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Full text of "Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field Museum of Natural History"

II B R.AFLY 

OF THE. 

UNIVERSITY 
Of ILLINOIS 



FI 



X 9 
coj?\ 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XIII 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS 



PART IX 
TERSINIDAE - THRAUPIDAE 



WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 
EDITOR 



PUBLICATION 365 




&ICAOO, 

K 

CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
OCTOBER 6, 1936 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XIII 

CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 
AND THE ADJACENT ISLANDS 

IN 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

INCLUDING ALL SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES KNOWN TO OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA, 

MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, SOUTH AMERICA, THE WEST INDIES, AND 

ISLANDS OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA, THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO, 

AND OTHER ISLANDS WHICH MAY BE INCLUDED ON 

ACCOUNT OF THEIR FAUNAL AFFINITIES 

BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS 



PART IX 
TERSINIDAE - THRAUPIDAE 



WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 
EDITOR 



PUBLICATION 365 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
OCTOBER 6, 1936 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OK AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



v. 13 1' 10 




PREFACE TO PART IX 

The present part of the "Catalogue of the Birds of the Americas" 
is devoted mainly to the enumeration of the species and subspecies 
of the birds known vernacularly as tanagers. The limits of this 
family, which is very closely related to the finches, are much disputed 
among ornithologists, and the assignment of certain genera to one 
group rather than to the other is largely arbitrary, owing to the 
absence of information as to their anatomical structure. For the 
sake of convenience the author has closely followed the late Robert 
Ridgway's definition of the family. Consequently, a number of 
genera of finch-like appearance, such as Arremon, Buarremon, 
Atlapetes, Pselliophorus, Saltator, and others, have been excluded 
from the tanagers, although the last word on their classification 
has not yet been said. It is even possible that some other groups, 
which find a place in this Part, on further research may prove to 
be of Fringilline affinities. 

Much care has been taken in ascertaining, whenever it was 
feasible, the present location of type specimens which served for 
the description of new species and subspecies. 

The rejection of Brissonian genera, in consequence of a vote 
passed by the International Zoological Congress of Padua, entails 
only one nomenclatorial change: namely, the substitution ofCalospiza 
for Tangara. 

Although the author has had a part of Field Museum's material 
for reexamination while completing his manuscript in Vienna, he has 
relied to some extent upon assistance from Mr. E. R. Blake of the 
resident staff of the Museum for allocations in the lists of specimens. 

Several institutions and private individuals have again rendered 
material help, either by the loan of material or by information 
regarding specimens in their care. I wish to acknowledge particularly 
my indebtedness to M. J. Berlioz, of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris; Dr. F. M. Chapman and Mr. J. T. Zimmer, of the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York; Mr. N. B. Kinnear, of the 
British Museum; Professor A. Laubmann, of Munich; Mr. James L. 
Peters, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts; Dr. Robert Mertens, of the Senckenberg Natural History 
Museum, Frankfort; Dr. Moriz Sassi, of Vienna; and Professor E. 

Stresemann, of Berlin. 

C. E. HELLMAYR 
June 25, 1934 

iii 



CONTENTS 



Orders, Families, and Genera Included in Part IX 

ORDER PASSERIFORMES 
SUBORDER OSCINES 



FAMILY TERSINIDAE 
(Swallow-Tanagers) 
Tersina Vieillot . . 



PAGE 

1 



FAMILY THRAUPIDAE 
(Tanagers) 

Chlorophonia Bonaparte 6 

Tanagra Linnaeus 14 

Pyrrhuphonia Bonaparte 69 

Tanagrella Swainson 70 

Chlorochrysa Bonaparte 74 

Pipraeidea Swainson 77 

Pseudodacnis Sclater 80 

Calospiza G. R. Gray 81 

Iridosornis Lesson 175 

Delothraupis Sclater 180 

Stephanophorus Strickland 181 

Poecilothraupis Cabanis 182 

Buthraupis Cabanis 190 

Bangsia Penard 194 

Dubusia Bonaparte 197 

Tephrophilus Moore 198 

Compsocoma Cabanis 199 

Thraupis Boie 205 

Spindalis Jardine and Selby 239 

Ramphocelus Desmarest 244 

Phlogothraupis Sclater and Salvin . 269 

Calochaetes Sclater 270 

Piranga Vieillot 271 

Cyanicterus Bonaparte 295 

Orthogonys Strickland 296 

Chlorothraupis Salvin and Godman 297 

Habia Blyth 300 

Lento Vieillot 316 

Tachyphonus Vieillot 321 



Heterospingus Ridgway 344 

Creurgops Sclater 345 

Malacothraupis Sclater and Salvin. 346 

Eucometis Sclater 347 

Mitrospingus Ridgway 352 

Rhodinocichla Hartlaub 354 

Calyptophilus Cory , . . . 357 

Phaenicophilus Strickland 359 

Trichothraupis Cabanis 362 

Cypsnagra Lesson 364 

Pyrrhocoma Cabanis 367 

Nemosia Vieillot 368 

Hemithraupis Cabanis 372 

Chrysothlypis Berlepsch 385 

Erythrothlypis Berlepsch 386 

Thlypopsis Cabanis 387 

Compsothraupis Richmond 394 

Sericossypha Lesson 395 

Nesospingus Sclater 397 

Chlorospingus Cabanis 397 

Cnemoscopus Bangs and Penard. . . 417 

Hemispingus Cabanis 418 

Pseudospingus Berlepsch and 

Stolzmann 429 

Urothraupis Taczanowski and 

Berlepsch 431 

Microspingus Taczanowski 431 

Neothraupis Hellmayr 432 

Conothraupis Taczanowski 433 

Chlorornis Reichenbach 433 

Orchesticus Cabanis 436 

Oreothraupis Sclater 436 

Lamprospiza Cabanis 437 

Cissopis Vieillot 438 

Schistochlamys Reichenbach 442 



LIST OF NEW NAMES PROPOSED IN PART IX 

Tanagra imitans sp. nov 63 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus pallidirostris nom. nov 256 

Habia rubica bahiae subsp. nov 301 

Neolhraupis gen. nov 432 



CATALOGUE 

OF 
BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



BY CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 



PART IX 



Order PASSERIFORMES Continued 
Suborder OSCINES Continued 

Family TERSINIDAE. Swallow-Tanagers 
Genus TERSINA Vieillot 1 

Tersina Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 33, p. 401, 1819 type, 

by monotypy, Tersina caerulea Vieillot = Hirundo viridis Illiger. 
Procnias (not of Illiger, 1811) Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 2nd ed., 1, p. Ixiii, 

1820 type, by subs, desig. (Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, 

p. 880, note b, 1907), Hirundo viridis Illiger. 
Chelidorhamphus Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 102, Jan., 1901 

type, by monotypy, Chelidorhamphus orycterus Bertoni. 

*Tersina viridis viridis (Illiger). EASTERN SWALLOW-TANAGER. 

Hirundo viridis Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., p. 229, 1811 based on 
"L'Hirondelle verte" Temminck, Cat. Syst. Cab. d'Orn. Quadr., p. 245, 
1807; "Sandwich Islands" (p. 136), errore = eastern Brazil (descr. of 
female). 

Tersina coerulea Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 33, p. 401, 1819 
part, Brazil (descr. of male and female). 

Procnias cyanotropus Wied, Reise Bras., 1, p. 187 (8vo ed., p. 184), 1820 
Barra do Jucu, Espirito Santo, Brazil (descr. of male; type now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 2, p. 218, 1889). 

1 As pointed out by Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 880, note 
b, 1907), the above appears to be the earliest tenable generic name for the Swallow- 
Tanager. Tersa Vieillot (Anal. Nouv. Ornith. 616m., p. 38, 1816), in spite of the 
fact that the morphological characters have evidently been taken from the present 
bird, cannot well be adopted, since "La Tersine" of Buffon [=Ampelis tersa Lin- 
naeus, 1766), an unidentifiable species of unknown habitat, is given as its genotype. 



2 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ampelis nigrogularis Hahn, Vogel aus Asien, etc., Lief. 7, pi.' 1, 1820 Brazil 
(descr. of male; type in Munich Museum examined). 

Procnias ventralis (Illiger MS.) Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 1, pi. 5, 
Aug., 1820 Brazil (type probably in Leiden Museum); Wied, Beitr. 
Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 385, 1831 Rio Parahyba, Brazil. 

Procnias hirundacea Swainson, Zool. Illust., 1, No. 4, pi. 21 (male), Jan., 
1821 Bahia, "Minas Geralis" (sic), and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Ampelis fasciata Thunberg, Dissert. Ampelis cuj. nov. spec., p. 3, 1823 
Brazil (descr. of female; type probably in Upsala Museum). 

Chelidorhamphus orycterus Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 102, 
Jan., 1901 banks of Parana River, Paraguay, and interior of Misiones 
(type in coll. of A. de W. Bertoni). 

Procnias coerulea 1 Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 41, 1837 Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1881, p. 243 (nomencl.); Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 345, 1907 Sao Paulo (Mogy-guassu, Piquete, Sao 
Carlos do Pinhal, Itarar6) and Espirito Santo (Rio Doce); Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1009, 1122, 1912 (range, excl. 
of Bolivia); Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Sci. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 486, 
499, 1912 Rio Claro, Parana; Bertoni, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 75, p. 98, 
1913 Misiones; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 462, 1914 "Para (?)." 

Tersina tersa (not Ampelis tersa Linnaeus) d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., 
Ois., p. 299, 1839 Rio Pyray, near Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 

Procnias tersa Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 30, 1851 (synon.); Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 191, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio, and Lag6a Santa 
(Minas Geraes); Euler, Journ. Orn., 15, p. 411, 1867 Cantagallo (nesting 
habits, egg); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 132, 1868 Rio de Janeiro (Rio 
de Janeiro, Luiz d' Almeida, Araras), Sao Paulo (Ypanema), Goyaz, and 
Matto Grosso (Cuyaba); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 
1870, p. 434 Minas Geraes (Lag6a Santa, Sete Lag6as, Paracatu, Car- 
velho); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 597 part, Santa 
Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 50, 1886 
part, subsp. typica, spec, a-k, Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and 
Sao Paulo; Holland, Ibis, 1891, pp. 16, 17; idem, Ibis, 1893, pp. 193, 
196 Estancia del Espartillar, near Ranches, Buenos Aires; Boucard and 
Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro; 
Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 118, 1899 Porto Alegre, 
Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 143, 1899 Sao Paulo 
(Sao Carlos do Pinhal, Piquete); idem, I.e., 4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo 
and Nova Friburgo. 

Procnias viridis Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 349, 1891 Chapada, 
Matto Grosso; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 620 Sapucay, Paraguay. 

Tersina caerulea Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, (3), 1, p. 372, 
1910 Alto Parand (Misiones) and Estancia del Espartillar (Buenos Aires); 
Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 Alto Parana. 

1 Sometimes spelled "caerulea." 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 3 

Tersina viridis viridis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 13, 1925 Santa Cruz, 
Bolivia (crit.); Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 191, 
1926 Parana (Candido de Abreu, Salto de Uba); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 60, p. 366, 1930 (range). 

Tersina caerulea caerulea Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 319, 1928 
Monte Serrat, Itatiaya, Sao Paulo. 

Range. Eastern and southern Brazil, from Pernambuco, Bahia, 
Goyaz, and Matto Grosso (excepting the Amazonian drainage) 
south to Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul; Paraguay; eastern 
Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra); northeastern Argentina (Misiones; 
accidental at Estancia del Espartillar, Buenos Aires). 1 

17: Bolivia (Buenavista, Santa Cruz, 5); Brazil ("Bahia skin," 1; 
Chapada, Matto Grosso, 4; Goyaz, Veadeiros, 3; Joinville, Santa 
Catharina, 2; Sao Paulo, 1); Paraguay (Rio Tebicuary, 1). 

Tersina viridis occidentalis (Sclater). 2 WESTERN SWALLOW- 
TANAGER. 

Procnias occidentalis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, "1854," p. 249, pub. 
April, 1855 "Nova Grenada" = Bogota collections (types in coll. of P. 
L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, I.e., 23, p. 153, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, I.e., 26, pp. 74, 452, 1858 Rio Napo and Zamora, Ecuador; idem, 
I.e., 28, pp. 275, 292, 1860 Babahoyo and Esmeraldas, Ecuador; idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 55, 1862 part, spec, a-c, New Grenada and 
Babahoyo; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 566 Rio 

1 Specimens from various parts of Brazil (Bahia, Sao Paulo, Santa Catharina, 
and Cuyaba, Matto Grosso) agree in size and coloration, and those from eastern 
Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra) appear to be likewise inseparable. Thirty adult 
males from eastern Brazil measure, on the wing, from 90 to 93, rarely up to 95; 
two from Santa Cruz, 90 and 91, respectively. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 10; Rio de Janeiro, 2; Theo- 
philo Ottoni, Minas Geraes, 1; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 17; Iguape', Sao Paulo, 2; 
Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, 1; Cascata, Sao Paulo, 6; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 1; 
Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 2. Bolivia: Santa Cruz, 3. 

2 Tersina viridis occidentalis (Sclater) : Similar to T. v. viridis, but decidedly 
smaller; plumage of adult males generally of a deeper, less greenish blue. Wing 
(adult males), 81-87, very rarely 89; tail, 50-57, rarely 58. 

Although occasional individuals regardless of locality sometimes match 
typical viridis in coloration, the large majority of males from the range assigned to 
the present form are of a deeper, less greenish blue tone, while the distinctly smaller 
size serves to distinguish occidentalis in nearly every case. Further subdivision 
appears to be impracticable, and I am unable to separate an Amazonian series 
from another collected on the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. Birds from 
the Yungas of La Paz, northern Bolivia, and Roraima are also referable to this 
small, deeply colored race. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: inland of Cumana, 2. British 
Guiana: Roraima, 2. Brazil: Bar cellos, Rio Negro, 2 (adult males); Villa Bella 
de Matto Grosso, Matto Grosso, 2; Santa Isabel, Rio Preto, 10; Maroins, Rio 
Machados, 2. Colombia: Noanama, 1; Novita, Rio Tamana, 5; "Bogota," 5. 
Ecuador: Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 10; Chimbo, 2; Archidona, 1; Rio Napo, 5. 
Peru: Yurimaguas, 1; Chaquimayo, Dept. Puno, 3. Bolivia, Yungas of La 
Paz: Songo, 2; San Antonio, 2. 



4 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, pp. 749, 977 Xeberos and Pebas, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1868, p. 167 Caripe [Sucre], Venezuela; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
2, p. 132, 1868 [Villa Bella de] Matto Grosso and Barcellos (Rio Negro), 
Brazil (spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, 
p. 597 Cosnipata, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 260 Nauta, Xeberos, and 
Pebas, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 518 Monterico, Peru; Allen, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 353, 1876 Coroico, Bolivia; Oustalet, in 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 246 (in text), 1883 
Gulf of Darien, Panama; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 437, 1884 
Peruvian localities. 

Tersina coerulea Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 33, p. 401, 1819 
part, Peru; Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 32, 1857 
Cayenne. 

Procnias ventralis (not of Temminck) Tschudi, Untersuch. Faun. Peru., Aves, 
p. 196, 1846 Peru; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 
671, "1848" Canuku Mountains, British Guiana. 

Tersa ventralis Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 257, 1866 Trinidad (rare visitant). 
Procnias tersa (not Ampelis tersa Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 497 Remedies, Colombia; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 597 
part, Tilotilo (Yungas), Bolivia; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 207 Roraima; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 50, 1886 part, subsp. occidentalis, 
spec, a-k, n-r, Roraima, Cayenne, Venezuela (Caripe"), Bogota, Remedios, 
Babahoyo, Sarayacu, Santa Rita, Peru, and Bolivia; Salvadori and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 14, 1899 Zamora and In tag, 
Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 458 Santo Domingo, Gualea, and 
Archidona, Ecuador (crit.). 

Procnias coerulea occidentalis Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 288, 1884 
Bucaramanga, Colombia; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1883, p. 544 [Chimbo], western Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 76 
Yaguachi, Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
pp. 1010, 1122, 1912 (range, excl. of Santa Marta). 

Procnias viridis (not Hirundo viridis Illiger) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 

2, pp. 69, 80, 1889 "Quito," Ecuador, and "falls of the Madeira," Bolivia. 

Procnias viride Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tobago, 20, p. 129, 1922 

Maracas Valley, Trinidad. 

Procnias viridis occidentalis Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 295, 1889 Yuri- 
maguas, Peru; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 271, 1910 Santa Isabel (Rio 
Preto) and Maroins (Rio Machados), Brazil; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. 
Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 88, 1911 Santo Domingo, 
Ecuador; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 82, 1922 
Gualea, Nanegal, and near Mindo, Ecuador. 

Procnia tersa occidentalis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 338 San Emilio, Vitoc, Peru; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 
San Antonio, Bermudez [= Sucre], Venezuela; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
Ornis, 13, p. 108, 1906 Huaynapata and Rio Cadena, Peru. 
Procnias coerulea Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 112, 1908 Cayenne; idem, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1009, 1912 part, Songo and 
San Antonio, Bolivia. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 5 

Tersina viridis occidenlalis Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1099 
Noanama and Novita, Pacific Colombia (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 587, 1917 Juntas de Tamana, Novita, Caldas, San 
Antonio, Miraflores, Popayan, near Honda, and Villavicencio, Colombia; 
Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 15, 1920 Chaquimayo, Peru; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 648, 1926 Bucay, Punta 
Santa Ana, Cebollal, Alamor, Zamora, Rio Suno, and below San Jose, 
Ecuador; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 186, 1929 Cana, 
Darien; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 366, 1930 western 
Matto Grosso; Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 435, 
1930 Vista Alegre, Peru. 

Tersina occidentalis Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 487, 1921 Canuku 
Mountains and Roraima. 

Range. Tropical zone (and rarely lower Subtropical zone) of 
French and British Guiana (Roraima, Canuku Mountains), northern 
Venezuela, Colombia (except Santa Marta region), eastern Panama 
(Darien), western and eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru south to the 
northern foot of the Bolivian Andes (Yungas of La Paz), and northern 
Brazil (Rio Negro; Rio Preto, Rio Machados, and Rio Guapore, 
western Matto Grosso); rare visitant on the island of Trinidad. 

13: Venezuela (Maracay, 1; Colon, Tachira, 1); Colombia (Buena- 
ventura, 2; Carmen de Jacopi, 1; Rio San Juan, Cauca, 2); Ecuador 
(Puente de Chimbo, 1); Peru (Vista Alegre, 4; Yurimaguas, 1). 

Tersina viridis grisescens Griscom. 1 SANTA MARTA SWALLOW- 
TANAGER. 

Tersina viridis grisescens Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 186, 1929 
La Conception, Santa Marta, Colombia (type in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Procnias tersa (not Ampelis tersa Linnaeus) Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1879, 
p. 199 Manaure, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 50, 
1886 part, subsp. occidentalis, spec. 1, m, Manaure and Minca. 

Procnias occidentalis (not of Sclater) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 55, 
1862 part, spec, d, Santa Marta. 

Procnias tersa occidentalis Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 179, 1898 
Palomina, San Miguel, and San Francisco. 

Procnias viridis (not Hirundo viridis Temminck) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 13, p. 173, 1900 Minca and Valparaiso. 

Procnias caerulea occidentalis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1010, 1912 part, Santa Marta. 

1 Tersina viridis grisescens Griscom: Very near to, and indistinguishable from, 
T. v. occidentalis in the male sex; but females with the green portions of the plum- 
age duller, more of a grayish green instead of bright parrot green, the difference 
being especially noticeable on the lower parts. Size the same as in occidentalis. 

Ten specimens from the Santa Marta region examined. 



6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tersina viridis occidentalis Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 
438, 1922 La Concepci6n, Chirua, Minca, Cincinnati, San Lorenzo, La 
Tigrera, Mamatoco, Las Vegas, and Pueblo Viejo (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Range. Tropical and lower Subtropical zone of the Santa 
Marta region in northern Colombia. 

Family THRAUPIDAE. Tanagers 
Genus GHLOROPHONIA Bonaparte 

Chlorophonia Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 137, 1851 type, by 
subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 74, 1855), T. viridis Vieillot. 

Chloreuphonia Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, part 3, p. 94, July, 1851 
(emendation). 

Triglyphidia Cabanis, 1 Journ. Orn., 8, p. 331, 1860 no type specified. 2 

Acrocompsa Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, pp. 88, 89, 1861 type, by subs, desig. 
(Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 53, 1886), T. callophrys Cabanis. 

*Chlorophonia cyanea cyanea (Thunberg). BLUE-BACKED 
CHLOROPHONIA. 

Tanagra viridis (not of P. L. S. Mtiller, 1776) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. 

Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 426, 1819 "1'Amerique me'ridionale" (descr. of 

female; type in Paris Museum); Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 

6, pi. 36, fig. 3, 1821 Brazil. 
Pipra cyanea Thunberg,* M6m. Acad. Sci. St. PStersb., 8, p. 284, pi. 8, fig. 1, 

1822 Rio de Janeiro (descr. of male and female; types lost, formerly in 

Upsala Museum; cf. Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 241). 
Pipra chlorocapilla Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 13, (2), p. 255, Feb., 1826 

based on Latham, Gen. Hist. Bds., 7, p. 228, pi. 108 (=adult male), 

1823; "South America" (type in coll. of Lord Stanley, now probably in 

Liverpool Museum). 
Euphonia galotii Descourtilz, Orn. Bres., livr. 3, p. 29, pi. 33, fig. 1, 1856 (?) 

Brazil (location of type not stated). 
Euphonia cyanoblephara Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 96, Jan., 

1901 Djaguarasapa, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. de W. Bertoni). 
Chlorophonia viridiceps Sharpe, Handlist Bds., 5, p. 354, 1909 new name for 

Pipra chlorocapilla Stephens. 

1 Triglyphidia Reichenbach (Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 63, March, 1850) may have 
been intended for the same group, but as no species is indicated and the figures are 
not wholly conclusive, I hesitate to employ this doubtfully applicable name in 
place of Chlorophonia, over which it would have priority. 

2 Originally proposed to include C. callophrys, C. viridis, C. frontalis, C. longi- 
pennis, and C. occipitalis, this generic term was subsequently restricted by the 
author (Journ. Orn., 9, p. 89, 1861) to the smaller South American forms, though 
he did not bother to designate any genotype. 

3 Thunberg's description corresponds minutely to the characters of the Bra- 
zilian Chlorophonia, if one remembers that the term "uropygium" was used by 
the early authors for what we now call "crissum." 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 7 

Euphona viridis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 233, 1850 Brazil. 

Euphonia viridis Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 88 Brazil. 

Euphone viridis Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 197, 1856 Nova 
Friburgo, Rio. 

Chlorophonia viridis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 137, 1851 part, 
Brazil; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 269, 1856 part, Brazil 
(Sao Joao d'el Rey, Ypanema); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 
2, p. 117, 1885 near Sao Sebastiao, Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 54, 1886 Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and Pelotas 
(Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, 
p. 118, 1899 Sao Sebastiao do Cahy, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 3, p. 143, 1899 Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Iguape 1 ); idem, I.e., 
4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Chlorophona viridis Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 202, 1870 Rio de Janeiro and 

Ypanema (Sao Paulo), Brazil. 
Triglyphidia viridis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio. 

Chlorophonia chlorocapilla Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 144, 
1902 Sapucay, Paraguay; Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 
346, 1907 Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Iguape 1 , Santos) and Rio Grande do 
Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 620 Sapucay, Paraguay; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, (3), 11, p. 372, 1910 Alto 
Parana; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1010, 1912 
Brazil and Paraguay; Bertoni, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 75, p. 98, 1913 
Misiones; idem, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 Alto Parana and central 
Paraguay; idem, El Hornero, 1, p. 286, 1919 Rio Paraguay (nest descr.); 
Menegaux, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 11, p. 7, 1919 Villa Lutetia, Misiones; 
Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 191, 1926 Salto do 
Cobre, Parana. 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Bahia 1 to Rio Grande do Sul; Paraguay; northeastern Argentina. 2 

6: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1); Argentina (Eldorado, Misiones, 3; 
Puerto Segundo, Misiones, 2). 

*Chlorophonia cyanea longipennis (Du Bus). 3 LONG-WINGED 
CHLOROPHONIA. 

Euphonia longipennis Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci., Lettr. et Beaux-Arts 
Belgique, 22, (1), p. 155, 1855 Antioquia, Colombia (type in Brussels 
Museum). 

1 Beebe's record (in Zoologica, N. Y., 2, p. 99, 1916) of C. chlorocapilla from 
Utinga, Para, must be a mistake. 

2 Birds from Paraguay and Misiones agree perfectly with a Brazilian series. 
Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 1; Rio de Janeiro, 4; Ypanema, 

Sao Paulo, 4; Santos, Sao Paulo, 1; unspecified, 2. Paraguay: Sapucay, 4. 

3 Chlorophonia cyanea longipennis (Du Bus) is closely allied to C. c. cyanea, but 
even adult males with a large amount of blue on the upper back may be distin- 
guished by the brighter and clearer green of the subbasal portion of the dorsal 



8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chlorophonia longipennis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 
Bogota (crit.); idem, I.e., 24, p. 270, 1856 Bogota (diag.); idem, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 55, 1862 Bogota; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., 
p. 82, pi. 41, fig. 2, 1868 Bogota; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 54, 1886 Colombia (Bogota) and Ecuador (Sarayacu); Berlepsch, 
Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 "Bogota"; idem, Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1010, 1122, 1912 Colombia, Venezuela (Merida), 
Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 648, 1926 eastern Ecuador. 

Euphonia viridis (not Tanagra viridis Vieillot) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, 
(1), p. 284, 1844 Peru. 

Procnias viridis Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 197, 1846 Peru. 

Chlorophonia viridis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 137, 1851 part, 
Ecuador; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 269, 1856 part, eastern 
Peru (ex Tschudi); Taczanowski, I.e., 1879, p. 225 Montana de Palto, 
Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 598 Tilotilo, Prov. Yungas, 
Bolivia. 

Chlorophonia torrejoni Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 9, pi. 1, 
fig. 1 Chirimoto, Peru (type lost, formerly in Warsaw Museum; cf. 
Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 
180, 1927); idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 438, 1884 Montana de Palto and 
Huayabamba, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 55, 1886 

feathers, green instead of blue scapulars and edges to the upper wing coverts, and 
much brighter green external margins to the remiges and rectrices. The female 
differs by lacking the turquoise blue tinge on the rump and upper tail coverts. 

C. torrejoni, which Carriker recently sought to revive as a distinct species, is 
clearly but the first annual plumage of the male sex. One of the original speci- 
mens, taken by Stolzmann at Chirimoto on August 16, 1880, is indistinguishable 
from Colombian individuals in corresponding state. This plumage presents a 
good deal of individual variation, the rump being either grass green or mixed with 
turquoise blue to a varying degree, while breast and abdomen show considerable 
differences in the shade of the yellow color along the median line. It is a well- 
known fact that various species of Tanagra (Euphonia) breed in immature plum- 
age, and there is no reason why such should not be also the case with the members 
of the present group, which is indeed barely separable generically from the true 
Euphonias. 

Two adult males from Huaynapata, Peru, and three from Bolivia, moreover, 
are just as blue-rumped (with more or less blue shading on the back) and as bright- 
bellied as the most vividly colored examples from "Bogota." While birds from 
Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia seem to be perfectly alike in coloration, 
those from the two latter countries incline to have shorter tails. A male (in first 
annual plumage) of the ordinary "Bogota" preparation differs from all others by 
possessing a fairly distinct, though narrow, yellow frontal band. This specimen, 
which the late Count Berlepsch doubtfully referred to C. c. roraimae, I regard as a 
mere individual mutant of longipennis, and while superficially resembling Guianan 
examples, it may be distinguished by decidedly narrower blue nuchal collar and 
grass green rump and upper tail coverts, both of which are turquoise blue in all 
plumages of roraimae. The occurrence of a yellow-fronted bird within the range 
of longipennis furnishes one more bit of evidence for the close genetic relationship 
of these Chlorophonias. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela, Merida: Escorial, 5; Culata, 1; 
Merida, 2. Colombia: "Bogota," 19. Peru: Chirimoto, 1; Garita del Sol, 1; 
Huaynapata, 2. Bolivia: Chaco (La Paz), 2; San Antonio, 1; Songo, 1; Yungas 
of La Paz, 1; San Mateo, 1; Quebrada Onda, Cochabamba, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 9 

Colombia (Bogota), Peru (Chirimoto), and Bolivia; Berlepsch and Stolz- 

mann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 338 Garita del Sol, Dept. Junin, 

Peru; Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 83, p. 466, 1932 La Oroya, 

Rio Inambari, Dept. Puno, Peru (crit.). 
Chlorophonia viridis longipennis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, 

p. 108, 1906 Huaynapata, Peru. 
Chlorophonia cyanea longipennis Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran 

Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 265, 1930 Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (crit.). 
Chlorophonia longipennis torrejoni Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 

Berlin, pp. 1011, 1123, 1912 northwestern Peru (crit.). 
Chlorophonia frontalis roraimae (not of Salvin and Godman) Berlepsch, 

Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1011, 1123, 1912 part, Bogota 

(spec, examined). 

Range. Subtropical zone of the Andes from western Venezuela 
(MeVida) and eastern Colombia south through eastern Ecuador and 
Peru to Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz, Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz). 

5: Venezuela (Sierra Nevada, MeYida, 2; M<;rida, 2); Peru (La 
Merced, Chanchamayo, 1). 

Chlorophonia cyanea psittacina Bangs. 1 SANTA MARTA 
CHLOROPHONIA. 

Chlorophonia frontalis psittacina Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 
88, 1902 La Concepcion, Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia (type in 
coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 397, 1930); 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1011, 1912 Santa 
Marta region; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 499, 1922 
Onaca, Cincinnati, Las Vegas, Pueblo Viejo, and San Miguel (habits, 
nest, and eggs); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 175, 1924 
Santa Marta region (diag.). 

Chlorophonia frontalis (not Euphonia frontalis Sclater) Salvin and Godman, 
Ibis, 1879, p. 199 Valley of Chinchicua and San Jose; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 55, 1886 part, spec, d, e, Sierra Nevada and 
Valley of Chinchicua, Santa Marta; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, 
p. 104, 1899 Chirua, La Concepcion, and San Miguel; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 170, 1900 Onaca, Las Nubes, Valparaiso, and 
El Libano. 

1 Chlorophonia cyanea psittacina Bangs: Similar to C. c. frontalis, but distin- 
guished in the male sex by much less sharply defined as well as more greenish blue 
nuchal band (which is much duller and more greenish than the turquoise blue 
rump) and by lacking the narrow light green frontal margin. Besides, the yellow 
band across the forehead is wider, and, as a rule, of a deeper tone, while the crown 
is more yellowish green. The female differs, in addition to the last-named charac- 
ter, by having a distinct, though narrow, yellow frontal band, pale turquoise blue 
(instead of grass green) rump and upper tail coverts, and more obsolete, at the 
same time paler greenish blue nuchal collar. Wing, 61-63, (female) 61-64; tail, 
32-36; bill, 8-9. 

Material examined. Colombia, Santa Marta region: Tagua, 1; Onaca, 3; 
Las Nubes, 1; Valparaiso, 3. 



10 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Subtropical (and upper Tropical) zone of the Santa 
Marta region in northern Colombia. 

*Chlorophonia cyanea frontalis (Sclater). YELLOW-FRONTED 
CHLOROPHONIA. 

Euphonia frontalis Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, Part 3, July, p. 89 "Ecuador," 
errore, = Caracas, Venezuela (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum, examined). 

Chlorophonia frontalis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 270, 1856 Caracas 
(diag.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 55, 1862 Venezuela; Sclater 
and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 81, pi. 41, fig. 1 (=male), 1868 Caracas; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 55, 1886 part, spec, a-c, Venezuela; Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1011, 1123, 1912 part, Caracas 
and "Puerto Cabello." 

Chlorophonia frontalis frontalis Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, 
A, Heft 5, p. 54, 1912 Cumbre de Valencia and Las Quiguas, Carabobo 
(crit., range in part); Hellmayr, I.e., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 174, 1924 Galipan 
(Cerro del Avila) and Loma Redonda, Venezuela (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Venezuela, in Dept. Federal 
(Loma Redonda; Caracas; Galipan, Cerro del Avila) and in states 
of Aragua (Maracay) and Carabobo (Las Quiguas; La Cumbre de 
Valencia). 1 

3: Venezuela (Loma Redonda, Dept. Federal, 1; Maracay, 
Aragua, 1; unspecified, 1). 

Chlorophonia cyanea minuscula Hellmayr. 2 LESSER YELLOW- 
FRONTED CHLOROPHONIA. 

Chlorophonia frontalis minuscula Hellmayr, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bay., 1, No. 6, 
p. 46, June, 1922 mountains near Cumana, Venezuela (type in Munich 
Museum); idem, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 175, 1924 northeastern 
Venezuela (crit.); Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 191, p. 12, 1925 Neveri 
and Cuchivano, Sucre. 

Chlorophonia frontalis (not Euphonia frontalis Sclater) Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1011, 1123, 1912 part, Campos Alegre 
Valley, Venezuela (crit.). 

1 The type of C. frontalis agrees with specimens from the Caracas region in 
coloration and dimensions (wing, 67; tail, 41). Birds from Carabobo, by darker 
forehead, form the passage to C. c. psittacina. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela, Dept. Federal: Caracas, 1; Loma 
Redonda, 3; Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 15; Las Quiguas, Carabobo, 3; La Cumbre de 
Valencia, Carabobo, 6; "Puerto Cabello," 1; unspecified, 1 (the type). 

2 Chlorophonia cyanea minuscula Hellmayr: Nearest to C. c. frontalis, but 
smaller; yellow forehead paler and duller, less strongly defined; under parts dingier 
yellow with an olivaceous tinge; female with very little, if any, yellowish suffusion 
on the forehead. Wing, 59-63 (against 64-67 in frontalis), (female) 58-59 (against 
60-63); tail, 35-37, (female) 33; bill, 8-9. 

By the less pronounced yellowish frontlet this form approaches C. c. roraimae. 
Material examined.-^-Venezuela, Sucre: Campos Alegre Valley, 8. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 11 

Range. Subtropical zone of northeastern Venezuela, in State 
of Sucre (Neveri, Cuchivano, Campos Alegre, etc.). 

Chlorophonia cyanea roraimae Salvin and Godman. 1 RORAIMA 
CHLOROPHONIA. 

Chlorophonia roraimae Salvin and Godman, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 444, 1884 Roraima, 
British Guiana (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Museum,, 
examined); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 208 Roraima; Sclater, Cat. Bds, 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 56, pi. 6, fig. 1 (male), 1886 Roraima; Chubb, Bull. 
Brit. Orn. Cl., 31, p. 39, 1913 east bank of Essequibo River; idem, 
Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 489, 1921 Roraima, Quonga, and Bonasica 
River. 

Chlorophonia frontalis roraimae Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, pp. 1011, 1123, 1912 part, Roraima (crit.); Hellmayr, Arch. 
Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 175, 1924 Roraima (crit.). 

Chlorophonia cyanea roraimae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 124, 
1931 Mounts Roraima (Philipp Camp) and Duida (Caiio Seco, Agiiita, 
First Peak, Cumbre No. 6), Venezuela. 

Range. Subtropical (rarely Tropical) zone of British Guiana and 
southern Venezuela (Mount Duida). 

Chlorophonia flavirostris Sclater. 2 YELLOW-BILLED 
CHLOROPHONIA. 

Chlorophonia flavirostris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 129 Ecuador, 
probably from the eastern slope of the Andes (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum, examined); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 55, 

1 Chlorophonia cyanea roraimae Salvin and Godman: Adult male agreeing with 
C. c. minuscula in restricted yellow frontlet, but blue nuchal collar much wider, 
and dorsal feathers tipped with blue, giving the back a uniform blue effect; female 
with much wider blue collar and bright blue (instead of grass green) rump and 
upper tail coverts; size larger, about the same as in C. c. frontalis. Wing, 64-68. 
(female) 60-66; tail, 39-41, (female) 34-39; bill, 7^-8^. 

The male of this form passes through a stage similar to C. c. longipennis, and 
the first annual plumage (bright blue collar across the hind neck; edges to upper 
wing coverts and remiges olive green; under parts greenish yellow) resembles the 
so-called "C. torrejoni," from which it merely differs by blue rump and upper tail 
coverts, a racial character of C. c. roraimae. 

Two adult males from Quonga agree in every respect with others from Roraima. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 10; Quonga, 2. 

2 Chlorophonia flavirostris Sclater is known from the unique type in the British 
Museum. It is a very peculiar bird immediately recognizable among its affines by 
the yellow bill and feet, and the yellow rim round the eye. As it has no blue what- 
ever in the plumage, the type is probably a female. The whole upper surface, 
including wing coverts and inner secondaries, is bright grass green; the other 
remiges are dusky, exteriorly margined with bluish green; sides of head, throat, 
foreneck, and sides of body bright grass green like the back; an extensive zone 
along the middle of the belly and under tail coverts bright yellow, this area ab- 
ruptly contrasted with the green of the foreneck and sides; a narrow rim around 
the eye and a small chin-spot bright yellow; tail dusky, median pair and outer 
web of the other remiges green like the back; axillaries pale yellowish. Wing, 60; 
tail, 30; bill, 7. 



12 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1862 Ecuador; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 56, pi. 6, fig. 1, 1886 
Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1011, 1912 
Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 649, 1926 Ecuador. 

Range. Supposedly Ecuador (eastern side of the Andes). 

*Chlorophonia pyrrhophrys (Sclater). CHESTNUT-BELLIED 
CHLOROPHONIA. 

Tanagra (Euphonia) prelrei (not Tanagra pretrei Lesson, 1839) Lafresnaye, 
Rev. Zool., 6, p. 97, 1843 Colombia (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 398, 1930); idem, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, pi. 
42 (male), 1843 Colombia. 

Euphonia pyrrhophrys Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 89, pi. 75, fig. 2 (=female) 
"Columbia?" = Bogota (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum). 

Euphona pretrii Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 233, 1850 Colombia. 

Euphonia pretrei Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 89 Colombia (descr. 
of male). 

Chlorophonia pretrii (ei) Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 158, 1851 
Colombia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 159, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 270, 1856 Bogota (diag.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 55, 1862 Bogota; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 780 Merida, Venezuela; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 498 Santa Elena, Anti- 
oquia, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 56, 1886 Colombia 
(Bogota, "vicinity of Medellin") and Venezuela (Me>ida); Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1011, 1912 Colombia and Me>ida; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 587, 1917 Cerro Munchique, 
Santa Isabel, and Santa Elena, Colombia. 

Chlorophonia pyrrhophrys Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, 
p. 34, 1919 (nomencl.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 649, 
1926 Baeza, eastern Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Venezuela (Cordillera of 
Me"rida), Colombia (except Santa Marta region), and eastern 
Ecuador (Baeza). 1 

1: Venezuela (MeYida, 1). 

*Chlorophonia occipitalis occipitalis (Du Bus). MEXICAN 
CHLOROPHONIA. 

Euphonia occipitalis Du Bus, Esq. Orn., livr. 3, pi. 14, 1847 Mexico (descr. 
of female; type in coll. of B. Du Bus, now in Brussels Museum); Sclater, 
Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 90 (crit.); Jardine, Ibis, 1860, p. 103 Guatemala. 

1 No Ecuadorian material is available for examination. Birds from Merida, 
Venezuela, are identical with Colombian skins. 

Additional specimens examined. Venezuela, Merida: Montana de Culata, 4. 
Colombia: Bogota, 6; Santa Elena, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 13 

Chlorophonia occipitalis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 158, 1851 
southern Mexico (crit.); Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Nav. Astron. Exp., 2, 
p. 182, pi. 20, fig. 2 (male), 1855 Mexico; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 270, 1856 southern Mexico (diag.); idem, I.e., 25, p. 205, 1857 
Jalapa, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 27, p. 364, 1859 vicinity of Jalapa; Sclater 
and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 17 Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 55, 1862 Mexico (Jalapa, Orizaba) and Guatemala (Coban); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 173 "vicinity of City of Mexico"; 
Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 83, pi. 42 (male, female), 1868 southern 
Mexico and Guatemala; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 550, 
1869 Dept. Vera Cruz; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 18, 1876 
Gineta Mountains, Chiapas; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 253, 1883 southern Mexico and Guatemala (Coban, Choc- 
turn); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 57, 1886 Mexico (Jalapa 
and "near City of Mexico") and Guatemala (Coban, Choctum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 6, 1902 (monog., full bibliog.); Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 155, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras (crit.); 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1012, 1123, 1912 
(range, crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 372, 1932 Guate- 
mala (Finca Sepacuite, Volcan Zunil, San Lucas). 

(?) Euphonia cyaneidorsalis Dubois, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 11, p. 49, pi. 2, 
1859 Guatemala (type in coll. of C. F. Dubois, present location unknown; 
cf. Berlepsch, Ibis, 1881, p. 179). 1 

(?) Chlorophonia cyanodorsalis Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 255, 1883 Guatemala (ex Dubois). 

Range. Subtropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in states of 
Vera Cruz (Jalapa, Orizaba) and Chiapas (Gineta Mountains), 
Guatemala, Honduras (Ceiba), and northern Nicaragua. 2 

5: Mexico (Monte Verde, 1); Guatemala (unspecified, 1); Hon- 
duras (San Pedro Sula, 2); Nicaragua (San Rafael del Norte, 1). 

*Chlorophonia occipitalis callophrys (Cabanis). 3 COSTA RICAN 
CHLOROPHONIA. 

1 This "species," of which the type has disappeared, is probably an individual 
variation. Dubois's plate represents a bird much like C. o. occipitalis, but with 
the back mainly blue. No specimen corresponding to this character has been 
found again. 

2 With only a single Mexican female (from Orizaba) available for comparison 
I cannot be certain that Guatemalan birds are really the same. While Bangs notes 
some differences in specimens from Honduras, Griscom expressly states that Nica- 
raguan examples are not separable from those of Guatemala. 

Nine additional specimens from Guatemala (Coban) and one from Orizaba, 
Mexico, examined. 

Chlorophonia occipitalis callophrys (Cabanis), though readily distinguished 
by its bright chrome yellow forehead and superciliaries, much larger and deeper 
(campanula) blue coronal patch, and other characters, is certainly but a strongly 
marked southern race of the Mexican Chlorophonia. 

Veraguan birds seem to agree with others from Costa Rica and Chiriqui. 



14 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Triglyphidia callophrys Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 331, 1860 Costa Rica 
(type in Berlin Museum; descr. of male). 

Acrocompsa callophrys Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 88, 1861 Costa Rica 
(descr. of immature). 

Chlorophonia calophrys Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 135, pi. 68 (male 
and female), 1868 Costa Rica and Veragua (Calovevora). 

Chlorophonia callophrys Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 
1868 Rancho Redondo, San Jose, and Birris, Costa Rica; Salvadori, 
Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 173, 1868 Costa Rica (crit.); Frantzius, 
Journ. Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 Costa Rica (Rancho Redondo, Cervantes, 
Candelaria); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 185 Veragua 
(Calovevora, Cordillera del Chucu) and Volcan de Chiriqui; Boucard, 
I.e., 1878, p. 54 Navarro and Candelaria, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 254, 1883 Costa Rica and Panama (Volcan 
de Chiriqui, Chitra, Cordillera del Chucu, Calovevora, Calobre); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 58, 1886 Costa Rica (Irazu) and Panama 
(Calovevora and Volcan de Chiriqui); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Costa Rica (San Jose, Cartago, Alajuela, Rancho 
Redondo de San Jose, Naranjo de Cartago); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 3, 1899 Chiriqui; Bangs, Proc. New 
Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 64, 1902 Boquete and Volcan de Chiriqui; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 7, 1902 Costa Rica, Chiriqui, and 
Veragua; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 873, 1910 Costa Rica 
(habits); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 277, 1910 Costa 
Rica (Guayabo, Coliblanco, Volcan de Turrialba); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1012, 1912 Costa Rica to Veragua; Bangs 
and Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 13, p. 52, 1932 San Pedro, 
Costa Rica (color variety). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Costa Rica and western Panama 
(Chiriqui and Veragua). 

12: Costa Rica (Coliblanco, 2; Guayabo, 1; La Estrella de 
Cartago, 1; Peralta, 2; Volcan Irazu, 4; Volcan Turrialba, 1; 
unspecified, 1). 

Genus TANAGRA Linnaeus 

Tanagra Linnaeus, Mus. Adolph. Frid., 2, Prodr., p. 30, 1764 type, by subs. 

desig. (Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 35, p. 644 [note], 1908), Fringilla 

violacea Linnaeus. 
Euphonia Desmarest, Hist. Nat. Tangaras, livr. 10, table [pi. 27], 1806 

type, by monotypy, Euphonia olivacea Desmarest. 
Euphone Lichtenstein, Zweites Preis-Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., 1820 (cf. 

Oken's Isis, 1821, Beylage No. 1, p. 6) type, as here designated, Fringilla 

violacea Linnaeus. 

Euphona Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 13, (1), p. 317, 1847 emendation of Eu- 
phonia Desmarest. 
Cyanophonia Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 138, 1851 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 58, 1886), Pipra musica 

Gmelin. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 15 

Phonasca Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 330, 1860 type, by subs, desig. (Cabanis, 
Journ. Orn., 9, p. 90, 1861), Fringilla violacea Linnaeus. 

Acroleptes 1 (Schiff MS.) Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 90, 1861 type, by subs, 
desig. (Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 58, 1886), Tanagra chlorotica 
Linnaeus. 

Acroleptus Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 90 [footnote], 1861 substitute for 
Acroleptes Cabanis. 

Hypophaea 1 Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 91, 1861 type, by orig. desig., Tan- 
agra chalybea Mikan. 

Iliolopha 1 Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 type, by monotypy, "Ilio- 
lopha pectoralis (Lath.)" = Pipra pectoralis Latham. 

*Tanagra musica musica (Gmelin). HISPANIOLAN EUPHONIA. 

Pipra musica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 1004, before April 20, 1789 2 - 
based on "L'Organiste" Buffon and Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 809, fig. 1; 
Santo Domingo. 

Euphonia caeruleocephala Swainson, Nat. Hist. Classif. Bds., 2, p. 286, 1837 
based on Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 809, fig. 1. 

Euphone musica Lembeye, Aves Isl. Cuba, p. 42, 1850 "Cuba," errore (cf. 
Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 409, 1861). 

Tanagra musica Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 92, 1866 Port au 
Prince and Jeremie, Hispaniola; Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, 
p. 515, 1928 Haiti and Gonave; Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, 
p. 325, 1929 San Juan de la Maguana, Monte Viejo, and Rio Manade, 
Haiti; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 422, 1931 
Hispaniola (monog.). 

Euphonia musica Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 82 Santo Domingo and 
"Cayenne?" ; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 271, 1856 Santo Domingo 
and "Cuba" (ex Lembeye) (monog.); Salle", I.e., 25, p. 231, 1857 Santo 
Domingo; Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 152, 1881 Pe"tionville, Haiti 
(descr. of young); Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 Santo Domingo; Cory, 
Bds. Haiti San Dom., p. 61, col. pi., 1884 Santo Domingo (La Vega, 
Samana, Magua) and Haiti (Le Coup); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 59, 1886 Santo Domingo (Samana); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 79, 
1889 Haiti and Santo Domingo; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 113, 131, 
1892 same localities; Cherrie, Field Columb. Mus., Orn., 1, p. 13, 1896 
Honduras and Maniel, Santo Domingo; Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 324 La 
Vega; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 13, 1902 Haiti 
(monog.); Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 363, 1909 San- 
chez, Santo Domingo (habits); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1012, 1912 Haiti. 

Range. Island of Hispaniola (including Gonave Island), Greater 
Antilles. 

1 Acroleptes, Hypophaea, and Iliolopha, as published by Bonaparte (Ann. Sci. 
Nat., (4), Zool., 1, p. 127, 1854) are nomina nuda without nomenclatorial 
standing. 

2 Cf. Hopkinson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, pp. 1035-37. 



16 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

32: Haiti (Le Coup, 1); Santo Domingo (Honduras, 7; La Vega, 
10; Magua, 2; Maniel, 1; Samana, 11). 

*Tanagra musica sclateri (Sundevall). 1 PORTO RICAN EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia sclateri (Bonaparte MS.) Sundevall, Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 
26, p. 596, 1869 based on Euphonia ftavifrons (not Emberiza flavifrons 
Sparrman) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 271, 1856 (type, from 
Porto Rico, collected by Maug6, in Paris Museum); Gundlach, Journ. 
Orn., 22, p. 311, 1874 Porto Rico; idem, I.e., 26, p. 169, 1878 Porto 
Rico (habits, nest); idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 191, 1878 
Porto Rico (Mayagiiez, Aguadilla); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 194, 1886 Porto 
Rico (descr.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 60, 1886 Porto Rico; 
Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 81, 1889 Porto Rico; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., 
pp. 16, 113, 132, 1892 Porto Rico; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 15, 1902 Porto Rico (monog.); Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 14, 
1903 Ponce and Mayagiiez, Porto Rico; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1012, 1912 Porto Rico. 

Pipra musica (not of Gmelin) Desmarest, Hist. Nat. Tang., livr. 1, pi. 19 
(male), 20 (female), 1805 part, Porto Rico. 

Cyanophonia musica Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 138, 1851 (descr.). 

Euphonia flavifrons (not Emberiza flavifrons Sparrman) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 271, 1856 Porto Rico, "Trinidad, and Cayenne," 
errore (descr. from Mauge's Porto Rico specimens in the Paris Museum). 

Tanagra sclateri Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 326, p. 123, 1916 Porto 
Rico (habits); idem, Auk, 33, p. 419, 1916 Vieques (attempt at intro- 
duction); Struthers, Auk, 40, p. 478, 1923 Mayagtiez, Porto Rico; 
Wetmore, N. Y. Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Is., 9, 
p. 549, 1927 Porto Rico (monog.). 

Range. Island of Porto Rico, Greater Antilles. 
3: Porto Rico. 

*Tanagra musica flavifrons (Sparrman). GREEN EUPHONIA. 

Emberiza flavifrons Sparrman, Mus. Carlss., fasc. 4, pi. 92, 1789 2 no locality 
indicated; St. Bartholomew suggested by Sundevall (type in Stockholm 
Museum; cf. Sundevall, Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, p. 583, 1869). 3 

Euphonia flavifrons Sundevall, Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 26, p. 583, 1869 
St. Bartholomew; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 13 Santa 
Lucia; Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, pp. 56, 190, 269, 1878 
Dominica, St. Vincent, and Grenada; idem, I.e., 1, pp. 354, 455, 1879 
Martinique and Guadeloupe; idem, I.e., 3, p. 256, 1880 Dominica 

1 Tanagra musica sclateri (Sundevall), in the female sex, closely resembles 
T. m. flavifrons, from which it mainly differs by smaller bill and lighter, more 
yellowish under parts. The male, by the reduction of the black on the head, like- 
wise marks a step in the direction of the green-backed races. 

2 Exact date unknown, possibly earlier than Gmelin's Syst. Nat., 1, Part 2. 

3 Not listed, however, in Gyldenstolpe's "Types of Birds in the Royal Natural 
History Museum in Stockholm" (Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, pp. 1-116, 1926). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 17 

(Roseau Valley) ; Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 5, p. 166, 1880 Santa Lucia; 

Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 613, 1886 Grenada (habits); Sclater, 

Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 63, 1886 Martinique, Santa Lucia, and 

Guadeloupe; Cory, Ibis, 1886, p. 475 Grande Terre; idem, Auk, 3, 

p. 193, 1886 St. Bartholomew, Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Vincent, 

Grenada, and Santa Lucia; idem, Auk, 4, p. 95, 1887 Martinique; 

Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, p. 395 Santa Lucia; Cory, Bds. 

W. Ind., p. 80, 1889 St. Bartholomew to Grenada; idem, Cat. W. Ind. 

Bds., p. 113, 1892 same range; Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., 8, p. 

339, 1892 Dominica (habits, nest, and eggs); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 15, 1902 St. Bartholomew to Grenada (monog.); 

Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 574 Antigua; Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 

291, 1904 Barbuda and Antigua; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 

Kongr. Berlin, p. 1013, 1912 St. Bartholomew to Santa Lucia. 
Euphonia flavifrons viscivora Clark, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 19, 1905 

Kingstown, St. Vincent (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 398, 1930); idem, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 

32, pp. 288, 303, 306, 1905 St. Vincent and Grenada; Berlepsch, Verh. 

5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1013, 1124, 1912 St. Vincent and 

Grenada (crit.). 
Euphonia flavifrons flavifrons Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 387, 

1916 Matouba, Guadeloupe (crit.). 
Tanagra flavifrons. Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 543, 1928 

Santa Lucia. 

Range. Islands of St. Bartholomew, Barbuda, Antigua, Guade- 
loupe, Dominica, Martinique, Santa Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada, 
Lesser Antilles. 1 

21: Dominica, 1; Martinique, 4; St. Lucia, 6; St. Vincent, 8; 
"West Indies," 2. 

Tanagra musica intermedia (Chubb). 2 BLACK-THROATED 
EUPHONIA. 

1 Subdivision of the Green Euphonia into two races, as has been proposed by 
Clark, seems unwarranted, the supposed characters of viscivora being individual 
rather than geographic. 

2 Tanagra musica intermedia (Chubb): Similar to T. m. aureata in coloration, 
but slightly smaller. Wing, 61-65, (female) 61-64; tail, 36-39. 

This form is hardly worth maintaining, since various individuals from northern 
Venezuela are very nearly as large as southern examples. In the male sex, the 
Black-throated Euphonia comes very near to T. m. musica, and differs chiefly by 
somewhat paler rump and under parts, less purplish back, and black instead of 
orange forehead. The female is brighter both above and below, with the sides 
of the head greenish instead of blackish. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad, 1 (type of P. cyanocephala). 
Venezuela: San Antonio (inland of Cumana), 6; Caracas, 1; Galip&n, Cerro del 
Avila, 10; Me>ida, 5. Colombia: "Bogota," 8; Medellin, 1. British Guiana: 
Roraima, 1. Brazil: Monte Alegre, 1 (young male). 



18 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pipra cyanocephala (not Tanagra cyanocephala P. L. S. Miiller, 1776) Vieillot, 

Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 19, p. 165, 1818 Trinidad (type in 

Paris Museum examined ; 1= female). 
Euphonia nigricollis intermedia Chubb, Ibis, (9), 4, p. 624, 1910 "Guiana" = 

Roraima, British Guiana (type in British Museum). 
Euphonia nigricollis (not Tanagra nigricollis Vieillot) Sclater, Contrib. Orn. 

1851, p. 83, pi. 75, fig. 1 part, "Bogota" and Trinidad; idem, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 159, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 272, 1856 

part, Trinidad, Venezuela (Caracas), and New Grenada ("Bogota"); 

idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 56, 1862 part, spec, a, d-e, "Bogota" 

and "Trinidad"; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 81 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Caripe and Caracas, Venezuela; 

Finsch, I.e., 1870, p. 579 "Trinidad"; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 

780 south of Merida, Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 498 

Medellin, Colombia; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 208 Roraima; Sclater, Cat. 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 61, 1886 part, spec, a-f, m-p, Colombia (Medellin, 

"Bogota"), Venezuela (Caripe), Trinidad, and Roraima; Chapman, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 29, 1894 Trinidad (ex Leotaud and Taylor); 

Penard, Voy. Guyana, 2, p. 418, 1910 Surinam; Piguet, Mem. Soc. 

Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 Medellin, Colombia. 
Euphonia aureata (not Tanagra aureata Vieillot) Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, 

p. 310 Trinidad. 
Euphonia cyanocephala Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 

1013, 1124, 1912 part, Colombia, Venezuela (Merida), Trinidad, and 

British Guiana (Roraima); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 438, 1914 

Monte Alegre, north bank of Amazon, Brazil. 
Euphonia cyanocephala cyanocephala Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 232, 1923 

(range). 

Tanagra cyanocephala Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 493, 1921 Roraima. 
Tanagra cyanocephala cyanocephala Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 

p. 588, 1917 part, Caldas, Antioquia, and Buena Vista, Colombia. 
Tanagra aureata intermedia Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, 

p. 35, 1919 (range, diag.); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 

172, 1924 Galipan, Cerro del Avila, Venezuela (crit.). 
Range, British Guiana (Roraima); Surinam; northern Brazil 
(one record from Monte Alegre, lower Amazon) ; Trinidad; mountains 
of Venezuela, Sucre west to Merida; Colombia (except extreme south). 
3: Venezuela (Escorial, MeYida, 2); Colombia ( Amain", 
Antioquia, 1). 

*Tanagra musica aureata Vieillot. SOUTHERN BLACK-THROATED 
EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra nigricollis (not of Gmelin, 1789) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
nouv. ed., 32, p. 412, 1819 "Bresil," coll. Delalande, Jr.=Rio de Janeiro 
(type in Paris Museum). 

1 Vieillot omits to mention the orange forehead, which the type shows, how- 
ever, just as well-marked as in Venezuelan females with which it was compared. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 19 

Tanagra aureata Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., livr. 91, p. 782, 1822 based 
on "Lindo azul y oro" Azara, No. 99, Paraguay; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 
2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay. 

Tanagra chrysogaster Cuvier, Regne Anim., nouv. 6d., 1, p. 366, 1829 based 
on Azara, No. 99, Paraguay. 

Euphone musica (not Pipra musica Gmelin) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, 
(1), p. 443, 1830 Fazenda de Pitanga, near Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro. 

Euphonia nigricollis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
p. 30, 1837 Corrientes, Argentina; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 83 
part, Brazil (Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro), Corrientes (Rincon de Luna), 
Paraguay, and Ecuador; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 272, 1856 
part, Brazil (Rio), Paraguay, and Corrientes; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 56, 1862 part, spec, b, c, Ecuador and Brazil; Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 433 Minas Geraes (Rio da Prata, 
near Paracatu; Lapa Vermelha, near Lagoa Santa); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 260 Rio Ucayali, Peru; Taczanowski, 
I.e., 1874, p. 518 Paltaypampa, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 225 Tambillo, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 194 Callacate, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 10 
Huambo, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 439, 1884 Peru (Ucayali, Pal- 
taypampa, Tambillo, Callacate, Huambo, Chachapoyas) ; Berlepsch and 
Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 117, 1885 Arroio Grande, Rio Grande 
do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 61, 1886 part, spec. 1, 
q-v, Peru (Tambillo) and Brazil (Bahia, Ypanema) ; Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 1, p. 37, 1888 Corrientes; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 338 Garita del Sol and Chontabamba, Dept. 
Junin, Peru; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 118, 1899 
Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 144, 1899 Sao Paulo 
(Piracicaba, Iguape); idem, I.e., 4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo, Rio; Salva- 
dori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 4, 1900 Urucum, Matto 
Grosso; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 175, 1902 Tucuman; 
idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 41, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 346, 1907 Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Iguape) and 
Rio Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. 
Zool., 16, p. 170, 1909 Tucuman; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 623 Sapucay, 
Paraguay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 373, 1910 
Tucuman and Corrientes; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 Puerto 
Bertoni, Paraguay; idem, El Hornero, 1, p. 286, 1919 Puerto Bertoni. 

Euphone nigricollis Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 193, 1856 
southern Brazil and Paraguay. 

Euphona nigricollis Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 202, 1870 Ypanema, Sao 
Paulo; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro. 

Cyanophonia aureata Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 138, 1851 
Paraguay, Bolivia, and Ecuador (diag.). 

Euphonia aureata d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame"r. Merid., Ois., p. 267, 1839 Rincon 
de Luna, Corrientes. 

Euphonia cyanocephala (not Pipra cyanocephala Vieillot) Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1013, 1124, 1912 part, Brazil ("Para" 
to Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, Peru, and Bolivia (Quebrada Onda, 
Chaco, Omeja), and Argentina (Corrientes). 



20 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Euphonia cyanocephala aureata Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, pp. 231, 232, 1923 

Corrientes (range). 
Tanagra aureata aureata Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, p. 35, 

1919 (crit.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 367, 1930 

Matto Grosso. 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul; 
Uruguay; Paraguay; northern Argentina (Tucuman; Misiones; 
Rincon de Luna, Corrientes) ; southwestern Matto Grosso (Urucum, 
near Corumba); eastern Bolivia; eastern Peru; eastern Ecuador 
("Ambato"). 1 

6: Brazil (Bauru, Sao Paulo, 1); Argentina (Iguazu, Misiones, 4); 
Peru (Hacienda Limon, ten miles west of Balsas, 1). 

Tanagra musica pelzelni (Sclater). 2 PELZELN'S BLACK-THROATED 
EUPHONIA. 

[Euphonia nigricollis] subsp. pelzelni (Berlepsch MS.) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 61 (in text), 1881 spec, g-k, Ecuador (type from Govinda, 
Ecuador, in British Museum). 

Euphonia nigricollis (not Tanagra nigricollis Vieillot) Jardine, Edinb. New 
Phil. Journ., (n.s.), 2, p. 118, 1855 valley of Chillo, below Quito; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 551, 1858 Matos, northeast of Riobamba, 
Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, pp. 65, 87, 1860 Pallatanga, Perucho, and 
Puellaro, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, p. 288 Cayan- 
deled, Ecuador; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, 
p. 14, 1899 Tumbaco and Chillo Valley, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1901, p. 459 Guapalo (near Quito) and west side of Pichincha, Ecuador; 
M6ngaux, Miss. Serv. Gogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 
89, 1911 Tumbaco and Quito, Ecuador. 

Tanagra cyanocephala cyanocephala (not Pipra cyanocephala Vieillot) Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 588, 1917 part, La Sierra, western 
Andes, Colombia. 

Euphonia cyanocephala pelzelni Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1013, 1912 western Ecuador (Govinda, Intag, Quito, Pichincha, 
Cayandeled, Matos, Pallatanga, Pesillo, Perucho, Puellaro). 

1 The few Bolivian specimens examined appear to be indistinguishable from 
a Brazilian series, and two males from Tucuman do not differ either. Two from 
"Ambato(?)," Ecuador, and one from Peru (Hacienda Limon) have the black fore- 
head distinctly wider, while the rump and under parts are not quite so intense, 
though very much darker and more orange than in T. m. pelzelni. Additional 
material may possibly show the inhabitants of these countries to be separable. 

Additional specimens examined. Brazil: Bahia, 2; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 10. 
Paraguay: Sapucay, 1. Bolivia: Quebrada Onda, 1; Chaco, 1; Omeja, 1; 
Yungas of La Paz, 1. Argentina: Tucuman, 2. 

2 Tanagra musica pelzelni (Sclater) : Similar to T. m. aureata, but on average 
larger, and adult males with rump and lower parts decidedly paler, lemon chrome 
to light cadmium instead of deep cadmium yellow. Wing, 66-70; tail, 42-45. 

Nineteen specimens from western Ecuador, mostly from the Quito region 
(Cumbaya, Tumbaco, Pichincha), examined. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 21 

Tanagra aureata pelzelni Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mlis. Comp. Zool., 63, 
p. 35, 1919 western Ecuador (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 649, 1926 Cumbaya, Yaguarcocha, Quito, Tumbaco, and Mocha, 
Ecuador (crit.). 

Euphonia cyanocephala pelzelni Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 
p. 82, 1922 Tumbaco and Cumbaya, Ecuador; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
30, p. 232, 1923 (range). 

Range. Temperate (rarely Subtropical) zone of extreme southern 
Colombia (La Sierra, headwaters of the Rio Patia) and western 
Ecuador south to Chimborazo. 

Tanagra musica insignis (Sclater and Salvin). 1 ORANGE-FRONTED 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia insignis Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 521, 
pi. 52, fig. 1 (male) "Jina" = Jima, Ecuador (type in Salvin-Godman 
Collection, now in British Museum, examined); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 60, 1886 Jima; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1013, 1912 Jima. 

Tanagra insignis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 649, 1926 Jima. 

Range. Temperate zone of southern Ecuador (Loja; Jima). 

Tanagra musica elegantissima (Bonaparte). BLUE-HOODED 
EUPHONIA. 

Pipra elegantissima Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. 112, 
pub. June 14, 1838 Mexico (type in coll. of Messrs. Paris, present location 
unknown). 

Euphonia coelestis Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 42, 1839 Mexico (types in coll. 
of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux; descr. of male and female). 

Pipra galericulata Giraud, Descr. Sixt. New Spec. N. Amer. Bds., fol. [21], 
pi. [5], fig. 2, 1841 "Texas," errore (type in U. S. National Museum); 
cf. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 66, 1855 (crit.). 

Euphonia elegantissima Du Bus, Esq. Orn., livr. 2, pi. 8 (male, female), 1846 
San Pedro, near Oaxaca, Mexico; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 272, 1856 Mexico (Oaxaca, Jalapa, Cordoba), Guatemala, and "Texas" 
(monog.); Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 185 Calovevora, Veraguas; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 256, 1883 Mexico to Veraguas; 

1 Tanagra musica insignis (Sclater and Salvin) : Similar to T. m. aureata in 
size and general coloration, notably in deep cadmium yellow rump and under 
parts, but forehead in adult male deep cadmium yellow to mars yellow bordered 
posteriorly by a narrow blackish line. The female is not certainly separable, 
and except for its less shining green back, it also resembles that of T. m. sclateri, 
of Porto Rico, thus showing the close affinities of all the blue-capped euphonias. 
Wing, (four males) 66-67, (two females) 65-66; tail, 38-41, (female) 37, 40; bill, 7. 

The typical examples of this form are said to be from "Jima" in the Temperate 
zone of Azuay Province. They agree with a series collected in June, 1899, by 
P. 0. Simons at Loja, in the Vienna Museum. This form obviously represents 
the pale-bellied, black-fronted T. m. pelzelni in southern Ecuador. 

Material examined. Ecuador: "Jima," 2; Loja, 6. 



22 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 62,4886 southern Mexico to Vera- 
guas; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 3, p. 65, 1902 Boquete, Chiriquf ; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 12, 1902 Vera Cruz to 
Veraguas (monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, 
p. 366, 1905 Juan Lisiarraga Mountains, Sinaloa; Carriker, Ann. Car- 
negie Mus., 6, p. 872, 1910 Costa Rica (habits); Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1012, 1123, 1912 Mexico to 
Veraguas (crit.). 

Tanagra elegantissima Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 390, 1929 
Mountain Cow, British Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 372, 1932 Finca Conception, Finca El Soche, Volcan San Lucas, 
Tecpam, and Quezaltenango, Guatemala (crit.); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 75, p. 409, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Euphonia elegantissima vincens Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 33, p. 77, Dec., 
1913 San Jose, Costa Rica (type in Tring Collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Southern Mexico (from southern Sinaloa, Guanajuato, 
and Vera Cruz southwards), Guatemala, British Honduras, Costa 
Rica, and western Panama (Chiriqui and Veraguas). 1 

5: Guatemala (Tecpam, 1); Costa Rica (La Estrella, 1; Limon, 
1; San Jose", 1; unspecified, 1). 

*Tanagra xanthogaster xanthogaster (Sundevall). ORANGE- 
BELLIED EUPHONIA. 

Euphone xanthogaster Sundevall, Vetensk. Akad. Handl. for 1833, p. 310, pi. 
10, fig. 1 (=adult male), 1834 Brazil (type in Stockholm Museum; cf. 
Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 14, 1926). 

Euphonia xanthogastra Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 73 part, Brazil; 
Sclater, I.e., 1851, p. 85 part, Brazil; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 275, 1856 part, southern Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 
3, p. 195, 1856 "upper Amazon and Rio Negro," errore (ex Sundevall); 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 57, 1862 part, spec, d, g, Brazil; 
idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 67, 1886 part, spec, a-c, Nova Friburgo, 
Brazil; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 144, 1899 "Sao Paulo"; idem, 
I.e., 4, p. 152, 1900 Nova Friburgo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 347, 
1907 Rio Jurua, Brazil (range in part). 

Euphonia ochrascens Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, pp. 202, 328, 1870 Registo do 
Sai, Rio de Janeiro (types in Vienna Museum examined). 

1 Though there appears to be a gap in the distribution of this form, I am 
inclined to agree with Griscom in suppressing the name vincens proposed by 
Hartert for the birds of Costa Rica and southwards. The latter average rather 
darker, more purplish blue on the crown, but the variation is insignificant. The 
other points of distinction claimed by the describer are altogether unreliable, 
as has been shown by Griscom. Birds from Sinaloa are stated by Miller to be 
paler below. 

Additional material examined. Mexico (Vera Cruz), 8; Guatemala, 5; Costa 
Rica, 9; Chiriqui, 6. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 23 

Euphonia chlorotica (not Tanagra chlorotica Linnaeus) Ihering, Rev. Mus. 

Paul., 6, p. 432, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil (spec, examined). 
Euphonia aurea aurea (not "Parus aureus" Vroeg) Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, 

p. 271, 1910 Maroins, Rio Machados, Brazil (spec, reexamined). 
Euphonia xanthogaster Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 

1016, 1126, 1912 eastern Brazil, from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro and (?) 

Sao Paulo; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 439, 1914 Rio Jamauchim 

(Conceicao, Tucunare); Lima, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 101, 1920 

Ilheos to Belmonte, Bahia. 
Euphonia xanthogaster xanthogaster Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, 

p. 17, 1920 eastern Brazil (Bahia to Rio de Janeiro). 
Tanagra xanthogaster xanthogaster Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, 

p. 369, 1930 Rio Roosevelt, Broken Canoe Rapids, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Brazil, from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro and (?) Sao Paulo, 1 
west through Amazonia (Rio Jamauchim, tributary of the Tapajoz; 
Maroins, Rio Machados) to the Rio Jurua and northern Matto 
Grosso (Rio Roosevelt). 2 

2: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 2). 

Tanagra xanthogaster exsul (Berlepsch). 3 VENEZUELAN RUFOUS- 
CAPPED EUPHONIA. 

1 Whether T. x. xanthogaster really ranges as far south as Sao Paulo remains 
to be confirmed, though Cabanis (Journ. Orn., 13, p. 409 [in text], 1865) claims 
to have seen examples from that state. 

2 With the limited Brazilian material at my command I am not in a position 
to speak with confidence about the range of this form. Birds from Rio de Janeiro, 
regarded by Berlepsch (1912, p. 1016) as type locality, and others from Bahia 
agree. Two adult males from Amazonia, while nearly similar in coloration, are 
somewhat smaller, the tail is particularly shorter, and the yellow of the crown 
slightly paler. In these notoriously variable birds nothing can be gained from 
the study of a few specimens and, until an adequate series becomes available, 
the inhabitants of Amazonia may provisionally be referred to typical xanthogaster. 
The wing of adult males from eastern Brazil varies from 60 to 64, the tail from 
34 to 36. One from Maroins, Rio Machados, measures: wing, 55% tail, 30; 
one from the Rio Jurua: wing, 59; tail, 31 K- 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 2; Rio Doce, Espirito Santo, 2; 
Registo do Sai, Rio de Janeiro, 2; Rio de Janeiro, 1; Maroins, Rio Machados, 1; 
Rio Jurua, 1. 

3 Tanagra xanthogaster exsul (Berlepsch) : Exceedingly close to the widely 
separated T. x. ruficeps, of Bolivia, but distinguishable in the male sex by paler 
rufous as well as more extensive crown patch, with the bluish black spotting in 
the posterior portion of this area less conspicuous. Wing, 64-68, (female) 60-62; 
tail, 34-38, (female) 32-34; bill, 8-9. 

This form is easily recognizable by the much darker color of the forecrown 
and under parts, when compared to T. x. brevirostris, but is sometimes hard to 
tell from the Bolivian ruficeps. Females are not distinguishable at all. Its range 
appears to be limited to the coast mountains of Venezuela from Caracas west- 
wards. In the Tring Museum is a specimen collected by A. Mocquerys at "Caripe," 
but this locality requires confirmation by more substantial evidence. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Loma Redonda (alt. 3,000 ft.), Caracas re- 
gion, 2; "Caracas," 1; San Esteban, 4; Las Quiguas, Carabobo, 6; La Cumbre 
de Valencia, 1; mountains near Bucarito, Tocuyo, Lara, 2. 



24 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Euphonia ruficeps exsul Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 
1017, 1127, 1912 San Esteban, near Puerto Cabello [Carabobo], Vene- 
zuela (type in Berlepsch Collection, now in Frankfort Museum, examined). 

Euphonia ruficeps (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 276, 1856 part, Caracas, Venezuela (crit.); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 68, 1886 part, spec, f-i, San Esteban, 
Venezuela. 

Euphonia xanthogastra (not of Sundevall) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 627 Venezuela. 

Euphonia xanthogaster exsul Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, 
Heft 5, p. 53, 1912 San Esteban, Las Quiguas, and Cumbre de Valencia, 
Carabobo (crit.). 

Tanagra xanthogaster exsul Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 173, 
1924 Loma Redonda, Caracas, Venezuela (crit.). 

Range. North coast mountains of Venezuela, from the Caracas 
region west to Lara (near Bucarito, Tocuyo). 

*Tanagra xanthogaster brevirostris (Bonaparte). 1 SHORT-BILLED 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia brevirostris Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 136, 1851 
"Columbia" = BogotS. collections (type in coll. of M. Parzudaki, present 
location unknown). 

Acroleptes brevirostris Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 408, 1865 "Bogota" 
and Llanos de Casanares, Colombia (crit.). 

Euphonia xanthogastra (not Euphone xanthogaster Sundevall) Sclater, Contrib. 
Orn., 1851, p. 85 part, Anolaima, Colombia; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 22, p. 115, 1854 Quijos, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 23, p. 159, 1855 
"Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 275, 1856 part, Ecuador (Quixos) and 
"Bogota" (descr.); idem, I.e., 26, p. 74, 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, 
I.e., p. 452, 1858 Gualaquiza, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 57, 1862 part, spec, a-c, Rio Napo, Anolaima, and "Bogota"; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 179 Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 260 Sarayacu; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 518 

1 Tanagra xanthogaster brevirostris (Bonaparte) : Similar to T. x. xanthogaster, 
but larger, and the yellow cap in the males darker, more ochraceous or orange. 
Birds from British Guiana are inseparable from "Bogota" skins, as far as I can 
judge from the small number of accessible specimens. The inhabitants of eastern 
Ecuador and northern Peru have been much discussed and, whereas certain 
authors (Nelson and Zimmer) identified them with T. x. quitensis, Chapman 
(Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 126, 1931), in agreement with my own view, is 
inclined to refer them to brevirostris. While admitting that they are not quite 
identical with specimens from eastern Colombia, the males having the forepart 
of the crown on average slightly paler, yet their bills are distinctly smaller than 
in birds from western Ecuador. The coloration of the females (more buffy breast 
and bright yellowish green sides), insisted upon by Chapman, holds in most 
cases, though it must be stated that two (one each from Moyobamba and Hua- 
chipa) cannot be distinguished from western examples (quitensis). 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 21; Cuembf, Rio Putu- 
mayo, 6. Eastern Ecuador: San Jose, 4; El Loreto, 4; Sarayacu, 1. Peru: 
Huambo, 1; Pina, 1; Nuevo Loreto, 1. British Guiana: Atapurow River, 1; 
Camacusa, 4. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 25 

Monterico and Amable Maria, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 10 Huambo, 
Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 444, 1884 part, Peru (Monterico, Amable 
Maria, Sarayacu, Iquitos, Huambo, Chirimoto); idem and Berlepsch, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 77 Machay, Ecuador; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 208 Merume Mountains, Camacusa, and Atapurow River, British 
Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 67, 1886 part, spec, d-1, 
n-s, w, x, British Guiana (Atapurow River, Merum6 Mountains, Cama- 
cusa), Colombia ("Bogota"), Ecuador (Napo, Sarayacu), and Peru 
(Iquitos); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 part, Rio Napo; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 338 La Mer- 
ced and Garita del Sol, Dept. Junin, Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 14, 1899 part, Rio Zamora, eastern Ecuador. 

Tanagra xanthogaster Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 494, 1921 Merume 
Mountains, Camacusa, and Caramang River. 

Euphonia xanthogaster brevirostris Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 
p. 1101 (in text) "Bogota" (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1016, 1126, 1912 part, Colombia ("Bogota"), eastern 
Ecuador, Peru (excl. of Santa Ana), and British Guiana; Hellmayr, Arch. 
Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 17, 1920 eastern Andes of Colombia to Peru. 

Tanagra xanthogastra brevirostris Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 
589, 1917 Colombia (La Palma and La Candela, east slope of central 
Andes; Andalucia, Caqueta Trail, La Morelia, Florencia, Quetame, and 
Buenavista, eastern Andes); idem, I.e., 63, p. 126, 1931 Agiiita, Mount 
Duida, Venezuela (crit.). 

Tanagra xanthogaster quitensis (not of Nelson) Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, 
p. 459, 1918 west of Perico, Peru. 

Tanagra xanthogastra quitensis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 650, 
1926 part, eastern Ecuador (Zamora, Sabanilla, Macas, Rio Suno, 
below San Jose, lower Sumaco, below Oyacachi) and Peru (Pomara, 
Chaupe, Chelpes, Utcuyacu); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Sen, 
17, p. 436, 1930 Vista Alegre and Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of eastern Colombia 
(eastern Andes and east slope of central Andes), eastern Ecuador, 
and eastern Peru, south to Junin; also southern Venezuela (Mount 
Duida) and British Guiana. 

17: British Guiana (Caramang River, 4); Colombia ("Bogota," 
4; Andalucia, Huila, 1); Peru (Rioja, 1; Moyobamba, 3; Huachipa, 
2; Vista Alegre, 2). 

Tanagra xanthogaster quitensis (Nelson). 1 NELSON'S EUPHONIA. 

1 Tanagra xanthogaster quitensis (Nelson): Very similar to T. x. brevirostris, 
but with larger bill; males with yellow of crown and under parts generally paler; 
female with foreneck and chest mostly grayish, the buffy abdominal area paler 
and less extensive, and the sides and flanks darker green, less yellowish. 

If maintained at all, this form should be restricted to western Ecuador. 

Additional material examined. Western Ecuador: Rio Verde, Prov. Esmeral- 
das, 1; Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 3; Lita, Prov. Imbabura, 2; Pallatanga, 1; 
Gualea, 8; Nanegal, 1; Porvenir, Bolivar, 2; Chimbo, 1. 



26 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tanagra xanthogastra quitensis Nelson, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 60, No. 3, p. 16, 
Sept., 1912 "Quito," Ecuador 1 (type in U. S. National Museum) ; Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 650, 1926 part, western Ecuador 
(Rio de Oro, Gualea, Bucay, Naranjo, Chimbo, Coco and Chimbo, La 
Chonta, El Chiral, Zaruma, Punta Santa Ana, Salvias, La Pinas, San 
Bartolo, Alamor, and Cebollal). 

Euphonia xanthogastra (not of Sundevall) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, 
p. 140, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 87, 1860 Nanegal, 
Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 57, 1862 part, spec, e, f, Palla- 
tanga; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 544 
Chimbo; idem, I.e., 1884, p. 288 Cayandeled and Pedregal; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 67, 1886 part, spec, t-v, "Quito" and Palla- 
tanga; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 part, Gualea; 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 481, 1898 Cachavi and Chimbo; Salvadori and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 14, 1899 part, Gualea 
and Intag; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 459 Santo Domingo and Gualea; 
Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 
90, 1911 part, Gualea and Santo Domingo. 

Euphonia xanthogaster brevirostris (not of Bonaparte) Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1016, 1126, 1912 part, western Ecuador 
(Chimbo, Cayandeled, Pedregal, Pallatanga). 

Euphonia xanthogaster quitensis Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 
17, 1920 western Ecuador; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 
25, p. 82, 1922 Gualea and Nanegal. 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of western Ecuador. 
5: Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, 5). 

*Tanagra xanthogaster chocoensis (Hellmayr). 2 Cnoc6 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia xanthogaster chocoensis Hellmayr, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 23, 1911 
Rio Cajon, Choco, western Colombia (type in Munich Museum); idem, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1100 Noanama, Rio Cajon, and Sipi, 
Pacific Colombia; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 
1017, 1126, 1912 western Colombia (Choco and San Pablo; crit.); Hell- 
mayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 17, 1920 (range). 

1 No representative of this group being found on the plateau of Quito, Chap- 
man (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 127 [in text], 1931) suggests Gualea as type 
locality of T. x. quitensis. 

2 Tanagra xanthogaster chocoensis (Hellmayr): Nearest to T. x. brevirostris, 
but adult male with cap and under parts decidedly paler, light cadmium; breast 
and middle of the belly not tinged with ochraceous; female underneath even 
more grayish with a lesser amount of buffy on the abdominal line than that of 
T. x. quitensis. 

Birds from the Pacific lowlands are remarkable for their small dimensions 
(wing, 57-61), while those from higher altitudes in the western and central Andes 
are decidedly larger (wing, 63-66). Two adult males from San Pablo, Prov. 
Tuqueres, in extreme southern Colombia, approach T. x. quitensis by having a 
faint ochraceous tinge on the abdomen and a darker yellow forecrown. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Noanama, 1; Rio Cajon, 2; Sipi> 
2; Barbacoas, 4; San Pablo, Prov. Tuqueres, 2; San Antonio, 3; Miraflores, 2- 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 27 

Euphonia xanthogastra (not of Sundevall) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1879, p. 498 Concordia, western Andes, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 67, 1886 part, spec, m, Antioquia. 
Tanagra xanthogastra chocoensis Nelson, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 60, No. 3, p. 

17, 1912 western Colombia and eastern Panama; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. N. H., 36, p. 588, 1917 Colombia (Alto Bonito, Juntas de Tamana, 

Novita, San Jose', Barbacoas, La Frijolera, Novita Trail, Las Lomitas, 

San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, Gallera, Cocal, Ricaurte, Miraflores, 

and Salento; crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of Colombia, from the 
Pacific coast to the western slope of the central Andes, and north 
to eastern Panama. 

1: Colombia (El Roble, west of Salento, Quindio Andes, 1). 

Tanagra xanthogaster brunneifrons (Chapman). 1 BROWN- 
FRONTED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia xanthogastra (er) brunneifrons Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
14, p. 226, 1901 Inca Mine [ = Santo Domingo], Marcapata, Peru (type 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1017, 1127, 1912 Marcapata, 
Peru (crit.); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 15, 1920 
Yahuarmayo, San Gaban, Chaquimayo, and Chirimayo, Carabaya, 
Peru (crit.). 

Euphonia xanthogastra (not of Sundevall) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1873, p. 185 Cosnipata, Dept. Cuzco, Peru; Sclater, I.e., 1873, 
p. 780 Cosnipata; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 444, 1884 part, Cosni- 
pata, Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, pp. 78, 108, 1906 Idma 
(Urubamba), Huaynapata, Rio Cadena, and Escopal (Marcapata), Peru. 

Euphonia xanthogaster brevirostris (not of Bonaparte) Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1016, 1912 part, "Santa Ana" [ = Idma], 
Urubamba, Peru. 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of southeastern Peru, 
in depts. of Cuzco (Urubamba) and Puno (Carabaya). 

Tanagra xanthogaster ruficeps (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 
BOLIVIAN RUFOUS-CAPPED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia ruficeps Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 30, 1834 Yuracares, Bolivia (types in Paris Museum examined); 
d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame"r. Me>id., Ois., p. 268, pi. 22, fig. 2, 1839 Yura- 

1 Tanagra xanthogaster brunneifrons (Chapman) : Similar to T. x. brevirostris, 
but adult males with forecrown darker in color, deep ochraceous-orange, and 
chest as well as abdominal line more strongly tinged with ochraceous. Although 
single specimens are not always distinguishable, the majority from southeastern 
Peru may be separated by the above characters, which mark a decided step in 
the direction of T. x. ruficeps, with rufous cap and still more rufescent under parts. 

Material examined. Peru: Cosnipata, 1; Yahuarmayo, 6; San Gaban, 5; 
Chaquimayo, 4; Chirimayo, 1; Marcapata, 6. 



28 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

cares; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 85 Yuracares (ex d'Orbigny); 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 276, 1856 part, Bolivia (crit.); idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 58, 1862 Yuracares, Bolivia; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 598 Bolivia (Yuracares; Tilotilo, Yun- 
gas); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 68, 1886 part, spec, a-e, 
Bolivia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1017, 1912 
Bolivia (Yuracares, Chaco, San Mateo, Songo, San Antonio, Tilotilo). 

Euphone ruficeps Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 136, 1851 
Bolivia (diag.). 

Euphonia xanthogaster ruficeps Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 235, 1923 Yura- 
cares, Bolivia (note on types). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of Bolivia (depts. of La 
Paz and Cochabamba). 1 

*Tanagra anneae 2 anneae (Cassin). COSTA RICAN TAWNY- 
CAPPED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia anneae Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 172 Santa 
Rosa, Costa Rica (descr. of male; type in U. S. National Museum); Law- 
rence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 Angostura and Santa 
Rosa, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 "San Jose," 
Costa Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 17, 1902 
part, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 871, 1910 Guayabo, 
Bonilla, La Vijagua, Carrillo, Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, Turrialba, La Hon- 
dura, and Las Mesas, Caribbean Costa Rica (habits); Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1017, 1912 part, Costa Rica. 

Euphonia annae Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 265, 
1883 part, Costa Rica; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 72, 1886 
part, spec, g-j, Costa Rica (Angostura, Turrialba); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Naranjo de Cartago and Rio Sucio, 
Costa Rica; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 65, 1902 Boquete 
and Caribbean slope of Volcan de Chiriquf, Panama. 

Range. Caribbean side of Costa Rica and extreme western 
Panama (Boquete and Volcan de Chiriqui). 3 

6: Costa Rica (Tuis, 2; Peralta, 2; Santa Cruz de Turrialba, 1); 
Panama (unspecified, 4 1). 

1 Material examined. Bolivia: Yuracares, 2; Songo, Dept. La Paz, 4; Chaco, 
Dept. La Paz, 3; San Antonio, Dept. La Paz, 1; San Mateo, Dept. Cochabamba, 
3; unspecified, 3. 

2 Tanagra anneae is allied to T. xanthogaster, but differs, aside from its larger 
bill, by its tawny cap, which is also farther extended posteriorly, and white under 
tail coverts, while the female is more tawny on the forecrown and less buffy in 
the abdominal region. According to Griscom, representatives of both species 
live side by side in eastern Panama, a fact that would seem to exclude conspecific 
affinity. 

3 Five specimens from Boquete, Chiriqui, appear to me inseparable from a 
Costa Rican series. 

4 Obviously a "Chiriqui" trade-skin. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 29 

Tanagra anneae rufivertex (Salvin). 1 VERAGUAN TAWNY-CAPPED 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia rufivertex Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 71, pi. 7 (male, 
female) Veraguas 2 (types from "Santiago de Veraguas" in British 
Museum). 

Euphonia annae (not of Cassin) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 137 
Santa Fe, Veraguas (crit.); idem, I.e., 1870, p. 186 Cordillera del 
Chucu and Calovevora, Veraguas; idem, Ibis, 1874, p. 329 Veraguas; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 265, 1883 part, 
Veraguas (Santa F, Calobre, "Santiago," Calovevora, Cordillera del 
Chucu); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 72, 1886 part, spec, a-f, 
Veraguas ("Santiago," Santa Fe, Calovevora). 

Euphonia annae Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 17, 1902 
part, Veragua; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1017, 
1912 part, Veragua. 

Tanagra anneae ruficeps Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 280, p. 17, 1927 Rio 
Calovevora, Veraguas (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of Panama, from the Veraguas east to 
Mount Tacarcuna, Darien. 

*Tanagra fulvicrissa fulvicrissa (Sclater). FULVOUS- VENTED 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia fulvicrissa Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," p. 276, pub. 
Jan., 1857 "Santa Martha in New Grenada" (descr. of male; type in 
coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); (?)Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 143 Falls of the Truando, Colombia; Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 58, 1862 "Santa Martha"; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 349 Panama Railroad (descr. of female); 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 171 Angostura and Pacuare\ 
Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 264, pi. 
16, fig. 2 (=male), 1883 part, Panama (Bugaba, Volcan de Chiriqui, 
Lion Hill, San Pablo Station); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 73, 
1886 part, spec, a, f-k, "Santa Marta," Panama (Lion Hill, San Pablo, 
Volcan de Chiriqui, Bugaba, Veragua), (?) and Rio Truando; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 18, 1904 part, "Santa Marta" and 
Panama to Chiriqui; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1018, 1912 part, "Santa Marta" and Panama to Costa Rica. 

1 Tanagra anneae rufivertex (Salvin) : Very close to T. a. anneae, but on average 
slightly smaller; under parts of males medially, particularly on the chest, more 
strongly tinged with orange; female with deeper gray under parts and less yellow- 
ish flanks. 

The distinctive features are not strongly pronounced in the three available 
specimens from Veraguas, and some of the males from Costa Rica are very nearly 
as orange on the chest. A single example from the base of Mount Tacarcuna, 
Darien, is stated by Griscom to be decidedly larger (wing, 70) than those from 
Veragua. 

2 The immature male from Turrialba, incidentally mentioned by Salvin, per- 
tains, of course, to T. a. anneae. 



30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tanagra fulvicrissa fulvicrissa Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
65, p. 226, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darien; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Car- 
negie Mus., 14, p. 497, 1922 (not in Santa Marta); Griscom, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 69, p. 187, 1929 Cana, Darien; idem, I.e., 72, p. 369, 1932 
Perme, Obaldia, and Ranchon, eastern Panama. 

Euphonia gouldii (not of Sclater) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, 
p. 332, 1861 Panama Railroad; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 186 Bugaba and Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Costa Rica and Panama, south 
to Darien and possibly extreme northwestern Colombia (Rio 
Truando). 1 

1: Panama (unspecified, 1). 

Tanagra fulvicrissa omissa (Hartert). 2 COLOMBIAN FULVOUS- 
VENTED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia fulvicrissa omissa Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 33, p. 77, Dec., 
1913- "Bogota," Colombia (type in Tring Collection, now in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York, examined). 

Tanagra fulvicrissa omissa Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 590, 
1917 Quibdo, Bagado, Juntas de Tamana, Noanama, and San Jose, 
Pacific Colombia. 

Euphonia fulvicrissa (not of Sclater) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1879, p. 498 Remedies (Rio Ite) and Rio Neche, Antioquia, 
Colombia; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 264, 1883 
- part, Colombia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 288, 1884 Bucaramanga 
(descr. of female); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 73, 1886 part, 
spec, b-e, Colombia (Remedies, Neche, "Bogota"); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 18, 1904 part, Antioquia; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1018, 1912 part, Colombia (Bucara- 
manga, "Bogota," Antioquia). 

1 Males from Panama and Chiriqui have the upper parts, but especially the 
throat and sides of the head, decidedly greenish blue. According to Hartert, 
the type, said to be from "Santa Marta," where no representative of the Fulvous- 
vented Euphonia has ever been found again, agrees with "birds from Panama 
and Costa Rica." 

Additional material examined. Panama: Boquete, 2; Bugaba, 1; Panama 
Railroad, 5. 

2 Tanagra fulvicrissa omissa (Hartert) : Similar to T. f. fulvicrissa, but adult 
male with upper parts, sides of head, and throat decidedly steel blue without 
any greenish tone. Wing (males), 52-56; tail, 28-30. 

The metallic gloss of the head and upper side is just intermediate in tone 
between the bluish bottle-green of fulvicrissa (most strongly pronounced in Chiri- 
qui birds) and the bright purplish blue of purpurascens. 

While "Bogota" and Bucaramanga specimens have the white patch on the 
inner web of the outermost rectrix very nearly as extensive as in the nominate 
race, an adult male from Noanama, Pacific Colombia, resembles purpurascens in 
having but a narrow oblique white streak on that feather. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 4; Bucaramanga, 2; Noanama, 1; 
El Tigre, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 31 

Euphonia fulvicrissa (subsp.) Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1100 
Noanama and El Tigre, Pacific Colombia (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of Colombia (Pacific coast south to San 
Jose"; Remedies and Rio Neche, Antioquia; Magdalena Valley). 

Tanagra fulvicrissa purpurascens (Hartert). 1 PURPLISH FUL- 
VOUS-VENTED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia fulvicrissa purpurascens Hartert, Nov. Zool., 8, p. 377, 1901 
Pambilar, Prov. Esmeraldas, Ecuador (type in Tring Collection, now in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York, examined); 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1018, 1912 "Paramba" 
and San Javier, Ecuador. 

Tanagra fulvicrissa purpurascens Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 590, 1917 Barbacoas, Narino, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 652, 1926 
Ecuador (ex Hartert). 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Colombia (Barbacoas, 
Narino) and northwestern Ecuador (Prov. Esmeraldas). 

*Tanagra minuta minuta (Cabanis). WHITE- VENTED EUPHONIA. 

'Euphonia olivacea (not Tanagra olivacea Gmelin) Desmarest, Hist. Nat. 
Tang., livr. 10, pi. 27, 1806 Cayenne (descr. of female; type in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Euphona minuta Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 671, 1849 British Guiana (descr. of female; type in Berlin Museum); 
Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 32, 1857 Cayenne; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 203, 1870 part, Barra do Rio Negro (spec, examined). 

Euphonia minuta Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 159, 1855 "Bogota," 
Colombia; idem, I.e., 24, p. 274, 1856 Cayenne, British Guiana, Barra 
do Rio Negro, and "Bogota" (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 57, 1862 "Bogota" and Cayenne; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 180, 
1882; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 258, 1883 
part, Colombia to Guiana and Amazonia; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 208 
Bartica Grove and Camacusa, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 71, 1886 part, spec, a-1, Cayenne, British Guiana (Camacusa, 
Bartica Grove), and Colombia ("Bogota"); Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 
4, p. 184, 1887 "Bogota"; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 422, 1910 
Surinam. 

Euphonia strictifrons Strickland, Contrib. Ornith., 1851, p. 72 Cayenne 
(descr. of male; type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); 
Sclater, I.e., p. 84 Cayenne. 

1 Tanagra fulvicrissa purpurascens (Hartert) : Similar to T. f. omissa, but 
upper parts and throat glossed with purplish blue inclining to violet, and outer- 
most rectrix without, or with very little, white on the inner web; female not dis- 
tinguishable. Wing (male), 53; tail, 28-29. 

Material examined. Western Ecuador, Prov. Esmeraldas: Pambilar, 1 (the 
type); San Javier, 5. 



32 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Euphone pumila Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 136, 1851 Cayenne 
and "Nuova Granada" (descr. of male; type in coll. M. Parzudaki, 
present location unknown). 1 

Euphonia olivacea Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 91 (crit.); Berlepsch and 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 17, 1902 Nicare, Caura River, Venezuela; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 347, 1907 part, Rio Negro, Guiana, 
Colombia ("Bogota"), and Venezuela; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 113, 
1908 Cayenne; idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1015, 
1912 part, Colombia ("Bogota"), Venezuela, British Guiana, Surinam, 
Cayenne, and Rio Negro. 

Tanagra olivacea olivacea Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 171, 

1916 Nicare, Venezuela; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

62, p. 86, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam. 
Tanagra minuta Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 497, 1921 Cotinga River, 

Ituribisci River, Bonasika, Great Falls of Demerara, Bartica, and 

Camacusa. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, south to the north 
bank of the Brazilian Amazon (Manaos), west through southern 
Venezuela to the eastern foot of the eastern Andes of Colombia 
("Bogota" collections). 2 

2: British Guiana (Demerara River, 1); Colombia ("Bogota," 1). 

Tanagra minuta mellea Bangs and Penard. 3 WESTERN WHITE- 
VENTED EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra olivacea mellea Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 87, 1918 Iquitos, Peru (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.). 

1 Although no mention is made of the white crissum, the other distinctive 
characters given in comparison to E. chlorotica clearly point to T. m. minuta. 

2 Several native "Bogota" skins agree in every respect with Guianan birds. 
They doubtless came from the eastern base of the east Colombian Andes, since 
another recognizable form occurs on the lower Cauca and along the Pacific coast. 
A single adult male from Manaos and another from the Caura Valley, Venezuela, 
are similar. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 5. Dutch Guiana: 
Paramaribo, 2. British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 1; Camacusa, 6. Venezuela: 
Nicare, Caura River, 1. Brazil: Manaos, 1. Colombia: "Bogota," 4. 

3 Tanagra minuta mellea Bangs and Penard: Exceedingly close to T. m. minuta, 
but upper parts of adult males with a more purplish, less greenish blue gloss, 
this being particularly noticeable on crown and hind neck. 

Rather an unsatisfactory race, which needs corroboration by more adequate 
material. An adult male from Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, and some from 
Teffe and Iquitos are indeed more purplish, but other Peruvian specimens hardly 
differ from the nominate race. In the absence of material from lower Amazonia, 
I am unable to say how far east the range of this form, if it can be maintained 
at all, should be extended. 

Material examined. Brazil: Teffe, Rio Solimoes, 2; Bom Lugar, Rip Purus, 
1; Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, 1. Peru: Iquitos, 5; Nauta, 1; Yurimaguas, 
1. Bolivia: Rio San Mateo, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 33 

Euphonia minuta (not of Cabanis) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1866, p. 179 Nauta and upper Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 
Xeberos, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 260 Nauta, upper Ucayali, and 
Xeberos; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 203, 1870 part, Engenho do Gama, 
Matto Grosso (spec, examined); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 442, 
1884 Peru (Nauta, Ucayali, Xeberos, Moyobamba); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 71, 1886 part, spec, n, o, Nauta and upper Ucayali, 
Peru; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 296, 1889 Tarapoto and Yurima- 
guas, Peru. 

Euphonia olivacea (not of Desmarest) Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 347, 
1907 part, Matto Grosso and Amazonia; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, 
p. 43, 1907 Teff6, Rio Solimoes, Brazil; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, 
p. 9, 1908 Bom Lugar, Rio Purus; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1015, 1912 part, Rio Purus, Engenho do Gama (Matto 
Grosso), Peru (Nauta, Ucayali, Xeberos, Moyobamba), and Bolivia 
(San Mateo); (?)Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 439, 1914 Provi- 
dencia (Para), Rio Tocantins (Baiao), Rio Tapaj6z (Boim, Pinhel), and 
(certe) Rio Purus (Bom Lugar). 

(l)Euphonia olivacea olivacea Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. 
Akad., Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 8, 87, 1912 Souza, Para. 

Tanagra minuta minuta Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 369, 
1930 Matto Grosso (Engenho do Gama). 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from the Maranon (Nauta, Iquitos) 
and the Rio Solimoes (Teffe*) through eastern Peru and western 
Brazil south to northern Bolivia (San Mateo) and western Matto 
Grosso (Engenho do Gama), and possibly along the south bank of 
the Amazon to the Para region. 

Tanagra minuta humilis (Cabanis). 1 NORTHERN WHITE- VENTED 
EUPHONIA. 

Phonasa humilis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 334, 1860 Costa Rica (descr. 

of young male; type in Berlin Museum). 
Acroleptes humilis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 89, 1861 Costa Rica (descr. 

of adult male; crit.). 
Euphonia humilis Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 

San Jos6, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 San 

Jos6; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 373, 1883 San Juan del 

Sur, Nicaragua. 

1 Tanagra minuta humilis (Cabanis) differs from the two southern races by 
larger size and, in the male sex, by much wider, deeper yellow frontal band. Crown 
and hind neck are as strongly purplish as in T. m. mellea, while the remainder 
of the upper parts shows a decided greenish blue gloss, more like T. m. minuta. 

A specimen said to be from "Sarayacu" is essentially like one from Gualea 
and others from Central America, and doubtless came from the western slope of 
the Andes, as is the case with many of Buckley's skins provided with the same 
locality. 

Nineteen specimens (none from Guatemala or Nicaragua) examined. 



34 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Euphonia minuta (not Euphona minuta Cabanis) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 
1860, p. 275 Coban, Guatemala; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
7, p. 332, 1861 Panama Railroad; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 186 Calovevora (Veraguas) and Bugaba (Chiriqui); Sclater, Ibis, 
1873, p. 373 Chontales, Nicaragua; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1879, p. 498 Remedies, Antioquia, Colombia; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 258, 1883 part, Guatemala (Coban), 
Nicaragua (Chontales), Costa Rica, and Panama (Chiriqui, Bugaba, 
Calovevora, Panama Railroad); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 71, 
1886 part, spec, m, p-w, Ecuador ("Sarayacu"), Colombia (Remedies), 
Panama (Bugaba, Chiriqui, Calovevora), Costa Rica, Nicaragua (Chon- 
tales), and Guatemala (Coban, Vera Paz); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 San Jose, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 14, p. 531, 1891 Costa Rica (crit.); idem, Auk, 9, p. 25, 
1892 San Jose, Costa Rica; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 14, 1899 Gualea, Ecuador. 

Euphonia minuta humilis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 23, 
1902 Guatemala to Panama; Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Boruca, 
Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 869, 1910 Costa Rica 
(San Jose, Pozo Azul de Pirrls, Escazu, Volcan de Irazu, Carrillo, San 
Miguel, San Sebastian, El Hogar, Boruca). 

Euphonia olivacea humilis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1016, 1912 Guatemala to Panama. 

Tanagra olivacea humilis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 590, 
1917 Colombia (Quibdo, Baudo, Juntas de Tamana, Noanama, Barba- 
coas, Puerto Valdivia); idem, I.e., 55, p. 652, 1926 Ecuador; Griscom, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 187, 1929 Cana, Darien; Austin, I.e., 
p. 391, 1929 Mountain Cow, British Honduras; Peters, I.e., 71, p. 340, 
1931 Almirante, Panama; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 369, 1932 Obaldia, 
Panama; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 373, 1932 Guatemala. 

Range. Guatemala (two records from Coban) ; British Honduras; 
Nicaragua (two records); Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Remedies 
and Puerto Valdivia, Antioquia; Pacific coast); and western 
Ecuador (Gualea). 

4: Costa Rica (San Jose, 2; Limon, 2). 

Tanagra godmani (Brewster). 1 GODMAN'S EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia godmani Brewster, Auk, 6, p. 90, 1889 Mazatlan, Sinaloa, and 
Alamos, Sonora, Mexico (type, from Mazatlan, in U. S. National Museum) ; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 24, 1902 western Mexico 
(monog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 366, 1905 Escuinapa 
and Mount Juan Lisiarraga, Sinaloa; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1016, 1912 (range); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(4), 16, p. 48, 1927 near Point Camaron, San Bias, Nayarit. 

1 Not having seen this species, I cannot say whether it is more nearly related 
to T. affinis or to T. minuta. The white under tail coverts would seem to place 
it in the neighborhood of the latter, while the slate gray crown and hind neck 
of the female suggest affinities to T. affinis. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 35 

Euphonia affinis (not Tanagra [Euphonia] affinis Lesson) Lawrence, Mem. 
Boston Soc. N. H., 2, p. 273, 1874 Mazatlan (Sinaloa) and Sierra Madre 
(Colima), Mexico; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 257, 1883 part, Mazatlan and Sierra Madre, Colima. 

Range. Western Mexico, in states of Sonora (Alamos), Sinaloa 
(Mazatlan, Plomosas, Escuinapa, Mount Juan Lisiarraga), Colima 
(Sierra Madre), and Nayarit (San Bias, Rosa Morada). 

Tanagra affinis Lesson. LESSON'S EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra [Euphonia] affinis Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 175, 1842 Realejo, 
Nicaragua (descr. of male; 1 location of type not stated, probably in the 
author's private collection). 2 

Euphonia affinis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 274, 1856 Mexico 
(Orizaba), Guatemala, and Nicaragua (Realejo) (monog.); idem, I.e., 
p. 303, 1856 Orizaba; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 16 Guatemala; 
idem, Ibis, 1860, p. 33 Duenas, Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 57, 1862 Orizaba; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, 
p. 98, 1868 San Juan, Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 9, p. 200, 1869 Merida, 
Yucatan; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 550, 1869 hot 
region of Vera Cruz, Mexico; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 San 
Jose, Costa Rica; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 18, 1876 
Tehuantepec and Barrio, Oaxaca; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 
25, p. 42, 1878 Guatemala; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 442 
Merida, Yucatan (habits); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 257, 1883 part, Mexico (excepting Mazatlan and Sierra 
Madre), British Honduras (Belize), Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Costa 
Rica; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 65, 1886 Mexico (Orizaba, 
Yucatan), British Honduras (Belize), Guatemala (Calderas, Duenas, 
Savanna Grande, Retalhuleu), and Costa Rica; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Liberia and Alajuela, Costa Rica; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 210 between Tunkas and 
Shkolak, Yucatan; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 631, 1896 
Altamira, Tamaulipas; Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 435 Miravalles, Costa 
Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 21, 1902 Mexico 
to Costa Rica (monog.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 142, 1906 
Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
p. 121, 1907 Gualan, Patulul, Mazatenango, and San Jose, Guatemala; 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 870, 1910 Costa Rica (Pigres, 
Miravalles, Bolson, Tenorio, Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, Bebedero); Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1015, 1912 southeastern 
Mexico to Costa Rica. 

Phonasca affinis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 332, 1860 San JosS, Costa 
Rica (crit.). 

1 The description makes no mention of the extensive white area on the inner 
webs of the lateral rectrices, but the passage, "capite dimidio parte, thorace, 
. . . aureis," seems to exclude T. luteicapilla. 

2 The type may yet exist in the Museum of the Medical School at Rochefort 
(France), where part of Lesson's collection was deposited. 



36 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tanagra affinis Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 486, 1927 
Presidio, Vera Cruz, Mexico; idem, I.e., 68, p. 403, 1928 Chivela and 
Tapanatepec, Oaxaca, Mexico; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, 
p. 373, 1932 Guatemala (Finca El Cipres, Hacienda California, Carolina, 
San Felipe); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 337, 1932 Can- 
tarranas, Honduras. 

Range. Southeastern Mexico (in states of Tamaulipas, Vera 
Cruz, Oaxaca, Tabasco, and Yucatan), British Honduras, Guate- 
mala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northwestern Pacific slope of 
Costa Rica. 1 

15: Mexico (Teapa, Tabasco, 1; Yucatan, 3); Guatemala (Gualan, 
Zacapa, 1; Patulul, Solola, 1; Mazatenango, 2; San Jose 1 , Esquintla, 
1); Nicaragua (Matagalpa, 1; San Geronimo, 1); Costa Rica (Las 
Canas, 3; San Jose", 1). 

*Tanagra luteicapilla (Cabanis). 2 YELLOW-CROWNED EUPHONIA. 

Phonasca luteicapilla Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 332, 1860 Costa Rica 
(descr. of adult male; type in Berlin Museum). 

Phonasca gracilis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 333, 1860 San Jose, Costa 
Rica (descr. of female and young male; type, No. 14743, in Berlin Museum 
examined). 3 

Euphonia gracilis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 359, 1862 Costa Rica; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 172 Costa Rica (young 
birds); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 San Jose, 
Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 San Jose, Costa 
Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 259, 1883 
part, descr. of female and San Jose, Costa Rica; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 69, 1886 part, spec, a, b, Costa Rica. 

1 Additional material examined. Mexico, Yucatan: Merida, 3; unspecified, 
1. Guatemala: Duenas, 3. Honduras: San Pedro, 2; Chamelicon, 2. Nicaragua: 
Managua, 1. Costa Rica: Bebedero, 3. 

2 T. luteicapilla (Cabanis) seems to be allied to T. chlorotica, but the inter- 
relations of the small, yellow-crowned euphonias offer a very complicated problem, 
which cannot be attacked without a monographic study of the whole group. 

3 Reexamination of the female type and a young male in the Berlin Museum, 
which formed the basis for the description of Phonasca gracilis Cabanis, shows 
conclusively that they pertain to T. luteicapilla. Both agree with Costa Rican 
specimens in dimensions and in proportion of bill, being much smaller than, and 
quite differently colored from, the species to which Cabanis's name had been 
misapplied. The female (wing, 54; tail, 31) is plain yellowish olive green above; 
the wings and tail feathers are dusky, margined with the color of the back; the 
under parts somewhat duller than wax yellow, washed with olivaceous on the 
sides and flanks. The specimen cannot be told from Field Museum No. 7143, female 
adult, Buenos Aires, Costa Rica, Mar. 12, 1892, Geo. K. Cherrie. The other 
example, No. 14742, is a young male in change of plumage. It still wears the 
female dress, but yellow feathers already appear on the forehead and in the anterior 
superciliary region, while a few scattered glossy black feathers may be noticed 
in front of the eye and on the throat; the under parts are somewhat brighter 
yellow. Its measurements are: wing, 54; tail, 30. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 37 

Euphonia luteicapilla Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 
Costa Rica (ex Cabanis); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 
Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 186 Boquete de 
Chitra (Veraguas), Bugaba (Chiriqui), and Paraiso Station, Panama 
(descr. of female); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 260, pi. 16, fig. 1 (male), 1883 Costa Rica (San Jose", Turrialba) and 
Panama (Volcan de Chiriqui, Bugaba, Boquete de Chitra, Cordillera del 
Chucu, Chepo, Paraiso Station); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 68, 
1886 Costa Rica (Turrialba) and Panama (Bugaba, Boquete de Chitra, 
Cordillera del Chucu, Paraiso Station, Chepo); Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Costa Rica (San Jos6, Las Trojas de 
Puntarenas, Pacaca, Monte Redondo de San Jos6); Cherrie, Auk, 9, 
p. 24, 1892 San Jose, Costa Rica (descr. of young male); idem, Anal. Inst. 
Fis.-Geog. y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 Lagarto, Boruca, 
TeYraba, and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 16, p. 488, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; Bangs, Auk, 18, 
p. 369, 1901 Divala and David, Chiriqui; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 20, 1902 Nicaragua to the Isthmus of Panama 
(monog.); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Boruca and Paso Real, Costa 
Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 869, 1910 Costa Rica (Pigres, 
Bonilla, Alajuela, San Jose, El General, Buenos Aires de Te>raba, Tenorio, 
Miravalles, Boruca, El Hogar, Peralta; habits); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 277, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1015, 1910 Costa Rica to Panama; 
Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 32, 1919 Pacora, Panama. 

Tanagra luteicapilla Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 462, 
1928 Almirante, Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 340, 
1931 Changuinola and Almirante, Panama; Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 84, p. 244, 1932 Eden, Nicaragua. 

Range. Eastern Nicaragua, all of Costa Rica, and Panama 
east to the Canal Zone. 1 

7: Costa Rica (Guayabo, 1; El Pozo de TeYraba, 2; TeYraba 
Valley, 2; Boruca, 1; Buenos Aires, 1). 

Tanagra chlorotica trinitatis (Strickland). 2 TRINIDAD 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia trinitatis Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1851, Part 2, p. 72, March, 
1851 Trinidad, Venezuela ("Cumana"), and "St. Thomas" (errore) 

1 Twenty-five additional specimens, including five from Boquete, Chiriqui, 
have been examined. 

2 Tanagra chlorotica trinitatis (Strickland), in the male sex, merely differs 
from the nominate race by having the yellow color extended over the occiput 
instead of restricted to the fore-crown; generally less purplish gloss on the upper 
parts; and the white at the base of the primaries and on the inner web of the 
lateral rectrices more extensive. The female does not seem to be distinguishable 
with certainty, unless the flanks be somewhat duller, less yellowish. 

T. trinitatis has always been treated as a distinct species, and the late Count 
Berlepsch even went so far as to separate a supposed race of T. chlorotica, occurring 
side by side with it in the Orinoco Valley. His principal arguments for the specific 



38 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(type, from Trinidad, in coll. of H. E. Strickland, now in University Mu- 
seum, Cambridge, Engl.; cf. Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 179, 1882) ; Sclater, 
I.e., p. 84 same localities; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 274, 1856 
Trinidad (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 57, 1862 Trinidad; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Caracas, Vene- 
zuela; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 498 Remedies, Antioquia, Colombia; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 66, 1886 Trinidad, Venezuela (Caracas), 
and Colombia ("Bogota," Remedios, Santa Marta); Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 4, p. 51, 1892 northeastern Venezuela; Chapman, I.e., 
6, p. 29, 1894 Trinidad (ex Leotaud); idem, I.e., 7, p. 322, 1895 Caura 
Valley, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San Antonio [Bermudez], 
Venezuela; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 141, 1898 Santa Marta, 
Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 170, 1900 Bonda, 
Colombia; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 17, 1902 Ciudad 
Bolivar, Altagracia, and Caicara, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 293, 1905 Bonda, Colombia (nest and eggs 
descr.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 13, 1906 Chaguaramas and Pointe 
Gourde, Trinidad; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 
1014, 1125, 1912 Trinidad, Venezuela (Puerto Cabello, Caracas, Maturin, 
"Cumana," Altagracia, Ciudad Bolivar, Maipures, Caicara), and Colombia 
(Santa Marta, Barranquilla, "Bogota," Antioquia). 

Euphonia (Tanagra) chlorotica (not of Linnaeus) Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 460, 
1831 Trinidad. 

Euphonia chlorotica Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 57, 1862 part, spec, c, 
Santa Marta; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 308, 1866 Trinidad; Berlepsch 

distinctness of these birds were the varying extent of white at the base of the 
remiges, the gloss of the upper parts, and the coloration of the under parts in 
the females, supposed to be uniform greenish yellow in chlorotica (and violaceicollis) , 
and grayish white in the middle in trinitatis. As we have already shown on another 
occasion (Nov. Zool., 30, p. 234, 1923), the last-named distinction does not exist, 
since adult females of chlorotica and violaceicollis have the median under parts 
just as extensively grayish white as trinitatis. The (more bluish or purplish) 
gloss of the dorsal surface in the male sex is subject to as much individual variation 
as in other euphonias, though it cannot be denied that birds from Trinidad and 
the Caribbean districts of Venezuela and Colombia are generally less purplish 
above than those from more southern localities. As to the extent of the white 
patch at the base of the remiges, I cannot see in this character a specific distinction, 
since certain individuals from Trinidad and Bermudez (trinitatis') have just as 
much white as others from Brazil (violaceicollis). Birds from the upper Orinoco 
("pileata") possibly have the white on the inner webs of the lateral rectrices 
and the yellow cap slightly more restricted than a series from Trinidad, but as 
Count Berlepsch himself mentions intermediates, this variation seems to suggest 
intergradation to chlorotica rather than specific difference. While I have yet to 
see plain yellow-bellied "females" from the range of trinitatis as outlined above, 
such a stage believed to represent "the Juvenal dress" is described by Todd 
and Carriker as occurring in the Santa Marta region, which is solely inhabited 
by trinitatis. Cherrie's remarks (Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 169, 1916) 
on the female plumages of trinitatis in the Orinoco Valley are also somewhat 
significant, and may account for Berlepsch's conception of the characters of his 
"pileata" in the female sex. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Chaguaramas, 2; Pointe Gourde, 
1; Aripo, 4; Carenage, 6; Santa Cruz, 1; unspecified, 1. Venezuela: Maturin, 1; 
Bermudez (Santa Ana, San Antonio, etc.), 10; Ciudad Bolivar, Rio Orinoco, 5; 
Quiribana de Caicara and Caicara, Rio Orinoco, 4. Colombia: Aracataca, Santa 
Marta, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 39 

and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 17, 1902 Caicara, Quiribana de Caicara, 
Maipures, and Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 1, p. 102, 1909 Rio Guarapiche, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela. 

Tanagra chlorotica Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 169, 1916 
Orinoco River, Venezuela (ex Berlepsch and Hartert). 

Tanagra trinitaiis Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 210, 1913 
Cariaquito, Paria peninsula, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 169, 1916 Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco, and Caura, Venezuela 
(nest and eggs descr.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, 
p. 498, 1922 Fundacion, Bonda, Onaca, Santa Marta, Mamatoco, 
Tierra Nueva, and Fonseca, Colombia (habits); Darlington, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 71, p. 418, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Euphonia aurea pileata Berlepsch, 1 Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
pp. 1014, 1124, 1912 Quiribana de Caicara, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela 
(type in Berlepsch Collection, now in Frankfort Museum). 

Tanagra aurea cynophora Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 31, p. 126, 
1918 new name for Euphonia aurea pileata Berlepsch, preoccupied. 

Tanagra aurea pileata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 588, 1917 
Buena Vista, above Villavicencio, eastern base of eastern Andes, Colombia. 

Range. Island of Trinidad; northern Venezuela south to the 
Orinoco basin, west to the eastern base of the eastern Andes of 
Colombia (Buena Vista, above Villavicencio); northern Colombia 
(Santa Marta region and lower Magdalena Valley). 

7: Venezuela (Caracas, 3; Maracay, Aragua, 1; Encontrados, 
Zulia, 1); Colombia (Fundacion, Santa Marta, 1; Puerto Zapote, 
Bolivar, 1). 

*Tanagra chlorotica chlorotica Linnaeus. PURPLE-THROATED 
EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra chlorotica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 317, 1766 based 
on "Le Tangara noir et jaune de Cayenne" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 34, pi. 2, 
fig. 3; Cayenne (type in Reaumur Collection). 

Tanagra elegans P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 160, 1776 based on 
"Tangara, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 114, fig. 1 (male adult). 

Euphonia chlorotica Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 84 Cayenne and 
Demerara; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 273, 1856 Cayenne 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 57, 1862 part, spec, b, f, 
Cayenne; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 64, 1886 part, subsp. 
typica, Cayenne and Demerara; Chapman and Riker, Auk, 7, p. 267, 
1890 Santarem, Brazil (crit.); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 113, 1908 
Cayenne; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 418, 1910 Surinam. 

Euphone chlorotica Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 194, 1856 part, 
Para, Guyana, and "Columbien" (errore). 

Euphonia chlorotica chlorotica Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 6, 1907 Itaituba, 
Rio Tapajoz; idem, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, 

1 Not Tanagra pileata Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 45, 1783. 



40 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

No. 2, p. 125, 1912 Cachoeira, Marajo; idem, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 234, 

1923 Cayenne and Brazil (Marajo; Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz). 
Euphonia aurea Richmond, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 345, 1905 based on 

"Parus aureus" Vroeg, Cat. Rais. Coll. Ois., p. 18, 1764; Surinam (cf. 

Stone, Auk, 29, pp. 207-208, 1912). 
Euphonia aurea Ihering, Cat. Faun., Braz., 1, p. 346, 1907 part, Para; 

Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1013, 1124, 1912 

Cayenne, Surinam, British Guiana (Demerara), and northern Brazil 

(Para, "Teffe, Rio Negro" 1 ); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 438, 

1914 Rio Guama (Itaguao), Rio Iriri (Santa Julia), Rio Tapajoz (Pinhel), 

Marajo, and Monte Alegre, Brazil. 
Euphonia minuta (not of Cabanis) Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 

Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 100, 1910 Miritiba, Maranhao (spec, examined). 
Euphonia aurea violaceicollis (not Acroleptes violaceicollis Cabanis) Reiser, 

Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 186, 1925 part, 

Miritiba, Maranhao. 
Tanagra chlorotica violaceicollis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 

12, p. 278, 1929 part, Maranhao (Tury-assu, Mangunca Island, and 

Codo, Cocos). 
Tanagra chlorotica Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 496, 1921 Supinaam 

River and Demerara. 
Tanagra chlorotica chlorotica Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 367, 

1930 Tapirapoan and Juruena, northern Matto Grosso. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and northern Brazil, 
east to Maranhao, south to northern Matto Grosso (Tapirapoan; 
Juruena River). 2 

4: Brazil, Maranhao (Tury-assu, 2; Mangunca Island, 1; Codo, 
Cocos, 1). 

*Tanagra chlorotica serrirostris (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 3 
GREATER PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA. 

1 1 do not find any record in literature from either of these localities. 

2 In birds from French Guiana (topotypical) the wing ranges from 51 to 55, 
the tail from 31 to 34 mm. Specimens from northern Brazil are slightly more 
violaceous on the crown and hind neck, and sometimes attain larger measure- 
ments (wings of males, 53-56, one from Maranhao even 57). They thus verge 
to the southern form, but as a whole seem better referred to chlorotica. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 8. Brazil: Cacho- 
eira, Marajo, 1 (wing, 56); Monte Alegre, 1 (wing, 51); Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz, 
1 (wing, 55); Miritiba, Maranhao, 2; Boa Vista, Maranhao, 1; Juruena, Matto 
Grosso, 1 (wing, 54 Y-i). 

3 Tanagra chlorotica serrirostris (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) : Similar to T. c. 
chlorotica, but somewhat larger; adult males with forehead and under parts rather 
paler yellow and generally with more purplish head and throat; female distin- 
guishable only by larger size. 

