, Santo Domingo, Peru (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York). 

Diglossa indigotica (not of Sclater) Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 115, 1921 Rio San Miguel, Urubamba, Peru. 

Diglossa glauca glauca Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 35, pp. 266, 267, 1930 southern 
Peru and northwestern Bolivia (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Lower Subtropical zone of southern Peru 
(north to Junin) and of the adjoining section of Bolivia (Nairapi 
and Songo, Yungas of La Paz). 

Diglossa glauca tyrianthina Hellmayr. 2 TYRIAN BLUE DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossa glauca tyrianthina Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 35, p. 266, 1930 lower 

Sumaco, eastern Ecuador (type in the American Museum of Natural 

History, New York). 
Diglossa indigolica (not of Sclater) Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 75 Mapoto, eastern Ecuador. 
Diglossa indigotica indigotica Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 640, 

1926 Macas region, lower Sumaco, and below Oyacachi, eastern Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical and Lower Subtropical zone of eastern Ecuador 
(Mapoto; lower Sumaco; below Oyacachi; Macas region). 

Diglossa caerulescens caerulescens (Sclater). BLUISH DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossopis 3 caerulescens Sclater, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 17, p. 467, 1856 
"in vie. urbis Caraccas in Venezuela" (cotypes in Bremen and Paris 
museums); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 49, 1862 part, spec, a, 
Caracas; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 627 Caracas; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 219 part, Caracas; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 11, 1886 part, spec, a-c, Caracas. 4 

1 The alleged female refers to D. baritula sittoides (Lafr. & d'Orb.), the descrip- 
tion being faulty with respect to the under parts, which are by no means "ochra- 
ceous," but dingy yellowish obsoletely streaked anteriorly. 

2 Diglossa glauca tyrianthina Hellmayr: Similar to D. g. glauca in texture of 
plumage and partly exposed nostrils, but wings rather shorter, coloration duller 
(less violaceous), varying from Tyrian blue to indigo blue, and black frontal band 
distinctly wider (from three to four millimeters broad). Wing, 61, (female) 57; 
tail, 41-46; bill, 11. 

Material examined. Eastern Ecuador: below Chaco, Rio Oyacachi, 2; lower 
Sumaco, 3. 

3 1 fully concur with Mr. Zimmer's view (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
17, pp. 420-421, 1930) that the genus Diglossopis is untenable. Cf. also Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 32, p. 286, 1884. 

4 Specimen "a" is erroneously listed as "the type." 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 239 

Diglossopis caerulescens caerulescens Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, 
p. 168, 1924 Galipan, Cerro del Avila, and Silla de Caracas, Venezuela (crit.) . 

Range. Subtropical zone of the Coast Ranges of Venezuela (Silla 
de Caracas and Cerro del Avila). 1 

*Diglossa caerulescens saturata (Todd). 2 COLOMBIAN BLUISH 
DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossopis caerulescens saturata Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 128, 
1917 La Palmita, Santander, Colombia (type in Carnegie Museum); 
Hartert and Goodson, Nov. Zool., 24, p. 494, 1917 Me>ida, Venezuela, 
and Bogota (crit.); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 169 (in 
text), 1924 Colombia (Tatama Mountain and Bogota) and Merida, 
Venezuela (crit.). 

Uncirostrum cyaneum Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 102, 1840 Santa F6 de 
Bogota (part, "foemina aut junior"; cf. Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 219, footnote). 

Diglossa personata (not Agrilorhinus personatus Fraser) Reichenbach, Handb. 
Spez. Orn., livr. 5, p. 231, pi. 552, fig. 3752, 1853 part, "female." 

Diglossopis caerulescens (not of Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 49, 1862 part, spec, b, Bogota; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 324 Potreros, 
Santander; Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 219 part, Colombia (Potreros and 
Bogota); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 496 Santa 
Elena, Antioquia (eggs descr.); Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 175, 1882 
Bogota; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 11, 1886 part, spec, d-g, 
Bogota and Santa Elena, Colombia. 

Diglossopis caerulescens caerulescens Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 
p. 1093 Tatama Mountain, western Andes, Colombia; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 582, 1917 N6vita Trail, Cerro Munchique, 
and west of Popayan, western Andes; Almaguer and El Eden, central 
Andes; El Pinon, eastern Andes, Colombia. 

Diglossa caerulescens Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 286, 1884 Bucaramanga, 
Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of Colombia (except 
Santa Marta region) and extreme western Venezuela (Cordillera of 
Me"rida). 3 

8: Venezuela (Culata, 2; Paramo de Tama, 1); Colombia 
(Bogota, 1; Cachiri, Santander, 2; Paramo de Tama, 2). 

1 Material examined. Venezuela,: "Caracas," 2; Silla de Caracas, 8; Galipan, 
Cerro del Avila, 19. 

2 Diglossa caerulescens saturata (Todd) : Differs from D. c. caerulescens by much 
darker, purplish blue dorsal surface as well as sides of head and neck, while the 
lower parts are likewise much darker slate blue with the middle line decidedly 
darker. The tone of the upper parts is more like D. c. pallida, though still brighter, 
more purplish. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Tatama Mountain, western Andes, 
1; Bucaramanga, 1; "Bogota," 8. Venezuela: MSrida, 5; El Valle, Me>ida, 1. 

3 There is no authentic record of any race of D. caerulescens from Ecuador. 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Diglossa caerulescens pallida (Berlepsch and Stolzmann). 1 
PERUVIAN BLUISH DIGLOSSA. 

Diglossopis caerulescens pallida Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 334 "in Peruvia alta centrali et septentrional!" (type 
from Garita del Sol, Dept. Junin, in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman 
and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 178, 1927); 
MenSgaux, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Utcubamba, near Taya- 
bamba, Dept. Libertad, Peru; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 458, 1918 
Tabaconas, Dept. Cajamarca, Peru; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, 
Heft 2, p. 168, 1924 Peru and northwestern Bolivia (Songo) (crit.). 

Diglossa caerulescens pallida Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 420, 1930 Chinchao, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Diglossopis caerulescens (not of Sclater) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1874, p. 511 Ninabamba, Dept. Junin; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 225 Montana 
de Palto and Tambillo, Dept. Cajamarca; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 8 Cha- 
chapoyas, Tamiapampa, and Achamal, Dept. Amazonas; idem, Orn. 
Pe>., 1, p. 422, 1884 Peruvian localities. 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of Peru, from Taba- 
conas southward, and northwestern Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz). 
4: Peru (Chinchao, Dept. Huanuco, 4). 

*Diglossa cyanea cyanea (Lafresnaye). MASKED DIGLOSSA. 

Uncirostrum cyaneum Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 102, April, 1840 part, 
adult, Santa F6 de Bogota, Colombia 1 (types in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 395, 1930). 

Agrilorhinus personatus Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 8, p. 23, July, 1840 
Santa F6 de Bogota, Colombia (type in Derby Collection, now in Liver- 
pool Museum); Bonaparte, Atti Sest. Riun. Sci. Ital. Milano, p. 404, 
1845 Bogota. 

Diglossa cyanea Jardine, Contrib. Orn., 1849, p. 44 east side of Pichincha, 
Ecuador. 

Diglossa personata Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, (2nd sem.), No. 2, p. 29, 
1844 (crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 138, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, I.e., 26, p. 551, 1858 Pinipi, Matos, and Titiacun, Ecuador; idem, 
I.e., 27, p. 138, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, pp. 76, 85, 

1 Diglossa caerulescens pallida (Berlepsch and Stolzmann): Nearest to D. c. 
caerulescens, but upper parts somewhat darker and duller bluish, and lower surface 
much paler; the throat, chest, and sides being (instead of slate bluish) dingy pale 
gray faintly shaded with bluish, the middle of the breast and abdomen whitish, 
the white edges of the under tail coverts much wider, etc. Wing, (male) 69-74, 
(female) 63-68; tail, 56-62, (female) 51-54; bill, 12-14. 

Two Bolivian specimens agree with the Peruvian series in coloration, but 
appear to have slightly slenderer bills. 

Material examined. Peru: Tamiapampa, 1; Achamal, 1; Chachapoyas, 2; 
Levanto, 4; Chinchao, Huanuco, 4. Bolivia: Songo, Yungas of La Paz, 2. 

*The description of "foemina aut junior" clearly refers to D. caerulescens 
saturata Todd (cf. Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 219, footnote). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 241 

I860 Lloa and Calacali, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 49, 1862 
Matos, Pinipi, and Bogota; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1864, p. 274 Bogot4 (crit.); 1 Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 218 part, Colombia 
and Ecuador; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 496, 
pi. 42, fig. 1 (egg) Retiro and Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia; Salvin, 
Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 175, 1882 Bogota; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, 
p. 285, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 287 Chaguarpata, Cayandeled, Tri- 
bulpata, and Cechce, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 75 Banos, Ecuador; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 10, 1886 part, spec, a-n, Bogota, 
Retiro, Antioquia, Santa Elena, Quito, San Lucas, "Santa Rita," Palla- 
tanga, Matos, Pinipi (Colombia and Ecuador); Salvador! and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 11, 1899 Huaca, Pun, and 
Frutillas, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 317 Nanegal, Intag, 
and western Andes (to 11,000 ft.), Ecuador; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. 
Arm6e Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 86, 1911 Lloa and Lanlin, 
Ecuador; Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 Medellin, 
Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 582, 1917 San 
Antonio, Cerro Munchique, west of Popayan, Laguneta, Santa Elena, 
Barro Blanco, Rio Toch6, El Eden, Santa Isabel, Almaguer, Aguadita, 
El Roble, El Pinon, and Subia, Colombia; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 81, 1922 Lloa, Nono, Chinguil, and below Calacali, 
Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 639, 1926 above 
Chambo, Hacienda Garz6n, Chunchi, El Chiral, Zaruma, Taraguacocha, 
Salvias, Loja, upper Sumaco, and above Baeza, Ecuador (crit.); Berlioz, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 34, p. 74, 1928 Pilon and Cerro Mojanda, 
Ecuador. 
Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of western Venezuela 

(Cordillera of Me"rida), Colombia (except Santa Marta region), and 

Ecuador; (?) northwestern Peru (vicinity of Huancabamba, Dept. 

Piura). 2 

14: Venezuela (Rio Mucujon, 1); Ecuador (Hoyaucshi, 2; Nono, 

1; Chical, 2); Colombia (El Pinon, 1; Santa Elena, Antioquia, 2; 

Paramo de Tama, 2; Bogota, 3). 

*Diglossa cyanea melanopis Tschudi. 3 BLACK-FACED DIGLOSSA. 

1 The specimen without black on the face mentioned by Cassin probably per- 
tained to D. caerulescens saturata. 

1 Two specimens from Merida agree in every respect with others from Colom- 
bia. Birds from the Huancabamba region, Peru, according to Chapman, are 
smaller and paler, and may deserve separation. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Bogota, 9; Bucaramanga, 1. 
Ecuador: Guaillabamba, Riobamba, 1; Lloa, 3; Nanegal, 5. Venezuela: Merida, 2. 

3 Diglossa cyanea melanopis Tschudi: Differs from the typical race by larger 
size, duller and less purplish blue coloration of the plumage, lighter fore-crown, 
and by having the under tail coverts less strongly, sometimes even not at all, tipped 
with white. Wing (males), 76-82; tail, 60-65. 

The characters of this form are most strongly developed in birds from south- 
eastern Peru and Bolivia. Specimens from the more northern parts of Peru, while 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Diglossa melanopis Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 294, 1844 Pem= 
Dept. Junin (type in Neuch&tel Museum). 

Diglossa personata (not Agrilorhinus personatus Fraser) Tschudi, Faun. Peru., 
Aves, p. 237, 1846 Peru; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, 
p. 511 Maraynioc, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 218 part, Peru (crit.); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 596 Tilotilo and Cagua- 
rani, Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 1880, p. 193 Cutervo, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1882, p. 8 Tamiapampa, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 421, 1884 
Maraynioc, Cutervo, Tamiapampa, and Paucal, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 10, 1886 part, spec, o-q, "Kawarani" [=Caguarani] 
and Tilotilo, Bolivia; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 334 Maraynioc and Garita del Sol, Peru; Menegaux, Rev. 
Fran?. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Cumpang, Peru. 

Diglossa personata melanopis Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 115, 
1921 Matchu Picchu, Torontoy, and Occobamba Valley, Dept. Cuzco, 
Peru (crit.). 

Diglossa cyanea melanopis Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 419, 1930 mountains near Panao, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of Peru and western 
Bolivia (depts. of La Paz and Cochabamba). 

9 : Peru (Molinopampa, 2 ; Uchco, 1 ; Panao Mountains, Huanuco, 6) . 

Genus CHLOROPHANES Reichenbach 

Chlorophanes Reichenbach, Handb. Spez. Orn., livr. 5, p. 233, 1853 type, 
by monotypy, Coereba atricapilla Vieillot=MoJociZJa spiza Linnaeus. 

*Chlorophanes spiza axillaris Zimmer. 1 EAST BRAZILIAN GREEN 
HONEY CREEPER. 

Chlorophanes spiza axillaris Zimmer, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 90, 1929 
Bahia, Brazil (type in Field Museum of Natural History). 

Coereba spiza (not Motacilla spiza Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3, (2), p. 771, 1831 VUla Vicoza, Rio Peruhype, Bahia. 

variously intermediate to D. c. cyanea, as a whole seem also better referable to the 
southern race. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Songo, 3; Tilotilo, 1. Peru: Sierra 
of Carabaya, 4; Garita del Sol, 1; Maraynioc, 3. 

1 Chlorophanes spiza axillaris Zimmer: Nearest to C. s. spiza but general color 
of adult male slightly more greenish, especially on the belly; hind neck without the 
yellowish sheen, usually well-pronounced in the typical form; axillaries, under 
wing coverts, and tibial feathers decidedly paler, light gray rather than sooty 
blackish; female with under parts brighter as well as more uniform green. 

Birds from Santa Catharina are larger (wings of males 74-76 against 66-71), 
but the series at hand is far too small to ascertain the stability of this divergency, 
inasmuch as typical C. s. spiza varies considerably in size within the same locality. 

Material examined. Bahia, 6; Brago do Sul, Victoria, Espirito Santo, 2; Rio 
de Janeiro, 1 ; Santa Catharina, Blumenau, 1 ; Joinville, 7. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYB 243 

Dacnis spiza Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 152, 1856 eastern 

Brazil. 
Dacnis atricapilla (not Coereba atricapilla Vieillot) Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 

1851, p. 108 part, Brazil (Villa Vigoza on the Rio Peruhype); Pelzeln, 

Orn. Bras., 1, p. 26, 1868 part, Minas and Rio de Janeiro (spec, examined). 
Chlorophanes atricapilla Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 84, 1874 Cantagallo, 

Rio de Janeiro. 
Chlorophanes spiza Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 29, 1886 part, spec. 

h-k, Pernambuco, Bahia, and Rio Claro, "Goyaz," Brazil; Ihering, Rev. 

Mus. Paul., 4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; idem, I.e., 5, 

p. 265, 1902 Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 

344, 1907 part, Santa Catharina, Sao Paulo (Sao Sebastiao, Ubatuba), 

Minas Geraes, and Bahia. 

Range. Wooded coast region of eastern Brazil, from Pernambuco 
south to Santa Catharina. 
1: Brazil (Bahia, 1). 

*Chlorophanes spiza spiza (Linnaeus). GREEN HONEY CREEPER. 

Motacilla spiza Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 188, 1758 based on 
"The Green Black-cap Flycatcher" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 1, p. 25, 
pi. 25, left fig., Surinam (descr. male; type in coll. of Duke of Richmond). 1 

Coereba atricapilla Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 14, p. 50, 
1817 "au Br6sil et a Cayenne" (descr. male). 

Turdus micans Hahn, Vog. aus Asien, Afrika, etc., livr. 3, pi. 1, 1819 "Indien," 
errore (descr. male; type in Munich Museum examined). 

Nectarinia mitrata Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 15, 1823 
based on Certhia spiza var. /3 Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 292, 1790 ; 2 Surinam, 
Brazil, and Guiana. 

Dacnis spiza Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 675, "1848" 
British Guiana; LSotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 122, 1866 Trinidad. 

Dacnis atricapilla Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 108 part, British Guiana, 
Cayenne, and Trinidad; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 26, 1868 part, Rio 
Xie", Guia, Rio Icanna, Rio Vaup6, and Barra do Rio Negro, Rio Negro 
(spec, examined); Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 560 Trinidad 
(crit.). 

Chlorophanes atricapilla Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 137, 1855 
part, Cayenne and Trinidad; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 52, 1862 
part, spec, a, b, Trinidad and Cayenne; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 81 
Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 166 Pilar 
[Sucre 1 ], Venezuela. 

Chlorophanes spiza Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 31, 1857 
Cayenne; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, pp. 267, 268 part, 
Cayenne and Trinidad (nomencl.); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1881, p. 242 (nomencl.); 

1 The variety /3 of Linnaeus, based on the other figure of Edwards's plate 25, 
represents the female of Dacnis cayana cayana (Linnaeus). 

2 Nearly all the references quoted by Latham pertain to the Guianan form. 



244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 206 Bartica Grove, MerumS Mountains, and 
Roraima; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 29, 1886 part, subsp. 
typica, spec, a-g, Trinidad, Bartica Grove, Roraima, Cayenne; Robinson 
and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 176, 1901 San Julian, 
Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 26, 1894 Princes- 
town, Trinidad; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 15, 1902 Suapure 
and Nicare, Caura, Venezuela; Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 
1, p. 188, 1906 Aripo, Trinidad; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 
1907 Para; idem, I.e., 56, p. 521, 1908 Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. Ill, 1908 Cayenne; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 210, 1913 Cariaquito, Paria Peninsula, Venezuela; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 465, 1914 Para (Para, Ananindeua, 
Peixe-Boi), Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), and Rio Jamauchim (Santa 
Helena); idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 
Tury-assu, Maranhao; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 485, 1921 
numerous localities. 

Chlorophanes spiza spiza Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 481, 1898 (char., range); 
Hellmayr, I.e., 13, p. 10, 1906 Caparo and Valencia, Trinidad; idem, 
Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 8, 1912 
Peixe-Boi, Para; idem and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 51, 
1912 San Esteban, Cumbre Chiquita, and Las Quiguas, Carabobo, 
Venezuela; Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 164, 1916 
Orinoco Delta (Guanoco) and Caura River, Venezuela; Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 2, p. 99, 1916 Utinga, Para; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 62, p. 84, 1918 Lelydorp and Rijsdijkweg, Surinam; Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 176, 1928 Para. 

(?) Chlorophanes melanops Cassin, 1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 268 
"Rio Negro" (type lost, formerly in Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 35, 1899). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; Venezuela (north 
coast from the Paria Peninsula west to Carabobo; Orinoco Delta 
and Caura Valley); Trinidad; northern Brazil, from the coast of 
Maranhao (Tury-assu) through the eastern part of Pard State west 
to the Tapajoz, and north of the Amazon west to the Rio Negro 
and its tributaries (Rio Icanna, Rio Vaupe"). 2 

1 This form, of which the type has been lost, is said to resemble C. s. spiza, but 
to differ by the restriction of the black on the crown (which extends but little 
beyond the eyes), by the scale-like structure of the green feathers on the occiput and 
back of the neck, and by having the green edges to the remiges and rectrices wider 
as well as more clearly defined. An adult male from the Rio Iganna (upper Rio 
Negro region) in the Vienna Museum shows none of these characters, and does not 
appreciably differ from Guianan specimens. 

2 Specimens from Para (Peixe-Boi) are similar to others from the Guianas, and 
series from various parts of Venezuela do not seem to differ. Cory's record (Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 69, 1889) from Cuba was doubtless based upon an escaped cage-bird. 

Material examined. Brazil: Peixe-Boi, Para, 4; Manaos, 3; Guia, Rio Negro, 
1; Rio Iganna, 1. French Guiana: Saint-Jean-du-Maroni, 1; Cayenne, 2. 
British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 2. Trinidad: Caparo, 10. Venezuela: Cumana, 
4; Paria Peninsula (Yacua, Guiria), 5; Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, 3; Caura Valley, 
6; Carabobo (San Esteban, Las Quiguas, Cumbre Chiquita), 22. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 245 

8: Venezuela (Guanoco, 1); British Guiana (Caramang River, 2; 
unspecified, 1); Brazil (Utinga, Para, 1); Trinidad (Valencia, 3). 

*Chlorophanes spiza caerulescens Cassin. AMAZONIAN BLUE- 
GREEN HONEY CREEPER. 

Chlorophanes caerulescens Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 268 
Yuracares, Bolivia (type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia; cf. Stone, I.e., 51, p. 35, 1899); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 13, 1899 Zamora, Ecuador. 

Caereba atricapilla (not of Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, 
in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 24, 1838 Yuracares, Bolivia. 

Dacnis atricapilla Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 108 part, Yuracares, 
Bolivia; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 110, 1854 Quijos, Ecuador; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 26, 1868 part, Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira, 
and Engenho do Cap Gama, Matto Grosso. 

Chlorophanes atricapilla Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 137, 1855 
part, "Bogota" and Peru; idem, I.e., 25, p. 263, 1857 Ega, Rio SolimSes; 
idem, I.e., 26, pp. 61, 452, 1858 Rio Napo and Gualaquiza, Ecuador; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 52, 1862 part, spec, c-f, Bogota and Peru; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 179 upper Ucayali; 
idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Xeberos; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 977 Pebas; idem, 
I.e., 1873, p. 260 Ucayali, Xeberos, Chamicuros, and Pebas, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1879, p. 597 Yuracares, Nairapi, and Simacu, Bolivia; Tacza- 
nowski, I.e., 1882, p. 9 Huambo and Yurimaguas, Peru; idem, Orn. 
Per., 1, p. 435, 1884 Peruvian localities (part, excl. Palmal). 

Chlorophanes spiza (not Motacilla spiza Linnaeus) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 29, 1888 part, subsp. caerulescens, spec, a-e, g-1, "Bogota," 
Rio Napo, Sarayacu, Iquitos, Nairapi, and Simacu. 

Chlorophanes spiza subsp. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 271, 1910 Salto do 
Girao, Rio Madeira. 

Chlorophanes spiza caerulescens Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 69, 
80, 1889 "Quito," Ecuador, and Falls of the Madeira, Bolivia; Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 37, p. 295, 1889 Cumbase, near Tarapoto, Peru; idem and 
Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 337 La Merced and 
Borgona, Peru; idem, Ornis, 13, p. 108, 1906 Rio Cadena, Marcapata, 
Peru; Menegaux, Rev. Prang. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Nuevo Loreto, Peru; 
idem, Miss. Serv. Geog.Arme'e Mes.Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 88, 1911 
Gualaquiza and Rio Napo, Ecuador; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, 
Heft 10, p. 15, 1920 Yahuarmayo and Chaquimayo, Sierra of Carabaya, 
Peru; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 587, 1917 part, Florencia 
and La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 647, 1926 eastern 
Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 34, p. 74, 1928 San Jose, 
Ecuador; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 
300, 1930 Buena Vista, Bolivia. 

Chlorophanes spiza spiza(?) Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 366, 
1930 Rio Roosevelt, Matto Grosso. 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from the eastern base of the eastern 
Andes in Colombia (Rio Putumayo; Florencia and La Morelia, 
Caqueta) south through eastern Ecuador and Peru to northern 
Bolivia and northern Matto Grosso (Salto do Girao, upper Rio 
Madeira; Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore"; Rio Roosevelt). 1 

11: Peru (Moyobamba, 1; Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, 1; Puerto 
Bermudez, 2; Huachipa, 1; Vista Alegre, 3); Colombia (Bogota, 3). 

*Chlorophanes spiza subtropicalis Todd. 2 COLOMBIAN BLUE- 
GREEN HONEY CREEPER. 

Chlorophanes spiza subtropicalis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 122, 
1924 La Cumbre, western Andes, Colombia (type in Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh). 

1 Specimens from Peru, eastern Ecuador, and southeastern Colombia agree 
with two from Yuracares. Although no adult males are available from the upper 
Rio Madeira and northern Matto Grosso, there can be little doubt as to the Green 
Honey Creeper of that region being referable to the race caerulescens. In the male 
sex, this form differs by its much more bluish coloration, when compared with 
C. s. spiza. The female sometimes has the throat very nearly as yellow as C. 8. 
subtropicalis. 

Material examined. Colombia: Florencia, 2; "Bogota," 4. Ecuador: San 
Jose 1 , 2. Peru: Chanchamayo, Dept. Junin, 3; Pozuzo, Dept. Huanuco, 2; Cha- 
quimayo, Sierra of Carabaya, 2; Yahuarmayo, 3. Bolivia: Yuracares, 2. Brazil: 
Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira, 1; Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore", Matto Grosso, 1. 

2 Chlorophanes spiza subtropicalis Todd: Similar to C. s. caerulescens in the 
male sex, but the light-colored streak along the lower edge of the maxilla extended 
very nearly to the tip; female with throat bright yellow and with more or less 
distinct yellow margins to the feathers of the breast and middle abdomen. Wing, 
72-74, (female) 70-72; tail, 46-49; bill, 13-14. 

This form, originally described from the Subtropical zone of the western 
Andes, seems to be widely distributed in Colombia. Adult birds from the west 
slope of the central Andes (Miraflores, east of Palmira) are certainly indistinguish- 
able from others taken in the western Andes, the females showing the characteristic 
yellow suffusion underneath. Birds from the Tropical lowlands of the Pacific 
coast (Noanama, Noyita, Buenaventura) are intermediate to C. s. exsul. They 
are slightly smaller (wing of adult males, 68-69) and not quite so bluish in the male 
sex, though one from Noanam& is a close match to specimens from Miraflores. 
The females are also somewhat variable, one from Buenaventura being but 
slightly more yellowish below than certain Ecuadorian birds, whereas one from 
Noanama, by reason of its bright yellow throat and distinct, though narrow, 
yellow lateral edges to the pectoral feathers, typically represents subtropicalis. 
Taken as a whole, the inhabitants of the Pacific coast are, however, much nearer 
to the latter than to exsul. The form found in the Magdalena Valley needs further 
study with more comprehensive material than I have been able to examine. A 
female from Honda, with nearly uniform green under parts, looks very much like 
C. s. coerulescens, while a "Bogota" skin (presumably from the Magdalena slope 
of the eastern Andes) closely resembles one from Buenaventura. Berlepsch 
(MS.), in speaking of a series of "Bucaramanga" specimens, notices the large 
extent of the pale margin to the commissure in the males, as well as the frequent 
yellow admixture on the under parts of the females, features that would place 
the birds with subtropicalis rather than caerulescens. 

Material examined. Colombia: Noanama, 2; Novita, 4; Buenaventura, 1; 
Bitaco Valley, Valle, 2; La Cumbre, Valle, 1; Cauca Seca, 1; Rio Lima, 1; Mira- 
flores, 3; Jerico, 1; Honda, 1; "Bogota," 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 247 

Chlorophanes atricapilla (not Coereba atricapilla Vieillot) Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 324 near Canta and San Nicolas, Magdalena slope of eastern Andes, 
Santander, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 497 Concordia and Remedios, Antioquia. 

Chlorophanes spiza subsp. (caerulescens Cass.?) Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, 
p. 286, 1884 Bucaramanga (crit.). 

Chlorophanes spiza (not Motacilla spiza Linnaeus) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 1 1, p. 29, 1886 part, subsp. coerulescens, spec, f , Medellin, Antioquia. 

Chlorophanes spiza caerulescens (not of Cassin) Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
18, p. 186, 1905 Rio Lima, Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 587, 1917 part, Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Miraflores, 
La Frijolera, Consuelo (above Honda), Aguadita, and La Palma, Colombia. 

Chlorophanes spiza exsul (not of Berlepsch and Taczanowski) Hellmayr, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1096 Noanama and Novita, Pacific 
coast of Colombia (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 586, 
1917 Cocal (?), Buenaventura, and San Jose, western Colombia (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of Colombia, from the 
Pacific coast east to the Magdalena Valley. 

3: Colombia (Cauca Seca, western Andes, 1; Miraflores, central 
Andes, 1; "Bogota," 1). 

*Chlorophanes spiza exsul Berlepsch and Taczanowski. 1 PACIFIC 
GREEN HONEY CREEPER. 

Chlorophanes spiza exsul Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 543 Chimbo, Ecuador (type in Berlepsch Collection, now in 
Frankfort Museum); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 481, 1898 Chimbo (crit.); 
Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 186, 1905 part, Ecuador (Paramba); 
Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 82, 1922 below Nanegal, 
Ecuador (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 646, 1926 
Esmeraldas, Rio de Oro, Chimbo, Rios Coco and Chimbo, Naranjo, 
Zaruma, and Las Pinas, Ecuador. 

Chlorophanes atricapilla (not Coereba atricapilla Vieillot) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 27, p. 138, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 292, 
1860 Esmeraldas; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 435, 1884 part, Palmal, 
Peru; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 319 Santo Domingo and Guanacillo, 
Ecuador. 

Chlorophanes spiza (not Motacilla spiza Linnaeus) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 29, 1886 part, subsp. guatemalensis, spec, r, Balzar, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical and Lower Subtropical zones of western Ecuador 
and extreme northwestern Peru (Palmal, Dept. Tumbez). 

1 Chlorophanes spiza exsul Berlepsch and Taczanowski: Male much more 
greenish than either C. s. subtropicalis or C. s. caerulescens and more like C. s. spiza, 
from which it differs mainly by lacking the bluish tinge along the median under 
parts; female without any, or with mere suggestions of yellowish fringes to the 
throat feathers. Wing, 66-69, (female) 64-66; tail, 44-47; bill, 13-14. 

Material examined. Western Ecuador: Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 7; Lita, 7; 
Chimbo, 10. 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

7: Ecuador (Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 1; Chimbo, Prov. 
Guayas, 6). 

"Chlorophanes spiza arguta Bangs and Barbour. 1 COSTA RICAN 
GREEN HONEY CREEPER. 

Chlorophanes spiza arguta Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 
225, 1922 Divala and Mount Sapo, Panama (type from Divala, western 
Panama, in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); 
Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 462, 1928 Boquete 
Trail, Almirante Bay, Panama; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, 
p. 186, 1929 Cana, eastern Panama (crit.); Peters, I.e., 71, p. 340, 1931 
Changuinola, Almirante, and Boquete Trail, Panama; Griscom, I.e., 72, 
p. 367, 1932 PermS and Obaldia, Darien. 

Chlorophanes guatemalensis (not of Sclater) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 349 Panama Railroad (crit.); Salvin, I.e., 1867, 
p. 137 Cordillera de TolS, Veragua, and David, Chiriqui; idem, I.e., 
1870, p. 185 Veragua (CaloveVora, Boquete de Chitra) and Chiriqui 
(Bugaba). 

Chlorophanes guatimalensis Salvadori, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 172, 
1868 Costa Rica. 

Chlorophanes spiza var. guatemalensis Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
9, p. 97, 1868 "Juiz" and Turrialba, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 Costa Rica; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1878, p. 54 Naranjo, Costa Rica. 

Chlorophanes atricapilla (not Coereba atricapilla Vieillot) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y. t 7, p. 319, 1862 Panama Railroad. 

Chlorophanes spiza (not Motacilla spiza Linnaeus) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 175, 1865 David, Chiriqui; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 247, 1883 part, Costa Rica and Panama; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 29, 1886 part, subsp. guatemalensis, 
spec, j-q, Costa Rica (Tucurriqui) and Panama (Cordillera de Tole', 
CaloveVora, Bugaba, Lion Hill); Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 435 Mira- 
valles, Costa Rica; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 339, p. 3, 1899 Chiriqui; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. Ill, 
1906 P6zo Azul and San Jos6, Costa Rica (crit.). 

Chlorophanes spiza guatemalensis Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, 
p. 108, 1887 part, Naranjo, P6zo Azul de Pirris, and Turrialba, Costa Rica ; 

1 Chlorophanes spiza arguta Bangs and Barbour: Similar in coloration to C. 8. 
guatemalensis, but decidedly smaller, with slenderer, though not always shorter 
bill; not unlike C. s. exsul, but somewhat larger, with longer, more robust bill, 
and coloration of males deeper greenish. Wing (adult males), 68-72; tail, 46-49; 
bill, 14M-16. 

Birds from southwestern Costa Rica (Pozo Azul de Pirris and El General) are 
identical with Chiriqui examples, while those from Caribbean Costa Rica (Carrillo, 
La Vijagua) by slightly greater dimensions (wing of adult males, 71-74; bill, 
16-16^i) tend in the direction of guatemalensis. 

Additional material examined. Panama, Chiriqui: Frances, 3; Bugaba, 1; 
Chiriqui, 5. Costa Rica: El General de Terraba, 5; P6zo Azul de Pirris, 3; Ca- 
rrillo, 6; La Vijagua, 4. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 249 

Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 
Boruca, Costa Rica; Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 383, 1902 part, Costa 
Rica and Panama; Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 275, 
1910 Port Lim6n and Guayabo, Costa Rica; Stone, Prop. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 70, p. 277, 1918 Gatun, Panama. 

Chlorophanes spiza exsul (not of Berlepsch and Taczanowski) Bangs, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 186, 1905 part, Panama and Chiriqui (crit.); 
idem, Auk, 24, p. 306, 1907 Boruca and Paso Real, Costa Rica; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 823, 1910 Costa Rica (crit., habits). 

Range. Costa Rica and Panama, east to Darien. 

10: Costa Rica (Carrillo, 1; Peralta, 1; Guayabo, 2; Turrialba, 1; 
Puerto Limon, 3; Boruca, 1); Panama (Barro Colorado Island, Canal 
Zone, 1). 

Chlorophanes spiza guatemalensis Sclater. 1 GUATEMALAN 
GREEN HONEY CREEPER. 

Chlorophanes guatemalensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 129 
Guatemala =Choctum, Vera Paz (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 52, 1862 Choctum, 
Vera Paz; Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 203 Guatemala; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 836 San Pedro, Honduras; Salvin, 
Ibis, 1872, p. 315 Chontales, Nicaragua. 

Chlorophanes atricapilla (not Coereba atricapilla Vieillot) Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1859, p. 14 Guatemala; idem, Ibis, 1860, p. 32 Guatemala; 
Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 41, 1878 Vera Paz, 
Guatemala. 

Chlorophanes spiza (not Motacilla spiza Linnaeus) Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 247, 1883 part, Guatemala, Honduras, and 
Nicaragua; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 29, 1886 part, subsp. 
guatemalensis, spec, a-i, Guatemala (Vera Paz, Rio Pasion), Honduras 
(San Pedro), Nicaragua (Chontales); Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
16, p. 487, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua. 

Chlorophanes spiza guatemalensis Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, 
p. 108, 1887 part, Guatemala; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, 
p. 585, 1888 Segovia River, Honduras; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 383, 1902 part, eastern Guatemala, Honduras, and 
Nicaragua; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 153, 1903 Ceiba, 
Honduras; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 390, 1929 Mountain Cow, British Hon- 
duras; Peters, I.e., 69, p. 469, 1929 Lancetilla, Honduras; Griscom, 

1 Chlorophanes spiza guatemalensis Sclater is the largest form, with long, heavy 
bill and deep green coloration in the male sex. Wing (adult males), 75-80; tail, 
52-55 ; bill, 16 M-18. 

We have examined ten Guatemalan specimens, mostly from Coban, and one 
(adult male) from San Pedro, Honduras. Material from Nicaragua not being 
available, I am not quite certain that birds from that country are really referable 
to guatemalensis. 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 372, 1932 Finca Chama, Secanquim, 
and Finca Sepacuite, Guatemala; Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, 
p. 243, 1932 Eden and Bluefields, Nicaragua. 

Range. Eastern Guatemala, British Honduras, Honduras, and 
eastern Nicaragua. 

Chlorophanes purpurascens Sclater and Salvin. 1 PURPLISH 
HONEY CREEPER. 

Chlorophanes purpurascens Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., p. 
157, 1873 "Venezuela, prope urbem Caraccas" (type in coll. of P. L. 
Sclater, now in British Museum, examined); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 31, pi. 4, 1886 Venezuela. 

Range. Unknown, supposedly Venezuela. 

Genus IRIDOPHANES Ridgway 2 

Iridophanes Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 150, 1901 type, by orig. 
desig., Dacnis pulcherrima Sclater. 

1 Chlorophanes purpurascens Sclater and Salvin, known from a single example, 
is quite distinct from C. spiza. The bill, while of the same shape, lacks the pale 
margin along the commissure of the maxilla, though the lower mandible is wholly 
yellow as in the allied species. The body plumage, instead of being bright green, 
is of a dull blue (between "Colombia blue" and "Neropalin blue" of Ridgway). 
The black color about the head is much reduced in extent, only a narrow frontal 
band, the loral region, and the surrounding of the eye being dull black, and the 
feathers of the crown blackish with dull blue apical margins, whereas in C. spiza 
the whole crown and all the sides of the head are occupied by a solid deep black 
"mask." The interscapulium (plain green in C. spiza) is black, broadly margined 
apically with dull blue; the larger upper wing coverts, bluish green like the back 
in C. spiza, are also black, with narrow dull blue edges along the outer web only; 
remiges wholly black, the innermost secondaries only externally margined with 
dull blue; tail black with mere traces of bluish outer margins. The whole under 
surface, including malar region, cheeks, and chin, which are black in C. spiza, is 
dull blue, with suggestion of a blackish spot on each side of the chest; under wing 
coverts soiled whitish (not sooty as in C. spiza). Wing, 71; tail, 45; bill, 17. 

