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Full text of "Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field Museum of Natural History"

"LI B RAR.Y 

OF THL 

UN IVERSITY 
OF 1LLI NOIS 



FI 



co 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



HY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATK CURATOR OF BIRDS 



PART XI 
PLOCEIDAE - CATAMBLYRHYNCHIDAE - FRINGILLIDAE 




ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME XIII, PART XI 

DKORMBER 31, 193X 
PUBLICATION 430 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 
AND THE ADJACENT ISLANDS 

IN 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

INCLUDING ALL SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES KNOWN TO OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA 

MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA. SOUTH AMERICA, THE WEST INDIES, AND 

ISLANDS OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA, THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 

AND OTHER ISLANDS WHICH MAY BE INCLUDED ON 

ACCOUNT OF THEIR FAUNAL AFFINITIES 



BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS 



PART XI 
PLOCEIDAE - CATAMBLYRHYNCHIDAE - FRINGILLIDAE 




ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

VOLUME XIII, PART XI 

DECEMBER 31, 1938 

PUBLICATION 430 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



v. 13 " 



PREFACE TO PART XI 

The present installment, principally devoted to one large family, 
the Fringillidae, concludes the treatment of the American Passeri- 
formes. It contains the enumeration, together with extensive 
bibliographic references, of the species and subspecies recognized 
as valid by the author. The arrangement of the finches as indicated 
in the succeeding pages is purely tentative, though it is mainly based 
on the scheme advanced by the late Peter Sushkin (The Auk, 42, 
pp. 259-261, 1925), according to the characters of the bony palate in 
the North American genera. The ultimate allocation of many neo- 
tropical groups depends, however, on the study of their anatomy, 
and in the absence of such data the author has been forced to rely 
on external features and analogy. In many cases it remains clearly 
an open question whether certain common characters are the expres- 
sion of natural affinity or merely the result of secondary adaptation 
through parallel development. 

In style and scope this part closely follows the standard adopted 
for the preceding volumes. It must be emphasized that it has not 
been the author's aim to write a monograph of the groups here 
treated. For such a task neither material nor time has been avail- 
able. In a work of this magnitude it is simply impossible to investi- 
gate everything independently, and the author has to rely largely 
on the researches of others. In the case of many North American 
genera notably, where the author's own studies have been limited, 
and the accessible series have been inadequate, the account is 
principally, if not exclusively, based on recent monographs or 
revisions. Still, it is hoped that in spite of the many shortcomings, of 
which the author is only too well aware, the present volume may be 
of some service to ornithologists, containing, as it does, a digest of 
our actual knowledge of the birds forming the family of finches. 

In perusing the list of specimens in Field Museum, it is well to 
keep in mind that only a certain percentage of the material has been 
accessible to the author for re-examination. Errors of identification 
or allocation, especially of migratory birds, should, therefore, be 
regarded with indulgence. 

Various museums and individuals have again co-operated in the 
preparation of this volume by the loan of material or by supplying 
information on types or disputed questions. The author wishes 
particularly to express his gratitude to M. Jacques Berlioz of Paris, 
Dr. Enrico Festa of Torino, Count Nils Gyldenstolpe of Stock- 

iii 



holm, Mr. Norman B. Kinnear of the British Museum, Professor 
A. Laubmann of Munich, Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood of Field Museum, 
Chicago, Mr. J. L. Peters of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Count Josef 
Seilern of Lukov, Cz. S. R., and Mr. John T. Zimmer of New York. 
He is also under great obligation to Professor Hermann Michel, 
Director, and Dr. M. Sassi, Curator of Birds, in the Museum of 
Natural History in Vienna, Austria, for continued free access to the 
collections and libraries under their care. 

C. E. HELLMAYR 
May 26, 19S6 



CONTENTS 



Orders, Families, and Genera Included in Part XI 



ORDER PASSERIFORMES 
SUBORDER OSCINES 



FAMILY PLOCEIDAE 
(Weaver Finches) 



Passer Brisson 

Ploceus Cuvier 

Spermestes Swainson . 
Estrilda Swainson . . . 



PAGE 

1 

2 
3 
3 



FAMILY CATAMBLYRHYNCHIDAE 
(Plush-capped Finches) 

Catamblyrhynchus Lafresnaye 4 

FAMILY FRINGILLIDAE 

(Grosbeaks, Finches, Sparrows, 

and Buntings) 

SUBFAMILY RICHMONDENINAE 

(Cardinals and Allies) 

Saltator Vieillot 6 

Rhodothraupis Ridgway 44 

Caryothraustes Reichenbach 45 

Periporphyrus Reichenbach 51 

Pitylus Cuvier 52 

Gubernalrix Lesson 56 

Paroaria Bonaparte 58 

Richmondena Mathews and 

Iredale 67 

Pyrrhuloxia Bonaparte 75 

Pheitclicus Reichenbach 77 

Hedymeles Cabanis 85 

Guiraca Swainson 88 

Cyanocompsa Cabanis 91 

Cyanoloxia Bonaparte 105 

Passerina Vieillot 106 

Porphyrospiza Sclater and Salvin. . 113 

Tiaris Swainson 114 

Spiza Bonaparte 128 

SUBFAMILY GEOSPIZINAE 

(Ground Finches) 

Geospiza Gould 130 

Platyspiza Ridgway 136 

Camarhynchus Gould 137 

Cactospiza Ridgway 140 

Certhidea Gould 142 

Pinaroloxias Sharpe ... . 145 



SUBFAMILY FRINGILLINAE 

(Finches) 

PAGE 

Fringilla Linnaeus 146 

SUBFAMILY CARDUELINAE 

(Purple Finches, Goldfinches, 
and Allies) 

Coccothraustes Brisson 146 

Hesperiphona Bonaparte 147 

Pyrrhula Brisson 151 

Carpodacus Kaup 151 

Melanospiza Ridgway 1 58 

Loxipasser Bryant 158 

Loxigilla Lesson 159 

Melopyrrha Bonaparte 167 

Piezorhina Lafresnaye 169 

Neorhynchus Sclater 169 

Sporophila Cabanis 171 

Catamenia Bonaparte 227 

Amaurospizopsis Griscom 236 

Amaurospiza Cabanis 237 

Dolospingus Elliot 239 

Oryzoborus Cabanis 240 

Volatinia Reichenbach 249 

Pinicola Vieillot 256 

Leucosticte Swainson 260 

Chloris Cuvier 264 

Carduelis Brisson 264 

Acanthis Borkhausen 264 

Loximitris Bryant 269 

Spinus Koch 270 

Loxia Linnaeus 302 

Gnathospiza Taczanowski 306 

Sicalis Boie 306 

SUBFAMILY EMBERIZINAE 

(Sparrows and Buntings) 

Diuca Reichenbach 335 

Idiopsar Cassin 340 

Phrygilus Cabanis 340 

Melanodera Bonaparte 364 

Spodiornis Sclater 369 

Acanlhidops Ridgway 371 

Haplospiza Cabanis 372 



Lophospingus Cabanis 

Charitospiza Oberholser 

Coryphospingus Cabanis 

Rhodospingus Sharpe 

Pezopetes Cabanis 

Pselliophorus Ridgway 

Atlapetes Wagler 

Lysurus Ridgway 

Arremon Vieillot 

Arremonops Ridgway 

Oberholseria Richmond 

Pipilo VieiUot 

Torreornis Barbour and Peters . . 

M elozone Reichenbach 

Plagiospiza Ridgway 

Calamospiza Bonaparte 

Myospiza Ridgway 

Passercidus Bonaparte 

Ammodramus Swainson 

Passerherbulus Stone 

Xenospiza Bangs 

Ammospiza Oberholser 

Pooecetes Baird . . 



. . 373 Chondestes Swainson 514 

. . 374 Rhynchospiza RMgway 515 

. . 375 Aimophila Swainson 516 

. . 381 Incaspiza Ridgway 537 

. . 382 Amphispiza Coues 539 

. . 383 Junco Wagler 544 

. . 384 Spizella Bonaparte 555 

. . 423 Zonotrichia Swainson 565 

. . 424 Passerella Swainson 586 

. . 439 Melospiza Baird 593 

. . 450 Emberizoides Temminck 608 

. . 452 Coryphaspiza G. R. Gray 614 

. . 469 Xenospingus Cabanis 615 

. . 469 Donacospiza Cabanis 616 

. . 474 Poospiza Cabanis 617 

. . 475 Poospizopsis Berlepsch 631 

. . 476 Compsospiza Berlepsch 631 

. . 485 SaUatricula Burmeister 632 

. . 494 Embernagra Lesson 663 

. . 502 Rhynchophanes Baird 639 

. . 503 Calcarius Bechstein 639 

. . 504 Plectrophenax Stejneger 642 

. . 512 Emberiza Linnaeus ... . . 645 



LIST OF NEW NAMES PROPOSED IN PART XI 
Sporophila nigricoUis vivida, nom. nov 209 



CATALOGUE 

OF 
BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



BY CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 



PART XI 



Order PASSERIFORMES Concluded 
Suborder OSCINES Concluded 

Family PLOCEIDAE. Weaver Finches 

Subfamily PASSERINAE. House Sparrows 

Genus PASSER Brisson 

Passer Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 36; 3, p. 71, 1760 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List 

Gen. Bds., p. 46, 1840, and I.e., 2nd ed., p. 60, 1841), Fringilla domestica 

Linnaeus. 
Pyrgita Cuvier, Regne Anim., 1, p. 385, 1817 [= Dec. 7, 1816] type, by subs. 

desig. (Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 298, 1888), Fringilla domestica 

Linnaeus. 
Salicipasser Bogdanow, Trud. Obsh. Kasan, 8, No. 4, p. 60, 1879 type, by 

orig. desig., Fringilla montana Linnaeus. 

*Passer domes tic us domes ticus (Linnaeus). ENGLISH SPARROW. 

Fringilla domestica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., l,p. 183,1758 "in Europa"; 
Sweden accepted as type locality. 

Passer hostilis Kleinschmidt, Falco, 11, p. 19, Dec., 1915 Tring, England 
(type in coll. of 0. Kleinschmidt). 

Passer domesticus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 143, 1901 
(monog.); Berg, Comun. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 1, p. 283, 1901 Buenos 
Aires and Montevideo; Townsend and Hardy, Auk, 26, p. 78, 1909 (meas. 
of N. Amer. spec.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 390, 
1910 (range in Argentina); Phillips, Auk, 32, pp. 51-59, 1915 (crit., meas.); 
Marelli, El Hornero, 1, p. 80, 1918 Curuzu Cuatia, Corrientes; Sanzin, 
I.e., p. 152, 1918 Mendoza; Reboratti, I.e., p. 194, 1918 Concepcion, 
Corrientes; Renard, I.e., 2, p. 60, 1920 Canuelos, Buenos Aires; Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 331, 1923 Puesto Horno and Huanuluan, 
Rio Negro; Bennett, Ibis, 1926, p. 332 Falkland Islands; Wetmore, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 431, 1926 Argentina (Las Palmas and Resis- 



2 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

tencia, Chaco; Santa Fe to Vera, Santa Fe; Formosa; Victorica, Pampa; 
Potrerillos and Tunuyan, Mendoza), Paraguay (Asuncion), Uruguay, 
and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Rio de Janeiro); Friedmann, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 236, 1927 Argentina. 

Passer domesticus domesticus Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 245, 1919 Isla 
Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Laubmann, Wiss. Ergeb. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 246, 1930 Estancia La Germania, Santa Fe (crit.); 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 96, 1932 (range in Chile). 

Range. British Isles 1 and Europe generally, excepting Italy, 
east to Siberia. Introduced into various parts of America, and now 
widely distributed throughout North America, in parts of Mexico, 
in the Bermudas, Bahamas (New Providence), Cuba, southeastern 
Brazil (Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, 2 Paraguay, 
northern Argentina (south to the Rio Negro and west to Mendoza, 
the Chaco, and Tucuman), Chile (from Antofagasta south to 
Malleco), and in the Falkland Islands. 

52: Saskatchewan (Lake Johnston, 1); New York (Shelter 
Island, 3); Massachusetts (Great Island, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver 
Dam, 15); Illinois (Highland Park, 1; Ravinia, 1; Chicago, 3; Jackson 
Park, Chicago, 1; Joliet, 8; Addison, 1; Grand Chain, 1); Indiana 
(Bluffton, 2); Ohio (Columbus, 1); Louisiana (Buras, 5); California 
(San Jose", 1); Bahama Islands (Nassau, 2); Chile (Caldera, Ata- 
cama, 4); Argentina (Pasto Ventura, Catamarca, 1). 

Passer montanus montanus (Linnaeus). EUROPEAN TREE 
SPARROW. 

Fringilla montana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 183, 1758 "in Europe"; 

Sweden accepted as type locality. 
Passer montanus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 145, 1901 

(monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. British Isles, Europe, and northern Siberia; introduced 
into the United States at St. Louis, Missouri, where it has become 
acclimatized. 

Subfamily PLOCEINAE. Weaverbirds 
Genus PLOCEUS Cuvier 3 

Ploceus Cuvier, Regne Anim., 1, p. 383, "1817" [=Dec. 7, 1816] type, by subs, 
desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 42, 1840), Loxia philippina Linnaeus. 

1 About the proposed segregation of the British House Sparrow, cf. Stresemann, 
Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 33, pp. 47-49, 1913, and Hartert, Vogel Pal. Fauna, 3, pp. 
2066-2067, 1921. 

1 If the Uruguayan population really originated in stock imported from Italy, 
this would be P. d. italiae (Vieillot), but the fact remains in doubt. 

3 Satisfactory subdivision of the genus appears to be impracticable. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 3 

Textor Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 54, p. [2] of text to Genus Oriolus 
Linn., Feb. 12, 1825 type, by monotypy, Oriolus textor Gme\\n=Oriolus 
cucullatus P. L. S. Muller (cf. Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 34, 
p. 78, 1921). 

Hyphantornis Gray, Genera of Birds, 1, Part 1, p. [1] of Ploceinae, May, 1844 
type, by subs, desig. (Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 53, p. 596, 
1917), Hyphantornis grandis Gray. 

Ploceus cucullatus cucullatus (P. L. S. Muller). BLACK-AND 

YELLOW-MANTLED WEAVERBIRD. 

Oriolus cucullatus P. L. S. Muller, 1 Natursyst., Suppl., p. 87, 1776 based 

on "Troupiale male, du Senegal" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 375; Senegal. 
Hyphantornis cucullatus Richmond, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 72, No. 6, p. 47, fig. 

47, 1921 Haiti; Danforth, Auk, 46, p. 373, 1929 Port-au-Prince, road 

to St. Marc, and Artibonite Sloughs, Haiti. 
Textor cucullatus Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 510, 1928 Miri- 

goane, Port-au-Prince, Lake SaumStre, Trou Caiman, and Ennery, Haiti. 
Textor cucullatus cucullatus Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, 

p. 401, 1926 Haiti (habits, nest); Wetmore, Auk, 50, p. 450, 1933 

Barahona, Palo Alto, etc., Dominican Republic. 

Range. Introduced from West Africa to the island of His- 
paniola, Greater Antilles, now acclimatized at various localities in 
Haiti and the Dominican Republic. 

Subfamily ESTRILDINAE. Bengalies and Wydahs 
Genus SPERMESTES Swainson 

Spermestes Swainson, in Jardine, Natur. Libr., Orn., 7 (Bds. W. Africa, 1), 
p. 201, May, 1837 type, by monotypy, Spermestes cucullata Swainson. 

Spermestes cucullatus cucullatus Swainson. HOODED 
WEAVER-FINCH. 

Spermestes cucullata Swainson, in Jardine, Natur. Libr., Orn., 7 (Bds. W. 

Africa, 1), p. 201, May, 1837 no locality indicated = Senegal. 
Loxia prasipteron Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 104, 1839 Senegal. 
Spermestes cucullata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 285, 1907 

Porto Rico (monog., full bibliog.). 
Spermestes cucullatus cucullatus Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin 

Islands, 9, p. 528, 1927 Porto Rico (habits). 

Range. Island of Porto Rico, Greater Antilles (introduced 
from western Africa). 

Genus ESTRILDA Swainson 

Esirilda Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, Sept.-Dec. 31, p. 349, 1827 type, 
by orig. desig., Loxia astrild Linnaeus. 

1 Oriolus cuculatus fsic] in the headline, but correctly spelled in margin and index. 



4 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Estrilda melpoda melpoda (Vieillot). SCARLET-CHEEKED 
WEAVER-FINCH. 

Fringilla melpoda Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 12, p. 177, 1817 
"dans 1'Inde et sur la c6te occidentale de l'Afrique"= Senegal (cf. Neu- 
mann, Anzeiger Orn. Ges. Bay., 2, No. 4, p. 154, 1932). 

Estrilda melpoda Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 286, 1907 
(monog., full bibliog.). 

Estrilda melpoda melpoda Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands, 9, 
p. 530, 1927 Porto Rico (habits). 

Range. Western Africa, from Senegambia to Portuguese Guinea. 
Introduced in Porto Rico, 1 Greater Antilles, and common locally 
in the southwestern portion of the island. 2 

Family CATAMBLYRHYNCHIDAE. Plush-capped Finches 
Genus CATAMBLYRHYNCHUS Lafresnaye 

Catamblyrhynchus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 301, 1842 type, by mono- 

typy. Catamblyrhynchus diadema Lafresnaye. 
Bustamantia Bonaparte, Nuov. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bologna, (2), 1, p. 397, July, 

1844; idem, Atti Sesta Riun. Scienz. Ital. Milano, p. 317, 1845 type, 

by orig. desig., Bustamantia capitaurea Bonaparte. 

"Catamblyrhynchus diadema diadema (Lafresnaye). NORTH- 
ERN PLUSH-CAPPED FINCH. 

Catamblyrhynchus diadema Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 301, 1842 "in 
Colombia" (type, from Bogota, in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 368, 1930); idem, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, pi. 34, 1843 Bogota, 
Colombia; Gray and Mitchell, Genera of Bds., 2, p. 385, pi. xciii, 1844 
Bogota; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 159, 1855 Bogota; Jardine, 
Edinb. New Phil. Journ., (n.s.), 3, p. 91, 1856 eastern range of Ecuador; 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer.Bds.,p. 106, 1862 Bogota; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool . Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 507 Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia ; Berlepsch 
and Taczanowski,l.c., 1884, p.293 Cayandeled and Chaguarpata, Ecuador; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 142, 1888 part, Colombia (Bogota, 
Medellin, San Sebastian) and Ecuador (Intag, "Sarayacu"); Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 72, 1889 "Nanegal," Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1901, p. 473 "Mindo," Ecuador; Mnegaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Armee 
Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B74, 1911 Chorillos, Ecuador; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 554, 1917 Andes west of Popayan, above 
Salento, and El Eden, Colombia; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, 

1 According to Neumann (I.e., p. 155), Porto Rico birds agree with others 
from Senegambia. 

1 As recorded by Pelzeln (Orn. Bras., 3, p. 232, note 3, 1870), specimens of 
Hypochera "ultramarina" were shot by Natterer on July 1, 1821, at Sao Chris- 
tovao, near Rio de Janeiro. These birds, which are still in the Vienna Museum, 
had no doubt escaped from captivity. They seem to belong to H. funerea nigerrima 
Sharpe, from Angola. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 5 

No. 25, p. 78, 1922 near Mindo, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

N. H., 55, p. 604, 1926 "Nanegal," "Gualea," Hacienda Garz6n, Baeza, 

upper Sumaco, and upper Rio Upano, Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 

Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 628, 1932 Las Palmas and El Portete de Tarqui, 

Ecuador. 
Bustamantia capitaurea Bonaparte, Nuov. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bologna, (2), 1, 

p. 397, July, 1844 Santa Fe" de Bogota, Colombia (type in coll. of O. 

Antinori, Perugia); idem, Atti Sesta Riun. Scienz. Ital. Milano, pp. 318, 

406, 1845 Santa F< de Bogota. 
Catamblyrhynchus diadema diadema Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 

14, p. 535, 1922 San Sebastian, Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia. 

Range. Temperate and upper Subtropical zones of Ecuador, 
Colombia, and western Venezuela, east to the Caracas region. 1 
3: Colombia ("Bogota," 2); Venezuela (Rio Mucujon, Me"rida, 1). 

Catamblyrhynchus diadema citrinifrons Berlepsch and Stolz- 
mann. 2 SOUTHERN PLUSH-CAPPED FINCH. 

Catamblyrhynchus diadema citrinifrons Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 350 Maraynioc, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in Warsaw 
Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 6, p. 168, 1927). 

Catamblyrhynchus diadema pallida Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, 
p. 330, June, 1934 Porculla Pass, Dept. Lambayeque, Peru (type in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; descr. of young). 

1 Birds from western Ecuador and Colombia (all three ranges) agree well 
together. Two adults from La Cuchilla, MSrida, are not different either, but a 
third specimen from the same region (Rio Mucujon) has the forehead much 
lighter and of the same clear lemon yellow as C. d. citrinifrons. A single male 
from Cerro del Avila, near Caracas, is slightly smaller (wing, 62; tail, 66), and has 
a few uropygial feathers tipped with light rufous. In every other color character 
it can be matched by individuals from Colombia. Specimens from eastern Ecuador, 
whence we have no material, are stated by Chapman to approach citrinifrons in 
color of forehead. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 1; La 
Cuchilla, Me"rida, 2. Colombia: "Bogota," 5; La Pica, Santander, 2; El Eden, 
Quindio Andes, 1; Sancudo, Caldas, 1; coast range west of Popayan, 2. Ecuador: 
above Nanegal, 3; "Quito," 1. 

1 Catamblyrhynchus diadema citrinifrons Berlepsch and Stolzmann : Similar 
to C. d. diadema, but patch on forecrown paler, lemon yellow to lemon chrome 
instead of light cadmium to orange yellow, and frontal feathers shorter as well 
as softer and recumbent rather than erect; under parts lighter rufous. Wing, 69, 
(female) 66; tail, 73, (female) 70-71; bill, 9^-11. 

The characters of C. d. pallida, viz., brownish loral spot, sooty occiput, olive 
grayish back, and small size, are those of the Juvenal plumage, as is plainly shown 
by similarly colored examples from Colombia. Besides, an adult male from 
Palambla, Dept. Piura, in the same general region as the type locality, which we 
have seen in the American Museum of Natural History of New York, does not 
differ from Junfn examples. An immature female from Incachaca, Bolivia, 
apparently belongs here too, showing the characteristic pale ventral surface and 
the light (lemon yellow) frontal patch. 

Four specimens from Maraynioc, one from Palambla, and one from Incachaca 
(Prov. Cochabamba), Bolivia, examined. 



6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Catamblyrhynchus diadema (not of Lafresnaye) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1874, p. 520 Pumamarca and Maraynioc, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 
3, p. 24, 1886 same localities; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 142, 
1888 part, Peru. 

Range. Temperate and upper Subtropical zones of Peru (Palam- 
bla, Dept. Piura; Porculla Pass, Dept. Lambayeque; Maraynioc, 
Huacapistana, and Pumamarca, Dept. Junin; Oconeque, Dept. 
Puno) and Bolivia (Incachaca, Dept. Cochabamba). 

Family FRINGILLIDAE. Grosbeaks, Finches, Sparrows, 
and Buntings 

Subfamily RICHMONDENINAE. Cardinals and Allies 
Genus SALTATOR Vieillot 1 

Saltator Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 32, April, 1816 type, by 
monotypy, "Grand Tangara, Buffon" = Tanagra maxima P. L. S. Miiller. 

Stelgidostomus Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 226, 1898 type, by orig. desig., Saltator 
maxillosus Cabanis. 

*Saltator atriceps atriceps (Lesson). 2 BLACK-HEADED SALTATOR. 

Tanagra (Saltator) atriceps Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 208, pi. 69, before May, 
1832 Mexico (location o f type not stated, but presumably in the Paris 
Museum). 

Tanagra gnatho Lichtenstein, Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 
1830 Mexico (type, from Papantla, in Berlin Museum); Cabanis, Journ. 
Orn., 11, p. 56, 1863 (reprint). 

Arremon giganteus Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. 117, pub. 
June 14, 1838 Guatemala (type in coll. of Col. Velasquez de Leon). 

Saltator atriceps Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 488, 1850 Mexico; 
Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 142, 1851 Mexico; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 69, 1856 part, southern Mexico (Papantla, vicinity of Cordoba) and 
Guatemala (Escuintla) (monog.); idem, I.e., 24, p. 302, 1856 Cordoba, 
Mexico; idem, I.e., 26, p. 358, 1858 Comayagua, Honduras; Moore, I.e., 
27, p. 58, 1859 Omoa, Honduras; Sclater, I.e., 27, pp. 364, 377, 1859 
vicinity of Jalapa (Vera Cruz) and Playa Vicente (Oaxaca), Mexico; 
Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 14 part, Comayagua, Honduras; Taylor, 
Ibis, I860, p. Ill near Comayagua; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 95, 
1862 Vera Cruz, Mexico; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 174 vicin- 
ity of Mexico City; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 549, 1869 hot 
and temperate regions of Vera Cruz; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1870, p. 836 Honduras; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 19, 
1876 Guichicovi and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca; Boucard, Ann. Linn. Soc. 

1 About anatomy and classification, cf. Clark, Auk, 30, pp. 262-264, 1913. 

1 A new race, S. a. flatdcrissus Griscom (Auk, 54, p. 198, April, 1937 type, 
from Isguagilife, Guerrero, in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.) 
has lately been discovered in the State of Guerrero, southwestern Mexico. It dif- 
fers by slightly broader pectoral band, less brownish flanks, and more olive ochra- 
ceous, less orange crissum. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 7 

Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 43, 1878 Guatemala; Nutting, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 6, 
pp. 382, 400, 1883 Sucuya and Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 325, 1884 part, Mexico (excl. 
Yucatan) south to Nicaragua; Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, 
p. 141, 1886 Janhuitlan(?), Oaxaca, and Plan del Rio, Vera Cruz; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 283, 1886 part, spec, a-d, g-o, r, 
Mexico (Vera Cruz, Jalapa), Belize, Guatemala (Chisec, Coban, Vera Paz, 
Retalhuleu, San Diego, San Pedro Martir, El Zapote), and Nicaragua; 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 586, 1888 Segovia River, Hon- 
duras; Richmond, I.e., 16, p. 491, 1893 Greytown, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 
18, p. 631, 1896 Alta Mira, Tamaulipas; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 10, p. 28, 1898 Jalapa, Mexico; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, p. 120, 1907 Guatemala (Gualan, Mazatenango, Patulul, 
Lake Amatitlan) ; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1112, 
1912 (range, excl. of Yucatan). 

Saltator atriceps atriceps Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, pp. 661, 
674, 1901 Mexico (excl. of Yucatan) to Costa Rica (monog.); Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 155, 1903 Yaruca, Honduras; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 878, 1910 El Hogar, Costa Rica (crit.); Bangs 
and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 485, 1927 Presidio and Motzo- 
rongo, Vera Cruz; Bangs and Peters, I.e., 68, p. 402, 1928 Almaloya and 
Tapanatepec, Oaxaca; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 389, 1929 south of Progreso, 
Honduras (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 353, 1932 
Guatemala (Finca Chama, Sepacuite, Secanquim, Hacienda California, 
Finca El Cipres, San Felipe); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, 
p. 341, 1932 San Juancito and Cantarranas, Honduras. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, from southern 
Tamaulipas (Alta Mira) through Vera Cruz, Puebla, Oaxaca, 
Chiapas, Tabasco, and Guatemala to Nicaragua and eastern Costa 
Rica. 1 

15: Mexico (Atoyac, Vera Cniz, 1; unspecified, 1); Guatemala 
(Salama, Baja Vera Paz, 1; Gualan, Zacapa, 3; Mazatenango, 1; 
Patulul, Solola, 3; Lake Amatitlan, 1); Nicaragua (San Geronimo, 
Chinandega, 4). 

*Saltator atriceps raptor (Cabot). 2 YUCATAN BLACK-HEADED 
SALTATOR. 

1 Birds from Central America and Costa Rica are, as has been pointed out 
by Ridgway and Peters, so variously intermediate between the Mexican atriceps 
(with complete black pectoral band and black auriculars) and lacertosus that no 
fast line can be drawn between the ranges of the two races. It is entirely a matter 
of personal preference and depends largely on the material to which a given author 
has access whether the inhabitants of that area of intermediacy are referred to the 
one form rather than to the other. 

2 Saltator atriceps raptor (Cabot) differs from the nominate race by decidedly 
paler gray breast and abdomen with very little, if any, olivaceous tinge on the flanks. 

Though we have no difficulty in separating six Yucatan skins by their paler 
under parts, this 'form is perhaps a little doubtful since Griscom refuses to admit 
its distinctness. 



8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyrrhula raptor Cabot, Journ. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 5, No. 1, p. 90, pi. 12, 
Jan., 1845 Yucatan (part, descr. of male; cotypes in coll. of S. Cabot, 
now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, 
Auk, 32, p. 169, 1915, and Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 375, 1930). 

Saltator alriceps (not of Lesson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 69, 
1856 part, Yucatan; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 14 part, Yucatan; 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 200, 1869 Merida, Yucatan; 
Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 443 City of Merida and Izamal, 
Yucatan; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 325, 1884 
part, Yucatan; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 283, 1886 part, spec, 
e, f, Yucatan; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1112, 
1912 part, Yucatan. 

Saltator alriceps atriceps Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 661, 
1901 part, Yucatan; Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 142, 1906 
Chichen-Itza, Yucatan; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 235, p. 17, 1926 
Palmul, Yucatan (crit.). 

Saltator atriceps raptor Peters, Auk, 30, p. 380, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana 
Roo (crit.). 

Range. Yucatan Peninsula and probably the adjacent parts of 
British Honduras. 

1: Mexico (Yucatan, 1). 

*Saltator atriceps lacertosus Bangs. PANAMA BLACK-HEADED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator lacertosus Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 31, 1900 Loma 
del Leon, Panama (type in coll. of E. A. and 0. Bangs, now in Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 375, 1930). 

Saltator atriceps (not of Lesson) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 
297, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, p. 351 Panama Railroad; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, 
p. 102, 1868 Pacuare, Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 
421 Panama; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 325, 1884 
part, Costa Rica (Pacuare) and Panama (Lion Hill, Obispo, Panama 
City); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 283, 1886 part, spec, p, q, s-u, 
Costa Rica and Panama; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. Ill, 
1887 Naranjo, Costa Rica. 

Saltator atriceps lacertosus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 663, 
1901 Panama to Costa Rica (Talamanca); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. 
Cl., 3, p. 68, 1902 Boquete, Chiriqui; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 878, 1910 Costa Rica (Jimenez, Naranjo, Guayabo, Juan Vinas, El 
Hogar) ; Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 281, 1910 Guayabo, 
Costa Rica; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1112, 
1912 Costa Rica (Talamanca) to Panama; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 70, p. 276, 1918 Agua Clara, Panama (nest and eggs descr.); 
Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 322, 1924 New Culebra, Panama; Kennard and 
Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 461, 1928 Almirante and Chiri- 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 9 

quicito, Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 338, 1931 
Almirante and Guabo, Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of Caribbean Costa Rica and western 
Panama east to the Canal Zone. 1 

5 : Costa Rica (Guayabo, 1 ; Matina, 1 ; Santa Cruz de Turrialba, 
1; Guapiles, 1); Panama (Colon, 1). 

*Saltator maximus gigantodes Cabanis. BUFF-THROATED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator gigantodes Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 142, Oct., 1851 Mexico (type 
in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, Halberstadt). 

Saltator magnoides (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 69, 
1856 part, Cordoba, Mexico; idem, I.e., 24, p. 302, 1856 Cordoba; idem, 
I.e., 27, pp. 364, 377, 1859 vicinity of Jalapa (Vera Cruz) and Playa Vicente 
(Oaxaca), Mexico; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 95, 1862 part, spec, b, 
Vera Cruz; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 174 Valley of Mexico; 
Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 549, 1869 hot region of Vera 
Cruz; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 327, 1884 
part, Mexican references and localities; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 284, 1886 part, spec, a, b, Jalapa and Vera Cruz, Mexico; Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1112, 1912 Mexico. 

Saltator magnoides magnoides Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 663, 1901 southern Mexico (monog.); Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 67, p. 485, 1927 Motzorongo, Vera Cruz. 

Saltator magnoides gigantodes Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 467, 1929 
southern Mexico (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera 
Cruz, (?)Tabasco, and Oaxaca. 2 
1: Mexico (Teapa, Tabasco, 1). 

*Saltator maximus magnoides Lafresnaye. CENTRAL-AMERICAN 
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR. 

Saltator magnoides Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 7, p. 41, 1844 "Mexico," errore, 
= Guatemala (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 375, 1930 3 ); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 69, 1856 part, 
descr. and hab. Coban, Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 95, 
1862 part, spec, a, Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 327, 1884 part, Guatemala to Costa Rica; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 284, 1886 part, spec, c-1, Belize, Guatemala (Coban, 

1 Six Costa Rican specimens are nearer to S. a. lacertosus, as represented 
by skins from the Canal Zone and Chiriquf (Boquete). 

2 Additional material examined. Vera Cruz: Jalapa, 5; Cof re de Perote, 2. 
Oaxaca: Playa Vicente, 1. Tabasco: Teapa, 5. 

3 Mr. Peters has shown Lafresnaye's type to agree with the form known by 
the subspecific name medianus, the locality "Mexico" being obviously an error. 



10 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Choctum, Chisec), Honduras (San Pedro), and Costa Rica (Icazu, Turri- 
alba, Bebedero) ; Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 436 Miravalles to Bebedero, 
Costa Rica. 

Saltator magnoides medianus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 664, 
1901 Guatemala to Costa Rica (no type nor type locality specified); 1 
Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 156, 1903 Yaruca, Honduras; 
Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 120, 1907 Los Amates, 
Guatemala; Ferry, I.e., p. 281, 1910 Guayabo and Port Limon, Costa 
Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 877, 1910 Costa Rica (habits); 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1112, 1912 Guate- 
mala to Costa Rica; Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 35, 1919 Siquirres, 
Costa Rica, and San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua; Kennard and Peters, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 461, 1928 Almirante and Chiriquicito, 
Panama. 

Saltator magnoides magnoides Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 1913 Xcopen, Quintana 
Roo; idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, pp. 467, 468, 1929 Lancetilla, 
Honduras (crit., range); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 242, 
1932 Eden, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., 84, p. 341, 1932 Lancetilla, Tela, 
and Laguna Toloa, Honduras. 

Saltator maximus magnoides Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 338, 1931 
Almirante, Guabo, and Crimacola, Panama. 

Saltator magnus magnoides Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 353, 1932 
Guatemala (Finca Chama, Chipoc, Chimoxan, Finca Conception, Secan- 
quim, Finca Sepacuite, La Perla, Barrillos). 

Range. Tropical zone of Chiapas (Santa Rita), Campeche (San 
Felipe), Quintana Roo (Xcopen), British Honduras, Guatemala, Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica (except extreme southwestern section), 
and Caribbean slope of northwestern Panama (Almirante Bay region). 

18: Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal, 3); Nicaragua (San Rafael 
del Norte, 1); Costa Rica (Limon, 8; Peralta, 1; Santa Cruz de 
Turrialba, 1; Guayabo, 4). 

*Saltator maximus intermedius Lawrence. PANAMA BUFF- 
THROATED SALTATOR. 

Saltator intermedius Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 106 
New Granada, Isthmus of Panama (type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 176, 1865 David, Chiriqui (crit.); 
Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 32, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama 
(crit.); idem, Auk, 18, p. 369, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; idem, I.e., 24, p. 311, 
1907 Boruca, El Pozo, Barran ca de Terraba, and Barranca de Punta- 
renas, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 876, 1910 Costa 
Rica (Pozo Azul de Pirris, El General, Buenos Aires, Boruca). 

Saltator magnoides (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 69, 
1856 part, Chiriqui; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1864, p. 351 Panama Rail- 

1 Berlepsch (I.e., p. 1112) selected Guatemala as type locality. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 11 

road; Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 140 Santa F6, Veraguas; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 189 
Veraguas (CaloveVora, Chitra) and Chiriquf (Mina de Chorcha, Bugaba, 
Volcan de Chiriqui); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 327, 1884 part, Panama references and localities; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 284, 1886 part, spec, m-t, Chiriquf, Bugaba, Volcan 
de Chiriquf, Santa Fe, and Panama; Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geogr. Mus. 
Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 139, 1893 Lagarto, Boruca, and Buenos Aires, 
Costa Rica; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, 
p. 4, 1899 Colon, Panama. 

Saltator magnoides inlermedius Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 665, 1901 Panama to Chiriquf (monog.); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. 
Zool. Cl., 3, p. 68, 1902 Boquete, Chiriquf; Thayer and Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 224, 1906 savanna of Panama; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1113, 1912 Chiriquf to Panama; Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 276, 1918 Gatun, Panama (nest and 
eggs descr.); Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 322, 1924 Gatun, New Culebra, and 
Gorgona, Panama (nest and eggs descr.); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
69, p. 468, 1929 southwestern Costa Rica to the Canal Zone (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Costa Rica (TeYraba 
Valley north to Pozo Azul de Pirris) and western Panama east to 
the Canal Zone. 1 

13: Costa Rica (El Pozo, Rio Terraba, 2; Boruca, 2; Buenos 
Aires, 2; Puerto Jimenez, Gulf of Dulce, 1); Panama (Bugaba, 
Chiriqui, 1; Colon, 4; Boqueron, 1). 

Saltator maximus iungens Griscom. 2 CANA BUFF-THROATED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator maximus iungens Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 184, 1929 
Cana, Darien (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.). 

Range. Tropical zone of extreme eastern Panama (Cana, 
Darien). 

*Saltator maximus maximus (P. L. S. Miiller). 3 LESSER BUFF- 
THROATED SALTATOR. 

1 Birds from the Terraba Valley agree with a series from Panama. 

2 Saltator maximus iungens Griscom: "Similar to S. m. maximus, but connecting 
it with S. m. intermedius, being intermediate in size and having the crissum yellower, 
less fulvous; differing from both of its allies by duller, less yellowish green upper 
parts. Wing (males), 93-102 mm." (Griscom, I.e.) 

3 1 cannot recognize this species in "Le Griverd, de Cayenne" Daubenton, 
PI. Enl., pi. 616, upon which Coracias cayanus Boddaert (Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 38, 
Dec., 1783), Coracias cayennensis Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, [2], p. 381, 1788), and 
Saltator virescens Vieillot (Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 14, p. 104, 1817) 
are based. The bird is represented with reddish bill, white throat, and olive green 
thighs and under tail coverts, characters that do not fit either this or any other 
member of the genus. We do not understand Mathews and Iredale's remark 
(Austr. Av. Rec., 3, p. 40, 1915) that "the figure is a splendidly colored and accurate 
plate of the Cayenne bird," and reject it as unidentifiable, while pi. 205, the basis 
of Miiller's description, unquestionably refers to the present species. 



12 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tanagra maxima P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 159, 1776 based on 
"Tangara, des grands bois de Cayenne" Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 205; 
Cayenne. 

Tanagra major "Brisson" Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 12, 1783 based upon 
Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 205; Cayenne. 

Tanagra magna Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 890, 1789 based on Daubenton, 
PI. Enl., pi. 205, Cayenne; Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 525, 1830 
Rio Guajindiba, Rio de Janeiro (habits). 

Saltator olivaceus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 14, p. 108, 1817 
based on Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 205, Cayenne; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. ZooL, 7, cl. 2, p. 36, 1837 "Corrientes"=Yuracares, 
Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Saltator cayana (not Coracias cayanus Boddaert) d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. 
Me>id., Ois., p. 290, 1839 Yuracares, Bolivia. 

Saltator cayanus Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 450, 1921 British Guiana. 

Saltator magna Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 489, 1850 Brazil and 
Guiana. 

Saltator magnus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 142, 1851 Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. 
Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 199, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro (nest 
and eggs descr.); Sclater, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 24, p. 70, 1856 (monog.); 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 218, 1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba, Goyabeira), 
Goyaz (Goyaz, Rio dos Piloens), Barra do Rio Negro [=Manaos] and 
Rio Icanna, Brazil; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 539, 1884 Peru (Xe- 
beros, Yurimaguas, Amable Maria, Huiro, Cosnipata, Huambo, Chiri- 
moto, Moyobamba); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 285, 1886 
Colombia (Minca, Manaure, "Bogota," Remedios), Ecuador (Santa Rita, 
Sarayacu), Peru (Chamicuros), Bolivia (Tilotilo), British Guiana (Bartica 
Grove, Roraima), Cayenne, Para, Pernambuco, Bahia, and "Rio Claro, 
Goyaz;" Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 9, p. 23, 1902 Venezuela 
(Maipures, Orinoco; Suapure, La Pricion, and Nicare, Caura); Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay. 

Saltator maximus Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 364, 1891 Chapada, 
Matto Grosso; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 370, 1907 Bahia and 
Rio Doce, Espirito Santo (range) ; Berlepsch, Nov. ZooL, 15, p. 118, 1908 
Cayenne; idem, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1113, 1912 (range); 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 459, 1914 Para, Benevides, Apehu, 
Peixe-Boi, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Guama, Rio Tocantins, Rio 
Tapajoz, Rio Purus (Bom Lugar), Monte Alegre, Obidos, and Maranhao, 
Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 200, 1916 Orinoco 
region; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 561, 1917 Colombia 
(Noanama, San Jose, Barbacoas, La Frijolera, Puerto Valdivia, below 
Andalucia, Buena Vista, Villavicencio, Florencia); idem, I.e., 55, p. 616, 
1926 Ecuador (many localities from the Tropical zone east and west 
of the Andes) ; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 502, 1922 
Santa Marta region (crit.). 

Saltator maximus maximus Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., ZooL Ser., 12, 
p. 290, 1929 Maranhao (Tury-assu, Rosario, Fazenda Inhuma) and 
Goyaz (Santo Antonio) (crit.); Zimmer, I.e., 17, p. 463, 1930 Vista 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 13 

Alegre, Huachipa, and Chinchao, Peru; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

N. H., 60, p. 349, 1930 Tapirapoan and Utiarity, Matto Grosso. 
Saltator cayanus interjedor Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 8, p. 445, Oct., 

1921 Serra da Chapada, Matto Grosso, Brazil (type in British Museum). 
Saltator cayanus bolivianus Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 8, p. 445, Oct., 

1921 Chulumani, Bolivia (type in British Museum). 
Saltator cayanus santaritensis Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 8, p. 446, 

Oct., 1921 Santa Rita, western Ecuador (type in British Museum). 

Range. Tropical zone of South America, from Colombia (includ- 
ing Santa Marta region), Venezuela, and the Guianas south to Rio 
de Janeiro, 1 Goyaz, Matto Grosso, and Paraguay (Puerto Bertoni); 
in the Andean countries south to western Ecuador, and east of the 
Andes to southeastern Peru anol northeastern Bolivia (Chulumani, 
Tilotilo, etc., Dept. La Paz; Yuracares, Dept. El Beni). 2 

29: British Guiana (Hyde Park, Demerara River, 1); Venezuela 
(Maracay, Aragua, 1; Orope, Zulia, 1); Colombia (Tucurinca, Santa 
Marta, 1; Monteria, Bolivar, 1; Cauca, 1; "Bogota," 2); Ecuador 
(Puente de Chimbo, 2); Peru (Moyobamba, 4; Rioja, 1; Vista Alegre, 
5; Huachipa, 1; Chinchao, 1); Brazil (Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1; 
Rosario, Maranhao, 1 ; Inhuma, Alto Parnahyba, Maranhao, 1 ; Cha- 
pada, Matto Grosso, 2; Santo Antonio, Goyaz, 1; Santo Amaro, 
Bahia, 1). 

*Saltator atripennis atripennis Sclater. BLACK-WINGED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator atripennis Sclater, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 8, p. 261, 1856 
Popayan, Colombia (type in coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 25, 1899); 
Sclaterand Salvin, Proc. Zool.Soc.Lond.,1879, p.505 Medellin, Antioquia, 
Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 286, 1886 part, spec, d-f, 
Colombia (Medellin, Antioquia); Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 
p. 1120 Pueblo Rico, western Andes of Colombia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1113, 1912 part, Medellin, Colombia. 

Saltator atripennis atripennis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 562, 
1917 western and central Andes of Colombia (La Frijolera, San Antonio, 
west of Popayan, Cocal, Ricaurte, Barbacoas, Miraflores, and Salento). 

1 Not yet taken either in Sao Paulo or Minas Geraes, Berlepsch's records 
(1912, p. 1113) from the first-named state being erroneous. 

2 Study of more than two hundred specimens from the whole range, including 
topotypes of the three races discriminated by the late Charles Chubb, fails to 
reveal any racial variation worthy of recognition in nomenclature. Birds from 
Matto Grosso (interjector) and other parts of Brazil appear to me indistinguishable 
from a Guianan series, and nineteen skins from western Ecuador (santaritensis) 
I am likewise unable to separate. Birds from Bolivia (bolivianus) and Peru 
possibly average slightly larger, but this divergency is so completely bridged by 
individual variation that it would serve no practical purpose to maintain a western 
form. 



14 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of the western and 
central Andes (west slope) of Colombia, and of extreme north- 
western Ecuador. 1 

2: Colombia (San Antonio, Cauca, 2). 

Saltator atripennis caniceps Chapman. 2 GRAY-CROWNED BLACK- 
WINGED SALTATOR. 

Saltator atripennis caniceps Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 33, p. 182, 
March, 1914 Fusugasuga, eastern Andes of Colombia (type in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 562, 
1917 eastern Andes of Colombia (Fusugasuga, Aguadita, Anolaima, 
Panama, Muzo) and Ecuador (Gualea); idem, I.e., 55, p. 617, 1926 
Bucay, Huigra, Gualea, and La Chonta, Ecuador. 

Saltator atripennis (notof Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,27, p. 138, 
1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 85, 1860 Nanegal, Ecuador; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 95, 1862 Pallatanga; Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 548 Chimbo, Ecuador; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 286, 1886 part, spec, a-c, g, Pallatanga, 
Nanegal, and "Quito," Ecuador, and "Bogota," Colombia; Goodfellow, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 472 Gualea, Ecuador; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1113, 1912 part, "Bogota" and western Ecuador; 
Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 79, 1922 road to 
Gualea, Ecuador. 

Range. Subtropical zone of western Ecuador and of the eastern 
Andes of Colombia. 

*Saltator similis similis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. ALLIED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator similis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 
2, p. 36, 1837 Corrientes, Argentina (type in Paris Museum examined); 
d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 290, pi. 28, fig. 2, 1839 Rincon 
de Luna, southern Corrientes; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 489, 
1850 Corrientes; Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 143, 1851 Brazil; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool.Soc.Lond.,24, p. 71, 1856 part, Brazil (monog.) ; idem, Cat. Coll. 

1 Five specimens from the western Andes of Colombia (Pueblo Rico; San 
Antonio; west of Popayan) examined. Birds from Narino (Barbacoas, Ricaurte) 
are stated by Chapman to form the transition to S. a. canipennis. An adult male 
from San Javier (alt. 60 ft.), Prov. Esmeraldas, Ecuador, combines the black 
pileum and mainly blackish inner tertials of atripennis with the large bill and pale 
crissum of caniceps, whereas an immature female from the same locality closely 
approaches the latter in coloration. 

2 Saltator atripennis caniceps Chapman : Similar to S. a. atripennis, but with 
larger, heavier bill; pileum extensively gray medially, only the forehead and lateral 
portions mottled with black; exposed parts of tertials frequently wholly olive- 
green; under tail coverts paler, less cinnamomeous. 

Dr. Chapman has already called attention to the anomaly in distribution of 
the two races of the Black-winged Saltator. In fact, I am unable to see any 
essential difference between four specimens from Gualea, western Ecuador, and 
a single "Bogota" skin. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 15 

Amer. Bds., p. 95, 1862 Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 218, 1870 part, 
Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba, Rio de Janeiro), Sao Paulo (Mattodentro, 
Ypanema, Porto do Rio Parana, Faz. Antonio Dias), and Goyaz (Goyaz 
City); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 419 Minas 
Geraes (Lagoa Santa, Sete Lagoas), Sao Paulo (Araras, Capitao Mor), 
and Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo); Pelzeln, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 
1874 Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 84, 
1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 287, 1886 part, spec, a-c, f-h, Bahia, Minas Geraes (Santa Fe), and 
Sao Paulo, Brazil; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 41, 1888 Rincon 
de Luna, Corrientes; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 365, 1891 
Chapada, Matto Grosso (plumages; eggs descr.); Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 125 
lower Pilcomayo, Paraguay; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, 
No. 208, p. 5, 1895 Colonia Risso, Paraguay; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
3, p. 156, 1899 Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Rio Grande, Ribeirao Pires); idem, 
I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Nova Friburgo and Cantagallo; idem, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 370, 1907 Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Cachoeira, Iguape, Itarare, 
Avanhandava, Bebedouro) and Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre) ; Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. 31, 1908 Rio Araguaya, Goyaz (crit.); Hartert and 
Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 173, 1909 Posadas, Misiones, and Ocampo, Santa Fe"; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 380, 1910 Ocampo 
(Chaco), Misiones, and Corrientes; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 95 Formosa 
(Colonia Mihanovitch) and Matto Grosso (Pao d'Agucar); Berlepsch, 
Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1113, 1912 Bahia to Sao Paulo 
and Matto Grosso, Argentina; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Para- 
guay; Serie and Smyth, El Hornero, 3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre 
Rios (breeding). 

Tanagra superciliaris (not of Spix) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 518, 
1830 Campo Geral of Brazil = boundary of Bahia and Minas Geraes 
(cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 221, 1889). 

Saltator superciliaris Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 200, 1856 
Minas Geraes to Bahia and Paraguay; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, 
p. 597 Santo Tome", Corrientes. 

Saltator similis pallidiveniris Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 121, 1885 
Bahia, Brazil (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort 
Museum, examined). 