On once more comparing good series from Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina I 
find it impossible to maintain the distinctness of serrirostris and violaceicollis. It 
is admitted that males from western Argentina show more variation in the inten- 
sity of the yellow on the under parts than those from Brazil, but in agreement with 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 41 

Euphonia serrirostris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 30, 1837 Guarayos, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (type in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 398, 1930); d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 267, 
pi. 21, fig. 2 (female), 1839 Pacu, on the Rio Grande, Santa Cruz de 
la Sierra, Bolivia; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 90 Guarayos, Bolivia 
(ex d'Orbigny); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 273, 1856 part, 
Guarayos, Bolivia; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, 
p. 243 Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 621 Sapucay, 
Paraguay; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1014, 
1124, 1912 Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina. 

Euphone serrirostris Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 202, 1870 Rio de Janeiro 
(Sapitiba, Registo do Sai, Rio de Janeiro), Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Rio 
Parana), and Goyaz (Goyaz City). 

Euphone chlorotica (not Tanagra chlorotica Linnaeus) Liechtenstein, Verz. 
Doubl. Berlin Mus., p. 29, 1823 Brazil; Sundevall, Vetensk. Akad. 
Handl. for 1833, p. 310, pi. 10, figs. 2 (young male), 3 (adult male), 1834 
Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 194, 1856 part, Pernam- 
buco and Bahia. 

Euphonia chlorotica Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 57, 1862 part, spec, 
a, d, e, Bolivia and Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 598 Bolivia (Guarayos; Tilotilo, Yungas); White, I.e., 1882, 
p. 596 Concepcion, Misiones, and Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 64, 1886 part, subsp. violaceicollis, 
Brazil (Pernambuco), Argentina (Catamarca), and Bolivia (Tilotilo); 

Dabbene I cannot satisfactorily separate birds from Tucuman, Salta, and eastern 
Bolivia on one side and a series from Misiones on the other. The latter are, be- 
sides, quite identical with typical violaceicollis, of eastern Brazil. The applicability 
of the name serrirostris to the present form is perhaps open to doubt. Since 
writing about the original examples in the Paris Museum (Nov. Zool., 30, p. 232, 
1923), when I noticed certain discrepancies between the description of the adult 
male and the young male in the French National Collection, I had the opportunity 
of examining in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, Mass., a 
specimen from Guarayos secured by d'Orbigny. This bird corresponds in every 
detail to the characters of the "adult male" given by Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
and undoubtedly must be the actual type. While resembling adult males from 
Buenavista, Santa Cruz, in dimensions, color of the yellow frontal patch and under 
parts, and extent of white on the inner web of the lateral rectrices, it differs markedly 
by having all parts that are purplish or steel-blue in the normal plumage (viz., 
hind crown, sides of head, throat, back, and upper tail coverts), dull olive with a 
brassy sheen, and the flight feathers dull brownish (instead of deep black) with 
olive greenish instead of steel blue margins. The rump and tail coverts are much 
brighter, more yellowish olive than the back. The brassy gloss on the dorsal feath- 
ers reminds one of T. chrysopasta, but is, of course, much less brilliant. I can 
hardly believe that another species of euphonia exists in Bolivia, which never 
becomes black (the bird has all the appearance of being fully adult), and am 
inclined to regard the type as an individual in "retarded" plumage of the ordinary 
purple-headed species. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Boca da Ipueirp, Rio Grande, Bahia, 5; 
Bahia, 12; Santa Rita, Rio Preto, Bahia, 1; Parnagua, Piauhy, 1; Lagoa Missao, 
Piauhy, 1; Goyaz, 5; Sapitiba, Rio de Janeiro, 1; Rio Parana, Sao Paulo, 1; Ypan- 
ema, Sao Paulo, 1; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 6. Paraguay: Villa Rica, 1; Cam- 
byreta, 1. Argentina: Concepcion, Misiones, 1; Santa Ana, Misiones, 1; Ocampo, 
Chaco, 2; La Rioja, 2; Tucuman, 3; Metan, Salta, 2. Bolivia: Guarayos, 3; Santa 
Cruz, 1; unspecified, 3. 



42 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 37, 1888 Conception and Catamarca, 
Argentina; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 124 Puerto Vermejo, Chaco; Boucard 
and Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 Porto Real, Rio; 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 5, 1897 Aguairenda, 
Bolivian Chaco; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 144, 1899 Piracicaba, 
Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo, Rio; Kerr, Ibis, 1901, 
p. 223 Paraguayan Chaco; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, 
p. 175, 1902 Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 257, 1904 
Salta, Rio Vermejo; Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 41, 1905 
Tucuman; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 92 Curuzu Chica, Paraguay. 

Acroleptes violaceicollis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 409, 1865 Brazil (descr. 
of male; type in Berlin Museum); idem, I.e., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, 
Rio de Janeiro. 

Euphona (Acroleptes) violaceicollis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 195, 1878 
Sierra de Cordoba (crit.). 

Euphonia chlorotica serrirostris Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 6, 1887 
Lambar6, Paraguay (crit.); Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 3, p. 3, 
1904 Alto Parana, Paraguay (nesting habits); Hartert and Venturi, 
Nov. Zool., 16, p. 170, 1909 Tucuman and Salta; Hellmayr, I.e., 30, 
p. 232, 1923 Guarayos (crit., note on types). 

Euphonia chlorotica violaceicollis Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 350, 
1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 85, 1910 Bahia (Boca da Ipueiro and Santa 
Rita, Rio Grande) and Piauhy (Parnagua and Lagda Missao); Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. 26, 1908 Goyaz, Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 41, 1926 Ceara. 

Euphonia violaceicollis Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 4, 
1900 Carandasinho, Matto Grosso; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 621 Sapucay, 
Paraguay. 

Euphonia aurea serrirostris Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 346, 1907 
Avanhandava, Sao Paulo; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, 
p. 373, 1910 (range in Argentina); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 
Paraguay (Alto Parana, Asuncion); idem, El Hornero, 1, p. 285, 1919 
Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay (nest descr.); M6negaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 
11, p. 7, 1919 Villa Lutetia, near San Ignacio, Misiones. 

Euphonia chlorotica subsp. Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 170, 1909 
San Vicente, Chaco. 

Euphonia aurea violaceicollis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
Berlin, pp. 1014, 1124, 1912 Brazil (Goyaz and Bahia to Sao Paulo 1 ); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 23, p. 350, 1912 Villa Rica, 
Paraguay; Menegaux, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 9, p. 87, 1917 Pocone, Matto 
Grosso; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 233, 1923 Brazil (crit.); Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 186, 1925 part, 
Bahia and Piauhy. 

Tanagra chlorotica serrirostris Smyth and Serie, El Hornero, 3, p. 52, 1923 
Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja. 

1 Berlepsch also cites "Rio Purus," whence I cannot find any published record. 
The localities "Rio Jurua" and "Rio Madeira" belong to T. x. xanthogaster. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 43 

Tanagra chlorotica violaceicollis Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 391, 
1926 Las Palmas, Chaco; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 278, 1929 part, Piauhy (Ibiapaba, Parnagua, Lagoa Missao) 
and Ceara (Varzea Formosa; Jua, near Iguatu; Serra de Baturite 1 ) (crit.); 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 368, 1930 Paraguay (Trini- 
dad) and Matto Grosso (Descalvados, Agua Blanca de Corumba); Laub- 
mann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 266, 1930 
Argentina (Lapango, Terr. Formosa) and Bolivia (Villa Montes, Tarija). 

Range. The greater part of eastern Brazil, from Piauhy and 
Ceara south to Sao Paulo, west to Matto Grosso; Paraguay; northern 
Argentina south to Entre Rios, Santa Fe", Cordoba, and La Rioja; 
eastern Bolivia. 

34: Brazil (Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 2; Varzea Formosa, Ceara, 1; 
Jua, near Iguatu, Ceara, 1; Serra de Baturite", Ceara, 2; Rio do 
Peixe, Queimadas, Bahia, 1; Rio das Velhas, near Lagoa Santa, 
Minas Geraes, 3 ; Bauru, Sao Paulo, 1 ; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 4) ; 
Argentina (Caraguatay, Misiones, 1; Rio Iguassu, Misiones, 7; Los 
Vasquez, Tucuman, 1; Conception, Tucuman, 6); Bolivia (Buena- 
vista, 3; Santa Cruz, 1). 

"Tanagra chlorotica taczanowskii (Sclater). 1 TACZANOWSKI'S 
EUPHONIA. 

[Euphonia chlorotica] subsp. taczanowskii Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 

p. 65, 1886 Callacate, Peru (type in British Museum). 
Acroleptes serrirostris (not Euphonia serrirostris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 409, 1865 Peru (crit.). 
Euphonia serrirostris Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 194 

Callacate, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 440, 1884 Guajango (Maranon) 

and Callacate, Peru. 
Euphonia chlorotica serrirostris Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1896, p. 339 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru. 
Euphonia minuta (not of Cabanis) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1879, p. 226 Tambillo, Peru. 
Euphonia chlorotica (not Tanagra chlorotica Linnaeus) Berlepsch, Journ. 

Orn., 37, p. 295, 1889 Tarapoto, lower Huallaga, Peru (crit.). 

1 Tanagra chlorotica taczanowskii (Sclater) : Differs in the male sex from the 
other races by more purplish upper parts, the rump and tail coverts being but 
slightly more bluish than the back, and by decidedly paler yellow forehead and 
under parts; female not distinguishable. Wing (males), 57-59; tail, 34-36. 

While two males from Callacate, like ours from Moyobamba, are distinctly 
paler yellow on forehead and under parts than even the pale-bellied examples from 
Argentina, one from Tarapoto, lower Huallaga, can be matched by numerous 
individuals from various parts of Brazil. The purplish color of the dorsal surface, 
which involves even the rump and tail coverts, serves, however, to separate the 
Peruvian males from the allied races. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Callacate, 3; Tarapoto, 1; Juanfue, 
upper Huallaga, 1. 



44 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Euphonia taczanowskii Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 

1014, 1125, 1912 Peru (Callacate, Tambillo, Guajango, Tarapoto, La 

Merced) (crit.). 
Tanagra taczanowskii Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 Perico and 

Bellavista, Rio Maranon, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of northern Peru, from the upper Maranon 
south to Junin (Chanchamayo Valley). 

3: Peru (Moyobamba, 2; Chanchamayo, 1). 

Tanagra concinna finschi (Sclater and Salvin). 1 FINSCH'S 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia finschi Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 19 
Demerara, British Guiana (descr. of male; type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now 
in British Museum); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 70, pi. 8, fig. 1, 
1886 Demerara; Penard and Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 419, 1910 
Surinam; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1015, 1912 
British Guiana and northern Brazil (Rio Branco). 

Tanagra finschi Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 86, 1918 
vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 495, 
1921 Takutu Mountains and Rupununi River; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 63, p. 127, 1931 Arabupu, Roraima. 

Euphonia concinna (not of Sclater) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 203, 1870 
Forte do Rio Branco, Brazil (spec, in Vienna Museum examined) ; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 69, 1886 part, spec, n, Cayenne; Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 347, 1907 part, Rio Branco. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and the adjoining 
parts of Venezuela (Roraima) and Brazil (upper Rio Branco). 

4: Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 1); Brazil (Serra da Lua, near 
Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 3). 

*Tanagra concinna concinna (Sclater). YELLOW-FRONTED 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia concinna Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, "1854," p. 98, pi. 65, 
fig. 2 (=male), pub. April, 1855 Nova Grenada = "Bogota" (type in coll. 
of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, I.e., 23, p. 159, 1855 
"Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 275, 1856 "Bogota" (monog.); idem, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 57, 1862 "Bogota"; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 

1 Tanagra concinna finschi (Sclater and Salvin) : Closely similar to T. c. con- 
cinna, but adult male with frontal cap slightly more extended and deeper in tone, 
cadmium yellow to deep chrome instead of lemon chrome; upper parts more pur- 
plish; lower parts much darker, abdomen and under tail coverts mars yellow; female 
with hind crown and nape less grayish; cheeks and auriculars olivaceous instead 
of grayish; forehead and under parts generally somewhat duller yellow. Under 
tail coverts decidedly longer. 

Specimens from the Rio Branco agree with others from Guiana. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: "Cayenne," 2.- British 
Guiana: Quonga, 1; unspecified, 2. Brazil: Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco, 5. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 45 

p. 69, pi. 7 (male, female), 1886 part, spec, a-m, "Bogota"; Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 347, 1907 part, Colombia ("Bogota"); Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1015, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota"). 
Tanagra concinna Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 589, 1917 near 
Honda, Magdalena Valley, Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Colombia (near Honda, Mag- 
dalena Valley; common in native "Bogota" collections). 1 
2: Colombia ("Bogota," 2). 

Tanagra concinna saturata (Cabanis). 2 ORANGE-CROWNED 
EUPHONIA. 

Phonasca saturata Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 336, 1860 "New Granada" 
(type, collected by J. Warscewicz, in Berlin Museum). 

Acroleptes saturatus Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 407, 1865 Babahoyo, Ecua- 
dor (crit.). 

Euphonia saturata Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 744 
Tumbez, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 443, 1884 Tumbez; Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 288 Surupata, Ecuador; 
idem, I.e., 1885, p. 76 Yaguachi, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 70, pi. 8, fig. 2 (=male), 1886 Ecuador (Balzar) and Peru (Tum- 
bez); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Ecuador; Salvadori 
and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 14, 1899 Vinces and 
Balzar, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 459 "Archidona," Ecuador, 
errore (spec, examined); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
pp. 1015, 1126, 1912 western Colombia (Jime'nez Cauca), Ecuador 
(Balzar, Yaguachi, Surupata, Guayaquil), and Peru (Tumbez) (crit.); 
Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 83, 1922 road to 
Nanegal, Ecuador. 

Euphonia xanthogastra(t) (not Euphone xanlhogaster Sundevall) Sclater, Proc. 
Zopl. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 275, 1860 Babahoyo, Ecuador. 

Tanagra saturata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 590, 1917 
Caldas and Cali, Colombia (crit.); idem, I.e., 55, p. 651, 1926 Ecuador 
(Esmeraldas, Manavi, Chongoncito, Santa Rosa, Rio Pindo, Cebollal, 

1 Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 22. 

2 Tanagra concinna saturata (Cabanis) : Nearest to, and agreeing with, T. c. 
finschi in intense coloration of crown and under parts, but yellow cap extended 
over the whole pileum; female similar on the upper parts to T. c. finschi, but sides 
of head not quite so olivaceous (though not so conspicuously grayish as in T. c. 
concinna), and under surface markedly duller yellowish. Under tail coverts as 
long as in T. c, finschi. 

The presence of a small white spot on the inner web of the outermost rectrix 
is a purely individual character. I find it in three (out of twelve) Ecuadorian and 
in one (out of five) Colombian examples. It also occurs occasionally in "Bogota" 
skins of T. c. concinna, but I have never noticed it in the allied T. c. finschi. Two 
males collected by Goodfellow at "Archidona" do not differ in the least from west- 
ern specimens. The labeling is probably erroneous, the occurrence of the species 
on the eastern slope of the Andes in Ecuador being open to serious doubt. 

Material examined. Colombia: Jime'nez (alt. 1,600 ft.), 1; Cauca, 1; Cali, 1; 
Caldas, 2. Ecuador: Vinces, 12; Balzar, 8; unspecified, 4; "Archidona," 2. 
Peru: Tumbez, 2. 



46 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pullango) and Peru (Milagros); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
(2), 4, p. 235, 1932 La Palma, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Colombia (Jime'nez; Caldas; 
Cali, Rio Cauca), western Ecuador, and extreme northwestern Peru 
(Tumbez; Milagros). 

*Tanagra melanura (Sclater). 1 BLACK-TAILED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia melanura Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 86 "Barra do Rio Negro" 
[ = Manaos], Brazil (type in coll. of Sclater, now in British Museum, exam- 
ined); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 159, 1855 "Bogota," Colom- 
bia; idem, I.e., 24, p. 278, 1856 Barra do Rio Negro and "Bogota" 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 59, 1862 same localities; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 179 upper and lower 
Ucayali, Peru (crit.); idem, I.e., 1867, p. 977 Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1873, p. 260 Ucayali and Pebas, Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 
447, 1884 Peru (Iquitos, Ucayali, Pebas); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 78, pi. 9, 1886 part, spec, a-i, k, 1, Brazil (Barra do Rio Negro), 
Peru (Iquitos, Pebas, Sarayacu), and Colombia ("Bogota"); 2 Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 37, p. 296, 1889 Sarayacu (Ucayali) and Tarapoto (Hua- 
llaga), Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, 
p. 15, 1899 Rio Zamora, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
9, p. 18, 1902 Maipures, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 348, 1907 (range); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 347, 1907 
Borba, Rio Madeira; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 9, 1908 Monte 
Verde, Rio Purus; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 272, 1910 Borba; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1020, 1912 (range); 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 440, 1914 Monte Verde, Rio Purus. 

Tanagra melanura Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 171, 1916 
Maipures, Rio Orinoco; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 591, 
1917 Florencia, Caqueta, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 652, 1926 Napo 
and Zamora, Ecuador. 

1 Tanagra melanura (Sclater) is very nearly related to T. laniirostris, but dif- 
fers by its entirely black tail, lighter (less orange) yellow color of the under parts 
and of the slightly more restricted frontal cap, and the presence of a well-developed 
black margin to the gonydeal angle in the male sex. The female is only distin- 
guishable by its duskier lateral rectrices without trace of a pale inner margin. 

The supposed divergency in the shape of the tail (even in melanura, emarginate 
in laniirostris) does not seem to exist. Considering the similarity of the females, 
and the intermediate characters of T. I. zopholega, I can hardly believe that this 
bird is more than subspecifically distinct, but unless the black-tailed Borba male 
(with deep yellow crown and under parts) be an individual mutant of laniirostris, 
the ranges of the two "species" would seem to overlap on the Rio Madeira. 

The type differs from all other specimens examined by slightly smaller size, 
markedly shorter bill, and lesser extent of the yellow cap; but as birds from 
"Bogota" and Maipures and others from Peru are identical among themselves, 
this can hardly be more than an individual variation. The locality "Barra do Rio 
Negro" is perhaps a little doubtful. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 8. Ecuador: Rio Zam- 
ora, 1. Peru: Iquitos, 7; Pebas, 4; Ucayali, 2. Venezuela: Maipures, Rio Orinoco, 
2. Brazil: Borba, Rio Madeira, 2. 

2 Spec, j, Maranura, Peru, pertains to T. I. zopholega, the female from Demer- 
ara (spec, m) to some other species, probably T. v. violacea. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 47 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from the eastern base of the eastern 
Andes of Colombia (Florencia, Caqueta) and the upper stretches of 
the Orinoco (Maipures) south through eastern Ecuador to north- 
eastern Peru (Pebas; Iquitos; Tarapoto and Moyobamba, Huallaga 
River; Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali), and east to western Brazil (Monte 
Verde, Rio Purus; Borba, Rio Madeira). 1 

8: Colombia ("Bogota," 1); Peru (Moyobamba, 7). 

*Tanagra laniirostris laniirostris (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 
SHRIKE-BILLED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia laniirostris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 30, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia (descr. of male and female; 
types in Paris Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame>. Me>id., Ois., 
p. 266, pi. 22, fig. 1 (=male), 1839 Yungas, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 
Yuracares, and Guarayos, Bolivia; Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, 
p. 136, 1851 Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 
86 part, Bolivia (d'Orbigny's localities); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 277, 1856 Bolivia (monog.); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 598 
Bolivia (d'Orbigny's localities); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 262, 1883 part, Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 76, 1886 part, Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 81, 
1889 Falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia (crit.); idem, I.e., 3, p. 351, 1891 
Abrilongo and Chapada, Matto Grosso (crit.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 348, 1907 part, Bolivia and Matto Grosso; Hellmayr, Nov. 
Zool., 14, p. 347, 1907 Humayta, Rio Madeira; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1019, 1912 Bolivia (Yuracares, Guarayos, 
Santa Cruz, Omeja, Songo, Suapi, Espirito Santo) and Brazil (Calama, 
Humayta, Villa Maria, Sao Vicente, Villa Bella de Matto Grosso) ; Sneth- 
lage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 440, 1914 (range). 

Euphoria laniirostris Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 204, 1870 Villa Maria, Villa 
Bella de Matto Grosso, and Sao Vicente, Matto Grosso (spec, examined). 

Euphonia laniirostris laniirostris Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 272, 1910 
Calama, Jamarysinho, and Maroins (Rio Machados), Rio Madeira 
(crit.); idem, I.e., 30, p. 230, 1923 Yuracares and Guarayos (note 
on types). 

Tangara laniirostris laniirostris Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 
369, 1930 Tapirapoan, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Eastern Bolivia and the adjacent parts of western Brazil 
in Matto Grosso, north to the upper Rio Madeira and its tributaries 
(Humayta; Calama; Jamarysinho; Maroins, Rio Machados). 2 

1 Messrs. Penard (Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 426, 1910) are certainly mistaken in 
including this species in the fauna of Dutch Guiana, and Beebe's record (Zoologica, 
N.Y., 1, p. 102, 1909) from Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, based on a mangled female 
example, cannot be accepted either. 

2 Specimens from Matto Grosso agree well with those from Bolivia. There is 
generally a suggestion of a blackish border to the gonydeal angle, though this 
marking is never so "solid" as in melanura. Only the outermost rectrix shows an 



48 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

4: Bolivia (Buenavista, Santa Cruz, 1); Brazil (Chapada, Matto 
Grosso, 3). 

Tanagra laniirostris zopholega Oberholser. 1 PERUVIAN SHRIKE- 
BILLED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia laniirostris peruviana (not Tanagra peruviana Desmarest, 1806) 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 77, 1906 La Merced, Dept. 
Junin, and Santa Ana, Urubamba, Peru (type, from La Merced, in Bran- 
icki Collection, now in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, 
Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 181, 1927); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1020, 1912 Peru (La Merced, Santa Ana). 

Tanagra laniirostris zopholega Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 31, p. 126, 
1918 new name for Euphonia laniirostris peruviana Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, preoccupied. 

Euphonia laniirostris (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 76, 1886 part, spec, h', Maranura, Peru; Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 339 La Merced, Chan- 
chamayo, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of central-eastern Peru, in depts. of Junin 
(La Merced, Chanchamayo) and Cuzco (Maranura and Santa Ana, 
Urubamba). 

Tanagra laniirostris hypoxantha (Berlepsch and Taczanowski). 2 
PALE-BELLIED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia hypoxantha (Stolzmann MS.) Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 544 Chimbo, Ecuador (type in Warsaw Mu- 

extensive white patch on the inner web, but one male from Villa Bella de Matto 
Grosso and the type from Yuracares have a smaller white spot also on the penul- 
timate tail feather. It is somewhat significant that the white tail spot is smallest 
in a bird from Humayta, left bank of the Rio Madeira, in a region that adjoins the 
distributional area of T. melanura. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Yuracares, 1; Guarayos, 2; Omeja, 1; 
Espiritu Santo, 1. Brazil, Matto Grosso: Sao Vicente, 1; Villa Maria, 1; Villa 
Bella, 1; Rio Madeira, Humayta, 1; Calama, 4; Maroins, Rio Machados, 2. 

1 Tanagra laniirostris zopholega Oberholser: Very similar to T. I. laniirostris, 
but with slightly longer wings and markedly larger bill; yellow frontal cap of males 
less extended posteriorly (not more, as stated by the describers) and together with 
the under parts somewhat paler (more like melanura) ; black gonydeal margin more 
pronounced. Wing (males), 66-68; tail, 38-40; bill, 10-11. 

The white spot on the inner web of the outermost rectrix has about the same 
extent as in laniirostris, while the penultimate tail feather is black, at best with a 
faint suggestion of a small whitish dot. Excepting the tail markings, this form 
betrays an undeniable tendency in the direction of T. melanura, and casts serious 
doubts on the specific distinctness of the Black-tailed Euphonia. 

Material examined. Peru: La Merced, Chanchamayo, 2; Santa Ana, 
Urubamba, 3. 

2 Tanagra laniiroslris hypoxantha (Berlepsch and Taczanowski) : Similar to T. I. 
crassirostris, but adult male with yellow cap extended to the nape; upper parts 
much more violaceous; yellow of crown and under parts decidedly paler; female 
not distinguishable with certainty. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Chimbo, 5; Rio Peripa, 1; Punta Santa Ana, 3. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 49 

seum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 
6, p. 181, 1927); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 445, 1884 Peru (Lechu- 
gal, Paucal); idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 77 
Yaguachi, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 77, 1886 
Ecuador (Chimbo, Babahoyo, Santa Rita) and Peru; Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 5, p. 481, 1898 Chimbo; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 15, 1899 Rio Peripa, Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1019, 1912 (range). 

Euphonia crassirosiris (not of Sclater, 1857) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
28, p. 275, 1860 Babahoyo, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 
58, 1862 part, spec, e, Babahoyo; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1877, p. 277 Lechugal, Tumbez, Peru; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 28, 1902 part, western Ecuador and Peru. 

Tanagra hypoxantha Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 652, 1926 
Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Chone, Chongocito, Rio de Oro, Bucay, Rio 
Jubones, Santa Rosa, Portovelo, Punta Santa Ana, Casanga, Rio Pindo, 
Salvias, Lunama, Guainche, Las Pinas, Cebollal, Alamor) and Peru 
(Paletillas, Palambla). 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador and northwestern 
Peru, south to Paucal. 

Tanagra laniirostris crassirostris (Sclater). THICK-BILLED 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia crassirostris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," p. 277, 
pub. Jan., 1857 "New Grenada, Bogota" (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum); 1 idem, I.e., 25, p. 19, 1857 "Bogota"; idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 58, 1862 part, spec, a-d, "Bogota" and Cara- 
cas, Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 349 
Panama Railroad; Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 138 Davfd, Panama; idem, 
I.e., 1870, p. 186 Veraguas (Chitra, Boquete de Chitra, Calovevora); 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 324 Cucuta Valley and Bucaramanga, Colombia; 
Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 54 Cartago, Costa Rica; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 289, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia 
(crit.); idem, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 "Bogota"; Robinson, 
Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 161, 1895 Magdalena River, Colombia; 
Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumanacoa, San Antonio, and Caripe", 
Monagas, northeastern Venezuela; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, 
pp. 141, 179, 1898 Santa Marta and Palomina, Colombia; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 170, 1900 Bonda, Onaca, Minca, and Caca- 
gualito, Colombia (crit.); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 28, 1900 
Loma del Leon, Panama; idem, Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divala, Chiriquf; 
idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 64, 1902 Boquete, Chiriquf; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 28, 1902 part, Costa 
Rica to Colombia and Venezuela (monog.); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 308, 
1907 [Boruca], Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 867, 

1 In the Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 77, a specimen from Santa Marta is 
erroneously listed as type. 



50 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1910 Costa Rica (Coralfllo and Boruca); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1019, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota," Bucaramanga). 

Phonasca brachyptera Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 410, 1865 "Caracas (Porto 
Cabello)" (descr. of young male and female; types in Berlin Museum). 

Euphonia laniirostris (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, Contrib. 
Orn., 1851, p. 86 part, Chiriqui; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1879, p. 199 
Atanquez, Colombia (crit.); idem, Ibis, 1880, p. 119 Santa Marta, 
Minca, and Atanquez, Colombia; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 262, 1883 part, Costa Rica (Angostura), Panama, 
and Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 76, 1886 part, 
spec, a-g', Costa Rica (Angostura), Veraguas (Santa Fe, Calovevora, 
Chitra, Cordillera de Tole), Chiriqui, Panama (railroad line, Paraiso 
Station), Colombia (Minca, Santa Marta, Atanquez, "Bogota"), and 
Venezuela (San Esteban, Caracas). 

Euphonia hirundinacea (not of Bonaparte) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
22, p. 98, 1854 part, Chiriqui and Nova Grenada; Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 298, 1861 Panama Railroad. 

Euphonia crassirostris(l) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 175, 
1865 David, Chiriqui (crit.). 

Euphonia sp.(?) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 138 Cordillera de 
Tole, Veraguas. 

Euphonia crassirostris brachyptera Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1019, 1128, 1912 Costa Rica to Colombia and 
Venezuela (crit.). 

Euphonia violacea (not Fringilla violacea Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 627 San Esteban, Venezuela. 

Euphonia laniirostris crassirostris Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, 
A, Heft 5, p. 164, 1912 San Esteban, Venezuela. 

Tanagra crassirostris crassirostris Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 
591, 1917 Colombia (Puerto Valdivia, La Manuelita, Cauca Valley, 
Puerto Berrio, Honda, El Consuelo, and Chicoral; crit.); Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 370, 1932 Perme and Obaldia, Darien, Panama. 

Tanagra crassirostris Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 277, 1918 
Gatun, Mindi, Toro Point, and Mount Hope, Panama; Todd and Car- 
riker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 496, 1922 La Conception, Chirua, 
Fundacion, Bonda, Minca, Cacagualito, Mamatoco, Cincinnati, La 
Tigrera, and Don Diego, Santa Marta region, Colombia (crit.); Darling- 
ton, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 418, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, 
Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of Costa Rica (four or five records), 
Panama, Colombia (Santa Marta region; Cauca and Magdalena 
valleys), and northern Venezuela (from Tachira and Zulia east to 
Monagas). 1 

1 Birds from the Cauca and Magdalena valleys ("Bogota") are on average 
larger (wing of adult males, 62-67 against 59-63), but, contrary to Berlepsch's 
statement, they do not constantly differ in the gloss of the upper parts from a 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 51 

12: Panama (Colon, 1); Colombia (Fundacion, 1; "Bogota," 2); 
Venezuela (Colon, Tachira, 1; La Azulita, MeYida, 1; El Escorial, 
MeYida, 1; Orope, Zulia, 2; Catatumbo River, Zulia, 2; La Ceiba, 
Trujillo, 1). 

*Tanagra lauta 1 lauta Bangs and Penard. BONAPARTE'S 
EUPHONIA. 

Etiphonia hirundinacea (not Tanagra hirundinacea Lesson, 1831) Bonaparte, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. 117, pub. June, 1838 Guatemala 
(descr. of young male; type in coll. of Velasquez de Leon, subsequently 
in Derby Collection [now in Liverpool Museum]; cf. Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 22, p. 98, 1854); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 98, 
pi. 65, fig. 1 (adult male), 1854 [ = April, 1855] part, Guatemala (descr.); 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 278, 1856 Guatemala and C6rdova, Mexico (monog.); 
idem, I.e., p. 303, 1856 Cordova, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 27, pp. 364, 378, 
1859 vicinity of Jalapa, Vera Cruz, and Playa Vicente, Oaxaca, Mexico; 
Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 16 Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 59, 1862 Guatemala (Coban, Vera Paz), "New Granada," 
and Mexico; Sumichrast, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 550, 1869 
hot region of Vera Cruz; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 836 Honduras; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 2, p. 18, 
1876 Guichicovi, Oaxaca; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, 
p. 42, 1878 Guatemala; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 180, 1882 Guate- 
mala; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 443 Chable, Izalam, 
and Tizimin, Yucatan; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 261, 1883 part, Mexico to Nicaragua; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 75, 1886 Mexico (Orizaba, Yucatan) to Honduras (San 
Pedro); Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 488, 1893 Rio Escon- 
dido, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 18, p. 631, 1896 Altamira, Tamaulipas; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 8, p. 279, 1896 Chichen Itza, Yu- 
catan; Lantz, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 Rinconada, 
Vera Cruz; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 25, 1902 
part, Mexico to Nicaragua (monog.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
50, p. 142, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 121, 1907 Mazatenango, Guatemala; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1019, 1912 Mexico to Nica- 
ragua; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo. 

Tanagra lauta lauta Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, p. 35, 
1919 new name for Euphonia hirundinacea Bonaparte, preoccupied; 

series of Venezuelan and Panama examples. The slight variation in size appears 
to me altogether insufficient grounds for maintaining the race brachyptera. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Lion Hill, 6. Colombia: Mamatoco, 
2; Bonda, 6; Barranquilla, 1; Rio Cauqueta, Cauca, 2; Cauca Valley, 3; Bucara- 
manga, 2; "Bogota," 14. Venezuela: Me>ida, 6; mountains inland of Cumana 
(San Antonio, Cumanacoa, etc.), 10. 

1 1 should have been inclined to consider Bonaparte's Euphonia conspecific 
with T. laniirostris were it not for the fact that races of both, T. lauta gnatho and 
T. laniirostris crassirostris, have been reported to occur in extreme western Panama 
(Chiriqui) and eastern Costa Rica. 



52 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 373, 1932 Guatemala (Finca 

Chama, Finca Cipres, and San Felipe) (crit.). 
Euphonia sp. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 303, 1856 Cordova, 

Vera Cruz (descr. of female). 
Tanagra hirundinacea Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 391, 1929 

Camp Six and Mountain Cow, British Honduras; Peters, I.e., p. 469, 

1929 Progreso and Tela, Honduras; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

84, p. 337, 1932 Cantarranas, Honduras. 

Range. Southeastern Mexico (in states of Tamaulipas, Vera 
Cruz, Tabasco, Oaxaca, Yucatan, and Quintana Roo) south through 
British Honduras, Guatemala, and Honduras to eastern Nicaragua. 

11: Mexico ("Mexico City," 1; Tampico, 1; Teapa, Tabasco, 
3); Guatemala (Mazatenango, 3; San Felipe, Retalhuleu, 2; 
unspecified, 1). 

Tanagra lauta proba Bangs and Penard. 1 THICK-BILLED 
EUPHONIA. 

Phonasca gnatho (not Tanagra gnatho Lichtenstein, 1830) Cabanis, Journ. 
Orn., 8, p. 335, 1860 Costa Rica (descr. of adult male; type in Berlin 
Museum). 

Tanagra lauta proba Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, p. 35, 
1919 new name for Phonasca gnatho Cabanis, preoccupied. 

Phonasca hirundinacea (not Euphonia hirundinacea Bonaparte) Cabanis, 
Journ. Orn., 8, p. 334, 1860 Costa Rica (young male). 

Euphonia hirundinacea Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 172 
Turrialba, Costa Rica; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 
1868 Turrialba and San Juan, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, 
p. 297, 1869 San Jose, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 261, 1883 part, Costa Rica (Turrialba, San Juan); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 75, 1886 part, Costa Rica; Zeledon, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Costa Rica (San JosS, 
Naranjo de Cartago, Monte Redondo de San Jose); Cherrie, Auk, 9, 
p. 24, 1892 San Jose and Pacific side of Costa Rica (nest and eggs); 
Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 435 Miravalles, Costa Rica; Bangs, Proc. 
New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 64, 1902 Boquete, Chiriqui; Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 25, 1902 part, Costa Rica. 

Euphonia gnatho Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 Costa 
Rica (ex Cabanis); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 297, 1869 San Jose; 

1 Tanagra lauta proba Bangs and Penard differs from the nominate race by 
larger, more swollen bill; more bottle green, less bluish gloss of the upper parts in 
the male, and more yellowish under parts in the female sex. 

These characters are most strongly pronounced in specimens from the Pacific 
side of Costa Rica, although a male from San Juan (collected by A. von Frantzius) 
is also exceedingly typical. My material from the Caribbean side being very 
inadequate, consisting as it does of only three males, I cannot decide whether it is 
more correct to refer them to T. I. lauta, as Griscom proposes to do, or to call them, 
with Bangs, T. L proba. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 53 

Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 262, 1883 Tempate, 
Nicoya (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 76, 1886 Costa 
Rica (Turrialba, Tempate); Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 225, 
1905 Costa Rica (descr. of female); Bangs, I.e., 22, p. 37, 1909 Costa 
Rica (crit.). 
Euphonia hirundinacea gnatho Carriker (and Todd), Ann. Carnegie Mus., 

6, p. 867, 1910 Costa Rica (crit.); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1019, 1912 Costa Rica and Chiriquf. 

Range. Northwestern Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and extreme 
western Panama (Chiriqui). 

3: Nicaragua (San Geronimo, Chinandega, 1); Costa Rica (Las 
Canas, 1; Miravalles, 1). 

"Tanagra violacea violacea (Linnaeus). VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA. 

Fringilla violacea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 182, 1758 "in calidis 
regionibus"; Surinam designated as type locality by Berlepsch and Hart- 
ert (Nov. Zool., 9, p. 18, 1902) 1 (type in Museum Adolphi Friderici). 

Euphoria violacea Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 670, 
"1848" [ = 1849] British Guiana; Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Nor- 
mandie, 2, p. 32, 1857 Cayenne. 

Euphone violacea var. minor Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berlin Mus., p. 
29, 1823 Cayana (type in Berlin Museum). 

Parus cyanochlorus Pallas, in Vroeg, Cat. Rais. Coll. d'Ois., Adumbrat., p. 3, 
1764 Surinam (descr. of adult male). 

Euphonia violacea Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 86 part, Trinidad, Cay- 
enne, and British Guiana; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 277, 1856 
part, same localities (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 58, 1862 
part, spec, a, b, g, Cayenne and Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 82 
Trinidad; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 306, 1866 Trinidad; Salvin, Ibis, 
1885, p. 208 British Guiana (Bartica Grove and Roraima); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 74, 1886 part, subsp. typica, Trinidad, Cayenne, 
and British Guiana (Roraima, Bartica Grove) ; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 

7, p. 266, 1890 Santarem, Brazil; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
6, p. 28, 1894 Trinidad; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 18, 
1902 Suapure, La Pricion, and La Union, Caura, Venezuela; Goeldi, 
Ibis, 1903, p. 398 Rio Capim, Para; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 10, p. 181, 1904 Kourou and Saint Jean du Maroni, French 
Guiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 293, 1907 Marajo (Jutahizal), 
Para, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Capim, Rio Maracafia, and Cussary; 
idem, I.e., 56, p. 522, 1908 Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins, Brazil; Ber- 
lepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 112, 316, 1908 Cayenne and French Guiana 
localities; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 422, 1910 Surinam (habits); 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 100, 1910 
Miritiba, Maranhao; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
pp. 1018, 1127, 1912 Guianas, Trinidad and northern Brazil; 2 Snethlage, 

1 Cf. also Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1018, 1127, 1912. 
1 The locality "Teffe" appears to be a pen-slip. 



54 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 439, 1914 Para, Providencia, Benevides, Peixe- 
Boi, Santo Antonio do Prata, Itacuao, Rio Capim (Araproaga), Rio 
Moju, Cussary, Rio Tocantins (Ilha Pirunum, Arumatheua), Rio Iriri 
(Santa Julia), Rio Tapajoz (Boim, Goyana, Ilha do Papageio), Marajo 
(Pindobal, Chaves), Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Rio Jamunda 
(Faro), and Maranhao; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, 
p. 60, 1926 Maranhao (Anil, Tury-assu); Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. 
Trin. Tob., 20, p. 129, 1922 Port-of-Spain and Maracas, Trinidad 
(nesting). 

Euphone violacea Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 136, 1851 part, 
Guiana. 

Phonasca Lichtensteinii Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 331, 1860 Cayenne (type 
in Berlin Museum). 

Euphonia purpurea Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 466, 1867 
"South America" (descr. of adult male; type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York) ; Solater, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 272 (crit.; = Cayenne specimens). 1 

Euphona lichtensteinii Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 204, 1870 Para and Borba, 
Rio Madeira (spec, examined). 

Euphonia violacea lichtensteinii Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 14, 1906 
Trinidad (Caparo, Pointe Gourde, Valencia, Chaguaramas) ; idem, I.e., 

13, p. 356, 1906 Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 14, p. 6, 
1907 Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz; M6negaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

14, p. 8, 1908 French Guiana; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 
1, p. 357, 1908 Carenage and Aripo, Trinidad; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
56, p. 498, 1908 Rio Tapajoz (Ilha do Papageio, Goyana); Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 17, p. 272, 1910 Borba, Rio Madeira; idem, Abhandl. Math.- 
phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 8, 87, 1912 Peixe-Boi, Para 
(Para localities). 

Tanagra violacea lichtensteinii Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 99, 1916 

Utinga, Para; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 174, 1928 

Rio Guama and Castanhal, Para. 
Tanagra violacea Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 171, 1916 

El Llagual, Suapure, Maripa, and La Union, Caura, Venezuela; Chubb, 

Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 498, 1921 British Guiana. 
Tanagra violacea violacea Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 

p. 87, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 

Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 278, 1929 Maranhao (Tury-assu, Rosario, Tran- 

queira) and Goyaz (Santo Antonio, Boa Vista) (crit.). 
Tanagra violacea rodwayi Penard, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 7, p. 30, 1919 

Mount Roraima, British Guiana (type in Museum of Comparative 

Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 399, 

1930 (crit.). 2 

1 Mr. J. T. Zimmer (in litt.) corroborates Sclater's identification with typical 
violacea. 

2 Birds from Roraima, while identical in coloration, average slightly larger 
(wing of males, 60-63; tail, 32-35), some individuals being hardly inferior in 
dimensions to the smaller examples of T. v. aurantiicollis, but I agree with Bangs 
that it serves no practical purpose to maintain T. v. rodwayi. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 55 

Range. Island of Trinidad; northeastern Venezuela (from the 
Paria Peninsula south to the Orinoco Delta and the Caura Valley) ; 
British, Dutch, and French Guiana; northern Brazil, north of the 
Amazon west to the Rio Jamunda, and south of the river from the 
lower Rio Madeira (Borba) east to Maranhao. 1 

14: Trinidad (Valencia, 1); Venezuela (Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, 
1); British Guiana (Potaro, 1; Mazaruni River, 1); Dutch Guiana 
(Paramaribo, 1); Brazil (Utinga, Para, 1; Tury-assu, Maranhao, 4; 
Sao Luiz, Maranhao, 1; Rosario, Maranhao, 1; Tranqueira, Maran- 
hao, 1; Santo Antonio, Boa Vista, Goyaz, 1). 

Tanagra violacea aurantiicollis (Bertoni). 2 GREATER VIOLA- 
CEOUS EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia aurantiicollis Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 94, Jan., 
1901 Puerto Bertoni, Alto Parana, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. de W. 
Bertoni). 

Euphone violacea (not Fringilla violacea Linnaeus) Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. 
Berlin Mus., p. 29, 1823 Brazil; Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), 
p. 439, 1830 southeastern Brazil; Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, 
p. 136, 1851 part, Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 195, 
1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Euphonia violacea Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 86 part, Rio de Janeiro; 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 277, 1856 part, southeastern Brazil; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 58, 1862 part, spec, c-f, Brazil; Rein- 
hardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 433 Lagoa Santa, 
Minas Geraes; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 331 Pernambuco (Recife) and 
Parahyba; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 117, 1885 
Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 74, 
1886 part, subsp. "lichtensteini," Pernambuco, Bahia, Nova Friburgo, 
"Rio Claro, Goyaz," Sao Paulo, and "Pelotas," Rio Grande do Sul; 
Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 118, 1899 Mundo Novo; 

1 Additional material examined. Trinidad, 18. British Guiana: Roraima, 4; 
Bartica Grove, 1; Demerara, 6. Surinam: Paramaribo, 4. French Guiana: 
Cayenne, 12; Roche Marie, 1; Approuague, 2. Venezuela: Guanoco, Orinoco 
Delta, 3; Caura Valley, 5. Brazil: Miritiba, Maranhao, 3; Para region, 12; 
Borba, Rio Madeira, 2. 

2 Tanagra violacea aurantiicollis (Bertoni): Similar to T. v. violacea, but larger; 
adult males with yellow frontal band decidedly wider; hind crown and nape 
frequently more strongly glossed with violaceous. Wing (adult males), 62-67; 
tail, 35-41. 

A good series from Santa Catharina (thus topotypical magna) cannot be dis- 
tinguished from two Paraguayan examples (aurantiicollis). They all have the 
same large size, and agree in the decidedly violaceous gloss on the hind neck. 
Birds from Sao Paulo no adult males from Rio de Janeiro are available are 
similar to those from the south, whereas Bahia skins, by slightly smaller size, form 
the transition to typical violacea, though they are much nearer to aurantiicollis. 

Additional material examined. Paraguay: Sapucay, 4. Brazil: Joinville, 
Santa Catharina, 11; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 4; Rio Parani, Sao Paulo, 3; Sapitiba, 
Rio de Janeiro, 1; Bahia, 9. 



56 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 145, 1899 Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, 
Iguape); idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; 
Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 40 Bahia; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 347, 
1907 Sao Paulo (Santos, Alto da Serra, Ubatuba, Iguape, Piracicaba), 
Espirito Santo (Rio Doce), Bahia, and Rio Grande do Sul (Nova Ham- 
burgo); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 374, 1910 
Paraguay (Alto Parana); Bertoni, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 75, p. 98, 1913 
Misiones; idem, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 Paraguay (Puerto Bertoni 
and Iguassu). 

Euphoria violacea Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 204, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapi- 
tiba, Registo do Sai) and Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Rio Parana). 

Phonasca violacea Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio. 

Euphonia violacea aurantiicollis Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 622 Sapucay, Paraguay 
(crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1018, 1128, 
1912 Paraguay; Bertoni, El Hornero, 1, p. 285, 1919 Paraguay 
(nest descr.). 

Tanagra aurantiicollis Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 361, 1914 Paraguay 
and Misiones. 

Tanagra violacea aurantiicollis Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 33, 1927 Misiones. 

Euphonia violacea magna (not Tanagra magna Gmelin, 1789) Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1018, 1127, 1912 Blumenau, Santa 
Catharina (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum); 
Lima, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 101, 1920 Ilheos to Belmonte, Bahia. 

Tanagra violacea pampolla Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 31, p. 126, 
1918 new name for Euphonia violacea magna Berlepsch, preoccupied. 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Parahyba, 
Pernambuco, Bahia, and southern Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa) to 
Rio Grande do Sul, and the adjacent districts of Argentina (Misiones) 
and Paraguay. 

4: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 3); Argentina (Iguazu, 
Misiones, 1). 

Tanagra catasticta Oberholser. 1 BLACK-THROATED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia vittata (not Tanagra vittata Temminck, 1821) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 129 Brazil (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum, examined); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 58, 1862 

1 Tanagra catasticta Oberholser, resting upon a single South Brazilian trade- 
skin, is a very peculiar bird. It generally resembles T. rufiventris, but the black 
gorget is farther extended posteriorly; the feathers of the chest and sides have 
wide bluish black sub terminal bars or spots; the median portion of the under 
parts is duller, more ochraceous; the forehead back to the anterior edge of the 
eye is dull yellow, this color being confined to the very tips of the frontal feathers; 
the inner web of the outermost rectrix is marked with a small white subapical spot. 
Wing (adult male), 63; tail, 36; bill, 11. 

The type is a skin of the unmistakable "Rio" preparation. It is hard to 
believe that no second specimen should have been obtained in such an easily 
accessible region as the vicinity of the Brazilian capital, if it were a distinct 
species. Its color characters are just what might be expected from the result of 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 57 

Brazil; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 80, pi. 10 (male), 1886 Brazil; 

Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1020, 1912 Brazil 

(Rio de Janeiro?). 
Tanagra catasticta Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 31, p. 125, 1918 

new name for Euphonia vittata Sclater, preoccupied. 
Range. Southeastern Brazil (exact locality unknown). 

Tanagra rufiventris rufiventris Vieillot. RUFOUS-BELLIED 
EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra rufiventris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. eel., 32, p. 426, 
1819 no locality indicated (type, collected by Sonnerat, in Paris Museum). 1 

Tanagra chrysogaster (not of Cuvier, 1829) Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 461, 
1831 "Amerique" (descr. of male; type probably in Paris Museum). 

Euphonia tricolor Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1850, p. 48, pi. 49, fig. 2 (male), 
1850 Peru (location of type unknown). 

Euphone rufiventris Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 135, 1851 
Brazil (diag.). 

Euphonia rufiventris Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 87 Peru; Cassin, in 
Gilliss, U. S. Astron. Exped., 2, p. 182, pi. 20, fig. 1 (= male), 1855 
Peru; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 279, 1856 Peru (Maynas, 
Ucayali) and Brazil (Rio Negro, Barcellos, San Carlos); idem, I.e., 26, 
p. 74, 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 59, 
1862 Peruvian Amazon and Rio Napo; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 749, 977 Xeberos and Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1873, p. 261 Xeberos, Chamicuros, and Pebas, Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. 
Per., 2, p. 447, 1884 Peru (Chamicuros, Xeberos, Pebas, Tarapoto); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 79, 1886 Peru (Ucayali, Pebas), 
Brazil (Ega), Ecuador ("Intaj," Sarayacu), and "Oyapock, Cayenne"; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 339 La Gloria, 
Chanchamayo, Peru; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 459 Coca, upper Rio 
Napo, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 18, 1902 
Munduapo (Rio Orinoco), Nicare and La Pricion (Caura), Venezuela; 

hybridization between T. pectoralis and T. xanthogaster, two species known to 
occur in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro. The shape of the bill and the greater 
extent of the glossy black gorget point to T. pectoralis, while the blackish barring 
of the sides, the suggestion of the yellow frontal spot, and the white marking 
on the outer tail feather recall T. xanthogaster. Another argument in favor of the 
theory just advanced is that T. pectoralis, T. rufiventris, and T. cayennensis appear 
to be geographical representatives, which leaves hardly room for a second species 
of the same group in southeastern Brazil. 

1 Vieillot's description, based on Spnnerat's specimen from an undetermined 
locality in the Paris Museum, refers without any question to the present species. 
The second example mentioned by Vieillot "appprte du Bresil, qui differe du 
precedant en ce qu'il a la poitrine et toutes less parties inferieures d'un roux fonce" 
is clearly T. pectoralis (Latham), a South Brazilian species, and we learn indeed 
from the text of "L'Euphone a ventre marron du Bresil" in Vieillot and Oudart's 
"Galerie des Oiseaux," 2, Suppl., that it was obtained towards the close of the 
year 1816 by the naturalist Delalande, Jr., who worked exclusively in the vicinity 
of Rio de Janeiro. Berlepsch and Hartert (Nov. Zool., 9, p. 53, note, 1902) were, 
therefore, mistaken in suggesting Rio de Janeiro as type locality for T. rufiventris, 
a purely Amazonian species, and we have, accordingly, substituted Iquitos, Peru, 
as a more appropriate patria (cf. Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 18, note 1, 1920). 



58 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 348, 1907 (range); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 
15, p. 113, 1908 "Oyapock, Cayenne"; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 427, 
1910 "Cayenne"; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 272, 1910 Calama, Rio 
Madeira; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1020, 1129, 
1912 (range); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 440, 1914 Boa Vista, 
Rio Xingu, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Euphona rufiventris Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 205, 1870 Rio Negro (above 

Lamalonga, Barcellos, Marabitanas, San Carlos) and Rio Icanna, Brazil. 

Tanagra rufiventris Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 171, 1916 

Munduapo, Orinoco; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 653, 1926 

Rio Suno, Ecuador. 

Tanagra rufiventris rufiventris Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 370, 
1930 mouth of Rio Cherrie (Rio Roosevelt) and Monte Cristo, 
Matto Grosso. 

Range. Amazonia, from the Orinoco basin and southeastern 
Colombia (Cuembi, Rio Putumayo) south to central-eastern Peru 
(as far south as the Chanchamayo Valley, Dept. Junin) and western 
Brazil (east to the Rio Negro and Rio Xingu, south to northern 
Matto Grosso). 1 

Tanagra rufiventris colorata Todd. 2 SOUTHERN RUFOUS-BELLIED 
EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra rufiventris colorata Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 26, p. 169, 1913 Rio 
"Turutu" [= Surutu], Prov. del Sara, Bolivia (type in Carnegie Museum). 

1 Specimens from various localities exhibit certain peculiarities which, if 
corroborated by larger series, might lead to further subdivision. Males from the 
Orinoco region, Rio Negro, Rio Madeira, and Rio Xingu, when compared to a 
series from eastern Ecuador and Peru, have the median under parts and the lower 
tail coverts deeper orange rufous, and the sulphine yellow lateral area in females 
is brighter as well as more extensive, though there is some variation in both sexes. 
Birds from as far south as Chuchurras, Dept. Huanuco, seem to be inseparable 
from others taken at Cuembi, Colombia, and El Loreto, Ecuador. 

This is strictly an Amazonian species, and the locality "Intag" on one of 
Buckley's skins in the British Museum is doubtless due to a confusion of labeling. 
I must also question the location "Oyapock, Cayenne," since French Guiana is 
tenanted by another nearly related species (T. cayennensis) . 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Cuembi, Rio Putumayo, 2. 
Ecuador: El Loreto, 3; Coca, 1; Sarayacu, 3. Peru: Rio Ucayali, 3; Chuchurras, 
Dept. Huanuco, 2. Brazil: Lamalonga, Rio Negro, 1; Barcellos, Rio Negro, 7; 
Rio Icanna, 1; Calama, Rio Madeira, 2; Boa Vista, Rio Xingu, 1 (male). Vene- 
zuela: San Carlos, Rio Guainia, 1; Munduapo, Orinoco, 2; Caura Valley (Nicare, 
La Pricion), 8. 

2 Tanagra rufiventris colorata Todd: Similar to T. r. rufiventris, but with mark- 
edly larger bill ; median under parts of males somewhat duller, mars yellow rather 
than orange rufous; female brighter green above and on under parts clearer gray, 
with the sulphine yellow lateral area much more restricted and the crissum paler 
honey yellow. Wing, 62-64, (female) 59; tail, 38-41, (female) 32; bill, 10-11. 

Although the type appears to be aberrant by reason of its unusually dark 
belly, five specimens may be distinguished by the above characters from the 
series of typical rufiventris. 

Material examined. Peru: Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, Dept. Puno, 4. Bolivia 
(unspecified), 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 59 

Euphonia rufiventris (not Tanagra rufiventris Vieillot) Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 
85, A, Heft 10, p. 18, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Peru (Carabaya) and 
northern Bolivia (Rio Surutu, Dept. Santa Cruz). 

"Tanagra cayennensis Gmelin. 1 CAYENNE EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra cayo.no. Linnaeus, 2 Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 316, 1766 based 
primarily on "Le Tangara noir de Cayenne" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 29, pi. 2, 
fig. 1; Cayenne (type in Reaumur Collection). 

Tanagra cayennensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 894, 1789 based on "Le 
Tangara noir de Cayenne" Brisson (Orn., 3, p. 29, pi. 2, fig. 1), "Le 
Tangara negre" Buffon (Hist. Nat. Ois., 4, p. 297), and "Tangara, de 
Cayenne" Daubenton (PI. Enl., pi. 114, fig. 3); Cayenne. 

Euphona cayennensis Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 671, 
"1848" [= 1849] British Guiana. 

Euphone cayana Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 135, 1851 
Guiana (diag.). 

Euphonia cayana Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 88 Cayenne and Guiana; 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 278, 1856 Cayenne, British Guiana, 
and lower Amazon (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 59, 1862 
Cayenne and River Amazon; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, p. 570 Para, Brazil; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 208 Bartica Grove and 
Camacusa, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 81, 1886 
Cayenne, British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Demerara), and 
lower Amazon; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 293, 1907 Para and Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Para; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 113, 1908 Cayenne; 
Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 427, 1910 Surinam. 

Euphone cajana Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 197, 1856 Guiana 
and northern Brazil. 

Euphona cayana Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 204, 1870 Barra do Rio Negro 
[= Manaos] and Para, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Euphonia cayennensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 357, 1906 Santo Antonio 
do Prata, Para; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 348, 1907 (range); M6ne- 
gaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14, p. 8, 1908 French Guiana; Ber- 
lepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 321, 1908 (nomencl.); idem, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1021, 1912 Guianas and northern Brazil (Para, 
Barra do Rio Negro); Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 9, 87, 1912 Ipitinga, Rio Acara, and Para localities; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 440, 1914 Para, Providencia, Bene- 
vides, Santa Isabel, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Guama (Santa Maria 

1 Tanagra cayennensis is probably conspecific with T. rufiventris. While the 
male is easily recognizable by its bluish black under parts, the female differs merely 
by gray instead of honey yellow lower tail coverts and duller, less yellowish sides 
of the body. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 5. British Guiana: 
Camacusa, 1; Bartica Grove, 1. Dutch Guiana: near Paramaribo, 6. Brazil: 
Para, 3; Bemfica, 1; Santo Antonio do Prata, 3; Ipitinga, Rio Acara, 2; Manaos, 2. 

2 Preoccupied by another Tanagra cayana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, 
p. 315, 1766. 



60 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

do Sao Miguel), and Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Brazil; 
idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 Tury-assu, 
Maranhao. 

Tanagra cayennensis Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 99, 1916 Utinga, Para; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 174, 1928 Para; Chubb, Bds. 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 492, 1921 Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Kamakabra 
Creek, Bonasika River, Anarica River, Arawai, Great Falls of Demerara, 
Tiger Creek, Essequibo, Camacusa, and Bartica Grove; Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 277, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Brazil, 
west to Manaos, south of the Amazon from Para east to northern 
Maranhao (Tury-assu). 

2: British Guiana (Mazaruni River, 1); Brazil (Murutucu, 
Para, 1). 

Tanagra pectoralis (Latham). 1 CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA. 

Pipra pectoralis Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. Ivii, 1801 based on "Gold- 
breasted Manakin" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., Suppl., 2, Add., p. 374; 
Brazil (descr. of male). 

Tanagra chlorocyanea Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 427, 
1819 'TAmerique meridionale" (descr. of female; type in Paris Museum); 
Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, p. 355, 1855 (crit.). 

Pipra frontalis Thunberg, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. PStersb., 8, p. 286, 1822 
Brazil (descr. of female; type in Upsala Museum); Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, 
p. 241 (crit.). 

Euphone rufiventris (not Tanagra rufiventris Vieillot) Lichtenstein, Verz. 
Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 30, 1823 Bahia, Brazil (descr. of male and 
female; types in Berlin Museum). 

Euphone rufiventris Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 447, 1830 Marica, 
Rio de Janeiro. 

Tanagra umbilicalis Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 460, 1831 "Bresil (Delalande)" 
= Rio de Janeiro (descr. of female; type in Paris Museum). 

Euphone pectoralis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 135, 1851 Brazil 
(diag.); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 196, 1856 Nova 
Friburgo, Rio. 

Euphonia pectoralis Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 87 Brazil; idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 279, 1856 southeastern Brazil and "Goyaz" 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 59, 1862 Brazil; Pelzeln, 
Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 91, 1865 mountains near Rio de Janeiro; 

1 Tanagra pectoralis (Latham) is another close ally, differing from T. cayen- 
nensis in the male sex by chestnut posterior under parts, while the female may 
be separated by deep tawny instead of gray lower tail coverts. It is also some- 
what larger. 

Two birds from Paraguay are identical with a Brazilian series. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 1; Taveira, Espirito Santo, 2; 
Agua Suja, near Bagagem, Minas Geraes, 1; Rio de Janeiro, 4; Praya do Sai, Rio, 
3; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 5; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 3. Paraguay: Sapucay, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 61 

Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 433 Minas 
Geraes (Lagoa Santa, Sete Lagoas); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 80, 1886 southeastern Brazil (Nova Friburgo; Registo do Sai; "Pelo- 
tas, Rio Grande do Sul"); Boucard and Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 
2, p. 42, 1892 Porto Real, Rio; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 
16, p. 118, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul (occurrence extremely doubtful); 
idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 145, 1899 Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo, Iguape", 
Sao Sebastiao); idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Nova Friburgo and Cantagallo, 
Rio; Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 143, 1902 Sapucay, Para- 
guay; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 349, 1907 Sao Paulo (Alto da 
Serra, Ubatuba, Itapura, Iguape) and Parana (Ourinho); Chubb, Ibis, 
1910, p. 623 Sapucay, Paraguay (crit.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 374, 1910 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1020, 1912 Bahia to Santa Catharina, 
(?)Goyaz, and (?)Rio Grande do Sul, and Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. 
Parag., p. 62, 1914 Paraguay (Puerto Bertoni, Iguassu); idem, El Hor- 
nero, 1, p. 286, 1919 Paraguay (nest descr.); Lima, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
12, (2), p. 101, 1920 Ilheos to Belmonte, Bahia. 

Euphone umbilicalis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 137, 1851 Brazil 
(descr. of female). 

Euphona pectoralis Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 205, 1870 Rio de Janeiro 
(Registo do Sai, Rio de Janeiro) and Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Rio Parana). 

Iliolopha pectoralis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio. 

Euphonia berlepschiana Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 98, 1901 
Alto Parana, Paraguay (types in coll. of A. de W. Bertoni). 

Tanagra pectoralis Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 361, 1914 Misiones; 
Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 191, 1926 Salto do 
Cobre, Parana; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 319, 1928 Serra 
do Itatiaya, Sao Paulo. 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Bahia to Santa Catharina, 1 and the adjacent parts of Argentina 
(Misiones) and Paraguay. 

3: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 3). 

"Tanagra gouldi gouldi (Sclater). GOULD'S EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia gouldi(i) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 66, pi. 124, 1857 
Guatemala (type in coll. of J. Gould, present location unknown); idem, 
I.e., 25, p. 229, 1857 Santecomapam, Vera Cruz, Mexico; Sclater and 
Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 17 Guatemala; Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 194 San 
Geronimo, Vera Paz, Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 60, 
1862 Choctum, Guatemala; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, 
p. 98, 1868 Costa Rica (Angostura, "Payua" [= Pacuare], and "Dota 
Mountains"); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 298, 1869 eastern Costa 
Rica (Angostura, Pacuare, Tucurriqui, "Dota Mountains"); Sumichrast, 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 551, 1869 hot region of Vera Cruz; Salvin, 

1 The records from "Goyaz" and "Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul," are extremely 
questionable. 



62 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ibis, 1872, p. 315 Chontales, Nicaragua; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 
(n.s.), 25, p. 42, 1878 Guatemala; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 54 San Carlos, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 263, 1883 part, Mexico to Costa Rica; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 81, 1886 part, spec, a-i, Guatemala (Choctum, Kam- 
khal), British Honduras (Belize), Nicaragua (Chontales), and Costa Rica 
(Angostura, La Valsa); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 585, 
1887 Segovia River, Honduras; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 
1, p. 109, 1887 Jimenez, Costa Rica; Richmond, I.e., 16, p. 488, 1893 
Greytown and Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; Lantz, Trans. Kans. Acad. 
Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 Santo Tomas, Guatemala; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 29, 1902 part, southern Mexico to Costa Rica; 
Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 155, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras; 
Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 121, 1907 Los Amates, 
Guatemala; Ferry, I.e., p. 278, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 866, 1910 Caribbean Costa Rica (excluding 
Port Limon); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1021, 
1912 part, southern Mexico to Costa Rica; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 
1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo. 

Tanagra gouldi Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 486, 1927 
Presidio and Motzorongo, Vera Cruz, Mexico; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 391, 
1929 Mountain Cow, British Honduras. 

Tanagra gouldi gouldi Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 470, 1929 
Lancetilla, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 375, 1932 
Guatemala (Finca Chama, Chimoxan, Secanquim, Finca Sepacuite); 
Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 244, 1932 Eden and Great 
Falls of Pis Pis River, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 337, 1932 Lance- 
tilla and Segovia River, Honduras. 

Range. Caribbean side of southeastern Mexico (in states of 
Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, and Quintana Roo), British Honduras, Guate- 
mala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica (excepting extreme 
southeastern section south of Port Limon). 

14: British Honduras (Twelve Mile Station, Stann Creek Rail- 
road, 1); Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal, 1; Bobos, Izabal, 1; 
Escobas, Izabal, 3; unspecified, 4) ; Costa Rica (Guayabo, 1 ; Limon, 1; 
Siquirres, 1); "Central America," 1. 

*Tanagra gouldi praetermissa Peters. 1 CHIRIQU! LAGOON 
EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra gouldi praetermissa Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 470, 
1929 Western River, Almirante Bay, Panama (type in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); idem, I.e., 71, p. 340, 1931 
Changuinola, Almirante, Guabo, and Crimacola, Panama. 

1 Tanagra gouldi praetermissa Peters: Similar to T. g. gouldi, but much smaller, 
the male with the chestnut abdominal area on average less extensive. Wing, 
52-56 (against 55-60), (female) 49-53 (against 54-59) (Peters, I.e.). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 63 

Euphonic gouldi (not of Sclater) Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 866, 

1910 part, Port Limon, Costa Rica. 
Tanagra gouldi Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 38, p. 462, 

1928 Almirante, Panama. 

Range. Southeastern Costa Rica, from Port Limon southward, 
and northwestern Panama (Chiriqui Lagoon, Almirante Bay). 
1: Costa Rica (Limon, 1). 

Tanagra imitans sp. nov. 1 TAWNY-BELLIED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia gracilis (not Phonasca gracilis Cabanis) Salvin, Proc. Zool.Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 186 Volcan de Chiriqui and Bugaba, Panama (descr. of male); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 259, pi. 16, fig. 3 
(=male), 1883 part, Panama (Volcan de Chiriquf, Bugaba); Sclater, 

1 Tanagra imitans sp. nov. 

Type from El P6zo, Rio Te>raba, Costa Rica. No. 72680 Field Museum of 
Natural History. Adult female. Collected December 17, 1923, by Austin P. Smith. 

Characters. Similar in form, proportions, and shape of bill to T. gouldi, but 
adult male with upper parts, throat, and foreneck glossy blue black, forepart of 
the crown empire yellow, and remainder of under parts rich lemon chrome; female 
with forehead chestnut (instead of yellow), gloss on hind crown and nape more 
bluish, green of throat, chest, and sides more yellowish, and abdomen medially 
decidedly paler, ochraceous tawny rather than tawny. 

Description. Adult male: Forehead and crown empire yellow, the feathers 
with partially exposed central triangular spots of black, the yellow area rounded 
posteriorly; rest of upper parts, together with sides of head and neck, chin, throat, 
and upper chest (the latter with strongly convex posterior outline) glossy blue 
black; remiges and rectrices black with greenish steel blue edgings, broad on 
tertials and rectrices, narrow on primaries; inner webs of remiges (except two 
outer primaries) with basal half white; no white on rectrices; under parts rich lemon 
chrome; axillaries and under wing coverts white, slightly tinged with yellowish; 
bill black, more grayish at base of lower mandible. Wing, 56-60; tail, 30-33; 
bill, 9. Adult female: Forehead (extending backward to above middle of eyes) 
chestnut rufous; rest of upper parts olive green, becoming more yellowish on rump 
and tail coverts, the crown, occiput, hind neck, back, and scapulars glossed with 
metallic bluish green; remiges and rectrices dusky with yellowish olive green 
edges, broadest on tertials, narrowest and palest on primaries; sides of head and 
most of under parts rich pyrite yellow, palest on chin and anterior malar region; 
an extensive zone along the middle of breast and abdomen, together with tibial 
feathers and under tail coverts, ochraceous tawny; basal portion of remiges less 
extensively white than in the male; axillaries and under wing coverts yellowish 
white. Wing, 58-60; tail, 30-32; bill, 9. 

Remarks. This very distinct Euphonia is the E. gracilis auct., but not of 

Cabanis, as reexamination of this author's original examples plainly shows. In 

the male sex, it presents some superficial resemblance to T. luteicapilla, but aside 

i from its much heavier bill is easily distinguished by the greater extent of the 

I bluish black area down the foreneck and the much more restricted yellow frontal 

cap with the black basal portions of the feathers showing through. The female, 

i on the other hand, approaches that of T. gouldi, with which the natural affinities 

i of T. imitans appear to lie. It is by no means impossible that it may be merely 

a geographical race of that bird with strongly developed sexual dimorphism. 

Birds from Chiriqui (Bugaba) agree with those from the T6rraba Valley. The 

' latter region is evidently the center of its distribution in Costa Rica, though there 

are also two single records from San Jose and Miravalles. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Bugaba, Chiriquf, 3. Costa Rica: 
Boruca, 6. 



64 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 69, 1886 part, spec, c-f, Bugaba, Volcan 
de Chiriqui, and "Veragua"; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, 
p. 109, 1887 Pozo Azul de Pirris, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 14, p. 530, 1891 Pozo Azul de Pirris, Costa Rica (descr. of female) ; 
idem, Auk, 9, p. 24, 1892 San Jose, Costa Rica (one male taken Dec. 
30); idem, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 
Boruca, Costa Rica; Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 19, 1902 Costa Rica and 
Chiriqui (monog.); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Boruca, Paso Real, 
Barranca, and Pozo del Rio Grande, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 871, 1910 Costa Rica (Pozo Azul de Pirris, El 
General de Terraba, Miravalles); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1016, 1912 Costa Rica and Chiriqui. 

Range. Pacific lowlands of extreme western Panama (Bugaba 
and Divala, Chiriqui) and southern Costa Rica (TeYraba Valley; 
one record each from San Jose" and Miravalles). 

6: Costa Rica (Boruca, 4; El Pozo de TeYraba, 1); Panama 
(Chiriqui, 1). 

Tanagra mesochrysa 1 mesochrysa (Salvadori). BRONZE-GREEN 
EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia mesochrysa Salvadori, Atti. Accad. Sci. Torino, 8, p. 193, 1873 
locality unrecorded, but obviously "Bogota," Colombia (descr. of male; 
type in coll. of Count Turati, now in Milan Museum); idem, Ibis, 1878, 
p. 200 "Bogota" (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 82, 1886 
part, spec, a-e, Colombia ("Bogota"); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1021, 1912 part, Colombia ("Bogota") and eastern 
Ecuador. 

Tanagra mesochrysa mesochrysa Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 
653, 1926 below Oyacachi, Ecuador. 

Euphonia chalcopasta Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., pp. 18, 157, 
Dec., 1873 "Columbia int. "= "Bogota" (descr. of male; type in coll. 
of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Colombia ("Bogota") and 
eastern Ecuador (below Oyacachi). 

1 Tanagra mesochrysa is easily distinguished from T. chrysopasta in the male 
sex by having a broad yellow postf rental band; the lores and anterior malar region 
bronze green like the auriculars, not dingy white; the chin as well as the throat 
greenish, etc. It closely resembles the male of T. gouldi, but has a much smaller 
bill and differs, besides, by lacking the rufous patch on the abdomen and the green 
banding of the flanks, while the yellow on the forepart of the crown is duller as 
well as much less extended. We have not seen any female of the nominate race, 
but that of T. m. tavarae may readily be separated from T. chrysopasta by having 
no grayish white on either lores or malar region (these parts being greenish like 
the auriculars) and by having the throat, foreneck, and a broad zone along the 
sides of the body to the under tail coverts bright greenish yellow, contrasting with 
the grayish buff center of the abdomen. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 13 (all males). 






1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 65 

*Tanagra mesochrysa tavarae Chapman. 1 PERUVIAN BRONZE- 
GREEN EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra mesochrysa tavarae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, p. 9, Feb., 
1925 Rio Tavara, southeastern Peru (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 17, p. 437, 1930 Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, Peru. 

Euphonia chalcopasta (not of Sclater and Salvin) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 10 Chirimoto and Huambo, Peru (descr. of young); 

idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 449, 1884 Huayabamba, Peru; idem, I.e., 3, 

p. 510, 1886 (crit.). 
Euphonia mesochrysa (not of Salvadori) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 

82, 1886 part, spec, f, Chirimoto; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 

13, p. 108, 1906 Huaynapata and Rio Cadena, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 

5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1021, 1912 part, Peru (Chirimoto, 

Huambo, Huayabamba, Huaynapata, Rio Cadena). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Peru, from Jaen Province 
(Dept. Cajamarca) south to Marcapata, Dept. Puno. 

1: Peru (Huachipa, 1). 

Tanagra chrysopasta chrysopasta (Sclater and Salvin). 
GOLDEN-BELLIED EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia chrysopasta Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 
438, pi. 30, figs. 1, 2 (male, female) "in Peruvia orient, in ripis fl. Ucayali 
et in ripis fl. Napo, reipubl. Aequatorialis" (type, from the lower Ucayali, 
eastern Peru, in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, 
I.e., 1873, p. 260 upper and lower Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 
598 Simacu, Bolivia; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 448, 1884 lower 
and upper Ucayali, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 82, 1886 
part, spec, a-g, i-k, Peru (lower Ucayali, Sarayacu), Ecuador (Rio Napo), 
and Bolivia (Simacu); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 338 La Merced and Borgona, Chanchamayo, Dept. Junln, 
Peru; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 349, 1907 part, Peru, Bolivia, 
and Colombia ("Bogota"); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 273, 1910 
Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1021, 1912 part, Colombia to Bolivia, and Salto do 
Girao, Brazil. 



1 Tanagra mesochrysa tavarae Chapman: Male very similar to T. m. mesochrysa, 
but frontal band and median portion of the posterior under parts deeper yellow 
(bright aniline yellow) ; throat and foreneck paler and more yellowish green. Wing, 
58-62; tail, 32-34. 

The above characters are pronounced in a male from Marcapata, thus topo- 
typical. Four birds from northern Peru differ by having the frontal edge dark 
green, the yellow postfrontal band consequently narrower, and the throat and fore- 
neck darker greenish. In all of these points they resemble T. m. mesochrysa from 
"Bogota," but have the center of the belly brighter as well as more extensively 
yellow. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Huambo, 3; Chirimoto, 2; Marcapata, 1. 



66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Euphonia sp. Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 180 lower 

Ucayali, Peru. 
Euphonia chlorotica (not Tanagra chlorotica Linnaeus) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 

3, p. 202, 1870 part, Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira (spec, examined). 
Tanagra chrysopasta Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 591, 1917 

Buena Vista and Villa vicencio, eastern base of eastern Andes, Colombia; 

idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 117, 1921 Rio Cosireni, Urubamba, 

Peru; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 267, 

1930 Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 
Tanagra chrysopasta chrysopasta Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 

653, 1926 Rio Suno, Ecuador; Naumburg, I.e., 60, p. 370, 1830 Rio 

Roosevelt, Matto Grosso (crit.); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 

Ser., 17, p. 437, 1930 Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, and Rio Colorado, 

Chanchamayo, Dept. Junin, Peru. 
Euphonia mesochrysa (not of Salvadori) Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 

184, 1887 "Bogota" (crit.). 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from the eastern base of the eastern 
Andes of Colombia through eastern Ecuador and Peru south to 
eastern Bolivia and the adjacent parts of western Brazil (Salto do 
Girao, Rio Madeira, and Rio Roosevelt, Matto Grosso). 1 

3: Peru (Huachipa, 1; Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, 2). 

Tanagra chrysopasta nitida Penard. 2 LESSER GOLDEN-BELLIED 
TANAGER. 

1 Specimens from "Bogota," Peru, and Bolivia agree in coloration as well as 
in dimensions. A single female example from the upper Rio Madeira, on the con- 
fines of Matto Grosso, cannot be separated either. Males from Upper Amazonia 
("Bogota" to Bolivia) measure on the wing from 59 to 63, while the tail varies from 
36 to 40 mm. In females, the respective measurements are 56-59 and 33-38. The 
figure of the female in the Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. for 1869 is incorrectly colored. 
All specimens seen by us have the lores and anterior malar region grayish white, 
the loral spot being bordered above by a narrow dusky line. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 16. Peru: Rio Ucayali, 
1; La Merced, Chanchamayo, 3; Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, 1. Bolivia: San Mateo, 
1; Buena Vista, 2. Brazil: Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira, 1. 

2 Tanagra chrysopasta nitida Penard: Similar to T. c. chrysopasta, but smaller; 
the occipital area, particularly in the male sex, decidedly plumbeous and strongly 
contrasted with color of forehead and back; under parts of males on average 
brighter yellow with less olivaceous clouding. Wing, 53-55, (female) 52-54; 
tail, 31-34. 

I find considerable variation in the amount of greenish suffusion underneath, 
and some individuals are not distinguishable on this score from the nominate race. 
Birds from Manaos are unquestionably the same as a single male from Surinam. 
Venezuelan specimens are slightly larger (wing, 56-58; tail, 34-36), but by color 
characters seem to be nearer nitida. 

Measurements are apparently somewhat variable, and as some of those given 
by Mrs. Naumburg for Peruvian and Matto Grosso examples are hardly larger 
than the dimensions of T. c. nitida, more material should be examined to sub- 
stantiate the claims of this form. 

Material examined. Surinam (unspecified), 1. Brazil: Manaos, 6. Vene- 
zuela: Caura Valley, 3. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 67 

Tanagra chrysopasta nitida Penard, Occ. Pap. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 5, p. 
63, June, 1923 Lelydorp, Surinam (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Euphonia chlorotica (not Tanagra chlorotica Linnaeus) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 202, 1870 part, Barra do Rio Negro [ = Manaos], Brazil (spec, 
examined). 

Euphonia chrysopasta (not of Sclater and Salvin) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 82, 1886 part, spec, h, "Rio Negro" = Manaos; Berlepsch 
and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 18, 1902 Maipures and Munduapo (Orinoco 
River), Suapure and La Pricion (Caura Valley), Venezuela; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 349, 1907 part, Rio Negro and Venezuela (Orinoco); 
Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 428, 1910 Surinam (occurrence probable); 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1021, 1912 part, 
. Venezuela (Caura, Maipures, Munduapo, Suapur6, La Prici6n) and 
Manaos, Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 441, 1914 Rio Jary 
(Santo Antonio da Cachoeira). 

Tanagra chrysopasta Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 171, 1916 
above the falls of the Orinoco, Venezuela. 

Range. Dutch Guiana, probably also French and British Guiana; 
northern Brazil (Rio Jary and Manaos, north bank of the Amazon) ; 
southern Venezuela (Orinoco basin and its tributaries). 

"Tanagra plumbea (Du Bus). PLUMBEOUS EUPHONIA. 

Euphonia plumbea Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci., Lettr. et Beaux-Arts Bel- 
gique, 22, (1), p. 156, 1855 "la Nouvelle Grenade," errore (descr. of 
male^-type in Brussels Museum); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 280, 1856 Rio Negro (descr. of male and female); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 208 Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains, and Roraima, British 
Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 83, 1886 same localities; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 349, 1907 (range); Penard, Vog. Guyana, 
2, p. 429, 1910 British Guiana; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1021, 1912 British Guiana and Rio Negro; Snethlage, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 441, 1914 (range). 

Euphona plumbea Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 205, 1870 Barra do Rio Negro 
[ = Manaos] and Marabitanas, Rio Negro (spec, examined). 

Tanagra plumbea Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 500, 1921 lower Mazaruni 
River, Kamakabra Creek, Great Falls of Demerara, Roraima, Merume" 
Mountains, and Bartica. 

Range. British Guiana and northern Brazil (Manaos; Marabi- 
tanas, Rio Negro). 1 

2: British Guiana (Demerara River, 2). 

1 This peculiar species is still very rare in collections. Birds from the Rio 
Negro appear to agree with others from British Guiana. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima (alt. 3,500 ft.), 4; River Cara- 
mang, 3. Brazil: Manaos, 3; Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 2. 



68 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Tanagra chalybea Mikan. 1 GREEN-THROATED EUPHONIA. 

Tanagra chalybea Mikan, Del. Faun. Flor. Bras., livr. 4, pi. [21], figs. 1, 2, 

1825 Ypanema, Sao Paulo, Brazil (types in Vienna Museum examined); 

Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 361, 1914 Paraguay and Misiones 

(Santa Ana). 
Euphonia aenea Sundevall, Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. for 1833, p. 309, pi. 11, 

fig. 4 (= adult male), 1834 Brazil (type in Stockholm Museum; cf. 

Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 14, 1926); Bonaparte, Rev. 

Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 136, 1851 Brazil (diag.). 
Tanagra (Euphonia) pardalotes Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., llth annee, 2nd 

sem., No. 2, col. 31, July 7, 1844 locality unknown (type in coll. of Dr. 

Abeille, Bordeaux; descr. of male). 

Euphonia chalybea Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 71 Brazil; Sclater, 
I.e., 1851, p. 85 Brazil; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 276, 1856 
Rio Grande do Sul (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 58, 1862 
Brazil; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 118, 1885 Taquara 
and Arroio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. 
Nat. Buenos Aires, 23, p. 354, 1912 Paso Yuvay, Paraguay. 

Euphone chalybaea Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 194, 1856 
Sao Paulo, "southern Minas" [Geraes], and Santa Catharina. 

Euphona chalybea Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 204, 1870 Sao Paulo (Ypanema, 
Sao Paulo, Rio Parana); idem, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova 
Friburgo, Rio. 

Hypophaea chalybea Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 91, 1861 (crit.); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 84, 1886 Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo) to 
Rio Grande do Sul; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 118, 
1899 Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 
146, 1899 Iguape, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Nova Friburgo, 
Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 349, 1907 Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, 
Iguap6) and Rio Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 374, 1910 Alto Parana, Paraguay; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1022, 1912 Brazil 
(from Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul) and Paraguay; Bertoni, 
Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 75, p. 98, 1913 Misiones; idem, Faun. Parag., 
p. 62, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay. 

Euphonia egusquizae Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 99, Jan., 
1901 Alto Parana, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. de W. Bertoni). 2 

Euphonia (Ipophaea) chalybea Bertoni, El Hornero, 1, p. 286, 1919 Para- 
guay (crit.). 

Hypophaea chalybea caerulescens Sztolcman, Anal. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 5, p. 191, 1926 Candido de Abreu, Parana, Brazil (type in Warsaw 
Museum). 

1 1 agree with Mr. Ridgway that there is no reason for separating this species 
generically (Hypophaea Cabanis). 

2 Birds from Rio Grande do Sul do not differ in any way from a series from 
Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Both the shade of the metallic gloss of the upper 
parts and the suggestion of a white spot on the inner web of the outermost rectrix 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 69 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil (from Rio de 
Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul) and adjacent districts of Paraguay 
and Argentina (Misiones). 

3: Argentina (Eldorado, Misiones, 1; Puerto Segundo, Misiones, 2). 

Genus PYRRHUPHONIA Bonaparte 

Pyrrhuphonia Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 31, p. 423, 1850 
type, by subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 74, 1855), Frin- 
gilla Jamaica Linnaeus. 

*Pyrrhuphonia Jamaica (Linnaeus). JAMAICAN EUPHONIA. 

Fringilla Jamaica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 323, 1766 based on 
"Passer coeruleo-fuscus" Sloane, Voy. Jamaica, 2, p. 311, pi. 257, fig. 3; 
Jamaica. 

Fringilla jamaicana Schreber, in Linnaeus, Amoen. Acad., 3rd ed., 1, p. 489, 
1785 based on "Passer coeruleo-fuscus" Sloane, Voy. Jamaica, 2, p. 
311, pi. 257, fig. 3; Jamaica. 

Euphonia cinerea Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 277, 1846 "Colombie," 
errore (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 399, 1930); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 91 (ex Lafresnaye). 

Euphonia Jamaica Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 238, 1847 Jamaica (habits); 
idem, Illust. Bds. Jam., pi. 59, 1849; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1861, p. 73 Jamaica; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 60, 1862 Jamaica; 
March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 296 Jamaica (nest and 
eggs); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 194, 1886 Jamaica (monog.); idem, Bds. W. 
Ind., p. 81, 1889 Jamaica; Scott, Auk, 10, p. 180, 1893 Jamaica (Stony 
Hill, Constant Springs, Priestman's River); Field, Auk, 11, p. 127, 
1894 Port Henderson, Jamaica (nest). 

Euphonia jamaicae Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 91 Jamaica. 

Euphonia jamaicensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 280, 1856 
Jamaica (monog.). 

Pyrrhuphonia Jamaica Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 137, 1851 
Jamaica (diag.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 85, 1886 Jamaica 
(Moneague, Metcalfe Parish, St. Ann's); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 
16, 113, 130, 1892 Jamaica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
2, p. 31, 1902 Jamaica (monog.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1022, 1912 Jamaica; Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 490, 1928 
Jamaica (Kingston, Lumsden, Jackson Town). 

Pyrrhuphonia cinerea Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 137, 1851 
"Columbia" (ex Lafresnaye). 

characters that gave rise to the separation of caerulescens Sztolcman and egus- 
quizae Bertoni are purely individual features and not connected with partic- 
ular areas. 

Additional material examined. Rio de Janeiro: Petropolis, 1; Nova Friburgo, 
1. Sao Paulo: Ypanema, 6 (including the types); Sao Paulo, 1; Rio Parana, 1. 
Santa Catharina: Blumenau, 1. Rio Grande do Sul: Taquara, 3. 



70 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 
22: Jamaica. 

Genus TANAGRELLA Swainson 

Tanagrella Swainson, 1 Anim. Menag., p. 313, Dec. 31, 1837 type, by mono- 
typy, Tanagrella multicolor Swainson Tanagra cyanomelas Wied. 

Hypothlypis Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 13, (1), p. 316, 1847 new name for 
Tanagrella Swainson. 

*Tanagrella velia velia (Linnaeus). GUIANAN TANAGRELLA. 

Motacilla velia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 188, 1758 based on 
"The Red-bellied Blue Bird" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 1, p. 22, pi. 
22 ; 2 Surinam. 

Tanagra varia (not of P. L. S. Miiller, 1776) Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 
14, (1), p. 7, 1826 based on Motacilla velia Desmarest, Hist. Nat. Tang., 
pi. 2, 1805; Cayenne and Surinam. 

Hypothlypis iridina (not Tanagra iridina Hartlaub) Cabanis, in Schomburgk, 
Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 667, "1848" [= 1849] Roraima, British Guiana. 

Tanagrella velia iridina Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 
1022, 1129, 1912 part, Roraima (crit.). 

Tanagrella velia Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 97 Cayenne and Demerara 
(diag.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 267, 1856 Cayenne and 
British Guiana (descr.); Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 32, 
1857 Cayenne; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 60, 1862 Cayenne, 
British Guiana, and "Rio Negro" (errore); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 209 
Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains, Camacusa, and Roraima; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 87, 1886 Cayenne and British Guiana; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 113, 1908 Cayenne; idem, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1022, 1129, 1912 Cayenne and British Guiana 
(Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains, Camacusa, Caramang River) 
(crit.); Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 502, 1921 British Guiana (Itu- 
ribisci, Supenaam, Bartica, Kamakabra River, Bonasika, Arawai, Great 
Falls of Demerara, Roraima, Merume" Mountains, and Caramang River). 

Tanagrella velia velia Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 87, 
1918 Lelydorp, Surinam. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana. 3 

1: French Guiana (Saint Jean du Maroni, 1). 

1 Tanagrella Swainson (Nat. Hist. Classif. Bds., 2, p. 286, June, 1837) seems 
hardly more than a nomen nudum. The only species mentioned, T. multicolor, 
was undescribed at the time, while the characters of the genus, placed as it is 
between Euphonia and Pipilo, "Bill very slender, compressed, and much length- 
ened; the lateral toes equal," are practically worthless for its identification. 

2 The figure is rather unsatisfactory. Edwards did not himself see the bird, 
but made the drawing from a colored sketch supplied by the Duke of Richmond. 

3 Birds from the lowlands of British Guiana ("Demerara" preparation) appear 
to be inseparable in coloration from two (unsexed) Cayenne skins, but average 
slightly larger. Specimens from Roraima are still a little larger and fully as long- 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 71 

Tanagrella velia iridina (Hartlaub). 1 AMAZONIAN TANAGRELLA. 

Tanagra iridina Hartlaub, Rev. Zool., 4, p. 305, 1841 "Prov. Mogobamba, 
Peru" = Moyobamba, Dept. San Martin, Peru (type in Bremen Museum). 

Tanagrella elegantissima J. and E. Verreaux, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 195, 
1853 "le Perou" (location of type not stated); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 Bogota; idem, I.e., 24, p. 267, 1856 "Bogota," 
Rio Xi (Brazil) and "Porto Cabello," errore (monog.). 

Tanagrella iridina Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 264, 1857 Rio 
Javarri; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 60, 1862 "New Granada"; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 205, 1870 Rio Xie, Brazil (spec, examined); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 261 Rio Javarri; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 453, 1884 Moyobamba and Rio Javarri; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 88, 1886 Peru (Iquitos, Ucayali, 
Rio Javarri), Ecuador (Sarayacu), Colombia ("Bogota"), and "Oyapock, 
Cayenne" (errore); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 18, 1902 
Suapure, Caura River, Venezuela; Berlepsch, I.e., 15, p. 113, 1908 
"Oyapock, Cayenne" (errore); Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee 
Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 90, 1911 eastern Ecuador; Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 442, 1914 (range); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 172, 1916 La Union, Caura, Venezuela; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Canelos, Ecuador. 

Tanagrella velia iridina Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 350, 
1907 (range); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1022, 
1129, 1912 range, excl. Roraima (crit.); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, 
A, Heft 10, p. 19, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Dept. Puno, Peru (crit.); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 653, 1926 Rio Suno, eastern Ecuador. 

Hypothlypis velia (not Motacilla velia Linnaeus) Heine and Reichenow, 
Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 16, 1890 "Porto Cabello," Venezuela (errore). 

winged as certain individuals of T. v. iridina, and the humeral area as well as the 
edges to the flight-quills in adult males are intermediate between the greenish blue 
of velia and the violet blue of iridina, being of a pure prussian blue. As females, 
however, do not differ in that respect from Cayenne skins of the same sex, I hesi- 
tate to follow Count Berlepsch in referring Roraima birds to iridina, and prefer to 
keep the inhabitants of the whole of British Guiana under velia. Nevertheless, 
the study of a fuller series from French and Dutch Guiana might lead to somewhat 
different conclusions. Care must be taken in comparing only specimens of the 
same sex, as there is considerable variation between males and females in the shade 
of the blue areas of the plumage. Wing of adult males: Cayenne, 70, 72; Demerara, 
73, 75; Roraima, 77, 79. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3. British Guiana: 
Demerara, 3; River Caramang, 1; Roraima, 4. 

1 Tanagrella velia iridina (Hartlaub): Similar to T. v. velia, but front and sides 
of the head and neck, humeral area, and margins to wing and tail feathers in adult 
males decidedly purplish blue. 

Birds from southeastern Peru (Yahuarmayo) are larger than a series from 
the Rio Xie, Colombia, and Ecuador, but are closely approached in size by two 
from Venezuela (Caura Valley). In coloration, I am unable to perceive any con- 
stant difference between specimens from various parts of the range. 

Additional specimens examined. Venezuela: Suapur6, Caura Valley, 2. 
Brazil: Rio Xie (Rio Negro), 5. Colombia: "Bogota," 3; Cuembi, Rio Putumayo, 
1- Ecuador: Sarayacu, 3. Peru: Yahuarmayo, 4. 



72 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Amazonia, from southern Venezuela (Caura Valley) and 
northwestern Brazil (Rio Xie", tributary of the Rio Negro) west to 
the eastern foot of the eastern Andes in Colombia and Ecuador, 
and south through eastern Peru to the Bolivian boundary. 1 

*Tanagrella velia signata Hellmayr. 2 PARA TANAGRELLA. 

Tanagrella velia signata Hellmayr, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 15, p. 90, 1905 
Par& (type in Tring Collection, now in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 350, 1907 Par4; 
Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, 
pp. 9, 87, 1912 Para; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 442, 1914 
Para, Providencia, Peixe-Boi, and Marajo (Rio Macujubim); Beebe, 
Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 100, 1916 Utinga, Para; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 174, 1928 Para. 

Tanagrella signata Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1023, 
1912 Para, Providencia, Rio Macujubim. 

Tanagrella velia (not Motacilla velia Linnaeus) Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 379 
Pard (spec, examined); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 293, 1907 Para. 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, in State of Para (Para, Souza, 
Utinga, Providencia, Peixe-Boi; Rio Macujubim, Marajo Island). 
3: Brazil (Utinga, Para, 3). 

Tanagrella velia cyanomelaena (Wied). 3 EAST BRAZILIAN 
TANAGRELLA. 

Tanagra cyanomelas Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 453, 1830 Rio 
Ilhe'os, Bahia, Brazil (type lost, formerly in Wied Collection; cf. Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 218, 1889). 

1 The specimen from "Puerto Cabello" in the Heine Collection is no doubt 
incorrectly labeled, while that from "Oyapock, Cayenne" formed part of a lot 
containing various species peculiar to the Rio Negro and the upper stretches of 
the Orinoco and certainly never came from French Guiana, where another race 
is found. 

2 Tanagrella velia signata Hellmayr: Similar to T. v. iridina in decidedly pur- 
plish blue coloration of front and sides of the head and margins to wing and tail 
feathers, but smaller and with a silvery greenish spot on the forepart of the crown. 
Wing, 70-72; tail, 49^-51^- 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Para, 5; Providencia, 1. 

3 Tanagrella velia cyanomelaena (Wied), though readily distinguished from the 
preceding forms by the pale bluish gray coloration of the breast and sides, is, never- 
theless, connected with T. v. velia and T. v. iridina by the intervening T. v. signata, 
which resembles it in possessing an ochreous or silvery greenish spot behind the 
blue forehead. I have, therefore, no hesitation in referring it to the same specific 
group. 

Its range appears to be restricted to the wooded coast region from Rio de 
Janeiro to Pernambuco. The locality "Rio Claro, Goyaz" is without question 
erroneous. The specimen so labeled in the British Museum looks like an ordinary 
Bahia trade-skin. 

Additional specimens examined. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro (trade-skin), 1; Bahia, 
15; Sao Lourenco, Pernambuco, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 73 

Tanagrella multicolor Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 313, Dec. 31, 1837 forests 
of "drupe, near Bahia, Brazil (type in Swainson Collection, now in Uni- 
versity Museum, Cambridge, Engl.). 

Tanagrella cyanomelas Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 236, 1850 
Brazil; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 97 Brazil (diag.); idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 268, 1856 southeastern Brazil (crit.); Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 178, 1856 coast region of Brazil 
between Cabo Frio and Bahia; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 60, 
1862 Bahia; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 205 (note 2), 1870 Bahia. 

Tanagrella cyanomelaena Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 88, 1886 
Pernambuco, Bahia, and "Rio Claro, Goyaz" (errore), Brazil; Ihering 
and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 350, 1907 Bahia and Espirito 
Santo; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1023, 1912 
Pernambuco, Ilheos, Bahia, and "Rio Claro, Goyaz" (errore); Lima, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 101, 1920 Ilheos to Belmonte, Bahia. 

Range. Wooded coast region of eastern Brazil from Rio de 
Janeiro to Pernambuco. 

Tanagrella callophrys (Cabanis). BLUE-BELLIED TANAGRELLA. 

Hypothlypis callophrys Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 

p. 668 (note), "1848" [ = 1849] "Brazil" (type probably in Berlin 

Museum). 
Tanagrella callophrys Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 130, 1851 Rio 

Napo, Ecuador (diag.); idem, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, p. 77, 

1851 Rio Napo; Pelzeln, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 28, p. 19, 1878 

Rio Napo; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 510, 1886 Iquitos, Peru; 

Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 9, 1908 Ponto Alegre, Rio Purus, Brazil; 

idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 442, 1914 same locality; Hellmayr, Arch. 

Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 18, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Dept. Puno, 

Peru (crit.). 
Tanagrella calophrys Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 98, pi. 74 Rio Negro, 

Brazil, and Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 268, 

1856 Quixos, Ecuador, and Rio Ucayali, Peru; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 

Bds., p. 61, 1862 Rio Napo and Rio Negro; Pelzeln, Verh. Zool. Bot. 

Ges., 24, p. 173, 1874 eastern Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

11, p. 89, 1886 Ecuador (Sarayacu) and Peru (Iquitos, Rio Ucayali); 

Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 296, 1889 Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, Peru; 

Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 459 mouth of the Coca, upper Napo, Ecuador; 

Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 350, 1907 (range); M6ngaux, Bull. Mus. 

Hist. Nat. Paris, 14, p. 110, 1908 Rio Napo; idem, Bull. Soc. Philom. 

Paris, (9), 10, p. 93, 1908 Rio Napo; idem, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee 

Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 91, 1911 Rio Napo; Berlepsch, Verh. 

5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1023, 1912 (range); Berlioz, Bull. 

Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Canelos, Ecuador; Chapman, 

Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 653, 1926 Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of Upper Amazonia from eastern Ecuador 
and the adjoining parts of Brazil (Rio Negro; Rio SolimSes; Rio 



74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Purus) through the lowlands of eastern Peru to the Bolivian 
boundary. 1 

Genus CHLOROCHRYSA Bonaparte 

Chlorochrysa Bonaparte, 2 Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, p. 76, "Jan.," 
1851 type, by subs, desig. (Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 129, 
1851), Tanagra [=Callospiza] calliparaea Tschudi (ex Lichtenstein MS.). 

Calliparaea Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 129, 1851 substitute 
name for Chlorochrysa Bonaparte. 

*Chlorochrysa phoenicotis (Bonaparte). GREEN CHLOROCHRYSA. 

Calliste phoenicotis Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, p. 76, 
"Jan.," ,1851 Ecuador =Nanegal (type in Paris Museum); idem, Rev. 
Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 129, 1851 Ecuador. 

Chlorochrysa phoenicotis Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 100, pi. 72, fig. 2 
Nanegal, Ecuador; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 266, 1856 
Nanegal; idem, I.e., 28, p. 87, 1860 Nanegal; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 61, 1862 Nanegal; idem, Ibis, 1875, p. 466 Nanegal (monog.); 
idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 90, 1886 western Ecuador (Nanegal, 
"Quito," "Napo" and "Sarayacu," errore) and Colombia ("Pasto"); 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 15, 1899 
Gualea; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 460 above Nanegal; Menegaux, 
Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 91, 1911 
Gualea and Pacto, Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1024, 1912 Ecuador ("Quito," Nanegal, Gualea, Santo 
Domingo, "Sarayacu," "Rio Napo") and Colombia ("Pasto"); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 592, 1917 Novita Trail, Cerro Munchique, 
and Gallera, western Andes of Colombia; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 83, 1922 Nanegal; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 654, 1926 Gualea. 

Chlorochrysa sodiroi Pelzeln, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 28, p. 19, 1878 
Ecuador (type in Vienna Museum examined;=juv.). 

Chlorochrysa nitidissima (not of Sclater) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, 
p. 71, 1889 "Rio Napo" (errore). 

Range. Subtropical zone of the western Andes of Colombia and 
western Ecuador. 3 

2: Ecuador (Rio Saloya, 1; unspecified, 1). 

1 Material examined. Ecuador: Rio Pastaza, 2; Sarayacu, 2; Rio Napo, 1. 
Brazil: Santa Rita, Rio Solimoes, 1. Peru: Iquitos, 6; Yahuarmayo, Dept. 
Puno, 3. 

2 Chlorochrysa Bonaparte appears to have slight priority over the same author's 
name Calliparaea published in the March number of the "Revue et Magasin de 
Zoologie," which was probably issued several months after its ostensible date. 

3 Two birds from Gallera, Colombia, seem to agree with others from Ecuador. 
The localities "Rio Napo" and "Sarayacu" attached to certain specimens of 
Buckley's are obviously erroneous. 

C. sodiroi was based upon juvenile plumage, as examination of the type shows. 
Additional material examined. Colombia: Gallera, 2. Western Ecuador: 
Gualea, 4; Pacto, 1; Nanegal, 2; unspecified, 3. 






1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 75 

"Chlorochrysa calliparaea bourcieri (Bonaparte). 1 BOURCIER'S 
CHLOROCHRYSA. 

Calliste bourcieri Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, p. 76, "Jan.,'* 
1851 Ecuador (type in Paris Museum). 

"Call" bourcieri Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 129, "March," 1851 
type stated to be from "des bois de Bagnos, pres du Tonguragua"= 
Banos, eastern Ecuador. 

Chlorochrysa calliparaea (not Callospiza calliparaea Tschudi) Sclater, Contrib. 
Orn., July, 1851, p. 99, pi. 73, fig. 1 part, Anolaima, Colombia; idem, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 Bogota; idem, I.e., 24, p. 266, 
1856 part, descr. et hab. Banos (Ecuador) and Anolaima (Colombia); 
idem, I.e., 26, p. 74, 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 61, 1862 Anolaima, Colombia. 

Chlorochrysa calliparia Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 465 part, Ecuador and Colombia 
(descr.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 90, 1886 part, Ecuador 
(Sarayacu, Rio Napo, "Quito," errore) and Colombia (Bogota). 

Chlorochrysa bourcieri Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1885, p. 77 Machay and Mapoto, Ecuador (crit.); Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1901, p. 459 Baeza, Ecuador; M6n6gaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Arme 
Mes. Arc Me>id. Equat., 9, p. B. 91, 1911 eastern Ecuador (crit.). 

Chlorochrysa calliparaea bourcieri Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1023, 1912 Colombia (Bogota, Anolaima) and eastern Ecuador 
(Banos, Mapoto, Machay, Sarayacu, Rio Napo, Baeza); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 591, 1917 near San Agustin and La 
Candela, Magdalena Valley, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 654, 1926 eastern 
Ecuador (Zamora, Sabanilla, Macas region, below San Jos6, lower Sumaco, 
Baeza) and northwestern Peru (Chaupe). 

Tanagrella dubusi Dubois, Arch. Cosmol., 1, No. 4, p. 118, pi. 7, 1867 
Ecuador (type in coll. of C. F. Dubois, present location unknown); 
Newton, Ibis, 1868, p. 112 (crit.). 

Chlorochrysa calliparaea calliparaea (not Callospiza calliparaea Tschudi) 
Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 438, 1930 Huachipa, 
Peru (crit.). 

1 Chlorochrysa calliparaea bourcieri (Bonaparte) : Similar to C. c. calliparaea, 
and resembling it in the black throat, but lacks the well-defined violet blue area 
underneath, the lower parts being shining grass green like the back and merely 
tinged with bluish (beryl green to cendre blue) in the middle and less so on the 
under tail coverts; forehead and sides of the head more greenish blue. Size about 
the same. 

Two "Bogota" skins agree with others from Ecuador, and I am not able to 
satisfactorily separate two adult males from Peru. One has the median portion 
of the under parts, I admit, more deeply bluish (nearly oxide blue, when held 
against the light), but the other example hardly differs from Ecuadorian speci- 
mens. They are, however, quite distinct from calliparaea, of the Junfn district. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 2. Ecuador: El Topo, Rio Pastaza, 
1; Alpayacu, Rio Pastaza, 1; Machay, 4; Rio Napo, 3; San JosS, 1; "Ambato," 
1; unspecified, 3. Peru: Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, 3. 



76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Colombia (Magdalena 
Valley), eastern Ecuador, and northern Peru (Chaupe, east of 
Huancabamba, Prov. Jaen; Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco). 

3: Peru (Huachipa, 3). 

Chlorochrysa calliparaea calliparaea (Tschudi). 1 PERUVIAN 
CHLOROCHRYSA. 

Callospiza calliparaea (Lichtenstein MS.) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), 
p. 286, 1844 Peru (the type examined in the Berlin Museum, No. 5655, 
was obtained by B. Philippi in the "Chinchon forests" of Dept. Junin); 
idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 202, 1846 Peru. 

Calliste calliparaea Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 235, 1850 Peru 
(ex Tschudi). 

Chlorochrysa calliparaea Sclater, Contrib. Orn., July, 1851, p. 99 part, 
Peru; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 266, 1856 part, eastern Peru 
(ex Tschudi); Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 515- Amable Maria and Puma- 
marca; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 452, 1884 same localities; Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 341 Garita del Sol, Vitoc, 
Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1023, 1912 
Peru (Chinchon forests, Amable Maria, Pumamarca, Garita del Sol, 
"Chanchamayo"). 

Chlorochrysa calliparia Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 465 part, Peru (Amable Maria, 
Pumamarca); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 90, 1886 part, Peru. 

Chlorochrysa calliparaea caeruleipectus Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
82, p. 375, Dec., 1930 Enenas, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Range. Subtropical zone of central Peru, in Dept. of Junin 
(Amable Maria, Pumamarca, Enenas, Garita del Sol). 

Chlorochrysa calliparaea fulgentissima Chapman. 2 HEDWIG'S 
CHLOROCHRYSA. 

1 Chlorochrysa calliparaea calliparaea (Tschudi), in the coloration of the under 
parts, is exactly intermediate between C. c. bourcieri and C. c. fulgentissima, the 
throat being black as in the former, while the median portion of the breast and the 
abdominal line are brilliant violet blue strongly contrasted with the grass green of 
the sides and under tail coverts, exactly as in fulgentissima. Size and color of the 
orange spots on the anterior crown and sides of the neck as well as the bright orange 
uropygial patch are the same as in bourcieri. 

Examination of Tschudi's type shows C. c. caeruleipectus to be an absolute ; 
synonym of calliparaea, the Huachipa specimens used by Mr. Carriker for com-; 
parison being C. c. bourcieri. 

Material examined. Peru: Chinchon forests of Junin, 1 (type of C. calli-\ 
paraea); Garita del Sol, 1; Amable Maria, 1. 

2 Chlorochrysa calliparaea fulgentissima Chapman: Similar on the under parts 
to C. c. calliparaea, but throat violet blue like the median pectoral area instead ol 
black; spot on the anterior crown much smaller and paler, nearly straw yellow 
uropygial patch deeper, more reddish orange; spot on sides of neck much smaller, 
deeper in color, reddish orange to coral red, and composed of lengthened, rather rigic 
feathers. Wing, 70-73, (female) 67-69; tail, 42-46, (female) 39-43; bill, 12-13 

Material examined. Peru: Huaynapata, 5; Marcapata, 6. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 77 

Chlorochrysa fulgentissima Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 14, p. 225, 
Sept. 7, 1901 Inca Mine [ = Santo Domingo], southeastern Peru (type 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Berlepsch, 
Ibis, 1903, p. 135 (crit.). 

Chlorochrysa hedwigae Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ibis, (8), 1, p. 716, pi. 15, 
Oct., 1901 Huaynapata, Marcapata, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; 
cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, 
p. 181, 1927); idem, Ornis, 13, p. 108, 1906 Huaynapata; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1024, 1912 southeastern Peru. 

Range. Subtropical zone of southeastern Peru, in Dept. of Puno 
(Huaynapata, Marcapata; Santo Domingo). 

*Chlorochrysa nitidissima Sclater. SALMON'S CHLOROCHRYSA. 

Chlorochrysa nitidissima Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 728 
State of Antioquia, Colombia (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum); idem, Ibis, 1875, p. 466, pi. 10 Antioquia; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 498 Jerico, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 91, 1886 Jerico, Antioquia; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1024, 1912 Antioquia and "Bogota"; 
Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1101 Siato, Rio Siato, and 
Pueblo Rico, Colombia (descr. of young); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 592, 1917 Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Gallera, and Salento, 
Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the western and central and probably 
also of the eastern Andes of Colombia. 1 
1: Colombia ("Bogota," 1). 

Genus PIPRAEIDEA Swainson 

Pipraeidea Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, p. 173, 1827 type, by monotypy, 

Pipraeidea cyanea Swainson =T<ma0ra melanonota Vieillot. 
Pipridea Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 265, 1856 (emendation). 

*Pipraeidea melanonota melanonota (Vieillot). DARK-BACKED 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra melanonota Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 32, p. 407, 
1819 Brazil, coll. Delalande, Jr., = Rio de Janeiro (type in Paris Museum). 

Tanagra vittata Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 8, pi. 48, March, 1821 

Brazil (type probably in Leiden Museum). 
Tanagra melanotha Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., livr. 91, p. 773, 1822 

emendation of T. melanonota Vieillot. 

1 Though definitely recorded only from the western and central Andes, this 
isolated species probably also occurs in the eastern Andes, as it is occasionally 
met with in native "Bogota" collections. 

Additional material examined. Western Andes: Riolima, 2; Siato, 1; Pueblo 
Rico, 1; Antioquia, 1. "Bogota," 2. 



78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pipraeidea cyanea Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, p. 174, 1827 Brazil (type in coll. 
of W. Swainson, now in University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.). 

Aglaia vittata Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 98, 1841 Maldonado, 
Uruguay. 

Procnopis melanota Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, p. 80, 
1851 Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 190, 1856 
Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Calliste melanonota Sclater, Contrib. Orn., July, 1851, p. 60 (monog.). 

Pipridea melanonota Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 265, 1856 Brazil, 
Uruguay, and Paraguay (monog.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 205, 1870 Rio 
de Janeiro, Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Cimeterio), and Parana (Curytiba); Ca- 
banis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Ber- 
lepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 118, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande 
do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 92, 1886 part, spec, a-i, 
Bahia, "Rio Claro, Goyaz," and Pelotas, Brazil; Boucard and Berlepsch, 
The Humming Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro; Salvadori, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 4, 1895 San Pablo, Tucuman; 
Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 118, 1899 Mundo Novo; 
idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 146, 1899 Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Iporanga); 
idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; Chubb, 
Ibis, 1910, p. 624 Sapucay, Paraguay; Me"negaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 
11, p. 7, 1919 Villa Lutetia, Misiones; [Anonymous], El Hornero, 3, 
p. 427, 1926 Moreno, Prov. Buenos Aires. 

Pipraeidea melanonota Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 351, 1891 
Chapada, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 350, 1907 
Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Campos de Jordao, ItararS, Sao Jose do Rio Pardo, 
Iporanga) and Rio Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Dabbene, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 374, 1910 part, Buenos Aires (Barracas 
al Sud); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1024, 1912 
Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and "Goyaz"; Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. 
Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 486, 499, 1912 Vera Guarany, Parana; 
Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 361, 1914 Barracas (Buenos Aires) 
and Santa Ana (Misiones); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 Alto 
Parana; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay (Canelones, 
Florida); Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 192, 1926 
Parana (Rio Claro, Fazenda Firmiano); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 27, 
1927 Moreno (F.C.O.), Argentina. 

Pepraeidea [sic] melanonota Miranda-Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
13, p. 186, 1905 Morro dos Carneiros and Retire do Ramos, Itatiaya. 

Pipridaea melanonota melanonota Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 320, 
1928 Itatiaya; Naumburg, I.e., 60, p. 371, 1930 Matto Grosso (range). 

Pipridea melanonota melanonota Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 170, 
1909 Barracas al Sud, Prov. Buenos Aires. 

Pipraceidea [sic] melanonota Miranda-Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
24, p. 254, 1923 Retiro do Ramos, Itatiaya. 

Pipraeidia melanonota Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 656, 
1924 Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 79 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil from Bahia to 
Rio Grande do Sul, west to Matto Grosso; Uruguay; Paraguay; 
northeastern Argentina (Misiones; Barracas al Sud and Moreno, 
Buenos Aires). 1 

12: Brazil (Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1; Joinville, Santa 
Catharina, 5; Urucum de Corumba, Matto Grosso, 1); Paraguay 
(Carayeni, 1); Argentina, Misiones (Caraguatay, 2; Eldorado, 2). 

*Pipraeidea melanonota venezuelensis (Sclater). 2 WESTERN 
DARK-BACKED TANAGER. 

Pipridea venezuelensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," p. 265, 
pub. Jan. 26, 1857 Caracas, Venezuela (type in Paris Museum); idem, 
I.e., 28, p. 65, 1860 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 61, 1862 Nanegal, Ecuador, and Caracas, Venezuela; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 780 Merida, Venezuela; Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 325 Canuto, Colombia. 

Pipridea melanonota (not Tanagra melanonota Vieillot) Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 226 Tambillo, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 
1879, p. 598 Tilotilo, Prov. Yungas, Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, 
p. 10 Huambo, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 92, 1886 
part, spec, j-g, Bolivia (Tilotilo), Venezuela (Caracas), Ecuador (Intag, 
Nanegal, "Quito"); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 37, 1888 
Tucuman; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 175, 1902 Tucuman 
(Tafi Viejo, Yerba-buena, San Pablo); idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 
3, No. 13, p. 41, 1905 same localities; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. 
Nat., 18, p. 374, 1910 part, Tucuman; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 
13, pp. 78, 109, 1906 Idma (Urubamba), Iscaybamba and Huayna- 
pata (Marcapata), Peru. 

Pipridea melanota Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 215, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman. 

Pipridea melanonota venezuelensis Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 289 Cayandeled, Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 

1 The few Argentine specimens that I have seen are extremely typical of 
the present form, and compare well with others from Brazil. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 3; Rio de Janeiro, 8; Sao Paulo, 
Ypanema, 5; Fazenda Cayoa, Rio Paranapanema, 2; Parana, Curytiba, 2; Ro?a 
Nova, Serra do Mar, 2; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 1. Argentina: Barracas al 
Sud, Prov. Buenos Aires, 1. 

2 Pipraeidea melanonota venezuelensis (Sclater) differs from the typical race 
by decidedly paler, buffy rather than deep ochraceous under parts and darker, 
more blackish blue interscapular region. I cannot, however, corroborate either 
the smaller bill or the shorter tail. Birds from Peru (Huaynapata), Bolivia, and 
Argentina average very slightly larger than those from more northern localities. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: mountains inland of Cuman&, 1; 
Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 1 ; Las Quiguas, San Esteban Valley, Carabobo, 2 ; Sierra 
of Merida (Merida, Valle, Escorial, Culata), 28. Colombia: "Bogota," 3. 
Ecuador: Ibarra, 1; west side of Pichincha, 1; Papallacta, 2; "Ambato," 1. Peru: 
Idma, Urubamba, 1. Bolivia: San Mateo, Cochabamba, 4. Argentina: San 
Francisco, Jujuy, 1; Villa Nougues, San Pablo, Tucuman, 4; Tafi Viejo, 4; Cerro 
de Tucuman, 1. 



80 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

2, p. 450, 1884 Peru (Tambillo, Cutervo to Socota, Huambo); Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 5, p. 481, 1898 Ibarra, Ecuador; Hartert and Venturi, 
I.e., 16, p. 170, 1909 Cerro de Tucuman and Tucuman; Chubb, Ibis, 
1910, p. 624 (in text) Ecuador (crit.); Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geog. 
Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 92, 1911 Gualea, Ecuador. 

Pipridea melanota venezuelensis Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 460 Pichincha 
and Papallacta, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 592, 
1917 Colombia (Rio Lima, Popayan, Aguadita, Tenasuca). 

Pipraeidea melanota venezuelensis Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 117, 1921 San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru. 

Pipraeidea melanonota venezuelensis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1024, 1912 Venezuela to Bolivia and Tucuman (excl. Para- 
guay); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 175, 1924 Galipan, 
Cerro del Avila, Venezuela (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 654, 1926 Zamora, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Venezuela (north coast mountains 
from Sucre to MeYida), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and 
northwestern Argentina (Jujuy to Tucuman). 

8: Colombia ("Bogota," 3); Venezuela (Escorial, 1; Montanas 
Sierra, 1); Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 2; Villa Nougues, 
San Pablo, Tucuman, 1). 

Genus PSEUDODACNIS Sclater 1 

Pseudodacnis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 138, 1886 type, by mono- 
typy, Dacnis hartlaubi Sclater. 

Pseudodacnis hartlaubi (Sclater). HARTLAUB'S PSEUDODACNIS. 

Dacnis hartlaubi Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, "1854," p. 251, pub. 
April, 1855 "Nova Grenada" (type in Bremen Museum). 

1 The systematic position of this peculiar genus is doubtful and cannot be 
determined until its anatomy has been studied. Although originally described as 
a Dacnis, it was afterwards referred to the tanagers by both Cabanis and Sclater. 
The late Count Berlepsch (Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1003, 1912), 
however, excludes it from this family without indicating its affinities. After exam- 
ining a small series, I find that, compared to Dacnis, the bill is much shorter, 
stouter, and more elevated, not unlike that of Calospiza in shape, though consid- 
erably longer. In coloration, on the other hand, P. hartlaubi strikingly recalls 
certain species of Dacnis. Viewed from above, it looks exactly like Dacnis lineata, \ 
but may be easily separated by the black gular patch and by lacking the white 
area on the breast and sides. The heretofore undescribed female is dull brown j 
above with pale greenish edges and tips, especially on rump and scapulars; the I 
greater upper wing coverts are dusky, apically and externally margined with I 
whity brown; wings and tail dusky brown, the inner secondaries with pale outer | 
edges; lores and sides of head light olivaceous brown; under parts buffy grayish, 
tinged with olive and passing into yellowish white along the middle line; under tail j 
coverts buffy; axillaries and under wing coverts dingy white; bill black with ex- 
treme base of lower mandible whitish. 

The habitat of this bird is very imperfectly known. In addition to eight skins 
of the common "Bogota" preparation, I have examined an adult male collected 
by Raap at (or rather above) Juntas, Rio Dagua, at an elevation of 1,200 feet. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 81 

Callispiza hartlaubii Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 88, 1861 New Granada 

(crit.). 
Calliste hartlaubi Sclater, Ibis, 1863, p. 452 (crit.); idem, Ibis, 1876, p. 410 

Bogota. 
Pseudodacnis hartlaubi Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 138, 1886 

Bogota. 

Range. Tropical zone of Colombia (above Juntas, Rio Dagua; 
"Bogota" collections). 

Genus GALOSPIZA G. R. Gray 1 

Calliste (not Callista Poli, 1791) Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 974 type, by virtual 

monotypy, Tanagra tricolor Gme\in=Tanagra seledon P. L. S. Miiller. 
Aglaia (not of Renier, 1804) Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, p. 347, 1827 type, 

by orig. desig., Tanagra tatao auct.=Af/Zai'a paradisea Swainson. 
Calospiza G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 44, 1840 type, by orig. desig., 

Tanagra tricolor Gme\m=Tanagra seledon P. L. S. Miiller. 
Procnopis Cabanis, 2 Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 284, 1844 type, by orig. 

desig., Procnopis atrocoerulea Tschudi. 
Callospiza Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 286, 1844 (emendation of 

Calospiza Gray). 
Gyrola Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 77, 1850; Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., 

(2), 3, p. 139, 1851 type, by tautonymy, Fringilla gyrola Linnaeus. 
Chalcothraupis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 131, 1851 type, by 

monotypy, Tanagra ruficervix Prevost and Des Murs. 
Chrysothraupis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 142, 1851 type, by 

subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 73, 1855), Tanagra arthus 

Lesson. 
Ixothraupis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 143, 1851 type, by subs. 

desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 73, 1855), Tanagra punctata 

Linnaeus. 
Euschemon Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 95 type, by monotypy, Tanagra 

flava Gmelin. 
Euprepiste Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 96 type, by monotypy, Tanagra 

brasiliensis Linnaeus. 
Diva Sclater, Tanag. Cat. Specif., p. 16, 1854 type, by orig. desig., Tanagra 

(Euphone?) vassorii Boissonneau. 
Callispiza Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 87, 1861 (emendation of Calospiza Gray). 

Calospiza chilensis paradisea (Swainson). PARADISE TANAGER. 

Aglaia paradisea Swainson, Nat. Hist. Classif. Bds., 2, p. 286, 1837 based on 
"Tangara du Bresil" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 127, fig. 1 [ = fig. 2], Brazil; 

1 1 cannot make out Calliste catamenia Bonaparte (Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 
139, 1851), described as "Viridis, vertice crissoque rufescentibus." No locality 
is indicated. Although the type is credited to the Leiden Museum, the name has 
never been quoted again in literature. According to G. C. W. Junge (in litt.), 
the specimen cannot be found in the collections at Leiden. 

2 Cf. De W. Miller, Auk, 36, pp. 576-577, 1919. 



82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

the specimen is much more likely to have come from Cayenne, French 
Guiana. 

Tatao paradiseus Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 141, 1851 Cayenne 
and "Brazil" (diag.). 

Calliste tatao (not Tanagra tatao Linnaeus?) 1 Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, 
(2), p. 234, 1850 Cayenne and "Brazil"; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, 
p. 50 Cayenne; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 187, 1856 
"lower Amazon, south to Pernambuco and Bahia," errore; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 244, 1856 part, Cayenne (diag.); idem, Monog. 
Genus Calliste, p. 1, pi. 1, fig. 1, 1857 part, Cayenne; idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 62, 1862 Cayenne; Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, 
p. 128, 1874 Rio Negro and Guianas; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 96, 1886 part, spec, a-d, Cayenne; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 432, 
1910 Surinam. 

Calospiza tatao Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 351, 1907 part, "Guyana, 
Amazonas, Rio Negro, Pernambuco" (errore). 

Tanagra talao [sic] Desmarest, Hist. Nat. Tang., text to pi. I, 2 1805 French 
Guiana (lie de Cayenne). 

Calliste coelicolor (not of Sclater) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 205, 1870 part, 

Barra do Rio Negro [ = Manaos] (spec, examined). 
Calospiza paradisea coelicolor Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

p. 1026, 1912 part, Manaos, Brazil. 
Calospiza paradisea Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 113, 1908 Cayenne; idem, 

Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1026, 1030, 1912 Cayenne 

and (?)Surinam. 