The type specimen, apparently an adult male, was purchased by P. L. Sclater 
in 1872 from Adolphe Boucard, and is labeled "Caracas," a locality that I strongly 
question. It is a trade skin of the so-called "Trinidad" or "Orinoco" make 
characterized by loose wings and legs, half-open bill, and spread tail and shows 
exactly the same preparation as specimens of Hylonympha macrocerca Gould, 
whose habitat is likewise unknown. 

2 Genus Iridophanes Ridgway: Nearly allied to Chlorophanes, but bill pro- 
portionately much shorter, laterally less compressed, and apically much less 
convex; tarsus decidedly shorter, being equal to middle toe with claw; style of 
coloration quite different. 

While the final classification of this genus depends on the results of an investi- 
gation of its anatomical characters, I am, for the present, inclined to refer it to the 
Coerebidae rather than to the Tanagers. It offers many analogies to Chlorophanes 
in structure, the slightly swollen basal portion and the yellowish margin of the 
cutting edge of the maxilla being the most striking points of resemblance. The 
different proportions of the bill and tarsus, however, appear to me of sufficient 
importance to separate it generically. 



1935 BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 251 

Iridophanes pulcherrima pulcherrima (Sclater). YELLOW- 
COLLARED IRIDOPHANES. 

Dacnis pulcherrima Sclater, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 480, 1853 "in Nova- 
Grenada" = Bogota (descr. of male; type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 137, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 51, pi. 8 (male), 1862 New Granada; 
idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 316 Bogota (descr. of male); Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 270 (crit.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1874, p. 510 Paltaypampa, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 1, p. 432, 1884 
Paltaypampa; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 24, 1886 part, spec, 
a-c, Bogota. 

Nemosia torquata Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci., Lettr. et Beaux-Arts Belgique, 
22, (1), p. 155, 1855 "Nouvelle Grenade" (descr. of male; type in Brussels 
Museum); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 84 (note), 1855 (crit.). 

Chlorophanes pulcherrima stigmatura Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 338 Garita del Sol, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in 
Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. 
Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 179, 1927); idem, Ornis, 13, pp. 77, 108, 1906 Idma, 
Urubamba, and Huaynapata, Marcapata, Dept. Cuzco, Peru (crit.). 

Dacnis pukherrima aureinucha (not of Ridgway) Taczanowski and Berlepsch, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 76 Machay, Ecuador (descr. of adult 
and young female). 

Iridophanes pulcherrima pulcherrima Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 116, 1921 Idma, Urubamba, Peru (crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 647, 1926 below Oyacachi, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Colombia ("Bogota" collec- 
tions), eastern Ecuador, and eastern Peru, south to Dept. of Cuzco. 1 

Iridophanes pulcherrima aureinucha (Ridgway). 2 WESTERN 
YELLOW-COLLARED IRIDOPHANES. 

Dacnis pulcherrima /3 aureinucha Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, "1878," 
p. 484, pub. May, 1879 Ecuador (descr. of male; type in U. S. National 
Museum). 

1 The white subapical spot on the inner web of the lateral rectrices, claimed to 
distinguish the Peruvian stigmatura, seems to be a purely individual character 
without geographical significance. I find it in one put of three Bogota skins, while 
it is present only in one among six Peruvian specimens. In agreement with Dr. 
Chapman I am, therefore, led to the conclusion that there is only one form on the 
east side of the Andes ranging from Colombia to the Bolivian boundary. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 5. Ecuador: Machay, 2. Peru: 
Pozuzo, Dept. Huanuco, 2; Garita del Sol, Dept. Junin, 1; Idma, Urubamba, 5; 
Huaynapata, Marcapata, 1. 

1 Iridophanes pulcherrima aureinucha (Ridgway) : Male similar to /. p. pul- 
cherrima, but nape much darker, deep golden yellow instead of straw yellow; 
throat less blackish, often decidedly gray; bill slightly longer. In this form the 
white subapical marking on the outermost rectrix appears to be a constant feature; 
at least it is so in all the specimens we have examined. 

Material examined. Western Ecuador: Gualea, 2; Santo Domingo, 2; Guana- 
cillo, 1; unspecified, 2. 



252 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Dacnis pulcherrima (not of Sclater, 1853) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 24, 1886 part, spec, a-d, "Intaj" [=Intag] and "Sarayacu" (errore), 
Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 318 Santo Domingo and Guanacillo, 
western Ecuador (crit.). 

Iridophanes pulcherrima (aureinucha Ridgway or) gualeae Lonnberg and 
Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 83, 1922 Gualea, Ecuador (type in 
Stockholm Museum). 

Iridophanes pulcherrima aureinucha Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 648, 1926 Gualea (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Ecuador (Santo Domingo, 
Gualea, Guanacillo, Intag). 

Genus CYANERPES Oberholser 

Cyanerpes Oberholser, Auk, 16, p. 32, 1899 type, by orig. desig., Certhia 
cyanea Linnaeus. 

*Cyanerpes cyaneus tobagensis Hellmayr and Seilern. 1 TOBAGO 
HONEY CREEPER. 

Cyanerpes cyanea tobagensis Hellmayr and Seilern, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, 
p. 88, 1914 Man o' War Bay, Tobago (type in Munich Museum). 

Cereba cyanea (not Certhia cyanea Linnaeus) Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
20, p. 372, 1847 Tobago. 

Arbelorhina cyanea Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago. 

Coereba cyanea Dalmas, Me'm. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 136, 1900 Tobago. 

Cyanerpes cyanea Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 9, 1906 part, Tobago. 

Cyanerpes cyaneus brevipes (not Arbelorhina brevipes Cabanis) Oberholser, 
Auk, 16, p. 33, 1899 part, Tobago. 

Range. Island of Tobago. 
48: Tobago. 

*Cyanerpes cyaneus cyaneus (Linnaeus). BLUE HONEY CREEPER. 

Certhia cyanea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 188, 1766 based on "The 
Black and Blue Creeper" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 114, pi. 264, 
Surinam; "Le Grimpereau bleu du Brsil" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 628, pi. 31, 
fig. 5, "Bresil et Cayenne," etc.; Surinam (ex Edwards, first quoted by 
Linnaeus) designated as type locality (auct. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, 
p. 9, 1906). 

1 Cyanerpes cyaneus tobagensis Hellmayr and Seilern: Nearest to C. c. cyaneus, 
but wings and tail considerably longer, bill stouter and less strongly arched. Wing, 
69-72, (female) 66-69; tail, 41-45, (female) 41-43; bill, 18)^-21, (female) 18-19. 

The females, in addition to their larger size, differ from the typical form by 
their darker, less yellowish under parts with the green streaking more clearly 
defined. The bill, in length, is subject to much variation. Sometimes it is very 
nearly as long as in C. c. eximius, sometimes it corresponds to the average of typi- 
cal cyaneus. It is, however, constantly stouter at the base and apically less arched. 

Additional material examined. Tobago: Man o' War Bay, 5; Richmond, 3; 
Castare, 1; Garret Hall, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 253 

Certhia cayana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 186, 1766 based on 
"Le Grimpereau verd de Cayenne" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 636, Cayenne (in 
part, female). 

Certhia armillata Sparrman, Mus. Carlson., fasc. 2, pi. 36, 1787 Surinam 
(descr. of young male; type in coll. of M. Carlson); 1 Sundevall, Vetensk. 
Akad. Handl., 2, No. 3, p. 8, 1857 (crit.). 2 

Coereba* cyanea Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 761, 1831 Rio de 
Janeiro and Espirito Santo (Barra de Jucu) ; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. 
Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 24, 1838 Guarayos, Bolivia; Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 150, 1856 Rio de Janeiro to Para, etc.; 
Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 31, 1857 Cayenne; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 263, 1857 Ega, Brazil; Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 266 part, Cayenne, Brazil, and Trinidad; Taylor, 
Ibis, 1864, p. 81 Trinidad; Le"otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 118, 1866 Trinidad; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 179 Sarayacu, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1867, p. 570 Para and upper Rio Negro; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 
749 Xeberos, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 25, 1868 Goyaz and 
Guia, Rio Negro, Brazil; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 378 Para; Finsch, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 561 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1873, 
p. 260 Sarayacu, Xeberos, and Chamicuros, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, 
p. 597 Guarayos, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 330 
Estancia, Pernambuco; (?) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, 
p. 9 Huambo, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 436, 1884 Sarayacu, Xeberos, 
and Chamicuros, Peru; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 207 Bartica Grove, Merume" 
Mountains, Camacusa, and Roraima; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 32, 1886 part, spec, c'-r', British Guiana, Cayenne, lower Amazon, 
Ega, Pernambuco, Bahia, and "Rio Claro," Goyaz; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, 
p. 499 Rio Capim, Para; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 1907 Para, 
Santo Antonio do Prata, and Monte Alegre. 

Arbelorhina cyanea Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 675, 
"1848" British Guiana; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 295, 1889 
Yurimaguas, Peru (crit.); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 347, 1891 
Chapada, Matto Grosso; Chapman, I.e., 6, p. 26, 1894 Princestown, 
Trinidad; Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. and Tob., 20, p. 128, 1922 
San Fernando, Trinidad. 

Cyanerpes cyaneus Oberholser, Auk, 16, p. 32, 1899 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 386, 1902 part, Guianan, Trinidad, 
Brazilian, and Bolivian references; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 272, 1905 
Igarape'-Assu, Para; idem, I.e., 13, p. 9, 1906 Valencia, Seelet, Caparo, 
and Savannah Grande, Trinidad; idem, I.e., 13, p. 356, 1906 Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Para; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 188, 

1 This particular type of Sparrman's is not among those which passed into the 
Stockholm Museum. Cf. Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, 1926. 

1 Other probable synonyms are Certhia flavipes Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 
472, 1788) and Certhia cyanogastra Latham (Ind. Orn., 1, p. 295, 1790), both based 
upon "Blue-throated Creeper" Latham (Gen. Syn. Bds., 1, (2), p. 734), a very 
ambiguously described bird from Cayenne in the collection of the Duchess of 
Portland. 

8 Variously spelt Coereba, Caereba, or Cereba. 



254 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1906 Aripo, Trinidad; idem, I.e., 1, p. 357, 1908 Aripo; Berlepsch, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. Ill, 1908 Cayenne, French Guiana; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 344, 1907 Pernambuco, Bahia, Espirito Santo (Porto 
Cachoeira), and Para (Santarem); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 522, 
1908 Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 101, 
1909 Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 466, 1914 Para, Mocajatuba, Ananindeua, Quati-Puru, Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Monte Alegre, Obidos, 
and Maranhao; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 
1926 Anil, Maranhao; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 480, 1921 
British Guiana. 

Cyanerpes cyaneus cyaneus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 10, 1906 part, 
Cayenne, British Guiana, Guanoco (Venezuela), Trinidad, and Bahia; idem, 
I.e., 15, p. 26, 1908 Fazenda Esperanga, Goyaz; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. 
Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. KL, 26, No. 2, p. 87, 1912 Para, Santo Antonio, 
Igarape-Assu, and Rio Capim, Para; Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 
2, p. 164, 1916 Guanoco, Orinoco Delta; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, 
p. 98, 1916 Utinga, Para; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, p. 84, 1918 Rijsdijkweg, Dutch Guiana; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 80, p. 175, 1928 Para; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 269, 1929 Tranqueira, Sao Luiz, and Rosario, Maranhao; 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 365, 1930 Tapirapoan, Matto 
Grosso. 

Arbelorhina brevipes Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 96, 1851 "Porto Cabello," 
Venezuela, errore (type in Heine Collection, now in Halberstadt Museum, 
examined); Hellmayr, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. 193, 1917 (crit.). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, extending through 
the delta region of the Orinoco to Trinidad; Brazil, south to Rio 
de Janeiro, Goyaz, and Matto Grosso; eastern Peru; eastern Bolivia 
(Guarayos). 1 

21: Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 1); British Guiana (Mazaruni 
River, 1; Demerara River, 2; Potaro, 4); Venezuela (Guanoco, Delta 
Amacuro, 1); Brazil (Sao Luiz, Maranhao, 1; Rosario, Maranhao, 6; 
Tranqueira, Maranhao, 2; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 3). 

1 Birds from Trinidad and the Orinoco Delta (Guanoco) agree with a Guianan 
series. Specimens from Brazil south of the Amazon generally have rather shorter 
and slenderer bills. If they be deemed worthy of separation, a name exists in 
Arbelorhina brevipes Cabanis, as I have ascertained by examination of the type 
specimen. The type, purchased from a dealer by the name of Polly, is labeled 
"Porto Cabello, Venezuela." This is, however, an obvious mistake, since the bird, 
an adult male, agrees in color and dimensions with others from Para and Bahia, 
being much smaller as well as darker blue on the crown than the Caribbean race, 
C._c. eximia. Judging from its preparation, I should say it is a Brazilian trade 
skin. No material has been available from either Peru or Bolivia. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 6; Saint- Jean-du- 
Maroni, 2. British Guiana: Mines district, 8. Venezuela: Guanoco, Delta 
Amacuro, 4. Trinidad, 26. Brazil: Para region, 5; Guia, Rio Negro, 1; Goyaz, 3; 
Bahia, 4. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 255 

*Cyanerpes cyaneus eximius (Cabanis). 1 CARIBBEAN HONEY 
CREEPER. 

Arbelorhina eximia Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 96, 1851 Porto Cabello, 
Venezuela (type in Heine Collection, now in the Municipal Museum, 
Halberstadt, examined; cf. Hellmayr, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. 194, 
1917). 

Coereba cyanea eximia Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 287, 1884 Bucaramanga, 
Colombia; idem, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 Bogota. 

Arbelorhina cyanea eximia Richmond and Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
18, p. 679, 1896 Margarita Island (crit.); Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
12, p. 143, 1898 Santa Marta, Colombia. 

Cyanerpes cyanea(us) eximia(us) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 173, 
1900 Bonda, Cacagualito, and Minca, Colombia; Robinson and Rich- 
mond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 176, 1901 San Julian, near La 
Guaira, Venezuela; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 10, 1906 San Esteban, 
Ejido, Cumana, and Margarita Island, Venezuela (crit.); Hellmayr and 
Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 51, 1912 Cumbre Chiquita, 
Carabobo, Venezuela; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 414, 
1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Coereba cyanea (not Cerihia cyanea Linnaeus) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1864, p. 266 part, Venezuela (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, pp. 166, 627 Pilar and San Esteban, Venezuela; 
Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1879, p. 199 Manaure, Santa Marta; idem, 
Ibis, 1880, p. 119 "Minea"= Minca, Santa Marta; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 32, 1886 part, spec, z, a', d', Manaure, Minca, and 
Venezuela. 

Cyanerpes cyaneus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 386, 1902 
part, Venezuela (Caracas, Margarita Island) and Santa Marta; Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 209, 1913 Cariaquito and Pedernales, 
Venezuela; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 462, 1922 
Tucurinca, Bonda, Cacagualito, Minca, Mamatoco, La Tigrera, Las 
Vegas, and Don Diego, Santa Marta district (crit., habits). 

Cyanerpes cyaneus brevipes (not Arbelorhina brevipes Cabanis) Oberholser, 
Auk, 16, p. 33, 1899 part, Caribbean coast of Colombia and Venezuela 
(crit.); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 250, 1909 Porlamar, 
Margarita Island. 

1 Cyanerpes cyaneus eximius (Cabanis): Similar to C. c. cyaneus, but with 
decidedly longer bill; crown patch of males in nuptial plumage of a paler, less 
intense blue. Bill, 20-23, rarely 18-19. 

While admitting that certain unusually short-billed examples have by no 
means longer bills than C. c. cyaneus, the majority from the Caribbean coast of 
Venezuela and Colombia are fairly distinguishable on this score, and the recogni- 
tion of C. c. eximius seems to me justifiable in spite of the doubt that has been cast 
on its validity. The few not very satisfactory skins from "Bogota" (probably= 
Magdalena Valley) appear to be referable to this form, too. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Yacua, Paria Peninsula, 3; hinter- 
land of Cumana, 17; San Esteban, Carabobo, 8; Cumbre Chiquita, 2; Margarita 
Island, 2; Ejido, Merida, 1. Colombia: Cartagena, 2; "Bogota," 3. 



256 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Caribbean coast of Venezuela, east to the Paria Penin- 
sula, and Colombia, extending south into the eastern Andes of 
Colombia (Bucaramanga; "Bogota"). 

3: Venezuela (Porlamar, Margarita Island, 1); Colombia (Don 
Diego, 1; Tucurinca, 1). 

*Cyanerpes cyaneus carneipes (Sclater). 1 FLESH-LEGGED HONEY 
CREEPER. 

Coereba? carneipes Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 376, 1859 Playa 
Vicente, Oaxaca, and Cordoba, Vera Cruz, Mexico (type, from Playa 
Vicente, in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); Sclater and 
Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 32 Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 52, 
1862 Oaxaca; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 173 "vicinity of 
city of Mexico"; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1864, p. 349 Panama; Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, pp. 291, 318, 1861 Panama Railroad; 
idem, I.e., 8, p. 175, 1865 David, Chiriqui; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, p. 137 Santa F6, Santiago de Veragua, and Cordillera de Tole, 
Veragua, and David, Chiriqui, Panama; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 185 Calove- 
vora, Castillo, Chitra, Cordillera del Chucu, Veragua, and Bugaba, 
Chiriqui; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 548, 1869 hot districts 
of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Coere&a 2 cyanea (not Certhia cyanea Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 286, 1856 Cordoba, Mexico; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1864, p. 266 part, Nicaragua (crit.); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 9, p. 97, 1868 Costa Rica; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1870, p. 836 Honduras; Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 315 Chontales, 
Nicaragua; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 41, 1878 
Guatemala; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 382, 1883 Sucuya, 
Nicaragua; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 248, 
1883 part, Mexico to Panama; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 32, 
1886 part, spec, a, b, d-y, Mexico to Panama; Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 257 
Cozumel Island; Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 435 Miravalles, Costa Rica. 

Arbelorhina cyanea Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 410, 1860 Costa Rica (crit.); 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 579, 1887 Trujillo, Honduras; 
Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 108, 1887 Las Trojas de 
Puntarenas, San Jose, Alajuela, Pozo Azul de Pirris, and Monte Redondo 

1 Cyanerpes cyaneus carneipes (Sclater) : Very similar to C. c. cyaneus and agree- 
ing in proportion of bill; pale blue cap of male in nuptial plumage more restricted 
in area, being separated from the black mantle by a much wider purplish blue 
band; female much more yellowish underneath, especially on throat and middle line. 

Although disregarded by recent authorities, this race seems to me entitled to 
recognition, as long as C. c. eximius is maintained. The only other feasible course 
is to unite all three forms, a procedure I dislike to advocate in view of the relative 
stability of their characters when checked with the aid of adequate series. The 
yellowish edge along the inner webs of the rectrices alluded to by Cabanis, when 
tentatively proposing the name A. marginata for the Costa Rican bird, appears to 
be an individual variation, though I have nowhere else seen it developed to such an 
extent as in some specimens from that country. 

2 Sometimes spelt "Caereba." 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 257 

de San Jose, Costa Rica; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 487, 
1893 San Carlos and Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; Cherrie, Anal. Inst. 
Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 Lagarto, Boruca, 
TeVraba, and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica. 

Cyanerpes cyaneus Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 28, 1900 Loma 
del Leon, Panama; idem, Auk, 18, p. 31, 1901 San Miguel Island; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 386, 1902 part, Central 
American references; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 153, 1903 
Ceiba, Honduras; Thayer and Bangs, I.e., 46, p. 157, 1905 San Miguel 
Island; idem, I.e., p. 221, 1906 savanna of Panama; Cole, I.e., 50, p. 146, 
1906 Xbac, Yucatan; Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 306, 1907 Boruca, Paso Real, 
and Lagarto, Costa Rica; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
p. 126, 1907 Patulul and Mazatenango, Guatemala; Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 822, 1910 Pigres, San Jose", El General, Pozo Azul 
de Pirrls, Miravalles, El Hogar, and Boruca, Costa Rica; Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 277, 1918 Gatun, Panama; Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 13, No. 4, p. 49, 1920 Pearl Islands; Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 320, 
1924 Farfan, Rio Algarrobo, and Sosa Hill, Panama. 

Cyanerpes cyaneus cyaneus Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 390, 1929 
Mountain Cow, British Honduras; Peters, I.e., 69, p. 469, 1929 Tela, 
Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 371, 1932 Guatemala. 

Cyanerpes cyaneus carneipes Oberholser, Auk, 16, p. 33, 1899 from southern 
Mexico to Panama (crit.); Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; 
idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 63, 1902 Boquete, Chiriqui; 
Peters, Auk, 30, p. 378, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo. 

Arbelorhina marginata Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 411, 1860 Costa Rica 
(type in Berlin Museum). 

Range. Tropical zone of Central America, from southern Mexico, 
in states of Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, Yucatan, Quintana Roo, etc., south 
to the Isthmus of Panama, including the Pearl Islands. 

34: Mexico (Buenavista, Yucatan, 1); Guatemala (San Felipe, 
Retalhuleu, 1; Patulul, 2; Mazatenango, 7); Honduras (Trujillo, 1); 
Nicaragua (San Geronimo, Chinandega, 11; San Emilio, Lake 
Nicaragua, 3) ; Costa Rica (Las Cafias, 1; Miravalles, 2; El General, 1; 
El Pozo de Te*rraba, 1); Panama (Colon, 3). 

Cyanerpes cyaneus ramsdeni Bangs. 1 RAMSDEN'S HONEY 
CREEPER. 

1 Cyanerpes cyaneus ramsdeni Bangs: "Differs from the other races by having 
the pale blue crown patch in the adult male very small and restricted to the crown 
itself and not extending to the occiput. Female rather darker above and paler, 
more yellowish below. Wing, 63; tail, 34H; exposed culmen, 16 mm." (Bangs, I.e.). 
Not having any material from Cuba, I am greatly in doubt as to the propriety 
of recognizing this form, which has recently been disregarded and relegated to the 
synonymy of C. c. cyaneus by the describer himself. It has been suggested that the 
bird was not a native of Cuba; but if it was introduced this must have been done 
many years ago, since Gundlach, in 1844, found it already widespread on the 
island. Certain characters given by Bangs, such as the restricted crown patch of 



258 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cyanerpes cyaneus ramsdeni Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 4, p. 91, 
1913 Rio Seco, near Guantanamo, Cuba (type in Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Caereba cyanea (not Certhia cyanea Linnaeus) d'Orbigny, in La Sagra, Hist, 
phys. pol. nat. Cuba, Ornith., p. 124, 1839 Cuba (San Diego) ; Lembeye, 
Aves Cuba, p. 131, 1850 Cuba; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 32, 
1886 part, spec, c, Cuba; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 53, 1886 Cuba (monog.); 
idem, Bds. West Ind., p. 67, 1889 Cuba; Scott, Auk, 10, p. 339, 1893 
Kingston, Jamaica (possibly escaped cage-bird). 

Arbelorhina cyanea Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 98, 1856 Cuba (crit.); 
Gundlach, Rep. Fis.-Nat. Cuba, 1, p. 290, 1866 Cuba; idem, Orn. Cub., 
p. 105, 1893 Cuba; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 310, 1892 
San Pablo, Cuba. 

Cyanerpes cyaneus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 386, 1902 

part, Cuba and Jamaica; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 121, 1923 

Cuba (crit., range). 
Cyanerpes cyaneus cyaneus Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 397, 1930 

Cuba (crit.). 
Cyanerpes cyaneus brevipes (not Arbelorhina brevipes Cabanis) Oberholser, 

Auk, 16, p. 33, 1899 part, Cuba. 

Range. Islands of Cuba and Jamaica (one record from Kingston). 

"Cyanerpes cyaneus pacificus Chapman. 1 PACIFIC HONEY 
CREEPER. 

Cyanerpes cyaneus pacificus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 34, p. 655, 
1915 Barbacoas, Narino, Colombia (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 585, 1917 Buenaventura, 
San Jose, Los Cisneros, Tumaco, and Barbacoas, Colombia; idem, I.e., 
55, p. 645^ 1926 Esmeraldas and coast of Manavl, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Colombia, from Buenaventura 
southwards, and northwestern Ecuador, south to Manavi. 

5: Colombia (San Jose*, 1); Ecuador, Prov. Esmeraldas (Pambilar, 
2; Vacqueria, 1; San Javier, 1). 

the male and the yellowish under parts of the female, point to the Central American 
race (C. c. carneipes), and this assimilation is corroborated by Barbour's note that 
Cuban birds are "not separable from those of Panama and Nicaragua." Under 
these circumstances I hesitate to drop the Cuban race and recommend the investi- 
gation of the problem to one equipped with the necessary material. The occurrence 
of the Blue Honey Creeper in Jamaica seems to be altogether fortuitous, it being 
even possible that the single example taken by Scott was an escaped cage-bird. 

1 Cyanerpes cyaneus pacificus Chapman: Differs readily in both sexes from all 
the other races by the much paler, naphthalene to barium yellow, instead of bright 
strontian yellow, color of the under wing coverts and quill lining. The light blue 
crown patch of the adult male is generally darker, more bluish (near calamine blue) 
and even more restricted than in C. c. carneipes, the purplish blue nuchal band 
being correspondingly wider. Length and shape of bill about the same as in east 
Brazilian specimens of C. c. cyaneus. Wing, 67-70, (female) 67; tail, 38-41, 
(female) 43; bill, 15-17. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 259 

Cyanerpes cyaneus gigas Thayer and Bangs. 1 GORGONA ISLAND 
HONEY CREEPER. 

Cyanerpes gigas Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 96, 1905 
Gorgona Island, Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, I.e., 70, 
p. 397, 1930). 

Coereba cyanea (not Certhia cyanea Linnaeus) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 32, 1886 part, spec, b', Gorgona. 

Range. Gorgona Island, off Colombia. 

*Cyanerpes caeruleus longirostris (Cabanis). 2 TRINIDAD HONEY 
CREEPER. 

Arbelorhina longirostris 3 Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 96, 1851 "Caracas," 

errore, we substitute Trinidad (descr. of young male and female; types 

in Heine Collection, now in Halberstadt Museum, examined); Hellmayr, 

Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. 194, 1917 (crit.). 
Coereba longirostris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 267 

Trinidad (crit.); Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 561 Trinidad 

(crit.). 
Coereba caeruleus longirostris Oberholser, Auk, 16, p. 34, 1899 part, Trinidad 

(crit.). 
Coereba trinitatis Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci., Paris, 38, p. 258, 

1854 "ex Insula Sancta-Trinitas" (type in coll. of J. and E. Verreaux, 

now in Paris Museum); idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 50, 1854 same 

locality. 
Cyanerpes caerulea trinitatis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 8, 1906 Valencia 

and Savannah Grande, Trinidad (crit.) ; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 

Inst., 1, p. 187, 1906 Aripo, Trinidad; idem, I.e., p. 357, 1908 Aripo. 
Coereba caerulea (not Certhia caerulea Linnaeus) Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 81 

Trinidad; LSotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 120, 1866 Trinidad. 

1 Cyanerpes cyaneus gigas Thayer and Bangs: Similar to C. c. pacificus in pale 
under wing coverts and quill lining, but coloration of male darker and more 
purplish, near "cyanine-blue"; female darker and more yellowish below. 

This form, which is only known from two immature males and one female in 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, and a single adult male in the 
British Museum, we have not seen. Its characters as given above are based on 
Chapman's remarks in Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 34, p. 655, 1915. 

1 Cyanerpes caeruleus longirostris (Cabanis) : Closely similar in coloration to 
C. c. caeruleus, but with much larger, longer as well as heavier, bill. Wing, 55-59; 
tail, 27-30; bill, 20^-24. 

This race, which is confined to Trinidad, differs very little in coloration from 
its continental representative, though the males frequently have the crown of a 
darker blue, nearly uniform with the rest of the upper surface, while the females 
are generally darker green above and have the throat somewhat deeper ochraceous. 
The typical specimens of A. longirostris, said to be from "Caracas" on the authority 
of a dealer, proved to be identical with a series from Trinidad. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Valencia, 20; Caparo, 12; Aripo, 4. 

* Misprinted "longirostristris" on page 96, corrected on page 234. 



260 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Arbelorhina caerulea Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 25, 1894 
Trinidad (habits). 

Range. Island of Trinidad. 
1: Trinidad (Valencia, 1). 

*Cyanerpes caeruleus caeruleus (Linnaeus). PURPLE HONEY 
CREEPER. 

Certhia caerulea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 118, 1758 based on 
"Blue Creeper" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 1, p. 21, pi. 21 (=male), 
Surinam. 

Certhia cayana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 186, 1766 based on "Le 
Grimpereau verd de Cayenne" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 636, pi. 33, fig. 2, 
Cayenne (part, "male" = female). 1 

Certhia ochrochlora Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 472, 1789 based on "Yellow- 
cheeked Creeper" Pennant, Gen. Bds., p. 60, pi. 3, fig. 2 (=female); 
Surinam. 

Certhia surinamensis Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 295, 1790 based on "Yellow 
cheeked Creeper" Pennant, Gen. Bds., p. 60, pi. 3, fig. 2; Surinam. 

Arbelorhina caerulea Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 675, 
"1848" British Guiana; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 266, 1890 
Santarem; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 363, 1897 San Antonio [Sucre], Venezuela. 

Coereba* caerulea Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 31, 1857 
Cayenne; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 266 Cayenne; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Pilar [Sucre"], 
Venezuela; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 25, 1868 part, Para; Layard, Ibis, 
1873, p. 378 Para; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 119 "Minea" 
[=Minca], Colombia; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 207 Bartica Grove, Merume 
Mountains, Camacusa, and Roraima, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 33, 1886 part, spec, a, b, r, w-e', Minca, Santarem, 
Roraima, Camacusa, Bartica Grove, Berbice, Maroni River, Cayenne, and 
Para; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 10, p. 116, 1904 Kourou, 
Sinnamary, and Mahury, French Guiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, 
p. 292, 1907 Para, Santo Antonio do Prata, and Rio Moju, Para; Penard, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 475, 1910 Surinam. 

Cyanerpes caeruleus(a) Oberholser, Auk, 16, p. 34, 1899 part, Venezuela and 
British Guiana; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 272, 1905 Igarap6-Assu 
and Bemfica, Para; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 344, 1907 part, Para; 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, pp. 498, 522, 1908 Villa Braga, Rio Tapajoz, 
and Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 112, 1908 
Ipousin, Approuague River, French Guiana; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 65, p. 210, 1913 Cariaquito, Paria Peninsula, Venezuela; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 466, 1914 Para, Mocajatuba, Provi- 
dencia, Ananindeua, Santa Isabel, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Moju, 

1 Brisson, the sole basis of Linnaeus, described the female plumage of the 
present species as "male," while the diagnosis of his supposed female is referable 
to the same sex of C. cyaneus cyaneus, 

2 Variously spelt Coereba, Caereba, and Cereba. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 261 

Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Rio Tapaj6z (Boim, Villa Braga), and Rio 
Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira) ; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Cyanerpes caerulea(us) caerulea(us) Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 8, 1906 
Guiana and Venezuela, south to Para (crit.) ; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., Math.-Phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 87, 1912 Para localities; idem and 
Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 52, 1912 Las Quiguas, Cumbre 
Chiquita, and San Esteban, Carabobo (crit.); Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 
1, p. 101, 1909 Guanoco, Orinoco Delta; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 164, 1917 Guanoco; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 62, p. 84, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Lelydorp, Javaweg, and 
Rijsdijkweg, Dutch Guiana; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 483, 1921 
British Guiana (numerous localities); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 462, 1922 Bonda, Agua Dulce, Las Vegas, Don Diego, and 
Pueblo Viejo, Santa Marta, Colombia (crit., habits); Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 176, 1928 Para; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 270, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Arbelorhina caerulea microrhyncha (not Coereba caerulea microrhyncha Berlepsch) 
Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 143, 1898 Santa Marta, Colombia. 

Cyanerpes caeruleus microrhynchus Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 173, 
1900 Bonda, Minca, Onaca, Las Nubes, and Cacagualito, Colombia. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Venezuela 
(Orinoco Delta and north coast, from the Paria Peninsula westwards) 
and northern Colombia (Santa Marta region); northeastern Brazil 
(Rio Jary; south of the Amazon from the Tapajoz east to north- 
western Maranhao). 1 

10: French Guiana (Saint- Jean-du-Maroni, 2); Dutch Guiana 
(Paramaribo, 1); British Guiana (Kalakoon, 1; Mazaruni River, 1; 
Potaro, 1); Brazil, Para (Utinga, 3; Igarape"-Assu, 1). 

Cyanerpes caeruleus cherriei Berlepsch and Hartert. 2 CHERRIE'S 
HONEY CREEPER. 

1 Venezuelan birds agree with a series from the Guianas, and five adult males 
from the Orinoco Delta (Guanoco) are also typical. Birds from the Para region do 
not seem to be separable either, although some specimens have shorter bills, there- 
by approaching C. c. cherriei. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 8; Saint-Jean-du- 
Maroni, 2; Ipousin, Approuague River, 1. British Guiana: Mines District, 4. 
Venezuela: Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, 5; Sucr6 (Cumana, San Antonio, etc.), 18; 
Carabobo (San Esteban, Las Quiguas, Cumbre Chiquita), 18. Brazil: Para, 2; 
Igarape-Assu, 4; Bemfica, 1. 

2 Cyanerpes caeruleus cherriei Berlepsch and Hartert: Similar to C. c. micro- 
rhynchus (Berlepsch), but decidedly smaller with the bill still shorter and slenderer; 
under parts of adult males on average slightly less purplish. Wing, 52-54, (female) 
53-55; tail, 26-28, (female) 26-29; bill, 15-16, rarely 17. 

Birds from western Amazonia (upper Rio Negro; Teffe"; Salto do Girao) 
appear to be identical with the typical series. An adult male from Manaos, con- 



262 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cyanerpes caerulea cherriei Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 16, 1902 
Munduapo and Nericagua, upper Orinoco, Venezuela (type from Mun- 
duapo in Tring Museum examined); Hellmayr, I.e., 13, p. 9, 1906 
Munduapo (crit.); idem, I.e., 14, pp. 42, 43, 1907 Tefte, Rio Solimoes, 
Brazil (crit., range); idem, I.e., 14, p. 347, 1907 Humayta, Rio Madeira; 
idem, I.e., 17, p. 271, 1910 Jamarysinho and Santa Izabel (Rio Preto), 
Rio Madeira; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 467, 1914 (range); Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 165, 1917 Munduapo, Rio Orinoco. 

Cyanerpes caeruleus cherriei Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 366, 
1930 Morinho Lyra, Matto Grosso. 

Coereba caerulea (notCerthia caerulea Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
25, p. 263, 1857 Ega, Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 570 
upper Rio Negro; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 33, 1888 part, 
spec, q, Ega. 

Caereba caerulea Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 25, 1868 part, Salto do Girao 
and Borba, Rio Madeira, and Marabitanas, Guia, Rio Icanna, and Barra 
[=Manaos], Rio Negro (spec, examined). 

Cyanerpes coeruleus Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 344, 1907 
part, Amazonia, Borba, Rio Negro. 

Range. Plains of the Amazonian forest region, from the banks 
of the upper Orinoco (Munduapo, Nericagua) through the western 
section of the State of Amazonas (Rio Negro; Rio Solimoes) south 
to the Rio Madeira and northern Matto Grosso (Morinho Lyra). 

*Cyanerpes caeruleus microrhynchus (Berlepsch). 1 SMALL- 
BILLED HONEY CREEPER. 

Coereba caerulea microrhyncha Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 287, 1884 
Bogota and Bucaramanga, Colombia, and upper Amazonia [ = Iquitos, 
Peru] (type, from Bucaramanga, in Berlepsch Collection, now in Frank- 
fort Museum, examined). 

trary to what we might have expected, is also similar, showing no approach to 
C. c. caeruleus. 

Material examined. Venezuela, upper Orinoco: Munduapo, 3; Nericagua, 1. 
Brazil: Rio Negro, Marabitanas, 2; Guia, 1; Rio Icanna, 1; Manaos, 1; Teff6, Rio 
Solimoes, 8; Rio Madeira, Humayta, 1; Salto do Girao, 1; Santa Izabel, Rio Preto, 
1; Jamarysinho, Rio Machados, 1. 

1 Cyanerpes caeruleus microrhynchus (Berlepsch) : Similar to C. c. caeruleus, but 
adult male with forepart of crown, cheeks, and malar region decidedly paler blue; 
bill slenderer, though not constantly shorter. 