Saltator similis similis Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 12, p. 133, 1915 
Victoria, Espirito Santo (crit.) ; idem, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 8, 1925 Corrientes 
(note on type, range) ; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 395, 1926 
Chaco (Resistencia, Las Palmas) and Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco) ; 
Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 316, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya, Sao 
Paulo; Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 238, 
1930 San Jose", Chiquitos, Bolivia; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
60, p. 350, 1930 Matto Grosso. 

Saltator maximus (not Tanagra maxima P. L. S. Miiller) Ihering, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 5, p. 266, 1902 Iguape", Sao Paulo. 

Saltator [sic] pallidiventris Boucard and Berlepsch, The Humming Bird, 2, 
p. 43, 1892 "Porto Real," Brazil. 



16 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Brazil, from Bahia south to Sao Paulo, west through 
Minas Geraes and Goyaz to Matto Grosso and the adjacent parts of 
Bolivia (San Jose", Chiquitos); Paraguay; northeastern Argentina, in 
territories of Formosa and Chaco, and in provinces of Santa FC", 
Entre Rios, Corrientes, and Misiones. 1 

16: Brazil (Macaco Secco, Bahia, 3; Veadeiros, Goyaz, 2; Rio Sao 
Miguel, Goyaz, 1; Rio das Velhas, Minas Geraes, 5; Chapada, Matto 
Grosso, 3; Urucum de Corumba, Matto Grosso, 1; Aracatuba, Sao 
Paulo, 1). 

Saltator similis ochraceiventris Berlepsch. 2 OCHRACEOUS- 
BELLIED SALTATOR. 

Saltator similis ochraceiventris Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1114, Feb., 1912 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (type 
in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum, examined). 

Saltator similis (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 218, 1870 part, Curytiba, Parana; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. 
Orn., 2, p. 121, 1885 Taquara and Arroyo Grande, Rio Grande do Sul; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 287, 1886 part, spec, d, e, "Pelotas," 
Rio Grande do Sul; Ihering, Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 120, 
1899 Mundo Novo and Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 370, 1907 part, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catharina. 

Range. Brazil, from Parana to Rio Grande do Sul. 

*Saltator coerulescens grandis (Lichtenstein). 3 LICHTENSTEIN'S 
SALTATOR. 

1 The type of S. s. pallidiventris and specimens from Minas Geraes, Goyaz, 
and Matto Grosso, in coloration of the under parts are inseparable from an Argen- 
tine series (typical similis); an adult male from the Arroyo Verde, near En- 
carnacion, Paraguay, is also typical of this form. Birds from Espirito Santo, 
Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo, as a rule are slightly darker buffy underneath, 
though various individuals agree with those of more northern origin. While some- 
what intermediate to ochraceiventris, they are much nearer to the typical race. 

Additional material examined. Argentina: Corrientes, 1 (the type); Ocampo, 
Santa Fe, 2; Posadas, Misiones, 1. Paraguay: Arroyo Verde, Encarnacion, 1. 
Brazil: Bahia, 3; Campanha, Minas Geraes, 1; Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, 3; 
Matto Grande, Goyaz, 1; Goyaz City, 2; Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 3; Victoria, 
Espirito Santo, 2; Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 2; Antonio Dias, Sao Paulo, 1; 
Rio Parana, Sao Paulo, 1; Mattodentro, Sao Paulo, 1; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 1; 
Itatiba, Sao Paulo, 2. 

2 Saltator similis ochraceiventris Berlepsch : Similar to S. s. similis, but under 
parts much deeper, more ochraceous, especially on abdomen and crissum. 

Specimens from Santa Catharina resemble those from Rio Grande do Sul, 
while one from Parana stands between the two races, rather nearer ochraceiventris. 

Material examined. Rio Grande do Sul: Taquara do Mundo Novo, 4; Arroyo 
Grande, 1. Santa Catharina: Laguna, 2. Parana: Curytiba, 1. 

1 The differences between the grandis group and the South American S. coeru- 
lescens and allies being merely of quantitative nature, I do not see any reason for 
keeping them specifically distinct. 

Saltator icteropyga Du Bus (Esq. Orn., livr. 3, pi. 13, 1847) from "Mexico" 
appears to have been based upon an artifact, composed of the body of S. grandis 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 17 

Tanagra grandis Lichtenstein, Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 
1830 Mexico (type, from Jalapa, in Berlin Museum); Cabanis, Journ. 
Orn., 11, p. 57, 1863 (reprint). 

Saltator grandis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 72, 1856 southern 
Mexico (Jalapa, Orizaba, vicinity of Cordoba) and Guatemala (monog.); 
idem, I.e., 25, p. 205, 1857 C6rdoba; Moore, I.e., 27, p. 58, 1859 Omoa, 
Honduras; Sclater, I.e., 27, pp. 364, 377, 1859 Jalapa, Vera Cruz, and 
Playa Vicente, Oaxaca, Mexico; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 96, 1862 
Orizaba, Mexico; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 174 Valley of 
Mexico; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 549, 1869 hot and 
temperate region of Vera Cruz; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 836 San Pedro, Honduras; Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 
19, 1876 Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 328, 1884 part, Mexico (Tepitongo, Villa Maria, Vera Cruz, 
Cordoba, Jalapa, Playa Vicente, Santa Efigenia, Tonala) and Honduras 
(San Pedro, Omoa); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 288, 1886 part, 
spec, a-g, m, n, Mexico (Orizaba; Tonala, Chiapas) and Honduras (San 
Pedro); Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 141, 1886 Jalapa, 
Mexico; Ridgway, I.e., 10, p. 586, 1887 Segovia River, Honduras; 
Richmond, I.e., 16, p. 491, 1893 Bluefields, San Carlos and Rio Escon- 
dido, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 18, p. 631, 1896 Alta Mira, Tamaulipas; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 28, 1898 Jalapa, Mexico; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 666, 1901 part, south- 
eastern Mexico (excl. of Yucatan), Honduras, and Nicaragua; Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 156, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras; Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 875, 1910 part, Carrillo and (?)Juan Vinas, Costa 
Rica; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1114, 1912 
part, Mexico, Honduras (San Pedro, Omoa), and Nicaragua (Rio Escon- 
dido); Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 485, 1927 Presi- 
dio, Vera Cruz; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 340, 1932 
Honduras (Omoa, San Pedro). 

Saltator icterophrys Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 7, p. 41, 1844 Mexico (descr. 
of young; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 376, 
1930) ; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 490, 1850 Villa Maria, Mexico. 

Saltator grandis grandis Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 354, 1931 
Finca Chama and La Primavera, Guatemala; van Rossem, Trans. San 
Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 24, 1931 Atlantic slope of Mexico to Costa Rica. 

Saltator nigrigenis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 72, 1856 substitute 
name for Tanagra grandis Lichtenstein. 

Range. Tropical zone of the Atlantic slope of southeastern 
Mexico (from southern Tamaulipas southwards, exclusive of the 
Yucatan Peninsula), British Honduras, Guatemala, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, and Costa Rica (Carrillo). 1 

and the tail of Ptilogonys dnereus, as intimated by Lafresnaye (cf. Bonaparte, 
Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 490, 1850), though Hartlaub (Journ. Orn., 2, p. 255, 1854) 
strongly opposed this view. Cf. also Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 70, 1856. 
1 No material is available from eastern Costa Rica. Griscom refers five 
specimens to grandis, but van Rossem states that the single bird seen by him 



18 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

4: Mexico (Tampico, Tamaulipas, 1; Jalapa, Vera Cruz, 1; 
unspecified, 1); Costa Rica (Orosi, 1). 

*Saltator coerulescens yucatanensis Berlepsch. 1 BERLEPSCH'S 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator grandis yucatanensis Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
pp. 1114, 1146, 1912 Me>ida, Yucatan, Mexico (type in coll. of H. von 
Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego 
Soc. N. H., 7, p. 24, 1931 Yucatan Peninsula. 

Saltator grandis (not Tanagra grandis Lichtenstein) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 200, 1869 Merida, Yucatan; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond.,1883,p.443 Merida; Salvin and Godman,Biol.Centr.-Amer.,Aves, 
1, p. 328, 1884 part, Merida, Yucatan; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 288, 1886 part, spec, i, j, northern Yucatan; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 209 Tuncas, Sitilpech, and Ticul, Yucatan; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 666, 1901 part, Yucatan; (?)Gris- 
com, Amer. Mus. Novit., 235, p. 17, 1926 Chunyaxche, Yucatan. 

(?) Saltator grandis grandis Peters, Auk, 30, p. 379, 1911 Xcopen, Quin- 
tana Roo. 

Range. Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. 
1: Mexico (Me"rida, Yucatan, 1). 

*Saltator coerulescens vigorsii G. R. Gray. VIGORS'S SALTATOR. 

Saltator rufiventris (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 1837) Vigors, Zool. Capt. 

Beechey's Voy., p. 19, 1839 no locality indicated (the type, which has 

disappeared, doubtless came from one of the ports on the west coast of 

Mexico, Acapulco, San Bias, or Mazatlan). 2 
Saltator vigorsii G. R. Gray (and Mitchell), Genera of Bds., 2, p. 363, 1844 

new name for Saltator rufiventris Vigors. 
Saltator plumbiceps (Baird MS.) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, 

p. 477, May, 1867 Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico (type in U. S. National 

Museum); idem, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 274, 1874 Mazatlan, 

Tepic, and plains of Colima, Mexico (nest and eggs descr.) ; Lantz, Trans. 

Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 Limoncito, Sinaloa; Ridgway, Bull. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 668, 1901 western Mexico (monog.); 

Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 364, 1905 Escuinapa and Juanna 

(from the Atlantic drainage of the Continental Divide near Cartago) is exactly 
intermediate between grandis and brevicaudus. The Orosi bird listed here has 
not been examined by the author. 

1 Saltator coerulescens yucatanensis Berlepsch: Nearest to S. c. grandis, but 
underneath decidedly paler; the breast much lighter gray passing into buffy 
white posteriorly; flanks and lower tail coverts buffy rather than ochraceous. 
Size about the same. 

Nine specimens, all from the northern parts of Yucatan Peninsula, examined. 

2 Cf. van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 23, 1931, with whose con- 
clusions regarding the applicability of Vigors's description we thoroughly agree. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 19 

Gomez River, Sinaloa; Bailey, Auk, 23, p. 390, 1906 Tepic; McLellan, 

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 17, p. 46, 1927 San Bias, Nayarit. 
Saltator francescae (Grayson MS.) Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 274 

(in text), 1874 Mazatlan and Tepic (descr. of young). 
Saltator plumbeiceps Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 329, 

1884 Sinaloa (Mazatlan, Presidio), Colima, and Oaxaca (Putla); Sclater, 

Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 289, 1886 Mazatlan, Presidio, and Putla; 

Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1115, 1912 western 

Mexico, from Sinaloa to Oaxaca. 
Saltator grandis vigorsii van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 24, 

1931 western Mexico (Sinaloa to Oaxaca); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., 75, p. 415, 1934 Coyuca, Guerrero. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Mexico, from Sinaloa (Mazat- 
lan, Presidio, Limoncito, Escuinapa, Juanna Gomez River) through 
Durango (Chacala), Jalisco (San Sebastian), Colima (Colima), 
Guerrero (Coyuca), and Nayarit (Tepic, San Bias) to Oaxaca 
(Putla). 1 

6: Mexico (Colima, 6). 

*Saltator coerulescens hesperis Griscom. 2 WESTERN SALTATOR. 

Saltator grandis hesperis Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 438, p. 8, Dec. 15, 1930 
San Jose, Guatemala (type in coll. of J. Dwight, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 354, 1932 Pacific Guatemala (San Lucas, Panajachel, Lake Amatit- 
lan, Antigua, San Felipe, Hacienda California, Finca El Cipres, Finca El 
Espino, Ocos, San Jos); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, 
p. 24, 1931 Pacific slope of Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. 

Saltator grandis (not Tanagra grandis Lichtenstein) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 
1859, p. 14 Duenas, Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 328, 1884 part, Guatemala (Escuintla, Retalhuleu, Savanna 
Grande, Duenas) ; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 382, 1883 Sucuya, 
Nicaragua; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 288, 1886 part, spec, 
k, 1, t, Guatemala (Duenas) and Nicaragua; Lantz, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., 
16, p. 223, 1899 Naranjo, Guatemala; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 1, p. 666, 1901 part, west Guatemalan and Nicaraguan refer- 
ences; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 120, 1907 San 

1 Van Rossem (Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 58, p. 124, July 13, 1938) has lately sub- 
divided this race, restricting S. c. vigorsii to Sinaloa and Nayarit, with Mazatlan 
as type locality, and separating as S. grandis richardsoni the inhabitants of south- 
western Mexico (from Jalisco to Guerrero and Oaxaca). 

2 Saltator coerulescens hesperis Griscom: Similar to S. c. grandis, but on average 
larger and of darker coloration; under parts with the dusky area on chest and 
breast darker as well as more extensive, and the buffy abdominal zone correspond- 
ingly more restricted; whitish gular patch smaller; dorsal surface slightly more 
slaty; white superciliary streak narrower and less protracted posteriorly. Wing 
(male), 102-109. 

Specimens from western Nicaragua (Managua and Rivas) agree with a 
Guatemalan series. 

Nineteen skins examined. 



20 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Jos6, Lake Amatitlan, and Patulul, Guatemala; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1114, 1912 part, Guatemala (Duenas, 
Retalhuleu) and Nicaragua (Sucuya). 

Range. Tropical zone of Pacific Guatemala, El Salvador, and 
Nicaragua. 

17: Guatemala (Lake Amatitlan, 1; Patulul, Solola, 3; San Jose", 
Escuintla, 3); Nicaragua (San Geronimo, Chinandega, 10). 

Saltator coerulescens brevicaudus van Rossem. 1 SHORT-TAILED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator grandis brevicaudus van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, 
p. 22, Oct. 6, 1931 Aranjuez, Puntarenas, Costa Rica (type in coll. of 
Donald R. Dickey, Pasadena). 

Saltator grandis (not Tanagra grandis Lichtenstein) Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 
8, p. 416, 1860; idem, I.e., 9, p. 1, 1861 Costa Rica (crit.); Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 102, 1868 San Jose" and Cartago, Costa 
Rica; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 300, 1869 highlands of Costa Rica; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 328, 1884 part, 
Costa Rica (San Jose, Cartago, Tempate); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 288, 1886 part, spec, o-s, Costa Rica (Irazu, San Jose, Tempate, 
Cartago); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. Ill, 1887 Costa 
Rica (Alajue'la, Cartago, San Jose); Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 27, 1892 San Jose, 
Costa Rica (habits, nest, eggs, and young); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 667, 1901 part, Costa Rica (San Jose, Cartago, 
Alajuela, Tempate); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 875, 1910 part, 
Costa Rica (Alajuela, San Jose, Coralillo, Tierra Blanca); Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1114, 1912 part, Costa Rica 
(San Jose, Irazu, Cartago). 

Range. Pacific slope of Costa Rica, ranging from Guanacaste to 
Puntarenas. 

*Saltator coerulescens plumbeus Bonaparte. 2 PLUMBEOUS 
SALTATOR. 

1 Saltator coerulescens brevicaudus van Rossem: Very similar to S. c. hesperis, 
but smaller, with proportionately as well as actually much shorter tail, and upper 
parts slightly darker, more plumbeous, with less olivaceous tinge on rump and 
tail coverts. Wing, 98-102, (female) 95-99; tail, 92-96, (female) 90, 91. 

Five specimens from San Isidro de Coronado (near San Jose) are undoubtedly 
referable to brevicaudus, though two (of the males) have the wing and tail a few 
millimeters longer than in (two) birds from Nicoya. A single female (with remains 
of immaturity) from Tres Rios (near Cartago) cannot be separated either, its 
dimensions (wing, 92; tail, 90) falling within the variation of brevicaudus. It 
would thus seem that the short-tailed race ranges up to the central highlands of 
Costa Rica, and that grandis is found only on the Caribbean slope of the 
Continental Divide. 

'Saltator coerulescens plumbeus Bonaparte: Similar to S. c. olivascens, of 
the Guianas, but upper parts and sides of the head decidedly paler olive gray; 
the white superciliaries much reduced or even obsolete; the throat whiter, less 
buffy; the blackish maxillary stripe less developed; the flanks and under tail 
coverts paler buffy. Wing, 96-102; tail, 89-93. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Bonda, 3; Santa Marta, 4. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 21 

Saltator plumbeus Bonaparte, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, No. 25, p. 923, 
Dec., 1853 "Sainte Marthe, en Colombie" (location of type not stated); 
idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 23, 1854 (reprint). 

Saltator olivascens (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 71, 1856 
part, Santa Marta; 1 idem, I.e., 25, p. 19, 1857 "Bogota"; idem, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 95, 1862 part, spec, b, "Bogota"; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 327 Santa Marta; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 121 Santa 
Marta; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 289, 1886 part, spec, h-1, 
Colombia (Santa Marta, "Bogota"); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1115, 1912 part, Colombia (Santa Marta, "Bogota"); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 562, 1917 La Playa, Calamar, 
and Algodonal, Magdalena River, and Sinu River, Bolivar, Colombia. 

Saltator olivaceus (lapsu) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 167, 1900 
Bonda and Santa Marta; idem, I.e., 21, p. 291, 1905 Bonda (nest and 
eggs descr.). 

Saltator mutus(l) (not of Sclater) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, 
p. 140 Mount Popa, near Cartagena, Colombia. 

Saltator olivascens plumbeus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 91, 1918 Santa Marta (diag.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 503, 1922 Santa Marta, Cautilito, Bonda, Cienaga, Tucu- 
rinca, Fundacion, Mamatoco, Dibulla, Rio Hacha, and La Tigrera, Colom- 
bia; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 419, 1931 Rio Frio and 
Santa Marta. 

Range. Tropical zone of northern Colombia, from the Sinu 
River, Bolivar, east to the lower Magdalena and north to the Santa 
Marta region. 

2: Colombia (Tucurinca, Magdalena, 1; Fundaci6n, Magda- 
lena, 1). 

*Saltator coerulescens brewsteri Bangs and Penard. 2 BREWSTER'S 
SALTATOR. 

1 Sclater's statement that Bonaparte's type is in his collection must be a 
mistake, no Santa Marta specimen being listed either in the "Catalogue of the 
Collection of American Birds belonging to P. L. Sclater" or in the British Museum 
Catalogue. It is not in the Paris Museum either, as I have recently ascertained. 

2 Saltator coerulescens brewsteri Bangs and Penard: Exceedingly similar to 
S. c. plumbeus, but with the white superciliaries much more developed and extended 
forward to the base of the culmen. 

Birds from Trinidad, when compared to olivascens of the Guianas, have paler 
olive gray upper parts and sides of the head, and the white superciliaries are more 
conspicuous, particularly above the loral region. The under tail coverts are 
variable in tone, in most cases about as dark as in olivascens, but sometimes very 
nearly as pale as in plumbeus. The inhabitants of Venezuela, while somewhat 
intermediate, appear to me referable to brewsteri rather than to olivascens. Birds 
from the Cumana region, at all events, are exceedingly close to those of Trinidad. 
In the coloration of the upper and under parts they are identical with the island 
birds, and the only divergency I can find is the narrower superciliary streak, 
which is, however, always more pronounced than in Guianan specimens. The 
few adults available from the Orinoco Valley have the superciliaries, especially in 



22 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Saltator olivascens brewsteri Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 91, April, 1918 Caparo, Trinidad (type in coll. of W. Brewster, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 376, 1930). 

Saltator olivascens (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc.Lond., 24, p. 71, 1856 
part, Venezuela (Cumana) and Trinidad; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 95, 1862 part, spec, a, c, Trinidad and Venezuela; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, 
p. 83 Chacachacare and Monos Islands, near Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Carupano, Venezuela; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 289, 1886 part, spec, a-g, Trinidad and Venezuela 
(Carupano); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 32, 1894 Princes- 
town, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumana and Cumanacoa, 
Venezuela; Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 
176, 1901 San Julian, near La Guaira, Venezuela; Berlepsch and Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 9, p. 23, 1902 Altagracia, Caicara, and Ciudad 
Bolivar, Orinoco, Venezuela; Hellmayr, I.e., 13, p. 18, 1906 Caparo, 
Valencia, and Seelet, Trinidad; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, 
p. 359, 1908 Pointe Gourde and Carenage, Trinidad; Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1115, 1912 part, Trinidad and Vene- 
zuela; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 209, 1913 Guinipa 
Village and La Pedrita (Rio Urocoa), Orinoco delta, Venezuela; Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 200, 1916 Orinoco Valley from the 
delta region to the mouth of the Rio Meta. 

Saltator olivaceus (lapsu) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 52, 1892 El 
Pilar, Venezuela. 

Saltator icterophrys (not of Lafresnaye) Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 285, 1866 
Trinidad. 

Saltator coerulescens brewsteri Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Range. Island of Trinidad, including Monos and Chacachacare 
Islands, and Venezuela (from the north coast south to the Orinoco 
Valley). 

22: Venezuela (Encontrados, Zulia, 8; Catatumbo River, Zulia, 
3; Rio Aurare, Zulia, 2; Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, 2; Maracay, 
Aragua, 5; Cocollar, Sucre, 2). 

*Saltator coerulescens olivascens Cabanis. OLIVASCENT SALTATOR. 

Saltator olivascens Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 676, pub. early in 1849 British Guiana (type in Berlin Museum); 
Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av.,1, (2), p. 490, 1850 Guiana; Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 24, p. 71, 1856 part, Cayenne and British Guiana; Bonaparte, 
Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
3, p. 218, 1870 Forte do Rio Branco, Brazil (spec, examined ;= young); 
Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 213 "Roraima" (ex Schomburgk); Sclater, Cat. 

front of the eye, just as wide as in the average from Trinidad, so that for the 
present I cannot but call them brewsteri. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 8; Carenage, 1; Icacos, 1. 
Venezuela: Carupano, 3; Cumana, 5; Yacua, Paria Peninsula, 1; Ciudad Bolivar, 
Orinoco, 3; Altagracia, Orinoco, 2; Caicara, Orinoco, 2. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 23 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 289, 1886 part, Guiana; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, 
p. 462, 1910 Surinam (eggs descr.); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1115, 1912 part, British Guiana ("Roraima"), Suri- 
nam, and Cayenne; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 452, 1921 upper 
Takutu Mountains, Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Bonasika River, Abary 
River, and "Roraima." 

SaUator plumbeus (not of Bonaparte) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 218, 1870 
Forte do Rio Branco, Brazil (spec, examined). 

SaUator olivascens olivascens Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 91, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo and Lelydorp, Surinam. 

(T)Saltator coerulescens (not of Vieillot) Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 676, 1849 British Guiana; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 213 (ex Cabanis). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and the adjacent 
districts of extreme northern Brazil (upper Rio Branco). 1 
3: British Guiana (Georgetown, 2; unspecified, 1). 

Saltator coerulescens mutus Sclater. 2 SCLATER'S SALTATOR. 

SaUator mutus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 72, 1856 "North Brazil, 
Lower Amazon, island of Mexiana" (type, from Mexiana, in coll. of P. L. 
Sclater, now in the British Museum, examined 3 ) ; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 96, 1862 Mexiana; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 
p. 572 Mexiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 523, 1908 Arumatheua, 
Rio Tocantins. 

Saltator superciliaris (not Tanagra superciliaris Spix) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 
1, p. 142, 1851 part, northern Brazil; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 291, 1886 part, spec, a-c, Mexiana; Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 161 Amapa, 
northern Para (spec, examined); Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 27, 
1907 Mexiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 295, 1907 Para, Rio 
Moju, Mexiana, Marajo, and Amapa. 

1 Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. Dutch Guiana: 
vicinity of Paramaribo, 3. British Guiana: Demerara, 3. Brazil: Forte do Sao 
Joaquim, Rio Branco, 3. 

2 SaUator coerulescens mutus Sclater: Similar to S. c. azarae in plumbeous 
upper parts and clear gray breast, but distinguished by much paler, buffy instead 
of ochraceous under tail coverts. Wing, (male) 103-108, (female) 96-100; tail, 
92-99, (female) 86-93. 

The much paler under tail coverts serve to distinguish mutus from its upper 
Amazonian ally without difficulty. Besides, the pileum and back are, as a rule, 
of a slightly paler plumbeous tone, occasionally shaded with olivaceous on the 
rump, and the breast is on average rather lighter gray. From S. c. olivascens, 
the present form may be separated at a glance by the much darker, plumbeous 
instead of light olive gray dorsal surface; pure white, not buffy throat; clear 
gray breast without any buffy suffusion, etc. A single adult from Amapa, in 
northern Para, is perfectly identical with others from the estuary of the Amazon. 

Material examined. Brazil, Para: Amapa, 1; Mexiana Island, 7; Camolins, 
Marajo, 1; Tuyuyu, Marajo, 1; "Para," 1. 

8 Although the type is credited to the Berlin Museum, Sclater expressly 
states that his description was based on "one of the specimens collected by Mr. 
Wallace in the neighborhood of Para" [ = Mexiana], which thus becomes the type. 



24 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Saltator coerulescens mutus Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 371, 1907 San- 

tar6m, Rio Tapaj6z; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 

Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 103, 119, 1912 Fazenda Nazareth, Mexiana (crit.); 

idem, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 6, 1925 (range); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., 80, p. 174, 1928 Para. 
Saltator azarae mutus Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1116, 

1912 lower Amazon (Para, Mexiana, Amapa); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 

Goeldi, 8, p. 460, 1914 Para, Rio Moju, Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), 

Marajo (Sao Natal, Pindobal), Mexiana, Amapa, Arumanduba, and 

Rio Jamunda (Faro), Brazil. 
(l)Saltator azarae matus [sic] Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, 

No. 6, p. 61, 1926 Sao Bento, Maranhao (one young bird). 

Range. Northern Brazil, on the banks of the lower Amazon, 
from the vicinity of Para west to the Rio Tapajoz and Rio Jamunda, 
north to Amapa in northern Para. 

*Saltator coerulescens azarae d'Orbigny. AZARA'S SALTATOR. 

Saltator azarae d'Orbigny, Voyage Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 287, 1839 part, 
descr. of male and hab. Moxos, Bolivia (type, from Moxos, in Paris 
Museum examined); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 490, 1850 
Bolivia (excl. of Santa Cruz); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 73, 
1856 part, Moxos, Bolivia; idem, I.e., 26, p. 72, 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 96, 1862 Rio Napo; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 181 Rio Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 
977 Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata, Dept. Cuzco, Peru; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 219, 1870 part, Borba, Rio Madeira (spec, 
examined) ; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 540, 1884 Ucayali and Cosnipata, 
Peru; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 11, 1908 Rio Purus, Brazil; Ber- 
lepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1115, 1912 Upper 
Amazonia, from Colombia ("Bogota") to northern Bolivia and western 
Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 460, 1914 Rio Purus. 

Saltator coerulescens (not of Vieillot) Tschudi, Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 209, 
1846 "coast region" of Peru, errore; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1882, p. 16 Yurimaguas, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 544, 1884 Peru 
("coast region" [ex Tschudi], Yurimaguas, Lamas). 

Saltator superciliaris (not Tanagra superciliaris Spix) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, 
p. 142, 1851 part, Peru (ex Tschudi); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1873, p. 263 Peru (Nauta, upper Ucayali, Pebas); Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 291, 1886 part, spec, d-n, Peru (upper Ucayali, 
lower Ucayali, Pebas, Cosnipata), Ecuador (Rio Napo, Sarayacu, "Jima"), 
and Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 82, 1889 Falls of the 
Madeira, Bolivia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 298, 1889 Tarapoto, 
Rio Huallaga, Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 348 La Merced, Peru; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 21, 1899 Gualaquiza, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, 
p. 472 Coca, upper Napo, Ecuador; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 
1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil (spec, examined). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 25 

Saltalor caerulescens azarae Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 371, 1907 Rio 
Jurua (range); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 563, 1917 
eastern Colombia (Florencia, Villavicencio, Buena Vista); idem, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 110, 1921 Santa Ana, Urubamba, Peru; idem, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 617, 1926 below San Jose, Ecuador. 

Saltator coerulescens azarae Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 279, 1910 Calama, 
Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 32, pp. 5, 6, 1925 Moxos, Bolivia (note on type; 
range); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 464, 1930 Rio 
Colorado, Chanchamayo, Peru. 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from the eastern base of the eastern 
Andes of Colombia south through eastern Ecuador and Peru to 
northeastern Bolivia (Falls of the Rio Madeira and Moxos, Dept. 
El Beni) and western Brazil, east to the Rio Madeira. 1 

7: Peru (Moyobamba, 5; Lagunas, 1; Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo 
Valley, 1). 

Saltator coerulescens superciliaris (Spix). 2 SPIX'S SALTATOR. 

Tanagra superciliaris Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 44, pi. 57, 1825 "in 
campis fl. St. Francisci prope pagum Joazeiro," Bahia, Brazil (type in 
Munich Museum examined); Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 677, 1906 (crit.). 

Saltator caerulescens (not of Vieillot) Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 371, 
1907 part, Bahia; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1115, 1912 part, Joazeiro, Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia. 

Saltator superciliaris caerulescens Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 83, 1910 Bahia (Joazeiro; Fazenda Pedre Gulhu, 
Rio Grande) and Piauhy (Parnagua and Lagda Missao) (spec, examined). 

Saltator caerulescens superciliaris Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 183, 1925 same localities. 

1 Birds from Brazil agree well with others from Ecuador and Peru. 
Additional material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 2. Ecuador: Coca, Rio 

Napo, l;,Sarayacu, 1; Jima, 1. Peru: Iquitos, 1; Samiria, 1; Rio Ucayali, 2; 
Pebas, 2; La Merced, Chanchamayo, 3. Brazil: Rio Jurua, 1; Calama, Rio 
Madeira. 1; Borba, Rio Madeira, 1. Bolivia: Moxos, 3; unspecified, 2. 

2 Saltator coerulescens superciliaris (Spix), though synonymized with S. e. 
coerulescens in my account of Spix's types, is a recognizable form standing some- 
what between coerulescens, of Paraguay and Matto Grosso, and mutus, of Lower 
Amazonia, as the study of a small series secured by Otmar Reiser at the type 
locality and in southern Piauhy tends to show. From coerulescens it differs by 
reason of smaller size (wing of adult females, 98-100, against 104-110; tail, 86-92, 
against 97-107); less olivaceous upper parts; slate gray (instead of olive-gray) 
sides of the head; pure white (not buffy) throat; pale gray (instead of olive grayish 
to buffy gray) breast, and much less extensive as well as paler buffy abdominal 
area. It is even nearer to, and closely resembles, S. o. mutus underneath, but 
may be distinguished by paler grayish foreneck and breast, while the upper parts 
are markedly lighter, slate gray rather than plumbeous, with a slight tinge of 
olive on rump and tail coverts. 

Material examined. Brazil: Joazeiro, Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, 2; Fazenda 
Pedre Gulhu, Rio Preto, Bahia, 1; Parnagua, Piauhy, 1; Lagda Missao, near 
Parnagua, Piauhy, 1. 



26 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Saltator coerulescens superciliaris Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 6, 1925 
eastern Brazil (crit.); idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 291, 
1929 interior of Bahia and Piauhy (crit.). 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, in states of Bahia (Joazeiro, Rio 
Sao Francisco; Rio Grande) and Piauhy (Parnagua; Lagoa Missao). 

*Saltator coerulescens coerulescens Vieillot. GRAYISH SALTATOR. 

Saltator coerulescens 1 Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 14, p. 105, 
1817 based on "Habia ceja blanca" Azara, No. 81, Paraguay; Lafresnaye 
and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 35, 1837 Corrientes, 
Argentina, and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum 
examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 287, 1839 Corrientes; 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 73, 1856 Paraguay and Corrientes 
(monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 96, 1862 Bolivia; Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 201, 1856 "in the south of Brazil, Santa 
Catharina, Rio Grande do Sul to Sao Paulo and westwards to the Cor- 
dilleras;" 2 idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 "Mendoza" 3 and Parana 
(Entre Rios) ; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 480, 1861 near Parana (descr. 
of young); Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 Barrancas, Rio 
Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, p. 59 Baradero, northern 
Buenos Aires; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 603 Santa 
Cruz, Bolivia; Salvin, Ibis, 1880, p. 353 Salta; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1882, p. 597 Oran, Salta; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 290, 
1886 Argentina (Oran, Salta); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 42, 1888 
Argentina (near Baradero, Oran, and Salta); Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 125 
near Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
10, No. 208, p. 4, 1895 Corumba, Matto Grosso; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, 
p. 7, 1897 Caiza, Bolivia; idem, I.e., 15, No. 378, p. 4, 1900 Caran- 
dasinho and Urucum, Matto Grosso; Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 223 Villa Con- 
cepcion and Paraguayan Chaco, Paraguay; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 8, p. 176, 1902 Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 216, 1904 Santa 
Ana and Tapia, Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 42, 1905 
Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 371, 1907 part, Matto Grosso, 
Paraguay, and Argentina; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 94 Paraguay (Puerto 
Pinasco), Matto Grosso (Coimbra), and Formosa (Colonia Mihanovitch) ; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1115, 1912 part, 
Matto Grosso, Paraguay, eastern Bolivia, and northern Argentina; Ber- 
toni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Paraguay; Serie and Smyth, El Hornero, 
3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Dinelli, I.e., 3, p. 255, 1924 
Tucuman (habits, nest, and eggs); Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 
1922-23, p. 657, 1924 Baradero, Buenos Aires; Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, 
p. 33, 1927 Pueblo Brugo, Entre Rios; Smyth, I.e., 4, p. 147, 1928 
Santa Elena (eggs descr.) 

Tanagra decumana Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 31, 1823 
part, ex Azara, No. 81, Paraguay. 

1 Frequently spelt caerulescens. 

1 The Brazilian range as given by Burmeister is purely imaginary. 
8 Obviously a mistake, since the locality is not mentioned in the "Reise 
durch die La Plata Staaten." 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 27 

Saltator azarae d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame"r. Me"rid., Ois., p. 287, 1839 part, 
"female," Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Saltator fulviventris Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 41, June, 1864 
Paraguay (descr. of young; type in U. S. National Museum examined); 
Berlepsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 11, p. 564, 1888 (crit.); Salvadori, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 7, 1897 San Lorenzo, Jujuy (spec, 
examined); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1115, 
1146, 1912 Paraguay and Jujuy (San Lorenzo); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., 
p. 64, 1914 Paraguay; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 356, 1914 Para- 
guay and Jujuy (San Lorenzo). 

Saltator coerulescens coerulescens Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
22, No. 3, p. 677, 1906 part, Paraguay (Bernalcue) and Matto Grosso; 
Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 173, 1909 Santa Fe" (Ocampo, 
Mocovi) and Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, 
p. 381, 1910 (range in Argentina); M6negaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 5, 
p. 85, 1917 Pocone" and Caceres, Matto Grosso; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
32, pp. 5, 6, 1925 Corrientes and Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra) 
(crit., range); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 396, 1926 Las 
Palmas, Chaco; Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 228, 1927 
Concepci6n (Tucuman) and Bovril Islands (Entre Rios); Naumburg, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 351, 1930 Matto Grosso (Descalvados, 
Agua Blanca de Corumba, Rio Sao Lourenco, Fazenda do Sao Joao, Rio 
Cuyaba); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 239, 
1930 Formosa (Lapango, Tacaagle", Tapikiole) and Bolivia (La Cre- 
cencia, Santa Cruz); Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, 
p. 396, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Eastern Bolivia (in depts. of Santa Cruz and Tarija); 
southwestern Brazil (in State of Matto Grosso); Paraguay; north- 
eastern Argentina, from Jujuy and Formosa south to Santa Pe", 
Entre Rios, and extreme northern Buenos Aires (Baradero). 1 

26: Brazil (-Descalvados, Matto Grosso, 1); Argentina (Con- 
cepci6n, Tucuman, 22; Tucuman, Prov. Tucuman, 2); Bolivia 
(Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1). 

Saltator orenocensis orenocensis Lafresnaye. ORINOCAN 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator orenocensis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 274, 1846 'Tembouchure 
de rOre"noque," Venezuela (cotypes in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in 

1 Birds from eastern Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Matto Grosso, and Argentina 
agree with topotypical Paraguayan specimens. In fresh plumage, the under 
parts are strongly suffused with ochraceous, particularly on throat and belly, 
while worn individuals, through abrasion of the apical portions of the feathers, 
become almost grayish on the breast and superficially resemble S. c. super ciliaris. 
Young birds with olive green dorsal surface and yellow superciliaries have been 
described as S. fulviventris. 

Additional material examined. Paraguay: island near Villa Conception, 3; 
Bernalcue 1 , near Asunci6n, 2; unspecified, 1. Bolivia: La Crecencia, Santa Cruz, 
1; Santa Cruz, 1. Brazil: Matto Grosso: Cuyaba, 6; Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, 



28 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 376, 1930); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), 
p. 490, 1850 "Columbia" (ex Lafresnaye); Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 143, 
1851 Venezuela; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 77, 1856 Angos- 
tura, Orinoco, and "Trinidad" ; idem, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 1 1, p. 291, 1886 
Angostura, Venezuela; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 23, pi. 12, 
fig. 3, 1902 Altagracia, Ciudad Bolivar, and Caicara, Orinoco Valley, 
and San Felix [Bermudez], Venezuela; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1116, 1912 Orinoco Valley; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
8, p. 202 (in text), 1912 San Felix, lower Orinoco; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 200, 1916 along the Orinoco from the delta 
region (Las Barrancas) to Urbana, mouth of the Apure River, Venezuela 
(nest and eggs descr.). 

Range. Venezuela, in the valley of the Orinoco from the delta 
region to the mouth of the Apure River, extending in the northeast 
to Monagas (San Felix). 1 

*Saltator orenocensis rufescens Todd. 2 RUFESCENT SALTATOR. 

Saltator orenocensis rufescens Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 8, p. 201, 1912 
Tocuyo, Lara, Venezuela (type in Carnegie Museum) ; Todd and Carriker, 
I.e., 14, p. 504, 1922 Rio Hacha, La Goajira, Colombia (habits). 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of northwestern Venezuela (Tocuyo, 
Lara; Rio Aurare, Zulia) and extreme northeastern Colombia (La 
Goajira Peninsula). 

1. Argentina: Lapango, Formosa, 4; Ocampo, Santa Fe, 1; Mocovi, Santa Fe, 1; 
Tucuman, 2; San Lorenzo, Jujuy, 1. 

1 The typical race, as here understood, shows some local variation. Birds 
from San Felix (Monagas) diverge to the greatest degree from the intensely 
colored form (rufescens) in that the under surface, excepting the ochraceous sides 
and crissum, is entirely white, at best with a delicate buffy shade across the chest. 
Specimens from Altagracia and Caicara are more extensively washed with a deeper 
ochraceous along the sides, and this is even more pronounced in birds from Ciudad 
Bolivar, which have also the whole chest distinctly tinged with buff. The palest 
example from Caicara matches the San Felix series, whereas the darkest indi- 
viduals from Ciudad Bolivar closely approach the lightest specimen of rufescens 
(Field Museum No. 43821) and differ from it merely by paler buffy chest. In 
the whole series there is, however, not one that has nearly so much ochraceous 
underneath as the dark-bellied variety of rufescens (e.g. Field Museum No. 49579). 

There is no authentic record of the species from "Trinidad." 
Material examined. Monagas: San Felix, 8. Orinoco Valley: Altagracia, 6; 
Ciudad Bolivar, 6; Caicara, 4. 

2 Saltator orenocensis rufescens Todd: Similar to S. o. orenocensis, but on 
average larger, with stouter bill, and under parts more strongly tinged with och- 
raceous or buffy-clay. This color is not only deeper in tone, but frequently invades 
also the middle of the abdomen, the latter being, in the typical race, more or less 
white in distinct contrast to the ochraceous sides and flanks. Although the 
coloration of the under parts as stated in the preceding note is somewhat variable 
in birds of the Orinoco Valley, S. o. rufescens, even in a small series, is noticeably 
darker. I do not find any difference between the two races in the development 
of the black streak bordering the white superciliaries. Wing, 93-96 (against 
88-94); tail, 88-90 (against 82-89); bill, 18 (against 16-17). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 29 

3: Venezuela (Rio Aurare, Zulia, 2; Empelado Savanna, east of 
Maracaibo, Zulia, 1). 

Saltator maxillosus Cabanis. 1 THICK-BILLED SALTATOR. 

Saltalor maxillosus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 142 (note), October, 1851 
"Montevideo," errore= southern Brazil 1 (descr. of immature specimen; type 
in Berlin Museum examined); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 74, 1856 
"Montevideo" (crit. note on type); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 96, 
1862 Brazil; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 287, 1886 Brazil; 
Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 487, 499, 1912 
Vera Guarany, Rio Iguassu, Parana, Brazil; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1116, 1912 Rio de Janeiro ("Nova Friburgo") 
and Sao Paulo (Serra, near Itarare"); Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 356, 
1914 Alto Parana and Misiones; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 5, p. 188, 1926 Parana (Fazenda Concordia, Fazenda Firmiano, 
Fazenda Ferreira, Banhados, Cara Pintada). 

Saltator gularis (Lafresnaye MS.) Sclater, 3 Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 74, 
1856 " Montevideo" = Brazil (descr. of adult; type in coll. of F. de Lafres- 

1 Saltator maxillosus Cabanis, though nearly allied to S. aurantiirostris, may 
be recognized by its differently shaped bill. This organ is shorter and stouter, 
the maxilla strongly inflated below the nostrils, and the mandible swollen at the 
base. In color, the bill is mainly dusky or blackish, with an orange yellow patch 
on each side below the nostrils, and smaller spots of the same color at the base 
of the lower mandible. In general coloration of plumage, the Thick-billed Saltator 
is not unlike its ally, but differs by having the white superciliaries extended 
forward to the base of the culmen, and by lacking the black gorget below the 
throat, as well as all trace of the white tips to the lateral rectrices. In the adult 
stage, the upper parts are slate gray, slightly tinged with olive on middle and 
lower back; wings and tail blackish, externally edged with olive gray; sides of 
the head blackish (the auriculars slightly shaded with olive) surmounted by long 
white superciliaries; throat ochraceous-buff, passing into whitish on the chin, 
bounded laterally by a broad black malar stripe; remainder of under parts och- 
raceous buff, darkest on crissum, underlaid with dull grayish on chest and sides; 
inner web of remiges barely fringed with buffy. Immature birds are bright olive 
green above, including outer webs of remiges and rectrices ; the superciliary streak 
is tinged with yellowish, the bill wholly dusky without yellow spots. 

One of the adult males has a number of blackish spots across the foreneck, 
suggesting the complete jugular band of aurantiirostris. This bird is clearly 
related to that species, and its generic separation as Stelgidostomus would merely 
serve to obliterate its natural affinities. It may even prove to be a geographic 
representative. 

Birds from the Serra dos Orgaos, Parana, and Rio Grande do Sul agree well 
together. S. maxillosus refers to the immature plumage, while S. gularis was 
based on an adult bird. 

Wing (adult males), 98-103; tail, 96-101. 

Material examined. Rio de Janeiro: Colonia Alpina, Serra dos Orgaos, 1. 
Sao Paulo: Serra, near Itarare, 1. Parana: Roca Nova, Serra do Mar, 4. Rio 
Grande do Sul: Santo Angelo, 1; Asylo Pella, 1. "Montevideo," 2. 

''Berlepsch (1912, p. 1116) suggests "Sao Paulo" as type locality, but an 
original specimen received at Vienna from the Berlin Museum is labeled "Santo 
Angelo," a place in Rio Grande do Sul. 

1 Whether Loxia gularis Lesson (TraitS d'Orn., p. 448, 1831) is the same 
bird cannot be determined from the description: "Gris enfume"; trait derriere 
1'oeil et gorge blancs; quei 
exist in the Paris Museum. 



1'oeil et gorge blancs; queue un peu fourchue." The type does not any longer 
the Pa ' 



30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

naye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. ; cf . Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 377, 1930); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 96, 1862 Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 218 (note), 1870 Santo 
Angelo [Rio Grande do Sul]. 

Saltator coerulescens (not of Vieillot) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 142, 1851 
"Montevideo" and southern Brazil (diag.; spec, in Berlin Museum 
examined). 

Saltator azarae (not of d'Orbigny) Miranda Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de 
Janeiro, 13, p. 186, 1906 Retire do Ramos, Lagoa Esgottada, Serra do 
Itatiaya, Sao Paulo; Liiderwaldt, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 357, 1909 
Serra do Itatiaya (ex Ribeiro). 

Stelgidostomus maxillosus Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 347, 1905 Itarare, 
Sao Paulo (spec, examined); idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 372, 1907 
Sao Paulo (Itarare, Campos de Jordao, Itatiaya); Liiderwaldt, Zool. 
Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, p. 357, 1909 Serra do Itatiaya (habits); Bertoni, 
Revist. Inst. Parag., 1907, p. 2 Alto Parana; idem, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 
75, p. 101, 1913 Misiones; idem, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Alto Parana, 
Paraguay; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 23, 1920 "Uruguay"; Miranda 
Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 255, 1923 Retire do 
Ramos, Itatiaya; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 316, 1928 below 
Macieiras, Serra do Itatiaya. 

Range. Serras of southeastern Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro 
(Colonia Alpina, Serra dos Orgaos) to northern Rio Grande do Sul 
(Santo Angelo; Asylo Pella) and adjacent districts of Paraguay and 
Misiones (Alto Parana). 1 

*Saltator aurantiirostris aurantiirostris Vieillot. ORANGE- 
BILLED SALTATOR. 

Saltator aurantiirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 14, p. 103, 
1817 based on "Habia pico aranjado" Azara, No. 83; "Paraguay," 
probably =Corrientes; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 35, 1837 part, Corrientes (spec, in Paris Museum 
examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 288, pi. 28, fig. 3 (egg), 
1839 Corrientes (breeding; nest and eggs descr.); Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. 
Azara, p. 6, 1847 "Paraguay" (ex Azara) ; Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, 
(2), p. 490, 1850 Corrientes and Paraguay; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 74, 1856 part, Paraguay and Corrientes ("immature"); Burmeister, 
Journ. Orn., 8, p. 253, 1860 part, Parana, Entre Rfos; idem, Reise La 
Plata St., 2, p. 481, 1861 part, Cordoba, Tucuman, and Parana; Doering, 
Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corri- 
entes; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 8, p. 91, 1883 Concepcion del 
Uruguay, Entre Rios; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 292, 1886 
part, spec, a-c, f, h-j, Cosquin (Cordoba), Paraguay, and Uruguay ("Mon- 
tevideo," Paysandu); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 42, 1888 part, 
Corrientes and Entre Rios; Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. 

1 Its occurrence in Uruguay is open to doubt. The original locality "Monte- 
video" was an obvious mistake, and no other specimens have since been obtained 
within the boundaries of the Uruguayan Republic. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 31 

Cienc. C6rdoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 C6rdoba; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 125 
near Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 168 Uruguay; 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 5, 1895 San Pablo, 
Tucuman; idem, I.e., 15, No. 378, p. 4, 1900 Corumba, Matto Grosso; 
Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 223 Chaco Paraguayo; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 8, p. 176, 1902 Tucuman, Tapia, and San Pablo; Baer, 
Ornis, 12, p. 216, 1904 Santa Ana and Tapia, Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. 
Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 42, 1905 Tucuman; Hartert and Venturi, 
Nov. Zool., 16, p. 173, 1909 part, Corrientes (Mercedes), Santa F6 
(Mocovi, San Vicente), and Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 381, 1910 part, C6rdoba (Cosquin), Chaco (Mocovi), 
Corrientes, and Entre Rfos; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 95 Santa Elena, Entre 
Rios; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1116, 1146, 
1912 part, Paraguay, Rio Grande do Sul (Sao Lourengo), Uruguay, and 
Argentina (excl. of Mendoza); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Rio 
Mondafh, Paraguay; Marelli, El Hornero, 1, p. 79, 1918 Curuzu Cuatia, 
Corrientes; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 23, 1920 Rio Negro, Uruguay; Seri6 
and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios (nest and eggs 
descr.); Smyth, I.e., 4, p. 147, 1928 Santa Elena (eggs descr.); Castel- 
lanos, I.e., 5, p. 319, 1934 Valle de los Reartes, C6rdoba. 

Saltator aurantiirostris aurantiirostris Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 7, 1925 
Corrientes (crit.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 396, 1926 
Chaco (Las Palmas), Formosa (Rio Pilaga), and Tucuman (Tapia); 
Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 229, 1927 Santa Elena, Entre 
Rios, and Concepci6n, Tucuman; Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 261, 
p. 15, 1927 (range); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 351, 1930 
Matto Grosso (Corumba); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco 
Exp., Vogel, p. 240, 1930 Formosa (Tapikiole") and Bolivia (Villa Montes 
and Fortfn Esteros, Tarija) (crit.). 

(l)Saltator laliclavius (not of Sclater and Salvin) Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 457 
San Luis, Tarija, Bolivia (crit.). 

Range. Extreme southern and southwestern Brazil, in states 
of Rio Grande do Sul (Sao Lourenco) and Matto Grosso (Corumba) ; 
Uruguay; Paraguay; northeastern Argentina, from Corrientes and 
Entre Rios west to Cordoba, Santiago del Estero, and Tucuman; 
southeastern Bolivia (Dept. Tarija). 1 

1 The material, though rather unsatisfactory, seems to indicate that there 
is no constant difference between Corrientes birds (which may be assumed to 
represent typical aurantiirostris) and others from Tucuman and Bolivia (Villa 
Montes). As to the tail markings, my findings are in complete agreement with 
Chapman's (Amer. Mus. Novit., 261, p. 2, 1927), so I need not dwell on this 
subject any more. We have noted that two examples from the hill region in 
northern Rio Grande do Sul are unquestionably referable to S. maxillosus, both 
having the characteristic bill and the white superciliaries extended forward to 
the base of the culmen. However, a mummified specimen collected by the late 
H. von Ihering on November 15, 1886, at Sao Lourenco, in the southern part 
of the same state, seems to belong with aurantiirostris. There is no trace of 
white above the lores; the penultimate rectrix (the outermost pair is missing) 
has a distinct white apical margin (always absent in maxillosus) ; the buffy throat 
is bounded posteriorly by a complete broad, black gorget all characters of 



32 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

8: Argentina (Conception, Tucuman, 4; La Hoyada, Tucuman, 1; 
El Carrizal, Sierra de Cordoba, 1); Uruguay (Rio Uruguay, Dept. 
Soriano, 1; Rio Cebollati, Dept. Minas, 1). 