Range. French and Dutch Guiana, and northern Brazil 
(Manaos). 3 

1 1 am inclined to agree with Berlepsch and Hartert (Nov. Zool., 9, p. 18, 
1902) that Tanagra tatao Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 315, 1766) is of ques- 
tionable pertinence. While two of his references, "The Tit-mouse of Paradise" of 
Edwards (Glean. Nat. Hist., 3, p. 289, pi. 349; "Guiana") and "Le Tangara" of 
Brisson (Orn., 3, p. 3, pi. 1, fig. 1; Cayenne) clearly describe the Paradise Tanager, 
the "Tanagra brasiliensis" of Marcgrave (Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 214, pi. 215) is not 
that species, but possibly refers to C. fastuosa. From Linnaeus's ambiguous diag- 
nosis it cannot be concluded with any degree of certainty which one of the three 
references served as basis for his Tanagra tatao. Seba's "Avicula de Tatao," 
which supplied the specific name, is rather obscurely described and seems to point 
to some species with green upper, and spotted under parts, perhaps C. punctata. 

Tanagra viridis P. L. S. Miiller (Natursyst., Suppl., p. 158, 1776) is based on 
"Tangara" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 7, fig. 1, an artifact composed of the body of 
Calospiza c. paradisea and the tail of a parrot ( Urochroma batavica). 

2 The legend on the plate, "Tangara septicolor," is the French vernacular name. 

3 Five specimens from French Guiana and one from Surinam agree well to- 
gether. The only available Brazilian bird, an adult female from Manaos, is iden- 
tical in all essential points, and differs merely by deeper cadmium yellow rump, the 
absence of greenish yellow tips to the longest uropygial plumes, and by having 
the golden green hood more extended posteriorly. In the last-named, though in 
no other respect, the Manaos bird approaches the western C. c. coelicolor. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 4; Saint-Jean-du-Maroni, 1. 
Surinam: near Paramaribo, 1. Brazil: Manaos, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 83 

"Calospiza chilensis coelicolor (Sclater). 1 WESTERN PARADISE 
TANAGER. 

Calliste coelicolor Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 51 "Anolaima," Colom- 
bia (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 245, 
1856 "Bogota" (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 3, pi. 1, fig. 2, 
1857 "Bogota" (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 62, 1862 
"Anolaima"; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 205, 1870 part, Marabitanas, Rio 
Xie, and Rio Icanna, Brazil (spec, examined); Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. 
Belg., 38, p. 126, 1874 (crit.). 

Tanagra tatao (not of Linnaeus) Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 245, 
1848 "Our Village," Kukenam Valley, south of Roraima. 

Callospiza tatao Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 669, 
"1848" [=1849] vicinity of Roraima. 

Calliste tatao Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 244, 1856 part, British 
Guiana (Schomburgk) and upper Rio Negro (Wallace); idem, Monog. 
Gen. Calliste, p. 1, 1857 part, British Guiana and upper Rio Negro; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 209 Merume Mountains and Roraima, British 
Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 96, 1886 part, spec, e-q, 
British Guiana (Merume Mountains, Roraima), Marabitanas, and Co- 
lombia ("Bogota," "Anolaima"); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 351, 
1907 part, Colombia ("Bogota"). 

Calliste tatao var. o coelicolor Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 128, 

1874 Colombia. 
Calliste paradisea (not Aglaia paradisea Swainson) Berlepsch and Hartert, 

Nov. Zool., 9, p. 18, 1902 Suapure and Nicare, Caura, Venezuela; 

Andre, Naturalist in the Guianas, p. 190 (col. pi.), 1904 Nicare River, 

Venezuela. 
Tangara paradisea Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 172, 1916 

Caura Valley, Venezuela; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 504, 1921 

British Guiana (Roraima, Merume Mountains, Ireng River). 

1 Calospiza chilensis coelicolor (Sclater) : Nearest to C. c. paradisea, but larger 
and with differently colored upper wing coverts. The smaller series, excepting 
a half-concealed restricted yellow green spot at the humeral edge, are shining cendre 
blue, forming a large pale blue area, whereas only the terminal row of the median 
coverts is violet blue like the throat. The scarlet of the middle back as a rule is 
somewhat darker and more extensive, the rump cadmium yellow rather than light 
cadmium, etc. Wing, 76-81, (female) 74-77; tail, 52-60. 

While birds from the upper Rio Negro agree with "Bogota" skins, those from 
British Guiana and Venezuela (Caura Valley), in coloration, frequently show an 
approach to C. c. paradisea, though, taken as a whole, they are nearer to C. c. 
coelicolor, which they resemble in dimensions. The distribution of this form in 
Colombia remains to be determined. Although common in "Bogota" collections, 
it has not actually been collected at any definite locality, and its range in Colombia 
is probably confined to the Tropical zone at the eastern base of the eastern Andes 
north of the Guaviare River. The type locality "Anolaima" a place on the 
Magdalena slope of the eastern Andes can hardly be correct. 

Additional material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 1; Merume Moun- 
tains, 2. Venezuela: SuapurS, Caura, 2; Nicare, Caura district, 10. Brazil: 
Marabitanas, 1; Rio Xie, 1; Rio Icanna, 1. Colombia: "Bogota," 25. 



84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calliste tatao coelicolor Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 "Bogota." 
Calospiza paradisea coelicolor Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1026, 1912 part, Colombia ("Bogota," "Anolaima"), British Guiana 
(Roraima, Merum6 Mountains), Venezuela (Caura Valley), and Brazil 
(Marabitanas, Rio Icanna, Rio Xie); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, 
p. 443, 1914 Cassiquiare. 

Tangara paradisea caelicolor Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 127, 
1931 Roraima (Paulo, Arabupu), foot of Duida, and Rio Uaupes (crit.). 

Range. Western British Guiana (Roraima and Merum Moun- 
tains), southern Venezuela (Caura Valley; foot of Mount Duida; 
Cassiquiare), and adjoining parts of Brazil (upper Rio Negro and 
tributaries), extending obviously to the eastern base of the eastern 
Andes of Colombia (common in native "Bogota" collections). 

2: British Guiana (Roraima, 1); Colombia ("Bogota," 1). 

*Calospiza chilensis chlorocorys (Zimmer). 1 PERUVIAN PARA- 
DISE TANAGER. 

Tangara chilensis chlorocorys Zimmer, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 91, 1929 

Vista Alegre, junction of the Chinchao and Huallaga rivers, Prov. 

Huanuco, Peru (type in Field Museum); idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Zool. Ser., 17, p. 439, 1930 Vista Alegre and Huachipa, Peru. 
Calliste coelicolor (not of Sclater) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, 

p. 11 Huambo (spec, examined); idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 458, 1884 

Huambo. 
Calliste tatao (not Tanagra tatao Linnaeus) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 

p. 96, 1886 part, spec, r, Huambo. 
Calospiza paradisea coelicolor Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

p. 1026, 1912 part, northeastern Peru (Huambo, Huayabamba). 

Range. Eastern Peru, in the Tropical zone of the upper Huallaga 
River, from the Huayabamba River and its tributaries south to 
the Chinchao River. 

10: Peru (Nuevo Loreto, near Tayabamba, 3; Vista Alegre, 
Huanuco, 4; Huachipa, Huanuco, 3). 

*Calospiza chilensis chilensis (Vigors). RED-RUMPED PARADISE 
TANAGER. 

Aglaia chilensis Vigors, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corr. Zool. Soc. Lond., 2, p. 3, 
1832 no locality stated, but presumed to be "Chile" = Bolivia (as sub- 

1 Calospiza chilensis chlorocorys (Zimmer) : Very similar to C. c. coelicolor, 
but on average larger; black frontal band narrower, reduced to a mere edge; green 
cap farther extended posteriorly and of a brighter, more yellowish green hue; 
rump generally slightly paler yellow. Wing, 78-82, (female) 76-79; tail, 54 
(female), 61 (male). 

The range of this form, restricted to certain valleys of the upper Huallaga 
basin, is entirely cut off from that of the Western Paradise Tanager by the inter- 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 85 

stituted by Hellmayr and Berlepsch) (type in coll. of H. Cuming, doubt- 
less lost). 

Aglaia yeni Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, 
p. 31, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia (types in Paris Museum examined). 

Tanagra yeni d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame>. Me>id., Ois., p. 270, pi. 24, fig. 2, 1839 
Yungas and Yuracares, Bolivia. 

Callospiza yeni Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 286, 1844 Peru; idem, 
Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 201, 1846 wood region of eastern Peru. 

Calliste yeni Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 250, 1850 Bolivia; 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 51 Bolivia and Peru; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 245, 1856 Bolivia (Yuracares, Yungas) and River 
Ucayali, Peru (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 5, pi. 2, 1857 
Bolivia and Peru (monog.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 453, 1858 
Gualaquiza, Ecuador; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1866, p. 180 upper 
Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, pp. 749, 977 Xeberos, Chyavetas, and 
Pebas, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 206, 1870 Engenho do Gama, 
Matto Grosso, Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, 
p. 261 upper Ucayali, Nauta, Xeberos, Chyavetas, and Pebas, Peru; 
Sclater, I.e., 1873, p. 780 Cosnipata, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 
514 Monterico, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 598 Typuani 
and Tilotilo, Yungas, Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, p. 11 Yurimaguas, 
Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 457, 1884 Peru (Monterico, Ucayali, Chya- 
vetas, Xeberos, Pebas, Yurimaguas, Quebrada de San Gaban, Carabaya) ; 
Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 77 Machay, 
Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 97, 1886 Bolivia (Ty- 
puani, Tilotilo), Peru (Pebas), and Ecuador (Sarayacu, Rio Napo); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 71, 81, 1889 Rio Napo, Ecuador, 
and Mapiri, Bolivia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 296, 1889 Sarayacu 
(Ucayali) and Cumbase, near Tarapoto, Peru; Salvadori and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 15, 1899 Gualaquiza and Zamora, 
Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 460 Rio Coca, Ecuador, and 
Iquitos, Peru. 

Calliste tatao var. ft yeni Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 128, 
1874 (range). 

Calliste chilensis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 
339 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru. 

Calospiza chilensis Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 1905 Rio Jurua, 
Brazil; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 109, 1906 Huaynapata 
and Rio Cadena, Peru; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 351, 1907 Rio 
Jurua (range); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 9, 1908 Cachoeira and Bom 
Lugar, Rio Purus, Brazil; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 273, 1910 Calama, 
Rio Madeira; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Gogr. Arm6e Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 92, 1911 Macas, Rio Napo, and Gualaquiza, Ecuador; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1026, 1912 from 

position of C. c. chilensis, as has been explained at length by its describer. The 
differences separating it from C. c. coelicolor, though slight and sometimes obliter- 
ated by individual variation, are quite noticeable when series are compared. 
Additional material examined. Peru: Huambo, 2: Huayabamba, 14. 



86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

southeastern Colombia (Rio Putumayo) through eastern Ecuador and 
Peru to Bolivia and western Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 
443, 1914 Rio Purus (Cachoeira, Bom Lugar); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Canelos, Ecuador. 

Tangara chilensis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 593, 1917 
Andalucia, head of Magdalena Valley, and Florencia, Caqueta, Colom- 
bia; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 Charapi, Prov. Jaen, Peru; 
Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 117, 1921 Rio Cosireni and 
Rio Comberciato, Urubamba, Peru; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 236, 
1923 Yuracares, Bolivia (note on types); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 655, 1926 eastern Ecuador (Guayaba, Rio Zamora; Zamora; 
below San Jose; Rio Suno); Naumburg, I.e., 60, p. 371, 1930 Rio Roose- 
velt, Matto Grosso. 

Tangara chilensis chilensis Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 439, 1930 Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of Upper Amazonia, from southern 
Colombia (Andalucia, head of Magdalena Valley; Florencia and 
Rio Putumayo, Caqueta) through eastern Ecuador and eastern Peru 
(excepting certain valleys of the upper Huallaga drainage) to 
northern Bolivia and the adjacent districts of western Brazil (Rio 
Jurua; Rio Purus; Rio Roosevelt and Rio Guapore*, northwestern 
Matto Grosso; Calama, Rio Madeira). 1 

15: Peru (Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, 4; Moyobamba, 8; 
Yahuas, near Pebas, 1; Rioja, 1); Ecuador (Sarayacu, 1). 

Calospiza fastuosa (Lesson). 2 SUPERB TANAGER. 

Tanagra fastuosa Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 184, pi. 58, circa 1831 Brazil (type 
in coll. of M. Parhuit, doubtless lost). 

1 1 cannot make out any racial variation between a topotypical Bolivian 
series and others from northern Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. C. c. chilensis, 
while agreeing with C. c. chlorocorys and C. c. coelicolor in the large extent of the 
cendre blue patch on the upper wing coverts and long cap, is readily distinguished 
by having the rump scarlet like the lower back. Yet one of our Moyobamba 
birds has these parts orange chrome, exactly intermediate between the normal 
red of chilensis and the yellow of the two other western races. The occurrence 
of this mutant, taken in conjunction with the fact that the Moyobamba series and 
other individuals from northern Peru in the tone of the green hood connect typical 
chilensis with C. c. chlorocorys, plainly indicates intergradation and leads us to 
unite the red-rumped chilensis and the Paradise Tanagers with bicolored lower 
back in a single specific entity, as has first been suggested by Zimmer. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: CuembI, Rio Putumayo, 4. 
Ecuador: San Jose, 2; Rio Napo, 1; Sarayacu, 3. Peru: Iquitos, 15; Huaynapata, 
Marcapata, 3; Caradoc, Marcapata, 1. Bolivia: Yuracares, 2; San Mateo, 12. 
Brazil: Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, 1; Calama, Rio Madeira, 1. 

2 A very peculiar species with remarkably large bill. The only specimens 
from precise localities that we have seen are those collected by the late W. A. 
Forbes in the State of Pernambuco, all the others being either cage-birds or merely 
marked "Brazil." Whether this species really extends south into Bahia is extremely 
doubtful, but it may be expected to occur in Alagoas, Parahyba, and Rio Grande 
do Norte, concerning which there are few published records. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 87 

Calliste fastuosa Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 235, 1850 Brazil; 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 52 Brazil; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 246, 1856 Pernambuco, Brazil (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Cal- 
liste, p. 9, pi. 4, 1857 Pernambuco (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 62, 1862 Pernambuco; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 331 Macuca, 
Quipapa, and Cabo, Pernambuco; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
98, 1886 Pernambuco. 

Calospiza fastuosa Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 351, 1907 Pernambuco; 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1026, 1912 Pernam- 
buco and (?)Bahia. 

Range. Eastern Brazil, in State of Pernambuco (Macuca; 
Quipapa; Cabo). 

*Calospiza seledon (P. L. S. Muller). GREEN-HEADED TANAGER. 

Tanagra seledon P. L. S. Miiller, 1 Natursyst., Suppl., p. 158, 1776 based on 
"Tangara varie a tete verte de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 33, 
fig. 1; "Cayenne," errore=Rio de Janeiro (auct. Berlepsch, 1912). 

Tanagra tricolor Gmelin, 2 Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 891, 1789 based on "Le Tan- 
gara vari6 a teste verte de Cayenne" Brisson (Orn., 6, Suppl., p. 59, pi. 
4, fig. 1), "Le Tricolor" Buffon and Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 33, fig. 1; 
"Cayenne" (errore). 

Calliste septemcolora Bertoni, Revista de Agronomfa y Cienc. Aplic. (Bol. 
Escuela de Agric. Asuncion), 1, p. 530, 1899 Paraguay (type in coll. 
of A. de W. Bertoni); idem, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, p. 89, 1901 Alto 
Parand, Paraguay. 

Tanagra tatao (not of Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 459, 
1830 Rio de Janeiro, Cabo Frio, Gurapina, etc., Rio (habits); (?)d'0r- 
bigny, Voy. Amer. Me>id., Ois., p. 270, 1839 St. Christophe, near Rio 
de Janeiro (cf. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 236, 1923). 

Calliste tricolor Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 234, 1850 Brazil; 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 51 Brazil; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 246, 1856 Brazil (descr.); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 
3, p. 187, 1856 Rio de Janeiro to Bahia, Nova Friburgo (habits); Sclater, 
Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 7, pi. 3, 1857 Rio to Bahia (monog.); Pelzeln, 
Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 91, 1865 Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro; 
Euler, Journ. Orn., 15, p. 410, 1867 (nest and eggs); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 206, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Registo do Sai) and Sao 
Paulo (Ypanema); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 99, 1886 Bahia, 
Rio de Janeiro, "Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul," and "Rio Claro, Goyaz," 
errore; Boucard and Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 
Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 146, 1899 
Iguap^, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova 
Friburgo. 

1 Although Miiller's description is faulty ("der Riicken, die Kehle und der 
Burzel sind gelb") as in other cases where similar evidences for the author's care- 
lessness may be noticed, his name is clearly based on Daubenton's figure cited 
above, a good representation of the Green-headed Tanager. 

* Gmelin's variety "" does not belong here. This is C. cyanocephala (P. L. 
S. Muller). 



88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tatao tricolor Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 141, 1851 Brazil. 

Callispiza tricolor Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio. 

Calospiza tricolor Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 351, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Iguape, Alto da Serra, Santos, Ubatuba) and Espirito Santo (Irara, 
Porto Cachoeiro) (range); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
(3), 11, p. 375, 1910 Misiones and Paraguay (Alto Parana). 

Calospiza seledon Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1027, 
1131, 1912 Brazil (Bahia to Santa Catharina) and Paraguay. 

Tangara seledon Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 362, 1914 Misiones (Iguazu 
and Santa Ana); Hellmayr, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 128, 1915 Vic- 
toria, Espirito Santo; Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 33, 1927 Misiones. 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Bahia to Santa Catharina, and the Argentine Territory of Misiones, 
including the adjacent stretches of eastern Paraguay (Alto Parana). 1 

14: Brazil (Bahia, 2; Rio de Janeiro, 9; Joinville, Santa 
Catharina, 3). 

*Calospiza cyanocephala cyanocephala (P. L. S. Miiller). RED- 
NECKED TANAGER. 

Tanagra cyanocephala P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 159, 1776 
based on "Tangara varie a tte bleue de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., 
pi. 33, fig. 2; "Cayenne" (errore) = Rio de Janeiro (auct. Berlepsch, 1912); 
Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 32, p. 425, 1819 Brazil and 
"Peru," rare in "Guiana." 

Aglaia cyanocephala Swainson, Ornith. Draw., Part 1, pi. 5, 1834. 

Tanagra festiva Shaw and Nodder, Natur. Misc., 13, pi. 537, 1802 "Cay- 
enne" (location of type not stated). 

Tanagra trichroa Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 30, 1823 
based on Tanagra tricolor var. ft Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 891, 1789 
(ex "Le Tangara varie a teste bleue de Cayenne" Brisson, Orn., 6, Suppl., 
p. 62, pi. 4, fig. 2, et Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 33, fig. 2; "Cayenne," errore). 

Tanagra rubricollis (Temminck MS.) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 
456, 1830 Fazenda Gurapina, near Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro (type now 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 219, 1889). 

Tanagra multicolor Descourtilz, Ornith. Bresil., livr. 3, p. 30, pi. 34, fig. 3, 
1856(?) Brazil (no locality specified, but probably vicinity of Rio de 
Janeiro). 

Calliste festiva Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 234, 1850 Brazil; 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 51 Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 

1 The localities "Rio Claro, Goyaz," and "Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul," are 
evidently erroneous. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 3; Victoria, Espirito Santo, 
2; Nova Friburgo, Rio, 1; Registo do Sai, Rio, 1; Rio de Janeiro, 1; Ypanema, 
Sao Paulo, 1; Curucatu, Sao Paulo, 2; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 22. Paraguay: 
Cambyreta, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 89 

Th. Bras., 3, p. 188, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; Sclater, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 24, p. 246, 1856 southeastern Brazil (descr.); idem, Monog. 

Gen. Calliste, p. 11, pi. 5, 1857 Rio de Janeiro (monog.); idem, Cat. 

Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 63, 1862 Rio de Janeiro; Pelzeln, Reise Novara, 

Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 91, 1865 Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro; idem, Orn. 

Bras., 3, p. 206, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Registo do Sai, Corcovado); 

Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 302 Sao Paulo (Serra south of Sao Paulo and 

south of Itapetininga) ; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 118, 

1885 Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 100, 

1886 part, spec, c-i, Rio, Nova Friburgo, and Sao Paulo; Ihering, Ann. 

Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. 

Mus. Paul., 3, p. 147, 1899 IguapS, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 

1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Tatao festivus Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 141, 1851 Brazil. 
Callispiza festiva Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de 

Janeiro. 
Calospiza festiva Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 351, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape, 

Alto da Serra, Ubatuba, Estagao Rio Grande) and Parana (range excl. 

Bahia and Pernambuco). 
Calospiza cyanocephala Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

p. 1027, 1912 Espirito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul. 
Tangara cyanocephala cyanocephala Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 

128, 1915 Victoria, Espirito Santo (crit.). 
Tangara cyanocephala Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 33, 1927 Misiones. 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Espirito 
Santo to Rio Grande do Sul, and the adjacent parts of the Argentine 
Province of Misiones. 1 

15: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 13; "Rio skin," 2). 

*Calospiza cyanocephala corallina Berlepsch. 2 NORTHERN RED- 
NECKED TANAGER. 

Calospiza cyanocephala corallina Berlepsch, Orn. Monatsber., 11, p. 18, 1903 
Bahia, Brazil (type in Berlepsch Collection, now in Frankfort Museum); 
idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1027, 1912 Bahia and 
Pernambuco. 

1 Birds from various parts of the range agree well together, although the few 
seen from Espirito Santo possibly have the red collar of a very slightly lighter 
tone. There is considerable individual variation in size. 

Additional material examined. Espirito Santo: Victoria, 2. Rio de Janeiro: 
Rio de Janeiro, 5; Registo do Sai, 1; Corcovado, 1. Sao Paulo: Sao Sebastiao, 
2. Parana: Curytiba, 1. Santa Catharina: Joinville, 72. 

2 Calospiza cyanocephala corallina Berlepsch: Similar to C. c. cyanocephala, 
but decidedly smaller; adult males with nuchal collar and sides of head paler, flame 
scarlet to grenadine red rather than deep scarlet; the cadmium yellow wing band 
narrower; the reddish line separating the blackish chin from the blue gular spot 
markedly wider and paler, less scarlet; the green of the under parts generally of 
a lighter, more yellowish hue. Wing, 60-64; tail, 41-46. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 12; Quipapa, Pernambuco, 1. 



90 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calliste f estiva (not Tanagra f estiva Shaw and Nodder) Forbes, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 332 near Quipapa, Pernambuco; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 100, 1886 part, Pernambuco (spec, b) and Bahia. 

Calospiza f estiva Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 351, 1907 part, Pernam- 
buco and Bahia. 

Range. Wooded region of eastern Brazil, from Bahia to 
Pernambuco. 

1: Brazil (Bahia, 1). 

*Calospiza cyanocephala cearensis (Cory). 1 CEARA RED- 
NECKED TANAGER. 

Tangara cyanocephala cearensis Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
p. 345, 1916 Serra de Baturite, Ceara (type in Field Museum); Hell- 
mayr, I.e., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 279, 1929 Serra de Baturite" (crit). 

Calospiza cyanocephala cearensis Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
2, No. 6, p. 41, 1926 Ceara (crit.). 

Range. Wooded hills of northeastern Brazil, in State of Ceara 
(Serra de Baturit and other ranges). 
4: Ceara (Serra de Baturite", 4). 

Calospiza cyanoventris (Vieillot). BLUE-BREASTED TANAGER. 

Tanagra cyanoventris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 32, p. 426, 

1819 "Bre"sil"; idem, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., livr. 91, p. 781, 1822 

Bresil (type stated to be in Paris Museum, where it is still preserved [fide 

J. Berlioz, in litt.]); Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 10, p. 470, 

1858 (crit.). 
Tanagra elegans (not of P. L. S. MiiHeF, 1776) Wied, Reise Bras., 1, p. 187, 

(8vo ed., p. 184), 1820 Barra do Jucu, Espirito Santo (type now in the 

American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. N. H., 2, p. 219, 1889). 
Tanagra citrinella Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 7, pi. 42, fig. 2, Feb., 

1821 "Bresil" (type, from Ypanema, Sao Paulo, in the Leiden Museum); 

Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 464, 1830 Barra do Jucu, 

Espirito Santo. 

Aglaia citrinella Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 1, pi. 6, 1834. 
Calliste citrinella Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 234, 1850 Brazil; 

Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 184, 1856 Espirito Santo to 

Bahia "and Pernambuco." 
Chrysothraupis cilrinella Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 142, 

1851 Brazil. 

1 Calospiza cyanocephala cearensis (Cory) : A very distinct form, differing in 
the male sex from the two other races by deeper, more purplish blue crown; blackish 
upper throat; and particularly by the presence of long pale cerulean blue tips to 
the shorter upper tail coverts, the last-named character being suggested even in 
females and immature males. In dimensions, width of orange wing band, and 
intensity of nuchal collar, it is nearer to C. c. cyanocephala than to C. c. corallina. 
Wing (adult males), 64-69; tail, 47-50; bill, 10. 



.936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 91 

Calliste cyaneiventris Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 52 Brazil; idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 247, 1856 southeastern Brazil (diag.); idem, 
Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 14, pi. 6, 1857 Espirito Santo (Rio Jucu) and 
Sao Paulo (Ypanema); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 63, 1862 Rio- 
de Janeiro; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 206, 1870 Ypanema, Sao Paulo; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 100, 1886 Espirito Santo to Sao 
Paulo (Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos do Pinhal, Piquete); idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 
1900 Cantagallo, Rio. 

Calospiza cyaneiventris Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 352, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Piquete, Sao Carlos do Pinhal) and Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre, 
Marianna); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1027, 
1912 Bahia to Sao Paulo. 

Calospiza cyaniventris Miranda-Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
24, p. 254, 1923 Mont-Serrat, Itatiaya; Velho, I.e., p. 264, 1923 same 
locality. 

Tangara cyaneiventris Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 320, 1928 
Serra do Itatiaya (alt. 3,100 ft.). 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
3ahia, Espirito Santo, and southern Minas Geraes (Marianna, 
/argem Alegre) to Sao Paulo. 1 

'Calospiza desmaresti (Vieillot). YELLOW-BREASTED TANAGER. 

Tanagra desmaresti Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. eel., 32, p. 410, 
1819 "Bresil"; idem, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., livr. 91, p. 774, 1822 
"Bresil" (type, collected by Delalande, Jr., in the vicinity of Rio de 
Janeiro, examined in the Paris Museum); Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 7, p. 354, 1855 (crit.). 

Tanagra thoracica Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 7, pi. 42, fig. 1, Feb., 
1821 "Bresil" (type, collected by Delalande, Jr., in the vicinity of Rio 
de Janeiro, in the Paris Museum). 2 

1 Whether its range extends really as far north as Pernambuco, as is claimed 
>y Burmeister (whose notes on distribution are frequently more or less imaginary) 
emains to be confirmed. 

Material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 2; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 8. 

2 In the text to pi. 42, fig. 1, Temminck states that specimens were forwarded 
)y M. Delalande to the Paris Museum, while those in the Leiden and Vienna 
Elections are due to the researches of J. Natterer. According to the registers 
>f the Vienna Museum, the examples which passed by way of exchange into the 
Leiden Museum are a male and a female shot by Natterer on Sept. 18, 1820, at 
Faguaraiba; but since we know from Josef Natterer's account (in Oken's Isis, 1833, 
j. 546) that the collections made by his brother between July, 1820, and February 1, 
1821, did not reach Vienna until October, 1821, whereas Temminck's plate was 
ssued with livr. 7 in February, 1821, it is quite evident that Huet's figure must 
lave been drawn from Delalande's specimen in the Paris Museum, which thus 
nay be assumed to be the type. The same individual served as basis for the 
iescription of T. desmaresti Vieillot, which, though faulty in several respects, 
cannot refer to any other bird, as we have explained elsewhere (Verh. Orn. Ges. 
Bay., 14, pp. 282-283, 1920). The text to pi. 42 of Temminck's "Nouveau 
rlecueil" appeared more than a year later, together with livr. 21, in April, 1822, 
hus allowing the author to include the specimens received in the meantime from 
he Vienna Museum. 



92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calliste thoradca Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 234, 1850 Brazil; 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 54 Brazil; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 247, 1856 southeastern Brazil (descr.); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 186, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; Sclater, Monog. Gen. 
Calliste, p. 15, pi. 7, 1857 Brazil; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 63, 
1862 Rio de Janeiro; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 206, 1870 Sao Paulo 
(Casa Pintada) and Parana (Jaguaraiba, Campo Comprido, Curytiba); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 101, 1886 southeastern Brazil 
("Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul" and Rio Claro, "Goyaz," errore); Ihering, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 147, 1899 Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 
Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro. 

Calospiza thoradca Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 352, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Ypiranga, Alto da Serra, Itarare, Ubatuba, Campos de Jordao) and 
Minas Geraes (Itatiaya); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1027, 1912 southeastern Brazil and "Goyaz" (errore); Miranda- 
Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 254, 1923 Retiro do 
Ramos, Itatiaya. 

Calospiza (Calliste) thoradca Lxiderwaldt, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, p. 356, 
1909 Campo Itatiaya. 

Tangara thoradca Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 320, 1928 Serra 
do Itatiaya. 

Tangara desmaresti Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 14, p. 283, 1920 (crit.). 

Chrysothraupis thoradca Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 143, 1851 
Brazil. 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Rio de 
Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, Cantagallo, etc.) through 
Sao Paulo to Parana (Jaguaraiba, Campo Comprido, Curytiba). 1 

12: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1; Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 11). 

Calospiza gouldi (Sclater). 2 GOULD'S TANAGER. 

! 

1 The species is unknown in Goyaz and Rio Grande do Sul, the specimens in 
the British Museum said to be from these provinces being doubtless incorrectly 
labeled. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Colonia Alpina, Serra dos Orgaos, 5; 
Rio de Janeiro, 2; Nova Friburgo, Rio, 1; Casa Pintada, Sao Paulo, 2; Jagua- 
raiba, Parana, 1; Campo Comprido, 1; Curytiba, Parana, 1. 

2 Calospiza gouldi (Sclater) : Nearly allied to C. desmaresti, but readily dis- 
tinguished by much larger black gular patch, which is, besides, bordered all round 
by a narrow dark blue line, and correspondingly smaller, also more purely green 
(less yellowish) submental spot; bright grass green instead of deep chrome pre- 
pectoral area and smaller upper wing coverts; slightly more golden green edges 
to the upper parts; by lacking the conspicuous pale yellow abdominal streak, 
which is merely suggested by a few buffy edges in the middle of the lower belly. 
Wing (unsexed adult), 69; tail, 52; bill, 12. 

The unique type in the British Museum is a skin of the well-known South 
Brazilian, so-called "Rio" preparation. No other specimen resembling it has 
ever been found since its description. While there can be no doubt as to its con- 
stituting a perfectly good form, C. gouldi may ultimately turn out to be a local 
representative of C. desmaresti. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 93 

Calliste gouldi Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885 (Nov.), p. 849, pub. 
(early in) 1886 southeastern Brazil (type in British Museum examined); 
idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 102, 1886 Brazil. 

Calospiza gouldi Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 352, 1907 southern Brazil; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1028, 1912 south- 
eastern Brazil. 

Range. Southeastern Brazil (exact locality unknown). 
"Calospiza schrankii (Spix). SCHRANK'S TANAGER. 

Tanagra schrankii Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 38, pi. 51, figs. 1 (male), 
2 (female), 1825 no locality indicated; we suggest Tabatinga, Rio 
Solimoes, Brazil (types in Munich Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. 
Ame>. Mend., Ois., p. 270, pi. 24, fig. 1, 1839 Yuracares, Bolivia. 

Aglaia schrankii Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 31, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia; Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
5, p. 122, 1837 western "Brazil bordering on Peru" (crit.). 

Aglaw melanotis Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 355, Dec. 31, 1837 Peru 
(descr. of female; type in coll. of W. Hooker, present location unknown). 

Calliste schranki(i) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 235, 1850 Brazil 
and Bolivia; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 54 Bolivia, Peru, etc.; 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 115, 1854 Quijos, Ecuador; idem, 
I.e., 24, p. 248, 1856 Peru (Maynas), Ecuador (Quixos), and Bolivia, 
Yuracares (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 17, pi. 8, 1857 
Ecuador (Quixos). Peru, and Bolivia (monog.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 25, p. 264, 1857 Ega and Rio Javarri, Brazil; idem, I.e., 26, 
pp. 74, 453, 1858 Rio Napo, Gualaquiza, and Zamora, Ecuador; idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 64, 1862 Peruvian Amazon and Bolivia; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 180 upper Ucayali, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, pp. 749, 977 Xeberos, Chyavetas, and Pebas, 
Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 206 (note 4), 1870 Tabatinga [Rio 
Solimoes], Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 
185 Cosnipata, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 261 upper Ucayali, Xeberos, 
Chyavetas, Pebas, Ega, and Rio Javarri; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 514 
Monterico (Ayacucho) and Amable Maria (Junin), Peru; Sclater and 
Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 598 Yuracares, Nairapi, and Tilotilo, Bolivia; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 459, 1884 Peruvian localities; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 102, 1886 Ecuador (Sarayacu, Rio Napo), 
Peru (Pebas, Ucayali), and Bolivia (Nairapi); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, 
p. 296, 1889 Shanusi, near Yurimaguas, Peru; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Rio Napo, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 339 La Gloria (Vitoc) and La Merced 
(Chanchamayo), Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 357, p. 15, 1899 Rio Zamora, Ecuador. 

Callispiza schrankii Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 286, 1844 Peru; 
idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 201, 1846 forest region of eastern 
Peru. 

Chrysothraupis schrankii Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 143, 1851 
Brazil and Bolivia. 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calospiza schranki(i) Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 109, 1906 
Huaynapata and Rio Cadena, Peru; Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. 
Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 673, 1906 (note on type); Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 352, 1907 Ucayali, Peru, and San Mateo, Bolivia (range); 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 10, 1908 Ponto Alegre, Rio Purus, Brazil; 
Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 
93, 1911 Gualaquiza, Ecuador; idem, Rev. Prang. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 
Nuevo Loreto, near Tayabamba, Peru; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1028, 1912 southeastern Colombia (Rio Putu- 
mayo) to Bolivia and western Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, 
p. 444, 1914 Ponto Alegre, Rio Purus; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Canelos, Ecuador. 

Tangara schrankii Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 593, 1917 
Florencia, Caqueta, Colombia; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 117, 
1921 Rio Cosireni, Urubamba, Peru; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 236, 
1923 Bolivia (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 655, 
1926 Ecuador (Zamora, Macas region, below San Jose, Rio Suno); 
Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 439, 1929 Huachipa, 
Peru (crit.). 

(lyTanagra graminea Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 40, pi. 53, fig. 2, 1825 
no locality indicated (type lost; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. 
Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 675, 1906). 1 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from southeastern Colombia (Cuembi, 
Rio Putumayo; Florencia, Caqueta) through eastern Ecuador, 
eastern Peru, and extreme western Brazil (Ega and Tabatinga, Rio 
Solimoes; Rio Purus) south to northern Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz 
and Cochabamba). 2 

11: Peru (Chanchamayo, 1; Huachipa, 8; Nuevo Loreto, east of 
Tayabamba, Libertad, 1; Yurimaguas, 1). 

Calospiza johannae (Dalmas). 3 JOHANNA'S TANAGER. 

Calliste johannae Dalmas, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 11, p. 36, Dec., 1900 El 
Paillon, near Buenaventura, Colombia (type in coll. of R. de Dalmas, 
later in Tring Museum, now in the American Museum of Natural History, 

1 What Tanagra graminea really is, will always remain in doubt, the type 
having disappeared. The figure looks somewhat like the juvenile plumage of 
C. schrankii, but lacks every trace of the sooty color on forehead and sides of head, 
and has no yellow suffusion on the rump. 

2 Birds from Colombia (Rio Putumayo) seem to be inseparable from series of 
Peruvian and Bolivian specimens. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Cuembi, Rio Putumayo, 18. 
Ecuador: Sarayacu, 3; San Jose, 2; Rio Napo, 1. Brazil: Tabatinga, 1. Peru: 
Rio Cadena, Marcapata, 1; Huaynapata, 1; Marcapata, 27; Shanusi, Yurimaguas, 
1. Bolivia: San Mateo, 15. 

3 Calospiza johannae (Dalmas) is a very distinct species, which, though allied 
to C. schrankii, differs readily by lacking the light cadmium occipital patch (the 
whole crown being shining green, a little more yellowish than the lateral margins 
to the dorsal feathers) and the greenish spot in front of the eyes; by having a 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 95 

New York); Sclater, Ibis, 1901, p. 597, pi. 12, fig. 2 Paramba, Rio 
Mira, Ecuador (crit.). 1 

Calospiza johannae Hellmayr, Ibis, 1910, p. 328 Choc6, Colombia, and 
northwestern Ecuador; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1101 
Tado, Novita, and Condoto, Choc6, Colombia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1028, 1912 El Paillon, Colombia, and 
Paramba, Ecuador. 

Tangara johannae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 593, 1917 
Andagueda (upper Atrato), Juntas de Tamana, Noanama, San Jos, and 
Barbacoas, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 656, 1926 Paramba, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Colombia and northwestern 
Ecuador, from the upper Atrato (Andagueda) south to Paramba, 
Prov. Imbabura. 

*Calospiza florida 2 florida (Sclater and Salvin). EMERALD 
TANAGER. 

Calliste florida Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 416, pi. 
28 Costa Rica (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Mu- 
seum; descr. of female); Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 114 Costa Rica; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1876, p. 409 Costa Rica and "Veraguas" (crit.); Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 267, pi. 17, fig. 1, 1883 Costa Rica 
and Veraguas; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 103, 1886 Costa 
Rica and "Veraguas." 

Calospiza florida Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1028, 
1912 Costa Rica. 

Calospiza florida florida Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 39, 
1902 Carrfllo, Costa Rica (monog.). 

Calospiza florida arcaei Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 149, April, 
1901 Veragua (type in U. S. National Museum); Bangs, Proc. New 
Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 65, 1902 Caribbean slope of Volcan de Chiriqul, 
Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 40, 1902 
Veragua (monog.). 

Calospiza arcaei Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1028, 
1912 Veragua. 

Tangara florida Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 863, 1910 Bonilla, 
Carrillo, and Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, Costa Rica (crit., plumages, habits). 

black gular patch bordered laterally and posteriorly by a bright blue margin; 
blue tips to frontal feathers and a blue stripe along the upper edge of the auriculars; 
pale grayish middle of the belly, etc. Wing, (male) 73, (female) 67; tail, 50-51, 
(female) 46; bill, 10-11. 

Material examined. Colombia: El Paillon, near Buenaventura, 1 (the type); 
Tado, Rio San Juan, Choc6, 3; Novita, Rio Tamana, 1; Condoto, Rio Condoto, 
1. Ecuador: Paramba (alt. 3,500 ft.), Prov. Imbabura, 1. 

1 The Peruvian localities mentioned by Sclater are due to a misunderstanding 
(cf. Hellmayr, Ibis, 1910, p. 328, footnotef). 

1 Calospiza florida is possibly conspecific with C. schrankii, which it ap- 
parently replaces on the Pacific coast of Colombia (auriceps) and in southern 
Central America. 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Tropical zone of the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica and 
western Panama (Boquete, Chiriqui; Rio CaloveVora, Veraguas). 1 
1: Costa Rica (Peralta, 1). 

Calospiza florida auriceps (Chapman). 2 SOUTHERN EMERALD 
TANAGER. 

Tangara florida, auriceps Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 33, p. 188, 
March, 1914 Buenavista, Narino, Colombia (type in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 593, 1917 Buena- 
vista and Novita, Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of Pacific Colombia, from Narino (Buena- 
vista) north to extreme eastern Panama (Tacarcuna, Darien). 

Calospiza punctata punctata (Linnaeus). SPOTTED TANAGER. 

Tanagra punctata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 316, 1766 based on 
"Le Tangara verd piquete des Indes" Brisson (Orn., 3, p. 19, pi. 4, fig. 2; 
"Indes orientales") and "The Spotted Green Tit-mouse" Edwards (Glean. 
Nat. Hist., 2, p. 110, pi. 262; Surinam); Surinam (ex Edwards) accepted 
as type locality. 

Calliste punctata Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 234, 1850 Brazil; 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 55 Cayenne; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 24, p. 248, 1856 Cayenne (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, 
p. 19, pi. 9, 1857 Cayenne (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 
64, 1862 Cayenne; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 206, 1870 Barra do Rio 
Negro [= Manaos] and Rio Icanna, Brazil (spec, in Vienna Museum 
examined); Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 128, 1874 Cayenne; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 209 British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Merume 
Mountains, Roraima); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 104, 1886 
Cayenne, Oyapock, and British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains, 
Roraima); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 293, 1907 Para. 

1 There do not seem to be any constant color differences between birds from 
Costa Rica and Panama, if specimens of corresponding age are compared. Mr. 
Todd (in Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 863, 1910) takes C. /. arcaei for the 
first annual plumage of the male, and the available material, scanty as it is, tends 
to substantiate this view. One of the males from Boquete, Chiriqui, has more 
yellow on the crown than four from Costa Rica, and the figure in the "Biologia," 
drawn from one of Arce's Veraguan skins, likewise shows a distinct yellow occipital 
patch, which is in direct opposition to Ridgway's diagnosis of C. /. arcaei. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Carrillo, 5. Panama: Boquete, 
Chiriqui, 4; "Veragua" (ex Boucard), 1; Rio Calovevora, Veraguas, 3. 

2 Calospiza florida auriceps (Chapman) : Similar to C. /. florida, but yellow 
of crown much more extensive, reaching to the middle of the eyes; scapulars 
with narrower, if any, greenish edges. Wing, 65, (female) 62; tail, 40; bill, 10. 

A single adult male from Tacarcuna, Darien, in extent of the yellow crown 
patch, is intermediate between florida and auriceps, though nearer the latter. 
The green margins to the scapulars, however, are just as well developed as in 
florida. Pending the receipt of further material, the bird is provisionally referred 
to auriceps, mainly out of zoogeographical considerations. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Buenavista, Narino, 2; Novita, Rio 
San Juan, 1. Panama: Tacarcuna, Darien, 1 (male). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 97 

Ixothraupis punctata Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 143, 1851 
Cayenne and Brazil; idem, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 32, 
1857 Cayenne. 

Calospiza punctata Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 272, 1905 Igarape-Assu, 
Para; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 353, 1907 "Trinidad" (errore) 
and British Guiana (range in part, Guyana, Para, Rio Negro); Berlepsch, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. 114, 1908 Cayenne and Oyapock, French Guiana; 
idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1028, 1912 Cayenne, 
British Guiana, and Brazil (Rio Negro, Rio Iganna, Para); Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 444, 1914 Para, Providencia, Ananindeua, Peixe- 
Boi, and Rio Jamunda (Faro). 

Tangara punctata punctata Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.- 
phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 9, 1912 Peixe-Boi, Para (crit.); Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 2, p. 100, 1916 Utinga, Para; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, 
p. 505, 1921 British Guiana (numerous localities); Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 128, 1931 Roraima (Paulo) and Mount Duida, 
Venezuela (crit.). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Brazil 
(north of the Amazon west to the upper Rio Negro, also in the 
Para district); southern Venezuela (Mount Duida). 1 

*Calospiza punctata zamorae (Chapman). 2 ECUADORIAN SPOTTED 
TANAGER. 

Tangara punctata zamorae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, p. 9, 1925 
Zamora, eastern Ecuador (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 656, 1926 
Zamora and below San Jose', Ecuador. 

Calliste punctata (not Tanagra punctata Linnaeus) Taczanowski and Ber- 
lepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 77 Machay and Mapoto, Ecuador. 

Calospiza punctata Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 353, 1907 part, Ecuador. 

Calliste punctulata (not of Sclater and Salvin, 1876) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 104, 1886 part, spec, c, San Jose. 

1 Specimens from Para and Manaos agree well with others from French and 
British Guiana. Two adult males from the Rio Iganna (tributary of the upper 
Rio Negro) form the passage to C. p. zamorae, agreeing with it in larger size (wing, 
64-65; tail, 44-45). One resembles the typical form in the decidedly blue edgings 
to primary coverts and outer primaries, while the other in that respect hardly 
differs from Ecuadorian skins. Specimens from Roraima (and Duida, fide Chap- 
man) are again larger (wing of males, 65-68; tail, 44-46) than lowland birds. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 4. British Guiana: Bartica 
Grove, 2; Roraima (alt. 3,500 ft.), 4; unspecified, 3. Brazil: Para, 4; Marco 
da Legua, 1; Igarap6-Assu, 1; Peixe-Boi, 1; Manaos, 5; Rio Iganna, 2. 

2 Calospiza punctata zamorae (Chapman) : Similar to C. p. punctata, but larger, 
and the primary coverts and outer primaries margined with green instead of with 
blue. Wing (males), 64-66; tail, 44-46 J^. 

An unsexed adult from Huayabamba, while not quite typical, is provisionally 
referred here rather than to the next form. 

Material examined. Ecuador: San Jose, 2; Machay, 1; Mapoto, 1; Guayaba, 
Rio Zamora, 2; Zamora, 1. Peru: Huayabamba, 1. 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calospiza punctulata Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 

Equat., 9, p. B. 93, 1912 Rio Napo, Ecuador. 
Calospiza punctata punctulata Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

p. 1029, 1912 part, eastern Ecuador (Machay, Mapoto, San Jose) and 

northern Peru (Huayabamba). 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Ecuador (Zamora, San Jose", 
Machay, Mapoto) and northern Peru (Huayabamba; Moyobamba). 
1: Peru (Moyobamba, 1). 

Calospiza punctata perenensis (Chapman). 1 PERUVIAN SPOTTED 
TANAGER. 

Tangara punctata perenensis Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, p. 9, 1925 
Utcuyacu, Prov. Junin, Peru (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York). 

Callospiza punctala (not Tanagra punctata Linnaeus) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 

10, (1), p. 286, 1844 Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 203, 
1846 wood region of eastern Peru. 

Calliste punctata Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 460, 1884 Peru (ex Tschudi). 
Calliste punctulata (not of Sclater and Salvin) Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 340 Garita del Sol, Vitoc. 
Calospiza punctata punctulata Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

p. 1029, 1912 part, central Peru (Garita del Sol). 

Range. Tropical zone of central Peru, in Dept. of Junin (Garita 
del Sol, Tulumayo, Utcuyacu). 

Calospiza punctata punctulata (Sclater and Salvin). BOLIVIAN 
SPOTTED TANAGER. 

Calliste punctulata Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 353 
Tilotilo, Bolivia (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Mu- 
seum); idem, I.e., 1879, p. 598 Tilotilo; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

11, p. 104, 1886 part, spec, a-b, Tilotilo, Bolivia. 

Calospiza punctulata Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 109, 1906 
Huaynapata and Rio Cadena, Marcapata, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1029, 1912 part, southeastern Peru (Huay- 
napata, Marcapata) and Bolivia (Tilotilo, San Antonio). 

Range. Tropical zone of extreme southeastern Peru (Marcapata 
Valley and its tributaries) and northern Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz). 2 

1 Calospiza punctata perenensis (Chapman) : About the same size as C. p. 
zamorae, but under parts whiter, much less suffused with yellow on sides of neck, 
chest, and sides of breast; dorsal surface darker, less yellowish green. Generally 
similar to C. p. punctulata, but more coarsely spotted above, and the dusky streaks 
on flanks and under tail coverts evanescent. Wing (male), 64-66; tail, 47-49. 

Material examined. Peru, Dept. Junin: Garita del Sol, 2; Utcuyacu, 3. 

2 Material examined. Bolivia: Yungas of La Paz, 1. Peru: Huaynapata, 3; 
Marcapata, 3; Rio Inambari, 3. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 99 

Calospiza chrysophrys trinitatis (Todd). 1 TRINIDAD SPOTTED 
TANAGER. 

Tangara guttata trinitatis Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 8, No. 2, p. 203, May, 

1912 Aripo, Trinidad (type in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh); 

Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 177 (in text), 1924 

Trinidad (crit.). 

Calliste chrysophrys Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, pp. 24, 54 part, Trinidad. 
Calliste guttulata (not of Bonaparte) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 19, 

1856 part, Trinidad. 
Calliste guttata (not Callispiza guttata Cabanis) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

24, p. 249, 1856 part, Trinidad; idem, Monog. Genus Calliste, p. 22, 

1857 part, Trinidad; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 64, 1862 part, 

spec, c, d, Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 82 Trinidad; Leotaud, Ois. 

Trinidad, p. 305, 1866 mountain forests of Trinidad; Finsch, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 579 Trinidad (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

11, p. 105, 1886 part, spec, j, k, Trinidad. 
Calospiza guttata Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 14, 1906 Chaguanas, Trinidad; 

Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 188, 1906 Aripo. 
Calospiza guttata chrysophrys (not of Sclater) Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 

Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1029, 1912 part, Trinidad. 

Range. Island of Trinidad (Subtropical zone of the northern 
mountain ranges). 

Calospiza chrysophrys guttata (Cabanis). 2 RORAIMA SPOTTED 
TANAGER. 

Callispiza guttata Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 26, Oct., 1851 Roraima, British 
Guiana (type in Berlin Museum). 

1 Calospiza chrysophrys trinitatis (Todd): Nearest to C. c. chrysophrys, but 
differs in both sexes by more extensive as well as deeper golden yellow about 
forehead and superciliary region; brighter yellow sides of the head; more coarsely 
spotted upper parts; larger black spotting on foreneck and breast, and more 
conspicuous, frequently spot-like markings on the throat. In opposition to the 
other races, in which there is a marked sexual difference in the amount of black 
spotting both above and below and in the extent of yellow about the head, the 
sexes in C. c. trinitatis are very nearly alike. In Trinidad females the yellow 
color on forehead and superciliaries, though more restricted and paler than in 
males, is still brighter than in the males of the mainland races. Wing, 70-73, 
(female) 67-69; tail, 51-54, (female) 49-52; bill, 11-12. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Aripo (alt. 1,800 to 2,000 ft.), 16; 
Chaguanas, 1. 

2 Calospiza chrysophrys guttata (Cabanis) : Very close to C. c. chrysophrys, but 
throat plain (unstreaked) ; black spots on foreneck and breast smaller; the yellow 
about the forehead and orbital region somewhat duller; the upper parts slightly 
darker, less yellowish green. Wing, 70-72, (female) 66-69; tail, 52-54, 
(female) 51-53. 

Additional specimens from Roraima lately examined corroborate the slight 
differences which we had noticed before, and seem to justify the recognition of 
guttata, a conclusion independently reached by Chapman upon the study of 
large series. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 7. 



100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calliste guttulata (not of Bonaparte) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 

p. 19, 1856 part, British Guiana. 
Calliste guttata Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 249, 1856 part, British 

Guiana; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 21, 1857 part, Roraima; Salvin, 

Ibis, 1885, p. 209 Roraima; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 105, 

1886 part, spec, a-c, Roraima. 
Calospiza guttata Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1029, 

1912 Roraima. 

Tangara guttata Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 507, 1921 Roraima. 
Tangara guttata guttata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mue. N. H., 63, p. 129, 1931 

Mount Roraima (Paulo, Arabupu, Philipp Camp) and Mount Duida 

(Laterite Valley), Venezuela (crit.). 
Tanagra punctata (not of Linnaeus) Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 2, 

p. 245, 1848 Our Village, Roraima. 
Cattospiza punctata Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 669, 

"1848" [=1849] Roraima. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Mounts Roraima and Duida in 
southern Venezuela. 

*Calospiza chrysophrys chrysophrys (Sclater). YELLOW-BROWED 
TANAGER. 

Calliste chrysophrys Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 4, Part 1, p. 24, pi. 69, fig. 2, 
Jan., 1851 part, Venezuela (type, from Venezuela, 1 in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum); idem, I.e., p. 54 part, Venezuela. 

Calliste guttulata Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, No. 3, p. 76, 
1851 Ecuador 2 (type in Paris Museum examined); Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 19, 1856 part, Venezuela. 

1 The type was collected by the late H. Dyson "in the vicinity of Caracas" 
(cf. Sclater, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 22, 1857). 

2 Sclater (Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 54) gives "Mindo" as its locality. The 
type, courteously forwarded by M. Mnegaux, is labeled: "de Quito, donne par 
M. Bourcier en 1851. (Cat. No. 13.) Ixothraupis guttulata Bp. Type de 1'espece." 
On comparison with good series of the various races, I find it indistinguishable 
from specimens of the Venezuelan coast ranges, notably a male taken by S. M. 
Klages at Las Quiguas, Carabobo (Munich Museum, No. 11. 2170). Bonaparte's 
statement "croupion jaune" is incorrect, the lower back and rump being shining 
green like the rest of the upper parts. It certainly is neither tolimae nor eusticta, 
which are much more heavily spotted underneath with black shaft-streaks on 
the under tail coverts, while from bogotensis the type is immediately separated by 
the broad bright yellow frontal band, orbital ring, and superciliaries, as well as 
by more yellowish green top and sides of the head. Whether the locality "Ecua- 
dor," where no representative of this group of tanagers has since been obtained, 
is correct, remains extremely doubtful, although it should be noted that, according 
to Finsch (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 579), the Bremen Museum also has 
specimens from "Quito, Ecuador." 

Sclater's name chrysophrys appears to have slight priority. The first number 
of the "Contributions to Ornithology" was published in January, while Bona- 
parte's paper, read at the meeting of January 20, is not likely to have been issued 
before the end of the month. In any case, both these names have priority over 
Callispiza guttata Cabanis, unless the advance sheets of the "Museum Heineanum," 
which were in circulation in Germany as early as October, 1850, be considered 
as constituting actual publications. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 101 

Ixothraupis guttulata Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, pp. 130, 144, 1851 
Ecuador (diag.). 

Calliste guttata (not Callispiza guttata Cabanis) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 249, 1856 part, Venezuela and "Ecuador (Bourcier)" (diag.); 
idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 21, pi. 10, 1857 part, Venezuela (near 
Caracas) and "Ecuador (Mindos)"; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 64, 
1862 part, spec, a, Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 627 Caracas; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 105, 1886 
part, spec, d-g, i, Venezuela ("Puerto Cabello," Caracas); Phelps, Auk, 
14, p. 364, 1897 Cumanacoa [Sucre], Venezuela. 

Tangara guttata guttata Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, 
p. 55, 1912 Cumbre de Valencia, Cumbre Chiquita, and Las Quiguas, 
Carabobo (crit.); Hellmayr, I.e., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 176, 1924 Silla de 
Caracas, Loma Redonda, and Galipan, Cerro del Avila, Venezuela (crit.); 
Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 191, p. 12, 1925 Neveri, Latal, and Cara- 
pas, Sucre, Venezuela. 

Calospiza guttata chrysophrys Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
pp. 1029, 1131, 1912 part, Venezuela (Cumana to Caracas and "Puerto 
Cabello") and "Ecuador (Mindos bei Quito)." 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Venezuela from Sucre to 
Carabobo; 1 (?) western Ecuador (Mindo). 

3: Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 2; unspecified, 1). 

*Calospiza chrysophrys bogotensis (Hellmayr and Seilern). 2 
EAST-ANDEAN SPOTTED TANAGER. 

Tangara guttata bogotensis Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, 
p. 57, 1912 "Bogota," Colombia (type in Munich Museum); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 594, 1917 Buena Vista, east slope of 
eastern Andes, Colombia. 

Calliste guttulata (not of Bonaparte) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 
1855 "Bogota." 

Calliste guttata (not Callispiza guttala Cabanis) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 249, 1856 part, New Grenada ("Bogota"); idem, Monog. Gen. 
Calliste, p. 21, 1857 part, "Bogota"; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 64, 

1 Specimens from Sucre appear to be identical with those from farther west, 
showing no approach to the Trinidad race (C. c. trinitatis). 

Additional material examined. Sucre: Santa Ana, 4; Quebrada Secca, 9; 
Cumanacoa, 3. Dept. Federal: Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 19; Loma Redonda, 
7; Silla de Caracas, 1. Carabobo: Cumbre de Valencia, 7; Cumbre Chiquita, 7; 
Las Quiguas, 6. Ecuador: "Quito," 1 (type of C. guttulata). 

2 Calospiza chrysophrys bogotensis (Hellmayr and Seilern): Nearest to C. c. 
chrysophrys, but pileum grass green like the back, not more yellowish than the 
latter; the blackish central spots to the dorsal feathers smaller and less conspicu- 
ous; no distinct yellow frontal band or superciliaries, these parts being hardly 
a little more yellowish green than the crown; cheeks and auriculars nearly grass 
green. Wing, 68-72, (female) 65-66; tail, 49-53, (female) 48-50. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 9; Bucaramanga, 1; 
Buena Vista, 1. 



102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1862 part, spec, b, "Anolaima," Colombia; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 325 
Santa Rosa and Alto, near Ocana, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, p. 237 San Cristobal, Tachira, Venezuela; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 289, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 105, 1886 part, spec. 1-p, "Bogota," 
Colombia; Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 "Bogota." 
Calospiza guttata chrysophrys (not Calliste chrysophrys Sclater) Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1029, 1131, 1912 part, Vene- 
zuela (San Cristobal) and Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia and 
the adjacent section of Venezuela (San Cristobal, Tachira). 
1: Colombia ("Bogota," 1). 

Calospiza chrysophrys tolimae (Chapman). 1 TOLIMA SPOTTED 
TANAGER. 

Tangara guttata tolimae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 33, p. 187, 1914 
twenty miles west of Honda, Tolima, Colombia (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 594, 1917 
west of Honda. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the central Andes of Colombia 
(twenty miles west of Honda). 

*Calospiza chrysophrys eusticta (Todd). 2 COSTA RICAN SPOTTED 
TANAGER. 

Tangara guttata eusticta Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 8, No. 2, p. 202, May, 1912 
Boruca, Costa Rica (type in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh) ; Hellmayr 
and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 57, 1912 Chiriquf (crit.); 
Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 462, 1928 Boquete 
Trail, Panama; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 187, 1929 Cana, 
eastern Panama (crit.); Peters, I.e., 71, p. 340, 1931 Boquete Trail, 
Panama; Smith, Auk, 49, p. 497, 1932 El General, Costa Rica. 

1 Calospiza chrysophrys tolimae (Chapman) : Similar to C. c. bogotensis in 
greenish auriculars and subocular region, yellowish green supra-loral stripe and 
orbital ring, and small black spots on the back; but throat and breast much 
more heavily spotted with black and under tail coverts with broad black shaft 
streaks. Wing (male), 70; tail, 51. 

A very interesting connecting link, combining the heavily spotted under 
parts of C. c. eusticta with the coloration of the upper surface and sides of the 
head of C. c. bogotensis. 

Material examined. Colombia: twenty miles west of Honda, 1. 

2 Calospiza chrysophrys eusticta (Todd) : Resembles C. c. chrysophrys in yellow 
frontal band, supra-loral streak, and orbital ring, but differs by much larger 
black spots underneath, these markings extending up to the chin; black-streaked 
under tail-coverts; grass green (not yellowish green) pileum and back with much 
more prominent black central spots, etc. Wing, 68-70, (female) 64-66; tail, 45 
(female) to 50 (male). Chiriqui birds are identical with others from Costa Rica. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Carrillo, 1; Boruca, 5. Panama: 
Boquete, Chiriqui, 4. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 103 

Calliste guttata (not Callispiza guttata Cabanis) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 Costa Rica (Angostura, Dota, Turrialba); 
Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 298, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 187 Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 267, 1883 part, Costa Rica 
(Tucurriqui, Angostura, Dota, Turrialba) and Panama (Volcan de Chiri- 
qui); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 105, 1886 part, spec, q-n, 
Volcan de Chiriqui and Costa Rica (Tucurriqui, Angostura); Zeledon, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Turrialba, Costa Rica; 
Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 
Boruca, Costa Rica; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 339, p. 3, 1899 Chiriqui. 

Calospiza guttata chrysophrys (not Calliste chrysophrys Sclater) Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 40, 1902 part, Costa Rica; Bangs, 
Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Boruca and Barranca [de Terraba], Costa Rica; 
Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 278, 1910 Guayabo, Costa 
Rica; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1029, 1131, 
1912 part, Chiriqui and Costa Rica. 

Tangara guttata chrysophrys Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 862, 1910 
Bonilla, Guayabo, Buena Vista, Carrillo, El General de Terraba, Juan 
Vinas, Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, and Boruca, Costa Rica (habits). 

Range. Tropical zone of Costa Rica (Caribbean slope and 
TeYraba Valley) and Panama east to Darien (Cana). 
5: Costa Rica (Peralta, 2; Guayabo, 1; Boruca, 2). 

Calospiza varia (P. L. S. Miiller). SMALL SPOTTED TANAGER. 

Tanagra varia P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 158, 1776 based on 

"Tangara tachete, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 301, fig. I; 1 

Cayenne. 
Calliste virescens Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 22, pi. 69, fig. 1 Cayenne 

(type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, I.e., p. 56 

Cayenne. 
Ixothraupis pusilla Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, No. 3 (March), p. 

144, 1851 Cayenne (type in Paris Museum). 
Calliste graminea (not Tanagra graminea Spix) 2 Sclater, Tanag. Cat. Spec., 

pp. 11, 15, 1854 (crit.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 250, 1856 

Cayenne and Lower Amazon (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 

25, pi. 12, 1857 Cayenne and Surinam; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 

p. 64, 1862 Cayenne; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 106, 1886 

Cayenne and Lower Amazonia. 

1 Daubenton's figure of the "Tangara tachete, de Cayenne," though rather 
poor, appears to me unquestionably referable to the bird subsequently described 
as C. virescens. The blue wings and scapulars, together with the nearly uniform 
green body plumage, are characteristic features of the male of the present species, 
and exclude all other Guianan Tanagers, even C. punctata, which is, moreover, 
fairly well represented on Daubenton's pi. 133, fig. 1, under the name "Tanagra 
verd tachete des Indes." 

2 1 am unable to recognize the present species in Tanagra graminea Spix, 
of which the type has disappeared. Cf. footnote on page 94. 



104 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calospiza graminea Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 498, 1908 Villa Braga, 

Rio Tapajoz, Brazil. 
Calospiza virescens Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 114, 1908 Cayenne; idem, 

Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1030, 1131, 1912 Cayenne, 

Surinam, and Brazil (Rio Tapajoz); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 

445, 1914 Villa Braga, Rio Tapajoz. 

Range. French and Dutch Guiana and northern Brazil (Villa 
Braga and Miritituba, Rio Tapajoz). 1 

*Calospiza xanthogastra (Sclater). 2 YELLOW-BELLIED SPOTTED 
TANAGER. 

Calliste xanthogastra Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, Part 1, p. 23, Jan., 1851 
"Rio Negro," Brazil (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Mu- 
seum); idem, I.e., 1851, p. 55 same locality; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
22, p. 115, 1854 Quijos, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 23, p. 157, 1855 "Bogota"; 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 249, 1856 Colombia ("Bogota"), eastern Peru, and 
Quijos, Ecuador (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 23, pi. 11, 1857 
Colombia ("Bogota"), Ecuador (Quijos), and Peru (Maynas); idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 64, 1862 "Bogota" and "Upper Amazon"; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 180 Upper Ucayali, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 977 Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 261 upper 
Ucayali and Pebas, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 514 Paltaypampa, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 11 Huambo, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 461, 
1884 Peruvian localities; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 209 Roraima and Ku- 
kenam, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 106, 1886 
Pebas (Peru), Sarayacu and Rio Napo (Ecuador), Colombia, and Brit- 
ish Guiana (Roraima, Kukenam); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, 
pp. 71, 81, 1889 Rio Napo, Ecuador, and Mapiri, Bolivia; Salvador! 
and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 15, 1899 Rio Zamora, 
Rio Santiago, and Gualaquiza, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 9, p. 19, 1902 Nicare, Caura River, Venezuela. 

Calliste punctata var. /3 xanthogastra Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 
128, 1874 (range). 

Ixothraupis chrysogaster Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, No. 3, p. 144, 
March, 1851 Colombia (type in coll. of M. Eyroll, probably lost). 

Calospiza xanthogastra Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 353, 1907 (range); 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 10, 1908 Antimary, Rio Acre, Brazil; 
Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 

1 In the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, I have examined a male just beginning 
its juvenile molt. It was secured by S. M. Klages on Feb. 18, 1920, at Miritituba, 
Rio Tapajoz. Comparison of adults from Brazil is desirable. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3. Dutch Guiana: Surinam, 
1. Brazil: Miritituba, Rio Tapajoz, 1. 

2 Calospiza xanthogastra (Sclater) is a close ally and apparently the western 
representative of C. varia, with which it may ultimately prove to be conspecific. 
The two birds agree in proportions and general style of coloration, though C. 
xanthogastra is much more spotted throughout and less bluish on the scapulars 
and flight-quills. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 105 

93, 1911 "Quito" (errore) and Rio Napo, Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verb. 

5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1029, 1131, 1912 (range, crit.); Sneth- 

lage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 444, 1914 Antimary, Rio Acre. 
Calospiza xanthogaster Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 

Canelos, eastern Ecuador. 
Tangara xanthogastra Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 172, 1916 

Nicare, Caura, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 

p. 594, 1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 

85, A, Heft 10, p. 20, 1920 Chaquimayo, Dept. Puno, Peru (crit.); 

Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 656, 1926 Zamora, Macas 

region, Rio Suno, and below San Jose, Ecuador; Zimmer, Field Mus. 

Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 440, 1930 Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, 

Peru (crit.). 
Tangara xanthogaster Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 74, 1928 

San Jos6, Ecuador. 
Calliste xanthogastra rostrata Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1896, p. 339 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru (type in Warsaw 

Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 

Nat., 6, p. 182, 1927). 
Calospiza xanthogastra rostrata Mnegaux, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 

Nuevo Loreto, near Tayabamba, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of Amazonia, from eastern Colombia 
(Cuembi, Rio Putumayo; La Morelia, Caqueta) south through 
Ecuador and Peru to northern Bolivia (Mapiri) and east to Vene- 
zuela (Nicare, Caura River) and extreme western Brazil (Antimary, 
Rio Acre), and Subtropical zone of British Guiana (Kukenam and 
Roraima, alt. 5,000-6,000 ft.). 1 

2: Peru (Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo Valley, 1; Rioja, 1). 

*Calospiza rufigula (Bonaparte). RUFOUS-THROATED TANAGER. 

Tanagrella rufigula Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, No. 3 
(se'ance du 20 Jan.), p. 77, 1851 Ecuador 2 (type in Paris Museum); idem, 
Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, No. 3 (March), p. 130, 1851 Ecuador. 

Calliste rufigula Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 55 Ecuador; idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 19, 1856 vicinity of Quito, Ecuador. 

Calliste rufigularis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 250, 1856 vicinity 
of Quito, Ecuador (descr.; substitute for T. rufigula Bonaparte); idem, 

1 The proposed Peruvian race rostrata appears to be invalid. Some specimens 
have indeed larger, stouter bills, but the majority cannot be separated in this 
or any other way from more northern examples, so far as I can see. A single 
adult male from Roraima is not different either. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 8; Cuembi, Rio Putu- 
mayo, 1. Ecuador: Rio Napo, 1; El Loreto, 2; Sarayacu, 1; Canelos, 2. Peru: 
Nuevo Loreto, 2; La Merced, Chanchamayo, 1; Chaquimayo, Carabaya, 1. 
British Guiana: Roraima (alt. 6,000 feet), 1. 

J According to Sclater (Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 28, 1857; Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 27, p. 440, 1859), the type came from Calacali, twelve miles north of Quito. 



106 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 27, pi. 13, 1857 Ecuador (Calacali, vicinity of 
Quito); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 440, 1859 "Rio Napo"; idem, 
I.e., 28, p. 86, 1860 Nanegal, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 65, 1862 Nanegal; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 107, 1886 
Ecuador (Nanegal, "Quito," Intag, "Sarayacu") and Colombia (Pasto); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Nanegal; Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 5, p. 481, 1898 Paramba, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 406 
Mindo, Intag, and other localities in the western Andes between 5,000 
and 6,000 feet, Ecuador. 

Calospiza rufigularis M6negaux, Miss. Serv. Geog. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 94, 1911 Gualea, Ecuador. 

Calospiza rufigula Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1102 La Selva 
(alt. 4,600 feet), San Juan slopes of the western Andes, Colombia; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1030, 1912 Ecuador 
(Nanegal, Quito, Gualea, Intag, Paramba, "Sarayacu," "Rio Napo") 
and southern Colombia (Pasto); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, 
No. 25, p. 83, 1922 Gualea, Ecuador. 

Tangara rufigula Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 594, 1917 
Gallera, Buenavista (Narino), and Ricaurte, western Andes of Colombia; 
idem, I.e., 55, p. 656, 1926 Mindo and La Chonta, Ecuador. 

Range. Western slope of the western Andes of Colombia and 
Ecuador, chiefly in the Subtropical zone. 1 
2: Ecuador ("Quito," 1; unspecified, 1). 

Calospiza arthus arthus (Lesson). 2 VENEZUELAN GOLDEN 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra arthus Lesson, Illustr. Zool., livr. 3, pi. 9, Oct., 1832 "Nova His- 
pania," we substitute Caracas, Venezuela (type in coll. of Florent Pre- 
vost, probably lost). 

Calliste arthus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 235, 1850 "Mexico" 
(err ore). 

Calliste arthusi Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 53 Venezuela; idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 251, 1856 "Cariaco" and Caracas, Venezuela 
(descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 35, pi. 16, 1857 Venezuela 
(estate Curiana, above Cariaco; Caracas); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 65, 1862 Venezuela; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 109, 1886 
Venezuela. 

Calospiza arthusi Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1030, 
1912 Venezuela. 

Chrysothraupis arthus Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 142, 1851 part 
(excl. hab. Peru). 

1 Records from "Rio Napo" and "Sarayacu" are unquestionably erroneous. 
Additional material examined. Colombia: La Selva, San Juan slopes, 1. 

Ecuador: "Quito," 3; Gualea, 5; Mindo, 5; Paramba, 1. 

2 This and the seven succeeding races constitute a natural specific entity, rep- 
resenting each other geographically and differing one from another merely in 
intensity and details of coloration. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 107 

Tangara arthus Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 58, 
1912 Cumbre de Valencia, Cumbre Chiquita, Paso Hondo (San Este- 
ban Valley), and Las Quiguas, Carabobo (crit., plumages); Hellmayr, 
I.e., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 177, 1924 Silla de Caracas and Galipan, Cerro del 
Avila, Dept. Federal, and near Bucarito, Tocuyo, Lara (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Venezuela, from the Cara- 
cas region west to Lara (near Bucarito, Tocuyo). 1 

Calospiza arthus sclateri (Lafresnaye). 2 SCLATER'S GOLDEN 
TANAGER. 

Carlisle] sclatteri [sic] Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 6, p. 207, 1854 
"Colombie" (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 400, 1930). 

Callisle sclateri Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 "Bogota"; 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 251, 1856 "Bogota" (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Cal- 
liste, p. 31, pi. 14, fig. 1, 1857 "Bogota" (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 65, 1862 "Bogota"; Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, 
p. 126, 1874 (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 108, 1888 
"Bogota." 

Calospiza sclateri Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1030, 
1912 "Bogota." 

Tangara sclateri Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 595, 1917 (crit.). 

Calliste aurulenta (not Tanagra aurulenta Lafresnaye) Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 
1851, p. 52 Colombia (in part). 

Range. Eastern Colombia (only known from native "Bogota" 
collections). 

1 Its occurrence in northeastern Venezuela (mountains of Sucre) is open to 
doubt. Sclater claims that the late H. Dyson obtained specimens on his estate 
Curiana above Cariaco, and the Tring Museum has an adult male collected by 
H. Mocquerys, said to be from "Carip6, Jan., 1894." However, both collectors, 
who worked also in other parts of Venezuela, were not particularly careful about 
labeling, and, as no other naturalist ever found the present species in that district 
of Venezuela, more trustworthy evidence seems imperative. 

There is no difference whatever between series from the Caracas region and 
Carabobo, and two adult males from Lara (mountains near Bucarito) are also 
similar. 

Material examined. Venezuela, Dept. Federal: Silla de Caracas, 4; Galipan, 
Cerro del Avila, 11. Carabobo: La Cumbre de Valencia, 10; Cumbre Chiquita, 
3; Las Quiguas, 3; Paso Hondo, San Esteban Valley, 2. Lara: near Bucarito, 
Tocuyo, 2. 

2 Calospiza arthus sclateri (Lafresnaye) differs readily from C. a. arthus by 
lacking the yellow color on throat and middle of belly, the entire under parts 
being nearly uniform reddish brown (almost amber brown), much deeper than 
the raw sienna of C. a. occidentalis or the golden aniline yellow of C. a. aurulenta 
and C. a. goodsoni. 

The range of this form remains to be determined, it being known only from 
native "Bogota" skins. It probably replaces the allied races in the Subtropical 
zone of the eastern slope of the eastern Andes of Colombia. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 9. 



108 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Calospiza arthus aurulenta (Lafresnaye). GOLDEN TANAGER. 

Tanagra (Aglaia) aurulenta Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 290, 1843 "Co- 
lombie" (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 400, 1930). 

Calliste aurulenta Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 235, 1850 Colombia 
(ex Lafresnaye); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 52 Colombia (in part); 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, 
p. 250, 1856 "Bogota" (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 29, pi. 
14, fig. 2, 1857 part, New Grenada; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 65, 
1862 part, spec, c, d, "Bogota"; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 108, 
1886 part, spec, a-e, "Bogota," Colombia; Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, 
p. 184, 1857 "Bogota." 

Chrysothraupis aurulenta Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 142, 1851 
Colombia (crit.). 

Aglaia aurulenta Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 6, p. 207, 1854 Colom- 
bia (descr.). 

Calospiza aurulenta Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 307 Ibague; 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1030, 1131, 1912 
part, "Bogota." 

Tangara aurulenta aurulenta Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 594, 
1917 La Candela, Fusugasuga, Aguadita, El Roble, and Subia, Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the mountains bordering the Mag- 
dalena Valley, viz., west slope of the eastern Andes (Fusugasuga, 
Aguadita, El Roble, Subia) and east slope of the central Andes 
(Ibague, La Candela) in eastern Colombia. 1 

3: Colombia ("Bogota," 2; El Roble, 1). 

*Calospiza arthus occidentalis (Chapman). 2 WESTERN GOLDEN 
TANAGER. 

Tangara aurulenta occidentalis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 33, p. 188, 
1914 San Antonio, western Andes, Colombia (type in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 595, 1917 part, 
Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Gallera, Cocal, Miraflores, and La Frijolera, 
western and central Andes of Colombia. 

1 A single specimen from La Candela (eastern slope of the central Andes) 
agrees well with Bogota skins, of which twelve have been available for 
comparison. 

1 Calospiza arthus occidentalis (Chapman) : Similar to C. a. aurulenta, but 
under parts more richly colored, approaching raw sienna rather than golden 
aniline yellow; edges to dorsal feathers darker, cadmium yellow like the crown 
instead of paler; those of wing coverts and secondaries decidedly golden yellow, 
not greenish ; bill on average larger. 

Additional material examined. Colombia, western Andes: Pueblo Rico, 1; 
Frontino, 1; San Antonio, 1; Las Lomitas, 2; Riolima, 2; Gallera, 2. Central 
Andes: La Frijolera, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 109 

Calliste aurulenta (not Tanagra aurulenta Lafresnaye) Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 498 Concordia and Frontino, Colombia; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 108, 1886 part, spec, f-h, Frontino 
and Antioquia, Colombia. 

Calospiza aurulenta Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1030, 
1912 part, Frontino, Antioquia. 

Calospiza aurulenta aurulenta Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1102 
Pueblo Rico, San Juan slopes of Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Colombia, in the western 
Andes and on the west slope of the central Andes (on the Pacific 
side south to the Rio Patia). 

5: Colombia (Gallera, west of Popayan, Cauca, 1; Rio Lima, 3; 
San Antonio, Cauca, 1). 

Calospiza arthus goodsoni (Hartert). 1 GOODSON'S GOLDEN 
TANAGER. 

Tangara aurulenta goodsoni Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 33, p. 78, 1913 
Gualea, Ecuador (type in Tring Collection, now in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 657, 1926 western Ecuador (Gualea, Rios Coco and Chimbo, Palla- 
tanga, El Chiral, Zaruma, Portovelo, Punta Santa Ana, Salvias, San 
Bartolo, Alamor). 

Calospiza aurulenta goodsoni Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 
p. 83, 1922 road to Nanegal, Ecuador. 

Calliste aurulenta (not Tanagra aurulenta Lafresnaye) Sclater, Monog. Gen. 
Calliste, p. 29, 1857 part, "vicinity of Quito," Ecuador; idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 140, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, 
pp. 86, 87, 1860 Nanegal, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 65, 
1862 part, spec, a, b, Pallatanga; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 544 Cayandeled, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1884, 
p. 288 Cayandeled (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 108, 
1886 part, spec, i-m, Ecuador ("San Jos6," Pallatanga); Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 "near Quito," Ecuador; Salvador! and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 15, 1899 Intac and Gualea, 
Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 461 Intag and Santo Domingo, 
Ecuador. 

1 Calospiza arthus goodsoni (Hartert) : Nearest to C. a. occidentalis, but crown 
decidedly paler, less deeply cadmium yellow; rump clearer yellow; under parts 
:less brownish, golden aniline yellow as in C. a. aurulenta. This form resembles 
|C. a. occidentalis in the golden yellow edgings to the dorsal feathers, wing coverts, 
and secondaries, but is nearer to C. a. aurulenta in the coloration of the ventral 
surface, while the upper part of the head is paler, less orange than in either. Birds 
from extreme southern Colombia (San Pablo), except by slightly darker rump, 
agree perfectly with those from Ecuador. 

Material examined. Colombia: San Pablo, Prov. Tuqueres, 4. Western 
Ecuador: Paramba, 2; San Nicolas, 1; Gualea, 6; Intag, 6; Santo Domingo, 2; 
unspecified, 4. 



110 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calospiza aurulenta Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Mend. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 94, 1911 Gualea and San Nicolas, Ecuador; Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1030, 1131, 1912 part, western 
Ecuador (San Pablo, Nanegal, Gualea, Pallatanga, "San Jose," Cayan- 
deled, Intag, Santo Domingo). 

(l)Tangara aurulenta occidentalis (not of Chapman, 1914) Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 595, 1917 part, Ricaurte, Narino, Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Ecuador and extreme south- 
western Colombia (San Pablo, Prov. Tuqueres). 

Calospiza arthus aequatorialis (Taczanowski and Berlepsch). 1 
EAST ECUADORIAN GOLDEN TANAGER. 

Calliste pulchra aequatorialis Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1885, p. 77 Machay and Mapoto, eastern Ecuador (type, from 
Machay, Rio Pastaza, in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Doman- 
iewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 182, 1927). 

Calospiza pulchra aequatorialis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1031, 1912 eastern Ecuador (Rio Napo, Sarayacu, Machay, 
Mapoto). 

Tangara pulchra aequatorialis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 657, 
1926 eastern Ecuador (Zamora, Sabanilla, below San Jose, lower Sumaco, 
Archidona, Baeza, below Oyacachi, and Rio Sardinas). 

Calliste pulchra (not Callospiza pulchra Tschudi) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 24, p. 251, 1856 part, Quixos, Ecuador; idem, Monog. Gen. 
Calliste, p. 33, pi. 55, 1857 part, Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 26, p. 74, 1858 Rio Napo; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 
65, 1862 Rio Napo; Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 126, 1874 
Ecuador (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 109, 1886 part, 
spec, a-f, eastern Ecuador (Rio Napo, Sarayacu, Machay). 

Calospiza pulchra Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 94, 1911 Gualaquiza, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Ecuador. 

"Calospiza arthus pulchra (Tschudi). TSCHUDI'S GOLDEN 
TANAGER. 

Callospiza pulchra Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 285, 1844 Peru (type 
in Neuchatel Museum examined); idem, Untersuch. Faun. Peru., Aves, 
p. 200, pi. 18, fig. 2, 1846 wood region of eastern Peru; Lafresnaye, Rev. 
Mag. Zool., (2), 6, p. 206, 1854 (ex Tschudi). 

1 Calospiza arthus aequatorialis (Taczanowski and Berlepsch) differs from C. 
a. pulchra by lacking the well-defined chestnut gular patch, the throat and fore- 
neck being instead washed with xanthine orange or dull orange rufous, this color 
passing gradually into the golden yellow of the belly. From C. a. goodsoni, of 
western Ecuador, it may be distinguished by larger size, more extensively black 
loral region and chin-spot, green margins to wing-coverts and secondaries, much 
more orange upper part of the head, the orange tinge on throat and foreneck, 
pure white instead of buffy under wing coverts, etc. Wing, 78-82; tail, 56-60. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Rio Pastaza, 2; Rio Napo, 2; Gualaquiza, 1; 
Machay, 1; Mapoto, 1; Sarayacu, 2; "Govinda," 2; unspecified, 3. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 111 

Chrysothraupis arthus (not Tanagra arthus Lesson) Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. 
Zool., (2), 3, p. 142, 1851 part, Peru. 

Calliste aurulenta (not Tanagra aurulenta Lafresnaye) Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 
1851, p. 52 part, Peru. 

Calliste pulchra Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 251, 1856 part, Peru; 
idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 33, 1857 part, Peru; Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 514 Amable Maria, Dept. Junin, Peru; idem, 
I.e., 1882, p. 11 Huambo; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 462, 1884 part, Huambo, 
Amable Maria, and Ropaybamba; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
109, 1886 part, Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 340 La Gloria and Garita del Sol, Dept. Junin, Peru. 

Calospiza pulchra Berlepsch and Hellmayr, Journ. Orn., 53, p. 7, 1905 Peru 
(note on type); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1030, 
1912 Peru (Huambo, Huayabamba, Amable Maria, Ropaybamba, La 
Gloria, Garita del Sol); M6n6gaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 
Cueva Seca, near Tayabamba, Peru. 

Tangara pulchra pulchra Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 Charapi, 
Prov. Jaen, Peru. 

Tangara aurulenta pulchra Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 
440, 1930 Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of Peru from Prov. Jaen 
south to Dept. Junin. 1 

5: Peru (Huachipa, 4; Chanchamayo, 1). 

Calospiza arthus sophiae (Berlepsch). 2 SOPHIA'S GOLDEN 
TANAGER. 

Calliste sophiae Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 49, p. 83, 1901 Songo, Yungas of La 
Paz, Bolivia (type in Berlepsch Collection, now in Senckenberg Museum, 
Frankfort). 

Calospiza pulchra sophiae Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 109, 1906 
Huaynapata and Rio Cadena, Marcapata, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1031, 1912 southeastern Peru and Bolivia. 

Tangara pulchra sophiae Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 21, 1920 
Chaquimayo, Carabaya, Peru (crit.). 

1 Specimens vary somewhat in the intensity of the chestnut gular patch as 
well as in the tone of the orange crown and of the greenish yellow margins on the 
mantle, but the series examined is much too small to ascertain the significance 
of this variation. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Huambo, 2; Huayabamba, 1; La Gloria, 
Chanchamayo, 1; unspecified, 1 (the type). 

1 Calospiza arthus sophiae (Berlepsch): Nearest to C. a. pulchra, but top of 
the head, sides of neck, subocular region, and rump much paler, light cadmium 
rather than cadmium yellow; edges to dorsal feathers more greenish yellow; 
black auricular patch larger; chestnut gular patch duller; breast and abdomen 
less orange, nearer to aniline yellow. Wing, 76-81, (female) 71-75; tail, 51-56, 
(female) 50-54. 

Birds from southeastern Peru agree with a topotype from Songo. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Songo, 1. Peru: Chaquimayo, Carabaya, 2; 
Huaynapata, Marcapata, 6; Marcapata, 6. 



112 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calliste pulchra (not Callospiza pulchra Tschudi) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, pp. 185, 186 San Antonio, Cuzco, Peru (crit.)l 
idem, I.e., 1879, p. 598 Tilotilo, Bolivia; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 
462, 1884 part, San Antonio, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
109, 1886 part, spec, g-i, Peru (San Antonio, Cuzco) and Bolivia. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Peru (depts. of Cuzco and 
Puno) and western Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz). 

*Calospiza icterocephala (Bonaparte). SILVER-THROATED 
TANAGER. 

Calliste icterocephala Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 31, No. 3 
(stance du 20 janv.), p. 76, 1851 Ecuador = Valley of Punta Playa, near 
Quito (type in Paris Museum); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 53, pi. 70, 
fig. 1 Ecuador (type stated to have been obtained in the valley of Punta 
Playa); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 251, 1856 Punta Playa, 
Ecuador; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 37, pi. 17, 1857 same locality; 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 87, 1860 Nanegal, Ecuador; idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 65, 1862 Nanegal; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 138 Cordillera de Tole and Santa Fe, Veraguas (crit.); 
idem, I.e., 1870, p. 186 Volcan de Chiriquf and Veraguas (Boquete de 
Chitra, Cordillera del Chucu, Calovevora); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 Costa Rica (San Jose, Barranca, Turrialba, 
Dota); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 298, 1869 Costa Rica (Candelaria 
Mountains, Dota, Turrialba, Barranca) ; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1878, p. 54 Naranjo and OrosI, Costa Rica; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, 
p. 498 Frontino, Colombia; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 269, 1883 Costa Rica to Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 110, 1886 Costa Rica, Veragua, Chiriqui, Colombia (Fron- 
tino, "Pasto"), and Ecuador (Nanegal, "Napo"); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Costa Rica (Cartago, Naranjo de Car- 
tago, Santa Maria de Dota); Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. y Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 Boruca, Costa Rica; I.e., 6, p. 13, 1895 San 
Marcos, Costa Rica; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 461 Santo Domingo, 
Gualea, and Intag, Ecuador. 

Chrysothraupis icterocephala Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, No. 3 
(March), pp. 129, 143, 1851 Ecuador 1 (diag.). 

Callispiza icterocephala Salvadori, Atti. Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 174, 1868 
Costa Rica (crit.). 

Callispiza (Chrysothraupis) frantzii Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 87, 1861 
Costa Rica (type in Berlin Museum). 

Calliste frantzii Sclater, Ibis, 1863, p. 451 Costa Rica; idem, Ibis, 1868, p. 
72 Costa Rica (crit.). 

Calospiza icterocephala Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 37, 1902 
Costa Rica to Ecuador (monog.); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, 

1 Ridgway's quotation (in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 39) of "Bois 
de Bagnos, Tonguaragua" [sic] for this species is erroneous. The locality in 
question refers to bourcieri, as is evident from the text in Bonaparte's paper. 






1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 113 

p. 65, 1902 Boquete and Volcan de Chiriquf, Panama; Ferry, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 278, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica; Hellmayr, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1103 Pueblo Rico, San Juan slopes, 
Colombia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1031, 1912 
Costa Rica to Ecuador. 

Tangara icterocephala Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 864, 1910 Costa 
Rica (many localities; plumages, habits); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 595, 1917 Gallera, western Andes of Colombia; idem, I.e., 
55, p. 658, 1926 "Quito," Zaruma, Punta Santa Ana, Las Pinas, and 
Alamor, western Ecuador (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Costa Rica, western Panama 
(Chiriqui and Veraguas), and of the western Andes of Colombia 
(Frontino, Pueblo Rico, Gallera) and Ecuador. 1 

12: Costa Rica (Boruca, 3; Guayabo, 1; Limon, 1; Peralta, 2; 
Santa Cruz de Turrialba, 3); Panama (unspecified, 1); Veragua(?), 1. 

*Calospiza xanthocephala venusta (Sclater). 2 YELLOW-CROWNED 
TANAGER. 

Calliste venusta Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, "1854," p. 248, pub. 
April, 1855 "in Nova Grenada et in rep. Equatorianae provincia Quijos" 
(type from "Bogota" in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); 
idem, I.e., 23, p. 158, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 264, 1856 
"Bogota," Colombia, and Quixos, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 26, p. 74, 1858 
Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 101, pi. 44, fig. 2, 
1857 Colombia ("Bogota") and eastern Ecuador (upper Rio Napo); 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 72, 1862 Bogota and "Rio Napo"; 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 325 near Alto (Ocana), Colombia; Dubois, Bull. 
Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 128, 1874 (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 499 Frontino, western Andes of Colombia; Ber- 
lepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, p. 289 Cayandeled, western Ecuador 
(one female); idem, I.e., 1885, p. 80 Machay, Ecuador; Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 2, p. 476, 1884 Tambillo, northwestern Peru; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 133, 1886 Colombia ("Bogota," Antioquia) and 
Ecuador ("Quito"); Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 463 Canzacota (alt. 6,500 
feet), western Ecuador, and Baeza (alt. 5,500 feet), eastern Ecuador. 

1 1 am unable to perceive any differences sufficiently constant to justify the 
retention of a separate Central American form (frantzii). Size is not of much 
consequence, though birds from Costa Rica and Chiriqui, on average, are slightly 
larger. The yellow or greenish color of the edges to the mantle feathers and the 
intensity of the yellow portions of the plumage appear to depend largely on age 
and sex. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica, 12; Boquete, Chiriqui, 10; Calo- 
veVora, Veraguas, 1. Colombia: Pueblo Rico, 2. Ecuador ("Quito," Gualea, 
Intac), 10. 

2 Calospiza xanthocephala venusta (Sclater) differs from the typical race by 
decidedly paler, light cadmium instead of cadmium yellow crown. 

Specimens from M6rida, the three ranges of the Colombian Andes, and the 
western and eastern slopes of Ecuador agree well together. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela, Meiida: Valle, 3. Colombia (all 
three ranges), 15. Ecuador: Cayandeled, 1; Canzacota, 3; Baeza, 4. 



114 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calospiza venusta Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 98, 1911 "Quito," Ecuador; idem, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 
2, p. 10, 1911 Cueva Seca, Peru; 1 Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1031, 1912 Colombia (Bogota, Antioquia, Ocana), 
Ecuador (both sides), northwestern Peru (Tambillo), and Venezuela 
(Merida); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 
Gualea, western Ecuador. 

Tangara venusta Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 600, 1917 San 
Antonio, Cerro Munchique, Andes west of Popayan, La Florida, Cocal, 
Miraflores, Salento, La Candela, Aguadita, El Roble, and Subia, Colom- 
bia; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 460, 1918 Charapi, Prov. Jaen, Peru. 

Tangara xanthocephala venusta Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 665, 
1926 Baeza, below Oyacachi, and upper Sumaco, eastern Ecuador; Ber- 
lioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 241, 1932 Mera, eastern 
Ecuador. 

Calliste xanthocephala (not Callospiza xanthocephala Tschudi) Sclater, Contrib. 
Orn., 1851, p. 58 Colombia; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 115, 
1854 Quijos, Ecuador; Taczanowski, I.e., 1879, p. 227 Tambillo, Peru. 

Range. Subtropical zone of extreme western Venezuela (Cor- 
dillera of Me'rida), Colombia (except Santa Marta region), 
Ecuador (both slopes), and northwestern Peru (Tambillo and Cha- 
rapi, Prov. Jaen; Cueva Seca, near Tayabamba, Dept. Libertad). 

5: Colombia (Cundinamarca, 1); Venezuela (Conejos, near Me'- 
rida, 1 ; Montanas de la Sierra Madre, Me'rida, 1 ; Montanas Sierra, 
Me'rida, 1; Sierra de Me'rida, Me'rida, 1). 



Calospiza xanthocephala xanthocephala (Tschudi). 2 TSCHUDI'S 
YELLOW-CROWNED TANAGER. 

Callospiza xanthocephala Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 285, 1844 Peru 
(type in Neuchatel Museum examined); idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, 
p. 200, pi. 17, fig. 2, 1846 wooded region of eastern Peru. 

Calliste xanthocephala Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 264, 1856 part, 
Peru; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 99, 1857 part, Peru; Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 515 Ropaybamba, Junin, Peru; idem, 
Orn. Per., 2, p. 475, 1884 Ropaybamba; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 134, 1886 part, spec, f, Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 341 Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Peru. 

Calospiza xanthocephala Berlepsch and Hellmayr, Journ. Orn., 53, p. 7, 1905 
Peru (note on type); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1031, 1912 part, central Peru (Ropaybamba, Garita del Sol, 
Chanchamayo). 

1 Identical with specimens from eastern Ecuador (Berlioz, in litt.). 

2 Calospiza xanthocephala xanthocephala (Tschudi), with its cadmium yellow 
crown, stands just between the pale-headed C. x. venusta and the orange-crowned 
C. x. lamprotis. 

Tschudi's type agrees with specimens from the Vitoc Valley. 

Material examined. Peru: Garita del Sol, Vitoc, 3; unspecified (the type), 1. 







1936 BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 115 

Chrysothraupis xanthocephala Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 143, 

1851 Peru (ex Tschudi). 
Tangara xanthocephala xanthocephala Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 

p. 665 (in text), 1926 Chanchamayo region (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern-central Peru, in Dept. 
Junin (Garita del Sol, Vitoc; Ropaybamba, etc.). 

Calospiza xanthocephala lamprotis (Sclater). 1 ORANGE- 
CROWNED TANAGER. 

Calliste lamprotis Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 65 Bolivia (type in British 
Museum). 

Calliste xanthocephala (not Callospiza xanthocephala Tschudi) Sclater, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 264, 1856 part (descr. et hab. Bolivia); idem, 

Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 99, pi. 44, fig. 1, 1857 part, Bolivia; idem, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 294, 1858 "from some district in the interior of 

Peru bordering on Bolivia"; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 71, 1862 

Bolivia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 599 Juanani 

and Tilotilo, Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 134, 1886 

part, spec, a-e, Juanani, Bolivia. 
Calospiza xanthocephala Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 79, 1906 

Idma, above Santa Ana, Urubamba, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 

Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1031, 1131, 1912 part, Santo Domingo and 

"Santa Ana," Peru (crit.). 
Calospiza xanthocephala subsp. Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 110, 

1906 Huaynapata, Marcapata, Peru (crit.). 
Tangara xanthocephala xanthocephala Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 

p. 119, 1921 Idma, San Miguel Bridge, and Torontoy, Urubamba, Peru. 
Calospiza xanthocephala lamprotis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 

Berlin, pp. 1031, 1131, 1912 Bolivia and southeastern Peru (crit.). 
Tangara xanthocephala lamprotes [sic] Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 

p. 665 (in text), 1926 southern Peru (Urubamba Valley) to Bolivia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of southeastern Peru (in depts. of 
Cuzco and Puno) and Bolivia. 

"Calospiza chrysotis (Du Bus). GOLDEN-EARED TANAGER. 

Calliste chrysotis Du Bus, Esq. Ornith., livr. 2, pi. 7, 1846 Peru (type in 
Brussels Museum); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 66 Peru; idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 263, 1856 Peru (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. 

1 Calospiza xanthocephala lamprotis (Sclater) : Similar to C. x. xanthocephala, 
but crown much deeper, orange to cadmium orange. Wing, 73-77, (female) 
69-72; tail, 49-53, (female) 46-50. 

Birds from Marcapata agree with a Bolivian series, while three from Idma, 
Urubamba, have the crown slightly paler, orange rather than cadmium orange, 
thus verging in the direction of C. x. xanthocephala. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Chaco (Yungas of La Paz), 12; San Antonio, 
1; Sandillani, 1; Songo, 2; San Cristobal, 7. Peru: Huaynapata, Marcapata, 3; 
Santo Domingo, Marcapata, 5; Idma, Urubamba, 3. 



116 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calliste, p. 97, pi. 43, 1857 Peru; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 27, p. 
440, 1859 Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 71, 1862 
"Upper Amazon" and Rio Napo; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1882, p. 12 Chirimoto, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 475, 1884 Chiri- 
moto; idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 79 Machay, 
Ecuador (descr. of young); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 134, 1886 
eastern Ecuador (Rio Napo, Machay, "Quito") and Peru. 

Chrysothraupis chrysotis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 142, 1851 
" Mexico" = Peru. 

Calospiza chrysotis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 110, 1906 Huay- 
napata, Marcapata, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1032, 1912 eastern Ecuador (Machay, Rio Napo) and Peru 
(Chirimoto, Huaynapata). 

Tangara chrysotis Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 119, 1921 Rio 
San Miguel, Urubamba, Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 665, 
1926 eastern Ecuador ("Napo," Sabanilla, Zamora, below Oyacachi), 
Peru (Chaupe; Santo Domingo), and Bolivia (crit.). 

Tangara chrysotis cochabambae Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 37, p. 121, 1924 
Yungas of Cochabamba, Bolivia (type in Carnegie Museum). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Ecuador (Machay; El Topo, 
Rio Pastaza; Rio Blanco; below Oyacachi; Sabanilla; Zamora), 
eastern Peru (Chaupe; Chirimoto, Huayabamba Valley; Chancha- 
mayo; Rio San Miguel, Urubamba; Huaynapata, Marcapata), and 
northern Bolivia (Yungas of Cochabamba). 1 

1: Peru (Chanchamayo, 1). 

*Calospiza parzudakii parzudakii (Lafresnaye). PARZUDAKI'S 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra parzudakii Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 97, 1843 "environs de 
Santa-Fe-de-Bogota," Colombia (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 402, 1930). 

Tanagra (Aglaia) parzudaki Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, cl. 2, pi. 41, 1843 
"Santa-Fe-de-Bogota," Colombia. 

Calliste parzudakii Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 235, 1850 
"Bogota"; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 66 Colombia; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 22, p. 115, 1854 Quijos, eastern Ecuador; idem, I.e., 23, p. 
158, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 263, 1856 "Bogota," Colombia, 
and Quixos, Ecuador; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 93, pi. 41, 1857 

1 1 cannot perceive any difference in the sheen of the green portions of the 
plumage between Ecuadorian specimens and others from southern Peru and 
Bolivia (cochabambae), but those from the south, except one, have the rufous 
abdominal area somewhat lighter, ochraceous tawny rather than tawny. Chap- 
man, however, claims this character to be individual and not geographic. 

Additional material examined. Eastern Ecuador: El Topo, Rio Pastaza, 1; 
Machay, 1; Rio Blanco, 1; "Rio Napo," 2. Peru: Huaynapata, Marcapata, 4. 
Bolivia: Yungas, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 117 

same localities (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Eds., p. 71, 1862 
"Bogota"; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 515 Chilpes 
and Auquimarca, Dept. Junfn, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 474, 1884 
same localities; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 132, 1886 Colombia 
("Bogota") -and eastern Ecuador (Jima, Chiquinda, Rio Napo, "Quito"); 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 341 Garita 
del Sol, Peru; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 463 Baeza, Ecuador. 

Chrysothraupis parzudakii Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 143, 1851 
"Bogota." 

Calospiza parzudakii Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 79, 1906 Idma, 
Urubamba, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1032, 1912 Colombia, eastern Ecuador, and Peru; Lonnberg and Ren- 
dahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 Baeza, Ecuador. 

Tangara parzudaki Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 600, 1917 
La Palma, Aguadita, El Roble, and Subia, Colombia. 

Tangara parzudakii Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 118, 1921 
Idma, Urubamba, Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 664, 1926 
Sabanilla and Baeza, Ecuador (crit.). 

Tangara parzudakii florentes Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 Charapi, 
northwestern Peru (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 402, 1930 (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (western slope of eastern 
Andes and east slope of central Andes), eastern Ecuador, and eastern 
Peru (Chaupe and Charapi, near Huancabamba ; Chilpes, Auqui- 
marca, and Garita del Sol, Dept. Junin; Idma, Urubamba, Dept. 
Cuzco). 1 

1: Colombia ("Bogota"). 

Calospiza parzudakii lunigera (Sclater). 2 BLACK-EARED TANAGER. 

Calliste lunigera Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 65, pi. 70, fig. 2 "Rio Negro," 
errore (type now in British Museum) ; 3 idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 263, 1856 vicinity of Quito, Ecuador (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. 
Calliste, p. 96, pi. 42, 1857 near Calacali, Ecuador (monog.); idem, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 87, 1860 Nanegal; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 71, 1862 Ecuador (Nanegal and Calacali); Dubois, Bull. Acad. 

1 A single female from Peru (Idma, Urubamba) agrees with specimens from 
"Bogota" and Baeza. Chapman has shown T. p. florentes to be inseparable. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 10. Ecuador: Baeza, 3. 
Peru: Idma, Urubamba, 1. 

1 Calospiza parzudakii lunigera (Sclater) principally differs from typical C. 
p. parzudakii by lacking the red color on the forehead and sides of the face, and 
is clearly its western representative. 

Material examined. Western Ecuador (Cayandeled, Canzacota, Gualea, 
Milligalli, etc.), 14. 

3 The type was apparently given to P. L. Sclater and passed with his collection 
into the British Museum (cf. also Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 24, 
1899). The original locality, "Rio Negro," was, of course, erroneous, this tanager 
being restricted to western Ecuador. 



118 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Roy. Belg., 38, p. 128, 1874 (crit.); Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 289 Cayandeled; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

11, p. 133, 1886 western Ecuador (Nanegal, "Quito"); Allen, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Nanegal and "Millegala" [= Milligalli]; 

Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 16, 1899 

Gualea, Nanegal, and Intag; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 463 Canzacota, 

Gualea, and lower western slopes of Pichincha (habits). 
Calospiza lunigera M6negaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. 

Equat., 9, p. B. 97, 1911 San Nicolas; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 

Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1032, 1912 western Ecuador. 
Tangara lunigera Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 664, 1926 near 

Quito, Gualea, Milligalli, and El Chiral. 
Calospiza parzudakii lunigera Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 

p. 84, 1922 near Gualea and Nanegal. 
Range. Subtropical zone of western Ecuador. 

Calospiza rufigenis (Sclater). 1 RUFOUS-CHEEKED TANAGER. 

Calliste rufigenis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," p. 311, pub. 

March 11, 1857 Venezuela (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 

Museum); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 91, pi. 40, 1857 Venezuela 

(monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 71, 1862 Venezuela; idem, 

Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 132, 1886 Venezuela. 
Calliste rufigena (lapsus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 66 (in text), 

1857. 
Calospiza rufigenis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1032, 

1912' "Puerto Cabello," Venezuela. 
Tangara rufigenis Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 60, 

1912 Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of the north coast mountains of Vene- 
zuela, from the vicinity of Caracas west to Lara (near Bucarito, 
Tocuyo). 

"Calospiza cyanotis lutleyi (Hellmayr). 2 BLACK-CHEEKED 
TANAGER. 

Calliste melanotis (not Aglaia melanotis Swainson, 1837) Sclater, Ibis, (3), 6, 
p. 408, pi. 12, fig. 1, 1876 Rio Napo, Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. 
Sclater, now in British Museum); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1 Calospiza rufigenis (Sclater), though very distinct, seems to belong in the 
neighborhood of C. labradorides and allies. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Vicinity of Caracas, 3; Cumbre de Valencia, 
Carabobo, 11; mountains near Bucarito, Tocuyo, Lara, 2. 

2 Calospiza cyanotis lutleyi (Hellmayr) : Similar to C. c. cyanotis, but anterior 
auriculars black like the rest of the sides of the head, not blue; back black like 
the crown, not dusky green; superciliaries nearly uniform, lacking the golden hue 
in the central portion, so conspicuous in three Bolivian specimens; bluish external 
edges to primaries and rectrices narrower. 

Birds from various parts of the range agree pretty well together. Calliste 
melanotis Sclater being invalidated by Aglaia melanotis Swainson, a synonym of 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 119 

1882, p. 12 Chirimoto and Achamal, Valley of Huayabamba, Peru; 
idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 473, 1884 Peru (Paltaypampa, Chirimoto, Acha- 
mal); idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 79 Machay, 
Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 131, 1886 Ecuador (Rio 
Napo) and Peru (Chirimoto); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 341 Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Peru. 

Tangara lutleyi Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, Heft 2, p. 198, 1917 
new name for Calliste melanotis Sclater, preoccupied; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 663, 1926 eastern Ecuador (Sabanilla and 
lower Sumaco). 

Calliste cyanotis (not of Sclater, 1858) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, 
p. 441, 1859 Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Ibis, 1863, p. 451 Rio Napo 
(descr.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 515 Paltaypampa, 
Peru. 

Calospiza melanotis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 79, 1906 Idma, 
Urubamba, Peru; MenSgaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Nuevo 
Loreto, near Tayabamba, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1032, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota"), Ecuador (Machay, Rio 
Napo), and Peru (Chirimoto, Achamal, Huayabamba, Paltaypampa, 
Garita del Sol, Chanchamayo, Idma). 

Tangara melanotis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 600, 1917 La 
Palma, head of Magdalena Valley, Colombia; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
117, p. 118, 1921 Idma, Urubamba, Peru. 

Tangara cyanotis lutleyi Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 441, 
1930 Huachipa, Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Colombia ("Bogota"; La 
Palma), eastern Ecuador (Rio Napo, Machay, Sabanilla, lower 
Sumaco), and eastern Peru, south to the Urubamba Valley, Dept. 
Cuzco. 

2: Peru (Huachipa, Huanuco, 1; Chanchamayo, 1). 

Calospiza cyanotis cyanotis (Sclater). BLUE-CHEEKED TANAGER. 

Calliste cyanotis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 294, Nov., 1858 "from 
some district in the interior of Peru from the neighborhood bordering on 
Bolivia" 1 (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 71, pi. 9, 1862 "Peru"; idem, Ibis, 1876, p. 409, 
pi. 12, fig. 2 Tilotilo, Yungas, Bolivia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 599 Tilotilo; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 131, 1886 "southern Peru" and Bolivia. 

Calospiza cyanotis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1032, 
1912 Bolivia (Tilotilo, Quebrada Onda, Songo). 

C. schrankii (Spix), I have proposed the new name T. lutleyi for the Black-cheeked 
Tanager. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 2; La Palma, head of 
the Magdalena Valley, 1. Ecuador: Sabanilla, 1; lower Sumaco, 1; Archidona, 
2. Peru: Chirimoto, 1; Chanchamayo, 3; Idma, Urubamba, 2. 

1 The collection, which among others contained such a purely Bolivian species 
as Allapetes rufinucha, probably originated in the Yungas of La Paz. 



120 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Subtropical zone of Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz and 
Cochabamba). 1 

*Calospiza labradorides labradorides (Boissonneau). METALLIC- 
GREEN TANAGER. 

Tanagra (Aglaia) labradorides Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 67, 1840 "Santa- 
Fe-de-Bogota," Colombia (type now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 402, 1930). 

Tanagra labradorides Prevost and Des Murs, Voy. Venus, Atlas, Ois., pi. 5, 
fig. 2, 1846; idem, I.e., Zool., 5, (1), p. 213, 1849 "Santa-Fe-de-Bogota." 

Calliste labradorides Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 57 Colombia; idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 262, 1856 
"Bogota" (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 89, pi. 39, 1857 
"Bogota"; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 70, 1862 "Bogota"; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 499 Concordia and Santa 
Elena, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 130, 1886 Colom- 
bia ("Bogota," Antioquia, Concordia, Santa Elena, "Pasto") and Ecua- 
dor (San Lucas); Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 463 Gualea, Ecuador. 

Chalcothraupis labradorides Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 144, 1851 
"Bogota." 

Calospiza labradorides Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 307, 1899 
Ibague, Colombia; Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1109 
Pueblo Rico, San Juan slopes, and Riolima, western Andes, Colombia; 
Menegaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 
97, 1911 Santo Domingo and Gualea, Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1033, 1912 Colombia and western Ecua- 
dor; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 Gualea 
and Mindo, Ecuador. 

Tangara labradorides Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 600, 1917 
Colombia (Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, Miraflores, 
Salento, Santa Elena, El Eden, La Candela, La Palma, Fusugasuga, 
Aguadita, El Roble, Subia). 

Tangara labradorides labradorides Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 
663, 1926 western Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (except Santa Marta 
region) and western Ecuador (Mindo, Gualea, Santo Domingo). 2 

6: Colombia (Aguadita, above Fusugasuga, 1; "Bogota," 2; 
Cauca, 1; San Antonio, Cauca, 2). 

1 Material examined. Bolivia: Songo, Yungas of La Paz, 1; Quebrada Onda, 
Cochabamba, 1; Yungas of Cochabamba, 1. 

2 Specimens from the western Andes of Colombia agree with others from 
"Bogota," and five skins from western Ecuador I am likewise unable to separate. 
The latter do not show any of the characters ascribed to C. I. chaupensis, a form 
that we have not yet met with, and seem to pertain to typical labradorides. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 26; Concordia, 1; 
Pueblo Rico, 1; Rio Lima, 1; San Antonio, 6. Ecuador: Santo Domingo, 1; 
Gualea, 3; unspecified, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 121 

Calospiza labradorides chaupensis (Chapman). 1 CHAUPE 
METALLIC-GREEN TANAGER. 

Tangara labradorides chaupensis Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, p. 10, 
Feb., 1925 Chaupe, northeast of Huancabamba, northern Peru (type in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Subtropical zone of northwestern Peru (Chaupe, north- 
east of Huancabamba). 

*Calospiza cyanicollis cyanicollis (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 
BLUE-NECKED TANAGER. 

Aglaia cyanicollis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 33, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined). 

Tanagra cyanicollis d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame>. Merid., Ois., p. 271, pi. 25, fig. 1, 
1839 Yuracares. 

Callospiza cyanicollis Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 286, 1844 Peru; 
idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 202, 1846 eastern Peru. 

Calliste cyanicollis* Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 115 part, Bolivia and 
Peru; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, pp. 19, 262, 1856 part, eastern 
Peru and Bolivia (Yuracares); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 87, 1857 
part, Bolivia and eastern Peru (Tschudi); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata, Peru;Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 515 
Monterico and Paltaypampa, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 599 
Bolivia (Yuracares, Tilotilo, Ramosani); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, 
p. 472, 1884 part, Monterico, Paltaypampa, Cosnipata, and San Gaban, 
Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 127, 1886 part, spec, a-e, 
Bolivia (Tilotilo, Ramosani) and Peru (Cosnipata); Berlepsch and Stolz- 
mann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 341 La Merced, Borgona, Garita 
del Sol, and Esperanza, Dept. Junin, Peru. 

Calospiza cyanicollis- Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 355, 1907 
part, Bolivia (San Mateo); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, pp. 
79, 110, 1906 Idma (Urubamba) and Huaynapata, Dept. Cuzco, Peru; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1033, 1912 part, 
central and southeastern Peru and Bolivia. 

Tangara cyanicollis cyanicollis Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 
22, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Chaquimayo, and Marcapata, Peru (crit.); idem, 
Nov. Zool., 30, p. 239, 1923 Bolivia (note on type); Zimmer, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 441, 1930 Huanuco (Vista Alegre, Chin- 
chao, Buena Vista) and Junin (Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo), Peru (crit.). 

Tangara cyanicollis gularis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 41, p. 332, 
Sept., 1919 Candamo, southeastern Peru (type in the American Museum 

1 Calospiza labradorides chaupensis (Chapman) : Similar to C. I. labradorides, 
but general coloration greener; abdomen much paler, the whitish area extending 
to the breast and occupying most of the abdominal region; forehead with little 
or no golden sheen; the primaries margined externally with golden green instead 
of with blue (Chapman, I.e.). 

We are not acquainted with this form. 

2 Frequently spelled "cyaneicollis." 



122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 118, 
1921 Rio San Miguel, Urubamba, Peru. 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of eastern Bolivia and 
southern Peru (as far north as Dept. Huanuco). 1 

10: Peru (Chinchao, 2; Hacienda Buena Vista, Rio Chinchao, 2; 
Vista Alegre, 4; Chanchamayo, 1; Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, 1). 

*Calospiza cyanicollis caeruleocephala (Swainson). 2 NORTHERN 
BLUE-NECKED TANAGER. 

Aglaia caeruleocephala Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 356, Dec. 31, 1837 
"Peru," doubtless northern part of the country (type in coll. of W. Hooker, 
now in Liverpool Museum). 3 

Calliste cyan(e)icollis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 115, 1854 Quixos, 
Ecuador; Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Nav. Astron. Exp., 2, p. 181, pi. 18, fig. 1, 
1855 Peru; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, pp. 19, 262, 1856 part, 
Quixos, Ecuador; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 87, 1857 part, Quixos, 
Ecuador; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 452, 1858 Gualaquiza 
and Zamora, Ecuador; Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, p. 12 Huambo and 
Chirimoto, Peru (eggs descr.); idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 472, 1884 part, 
Huambo, Chirimoto, and Huayabamba; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 127, 1886 part, subsp. caeruleocephala, eastern Peru and Ecuador 

1 As we have shown elsewhere (Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 22, 1920), 
birds from southeastern Peru (gularis) cannot be separated from a Bolivian series, 
the supposed characters being individual rather than geographic. Specimens 
from Junin (Chanchamayo) and Huanuco form the transition to caeruleocephala, 
but as a whole appear to be better referred to the typical race in view of the 
preponderance of pale-headed individuals in these parts of Peru. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: San Mateo, Cochabamba, 6; Songo, 
Yungas of La Paz, 5; Yuracares, 1 (the type). Peru: Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, 2; 
Chaquimayo, Carabaya, 3; Marcapata Valley, Cuzco, 4; Santo Domingo, 
Carabaya, 2; Chanchamayo, Junin, 5; Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Junin, 1; Pozuzo, 
Huanuco, 1. 

2 Calospiza cyanicollis caeruleocephala (Swainson) : Closely similar to C. c. 
cyanicollis, but blue of the head darker, the forehead tinged with purplish blue, 
and middle of the throat purplish blue, this area being more or less contrasted 
with the pale blue lateral portion and jugular region. 

Birds from Moyobamba and the Valley of Huayabamba are perfectly identical 
with those from eastern Ecuador. Specimens from the eastern base of the east 
Colombian Andes seem to be also alike. Three adults from the upper Huallaga 
(Pina, Nuevo Loreto), by paler head and throat, approach typical cyanicollis. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 3; Buena Vista, 2. 
Ecuador: Machay, 1; Sarayacu, 1; San Jos6, Rio Suno, 4. Peru: Valley of 
Huayabamba, 5; Nuevo Loreto, 2; Pina, 1. 

3 The type (Liverpool Museum, No. D. 5201), labeled "Peru. Mathews. 
Dr. W. Hooker, February, 1843," was kindly reexamined, on my request, by Mr. 
N. B. Kinnear. This obliging gentleman writes that the specimen is in very 
poor condition, many of the throat feathers being missing and others in molt. 
It looks more like the typical Bolivian form (cyanicollis), showing hardly any 
trace of the "rich violet gloss on the front and chin" mentioned in the original 
description. However, this may be due to fading, and in view of Swainson's 
explicit statement it seems undesirable to alter the name of the purplish-throated 
form. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 

(Chiquinda, Sarayacu, Rio Napo, Jima); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
2, p. 71, 1889 "near Quito," errore; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 463 
Baeza, Ecuador. 

Calliste caeruleocephala Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1885, p. 79 Machay and Mapoto, Ecuador; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. 

Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 16, 1899 Zamora, Ecuador. 
Calospiza caeruleocephala Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

p. 1033, 1912 part, Colombia ("Bogota"), eastern Ecuador, and northern 

Peru. 
Calospiza cyan(e)icollis caeruleocephala Me'ne'gaux, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 2, No. 

21, p. 9, 1911 Nuevo Loreto, east of Tayabamba, Rio Huallaga, Peru; 

idem, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Me>id. Equat., 9, p. B. 96, 

1911 Rio Napo; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 

Canelos, Ecuador. 

Tangara cyaneicollis caeruleocephala Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 598, 1917 part, Quetame and Buena Vista, Colombia; Bangs and 
Noble, Auk, 35, p. 460, 1918 Perico and Tabaconas, upper Maranon, 
Peru; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 661, 1926 eastern Ecua- 
dor (Sabanilla, Zamora, Macas, Rio Suno below San Jose, Baeza, and 
below Oyacachi). 

Range. Chiefly Subtropical zone of eastern Colombia (east slope 
of eastern Andes), eastern Ecuador, and northern Peru (south to 
the latitude of Tayabamba). 

1: Peru (Moyobamba, 1). 

Calospiza cyanicollis melanogaster (Cherrieand Reichenberger). 1 
BLACK-BELLIED TANAGER. 

Tangara cyaneicollis melanogaster Cherrie and Reichenberger, Amer. Mus. 
Nov., 58, p. 1, Feb., 1923 Utiarity, near Salto Bello, Papagaio River, 
Matto Grosso, Brazil (type in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, examined); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 372, 
1930 Utiarity, Tapirapoan, and Doze Octobre, Matto Grosso. 

Calliste cyanicollis (not Aglaia cyanicollis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 208, 1870 Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso (spec, 
examined). 

1 Calospiza cyanicollis melanogaster (Cherrie and Reichenberger) : Nearest to, 
and agreeing with, C. c. caeruleocephala in bright blue, on forehead and nape- 
border, purplish-tinged head, deep bronze to golden humeral area, and purplish 
j blue median gular stripe, but distinguished by the absence (or mere suggestion) 
! of the blue abdominal zone and by having the rump strongly suffused with light 
jblue instead of uniform silvery green. Wing, 65-70, (female) 65-68; tail, 44-48. 
From C. c. hannahiae, which it resembles in the purplish blue median throat 
and lack of blue on the belly, this well-marked race may be separated by con- 
Ssiderably darker blue crown with purplish blue forehead, pale blue suffusion of 
ithe rump, and much more golden or coppery humeral patch. 

Material examined. Matto Grosso: Engenho do Gama, 5; Utiarity, 4; Tapi- 
irapoan, 1; Doze Octobre, 1. 



124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calospiza cyaneicollis Ihering and Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 355, 1907 
part, Matto Grosso; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1033, 1912 part, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Tropical zone of western (Amazonian) Matto Grosso 
in central Brazil. 

*Calospiza cyanicollis granadensis (Berlepsch). 1 COLOMBIAN 
BLUE-NECKED TANAGER. 

Calliste caeruleocephala subsp. granadensis Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 290, 
1884 Bucaramanga and "Bogota," Colombia (type, from "Bogota," in 
the Berlepsch Collection, now in Frankfort Museum, examined). 

Calliste coeruleocephala granadensis Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 
1887 "Bogota." 

Calliste cyan(e)icollis (not Aglaia cyanicollis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 115 part, Colombia; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 262, 1856 part, 
"Bogota"; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 87, 1857 part, "Bogota" ; idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 70, 1862 part, spec, b-e, "Bogota" ; Wyatt, Ibis, 
1871, p. 325 on the mountain chain between Bucaramanga and the Mag- 
dalena; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 499 Con- 
cordia and Frontino, Antioquia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 127, 
1886- part, subsp. granadensis, Colombia ("Bogota," Medellin, and 
Concordia). 

Calospiza cyaneicollis granadensis Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 
307, 1899 Ibague, Colombia. 

Calospiza caeruleocephala granadensis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1033, 1132, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota," Bucaramanga, 
Antioquia). 

Tangara cyaneicollis granadensis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 
599, 1917 Colombia (Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Cocal, Miraflores, La 
Frijolera, El Consuelo, Fusugasuga, Aguadita, Tenasuca). 

Tangara cyaneicollis caeruleocephala (not Aglaia caeruleocephala Swainson) 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 598, 1917 part, west of Honda, 
La Palma, La Candela, near San Agustin, Andalucia. 

1 Calospiza cyanicollis granadensis (Berlepsch): Closely similar to C. c. 
caeruleocephala, but humeral area and rump more silvery greenish, less golden, 
and the blue abdominal zone generally more extensive. 

After examining a goodly number of Colombian specimens I cannot bring 
myself to split the inhabitants of that country into two forms, as has been proposed 
by Chapman. Of six skins from the head of the Magdalena Valley not one has 
the rump or humeral area so reddish golden as even the palest Peruvian bird 
(caeruleocephala), and I do not see how they can be separated from the general 
run of "Bogota" skins (including the type of granadensis). While admitting that 
Magdalena Valley birds are more brassy than those from the western Andes and 
the west slope of the central Andes, they seem to fit in much better with the in- 
habitants of the rest of Colombia than with the form found on the east slope of 
the Colombian and Ecuadorian Andes. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 21; Bucaramanga, 2; 
near San Agustin, 4; La Candela, Huila, 1; Andalucia, Huila, 1; Concordia, 1; 
Rio Lima, Cauca, 3; San Antonio, 2; Miraflores, 3. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 125 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (excepting Santa Marta 
region and east slope of eastern Andes). 

11: Colombia ("Bogota," 2; east of Palmira, Cauca, 1; Rio Lima, 
4; Rio Zapata, 1; San Antonio, Cauca, 1; La Palma, Huila, 1; near 
San Agustin, Huila, 1). 

"Calospiza cyanicollis hannahiae (Cassin). 1 HANNAHIA'S 
TANAGER. 

Calliste hannahiae Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 287, pi. 1, 
fig. 2 Me>ida Mountains, Venezuela (type in coll. of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 290, 1884 
Merida (crit.). 