Birds from Peru and Ecuador are identical in coloration with those from 
Colombia, and many do not differ in proportions of bill either. Other specimens, 
however, have somewhat slenderer, snorter bills, and closely approach C. c. cher- 
riei, from which they can only be distinguished by their shorter wings. Females 
exhibit certain variations, notably in the coloration of the auriculars, as has been 
pointed out by Mr. Zimmer, but the constancy of this divergency remains to be 
determined by more adequate series. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Bucaramanga, 1 (the type); 
Bogota, 32. Venezuela: "Merida," 2. Ecuador: "Rio Napo," 2. Peru: Iquitos, 
13; Nauta, 2; Pozuzo, Huanuco, 3; Chanchamayo, Junfn, 1; Chaquimayo, Cara- 
baya, 1; Yahuarmayo, 4; Rio San Gaban, 1. Bolivia: San Augustin, 1; Mapiri, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 263 

Arbelorhina coerulea microrhyncha Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 295, 1889 
Yurimaguas and Cumbase, near Tarapoto, Peru (crit.) ; idem and Stolzmann, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 337 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru 
(crit.). 

Cyanerpes caerulea microrhyncha Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 9, 1906 
Colombia and Me"rida to northeastern Bolivia ("Beni"=San Augustin) 
(crit.); idem, I.e., 14, p. 43, 1907 San Augustin, Bolivia, and Pozuzo, 
Peru (crit., range); idem, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 14, 1920 
Chaquimayo, Yahuarmayo, and San Gaban, Dept. Puno, Peru (crit.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 586, 1917 part, near Honda 
and Buena Vista (above Villa vicencio), Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 646, 
1926 Napo, Zamora, and Rio Suno, eastern Ecuador; Zimmer, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 423, 1930 Vista Alegre, Dept. Huanuco, 
and Puerto Bermudez, Dept. Junln, Peru (crit.); Laubmann, Wissens. 
Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 301, 1930 Buena Vista, Santa 
Cruz, Bolivia (crit.). 

Cyanerpes caeruleus microrhynchus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 
108, 1906 Huaynapata, Rio Cadena, and Escopal, Marcapata, Peru. 

Coereba caerulea (not Certhia caerulea Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
23, p. 137, 1855 Bogot4 (crit.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 53, 
1862 part, spec, d, Rio Napo; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 749 Xeberos, Peru; idem, I.e., p. 977 Pebas, Peru; idem, 
I.e., 1873, p. 185 Cosnipata, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 497 Remedies and 
Medellin, Colombia; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 597 Tilotilo, Simacu, and 
Nairapi, Prov. Yungas, Bolivia; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 437, 1884 
Huambo, Paltaypampa, Monterico, and Moyobamba, Peru; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 33, 1886 part, Bogota, Remedies (Antioquia), 
Ecuador (Sarayacu), Peru (Pebas, Ucayali), and Bolivia (Nairapi, Simacu); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 80, 1889 Falls of the Madeira and 
Mapiri, Bolivia (crit.); Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 13, 1899 Santiago, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, 
p. 319 Archidona, Ecuador. 

Cyanerpes caeruleus Oberholser, Auk, 16, p. 34, 1899 part, Bolivia to 
Colombia; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Canelos, 
Ecuador. 

Coereba brevirostris (not Arbelorhina brevirostris Cabanis) Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 53, 1862 Bogota; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1864, p. 267 part, Bogota. 

Coereba nitida (not of Hartlaub) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, 
p. 510 Paltaybamba, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Colombia (Magdalena Valley 
and east side of eastern Andes), and extreme western Venezuela 
(Me"rida) south through eastern Ecuador and Peru to northern 
Bolivia. 

9: Colombia ("Bogota," 2); Peru (Moyobamba, 4; Vista Alegre, 
1; Puerto Bermudez, 1); Bolivia (Buenavista, Dept. Santa Cruz, 1). 



264 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Cyanerpes caeruleus chocoanus Hellmayr. 1 CHOCO HONEY 
CREEPER. 

Cyanerpes caerulea chocoana Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 14 
(footnote), 1920 "Sao Joaquim" [=San Joaquin] del Choco, Colombia 
(type in Munich Museum); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 
646, 1926 western Ecuador (crit.). 

Coereba brevirostris (not Arbelorhina brevirostris Cabanis) Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 267 part, Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

Coereba caerulea (not Certhia caerulea Linnaeus) Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 543 Chimbo, Ecuador. 

Cyanerpes caerulea microrhyncha (not of Berlepsch) Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1911, p. 1097 N6vita, San Joaquin del Choco, and Rio Caj6n, 
Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 586, 1917 part, 
Quibdo, Juntas de Tamana, Noanama, and Barbacoas, Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador and Pacific Colombia, 
north to the upper Atrato (Quibdo). 

7: Colombia, Rio San Juan, Choco (Noanamd, 4; Tado, 3). 

*Cyanerpes caeruleus isthmicus Bangs. 2 ISTHMIAN HONEY 
CREEPER. 

Cyanerpes lucidus isthmicus Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 306, 1917 Paso Real, Costa 
Rica (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 397, 
1930); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 821, 1910 Costa Rica (crit., 
habits); Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 462, 1928 
Boquete Trail, Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 340, 1931 
Almirante, Panama; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 367, 1932 Perm6 and 
Obaldia, Panama. 

Coereba caerulea (not Certhia caerulea Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 140, 1856 David, Panama. 

Coereba lucida (not of Sclater and Salvin) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. 
Y., 7, pp. 291, 318, 1861 Panama Railroad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 

1 Cyanerpes caeruleus chocoanus Hellmayr: Nearest to C. c. microrhynchus, but 
wings and tail slightly shorter; adult males less purplish with crown, cheeks, and 
auriculars much lighter blue; females with paler, more yellowish green upper sur- 
face, light buff instead of ochraceous lores and throat, and much narrower as well 
as paler blue rictal streak. Wing, 53-56, (female) 54-55; tail, 26-28; bill, 17-18. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: N6vita, 2; San Joaquin, Bahia del 
Choc6, IjRioCajon, 4. 

2 Cyanerpes caeruleus isthmicus Bangs: Similar to C. c. lucidus, but decidedly 
smaller with shorter and slenderer bill, especially at base; blue color of adult male 
darker, the crown and hind neck distinctly lighter than, instead of concolor with, 
the back; female with dorsal surface slightly duller green and the pileum less 
bluish. Wing (adult male), 52-56; tail, 25-27; bill, 16-18, rarely 19. 

I cannot see in this and the next form anything but well-marked races of 
C. caeruleus. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: P6zo Azul de Pirris, 6; Siquirres, 
Rio Reventaz6n, 1. Panama: Chiriqui, 2. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 265 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 349 Panama Railroad; Cassin, Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 267 Panama (crit.); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1867, p. 137 David; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 185 Bugaba, Chiriquf; 

Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 249, 1883 part, 

Panama (David, Bugaba, Panama Railroad); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 35, 1886 part, spec, h-k, Veragua, Bugaba, and Lion Hill, 

Panama; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, 

p. 3, 1899 Chiriquf. 
Arbelorhina lucida Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 108, 1887 

San Jos6, Port Limon, and P6zo Azul de Pirris, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Auk, 

9, p. 23, 1892 San Jos6, Costa Rica; idem, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. 

Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 Boruca and Terraba, Costa Rica; 

Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 14, p. 488, 1893 Rio Escondido, 

Costa Rica (habits). 
Cyanerpes lucidus(a) Oberholser, Auk, 16, p. 34, 1899 part (crit.); Bangs, 

Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

50, Part 2, p. 389, 1902 part, Costa Rican and Panama localities and 

references. 

Range. Tropical zone of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama 
east to Darien (Perme* and Obaldia). 

6: Costa Rica (Limon, 1; San Jose", 1; Boruca, 2; unspecified, 1); 
Panama (Boqueron, 1). 

*Cyanerpes caeruleus lucid us (Sclater and Salvin). SHINING 
HONEY CREEPER. 

Coereba lucida Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1, p. 14, 1859 Guatemala (type in 
coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum) ; Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
27, p. 53, 1859 Omoa, Honduras; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 53, 
1862 Choctum, Vera Paz; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, 
p. 42, 1878 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 249, 1883 part, Guatemala and Honduras; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 35, 1886 part, spec, a-g, Guatemala. 

Cyanerpes lucidus(a) Oberholser, Auk, 16, p. 34, 1899 part, Guatemala; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 389, 1902 part, Guate- 
malan and Honduran references and localities; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 39, p. 153, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras. 

Cyanerpes lucidus lucidus Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 371, 1932 
Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of Guatemala (Vera Paz) and Honduras 
(Omoa, Ceiba). 1 

2: Guatemala (Vera Paz, 2). 

*Cyanerpes nitidus (Hartlaub). 2 SHORT-BILLED HONEY CREEPER. 

1 Additional material examined. Guatemala: Vera Paz, 6. 

1 Cyanerpes nitidus (Hartlaub) is immediately recognizable from C. caeruleus 
by its much shorter, stouter as well as less curved bill. Besides, the blue color of 
the body plumage in the adult male is much brighter, lacking the purplish tone, and 



266 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Coereba nitida Hartlaub, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 84, 1847 "du nord du Perou" 
(descr. male; type in Bremen Museum); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
25, p. 264, 1857 Rio Javarri, Brazil; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 53, 
1862 Bogota; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 267 part, 
upper Amazon (excl. descr. of female); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 749 Xeberos, Peru; idem, I.e., p. 977 Pebas, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1873, p. 260 Xeberos, Chamicuros, and Pebas, Peru; Tacza- 
nowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 439, 1884 Xeberos, Chamicuros, Pebas, and 
Lamas; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 35, 1886 Colombia (Bogota), 
Brazil (Ega), and Peru (Pebas, Xeberos, Ucayali). 

Caereba nitida Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1850, p. 147, pi. 66, fig. sup. 
(= adult male) "from the upper branches of the Amazons"; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 1, p. 25, 1868 Marabitanas, Rio Xie, and Rio Iganna, upper 
Rio Negro, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Arbelorhina nitida Reichenbach, Handb. Spez. Orn., livr. 5, p. 235, pi. 555, 
fig. 3772, 1853 Peru, upper Amazon, and "Porto Cabello" (crit.). 

Cyanerpes nitida Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 16, 1902 Suapure 
and Nicare, Caura River, Venezuela; Hellmayr, I.e., 14, p. 43, 1907 
Teffe', Rio Solimoes (descr. female); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, 
p. 467, 1914 (range); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 165, 
1917 Caura Valley, Venezuela. 

Cyanerpes nitidus Oberholser, Auk, 16, p. 35, 1899 (range) ; Ihering and Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 344, 1907 (range); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 60, p. 366, 1930 Rio Roosevelt, Matto Grosso. 

Arbelorhina brevirostris Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 96, 1851 "Porto Cabello," 
Venezuela, errore (descr. male; type in Heine Collection, now in Halber- 
stadt Museum, examined); Hellmayr, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. 196, 
1917 (crit.). 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from the eastern base of the eastern 
Andes in Colombia and the Caura Valley in Venezuela through 
eastern Ecuador and the adjoining parts of Brazil (Rio Negro; Rio 
Solimoes) south to eastern Peru and northern Matto Grosso (Rio 
Roosevelt). 

1: Peru (unspecified, I). 1 

the black gorget is extended onto the middle of the chest, while the female may be 
distinguished by paler throat, nearly white instead of bright yellow abdominal 
line, and yellow instead of dusky feet. The dimensions are even less than in 
C. c. cherriei. 

Birds from the upper Rio Negro and Venezuela (Caura Valley) do not appreci- 
ably differ from Peruvian specimens, and a single native "Bogota" skin also 
agrees. The type of A. brevirostris, with the obviously erroneous locality "Puerto 
Cabello," is a perfectly normal example of the present species. Though its identity 
had already been recognized by Reichenbach, his statement was overlooked by all 
subsequent authors. 

Material examined. Peru: Iquitos, 4. Colombia: "Bogota," 1. Brazil: 
Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 1; Rio Xie, 1; Rio Icanna, 1; Teffe, Rio Solimoes, 1. 
Venezuela, Caura Valley: Nicare, 8; Suapure, 2. 

though labeled "Bogota," this is undoubtedly one of J. Hauxwell's skins 
from northern Peru. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 267 

Genus DAGNIS Cuvier 

Dacnis Cuvier, Regne Animal, 1, p. 395, "1817" [=Dec. 6, 1816] type, 
by virtual monotypy, Motacilla cayana Linnaeus. 

Cyanodacnis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 268 type, by 

subs, desig. (Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 18, 1886), Motacilla 

cayana Linnaeus. 
Polidacnis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 269 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 18, 1886), Dacnis angelica 

Bonaparte Motacilla lineata Gmelin. 

Eudacnis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 270 type, by subs, 
desig. (Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 18, 1886), Dacnis flaviventer 
Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 

*Dacnis cayana cayana (Linnaeus). CAYENNE DACNIS. 

Motacilla cayana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 336, 1766 based on 

"Sylvia cayanensis coerulea" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 534, pi. 28, fig. I; 1 Cayenne 

(type in coll. of M. de Reaumur). 
Fringilla cyanomelas Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 924, 1789 based on 

"Fringilla caerulea, mento, gula, etc. nigris" Koelreuter, Nov. Comm. 

Petrop., 11, p. 434, pi. 15, fig. 6 (=male), 1767; "India," errore. 
Motacilla cyanocephala Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 990, 1789 based on 

"Sylvia viridis" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 531, pi. 28, fig. 4; Cayenne (descr. 

of female; type in coll. of M. de Reaumur). 
Pipra tricolor Karsten, Mus. Lesk., 1, p. XXIII, Aves, pi. 2, No. 1 (=female), 

1789 "Cape of Good Hope," errore. 

Certhia spiza (not of Linnaeus) Voigt, Mag. Neuest. Zust. Naturk., 6, (1), 
p. 16, pi. 1 (=female), 1803 no locality stated. 

C[assicus] T. cayanensis Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allgem. Encycl. Wiss., 
15, p. 277, 1826 Brazil and Surinam. 

Nectarinia bicolor Becklemichew, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou, 1, 
p. 378, pi. 23 (=male), 1829 "climats chauds de I'Am^rique" (type in 
coll. of S. Becklemichew). 

Dacnis cyanater Lesson, Trait6 d'Orn., p. 458, 1831 "Bresil" (type in Paris 
Museum examined) ; Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 6, p. 70, 1854 (crit.). 2 

1 Although neither description nor plate indicates the black gular area, as has 
been pointed out long ago by the late Count Berlepsch (Ibis, 1881, pp. 240-241), 
authors nowadays agree that Brisson's account, practically the sole basis of 
Motacilla cayana Linnaeus, cannot well be intended for any other species. It 
is hardly necessary to add that the "Elotototl" of Hernandez from Mexico, quoted 
by Linnaeus in the synonymy of his Motacilla cayana, has no relation to the 
Cayenne Dacnis. 

2 The type, an adult male, has no locality attached to it, and there is absolutely 
no way of telling whence it might have originated, though "Rio de Janeiro," 
suggested by us in another connection (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zopl. Ser., 12, p. 
268, 1929) as terra typica, is just as likely as any other place. Considering the cir- 
cumstance that its dimensions (wing, 64; tail, 44; bill, 12 %) furnish no conclusive 
proof as to subspecific pertinence, it seems best to include the name in the 
synonymy of D. c, cayana. 



268 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Dacnis cyanocephala Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 675, 
"1848" British Guiana; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 25, 1868 part, Matto 
Grosso, Engenho do Gama, Borba, Rio Negro, Marabitanas, Rio Icanna, 
Barcellos, Forte do Rio Branco, and Para, Brazil. 

Dacnis cayana Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 15 (crit., synon.); Sclater, 
I.e., 1851, p. 106 part, Trinidad, Cayenne, and British Guiana; idem, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 252, 1854 part, Trinidad, Guiana, and 
Cayenne; idem, I.e., 23, p. 137, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 25, p. 263, 
1857 Ega, Brazil; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 50, 1862 "Bogota," 
Trinidad, and Cayenne; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 313 part, "Bogota," Vene- 
zuela, Guiana, Amazonia; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 81 Trinidad; L6otaud, 
Ois. Trinidad, p. 124, 1866 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 570 Para; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 259 part, Ega; idem, 
I.e., 1875, p. 237 San Cristobal, Tachira, Venezuela; Layard, Ibis, 
1873, p. 378 Para; Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 78, 1876 Santarem; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 207 Bartica Grove, Memm6 Mountains, Camacusa, 
and Roraima, British Guiana; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 266, 1890 
Santarem; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 26, 1894 Trinidad; 
Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 15, 1902 Maipures, Rio Orinoco, 
and Caura Valley (Suapure, Nicare, La Union, Le Pricion), Venezuela; 
Hellmayr, I.e., 12, p. 271, 1905 Igarape-Assu, Para; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 188, 1906 Aripo, Trinidad; Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 343, 1907 part, SantarSm; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 
292, 1907 Maraca, Para, Rio Moju, Santo Antonio do Prata, Marajo, 
Monte Alegre, and Maranhao (Jutahizal), Brazil; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 
15, p. 110, 1908 Cayenne and Roche-Marie, French Guiana; Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 209, 1913 Cariaquito, Paria Peninsula, 
Venezuela; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 463, 1914 Para, Providencia, 
Ananindeua, Maguary, Santa Izabel, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Moju, 
Rio Tocantins (Cameta, Baiao, Arumatheua), Rio Tapaj6z (Boim, 
Pimental), Maraj6 (Santa Anna), Maraca, Monte Alegre, Obidos, Rio 
Jamunda (Faro), and Maranhao; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 Anil, Maranhao; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, 
p. 476, 1921 numerous localities. 

Dacnis cayana cayana Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 392, 
1902 part, Guiana, Venezuela, and Colombia; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 

13, p. 10, 1906 Laventille, Seelet, Chaguaramas, and Caparo, Trinidad; 
idem, I.e., 13, p. 356, 1906 Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 

14, p. 29, 1907 Obidos; idem, I.e., 14, p. 346, 1907 Humayta, Rio 
Madeira; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 357, 1908 Carenage 
and Aripo, Trinidad; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 102, 1909 Guanoco, 
Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 269, 1910 Santa 
Izabel, Rio Preto, Rio Madeira; Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 
78, A, Heft 5, p. 50, 1912 Las Quiguas, Cumbre Chiquita, and San 
Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
Math.-Phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 6, 87, 1912 Para district; Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 2, p. 98, 1916 Utinga, Para; Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. 
Bull., 2, p. 165, 1916 Orinoco region; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
36, p. 584, 1917 La Morelia, Florencia, and Villavicencio, Colombia 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 269 

(crit.); Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 84, 1918 
vicinity of Paramaribo and Rijskijkweg, Dutch Guiana; Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 267, 1929 Tury-assu and Sao Luiz, 
Maranhao (crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 175, 1928 
Para; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 362, 1930 Rio Roosevelt, 
Matto Grosso. 

Dacnis cayana subsp. typica Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 20, 1886 
part, spec, k-r, Trinidad, Bartica Grove, Roraima, Camacusa, Cayenne, 
and Para. 

Dacnis cyanomelas Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 31, 1857 
Cayenne; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1881, p. 241 (crit., nomencl.); idem, Zeits. 
Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 "Bogota." 

Dacnis nigripes (not of Pelzeln) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 16, 
p. 269, 1864 Cayenne and northern Brazil (crit.). 

Range. Northern South America, from the forested coast dis- 
trict of Maranhao, Marajo, the Guianas and Trinidad through 
Amazonia and Venezuela west to the eastern foot of the eastern 
Andes in Colombia, and to the Rio Solimoes and Rio Madeira in 
Brazil, extending south to northern Matto Grosso (Villa Bella, Rio 
Guapore"; Rio Roosevelt). 1 

15: French Guiana (Saint- Jean-du-Maroni, 1); Dutch Guiana 
(Paramaribo, 1); British Guiana (Mazaruni River, 2); Brazil (Boa 
Vista, Rio Branco, 1; Serra da Lua, 1; Rio Maycuru, 1; Manaos, 1; 
Utinga, Para, 4; Sao Luiz, Maranhao, 2; Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1). 

1 Birds from Amazonia and Venezuela are apparently inseparable from a 
Guianan series, the throat being deep black in the male, and distinctly bluish gray 
in the female sex. Specimens from northern Matto Grosso are referred by Mrs. 
Naumburg to typical cayana, to which a single adult male from the Rio Roosevelt 
(6th of March Rapids) seems actually to belong. In the western section of the 
state the present form obviously intergrades with D. c. glaucogularis. A female 
from Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore', agrees in coloration with cayana, but is 
larger, while a male from the same locality closely approaches the Bolivian race in 
the more greenish blue general plumage, as well as in the less blackish throat. In 
natiye "Bogota" collections typical cayana is found along with males that cannot 
be distinguished from glaucogularis, and others more or less intermediate between 
the two as to the color of the dark gular area. Of course, nothing is known regard- 
ing the exact origin of these specimens, and the distribution of the two races in 
Colombia east of the Andes remains to be determined. It will be noted, however, 
that Chapman (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 584, 1917) considers birds from 
Villavicencio and the Caqueta region to be inseparable from the Guianan form. 
A single male from Roraima is unusually large. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 14; Roche Marie, 
2; Saint-Jean-du-Maroni, 1. British Guiana: Roraima, 1. Trinidad: Santa 
Cruz, 2; Carenage, 4; Caparo, 4; Laventille, 2; Seelet, 1; Chaguaramas, 1; Aripo, 
3. Venezuela: hinterland of Cumana, 4; Caura Valley, 15; Maipures, Rio Orinoco, 
4; Las Quiguas, Carabobo, 3; Cumbre Chiquita, Carabobo, 6; San Esteban, 3. 
Brazil: Igarape-Assu, Para, 2; Santo Antonio do Prata, 1; Para, 1; Mangos, 1; 
Barcellos, 1; Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 1; Obidos, 1; Borba, Rio Madeira, 3; 
Humayta, Rio Madeira, 2; Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore, 2; Rio Roosevelt, 
Matto Grosso, 1. Colombia: "Bogota," 3. 



270 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Dacnis cayana paraguayensis Chubb. 1 PARAGUAYAN DACNIS. 

Dacnis cayana paraguayensis Chubb, Ibis, (9), 4, p. 619, 1910 "Paraguay, 
Matto Grosso, and southeastern Brazil" (type from Sapucay, Paraguay, 
in British Museum); Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 11, p. 6, 1919 
Villa Lutetia, San Ignacio, Misiones; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, 
p. 319, 1928 Monte Serrat, Itatiaya; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 267, 1929 Maranhao (Tranqueira, B6a Fe, Barra do 
Corda) and Ceara (Serra de Baturite) (crit.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 60, p. 363, 1930 Tapirapoan and Utiarity, Matto Grosso. 

Nectarinia cyanocephala (not Motacilla cyanocephala Gmelin) Swainson, Zool. 
Illust., 2, pi. 117 (male, female), 1822 Brazil. 

Dacnis cyanocephala Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870. 
p. 435 Minas Geraes (Nascimento, Barbacena, Lagda Santa, Sete Lag6as)> 
Sao Paulo (Uberaba, Hytu, Araras), and Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo, 
Taipu). 

Coereba caerulea (not Certhia caerulea Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3, (2), p. 766, 1831 Rio de Janeiro (crit.). 

Dacnis cyanomelas (notFringilla cyanomelas Gmelin) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 153, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio, and Lagda Santa, Minas 
Geraes; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 25, 1868 part, Rio de Janeiro, Sapitiba, 
Ypanema, and Goyaz, Brazil; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 235, 1873 
Blumenau, Santa Catharina (crit.) ; Boucard and Berlepsch, The Humming 
Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro. 

Dacnis cayana (not Motacilla cayana Linnaeus) Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, 
p. 106 part, Rio de Janeiro; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 252, 
1854 part, "Brasilia orientalis"; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 314 part, southern 
Brazil; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 16, p. 268, 1864 Bahia and 
southern Brazil (monog.); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 84, 1874 Can- 
tagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 330 Pernambuco; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 347, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 141, 1899 Iguape, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 

1 Dacnis cayana paraguayensis Chubb: Very similar to D. c. cayana, but 
larger, with longer bill; coloration of males less intensely blue; female without any 
bluish tinge on the throat, the latter being dingy or yellowish gray. 

The characters of this race are most strongly developed in Paraguay and the 
adjoining states of southern Brazil (Santa Catharina and Sao Paulo). Specimens 
from this part of the range are invariably large with long, heavy bills, when com- 
pared to a series of the northern cayana, and the plumage of the adult males is con- 
spicuously more greenish blue. Similar individuals also occur in the more northern 
parts of Brazil, though their bills are, as a rule, shorter and slenderer. Other 
specimens from Bahia and Pernambuco, however, are hardly different in dimen- 
sions from typical cayana. 

Birds from the tableland of Matto Grosso are intermediate to glaucogularis. 
The black of the dorsal area in adult males is as dull as in the latter form, and the 
coloration of the throat is also very similar, though less suffused with greenish; 
females, however, are more like paraguayensis. It is really a matter of personal 
preference to refer them to one rather than to the other race. 

Additional specimens examined. Paraguay: Sapucay, 3. Brazil: Joinville, 
Santa Catharina, 71; Sao Paulo, 10; Sapitiba, Rio de Janeiro, 3; Nova Friburgo, 
Rio de Janeiro, 4; Agua Suja, near Bagagem, Minas Geraes, 6; Bahia, 2; Pao 
d'Alho, Pernambuco, 2; Oro, Piauhy, 1; Barra do Galiota, Maranhao, 1; Goyaz, 5; 
Chapada, Matto Grosso, 9. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 271 

4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, I.e., p. 208, 
1900 (nest and eggs); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 40 Bahia; Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 343, 1907 part, Sao Paulo (IguapS, Sao Sebastiao, Ubatuba, 
Itatiba, Piquete, Cachoeira, Itarare 1 , Avanhandava), Parana (Ourinho), 
Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre), Rio de Janeiro (Ilha Grande), Espirito 
Santo (Porto Cachoeiro), Santa Catharina (Joinville), and Rio Grande 
do Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 86, 1910 Pernambuco (Pao d'Alho, near Recife), 
Piauhy (Oro), and Maranhao (Barra do Galiota); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 41, 1926 Ceara. 

Dacnis cayana cayana Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 26, 1908 Goyaz (crit.). 
Range. Paraguay; northeastern Argentina (Misiones); eastern 
and southern Brazil from Rio Grande do Sul and Matto Grosso 
north to Ceara, Piauhy, and the interior of Maranhao. 

22: Brazil, Maranhao (Tranqueira, 1; Boa FC", 1; Barra do Corda, 
Ponto, 1); Ceara (Serra de Baturite', 4); Bahia (Santo Amaro, 2; 
Bahia, 1) ; Minas Geraes (Rio das Velhas, near Lag6a Santa, 1) ; Sao 
Paulo (Bauru, 6; Sao Sebastiao, 1); Matto Grosso (Chapada, 4). 

*Dacnis cayana glaucogularis Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 DULL- 
THROATED DACNIS. 

Dacnis cayana glaucogularis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 336 La Gloria and La Merced, Chanchamayo, Dept. Junin, 
Peru (type, from La Merced, in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and 
Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 179, 1927); idem, 
Ornis, 13, pp. 77, 108, 1906 Idma (Santa Ana), Huaynapata, and Rio 
Cadena, Dept. Cuzco, Peru; M6n6gaux, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 
1911 Nuevo Loreto, Peru; Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 
1096 (range); idem, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 247, 1921 Yuracares, Bolivia 
(crit., range); Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 Pericho, Peru; 
Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 116, 1921 Idma, Urubamba, 
Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 643, 1926 Zamora and below 
San Jos6, Ecuador; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., 
Vogel, p. 300, 1930 Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (crit.). 

Dacnis cyanater (not of Lesson) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in 
Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 21, 1837 Yuracares and "Chiquitos," Bolivia. 

Dacnis cyanocephalus (not Motacilla cyanocephala Gmelin) d'Orbigny, Voy. 
Am6r. Merid., Ois., p. 221, 1836 Rio Tanampaya (Yungas), Santa 
Cruz de la Sierra, and Yuracares, Bolivia. 

1 Dacnis cayana glaucogularis Berlepsch and Stolzmann: Similar to D. c. 
cayana and about the same size, but black of throat and mantle in adult males less 
intense, more or less obscured by greenish tips or edges; female not certainly dis- 
tinguishable. Bolivian males are generally of a more greenish blue coloration, 
verging toward D. c. paraguayensis, but quite similar examples may also be 
encountered in "Bogota" and Peru. 

Additional specimens examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 4. Peru: Nuevo 
Loreto, 1; La Merced, Chanchamayo, 3; Pozuzo, Huanuco, 3; Chaquimayo, 
Carabaya, 1. Bolivia: Simacu, 1; Buenavista, Prov. del Sara, 6. 



272 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Dacnis cayana (not Motadlla cayana Linnaeus) Sclater, Contrib. Orn., p. 106, 
1851 part, Peru and Bolivia ("Chiquitos"); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
22, p. 110, 1854 Quijos, Ecuador; idem, I.e., p. 252, 1854 part, Peru 
and Bolivia; idem, I.e., 26, p. 61, 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 
p. 452, 1858 Gualaquiza, Ecuador; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 313 part, 
Bolivia and Peru (Chamicuros) ; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1866, p. 179 lower Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Xeberos, 
Peru; idem, I.e., p. 977 Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 259 part, 
Peruvian localities (lower Ucayali, Xeberos, Chamicuros, Pebas); idem, 
I.e., 1879, p. 597 Bolivia (d'Orbigny's localities); Taczanowski, I.e., 
1874, p. 510 Monterico, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 9 Huambo, Peru; 
idem, Orn. Per., 1, p. 428, 1884 Peruvian localities; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 2, p. 80, 1889 Mapiri and Falls of the Madeira, Bolivia. 

Dacnis cayana subsp. typica Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 20, 1886 
part, spec, f-j, Pebas, Chamicuros, Sarayacu, Simacu, and Bolivia. 

Dacnis cyanomelas (not Fringilla cyanomelas Gmelin) Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 
37, p. 294, 1889 Tarapoto and Yurimaguas, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of upper Amazonia, from northern Bolivia 
through eastern Peru north to eastern Ecuador (?) and southeastern 
Colombia. 

10: Peru (Moyobamba, 2; Vista Alegre, Huanuco, 2; Rio 
Colorado, Chanchamayo, 1; San Ramon, 1); Bolivia (Buenavista, 4). 

*Dacnis cayana coerebicolor Sclater. 1 PURPLE-BLUE DACNIS. 

Dacnis coerebicolor Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, pp. 106-112 "New Granada 
(?)"=Bogota collections (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 252, 1854 "Nova 
Grenada"; idem, I.e., 23, p. 137, 1855 Bogota; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 51, 1862 Bogota; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 314 Bogota collections 
(crit.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 16, p. 270, 1864 Bogota; 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 324 Bucaramanga; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 497 Remedios, Antioquia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 
32, p. 286, 1884 Bucaramanga; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 21, 
pi. 3, 1886 Bogota and Remedios, Colombia; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, 
p. 481, 1898 Paramba, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 318 Santo 
Domingo, Ecuador; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geog. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 87, 1911 Santo Domingo, Ecuador. 

1 Dacnis cayana coerebicolor Sclater is the most deeply colored among the races 
of this group, the male being recognizable by the purplish blue tone of the plumage. 
The female differs from that of the allied races (cayana and glaucogularis) by the 
much deeper blue color of the top and sides of the head. Birds from the Pacific 
slope of Colombia and Ecuador are on average paler, and connect the intensely 
colored Magdalena Valley variety with D. c. napaea, of the Santa Marta district, as 
has been explained by Hellmayr and Chapman. Further subdivision seems, 
however, unwarranted, since a good many individuals from the two regions are 
practically indistinguishable. 

Additional specimens examined. Colombia: Bucaramanga, 1; "Bogota," 12; 
Remedios, Antioquia, 1; Noanama, 4; Novita, 5; Tado, Rio San Juan, 3; Sipi, Rio 
Sipi, 3; Jimenez, 16; Rio Oscuro, Cauca, 1. Ecuador: Paramba, 6; Lita, 2. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 273 

Dacnis cayana coerebicolor Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1095 
Noanama, Novita, Tado, Sipi, Jimenez, and Rio Oscuro, western Colombia 
(crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 584, 1917 Juntas de 
Tamana, Novita, San Jose, Barbacoas, Buenavista (Narifto), Puerto 
Valdivia, near Honda, "Bogota," and Andalucia, Colombia (crit.) ; idem, I.e., 
55, p. 643, 1926 Esmeraldas, Rio de Oro, and Naranjo, Ecuador (crit.). 

Dacnis cayana (not Motacilla cayana Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 496 Remedies, Antioquia. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador and Colombia, east 
to the Magdalena Valley, excepting the Santa Marta region. 
4: Colombia (Rio Bariatou, 2; Jime'nez, 1; "Bogota," 1). 

Dacnis cayana napaea Bangs. 1 SANTA MARTA DACNIS. 

Dacnis napaea Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 143, 1898 Santa Marta, 
Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 396, 1930); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 174, 1900 Bonda and Cacagualito. 

Dacnis cayana napaea Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1096 Santa 
Marta district (crit.). 

Dacnis coerebicolor napaea Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 
460, 1922 Fundacion, Tucurinca, Mamatoco, La Tigrera, Trojas de 
Cataca, and Don Diego (crit., habits); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 71, p. 414, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Range. Lower Tropical zone of northern Colombia, in the Santa 
Marta region, east to Dibulla, south to Fundacion. 

*Dacnis cayana ultramarina Lawrence. ULTRAMARINE DACNIS. 

Dacnis ultramarina Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 16, p. 106, 1864 
Isthmus of Panama [=Lion Hill, Panama Railroad] (type in coll. of 
Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York); Cassin, I.e., p. 269, 1864 Isthmus of Panama (crit.); Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 348 Panama Railroad; 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 180, 1865 Greytown, Nica- 
ragua; idem, I.e., 9, p. 97, 1868 Angostura, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 185 Chepo, Panama; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 244, 1883 Nicaragua (Chontales, Greytown), Costa Rica (Angos- 
tura), and Panama (Chepo and railroad line); Richmond, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 16, p. 487, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; Bangs, Proc. 
New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 28, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama. 

Dacnis cayana subsp. ultramarina Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 20, 
1886 Nicaragua (Chontales), "Veragua," and Panama (Chepo, Lion Hill). 

1 Dacnis cayana napaea Bangs: Male intermediate in coloration between 
D. c. coerebicolor and D. c. ultramarina, the tone of the plumage being an intense 
cobalt blue; female not distinguishable in color from D. c. coerebicolor; bill decidedly 
longer than in either of the two races. Wing, 68, (female) 62-64 ; tail, 45-48; bill, 14-15. 

Material examined. Santa Marta: Don Amo, 2; Bonda, 2; Cacagualito, 1. 



274 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Dacnis eayana ultramarina Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
394, 1902 Isthmus of Panama to eastern Nicaragua (monog.); Thayer 
and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 221, 1906 savanna of Panama; 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 821, 1910 Bonilla and El Hogar, 
Costa Rica; Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1096 (range); 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 277, 1918 Gatun, Panama; 
Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 225, 1922 Mount 
Sapo, Darien; Peters, I.e., 71, p. 339, 1931 Almirante, Panama; Griscom, 
I.e., 72, p. 367, 1932 Perm6 and Obaldia, eastern Panama (crit.). 

Dacnis coerebicolor (not of Sclater) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, 
p. 291, 1861 Panama Railroad. 

Dacnis eayana (not Moiacilla eayana Linnaeus) Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 315 
Chontales, Nicaragua (crit.). 

Dacnis sp. Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 3, 
1899 Punta de Sabana, Darien. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Nicaragua (Greytown, Rio 
Escondido, Chontales), eastern Costa Rica, and Panama, practically 
as far east as the Colombian boundary. 1 

2: Panama. 

*Dacnis eayana callaina Bangs. 2 CHIRIQU! DACNIS. 

Dacnis eayana callaina Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 154, 1905 Divala, 
Chiriqui, Panama (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 396, 1930); idem, I.e., 19, p. Ill, 1906 Pozo Azul de Pirris, 
Costa Rica (crit.); idem, Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Boruca and Paso Real, 
Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 820, 1910 El General 
de Ten-aba, Pozo Azul de Pirris, and Boruca, Costa Rica (range); Hellmayr, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1096 (range). 

Dacnis eayana (not Motacilla eayana Linnaeus) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 185 Mina de Chorcha, Chiriqui; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 244, 1883 part, Panama (Mina de Chorcha). 

Dacnis eayana subsp. typica Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 20, 1886 
part, spec, a-c, Volcan de Chiriqui and Bugaba, Chiriqui. 

1 Birds from eastern Costa Rica agree with topotypes from the Canal Zone, 
while males from Darien, by their more purplish coloration, form the transition to 
the races of northwestern South America. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Pacuarito, 1; Siquirres, Rio Reventazon, 
2. Panama: Panama, 5; savanna of Panama, 2; Chepo, 1; Mount Sapo, 4. 