Saltator aurantiirostris nasica Wetmore and Peters. 1 LONG- 
BILLED SALTATOR. 

Saltator aurantiirostris nasica Wetmore and Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
35, p. 45, March 20, 1922 Potrerillos (El Salto), Mendoza, Argentina 
(type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Gia- 
comelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 68, 1923 La Rioja; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 133, p. 397, 1926 Victorica, Pampa; Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 
261, p. 15, 1927 Mendoza to Pampa (crit.). 

Saltator aurantiirostris (not of Vieillot) Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 6, p. 160, 
1858 Mendoza; idem, I.e., 8, p. 253, 1860 part, Mendoza; idem, Reise 
La Plata St., 2, p. 481, 1861 part, Mendoza; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 292, 1886 part, spec, d, e, g, Mendoza; Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 1, p. 42, 1888 part, Mendoza; Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La 
Plata, 6, p. 278, 1895 Chilecito, La Rioja; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 381, 1910 part, La Rioja (Chilecito) and Mendoza; 
Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1116, 1146, 1912 
part, Mendoza; Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 152, 1918 La Paz and Las 
Catitas, Mendoza; Reed, I.e., 2, p. 272, 1919 Mendoza (altitudinal 
range, nest and eggs); Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 261, p. 18, 1927 
(range). 

Range. Western Argentina, from western Pampa (Victorica) 
north to Mendoza and La Rioja. 

Saltator aurantiirostris tilcarae Chapman. 2 TILCARA SALTATOR. 

aurantiirostris. While the color of the bill, owing to the loss of its corneous integu- 
ment, cannot be ascertained, its shape is obviously that of aurantiirostris. The 
Orange-billed and the Thick-billed Saltator are no doubt closely related, and 
certain color characters, such as the unmarked tail and the development of the 
black jugular crescent, are merely of quantitative nature and, besides, bridged 
by some individuals of the two "species." A more comprehensive series from 
Rio Grande do Sul may yet show them to be geographical representatives in 
spite of the differently shaped bill, though Bertoni records them both from the 
Alto Parana in Paraguay. 

A single adult male from Cordoba (Cosquin) has the comparatively small 
bill of Corrientes birds, and is by no means referable to nasica. A. series from 
southeastern Bolivia (Villa Montes, upper Pilcomayo) cannot be separated from 
typical aurantiirostris either. 

Additional material examined. Rio Grande do Sul: Sao Lourenco, 1. 
Paraguay: Villa Rica, 2. Uruguay, Paysandu, 1. Argentina: Corrientes, 3; Mer- 
cedes, Corrientes, 1; Mocovl, Santa Fe, 1; San Vicente, Santa Fe, 1; Ocampo, 
Santa Fe", 1; Tapikiole, Formosa, 2; Cosquin, Cordoba, 4; Tucuman, 1. Bolivia: 
Villa Montes, Tarija, 6. 

1 Saltator aurantiirostris nasica Wetmore and Peters: Similar to S. a. aurantii- 
rostris, but with larger, longer and heavier bill (19^-21, against 17-18^ mm.). 

Five specimens from Mendoza and one from La Rioja (Chilecito) examined. 

2 Saltator aurantiirostris tilcarae Chapman: "Resembling S. a. aurantiirostris 
in general coloration, but inner web of the outer tail-feather with a clear, well- 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 33 

Saltator aurantiirostris tikarae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 261, pp. 2, 15, 
March 28, 1927 Tilcara, Prov. Jujuy, Argentina (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Saltator aurantiirostris (not of Vieillot) White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, 
p. 598 Oran, Salta, and (?) Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca; Sclater and 
Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 42, 1888 part, Oran; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 8, 1897 Campo Santo and Tala, Salta; Bruch, 
Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 257, 1904 Salta; Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 411, 
1931 Maimara, Jujuy. 

Range. Arid Temperate zone of northwestern Argentina, in pro- 
vinces of Jujuy, Salta, and (?) Catamarca. 

*Saltator aurantiirostris subsp. 1 BOLIVIAN SALTATOR. 

Saltator aurantiirostris bolivianus (not Saltator cayanus bolivianus Chubb, 1921) 
Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 261, pp. 3, 15, March 28, 1927 Tujma, 
Dept. Cochabamba, Bolivia (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York). 

Saltator aurantiirostris (not of Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, 
in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 35, 1837 part, La Paz, Bolivia; d'Orbigny, Voy. 
Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 288, 1839 part, Bolivia (Sicasica, Cochabamba, 
Mizque, Valle Grande, Ayupaya, Chuquisaca, La Paz); Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 74, 1856 part, Bolivia (d'Orbigny's localities); 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 96, 1862 Bolivia. 

Saltator laticlavius (not of Sclater and Salvin, 1869) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 603 Sorata and Tilotilo, Prov. Yungas, Bolivia; 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 292, 1886 part, spec, d-h, Sorata, 
Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 82, 1889 "near Valparaiso," 
errore, probably Bolivia ; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1116, 1912 part, Bolivia. 

Saltator aurantiirostris albociliaris(notPitylusalbociliarisPhi\[pp\and'Landbeck) 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 7, 1925 Ayupaya and La Paz, Bolivia (crit.). 

defined white end from 22 to 28 mm. in length along the shaft; the second feather 
sometimes with a small terminal wedge of white; bill larger, nearly, if not quite, 
as large as in S. a. nasica. Wing, 98-99, (female) 92; tail, 91-93, (female) 88; 
bill, 19-20." (Chapman, I.e.) We are not acquainted with this form, which 
was based on a series of specimens from Jujuy (Tilcara, Perico) and Salta (Rosario 
de Lerma). The describer also refers here two examples from Concepcion, Tucu- 
man, whence Field Museum has several skins which do not seem to be separable 
from typical aurantiirostris. Catamarca is but provisionally included in the range 
of tilcarae, as no material has been critically examined. 

1 Saltator aurantiirostris subsp. : Very similar to S. a. albociliaris, but on average 
slightly smaller; the buffy whitish gular area decidedly more extensive, the black 
at the sides of the throat correspondingly smaller; the black jugular band much 
narrower. Wing, 98-103, (female) 95-100; tail, 96-101, (female) 88-95; bill, 

This form, if valid, requires to be renamed, the subspecific term bolivianus be- 
ing preoccupied in the genus. I am reluctant, however, to do so as its distinct- 
ness from S. a. tilcarae is open to doubt. A single adult of the latter form from 
Campo Santo, Salta, is, in fact, inseparable from Bolivian skins. 

Material examined. Bolivia: La Paz, 1; Chicani, La Paz, 3; Ayupaya, 1; 
Samaipata, 2; Valle Grande, 2. 



34 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Arid Temperate zone of Bolivia, from La Paz to Santa 
Cruz and Chuquisaca. 

2: Bolivia (Parotani, Cochabamba, 2). 

*Saltator aurantiirostris albociliaris (Philippi and Landbeck). 
WHITE-BROWED SALTATOR. 

Pitylus albociliaris Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 611, 
1861 Socoroma (alt. 5,000 ft.), Prov. Tacna, Peru (type in National 
Museum, Santiago de Chile; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santi- 
ago, 13, p. 21, 1930); idem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 122, 1863 Socoroma 
(German version of orig. descr.). 

Saltator laticlavius Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 151 
Tinta, Dept. Cuzco, Peru (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in the 
British Museum); idem, I.e., 1873, p. 780 Paucartambo, Peru; Tacza- 
nowski, I.e., 1874, p. 517 Maraynioc and Acancocha, Dept. Junin, Peru; 
idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 545, 1884 part, Maraynioc, Acancocha, and Pau- 
cartambo; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 292, 1886 part, spec, 
a-c, Tinta, Peru. 

Saltator aurantiirostris (not of Vieillot) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 
74, 1856 part, Echarate, Peru. 

Saltator albociliaris Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 348 Acobamba, Garita del Sol, and Maraynioc (crit.); Chapman, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 110, 1921 above Torontoy, Ollantaytambo, 
Huaracondo Canyon, Chospiyoc, Occobamba Valley, Pisac, Puquiura, and 
Cuzco, Urubamba, Peru. 

Saltator aurantiirostris albociliaris Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, pp. 1116, 1147, 1912 part, central and southeastern Peru (crit.); 
Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 261, p. 15, 1927 northern Chile and 
southern Peru (crit.); Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 
464, 1930 Matucana (Lima), La Quinua (Junin), and Cullcui, Maranon 
River (Huanuco), Peru (crit.); Hellmayr, I.e., 19, p. 96, 1932 Socoroma, 
Prov. Tacna. 

Saltator aurantiirostris griseipectus Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
85, p. 37, 1933 Auquimarca, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in coll. of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Range. Arid Temperate zone of the southern half of Peru, from 
Ancachs (Macate) and Huanuco (Cullcui, headwaters of the Rio 
Maranon) south to Cuzco and Tacna (Socoroma). 1 

1 Topotypes from the Tacna region not being available, the applicability of 
the term albociliaris to the present form remains in doubt. Further subdivision 
the Peruvian birds is impracticable. S. a. griseipectus appears to have been 
based on specimens in worn plumage, when the under parts become very pale 
and the breast looks almost pure gray with very little, if any, buffy tone. Junin 
birds are certainly indistinguishable from others (in corresponding condition) 
from the Cuzco region, while those from Macate vary towards iteratus. 

Additional material examined. Junin: Garita del Sol, Vitoc, 1; Maraynioc, 
2; Acancocha, 1; Chipa, 4. Cuzco: Vicinity of Cuzco (Anta, Lucre, Lauramarca), 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 35 

16: Peru (Macate, Ancachs, 8; Cullcui, Rio Maran6n, 1; Huanuco 
Mountains, 3; Panao Mountains, Huanuco, 1; La Quinua, Junin, 2; 
Matucana, Lima, 1). 

*Saltator aurantiirostris iteratus Chapman. 1 CAJAMARCA 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator aurantiirostris iteratus Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 261, pp. 3, 16, 
March 28, 1927 Chugur, northwest of Cajamarca, Peru (type in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Saltator laticlavius (not of Sclater and Salvin) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1880, p. 198 Cutervo (eggs descr.); idem, I.e., 1882, p. 16 Tamia- 
pampa; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 545, 1884 part, Cutervo, Chota, and Tamia- 
pampa; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 6, 1895 Cajabamba. 

Saltator aurantiirostris albociliaris (not Pitylus albociliaris Philippi and Land- 
beck) Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, pp. 1116, 1147, 
1912 part, northern Peru (Cutervo, Cajabamba, San Pedro, Levanto, 
Succha, Chota, Tamiapampa). 

Saltator albociliaris M6n6gaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Cajabamba. 

Range. Temperate zone of northwestern Peru, in depts. of 
Cajamarca, Libertad, and Amazonas (Tamiapampa). 

1: Peru (Cajamarca, 1). 

Saltator aurantiirostris nigriceps (Chapman). 2 BLACK-HEADED 
SALTATOR. 

Pitylus nigriceps Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 33, p. 322, May, 1914 
Loja, Ecuador (type in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York); idem, I.e., 55, p. 615, 1926 southwestern Ecuador (Celica, Loja) 
and northwestern Peru (Palambla). 

Saltator nigriceps Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 261, p. 16, 1927 (crit.). 

1 Saltator aurantiirostris iteratus Chapman : Exceedingly close to, and agreeing 
with, S. a. bolivianus in extensively buffy white gular area and narrow black 
jugular crescent, but white apical markings to lateral rectrices less extended, 
and bill smaller. Differs from S. a. albociliaris by somewhat smaller size; much 
narrower black jugular band; smaller buffy white gular stripe; more restricted 
white tail-end. Wing, 95-98, (female) 93-97; tail, 95-101, (female) 92-96; bill, 
19-20. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Cajabamba, 5; San Pedro, 1; San 
Pablo, Cajamarca, 1; Levanto, 1. 

2 Saltator aurantiirostris nigriceps (Chapman) : Differs from all other races 
by larger, more swollen (in both sexes yellow) bill; entirely black head including 
throat and chest, this color extending on the crown to the nape; dark gray breast; 
and absence of white post-ocular streak. Wing (male), 106; tail, 105; bill, 23. 

This, at last, is a strongly marked form with the head entirely black. Ac- 
cording to Chapman, the white postocular streak is faintly suggested in one 
specimen. The relative nature of its characters, together with the occasional 
occurrence of black-throated individuals in the range of albociliaris (we have seen 
an adult female of this mutation from Lucre, near Cuzco), leave no doubt in my 
mind that nigriceps is merely an offshoot of the aurantiirostris group, which it 
represents on the western slope of the Andes in extreme northwestern Peru and 
the adjacent section of western Ecuador. 

Material examined. Peru: Palambla, 1. Ecuador: Celica, 1. 



36 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Subtropical zone of southwestern Ecuador (Prov. of 
Loja) and adjacent section of extreme northwestern Peru (Palambla, 
Dept. Piura). 

*Saltator atricollis Vieillot. BLACK-THROATED SALTATOR. 

Saltator atricollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 14, p. 104, 1817 
based on "Habia gola negra" Azara, No. 82, Paraguay; d'Orbigny, Voy. 
Amer. Me>id., Ois., p. 288, 1839 Chiquitos, Bolivia (spec, examined); 
Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 6, 1847 Paraguay; Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 490, 1850 Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 

2, p. 202, 1856 Sete Lagoas, Minas Geraes; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
24, p. 77, 1856 Brazil (Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, "Rio"), Paraguay, and 
Bolivia (Chiquitos) (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 97, 1862 
Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 219, 1870 Sao Paulo (Irisanga), Goyaz 
(Goyaz City), and Matto Grosso (Cuyaba); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. 
Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 417 Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa) and Sao 
Paulo (Sao Bento); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 
604 Santa Ana, Chiquitos, Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 293, 
1886 Brazil (Bahia, "Rio"), Paraguay and Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 3, p. 366, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso jlhering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 

3, p. 157, 1899 Sao Paulo; Hellmayr, Abhandl.2.Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss.,22, 
No. 3,p. 677, 1906 Brazil (crit., range) ; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 371, 
1907 Sao Paulo (Batataes, Avanhandava, Bauru); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
15, p. 31, 1908 Fazenda Esperanca and Goyaz, Goyaz; Reiser, Denks. 
Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 83, 1910 Piauhy (Santo 
Antonio de Gilboez, Santa Philomena) and Maranhao (Barra do Galiota) ; 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1117, 1912 Brazil 
(in states of Bahia, Goyaz, Minas Geraes, "Rio," Sao Paulo, and Matto 
Grosso), Paraguay and Bolivia (Santa Ana, Chiquitos); Bertoni, Faun. 
Parag., p. 64, 1914 Paraguay; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 8, 1925 
Chiquitos, Bolivia (range); idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 291, 1929 Maranhao (Codo, Cocos; Fazenda Inhuma, Alto Parna- 
hyba), Goyaz (Philadelphia), Piauhy (Arara), Ceara (Varzea Formosa), 
and Bahia (Sao Marcello, Rio Preto); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. 
H., 60, p. 352, 1930 Matto Grosso. 

Saltator validus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 14, p. 106, 1817 
based on "Habia robustona" Azara, No. 84, Paraguay; Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 35, 1837 Chiquitos, 
Bolivia. 

Tanagra jugularis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 31, 1823 Sao 

Paulo (type in Berlin Museum). 
Loxia capsicum (Valenciennes MS.) Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 448, 1831 

"Br&il" (type in Paris Museum). 
Saltator sordidus Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant, 12e annee, No. 13, p. 295, 

Feb. 23, 1845 Brazil (type in coll. of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux). 

Tanagra atricollis Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 43, pi. 56, fig. 2, 1825 
Minas Geraes. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 37 

Fringilla iugularis Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 558, 1830 Sertao 
of Bahia, near the frontier line of Minas Geraes. 

Range. Campo region of Brazil, from Maranhao, Piauhy, and 
Ceara south through Goyaz, Minas Geraes, and western Bahia to 
northern Sao Paulo and Matto Grosso, and the adjacent parts of 
Paraguay and Bolivia (Santa Ana, Chiquitos). 1 

15: Brazil (Codo, Cocos, Maranhao, 3; Inhuma, Alto Parnahyba, 
Maranhao, 1; Arara, Piauhy, 1; Varzea Formosa, Ceara, 1; Phila- 
delphia, Goyaz, 2; Rio Sao Miguel, Goyaz, 1; Sao Marcello, Bahia, 
1; Piraputanga, Matto Grosso, 2; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 3). 

Saltator rufiventris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 2 RUFOUS-BELLIED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator rufiventris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 35, 1837 Sicasica, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined); 
d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 289, pi. 28, fig. 1, 1839 vicinity 
of Enquisivi, Prov. Sicasica, and near Palca, Prov. Ayupaya, Bolivia; 
Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 489, 1850 Bolivia; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 74, 1856 Bolivia (monog.); Sclater and Salvin,l.c., 
1879, p. 603 Inquisivi and Palca, Bolivia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 293, 1886 Bolivia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 
1117, 1912 Bolivia (Inquisivi, Palca); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 8, 
1925 Bolivia (descr. of young). 

Range. Highlands of western Bolivia (Enquisivi, Prov. Sicasica, 
Dept. La Paz; Palca, Prov. Ayupaya, Dept. Chuquisaca). 

*Saltator albicollis guadelupensis Lafresnaye. 3 GUADELOUPE 
STREAKED SALTATOR. 

Saltator guadelupensis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 7, p. 167, 1844 Guadeloupe 
(type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 378, 1930); 
Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 489, 1850 Guadeloupe; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, p. 326 Dominica; Verrill, Trans. Conn. 
Acad. Sci., 8, p. 339, 1892 Dominica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 1, p. 671, 1901 part, Guadeloupe and Dominica. 

1 Brazilian birds and a single (worn) adult from Bolivia (Chiquitos) agree 
with topotypes from Paraguay. This species being restricted to the arid campo 
districts, the locality "Rio de Janeiro" is unquestionably erroneous. 

Additional material examined. Paraguay: Bernalcue, near Asuncion, 3. 
Bolivia: Santa Ana, Chiquitos, 1. Brazil: Maranhao: opposite Barra do Galiota, 
2; Piauhy: Santo Antonio de Gilboez, 2; Santa Philomena, 1; Goyaz City, Goyaz, 
3; Fazenda Esperanga, Goyaz, 2; Minas Geraes, 1; Irisanga, Sao Paulo, 7; Sao 
Paulo (unspecified), 1; Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 1; Chapada, 4. 

2 A very distinct species, whose range is still very imperfectly known. 
Material examined. Bolivia: Sicasica, 1 (the type), Ayupaya, 2; unspecified, 1. 
s Saltator albicollis guadelupensis Lafresnaye may generally be separated from 

typical albicollis by darker, more tawny or yellowish under parts. Various indi- 
viduals are, however, practically indistinguishable. 



38 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Saltator guadalupensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 76, 1856 Guade- 
loupe (monog.); Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 167 Dominica; Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 295, 1886 part, Guadeloupe. 

Saltator guadeloupensis Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 57, 1878 
Dominica; idem, I.e., 1, p. 457, 1879 Guadeloupe; idem, I.e., 1, p. 487, 
1879 part, Guadeloupe and Dominica; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 201, 1886 part, 
Guadeloupe; idem, Auk, 8, p. 49, 1891 Guadeloupe; idem, Cat. W. Ind. 
Bds., p. 113, 1892 part, Guadeloupe and Dominica; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 
p. 569 Roseau Harbor, Dominica. 

Saltator albicollis (not of Vieillot) Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 315, 1906 
part, Guadeloupe and Dominica; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1118, 1912 part, Guadeloupe and Dominica; Noble, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 60, p. 387, 1916 Sainte Rose and Goyave, Guadeloupe. 

Saltator albicollis guadeloupensis Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 
543, 1928 part, Dominica. 

Saltator albicollis guadelupensis Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 378, 
1930 Guadeloupe and Dominica (crit.). 

Range. Islands of Guadeloupe and Dominica, Lesser Antilles. 1 
19: Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, 18; Dominica, 1). 

*Saltator albicollis albicollis Vieillot. MARTINIQUE STREAKED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator albicollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d. f 14, p. 107, 1817 
"Cayenne," errore 2 (type in Paris Museum examined); Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 489, 1850 "Cayenne"; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 24, p. 75, 1856 part, type from "Cayenne"; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 
13, p. 315, 1906 part, Martinique and Santa Lucia (crit. note on type); 3 
Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1118, 1912 part, Marti- 
nique and Santa Lucia. 

Saltator martinicensis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 489, 1850 
Martinique (type in Paris Museum); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, 
p. 76, 1856 Martinique (monog.); idem, I.e., 1871, p. 267 Santa Lucia. 

Sallator guadalupensis (not S. guadelupensis Lafresnaye) Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 97, 1862 Santa Lucia; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, 
p. 270 Santa Lucia; Semper, I.e., 1872, p. 649 Santa Lucia (habits); 
Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 295, 1886 part, spec, a-g, Marti- 
nique and Santa Lucia. 

Saltator guadeloupensis Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1, p. 354, 1879 
Martinique; idem, I.e., 1, p. 487, 1879 part, Martinique; Cory, Auk, 3, 

1 The occurrence of this form on the island of Nevis requires confirmation. 
Additional material examined. Guadeloupe, 7; Dominica, 3. 

2 Martinique substituted as type locality by Berlepsch (Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1118, 1912). 

While the type undoubtedly came from the West Indies (cf. Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 13, pp. 315-316, 1906), its bleached condition, particularly on the 
under parts, does not permit certain subspecific classification, and there is no 
alternative but to accept Berlepsch's designation of Martinique as type locality, 
if we wish to preserve Vieillot's name. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 39 

p. 201, 1886 part, Martinique; idem, Auk, 4, p. 95, 1887 Martinique; 

idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 113, 1892 part, Martinique; Ridgway, Bull. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 671, 1901 part, Martinique and Santa 

Lucia; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 560 Santa Lucia. 
Saltator guadaloupensis Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 166, 1880 Santa 

Lucia. 
Saltator albicollis guadeloupensis Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, 

p. 543, 1928 part, Santa Lucia. 
Saltator albicollis albicollis Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 378, 1930 

Martinique and Santa Lucia (crit.). 

Range. Islands of Martinique and Santa Lucia, Lesser Antilles. 1 
25: Lesser Antilles (Martinique, 14; Santa Lucia, 11). 

*Saltator albicollis striatipectus Lafresnaye. STREAKED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator striatipictus (err. typog.) 2 Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 73, 1847 
"Caly, in Nova-Granada" = Cali, Cauca Valley, Colombia (cotypes in coll. 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 51, p. 51, 1899, and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 377, 
1930); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 17, 1906 Caparo, Chaguaramas, and 
Pointe Gourde, Trinidad; idem, I.e., 13, p. 316, 1906 part, Colombia, 
Venezuela, and Trinidad; Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, 
Heft 5, p. 67, 1912 Las Quiguas, Carabobo, Venezuela. 

SaUator maculipedus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 73, 1847 "Nova-Gra- 
nada" (type now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 
cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 377, 1930); Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 489, 1850 (ex Lafresnaye); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 24, p. 76, 1856 (ex Lafresnaye); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 
97, 1862 Trinidad and Venezuela; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 83 Chaca- 
chacare and Monos Islands, near Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Caracas, Venezuela. 

SaUator striatipectus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 489, 1850 Carta- 
gena, Colombia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. ,23, p. 154, 1855 "Bogota;" 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 76, 1856 Cali (ex Lafresnaye); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 97, 1862 New Granada; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 286, 1866 
Trinidad; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 140, 1898 "Santa Marta"; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 166, 1900 Bonda and Minca, Co- 
lombia; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 359, 1908 Pointe 
Gourde and Carenage, Trinidad; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1147, 1912 Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad. 

Saltator albicollis (not of Vieillot) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 75, 1856 
part, Trinidad (descr.); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 327 Ocana and Bucara- 
manga, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 505, 

I Additional material examined. Santa Lucia, 8. 

I 1 am now inclined to agree with authors that "striatipictus" is merely a 
typographical error for "striatipectus." 



40 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

pi. 42, fig. 9 (egg) Medellin, Remedies, and Santa Elena, Colombia; Salvin 
and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 122 Minca, Colombia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 
32, p. 293, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 294, 1886 part, spec, m-c', Colombia (Minca, Ocana, "Bogota," 
Medellin), Venezuela (Puerto Cabello), and Trinidad; Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 4, p. 52, 1892 Carupano, Venezuela; Chapman, I.e., 6, p. 32, 
1894 Monos Island, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San An- 
tonio, Venezuela. 

Saltator striatipectus striatipectus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 
p. 563, 1917 Dabeiba, Caldas, San Antonio, La Florida, Cali, Rio Frio, 
Palmira, below Miraflores, near San Agustin, La Candela, below Anda- 
lucia, Chicoral, Rio Toche, Honda, and Fusugasuga, Colombia; Roberts, 
Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Saltator striatipictus striatipidus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
63, p. 33, 1919 Colombia and Trinidad (crit.); Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 501, 1922 Bonda, Valparaiso, Cincinnati, Minca, 
and La Tigrera, Santa Marta region, Colombia (habits); Griscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 185, 1929 Cana, Darien; Darlington, I.e., 71, 
p. 418, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Range Island of Trinidad, including Monos and Chacachacare; 
north coast of Venezuela; Colombia, west of the eastern Andes, 
north to extreme eastern Panama (Cana, Darien). 1 

29: Colombia (Cartagena, Bolivar, 1; Palmira, Cauca, 2; 
Medellin, 1; Cali, Valle de Cauca, 1); Venezuela (Colon, Tachira, 3; 
Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, 1; Maracay, Aragua, 3; Caracas, 11; 
Macuto, Caracas, 4; Cocollar, Sucre, 2). 

*Saltator albicollis isthmicus Sclater. PANAMA STREAKED 
SALTATOR. 

Saltator isthmicus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc.Lond., 1861, p. 130 Isthmus of Pan- 
ama (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum) ; idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 97, 1862 Panama; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, p. 351 Isthmus of Panama [=Lion Hill]. 

Saltator striatipectus (not of Lafresnaye) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
7, p. 331, 1861 [Lion Hill], Panama. 

1 Birds from Trinidad and Venezuela appear to be inseparable from a Colom- 
bian series including several topotypes from Cali. Two specimens, one each from 
Carenage (Trinidad) and San Antonio (northeastern Venezuela), have the lower 
mandible pale yellow, except for a black patch near the base, and a yellow tip 
to the maxilla, thus agreeing in coloration of bill with S. a. albicollis, of Martinique. 
The only absolutely constant character to separate the continental form from its 
West Indian allies is the lesser extent of the whitish superciliary streak which 
terminates above the posterior edge of the eye instead of being continued along 
the upper margin of the auriculars. I have, therefore, no hesitation in associating 
striatipectus with albicollis in the same specific entity. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Carenage, 9; Caparo, 1; Chagua- 
ramas, 1; Pointe Gourde, 1. Venezuela: inland of Cumana, 11; Las Quiguas, 1; 
San Esteban, Carabobo, 3. Colombia: "Bogota," 8; Bonda, 3; Cali, 5; Buca- 
ramanga, 3. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 41 

Saltator albicollis (not of Vieillot) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 421 
Panama; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 330, 1884 
part, Panama (Lion Hill, Panama City); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 294, 1886 part, spec, f-1, Panama. 

Saltator albicollis isthmicus Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 32, 1900 
Loma del Leon, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 669, 1901 part, Isthmus of Panama; Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 46, p. 224, 1906 savanna of Panama; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 276, 1918 Pedro Miguel and Tabernilla, Panama; 
Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 321, 1924 Las Cascadas, Gatun, Farfan, and Gam- 
boa, Panama (nest and eggs descr.). 

Saltator striatipectus isthmicus Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1118, 1912 part, Isthmus of Panama (Lion Hill); Bangs and 
Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, p. 32, 1919 Panama City and Loma 
del Leon, Panama (crit.). 

Range. Isthmus of Panama, 1 west to Veraguas. 2 
6: Panama (Colon, 4; "near Darien," Canal Zone, 1; unspeci- 
fied, 1). 

Saltator albicollis speratus Bangs and Penard. 3 PEARL ISLAND 
STREAKED SALTATOR. 

Saltator striatipictus speratus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, 
p. 33, 1919 "Sabago" [=Saboga] Island, Pearl Islands, Bay of Panama 
(type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Saltator albicollis isthmicus (not of Sclater) Bangs, Auk, 18, p. 32, 1901 
San Miguel Island; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 669, 
1901 part, San Miguel Island; Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 46, p. 159, 1905 San Miguel and Saboga Islands (crit.); Rendahl, 
Ark. Zool., 13, No. 4, p. 56, 1920 Viveros Island. 

Saltator striatipectus isthmicus Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1118, 1912 part, San Miguel Island. 

Range. San Miguel, Saboga, and Viveros Islands, Pearl Archi- 
pelago, Bay of Panama. 

1 The western extension of range I am unable to determine, having seen 
only a small series from the Canal Zone. A single example from Chiriqui being 
decidedly referable to S. a. furax, the subspecific classification of Veraguas birds, 
whence no material is available, remains in doubt. Salvin (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 141; I.e., 1870, p. 189) records S. isthmicus from Santa Fe and 
Chitra. Subsequently, the same specimens were referred by Salvin and Godman 
(Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 330, 1883) and Sclater (Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 294, 1886; spec, a-e) to "S. albicollis" [= striatipectus}. It does not appear 
that either Ridgway (1901, p. 669) or Berlepsch (1912, p. 118), both of whom 
include Veraguas in the range of isthmicus, had any material from that district. 

2 Since the preceding lines were written, Griscom (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
68, p. 380, 1935) has shown the Veraguan form to be S. a. isthmicus. 

3 Saltator albicollis speratus Bangs and Penard: About the size of S. a. isthmicus 
and slightly smaller than S. a. striatipectus; in coloration intermediate, being 
slightly more yellowish or greenish below than striatipectus, and less heavily 
streaked than isthmicus. 

Judging from two specimens, this is rather a poor race. 



42 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Saltator albicollis furax Bangs and Penard. 1 COSTA RICAN 
STREAKED SALTATOR. 

Saltator striatipictus furax Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, 

p. 32, 1919 near Boruca, Costa Rica (type in Museum of Comparative 

Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 
Saltator striatipedus (not of Lafresnaye) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 

N. Y., 8, p. 176, 1865 David, Chiriqui; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc.Lond.,1867, 

p. 141 part, David. 
Saltator albicollis (not of Vieillot) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 

Aves, 1, p. 330, 1884 part, David, Chiriqui; Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.- 

Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 139, 1893 Lagarto, Boruca, and 

Te'rraba, Costa Rica. 
Saltator albicollis isthmicus (not of Sclater) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

50, Part 1, p. 669, 1901 part, David, Chiriqui. 
Saltator striatipedus isthmicus Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 312, 1907 Boruca and 

Lagarto, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 874, 1910 

El General de Terraba, Boruca, and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica (crit.); 

Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1118, 1912 part, 

Chiriqui (David). 

Range. Southwestern Costa Rica (Te'rraba Valley) and the 
adjacent district of extreme western Panama (David, Chiriqui). 
4: Costa Rica (Te'rraba, 2; Boruca, 2). 

*Saltator albicollis flavidicollis Sclater. 2 ECUADORIAN SALTATOR. 

Saltator flavidicollis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 274, 1860 Baba- 

hoyo, Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); 

1 Saltator albicollis furax Bangs and Penard: Very close to S. a. isthmicus, 
but darker and greener below with the streaking more prominent. 

A single adult from Chiriqui is identical with a topotypical series of nine 
Costa Rican specimens. 

1 The remarkable variation of this form has been discussed at length by 
Chapman, and while agreeing with his contention that the birds with yellowish 
(nearly or wholly unstreaked) under parts and broad, yellowish superciliaries, 
and those with reduced, whitish supraloral streak and heavily striped breast 
pertain to a single race, I am not quite convinced that the latter variety merely 
represents an immature plumage. Furthermore, it would seem as if the "flavidi- 
collis" type of coloration did not exist in the northwestern parts of Ecuador, 
since nine specimens from Ibarra and Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, and one from 
"Quito" (some of which are undoubtedly adult) are strikingly uniform in char- 
acters, and closely resemble striatipedus in their heavily striped breast. They 
merely differ from that race by more grayish upper, and whiter under parts 
without any olivaceous shading across chest and along sides. A series obtained 
by E. Festa in the Chota Valley, near Quito, and recorded by Salvador! and 
Festa, s.n. S. albicollis, seems to be similar. Other examples of the same variety, 
taken in company with "flavidicollis," I have seen from Puna Island. Yellowish- 
bellied individuals with broad yellowish superciliaries appear to be recorded only 
from Manavi and southwards. A possible explanation of the problem would be 
to assume that the west Ecuadorian race is dimorphic in the southern part of 
its range, the plain-bellied variety signifying an approach to S. a. immaculatus 
of the Peruvian coast. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Ibarra, Prov. Imbabura, 4; Paramba, Prov. 
Imbabura, 5; "Quito," 1; Babahoyo, 2; Yaguachi, 1; Puna Island, 8; Guayaquil, 4. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 43 

idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 96, 1862 Babahoyo; Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 548 Yaguachi, Ecuador 
(crit.); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 543, 1884 Lechugal and Tumbez, 
Peru; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 294, 1886 Ecuador (Babahoyo, 
Guayaquil, Puna Island); Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 22, 1899 Vinces, Ecuador (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1117, 1912 western Ecuador and north- 
western Peru. 

Saltator olivascens (not of Cabanis) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1877, p. 320 Lechugal, Dept. Tumbez, Peru. 

Saltator albicollis (not of Vieillot) Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 483, 1898 
Ibarra, Ecuador; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 357, p. 22, 1899 La Conception (Chota), Ecuador (crit.); Good- 
fellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 472 below Gualea, Ecuador. 

Saltator striatipectus (not of Lafresnaye) Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1117, 1912 part, western Ecuador. 

Saltator striatipectus striatipectus Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, 
No. 25, p. 79, 1922 road to Gualea, Ecuador. 

Saltator striatipectus flavidicollis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 617, 1926 Ecuador (Manavi, Chongocito, Bucay, Guayaquil, Puna 
Island, Santa Rosa, Portovelo, Zaruma, Las Pinas, Guainche, Alamor, 
Cebollal) and Peru (Milagros, Paletillas, and Palambla, Piura) (crit.). 

Range. Arid Tropical (and Subtropical) zone of western Ecuador 
and extreme northwestern Peru (Tumbez and Lechugal, Dept. 
Tumbez; Milagros, Paletillas, and Palambla, western Piura). 

*Saltator albicollis immaculatus Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 
KALINOWSKI'S SALTATOR. 

Pitylus olivaceus (not Saltator olivaceus Vieillot, 1817) Lesson, L'Institut, 2, 
No. 72, p. 316, Sept. 27, 1834 Callao, Peru (location of type not stated); 
idem, in Bougainville, Journ. Navig. The'tis, 2, p. 326, 1837 Callao. 

Phoenisoma olivacea Lesson, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 99, 1840 no locality (descr. 
of "male"); idem, Oeuvr. Buffon, e"d. Le"veque, 20 (Descr. Mamrn. Ois.), 
p. 345, 1847 environs of Callao, Peru. 

Saltator immaculatus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, 
p. 375 Lima, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; of. Sztolcman and Doma- 
niewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 169, 1927); Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1147, 1912 western Peru (Lima, 
lea, Chepen, Guadalupe, Quebrada de Culebras). 

Saltator striatipectus (not of Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1866, p. 97 vicinity of Lima. 

1 Saltator albicollis immaculatus Berlepsch and Stolzmann : Most nearly 
related to S. a. flavidicollis (the unstreaked phase), but larger; superciliaries pure 
white; pileum and sides of neck pure gray, not olivaceous; under parts nearly 
pure white, the sides and flanks shaded or streaked with grayish ; under tail coverts, 
axillaries, and under wing coverts buffy. Wing, 104, (female) 101; tail, 94-95; 
bill, 18. 

Material examined. Peru: Eten, 3; Tembladera, 2; Trujillo, 3; Lima, 1; lea, 1. 



44 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Saltator albicollis (not of Vieillot) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1874, p. 517 Lima; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 198 part, Chepen, Peru; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 294, 1886 part, spec, e', Lima. 

Saltator superciliaris (not Tanagra superciliaris Spix) Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 
2, p. 541, 1884 Lima, Chepen, Guadalupe, and Quebrada de Culebras, 
Peru. 

Saltator similis (not Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Tschudi, Faun. Peru., Orn., 
p. 209, 1846 Peru. 

Saltator striatipictus immaculatus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
63, p. 34, 1919 western Peru (crit.). 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of western Peru, from Lambayeque 
to lea. 

3: Peru (Menocucho, 2; Trujillo, 1). 

*Saltator albicollis peruvianus Cory. 1 PERUVIAN SALTATOR. 

Saltator striatipectus peruvianus Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, 
p. 345, Aug., 1916 Hacienda Limon, ten miles west of Balsas, Dept. 
Cajamarca, Peru (type in Field Museum); Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, 
p. 463, 1918 Huancabamba, eastern Piura. 

Saltator albicollis (not of Vieillot) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 229 Guajango; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 198 part, Callacate (crit.); idem, 
Orn. P6r., 2, p. 542, 1884 Peru (Guajango, Callacate, Socota, Chukcha, 
San Ignacio); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 294, 1886 part, 
spec, d', Guajango; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 6, 1895 Vina (Huamachuco) 
and Malca (Cajabamba). 

Saltator striatipectus (not of Lafresnaye) Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. 
Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1117, 1912 part, Peru (Guajango, Callacate, 
Socota, Vina). 

Saltator striatipictus peruvianus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
63, p. 33, 1919 Huancabamba, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of the upper Maranon Valley and 
its tributaries. 

7: Peru (Hacienda Limon, 10 miles west of Balsas, 6; Balsas, 1). 

Genus RHODOTHRAUPIS Ridgway 2 

Rhodothraupis Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 226, 1898 type, by orig. desig., "Frin- 
gilla" [=Tanagra] celaeno Lichtenstein. 

1 Saltator albicollis peruvianus Cory: Similar to S. a. immaculatus in size, 
but much more greenish above, this color also involving the sides of neck and 
auriculars; superciliaries much reduced; breast heavily striped with olive green; 
under tail coverts less buffy. Wing (male), 100-105; tail, 91-94; bill, 18. 

This form, as correctly pointed out by Bangs and Penard, closely resembles 
S. a. isthmicus in the heavy olive green streaking below, but the ground color of 
the under parts is much whiter and less yellowish. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Callacate, 1; Guajango, 1; Vina, Hua- 
machuco, 2; La Grama, Libertad, 1; Malca, Cajabamba, 1; Condachaca, Rio 
Utcubamba, 2. 

* Rhodothraupis Ridgway is nearly related to Caryothraustes, but has a much 
longer, more rounded tail and a more pointed wing. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 45 

*Rhodothraupis celaeno (Lichtenstein). CRIMSON-COLLARED 
GROSBEAK. 

Tanagra celaeno Lichtenstein, Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 
1830 Mexico (type, from Papantla, Vera Cruz, in Berlin Museum; 
descr. of male); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 11, p. 57, 1863 (reprint). 

Pitylus atro purpuralus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 1, p. 224, 1838 Mexico 
(descr. of male; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 70, p. 374, 1930). 

Pitylus atro olivaceus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 1, p. 224, 1838 Mexico (descr. 
of female; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 374, 1930). 

Pyranga mexicana Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 41, 1839 Mexico (descr. of male; 
type in coll. of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 
1, (1), p. 241, 1850 Mexico (ex Lesson). 

Periporphyrus atropurpuratus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 503, 
1850 Mexico (=male). 

Caryothraustes atro-olivaceus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 503, 
1850 Mexico (=female). 

Pitylus celaeno Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 65, 1856 Papantla, 
Mexico (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 99, 1862 Mexico; 
idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 174 Valley of Mexico; Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 332, pi. 24 (male), 1884 
Papantla and Valley of Mexico; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 305, 
1886 Mexico; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1889, p. 238 Vera Cruz (Mi- 
santla) and Tamaulipas (Tampico; Sierra Madre, between Ciudad Victoria 
and Montemorelos) ; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 631, 1896 
Alta Mira, Tamaulipas; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1120, 1912 (range). 

Rhodolhraupis celaeno Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 657, 
1910 Puebla, Vera Cruz, San Luis Potosf, and Tamaulipas (monog.); 
Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 89, 1911 Tamaulipas (Rio Santa, Yerba Buena, 
Rio Martinez, Santa Leonor, Rio Cruz, Guiaves). 

Range. Eastern Mexico, from Tamaulipas and eastern San Luis 
Potosi (Valles, Jilitla) to Vera Cruz and Puebla (Metlaltoyuca). 

5: Mexico (Valles, San Luis Potosi, 3; Aldema, Tamaulipas, 1; 
Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, 1). 

Genus CARYOTHRAUSTES Reichenbach 

Caryothraustes Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 78, June, 1850 type, by 
subs, desig. 1 (Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 167, 1869)> "Pitylus" 
[Coccothraustes] viridis Vieillot=L<m'a canadensis Linnaeus. 

1 Gray (Cat. Gen. Subg. Bds., p. 75, 1855) designated Pitylus atro-olivaceous 
Lafresnaye [= Rhodothraupis celaeno (Lichtenstein), female] as type, an inad- 
missible action, since Reichenbach's drawing plainly excludes that species. 



46 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"Caryothraustes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus). GREEN 
GROSBEAK. 

Loxia canadensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 304, 1766 based on 
"Le Gros-bec de Cayenne" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 229, pi. 11, fig. 3; "Canada" 
(lapsus) = Cayenne (type, from Cayenne, in coll. of de Reaumur). 

Coccothraustes viridis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 13, p. 547, 
1817 "a la Guyane et au Bresil." 1 

Fringilla cayanensis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 22, 1823 
part, ex "Coccothraustes cayanensis" Brisson. 

Pitylus personatus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 42, 1938 "Cayennensis" (type 
in coll. of Abeille, Bordeaux); idem, Echo du Monde Savant, 12e annee, 
No. 13, p. 296, Feb. 23, 1845 "Cayenne au Bresil" (full description). 

Caryothraustes cayanensis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 504, 1850 
"Brazil" and Cayenne; idem, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 
Cayenne. 

Caryothraustes viridis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 144, 1851 Guiana. 

Pitylus viridis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 65, 1856 Cayenne and 
British Guiana (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 99, 1862 
Cayenne; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 572 
Para, Brazil; idem, Exotic Orn., p. 167, 1869 Cayenne, British Guiana, 
and Para (crit.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 213 British Guiana (Bartica 
Grove, Merume Mountains, Camacusa); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
11, p. 306, 1886 British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains), 
Cayenne (Oyapock), and Para; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 295, 1907 
Para, Santo Antonio do Prata, Ourem (Rio Guama), Rio Moju, and 
Jutahizal (Maranhao), Brazil; Beebe, Our Search for a Wilderness, p. 176, 
1910 Hoorie River, British Guiana; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 467, 
1910 Surinam. 

Pitylus cayanensis Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 221, 1870 Borba (Rio Madeira), 
Marabitanas (Rio Negro), and Para, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Pitylus canadensis Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 677, 1849 British Guiana; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 276, 1905 
Igarape-Assu, Para; Berlepsch, I.e., 15, p. 116, 1908 Cayenne; idem, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1119, 1912 "Orinoco-Delta," 
British Guiana, Cayenne, and northeastern Brazil; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 461, 1914 Para, Providencia, Benevides, Santa Isabel, 
Peixe-Boi, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Guama (Ourem), Rio Moju, 
Rio Tocantins (Baiao), and Maranhao, Brazil; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 61, 1926 Tury-Assu, Maranhao. 

Pitylus canadensis canadensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 359, 1906 Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 17, p. 280, 1910 Borba, Rio Madeira; 
idem, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 15, 88, 
1912 Peixe-Boi and Ipitinga, Para, and Para localities; Beebe, Trop. 
Wild Life, 1, p. 136, 1917 Bartica, British Guiana; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila.,80, p. 174, 1928 Para, Rio Inhangapy, and Castanhal, Brazil. 

'The description of the "male" appears to have been based upon Cayenne 
birds. The alleged "female" obviously does not belong here at all. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 47 

Caryothraustes canadensis Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 448, 1921 Ituri- 
bisci River, Supenaam, Bartica, Kamakabra Creek, Mazaruni River, Tiger 
Creek, Merume Mountains, and Camacusa. 

Caryothraustes canadensis canadensis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 290, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and northeastern 
Brazil, from northern Maranhao (Tury-assu, Jutahizal) west to the 
Rio Negro (Marabitanas) and the lower Rio Madeira (Borba). 1 

9: British Guiana (Caramang River, 1; Mazaruni River, 3; Potaro, 
1; Merum4 Mountains, 1) ; French Guiana (Saint Laurent du Maroni, 
1); Brazil (Sacramento, Para, 1; Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1). 

Caryothraustes canadensis frontalis (Hellmayr). 2 BLACK- 
FRONTED GREEN GROSBEAK. 

Pitylus canadensis frontalis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 277, 1905 Sao 
Lourenc.o, Pernambuco, Brazil (type in Tring Collection, now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York); Berlepsch, Verh. 
5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1119, 1912 Pernambuco and Ceara. 

Caryothraustes canadensis frontalis Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 373, 1907 
Pernambuco. 

Pitylus brasiliensis (not Caryothraustes brasiliensis Cabanis) Sclater, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 11, p. 306, 1886 part, descr. and spec, a, b, Pernambuco. 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, from Pernambuco to Ceara. 

*Caryothraustes canadensis brasiliensis Cabanis. 3 BRAZILIAN 
GREEN GROSBEAK. 

Caryothraustes brasiliensis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 144, Oct., 1851 
Bahia, Brazil (type in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, 
Halberstadt); Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 208, 1856 Rio 
de Janeiro and Nova Friburgo; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 64, 1874 
Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro. 

1 Birds from the Para region and a single male from the Rio Negro are in- 
separable from Guianan specimens. One from the Rio Madeira (Borba) is unusu- 
ally large (wing, 93), but is closely approached by another from British Guiana 
(Caramang River). Whether the trade skins in the Berlepsch Collection supposed 
to be from the "Orinoco delta" really came from Venezuela remains to be 
corroborated. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 4. British Guiana: 
Bartica Grove, 1; Caramang River, 2; Mines district, 3. Brazil: Igarap6-Assu, 
Pard, 3; Para, 1; Bemfica, 1; Santo Antonio do Prata, 2; Peixe-Boi, Para, 5; 
Ipitinga, Rio Acara, 1; Borba, Rio Madeira, 1. 

2 Caryothraustes canadensis frontalis (Hellmayr) : Similar to C. c. brasiliensis 
and about the same size, but with a conspicuous black frontal band, and under 
parts brighter yellow. Wing, 92-94; tail, 75-81; bill, 16^-18. 

Material examined. Brazil: Pernambuco: Sao Lourengo, 1; Pernambuco, 2. 

3 Caryothraustes canadensis brasiliensis Cabanis: Very close to C. c. canadensis, 
but larger, especially the tail longer; bill stouter; anterior crown brighter yellow, 
more contrasting with the green back. Wing, 91-96; tail, 75-82; bill, 16^-17^. 

Material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 15; Rio de Janeiro, 2; unspecified, 4. 



48 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Fringilla cayanewis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 22, 1823 

part, hab. Brazil. 
Fringilla viridis (not Coccothraustes viridis Vieillot) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 

Bras., 3, (1), p. 555, 1830 Rio IlhSos, southern Bahia. 
Pitylus brasiliensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 66, 1856 Bahia 

(monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 99, 1862 Brazil; Sclater and 

Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 168, 1869 southeastern Brazil (crit.); Pelzeln, 

Orn. Bras., 3, p. 221, 1870 Rio de Janeiro; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 11, p. 306, 1886 part, spec, c-i, Bahia and Nova Friburgo; Ihering, 

Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 152, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio. 
Pitylus canadensis brasiliensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 276 (in text), 

1905 Rio de Janeiro to Bahia (crit.); Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 

Kongr. Berlin, p. 1119, 1912 Bahia to Rio de Janeiro. 
Caryothraustes canadensis brasiliensis Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 373, 

1907 Bahia and Porto Cachoeiro, Espirito Santo (range excl. of Per- 

nambuco). 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Bahia (Rio Ilhe"os) to Rio de Janeiro. 
1: Brazil (Santo Amaro, Bahia, 1). 

Caryothra.ustes canadensis simulans Nelson. 1 CANA GREEN 
GROSBEAK. 

Caryothraustes canadensis simulans Nelson, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 60, No. 3, p. 16, 
Sept., 1912 Cana, eastern Panama (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Range. Tropical zone of extreme eastern Panama (Cana, 
Darien). 

"Caryothraustes poliogaster scapularis (Ridgway). 2 LESSER 
BISHOP GROSBEAK. 

Pitylus poliogaster scapularis Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. Ill, 
1887 Angostura, Costa Rica (nomen nudum); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 10, p. 586, Aug., 1888 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua (type in U. S. 
National Museum); Richmond, I.e., 16, p. 491, 1893 Rio Frio, Costa 

1 Caryothraustes canadensis simulans Nelson : Resembling C. c. frontalis in 
black frontal band, but obviously much smaller; black area on chin and throat 
more extensive, and back paler, more of a yellowish olive green. Wing (adult 
male), 86; tail, 66; bill, 18. 

This form, which we have not seen, is known from the single type only. 
The reappearance of a representative of this group in eastern Panama is quite 
remarkable, and it may yet develop that the yellow-bellied section of Caryo- 
thraustes is much more closely related to C. poliogaster than was hitherto suspected. 
Additional material of C. c. simulans doubtless will contribute to determining 
this relationship. 