Calliste cyaneicollis (not Aglaia cyanicollis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, 
Monog. Gen. Calliste, pi. 38, 1857 (fig. of "Bogota specimen" in coll. of P. L. 
Sclater; cf. Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 253); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 252 Maruria, moun- 
tains south of Lake Valencia, Venezuela; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 780 south 
of Merida; idem, I.e., 1875, p. 237 San Cristobal, Tachira; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 127, 1886 part, subsp. hannahiae, "Bogotfi" and 
Venezuela (San Cristobal, "Valencia"); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1899, p. 35 "Maracaibo" = Me>ida Mountains (note on Cassin's type). 

Callispiza hannahiae Salvadori, Atti. Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 176 (in text), 
1868 MSrida (crit.). 

Calospiza hannahiae Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 
1033, 1132, 1912 Andes of Venezuela and (?)Colombia ("Bogota"). 

C[allispiza] nigriventris (Parzudaki MS.) Salvadori, Atti. Accad. Sci. Torino, 
4, p. 176 (in text), 1868- new name for C. hannahiae Cassin. 

Range. Subtropical zone of northwestern Venezuela from the 
mountain range south of Lake Valencia (Maruria) to Tachira. 
5: Venezuela (Colon, Tachira, 4; La Azulita, MeYida, 1). 

*Calospiza cyanicollis cyanopygia (Berlepsch and Taczanowski). 2 
BLUE-RUMPED TANAGER. 

1 Calospiza cyanicollis hannahiae (Cassin): Agreeing with C. c. granadensis 
in coloration of humeral patch, wing edgings, and purplish blue median throat 
stripe, but distinguished by lacking every trace of the purplish blue abdominal 
area, the breast and belly being uniform black. Wing, 67-69; tail, 46-50. 

This well-differentiated race is evidently confined to the mountain ranges of 
western Venezuela. Its occurrence in Colombia is altogether unlikely. The 
alleged "Bogota" specimen in the British Museum, formerly in the collection of 
P. L. Sclater and figured on pi. 38 of the "Monograph of the Genus Calliste," 
does not look like the trade-skins exported from the Colombian capital, or else, 
if it really did come from there, may be an individual mutant of C. c. granadensis. 

Additional specimens examined. Venezuela: San Cristobal, Tachira, 3; La 
Ortiza, Tachira, 2. 

2 Calospiza cyanicollis cyanopygia (Berlepsch and Taczanowski) is readily 
distinguished from all the other races by having the rump pale blue like the 
pileum and throat, the color of these parts being that of the head in C. c. cyanicollis. 
Besides, the lesser and greater upper wing coverts are greenish blue, only the median 



126 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calliste cyanopygia (Sclater MS.) Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 545 Chimbo, Ecuador (type lost, formerly in War- 
saw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. 
Hist. Nat., 6, p. 182, 1927); Sclater, I.e., 1883, p. 653 Esmeraldas; idem, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 128, 1886 Esmeraldas; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Nanegal; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 481, 1898 
Chimbo; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 
16, 1899 Gualea and Rio Peripa; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 464 Can- 
zacota, Gualea, and west side of Pichincha. 

Calliste cyaneicollis (not Aglaia cyanicollis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 292, 1860 Esmeraldas. 

Calospiza cyanopygia Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1033, 1912 western Ecuador; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee 
Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 96, 1911 Santo Domingo and Gualea; 
Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 Gualea. 

Tangara cyaneicollis cyanopygia Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 
662, 1926 Esmeraldas, coast of Manavi, Chimbo, and Santa Rosa. 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of western Ecuador. 
1: Ecuador (Pichincha, 1). 

*Calospiza nigro-cincta nigro-cincta (Bonaparte). BLACK- 
BANDED TANAGER. 

Aglaia nigro-cincta Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. 121, pub. 

June, 1838 "that portion of Brazil bordering on Peru" (type probably 

lost). 1 
Calliste thalassina Strickland, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, p. 419, 1844 

"believed to be brought from Mexico" (type in Strickland Collection, now 

in University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.; cf. Salvin, Cat. Strickland 

Coll., p. 186, 1882); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 57 (monog.); idem, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 115, 1854 Quixos, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 23, 

p. 158, 1855 "Bogota," Colombia. 
Aglaia wilsonii Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 71, 1847 "in Peruvia, Guanco" 

(type in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 51, 1899); Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 10, 

pi. 56, fig. 2, 1847 "Guaunco, Peru" (fig. of type). 
Calliste larvata (not of Du Bus) Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astron. Exp., 2, p. 

182, p. 18, fig. 2, 1855. 

series being golden or brassy yellow; the blue of the abdomen is lighter, passing into 
greenish blue posteriorly and on under tail coverts, etc. 

Additional material examined. Western Ecuador (Gualea, Santo Domingo, 
Canzacota, Pichincha, etc.), 12. 

1 The lot received by Leadbeater containing the type of this and other species 
of Bonaparte's was purchased by the Earl of Derby, whose collection subsequently 
passed into the Liverpool Museum. Sclater (Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 86, 1857), 
however, did not succeed in finding the type of A. nigro-cincta in the Derby Collec- 
tion. The original description, misleading in more than one respect, is hardly 
sufficient to recognize the species, but it was identified by Bonaparte himself, 
as we are told by Sclater (I.e.). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 127 

Calliste nigricincta Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 261, 1856 Upper 
Amazonia ("Bogot"; Quixos, Ecuador; "Guaunco" and River Ucayali, 
Peru; Marabitanas, Rio Negro); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 85, pi. 
37, 1857 (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 70, 1861 "Bogota"; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 208, 1870 Marabitanas, Rio Negro, Brazil; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 185 Cosnipata, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1879, p. 599 Mapiri, Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, p. 12 
Huambo, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 471, 1884 Huambo; Salvin, Ibis, 
1885, p. 210 Roraima, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 126, 1886 Bolivia (Mapiri), Peru (Ucayali), Ecuador (Sarayacu), 
Colombia ("Bogota"), and British Guiana (Roraima); Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 2, p. 81, 1889 Mapiri, Bolivia; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 341 La Merced and Borgona, Chancha- 
mayo, Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, 
p. 16, 1899 Gualaquiza, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 463 Rio 
Tiputini (Napo), Ecuador; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 20, 
1902 Suapur6 and Nicare, Caura, Venezuela. 

Calospiza nigricincta Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 355, 1907 (range); Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1034, 1132, 1912 
Amazonia (range); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 445, 1914 (range); 
Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Canelos, Ecuador. 

Calospiza nigrocincta Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 348, 1907 Humayta, Rio 
Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, p. 274, 1910 Humayta. 

Tangara nigrocincta Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 174, 1916 
Suapure" and Nicare, Caura, Venezuela; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, 
p. 512, 1921 Bonasika River and Roraima; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 661, 1926 Rio Suno, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of Amazonia from the eastern base of the 
eastern Andes of Colombia, southern Venezuela (Caura Valley), and 
British Guiana (Bonasika River and Roraima) south through eastern 
Ecuador and Peru and western Brazil (Marabitanas, Rio Negro; 
Humayta, Rio Madeira) to northern Bolivia (Mapiri). 1 

2: Peru (Moyobamba, 2). 

*Calospiza nigro-cincta 2 fanny (Lafresnaye). 3 FANNY'S TANAGER. 

1 There is apparently no local variation in this species, birds from such widely 
separated localities as Roraima, the Caura Valley, and "Bogota" agreeing with 
others from northern Peru. No material is available from southern Peru or Bolivia. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 6. Ecuador: Rio Napo, 
1; Gualaquiza, 1; Sarayacu, 2. Venezuela: Caura Valley, 3. British Guiana: 
Roraima, 3. Peru: Iquitos, 1; Huayabamba, 1. Brazil: Marabitanas, Rio 
Negro, 2; Humayta, Rio Madeira, 1. 

2 The members of the C. larvata group are clearly conspecific with C. nigro- 
cincta, replacing it west of the Andes. 

3 Calospiza nigro-cincta fanny (Lafresnaye) : Nearest to C. n. franeiscae, but 
greater upper wing coverts and remiges either uniform black or with mere traces 
of greenish fringes on their apical halves; rump and flanks much paler and more 
greenish blue; blue postfrontal area more extensive; bill smaller. 

Birds from northwestern Ecuador and western Colombia agree perfectly to- 
gether. Des Murs's figure of the type unquestionably represents the form with 



128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Aglaia Fanny Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 72, 1847 "in Nova Grenada 
(Delattre)" = Buenaventura, Choco, Colombia (type in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
51, p. 51, 1899); Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 10, pi. 56, fig. 1, 1847 (fig. 
of type). 

Callisle francescae (not Calliste franciscae Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Monog. Gen. 
Calliste, p. 83, 1857 part, New Grenada; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1860, p. 142 Turbo, Colombia; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 7, pp. 298, 332, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama (descr. of young); Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 350 Panama Railroad. 

Calliste franciscae Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 359, 1862 Panama. 

Calliste larvata (not of Du Bus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 499 Remedios, Antioquia, Colombia; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 274, 1883 part, Panama (railroad line) and 
Colombia. 

Calliste larvata b. subsp. francescae Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 125, 
1886 part, spec. 1-q, Panama (Paraiso Station) and Colombia (Remedios, 
Antioquia). 

Calliste larvata francescae Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 482, 1898 Cachabi, 
Ecuador. 

Calospiza larvata fanny Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 30, 1900 
Loma del Leon, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 49, 1902 part, eastern Panama (railroad line) and Colombia; Hellmayr, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1107 Noanam& and Novita, Colombia 
(crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 277, 1918 Mindi and 
Gatun, Panama. 

Calospiza larvata fannyae Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1034, 1912 western Colombia and northwestern Ecuador (crit.). 

Tangara larvata fanny Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 598, 1917 
Buenavista (Narino), Barbacoas, Los Cisneros, San Jose, Noanama, 
Novita, Bagado, Puerto Valdivia (Rio Cauca), and Honda (Magdalena 
River), Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 661, 1926 Esmeraldas and Manavi, 
Ecuador; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 188, 1929 Cana, 
eastern Panama; idem, I.e., 72, p. 370, 1932 Perme and Obaldia, eastern 
Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of northwestern Ecuador (south to Man- 
avi), western Colombia (east into Antioquia and the Magdalena 
Valley), and eastern Panama (Canal Zone). 

4: Panama (Colon, 4). 

plain black larger upper wing coverts, thus showing that Delattre's specimen 
must have originated in western Colombia and not in "Veragua," as has once 
been suggested by Sclater. Two adults from the Panama Railroad seem to be 
decidedly referable to C. n. fanny. 

Material examined. Panama: Lion Hill, 1; Paraiso Station, 1. Colombia: 
Noanama, 6; Novita, 1; Remedios, 1. Ecuador: San Javier, 8; Pambilar, 1; 
Lita (alt. 3,000 feet), 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAY& 129 

*Calospiza nigro-cincta franciscae (Sclater). 1 FRANCISCA'S 
TANAGER. 

Calliste franciscae Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 142, 1856 Rio David, 
Chiriqui, Panama; idem, I.e., p. 261, 1856 Rio David, Chiriqui (spec, 
stated to be in coll. of J. Gould, its present location unknown) ; 2 Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 Costa Rica (Angostura, 
Turrialba, San Jose); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 298, 1869 Costa Rica. 

Calliste francescae Sclater, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 83, 1857 part, David, 
Chiriqui; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, pp. 176, 180, 1865 
David, Chiriqui, and Greytown, Nicaragua; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, p. 138 Santa Fe and Cordillera del Tole, Veraguas, and David, 
Chiriqui; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 187 Veraguas (CaloveVora, Chitra, Laguna 
de Castillo, Mina de Chorcha) and Chiriqui (Bugaba). 

Callispiza franciscae Salvadori, Atti. Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 175, 1868 
northeastern Costa Rica (crit.). 

Calliste larvata b. subsp. francescae Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 125, 
1886 part, spec, a-k, Nicaragua (Chontales), Costa Rica (Turrialba, 
Angostura), Veraguas (Cordillera del Tole, Calovevora, Mina de Chorcha, 
Santa Fe, Castillo). 

Calliste larvata (not of Du Bus) Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 316 Chontales, Nica- 
ragua; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 54 Costa Rica (Naranjo, 
Orosi, San Carlos); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 274, 1883 part, Nicaragua to western Panama (Veraguas and Chiriqui); 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 585, 1887 Segovia River, Hon- 
duras; Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Costa Rica 
(Naranjo de Cartago, Cartago, Jimenez, Puntarenas, P6zo Azul de Pirris); 
Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 
Costa Rica (Boruca, Terraba, Buenos Aires); Richmond, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 16, p. 488, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua. 

1 Calospiza nigro-cincta franciscae (Sclater) : Differs from C. n. fanny in having 
the greater upper wing coverts and remiges very distinctly margined with pale 
green; the flanks more extensively as well as a darker blue, with a strong purplish 
tinge anteriorly; the blue postfrontal patch more restricted; finally by larger, 
stouter bill. In all of these points it resembles C. n. larvata, from which it is, 
however, distinguished by coppery golden instead of deep coppery reddish throat, 
paler blue cheeks with very little, if any, purplish tinge, and somewhat paler 
crown and rump. Birds from the Terraba Valley are precisely similar to a series 
from Chiriquf and two skins from Veraguas (CaloveVora). While the small number 
of specimens examined from Caribbean Costa Rica and Nicaragua seem to be 
more or less intermediate to C. n. larvata, I am inclined to follow Peters in referring 
them to franciscae rather than Carriker, who places them with C. n. larvata. 

While doubtless intended as a mere emendation of A. fanny Lafr., the name 
C. franciscae of Sclater, accompanied as it is by a characterization of the Chiriqui 
bird in comparison to C. larvata, will have to be adopted in place of C. n. centralis, 
as has been pointed out by Peters (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 340, 1931). 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Carrfllo, 1; Rio Reventaz6n, 4; 
San Carlos, 1; Turrialba, 1; Boruca, 8. Panama: Chiriquf, 12; Calovevora, 
Veraguas, 2. 

1 Bridges secured a single example. It did not come to the British Museum, 
but may yet be found in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, where 
part of the Gould Collection was deposited. 



130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calospiza larvata larvata Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 32, 1919 Costa 

Rica (Talamanca, Sipurio) and Nicaragua (San Juan del Norte) (crit.). 
Calospiza larvata fanny (not Aglaia fanny Lafresnaye) Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 369, 

1901 Divala, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 49, 

1902 part, Honduras to western Panama (Veraguas and Chiriqui); Bangs, 

Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Boruca and Paso Real de Terraba, Costa Rica; 

Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 278, 1910 Guayabo and 

Port Limon, Costa Rica. 
Tangara larvata fanny Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 859, 1910 Pacific 

lowlands of Costa Rica (Pigres, Pozo Azul de Pirris, Buenos Aires, El 

General de Terraba, and Boruca; habits). 
Tangara larvata larvata Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 858, 1910 

Caribbean Costa Rica (Guayabo, Bonilla, Carrillo, Jimenez, Cachi, Sara- 

piqui, Guacimo, Guapiles, El Hogar; crit., habits). 
Calospiza larvata centralis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

pp. 1034, 1132, 1912 Calovevora, Veraguas (type in coll. of H. von 

Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum). 
Tangara larvata centralis Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 

462, 1928 Almirante, Panama (crit.). 
Tangara larvata franciscae Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 340, 1931 

Panama, Almirante Bay region (Changuinola, Almirante, Zegla, Crima- 

cola); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 244, 1932 Eden and 

Bluefields, Nicaragua. 

Range. Tropical zone of Central America, from southern Hon- 
duras (Segovia River) through Nicaragua and Costa Rica to western 
Panama (east to the Veraguas). 

16: Nicaragua (Matagalpa, 2); Costa Rica (Boruca, 1; El Pozo, 
TeYraba, 1; Guayabo, 2; Port Limon, 6; Peralta, 2; Santa Cruz de 
Turrialba, 1); Panama (Veragua, 1). 

*Calospiza nigro-cincta larvata (Du Bus). MASKED TANAGER. 

Calliste larvata Du Bus, Esq. Orn., livr. 2, pi. 9, 1846 Tabasco, Mexico (type 
in Brussels Museum); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 64 (crit.); idem, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 260, 1856 Mexico (Tabasco) and Honduras 
(Chamelicon River); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 81, pi. 36, 1857 
same localities (monog.); Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 16 Chamelicon 
River, Honduras; Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 467 Izabal, Guatemala; Sclater 
and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 33 Izabal (habits); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 70, 1862 Choctum, Vera Paz; idem and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 836 Honduras [San Pedro]; Boucard, Ann. Soc. 
Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 42, 1878 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 274, 1883 part, Tabasco to Honduras; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 124, 1886 Mexico, British Honduras 
(Belize), Guatemala (Choctum, Rio de la Pasion, Vera Paz, Izabal, 
Chisec), and Honduras (San Pedro). 

Calospiza larvata Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1034, 
1912 southern Mexico to Honduras. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 131 

Calospiza larvata larvata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 47, 
1902 southern Mexico to Honduras (monog.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 39, p. 155, 1903 Ceiba and Yaruca, Honduras. 

Tangara larvata larvata Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 391, 1929 
Mountain Cow, Cayo District, British Honduras; Peters, I.e., p. 471, 
1929 Lancetilla and Tela, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 375, 1932 Guatemala (Finca Chama, Chimoxan, Secanquim). 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico (in states of 
Tabasco and Chiapas), eastern Guatemala, British Honduras, and 
Honduras. 1 

1: Guatemala (unspecified, 1). 

*Calospiza ruficervix ruficervix (PreVost and Des Murs). BUFF- 
NAPED TANAGER. 

Tanagra ruficervix Prevost and Des Murs, Voy. Venus, Atlas, Ois., pi. 5, 

fig. 1, 1846. 
Tanagra (Calliste) ruficervix Prevost and Des Murs, Voy. V6nus, Zool., 5, 

(1), p. 212, 1849 "Guatemala," errore (the type examined in the Paris 

Museum is from Colombia). 
"Procnopis atrocoerulea [not of Tschudi] et Tanagra ruficervix" Bonaparte, 

Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, p. 77, 1851 Ecuador (descr. of spec. 

collected by Bourcier in the Paris Museum). 

Calliste leucotis Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, Part 2, p. 58, end of April, 1851 
based on Procnopis atrocoerulea Bonaparte ex Ecuador (type in Paris 

Museum). 
Chalcothraupis ruficervix Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 144, 1851 

Colombia (descr.). 
Calliste ruficervix Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 58 Colombia; idem, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 259, 

1856 Colombia ("Bogota") and Ecuador (vicinity of Quito); idem, 

Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 71, pi. 32, 1857 same localities (monog.); 

idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 139, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; 

idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 69, 1862 Pallatanga and "Bogota"; 

Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 499 Concordia, 

Colombia; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, p. 288 Cayandeled, 

Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 129, 1886 Colombia 

("Bogota," Antioquia), Ecuador (Pallatanga), and "North Peru" (errore); 

Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 "Bogota"; Allen, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Gualea and Batonago, Ecuador; 

Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 462 San Nicolas and Intag, Ecuador. 
Calospiza ruficervix Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc M6rid. 

Equat., 9, p. B. 96, 1911 San Nicolas and Santo Domingo, Ecuador; 

Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1035, 1912 Colombia 

("Bogota," Antioquia, San Pablo) and western Ecuador (Pallatanga, 

"Quito," Cayandeled, San Nicolas, Intag). 

1 Two specimens from Santa Ana, Honduras, agree with nine from Guatemala. 
No Mexican material examined. 



132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calospiza ruficervix ruficervix Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1108 
Pueblo Rico and Rio Lima, western Andes of Colombia. 

Tangara ruficervix ruficervix Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 599, 
1917 Colombia (San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, Gallera, Ricaurte, 
western Andes; Miraflores, Salento, La Candela, near San Agustin, central 
Andes; Fusugasuga, Aguadita, El Roble, eastern Andes); idem, I.e., 55, 
p. 662, 1926 western Ecuador (Gualea, Cayandeled, El Chiral, Zaruma). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (excepting the Santa 
Marta region) and western Ecuador. 1 

3: Colombia (Rio Zapata, Cauca, 1; San Antonio, Cauca, 1; 
"Bogota," 1). 

Calospiza ruficervix taylori (Taczanowski and Berlepsch). 2 
TAYLOR'S TANAGER. 

Calliste taylori Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, 

p. 78 Machay, eastern Ecuador (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman 

and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 183, 1927); 

Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 130, 1886 eastern Ecuador (Machay, 

Rio Napo). 
Calospiza taylori Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1035, 

1912 eastern Ecuador (Machay, Rio Napo). 
Tangara ruficervix taylori Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 662, 

1926 eastern Ecuador (below Oyacachi) and northern Peru (Chaupe). 
Calospiza ruficervix fulvicervix (not Calliste fulvicervix Sclater and Salvin) 

Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1109 (in text) part, Nuevo 

Loreto, Peru. 

1 Birds from western Ecuador (leucotis) I am unable to distinguish satisfac- 
torily. As has been remarked by Chapman, they have generally longer bills and 
the ochraceous occipital band sometimes wider, but neither of these average 
variations seems constant enough to warrant their separation. The presence of 
bluish white or golden buff feathers along the upper margin of the auriculars 
appears to be inconsequential, such individuals also occurring in various parts 
of Colombia. Sclater, when proposing the name leucolis, had no Ecuadorian 
material before him, but relied on Bonaparte's rather superficial description. If 
the prince called the "tectrices alarum minores" white, he doubtless meant the under 
wing coverts. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: San Antonio, western Andes, 4; 
Pueblo Rico, San Juan slopes, 2; Rio Lima, Cauca, 2; "Bogota," 14. Ecuador: 
San Nicolas, 3; Santo Domingo, 1; Cayandeled, 2; below Quito, 3. 

z Calospiza ruficervix taylori (Taczanowski and Berlepsch) : Similar in the adult 
male to C. r. ruficervix, but larger; postf rental band ultramarine blue instead of 
dull purplish blue; occipital band much brighter, glossy golden yellow, and extend- 
ing laterally to the upper margin of the auriculars, etc. Wing, 78; tail, 51; bill, 9. 

An unsexed adult from northern Peru (Nuevo Loreto, east of Tayabamba), 
in general coloration resembles the adult male from Machay, from which the above 
characters have been taken, but is smaller (wing, 70; tail, 45) and differs in certain 
details, the occipital band being only half as wide and the postfrontal area as well 
as the tips to the nuchal feathers being cendre blue. In dimensions and narrow- 
ness of the golden yellow occipital band it corresponds to the characters of the 
female of taylori, as given by the describers. Additional material is required to 
determine the significance of the variation. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Ecuador (Machay, below 
Oyacachi, "Rio Napo") and northern Peru (Chaupe, east of Huanca- 
bamba; Nuevo Loreto, east of Tayabamba). 

*Calospiza ruficervix fulvicervix (Sclater and Salvin). 1 ORANGE- 
NAPED TANAGER. 

Callisie fulvicervix Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 354, pi. 
30, fig. 1 Tilotilo, Yungas, Bolivia (descr. of female; type in Salvin- 
Godman Collection, now in British Museum); idem, I.e., 1879, p. 599 
Tilotilo; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 465, 1884 Paltaypampa and Ropay- 
bamba, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 130, 1886 Bolivia; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 340 Garita 
del Sol, Vitoc, Peru. 

Calospiza fulvicervix Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 79, 1906 Idma, 
Urubamba, Peru; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1035, 1912 Peru (Paltaypampa, Ropaybamba, Garita del Sol, Chan- 
chamayo, "Santa Ana" [ = Idma], Marcapata, Ocobamba near Cuzco) 
and Bolivia (Tilotilo). 

Tangara fulvicervix Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 118, 1921 Idma 
and San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru. 

Calliste ruficervix (not Tanagra ruficervix PreVost and Des Murs) Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 514 Paltaypampa and Ropaybamba, Peru. 

Range. Subtropical zone of southern Peru (from Dept. Junin 
to Cuzco) and northern Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz). 
1: Peru (Chanchamayo, Junin, 1). 

"Calospiza mexicana mexicana (Linnaeus). GUIANAN TUR- 
QUOISE TANAGER. 

Tanagra mexicana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 315, 1766 based 
principally on "Le Tangara bleu de Cayenne" Brisson (Orn., 3, p. 6, pi. 
1, fig. 3); Cayenne. 2 

1 Calospiza ruficervix fulvicervix (Sclater and Salvin) : Differs in the male sex 
from the two preceding races by much brighter blue (not greenish blue) general 
coloration both above and below; shining orange-rufous occipital band without 
trace of blackish borders; nearly pure white (not buffy) middle of the breast, etc. 
The female is much like ruficervix and taylori, but lacks the blackish borders to 
the occipital band, the latter being, besides, hardly suggested by a narrow stripe. 
Wing, 72-77, (female) 71; tail, 48-51; bill, 8^-9. 

A single Bolivian male, when compared to others from Peru, is more intensely 
blue throughout and has the orange-rufous band on the pileum markedly wider. 
Specimens from Dept. Junin, whence we have no material, are stated by Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann to be like those from Idma. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Yungas of La Paz, 1. Peru: Idma, Urubamba, 6; 
Ocobamba, near Cuzco, 1. 

2 Linnaeus also cites "The Black and Blue Tit-mouse" of Edwards (Glean. 
Nat. Hist., 3, p. 292, pi. 350), which is the same bird as that from Cayenne, but 
his diagnosis is clearly taken from Brisson, though in a condensed form. The 
"Touauhtotl" of Hernandez, an obscure Mexican species, referred by Brisson to 
his "Tangara bleu de Cayenne," certainly is something different. Nevertheless, 
the term mexicana, misleading as it is, cannot be rejected under existing rules. 



134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tanagra flaviventris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 32, p. 410, 
1819 part, Cayenne (ex "Tangara tachete, de Cayenne" Daubenton, 
PL Enl., pi. 290, fig. 2). 

Callospiza mexicana Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 670, 1849 British Guiana. 

Callospiza cayanensis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 169, 1851 
new name for Tanagra mexicana Linnaeus and Tanagra flaviventris 
Vieillot, ex Cayenne; idem, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 32, 1857 
Cayenne. 

Calliste flaviventris Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 69 Guiana; idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 257, 1856 Cayenne and "upper Rio Negro 
(Wallace)"; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 63, pi. 29, 1857 Cayenne, 
Guiana, and "upper Rio Negro" (monog.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 571 "Barra do Rio Negro"; 1 Dubois, Bull. 
Acad. Roy. Belgique, 38, p. 127, 1874 (crit.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 210 
Bartica Grove, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 120, 
1886 part (subsp. typica, spec, a-f; subsp. vieilloti, spec, a, b), Cayenne 
and British Guiana, "Barra do Rio Negro"; 1 Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, 
p. 293, 1907 Maracd and Monte Alegre, Brazil (spec, examined); Penard, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 438, 1910 part, Guianas (habits). 

Calliste brasiliensis var. a. flaviventris Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 
129, 1874 (range). 

Calospiza mexicana Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 114, 1908 Cayenne; idem, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1036, 1132, 1912 Guianas 
and northern Brazil (Monte Alegre, Maraca); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 445, 1914 Maraca and Monte Alegre. , 

Calospiza mexicana mexicana Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14, p. 
8, 1908 French Guiana. 

Tangara mexicana Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 511, 1921 British Guiana 
(Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Takutu, Mazaruni River, Bonasika, Abary 
River, Tiger Creek, Essequibo, Bartica Grove, Georgetown, etc.); Young, 
Ibis, 1929, p. 249 coastland of British Guiana. 

Tangara mexicana mexicana Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, p. 87, 1918 Surinam (vicinity of Paramaribo, Javaweg). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and northeastern 
Brazil, south to the north bank of the lower Amazon, west to Monte 
Alegre. 2 

6: British Guiana (Georgetown, 2; unspecified, 2); Dutch Guiana 
(near Paramaribo, Surinam, 1); French Guiana (Cayenne, 1). 

1 1 cannot help thinking that there must be some mistake about this locality. 
Three adults from "Barra do Rio Negro" [=Manaos] in the Vienna Museum are 
undoubtedly C. m. boliviano and by no means C. m. mexicana. 

2 Two adult females from Monte Alegre agree in every detail, notably in 
uniform calamine blue humeral patch and pale yellowish under parts, with typical 
Cayenne birds. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana, 9; Surinam, 4; British Guiana, 
6. Brazil: Monte Alegre, 2; Maraca, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 135 

Calospiza mexicana media (Berlepsch and Hartert). 1 INTER- 
MEDIATE TURQUOISE TANAGER. 

Calliste mexicana media Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 19, 1902 
Maipures, Orin6co River, and La Pricion, Caura River, Venezuela (type 
from Maipures, in Tring Museum, now in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York). 

Calospiza mexicana media Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1036, 1912 Venezuela (Maipures, Perico, Guanoco). 

Tangara mexicana media Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 173, 
1916 Orinoco (Perico and upwards) and Caura (La Union, Suapure), 
Venezuela. 

Calospiza mexicana vieilloti (not Calliste vieilloli Sclater) Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 1, p. 102, 1909 Guanoco, Orinoco Delta (spec, examined). 

Tangara mexicana vieilloti Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 174, 
1916 Guanoco (ex Beebe). 

Range. Southern Venezuela, in the valleys of the Orinoco and 
its tributary, the Caura, and doubtless other rivers. 

*Calospiza mexicana vieilloti (Sclater). 2 VIEILLOT'S TURQUOISE 
TANAGER. 

Calliste vieilloti Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," p. 257, pub. 
Jan., 1857 Trinidad (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Mu- 
seum); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 65, 1857 Trinidad (monog.); 
Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 579 Trinidad (crit.); Dubois, 
Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 127, 1874 Trinidad (crit.). 

Calliste vieillotii Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 69, 1862 Trinidad; 
Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 82 Trinidad; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 303, 1866 
Trinidad. 

1 Calospiza mexicana media (Berlepsch and Hartert) : Similar to C. m. mexicana, 
but median under parts darker, barita yellow instead of massicot yellow; blue 
of face and throat slightly deeper; humeral patch also somewhat darker, cendre 
blue rather than calamine blue. Size the same. 

This race forms the transition to C. m. vieilloti. The humeral patch shows 
about the same tone as in the Trinidad form, and the blue of the head and throat, 
while not quite so purplish, nevertheless marks a decided step in the direction of 
the insular birds. The majority of the Orinoco birds, in the tone of the yellow 
underneath, occupy an intermediate position between mexicana and vieilloti. 
However, the most deeply-colored individuals (one from La Pricion, Caura, and 
i one from Guanoco, Orinoco Delta) are just a trifle paler than Trinidad birds, 
' whereas the palest specimen (an adult male from the Caura Valley) cannot be 
separated from mexicana. Examples from the Caura and the Orinoco Delta are 
identical with a series from the upper Orinoco, presenting very nearly the same 
amount of variation. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Perico, Orinoco River, 2; Maipures, Orinoco 
River, 10; Caura Valley (Suapure, La Pricion), 7; Guanoco, Delta Amacuro, 4. 

2 Calospiza mexicana vieilloti (Sclater) : Nearest to C. m. media, but still more 
deeply colored, the blue of the face and throat being darker and of a more purplish 
hue, and the under parts bright pinard yellow. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 14; Icacos, 1; Caroni River, 1; 
Maracas, 1; Aripo (alt. 1,500 feet), 1. 



136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calliste brasiliensis var. /3. vieilloii Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 129, 

1874 Trinidad. 
Calliste flaviventris b. subsp. vieilloti Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 121, 

1886 part, spec, d-h, Trinidad. 1 
Calliste flaviventris vieilloti Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 29, 

1894 Princestown, Trinidad. 
Calospiza mexicana vieilloti Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 14, 1906 Caparo, 

Laventille, and Valencia, Trinidad (crit.); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 

Inst., 1, p. 188, 1906 Aripo; idem, I.e., 1, p. 358, 1908 Carenage and 

Aripo, Trinidad; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1036, 

1912 Trinidad. 1 
Tanagra flaviventris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 32, p. 410, 

1819 part, Trinidad. 
Callospiza mexicana (not Tanagra mexicana Linnaeus) Bonaparte, Compt. 

Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, p. 80, 1851 "Antill. mer."= Trinidad 

(crit.); idem, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 169, 1851 "Antill. mer." 

= Trinidad (crit.). 

Range. Island of Trinidad. 
1: Trinidad. 






*Calospiza mexicana boliviana (Bonaparte). BOLIVIAN TUR- 
QUOISE TANAGER. 

Callospiza boliviana Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, No. 3, 
p. 80, 1851 Guarayos, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined); idem, 
Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, No. 4, p. 169, Apr., 1851 Guarayos (repr. of 
orig. descr.). 

Aglaia mexicana (not Tanagra mexicana Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 32, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia. 

Tanagra flaviventris (not of Vieillot) d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 
271, 1839 Yuracares and Guarayos, Bolivia. 

Calliste flaviventris Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 207, 1870 Rio Madeira (Ponto 
do Rio Guapore, Borba) and Barra do Rio Negro (spec, in Vienna Museum 
examined); Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 379 Para. 

Calospiza flaviventris Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 354, 1907 Santarem. 

Calliste boliviana Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 69 (crit.); idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 258, 1856 
Colombia ("Bogota"), eastern Peru, Brazil (Ega), and Bolivia (descr.); 
idem, I.e., 25, p. 264, 1857 Rio Javarri; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, 
p. 67, pi. 30, 1857 (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 69, 1862 
Ega, Capim River, and "Bogota"; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1866, p. 180 upper Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 571 Capim 
River; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 977 Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 261 Peru 
(Sarayacu, upper Ucayali, Pebas, Rio Javarri); idem, I.e., 1879, p. 599 

1 The record of this form from Bartica Grove, British Guiana, refers doubtless 
to unusually bright-bellied individuals of C. TO. mexicana. Vieillot's Turquoise 
Tanager is strictly confined to Trinidad. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 137 

Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 127, 1874 
(crit.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 464, 1884 Peruvian localities; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 121, 1886 Colombia ("Bogota"), 
Ecuador (Sarayacu), Peru (Pebas, Ucayali), and Brazil (Ega and Capim 
River); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 296, 1889 Tarapoto, Peru; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 81, 1889 Yungas, Bolivia; Riker and Chap- 
man, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 Diamantina, Santarm; Berlepsch and Stolz- 
mann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 340 La Merced, Chanchamayo, 
Peru; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 462 Rio "Tiputini" (Rio Napo), Ecua- 
dor; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 293, 1907 Par& and Cussary, Brazil. 

Calliste brasiliensis var. 7- boliviano, Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 129, 
1874 (range). 

Calospiza boliviano Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 1906 Rio Jurua, 
Brazil; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, pp. 9, 522, 1908 Bom Lugar (Rio 
Purus) and Alcobaca (Rio Tocantins); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1036, 1133, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota" and Rio 
Putumayo) to Bolivia and western Brazil (crit.); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 445, 1914 Para, Providencia, Rio Moju, Rio Tocantins 
(Baiao, Alcobaca, Arumatheua), Cussary, Rio Jamauchim (Santa Helena, 
Conceicao), Rio Tapajoz (Boim), and Rio Purus (Bom Lugar), Brazil; 
Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Canelos, Ecuador. 

Calospiza mexicana boliviano Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 355, 1907 Rio 
Jurua (range); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 7, 1907 Itaituba, Rio Tapa- 
J6z (crit.); idem, I.e., 14, p. 43, 1907 Teffe, Rio SolimSes; idem, I.e., 14, 
p. 348, 1907 Borba, Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, p. 274, 1910 Rio 
Madeira (Calama; Santa Izabel, Rio Preto; Marmellos). 

Tangara mexicana boliviano Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.- 
phys. KL, 26, No. 2, pp. 10, 87, 1912 Souza, Par& (Pai& localities; 
crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 598, 1917 La Morelia, 
Caqueta, Colombia; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 239, 1923 Guarayos, 
Bolivia (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 660, 1926 
"Napo" and Rio Suno, Ecuador; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, 
p. 174, 1928 Castanhal, Para; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 267, 1930 Buena vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (crit.); 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 372, 1930 Ponto do Rio 
Guapore, Matto Grosso. 

Tangara boliviano lateralis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 91, 1922 
Apacy, Rio Tapajoz, Brazil (type in Carnegie Museum). 

Range. Amazonia, from southeastern Colombia (La Morelia, 
Caqueta; Cuembi, Rio Putumayo) south through eastern Ecuador 
and Peru to eastern Bolivia and Brazil (north of the Amazon to 
Manaos, south of the river as far east as Para). 1 

1 Having once more compared good series from various parts of the range, I 
fail to find sufficient grounds for subdividing C. m. boliviano. Birds from Lower 
Amazonia (lateralis) are on average paler yellow below with more heavily black- 
spotted flanks, but so many individuals are indistinguishable from those of Bolivia 
that I do not see any practical advantage in maintaining the distinction by a sepa- 
rate name. The presence of pale (greenish) blue feathers in the (mainly light 



138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

4: Colombia ("Bogota," 1); Brazil (Capoeira, Para, 1; Utinga, 
Para, 1); Peru (Moyobamba, 1). 

Calospiza brasiliensis (Linnaeus). 1 BRAZILIAN TURQUOISE 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra brasiliensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 316, 1766 based on 
"Le Tangara bleu du Bresil" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 9, pi. 1, fig. 4; Brazil 
(type in Reaumur Collection); Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 477, 
1830 eastern Brazil (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Tanagra barbadensis ("Brisson") Kuhl, Buff, et Daub. Fig. Av. Nom. Syst., 
p. 3, 1820 based on "Tangara bleu, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., 
pi. 155, fig. 1; Cayenne (errore). 

Calliste brasiliensis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 234, 1850 Brazil; 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 68 Brazil; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 256, 1856 southeastern Brazil (descr.); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 180, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; Sclater, Monog. Gen. 
Calliste, p. 61, pi. 28, 1857 eastern coast of Brazil (monog.); idem, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 68, 1862 Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 207, 1870 
Sapitiba, Rio; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 119, 1886 Bahia 
and (?)Cayenne; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 153, 1900 Nova 
Friburgo. 

Calliste albiventris G. R. Gray, Genera Bds., 2, p. 366, 1844 based on "Tan- 
gara bleu, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 155, fig. 1, "Cayenne," 
errore; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 68, 1862 "Cayenne." 

Callospiza brasiliensis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 168, 1851 
Brazil (crit.). 

Calospiza brasiliensis Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 354, 1907 Bahia and 
Espirito Santo (Rio Doce); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 114, 1908 
"Cayenne"; idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1037, 1133, 
1912 Bahia to Rio de Janeiro (crit.). 

grayish violet blue) humeral patch is subject to much individual variation, though 
it appears that such specimens are less common in Upper Amazonia (Colombia 
to Peru) than they are in Lower Amazonia and on the Rio Madeira. Three adults 
from Manaos, however, have the smaller upper wing coverts strongly suffused 
with squill blue, much more so than any specimen from south of the Amazon, 
and thereby form the passage to C. m. mexicana, while in other respects (such 
as deep yellow belly and bright blue face and throat) they do not differ from the 
general "run" of boliviano. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Cuembi, Rio Putumayo, 1; 
"Bogota," 6. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 2; Rio Siputini (Napo), 2; unspecified, 1. 
Peru: Iquitos, 2; Loretoyacu, 1; lower Ucayali, 1; upper Ucayali, 5; Yahuarmayo, 
Carabaya, 2. Bolivia: Guarayos, 1 (the type); Buenavista, Santa Cruz, 4; 
San Mateo, 4. Brazil: Ponto do Rio Guapore, Matto Grosso, 1; Calama, Rio 
Madeira, 2; Santa Izabel, Rio Preto, 2; Marmellos, Rio Madeira, 1; Humayta, 
Rio Madeira, 1; Borba, Rio Madeira, 2; Teffe, Rio Solimoes, 2; Manaos, 3; Cussary, 
1; Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz, 1; Santarem, 2; Alcobaga, Rio Tocantins, 1; Para, 5. 

1 Though probably conspecific with C. mexicana, as claimed by Dubois (Bull. 
Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, pp. 127, 129, 1874), I hesitate to reduce it to subspecific 
rank on account of the constancy of its characters and its widely separated range. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 139 

Range. Wooded coast region of southeastern Brazil, from 
southern Bahia (Caravellas) to Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba, Nova 
Friburgo). 1 

Calospiza cabanisi (Sclater). 2 CABANIS'S TANAGER. 

Calliste s. Callispiza sclateri (not Calliste sclateri Lafresnaye) Cabanis, Journ. 
Orn., 14, p. 163, 1866 Costa Cuca, western Guatemala (type in Berlin 
Museum examined). 

Calliste cabanisi Sclater, Ibis, (n.s.), 4, p. 71, pi. 3, 1868 new name for Calr- 
liste sclateri Cabanis (fig. of type); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 271, 1883 Costa Cuca; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 123, 1886 Costa Cuca. 

Calospiza cabanisi Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1037, 
1912 Costa Cuca; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 42, 
1902 Costa Cuca. 

Tangara cabanisi Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 376, 1932 
Costa Cuca. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Guatemala (Costa Cuca). 
*Calospiza palmeri Hellmayr. 3 PALMER'S TANAGER. 

Calospiza palmeri Hellmayr, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 1, p. 49, Aug., 1909 Sipi, 
Rio Sipi, Choc6, Colombia (type in Munich Museum); idem, Ibis, 1910, 

1 The occurrence of C. brasiliensis in French Guiana is altogether unlikely. 
A specimen in the British Museum (from the collection of the late P. L. Sclater) 
has all the appearance of the skins exported from "Cayenne," and differs from 
Bahia skins by decidedly smaller size (wing, 74}^; tail, 55), but, as remarked by 
Berlepsch, it is extremely doubtful if it was really shot in French Guiana. An 
adult female obtained by Natterer at Sapitiba (near Rio de Janeiro) on March 26, 
1818, presents the same small dimensions (wing, 75; tail, 53), suggesting the possible 
existence of a recognizable race in southern Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 18; Sapitiba, 1. 

2 Calospiza cabanisi (Sclater), known only from the type specimen secured 
by Bernoulli many years ago, is allied to C. palmeri, but differs in various important 
points. The black on the face is much less extended, being restricted to the lores 

: and a narrow line across the forehead and round the base of the lower mandible; 

i the pileum is of a dull dark blue with the bases of the feathers largely black; 

I the interscapular region is metallic grass green; the lower back and rump are dull 

j azure blue instead of light neutral gray; the sides of the head and the throat dingy 
bluish green instead of pure white; the remainder of the lower parts is bluish 
white, more whitish in the middle, decidedly tinged with bluish green on the 
flanks; the feathers of the chest are black with the slightly attenuated tips bluish 

I white, but without trace of the (silvery or golden) yellowish color, so conspicuous 
a feature in C. palmeri; the smaller wing coverts and the edges to the greater series 
are azure blue instead of pallid neutral gray; the base of the lower mandible pale 
brownish. Wing, 86; tail, 58^; bill, 12. 

J Calospiza palmeri Hellmayr, being well figured in the Ibis for 1910, pi. 5, 

' need not be described here. 

An adult from Darien (Mount Sapo) agrees perfectly with birds from Chocp, 
while a single example obtained by F. Spillmann in December, 1925, on the Rio 
Saloya, Ecuador, is somewhat less yellowish on the chest. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Sipi, Rio Sipi, Choc6, 5. Ecuador: 
Rio Saloya, Prov. Pichincha, 1 (Vienna Museum). 



140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 330, pi. 5 Sipi, Colombia; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1107 
Sipi, Colombia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1037, 
1912 Rio Sipi. 

Tangara palmeri Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 597, 1917 San 
Jose, Colombia; Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 226, 
1922 Mount Sapo, eastern Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of the Pacific coast of eastern Panama 
(Mount Sapo, Darien), western Colombia (Sipi, Rio Sipi; San Jose"), 
and western Ecuador (Rio Saloya, Prov. Pichincha). 

1: Panama (Mount Sapo, Darien, 1). 

Calospiza inornata inornata (Gould). PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER. 

Calliste inornata Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158 (footnote), Dec. 
15, 1855 "Bogota," Colombia (type in coll. of J. Gould, now in British 
Museum); Sclater, I.e., 24, p. 258, 1856 "Bogota" (descr.); idem, Monog. 
Gen. Calliste, p. 103, pi. 45, 1857 "Bogota" (fig. of type); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 499 Nichi, Antioquia, Colombia; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 273, 1883 part, 
Colombia (Nechi, Antioquia); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 291, 1884 
Bucaramanga (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 120, 1886 
part, spec, h-m, Colombia ("Bogota," Remedies, Nichi, Antioquia). 

Calospiza inornata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 51, 1902 
part, Colombia ("Bogota," Remedies, Nichi, Bucaramanga); Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1037, 1912 part, Colombia 
(Bucaramanga, "Bogota," Remedies, Nichi). 

Tangara inornata inornata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 598, 
1917 Puerto Valdivia, lower Cauca, Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of Colombia (Magdalena Valley, west to 
the lower Cauca). 1 

*Calospiza inornata languens (Bangs and Barbour). 2 PANAMA 
PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER. 

Tangara inornata languens Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, 
p. 227, 1922 Loma del Leon and Mount Sapo, Panama (type, from Loma 
del Leon, in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Gris- 
com, I.e., 69, p. 188, 1929 Cana, Darien; idem, I.e., 72, p. 370, 1932 
Perme and Obaldia, eastern Panama (crit.). 

Calliste inornata (not of Gould) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 
142 Turbo, Colombia; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 298, 

1 Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 3; "Bucaramanga," 3; Remedies, 
Antioquia, 1. 

2 Calospiza inornata languens (Bangs and Barbour) : Similar to C. i. inornata, 
but coloration above decidedly paler, neutral gray rather than deep neutral gray, 
with the bluish tinge on forehead and rump much less pronounced; throat and 
sides of body much paler gray with hardly any bluish tone. Size about the same. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Paraiso Station, 1; Lion Hill, 2; 
Punta de Sabana, 2; Laguna Pita, 1; "Veragua," 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 141 

1861 Lion Hill, Panama Railroad; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 
359, 1862 Panama; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1864, 
p. 350 Panama Railroad (crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 273, 1883 part, Panama ("Veraguas," Panama City, 
Lion Hill Station, Turbo); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 121, 1886 
part, spec, a-g, "Veraguas" and Panama (Lion Hill, Paraiso Station); 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 4, 1899 
Punta de Sabana and Laguna della Pita, Darien, Panama. 
Calospiza inornata Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl. f 2, p. 30, 1900 Loma 
del Leon, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 51, 1902 
part, "Veragua" and Panama; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1037, 1912 "Veragua," Panama (Lion Hill, Paraiso) and 
Turbo, Colombia. 

Calliste ornata (lapsus) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 332 

(in text), 1861 (cf. Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, 

p. 227, 1922). 
Tangara inornata Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 278, 1918 

Gatun, Panama; Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 322, 1924 New Culebra, Canal 

Zone, Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Panama (west to the Canal 
Zone) and the adjacent portion of extreme northwestern Colombia 
(Turbo, Gulf of Uraba). 

4: Panama (Colon, 3; unspecified, 1). 

"Calospiza gyrola albertinae (Pelzeln). 1 ALBERTINA'S TANAGER. 

Calliste albertinae Pelzeln, Ibis, (4), 1, p. 337, 1877 Salto do Girao, Rio 
Madeira, Brazil (type in Vienna Museum examined); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 118, 1886 (ex Pelzeln). 

Calospiza albertinae Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 273, 1905 Igarap6-Assu, 
Par& (crit.); idem, I.e., 13, p. 357, 1906 Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 354, 1907 (range); Snetblage, Journ. Orn., 
56, p. 522, 1908 Alcobaca, Rio Tocantins (descr. of female); Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 17, p. 273, 1910 Maroins, Rio Machados, Matto Grosso 
(crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1038, 1912 
Para to the Rio Madeira; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 446, 1914 
Peixe-Boi (Para), Rio Tocantins (Alcobaca), and Rio Jamauchim 
(Santa Elena, Tucunar). 

1 Calospiza gyrola albertinae (Pelzeln) : Nearest to C. g. catharinae, but top 
and sides of the head and the chin spot decidedly lighter (burnt sienna rather 
than chestnut); no bright yellow posterior border to the rufous hood; hind neck 
and upper back much more yellowish, javel green instead of shining grass green; 
lesser upper wing coverts rufous (Sanford's brown) instead of lemon chrome; 
remainder of wing coverts, tertials, and outer webs of remiges shining yellowish 
oil green instead of grass green, etc. Wing, 70-73, (female) 69; tail, 45-49; 
bill, 10-11. 

Additional material examined. Santo Antonio do Prata, Para, 1; Igarap6- 
Assu, Para, 1; Santa Elena, Rio Jamauchim, 2; Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira, 
1 (the type); Maroins, Rio Machados, 1. 



142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tangara albertinae Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-phys. KL, 

26, No. 2, p. 87, 1912 Para region (Igarape-Assu, Santo Antonio); 

Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 372, 1930 Barao Melgago, 

northern Matto Grosso. 
Calliste gyroloides (not Aglaia gyroloides Lafresnaye) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 

p. 207, 1870 part, Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira. 

Range. Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the Para region west 
to the Rio Madeira and south to northern Matto Grosso (Barao 
Melgaco). 

1: Brazil (Utinga, Para, 1). 

*Calospiza gyrola gyrola (Linnaeus). BUFFON'S GREEN TANAGER. 

Fringilla gyrola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 181, 1758 based on 
"The Red-headed Finch" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 1, p. 23, pi. 23; Suri- 
nam (type in coll. of the Duke of Richmond). 

Aglaia chrysoptera Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 356, Dec., 1837 Demerara, 
British Guiana (location of type not stated, probably in the University 
Museum, Cambridge, Engl.). 

Tanagra gyrola Desmarest, Hist. Nat. Tangaras, livr. 11, text to pis. 6, 7, 
1807 Cayenne, Surinam, and "Bresil." 

Calliste gyrola Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 234, 1850 "Brazil"; 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 67- Guiana; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 255, 1856 Cayenne and British Guiana (descr.); idem, Monog. 
Gen. Calliste, p. 55, pi. 25, 1857 same localities (monog.); idem, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 67, 1862 Cayenne; Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 
38, p. 129, 1874 Guianas; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 209 British Guiana 
(Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains, Camacusa, Roraima); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 116, 1886 Cayenne and British Guiana; Penard, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 437, 1910 Surinam. 

Callospiza gyrola Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 669, 1849 British Guiana. 

Gyrola chrysoptera Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 139, 1851 "Brazil." 

Calospiza gyrola Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 114, 1908 Ipousin, Rio Appro- 
uague, French Guiana; idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1037, 1912 (range). 

Tangara gyrola Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 510, 1921 British Guiana 
(many localities). 

Tangara gyrola gyrola Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 131, 1931 
Roraima (Paulo, Arabupu). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana. 1 

1 Birds from the lowlands of British Guiana agree with others from Cayenne, 
while those from Roraima (alt. 3,000-3,500 feet) are slightly larger (wing of male, 
76-77; of female, 73-74). 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 2; Ipousin, 1. 
Surinam: near Paramaribo, 1. British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 9; Demerara, 3; 
Roraima, 4. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 143 

5: British Guiana (Caramang River, 1; Demerara River, 2; 
Mazaruni River, 1; unspecified, 1). 

*Calospiza gyrola catharinae Hellmayr. 1 CATHARINA'S GREEN 
TANAGER. 

Calospiza gyroloides catharinae Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 
1106 Chaquimayo, Carabaya, southeastern Peru (type in Munich Mu- 
seum); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1038, 1134, 
1912 Upper Amazonia from eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil 
to Bolivia (crit.); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 446, 1914 (range). 

Tangara gyroloides catharinae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 597, 
1917 Buena Vista, eastern Colombia; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 
6, p. 76, 1917 (range); idem and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 Charapi 
(east of Tabaconas), northern Peru; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, 
Heft 10, p. 21, 1920 Yahuarmayo and Chaquimayo, southeastern Peru; 
idem, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 239, 1923 Yuracares, Bolivia; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 659, 1926 eastern Ecuador (Zamora, Macas 
region, Rio Suno, below San Jose, and below Oyacachi); Zimmer, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 442, 1930 Huachipa and Vista Alegre, 
Dept. Huanuco, Peru. 

Aglaia gyrola (not Fringilla gyrola Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. 
Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 32, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia (spec, in 
Paris Museum examined). 

Tanagra gyrola d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Me>id., Ois., p. 272, 1839 Yuracares. 

Callospiza gyrola Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 286, 1844 Peru; idem, 
Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 202, 1846 wooded region of eastern Peru. 

Calliste gyroloides (not Aglaia gyroloides Lafresnaye 2 ?) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 

1 Calospiza gyrola catharinae Hellmayr: Similar to C. g. gyrola in size and in 
possessing a shining lemon chrome humeral patch, but yellow nuchal collar much 
wider, the head much darker (chestnut rather than burnt sienna), a light cerulean 
blue patch on the rump, and the under parts much more extensively blue. Differs 
from the other blue-rumped races by smaller size with a weaker, slenderer bill; 
by having the rufous cap bordered posteriorly by a broad, bright lemon chrome 
nuchal band; the upper throat dark sulphate green, separating the rufous chin 
spot from the blue foreneck; and the lesser as well as the adjoining median upper 
wing coverts bright lemon chrome, forming an extensive humeral patch about twice 
as large and much deeper yellow than in C. g. nupera and C. g. bangsi. Wing 
(male), 70-77; tail, 49-54; bill, 10-11. 

Three birds from the upper Rio Negro have the cap very dark, chestnut 
rather than mahogany red, but they are matched by one (out of two) from the 
Rio Putumayo, Colombia, while others from eastern Colombia are not different 
from other Amazonian skins. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Cuembl, Rio Putumayo, 2; 
"Bogota," 5. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 2; San Jos6, 2. Brazil: Marabitanas, Rio 
Negro, 1; Rio Xi6, 2. Peru: Huambo, 2; Huayabamba, 1; La Merced, Chan- 
chamayo, 1; Chanchamayo Valley, 4; Marcapata, Dept. Cuzco, 3; Chaquimayo, 
Carabaya, 2; Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, Dept. Puno, 2. Bolivia: San Mateo, 
Cochabamba, 2; Yuracares, 2. 

* Aglaia gyroloides Lafresnaye (Rev. Zool., 10, p. 277, 1847) is a new name 
for Aglaia peruviana Swainson (Anim. Menag., p. 356, Dec., 1837), preoccupied 
by Tanagra peruviana Desmarest, 1805, a species (of the genus Calospiza) peculiar 



144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Soc. Lond., 22, p. 115, 1854 Quijos, eastern Ecuador; idem, I.e., 23, 
p. 158, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 255, 1856 part, New Granada 
("Bogota"), Ecuador (Quixos), eastern Peru, and Bolivia (Yuracares); 
idem, I.e., 25, p. 264, 1857 Rio Javarri, Brazil; idem, I.e., 26, pp. 74, 453, 
1858 Rio Napo and Zamora, eastern Ecuador; idem, Monog. Gen. Cal- 
liste, p. 57, pi. 26, 1857 part, Colombia ("Bogota"), Ecuador (Rio Napo), 
eastern Peru, and Bolivia (Yuracares); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 
67, 1862 "Bogota" and eastern Peru; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 749 Chyavetas, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 207, 
1870 part, Marabitanas (Rio Negro) and Rio Xie, Brazil (spec, in Vienna 
Museum examined); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, 
p. 185 Cosnipata, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 261 Chyavetas and Rio 
Javarri, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 514 Monterico, Ayacucho, 
Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 599 Yuracares, Bolivia; Taczan- 
owski, I.e., 1882, p. 11 Huambo, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 465, 1884 
Peru (Chyavetas, Rio Javarri, Monterico, Cosnipata, Huambo, Chan- 
chamayo); idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 78 
Mapoto, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 117, 1886 part, 
spec, q, r, u-a', Colombia ("Bogota"), Ecuador (San Jose, Sarayacu, Rio 
Napo), Brazil (Ega), and Peru; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 71, 
81, 1889 Rio Napo, Ecuador, and Mapiri, Bolivia; Berlepsch and Stolz- 
mann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 340 Peru (La Merced and La 
Gloria, Chanchamayo, and Garita del Sol, Vitoc); Salvadori and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 15, 1899 part, spec, a-e, eastern 
Ecuador (San Jose and Rio Zamora; crit.). 

Calospiza gyroloides Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Onus, 13, pp. 78, 110, 1906 
Idma, Urubamba, and Marcapata (Huaynapata, Saniaca), Dept. Cuzco, 
Peru; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geog. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, 
p. B. 95, 1911 part, Gualaquiza, eastern Ecuador; idem, Rev. Frang. 
d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Nuevo Loreto, Peru; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Canelos, Ecuador. 

Calliste gyrola var. a. gyroloides Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 129, 
1874 part, Peru and Bolivia. 

Gyrola cyanoventris (not Tanagra cyanoventris Vieillot, 1819) Bonaparte, Rev. 
Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 139, 1851 Peru (diag.). 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from the eastern slope of the eastern 
Andes in Colombia (Buena Vista, above Villavicencio; Cuembi, Rio 
Putumayo) and from northwestern Brazil (Marabitanas, Rio Negro; 

to southeastern Brazil. Swainson based his description on a specimen from 
"Peru" in "Mr. W. Hooker's Collection," and it may be presumed that, like the 
types of other species named by him in the same work from the same collection, 
it was secured by the orchid hunter Andrew Mathews somewhere in northern Peru, 
viz., in the range of C. g. catharinae. However, the describer, in comparing his 
new bird with A. chrysoptera [=C. g. gyrola} of the Guianas, expressly insists on 
the "shoulder covers being green, instead of golden yellow," a statement that forbids 
the use of the name for the Upper Amazonian form I have called C. g. catharinae. 
Until the type comes to light, I am afraid the term A. gyroloides will remain inde- 
terminable. Unfortunately, Mr. Kinnear's efforts to locate it have been unsuccess- 
ful; it is apparently neither at Liverpool nor at Cambridge. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 145 

Ega [= Teffe"]) south through eastern Ecuador and Peru to northern 
Bolivia (Mapiri; San Mateo, Dept. Cochabamba; Yuracares). 
14: Peru (Huachipa, 8; Vista Alegre, 6). 

*Calospiza gyrola nupera (Bangs). 1 WEST ECUADORIAN GREEN 
TANAGER. 

Tangara gyroloides nupera Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 6, p. 76, Dec., 
1917 Nanegal, western Ecuador (type in Museum of Comparative Zo- 
ology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 401, 
1930). 

Calliste gyroloides (not Aglaia gyroloides Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 27, p. 139, 1859 Pallatanga; idem, I.e., 28, pp. 87, 292, 1860 
Nanegal and Esmeraldas; Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 127, 1874 
(crit.): Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 545 
Chimbo; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 117, 1886 part, western 
Ecuador; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 482, 1898 Chimbo; Salvadori and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 15, 1899 part, spec, f-k, 
Gualea, western Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 461 Canzacota, 
San Nicolas, and Gualea (seasonal migration). 

Calliste gyrola var. a. gyroloides Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 129, 
1874 part, Ecuador. 

Calospiza gyroloides Menegaux, Miss. Serv. G6og. Arm6e Mes. Arc Merid. 
Equat., 9, p. B. 95, 1911 part, western Ecuador (Santo Domingo, San 
Nicolas, Gualea). 

Calospiza gyroloides bangsi Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1105 
part, western Ecuador (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, pp. 1038, 1133, 1912 part, western Ecuador (crit.); Lonnberg 
and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 Gualea and below Mindo. 

Tangara gyroloides bangsi Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 597, 
1917 Ricaurte, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 659, 1926 western Ecuador 
(Esmeraldas, Rio de Oro, Naranjo, Bucay, Chimbo, La Chonta, Porto- 
velo, Punta Santa Ana, Rio Pindo, Salvias, Las Pinas, Guainche, Alamor, 
and Cebollal; crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of western Ecuador and 
extreme southwestern Colombia (Ricaurte and San Pablo, State of 
Narino). 

1: Ecuador (Chimbo, 1). 

1 Calospiza gyrola nupera (Bangs) : Immediately distinguished from C. g. 
catharinae by much larger, stouter bill; paler rufous (Sanford's brown) cap with 
the yellow posterior border much narrower and less conspicuous; absence of 
the dark green gular area, the paler blue of the under parts extending to the 
rufous chin spot; and especially by having the yellow humeral patch much less 
extensive as well as of a much lighter tone (lemon yellow instead of deep lemon 
chrome). In fact, this form is much nearer to C. g. bangsi and differs merely by 
somewhat paler (Sanford's brown instead of burnt sienna to mahogany red) 
head and slightly lighter, more greenish blue of the under parts. Wing (male), 
78-81; tail, 51-55, once 58; bill, 12-13. 

Additional material examined. Western Ecuador: Paramba, 5; San Nicolas, 2; 
Gualea, 8; Chimbo, 1. Colombia: San Pablo, Prov. Tuqueres, 1. 



146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Calospiza gyrola deleticia Bangs. 1 GREEN-SHOULDERED 
TANAGER. 

Calospiza gyroloides deleticia Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 21, p. 160, 1908 
San Antonio, western Andes of Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and O. 
Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 400, 1930). 

Callisie gyroloides (not Aglaia gyroloides Lafresnaye?) 2 Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 332, 1861 Panama Railroad; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 350 Isthmus of Panama; Wyatt, Ibis, 
1871, p. 325 mountain chain between Bucaramanga and the Magda- 
lena, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 499 
Concordia (western Andes) and Remedios, Colombia; Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 270, 1883 part, Panama Railroad 
and Colombia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 289, 1884 Bucaramanga, 
Colombia (spec, examined); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 117, 
1886 part, spec, k, 1, s, t, Panama (Lion Hill) and Colombia (Remedios, 
Concordia). 

Calospiza gyroloides Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 307 Ibagiie, 
Colombia; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 43, 1902 part, 
Panama and Colombia. 

Calospiza gyroloides gyroloides Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, pp. 
1104, 1005 western Andes of Colombia (Jimenez, Pueblo Rico, Siato, 
Rio Lima, etc.; crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
pp. 1038, 1131, 1912 Colombia (crit.). 

Tangara gyroloides gyroloides Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 596, 
1917 western Andes (San Antonio, Las Lomitas, Cocal, Gallera), La 
Frijolera (lower Cauca), and west slope of eastern Andes (Andalucia; 
Aguadita; El Consuelo, above Honda), Colombia; Bangs, Proc. New 
Engl. Zool. Cl., 6, p. 76, 1917 Colombia to line of Panama Railroad; 
idem and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 226, 1922 Mount 
Sapo, Darien; Griscom, I.e., 69, p. 188, 1929 Cana, Darien (crit.); idem, 
I.e., 72, p. 370, 1932 Obaldia, Panama. 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of Colombia, including 
the west slope of the eastern Andes, but excluding the Santa Marta 

1 Calospiza gyrola deleticia Bangs: Nearest to C. g. nupera and C. g. bangsi, 
but yellow border to rufous cap absent or merely suggested, and lesser upper wing 
coverts bright green like the larger ones or very slightly more yellowish than the 
latter. The color of the rufous cap varies from the Sanford's brown of C. g. nupera 
to the mahogany red of C. g. bangsi. Wing (male), 75-82; tail, 52-57; bill, 12-13. 

Birds from the Canal Zone are intermediate to C. g. bangsi. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Pueblo Rico, San Juan slopes, 
western Andes, 3; Siato, Rio Siato, near Pueblo Rico, 2; Jimenez, western Andes, 1; 
Rio Lima, Cauca, 2; Bucaramanga, 1; "Bogota," 7. Panama: Panama Railroad, 2. 

2 Though I had formerly applied the name Aglaia gyroloides Lafr. to the present 
form, I now prefer, for reasons given on page 143 (footnote 2), to revert to Bangs's 
term deleticia, whose pertinence is beyond question, whereas Swainson's statement 
that "the rufous on the head is terminated on the nape by a yellow margin" 
(as in C. g. gyrola) is not in agreement with the west Colombian race. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 147 

region and the extreme southwestern section south of the Rio Patia, 
and extending north through eastern Panama to the Canal Zone. 

13: Colombia (Rio Lima, 4; Andalucia, Huila, 2; "Bogota," 7). 
"Calospiza gyrola bangsi Hellmayr. 1 BANGS'S GREEN TANAGER. 

Calospiza gyroloides bangsi Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1105 
Boquete, Chiriquf, Panama (type in Munich Museum); Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1038, 1133, 1912 part, Costa 
Rica, Chiriqui, and Veraguas. 

Tangara gyroloides bangsi Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 6, p. 76, 1917 
Costa Rica to Veragua; Kennard and Peters, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H., 38, 
p. 462, 1928 Boquete Trail, Panama. 

Calliste gyroloides (not Aglaia gyroloides Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 24, p. 142, 1856 David, Chiriqui; idem, I.e., p. 255, 1856 part, 
David, Chiriquf; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 57, 1857 part, David; 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 138 Santa F6 (Veraguas) and 
David (Chiriqui); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 
Costa Rica (Barranca, Guaitil, Dota); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 
298, 1869 Costa Rica (Sabanilla de Pirris, Guaitil, Dota, Barranca); 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 186 Veraguas (CaloveVora, 
Boquete de Chitra, Cordillera del Chucu) and Chiriquf (Bugaba, Volcan 
de Chiriqui); Boucard, I.e., 1878, p. 54 Navarro, Costa Rica; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 270, 1883 part, Costa Rica, 
Chiriqui, and Veragua; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 117, 1886 
part, spec, a-j, Costa Rica (Guaitil, Turrialba), Veragua (Santa Fe, 
CaloveVora), and Chiriqui (Bugaba); Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Costa Rica (Cartago, Naranjo de Cartago, Pozo 
Azul de Pirris, Sarchi de Alajuela, Los Anonos de San Jose); Cherrie, 
Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 136, 1893 Boruca, 
Teiraba, and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 6, p. 13, 1895 Pozo 
Pital and San Marcos, Costa Rica; Salvadori and Festa", Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 3, 1899 Chiriqui. 

Callispiza gyroloides Salvadori, Atti. Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 174, 1868 
Costa Rica. 

Calospiza gyroloides Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 43, 1902 
part, Costa Rica to Veragua; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 65, 
1902 Boquete, Chiriqui; idem, Auk, 24, p. 308, 1907 Costa Rica (Bo- 
ruca, Barranca de T6rraba); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
p. 278, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica. 

Tangara gyroloides gyroloides Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 861, 1910 
Costa Rica (range). 

1 Calospiza gyrola bangsi Hellmayr: Similar to C. g. deleticia, but lesser upper 
wing coverts lemon yellow and yellow nuchal collar more conspicuous. Wing 
(male), 75-81; tail, 52-56; bill, 12-13. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Naranjo, 1; Boruca, 30; Buenos 
Aires, 2. Panama: Boquete, Chiriqui, 5; Calovevora, Veraguas, 1. 



148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of Costa Rica and 
western Panama, east to Veraguas. 

10: Costa Rica (Boruca, 4; Guayabo, 2; Santa Cruz de Turrialba, 
2; Peralta, 2). 

Calospiza gyrola viridissima (Lafresnaye). 1 DESMAREST'S GREEN 
TANAGER. 

Calliste desmaresti(i) (not Tanagra desmaresti Vieillot, 1819) G. R. Gray, 
Genera Bds., 2, p. 366, 1844 based on Tanagra gyrola Swainson, Zool. 
Illust., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, pi. 28, 1829; locality not indicated, Trinidad sug- 
gested by Hellmayr (Nov. Zool., 13, p. 14, 1906); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 
1851, p. 67 (crit.); Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astron. Exp., 2, p. 182, pi. 19, 
fig. 2, 1855 "the more southern of the West Indies"; Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 256, 1856 Venezuela and Trinidad (descr.); idem, 
Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 59, pi. 27, 1857 part, Trinidad (monog.); idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 68, 1862 Trinidad and Venezuela; Taylor, 
Ibis, 1864, p. 82 Trinidad; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 302, 1866 Trini- 
dad; Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 579 Trinidad; Dubois, 
Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 127, 1874 (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 118, 1886 part, spec, d, f-i, "Venezuela" and Trinidad; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 7, p. 322, 1895 Caura Valley, Trini- 
dad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San Antonio [Sucre], Venezuela; 
Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 129, 1922 Maracas 
Valley, Trinidad. 

Aglaia viridissima Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 277, 1847 based on Tanagra 
gyrola Swainson, Zool. Illust., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, pi. 28, 1829. 

Gyrola viridissima Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 139, 1851 "Antilles" 
= Trinidad (diag.). 

Calospiza desmaresti Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 14, 1906 part, Trinidad 
(Caparo and Chaguaramas) and northeastern Venezuela (near Cumana); 
Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 188, 1906 Aripo, Trinidad; 
idem, I.e., p. 357, 1908 Carenage and Aripo, Trinidad; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1039, 1912 part, Trinidad and "Cum- 
ana," Venezuela. 

Tangara desmaresti Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 210, 1913 
Cariaquito, Sucre, Venezuela. 

Calliste gyrola var. /3. desmaresti Dubois, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 38, p. 129, 
1874 Trinidad and Venezuela. 

Tangara viridissima viridissima Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 191, p. 12, 1925 
Neveri, Sucre, Venezuela. 

1 Calospiza gyrola viridissima (Lafresnaye) and the closely allied C. g. toddi 
differ from C. g. gyrola principally by lacking the well-defined bright blue area 
along the median portion of the under parts and the shining lemon chrome humeral 
patch. In the latter respect, they closely resemble the otherwise very different 
(blue-bellied and blue-rumped) C. g. deleticia, of Colombia. Although no inter- 
mediates to the neighboring "species" are known, both are clearly derivatives of 
a common ancestral stock, from which C. gyrola and the blue-rumped group 
("gyroloides" auct.) have developed. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 149 

Range. Tropical zone of Trinidad and northeastern Venezuela 
(State of Sucre). 1 

"Calospiza gyrola toddi (Bangs and Penard). 2 TODD'S GREEN 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra viridissima toddi Bangs and Penard, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 34, p. 
92, 1921 San Francisco, Santa Marta region, Colombia (type in Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 494, 1921 Santa Marta region of Colombia (La 
Conception, San Antonio, San Francisco, San Miguel, Las Taguas, Las 
Nubes, Jordan, Onaca, Cincinnati, Don Diego, Las Vegas; crit., habits); 
Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 178, 1924 Loma Redonda and 
Galipan, Venezuela (crit.). 

Calliste desmaresti (not of Gray) Sclater, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 59, 1857 
part, Caracas, Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 
p. 627 San Esteban, Carabobo; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 120 
Guallabal and Minca, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
118, 1886 part, spec, b, e, j, San Esteban, Venezuela, and Minca. 

Calospiza desmaresti Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 141, 1898 "Santa 
Marta"; idem, I.e., pp. 159, 179, 1898 Pueblo Viejo and Palomina, 
Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 169, 1900 Bonda, 
Agua Dulce, Onaca, Cacagualito, and Valparaiso, Colombia; Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 13, p. 14, 1906 part, Las Estanques, near Merida; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1039, 1912 part, Venezuela 
("Puerto Cabello," Las Estanques) and Colombia (Onaca, Valparaiso, 
Las Nubes, "Santa Marta"). 

Tangara desmaresti Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 
58, 1912 San Esteban, Las Quiguas, Cumbre Chiquita, and Cumbre de 
Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela (descr. of female). 

1 Birds from northeastern Venezuela (San Antonio, Quebrada Secca, etc.) 
are identical with those from Trinidad. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 13; Santa Cruz, 3; Aripo (alt. 1,200 
feet), 3. Venezuela: Sucre (San Antonio, Quebrada Secca, etc.), 9. 

1 Calospiza gyrola toddi (Bangs and Penard): Similar to C. g. viridissima, 
but rufous of head paler; under parts brighter, less bluish green (near Scheele's 
green); bill slightly longer. Wing, 73-77, (female) 71-73; tail, 49-53, (female) 
45-50; bill, 10^-12. 

While the differences are quite noticeable in series, single specimens cannot 
always be distinguished. Birds from the Santa Marta region are fairly uniform 
in their characters, not one of the ten specimens examined having the head so 
dark maroon or the body plumage so bluish green as typical viridissima. Speci- 
mens from the Venezuelan coast ranges (Caracas district and Carabobo) show 
more variation. The majority agree more or less with Colombian birds, but a 
few are just as dark-headed and bluish-bellied as any from Trinidad. Two adults 
from Las Estanques (Merida) and one from Tachira (San Cristobal) I am unable 
to separate from those of Santa Marta. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Don Amo, 2; Onaca, 3; Valparaiso, 
2; Las Nubes, 3. Venezuela: San Cristobal, Tachira, 1; Las Estanques, Merida, 
2; San Esteban Valley, Carabobo, 10; Cumbre Chiquita, Carabobo, 1; Cumbre 
de Valencia, Carabobo, 2; Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 8; Loma Redonda, north of 
Caracas, 3. 



150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Tropical and lower Subtropical zones of northern Colom- 
bia (Santa Marta region) and northwestern Venezuela (from Tachira 
to the Caracas region). 

3: Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 3). 

*Calospiza lavinia lavinia (Cassin). 1 LAVINIA'S TANAGER. 

Calliste lavinia Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 10, p. 178, 1858 "Isth- 
mus of Darien, New Grenada" (type apparently lost, formerly in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 51, p. 35, 1899); Sclater, Ibis, 1863, p. 451 Isthmus of Darien 
(ex Cassin). 

Calliste laviniae Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 142 Rio Tru- 
ando, Colombia; idem, I.e., 1864, p. 286, pi. 1, fig. 1 (fig. of type); Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 271, 1883 part, Rio 
Truando. 

Calliste emiliae Dalmas, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 11, p. 35, 1900 San Jose and 
El Paillon, near Buenaventura, Choco, western Colombia (type in coll. 
of R. de Dalmas, subsequently in Tring Collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York) ; Sclater, Ibis, 1901, p. 596, pi. 12, 
fig. 1 San Javier, Rio Cachabi, Prov. Esmeraldas, Ecuador. 

Calospiza lavinia Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 46, 1902 
part, Isthmus of Darien (Rio Truando); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1039, 1912 (range). 

Calospiza lavinia lavinia Hellmayr, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 1, p. 162, 1910 
western Colombia, from Darien to Choco, and northwestern Ecuador 
(crit.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1103 Sipi, Rio Sipi, 
Colombia. 

Tangara lavinia lavinia Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 596, 1917 
western Colombia (Juntas de Tamana, Novita, Noanama, Buenaven- 
tura, San Jose, and Buenavista, Narino); idem, I.e., 55, p. 658, 1926 
Ecuador (San Javier). 

Tangara lavinia Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 322, 1924 New Culebra, Panama, 
Canal Zone. 

1 Calospiza lavinia appears to be specifically distinct from C. gyrola. Races 
of both groups occur in Costa Rica, Panama, western Colombia, and western 
Ecuador, though not in exactly the same life-zones. C. lavinia and allies are 
strictly confined to the lower Tropical zone, whereas C. g. deleticia and C. g. bangsi 
chiefly inhabit the Subtropics, but, according to Griscom, descend to the Tropical 
zone after the breeding season. 

As pointed out by us in another connection (Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 1, p. 162, 
1910), C. emiliae is merely C. I. lavinia redescribed. This form is characterized 
by having the upper wing coverts uniform chestnut and a broad light blue stripe 
along the middle of throat and foreneck, this feature being plainly shown in Cassin's 
figure of the type of C. lavinia. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: San Javier, Prov. Esmeraldas, 1. 
Colombia: San Jose, Choco, 4; Sipi, Rio Sipi, Choco, 5; Condoto, Rio Condoto, 2; 
Juntas, Rio Dagua, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 151 

Range. Tropical zone of northwestern Ecuador (San Javier, 
Prov. Esmeraldas), western Colombia, and eastern Panama (west 
to the Canal Zone). 

1: Colombia (Condoto, Rio Condoto, Choco, 1). 

Calospiza lavinia dalmasi Hellmayr. 1 DALMAS'S TANAGER. 

Calospiza lavinia dalmasi Hellmayr, Rev. Franc.. d'Orn., 1, p. 162, 1910 

"Veraguas," western Panama (type in Munich Museum). 
Calospiza cara dalmasi Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 

1039, 1134, 1912 part, "Veragua." 
Tangara lavinia dalmasi Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 341, 1931 

Boquete trail, Almirante, western Panama. 
Calliste lavinia (not of Cassin) Sclater, Ibis, 1876, p. 409 part, "Veragua" 

(descr. of female); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 

p. 271, 1883 part, "Veraguas"; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 116, 

1886 part, spec, g-i, "Veragua." 
Calospiza lavinia Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 46, 1902 

part, "Veragua." 

Range. Tropical zone of western Panama (Chiriqui and 
Veraguas). 

*Calospiza lavinia cara Bangs. 2 CEIBA TANAGER. 

Calospiza lavinia cara Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 155, 1905 
Ceiba, Honduras (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 400, 1930). 

Calospiza cara Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1039, 1912 
Honduras (Ceiba) and Nicaragua (Chontales). 

Tangara lavinia cara Bangs and Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 13, p. 52, 
1932 Volcan Miravalles, Costa Rica (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 375, 1932 Santo Tomas, Guatemala. 

Calliste lavinia (not of Cassin) Sclater, Ibis, 1876, p. 409 part, Costa Rica 
and Chontales, Nicaragua; Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, p. 223, 
1899 Santo Tomas, Guatemala. 

Calliste laviniae Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 315 Chontales, Nicaragua, and Costa 
Rica; idem and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 271, 1883 
part, Nicaragua (Chontales) and Costa Rica; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 116, 1886 part, spec, a-f, Nicaragua (Chontales) and Costa Rica; 
Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1892, p. 326 Matagalpa, Nicaragua. 

1 Calospiza lavinia dalmasi Hellmayr: Similar to C. I. lavinia, but without any 
blue on throat and foreneck except a small spot on the chin; upper wing coverts 
partly olive-green. Wing (male), 69-72; tail, 45-48; bill, 11. 

Material examined. Panama: "Veragua" (all collected by E. Arc6), 9. 

2 Calospiza lavinia cara Bangs: Similar to C. I. dalmasi, but larger, with 
considerably larger, stouter bill. Wing (male), 72-75; tail, 50-53; bill, 12-13. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Carrfllo, 2. 



152 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calospiza lavinia Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 46, 1902 

part, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, 

p. 155, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras. 
Tangara lavinia lavinia Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 860, 1910 eastern 

Costa Rica (Reventazon, Jimenez, La Vijagua, Carrillo, and Guapiles; 

habits). 
Tangara lavinia dalmasi (not of Hellmayr) Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., 84, p. 244, 1932 Eden, Nicaragua. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Guatemala (Santo Tomas), 
Honduras (Ceiba), and Nicaragua, and Costa Rica (chiefly on the 
Caribbean side; one record from Miravalles). 

2: Nicaragua (Matagalpa, 2). 

*Calospiza ruficapilla (Sclater). 1 RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER. 

Calliste ruficapilla Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, Part 2, p. 61, end of April, 
1851 "Bogota," Colombia (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 "Bogota"; 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 19, 1856 "New Granada." 

Callispiza vitriolina Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 28, Oct., 1851 Colombia 
(type in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, Halberstadt). 

Calliste vitriolina Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 139, 1851 Santa- 
Fe-de-Bogota (diag.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 252, 1856 
"Bogota" (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 39, pi. 18, 1857 "Bogo- 
ta" (monog.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 86, 1860 Perucho and 
Puellaro, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 66, 1862 Perucho 
(Ecuador) and "Bogota"; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 325 Ocana and Bucara- 
manga, Santander, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 498 Medellin and Concordia, Antioquia, Colombia; Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 32, p. 289, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. Ill, 1886 Colombia ("Bogota," Medellin, 
Pasto) and Ecuador ("Baisa," Perucho); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 481, 
1898 Ibarra, Ecuador; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 357, p. 15, 1899 La Conception, Chota Valley, Ecuador; Good- 
fellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 461 around Popayan, Colombia, and western 
Ecuador (Gualea, Nono, Intag, Chota Valley). 

Calospiza vitriolina Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 307, 1899 
Ibagiie, Colombia; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1042, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota," Ocana, Bucaramanga, Antioquia, 
Pasto) and Ecuador ("Baisa," Perucho, Puellaro); Piguet, Mem. Soc. 
Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 Cafetal La Camelia, near Angelopolis, 
Colombia; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 
road to Nanegal, Ecuador. 

Tangara vitriolina Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 595, 1917 part, 
Colombia (Peque, Caldas, Cali, San Antonio, Gallera, Popayan, La 

1 Apparently a distinct species, occurring side by side with a form of C. 
cayana (fulvescens) on the west slope of the east Colombian Andes (Ocana, Bucara- 
manga). Sclater's name ruficapilla obviously has priority. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 153 

Sierra, La Manuelita, Rio Frio, Salento, Barro Blanco, La Frijolera, 
Honda, Chicoral, La Candela, La Palma, San Agustin, Andalucia, Agua- 
dita, Fusugasuga, Subia, Tenasuca, El Carmen, and El Alto de la Paz); 1 
idem, I.e., 55, p. 658, 1926 Ibarra and Quito region, Ecuador. 

Range. Arid and semi-arid regions (from the Tropical to the 
Temperate zone) of Colombia (west to the eastern Andes) and 
northwestern Ecuador (south to the Quito region). 2 

15: Colombia (Aguadita, 1; Andalucia, Huila, 1; Los Jambos, 1; 
Rio Lima, 1; near San Agustin, Huila, 1; "Bogota," 10). 

*Calospiza cucullata cucullata (Swainson). 3 HOODED TANAGER. 

Aglaia cucullata Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 1, pi. 7, 1834 no locality given, 
supposedly "Brazil" (type probably in Swainson Collection, now in Uni- 
versity Museum, Cambridge, Engl.). 

Calliste cucullata Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 140, 1851 "Brazil" 
(crit.); Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 63 "Brazil"; idem, Tanag. Cat. 
Spec., p. 12, 1854 "St. Thomas"; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 
253, 1856 "Angostura, Venezuela" (descr.) ; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. 
Bras., 3, p. 183, 1856 "Pernambuco" (ex Swainson!) or "St. Thomas" 
(ex Sclater); Sclater, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 45, pi. 20, 1857 "Santo 
Thomas [ = Angostura], Venezuela" (monog.); idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 113, 1886 "Venezuela"; Cory, Auk, 5, p. 157, 1888 Grenada; 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 289, 1889 Grenada; idem, Cat. Bds. W. Ind., 
pp. 114, 151, 1892 Grenada; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 566 Grand Etang, 
Grenada. 

Calospiza cucullata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 52, 1902 
"Venezuela (Angostura)" and Grenada (monog.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 32, pp. 289, 306, 1905 Grenada (habits, nest, and eggs); Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1041, 1912 Grenada. 

Calliste versicolor (not of Lawrence, 1878) Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1, p. 269, 1878 Grenada; idem, I.e., 1, p. 487, 1879 part, Grenada; 
Wells, I.e., 9, p. 613, 1886 Grenada (habits, nest, and eggs); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 113, 1886 part, spec, b-e, Grenada and 
"Venezuela." 

Range. Island of Grenada, Lesser Antilles. 4 
7: Lesser Antilles (Grenada, 7). 

1 1 suspect that the two specimens from east of the Andes (Villavicencio and 
Barrigon) stated to have "the crown paler and to be browner both above and 
below" will prove to be females of C. cayana fulvescens. 

Birds from Colombia and Ecuador agree. The locality "Baisa" [= Baeza] 
resting on one of Buckley's skins is unquestionably erroneous. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 10; Bucaramanga, 8; 
Concordia, Antioquia, 1. Ecuador: Ibarra, 5; Chota Valley, near Quito, 8; 
Nanegal, 4; unspecified, 3. 

J Nearly related to C. cayana and possibly conspecific. 

4 The presumed occurrence in Venezuela (Angostura) was clearly a mistake. 



154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Calospiza cucullata versicolor (Lawrence). 1 ST. VINCENT 
TANAGER. 

Calliste versicolor Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1, p. 153, June, 1878 St. 
Vincent (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1, p. 190, 1878 St. Vincent; idem, I.e., 1, p. 269, 1878 part, St. Vincent; 
idem, I.e., 1, p. 487, 1879 part, St. Vincent; Cory, Ibis, 1886, p. 473 St. 
Vincent (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 113, 1886 part, 
spec, a, St. Vincent; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 82, 1889- St. Vincent; Ridg- 
way, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 53, 1902 St. Vincent (monog.); 
Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 288, 1905 St. Vincent (habits, song). 

Tangara versicolor Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 543, 1928 St. 
Vincent (nest). 

Calliste cucullata (not Aglaia cucullata Swainson) Cory, Auk, 3, p. 195, 1886 
St. Vincent (descr.). 

Range. Island of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. 

7: Lesser Antilles (St. Vincent, 7). 

> 

Calospiza arnaulti (Berlioz). 2 ARNAULT'S TANAGER. 

1 Calospiza cucullata versicolor (Lawrence) differs from its ally by greater 
dimensions, much larger bill, less bluish under parts, and much lighter rufous 
(Sanford's brown to Burnt Sienna instead of deep chestnut brown) pileum. It 
is a very well-marked race. 

Eleven additional specimens from St. Vincent have been compared with 
twenty from Grenada. 

2 Calospiza arnaulti (Berlioz) : Not unlike C. castanonota on the upper parts, 
but hind neck and mantle decidedly paler than the crown, about ochraceous 
tawny, with broad, brass green apical margins to the feathers (instead of shining 
amber brown like the crown without any or but slightly suggested greenish edges) ; 
rump and tail coverts ochraceous buff as in C. cayana flava, but with long silvery 
bluish tips (in castanonota paler ochraceous buff tipped with silvery green) ; smaller 
wing coverts, instead of buff with silvery green tips, decidedly bluish, paler and 
more glossy than in C. c. flava; greater wing coverts deep greenish blue on the 
outer webs (like flava); sides of head black, the lower and posterior auriculars 
tipped with amber brown, the coloration being thus intermediate between casta- 
nonota and flava; throat, foreneck, and median portion of the abdomen down to 
the anal region sooty black, the feathers terminally broadly edged with "dusky 
green blue," these edges laterally as well as on the throat brighter, nearer "dark 
gobelin blue"; middle of lower abdomen suffused with dingy gray; sides of breast 
and abdomen ochraceous buff as in C. c. flava, but the ground color partly con- 
cealed by shining greenish tips; under tail coverts and tibial feathers ochraceous 
tawny; axillaries and under wing coverts sooty gray with dingy whitish edges 
(like castanonota, but darker); bill short and stout. Wing (adult male), 80; tail, 
60; bill, 10. 

While similar to C. castanonota in size and form, C. arnaulti differs from 
that species by partly black auriculars; paler back with silvery green tips; bluish 
smaller upper wing coverts; the broad blackish, bluish green-edged median zone 
of the under parts; deep ochraceous tawny, greenish-tipped sides of the body, 
etc. By the dark-colored stripe underneath C. arnaulti approaches C. c. huberi, 
but this area is more extensive with the blue tips wider and more intense. Other- 
wise, it is, however, very different, huberi resembling C. c. cayana on the upper 
parts and having uniform black sides of the head. 

C. arnaulti is known from a single cage-bird of uncertain origin. The type 
is in perfect plumage and is said to have undergone no change while kept in con- 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 155 

Tangara arnaulti Berlioz, L'Oiseau, 8, No. 3, p. 95, March, 1927 South 
America, precise locality unknown (type in Paris Museum examined). 

Range. South America (locality unknown). 
*Calospiza castanonota (Sclater). CHESTNUT-BACKED TANAGER. 

Calliste castanonota Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, Part 2, p. 63, end of April, 
1851 Brazil (part, descr. of adult male in coll. of H. E. Strickland; type 
now in University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.); idem, Tan. Cat. Spec., 
p. 12, 1854 southern Brazil; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 185, 1882. 1 

Callispiza preciosa Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 27, Oct., 1851 Rio Grande 
[do Sul], Brazil (types in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, 
Halberstadt). 

Tanagra gyrola (not Fringilla gyrola Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3, (1), p. 471, 183.0 part, descr. of male, Rio Grande do Sul. 

Aglaia cayana (not Tanagra cayana Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. 
Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 32, 1837 Corrientes, Argentina. 

Tanagra cayana d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Me>id., Ois., p. 272, 1839 Corrientes 
City (descr. mala). 

Calliste preciosa Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 182, 1856 (range 
imaginary). 

Calliste pretiosa Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 254, 1856 southern 
Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Curytiba), Paraguay, Uruguay (Monte- 
video), and Corrientes; idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 49, pi. 22, 1857 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 66, 1862 Rio Grande do Sul; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 207, 1870 Sao Paulo (Capivari, Parnapitanga) 
and Parana (Curytiba) (spec, in Vienna Museum examined); Berlepsch 
and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 118, 1885 Rio Grande do Sul (Taquara, 
Arroio Grande); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 114, 1886 southern 
Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Curytiba) and Paraguay; Holland, Ibis, 1896, 
p. 315 Est. Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 8, 
p. xxiv, 1898 Santa Elena; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 148, 1898 
Sao Paulo; idem, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 1899 Rio 
Grande do Sul (Mundo Novo, Pelotas). 

Calospiza pretiosa Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 353, 1907 Rio Grande do 
Sul (Sao Joao do Monte Negro and Pelotas) (range); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, 
p. 624 Sapucay, Paraguay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 375, 1910 Santa Elena, Entre Rlos; Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. 
Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 486, 499, 1912 Vera Guarany, Parana; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1042, 1912 southern 
Brazil (Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, "Matto Grosso") and Paraguay; 
Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay. 

finement. Whether it represents a distinct species or is merely the result of 
hybridization, as is suggested by the intermediacy of its characters, remains to 
be determined by further material. 

1 Though not designated as such, the specimen in the Strickland Collection 
'is doubtless the type of Sclater's C. castanonota, based on the adult male. Sclater's 
name has unquestionable priority, unless we regard the issue of the advance 
sheets of the "Museum Heineanum" as signifying actual publication. 



156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tangara pretiosa Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 250, 1913 Misiones, Argen- 
tina; Bertoni, El Hornero, 1, p. 189, 1918 Alto Parana, Paraguay; 
Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay (Rocha, Cerro Largo); Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 30, p. 238, 1923 Corrientes (crit.); Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. 
Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 192, 1926 Parana (Guarapuava, Invernadinha, 
Cara Pintada, Vermelho); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 33, 1927 Mieiones. 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, from southwestern Sao Paulo 
(Capivari, Parnapitanga) to Rio Grande do Sul; Uruguay; Paraguay; 
northeastern Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Rios, and Misiones). 1 

2: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 1) ; Paraguay (Villa Rica, 1). 

*Calospiza peruviana (Desmarest). BLACK-BACKED TANAGER. 

Tanagra peruviana Desmarest, Hist. Nat. Tangaras, livr. 9, text to pi. 11, 
1806 "rapporte du Perou par Dombey" 2 (type in Paris Museum); 
Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat:, nouv. ed., 32, p. 419, 1819 (ex Desmarest). 

A[glaia] melanotus Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 3, pi. 31, 1836 (=adult male). 

A[glaia] melanotis Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 4, pi. 43, circa 1837 (= adult 
female). 

Tanagra gyrola (not Fringilla gyrola Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3, (1), p. 471, 1830 part, descr. of female, southern Brazil. 

Calliste castanonota Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, Part 2, p. 63 part, descr. of 
female (ex Wied). 

Callisle peruviana Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 140, 1851 
"Peru" (diag.). 

Calliste melanota Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 182, 1856 "in 
middle Brazil, particularly north of Bahia and in the interior on the 
Amazon"(!). 

Calliste melanonota Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 254, 1856 south- 
eastern Brazil (descr.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 51, pi. 23 (male, 
female), 1857 (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 67, 1862 Brazil; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 207, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba) and Sao 
Paulo (Mattodentro and Rio Parana) (spec, in Vienna Museum examined) ; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 115, 1886 southern Brazil (Sao 

1 Birds from southwestern Sap Paulo (Capivari), Parana, and Rio Grande 
do Sul agree well together. A single apparently not quite mature male from 
Paraguay has a decidedly shorter tail (56 mm.) and much more bluish under 
parts than any from Brazil. 

There is no reliable record from "Matto Grosso," included in the range of 
this tanager by Berlepsch. 

Additional material examined. Paraguay: Bernalcue (near Asuncion), 1. 
Brazil: Capivari, Sao Paulo, 2; Fazenda Monte Alegre, Parana, 1; Curytiba, 
Parana, 6; Jaguaraiba, Parana, 2; Sao Lourengo, Rio Grande do Sul, 3; Taquara 
do Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul, 1; Rio Grande do Sul, 6. 

2 From a remark by A. de Saint-Hilaire (Voyage dans le district des Diamans, 
1, p. 255, note 1, 1833) it would appear that Dombey traveled in southeastern 
Brazil, near Rio de Janeiro, which may thus be designated as an appropriate 
type locality in place of the obviously erroneous habitat "Peru" given by 
Desmarest. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 157 

Paulo; "Rio Claro, Goyaz;" Santa Catharina; "Pelotas, Rio Grande do 
Sul"); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 148, 1899 Iguap6, Sao Paulo. 
Calospiza melanonota Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 354, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Ypiranga, Iguap6, Itarar6). 

Calospiza peruviana Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1042, 
1134, 1912 southeastern Brazil in states of Rio (Sapitiba), Sao Paulo 
(Mattodentro, Iguape, Ypiranga, Santos, Itarar), Santa Catharina, and 
"Goyaz (Rio Claro)." 

Tangara peruviana Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 362, 1914 Misiones and 
Buenos Aires (accidental). 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro to Santa 
Catharina; accidental in northeastern Argentina (Misiones and 
Buenos Aires, fide R. Dabbene). 1 

8: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 8). 

"Calospiza cayana cayana (Linnaeus). RUFOUS-CROWNED 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra cayana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 315, 1766 based on 
"Le Tangara verd, de Cayenne" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 21, pi. 4, fig. 3, 1760; 
Cayenne (type in coll. of M. Reaumur). 

1 Birds from Santa Catharina agree with those from Rio de Janeiro and 
Sao Paulo in coloration, but are slightly larger (wing of males, 76-82 against 
74-79; of females, 75-77 against 72-76), the dimensions being about the same 
as in C. castanonota. The occurrence of C. peruviana in Rio Grande do Sul is 
denied by Ihering (Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 1899), the female 
so identified in the British Museum being doubtless referable to C. castanonota. 
The locality "Rio Claro" refers, of course, to the place of that name in Sao Paulo, 
and not to the river in Goyaz, where no representative of this group is found. 

The interrelationship of C. peruviana and C. castanonota appears to require 
careful investigation. As is well known, the only difference separating the males 
of the two "species" lies in the coloration of the mantle, which is black in the 
former, shining amber brown like the pileum in the latter. Between the females 
I have not succeeded in finding any constant character of distinction. The rufous- 
backed form (castanonota) is generally slightly larger, but, as stated above, 
individuals of the black-mantled type from Santa Catharina are fully as long- 
winged. Now as to the range: C. peruviana is the only form found in Rio de 
Janeiro, while C. castanonota is the sole representative in Rio Grande do Sul, 
Uruguay, and Paraguay. Santa Catharina is almost exclusively occupied by 
the black-backed variety (peruviana); from Parana only the rufous-backed form 
has been recorded; in Sap Paulo the first-named (peruviana) is widely distributed, 
whereas the other one with rufous mantle has been met with only in the extreme 
southwestern corner of the state. Considering the close resemblance of the birds, 
I cannot believe that two species are involved, and would suggest that it might 
be a case of dimorphism in the male sex, which to a certain extent is geographical, 
in so far as one of the two color-types alone occurs at the extremities of the dis- 
tributional area, the black-backed in the north, the rufous-backed in the south, 
while the intervening territory is tenanted by mixed populations. Compre- 
hensive material as well as studies in the field are needed to bring the problem to 
satisfactory solution. 

Additional material examined. Rio de Janeiro: Sapitiba, 5. Sao Paulo: 
Itatiba, 1; Ypiranga, 1; Mattodentro, 1; Santos, 1; Rio Parana, 1. Santa 
Catharina: Joinville, 1; Blumenau, 2; Ararangua, 10. 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

t 

Fringilla autumnalis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 320, 1766 Surinam 
(location of type not stated). 

Tanagra mitrata P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 159, 1776 based on 
"Tangara a tete rousse, de Cayenne"; Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 290, fig. 7. 

Callospiza cayana Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 670, 
"1848" [=1849] British Guiana. 

Calliste chrysonota Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1850, pp. 50-58, 1 pi. 51 Cayenne 
(type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, I.e., 1851, 
p. 62 Cayenne. 

Calliste cayana Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 140, 1850 Cayenne 
(diag.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 19, 1856 Cayenne and 
British Guiana; idem, I.e., p. 252, 1856 Cayenne (monog.); Bonaparte, 
Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 32, 1857 Cayenne; Sclater, Monog. 
Gen. Calliste, p. 41, pi. 19, 1857 part, British and French Guiana, and 
"Trinidad" (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 66, 1862 "Trini- 
dad" and Cayenne; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 206, 1870 Forte do Sao 
Joaquim (Rio Branco) and Santarem, Brazil (spec, examined); (?) Salvin, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 209 British Guiana (Merume Mountains and Roraima); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. Ill, 1886 part, spec, a-q, (?)z-c', 
Cayenne, (?)British Guiana (Merum6 Mountains, Roraima), "Rio Negro," 
"Trinidad," and eastern Peru; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 
Diamantina, near Santarein, Brazil; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
9, p. 19, 1902 Altagracia, Ciudad Bolivar, and Quiribana de Caicara, 
Orinoco River, Venezuela (nest and eggs); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, 
p. 293, 1907 part, Monte Alegre, Brazil (spec, examined); (?)Dela- 
cour, Ibis, 1923, p. 149 Calabozo and Camaguan, Venezuela. 

Callispiza cayana Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 27, 1851 Cayenne and 
"Venezuela." 

Calospiza cayana Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 353, 1907 part, Santarem; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 414, 1908 French Guiana (Cayenne, He le 
Pere); idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1041, 1912 part, 
Cayenne, Surinam, (?)British Guiana (Merume Mountains, Roraima), 
Venezuela (Altagracia, Ciudad Bolivar, Quiribana de Caicara, Rio Ori- 
noco), (?)Peru (Moyobamba), and Brazil (Rio Negro; Rio Branco; San- 
tarem; Humayta, Rio Madeira); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 446, 
1914 Monte Alegre, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Calospiza cayana cayana Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 347, 1907 Humayta, 
Rio Madeira (females); idem, I.e., 17, p. 273, 1910 Humayta. 

Tangara cayana cayana Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 126, 1912 part, Guianas, Orinoco Valley, and northern 

1 The copy of Jardine's "Contributions to Ornithology" in the Bavarian 
State Library at Munich contains two sets of pages 50-58. Both have the 
description of a Calliste which reads the same except that in the second set of 
pages 50-58 the last three paragraphs are omitted. The Latin name is chrysonota 
on the first, luteola on the second set of pages 50-58. Whether the "luteola" page 
was originally issued and subsequently replaced by the more complete account of 
the species bearing C. chrysonota as head-line, or whether they came out simul- 
taneously, I have no means of ascertaining. The plate, being inscribed "C. 
chrysonota," seems to indicate that this was the specific name finally chosen 
by Sclater. 



I 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 159 

Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 172, 1916 Orinoco 
River (from Ciudad Bolivar to above the falls of Maipures) and Maripa, 
Caura Valley, Venezuela. 

Tangara cayana Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 508, 1921 British Guiana 
(Ituribisci River, Abary River, Ireng River, (?)Roraima, (?)Upper Takutu 
Mountains, (?)Merum6 Mountains); (?)Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. 
H., 63, p. 131, 1931 Mount Roraima (Rio Weiling, Paulo, Arabupu, and 
Philipp Camp). 

(l)Calliste cyanolaima Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 140, 1851 
"Peru" (location of type not stated). 

(l)Calliste cyanolaema Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, pp. 19, 252, 1856 
Rio Negro and "Trinidad" (monog.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 43, 
1857 Rio Negro (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 66, 1862 
Rio Negro; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 463, 1884 Moyobamba, 
Peru. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; southern Venezuela 
(Orinoco and Caura valleys); northern Brazil (Monte Alegre; Rio 
Branco; Santar^m; Humayta, Rio Madeira); (?)eastern Peru. 1 

11: French Guiana (Cayenne, 3); British Guiana (Georgetown, 
2); Brazil (B5a Vista, Rio Branco, 5; Serra da Lua, Rio Branco, 1). 

1 Birds from Monte Alegre (north bank of lower Amazon) and Santarem 
(south bank) agree with a series from French Guiana, and others from the low- 
lands of British Guiana (Georgetown; Annai) as well as those from the Orinoco 
basin are not separable either, being the same size and of identical coloration. 
There is considerable doubt as to the applicability of the name cyanolaima Bona- 
parte. Though the describer speaks of Peruvian specimens, Sclater claims that 
the birds, one of which he obtained from Parzudaki for his own collection, came 
from the "Rio Negro." If this statement is correct, cyanolaima can hardly be 
different from cayana, since series from the Rio Branco (an affluent of the Rio 
Negro) and the middle stretches of the Orinoco are precisely like topotypical 
Cayenne skins. The bluish tinge on throat and foreneck, in extent and intensity, 
is extremely variable in specimens from the same locality, but according to 
Sclater it is brighter in Peruvian birds, which are, furthermore, stated to differ 
by larger size. Taczanowski's measurements for a male from Moyobamba 
i (wing, 75; tail, 56) suggest, indeed, the existence of a slightly larger race, and, 
! considering the variability of the bluish tinge on the throat, cyanolaima may 
yet turn out to be an earlier name for C. c. fulvescens, a question that can only 
be determined by the examination of an adequate series of Peruvian skins. We 
j have not seen any material from the mountains of British Guiana. The late 
! Count Berlepsch (in MS.), however, quotes unusually large dimensions for three 
(males from Roraima and the Merum6 Mountains: wing, 78-80; tail, 57-59. 
i Although these figures correspond to the maximum of C. c. fulvescens, I can hardly 
i believe that the birds of Roraima really pertain to this form, and careful com- 
parison might disclose certain differences in coloration. 

As to the locality "Trinidad" based on trade-skins there is no authentic 
record of this species from that island. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 8; lie le Pere, 2. 
Dutch Guiana: Paramaribo, 2. British Guiana: Annai, 1 (adult male: wing, 
72; tail, 53). Venezuela: Caura Valley, 2 (wing, 72; tail, 50 K); Ciudad Bolivar, 
Orinoco, 3; Altagracia, 1; Caicara, 1; Maipures, 1. Brazil: Forte do Sao Joaquim, 
8; Monte Alegre, 4; Santarem, 1 (adult male: wing, 72; tail, 52). 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Calospiza cayana fulvescens (Todd). 1 GREATER RUFOUS- 
CROWNED TANAGER. 

Tangara cayana fulvescens Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 92, July, 1922 
Palmar, Boyaca, eastern Andes of Colombia (type in Carnegie Museum). 

Calliste cayana (not Tanagra cayana Linnaeus) Sclater, Monog. Gen. Calliste, 
p. 41, 1857 part, Venezuela (Caracas); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 780 Merida, Venezuela; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 325 
Ocana and Bucaramanga, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. Ill, 1886 part, spec, r, s, u-y, Colombia ("Bogota," Ocana) and Vene- 
zuela (Puerto Cabello); Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San Antonio, 
Bermudez, Venezuela. 

Calospiza cayana Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 353, 1907 part, Merida, 
Venezuela; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1041, 
1912 part, Venezuela (Puerto Cabello, Merida) and Colombia ("Bogota," 
Ocana). 

Tangara cayana cayana Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 126, 1912 part, Venezuela (coast mountains from 
Cumana to Puerto Cabello) and Colombia ("Bogota"). 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Colombia (west and east slope 
of eastern Andes) and northern Venezuela (from Tachira and Merida 
along the coast ranges east to the vicinity of Cumana). 

14: Venezuela (Colon, Tachira, 5; Valle, MeYida, 1; Rio Chama, 
MeYida, 2; Valera, Zulia, 1; Maracay, Aragua, 5). 

Calospiza cayana huberi Hellmayr. 2 HUBER'S TANAGER. 

1 Calospiza cayana fulvescens (Todd): Similar to C. c. cayana, but somewhat 
larger and paler, the coloration throughout, especially above, being more silvery 
and less butfy. Wing (males), 74-78; tail, 54-58. 

Birds from western Venezuela (Tachira to Zulia) are absolutely identical 
with "Bogota" skins, which may reasonably be taken as representing fulvescens. 
The inhabitants of the north coast districts (Aragua and Cumana region), while 
on average smaller, seem likewise referable to this form. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 4. Venezuela, Merida: 
El Valle, 3; Merida, 12; Bermudez (Quebrada Secca and Campos Alegre, inland 
of Cumana), 9. 

2 Calospiza cayana huberi Hellmayr: Nearest to C. c. flava, but adult male 
with the median stripe of the under parts much duller, slaty blackish, the feathers 
of the foreneck conspicuously, those in the middle of the breast and abdomen 
rather indistinctly tipped with indigo-blue; sides, flanks, and under tail coverts 
much lighter, pale tawny olive rather than ochraceous buff (exactly as in C. c. 
cayana) ; axillaries and under wing coverts smoke gray edged with bluish green 
(buffy white in cayana, deep black in flava) ; back paler, more like cayana; the 
upper tail coverts more bluish. Female similar to that of C. c. flava, but wings 
and upper tail coverts much more bluish. Wing, 71-72; tail, 50-53; bill, 11-12. 

This form is more or less intermediate between C. c. cayana and C. c. flava. 
The male differs from the former chiefly in lacking the tawny cap, and in haying 
the throat as well as the middle of the under parts blackish, but resembles it in 
the general coloration of the dorsal surface and the lateral portions of the lower 
parts. The pale gray, bluish green-edged under wing coverts serve to distinguish 
C. c. huberi from both of its allies. 

Material examined. Brazil, Marajo: Rio Arary, 3. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 161 

Calospiza huberi Hellmayr, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 27, p. 34, Dec. 31, 1910 
Cachoeira, Rio Arary, Marajo Island, Brazil (type in Munich Museum); 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1041, 1134, 1912 
Marajo; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 446, 1914 Rio Arary, 
Marajo. 

Tangara cayana huberi Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-phys. 
Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 125, 1912 Cachoeira, Marajo (crit.). 

Calliste cayana (not Tanagra cayana Linnaeus) Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, 
p. 293, 1907 part, Marajo. 

Range. Island of Marajo, in State of Para, northeastern Brazil. 
*Calospiza cayana flava (Gmelin). YELLOW TANAGER. 

Tanagra flava Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 896, 1789 based on "Le Tangara 
jaune du Bresil" Brisson (Orn., 3, p. 39), which in its turn rests exclusively 
on "Guira-perea" Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 212, northeastern Brazil; 
Ceara suggested as type locality by Hellmayr (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 279, 1929); Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 467, 
1830 Rio Mucuri, southern Bahia. 

Aglafa flava Swainson, Zool. Illust., (n.s.), 1, Part 7, pi. 31, 1830 "in several 
parts of Brazil, particularly round Pernambuco." 

Calliste flava Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 140, 1851 part; Sclater, 
Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 61 part; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 253, 
1856 part, Brazil (Pernambuco); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 
3, p. 181, 1856 part, Bahia; Sclater, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 47, pi. 21, 
1857 part, Brazil (Rio Murucf, Bahia); Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 332 
Recife to Garanhuns, Pernambuco; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
113, 1886 part, spec, a-h, Pernambuco and Bahia; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 
p. 40 Bahia and Itaparica, Bahia; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 85, 1910 Pernambuco (Recife) and Bahia 
(Bellevue near Bahia; Barra; above Barrocao, Rio Preto). 

Calospiza flava Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 353, 1907 part, Pernambuco 
and Bahia; Berlepsch, 1 Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1040, 
1912 Pernambuco to Bahia; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
2, No. 6, p. 41, 1926 Ceara. 

Calospiza flava flava Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 27, 1908 Bahia to Pernam- 
buco (crit.); Lima, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 101, 1920 Ilheos to Bel- 
monte, Bahia. 

Calospiza (Calliste) flava Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien, 76, p. 186, 1925 northeastern Brazil. 

Tangara cayana flava Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 279, 
1929 Maranhao (Codo, Cocos; Barra do Corda, Ponto; Grajahu; Sao 
Francisco; Fazenda Inhuma, Alto Parnahyba; Tranqueira), Goyaz (Phila- 
delphia), and Ceara (Varzea Formosa and Serra de Baturite) (crit.). 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, from the southern boundary of the 
State of Bahia (Rio Mucuri) north through Pernambuco to Ceara 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and west to Maranhao and the adjacent districts of extreme northern 
Goyaz (Philadelphia, Rio Tocantins). 1 

30: Brazil, Bahia (Bahia, 1; Santo Amaro, 2; Sao Marcello, Rio 
Preto, 2); Ceara (Serra de Baturite 1 , 7; Varzea Formosa, 2); Maran- 
hao (Codo, Cocos, 1; Barra do Corda, Ponto, 1; Grajahu, 4; Sao 
Francisco, 1; Fazenda Inhuma, Alto Parnahyba, 1; Tranqueira, 4); 
Goyaz (Philadelphia, 4). 

*Calospiza cayana chloroptera (Vieillot). 2 SOUTHERN YELLOW 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra chloroptera Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 407, 1819 
"Bresil" (type, collected by A. de Saint-Hilaire in southern Brazil, Sao 
Paulo or Parana, examined in Paris Museum). 

Tanagra formosa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 407, 1819 
based on "Lindo bello" Azara, No. 96; Paraguay. 

Calliste flava (not Tanagra flava Gmelin) Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 
3, p. 140, 1851 part, Paraguay; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 61 
part; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 253, 1856 part, Paraguay; 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 181, 1856 part, Paraguay and 
"Novo Friburgo 3 "; Sclater, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 47, 1857- part, 
Paraguay, "Rio," and "Novo Friburgp"; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 207, 
1870 part, Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Itarare, Porto do Piauhy, Paciencia, 
Rio Parana); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 432 
Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa, Sete Lagoas, Curvelo, Uberaba) and Sao 
Paulo (Hytu, Sao Bento de Araraquara); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 113, 1886 part, spec, i-m, "Novo Friburgo," Rio Claro ("Goyaz"), 
Ypanema, Sao Paulo, and "Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul"; Ihering, Rev. 

1 There is some variation in size observable in series from various parts of the 
range, birds from Ceara being on average larger (wing of males, 75-80 against 
70-76; tail, 56-60 against 50-57). In coloration, specimens from the area out- 
lined above agree well together, even those from the lower Tocantins (Philadelphia). 

Additional material examined. Bahia: trade-skins, 20; Bellevue (near Bahia 
City), 2; Barra, 1; above Barrocao, Rio Preto, 1. Pernambuco: BeberibS (near 
Recife), 1; Sao Lourenco, 2. 

2 Calospiza cayana chloroptera (Vieillot) : Very similar to C. c. flava, but per- 
haps separable by slightly paler coloration with the ochraceous tinge on the 
pileum, particularly anteriorly, more pronounced in the male sex. Wing (adult 
male), 74-78; tail, 52-59. 

When compared with others from Bahia and Pernambuco, specimens from 
Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes average slightly larger, but this seems of little con- 
sequence in view of the fact that those from Ceara are even larger. The type 
of C. chloroptera and an adult male from Paraguay (Sapucay) are absolutely 
identical with Sao Paulo birds. Specimens from Minas Geraes somewhat tend 
toward C. c. sincipitalis by slightly paler upper parts and deeper ochraceous 
forehead. The advisability of maintaining chloroptera is open to doubt. 

Additional material examined. Paraguay: Sapucay, 1. Sao Paulo: Campinas, 
1; Victoria, 3; Ypanema, 5; Itarare, 1; Faxinas, 2; Paciencia, 1; Porto do Piauhy, 
1; Rio Parana, 1. Minas Geraes: Agua Suja, near Bagagem, 3. 

3 Probably error for Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes (cf. Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 432). 






1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 163 

Mus. Paul., 3, p. 148, 1899 Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 

"Nova Friburgo," Rio. 
Calospiza flava Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 353, 1907 part, Sao Paulo 

(Jundiahy, Itatiba, Itarare, Jaboticabal) ; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 

1914 Paraguay. 
Calospiza flava chloroptera Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 27, 1908 southeastern 

Brazil (State of Sao Paulo) and Paraguay (crit.); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, 

p. 625 Sapucay, Paraguay; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 

Berlin, p. 1040, 1912 southeastern Brazil (states of "Rio de Janeiro" 

and Sao Paulo) and Paraguay. 
Tangara flava chloroptera Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 320, 1928 

Serra do Itatiaya, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
Calospiza formosa Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 355, 1907 part, Paraguay; 

Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 part, Paraguay. 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, in states of Minas Geraes, Sao 
Paulo, and Parana, and Paraguay (Sapucay). 1 

3: Brazil, Minas Geraes (Rio das Velhas, near Lagoa Santa, 3). 

*Calospiza cayana sincipitalis Berlepsch. 2 TAWNY-FRONTED 
TANAGER. 

Calospiza formosa sincipitalis Berlepsch, Ornis, 14, p. 348, Feb., 1907 Leo- 
poldina, Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, Brazil (type in Berlepsch Collection, now 
in Frankfort Museum, examined); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 355, 
1907 Goyaz. 

Calospiza flava sincipitalis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 26, 28, 1908 Goyaz 
(crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1042, 1912 
(range). 

Calliste flava (not Tanagra flava Gmelin) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 207, 1870 
part, Goyaz City and Jose Dias, Goyaz (spec, examined). 

Calospiza flava Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 353, 1907 part, Goyaz. 

Range. Central Brazil, in State of Goyaz (Jos4 Dias; Vea- 
deiros; Goyaz City; Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya). 
1: Brazil (Goyaz, Veadeiros, 1). 

*Calospiza cayana margaritae (Allen). 3 MARGARITA'S TANAGER. 

1 There is no reliable record from anywhere in the State of Rio de Janeiro, 
and the locality "Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul," is unquestionably erroneous. 

2 Calospiza cayana sincipitalis Berlepsch: Adult male approaching C. c. 
margaritae in having the feathers of the back and rump slightly tipped with 
silvery greenish, but with only the forehead (instead of the whole crown) light 
tawny, this color passing gradually into the buff of the dorsal plumage; female 
apparently not distinguishable from that of margaritae. Wing, 71-76, (female) 
73; tail, 50-55; bill, 11-12. 

Material examined. Brazil, Goyaz: Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya, 1 (the type); 
Goyaz City, 5; Jos6 Dias, 1. 

J Calospiza cayana margaritae (Allen): Differs in the male sex from C. c. 
flava and C. c. chloroptera by having the pileum light tawny, decidedly contrasting 
with the color of the back; the dorsal feathers cream-buff or chamois tipped with 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Calliste margaritae Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 351, 1891 Chapada, 

Matto Grosso, Brazil (type in the American Museum of Natural History, 

New York). 
Calospiza margaritae Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 

1041, 1134, 1912 Matto Grosso (Chapada). 
Calospiza flava margaritae Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 28, 1908 

Chapada (crit.). 
Tangara flava margaritae Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 371, 

1930 Utiarity, Matto Grosso. 
Calospiza formosa (not Tanagra formosa Vieillot) Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 

p. 355, 1907 part, Matto Grosso; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 

part, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Central Brazil, in State of Matto Grosso (Chapada, 
Utiarity). 

4: Brazil, Matto Grosso (Chapada, 4). 

*Calospiza dowii (Salvin). Dow's TANAGER. 

Calliste dowii Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 168 "San Jose," Costa 
Rica (type, from Rancho Redondo de San Jose, in Salvin-Godman Collec- 
tion, now in British Museum, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1863, p. 451, pi. 
12 "San JoseV' Costa Rica (descr. and fig. of type); Salvin, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (3), 13, p. 104, 1864 (reprint of orig. descr.); idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 187 Cordillera del Chucu, Veraguas; Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 98, 1868 Costa Rica ("San Jose," 
Turrialba, Navarro); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 298, 1869 Guada- 
lupe, near San Jose, Costa Rica; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 54 Navarro, Costa Rica; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, 
p. 109, 1887 Cartago(?) and Rancho Redondo de San Jose, Costa Rica. 

Calliste dowi Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 272, 1883 
Costa Rica (Rancho Redondo, Guadalupe, "San JoseV' Turrialba, Na- 
varro, Irazu) and Veragua (Cordillera del Chucu) ; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 124, 1886 Costa Rica (Rancho Redondo, Irazu, Navarro, 
Quebrada Honda) and Veragua (Cordillera del Chucu); Salvador! and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 3, 1899 Chiriquf. 

Calospiza doivii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 46, 1902 
Costa Rica and Veragua (monog.); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. 
Ser., 1, p. 278, 1920 Coliblanco, Costa Rica. 

Calospiza douri Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 65, 1902 Boquete 
and Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1035, 1912 Costa Rica and Veragua. 

silvery green; paler, tawny olive rather than ochraceous buff sides and flanks; 
less blackish, often buff-edged axillaries and under wing coverts; female much 
like C. c. cayana and differing from C. c. flava and C. c. chloroptera by much more 
ochraceous (shining buckthorn brown to ochraceous tawny) pileum. Wing, 
73-77, (female) 71-75; tail, 52-56. 

C. c. margaritae combines the general coloration of C. c. cayana with the 
black throat and abdominal stripe of C. c. flava and C. c. chloroptera. 

Additional material examined. Matto Grosso: Chapada, 22. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 165 

Tangara dowii Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 859, 1910 Coliblanco, 
Lagunaria de Dota, Irazu, La Estrella de Cartago, Azahar de Cartago, 
Vara Blanca, Escazu, La Hondura, and Volcan de Turrialba, Costa 
Rica (habits). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Costa Rica and western Panama 
(Chiriqui and Veraguas). 1 

13: Costa Rica (Cartago, 1; Coliblanco, 7; La Hondura, 3; 
Peralta, 1; Volcan de Irazu, 1). 

Calospiza fucosa (Nelson). 2 GREEN-NAPED TANAGER. 

Tangara fucosa Nelson, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 60, No. 3, p. 17, Sept., 1912 
Mount Pirri, near head of Rio Limon, eastern Panama (type in U. S. 
National Museum). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Panama (Mount Pirri). 

Calospiza nigroviridis berlepschi (Taczanowski). 3 BERLEPSCH'S 
TANAGER. 

Calliste nigriviridis berlepschi Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 469, 1884 

Auquimarca (Junin), Tambillo (Prov. Jaen), and Cosnipata (Dept. 

Cuzco), Peru (type, from Tambillo, formerly in Warsaw Museum; cf. 

Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 182, 

1927); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 341 

Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Dept. Junin. 
Calospiza nigriviridis berlepschi Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 78, 

1906 Idma, Urubamba, Dept. Cuzco; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 

Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1036, 1132, 1912 Tambillo (crit.). 

1 Specimens from Chiriqui (Boquete) agree with those from Costa Rica. 
Material examined. Costa Rica, 19. Panama: Chiriqui (Boquete), 9. 

1 Calospiza fucosa (Nelson): Similar to C. dowii, but distinguished by the 
green instead of tawny patch on middle of occiput; a well-marked green patch 
covering part of the cheeks and auriculars; much paler, ochraceous buffy under 
parts with black centers to the feathers of the flanks; by having the feathers on 
the foreneck below the black gular area broadly tipped with ultramarine blue, 
etc. Wing, 72; tail, 50; bill, 12 (Nelson, I.e.). 

This species, which we have not seen, appears to approach the C. nigroviridis 
group by certain color characters, bridging the wide gap that separates it from 
C. dowii, and it is quite possible that both C. dowii and C. fucosa may prove to 
be conspecific with the South American representatives. 

3 Calospiza nigroviridis berlepschi (Taczanowski) : Nearest to C. n. nigro- 
viridis, but still less greenish, the pileum, rump, cheeks, and under parts having 
a more or less yellowish (bronzy or brassy) tone; humeral area pale bluish green 
instead of cyanine blue; edges to larger wing coverts, remiges, and rectrices 
decidedly greenish; lower throat more greenish, rarely with a hardly perceptible 
bluish sheen. Wing, 68-71, (female) 67; tail, 44-50; bill, 8. 

In another connection (Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, pp. 180-181, 1924) 
we have given our reasons for including the inhabitants of the whole of Peru 
under the subspecific term berlepschi, originally bestowed by the describer upon 
examples from Tambillo. Additional material since examined tends to corrobo- 
rate the soundness of this arrangement. 

Material examined. Peru: Tambillo, 2; Chachapoyas, 1; La Garita del 
Sol, Junin, 3; Huaynapata, Marcapata, 2; Marcapata, 1. 



166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tangara nigroviridis berlepschi Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 118, 
1921 Idma and Huadquina, Urubamba; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, 
A, Heft 2, p. 180, 1924 Peru (crit.). 