3 Dacnis eayana callaina Bangs: Very similar to D. c. glaucogularis, but on 
average smaller, with much shorter, slenderer bill, and coloration of males decidedly 
more greenish blue. 

This well-marked form has a very limited range, being restricted to extreme 
western Panama and western Costa Rica. It is quite distinct from the Ultra- 
marine Dacnis of eastern Costa Rica, but closely resembles the widely separated 
Peruvian race. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Bugaba, Chiriqui, 2. Costa Rica: 
Pozo Azul de Pirris, 6. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 275 

Dacnis cayana cayana Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 392, 

1902 part, Chiriqui. 
Dacnis ultramarina (not of Lawrence) Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 

1, p. 108, 1887 Las Trojas de Puntarenas; Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.- 
Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 T&raba, Costa Rica; Bangs, 
Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Panama (Chiriqui) and south- 
western Costa Rica, north to the Rio Grande de Tarcoles. 
2: Costa Rica (Boruca, 1; T<rraba Valley, 1). 

*Dacnis lineata (Gmelin). WHITE-VENTED DACNIS. 

Motacilla lineata Gmelin, 1 Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 990, 1789 based on "Le 
Pitpit a coiffe bleue" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. (ed. Impr. Roy.), 6, p. 211, 
1783; Cayenne. 

C[assicus] d[acnis] tricolor Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss., 
15, p. 282, 1826 based on "Pitpit a coiffe bleue" Mauduyt, Enc. Meth., 
Hist. Nat., Ois., 2, p. 381, 1784; Cayenne. 

Dacnis angelica (Filippi MS.) Bonaparte, Atti Sesta Riun. Sci. Ital. Milano, 
p. 404 (note), 1845 Brazil (descr. male; type in Milan Museum); Filippi, 
Mus. Mediol., Anim. Vertebr., Cl. 2, p. 30, 1847 (crit.); Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 400, 1850 (descr.); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 
107 (diag., crit., range); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 110, 1854 
Quijos, Ecuador; idem, I.e., p. 252, 1854 (range); idem, I.e., 23, p. 137, 
1855 Bogot4 (crit.); idem, I.e., 25, p. 263, 1857 Ega, Brazil; idem, I.e., 
26, p. 452, 1858 Gualaquiza, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 51, 
1862 Bogota; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 315 New Grenada (crit.); Salvadori, 
Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 2, p. 260, 1868 (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 597 Yuracares, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); 
Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 176, 1882 Cayenne; Taczanowski, Orn. 
Per., 1, p. 429, 1884 Peru (Ucayali, Xeberos, Chamicuros, Pebas, 
Monterico, Huambo, Cosnipata, Moyobamba); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 207 
Bartica Grove, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 22, 
1886 Cayenne, British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Demerara), Bogota, 
Ecuador (Sarayacu, "Intaj"), and Peru (Pebas, Ucayali River); Berlepsch, 
Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 Bogota; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 

2, p. 80, 1889 "Mapiri" and Falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia; Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 37, p. 294, 1889 Tarapoto, Peru; idem and Stolzmann, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 337 La Merced, Borgona, and Garita 
del Sol, Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 

1 Motacilla lineata Gmelin is exclusively based upon Button's "Pitpit a coiffe 
bleue" [and Latham's "Blue-striped Warbler" (Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (2), p. 504), which 
is merely an English translation of Buffon's account]. Gmelin's description is faulty 
in various respects, and refers to the white abdominal area as "lutescens," while 
the two colors on the top and sides of the head are mixed up. Buffon's account, 
however, cannot well apply to any other species, as has been pointed out by Mr. 
Zimmer (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 423, 1930). Moreover, it is more 
than probable that Buffon gained his knowledge of the species from Mauduyt, who 
gives an excellent characterization of the White-vented Dacnis under the same 
vernacular name, viz., "Pitpit a coiffe bleue." 



276 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

357, p. 12, 1899 Zamora, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornia, 
13, p. 108, 1906 Huaynapata and Rio Cadena, Peru; Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 343, 1907 (range); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 1907 
Para and Rio Purus; Menegaux, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (9), 10, p. 92, 
1908 upper Napo, Ecuador; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 9, 1908 
Antimary, Rio Acre, Brazil; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 110, 1908 
Cayenne; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 472, 1910 Surinam; Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 464, 1914 Para and Rio Acre (Antimary); Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 584, 1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, 
Colombia; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 478, 1921 Bonasika, Arawai, 
Arwye Creek, and Bartica, British Guiana; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 80, p. 175, 1928 Para. 

Dacnis melanotis Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1851, Part 1, p. 16, Jan., 1851 
Cayenne and "Demerara" (crit., excl. PL Enl., pi. 669, fig. 1; type, from 
Cayenne, in Strickland Collection, now in Cambridge (Engl.) University 
Museum); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 51, 1862 Cayenne; idem, 
Ibis, 1863, p. 315 Cayenne, Peru (Rio Ucayali), and Bolivia (monog.; 
excl. Lag6a Santa, Brazil); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, 
p. 269 Cayenne and Rio Negro; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1866, p. 179 upper and lower Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, 
p. 749 Xeberos, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 977 Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1873, p. 185 Cosnipata, Dept. Cuzco, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 259 
upper and lower Ucayali, Xeberos, Pebas. 

Dacnis arcangelica Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 31, 1857 
new name for D. angelica auct. ex Bogota. 1 

Dacnis modesta Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 64, 1873 Monterico, Dept. 
Ayacucho, Peru (descr. female; type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman 
and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 179, 1927); Tac- 
zanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 510 Monterico; idem, I.e., 
1882, p. 9 Huambo, Peru; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 295, 1889 (crit.). 

Sylvia cayana (not Motacilla cayana Linnaeus) Vieillot and Oudart, Gal. 
Ois., 1, (2), p. 269, pi. 165 (=male), circa 1824 "en Amerique sous 
la z6ne torride." 

Dacnis cayanus d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 221, 1836 Yuracares, 
Bolivia (descr. male); Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 20, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia. 

Dacnis cayana Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 675, "1848" 
British Guiana; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 153, 1856 
part, descr. adult male and female; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 25, 1868 
Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira, and Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso; 
Salvador!, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 2, p. 261, 1868 (synon.). 

Dacnis angelica melanotis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 271, 1905 Igarape- 
Assu, Para. 

1 The author merely says, "angelica ex Bogota, auct., sane diversa." The 
slightly brighter tinge of the plumage in Colombian examples having been remarked 
upon by Sclater (Contrib. Orn., 1851, Part 3, p. 108; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, 
p. 137, 1855), Bonaparte's name just escapes being a nomen nudum. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 277 

Dacnis angelica angelica Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 270, 1910 Calama, 
Rio Madeira (crit.); idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. 
KL, 26, No. 2, p. 87, 1912 Para (Para, Igarape-Assu, Benevides); idem, 
Nov. Zool., 28, p. 246, 1921 Cayenne, British Guiana, and Para district; 
Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 98, 1916 Utinga, Para. 

Dacnis angelica arcangelica Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, pp. 246, 247, 1921 
upper Amazonia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 644, 1926 
Zamora, Macas region, Rio Suno, and below San Jose, eastern Ecuador. 

Dacnis lineata Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 84, 1918 
Javaweg, Surinam (crit.); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
17, p. 422, 1930 Vista Alegre, Huanuco, and Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, 
Junm (crit.). 

Dacnis lineata lineata Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 363, 1930 
Rio Roosevelt (Panda Rapids) and Utiarity, Matto Grosso. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and Amazonia, 
from Pard west to the eastern base of the Andes in southeastern 
Colombia (Caqueta), Ecuador, and Peru, and south to eastern 
Bolivia (Falls of the Madeira, Yuracares) and northern Matto 
Grosso (Rio Roosevelt, Utiarity, Engenho do Gama). 1 

10: Peru (Moyobamba, 1; Nuevo Loreto, 1; Vista Alegre, 
Huanuco, 4; Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, Junin, 3); Brazil (Utinga, 
Para, 1). 

*Dacnis lineata egregia Sclater. 2 YELLOW-VENTED DACNIS. 

1 After examining adequate series of the White-vented Dacnis I am bound to 
concur with Mr. Zimmer's contention that subdivision of the species is impracti- 
cable. The alleged difference in the coloration of .the females proves to be non- 
existent, while the slight variation in the blue of the male sex seems altogether too 
unstable to merit recognition in nomenclature. At all events, specimens from the 
south side of the Amazon valley (Para, Caviana, Rio Purus) and from Peru are 
inseparable from a Guianan series. Males from Tonantins (north bank of the Rio 
Solimoes), Bogota, and Cuembi, Colombia, are as a rule of a slightly paler and 
more greenish blue hue, but they are precisely matched by certain individuals 
from Peru (Nuevo Loreto) and Brazil (Nova Olinda, Rio Purus). 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 4; Pied Saut, Oyapock, 4; 
Tamanoir, Mana River, 2. Brazil: Para, 1; Igarape-Assu, 1; Benevides, 2; 
Utinga, Para, 1; Caviana, Rio Solimoes, 1; Tonantins, Rio Solimoes, 3; Calama, 1; 
Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira, 1; Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, 1; Nova 
Olinda, Rio Purus, 5. Peru (see above). Colombia: "Bogota," 6; Cuembi, Rio 
Putumayo, 8. 

2 Dacnis lineata egregia Sclater differs in the male sex by yellow instead of white 
under wing, under tail coverts, and abdominal patch, as well as more greenish 
hue of the blue areas, particularly underneath, while the female is chiefly dis- 
tinguished by more yellowish abdomen and under wing coverts. 

This bird, heretofore treated as a distinct species, is clearly but a geographical 
representative of the White-vented Dacnis, which it replaces west of the eastern 
Andes in the Tropical zone of the Magdalena and other river valleys of Colombia. 
It is frequently met with in native Bogota collections. 

Material examined. Colombia: Honda, 4; Remedies, 1; Bucaramanga, 1; 
"Bogota," 12. 



278 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Dacnis egregia Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 22, "1854," p. 251, pub. April, 
1855 "in Nova Grenada" = Bogota (type in British Museum); idem, I.e., 
23, p. 137, 1855 Bogota; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 316 part, Bogota collec- 
tions; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 270 Colombia; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 497 Remedies and Neche, 
Antioquia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 286, 1884 Bucaramanga (crit.); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 22, 1886 part, spec, a-f, Bogota 
and Remedies, Colombia. 

Dacnis egregia egregia Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 585, 1917 
Honda, Chicoral, and Purificaci6n, Magdalena Valley, Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of the Magdalena Valley (Honda, Chi- 
coral, Purification), its tributaries (Rio Lebrija; Remedios, Rio 
Ite*), and the lower Cauca (Rio Neche), Colombia. 

4: Colombia (Bogota, 1; El Tambor, Santander, 2; unspecified, 1). 

*Dacnis lineata aequatorialis Berlepsch and Taczanowski. 1 
EQUATORIAL DACNIS. 

Dacnis egregia aequatorialis Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1883, p. 543 Chimbo, Ecuador (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. 
Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 179, 
1927); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 69, 1889 Ecuador (crit.); 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 481, 1898 Chimbo; Mene"gaux, Miss. Serv. 
Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc M6rid. Equat., 9, p. B. 87, 1911 Santo Domingo; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 644, 1926 Esmeraldas, Rio 
de Oro, Naranjo, and Rios Coco and Chimbo. 

Dacnis egregia (not of Sclater, 1855) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 65, 
1860 Pallatanga; idem, I.e., p. 85, 1860 Nanegal; idem, I.e., p. 274, 
1860 Babahoyo; idem, I.e., p. 292, 1860 Esmeraldas; idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds.', p. 51, pi. 7 (male and female), 1862 Esmeraldas and Nanegal; 
idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 316 part, western Ecuador (Nanegal, Esmeraldas); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 22, 1886 part, spec, a-g, "Napo" 
(errore), Nanegal, and Esmeraldas, Ecuador; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 12, 1899 Gualea; Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1901, p. 318 Nanegal, Gualea, and Intac. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador, from Esmeraldas 
south to Chimbo. 

2: Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, 2). 

1 Dacnis lineata aequatorialis Berlepsch and Taczanowski: Very similar to 
D. 1. egregia, but plumage of male, especially humeral area, rump, and under parts, 
decidedly more greenish with the under wing coverts and abdominal patch of a 
richer yellow; female with throat and foreneck more grayish, thus pointing to 
D. I. lineata. 

Material examined. Western Ecuador (Chimbo, Nanegal, Gualea, Intac) : 12. 

2 [D. egregia] b. aequatorialis Berlepsch (Journ. Orn., 21, p. 69, 1873) is a 
nomen nudum. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 279 

Dacnis viguieri Salvin and Godman. 1 VIGUIER'S DACNIS. 

Dacnis viguieri (Oustalet MS.) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 246, pi. ISA, fig. 3, 1883 Isthmus of Panama, Darien (type in 
Paris Museum examined); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 23, 1886 
Isthmus of Darien; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 396, 
1902 Isthmus of Panama. 

Range. Eastern Panama (Isthmus of Darien). 

Dacnis flaviventer Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. YELLOW-BELLIED 
DACNIS. 

Dacnis flaviventer Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 21, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia (descr. male and female; types in 
Paris Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Me>id., Ois., p. 220, 
pi. 13, fig. 2, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 
108 Bolivia (Yuracares) and Barra do Rio Negro (diag.); Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 1, p. 431, 1884 Peru (Ucayali, Sarayacu, Pebas, and Nauta); 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 42, 1907 Teffe, Rio Solimoes; Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 56, p. 9; 1908 Bom Lugar and Ponto Alegre, Rio Purus; 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 270, 1910 Calama and Marmellos, Rio 
Madeira; idem, I.e., 28, p. 248, 1921 Bolivia (note on types); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. EL, 55, p. 644, 1926 below San Jose, Ecuador; 
Naumburg, I.e., 60, p. 364, 1930 Rio Roosevelt (Panda Rapids), Matto 
Grosso. 

Dacnis flaviventris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 252, 1854 Bolivia 
and Cisandean Peru; idem, I.e., 25, p. 263, 1857 Ega, Rio Solimoes, 
Brazil; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 51, 1862 upper Amazon; idem, 
Ibis, 1863, p. 316 Rio "Jauari" [=Javarri], above Tabatinga, and 
Yuracares (descr. male); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, 
p. 270 Peru; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 179 
upper and lower Ucayali and Sarayacu, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 977 
Pebas, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 25, 1868 Barra do Rio Negro 
[ = Manaos], Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, 
p. 185 Cosnipata, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 259 Ucayali, Sarayacu, 
Pebas, and Rio Javarri; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 597 Yuracares, Bolivia; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 23, 1886 Bolivia, Peru (Ucayali, 
Pebas, and Iquitos), and Ecuador (Sarayacu); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, 
p. 294, 1889 Yurimaguas, Peru; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 12, 1899 Zamora, Ecuador; Berlepsch and 

1 Dacnis viguieri Salvin and Godman, known only from a single adult male in 
the Paris Museum, is allied to D. lineata, which it resembles in form and propor- 
tions, but differs from by various striking characters. While recalling D. lineata 
aequatorialis in its greenish blue general coloration, it lacks the broad black area on 
the sides of the head, there being but a narrow loral streak of that color running 
from the bill to the anterior angle of the eye, and the yellow abdominal patch is 
altogether absent. Moreover, the upper wing coverts, which are black in all the 
races of D. lineata, are light yellowish green, more greenish blue along the outer 
web, only the smallest being basally black with greenish blue tips; the axillars 
and under wing coverts soiled grayish, not pure white as in D. L lineata or bright 
yellow as in D. L egregia and D. I. aequatorialis; the under tail coverts dull greenish 
yellow, broadly margined with greenish blue. Wing, 58; tail, 38. 



280 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 16, 1902 Nicare, Caura River, Venezuela; 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil; idem, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 343, 1907 Rio Jurua; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, 
p. 498, 1908 Goyana, Rio Tapaj6z; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 464, 
1914 Rio Iriri (Santa Julia), Rio Tapaj6z (Goyana), Rio Jamauchim 
(Santa Elena), and Rio Purus (Bom Lugar, Ponto Alegre); Cherrie, 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 165, 1916 Nicare, Caura, Venezuela. 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from the eastern base of the eastern 
Andes of Colombia south through Ecuador and Peru to northern 
Bolivia (Yuracares; Rio San Mateo) and northern Matto Grosso 
(Rio Roosevelt), east to Venezuela (Nicare, Caura Valley) and 
northern Brazil (Manaos and Rio Tapajoz). 1 

Dacnis nigripes Pelzeln. 2 BLACK-LEGGED DACNIS. 

Dacnis nigripes Pelzeln, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Cl., 
20, (1), p. 154, pi. 1, figs. 1 (male), 2 (female), 1856 "Nuovo" [=Nova] 
Friburgo, Proc. Rio de Janeiro (types in Vienna Museum examined); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 263, 1857 Brazil (crit.); idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 51, 1862 Brazil; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 314 Nova 
Friburgo (crit.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 25 (note), 1868 Nova Friburgo; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, pp. 69, 237, 1873 Nova Friburgo, Lag6a Santa 
(Minas Geraes), and Blumenau (Santa Catharina) (crit.); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 21, 1886 Brazil; Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 343, 1907 (range). 

Dacnis cayana (not Motacilla cayana Linnaeus) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 153, 1856 part, Lag6a Santa, Minas Geraes (descr. male 
juv.; spec, in Halle Museum examined); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. 
Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 437 Lag6a Santa (ex Burmeister). 

1 1 have not been able to discern any geographical variation among specimens 
of this widespread species from different localities. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Nicare, Caura River, 1 (adult male). 
Colombia: "Bogota," 5. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 1. Peru: Samiria, 1; Iquitos, 1; 
Rio Ucayali, 1. Bolivia: San Mateo, 1 (adult male); Yuracares, 3. Brazil: 
Manaos, 4; Teff6, Rio Solimoes, 2; Marmellos, Rio Madeira, 1; Calama, Rio 
Madeira, 3; Santa Izabel, Rio Preto, 2; Rio Jurua, 1. 

2 Dacnis nigripes Pelzeln, a very distinct species, superficially resembles D. 
cayana in the male sex, but has a proportionately much shorter tail, a considerably 
stouter, basally much wider bill, and differs also in some details of coloration. The 
black dorsal area is much less extensive, being confined to the upper back; the 
black gular patch is likewise more restricted and distinctly rounded on its posterior 
margin; the rectrices, particularly the two median pairs, are conspicuously edged 
with blue on the apical half of both webs; the legs and feet are dusky or blackish 
instead of brownish or reddish flesh color. The female has no resemblance at all 
to D. cayana, but is closely similar to that of D. venusta, from which it differs 
chiefly by distinctly dusky brownish upper back and more buffy (less whitish) 
throat. Wing, 60-62, (female) 59-62; tail, 34-38; bill, 11-12. 

D. nigripes lives side by side with D. cayana paraguayensis in certain parts of 
southeastern Brazil, and there can be no doubt as to its specific distinctness. 

Material examined. Minas Geraes: Lagua Santa, 1. Rio de Janeiro: Nova 
Friburgo, 7 (including the types); Rio de Janeiro, 4. Santa Catharina: Blumenau, 
1; Joinville, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 281 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, in states of 
Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa), Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo), 1 and 
Santa Catharina (Blumenau, Joinville). 

*Dacnis venusta venusta Lawrence. SCARLET-THIGHED DACNIS. 

Dacnis venusta Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 464, 1862 Panama 
Railroad (type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); Sclater, Ibis, 1863, p. 315, pi. 7 (male, 
female) Isthmus of Panama; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, p. 348 Panama Railroad; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, 
p. 269 Panama; Salvadori, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 172, 1868 
Costa Rica; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 97, 1868 
Dota Mountains, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 
Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 185 Bugaba, Chiriqui; 
Boucard, I.e., 1878, p. 54 Candelaria, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 245, 1883 part, Costa Rica (Dota Moun- 
tains, Tucurriqui) and Panama (Bugaba, Panama Railroad); Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 414, 1883 Cervantes, Costa Rica; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 24, 1886 part, spec, a-j, Tucurriqui, Volcan 
de Chiriquf, Bugaba, Panama; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, 
p. 108, 1887 Naranjo de Cartago, Birris, and Monte Redondo de San 
Jose, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 14, p. 529, 1891 
Costa Rica (descr. juv.); idem, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 Boruca, Costa Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 396, 1902 part, Costa Rica and Panama (monog., full 
bibliog.); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 63, 1902 Boquete, 
Chiriqui; idem, Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Boruca, Costa Rica; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 819, 1910 Costa Rica (range, habits); Ferry, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 275, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica; 
Moller, Zeits. Mikr.-Anat. Forsch., 28, p. 395, 1932 (tongue). 

Dacnis sp. Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 319, 1861 Panama 
Railroad. 

Range. Tropical zone of Costa Rica and western Panama, east 
to the Canal Zone. 2 

7: Costa Rica (Guaydbo, 1; Santa Cruz de Turrialba, 1; Turri- 
alba, 2; Boruca, 1; Peralta, 1; unspecified, 1). 

*Dacnis venusta f uliginata Bangs. 3 COLOMBIAN SCARLET-THIGHED 
DACNIS. 

1 Not yet recorded from either Sao Paulo or Parana, where it doubtless also 
occurs. 

2 Specimens from the Canal Zone agree in coloration with a series from Chiriqui 
and Costa Rica, but resemble D. v. fuliginata in their smaller size. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Candelaria, 2; unspecified, 1. 
Panama: Boquete, Chiriqui, 6; El Banco, Chiriqui, 1; Panama Railroad, 3. 

8 Dacnis venusta fuliginata Bangs: Male similar to D. v. venusta, but under 
parts much darker, deep black with just a faint greenish tinge on the flanks only; 



282 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Dacnis venusta fuliginata Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 21, p. 160, 1908 
Jimenez, western Andes, Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now 
in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 70, p. 396, 1930); Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 
p. 1094 Noanama, Novita, Jim&iez, and Rio Dagua, Colombia (crit.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 585, 1917 Bagado, Noanama, 
Barbacoas, and Puerto Valdivia (lower Cauca), Colombia; idem, I.e., 
55, p. 645, 1926 northwestern Ecuador; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 72, p. 367, 1932 Perme and Obaldia, eastern Panama. 

Dacnis venusta (not of Lawrence) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 497 Remedies, Rio It6, Antioquia; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 245, 1883 part, Remedies, Colombia; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 24, 1886 part, spec, k, Remedies, Colombia; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 396, 1902 part, Remedies. 

Range. Tropical zone of northwestern Ecuador and Pacific 
Colombia, extending east to Antioquia (Puerto Valdivia, lower 
Cauca; Remedios, Rio Ite") and north to extreme eastern Panama 
(Caribbean side of Darien). 

1: Colombia (Tado, Rio San Juan, Choco, 1). 

Dacnis berlepschi Hartert. 1 BERLEPSCH'S DACNIS. 

Dacnis berlepschi Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 11, p. 37, 1900 Lita, north- 
western Ecuador (descr. female; type in Tring Museum examined); 

female with lower belly and under tail coverts rather deeper buffy yellow. Wing, 
62-65, (female) 60-64; tail, 39-42; bill, 10-11. 

Three specimens from Paramba, Ecuador, in the Vienna Museum are identical 
with a series from the Pacific coast of Colombia. A single male from Remedios 
is slightly tinged with greenish below, thus forming the passage to the typical 
race. Birds from Darien are stated by Griscom to be intermediate to D. v. venusta. 

Material examined. Ecuador, Prov. Imbabura: Paramba (alt. 3,500 ft.), 3. 
Colombia: Rio Dagua, 2; Jimenez, 4; Novita, 2; Noanama, 1; Remedios, 1. 

1 Dacnis berlepschi Hartert. Adult male: top and sides of the head deep 
dull violaceous blue, throat and chest somewhat lighter, about grayish violaceous 
blue, the basal portion of the feathers of all these parts deep black, this color 
showing through here and there; dorsal feathers and scapulars dull blue, mesially 
streaked with shining light squill blue, more broadly so on the rump, the blue 
apical portion being separated from the dark gray base by a broad black sub- 
terminal band; smaller upper wing coverts black at base, tipped with deep dull 
violaceous blue, the median series again apically streaked with light squill blue; 
greater wing coverts black, externally lily green fringed with bluish; primary 
coverts and alula black, narrowly edged with violaceous blue; remiges and rectrices 
black, externally margined with lily green or artemisia green; breast flame-scarlet; 
abdomen orange-buff, tinged with grayish on the flanks; under tail coverts paler 
buff; axillars and under wing coverts white. Female: Brussels brown above, 
duller and more Prout's brown on the pileum, and more cinnamomeous on the 
rump; wings and tail dusky, margined with the color of the back; throat and 
chest much paler, light Dresden brown; the red pectoral area much less extensive 
and paler, orange chrome; the abdomen and under tail coverts buckthorn brown; 
axillars and under wing coverts light buff. Bill black, feet dusky gray. Wing, 66, 
(female) 61; tail, 50, (female) 46; bill, 11. 

A very distinct species with no near relative. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Carondelet, 4. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 283 

Rothschild, I.e., 11, p. 44, 1900 (note on adult male); Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 
8, p. 371, pi. 5, figs. 1, 2 (male, female), 1901 Lita, Carondelet, and 
San Javier, Ecuador (descr. male and female); Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, p. 645, 1926 Lita, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of northwestern Ecuador, in provinces of 
Esmeraldas (Carondelet, San Javier) and Imbabura (Lita). 

Genus HEMIDACNIS Sclater 

Hemidacnis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 50, 1862 type, by monotypy, 
Pipraeidea albiventris Sclater. 

Hemidacnis albiventris (Sclater). WHITE-VENTED DACNIS. 

Pipraeidea albiventris Sclater, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 4, p. 8, 1852 "Nouvelle 
Grenade" = Bogota, Colombia (descr. male; type in Paris Museum); idem, 
Contrib. Orn., 1852, p. 131, pi. 100, fig. 2 (reprint; fig. of type). 

Diva albiventris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 Bogota. 

Hemidacnis albiventris Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 50, 1862 Bogota; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 749 Xeberos, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1873, p. 259 Xeberos and Chamicuros, Peru; Taczanowski, 
Orn. P6r., 1, p. 427, 1884 Xeberos and Chamieuros; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 17, 1886 Peru (Chamicuros, Xeberos), Ecuador 
(Sarayacu), and Colombia (Bogota); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 643, 1926 eastern Ecuador. 

Dacnis albiventris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 271 Bogota; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 69, 1873 Bogota and northern Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Colombia (not rare in native 
"Bogota" collections), eastern Ecuador (Sarayacu), and north- 
eastern Peru (Iquitos; Xeberos; Chamicuros). 1 

Genus XENODACNIS Cabanis 

Xenodacnis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 311, 1873 type, by orig. desig., 
Xenodacnis parina Cabanis. 

Xenodacnis parina Cabanis. TIT-LIKE DACNIS. 

Xenodacnis parina Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 312, pi. 4, figs. 1, 2, 1873 
Monterico, Dept. Ayacucho, Peru (types in Berlin Museum) ; Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 510 Monterico; idem, Orn. Per., 1, 

1 A single adult male from Peru (Iquitos) does not differ in coloration, but 
has a smaller (both shorter and slenderer) bill than Bogota specimens. The type 
of this peculiar species was sent to the Paris Museum by Mr. L6yy in a collection 
of native "Bogota" skins. Within the boundaries of Colombia, this bird has 
not been recorded from any definite locality, but from its occurrence in the Tropical 
zone of eastern Ecuador and northern Peru it may be inferred that the "Bogota" 
skins originated from the Amazonian lowlands at the foot of the eastern Andes 
of Colombia. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 16. Peru: Iquitos, 1. 



284 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 434, 1884 Maraynioc; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 17, 1886 
Maraynioc; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 336 Maraynioc; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 116, 1921 
Matchu Picchu and Idma Pampa, Urubamba, Peru. 

Range. Temperate zone of southern Peru, in depts. of Junin 
(Maraynioc), Ayacucho (Monterico), and Cuzco (Anta, Matchu 
Picchu, Idma Pampa). 1 

Genus COEREBA Vieillot 2 

Coereba Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Ame>. Sept., 2, "1807," p. 70, 1808 [possibly 
1809] type, by monotypy, Certhia flaveola Linnaeus. 

Certhiola Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 1835, p. 99, 1836 
type, by monotypy, Certhia flaveola Linnaeus. 

Arbelorhina Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 13, (1), p. 325, 1847 new name for 
Coereba Vieillot. 

*Coereba flaveola chloropyga (Cabanis). BRAZILIAN 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola chloropyga Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 97, 1851 Bahia (type in 
Heine Collection, now in the Municipal Museum at Halberstadt) ; Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 53, 1862 Brazil; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1864, p. 272 Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 26, 1868 part, 
Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo (Ypanema); Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.- 
Akad. Forh., 26, p. 624, 1869 Brazil (monog.); Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., p. 434, 1870 Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa, 
Uberaba), Goyaz (Catalao), Sao Paulo (Hytu), and Rio de Janeiro 
(Macahe); Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 302 Sao Paulo; Finsch, Verhandl. 
Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 21, p. 41, 1871 part, eastern Brazil (from Bahia 
south) and eastern Peru (Ucayali); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1873, p. 185 San Antonio, Peru; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, 
p. 239, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina; Cabanis, I.e., 22, p. 84, 1874 
Cantagallo; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 330 Pernambuco; Berlepsch and 
Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 117, 1885 Taquara and Arroio Grande, 
Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 44, 1886 part, 
spec, p, q, t-h', Brazil (Para, Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, 
"Rio Claro, Goyaz") and Bolivia (Baganti); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, p. 81, 1889 Mapiri, Bolivia; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande 

1 Material examined. Peru: Maraynioc, Junin, 2; Anta, Cuzco, 14. 

2 Thorough study of large series of nearly every described form has led to 
the conclusion that the numerous "species" from the West Indies and continental 
America are merely representative races of a single taxonomic entity. Two 
"species," C. caboti and C. ferryi, being decidedly intermediate between the West 
Indian group and the mainland forms, there is no alternative but to unite 
the whole assemblage under one specific title. The blackish varieties, at one time 
considered to be specifically distinct, are in the author's judgment melanotic 
mutants, this being clearly indicated by the presence of a more or less perceptible 
olivaceous tinge on those parts of the plumage which are yellow in the normally 
colored forms. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 285 

do Sul, 16, p. 118, 1899 Mundo Novo; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 142, 
1899 Iguape", Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo; Sneth- 
lage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 1907 part, Para, Maguary, and Santo 
Antonio do Prata (nest descr.); Holmberg, Apunt. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 123, 
1909 Misiones. 

Certhiola brasiliensis (Sclater MS.) Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 
Paris, 38, p. 259, 1854 locality not stated; 1 idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, 
p. 51, 1854 (reprint of orig. descr.). 

Certhiola majuscula Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 413, 1865 "von Montevideo 
und den siidlichsten Strichen Brasiliens" (type, from Villa Guaratingueta, 
Sao Paulo, 2 in Berlin Museum examined); Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.- 
Akad. Handl., 26, p. 624, 1869 (ex Cabanis). 

Certhiola palmarum Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, p. 144, Jan., 1901 Alto 
Parana, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. de W. Bertoni). 

Coereba chloropyga Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 266, 1890 Santarem; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 337 La Merced, 
Chanchamayo, Peru; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 272, 1905 Igarap- 
Assfi and Bemfica, Para (range); idem, I.e., 13, p. 356, 1906 Santo Antonio 
do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 14, p. 6, 1907 Urucurituba, Rio Tapajoz; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 345, 1907 Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Cachoeira, 
Bebedouro, Alto da Serra, Ubatuba, Avanhandava, Tiete", Piquete, 
Iguape), Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre), Para (Santar6m), and Rio 
Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, pp. 498, 
522, 1908 Goyana, Rio Tapaj6z, and Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 86, 1910 
Bahia (Barra, Barra do Rio Grande, and Porto da Pedra, Rio Preto) 
and Piauhy (Lagoa Missao, Parnagua); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 371, 1910 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Lowe, Ibis, 1912, 
p. 504 Para to Minas Geraes (crit.); Bertoni, Anal, Soc. Cient. Arg., 
75, p. 98, 1913 Iguazu, Misiones; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 360, 
1914 Paraguay and Misiones (Santa Ana, Iguazu); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 467, 1914 part, Para, Ananindeua, Quati-puru, Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Rio Tocantins (Cameta, Arumatheua), Rio Xingu 
(Forte Ambe), Rio Tapaj6z (Boim, Goyana), and Rio Jamauchim (Con- 
ceicao); idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, pp. 41, 60, 1926 
Ceara and Maranhao (Anil, Tury-assu); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 80, p. 175, 1928 Castanhal, Para. 

Coereba chloropyga chloropyga Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.- 
Phys. KL, 26, No. 2, pp. 7, 87, 1912 Peixe-Boi and Ipitinga (Para 
localities); Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 97, 1916 Utinga, Para; Holt, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 319, 1928 Bemfica and Monte Serrat, 

1 Bonaparte's description is misleading in various respects (cf. "nigricans; 
gula atra"), but Sclater (Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 53, 1862), who ought to have 
known what he understood by his unpublished MS. name, gives it as a synonym 
of C. chloropyga. 

2 Guaratingueta is a town in the eastern section of Sao Paulo, district of 
Taubate, and not in Rio Grande do Sul, as erroneously stated by Lowe (Ibis, 
1912, p. 505). 



286 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Serra do Itatiaya; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 362, 1930 
Campos Novos and Utiarity, northern Matto Grosso. 

Coereba luteola chloropyga Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 270, 1929 Maranhao (Sao Luiz, Barra do Corda) and Ceara (Varzea 
Formosa, Serra de Baturit); Zimmer, I.e., 17, p. 415, 1930 Chinchao, 
Vista Alegre, and Huachipa, Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Coereba chloropyga majuscula Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 505, pi. 8, fig. 1 Sao Paulo 
to Rio Grande do Sul (crit.). 

Coereba flaveola (not Certhia flaveola Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3, (2), p. 774, 1831 eastern Brazil; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. 
Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 24, 1838 Guarayos, Bolivia (spec, 
examined). 

Certhiola flaveola Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 294, 1844 Peru; idem, 
Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 237, 1846 eastern Peru; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 155, 1856 Nova Friburgo (Rio de Janeiro) and Lag&a 
Santa (Minas Geraes); Euler, Journ. Orn., 15, p. 406, 1867 (nest descr.). 

(?) Certhiola luteola (not of Cabanis) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1866, p. 179 upper and lower Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, 
p. 260 same localities; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 442, 1884 part 
(descr. of young from Sarayacu). 

Certhiola mexicana (not of Sclater) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 597 Guarayos (ex d'Orbigny), Tilotilo, and Baganti, Bolivia. 

Certhiola peruviana (not of Cabanis 1 ) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1874, p. 512 Paltaypampa, Chanchamayo, Peru (nest descr.); idem, 
Orn. Per., 1, p. 439, 1884 part, Paltaypampa. 

Range. Brazil south of the Amazon, from Para west to the 
Tapajoz, and south to northern Matto Grosso (Campos Novos, 
Utiarity), and through the eastern states to Rio Grande do Sul and 
the adjacent parts of Paraguay (Alto Parana) and Argentina 

| Certhiola peruviana Cabanis (Journ. Orn., 13, p. 413, 1865), based on a single 
specimen collected by Warscewicz somewhere in Peru, cannot be satisfactorily 
determined. It is described as similar to "C. majuscula" (that is, Sao Paulo speci- 
mens of C. chloropyga), but differing by the presence of a white alar speculum. 
This diagnosis answers fairly well to the characters of C. /. intermedia, which we 
have (in a rather long-billed variety) from Moyobamba in northern Peru. While 
I have no detailed information as to Warscewicz's itinerary, it is an established 
fact that this naturalist visited northern Peru, where, among other novelties, he 
discovered Coeligena warscewiczi Reichb. [=Diphogena aurora (Gould)], a humming- 
bird more or less restricted to the Chota region in the upper Maranon Valley. 
The Bananaquit occurring in that particular region is C. magnirostris, which, 
though also marked with a small white wing-spot, is nevertheless distinguished 
from intermedia by paler grayish back, lighter gray throat, and paler yellow 
breast. If Cabanis had had that bird before him, he would hardly have described 
his C. peruviana as exactly like "majuscula," but with a white alar speculum. 
Unfortunately, as we learn from Finsch (Verhandl. Zool. Bot. Gesells. Wien, 21, 
1871, p. 778, passim), the type specimen, which had a broken bill, was rejected 
by the Berlin Museum as unsuitable for purchase, and its present location is 
unknown. 