1 A race of very doubtful validity, the supposed differences being to a large 
extent obliterated by individual variation. Some specimens from the Isthmus 
of Panama and eastern Costa Rica have the scapulars and rump plain slate gray, 
and are, to all intent, indistinguishable from Guatemalan skins of true poliogaster. 
Further material may prove scapularis to be inseparable. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 49 

Rica, and Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (habits); Berlepsch, Verb. 5th 
Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1120, 1912 southern Honduras to Panama. 

Pitylus poliogaster (not of Du Bus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, p. 352 Isthmus of Panama; Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 141 Santa F6 
and Santiago de Veragua, Veraguas; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist.N. Y., 
9, p. 102, 1868 Angostura, Costa Rica; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., 
p. 168, 1869 part, Costa Rica, Veraguas, and Panama; Salvin, Ibis, 
1872, p. 317 Chontales, Nicaragua; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, 
p. 400, 1883 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 333, 1884 part, Nicaragua to Panama; Sclater, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 307, 1886 part, spec, f-1, Nicaragua (Chontales), 
Costa Rica (Tucurriqui), and Panama (Santiago de Veragua, Santa F6, 
Panama) . 

Caryothraustes poliogaster scapularis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 656, 1901 southern Honduras (Segovia River) to Panama 
(monog.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 879, 1910 Costa Rica 
(Bonilla, Pacuarito, Jime'nez, La Vijagua, Carrillo, El Hogar); Kennard 
and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 461, 1928 Boquete Trail, 
Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 338, 1931 Almirante 
and Boquete Trail, Panama; Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, 
p. 242, 1932 Eden, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 340, 1932 Segovia River, 
Honduras. 

Caryothraustes poliogaster poliogaster Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 879, 
1910 Carrillo, Costa Rica (crit.). 

Range. From the southern border of Honduras (Segovia River) 
through Caribbean Nicaragua and Costa Rica to the Canal Zone of 
Panama. 

4: Costa Rica (Limon, 3; Gudcimo, 1). 

"Caryothraustes poliogaster poliogaster (Du Bus). BISHOP 
GROSBEAK. 

Pitylus poliogaster Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg., 14, (2), p. 105, 1847 
Guatemala (type in Brussels Museum); idem, Rev. Zool., 11, p. 245, 
1848 Guatemala (reprint); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 66, 
1856 Mexico ("Cosamaluapan," vicinity of Cordoba) and Guatemala 
(monog.); idem, I.e., 24, p. 302, 1856 Cordoba; idem, I.e., 27, p. 376, 
1859 Choapam, Teotalcingo, and Playa Vicente, Oaxaca, Mexico; 
Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 32 Coban, Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 99, 1862 Choctum (Guatemala) and Mexico; 
Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 168, 1869 part, southern Mexico and 
Guatemala; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 549, 1869 
hot region of Vera Cruz; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 836 Honduras; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, 
p. 44, 1878 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 333, 1884 part, Mexico (Cosamaloapam, C6rdoba, Choapam, 
Teotalcingo, Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz), British Honduras (Belize), 
Guatemala (Choctum, "Yaxcabnal," Kamkal), and Honduras (San 



50 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pedro); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 307, 1886 part, spec, a-e, 
Mexico, Guatemala (Choctum, Kamkhal, Yaxcamnal), and British Hon- 
duras (Belize); Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 
Santo Tomas, Guatemala; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1120, 1912 Mexico to Honduras (San Pedro, Santa Ana). 

Pitylus flam cinereus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, p. 67, June, 
1848 "South America" (type in coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia; cf. Stone, I.e., 51, p. 36, 1899). 

Caryothraustes episcopus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 504, end of 
1850 Cosamaluapan, Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in Berlin Museum). 

Caryothraustes poliogaster poliogaster Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 655, 1901 southern Mexico to northern Honduras (monog.); 
Peters, Auk, 30, p. 380, 1913 thirty miles north of Camp Mengel, Quin- 
tana Roo; Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 485, 1927 
Presidio, Vera Cruz; Austin, I.e., 69, p. 389, 1929 Augustine, British 
Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 353, 1932 Secan- 
quim and Chimoxan, Guatemala; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
84, p. 340, 1932 Santa Ana, Honduras. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera 
Cruz and Oaxaca; British Honduras; Caribbean Guatemala, and 
northern Honduras (Santa Ana, San Pedro). 1 

4: Guatemala (Escobas, Izabal, 2; unspecified, 2). 

Caryothraustes humeralis (Lawrence). 2 YELLOW-SHOULDERED 
GROSBEAK. 

Pytilus (Caryothraustes) humeralis Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
8, p. 467, 1867 "New Granada, Santa Fe de Bogota" (type in coll. of 
Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York). 

Pitylus humeralis Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 167, pi. 84, 1869 
"Bogota" and Rio Napo, Ecuador (monog.); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 11, p. 307, 1886 Colombia ("Bogota") and Ecuador (Rio Napo, 
Sarayacu); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 11, 1908 Bom Lugar, Rio 
Puriis, Brazil (spec, examined) ; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1120, 1912 "Bogota," eastern Ecuador (Saracayu, Rio Napo), 
and Brazil (Rio Purus); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 461, 1914 
Rio Purus. 

Saltaior humeralis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 616, 1926 
eastern Ecuador (Rio Napo). 

1 Three adults from Honduras (Palmar, Santa Ana) I am unable to separate 
from a Guatemalan series. 

1 Caryothraustes humeralis (Lawrence) probably deserves generic separation. 
In structural characters it is somewhat intermediate between Saltator and Caryo- 
thraustes, though nearer the latter, from which it chiefly differs by slenderer bill 
with more arched culmen. While the general style of coloration shows certain 
analogies to C. poliogaster, the black-and-white banded median portion of the 
Uroat and the similarly marked rictal stripe constitute unique features in this 
group of birds. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 51 

Range. Upper Amazonia, from the eastern base of the eastern 
Andes of Colombia ("Bogota") through eastern Ecuador (Rio Napo, 
Sarayacu) to western Brazil (Rio Purus). 1 

Genus PERIPORPHYRUS Reichenbach 2 

Periporphyrus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 77, June, 1850 type, by 
subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 75, 1855),Loxia erythromelas 
Gmelin. 

*Periporphyrus erythromelas (Gmelin). RED-AND-BLACK 
GROSBEAK. 

Loxia erythromelas Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 859, 1789 based on "Black- 
headed Grosbeak" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (1), p. 150, pi. 43 (= male); 
Cayenne (descr. of male and female; cotypes in coll. of Sir A. Lever, male 
type now in Vienna Museum examined). 3 

Periporphyrus erythromelas Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 503, 1850 
Cayenne; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 372, 1907 (range); Chubb, 
Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 446, 1921 Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Makauria 
River, Abary, Mazaruni, Demerara, Caramang River, Camacusa, Ro- 
raima, and Aremu River. 

Pitylus erythromelas Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 65, 1856 Cayenne 
and Para (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 98, 1862 Cayenne; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 572 River Capim, 
Para; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 213 Camacusa, British Guiana; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 305, 1886 British Guiana (Demerara, 
Camacusa, Roraima), Cayenne, and Brazil (Capim River); Goeldi, Ibis, 
1903, pp. 486, 498 Rio Capim, Para; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 276, 
1905 Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 295, 
1907 Santo Antonio do Prata and Rio Capim, Para; Berlepsch, Nov. 
Zool., 15, p. 118, 1908 Cayenne; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 467, 1910 
Surinam; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, 
No. 2, p. 88, 1912 Para localities; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. 
Kongr. Berlin, p. 1119, 1912 (range); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, 
p. 461, 1914 Peixe-Boi, Ananindeua, Santo Antonio do Prata, and Rio 
Capim (Resacca), Brazil; Beebe, Trop. Wild Life, 1, p. 136, 1917 
Bartica, British Guiana; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 174, 
1928 Castanhal, Para. 

1 A single adult male from the upper Rio Purus (Bom Lugar, July 17, 1903) 
merely differs from more northern specimens by slightly darker greenish back. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 2. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 2. Brazil: 
Bom Lugar, Rio Purus, 1. 

2 As set forth by Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 32, 1901), 
this monotypic group may be separated from Caryothraustes by proportionately 
larger bill (oilmen equal to, or longer than, tarsus) and somewhat differently 
shaped mandibular tomium. 

3 The specimen was omitted by Pelzeln in the list of birds acquired by the 
Vienna Museum at the sale of the Leverian Museum (Ibis, 1873). 



52 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and northeastern 
Brazil (Para district). 1 

2: British Guiana (Mazaruni River, 2). 

Genus PITYLUS Cuvier 

Pitylus Cuvier, Regne Animal, nouv. 6d., 1, p. 413, 1829 type, by subs. 

desig. (Gray, List Genera Bds., p. 44, 1840), Loxia grossa Linnaeus. 
Cissurus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 77, June, 1850 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 303, 1886), Loxia fuliginosa 

Daudin. 
Pyrorhamphus Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 85, Jan., 1901 type, 

by monotypy, Pyrorhamphus Berlepschianus Bertoni =Loxia fuliginosa 

Daudin. 

*Pitylus grossus saturatus Todd. 2 SLATE-COLORED GROSBEAK. 

Pitylus grossus saturatus Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 91, July, 1922 
Guacimo, Costa Rica (type in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh); 
Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 229, 1922 Mount 
Sapo and Rio Esnape, Darien; Peters, I.e., 71, p. 338, 1931 Guabo and 
Crimacola, Almirante Bay, Panama; Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
84, p. 242, 1932 Santa Rosita, Nicaragua. 

Pitylus grossus (not Loxia grossa Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
23, p. 154, 1855 "Bogota," Colombia; idem, I.e., 24, p. 64, 1856 
part, "Bogot4"; idem, I.e., 28, p. 293, 1860 Esmeraldas, Ecuador; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 140 falls of the Rio Tru- 
ando, Colombia; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 298, 1861 
Lion Hill, Panama; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 98, 1862 part, 
spec, a-c, Esmeraldas, Ecuador, and New Granada; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 352 Panama Railroad (crit.); Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 170 "Paqua," Costa Rica; Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 141 Santa Fe, Veraguas; Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 102, 1868 "Payua," Costa Rica; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 317 Chontales, Nicaragua; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 505 Remedies and Neche, Antioquia, 
Colombia; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 549 Chimbo, 

1 Brazilian birds seem to be inseparable from Guianan specimens. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 3. British Guiana: 
River Caramang, 5; unspecified, 3. Brazil, Para: Igarape-Assu, 2; Santo Antonio 
do Prata, 3. 

1 Pitylus grossus saturatus Todd: Similar to P. g. grossus, but general colora- 
tion of the males darker slaty blue, and under parts of females dark olive gray, 
with little, if any, buffy brownish tinge. 

While males are not always distinguishable, the grayer ventral surface of 
the females serves to separate this western form. Birds from the Pacific side of 
Ecuador and from Colombia (Sipi and "Bogota") appear to me decidedly refer- 
able to saturatus, although a few show an approach to the nominate race. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Carrfllo, 3. Panama: Veraguas, 
1; Lion Hill, 3. Colombia: Sipi, Choco, 4; "Bogota," 4. Ecuador: Cachyjacu, 
Prov. Esmeraldas, 2; San Javier, Prov. Esmeraldas, 3; Rio Peripa, 3; Chimbo, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 53 

Ecuador; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 331, 1884 
part, Nicaragua (Chontales), Costa Rica ("Pacuar," "Valza"), Panama 
(Lion Hill, Santa F6), Colombia (falls of the Rio Truando, Antioquia, 
"Bogota"), and western Ecuador; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 303, 1886 part, spec, k-v, Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Balzar), Colombia 
(Nichi, "Bogota"), Panama, Veraguas (Santa Fe), Costa Rica ("Valza," 
Tucurriqui), and Nicaragua (Chontales); Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 1, p. Ill, 1887 Jimenez and Pacuare, Costa Rica; Richmond, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 491, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua 
(habits); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 483, 1898 Cachavi, Ecuador; Sal- 
vadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 22, 1899 
part, spec, d-f, Rio Peripa, western Ecuador; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. 
Zool. Cl., 2, p. 33, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 652, 1901 part, Nicaragua to Colombia and 
western Ecuador; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 372, 1907 Costa 
Rica (range in part); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 880, 1910 
Caribbean Costa Rica (Carrillo, Jimenez, La Florida, Guapiles, Guacimo, 
El Hogar, Rio Sicsola); Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1121 
Sipi, Choc6, Colombia; Berlepsch, Verb. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, 
p. 1118, 1912 part, Nicaragua to Colombia and western Ecuador; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 561, 1917 Dabeiba, Quibdo, 
Baudo, San Jose, Cocal, Barbacoas, and west of Honda, Colombia; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 276, 1918 Gatun, Panama; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 615, 1926 part, western 
Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Rio de Oro, Chimbo, Naranjo, La Chonta, Bucay); 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 184, 1931 Cana, Darien; idem, 
I.e., 72, p. 372, 1932 Perme, Obaldia, and Ranchon, eastern Panama. 

Range. Caribbean side of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, 
Colombia (west of the eastern Andes), and western Ecuador. 

4: Costa Rica (Guapiles, 2); Panama (Veraguas, 1); Colombia 
(Barbacoas, Narino, 1). 

*Pitylus grossus grossus (Linnaeus). WHITE-THROATED 
GROSBEAK. 

Loxia grossa Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 307, 1766 based on "Le 
Gros-bec bleu d'Ame'rique" Brisson, Orn., 6, Suppl., p. 89, pi. 5, fig. 1; 
"America" = Cayenne 1 (cotypes in coll. of D. Mauduyt and Madame 
d'Aligny). 

Pitylus grossus Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 677, 1849 Aruka River and coast of British Guiana; idem, Mus. Hein., 
1, p. 143, 1851 Guiana; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 64, 1856 
part, Cayenne, British Guiana, and Pebas [Peru] (monog.); idem, I.e., 
25, p. 264, 1857 Rio Javarri, Peru; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 98, 
1862 part, spec, d, e, Cayenne; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 220, 1870 Rio 
Madeira (Salto Theotonio, Borba), Rio Negro (Marabitanas), and Para, 
Brazil; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, pp. 185, 263 

1 Suggested by Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 24, 1902. 



54 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cosnipata (Dept. Cuzco) and Rio Javarrf, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, 
p 518 Monterico, Peru; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 331, 1884 part, Amazonia, Guiana, and Peru (Monterico, 
Cosnipata); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 2, p. 548, 1884 Peru (Monterico, 
Cosnipata, Yurimaguas, Rio Javarri, and between Chachapoyas and 
Moyobamba); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 213 British Guiana (Bartica Grove, 
Merume' Mountains, Camacusa); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 303, 
1886 part, spec, a-j, British Guiana (Bartica, Merume Mts., Camacusa), 
Cayenne (Oyapock), Peru (Pebas, Rio Javarri), and eastern Ecuador 
(Sarayacu); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 83, 1889 Mapiri, 
Bolivia; Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 267, 1890 Santarem, Brazil; 
Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 22, 1899 
part, spec, a-c, Rio Zamora, eastern Ecuador; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 652, 1901 part, British Guiana, Cayenne, "eastern 
Brazil (Pernambuco)," Bolivia, and Peru; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 9, p. 24, 1902 Suapure, Nicare, and La Pricion, Caura River, 
Venezuela; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 183, 1904 
Maroni, French Guiana; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 359, 1906 Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 14, p. 7, 1907 Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 372, 1907 (range in part); Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 55, p. 295, 1907 Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 
56, pp. 11, 499, 523, 1908 Rio Purus (Bom Lugar), Rio Tapajoz (Villa 
Braga), and Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Brazil; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 
15, pp. 118, 317, 1908 Ipousin (Approuague River), Cayenne, and Maroni, 
French Guiana; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 279, 1910 Calama, Rio 
Madeira; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 466, 1910 Surinam; Berlepsch, 
Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. Berlin, p. 1118, 1912 part, eastern Ecuador 
(Rio Zamora), Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Guiana, and Brazil; Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 14, 88, 1912 
Peixe-Boi and Ipitinga, Para, Brazil (Para localities); Snethlage, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 460, 1914 Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Guama 
(Ourm), Rio Tocantins (Baiao, Arumatheua), Rio Xingu (Forte Ambe), 
Rio Tapajoz (Villa Braga), Rio Jamauchim (Santa Helena), and Rio Jary 
(Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 2, p. 186, 1916 La Uni6n, Caura, Venezuela; Beebe, Trop. Wild 
Life, 1, p. 136, 1917 Bartica, British Guiana; Bangs and Penard, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 90, 1918 Altonaweg, Surinam; Chubb, Bds. 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 445, 1921 Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Bartica, Cama- 
cabra Creek, Makauria River, Abary River, Mazaruni River, Arawai, 
and Great Falls of the Demerara; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 615, 1926 part, eastern Ecuador (below San Jose, Rio Suno); Sneth- 
lage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 61, 1926 Tury-assu, 
Maranhao; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 174, 1928 Para. 

Pitylus grossa Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 503, 1850 Cayenne and 
Brazil. 

Pitylus grossus grossus Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 290, 
1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, 
p. 349, 1930 Salto Theotonio, Matto Grosso. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 55 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; southern Venezuela 
(Caura Valley); northern Brazil, east to northern Maranhao (Tury- 
assu), 1 south to the northern confines of Matto Grosso (Sal to Theo- 
tonio, upper Rio Madeira); eastern Ecuador; eastern Peru; north- 
western Bolivia (Mapiri). 2 

2: Peru (Yurimaguas, 1; Rioja, 1). 

*Pitylus fuliginosus (Daudin). 3 BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK. 

Loxia fuliginosa Daudin, Traite E16m. Orn., 2, p. 372, 1800 "en Amerique" = 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 4 (type in Paris Museum). 
Coccothraustes coerulescens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 13, p. 

546, 1817 Brazil (type in Paris Museum; cf. Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Me"th., 

Orn., livr. 93, p. 1016, 1823). 
Fringilla gnalho Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 22, 1823 Bahia 

(type in Berlin Museum); Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 552, 1830 

Rio Catole", Bahia. 
Tanagra psittacina Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 44, pi. 57, fig. 2, 1825 

"in sylvis Rio de Janeiro proximis" (type lost, formerly in Munich Mu- 
seum; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 678, 

1906). 
Pitylus atrochalybeus Jardine and Selby, 111. Orn., Part 1, pi. 3, Feb., 1827 

"Brazils" (type in coll. of Dr. Such). 
Pitylus erythrorynchus [sic] Swainson, Nat. Hist. Bds., 2, p. 282, 1837 based 

on Jardine and Selby, 111. Orn., pi. 3. 
Loxia grossa (not of Linnaeus) Wied, Reise Bras., 2, pp. 147, 148, 155, 1821 

Rio Catole and Beruga, Bahia. 
Pitylus ardesiacus Lesson, Rev. ZooL, 3, p. 226, 1840 Brazil (location of 

type not stated; descr. of immature specimen). 
Saltalor psittacina Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 490, 1850 Brazil 

(ex Spix). 

Pitylus gnatho Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 503, 1850 Brazil. 
Pitylus coerulescens Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 143, 1851 Brazil; Burmeister, 

Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 206, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

1 Ridgway's record from Pernambuco is unquestionably erroneous. 

1 Males from northern Brazil agree well with those from Guiana, while females, 
like others from Peru, are generally more strongly washed with brownish under- 
neath. With the comparatively limited material at hand, I am, however, reluctant 
to propose any further subdivision. 

Additional specimens examined. French Guiana: Ipousin, 1; Cayenne, 4. 
British Guiana: Merume Mountains, 2; Camacusa, 1. Venezuela: Caura Valley, 
5. Brazil: Para district, 9; Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz, 2; Borba, Rio Madeira, 2; 
Salto Theotonio, Rio Madeira, 1. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 1; Rio Napo, 2. 

* Pitylus fuliginosus (Daudin) differs from the preceding species by larger 
size, much more massive bill, and absence of white on the throat. There is not 
much sexual difference, the female being merely less black on throat and foreneck. 
Perhaps it is not more than subspecifically distinct. 

4 Suggested as type locality by Berlepsch (Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1119, 1912). 



56 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyrorhamphus berlepschianus Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 85, 
Jan., 1901 Djaguarasapa, Alto Parana, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. 
de W. Bertoni). 

Pitylus fuliginosus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 64, 1856 Rio de 
Janeiro to Bahia (monog.); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 99, 1862 
Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 220, 1870 Sao Paulo (Mattodentro, 
Butuyuru, Ypanema); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 245, 1873 Blume- 
nau, Santa Catharina; Cabanis, I.e., 22, p. 84, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de 
Janeiro; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 121, 1885 Taquara 
and Tocana, Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 304, 
1886 Bahia to Rio de Janeiro; Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, 
p. 120, 1899 Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 

3, p. 159, 1899 Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo, Iguape, Piracicaba); idem, I.e., 

4, p. 153, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; Miranda Ribeiro, 
Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 13, p. 186, 1906 Monte Serrat, Serra 
do Itatiaya; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 372, 1907 Sao Paulo (Alto 
da Serra, Sao Paulo, Rio Mogy Guassu, Piracicaba, Bebedouro, Iguape) 
and Parand (Ourinho); Lliderwaldt, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, p. 357, 1909 
Serra do Itatiaya; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 382, 
1910 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Berlepsch, Verh. 5th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Berlin, p. 1119, 1912 Paraguay (Alto Parana) and southeastern Brazil 
(from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 
Alto Parana; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 188, 1926 
Therezina, Parana; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 315, 1928 
Serra do Itatiaya. 

Ptylus [sic] fuliginosus Miranda Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, 

p. 225, 1923 Monte Serrat, Itatiaya. 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Bahia to 
Rio Grande do Sul, and adjacent parts of Paraguay (Alto Parana). 1 
1: Brazil (Sao Paulo, Victoria, 1). 

Genus GUBERNATRIX Lesson 

Gubernatrix Lesson, Compl. Oeuvr. Buff on, 8, p. 295, 1837 type, by mono- 
typy, Emberiza gubernatrix Temminck. 

Lophocorythus Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 47, 1840 type, by orig. desig., Embe- 
riza gubernatrix Temminck. 

Gubernatrix cristata (Vieillot). YELLOW CARDINAL. 

Coccothraustes cristata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 13, p. 421, 

1817 based on "Crestudo amarillo" Azara, No. 129; 29 lat. south, 

Argentina= Corrientes. 
Emberiza gubernatrix Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 11, pis. 63 (male), 

64 (female), 1821 Buenos Aires (types in coll. of Madame Freycinet); 

Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 73, 1837 

-"Rio-Janeiro, imper. brasiliano," errore (the specimens examined in the 

1 Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 2; Rio de Janeiro, 2; Matto- 
dentro, Sao Paulo, 2; Butuyuru, Sao Paulo, 1; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 3; Iguape, 
Sao Paulo, 1; Taquara do Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul, 2. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 57 

Paris Museum are from Corrientes); Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, 
Birds, p. 89, 1839 on the banks of the Parana, near Santa F6. 

Emberiza cristatella Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., livr. 93, p. 928, 1823 
based on "Crestudo amarillo" Azara, No. 129; 29 lat. south, Argentina= 
Corrientes. 

Gubernatrix cristatella Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 9, 1847 (ex Azara No. 
129); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 470, 1850 "Brazil"; Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 257, 1856 supposedly southern 
Brazil; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 254, 1860 Parana and C6rdoba; idem, 
Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 482, 1861 near Parana and more common near 
Cordoba; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 632 
Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Sclater, I.e., 1872, p. 548 Rio Negro, Pata- 
gonia (September); Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 Barran- 
cas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 
38 Cosquin, Cordoba; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 130, 1883 
Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, 
p. 55, 1888 Buenos Aires (spring visitant); Stempelmann and Schulz, 
Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 399, 1890 Cordoba; Aplin, Ibis, 
1894, p. 169 Rincon of the Arroyo Grande, Uruguay. 

Gubernatrix cristata Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., J2, p. 815, 1888 Rio 
Negro, Uruguay, "Paraguay," and Cordoba (Cosquin); Ihering, Annuario 
Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 122, 1899 Jaguarao, Rio Grande do Sul 
(spec, examined); Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 181, 1902 
Tucuman; idem, Revist. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 45, 1905 
Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 393, 1907 (range); Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 182, 1909 Tucuman and Barracas al Sud, 
Buenos Aires (eggs descr.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, 
p. 401, 1910 (range in Argentina); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 63, 1914 
Corrientes and (?) Paraguay; Marelli, El Hornero, 1, p. 80, 1918 Curuzu- 
Cuatia, Corrientes; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 24, 1920 Canelones and Minas, 
Uruguay; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rfos; 
Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 174, 1923 Conhello, F. C. 0.; Renard, I.e., 3, p. 287, 
1924 San Cristobal, Santa Fe; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922- 
23, p. 661, 1924 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 398, 1926 Victorica, Pampa, and Uruguay (San 
Vicente, Paso Alamo, Lazcano); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, 
p. 229, 1927 Santa Elena and San Joaquin, Entre Rfos; Stone, Rep. 
Princ. Univ. Exp. Patag., 2, p. 847, 1928 Rio Negro; Castellanos, El 
Hornero, 5, p. 329, 1934 Estancia El Bosque, Valle de los Reartes, 
Cordoba. 

Range. Extreme southern Brazil, in State of Rio Grande do Sul 
(Jaguarao, Sao Lourenco); Uruguay; northern Argentina, from 
Entre Rios, Santa F4, and Tucuman (two records) south to Cordoba, 
Pampa, and Buenos Aires (as far as the mouth of the Rio Negro). 1 

1 No authentic record exists for its occurrence in Paraguay proper. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul: Jaguarao, 1 (adult 
male); Sao Lourengo, 1 (adult female). Argentina: Corrientes, 2; Barracas al 
Sud, Buenos Aires, 1 ; Tucuman, 1. 



58 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Genus PAROARIA Bonaparte 

Paroaria Bonaparte, Giorn. Arcad., 52, p. 206, 1831; idem, Saggio Distr. Met. 

Anim. Vertebr., p. 141, 1831 (reprint) type, by orig. desig., Fringilla 

cucullata Vieillot=Lozia coronate Miller. 
Calyptrophorus Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 13, (1), p. 329, 1847 new name for 

Paroaria Bonaparte. 
Calyphlrophorus Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 

678, pub. 1849 emendation. 
Coccopsis Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 77, June, 1850 type, by subs, desig. 

(Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 74, 1855), Tanagra gularis Linnaeus. 1 

*Paroaria coronata (Miller). CRESTED CARDINAL. 

Loxia coronata Miller, Var. Subj. Nat. Hist., Part 1, pi. 2, 1776 no locality 
indicated. 

Loxia cucullata (not of Boddaert, 1783) Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 378, 1790 
based on Loxia coronata Miller; "Le Cardinal Dominiquain hupe, de la 
Louisiane" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 103; and "The Crested Cardinal" 
Brown, New Illustr. Zool., pi. 23. 

Loxia coronata var.L. Dominicanae Shaw, in Miller and Shaw, Cim. Phys., p. 
4, pi. 2A, 1796 "a native of South America, and particularly of Brazil." 

Fringilla cucullata Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 22, 1823 
Montevideo, Uruguay; Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 82, 1837 Mojos, Bolivia, and Corrientes (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined); Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 9, 1847 Paraguay 
and south (ex Azara, No. 128). 

Calyptrophorus cucullatus Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 13, (1), p. 329, 1847; idem, 
Mus. Hein., 1, p. 145, 1851 Brazil. 

Paroaria cucullata Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 471, 1850 Brazil 
and Paraguay; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 210, 1856 
Montevideo; 2 idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 254, 1860 Parana, Banda Oriental, 
and Tucuman; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 482, 1861 Montevideo, 
Parana and Tucuman; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 108, 1862 
Bolivia; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 228, 1870 "Rio de Janeiro" (cage- 
birds; spec, in Vienna Museum examined); Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 
1, p. 252, 1874 Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Durnford, Ibis, 
1877, p. 171 Baradero (Rio Parana) and Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Gib- 
son, Ibis, 1880, p. 19 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (nest and eggs); 
White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 598 Buenos Aires; Barrows, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 129, 1883 Conception del Uruguay, Entre 
Rfos; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 809, pi. 16, fig. 1, 1888 Uruguay 
(Maldonado), Buenos Aires (Conchitas), Entre Rios (Parana), and Bolivia; 

1 The recognition of a separate genus for P. gularis and allies appears to me 
unwarranted. 

1 The extension of range to the Rio Sao Francisco, Minas Geraes, is erroneous. 
The observations of a cardinal in that region by Auguste de Sainte-Hilaire (Voy. 
Prov. Rio de Janeiro et Minas Geraes, 2, p. 422, 1830) quoted by Burmeister 
refer to Paroaria dominicana (Linnaeus), as has already been noticed by Rein- 
hardt (Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 409). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 59 

Bartlett, Monog. Weaver-Birds & Finches, Part 1, pi. 1, 1888 (monog.); 
Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 47, 1888 Argentina (habits); Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 84, 1889 Trinidad, El Beni, Bolivia; 
Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. C6rdoba, 10, p. 399, 
1890 C6rdoba; Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425; idem, Ibis, 1891, p. 16 
Estancia Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 125 Fortin 
Donovan, lower Pilcomayo; Holland, Ibis, 1892, p. 197 Estancia Espar- 
tillar, Buenos Aires; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 168 Santa Elena, Uruguay; 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 6, 1895 Puerto Pagani, 
Rio Apa, Paraguay; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 8, 1897 Caiza, Bolivia; 
Ihering, Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 122, 1899 Jaguarao, 
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 181, 
1902 Tucuman; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 471 Colonia Crevaux, Tarija, 
Bolivia; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 218, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. 
Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 258, 1904 Oran, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. 
Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 45, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 392, 1907 "Sao Paulo" (range); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, 
p. 182, 1909 Corrientes (eggs descr.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 400, 1910 (range in Argentina); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 640 
Sapucay, Paraguay; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 96 Los Ynglases, Buenos Aires, 
and Bahia Negra, Alto Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 
Paraguay; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 398, 1916 Las Talas, Buenos Aires; Gib- 
son, Ibis, 1918, p. 384 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires; Marelli, El 
Hornero, 1, p. 80, 1918 Curuzu Cuatia, Corrientes; Giacomelli, I.e., 3, 
p. 69, 1923 La Rioja; Bertoni, I.e., 3, p. 397, 1926 Puerto Bertoni, Para- 
guay; Renard, I.e., 4, p. 316, 1929 Puerto Belgrade, near Bahia Blanca, 
Buenos Aires (acclimatized). 

Paroaria dominicana (not Loxia dominicana Linnaeus) Dalgleish, Proc. Roy. 
Phys. Soc. Edin., 6, p. 246, pi. 7, fig. 5 (egg), 1881 Estancia de la Tala, 
Durazno, Uruguay. 

Paroaria cristata Mathews and Iredale, 1 Austr. Av. Rec., 3, p. 38, 1915 new 
name for Loxia cucullata Latham, preoccupied; Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, 
p. 246, 1919 Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 24, 
1920 Uruguay (Canelones, Minas, Maldonado, San Jose, Flores, Florida, 
Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo); Seri6 and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 53, 1923 Santa 
Elena, Entre Rlos; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 172, 1923 Escobar, Buenos Aires; 
Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 661, 1924 Godoy, Buenos 
Aires; Wilson, El Hornero, 3, p. 362, 1926 General L6pez, Santa Fe; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 399, 1926 Santa Fe, Chaco 
(Las Palmas), Formosa (Formosa, Riacho Pilaga), Buenos Aires (Lavalle), 
Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco), and Uruguay (La Paloma, San Vicente, 
Lazcano); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 230, 1927 Con- 
cepci6n, Tucuman, and Santa Elena, Entre Rfos. 

Paroaria rubrifacies Collin and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 34, p. 51, 1927 new name 
for Loxia cucullata Latham, preoccupied. 

l Fringilla Dominicana Cristata Boddaert (Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 7, Dec., 1783), 
based on Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 103, is clearly but the latinized form of Buffon's 
vernacular name "Cardinal Dominicain huppeV' and not proposed in binomial 
sense. 



60 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Paroaria coronata Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 

261, 1930 Formosa (Lapango, San Jose, Tapikiole) and Bolivia (La 

Crecencia, Santa Cruz; Fortin Esteros, Tarija) (nomencl.); Naumburg, 

Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 359, 1930 Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco) 

and Matto Grosso (Descalvados) ; Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 86, p. 397, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso; Laubmann, 

Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 329, 1934 Est. La Geraldina, Santa Fe. 

Range. Eastern Bolivia; Paraguay; Uruguay; extreme southern 

Brazil (Descalvados, Matto Grosso; Jaguarao, Rio Grande do Sul); 

northern Argentina, south to La Rioja, Cordoba, and Buenos Aires. 1 

23: Uruguay (Treinta y Tres, 1; Dept. Soriano, 6; Polanco, 

Minas, 4; Dept. Rocha, 3; Dept. Colonia, 1; Queb. de los Cuervos, 2); 

Bolivia (Trinidad, Rio Mamore", 1); Argentina (Conception, Tucu- 

man, 3; Santa Fe", 1; Parana, Entre Rios, 1). 

* Paroaria dominicana (Linnaeus). DOMINICAN CARDINAL. 

Loxia dominicana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 172, 1758 Brazil; 
Odhelius, Amoen. Acad., 4, p. 242, 1759 (type in Upsala Museum; cf. 
Lonnberg, Bihang Sv. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 22, Afd. 4, No. 1, p. 29, 
1896; crit.). 

Fringilla larvata Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 4, 1783 based on "Cardinal 
Dominiquain" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 55, fig. 2; Brazil. 

Fringilla dominicana Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 594, 1830 near 
Bahia City, Bahia. 

Paroaria dominicana Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 471, 1850 Brazil; 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 211, 1856 "bei Bahia, Para, 
am Amazonenstrom und ... bis Guyana" (errore). 

Calyptrophorus dominicanus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 145, 1851 Brazil. 

Paroaria larvata Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 108, 1862 Brazil; Rein- 
hardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 219 Sao Romao and 
Salgado [ = Porto do Brejo], Rio Sao Francisco, Minas Geraes; Forbes, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 337 Garanhuns (Pernambuco) and Parahyba; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 811, pi. 16, fig. 2, 1888 "Rio Claro, Goyaz," 
"Nova Friburgo," Bahia, and Pernambuco; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, 

1 Brodkorb (Occas. Pap. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool., 345, p. 2, Jan. 5, 1937 
type, from 265 kilometers west of Puerto Casado, Paraguayan Chaco, in Zool. 
Mus. Univ. of Mich.) has recently distinguished a smaller race as P. cristata 
schulzei. On examining an ample series of the Crested Cardinal from various 
parts of its range, I find that the supposed differences in length of wing and tail 
are nonexistent, but that three (out of five) skins from Bolivia and the Paraguayan 
Chaco have indeed decidedly smaller bills, though they are exactly matched in 
that respect by one from Uruguay (Colonia). It appears that more material is 
needed before any satisfactory subdivision can be made. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Mojos, 1; La Crecencia, Santa Cruz, 
2; Fortin Esteros, Tarija, 2. Paraguay: lower Pilcomayo, 1; Sapucay, 1; Villa 
Rica, 2. Brazil: Jaguarao, Rio Grande do Sul, 1; Descalvados, Matto Grosso, 1. 
Argentina: Corrientes, 1; Aj6, Buenos Aires, 10; Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 
2; Parana, Entre Rfos, 3; Santa Ana, Tucuman, 2; San Jose, Formosa, 2. Uru- 
guay: Colonia, 1; Santa Elena, 4. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 61 

p. 154, 1900 "Nova Friburgo" (ex Sharpe); idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 392, 1907 Bahia (range); Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss., 76, p. 83, 1910 Pernambuco (Pao d'Alho, near Recife) and Bahia 
(Joazeiro; Solidade, near Carnahyba; Bern Bom, Rio Sao Francisco); 
idem, I.e., p. 182, 1924 Pernambuco, Rio Sao Francisco (Bahia), and 
Rio Parnahyba (Piauhy); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, 
No. 6, p. 42, 1926 Ceara. 

Paroaria dominicana Bartlett, Monog. Weaver Birds & Finches, Part 3, pi. 2, 
1889 (monog., range imaginary); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 9, p. 487, 1914 
Cidade da Barra, Bahia (nest and eggs descr.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 304, 1929 Maranhao (Sao Francisco) and 
Piauhy (Ibiapaba, Deserto, Arara). 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, from Bahia and northern Minas 
Geraes (along the Sao Francisco River south to Sao Romao) north 
to Ceara, Piauhy, and southern Maranhao (Sao Francisco, Rio 
Parnahyba). 1 

9: Brazil (Sao Francisco, Maranhao, 2; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 3; De- 
serto, Piauhy, 1 ; Arara, Piauhy, 1 ; Rio do Peixe, near Queimadas, 
Bahia, 1; "Bahia,"!). 

Paroaria humberti Angelini. 2 HUMBERT'S CARDINAL. 

Paroaria humberli Angelini, Boll. Soc. Zool. Ital., (2), 2, p. 17, October, 1901 
South America (type in Zoological Museum, Rome, examined); Lepri, 
I.e., (3), 3, p. 140, col. pi., July, 1915 (crit.). 

Range. Unknown. 

Paroaria gularis nigro-genis (Lafresnaye). 3 BLACK-EARED 
CARDINAL. 

Nemosia nigro-genis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 273, 1846 'Tembouchure 
de I'OrSnoque," Venezuela (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in 

1 The localities "Rio Claro, Gpyaz" and "Nova Friburgo, Rio" are unques- 
tionably erroneous. Birds from different parts of the range agree well together, 
and show very little variation in color. 

Additional material examined. Bahia: Solidade, 1; Joazeiro, 1; Bern Bom, 
Rio Sao Francisco, 2; unspecified, 18. Pernambuco: Pao d'Alho, Recife, 1; Sao 
Lourengo, 1. Ceara: unspecified, 2. 

2 Paroaria humberti Angelini: Similar to P. dominicana, but differs by having 
the back from hindneck to upper tail coverts uniform black; black instead of light 
gray scapulars; blacker wings with mere fringes of white on the innermost second- 
aries (tertials) only; black rectrices without any grayish tinge on the median pair 
and the edges of the others; slightly paler red of head and throat; finally by rather 
stouter bill. Wing (adult male), 72'4; tail, 78; bill, 14^. 

The pectoral feathers show faint indications of blackish apical edges, which 
I never noticed in P. dominicana. On the hindneck only the feathers next to the 
red crown are basally white, while the Dominican Cardinal has all the nuchal 
plumage much more extensively white at the base. 

The type has lived in captivity, and it is quite possible that P. humberti is 
nothing but a melanistic individual of P. dominicana. 

J Paroaria gularis nigro-genis (Lafresnaye) resembles the nominate race in 
proportions, coloration of bill, as well as in black back and flight-feathers, but 



62 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 391, 1930). 
Tanagra nigro-aurita Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, p. 85, 1848 

"Rio Negro," Brazil (type in coll. of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 

Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 35, 1899) i 1 

idem, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1, p. 296, pi. 41, fig. 3, 1848 "Rio 

Negro." 
Coccopsis nigrogenys Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 145, 1851 "Porto Cabello," 

Venezuela. 2 
Paroaria nigrigena Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 108, 1862 Venezuela; 

Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 83 about Ciudad Bolivar, Rio Orinoco. 
Paroaria nigrigenis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 814, pi. 16, fig. 3, 

1888 "Trinidad, Cayenne ferrore], and Venezuela"; Delacour, Ibis, 1923, 

p. 148 Camaguan, Rio Portuguesa, Venezuela (descr. of young). 
Paroaria nigrogenys Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 29, 1902 

Altagracia, Ciudad BoHvar, and Caicara, Orinoco (nest and eggs descr.); 

Berlepsch, I.e., 15, p. 122, 1908 "Cayenne" (ex Sharpe); Penard, Vog. 

Guyana, 2, p. 405, 1910 "Surinam" (errore); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. 

Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 198, 1916 Orinoco region (nest, eggs, and plumages). 
Paroaria nigrogenis Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 209, 1913 La 

Pedrita (Rio Uracoa), Manimo River, Jocopita (Manimo River), and 

Cano Corosal, Orinoco delta. 

Range. Southern Venezuela, in the valley of the Orinoco from 
the delta region up to the Apure and Portuguesa rivers. 3 

*Paroaria gularis gularis (Linnaeus). BLACK-THROATED CARDINAL. 

Tanagra gularis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 316, 1766 based on 
"Le Cardinal d'Amerique" Brisson, Orn., 6, Suppl., p. 67, pi. 4, fig. 4; 
"Amerique" 4 (type in coll. of M. Mauduyt); Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 1, p. 310, 1847 banks of the Essequibo. 

Tanagra fusca P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 159, 1776 based on 
"Tangara brun, d'Amerique" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 155, fig. 2; [French] 
Guiana (cf. "Le Rouge-cap" Buff on, Hist. Nat. Ois., 5, p. 23). 

differs by having the sides of the head (loral streak, orbicular and auricular regions) 
black; a small sooty chin-spot; the throat and center of foreneck bright crimson; 
the lower mandible paler yellow. Besides, the elongated jugular feathers are of 
a different texture, being more compact, narrower, and decidedly lanceolate. 

Material examined. Venezuela, Orinoco River: Altagracia, 10; Caicara, 4; 
San Fernando, Rio Apure, 2. 

1 Although Stone gives "Para" as locality, Cassin expressly states that Mr. 
Wiilf received the specimens from the "Rio Negro." 

2 As in the case of other Orinocan species ascribed to Puerto Cabello by 
Cabanis, the specimens were doubtless secured on the Orinoco, Puerto Cabello 
being merely their shipping port. 

3 Trade skins are sometimes labeled "Trinidad," no doubt erroneously. The 
occurrence on the Rio Negro requires corroboration, while the locality "Cayenne" 
attached to a specimen in the British Museum is altogether unreliable. 

4 Cayenne suggested as type locality by Berlepsch (Nov. Zool., 15, p. 122, 
1908). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 63 

Calyphtrophorus gularis Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 
678, "1848" [=1849] upper Essequibo River. British Guiana. 

Coccopsis gularis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 145, 1851 "Venezuela" and 
Cayenne; Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne; 
Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 467, 1921 upper Takutu Mountains, 
Bonasika River, Essequibo, Arawai River, and Camacusa. 

Paroaria gularis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 472, 1850 Guiana; 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 211, 1856 Guiana south to the 
Amazon and Rio Negro; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 108, 1862 
"Upper Amazon" and Cayenne; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1866, p. 181 Nauta, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 572 Mexiana Island, 
Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 228, 1870 part, Borba, Rio Madeira 
(spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 264 
Nauta, Yurimaguas, Santa Cruz, and Rio Huallaga, Peru; Salvin, Ibis, 
1886, p. 503 British Guiana (crit.); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 27, 
1886 Peru (Balza-Puerto, Yurimaguas, Nauta, Santa Cruz, Ucayali); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 813, pi. 16, fig. 4, 1888 Guiana 
(Cayenne, Camacusa), Brazil (Mexiana Island), and Peru (Chamicuros, 
Pebas); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 299, 1889 Sarayacu, lower Ucayali, 
Peru; Chapman and Riker, Auk, 7, p. 268, 1890 Santar6m, Brazil; Good- 
fellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 473 near the mouth of the Rio Coca, Napo, Ecuador; 
Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 433, 1905 Rio Jurua, Brazil; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 392, 1907 Rio Jurua (range in part, excl. of Piraju, 
Paraguay); Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 29, 1907 Mexiana; 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 297, 1907 Mexiana, Marajo, and Monte 
Alegre; idem, I.e., 56, pp. 11, 500, 524, 1908 Bom Lugar (Rio Purus), 
Goyana (Rio Tapajoz), and Arumatheua (Rio Tocantins), Brazil; Ber- 
lepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 122, 1908 Cayenne, French Guiana; Penard, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 405, 1910 Surinam; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 
522, 1913 Lower Amazonia; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 435, 1914 
Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Rio Xingu (Forte Ambe"), Rio Tapajoz 
(Goyana), Rio Jamauchim (Santa Helena), Rio Purus (Bom Lugar), 
Maraj6 (Rio Arary, Pindobal, Pacoval), Mexiana, Maraca, Arumanduba, 
Monte Alegre, Rio Maecuru, Monte Alegre, and Rio Jamunda (Faro), 
Brazil; Beebe, Trop. Wild Life, 1, p. 136, 1917 Bartica; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 573, 1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; 
idem, I.e., 55, p. 629, 192& eastern Ecuador. 

Paroaria nigrigenis (not Nemosia nigro-genis Lafresnaye) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 215 Camacusa, British Guiana. 

Paroaria gularis gularis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 10, 1907 Itaituba, 
Rio Tapaj6z; idem, I.e., 17, p. 281, 1910 Borba, Rio Madeira; idem, 
Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 119, 128, 
1912 Mexiana and Marajo (Cachoeira); idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 304, 1929 Goyaz (Santo Antonio, BSa Vista, and Phila- 
delphia) and Para (Rio Tocantins; Conceic.ao do Araguaya, Rio Araguaya). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Brazil, 
from the Rio Tocantins, Marajo, Mexiana, and Maraca Island 
westwards, south to the lower Tocantins (Santo Antonio, Boa Vista; 



64 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Philadelphia), lower Araguaya (Conceicao do Araguaya, about 8 
lat. south), lower Rio Madeira (Borba), the Rio Purus, and Rio 
Jurua; northeastern Peru north through eastern Ecuador to south- 
eastern Colombia (La Morelia, Rio Caqueta). 1 

9: British Guiana (Mazaruni River, 2); Brazil (Serra da Lua, 
Amazonas, 1; Santo Antonio, Goyaz, 1; Philadelphia, Goyaz, 1); 
Peru (Lagunas, 3; Yurimaguas, 1). 

*Paroaria gularis cervicalis Sclater. 2 SOUTHERN BLACK-THROATED 
CARDINAL. 

Paroaria cervicalis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 108, 1862 Bolivia (type 

in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum, examined); Sharpe, Cat. 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 814, pi. 16, fig. 6, 1888 Matto Grosso and Bolivia. 
Tachyphonus gularis (not Tanagra gularis Linnaeus) d'Orbigny, Voyage Amer. 

Merid., Ois., p. 279, 1839 Chiquitos and Mojos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris 

Museum examined). 
Paroaria gularis Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 228, 1878 part, [Villa Bella de] 

Matto Grosso, Matto Grosso (spec, in Vienna Museum examined) ; Ihering, 

Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 392, 1907 part, Matto Grosso. 
Paroaria gularis cervicalis Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 84, 1889 falls 

of the Rio Madeira and Reyes, Bolivia; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 10 

1 Birds from Lower Amazonia west to Borba (Rio Madeira) agree with Guia- 
nan specimens. Adults from Peru and another from the Rio Napo, Ecuador, are 
on average slightly larger (wing up to 87), and have the blackish orbital space 
less conspicuous, thus approaching the southern race P. g. cervicalis. An adult 
female collected by G. Holt at Conceicao do Araguaya (under about 8 latitude 
south) is wholly typical of gularis, and shows not the least intergradation to the 
very distinct P. baeri found on the upper stretches of the same river. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 7. Brazil: Mexi- 
ana Island, 1; Cachoeira, Marajo, 2; Boa Vista, Marajo, 1; Espirito Santo, 
Marajo, 1; Rio Tocantins, 1; Itaituba, Rio Tapajoz, 2; Borba, Rio Madeira, 4; 
Conceicao do Araguaya, Para, 1. Peru: Iquitos, 1; Pebas, 2; Rio Tocache, 2. 
Ecuador: mouth of the Coca, Rio Napo, 1. 

2 Paroaria gularis cervicalis Sclater: Similar to P. g. gularis, but slightly larger, 
and without any blackish color around the eye. Wing, 85-87, (female) 84; tail, 
75-79; bill, 14-15. 

A specimen from Mojos, Bolivia, agrees with three adults from Villa Bella 
de Matto Grosso in having no trace whatever of black in the orbital region. In 
all four individuals the maxilla is wholly black, the lower mandible orange yellow 
with the tip black, and the legs (tarsus and toes) are blackish. The type, which 
we have recently re-examined in the British Museum, has the legs neither blackish 
as in Matto Grosso birds, nor yellow as in newly collected specimens of P. capitata, 
but of a pale horn brown, exactly as in certain old skins of the latter species. The 
lower mandible is colored as in Matto Grosso birds, viz., bright yellow with dusky 
tip. The maxilla, however, is intermediate between cervicalis and capitata, being 
yellow along the culminal edge with the lateral portion dark brown streaked with 
brownish yellow. Proportions of bill, wings, and tail are more like those of Matto 
Grosso birds, which speaks for the type being an intergrade to P. capitata. The 
southern race of the Black-throated Cardinal is so little known that more ade- 
quate material is urgently needed to establish the limits of its variation. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Mojos, 1; unspecified, 1 (the type). Brazil, 
Matto Grosso: Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, 3. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 65 

(in text), 1907 eastern Bolivia and Matto Grosso (crit.); idem, I.e., 30, 
p. 229, 1923 Mojos, Bolivia (crit., range); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 60, p. 361, 1930 (range). 

Range. Eastern Bolivia (falls of the Rio Madeira; Reyes; 
Mojos; Chiquitos) and the adjacent districts of western Matto 
Grosso (Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, Rio Guapore"). 1 

1: Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1). 

Paroaria baeri Hellmayr. 2 BAER'S CARDINAL. 

Paroaria baeri Hellmayr, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 19, p. 43, Jan., 1907 Rio 
Araguaya [near Leopoldina], Goyaz, Brazil (type in Tring Collection, now 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Nov. 
Zool., 15, p. 36, 1908 Rio Araguaya. 

Range. Central Brazil, in State of Goyaz (near Leopoldina, 
upper Rio Araguaya). 

*Paroaria capitata (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 3 YELLOW-BILLED 
CARDINAL. 