Calliste nigriviridis (not Tanagra nigroviridis Lafresnaye) Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 514 Auquimarca, Dept. Junin; idem, I.e., 
1879, p. 226 Tambillo (crit.); idem, I.e., 1880, p. 194 Tambillo (descr. 
of young); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 122, 1886 part, Peru. 

Calospiza nigroviridis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 110, 1906 
Huaynapata, Marcapata (spec, examined); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1035, 1912 part, Peru (Chachapoyas, Auquimarca, 
Garita del Sol, Chanchamayo, "Santa Ana," Cosnipata, Huaynapata, 
Marcapata). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Peru from depts. Cajamarca 
(Tambillo, Prov. Jaen) and Amazonas (Chachapoyas) south to 
Cuzco (Urubamba and Marcapata valleys). 

Calospiza nigroviridis nigroviridis (Lafresnaye). 1 BLACK-AND- 
GREEN TANAGER. 

Tanagra nigroviridis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 69, 1843 "Bogota" (type 
in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass., examined; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 401, 1930). 

Tanagra (Aglaia) nigroviridis Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, pi. 43, 1843 
"Bogota." 

Calliste nigroviridis 2 Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 235, 1850 
"Bogota"; Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 56 (diag.); idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, pp. 19, 260, 1856 
part, New Grenada ("Bogota") and eastern Ecuador (Quixos); idem, 
Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 77, 1857 part, "Bogota" and eastern Ecuador 
(Quixos); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 69, 1862 part, spec, a, b, 
"Bogota"; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 122, 1886 part, spec, a-g, 
"Bogota"; Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 "Bogota"; Good- 
fellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 462 part, Baeza, eastern Ecuador (spec, examined). 

Tangara nigroviridis nigroviridis Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 
181, 1924 part, eastern Colombia ("Bogota") and eastern Ecuador 
(Baeza) (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 660, 1926 
Baeza, Ecuador (crit.). 

Chalcothraupis nigroviridis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 145, 1851 
"Bogota." 

1 Calospiza nigroviridis nigroviridis (Lafresnaye) stands just between C. n. 
berlepschi and C. n. consobrina, being more greenish (less brassy) than the former, 
but much less bluish than the latter. 

Birds from eastern Ecuador (Baeza) agree perfectly with native "Bogota" 
skins which probably came from the eastern slope of the east Colombian Andes. 
The type pertains likewise to this race. 

Additional specimens examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 14. Ecuador: Baeza, 6. 

2 Frequently spelled "nigriviridis." 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 167 

Calospiza nigriviridis Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1035, 1912 part, "Bogota," Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the eastern slope of the eastern 
Andes of Colombia and eastern Ecuador (Baeza). 

"Calospiza nigroviridis consobrina (Hellmayr). 1 ALLIED 
TANAGER. 

Tangara nigroviridis consobrina Hellmayr, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bay., 1, No. 4, p. 
27, March, 1921 San Pablo, Prov. Tuqueres, Colombia (type in Munich 
Museum); idem, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 182, 1924 western 
Colombia (San Pablo) and western Ecuador (crit.); Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 661, 1926 western Ecuador (El Chiral, 
Zaruma, Punta Santa Ana, San Bartolo, Alamor). 

Calliste nigriviridis* (not Tanagra nigroviridis Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 260, 1856 part, Calacali, Ecuador; idem, Monog. Gen. 
Calliste, p. 77, 1857 part, western Ecuador (Calacali, western slope of 
Pichincha); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 69, 1862 part, spec, c, 
Ecuador; idem and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 499 Santa 
Elena and Envigado, Antioquia, Colombia; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 
I.e., 1884, p. 289 Cayandeled and Chaguarpata, Ecuador (crit.); Ber- 
lepsch, Joum. Orn., 32, p. 291, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 122, 1886 part, spec, h-p, Colombia (Santa 
Elena, Medellin, Envigado, "Pasto") and Ecuador (Intag); Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Nanegal, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1901, p. 462 part, western Ecuador (Canzacota and western Pichincha; 
spec, examined). 

Calospiza nigriviridis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1035, 1912 part, western Ecuador (Cayandeled, Chaguarpata, Calacali) 
and Colombia (Bucaramanga, Antioquia, "Pasto," San Pablo); Lonnberg 
and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 Nanegal, Ecuador. 

Tangara nigroviridis nigroviridis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 
598, 1917 Colombia (Paramillo, San Antonio, Gallera, Cocal, Salento, 
Santa Elena, El Eden, Fusugasuga, Aguadita, El Roble, Subia); Hellmayr, 
Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 181, 1924 part, western slope of east 
Colombian Andes (Fusugasuga, Aguadita, El Roble, Subia). 

1 Calospiza nigroviridis consobrina (Hellmayr) : Nearest to C. n. nigroviridis, 
but much more bluish throughout; pileum and rump with a decided bluish sheen; 
external margins to wings and tail deeper, more ultramarine blue; under parts 
decidedly bluish, strongly tinged with dark blue on lower throat. Wing, 67-72, 
(female) 65-70; tail, 44-50. 

Birds from the Pacific slope of Ecuador are identical with the typical series 
from San Pablo. As pointed out by Chapman (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 660, 1926), this form inhabits the whole of Colombia with the exception of the 
Santa Marta region and the east side of the eastern Andes. Even birds from the 
Magdalena slope of the east-Andean chain referred by me through lack of material 
to typical nigroviridis prove to pertain to consobrina. 

Material examined. Colombia: San Pablo, Prov. Tuqueres, 7; Antioquia, 1; 
Aguadita, 1; El Roble, 1. Ecuador: Cayandeled, 2; Govinda, 1; western slope of 
Pichincha, 2; Canzacota, 1; Intag, 4; Mindo, 2; unspecified, 3. 

J Frequently spelled "nigroviridis." 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Ecuador and Colombia east 
to the western slope of the eastern Andes. 

4: Colombia (Rio Lima, 1; Cachiri, Santander, 2; Subia, near 
La Mesa, Cundinamarca, 1). 

*Calospiza nigroviridis cyanescens (Sclater). 1 BLUISH TAN ACER. 

Calliste cyanescens Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, "1856," p. 260, 1857 
Venezuela, Caracas and Colonia de Tovar (type from Colonia de Tovar, 
near Caracas, in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, 
Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 79, pi. 35, 1857 Colonia de Tovar and Caracas; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 70, 1862 Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 627 Caracas. 

Calospiza nigriviridis cyanescens Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, pp. 1036, 1132, 1912 Venezuela, east to Caracas (crit.). 

Tangara nigroviridis cyanescens Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, 
Heft 5, p. 59, 1912 Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo (crit.); Hellmayr, 
I.e., 90, A, Heft 2, pp. 179, 183, 1924 Silla de Caracas and Galipan, Cerro 
del Avila, Venezuela (crit., range). 

Calliste nigroviridis (not Tanagra nigroviridis Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 19, 1856 part, Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 
1875, p. 237 San Cristobal, Tachira; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 122, 1886 part, spec, q-w, Venezuela (Caracas, Aragua, San Cristobal). 

Range. Subtropical zone of the Venezuelan Andes from Tachira 
to Caracas. 

4: Venezuela (Montanas Sierra, 1; Nevados, MeYida, 1; Paramo 
de Tama, 1; Rio Mucujon, 1). 

*Calospiza vassorii vassorii (Boissonneau). VASSORI'S TANAGER. 

Tanagra (Euphone?) vassorii Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 4, 1840 Santa- 

Fe-de-Bogota, Colombia (location of type not stated, its whereabouts 

unknown). 
Tanagra vassorii Boissonneau, Mag. Zool., (2), 3, pi. 23, 1841 Santa-Fe-de- 

Bogota (figure of type). 
Tanagra (Aglaia) diva Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, 2nd sem., No. 3, 

p. 57, July 11, 1844 Colombia (type in coll. of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux). 

1 Calospiza nigroviridis cyanescens (Sclater) : Most like C. n. consobrina in 
coloration, but humeral area more extensive as well as deeper, smalt blue; margins 
to upper wing coverts, wholly or in part, likewise smalt blue ; those of the remiges 
and rectrices also darker blue, sometimes inclining to violet blue; blue patch on 
the lower throat larger and more purplish; wings and tail much longer. Wing, 
74-78, (female) 70-74; tail, 52-57, (female) 49-54. 

While a series from Merida as a whole cannot be satisfactorily separated 
from Caracas birds, some examples, by slightly more greenish blue under parts 
with smaller blue jugular spot, and paler edges to the wing coverts, form the 
passage to C. n. nigroviridis. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Silla de Caracas, 1; Galipan, 
Cerro del Avila, 25; La Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo, 10; Sierra of Merida 
(Merida, El Valle, Conejos), 9. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 169 

Calliste vassori Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 235, 1850 Bogota; 
Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 60 Colombia. 

Diva vassori(i) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 264, 1856 Bogota (monog.); idem, I.e., 28, p. 87, 1860 
above Puellaro, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 62, 1862 above 
Puellaro and Bogota; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 780 wood region of Me"rida; idem, I.e., 1875, p. 234 Me>ida; Tac- 
zanowski, I.e., 1879, p. 226 Tambillo, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 
1879, p. 498 Santa Elena, Colombia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 289, 
1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 454, 1884 
Tambillo and Paucal, Peru; idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1885, p. 77 La Union and San Rafael, Ecuador. 

Procnopis vassori Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 93, 1886 Venezuela 
(Sierra Nevada), Colombia (Bogota, Medellin, Santa Elena), Ecuador 
("Puna Island!" above Puellaro), and Peru (Tambillo); Goodfellow, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 460 Canzacota, Gualea, Mindo, and Baeza, Ecuador; 
Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 92, 
1911 Alaspungo, Lanlin (Nanegal), and Chorrillos, Ecuador; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1025, 1912 Venezuela (Merida 
to Peru); Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 Cafetal 
La Camelia, near Angelopolis, Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 592, 1917 Colombia (Paramillo, Andes west of Popayan, 
La Florida, Almaguer, Salento, Laguneta, Santa Elena, El Eden, Rio 
Toche, El Roble, El Pinon); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 
25, p. 83, 1922 below Mindo and below Nono, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 654, 1926 Ecuador (Mindo, Pallatanga, San 
Bartolo, Loja, upper Sumaco, above Baeza, Papallacta) and Peru (El 
Tambo); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 74, 1928 Pinon and 
Huila, Ecuador; idem, I.e., (2), 4, p. 626, 1932 El Portete de Tarqui, 
Ecuador. 

Range. Upper Subtropical and Temperate zones of western 
Venezuela (Sierra of Me>ida), Colombia (except Santa Marta region), 
Ecuador, and northwestern Peru (western Cordillera in depts. of 
Piura and Cajamarca). 1 

7: Colombia (Almaguer, Cauca, 1; Cachiri, Santander, 2; Santa 
Elena, Antioquia, 1; Bogota, 2); Ecuador (Nono, 1). 

*Calospiza vassorii branickii (Taczanowski). 2 BRANICKI'S 
TANAGER. 

Diva branickii Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 10 Tamia- 
pampa, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, 

1 Two adults from Tambillo appear to agree with five from Ecuador and ten 
from Colombia. Specimens from Merida, Venezuela, are not different either. 

*Calospiza vassorii branickii (Taczanowski): Similar to C. v. vassorii, but 
top and sides of the head dull bluish green (near light terre verte), paler on the 
hind crown. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Tamiapampa, 3; Levanto, 7; Cha- 
chapoyas, 1. 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 182, 1927); idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 
455, 1886 Tamiapampa. 

Procnopis branickii Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 94, 1886 Tamia- 
pampa; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1025, 1912 
Peru (Tamiapampa, Levanto, Chachapoyas). 

Procnopsis branickii Menegaux, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Cumpang. 

Range. Upper Subtropical and Temperate zones of the eastern 
side of the eastern Cordillera in northern Peru (Tamiapampa, 
Chachapoyas, Levanto, Molinopampa, Cumpang). 

1: Peru (Molinopampa, 1). 

*Calospiza vassorii atrocaerulea(Tschudi). 1 BLACK- AND-BLUE 
TANAGER. 

Procnopis atrocaerulea Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 285, 1844 Peru 
(type in Neuchatel Museum); idem, Untersuch. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 
199, pi. 13, fig. 2, 1846 Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 341 Garita del Sol and Maraynioc, Dept. Junm, Peru; 
idem, Ornis, 13, p. 109, 1906 Huaynapata, Peru. 

Procnopis atricaerulea Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 94, 1886 Peru 
and Bolivia (Tilotilo, Nairapi); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1025, 1912 Peru and Bolivia. 

Calliste atrocaerulea Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 59 Peru; idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 258, 1856 Peru and Bolivia (diag.); idem, Monog. 
Gen. Calliste, p. 69, pi. 31, 1857 Peru (figure of type); Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 515 Pumamarca and Paltaypampa, 
Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 599 Tilotilo and Nairapi, Bolivia. 

Chalcothraupis atrocoerulea Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 144, 1851 
(ex Tschudi). 

Diva atrocaerulea Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 456, 1886 Pumamarca, Pal- 
taypampa, and Higos, Peru. 

Tangara atrocoerulea atrocaerulea Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 17, p. 438, 1930 Panao, Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Upper Subtropical and Temperate zones of Peru (from 
Dept. Huanuco southward) and Bolivia. 
1: Peru (Panao Mountains, 1). 

1 Calospiza vassorii atrocaerulea (Tschudi) : Nearest to C. v. branickii, but 
head more bluish with a distinct patch of shining pale straw yellow on the hind 
crown; interscapulium black; blue of rump and under parts less purplish; breast 
and abdomen with the blackish subapical portions of the feathers more strongly 
pronounced, causing a spotted effect. 

Birds from Junin and Marcapata appear to agree, while those from Bolivia 
have the head above perhaps not quite so greenish. A single male from Panao, 
Huanuco, differs by having the feathers of the black interscapulium decidedly 
margined with the blue of the rump, thus indicating intergradation to C. v. branickii. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Garita del Sol, Junin, 1; Puyas-Yacu, 
Junin, 2; Huaynapata, Marcapata, 1; Marcapata, 4. Bolivia: Cocapata, 10; I 
Sandillani, 1; San Antonio, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 171 

*Calospiza heinei (Cabanis). BLACK-CAPPED TANAGER. 

Tanagra (Aglaia) atricapilla (not Tanagra atricapilla Gmelin, 1789) La- 
fresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 290, 1843 Colombia (descr. of adult male; 
type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 

I Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 403, 1930). 

Procnias heinei Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 31, Oct., 1851 Colombia (descr. 
of female or young male; type in Heine Collection, now in Municipal 
Museum, Halberstadt) ; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 249, 
1854 (crit.). 

Procnias heini Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 154, 1851 Colombia 
(diag.). 

Calliste atricapilla Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 59 Colombia (Popayan) 
and Venezuela (Colonia de Tovar, near Caracas) (descr. of male and 
female); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 158, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, 
I.e., 24, p. 259, 1856 Colombia ("Bogota," Popayan) and Venezuela 
(near Caracas); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 73, pi. 33, figs. 1 (male), 2 
(female), 1857 same localities (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 69, 1862 Venezuela and "Bogota"; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 325 Pirico, 
Canute, etc. (5,000-6,000 feet), eastern Andes, Colombia; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 499 Retire, Concordia, and Fron- 
tino, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 136, 1886 Colombia 
("Bogota," Retire, Frontino) and Venezuela. 

Chakothraupis atricapilla Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 144, 1851 
Colombia (diag.). 

Calospiza atricapilla Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 169, 1900 Val- 
paraiso and Las Nubes, Santa Marta, Colombia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1040, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota," Pirico, 
Canute, Antioquia, Popayan, Valparaiso), eastern Ecuador, and Vene- 
zuela (Andes of Merida, Caracas). 

Tangara atricapilla Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 600, 1917 La 
Frijolera, San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, Ricaurte, La Sierra, Popayan, 
Santa Elena, Barro Blanco, Aguadita, El Roble, and Subia, Colombia. 

Tangara heinei Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, p. 36, 1919 
(crit.); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 184, 1924 Galipan, 
Cerro del Avila, Venezuela (crit.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 493, 1922 Las Nubes, Valparaiso, Las Taguas, Las Vegas, 
San Miguel, and Heights of Chirua, Santa Marta region, Colombia (crit., 
habits); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 666, 1926 below Oya- 
cachi, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of northwestern Venezuela (from the 
Caracas region to the Sierra of MeYida), Colombia, and eastern 
Ecuador (below Oyacachi). 1 

1 Though individual variation is considerable as far as coloration is con- 
"erned, I cannot make out any local races. Birds from Caracas and Santa Marta 
>eem to have slightly smaller bills than those from Me>ida and other parts of 
3olombia, but the divergency is quite insignificant. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 8; 
SI Valle, Merida, 3; Culata, Meiida, 1. Colombia: "Bogota," 13; Antioquia 
^Retire, Frontino), 5; Valparaiso, Santa Marta, 4. 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

6: Colombia (Aguadita, above Fusugasuga, 1; Ricaurte, Narino, 
1; Valparaiso, Santa Marta, 1); Venezuela (MeYida, 1; Montanas 
Sierra, 2). 

Calospiza viridicollis viridicollis (Taczanowski). 1 SILVERY 
TANAGER. 

Procnopis argentea (not Tanagra argentea Lafresnaye, 1843) Tschudi, Arch. 
Naturg., 10, (1), p. 285, 1844 Peru (type in Neuchatel Museum ex- 
amined); idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 199, pi. 14, fig. 2, 1846 
forest region of eastern Peru. 

Calliste argentea viridicollis Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 468, 1884 Huiro, 
Urubamba Valley, Dept. Cuzco, Peru (types in Salvin-Godman Collec- 
tion, now in British Museum). 

Chalcothraupis argentea Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 145 (ex Tschudi). 

Calliste argentea Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 60 Peru; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 259, 1856 eastern Peru (diag.); idem, Monog. Gen. 
Calliste, p. 75, pi. 34, 1857 Peru (fig. of type); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 514 Paltaypampa, Dept. Junin; idem, Orn. Per., 
2, p. 466, 1884 part, Paltaypampa; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 340 Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Peru. 

Calliste argentea b. subsp. viridicollis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 137, 
1886 Huiro, Urubamba, Peru. 

Calospiza argentea Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 79, 1906 Idma, 
Urubamba, Peru (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1039, 1912 Peru (Junin to Urubamba). 

Tangara argentea argentea Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 119, 1921 
Idma and San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba. 

Range. Subtropical zone of central and southern Peru, from 
depts. of Huanuco and Junin south to the Urubamba Valley, Dept. 
of Cuzco. 

1 Calospiza viridicollis viridicollis (Taczanowski), while nearly allied to C. heinei 
(Cabanis), nevertheless differs, in the male sex, very markedly by silvery bluish 
back and flanks; the peculiar, shining dingy ochreous yellow coloration of throat, 
cheeks, and auriculars; black breast and upper abdomen, etc. The females of 
the races of viridicollis are even more widely different from the female of C. heinei, 
and, in addition to the ochreous yellow throat and sides of face, may be separated 
by their brown instead of green pileum. Still, the two species may prove to pertain 
to a single "formenkreis." 

Adult males from central Peru (depts. of Huanuco and Junin), when compared 
with others from the Urubamba Valley, have the back, wing edgings, and flanks 
slightly more bluish and, by the somewhat darker ochreous tone of throat and 
auriculars, betray a tendency toward C. v. fulvigula; but the variation which, 
moreover, needs corroboration by additional material, is insignificant, and as 
Tschudi's name C. argentea is preoccupied by Tanagra argentea Lafresnaye, a 
synonym of Calospiza cyanoptera (Swainson), the whole population of central 
and southern Peru may, for the present, conveniently be united under Tac- 
zanowski's term viridicollis. 

Material examined. Peru: Cushi Libertad, Dept. Huanuco, 2; La Garita 
del Sol, Dept. Junfn, 3; Idma, Urubamba, Dept. Cuzco, 4. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 173 

"Calospiza viridicollis fulvigula Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 
NORTHERN SILVERY TANAGER. 

Calospiza argentea fulvigula Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, No. 2, p. 80, 
Sept., 1906 Tambillo, northwestern Peru (type in Berlepsch Collection, 
now in Frankfort Museum, examined); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1039, 1134, 1912 "eastern" Ecuador and north- 
western Peru. 

Tangara argentea fulvigula Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 460, 1918 Taba- 
conas and Huancabamba, Peru; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 666, 1926 Ecuador (above Zaruma, Punta Santa Ana, Alamor, Loja) 
and Peru (Palambla, Chaupe). 

Calliste argentea (not Procnopis argentea Tschudi) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 226 Tambillo; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 11 Chirimoto; 
idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 466, 1884 part, Tambillo, Chirimoto, Huayabamba, 
Socota, Cutervo, and Paucal; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 137, 
1886 part, subsp. a. typica, Tambillo (Peru) and "Jima," Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of southern Ecuador and northern 
Peru, in depts. of (eastern) Piura, Cajamarca, and Amazonas. 
2: Peru (Molinopampa, 1; Rio Utcubamba, 1). 

Calospiza argyrofenges (Sclater and Salvin). 2 GREEN-THROATED 
TANAGER. 

Calliste argyrofenges Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 354, 

pi. 30, fig. 2 Tilotilo, Prov. Yungas, Bolivia (type in Salvin-Godman 

Collection, now in British Museum). 
Calliste argyrophenges Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 599 

Tilotilo, Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, p. 12 Huambo, Peru (descr. 

of female); idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 468, 1884 Huambo; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 11, p. 137, 1886 Bolivia and Peru (Huambo). 
Calospiza argyrophenges Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 

1040, 1134, 1912 Peru (Huambo) and Bolivia (Tilotilo). 

1 Calospiza viridicollis fulvigula Berlepsch and Stolzmann: Differs from the 
typical race by more silvery greenish (less bluish) dorsal surface, flanks, and 
edges to upper wing coverts; more greenish blue margins to wing and tail feathers; 
more reddish throat and sides of face; while the female, besides the last-named 
character, may be distinguished by its more reddish brown crown; bill somewhat 
stouter. Wing, 76-79, (female) 74-76; tail, 55-57, (female) 54-55; bill, 10. 

Two males from "Jima," Ecuador, agree well with others from Tambillo. 
The occurrence in eastern Ecuador resting, as it does, on Buckleyan skins, needs 
confirmation. 

Material examined. Peru: Tambillo, 6. Ecuador: "Jima," 2. 

2 Calospiza argyrofenges (Sclater and Salvin), which is autoptically unknown 
to us, appears to be allied to C. cyanoptera, but to differ by green throat and 
auriculars, black under parts and sides of neck, and uniform black wings. It 
has been recorded only from northeastern Peru (Huambo) and northern Bolivia 
(Tilotilo). 

Carriker (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87, p. 357, Oct. 25, 1935) found birds 
from northern Peru (Rio Jelashte, Dept. San Martin) to differ from those of 
Bolivia by more silvery, less yellowish upper parts and sides as well as by more 
bluish throat, and separates them as Tangara a. caerulcigularis. 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Subtropical zone of northeastern Peru (Huambo, valley 
of Huayabamba) and Bolivia (Tilotilo, Yungas of La Paz). 

*Calospiza cyanoptera cyanoptera (Swainson). BLUE- WINGED 
TANAGER. 

Aglaia cyanoptera Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 1, pi. 8, 1834 no locality given, 
we suggest vicinity of Caracas, Venezuela (type probably in the Swainson 
Collection, University Museum, Cambridge, Engl.). 

T[anagra] argentea Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, No. 3, p. 69, 1843 "Bogota ou 
Caracas" (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Compar- 
ative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 403, 1930). 

Calliste cyanoptera Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 140, 1851 "Brazil" 
(crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 254, 1856 Caracas, Vene- 
zuela (diag.); idem, Monog. Gen. Calliste, p. 53, pi. 24, 1857 Caracas 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 67, 1862 Venezuela; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Caripe [Sucre], Venezuela; 
Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1879, p. 200 San Jose and Atanques, Santa 
Marta, Colombia; idem, Ibis, 1880, p. 120 Minca, Colombia; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 135, 1886 Venezuela and Colombia (Minca, 
San Jose). 

Calospiza sp. Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 141, 1898 "Santa 
Marta." 

Calospiza cyanoptera Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 159, 1898 Pueblo 
Viejo; idem, I.e., 12, p. 179, 1898 Palomina and San Miguel; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 170, 1900 Santa Marta records; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1040, 1912 northern 
Venezuela (Los Palmales; Rio Mamera and Antimano, near Caracas; 
Merida) and Colombia (San Jose, Minca). 

Tangara cyanoptera Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 494, 1922 
Pueblo Viejo, Cincinnati, Chirua, Heights of Chirua, La Concepcion, and 
San Francisco, Santa Marta region, Colombia (crit., habits); Chapman, 
Amer. Mus. Nov., 191, p. 12, 1925 Neveri [Sucre], Venezuela. 

Tangara cyanoptera cyanoptera Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 
183, 1924 Galipan, Cerro del Avila, Venezuela (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Venezuela (from Sucre to- 
Merida) and northern Colombia (Santa Marta region). 1 
2: Venezuela (Andes of MeYida, 1; Sierra Nevada, 1). 

Calospiza cyanoptera whitelyi (Salvin and Godman). 2 WHITELY'S 
TANAGER. 

1 Additional material examined. Venezuela: Los Palmales, Sucre, 6; Galipan, 
Cerro del Avila, 1; Antimano, near Caracas, 1; Rio Mamera, Caracas, 1; El Valle, 
Merida, 3; Merida, 7; unspecified, 3. Colombia: Minca, 2. 

* Calospiza cyanoptera whitelyi (Salvin and Godman): Similar to C. c. cyan- 
optera, but upper wing coverts, remiges, and rectrices plain black without any 
blue edges; general coloration somewhat duller, less brassy; under parts more 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 175 

Calliste whitelyi Salvin and Godman, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 445, pi. 13 (male, female), 
1884 Roraima, British Guiana (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now 
in British Museum); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 210 Roraima; idem, Ibis, 
1886, p. 500 Mount Twek-quay; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
136, 1886 Roraima. 

Calospiza whitelyi Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1040, 
1912 British Guiana (Roraima, Twek-quay). 

Tangara whitelyi Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 513, 1921 Mount Roraima; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 130, 1931 Mounts Roraima 
and Duida, Venezuela. 

Range. Subtropical zone of southern Venezuela (Mount Duida) 
and British Guiana (Mounts Roraima and Twek-quay). 

Genus IRIDOSORNIS Lesson 

Iridosornis Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., llth annexe, 2nd s6m., No. 4, p. 80, 
July 14, 1844 type, by monotypy, Arremon rufi-vertex Lafresnaye. 

Poecilornis Hartlaub, Rev. Zool., 5, No. 10, p. 369, Oct., 1844 type, by orig. 
desig., Arremon rufi-vertex Lafresnaye. 

Euthraupis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 30, Oct., 1851 type (obviously) 
Tanagra dubusia Bonaparte= Arremon rufi-vertex Lafresnaye. 

Iridornis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 (emendation of Iri- 
dosornis Lesson). 

Iridiornis Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 (emendation of Irido- 
sornis Lesson). 

Iridosornis rufivertex caeruleoventris Chapman. 1 BLUE- 
VENTED IRIDOSORNIS. 

Iridosornis dubusia caeruleoventris Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 34, 
p. 657, 1915 Paramillo, western Andes, Colombia (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 601, 1917 
Paramillo. 

Iridornis dubusia (not Tanagra dubusia Bonaparte) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 500 Santa Elena, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 140, 1886 part, spec, f, Santa Elena. 

heavily spotted with dusky; size slightly smaller. Wing, 72-75; tail, 50-53; 
bill, 10-11. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 5. 

1 Iridosornis rufivertex caeruleoventris Chapman: Similar to 7. r. ignicapillus 
in color of crown patch, but ventral region mostly and under tail coverts wholly 
dark blue like the abdomen (instead of chestnut), and under wing coverts uniform 
dusky, not tipped with tawny. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear (in litt.) writes that Santa Elena specimens have just a 
faint tinge of chestnut on the belly, and are unquestionably referable to the 
present form. 

Material examined. Colombia: Paramillo, western Andes, 1. 



176 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Iridosornis dubusia Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1042, 1912 part, Santa Elena, Antioquia. 

Range. Humid Temperate zone at the northern ends of the 
western Andes (Paramillo) and central Andes (Santa Elena) of 
Colombia. 

*Iridosornis rufivertex rufivertex (Lafresnaye). COLOMBIAN 
CHESTNUT- VENTED IRIDOSORNIS. 

Arremon rufi-vertex Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 335, 1842 "Bolivia," errore; 
we suggest Bogota region, eastern Andes of Colombia (type in coll. of 
F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 403, 1930). 

Iridosornis rufivertex Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., llth annee, 2nd sem., 
No. 4, p. 80, July, 1844 "Bolivia" (descr.); idem, Rev. Zool., 7, p. 431, 
1844 (crit.). 

Tanagra dubusia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 239, 1850 Colombia 
(type in Leiden Museum). 

Tanagra chrysolopha Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 131, 1851 new 
name for Tanagra dubusia Bonaparte. 

Euthraupis dubusia Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 30, Oct., 1851 Colombia. 

Iridosornis dubusia Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1852, p. 127, pi. 94; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1042, 1912 part, Colombia 
(Bogota) and eastern Ecuador (San Rafael). 

Iridornis dubusia Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 242, 1856 Bogota (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 72, 1862 Bogota; Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1885, p. 80 San Rafael, eastern Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 140, 1886 part, spec, a-e, Bogota, Colombia. 

Iridosornis dubusia dubusia Chapman, Bull. Amef. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 601, 
1917 El Pinon, eastern Andes, Colombia. 

Iridosornis rufivertex rufivertex Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
63, p. 36, 1919 (crit., nomencl.); 1 Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 666, 1926 eastern Ecuador (Loja, upper Rio Upano, Oyacachi). 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colom- 
bia, adjacent parts of Venezuela, and of the east slope of the Andes 
of Ecuador. 2 

1: Venezuela (Paramo de Tama, Tachira, 1). 

1 Bangs and Penard at length discuss the peculiar case of Lafresnaye's name, 
which after all had better be adopted in spite of the fact that the author believed 
it to be the same as Tanagra ruficervix Prevost and Des Murs. 

2 The locality "Bolivia" ascribed to this bird by Lafresnaye and Lesson was 
an error. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 14. Ecuador: San 
Rafael, 1; "Quito," 3. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYE 177 

"Iridosornis rufivertex ignicapillus Chapman. 1 ORANGE-CRESTED 
IRIDOSORNIS. 

Iridosornis dubusia ignicapillus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 34, p. 

656, 1915 Andes west of Popayan, Colombia (type in the American 

Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 601, 1917 

Andes west of Popayan and Almaguer, Colombia. 
Iridornis dubusia ignicapillus Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 

p. 84, 1922 below Nono, Ecuador. 
Iridosornis rufivertex ignicapillus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 

666, 1926 Verdecocha, Ecuador (crit.). 
Iridornis dubusia (not Tanagra dubusia Bonaparte) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 140, 1886 part, spec, g-j, Nanegal, "Quito," and Sical, 

Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 464 western side of Pichincha and 

Corazon, Ecuador; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Armee Mes. Arc Me>id. 

Equat., 9, p. B. 98, 1911 Siglon (Nanegal), Ligui (Santo Domingo), and 

road to Gualea, Ecuador. 
Iridiornis dubusia Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Nono, west of 

Quito, Ecuador. 
Iridosornis dubusia Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1042, 

1912 part, western Ecuador. 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of western Ecuador and the 
southern part of the western Andes of Colombia (Andes west of 
Popayan and Almaguer). 

1: Colombia (Coast range west of Popayan, 1). 

Iridosornis rufivertex reinhardti (Sclater). 2 REINHARDT'S 
IRIDOSORNIS. 

1 Iridosornis rufivertex ignicapillus Chapman: Exactly similar to I. r. rufi- 
vertex, but crown patch more orange, cadmium orange to orange chrome rather 
than mars yellow. 

It is with considerable reluctance that we maintain this form. We find 
considerable individual variation in the color of the crown, and while four speci- 
mens from the type locality and some from western Ecuador are indeed more 
orange-crested than the majority of native Bogota skins (which may, however, 
have undergone some post-mortem change), others from Nono and Nanegal 
cannot be separated from the latter. Furthermore, an adult male from San 
Rafael, eastern Ecuador, which should be typical rufivertex, has the crown patch 
deeper orange than any other specimen examined. 

The examination of an adequate series of fresh skins from the eastern Andes 
of Colombia seems imperative to determine the status of the western race. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Andes west of Popayan, 4. 
Western Ecuador: western slope of Pichincha, 3; Nanegal, 2; Nono, 2; Ligui, 1; 
road to Gualea, 2. 

2 Iridosornis rufivertex reinhardti (Sclater): Differs by the absence of rufous 
on the lower parts, the under tail coverts being dusky blue green like the abdomen, 
and by having a broad nuchal band of light cadmium descending over the sides 
of the neck to the posterior portion of the auriculars, while the whole crown is 
black like the forehead. Wing (male), 85; tail, 73. 

Notwithstanding the striking difference in the distribution of colors on the 
head, this bird, in other respects, is so much like /. rufivertex that I have no hesi- 



178 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Iridornis reinhardti Sclater, Ibis, (n.s.), 1, p. 495, pi. 11, 1865 Eastern slope 

of the Peruvian Cordillera (type in Copenhagen Museum); Taczanowski, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 514 Pumamarca, Dept. Junin, Peru; 

idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 477, 1884 Pumamarca; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 140, 1886 Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1896, p. 342 Culumachay and Puyas-Yacu (Maraynioc), Peru; 

Menegaux, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 1911 Cumpang, east of Taya- 

bamba, Peru. 
Iridosornis reinhardti Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1042, 

1912 Peru (Pumamarca, Culumachay, Puyas-Yacu). 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of Peru, in depts. Libertad 
(Cumpang, east of Tayabamba, Prov. Pataz) and Junin (Pumamarca, 
Culumachay, Puyas-Yacu). 

Iridosornis jelskii jelskii (Cabanis). JELSKI'S IRIDOSORNIS. 

Iridornis jelskii Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 316, 1873 Maraynioc, Dept. 

Junin, Peru (type in Berlin Museum); idem, I.e., 22, pi. 2, fig. 1, 1874; 

Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 514 Maraynioc; idem, 

Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 478, 1884 Maraynioc; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 

p. 141, 1886 part, Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1896, p. 342 Maraynioc. 
Iridosornis jelskii Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1043, 

1912 Maraynioc. 
Iridosornis jelskii jelskii Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 119, 1921 

above Matchu Picchu, Dept. Cuzco. 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of southern Peru, in depts. of 
Junin (Maraynioc) and Cuzco (above Matchu Picchu). 1 

Iridosornis jelskii boliviana Berlepsch. 2 BOLIVIAN IRIDOSORNIS. 

Iridosornis jelskii boliviana Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

pp. 1043, 1134, Feb., 1912 Unduavi, Dept. La Paz, Bolivia (type in coll. 

of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum, examined). 
Iridornis jelskii (not of Cabanis) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1879, p. 599 Tilotilo, Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 141, 

1886 part, Bolivia (Tilotilo). 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of western Bolivia (Unduavi 
and Tilotilo, Dept. La Paz). 

tation in associating it in the same specific group. By the lack of rufous on the 
under tail coverts it forms an interesting parallel to the west Andean race /. r. 
caeruleoventris. 

Material examined. Peru: Maraynioc, Culumachay, 1. 

1 Material examined. Peru, Dept. Junin: Maraynioc, 4. 

2 Iridosornis jelskii boliviana Berlepsch: Similar to /. j. jelskii, but smaller 
with shorter bill, and forehead in the middle more or less suffused with black. 
Wing, 70-73}4 (female) 70-73; tail, 61-65; bill, 

Material examined. Bolivia: Unduavi, 6. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 179 

*Iridosornis analis analis (Tschudi). YELLOW-THROATED 
IRIDOSORNIS. 

Tanagra analis Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 287, 1844 Peru (type in 
Neuchatel Museum); idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 205, pi. 18, 
fig. 1, 1846 Peru; 1 Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 71, 1847 "Bolivia" 
(descr.). 

Iridornis analis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 243, 1856 "fruit 
gardens of Lima" (ex Tschudi) (descr.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 
72, 1862 Peru; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 185 
San Antonio (above Cosnipata), Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 514 
Paltaypampa, Dept. Junin; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 12 Ray-urmana, Achamal, 
and Chirimoto, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 479, 1884 Peru ("vicinity of 
Lima," Paltaypampa, Huayabamba, San Antonio); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 141, 1886 Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 342 Garita del Sol, Vitoc; idem, Ornis, 13, p. 110, 
1906 Huaynapata, Marcapata; Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 
1911 Utcubamba, Dept. Libertad. 

Iridosornis analis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1043, 
1912 Peru (Huayabamba to Marcapata); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 117, p. 119, 1921 Idma, Urubamba. 

Iridosornis analis analis Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 
443, 1930 Huachipa and Chinchao, Dept. Huanuco (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of eastern Peru, from 
the Huayabamba Valley in the north to the Marcapata Valley on 
the confines of Bolivia. 2 

5: Peru (Huachipa, 1; Chinchao, 4). 

Iridosornis analis porphyrocephala (Sclater). 3 NORTHERN 
YELLOW-THROATED IRIDOSORNIS. 

Iridornis porphyrocephala Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, "1855," p. 227, 
pi. 110, pub. Feb., 1856 "in Nova Grenada et rep. Equatoriana" (type, 
from the "Vicinity of Quito," in coll. of J. Gould, now in the British Muse- 
um); idem, I.e., 24, p. 243, 1856 "New Grenada" and Ecuador (vicinity 

1 Tschudi's statement (I.e., p. 206) that this species was not uncommon in 
the orchards around Lima is clearly a mistake. We suggest Valley of Vitoc, 
Dept. of Junin, as an appropriate type locality. 

2 Birds from various parts of Peru show no constant local variation. 
Additional material examined. Peru: Huayabamba, 2; Utcubamba, 1; 

Chilpes, 1; Utcuyacu, 1; Garita del Sol, Vitoc, 2; Huaynapata, 1; Santo 
Domingo, 2. 

1 Iridosornis analis porphyrocephala (Sclater) merely differs from the nominate 
race by more decidedly bluish pileum and hind neck, bluish green interscapular 
region, and mainly slate olive, anteriorly blue-tinged under parts with just a 
few buffy feathers along the abdominal line, whereas in /. a. analis breast and 
abdomen are deep buff, laterally shaded with olive gray or brownish. 

Specimens from Colombia agree with Ecuadorian ones. 

Material examined. Colombia: San Antonio, 6; Cerro Munchique, l;Cocal, 
2; Medellin, 1; Santa Elena, 1. Ecuador: Intag, 2; "Quito," 4. 



180 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

of "Quito"); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 72, 1862 Ecuador; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 500 Medellin, Colombia; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 141, 1886 Ecuador ("Quito," Intag) 
and Colombia (Medellin, Antioquia). 

Iridosornis porphyrocephala Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1043, 1912 Colombia (Medellin, Santa Elena) and Ecuador ("Quito," 
Intag); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 602, 1917 western 
Andes of Colombia (Novita Trail, San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, Cocal) ; 
idem, I.e., 55, p. 667, 1926 "Quito," Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Colombia (western and 
central Andes) and western Ecuador. 

Genus DELOTHRAUPIS Sclater 

Delothraupis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 142, 1886 type, by mono- 
typy, Calliste castaneoventris Sclater. 

*Delothraupis castaneoventris (Sclater). CHESTNUT-BELLIED 
TANAGER. 

Calliste castaneoventris Sclater, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 61 Bolivia (type in 
Derby Collection, now in Liverpool Museum). 

Piproeidea castaneoventris Sclater, Tanag. Cat. Specif., p. 13, 1854 Bolivia. 

Pipridea castaneiventris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 266, 1856 
Bolivia (diag.); Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 518 Sillapata and Maraynioc, 
Dept. Junin, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 598 Tilotilo, Yungas, 
Bolivia; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 451, 1884 Peru (Maraynioc, Silla- 
pata, Pumamarca; Quebrada de San Gaban, Carabaya). 

Delothraupis castaneiventris Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 142, 1886 
Peru and Bolivia; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 342 Pariayacu and Culumachay (Maraynioc), Dept. Junin, Peru; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1043, 1912 southern 
Peru and Bolivia (Tilotilo, Unduavi, Sandillani, Cocapata, 
Quebrada Onda). 

Delothraupis castaneoventris Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 443, 1930 mountains near Huanuco and Panao, Dept. Huanuco, 
Peru (crit.). 

Delothraupis castaneiventris peruvianus Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
87, p. 358, Oct., 1935 Auquimarca, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Range. Temperate zone of southern Peru (from Huanuco south- 
wards) and Bolivia (depts. of La Paz and Cochabamba). 1 
6: Peru (mountains near Huanuco, 1; Panao, 5). 

1 Peruvian birds are on average larger and slightly darker chestnut under- 
neath, while the upper surface is rather brighter with the whitish superciliary 
streak less conspicuous. These divergencies are, however, quite insignificant. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Maraynioc, 4. Bolivia: Unduavi, 1; 
Sandillani, 3; Cocapata, 1; Incachaca, 3; Quebrada Onda, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 181 

Genus STEPHANOPHORUS Strickland 

Stephanophorus Strickland, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 30, Oct., 1841 type, 
by monotypy, Pyrrhula coerulea Vieillot =Tana0ra diademata Mikan. 

Bergia Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 86, Jan., 1901 type, by 
monotypy, Bergia solanorum Bertoni =Tanagra diademata Temminck. 

*Stephanophorus diadematus (Temminck). WHITE-CAPPED 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra leucocephala (not of Gmelin, 1789) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
nouv. eel., 32, p. 408, 1819 based on "Lindo azul cabeza blanca" Azara, 
No. 93; Caiho, Paraguay. 

Pyrrhula caerulea (not P. coerulea Daudin, 1799) Vieillot, Gal. Ois., 1, (2), 
livr. 20, p. 61, pi. 54, Nov., 1822 Brazil (type in coll. of M. Bonjour, Paris). 

Tanagra diademata (Natterer MS.) Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 41, 
pi. 243, Dec., 1823 Brazil (type in Leiden Museum); Mikan, Del. Fl. 
Faun. Bras., fasc. 4, pi. [24], 1825 "ad Langa, Curitiba, St. Luiz et aliis 
locis capitaniae St. Paulo." 

Stephanophorus caeruleus Strickland, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 31, 1841; 
Burmeister, Syst. Ueber. Th. Bras., 3, p. 205, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; 
idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 Parana; idem, Reise La Plata St., 
2, p. 480, 1861 near Parana; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 84, 1874 
Cantagallo, Rio. 

Stephanophorus leucocephalus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 241, 1856 
Sao Paulo, Uruguay, and Paraguay (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 73, 1862 Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1869, pp. 161, 632 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Hudson, I.e., 1870, p. 114 
Buenos Aires (habits); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 208, 1870 Sao Paulo 
(Mugy das Cruzes, Sao Paulo) and Parand (Lanza, Curitiba, Sao Luiz, 
Porcos de Riva); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 170 Buenos Aires (food); 
White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 597 Concepcion, Misiones; Bar- 
rows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 90, 1883 Concepcion del Uruguay, 
Entre Rios (habits); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 118, 
1885 Taquara do Mundo Novo and Arroio Grande, Rio Grande do Slu; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 143, 1886 southern Brazil (Nova 
Friburgo, Curytiba, Sao Paulo, "Rio Claro, Goyaz"), Uruguay (Cam- 
pana), and Argentina (Buenos Aires, Conchitas); Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 1, p. 38, pi. 4, 1888 Argentina (habits, nest and eggs); Aplin, 
Ibis, 1893, p. 284 Rio Negro, Uruguay; idem, Ibis, 1894, p. 167 Arroyo 
Grande and Rio Negro, Uruguay; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do SuT, 
16, p. 119, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul (Mundo Novo, Pedras Brancas); 
idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 149, 1899 Sao Paulo, Piquete; idem, I.e., 
4, p. 153, 1900 Nova Friburgo and Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Lillo, Anal. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 175, 1902 Tucuman (seen, not ob- 
tained); idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 41, 1905 Tucuman 
(seen, not obtained); Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 13, p. 186, 
1905 Retire do Ramos and Morro Redondo, Itatiaya; Ihering and Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 355, 1907 Sao Paulo (Piquete, Itarare, Campos 



182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

de Jordao, Itatiaya) and Rio Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Ltider- 
waldt, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, p. 357, 1909 Itatiaya; Hartert and Ven- 
turi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 171, 1909 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (nest 
and eggs); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 375, 
1910 (range in Argentina); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1044, 1912 (range); Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Scient. 
Varsovie, 5, pp. 486, 499, 1912 Vera Guarany, Parana; Bertoni, Faun. 
Parag., p. 62, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 397, 
1916 La Plata; Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 10, p. 7, 1919 Villa 
Lutetia, Misiones; Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 24, p. 254, 
1923 Retire de Ramos, Itatiaya; Velho, I.e., 24, p. 263, 1923 Monte- 
Serrat, Itatiaya; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 656, 1924 
Prov. Buenos Aires; Pereyra, El Hornero, 3, p. 427, 1926 Punta Lara 
and Conchitas, Buenos Aires. 

Stephanophoms diadematus Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1147, 1912 (nomencl.); Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 23, 1920 Uru- 
guay (Minas, Trienta y Tres, Rocha, Cerro Largo); Sztolcman, Ann. 
Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 192, 1926 Cara Pintada, Parana; Wet- 
more, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 394, 1926 Uruguay (La Paloma, San 
Vicente, Lazcano, Rio Negro) (habits, song); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, 
p. 27, 1927 Punta Lara and Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Holt, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 57, p. 320, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya, Brazil. 

Bergia solanorum Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 86, Jan., 1901 
Alto Parana, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. de W. Bertoni). 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro l to Rio 
Grande do Sul; Uruguay; Paraguay; northeastern Argentina (prov. 
Misiones, Corrientes, Entre Rios, and Buenos Aires, possibly also 
in Santa Fe" and (?)Tucuman). 2 

14: Uruguay (Arazati, on coast south of Santa Ecilda, San Jose", 3; 
Estancia "El Corte," near San Carlos, Maldonado, 1; Passo de las 
Avarias, Rio Cebollati, Minas, 3; Rio Uruguay, southwest of Dolores, 
Soriano, 4; San Vicente de Castillos, Rocha, 3). 

Genus POECILOTHRAUPIS Cabanis 

Anisognathus (not Anisognatha Lacordaire, 1848) Reichenbach, Av. Syst. 
Nat., pi. 77, June 1, 1850 type, by subs, desig. (Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. 
Zool., (2), 3, p. 172, 1851), Tanagra igniventris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 

Poecilothraupis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 30, Oct., 1851 type, by monotypy, 
Tanagra igniventris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 

1 The record from "Rio Claro, Goyaz" is due to confusion with a place of 
the same name in Sao Paulo. 

2 Additional specimens examined. Brazil: Colonia Alpina, Serra dos Orgaos, 
Rio, 1 ; Sao Paulo, 1 ; Parana, Lanza, 1 ; Sao Luiz, 1 ; Porcos de Riva, 1 ; Curytiba, 
7; Rio Grande do Sul, 7. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 183 

*Poecilothraupis igniventris lunulata (Du Bus). SCARLET- 
NECKED TANAGER. 

Tanagra lunulata Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Bruxelles, 6, Part 1, No. 5, p. 
439, with col. pi., May, 1839 "la province d'Honduras," errore, = Bogota, 
Colombia (type in coll. of B. Du Bus, now in Brussels Museum); idem, 
Esq. Orn., livr. 1, pi. 4, 1845 Colombia. 

Tanagra (Euphone?) constantii Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 3, No. 1, p. 3, Jan., 
1840 Santa-Fe-de-Bogota, Colombia (location of type unknown). 

Anisognathus lunulatus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 
Bogota. 

Poedlothraupis lunulata Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 241, 1856 
part, New Grenada, Bogota; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 72, 1862 
part, spec, c, Bogota; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 325 Vetas, Santander, 
Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 144, 1886 part, subsp. 
typica, Bogota; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1044, 
1912 Colombia (Bogota) and "eastern Ecuador" (errore). 

Poedlothraupis lunulata lunulata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 
602, 1917 eastern Andes of Colombia (El Pinon, Chipaque, Choachi, La 
Porquera, La Mar, La Pradera). 

Range. Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia (in 
states of Santander and Cundinamarca). 1 

6: Colombia (La Porquera, above La Pradera, Cundinamarca, 
2; Ramirez, Santander, 2; Bogota, 2). 

*Poecilothraupis igniventris erythrotus (Jardine and Selby). 2 
BLACK-VENTED TANAGER. 

Aglaia erythrotus Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., (n.s.), Part 7, pi. 36, 3 1840 
"somewhere near or in the district of Buenos Ayres," errore; we suggest 
Andes near Quito, Ecuador (type in coll. of Mr. Carfrae, Edinburgh). 

Poedlothraupis atricrissa Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 14, p. 165, 1866 "Equador" 
(type in Berlin Museum); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 16, 1899 El Troje (Huaca), "Nanegal," Frutillas, and 
Papallacta; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 
Lloa and above Nono. 

1 Additional material examined. Colombia: Bogota, 22. 

8 Poedlothraupis igniventris erythrotus (Jardine and Selby): Similar to P. i. 
lunulata, but under tail coverts uniform black or with mere traces of scarlet 
apical fringes. There is no difference whatever between specimens from the 
western and others from the eastern slope. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Andes near Quito, 9; Nono, 1; 
"Gualea," 1; Guaillabamba, 2; south of Ona, 2; Cuenca, 2; Papallacta, 5; San 
Rafael, 3; Riobamba, 1; Banos, 1. 

3 The plate shows uniform black anal region and under tail coverts, and 
in the text it is expressly stated that "the belly is of the same intense and clear 
colour [crimson like the postauricular spot], commencing at the breast and ceasing 
immediately beyond the insertion of the legs." The name erythrotus having 
priority by many years, must, therefore, be adopted in place of atricrissa for 
the Ecuadorian race. 



184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tanagra lunulata (not of Du Bus) Jardine, Edinb. New Phil. Journ., (n.s.), 

3, p. 91, 1856 Andes east of Quito. 

Poecilothraupis lunulata Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 241, 1856 

part, Andes near Quito, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 26, p. 551, 1858 Matos; 

idem, I.e., 28, pp. 76, 86, 1860 Lloa, Calacali, and above Puellaro; idem, 

Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 72, 1862 part, spec, a, b, Matos, Ecuador; 

Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 289 Cechce; 

Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 464 Pichincha, environs of Quito, and 

Papallacta. 
Poecilothraupis lunulala alricrissa Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 80 San Rafael (crit.); Me'ne'gaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. 

ArmSe Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 98, 1911 San Gabriel, Nono 

Ligui, Pongo, and Valley of Cuenca; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 

Kongr. Berlin, p. 1044, 1912 Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. 

H., 55, p. 667, 1926 Hacienda Garzon, Pichincha, Yanacocha, Bestion, 

Taraguacocha, Papallacta, and Oyacachi; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 

Paris, 34, p. 75, 1928 Cerro Mojanda and Papallacta; idem, I.e., (2), 

4, p. 626, 1932 Las Palmas and El Portete de Tarqui. 
Poecilothraupis lunulata subsp. atricrissa Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 

p. 145, 1886 Ecuador (Matos, Lloa, "Quito," San Lucas). 
Trichothraupis quadricolor (errore) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 
1889 "Pichincha" and "near Quito." 

Range. Temperate zone of both slopes of the Andes of Ecuador. 
3: Ecuador (Hoyaucshi, 2; unspecified, 1). 

*Poecilothraupis igniventris ignicrissa Cabanis. 1 PERUVIAN 
SCARLET-VENTED TANAGER. 

Poecilothraupis ignicrissa Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 317, 1873 Maraynioc, 
Dept. Junin, Peru (type in Berlin Museum); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 514 Maraynioc; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 13 Tamia- 
pampa; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 482, 1884 Maraynioc, Chachapoyas, and 
Tamiapampa. 

1 Poecilothraupis igniventris ignicrissa Cabanis: Nearest to P. i. lunulata, 
but under tail coverts mostly red, and under parts slightly lighter scarlet; similar 
also to P. i. igniventris, but deeper black above with the larger wing coverts, 
primary coverts, and remiges plain black or very nearly so, and under tail coverts 
partly black. 

Berlepsch, when describing P. I. intercedens, did not mention P. I. ignicrissa, 
but merely stated the differences from P. I. lunulata. On comparing a series 
from northern Peru with two topotypes from Maraynioc, I fail to perceive any 
character by which the two forms could be separated. While the wings ex- 
cepting the blue humeral patch are as a rule plain black, some specimens have 
distinct traces of bluish edges on the remiges and greater wing coverts, thus 
forming the transition to P. i. igniventris, to which the present race, furthermore, 
shows an undeniable approach by the somewhat less intensely colored 
under parts. 

Additional specimens examined. Peru: Tamiapampa, 2; Chachapoyas, 1; 
Leimabamba, 2; Levanto, 5; Cumpang, 2; Maraynioc, Junin, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 185 

Tanagra igniventris (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 

10, (1), p. 287, 1844 Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, pp. 205, 
206, 1846 Maraynioc. 

Poecilothraupis lunulata (not Tanagra lunulata Du Bus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 24, p. 241, 1856 part, Cordilleras of Peru; idem, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 11, p. 144, 1886 part, Peru. 
Poecilothraupis igniventris ignicrissa Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 342 Maraynioc. 
Poecilothraupis lunulata ignicrissa Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 

Berlin, p. 1045, 1912 Maraynioc, Vitoc, Peru; M6negaux, Rev. Franc. 

d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 1911 Cumpang, Dept. Libertad. 
Anisognathus lunulatus ignicrissus Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 

17, p. 444, 1930 mountains above Huanuco and Panao, Dept. Huanuco, 

Peru (crit.). 
Poecilothraupis lunulata intercedens Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 

Berlin, pp. 1044, 1135, 1912 northern Peru (type, from Leimabamba, in 

coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum). 

Range. Temperate zone of northern and central Peru, from 
depts. of Cajamarca and Amazonas south to Junin. 

13: Peru (Levanto, 1; mountains east of Balsas, 1; Huanuco 
Mountains, 10; Panao Mountains, 1). 

Poecilothraupis igniventris igniventris (Lafresnaye and d'Or- 
bigny). BOLIVIAN SCARLET- VENTED TANAGER. 

Aglaia igniventris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 32, 1837 Yungas, Bolivia (type from Apolobamba in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Tanagra igniventris d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame>. Merid., Ois., p. 275, pi. 25, fig. 2, 
1839 Apolobamba. 

Poecilothraupis igniventris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 242, 1856 
Bolivia (diag.); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1874, pp. 677, 678 Ccachupata, 
Dept. Cuzco, Peru (crit.); idem, I.e., p. 600, 1879 Apolobamba and Tilo- 
tilo, Bolivia; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 482, 1884 Peru (Ccachupata 
and Quebrada de San Gaban, Carabaya); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

11, p. 145, 1886 Bolivia (Tilotilo) and Peru (Ccachupata); Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1045, 1912 southeastern Peru 
(Ccachupata, Paucartambo, Marcapata) and Bolivia (Apolobamba, 
Tilotilo, Unduavi, Sandillani, Cillutincara, Cocapata); Chapman, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 119, 1921 above Matchu Picchu, Urubamba, 
Peru (crit.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 237, 1923 Apolobamba, Bolivia 
(note on type). 

Range. Temperate zone of southeastern Peru (Urubamba and 
larabaya regions) and Bolivia (depts. of La Paz and Cochabamba). 1 

1 Specimens from southeastern Peru are identical with a Bolivian series. 

Material examined. Bolivia.: near Aceramarca (alt. 8,000-10,000 feet), 2; 
Incachaca, Dept. Cochabamba, 4; Pucyuni, 2; Cocapata, 7; Sandillani, 2; Un- 



186 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Poecilothraupis lacrymosa melanogenys Salvin and Godman. 1 
BLACK-CHEEKED TANAGER. 

Poecilothraupis melanogenys Salvin and Godman, Ibis, (4), 4, p. 120, pi. 3, 
1880 near San Sebastian, Santa Marta region, Colombia (types in Salvin- 
Godman Collection, now in British Museum); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 147, 1886 Templado and San Sebastian; Bangs, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 12, p. 179, 1898 Macotama; idem, I.e., 13, p. 104, 1899 
Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, 7,500 to (7)12,000 feet, Colombia; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, pp. 120, 169, 1900 El Libano and San 
Lorenzo; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1046, 1912 
Santa Marta Mountains (San Sebastian, San Lorenzo, El Libano, 
"Paramo de Macotama"); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, 
p. 495, 1922 El Libano, San Lorenzo, Heights of Chirua, San Miguel, 
and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (habits). 

Range. Subtropical and Lower Temperate zones of the Santa 
Marta Mountains, northern Colombia. 
2: Colombia (San Lorenzo, 2). 

*Poecilothraupis lacrymosa melanops Berlepsch. 2 BLACK- 
FACED TANAGER. 

Poecilothraupis palpebrosa melanops Berlepsch, Orn. Monatsber., 1, p. 11, 1893 
Merida, Venezuela (type in collection of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frank- 
fort Museum); idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1046, 1912 
- Andes of Merida. 

Poecilothraupis lacrymosa (not Tanagra palpebrosa Lafresnaye) Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 780 Merida; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 146, 1886 part, spec, a, Me>ida, Venezuela. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Venezuela (Sierra of MeYida). 
3: Venezuela (Culata, Me>ida, 1; La Cuchilla, Merida, 1; Rio 
Mucujon, 1). 

duavi, 3; Cillutincara, 3; Kassiri, 1. Peru: Paucartambo, 1; Marcapata Valley 
(alt. 9,800 feet), 11. 

1 Poecilothraupis lacrymosa melanogenys Salvin and Godman, a very distinct 
form, differs from the other races by pale blue (near grayish blue- violet) pileum; 
deep black sides of the head; green-blue slate (duller in the female) instead of 
mainly blackish brown back and rump (the latter not dull violaceous blue); 
much clearer (lemon chrome) under parts, etc. There is no trace of a yellow 
post-auricular spot. Wing, 95, (female) 91; tail, 86, (female) 80; bill, 15. 

Notwithstanding its strongly marked color characters and somewhat stouter 
bill, P. I. melanogenys seems to fit well into the specific group related to 
P. lacrymosa. 

2 Poecilothraupis lacrymosa melanops Berlepsch: Very similar to P. I. palpe- 
bralis, but pileum decidedly, and sides of the head slightly darker, more blackish; 
back also slightly darker; under parts conspicuously paler, primuline yellow 
rather than yellow ocher. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Sierra of Merida, 12. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 187 

*Poecilothraupis lacrymosa palpebrosa (Lafresnaye). ORANGE- 
BELLIED TANAGER. 

Tanagra palpebrosa Lafresnaye, 1 Rev. Zool., 10, p. 71, 1847 Pasto "in 
Peruvia" = Colombia (type in coll. of T. B. Wilson, now in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
51, p. 51, 1899). 

Anisognathus lacrimosus (not Tachyphonus lacrymosus Du Bus) Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 Bogota. 

Poecilothraupis lacrimosa Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 242, 1856 
part, descr. and habitat Colombia (Pasto, Bogota); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 73, 1862 New Granada. 

Poecilothraupis palpebrosa Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1885, p. 80 San Rafael, east side of Volcan Tunguragua, eastern Ecuador; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 146, 1886 part, spec, b, c, d, i-1, 
Colombia (Bogota) and Ecuador (San Lucas, "Quito"); Salvadori and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 16, 1899 Pun and Papa- 
llacta, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 465 Papallacta; Menegaux, 
Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 99, 1911 
Oyacachi, Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1045, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota" and Pasto); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 34, p. 75, 1928 Huila, Ecuador. 

Poecilothraupis palpebrosa palpebrosa Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 602, 1917 Colombia (Andes west of Popayan, western Andes; Alma- 
guer, Laguneta, and Santa Isabel, central Andes); idem, I.e., 55, p. 668, 
1926 eastern Ecuador (upper Rio Upano, upper Sumaco, above Baeza, 
Oyacachi). 

[Poecilothraupis palpebrosa} subsp. coerulescens (Berlepsch MS.) Taczanowski 
and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 80 (in text) San Rafael, 
Ecuador (type in Warsaw Museum). 

Poecilothraupis palpebrosa caerulescens Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1046, 1135, 1912 part, Ecuador ("Quito," San Lucas, 
Papallacta, Oyacachi, Banos, San Rafael); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 Papallacta. 

Poecilothraupis lachrymosa palpebrosa Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
85, p. 37, 1933 (crit.). 

Range. Temperate zone of Colombia (except Santa Marta 
region and northern parts of central and western Andes) and eastern 
Ecuador. 2 

2: Colombia (Coast range west of Popayan, Cauca, 2). 

1 The type was collected by Adolphe Delattre at Pasto, erroneously ascribed 
to Peru instead of to Colombia. The description, "supra ardesiaca" and "subtus 
tota macula palpebrae inferae aliaque majore postoculari aurantio flavis," leaves 
no doubt as to its referring to the Colombian form with dusky (not bluish-tinged) 
upper parts, deep yellow ventral surface, and a large bright yellow spot on the 
sides of the neck. 

1 In the absence of fresh material I am not quite certain that birds from 

the eastern Andes of Colombia are really identical with those from the western 

ordillera. Three old "Bogota" skins have the cheeks and auriculars decidedly 



188 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Poecilothraupis lacrymosa olivaceiceps Berlepsch. 1 OLIVE- 
HEADED TANAGER. 

Poecilothraupis palpebrosa olivaceiceps Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 

Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1045, 1135, 1912 Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia 

(type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum, examined); 

Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 602, 1917 Paramillo, north end 

of western Andes, Colombia. 
Poecilothraupis lachrymosa olivaceiceps Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

85, p. 37, 1933 (crit.). 
Poecilothraupis palpebrosa (not Tanagra palpebrosa Lafresnaye) Sclater and 

Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 500 Santa Elena, Antioquia; 

Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 146, 1886 part, spec, e-h, Santa 

Elena; Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 La Camelia, 

near Angelopolis, western Andes, Colombia. 

Range. Temperate zone of the northern parts of the western 
and central Andes of Colombia (Paramillo; La Camelia, near Angelop- 
olis; Santa Elena). 

Poecilothraupis lacrymosa subsp. 2 BLUE-BACKED TANAGER. 

Poecilothraupis lacrymosa (not Tanagra lacrymosa Du Bus) Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 227 Tambillo, Peru. 

more olivaceous (less blackish), and the pileum not quite so dark, and a fourth 
specimen has about as much olivaceous shading on the head as P. I. olivaceiceps. 

Birds from eastern Ecuador, including one from San Rafael (topotypical 
caerulescens) , agree with those from the west Colombian Andes in dusky (not 
olivaceous) sides of the head, but the post-auricular neck spot is smaller and 
of a paler yellow, while the upper back sometimes is slightly more bluish. The 
variation seems, however, too insignificant to justify the retention of an ad- 
ditional race. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 4; Laguneta, central 
Andes, 4; Andes west of Popayan, 4. Ecuador: Papallacta, 7; Banos, Rio Pas- 
taza (alt. 8,000 feet), 3; San Rafael, 1; unspecified, 1. 

1 Poecilothraupis lacrymosa olivaceiceps Berlepsch : Very similar to P. I. palpe- 
brosa, but forecrown, superciliaries, and sides of head tinged with olivaceous; 
hind neck and back decidedly paler with a bluish cast; under parts lighter yellow. 

Four specimens from Santa Elena may be distinguished by these characters, 
when compared with others from Laguneta and Popayan. One "Bogota" skin, 
however, has just as much olivaceous shading on the top and sides of the head, 
which makes me suspect that the Rio Toche bird listed by Chapman as P. p. 
olivaceiceps might be merely an aberrant individual of P. I. palpebrosa. 

2 Poecilothraupis lacrymosa subsp.: Similar to P. I. palpebrosa, but crown 
and back decidedly tinged with bluish, most strongly so on the pileum, and 
under parts paler, less orange. In general coloration of both upper and under 
parts, the single bird from Cutervo that we have been able to examine resem- 
bles P. I. lacrymosa, but lacks all trace of the yellow post-auricular neck-spot. 
If really separable and not merely an intergrade, this form requires a new 
name, since P. p. caerulescens bestowed upon it by Berlepsch in 1912 is invali- 
dated by the earlier use of the same term by Taczanowski and Berlepsch in 1885 
for the east Ecuadorian birds, which I consider to be inseparable from P. I. 
palpebrosa. 

Material examined. Peru: Cutervo, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 189 

Poecilothraupis palpebrosa (not Tanagra palpebrosa Lafresnaye) Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 194 Cutervo and Tambillo, Peru; idem, 
Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 480, 1884 Peru (Tambillo, Cutervo, Paucal); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 146, 1886 part, spec, m, Cutervo. 

Poecilothraupis palpebrosa palpebrosa Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
(2), 4, p. 626, 1932 Las Palmas, Cuenca, Ecuador. 

Poecilothraupis palpebrosa caerulescens (not of Taczanowski and Berlepsch, 
1885) Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1046, 1135, 
1912 part, Cutervo, Peru (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in 
Frankfort Museum); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 668, 1926 
Taraguacocha and Loja, southwestern Ecuador; Carriker, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 85, p. 37, 1933 Leimabamba, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Temperate zone of southwestern Ecuador, in provinces 
of Azuay, El Oro, and Loja, and northwestern Peru, south to 
depts. of Cajamarca (Paucal, Tambillo, Cutervo) and Amazonas 
(Leimabamba). 

Poecilothraupis lacrymosa lacrymosa (Du Bus). 1 JuNfN 
TANAGER. 

Tachyphonus lacrymosus Du Bus, Esq. Ornith., livr. 2, pi. 10, 1846 Pure 
(type in Brussels Museum). 

Poecilothraupis lacrimosa Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 242, 
1856 part, eastern Peru; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 317, 1873 
Maraynioc (crit.). 

Poecilothraupis lachrymosa Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 514 
Maraynioc and Higos, Peru. 

Poecilothraupis lacrymosa Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 481, 1884 Maray- 
nioc; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 146, 1886 Higos; Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 342 Maraynioc; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1046, 1912 central Peru 
(Maraynioc, Chilpes, Higos); Mnegaux, Rev. Prang. d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 
1911 Cumpang, near Tayabamba, Peru. 

Poecilothraupis lachrymosa lachrymosa Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
85, p. 37, 1933 Dept. Junin (crit.). 

Range. Temperate zone of eastern Peru, from Dept. Libertad 
(Cumpang, east of Tayabamba) south to Junin (Maraynioc, 
Higos, Chilpes). 

1 Poecilolhraupis lacrymosa lacrymosa (Du Bus) differs from the preceding 
races by the absence of the yellow post-auricular neck-spot. It resembles therein 
P. I. melanogenys, but may be readily distinguished from the Santa Marta form 
by much less bluish dorsal surface, blackish brown rather than deep black sides 
of the head, and much deeper yellow under parts. Specimens from Libertad 
agree with others from Maraynioc. 

Material examined. Peru: Cumpang (east of Tayabamba), Libertad, 3; 
Maraynioc, Junin, 2. 



190 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Genus BUTHRAUPIS Cabanis 

Buthraupis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 29, Oct., 1851 type, by subs, desig. 

(Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 73, 1855), Aglaia montana Lafresnaye 

and d'Orbigny. 
Cnemathraupis Penard, 1 Auk, 36, p. 538, 1919 type, by orig. desig., Tanagra 

eximia Boissonneau. 

Buthraupis montana montana (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 

SlLVERY-NAPED MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Aglaia montana Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 32, 1837 Yungas, Bolivia (type from Carcuata, Yungas, in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Tanagra montana d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 275, pi. 23, fig. 1, 
1839 Mount Biscachal, near Carcuata, Yungas, Bolivia. 

Buthraupis montana Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 239, 1856 Yungas, 
Bolivia (diag.); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 600 Carcuata, Ramosani, 
and Tilotilo, Yungas [of La Paz], Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 148, 1886 Tilotilo and Ramosani, Bolivia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1046, 1912 Bolivia (Tilotilo, Ramosani, 
Cocapata, San Cristobal, Pucyuni, Chaco, Cillutincara, Sandillani, Tanam- 
paya, Pasana, Biscachal near Carcuata); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 
236, 1923 Carcuata, Bolivia (note on type). 

Range. Temperate zone of Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz). 2 

Buthraupis montana saturata Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 3 SOUTH 
PERUVIAN MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Buthraupis cucullata saturata Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, pp. 80, 110, 
1906 Idma (Urubamba) and Marcapata, Dept. Cuzco, Peru (type, from 
Idma, in coll. of Count Branicki, now in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman 
and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 184, 1927); 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1047, 1912 south- 
eastern Peru ("Santa Ana" [ = Idma], Huasampilla, "Cosnipata," Mar- 
capata); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 119, 1921 Occobamba 
Valley and Torontoy, Urubamba, Peru. 

1 1 do not see any necessity for the generic separation of T. eximia, the existing 
structural divergencies being, in my opinion, good specific characters. 

2 Material examined. Bolivia: Pucyuni, 2; Cocapata, 5; San Cristobal, 6; 
Sandillani, 3; Tanampaya, 1; Pasana, 2; Chaco, 2; Cillutincara, 2; Carcuata, 1. 

3 Buthraupis montana saturata Berlepsch and Stolzmann: Nearest to B. m. 
cucullata, but blue of upper parts brighter and less violaceous; black of head 
more restricted both above and below; yellow of under surface somewhat deeper; \ 
billjsmaller. Wing (male), 130; tail, 89; bill, 31. 

By the brighter blue dorsal surface with shorter black hood and the smaller 
bill this race connects the "cucullata" group with B. montana, but lacks the 
silvery blue nuchal collar, which forms such a striking feature in the 
Bolivian bird. 

Material examined. Peru: Marcapata Valley (alt. 10,000 feet), 2; Limbani, ! 
Carabaya, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 191 

Buthraupis cucullata (not Tanagra cucullata Jardine and Selby) Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, pp. 185, 186 Huasampilla, Dept. 
Cuzco; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 780 Huasampilla (crit.); Taczanowski, Orn. 
Pe>., 2, p. 483, 1884 part, Huasampilla and "Cosnipata"; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 148, 1886 part, spec, k, 1, Huasampilla. 

Range. Temperate zone of southeastern Peru, in Dept. of Cuzco 
(Huasampilla, Idma, Occobamba Valley, Torontoy, Marcapata 

Valley). 

*Buthraupis montana cyanonota Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 
BLUE-BACKED MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Buthraupis cucullata cyanonota Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 342 Maraynioc, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in Warsaw 
Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 6, p. 184, 1927); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1047, 1912 northern and central Peru (Leimabamba, Maraynioc, 
Montanas de Pangoa, Santiago); Me'ne'gaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 
10, 1911 Cumpang, east of Tayabamba, Dept. Libertad. 

Buthraupis cucullata (not Tanagra cucullata Jardine and Selby) Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 513 Maraynioc and Higos, Dept. Junin; 
idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 483, 1884 part, Maraynioc and Montanas del 
Pangoa, Santiago; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 148, 1886 part, 
spec, j, Higos. 

Range. Temperate zone of northern and central Peru, from 
Dept. Amazonas (Leimabamba) south to Junin. 

1: Peru (Cumpang, near Tayabamba, Libertad, 1). 

Buthraupis montana cucullata (Jardine and Selby). HOODED 
MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Tanagra cucullata Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., (n.s.), Part 8, pi. 43, 1842 
"supposed to have been received from the vicinity of Buenos Ayres or 
Bolivia," errore; we suggest Andes of Quito, Ecuador (type in coll. of Mr. 
Carfrae, Edinburgh). 8 

Buthraupis cucullata Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 239, 1856 part, 
descr. and hab. Ecuador (vicinity of Quito); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 73, 1862 part, spec, c, Ecuador; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1 Buthraupis montana cyanonota Berlepsch and Stolzmann is apparently very 
close to B. m. saturata, from which it seems to differ by somewhat duller blue 
dorsal surface with the black of the head more extended, less intensely yellow 
under parts, and larger bill. Wing, 141, (female) 131; tail, 93 H, (female) 88; 
bill, 32-33. 

Not having at present any examples of this race, we are unable to give a more 
satisfactory diagnosis of its distinguishing characters. 

* The collection of Mr. Carfrae also supplied the type of Aglaia erylhrotus 
likewise ascribed to the "district of Buenos Aires," which we have shown to be 
an earlier name for Poecilothraupis igniventris atricrissa Cabanis, another Ecua- 
dorian species. We may, thus, assume that the specimen of T. cucullata Jardine 
and Selby originated in Ecuador, too. 



192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Lond., 1879, p. 500 Concordia, western Andes, Colombia; Taczanowski 
and Berlepsch, I.e., 1885, p. 80 San Rafael, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 148, 1886 part, spec, e-i, Antioquia and Ecuador 
("Sarayacu," Chiquinda); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 17, 1899 Ecuador (Pun, "Nanegal," "Intac," Pelagallo); 
Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 465 west side of Pichincha and Papallacta, 
Ecuador; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 
9, p. B. 99, 1911 Piscopata, Oyacachi, and "Quito"; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1047, 1912 Ecuador ("Quito," "Nane- 
gal," "Intaj," Pichincha, Papallacta, San Rafael, "Sarayacu"); Lonnberg 
and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 84, 1922 below Lloa, Ecuador. 

Buthraupis cucullata cucullata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 603, 
1917 Colombia (Cerro Munchique and Cocal, western Andes; Almaguer, 
Laguneta, and Santa Isabel, central Andes); idem, I.e., 55, p. 668, 1926 
Ecuador (Pichincha, Loja, Rio Upano, upper Sumaco, above Baeza, below 
Papallacta, and below Oyacachi). 

Buthraupis cucullata intermedia Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 343 (in text) Ecuador (type, from San Rafael, in 
Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. 
Hist. Nat., 6, p. 184, 1927). 

Range. Temperate zone of Ecuador and of the western and 
central Andes of Colombia. 1 

*Buthraupis montana gigas (Bonaparte). 2 GIANT MOUNTAIN 
TANAGER. 

Dubusia gigas Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 171, 1851 Santa-Fe-de- 

Bogota, Colombia (type in Paris Museum). 
Buthraupis cucullata (not Tanagra cucullata Jardine and Selby) Sclater, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 239, 1856 

part, New Grenada, Bogota; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 73, 1862 

part, spec, a, b, Bogota; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 148, 1886 

part, spec, a-d, Bogota. 
Buthraupis cucullata gigas Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

p. 1047, 1912 part, Bogota, Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

N. H., 36, p. 603, 1917 El Pinon, eastern Andes, Colombia. 
Tanagra montana (not Aglaia montana Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Lesson, 

Echo du Monde Sav., llth annee, 2nd sem., No. 3, p. 56, July 11, 

1844 (crit.). 
Buthraupis montana Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 29, 1851 Colombia. 

Range. Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia. 
3: Colombia (Paramo de Tama, 3). 

1 Material examined. Colombia: Cocal, western Andes, 2; Santa Isabel, 
central Andes, 2. Ecuador: west side of Pichincha, 9; Papallacta, 5. 

2 Buthraupis montana gigas (Bonaparte): Similar to B. m. cucullata, but above 
much duller and less purplish, dull Tyrian blue rather than grayish violet-blue. 

Although this form is generally easily recognizable, certain specimens, in the 
color of the upper parts, are intermediate to cucullata. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 10. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 193 

*Buthraupis eximia exirnia (Boissonneau). BLUE-RUMPED 
MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Tanagra eximia Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 66, 1840 Santa-Fe-de-Bogota, 
Colombia (type now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.;cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 404, 1930) ;> Bonaparte, 
Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 239, 1850 Bogota. 

Tanagra (Saltator) eximia Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., llth anne, 2nd 
s6m., No. 3, p. 57, July 11, 1844 Colombia (crit.). 

Buthraupis eximia Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 29, 1851 Colombia; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 Bogota; idem, I.e., 24, p. 240, 
1856 Bogotd (descr.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 73, 1862 Bogota; 
idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 149, 1886 Bogota; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1048, 1912 Bogota. 

Buthraupis eximia eximia Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 604, 
1917 eastern Andes of Colombia (El Pifion, Palo Hueco). 

Range. Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia. 2 
1: Colombia ("Bogota," 1). 

"Buthraupis eximia chloronota Sclater. GREEN-BACKED MOUN- 
TAIN TANAGER. 

Buthraupis chloronota Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, "1854," p. 97, pi. 
64, pub. April 5, 1855 "in rep. Equatoriana" (type in coll. of E. and J. 
Verreaux, present location unknown); idem, I.e., 24, p. 240,1856 vicinity 
of Quito, Ecuador (descr.); idem, I.e., 26, p. 551, 1858 Matos, Ecuador; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 73, 1862 Matos; Taczanowski and Ber- 
lepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 80 San Rafael, Ecuador; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 148, 1886 Ecuador (Matos, Intag, Sical, 
"Sarayacu"); Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 465 west side of Pichincha, 
Ecuador; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Arm6e Mes. Arc Me>id. Equat., 
9, p. B. 100, 1911 "Macas," Pichincha, and Pongo, Ecuador; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1047, 1912 Ecuador (Quito, 
Matos, Intag, Sical, Pichincha, Pongo, "Macas," San Rafael, "Sarayacu"); 
Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 85, 1922 below Lloa, 
Ecuador. 

Buthraupis eximia chloronota Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 603, 
1917 western and central Andes of Colombia (Paramillo, Santa Isabel, 
Almaguer); idem, I.e., 55, p. 669, 1926 Yanacocha, Ecuador; Berlioz, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 75, 1928 Cerro Mojanda, Ecuador; 
idem, I.e., (2), 4, p. 241, 1932 Escudilla, eastern Ecuador. 

Range. Temperate zone of Ecuador (both slopes) and of the 
western and central Andes of Colombia. 3 
1: Ecuador (Pichincha, 1). 

1 Another alleged type acquired from Boissonneau in 1841 is in the Vienna 
Museum. 

2 Twelve specimens from "Bogota" examined. 

3 Birds from the two slopes of Ecuador and two skins from Paramillo, north 
?nd of the western Andes of Colombia, have the back and rump entirely green, 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Genus BANGSIA Penard 1 

Bangsia Penard, Auk, 36, p. 539, 1919 type, by orig. desig., Buthraupis 
caeruleigularis Ridgway. 

Bangsia arcaei caeruleigularis (Ridgway). 2 CHERRIE'S TANAGER. 

Buthraupis caeruleigularis (Cherrie MS.) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
16, p. 609, 1893 Buena Vista [San Carlos River], Costa Rica (type in 
U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 34, 
1902 Buena Vista (monog.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 865, 
1910 Carrfllo, Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, and La Hondura, Costa Rica 
(crit., habits). 

Buthraupis coeruleigularis Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1048, 1912 Buena Vista, Costa Rica. 

Range. Tropical zone of Caribbean Costa Rica (around the 
northeastern slopes of the volcanoes of Turrialba, Irazu, Barba, 
and Poas). 

Bangsia arcaei arcaei (Sclater and Salvin). ARCH'S TANAGER. 

Buthraupis arcaei Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 439, 
pi. 31 Cordillera del Chucu, Veraguas (types in Salvin-Godman Col- 
lection, now in British Museum); Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 187 Cordillera 
del Chucu; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 276, 1883 
Cordillera del Chucu and Calobre, Veraguas; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 149, 1886 same localities; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 33, 1902 same localities (monog.); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1048, 1912 same localities. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Panama (Cordillera del Chucii 
and Calobre, Veraguas). 3 

while those from the central Andes show slight traces of blue on some of the 
uropygial feathers, thus pointing to B. e. eximia. Moore (Amer. Mus. Nov., 
715, pp. 2, 3, April 20, 1934) separates the inhabitants of the western and 
central Andes of Colombia as B. e. zimmeri (type from Paramillo in the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, New York), and describes still another race, 
B. e. cyanocalyptra from south-central Ecuador (type from San Luis, near Mount 
Sangay, in coll. of R. T. Moore). 

Nineteen specimens, including seven from Colombia, examined. 

1 Bangsia Penard: Similar to Buthraupis, but bill longer and more slender; 
tail comparatively much shorter (being about one-half or a little more than one- 
half as long as wing) and less rounded; wing relatively longer and more pointed. 

2 Bangsia arcaei caeruleigularis (Ridgway): Similar to B. a. arcaei, but the 
sides and flanks are extensively and uniformly dusky-bluish instead of merely 
clouded with dusky. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, 2. 
3 Material examined. Panama: Calobre, Veraguas, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 195 

Bangsia rothschildi (Berlepsch). 1 ROTHSCHILD'S TANAGER. 

Buthraupis rothschildi Berlepsch, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 7, p. iii, Oct., 1897 
Cachavi, Prov. Esmeraldas, Ecuador (type in Tring Collection, now in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 5, p. 482, pi. 2, fig. 2, 1898 Cachavi, Ecuador; Hellmayr, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1110 (in text) Cachabf and Rio Pichiayacu, 
Ecuador (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1048, 
1912 same localities; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 604, 
1917 Rio Andagueda (sources of the Rio Atrato), Colombia. 

Bangsia rothschildi Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 669, 1926 
Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Colombia (Rio Andagueda, 
sources of the Rio Atrato) and northwestern Ecuador (Cachavi 
and Rio Pichiayacu, Prov. Esmeraldas). 

Bangsia melanochlamys (Hellmayr). 2 BLACK-MANTLED TANAGER. 

Buthraupis melanochlamys Hellmayr, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 25, p. 112, June, 
1910 La Selva, Rio Jamaraya, western Andes, Colombia (type in Munich 
Museum); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1109 La Selva; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1048, 1912 La Selva; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 604, 1917 La Frijolera, above 
Puerto Valdivia, lower Cauca, Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Colombia (La Selva, Rio 
Jamaraya, sources of the Rio San Juan, western Andes; La Frijolera, 
above Puerto Valdivia, west slope of central Andes). 

1 Bangsia rothschildi (Berlepsch) : Nearly allied to B. a. arcaei, but the under 
parts, with the exception of a light cadmium patch on the foreneck and the lemon 
yellow anal region and under tail coverts, are black, more or less glossed with 
purplish blue. Besides, the upper parts are deeper black, though similarly glossed 
on the back, wing and tail coverts. Wing, 94, (female) 88; tail, 53, (female) 
51; bill, 15. 

This tanager is probably conspecific with B. arcaei. Both are, however, so 
little known that further speculation on their relationship seems premature. 

Material examined. Ecuador, Prov. Esmeraldas: Cachavi, 1; Rio 
Pichiayacu, 3. 

2 Bangsia melanochlamys (Hellmayr): Related to B. a. arcaei and B. roths- 
childi, but lesser and median upper wing coverts pale blue, forming a large humeral 
patch; head, mantle, and scapulars deep (velvety) black with a faint silky gloss; 
lower rump and upper tail coverts pale blue, rather duller than the humeral area; 
under parts much as in B. a. arcaei except that the sides and flanks are extensively 
black (more blackish slate posteriorly). Wing (female), 90; tail, 53; bill, 15. 

In opposition to B. arcaei and B. rothschildi, both of which are peculiar to 
the tropical lowlands, this tanager has been taken only in the lower Subtropical 
zone. The type was obtained by Mervyn G. Palmer at La Selva (4,600 feet), 
near the headwaters of the Rio San Juan, on the western slope of the western 
Andes. Three additional specimens were subsequently secured by Miller and 
Boyle at La Frijolera (alt. 5,000 feet), on the western slope of the central Andes 
above Puerto Valdivia on the lower Cauca. The pale blue patch on the wing 
and the similarly colored uropygial area render this bird easily recognizable 
among its affines, from which it appears to be specifically distinct. 

Material examined. Colombia: La Selva, Rio Jamaraya. 1 (the type). 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Bangsia ed wards! (Elliot). 1 MiLNE-EowARDS's TANAGER. 

Buthraupis edwardsi Elliot, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., 1, Bull., p. 77, pi. 4, 
fig. 2, 1865 "Nouvelle Grenade" (descr. of female; type in Paris Museum 
examined); Salvin, Ibis, 1874, p. 307 Esmeraldas and Chillo, Quito 
Valley, on the western slope of Antisana, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 150, 1886 "Pasto," Ecuador [ = Colombia]; Hellmayr, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1111 (in text) Ecuador and Colombia 
(range); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1048, 1912 
Ecuador ("Quito") and Colombia ("Pasto"); Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 604, 1917 Buenavista and Ricaurte, Narino, Colom- 
bia; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 442, 1932 Valley of Tum- 
baco and Huila, Ecuador (crit.). 

Bangsia edwardsi Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 669, 1926 Huila 
and Rio Blanco, near Mindo, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical and Lower Subtropical zone of southwestern 
Colombia (Buenavista and Ricaurte, Narino) and northwestern 
Ecuador (Esmeraldas; Chillo; Tumbaco; Huila; Rio Blanco, 

below Mindo). 

' 

Bangsia aureocincta (Hellmayr). 2 GOLDEN-NECKED TANAGER. 



Buthraupis aureocincta Hellmayr, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 25, p. Ill, June, 1910 
Tatama Mountain, near the sources of the Rio San Juan, western Andes, 
Colombia (type in Munich Museum); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 
p. 1110 Tatama Mountain; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1048, 1912 Tatama Mountain; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 604, 1917 Novita Trail, western Andes, Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the western Andes of Colombia 
(Mount Tatama, alt. 6,700 feet; Novita Trail, alt. 7,200 feet). 

1 Bangsia edwardsi (Elliot) is well characterized by its green general color- 
ation, bright yellow pectoral patch, and pale blue sides of the head. Adult 
males have the pileum, lores, and throat black. 

The locality "Pasto" is obviously inaccurate, this species being a bird of 
the tropical and subtropical forests. Specimens from "Quito" collections certainly 
did not come from the immediate vicinity of that city, but are more likely to 
have been obtained on the wooded slopes of the Pacific side at lower altitudes. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Rio Blanco, below Mindo, 4; Huila, Mindo, 
3; unspecified, 1. 

2 Bangsia aureocincta (Hellmayr): Adult male similar to B. edwardsi, but 
orbicular region and auriculars glossy black like the pileum, bounded posteriorly 
by a broad bright yellow band which descends the sides of the neck and joins a 
similarly colored malar stripe; large chin-spot pale yellow, etc. Bill black, lower 
mandible yellow (as in B. edwardsi). Wing (male), 93; tail, 60; bill, 14. No 
female seen. 

In spite of the striking difference in the coloration of the sides of the head, 
this species, in other respects, is so much like B. edwardsi that it may yet prove 
to be its northern representative. 

Material examined. Colombia: Tatama Mountain, 1 (the type). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 197 

Genus DUBUSIA Bonaparte 

Dubusia Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 31, p. 424, 1850 type, 
by virtual orig. desig., 1 Dubusia selysia Bonaparte =Tanagra selysia 
Bonaparte. 

*Dubusia taeniata taeniata (Boissonneau). BUFF-BREASTED 
MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Tanagra (Tachyphonus) taeniata Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 57, 1840 
Santa-F6-de-Bogota, Colombia (type now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 2 cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 405, 1930). 

Tanagra selysia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 239, 1850 Quito, 
Ecuador (type in Leiden Museum). 

Dubusia selysia Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 31, p. 424, 1850 
(crit.); idem, I.e., 32, p. 81, 1851 (crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 237. 1856 vicinity of Quito, Ecuador (descr.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 74, 1862 Ecuador. 

Dubusia taeniata Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 237, 1856 Bogota (descr.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 74, 1862 Bogota; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 500 Santa Elena, Colombia; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, 
p. 289 Cechce, Ecuador (crit.); idem, I.e., 1885, p. 81 San Rafael, Ecua- 
dor; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 152, 1886 Colombia (Bogota, 
Santa Elena) and Ecuador (Sical, Quito); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 51, p. 307, 1899 vicinity of Bogota; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 17, 1899 Pun, Ecuador; Goodfellow, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 466 Pichincha and Papallacta, Ecuador; Mene'gaux, Miss. 
Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Me>id. Equat., 9, p. B. 100, 1911 Lloa, 
Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1049, 1912 
Colombia (Bogota, Antioquia) and Ecuador (Quito, Sical, Lloa, Cechce, 
Pichincha, Papallacta, San Rafael, Pun); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 606, 1917 Colombia (Andes west of Popayan, western 
Andes; El Pinon, Fusugasuga, Subia); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 85, 1922 Chinguil, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, p. 672, 1926 Ecuador (Hacienda Garzon, Yanacocha, 
Taraguacocha, Macas region, upper Sumaco, above Baeza, Papallacta, 
Oyacachi); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 75, 1928 Cerro 
Mojanda, Ecuador; idem, I.e., (2), 4, p. 241, 1932 Yunguilla, eastern 
Ecuador; idem, I.e., p. 627, 1932 El Portete de Tarqui, Cuenca, Ecuador. 

Range. Temperate zone of western Venezuela (Sierra of MeYida), 
Colombia (except Santa Marta region), and Ecuador. 3 
3: Colombia (Bogota, 2); Venezuela (Rio Mucujon, 1). 

1 Although a number of other species are mentioned as pertaining to the 
jenus, only the above is listed in combination with the new generic title. 

2 Another alleged type received from Boissonneau in 1841 is in the Vienna 
Museum. 

3 Ecuadorian specimens I am unable to separate satisfactorily from a series 
)f Bogotd skins. A single adult male from Culata (alt. 10,000 feet), Merida, 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Dubusia taeniata stictocephala Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 
MARAYNIOC MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Dubusia stictocephala Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ibis, (6), 6, p. 386, 1894 
Maraynioc, Dept. Junin, Peru (cotypes in Berlepsch Collection, now in 
Frankfort Museum, and in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domani- 
ewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 184, 1927); idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 343, pi. 13 Maraynioc; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1049, 1912 Peru (Maraynioc, Pariayacu, 
Huarmipaycha); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 119, 1921 
Occobamba Valley, Urubamba, Peru. 

Range. Temperate zone of Peru, from Junin (Maraynioc, 
Pariayacu, Huarmipaycha) to Cuzco (Occobamba Valley, 
Urubamba). 

Genus TEPHROPHILUS Moore 2 

Tephrophilus Moore, Auk, 51, p. 1, 1934 type, by orig. desig., Tephrophilus 
wetmorei Moore. 

Tephrophilus wetmorei Moore. 3 WETMORE'S MOUNTAIN 
TANAGER. 

Tephrophilus wetmorei Moore, Auk, 51, p. 1, pi. 1, 1934 southeastern end of 
Culebrillas Valley, northwest of Mount Sangay, Ecuador (type in coll. 
of Robert T. Moore, Pasadena). 

collected by S. Briceno on March 16, 1910 (Frankfort Museum), does not 
differ either. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Bogota, 11. Venezuela: Culata, 
Me>ida, 1. Ecuador: Pichincha, 4; Lloa, 2; "Quito," 3; Pun, 1; San Rafael, 1; 
Papallacta, 1. 

1 Dubusia taeniata stictocephala Berlepsch and Stolzmann: Similar to D. t. 
taeniata, but feathers of all the pileum and hind neck (not only those on forehead 
and superciliary region) largely tipped with pale blue; buffy pectoral band narrower 
as well as interrupted medially; under tail coverts yellowish instead of warm buff; 
blue of the back not so dark, etc. Wing (males), 92-95; tail, 87; bill, 17. 

Material examined. Peru: Maraynioc, 2. 

2 Genus Tephrophilus Moore: Bill short, stout, slightly broader than deep; 
culmen straight for basal two-thirds, distinctly convex terminally, the tip of the 
maxilla slightly uncinate, with a distinct tomial notch behind point, and sulcate, 
the groove being parallel with the culmen; maxillary tomium swollen and slightly 
convex at base, straight or slightly concave towards tip; mandible shallower than 
maxilla, sharply compressed terminally; nostrils exposed, oval; rictal bristles 
distinct; wing about two and a half to three times the length of the tarsus, rounded; 
first primary (from without) shortest, fourth primary the longest, third and fifth 
primaries about equal to third; tail nearly as long as wing, strongly rounded; 
tarsus unusually strong and long, about four times the length of maxilla from 
nostril to tip; feet, toes, and claws unusually strong and powerful, much heavier 
than in Buthraupis. (Condensed from R. T. Moore.) 

From the long description it does not clearly result to which other group 
this genus is most closely related. The wing formula seems to be the same as in 
Dubusia, while other characters point to affinities with Compsocoma. 

3 Tephrophilus wetmorei Moore: Crown and back yellowish citrine, each feather 
finely bordered with blackish, and passing into wax yellow on the forehead; rump 
bright yellow; chin, sides of throat, and sides of head deep black, surmounted by 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 199 

Range. Humid Temperate zone of Ecuador (Culebrillas Valley, 
near Mount Sangay). 

Genus COMPSOCOMA Cabanis 

Compsocoma Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 140, Oct., 1851 type, by subs, 
desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 72, 1855), Tachyphonus victorini 
Lafresnaye. 

Compsocoma flavinucha venezuelana Hellmayr. 1 VENEZUELAN 
MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Compsocoma somptuosa venezuelana Hellmayr, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 11, p. 
317, Dec., 1913 La Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela (type in 
Munich Museum); idem, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 184, 1924 
Galipan, Cerro del Avila, Venezuela; Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, 
pp. 13, 14, 1925 Galipan, near Caracas. 

Compsocoma sumptuosa (not Tachyphonus sompluosus Lesson) Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 238, 1856 part, Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, 
I.e., 1868, p. 167 Caracas; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 151, 
1886 part, subsp. typica, spec, a, b, Caracas; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1049, 1912 part, Venezuela ("Puerto 
Cabello," Caracas, "Caripe"). 

Compsocoma somptuosa somptuosa Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, 
A, Heft 5, p. 60, 1912 San Esteban and Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo. 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Venezuela, in Dept. 
Federal (Caracas; Galipan, Cerro del Avila) and State of Carabobo, 
(San Esteban; La Cumbre de Valencia). 

a broad bright yellow band joining the yellow of the forehead; remainder of 
under parts bright (empire) yellow, the sides and flanks marked with dusky or 
blackish V-shaped spots; tibial feathers, upper and under tail coverts dark Warbler 
green; lesser upper wing coverts light blue violet, forming a conspicuous patch; 
remaining wing coverts slate black, externally edged with light violet blue; remiges 
and rectrices slate black; under wing coverts and axillaries dark gray. Bill black, 
lower mandible pale mazarine blue with extreme tip blackish; legs and feet black. 
Wing, 101-105; tail, 88-93; tarsus, 34-35; bill (exposed culmen), 14-15 (compiled 
from Moore's description and colored figure). 

In certain details of coloration this bird obviously offers much analogy with 
Compsocoma notabilis (Sclater). 

1 Compsocoma flavinucha venezuelana Hellmayr: Exceedingly similar to, and 
agreeing with, C. /. somptuosa in the pale cerulean blue margins to wing and tail 
feathers, but uropygial area decidedly brighter, olive green rather than brownish 
olive, less extensive and less "solid," being more profusely barred with dusky; 
upper tail coverts largely black with narrow olive green edges; bill markedly 
slenderer, though not constantly shorter. Wing, 87-92; tail, 67-73; bill, 16-17. 

The close resemblance of this form to the widely separated Peruvian race 
offers an interesting parallel to other species of similar distribution (e.g., Tanagra 
xanthogaster ruficeps and T. x. exsul, etc.). Though single individuals sometimes 
run pretty close, the racial characters are quite noticeable on comparison of series. 

Birds from the Caracas region agree with those from the Cumbre de Valencia. 
A single example, marked "Carip6, Jan., 1894" by A. Mocquerys, in the Tring 
Collection is most probably incorrectly labeled. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 8; Caracas, 2; 
San Esteban, 2; Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo, 46. 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"Compsocoma flavinucha victorini (Lafresnaye). GREEN- 
BACKED MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Tach[yphonus] victorini (Massena MS.) Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 336, 
1842 Santa-F6-de-Bogota, "Bolivia" = Colombia (type in coll. of F. de 
Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 404, 1930). 

[Tachyphonus] flavi-vertex Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 336 (in text), 1842 
(substitute for T. victorini Lafresnaye). 

Tachyphonus elegans Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., llth annee, 2nd sem., 
No. 3, p. 57, July 11, 1844 Colombia (type in coll. of Dr. Abeille, 
Bordeaux). 1 

Tanagra victorini Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 239, 1850 Bogot& 
(diag.). 

Compsocoma victorini Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 140, 1851 Santa-Fe-de- 
Bogota; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, pp. 84, 157, 1855 Bogota; 
I.e., 24, p. 238, 1856 Bogota (descr.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 73, 
1862 Bogota; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 291, 1884 Bucaramanga, 
Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 150, 1886 part, spec, a-e, 
Bogota; Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 Bogota; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1049, 1912 part, Colombia 
(Bogota, Bucaramanga); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 
25, p. 85, 1922 "Mindo," errore. 

Compsocoma somptuosa victorini Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 605, 
1917 near San Agustin, La Palma, La Candela, El Roble, and Subia, 
Colombia (crit.); idem, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, pp. 13, 14, 1925 (range). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Colombia (western slope 
of eastern Andes and eastern slope of central Andes, at head of 
Magdalena Valley). 2 

3: Colombia (La Candela, Huila, 1; San Agustin, Huila, 1; 
Bogota, 1). 

Compsocoma flavinucha baezae Chapman. 3 BAEZA MOUN- 
TAIN TANAGER. 

1 The description of the upper parts ("le vert pr du manteau et du dos, 
passant au vert clair sur le croupion et sur les tectrices superieures"), taken in 
conjunction with the habitat, leaves no possible doubt that T. elegans is the same 
as T. victorini. 

2 Specimens from the head of the Magdalena Valley, by somewhat darker 
back and slightly deeper blue wing edgings, betray a certain tendency in the 
direction of C. /. antioquiae. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Bucaramanga, 1; Bogota, 11; 
La Candela, 2; near San Agustin, 1. 

3 Compsocoma flavinucha baezae Chapman: Nearest to C. /. victorini, but back 
decidedly darker and more olivaceous, hellebore green rather than grass green, 
the feathers frequently fringed with blackish, the nuchal region more suffused 
with black; similar also to C. /. antioquiae, but back greener and margins to wings 
and tail lighter, King's blue rather than cadet blue. 

Material examined. Eastern Ecuador: Machay, 4; Baeza, 4. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 

Compsocoma sompluosa baezae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, p. 13, 
1925 Baeza, eastern Ecuador (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 671, 1926 
Baeza (crit.). 

Compsocoma victorini (not Tachyphonus victorini Lafresnaye) Taczanowski 
and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 80 Machay, Ecuador 
(crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 150, 1886 part, spec, f, eastern 
Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 465 "western Andes [of Ecuador] 
at altitudes of from 9,000 to 12,000 feet," errore; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1049, 1912 part, eastern Ecuador (Machay). 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Ecuador (Baeza, Machay). 

Compsocoma flavinucha antioquiae Berlepsch. 1 ANTIOQUIA 
MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Compsocoma sumptuosa antioquiae Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, pp. 1049, 1135, 1912 Antioquia [ = Santa Elena], Colombia (type 
in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum, examined). 

Compsocoma somptuosa antioquiae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 605, 1917 Paramillo Trail, Santa Elena, Barro Blanco, El Eden, and 
Rio Tochd, Colombia (crit.); idem, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, pp. 13, 14, 
1925 (range; crit.). 

Compsocoma sumptuosa (not Tachyphonus somptuosus Lesson) Sclater and Sal- 
vin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 500 Retire, Medellin, and Santa 
Elena, Antioquia, Colombia (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
151, 1886 part, "intermediates," spec, a-d, Santa Elena and Retiro, 
Antioquia; Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 La 
Camelia, near Angelopolis, western Andes, Colombia. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the northern end of the western 
and central Andes of Colombia, south to about the latitude of 
Cartago and Ibagiie. 

*Compsocoma flavinucha cyanoptera Cabanis. 2 BLUE-WINGED 
MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

1 Compsocoma flavinucha antioquiae Berlepsch: Very similar to C. f. cyanoptera, 
but interscapular region tinged with greenish; rump green; the external margins 
to wing and tail feathers decidedly lighter blue (King's blue). Wing, 96-100; 
tail, 76-80; bill, 17. 

Material examined. Colombia, Antioquia: Santa Elena, 1; Retiro, 3; 
unspecified, 2. 

J Compsocoma flavinucha cyanoptera Cabanis: Differs from C. f. somptuosa 
in having the margins to rectrices and remiges much darker, cadet blue instead 
of pale cerulean blue; the yellow crown patch more extensive; the rump nearly 
black or very dark olive green. 

Birds from the western Andes of Colombia (Rio Lima, Cauca) have the wing 
edgings not quite so dark as Ecuadorian specimens, but in other respects agree 
with the latter. Those from the west slope of the central Andes (Miraflores, Salento) 
are, according to Chapman, even more intermediate to antioquiae. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Rio Lima, western Andes, 3. 
Ecuador: Salvator, Rio Saloya, Pichincha, 1; Gualea, 3; Chaguarpata, 1; Cayan- 
deled, 4; Niebli, 6; unspecified, 3. 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Compsocoma cyanoptera Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 14, p. 235, 1866 Ecuador 
(type in Berlin Museum); Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 17, 1899 Tambo de Yerba Buena and Niebli, 
Ecuador (crit.). 

Compsocoma sumptuosa (not Tachyphonus somptuosus Lesson) Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 84, 1855 part, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 24, p. 238, 
1856 part, "vicinity of Quito," Ecuador; idem, I.e., 27, p. 139, 1859 
Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 86, 1860 above Puellaro, Ecuador; 
Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 465 "Papallacta, eastern Andes" [of Ecuador], 
errore. 

Compsocoma sumptuosa cyanoptera Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 546 Cayandeled, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1884, p. 289 
Cayandeled and Chaguarpata, Ecuador (crit.); Menegaux, Miss. Serv. 
Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 100, 1911 Pelegallo, 
Jungilla, and Gualea, Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1050, 1912 western Ecuador ("Quito," Cayandeled, Cha- 
guarpata, Gualea, Nanegal, Tambo de Yerba Buena, Niebli, "Baiza") 
and Colombia (Pasto); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 605, 
1917 San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, La Florida, Gallera, Cocal, La 
Sierra, Miraflores, and Salento, western and central Andes, Colombia 
(crit.); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 85, 1922 
road to Nanegal, Mindo, and Canchacoto, Ecuador (crit.); Berlioz, Bull. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 32, p. 75, 1928 Alaguincho, Ecuador. 

Compsocoma somptuosa cyanoptera Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, pp. 13, 
14, 1925 (crit., range); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 670, 1926 
Pagma Forest, Gualea, Pallatanga, and Quito, Ecuador (crit.). 

Compsocoma somptuosa antioquiae (not of Berlepsch) Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. 
Ges. Bay., 11, p. 318, 1913 part, Rio Lima, Cauca. 

Compsocoma sumptuosa b. subsp. cyanoptera Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 151, 1886 Ecuador ("Quito," "Baisa") and Colombia (Pasto). 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Colombia (western Andes 
and west slope of central Andes, excepting the northern end) and 
western Ecuador, north of the Rio Chimbo. 

5: Colombia (Castilla Mountains, 1; Zapata, 1; Miraflores, 
west slope of central Andes, 2; Los Jambos, 1). 

Compsocoma flavinucha alamoris Chapman. 1 ALAMOR MOUN- 
TAIN TANAGER. 

Compsocoma somptuosa alamoris Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, p. 12, 
1925 Alamor, southwestern Ecuador (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 670, 

1 Compsocoma flavinucha alamoris Chapman: "Similar to C. /. antioquiae, but 
smaller (wing, 89 against 97 mm.); resembling C. f. cyanoptera, but wings and 
tail margined with lighter blue (King's blue rather than cadet blue), the foreback 
more or less mixed with green, and rump greener." (Chapman, I.e.) We are 
not acquainted with this race discriminated by Chapman and Berlioz. It appears 
to represent the allied forms in southwestern Ecuador. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 203 

1926 southwestern Ecuador (El Chiral, Zaruma, San Bartolo, Salvias, 
Alamor, Celica). 

Compsocoma sumptuosa alamoris Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 
4, p. 626, 1932 El Portete de Tarqui, Cuenca (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of southwestern Ecuador, from the 
vicinity of Cuenca south to Province of Loja. 

*Compsocoma flavinucha somptuosa (Lesson). BLUE-SHOUL- 
DERED MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Tachyphonus somptuosus Lesson, Trait d'Orn., p. 463, 1831 no locality 
indicated (the type, examined in the Paris Museum, was collected by 
Ajassou in Peru); Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, p. 379, pi. 
23, 1855 Peru (crit.). 

Tachyphonus flavinucha (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Tschudi, Arch. 
Naturg., 10, (1), p. 288, 1844 Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, 
p. 208, 1846 wooded valleys of eastern Peru between 9 and 10 
lat. south. 

Tanagra sumptuosus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 239, 1850 
"Columbia," errore (ex Lesson). 

Compsocoma elegans (not Tachyphonus elegans Lesson) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 
1, p. 140, 1851 Peru (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 74, 
1862- Peru. 

Compsocoma sumptuosa Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 84, 1855 part, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 24, p. 238, 1856 part, Peru; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 74, 1862 "Peruvian Amazon"; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1874, p. 513 Paltaypampa and Auquimarca, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 
13 Chirimoto, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 484, 1884 Peru (Auquimarca, 
Paltaypampa, Chirimoto); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 343 Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Peru; Men6gaux, Rev. Prang. 
d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 1911 Cueva Seca, near Tayabamba, Peru; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1049, 1912 part, Peru (Chiri- 
moto, Chachapoyas, Ray-urmana, Auquimarca, Paltaypampa, Garita 
del Sol). 

Compsocoma sumptuosa a. subsp. typica Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1 1, p. 151, 
1886 part, spec, c-g, eastern Ecuador (San Lucas, "San Jos6") and Peru. 

Compsocoma sumptuosa sumptuosa Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 459, 1918 
Charapi, northern Peru. 

Compsocoma somptuosa somptuosa Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 160, pp. 13, 
14, 1925 Peru and southeastern Ecuador (crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 55, p. 669, 1926 southeastern Ecuador (Sabanilla, Zamora) and 
Peru (Chaupe, Chelpes). 

Range. Subtropical zone of extreme southeastern Ecuador 
(Rio Zamora) and eastern Peru, south to Dept. Junin. 1 

1 1 cannot perceive any constant difference between birds from northern and 
central Peru, though the former possibly have the yellow crown patch more 
extended. The edges to the remiges are of the same pale cerulean blue hue as 
in C. /. flavinucha, which differs, however, by the reduction of the yellow nuchal 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

2: Peru (Cueva Seca, Rio Tocache, San Martin, 1; Piquitambo, 
Rio Tocache, San Martin, 1). 

Compsocoma flavinucha flavinucha (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 
YELLOW-NAPED MOUNTAIN TANAGER. 

Tachyphonus flavinucha Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 29, 1837 Yungas, Bolivia (type in the Paris Museum 
examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Am6r. Merid., Ois., p. 279, pi. 21, fig. 1, 
1839 Chupe, Irupana, and Suri, Yungas of La PB.Z, Bolivia. 

Tanagra flavinucha Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 239, 1850 Bolivia. 

Compsocoma flavinucha Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 140, 1851 Bolivia; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 238, 1856 Bolivia (descr.); idem and Salvin, 
I.e., 1879, p. 600 Bolivia (Chupe", Irupana, Suri, Simacu, Tilotilo); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 152, 1886 Simacu and Tilotilo, 
Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 81, 1889 Yungas; Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1050, 1912 Bolivia (Simacu, 
Tilotilo, Chaco, Songo, Tanampaya, San Cristobal, Pucyuni); Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 30, p. 227, 1923 Bolivia (note on type). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz and 
Cochabamba). 1 

Compsocoma notabilis (Sclater). BLACK-CHINNED MOUNTAIN 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra notabilis Sclater, 2 Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 84, pi. 91, June 26, 
1855 "eastern range of the Cordillera to the north of Quito," Ecuador 
(type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum). 

Tanagara notabilis Jardine, Edinb. New Phil. Journ., (n.s.), 2, No. 1, p. 119, 
July, 1855 eastern Cordillera of Ecuador. 

Compsocoma notabilis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 239, 1856 vicinity 
of Quito, Ecuador (descr.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 74, 1862 
"Quito"; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 152, 1886 Ecuador (Quito, 
Intag); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 17, 
1899 Nanegal and Intag, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 466 
west side of Pichincha, Ecuador; Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 

spot and its blue rump. Yet the two are clearly geographic representatives, and 
I see no reason why they should not be merged into a single specific entity. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: San Lucas, Rio Zamora, 1. Peru: 
Ray-urmana, 1; Chachapoyas, 4; Cueva Seca, near Tayabamba, 2; Cushi Libertad 
(alt. 1,820 meters), Dept. Huanuco, 7; Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Dept. Junin, 3. 

1 Material examined. Bolivia: Pucyuni, 1; Cocapata, 1; San Cristobal, 11; 
Chulumani, 1; Songo, 1; Quebrada Onda, 2. 

2 Sclater 's description based on a specimen lent (and subsequently presented) 
to him by Sir William Jardine obviously appeared prior to the latter author's 
own account in the "Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal." If we go by the 
available dates of publication, the first number of the second volume of this serial 
was issued some time in July, whereas that part of the "Proceedings of the Zoo- 
logical Society of London" containing Sclater's paper came out on June 26, 1855. 
We may thus regard the specimen in the Sclater Collection from "Quito (Jameson)" 
as the type of T. notabilis. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 205 

p. 1111 Tatama Mountain, San Juan slopes of western Andes, Colombia; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1050, 1912 western 
Ecuador (Quito, Intag); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 606, 
1917 Novita Trail, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 671, 1926 Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the western Andes of Colombia 
(Tatama Mountain; Novita Trail) and Ecuador (west side of 
Pichincha; Intag). 1 

Genus THRAUPIS Boie 2 

Thraupis Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 974 type, by virtual monotypy, Tanagra archie- 

piscopus Desmarest= Tanagra ornata Sparrman. 
Hemithraupis (not of Cabanis, 1851) Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 226, 1898 type, 

by orig. desig., Aglaia cyanocephala Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 
Sporathraupis Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 331, 1898 new name for Hemithraupis 

Ridgway, preoccupied. 

*Thraupis episcopus episcopus (Linnaeus). BISHOP TANAGER. 

Tanagra Episcopus Linnaeus, 3 Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 316, 1766 based 
on "L'Evesque" Brisson (Orn., 3, p. 40, pi. 1, fig. 2), "Bresil" 4 (type 
in coll. of M. Reaumur); Strickland, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 332, 1847 
Guiana (crit.); Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 670, 
"1848" (=1849] British Guiana; Bonaparte, Rev. Mag.Zool., (2), 3, p. 170, 
1851 part, Guiana; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 231, 1856 
part, British Guiana and Cayenne; Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 
2, p. 32, 1857 Cayenne; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 74, 1862 
part, spec, a, b, Cayenne; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 
p. 571 Para; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 208, 1870 part, Marabitanas, 
Barcellos, and Para; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 379 Para; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 210 British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains, Camacusa, 
Roraima); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 154, 1886 part, subsp. 
typica, spec, a-k, Guiana (Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Roraima, Cayenne) 

1 Two Colombian birds agree with others from Ecuador. 

Material examined. Colombia: Tatama Mountain, 2. Ecuador: west side 
of Pichincha, 1; "Govinda," 2; "Quito," 2. 

2 Subdivision of this genus seems to me impracticable. Cf. also Zimmer, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 448, 1930. 

3 1 am afraid thatLoxta virens Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 303, 1766; 
Surinam) will prove to be an earlier name for the Bishop Tanager. The description 
corresponds fairly to the immature plumage. Lonnberg (Bih. Svensk. Vetensk. 
Akad. Handl., 22, Afd. 4, p. 33, 1897), who has examined the type preserved in 
the Upsala Museum, claims it to be "most probably" the same as T. cyanoptera, 
but its poor condition evidently left some doubt as to definite identification. 
If the locality "Surinam" is to be trusted, it cannot have any relation to the South 
Brazilian T. cyanoptera. At all events, the type, if identifiable at all, should be 
carefully reexamined by someone equipped with the necessary comparative 
material before any change in established nomenclature is attempted. 

4 The type is more likely to have come from Cayenne, which has, accordingly, 
been substituted as type locality by Berlepsch (Nov. Zool., 15, p. 115, 1908); 
Mrs. Naumburg (Auk, 41, p. 113, 1924), however, designates Para, Brazil. 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and Brazil (Para); Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 Santarem, 
Brazil; Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 162 Amapa, Brazil; idem, Ibis, 1903, pp. 
480, 493 Rio Capim, Para, Brazil; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 10, p. 182, 1904 Mahury and Hot la Mere, French Guiana; Hell- 
mayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 273, 1905 Igarape-Assu, Para; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 356, 1907 part, Primeira Cruz, Maranhao (range in 
part); Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 26, 1907 Mexiana; Sneth- 
lage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 294, 1907 Para, Mexiana, Marajo, Santo Antonio 
do Prata, and Rio Moju, Brazil; idem, I.e., 56, pp. 498, 522, 1908 Rio 
Tapajoz (Ilha do Coata, Itaituba) and Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua) ; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 115, 316, 1908 Cayenne and Approuague, 
French Guiana; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
76, 100, 1910 Miritiba, Maranhao; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1050, 1912 Cayenne, Surinam, British Guiana, and 
northern Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 447, 1914 Para, 
Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Moju, Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Rio 
Tapajoz (Itaituba, Coata), Rio Jamauchim (Tucunare), Marajo (Sao 
Natal), Mexiana, Rio Jamunda (Faro), and Maranhao, Brazil; idem, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 Maranhao (Anil, Sao 
Ben to, Tury-assu). 

Gracula glauca Sparrman, Mus. Carlson, fasc. 3, pi. 54, 1788 no locality 
stated (type now in Stockholm Museum; cf. Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 
19, A, No. 1, p. 14, 1926). 

Tanagra serioptera Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 313, Dec. 31, 1837 Demerara 
(type in coll. of R. Schomburgk); Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 3, p. 670, "1848" [=1849] British Guiana (ex Swainson). 

Thraupis serioptera Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 28, 1851 Cayenne and Guiana. 

Tanagra coeleslis Spix, Av. Bras., 2, p. 42, 1825 part, descr. of female, Para 
(cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 676, 1906). 

Thraupis episcopus episcopus Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.- 
phys. KL, 26, No. 2, pp. 87, 118, 126, 1912 Para localities, Mexiana, and 
Marajo (Fazenda Arary, Cachoeira); Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 100, 
1916 Utinga, Para; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 87, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 
2, p. 514, 1921 British Guiana (various localities); Naumburg, Auk, 41, 
p. 113, 1924 (diag.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 174, 1928 
Para; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 280, 1929 
Maranhao (Anil; Sao Bento; Codo, Cocos; Barra do Corda; Sao Luiz; 
Miritiba) (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 131, 1931 
Arabupu, Roraima. 

Range. British, Dutch, and French Guiana; northern Brazil, 
west to the Rio Negro and the Rio Tapajoz, east to Maranhao. 1 

1 Birds from the Rio Negro (Barcellos) and Para agree perfectly with Guianan 
ones. Specimens from Maranhao generally have larger bills, thereby approaching 
T. s. sayaca, but the divergency is completely bridged by individual variation. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana, 9; Dutch Guiana, 2; British 
Guiana, 8.- Brazil: Marajo, 3; Para district, 7; Maranhao (Miritiba, Tapera, 
Sao Luiz), 8; Barcellos, Rio Negro, 1; Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 207 

18: British Guiana (Potaro, 2; Georgetown, 3; unspecified, 1); 
Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 1); French Guiana (Saint-Laurent-du- 
Maroni, 1); Brazil (Anil, Maranhao, 3; Sao Bento, Maranhao, 1; 
Codo, Cocos, 1; Barra do Corda, Maranhao, 1; Utinga, Para, 1; 
Itacoatiara, 1; Manaos, 1; Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 1). 

Thraupis episcopus leucoptera (Sclater). 1 WHITE-EDGED 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra leucoptera (G. R. Gray, MS.) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 74, 

1862 New Granada, "Bogota" (nomen nudum). 
[ Tanagra episcopus} subsp. leucoptera Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, pp. 

154, 155, 1886 "Bogot4" (type in British Museum). 
Tanagra episcopus (not of Linnaeus) Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, 

p. 170, 1851 part, Nova Granada; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 

157, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 231, 1856 part, "Bogota"; idem, 

Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 74, 1862 part, spec, c, d, "Bogota"; Ihering, 

Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 356, 1907 part, var. leucoptera, "Bogota." 
Tanagra episcopus leucoplera Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

p. 1050, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota"). 
Thraupis episcopus leucoptera Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 607, 

1917 Quetame, Buenavista, and Barrigon, Colombia. 

Range. Eastern slope of the eastern Andes of Colombia (Que- 
tame; Buenavista; Barrigon). 
1: Colombia (Bogota, 1). 

Thraupis episcopus coelestis (Spix). BLUE-GRAY TANAGER. 

Tanagra coelestis Spix, Av. Nov. Spec. Bras., 2, p. 42, pi. 55, fig. 2, 1825 
part, descr. of male, Fonteboa, Rio SolimSes, Brazil (type in Munich 
Museum; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, pp. 
675, 676, 1906); Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 169, 1851 Brazil 
(crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 115, 1854 part, Quijos, Ecua- 
dor; idem, I.e., 24, p. 232, 1856 part, FontebSa and Quijos; idem, I.e., 26, 
p. 453, 1858 Gualaquiza, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 75, 
1862 part, spec, b, Gualaquiza; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1866, p. 180 part, Nauta, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 261 part, 
Nauta; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 485, 1884 part, Nauta; Taczan- 
owski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 81 Mapoto, Ecua- 
dor; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 155, 1886 part, spec, f-m, Peru 
(Iquitos) and Ecuador (Sarayacu, Monji, Gualaquiza, Rio Napo); Ber- 
lepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 98, 1889 FontebSa, Rio Solimdes, Brazil; 

1 Thraupis episcopus leucoptera (Sclater) is a connecting link between T. e. 
episcopus and T. e. coelestis. The humeral patch, in the adult male, has about the 
same extent as in the latter, but is more bluish, though less whitish than in 
episcopus; the markings to the greater upper wing coverts are also intermediate, 
forming narrow external edges of dingy whitish as in coelestis, though somewhat 
less conspicuous, and terminating in large, grayish (instead of white) apical 
spots. Size fully as large as T. e. major. Wing (male), 96-98; tail, 70-71. 

Material examined. Colombia: Quetame, 2; "Bogota," 10. 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Rio Napo, Ecuador; 
Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 17, 1899 
Gualaquiza, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 466 Archidona, Ecuador; 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 1905 Rio Jurua; Snethlage, Journ. 
Orn., 56, p. 10, 1908 Rio Purus (Cachoeira, Bom Lugar); Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1051, 1912 part, eastern Ecua- 
dor, Brazil, and northeastern Peru (Nauta, Iquitos); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 447, 1914 Rio Purus, Brazil. 

Tanagra episcopus (not of Linnaeus) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 208, 1870 
part, Borba, Rio Madeira. 

Tanagracelestis Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 121, 1837 Brazil (diag.). 

Tanagra episcopus coelestis Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 356, 1907 Rio 
Jurua, Brazil, and Iquitos, Peru; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 348, 1907 
Borba, Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, p. 274, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira. 

Tanagra ehrenreichi Reichenow, Orn. Monatsber., 23, p. 154, 1915 Kyuta- 
nahan, Rio Purus, Brazil (type in Berlin Museum examined); idem, 
Journ. Orn., 64, p. 155, 1916. 

Thraupis episcopus coelestis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 607, 
1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 672, 1926 
eastern Ecuador (Sabanilla, Zamora); Naumburg, I.e., 60, p. 372, 1930 
Rio Solimoes and Rio Madeira (Porto Velho, Calama). 

Range. Western Brazil, east to the Rio Solimoes (Manacapuru 
and Caviana) and the Rio Madeira (Calama, Porto Velho, Borba); 
northeastern Peru (north of the Maranon); eastern Ecuador; 
southeastern Colombia (La Morelia, Caqueta). 1 

2: Brazil (Porto Velho, Rio Madeira, 2). 

Thraupis episcopus caerulea Zimmer. 2 BLUISH TANAGER. 