1935 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 



287 



(Iguazu and Santa Ana, Misiones) ; also eastern Bolivia and eastern 
Peru, north to Junin (Chanchamayo) and Hudnuco. 1 

1 Further subdivision of the Brazilian Bananaquit appears to be impracticable. 
P. R. Lowe attempted to revive Cabanis's name majuscula for a supposedly larger 
and paler form representing typical chloropyga in extreme southeastern Brazil 
from Sao Paulo southward. With a much larger series from the disputed region, 
whence Dr. Lowe had only five specimens, we are unable to substantiate any color 
differences between birds from the south and others from Bahia and northwards, 
neither the color of the throat nor that of the upper parts affording reliable criteria 
for such a distinction. All that can be said is that there is a certain tendency to 
slight increase in size, as we advance in a southerly direction, but this variation 
is too insignificant to be expressed in nomenclature, as the table of measurements 
given below clearly shows. Birds from Peru and Bolivia seem to me also insepara- 
ble, though they generally have the crown darker (less brownish), the back more 
grayish, and the rump on average more greenish. Exceptions are, however, too 
frequent to justify segregation. This is more surprising as their range is separated 
from the Brazilian area of this form by interposition of C. /. alleni, of Matto Grosso. 
In size of bill, Peurvian examples sometimes approach C. f. magnirostris. 

Additional material examined. Brazil, Para: Urucurituba, Rio Tapajoz, 1; 
Santo Antonio dp Prata, 4; IgarapeVAssu, 1; Bemfica, 1; Ourein, Rio Guama, 1; 
Peixe-Boi, 1; Ipitinga, Rio Acara, 1. Maranhaq: Miritiba, 5. Piauhy: Lagda 
Missao, Parnagu, 1. Bahia: Porto da Pedra, Rio Preto, 1; Lamarap, 1; Bahia 
City, 15. Espirito Santo: Brago do Sul, Victoria, 1. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de 
Janeiro, 5; Manguinhos, 1. Goyaz: Goyaz, 1. Minas Geraes: Agua Suja, near 
Bagagem, 2. Sao Paulo: Guaratinguet&, 1; Faxina, 1; Ypanema, 2; Sao Sebastian, 
3; Victoria, 1. Santa Catharina: Joinville, 2; Blumenau, 6. Rio Grande do Sul: 
Taquara do Mundo Novo, 1; Camaquam, 1. Bolivia: Guarayos, 1; Baganti, 1; 
Omeja, Yungas, 2. Peru: Chanchamayo, Dept. Junin, 1. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail 

Two from Bolivia ....................... 60, 61 38, 40 

One from Chanchamayo, Peru ........... 61 40 

Six from Huanuco, Peru ................. 58-63 35-38 

One from Rio Grande do Sul ............. 58 41 

Four from Santa Catharina .............. 58-60 38-40 

Four from Sao Paulo .................... 57-61 36-39 

One from Guaratingueta, Sao Paulo (type 
of C. majuscula) ...................... 62 

One from Rio de Janeiro ................ 59 38 

Five from Minas Geraes ................. 59-62 38-40 

One from Rio do Peixe, Bahia ............ 60 37 

One from Rio Preto, Bahia .............. 58 37 

Eight from Bahia City .................. 56-59 36-40 

Two from Ceara ........................ 58, 59 36, 38 

Three from Maranhao ................... 57-58 36-38 

Four from Par& ........................ 55-58 33-36 

Adult females 

Two from Bolivia ....................... 53, 57 30, 36 

Three from Huanuco, Peru .............. 55, 55, 56 31, 33, 34 

Four from Santa Catharina .............. 54-57 33-37 

Two from Sao Paulo .................... 55, 56 34, 38 

Three from Rio de Janeiro ............... 54-56 34-36 

One from Espirito Santo ................. 55 35 

One from Goyaz ........................ 53 31 

Six from Bahia ......................... 51-55 32-36 

One from Piauhy ....................... 55 35 

Three from Maranhao ................... 53-55 30-34 

Seven from Pard ....................... 51-54 28-32 

One from Rio Tapaj6z .................. 53 30 



Bill 

12, 12 

13 J^ 

13-14 

12 

12-13 

12-13 

[damaged] 
13 

12-13 
13 



12, 13 
12, 12, 12 



12, 12 

13, 13 1 A, 
11-12 

12, 13 

12, 12, 12 

12 

12 

11-12 

12 

11-12 

11-12 



288 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

29: Brazil (Para, 2; Sao Luiz, Maranhao, 3; Barra do Corda, 
Maranhao, 1; Varzea Formosa, Ceara, 1; Serra do Baturite", Ceara, 
1; Rio do Peixe, near Queimadas, Bahia, 1; Bahia, 1; Rio das Velhas, 
near Lag6a Santa, Minas Geraes, 3; Bauru, Sao Paulo, 1; Joinville, 
Santa Catharina, 2); Bolivia (Buenavista, Santa Cruz, 1); Peru 
(Chinchao, 6; Huachipa, 2; Vista Alegre, 4). 

*Coereba flaveola alleni Lowe. 1 ALLEN'S BANANAQUIT. 

Coereba chloropyga alleni Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 29, p. 86, 1912 Chapada, 
Matto Grosso (type in British Museum); idem, Ibis, 1912, p. 506 
Chapada district, Matto Grosso (crit.); M6negaux, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 
5, p. 86, 1917 Pocone and [Sao Luiz de] Caceres, Matto Grosso; Naum- 
burg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 362, 1930 southern Matto Grosso 
(crit.). 

Coereba chloropyga (not Certhiola chloropyga Cabanis) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 3, p. 348, 1892 Abrilongo, Cuyaba, and Chapada, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Plateau of Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Chapada, Abri- 
longo, Sao Luiz de Caceres, Pocone") in central Brazil. 

5: Brazil, Matto Grosso (Chapada, 5). 
*Coereba flaveola minima (Bonaparte). 2 CAYENNE BANANAQUIT. 

1 Coereba flaveola alleni Lowe: Closely similar to C. f. chloropyga, but upper 
parts paler, less grayish; the back light brownish olive, the crown dusky rather 
than blackish; the rump duller, pyrite yellow rather than sulphine yellow; the 
throat generally of a paler gray. Wing, 60-63, (female) 55-58; tail, 38-40, (female) 
32-37; bill, 12-13. 

Although every one of the subspecific characters is to be found in occasional 
individuals of chloropyga, the Matto Grosso form, when compared in a series, 
stands out as a fairly well-marked unit. The range of C. alleni is peculiarly 
restricted, since birds from Bolivia and southern Peru, as we have shown under 
the preceding heading, are obviously inseparable from chloropyga. 

Additional material examined. Matto Grosso: Abrilongo, 1; Chapada, 12. 

2 Coereba flaveola minima (Bonaparte) : Nearest to C. f. chloropyga, but upper 
parts decidedly darker, more sooty, and the rump much brighter yellow; similar 
also to C. /. guianensis, but not quite so dark above, with the rump somewhat 
duller. Wing, 56-61, (female) 50-55; tail, 34-37, (female) 28-33; bill, 11-13. 

Although exactly intermediate between guianensis and chloropyga, this form 
cannot well be united to either of the two. While the majority of the individuals 
from the area above circumscribed occupy an intermediate position, the darkest 
examples are distinguishable from guianensis only by their duller (not lemon 
chrome) rump. On the other hand, certain unusually dark-backed birds of 
chloropyga from the Para region are also barely separable. The throat is mostly 
pale gray as in chloropyga, but several skins from French Guiana and one from 
Counany are just as dark-throated as any guianensis. Two adults from the Rio 
Negro, by having a small white alar speculum, betray an unmistakable variation 
towards C. /. intermedia. In all the rest of the series there is no trace of it. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne (the type), 1; Isle 
Le^Pere, 5; Ipousin, Approuague River, 2; Saint-Jean-du-Maroni, 1. Dutch 
Guiana: vicinity of Paramaribo, 4. Brazil: Cachoeira, Marajo, 2; Lamalonga, 
Rio Negro, 1; Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 289 

Certhiola minima Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 259, 
1854 Cayenne (type in Paris Museum examined); idem, Not. Orn. Coll. 
Delattre, p. 51, 1854 (reprint of orig. descr.); Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.- 
Akad. Handl., 26, p. 625, 1869 (ex Bonaparte). 

Coereba chloropyga cayennensis Lowe, Ibis, (9), 6, p. 506, 1912 Oyapock, 
Cayenne (type in British Museum). 

Certhiola chloropyga (not of Cabanis) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 570 Mexiana and Cobati, Rio Negro; Pelzeln, Orn. 
Bras., 1, p. 26, 1868 part, Lamalonga and Marabitanas, Rio Negro 
(spec, examined); Finsch, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 21, p. 779, 1871 
part, Cayenne, Surinam, and Mexiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 44, 1886 part, spec, l-o, r, Oyapock, Cayenne, Cobati (Rio Negro), 
and Island of Mexiana; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, 
p. 116, 1904 Camopi and Hot la Mere, French Guiana; Hagmann, 
Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 26, 1907 Mexiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
55, p. 292, 1907 part, Maraca, Mexiana, and Monte Alegre; Penard 
and Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 477, 1910 Dutch Guiana (habits). 

Coereba chloropyga Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 467, 1914 part, Marajo 
(Rio Arary, Sao Natal, Pindobal), Mexiana, Maraca, Rio Jary (Santo 
Antonio da Cachoeira), Monte Alegre, and Rio Jamunda (Faro). 

Certhiola guianensis (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 53, 1862 
Cayenne; Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 26, p. 624, 
1869 part, Surinam (good diag.). 

Coereba guianensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 272, 1905 part, Rio Negro 
(Marabitanas, Lamalonga, Cobati); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 507 part, Rio 
Negro (Marabitanas, Cobati). 

Coereba chloropyga guianensis Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, p. 84, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana. 

Coereba chloropyga subsp. Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 112, 1908 Ipousin 
(Approuague River) and Isle le Pere, French Guiana. 

Coereba chloropyga minima Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.- 
Phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 118, 124 Mexiana and Cachoeira, Marajo 
(crit., range). 

Certhiola mexicana (not of Sclater) Finsch, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 21, 
p. 772, 1871 part, Cobati and Marabitanas, Rio Negro. 

Range. French and Dutch Guiana, and northern Brazil, south 
to the north bank and the islands in the estuary of the Amazon, 
west to the Rio Negro. 1 

6: Brazil (Rio Counany, 1; Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 4; Rio May- 
curu, 1). 

*Coereba flaveola guianensis (Cabanis). 2 GUIANAN BANANAQUIT. 

1 The range of C. /. minima may possibly extend even farther to the west, 
and Taczanowski's record (Orn. Per., 1, p. 441) of C. chloropyga from Pebas refers 
perhaps to the present form. 

1 Coereba flaveola guianensis (Cabanis) : Similar to C. f. minima, but above 
even more blackish with the rump brighter, clear lemon chrome; no white 



290 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Certhiola guianensis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 97, 1851 " Guiana" = British 
Guiana (type in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, Halberstadt, 
examined); Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 26, p. 624, 1869 
part, Guiana. 

Coereba guianensis Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 17, 1902 Suapure, 
Caura, Venezuela (crit.; spec, examined); Hellmayr, I.e., 12, p. 272, 1905 
part, British Guiana (excl. Roraima) and Venezuela (Caura Valley); 
Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 507 part, British Guiana (excl. Roraima) and 
southern Venezuela (Suapure, Caura); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 167, 1916 Suapure, Caura River, and (?) Ciudad Bolivar, 
Orinoco, Venezuela; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 473, 1921 part, 
Bartica, Mazaruni River, Bonasika, Abary River, Great Falls of the 
Demerara, Caramang River, Camacusa, and Georgetown. 

Certhiola flaveola (not Certhia flaveola Linnaeus) Cabanis, in Schomburgk, 
Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 675, 1849 British Guiana (in part). 

Certhiola chloropyga (not of Cabanis) Finsch, Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesell. Wien, 
21, p. 779, 1871 part, Demerara, British Guiana (crit.); Salvin, Ibis, 
1885, p. 207 part, Bartica Grove, Camacusa, and Atapuraw River, 
British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 44, 1886 part, 
spec, e-k, Atapuraw, Bartica Grove, and Camacusa, British Guiana. 

Range. British Guiana (excepting Roraima and probably other 
adjoining mountains) and eastern Venezuela (Caura Valley). 1 
2: British Guiana (Demerara River, 2). 

Coereba flaveola roraimae Chapman. 2 RORAIMA BANANAQUIT. 

Coereba guianensis roraimae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 341, p. 6, Feb., 
1929 Arabupu, Roraima, Venezuela (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 124, 
1931 Roraima (Paulo, Arabupu) and Mount Duida, Venezuela. 

alar speculum. Wing, 55-58, (female) 52-55; tail, 33-37, (female) 29-32; bill, 
11-12. 

Birds from the Caura Valley, Venezuela, are in every respect similar to those 
from British Guiana. As far as is possible to judge from the slightly faded speci- 
men, the type appears to belong with the race diffused through the lowland 
districts of British Guiana. 

This form closely resembles C. /. luteola in the rich coloration of the throat, 
but is not so black above, and lacks the white wing-spot. 

Additional material examined. British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 4; Camacusa, 1; 
Demerara, 5; unspecified, 2. Venezuela: Suapure, Caura Valley, 6. 

1 1 cannot help thinking that the specimen from Ciudad Bolivar sent by S. M. 
Klages to the American Museum is incorrectly labeled, since five skins obtained 
there by the same collector pertain without question to the black-backed Caribbean 
race (C. /. luteola). 

1 Coereba flaveola roraimae Chapman: Exceedingly similar to C. f. guianensis, 
but slightly larger; back darker, less contrasting with color of crown; throat 
also a little darker gray. Wing, 58-61, (female) 56-57; tail, 37-39, (female) 
34-35; bill, 11-12. 

I am a little doubtful as to the propriety of keeping this form separate, but 
would like to see a more complete series before condemning it. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Roraima, 4. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 291 

Certhiola chloropyga (not of Cabanis) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 207 part, Roraima; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 44, 1886 part, spec, a-d, Roraima. 
Coereba guianensis (not Certhiola guianensis Cabanis) Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
12, p. 272, 1905 part, Roraima; Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 507 part, Roraima 
and (?) Merume' Mountains, British Guiana; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 
2, p. 473, 1921 part, Roraima, and (?) upper Takutu Mountains. 

Range. Upper Tropical zone of Duida and Roraima in Venezuela, 
and probably other adjacent mountains in British Guiana. 

"Coereba flaveola luteola (Cabanis). 1 CARIBBEAN BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola luteola Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 96, 1851 Puerto Cabello (?), 
Venezuela (type in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, 
Halberstadt); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 53, 1862 part, spec, h, 
Trinidad; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 194 Turbo and 
Cartagena, Colombia; idem, I.e., 1864, p. 271 Trinidad and Venezuela 
(crit.); Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 81 Venezuela (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Carupano, Venezuela; Sundevall, 
Ofvers.Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, p. 621, 1869 (crit.) ; Finsch, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 561 Trinidad; idem, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 
21, p. 767, 1871 Trinidad, Venezuela, and Santa Marta, Colombia 
(monog.); Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 7, p. 612, 1873 Tobago, Trinidad, 
and northern shore of South America (crit.); Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 
1880, p. 119 Santa Marta (habits); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1884, p. 432 
Angostura, Orinoco, Venezuela; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, 
p. 173, 1884 Trinidad; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 40, 1886 
Colombia (Santa Marta, Valle de Upar), Venezuela (Carupano), and 
Trinidad. 

Coereba luteola Cory, Auk, 8, p. 38, 1891 (range, diag.); idem, Auk, 10, p. 220, 
1893 Tobago; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 25, 1894 Trini- 
dad; Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, pp. 679, 685, 1896 Margarita 

1 Coereba flaveola luteola (Cabanis) : Nearest to C. /. guianensis, but upper 
parts deeper black with a conspicuous white alar speculum; throat darker gray; 
rump and under surface richer lemon chrome. 

In another connection (Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, pp. 169-172, 1924) I 
have explained that the segregation of an eastern form, for which the earliest name, 
as ascertained by an examination of the type, is C. major Cabanis, was barely 
justifiable. The far more extensive material at present available not only sub- 
stantiates this conclusion, but also tends to show that even C. I. obscura cannot 
be maintained. In making comparisons it should be kept in mind that males, 
besides being larger, are distinguished by blacker back and more extensive, 
brighter yellow uropygial area. Furthermore, old skins being apt to become duller 
through fading, care must be taken in selecting proper material. With a goodly 
number of recently collected specimens from Tobago, Trinidad, and northeastern 
Venezuela, I fail to perceive the slightest difference in coloration. Dimensions 
being also the same, I cannot but regard major, trinitatis and hellmayri as strictly 
synonymous. C. godmani belongs here too, since the type (and only known 
specimen) is nowise different. If it really came from Grenada, it must have been 
a straggler from Tobago. Birds from the Caracas-Lake Valencia region (typical 
luteola) average duller on the upper parts, only a few males being as jet-black 
as the majority from Trinidad, etc., and the few examples available from the 
Rio Aurare (east shore of Lake Maracaibo) and the lower slopes of the Andes 
overlooking the Maracaibo plains are similar. Three adult males from Encontrados 






292 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Island and La Guayra, Venezuela; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 363, 1897 Cuma- 
nacoa, Venezuela; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 143, 1898 
Santa Marta; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 313 base of 
La Popa, Cartagena, Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, 
p. 173, 1900 Cacagualito, Santa Marta, and Cienaga, Colombia; Robin- 
son and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 176, 1901 La Guaria, 
Venezuela; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 16, 1902 Altagracia, 
Caicara, and Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco, Venezuela; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 406, 1902 (monog.); Clark, Auk, 19, p. 266, 
1902 Margarita Island; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 272, 1905 Vene- 
zuela south to the Orinoco, Trinidad, and Tobago (crit.); idem, I.e., 13, 
p. 7, 1906 Caparo, Valencia, and Seelet, Trinidad (crit.); Clark, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 293, 1905 "Grenada" (accidental); Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 187, 1906 Aripo, Trinidad; idem, 
I.e., 1, p. 357, 1908 Aripo and Carenage, Trinidad; Lowe, Ibis, 1907, 
p. 565 Margarita Island, Laguna de Obispo (Venezuela), and Trinidad 
(crit.); idem, Ibis, 1909, p. 323 Cariaco, Venezuela; Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 1, p. 102, 1909 La Ceiba, Rio Guarapiche, Venezuela; Cory, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 250, 1909 Margarita Island; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 209, 1913 Cariaquito, Isla 
de Morocotico and Jocopita, Manimo River, Venezuela; Williams, Bull. 
Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 127, 1922 Woodland and Maracas, 
Trinidad. 

Coereba luteola luteola Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, 
p. 52, 1912 Las Quiguas, Carabobo (crit.); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. 

and Orope, in the humid region south of Lake Maracaibo, however, are very black 
again. They have been described by Cory as C. 1. obscura, but I am unable to 
distinguish them from Trinidad and Tobago birds except by their slightly darker 
gray throat, a divergency that requires corroboration by a more adequate series. 
Under these circumstances, I cannot recognize more than one form among the 
inhabitants of Caribbean Venezuela and Colombia. 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULT MALES 

Wing Tail Bill 

Ten from Tobago 57-60, 61 (one) 35-39 12-13 

Eight from Trinidad 57-60, 61 (two), 62 (one) 34-39 12-13 

One from "Grenada" (godmani) ... 57 35 12 K 

Two from Cariaco, Venezuela 56,57 34,37 12,12 

Two from Cumana, Venezuela 57, 59 36, 38 12 K, 13 

Six from Margarita Island 57-59 34-37 12-13 

Two from Altagracia, Orinoco 58, 59 36, 37 12, 12 

One from Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco . 58 37 12 

"British Guiana" (type of C. major) 60 H 38 13 

One from Loma Redonda, Caracas . 58 36 11 Yi 

Ten from Caracas 57-60 36-40 11-12 

Two from Aragua 56, 56 34, 35 11, ll l A 

One from Lake Valencia 59 38 12 

One from Rio Aurare, Zulia 59 35 12 

One from Col6n, Tachira 60 37 12 

Three from Encontrados, Zulia (C. I. 

obscura) 58, 58, 60 37, 37, 38 12 ^-13 

Additional material examined. Tobago, 4; Trinidad, 20. Venezuela: Cariaco, 
Paria, 2; Guiria, Paria Peninsula, 1; Cumana, 4; San Antonio, Sucr6, 1; Loma 
Redonda, near Caracas, 4; San Esteban, Carabobo, 2; Altagracia, Orinoco, 4; 
Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco, 5. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 293 

Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 165, 1916 Orinoco region (nest and eggs descr.); 

Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 578, 1917 La Playa (near 

Barranquilla), Colombia; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, 

p. 459, 1922 Santa Marta, Cacagualito, Bonda, Mamatoco, Las Vegas, 

Fundaci6n, Punto Caiman, Don Diego, and Rio Hacha, Colombia (crit., 

habits); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 169, 1924 Loma 

Redonda, Caracas region (crit.); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

71, p. 413, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 
Certhiola major Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 97, 1851 "Guiana" 1 (type in 

Berlin Museum examined); Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 

26, p. 622, 1869 (ex Cabanis). 
Coereba luteola major Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 508, pi. 8, fig. 2 Caribbean coast 

district of Colombia and Venezuela (crit.). 
Certhiola godmani Cory, Auk, 6, p. 219, 1889 "Grenada" (type in collection 

of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum). 
Coereba trinitatis (not of Bonaparte, 1854) Lowe, Ibis, (9), 1, p. 566 (in text) 

1907 Trinidad (type probably in collection of P. R. Lowe). 
Coereba luteola hellmayri Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 23, p. 23, 1910 

new name for Coereba trinitatis Lowe, preoccupied; Lowe, Ibis, 1912, 

p. 509 Trinidad and Tobago (crit.); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 

Inst., 2, p. 166, 1916 Cristobal Colon, Paria Peninsula, Venezuela (crit.). 
Coereba luteola obscura Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 291, 

1913 Encontrados, Zulia, Venezuela (type in Field Museum). 
Certhiola flaveola (not Certhia flaveola Linnaeus) Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 614 

Trinidad; Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 372, 1847 Tobago; 

Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 54, 1862 part, spec, a, Tobago; Leotaud, 

Ois. Trinidad, p. 126, 1866 Trinidad. 
Certhiola sp. Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, p. 621, 1869 

"Minas Geraes" (errore; cf. Finsch, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 21, 

p. 770, 1871). 

Range. Islands of Tobago and Trinidad; northern Venezuela, 
south to the Orinoco Valley and the foot of the Andes in the Mara- 
caibo basin, and Caribbean coast region of Colombia. Accidental 
in Grenada (one record). 

81: Grenada, 1; Tobago, 18; Venezuela (Margarita Island, 11; 
Caracas, 23; Macuto, Caracas, 7; Maracay, Aragua, 7; Lake Va- 
lencia, Carabobo, 2; Rio Aurare, Zulia, 2; Encontrados, Zulia, 2; 
Orope, Zulia, 1; Catatumbo River, Zulia, 1; San Juan de Colon, 
Tachira, 3); Colombia (El Guayabal, ten miles north of San Jos4 
de Cucuta, Santander, 2; Tucurinca, 1). 

*Coereba flaveola montana Lowe. 2 MERIDA BANANAQUIT. 

1 The type probably came from the mouth of the Barima River in the delta 
of the Orinoco. 

* Coereba flaveola montana Lowe: Most nearly related to C. /. columbiana, 
but upper parts markedly darker, chaetura drab to fuscous black, instead of deep 
mouse gray to dark grayish olive; yellow of rump brighter, approaching the lemon- 



294 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Coereba luteola montana Lowe, Ibis, (9), 6, p. 509, 1912 Meiida (alt. 1,600 
meters), Venezuela (type in Tring Museum). 

Range. Subtropical zone of the Cordillera of MeYida, western 
Venezuela. 

1: Venezuela (Me>ida, 1). 

"Coereba flaveola columbiana (Cabanis). 1 COLOMBIAN 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola columbiana Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 412, 1865 "Bogotd," 
Colombia (type in Berlin Museum); Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. 
Forhandl., 26, p. 622, 1869 Bogota (crit.). 

Certhiola mexicana (not of Sclater) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, p. 349 Panama Railroad; Finsch, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 
21, p. 772, 1871 part, Bogota, Colombia (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 497 Remedies and Medellin, Antioquia 
(nest and eggs descr.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 250, 1883 part, Panama Railroad and Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 38, 1886 part, spec, p-v, x-b', Lion Hill and Paraiso 
Station (Panama), Bogota and Medellin, Colombia. 

Coereba mexicana Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 28, 1900 Loma del 
Le6n, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 409, 1902 
part, Panama and Colombia; Piguet, M6m. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, 
p. 809, 1914 Medellin, Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
70, p. 277, 1918 Gatun, Panama. 

Coereba mexicana mexicana Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
65, p. 225, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darien. 

chrome of luteola; throat darker gray, more like luteola; under parts on average 
more richly colored; bill longer as well as stronger. Wing, 57-60, (female) 54-56; 
tail, 34-36, (female) 30-33; bill, 12^-13^. 

This form is truly intermediate between luteola and columbiana. It approaches 
the Caribbean race in the darker coloration of the back, though it is never as jet- 
black as highly plumaged adult males of luteola, and the rump, while brighter 
yellow than in columbiana, does not quite attain the rich lemon-chrome tone of 
luteola. Certain unusually dark-backed specimens of columbiana from Santander 
come very close to females of montana, but have smaller bills and a duller, more 
olive yellow rump. The large bill seems a fairly constant feature, though this 
organ is hardly less developed in some specimens from Trinidad and Tobago. 

Material examined. Venezuela: M6rida (alt. 1,600 meters), 14. 

1 Coereba flaveola columbiana (Cabanis): Closely similar to C. /. mexicana, 
but back somewhat darker, less olivaceous, and the rump decidedly brighter and 
less greenish, strontian yellow instead of olive yellow. 

Birds from the Panama Canal Zone agree well with those from Colombia. 

Specimens from Santander (Bucaramanga; El Tambor, Rio Lebrija) frequently 
have the back darker (about chaetura drab}, the uropygial patch brighter yellow, 
and the throat a deeper gray. Similar individuals also occur among native 
"Bogota" skins. They evidently form the transition to C. /. luteola (which is 
found not far away in the Maracaibo pocket). In fact, they can be told from 
numerous females of that race only by their somewhat duller yellow rump. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Dabeiba, 1; Honda, 3; Medellin, 
1; Bucaramanga, 10; "Bogota," 14. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 295 

Certhiola luteola (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 138, 
1855 Bogot&; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 53, 1862 part, spec, 
f, g, Bogota; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 291, 1862 
Panama Railroad; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 324 lower mountain districts 
[of Santander], Colombia. 

Certhiola mexicana subsp. Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 288, 1884 Bucara- 
manga (crit.). 

Certhiola mexicana columbiana Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 
Bogota. 

Coereba mexicana columbiana Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 500 Colombia to Panama 
(crit.) ; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 578, 1917 part, Dabeiba, 
Alto Bonito, and Peque (Antioquia), Honda, Chicoral, La Candela, San 
Agustin, and Andalucia (Magdalena Valley), El Alto de la Paz (Bogota 
region), Buena Vista and Villavicencio, Colombia; Griscom, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 69, p. 185, 1929 Cana, Darien; idem, I.e., 72, p. 367, 1932 
Obaldia, eastern Panama. 

Certhiola peruviana (not of Cabanis) Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 7, p. 613, 1873 
part, Panama Railroad. 

Range. Eastern Panama, from the Canal Zone eastwards, and 
parts of Colombia, in State of Antioquia (Dabeiba, Alto Bonito, and 
Peque, Rio Sucio; Medellin), in the Magdalena Valley (from San- 
tander southwards), and at the eastern base of the eastern Andes 
(Buena Vista and Villavicencio). 

12: Panama (Colon, 6); Colombia (El Tambor, Rio Lebrija, 
Santander, 1; "Bogota," 4; Andalucia, Huila, 1). 

*Coereba flaveola cerinoclunis Bangs. 1 SAN MIGUEL 
BANANAQUIT. 

Coereba cerinoclunis Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 52, 1901 San 
Miguel Island, Bay of Panama (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now 
in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 393, 1930); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 408, 1902 San Miguel Island (monog.); Thayer and Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 157, 1905 San Miguel and Saboga Islands 
(crit.); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 510 San Miguel Island (ex Bangs); Rendahl, 
Ark. Zool., 13, No. 4, p. 49, 1920 Viveros Island (crit.). 

Coereba mexicana columbiana (not Certhiola columbiana Cabanis) Bangs, Auk, 
18, p. 30, 1901 San Miguel Island. 

1 Coereba flaveola cerinoclunis Bangs: Similar to C. /. columbiana, but back 
sooty black instead of deep mouse gray to dark grayish olive. In the blackish 
upper parts this form resembles C. f. luteola, but may be readily distinguished by 
paler gray throat; strontian yellow instead of lemon chrome rump; much smaller 
white alar speculum; less extensive white apical spots to the lateral tail feathers; 
finally by somewhat less richly colored under parts. Wing, 60, (female) 53; 
tail, 38, (female) 30; bill, 12-13. 






296 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Islands of San Miguel, Saboga, and Viveros, Pearl 
Archipelago, in the Bay of Panama. 

2: San Miguel Island. 

"Coereba flaveola intermedia (Salvadori and Festa). 1 INTER- 
MEDIATE BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola intermedia Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 
357, p. 13, 1899 Gualaquiza and Zamora, eastern Ecuador (type in Turin 
Museum). 

Certhiola luteola (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 452, 
1858 Zamora and Gualaquiza; idem, I.e., 28, pp. 85, 292, 1860 Nanegal 
and Esmeraldas, western Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 54, 
1862 part, spec, a-e, Nanegal, Esmeraldas, Zamora, and Gualaquiza. 

Certhiola mexicana (not of Sclater) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, 
p. 271 part, Ecuador; Finsch, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 21, p. 772, 
1871 part, Ecuador (crit.); Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 543 Chimbo; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 38, 1886 part, spec, c'-o', "vicinity of Quito," Intag, Esmeraldas, 
Zamora, Gualaquiza, Nanegal, and Sarayacu, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1901, p. 319 Baeza, Intag, and Milligalli (nest and eggs descr.). 

Coereba (=Certhiola) mexicana Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 481, 1898 Chimbo 
and Paramba, Ecuador. 

Coereba mexicana Menegaux, Miss. Serv. G6og. Armee Mes. Arc Me>id. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 84, 1911 Santo Domingo and Gualea, Ecuador. 

1 Coereba flaveola intermedia (Salvadori and Festa) : Exceedingly close to C. f. 
columbiana, but under parts of a richer, brighter yellow, approaching wax yellow; 
dorsal surface on average slightly darker, with the rump generally of a richer 
yellow. From C. /. chloropyga this form chiefly differs by the conspicuous white 
alar speculum, darker and more sooty back, brighter yellow rump, deeper gray 
throat, etc. 

Birds from western Ecuador average slightly darker, less olivaceous, on the 
upper parts, though the variation is barely perceptible. Three adults from 
Moyobamba are identical in coloration, but incline to larger measurements, thus 
verging to C. /. magnirostris. How far south and east C. /. intermedia ranges in 
Peru, I am unable to ascertain owing to lack of material. Taczanowski (Orn. 
Pe"r., 1, p. 441, 1884) records C. chloropyga from Pebas, and Finsch (Verh. Zool. 
Bot. Ges. Wien, 21, p. 781, 1871) refers two birds from the upper Ucayali to the 
same form. It will be recalled that a series from Huanuco Province and Junin 
(Chanchamayo) turned out to be inseparable from chloropyga, but where this race 
meets the northern intermedia remains to be determined. About the name C. 
peruviana, cf. footnote on p. 286. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Wing Tail Bill 

Three males from eastern Ecuador 55-57 31-33 12-13 

Six males from western Ecuador 56-59 32-35 11^-13 

Three males from Moyobamba, Peru 58, 61, 63 36, 37, 13, 13, 13 Yi 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Tumaco, 1. Western Ecuador: 
San Javier, Prov. Esmeraldas, 4 ; Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 6; Gualea, 3; Chongon, 
Prov. Guayas, 1; Chimbo, 1. Eastern Ecuador: Baeza, 5; Alpa-yacu, Rio Pastaza, 
2; Gualaquiza, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 297 

Coereba mexicana (subsp.?) Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 
p. 80, 1922 Gualea. 

Certhiola columbiana (not of Cabanis) Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 13, 1899 Gualea, Intag, Playas (Guayas), 
and Rio Peripa, western Ecuador. 

Coereba mexicana columbiana Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 578, 
1917 part, Tumaco, Buena Vista, and Ricaurte, Narifio, Colombia. 

Coereba mexicana intermedia Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 501 Ecuador (crit.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 637, 1926 western Ecuador 
(many localities from Esmeraldas to Cebollal), eastern Ecuador (Zamora, 
Guayaba, Rio Suno, below San Jose, below Sardinas, below Oyacachi), 
and Paletillas, northwestern Peru (crit.); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., 
Paris, 34, p. 74, 1928 San Jos6, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of extreme southwestern Colombia 
(Narifio), eastern and western Ecuador, and extreme northern Peru 
(Paletillas, Dept. Payta; Moyobamba, Dept. Amazonas). 

5: Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, 1); Peru (Moyobamba, 4). 

*Coereba flaveola magnirostris (Taczanowski). 1 LARGE-BILLED 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola magnirostris Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 193 
Callacate, upper Maranon, Peru (type lost, formerly in Warsaw Museum; 
cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 
177, 1927); idem, Orn. Per., 1, p. 441, 1884 upper Maran6n. 

Coereba magnirostris Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 502 part, Maranon localities 
(excl. Tschudi's reference and Paltaypampa) ; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 
35, p. 459, 1918 Huancabamba, Perico, and Bellavista, Rio Maran6n. 

Certhiola sp. Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 225 Guajango. 

Certhiola mexicana (not of Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 38, 1886 part, spec, q', r', Callacate and Guajango; Salvin, Nov. 
Zool., 2, p. 4, 1895 Cajamarca, Cajabamba, and Vina, Huamachuco. 

Range. Upper Tropical and Subtropical zones of the upper 
Maranon Valley, northern Peru (Callacate, Guajango, Huanca- 

1 Coereba flaveola magnirostris (Taczanowski) : Nearest to C. /. chloropyga, 
but with heavier, longer bill; back much paler, near deep grayish olive instead of 
sooty grayish; a distinct, though small white alar speculum; white tips to lateral 
rectrices decidedly wider; throat paler, pallid neutral gray rather than pale neutral 
gray to light neutral gray; yellow of breast paler, strontian yellow instead of 
wax yellow, etc. Wing, 60-64, (female) 57; tail, 38-41, (female) 36; bill, 15-16, 
(female) 14. 

From its other geographical neighbor, C. /. intermedia, the upper Maranon 
form differs at a glance by its larger size, notably much larger bill, much paler 
coloration both above and below, duller olive yellow rump, and longer white 
tips to the lateral rectrices, though in dimensions it is approached by specimens 
from Moyobamba, which, according to coloration, belong with C. /. intermedia. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Huancabamba, 1; Perico, 1; Bellavista, 
4; Vina, Huamachuco, 4. 



298 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

bamba, Perico, Bellavista, Cajamarca, Cajabamba, Huamachuco, 
Vina). 

1: Peru (Cajamarca, 1). 

*Coereba flaveola pacifica Lowe. 1 PACIFIC BANANAQUIT. 

Coereba pacifica Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 29, p. 85, 1912 Pacasmayo, 
Dept. Libertad, Peru (type in British Museum); idem, Ibis, 1912, p. 503 
Eten, Pacasmayo, Chepen, and Chimbote, Peru (crit.). 

Certhiola peruviana (not of Cabanis) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 225 Pacasmayo; idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 439, 1884 part, Pacas- 
mayo and Paucal. 

Certhiola mexicana (not of Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 38, 1886 part, spec, p', Pacasmayo. 

Range. Pacific slope of western Peru, in depts. of Lambayeque 
(Eten), Libertad (Pacasmayo, Chepen, Paucal, Menocucho), and 
Ancachs (Chimbote). 

1: Peru (Menocucho, 1). 

*Coereba flaveola gorgonae Thayer and Bangs. 2 GORGONA 
ISLAND BANANAQUIT. 

Coereba gorgonae Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 97, 1905 
Gorgona Island, off Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 70, p. 394, 1930); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 510 Gorgona Island. 

Certhiola mexicana (not of Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 38, 1888 part, spec, w, Gorgona Island. 

Range. Gorgona Island, off Colombia. 

2: Gorgona Island. 

1 Coereba flaveola pacifica Lowe: Nearest to C. /. intermedia and about the 
same size, but with shorter bill; back less sooty; throat markedly paler gray 
(pallid neutral gray rather than neutral gray); yellow of under parts lighter, 
strontian yellow instead of wax yellow; flanks and anal region buffy grayish, not 
bright yellow like the remainder of the under parts as in intermedia. In coloration, 
this form very nearly duplicates C. /. magnirostris, but is considerably smaller and 
has a much shorter, slenderer bill. Wing, 56-58; tail, 34-36; bill, 10-11. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Eten, Lambayeque, 1; Pacasmayo, 
Libertad, 1. 