1 Bertoni (Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914) includes P. gularis among the birds of 
Paraguay, evidently without having seen a specimen., 

* Paroaria baeri Hellmayr: Nearly allied to P. g. gularis, but differs by having 
the red of the forehead and throat much deeper, carmine-red instead of "poppy- 
red" (Ridgway, Nomencl. Colors, 1886, pi. 7, fig. 9); the feathers of the forehead 
and anterior crown merely tipped with red, the bases being black (while in P. g. 
gularis all the top of the head from forehead to nape is uniform clear poppy-red 
without any black at the bases) ; the lores and sides of the head metallic bluish- 
black instead of poppy-red; the sides of the neck bluish-black like the back, not 
white; the back and wings much more glossy black, this color extending up to 
the occiput; the sides of the breast and abdomen marked with subterminal blackish 
cross-bars, etc. Another striking difference consists in the shape of the feathers on 
the foreneck. In P. g. gularis, these are elongated, somewhat pointed, and black, 
with the concealed bases dull reddish; in P. baeri they are much shorter, rounder, 
and dull black, each feather with a minute glossy spot of carmine-red at the 
extreme tip. The bill, in P. baeri, is decidedly stronger and stouter, and the lower 
mandible, excepting the blackish tip, is dull reddish instead of bright orange 
yellow. The feet are blackish as in P. g. gularis. Wing, 80-83; tail, 80; bill, 14. 

Material examined. Brazil: Goyaz, near Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya, 4. 

3 Paroaria capitata (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) closely resembles P. gularis 
cervicalis, but is slightly smaller (wing, 77-82) with decidedly smaller, wholly 
orange yellow bill and much shorter tarsi, with dull orange yellow legs, and a very 
nearly complete white nuchal collar. 

This bird may ultimately prove to be a southern representative of the gularis 
group, such relationship being suggested by the intermediate bill-coloration of 
the type specimen of P. g. cervicalis, as we have explained in detail under that 
heading. The distribution of P. capitata is more southerly than that of its ally. 
While P. g. cervicalis inhabits the river valleys of eastern Bolivia and just crosses 
into Matto Grosso near the sources of the Rio Guapor6 (Villa Bella de Matto 
Grosso) in the Amazonian drainage, P. capitata is peculiar to the water system of 
the Paraguay River, extending north to its headwaters, the Sao Lourenco and 
Cuyaba rivers. Until more is known about the variation and local range of P. g. 
cervicalis, it seems, however, advisable to separate the two birds specifically. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Matto Grosso, Villa Maria [ = Sao Luiz 
de Caceres], 3; Rio Cuyaba, near Cuyaba, 3; Cambara, 1. Paraguay: Puerto 



66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tachyphonus capitatus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 29, 1837 Corrientes, Argentina (type in Paris Museum exam- 
ined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 278, pi. 19, fig. 2, 1839 
banks of the Rio Parana, in the provinces of Santa Fe, Entre Rios, and 
Corrientes; Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 9, 1847 Paraguay and La 
Plata River (ex "Capita" Azara, No. 137). 

Paroaria capitatus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 472, 1850 "Brazil" 
and Paraguay. 

Paroaria capitata Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 212, 1856 south- 
ern Brazil, on the confines of Paraguay and Bolivia; idem, Journ. Orn., 8, 
p. 254, 1860 Parana, on the bank of the river; idem, Reise La Plata St., 
2, p. 482, 1861 near Parana, Entre Rios; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 108, 1862 Paraguay; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 228, 1870 Rio Cuyaba, 
Villa Maria, and Caicara, Matto Grosso; Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, 
p. 254, 1874 Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1882, p. 598 "Argentina" (cage-bird); Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 9, 
1887 Lambare, Rio Paraguay, Paraguay; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 812, pi. 16, fig. 5, 1888 Cuyaba and Paraguay; Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 1, p. 48, 1888 near Parana; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, 
p. 369, 1891 Corumba and Uacuryzal, Rio Paraguay, Matto Grosso; 
Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 126 Fortin Donovan, lower Pilcomayo; idem, Ibis, 
1901, p. 224 Villa Concepcion and Gran Chaco, Paraguay; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 392, 1907 Matto Grosso; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. 
Zool., 16, p. 182, pi. 3, fig. 10 (egg), 1909 Ocampo, Mocovi, and San 
Lorenzo, Santa Fe (nest and eggs descr.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 400, 1910 Mocovi, Chaco; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 97 
Chaco (Riacho Ancho), Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco and Sapatero Cue, 
Rio Paraguay), Corrientes (Esquina), and Santa Fe (Rosario); Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Paraguay; Menegaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 5, 
p. 86, 1917 Sao Luiz de Caceres and Cavallaria (Corumba), Matto 
Grosso; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 30, p. 228, 1923 Corrientes (range); 
Serie and Smyth, El Hornero, 3, p. 54, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; 
Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 174, 1923 Corrientes; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 60, p. 359, 1930 Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco), and Matto Grosso (Agua 
Blanca de Corumba, Descalvados, Rio Sao Lourengo, Fazenda do Sao 
Joao) (nest and eggs descr.); Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 86, p. 397, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Paroaria cervicalis (not of Sclater) Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, 
No. 208, p. 6, 1895 Puerto Pagani, Rio Apa, Paraguay (spec, in Turin 
Museum examined). 

Coccopsis capitata Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 400, 1926 Chaco 
(Las Palmas), Formosa (Riacho Pilaga and Formosa), and Paraguay 
(Puerto Pinasco); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 231, 1927 
Deniz Island, Rio Parana, Santa Fe; Smyth, El Hornero, 4, p. 145, 1928 
(eggs descr.); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vb'gel, p. 
261, 1930 Formosa (San Jose, Tapikiole). 

Pagani, Rio Apa, 1; Villa Concepcion, 4; Bernalcue, near Asuncion, 2. Argentina: 
Corrientes, 5; Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes, 1; Ocampo, Santa Fe, 3; Mocovi, 
Santa Fe, 4; San Jose, Formosa, 1; Tapikiole, Formosa, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 67 

Range. Banks of the Rio Parana and tributaries from Santa Fe" 
(Rosario) and Corrientes north through Paraguay to its headwaters, 
the Paraguay, Sao Lourenco and Cuyaba rivers, in western Matto 
Grosso. 

6: Brazil (Descalvados, Matto Grosso, 2 ;Conceicao, Matto Grosso, 
2); Argentina (Mocovi, Chaco, 1; Ocampo, Santa Fe", 1). 

Genus RICHMONDENA Mathews and Iredale 

Cardinalis (not Jarocki, 1821) Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," 
p. Ill, pub. June 14, 1838 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List Genera Bds., 
p. 43, 1840), Cardinalis virginianus Bonaparte = Loxia cardinalis Linnaeus. 

Richmondena Mathews and Iredale, Austr. Av. Rec., 3, No. 6, p. 145, June 25, 
1918 type, by orig. desig., Loxia cardinalis Linnaeus. 

*Richmondena cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus). EASTERN 
CARDINAL. 

Loxia cardinalis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 172, 1758 based mainly 
on "The Red-Bird" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 38, pi. 38; South 
Carolina accepted as type locality. 

Loxia sanguinirosiris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 173, 1758 "in Asia," 
errore; Odhelius, Amoen. Acad., 4, p. 243, 1759 (full descr. of young male); 
cf. W. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 46, p. 19, 1925 (crit.). 

Loxia rubra Scopoli, Ann. I. Hist. Nat., p. 139, 1769 new name for Loxia 
cardinalis Linnaeus. 

Cardinalis virginianus Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. Ill, 
pub. June 14, 1838 new name for Loxia cardinalis Linnaeus. 

Cardinalis cardinalis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 161, 1888 (excl. of 
Texas and Florida; monog.). 

Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 635, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Cardinalis bermudianus Bangs and Bradlee, Auk, 18, p. 256, June 30, 1901 
Hamilton, Bermuda (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 674, 1901 
(crit.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 373, 1930 (crit.). 

Cardinalis cardinalis somersii Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., (4), 12, No. 67, p. 65, 
"July, 1901" [= June 30, 1901] Bermuda (type in coll. of A. H. Verrill). 

Range. North America, in the upper and lower Austral zones 
east of the Great Plains from southeastern South Dakota, southern 
Iowa, northern Indiana, northern Ohio, southern Ontario, Pennsyl- 
vania, and the southern Hudson Valley south to the northern parts 
of the Gulf states and the Bermudas (introduced?) ; casual in Colo- 
rado, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, New Brunswick, Massa- 
chusetts, and Connecticut. Introduced in southern California (race 
undetermined). 



68 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

46: Wisconsin (Viroqua, 1); Illinois (Olive Branch, 1; Grand 
Tower, 1; Henry, 4; Mound City, 3; Farina, 1; Grand Chain, 5; 
Lewistown, 6); Indiana (Dune Park, 1; Bluff ton, 1; Kouts, 2; Sala- 
monia, Jay County, 1); Kansas (Fort Riley, 2); Tennessee (Pomona 
Road, 1; Medina, 2); North Carolina (Raleigh, 8); Virginia (Alex- 
andria County, 1); Arkansas (Winslow, 2; Stuttgart, 1); Mississippi 
(Holly Springs, 2). 

*Richmondena cardinalis floridana (Ridgway). FLORIDA 
CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis floridanus Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., 2nd ed., p. 
606, 1896 Enterprise, Florida (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 641, 1901 Florida (monog.). 

Range. Peninsular Florida. 

70: Florida (Nassau County, 2; Starke, 1; Mary Esther, 17; 
Town Point, Santa Rosa County, 8; Jacksonville, 1; Enterprise, 3; 
Wilson, 4; Eau Gallic, 1; Kissimmee River, 1; West Jupiter, 11; 
Lake W T orth, 1; Palm Beach, 1; Merritt's Island, 1; Puntarasa, 7; 
Miami Beach, 5; Key West, 2; unspecified, 4). 

*Richmondena cardinalis magnirostris (Bangs). 1 LOUISIANA 
CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis magnirostris Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 4, p. 6, 
March 24, 1903 West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana (type in coll. of 
E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 374, 1930). 

Cardinalis cardinalis subsp. Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 641 (footnote 2), 1901 New Orleans, Madisonville, and Covington, 
Louisiana (crit.). 

Range. Eastern Texas and southern Louisiana. 
25: Louisiana (Chef Menteur, 7; Buras, 11; New Orleans, 1); 
Mississippi (Vicksburg, 6). 

*Richmondena cardinalis canicauda (Chapman). GRAY-TAILED 
CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis canicaudus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, No. 2, 
p. 324, Aug. 27, 1891 thirty miles west of Corpus Christi, Texas (type 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 639, 1901 Texas south to Puebla 

1 Richmondena cardinalis magnirostris (Bangs) : Most like R. c. floridana, but 
with larger, heavier bill and stronger legs; wing slightly longer; tail shorter; 
coloration of males on head and under parts not quite so dark, though more 
intense than in R. c. cardinalis; female with middle of belly paler, more whitish. 
Wing, 89-94, (female) 87-90; tail, 91-102, (female) 90-96; bill, 19-19.6, (female) 
18-19; depth of bill at base, 15.4-16.8, (female) 15.2-16. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 69 

(monog.); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 89, 1911 Tamaulipas (San Fernando, 
Matamoros, Alta Mira, Rio Martinez, Santa Leonor, Rio Cruz; crit.); 
Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 26, 1926 Brownsville, Texas. 

Range. Central and western Texas south through eastern 
Mexico to Puebla and Michoacan. 1 

74: Texas (Fort Worth, 16; Kendall County, 1; Fort Clark, 1; Port 
O'Connor, 1 ; Corpus Christi, 32 ; Port Lavaca, 3 ; Ingram, 3 ; Waring, 4 ; 
Cameron County, 1; Brownsville, 1); Mexico (Sabinas, Coahuila, 4; 
Valles, San Luis Potosi, 1; Tamaulipas, 1; Tampico, Tamaulipas, 5). 

*Richmondena cardinalis coccinea (Ridgway). JALAPA CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis virginianus var. coccineus Ridgway, Amer. Journ. Sci., (3), 5, No. 
25, p. 39, Jan., 1873 part, Atlantic coast of Mexico (type, from Mexico, 
in U. S. National Museum); 2 idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 
642, 1901 gulf slope of southeastern Mexico, excl. of Alta Mira, Tamau- 
lipas (monog., full bibliog.). 

Cardinalis cardinalis coccineus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 28, 
1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz. 

[Cardinalis cardinalis] subsp. a Cardinalis coccineus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 163, 1888 part, spec, a, b, Jalapa. 

Cardinalis virginianus (not of Bonaparte) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 340, 1884 part, Mexico (Vera Cruz, Cordoba, Jalapa, 
Playa Vicente). 

Range. Caribbean slope of southeastern Mexico, in states of 
Vera Cruz (Mirador, Cordoba, Orizaba, Jalapa, Otatitlan, etc.) and 
Oaxaca (Tuxtepec, Playa Vicente). 3 

1: Mexico (Achotal, Vera Cruz, 1). 

Richmondena cardinalis littoralis (Nelson). 4 NELSON'S 
CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis littoralis Nelson, Auk, 14, p. 64, 1897 Coatzacoal cos, 
coast of southern Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 643, 1901 coast of south- 
ern Vera Cruz (Coatzacoalcos, Minatitlan). 

Range. Hot coastal plains of extreme southeastern Vera Cruz (Co- 
atzacoalcos, Minatitlan) and probably of the adjacent parts of Tabasco. 

1 Here belongs probably Cardinalis herrerae Alvarado (Bol. Direc. Estud. 
Biol. Mexico, 1, No. 3, p. 284, col. pi., 1916), based on a color-variety with yellow 
crest and pectoral spots from Santa Rosa, San Luis Potosi. 

2 Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 643, footnote 1, 1901) gives 
good reasons for considering Playa Vicente, Oaxaca, to be the type locality. 

3 Birds from southern Tamaulipas (Alta Mira) assigned by Ridgway to the 
present form were shown by Phillips (Auk, 28, p. 89, 1911) to be referable to 
R. c. canicauda. 

4 Characters and range of this race remain to be determined by additional 
material. 



70 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Richmondena cardinalis yucatanica (Ridgway). YUCATAN 
CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis yucatanicus Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 443, 
1887 Yucatan (type, from Merida, in U. S. National Museum); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 209 Tekanto, Ticul, and Progreso, 
Yucatan; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 8, p. 279, 1896 Chichen- 
Itza, Yucatan; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 644, 1901 
part, Yucatan Peninsula (monog.); Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 
142, 1906 Chichen-Itza, Yucatan; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 17, 
1926 eastern Yucatan (crit.). 

Cardinalis virginianus (not of Bonaparte) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 9, p. 201, 1868 Merida, Yucatan; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 444 Chable, Yucatan; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 340, 1884 part, Me>ida and Chable, Yucatan. 

[Cardinalis cardinalis} subsp. a Cardinalis coccineus (not of Ridgway) Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 163, 1888 part, spec, d-g, Chable and Merida, 
Yucatan. 

Range. Peninsula of Yucatan. 

6: Mexico (San Ignacio, 1; MeYida, 1; Buctzotz, 1; San Felipe, 
2; "Yucatan," 1). 

Richmondena cardinalis flammigera (Peters). 1 BELIZE 
CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis flammiger Peters, Auk, 30, p. 380, July, 1913 Xcopen, 
Quintana Roo, Mexico (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass.); Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 235, p. 17, 1926 Corosal, 
British Honduras (crit.). 

Cardinalis virginianus (not of Bonaparte) Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 193 Belize, 
British Honduras; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 
340, 1884 parts, British Honduras (Belize, Corosal). 

[Cardinals cardinals] subsp. a Cardinalis coccineus (not of Ridgway) Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 163, 1888 part, spec, v-z, Corosal and 
Belize, British Honduras. 

Range. Southern Quintana Roo (Xcopen) and British Honduras 
(Corosal, Belize). 

*Richmondena cardinalis saturata (Ridgway). 2 COZUMEL 
CARDINAL. 

1 Richmondena cardinalis flammigera (Peters) : Similar to R. c. yucatanica, but 
slightly larger with longer, slenderer bill; color of adult male between geranium 
red and scarlet vermilion instead of between scarlet and scarlet vermilion; female 
differing by its bistre brown instead of raw umber back. Wing, 85 K, (female) 
79-80; tail, 106, (female) 97-103; bill, 18^, (female) 17-18. 

One specimen (male) from Corosal examined. 

2 Richmondena cardinalis saturata (Ridgway) appears to be separable from 
R. c. yucatanica by slightly larger size with heavier feet and darker coloration of 
the upper parts in both sexes. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 71 

Cardinalis saturatus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 3, p. 24, 1885 Cozumel 

Island, Yucatan (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Cardinalis cardinalis saturatus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 568, 

1885 Cozumel (full descr.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 

645, 1901 Cozumel (monog.); Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 236, p. 12, 

1926 Cozumel (crit.). 
[Cardinalis cardinalis] subsp. a Cardinalis coccineus (not of Ridgway) Sharpe, 

Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 163, 1888 part, spec, h-p, Cozumel. 
Cardinalis coccineus Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 260 part, Cozumel (crit.). 
Range. Cozumel Island, Yucatan. 1 
5: Mexico (Cozumel Island, Yucatan, 5). 

*Richmondena cardinalis superba (Ridgway). ARIZONA 
CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis superbus Ridgway, Auk, 2, p. 344, Oct., 1885 Fuller's 
Ranch, a few miles east of Camp Lowell, Arizona (type in U. S. National 
Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 645, 1901 southern 
Arizona and contiguous parts of Sonora (monog., full bibliog.). 

Richmondena cardinalis superba van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, 
p. 291, 1931 Sonora (Saric, Pesqueira, fifteen miles southwest of Nogales, 
El Alamo, and twelve miles west of Magdalena). 

[Cardinalis cardinalis} /3 C. superbus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 166, 
1888 part, spec, a, b, Camp Lowell, Arizona. 

Range. Southern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and the 
adjacent parts of northwestern Sonora (south to Pesqueira). 

8: Arizona (Phoenix, 2; San Pedro Mountain, Pinal County, 1; 
Tucson, 3; Paradise, 1; Calabasas, 1). 

*Richmondena cardinalis ignea (Baird). SAN LUCAS CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis igneus Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 305, pub. Jan. 

12, 1860 Cape San Lucas, Lower California (type in U. S. National 

Museum); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 341, 1884 

part, Cape S&n Lucas. 
[Cardinals cardinals] subsp. C. igneus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 

164, 1888 part, spec, b-f, San Jose and Cape San Lucas, Lower California. 

Cardinalis cardinalis igneus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 
647, 1901 Cape San Lucas district (monog., full bibliog.); Brewster, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 155, 1902 Cape district of Lower Cali- 
fornia (monog., habits, nest, and eggs); Townsend, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 

1 In the absence of material I am unable to decide whether specimens from 
the islands on the northern and eastern coast of Yucatan (Meco, Holbox, Muje- 
res) are referable to R. c. saturata or to R. c. yucatanica. Cf. Salvin, Ibis, 1888, 
p. 260, and Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 163, 1888 (spec. q-u). A casual 
inspection of the material in the British Museum shows these birds to be referable 
to saturata. 



72 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

48, p. 21, 1923 Cape region (to Concepcion Bay) and Carmen Island; 
McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 309, 1926 Cape San Lucas. 
Richmondena cardinalis ignea Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 184, 
1928 Cape district north to San Ignacio. 

Range. Arid Tropical and lower Austral zones of the Cape 
district of Lower California, north to about lat. 27. 

8: Lower California (Loreto, 1; Comondu, 1; Todos Santos, 2; 
Cape San Lucas, 1; unspecified, 3). 

Richmondena cardinalis townsendi van Rossem. 1 TIBUR6N 
CARDINAL. 

Richmondena cardinalis townsendi van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 
7, p. 142, July 28, 1932 Tiburon Island, Sonora, Mexico (type in Califor- 
nia Institute of Technology, Pasadena). 

Cardinalis cardinalis affinis (not of Nelson) Townsend, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 48, p. 21, 1923 Tiburon Island. 

Range. Tiburon Island, Gulf of California, on the coast of 
Sonora, northwestern Mexico. 

Richmondena cardinalis affinis (Nelson). 2 ALAMOS CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis affinis Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, p. 28, May 

29, 1899 Alamos, Sonora (type in U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 648, 1901 southern Sonora, northern 

Sinaloa, and adjacent Chihuahua (monog.). 
Cardinalis virginianus igneus (not of Baird) Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

6, p. 343, 1893 Guaymas, Sonora; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 5, p. 

39, 1893 Oputo, Sonora. 
Cardinalis igneus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 341, 

1884 part, Guaymas, Sonora. 
Richmondena cardinalis affinis van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, 

p. 291, 1931 Sonora (Tecoripa, San Javier, Obregon, Tesia, Chinobampo, 

Guirocoba, Guaymas, Tobari Bay, and Kino Bay); idem, Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 77, p. 478, 1934 Sonora (Guaymas, Alamos, Oposura, 

Nacozari, Cumpas) and Chihuahua (La Trompa). 

1 Richmondena cardinalis townsendi van Rossem: "Similar to R. c. affinis, of 
the Alamos District of southern Sonora, but coloration of males somewhat lighter 
red, and with dorsal plumage paler and gray; coloration of females paler, duller 
and grayer buff. Similar also to R. c. ignea, of Lower California, but bill smaller 
and less tumid, and coloration of females grayer and slightly paler. Wing (adult 
female), 95; tail, 112; oilmen from base, 17; depth at base, 14; tarsus, 25.3." (Van 
Rossem, I.e.) 

2 According to van Rossem (Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, pp. 142-143, 
1932), there is no tangible distinction in the male sex between R. c. superba, R. c. 
ignea, and R. c. affinis. Females of the first-named and the last are, however, of 
richer, browner coloration, especially underneath, affinis being again slightly 
darker and of decidedly smaller size, while those of R. c. ignea are duller and paler, 
more buffy and less brownish in tone. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 73 

Range. Eastern and southern Sonora and adjacent parts of 
southwestern Chihuahua (Batopilos, La Trompa, etc.). 

Richmondena cardinalis sinaloensis (Nelson). MAZATLAN 
CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis sinaloensis Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, p. 28, 

May 29, 1899 Culiacan, Sinaloa (type in U. S. National Museum); 

Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 648, 1901 Pacific coast of 

Sinaloa (monog., full bibliog.). 
Cardinalis virginianus (not of Bonaparte) Finsch, Abhandl. Naturw. Ver. 

Bremen, 2, p. 339, 1870 Mazatlan, Sinaloa. 
Cardinalis virginianus var. igneus (not of Baird) Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. 

N. H., 2, p. 275, 1874 part, Mazatlan. 
Cardinalis igneus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 341, 

1884 part, Mazatlan. 
Cardinalis cardinalis igneus Lantz, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 

Limoncito and Altata, Sinaloa. 
[Cardinalis cardinalis] p C. superbus (not of Ridgway) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 12, p. 166, 1888 part, spec, d, e, Presidio, near Mazatlan. 

Range. Pacific lowlands and foothills of southern Sinaloa, 
Mexico (Altata, Culiacan, Limoncito, Mazatlan, Presidio). 1 

Richmondena cardinalis mariae (Nelson). TRES MARIAS 
CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis cardinalis mariae Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 10, Jan. 27, 
1898 Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias group, Mexico (type in U. S. 
National Museum); idem, N. Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 52, 1899 Tres Marias 
(habits); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 649, 1901 Tres 
Marias (monog.); Bailey, Auk, 23, p. 391, 1906 Cleofa Island, Tres 
Marias; McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 310, 1926 Maria 
Madre Island; idem, I.e., (4), 17, p. 46, 1927 Maria Madre. 

Cardinalis virginianus (not of Bonaparte) Grayson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
14, p. 281, 1871 Tres Marias Islands. 

Cardinalis virginianus var. igneus (not of Baird) Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 2, p. 275, 1874 part, Tres Marias. 

Cardinalis igneus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 341, 
1884 part, Tres Marias. 

[Cardinals cardinalis} subsp. /3 C. igneus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 
166, 1888 part, a Large-billed form, Tres Marias Islands. 

Range. Tres Marias Islands, off western Mexico. 
Richmondena cardinalis carnea (Lesson). 2 COLIMA CARDINAL. 

1 The abnormally colored specimen from Michoacan (Patzcuaro) mentioned 
by Ridgway, unless it be a cage-bird, can hardly belong to R. c. sinaloensis. 

2 This form, though differing from its more northern allies by longer, stiffer 
crest and more convex bill, is clearly nothing but a race of the cardinal. In 
structure, it exhibits a certain tendency in the direction of R. phoenicea. 



74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Coccothraustes (Cardinalis) carneus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 210, 1842 

Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, and "Realejo, Nicaragua" (type apparently 

in coll. of R. P. Lesson). 1 
Cardinalis lessoni Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 501, end of 1850 

based on Coccothraustes (Cardinalis) carneus Lesson (Rev. Zool., 5, p. 210, 

1842); "junior an varietas." 
Cardinalis carneus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 501, 1850 Acapulco 

and "Realejo" (ex Lesson); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 

Aves, 1, p. 341, 1884 Acapulco (Guerrero), Sierra Nevada (Colima), 

and Huamelula (Oaxaca); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 

650, 1901 Colima to Oaxaca (monog.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., 75, p. 415, 1934 Acapulco and Coyuca, Guerrero. 
Cardinalis virginianus var. carneus Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 

275, 1874 Sierra Madre, Colima; idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 20, 

1876 Huamelula, Oaxaca. 
[Cardinalis cardinalis] subsp. y Cardinalis carneus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 12, p. 166, 1888 Acapulco. 
Cardinalis virginianus (not of Bonaparte) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1883, p. 421 Acapulco, Guerrero. 

Range. Pacific coast district of southwestern Mexico, from 
Colima to Oaxaca (Huamelula). 2 

*Richmondena phoenicea (Bonaparte). 3 VERMILION CARDINAL. 

Cardinalis phoeniceus (Gould MS.) Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, 
"1837," p. Ill, pub. June 14, 1838 "the country south of the Bay of 
Honduras" errore = Venezuela (type in coll. of Zoological Society of Lon- 
don, subsequently in Tring Museum; cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 26, p. 155, 1919) ; 
Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 83 Barcelona, Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, 
Exot. Orn., p. 125, pi. 63, 1868 Carupano, Venezuela; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1868, pp. 167, 170 Carupano, Venezuela; idem, I.e., 1869, p. 
251 San Esteban, Carabobo (very rare); Finsch, I.e., 1870, p. 582 
"Trinidad," errore; Bartlett, Monog. Weaver Bds. & Finches, Part 4, pi. 
2, 1889 Colombia, Venezuela (Cumana, Carupano), and "Trinidad" 
(ex Finsch); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 166, 1888 Carupano, 
Venezuela; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 52, 1892 Carupano; 

1 At present possibly in the Museum of the Naval Medical School at Roche- 
fort, France, where part of Lesson's private collection was deposited. Lesson's 
second locality, "Realejo, Nicaragua," can hardly be correct. 

2 Material examined. Acapulco, Guerrero, 5; Tehuan tepee, Oaxaca, 4. 

3 Richmondena phoenicea (Bonaparte) differs from the genotype so decidedly 
by much more convex bill, deeply incised maxillary tomium, and partly blackish 
upper mandible that it may well be kept as a distinct species. 

With ample material from both Venezuela and Margarita Island, I am quite 
unable to maintain the supposed insular race (robinsoni), since not one of the 
characters used for its discrimination holds in series, as has already been intimated 
by Lowe and Cory. Neither can I recognize C. p. granadensis after comparing in 
the Carnegie Museum some twenty specimens from the type locality with a 
Venezuelan series. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 75 

Phelps, Auk, 14, pp. 359, 364, 1897 Cumana, Venezuela; Lowe, Ibis, 

1909, p. 323 Cariaco Peninsula, Venezuela. 
Cardinalis phaeniceus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 501, 1850 

"Honduras" and Nova Granada. 
Cardinalis granadensis Lafresnaye, 1 Rev. Zool., 10, p. 74, 1847 Rio Hacha, 

Colombia (descr. of male; type in coll. of T. Wilson, now in the Academy 

of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

51, p. 51, 1899). 
Cardinalis phoenicurus granadensis Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 

51, 1899 (crit. on type). 
Cardinalis robinsoni Richmond, Auk, 12, p. 370, 1895 Margarita Island 

(type in U. S. National Museum); Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 18, p. 676, 1896 Margarita Island; Clark, Auk, 19, p. 265, 

1902 El Valle, Margarita. 
Cardinalis phoeniceus robinsoni Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 567 Margarita Island 

(crit.); Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 248, 1909 Margarita 

Island (crit.). 
Carduelis (sic) phoeniceus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 58, 1906 (occurrence 

in Trinidad denied). 
Richmondena phoenicea Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 504, 

1922 Rio Hacha, Colombia (crit.; habits). 

Range, Arid Tropical zone of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela 
and Colombia, from the Cariaco Peninsula and Margarita Island 
west to La Goajira (Rio Hacha). 2 

46: Venezuela (La Asuncion, Margarita Island, 1; Porlamar, 
Margarita Island, 25; Margarita Island, 13; Maracaibo, 3; Rio 
Aurare, Zulia, 3); Colombia (Cartagena, Bolivar, 1). 

Genus PYRRHULOXIA Bonaparte 

Pyrrhuloxia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 500, end of 1850 type, 
by monotypy, Cardinalis sinuatiis Bonaparte. 

*Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata (Bonaparte). TEXAS PYRRHULOXIA. 

Cardinalis sinuatus Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. Ill, pub. 
June 14, 1838 "western parts of Mexico" (type in coll. of Zoological 
Society of London, now in British Museum); idem, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, 
(2), p. 500, 1850 Zacatecas, Mexico; 3 van Rossem, Trans. San Diego 
Soc. N. H., 7, p. 355, 1934 (crit.). 

*A synonym may be Cardinalis columbianus Bonaparte (Compt. Rend. Acad. 
Sci., 37, p. 924, Dec., 1853) from "Colombia." It is said to be smaller than the 
Cardinal of Virginia, with stronger bill and brighter red of the head, characters 
which are hardly sufficient to identify the bird the author had before him. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Cumana, 20; San Esteban, 1. 
Colombia: Rio Hacha, La Goajira, 22. 

4 The reported occurrence on the island of Trinidad is unreliable. 

1 Accepted by van Rossem (Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 356 [in text], 
1934) as type locality. 



76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata beckhami Ridgway, Auk, 4, p. 347, Oct., 1887 El Paso, 
western Texas (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata texana Ridgway, Auk, 14, p. 95, 1897 (nomen nudum); 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 628, 1901 northeastern 
Mexico and southern Texas (type from Corpus Christi, Texas, in U. S. 
National Museum) ; Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 89, 1911 Matamoros, Tamaulipas; 
Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 26, 1926 Brownsville, Texas. 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 
625, 1901 part, New Mexico and western Texas (El Paso, etc.); van 
Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 357, 1934 (range); idem, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 478, 1934 Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 343, 
1884 part, valley of the Rio Grande, Texas, Nuevo Leon, and Guana- 
juato; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 158, 1888 part, d-i, Texas 
(Eagle Pass, Rio Grande, Laredo, Ringgold Barracks, El Paso). 

Range. Lower Austral zone of southern and southeastern New 
Mexico, southeastwards across Texas and south through Mexico to 
Zacatecas, Guanajuato, and Puebla. 1 

25: New Mexico (Mimbres, 3); Texas (Crystal City, 2; Corpus 
Christi, 7); Mexico (Chihuahua, 4; Sabinas, Coahuila, 9). 

*Pyrrhuloxia sinuata fulvescens van Rossem. 2 ARIZONA 
PYRRHULOXIA. 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata fulvescens van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, 

p. 356, May 31, 1934 Fort Lowell, Arizona (type in the D. R. Dickey 

Collection at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena); idem, 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 478, 1934 Sonora (Guaymas, Alamos, 

Oposura). 
Pyrrhuloxia sinuata (not Cardinalis sinualus Bonaparte) Lawrence, Mem. Bost. 

Soc. N. H., 2, p. 275, 1874 Mazatlan, Sinaloa; fielding, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 6, p. 343, 1883 Guaymas, Sonora; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 

Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 343, 1884 part, Guaymas and Mazatlan; 

Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 158, 1888 part, spec, b, c, Tucson, 

Arizona; Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 Florida, 

Sinaloa. 
Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 

625, 1901 part, northwestern Mexico and Arizona (monog., bibliog.); 

Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 364, 1905 Escuinapa, Sinaloa; 

idem, I.e., 22, p. 172, 1906 Rosario and Rancho Baillon, Durango (crit.); 

Van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 292, 1931 Sonora 

1 As pointed out by van Rossem, the type of C. sinuatus is matched by speci- 
mens from Duval County, Texas, being a good average example of the form P. s. 
texana. The same author, furthermore, has shown birds from New Mexico (Las 
Cruces) and western Texas (El Paso) to be inseparable from a series taken in the 
lower Rio Grande Valley. 

1 Pyrrhuloxia sinuata fulvescens van Rossem: Similar to the nominate race, 
but distinguished by slightly smaller size, paler and more fulvous coloration, and 
virtual absence of black intermixture in the red of the face and crest of the males. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 77 

(Tecoripa, San Javier, Saric, Tesia, Chinobampo, Guaymas, Tobari Bay, 
Guirocoba, Sasabe). 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata beckhami (not of Ridgway) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
5, p. 40, 1893 Granados, Sonora. 

Range. Lower Sonoran and arid Tropical zones of southern 
Arizona (from the vicinity of Tucson southwards) and western 
Mexico through Sonora, Sinaloa, and western Durango to Nayarit. 

8: Arizona (Tucson, 5; Fort Lowell, 2; Fairbank, 1). 

*Pyrrhuloxia sinuata peninsulae Ridgway. SAN LUCAS 
PYRRHULOXIA. - 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata peninsulae Ridgway, Auk, 14, p. 347, 1887 San Jos6, 
Lower California (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 627, 1901 Cape San Lucas; Brewster, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 157, 1902 La Paz, Triunfo, Santiago, and San 
Jose del Rancho; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 184, 1928 
Cape district, Lower California. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of the Cape district of Lower Cali- 
fornia north locally to latitude 26 40'. 

4: Lower California (Todos Santos, 1; San Jose* del Cabo, 1; 
Santa Anita, 2). 

Genus PHEUCTICUS Reichenbach 

Pheucticus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. Ixxviii, June 1, 1850 type, by subs, 
desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 75, 1855), Pitylus aureoventris 
Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 

Pheucticus chrysopeplus dilutus van Rossem. 1 VAN ROSSEM'S 
GROSBEAK. 

Pheucticus chrysopeplus dilutus van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 

479, Dec., 1934 La Trompa, Chihuahua, Mexico (type in Museum of 

Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 
Pheuticus [sic] chrysopeplus (not Coccothraustes chrysopeplus Vigors) van 

Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 293, 1931 Guirocoba, Sonora. 

Range. Southern Sonora (Guirocoba, Ysleta, Alamos, Hacienda 
de San Rafael), southwestern Chihuahua (La Trompa), and probably 
northern Sinaloa. 

*Pheucticus chrysopeplus chrysopeplus (Vigors). 2 VIGORS'S 
GROSBEAK. 

1 Pheucticus chrysopeplus dilutus van Rossem: Adult male similar to P. c. 
chrysopeplus, but with the concealed sub-basal portion of the rump feathers black 
as in P. c. aurantiacus, and back predominately black with yellow flammulations; 
female very much grayer and duller and more heavily streaked above, and paler 
yellow below with distinct streaks of dusky on the flanks. Size about the same. 

Material examined. Sonora: Alamos, 1; Ysleta, 4. 

2 Possible synonyms are Guiraca magnirostris Bonaparte (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 5, "1837," p. 120, pub. June 14, 1838) and Pheucticus bonaparlei Salvadori 



78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Coccothraustes chrysopeplus Vigors, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 2, p. 4, pub. March, 1832 Mexico 1 (type in coll. of Zoological 
Society of London, now in British Museum; cf. van Rossem, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 77, p. 479, 1934). 

Coccoborus chrysopeplus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 504, 1850 
Mexico (synon. in part). 

Pheucticus chrysopeplus Finsch, Abhandl. Naturw. Ver. Bremen, 2, p. 339, 
1870 Mazatlan, Sinaloa (plumages, crit.); Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 2, p. 274, 1874 Mazatlan, Sinaloa, and Rio de la Armeria, Colima 
(crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 335, 1884 
Mexico (Mazatlan, Rio de la Armeria); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 
p. 51, 1888 Mazatlan and Presidio; Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, 
p. 223, 1899 Culiacan, Sinaloa; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 621, 1901 part, from Sinaloa (Mazatlan, Rosario, Culiacan) 
to Colima (monog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 364, 1905 
Escuinapa and Juanna Gomez River, Sinaloa; McLellan, Proc. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 45, 1927 Labrados, Sinaloa. 

Pheucticus chrysopeplus chrysopeplus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 
411, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Range. Southern Sinaloa (Culiacan, Mazatlan, Rosario, Escuin- 
apa, Labrados) and Durango (Chacala) south through Nayarit 
(San Bias) and Jalisco (Las Palmas) to Colima (Armeria), and 
Guerrero (Chilpancingo). 

1: Mexico (Escuinapa, Sinaloa, 1). 

*Pheucticus chrysopeplus aurantiacus Salvin and Godman. 2 
ORANGE-COLORED GROSBEAK. 

Pheucticus aurantiacus Salvin and Godman, Ibis, (6), 3, p. 272, 1891 Volcan 
de Santa Maria, near Quezaltenango, Guatemala (type in Salvin and 
Godman Collection, now in British Museum, examined); Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 623, 1901 Guatemala (Volcan de Santa 
Maria and Villanueva). 

(Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 178, Dec., 1868). Bonaparte based his description 
upon a (female or immature) grosbeak in a collection of birds received by Lead- 
beater "from that portion of Brazil bordering on Peru," which contained, however, 
also some Mexican species. Salvador! renamed the species on the ground that 
Swainson (Classif. & Nat. Hist. Bds., 2, p. Ill, fig. 159, July, 1837) had already 
employed the same specific name for another member of the genus Coccoborus 
[=Guiraca\. I am unable to identify Bonaparte's species, the type of which 
presumably in the Derby Collection at Liverpool should be critically examined. 

1 San Bias, Nayarit, suggested as type locality by van Rossem (Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 77, p. 480, 1934). 

2 Pheucticus chrysopeplus aurantiacus Salvin and Godman: Similar to P. c. 
chrysopeplus, but head and under parts more orange, and adult male with sub- 
basal portion of rump feathers black. 

Additional material examined. Mexico: Chietla, Puebla, 1 (male); Pinabete, 
Chiapas, 2; Volcan de Tacana, Chiapas, 2. Guatemala: Volcan de Santa Maria, 
2; San Marcos, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 79 

Pheuticus [sic] aurantiacus Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 

120, 1907 El Rancho, Guatemala. 
Pheucticus chrysopeplus aurantiacus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 

347, 1932 Progreso, Guatemala. 
Pheucticus chrysopeplus (not of Vigors) Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 

9, p. 141, 1886 Chietla, Puebla (spec, examined); Ridgway, Bull. U.S. 

Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 621, 1901 part, Puebla. 

Range. Highlands of southeastern Mexico (Chietla, Puebla; 
Pinabete and Volcan de Tacana, Chiapas) and Guatemala (Volcan 
de Santa Maria, near Quezaltenango; Villanueva; Progreso and El 
Rancho, Motagua Valley). 

10: Guatemala (Volcano Tajumulco, San Marcos, 9; El Rancho, 
Zacapa, 1). 

*Pheucticus chrysopeplus tibialis Lawrence. 1 IRAZTJ GROSBEAK. 
Pheucticus tibialis (Baird MS.) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 
478, May, 1867 Cervantes, Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, I.e., 9, p. 102, 1868 Costa Rica (Tucurriqui, Cervantes, San Jose, 
Rancho Redondo); Salvadori, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, 4, p. 177, pi. 5, 
1868 [=1869] Costa Rica (crit.); Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 300, 
1869 Turrialba, Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 189 
Veraguas (Calovevora, Chitra, Boquete de Chitra) and Chiriqui (Bu- 
gaba); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 840 Costa Rica and Veraguas; 
Boucard, I.e., 1878, p. 58 Navarro and Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica; 
Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 495, 1882 Volcan de Irazu, Costa 
Rica; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 335, 1884 
Costa Rica and Panama; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. Ill, 
1887 Costa Rica (Rancho Redondo de San Jose, El Zarcero de Alajuela, 
Cartago); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 53, 1888 Costa Rica 
(Irazu, Rancho Redondo, Valsa) and Panama (Calovevora, Veraguas); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 623, 1901 Costa Rica 
and Veraguas (monog.); Bangs, Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 68, 1902 
Boquete and Caribbean slope of Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama; Ferry, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 281, 1910 Coliblanco, Costa Rica; 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 880, 1910 Costa Rica (Volcan de 
Turrialba, Coliblanco, Bonilla, La Estrella, Escazu, Tres Rios, Azahar, 
La Estrella de Cartago, Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, Volcan de Irazu, Azahar 
de Cartago; nest and eggs descr.); Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 38, p. 460, 1928 Boquete Trail, Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 71, p. 337, 1931 Guabo and Boquete Trail, Panama. 

1 This bird, although heretofore regarded as specifically different, is certainly 
nothing but a strongly marked race of P. chrysopeplus, as is indicated by certain 
individual variants. An adult male from the southwest slope of Irazu has well- 
developed white apical spots on the two lateral pairs of rectrices, and another 
specimen from the Volcan de Chiriqui shows white fringes to some of the greater 
wing-coverts. 

Nine specimens from Costa Rica, five from Chiriqui, and one from Veraguas 
(Boquete de Chitra) examined. 



80 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Upper Tropical and Subtropical zones of Costa Rica 
and western Panama (Chiriqui and Veraguas). 

3: Costa Rica (Coliblanco, 1; La Isla, 1; Navarro, 1). 

*Pheucticus chrysopeplus laubmanni Hellmayr and Seilern. 1 
LAUBMANN'S GROSBEAK. 

Pheucticus chrysopeplus laubmanni Hellmayr and Seilern, Verb. Orn. Ges. 

Bay., 12, p. 160, Feb., 1915 Galipan, Cerro del Avila, Venezuela (type 

in Munich Museum). 
Pheucticus laubmanni Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 505, 

1922 San Miguel, Santa Marta region, Colombia. 
Pheucticus chrysogaster (not Pitylus chrysogaster Lesson) Sclater, Cat. Coll. 

Amer. Bds., p. 100, 1862 part, spec, b, Venezuela; Sclater and Salvin, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 840 part, Venezuela; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 12, p. 53, 1888 part, spec, b, c, Caracas, Venezuela. 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Colombia (San Miguel, 
Santa Marta region) and northern Venezuela (Caracas; Rio Mam^ra; 
Galipan, Cerro del Avila; Mount Turumiquire, Sucre). 

2: Venezuela (Mount Turumiquire, 2). 

*Pheucticus chrysopeplus chrysogaster (Lesson). GOLDEN- 
BELLIED GROSBEAK. 

Pitylus chrysogaster Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 204, pi. 67, May, 1832 "Chili," 
errore 2 (type in coll. of F. Canivet, present location unknown; descr. 
of male adult). 

Pitylus dorsigerus Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., (n.s.), Part 8, pi. 44, 1842 
"believed to come from some part of the western coast, towards the 
north of South America" = Ecuador (type in coll. of J. Carfrae; descr. 
of adult male). 

Coccoborus chrysogaster Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 222, 1846 
Peru. 

1 Pheucticus chrysopeplus laubmanni Hellmayr and Seilern: Nearest to P. c. 
chrysogaster, but easily distinguished by the adult male having the interscapular 
feathers bright yellow laterally edged with black, instead of solid black with semi- 
concealed yellow sub-basal spots; the scapulars narrowly margined on both webs 
with dull olive yellow, and the first to fifth primaries (from without) along the 
apical half of the outer web conspicuously edged with white; adult female differing 
by the last-named character and by brighter yellow upper parts, approaching in 
tone the color of the male sex. Wing, 102-106, (female) 98-103; tail, 81-86; bill, 
20-22. 

By the white margins to the outer primaries and the striped upper back this 
form recalls P. c. chrysopeplus, but is much smaller, more heavily streaked in the 
interscapular region, and has black sub-basal spots on the rump, not to mention 
several minor differences. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 14; Rio Mamera, 
near Antlmano, Caracas region, 3. 

2 Quito, Ecuador, suggested as type locality by Hellmayr and Seilern (Verh. 
Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 160, note 1, 1915). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 81 

Pheucticus chrysogaster Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, pp. 450, 454, 
1858 Cuenca, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 27, p. 140, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; 
idem, I.e., 28, p. 87, 1860 Calacali and about Quito, Ecuador; idem, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 100, 1862 part, spec, a, Pallatanga; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 984 Islay and Arequipa, Peru; 
Sclater, I.e., 1869, p. 147 vicinity of Lima, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 
1870, p. 840 part, Ecuador; Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 275, 
1874 Ecuador (crit.); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 199 
Callacate, Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 549 Chimbo, 
Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1884, p. 292 Cechce, Bugnac, and Cayandeled, Ecua- 
dor (crit.) ; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 3, 1886 Peru (Chilpes, Guadalupe, 
Tumbez, Tambillo, Callacate, Chachapoyas, Huayabamba, Paucal) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 52, 1888 part, spec, d-r, Ecuador (Sical, Santa 
Rita, Pallatanga, Cuenca Quito, Guayaquil) and Peru (Islay, Arequipa); 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 72, 1889 Quito; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 
2, p. 6, 1895 Cajabamba, Chusgon (Huamachuco), and Malca, Peru; 
Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 22, 1899 La 
Conception (Chota), Nanegal, and Cuenca, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1901, p. 473 Quito and Chillo Valley, Ecuador (habits); Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 68, 1906 Coracora and Pauza, Ayacucho, Peru; 
M6ne"gaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Choquisongo, Peru; idem, 
Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee Mes. Arc Me>id. Equat., 9, p. B74, 1911 
Tumbaco and Calacali, Ecuador; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 462, 
1918 Huancabamba, Peru; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 
25, p. 78, 1922 Quito and Tumbaco, Ecuador. 

Pheucticus chrysopeplus (not Coccothraustes chrysopeplus Vigors) Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 519 Chilpes, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, 
p. 229 Tambillo, Peru. 

Pheucticus chrysogaster subsp. Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1896, p. 349 Huamani, Garita del Sol, and Maraynioc, Peru. 

Pheucticus chrysopeplus chrysogaster Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 484, 1898 
Ibarra and Cayambe, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 605, 1926 Ecuador (Verdecocha, Pichincha, Mocha, Manta, Tumbaco, 
Cumbaya, Pallatanga, Puna Island, Santa Rosa, Zaruma, Punta Santa 
Ana, Salvias, El Paso, Casanga, Celica, Lunama, Alamor, Cebollal, Loja, 
Sabanilla, Zamora) and Peru (Paletillas, Palambla, Viru, Huancabamba, 
Rio Chinchipe, Rumicruz and Utcuyacu, Junin); Zimmer, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 457, 1930 Santa Eulalia (Lima), Huanuco, 
Chinchao, and Vista Alegre, Peru; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
34, p. 76, 1928 Pilon, Alugincho, Tumbaco, and San Pedro Tingo, 
Ecuador; idem, I.e., (2), 4, pp. 235, 627, 1932 Isla Silva, Cuenca, and 
El Portete de Tarqui, Ecuador. 

Pheucticus chrysocephalus (lapsu) chrysogaster Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 117, p. 108, 1921 Rio San Miguel, Urubamba, Peru. 

Range. Tropical to Temperate zones of Ecuador and Peru south 
to Arequipa and Puno. 1 

1 Despite its wide altitudinal distribution ranging from sea-level up to the 
Temperate zone, I have not been able to make out any local variation. Forty- 
two specimens from Peru and twenty from Ecuador examined. 



82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

27: Peru (Hacienda Limon, west of Balsas, 7; Macate, 11; 
Huanuco, 3; Vista Alegre, 1; Cullcui, Maraiion River, 1; Chinchao, 
3; Santa Eulalia, 1). 

*Pheucticus aureo-ventris aureo-ventris (Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny). BLACK-RUMPED GROSBEAK. 

Pitylus aureo-ventris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 84, 1837 "Yungas, Sicasica, Bolivia" (type, from Sicasica, 
in Paris Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 365, 
pi. 49, figs. 1, 2, 1844 prov. Yungas, Ayupaya, Mizque, Chuquisaca, 
and Chiquitos, Bolivia. 

Pheuctlcus aureiventris Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 99, 1862 part, 
spec, a, b, Bolivia; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 221, 1870 Villa Maria, 
No Dourado, and Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, Brazil; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 604 Bolivia (d'Orbigny's local- 
ities); White, I.e., 1882, p. 598 Campo Santo, Salta; Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 1, p. 43, 1888 Salta; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 54, 
1888 Sorata, Bolivia; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 83, 1889 
Mapiri, Bolivia; Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cordoba, 10, 
p. 598, 1890 Sierra de Cordoba; Koslowsky, Revist. Mus. La Plata, 6, 
pp. 278, 290, 1895 Chilecito (La Rioja) and Catamarca; Salvadori, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 8, 1897 San Lorenzo (Jujuy), 
Tala (Salta), and Cordillera de San Pablo (Tucuman); Lillo, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 176, 1902 Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 216, 
1904 Tapia, La Criolla, and Lagunita, Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. 
La Plata, 11, p. 257, 1904 Oran, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 
3, p. 42, 1905 Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 368, 1907 
(range); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 174, 1909 Tucuman; 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 378, 1910 (range in 
Argentina); Serie and Smyth, El Hornero, 3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, 
Entre Rfos (apparently recorded from hearsay only); Giacomelli, I.e., 3, 
p. 69, 1923 Sierra of La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 174, 1923 Huerta 
Grande, Cordoba; Dinelli, I.e., 3,. p. 254, 1924 cerros of Tucuman at 
altitudes from 1,000 to 2,000 metr. (habits, nest and eggs); Castellanos, 
I.e., 5, p. 317, 1934 Valle de los Reartes, Cordoba. 

Pkeucticus aureo-ventris Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 198, 1926 
Tapia, Tucuman; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 342, 
1930 Urucum, Matto Grosso; Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran 
Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 237, 1930 Salta (Aguaray) and Bolivia (Florida 
and San Jose", Santa Cruz; Villa Montes, Tarija); Stone and Roberts, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 395, 1934 Descalvados, Matto 
Grosso. 