1 Birds from eastern Ecuador and the north bank of the Maranon (Iquitos, 
Nauta) agree with a series of topotypes from the Solimoes, and specimens from 
the Rio Purus (ehrenreichi) are not different either, the characters given by 
Reichenow being those of the worn plumage. Adults from the Rio Madeira verge 
towards episcopus by having the apical spots to the greater upper wing coverts 
slightly more grayish. 

From Peru I have only seen specimens from the north bank of the Maranon, 
and suspect that all birds from south of that river will prove to be referable to 
T. e. caeruleus. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Manacapuru, 4; Caviana, 1; Sao 
Paulo de Olivenga, 1; Tonantins, 3; Fonteboa, 2; Calama, Rio Madeira, 2; Porto 
Velho, 1; Borba, Rio Madeira, 3; Sepatiny, Rio Purus, 1; Hyutanahan, Rio Purus, 
3. Peru: Pebas, 1; Nauta, 2; Iquitos, 4; Loretoyacu, 2. Ecuador: El Loreto, 2; 
Mapoto, 1; Sarayacu, 1. 

2 Thraupis episcopus caerulea Zimmer: Very close to T. e. coelestis, but colora- 
tion more bluish, and somewhat larger, approaching T. e. major in dimensions. 
Wing (males), 90-95, rarely 97; tail, 65-71, once 73. 

This is rather an unsatisfactory race, but cannot well be united to either 
T. e. coelestis or T. e. major. Though we have not seen any material from Xeberos, 
Chamicuros, and the Ucayali, there seems hardly any doubt as to these localities 
being referable to the present race, since specimens from Yurimaguas and Moyo- 
bamba are inseparable from the typical series. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Huayabamba, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 209 

Thraupis episcopus caeruleus Zimmer, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 94, 1929 
Vista Alegre, junction of Chinchao and Huallaga rivers, Dept. Huanuco, 
Peru (type in Field Museum); idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
17, p. 445, 1930 Vista Alegre and Chinchao, Peru. 

Tanagra coelestis (not of Spix) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1866, p. 180 part, upper Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Xeberos, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 261 part, lower and upper Ucayali, Xeberos, 
Yurimaguas, and Chamicuros, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1879, p. 227 
Tambillo; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 195 Callacate; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 13 
Yurimaguas and Huambo (eggs descr.); idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 485, 1884 
part, Xeberos, Ucayali, Yurimaguas, Chamicuros, Tambillo, Guajango, 
Callacate, Huayabamba, and Yurimaguas; Berlepso.h, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 
296, 1889 Tarapoto, Rio Huallaga; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 5, 1895 
Vina, Huamachuco, Rio Maranon; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1051, 1912 part, Peru (Xeberos, Ucayali, Yurimaguas, 
Chamicuros, Callacate, Huayabamba). 

Tanagra coelestis major (not of Berlepsch and Stolzmann) Menegaux, Rev. 
Franc.. d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 1911 Nuevo Loreto, Huallaga drainage; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1051, 1912 northern 
Peru (Tambillo, Guajango, Callacate, Guayabamba) (part). 

Thraupis coelestis major Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 460, 1918 Huanca- 
bamba and Tabaconas, northern Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of the northern parts of Peru, from the 
south bank of the Maranon south to Huanuco. 

23: Peru (Yurimaguas, 2; Hacienda Limon, east of Balsas, 2; 
Moyobamba, 12; Vista Alegre, 3; Chinchao, 4). 

Thraupis episcopus major (Berlepsch and Stolzmann). 1 
GREATER BLUE-GRAY TANAGER. 

Tanagra coelestis major Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 343 La Merced, Chanchamayo, and Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Dept. 
Junin, Peru (type, from La Merced, in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman 
and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 185, 1927); 
idem, Ornis, 13, pp. 81, 110, 1906 Santa Ana (Urubamba) and Huayna- 
pata (Marcapata), Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1051, 1912 part, central and southeastern Peru. 

Thraupis episcopus major Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 23, 1920 
Chaquimayo, Carabaya, Peru (crit.); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
117, p. 120, 1921 Santa Ana, Idma, Chauillay, and San Miguel Bridge, 
Urubamba, Peru. 

Tanagra coelestis (not of Spix) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, p. 115, 
1854 part, "Pontobamba," Peru; idem, I.e., 24, p. 232, 1856 part, 

1 Thraupis episcopus major (Berlepsch and Stolzmann) : Similar to T. e. 
coelestis, but larger, with less white on the rump and smaller white apical spots 
to the greater upper wing coverts. Wing (male), 95-99; tail, 72-76. 

Additional material examined. Peru: La Merced, Chanchamayo, 1; Santa 
Ana, Urubamba, 1; Occobamba, Cuzco, 1; Marcapata, 2; Huaynapata, Marca- 
pata, 1; Chaquimayo, Carabaya, 2. 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pintobamba [Dept. Cuzco], Peru; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 75, 
1862 part, spec, a, Peru (ex Tschudi); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata, Dept. Cuzco; Taczanowski, I.e., 
1874, p. 513 Paltaypampa, Dept. Junin; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1876, 
p. 16 Huiro and Potrero, Urubamba; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 485, 
1884 part, Paltaypampa, Cosnipata, Potrero, and Quebrada de San 
Gaban, Carabaya; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 155, 1886 part, 
spec, a, Peru (ex Tschudi). 

Tanagra episcopus (not of Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, 
p. 185 Cosnipata. 

(l)Tanagra episcopus leucoptera (not of Sclater) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, p. 81, 1889 Yungas, Bolivia. 

Range. Tropical (and Lower Subtropical) zone of the southern 
parts of Peru, north to Junin, and (?)adjoining section of Bolivia. 
3: Peru (San Ramon, Chanchamayo, 3). 

Thraupis episcopus nesophilus Riley. 1 TRINIDAD TANAGER. 

Tanagra sclateri (not Euphonia [ = Tanagra} sclateri Sundevall) Berlepsch, 

Ibis, (4), 4, p. 112, 1880 "Orinoco district or Trinidad" (type, from 

Trinidad, in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum, 

examined); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 173, 1884 Trinidad; 

Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 155, 1886 Trinidad; Berlepsch, 

Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1051, 1912 part, Trinidad. 
Thraupis episcopus nesophilus Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 25, p. 185, 1912 

new name for Tanagra sclateri Berlepsch. 
Tanagra sayaca (not of Linnaeus) Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 170, 

1851 part, Trinidad. 
Tanagra cana (not of Swainson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 232, 

1856 part, Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 82 Trinidad; Williams, Bull. 

Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 130, 1922 Maracas Valley and Palo Seco, 

Trinidad (eggs descr.). 
Tanagra glauca (notGracula glauca Sparrman) Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 293, 

1866 Trinidad. 
Tanagra cana sclateri Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 29, 1894 

Princestown; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 188, 1906 

Aripo. 
Tanagra episcopus sclateri Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 14, 1906 Trinidad 

(Caparo, Valencia, Chaguaramas, Pointe Gourde, Seelet); Cherrie, Sci. 

Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 358, 1908 Carenage and Aripo. 

Range. Island of Trinidad. 

1 Thraupis episcopus nesophilus Riley: Most nearly related to T. e. cana, 
but rump and outer margins of remiges and rectrices decidedly bluish; the humeral 
patch light violet blue suffused with whitish; the lower parts distinctly tinged 
with bluish. Dimensions the same. Wing (males), 88-96; tail, 64-68. 

In color of the humeral area this form is exactly intermediate between episcopus 
and cana. The type is identical with authentic Trinidad examples. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 18; Santa Cruz, 3; Caroni, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 211 

Thraupis episcopus berlepschi (Dalmas). 1 BERLEPSCH'S 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra berlepschi Dalmas, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 136, 1900 Tobago 

(type in coll. of R. de Dalmas, subsequently at Tring, now in the American 

Museum of Natural History, New York). 
Tanagra episcopus berlepschi Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 15 (in text), 1906 

Tobago (crit.). 
Tanagra sclateri berlepschi Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 

p. 1051, 1912 Tobago. 
Tanagra cana (not of Swainson) Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 332, 

1847 Tobago; Strickland, I.e., p. 332, 1847 part, Tobago (crit.); Sclater, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 232, 1856 part, Tobago; idem, Cat. Coll. 

Amer. Bds., p. 75, 1862 part, spec, d, e, Tobago; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 156, 1886 part, spec, k'-n', Tobago. 
Tanagra sclateri (not of Berlepsch) Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago. 

i Range. Island of Tobago. 
121: Tobago. 

Thraupis episcopus cana (Swainson). GRAY TANAGER. 

Tanagra cana Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 3, pi. 37, 1836 no locality indi- 
cated; "Venezuela" suggested by Berlepsch (Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1051, 1912), restricted to Caracas by Hellmayr (Arch. 
Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 185, 1924) (type presumably in the Swainson 
Collection, University Museum, Cambridge, England); 2 Strickland, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 332, 1847 part, "Bogota"; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 232, 
1856 part, Venezuela and "Bogota"; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 
75, 1862 part, spec, a-c, f, Venezuela, "Santa Marta," and "Bogota"; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 141 Turbo and Carta- 
gena, Colombia; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 325 Santander, Colombia; 

1 Thraupis episcopus berlepschi (Dalmas) : Similar to T. e. nesophilus, but 
much more bluish throughout; the interscapular region much darker, gobelin 
blue; the rump much brighter, almost Venetian blue; the humeral patch plain 
cornflower blue without any whitish admixture; the under parts more strongly 
tinged with bluish. Wing (male), 92-98; tail, 67-73. 

In the uniform blue humeral area the Tobago race more nearly approaches 
T. e. cana, but is much more bluish and darker throughout. 

Additional material examined. Tobago: Man o' War Bay, 21. 

2 Swainson's plate is not quite satisfactory, the humeral patch being too pale, 
though it might have been drawn from a female example taken in the Caracas 
region. In the "List of Plates" of the 1841 edition of the work T. cana is included 
under the "Birds of Brazil," in opposition to those of "Mexico," thus eliminating 
the possibility that a specimen of the Central American form (T. e. diaconus) 
served as model for the plate. No blue-shouldered representative of T. episcopus 
occurs anywhere in Brazil, but since such typically Venezuelan species as Aglaia 
cyanoptera and Thryothorus rutilans also figure among his "Birds of Brazil," 
too much importance should not be placed on this assertion. Swainson having 
described several other birds from the Caracas region, it seems appropriate to 
use the specific term cana in the sense of previous authors, until the type, if still 
extant, has been critically studied. 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 500 Medellin, Co- 
lombia (eggs descr.); Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 120 Santa 
Marta; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 291, 1884 Bucaramanga, Co- 
lombia (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 156, 1886 part, spec, 
x-i', w', Colombia (Santa Marta, Medellin, "Bogota," Choco Bay) and 
Venezuela (San Esteban); Robinson, Flying Trip Trop., p. 161, 
1895 Barranquilla to Honda and Guaduas, Colombia; Bangs, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 141, 1898 "Santa Marta"; Salvadori and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 4, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Darien; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 169, 1900 Bonda and Cacagualito, 
Colombia; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 20, 1902 Orinoco 
River (Ciudad Bolivar, Altagracia, Quiribana de Caicara, Caicara) and 
Caura (La Union), Venezuela; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 55, 1902 part, Colombia and Venezuela; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
21, p. 292, 1905 Bonda, Masinga [Vieja], and Mamatoco, Colombia (nest 
and eggs descr.); Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 103, 1909 Guanoco and 
Guarapiche, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1051, 1912 part, Venezuela and Colombia; Piguet, 
Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 Titiribi, Cauca, Colombia. 

Thraupis co.no. Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 29, 1851 Venezuela; Finsch, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 580 "Trinidad," errore. 

Thraupis cana cana Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 177, 1916 
upper Orinoco, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 607, 
1917 part, Dabeiba, Juntas de Tamana, Novita, Noanama, San Jose, 
Caldas, Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Puerto Valdivia, La Frijolera, Rio Frio, 
Cali, Guengtie, Popayan, Miraflores, Barro Blanco, near San Agustin, 
Chicoral, Andalucia, Honda, Tenasuca, El Alto de La Paz, and Calamar, 
Colombia; Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 228, 1922 
Mount Sapo, Darien; Griscom, I.e., 69, p. 189, 1929 El Tigre (Rio Cupe) 
and Cana, Darien; idem, I.e., 72, p. 370, 1932 Perme and Obaldia, 
eastern Panama. 

Thraupis episcopus cana Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 492, 
1922 La Concepcion, Tucurinca, Bonda, La Tigrera, Mamatoco, Minca, 
Fundacion, Don Diego, Dibulla, and Santa Marta, Colombia; Hellmayr, 
Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 185, 1924 Galipan and Loma Redonda, 
Caracas region, Venezuela (crit., variation); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 71, p. 418, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena. 

Tanagra sayaca (not of Linnaeus) Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 170, 
1851 part, Venezuela. 

Tanagra diaconus (not of Lesson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 233, 
1856 part, Santa Marta; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 75, 1862 
part, spec, c, b, "New Granada." 

Tanagra cana sclateri (not of Berlepsch) Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 
Cumanacoa and San Antonio [Sucre], Venezuela. 

Thraupis episcopus sclateri Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 210, 
1913 Cariaquito and Guinipa Village, Venezuela. 

Thraupis episcopus nesophilus (not of Riley) Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 174, 1916 Orinoco Valley (nest and eggs descr.). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 213 

Range. Venezuela (south to the Orinoco River and its tribu- 
taries), Colombia (excepting the extreme southwestern section), and 
eastern Panama (Darien). 1 

54: Panama (Colon, 18); Colombia (Calamar, Bolivar, 1; 
Cali, Cauca Valley, 1 ; El Guayabal, ten miles north of San Jose" de 
Cucuta, Santander, 2; Tucurinca, Santa Marta, 1; Bogota, 4); Vene- 
zuela (Caracas, 8; Catatumbo, 1; Encontrados, Zulia, 2; Macuto, 
Caracas, 3; Maracay, Aragua, 13). 

"Thraupis episcopus quaesita Bangs and Noble. 2 SOUTHERN 
GRAY TANAGER. 

Thraupis cana quaesita Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 460, 1918 Sullana, 
Dept. Piura, Peru (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 672, 1926 western 
Ecuador (many localities between Esmeraldas and Cebollal) and north- 
western Peru (Pilares, Paletillas, Samata, Tumbez, Sullana, Palambla). 

Tanagra cana (not of Swainson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 139, 
1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, pp. 274, 292, 1860 Babahoyo 
and Esmeraldas, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 75, 1862 
part, spec, g-k, Pallatanga and Babahoyo; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 236, 1869 Puna Island, Ecuador; Berlepsch and 

1 Birds from Caracas, with which those from Me>ida and eastern Colombia 
(Santa Marta and "Bogota") agree, are very constant in their characters, the 
lesser upper wing coverts being between smalt blue and cornflower blue. The 
inhabitants of northeastern Venezuela (Sucre) and the Orinoco basin are hard 
to place, being more or less intermediate to the Trinidad form (T. e. nesophilus), 
a fact which accounts for the doubts that have been cast on the validity of the 
insular race. However, when comparing twenty skins from Trinidad with an 
excellent series from eastern Venezuela, we notice that the latter are invariably 
of a more greenish general coloration and lack the bluish tone on rump and under 
parts. The humeral patch varies considerably, being either plain deep blue as 
in Caracas birds or violaceous suffused with whitish as in nesophiliis. It appears, 
therefore, preferable to restrict nesophilus to Trinidad, while the birds from Sucre 
and the Orinoco basin, many of which are quite inseparable from true cana 
(typified by Caracas specimens), may be properly designated by the formula 
nesophilus cana. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, 3; inland 
of Cumana (Campos Alegre, Celci Puede, Santa Ana, Quebrada Secca), 11; Ciu- 
dad Bolivar, Rio Orinoco, 6; La Union, Rio Caura, 1; Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, 4; 
Caicara, 5; Quiribana de Caicara, 3; Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 8; Loma Redonda, 
Caracas, 8; San Esteban, 3; Merida, 12. Colombia: Santa Marta, 5; Barranquilla, 4; 
"Bogota," 12; Bucaramanga, 5; Rio Lima, Cauca, 4. Darien: Punta de Sabana, 4. 

5 Thraupis episcopus quaesita Bangs and Noble: Very close to T. e. cana, but 
somewhat darker throughout, especially below, and the lesser upper wing coverts 
of a deeper blue. 

Although I do not find the differences so strongly marked as claimed by the 
describers, the race is recognizable in adequate series. Two birds from Tumaco 
agree well with a series from western Ecuador and Peru. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Tumaco, 2. Ecuador: San Javier, 
2; Ventana, 1 ; Cayandeled, 3; Chimbo, 2; Guayaquil, 3; Zaruma, 1; Babahoyo, 1. 
Peru: Piura, 7. 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 545 Guayaquil and 
Chimbo, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1884, p. 290 Cayandeled, Ecuador; idem, 
I.e., 1885, p. 81 Yaguachi, Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 486, 
1884 Peru (Tumbez, Morrope, Paucal); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 156, 1886 part, spec, o'-v', Ecuador (Babahoyo, Pallatanga, 
"Quito," Puna Island, "Loja"); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 482, 1898 
Cachavi and Chimbo, Ecuador; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 17, 1899 Vinces, Balzar, and Rio Peripa, Ecuador; 
Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 466 Santo Domingo and Guanacillo, Ecuador; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 55, 1902 part, western 
Ecuador and^ northern Peru; MSnegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. 
Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 101, 1911 Santo Domingo, Ecuador; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1051, 1912 part, western 
Ecuador and northwestern Peru; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, 
No. 25, p. 85, 1922 Gualea, Ecuador. 

Thraupis cana cana Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 607, 1917 
part, Tumaco and Barbacoas, Colombia. 

Tanagra cyanoptera (not of Vieillot) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1877, p. 320 Tumbez, Peru. 

Range. Southwestern Colombia (south of the Rio Patia), 
western Ecuador, and northwestern Peru west of the Andes, south 
to Paucal. 

4: Ecuador (Milagro, Guayas, 1; Puente de Chimbo, 3). 

Thraupis episcopus diaconus (Lesson). 1 NORTHERN GRAY 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra (Aglaia) diaconus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 175, 1842 Realejo, 
Nicaragua (type in coll. of R. P. Lesson, present location unknown, 
possibly in the Rochefort Museum). 

Tanagra diaconus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 142, 1856 David, 
Chiriqui; idem, I.e., p. 233, 1856 part, Mexico (Cordoba), Guatemala, 
Nicaragua (Realejo), and Chiriqui; idem, I.e., p. 303, 1856 Cordoba, 
Vera Cruz; Moore, I.e., 27, p. 59, 1859 Omoa (Honduras), Peten (Guate- 
mala), and Belize (British Honduras); Sclater, I.e., p. 364, 1859 vicinity 
of Jalapa; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 16 Guatemala; idem, Ibis, 
1860, p. 33 Duenas, Guatemala; Taylor, Ibis, 1860, p. Ill Honduras; 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 75, 1862 part, spec, c-e, Honduras and 
Mexico; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 173 "vicinity of Mexico 
City"; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1864, p. 350 Isthmus of Panama; Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 171 San Jose, Costa Rica; Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, pp. 178, 180, 1865 David, Chiriqui, and 

1 A very unsatisfactory race. If recognized at all, the best course seems 
to be to refer to diaconus all the gray tanagers from Mexico south to the Panama 
Canal Zone, although the inhabitants of southern Central America are by no 
means typical, but variously intermediate to cana. Birds from San Miguel Island 
I am unable to separate. 

From all parts of the range excepting southern Mexico 124 specimens have 
been examined in this connection. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS^HELLMAYR 215 

Greytown, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 9, p. 99, 1868 Costa Rica (San Jose, 
Angostura); Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H. f 1, p. 550, 1869 hot 
region of Vera Cruz; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 298, 1869 Costa 
Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 138 Santa F6, Veragua, 
and David, Chiriqui; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 187 Calove'vora and Chitra, 
Veraguas; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 836 [San Pedro], Honduras; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 316 Chontales, Nicaragua. 

Tanagra episcopus (not of Linnaeus) Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, 
p. 116, 1837 Guatemala (diag.). 

Tanagra cana (not of Swainson) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 
279, 1861 Isthmus of Panama; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 54 San Jos6, Costa Rica; idem, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 42, 
1878 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 277, 1883 part, Mexico to Panama (excl. South American localities 
and references); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 156, 1886 part, 
spec, a-w, Mexico to Panama; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, pp. 
580, 585, 1887 Honduras (Truxillo and Segovia River); Zeledon, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Costa Rica (Alaju&a, San Jose, 
Cartago, Santa Maria de Dota), and Panama; Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 25, 1892 
San Jos6, Costa Rica; idem, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 4, p. 137, 1893 Boruca and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica; Richmond, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 488, 1893 Greytown and Rio Escondido, 
Nicaragua; Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 435 Miravalles, Costa Rica; Lantz, 
Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 Palin, Guatemala; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 55, 1902 part, southern Mexico to 
Panama; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 155, 1903 Ceiba, Hon- 
duras; Thayer and Bangs, I.e., 46, p. 221, 1906 savanna of Panama; 
Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 309, 1907 Boruca, Costa Rica; Dearborn, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 121, 1907 Guatemala (Los Amates, Maza- 
tenango, San Jose); Ferry, I.e., p. 278, 1910 Costa Rica (Guayabo, 
Port Limon). 

Thraupis cana cana Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 857, 1910 Costa 
Rica (habits); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 278, 1918 Toro 
Point and Gatun, Panama. 

Thraupis cana Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 322, 1924 Panama (Gatun, Mindi, New 
Culebra, Farfan). 

Tanagra cana diaconus Ridgway and Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, 
p. 391, 1882 La Palma, Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica; Ridgway, I.e., 5, p. 
499, 1883 San Jos6, Costa Rica; Nutting, I.e., 6, p. 399, 1884 Los 
Sabalos, Nicaragua; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 30, 1900 
Loma del Leon, Panama; idem, Auk, 18, p. 32, 1901 San Miguel Island, 
Panama; idem, Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divala and David, Panama; idem, 
Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 65, 1902 Boquete and Bogaba, Chiriquf; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1052, 1136, 1912 
southern Mexico to Panama and San Miguel Island (crit.); Peters, Auk, 
30, p. 379, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo, Mexico; Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 34, 1909 Panama (Pacora) and Nicaragua (San Juan 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

del Norte); idem, I.e., 13, No. 4, p. 51, 1920 Saboga and Trapiche Islands, 
Pearl Archipelago (crit.). 

Thraupis diaconus Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 330, 1860 Costa Rica 
(crit.). 

Tanagra cana dilucida Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 
157, Sept., 1905 San Miguel Island, Bay of Panama (type in coll. of 
E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 405, 1930). 

Thraupis cana diaconus Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 
463, 1928 Almirante, Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 
471, 1929 Tela, Honduras; idem, I.e., 71, p. 341, 1931 Panama (Chan- 
guinola, Almirante, Isla Grande, Crimacola); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 376, 1932 Guatemala (Chimoxan, Finca Chama, Chipoc, 
Puebla, San Antonio, Panajachel, San Lucas, Hacienda California, Finca 
El Cipres, Pantaleon) (crit.); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 
244, 1932 Eden, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 338, 1932 Cantarranas, 
Honduras. 

Range. Southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz (Jalapa, 
Cordoba, Orizaba), Tabasco (Teapa), and Quintana Roo (Camp 
Mengel), and southwards through Central America to the Isthmus 
of Panama and the Pearl Islands. 

25: Mexico (Teapa, Tabasco, 1); Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal, 
1; Mazatenango, 2; San Jose", 1); Nicaragua (San Emilio, 1; San 
Geronimo, 1); Costa Rica (Guayabo, 5; Port Limon, 8; Rio 
Matina, 1; San Jose", 2; Volcan de Irazu, 1; unspecified, 1). 

Thraupis cyanoptera (Vieillot). 1 BLUE-WINGED TANAGER. 

Saltator cyanopterus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e'd., 14, p. 104, 
1817 "au Br&il"; idem, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., livr. 91, p. 790, 1822 
Brazil (type stated to be in Paris Museum). 2 

1 Thraupis cyanoptera (Vieillot), a very distinct species, cannot by any means 
be confused with T. sayaca, from which it differs readily in all plumages by larger 
size; considerably thicker and stouter bill; dark glaucous gray upper parts; calamine 
blue edges to greater wing coverts, wing and tail feathers; pale glaucous blue breast 
and sides (more greenish on the flanks); and especially by the extensive, bright 
cornflower blue humeral patch. The female merely differs by smaller, as well 
as somewhat duller shoulder patch, while young birds have the sides and flanks 
strongly washed with olivaceous (light hellebore green). 

This species is wholly confined to the wooded coast region of southeastern 
Brazil. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Victoria, Espirito Santo, 2; Iguape, Sao 
Paulo, 2; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 8; Blumenau, Santa Catharina, 12; Taquara, 
Rio Grande do Sul, 6. 

2 1 could not find the type in the French National Collection, but the descrip- 
tion ("une grande marque d'un bleu d'putremer en forme d'epaulette" on the 
wing) is quite unmistakable. The original specimen probably came from the 
vicinity of Rio de Janeiro. Mrs. Naumburg (Auk, 41, p. 112, 1924) suggests 
Nova Friburgo as type locality. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 217 

Tanagra argentata G. R. Gray, Genera Eds., 2, p. 364, July, 1844 based on 
Tanagra episcopus (not of Linnaeus) Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 3, pi. 
39, 1836; Brazil. 1 

Tanagra sayaca Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 484, 1830 Brazil (part, 
descr. of male); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 176, 1856 
Brazil (part, descr. of male). 

Thraupis cyanoptera Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 29, 1851 Rio Grande [do 
Sul], Brazil (synon.); idem, Journ. Orn., 14, pp. 305, 306, 1866 (crit.); 
Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 362, 1914 Buenos Aires; Naumburg, 
Auk, 41, p. 112, 1924 Therezopolis and Nova Friburgo, Rio (crit.); 
Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 321, 1928 Monte Serrat, Itatiaya. 

Thraupis cyanopterus Bertoni, El Hornero, 3, p. 397, 1926 Puerto Bertoni, 
Alto Parana, Paraguay. 

Tanagra cyanoptera Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 170, 1851 Brazil, 
Paraguay, and Rio Grande [do Sul] (diag.); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. 
Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 241 (occurrence in Minas Geraes denied); 
Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 303 part, south of Sao Paulo; Berlepsch, Journ. 
Orn., 21, p. 240, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina (crit., plumages); 
idem and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 119, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande 
do Sul (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 157, 1886 part, 
southern Brazil; 2 Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 1899 
Rio Grande do Sul; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 149, 1899 Iguape, 
Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 357, 1907 Sao Paulo (Ubatuba, Santos, Alto da Serra) 
and Rio Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1052, 1912 coast region of southeastern Brazil, 
from Espirito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul; Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. 
Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 487, 499, 1912 Fernandes Pinheiro, Parana; 
Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 657, 1924 Buenos Aires. 

Range. Wooded coast region of southeastern Brazil, from 
Espirito Santo (Braco do Sul, near Victoria) and Rio de Janeiro 
(Nova Friburgo ; Therezopolis, Organ Mountains) to Rio Grande 
do Sul, west through Parana to eastern Paraguay (Alto Parana); 
(?)accidental near Buenos Aires. 3 

1 Tanagra inornata Swainson (Orn. Draw., Part 4, pi. 40, 1836?) may have 
been based on an immature bird of the present species. The general coloration, 
notably the greenish flanks, speak for this identification, while the greenish 
(instead of pale cerulean blue) lesser wing coverts rather point to T. 8. sayaca. 
Without examination of the type specimen, which possibly still exists in the 
Swainson Collection at Cambridge, England, it will be difficult to properly allocate 
the name. 

2 The author confused the species with T. s. sayaca and T. s. obscura. While- 
all the specimens from Argentina and Bolivia (spec, n-w) pertain to the latter, 
it has to be ascertained by reexamination of the material, which ones of the 
Brazilian birds listed by Sclater are referable to T. cyanoptera. 

* Dabbene mentions a specimen taken in the vicinity of Buenos Aires as 
being in the collections of the Museo Nacional, possibly an escaped cage-bird. 
All records of T. cyanoptera from the western parts of Argentina and Bolivia are 
due to confusion with T. sayaca obscura. 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

6: Brazil (Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 2; Santa Catharina, 
Joinville, 4). 

*Thraupis sayaca glaucocolpa Cabanis. 1 GLAUCOUS TANAGER. 

Thraupis glaucocolpa Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 28, Oct., 1851 "Caracas," 
Venezuela (type in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, Hal- 
berstadt); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 608, 1917 La Playa, 
Colombia; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 491, 1922 
Dibulla, Arroyo de Arenas, and Fonseca, Santa Marta region, Colombia. 

Tanagra cyanilia Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 383, 1854 
Venezuela (type in coll. of E. and J. Verreaux, now in British Museum); 
idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 62, 1854 (reprint). 

Tanagra glaucocolpa Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 159, 1886 Venezuela; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 51, 1892 Carupano, Sucre, Vene- 
zuela; Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 176, 1901 
La Guayra, Venezuela; Clark, Auk, 19, p. 266, 1902 El Valle, Margarita 
Island; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 249, 254, 1909 
Margarita Island; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1053, 1912 Venezuela (Puerto Cabello) and Colombia (Barranquilla). 

Tanagra glaucocalpa Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 678, 1896 El 
Valle, Margarita Island; Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 568 Margarita Island. 

Tanagra cana(1) (not of Swainson) Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 695, 
1896 La Guaira, Venezuela. 

Range. Tropical zone of the north coast of Venezuela, east 
to the Paria Peninsula and Margarita Island, and Colombia, west 
to the mouth of the Rio Magdalena (La Playa; Barranquilla). 

14: Venezuela (Cumana, 2; Margarita Island, 7; Macuto, Caracas, 
2; Maracaibo, 1; Rio Aurare, Zulia, 2). 

*Thraupis sayaca sayaca (Linneaus). SAYACA TANAGER. 

Tanagra sayaca Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 316, 1766 based on 
"Sayacu" Marcgrave (Hist. Nat. Brasil., p. 193) and Edwards (Glean. 
Nat. Hist., 3, p. 293, pi. 351), Brazil; 2 Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), 
p. 484, 1830 southeastern Brazil (part, descr. of female); Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 176, 1856 Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes 
(part, descr. of female); idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 Parana; idem, 
Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 479, 1861 Parana; Euler, Journ. Orn., 15, p. 
410, 1867 Cantagallo (nest and eggs); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 208, 

1 Thraupis sayaca glaucocolpa Cabanis: Similar to T. s. sayaca, but slightly 
smaller; breast and sides strongly washed with light dull glaucous blue (greenish 
glaucous blue in females) ; external margins to remiges paler, deep bluish glaucous 
rather than glaucous blue; back in the male sex brighter greenish. 

Specimens from Margarita Island agree with others from the Venezuelan 
mainland and Barranquilla. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Carupano, 2; San Felix, near 
Cumana, 10; Puerto Cabello, 1. Colombia: Barranquilla, 2. 

2 Pernambuco suggested as type locality by Mrs. Naumburg (Auk, 41, p. 
Ill, 1924). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 219 

1870 Rio de Janeiro, Sapitiba, Ypanema, ItararS, Rio Parana, Curytiba, 
Abrantes, Cuyaba, and Engenho do Gama, Brazil; Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 430 Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa and 
Corrego Rico, near Paracatu); Doering, Per. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 
Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 332 
Pernambuco and Parahyba; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, 
p. 119, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 158, 1886 Ceara, Pernambuco, Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 6, 1887 LambarS, Paraguay; Sclater and 
Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 39, 1888 Argentina (part); Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 3, p. 354, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Boucard and Ber- 
lepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 Porto Real, Rio; Kerr, Ibis, 
1892, p. 124 Fortln Nueve, Paraguay; Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
10, No. 208, p. 4, 1895 Paraguay (Ajos, Villa Rica) and Matto Grosso 
(Corumba); idem, I.e., 15, p. 378, p. 4, 1900 Urucum, Matto Grosso; 
Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 1899 Rio Grande do 
Sul (Mundo Novo, Pedras Brancas); idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 149, 
1899 Sao Paulo (Piquete, Sao Sebastiao); idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 
Cantagallo; Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 223 Paraguay (Villa Concepcion and 
lower Pilcomayo); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 40 Bahia; Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 357, 1907 Sao Paulo (Piquete, Campos de Jordao, Santos, 
ItararS, Sao Sebastiao, Bebedouro, Botucatu), Minas Geraes (Vargem 
Alegre, Marianna), and Espirito Santo; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, (3), 11, p. 376, 1910 part, Buenos Aires and Entre Rfos; Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 85, 1910 Bahia 
(Boca da Ipueiro, Rio Grande, and Fazenda de Santo Antonio, Rio Preto) ; 
Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 625 Paraguay (Sapucay and Ybitimi; nest and eggs); 
Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 92 part, Entre Rios (Goya, Santa Elena), Paraguay 
(Monte Alto, Cabo Emma, Puerto Maria), and Buenos Aires (Aj6); Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1052, 1912 part, Brazil, 
Paraguay, and Uruguay; Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 10, p. 7, 1919 
Villa Lutetia, Misiones; Lima, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 101, 1920 
Ilheos to Belmonte, Bahia; idem and Pinto da Fonseca, I.e., 13, p. 493, 
1923 Ilha dos Alcatrazes, Sao Paulo; Miranda Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. 
Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 254, 1923 Monte Serrat, Itatiaya; Velho, I.e., p. 
263, 1923 same locality; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, 
No. 6, p. 41, 1926 Ceara. 

Tanagra sayaca sayaca Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 171, 1909 
Chaco (Ocampo) and Buenos Aires (eggs descr.). 

Thraupis sayaca Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 28, 1851 Brazil; idem, Journ. 
Orn., 14, p. 305, 1866 (crit.); idem, I.e., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, 
Rio; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay; Serie and Smyth, 
I.e., 3, p. 52, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 171, 1923 
Campana and San Isidro, Buenos Aires; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 240, 
1923 part, spec. No. 1, Corrientes; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. 
Hist. Nat., 5, p. 192, 1926 Fazenda Ferreira, Parana; Holt, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 57, p. 321, 1928 Monte Serrat, Serra do Itatiaya. 

Thraupis sayaca sayaca Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 
23, p. 355, 1912 Villa Rica, Paraguay; idem, El Hornero, 1, p. 243, 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1919 Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. 
for 1922-23, p. 657, 1924 Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, etc.; Naumburg, 
Auk, 41, p. Ill, 1924 (range, crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, 
p. 373, 1930 Matto Grosso; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 281, 1929 Maranhao (Barra do Corda, Sao Francisco), Piauhy 
(Ibiapaba, Arara), and Ceara (Varzea Formosa, Serra de Baturite). 

Tanagra prelatus Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 462, 1831 Brazil (part, descr. of 
male; type, collected by Delalande in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, 
examined in Paris Museum). 

Tanagra swainsoni G. R. Gray, Genera Bds., 2, p. 363, July, 1844 based on 
Tanagra caelestes Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 4, pi. 41, 1836(?); Brazil. 

Tanagra virens (notLoxia virens Linnaeus) Strickland, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
20, p. 392, 1847 Brazil (diag.). 

Tanagra cyanoptera (not of Vieillot) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 139 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Hudson, I.e., 1870, p. 114 Buenos 
Aires; Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 303 Sao Paulo (in part); Durnford, Ibis, 
1878, p. 59 Buenos Aires; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 91, 1883 
Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rios; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 157, 1886 part, spec. 1, m, q-s, Uruguay, Misiones, and Buenos Aires; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, (3), 11, p. 375, 1910 Chaco 
(Mocovi) and Buenos Aires. 

Thraupis sayaca obscura (not of Naumburg) Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
133, p. 393, 1926 Chaco (Resistencia, Las Palmas), Formosa (Formosa), 
and Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco) (crit.); Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, 
p. 33, 1927 Pueblo Brugo, Entre Rios; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. 
Gran Chaco Exp., Vo'gel, p. 270, 1930 part, Formosa (San Jose, Tapi- 
kiole, Lapango, Yunca Viejo, Mission Taacagle). 

Range. Eastern and southern Brazil, from Ceara and interior 
of Maranhao and Piauhy to Matto Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul; 
Uruguay; Paraguay; eastern Argentina, Chaco to Buenos Aires. 

46: Brazil (Barra do Corda, Maranhao, 1; Sao Francisco, Maran- 
hao, 1; Arara, Piauhy, 1; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 2; Serra de Baturite", 
Ceara, 3 ; Varzea Formosa, Ceara, 3 ; Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, 
Bahia, 2; Rio de Peixe, near Queimadas, Bahia, 1; Santo Amaro, 
Bahia, 4; Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 5; Bauru, Sao Paulo, 2; 
Joinville, Santa Catharina, 7; Veadeiros, Goyaz, 3; Chapada, Matto 
Grosso, 4; Piraputanga, Matto Grosso, 1; Urucum de Corumba, 
Matto Grosso, 3); Argentina (Eldorado, Misiones, 1; Caraguatay, 
Misiones, 2). 

Thraupis sayaca obscura Naumburg. 1 WESTERN SAYACA 
TANAGER. 

1 Thraupis sayaca obscura Naumburg: Similar to T. s. sayaca, but on average 
slightly darker above and below with the lesser wing coverts and outer margins 
of the remiges darker greenish blue. 

I am not impressed with the propriety of recognizing this form. When 
comparing some years ago the original series from Bolivia and Tucuman in the 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 221 

Thraupis sayaca obscura Naumburg, Auk, 41, p. Ill, 1924 Parotani, Dept. 
Cochabamba, Bolivia (type in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 227, 1927 
Tucuman (Concepci6n, Rio de Gastone); Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. 
Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 270, 1930 part, Bolivia (Villa Montes 
and Fortin Esteros, Tarija; La Crecencia, Santa Cruz; Cuevo, Chuquisaca). 

Aglaia episcopus (not Tanagra episcopus Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 33, 1837 Yungas and Cochabamba, 
Bolivia. 

Tanagra episcopus d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 274, 1839 part, 
Bolivia (Cochabamba, Valle Grande, Yungas). 

Tanagra sayaca (not of Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 600 Bolivia (Cochabamba, Valle Grande, Yungas, Sorata); 
Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 39, 1888 Argentina (part); Stempel- 
mann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 
Cordoba; Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 91, 1891 Cordoba; Salvadori, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 6, 1897 Jujuy (San Lorenzo), 
Salta (Campo Santo), and Bolivia (Aguairenda, Caiza); Lillo, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 175, 1902 Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La 
Plata, 11, p. 257, 1904 Oran, Salta; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 215, 1904 Santa 
Ana and Lules, Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 41, 
1905 Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, (3), 11, p. 376, 
1910 part, Cordoba, Tucuman, Salta, and Jujuy; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1052, 1912 part, western Argentina 
(Oran, Salta) and Bolivia. 

American Museum with some forty Brazilian and Paraguayan specimens, the 
western birds appeared to me somewhat larger and darker, but additional material 
since examined tends to lessen the constancy of these divergencies though it 
must be admitted that Brazilian examples never attain the maximum measure- 
ments of the Bolivian ones. However, the inhabitants of western Argentina 
(Tucuman) are already smaller and hardly differ in dimensions from typical 
sayaca. While Mrs. Naumburg extends the range of T. s. obscura as far south 
as Buenos Aires, it seems to me that, if recognized at all, it should be restricted 
to Bolivia and the adjacent parts of western Argentina. Birds from Corrientes 
and Buenos Aires I am unable to separate from others taken in various parts of 
Brazil. The allocation of the Sayaca Tanagers found in the Argentine Chaco is 
very difficult. They are scarcely larger than typical sayaca, but frequently 
quite as dark as Bolivian birds. It is really a matter of personal preference whether 
to refer them to one rather than the other of the two races. The question requires 
renewed study with much more comprehensive material than is at present available. 
Additional material examined. T. s. sayaca. Brazil: Bahia, 12; Victoria, 
Espirito Santo, 1 ; Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya, Goy az, 1 ; La Raiz, Organ Mountains, 
Rio de Janeiro, 1; Ypanema, Sap Paulo, 12; Rio Parana, Sao Paulo, 1; Sao Ber- 
nardo, Sao Paulo, 1; Agua Suja, near Bagagem, Minas Geraes, 2; Curytiba, 
Parana, 1; Matto Grosso (Chapada, CuyabI, Urucum, Engenho do Gama), 20; 
Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, 10. Paraguay: Bernalcue', 3; Trinidad, 1; Fort 
Wheeler, 2. Argentina: Corrientes, 1; Puerto Segundo, Misiones, 1; Santa Elena, 
Entre Rios, 2; Buenos Aires, 3; Formosa (San Jose", Tapikiole', Lapango, etc.), 8. 
T. s. obscura. Bolivia: Cochabamba, 2; Parotani, 3; Tujma, 3; Vinto, 1; Apolo- 
bamba, La Paz, 2; Chilon, Santa Cruz, 1; Vermejo, Santa Cruz, 1; La Crecencia, 
Santa Cruz, 2; Cuevo, Chuquisaca, 1; Villa Montes, Tarija, 3; Fortin Esteros, 
Tarija, 1. Argentina: San Pablo, Tucuman, 3; Tan Trail, Tucuman, 1; Sarmiento, 
Tucuman, 1; Santa Ana, Tucuman, 2. 



222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 



Thraupis sayaca Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 240, 1923 part, spec. Nos. 2, 3, 

Cochabamba, Bolivia. 
Tanagra cyanoptera (not Vieillot) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 157, 

1886 part, spec, n-p, t-w, Oran (Salta) and Bolivia (Sorata); Allen, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 82, 1889 Yungas, Bolivia; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, 

p. 471 Bolivian Chaco. 

Range. Bolivia and western Argentina south to Cordoba. 
26: Bolivia (Parotani, Cochabamba, 6); Argentina (Conception, 
Tucuman, 19; Los Vasquez, Tucuman, 1). 

*Thraupis ornata (Sparrman). ARCHBISHOP TANAGER. 

Tanagra ornata Sparrman, Mus. Carls., fasc. 4, pi. 95, 1789 "in India 
Orientali," errore, Rio de Janeiro substituted (by Berlepsch, 1912) as type 
locality (type in Museum Carlson); Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 4, pi. 42, 
1836(?) Brazil; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 238, 1850 
"Peru," errore; idem, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 170, 1851 Brazil (part, 
descr. of "male" 1 ) ; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 174, 1856 
Bahia "north to Guyana"; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 234, 
1856 southeastern Brazil and "British Guiana (Schomburgk)"; Sunde- 
vall, Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 2, No. 3, p. 14, 1857 (crit.); Sclater, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 76, 1862 Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 209, 1870 
Rio de Janeiro (Corcovado and As Araras) and Sao Paulo (Ypanema); 
Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 431 Minas 
Geraes (Lagoa Santa, Sete Lagoas); Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 303 Sao 
Paulo; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 242, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catha- 
rina; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 161, 1886 Rio de Janeiro (Nova 
Friburgo), Sao Paulo, "Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul," and "Rio Claro, 
Goyaz"; Boucard and Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 
Porto Real, Rio; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 150, 1899 Sao Paulo 
(Sao Sebastiao, Iguape); idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova 
Friburgo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 358, 1907 Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, 
Campos de Jordao, Santos, Alto da Serra, Sao Sebastiao), Minas Geraes 
(Vargem Alegre), and Espirito Santo; Miranda-Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. 
Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 13, p. 186, 1905 Monte Serrat, Serra do Itatiaya; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1054, 1912 Bahia to 
Santa Catharina and "Goyaz (Rio Claro)"; Miranda-Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. 
Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 254, 1923 Monte Serrat, Itatiaya. 

Thraupis ornata Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 28, 1851 Brazil; idem, Journ. 
Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 57, p. 321, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya. 

Tanagra archiepiscopus Desmarest, Hist. Nat. Tang., livr. 7, pis. 17, 18, 1806 
"Pe'rou (coll. Dombey)" = vicinity of Rio de Janeiro 2 (types in Paris 
Museum); Spix, Av. Bras. Spec. Nov., 2, p. 42, pi. 55, fig. 1, 1825 Rio de 
Janeiro (cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 
676, 1906); Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 481, 1830 Nazareth das 

1 The description of the female refers to T. palmarum. 

2 Cf. footnote on page 156. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 223 

Farinhas, Rio Jagoaripa, Bahia; Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 3, p. 670, 1848 [ = 1849] "British Guiana." 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Bahia, 
Espirito Santo, and Minas Geraes south to Santa Catharina. 1 

2: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 1; unspecified, 1). 
Thraupis abbas (Lichtenstein). ABBOT TANAGER. 

Tanagra abbas Lichtenstein, Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 
Sept., 1830 Mexico (type, from Oaxaca, in Berlin Museum; cf. van 
Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 419, 1934) [Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 
11, p. 57, 1863 (reprint)]; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 235, 1856 
Mexico (Cordoba, Orizaba), Guatemala, and Honduras; idem, I.e., 24, 
p. 303, 1856 Cordoba, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 26, p. 358, 1858 Lake of 
Yojoa, Honduras; idem, I.e., 27, pp. 364, 378, 1859 Jalapa (Vera Cruz), 
Teotalcingo and Villa Alta (Oaxaca), Mexico; idem, I.e., 1864, p. 173 
"Vicinity of Mexico City"; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 550, 
1869 Vera Cruz up to Orizaba; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 836 San Pedro, Honduras; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 
19, 1876 Guichicovi, Oaxaca; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, 
p. 43, 1878 Guatemala; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 189, 1882 Guate- 
mala; Salvin andGodman.Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 278, 1883 Mexico 
to Honduras; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 162, 1886 Mexico (Or- 
izaba, Jalapa), British Honduras (Belize), Guatemala (Cahabon, Coban, 
Choctum, Chisec, Duenas, Retalhuleu), and Honduras (San Pedro) ; Ferrari- 
Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 140, 1886 Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Ridgway, 
I.e., 10, pp. 580, 585, 1887 Honduras (Truxillo and Segovia River); Rich- 
mond, I.e., 18, p. 631, 1896 Altamira, Tamaulipas; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 10, p. 27, 1898 Jalapa, Mexico ; Ridgway , Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 60, 1902 southern Mexico to Honduras (monog.); Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 155, 1903 Ceiba and Yaruca, Honduras; 
Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 121, 1907 Guatemala 
(Los Amates, Patulul, Mazatenango, Lake Atitlan); Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1054, 1912 southern Mexico to 
Honduras; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo. 

Tanagra (Aglaia) vicarius Lesson, Cent. Zool., pi. 68, "Jan.," 1831 Mexico 
(location of type not stated). 

Tanagra vicarius Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 116, "1837" [ = June, 
1838) Guatemala (crit.); idem, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 238, 1850 
Mexico; idem, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 171, 1851 Mexico; Sclater and 
Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 16, pi. 5, fig. 1 (egg) Duenas and Vera Paz, Guate- 
mala (nest and eggs descr.); Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 59, 

1 The alleged occurrence in Rio Grande do Sul has not been corroborated 
(cf. Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 1899), and the locality 
"Rio Claro, Goydz" is due to confusion with a place of the same name in Sao 
Paulo. Schomburgk includes it in the fauna of British Guiana, which is doubt- 
less a mistake. 

Additional material examined. Bahia, 4; Rio de Janeiro (Corcovado), 2; As 
Araras, Rio de Janeiro, 1; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 3; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 15. 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1859 Omoa (Honduras), Peten (Guatemala), and Belize (British Hon- 
duras); Taylor, Ibis, 1860, p. Ill Lake of Yojoa, Honduras. 

Thraupis vicarius Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 29, 1851 Mexico. 

Thraupis abbas Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 486, 1927 
Presidio, Vera Cruz; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 391, 1929 Mountain Cow and 
Camp 6, British Honduras; Peters, I.e., p. 471, 1929 Progreso and Tela, 
Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 377, 1932 Guate- 
mala (many localities); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 245, 
1932 Eden and Santa Rosita, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 338, 1932 
Lancetilla, Honduras. 

Range. Southeastern Mexico, in states of Tamaulipas (Alta- 
mira), Vera Cruz, and Oaxaca, and southward through Guatemala, 
British Honduras, and Honduras to northern Nicaragua. 1 

18: Mexico (Vera Cruz, 2; Yucatan, 1); Guatemala (Lake Atitlan, 
3; Los Amates, Izabal, 4; Mazatenango, 2; Patulul, Solola, 4; 
unspecified, 2). 

*Thraupis palmarum palmarum (Wied). PALM TANAGER. 

Tanagra palmarum Wied, Reise Bras., 2, p. 76, 1821 Canavieras, Bahia, 
Brazil (type now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; 
cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 219, 1889); idem, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 3, (1), p. 489, 1830 eastern Brazil (Serra de Inua and northwards); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 234, 1856 part, Brazil (Para, 
Bahia, Rio) and Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds.. 
p. 76, 1862 Mexiana and Bolivia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 571 Mexiana Island; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 209, 1870 
Rio de Janeiro, Sapitiba, Rio das Pedras (Sao Paulo), Rio Araguay 
(Goyaz), Cuyaba, Villa Maria, and Engenho do Gama (Matto Grosso); 
Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 430 Minas 
Geraes (Lagoa Santa, Rio das Velhas); Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 379 Para; 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 242, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 600 Bolivia (part, 
Santa Cruz and Guarayos); Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 333 Recife, Pernam- 
buco; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 159, 1886 part, subsp. typica, 
eastern Brazil (Pernambuco, Bahia); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, 
p. 355, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Boucard and Berlepsch, The 
Humming Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 Porto Real, Rio; Ihering, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 3, p. 150, 1899 Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 
1900 Can tagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, pp. 478, 479, 498 
Rio Capim, Para; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 27, 1907 
Mexiana; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 357, 1907 part, Sao Paulo 
(Sao Sebastiao, Itapura), Espirito Santo, and Bahia (range, excl. Rio 
Negro); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 294, 1907 Para and Santo Antonio 
do Prata, Brazil; idem, I.e., 56, p. 523, 1908 Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; 

1 There is obviously no local variation in this spacies. 

Additional material examined. Mexico: Jalapa, 3: unspecified, 3. Guatemala: 
Coban, Vera Paz, 5. Honduras: San Pedro, 2; Chamelicon, 1; Volcan de Puca.T; 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 225 

Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 85, 1910 
Bahia (Alagoinhas; Fazenda Taboa and above Barrocao, Rio Preto) 
and Piauhy (Parnagua and Ilha Sao Martin); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1053, 1912 Brazil (.range); Lima, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 12, (2), p. 101, 1920 Belmonte to Ilhe'os, Bahia. 

Tanagra olivascens Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 32, 1823 Brazil 
(type in Berlin Museum); Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 3, pi. 38, 1836 
Brazil; d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Me>id., Ois., p. 274, 1839 Bolivia (Santa 
Cruz, Guarayos, Yuracares); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, 
p. 175, 1856 Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes. 

Aglaia olivascens Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 33, 1837 Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 

Thraupis olivascens Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 28, 1851 part, Brazil. 

Thraupis palmarum Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; 
Bertoni, El Hornero, 1, p. 258, 1919 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay. 

Tanagra palmarum subsp. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 273, 1905 Igarape- 
Assu, Para; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, 
p. 119, 1912 Mexiana. 

Tanagra palmarum palmarum Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 29, 1908 Fazenda 
Esperan$a, Goyaz. 

Thraupis palmarum palmarum Hellmayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
Math.-Phys. KL, 26, No. 2, pp. 10, 87, 1912 Peixe-Boi, Para (crit., 
Para localities); Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 100, 1916 Utinga, Para; 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 240, 1923 Santa Cruz and Guarayos, Bolivia 
(crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 174, 1928 Para; Hell- 
mayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 281, 1929 Maranhao 
(Anil, Sao Bento, Barra do Corda, Codo) and Ceard (Serra de Baturite); 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 373, 1930 Urucum, Matto 
Grosso; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 
268, 1930 Bolivia (Santa Cruz and Buenavista; crit.). 

Tanagra palmarum melanoptera (not of Sclater) Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 448, 1914 part, Para, Capanema, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio 
Tocantins (Arumatheua), and Maranhao; Me"negaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 
5, p. 87, 1917 Caceres, Matto Grosso; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de 
Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 Maranhao (Anil, Tury-assu). 

Range. Eastern and southern Brazil, from eastern Para (east of 
Tocantins) south to Santa Catharina and west to southern Matto 
Grosso, and adjacent eastern Bolivia and Paraguay (Puerto Bertoni). 1 

1 Birds from Maranhao and the Para district, by average smaller size and 
(often) less conspicuous greenish edges to the remiges, form the transition to 
the Amazonian T. p. melanoptera, and the same may be said of certain, though 
not all, individuals from western Matto Grosso and the eastern plains of Bolivia. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: IgarapeVAssu, Para, 3; Peixe-Boi, Para, 
3; Maguary, Para, 2; Maranhao, 4; Parnagua, Piauhy, 1; Ilha Sao Martin, Rio 
Parnahyba, Piauhy, 1; Bahia, 6; Alagoinhas, Bahia, 1; Rio Preto, Bahia, 2; 
Rio Jordao, Minas Geraes, 1; Rio de Janeiro, 3; Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo, 2; Rio 
das Pedras, Sao Paulo, 1; Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 1; Villa Maria, Matto Grosso, 
1; Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, 2; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 2. Bolivia: 
Santa Cruz, 2; Buenavista, Santa Cruz, 2; Guarayos, 1. 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

j 

30: Brazil (Para, 2; Anil, near Sao Luiz, Maranhao, 2; Sao Bento, 
Maranhao, 3; Barra do Corda, Maranhao, 1; Codo, Cocos, Maran- 
hao, 1; Serra de Baturite", Ceara, 2; Sao Marcello, Bahia, 1; Santo 
Amaro, Bahia, 1; Veadeiros, Goyaz, 5; Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 
1; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 7; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 4). 

Thraupis palmarum melanoptera (Sclater). AMAZONIAN PALM 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra melanoptera (Hartlaub MS.) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
"1856," p. 235, pub. Jan., 1857 East Peru and "Bogota" (type, from east- 
ern Peru, in Bremen Museum); idem, I.e., 26, pp. 74, 453, 1858 Rio Napo 
and Gualaquiza, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 76, 1862 
part, spec, a, b, d, e, "Bogota," Rio Napo, and Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 
1864, p. 82 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 
p. 180 upper Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 749 Xeberos, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1868, p. 627 San Esteban, Venezuela; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 209, 1870 part, Forte do Rio Branco and Manaos, Brazil; 1 Taczanow- 
ski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 513 Monterico, Peru; Allen, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p, 353, 1876 Coroico, Bolivia; MSnegaux, Bull. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 182, 1904 French Guiana (St. George 
d'Oyapock, Ouanary, and Mahury); Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 568 Margarita 
Island. 

Tanagra olivascens (not of Lichtenstein) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 
286, 1844 Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 204, 1846 Peru; 
Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 670, "1848" [= 1849] 
British Guiana; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 295, 1866 Trinidad. 

Thraupis olivascens Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 28, 1851 part, Surinam. 

Tanagra ornata (not of Sparrman) Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 170, 
1851 part, Cayenne (descr. of female and young male); idem, Bull. Soc. 
Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 32, 1857 Cayenne; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 
115, 1908 Cayenne (ex Bonaparte). 

Tanagra palmarum (not of Wied) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 
1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 234, 1856 part, British Guiana, 
Cayenne, and Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1873, p. 185 Cosnipata, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 262 upper and lower Ucayali, Xeberos, and 
Chamicuros, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 600 part, Cangalli, Yungas, Boli- 
via; Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, p. 13 Yurimaguas, Peru; Ridgway, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 173, 1884 Trinidad; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, p. 82, 1889 Mapiri, Bolivia; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 210 Bartica 
Grove and Roraima, British Guiana; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 159, 1886 part, subsp. melanoptera (spec. 1-q, s-w, "Bogota," Ecuador 
[Rio Napo, Sarayacu], Peru [Iquitos, Sarayacu], and Bolivia [Cangalli]) 
and "intermediate forms" (spec, a-f, Bartica Grove, Roraima, and Maroni 
River); Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 466 part, Archidona, Ecuador; Ihering, 

1 The specimen from Rio Muria (near Para), which is no longer in the Vienna 
Museum, was probably one of those intermediates with little greenish edges to 
the wings which are not infrequently met with in the Para region, whose inhabitants 
should be referred to typical palmarum. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 227 

Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 357, 1907 part, Santare"m; Williams, Bull. Dept. 
Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 130, 1922 Trinidad (nest and egg). 

Tanagra palmarum melanoptera Taczanowski, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 486, 1884 Peru 
(Xeberos, Chamicuros, Ucayali, Monterico, Cosnipata, Yurimaguas, 
Lamas); Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 Santare"m, Brazil 
(crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 30, 1894 Princestown, 
Trinidad; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 343 
La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru; Robinson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, 
p. 677, 1896 Margarita Island; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 20, 1902 Orinoco River (Altagracia, Caicara, Ciudad Bolivar) and La 
Pricion, Caura, Venezuela; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 58, 1902 part, Trinidad, Venezuela, British Guiana, and Amazonia; 
Clark, Auk, 19, p. 266, 1902 Margarita Island; idem, Auk, 20, p. 399, 
1903 part, Venezuela, Margarita Island, Trinidad, British Guiana, 
and lower Amazon; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 110, 1906 
Rio Cadena, Marcapata, Peru; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 15, 1906 
Trinidad (Caparo, Laventille, Chaguaramas, Pointe Gourde, Valencia, 
Seelet); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 358, 1908 Aripo and 
Carenage, Trinidad; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 10, 1908 Cachoeira, 
Rio Purus, Brazil; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 115, 1908 Cayenne and 
Approuague, French Guiana; Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 323 Cariaco, Vene- 
zuela; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 103, 1909 Guanoco, Orinoco Delta; 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 274, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira; Me'ne'gaux, 
Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 1911 Nuevo Loreto, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1053, 1136, 1912 part, eastern Ecuador, 
Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Trinidad, Venezuela, and Guiana; Snethlage, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 448, 1914 part, Rio Purus (Cachoeira), Monte Alegre, 
Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Rio Jamunda (Faro), and 
Manaos. 

Tangara palmarum melanoptera Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 
249, 254, 1909 Margarita Island. 

Thraupis palmarum melanoptera Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 210, 
1913 Cariaquito, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 
2, p. 177, 1916 Orinoco River and Maripa, Caura, Venezuela; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 608, 1917 part, eastern slope of east 
Colombian Andes (Quetame, Buena Vista, Villavicencio, Barrigon, 
Florencia, La Morelia); Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 88, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo and Lelydorp, Dutch Guiana; Chap- 
man, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 120, 1921 San Miguel Bridge, Uru- 
bamba, Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 673, 1926 eastern 
Ecuador (Zamora, Rio Suno); Naumburg, I.e., 60, p. 374, 1930 northern 
Matto Grosso (Tapirapoan, Carapanha, Rio Roosevelt) and Rio Madeira 
(Calama); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 446, 1930 
Vista Alegre, Peru. 

Thraupis melanoptera Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 516, 1921 British 
Guiana. 

Thraupis palmarum duvida Cherrie, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 35, p. 190, May, 
1916 Carapanha, Rio Roosevelt, northern Matto Grosso (type in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, examined). 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Tropical zone of Trinidad, Venezuela, the Guianas, 
and Amazonia (north of the Amazon, but from the Tapajoz west- 
ward also south of that river) west to the eastern base of the east 
Colombian Andes and south through eastern Ecuador and Peru to 
northern Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz) and through western Brazil 
to northern Matto Grosso (Rio Roosevelt). 1 

41: Trinidad (unspecified, 1); Venezuela (Margarita Island, 17; 
Catatumbo, Zulia, 1; Rio Chama, 1); British Guiana (Georgetown, 1; 
unspecified, 2); Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 1); Brazil (Boa Vista, 
Rio Branco, 4; Serra da Lua, Rio Branco, 3; Porto Velho, Rio 
Madeira, 2); Colombia ("Bogota," 2; Florencia, Caqueta, 1); Peru 
(Yurimaguas, 2; Rioja, 1; Vista Alegre, 1); Bolivia (Rio Espirito 
Santo, 1). 

*Thraupis palmarum violilavata (Berlepsch and Taczanowski). 2 
VIOLACEOUS PALM TANAGER. 

Tanagra palmarum violilavata Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1883, p. 546 Chimbo, Ecuador (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. 
Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 185, 

1 The characters of this form are most strongly pronounced in Upper Ama- 
zonia. Birds from the Orinoco region, Trinidad, the Guianas, and Brazil north 
of the Amazon appear to me inseparable, though they vary somewhat in the 
direction of typical palmarum. This intermediacy is still more developed in 
eastern Amazonia, notably between the Rio Madeira and the Tapajoz, a series 
from Santar6m forming complete intergradation between melanoptera and pal- 
marum, so much indeed that it is utterly impossible to draw a fast line. In native 
"Bogota" collections typical examples of both melanoptera and atripennis are 
found. The first-named doubtless came from the Amazonian slope of the east 
Colombian Andes, while the latter almost certainly originated in the Magdalena 
Valley. T. p. duvida is not separable. The type is just molting into the first 
annual plumage. The alleged racial characters are clearly of individual nature. 
While the pale patch at the base of the primaries is less extended than in the 
majority of the other specimens examined, the type is exactly matched in this 
respect by various individuals, notably a female from Yacua, Paria Peninsula, 
Venezuela. The grayish violet color of the median and greater upper wing coverts 
recurs in an adult female from Tulumayo, Peru (A.M.N.H., No. 171,210) and 
in another from Novita, Choco, Colombia (Munich Museum, No. 09.5844). 

Additional material examined. Peru: Caradoc, Marcapata, 2; Chamicuros, 
2; Yurimaguas, 1; Xeberos, 7; upper Ucayali, 1; Nuevo Loreto, 1; Iquitos, 2. 
Ecuador: Archidona, 2. Colombia: "Bogota," 7. Brazil: Gala ma, Rio Madeira, 
2; Carapanha, Rio Roosevelt, 1; Santarem, 7; Forte do Rio Branco, 1. Venezuela: 
Orinoco region, 12; Caura, 4; Yacua, Paria Peninsula, 2. Trinidad, 24. British 
Guiana, 6. Surinam, 3. French Guiana: Cayenne, 8; Approuague, 2. 

2 Thraupis palmarum violilavata (Berlepsch and Taczanowski) : Nearest to T. p. 
melanoptera, but much more strongly tinged with bluish both above and below; 
forehead and crown with very little, if any olive greenish tone; upper wing coverts 
duller, more grayish (less yellowish) olive, the smaller ones frequently glossed 
with bluish; the alar speculum likewise duller and more grayish; the outer webs 
of the primaries uniform black or with mere traces of grayish borders at the base. 

Additional material examined. Western Ecuador: San Javier, Prov. Esmeral- 
das, 5; Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 5; Santo Domingo, 3; Chimbo, 1; unspecified, 3. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 229 

1927); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 482, 1898 Cachavi, Prov. Esmeraldas; 
MSnegaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Armee Mes. Arc Me>id. Equat., 9, p. B. 
101, 1911 Santo Domingo; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1053, 1912 western Ecuador; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 85, 1922 Niebli and road to Gualea. 
Thraupis palmarum violilavata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 673, 
1926 Esmeraldas, Rio de Oro, Bucay, Chone, Santa Rosa, Las Pinas, 
and Cebollal, Ecuador. 

Tanagra melanoptera (not of Sclater, 1857) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, 
p. 292, 1860 Esmeraldas; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 76, 1862 part, 
spec, c, Esmeraldas. 

Tanagra palmarum subsp. melanoptera Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 

160, 1886 part, spec, r, Esmeraldas. 
Tanagra palmarum (not of Wied) Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 466 part, Santo 

Domingo, western Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador, from Esmeraldas 
south to the Peruvian boundary (Cebollal, west of Alamor). 

2: Ecuador (Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 1; San Jose", near 
Huigra, 1). 

Thraupis palmarum atripennis Todd. 1 BLACK-WINGED PALM 
TANAGER. 

Thraupis palmarum atripennis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 92, 1922 
Guapiles, Costa Rica (type in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh); Todd 
and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 491, 1922 Cacagualito, Don 
Diego, Fundacion, Tierra Nueva, Mamatoco, Dibulla, Santa Marta, and 
Tucurinca, Colombia (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 189, 
1929 El Real and Cana, Darien; Peters, I.e., 71, p. 341, 1931 Almirante 
and Chiriquicito, Panama; Darlington, I.e., 71, p. 418, 1931 Rio Frio, 
Magdalena, Colombia. 

Tanagra palmarum (not of Wied) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, 
p. 297, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 55 Costa Rica (Naranjo, San Jos6); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 
500 Remedios, Colombia (egg descr.); Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 
120 Minca, Colombia; idem, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 279, 1883 

1 Thraupis palmarum atripennis Todd: Agreeing with T. p. violilavata in 
nearly wholly black outer webs of remiges and bluish rather than purplish gloss 
of the body plumage, but forehead and crown conspicuously light yellowish olive, 
contrasting with color of hind neck; larger upper wing coverts and alar speculum 
more olive, less grayish; similar to T. p: melanoptera, but wings blacker without 
(or with mere traces of) grayish edges; crown duller, less yellowish; gloss of body 
plumage bluish rather than purplish. 

Although intermediate in characters, this form cannot well be united to 
either of its allies. Birds from western Colombia and Santa Marta agree very 
well with Costa Rican examples. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica, 5. Panama, 3. Colombia: 
Santa Marta, 5; Remedios, 1; Bucaramanga, 2; "Bogota," 5; Loma Hermosa, 
1; Novita, 5; Tado, 4. 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

part, Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Naranjo de Cartago, Costa Rica; Richmond, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 488, 1893 Greytown, Nicaragua. 

Tanagra melanoptera (not of Sclater, 1857) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1864, p. 350 Isthmus of Panama; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1865, p. 171 Turrialba, Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 138 Santiago de Veragua; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 99, 1868 Costa Rica (Santa Rosa, Angostura, Turri- 
alba); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 298, 1869 Costa Rica (Santa Rosa, 
Turrialba, Angostura, Tucurriqui); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 326 Buca- 
ramanga, Aguachica, and Ocana, Santander, Colombia; Piguet, Mem. 
Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 Titiribi, Rio Cauca, Colombia. 

Tanagra palmarum melanoptera Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 291, 1884 
Bucaramanga, Colombia; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 141, 1898 
Santa Marta, Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus.N. H., 13, p. 169, 1900 
Bonda and Cacagualito, Colombia; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 2, 
p. 30, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 58, 1902 part, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and south to Colom- 
bia; Clark, Auk, 20, p. 399, 1903 part, Panama, Costa Rica, and Santa 
Marta; Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1112 Novita, Tado, 
and Loma Hermosa, western Colombia (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1053, 1912 part, Costa Rica, Panama, 
and Colombia; Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 34, 1919 Siquirres, 
Costa Rica. 

Thraupis palmarum melanoptera Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 856, 1910 
Costa Rica (habits); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 608, 
1917 part, Dabeiba, Novita, Noanama, San Jose, Los Cisneros, Puerto 
Valdivia, La Frijolera, Andalucia, Subia, Chicoral, Puerto Berrio, and 
Turbaco, Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 278, 1918 
Gatun, Toro Point, and Fort Lorenzo, Panama; Griscom, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 72, p. 370, 1932 Perm6 and Obaldia, eastern Panama. 

Tanagra palmarum subsp. melanoptera Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
160, 1886 part, spec, a-1, Costa Rica, Panama, Minca, Santa Marta, 
Remedies, and "Bogota." 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Nicaragua (Greytown), Costa 
Rica, Panama, and Colombia, east to Santa Marta and south to 
the Magdalena Valley and the Rio Dagua. 

21: Costa Rica (Guayabo, 8; La Iberia, 1; Limon, 6; Matina, 1; 
Peralta, 2); Panama (Colon, 1); Colombia (Puerto Zapote, 1; near 
San Jos de Cucuta, Santander, 1). 

"Thraupis cyanocephala cyanocephala (Lafresnaye and d'Or- 
bigny). BLUE-CAPPED TANAGER. 

Aglaia cyanocephala Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 32, 1837 Yungas, Bolivia (type from Enquisivi, Prov. Sicasica, 
in Paris Museum examined). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 231 

Tanagra maximiliani d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame>. Me>id., Ois., p. 276, pi. 23, fig. 2, 
1839 Enquisivi, Bolivia (new name for Aglaia cyanocephala Lafr. and 
d'Orb.). 1 

Tanagra cyanocephala Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 286, 1844 Peru; 
idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 205, 1846 "fruit gardens around 
Lima," errore; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 238, 1850 Bolivia 
and Peru (diag.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 236, 1856 
Bolivia (Sicasica) and Peru ("Lima," ex Tschudi); idem, I.e., 27, p. 139, 
1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 77, 1862 
Pallatanga and Peru; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 513 
Peru (no locality specified); idem, I.e., 1879, p. 227 Tambillo, Peru; 
Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 600 Bolivia (Enquisivi, Ramosani, 
Tilotilo); Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, p. 13 Chachapoyas, Peru; Berlepsch 
and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, p. 290 Cayandeled and Surupata, Ecuador 
(crit.); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 490, 1884 Peru ("Lima," Nina- 
bamba, Auquimarca, Tambillo, Cutervo, Chachapoyas) ; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 162, 1886 Bolivia (Ramosani, Tilotilo), Peru (Puma- 
marca), and Ecuador (Pallatanga, "San Lucas," "Jima"); Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 344 Garita del Sol, Vitoc. 
Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 17, 
1899 Tambo de Yerba-buena (road from Naranjal to Cuenca) and 
Nanegal, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 467 Gualea, Ecuador, and 
Popayan, Colombia; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1055, 1912 western Ecuador to Bolivia. 

Tanagra cyanocephala cyanocephala Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 15, 1906 
Bolivia, Peru, and western Ecuador (crit.). 

Sporothraupis cyanocephala cyanocephala M6negaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. 
Armee Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 102, 1911 Lanlin (Nanegal), 
Ecuador; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 460, 1918 Tabaconas, northern 
Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 120, 1921 San Miguel 
Bridge, Torontoy, and Occobamba Valley, Urubamba, Peru. 

Sporothraupis cyanocephala M6n6gaux, Rev. Franc.. d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 1911 
Cumpang (east of Tayabamba), Peru; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 
14, No. 25, p. 85, 1922 below Nono, Ecuador. 

Sporathraupis cyanocephala cyanocephala Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 237, 
1923 Bolivia (note on type); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 674, 1926 western Ecuador (Guachanama, San Bartolo, Loja). 

Thraupis cyanocephala cyanocephala Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 17, p. 447, 1930 Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 627, 1932 El Portete de Tarquf, Cuenca, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz), eastern 
Peru, and western Ecuador. 2 
1: Peru (Chinchao, 1). 

1 This renaming is unwarranted, since Aglaia cyanocephala Lafr. and d'Orb . 
is not affected by the earlier Tanagra cyanocephala P. L. S. Miiller, 1776, which 
pertains to an entirely different genus (Calospiza). 

2 The east Ecuadorian localities, San Lucas and Jima, on some of Buckley's 
specimens in the British Museum are unquestionably erroneous. Comparison of 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Thraupis cyanocephala auricrissa (Sclater). 1 GOLDEN-VENTED 
TANAGER. 

Dubusia auricrissa Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, "1855," p. 227, pub. Feb. 

5, 1856 "Bogota," Colombia (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 

Museum). 
Tanagra auricrissa Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 236, 1856 "Bogota" 

(diag.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 77, 1862 "Bogota" and Ecuador 

(errore); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 780 Merida, 

Venezuela; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 326 Alto and forests between Bucara- 

manga and Ocana, Santander, Colombia. 
Thraupis cyanocephala (not Aglaia cyanocephala Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 29, 1851 Colombia. 
Dubusia cyanocephala(l) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 

"Bogota." 
Tanagra cyanocephala Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 501 

Retire and Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia (egg descr.). 
Sporathraupis cyanocephala Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 

1914 Medellin, Colombia. 
Tanagra cyanocephala subsp. b. auricrissa Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 

p. 163, 1886 Colombia ("Bogota," Retire, Santa Elena, Canute). 
Tanagra cyanocephala auricrissa Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 15 (in text), 

1906 Colombia and Merida, Venezuela (crit.); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 

Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1055, 1912 Colombia and Andes of 

Merida, Venezuela. 
Sporathraupis cyanocephala auricrissa Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 37, 

p. 608, 1917 Colombia (Novita Trail, Popayan, Cerro Munchique, La 

Florida, Cocal, La Sierra, Salento, Santa Elena, Barro Blanco, El Eden, 

Aguadita, El Roble, Subia, Palo Hueco). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (except Santa Marta 
region) and adjoining section of western Venezuela (Cordillera of 
Me>ida). 

13: Colombia (Barro Blanco, Antioquia, 1; Santa Elena, Antio- 
quia, 1; Cachiri, Santander, 1; Paramo de Tama, 4; Bogota, 2); 
Venezuela (Conejos, 1; Escorial, 1; Tabay, Merida, 2). 

Thraupis cyanocephala margaritae (Chapman). 2 MARGARITA'S 
TANAGER. 

seven specimens from Bolivia, fifteen from different parts of Peru, and eleven 
from western Ecuador fails to reveal any racial variation. 

1 Thraupis cyanocephala auricrissa (Sclater) differs from the nominate form 
by more yellowish, citrine rather than warbler green, dorsal surface; conspicu- 
ously darker gray under parts, particularly on the belly; deeper, lemon chrome 
instead of lemon yellow tibial feathers and under tail coverts. 

Seven birds from the Merida region, Venezuela, agree with a series from 
Colombia. Thirty-two specimens examined. 

2 Thraupis cyanocephala margaritae (Chapman): Nearest to T. c. auricrissa, 
but smaller; throat and foreneck tinged with dull blue, more or less concealing 



1936 BIRPS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 233 

Sporafhraupis cyanocephala margaritae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
31, p. 165, July, 1912 Valparaiso, Santa Marta region, Colombia (type in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Todd and Car- 
riker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 490, 1922 El Libano, Las Vegas, San 
Miguel, and Heights of Chirua (crit., habits). 

Tanagra cyanocephala auricrissa (not Dubusia auricrissa Sclater) Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 490, 1900 Valparaiso and El Libano. 

Range. Subtropical zone of the Santa Marta region in northern 
Colombia. 

Thraupis cyanocephala hypophaea (Todd). 1 PARAMO DE ROSAS 
TANAGER. 

Sporathraupis cyanocephala hypophaea Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 
128, July, 1917 Paramo de Rosas, State of Lara, western Venezuela 
(type in Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh). 

Range. Subtropical zone of northwestern Venezuela (Paramo 
de Rosas, State of Lara). 

*Thraupis cyanocephala olivi-cyanea (Lafresnaye). 2 BLUE- 
BELLIED TANAGER. 

Tanagra olivi-cyanea Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 69, 1843 "Colombia," 
errore; we suggest vicinity of Caracas, Venezuela (type in coll. of F. de 
Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 405, 1930); Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 238, 1850 "Colombia" (ex Lafresnaye); Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 237, 1856 Galipan, Venezuela, and "New 
Grenada" (descr.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 77, 1862 "Bogota"; 

the dark gray color of the feather bases; dorsal surface more brownish, between 
orange citrine and medal bronze. Wing, 84-86; tail, 70; bill, 14. 

By the extension of the blue color over the throat and foreneck this form 
marks a step in the direction of T. c. olivi-cyanea, the gap being closed by T. c. 
hypophaea. The two specimens examined have the yellow of the crissum and 
tibial feathers fully as dark as T. c. auricrissa. 

Material examined. Colombia: El Libano, 1; Valparaiso, 1. 

1 Thraupis cyanocephala hypophaea (Todd) : Similar to T. c. auricrissa, but 
under parts strongly suffused with blue, especially anteriorly, approaching thus 
T. c. olivi-cyanea. 

This form, which, some years ago, we examined in the Carnegie Museum, 
is closely similar to T. c. olivi-cyanea, but less "solidly" blue underneath, the dark 
gray color of the basal portion of the feathers showing through and causing a 
variegated appearance. From T. c. margaritae, of the Santa Marta region, it 
may be separated by the more greenish (less brownish) upper parts and greater 
extent of the blue suffusion underneath. 

2 Thraupis cyanocephala olivi-cyanea (Lafresnaye), in adult plumage, is easily 
distinguished from all other races by the uniform bright blue (sailor blue) under 
parts. Young birds, by mainly dark gray ventral surface, betray, however, their 
close affinity to T. c. auricrissa. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 43; 
Silla de Caracas, 2; "Caracas," 1. 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Caracas; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 163, 1886 Venezuela (Caracas) and "Colom- 
bia (Bogota)"; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1054, 
1912 Venezuela (Caracas) and (?)Colombia ("Bogota"). 

Dubusia olivicyanea Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 
"Bogota." 

Sporathraupis cyanocephala olivi-cyanea Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 
2, p. 187, 1924 Galipan (Cerro del Avila) and Silla de Caracas, Venezuela 
(crit., plumages). 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Venezuela, in Dept. 
Federal (Silla de Caracas; Galipan, Cerro del Avila) and State of 
Aragua (Maracay). 1 

1: Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 1). 

Thraupis cyanocephala subcinerea (Sclater). 2 ASH-BELLIED 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra subcinerea Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 129 Venezuela 
and "Trinidad" 3 (type, from "Venezuela," in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum, examined); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 77, 1862 
Venezuela (type) and "Trinidad" (errore). 

Tanagra cyanocephala subsp. subcinerea Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
163, 1886 Venezuela and "Trinidad" (errore). 

Tanagra cyanocephala subcinerea Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumanacoa 
[Sucre], Venezuela; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 15, 1906 part, "Cu- 
mana," Venezuela; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1055, 1912 part, northeastern Venezuela (Cumana). 

Sporathraupis cyanocephala subcinerea Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 191, p. 12, 
1925 Carapas and Turumiquire, Sucre, Venezuela. 

Range. Subtropical zone of northeastern Venezuela, in State 
of Sucre (Los Palmales, Quebrada Secca, Los dos Rios, Cumanacoa, 
Carapas, Turumiquire). 

1 The record of this species from "Bogota" must be a mistake. If blue-bellied 
specimens really occur in "Bogota" collections, they are more likely to be indi- 
vidual mutants of T. c. auricrissa. 

* Thraupis cyanocephala subcinerea (Sclater) : Nearest to T. c. auricrissa, but 
under parts very much lighter, pale dingy gray, passing into buffy in a rather 
extensive zone along the middle of the breast and abdomen; chin and upper 
throat paler than the rest and more or less freckled with grayish white. Wing, 
82-86, (female) 77-81; tail, 76-80, (female) 68-76; bill, 13-14. 

This form, by the absence of blue underneath, reverts to the characters of 
the Andean races (auricrissa and cyanocephala), but is immediately recognizable 
by its much paler coloration. 

Material examined. yenezuela, Sucre: Los Palmales, 11; Quebrada Secca, 
1; Los dos Rios, 2; unspecified, 1 (the type). 

3 "Trinidad" is based on a trade-skin of the peculiar preparation once ascribed 
to that island. It has since been ascertained, however, that the majority of 
these so-called "Trinidad" skins originally came from the opposite Venezuelan 
mainland. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 235 

Thraupis cyanocephala busing! (Hellmayr and Seilern). 1 BUS- 
ING'S TANAGER. 

Sporathraupis cyanocephala biisingi Hellmayr and Seilern, Verb. Orn. Ges. 
Bay., 11, No. 3, p. 254, 1913 Aripo, Island of Trinidad (type in Munich 
Museum). 

Tanagra subcinerea (not of Sclater) L6otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 296, 1866 
Trinidad ("sur le sommet de nos montagnes"). 

Tanagra cyanocephala subcinerea Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 30, 
1894 Trinidad (ex Leotaud); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 15, 1906 
part, Aripo, Trinidad; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 188, 
1906 Aripo; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1055, 1912 
part, Trinidad. 

Range. Island of Trinidad (northern range from 1,800 feet 
upwards). 

Thraupis bonariensis bonariensis (Gmelin). BLUE- AND- YEL- 
LOW TANAGER. 

Loxia bonariensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 850, 1789 based on "Le Noir- 
Souci" Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 4, p. 150; Buenos Aires. 

Tanagra striata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 899, 1789 based on "L'Onglet" 
Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 4, p. 256, South America; d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame>. 
M6rid., Ois., p. 273, 1839 part, descr. of "adult male," Montevideo, 
Buenos Aires, Corrientes, and eastern Bolivia (Palca, Cochabamba, Valle 
Grande, Chuquisaca); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 239, 1850 
part, "Paraguay" (descr. of male); idem, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 
171, 1851 part, "Paraguay" (descr. of male); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 24, p. 235, 1856 part, Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay, Buenos Aires, 
Corrientes, and "Paraguay" (descr. of male); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 178, 1856 (range); idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 
Mendoza, Parand, and Banda Oriental; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 
480, 1861 Buenos Aires to Mendoza, north to Parana and C6rdoba; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 139 Conchitas, 
Buenos Aires; Doering, Per. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 Barrancas, Rio 
Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 170 Punta Lara and 
thirty miles north of Buenos Aires; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1879, p. 600 Cinti [ = Camargo], Chuquisaca, Bolivia (not La Paz, 
ex d'Orbigny); Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 21 Caps San Antonio, Buenos 
Aires; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 596 Fuerte de Andalgala 
(Catamarca) and Punta Lara (Buenos Aires); Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Cl., 8, p. 91, 1883 Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rfos. 

1 Thraupis cyanocephala biisingi (Hellmayr and Seilern): Very close to T. c. 
subcinerea, but below decidedly darker gray, with a faint bluish hue on breast 
and sides of throat, and very little buffish suffusion along the middle line; blackish 
maxillary streak much more prominent; chin and upper throat variegated with 
blackish freckles; bill shorter and more swollen. Wing, 82-86, (female) 77-82; 
tail, 72-77, (female) 68-73; bill, 14-15. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Aripo (alt. 1,800 to 2,000 feet), 33. 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Aglaia striata Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 

2, p. 32, 1837 Valle Grande, Cochabamba, Bolivia; Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 

3, p. 97, 1841 Maldonado, Uruguay. 

Tanagra darwini (not of Bonaparte) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, pi. 34, 1839. 

Tanagra bonariensis Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 119, 1885 
Taquara and Arroio, Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 164, 1886 Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay (Maldonado), Corrientes, 
Punta Lara (Buenos Aires), Mendoza, and Bolivia (Cinti); Sclater and 
Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 39, 1888 Argentina; Withington, Ibis, 1888, p. 
462 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. 
Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 Cordoba; Frenzel, Journ. 
Orn., 39, p. 91, 1891 Cordoba; Holland, Ibis, 1891, pp. 16, 17 Est. 
Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 124 Fortin Page, Paraguay; 
Holland, Ibis, 1892, p. 196 Est. Espartillar; idem, Ibis, 1893, pp. 468, 
469 Santa Elena, Entre Rios (migration); Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 168 
Uruguay (Monzon, Rio Negro); Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, pp. 
278, 290, 1895 Chilecito (La Rioja) and Catamarca; Salvadori, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 4, 1895 San Pablo, Tucuman; idem, 
I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 6, 1897 Campo Santo (Salta) and Caiza (Bolivian 
Chaco); Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 1899 Mundo 
Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 175, 
1902 Tucuman; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, pp. 457, 471 Bolivia (Tarija 
and Fortin Crevaux, Bolivian Chaco); Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, 
p. 257, 1904 Oran, Salta; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 215, 1904 Tapia, Tucuman; 
Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 41, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 358, 1907 Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 171, 1909 Argentina; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, (3), 11, p. 376, 1910 (range in Argentina); Grant, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 93 Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1054, 1912 Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay, 
Argentina, and southern Bolivia (Cinti; Valle Grande; San Jose, Rio 
Misque); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 63, 1914 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay; 
Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 397, 1916 La Plata; Gibson, Ibis, 1920, p. 94 Cape 
San Antonio, Buenos Aires (nest and eggs descr.). 

Thraupis bonariensis Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 151, 1918 Mendoza; Dabbene, 
I.e., 1, p. 243, 1919 Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, I.e., 
2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay (Montevideo, Canelones, San Jose, Flores, Flor- 
ida, Cerro Largo); Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 270, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 237, 1923 Cochabamba, Bolivia (crit.); 
Serie and Smyth, El Hornero, 3, p. 52, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; 
Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 171, 1923 
San Isidro, Buenos Aires; Dinelli, I.e., 3, p. 254, 1924 Tucuman (nest 
and egg descr.); Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 657, 1924 
Prov. Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 393, 1926 
Argentina (Riacho Pilaga, Formosa; Lavalle, Buenos Aires; Victorica, 
Pampa; Potrerillos, Mendoza; Tapia, Tucuman) and Uruguay (La Paloma, 
near Rocha); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 227, 1927 Con- 
cepci6n, Tucuman; Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 411, 1931 Maimara, Jujuy. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 237 

Thraupis bonariensis bonariensis Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 269, 1930 Bolivia (Villa Montes and Fortin 
Esteros, Tarija; Cuevo, Chuquisaca). 

Range. Extreme southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul); Uru- 
guay; northern Argentina, south to Mendoza, Cordoba, and Buenos 
Aires (Cape San Antonio); Paraguay; southern Bolivia, north to 
Cochabamba. 1 

20: Bolivia (Parotani, 1); Uruguay (Rio Cebollati, Passo de 
Averias, Minas, 4; Dept. Rocha, near San Vicente de Castillos, 1; 
Dept. San Jose", on coast near Arazati, 4; Dept. Soriano, near 
Dolores, 5) ; Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 3 ; Conchitas, Buenos 
Aires, 1; El Carrizal, Sierra de Cordoba, 1). 

Thraupis bonariensis darwinii (Bonaparte). 2 DARWIN'S 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra darwinii 3 Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. 121, pub. 
June, 1838 "Chile" (type apparently lost); 4 Sclater, I.e., 26, pp. 453, 
551, 1858 Cuenca and Riobamba, Ecuador (crit.); idem, I.e., 28, p. 86, 
1860 Calacali, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 76, 1862 Lima 
and Cuenca; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 97 vicinity of Lima, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 341 Lima; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 984 
Arequipa, Peru; idem, I.e., 1868, p. 569 Arequipa; idem, I.e., 1869, 
p. 151 Tinta, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 513 Lima, Huanta, 
Maraynioc, and Pumamarca, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1876, p. 16 
Paucartambo, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 600 Sorata and Tilotilo, 
Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 1880, p. 195 Callacate, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, 

1 Seven specimens from Rip Grande do Sul agree with others from Buenos 
Aires and Tucuman, and a series from Bolivia (Tarija and Cochabamba) is not 
different either. 

Fifty-seven specimens examined. 

2 Thraupis bonariensis darwinii (Bonaparte), in the male sex, differs from 
the nominate form by greenish (instead of black) mantle, and light cadmium 
(instead of bright orange) rump and chest, while the female is only distinguish- 
able by lacking the bluish tinge on the head. 

In agreement with Chapman and Zimmer, I am unable to separate the sup- 
posed eastern form (laeta), there being no constant difference either in size or 
color between birds from the Peruvian and Chilean coast and others (from Bolivia) 
and southeastern Peru. T. b. darwinii replaces the typical form in the northern 
parts of Bolivia (Dept. La Paz) and farther north. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Quito, 2; Riobamba, 3; Cuenca, 1; 
unspecified, 4. Peru: San Pablo, 1; Lima, 4; La Merced, 1; Maraynioc, 1; Lucre, 
Cuzco, 6; Idma, Urubamba, 2. Bolivia, Dept. La Paz: La Paz, 3; Yungas, 1; 
Chililaya, 1 ; Chicani, 2. 

3 Frequently spelled "darwini." 

4 Although Bonaparte states that the type was brought to the British Museum 
"by the expedition under Capt. Fitzroy," that is, by the "Beagle," this specimen 
is not to be found in that collection. His description, however, applies to the 
male of the bird now designated by Bonaparte's name. Cf. also Zimmer, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 447, 1930. 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

p. 13 Tamiapampa, Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, p. 290 
Bugnac, Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 488, 1884 Peru (Lima, 
Auquimarca, Pumamarca, Callacate, Cutervo, Tamiapampa, Chota, 
Paucartambo, Huanta); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 165, 1886 
Bolivia (Tilotilo, Sorata), Peru (Arequipa, Maraynioc), and Ecuador 
(Sical, Cuenca); Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 5, 1895 Cajamarca and Huama- 
chuco, Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 
375 Lima, Peru; idem, I.e., 1896, p. 344 La Merced, Maraynioc, and 
Tarma, Peru; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 482, 1898 Ibarra and Cayambe, 
Ecuador; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 17, 
1899 "Nanegal," Chillo Valley, and Tumbaco, Ecuador; Goodfellow, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 467 Quito, Ecuador; Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee 
Mes. Arc Me>id. Equat., 9, p. B. 102, 1911 Tumbaco, Riobamba, and 
Chambo, Ecuador; idem, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 1911 Araqueda, 
Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1054, 1912 
western Peru (Lima to Arequipa); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, 
No. 25, p. 85, 1922 Tumbaco and Quito, Ecuador. 

Tanagra frugilegus Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 286, 1844 Peru (type 
in Neuchatel Museum); idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 204, pi. 17, 
fig. 1, 1846 fruit gardens of Lima; Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 1, 
p. 239, 1849 (crit.); Hartlaub, I.e., p. 498, 1849 (crit.). 

Calliste frugilegus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 236, 1850 Peru 
(ex Tschudi). 

Tanagra darwini laeta Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 81, 1906 
Cuzco, Peru (type in coll. of Count Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum) ; 
idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1054, 1912 western 
Ecuador and Peru. 

Thraupis darwini laeta Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 460, 1918 Huanca- 
bamba, Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 120, 1921 San 
Miguel Bridge, Matchu Picchu, Chospiyoc, Calca, Pisac, and Cuzco, Peru; 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 237, 1923 La Paz and Yungas, Bolivia. 

Thraupis darwini(i) Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 674, 1926 
Quito, Guapulo, Tumbaco, Cumbaya, Chimborazo, El Paso, Huigra, Rio- 
bamba, above Chambo, and Hacienda Garzon, Ecuador (crit.); Berlioz, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 75, 1928 Tumbaco, Ecuador; Zimmer, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 446, 1930 Matucana, Huanuco, 
Panao, Chinchao, and Cullcui, Maranon River, Peru (crit.); Berlioz, Bull. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 627, 1932 El Portete de Tarqui, Cuenca, 
Ecuador. 

Thraupis bonariensis darwinii Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
19, p. 97, 1932 Putre, Tacna, Chile. 

Tanagra striata (not of Gmelin) d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 273, 
1839 part, descr. of "female" and "young," La Paz, Yungas, and Sicasica, 
Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 
1, (1), p. 239, 1850 part, Peru (descr. of female); idem, Rev. Mag. Zool., 
(2), 3, p. 171, 1851 part, Peru (descr. of "female"); Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 235, 1856 part, Bolivia, Peru (Lima), and western 
Ecuador; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata, Peru; idem, 
I.e., p. 600, 1879 part, La Paz, Bolivia; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 239 

p. 489, 1884 Cosnipata, Peru (not the description); Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 
159, 1888 Sibaya, Tarapaca, Chile. 

Range. Temperate zone of western Ecuador, Peru, northwestern 
Bolivia (Dept. La Paz), and northern Chile (provinces of Tacna 
and Tarapaca). 

32: Ecuador (unspecified, 1); Peru (Cajamarca, 5; Hacienda 
Llagueda, 3; Macate, Ancachs, 4; Cullcui, Maranon River, 5; 
Chinchao, 1; Panao, 1; Huanuco, 6; Matucana, 2); Chile (Putre, 
Tacna, 4). 

Genus SPINDALIS Jardine and Selby 

Spindalis Jardine and Selby, Illustr. Orn., (n.s.), Part 2, pi. 9, May 27, 1837 

type, by monotypy, Spindalis bilineatus Jardine and Selby =Tanagra 

nigricephala Jameson. 
Spizampelis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, p. 253, 1866 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 165, 1886), Tanagra pretrei 

Lesson. 

*Spindalis zena townsendi Ridgway. ABACO SPINDALIS. 

Spindalis zena townsendi Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 3, Apr. 25, 
1887 Abaco Island, Bahamas (type in U. S. National Museum); Cory, 
Bds. W. Ind., p. 289, 1889 Abaco; idem, Auk, 8, p. 296, 1891 Abaco; 
Ridgway, I.e., p. 334, 1891 Abaco; Cory, I.e., p. 350, 1891 Great 
Bahama and Abaco; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 114, 1892 Abaco and 
Great Bahama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 72, 1902 
Abaco (monog.); Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 288 Little Abaco (crit.); G. 
Allen, Auk, 22, p. 129, 1905 Abaco, Little Abaco, and Great Bahama; 
Riley, I.e., p. 360, 1905 Abaco; idem, in Shattuck, The Bahama Islands, 
pp. 355, 367, 1905 Abaco and Little Abaco (crit.); Todd and Worthing- 
ton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, pp. 440, 464, 1911 Abaco (crit.); Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1056, 1912 Abaco. 

Range. Northern Bahamas (islands of Great Bahama, Little 
Abaco, and Abaco). 1 

188: Bahamas (Abaco, 46; Great Bahama, 142). 

*Spindalis zena zena (Linnaeus). BLACK-BACKED SPINDALIS. 

Fringilla zena Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 320, 1766 based on "Ba- 
hama Finch" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, etc., 1, p. 42, pi. 42; Bahama 
Islands = New Providence. 

Tanagra zena Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 277, 1847 Bahama (descr. ex 
Brisson ex Catesby); Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. Ill, 1859 
New Providence. 

Spindalis zena Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 231, 1856 part, descr. 
et hab. Bahamas; Cory, Bds. Bahama Is., p. 92, 1880 New Providence, 

1 Birds from Great Bahama seem to be perfectly identical with those from 
Abaco. 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Long Island, and "Inagua"; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 169, 1886 
New Providence (descr.); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 195, 1886 Bahamas (descr.); 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 82, 1889 Bahamas; Northrop, Auk, 8, p. 70, 1891 
Andros; Cory, I.e., pp. 294, 295, 1891 New Providence and Berry 
Islands; Ridgway, I.e., pp. 335, 336, 337, 339, 1891 New Providence, 
Eleuthera, Cat Island, and Green Cay; Cory, I.e., 9, p. 48, 1892 Mari- 
guana; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 114, 1892 Bahamas (Berry Islands, 
New Providence, Andros, Cat Island, Long Island, Green Cay, Mari- 
guana); Bonhote, Ibis, 1899, p. 512 Nassau; Bangs, Auk, 17, p. 293, 1900 
Nassau, New Providence; Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 288 Nassau; Allen, 
Auk, 22, p. 128, 1905 New Providence and Andros (crit.); Riley, I.e., 
p. 359, 1905 New Providence and Long Island (song); idem, in Shattuck, 
The Bahama Islands, pp. 355, 367, 1905 Berry Islands, Eleuthera, New 
Providence, Andros, Green Cay, Cat Island, Long Island, and Mariguana; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1056, 1912 Bahamas. 

Tanagra multicolor Vieillot, 1 Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., livr. 91, p. 775, 1822 
part, descr. of "male" and hab. "Floride (errore) et les lies Bahama"; 
idem and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 1, (2), livr. 26, p. 100, pi. 76, 1823 part, 
descr. of adult male and hab. "en mer dans le canal de Bahama"; Lafres- 
naye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 278, 1847 part, Bahamas (crit.). 

Spindalis zena stejnegeri Cory, Auk, 8, p. 348, 1891 Eleuthera Island, Ba- 
hamas (type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); idem, I.e., p. 
351, 1891 Eleuthera; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 114, 152, 1892 
Eleuthera and Cat Island. 

Spindalis zena zena Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 70, 1902 
Bahamas (monog.); Todd and Worthington, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, pp. 

440, 463, 1911 New Providence, Cat Island, and Andros (habits, crit.). 
Range. Central Bahama Islands (Berry Islands, Eleuthera, 

New Providence, Andros, Green Cay, Cat Island, Long Island, and 
Mariguana). 2 

92: Bahamas (Andros, 48; Eleuthera, 18; Mariguana, 5; New 
Providence, 21). 

*Spindalis zena pretrei (Lesson). CUBAN SPINDALIS. 

Tanagra pretrei Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 122, pi. 45, 1831 "Bresil," errore, = 
Cuba (type in coll. of M. Parhuit, doubtless lost); idem, Rev. Zool., 2, 
p. 103, 1839 "Bresil" (crit.); Lafresnaye, I.e., 10, p. 278, 1847 Cuba 
(crit.). 

Tanagra zena (not Fringilla zena Linnaeus) Vigors, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, p. 

441, Dec., 1827 Cuba; d'Orbigny, in Sagra, Hist. Cuba, Orn., p. 74, pi. 
11, 1839 Cuba (excl. synon.). 

Spindalis zena Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 231, 1856 part, Cuba. 

1 Tanagra multicolor Vieillot, while comprising both S. zena and the His- 
paniolan Spindalis, appears to refer primarily to the first-named, since the author 
describes the back as being black. 

2 The variety S. z. stejnegeri seems to be an individual mutant without geo- 
graphical significance. In the material at hand I do not find that Andros speci- 
mens have less white in the tail, as has been claimed by G. M. Allen. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 241 

Spindalis pretrei Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 3, p. 476, 1855 Cuba (descr. of 
female and young male); idem, I.e., 20, p. 419, 1872 Cuba (descr., habits, 
nest, and eggs); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 196, 1886 Cuba (descr.); idem, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 83, 1889 Cuba (descr.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
4, p. 309, 1892 Trinidad, Cuba; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 68, 1902 Cuba and Isle of Pines (monog.); Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1056, 1912 Cuba; Todd, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 10, p. 281, 1916 Los Indies, Siguana, Caleta Grande, and Bibi- 
jagua, Isle of Pines (crit.); English, Ibis, 1916, p. 33, pi. 1, fig. 2 (male) 
Cuba; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 126, 1923 Cuba; Wetmore, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 38, 1923 Puerto de Tanamo, Cuba. 

Spindalis pretrii Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 168, 1886 San Cristobal, 
Cuba; Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 114, 129, 1892 Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Spindalis pretrei pinus Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 39, p. 213, 1905 
Santa Fe, Isle of Pines (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 406, 1930); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1056, 1912 Isle of Pines. 

Range. Island of Cuba and Isle of Pines, Greater Antilles. 1 
17: Cuba (near Palacios, 10; San Diego de los Bafios, 2; unspeci- 
fied, 3); Isle of Pines (La Vega, 2). 

*Spindalis zena salvini Cory. 2 SALVIN'S SPINDALIS. 

Spindalis salvini Cory, Auk, 3, p. 499, 1886 Grand Cayman, south of Cuba 
(type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); idem, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 289, 1889 Grand Cayman; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 114, 129, 152, 
1892 Grand Cayman; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 74, 
1902 (ex Cory); Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 346 Grand Cayman (crit.); idem, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 160 Grand Cayman; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1057, 1912 Grand Cayman; English, Ibis, 1916, p. 32, 
pi. 1, fig. 3 (male) Grand Cayman (habits, nest, and eggs); Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 318, 1916 Grand Cayman (crit.; descr. of female). 

Range. Grand Cayman Island, south of Cuba. 

30: Grand Cayman. 

*Spindalis zena benedicti Ridgway. 3 COZUMEL SPINDALIS. 

1 The average larger size of the specimens from the Isle of Pines is not con- 
stant enough, to my mind, to warrant the maintenance of S. p. pinus. 

2 Spindalis zena salvini Cory is much like S. z. pretrei in coloration, but larger 
in all its proportions. The adult males vary a good deal, some having just as 
much chestnut below as the Cuban form, while in others the chest is nearly uni- 
form lemon chrome. The female may generally be distinguished by its slightly 
paler, more grayish olive upper parts, in addition to its larger size. 

3 Spindalis zena benedicti Ridgway combines the dark coloration (back medal 
bronze with chestnut upper tail coverts) of S. z. townsendi with the large size of 
S. z. salvini, the bill being, however, even stouter and less constricted apically 
than in the latter. 

The reappearance on Cozumel Island of a form closely similar to the birds 
inhabiting the northern Bahamas tends to prove the conspecific relationship of 
S. zena, S. pretrei, and allied "species." 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Spindalis benedicti Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 3, p. 22, March 5, 1885 
Cozumel Island, Yucatan (type in U. S. National Museum) ; idem, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 567, 1885 Cozumel (full descr. of male and female); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 168, 1886 Cozumel; Salvin, Ibis, 
1888, p. 258 Cozumel (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 72, 1902 Cozumel (monog.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1057, 1912 Cozumel; English, Ibis, 1916, p. 33, pi. 1, 
fig. 1 Cozumel; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 236, p. 12, 1926 Cozumel. 

Spindalis exsul Salvin, Ibis, (5), 3, No. 10, p. 189, pi. 5 (male), April, 1885 
Cozumel Island (type, Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Museum). 

Range. Cozumel Island, off Yucatan. 
5: Cozumel Island. 

*Spindalis zena dominicensis (Bryant). 1 HISPANIOLAN 
SPINDALIS. 

Tanagra dominicensis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 11, p. 92, 1866 
San Domingo (type, from Port-au-Prince, Haiti, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 405, 1930). 

Tanagra multicolor Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., livr. 91, p. 775, 1822 
part, descr. of "female" and hab., "Saint-Domingue"; idem and Oudart, 
Galerie Ois., 1, (2), livr. 26, p. 100, 1823 part, descr. of "female" and 
hab., "Saint-Domingue"; Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 278, 1847 part, 
Saint-Domingue (crit.). 

Spindalis multicolor (not of Vieillot) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 
240, 1850 Santo Domingo (diag.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 230, 1856 Santo Domingo (monog.); Salle, I.e., 25, p. 231, 1857 
Santo Domingo; Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 152, 1881 Haiti; idem, 
Bds. Haiti and San Dom., p. 54, pi. [7], 1885 Haiti (Le Coup) and Santo 
Domingo (Puerto Plata); idem, Auk, 3, p. 196, 1886 Hispaniola (descr.); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 167, 1886 Santo Domingo; Tris- 
tram, Cat. Coll. Tristram, p. 220, 1889 Samana; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 
83, 1889 Hispaniola (descr.); idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 114, 1892 
Haiti and San Domingo; idem, Auk, 12, p. 279, 1895 Santo Domingo; 
Cherrie, Field Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 13, 1896 Catare and Agua- 
cate, Santo Domingo (descr. of young male); Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 323 
north of Sanchez; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 67, 1902 
Haiti (monog.); Verrill and Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 
363, 1909 Sanchez, Santo Domingo (habits) ; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1056, 1912 Hispaniola; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 61, p. 425, 1917 Bulla, Dominican Republic; Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 516, 1928 Massif de la Hotte, Massif de la Selle, 
Montagnes Noires, Massif du Nord, and Gonave, Haiti; Moltoni, Atti 
Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, p. 325, 1929 Monte Viejo, Haiti; Wetmore and 
Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 414, 1931 Hispaniola (monog.). 

1 Though easily recognizable by the wide light cadmium nuchal area of the 
adult male, striped under parts and yellowish rump of the female, as well as small, 
stout bill, I see in S. z. dominicensis only a well-marked race of the S. zena group. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 

Spindalis dominicensis Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 207, 
1925 (crit., nomencl.); Wetmore and Lincoln, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 82, 
art. 25, p. 62, 1933 La Hotte region, Haiti. 

Range. Island of Hispaniola (including Gonave Island), Greater 
Antilles. 

15: Hispaniola (Le Coup, Haiti, 2; Kenskoff, Haiti, 2; Puerto 
Plata, 2; Catare, 4; Aguacate, 5). 

*Spindalis zena portoricensis (Bryant). 1 PORTO RICAN 
SPINDALIS. 

Tanagra portoricensis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 10, p. 252, 1866 
Porto Rico (type lost, formerly in U. S. National Museum; cf. Bangs and 
Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 202, 1925). 

Spindalis portoricensis Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 168, 1878 Porto Rico; 
idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 188, 1878 Mayagiiez, Aguadilla, 
and Quebradillas, Porto Rico (habits); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 167, 1886 Porto Rico; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 197, 1886 Porto Rico (descr.); 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 84, 1889 Porto Rico; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., 
p. 114, 1892 Porto Rico; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 65, 1902 Porto Rico (monog.); Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 14, 1903 
Aguadilla, Mayagiiez, and Las Marias; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1056, 1912 Porto Rico; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. 
Agric., 326, p. 121, 1916 Porto Rico (food, habits); Struthers, Auk, 40, 
p. 478, 1923 Boqueron; Danforth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 10, 
p. 108, 1926 Porto Rico (habits); Wetmore, N. Y. Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico and Virgin Is., 9, p. 546, 1927 Porto Rico (monog.). 

Range. Island of Porto Rico, Greater Antilles. 
13: Porto Rico (Mayagiiez, 11; unspecified, 2). 

*Spindalis zena nigricephala (Jameson). 2 JAMAICAN SPINDALIS. 

Tanagra nigricephala Jameson, 3 Edinb. New Philos. Journ., 19, p. 213, 1835 
"West India Islands" = Jamaica (location of type not stated); idem, 
L'Institut, 3, p. 316, Sept., 1835 (French translation); Gosse, Illust. Bds. 
Jamaica, pi. 56, 1849. 

1 Spindalis zena portoricensis (Bryant) is another strongly marked race, not 
unlike S. 2. dominicensis in coloration, but with larger bill; the male with a much 
narrower, more orange nuchal collar, the rump green like the back, and the chest- 
nut prepectoral band replaced by a small orange spot, etc. 

2 This is the most distinct member of the group, immediately recognizable 
by its large size, reduction of white in the tail, and the yellow under parts (ex- 
cluding the pale gray throat and whitish crissum) in the female sex. To orni- 
thologists of the old school it will no doubt rank as an excellent species. 

3 An earlier name is possibly Fringitta cana Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 
920, 1789), based on "Le Serin de la Jamaique" Brisson (Orn., 3, p. 189, 1760), 
which, in its turn, goes back to a bird described by Sloane (Voy. Jamaica, 2, 
p. 311, No. XLIX, 1725). Sloane's account applies fairly well to the female of 
S. z. nigricephala, but there are some discrepancies as to certain proportions, 
which makes me hesitate to adopt Gmelin's term. 



244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Spindalis bilineatus Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., (n.s.), Part 2, pi. 9, May, 
1837 Jamaica (type in coll. of Sir W. Jardine, present location unknown). 

Tanagra zenoides (Lafresnaye MS.) Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 7, pi. 40, after 
Jan., 1847 Jamaica (type in Paris Museum); Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 
10, p. 279, 1847 Jamaica (crit.). 

Tanagra zena (not Fringilla zena Linnaeus) Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 231, 1847 
Jamaica (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Spindalis nigricephala Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 240, 1850 
Jamaica (diag.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 230, 1856 Jamaica 
(monog.); idem, I.e., 1861, p. 74 Jamaica; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 77, 1862 Jamaica; March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 296 
Jamaica (nest and eggs); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 166, 1886 
Jamaica (Spanishtown, Moneague, Metcalf Parish); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 
198, 1886 Jamaica (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 85, 1889 (monog.); 
idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 114, 1892 Jamaica; Scott, Auk, 10, p. 180, 
1893 Stony Hill and Priestman's River; Field, Auk, 11, p. 127, 1894 
Port Henderson; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 64, 1902 
(monog.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1055, 1912 
Jamaica; Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 490, 1928 Lumsden, Jacksontown, 
and Mandeville. 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 
26: Jamaica. 

Genus RAMPHOCELUS Desmarest ' 

Ramphocelus Desmarest, Hist. Nat. Tang., livr. 1, text to pi. 28, p. [1], 1805 

type, by subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 148, 1855), 

Tanagra bresilia Linnaeus. 
Ramphopis Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 32, 1816 type, by mono- 

typy, "Bec-d'argent" Buffon=Laniws carbo Pallas. 
Jacapa Gray, 2 Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 72, 1855 type, by tautonymy, 

Tanagra jacapa Linnaeus=Lemiws carbo Pallas. 
Ramphocoelus Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., p. 21, 1873 

emendation of Ramphocelus Desmarest. 

*Ramphocelus bresilius bresilius (Linnaeus). BRAZILIAN 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra bresilia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 314, 1766 based on 
Brisson, Edwards, Marcgrave, etc.; "in India Occidentali et Orientali," 
errore; we suggest Pernambuco, eastern Brazil (ex Marcgrave). 

*To this genus probably belong Loxia laticauda P. L. S. Miiller (Natursyst., 
Suppl, p. 151, 1776), Loxia flabellum Boddaert (Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 23, 1783), and 
Loxia flabellif era Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 850, 1789). They are all based on 
"Gros-Becs appellfe queue en eventail, de Virginie" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 380, 
which looks very much like the female of some Ramphocelus. 

2 Jacapa Bonaparte (Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 178, 1851) obviously is not 
proposed in a generic sense, while that name published by the same author in 
1854 is a nomen nudum. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 245 

Ramphocelus coccineus Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., livr. 91, p. 797, 1822 
based on "Le Cardinal" Brisson (Orn., 3, p. 42, pi. 3, fig. 1; Mexico and 
Brazil) and "Le Tangara du Mexique" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 127, fig. 
1; "Bresil." 

Ramphopis coccineus Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 2, pi. 18 (male), 19 (female), 
1834 Brazil. 

Tanagra brasilia Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 511, 1830 eastern 
Brazil (part, descr.). 

Ramphocelus brasilia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 242, 1850 
Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 173, 1856 Brazil (in 
part). 

R(h)amphoc(o)elus brasilius Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 127, 1856 
part, descr. and hab. Bahia; Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 333 Pernambuco 
(Recife; road from Iguarassu to Olinda) and Parahyba (as far as Catende); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 170, 1886 part, spec, a-k, Pernam- 
buco and Bahia; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 40 near Bahia; Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 358, 1907 part, Pernambuco, Bahia, and "Piauhy"; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1057, 1912 Pernambuco 
and Bahia; Lima, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 101, 1920 Ilhe"os to Bel- 
monte, Bahia; Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 589, 1933 part, Pernam- 
buco to Bahia (crit.). 

Ramphocelus bresilius bresilius Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 130, 
1915 Bahia to Pernambuco. 

Range. Wooded region of eastern Brazil, from Bahia (Ilhe'os) 
north to Parahyba. 1 

7: Brazil (Santo Amaro, Bahia, 2; Bahia, 5). 

*Ramphocelus bresilius dorsalis Sclater. 2 SADDLE TANAGER. 

1 Additional material examined. Brazil: Sao Lourengo, Pernambuco, 2; 
Bahia, 16. 

2 Ramphocelus bresilius dorsalis Sclater: Adult male similar to R. b. bresilius, 
but interscapular region tinged with morocco red or garnet brown, this area more 
or less contrasting with the scarlet red of the pileum and rump; female not certainly 
distinguishable. 

Birds from Espirito Santo sometimes approach the nominate race, but as a 
whole are much nearer to the form of southern Brazil. Specimens from the 
extreme southern part of the range tend to be slightly larger. The types of R. 
ephippialis and R. dorsalis differ from all other examples examined by having 
the black subapical markings on the interscapulars much more extensive, leaving but 
narrow dark red apical margins and causing a coarse black spotting. The type of 
R. ephippialis is a perfectly adult male with bluish white basal half of the lower 
mandible. Its origin is quite doubtful. The type of R. dorsalis, prepared like a 
Bahia trade-skin (!), bears in the body plumage numerous brownish feathers 
remains of the juvenile livery and has the bill uniform horn brown. That 
these two birds belong to one and the same form appears to me beyond doubt; 
but whether the black spotting of the upper back signifies more than individual 
variation remains to be ascertained by a larger series. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Espirito Santo (yictoria, Santa Izabel), 
6; Santa Fe, Minas Geraes, 1; Rio de Janeiro, 5; Petropolis, 1; Sapitiba, Rio, 2; 
Pirahy, Rio, 2; Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo, 4; Iguape, Sao Paulo, 1; Rio do Boraxudo, 
Parana, 1; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 3; unspecified, 2. 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ramphocelus dorsalis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 22, "1854," p. 97, pub. 
April, 1855 "in imp. Brasiliensi" (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum, examined); idem, I.e., 24, p. 127, 1856 southeast Brazil, 
Rio and "Pernambuco" (errore); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 78, 1862 
Brazil; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 171, 1886 southern Brazil 
(Parana). 

Ramphocelus ephippialis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 130 "in 
rip. fl. Amazonum sup.," errore (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum, examined); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 78, 1862 
"upper Amazon"; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 210, 1870 Sapitiba (Rio de 
Janeiro) and Rio do Boraxudo (Parana). 

Tanagra brasilia (not of Linnaeus) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 511, 
1830 part, Rio de Janeiro, Cabo Frio, and Parahyba (not the description). 

Ramphocelus brasilia Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 173, 1856 
part, Rio Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. 

R(h)amphoc(o)elus brasilius Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 127, 1856 
part, Rio; Euler, Journ. Orn., 15, p. 409, 1867 Cantagallo (nest and 
eggs descr.); Cabanis, I.e., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 170, 1886 part, spec, l-o, Santa Fe 
(Minas Geraes), Nova Friburgo, Rio Claro, "Goyaz," and Sao Paulo; 
Boucard and Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 Porto Real, 
Rio; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 151, 1899 Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; 
idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 358, 1907 part, Victoria, Espirito Santo; Berlioz, 
L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 589, 1933 part, Porto Real and "Rio de la Plata," 
errore (crit.). 

Rhamphocelus brasilius dorsalis Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 358, 1907 
Espirito Santo (Rio Doce), Sao Paulo (Sao Sebastiao, Cubatao, Santos, 
Ubatuba), and Santa Catharina (Sao Francisco); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1057, 1136, 1912 Espirito Santo and 
Minas Geraes to Santa Catharina; Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, 
p. 129, 1915 Braco do Sul, near Victoria, Espirito Santo (crit., range). 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Espirito 
Santo and southern Minas Geraes to Santa Catharina. 
11: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 11). 

*Ramphocelus nigrogularis (Spix). BLACK-THROATED TANAGER. 

Tanagra nigrogularis Spix, Av. Bras. Spec. Nov., 2, p. 35, pi. 47 (=male), 1825 
"ad flumen Solimoens in sylvis pagi St. Pauli" = Sao Paulo de Olivenca, 
Rio Solimoes, Brazil (type in Munich Museum; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 
Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 2. KL, 22, No. 3, p. 670, 1906). 

Tanagra (Ramphocelus) ignescens Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 77, pi. 24, l 1831 
"Mexico," errore (type in Paris Museum). 

Tanagra ignescens Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 7, el. 2, text to pi. 81, p. 3, 1837 
(crit.). 

1 "Tanagra (Ramphopis) ignescens" on the plate. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 247 

Ramphopis nigro-gularis Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 2, pi. 17, 1834 Brazil. 

Ramphocelus 1 nigrogularis* Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 121, 
"1837" [=1838] "that portion of Brazil, bordering on Peru" (crit.); 
idem, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 242, 1850 Brazil and "Mexico"; Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 173, 1856 Rio Solimoes; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 128, 1856 Barra do Rio Negro, Brazil, 
and Sarayacu, Peru; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 78, 1862 Barra do 
Rio Negro; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 180 upper 
Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, pp. 571, 593, 977 right bank of the Rio 
Negro and Pebas, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 210, 1870 Borba (Rio 
Madeira), Barra do Rio Negro, and Manaqueri (Rio Solimoes), Brazil; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 262 Peru (Sarayacu, 
upper Ucayali, lakes of Santa Cruz, Pebas); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, 
p. 491, 1884 Peru (Sarayacu, Ucayali, Santa Cruz, Pebas, Moyobamba, 
Iquitos); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 171, 1886 Barra do Rio 
Negro, Pebas, Ucayali, Iquitos, Sarayacu, Rio Javarri, and eastern Ecua- 
dor (Sarayacu, Rio Napo); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 297, 1889 
Shanusi, near Yurimaguas, Peru; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 
71, 1889 Rio Napo, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 467 Coca and 
Tiputini, Rio Napo, Ecuador; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 45, 1907 
Teffe, Rio Solimoes, Brazil; idem, I.e., 14, p. 348, 1907 [Borba], Rio 
Madeira; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 359, 1907 (range); Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 55, p. 294, 1907 Cussary and Monte Alegre, Brazil; idem, 
I.e., 56, p. 10, 1908 Brazil, Rio Purus (Bom Lugar, Monte Verde, Ponto 
Alegre); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 275, 1910 Allianca, Rio Madeira; 
Me'ne'gaux, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 1911 Tocache, Rio Huallaga, 
Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1061, 1912 
(range); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 520, 1913 Monte Alegre; idem, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 449, 1914 Cussary, Rio Purtis (Bom Lugar, 
Monte Verde, Ponto Alegre), and Monte Alegre, Brazil; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 609, 1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; 
idem, I.e., 55, p. 675, 1926 Rio Suno, Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Sarayacu, Ecuador; idem, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 
3, p. 589, 1933 eastern Ecuador and northern Peru (crit.). 

Range. Northern Brazil, east to Monte Alegre on the north 
bank, and Cussary on the south bank of the Amazon, south to the 
upper Purus; eastern Peru; eastern Ecuador; southeastern Colombia 
(La Morelia, Caqueta). 3 

1: Peru (Pozuzo, Huanuco, 1). 

1 Variously spelled Ramphocelus, Ramphocoelus, Rhamphocelus, or Rham- 
phocoelus. 

2 Frequently spelled nigrigularis. 

3 Specimens from various parts of the range agree. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Borba, Rio Madeira, 6; Teff6, Rio 
Solimoes, 4; Manaqueri, Rio Solimoes, 2; Sao Paulo de Olivenca, Rio Solimoes, 
1 (the type); Manaos, 1; Hyutanahan, Rio Purus, 2. Peru: Rio Tigre, 2; Iquitos, 
2. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 4; Coca, 2; Rio Napo, 2. 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Ramphocelus carbo atrosericeus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 1 
BOLIVIAN SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER. 

Ramphocelus atrosericeus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 34, 1837 Yungas and "Chiquitos," Bolivia (type, from 
Yungas, in Paris Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., 
p. 280, pi. 26, fig. 1 (adult male), 1839 Yungas (Chupe), Guarayos, 
Moxos, and "Chiquitos," Bolivia; 2 Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, 
"1837," p. 121, 1838 Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 79, 1862 Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 353, 1876 
Coroico [Yungas of La Paz], Bolivia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1879, p. 600 Yungas (Chupe, Ramosani), Yuracares, Guarayos, 
Moxos, and "Chiquitos," Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 
175, 1886 part, Bolivia (Ramosani); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, 
p. 82, 1889 Mapiri, "Falls of the Madeira," and "Reyes, Beni River," 
Bolivia; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1059, 1912 
Bolivia ("Chiquitos," Ramosani, Moxos, San Mateo, Songo, Espirito 
Santo); Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 591, 1933 Bolivia (crit.). 

Ramphocelus atrisericeus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 242, 1850 
Bolivia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 130, 1856 part, descr. and 
hab. Bolivia. 

Ramphocelus carbo atrosericeus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 1, 1925 Yungas 
and Yuracares, Bolivia (note on type). 

Ramphocelus aterrimus Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 244, 1853 
Bolivia (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 
407, 1930;= female). 

Range. Tropical and lower Subtropical zone of Bolivia. 
4: Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 3; unspecified, 1). 

*Ramphocelus carbo centralis Hellmayr. 3 BRAZILIAN SILVER- 
BEAKED TANAGER. 

1 Ramphocelus carbo atrosericeus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny is the most strongly 
characterized race of the group. While differing in the male sex from R. c. con- 
nectens and R. c. centralis merely by the deeper (velvety) black coloration of the 
back, upper wing coverts, and lower under parts with the red gular area abruptly 
defined posteriorly, and much duller pileum, the female is at once recognizable 
by the uniform dusky black plumage, occasionally relieved by dull red edges 
to the feathers of the abdomen. Nine sexed specimens from Bolivia clearly show 
this to be the plumage of the adult female. The immature male is nearly similar. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Songo, Yungas of La Paz, 2; Omeja, 
Yungas of La Paz, 1; Yungas, 2 (including the type); Guarayos, 1; Espirito Santo, 
Yungas of Cochabamba, 2; San Mateo, Yungas of Cochabamba, 20. 

2 The description of the "female" as given by d'Orbigny probably refers to 
R. c. centralis, which may extend into Chiquitos, one of his localities, whence, 
however, no specimens exist in the Paris Museum. 

3 Ramphocelus carbo centralis Hellmayr: Closely similar to R. c. connectens, 
but with longer wings and tail; throat and foreneck in adult males deeper red, in 
females darker brown and less suffused with reddish anteriorly. Wing (adult 
males), 83-90; tail, 82-90. 