2 Coereba flaveola gorgonae Thayer and Bangs: Nearest to C. f. intermedia, 
but sides of throat and malar region finely barred with dusky; back darker, sooty 
black, nearly as dark as the crown; white alar speculum reduced to a mere dot; 
white apical spots to lateral rectrices less extensive. Wing, 55-57, (female) 
52-53; tail, 32, (female) 29-32; bill, 12-13. 

Certain specimens from northwestern Ecuador approach this well-marked 
insular form in one or the other character, thus showing their close relationship. 
The dusky-barred malar region recalls C. f. caucae, from which C. /. gorgonae is, 
however, easily distinguished by the nearly plain white superciliaries, more 
blackish mantle, much smaller alar speculum, and much darker (neutral gray 
instead of pale neutral gray) throat. 

Additional material examined. Gorgona Island, 3. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 299 

Coereba flaveola caucae Chapman. 1 CAUCA BANANAQUIT. 

Coereba mexicana caucae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 33, p. 186, 1914 
Call, Cauca Valley, Colombia (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 579, 1917 Cali, Las Lomitas, east 
of Palmira, San Antonio, and Rio Frio, Colombia. 

Coereba chloropyga mexicana (not Certhiola mexicana Sclater) Hellmayr, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1098 Pueblo Rico, western Andes, Colombia. 

Coereba luteola (not Certhiola luteola Cabanis) Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 501 (in 
text) Juntas [Cauca], Colombia. 

Range. Western Colombia, in the upper Cauca Valley and on 
the adjoining slopes of the western and Central Andes. 

*Coereba flaveola mexicana (Sclater). MEXICAN BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola mexicana Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 286, 1856 southern 
Mexico [= Cordova or Jalapa, Vera Cruz] (type in British Museum); 
idem, I.e., 27, pp. 364, 376, 1859 Jalapa, Vera Cruz, and Playa Vicente, 
Oaxaca; Salvin, Ibis, 1861, p. 352 Chisec, Vera Paz; Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 54, 1862 Jalapa and Choctum, Vera Paz; Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 271 part, Mexico (crit.); Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 98, 1868 Turrialba and "Aleno" [=Atenas], 
Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 Costa Rica; Sunde- 
vall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, p. 623, 1869 Mexico (crit.); 
Finsch, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 21, p. 772, 1871 part, Mexico, 
Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Chiriqui (Bugaba); Boucard, Ann. Soc. 
Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 42, 1878 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 250, 1883 part, Mexico (Jalapa, Playa 
Vicente), Guatemala (Choctum), Costa Rica (Turrialba, Atenas), and 
Panama (David, Bugaba, Cordillera del Chucu); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 38, 1886 part, spec, a-o, Jalapa, Choctum (Guatemala), 
Costa Rica (Turrialba), Bugaba (Chiriqui), and Cordillera del Chucu 
(Veragua). 

Certhiola luteola (not of Cabanis) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., 8, p. 175, 
1865 David, Chiriqui; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 137 
David; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 185 Cordillera del Chucu, Veragua, and 
Bugaba, Chiriquf. 

Coereba mexicana Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 108, 1887 
Naranjo de Cartago and Volcan de Barba, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Anal. 
Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 Boruca, Terraba, 

1 Coereba flaveola caucae Chapman: Most nearly related to C. f. columbiana, 
but white superciliaries much narrower and variegated with dusky edges, and 
throat paler, nearly pale neutral gray, finely vermiculated with dusky laterally 
and on malar region. Wing, 57, (female) 52; tail, 33-35; bill, 11-12. 

The specimen from Pueblo Rico recorded by me as C. c. mexicana proves, 
on reexamination, to be identical with topotypes kindly forwarded by Dr. Chap- 
man. The restricted dusky-edged superciliaries and the freckled malar region 
serve to distinguish this form at first sight. 

Material examined. Colombia, western Andes: Pueblo Rico, 1; Las Lomitas, 
1; Cali, Cauca, 2. 



300 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, 
p. 488, 1893 Greytown, Nicaragua, and Rio Frio, Costa Rica; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 409, 1902 part, Mexican, Guatemalan, 
Costa Rican, and west Panama localities and references; Bangs, Auk, 
18, p. 369, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; idem, Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Boruca 
and Barranca de TeYraba, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 819, 1910 Guayabo, Bonilla, Carrillo, El General de Te>raba, Pozo 
Azul de Pirris, Guacimo, Guapiles, El Hogar, and Boruca, Costa Rica 
(habits); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 275, 1910 Guayabo, 
Costa Rica; Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 499 Mexico to western Panama (crit.); 
Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 35, 1919 San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua. 
Coereba mexicana mexicana Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, 
p. 461, 1928 Almirante, Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
71, p. 339, 1931 Changuinola, Almirante, Western River, Shepherd 
Island, and Gerchow Key, western Panama; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 370, 1932 Finca Chamd, Chimoxan, and Finca Sepacuite, 
Guatemala. 

Range. Southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz (Jalapa) 
and Oaxaca (Playa Vicente), and in Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa 
Rica, and western Panama, as far east as Veragua. 1 

11: Guatemala (Vera Paz, 1); Costa Rica (Guayabo, 3; Guacimo, 
1; El Pozo, Rio Te'rraba, 3; El General, 1; Boruca, 1; Buenos Aires, 1). 

*Coereba flaveola ferryi Cory. 2 TORTUGA BANANAQUIT. 

1 Birds from Costa Rica agree with a series from Guatemala and a single 
Jalapa specimen. We have not seen any Veraguan material, which Lowe refers 
to the present form, but two skins from extreme western Panama (Chiriquf) 
do not differ in any way from others of more northern origin. The duller, more 
greenish yellow rump and the slightly paler, more olivaceous mantle serve to 
distinguish this race from columbiana. 

Additional material examined. Mexico: Jalapa, Vera Cruz, 1. Guatemala: 
Choctum, 1; Vera Paz (unspecified), 4. Costa Rica: Boruca, 4. Panama: 
Bugaba, Chiriqui, 2. 

2 Coereba flaveola ferryi Cory: Most closely related to C. /. luteola, but forehead 
with a varying amount of white; back slightly duller, more fuscous and less sooty; 
uropygial area, though of equal extent, not quite so bright, strontian yellow rather 
than lemon chrome; throat slightly darker gray; inner secondaries with narrow 
pale grayish apical margins; extreme base of gape with suggestion of a bright- 
colored tumid rictus. Wing, 58-60, (female) 55; tail, 38-41, (female) 36; bill, 



This race is of unusual interest, proving as it does that even the bright tumid 
rictus heretofore considered an exclusive character of the Antillean forms is not 
an absolute criterion for their separation. While the continental C. f. luteola is 
entirely deprived of this peculiarity, the Tortuga birds, at the extreme base of the 
bill, show a distinct, though slight indication of such a development, which signifies 
an undeniable approach to C. /. uropygialis of the Dutch West Indies. Other 
points of passage in that direction are found in the duller coloration of the back 
and rump, as well as in the narrow grayish apical edges to the inner secondaries 
of the Tortuga form. The white color on the forehead is subject to considerable 
individual variation; it is never abruptly defined posteriorly and gives the effect 
of an irregular albinistic mutation. Scattered white feathers in the middle of the 
forehead are of fairly frequent occurrence in uropygialis too, and certain individuals 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 301 

Coereba ferryi Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 221, 1909 
Tortuga Island (type in Field Museum); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 528 
Tortuga (ex Cory). 

Range. Island of Tortuga (west of Margarita Island), off 
Venezuela. 

8: Tortuga Island. 

*Coereba flaveola uropygialis Berlepsch. 1 CURACAO BANANAQUIT. 

Coereba uropygialis Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 40, p. 77, 1892 Curagao (type 
in Berlepsch Collection, now in Senckenbergian Natural History Museum, 
Frankfort); Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 165, 1895 Curasao; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 420, 1902 Curasao 
(monog.); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 202, 208, 213, 
254, 1909 Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire; Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 523 
(monog.). 

Certhiola uropygialis Hartert, Ibis, 1893, pp. 295, 312, 327 Aruba, Curasao, 
and Bonaire (crit., nest and eggs descr.). 

Coereba flaveola uropygialis Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 297, 1902 Curacao, 
Bonaire, and Aruba (crit.). 

Range. Islands of Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire, Caribbean Sea. 
38: Aruba, 13; Curasao, 10; Bonaire, 15. 

*Coereba flaveola lowii Cory. 2 Los ROQUES BANANAQUIT. 

Coereba lowii Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 217, Oct., 1909 
Los Roques, off Venezuela (type in Field Museum); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, 
p. 528 (ex Cory). 

have hardly less white than the specimen with the minimum amount from Tortuga. 
C. /. ferryi is provided with a white alar speculum of the same extent as C. /. luteola, 
whereas in C. /. uropygialis the white is either wholly concealed or shows, at best, 
for the distance of one or two millimeters beyond the tips of the primary coverts. 
The gray of the throat is, as a rule, darker than in luteola, and in one or two examples 
fully as deep as in the type of C. I. obscura. The white apical spots on the lateral 
rectrices are often, but not constantly, more extensive than in luteola. The 
superciliaries are always white. 

1 Coereba flaveola uropygialis Berlepsch: Nearly allied to C. f. ferryi, but 
without a visible white alar speculum; upper parts less sooty, with the urqpygial 
area more reduced and more greenish yellow; throat never gray, the chin and 
the lateral portions being black, the remainder white; bright-colored tumid rictus 
much more strongly developed. The grayish apical edges to the inner secondaries, 
besides, are wider, and similar markings are also found on the greater upper 
wing coverts. 

There is some local variation in this form. Birds from Bonaire are on average 
darker above and have more white on the throat, whereas males from Curasao 
have the least amount of it. Exceptions are, however, frequent, and I do not see 
any sufficient reason for further subdivision. 

1 Coereba flaveola lowii Cory: Nearly related to, and agreeing with, C.f. aterrima 
in the possession of a very conspicuous bright-colored tumid rictus, but readily 
distinguishable by having the back and upper wing coverts chaetura-drab, much 
paler and grayer than the black head; the edges to the remiges also paler, less 
sooty; the breast and middle of the abdomen much more strongly tinged with 



302 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Los Roques Island, east of Bonaire, in the southern 
Caribbean Sea. 
4: Los Roques. 

*Goereba flaveola laurae Lowe. 1 TESTIGOS BANANAQUIT. 

Coereba laurae Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 21, p. 108, 1908 Los Testigos 
(type in collection of P. R. Lowe); idem, Ibis, 1909, p. 320 Los Testi- 
gos (crit.); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 232, 1909 
Los Testigos (crit.); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 527 Los Testigos (monog.). 

Range. Los Testigos Islands, north of Venezuela. 
8: Los Testigos. 

*Coereba flaveola aterrima (Lesson). 2 GRENADA BANANAQUIT. 

Dicaeum aterrimum Lesson, Traite d'Orn., livr. 4, p. 303, Sept., 1830 
locality unknown (=melanotic form; type in Paris Museum examined); 
Pucheran, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 135, 1846 "St. Thomas" (crit.). 

olive; the lower abdomen and under tail coverts grayish olive instead of sooty 
gray; the uropygial patch somewhat brighter olive. Wings and tail are longer, 
and the bill, while of the same length, is stouter and less curved, recalling in shape 
that of C. f. laurae. Wing, 62, (female) 56; tail, 43, (female) 38; bill, 11-12. 

A well-marked form of which only the four specimens listed above are known. 
All are in the melanotic plumage. Two are adult; the two others are molting and, 
if the abraded light yellowish olive feathers retained along the middle of the 
breast are the remnants of the juvenile plumage, this would seem to be quite 
different from the garb of the mature birds. 

It remains to be ascertained by further exploration whether C. /. lowii is 
dimorphic like the races living on Grenada and St. Vincent, or whether the mela- 
notic variety alone has survived. 

1 Coereba flaveola laurae Lowe: Resembles C. /. airata in measurements of 
wing and tail as well as in coloration, but differs by lacking the bright crimson, 
tumid rictus and also by decidedly stronger, more elongated, apically less curved 
bill. Wing, 59-63, (female) 55-58; tail, 37-43, (female) 35-38; bill, 14-15. 

Twelve specimens, adult and young, are all in the melanotic phase, and as 
also Dr. P. R. Lowe and the late Comte de Dalmas, the only other visitors on the 
islands, encountered only black birds, it may be taken for granted that no yellow- 
bellied variety exists on Los Testigos. In general coloration, viz., in having a 
distinct, though slight olive tinge on rump and posterior under parts, C. /. laurae 
comes pretty close to C. /. atrata, but is, if anything, somewhat blacker above, 
not "grayer" as stated by the describer. The bill, however, is much larger, both 
stouter and longer, and less curved in its apical portion. Not one of the 
twelve specimens shows the slightest trace of a crimson, tumid rictus, the bill being 
entirely black as in C. f. luteola. 

Additional material examined. Los Testigos, 4. 

1 Coereba flaveola aterrima (Lesson) exists in two varieties long regarded as 
different species. The normal form with white superciliaries, olive-yellow uropygial 
patch, white alar speculum, white tips to lateral rectrices, and yellow under parts, 
is not unlike C. /. luteola, but may be distinguished by blackish slate (instead of 
black) upper parts, less extensive and duller, olive yellow rather than lemon chrome 
rump patch, dark slate gray (instead of neutral gray) throat, and duller, lemon- 
yellow ventral surface. The melanotic form (aterrima, wellsi) is blackish (without 
any white on wings or tail excepting buffy whitish margins to the inner webs of the 
remiges), though rump, breast, and middle of the abdomen, i.e. those parts that are 
yellow in the normal form (morrisi), show a more or less pronounced olive-greenish 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 303 

Coereba aterrima Hellmayr, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. 197, 1917 Grenada 
(crit. on type). 

Certhiola wellsi Cory, Auk, 6, p. 219, 1889 Grenada (type in coll. of C. B. 
Cory, now in Field Museum). 

Coereba wellsi Cory, Auk, 8, p. 40, 1891 Grenada; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 423, 1902 Grenada (monog.); Clark, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 292, 1905 Grenada and Grenadines (crit., nest 
and eggs descr.); idem, Auk, 23, p. 394, 1906 Grenada and Grenadines 
(crit., bibliog.); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 526 Grenada (crit.). 

Cerlhiola atrata (not of Lawrence) Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 269, 
1878 Grenada; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 47, 1886 part, 
spec, b-d, Grenada; Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 612, 1886 
Grenada (nest and eggs descr.); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 53, 1886 part, Grenada; 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 67, 1889 part, Grenada. 

Certhiola saccharina (not of Lawrence) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, 
pp. 28, 30, 1885 part, Grenada; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 50, 1886 part, Grenada; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 42, 1886 part, descr. and hab., 
Grenada; Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 613, 1886 Grenadines (Isle 
de Rhonde and Carriacou; nest and eggs descr.); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 64, 1889 part, Grenada. 

Coereba saccharina Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 415, 1902 
part, Grenada; Wells, Auk, 19, p. 348, 1902 Carriacou (nest and eggs 
descr.); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 523 part, Grenada and Grenadines (crit.). 

[Coereba wellsi] normal form morrisi Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 293, 
1905 Point Saline, Grenada, and Grenadines (crit.). 

Range. Island of Grenada and the Grenadines (Bequia, Bat- 
towia, Balliceaux, Mustique, Canouan, Mayreau, Union Island, 
Prune Island, Frigate Rock, Petit Martinique, Tobago Keys, 
Carriacou, and Isle de Rhonde), Lesser Antilles. 

6: Grenada. 

*Coereba flaveola atrata (Lawrence). 1 ST. VINCENT BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola atrata Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1, p. 150, June, 1878 St. 
Vincent (=melanotic form; type in U. S. National Museum); idem, 

tinge. Both forms are possessed with the bright-colored tumid rictus characteristic 
of all the Antillean Bananaquits. Wing, 57-61, (female) 54-57; tail, 36-38, 
(female) 33-35; bill, 12-13^. 

That the black individuals merely represent a melanotic "phase" appears to 
me quite certain. The normal form (morrisi) has become very rare on the main 
island of Grenada, where the blackish variety is the dominant one. On the 
Grenadines, however, only yellow-bellied birds are reported to occur. The type of 
D. aterrimum, when compared to a good series of Grenada skins, is found to agree 
in every respect. The locality "St. Thomas," cited by Pucheran, is without 
question erroneous. 

Additional material examined. Grenada, 7; Isle de Rhonde, Grenadines, 9. 

1 Coereba flaveola atrata (Lawrence) is exceedingly close to C. /. aterrima, but 
may be recognized by its larger size and somewhat longer as well as more robust 
bill. The normal form (saccharina) is identical in coloration, whereas the mel- 
anotic form (atrata) is of a deeper, more uniform black, very rarely with a faint 



304 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 190, 1878 St. Vincent; Lister, Ibis, 1880, 
p. 40 St. Vincent; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 28, 1885 
part, St. Vincent; Cory, Ibis, 1886, p. 473 St. Vincent; idem, Auk, 3, 
p. 53, 1886 part, St. Vincent; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 47, 
1886 part, spec, a, St. Vincent; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 67, 1889 part, 
St. Vincent; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 563 St. Vincent (crit.). 

Coereba atrata Cory, Auk, 8, p. 40, 1891 St. Vincent; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 422, 1902 St. Vincent (monog.); Clark, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 292, 1905 St. Vincent (crit., nest and eggs); 
idem, Auk, 23, p. 393, 1906 St. Vincent (monog.); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, 
p. 525 St. Vincent (crit.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 
539, 1928 St. Vincent. 

Certhiola saccharine Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1, No. 5, p. 151, June, 
1878 St. Vincent (=normal form; type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 190, 1878 St. Vincent; Ridgway, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 28, 1885 part, St. Vincent; Cory, Ibis, 1886, 
p. 473 St. Vincent; idem, Auk, 3, p. 50, 1886 part, St. Vincent; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 42, 1886 part, St. Vincent; Cory, Bds. W. 
Ind., p. 64, 1889 part, St. Vincent. 

Coereba saccharina Cory, Auk, 8, p. 39, 1891 St. Vincent; Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 415, 1902 part, St. Vincent; Lowe, Ibis, 
1909, p. 309 St. Vincent; idem, Ibis, 1912, p. 523 part, St. Vincent. 

Range. Island of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. 
16: St. Vincent. 

*Coereba flaveola barbadensis (Ridgway). 1 BARBADOS 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola barbadensis (Baird MS.) Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 7, p. 612, Oct., 

1873 Barbados (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 8, p. 28, 1885 Barbados (diag.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 46, 1886 Barbados; Cory, Ibis, 1886, p. 472 Barbados; 

idem, Auk, 3, p. 52, 1886 Barbados (diag.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 66, 

1889 Barbados; Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 482 Barbados (habits); Nicoll, 

Ibis, 1904, p. 556 Barbados. 
Coereba barbadensis Cory, Auk, 8, p. 40, 1891 Barbados (crit.); Ridgway, 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 420, 1902 Barbados (monog.); 

Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 292, 1905 Barbados (habits); 

Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 522 Barbados (monog.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 80, p. 539, 1928 Barbados (habits). 

olivaceous sheen in the middle portion of the lower parts. Wing, 60-64, (female) 
57-59; tail, 38-42, (female) 33-36; bill, 14-15. 

The normal form (saccharina) is believed to be practically extinct nowadays. 
Lowe saw but a single specimen alive, while neither Clark nor Bond ever met with 
a yellow-bellied bird. Three skins of that variety in Field Museum were collected 
by Ober and W. E. Richardson in 1878 and 1886; the two others (undated) were 
obtained from a dealer. The bright-colored tumid rictus is quite conspicuous in the 
St. Vincent Bananaquit. 

1 Coereba flaveola barbadensis (Ridgway) is closely similar to C. f, martinicana 
and differs chiefly by the lesser amount of white on the throat. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 305 

Certhiola martinicana (not of Reichenbach) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1874, p. 174 Barbados. 

Range. Island of Barbados, Lesser Antilles. 
7: Barbados. 

*Coereba flaveola martinicana (Reichenbach). 1 MARTINIQUE 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola martinicana Reichenbach, Handb. Spez. Orn., livr. 5, p. 252, pi. 
561, fig. 3824, 1853 Martinique (type probably in Dresden Museum); 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 271 (crit.); Finsch, Verh. 
Zool. Bot. Gesells. Wien, 21, p. 788, 1871 Martinique and Santa Lucia 
(monog.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 269 Santa Lucia; 
Semper, I.e., 1872, p. 649 Santa Lucia (habits); Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 
7, p. 612, 1873 Martinique (diag.); Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1, p. 354, 1879 Martinique; Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 166, 1880 
Santa Lucia; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 28, 1885 Martinique 
(diag.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 46, 1886 Martinique and 
Santa Lucia; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 52, 1886 Santa Lucia and Martinique 
(crit.); idem, Auk, 4, p. 95, 1887 Martinique; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 66, 
1889 Santa Lucia and Martinique; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, 
p. 395 Santa Lucia; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 560 Santa Lucia. 

Coereba martinicana Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 129, 1890 Santa 
Lucia; Cory, Auk, 8, p. 40, 1891 Martinique and Santa Lucia (diag.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 421, 1902 Martinique 
and Santa Lucia (monog.); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 521 same localities 
(monog.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 539, 1928 Santa 
Lucia. 

Certhiola martinicensis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, pi. 5, fig. 1, 1886. 

Certhiola albigula Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 259, 
1854 Martinique (type in Paris Museum examined); idem, Not. Orn. 
Coll. Delattre, p. 57, 1854 Martinique (repr. orig. descr.); Taylor, Ibis, 
1864, p. 167 Martinique; Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 
26, p. 624, 1869 Martinique (crit.). 

Certhiola finschi Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, pp. 25, 30, 1885 
"Dominica" (?), locality unquestionably incorrect (type in U. S. National 
Museum); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 47, 1886 (ex Ridgway). 1 

Certhiola flaveola (?) (not Certhia flaveola Linnaeus) Newton, Ibis, 1862, 
p. 288 Martinique. 

Certhiola dominicana (not of Taylor) Cory, Ibis, 1886, p. 475 Santa Lucia. 

1 Coereba flaveola martinicana (Reichenbach), in coloration of throat, resembles 
C./. uropygialis, but differs by blacker upper parts, much shorter superciliaries, and 
much duller yellow, laterally olive-tinged under parts. 

There does not seem to be any constant difference between the birds of the two 
islands. 

* The yellow-browed birds described as C. finschi are now known to be specifi- 
cally identical with those having white superciliaries. Similar variation occurs in 
C. f. uropygialis. 



306 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Islands of Santa Lucia and Martinique, Lesser Antilles. 
11: Santa Lucia, 8; Martinique, 3. 

*Coereba flaveola bartholemica (Span-man). 1 ST. BARTHOLOMEW 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhia barthokmica Sparrman, Mus. Carlson., fasc. 3, pi. 57, 1788 St. 
Bartholomew (type in coll. of Fahlberg, Stockholm, probably lost). 

Certhiola bart[h]olemica Sundevall, Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 2, No. 3, p. 10, 
1857 St. Bartholomew; idem, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, 
p. 584, 1869 St. Bartholomew (nest and eggs descr.); idem, I.e., p. 622, 
1869 St. Bartholomew (monog.); Finsch, Verb. Zool. Bot. Gesells. 
Wien, 21, p. 763, 1871 part, St. Bartholomew (monog.); Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, pp. 28, 30, 1885 St. Bartholomew (diag.); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 42, 1886 St. Bartholomew; Cory, 
Auk, 3, p. 50, 1886 St. Bartholomew (diag.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 64, 
1889 St. Bartholomew; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 499 
Anguilla. 

Coereba bartolemica Cory, Auk, 8, pp. 39, 46, 1891 St. Bartholomew and 
Anguilla (crit.); idem, Cat. Bds. W. Ind., p. 154, 1892 (crit.); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 419, 1902 St. Bartholomew, St. 
Eustatius, Anguilla, and Saba (monog.); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 518 St. 
Bartholomew, St. Martins, Anguilla, and Saba (monog.). 

Coereba bartolemica bartolemica Peters, Auk, 44, p. 537, 1927 Anguilla; 
Danforth, Auk, 47, p. 47, 1930 St. Martin and St. Eustatius. 

Certhiola dominicana Taylor, Ibis, 6, p. 167, 1864 Dominica (type in coll. 
of E. C. Taylor, now in British Museum); Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.- 
Akad. Forhandl., 26, p. 623, 1869 (ex Taylor); Finsch, Verh. Zool. Bot. 
Gesells. Wien, 21, p. 787, 1871 Dominica (crit.); Lawrence, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1, pp. 56, 233, 239, 1878 Dominica (nest and eggs), Antigua, 
and Barbuda; idem, I.e., 1, p. 455, 1879 Guadeloupe (crit.); Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 765 Montserrat; Grisdale, Ibis, 1882, 
p. 486 Montserrat; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, pp. 28, 30, 

1 Coereba flaveola bartholemica (Sparrman) differs readily from C. /. martini- 
cana and C. /. barbadensis by its uniformly slate-colored throat. 

Attempts at subdividing this form into two races have been made by both 
Ridgway and Lowe, but with a selected series of specimens from most of the islands 
including topotypes of bartholemica, dominicana, frontalis (=atlantica), and 
sundevalli I am unable to verify any of the supposed characters. As has been 
correctly pointed out by Noble, neither the intensity of the coloration of the lower 
parts nor the extent of the white superciliaries has any geographical significance, 
being completely bridged by individual variation among specimens from the same 
island. There may be possibly a slight tendency to a darker slaty throat in the 
southern islands (Guadeloupe to Dominica), but even in that respect several 
birds from St. Kitts cannot be told from others collected in Dominica. The white 
wing-spot, though perhaps more frequently suggested in examples from St. Bar- 
tholomew, St. Kitts, and Anguilla, is too variable a feature to admit more than 
one form. Birds with partly yellow superciliaries (sundevalli) and those with a 
whitish frontal band (frontalis) are not confined to any particular island, and fall 
within the range of individual variation. 

Additional material examined. Guadeloupe (Basse Terre), 5. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 307 

1885 Dominica, Antigua, Barbuda, Nevis, St. Eustatius, Guadeloupe, 
and Saba; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 44, pi. 5, fig. 2, 1886 
Dominica and Montserrat; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 51, 1886 Dominica, Antigua, 
Barbuda, Nevis, St. Eustatius, Guadeloupe, and Saba (diag., crit.); idem, 
Ibis, 1886, pp. 473, 474 Marie Galante, La Desirade, and Grande Terre; 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 65, 1889 Dominica, Antigua, Barbuda, Nevis, 
St. Eustatius, Guadeloupe, and Saba; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, 
p. 326 Dominica; Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., 8, p. 340, 1892 
Dominica (crit., nest and eggs descr.); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, pp. 569, 572, 
573, 574 Dominica (Roseau Harbour), Montserrat, St. Kitts, and 
Antigua. 

Coereba dominicana Cory, Auk, 8, p. 39, 1891 Dominica, Marie Galante, 
Desirade, Barbuda, Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Eustatius, and Saba; idem, 
Auk, 8, pp. 47, 48, 49, 1891 Antigua, St. Eustatius, St. Christopher, 
and Guadeloupe; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 417, 
1902 Dominica, Guadeloupe, Nevis, Barbuda, Antigua (monog.); Riley, 
Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 290, 1904 Barbuda and Antigua; Noble, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 389, 1916 Sainte Claude and Sainte Rose, 
Guadeloupe (crit.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 539, 1928 
Dominica. 

Coereba bartolemica dominicana Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 520 Dominica, Guade- 
loupe, Montserrat, Nevis, and St. Christopher (crit.). 

Certhi ola frontalis (Baird MS.) Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 7, p. 612, Oct., 1873 
Antigua (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Certhiola sundevalli Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 28, 1885 Dominica 
and Guadeloupe (type from Guadeloupe in U. S. National Museum); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 44, 1886 (ex Ridgway). 

Coereba atlantica Lowe, Ibis, (9), 6, p. 519 (in text), 1912 Antigua. 

Certhiola flaveola (not Certhia flaveola Linnaeus) Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. 
Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 259, 1854 St. Bartholomew (diag.); idem, Not. 
Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 51, 1854 (reprint). 

Range. Islands of Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Bartholomew, 
Barbuda, Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Christopher (St. Kitts), Nevis, 
Antigua, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, La Desirade, Marie Galante, and 
Dominica, Lesser Antilles. 

57: Anguilla, 2; St. Bartholomew, 11; St. Eustatius, 6; St. Chris- 
topher (St. Kitts), 13; Antigua, 8; Guadeloupe, 6; La Desirade, 2; 
Marie Galante, 6; Dominica, 2; Grande Terre, 1. 

*Coereba flaveola newtoni Ridgway. 1 ST. CROIX BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola newtoni (Baird MS.) Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 7, p. 611, 1873 
St. Croix (type lost, formerly in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, pp. 28, 30, 1885 St. Croix (diag.); Cory, Auk, 

1 Coereba flaveola newtoni (Ridgway), by possessing a conspicuous white alar 
speculum, approaches C. /. portoricensis and C. /. sancti-thomae, but may be distin- 
guished by much darker slaty throat and duller, more olive-yellow uropygial area. 



308 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

3, p. 51, 1886 St. Croix (diag.); Sclater, Cat. Eds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 43, 
1886 St. Croix; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 65, 1889 St. Croix; Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1904, p. 575 St. Croix. 

Coereba newtoni Cory, Auk, 8, p. 39, 1891 St. Croix (diag.); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 416, 1902 St. Croix; Lowe, Ibis, 1912, 
p. 513 St. Croix (monog.); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin 
Is., 9, p. 502, 1927 St. Croix. 

Certhiola flaveola (?) (not Certhia flaveola Linnaeus) Newton, Ibis, 1859, 
p. 67, pi. 12, fig. 3 (egg) St. Croix; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 54, 
1862 part, spec, e-h, St. Croix. 

Certhiola sp. Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, p. 623, 
1869 St. Croix (crit.). 

Certhiola bartholemica (not Cerihia bartholemica Sparrman) Finsch, Verb. 
Zool. Bot. Gesells. Wien, 21, p. 763, 1871 part, St. Croix. 

Range. Island of St. Croix, Greater Antilles. 
25: St. Croix. 

*Coereba flaveola sancti-thomae (Sundevall). 1 VIRGIN ISLANDS 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola s:ti Thomae* [sic] Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 
26, p. 621, 1869 based on Certhiola flaveola Newton (Ibis, 1859, p. 68) 
ex St. Thomas. 

Certhiola sancti-thomae Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, pp. 28, 29, 1885 
St. Thomas and St. John (type from St. Thomas in U. S. National Mu- 
seum); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 48, 1886 St. Thomas and St. John (crit.); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 42, 1886 St. Thomas; Cory, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 62, 1889 St. Thomas and St. John (crit., variation). 

Certhiola flaveola (not Certhia flaveola Linnaeus) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 377 St. Thomas; idem, I.e., 1864, p. 271 part, St. 
Thomas; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 54, 1862 part, spec, b, 
St. Thomas. 

Certhiola portoricensis (not of Bryant) Finsch, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 
21, p. 760, 1871 part, St. Thomas (crit.); Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 7, 
p. 611, 1873 part, St. Thomas; idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 172, 
1884 St. Thomas; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 48, 1886 part, St. Thomas; Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1904, p. 576 St. Thomas. 

Coereba dominicensis (not C. dominicana Taylor) Cory, Auk, 7, p. 374, 1890 
Anegada. 

Coereba portoricensis Cory, Auk, 7, pp. 374, 375, 1890 St. Thomas, Tortola, 
and Virgin Gorda; idem, Auk, 8, p. 38, 1891 part, Culebra, Anegada, 

1 Coereba flaveola sancti-thomae (Sundevall) : Very close to C. /. portoricensis, 
but under parts generally of a brighter, clearer yellow and flanks somewhat paler. 
Certain specimens from Virgin Gorda approach C. /. newtoni in the dull olive- 
yellow rump, but their throats are markedly paler. 

1 The specific name, though not printed in italics, appears to be intended as a 
Latin term for the St. Thomas bird characterized by Newton. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 309 

Tortola, Virgin Gorda, St. Thomas, and St. John; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 412, 1902 part, Vieques, Culebra, Anegada, 
Tortola, Virgin Gorda, St. Thomas, and St. John; Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 
512 part, Vieques, Culebra, St. Thomas, and Virgin Islands (crit.); 
Wetmore, Auk, 33, p. 418, 1916 Vieques; idem, Auk, 34, pp. 55, 62, 
1917 Culebra, Culebrita, and Louis Pena. 

Coereba portoricensis sancti-thomae Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin 
Is., 9, p. 501, 1927 Virgin Islands (crit.). 

Range. Virgin Islands (islands of Vieques, Culebra, Culebrita, 
Louis Pena, St. Thomas, St. John, Virgin Gorda, Tortola, and 
Anegada), Greater Antilles. 

60: St. Thomas, 5; St. John, 1; Virgin Gorda, 25; Tortola, 4; 
Anegada, 25. 

"Coereba flaveola portoricensis (Bryant). 1 PORTO RICAN 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola flaveola var. portoricensis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, p. 252, 
1866 Porto Rico (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Certhiola portoricensis Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, pp. 
598, 622, 1869 Porto Rico (monog.); Finsch, Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesells. 
Wien, 21, p. 760, 1871 part, Porto Rico (crit.); Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 
7, p. 611, 1873 part, Porto Rico; Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 312, 
1874 Porto Rico; idem, I.e., 26, p. 179, 1878 Porto Rico (habits, nest 
and eggs descr.); idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 216, 1878 Porto 
Rico; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, pp. 28, 29, 1885 Porto Rico; 
Cory, Auk, 3, p. 48, 1886 part, Porto Rico; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 41, 1886 Porto Rico; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 62, 1889 part, 
Porto Rico. 

Coereba portoricensis Cory, Auk, 8, p. 38, 1891 part, Porto Rico; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 412, 1902 part, Porto Rico; Bowdish, 
Auk, 20, p. 17, 1903 Porto Rico (habits); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 512 
part, Porto Rico (crit.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 326, p. 109, 
1916 Porto Rico (habits, food); Struthers, Auk, 40, p. 477, 1923 
Porto Rico; Danforth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 10, p. 115, 1926 
Cartagena Lagoon (habits). 

Coereba portoricensis portoricensis Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin 

Is., 9, p. 498, 1927 Porto Rico (life history). 
Nectarinia flaveola (not Certhia flaveola Linnaeus) Moritz, Arch. Naturg., 2, 

p. 387, 1836 Porto Rico. 

Certhiola flaveola Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 166 Porto Rico. 
Range. Island of Porto Rico, Greater Antilles. 
54: Porto Rico (Mayagiiez, 54). 

1 Coereba flaveola portoricensis (Bryant), while similar in general to C. /. banan- 
ivora, may be distinguished by blacker upper parts; clearer slate-gray throat; 
much longer white tips to lateral rectrices, etc. 



310 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Coereba flaveola bananivora (Gmelin). HAITIAN BANANAQUIT. 

Motacilla bananivora Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 951, 1789 based on 
"Bananiste" Buff on, Hist. Nat. Ois., 5, p. 332; Santo Domingo. 

Certhiola bananivora Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 95, 1867 Santo 
Domingo; Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 7, p. 612, 1873 Haiti and Santo 
Domingo (diag.); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, pp. 28, 30, 1885 
Haiti (diag.); Cory, Bds. Haiti and San Domingo, p. 41, pi. [21], fig. 1, 
1885 Santo Domingo (Samana, Puerto Plata) and Haiti (Le Coup); 
Cory, Auk, 3, p. 49, 1886 Santo Domingo (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 40, 1886 Samana, Santo Domingo; Cory, Bds. W. 
Ind., p. 63, 1889 Santo Domingo; Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 321 Sanchez 
and La Vega, Santo Domingo (tongue, food). 

Coereba bananivora Cory, Auk, 8, p. 38, 1891 Haiti and Santo Domingo; 
Cherrie, Field Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 12, 1896 Santo Domingo 
City (crit., habits); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 411, 
1902 Haiti (monog.); Verrill and Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
61, p. 364, 1909 Dominican Republic; Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 511 Haiti 
(monog.); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 423, 1917 Monte Cristi 
and Sosua, Dominican Republic; Kaempfer, Journ. Orn., 72, p. 184, 
1924 Santo Domingo (habits); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, 
p. 511, 1928 Haiti (habits); Danforth, Auk, 46, p. 372, 1929 Hato 
Mayor, San Juan, and Gonave; Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, 
p. 322, 1929 Haina and San Juan, Haiti. 

Coereba bananivora bananivora Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
155, p. 363, 1931 Hispaniola, Gonave, and Petite Cayemite (life history); 
idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 33, 1932 Gonave Island, 
Baradere Peninsula, Petite Cayemite Island, Bug Island (near Corail), 
and He a Vache (crit.). 

Certhiola clusiae (Wurttemberg MS.) 1 Finsch, Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesells. Wien, 
21, p. 771, 1871 Santo Domingo (type in Bremen Museum). 

Certhiola cluciae Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 6, p. 151, 1881 Petionville, Haiti. 

Certhiola (?) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 233, 1857 Haiti. 

Range. Island of Hispaniola, including Gonave, Petite Caye- 
mite, Bug, and Vache Island, Greater Antilles. 