Pheucticus aureiventris aureiventris Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87, 
p. 340, 1935 Santa Ana and Teoponte, upper Beni, Bolivia (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of Bolivia, northwestern 
Argentina (from Salta and Jujuy south to La Rioja and Cordoba) 
and extreme southwestern Brazil, in the western parts of Matto 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 83 

Grosso (Villa Maria, No Dourado, Engenho do Gama, Urucum, 
Descalvados). : 

6: Brazil (Urucum de Corumba, Matto Grosso, 1); Bolivia 
(Parotani, Cochabamba, 1; Buena Vista, 1); Argentina (Conception, 
Tucuman, 1; Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, 1; Rio Sail, Tucuman, 1). 

Pheucticus aureo-ventris terminalis Chapman. 2 CHAPMAN'S 
GROSBEAK. 

Pheucticus uropygialis terminalis Chapman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 32, 
p. 266, Dec., 1919 San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba Canyon, Peru (type in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 108, 1921 San Miguel Bridge and Chauillay, 
Urubamba, Peru. 

(?) Pheucticus aureiventris (not Pitylus aureo-ventris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 518 Huanta, Ayacucho, 
and "Maraynioc, Junin," Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1874, p. 677 
Ccachupata, Dept. Cuzco, Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe"r., 3, p. 1, 1886 
Huanta and Ccachupata, Peru. 

Pheucticus uropygialis Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 2, 1886 Huanta, Aya- 
cucho, and Alcatanga, Montanas de Huancayo, southern Junin; Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 103, 1906 Urquillos, near Cuzco, Peru. 

Range, Tropical and Subtropical zones of southern Peru, in 
depts. of Cuzco and (?)Junin. 

Pheucticus aureo-ventris uropygialis Sclater and Salvin. 
YELLOW-RUMPED GROSBEAK. 

Pheucticus uropygialis Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., for Dec., 
1870, p. 840, publ. early in 1871 Bogota, Colombia (type in coll. of 
P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 327 

1 Specimens from Matto Grosso are perfectly identical with a Bolivian series 
in coloration, and the single adult male (from Villa Maria = Sao Luiz de Caceres) 
has the bill fully as bulky as the thickest-billed from Bolivia. Argentine birds 
merely diverge by having the bill on the average slightly smaller. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Songo, 1; Cocapata, 1; Chicani, 3; 
Olgin, 2; Santa Cruz, 3; Buena Vista, 6. Argentina: Salta, 1; Villa Nougues, 
Tucuman, 2; Tapia, 1; Norco, 1; Tucuman, 2. Brazil, Matto Grosso: Villa 
Maria, 1; Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore', 2; No Dourado, 1. 

2 Pheucticus aureo-ventris terminalis Chapman: Resembling P. a. meridensis 
in comparative absence of black markings on the sides and flanks, in the large 
size of the white endings of the greater wing coverts, and in yellow spotting to 
interscapulars, but differing from both P. a. meridensis and P. a. uropygialis in 
having large white terminal or slightly subterminal rounded spots instead of 
small whitish transverse subterminal marks on the upper tail coverts; lower tail 
coverts whiter; tibiae yellower (compiled from Chapman's original description). 

This form, based on two specimens from the Urubamba region, requires further 
investigation. Three immature males from Carabaya (Oceneque and Limbani) 
differ nowise from various individuals in a large series from Bolivia and Argentina. 
Taczanowski records both "P. aureiventris" and "P. uropygialis" from Huanta, 
Ayacucho, the former with the rump black like the back and with hardly any 
white on the upper tail coverts, while the latter, in agreement with Chapman's 



84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

above "Matisgua" [=Matisuga], northeast of Bucaramanga, Santander, 

Colombia; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 55, 1888 Colombia 

(Bogota and "Pasto"). 
Pitylus auriventris (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Bonaparte, Atti Sesta 

Riun. Scienz. Ital., 1844, p. 405, 1845 Bogota. 
Pheucticus aureiventer Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 154, 1855 

Bogota. 
Pheucticus uropygialis uropygialis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, 

p. 555, 1917 La Mar, Palo Hueco, Subia, Fomeque, and Chipaque, 

eastern Andes of Colombia. 

Range. Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia, in 
states of Cundinamarca and Santander. 1 

*Pheucticus aureo-ventris meridensis Riley. 2 MERIDA 
GROSBEAK. 

Pheucticus uropygialis meridensis Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 220, 
1905 Pedregosa, Merida, Venezuela (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Chapman, I.e., 32, p. 266, 1919 near Merida. 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of the Andes of 
western Venezuela (Cordillera of MeYida). 

1: Venezuela (Rio Chama, 1). 

Pheucticus aureo-ventris crissalis Sclater and Salvin. 3 YELLOW- 
THROATED GROSBEAK. 

Pheucticus crissalis Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 19 
Riobamba and Sical, Ecuador (type, from Riobamba, in coll. of P. L. 

diagnosis of terminalis, is described as having the rump extensively yellow varie- 
gated with black, and the upper tail coverts largely tipped with white. The co- 
existence of two grosbeaks in the same locality appears to be extremely unlikely, 
and I am rather inclined to think that the differences which caused Taczanowski 
to refer the Huanta birds to two "species," really signify the limits of individual 
variation in the inhabitants of southern Peru, where intergradation between the 
northern yellow-rumped group and the southern black-rumped form might reason- 
ably be expected to take place. Adequate series from the disputed region are 
urgently needed for the solution of the problem. 

1 Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 15. 

2 Pheucticus aureo-ventris meridensis Riley: Nearest to P. a. uropygialis, but 
distinguished 'by more extensive yellow uropygial area, the presence of half-con- 
cealed lemon yellow subterminal spots to the interscapular feathers, and the 
absence of the black markings on the sides of the abdomen. The other points of 
distinction mentioned by the describer do not hold in the available series. Five 
specimens have no trace of black spots underneath, while in two others there are 
narrow sooty fringes to some of the flank feathers. The under tail coverts are 
either wholly yellow or with just a few inconspicuous whitish tips. Wing (males), 
102-115; tail, 88-95. 

Material examined. Venezuela, Merida: Chama, 1; Paramo del Morro (alt. 
8,000 ft.), 2; Montanas del Morro (alt. 8,200 ft.), 4. 

3 Pheucticus aureo-ventris crissalis Sclater and Salvin differs readily from the 
other races by yellow throat and buffy white longer under tail coverts. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Banos, Rio Pastaza, 8; San Rafael, 1; La 
Conception, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 85 

Sclater, now in British Museum); Taczanowski and Berlepsch, I.e., 1885, 
p. 84 San Rafael; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 56, 1888 Rio- 
bamba and Sical; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 357, p. 23, 1899 La Concepci6n (Chota), Ibarra, and Tumbaco 
(Quito), Ecuador (crit.); M6ngaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Arme"e Mes. Arc 
Me"rid. Equat., 9, p. B75, 1911 Riobamba; Lonnberg and Rendahl, 
Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 78, 1922 Ambato; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 55, p. 605, 1926 Riobamba, Cajabamba, Chambo, Mocha, 
and "Cluvinda," Ecuador. 

Pheucticus aureiventris (not Pitylus aureo-ventris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 551, 1858 above Punfn and Rio- 
bamba; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 99, 1862 part, spec, c-e, Rio- 
bamba and Cuenca. 

Range. Subtropical and Temperate zones of Ecuador. 

Genus HEDYMELES Cabanis 

Habia (not of Blyth, 1840) Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 78, June, 1850 
type not indicated. 

Hedymeles Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 162, Oct., 1851 new name for Habia 
Reichenbach; type, by subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 71, 
1855),Zxmo ludoviciana Linnaeus. 

Zamelodia Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 98, 1880 new name for Hedy- 
meles Cabanis (supposed to be preoccupied by Hedymela Sundevall, 1847). 1 

*Hedymeles ludovicianus (Linnaeus). ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. 

Loxia ludoviciana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 306, 1766 based on 
"Le Gros-bec de la Louisiane" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 247, pi. 12, fig. 2; 
Louisiana (type in coll. of M. de Reaumur). 

Loxia rubricollis P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 151, 1776 based on 
"Gros-bec de la Louisiane" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 152, fig. 2. 

Loxia obscura Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 862, 1789 based on "Dusky 
Grosbeak" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 351, No. 216; New York (descr. 
of female or young). 

Fringilla punicea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 921, 1789 based on "Red- 
breasted Finch" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 372, No. 245; Sandy Hook 
(descr. of adult male). 

Loxia rosea Wilson, Amer. Orn., 2, p. 135, pi. 17, fig. 2, 1810 new name 
for Loxia ludoviciana Linnaeus. 

Fringilla rhodocampter Lichtenstein, Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, 
p. 2, 1830 Mexico (type in Berlin Museum=adult male); Cabanis, Journ. 
Orn., 11, p. 56, 1863 (reprint). 

Hedymeles ludovicianus (a) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 58, 1888; 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 506, 1922 Cincinnati, 
Colombia; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 130, 1923 Cuba; Darling- 
ton, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 419, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdelena, 

1 Cf. Coues, Auk, 14, pp. 39-42, 1897, and Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 115, 1919. 



86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Colombia; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 429, 
1931 Hispaniola (Gonave Island; Poste Chabert, Haiti); Griscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 347, 1932 Guatemala. 
Zamelodia ludoviciana Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 614, 
1901 (monog., full bibliog.) ; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 555, 
1917 Paramillo, Barro Blanco, Salento, and Buena Vista, Colombia; 
idem, I.e., 55, p. 606, 1926 Esmeraldas and lower Sumaco, Ecuador. 

Range. North America from southern Mackenzie, Manitoba, 
Ontario, Quebec, and Cape Breton Island south to Kansas, southern 
Missouri, Ohio, New Jersey, and in the mountains to northern 
Georgia; winters from southern Mexico and Yucatan to Colombia, 
western Venezuela, and Ecuador; casual on migration in Cuba, 
Jamaica, Haiti, and the Bahamas; accidental in Arizona, Colorado, 
and California. 

86: Maine (Lincoln, 1); New York (Peterboro, 1; Albion, 1); 
Massachusetts (Woburn, 1; Cambridge, 1; unspecified, 1); Con- 
necticut (New Haven, 1; East Hartford, 20); New Jersey (Engle- 
wood, 1); Wisconsin (Green Lake, 1; Delton, 1; Beaver Dam, 6); 
Illinois (Highland Park, 2; Deerfield, 3; Lake Forest, 1; Chicago, 5; 
Des Plaines River, Cook County, 1; Joliet, 3; Momence, 2; Addi- 
son, 1; Henry, 5); Arkansas (Winslow, 1); Florida (Nassau County, 1; 
Key West, 2); Bahama Islands (Watling Island, 1); Mexico (Valles, 
San Luis Potosi, 1; Cozumel Island, 2); Guatemala (Volcano Taju- 
mulco, San Marcos, 3; San Augustine, Zacapa, 1; Lake Atitlan, 1; 
Patulul, Solola, 1; Mazatenango, 3; San Jose", Escuintla, 1); Nicaragua 
(San Geronimo, 3); Costa Rica (Limon, 1); Colombia ("Bogota," 3); 
Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 1; Colon, Tachira, 1). 

*Hedymeles melanocephalus melanocephalus (Swainson). 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN GROSBEAK. 

Guiraca melanocephala Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 438, June, 

1827 table land of Mexico (type, from Temascal tepee, in coll. of W. 

Bullock, now in University Museum, Cambridge, Eng.; cf. van Rossem, 

Auk, 49, p. 489, 1932, and Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 357, 1934). 1 
Fringilla epopoea Lichtenstein, Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 

1830 Mexico (restricted type, from Jalapa, Vera Cruz, in Berlin Museum; 

cf. van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 357, 1934); Cabanis, 

Journ. Orn., 11, p. 56, 1863 (reprint). 
Fringilla xanthomaschalis Wagler, Isis, 1831, p. 525 Mexico (cotypes in 

Munich Museum examined); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 

7, p. 358, 1934 (crit.). 1 

1 Mr. van Rossem has ascertained by examining the respective types that 
Guiraca melanocephala, as well as Fringilla epopoea and F. xanthomaschalis, are 
all referable to the large eastern race of the Black-headed Grosbeak. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 87 

(1)Guiraca tricolor Lesson, 1 Rev. Zool., 2, p. 102, 1839 Mexico (type in coll. 

of Dr. AbeiUe 1 , Bordeaux; descr. of immature male). 
(l)Pitylus guttatus Lesson, 1 Rev. Zool., 2, p. 102, 1839 Mexico (type in 

coll. of Dr. Abeille", Bordeaux; descr. of adult male). 
Hedymeles melanocephalus papago Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 412, 1919 Santa 

Cruz River, west of Patagone Mountains, Arizona (type in U. S. National 

Museum). 
Hedymeles melanocephalus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 62, 1888 

part, subsp. a H. melanocephalus. 
Zamelodia melanocephala Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 617, 

1901 part (full bibliog.). 
Zamelodia melanocephala melanocephala van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. 

N. H., 6, p. 292, 1931 Sonora (Tecoripa, San Javier, Chinobampo, 

Guirocoba) . 
Hedymeles melanocephalus melanocephalus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

75, p. 410, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero (Nov. 15); van Rossem, I.e., 

77, p. 478, 1934 Sonora (migrants). 

Range. Breeds from southern Saskatchewan to eastern Idaho, 
Nevada, western Arizona, and the northern states of Mexico (Ta- 
maulipas, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon), 2 and east to central North 
Dakota, central Nebraska, Kansas, and western Texas; winters 
south to Guerrero and Puebla, Mexico. 

42: North Dakota (Cannonball River, 2); Colorado (Lay, 1; 
Loveland, 1; Fort Lyon, 8); Arizona (Calabasas, 9; Huachuca 
Mountains, 21). 

"Hedymeles melanocephalus macula tus (Audubon). 3 BLACK- 
HEADED GROSBEAK. 

Fringilla maculata Audubon, Bds. of America, folio, 4, pi. 373, figs. 2, 3, 4, 
1837 (type from Columbia River, Oregon, in U. S. National Museum; 
cf. Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 411 [in text], 1919). 

[Hedymeles melanocephalus] var. capitalis Baird, in Baird, Brewer and Ridg- 
way, Hist. N. Amer. Bds., 2, p. 70, 1874 Columbia River, Oregon 
(type* in U. S. National Museum). 

Zamelodia melanocephala microrhyncha Grinnell, Condor, 2, p. 128, Nov., 1900 
Buckhorn Canon, Sierra San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, California 

1 These names might just as well refer to the small-billed race (maculatus), but 
fortunately their status does not affect nomenclature, Audubon 's name being earlier. 

1 Breeding birds from northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas and Nuevo Le6n) 
are stated by Griscom to be intermediate between the two races, and their reference 
to one rather than to the other is a matter of personal opinion. 

1 Hedymeles melanocephalus maculatus (Audubon): Similar to the nominate 
race, but smaller in all proportions, the bill especially so; postocular streak of 
tawny usually present. Wing, 96-101, (female) 93-104; tail, 71-81, (female) 75- 
81; bill, 15-18, (female) 16-19. 

4 According to Oberholser, probably the very same individual that served as 
basis for Audubon's figure of the adult male. 



88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

(type in coll. of J. Grinnell, now in Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 

Berkeley; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 302, 1932). 
Hedymeles melanocephalus (not Guiraca melanocephala Swainson) Sharpe, 

Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 62, 1888 part, /3 H. capitalis, California. 
Zamelodia melanocephala Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 617, 

1901 part, Pacific region of North America and western Mexico (full 

bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 172, 1906 Arroyo 

del Buey, Durango (May 28, 29). 
Hedymeles melanocephalus melanocephalus Oberholser, Auk, 36, p. 408, 1919 

(monog.). 
Zamelodia melanocephala capitalis Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 185, 

1928 Lower California. 
Zamelodia melanocephala maculata van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 

6, p. 292, 1931 Sonora (Saric, breeding; Tecoripa, San Javier, Tesia, 

Chinobampo, Guaymas, Guirocoba) (crit.). 
Hedymeles melanocephalus maculatus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, 

p. 410, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero (crit.); van Rossem, I.e., 77, p. 478, 

1934 Sonora (Alamos, Oposura) and Chihuahua (La Trompa) (crit.). 

Range. Breeds from Vancouver Island and the mainland of 
southern British Columbia south through California, northern 
Lower California (south to the western flank of the Sierra San Pedro 
Martir), and western Mexico to Oaxaca and Vera Cruz (Jico); 
winters in southern Lower California and in Mexico. 1 

31: California (Nicasio, 9; Carlotta, 1; Palo Alto, 1; Sherman, 
Los Angeles County, 3; Los Gatos, 2; Cienega, Los Angeles County, 
2; Los Angeles County, 1; Hay ward, 1; Anderson, 2; Lakeside, 1; 
Alameda County, 1); Mexico (Iguala, Guerrero, 7). 

Genus GUIRACA Swainson 

Guiraca Swainson, Philos. Magaz., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 438, June, 1827 type, 

by subs, desig. (Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, p. 350, Dec., 1827), 

Loxia caerulea "Wilson" = Linnaeus. 
Coccoborus Swainson, Nat. Hist. & Class. Bds., 2, p. Ill, July, 1837 type, 

by orig. desig., Loxia caerulea Linnaeus. 
Goniapha.ea G. R. Gray, 2 Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 71, 1855 type, by orig. 

desig., Loxia caerulea Linnaeus. 

*Guiracea caerulea caerulea (Linnaeus). EASTERN BLUE- 
GROSBEAK. 

Loxia caerulea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed. f 1, p. 175, 1758 based on 
"The Blue Gross-beak" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 39, pi. 39; 
"Carolina" = South Carolina. 

1 According to Griscom (I.e., p. 411, 1934), breeding birds from Sonora (Opo- 
sura) are not properly separable from Calif ornian specimens; which is corroborated 
by van Rossem's statement. 

*Goniaphea Bowdich (Excurs. Madeira, p. 29, 1825), according to Sherborn, 
is a nomen nudum. We have not been able to consult this scarce publication. 






1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 89 

Guiraca caerulea Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 66, 1888 part, south- 
eastern United States. 

Guiraca caerulea caerulea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 607, 
1901 southeastern United States, in winter south to Cuba and Yucatan 
(monog., full bibliog.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 130, 1923 
Cuba; Dwight and Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 257, p. 4, 1927 (monog., 
range); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 348, 1932 Guatemala 
(Finca Chama, San Lucas, Sacapulas, Pantaleon, San Jose'). 

Range. Breeds in the southeastern United States from western 
Nebraska, Missouri, southern Illinois, and Maryland south to Texas, 
southern Alabama, and central Florida, and north sparingly to New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania; winters in eastern Mexico and Guatemala; 
casual in Cuba. 

18: North Carolina (Raleigh, 1); South Carolina (Charleston, 1); 
Texas (Kerrville, 1; Fort Worth, 2; Ingram, 3); Mexico (Monterrey, 
Nuevo Leon, 1; Cozumel Island, 2; Peto, Yucatan, 1; Rio Lagartos, 1; 
"Yucatan," 4); Guatemala (El Rancho, Zacapa, 1). 

*Guiraca caerulea interfusa Dwight and Griscom. 1 WESTERN 
BLUE GROSBEAK. 

Guiraca caerulea interfusa Dwight and Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 257, 
p. 4, 1927 Fort Lowell, Arizona (type in coll. of J. Dwight, Jr., now in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 185, 1928 Colorado delta, Lower California; 
Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 331, 1929 southern Arizona; 
van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 293, 1931 Saric, Guiro- 
coba, and El Alamo, Sonora (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 348, 1932 Sacapulas, Guatemala (March); idem, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 75, p. 411, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero; van Rossem, 
I.e., 77, p. 480, 1934 Alamos (March), Hacienda de San Rafael (May), 
and Oposura (June), Sonora. 

Guiraca caerulea lazula (not Pitylus lazulus Lesson) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 610, 1901 part, Arizona, Chihuahua, etc. 
(monog., bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 364, 1905 
Escuinapa and Arroyo de Limones, Sinaloa (Dec. to April). 

Range. Lower Austral zone of southwestern United States 
from extreme southern Nevada, southeastern California, and north- 
eastern Lower California (Colorado delta region) east to Colorado 
and New Mexico, and adjacent parts of northwestern Mexico; in 
winter south to southern Mexico and Guatemala. 

32: Colorado (Fort Lyon, 2); Arizona (Calabasas, 5; Fairbank, 1; 

1 Guiraca caerulea interfusa Dwight and Griscom: "Similar to G. c. caerulea, 
but larger and paler, the blue of the male less purplish (dark diva or grayish 
violaceous blue), the anterior wing-band a paler chestnut, the other wing-band 



90 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Tucson, 1); Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 5; Iguala, Guerrero, 8; City of 
Mexico, 1 ; Morelia, Michoacan, 1) ; Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal, 1 ; 
Salama, Baja VeraPaz, 2; El Rancho, Zacapa, 1; Patulul, Solola, 1; 
Laguna, Guatemala Province, 1; Lake Amatitlan, 1; Lake Atitlan, 1). 

*Guiraca caerulea salicaria Grinnell. 1 CALIFORNIA BLUE 
GROSBEAK. 

Guiraca caerulea salicarius Grinnell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 24, p. 163, 1911 
Santa Ana River bottom, San Bernardino County, California (type in 
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
32, p. 185, 1928 Lower California. 

Guiraca caerulea salicaria Dwight and Grinnell, Amer. Mus. Novit., 257, 
p. 5, 1927 (monog., range); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 
6, p. 293, 1931 Oregon and Tesia, Sonora (winter); idem, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 77, p. 480, 1934 Alamos, Sonora (Feb. 6 to March 22). 

Guiraca caerulea lazula (not Pitylus lazulus Lesson) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 610, 1901 part, California. 

Range. Lower Austral zone of California, from the head of the 
Sacramento Valley and Owens Valley southwards, and Lower 
California south to about latitude 31; winters in the Cape district 
of Lower California and in northwestern Mexico. 

5: California (Corona, 1; San Bernardino, 2; Lakeside, 1; 
Riverside, 1). 

Guiraca caerulea euryhyncha Coues. 2 LARGE-BILLED BLUE 
GROSBEAK. 

G. coerulea var. eurhyncha Coues, Amer. Natur., 8, No. 9, p. 563, Sept., 1874 

Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Guiraca caerulea eurhyncha Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 216 

San Andres [Tuxtla], Vera Cruz; Dwight and Griscom, Amer. Mus. 

Novit., 257, p. 5, 1927 southern Mexico (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. N. H., 64, p. 348, 1932 San Lucas and San Jose, Guatemala; 

idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 411, 1934 Coyuca and Chilpan- 

cingo, Guerrero (crit.). 
Guiraca chiapensis Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 61, 1898 Ocozo- 

acuantla, Chiapas, Mexico (descr. of female; type in U. S. National Museum). 

still paler and contrasting, both broader, and the winter veiling heavier. Like 
G. c. salicaria in color, but larger, especially the bill; lighter and smaller than G. c. 
eurhyncha. Females and young males larger and paler than G. c. caerulea. Wing 
(male), 88-93; tail, 66-71; bill, 16-17; depth at nostril, 11.3-12." (Dwight and 
Griscom.) 

1 Guiraca caerulea salicaria Grinnell: Similar to G. c. inter fusa in coloration, 
but bill decidedly smaller; paler, with wings and tail on average slightly longer, 
than G. c. caerulea. 

* Guiraca caerulea eurhyncha Coues: LikeG. c. caerulea in deep coloration, but 
larger, specially the bill; both wing-bands deep chestnut. Wing (adult males), 
91-95; tail, 68-72; bill, 17^-18; depth at nostril, 12^-13. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 91 

Guiraca caerulea chiapensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S: Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 612, 1901 Chiapas and Oaxaca (monog.). 

Guiraca caerulea lazula (not Pitylus lazulus Lesson) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 610, 1901 part, southern Mexico; Bangs and 

Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 484, 1927 Presidio, Vera Cruz. 

Range. Resident in southern Mexico, from San Luis Potosi and 

Guanajuato to Oaxaca and Chiapas, and western Guatemala (San 

Lucas, San Jose"). 1 

*Guiraca caerulea lazula (Lesson). 2 PALE BLUE GROSBEAK. 

Pitylus lazulus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 174, 1842 "San Carlos (Centre 
Ame>ique)" = La Union, Gulf of Fonseca, El Salvador (type in coll. of 
R. P. Lesson, present location unknown). 

Guiraca caerulea (not Loxia caerulea Linnaeus) Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 6, p. 392, 1883 Island of Ometepe, Lake Nicaragua, Nicaragua; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 344, 1885 part, 
Nicaragua (Ometepe, Chinandega); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 
p. 66, 1888 part, spec, a', Chinandega, Nicaragua; Cherrie, Anal. Inst. 
Fis.-Geog. y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 139, 1893 Boruca, Costa Rica 
(Nov. 29); Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 436 Miravalles, Costa Rica. 

Guiraca caerulea lazula Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 610, 
1901 part, Nicaragua (Ometepe) and Costa Rica (Boruca); Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 882, 1910 Coyolar and Puntarenas, Costa 
Rica; Dwight and Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 257, p. 5, 1927 Pacific 
slope of Costa Rica and Nicaragua (crit.). 

Range. Pacific slope of El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. 3 
1: Costa Rica (Orosi, 1). 

Genus CYANOCOMPSA Cabanis 

Cyanocompsa Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 4, 1861 type, by orig. desig., 
Fringilla parellina (Lichtenstein MS.) Bonaparte. 

"Cyanocompsa parellina beneplacita Bangs. 4 NORTHERN BLUE 
BUNTING. 

1 An additional race, G. c. deltarhynchax, has recently been separated by van 
Rossem (Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 58, p. 133, July 13, 1938 type from Tepic, Nayarit, 
Mexico, in the British Museum). 

2 Guiraca caerulea lazula (Lesson) : Similar to G. c. eurhyncha in size and color 
of wing-bands, but the blue portions of the plumage in the male sex decidedly 
paler and brighter (about diva blue). Wing (adult male), 89-93; tail, 73-75; bill, 
17-18; depth at nostril, 12-13. 

Two adult males from Managua, Nicaragua, are the only ones we have seen 
of this apparently valid race. 

3 It remains to be determined whether the grosbeaks, recorded from Caribbean 
Nicaragua (Chontales) and Costa Rica (Angostura) by Salvin (Ibis, 1873, p. 373) 
and Lawrence (Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 102, 1868), respectively, pertain 
to G. c. lazula or are wintering individuals of one of the northern races. The Chontales 
bird proves, on examination, to be typical of lazula. 

4 Cyanocompsa parellina beneplacita Bangs: Similar to C. p. parellina, but 
with generally smaller, darker bill; male slightly paler blue, and female duller, 



92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cyanocompsa parellina beneplacita Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 28, p. 126. 
May, 1915 Santa Leonor, Tamaulipas, Mexico (type in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Todd, Auk, 40, p. 68, 1923 
Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon, Mexico (crit.). 

Cyanospiza parellina (not Cyanoloxia parellina Bonaparte) Baird, Rep. Pacif. 
R. R. Surv., 9, p. 502, 1858 Sierra Madre (Nuevo Leon) and Tamau- 
lipas; idem, Bds. America, atlas, pi. 56, fig. 1, 1860; idem, Rep. U. S. and 
Mex. Bound. Surv., 2, (2), p. 17, pi. 18, fig. 1, 1859 Sierra Madre, 
Nuevo Leon. 

Guiraca parellina Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 347, 
1885 part, Sierra Madre, Nuevo Leon. 

Passerina parellina Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 630, 1896 
Alta Mira, Tamaulipas. 

Cyanocompsa parellina parellina Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 601, 1901 part, Nuevo Leon (Boquillo, Sierra Madre, Monterrey), 
Tamaulipas (Alta Mira), and (?)San Luis Potosf (Valles); Phillips, Auk, 
28, p. 89, 1911 Tamaulipas (Guiaves, Carricitos, Rio Martinez, Rio 
Cruz, Alta Mira, Santa Leonor). 

Range. Northeastern Mexico, in states of Nuevo Leon, Tamauli- 
pas, and (?)San Luis Potosi (Valles). 

1: Mexico (Tampico, Tamaulipas, 1). 

*Cyanocomp8a parellina parellina (Bonaparte). BLUE BUNTING. 

Cyanoloxia parellina (Lichtenstein MS.) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, 
(2), p. 502, end of 1850 Alvarado [Vera Cruz], Mexico (type in Berlin 
Museum). 

Goniaphea parellina Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 302, 1856 Cordoba, 
Vera Cruz. 

Goniaphaea parellina Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 228, 1857 San 
Andres Tuxtla, Vera Cruz. 

Guiraca parellina Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, pp. 365, 378, 1859 
Jalapa, Vera Cruz, and Totontepec, Oaxaca; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 101, 1862 Jalapa; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 444, 
Merida, Yucatan; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 347, 1885 part, Vera Cruz (Alvarado, Cordoba, Jalapa, San Andres 
Tuxtla), Oaxaca (Totontepec), and Yucatan (Me>ida); Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 69, 1888 part, spec, d-h, Mexico (Orizaba, 
Jalapa), Yucatan (Me>ida), Meco and Mujeres Islands; Salvin, Ibis, 
1888, p. 261 Meco and Mujeres Islands. 

Cyanospiza parellina Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 551, 1869 
hot region of Vera Cruz. 

Passerina parellina Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 209 Sitilpech, 
Yucatan (only seen). 

less rufescent brown. Birds from southern Tamaulipas (Tampico, Alta Mira), 
while intermediate, are apparently nearer to this than to the next form. We have 
not seen any material from San Luis Potosf. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 93 

Cyanocompsa parellina parellina Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 601, 1901 part, Puebla (Metlaltoyuca), Vera Cruz (Mirador, Chi- 
chicaxtli, Alvarado, Cordoba, Jalapa, San Andres Tuxtla, Totontepec), 
Tabasco (Frontera), and Yucatan; Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, 
p. 143, 1906 Chichen-Itza and Xbac, Yucatan; Todd, Auk, 40, p. 67, 
1923 part, Yucatan to Vera Cruz (monog.); Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 
235, p. 16, 1926 eastern Yucatan; Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 67, p. 484, 1927 Presidio and Motzorongo, Vera Cruz. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, from Puebla 
and Vera Cruz south through northern Oaxaca (Totontepec), 
Tabasco, and Yucatan to Quintana Roo, including Meco and 
Mujeres Islands. 

1: Mexico (unspecified, 1). 

Cyanocompsa parellina indigotica (Ridgway). TURQUOISE- 
FRONTED BUNTING. 

Passerina parellina indigotica Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 447, 1887 
Manzanillo Bay, Colima, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum; 
descr. of adult male). 

Passerina sumichrasti Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 447, 1887 Tehuan- 
tepec City, Oaxaca, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum; descr. of 
immature male). 

Guiraca parellina (not Cyanoloxia parellina Bonaparte) Lawrence, Mem. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 276, 1874 Manzanillo Bay, Colima; idem, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 20, 1876 Tehuantepec City and Huallago, Oaxaca; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 347, 1885 part, 
Presidio (near Mazatlan), Manzanillo Bay, Tehuantepec City, and 
Huallago; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 69, 1888 part, spec, b, 
Presidio. 

Cyanocompsa parellina indigotica Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 602, 1901 southwestern Mexico, from Sinaloa (Mazatlan) to Colima 
(Manzanillo Bay); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 364, 1905 
Escuinapa, Sinaloa; Todd, Auk, 40, p. 68, 1923 Pacific coast of Mexico 
from Oaxaca to Mazatlan (monog.); McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(4), 16, p. 45, 1927 Labrados, Sinaloa; Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 68, p. 401, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca (crit.). 

Cyanocompsa parellina sumichrasti Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 602, 1901 Oaxaca (Tehuantepec City, Pluma, Huallago). 

Range. Pacific coast of western Mexico, from Sinaloa (Mazatlan, 
Presidio, Escuinapa, Labrados) through Nayarit (Acaponeta), 
Jalisco, and Colima (Manzanillo Bay) to Oaxaca (Pluma, Tehuan- 
tepec City, Huallago, Chivela). 1 

1 From the investigations of Todd, Bangs, and Peters it results that the sup- 
posedly larger form of Oaxaca (sumichrasti) is not separable from C. p. indigotica. 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Cyanocompsa parellina dearborn! Miller and Griscom. 1 DEAR- 
BORN'S BLUE BUNTING. 

Cyanocompsa parellina dearborni Miller and Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 

184, p. 1, Sept., 1925 San Rafael del Norte, Nicaragua (type in the 

American Museum of Natural History, New York); Griscom, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. N. H., 64, p. 349, 1932 Guatemala; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., 84, p. 339, 1932 Cantarranas, Honduras. 
Cyanocompsa parellina (not Cyanoloxia parellina Bonaparte) Dearborn, Field 

Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 119, 1907 Los Amates and Patulul, 

Guatemala (crit.). 
Cyanocompsa parellina parellina Todd, Auk, 40, p. 67, 1923 part, Mata- 

galpa, Nicaragua. 

Range. Tropical zone of Guatemala (Patulul; Los Amates), 
Honduras (Cantarranas; San Pedro), and Nicaragua (San Rafael 
del Norte, Las Canas, Matagalpa). . 

5: Guatemala (Patulul, 2; Los Amates, 2); Nicaragua (San 
Rafael del Norte, 1). 

*Cyanocompsa cyanoides concreta (Du Bus). BLUE-BLACK 
GROSBEAK. 

Cyanoloxia concreta Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belgique, 22, (1), p. 150, 1855 
Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in Brussels Museum; descr. 
of male). 

Goniaphea concreta Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 302, 1856 Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz. 

Goniaphaea concreta Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 228, 1857 Sante- 
comapam, Vera Cruz. 

Guiraca concreta Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 378, 1859 Playa 
Vicente, Vera Cruz; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 33 Yzabal, Guate- 
mala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 101, 1862 Orizaba, Mexico; 
Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 551, 1869 hot region of 
Vera Cruz up to Penuela (near Cordoba); Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. 
Lyon, (n.s.), 25, p. 44, 1876 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 345, 1885 part, Mexico (Orizaba, Sante- 
comapam, Playa Vicente, Penuela), Guatemala (Yzabal, Choctum), and 
British Honduras; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 74, 1888 part, 
spec, a-k, Mexico (Orizaba), British Honduras, and Guatemala (Vera 
Paz, Choctum, Yzabal). 

Cyanocompsa concreta concreta Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 596, 1901 part, Vera Cruz (Mirador, Orizaba, Santecomapam, Playa 

1 Cyanocompsa parellina dearborni Miller and Griscom : Very similar to C. p. 
parellina, but male somewhat brighter blue, and female decidedly darker brown, 
particularly on forehead and rump. Wing (adult males), 68-70; tail, 52-54; 
bill, 89. 

This is rather an unsatisfactory race, of which I should like to see a larger 
series. A single Nicaraguan female and a male from San Pedro, Honduras, agree 
well with those from Guatemala. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 95 

Vicente), Chiapas (Ocuilapa), and Guatemala; Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 69, p. 389, 1929 Cayo district, British Honduras. 
Cyanocompsa cyanoides concreta Todd, Auk, 40, p. 61, 1923 southern Mexico 
to British Honduras (monog.); Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 67, p. 484, 1927 Presidio and Motzorongo, Vera Cruz; Griscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 349, 1932 Finca Chama, Secanquim, 
and Finca Sepacuite, Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera 
Cruz and Chiapas, Guatemala, and British Honduras. 1 
2: Guatemala (Escobas, Izabal, 1; unspecified, 1). 

*Cyanocompsa cyanoides caerulescens Todd. 2 COSTA RICAN 
BLUE GROSBEAK. 

Cyanocompsa cyanoides caerulescens Todd, Auk, 40, p. 61, 1923 Esparta, 
Costa Rica (type in Carnegie Museum); Kennard and Peters, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 460, 1928 Almirante, Panama; Peters, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 337, 1931 Changuinola, Western River, and 
Almirante, Panama. 

Guiraca concreta (not Cyanoloxia concreta Du Bus) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 141 Santa Fe, Veraguas; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 102, 1868 Turrialba and Angostura, Costa Rica; 
Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 301, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 189 Panama (Calovevora and Boquete de Chitra, 
Veraguas; Bugaba, Chiriqui); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1870, p. 836 
Honduras; Salvin, Ibis, 1872, p. 317 Chontales, Nicaragua; Nutting, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 400, 1883 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 345, 1885 part, Honduras 
(San Pedro), Nicaragua (Chontales, Los Sabalos), Costa Rica (Turrialba, 
Angostura), Chiriqui (Bugaba), and Veraguas (Calovevora, Santa Fe, 
Boquete de Chitra); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 586, 1887 
Segovia River, Honduras; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 74, 1888 
part, spec. 1-u, Costa Rica (Tempate, Tucurriqui), Chiriquf (Bugaba), 
and Veraguas (Calovevora, Santa Fe, Chitra); Richmond, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 16, p. 492, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua, and Rio Frio, 
Costa Rica; Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 436 Miravalles, Costa Rica. 

1 Four specimens from Vera Cruz (Orizaba, etc.) and six from Guatemala 
(Vera Paz) examined. 

2 Cyanocompsa cyanoides cyanescens Todd : Similar to C. c. concreta, but adult 
male brighter throughout, dusky slate blue rather than bluish black, with the 
forehead slightly brighter than the crown, and the sides of the head dull bluish 
rather than blackish. From C. c. cyanoides it may be separated by larger size and 
darker, duller blue general coloration. 

This form is exactly intermediate between C. c. concreta and C. c. cyanoides, 
in fact so much so that certain individuals can hardly be told from the latter, 
while others are very nearly matched by the former. Still, taken as a whole, the 
best course seems to be the recognition of a third race, for which Mr. Todd has 
proposed the name caerulescens, even if a certain percentage of specimens from 
southern Central America cannot be distinguished from the allied forms. 

Twenty-six specimens, including one from Honduras (San Pedro), two from 
Chiriqui, and four from Veraguas examined. 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cyanocompsa cyanoides concreta Nutting and Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 5, p. 392, 1882 La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica; Zeledon, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. Ill, 1887 Costa Rica (Jimenez, Pacuare, 
Rio Sucio); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 240, 1932 Great 
Falls, Pis Pis River, Nicaragua (crit.). 

Guiraca cyanoides concreta Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 4, p. 139, 1893 Costa Rica (Boruca, Terraba, Buenos Aires). 

Cyanocompsa concreta concreta Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 596, 1901 part, Nicaragua (Rio Escondido, Los Sabalos) and Costa 
Rica (Rio Frio); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 883, 1910 Rio 
Frio, Costa Rica; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 339, 1932 
Honduras (Segovia River, San Pedro, Santa Ana). 

Cyanocompsa concreta cyanescens (not of Ridgway, 1898) Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 597, 1901 part, southern Honduras 
(Santa Ana) to Chiriqui; Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 311, 1907 Costa Rica 
(Boruca, Paso Real, El Pozo de Terraba); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 884, 1910 Costa Rica (crit., habits, nest and eggs); Rendahl, Ark. 
Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 31, 1919 Costa Rica (Talamanca, Sipurio; Siquirres, 
Cano Secco). 

Range. Tropical zone of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, 
and western Panama. 

15: Nicaragua (San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua, 2); Costa Rica 
(Siquirres, 2; Matina, 2; Hacienda La Iberia, Province of Limon, 1; 
Limon, 2; Orosi, 2; Boruca, 2; Buenos Aires, 1); Panama (Veraguas, 1). 

*Cyanocompsa cyanoides cyanoides (Lafresnaye). PANAMA 
BLUE GROSBEAK. 

Coccoborus cyanoides Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 74, 1847 Panama (descr. 
of female; type in coll. of T. B. Wilson, now in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 51, 
1899, and Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, pp. 277-278, 1905). 

Guiraca sp. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 293, 1860 Esmeraldas, 
Ecuador. 

Cyanoloxia cyanoides Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 502, 1850 
Panama; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 297, 1861 Panama 
Railroad. 

Guiraca cyanoides Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 101, 1862 part, spec, b, 
Esmeraldas; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 352 
Panama Railroad; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 506 Remedies, Antioquia, Colom- 
bia; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 549 Chimbo, Ecuador 
(crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 346, 1885 
Panama (Lion Hill), Colombia, and Ecuador; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 73, 1888 Panama (Lion Hill), Colombia ("Bogota," Reme- 
dies), and Ecuador (Balzar, Esmeraldas); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 23, 1899 Rio Peripa, Ecuador. 

Cyanocompsa cyanoides Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 599, 
1901 part, Panama (crit.). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 97 

Cyanocompsa concrete cyanescens Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 229, July, 1898 
Panama (type in U. S. National Museum); Bangs, Proc. New Engl. 
Zool. Cl., 2, p. 33, 1900 Loma del Le6n, Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 597, 1901 part, Panama to western Ecuador; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 555, 1917 Salaqui (Atrato 
region), Cocal, and Barbacoas, Pacific Colombia; Stone, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 275, 1918 Gatun, Panama. 

Cyanocompsa concreta semctae martae Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, 
p. 139, June 3, 1898 "Santa Marta," Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. 
and O. Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 379, 1930); Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 165, 1900 Cacagualito, Colombia; Hellmayr 
and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 67, 1912 Las Quiguas and 
San Esteban, Carabobo, and near Bucarito (Tocuyo), Lara, Venezuela 
(crit.). 

Cyanocompsa cyanoides cyanoides Bangs and Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 65, p. 229, 1922 Rio Esnape, Darien; Todd and Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 507, 1922 Cacagualito, Don Amo, Don Diego, 
La Tigrera, Minca, and Fundacion, Santa Marta region, Colombia; 
Todd, Auk, 40, p. 62, 1923 Panama to northern Venezuela and western 
Ecuador (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 606, 1926 
western Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Rio de Oro, Cerro Manglar Alto, Chimbo, 
Bucay, Naranjo, Santa Rosa, La Puente, La Chonta); Darlington, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 419, 1931 near Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia; 
Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 371, 1932 Perm6 and Ranchon, Panama. 

Cyancompsa concreta cyanoides Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 321, 1924 Rio Velaz- 
quez, Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of Panama (from the Canal Zone east- 
wards), south through Colombia to western Ecuador, and eastward 
through northern Colombia (Santa Marta region; lower Magdalena 
and affluents; (?)eastern base of the Andes in State of Boyaca) to 
northern Venezuela as far as Carabobo. 1 

2: Colombia (Fundacion, Magdalena, 2). 

*Cyanocompsa cyanoides rothschildii (Bartlett). 2 ROTHSCHILD'S 
BLUE GROSBEAK. 

1 Eight specimens from western Ecuador agree in coloration and in size of 
bill with two from Panama. Birds from Santa Marta, "Bogota," and northern 
Venezuela have generally slightly smaller bills, but we agree with Mr. Todd that 
this insignificant variation is hardly sufficient to warrant their separation under 
the name sanctae martae, since the color differences alluded to by Hellmayr and 
Seilern turned out to be non-existent. 

Additional material examined. Panama: Lion Hill, 2. Ecuador: San Javier, 
Prov. Esmeraldas, 4; Chimbo, 4. Colombia: "Santa Marta," 4; "Bogota," 1. 
Venezuela: near Bucarito, Tocuyo, Lara, 4; San Esteban, Carabobo, 3; Las Quiguas, 
Carabobo, 1. 

1 Cyanocompsa cyanoides rothschildii (Bartlett): Nearest to C. c. cyanoides, 
but male markedly brighter blue, about hortense blue, with forehead, superciliary 
and malar regions, and lesser upper wing coverts still brighter (Mazarine blue); 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Guiraca rothschildii(i) Bartlett, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6)> 6, p. 168, Aug., 
1890 River Caramang, British Guiana (type in coll. of E. Bartlett, 
subsequently in Tring Collection, now in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, examined); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 277, 
1905 Igarape-Assu, Para (crit.); idem, I.e., 13, p. 359, 1906 Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 14, p. 45, 1907 Teffe, Rio Solimoes; 
Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 295, 1907 Para and Monte Alegre, Brazil; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 119, 1908 Cayenne and Ipousin, Approu- 
ague River, French Guiana; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 426, 
1914 Para, Benevides, Peixe-Boi, Rio Tocantins (Cameta), Rio Jary 
(Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), and Monte Alegre, Brazil. 

Guiraca cyanoides (not Coccoborus cyanoides Lafresnaye) Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 101, 1862 part, spec, a, Cayenne; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 566 lower Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1867, p. 750 Chyavetas, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 223, 1870 
part, Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso; Salto do Girao and Borba, 
Rio Madeira; Marabitanas, Rio Negro (spec, examined). 

Cyanoloxia cyanoides Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 582 "Trinidad," 
errore (crit.). 

Cyanocompsa cyanea cyanoides Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris, 34, p. 76, 
1928 Rio Suno, eastern Ecuador. 

Guiraca cyanea (not Loxia cyanea Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 264 Nauta, lower Ucayali, and Chyavetas, Peru; 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1882, p. 16 Yurimaguas, Peru; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 213 Bartica Grove and Camacusa, British Guiana; Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 3, p. 5, 1886 Peru (Nauta, Ucayali, Chyavetas, Yurimaguas); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 71, 1888 part, spec, s-a', d'-i'; 
Cayenne, Oyapock, Bartica Grove, Camacusa, "Trinidad," Borba, Rio 
Ucayali, Nauta, and Sarayacu (Ecuador); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
2, p. 83, 1889 lower Beni, Bolivia; Chapman and Riker, Auk, 7, p. 268, 
1890 Santarem; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 385, 1910 Surinam. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea Beebe, Trop. Wild Life, 1, p. 136, 1917 Bartica, British 
Guiana. 

female decidedly duller, less rusty (Brussels brown above, buckthorn brown 
below). 

Examination of a large series from different parts of the range fails to disclose 
any other than individual variation. Size and coloration vary a good deal within 
the same locality, and I doubt the possibility of maintaining the supposed Peruvian 
race peruvianus described by Carriker from very scanty material. While we have 
not seen any specimens from Junin, two adult males from the Rio Samiria, Peru, 
are nowise different from others taken in Guiana and on the Caura River, Vene- 
zuela. The wing in a small series of males from British Guiana ranges from 76-83, 
while those from the Rio Samiria measure 79 and 81, respectively. Two native 
"Bogota" skins are typical of the present form. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Saint Laurent du Maroni, 1; 
Ipousin, Approuague River, 1; Cayenne, 1. British Guiana: Caramang River, 3; 
Camacusa, 3. Venezuela: Munduapo, Orinoco, 1; La Pricion, Caura, 4; Nicare, 
Caura, 1. Colombia: "Bogota," 2. Ecuador: Sarayacu, 1. Brazil: Ourem, Rio 
Guama, 1; Igarape-Assu, 1; Santo Antonio do Prata, 4; Teffe, Rio Solimoes, 2; 
Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 1; Borba, Rio Madeira, 2; Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira, 
1; Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, 1. Peru: Rio Samiria, 2. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 99 

Guiraca cyanea rothschildi Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. ZooL, 9, p. 24, 1902 
Munduapo, Orinoco, and La Pricion, Caura, Venezuela (crit.). 

Cyanocompsa rothschildi(i) Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 368, 1907 (range); 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 280, 1910 Borba and Salto do Girao, Rio 
Madeira; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, 
pp. 15, 88, 1912 Peixe-Boi and Ipitinga (Rio Acara), Para (Para local- 
ities); Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 97, 1916 Utinga, Para; Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 186, 1916 Munduapo, Orinoco, and 
La Pricion, Caura, Venezuela; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 421, 1921 
Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Bartica, Kamakabra Creek, Manarika 
River, Arawai River, Great Falls of the Demerara, Caramang River, 
and Camacusa; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, 
p. 61, 1926 Tury-assu, Maranhao; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
80, p. 173, 1928 Para. 

Cyanocompsa cyanoides rothschildi Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 62, p. 89, 1918 Javaweg, Surinam; Todd, Auk, 40, p. 63, 1923 
(monog.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 606, 1926 Rio Suno 
and below San Jose, eastern Ecuador; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 293, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao; Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 342, 1930 Matto Grosso (Engenho do Gama 
and Salto do Girao). 

(l}Cyanocompsa cyanoides peruvianus Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
82, p. 373, 1930 Puerto Yessup, Dept. Junm, Peru (type in the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Range. French, Dutch, and British Guiana; southern Venezuela 
(valley of the Orinoco and its tributaries) and Amazonia, from 
northern Maranhao (Tury-assu) west to the eastern base of the 
Andes in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, and south to western Matto 
Grosso (Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore") and eastern Bolivia. 

5: British Guiana (Demerara River, Hyde Park, 2); Brazil 
(Conceicao, Rio Branco, Amazonas, 1; Tury-assu, Maranhao, 1; 
Manaos, Rio Negro, Amazonas, 1). 

*Cyanocompsa cyanea sterea Oberholser. 1 SOUTHERN BLUE 
GROSBEAK. 

1 Cyanocompsa cyanea sterea Oberholser: Similar to C. c. cyanea, but adult male 
decidedly darker and duller; rump and upper tail coverts very nearly the same 
color as the back, instead of lighter than the latter; pale blue frontal band and 
superciliaries generally narrower and more abruptly defined. 

Birds from so widely separated localities as Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes 
on one side and Rio Grande do Sul on the other agree perfectly together, and a 
single topotype from Sapucay, Paraguay, is a good match for many individuals, 
both in coloration and proportions. Four specimens from Goyaz, in size of bill, 
form the passage to C. c. argentina, though the other dimensions are the same as in 
C. c. sterea. Birds from Corrientes are variously intermediate to argentina, one 
male being just as small-billed as (and hardly larger than) sterea, while another male 
in proportions of wing, tail, and bill closely approaches certain individuals from 
Argentina. Their subspecific reference is entirely a matter of personal opinion, 



100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cyanocompsa stereo, Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 14, p. 188, 1901 
Sapucay, Paraguay (type in U. S. National Museum; descr. of young 
male); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 146, 1902 Sapucay. 

Pitylits cyaneus (not Loxia cyanea Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 84, 1837 part, Corrientes (spec, 
examined). 