As is the case in all of the other races, individual specimens may occur that 
are not certainly distinguishable from R. c. carbo. A striking example of this 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 249 

Ramphocelus carbo centralis Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 26 
(footnote), Nov., 1920 Agua Suja, near Bagagem, Minas Geraes, Brazil 
(type in Munich Museum); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 
375, 1930 Matto Grosso (Descalvados, Urucum, Palmiras, Tapirapoan, 
Fazenda do Sao Joao, Rio Sao Lourengo, Campos Novos, Juruena, Siete 
de Septembre, Barao Melgago). 

Ramphocelus atrosericeus (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Pelzeln, Orn. 
Bras., 3, p. 211, 1870 Sao Paulo (Rio das Pedras, Rio Parana), Goyaz 
(Goyaz City), and Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Villa Maria, Engenho do 
Gama, Matto Grosso); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 
1870, p. 429 Sete Lagoas (Minas Geraes) and Batataes (Sao Paulo); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 356, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; 
Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 94 Passage de Nigro and off Rabicho, Rio Para- 
guay, Matto Grosso. 

Rhamphocelus jacapa centralis Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien, 76, p. 185, 1925 part, Bahia (Barra, Alagoinhas). 

Rhamphocoelus jacapa (not Tanagra jacapa Linnaeus) Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 174, 1886 part, b', c', Bahia and Goyaz. 

Ramphocelus jacapa connectens (not of Berlepsch and Stolzmann) Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 13, p. 16, 1906 part, Brazil. 

R(h)amphocelus carbo connectens Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 359, 1907 
Sao Paulo (Jaboticabal, Bauru, Rio Feio, Barretos), Matto Grosso (Cha- 
pada), Goyaz, and Parang (Ourinho); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 28, 
1908 Fazenda Esperanca and Goyaz, Goyaz; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th In- 
tern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1058, 1912 part, Matto Grosso (Chapada, 
Descalvados), Rio Parana, and Bahia; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 
Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay. 

Rhamphocoelus jacapa connectens Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 85, 1910 part, Bahia (Barra; Alagoinhas). 

Range. Tableland of Brazil, in states of Bahia (south of the 
Serra de Tabatinga) and Minas Geraes, southward to the northern 
parts of Sao Paulo and Parana, west to Matto Grosso and the 
adjacent districts of Paraguay (Puerto Bertoni); (?)eastern Bolivia 
(Chiquitos). 

14: Brazil (Chapada, Matto Grosso, 5; Descalvados, Paraguay 
River, 1; Piraputunga, Matto Grosso, 3; Veadeiros, Goyaz, 4; Sao 
Marcello, Bahia, 1). 

mutation is an adult male from Rio Parana, Sao Paulo (May 24, 1823), collected 
by Natterer, which has the body plumage tinged all over with claret brown, and 
cannot be told from Guianan birds picked at random. 

Additional material examined. Minas Geraes: Agua Suja, near Bagagem, 
3; Rio Jordao, near Araguary, 2. Sao Paulo: Fazenda Cayoa, Salto Grande do 
Rio Paranapanema, 1; Rio Parana, 3; Rio das Pedras, 2. Goyaz: Goyaz City, 4; 
Fazenda Esperanga, 3. Matto Grosso: Chapada, 9; Cuyaba, 1; Villa Maria, 1; 
Engenho do Gama, 1. 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Ramphocelus carbo connectens Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 
PERUVIAN SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER. 

Rhamphocelus jacapa connectens Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 344 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru (type in coll. of 
H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum, examined); idem, Ornis, 
13, pp. 81, 110, 1906 Santa Ana, Idma, Huaynapata, San Pedro, and 
Escopal, Dept. Cuzco; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 16, 1906 part, Peru. 

Ramphocelus carbo connectens Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, pp. 1058, 1136, 1912 part, central and southeastern Peru (crit.); 
Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 25, 1920 Chaquimayo, 
Carabaya (crit.); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 120, 1921 
Rio Comberciato, Santa Ana, and Idma, Urubamba; Zimmer, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 448, 1930 Rio Colorado (Chanchamayo) 
and Puerto Bermudez (Huanuco); Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 591, 
1933 Urubamba (crit.). 

Ramphocelus atrosericeus (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Tschudi, Unters. 
Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 206, 1846 Peru; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 130, 1856 part, Peru (ex Tschudi); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1873, 
p. 185 Cosnipata; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 512 Monterico, Ayacucho 
(descr. of nest and eggs); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1876, p. 16 Maranura 
and Potrero, Urubamba; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 493, 1884 Mon- 
terico, Cosnipata, Maranura, Potrero, Chanchamayo, Montanas del 
Pangoa, and San Gaban; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 175, 1886 
part, southern Peru. 

Ramphocoelus jacapa (not Tanagra jacapa Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata (spec, examined). 

Range. Tropical and lower Subtropical zone of eastern Peru, 
from Huanuco south to Carabaya. 

6: Peru (Puerto Bermudez, Huanuco, 1; Rio Colorado, Chan- 
chamayo, 3; San Ramon, Chanchamayo, 1; Urubamba Valley, 1). 

*Ramphocelus carbo carbo (Pallas). SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER. 

Lanius (Carbo) Pallas, in Vroeg, Cat. Rais. d'Ois., Adumbr., p. 2, 1764 Suri- 
nam (type in coll. Vroeg, doubtless lost). 

Tanagra jacapa Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 313, 1766 based on 
"The Red-breasted Black-Bird" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 120, 

1 Ramphocelus carbo connectens Berlepsch and Stolzmann, in the male sex, 
differs from R. c. carbo by duller, less reddish coloration, the back, upper wing 
coverts, and posterior lower parts being either dull blackish or but faintly glossed 
with maroon. It thus approaches R. c. atrosericeus, but is not so deep velvety 
black with the top and sides of the head more decidedly maroon, while the red 
gular area, instead of being abruptly defined posteriorly, blends with the color of 
the remaining under surface. Some individuals, however, irrespective of localities, 
are not separable from certain exceptionally dull-colored Guianan examples. 

Additional material examined. Huanuco: Pozuzo, 4. Junfn: La Merced, 
Chanchamayo, 7. Cuzco: Cosnipata, 5; Maranura, 1; Huiro, Urubamba, 4; 
Santa Ana, Urubamba, 2; Chiri Nayo, Marcapata, 1; Chaquimayo, Carabaya, 5. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 251 

pi. 267 (Surinam); Lanius carbo Pallas; and "Jacapu" Marcgrave, Hist. 
Nat. Bras., p. 192 (northeastern Brazil). 1 

Tanagra pompadura P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 159, 1776 based on 
"Tangara pourpr6, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 128, fig. 1. 

Tanagra albirostris Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 8, 1783 based on Daubenton, 
PI. Enl., pi. 128, figs. 1, 2; Cayenne. 

Ramphocelus purpureus Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., livr. 91, p. 796, 1822 
new name for Tanagra jacapa Linnaeus. 

Ramphopis atro-coccineus Swainson, Orn. Draw., Part 2, pi. 20, 1834 Brazil 
(type probably in the Swainson Collection, University Museum, Cam- 
bridge, Engl.); Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 668, 
1848 British Guiana. 

Ramphocelus jacapa Lesson, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 132, 1840 "Guyane et Br6sil"; 
Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 241, 1850 Cayenne and Brazil; Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 172, 1856 Para, Guiana, etc.; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 128, 1856 British Guiana, Cayenne, 
and lower Amazon (diag.) ; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 78, 1862 Ecuador 
(Gualaquiza, Rio Napo), Cayenne, and Para; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 180 Nauta and upper Ucayali, Peru; idem, 
I.e., 1867, p. 571 Mexiana and Para; idem, I.e., 1867, pp. 749, 977 
Xeberos and Pebas, Peru; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 379 Para; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 262 Nauta, upper Ucayali, Yuri- 
maguas, Xeberos, Chyavetas, and Pebas, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, 
p. 14 Huambo and Yurimaguas, Peru (crit.; eggs descr.); Allen, Bull. 
Essex Inst., 8, p. 78, 1876 Para; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 491, 1884 
Peru (Ucayali, Xeberos, Moyobamba, Nauta, Huambo, Yurimaguas); 
idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 81 Machay and 
Mapoto, Ecuador; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 210 British Guiana (Bartica 
Grove, Merum6 Mountains, Camacusa, Roraima) ; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 174, 1886 part, spec, a-w, British Guiana, Cayenne, Oyapoc, 
Mexiana, Para, Peru (Nauta, Pebas), and Ecuador (Rio Napo, Sarayacu, 
Gualaquiza); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, pp. 99, 297, 1889 Fonte Boa 
(Rio Solimoes), Brazil, and Yarina Cocha (Ucayali) and Tarapoto, Peru; 
Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 SantarSm; Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, 
pp. 155, 162 Counany and Amapa, Brazil; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 17, 1899 Gualaquiza and Zamora, 
Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 467 Archidona and Coca, Ecuador; 
Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 20, 1902 Venezuela, Orinoco 
Valley (Perico, Maipures, Samborge, Munduapo, Caicara) and Caura 
River (Suapure, La Pricidn); Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 499 Rio Capim, Para; 
Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 182, 1904 Saint Georges 
d'Oyapock and Sinnamary, French Guiana; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 
274, 1905 Igarape-Assu, Para; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 
1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 27, 1907 
Mexiana Island; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 294, 1907 Amapa, Mexi- 
ana, Marajo, Para, Rio Moju, and Santo Antonio do Prata, Brazil. 

1 Brisson's "Le grand Gobe-mouche noir de Cayenne," also quoted by Lin- 
naeus, is a chatterer, Querula purpurata (P. L. S. Muller). 



252 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Rampkocelus jacapa jacapa Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 16, 1906 (range). 

Ramphocelus albirostris Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 210, 1870 Ribeirao (Rio 
Madeira), Barra do Rio Negro, and Marabitanas, Brazil. 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
26, p. 73, 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador (female); Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 10, p. 182, 1904 Macouria, French Guiana (spec, examined). 

Ramphocelus carbo Richmond, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 344, 1905 (nomencl.); 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 359, 1907 part, Rio Jurua; Berlepsch, 
Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 115, 317, 1908 Cayenne, Isle le Pere, and Approuague, 
French Guiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, pp. 499, 523, 1908 Goyana, 
Tapajoz, and Arumatheua, Tocantins, Brazil; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 448, 1914 Para, Mocajatuba, Providencia, Ananindeua, Benevides, 
Peixe-Boi, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Moju, Rio Tocantins (Cameta, 
Arumatheua), Rio Xingu (Victoria, Forte Ambe), Rio Tapajoz (Boim, 
Goyana), Rio Purus (Bom Lugar), Marajo (Sao Natal), Mexiana, Amapa, 
Monte Alegre, Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Obidos, and 
Maranhao; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1057, 
1912 (range); Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 519, 1921 British Guiana 
(Ituribisci River, Mazaruni, Demerara, Roraima, etc.); Snethlage, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 Maranhao (Anil, Sao 
Ben to, Tury-assu). 

Ramphocelus carbo carbo Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 357, 1906 Santo An- 
tonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 17, p. 275, 1910 Calama and Santa 
Izabel, Rio Madeira (nest and eggs descr.); idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., Math.-Phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 11, 87, 100, 119, 1912 Peixe-Boi, 
Para localities, and Mexiana; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
14, p. 8, 1908 French Guiana; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, 
p. 178, 1916 Orinoco and Caura valleys, Venezuela; Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 2, p. 100, 1916 Utinga, Para; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. 
H., 36, p. 609, 1917 east slope above Florencia, Florencia, and La 
Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, p. 88, 1918 Surinam (vicinity of Paramaribo, Lelydorp, Javaweg); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 675, 1926 Ecuador (Zamora, 
Macas region, Rio Suno, San Jose) and Peru (Perico, Rio Chinchipe); 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 175, 1928 Para; Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 282, 1929 Maranhao (Anil; 
Barra do Corda; Codo, Cocos; Sao Francisco) and Piauhy (Santa Philo- 
mena; Rio Taquarussu); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 374, 
1930 Sao Joao, lower Rio Roosevelt; Chapman, I.e., 63, p. 131, 1931 
Paulo and Arabupu, Roraima. 

Ramphocelus carbo connectens (not of Berlepsch and Stolzmann) Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 56, p. 10, 1908 Bom Lugar, Rio Purus; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1058, 1912 part, Piauhy (Santa 
Philomena); Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 461, 1918 Perico and Bella- 
vista, Peru. 

Rhamphocoelus jacapa connectens Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 85, 1910 part, Piauhy (Boa Vista, near Brejao; Rio 
Taquarussu). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 253 

Rhamphocelus jacapa centralis (not Ramphocelus carbo centralis Hellmayr) 

Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 185, 1925 

part, Piauhy (Brejao and Santa Philomena). 
Ramphocelus unicolor (not of Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

26, p. 453, 1858 Gualaquiza and Zamora, Ecuador. 
Ramphocelus carbo venezuelensis (not of Lafresnaye) Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 

Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1058, 1912 part, Caura and Orinoco, 

Venezuela. 
Jacapa purpureus Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 31, 1857 

Cayenne. 
Rhamphocelus luciani (not of Lafresnaye) M6negaux, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 2, 

p. 10, 1911 part, spec, ex Tocache, Peru (spec, examined). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; southern Venezuela 
(Orinoco basin and its tributaries) ; northern Brazil, east to Maranhao 
and Piauhy, south to the sources of the Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, and 
to extreme northern Matto Grosso (lower Rio Roosevelt) ; northern 
Peru; eastern Ecuador; and southeastern Colombia (Caqueta). 1 

29: British Guiana (Mazaruni River, 2; Potaro, 3); Dutch 
Guiana (Paramaribo, 3); French Guiana (Saint-Jean-du-Maroni, 
2); Brazil (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 3; Utinga, Para, 3; Manaos, 
2; Anil, Maranhao, 2; Barra do Corda, Maranhao, 1; Codo, Cocos, 
Maranhao, 2; Sao Francisco, Maranhao, 2); Colombia (La Morelia, 
Caqueta, 1); Peru (Yurimaguas, 3). 

*Ramphocelus carbo venezuelensis Lafresnaye. 2 VENEZUELAN 
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER. 

1 Birds from the three Guianas, eastern Venezuela (Caura Valley), and Brazil 
north of the Amazon agree well together, showing the same limits of variation. 
Males from Para, Maranhao, Piauhy, and the Rio Madeira tend somewhat in 
the direction of R. c. centralis, though by far the greater majority cannot be 
separated from the Guianan series. Of two adult males from Leopoldina (head- 
waters of the Rio Araguaya), Goyaz, one is an ultratypical carbo, while the other 
might just as well be referred to centralis. Birds from eastern Ecuador compare 
well with the Guianan average, while those from northern Peru are generally 
rather duller, thus verging toward connectens. On the upper Orinoco carbo 
passes into venezuelensis, four adult males being like Guianan specimens, whereas 
two others are hardly distinguishable from the excessively red venezuelensis. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana (Cayenne, Roche-Marie, Isle 
le Pere, Approuague, Saint-Jean-du-Maroni), 18. Dutch Guiana: Albina, -6; 
near Paramaribo, 8. British Guiana: Rpraima, 3; Merum6 Mountains, 3. 
Venezuela: Caura Valley (La Pricion, La Uni6n, SuapurS, La Vuelta), 15; Maipures, 
Orinoco, 2; Perico, Orinoco, 7. Ecuador: Coca, 3; Rio Napo, 3; Rio Suno, 4. 
Peru: Iquitos, 5; Loretoyacu, 3; Sarayacu, 4; Xeberos, 1; upper Ucayali, 5; 
Huayabamba, 3. Brazil: Fonte Boa, Rio Solimpes, 1; Calama, Rio Madeira, 3; 
Ribeirao, Rio Madeira, 1; Manaos, 1; Para region, 12; Miritiba, Maranhao, 1; 
Brejao, Piauhy, 1; Rio Taquarussu, near Santa Philomena, Piauhy, 4; Leopoldina, 
Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, 3. 

2 Ramphocelus carbo venezuelensis Lafresnaye: Closely similar to R. c. carbo, 
but males with upper parts brighter and nearly uniform maroon from forehead to 
tail coverts; throat and foreneck more brilliantly garnet brown with a touch of 



254 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ramphocelus venezuelensis Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 243, 1853 
Venezuela (type, from Caracas, in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 407, 1930); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 129, 1856 
Venezuela (ex Lafresnaye); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 79, 1862 
Venezuela; idem and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Vene- 
zuela= Caracas. 

Ramphocelus unicolor Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 128, Aug., 1856 
"New Grenada, Bogota" (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum); idem, I.e., 25, p. 19, 1857 "Bogota"; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 79, 1862 "New Grenada." 

Rhamphocelus jacapa (not Tanagra jacapa Linnaeus) Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 174, 1886 part, spec, x-a', "Bogota," Colombia; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 307 "Villa Vicencia, Llanos 
San Martin," Colombia. 

Rhamphocelus magnirostris (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 175, 1886 part, spec, d', e', Caracas, Venezuela. 

Ramphocelus jacapa venezueknsis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 16, 1906 
north coast of Venezuela at San Esteban (diag.). 

Ramphocelus carbo venezuelensis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1058, 1912 part, Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; Hellmayr and 
Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, pp. 61, 62, 1912 San Esteban and 
Las Quiguas, Carabobo, and San Cristobal, Tachira, Venezuela 
(crit., range); Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 590, 1933 Venezuela (crit.). 

Ramphocelus jacapa unicolor Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 16, 1906 Colombia 
("Bogota") and Merida, Venezuela (diag.). 

Ramphocelus carbo unicolor Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1058, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota") and Andes of Merida, Venezuela; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 610, 1917 Buena Vista and 
Villavicencio, Colombia; Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 590, 1933 
"Bogota" (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and lower Subtropical zone of the Vene- 
zuelan mountain ranges from Caracas to Tachira and of the eastern 
slope of the eastern Andes of Colombia. 

8: Venezuela (Macuto, Caracas, 5; Maracay, Aragua, 1; un- 
specified, 1); Colombia (Bogota, 1). 

carmine; breast and abdomen likewise brighter red. Wing (adult males), 75-80; 
tail, 73-80. 

Though some of the most brightly colored individuals from Guiana (typical 
carbo) come very close, the present form is generally readily recognizable by its 
brighter and more uniform red plumage. On comparing satisfactory series from 
northern Venezuela and Colombia, I fail to discover any constant difference, 
and am compelled to unite unicolor to the earlier venezuelensis. As stated under 
R. c. carbo, birds from the upper Orinoco (Perico, Maipures) are exactly intermedi- 
ate between carbo and venezuelensis, and it is a matter of personal preference to 
refer them to one rather than the other race. 

Material examined. Venezuela: "Caracas," 1; vicinity of Puerto Cabello, 
8; San Esteban, Carabobo, 10; Valencia, Carabobo, 1; Aricagua, Tachira, 1; 
San Cristobal, Tachira, 5. Colombia: Buena Vista, 4; "Bogota," 29. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 255 

Ramphocelus carbo capitalis Allen. 1 ALLEN'S SILVER-BEAKED 
TANAGER. 

Ramphocelus atrosericeus capitalis Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 51, 
1892 El Pilar, near Carupano [Sucre], Venezuela (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 178, 1916 Las Barrancas, north bank of lower Orinoco (crit.). 

Ramphocelus carbo capitalis Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 
5, p. 62, 1912 northeastern Venezuela (crit.). 

Ramphocelus jacapa magnirostris (not of Lafresnaye) Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 
1897 Cumanacoa, Caripe, and San Antonio, Monagas; Hellmayr, Nov. 
Zool., 13, p. 16, 1906 part, northeastern Venezuela ("Cumana" and 
Guanoco); Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 103, 1909 Guanoco and La 
Brea, Orinoco Delta (nesting). 

Ramphocelus carbo magnirostris Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1058, 1912 part, northeastern Venezuela ("Cumana" and 
Guanoco) ; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 178, 1916 Guanoco. 

Ramphocelus carbo (not Lanius carbo Pallas) Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 65, p. 210, 1913 Cariaquito and Pedernales (Paria Peninsula), 
Buelte Triste (Manimo River), and Guinipa, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela. 

Range. Tropical zone of northeastern Venezuela, from the 
Paria Peninsula and the hinterland of Cumand to the delta region 
of the Orinoco (Las Barrancas, Guanoco, La Brea). 

*Ramphocelus carbo magnirostris Lafresnaye. 2 TRINIDAD 
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER. 

Ramphocelus magnirostris Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 243, 1853 
"in Sanctae-Trinitatis insula" (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 

1 Ramphocelus carbo capitalis Allen: Readily distinguished in the male sex 
from R. c. carbo and R. c. magnirostris by nearly blackish back, wing and tail 
coverts; much lighter and more brilliant (nearly nopal red) color of throat and 
foreneck; extensively blackish belly. In general coloration much like R. c. con- 
nectens, but smaller, the red of the gular area much paler as well as more brilliant, 
and the sides of the breast more strongly washed with red. Wing (males), 76-81; 
tail, 74-79. 

Birds from Maturin and Guanoco (Orinoco Delta) agree perfectly with a 
topotypical series, though some individuals have rather larger bills, thus verging 
to magnirostris (of Trinidad). 

Material examined. Venezuela: San Antonio, 5; San Felix, 4; Maturin, 3; 
Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, 4. 

2 Ramphocelus carbo magnirostris Lafresnaye: Nearest to R. c. carbo, but 
larger, with much heavier, stronger bill; female generally darker, of a more uni- 
form reddish color underneath. Wing (male), 81-85; tail, 76-86; bill, 16-17. 

This race is much more constant in its characters than any of the continental 
representatives. In the large series examined there is not a single male that 
approaches in coloration the black-backed forms such as R. c. capitalis, R. c. 
centralis, or R. c. connectens. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 41; Santa Cruz, 2; Icacos, 2; Caroni 
River, 1 ; Laventille, 2; Chaguaramas, 2; Valencia, 1; Seelet, 2; Savannah Grande, 1. 



256 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 407, 1930); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond., 24, 
p. 129, 1856 Trinidad (diag.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 79, 1862 
Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 82 Trinidad; Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1870, p. 581 Trinidad (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 175, 1886 part, spec, f'-i', Trinidad. 

Ramphopis jacapa (not Tanagra jacapa Linnaeus) Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 
288, 1866 Trinidad. 

Rhamphocelus jacapa Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 174, 1886 part, 
Trinidad; Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 131, 1922 
Maracas, Harmony Hall, and Palo Seco, Trinidad (nest and egg). 

Ramphocelus jacapa magnirostris Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 
30, 1894 Princestown, Trinidad; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, pp. 15, 16, 
1906 part, Trinidad (Caparo, Valencia, Chaguaramas, Seelet, Laven- 
tille); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 358, 1908 Carenage, 
Trinidad. 

Ramphocelus carbo magnirostris Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, 
Heft 5, p. 62, 1912 Trinidad; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1058, 1912 part, Trinidad; Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 590, 
1933 Trinidad. 

Range. Tropical zone of the island of Trinidad. 
2: Trinidad (Port-of-Spain, 2). 

*Ramphocelus dimidiatus pallidirostris Hellmayr. 1 PALE- 
BILLED CRIMSON-BACKED TANAGER. 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus albirostris ( not Tanagra albirostris Boddaert) Griscom, 
Auk, 50, p. 307, 1933 Divala, Pacific slope of Chiriqui, Panama (type in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 129, 1856 part, Chiriqui; idem, I.e., p. 142, 1856 David, Chiri- 
qui; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 8, p. 176, 1865 David, 
Chiriqui; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 138 part, David; idem, 
I.e., 1870, p. 138 part, Mina de Chorcha, Chiriqui; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 283, 1883 part, Chiriqui, David, and 
Mina de Chorcha; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 172, 1886 part, 
spec, b, g, Mina de Chorcha and Chiriqui; Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 
Divala and David, Chiriqui; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1059, 1912 part, David and Mina de Chorcha, Chiriqui. 

1 Ramphocelus dimidiatus pallidirostris nom. nov. 

Similar to R. d. isthmicus and about the same size, but with much lighter bill. 
In the adult male, the mandible is bluish gray for the basal half, and the maxilla 
ivory white except for the abruptly black tip, while the female has the bill 
below extensively bluish gray basally, instead of wholly blackish as in the 
allied races. Wing (males), 78-80; tail, 70-72. 

Seven specimens from Chiriqui are readily distinguishable from R. d. isthmicus 
by the pale coloration of their bills. Tanagra albirostris Boddaert, a synonym of 
Ramphocelus carbo carbo, prohibits the use of this term for any other member 
of the genus, and the Chiriqui form, accordingly, requires a new name. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 257 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus dimidiatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 116, 1902 part, Chiriquf. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Panama (David, Divala, El 
Banco, Mina de Chorcha, Boqueron, and Remedios, Chiriqui). 
1: Panama (El Banco, Chiriqui, 1). 

*Ramphocelus dimidiatus isthmicus Ridgway. 1 PANAMA CRIM- 
SON-BACKED TANAGER. 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus isthmicus Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 150, 
Apr. 15, 1901 Frijole Station, Panama Railroad (type in U. S. National 
Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 118, 1902 Panama 
(monog.); Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 222, 1906 
Savanna of Panama; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1059, 1912 Isthmus of Panama; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
70, p. 278, 1918 Mindi, Tabernilla, Gatun, Fort Lorenzo, and Mira- 
flores, Canal Zone (nest and eggs descr.); Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, 
p. 34, 1919 Pacora River, Panama; Griscom, Auk, 50, p. 307, 1933 
Panama from the Veraguas east to the Rio Chepo (crit.); Berlioz, L'Oiseau, 
(n.s.), 3, p. 593, 1933 Panama (crit.). 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus (not of Lafresn&ye) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 7, p. 331, 1861 Panama Railroad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 350 Panama Railroad; Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 138 
part, Santa Fe, Veragua; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 187 part, Veraguas (Calo- 
veVora, Chitra, Castillo, Cordillera del Chucu); Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 283, 1883 part, Veraguas (Castillo, 
Chitra, Cordillera del Chucu, CaloveVora, Santa F6) and Panama (Lion 
Hill, Paraiso Station); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 172, 1886 
part, spec, c-m, Veraguas (Cordillera del Chucu, Calovevora, Chitra, 
Santa F6) and Panama (Isthmus of Panama, Paraiso Station); Bangs, 
Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 30, 1900 Loma del Le6n, Panama; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1059, 1912 part, Veragua; 
Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 323, 1924 Las Cascadas, Gatun, Farfan, Rio Alga- 
rrobo, and Juan Mina, Canal Zone (nest and eggs descr.). 

Range. Tropical zone of Panama, from the Veraguas east to 
the Rio Chepo. 

3: Panama (Colon, 3). 

1 Ramphocelus dimidiatus isthmicus Ridgway is a rather ill-defined form, as 
has been pointed out by Griscom. The longer tail (70-76 mm.) and the duller 
coloration of the females with less blackish head and throat serve, however, to 
distinguish it. 

We have seen only nine specimens from the Canal Zone, but, according to 
Griscom, its range extends east at least to the Rio Chepo and west into Veraguas, 
where it intergrades with R. d. pallidirostris. 

The locality "Nicaragua" given by Sclater (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 
129, 1856) and repeated by Salvin and Godman (Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 283, 1883) is unquestionably a mistake. 



258 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus limatus Bangs. 1 SAN MIGUEL 
TANAGER. 

Rhamphocelus limatus Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 31, Jan., 1901 San Miguel Island, 
Bay of Panama (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 406, 1930). 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus limatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 119, 1902 San Miguel Island (monog.); Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 46, p. 159, 1905 San Miguel, Saboga, and Pacheca Islands; 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1059, 1136, 1912 
San Miguel (crit.); Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 13, No. 4, p. 53, 1920 Pacheca, 
Chapera, and Viveros Islands (crit.); Griscom, Auk, 50, p. 308, 1933 
San Miguel and Coiba Islands (crit.). 

Range. Pearl Archipelago (islands of San Miguel, Saboga, 
Pacheca, Chapera, Viveros), in the Bay of Panama; probably also 
Coiba Island. 

*Ramphocelus dimidiatus dimidiatus Lafresnaye. CRIMSON- 
BACKED TANAGER. 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, pi. 81 and text, p. 
2, 1837 "sud du Mexique et de Carthagene (Nouvelle Grenade)" (type, 
from Carthagena, Colombia, in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 406, 1930); Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Rev. Zool., 1, p. 165, 
1838 Carthagena; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 156, 1855 
"Bogota," Colombia; idem, I.e., 24, p. 129, 1856 part, Colombia (Car- 
thagena, Santa Marta, "Bogota"); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1860, p. 141 Turbo, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 79, 1862 
New Granada; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 627 
"San Esteban," Venezuela; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 780 south of Merida, 
Venezuela; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 326 Paturia, Colombia (nest and eggs); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 501 Antioquia, 
Remedies, and Neche, Colombia (nest and eggs descr.); Salvin and God- 
man, Ibis, 1880, p. 120 San Antonio, Santa Marta region, Colombia; 
idem, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 283, 1883 part, Colombia (Turbo, 
etc.) and Venezuela; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 291, 1884 Bucara- 
manga, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 172, 1886 part, 
spec, n-v, Colombia (San Antonio, Remedies, Antioquia, "Bogota") and 
Venezuela (Zulia) ; Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 "Bogota"; 
Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 161, 1895 Magdalena River and 
Guaduas, Colombia; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, pp. 141, 159, 179, 

1 Ramphocelus dimidiatus limatus Bangs: Adult male nearest to R. d. dimi- 
diatus, but general coloration somewhat paler, more scarlet, with the black ab- 
dominal patch greatly reduced in extent; female scarcely different from that of 
R. d. isthmicus. 

Four specimens from San Miguel Island examined. According to Griscom, 
birds from Coiba Island are inseparable, but no females are yet available for 
examination. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 259 

1898 Santa Marta, Pueblo Viejo, Palomina, and San Miguel, Colombia; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 307 Ambalema and Ibagiie, 
Colombia; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, 
p. 4, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Darien; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
13, p. 168, 1900 Cacagualito, Colombia; idem, I.e., 21, p. 292, 1905 
Cacagualito and Don Diego, Colombia (nest and eggs descr.); Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1059, 1912 part, Colombia and 
Venezuela (Zulia). 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus dimidiatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 116, 1902 part, Colombia ("Bogota," Santa Marta, Carthagena, 
etc.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 609, 1917 Colombia 
(Quibdo, Bagado, Caldas, Puerto Valdivia, La Frijolera, Rio Frio, La 
Manuelita, Cali, San Agustin, La Candela, Andalucia, Chicoral, Honda, 
El Alto de la Paz, Tenasuca, Puerto Berrio, Varrud, Algodonal); Bangs 
and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 228, 1922 Mount Sapo, 
Darien; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 486, 1922 La 
Concepci6n, Mamatoco, Cacagualito, Buritaca, Don Amo, Cincinnati, La 
Tigrera, Minca, Agua Dulce, Fundaci6n, Don Diego, Tierra Nueva, and 
Loma Larga, Colombia (habits); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, 
p. 189, 1929 Cana, Darien; Darlington, I.e., 71, p. 417, 1931 Rio Frio, 
Magdalena, Colombia; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 370, 1932 Perm6, Darien; 
idem, Auk, 50, p. 306, 1933 eastern Panama to Colombia (crit.); Ber- 
lioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 593, 1933 Colombia to Darien (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of extreme eastern Panama (Darien), 
Colombia, and extreme northwestern Venezuela (states of Zulia 
and Tachira). 1 

38: Panama (Agua Dulce, 1; Colon, 3); Colombia (Rio Atrato, 1; 
Fundacion, Santa Marta, 1; El Guayabal, ten miles north of San 
Jos de Cucuta, Santander, 5; Rio Caqueta, Cauca, 1; Chicoral, 
Coello River, Tolima, 1; near San Agustin, Huila, 1; "Bogota," 3); 
Venezuela (Colon, Tachira, 2; Catatumbo River, Zulia, 9; Encon- 
trados, Zulia, 8; Orope, Zulia, 1). 

*Ramphocelus melanogaster melanogaster (Swainson). 2 BLACK- 
BELLIED TANAGER. 

1 Specimens from Darien (Punta de Sabana) and Venezuela seem to agree 
with a Colombian series. Sclater and Salvin's record from "San Esteban," Cara- 
bobo, is obviously erroneous, probably a pen-slip for Zulia, whence the British 
Museum has a specimen collected by the late A. Goering (cf. Hellmayr and Seilern, 
Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 164 [note 2], 1912), while the reported occurrence 
on the Rio Napo, Ecuador, based on a single female, is doubtless due to a con- 
fusion with R. c. carbo. 

Sixty-five specimens examined. 

2 Ramphocelus melanogaster melanogaster (Swainson), in the male sex, is very 
similar to R. d. dimidiatus, but the tail is proportionately longer; the upper part 
of the head is duller and darker red (between ox-blood red and garnet brown); 
the interscapular feathers have extensive (though concealed) subterminal areas 
of black, only the apical margins being dark red like the pileum; the bright red 



260 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Rhamphopis melanogaster Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 359, Dec. 31, 1837 
Peru (type in coll. of W. Hooker, present location unknown). 

Rhamphocelus luciani Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 1, p. 54, April, 1838 no locality 
indicated (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., examined; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 70, p. 406, 1930). 

Tanagra (Rhamphocelus) luciani Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 1, cl. 2, pi. 2 
(=adult male), 1839 "Carthagene," errore. 

R(h)amphoc(o)elus luciani Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 242, 1850 
"Colombia" (ex Lafresnaye); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 130, 
1856 "Carthagena" (ex Lafresnaye); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 494, 
1884 Moyobamba, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 173, 1886 
part, descr. and hab. Peru. 

Ramphocelus melanogaster Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1059, 1912 Peru (Rioja, Moyobamba). 

Ramphocelus melanogaster melanogaster Zimmer, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, 
p. 98, 1929 Peru (Moyobamba and Huallaga River). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of northern Peru, in 
Dept. San Martin (Moyobamba, Rioja). 
11: Peru (Moyobamba, 11). 

*Ramphocelus melanogaster transitus Zimmer. 1 HUALLAGA 
BLACK-BELLIED TANAGER. 

(between carmine and nopal red) uropygial zone is less extended toward the 
mantle, being more confined to the rump and upper tail coverts. 

The female closely resembles that of R. carbo, and notably R. c. magnirostris 
in the strongly reddish coloration of the under parts and upper tail coverts, but 
has the forehead and sides of the head clear pompeian red, thus differing markedly 
from the female of R. d. dimidiatus with its dusky blackish head, throat, and 
chest. Wing, 78-82, (female) 76; tail, 75-80; bill, 15-16. 

Swainson's rather ambiguous description does not permit of any conclusion 
as to whether he had the present or the next race before him. Like other Peruvian 
novelties from W. Hooker's collection, the type was doubtless obtained by the 
orchid-hunter Andrew Mathews, whose travels covered the ranges of both races 
of R. melanogaster; but in the absence of the original example it seems advisable, 
at least provisionally, to follow Mr. Zimmer's lead in restricting the name to 
the northern form. The type of R. luciani, while slightly darker, less reddish 
on the pileum (a difference that may be due to fading), is certainly identical 
with the Moyobamba birds. Its origin is in doubt. Described at first without 
any locality, Lafresnaye subsequently gave "Carthagena" as its habitat, a locality 
which is clearly erroneous. Zimmer believes this "species" to be nearly related 
to R. dimidiatus, while Berlioz would associate it with R. carbo, his principal 
argument being the coloration of a female from Pina (on the Rio Mixipllo, an 
affluent of the Huallaga) supposed to belong to melanogaster. I am rather inclined 
to adopt Mr. Zimmer's view. As to the coloration of the female, it should be 
noted that the reddish forehead, alleged to be diagnostic of melanogaster, is absent 
in two (out of four) females from Moyobamba. A single adult male from Rioja 
agrees very well with those in Field Museum. 

Additional material examined. "Carthagena," 1 (type of R. luciani); Rioja, 1. 

1 Ramphocelus melanogaster transitus Zimmer: Adult male similar to R. m. 
melanogaster, but throat and breast paler, only the upper breast being colored 
like the throat or a trifle darker, this color passing gradually into the brighter 
red of the lower breast and flanks, whereas in the nominate race the deep red 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 261 

Ramphocelus melanogaster transitus Zimmer, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 95, 
1929 Chinchao, Dept. Huanuco, Peru (type in Field Museum); idem, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 449, 1930 Chinchao and Vista 
Alegre, Peru. 

Rhamphocelus luciani (not of Lafresnaye) M6n6gaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, 
p. 10, 1911 part, spec, ex Supuna, Rio Tocache, Peru (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Ramphocelus melanogaster melanogaster (not Rhamphopis melanogaster Swain- 
son) Berlioz, L'Oiseau (n.s.), 3, p. 593, 1933 part, adult male and (?)fe- 
male, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of central Peru (valleys 
of the upper Huallaga and its tributaries, the Chinchao and Tocache). 
5: Peru (Chinchao, 1; Vista Alegre, 4). 

*Ramphocelus passerinii passerinii Bonaparte. PASSERINI'S 
TANAGER. 

R(h)amphoc(o)elus passerinii Bonaparte, "Antologia, 1831, No. 130, p. 3"; 
idem, Isis, 1833, p. 755 "in insula Cuba" (location of type not stated); 1 
Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, text to pi. 81, p. 3, 1837 "Cuba" (re- 
print of orig. descr.); Lesson, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 133, 1840 "Cuba, Mexico" 
(ex Bonaparte); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 130, 1856 part, 
"Colombia River, Oregon," Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua; Moore, 
I.e., 27, p. 59, 1859 Omoa, Honduras; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 
p. 16 Yzabal and Cajabon, Guatemala; idem, Ibis, 1860, p. 32 Yzabal; 
Taylor, Ibis, 1860, p. Ill Atlantic coast of Honduras; Cabanis, Journ. 

of the throat is carried well across the chest, being abruptly separated from the 
brighter red of the lower breast and flanks; interscapular region more strongly 
washed with red; female not distinguishable. Wing (male), 80; tail, 75; bill, 15. 

In addition to the original series collected by Mr. Zimmer, we have examined 
two adult males from Supuna, on the Rio Tocache (joining the Huallaga at To- 
cache); an adult male from Pisana; and a couple of adults from Tocache, on the 
Huallaga. One of the Supuna males (Munich Museum, No. 09.5247) agrees 
fairly well with the type, though in the coloration of the anterior lower parts 
it is somewhat intermediate to melanogaster, while the second specimen (coll. 
Paris Museum), by its dark red, abruptly defined gular area, is almost indis- 
tinguishable from the latter. These birds, coming as they do from the upper 
Huallaga region, throw serious doubts on the validity of R. m. transitus, whose 
ultimate fate depends on the study of additional material. 

The males from Pisana and Tocache strongly suggest hybridization with 
R. c. carbo. The first-named bird (Munich Museum, No. 09.5246) resembles 
carbo on the upper parts, but has bright nopal red tips (or margins) to some of 
the tail coverts and uropygial feathers, while underneath it is similar to melano- 
gaster, with, however, more black along the abdominal line. The Tocache male 
(coll. Paris Museum) is colored like carbo, and the only traces of melanogaster 
strain are a few bright (nopal) red feathers on under tail coverts and flanks and 
a band (about 8 mm. wide) of the same color across the lower rump. While a 
female from Tocache (Munich Museum, No. 09.5248) is undoubtedly melano- 
gaster (transitus), the one from Pina, mentioned by Berlioz, which we have not 
examined, may be referable to carbo, though we have yet to see "pure-blooded" 
males of the latter from the Huallaga River. 

1 1 have not been able to consult the original description, which is credited 
by both Ridgway and Berlepsch with the locality "Mexico or Cuba." Berlepsch 
(1912, p. 1060) suggests "Guatemala" as terra typica. 



262 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Orn., 8, p. 330, 1860 Costa Rica; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 79 
1862 Nicaragua and Honduras; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 
8, p. 180, 1865 Greytown, Nicaragua; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1867 
p. 278 Bluefields River, Nicaragua; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist 
N.Y., 9, p. 99, 1868 Costa Rica (Angostura, San Carlos, Navarro) 
Salvadori, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 176, 1868 Costa Rica; Frantzius 
Journ. Orn., 17, p. 299, 1869 Costa Rica (Angostura, Orosi, Tucurriqui 
San Carlos, Sarapiqui); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870 
p. 836 [San Pedro], Honduras; Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 316 Chontales 
Nicaragua; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 55 Costa Rica 
(San Carlos, Naranjo); idem, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 43 
1878 Guatemala; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 499, 1882 Costs 
Rica (San Jose); idem, I.e., 6, p. 399, 1883 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 281, pi. 18, fig. 1 
1883 part, British Honduras to Costa Rica; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus. 
11, p. 176, 1886 part, Honduras to Costa Rica; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac 
Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Costa Rica (Navarro de Cartago, Jimenez 
Naranjo de Cartago, and Esparta); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, 
p. 585, 1888 Segovia River, Honduras; Richmond, I.e., 16, p. 489, 
1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (habits, nest, and eggs); Lantz, Trans 
Kans. Acad. Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 Santo Tomas, Guatemala; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 109, 1902 from Tabasco (Teapa) 
to Panama (monog.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 154, 1906 
Ceiba and Yaruca, Honduras; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn, 
Ser., 1, p. 122, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala; Ferry, I.e., p. 278, 1910 
Costa Rica (Guayabo, Port Limon); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 850, 1910 Caribbean side of Costa Rica (habits, nest, and eggs); 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1060, 1912 Tabasco 
to Costa Rica (excl. of Pozo Azul and Chiriqui); Crandall, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 1, p. 343, 1914 Guapiles, Costa Rica; Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, 
No. 8, p. 34, 1919 Costa Rica (Talamanca, Sipurio, Siqufrres) and 
Nicaragua (San Juan del Norte); Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 38, p. 463, 1928 Almir ante, Panama; Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 69, p. 391, 1929 Cayo, British Honduras; Peters, I.e., 69, p. 472, 
1929 Lancetilla, Honduras; idem, I.e., 71, p. 341, 1931 Almirante, 
Banana River, Chiriquicito, and Crimacola, Panama; Huber, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 245, 1932 Eden, Nicaragua (eggs descr.); Stone, 
I.e., p. 338, 1932 Lancetilla, Honduras; Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, 
p. 598, 1933 Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama (crit.). 

Ramphocelus passerinii passerinii Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 
377, 1932 Guatemala (Finca Chama, Secanquim, and Pueblo). 

(?).R(fo)arap/K>c(o)eZMS uropygialis Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 178, 
1851 Guatemala (type in coll. of J. Verreaux, now in British Museum); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 130, 1856 Guatemala (crit.); idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 79, 1862 Guatemala; Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 
193 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 
284, pi. 18, fig. 2, 1883 Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 173, 1886 Guatemala; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 
119, 1902 Guatemala; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 263 

pp. 1059, 1136, 1912 Guatemala (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. 

H., 64, p. 377, 1932 Guatemala (occurrence questioned); idem, Auk, 

49, pp. 200-202, 1932 (crit.). 
(1) Ramphocelus affinis Lesson, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 1, 1840 "Mexico" (location 

of type not stated); idem, I.e., p. 133, 1840 "Colombie" (full descr.). 
Ramphocelus luciani (not of Lafresnaye) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. 

Y., 7, p. 331, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama (crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. 

Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 284, 1883 part, Lion Hill; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 11, p. 173, 1886 part, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 115, 1902 part, Panama, Lion Hill (descr. of male 

and female); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1060, 

1902 part, Lion Hill, Panama. 
Ramphocelus chrysopterus Boucard, The Humming Bird, 1, No. 7, p. 53, July 

1, 1891 Panama (cotypes in Paris Museum and Tring Collection ex- 
amined); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 112, 1902 

Panama (ex Boucard). 
Ramphocelus chrysonotus (not of Lafresnaye) Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 

Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1061, 1138, 1912 part, Panama (crit.). 
R(h)amphoc(o)elus dunstalli Rothschild, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 481, 1895 Panama 

(type in coll. of Tring Museum examined); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 115, 1902 Panama (ex Rothschild); Berlepsch, Verh. 

5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1060, 1137, 1912 Panama (crit.). 

Range. Caribbean forests from southeastern Mexico (Teapa, 
State of Tabasco) through British Honduras, Guatemala, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, and Costa Rica to western Panama. 1 

1 Birds from eastern Costa Rica are indistinguishable from Guatemala and 
Honduras specimens. R. chrysopterus is merely a color variety, agreeing with 
passerinii in dimensions (wing, 76-80; tail, 68-71), but with orange not scarlet 
uropygial area. The four specimens, all of the well-known Panama preparation 
and marked by Boucard as "type," which we have examined in the collections 
at Tring and Paris, vary somewhat in the coloration of the rump. The darkest 
individual closely approaches passerinii, whereas the palest example corresponds 
to the average of flammigerus. While Griscom is certainly mistaken in regarding 
this bird of hybrid origin (R. flammigerusXR. icleronotus), as has been shown by 
Berlioz (L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 599, 1933), its variation is strongly suggestive 
of close relationship between passerinii and flammigerus. 

R. dunstalli, which Griscom interprets as a hybrid between R. dimidiatus 
and R. icteronotus(l), appears to me merely a "freaky" mutation of R. passerinii. 
The Lion Hill bird (American Museum of Natural History, No. 40,737. Male. 
J. R. Galbraith) is unquestionably the same as the type, with which it has been 
directly compared by me. It merely differs by more extensive dusky interscapular 
area; slightly deeper red (scarlet rather than flame-scarlet) rump; and deeper 
scarlet (in the type orange scarlet) color of the under parts, especially laterally, 
with much more black along the middle line. A second male from Panama in 
the Tring Collection is intermediate between the two in the tone of the red on 
rump and under parts as well as in the extent of the blackish abdominal line, 
but the throat is lighter maroon red than in either. A similar variety, in which 
the black of the lower surface (excepting the throat and a more or less distinct 
abdominal streak) is replaced by the color of the uropygium, also occurs in 
R. icteronotus, and has been named R. inexpectalus. 

R. affinis Lesson and R. uropygialis Bonaparte are probably likewise mutants 
of R. passerinii. Although Griscom questions Bonaparte's locality, Salvin and 
Godman mention having seen a similarly colored specimen from Guatemala. 



264 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

68: Mexico (Teapa, 4); British Honduras (Middlesex, 1); Guate- 
mala (Chapada, 1; Los Amates, Izabal, 7); Nicaragua (San Emilio, 
Lake Nicaragua, 1); Costa Rica (Guayabo, 8; Guanacaste, 1; La 
Vijagua, 1; Port Limon, 40; Matina, 4). 

*Ramphocelus passerinii costaricensis Cherrie. 1 CHERRIE'S 
TANAGER. 

Ramphoc(o)elus costaricensis Cherrie, Auk, 8, p. 62, 1891 Pozo Azul [de 
Pirris], Costa Rica (descr. of female; type in Museo Nacional, Costa Rica) ; 
idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 14, p. 531, 1891 "Navarro," Costa Rica; 2 
idem, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 3, p. 135, 1892 
Boruca, Palmar, and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica (descr. of adult male); 
idem, I.e., 4, p. 137, 1893 Costa Rica (Buenos Aires, Terraba, Boruca, 
Lagarto, Palmar); idem, Auk, 10, p. 278, 1893 Boruca, Palmar, and 
Buenos Aires (habits, song; descr. of adult male); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. Ill, 1902 southwestern Costa Rica (Pozo 
Azul, Boruca, Palmar, Buenos Aires, "Navarro"); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 
309, 1907 Boruca, Paso Real, and El Pozo de Terraba, Costa Rica; 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 851, 1910 southwestern Costa Rica 
(from Puntarenas southward); Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 598, 1933 
Chiriqui (crit.). 

Ramphocelus passerini costaricensis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1060, 1912 southwestern Costa Rica and Panama (Divala). 

R(h)amphoc(o)elus passerinii (not of Bonaparte) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 24, p. 130, 1856 part, Chiriqui; idem, I.e., p. 142, 1856 David, 
Chiriqui; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 176, 1865 David; 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 138 David; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 
187 Mina de Chorcha and Bugaba, Chiriqui; Nutting, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 5, p. 391, 1882 between San Jose and Puntarenas, Costa 
Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 281, 1883 
Panama (Chiriqui, David, Bugaba, Divala, Mina de Chorcha) and Costa 
Rica (La Barranca); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 176, 1886 part, 

1 Ramphocelus passerinii costaricensis Cherrie: Adult male similar to R. p. 
passerinii, but female and immature male readily distinguished by having the 
rump much more orange (raw sienna to xanthine orange instead of deep olive 
ocher) and the upper chest orange to orange chrome. 

Although occasional individuals are but slightly different, the great majority 
from the Pacific coast are easily told by the characters above given. Birds from 
the western side of the Volcan de Chiriqui (Divala, Bugaba) are identical with 
a Costa Rican series. The type of R. festae, which we saw years ago at the Turin 
Museum, appears to be an individual mutant, having a broad, semilunar band 
of dull red across the chest. The Munich Museum has an interesting specimen 
collected on November 20, 1905, by J. H. Watson at Frances, Chiriqui (No. 
09.5343), which closely resembles the so-called R. dunstalli (=luciani Lawr.) and 
tends to show that this mutation springs up throughout the range of the species. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Terraba, 6; Palmar, 2; Boruca, 3; 
Buenos Aires, 24; Puerto Jimenez, Golfo Dulce, 4. Panama: Divala, 3; Chiriqui, 4. 

2 This locality is extremely questionable, R. p. costaricensis being confined to 
the Pacific side of Costa Rica. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 265 

spec, o, p, s, u-w, Costa Rica (La Barranca) and Panama (Bugaba, Mina de 
Chorcha, Chiriquf); Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 
339, p. 4, 1899 Chiriqui; Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divald and 
David, Chiriqui; idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 66, 1902 Bugaba, 
Chiriqui; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1060, 1912 
part, Chiriqui. 

R(h)amphoc(o)elus festae Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 11, No. 249, 
1896 Chiriqui (type in Turin Museum); idem and Festa, I.e., 14, No. 
339, p. 4, 1899 Chiriqui; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 115, 1902 Chiriqui (ex Salvadori); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1060, 1138, 1912 Chiriqui (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of the Pacific side of Costa Rica (from 
Puntarenas southward) and extreme western Panama (David, 
Divala, Bugaba, and Mina de Chorcha, Chiriqui). 

6: Costa Rica (Buenos Aires, 2; El Pozo, Rio Te*rraba, 1; 
TeYraba, 2); Panama (Chiriqui, 1). 

*Ramphocelus flammigerus (Jardine and Selby). 1 VARIABLE 
TANAGER. 

Ramphopis flammigerus Jardine and Selby, Illustr. Orn., 3, Part 9, pi. 131, 
Feb., 1833 "some part of the district upon the Columbia River" (type 
in coll. of J. Gould, present location unknown). 

1 Ramphocelus flammigerus (Jardine and Selby) : Male similar to R. p. passerinii 
and R. p. costaricensis, but larger; female agreeing with the latter in the presence 
of an orange to orange chrome band across the chest, but posterior under parts 
lemon chrome to light cadmium instead of buffy citrine to orange citrine; throat 
more or less yellow, not grayish; pileum and mantle blackish; rump much brighter, 
light cadmium to deep orange chrome. Wing (males), 86-94, (female) 84-88; 
tail, 79-85. 

The color of the rump, in this species, varies from cadmium yellow to light 
scarlet. Specimens with yellow rump were described as R. chrysonotus, while 
those with scarlet uropygial area are known under the name of R. flammigerus, 
the two "extremes" being connected by every imaginable intermediate shade. 
Females of the yellow-rumped variety are frequently paler yellow beneath without 
any red on chest or under tail coverts. This unusual variation has given rise to 
the supposition that the so-called "R. chrysonotus" might be the result of hybridiza- 
tion between R. flammigerus and R. icteronotus. I am not prepared to accept this 
explanation and feel rather inclined to attribute the case to an excessive amount 
of individual variability. So far as our present knowledge goes, R. flammigerus 
(including chrysonotus) inhabits only the mountain slopes bordering the Cauca 
Valley, where, except at a few isolated spots, one of the supposed parents (R. icte- 
ronotus) obviously does not occur. Besides, the female of the latter species still 
differs widely, even from the yellow-bellied examples of the "chrysonotus" type. 

R. flammigerus, in the male sex, is closely similar to R. p. passerinii, and shows 
about the same variation as to the color of the rump, which, in Panama examples, 
ranges from scarlet to cadmium yellow ("chrysopterus"), but it is larger in all 
dimensions. The red chest band and the orange rump, suggested in R. p. costari- 
censis, are carried a step farther in flammigerus, and may indicate conspecific 
interrelationship. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Jimenez (alt. 1,600 feet), 2; Rio 
Caqueta, Cauca, 4; Cauca, 2; Jerico, 2; Medellin, 10; "Bogota," 2. 



266 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

R(h)amphoc(o)elus flammigerus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157 
1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 131, 1856 Colombia (Call and "Bo 
gota"); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 79, 1862 New Granada anc 
"Santa Marta"; 1 Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 501 
pi. 42, fig. (egg) Medellin, Colombia (egg descr.); Sclater, Cat. Bds 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 177, 1886 Colombia (Medellin, Antioquia); Berlepsch 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1060, 1912 Colombia (Medellin 
"Bogot4"); Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 
Medellin; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 610, 1917 Sar 
Antonio, Cali, La Manuelita, Miraflores, Guengiie, Popayan, Rio Frio 
Salento, and Salencio, Colombia (crit.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 
70, p. 408 (in text), 1930 Cali (crit.); Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 596 
1933 Cali and "Bogota," Colombia (crit.). 

Ramphocelus chrysonotus Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 246, 1853 
based on R. varians, secunda varietas, Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p 
216, 1847; Juntas [=Los Cisneros], western Andes, Colombia (type ir 
coll. of T. B. Wilson, nowin the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 408 [in text], 1930); Sclater, Proc 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 "Bogota," errore; idem, I.e., 24, p. 131 
1856 Juntas, Colombia (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 501 
Antioquia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 177, 1886 Antioquia 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1061, 1138, 1912- 
part, Colombia (Juntas, Jimenez, Antioquia) ; Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat 
Sci. Nat., 5, p. 809, 1914 Medellin, Antioquia; Chapman, Bull. Amer 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 610, 1917 Caldas, Las Lomitas, San Antonio, anc 
vicinity of Medellin, Colombia (crit.); Berlioz, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 596 
1933 Antioquia (crit.). 

Ramphocelus aurinotus (lapsus) Sclater, Tan. Cat. Spec., p. 9, 1854 Colombia 

Ramphocelus icteronotus (not of Bonaparte) Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 367 
1846 "Bolivia" or Colombia (descr. of "junior avis?"=adult female). 

Ramphocelus varians tertia varietas, Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 217, 1847 
Cali, Colombia (crit.; descr. of male and female). 

Range. Tropical and lower Subtropical zone of western Colom- 
bia (Cauca Valley from Popayan north to Medellin). 2 

10: Colombia (Amalfi, Antioquia, 4; Cali, 3; Navara, 1; Ric 
Caqueta, Cauca, 2). 

*Ramphocelus icteronotus Bonaparte. YELLOW-RUMPED 
TANAGER. 

R(h)amphocelus icteronotus Bonaparte, Rev. Zool., 1, No. 1, p. 8, Jan. (aftei 
31), 1838 "I'Ame'rique meridionale" (descr. of male; type in coll. of Duke 
of Rivoli, now probably in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 

1 Evidently erroneous (cf. Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p, 
486, 1922). 

2 Two "Bogota" skins suggest that the range of R. flammigerus probably 
extends into the Magdalena Valley. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 267 

phia); 1 idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. 121, pub. June 14, 1838 
no locality stated (spec, in coll. Paris Museum); Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 
9, p. 365, 1846 Colombia or "Bolivia" (descr. of male and female); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 157, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 
24, p. 131, 1856 Colombia (Buenaventura, Choc6 Bay) and western 
Ecuador (Guayaquil and western slope); idem, I.e., 27, p. 139, 1859 
Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, pp. 65, 86, 274, 292, 1860 Palla- 
tanga, Nanegal, Babahoyo, and Esmeraldas, Ecuador; Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 141 Turbo, Rio Atrato, and Rio Truando, 
Colombia; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 Lion 
Hill, Panama; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 80, 1862 Nanegal, 
Ecuador; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 350 Panama 
Railroad; Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 139 Santiago de Veragua; Taczanowski, 
I.e., 1877, p. 332 Palmal (near Santa Rosa), El Oro, Ecuador; Sclater 
and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 501 Remedies and Neche, Colombia (nest and 
eggs descr.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 282, 
1883 Veraguas (Santiago), Panama (Lion Hill, Paraiso), Colombia 
(Turbo, etc.), and Ecuador; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1883, p. 546 Chimbo, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1884, p. 290 Cay- 
andeled and Pinampunga, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 177, 1886 Veraguas (Santiago), Panama (Paraiso, Lion Hill), Colombia 
(Choco Bay, Sallango, Remedios, "Medellin," "Bogota"), and Ecuador 
(Guayaquil, Pallatanga, Nanegal, Santa Rita); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 "Quito" (errore), Ecuador; Robinson, Flying Trip 
to Tropics, p. 161, 1895 Puerto Berrio, Colombia; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
5, p. 482, 1898 Cachavi, Paramba, and Chimbo, Ecuador; Salvador! and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 18, 1899 Gualea, Intag, 
Vinces, and Rio Peripa, Ecuador; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1899, p. 307 Ibagiie, Colombia; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, 
p. 30, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 468 
Santo Domingo, Ecuador; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 113, 1902 Veragua to Ecuador and "central Peru" (errore); M6ne- 
gaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Arm6e Mes. Arc Merid. Equal., 9, p. B. 103, 
1911 Santo Domingo, Gualea, and San Nicolas, Ecuador; Hellmayr, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1112 Guineo, N6vita, Noanama, Sipi, 
San Joaquin, and Rio Cajon, Colombia; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1061, 1912 "Chiriqui," Veragua, Panama, Colombia, 
and western Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 612, 
1917 Alto Bonito, Dabeiba, Quibd6, Bagado, N6vita Trail, Juntas de 
Tamana, N6vita, Noanama, Buenaventura, San Jos6, Gallera (5,700 
feet), Cerro Munchique (6,000 feet), Tumaco, Barbacoas, Puerto Valdi- 
via, La Frijolera, Barro Blanco, and west of Honda, Colombia; Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 278, 1918 Gatun, Panama (nest and 

1 Not listed in Stone's "A Study of the Type Specimens ..." in Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, pp. 5-62. At that time, however, Bonaparte's description 
in the Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 121, was regarded as having been published 
first, and the type was naturally supposed to be in the Paris Museum. According 
ta M6n6gaux (1911, p. 103), the latter specimen is from western Colombia. 
Berlepsch (1912, p. 1061) suggests "western Ecuador" as type locality for 
R. icier onotus. 



268 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

eggs descr.); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 85, 1922 
Gualea, Nanegal, and Mindo, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. 
H., 55, p. 675, 1926 western Ecuador (many localities between Esmeraldas 
and Alamor); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 189, 1929 El 
Real and Cana, Darien; Peters, I.e., 71, p. 341, 1931 Cricamola, Almi- 
rante Bay, Panama; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 370, 1932 Perme, Panama; 
Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (n.s.), 4, p. 235, 1932 Rio San 
Antonio, Ecuador; idem, L'Oiseau, (n.s.), 3, p. 596, 1932 Panama to 
Ecuador (crit.). 

Ramphopis icteronotus Du Bus, Esq. Orn., Part 3, pi. 15 (male, female), 1847 
Guayaquil, "Colombia." 

Ramphocelus varians Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 216, 1847 "in Andiis 
Novae Granadae . . . loco St. Bonaventure" = Buenaventura, Choco, 
Colombia (type now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 407, 1930). 

R(h)amphoc(o)elus inexpectatus Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 6, p. xxxii, 
1897 Panama (type in Tring Museum examined); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 114, 1902 Panama (ex Rothschild); Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1061, 1139, 1912 Panama (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador, western Colombia 
(extending east through Antioquia to the lower Cauca and to the 
Magdalena Valley), and Panama, as far west as Almirante Bay 
(Crimacola) and the Veraguas (Santiago; Rio CaloveVora). 1 

19: Panama (Colon, 9; near Darien, 1; unspecified, 1); Colombia 
(Atrato River, 1; Dabeiba, Rio Sucio, Antioquia, 1; Juntas de 
Tamana, Rio San Juan, Cauca, 1; Novita Trail, western Andes, 
Cauca, 1; Rio Guapi, 1); Ecuador (Milagro, Guayas, 1; Puente de 
Chimbo, 2). 

1 Adult males from the Canal Zone, while agreeing in size, have the rump 
rather darker (lemon chrome rather than lemon yellow) than those from Ecuador, 
though this variation is not quite constant. Birds from Pacific Colombia are 
variously intermediate, but the bulk seems to be nearer to the Ecuadorian ones. 

R. inexpectatus Rothschild is merely an individual mutation of the present 
species, corresponding to the variety of R. passerinii described as R. dunstalli. 
In the type the upper throat only and an extensive area in the middle of the lower 
breast and abdomen are black, the rest of the under parts including the crissum 
being yellow like the rump (of a deeper, more saturated tone than in normally 
colored individuals of icteronotus). Another specimen, like the type of the typical 
Panama preparation, has merely a restricted patch in the middle of the abdomen 
blackish, and the yellow portions of the plumage just as pale as in ordinary 
icteronotus, while the axillaries as well as the under wing coverts are partly yellow. 
The type has apical edges of bright yellow to the feathers of the hind crown 
another evidence for its abnormal coloration. Wing (males of R. inexpectatus), 
83-84 mm. 

According to Chapman (1917, pp. 610-612), R. icteronotus hybridizes with 
R. flammigerus in certain parts of Colombia, the result being the so-called R. chry- 
sonotus. Not having seen any females of the latter "species," I am not in a position 
to throw any new light on this much discussed problem. 

Additional material examined. Panama (Lion Hill, Paraiso Station), 7. 
Colombia: Guineo, 1; Novita, 4; Noanama, 2; Sipi, 2; Rio Cajpn, 2; San Joaquin, 
3; Rio Guapi, 2; "Bogota," 6. Ecuador (Esmeraldas to Chimbo), 24. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 269 

Genus PHLOGOTHRAUPIS Sclater and Salvin 

Phlogothraupis Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., pp. 21, 155, 1873 
type, by orig. desig., Tanagra (Tachyphonus) sanguinolentus Lesson. 

*Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta sanguinolenta (Lesson). 
CRIMSON-COLLARED TANAGER. 

Tanagra (Tachyphonus) sanguinolentus Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 107, pi. 39, by 
March, 1831 Mexico (type in coll. of Florent Provost). 

Ramphocelus sanguinolenta Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 242, 1850 
Mexico. 

Ramphocelus sanguinolentus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 132, 1856 
Mexico (Valle Real, Cordoba), Guatemala (Coban), and Honduras 
("Camalacan" River, near Truxillo); idem, I.e., p. 303, 1856 Cordoba, 
Mexico; Moore, I.e., 27, p. 59, 1859 Omoa, Honduras, and Peten, Guate- 
mala; Sclater, I.e., pp. 364, 377, 1859 vicinity of Jalapa (Vera Cruz) and 
Playa Vicente (Oaxaca), Mexico; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 16 
"Chamalican River," Honduras; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 80, 
1862 Honduras and Vera Cruz; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, 
p. 549, 1869 Vera Cruz, Mexico; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soe. 
Lond., 1870, p. 836 [San Pedro], Honduras. 

Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 43, 
1878 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 285, 1883 part, Vera Cruz, Mexico, to Honduras; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 178, 1886 part, spec, a-h, Mexico to Honduras; Ridg- 
way, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 585, 1888 Segovia River, Honduras; 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 120, 1902 part, Mexico to 
Honduras; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 154, 1903 Ceiba and 
Yaruca, Honduras; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1061, 1912 Mexico to Honduras. 

Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta sanguinolenta Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 1913 
Xcopen and Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo, Mexico; Bangs and Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 486, 1927 Presidio and Motzorongo, 
Vera Cruz; Peters, I.e., 69, p. 472, 1929 Progreso and Tela, Honduras; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 378, 1932 Guatemala (Finca 
Chama, Finca Sepacuite, Secanquim); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 84, p. 338, 1932 Lancetilla, Honduras. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera 
Cruz, Oaxaca, Tabasco, and Quintana Roo, and southwards through 
British Honduras and Guatemala to Honduras. 1 

4: Mexico (Teapa, Tabasco, 1); Guatemala (Alta Vera Paz, 1; 
unspecified, 2). 

1 Specimens from Honduras (San Pedro) agree in size with Mexican and 
Guatemalan birds. 



270 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta aprica Bangs. 1 LESSER CRIM- 
SON-COLLARED TANAGER. 

Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta aprica Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 4, p. 31, 
March 19, 1908 Carrfllo, Costa Rica (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 409, 1930); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 849, 1910 Costa Rica (Guayabo, Jimenez, Reventazon, Carrillo, 
Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, El Hogar, Peralta); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1062, 1912 Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 341, 1931 Almirante, Panama; Huber, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 245, 1932 Eden, Nicaragua (nest and 
eggs descr.). 

Ramphocelus sanguinolentus (not Tanagra sanguinolentus Lesson) Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 278 Bluefields River, Nicaragua; 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 99, 1868 Navarro and 
Angostura, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 299, 1869 Costa 
Rica; Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 316 Chontales, Nicaragua. 

Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 55 
Orosi, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p 
285, 1883 part, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 6, p. 400, 1883 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 178, 1886 part, spec, i-n, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; 
Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 109, 1887 Cartago and 
Navarro de Cartago, Costa Rica; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, 
p. 489, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua, and Rio Frio, Costa Rica (nest 
and eggs descr.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 120, 
1902 part, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. 

Range. Tropical zone of Caribbean Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and 
extreme northwestern Panama (Almirante Bay region). 

2: Nicaragua (Lake Nicaragua, 1); Costa Rica (Peralta, 1). 
Genus CALOCHAETES Sclater 

Euchaetes (not of Dejean, 1834, nor of Harris, 1841) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 26, p. 73, 1858 type, by monotypy, Euchaetes coccineus Sclater. 
Calochaetes Sclater, Ibis, (4), 3, p. 388, 1879 new name for Euchaetes Sclater, 

preoccupied. 

Calochaetes coccineus (Sclater). BLACK-THROATED SCARLET 
TANAGER. 

Euchaetes coccineus (J. Verreaux MS.) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, 
p. 73, pi. 132, fig. 1, 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador (type in coll. of J. and E. 

1 Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta aprica Bangs: Similar to the nominate race, 
but considerably smaller. Wing, 84-89, rarely 91, (female) 81-84; tail, 72-77, 
(female) 72-74; bill, 15-16. 

Nine additional specimens from Costa Rica examined. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 271 

Verreaux, now in Vienna Museum, examined; cf. Pelzeln and Lorenz, Ann. 
Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, 2, p. 346, 1887). 1 

Calochaetes coccineus Sclater, Ibis, 1879, p. 388 Ecuador; idem, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 180, 1886 eastern Ecuador (Rio Napo and Chiquinda); 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1062, 1912 eastern 
Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 613, 1917 eastern 
slope of eastern Andes below Andalucia, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 676, 
1926 lower Sumaco, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of southeastern Colombia (eastern 
slope of eastern Andes below Andalucia) and eastern Ecuador (Rio 
Pastaza; Chiquinda; lower Sumaco; Rio Napo). 2 

Genus PIRANGA Vieillot 

Piranga Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., 1, p. iv, 1807 type, by mono- 

typy, Musdcapa rubra Linnaeus, mQFringilla rubra Linnaeus, 1758. 
Pyranga Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Ornith. Elm., p. 32, 1816 (emendation). 
Cardinalis Jarocki, Zool., 1, p. 133, 1821 type, by monotypy, Tanagra rubra 

Linnaeus (cf. Mathews and Tredale, Austr. Av. Rec., 3, p. 144, 1918). 
Spermagra Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 437, June, 1827 type, by 

monotypy, Spermagra erythrocephala Swainson. 
Phoenisoma Swainson, Nat. Hist. & Classif. Bds., 2, p. 284, 1837 new name 

for Pyranga Vieillot. 
Phoenicosoma Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 668, "1848" 

[=1849] new name for Phoenisoma Swainson. 
Diplochilus Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 88, 1901 type, by 

monotypy, Diplochilus xanthochlorus Bertoni=Saltator flavus Vieillot. 

*Piranga rubra rubra (Linnaeus). SUMMER TANAGER. 

Fringilla rubra Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 181, 1758 based on 
"The Summer Red-Bird" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 56, pi. 56; 
"Carolina and Virginia" = South Carolina. 

Tanagra misisippica Hermann, Tab. Aff. Anim., p. 214, 1783 based on 
"Tangara, du Mississippi" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 741. 

Tanagra coccinea Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 46, Dec., 1783 based on "Tan- 
gara, du Mississippi" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 741. 

Loxia virginica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 849, 1789 based on "Yellow- 
bellied Grosbeak" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 351; Virginia (=male in 
transitional plumage). 

1 In Brown Goode's "Published Writings of Philip Lutley Sclater" (Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 49, p. 88, 1896), the type is erroneously credited to the Sclater 
Collection in the British Museum. However, it never belonged to this gentleman, 
as may be seen from a reference to his "Catalogue of a Collection of American 
Birds" and his subsequent remarks in "The Ibis" for 1879 (p. 388). The specimen 
was purchased by the Vienna Museum in 1862 from Jules Verreaux, in whose 
handwriting it is marked as "type." 

2 Material examined. Ecuador: Rio Napo, 1 (type); El Rosario, Rio Pastaza, 1 ; 
unspecified, 3. 



272 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tanagra mississippensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 889, 1789 mainly 
based on "Tangara, du Mississippi" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 741. 

Tanagra aestiva Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 889, 1789 based on "The 
Summer Red-Bird" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 56, pi. 56. 

Tanagra variegata Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 421, 1790 based on Tanagra 
mississippensis Gmelin, Loxia virginica Gmelin, and "Variegated Tanager" 
Latham (Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, [1], p. 219, pi. 46). 

Pyranga livida Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 438, 1827 Real del Monte, 
Hidalgo, Mexico (type in coll. of W. Bullock, present location unknown). 

Pyranga aestiva Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 494, 1884 Tambillo, Peru; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 182, 1886 (monog.); Salvadori and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 18, 1899 Ecuador (Pun, 
Rio Peripa). 

Pyranga rubra Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1062, 1912 
(range). 

Piranga rubra Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 81, 1906 Idma, 
Urubamba, Peru; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 522, 1921 Roraima, 
British Guiana. 

Piranga rubra rubra Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 79, 1902 
(monog.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 16, 1906 Laventille, Trinidad; 
idem, I.e., 17, p. 275, 1910 Allianca, Rio Madeira, Brazil; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 613, 1917 Colombia (many localities); 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 489, 1922 Bonda, Las 
Nubes, Cincinnati, Don Diego, Dibulla, Pueblo Viejo, and Chirua, 
Colombia; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. CL, 6, p. 127, 1923 Cuba (tran- 
sient); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 188, 1924 Loma 
Redonda and Galipan, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 676, 1926 Ecuador (western and eastern side); Griscom, I.e., 64, 
p. 378, 1932 Guatemala; Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser.. 
17, p. 449, 1930 Peru (Chinchao, Huachipa, Rio Colorado); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 187, 1928 Lower California (vagrant). 

Range. United States from Nebraska, Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, 
Ohio, Maryland, and Delaware south to northeastern Mexico and 
southern Florida; winters from central Mexico and Yucatan to 
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia (San Antonio, Yungas of La Paz), Brazil 
(Allianca, Rio Madeira), Venezuela, Trinidad, and Guiana (Roraima) ; 
casual in the northeastern United States, California, and Lower 
California. 

72: Illinois (Grand Chain, 3); Missouri (St. Louis County, 1); 
Arkansas (Winslow, 1); Texas (Fort Worth, 4; Ingram, 3; Kerr- 
ville, 1); Tennessee (Nashville, 2); Mississippi (Holly Springs, 3; 
Vicksburg, 5); Alabama (Elmore County, 1); North Carolina 
(Raleigh, 5); Florida (Gainesville, 2; Jacksonville, 1; Key West, 2; 
Nassau County, 1; West Jupiter, 1); Mexico (Mexico City, 1; 
Pueblo Viejo, Vera Cruz, 1; Tampico, 1; Teapa, 1); Guatemala 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 273 

(Gualan, 3; Lake Atitlan, 1; Patulul, Solola, 2; San Jose", 1); Nica- 
ragua (San Rafael, 1); Costa Rica (Coliblanco, 3; Guayabo, 5; 
Port Limon, 5) ; Panama (Colon, 1 ; unspecified, 1) ; Colombia (Boque- 
ron, 1); Venezuela (Caracas, 1; Colon, Tachira, 1; unspecified, 1); 
Peru (Chinchao, 3; Huachipa, 1; Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo, 1). 

*Piranga rubra cooperi (Ridgway). COOPER'S TANAGER. 

Pyranga cooperi Ridgway, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 21, p. 130, July, 1869 
Los Pinos, New Mexico (types in U. S. National Museum); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 184, 1886 western Mexico (Presidio). 

Piranga rubra cooperi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 83, 1902 
(monog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 365, 1905 Escuinapa, 
Sinaloa; idem, I.e., 22, p. 175, 1906 Rio Sestin, Durango; Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 188, 1928 Lower California (northern portion of 
Colorado Delta, breeding); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, 
p. 291, 1932 Sonora (Saric, Guirocoba). 

Pyranga rubra cooperi Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1063, 1912 (range). 

Range. Southeastern California, northeastern Lower California 
(northern portion of Colorado Delta), southern Nevada, Arizona, 
and New Mexico south to Nuevo Leon and northern Durango; 
winters in Mexico south to Guerrero and Morelos; casual in Colorado. 

21: Arizona (Calabasas, 14; Fairbank, 1; Tucson, 2); California 
(Baird, 1); Mexico (Iguala, Guerrero, 3). 

*Piranga flava flava (Vieillot). AZARA'S RED TANAGER. 

Saltator flatus Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., 2, livr. 91, p. 790, 1822 
based on "Habia amarilla" Azara, No. 87; Paraguay (descr. of female). 

Saltator ruber (not Fringilla rubra Linnaeus) Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Me'th., Orn., 
2, livr. 91, p. 792, 1822 based on "Habia punzo" Azara, No. 88; Para- 
guay (descr. of male). 

Pyranga azarae d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame>. Me>id., Ois., p. 264, 1839 new 
name for Saltator ruber Vieillot and Saltator flavus Vieillot; hab. part, 
Buenos Aires and Valle Grande (Bolivia); Hartlaub, Index Azara, p. 6, 
1847 Paraguay (nomencl.); Ridgway, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1869, p. 132 Paraguay (Capt. Page); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 601 part, Cinti and Valle Grande, Bolivia; Salvin, 
Ibis, 1880, p. 353 Tucuman; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 
37 Cosquin, C6rdoba; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 186, 1886 
Uruguay, Argentina (Cordoba, Salta, Tucuman), and Bolivia (Cinti); 
Withington, Ibis, 1888, p. 462 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; Stem- 
pelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 
C6rdoba; Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 119, 1891 Cordoba; Kerr, Ibis, 
1892, p. 124 Fortm Page, lower Pilcomayo; Holmberg, Seg. Censo Rep. 
Arg., 1, (6), p. 543, 1895 Argentina; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 



274 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

10, No. 208, p. 4, 1895 Colonia Risso, Paraguay; idem, I.e., 12, No. 
292, p. 6, 1897 Argentina (San Francisco and San Lorenzo, Jujuy; 
Tala, Salta) and Bolivia (Aguairenda) ; Bertoni, Revist. Agron. Parag., 
1, p. 531, 1898 Paraguay (habits, nest and eggs); Grant, Ibis, 1911, 
p. 94 Colonia Mihanovitch and Santa Elena, Argentina; Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 171, 1909 Tapia and Tucuman. 

Tanagra azarae Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 Rio Guay- 
quiraro, Corrientes. 

Pyranga hepatica var. azarae Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 434, 1874 Paraguay. 

Pyranga cocdnea (not Tanagra coccinea Boddaert) Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 
8, p. 253, 1860 Parana; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 479, 1861 
Parand and "Banda Oriental" [= Uruguay]. 

Pyranga saira (not Tanagra saira Spix) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 124, 1856 part, Paraguay, Buenos Aires, and Bolivia; Barrows, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 91, 1883 Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios. 

Pyranga flava Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, p. 278, 1895 Chilecito, 
La Rioja (plumages) ; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 175, 1902 
Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 215, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman; Bruch, 
Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 257, 1904 Oran, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. 
Cienc. Soc. Tucuman, 3, No. 13, p. 41, 1905 Tucuman; Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1063, 1912 Paraguay, Uruguay, 
Argentina, and Bolivia (Cinti, Samaipata, Olgin, San Jose, Misque; excl. 
Chiquitos); Giacomelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, 
I.e., 4, p. 27, 1927 Isla del Rio Lujan, north of Escobar, Buenos Aires. 

Piranga flava Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, p. 290, 1895 Catamarca; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 376, 1910 Argentina; 
Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 62, 1914 Misiones and southern Paraguay; 
Reed, Av. Prov. Mendoza, p. 42, 1916 Mendoza oriental (errore) ; Bertoni, 
El Hornero, 1, p. 190, 1918 Misiones (nest descr.); Tremoleras, I.e., 2, 
p. 23, 1920 Uruguay (Rio Negro, Paysandu, Salto) ; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 
3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., p. 174, 1923 San 
Isidro, Buenos Aires; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 241, 1923 part, spec. 
No. 1, Buenos Aires (crit.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 
392, 1926 Argentina (Resistencia, Las Palmas, Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
and Tapia) and Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco) (habits, plumages). 

Piranga testacea (not of Sclater and Salvin) Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 471 
Colonia Crevaux, Bolivia. 

Piranga flava flava Zimmer, Field Mus., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 177, 1929 (monog.). 

Diplochilus xanthochlorus Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 88, Jan., 
1901 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. de W. Bertoni). 

Range. Uruguay; Paraguay; Argentina, south to Buenos Aires, 
Cordoba, and La Rioja; 1 Bolivia, to Sierra de Cochabamba. 2 

1 Reed's record from Mendoza is due to an erroneous translation of Bur- 
meister's statement regarding its distribution in Argentina. 

2 Birds from Cochabamba (San Jose, Mizque; Olguin), southern Santa Cruz, 
and Chuquisaca (Sucre, Cinti) are precisely similar to others from Argentina. 
Characteristic of the adult male of this form is the dark, dull red (ocher red to 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 275 

5: Argentina, Tucuman (Vipos, 1; Conception, 4). 
Piranga flava rosacea Todd. 1 CHIQUITOS RED TANAGER. 

Piranga saira rosacea Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 92, July 12, 1922 

Palmarito, Rio San Julian, Chiquitos, eastern Bolivia (type in Carnegie 

Museum examined). 
Piranga flava rosacea Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 181, 

1929 northeastern Bolivia (monog.). 
Pyranga mississippensis (not Tanagra mississippensis Gmelin) Lafresnaye 

and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 33, 1837 Chi- 
quitos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 
Pyranga azarae d'Orbigny, Voy. Amei. Merid., Ois., p. 264, 1839 part, 

Chiquitos, Bolivia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 

p. 601 part, Chiquitos. 
Pyranga saira (not Tanagra saira Spix) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 

p. 124, 1856 part, Bolivia (in part). 
Pyranga flava (not Saltalor flavus Vieillot) Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 

Kongr. Berlin, p. 1063, 1912 part, Chiquitos. 
Piranga flava Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 241, 1923 part, spec. Nos. 2-4, 

Chiquitos, Bolivia (crit.). 

brick red) coloration of the upper parts, in fresh plumage half concealed by broad, 
pale gray apical margins. On the pileum and above the eyes, the red passes 
into a much brighter and lighter (coral red) tone, the grayish edges being either 
absent or but faintly suggested on the hindcrown. The under surface is decidedly 
pink, corresponding to Ridgway's peach red or somewhat deeper, in opposition 
to the scarlet hue which prevails in rosacea and saira. The females are recog- 
nizable by the markedly grayish, less yellowish green upper parts, and duller, 
more greenish breast and sides. After once more investigating the case, I now 
agree with Mr. Zimmer's contention that P. azarae d'Orbigny is merely a new 
name for Azara's "Habia amarilla" and "Habia punzo," and that the designation 
of a "type" from Chiquitos was unjustified. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia; San Jos6, Mizque, 2 (males); Olguin, 
Cochabamba, 2 (male, female); Pampas de Taperas (twenty leagues south of 
Santa Cruz), 1 (male); Guanacos (south of Santa Cruz), Prov. Cordillera, 3 
(males); Sucre, 1 (female); Cinti, Chuquisaca, 2. Argentina: San Lorenzo, 
Jujuy, 1; Tala, Salta, 2; Rio Vermejo, Salta, 4; Embarcacion, Dept. Oran, Salta, 
2; Metan, Salta, 1; Vipos, Tucuman, 8; Tapia, Tucuman, 1; Cosquin, Cordoba, 
4; Rio de Oro, Chaco Austral, 1; Buenos Aires, 1; Lomas de Zamora, Buenos 
Aires, 1. 

1 Piranga flava rosacea Todd: Nearest to P. f. saira, but under parts in adult 
males lighter, varying from salmon orange to flame scarlet, and dorsal feathers 
with traces of grayish edges; females distinguishable only by slightly more grayish 
upper surface. Wing, 92-98, (female) 91-94; tail, 70-80, (female) 73-80; bill, 
16-18. 

This form is truly intermediate to P. /. flava, from which it differs by having 
the upper parts much less margined with grayish, and in the male sex by orange 
to scarlet (not pink) under surface. While the coloration of the lower parts in 
the males is exceedingly variable, no two of the nine specimens examined showing 
the same tone, I fully agree with Mr. Zimmer that the inhabitants of eastern 
Bolivia should all be referred to one and the same race forming the passage from 
saira to flava. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Palmarito, Rio San Julian, Chiquitos, 7 (includ- 
ing the type); Rio Quiser, Velasco, North Chiquitos, 6; Chiquitos (d'Orbigny), 
4; Ipias, Chiquitos, 2; Tunama, Chiquitos, 1. 



276 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Piranga flava azarae Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 241 (in text), 1923 Chi- 
quitos; Laubmann, Wissens. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 
272, 1930 Ipias and Tunama, Chiquitos, Bolivia (crit.). 

Range. Eastern Bolivia, from Santa Cruz to the neighborhood 
of the Brazilian boundary (Chiquitos district). 

*Piranga flava saira (Spix). SAIRA TANAGER. 

Tanagra mississippensis (not of Gmelin) Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner 
Mus., p. 30, 1823 Sao Paulo (descr. of male and female); Wied, Beitr. 
Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 521, 1830 Valo, Minas Geraes. 

Tanagra saira Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 35, pi. 48, fig. 1 ("mas" = 
female), 1825 no locality indicated, hab. subst. Caxias, Piauhy, auct. 
Hellmayr, 1929 (type in Munich Museum examined; cf. Hellmayr, Ab- 
handl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 670, 1906). 

Phoenicosoma azarae (not Pyranga azarae d'Orbigny) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 

I, p. 25, 1850 Brazil. 

Pyranga saira Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 124, 1856 part, Brazil 
("Rio," Bahia, Minas [GeraesJ, and Sao Paulo); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 80, 1862 part, spec, a-c, "Rio"; Ridgway, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1869, p. 131 Brazil (descr.); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 211, 
1870 Sao Paulo (Ypanema, Itarare, Parana), Parana (Campo Pantoso, 
Jaguaraiba, Porcos de Riva, Curytiba, Pitangui), Goyaz (Jose Dias, 
Goyaz, Ponte Alta), and Matto Grosso (Cuyaba); Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 429 Minas Geraes (Barbacena, 
Lagoa Santa, Sete Lagoas, Curvelo) and Sao Paulo (Campinas, Rio 
Grande de Parana); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 120, 
1885 Linha Piraja, Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

II, p. 185, 1886 Brazil (Bahia; Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul; "Rio"); 
Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 1899 Mundo Novo 
and Pelotas; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 151, 1899 Sao Paulo; Miranda 
Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 13, p. 186, 1905 Caminho 
do Couto, Serra do Itatiaya; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 85, 1910 Piauhy (Santo Antonio de Gilboez, Bandeira, 
Santa Maria, Fazenda Riachoelo, Santa Philomena); Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1063, 1139, 1912 Monte Alegre 
to Matto Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul (crit.); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
61, p. 520, 1913 Serra de Erere and Monte Alegre; idem, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 449, 1914 Monte Alegre, Serra de Erere, and Maranhao; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 185, 1925 
Piauhy (Bandeira, Riachoela); H. Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 76, p. 535, 
1928 Brazil (ecol.). 

Pyranga coccinea (not Tanagra coccinea Boddaert) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 171, 1856 Minas Geraes. 

Piranga saira Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 357, 1891 Chapada, 
Matto Grosso (plumages, molt, etc.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 
359, 1907 Sao Paulo (Batataes, Campos de Jordao, Franca, Itarare) 
and Matto Grosso (Porto da Faya); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 29, 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 277 

1908 Goyaz; Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. Varsovie, 5, pp. 
487, 499, 1912 Vera Guarany, Parana; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 
241 (in text), 1923 part, Brazil (Minas to Monte Alegre); Miranda 
Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 255, 1923 Retire de 
Ramos, Serra do Itatiaya. 

Piranga saira saira Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, pp. 262, 321, 1928 
Serra do Itatiaya. 

Piranga flava saira Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 282, 
1929 Maranhao (Codo, Cocos; Tranqueira; Fazenda Inhuma, Alto 
Parnahyba) and Goyaz (Philadelphia); Zimmer, I.e., 17, p. 184, 1929 
(monog.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 375, 1930 Bel- 
vedere de Urucum, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Campos region of Brazil, from the lower Amazon (Monte 
Alegre and Serra de Erere", north bank; Santarem) south to Matto 
Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul. 1 

9: Brazil (Santarem, 1; Codo, Cocos, Maranhao, 2; Tranqueira, 
Maranhao, 1; Fazenda Inhuma, Alto Parnahyba, Maranhao, 2; Sao 
Marcello, Rio Preto, Bahia, 1; Philadelphia, Goyaz, 1; Rio Nova 
Roma, Goyaz, 1). 

*Piranga flava macconnelli Chubb. 2 MCCONNELL'S TANAGER. 

Piranga saira macconnelli Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 8, p. 446, Oct., 
1921 upper Takutu Mountains, British Guiana (type in coll. of F. C. 
McConnell, now in British Museum, examined); idem, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 
2, p. 524, pi. 9 (male, female), 1921 upper Takutu Mountains and 
Quonga. 

1 Birds from Matto Grosso, Sao Paulo, and Parana agree well with a series 
from Maranhao and Piauhy, and allowing the usual amount of individual varia- 
tion, I am unable to substantiate the local differences noticed by the late Count 
Berlepsch. A single adult male from Rio Grande do Sul (Pelotas) in the Paris 
Museum is by no means larger (wing, 99; tail, 77) than various northern examples, 
and in coloration, especially in lacking all trace of grayish edges above, it is thor- 
oughly typical, betraying no approach to flava. The largest specimen I have 
seen is a male from Ytarare, Sao Paulo, with the wing measuring fully 104 mm. 
A couple of adults from the north bank of the lower Amazon seem inseparable 
from tableland birds, and until an adequate series proves otherwise, they may be 
referred to saira rather than macconnelli. 

Additional material examined. Para: Serra de Erer6, 1 (male); Monte Alegre, 
1 (female). Piauhy: Santo Antonio de Gilboez, 1; Bandeira, 1; Fazenda Ria- 
choelo, 1; Santa Maria, 2; Santa Philomena, 1. Bahia, 2. Minas Geraes: Agua 
Suja, near Bagagem, 3. Sao Paulo: YtararS, 3. Parana: Jaguaraiba, 1; Cury- 
tiba, 2. Goyaz: Goyaz City, 12; Jose" Dias, 1. Matto Grosso: Chapada, 10. 
Rio Grande do Sul: Pelotas, 1 (male). 

2 Piranga flava macconnelli Chubb: Exceedingly close to P. /. saira, but perhaps 
separable by average lighter coloration of the upper parts in the male sex. 
Wing, 94-98, (female) 89-94; tail, 77-84, (female) 75-79; bill, 17-18^. 

This is a very unsatisfactory race, as has been pointed put by Zimmer, and 
with the larger series now available I find it very hard to maintain its distinction. 

Additional material examined. British Guiana: upper Takutu Mountains, 
1 (male, the type); Quonga, 6; Annai, 2. 



278 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Piranga flava macconnelli Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 283, 1929 British Guiana (Quonga, Annai) and Serra da Lua, upper 
Rio Branco (crit.); Zimmer, I.e., 17, p. 189, 1929 (monog.). 

Piranga saira (not Tanagra saira Spix) Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 241, 
(in text), 1923 part, British Guiana. 

(l)Pyranga azarae (Fanagra saira?) [sic] Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 
2, p. 31, 1857 Cayenne (coll. Deplanches). 

(l)Piranga saira Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 116, 1908 Cayenne (ex 
Bonaparte). 

Range. Savanna country of southern British Guiana (Quonga; 
Annai; upper Takutu Mountains) and the adjacent districts of 
extreme northern Brazil (Boa Vista and Serra da Lua, upper Rio 
Branco) ; possibly also in Dutch and French Guiana. 

6: British Guiana (Quonga, 1); Brazil (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 3; 
Serra da Lua, near Boa Vista, 2). 

*Piranga flava faceta Bangs. 1 CARIBBEAN RED TANAGER. 

Piranga faceta Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 141, 1898 Santa Marta 
region (alt. 3,000 feet), Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and 0. Bangs, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 409, 1930); idem, I.e., 13, p. 104, 1899 
La Conception and San Miguel, Santa Marta region; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 13, p. 121, 1900 (ex Bangs). 

Pyranga saira (not Tanagra saira Spix) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 
80, 1862 part, spec, d, Trinidad. 

Phoenicosoma saira Heine and Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 17, 
1890 part, Caracas. 

Pyranga hepatica (not of Swainson) Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 291, 1866 
Trinidad. 

Pyranga haemalea (not of Salvin and Godman) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 185, 1886 part, Venezuela and Trinidad (spec. f-h). 

Piranga haemalea Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 7, p. 323, 1895 
Caura, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San Antonio [Monagas], 

1 Piranga flava faceta Bangs: Nearest to P. f. macconnelli, but coloration of 
adult males darker with more of an orange tone, especially on the under parts, 
which are between scarlet and Brazil red; upper surface likewise darker, near 
Kaiser brown, with the color of the pileum less strongly differentiated from that 
of the back; female on average paler, particularly below. Wing, 85-91, (female) 
83-90; tail, 75-80, (female) 69-79; bill, 17.5-19. 

Birds from Trinidad and Venezuela agree well with Santa Marta specimens, 
and a single female from San Cristobal, Tachira, does not materially differ, though 
its bill is slightly larger than in most of the others. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Santa Marta region, 8. Vene- 
zuela: San Cristobal, Tachira, 1; Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 17; Loma Redonda, 
near Caracas, 3; Rio Mamera, near Caracas, 1; vicinity of Puerto Cabello, Cara- 
bobo, 1; Campos Alegre Valley, Sucre, 8; Quebrada Secca, Sucre, 2; Los Palmales, 
Sucre, 3; La Tigrera, Sucre, 1. Trinidad: Cave Mountains, Aripo (alt. 1,800 to 
2,000 feet), 5. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 279 

Venezuela; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 168, 1900 Bonda, 
Onaca, Minca, Cacagualito, and Masinga Vieja, Santa Marta region. 

Piranga testacea faceta Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 57, 1906 Trinidad 
(ex Leotaud, crit.); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1064, 1912 part, Santa Marta, Venezuela ("Cumana"), and Trinidad; 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 488, 1922 Minca, Cin- 
cinnati, and La Vegas, Santa Marta region (crit., habits, nest and eggs); 
Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 188, 1924 Venezuela (Galipan, 
Loma Redonda, and Rio Mamera, Caracas region; Campo Alegre, Que- 
brada Secca, and Los Palmales, Bermudez) and Trinidad (Aripo Moun- 
tains) (crit.). 

Piranga flava faceta Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 197, 
1929 northern Colombia to Trinidad (monog.). 

Range. Northern Colombia (Santa Marta region) and across 
northern Venezuela to Trinidad (Aripo Mountains and Caura) and 
south to Tachira (San Cristobal). 

4: Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 1; Caracas, 2; Galipan, Cerro 
del A vila, 1). 

Piranga flava haemalea (Salvin and Godman). 1 RORAIMA RED 
TANAGER. 

Pyranga haemalea Salvin and Godman, Ibis, (5), 1, p. 205, 1883 Roraima, 
British Guiana (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Mu- 
seum, examined); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 211 Roraima; Sclater, Cat. 

1 Piranga flava haemalea (Salvin and Godman) : Very similar to P. f. desi- 
diosa, but adult male more deeply colored; the upper parts garnet brown rather 
than Morocco red, the lower ones more purely red (nopal red rather than Brazil 
red) with the throat paler, scarlet to Rose Doree; female separable only by having 
the throat brighter, approaching primuline yellow. Wing, 96-98, (female) 91-95; 
tail, 78-80, (female) 74-78; bill, 18-19. 

This form has no resemblance to its geographical neighbor P. f. macconnelli, 
which, in the male sex, is much lighter colored with the under parts scarlet to 
grenadine red, and the dorsal surface much paler, while the female differs at a 
glance by its bright yellowish green upper plumage passing into yellowish on the 
forehead, and light pure yellow ventral parts with but little greenish shading on 
the flanks. Compared to P. f. testacea, the differences that distinguish haemalea 
from desidiosa are even more pronounced in the male sex, the Veragua form being 
underneath still duller and more obscured than its Colombian representative. 
There is no distinct pale eye-rim, but just a few pale red plumules on the lower 
eyelid, exactly as in desidiosa. The top of the head, in the Roraima males, is 
the same shade as the back, the forehead by no means lighter; the auriculars are 
uniform deep garnet brown like the crown, the anterior cheeks slightly speckled 
with whitish; the chest is duskier than the middle of the breast, the throat very 
much lighter and brighter than the pileum. In addition to the Roraima series, 
the British Museum has a molting adult male (Nov. 7, 1887) and a female (Oct. 
31, 1887) from Quonga, where the same collector (H. W. Whitely, Jr.) also obtained 
a number of specimens of P. f. macconnelli. They agree in every detail with the 
types of P. haemalea, showing no approach whatever to the other form (maccon- 
nelli), and were probably stragglers from their usual haunts on the slopes of 
Roraima. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 10; Quonga, 2. 



280 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 185, 1886 part, spec, a-e, Roraima, Guiana; 

Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1064, 1912 Roraima. 
Piranga haemalea Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 523, 1921 Roraima. 
Piranga testacea haemalea Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 190 

(in text), 1924 British Guiana (crit.). 
Piranga flava haemalea Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 

201, 1929 British Guiana (monog.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. 

H., 63, p. 131, 1931 Agiiita, Mount Duida, Venezuela. 
Phoenicosoma azarae (not Pyranga azarae d'Orbigny) Cabanis, in Schom- 

burgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 668, 1848 [= 1849] Pacaraima Moun- 
tains, British Guiana. 1 

Range. Subtropical zone of British Guiana (Pacaraima Moun- 
tains, near passage of Cotinga River; Mount Roraima) and southern 
Venezuela (Mount Duida). 

Piranga flava desidiosa Bangs and Noble. 2 COLOMBIAN RED 
TANAGER. 

Piranga testacea desidiosa Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 461, 1918 La Maria, 
Dagua River, western Andes, Colombia (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., examined); Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, 
A, Heft 2, p. 190 (in text), 1924 western Colombia (crit.). 

Pyranga testacea (not of Sclater and Salvin, 1868) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 502 Concordia and Medellin, Antioquia; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 292, 1883 part, 
Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 184, 1886 part, spec, 
g-j, Concordia, Colombia. 

Piranga testacea testacea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 86, 
1902 part, Colombia ("Bogota"); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
36, p. 613, 1917 part, Colombia (San Antonio, Cocal, Popayan, La 
Sierra). 

Pyranga testacea faceta (not of Bangs) Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1164, 1912 part, Antioquia and "Bogota," Colombia. 

1 Although this specimen is no longer in the Berlin Museum, its pertinence to 
the present form seems hardly in doubt considering the locality. 

2 Piranga flava desidiosa Bangs and Noble: Very similar to P. f. lutea, but 
adult male somewhat deeper red; auriculars not streaked with whitish; no con- 
spicuous red eye-rim or supraloral streak; female with back rather darker, more 
olivaceous green. Wing, 92-98, (female) 86-94; tail, 71-78, (female) 71-74; 
bill, 18-19. 

Though slight, the differences from P. f. lutea apparently hold in a good 
series from various parts of Colombia. Males from La Sierra and Popayan 
verge somewhat toward the Ecuadorian race, but seem best referred here. A 
single male from "Bogota" compares well with Antioquia specimens. P. f. 
desidiosa, up to the present, has been definitely recorded only from the western 
Andes, but its occurrence in native "Bogota" collections suggests that its range 
may extend into some part of the Magdalena Valley. 

Material examined. Western Andes: La Maria, Dagua Valley, 7 (including 
the type); Atuncela, Rio Dagua (alt. 3,000 feet), 1; Primavera, 2; Las Lomitas, 
2; San Antonio, 2; Popayan, 2; Cocal, 1; La Sierra, 2; Concordia, 4. "Bogota," 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 281 

Piranga flava desidiosa Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 196, 
1929 Colombia (monog.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (western Andes; probably 
also some parts of the Magdalena Valley). 

*Piranga flava lutea (Lesson). 1 TSCHUDI'S RED TANAGER. 

Pithylus luteus Lesson, L'Institut, 2, No. 72, p. 316, Sept. 27, 1834 Callao, 
Peru (descr. of female; location of type not stated). 2 

Pitylus luteus Lesson, in Bougainville, Journ. Navig. Thetis, 2, p. 326, 1837 
Callao (descr. of female). 

Phoenisoma lutea Lesson, Oeuvr. Compl. Buffon, 6d. Leveque, 20, [ = Descr. 
Mamm. Ois.], p. 436, 1847 Callao (descr. of female). 

Phoenisoma azarae (not Pyranga azarae d'Orbigny) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 
10, (1), p. 287, 1844 Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 207, 
1846 Peru. 

Pyranga saira (not Tanagra saira Spix) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 124, 1856 part, eastern Peru (ex Tschudi). 

Pyranga azarae Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 514 Junin, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1877, p. 332 Palmal, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 227 
Tambillo, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 601 part, Cangalli, 
Bolivia; Taczanowski, I.e., 1880, p. 195 Callacate, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, 
p. 14 Chirimoto, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 495, 1884 Peru (Junin, 
Tambillo, Callacate, Chirimoto, Tambillo, Lechugal, Nancho). 

Pyranga testacea (not of Sclater and Salvin) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 292, 1883 part, Ecuador and Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 184, 1886 part, spec, k-o, "Jima" (Ecuador), 
Chirimoto (Peru), and Bolivia ("Cinti," Cangalli). 

Pithylus puteus (sic) Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., p. 224, 1846 Callao (ex 
Lesson); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 513, 1886 Callao (ex Lesson). 

1 Piranga flava lutea (Lesson) : Similar to P. f. testacea, but adult male brighter 
red with the whitish streaks on the auriculars and the pale reddish eyelid more 
conspicuous, and the chest not so dark; female with brighter citrine upper parts. 
Wing, 88-98, (female) 85-91; tail, 73-84, (female) 72-78; bill, 17^-19. 

Birds from western Ecuador do not appreciably differ from Peruvian ones, 
with which specimens from the Yungas of Bolivia agree. Two adult males 
from "Cinti" in the British Museum are doubtless incorrectly labeled, and are 
more likely to have originated in the Yungas of La Paz, where Buckley did most 
of his collecting. The Bolivian range of P. /. lutea appears to be confined to the 
Subtropical zone on the north side of the Cordilleras of La Paz and Cochabamba, 
while south of that mountain chain P. /. flava takes its place. "Jima," eastern 
Ecuador, is another questionable locality. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador (west side): Esmeraldas, 3; Punta 
Santa Ana, 1; Zaruma, 3; Alamor, 1; Cebollal, Loja, 1. Peru: Succha, Hua- 
machuco, 2; Vina, Huamachuco, 3; Lima, 1; Lurin, Lima, 1; Surco, Lima, 1. 
Bolivia, Yungas of La Paz: Cangalli, 1 (female); Songo, 2; Quebrada Onda, 
Yungas of Cochabamba, 1; "Cinti," 2. 

2 The type is not in the Paris Museum, but may yet be found in the Museum 
of the Naval Medical School at Rochefort, where Lesson held the professorship 
of natural history. 



282 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyranga testacea tschudii Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1892, p. 375 Lima, Peru (type in Berlepsch Collection, now in Frankfort 
Museum); idem, I.e., 1896, p. 345 La Merced, Peru; idem, Ornis, 13, 
pp. 82, 111, 1906 Santa Ana and Huaynapata, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1064, 1912 Peru and Bolivia (Songo, 
Quebrada Onda, Cangalli, "Cinti"); Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 461, 
1918 Tabaconas and Huancabamba, Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 117, p. 121, 1921 Chauillay and Rio Comberciato, Peru; idem, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 677, 1926 Ecuador (Esmeraldas, La 
Puente, Portovelo, Zaruma, Punta Santa Ana, Casanga, Salvias, Lumana, 
Alamor, Pullango, Cebollal, Celica). 

Pyranga tschudii Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 5, 1895 Cajabamba, Chusgon, 
and Succha, Peru. 

Pyranga flava lutea Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 191, 
1929 Ecuador to northwestern Bolivia (monog.); idem, I.e., p. 449, 
1930 Santa Eulalia, Vista Alegre, Chinchao, and Cullcui, Peru. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Ecuador, Peru, and north- 
western Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz and Cochabamba). 

9 : Peru (Hacienda Limon, east of Balsas, 1 ; Cullcui, Rio Maranon, 
1; Santa Eulalia, 2; Vista Alegre, 2; Chinchao, 3). 

Piranga flava testacea (Sclater and Salvin). BRICK-RED TANAGER. 

Pyranga testacea Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 388 
Chitr and Calovevora, Veragua (type, from Chitra, in Salvin-Godman 
Collection, now in British Museum, examined); Ridgway, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869, p. 133 part, Angostura, Costa Rica; Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 187 Calovevora, Chitra, and Boquete de 
Chitra, Veragua; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 292, 
pi. 19, figs. 1, 2, 1883 part, Costa Rica (Angostura) and Panama 
(Chitra, Boquete de Chitra, Calovevora, Santa F6); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 184, 1886 part, spec, b-f, Costa Rica and Veragua 
(Calovevora, Chitra, Santa Fe); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, 
p. 110, 1887 Costa Rica 1 (Pozo Azul de Pirris, Naranjo de Cartago [= Juan 
VinasJ, and Cartago); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1064, 1912 part, Costa Rica and Veragua. 

Piranga testacea testacea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 86, 
1902 part, Costa Rica and Veragua; Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 309, 1907 
Boruca and Paso Real, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 855, 1910 Costa Rica (Cerro de Santa Maria, La Vijagua, Cariblanco 
de Sarapiqui, La Hondura, Boruca). 

Pyranga hepatica (not of Swainson) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 
139 Santa Fe, Veragua. 

Piranga testacea subsp. Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 282, p. 10, 1927 
Cape Garachine, Panama. 

1 Specimens from Costa Rica appear to be inseparable from topotypes. 

Material examined. Panama, Veragua: Chitra, 4 (including the type); 
Santa F6, 1; Calovevora, 1. Costa Rica: Boruca, 2; Cerro de Santa Maria, 2; 
La Vijagua, 1; Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, 3. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 283 

Piranga flava testacea Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 203, 
1929 Panama to Costa Rica (monog.); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
71, p. 341, 1929 Boquete Trail, Almirante Bay, Panama. 

Range. Costa Rica and Panama, east to Cape Garachme*. 
*Piranga flava albifacies Zimmer. 1 WHITE-FACED TANAGER. 

Piranga flava albifacies Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 205, 
1929 San Jos6 del Sacare, Chalatenango, Salvador (type in coll. of 
Donald R. Dickey, Pasadena, examined); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 379, 1932 Guatemala (La Montanita, Chichicastenango, 
Huehuetenango) . 

Pyranga testacea (not of Sclater and Salvin) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 292, 1883 part, Chontales, Nicaragua; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 184, 1886 part, spec, a, Chontales; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1064, 1912 part, Nicara- 
gua (Chontales). 

(l)Piranga hepatica (not of Swainson) Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, 
p. 338, 1932 San Juancito, Honduras (one female, July 27). 

Range. Mountain-pine and oak forests of western Guatemala, 
El Salvador, (?) Honduras, and Nicaragua. 

4: Nicaragua (Matagalpa, 1; San Rafael del Norte, 3). 

*Piranga flava figlina (Salvin and Godman). 2 BELIZE TANAGER. 

Pyranga figlina Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 293, 1883 
Manati River, British Honduras, and pine-ridge of Poctun, Guatemala 
(type, from Manati River, in U. S. National Museum, examined); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 185, 1886 British Honduras and Guatemala 
(Poctun). 

1 Piranga flava albifacies Zimmer: Nearly related to P. f. figlina, but larger; 
general coloration of adult male deeper and redder; sides of head whiter, with the 
lower part of lores, the anterior malar region, and the chin distinctly white, the 
bases of the feathers grayish; auriculars red with prominent white shaft stripes, 
not brownish with obsolete streaking. Wing, 94 (once), 96-102, (female) 90-100; 
tail, 73 (once), 76-82, (female) 70-78; bill, 18-19. 

Birds from Nicaragua, including an immature male from Chontales, seem 
decidedly referable to albifacies, not to figlina. 

Additional material examined. El Salvador: San Jose" de Sarace", Chalate- 
nango, 10; Mount Cacaguatique, 8. Nicaragua: Chontales, 1. 

2 Piranga flava figlina (Salvin and Godman): Similar to P. f. testacea, but 
on average larger; auriculars distinctly brown or dull reddish brown (at best with 
a suggestion of fine whitish streaks); a whitish patch below the eye; interscapulars 
more or less edged with grayish. Female similar to P. /. albifacies, but more 
brownish above, deeper yellow on the throat, and duller, less greenish, on the 
flanks. Wing, 88-100, (female) 84-9.5; tail, 72-80, (female) 65-78; bill, 18-19. 

Males from different localities vary somewhat in coloration, but the signif- 
icance of these slight divergencies cannot be determined without large series of 
breeding birds. 

Additional material examined. British Honduras: Manati River, 1 (the type). 
Guatemala: Pine-ridge of Poctun, 6. Honduras: Segovia River, 1 (male). 
Nicaragua: Sacklin, Rio Wanks, 1 (male). 



284 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyranga hepatica (not Swainson) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 15 eastern 

Guatemala; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 192, 1882 Guatemala; Salvin 

and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 291, 1883 part, Guatemala; 

Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 186, 1886 part, spec, k, Guatemala. 
Pyranga testacea (not of Sclater and Salvin) Ridgway, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., 1869, p. 133 part, Rio Manati and Belize, British Honduras. 
Piranga figlina Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 585, 1888 Segovia 

River, Honduras. 
Pyranga testacea figlina Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 

1064, 1912 British Honduras (Belize, Rio Manati), Honduras (Rio 

Segovia), and Guatemala (Poctun). 
Pyranga testacea figlina Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 87, 1902 

Guatemala (Poctun) to southern Honduras (monog.); Austin, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 391, 1929 Augustine, British Honduras; 

Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 338, 1932 Segovia River, 

Honduras. 
Piranga flava figlina Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 207, 

1929 British Honduras to the northern border of Nicaragua (monog.); 

Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 380, 1932 Secanquim, Vera 

Paz, Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical pine-lands of British Honduras, eastern Guate- 
mala, and eastern Honduras, south to the Nicaraguan border. 

2: Nicaragua (Sacklin, fifty miles above Cape Gracias, Rio Wanks 
[= Segovia River], 2). 

*Piranga flava dextra Bangs. 1 EASTERN HEPATIC TANAGER. 

Piranga hepatica dextra Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 20, p. 30, 1907 Jalapa, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 409, 1930); 
Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 Tamaulipas (Matamoros, Rampahuila, 
Galindo, Carricitos, Montelunga, Realito); Oberholser, Auk, 36, pp. 76, 
77, 1919 eastern Mexico (range, crit.). 

Piranga flava dextra Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 210, 
1929 eastern Mexico (monog.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 379, 1932 Chichicastenango, Momostenango, and Chanquejelve, 
Guatemala (winter visitor). 

Phoenisoma hepatica (not Pyranga hepatica Swainson) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 
1, p. 25, 1851 Jalapa. 

Pyranga hepatica Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 124, 1856 part, 
Orizaba; idem, I.e., 25, p. 213, 1857 Orizaba; idem, I.e., 27, p. 364, 

1 Piranga flava dextra Bangs: Nearest to P. f. hepatica, but rather smaller and 
darker; males clearer red with narrower edges of gray to the dorsal feathers; 
female more yellowish green above. From P. f. figlina the male may be distin- 
guished by darker red coloration with broader grayish dorsal edges and with a 
less extensive pale area on the anterior sides of the head. 

Material examined. Mexico: Jico, Vera Cruz, 2; San Vicente, Chiapas, 1; 
near Tonala, Chiapas, 2; San Cristobal, Chiapas, 1; Gineta Mountains, 2; Cerro 
de la Silla, Nuevo Leon, 2; Santa Catarina, Nuevo Leon, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 285 

1859 Jalapa; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 81, 1862 Jalapa; Sumi- 
chrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 549, 1869 Vera Cruz up to 3,000 
meters; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 291, 1883 
part, Jalapa, Orizaba, and Vera Cruz; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 186, 1886 part, spec, f-h, Jalapa and Orizaba. 

Piranga hepatica Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 40, 1898 Las 
Vegas, Vera Cruz; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 84, 
1902 part, eastern Mexico; (?)Friedmann, Auk, 42, p. 551, 1925 
Brownsville, Texas. 

Pyranga hepatica dextra Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1063, 1912 part, southeastern Mexico (Nuevo Leon to Chiapas). 

Range. Eastern Mexico, from eastern Nuevo Leon through 
Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz, northern Puebla (Hauchinango), extreme 
eastern Oaxaca, and Chiapas, south in winter to northwestern 
Guatemala. 

1: Mexico (Oaxaca, 1). 

*Piranga flava hepatica (Swainson). HEPATIC TANAGER. 

Pyranga hepatica Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 438, 1827 Real del 

Monte, Hildalgo, Mexico (descr. of female; location of type unknown); 

Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 291, 1883 part, 

New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 

p. 186, 1886 part, Arizona and Mexico; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 

Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1063, 1912 part, New Mexico, Arizona, and 

Mexico. 
Piranga hepatica Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 84, 1902 

part, Mexico (part), Arizona, and New Mexico; Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

N. H., 22, p. 175, 1906 Durango (La Cienaga de las Vacas, Arroyo del 

Buey); Swarth, Pac. Coast Avif., 10, p. 62, 1914 Arizona (range). 
Piranga hepatica hepatica Smith, Condor, 19, p. 164, 1917 Davis Mountains, 

Texas; Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 77, 1919 (range); Bangs and Peters, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 403, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca. 
Piranga flava hepatica Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 213, 

1929 (monog., full bibliog.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 409, 

1934 Chilpancingo and Taxco, Guerrero (crit.). 
Piranga hepatica oreophasma Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 74, 1919 Pine Canyon, 

Chisos Mountains, Texas (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Piranga flava oreophasma Oberholser, Sci. Publ. Cleveland Mus. N. H., 1, p. 

105, 1930 Huachuca Mountains, Arizona (crit.); van Rossem, Trans. 

San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 290, 1931 San Javier, Saric, and Chino- 

bampo, Sonora (crit.). 

Range. Highlands of Mexico, west of the Sierra Madre del 
Oriente, north to central-western Texas, New Mexico, and north- 
western Arizona. 1 

1 Separation of a northwestern race (P./. oreophasma), which has been advo- 
cated by Oberholser and more recently by van Rossem, seems to me unwarranted. 
There is no difference in color, so far as I can see, and the on average slightly larger 



286 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

11 : Arizona (Huachuca Mountains, 8) ; Texas (Davis Mountains, 
2); Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 1). 

*Piranga roseo-gularis roseo-gularis (Cabot). ROSE-THROATED 
TANAGER. 

Pyranga roseo-gularis Cabot, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., 5, No. 3, p. 416, 
June, 1846 road from Chemax to Yalahao, Yucatan (type in coll. of 
S. Cabot, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Auk, 32, p. 169, 1915, and Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 
409, 1930); idem, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 187, Dec., 1846 (reprint); 
Sclater, Ibis, 1873, p. 125, pi. 3 (fig. of type). 

Pyranga roseigularis Ridgway, Ibis, 1873, p. 126 Yucatan (descr. of type); 
Salvin, Ibis, 1874, p. 327 Yucatan; Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 
2, p. 247, 1882 Yucatan (descr. of female); Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1883, p. 443 Yucatan; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 293, 1883 Yucatan (between Chemax and Yalahao; Izalam); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 187, 1886 part, spec, a, b, Yucatan 
(Chem Jonat forest and Izalam); Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 258 part, Meco 
Island (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 8, p. 279, 1896 
Chichen Itza, Yucatan; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1065, 1912 Yucatan (Izalam, La Vega, Chemax). 

Piranga roseo-gularis roseo-gularis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 98, 1902 Yucatan (monog.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 
142, 1906 Chichen Itza; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 17, 1926 
eastern Quintana Roo; van Tyne, Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool., Misc. Pub., 
27, p. 44, 1935 La Libertad, Peten, Guatemala. 

Range. Peninsula of Yucatan, including Meco Island, and 
eastern Guatemala (one record from La Libertad, Pete'n). 1 
1: Yucatan (unspecified, 1). 

*Piranga roseo-gularis cozumelae Ridgway. COZUMEL TANAGER. 

Piranga roseo-gularis cozumelae Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, 
p. 149, April 15, 1901 Cozumel Island, Yucatan (type in U. S. National 
Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 99, 1902 Cozumel 
and (?)Mujeres Islands (monog.); Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 236, p. 12, 
1926 Cozumel (crit.). 

Pyranga roseigularis cozumelae Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1065, 1912 Cozumel and (?)Mujeres. 

size in birds from the United States (and apparently Sonora) is hardly a sufficient 
reason for maintaining an additional race, since measurements vary a good deal 
in all the subspecies of P. flava. The case has been discussed at length by Zimmer, 
who also explains the doubtful applicability of Swainson'sterm for the present form. 

Twenty-five specimens from the United States and forty from Mexico 
examined. 

1 Specimens from Meco Island, which we have not seen, are stated by Salvin 
to be intermediate, but nearer to the typical form. 




BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 287 

Pyranga roseigularis (not of Cabot) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 190 Cozumel; 

Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 187, 1886 part, spec, c-i, Cozumel; 

Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 258 part, Mujeres and Cozumel (crit.). 
Piranga roseigularis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, 568, 1885 Cozumel. 

Range. Cozumel and Mujeres Islands, off the eastern coast of 
Yucatan. 1 

3: Cozumel Island. 

*Piranga olivacea (Gmelin). SCARLET TANAGER. 

Tanagra rubra (not Fringilla rubra Linnaeus) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 
1, p. 314, 1766 based on "Le Cardinal de Canada" Brisson, Orn., 3, 
p. 48, pi. 2, fig. 5; Canada. 

Tanagra olivacea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 889, 1789 chiefly based on 
"Olive Tanager" Latham (Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, p. 218) and Pennant (Arct. 
Zool., 2, p. 369); New York. 2 

Pyranga erythromelas Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 28, p. 293, 
pi. M. 22, fig. 1, 1819 based on Tanagra rubra (Latham ex) Linnaeus, 
Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 314; Canada; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1065, 1912 (range). 

Piranga erythromelas Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 88, 1902 
(monog.); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 66, 1902 Boquete, 
Panama; Riley, in Shattuck, The Bahama Islands, p. 367, 1905 New 
Providence, Andros, and Cay Lobos; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 854, 1910 Bonilla, Costa Rica; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, 
p. 127, 1923 Cuba (transient); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 676, 1926 Ecuador (Rio Suno, lower Sumaco, and below San Jose 1 ); 
Griscom, I.e., 64, p. 378, 1932 Guatemala. 

Pyranga rubra Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 501 Reme- 
dies, Colombia; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 601 Pillon, Yungas, Bolivia; Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 287, 1883 (monog.); Ber- 
lepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 292, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia. 

Piranga olivacea Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 575, 1919 (crit.). 

Range. Eastern North America, from southern Saskatchewan, 
Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia 
south to Kansas, northern Arkansas, Alabama, and Georgia, and 
the mountains of Virginia and South Carolina; winters from Co- 
lombia to Bolivia; migrates through the West Indies and chiefly 
along the east coast of Central America. 

1 We have not seen any material from Mujeres. According to Salvin, birds 
from that island are identical with Cozumel specimens. 

2 1 cannot but agree with Oberholser (Auk, 36, pp. 575-576, 1919) that 
Gmelin's diagnosis is very nearly a literal, though somewhat abridged transcrip- 
tion of Latham's and Pennant's accounts of the "Olive Tanager," which obviously 
refers to the transition plumage of the Scarlet Tanager. "L'Oliyet" of Buffon, 
likewise quoted by Gmelin a citation responsible for the additional habitat 
"Cayenne" seems to be some other species, since the Scarlet Tanager is not known 
to occur in Guiana. I dp not know for what reason the name olivacea has been 
rejected in the latest edition of the A. O. U. Check List. 



288 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

61: Massachusetts (Boston, 1; Greenwich, 2; Hyde Park, 1; 
Lexington, 2; Natic, 2); Connecticut (East Hartford, 5; Lyme, 1; 
Stafford, 1); New York (Auburn, 1; Cayuga County, 1; Moravia, 
Gay County, 2; Sennett, Gay County, 1); New Jersey (Englewood, 
4); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 9; Lake Koshkonong, 1; Woodruff, 
Vilas County, 2); Illinois (Chicago, 4; Deerfield, 3; Joliet, 5; Lake 
Forest, 5; Mound City, 1; Palos, 1); Arkansas (Winslow, 1); Texas 
(Fort Worth, 1); Florida (Key West, 1); West Indies (Antigua, 1); 
Colombia (unspecified, 2). 

*Piranga leucoptera leucoptera (Trudeau). WHITE- WINGED 
TANAGER. 

Tanagra erythromelas (not Pyranga erythromelas Vieillot) Lichtenstein, 
Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 1830 Mexico (type, from 
Lagunas, in Berlin Museum 1 ); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 11, p. 57, 1863 
(reprint). 

Pyranga leucoptera Trudeau, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 8, p. 160, 1839 
Mexico (descr. of male; type probably lost); 1 Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1065, 1912 (range). 

Pyranga bivittata Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 70, 1842 no locality indicated, 
= Mexico (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 410, 1930). 

Phoenicosoma bivittata Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 24, 1851 Jalapa, Mexico. 

Pyranga erythromelana [sic] Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 126, 1856 
Mexico (Lagunas, Orizaba, Jalapa, Cordoba) and Guatemala (descr.). 

Pyranga erythromelaena Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 303, 1856 
Cordoba; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 295, 1883 
part, Mexico, Guatemala, and British Honduras; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 189, 1886 part, spec, a-1, Mexico (Jalapa, Orizaba), 
Guatemala (Volcan de Agua, Savanna Grande, Retalhuleu, Chisec, 
Rasche, Vera Paz, Barranca Hondo), and British Honduras (Belize). 

Piranga leucoptera Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 27, 1898 
Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 122, 
1907 Patulul and Mazatenango, Guatemala. 

Piranga leucoptera leucoptera Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 99, 1902 Mexico to Salvador and British Honduras (monog.); Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 154, 1903 Yaruca, Honduras; Bangs 
and Peters, I.e., 67, p. 486, 1927 Motzorongo and Presidio, Vera Cruz, 
Mexico; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 391, 1929 Mountain Cow and Augustine, 
British Honduras (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 380, 1932 
Guatemala (Finca Chama, Chimoxan, Finca Sepacuite, Finca Carolina, 
Finca Cipres, San Felipe; crit.). 