78: Haiti (Le Coup, 4; Kenskoff, 1; Jacmel, 1; Aux Cayes, 1); 
Dominican Republic (Santo Domingo City, 20; Maniel, 1; Aguacate, 
13; Catare, 8; Puerto Plata, 18; Samana, 11). 

Coereba flaveola nectarea Wetmore. 2 TORTUE ISLAND 
BANANAQUIT. 

1 Certhiola clusiae, as published by Hartlaub (Naumannia, 2, Heft 2, p. 56, 
1852), is a nomen nudum. 

2 Coereba flaveola nectarea Wetmore, unknown to the writer, is stated to be 
similar to C. /. bananivora, but to differ by having the throat and foreneck slightly 
darker gray. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 311 

Coereba bananivora nectarea Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 118, 1929 
Tortue Island, Haiti (type in U. S. National Museum); Wetmore and 
Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 366, 1931 Tortue Island. 

Range. Tortue Island, north of Haiti, Greater Antilles. 
*Coereba flaveola flaveola (Linnaeus). 1 JAMAICAN BANANAQUIT. 

Certhia flaveola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 119, 1758 based upon 
"Luscinia s. Philomela e fusco et luteo varia" Sloane (Nat. Hist. Jamaica, 
2, p. 307, pi. 259, fig. 3) and "The Black and Yellow Creeper" Edwards 
(Nat. Hist. Bds., 3, p. 122, pi. 122, left fig.), Jamaica; Denny, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 15, p. 39, 1847 Jamaica and Cuba(!). 

Coereba flaveola Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Ame"r. Sept., 2, p. 70, 1807 (in part) ; 
Cory, Auk, 8, p. 38, 1891 Jamaica (diag.); Scott, Auk, 10, p. 339, 1893 
Boston, Jamaica; Field, Auk, 11, p. 127, 1894 Port Henderson, Jamaica; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 414, 1902 Jamaica 
(monog.); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 511 Jamaica (monog.); Danforth, Auk, 
45, p. 489, 1928 Jamaica. 

Certhiola flaveola Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 84, 1847 Jamaica (habits, nest, 
and eggs); Newton, Ibis, 1859, p. 67 part, Jamaica (crit.); Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 73 Jamaica; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 54, 1862 part, spec, c, d, Jamaica; March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1863, p. 296 Jamaica (nest and eggs descr.); Cassin, I.e., 1864, 
p. 271 part, Jamaica; Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 
26, p. 621, 1869 Jamaica (monog.); Finsch, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 
21, p. 756, 1871 Jamaica (monog.); Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 7, p. 611, 
1873 Jamaica (diag.); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, pp. 28, 30, 1885 
Jamaica (diag.); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 50, 1886 Jamaica (diag.); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 43, 1886 Jamaica; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 64, 
1889 Jamaica; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 577 Kingston, Jamaica. 

Certhiola minor Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 259, 1854 
no locality stated (the type, examined in the Paris Museum, is from 
Jamaica); idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 51, 1854 (reprint of orig. 
descr.). 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 

32: Jamaica (Priestman's River, 3; unspecified, 29). 

"Coereba flaveola bahamensis (Reichenbach). 2 BAHAMA 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola bahamensis Reichenbach, Handb. Spez. Orn., livr. 5, p. 253, 1853 
based on "The Bahama Titmouse" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, etc., 

1 Coereba flaveola flaveola (Linnaeus) differs from C. /. bananivora chiefly by 
darker, more blackish slate gular area; deeper, brownish or wax yellow chest; 
deep black, instead of sooty blackish, upper parts; and more extensive white alar 
speculum. 

Additional material examined. Jamaica: Kingston, 3; St. Andrews, 3. 

2 Coereba flaveola bahamensis (Reichenbach) differs from the other races found 
in the western part of the Caribbean Sea by the lesser extent of yellow underneath 
and the buffy grayish abdomen. 



312 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1, p. 59, pi. 59, Bahama Islands; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1864, p. 271 (ex Catesby); Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 66, 1866 
Inagua; Sundevall, Ofvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, p. 624, 1869 
Bahamas; Finsch, Verb. Zool. Bot. Gesells. Wien, 21, p. 752, 1871 
Indian Key and Inagua, Bahamas (monog.); Ridgway, Amer. Natur., 
7, p. 612, 1873 Bahamas and Florida Keys; Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 428, pi. 19, fig. 5, 1874; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 47, 
1886 Bahamas (diag.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, pp. 27, 
29, 1885 Bahamas and coast of southern Florida; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 37, 1886 Inagua and New Providence; Cory, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 61, 1889; idem, Bds. Bahama Is., p. 76, 1890 Bahamas. 

Certhiola bairdii Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 412, 1865 based on Certhiola 
flaveola (not Certhia flaveola Linnaeus) Baird, Rep. Pac. R. R. Surv., 
9, p. 924, 1858, and idem, Bds. N. Amer., pi. 83, fig. 3, 1860; Indian 
Key, Florida (type in U. S. National Museum); Sundevall, Ofvers. 
Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, p. 621, 1869 (ex Baird). 

Coereba bahamensis Cory, Auk, 8, p. 37, 1891 Bahamas; Northrop, I.e., 8, 
p. 70, 1891 Andros; Cory, I.e., 8, pp. 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 350, 351, 
1891 New Providence, Caicos, Inagua, Abaco, Berry Islands, Bimini 
Islands, Great Bahama, and Eleuthera; Ridgway, I.e., 8, pp. 334, 335, 
336, 337, 338, 339, 1891 Abaco, New Providence, Eleuthera, Cat Island, 
Watlings, Rum Cay, Green Cay, and Conception; Bonhote, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 511 Nassau, New Providence; Bangs, Auk, 17, p. 293, 1900 New 
Providence (Nassau), Current Island, and Highbourne Cay; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 401, 1902 Bahamas (monog.); 
Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 286 Nassau (New Providence), Andros (Grassy 
Creek), and Little Abaco; Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama Islands, 
pp. 355, 367, 1905 Bahamas; Todd and Worthington, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 7, pp. 438, 463, 1911 New Providence (Blue Hills), Great Inagua 
(Mathewtown), Andros (Staniard Creek), and Abaco (Spencer's Point); 
Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 514 Bahamas (crit.); Nichols, Auk, 38, p. 461, 
1921 Miami, Florida (one specimen seen Feb. 7, 1921). 

Range. Bahama Islands (from Great Bahama and Little Abaco 
south to Inagua and the Caicos Islands); accidental on the east 
coast of Florida (one sight record from Miami, Feb. 7, 1921) and the 
Keys (Indian Key, Jan. 31, 1858). l 

272: Bahama Islands (Great Bahama, 23; Abaco, 10; Bimini, 5; 
Berry, 8; New Providence [Nassau], 14); Andros, 30; Eleuthera, 21; 
Cat, 1; Watlings, 13; Mariguana, 62; Caicos, 16; Inagua, 69). 

*Coereba flaveola sharpei (Cory). 2 SHARPE'S BANANAQUIT. 

1 Though a certain difference in the length of the bill is observable between 
specimens from various islands, those from Great Inagua and the Caicos being 
particularly long-billed, I agree with Mr. Todd that subdivision of bahamensis is 
unwarranted. 

* Coereba flaveola sharpei (Cory) is closely related to C. b. caboti, but differs by 
larger bill; less extensive as well as duller yellow uropygial area; decidedly smoke- 
gray instead of pale drab-gray throat, this color also extending onto the upper 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 313 

Certhiola sharpei Cory, Auk, 3, p. 497, 1886 Grand Cayman (type in coll. 
of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); idem, I.e., 3, p. 501, 1886 
Grand Cayman; idem, I.e., 5, p. 157, 1888 Grand Cayman; idem, I.e., 
6, p. 31, 1889 Little Cayman and Cayman Brae; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 10, p. 574, 1887 Grand Cayman; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, pp. 580, 
587 Grand Cayman and Little Cayman. 

Coereba sharpei(ii) Cory, Auk, 8, p. 37, 1891 Grand Cayman, Little Cayman, 
and Cayman Brae (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 404, 1902 Cayman Islands (monog.); Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 345 
Grand Cayman (crit.); idem, Ibis, 1911, p. 160 Cayman Islands; idem, 
Ibis, 1912, p. 515 Cayman Islands (monog.); English, Ibis, 1916, p. 34 
Grand Cayman (breeding habits); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, 
p. 316, 1916 Grand Cayman, Little Cayman, and Cayman Brae (crit.); 
Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 18, 1931 
Grand Cayman. 

Range. Islands of Grand Cayman, Little Cayman, and Cay- 
man Brae, Greater Antilles (south of Cuba). 

118: Grand Cayman, 63; Little Cayman, 13; Cayman Brae, 42. 

*Coereba flaveola tricolor (Ridgway). 1 OLD PROVIDENCE 
BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola tricolor Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, No. 12, p. 178, July, 

1884 Old Providence, Caribbean Sea (type in U. S. National Museum); 

idem, I.e., 8, pp. 27, 29, 1885 Old Providence; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 38, 1886 Old Providence; Cory, Auk, 4, p. 180, 1887 

Old Providence. 
Coereba tricolor Cory, Auk, 8, p. 40, 1891 part, Old Providence; Ridgway, 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 405, 1902 part (descr. and hab., 

Old Providence); Lowe, Ibis, 1912, p. 517 Old Providence (monog.); 

Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 18, 1931 

Old Providence. 

Range. Old Providence Island, Caribbean Sea. 
20: Old Providence Island. 

*Coereba flaveola oblita Griscom. 2 ST. ANDREWS BANANAQUIT. 

chest; much larger white tips to the lateral rectrices, involving both webs. Besides, 
the black space on lores and auriculars appears to be generally more restricted. 

The late Outram Bangs noticed between birds from Grand Cayman and 
those from the two other islands certain differences which he thought might be 
seasonable. Our own material does not help toward elucidating this point, most 
of the specimens collected on the smaller islands being badly discolored by May- 
nard's "dermal preservative." 

1 Coereba flaveola tricolor (Ridgway) : Similar to C. 6. sharpei in having the 
gular area decidedly smoke gray and produced over the upper chest; but larger 
(wing of male, 64-68, against 60-63) with proportionately shorter bill; yellow 
uropygial area on average brighter. 

1 Coereba flaveola oblita Griscom: Exceedingly close to C. b. tricolor, but larger; 
gray gular area slightly darker and more extended over the chest; yellow of breast 



rather paler, more of a greenish yellow; flanks slightly more grayish olive; bill 
r. Wing, 69-74, (female) 62-65; tail, 47-50, (female) 42-45; bill, 12-13. 



shorter. 



314 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Coereba oblita Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 71, p. 7, 1923 St. Andrews, 
Caribbean Sea (type in Field Museum); Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 18, 1931 St. Andrews (nest and egg descr.). 

Certhiola tricolor (not of Ridgway) Cory, Auk, 4, p. 181, 1889 St. Andrews. 

Coereba tricolor Cory, Auk, 8, p. 40, 1891 part, St. Andrews; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 405, 1902 part, St. Andrews. 

Range. Island of St. Andrews, Caribbean Sea. 
6: Island of St. Andrews. 

*Coereba flaveola caboti (Ridgway). 1 COZUMEL BANANAQUIT. 

Certhiola caboti (Baird MS.) Ridgway, 4 Amer. Natur., 7, p. 612, 1873 
Cozumel Island (type in coll. of S. Cabot, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Auk, 32, p. 170, 1915); Salvin, 
Ibis, 1874, p. 327 Cozumel (crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 251, pi. 15a, fig. 4, 1883 Cozumel; Ridgway, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, pp. 27, 29, 564, 1885 Cozumel (crit.); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 38, 1886 Cozumel; Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 257 
Cozumel and Holbox Islands (crit.). 

Coereba caboti Cory, Auk, 8, p. 41, 1891 Cozumel (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 404, 1902 Cozumel (monog.); Lowe, 
Ibis, 1912, p. 516 Cozumel (monog.); Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 
236, p. 12, 1926 Cozumel. 

Range. Islands of Cozumel and Holbox, 3 off Yucatan. 
6: Cozumel Island. 

Genus ATELEODACNIS Cassin 

Ateleodacnis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 270 type, by 
subs, desig. (Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 18, 1886), Dacnis leuco- 
genys Lafresnaye. 

*Ateleodacnis speciosa speciosa (Temminck). CHESTNUT- VENTED 
ATELEODACNIS. 

Sylvia speciosa (Wied MS.) Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 49, pi. 293, 
fig. 2, 1824 Rio de Janeiro (descr. male; type in coll. of Prince Wied, 4 now 

1 Coereba flaveola caboti (Ridgway), while agreeing in large size with the other 
races of the western Caribbean Sea, nevertheless betrays a certain tendency in the 
direction of C. f. mexicana by the restriction of the pale drab-gray gular area to 
the throat proper and the distribution of the white on the lateral rectrices, this 
color being practically limited to the inner vane of the feathers, as in the conti- 
nental representatives. There does not seem to be a bright-colored tumid rictus 
either, so far as I can determine from the few specimens at hand. 

2 The name as published by Finsch (Verhandl. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 21, p. 
790, 1871) is a nomen nudum. 

s No material seen from Holbox. According to Salvin (Ibis, 1888, p. 257), two 
females resemble Cozumel specimens of the same sex. The island is not mentioned 
by Lowe in his monograph of the genus. 

4 Cf. Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 710, 1831. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 315 

in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Wied, Beitr. 
Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 708, 1831 Rio de Janeiro and Angicos, Bahia. 

Dacnis analis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, 
p. 21, 1837 Chiquitos, Bolivia (descr. male; type in Paris Museum 
examined); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 109 Chiquitos (ex d'Orbigny); 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 1907 Maraj6; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
28, p. 248, 1921 (crit.). 

Sylvia erythroptis Descourtilz, Orn. Bres., Part 4, p. 37, pi. 42, fig. 2, 1856 
Rio de Janeiro (location of type not stated). 

Sylvicola speciosa Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 117, 1856 
Rio de Janeiro to Bahia. 

Dacnis speciosa Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1852, p. 101 part, Rio de Janeiro 
and Chiquitos; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 22, p. 252, 1854 Brazil 
and Bolivia; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 52, 1862 part, spec, a, b, 
Bolivia; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 317 part, Bolivia (Chiquitos) and Brazil; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 270 part, Brazil; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 1, p. 26, 1868 part, Sapitiba (Rio de Janeiro), Rio Parand 
(Sao Paulo) and Cuyaba (Matto Grosso); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 26, 1886 southeastern Brazil; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
2, p. 217, 1889 Rio de Janeiro (note on type); idem, I.e., 3, p. 346, 1891 
Chapada and Corumba, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, 
p. 142, 1899 southeastern Brazil; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
15, No. 378, p. 3, 1900 Carandasinho, Matto Grosso; Lillo, Apunt. Hist. 
Nat., 1, p. 43, 1909 Ledesma, Jujuy; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 619 Sapucay, 
Paraguay; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, 
p. 86, 1910 Bahia (Carnahyba, Fazenda da Porteira and Santa Rita, 
Rio Preto) and Piauhy (Parnagua, Pedrinha, Buriti, Uniao, Queimadas); 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 465, 1914 Ilha do Marajo (Rio Arary, 
Sao Natal, Pacoval, Chaves); Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 360, 1914 
Ledesma (Jujuy), Misiones, and Chaco; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio 
de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 41, 1926 Ceara. 

Ateleodacnis speciosa Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 140, 1902 
Sapucay, Paraguay; Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 334, 
1907 Salto Grande do Rio Paranapanema and Rio Feio (Sao Paulo), 
and Bahia; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 370, 1910 
Ledesma, Jujuy; idem, I.e., 23, p. 349, 1912 Mburero, Paraguay; Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 60, 1914 Alto Parana and Asuncion, Paraguay; idem, 
El Hornero, 3, p. 400, 1926 (food). 

Ateleodacnis speciosa speciosa Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 248, 1921 Chi- 
quitos, Bolivia (crit., range); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 
372, 1926 Las Palmas, Chaco, and west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay; 
Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 191, 1926 Marechal 
Mallet, Candido de Abreu, and Salto Guayra, Parana; Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 268, 1929 Maranhao (Barra do Corda 
and Codo, Cocos) and Piauhy (Deserto, Ibiapaba); Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 364, 1930 Paraguay (Fort Wheeler, Trinidad) 
and Matto Grosso (Urucum, Rio Sao Lourenco). 



316 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Dacnis brevipennis (not Helinaia brevipennis Giraud) Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 271 part (= female). 

Range. The greater part of the tableland of Brazil, from the 
Island of Maraj6 in the estuary of the Amazon, the interior of 
Maranhao and Piauhy south to Matto Grosso and northern Sao 
Paulo; eastern Bolivia; Paraguay; northern Argentina (Ledesma, 
Jujuy; Chaco; Misiones). 1 

8: Brazil (Barra do Corda, Maranhao, 2; Codo, Cocos, Maran- 
hao, 2; Deserto, Piauhy, 1; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 1; Jua, near Iguatu, 
Ceara, 1; Urucum de Corumba, Matto Grosso, 1). 

Ateleodacnis speciosa amazonum Hellmayr. 2 AMAZONIAN 
ATELEODACNIS. 

Ateleodacnis speciosa amazonum Hellmayr, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. 106, 
Feb., 1917 Tarapoto, Huallaga drainage, northern Peru (type in Berlepsch 
Collection, now in Frankfort Museum); idem, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 248, 
1921 (crit., range); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 645, 1926 
Rio Suno, eastern Ecuador. 

Dacnis speciosa (not Sylvia speciosa Wied) Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1852, 
p. 101 part, Cayenne; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 52, 1862 part, 
spec, c, Berbice; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 317 part, British Guiana and Amazon 
Valley; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 270 part ("dark 
specimen"); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1, p. 26, 1868 part, Forte do Sao 
Joaquim, Rio Branco, and Rio Amazonas (spec, examined) ; (?) Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 56, pp. 498, 521, 1908 Ilha Goyana, Tapaj6z, and Aru- 
matheua, Tocantins, Brazil; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. Ill, 1908 
Cayenne (ex Sclater). 

Dacnis brevipennis (not Helinaia brevipennis Giraud) Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 271 part, Cayenne (=female). 

1 Specimens from eastern Bolivia (D. analis) are inseparable from typical 
speciosa, as represented by a Brazilian series. A single male (in juvenile molt) 
from Marajo is likewise similar to east Brazilian birds in corresponding plumage, 
being very much paler than the Amazonian form. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Natal, Marajo, 1; Piauhy, Buriti, 2; 
Parnagua, 1 ; Pedrinha, 1 ; Uniao, Rio Parnahyba, 1 ; Queimadas, Rio Parnahyba, 1 ; 
Bahia, Carnahyba, Joazeiro, 1; Rio Preto, 2; Bahia, 5; Agua Suja, near Bagagem, 
Minas Geraes, 1 ; Nova Friburgo, Rio, 1 ; Sapitiba, Rio, 1 ; Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 
1. Bolivia: Chiquitos, 1; Santa Cruz, 1; Quebrada Onda, Dept. Cochabamba, 4. 

2 Ateleodacnis speciosa amazonum Hellmayr: Male similar to A. s. speciosa, 
but much darker throughout; the upper parts much darker, more purplish blue; 
lower surface deep slaty blue, the white abdominal area at best suggested by some 
whitish fringes; female not certainly distinguishable. Wing, 54-59, (female) 52; 
tail, 40-42, (female) 36; bill, 9-10. 

This dark form obviously ranges throughout the Amazon Valley from the 
confines of British Guiana to the eastern base of the Andes. Two adult males 
from the upper Rio Branco (Forte do Sao Joaquim) are, as far as I can see, insep- 
arable from Peruvian specimens, while one from "Bogota" is even darker under- 
neath. No material is available from the southern bank of the lower Amazon. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 1. Ecuador: Rio Suno, 1. Peru: 
Tarapoto, 1; Pintobamba, 1. Brazil: Forte do Rio Branco, 4; Rio Amazonas, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 317 

Dacnis analis (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 179 upper Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, 
p. 259 upper Ucayali; Taczanowski, Orn. P6r., 1, p. 432, 1884 upper 
Ucayali, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 25, 1886 Cayenne, 
"Bogota," upper Ucayali, Huambo, and (?) Maranura, 1 Peru; Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 37, p. 294, 1889 Tarapoto, Peru; Ihering and Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 335, 1907 part, Guiana, Amazonia, and Peru; (?) 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 464, 1914 Rio Tocantins (Aruma- 
theua), Rio Tapaj6z (Goyana), and Erere" (Igarape and Serra de Paituna), 
Brazil. 

(?) Conirostrum sp. inc. Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, 
p. 17 Maranura, Urubamba, Dept. Cuzco, Peru. 1 

Range. Amazonia, from the eastern base of the eastern Andes 
of Colombia ("Bogota" collections) south to northern Peru (Ucayali; 
Tarapoto; Huambo; Pintobamba) and east through the Amazonian 
lowlands to northern Brazil (Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco; 
(?) Tapajoz and Tocantins rivers), British and French Guiana. 

Ateleodacnis leucogenys 2 panamensis Griscom. 3 PANAMA 
ATELEODACNIS. 

Ateleodacnis leucogenys panamensis Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 282, p. 9, 
1927 Cape Garachine', eastern Panama (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Panama (Cape Garachme", 
Gulf of San Miguel, Darien). 

Ateleodacnis leucogenys leucogenys (Lafresnaye). WHITE- 
EARED ATELEODACNIS. 

Dacnis leucogenys Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 4, p. 470, 1852 "Co- 
lumbia'^ Bogota (descr. male; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 396, 1930); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 138, 1855 
Bogota; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 317 Bogota (descr. male); Cassin, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 270 Venezuela (crit.); Berlepsch, Journ. 

1 Without adult males it is impossible to decide whether the single female from 
Maranura belongs to A. s. speciosa or A. s. amazonum. 

2 Ateleodacnis leucogenys is possibly conspecific with A. speciosa. 

3 Ateleodacnis leucogenys panamensis Griscom: "Similar to A. I. leucogenys of 
Colombia, but adult males much darker both above and below, the general color 
dark Payne's gray instead of Payne's gray; females slightly darker above, with 
little or no tinge of green." (Griscom, I.e.). 

We are not acquainted with this race, which, judging from the description, 
would seem to be somewhat intermediate in the coloration of the under parts 
between typical leucogenys and cyanochrous. Although the author makes no 
reference to the last-named form, it can hardly be the same in view of its widely 
separated habitat, since A. I. leucogenys occupies the intervening section of northern 
Colombia. 



318 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Orn., 21, p. 69, 1873 New Granada (Bogota, Aguachica) and Venezuela; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 25, 1886 Bogota; Hellmayr and 
Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 51, 1912 Cumbre Chiquita 
and Las Quiguas, Carabobo, Venezuela (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 585, 1917 Algodonal (near Banco) and Honda, 
Magdalena River, Colombia. 

Ateleodacnis leucogenys Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 455, 
1922 Fundacion, Tucurinca, and Valencia, Santa Marta region (crit., 
habits). 

Ateleodacnis leucogenys leucogenys Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, 
p. 413, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Dacnis humeralis (lapsu) Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 324 Aguachica, above Puerto 
Nacional, Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of Colombia (valleys of the Magdalena 
and Cesar rivers) and northern Venezuela (Puerto Cabello, San 
Esteban, Las Quiguas, Cumbre Chiquita, and Sierra de Carabobo, 
State of Carabobo). 1 

*Ateleodacnis leucogenys cyanochrous Todd. 2 MERIDA 
ATELEODACNIS. 

Ateleodacnis leucogenys cyanochrous Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 122, 
1924 Santa Elena, Merida, Venezuela (type in Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh). 

Range. Humid Tropical zone of extreme western Venezuela, in 
State of Me"rida (northern base of Cordillera of Me"rida). 

1: Venezuela (La Azulita, Me"rida, 1). 

* Ateleodacnis bicolor bicolor (Vieillot). BICOLORED 
ATELEODACNIS. 

Sylvia bicolor Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., 2, p. 32, pi. 90 bis, 1807 
"tres rarement sous la z6ne boreale et plus communement entre les 
tropiques;" we suggest Cayenne as type locality (descr. of adult; type 
in Paris Museum examined); idem, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 
11, p. 167, 1817 'TAmerique septentrionale et Cayenne." 

1 1 am quite unable to perceive the slightest difference between eight specimens 
from northern Venezuela (Carabobo) and a large series of Bogota skins. A single 
adult male from Aracataca (western foot of Santa Marta Mountains) is also 
similar. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 19; Aracataca, 1. Venezuela, 
Carabobo: Cumbre Chiquita, 1; Las Quiguas, 3; Puerto Cabello, 2; San Esteban, 2. 

* Ateleodacnis leucogenys cyanochrous Todd: Similar to A. I. leucogenys, but 
adult male decidedly darker grayish blue underneath (slate gray instead of deep 
gull gray) with very little whitish suffusion along the abdominal line, and white 
auricular patch less extensive. Wing (adult male), 54; tail, 34; bill, 10. 

Judging from two adult males from the Merida region, I think this is a 
recognizable form. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYB 319 

Sylvia caerulescens Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 713, 1831 Rio 
Mucuri, Espirito Santo, Brazil (type in Wied Collection, now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H. f 2, p. 218, 1889). 

Dacnis plumbea (not Sylvia plumbea Latham 1 ) Cabanis," Mus. Hein., 1, p. 95, 
1851 Venezuela; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1852, p. 102; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 22, p. 252, 1854 Guiana and Brazil; Reichenbach, Handb. 
Spez. Orn., livr. 5, p. 228, pi. 551b=515, fig. 4063 (fig. pess.), 1853 
Trinidad and Venezuela; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 52, 1862 
Brazil; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 317 Brazil and Amazon Valley into Guiana 
and Venezuela (excl. Peru; descr.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1868, p. 627 Tucacas (Falcon), Venezuela; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 330 Recife, Pernambuco; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 433, 1884 
part (descr. of Cayenne specimens); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 26, 1886 part, spec, a-c, e-j, Tucacas (Venezuela), Trinidad, and 
Bahia (Brazil); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 26, 1894 
Caroni River, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 363, 1897 Cumana, Vene- 
zuela; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 174, 1900 Santa Marta 
region (locality not specified); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, p. 265, 1902 
Iguape, Sao Paulo; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 26, 1907 
Mexiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 1907 Marajo and Mexiana; 
Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 250, 1909 Boca del Rio, 
Margarita Island; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 473, 1910 Surinam; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 86, 1910 
coast strip of Piauhy; idem, I.e., p. 187, 1925 Amaracao, Piauhy. 

Mnioiilia bicolor L6otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 180, 1866 Trinidad. 

Dacnis bicolor Cassin, Proc, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 270 Cayenne 
(crit.); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1881, p. 242 (nomencl.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
13, p. 11, 1906 Seelet and Caroni Swamp, Trinidad; Men^gaux, Bull. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 13, p. 496, 1907 French Guiana; Berlepsch, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. Ill, 1908 Cayenne, French Guiana; Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 1, p. 102, 1909 Carlo San Juan, Venezuela; Hellmayr, Abhandl. 
Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 87, 118, 1912 
Cajutuba (Para) and Mexiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 518, 1913; 
idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 465, 1914 Ilha das Ongas (Para), Maraj6, 
Mexiana, Ilha Aquiqui, and Arumanduba, Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 

1 Sylvia plumbea Latham (Ind. Orn., 2, p. 553, 1801 based on "Plumbeous 
Warbler" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., Suppl., p. 188) from an unknown locality, 
certainly does not refer to the above species, as has been pointed out by both 
Cassin (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 270) and Berlepsch (Ibis, 1881, p. 
242). The characters, "Size small, length three inches and three-quarters; bill 
short, dusky brown; plumage above deep lead-color, nearly black; beneath pale 
ash-colour; quills and tail dusky; legs deep brown," clearly indicate that Latham 
had some entirely different bird in mind. The type, formerly in the Leverian 
Museum, seems to have disappeared; at all events it is not among the objects 
acquired by the Vienna Museum at the sale of Sir Lever's collection. 

2 1 cannot make out from the description Dacnis plumbeus Tschudi (Faun. 
Peru., Aves, p. 236, 1846). The species is said to be common on the coast and in 
the wood region of Peru, where A. bicolor does not occur at all. If really founded 
on a bird collected by Tschudi himself, it must refer to some other species, but 
which, I am unable to say. 



320 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 165, 1916 Cano San Juan, Orinoco Delta, 
Venezuela (ex Beebe); Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 479, 1921 
Bartica and Abary River; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, 
No. 6, p. 41, 1926 Ceara. 

Dendroeca bicolor Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 71, 1868 part, Rio de Janeiro 
and Cajutuba, Para (spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 

Ateleodacnis bicolor Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 334, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Iguape) and Bahia (range part, excl. Matto Grosso); Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 454, 1922 Pueblo Viejo and Punto Caiman, 
Colombia (crit.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 269, 
1929 Mangunca Island, Maranhao; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 71, p. 412, 1931 Sevillano, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Nemosia spec. Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 215, 1870 Praia do Cajutuba, Para 
(spec, in Vienna Museum examined;=juv.). 

Range. Littoral of northern Colombia (shores of the Cienaga 
Grande, Dept. Magdalena), Venezuela (Tucacas, Falcon; Cumana; 
Boca del Rio, Margarita Island; Cano San Juan, Gulf of Paria), 
Trinidad (Seelet and Caroni River), British Guiana (Bartica Grove 
and Abary River), Dutch Guiana, French Guiana (Cayenne), and 
eastern Brazil, in states of Para (Ilha das Oncas, Marajo, Mexiana, 
Ilha Aquiqui, Arumanduba, Cajutuba), Maranhao (Mangunca 
Island), Piauhy (Amaracao), Ceara, Pernambuco (Recife), Bahia, 
Espirito Santo (Rio Mucury), Rio de Janeiro (Manguinhos), and 
Sao Paulo (Iguape"). 1 

14: Venezuela (Margarita Island, 10); British Guiana (un- 
specified, 2); Brazil (Mangunca Island, Maranhao, 2). 

Ateleodacnis bicolor minor subsp. nov. 2 LESSER ATELEODACNIS. 

1 Birds from Venezuela, Trinidad, and the Guianas agree well together. 
Specimens from eastern Brazil are, on average, slightly paler blue above and 
perhaps not quite so dark brownish buff underneath, but as a good many are not 
distinguishable, the recognition of a separate race (A. b. caerulescens) seems to be 
uncalled for. Five skins from the coast of Para (Cajutuba, east of Belem), by 
having the under parts but faintly washed with pale buff, exhibit a certain tend- 
ency in the direction of A. margaritae. The sexes are nearly alike in adult plumage, 
the females merely differing by smaller size and somewhat duller, less bluish, 
dorsal surface. Birds with light olive upper, and clear yellow under parts repre- 
sent the juvenile plumage. 

This form seems to be restricted to the mangrove thickets (Rhizophora mangle) 
along the seashore and in brackish waters. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Cumana, 3. Trinidad: Seelet, 3; 
Caroni River, 1. French Guiana: Cayenne, 2. Brazil: Cajutuba, east of Para, 7; 
Amarasao, Piauhy, 5; Bahia, 7; Rio de Janeiro, 2; Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, 1. 

2 Ateleodacnis bicolor minor subsp. nov. 

Type from Rio Madeira (right bank below the junction of the Rio Mahisi) in 
the Vienna Museum. Adult male. November 18, 1829. J. Natterer. 

Adult. Similar to A. b. bicolor, but much smaller; under parts generally more 
rufescent, bright pinkish buff rather than brownish buff or grayish buff; lower tail 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 321 

Dendroeca bicolor (not Sylvia tricolor Vieillot) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 71, 
1868 part, Rio Madeira [below the junction of the Rio Mahisi], Brazil. 

Dacnis bicolor Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 270, 1910 Rio Madeira (ex 
Pelzeln); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 364, 1930 part, 
Rio Madeira. 

Ateleodacnis bicolor Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 334, 1907 part, "Matto 
Grosso"=Rio Madeira. 

Dacnis plumbea (not Sylvia plumbea Latham) Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, 
p. 266, 1890 Santarem, Brazil. 

Range. Northern Brazil, from the Tapajoz westward to the Rio 
Madeira, and eastern Ecuador (Rio Napo; mouth of the Curaray). 

Ateleodacnis margaritae Holt. 1 MARGARITA'S ATELEODACNIS. 

Ateleodacnis margaritae Holt, Auk, 48, p. 570, 1931 Ceo de Arary, above 
Parintins, north bank of Rio Amazonas, Brazil (type in U. S. National 
Museum). 

Range. Northern Brazil, in State of Amazonas (Ceo de Arary, 
above Parintins, north bank; Igarape" Auara, above Borba, right bank 
of Rio Madeira); (?) northeastern Peru (Pebas). 

Genus CONIROSTRUM Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny 

Conirostrum Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 
2, p. 25, 1838 type, by monotypy, Conirostrum cinereum Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny. 

coverts brighter than, instead of uniform with, the abdomen; cheeks and auric- 
ulars strongly brownish buff, not at all grayish. Wing, 54-58; tail, 36-40; tars., 
16-16H; bill, 10. 

This small form seems to replace the typical race in the valley of the Amazon, 
its range being evidently quite extensive, since an adult bird from the Rio Napo 
agrees in every respect with those from the Rio Madeira. Mr. Zimmer (in litt.), 
who confirms its distinctness, writes that the American Museum of Natural 
History has a good series from Santarem, Villa Bella de Imperatriz (west of the 
Rio Tapaj6z), and both banks of the lower Rio Madeira, as well as two specimens 
from the mouth of the Curaray in Ecuador. 

1 Ateleodacnis margaritae Holt: Closely allied to A. b. bicolor and similar in 
size, but upper parts clearer blue gray, and lower parts, including the sides of the 
head, very pale gray (near light gull gray) without any buffy; bill slightly wider; 
feet darker reddish. Wing, 62; tail, 44; bill, 11. 

Though one would be tempted to consider this bird as subspecifically related 
to A. bicolor, such cannot well be the case, for, as I am informed by Mr. Zimmer, 
the American Museum of Natural History has specimens of both A. b. minor and 
A. margaritae, from Igarape Auara, just above Borba, on the right bank of the 
Rio Madeira. A single adult female, collected by J. Hauxwell at Nauta, Peru, on 
September 12, 1880, differs from a lower-Amazonian skin by still paler 
(light neutral gray) upper, and nearly pure white under parts; but whether this 
divergency is of any significance other than seasonal cannot be decided owing to 
its very worn condition. Both specimens have slightly wider bills and darker 
feet than A. bicolor. 



322 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Conirostrum sitticolor sitticolor Lafresnaye. PURPLE 
CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum sitticolor Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 102, 1840 Santa F6 de 
Bogota, Colombia (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 395, 1930); idem, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, text to pi. 35, p. 2, 1843 
Santa F6 de Bogota (part, male); Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Bds., 1, p. 102, 
pi. 34, 1846; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, pp. 75, 138, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 49, 1862 Bogota; Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 272 Bogota; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1880, p. 193 Cutervo, Peru; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 175, 
1882 Bogota; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 423, 1884 Cutervo and 
Paucal, Peru; idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 75 
San Rafael, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 13, 1886 part, 
spec, b-h, Bogotd and Ecuador (San Lucas); Salvador! and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 12, 1899 Frutillas, Ecuador; Good- 
fellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 318 Papallacta and Pichincha, Ecuador; M6negaux, 
Miss. Serv. Geog. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 86, 1911 
Alaspungo and Oyacachi, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
36, p. 583, 1917 Andes west of Popayan, Laguneta, Santa Isabel, Alma- 
guer, Valle de las Pappas, El Pifion, and Chipaque, Colombia; Lonnberg 
and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 81, 1922 near Chinquil, below 
Nono, and Silanti (Coraz6n), Ecuador. 

Conirostrum sitticolor sitticolor Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 641, 
1926 near Quito, Taraguacocha, Salvias, upper Rio Upano, upper 
Sumaco, Oyacachi, and Papallacta, Ecuador, and El Tambo [near Huanca- 
bamba], Dept. Piura, Peru. 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of Colombia (except Santa 
Marta region), Ecuador, and northwestern Peru (El Tambo, Dept. 
Piura; Cutervo, Prov. Jaen). 1 

3: Colombia (Bogota, 3). 

*Conirostmm sitticolor intermedium Berlepsch. 2 VENEZUELAN 
PURPLE CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum sitticolor intermedium Berlepsch, Ornith. Monatsber., 1, p. 11, 
1893 Merida, Venezuela (type in Berlepsch Collection, now in Sencken- 
berg Museum, Frankfort). 

Conirostrum sitticolor (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1870, p. 780 Paramo de Culata, Venezuela. 

1 Ten specimens from Ecuador agree with a series of Bogota skins. Birds 
from northwestern Peru, which we have not seen, are stated by Chapman to be 
paler underneath. 