Coccoborus cyaneus Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 237, 1856 
Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes. 

Guiraca cyanea Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 221, 1870 Rio de Janeiro, Sao 
Paulo (Pahor, Mattodentro, Ypanema), and Goyaz (spec, examined); 
Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 415 part, Minas 
Geraes (Lagoa Santa), Rio de Janeiro (Rosario, near Nova Friburgo), 
and Sao Paulo (Capitao Mor, Sao Carlos); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. 
Ges. Orn., 2, p. 121, 188,5 Taquara do Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do 
Sul; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 71, 1888 part, spec, g-1, Rio 
de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo), Rio Grande do Sul ("Pelotas"), and Sao 
Paulo (Ypanema); Ihering, Ann. Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 120, 
1899 Mundo Novo; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 159, 1899 Sao Paulo 
(Piquete, Sao Sebastiao); idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova 
Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 631 Sapucay, Paraguay. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 85, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio 
de Janeiro; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 368, 1907 part, Sao Paulo 
(Sao Sebastiao, Rio Feio, Bauru, Itatiba, Itarare, Rincao, Mogy-guassu), 
Minas Geraes (Vargem Alegre), and Espirito Santo (Rio Doce); Mene- 
gaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 10, p. 335, 1918 Rio los Pedras, near Passo 
Quatro, Minas Geraes. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea cyanea Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 32, 1908 Rio Ara- 
guaya, Goyaz (crit.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 23, p. 358, 
1912 Villa Rica, Paraguay (crit.); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 63, 1914 
Alto Parana, Paraguay; Todd, Auk, 40, p. 65, 1923 part, southern 
Brazil west to Goyaz and Paraguay (crit.); Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. 
Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 187, 1926 Parana (Therezina, Candido de Abreu, 
Salto Guayra); Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 315, 1928 Monte 
Serrat and Bemfica, Itatiaya, Sao Paulo. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea stereo Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 63, 1914 Paraguay; 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 293 (in text), 1929 
southern Brazil (from Goyaz and Minas Geraes to Rio Grande do Sul), 
Paraguay, and Misiones (crit.). 

Range. Southern Brazil, from Goyaz, Minas Geraes, and 
Espirito Santo south to Rio Grande do Sul; Paraguay; northeastern 
Argentina (Corrientes and Misiones). 

and if they are here classified with sterea rather than argentine, it is done so mainly 
on geographical grounds. 

Additional material examined. Paraguay: Sapucay, 2; Villa Rica, 1. 
Brazil: Goyaz City, 2; Rio Araguaya (near Leopoldina), Goyaz, 2. Rio de Janeiro: 
Petropolis, 1; Rio de Janeiro, 2. Sao Paulo: Piquete, 2; Victoria, 1; Sao Sebastiao, 
2; Ipanema, 8; Mattodentro, 1. Rio Grande do Sul: Taquara do Mundo Novo, 3. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 101 

10 : Brazil (Veadeiros, Goyaz, 1 ; Rio das Velhas, Minas Geraes, 
2; Candido de Abreu, Parana, 1); Argentina (Eldorado, Misiones, 2; 
Puerto Segundo, Misiones, 3; Iguazu, Misiones, 1). 

*Cyanocompsa cyanea argentine (Sharpe). 1 ARGENTINE BLUE 
GROSBEAK. 

1 Cyanocompsa cyanea argentina (Sharpe) : Similar to C. c. sterea, but markedly 
larger with heavier, bulkier bill; coloration of males generally lighter (dark cadet 
blue); females above more rufescent, particularly on the rump, and under parts 
paler cinnamomeous. 

The subjoined table of measurements may serve to illustrate the variation 
in size. 

Adult males Wing Tail 

Three from Cordoba (Cosquin) 89, 90, 92 84, 86, 87 

One from La Rioja (Chilecito) 89 88 

One from Santiago del Estero 

(Corral) 89 88 

Two from Salta (Ordn; Rosario 

Frontera) 84, 88 79, 83 

Six from Tucuman 85, 87, 88, 88, 89, 90 83 y 2 , 85, 85,86, 87, 87 

One from Samaipata, Bolivia 85 79 

One from San Jose", Mizque, 

Bolivia 86 82J4 

One from Caraparicito, Bolivia 81 76 

One from Santa Cruz, Bolivia 84 77^ 

Three from San Jose", Chiquitos, 

Bolivia 80, 82, 82 74, 77, 78 

Three from Cuyaba, Matto Grosso 84, 84, 84 78, 79, 80 

Two from Urucum, Matto Grosso 82, 83 76, 77 

Adult females 

One from Cordoba (Cosquin) 89 90 

One from Catamarca (Fuerte de 

Andalgala) 86 80 

One from Santiago del Estero 

(Corral) 83 78 

Two from Salta (Campo Santo) 79, 84^ -, 11Y 2 

One from Tucuman 82 81 

Two from Mizque, Bolivia 81 K, 82 Y 2 80, 82 

One from Villa Montes, Tarija 77 76 

One from San Jose, Chiquitos 78 74 

One from Chulumani, La Paz 76 73 

Birds from western Argentina, when compared to series from southeastern 
Brazil, are decidedly larger, and have more massive, both longer and thicker bills, 
these characters being most strongly pronounced in skins from the Sierra de 
Cordoba. Specimens from Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, are fully as large-billed, but 
have possibly slightly shorter wings. Those from Santa F6 (MocovT, Chaco) are 
truly intermediate to C. c. sterea, to which they might be referred with equal 
justification, and if we keep them under the present heading, we are mainly guided 
by geographical reasons. 

Two names have been proposed for birds from Bolivia. Only one male from 
Santa Cruz de la Sierra corresponds to Todd's description of C. c. poliogastris in 
having the middle of the abdomen whitish and similar apical margins to some of 
the pectoral feathers. Males from west (Samaipata; San Jose", Mizque) and east 
(Caraparicito; San Jose", Chiquitos) of this locality, however, have no trace of 
white underneath, and it is hard to believe that in the center of the area a separate 
local race should exist. In measurements of wings and bill birds from the Bolivian 
highlands (Samaipata and Mizque) agree with the smallest individuals from north- 



102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Guiraca argentina Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 73, 1888 Catamarca 
(Fuerte de Andalgala), Cordoba (Cosquin), Salta, and Tucuman (type, 
from Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca, in British Museum; cf. Brabourne 
and Chubb, Bds. S. America, 1, p. 363, 1912); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 5, 1895 Santa Rosa, Salta; idem, I.e., 12, 
No. 292, p. 8, 1897 Jujuy (San Lorenzo), Salta (Tala), and Bolivian 
Chaco (Caiza); Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 451 Tatarenda, Bolivian Chaco. 
Guiraca glaucocaerulea (not Pyrrhula glaucocaerulea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Salvin, Ibis, 1880, p. 353 Tucuman and Salta. 

Guiraca cyanea (not Loxia cyanea Linnaeus) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 221, 
1870 part, Cuyaba, Matto Grosso; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, 
p. 598 Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
3, p. 368, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 125 
Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, pp. 
278, 290, 1895 La Rioja (Chilecito) and Catamarca; Salvadori, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 4, 1900 Urucum, Matto Grosso. 
Cyanocompsa cyanea Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 368, 1907 part, Matto 

Grosso. 
Guiraca cyanoides (not Coccoborus cyanoides Lafresnaye) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 

3, p. 222, 1870 part, Cuyaba (spec, examined). 
Coccoborus cyaneus argentinus Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Cienc. 

Cordoba, 10, p. 398, 1890 Cordoba. 

Guiraca cyanea subsp. argentina Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 176, 

1902 Tucuman; idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 42, 1905 

Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 257, 1904 Oran, Salta. 

Guiraca cyanea argentina Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 216, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman; 

Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 174, pi. 2, fig. 30 (egg), 1909 

Tucuman (nest and eggs). 

Cyanocompsa cyanea subsp. argentina Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 

Aires, 18, p. 379, 1910 (range in Argentina). 

Cyanocompsa cyanea argentina Todd, Auk, 40, p. 64, 1923 Argentina to 
Bolivia (crit.); Giacomelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 69, 1923 La Rioja; Dinelli, 
I.e., 3, p. 255, 1924 Tucuman (nest and eggs descr.); Wetmore, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 398, 1926 Las Palmas, Chaco, and Tapia, 
Tucuman; Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 230, 1927 Con- 
western Argentina, but have somewhat shorter tails. Those from Chiquitos and 
one from Caraparicito are decidedly smaller, the bill noticeably so. The type of 
C. c. pallida from Chulumani is a perfectly normal female of this variety, and can 
be matched in size and coloration by one from San Jose, Chiquitos. The late 
Mr. Sztolcman evidently compared it with specimens of C. c. stereo, (from Parana), 
which he mistook for true cyanea. There might be some justification in separating 
the inhabitants of eastern Bolivia (Santa Cruz; Chiquitos) on the basis of their 
lesser size and smaller bill, were it not that birds from Matto Grosso again have 
quite as massive bills as any from Argentina. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Samaipata, 1; San Jose", Mizque, 1; 
Santa Cruz, 1; San Jose, Chiquitos, 4; Caraparicito, Santa Cruz, 1; Villa Montes, 
Tarija, 4. Matto Grosso: Cuyaba, 3. Argentina: Oran, Salta, 1; Campo Santo, 
Salta, 1; Rosario Frontera, Salta, 1; Tucuman, 6; Tapia, Tucuman, 1; Santa Ana, 
Tucuman, 1; Corral, Santiago del Estero, 2; Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca, 2; 
Chilecito, La Rioja, 1; Cosquin, Cordoba, 4; Mocovi, Santa Fe, 2. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 103 

cepcion, Tucuman; Smyth, El Hornero, 4, p. 148, 1928 Man chala, 
Tucuman (eggs descr.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 342, 
1930 Matto Grosso (crit.); Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco 
Exp., Vogel, p. 241, 1930 Bolivia (San Jos6 and Caraparicito, Santa 
Cruz; Villa Montes, Tarija [crit.]); Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 86, p. 395, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea poliogastris [sic] Todd, Auk, 40, p. 64, 1923 Guanacos, 
Prov. Cordillera, Bolivia (type in Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh). 

Cyanocompsa cyanea pallida Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, 
p. 230, 1926 Chulumani, Dept. La Paz, Bolivia (type in Warsaw Mu- 
seum examined; descr. of female). 

Range. Western Argentina south to La Rioja, Cordoba, and 
Santa Fe"; central and eastern Bolivia, in depts. of Tarija, Santa Cruz, 
and Cochabamba; western Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Chapada, 
Descalvados). 

6: Brazil (Urucum de Corumba, Matto Grosso, 2); Argentina 
(Conception, Tucuman, 4). 

*Cyanocompsa cyanea cyanea (Linnaeus). BRAZILIAN BLUE 
GROSBEAK. 

Loxia cyanea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 174, 1758 based on "The 
Blue Grosbeak" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Bds., 3, p. 125, pi. 125; "coast of 
Angola, in Africa," errore; Bahia, eastern Brazil, suggested as type 
locality by Todd (Auk, 40, p. 65, 1923). l 

Fringilla brissonii Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 22, 1823 
based on Loxia caerulea var. Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 863, 1789, 
which, in its turn, rests exclusively upon "Le Bouvreuil bleu du Bresil" 
Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 321, pi. 17, fig. 2; "Bresil" (type in coll. of M. de 
Reaumur); 2 Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 561, 1830 [near Barra 
da Vareda], Bahia. 

Coccoborus cyaneus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 152, 1851 Bahia. 

Guiraca cyanea Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 335 Pernambuco (road from Olinda 
to Iguarassu, Parahyba, and Garanhuns); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 71, 1888 part, spec, m-r, Pernambuco and Bahia; Reiser, Denks. 
Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 Bahia City. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 368, 1907 part, Bahia. 

Cyanocomosa [sic] cyanea Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, 
p. 42, 1926 Ceara. 

J As we have pointed out elsewhere (Nov. Zool., 15, p. 32, note, 1908), the 
alleged African origin of Loxia cyanea and Loxia angolensis was clearly a mistake. 
While it is, of course, impossible to decide where the specimen described by Ed- 
wards came from, his figure in bright purplish blue coloration corresponds so well 
with the northern form of the Brazilian Grosbeak that we may accept Mr. Todd's 
designation of Bahia as type locality. 

2 There being no means of ascertaining whether Brisson's description was 
based upon the northern (cyanea) or the southern race (stereo), the name Fringilla 
brissonii Lichtenstein is placed here tentatively as a synonym of Loxia cyanea. 



104 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cyanocompsa cyanea cyanea Todd, Auk, 40, p. 65, 1923 part, Pernambuco 
and Bahia (crit.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 292, 
1929 Piauhy (Arara, Ibiapaba) and Ceara (Varzea Formosa) (crit.). 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, from Bahia north to Ceara and 
eastern Piauhy. 

10: Brazil (Santo Amaro, Bahia, 1; Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, 
Bahia, 1; Rio do Peixe, near Queimadas, Bahia, 1; Arara, Piauhy, 
3; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 1; Varzea Formosa, Ceara, 3). 1 

*Cyanocompsa cyanea minor Cabanis. 2 LESSER BLUE GROSBEAK. 

Cyanocompsa minor Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 4, 1861 Caracas, Venezuela 
(type in Berlin Museum examined). 

Guiraca cyanea (not Loxia cyanea Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 627 Caracas; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Natur- 
hist. Foren., 1870, p. 415 part, Caracas; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 71, 1888 part, spec, b', c', Caracas; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 
San Antonio, Sucre, Venezuela. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea minor Hellmayr and Seilern, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, 
Heft 5, p. 164, 1912 San Esteban, Carabobo; Todd, Auk, 40, p. 66, 
1923 part, Venezuela from Cumana to the Sierra of Carabobo (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of the coast states of Venezuela, from 
Sucre and Monagas west to Carabobo. 

18: Venezuela (Caracas, 8; Maracay, Aragua, 1; Cocollar, Sucre, 9). 

Cyanocompsa cyanea caucae Chapman. 3 CAUCA BLUE GROSBEAK. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea caucae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 31, p. 163, 
June, 1912 La Manuelita, near Palmira, Cauca Valley, Colombia 
(type in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, 
I.e., 36, p. 555, 1917 Palmira, Cauca, and Caldas, Rio Dagua, Colombia. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea minor (not of Cabanis) Todd, Auk, 40, p. 66, 1923 
part, Cauca Valley, Colombia. 

1 Additional material examined. Bahia: Bahia City, 1; Lamarao, 3; unspeci- 
fied, 22. Pernambuco: Sao Lourengo, 1. Ceara: unspecified, 1. 

2 Cyanocompsa cyanea minor Cabanis: Similar in bright coloration of adult 
male to C. c. cyanea, but with smaller, shorter, basally more inflated bill. Wing, 
73-76, (female) 67-71; tail, 65-70, (female) 65-68; bill, 14-15. 

The smaller bill is the only constant character to separate the Venezuelan 
race from typical cyanea, of northeastern Brazil. The males are just as bright 
purplish blue, while the females average slightly paler brown above. 

Additional specimens examined. Venezuela: Maturin, Monagas, 1; San Anto- 
nio, Sucre, 1; Salsi Puede, Sucre, 6; Santa Ana Valley, Sucre, 4; San Felix, Sucre, 
2; Caracas, 2; San Esteban, Carabobo, 1. 

3 Cyanocompsa cyanea caucae Chapman: Very similar to C. c. minor, but 
adult male with upper and under parts decidedly purer, more of an ultramarine 
blue instead of purplish. Wing, 74-77; tail, 67-70; bill, 14-15. 

Comparison of a good series from northern Venezuela shows size and shape 
of the bill in caucae and minor to be the same, the strongly convex, basally much 
inflated maxilla being common to both in contrast to C. c. cyanea. Mr. Todd 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 105 

Range. Tropical zone of western Colombia (Cauca Valley and 
basin of the Rio Dagua). 

Genus CYANOLOXIA Bonaparte 

Cyanoloxia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 502, end of 1850 
type, by present designation, Pyrrhula glauco-caerulea Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny. 1 

Cyanoloxias Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, "1904," p. 348, March, 1905 
emendation. 

*Cyanoloxia glauco-caerulea (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 
GLAUCOUS GROSBEAK. 

Pyrrhula glauco-caerulea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 85, 1837 Maldonado, Uruguay (type in Paris Museum 
examined; descr. of adult male); d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame>. Merid., Ois., pi. 50, 
fig. 2 (male), circa 1840. 

Cyanoloxia glauco-caerulea Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 503, 1850 
Maldonado. 

Coccoborus glaucocaeruleus Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 257, 1860 Parana, 
Entre Rios; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 488, 1861 Parana (one male 
in Halle Museum examined); Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 
1874 Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes. 

Guiraca glauco-caerulea Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 
p. 139 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Hudson, I.e., 1870, p. 114 Conchitas 
(habits); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 222, 1870 Engenho do Gama, Matto 
Grosso, Brazil (spec, examined); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 170 Punta 
Lara, Buenos Aires; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 92, 1883 
Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios; Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. 
Orn., 2, p. 122, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul (spec, examined); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 75, 1888 "River Oyapock, French 
Guiana" and Punta Lara, Buenos Aires; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 
1, p. 44, 1888 (habits); Aplin, Ibis, 1894, p. 168 Uruguay; Ihering, 
Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 120, 1899 Sao Lourenco and 
Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; (?)Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 8, p. 177, 1902 near Tucuman (sight record); (?)idem, Rev. 
Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 42, 1905 near Tucuman (sight record); 
Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 174, pi. 2, figs. 25, 29 (eggs), 
1909 Salto Grande, Rio Paranapanema, Sao Paulo, and Barracas al 
Sud, Buenos Aires; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 632 Sapucay, Paraguay. 

Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 146, 
1902 Sapucay, Paraguay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, 

has united the two races, but I hesitate to follow this course in consideration of 
the different coloration of the male, connected with the widely remote range. 

Material examined. Colombia: Jimenez, Rio Dagua (alt. 1,600 ft.), 5; 
Atuncela, 7. 

1 The same species was indicated as "type by elimination" by Ridgway 
(Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 594, footnote, 1901) and Dabbene (Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 379, 1910). 



106 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

pp. 379, 436, 1910 Santa Ana, Misiones (range in Argentina); idem, 
El Hornero, 1, p. 244, 1919 Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Tremo- 
leras, I.e., 2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay (San Jose, Flores, Rio Negro); Serie 
and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 
3, p. 171, 1923 San Isidro, Buenos Aires (breeding); Marelli, Mem. 
Minist. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 657, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Sztolc- 
man, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 187, 1926 Therezina, Parana; 
Naumburg.Bull.Amer. Mus. N. H., 60,p.343,1930 MattoGrosso (range). 
Cyanoloxias glaucocaerulea Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, "1904," p. 348, 1905 
Botucatu, Sao Paulo, and Las Talas, Buenos Aires; idem, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 368, 1907 Sao Paulo (Rio Feio, Botucatu) and Las Talas, 
Argentina; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 63, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay. 

Range. Southern Brazil north to Matto Grosso and Bahia; 
Uruguay; Paraguay; northeastern Argentina (Santa Ana, Misiones; 
Parana, Santa Elena, and Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios; 
Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Barracas al Sud, Las Talas, Punta 
Lara, San Isidro, and Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires). 1 

6: Uruguay (Rio Cebollati, Minas, 2; Polanco, Minas, 1; Rio 
Uruguay, Soriano, 1; San Vicente de Castillos, Rocha, 2). 

Genus PASSERINA Vieillot 

Passerina Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 30, April, 1816 type, by 
subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 46, 1840), "Ministre" Buflon= 
Tanagra cyanea Linnaeus (cf. Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 96, 1880). 

Cyanospiza Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacif., 9, p. 500, June 19, 1858 
type, by orig. desig., Tanagra cyanea Linnaeus. 

*Passerina cyanea (Linnaeus). 2 INDIGO BUNTING. 

1 Specimens from Uruguay, Buenos Aires, Rio Grande do Sul, and Sao Paulo 
agree well together, and a young male (in change of plumage) from Matto Grosso 
(Engenho do Gama) does not differ either from another of similar age taken at 
Taquara do Mundo Novo. A single male (with some remains of the juvenile 
plumage on the wings) of the well-known Bahia preparation is more purely blue 
(less greenish blue), and has a larger, more elevated bill than any other specimen 
we have seen. The occurrence of this species in western Argentina remains to 
be corroborated, there being merely one sight record (by Lillo) from the vicinity 
of Tucuman City, whereas G. glaucocaerulea Salvin (Ibis, 1880, p. 353) from Salta 
refers to C. c. argenlina as is shown by Durnford's specimens in the British Museum. 
The British Museum has an adult male received from Madame Verdey, a natural 
history dealer of Paris, and marked "Oyapock, French Guiana." Prepared like 
the trade skins formerly imported from Cayenne, it is similar in coloration and 
size to southern examples, but the locality seems so extraordinary that I hesitate 
to accept it without further evidence. 

Additional material examined. Uruguay: Maldonado, 1 (the type). Argen- 
tina: Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 2; Parana, Entre Rios, 1. Brazil: Bahia, 1; 
Fazenda Cayoa, Rio Paranapanema, Sao Paulo, 1; Taquara do Mundo Novp, 
Rio Grande do Sul, 1; Camaquan, Rio Grande do Sul, 1; Sao Lourenco, Rio 
Grande do Sul, 1; Rio Grande do Sul (unspecified), 2; Engenho do Gama, Matto 
Grosso, 1. "French Guiana: Oyapock," 1. 

2 A supposed hybrid (or intergrade?) between P. cyanea and P. amoena was 
described and figured by Breckenridge (Univ. Minnesota Mus. Nat. Hist., Occ. 
Pap., No. 3, p. 39, col. pi., 1930) from near Warren, Marshall County, Minnesota. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 107 

Tanagra cyanea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 315, 1766 based on 
"The Blue Linnet" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 45, pi. 45; Carolina 
= South Carolina. 

Emberiza cyanella Sparrman, Mus. Carls., fasc. 2, pis. 42, 43, 1787 "in 
America septentrionali" (descr. of young male; type now in Stockholm 
Museum; cf. Gyldenstolpe, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 21, 1926). 

(?) Emberiza caerulea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 876, 1789 based mainly 
on "Le Bruant bleu de Canada" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 298, pi. 14, fig. 2; 
Canada (type in Reaumur Collection). 

Cyanospiza cyanea Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 617, 1888 (monog.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 582, 1901 (monog., full 
bibliog.). 

Passerine cyanea Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 886, 1910 Costa Rica 
(Bolson, CoraHllo, Volcan de Poas, Pozo Azul, Santa Ana, Tierra Blanca); 
Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 130, 1923 Cuba (transient); Bangs 
and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 403, 1928 Chivela, Tapana- 
tepec, and Cacoprieto, Oaxaca, Mexico; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
64, p. 365, 1932 Guatemala (winter visitant, October to April); idem, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 381, 1935 Pacific slope of Chiriqui and 
Veraguas, Panama (winter). 

Range. Eastern North America, from North Dakota, Minne- 
sota, Michigan, southeastern Ontario, and southern Quebec and 
New Brunswick, south to Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, 
and northern Florida; winters from eastern Mexico to western 
Panama (Veraguas); on migration in the Bahamas and in Cuba. 

109 : New York (Conquest, Cayuga County, 1 ; Moravia, Cayuga 
County, 1); Massachusetts (Ipswich, 1; Cambridge, 2; unspeci- 
fied, 1); Connecticut (East Hartford, 13); New Jersey (Engle- 
wood, 1); North Carolina (Raleigh, 2); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 
11); Illinois (Deerfield, 1; Lake Forest, 2; Chicago, 10; South Chicago, 
1; Wolf Lake, 1; Henry, 2; Glen Ellyn, 4; Worth, 1; Joliet, 8; Auburn 
Park, 1; Olive Branch, 2; Mound City, 3; Grand Chain, 1); Indiana 
(Kouts, 1; Liverpool, 1; Bluffton, 1); Arkansas (Winslow, 1; Cleburne 
County, 1); Mississippi (Vicksburg, 2; Holly Springs, 1); Florida 
(West Jupiter, 1; Key West, 2); Texas (Fort Worth, 2; Giddings, 1); 
Mexico (Iguala, Guerrero, 5; Teapa, Tabasco, 1; MeYida, Yucatan, 1; 
Cozumel Island, Yucatan, 1); Honduras (Ruatan Island, 1); Guate- 
mala (Los Amates, Izabal, 4 ; Salama, Baja Vera Paz, 2 ; Patulul, Solola, 
1; Laguna Guatemala, Guatemala Province, 1; Mixco, Guatemala 
Province, 1; Tiquisate, Escuintla, 1; El Rancho, Zacapa, 2; Maza- 
tenango, 1); Nicaragua (San Rafael del Norte, 2); Costa Rica 
(Limon, 1). 



108 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Passerina amoena (Say). LAZULI BUNTING. 

Emberiza amoena Say, in Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., 2, p. 47 (note), 1823 
Rocky Mountains, source of the Arkansas = near Canyon City, Colorado 
(type lost). 

Cyanospiza amoena Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 620, 1888 (monog.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 584, 1901 (monog., full 
bibliog.). 

Passerina amoena Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. ZooL, 32, p. 186, 1928 Lower 
California; Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 332, 1929 southern 
Arizona (breeding); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 294, 
1931 Sonora (Tecoripa, San Javier, Saric [breeding], Tesia, Chinobampo, 
Guirocoba); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 75, p. 420, 1934 Chil- 
pancingo, Guerrero (winter); van Rossem, I.e., 77, p. 480, 1934 Sonora. 

Range. Western North America, from southern British Colum- 
bia and Alberta, southeastern Saskatchewan, and northwestern 
North Dakota south to northwestern Lower California, northern 
Sonora, and western Texas; winters in Mexico. 

32: Montana (Columbia Falls, 1); California (Nicasio, 5; Contra 
Costa County, 1; Palo Alto, 1; Hayward, 1; Los Gatos, 1; Willow 
Creek Valley, 2; San Jose", 1); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 4; unspecified, 
2) ; Arizona (Santa Cruz County, 1 ; Tucson, 1 ; Calabasas, 6) ; Mexico 
(Iguala, Guerrero, 3). 

*Passerina versicolor versicolor (Bonaparte). VARIED BUNTING. 

Spiza versicolor Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, "1837," p. 120, pub. 
June 14, 1838 near Temascaltepec, Mexico (type in Derby Collection, 
now in Liverpool Museum); Sclater, I.e., 25, p. 214, 1857 Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 27, p. 365, 1859 Jalapa, Vera Cruz. 

Carduelis luxuosus Lesson, Rev. ZooL, 2, p. 41, 1839 Mexico (type in coll. 
of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux). 

Cyanospiza versicolor Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacif., 9, p. 503, 1858 
Boquilla, Nuevo Leon; idem, Bds. N. Amer., pi. 56, fig. 2, 1860; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 379, 1859 Oaxaca; Duges, La Naturaleza, 
1, p. 140, 1868 Cueramaro, Guanajuato; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 1, p. 551, 1869 near Orizaba, Vera Cruz; Sill, Amer. Nat., 9, p. 
665, 1875 Locke, Ingham County, Michigan (adult male, May 15); 
Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 2, p. 109, 1877 Fort Brown, Texas; Sennett, 
Bull. U. S. Geol. & Geog. Surv. Terr., 4, p. 20, 1878 Brownsville, Texas; 
idem, I.e., 5, p. 393, 1879 Lomita, Texas; Merrill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1, p. 128, 1879 Fort Brown, Texas; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 361, 1886 part, Mexico (Boquilla, Nuevo Leon; 
Cueramaro; Temiscal tepee; Orizaba; Jalapa; Oaxaca); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 623, 1888 part, spec, b, Orizaba; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 591, 1901 part, southern Texas and eastern 
Mexico. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 109 

Passerina versicolor Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 96, 1880 (nomencl.); 
Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 142, 1886 Chietla and Azat- 
lan, Puebla. 

Passerina versicolor versicolor Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 89, 1911 Matamoros and 
Guiaves, Tamaulipas; Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 26, 1926 Browns- 
ville, Texas; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 420, 1934 Chil- 
pancingo, Guerrero (Jan.-March). 

Range. Valley of the lower Rio Grande, Texas, south through 
eastern Mexico to Vera Cruz, in winter west to Sonora (Chino- 
bampo), Jalisco (Bolanos), and Guerrero (Chilpancingo) ; accidental 
in Michigan (Locke, Ingham County). 

16: Texas (Cameron County, 1); Mexico (San Luis Potosi, 4; 
Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, 2; "Tamaulipas," 1; Iguala, Guerrero, 
7; unspecified, 1). 

*Passerina versicolor pulchra Ridgway. 1 BEAUTIFUL BUNTING. 

Passerina versicolor pulchra Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 448, 1887 
Miraflores, Lower California (type in U. S. National Museum); Bryant, 
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (2), 2, p. 305, 1889 Miraflores, Cape San Lucas; 
Townsend, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 48, p. 21, 1923 Miraflores and San 
Bernardo Mountain, Lower California; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
32, p. 186, 1928 Cape district of Lower California. 

Cyanospiza versicolor (not Spiza versicolor Bonaparte) Baird, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, pp. 301, 304 Cape San Lucas; Cooper, Orn. Calif., 
1, p. 234, 1870 part, Cape San Lucas; Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
5, "1882," p. 546, 1883 San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower California; Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 361, 1886 part, Cape San 
Lucas; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 623, 1888 part, Lower 
California; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 591, 1901 part, 
southern Lower California. 

Cyanospiza versicolor pulchra Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 160, 
1902 Cape region (crit.). 

Range. Cape district of Lower California, Mexico; on migration 
in Sonora (Chinobampo, March; fide van Rossem). 

6: Lower California (El Sauz, 1; San Jose" del Cabo, 2; unspeci- 
fied, 3). 

Passerina versicolor dickeyae van Rossem. 2 MRS. DICKEY'S 
BUNTING. 

1 Passerina versicolor pulchra Ridgway: Similar to P. v. versicolor, but smaller, 
with shorter, paler bill; coloration of males brighter, and females decidedly grayer, 
especially on under parts and sides of head. 

'Passerina versicolor dickeyae van Rossem: Similar in size to P. v. pulchra; 
females and young males prevailingly rufescent brown instead of grayish brown 
(as in versicolor) or brownish gray (as in pulchra); adult males very similar to 
P. v. pulchra, and distinguishable only in series by the greater extent and brighter 
hue of the red nuchal patch. 



110 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Passerina versicolor dickeyae van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, 
p. 369, May 31, 1934 Chinobampo, southern Sonora, Mexico (type in 
coll. of Donald R. Dickey, Pasadena); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, 
p. 480, 1934 Sonora (Alamos, Hacienda de San Rafael, Bravo, Oposura) 
and Chihuahua (Carmen, La Trompa). 

Cyanospiza versicolor (not Spiza versicolor Bonaparte) Cooper, Orn. Calif., 1, 
p. 234, 1870 part, Sonora; Lawrence and Grayson, Mem. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., 2, p. 276, 1874 Mazatlan, Sinaloa, and Tepic, Nayarit; Brewster, 
Auk, 2, p. 198, 1885 Crittenden, Arizona (female, July 14); Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 361, 1886 part, Sinaloa (Ma- 
zatlan, Presidio) and Tepic; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 623, 
1888 part, spec, c-g, Presidio and Mazatlan; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 591, 1901 part, Arizona (Crittenden). 

Cyanospiza versicolor pulchra (not of Ridgway) Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
21, p. 363, 1905 Escuinapa and Juanna Gomez River, southern Sinaloa; 
van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 293, 1931 Sonora (Saric, 
Tesia, Chinobampo, Guirocoba). 

Range. Breeds from north-central Sonora and western Chihua- 
hua south on the Pacific slope of Mexico to Nayarit; casual in 
southeastern California (Ely the, Riverside County), southern 
Arizona (Crittenden), and Jalisco (Zapotlan). 

*Passerina versicolor purpurascens Griscom. 1 GUATEMALAN 
BUNTING. 

Passerina versicolor purpurascens Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 438, p. 12, 

Dec. 15, 1930 Progreso, Guatemala (type in coll. of J. Dwight, Jr., now 

in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 366, 1932 Progreso; (?) idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., 75, p. 420, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero (March), and Cuernavaca, 

Morelos (breeding). 
Cyanospiza versicolor (not Spiza versicolor Bonaparte) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 

1859, p. 17 Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 

1, p. 361, 1886 part, Guatemala; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 

623, 1888 part, spec, k, Guatemala; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

50, Part 1, p. 591, 1901 part, Guatemala. 
Passerina versicolor Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 119, 

1907 El Rancho, Guatemala. 

1 Passerina versicolor purpurascens Griscom: Similar to P. v. versicolor, but 
decidedly smaller; general coloration duller and darker; adult male with purplish- 
blue area on forecrown more restricted; back darker and less red; throat and 
chest darker vine-purple. Wing (of adult male), 64. 

This form is definitely known only as an inhabitant of the arid Motagua Valley 
in northern Guatemala. Breeding birds from Morelos (Cuernavaca) are stated 
by Griscom to approach it very closely in coloration, though not in size. I must 
confess that the occurrence of purpurascens in a region so near the type locality 
of versicolor appears to me extremely unlikely, since specimens from the vicinity 
of Jalapa, Vera Cruz, to all intent are indistinguishable from others collected in 
Tamaulipas and on the Rio Grande. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 111 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of Guatemala (Motagua Valley); 
(?)southwestern Mexico (Cuernavaca) and Guerrero (Chilpancingo). 
1: Guatemala (El Rancho, Zacapa, 1). 

*Passerina rositae (Lawrence). ROSITA'S BUNTING. 

Cyanospiza rositae Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 10, p. 397, Mar., 
- 1874 Tehuantepec [ = Cacoprieto], Oaxaca, Mexico (type in U. S. 
National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 20, 1876 Caco- 
prieto (descr. of female); Salvin, Ibis, 1874, p. 309 (crit.); Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 362, pi. 25, 1886 Cacoprieto; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 621, 1888 Cacoprieto, Tehuantepec; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 590, 1901 Oaxaca (Caco- 
prieto, Santa Efigenia) and Chiapas (La Trinidad). 

Passerina rositae Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 403, 1928 
Chivela, Oaxaca. 

Range. Pacific slope of southern Mexico, in states of Oaxaca 
(Cacoprieto, Santa Efigenia, Chivela) and Chiapas (La Trinidad). 
1: Mexico (Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, 1). 

*Passerina ciris ciris (Linnaeus). PAINTED BUNTING. 

Emberiza ciris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 179, 1758 based mainly 

on "The Painted Finch" of Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 44, pi. 44; 

Carolina, not nearer than 150 miles from the sea= South Carolina. 
Fringilla mariposa Scopoli, Ann. I. Hist. Nat., p. 151, 1769 North America 

(type in coll. of F. Jacquin). 
Loxia papa P. L. S. Mliller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 152, 1776 based on "Le 

Pape" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 159, fig. 2 (=male); Louisiana. 
Cyanospiza ciris Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 365, 

1886 North America, in winter south to Chiriqui; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 12, p. 614, 1888 (monog.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 

Part 1, p. 586, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 
Passerina ciris Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 885, 1910 Costa Rica 

(Pigres, Volcan de Poas, Bolson); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 89, 1911 Mata- 

moros, San Fernando, and Alta Mira, Tamaulipas; Griscom and Crosby, 

Auk, 43, p. 26, 1926 Brownsville, Texas. 
Passerina ciris ciris Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 130, 1923 Cuba; 

Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 364, 1932 Guatemala (Finca 

La Primavera, Quirigua); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 381, 1935 

Chiriqui, Panama; van Tyne, Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool., Misc. Pub., 27, 

p. 42, 1935 Flores, Peten, Guatemala. 

Range. Breeds in the southeastern United States from southern 
Kansas, central Arkansas, northern Mississippi, and southeastern 
North Carolina south to southern Louisiana, Georgia, northern 
Florida, and eastern Texas; in winter south through Central America 
to western Panama (Chiriqui). 



112 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

118: Texas (Fort Worth, 42; Fort Clark, 1; Gainesville, 1); Mis- 
sissippi (Vicksburg, 2); South Carolina (Frogmore, 4); Georgia 
(Savannah, 1; Richmond County, 1; Cumberland Island, 1); Florida 
(New River, 2; Amelia Island, 2; Nassau County, 6; Pilot Town, 1; 
Jacksonville, 1; Pilot Tower, 2; West Jupiter, 4; Lake Worth, 2; Palm 
Beach, 1; Puntarasa, 2); Bahama Islands (Great Bahama Island, 
8); Mexico (Vera Cruz, 1; Iguala, Guerrero, 1; Yucatan, 3; Cozumel 
Island, Yucatan, 5; Teapa, Tabasco, 1; San Agustin, 1); Guate- 
mala (Los Amates, Izabal, 1 ; Izabal, 1 ; El Rancho, Zacapa, 2; Laguna 
Guatemala, Guatemala Province, 1; Patulul, Solola, 3; Lake Ama- 
titlan, 1; Mazatenango, 1; Tiquisate, Escuintla, 2); Costa Rica 
(Orosi, 1; Las Canas, 1); Nicaragua (San Geronimo, Chinandega, 
6) ; unspecified, 2. 

*Passerina ciris pallidior Mearns. 1 WESTERN PAINTED BUNTING. 

Passerina ciris pallidior Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 24, p. 217, Oct. 31, 
1911 Fort Clark, Kinney County, Texas (type in U. S. National Mu- 
seum); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 365, 1932 Guatemala 
(Sacapulas, Panajachel, Ocos, Hacienda California, San Jose); idem, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 419, 1934 Coyuca and Acapulco, Guerrero. 

Cyanospiza iris (not Emberiza ciris Linnaeus) Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
39, p. 156, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras (crit.). 

Range. Breeds in western Texas and southeastern New Mexico; 
in winter south to western Mexico (Guerrero), western Guatemala, 
Honduras (Ceiba), and Costa Rica (Bolson). 
3: Texas (Ingram, 3). 

*Passerina leclancherii leclancherii Lafresnaye. LECLANCHER'S 
BUNTING. 

Passerina leclancherii Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 260, 1840 Acapulco, 

Guerrero, Mexico (type in Paris Museum). 
Passerina (Spiza) leclancherii Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 3, pi. 22, 1841 

Acapulco (fig. of type). 
Cyanospiza leclancheri Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 277, 1874 

Sierra Madre, Rio de la Armeria, Colima; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1 Passerina ciris pallidior Mearns: Similar to P. c. ciris, but larger; males 
with under parts paler vermilion red; females more grayish green above and 
more buffy, less yellowish below. Wing (male), 72-75; tail, 57-62. 

This form, though not recognized by the A. O. U. Check List, is admitted 
on the authority of L. Griscom, who claims it to be readily separable by larger 
size and paler as well as duller coloration below, particularly of females and 
immature. Its breeding range remains to be worked out in detail, but may be 
assumed to comprise, in addition to western Texas, the adjacent districts of New 
Mexico. Mr. Griscom has examined wintering specimens from Guerrero, western 
Guatemala, eastern Honduras (Ceiba), and Pacific Costa Rica (Bolson). 

A couple from western Texas, that we have seen, are certainly larger and 
paler than any other individual of the Painted Bunting. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 113 

1883, p. 421 Acapulco; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 

1, p. 362, 1886 part, Acapulco, Sierra Madre, and Rio de la Armeria; 

Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 622, 1888 part, spec, f, Acapulco; 

Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 589, 1901 part, Guerrero, 

Colima, and (?)Puebla (Chietla). 
(?) Passer ina leclancheri Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 142, 1886 

Chietla, Puebla (December). 
Passerina leclancheri leclancheri Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 420, 

1934 Coyucd and Acapulco, Guerrero. 

Range. Southwestern Mexico, in states of Colima (Rio de la 
Armeria, Manzanillo), Guerrero (Acapulco, Iguala, Coyuca), and 
(?) Puebla (Chietla). 

5: Mexico (Iguala, Guerrero, 5). 

*Passerina leclancherii grandior Griscom. 1 OAXACA BUNTING. 

Passerina leclancheri grandior Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 420, 
Jan., 1934 Chivela, Oaxaca, Mexico (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Cyanospiza leclancheri (not Passerina leclancherii Lafresnaye) Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 551 San Juan del Rio, Oaxaca; 
Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 20, 1876 Tapana and Tehuantepec, 
Oaxaca; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 362, 1886 
part, Oaxaca (San Juan del Rio, Tapana, Tehuantepec, Cacoprieto); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 622, 1888 part, spec, a-e, San Juan 
del Rio, Tehuantepec, and Cacoprieto; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 1, p. 589, 1901 part, Oaxaca. 

Passerina leclancheri Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 403, 
1928 Chivela, Almoloya, Cacoprieto, and Tapanatepec, Oaxaca. 

Range. Southwestern Mexico, in State of Oaxaca (San Juan 
del Rio, Tapana, Tehuantepec, Huilotepec, Cacoprieto, Chivela, 
Almoloya, Tapanatepec). 

1: Mexico (Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, 1). 

Genus PORPHRYROSPIZA Sclater and Salvin 

Porphyrospiza Sclater and Salvin, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., pp. 30, 155, 1873 
type, by orig. desig., Cyanospiza cyanella Pelzeln (not Emberiza cya- 
nella Sparrman). 2 

Porphyriospiza Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 371, 1891 (emendation). 

1 Passerina leclancherii grandior Griscom : Similar in coloration to the nominate 
race, but somewhat larger. Wing, (male) 67-70, (female) 63-65. 

Four specimens examined. 

1 Though the authors followed Pelzeln in misidentifying the Brazilian bird 
with Emberiza cyanella Sparrman, which is unquestionably Passerina cyanea 
(Linnaeus), the diagnosis and the explanatory note (on p. 155) clearly refer to 
the species obtained by Natterer, now known under Wied's name caerulescens, 
the immature male of which is well characterized in Pelzeln's work. 



114 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Porphyrospiza caerulescens (Wied). BRAZILIAN BLUE FINCH. 

Tanagra caerulescens Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 541, 1830 Campos 
Geraes of inner Brazil= interior of Bahia (descr. of adult male; type in 
coll. of Prince Wied, now in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 140, 225, 1889). 

Porphyrospiza pulchra Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 625, 1888 Nas 
Furnas, Minas Geraes, and Bahia (descr. of adult male; type in British 
Museum). 

Cyanospiza cyanella (not Emberiza cyanella Sparrman) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 227, 1870 Minas Geraes (Nas Furnas), Goyaz (Goyaz City), and 
Matto Grosso (Rio Bandeira, north of Cuyaba), Brazil (descr. of young 
male). 

Porphyrospiza caerulescens Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, pp. 140, 225, 
1889 (crit.); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 5, 1900 
Urucum, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 382, 1907 (range); 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 35, 1908 Goyaz City; Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 82, 1910 Piauhy (Floresta, near 
Buriti, and Santo Antonio de Gilboez); idem, I.e., p. 180, 1925 Piauhy 
(habits); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 301, 1929 
Tranqueira, Maranhao; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 357, 
1930 Matto Grosso; Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., 
Vogel, p. 253, 1930 Cuevo, Chuquisaca, Bolivia. 

Porphyriospiza caerulescens Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 371, 1891 
Chapada, Matto Grosso (plumages). 

Range. Campo region in the interior of Brazil, from southern 
Maranhao and Piauhy south to western Bahia, western Minas 
Geraes (Nas Furnas), and Matto Grosso, and eastern Bolivia (Cuevo, 
Dept. Chuquisaca). 1 

7: Brazil (Tranqueira, Maranhao, 5; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 2). 

Genus TIARIS Swainson 

Tiaris Swainson, Philos. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 438, June, 1827 type, by 
monotypy, Tiaris pusillus Swainson. 

Euetheia Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 79, June 1, 1850 type, by subs, 
desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 82, 1855), Fringilla lepida 
Linnaeus. 

Phonipara Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 494, end of 1850 type, by 
subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 82, 1855), Loxia canora 
Gmelin. 

Euethia Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 146, Oct., 1851 emendation of Euetheia 
Reichenbach. 

1 Additional material examined. Piauhy: Floresta (Buriti), near Parnagua, 2; 
Santo Antonio de Gilboez, 1. Goyaz: Aldea Maria, 1; Goyaz City, 6. Minas 
Geraes: Nas Furnas, 2. Matto Grosso: Chapada, 4. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 115 

*Tiaris canora (Gmelin). MELODIOUS GRASSQUIT. 

Loxia canora Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 858, 1789 based on "The Brown- 
cheeked Grosbeak" Brown, Illust. Zool., p. 56, pi. 24 (= female); "Mexico," 
errore=Cuba. 

Phonipara canora Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 494, 1850 "Mexico" 
and Cuba (descr.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 144, 1888 San 
Cristobal, Cuba. 

Pyrrhula collaris Vigors, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, p. 440, Dec., 1827 near 
Havana, Cuba (location of type unknown). 

Euethia canora Gundlach and Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 7, 1856 Cuba (nest 
and eggs descr.); Gundlach, I.e., 22, p. 123, 1874 Cuba (habits, nest, and 
eggs); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 308, 1892 near Trinidad, 
Cuba. 

Fringilla (Loxia) canora Thienemann, Journ. Orn., 5, p. 150, 1857 Cuba 
(egg descr.). 

Euetheia canora Cory, Auk, 3, p. 209, 1886 Cuba (descr.); Merriam, Auk, 5, 
p. 322, 1888 Sombrero Key, Florida (April 7, 1888); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 96, 1889 Cuba (descr.); idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 113, 1892 Cuba 
and (?)Isle of Pines; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 536, 
1901 Cuba and Sombrero Key, Florida (monog.). 

Tiaris canora Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 39, p. 215, 1905 Isle of 
Pines (occurrence doubtful); Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 248, 1910 
Isle of Pines (doubtful); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 129, 1923 
Cuba (local distribution). 

Range. Island of Cuba, 1 Greater Antilles; accidental on Som- 
brero Key, Florida (April 7, 1888). 
9: Cuba (unspecified, 9). 

*Tiaris olivacea bryanti (Ridgway). 2 BRYANT'S GRASSQUIT. 

Euetheia bryanti Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 322, October, 1898 Porto Rico (type 

in U. S. National Museum). 
Emberiza olivacea (not of Linnaeus, 1766) Moritz, Arch. Naturg., 2, (1), p. 

381, 1836 Porto Rico. 
Euethia lepida (not Fringilla lepida Linnaeus) Sundevall, Oefvers. Vetensk.- 

Akad. Handl., 26, p. 597, 1869 Porto Rico; Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 22, 

p. 311, 1874 Porto Rico; idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 204, 

1878 Porto Rico. 

Euetheia lepida Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 113, 1892 part, Porto Rico. 
Phonipara lepida Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 145, 1888 part, spec. 

r-v, Porto Rico. 
Euetheia olivacea Cory, Auk, 3, p. 208, 1886 part, Porto Rico; idem, Bds. W. 

Ind., p. 95, 1889 part, Porto Rico. 

1 No authentic record exists for the Isle of Pines. 

2 Tiaris olivacea bryanti (Ridgway) is the only fairly marked of the Antillean 
races, being distinguishable by brighter greenish upper, and more yellow under 
parts, while its dimensions are slightly smaller. 



116 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Euetheia olivacea bryanti Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 533, 
1901 Porto Rico (monog.). 

Tiaris olivacea bryanti Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 14, 1903 Porto Rico and Vieques; 
Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 320, 1916 Porto Rico (diag.); Wet- 
more, Auk, 33, p. 419, 1916 Vieques; idem, Auk, 34, p. 62, 1917 Culebra; 
Struthers, Auk, 40, p. 478, 1923 Maricao, Porto Rico; Danforth, Journ. 
Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 10, p. 107, 1926 Cartagena Lagoon, Porto 
Rico; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands, 9, p. 555, 1927 
Porto Rico, Vieques, and Culebra (monog.); Danforth, Journ. Dept. 
Agric. Porto Rico, 15, p. 104, 1931 Porto Rico; idem, I.e., 19, p. 472, 
1935 Vieques and Culebra. 

Range. Islands of Porto Rico, Vieques, and Culebra, Greater 
Antilles. 

3: Greater Antilles (Porto Rico, 3). 

*Tiaris olivacea olivacea (Linnaeus). YELLOW-FACED GRASSQUIT. 

Emberiza olivacea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., I, p. 309, 1766 based on 
"Le Bruant de S. Domingue" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 300, pi. 13, fig. 5; San 
Domingo (type in Reaumur Collection). 

Fringilla olivacea Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 93, 1866 Hispaniola. 

Phonipara olivacea Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 232, 1857 Santo 
Domingo; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 107, 1862 part, spec, d, 
Santo Domingo; Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 6, p. 152, 1881 Haiti; idem, 
Bds. Haiti and San Dom., p. 65, col. pi., fig. 8, 1884 La Vega. 

Euetheia olivacea Cory, Auk, 3, p. 208, 1886 part, Haiti and San Domingo; 
idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 95, 1889 part, Haiti. 

Phonipara lepida (not Fringilla lepida Linnaeus) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 145, 1888 part, spec.p,q, Santo Domingo; Tristram, Cat. Coll. 
Tristr., p. 232, 1889 Rivas; Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 113, 1892 part, 
Haiti; Cherrie, Field Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 16, 1896 Dominican 
Republic. 

Euetheia olivacea olivacea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 530, 
1901 part, Haiti. 

Tiaris lepida Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 362, 1909 La Vega 
and El Valle, Dominican Republic. 

Tiaris olivacea olivacea Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 319, 1916 Haiti 
and San Domingo (crit.); Peters, I.e., 61, p. 425, 1917 Monte Christi, 
Santiago, Sosua, and Choco, Dominican Republic (crit.) ; Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 518, 1928 Haiti; Danforth, Auk, 46, p. 374, 1929 
Hispaniola and Gonave; Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, p. 326, 
1929 Haina and San Juan; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
155, p. 430, 1931 Hispaniola (monog.); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, 
art. 2, p. 39, 1932 Haiti (Gonave Island, Grand-Boucan, Petite Caye- 
mite Island, Bug Island, He a Vache); idem and Lincoln, I.e., 82, art. 25, 
p. 65, 1933 Hispaniola and He a Vache. 