1 Not in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 
(cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 21). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 289 

Range. Southeastern Mexico (in states of Vera Cruz, Puebla, 
Mexico, and Chiapas), Guatemala, British Honduras, Honduras 
(San Pedro), Salvador, and Nicaragua. 1 

16: Guatemala (Mazatenango, 5; Patulul, Solola, 2; San Felipe, 
Retalhuleu, 2; Vera Paz, 2); Nicaragua (Matagalpa, 4; San Rafael 
del Norte, 1). 

*Piranga leucoptera latifasciata Ridgway. BROAD-BANDED 
TANAGER. 

Piranga leucoptera latifasciata Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 457, 1887 
Costa Rica and Veragua (type not specified, presumably in U. S. National 
Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 101, 1902 Costa 
Rica to Veragua (monog.); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 66, 
1902 Boquete, Chiriqui; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 853, 1910 
Costa Rica (Guayabo, El Copey, La Lagunaria, Santa Maria de Dota, 
Naranjo de Cartago, Azahar de Cartago, La Estrella, Escazu, Juan Vinas); 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1066, 1912 Costa 
Rica to Veragua. 

Pyranga erythromelaena (not of Sclater) Salvadori, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 
4, p. 177, 1868 Costa Rica; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, 
p. 99, 1868 Costa Rica (Navarro, Barranca, Dota); Frantzius, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 299, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 187 Volcan de Chiriqui and Veragua (Calovevora); Boucard, 
I.e., 1878, p. 55 Naranjo and La Candelaria, Costa Rica; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 295, 1883 part, Costa Rica 
and Panama (Volcan de Chiriqui, Calobre, Calovevora); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 189, 1886 part, spec, m-q, Costa Rica (Tucurriquf, 
Dota) and Panama (Volcan de Chiriqui, Calovevora); Salvadori and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 4, 1899 Chiriqui. 

Piranga leucoptera (not of Trudeau) Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 24, 1892 San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

Range. Upper Tropical and lower Subtropical zones of Costa 
Rica and western Panama (east to Veraguas). 2 

1: Costa Rica (Juan Vinas, 1). 

*Piranga leucoptera ardens (Tschudi). BLACK-LORED TANAGER. 

Phoenisoma ardens Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 287, 1844 Peru 3 

(type in Neuchatel Museum). 

Phoenisoma bivittata (not Pyranga bivittata Lafresnaye) Tschudi, Unters. 
Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 207, 1846 eastern Peru. 

1 Birds from the southern part of the range are on average slightly larger 
and have a trifle more black on the forehead, but the variation is insignificant. 

Additional material examined. Mexico: Laguna, 1; Jalapa, 7. Guatemala: 
Vera Paz, 4. Honduras: San Pedro, 1 (male). 

2 Five adults from Chiriqui (Boquete) agree with five others from Costa Rica. 

3 We suggest as type locality the valley of Vitoc, Department of Junin (cf. 
Tschudi, Peru, Reiseskizzen, 2, p. 209, 1846). 



290 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyranga erythromelas (not of Vieillot) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, 
p. 156, 1855 "Bogotd," Colombia. 

Pyranga ardens Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 126, 1856 Colombia 
("Bogota"), Venezuela (Curiana, above Cariaco) and Peru (monog.); 
idem, I.e., 27, p. 139, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 81, 1862 Pallatanga and "Bogota"; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Carip6, northeastern Venezuela; Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 326 near Canuto, Santander, Colombia; Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 14 Chirimoto, Huambo, and Achamal, 
Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 546 Chimbo, Ecuador; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 497, 1884 Peru (Chirimoto, Huambo); 
idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 81 Mapoto, eastern 
Ecuador; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 211 Roraima, British Guiana; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 190, 1886 Colombia ("Bogota"), Ecuador 
(Pallatanga, Intag), Peru, Venezuela (Caripe'), and British Guiana 
(Roraima); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 345 Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Peru; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 
14, No. 25, p. 86, 1922 below Nanegal, Ecuador. 

Piranga ardens Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 71, 1889 Nanegal, 
Ecuador; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San Antonio [Monagas], Vene- 
zuela; Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 176, 1901 
San Julian, Venezuela; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. Ill, 1906 
Huaynapata, Marcapata, Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 121, 1921 Rio San Miguel, Urubamba, Peru; Chubb, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 525, 1921 Roraima. 

Pyranga leucoptera ardens Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
pp. 1066, 1140, 1912 Colombia to Bolivia (Songo, Quebrada Onda), 
Venezuela, and British Guiana (crit.). 

Piranga leucoptera ardens Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 
5, p. 63, 1912 La Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela (crit.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 614, 1917 Miraflores and 
Ricaurte, Colombia; Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 90, A, Heft 2, p. 190, 
1924 Silla de Caracas, Loma Redonda, and Galipan, Caracas region, 
Venezuela (crit., plumages); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 677, 1926 Ecuador (Rios Coco and Chimbo, junction of Chanchan 
and Chiguancay, Zaruma, Sabanilla); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 17, p. 450, 1930 Vista Alegre and Huachipa, Peru (crit.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 132, 1931 Arabupu, Roraima. 

Range. Subtropical (and lower Tropical) zone of British Guiana 
(Roraima), northern Venezuela (east to Sucre and Monagas), 
Colombia (except Santa Marta region), Ecuador (both slopes), 
eastern Peru, and northwestern Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz and 
Cochabamba). 1 

4: Peru, Dept. Huanuco (Vista Alegre, 2; Huachipa, 2). 

1 1 am unable to corroborate the differences noticed by Berlepsch between 
Venezuelan and Colombian specimens. They appear to me perfectly alike with 
the only exception that the pileum, in females from Carabobo and Monagas 
(San Antonio), is of a brighter yellow. This is, however, most likely to be indi- 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 291 

*Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson). WESTERN TANAGER. 

Tanagra ludoviciana Wilson, Amer. Orn., 3, p. 27, pi. 20, fig. 1, 1811 "prairies 
of the Missouri between the Osage and Mandan nations" = about two 
miles north of Kamiah, Idaho County, Idaho; cf. Davis and Stevenson, 
Condor, 36, p. 163, 1934 (type in Peale's Museum, doubtless lost). 

Pyranga erythropis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 28, p. 291, 
1879 based on Wilson, Amer. Orn., 3, pi. 20, fig. 1. 

Tanagra columbiana Jardine, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., 1, p. 317, 1832 
Columbia River. 

Pyranga ludoviciana Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 297, 
1883 North America to Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 191, 1886 (monog.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1065, 1912 (range). 

Piranga ludoviciana Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 91, 1902 
(monog., full bibliog.); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
p. 121, 1907 Guatemala (Patulul, Mazatenango, Lake Atitlan); Grinnell, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 187, 1928 Lower California; Griscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 378, 1932 Guatemala (winter). 

Range. Western North America, from northwestern British 
Columbia, and southwestern Mackenzie and South Dakota to the 
mountains of southern California, northern Lower California, south- 
ern Arizona, and western Texas; winters in Mexico and Guatemala. 1 

63: British Columbia (Okanagan, 7); Oregon (Salem, 1); Cali- 
fornia (Alameda, 1; Chaparral, Butte County, 4; Berryessa, 1; 
Dulzura, 1; Eureka, 1; Hay wards, 3; Nicasio, 1; San Antonio 
Canyon, 2; San Geronimo, Marin County, 1); Colorado (El Paso 
County, 1 ; foot of Williams Range, 1 ; Williams Range, 2) ; Arizona 
(Calabasas, 5; Huachuca, 7; Tucson, 2); Texas (Fort Davis, 2); 
Mexico (Escuinapa, 1; Iguala, Guerrero, 3; Mexico City, 1); Guate- 
mala (Lake Atitlan, 2; Mazatenango, 7; Patulul, Solola, 6). 

Piranga bidentata bidentata (Swainson). SWAINSON'S TANAGER. 

Pyranga bidentata Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 428, June, 1827 
Temascaltepec, Mexico (descr. of female; type in Bullock Collection, 
present location unknown); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 95, 
1856 part, Temascaltepec; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 

vidual, since females from the Caracas region, an intermediate locality, do not 
differ in that respect from "Bogota" skins. Males from Peru and Bolivia possibly 
have the blackish margin along the chin more restricted, but there is a good deal 
of variation. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: San Antonio, Monagas, 8; Silla 
de Caracas, 2; Loma Redonda, 11; Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 15; La Cumbre de 
Valencia, Carabobo, 5; La Ortiza, Tachira, 1. Colombia: "Bogota/' 6. Ecuador: 
Chimbo, 1. Peru: Garita del Sol, Vitoc, 2; Chirimoto, 1; Huaynapata, 1. 
Bolivia: Quebrada Onda, Yungas of Cochabamba, 6. 

1 1 cannot find any authentic record of its occurrence in Costa Rica. 



292 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Aves, 1, p. 296, 1883 part, Temascaltepec; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 

Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1066, 1912 western Mexico. 
Piranga bidentata Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 779, 1894 Barranca 

Ibarra, Jalisco; Nelson, Auk, 15, pp. 157, 158, 159, 1898 Jalisco and 

Sinaloa (crit., range, synon.). 
Piranga bidentata bidentata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 

95, 1902 southwestern Mexico (monog., bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. N. H., 21, p. 365, 1905 Juan Lisiarraga Mountains, Sinaloa. 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones on the Pacific slope 
of western Mexico, from Sinaloa to Mexico (Temascaltepec). 

Piranga bidentata flammea Ridgway. TRES MARIAS TANAGER. 

Piranga flammea Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 457, 1887 Tres Marias 
Islands (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Pyranga bidentata (not of Swainson) Finsch, Abhandl. Nat. Ver. Bremen, 2, 
p. 338, 1870 Tres Marias; Grayson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 14, p. 281, 
1872 Tres Marias; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 274, 1874 
Tres Marias; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 296, 
1883 part, Tres Marias Islands; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 190, 1886 part, spec. f. g, Tres Marias Islands. 

Piranga bidentata flammea Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 53, 1899 Maria 
Madre and Maria Magdalena (crit., habits); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 96, 1902 Tres Marias (monog.); McLellan, Proc. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 15, p. 310, 1926 Maria Madre and Maria Mag- 
dalena; idem, I.e., (4), 16, p. 48, 1927 Maria Madre. 

Pyranga bidentata flammea Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1066, 1912 Tres Marias Islands. 

Range. Tres Marias Islands (Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena), 
off western Mexico. 

*Piranga bidentata sanguinolenta (Lafresnaye). LAFRESNAYE'S 
TANAGER. 

Pyranga sanguinolenta Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 97, 1839 Mexico (type 
in coll. of Charles Brelay, Bordeaux; its present location unknown). 1 

Pyranga bidentata (not of Swainson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 126, 
1856 part, Jalapa; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 32 Volcan de 
Fuego, Guatemala; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 549, 1869 
temperate region of Vera Cruz; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 187 Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 296, 1883 part, eastern Mexico (Jalapa, above Vera 
Cruz), Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama (Volcan de Chiriquf); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 190, 1886 part, spec, a-d, h-r, Mexico 
(Jalapa, Orizaba), Guatemala (Volcan de Fuego, Duenas, Barranco 
Hondo), Costa Rica (Irazu, Parito), and Volcan de Chiriqui. 

1 According to Bangs (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 410, 1930), there is a 
female cotype in the Lafresnaye Collection received from C. Brelay. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 293 

Piranga sanguinolenla Nelson, Auk, 15, pp. 157, 158, 159, 1898 Vera Cruz 
to Chiriquf (crit., range, synon.). 

Piranga bidentata sanguinolenta Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 96, 1902 Nuevo Leon to Veragua (monog., full bibliog.); Bangs, 
Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 66, 1902 Boquete and Volcan de Chiriqui, 
Panama; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 854, 1910 Costa Rica 
(Volcan de Turrialba, San Jose 1 , San Juan de Irazu, El Copey, Santa 
Maria de Dota, La Estrella de Cartago, Escazu, Monte Redondo) ; Ferry, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 278, 1910 Coliblanco, Costa Rica; 
Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 Tamaulipas (Galindo, Realito, Monte- 
lunga); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 381, 1932 Guatemala 
(Finca La Primavera, La Perla, Barrillos, Finca El Soche, San Lucas). 

Pyranga bidentata sanguinolenta Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1066, 1912 Nuevo Leon to Chiriqui. 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of eastern Mexico, 
from Nuevo Leon (Monterrey) and Tamaulipas to Vera Cruz, and 
south through Guatemala and Costa Rica to western Panama 
(Veraguas). 1 

15: Mexico (Jalapa, 1; Mexico City, 1); Costa Rica (Cartago, 2; 
Coliblanco, 5; Limon, 2; San Jose", 2; unspecified, 1); Panama 
(Boquete, Chiriqui, 1). 

*Piranga rubriceps (G. R. Gray). COLOMBIAN RED-HEADED 
TANAGER. 

Pyranga rubriceps G. R. Gray, Genera of Bds., 2, p. 364, pi. 89, lower fig., 
1844 no locality stated (type from "Bogota" in British Museum); 
Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 178, 1851 "Mexico," errore (diag.); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 156, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 
24, p. 125, 1856 "Bogota" (descr.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 81, 
1862 "New Granada"; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 502 Medellin and Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia (descr. of female) ; 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1880, p. 195 Cutervo, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, 
p. 496, 1884 Cutervo; idem and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1885, p. 81 Banos, Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 192, 
1886 Colombia ("Bogota," Medellin) and Ecuador ("San Lucas"); 
Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 10, 1911 Cumpang, near Taya- 
bamba, Peru; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1067 
1912 Colombia ("Bogota," Antioquia) and Ecuador ("San Lucas," 
Banos); Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 86, 1922 
Mindo, Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 627, 
1932 El Portete de Tarqui, Azuay, Ecuador. 

1 Birds from Costa Rica and western Panama have been separated by van 
Rossem (Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 367, May 31, 1934) as P. b. citrea 
on account of brighter, more purely yellow under parts and more yellowish (less 
olive) dorsal surface in the female sex. The characters hold in the series exam- 
ined, the distinction having been overlooked by the author when writing the 
above account. 



294 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Piranga rubriceps Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 614, 1917 Cerro 

Munchique (western Andes) and Laguneta (central Andes), Colombia; 

idem, I.e., 55, p. 678, 1926 above Baeza and upper Sumaco, eastern 

Ecuador (crit.). 
Pyranga rubriceps rufistigmata Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 

p. 86, 1922 above Baeza, eastern Ecuador (type in Stockholm Museum); 

Gyldenstolpe, I.e., 19, A, No. 1, p. 15, 1926 Baeza (crit.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Colombia (all three ranges), eastern 
and western Ecuador, and northern Peru (Cutervo; Cumpang, near 
Tayabamba). 1 

3: Peru (Cumpang, near Tayabamba, Libertad, 1); Colombia 
("Bogota," 1; unspecified, 1). 

Piranga erythrocephala erythrocephala (Swainson), SOUTH 
MEXICAN RED- HEADED TAN ACER. 

Spermagra erythrocephala Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, p. 437, June, 
1827 Temascaltepec, Mexico (type in Bullock Collection, now in Liver- 
pool Museum). 

Pyranga cucullata Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci., etc., Belg., 14, (2), p. 105, 
1847 Mexico (type in Brussels Museum); idem, Rev. Zool., 11, p. 245, 
1848 (reprint). 

Pyranga erythrocephala Bonaparte, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 178, 1851 
Mexico (diag.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 125, 1856 Mexico 
(monog.); idem, I.e., 27, p. 377, 1859 Juquila and Totontepec, Oaxaca; 
idem, I.e., 1864, p. 173 vicinity of Mexico City; Duges, La Naturaleza, 
1, p. 140, 1868 Guanajuato; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 294, pi. 17, fig. 2 (male), 1883 Mexico (Guanajuato to Oaxaca) ; 
Ridgway, Ibis, 1883, p. 400 (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 192, 1886 Juquila, Mexico; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1067, 1912 part, southern Mexico, in states of Oaxaca, Mexico, 
and Guanajuato. 

Piranga erythrocephala Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 102, 

1902 part, Oaxaca to Guanajuato. 
Piranga erythrocephala erythrocephala Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, 

p. 410, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Range. Southern Mexico, in states of Guerrero (Chilpancingo), 
Guanajuato, Mexico (Temascaltepec, Valley of Mexico), and Oaxaca 
(Juquila, Totontepec). 

1 Two Peruvian specimens agree with others from eastern Ecuador and 
"Bogota." The reddish tipping to the larger under wing coverts, upon which 
P. rubriceps rufistigmata was based, is an individual character, it being absent 
in three birds from eastern Ecuador, but present in two (out of ten) "Bogota" 
skins. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 10. Ecuador: Banos, 2; above 
Baeza, 2. Peru: Cumpang, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 295 

Piranga erythrocephala Candida Griscom. 1 WEST MEXICAN 
RED-HEADED TANAGER. 

Piranga erythrocephala Candida Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 410, 
1934 Hacienda de San Rafael, Chihuahua (type in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Pyranga erythrocephala (not Spermagra erythrocephala Swainson) Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1067, 1912 part, Jalisco, Sinaloa, 
and Chihuahua. 

Piranga erythrocephala Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 102, 
1902 part, Jalisco (San Sebastian), Sinaloa (Plomosas), and Chihuahua 
("Trompa"=La Triunfa). 

Range. Western Mexico, in states of Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and 
Jalisco. 

Genus CYANICTERUS Bonaparte 

Cyanicterus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 240, 1850 type, by 

monotypy, Pyranga cyanictera Vieillot. 
Callithraupis Berlepsch, Orn. Centralbl., 4, p. 63, 1879 type, by orig. desig., 

Pyranga cyanictera Vieillot; idem, Journ. Orn., 27, p. 206, 1879 (reprint). 

Cyanicterus cyanicterus (Vieillot). BLUE-BACKED TANAGER. 

Pyranga cyanicterus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 28, p. 290, 
1819 "I'Ame'rique meridionale" = Cayenne (auct. Berlepsch, 1908) (type 
in coll. of C. J. Temminck, now in Leiden Museum; = adult male); 
idem, Gal. Ois., 1, (2), p. 112, pi. 81 (=adult male), 1822 'TAme'rique 
me>idionale" ; Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 463, 1831 (descr. of adult male). 

Pyranga icteropus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 28, p. 291, 
1819 "Br6sil" (type in Paris Museum ;= female or young); Pucheran, 
Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, p. 356, 1855 Cayenne (crit.). 

"Tachyphone a Epaulettes bleues" Lesson, Trait6 d'Orn., p. 463, 1831 part 
("male"), "Br6sil" = Cayenne; Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
7, p. 356, pi. 22, 1855 Cayenne (crit.;=young male). 

Cyanicterus venustus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (1), p. 240, 1850 new 
name for Pyranga cyanicterus Vieillot; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1881, p. 213 Mazaruni River, British Guiana; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 193, 1886 Cayenne and British Guiana (Merume' Mountains, Maza- 
runi River); idem, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 14, p. 31, 1903 Casuaria Grande, 
near Manaos, Brazil; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 450, 1910 Guiana; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 449, 1914 Rio Negro and Guiana. 

1 Piranga erythrocephala Candida Griscom: Male differing from that of the 
nominate race in having the pileum pinkish vermilion rather than scarlet ver- 
milion, this cap bordered by yellowish green in marked contrast to olive green 
of back; throat paler, more pinkish; flanks grayish olive instead of olive green; 
female grayer, less olive above and whiter, less yellow below (Griscom, I.e.). 

Birds from Jalisco are stated to be intermediate, haying the head nearly as 
richly colored as erythrocephala, but the flanks grayish olive as in Candida. 



296 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Orthogonys cyanicterus Sclater, Tanag. Cat. Spec., p. 8, 1854 Cayenne; idem, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 122, 1856 Cayenne (crit., descr.); Salvin, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 211 Merume Mountains, British Guiana. 

Cyanicterus cyanicterus Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 116, 1908 Cayenne; 
idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1067, 1912 (range); Chubb, 
Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 527, 1921 British Guiana (Bonasika River, 
Makauria River, Mazaruni River, Merume Mountains). 

Callithraupis cyanictera Berlepsch, Ornith. Centralbl., 4, p. 63, 1879; idem, 
Journ. Orn., 27, p. 206, 1879 Cayenne (descr.). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, south to the north 
bank of the Amazon (Casuaria Grande, near Manaos). 1 

Genus ORTHOGONYS Strickland 

Orthogonys Strickland, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, p. 421, 1844 type, by orig. 
desig., Tanagra viridis Spix=Tachyphonus chloricterus Vieillot. 

*Orthogonys chloricterus (Vieillot). OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER. 

Tachyphonus chloricterus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 
360, 1819 Brazil, coll. Delalande, Jr., = vicinity of Rio de Janeiro (type 
in Paris Museum examined); idem, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Ornith., livr. 91, 
p. 804, 1822 Brazil (type stated to be in Paris Museum). 

Tanagra viridis Spix, Av. Bras. Spec. Nov., 2, p. 36, pi. 48, fig. 2, 1825 "in 
provincia Rio de Janeiro" (type in Munich Museum examined; cf. Hell- 
mayr, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 2. Kl., 22, No. 3, p. 671, 1906). 

"Tachyphone a epaulettes bleues" Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 463, 1831 
part ("female"), Brazil; Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, p. 378, 
1855 (crit.). 

Orthogonys viridis Strickland, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, p. 421, 1844 Brazil 
(crit.); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 331, 1850 Brazil; Burmeis- 
ter, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 170, 1856 Rio de Janeiro; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 122, 1856 Rio de Janeiro (diag.); idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 82, 1862 Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 211, 
1870 Rio de Janeiro; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 243, 1873 Blu- 
menau, Santa Catharina; Salvin, Cat. Strickland Coll., p. 193, 1882 
Brazil; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 194, 1886 Sao Paulo and 
Rio Grande do Sul ("Pelotas"); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 152, 
1899 Iguape, Sao Paulo; Miranda Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de 
Janeiro, 24, p. 255, 1923 Monte Serrat, Serra do Itatiaya; Velho, I.e., 
p. 264, 1923 Monte Serrat. 

Orthogonys chloricterus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 310, 1906 Brazil (crit. 
on type); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 360, 1907 Sao Paulo (Iguape, 
Sao Sebastiao, Ubatuba, Alto da Serra) and Santa Catharina (Joinville); 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1067, 1912 Espirito 
Santo to Rio Grande do Sul; Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 130, 
1915 Braso do Suly Victoria, Espirito Santo; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 57, p. 321, 1928 Monte Serrat, Serra do Itatiaya. 

1 Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3. British Guiana: Maza- 
runi River, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 297 

Range. Wooded coast region of southeastern Brazil, from 
Espirito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul. 1 

1: Brazil (Santa Catharina, Joinville, 1). 

Genus CHLOROTHRAUPIS Salvin and Godman 

Chlorothraupis (Ridgway MS.) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 297, Dec., 1883 type, by subs, desig. (Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 6, "1883," p. 412, pub. April 11, 1884), Phoenicothraupis carmioli 
Lawrence. 

*Chlorothraupis carmioli carmioli (Lawrence). CARMIOL'S OLIVE 
TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis carmioli Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 100, 
April, 1868 Angostura, Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 299, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Ibis, 1869, 
p. 313 Costa Rica (crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, pi. 20, fig. 1, 1883; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, "1883," 
p. 411, pub. April, 1884 Angostura, Costa Rica (crit.). 

Chlorothraupis carmioli Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 
299, 1883 part, Nicaragua (Chontales) and Costa Rica (Angostura, 
Volcan de Turrialba); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 194, 1886 
part, spec, a, b, Nicaragua (Chontales) and Costa Rica (Turrialba); 
Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 110, 1887 Rio Sucio, Costa 
Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 155, 1902 part, 
Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 22, p. 37, 
1909 La Vijagua, Costa Rica (notes on vermilion-spotted individuals); 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 840, 1910 Caribbean Costa Rica 
(Reventazon, San Carlos, Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, Carrillo, La Vijagua, 
Guapiles, Volcan de Turrialba, Rio Sicsola; habits); Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1068, 1912 eastern Nicaragua and 
Costa Rica; Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 463, 
1928 Boquete Trail, western Panama. 

Chlorothraupis carmioli carmioli Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 342, 
1931 Boquete Trail, Panama (crit.); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 84, p. 246, 1932 Eden and Great Falls, Pis Pis River, Nicaragua 
(nest and eggs descr.). 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Nicaragua, eastern (Carib- 
bean) Costa Rica, and extreme western Panama (Almirante Bay 
region). 2 

2: Costa Rica (Guacimo, 2). 

1 Material examined. Espirito Santo: Braco do Sul, Victoria, 2. Rio de 
Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, 3; Nova Friburgo, 2; Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo, 2; Parana, 
2; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 2; Blumenau, Santa Catharina, 2; unspecified, 5. 

2 Five Nicaraguan specimens, except by averaging faintly more yellowish 
below, do not differ from typical Costa Rican skins. Birds from the Almirante 
Bay region in extreme northwestern Panama, according to Peters, point to C. 
c. magnirostris by slightly heavier bills. 



298 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chlorothraupis carmioli magnirostris Griscom. 1 LARGE-BILLED 
OLIVE TANAGER. 

Chlorothraupis carmioli magnirostris Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 280, p. 18, 
1927 Santa F6, Veraguas, western Panama (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Tropical zone of western Panama, in Province of 
Veraguas (Santa FC", Pacific slope; Rio CaloveVora, Caribbean slope). 

Chlorothraupis carmioli lutescens Griscom. 2 GRISCOM'S OLIVE 
TANAGER. 

Chlorothraupis carmioli lutescens Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 280, p. 18, 
1927 Tacarcuna, eastern Panama (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 72, p. 370, 
1932 Perme, Obaldia, and Ranchon, eastern Panama (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Panama, Darien (base of Mount 
Tacarcuna; Tapalisa; Perme"; Obaldia; Ranchon). 

Chlorothraupis carmioli frenata Berlepsch. 3 PERUVIAN OLIVE 
TANAGER. 

Chlorothraupis carmioli frenata Berlepsch, Ornis, 14, p. 349, Feb., 1907 
Marcapata, southeastern Peru (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now 

1 Chlorothraupis carmioli magnirostris Griscom; Very similar to C. c. car- 
mioli, but with larger (longer as well as heavier) bill; chin and throat slightly more 
yellowish, less green. Wing (male), 88-94; bill, 17-19; depth of bill (at nostrils) 
10-11. 

This form, of which I have seen a series in the American Museum of Natural 
History, seems to be recognizable by its large bill. 

2 Chlorothraupis carmioli lutescens Griscom: Similar to C. c. magnirostris, but 
more yellowish underneath, particularly on the chin and under tail coverts; bill 
intermediate in proportions between carmioli and magnirostris. Wing (male), 
88-95; bill, 16-17^; depth of bill, 9-10. 

The color-characters are not very pronounced, individual variation being 
unusually great, and the describer himself admits that material subsequently 
received from extreme eastern (Caribbean) Darien is much less yellowish below 
than the original series. The bill in this form is, however, decidedly smaller and 
sometimes does not exceed that of C. c. carmioli in size. 

Seven specimens examined. 

3 Chlorothraupis carmioli frenata Berlepsch: Differs from the Central American 
races by lighter and purer green upper parts and by having the nasal and loral 
feathers pale yellow. In relation to C. c. carmioli, the green of the lower surface 
is much lighter with the throat nearly yellow, apparently approaching C. c. lutes- 
cens, with which direct comparison could not be made, however. Wing, 92, 
(female) 82-85; tail, 63, (female) 60-62; bill, 18. 

By the possession of a pale yellow loral streak, this form marks a step in the 
direction of C. olivacea. This fact taken in conjunction with its range, separated 
as it is from the related races by the intervening C. olivacea, might lead one to 
the conclusion that all these Olive Tanagers formed but a single specific entity 
split into a number of local representatives. Griscom's statement that both 
C. carmioli lutescens and C. olivacea occur in eastern Panama (Darien), however, 
seems to bar such associations. 

Material examined. Peru: Pozuzo, Department of Huanuco, 1; Marcapata, 
Cuzco, 5; Yahuarmayo, 1; Chaquimayo, 1; San Gaban, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 299 

in Frankfort Museum, examined); idem, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1068, 1912 southeastern Peru (Marcapata, Cosnipata); 
Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 27, 1920 Yahuarmayo, 
Chaquimayo, and San Gaban, Carabaya, Peru (crit.). 

Phoenicothraupis carmioli (not of Lawrence) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1873, pp. 185, 186 Cosnipata, Peru; Sclater, I.e., 1873, p. 780 
Cosnipata; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 499, 1884 Cosnipata. 

Chlorolhraupis carmioli Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, l r 
p. 299, 1883 part, Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 194, 1886 
part, spec, c-e, Cosnipata, Peru; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 155, 1902 part, Peru (Cosnipata). 

Range. Tropical zone of Peru, in departments of Huanuco 
(Pozuzo), Cuzco (Cosnipata, Marcapata), and Puno (Yahuarmayo, 
Chaquimayo, and San Gaban, Carabaya). 

*Chlorothraupis olivacea (Cassin). YELLOW-BROWED TANAGER. 

Orlhogonys olivaceus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 140 
"Cordilleras Mountains, on the River Truando, New Grenada" (type 
in U. S. National Museum); idem, I.e., 1864, p. 287, pi. 2 same locality; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 502 Remedies and 
Neche, Antioquia, Colombia. 

Chlorothraupis olivacea Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 298, 1883 part, descr. of male and hab. Colombia (Valley of the 
Truando, Remedies, Neche, and "Vicinity of Pasto"); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 195, 1886 Colombia (Remedies, Neche, and "Pasto"); 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 483, 1898 Cachabf, Ecuador; Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 154, 1902 Rio Truando and Colombia; 
Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1114 Sipi, Rio Caj6n, N6vita, 
and San Joaquin, Choco, Colombia (sexual differences); Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1068, 1912 Rio Truando to Ecuador 
(Cachabf and Bulun); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 614, 
1918 Alto Bonito, Bagado, Baudo, Novita Trail, Juntas de Tamana, 
Novita, Noanama, Buenaventura, San Jose, Barbacoas, and Ricaurte, 
Colombia; Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 228, 
1922 Mount Sapo, Darien; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 678, 1926 northwestern Ecuador; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
69, p. 189, 1929 Cana, Darien. 

Range. Tropical zone of northwestern Ecuador (Province of 
Esmeraldas), western Colombia (east to the Rio Neche and Remedies, 
Antioquia), and eastern Panama (Mount Sapo and Cana, Darien). 1 
4: Ecuador (Bulun, 1); Colombia (Barbacoas, Narino, 1; Condoto, 
1; Buenaventura, Choco, 1). 

1 According to authors, this species extends to eastern Panama (Darien), 
whence we have no material. Birds from northwestern Ecuador agree with 
a series from Pacific Colombia. The locality "Pasto" is without doubt inaccurate. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Sipi, 4; Rio Cajon, 1; N6vita, 2; 
San Joaquin, 1. Ecuador, Province of Esmeraldas: Ventana (alt. 90 ft.), 2; San 
Javier (alt. 60 ft.), 2. 



300 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"Chlorothraupis stolzmanni (Berlepsch and Taczanowski). 1 
STOLZMANN'S TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis stolzmanni Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 546 Chimbo, Ecuador (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolc- 
man and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 186, 1927). 

Chlorothraupis stolzmanni Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 195, 1886 
western Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1068, 1912 Chimbo; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 614, 
1917 Buenavista, Narino, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 678, 1920 
Chimbo and La Chonta, Ecuador. 

Chlorothraupis olivacea (not Orthogonys olivaceus Cassin) Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 298, 1883 part, descr. of female from 
Puente de "Chiarvo" [= Chimbo], Ecuador (spec, in Berlepsch Collection 
examined). 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador and southwestern 
Colombia (Buenavista, Narino). 

3: Ecuador (Lita, 1; Rio Verde, 1; Sari Jose*, 1). 

Genus HABIA Blyth 

Habia Blyth, in Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, p. 184, 1840 type, by subs. 

desig. (Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 80, 1922), Tanagra 

flammiceps "Wied"=Saltator rubious Vieillot. 
Phoenicothraupis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 24, Oct., 1851 type, by subs. 

desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 72, 1855), Saltator rubious Vieillot. 

*Habia rubica rubica (Vieillot). RED ANT TANAGER. 

Staltator [sic] rubious Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 14, p. 107, 
1817 based on "Habia roxiza" Azara, No. 85; Paraguay. 

Tanagra flammiceps (Wied MS.) Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PL Col., livr. 30, 
pi. 177 (male), Jan., 1823 "Br4sil" = Rio de Janeiro 2 (types in Leiden 
Museum); Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 497, 1830 southeastern 
Brazil. 

Tanagra porphyrio Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 31, after Sept., 
1823 Sao Paulo (descr. of male; type in Berlin Museum). 

1 Chlorothraupis stolzmanni (Berlepsch and Taczanowski) differs readily from 
the other members of the genus by rufescent instead of green under parts, 
the breast and middle of the abdomen varying from honey yellow to clay color 
and passing into buffy citrine on foreneck, throat, and sides. While the dorsal 
surface is about the same color as in C. olivacea excepting the more dusky pileum, 
the sides of the head are decidedly darker, deep olive rather than yellowish olive, 
and have no trace whatever of yellow around the eye or in the loral region. The 
axillaries, under wing coverts, and the edge of the wing are olive-ocher to honey 
yellow, not greenish. Wing, 89-90, (female) 85-89; tail, 66, (female) 72; bill, 18-20. 

1 am unable to see any constant difference between a single topotype and speci- 
mens from northwestern Ecuador. 

Material examined. Western Ecuador: Chimbo, 1; Lita (alt. 3,000 ft.), 
Prov. Imbabura, 6. 

2 The specimens given in exchange to Temminck came from the vicinity of 
Rio de Janeiro, according to the registers of the Vienna Museum. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 301 

Phoenicothraupis rubica Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 24, 1851 Brazil; Sclater, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 13, p. 24, 1854 part, Brazil and Paraguay; 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 119, 1856 part, southeastern Brazil 
and Paraguay (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 82, 1862 Brazil; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 212, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba, Registo 
do Sai) and Sao Paulo (Ypanema); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. 
Foren., 1870, p. 429 Minas Geraes (Resaquinha, near Barbacena), 
Rio de Janeiro (Cantagallo), and Sao Paulo (Hytu, Sao Bento de Arara- 
quara); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 83, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; 
Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 193, 1882 Brazil; Berlepsch and Ihering, 
Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 120, 1885 Rio Grande do Sul (Taquara, Picada 
Tocana, Arroio Grande); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 196, 1886 
part, spec, a, b, e-h, Nova Friburgo (Rio), Sao Paulo, and "Pelotas" 
(Rio Grande do Sul); Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 
1899 Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, 
p. 152, 1899 Piracicaba and Iguap, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 
1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 25, p. 143, 1902 Sapucay, Paraguay; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 
1, p. 360, 1907 part, Espirito Santo (Rio Doce), Rio de Janeiro, and Sao 
Paulo (Ypiranga, Rio Mogy-guassu, Piracicaba, Jaboticabal, Bauru, Rio 
Feio) to Rio Grande do Sul; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 626 Sapucay, Paraguay; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, pp. 376, 436, 1910 Santa 
Ana, Misiones; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1068, 
1912 part, Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul and Paraguay; Dabbene, 
Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 363, 1914 Santa Ana, Misiones; Bertoni, Faun. 
Parag., p. 62, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. 
Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 192, 1926 Candido de Abreu, Salto de Uba, Salto 
do Cobre, and Porto Mendes, Parana; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 17, (2), 
p. 786, 1932 Sao Paulo (Valparaiso) and southern Matto Grosso (Sanf 
Anna do Paranahyba). 

Tachyphonus rubious Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 168, 1856 
Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Minas Geraes (Resaquinha, near Barbacena) and Espirito Santo 
south to Rio Grande do Sul, and the adjacent districts of Argentina 
(Santa Ana, Misiones) and Paraguay (Alto Parana; Sapucay). 1 

2: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 1); Argentina (Rio Paranay, 
Misiones, 1). 

Habia rubica bahiae subsp. nov. 2 BAHIAN RED ANT TANAGER. 

1 Additional material examined. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, 4; Victoria, Sao 
Paulo, 4; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 6; Iguap6, Sao Paulo, 1; Laguna, Santa Catharina, 
2; Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, 3. Paraguay: Sapucay, 3. 

2 Habia rubica bahiae subsp. nov. 

Type in Vienna Museum, No. 19610. Adult male. Bahia, Brazil. Collected 
by Virgil von Helmreichen. 

Characters. Similar to H. r. rubica, but slightly larger; under parts of adult 
males much paler and less reddish, the throat and foreneck being Terra Cotta 
rather than coral red to Dragon's-blood red, the breast and abdomen pale 



302 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Phoenicothraupis rubica (not Saltator rubious Vieillot) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 196, 1886 part, spec, c, d, Bahia; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 

I, p. 360, 1907 part, Bahia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1068, 1912 part, Bahia. 

Range. Wooded region of eastern Brazil (State of Bahia). 

*Habia rubica amabilis (Berlepsch). 1 BOLIVIAN RED ANT 
TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis rubica amabilis Berlepsch, Ornis, 14, p. 348, 1907 San 
Mateo, northern base of the Sierra de Cochabamba, Bolivia (type in 
Berlepsch Collection, now in Frankfort Museum, examined); idem, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1069, 1912 Bolivia (San Mateo, 
Quebrada Onda, Yuracares, Guarayos); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 9, 
1925 Yuracares, Bolivia (crit.). 

Saltator rubious (not of Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, 
in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 36, 1837 Yuracares and Guarayos, Bolivia 
(spec, examined). 

Pyranga rubious d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 265, 1839 Guarayos 
and Yuracares, Bolivia. 

Phoenicothraupis rubica Sclater, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 13, p. 24, 1854 
part, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 119, 
1856 part, Bolivia (Guarayos, Yuracares); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 
1879, p. 601 Bolivia (same localities); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

II, p. 196, 1886 part, Bolivia; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 360. 
1907 part, Bolivia. 

Range. Tropical zone of northern and eastern Bolivia (Guarayos; 
Yuracares; Juntas and San Mateo, north foot of Sierra de 
Cochabamba). 

3: Bolivia (Rio San Antonio, 1; Rio Espirito Santo, 2). 

gray washed with vinaceous-pink, and the under tail coverts lighter (about Congo 
pink); upper parts duller, less vinaceous; female not different in coloration, but 
larger. Wing, 98-103, (female) 95-96; tail, 88-93, (female) 86-90; bill, 17-18. 

This race partakes of the wholly blackish (or dusky) bill of the nominate 
form, but is easily distinguished by the much paler coloration of the under parts. 
In typical rubica the entire ventral surface is bright red, brightest on the throat 
and gradually shading into light coral pink in the center of the breast and abdomen, 
while in the Bahian form the much paler red of throat and foreneck is somewhat 
contrasted to the Congo pink of the posterior parts with the grayish basal portions 
of the feathers showing through. H. r. bahiae forms the passage to H. r. amabilis, 
but is considerably larger with much heavier, entirely blackish bill, and much 
darker underneath. 

H. r. bahiae is known only from Bahia (exact locality not stated). 

Material examined. Brazil : Bahia, 11. 

1 Habia rubica amabilis (Berlepsch) : Similar to H. r. peruviana in coloration 
of plumage, but bill larger with the lower mandible horn brown instead of brownish 
white. Wing, 93-98, (female) 86-92; tail, 82-88, (female) 78-83; bill, 17-18. 

This form does not constantly differ in coloration from peruviana, so far as 
I can see, but the larger and darker bill, together with the somewhat greater dimen- 
sions, serves to separate the Bolivian birds which, in a way, connect the Ama- 
zonian races with the Red Ant Tanagers of eastern Brazil. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Yuracares, 1; Juntas, 1; San Mateo, 12. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 303 

*Habia rubica peruviana (Taczanowski). 1 PERUVIAN RED ANT 
TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis peruvianus Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 498, 1884 Chyave- 
tas, Chamicuros, Yurimaguas, and Monterico, Peru (type, from Yuri- 
maguas, in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. 
Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 186, 1927); Sclater, Ibis, 1885, p. 272 
Monterico (crit.); Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 233, 
1926 Yurimaguas, Peru (descr. of female). 

Phoenicothraupis rubica (not Saltator rubicus Vieillot) Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 749 Yurimaguas and Chyavetas, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1873, p. 362 Yurimaguas, Chyavetas, and Chamicuros, Peru; 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 513 Monterico, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 14 
Yurimaguas. 

Phoenicothraupis rubra (not Tachyphonus ruber Vieillot) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 212, 1870 Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, and Borba, Rio 
Madeira (spec, examined); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 360, 1907 
part, Borba and Matto Grosso. 

Phoenicothraupis rhodinolaema (not of Salvin and Godman) Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 199, 1886 part, spec, d-f, Chamicuros (Peru) and Ega 
(Rio Solimoes, Brazil); Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 Santa- 
rem, Brazil; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil. 

Phoenicothraupis rubra peruviana Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 361, 1907 
Rio Jurua (range); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 44, 1907 Teff6, Rio 
Solimoes (diag., range); idem, I.e., 17, p. 348, 1907 Humayta, Rio Ma- 
deira; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 10, 1908 Cachoeira, Rio Purus, 
Brazil; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 276, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1070, 1912 eastern 
Peru and northern Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 450, 1914 
Rio Tapajoz (Boim, Villa Braga), Rio Jamauchim (Santa Helena, 
Tucunar6), and Rio Purus (Cachoeira). 

Habia rubra peruviana Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 376, 1930 
Matto Grosso (range). 

Habia rubica peruviana Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 450, 
1930 Puerto Bermudez, Junin, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Peru (south to Junin) and 
western Brazil south of the Amazon, east to the Rio Tapajoz, 
south to northern Matto Grosso (Rio Guapore"). 

3: Peru (Puerto Bermudez, Junin, 3). 

1 Habia rubica peruviana (Taczanowski) : Agreeing with H. r. rubra in dimen- 
sion and light-colored bill (maxilla brown, mandible pale), but adult male with 
dusky lateral margins to red crest barely suggested, and rose-red color below 
mainly restricted to throat, foreneck, sides of chest, and tail coverts, the center 
of the breast and abdomen being strongly shaded with grayish; female with edges 
to wings and tail feathers vinaceous-tawny instead of fulvous brown. Wing, 
89-92, (female) 82-88; tail, 77-82, (female) 70-77. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Yurimaguas, 2; Chamicuros, 4; Xeberos, 
1; Peruvian Amazon, 1. Brazil: Teff6, Rio Solimoes, 3; Cachoeira, Rio Purus, 
3; Borba, Rio Madeira, 3; Calama, Rio Madeira, 2; Humayta, Rio Madeira, 4; 
Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapor6, northern Matto Grosso, 2. 



304 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Habia rubica rhodinolaema (Salvin and Godman). 1 SCARLET- 
THROATED ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis rhodinolaema Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 300, 1883 Sarayacu, eastern Ecuador (types in Salvin-God- 
man Collection, now in British Museum, examined); Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 199, 1886 part, spec, a-c, Sarayacu, Ecuador. 

Phoenicothraupis rubra rhodinolaema Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 44, 1907 
eastern Ecuador (crit.); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1070, 1912 Sarayacu, Ecuador. 

Phoenicothraupis rubica rhodinolaema Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 679, 1926 Rio Suno, eastern Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Ecuador (Sarayacu; Rio Suno). 
*Habia rubica coccinea (Todd). 2 BOYACA ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis rubica coccinea Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 32, p. 113, 
June, 1919 La Colorada, Boyaca, Colombia (type in Carnegie Museum). 

Range. Tropical zone of the eastern side of the eastern Andes 
of Colombia, in State of Boyaca (La Colorada), north to western 
Venezuela (La Azulita, Me"rida, and Rio Cogollo, Zulia). 

1: Venezuela (Rio Cogollo, Zulia, 1). 

*Habia rubica rubra (Vieillot). TRINIDAD RED ANT TANAGER. 

Tachyphonus ruber Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 32, p. 359, 
1819 Trinidad (descr. of male; location of type not stated); Leotaud, Ois. 
Trinidad, p. 297, 1866 Trinidad. 

1 Habia rubica rhodinolaema (Salvin and Godman): Very close to H. r. peru- 
viana, but adult male with crown patch and throat brighter, more of a scarlet red; 
female not certainly distinguishable. Wing, 90, (female) 87; tail, 71-73. 

This form requires corroboration by additional specimens, though I cannot 
match the type either in the shade or in the restriction of the red gular area with 
any of the skins of H. r. peruviana so far examined. 

Material examined. Eastern Ecuador: Sarayacu, 3. 

2 Habia rubica coccinea (Todd): Male similar to H. r. rubra, but below much 
darker, more vinaceous (less pinkish) with the throat of a markedly brighter 
scarlet tone; female likewise much darker underneath, buckthorn brown shading 
into cinnamon buff on throat and middle of belly, and external margins to remiges 
testaceous or pecan brown, instead of olivaceous; bill decidedly stronger and more 
blackish, particularly in the male sex. Wing, 91, (female) 84; tail, 80-84; bill, 16. 

By the bright red throat of the male and the testaceous wing-edgings of the 
female, H. r. coccinea forms the passage to H. r. rhodinolaema, than which it is, 
however, much darker on the under parts in both sexes, differing besides by 
stronger, more blackish bill. 

An adult male from La Azulita, Merida, seems to be referable to the same 
form as a couple from the type locality. I am much indebted to Mr. W. E. Clyde 
Todd for the loan of these three specimens, the only ones I have seen of this 
apparently well-characterized race. The Field Museum example from the Rio 
Cogollo has not been available for examination, but cannot well belong to any 
other than the present form. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 305 

Phoenicothraupis rubra Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 120, 1856 
Trinidad (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 83, 1862 Trinidad; 
Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 82 Trinidad; Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 581 Trinidad (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 198, 1886 
Trinidad and Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, pp. 31, 189, 
1894 Princestown, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumanacoa, 
Venezuela; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 17, 1906 Trinidad (Caparo, 
Laventille, Chaguaramas, Valencia, Aripo); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. 
Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 358, 1908 Carenage and Aripo, Trinidad; Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1070, 1912 Trinidad and north- 
eastern Venezuela ("Cumana"). 

Phoenicothraupis rubra rubra Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 44, 1907 Trinidad 
and northeastern Venezuela (crit.); Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 103, 
1909 La Brea, Monagas, northeastern Venezuela. 

Phoenicothraupis rubica rubica (errore) Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 
2, p. 179, 1916 "Guanoco," Venezuela (ex Beebe). 

Range. Island of Trinidad and northeastern Venezuela (states 
of Sucre and Monagas). 1 

1: Venezuela (unspecified, 1). 

*Habia rubica vinacea (Lawrence). VINACEOUS ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis vinacea Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 19, p. 94, 
1867 line of Panama Railroad (descr. of male; type in coll. of Geo. N. 
Lawrence, now in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York); idem, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 99, 1868 Guaitil and 
Grecia, Costa Rica (descr. of female). 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides (not Saltator rubicoides Lafresnaye) Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 Panama Railroad; Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 171 Grecia, Costa Rica. 

Phoenicothraupis rubica(1) (not Saltator rubicus Vieillot) Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 139 Santa F6, Veraguas (crit.). 

Phoenicothraupis vinacea Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 299, 1869 Costa 
Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 187 Volcan de Chiriqui 
and CaloveVora (Veraguas), Panama; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 301, 1883 Costa Rica (Guaitfl, Grecia) and Panama 
(Volcan de Chiriqui, CaloveVora, Santa F6, Panama Railroad); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 197, 1886 Costa Rica (Grecia) and Panama 
(CaloveVora, Santa F6, Volcan de Chiriqui); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, 1, p. 110, 1887 Tamb6r de Alaju&a and Guaitil, Costa 
Rica; Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 139, 
1893 Boruca, T6rraba, and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica; Bangs, Proc. 
New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 66, 1902 Boquete and Volcan de Chiriqui, 
Panama; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1070, 1912 
Costa Rica to Veragua. 

1 Material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 13; Valencia, 3; Laventille, 2; 
Chaguaramas, 2; Carenage, 1; Aripo, 4. Venezuela, Monagas (Los Palmales, 
Cumanacoa, etc.): 12. 



306 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Phoenicothraupis rubica vinacea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 146, 1902 Costa Rica to Panama (monog.); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 309, 
1907 Boruca and Lagarto, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 843, 1910 Monte Redondo, Tambor, Bolson, El General, and Buenos 
Aires de Te>raba, Costa Rica (range, habits) ; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 69, p. 189, 1929 Cana, Darien. 

Range. Tropical zone of Pacific Costa Rica and Panama east 
to Darien (Cana). 1 

16: Costa Rica (Ojo Ancho, Nicoya, 10; Buenos Aires de TeYraba, 
2; Boruca, 4). 

*Habia rubica alfaroana (Ridgway). 2 ALFARO'S ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis alfaroana Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 212, 1905 
Miravalles, Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum); Bangs, I.e., 
22, p. 337, 1909 Tenorio, Cerro de Santa Maria, and Miravalles, Costa 
Rica (crit.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 841, 1910 Miravalles 
and Bagaces, Costa Rica (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1070, 1912 Costa Rica ("Senorio," Cerro de Santa Maria, 
"Miravelles"). 

Phoenicothraupis vinacea (not of Lawrence) Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 435 
Miravalles. 

Range. Northwestern Costa Rica (Miravalles, Tenorio, Cerro 
de Santa Maria, and Bagaces, Guanacaste). 

4: Costa Rica (Miravalles, 4). 
*Habia rubica confinis (Bangs). 3 GUATEMALAN RED TANAGER. 

1 Specimens from Chiriqui (Boquete) and Veraguas (CaloveVora) agree with 
others from Costa Rica. No material from the Panama Railroad seen. 

2 Habia rubica alfaroana (Ridgway): Closely allied to H. r. vinacea, but 
much paler; under parts in adult males orange-pink passing into grenadine on 
foreneck and throat; dorsal surface also slightly paler; females underneath mark- 
edly lighter, less olivaceous. Size the same. 

I quite agree with Bangs and Peters that this is merely a pale form of vinacea, 
replacing it in northwestern Costa Rica. 

3 Habia rubica confinis (Bangs): Adult male very similar to H. r. rubicoides, 
but perhaps distinguishable by slightly darker coloration and brighter scarlet 
throat; female a trifle yellower below with brighter ocher-yellow throat. Size 
slightly larger. 

The Central American races of the Red Ant Tanager have unduly suffered 
at the hands of ornithologists by their ignoring seasonal and individual variation, 
and the result is an almost hopeless confusion. Birds from western and eastern 
Guatemala are absolutely inseparable, when adequate series are compared, and 
the few specimens that we have seen from El Salvador and Honduras can be 
matched by individuals both from the Atlantic and Pacific sides of Guatemala, 
salvadorensis being thus clearly a synonym of confinis. The specimens from Lan- 
cetilla, mentioned by Peters, might well be the "extremes" of this excessively 
variable form. 

Additional material examined. Honduras: Palmar, 1; San Pedro, 2. El 
Salvador, 2. Guatemala: Coban, Vera Paz, 9; Choctum, 2; Volcan de Agua, 
above San Diego, 1; Alotenango, 1; Barranco Hondo, 2; sources of Rio de la 
Pasion, 3; Savanna Grande, 1; Retalhuleu, 2. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 307 

Phoenicothraupis rubica confinis Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 158, 
1905 Yaruca, Honduras (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 411, 1930). 

Habia rubica salvadorensis Dickey and van Rossem, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
40, p. 4, 1927 Mount Cacaguatique, Department of San Miguel, El 
Salvador (type in coll. of Donald R. Dickey, Pasadena) ; Griscom, Occ. Pap. 
Boston Soc. N. H., 5, p. 291, 1930 (crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 382, 1932 Finca El Cipres, Guatemala. 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides (not Saltator rubicoides Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 120, 1854 part, Guatemala; Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1859, p. 15 Guatemala; Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 58, 
1859 Omoa to Chilomo, Honduras; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 32 
Izabal, Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 83, 1862 part, 
spec, c, Guatemala; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 836 Honduras; Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 193, 1882 Guatemala; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 300, 1883 part, 
Guatemala (Izabal, Choctum, Alotenango, Savanna Grande, Escuintla, 
Costa Grande, Retalhuleu) and Honduras (Omoa, San Pedro) ; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 197, 1886 part, spec, c-p, Guatemala; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1069, 1912 part, Guatemala 
(Choctum, Retalhuleu) and Honduras (San Pedro, Omoa). 

Phoenicothraupis rubica rubicoides Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 144, 1902 part, Guatemala and Honduras; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 39, p. 154, 1903 Yaruca, Honduras; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 122, 1907 Patulul, Solola, Guatemala. 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides confinis Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1069, 1912 Honduras (Yaruca, Palmar). 

(?) Habia rubica rubicoides Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 472, 1929 
Lancetilla, Honduras (crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 
339, 1932 Honduras. 

Habia rubica confinis Griscom, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. N. H. f 5, p. 290, 1930 
eastern Honduras and eastern Guatemala; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 84, p. 339, 1932 Yaruca, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 381, 1932 Secanquim, Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras, 
possibly extending into Nicaragua. 1 

11: Guatemala (Patulul, Solola, 8; Vera Paz, 2); Nicaragua (San 
Rafael del Norte, 1). 

Habia rubica affinis (Nelson). 2 OAXACA ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides affinis Nelson, Auk, 14, p. 66, 1897 Pinotepa, 
Oaxaca, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1069, 1912 Pinotepa. 

1 A single immature male from San Rafael del Norte, Nicaragua, cannot 
satisfactorily be placed. It seems intermediate between H. r. vinacea and H. r. 
confinis. 

1 This form is autoptically unknown to the author. 



308 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Phoenicothraupis rubica affinis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 147, 1902 Pacific slope of Oaxaca. 

Range. Pacific slope of Oaxaca (Pinotepa) and possibly Guerrero, 
in southern Mexico. 

Habia rubica nelsoni (Ridgway). NELSON'S ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis rubica nelsoni Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 145, 1902 "Peninsula of Yucatan (Puerto Morelos) including Cam- 
peche (Apazote)" (type not specified, probably in U. S. National Museum) ; 
Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 141, 1906 Yucatan; Peters, Auk, 
30, p. 379, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; Griscom, Amer. Mus. 
Nov., 235, p. 17, 1926 Chacalal, Yucatan. 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides nelsoni Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1069, 1912 Yucatan (Puerto Morelos, Chichen Itza), and 
Campeche (Apazote). 

Habia rubica nelsoni Griscom, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. N. H., 5, p. 290, 1930 
Yucatan and adjoining parts of Campeche and Quintana Roo (crit.). 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides (not Saltator rubicoides Lafresnaye) Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 8, p. 279, 1896 Chichen Itza. 

Range. Peninsula of Yucatan including the adjoining parts of 
Campeche and Quintana Roo. 

Habia rubica rubicoides (Lafresnaye). MEXICAN ANT TANAGER. 

Saltator rubicotdes Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 7, p. 41, 1844 Mexico (descr. of 
male; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 
410, 1930). 

Phoenicothraupis ignicapilla (Lichtenstein MS.) Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1870, p. 581 (in text) new name for Saltator rubicoides Lafresnaye 
on grounds of purism. 1 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides Sumichrast, Mem. Boston Soc. N. H., 1, p. 549, 
1869 hot region of Vera Cruz; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 
19, 1876 Guichicovi, Oaxaca; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 300, 1883 part, Mexico (Guichicovi); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1069, 1912 part, Oaxaca. 

Phoenicothraupis rubica rubicoides Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 144, 1902 part, Oaxaca (Guichicovi). 

Habia rubica rubicoides Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 392, 1929 
Mountain Cow, British Honduras; Griscom, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. N. 
H., 5, p. 290, 1930 hot lowlands of eastern Vera Cruz to northern Peten 
(monog.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 381, 1932 Finca Sepa- 
cuite, Guatemala (crit.). 

1 Although used in connection with a Guatemalan specimen incidentally 
mentioned in the text, the name, as it stands, must be regarded as a nomen novum 
for S. rubicoides Lafresnaye. It is not affected by Tanagra ignicapilla Lichten- 
stein (Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 1830; Journ. Orn., 11, p. 56, 
1863), a pure nomen nudum without nomenclatorial standing. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 309 

Range. Hot lowlands of eastern Vera Cruz and northern Oaxaca 
(Guichicovi) south through Tabasco, Campeche, and British Hon- 
duras to northern Pete"n, Guatemala. 

Habia rubica holobrunnea Griscom. 1 GRISCOM'S ANT TANAGER. 

Habia rubica holobrunnea Griscom, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. N. H., 5, p. 290, 
1930 Motzorongo, Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides (not Saltator rubicoides Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 120, 1856 part, C6rdoba, Mexico; idem, I.e., p. 
303, 1856 Cordoba; idem, I.e., 27, pp. 364, 377, 1859 Jalapa and Playa 
Vicente, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 1864, p. 173 valley of Mexico; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 300, 1883 part, Mexico (valley 
of Mexico, Papantla, Cordoba, Jalapa, Playa Vicente); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 197, 1886 part, spec, b, Jalapa, Mexico; Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1069, 1912 part, Mexico (Jalapa, 
C6rdoba). 

Phoenicothraupis rubica rubicoides Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 144, 1902 part, Mexico (Jalapa, Papantla, C6rdoba). 

Habia rubica rubicoides Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 
486, 1927 Presidio and Motzorongo, Vera Cruz. 

Saltator rubicus (not of Vieillot) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, p. 90, 
1848 foot of Cofre de Perote, Vera Cruz. 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Mexico, in State of Vera 
Cruz. 

Habia rubica rosea (Nelson). 2 ROSY ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides roseus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 60, 
1898 Arroyo de Juan Sanchez, Jalisco, Mexico (type in U. S. National 
Museum); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1069, 1912 
coast region of Tepic. 

Phoenicothraupis rubica roseus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 147, 1902 Pacific coast district of Tepic. 

Range. Pacific coast district of western Mexico, in State of 
Nayarit. 

*Habia gutturalis salvini (Berlepsch). SALVIN'S ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis salvini Berlepsch, Ibis, (5), 1, p. 487, 1883 part, Guatemala 
(type from Vera Paz, Guatemala, in Berlepsch Collection, now in Frank- 

1 Habia rubica holobrunnea Griscom: Very different from the other Central 
American forms by the adult male having the throat scarlet, passing to bright 
liver red on abdomen, entirely lacking either gray or rose tones; female darker 
and browner above, almost uniform brownish olivaceous ocher below (Griscom, 
I.e.). 

It is very strange that another form should occur in the subtropics of Vera 
Cruz, where it obviously replaces H. r. rubicoides. 

J Unknown to the author. 



310 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

fort Museum); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 303, 
Dec., 1883 part, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca (Guichicovi), and Guatemala 
(Chisec); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 200, 1886 part, spec, 
a-f, j-1, Mexico ("Tehuantepec") and Guatemala (Chisec, Vera Paz); 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1070, 1912 part, 
southern Mexico (Orizaba, Motzorongo, Oaxaca, Santo Domingo, Tux- 
tepee, Chiapas) and Guatemala. 

Phoenicothraupis salvini salvini Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 
p. 148, 1902 part, southern Mexico and Guatemala. 

Phoenicothraupis rubious (not Saltator rubicus Vieillot) Sumichrast, Mem. 
Boston Soc. N. H., 1, p. 549, 1869 hot region of Vera Cruz. 

Phoenicothraupis fuscicauda (not of Cabanis) Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
4, p. 19, 1876 Guichicovi, Oaxaca. 

Habia salvini salvini Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 486, 
1927 Presidio and Motzorongo, Vera Cruz; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 382, 1932 Guatemala (Secanquim, Puebla, Chimoxan). 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, from southern 
Vera Cruz (Papantla, Orizaba, Presidio, Motzorongo, etc.) through 
Oaxaca (Guichicovi, Santo Domingo, etc.) and Chiapas (San Benito, 
El Salto) to Vera Paz, Guatemala. 1 

1: Guatemala (Vera Paz, 1). 

*Habia gutturalis littoralis (Nelson). 2 TABASCO ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis littoralis Nelson, Auk, 18, p. 48, 1901 Frontera, Tabasco, 

Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Phoenicothraupis fuscicauda salvini (not P. salvini Berlepsch) Richmond, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 631, 1896 Alta Mira, Tamaulipas. 
Phoenicothraupis salvini littoralis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, 

p. 149, 1902 coast plain of eastern Mexico from southern Tamaulipas to 

Chiapas and Tabasco (Frontera); Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. 

Ser., 1, p. 123, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 

Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1071, 1912 southern Tamaulipas to Chiapas 

and Tabasco. 
Habia salvini littoralis Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 383, 1932 

Los Amates, Guatemala. 

1 Additional material examined. Mexico: Orizaba, Vera Cruz, 3; Guichicovi, 
Oaxaca, 2. Guatemala: Vera Paz, 9; Chisec, 3. 

2 Habia gutturalis littoralis (Nelson) needs further study, its distributional 
area being far from clearly established. Birds from Alta Mira are indeed much 
deeper rosy red below than Guatemalan skins of salvini, with which specimens 
from Orizaba and Guichicovi (Oaxaca) pretty well agree. A male from Teapa, 
Tabasco, thus not far from the type locality of littoralis, however, is much less 
red, and closely approaches typical salvini, while a single male from Los Amates 
(northern Guatemala) is again very nearly as deeply colored as those from Tamau- 
lipas. It is hard to understand how two races can occur so near together in eastern 
Mexico (Ridgway, in fact, records both salvini and littoralis from El Salto, Chi- 
apas!), and the problem appears to require thorough investigation with the help 
of adequate material. 

Additional material examined. Mexico: Alta Mira, Tamaulipas, 6. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 311 

Range. Tropical forests along the coast of eastern Mexico, from 
southern Tamaulipas (Alta Mira, Tampico) to Tabasco (Frontera, 
Teapa), Chiapas, and eastern Guatemala (Los Amates). 

4: Mexico (Achotal, Vera Cruz, 1; Teapa, Tabasco, 1); Guate- 
mala (Los Amates, Izabal, 2). 

*Habia gutturalis rooensis Griscom. 1 QUINTANA Roo ANT 
TANAGER. 

Habia salvini rooensis Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 17, 1926 Chun- 
yaxche, Quintana Roo, Mexico (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York). 

Phoenicothraupis salvini Berlepsch, Ibis, 1883, p. 487 part, spec. Nos. 6, 7, 
Belize and Corozal, British Honduras; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 303, 1883 part, British Honduras (Corozal, Belize); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 200, 1886 part, spec, h, i, British 
Honduras (Corozal, Belize); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1070, 1912 part, British Honduras (Belize, Corozal). 

Phoenicothraupis salvini salvini Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 1913 Xcopen and 
Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo. 

Habia salvini salvini Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 392, 1929 Cayo 
District, British Honduras. 

Range. Southern Yucatan, in Territory of Quintana Roo 
(Chunyaxche; Palmul; Vigia Chica; Xcopen; Camp Mengel) and 
British Honduras (Corozal; Belize; Orange Walk district; Cayo 
district). 

1: British Honduras (Orange Walk district, 1). 

Habia gutturalis peninsularis (Ridgway). YUCATAN ANT 
TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis salvini peninsularis Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, 
p. 150, 1901 Izalam, Yucatan (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 151, 1902 Yucatan (monog.); 
Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 141, 1906 Chichen Itza, Yucatan; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1071, 1912 Yucatan 
Peninsula. 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides (not Saltator rubicoides Lafresnaye) Boucard, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 443 [Izalam], Yucatan. 

1 Habia gutturalis rooensis Griscom: "Nearest to H. g. salvini, but adult 
male with throat more crimson, less vermilion, more contrasted with color of 
under parts, which are rosier, less grayish vermilion; above very slightly more 
rosy, less brick red and crown-patch more crimson, less scarlet; adult female 
lighter umber brown above; occiput tinged with ochraceous tawny; throat darker, 
light ochraceous tawny; under parts paler, more buffy or ochraceous brown." 
(Griscom, I.e.) 

The only available adult male (from Belize) hardly differs from salvini, but 
our female corresponds to Griscom's description. 



312 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Phoenicothraupis salvini Berlepsch, Ibis, 1883, p. 487 part, spec. No. 8, 
Izalam; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 303, 1883 
part, Yucatan (Izalam); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 200, 1886 
part, spec, g, Izalam. 

Range. Northern parts of Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. 1 
Habia gutturalis insularis (Salvin). ISLAND ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis insularis Salvin, Ibis, (5), 6, p. 259, 1888 Meco and Mu- 

jeres Islands, off Yucatan (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in 

British Museum). 
Phoenicothraupis salvini insularis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 

2^ p. 152, 1902 Meco and Mujeres Islands; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 

Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1071, 1912 Meco and Mujeres Islands. 

Range. Meco and Mujeres Islands, off coast of Yucatan, Mexico. 

*Habia gutturalis discolor (Ridgway). NICARAGUAN ANT 
TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis salvini discolor Ridgway, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, p. 
150, 1901 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 150, 1902 southern Hon- 
duras and Nicaragua (monog.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1071, 1912 Honduras and Nicaragua. 

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides (not Saltator rubicoldes Lafresnaye) Nutting, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 382, 1883 Sucuya, Nicaragua (habits). 

Phoenicothraupis salvini (not of Berlepsch) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
10, p. 585, 1888 Segovia River, Honduras; Richmond, I.e., 16, p. 490, 
1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua. 

Phoenicothraupis salvini salvini Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 154, 
1903 Ceiba and Yaruca, Honduras. 

Habia salvini discolor Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 474, 1929 
Lancetilla, Honduras (crit.); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, 
p. 246, 1932 Eden, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 339, 1932 Honduras 
(Segovia River, Lancetilla, Ceiba, Yaruca). 

Range. Tropical zone of Honduras and Nicaragua (excepting 
extreme southern portion). 2 

12: Nicaragua (San Geronimo, Chinandega, 12). 

1 A single specimen (adult male) from Izalam, Yucatan, examined. H. g. 
peninsularis should be compared with H. g. insularis, which we have not yet 
seen. 

2 Four additional specimens from Managua, Nicaragua, examined. No 
material from eastern Nicaragua is available, but the series from Chinandega and 
Managua answer well to descriptions of discolor. Four skins from western Hon- 
duras seem best referred to the same form, though they do not quite fit in with 
the Nicaraguan birds. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 313 

*Habia gutturalis wetmorei Dickey and van Rossem. 1 WET- 
MORE'S ANT TANAGER. 

Habia salvini wetmorei Dickey and van Rossem, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
40, p. 5, 1927 Puerto del Triunfo, Department of Usulutan, El Salvador 
(type in collection of Donald R. Dickey, Pasadena); Griscom, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 383, 1932 San Jos6 and Finca El Cipres, 
western Guatemala (crit.). 

Phoenicothraupis salvini (not of Berlepsch) Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, p. 122, 1907 Mazatenango, Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of the Pacific coast of San Salvador and 
Guatemala (San Jose"; Finca El Cipres; Mazatenango). 

4: San Salvador (unspecified, 1); Guatemala (San Jose", 1; Maza- 
tenango, 1; unspecified, 1). 

*Habia gutturalis fuscicauda (Cabanis). DUSKY-TAILED ANT 
TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis fuscicauda Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 86, 1861 Costa 
Rica (descr. of male; type in Berlin Museum); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 180, 1865 Greytown, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 9, 
p. 99, 1868 Angostura, Costa Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 299, 
1869 Sarapiqui and Angostura, Costa Rica; Salvin, Ibis, 1872, pp. 313, 
316 "Chontales," Nicaragua; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 55 San Carlos, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 302, 1883 part, descr. of female and hab. Nicaragua ("Chon- 
tales," Greytown) and Costa Rica (Angostura, Sarapiqui, BebedeYo, 
San Carlos); Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 400, 1883 Los Sabalos, 
Nicaragua; Ridgway, I.e., 6, p. 414, 1886 Pacuare, Costa Rica; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 199, 1886 part, spec, a-d, Nicaragua ("Chon- 
tales") and Costa Rica (Nicoya); Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
16, p. 490, 1893 Rio Frio, Costa Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 152, 1902 part, southern Nicaragua to Costa Rica; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1071, 1912 part, southern 
Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 34, 1919 
San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua. 

Phoenicothraupis fuscicauda fuscicauda Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 
842, 1910 Costa Rica (BebedSro, Jimenez, Tenorio, La Vijagua, Tucur- 
riqui, Guapiles, Guacimo, Cuabre, Rio Sicsola, El Hogar, Esparta; habits). 

Habia fuscicauda Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 342, 1931 Changui- 
nola, Almirante, Western River and Crimacola, Almirante Bay region, 
Panama. 

1 Habia gutturalis wetmorei Dickey and van Rossem: Similar to H. g. discolor 
(of western Nicaragua), but adult males darker throughout, the throat brighter 
red and less contrasted with the darker red posterior under parts; female, accord- 
ing to the describers, nearer to H. g. salvini, but with more richly colored, orange 
rather than lemon yellow throat. 

Of this form I have seen only adult males, which seem to be separable by their 
darker coloration, notably deeper red breast and abdomen. Two Guatemalan 
skins agree well with four from Salvador. 



314 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Tropical zone of extreme southern Nicaragua, Costa 
Rica (Caribbean side, and Pacific side from the Rio Grande de 
Tarcoles northwards), and extreme northwestern Panama (Almirante 
Bay region). 1 

6: Nicaragua (San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua, 1); Costa Rica (Las 
Cafias, 1; Matina, 4). 

Habia gutturalis erythrolaema (Sclater). 2 SOUTHERN DUSKY- 
TAILED ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis erythrolaema (Bonaparte MS.) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 83, 1862 "Santa Marta, New Granada" (descr. of male; type 
in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum). 

Phoenicothraupis fuscicauda (not of Cabanis) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 9, 1863 Panama Railroad and "Santa Marta" (crit.); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 350 Panama (crit.); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 302, 1883 part, 
descr. of male and hab. Panama (Lion Hill) and Colombia ("Santa 
Marta"); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 200, 1886 part, spec, 
e-i, Panama (Lion Hill) and Colombia ("Santa Marta"); Zeledon, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 110, 1887 Panama; Salvadori and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 4, 1899 Rio Lara, Darien; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 152, 1902 part, Panama 
and Colombia ("Santa Marta"); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1071, 1912 part, Isthmus of Panama (Lion Hill, 
Cascajal) and Colombia ("Santa Marta"); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 70, p. 279, 1918 Gatun, Agua Clara, and Mount Hope, Canal 
Zone, Panama; Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 323, 1924 Gatun, Rio Algarrobo, 
Farfan, and Rio Velasquez, Panama. 

1 While its Nicaraguan range has yet to be worked out in detail, I feel pretty 
certain that H. g. fuscicauda will prove to be restricted to the extreme south of 
that country. All definite records are from that district except Salvin's locality 
"Chontales," which seems to have been used in a general sense. 

2 Habia gutturalis erythrolaema (Sclater): Adult male similar to H. g. fusci- 
cauda, but red of the crown and throat of a rosier, less scarlet tone; breast and 
abdomen paler and more grayish, washed with Congo pink rather than with dull 
vinaceous; back also more reddish, less dusky; female decidedly paler, the upper 
parts Dresden brown rather than Raw umber, the ventral surface ecru-olive rather 
than buffy-citrine. Size about the same. 

This form, in the male sex, bears a certain resemblance to H. g. salvini, but 
is darker vinaceous above with duskier tail, while the breast and abdomen are 
not so red, being grayish washed with pale pink. There is some doubt as to the 
correctness of the original locality, although it should be noted that the American 
Museum of Natural History also has an old skin from the Lawrence Collection 
labeled "Santa Marta." I am unable to separate satisfactorily an adult male from 
Barranquilla from others taken along the Panama Railroad. Cf., however, Dwight 
and Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 142, p. 5 (in text), 1924. Mr. W. E. Clyde Todd 
(in litt.) writes that, after comparing specimens from Turbaco (rubiginosus) with 
the material in the British Museum, he believes it to be separable by somewhat 
paler (vinaceous russet rather than Cameo brown) upper parts, grayer (less sooty) 
cheeks, and by the brighter scarlet, posteriorly less contrasted gular area of the 
males. The type of P. erythrolaema, though rather faded, appears to be identical 
with Panama specimens. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 315 

Phoenicothraupis fuscicauda erythrolaema Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 
2, p. 30, 1900 Loma del Le6n, Panama (crit.); Thayer and Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 222, 1906 Savanna of Panama (crit.). 

Habia fuscicauda erythrolaema Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14 
p. 482, 1922 "Santa Marta" (crit.). 

Phoenicothraupis rubiginosus Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 3, Jan., 
1917 Turbaco, Department of Bolivar, Colombia (type in the Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh). 

Range. Tropical zone of northern Colombia (Barranquilla, 
Turbaco) and Panama west to the Canal Zone. 

*Habia gutturalis atrimaxillaris (Dwight and Griscom). 1 BLACK- 
CHEEKED ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis atrimaxillaris Dwight and Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 142, 
p. 4, 1924 Puerto Jimenez, Oso Peninsula, Prov. de Puntarenas, Costa 
Rica (type in coll. of J. Dwight, now in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York). 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Costa Rica (Oso Penin- 
sula, Province of Puntarenas). 

7: Costa Rica (Puerto Jime'nez, 7). 

Habia gutturalis gutturalis (Sclater). ROSY-THROATED ANT 
TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis gutturalis Sclater, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 13, p. 25, 
1854 "in Nova Grenada?" (type in British Museum); idem, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 156, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 120, 
"Bogota" (monog.); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 326 Naranjo, below Bucara- 
manga, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 
502, pi. 42, fig. 4 (egg) Remedios, Rio It6, Antioquia, Colombia (nest 
descr.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 201, pi. 11, 1886 Colombia 
(Remedios, Neche, Naranjo); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 

1 Habia gutturalis atrimaxillaris (Dwight and Griscom): Nearest to H. g. 
gutturalis and agreeing with it in similarity of sexes, as well as in wholly fuscous 
tail and blackish sides of the head; but coronal patch much less extensive and gren- 
adine red instead of scarlet; crest feathers much less elongated; upper parts fuscous 
instead of deep mouse gray; upper tail coverts strongly washed with sorghum 
brown; throat light salmon orange (instead of deep peach red) and not abruptly 
defined posteriorly, but gradually passing into the color of the remaining under 
parts, which are dingy orange pink washed with grayish, particularly on the flanks. 
The females are smaller, of duller coloration, especially underneath, and lack the 
red coronal patch, the latter being merely suggested by some reddish brown feath- 
ers. Wing, 98-102, (female) 85-90; tail, 90-93, (female) 78-82; bill, 20, (female) 



The blackish border to the chin and the malar stripe average slightly wider than 
in H. g. gutturalis, though some examples from Colombia show the same extent. 
This very distinct form is of unusual interest, since its occurrence in an isolated 
district of southwestern Costa Rica serves to demonstrate the close genetic rela- 
tionship of the Central American Ant Tanagers to H. gutturalis. From H. g. 
erythrolaema and H. g. fuscicauda it is so different that no comparison is necessary. 



316 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Berlin, p. 1072, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota," Neche, Remedies, Naranjo) ; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 615, 1917 west of Honda, 
Magdalena Valley, Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of the Magdalena Valley (Naranjo; west of 
Honda; Remedies, Rio Ite") and lower Cauca (Rio Neche), Colombia. 1 

*Habia cristata (Sclater). 2 CRESTED ANT TANAGER. 

Phoenicothraupis cristata Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 11, p. 70, 
Feb., 1875 "Bogota," Colombia (type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 502 Frontino, western 
Andes, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 201, 1886 Antio- 
quia, Colombia; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 23, p. 75, 1910 Naran- 
jito, Rio Dagua, Colombia; Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 
p. 1113 Pueblo Rico, Loma Hermosa, and La Selva, western Andes, 
Colombia (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1072, 1912 Colombia ("Bogota" and Antioquia); Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 614, 1917 western Andes of Colombia (Peque, 
Novita Trail, San Antonio, Rio Lima, Cocal, and Cerro Munchique). 

Range. Upper Tropical zone of the western Andes of Colombia 
(also in "Bogota" collections?). 
3: Colombia (Rio Lima, 3). 

Genus LANIO Vieillot 

Lanio Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 40, 1816 type, by orig. desig., 
"Tangara mordore" Buffon = Tanagra fulva Boddaert. 

Pogonothraupis Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 669, 
"1848" [= 1849] new name for Lanio Vieillot. 

*Lanio fulvus (Boddaert). GUIANAN SHRIKE-TANAGER. 

Tangara sulva [sic] 3 Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 50, 1783 based on "Tangara 
jaune a tete noire de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 809, fig. 2 
(= male); Cayenne. 

Tanagra atricapilla Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 899, 1789 based on "Tan- 
gara jaune a tete noire de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 809, fig. 2. 

1 Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota"; Naranjo, 1; Rio Neche, Antio- 
quia, 2. 

4 Habia cristata (Sclater), another species in which the sexes are nearly alike, 
is easily recognizable by its deep vinous red general coloration, lengthened crest, 
and bright scarlet head and throat. All the specimens we have seen are from the 
west Colombian Andes, but the type is said to be a native "Bogota" skin, a cir- 
cumstance that tends to indicate its existence also in the mountains bordering 
the Magdalena Valley, viz., in the distributional area of H. g. gutturalis. 

Material examined. Colombia, western Andes: Frontino, 2; La Selva (alt. 
4,600 feet), Rio Jamaraya, 2; Loma Hermosa (alt. 4,150 feet), Rio Jamaraya, 1; 
Pueblo Rico (alt. 5,200 feet), San Juan slopes, 4. 



ignored. 



3 Though not printed in italics, this is clearly a latin name which cannot be 
ired. "Sulva" is obviously a misprint for fulva and should not be perpetuated. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 317 

Pogonothraupis airicapilla Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 
3, p. 669, "1848" [= 1849] coast of British Guiana. 

Lento atricapillus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 203, 1846 (crit.); Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 156, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 
118, 1856 Cayenne, British Guiana, and "Bogota"; Bonaparte, Bull. 
Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 32, 1857 Cayenne; Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 26, pp. 72, 454, 1858 Rio Napo and Gualaquiza, eastern 
Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 83, 1862 Bogota, Cayenne, 
and Rio Napo; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 64, 1867 Cayenne, 
British Guiana, Colombia ("Bogota"), and eastern Ecuador (Napo, 
Gualaquiza); Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 193, 1882 Cayenne; idem, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 211 British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Merum6 Mountains, 
Atapuraw River) ; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 204, 1886 Cayenne, 
British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Merum6 Mountains, Atapuraw River), 
Colombia ("Bogota"), and eastern Ecuador (Monji, Sarayacu, Rio 
Napo); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 116, 1908 Ipousin (Approuague) 
and Cayenne, French Guiana; idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1073, 1912 (range); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 451, 
1914 Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Brazil; Bangs and Penard, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 88, 1918 Lelydorp, Surinam; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 679, 1926 eastern Ecuador (Zamora, 
Sabanillas, Macas, Rio Suno, below San Jos6); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 34, p. 75, 1928 Rio Suno, Ecuador. 

Lanio fulvus Mathews and Iredale, Austr. Av. Rec., 3, p. 47, 1915 (nomencl.); 
Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 529, 1921 Mazaruni River, Ituribisci 
River, Supenaam, Bartica, Bonasika, Merume' Mountains, and Cara- 
mang River. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, south to the north 
bank of the lower Amazon, Brazil (Rio Jary), west to the eastern 
base of the eastern Andes in Colombia and Ecuador. 1 

2: Colombia (Bogota, 2). 

*Lanio versicolor versicolor (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). WHITE- 
WINGED SHRIKE-TANAGER. 

Tachyphonus versicolor Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 28, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia (types in Paris Museum 
examined). 

1 Two adult males from eastern Ecuador (Sarayacu) and another from "Bo- 
gota" I am unable to satisfactorily separate from a Guianan series. Two birds 
from the Rio Jary are not different either. Strangely enough, this species has 
not been found anywhere in Venezuela, which leaves a wide gap in the center of 
the area above given. 

Seven specimens from French, nine from British Guiana, two from Brazil 
(Rio Jary), two from Ecuador (Sarayacu), and three from "Bogota" examined. 

A nearly allied race has lately been discovered at Moyobamba, Department 
of San Martin, Peru, and was described as Lanio atricapillus peruvianus by Car- 
riker (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 331, June, 1935). The male differs by 
brighter yellow belly and uniform golden yellow instead of tawny rufous lower 
back, rump, and tail coverts, while the female is much browner below. It should 
stand as L. fulvus peruvianus. 



318 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyranga versicolor d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 262, pi. 19, fig. 1 
(male), 1839 Yuracares. 

Lanio versicolor Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 203, 1846 Bolivia; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 119, 1856 Bolivia (descr.); idem, I.e., 25, 
p. 264, 1857 Rio Javarri; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1873, p. 185 Cosni- 
pata, Department of Cuzco, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 262 Rio Javarri; 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 513 Monterico (near Huanta), Peru; Sclater 
and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 601 Yuracares, Bolivia; Taczanowski, Orn. 
Per., 2, p. 500, 1884 Peru (Monterico; Cosnipata; "Santa Cruz, Ucay- 
ali"); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 204, 1886 Peru (Cosnipata, 
Rio Javarri) and Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 82, 1889 
lower Beni, Bolivia; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. Ill, 1906 
Rio Cadena, southeastern Peru; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 349, 
1907 Humayta, Rio Madeira (crit.); idem, I.e., 17, p. 275, 1910 
Allianca, Rio Madeira; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1073, 1912 Peru (Monterico, Cosnipata, Marcapata), Brazil (Rio 
Javarri, Rio Madeira), and Bolivia (Yuracares, San Mateo); Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 450, 1914 (range). 

Lanio versicolor versicolor Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 28, 
1920 San Gaban and Chaquimayo, Carabaya, Peru (crit.); idem, Nov. 
Zool., 30, p. 227, 1923 Bolivia (note on type); Zimmer, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 451, 1930 Huachipa, Peru; Naumburg, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 376, 1930 Monte Cristo and Rio Roose- 
velt, northern Matto Grosso. 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from southern Peru (from Loreto 
and Huanuco departments southward) to northern Bolivia and 
through the western parts of Brazil east to the Rio Madeira. 1 

4: Peru (Huachipa, Dept. Huanuco, 4). 

Lanio versicolor parvus Berlepsch. 2 LESSER WHITE-WINGED 
SHRIKE-TANAGER. 

Lanio versicolor parvus Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
pp. 1073, 1140, 1912 Santa Elena, Rio Jamauchim, easterly affluent 
of the Rio Tapajoz, Brazil (type in Museu Goeldi, Para, examined); 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 451, 1914 Rio Tocantins (Aruma- 
theua) and Rio Jamauchim (Santa Elena). 

Lanio versicolor fimbriatus Miranda Ribeiro, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
3, No. 2, p. 11, June, 1927 Taperinha, Santarem (alternative name 
forL. v. minor). 

1 Birds from the Rio Madeira agree with Peruvian and Bolivian specimens. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Yuracares, 4; San Mateo, 1. Peru: 
Chuchurras, Huanuco, 1; Pozuzo, Huanuco, 1; Marcapata, 12; San Gaban, Cara- 
baya, 2; Chaquimayo, Carabaya, 6; unspecified, 1. Brazil, Rio Madeira: Hum- 
ayta, 1; Allianca, 1. 

'Lanio versicolor parvus Berlepsch: Similar in coloration toL. v. versicolor, but 
considerably smaller. Wing, (adult male) 77 (against 82-86), (female) 72-74 
(against 77-80); tail, 71-75 (against 66), (female) 68-71 (against 63-65); bill, 
12-13 (against 13-15). 

Material examined. Brazil: Santa Elena, Rio Jamauchim, 4 (including type). 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 319 

Lanio atricapillus (not Tanagra atricapilla Gmelin) Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 
8, p. 78, 1876 Santarem; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 
(ex Allen). 

Range. Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the Rio 
Tocantins (Arumatheua) to the Tapajoz. 

*Lanio aurantius aurantius Lafresnaye. MEXICAN SHRIKE- 
TANAGER. 

Lanius aurantius Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 204, 1846 "Colombia," 
errore Guatemala, auct. Berlepsch, 1912 (descr. of immature male; 
type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zo- 
ology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 411, 
1930); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 119, 1856 Honduras and 
Mexico (Orizaba); idem, I.e., p. 303, 1856 Orizaba, Mexico; idem, I.e., 
25, p. 229, 1857 Santecomapam, Vera Cruz, Mexico; Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1859, p. 15 Honduras; idem, Exot. Orn., p. 64, pi. 31, 1867 
Mexico (province of Vera Cruz) and Guatemala (Vera Paz); Sumichrast, 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 549, 1869 Vera Cruz, Mexico (San Uvero, 
near San Andres Tuxtla; Omealca); Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
4, p. 19, 1876 Guichicovi, Oaxaca; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 
(n.s.), 25, p. 43, 1878 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 304, 1883 Mexico (Orizaba, Santecomapam, San 
Uvero, Omealca, Guichicovi), British Honduras (Belize), Guatemala 
(Choctum, Kamkal, Kampamak), and Honduras; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 202, 1886 Mexico (Santecomapam) to Honduras; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 123, 1902 southeastern 
Mexico to Honduras; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 154, 1903 
Yaruca, Honduras; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
p. 122, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1072, 1912 Mexico to Honduras; Peters, Auk, 
30, p. 379, 1913 thirty miles north of Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; 
Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 486, 1927 Presidio, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 392, 1929 Mountain Cow, British 
Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 383, 1932 Secan- 
quim, Guatemala; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 338, 1932 
Lancetilla, Honduras. 

Range. Upper Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico (in states 
of Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, Tabasco, and Quintana Roo), British Hon- 
duras, and Caribbean Guatemala and Honduras. 1 

2: Mexico (unspecified, 1); Guatemala (Los Amates, 1). 

Lanio aurantius ictus Kennard and Peters. 2 KENNARD'S SHRIKE- 
TANAGER. 

1 Five specimens from Honduras (San Pedro) agree well with Guatemalan 
and Mexican birds. 

2 Lanio aurantius ictus Kennard and Peters: Male exactly intermediate be- 
tween L. a. leucothorax and L. a. melanopygius, though nearer the latter, but differs 
by having the black feathers of the rump broadly tipped with yellow; the inner- 



320 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Lanio leucothorax ictus Kennard and Peters, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 10, 
p. 1, Aug., 1927 Boquete Trail, northwestern Panama (type in Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); idem, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., 38, p. 463, 1928 Boquete Trail; Peters, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 71, p. 342, 1931 Boquete Trail. 

Range. Tropical zone of extreme northwestern Panama (Boquete 
Trail, Almirante Bay region). 

*Lanio aurantius melanopygius Salvin and Godman. BLACK- 
RUMPED SHRIKE-TANAGER. 

Lanio melanopygius (Ridgway MS.) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 305, Dec., 1883 Costa Rica (Pirris) and Panama (type, 
from Bugaba, Chiriqui, in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British 
Museum); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, No. 26, p. 412, April 
11, 1884 Pirris, Costa Rica (crit.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 203, 1886 Costa Rica and Panama (Calovevora, Cordillera de Tole, 
Santiago de Veragua, Bugaba); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 
1, p. 110, 1887 Pozo Azul de Pirris, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Anal. Inst. 
Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 139, 1893 Palmar and Boruca, 
Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 6, p. 13, 1895 Pozo Pital, Costa Rica (descr. 
of young); Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 125, 1902 southwestern Costa 
Rica to Veragua (monog.); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 309, 1907 Boruca and 
El Pozo de Terraba, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 
848, 1910 Pozo Azul de Pirrfs, El Pozo de Terraba, and Boruca, Costa 
Rica (habits); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1072, 
1912 southwestern Costa Rica to Veragua. 

Lanio leucothorax (not of Salvin) Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 63, pi. 
32, right fig. (male), 1867 part, Veragua (Santa Fe, Santiago, Cordi- 
llera de Tole); Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 139 Veraguas 
(Santa Fe, Santiago, Cordillera de Tole); idem, I.e., 1870, p. 188 Veragua 
(Calovevora, Chitra, Cordillera del Chucu) and Chiriqui (Bugaba, Volcan 
de Chiriqui). 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Costa Rica (south of the 
Rio Diquis) and Pacific side of western Panama (Chiriqui and 
Veragua). 1 

10: Costa Rica (Puerto Jimenez, Golfo Dulce, 3; Volcan de Oso, 3; 
Boruca, 2; Palmar, Rio Diquis, 1); Panama (Chiriqui, 1). 

most lesser and median wing coverts more extensively white, and the lateral under 
tail coverts widely edged with yellow; female likewise halfway between its two 
relatives. Wing, 103, (female) 97; tail, 95-96; bill, 25, (female) 23 1 A- 

This intermediate race is known only from five specimens obtained on the 
Caribbean slope of extreme northwestern Panama, inland of Almirante Bay. 

1 Birds from the Terraba Valley, etc., are identical with topotypes from Chiri- 
qui (Bugaba, Divala). Two (out of four) males from the Veraguas (Calovevora 
and Santiago) have a distinct buffy tinge on the posterior border of the white 
throat. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 321 

Lanio aurantius leucothorax Salvin. WHITE-THROATED SHRIKE- 
TANAGER. 

Lanio leucothorax Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 581 Tucurrlqui, 
Costa Rica (types in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Museum); 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 171 Angostura and "Pay- 
ariquf," Costa Rica; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 63, pi. 32, left 
fig. (female), 1867 part, Costa Rica (Tucurriqui, Angostura, "Pay- 
ariqui"); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 100, 1868 Costa 
Rica (Tucurriqui, Angostura, Pacuare); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 
299, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 317 Chontales, Nicaragua; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 305, 1883 Nica- 
ragua (Chontales) and Costa Rica (Tucurriqui, Angostura, Pacuare); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 203, 1886 Nicaragua (Chontales) 
and Costa Rica (Angostura, Tucurriqui); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, 1, p. 110, 1887 Costa Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 124, 1902 eastern Nicaragua and Costa Rica (monog.); 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 849, 1910 La Vijagua and Carrillo, 
eastern Costa Rica (habits); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1072, 1912 eastern Nicaragua and Costa Rica. 

Lanio leucothorax leucothorax Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 246, 
1932 Great Falls, Pis Pis River, Nicaragua. 

Range. Upper Tropical zone of eastern Nicaragua and eastern 
Costa Rica. 1 

Lanio aurantius reversus Bangs and Griscom. 2 PUNTARENAS 
SHRIKE-TANAGER. 

Lanio leucothorax reversus Bangs and Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 
13, p. 53, Nov., 1932 Las Agujas, Puntarenas, Costa Rica (type in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Range. Tropical zone of northwestern Costa Rica (Las Agujas, 
Puntarenas, Nicoya Peninsula). 

Genus TACHYPHONUS Vieillot 3 

Tachyphonus Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Orn. E16m., p. 33, 1816 type, by 
monotypy, "Tangara noir" Buffon = Tangara rufa Boddaert. 

Pyrrota Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Orn. E16m., p. 45, 1816 type, by monotypy, 
"Tangaroux" Buffon = Tangara rufa Boddaert. 

1 Seven specimens from Costa Rica (La Vijagua) examined. 

2 Lanio aurantius reversus Bangs and Griscom: Male closely similar to L. a. 
melanopygius, but white throat with a well-marked buff border (as in L. a. leuco- 
thorax); female with light gray throat (like aurantius), more olive above than 
melanopygius, but with slightly darker flanks and under tail coverts than aurantius; 
size larger, about the same as leucothorax and aurantius. Wing, 97-99, (female) 
95; tail, 87-89. 

This form, which we have not seen, clearly connects the southern races with 
L. a. aurantius, particularly by the coloring of the female sex. 

3 1 am unable to make out Tachyphonus tenuirostris Swainson (Quart. Journ. 
Sci. Litt. Arts Roy. Inst., 20, No. 39, p. 68, Oct., 1825), which is described as 
"deep glossy raven black with the scapulars and parts of the lesser wing coverts 



322 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Comarophagus Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 974 type, by virtual monotypy, Oriolus 
leucopterus "Latham" [= Gmelin] = Tangara rufa Boddaert. 

*Tachyphonus rufus (Boddaert). GREATER WHITE-SHOULDERED 
TANAGER. 

Tangara rufa Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 44, Dec., 1783 based on "Le 
Tangaroux de Cayenne" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 711 (= female). 

Oriolus melaleucus Sparrman, Mus. Carlson, fasc. 2, pi. 31, 1787 Surinam 
(descr. of adult male; type in Coll. Carlson, present location unknown). 

Oriolus leucopterus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 392, 1788 mainly 1 based on 
"White-winged Oriole" Latham, Gen. Syn., Bds., 1, (2), p. 440; Cayenne 
(desc. of adult male). 

Tanagra nigerrima Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 899, 1789 based on Dauben- 
ton, PL Enl., pi. 179, fig. 2 (=male) and pi. 711 (=female), French Guiana; 
Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 534, 1830 Bahia. 

Tachyphonus drrhomelas Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 32, p. 
357, 1819 based on "La Houppette noire" Desmarest, Hist. Nat. Tang., 
livr. 9, pi. 49 (=young male), Guiana. 

Tachyphonus beauperthuyi Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 32, p. 
82, 1851 locality not indicated (descr. of male; types in Paris Museum 
from "C6te ferme" = near Cumana, Venezuela); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 85, 1862 Venezuela; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 299, 1866 
Trinidad. 

Tachyphonus nigerrimus Swainson, Quart. Journ. Sci. Litt. Arts Roy. Inst., 
20, No. 39, p. 62, 1825 Pernambuco and tableland of Bahia; Lafresnaye 
and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. ZooL, 7, cl. 2, p. 29, 1837 Corrientes 
(spec, examined); Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 
669, "1848" [ = 1849] coast of British Guiana; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 166, 1856 Brazil. 

Tachyphonus leucopterus d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 277, 1839 
Corrientes; Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 332, 1847 Tobago. 

Tachyphonus melaleucus Sclater, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 23, p. 156, 1855 
"Bogota," Colombia; idem, I.e., 24, p. 113, 1856 (monog.); Bonaparte, 
Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 1857 Cayenne; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 331, 1861 Panama Railroad; Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 84, 1862 Cayenne and Trinidad; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 
82 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 351 
Panama Railroad; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 571 Para and Tocantins River; 
idem, I.e., 1868, p. 167 Carupano, Venezuela; Finsch, I.e., 1870, p. 582 
Trinidad; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 212, 1870 Rio Parana, Goyaz, Rio 
dos Piloens, Engenho do Gama, Sao Vicente, Tapajoz, and Para, Brazil; 
Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 238 Sao Domingo, 

white and the under tail coverts deep rufous." The type, supposed to be from 
"the interior of Buenos Aires," was in the author's collection. Bonaparte (Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, p. 240, 1850) identified it with T. luctuosus, but this bird has no rufous 
on the under tail coverts in any plumage. 

1 The reference to Pennant does not belong here. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR ... 323 

Minas Geraes; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 327 Ocana and Bucaramanga, 
Colombia; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 379 Para; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 16 Maranura, Huiro, and Potrero, Department of 
Cuzco, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 503, pi. 42, fig. 5 (egg) Medellin and 
Remedies, Colombia (eggs descr.); Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 333 Pernam- 
buco (Caxanga to Garanhuns) and Parahyba; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 15 Chirimoto and Huambo, Peru (eggs descr.); 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 309, 1883 Costa 
Rica, Panama (Veraguas, Railroad line, Obispo) and South America; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 504, 1884 Peru (Maranura, Huiro, Potrero, 
Moyobamba, Huayabamba); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 292, 1884 
Bucaramanga, Colombia; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 7, p. 173, 
1884 Trinidad; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 211 British Guiana (Bartica 
Grove); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 206, 1886 Costa Rica to 
Peru and Brazil; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 7, 1887 Lambare, Para- 
guay; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 SantarSm, Brazil; 
Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 124 Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo, Paraguay; Cory, 
Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, 
No. 208, p. 4, 1895 Colonia Risso, Paraguay; Robinson, Flying Trip to 
Tropics, p. 161, 1895 Guadas, Colombia; idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
18, pp. 677, 685, 1896 Margarita Island and La Guaira, Venezuela; 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, 1899, p. 4 
Colon, Panama; Dalmas, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 137, 1900 
Tobago; Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 176, 
1901 La Guaira, Venezuela; Clark, Auk, 19, p. 266, 1902 Margarita 
Island; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 498 Rio Capim, Para; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 
p. 40 Bahia; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 294, 1907 Para, Rio Guama, 
Rio Capim, and Rio Moju, Brazil; Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 569 Margarita 
Island; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 249, 1909 Mar- 
garita Island; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, 
p. 84, 1910 Pernambuco (Beberibe', near Recife), Bahia (Barra, near 
Bahia City), and Piauhy (Santa Philomena, Apertado Hora, Therezina, 
Sao Goncalinho, Uniao); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 94 Riacho Ancho, Chaco, 
Argentina. 

Tachyphonus rufus Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 359, 1891 Chapada, 
Matto Grosso (nest and eggs descr.); idem, I.e., 4, p. 52, 1892 Carupano 
and El Pilar, Venezuela; Chapman, I.e., 6, p. 31, 1894 Princestown, 
Trinidad (habits); Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumanacoa and San 
Antonio, Venezuela; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, pp. 160, 179, 
1898 Pueblo Viejo and Palomina, Colombia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 13, p. 168, 1900 (ex Bangs); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, 
p. 29, 1900 Loma del Le6n, Panama; Ridgway, Bull U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 2, p. 130, 1902 (monog.); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 21, 1902 Caicara, Ciudad Bolivar, Rio Orinoco, and La Pricion, 
Caura, Venezuela; Hellmayr, I.e., 13, p. 17, 1906 Trinidad (Caparo, 
Pointe Gourde, Valencia, Seelet, Laventille, Chaguaramas) ; Thayer and 
Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 222, 1906 Savanna of Panama; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 82, 1906 Santa Ana and Idma, 
Peru; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 361, 1907 Itapura, Sao Paulo, and 
Bahia; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 188, 1906 Aripo, 



324 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Trinidad; idem, I.e., p. 359, 1903 Carenage and Aripo, Trinidad; Men6- 
gaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14, p. 9, 1903 French Guiana; Hell- 
mayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 29, 1908 Goyaz, Fazenda Esperanca, and Rio 
Araguaya, Goyaz; Berlepsch, I.e., 15, p. 116, 1908 Cayenne, Isle le Pere, 
and Roche-Marie, French Guiana; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 103, 
1909 Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Lillo, Apunt. Hist. Nat., 1, 
p. 43, 1909 Mocovi, Santa Fe, Argentina; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. 
Zool., 16, p. 173, 1909 Chaco; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
(3), 11, p. 376, 1910 Mocovi and Pilcomayo, Chaco; Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 848, 1910 Costa Rica (one record); Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1074, 1912 (range); Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 71, 87, 1912 
Para and Peixe-Boi, Brazil; idem and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, 
Heft 5, p. 63, 1912 San Esteban and Las Quiguas, Carabobo, Venezuela; 
Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 63, 1914 Paraguay; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 452, 1914 Para, Benevides, Quati-puru, Rio Guama (Ourem), 
Rio Capim, Rio Moju, and Rio Tocantins (Baiao, Arumatheua; Dabbene, 
Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 363, 1914 (distribution in Argentina); Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 210, 1913 Cariaquito, Jocopita (Manimo 
River), and Guinipa Village, Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 180, 1916 Orinoco region (nest and eggs); Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 615, 1917 Colombia (Dabeiba, Caldas, Las 
Lomitas, San Antonio, Gallera, Ricaurte, Salencio, Rio Frio, Cali, Mira- 
flores, Barro Blanco, La Palma, La Candela, San Agustin, Andalucia, 
Fusugasuga, Aguadita, Palo Hueco, Buena Vista) ; Bangs and Penard, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 88, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo and Lelydorp, 
Surinam; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 461, 1918 Perico and Bellavista, 
Peru; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 279, 1918 Tabernilla 
and Gatun, Panama (nest and eggs); Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 532, 
1921 British Guiana; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 121, 
1921 Santa Ana and Idma, Peru; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 485, 1922 Santa Marta region, Colombia (La Concepcion, 
San Francisco, Minca, Pueblo Viejo, Chirua); Williams, Bull. Dept. 
Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 131, 1922 Trinidad (food, nest, eggs); Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 30, p. 227, 1923 Corrientes (range); Delacour, Ibis, 1923, 
p. 149 Guarico and Apure, Venezuela; Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 322, 1924 
Gatun, New Culebra, Las Guacas, and Juan Mina, Panama; Wetmore, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 391, 1926 Chaco (Resistencia, Las Palmas), 
Formosa (Riacho Pilaga), and Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco); Stone, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 175, 1928 Para and Castanhal, Brazil; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 60, 1926 Sao Bento, 
Maranhao; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 283, 
1929 Maranhao (Miritiba, Tury-assu, Sao Bento, Tranqueira, Fazenda 
Inhuma) and Ceara (Varzea Formosa); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
69, p. 189, 1929 Cana, Darien; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, 
p. 376, 1930 Paraguay (Fort Wheeler) and Matto Grosso (Tapirapoan); 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 342, 1931 Changuinola, Almi- 
rante, and Chiriquicito, Panama; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 371, 1932 Perme, 
Panama; idem, Auk, 50, p. 300, 1933 Suretka Farm, Talamanca, Costa 
Rica. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 325 

Range. Extreme northeastern Argentina (Corrientes; territories 
of Formosa and Chaco); Paraguay (locally); Brazil, from Matto 
Grosso and northern Sao Paulo (Rio Parana) through Goyaz and 
the eastern states north to Para (west to the Tapajoz); French, 
Dutch, and British Guiana; Venezuela, south to the Orinoco Valley; 
islands of Trinidad and Tobago; Peru (only recorded from the upper 
Maranon and the Huayabamba and Urubamba valleys) ; Colombia, 
north through Panama to eastern Costa Rica (Talamanca). 1 

105: Panama (Colon, 15); Colombia (Dabeiba, Rio Sucio, 
Antioquia, 1; Andalucia, eastern Andes, Huila, 1; Rio Cauca, 1; 
unspecified, 5); Venezuela (Caracas, Federal District, 14; Colon, 
Tachira, 4; Maracay, Aragua, 2; Cocollar, Sucre, 4; Margarita 
Island, Nueva Esparta, 7; Rio Chama, 2; Lake Valencia, 1); British 
Guiana (Georgetown, 2; unspecified, 4); Dutch Guiana (Paramaribo, 
2); Brazil (Veadeiros, Goyaz, 5; Rio Sao Miguel, Goyaz, 1; Macaco 
Secco, Bahia, 8; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 4; Piraputanga, Matto 
Grosso, 1; Inhuma, Alto Parnahyba, Maranhao, 1; Sao Bento, 
Maranhao, 1; Tranqueira, Maranhao, 3; Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1; 
Aracatuba, Sao Paulo, 1; Varzea Formosa, Ceard, 1); Peru (Moya- 
bamba, San Martin, 6); Argentina (Eldorado, Misiones, 2; Puerto 
Segundo, Misiones, 3; Caraguatay, Rio Parana, Misiones, 2). 

Tachyphonus valeryi (J. and E. Verreaux). 2 BLACK-SHOULDERED 
TANAGER. 

1 1 have not been able to correlate the slight variations exhibited by birds 
from different parts of this vast range with any particular areas. At any rate, 
specimens from the Venezuelan north coast including Trinidad, Tobago, and 
Margarita (beauperthuyi) appear to me inseparable from a Guianan series, and 
even those from Panama do not seem to be distinguishable. The presence of 
some cinnamon-rufous feathers in the middle of the crown of black-plumaged 
males is a purely individual character and wholly independent of locality. 

One hundred forty-nine specimens examined. 

1 Tachyphonus valeryi (J. and E. Verreaux): Adult male similar to T. rufus, 
but decidedly larger with proportionately weaker bill and without any white on 
the wings, the humeral area as well as the axillars and under wing coverts being 
black like the rest of the plumage. Wing 105, 112; tarsus, 28 (J. Berlioz, in litt.). 

This species I have not seen, but Mr. J. Berlioz, who on my request reexamined 
the original examples in the Paris Museum, writes that the two birds differ from 
T. rufus by their larger dimensions and stronger legs, while the bill, though of 
the same size as in the allied species, appears proportionately smaller. Besides, 
there is no trace of white on the wings, both the humeral area and the under wing 
coverts being black like the rest of the plumage, which is in exact agreement with 
the original description. The describers erred, however, in indicating 'TAmerique 
centrale" as habitat of this obviously distinct species. The type as well as a 
second specimen are labeled as being from "Pebas, Haut Amazpne. Voyage de 
Castelnau et Deville, 1847." The correctness of this locality is perhaps ques- 
tionable. At any rate it seems rather strange that the species has not been found 
again by any other naturalist. 



326 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyrrota valeryi J. and E. Verreaux, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 7, p. 351, 1855 
'TAmerique centrale," errore (the type in the Paris Museum is labeled 
"Pebas, Haut Amazone"). 

Tachyphonus valerii Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 114, 1856 (ex 
Verreaux). 

Range. Northeastern Peru (Pebas). 
*Tachyphonus coronatus (Vieillot). RED-CROWNED TANAGER. 

Agelaius coronatus Vieillot, 1 Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., 2, livr. 91, p. 711, 1822 
based on "Tordo de bosque coronado y negro" Azara, No. 77; Paraguay. 

Tanagra coryphaeus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 31, 1823 
Brazil (descr. of male and female; types in Berlin Museum). 

Tachyphonus vigorsi Swainson, Quart. Journ. Sci. Litt. Arts Roy. Inst., 20, 
No. 39, p. 63, Oct., 1825 southern Brazil (descr. of male; type obviously 
in coll. of W. Swainson, now probably in University Museum, Cambridge, 
England); Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., I, Part 3, pi. 36, fig. 1, 1828. 

Tachyphonus coronatus Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 166, 1856 
Sao Paulo and Santa Catharina; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 
114, 1856 Paraguay and southern Brazil (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 85, 1862 Rio Grande [do Sul], Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 218, 1870 Rio de Janeiro <Registo do Sai) and Sao Paulo (Sao Luis 
d'Almeida, Mattodentro, Ypanema, Cubatao) ; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. 
Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 428 Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa, Sete 
Lagoas), Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo), and Sao Paulo (Campinas); 
Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 303 Sao Paulo; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 
244, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina; Cabanis, I.e., 22, p. 82, 1874 
Cantagallo, Rio; Pelzeln, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Friburgo, 
Rio; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 120, 1885 Rio Grande 
do Sul (Taquara, Picade Tocana, Arroio Grande, Linha Piraja); Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 213, 1886 Minas Geraes (Santa Fe), Rio de 
Janeiro (Registo do Sai), Sao Paulo, and Rio Grande do Sul; Boucard 
and Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 43, 1892 Porto Real, Rio; 
Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 119, 1899 Mundo Novo, 
Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 153, 1899 Sao Paulo 
(Iguape, Piquete); idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova 
Friburgo, Rio; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 17, 
1900 Tebicuari, Paraguay; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 363, 1907 
Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Piracicaba, Piquete, Alto da Serra, Itarare, Iguape, 
Sao Paulo) and Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre); Hartert and Venturi, 
Nov. Zool., 16, p. 173, 1909 Iguazu, Misiones; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 
627 Sapucay, Paraguay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, 
p. 436, 1910 Santa Ana, Misiones; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1077, 1912 (range); Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. 
Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 486, 499, 1912 Vera Guarany, Rio Iguassu, 
Parana; Bertoni, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 75, p. 98, 1913 Alto Parana, 
Paraguay; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 250, 1913 Santa Ana, 

\In Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 35, p. 535, 1819, quoted by Sclater 
as original reference of T. coronatus, the bird is entered only under Azara's Spanish 
vernacular name. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 327 

Misiones; idem, I.e., 1, p. 363, 1914 (range); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., 
p. 63, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Hellmayr, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 
12, p. 130, 1915 Brago do Sul, near Victoria, Espirito Santo; MenSgaux, 
Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 11, p. 7, 1919 Villa Lutetia, near San Ignacio, 
Misiones; Luderwaldt and Pinto da Fonseca, Rev. Mus. Paul., 13, p. 493, 
1923 Ilha dos Alcatrazes, Sao Paulo; Pereyra, El Hornero, 3, p. 171, 
1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires (probably escaped cage-bird); idem, I.e., 4, 
p. 27, 1927 Buenos Aires; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 
5, p. 193, 1926 Parana (Marechal Mallet, Sao Domingo, Fazenda Con- 
cordia, Guarapuava, Vermelho, Therezina, Candido de Abreu); Holt, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 321, 1928 Monte Serrat, Serra do Itatiaya 
(nest and eggs); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 17, (2), p. 787, 1932 Valparaiso, 
Sao Paulo, and Sant' Anna do Paranahyba, Matto Grosso. 

Tachyphonus coryphaeus Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 91, 1865 
road to the Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro. 

Tachyphonus nigerrimus (not Tanagra nigerrima Gmelin) Euler, Journ. Orn., 
15, p. 408, 1867 Cantagallo (habits, nest, eggs). 

Tachyphonus cristatus (not Tanagra cristata Linnaeus) White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1882, p. 597 San Javier, Misiones. 

Tachyphonus coronatus pallidior Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 
5, p. 193, 1926 Parana, Brazil (type, from Candido de Abreu, Parana, 
in Warsaw Museum, cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, I.e., 6, p. 186, 1927). 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Minas Geraes and Espirito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul, and adjacent 
parts of Paraguay (Tebicuari; Sapucay; Alto Parana) and Argentina 
(Misiones). 1 

28: Brazil (Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 4; Joinville, Santa 
Catharina, 6; Aracatuba, Sao Paulo, 1; Urucum de Corumba, 
Matto Grosso, 1); Argentina (Caraguatay, 5; Eldorado, Misiones, 
6; Puerto Segundo, Misiones, 5). 

"Tachyphonus cristatus cristatus (Linnaeus). 2 SCARLET-CRESTED 
TANAGER. 

1 There is no difference whatsoever between specimens from Paraguay (Sapu- 
cay) and a large series from Brazil (Espirito Santo to Santa Catharina). Not 
one of the numerous females examined has the top of the head "nearly blackish," 
and I can only conclude that the specimen (from an unknown locality) of this 
peculiar coloration, which induced the late J. Sztolcman to separate the Parana 
birds, is either an individual mutant or does not belong to the species at all. 

T. coronatus, though allied to T. rufus, differs by lesser dimensions, much 
shorter bill, and in the male sex by much less extensive, hence completely concealed, 
white humeral patch and by possessing a bright red vertical spot, while the female 
may be distinguished by much less rufous coloring, particularly below. Yet they 
are probably geographical representatives, as their ranges seem to indicate. 

Additional material examined. Paraguay: Sapucay, 5. Brazil: Brago do Sul, 
Espirito Santo, 7; Registo do Sai, Rio, 2; Corcovado, Rio, 1; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 
5; Cubatao, Sao Paulo, 1; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 19; Rio Grande do Sul, 1. 

2 Further subdivision of this race appears to be impracticable, at least with 
the available material. Birds from the Caura Valley (Venezuela) and the upper 
Rio Negro cannot be satisfactorily separated from a series of "Bogota" skins 



328 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tanagra cristata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 317, 1766 based on 
"Le Tangara noir hupe de Cayenne" Brisson, Orn., 6, Suppl., p. 65, pi. 
4, fig. 3 (= adult male); Cayenne (type in coll. of Madame de Bandeville). 

Tanagra gubernatrix Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 102, Tabl. Meth., 
p. 40, 1839 based on "Tangara hupe de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., 
pi. 7, fig. 2; Cayenne. 

Lanio cristatus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 204, 1846 (crit.). 

Tachyphonus cristatus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 155, 1855 
"Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 115, 1856 part, Cayenne and "Bogota"; 
Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 31, 1857 Cayenne; Pel- 
zeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 213, 1870 part, Marabitanas and Barcellos, Rio 
Negro (spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1873, p. 262- Pebas, Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 502, 1884 
Pebas; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 210, 1886 part, subsp. 
typica, spec, a, b, e-j, Cayenne, Guia (Rio Negro), Peru (Pebas, Iquitos), 
Ecuador (Sarayacu), and "Bogota"; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, 
p. 71, 1889 Napo, Ecuador; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 
Santarem; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 18, 
1899 Rio Zamora, Ecuador; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 22, 
1902 Venezuela, Caura River (Suapure", Nicare, La Pricion) (crit.); 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 362, 1907 part, Rio Negro, Guiana, and 
Venezuela; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 116, 1908 Ipousin. Approuague, 
French Guiana; idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1075, 
1912 Cayenne; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 75, 1928 
Rio Suno, Ecuador. 

Tachyphonus cristatellus Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 86, 1862 "New 
Granada" = Bogota (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 571, 977 Guia (Rio 
Negro) and Pebas, Peru (crit.). 

Tachyphonus cristatus cristatus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 275, 1905 
Cayenne (crit.); idem, I.e., 14, p. 30, 1907 Obidos, Brazil (crit.); Mene- 
gaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14, p. 9, 1908 French Guiana; Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 680, 1926 eastern Ecuador (Rio 
Suno and below San Jose'; crit.); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
(2), 4, p. 241, 1932 Sarayacu, Ecuador. 

Tachyphonus cristatus cristatellus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 275, 1905 
part, "Bogota," Peru (Loretoyacu, Pebas), northwestern Brazil (Marabi- 
tanas, Barcellos), and Venezuela (Caura) (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 

(cristatellus), though the latter show a remarkable variation in the coloration 
and extent of the ochraceous gular spot, agreeing in that respect with specimens 
from the north bank of the Maranon. Two (out of three) adult males from French 
Guiana have the crest somewhat shorter and of a paler, less reddish orange color, 
and the gular spot very small and dark. However, two from eastern Ecuador 
are practically identical, while two others from Obidos, which should doubtless 
belong to the typical cristatus of Cayenne, cannot be distinguished from numerous 
"Bogota" skins. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3; Saint Laurent 
du Maroni, 1; Ipousin, 1. Brazil: Obidos, 2; Barcellos, Rio Negro, 1; Marabi- 
tanas, Rio Negro, 4. Venezuela: Caura Valley, 11. Colombia: "Bogota," 16. 
Ecuador: Sarayacu, 2. Peru: Iquitos, 3; Rio Tigre, 2; Loretoyacu, 1. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 329 

Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1075, 1912 (range); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 453, 1914 Obidos and Rio Jamund& (Faro), Brazil; Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 181, 1916 SuapurS and La Union, 
Caura River, Venezuela. 

Range. French Guiana; northern Brazil, north of the Amazon 
(Obidos; Rio Jamunda; Rio Negro; (?)Ega, Rio Solimoes); southern 
Venezuela (Caura and Orinoco valleys), west to the eastern base of 
the eastern Andes of Colombia and thence south through eastern 
Ecuador to the north bank of the Rio Maranon, northern Peru 
(Iquitos, Pebas, Loretoyacu). 

1: Colombia ("Bogota," 1). 

Tachyphonus cristatus intercedens Berlepsch. 1 ORANGE- 
CRESTED TANAGER. 

Tachyphonus inlercedens Berlepsch, Ibis, (4), 4, p. 113, 1880 "Orinoco dis- 
trict or Trinidad" (descr. of male; type in Berlepsch Collection, now in 
Frankfort Museum, examined); idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1076, 1912 British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Merume 
Mountains, River Atapuraw) and (?)Orinoco delta; Chubb, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 536, 1921 Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Anarica River, 
Arawai River, Great Falls of the Demerara, Merume Mountains, Cara- 
mang River, and Bartica Grove. 

Tachyphonus cristatus (not Tanagra cristata Linnaeus) Cabanis, in Schomburgk, 
Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 668, "1848" [ = 1849] coast of British Guiana; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 115, 1856 part, British Guiana; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 212 Bartica Grove and Atapuraw River, British 
Guiana. 

[Tachyphonus cristatus} subsp. intercedens Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 211, 1886 British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains, Ata- 
puraw River). 

Tachyphonus cristatus intercedens Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 275, 1905 
(crit.); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 182, 1916 "Orinoco 
delta." 

Range. British Guiana, chiefly west of the Demerara, and 
possibly the adjoining section of Venezuela (Orinoco delta). 

1 Tachyphonus cristatus intercedens Berlepsch : Differs from T. c. cristatus (ex 
Cayenne) in the male sex by having the crest orange yellow (without any reddish 
hue), while the female is more olivaceous above with the forehead and hindneck 
less grayish. Wing, 79-82; tail, 71-74. 

Though well-marked, this form is clearly a geographic representative of T. 
cristatus. Its range seems to be peculiarly restricted. All the specimens we have 
seen are from western British Guiana, but Bangs and Penard (Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 62, p. 88, 1918) record it from the vicinity of Paramaribo and Altonaweg 
in Surinam. The type, a skin of the so-called "Orinoco" make agrees with speci- 
mens from Bartica Grove. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 4; Camacusa, 1; Merume 
Mountains, 2. "Orinoco district," 1 (the type). 



330 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tachyphonus cristatus huarandosae Chapman. 1 HUARANDOSA 
TANAGER. 

Tachyphonus cristatus huarandosae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 187, p. 8, 
1925 Huarandosa, Chinchipe Valley, northwestern Peru (type in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Tropical zone of northwestern Peru, in the valley of the 
Rio Chinchipe, an affluent of the upper Maranon. 

Tachyphonus cristatus madeirae Hellmayr. 2 Rio MADEIRA 
SCARLET-CRESTED TANAGER. 

Tachyphonus cristatus madeirae Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 277, 1910 
Calama, Rio Madeira, Brazil (type in Tring Collection, now in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1075, 1912 (range); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 453, 1914 (range); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 378, 
1930 Rio Roosevelt and Barao Melgaco, northern Matto Grosso. 

Tachyphonus cristatus (not Tanagra cristata Linnaeus) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 213, 1870 part, Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, and Borba, Rio 
Madeira (spec, examined); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 362, 1907 
part, Borba. 

Tachyphonus cristatus cristatellus (not of Sclater) Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, 
p. 275, 1905 part, Borba and Engenho do Gama. 

Tachyphonus cristatus subsp. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 349, 1907 Hum- 
ay ta, Rio Madeira. 

(l)Tachyphonus cristatus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 264, 1857 
Ega, Rio Solimoes; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 210, 1886 part, 
subsp. typica, spec, d, Ega. 

1 Tachyphonus cristatus huarandosae Chapman: Similar to T. c. cristatus, but 
adult male with longer crest (from base of bill to tip about 31-32 mm. long) and 
smaller ochraceous rump-patch and gular spot. 

According to Chapman, this race, which we have not seen, differs from all 
the others by its longer crest and by having the gular mark reduced to a narrow 
line. The last-named character, however, should be used with caution for racial 
distinction, since I find much individual variation in birds from "Bogota" and 
the vicinity of Iquitos, some of which have the gular spot much smaller than others 
from the same locality. 

2 Tachyphonus cristatus madeirae Hellmayr: Nearest to, and agreeing with, 
T. c. brunneus in grenadine red to scarlet crest with little, if any, buff lateral border, 
but crest-feathers decidedly shorter about the same length as in typical cristatus 
and gular patch much deeper ochraceous. Wing (male), 82-86; tail, 70-76. 

The crest averages somewhat darker than in east Brazilian males, though 
one from Matto Grosso cannot be told apart. While we have only seen specimens 
from the Rio Madeira and its head-waters, the range of this form is no doubt 
much more extensive and, judging by analogy, may be expected to extend east 
to the Tapajoz and north to the Solimoes, T. cristatus having been recorded by 
Sclater (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 264, 1857) from Ega, on the south side of 
that river. 

Material examined. Brazil: Rio Madeira, Borba, 3; Calama, 5; Humayta, 1; 
Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore, Matto Grosso, 4. 



1936 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 331 

Range. Western Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the Rio 
Madeira south to Matto Grosso (Barao Melgago, Rio Roosevelt; 
Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore"), extending east probably to the 
left bank of the Rio Tapajoz and north to the Rio Solimoes. 

Tachyphonus cristatus hr mine us (Spix). SPIX'S SCARLET- 
CRESTED TANAGER. 

Tanagra brunnea Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 37, pi. 43, fig. 2 (young 
male), 1825 in provincia Rio de Janeiro (type in Munich Museum 
examined; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, 
p. 672, 1906). 

Lanio vieillotii Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 204, 1846 name tentatively pro- 
posed for Lanio cristatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 17, 
p. 305, 1817 (descr. of an adult male collected by Delalande, Jr., in "Bre'sil," 
viz. near Rio de Janeiro). 

[Tachyphonus cristatus] subsp. brasiliensis Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 211, 1886 Bahia, Nov