1 Conirostrum sitticolor intermedium Berlepsch: Similar to C. s. sitticolor in 
deep black throat, but smaller and with broad blue superciliaries. Wing, 65-68; 
tail, 52-57. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Andes of Menda, 9. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 323 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of western Venezuela (Cor- 
dillera of Me"rida). 

1: Venezuela (Andes of Me>ida, 1). 

*Conirostrum sitticolor cyaneum Taczanowski. 1 PERUVIAN 
PURPLE CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum cyaneum Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 512 
Sillapata, Dept. Junin, Peru (type lost, formerly in Warsaw Museum); 
Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 596 Tilotilo, Bolivia; Taczanowski, 
Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 423, 1884 Sillapata; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 14, 1886 central Peru and Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
2, p. 80, 1889 Yungas, Bolivia; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 335 Maraynioc, Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 117, p. 116, 1921 Occobamba Valley, Urubamba, Dept. Cuzco, 
Peru. 

Conirostrum sitticolor cyaneum Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 
12, 1921 Limbani, Carabaya, Peru (crit.); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 421, 1930 above Panao, Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of Peru (except the north- 
western section) and western Bolivia. 

5: Peru (Balsas, 1; Molinopampa, 1; above Panao, Huanuco, 3). 

"Conirostrum rufum Lafresnaye. RUFOUS-BROWED CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum rufum Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, cl. 2, text to pi. 35, p. 3, 
1843 Santa F6 de Bogota, Colombia (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 395, 1930); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
23, pp. 75, 138, 1855 Bogota; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 50, 1862 
Bogota; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 272 Bogota; 

1 Conirostrum sitticolor cyaneum Taczanowski: Similar to C. s. intermedium 
in having broad blue superciliaries, but sides of head, throat, and foreneck slaty 
bluish (green-blue slate to dark green-blue slate) instead of black; posterior under 
parts paler ochraceous. The blue superciliary streak, besides, is more extended 
anteriorly, reaching frequently to above the loral region. Wing of males, 64-673^ 
(Bolivia), 70 (Maraynioc); tail, 53-56. 

Birds from western Bolivia and southeastern Peru (Limbani) are well charac- 
terized by slaty gular area and slightly darker (slaty black) sides of the head. The 
type from Sillapata (an unsexed adult in full molt), which we have examined 
many years ago, and a female from Maraynioc are similar, but a male from the 
latter locality already shows some blackish suffusion on the upper throat. Two 
adults from above Panao, Huanuco, have the whole upper throat dull blackish, 
thus diverging in the direction of C. s. sitticolor. The gap is closed by the male 
from Molinopampa, which has throat, foreneck, and sides of head very nearly as 
deep black as sitticolor, and approaches the latter form, furthermore, by having 
the blue superciliaries more restricted. In other words, C. s. cyaneum, in northern 
Peru, gradually passes into C. s. sitticolor. 

Material examined. Bolivia, Dept. La Paz: Unduavi, 2; Cillutincara, 1; 
Cocapata, 4. Peru: Limbani, Carabaya, Dept. Puno, 1; Sillapata, 1 (the type); 
Maraynioc, Dept. Junin, 2; above Panao, Huanuco, 3; Molinopampa, 1; near 
Balsas, 1. 



324 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, pp. 128, 324 above Vetas, north of Bucaramanga, 
Santander; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 176, 1882 Bogota; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 14, 1886 Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and 
Bogota; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 308 Bogota; 
Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, p. 105, 1899 Paramo de Chiruqua 
and Paramo de Macotama, Santa Marta Mountains; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 13, p. 174, 1900 Santa Marta Mountains (ex Bangs); 
Chapman, I.e., 36, p. 583, 1917 eastern Andes of Colombia (Subia, 
Bogota, Chipaque, Choachi, Palo Hueco, and La Porquera); Todd and 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 456, 1922 Paramo de Mamarongo 
and Paramo de Chiruqua, Santa Marta region. 

Conirostrum bicolor Lesson, 1 Echo du Monde Sav., 11, (2nd sSm.), No. 7, 
p. 158, July 25, 1844 Colombia (type in coll. of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux); 
idem, Oeuvr. Compl. Buffon, ed. Levque, 20, [=Descr. Mamm. Ois.J, p. 
275, 1847 Colombia. 

Dacnis rufodnerea Bonaparte, Atti Sesta Riun. Sci. Ital. Milano, p. 404, 
1845 Santa Fe de Bogota (type in coll. of 0. Antinori, Perugia). 

Range. Temperate zone of the Santa Marta Mountains and 
eastern Andes of Colombia. 2 

6: Colombia (Chipaque, 1; Paramo Guerrero, Santander, 2; 
Cundinamarca, 1; "Bogota," 2). 

*Conirostrum ferrugineiventre Sclater. 3 WHITE-BROWED 
CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum ferrugineiventre Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 74, pi. 85, 
May, 1855 Bolivia (type in Derby Collection, now in Liverpool Museum) ; 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 511 Peru [=Maraynioc]; Sclater and Salvin, 
I.e., 1874, p. 678 Ccachupata, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 596 Bolivia; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 424, 1884 Peru (Maraynioc, Ccachupata); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 15, 1886 Bolivia and southern Peru 
(Ccachupata); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 335 Maraynioc, Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 116, 

1 Though quoted by Sclater in the synonymy of C. s. sitticolor, C. bicolor is 
referable to C. rufum, as the description plainly shows. 

2 A single adult from the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta seems to agree with 
"Bogota" skins. 

3 Conirostrum ferrugineiventre Sclater is nearly related to C. rufum and differs 
chiefly by lacking the rufous forehead, distinctly black crown, white instead of 
rufous super ciliaries, dark gray instead of dull rufous sides of head and malar 
region, lighter under parts, etc. Wing, (male) 67-74, (female) 64-68; tail, 54-58, 
(female) 50-55; bill, 10^-12. 

The few Peruvian specimens examined seem to be similar to a Bolivian 
series. This strongly marked bird is probably conspecific with C. rufum, though 
their habitats are widely separated, a circumstance that may prevent their 
intergradation. 

Material examined. Peru: Huanuco Mountains, Huanuco, 1; Maraynioc, 
Junin, 2. Bolivia: Cocapata, 6; Cillutincara, 2; Iquico, Illimani, 3; Unduavi, 2; 
Malaga, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 325 

1921 above Torontoy, Urubamba, Peru; Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 17, p. 422, 1930 Huanuco Mountains, Peru. 

Range. Temperate zone of southern Peru, in depts. of Huanuco 
(Huanuco Mountains), Junin (Maraynioc), and Cuzco (Ccachupata 
and above Torontoy, Urubamba), and Bolivia. 

1: Peru (Huanuco Mountains, Huanuco, 1). 
"Conirostrum cinereum fraseri Sclater. 1 ERASER'S CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum fraseri Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 452, Nov., 1858 
Cuenca, Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum) ; 
idem, I.e., 28, p. 65, 1860 Chillanes, above Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 50, 1862 Cuenca; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 288 Cechce; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 76 
San Rafael; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 15, pi. 2, fig. 1, 1886 
Ecuador (Sical, "Jima," vicinity of Quito, Cuenca); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
5, p. 481, 1898 Cayambe and Ibarra, northern Ecuador; Salvadori and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 12, 1899 Huaca, El 
Troje, Chinquil (Lloa), Tumbaco (Quito), Frutillas, and "Nanegal"; 
Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 318 western and eastern Andes and in the 
gardens of Quito; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geog. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 86, 1911 Lloa, Nono, and Tumbaco; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 583, 1917 Valle de las Pappas, Colombia; 
Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 82, 1922 Tumbaco, 
Chinquil, Pichincha, Cumbaya, and near Nono; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, p. 641, 1926 Riobamba, Hacienda Garzon, Pomasqui, 
Yanacocha, Lloa, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Cumbaya, Mocha, Chimborazo, 
Bestion, El Paso, Taraguacocha, Salvias, and Loja, Ecuador; Berlioz, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 34, p. 74, 1928 Tumbaco, Cerro Mojanda, 
and San Pedro Tingo, Ecuador. 

Conirostrum cinereum (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 272 part, Ecuador (crit.). 

Range. Temperate zone of Ecuador and southern Colombia 
(Valle de las Pappas). 

1: Ecuador (Ibarra, Prov. Imbabura, 1). 

*Conirostrum cinereum littorale Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 2 
WESTERN CINEREOUS CONE-BILL. 

1 Conirostrum cinereum fraseri Sclater: Near to C. c. littorale, but crown darker; 
back tinged with olivaceous or brownish; superciliaries wider and deeper buff; 
lower parts much darker, dull brownish clay-color. Wing, (male) 58-63, (female) 
56-59. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Ibarra, Prov. Imbabura, 4; Lloa, Pichincha, 
2; Quito, 2; Canar, Canar, 1; Sinche, Guaranda, Prov. Guayas, 2; Guaillabamba, 
Riobamba, 1; unspecified, 5. 

1 Conirostrum cinereum littorale Berlepsch and Stolzmann: Differs from C. c. 
cinereum by paler, olive gray rather than light slate gray upper parts with the 
pileum less dusky; narrower and shorter buffy superciliaries; more buffy, anteriorly 



326 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Conirostrum cinereum littorale Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 336 (footnote) "circum Lima et Arequipa, in Peruvia 
littorali" (type, from Lima, in Branicki Museum, now in Warsaw Museum; 
cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 178, 
1927); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 421, 1930 Matu- 
cana, La Quinua, Huanuco, and Cullcui, Maranon River, Peru (crit.); 
Hellmayr, I.e., 19, p. 50, 1932 Chile (Pica, Tarapaca; Chacalluta, Tacna). 

Conirostrum cinereum Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, 
cl.2,p.25, 1838 part "female" and hab. Tacna, "rep. Peruviana"; Lafres- 
naye, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, text to pi. 35, p. 2, 1843 part, Tacna; d'Orbigny, 
Voy. Ame>. Merid., Ois., p. 374, 1847 part, Tacna; Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 272 part, spec, ex "Tacna, Peru," coll. of 
d'Orbigny (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 
984 Arequipa, Peru; idem, I.e., 1868, p. 569 Arequipa; Cabanis, 
Journ. Orn., 21, p. 64, 1873 Lima (crit.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 511 Lima; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 225 Pacasmayo, 
Peru; idem, Orn. Pe"r., 1, p. 425, 1884 Lima, Pacasmayo, Cutervo 
(Maran6n), and Tacna; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 15, 1886 
part, spec, a-c, f, Arequipa and Lima, coast of Peru; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 133 Pica, Tarapaca, Chile; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
I.e., 1892, p. 374 Lima; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 4, 1895 Cajabamba, 
Huamachuco, and Chusgon (Huamachuco), Peru; Lane, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 15 Pica, Tarapaca, Chile (habits); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 
13, p. 67, 1906 Coracora, Dept. Ayacucho, Peru. 

Range. Temperate zone of extreme northern Chile (Tarapacd 
and Tacna provinces) and Peru, from sea-level to the crest of the 
Cordillera de la Costa, extending into the upper Maranon Valley. 

18: Chile (Pica, Prov. Tarapaca, 9; Chacalluta, Prov. Tacna, 1); 
Peru (Matucana, Dept. Lima, 1; La Quinua, 1; Macate, Dept. 
Ancachs, 2; Chimbote, Dept. Ancachs, 1; Cullcui, Maranon River, 3). 

Conirostrum cinereum cinereum Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 
CINEREOUS CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum cinereum Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, el. 2, p. 25, 1838 part, descr. of male and hab. Yungas, Bolivia (type 
in Paris Museum examined); Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, text to pi. 
35, p. 2, 1843 part, Yungas, Bolivia; d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., 
Ois., p. 374, pi. 59, fig. 1, 1847 part, Inquisivi, Prov. Sicasica; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 780 Paucartambo, Dept. Cuzco, Peru; 

less grayish, lower surface. Wing, (male) 56-60, (female) 55; tail, 45-48, (female) 
43-45; bill, 9-10. 

Birds from northern Chile are identical with those from the Peruvian coast 
district. Specimens in a series from the upper Maranon region are larger, sug- 
gesting an approach to the still larger C. c. fraseri, of Ecuador. 

Material examined. Chile: Pica, Tarapaca, 9; Tacna, 2; Chacalluta, Prov. 
Tacna, 1. Peru: Arequipa, 3; Lima, 4; Matucana, 1; La Quinua, 1; Macate, 
Ancachs, 2; Chimbote, Ancachs, 1. Upper Maranon region: Cullcui, 3; Caja- 
bamba, 7; Cajamarca, 1; Santiago, 1; Huamachuco, 4; Leimabamba, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 327 

Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 596 Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 15, 1886 part, spec, e, g, Maraynioc and Bolivia; Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 335 Tarma and Pariayacu 
(Maraynioc), Peru. 

Conirostrum cinereum cinereum Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 
13, 1920 Ollachea, near Macusani, Dept. Puno, Peru (crit.); Chapman, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 116, 1921 Occobamba Valley, Ollantay- 
tambo, Huaracondo Canyon, Calca, and Cuzco, Urubamba, Peru. 

Range. Temperate zone of southeastern Peru, west to Junin, 
and western Bolivia. 1 

Conirostrum albifrons cyanonotum Todd. 2 BLUE-BACKED 
CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum cyanonotum Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 45, p. 218, 1932 
Colonia Tovar, Aragua, Venezuela (type in Carnegie Museum). 

Range. Subtropical zone of the coast range of Venezuela 
(Colonia Tovar, State of Aragua). 

*Conirostrum albifrons albifrons Lafresnaye. WHITE-CAPPED 
CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum albifrons Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 301, 1842 Colombia^ 
Bogota (descr. adult male; type in coll. of F.de Lafresnaye, now in Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 395, 1930); idem, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, pi. 35, 1843 Bogota; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, pp. 75, 138, 1855 Bogota (crit.); 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 50, 1862 Bogota; Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 272 (crit.) ; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1879, p. 496 Santa Elena, Antioquia; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., 
p. 176, 1882 Bogota; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 16, 1886 

1 Specimens from the Urubamba region and Sierra of Carabaya (Ollachea) are 
inseparable from a Bolivian series. A single female from Maraynioc, by reason 
of its size (wing, 61 ; tail, 50) and blackish crown, seems likewise referable to the 
present form. Additional material from Junin, however, should be carefully com- 
pared to render identification certain. 

Material examined. Bolivia, Dept. La Paz: Iquico, Illimani, 4; Chicani, 1; 
above Chaco, 1; unspecified, 1 (the type). Peru: Ollachea, Sierra of Carabaya, 
4; Cuzcp (Anta, 3; Urcos, 1; Urubamba, 1; Marcapata, 1); Paucartambo, 1; 
Maraynioc, Pariayacu, Dept. Junin, 1. 

2 Conirostrum albifrons cyanonotum Todd: "Pileum Hay's blue, with a few 
silvery white streaks on the forehead; upper parts in general black, overlaid with 
azurite blue, brightening into smalt blue on the rump and upper tail coverts; 
wings black with narrow outer edgings of azurite blue, and lesser wing coverts 
almost "solid" azurite blue; sides of head and entire under parts blackish violet 
gray with a deep bluish cast in some lights, especially posteriorly; female differing 
from that of C. a. albifrons only by its duller green upper parts. Wing, 74-77, 
(female) 69; tail, 56-58, (female) 53; bill, 11^-12." (Todd, I.e.). 

This recently discovered form, doubtless a geographical race of C. albifrons, 
appears to differ in the male sex from the White-capped Cone-bill of Colombia by 
having the pileum blue with a few silvery white streaks instead of uniform white, 
and by having a brighter blue rump, and more bluish under parts. 



328 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

part, spec, a-j, Bogota, Santa Elena, and "Medellin," Colombia; Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 583, 1917 part, central Andes 
(Almaguer, above Salento, Laguneta, Santa Isabel, Santa Elena) and 
eastern Andes (El Roble, Palo Hueco, Subia), Colombia. 

Conirostrum caeruleifrons Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 302, 1842 Colombia 
(descr. female; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 396, 1930); idem, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, text to pi. 35, p. 3, 1843 
Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 50, 1862 "New Granada." 

Range. Upper Subtropical and Temperate zones of central and 
eastern Andesof Colombia and adjacent parts of Venezuela (Tachira). 1 

5: Colombia (Cachiri, Santander, 1; La Pica, Santander, 1; 
Santa Isabel, 1; "Bogota," 1); Venezuela (Paramo de Tamd, 1). 

Conirostrum albifrons atrocyaneum Lafresnaye. 2 BLUE-CAPPED 
CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum atro-cyaneum Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 11, p. 9, 1848 "de Colombie, 
pres de Rio Napo" (descr. male; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 70, p. 396, 1930); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 225 Tambillo and Montana de Palto, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, 
p. 8 Tamiapampa, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 1, p. 426, 1884 part, Tambillo, 
Montana de Palto, and Tamiapampa; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 288 Cayandeled, Chaguarpata, and 
Pedregal, western Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 16, 1886 
part, spec, c, Pallatanga; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 12, 1899 Niebli, western Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 583, 1917 Cerro Munchique, western Andes, Colombia; 
idem, I.e., 55, p. 642, 1926 junction of Chanchan and Chiguancay rivers, 
above Baeza, and upper Sumaco, Ecuador (crit.). 

Conirostrum albifrons (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
27, p. 138, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 

1 Additional material examined. Colombia: Salento, western Andes, 2; 
"Bogota," 14. 

2 Conirostrum albifrons atrocyaneum Lafresnaye: Similar in the male sex to 
C. a. albifrons, but forehead and crown purplish blue instead of milky white; 
female not distinguishable. Wing, (male) 70-74, (female) 63; tail, 54-60, (female) 
50; bill, 11-12. 

We have no topotypical material, but males from western Ecuador and 
northern Peru, which agree well together, correspond to Lafresnaye's description 
except in having the outer margins to the remiges purplish blue instead of oliva- 
ceous. The close relationship between albifrons and atrocyaneum is plainly shown 
by the occasional occurrence of scattered blue feathers in the generally wholly 
white crown of males from Colombia (albifrons}, as well as by the similarity in the 
female sex. If white-crowned males really occur in Ecuador, as is suggested by 
Sclater's record of albifrons from "Jima," such individuals might have to be 
regarded as reversional mutants rather than albinistic examples of atrocyaneum. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Cayandeled, 1; Niebli, 1; Chaguarpata, 1. 
Peru: Tamiapampa, 1; Tambillo, 1. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 329 

p. 16, 1886 part, spec, k-m, "Jima" and Yauayaca, Ecuador; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 583, 1917 part, Cerro Munchique, western 
Andes of Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of northern Peru, 
Ecuador, and the western Andes of Colombia (Cerro Munchique). 

Conirostrum albifrons sordidum Berlepsch. 1 WEST BOLIVIAN 
CONE-BILL. 

Conirostrum atrocyaneum sordidum Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 49, p. 83 (in 
text), Jan., 1901 San Antonio, western Yungas, Bolivia (type in 
Berlepsch Collection, now in Frankfort Museum, examined); Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 76, 1906 Idma, Urubamba, Dept. Cuzco, 
Peru (crit.); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 116, 1921 Idma 
and San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru (crit.). 

Conirostrum atrocyaneum (not of Lafresnaye) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1874, p. 511 Chilpes, Dept. Junm, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, 
I.e., 1879, p. 597 Tilotilo, Bolivia; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 1, p. 427, 
part, Chilpes; 2 Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 16, 1886 part, spec, 
a, b, Bolivia; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 335 Garita del Sol and Culumachay, Dept. Junln, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of western Bolivia 
(western Yungas, Dept. La Paz) and southern Peru, north to Dept. 
Junin. 

Conirostrum albifrons lugens Berlepsch. 3 EAST BOLIVIAN 
CONE-BILL. 

1 Conirostrum albifrons sordidum Berlepsch: Similar in the male sex to C. a. 
atrocyaneum; but dorsal surface mainly dull black with merely a faint purplish 
blue sheen on the mantle, and the purple blue uropygial area much duller as well 
as less extensive; lower parts dull black, only the tips of the tail coverts slightly 
tinged with purplish; blue humeral patch restricted to the lesser upper wing coverts, 
consequently much smaller; edges to larger wing coverts and remiges duller bluish. 
Wing, (male) 71-72, (female) 63-66; tail, 56-59, (female) 50-54; bill, 11-12. 

The above diagnosis is based on the type specimen from San Antonio, Dept. 
La Paz, Bolivia. Males from Idma, Urubamba, and Garita del Sol, Junin, Peru, 
diverge towards C. a. atrocyaneum, as represented by specimens from northern 
Peru (Tamiapampa, Tambillo) and western Ecuador, by having the under parts 
slightly glossed with bluish, and the purplish sheen above, particularly on the 
rump and humeral area, more strongly suggested. The margins to the remiges 
are dusky olive green rather than dull bluish. Females cannot be distinguished 
with certainty from those of atrocyaneum. 

Material examined. Bolivia, Dept. La Paz: San Antonio, 1; Chaco, 1. Peru: 
Chuhuasi, Sierra of Carabaya, Dept. Puno, 1; Idma, Urubamba, Dept. Cuzco, 3; 
Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Dept. Junln, 1; Culumachay, Maraynioc, Dept. Junin, 1. 

2 The record "Pacasmayo" is doubtless erroneous. 

3 Conirostrum albifrons lugens Berlepsch: Male similar to C. a. sordidum, but 
back uniform sooty blackish, only the rump faintly tinged with olive; median and 
greater wing coverts and scapulars without trace of purple blue edges; margins to 
wing and tail feathers dull olivaceous, much reduced in extent; lower surface 
duller blackish, the flanks and tail coverts washed with dingy olivaceous instead 



330 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Conirostrum lugens Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 49, p. 82, Jan., 1901 Cocapata, 
eastern Yungas, Bolivia (type in Berlepsch Collection, now in Frankfort 
Museum, examined). 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of eastern Bolivia 
(Yungas of Cochabamba). 

Genus OREOMANES Sclater 

Oreomanes Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 75, 1860 type, by orig. 
desig., Oreomanes fraseri Sclater. 

Oreomanes fraseri Sclater. ERASER'S GIANT CONE-BILL. 

Oreomanes fraseri Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 75, pi. 159, 1860 
Panza, Chimborazo, Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 49, 1862 Chimborazo; Tac- 
zanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 76 Chimborazo; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 12, 1886 Ecuador (Panza, Sical) 
and Colombia (Pasto); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 12, 1899 Chaupi, Paramo de Illiniza, Ecuador; Berlepsch, 
Ornis, 11, p. 197, 1901 Anta, near Cuzco, Peru; Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. 
Ges. Bay., 11, p. 159, 1912 Ollachea, twenty miles north of Macusani, 
Sierra de Carabaya, Dept. Puno, Peru; idem, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 
10, p. 11, 1920 Ollachea, Puno, and Anta, Cuzco, Peru (crit.); Chapman, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 115, 1921 Cedrobamba, Peru; idem, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 641, 1926 Mocha Canyon and Cerro Huamani, 
Ecuador. 

Oreomanes binghami Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 41, p. 331, 1919 
Cedrobamba Ruins, Matchu Picchu, Urubamba, Dept. Cuzco, Peru (type, 
in U. S. National Museum, examined). 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of southern Colombia (Pasto), 
Ecuador (Chimborazo, Illiniza, Cerro Huamani), and southeastern 
Peru (Cedrobamba and Anta, Dept. Cuzco; Ollachea, Dept. Puno). 1 

of with dull purplish blue; female indistinguishable. Wing, (male) 70, (female) 
63-64; tail, 55-58, (female) 51-52; bill, 11-12. 

Material examined. Bolivia, eastern Yungas: Cocapata, 3; Quebrada Onda, 1. 

1 The type of 0. binghami differs from all other specimens examined by white 
instead of chestnut superciliaries. The white chin and the mainly white malar 
region claimed for this supposed southern form are also found in an (apparently 
immature) male from Ollachea, which, besides, has a narrower chestnut super- 
ciliary streak interspersed with some white feathers. Three other Peruvian 
specimens, two from Ollachea and one from Anta, Cuzco, however, agree with 
those from Ecuador and Colombia in coloration, viz., in having broad chestnut 
superciliaries, chestnut chin, and the malar region spotted with black and chest- 
nut, and it seems very questionable if the slightly longer bill of the inhabitants of 
Peru affords sufficient grounds for their separation. 

Material examined. Colombia: Pasto, 1. Ecuador: Chaupi, 1; Chimborazo, 
2. Peru: Anta, Cuzco, 1; Cedrobamba, Cuzco, 1; Ollachea, Puno, 3. 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 331 

Genus EUNEORNIS Fitzinger 1 

Euneornis Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 21, 
(2), p. 316, 1856 type, by orig. desig., Motacilla campestris Linnaeus. 

Glossiptila Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," p. 269, pub. Jan. 26, 
1857 type, by monotypy, Tanagra ruficollis Gmelin=AfotaciMa campestris 
Linnaeus. 

*Euneornis campestris (Linnaeus). ORANGEQUIT. 

Motacilla campestris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 184, 1758 based 
on "American Hedge Sparrow" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 3, p. 122, pi. 
122, fig. [2]; Jamaica (=female). 

Tanagra ruficollis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 894, 1789 based on "Rufous- 
throated Tanager" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (1), p. 241, 1783; Jamaica 
(type in British Museum ;= male). 

Tachyphonus rufo-gularis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 320, 1846 Jamaica 
(descr. male; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Compar- 
ative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 393, 1930). 

Tanagrella ruficollis Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 236, 1847 Jamaica (habits, nest, 
and eggs); idem, Illust. Bds. Jam., pi. 58, 1849. 

Glossiptila ruficollis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," p. 269, Jan., 
1857 Jamaica and "S. Domingo," errore (monog.); idem, I.e., 1861, p. 73 
Jamaica; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 54, 1862 Jamaica; March, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 296 Jamaica (nest and eggs); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 48, 1886 Moneague and Chester- 
field, Jamaica; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 54, 1886 Jamaica (monog.); idem, Birds 
W. Ind., p. 68, 1889 Jamaica (monog.); idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 117, 
1892 Jamaica; Scott, Auk, 10, p. 339, 1893 Jamaica (habits); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 424, 1902 Jamaica (monog.). 

Glossoptila campestris Lucas, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 301, 1894 (tongue). 

Euneornis campestris Sharpe, Hand-List Bds., 5, p. 344, 1909 Jamaica; 
Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 489, 1928 Kingston, Lumsden, Jacksontown, 
and Mandeville, Jamaica (food, song). 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 
24: Jamaica. 

Family COMPSOTHLYPIDAE. Wood Warblers 

Genus MNIOTILTA Vieillot 

Mniotilta Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Ornith. Elem., p. 45, 1816 type, by 
monotypy, "Figuier varie" BuSon- Motacilla varia Linnaeus. 

Oxyglossus Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, p. 356, 1827 type, by orig. desig., 
Certhia maculata Wilson = Motacilla varia Linnaeus. 

l Neornis (not of Hodgson, 1844) Hartlaub (Erster Nachtrag Verz. Vogels. 
Mus. Bremen, p. 8, 1846), based on an undescribed species, Neornis caerulea 
Hartlaub (MS.), is a nomen nudum, and has no nomenclatorial standing. 



332 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus). BLACK-AND-WHITE CREEPER. 

Motacilla varia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 333, 1766 based on 
the "Small Black and White Creeper" Sloane (Nat. Hist. Jamaica, 2, 
p. 309, pi. 265, fig. 1, Jamaica) and "Le Figuier varie de S. Domingue" 
Brisson (Orn., 3, p. 529, pi. 27, fig. 5, Santo Domingo). 

Certhia maculata Wilson, Amer. Orn., 3, p. 23, pi. 19, fig. 3, 1811 Pennsylvania 
(type in Peale's Museum, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 357, 1930). 

Mniotilta borealis Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, 2nd ed., 1, p. 705, 
1840 Spot Pond, near Medford, Massachusetts (type doubtless lost). 

Mniotilta varia var. longirostris Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacif., 9, p. 
xxxi, 1858 Florida=Cape Florida (cf. p. 236, in text; type in U. S. 
National Museum). 

Mniotilta varia Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 251, 641, 1885 (monog.); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 178, 1900 Bonda, Las Nubes, and 
Onaca, Colombia; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 432, 
1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 
p. 1091 Pueblo Rico and Loma Hermosa, Colombia; idem and Seilern, 
Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 45, 1912 San Esteban, Venezuela; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 543, 1917 Caldas, Las Lomitas, 
San Antonio, Rio Frio, Salento, Santa Elena, El Eden, and El Consuelo 
(above Honda), and Quetame, Colombia; Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 458, 1922 Santa Marta region, Colombia; Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 592, 1926 Baeza, Ecuador; Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 197, 1928 Lower California; Darlington, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 413, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Range. North America from Mackenzie, Manitoba, Ontario, 
Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick south to eastern 
Texas, Louisiana, central Alabama, and northern Georgia, west to 
South Dakota and casually to Wyoming, Montana, and Colorado; 
winters from Colima and Nuevo Leon, Mexico, to Colombia, Ecuador 
(Baeza), and Venezuela, and in Florida, the Bahamas, and the West 
Indies to Guadeloupe; casually in southern Texas, California, and 
Lower California; accidental in Washington and Bermuda. 

178: Maine (Brewer, 1; New Vineyard, 1); Massachusetts 
(Cliftondale, 8; Natick, 2); Rhode Island (Johnston, 1); Connecticut 
(East Hartford, 22); New York (Hastings, 1; Shelter Island, 4); 
New Jersey (Englewood, 1); Pennsylvania (Hockelage, 1); Illinois 
(Addison, 1; Chicago, 4; Deerfield, 1; Fox Lake, 1; Grand Chain, 
11; Henry, 2; Joliet, 2; Lake Forest, 9; Mound City, 3; Olive Branch, 
1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 8); Iowa (Cedar Rapids, 1); North 
Carolina (Raleigh, 2); Florida (Eau Gallic, 1; Gainesville, 3; Jupiter, 
1; Key West, 3; Lake Worth, 2; Nassau County, 2; New River, 2; 
West Jupiter, 4); Mississippi (Holly Springs, 1); Texas (Corpus 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 333 

Christi, 3; Ingram, 1); Mexico (Tampico, 4; Yucatan, Cozumel 
Island, 1); Ruatan Island, Bay of Honduras, 1; Guatemala (Maza- 
tenango, 1; Patulul, Solola, 1); Costa Rica (Coliblanco, 1; Guayabo, 
1; Port Limon, 1); West Indies (Abaco, 1; Great Bahama, 2; Bimini, 
3; Berry, 2; Eleuthera, 3; Watlings, 5; Nassau, 1; Cuba, 1; Old 
Providence, 4; Grand Cayman, 4; Jamaica, 3; Inagua, 6; Haiti, 1; 
Santo Domingo, 9; Mona, 1; Porto Rico, 3; St. Croix, 1; St. Eustatius, 
2; St. Kitts, 1; St. Andrews, 1); Colombia ("Bogota," 1); Venezuela 
(near M^rida, 1). 

Genus PROTONOTARIA Baird 

Protonotaria Baird, Rep. Expl. and Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 239, 1858 type, 
by monotypy, Motacilla protonotarius Gmelin =MotaciHa citrea Boddaert. 

*Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert). PROTHONOTARY WARBLER. 

Motacilla citrea Boddaert, Tabl. PL Enl., p. 44, 1783 based on "Figuier 
a ventre et tete jaune de la Louisiane" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 704, 
fig. 2; Louisiana. 

Motacilla protonotarius Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 972, 1789 based on 
"Figuier Protonotaire" Buff on; Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 704, fig. 2, etc.; 
Louisiana. 

Motacilla auricollis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 984, 1789 based on "Le 
Grand Figuier de Canada" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 508, pi. 26, fig. 1, Canada 
(type in coll. of M. de Reaumur). 

Protonotaria citrea Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 780 
south of MSrida, Venezuela; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 494 Antioquia; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, pp. 249, 641, 1885 (monog.); Richmond, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 483, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; Bangs, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 143, 1898 Santa Marta; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 13, p. 178, 1900 Bonda, Colombia; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 442, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 817, 1910 Bolson and San Jose, Costa Rica; Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 543, 1917 Algodonal, Colombia; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 273, 1918 Toro Point and 
Mindi, Panama; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 458, 
1922 Bonda, Gaira, Mamatoco, Punta Caiman, and Fundacion, 
Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 592, 1926 
Esmeraldas, Ecuador; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 413, 
1931 Sevillano, Cienaga, Donjaca, and Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia; 
Peters, I.e., 71, p. 333, 1931 Almirante Bay region, Panama. 

Mniotilla citrea L6otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 179, 1866 Trinidad. 

Range. United States from northeastern Nebraska and Min- 
nesota, southern Wisconsin and Michigan, Ohio, central Delaware, 
and eastern Maryland (one record from northern New Jersey) 
south to eastern Texas, southern Alabama, and northern Florida; 



334 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

winters in Nicaragua, Costa Rica (sparingly), Panama, northern 
Colombia, western Ecuador (one record from Esmeraldas), Vene- 
zuela '(one record from near Me"rida), and Trinidad (one record); 
accidental in the West Indies, casual north to New Jersey, New 
York, New England, Michigan, Ontario, New Brunswick, and 
Arizona. 

34: New York (unspecified, 1); Indiana (Davis Station, 1); 
Illinois (Lewistown, 2; Olive Branch, 2; Pulaski County, 1; Warsaw, 
1); Kansas (Hamilton, 1); South Carolina (Mount Pleasant, 4); 
Florida (Amelia Island, 1; East Pass, 2; Gainesville, 2; Key West, 
5; Mary Esther, 1; Puntarasa, 1); Mississippi (Vicksburg, 5); Texas 
(Corpus Christi, 1) ; Colombia (near San Jos de Cucuta, 1) ; Vene- 
zuela (Encontrados, Zulia, 2). 

Genus LIMNOTHLYPIS Stone 

Limnothlypis Stone, Science, (n.s.), 40, No. 1018, p. 26, July, 1914 type, 
by orig. desig., Sylvia swainsonii Audubon. 

*Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon). SWAINSON'S WARBLER. 

Sylvia swainsonii Audubon, Birds Amer. (folio), 2, pi. 198, 1834; idem, Orn. 
Biog., 2, p. 563, 1834 (71835) Edisto River, near Charleston, South 
Carolina (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Helminthophila swainsoni Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 232, 1885 
southern United States, wintering in Jamaica. 

Helinaia swainsonii Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1889, p. 236 near the town 
of Vera Cruz, Mexico; Cory, Auk, 8, p. 298, 1891 Bimini Islands, 
Bahamas; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 436, 1902 
(monog., full bibliog.); Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama Islands, p. 365, 
1905 Cay Lobos, Bahamas; Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 84, 1911 Matamoros, 
Tamaulipas; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 378, 1911 Santa Lucia, Quintana Roo, 
Mexico, and Swan Island, Caribbean Sea; Ramsden, Auk, 31, p. 253, 
1914 San Carlos, near Guantanamo, Cuba. 

Helmitherus swainsoni Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 41, 1889 Cuba and Jamaica. 

Limnothlypis swainsonii Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 112, 1923 
Cuba (Cojimar and near Guantanamo). 

Range. Southern United States from northeastern Oklahoma, 
southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois and Indiana, and south- 
eastern Virginia (Warwick County) south to Louisiana and northern 
Florida; migrates through Cuba (two records) and the Bahamas 
(Bimini Islands, Cay Lobos) and winters in Jamaica, Quintana Roo 
(Santa Lucia), and Swan Island, Caribbean Sea; casual in Nebraska, 
Texas, Tamaulipas (Matamoros), and Vera Cruz (Vera Cruz). 



1935 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 335 

12: South Carolina (Charleston, 4; Hardiville, 1; Mount Pleasant, 
1); Georgia (Altamaha River swamp, 1); Mississippi (Vicksburg, 1); 
Florida (Key West, 2; Sombrero Key, 1) ; Bahama Islands (Bimini, 1). 

Genus HELMITHEROS Rafinesque 

Helmitheros Rafinesque, Journ. Phys. Chimie et Hist. Nat., 88, p. 418, 1819 

type, by orig. desig., Helmitheros migratorius Rafinesque =Motacil la 

vermivora Gmelin. 
Helinaia Audubon, Syn. Bds. Amer., p. 67, 1839 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, 

List. Gen. Bds., 2nd ed., p. 33, 1841), Motacilla vermivora Gmelin. 
Helonaea Agassiz, Nomencl. Zool. Ind. Univ., pp. 175, 176, 1846 emendation 

of Helinaia Audubon. 
Helmitherus Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pac., 9, p. 251, 1858 emendation 

of Helmitheros Rafinesque. 

Helmintherus Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 135 (emendation). 
Helmithera Sundevall, Meth. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent., p. 28, 1872 (emendation). 
Helminthotherus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 112, 

1880 (emendation). 

Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin). WORM-EATING WARBLER. 

Motacilla vermivora 1 Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 951, 1789 based on "The 
Worm-eater" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 200, pi. 305; Pennsylvania. 

Helmitheros migratorius Rafinesque, Journ. Phys. Chimie Hist. Nat., 88, 
p. 418, 1819 based on Sylvia vermivora Wilson, Amer. Orn., 3, p.