Range. Island of Hispaniola, Greater Antilles. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 117 

73: Dominican Republic (Puerto Plata, l;Aguacate, 4; Catarey, 
2; La Vega, 33; Santo Domingo, 18; Maniel, 8; San Cristobal, 1); 
Haiti (Kenskoff, 1; Le Coup, 2; Jacmel, 3). 

*Tiaris olivacea lepida (Linnaeus). 1 CUBAN YELLOW-FACED 
GRASSQUIT. 

Fringilla lepida Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 320, 1766 Havana, 
Cuba (ex Jacquin MS.); Jacquin, Beytr. Gesch. Vogel, p. 7, pi. 2, 1784 
Cuba; Thienemann, Journ. Orn., 5, p. 150, 1857 Cuba (eggs descr.). 

Passerina olivacea (not Emberiza olivacea Linnaeus) d'Orbigny, in Sagra, 
Hist. He de Cuba, Orn., p. 104, 1838 Cuba (habits). 

Euetheia olivacea Cory, Auk, 3, p. 208, 1886 part, Cuba; idem, Bds. W. Ind., 
p. 95, 1889 part, Cuba. 

Euethia lepida Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 146, 1851 Cuba; idem and Gund- 
lach, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 7, 1856 Cuba (descr. of eggs); Gundlach, I.e., 22, 
p. 122, 1874 Cuba (ecology); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 
309, 1892 near Trinidad, Cuba. 

Euetheia lepida Cory, Auk, 8, p. 294, 1891 Cuba; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 
115, 1892 part, Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Phonipara lepida Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 145, 1888 part, spec, 
k-o, San Cristobal, Cuba. 

Euetheia olivacea olivacea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 531, 
1901 part, Cuba. 

Tiaris olivacea lepida Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 319, 1916 Cuba 
and Isle of Pines (crit.). 

Tiaris olivacea olivacea Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 39, p. 214, 1905 
Santa Fe and Callebonita, Isle of Pines; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, 
p. 283, 1910 Bibijagua, Los Indies, Nueva Gerona, and Caleta Grande, 
Isle of Pines (crit.); Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 128, 1923 
Cuba; Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 39, 1932 part, 
near Gibara, Cuba. 

Range. Island of Cuba, including Isle of Pines, Greater Antilles. 
8: Cuba (Casilda, Santa Clara, 4; Holguin, 1; La Vega, Isle of 
Pines, 1; unspecified, 2). 

*Tiaris olivacea coryi Ridgway. JAMAICAN YELLOW-FACED 
GRASSQUIT. 

(l)Spermophila adoxa Gosse, Bds. Jam., p. 253, 1847 Grand Vale, Jamaica 
(type in British Museum); idem, Illust. Bds. Jam., pi. 65, 1849. 2 

1 Tiaris olivacea lepida (Linnaeus) was tentatively separated by Bangs, who 
had very large series before him, on account of generally darker coloration of the 
upper parts and flanks. I do not see much practical advantage in recognizing 
this and the next form, as many examples are absolutely indistinguishable. 

2 According to Mr. N. B. Kinnear (in litt.), the type is not certainly identi- 
fiable, being much browner than any juvenile specimen of the two Jamaican 
grassquits. 



118 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Euetheia coryi Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 322, Oct., 1898 Cayman Brae (type in 

Field Museum). 
Spermophila olivacea (not Emberiza olivacea Linnaeus) Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, 

p. 249, 1847 Jamaica (habits). 
Phonipara olivacea Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 107, 1862 part, spec. 

a-c, Jamaica; March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 297 Jamaica 

(nest and eggs descr.). 
Euetheia olivacea Cory, Auk, 3, p. 208, 1886 part, Jamaica; idem, Auk, 3, 

p. 502, 1886 Grand Cayman; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 

574, 1887 Grand Cayman; Cory, Auk, 6, p. 31, 1889 Little Cayman 

and Cayman Brae; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 95, 1889 part, Jamaica; Scott, 

Auk, 10, p. 179, 1893 Jamaica. 
Phonipara lepida (not Fringilla lepida Linnaeus) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

12, p. 145, 1888 part, spec, a-i, Jamaica (Kingston, Moneague). 
Euetheia lepida Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 113, 1892 Cayman Islands and 

Jamaica. 
Euetheia olivacea olivacea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 530, 

1901 part, Grand Cayman, Little Cayman, and Jamaica. 
Euetheia olivacea coryi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 532, 1901 

Cayman Brae. 
Euethia olivacea Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 581 Grand Cayman; Lowe, Ibis, 1911, 

p. 159 Grand Cayman and Little Cayman. 
Euethia olivacea coryi Lowe, Ibis, 1911, p. 160 Cayman Brae. 
Tiaris olivacea olivacea Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 318, 1916 

Grand Cayman and Cayman Brae (crit.); Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 490, 1928 

Lumsden, Jamaica. 
Tiaris olivacea adoxa Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 319, 1916 

Jamaica and Cayman Islands (crit.). 

Range. Island of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands, Greater 
Antilles. 1 

56: Greater Antilles (Grand Cayman, 21; Little Cayman, 3; 
Cayman Brae, 12; Jamaica, 20). 

*Tiaris olivacea intermedia (Ridgway). COZUMEL GRASSQUIT. 

Euetheia olivacea intermedia Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 3, p. 22, 1885 

Cozumel Island, Mexico (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 568, 1885 Cozumel (full descr.); idem, Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 533, 1901 Cozumel and Holbox (monog.); 

Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 236, p. 12, 1926 Cozumel. 
Phonipara pusilla (not Tiaris pusilla Swainson) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 190 

Cozumel. 
Phonipara intermedia Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 360, 

1885 Cozumel; Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 261 Cozumel and Holbox. 

1 Cayman Islands birds are not separable from those of Jamaica, and differ 
hardly from Cuban specimens. E. coryi was based on individuals from Cayman 
Brae discolored by Maynard's "dermal preservative." 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 119 

[Phonipara lepida] subsp. a Phonipara pusilla Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 147, 1888 part, a P. intermedia, Cozumel and "Jolbox" [= Holbox]. 
Range. Islands of Cozumel and Holbox, off Yucatan, Mexico. 
3: Mexico (Cozumel Island, Yucatan, 3). 

*Tiaris olivacea pusilla Swainson. MEXICAN GRASSQUIT. 

Tiaris pusillus Swainson, Philos. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 438, June, 1827 
Temascaltepec and Real del Monte, Mexico (type in coll. of W. Bullock, 
actually probably in the Swainson Collection, University Museum, Cam- 
bridge, Eng.). 

Tiaris olivacea dissita Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 223, 
Jan., 1906 savanna of Panama, Panama (type in coll. of E. A. and 0. 
Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. 
Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 371, 1930). 

Phonipara pusilla Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 159, 1855 Bogota 
(crit.); idem, I.e., 24, p. 304, 1856 Cordoba, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 27, 
pp. 365, 379, 1859 Jalapa, Vera Cruz, and Totontepec, Oaxaca; Law- 
rence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 298, 1861 Panama Railroad; 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 107, 1862 Bogota and Orizaba; Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 174 City of Mexico; Sclater and Salvin, 
I.e., 1864, p. 352 Lion Hill, Panama; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1865, p. 169 San Jose, Costa Rica; Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 193 
Peten, Guatemala; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 142 Santa Fe, 
Veraguas; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 103, 1868 San 
Jose and Sachf, Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 9, p. 201, 1869 Merida, Yucatan; 
Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 552, 1869 Valley of Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 190 Chitra, 
Veraguas; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 328 Bucaramanga, Colombia; Lawrence, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 20, 1876 Dondominguillo, Oaxaca; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, p. 237 San Cristobal, Tachira, 
Venezuela; Boucard, I.e., 1878, p. 58 San Jose, Costa Rica; Sclater and 
Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 507 Retiro, Santa Elena, and Medellin, Colombia 
(eggs descr.); Boucard, I.e., 1883, p. 444 Yucatan; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 5, pp. 495, 499, 1883 Volcan de Irazu and San Jose, Costa 
Rica; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 295, 1884 Bucaramanga, Colombia 
(crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 359, 1885 
Mexico to Colombia. 

Tiaris olivaceus (not Emberiza olivacea Linnaeus) Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 4, p. 91, 1848 near Jalapa, Mexico. 

[Phonipara lepida] subsp. a Phonipara pusilla Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 147, 1888 part, spec, a-r, Mexico (Jalapa, Orizaba, Yucatan), 
Guatemala (Sakluk, Peten), Costa Rica (San Jos6, Turrialba, Sachi), 
Panama (Chitra, Santa Fe, Lion Hill, Paraiso Station), and Colombia 
(Bogota, Medellin). 

Euethia pusilla Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 1, 1861 Costa Rica; Piguet, Mem. 
Soc. Neu. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 808, 1914 La Camelia (Angelopolis), Colombia. 

Euetheia pusilla Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 142, 1886 Jalapa, 
Vera Cruz; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. Ill, 1887 



120 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

AlajueUa, Costa Rica; Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 247, 1892 Costa Rica (range); 
Cox, Auk, 12, p. 357, 1895 near Orizaba City, Vera Cruz; Bangs, Proc. 
New Eng. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 33, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama. 

Euetheia olivacea pusilla Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 630, 1896 
Alta Mira, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, 
p. 29, 1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 534, 1901 (monog.); Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 235, p. 16, 
1926 Palmul, Yucatan. 

Tiaris pusilla Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 3, p. 69, 1902 Boquete, 
Chiriquf. 

Tiaris olivacea pusilla Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 891, 1910 Costa 
Rica (Guayabo, Bonilla, San Jose, Alajuela, Juan Vinas, Cachi, Guapiles, 
Guaitil, San Pedro de San Jose, Los Cuadros de Irazu); Ferry, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 281, 1910 Turrialba Station, Guayabo, and 
Coliblanco, Costa Rica; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 560, 
1917 Colombia (Dabeiba, La Frijolera, Caldas, Las Lomitas, San An- 
tonio, Ricaurte, Rio Frio, Miraflores, Santa Elena, Salento, Barro Blanco, 
Rio Toche, San Agustin, La Palma, below Andalucia, El Consuelo, Subia); 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 275, 1918 Gatun, Panama; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 351, 1932 Guatemala (Finca 
Conception, Secanquim, Finca Sepacuite); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
78, p. 379, 1935 Panama (Chiriqui to Canal Zone); van Tyne, Univ. 
Mich. Mus. Zool., Misc. Pub., 27, p. 40, 1935 Macanche and La Liber- 
tad, Peten, Guatemala. 

Euethia olivacea pusilla Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 321, 1924 near Corosal, Panama; 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 340, 1932 San Juancito and 
Cantarranas, Honduras. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Mexico (from southern Ta- 
maulipas through Vera Cruz to Oaxaca and Yucatan), eastern 
Guatemala (Coban and Peten districts), Honduras (San Juancito, 
Cantarranas), Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia (except Santa Marta 
region), and extreme western Venezuela (Tachira). 1 

31: Mexico (Tampico, Tamaulipas, 5); Costa Rica (Turrialba 
Station, 2; Guayabo, 3; Coliblanco, 5; Matina, 3; San Jose, 4; Volcan 
de Irazu, Cartago, 1); Panama (Boquete, 1); Colombia (Andalucia, 
Huila, 1; "Bogota," 2); Venezuela (Paramo de Tama, 1; Colon, 
Tachira, 3). 

Tiaris bicolor bicolor (Linnaeus). BAHAMA GRASSQUIT. 

Fringilla zena (not of Linnaeus, p. 181) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 
183, 1758 based on "The Bahama Sparrow" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Caro- 

1 Specimens from Panama and Colombia frequently have the crown and 
auriculars olive green, thus closely resembling T. o. intermedia, but others with 
black top and sides of the head and a greater amount of black on the chest are 
not distinguishable from Mexican birds. While I cannot satisfactorily explain this 
variation, which to a certain degree seems to be geographical, the recognition of 
a southern form (dissita) is hardly justifiable. 

Fifty-nine specimens examined. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 121 

Una, 1, p. 37, pi. 37; Bahama Islands; Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, 
p. 254, 1865 Bahamas. 

Fringilla bicolor Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 324, 1766 based on 
"The Bahama Sparrow" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 37, pi. 37; 
Bahama Islands. 

Spermophila bicolor Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 119, 1859 New 
Providence, Bahamas. 

Phonipara zena Maynard, Bds. East. N. Amer., p. 87, pi. 2, 1881 Miami, 
Florida (Jan. 19, 1871). 

Phonipara bicolor Cory, Bds. Bahamas, p. 91, 1880 Bahamas; Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 149, 1888 part, spec, d-g, Inagua, Bahamas. 

Euetheia bicolor Stejneger, Auk, 2, p. 48, 1885 (nomencl.); Cory, Auk, 3, p. 
209, 1886 part, Bahamas; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 96, 1889 part, Ba- 
hamas; Northrop, Auk, 8, p. 71, 1891 Andros (habits); Cory, Auk, 8, pp. 
294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 351, 1891 Bahamas (New Providence, Caicos 
Island, Inagua, Abaco, Berry Islands, Bimini Islands, Eleuthera); Ridg- 
way, Auk, 8, pp. 334-339, 1891 Abaco, New Providence, Eleuthera, Cat 
Island, Watlings Island, Rum Cay, Green Cay, and Concepcion Island; 
Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 113, 150, 1892 part, Bahamas; idem, Auk, 
9, p. 48, 1892 Mariguana and Watlings Island; Bonhote, Ibis, 1899, p. 
512 Nassau, New Providence; Bangs, Auk, 17, p. 293, 1900 Nassau. 

Euethia bicolor Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 289 Nassau (eggs descr.). 

Euetheia bicolor bicolor Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 537, 
1901 Bahamas (monog.). 

Tiaris bicolor Allen, Auk, 22, p. 128, 1905 Nassau and Little Abaco (habits); 
Riley, Auk, 22, p. 360, 1905 New Providence, Eleuthera, Cat Island, 
Watlings Island, Long Island, and Abaco; idem, in Shattuck, The Ba- 
hama Islands, pp. 356, 367, 1905 Great Bahamas, Abaco, Biminis, Berry 
Islands, Eleuthera, New Providence, Andros, Green Cay, Cat Island, 
Great Exuma, Concepcion Island, Watlings Island, Rum Cay, Long 
Island, Crooked Island, Fortune Island, Acklin, Mariguana, Caicos 
Islands, Little Inagua, and Great Inagua. 

Tiaris bicolor bicolor Todd and Worthington, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 7, pp. 442, 
464, 1911 New Providence, Great Inagua, Watlings Island, Andros, 
and Abaco. 

Range. Bahama Islands; accidental at Miami, Florida (Jan. 
19, 1871). 

94: Abaco, 4; Bimini, 3; Berry, 3; Eleuthera, 3; Andros, 33; 
New Providence (Nassau), 9; Great Bahama, 8; Watlings, 8; Mari- 
guana, 1; Caicos, 6; Inagua, 16. 

*Tiaris bicolor marchii (Baird). MARCH'S GRASSQUIT. 

Spermophila bicolor (not Fringilla bicolor Linnaeus) Gosse, Bds. Jam., p. 252, 
1847 Jamaica; idem, Illust. Bds. Jam., pi. 64, 1849. 

Phonipara marchii Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 297 Ja- 
maica (new name for Spermophila bicolor Gosse). 



122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Phonipara bicolor Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 106, 1862 part, spec, a, 
Jamaica; Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 152, 1881 Haiti; Tristram, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 168 Santo Domingo. 

Fringilla zena (var. marchii) Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 93, 1866 
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 

Euetheia bicolor Cory, Auk, 3, p. 209, 1886 part, Jamaica and Haiti; idem, 
Bds. W. Ind., p. 96, 1889 part, Jamaica and Haiti; idem, Cat. W. Ind. 
Bds., pp. 113, 150, 1892 part, Jamaica and Haiti; Scott, Auk, 10, p. 179, 
1893 Stony Hill and Priestman's River, Jamaica; Field, Auk, 11, p. 126, 
1894 Port Henderson, Jamaica; Cherrie, Field Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 
1, p. 16, 1896 Dominican Republic. 

Phonipara zena (not Fringilla zena Linnaeus) Cory, Bds. Haiti & San Dom., 
p. 63, col. pi., fig. 7, 1884 Samana, Dominican Republic; Christy, Ibis, 
1897, p. 324 Dominican Republic (nest and eggs descr.). 

[Phonipara bicolor} subsp. a Phonipara marchii Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 150, 1888 part, spec, b-n, Jamaica (Spanishtown, St. Andrews) 
and Santo Domingo (Samana). 

Tiaris bicolor Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 362, 1909 Domini- 
can Republic. 

Euetheia marchi Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 316 Jamaica and San Domingo 
(crit.). 

Euetheia bicolor marchii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 541, 
1901 part, Jamaica and Haiti (monog.). 

Tiaris bicolor marchi Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 518, 1928 
Haiti, Gonave, and Tortuga; Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, p. 326, 
1929 San Juan, Haiti. 

Tiaris bicolor marchii Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 490, 1928 Jamaica; idem, Auk, 
46, p. 374, 1929 Santo Domingo City and Gonave; Wetmore and Swales, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 432, 1931 Hispaniola (monog.); Wetmore, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 39, 1932 He a Vache, Haiti; idem 
and Lincoln, I.e., 82, art. 25, p. 66, 1933 Haiti. 

Range. Islands of Jamaica and Hispaniola, including Gonave, 
Tortue, and He a Vache, Greater Antilles. 

76: Jamaica, 1; Haiti (Jacmel, 1; Le Coup, 3; Kenskoff, 3); 
Dominican Republic (Puerto Plata, 3; Aguacate, 4; Catarey, 14; 
Honduras, 6; Maniel, 6; Santo Domingo, 23; San Cristobal, 6; 
Samana, 6). 

*Tiaris bicolor omissa Jardine. CARIB GRASSQUIT. 

Tiaris omissa Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 332, 1847 Tobago (type 
in coll. of Sir W. Jardine, present location unknown). 1 

Fringilla zena var. portoricensis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, p. 254, 
1866 Porto Rico (type in U. S. National Museum). 

1 Two cotypes of John Kirk's collecting are in the Sclater Collection, British 
Museum. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 123 

Tiaris bicolor expectala Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 385, August, 
1916 St. George, Grenada (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 544, 1928 
Barbados and St. Vincent. 

Phonipara bicolor (not Fringilla bicolor Linnaeus) Newton, Ibis, 1859, p. 147, 
pi. 12, fig. 2 (egg) St. Croix (habits, nest, and eggs); Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 376 St. Thomas; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 106, 1862 part, spec, b, c, St. Croix; Sundevall, Oefv. Vetensk.-Akad. 
Handl., 26, pp. 583, 596, 1869 St. Bartholomew and Porto Rico (crit.); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 175 Barbados; idem, I.e., 1876, 
p. 14 Santa Lucia; Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, pp. 58, 191, 233, 
239, 270, 1878 Dominica, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbuda, and Grenada 
(descr. of nest and eggs); idem, I.e., pp. 355, 457, 1879 Martinique and 
Guadeloupe; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 765 Montserrat; 
Lister, 1880, p. 41 St. Vincent; Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 166, 
1880 Santa Lucia; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 295, 1884 Bucara- 
manga, Colombia; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 149, 1888 part, 
spec, b, c, h-n, Montserrat, Dominica, Tobago, Venezuela (Carupano, 
Caracas), and Colombia (Bogota); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, 
p. 395 Santa Lucia; idem, I.e., 1892, p. 499 Anguilla; Dalmas, M6m. 
Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 138, 1900 Tobago. 

Euethia bicolor Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 312, 1874 Porto Rico; idem, 
I.e., 26, pp. 160, 173, 1874 Porto Rico; idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 
7, p. 205, 1874 Porto Rico (habits); Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 
614, 1886 Grenada (habits); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, pp. 557, 561, 566-569, 
572, 573, 576 Barbados, Santa Lucia, Grenada, Martinique, Dominica, 
Montserrat, St. Kitts, and St. Thomas. 

Euetheia bicolor Cory, Ibis, 1886, pp. 472-474 Barbados, St. Vincent, Marie 
Galante, and La Desirade; idem, Auk, 3, p. 209, 1886 part, Porto 
Rico and Antilles; idem, Auk, 4, p. 96, 1887 Martinique; idem, Bds. W. 
Ind., p. 96, 1889 part, Porto Rico and Antilles; idem, Auk, 7, pp. 374, 
375, 1890 St. Thomas, Anegada, and Virgin Gorda; Ridgway, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 130, 1890 Santa Lucia; Cory, Auk, 8, pp. 46-49, 
1891 Anguilla, Antigua, St. Eustatius, St. Croix, St. Christopher, and 
Guadeloupe; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 113, 150, 1892 part, "Cuba" 
(errore) and Porto Rico to Barbados; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, 
p. 52, 1892 Carupano, Venezuela; Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., 8, 
p. 338, 1892 Dominica (eggs descr.); Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 316 
Dominica (eggs descr.); Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 316 part, Lesser Antilles; 
Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago. 

Eutheia bicolor Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 307 Ibagiie, 
Colombia. 

Tiaris bicolor Wells, Auk, 19, p. 347, 1902 Carriacou, Grenadines (habits). 

Phonipara omissa Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 106, 1862 Antilles and 
Tobago; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 167 Martinique, Dominica, and Porto 
Rico; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Carupano 
(near Cumana) and Caracas, Venezuela. 



124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Euetheia omissa Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 317 Venezuela to Tobago and Co- 
lombia (crit.); Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, pp. 
677, 685, 1896 Margarita Island and La Guayra, Venezuela; Phelps, 
Auk, 14, pp. 359, 364, 1897 Cumana, Venezuela; Robinson and Rich- 
mond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 175, 1901 La Guayra, Venezuela. 

Phonipara zena (not Fringilla zena Linnaeus) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
7, p. 172, 1884 St. Thomas. 

[Phonipara bicolor] subsp. a Phonipara marchii (not of Baird) Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 150, 1888 part, spec, o-t, St. Thomas, Santa 
Lucia, St. Croix, and Barbados. 

Euethia bicolor marchii Lowe, Ibis, 1909, pp. 307, 310 Barbados and St. 
Vincent. 

Euetheia bicolor omissa Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 538, 
1901 (monog.); Clark, Auk, 19, p. 266, 1902 Margarita Island; Lowe, 
Ibis, 1907, p. 567 Margarita Island (crit.); idem, Ibis, 1909, p. 323 
Cariaco Peninsula, Venezuela. 

Tiaris bicolor omissa Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 14, 1903 Porto Rico; Riley, 
Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 291, 1904 Barbuda and Antigua; Clark, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, pp. 286, 303, 304, 306, 1905 Barbados, 
St. Vincent, Grenadines, and Grenada; Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 248, 254, 1909 Margarita Island; Noble, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 60, p. 385, 1916 Goyave, Guadeloupe; Wetmore, Bull. 
U. S. Dept. Agric., 326, p. 125, 1916 Porto Rico (habits, food); idem, 
Auk, 33, p. 419, 1916 Vieques; idem, Auk, 34, pp. 55, 62, 1917 Cule- 
brita and Culebra; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 560, 1917 
Honda and Chicoral, Magdalena Valley, Colombia (crit.); Todd and 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 518, 1922 Rio Hacha, La Goajira, 
Colombia (crit.); Struthers, Auk, 40, p. 478, 1923 Porto Rico; Ban- 
forth, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 10, p. 106, 1926 Cartagena 
Lagoon, Porto Rico; Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands, 9, 
p. 552, 1927 Porto Rico and Virgin Islands (monog.); Peters, Auk, 44, 
p. 538, 1927 Anguilla; Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 544, 
1928 Dominica and Santa Lucia; Danforth, Auk, 47, p. 47, 1930 
St. Martin and St. Eustatius; idem, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 14, 
p. 132, 1930 St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. Jan, Tortola, Salt Island, and 
Virgin Gorda; Beatty, I.e., p. 149, 1930 St. Croix (nest and eggs); Beatty, 
I.e., 15, p. 31, 1931 Guanica Lagoon, Porto Rico; Danforth, I.e., p. 103, 
1931 Porto Rico; idem, Auk, 51, p. 364, 1934 Antigua; idem, Journ. 
Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 19, p. 463, 1935 Culebra, Louis Pena, Cule- 
brita, Cayo Norte, Jost van Dyke, Tortola, and Beef Island, Virgin Islands; 
idem, I.e., p. 482, 1935 Barbuda; idem, Monog. Univ. Puerto Rico, Ser. B, 
No. 3, p. 105, 1935 Santa Lucia. 

Range. The Antillean chain from Porto Rico to Barbados and 
Grenada; Tobago; 1 northern Venezuela (coast region from the 

1 Not found in Trinidad. P. R. Lowe (Ibis, 1907, p. 563, in text) incidentally 
mentions specimens from that island, but upon my inquiries for more details 
this gentleman writes that he can find no trace of any examples in his catalogue 
nor does he remember shooting or seeing any there, and adds, "I must confess 
I have not the least idea how I came to make such a statement." 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 125 

Cariaco Peninsula to the Maracaibo region and MeVida); eastern 
Colombia (La Goajira Peninsula and Magdalena Valley). 1 

131: "Cuba," I; 2 Porto Rico, 7; St. Croix, 6; Virgin Gorda, 3; St. 
Thomas, 3; Anegada, 4; Anguilla, 1; St. Bartholomew, 3; St. 
Eustatius, 3; St. Kitts, 12; Antigua, 2; Guadeloupe, 11; Desirade, 2; 
Marie Galante, 2; Martinique, 5; Santa Lucia, 9; St. Vincent, 2; 
Barbados, 3; Grenada, 3; Tobago, 2; Venezuela (Porlamar, Margarita 
Island, 15; Margarita Island, 5; Caracas, 13; Macuto, Caracas, 6; 
Puerto Cabello, 1; Rio Aurare, 2; Cocollar, Sucre, 5). 

Tiaris bicolor johnstonei (Lowe). 3 JOHNSTONE'S GRASSQUIT. 

Euethia johnstonei Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 19, p. 6, Oct. 29, 1906 Blan- 
quilla Island, southern Caribbean Sea (type in coll. of P. R. Lowe, now 
in British Museum). 

Euethia johnstonii Lowe, Ibis, 1907, p. 120 Blanquilla Island (crit.). 

Euethia bicolor johnstonii Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 328 Los Hermanos (crit.). 

Tiaris johnstonei Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 225, 228, 254, 
1909 Blanquilla and Los Hermanos Islands. 

Range. Islands of Blanquilla and Los Hermanos, southern 
Caribbean Sea. 

6: Blanquilla, 5; Los Hermanos, 1. 

1 Upon comparing large series from various islands of the Antilles, Tobago, 
and northern Venezuela, I am quite unable to find any justification for further 
subdivision of this form. Birds from Grenada and St. Vincent (expectata Noble), 
which are supposed to have shorter tails and more white along the abdominal line, 
do not differ in any way from Tobago specimens (topotypical omissa), with which 
the inhabitants of Margarita and the Venezuelan coast are to all intent identical. 
Males from Tobago measure: wing, 50-54; tail, 38-42; those from Grenada and 
St. Vincent, wing, 48-52; tail, 36-40. There is just a faint possibility that the 
birds from the northern Lesser Antilles, the Virgin Islands, and Porto Rico may 
be slightly different, since the males of these islands appear to become very rarely 
as black below as is the rule in the southern part of the range. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Cumana, 14; Carupano, 3; San 
Esteban, Carabobo, 2; Merida, 2. Colombia: Bucaramanga, 6; "Bogota," 6. 
Tobago: Waterloo, 1; Castare, 5; Mondland, 1; unspecified, 5. Grenada, 6; 
St. Vincent, 3; Barbuda, 2. 

1 This specimen, which was presented by Gundlach to Cory, agrees with 
others from Porto Rico. Its Cuban origin is uncertain (cf. Noble, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 60, p. 386, 1916). 

3 Tiaris bicolor johnstonei (Lowe) : Very close to T. b. omissa, but with blacker 
bill, the mandible being mostly just as dark as the maxilla (much as in T. b. 
grandior); under parts of adult males nearly uniform black from chin to under 
tail coverts, the latter without any, or with mere traces of, whitish apical fringes, 
and only the inner flanks slightly shaded with grayish olive; under wing coverts 
blacker; females paler, less olivaceous above and more grayish, less buffy under- 
neath. Wing, 53-56, (female) 52-54; tail, 38-40, (female) 37-40. 

I do not find any constant differences in the tone of the dorsal surface or in 
the extent of the blackish color on the hindneck between johnstonei and omissa. 
The male from Los Hermanos agrees well with those from Blanquilla. 

Four additional specimens from Blanquilla examined. 



126 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Tiaris bicolor grandior (Cory). 1 OLD PROVIDENCE GRASSQUIT. 

Euethia grandior Cory, Auk, 4, p. 245, July, 1887 Old Providence, Caribbean 

"Sea (type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum). 
Euetheia grandior Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 543, 1901 

Old Providence and St. Andrews (monog.). 
Euethia bicolor (not Fringilla bicolor Linnaeus) Cory, Auk, 4, p. 181, 1887 

St. Andrews. 
Tiaris grandior Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, 

p. 23, 1931 Old Providence and St. Andrews. 
Range. Old Providence and St. Andrews, Caribbean Sea. 
12: Old Providence, 8; St. Andrews, 4. 

*Tiaris bicolor sharpei (Hartert). 2 CURACAO GRASSQUIT. 

Euelheia sharpei Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 7, p. xxxvii, Mar. 28, 1893 
Bonaire, Curacao, and Aruba (type, from Curacao, in Tring Collection, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 26, p. 154, 1919); idem, Ibis, 1893, pp. 295, 314, 315, 328 
Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire (crit., descr. of nest and eggs). 

Euetheia bicolor (not Fringilla bicolor Linnaeus) Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 40, 
p. 81, 1892 Curasao (crit.); Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 165, 
1895 Curacao. 

Euetheia bicolor sharpei Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 543, 
1901 (monog.); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 299, 1902 Aruba, Curacao, 
and Bonaire. 

Tiaris sharpei Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, pp. 201, 208, 213, 
254, 1909 Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 

Range. Islands of Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire, southern 
Caribbean Sea. 

45: Aruba, 16; Curacao, 20; Bonaire, 9. 
*Tiaris bicolor tortugensis Cory. 3 TORTUGA GRASSQUIT. 

1 Tiaris bicolor grandior (Cory): Nearest to T. b. omissa, but much larger; 
upper parts brighter olive green; bill blacker, the mandible fully as dark as the 
maxilla. Wing, 58-62; tail, 47-50. 

The other color differences claimed by Ridgway I am unable to corroborate. 
Some specimens of omissa are fully as dark underneath, and approach T. b. grandior 
also in the coloration of the bill, although this organ is never uniform black as 
is invariably the case in males from Old Providence and St. Andrews. 

2 Tiaris bicolor sharpei (Hartert) : Nearest to T. b. omissa, and about the same 
size but considerably paler throughout; adult males with throat, chest, and 
upper abdomen not so dark, dull slate color rather than black, the flanks paler 
olive-grayish, and the whitish edges to the lower tail coverts generally wider; 
females with dorsal surface lighter and the under parts pale buffy grayish. 

This form is fairly well marked. Some specimens have the lower belly more 
or less grayish white in the middle, while a few others run close to owissa. 

3 Tiaris bicolor tortugensis Cory: Very close to T. b. sharpei, but even paler; 
adult males with dorsal surface lighter grayish-olive, less olivaceous; the blackish 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 127 

Tiaris tortugensis Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 221, October, 
1909 Tortuga Island, off Venezuela, southern Caribbean Sea (type in 
Field Museum). 

Range. Tortuga Island, off the Venezuelan coast, Caribbean Sea. 
8: Tortuga Island, 8. 

Tiaris fuliginosa 1 fuliginosa (Wied). SOOTY GRASSQUIT. 

Fringilla fuliginosa Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 628, 1831 Camamu, 

Bahia, Brazil (descr. of male; type lost, formerly in coll. of Prince Wied; 

cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 224, 1889). 
Oryzoborus unicolor Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 240, 1856 

Brazil (descr. of male; type in Berlin Museum); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 

p. 222, 1870 Bahia, Brazil. 
Amaurospiza unicolor Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 14, p. 307, 1866 Brazil (crit.); 

Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 335 Quipapa, Pernambuco. 
Amaurospiza fuliginosa Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 85, 1874 Cantagallo, 

Rio de Janeiro. 
Phonipara fuliginosa Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 151, 1888 part, 

spec, b-d, Pernambuco, Brazil; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 369, 

1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso (descr. of female); Ihering, Rev. Mus. 

Paul., 4, p. 154, 1900 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro. 
Tiaris fuliginosa Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 378, 1907 part, Brazil 

(Bahia and Pernambuco). 
Tiaris fuliginosa fuliginosa Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 349, 

1930 Chapada, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Wooded region of Brazil, from Pernambuco (Quipapa) 
to Rio de Janeiro (Cantagallo), and west to Matto Grosso (Chapada). 2 

Tiaris fuliginosa fumosa (Lawrence). 3 NORTHERN SOOTY 
GRASSQUIT. 

suffusion on the forehead more restricted; the blackish color underneath slightly 
duller and limited to throat and chest; abdomen extensively grayish white, vari- 
egated with dusky; white margins to under tail coverts wider; under wing coverts 
paler, grayish white rather than dusky; female not distinguishable. Wing, 53-57; 
tail, 42-46. 

Certain individuals of sharpei from Aruba have very nearly as much whitish 
on the abdomen, but are darker and more greenish above, and have darker under 
wing coverts. T. b. tortugensis is the palest of all the races in the bicolor complex. 

1 Tiaris fuliginosa differs from T. bicolor by much larger size, and in the male 
sex by sooty gray (instead of olive-green) upper parts and wing-edgings, and dusky 
legs, while the female may be distinguished by decidedly (ruddy) brown dorsal 
surface, much darker brownish under parts, and darker legs. 

2 Three specimens from Matto Grosso do not differ in any way from others 
taken in eastern Brazil. 

Material examined. Pernambuco: Quipapa, 1; Bahia, 2; Chapada, Matto 
Grosso, 3. 

3 Tiaris fuliginosa fumosa (Lawrence) : Very close to T. f. fuliginosa, but 
with larger bill; adult males with darker sooty upper parts and abdomen. Wing, 
60-62, (female) 58-60; tail, 45-48, (female) 44-47; bill, 10-11. 

After comparing a good series from Trinidad and Venezuela with a number 
of Brazilian skins, I am inclined to recognize at least provisionally the northern 



128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Phonipara fumosa Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 10, p. 396, March, 
1874 "Trinidad" (type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, New York, examined); Salvin and 
Godman, Ibis, 1885, p. 118 Roraima (crit.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 215 
(crit.). 

Phonipara phaeoptila Salvin and Godman, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 445, 1884 Roraima 
(alt. 3,500 ft.), British Guiana (descr. of male; type in Salvin-Godman 
Collection, now in British Museum, examined). 

Phonipara fuliginosa (not Fringilla fuliginosa Wied) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 151, 1888 part, spec, a, Roraima. 

Euetheia fuliginosa Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 18, 1906 Caparo and 
Valencia, Trinidad, and near Cumana, Venezuela (crit.); Cherrie, Sci. 
Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 189, 1906 Heights of Aripo, Trinidad 
(crit., descr. of young male); idem, I.e., p. 360, 1908 Aripo, Trinidad. 

Tiaris fuliginosa Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 378, 1907 part, Guyana 
and Cumana. 

Tiaris phaeoptila Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 442, 1921 Roraima. 

Tiaris fuliginosus subsp.(?) Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Amaurospiza unicolor (not Oryzoborus unicolor Burmeister) Salvin, Ibis, 1886, 
p. 503 part, Roraima. 

Range. Island of Trinidad; north coast of Venezuela from the 
hinterland of Cumana west to Carabobo; British Guiana (Roraima). 

Genus SPIZA Bonaparte 1 

Spiza Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, No. 1, p. 45, August, 1824 
type, by subs, desig. (Bonaparte, Specchio Comp. Orn. Roma i Fila- 
delfia, p. 47 [footnote], 1827), Emberiza americana Gmelin. 

Euspiza Bonaparte, Giorn. Arcad., 52, p. 206, 1831 type, by orig. desig., 
"Fringilla" [=Emberiza] americana Gmelin. 

Euspina Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 133, Oct., 1851 type, by monotypy, 
Emberiza americana Gmelin. 

form of the Sooty Grassquit as distinct. While it must be admitted that immature 
individuals are not or are hardly distinguishable, fully adult males from northern 
localities, when compared to others from Bahia and Mattp Grosso, are decidedly 
darker above and on the belly, and in all plumages the bill appears to be rather 
heavier. The series from Brazil being, however, wholly inadequate, more material 
of the typical race should be examined in order to substantiate the constancy of 
the divergencies. The type of P. fumosa, a trade skin of the so-called "Trinidad 
or Orinoco preparation," agrees in every respect with examples from Aripo and 
Los Palmales. I am quite unable to understand Cherrie's statement that it 
"is very distinct" from Trinidad birds. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 10; Valencia, 1; forest near Talparo, 
1; Aripo, 6. Venezuela: Forest of Los Palmales, Bermudez, 6; Galipan, Cerro 
del Avila, near Caracas, 2; Sierra de Carabobo, 1. British Guiana: Roraima, 1. 

1 A puzzling bird is Emberiza townsendii Audubon (Orn. Biog., 2, p. 183, 
1834), which is known only from the type, now in the U. S. National Museum, 
taken May 11, 1833, by John K. Townsend at New Garden, Chester County, 
Pennsylvania. Its peculiarities cannot be accounted for by hybridism nor probably 
by individual variation. Full description of Spiza townsendii may be found in 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 174, 1901. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 129 

*Spiza americana (Gmelin). DICKCISSEL. 

Emberiza americana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 872, 1789 based on "Black- 
throated Bunting" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 364, pi. 17; New York. 

Emberiza flavicollis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 926, 1789 based on "Yellow- 
throated Bunting" Pennant, Arct. Zool., 2, p. 374; New York. 

Passerine nigricollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 25, p. 10, 
1817 new name for Emberiza americana (Latham ex) Gmelin. 

Spiza americana Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 770, 1888 (monog.); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 171, 1901 (monog., full 
bibliog.); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 29, 1902 Venezuela 
(Altagracia, Caicara, and Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco; SuapurS and La 
Pricion, Caura); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 122, 1908 Cayenne; Cory, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 201, 1909 Aruba (April 24); 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 912, 1910 Costa Rica (winter 
visitant); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 198, 1916 Orinoco 
Valley, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 566, 1917 
Rio Salaqui and Calamar, Colombia; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 458, 
1921 Abary River; Gross, Auk, 38, pp. 1-26, 163-194, 1921 (life history); 
Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 533, 1922 Cincinnati, 
Buritaca, Mamatoco, Rio Hacha, and Tucurinca, Santa Marta region, 
Colombia; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 187, 1928 Lower 
California; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 358, 1932 Finca 
Chama, Panajachel, Ocos, and Hacienda California, Guatemala (transient 
and winter visitant). 

Euspiza americana Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 314, 1866 Trinidad (winter 
visitant). 

Range. Eastern North America, from northeastern Wyoming, 
northwestern North Dakota and Minnesota, southern Michigan, and 
southeastern Ontario south to Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, and 
northern Georgia, formerly also on the Atlantic coastal plain from 
Massachusetts to South Carolina, but now extremely rare east of 
the Alleghenies; winters from Guatemala to Colombia, Venezuela, 
Trinidad, French and British Guiana; accidental in Lower Cali- 
fornia, Arizona, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Aruba (one record), and 
Jamaica. 

83: North Dakota (Cannonball River, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver 
Dam, 5; Milton, 1); Illinois (Beach, Lake County, 2; Deerfield, 1; 
Chicago, ID; South Chicago, 1; Joliet, 5; St. Anne, Kankakee County, 
1; Lewistown, 5; Warsaw, Hancock County, 1; Auburn Park, 1; 
Mound City, 1); Indiana (Liverpool, 2); Missouri (Cliff Cave, 1); 
Kansas (Hamilton, 1); Texas (Fort Worth, 9); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 
2); Mexico (Tamaulipas, 1; Jalapa, 1; City of Mexico, 2; Cozumel 
Island, Yucatan, 1); Honduras (Ruatan Island, Bay Islands, 5); 
Guatemala (Lake Atitlan, 1); Nicaragua (San Emilio, Lake Nica- 



130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

ragua, 2; San Geronimo, Chinandega, 3); Costa Rica (Limon, 2; 
Las Cafias, 2; Guayabo, 1); Old Providence Island, 3; Colombia 
("Bogota," 3); Venezuela (Guayabo, Zulia, 2; Maracay, Aragua, 8); 
Aruba Island, 1. 

Subfamily GEOSPIZINAE. 1 Ground Finches 
Genus GEOSPIZA Gould 

Geospiza Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 5, Oct. 3, 1837 type, by orig. 
desig., Geospiza magnirostris Gould. 

Cactornis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 6, Oct. 3, 1837 type, by orig. 
desig., Cactornis scandens Gould. 

*Geospiza magnirostris Gould. LARGE-BILLED GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza magnirostris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, Oct. 3, 1837 Gala- 
pagos Islands (cotypes now in British Museum); idem, in Darwin, Zool. 
Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 100, pi. 36, 1841 "Charles and Chatham Islands"; 
Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 141, 1931 (monog.). 2 

Geospiza strenua Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 5, Oct. 3, 1837 Gala- 
pagos Islands (cotypes now in British Museum); idem, in Darwin, Zool. 
Beagle, 3, p. 100, pi. 37, 1841 "James and Chatham Islands"; 3 Fisher 
and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 65, 1931 Inde- 
fatigable and Albemarle. 

Geospiza pachyrhyncha Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 293, April 
23, 1896 Tower Island (cotypes in Tring Collection, now in the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, New York); Fisher and Wetmore, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 64, 1931 Tower. 

Geospiza darwini Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 158, 1899 
Culpepper Island (type in Tring Collection, now in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Northern and central islands of the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago (specifically recorded from Culpepper, Wenman, Abingdon, 

1 In the treatment of this group I have closely followed the late Harry Swarth's 
arrangement, as set forth in his elaborate monograph of the Avifauna of the 
Galapagos Islands (Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 1931), but I do not see any 
practical advantage in separating the ground finches (Geospiza, Platyspiza, 
Camarhynchus, Cactospiza) as a family Geospizidae (cf. Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., (4), 18, p. 29, 1929) distinct from the finches. Lowe (Ibis, 1936, pp. 318-319) 
considers them even truly fringilline. 

2 Swarth presented excellent arguments to show that the original examples 
did not come from either Charles or Chatham, as had been assumed through 
fallacious interpretation of a certain sentence in Darwin's writings. 

3 Swarth (I.e., p. 149) questions the locality "James," pointing out at the same 
time that the original specimens, in size of bill, most closely resemble birds from 
Albemarle. There seems hardly any doubt that in the cases of G. strenua and 
G. magnirostris the localities, as given by Gould in the "Zoology of the Beagle," 
are altogether untrustworthy. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 131 

Bindloe, Tower, James, Jervis, Albemarle, Narborough, Duncan, 
Indefatigable, Seymour, and Barrington). 1 

4: Galapagos Islands (Indefatigable, 3; James, 1). 
*Geospiza fortis Gould. STURDY GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza fortis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 5, Oct. 3, 1837 Galapagos 
Islands (one of the cotypes now in the British Museum) ; idem, in Darwin, 
Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 101, pi. 38, 1841 "Charles and Chatham 
Islands"; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 10, 1888 Charles Island; 
Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 152, 1932 (monog., full bibliog.); 
Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 63, 1931 
Seymour, Indefatigable, and Charles Islands. 

Geospiza dubia Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 6, Oct. 3, 1837 Galapagos 
Islands; idem, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 103, 1841 Chatham 
Island; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 9, 1888 (type specimen believed 
to have been lost); Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, 
p. 63, 1931 Chatham. 

Geospiza nebulosa Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 5, Oct. 3, 1837 Gala- 
pagos Islands (type, from Charles Island, in the British Museum); idem, 
in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 101, 1841 Charles Island. 

Geospiza dentirostris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 6, Oct. 3, 1837 
Galapagos Islands (type now in the British Museum). 

Cactornis brevirostris Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, "1889," p. 108, 
pub. Feb. 5, 1890 Charles Island (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Geospiza bauri Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 362, Nov. 15, 1894 
James Island (type in Tring Collection, now in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York). 

Geospiza albemarlei Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 362, Nov. 15, 
1894 Albemarle Island (type in U. S. National Museum); Fisher and 
Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 63, 1931 Albemarle. 

Geospiza fratercula Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 363, Nov. 5, 1894 
Abingdon Island (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Geospiza dubia simillima Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 161, 1899 
Charles Island (type in Tring Collection, now in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York). 

Geospiza fortis platyrhyncha Heller and Snodgrass, Condor, 3, p. 75, 1901 
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island (type in coll. of Stanford University). 

Range. The greater part of the Galapagos Archipelago, including 
all of the central islands (unrecorded from Culpepper and Tower 
Islands). 2 

1 With ample material for study, Swarth has shown the four "species" syno- 
nymized above to be not properly separable one from another. 

2 After studying upwards of nine hundred specimens, the late H. S. Swarth 
came to the conclusion that G. dubia is not separable from G. fortis. The other 
names listed are likewise considered to be synonyms. For an explanation and 



132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

16: Galapagos Islands (Albemarle, 8; Charles, 3; Indefatigable, 
2; Chatham, 1; James, 1; Bindloe, 1). 

*Geospiza fuliginosa fuliginosa Gould. SOOTY GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza fuliginosa Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 5, Oct. 3, 1837 
Galapagos (cotypes now in British Museum); idem, in Darwin, Zool. 
Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 101, 1841 Chatham and James; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 504, 1901 (monog.); Fisher and Wetmore, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 62, 1931 Albemarle, Chatham, 
Hood, Barrington, Charles, Duncan, and Indefatigable. 

Geospiza harterli Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 507, 1901 
Chatham Island (type in Tring Collection, now in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York). 

Geospiza fuliginosa parvula (not Geospiza parvula Gould) Snodgrass and Heller, 
Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 294, 1904 (crit.). 

Geospiza fuliginosa fuliginosa Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 169, 
1931 (monog.). 

Range. All of the central and southern islands of the Galapagos 
Archipelago (James, Jervis, Indefatigable, Seymour, Daphne, Duncan, 
Albemarle, Narborough, Brattle, Barrington, Charles, Gardner- 
near-Charles, Enderby, Hood, Gardner-near-Hood, and Chatham). 

13: Galapagos Islands (Albemarle, 8; Charles, 4; Narborough, 1). 

*Geospiza fuliginosa minor Rothschild and Hartert. 1 LESSER 
SOOTY GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza fuliginosa minor Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 162, 
1899 Bindloe and Abingdon Islands (type, from Bindloe, in Tring 
Collection, now in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York; cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 26, p. 152, 1919); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., 18, p. 173, 1931 Wenman, Abingdon, and Bindloe (monog.). 

Range. Wenman, Abingdon, and Bindloe Islands, Galapagos 
Archipelago. 

1: Galapagos Islands (Bindloe, 1). 

*Geospiza difficilis acutirostris Ridgway. 2 SHARP-BILLED 
GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza acutirostris Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 363, Nov. 15, 
1894 Tower Island (type in Tring Collection, now in the American 

discussion of the unusual individual variations displayed by this species Swarth's 
elaborate paper must be consulted. 

1 A. very slightly differentiated race averaging smaller in size and with 
smaller bill. 

2 Geospiza difficilis acutirostris Ridgway differs from the nominate race merely 
by slenderer, more acute bill. Its resemblance to G. difficilis, insisted upon by 
Swarth, is very close indeed, and the natural affinities of the two species seem 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 133 

Museum of Natural History, New York); Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 6, p. 162, 1899 Tower; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 506, 1901 (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 
p. 177, 1931 Tower (monog.); Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 62, 1931 Tower. 

Geospiza fuliginosa acutirostris Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 
5, p. 316, 1904 (crit.). 

Range, Tower Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 
1: Galapagos Islands (Tower Island, 1). 

Geospiza difficilis difficilis Sharpe. SHARPE'S GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza difficilis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 12, 1888 part, Abing- 
don Island 1 (cotypes in British Museum); Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 6, p. 163, 1899 Abingdon (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 1, p. 507, 1901 (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
18, p. 178, 1931 (monog.). 

Geospiza fuliginosa difficilis Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 
5, p. 317, 1904 (crit.). 

Range. Abingdon Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Geospiza difficilis debilirostris Ridgway. SLENDER-BILLED 
GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza debilirostris Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 363, Nov. 15, 
1894 James Island (type in U. S. National Museum); Rothschild and 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 163, 1899 (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 508, 1901 (monog.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. 
Wash. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 333, 1904 (crit.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., 18, p. 180, 1931 James and Indefatigable (monog.). 

Range. James and Indefatigable, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Geospiza difficilis septentrionalis Rothschild and Hartert. 
NORTHERN GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza scandens septentrionalis Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, 
p. 165, 1899 part, Wenman Island (type in Tring Collection, now in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 26, p. 153, 1919). 

Geospiza septentrionalis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 510, 
1901 part, Wenman; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, 
p. 333, 1904 part, Wenman. 

more correctly expressed by binomial names. G. debilirostris and G. septentrionalis 
are other members of the same group, the various representatives replacing one 
another on different islands. Five specimens examined. 

1 The specimens from other islands, referred here by the describer, pertain to 
other species. Spec, a is G. d. debilirostris; spec, f, G. f. fuliginosa; spec, g, Cama- 
rhynchus parimlus. Cf. Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 179, 1931. 



134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Geospiza septentrionalis septentrionalis Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 

18, p. 184, 1931 (monog.). 
Range. Wenman Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Geospiza difficilis nigrescens Swarth. 1 BLACKISH GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza septentrionalis nigrescens Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 

p. 185, June 29, 1931 Culpepper Island (type in California Academy of 

Sciences). 
Geospiza scandens septentrionalis Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 

165, 1899 part, Culpepper. 
Geospiza septentrionalis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 510, 

1901 part, Culpepper; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 

5, p. 333, 1904 part, Culpepper. 
Range. Culpepper Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Geospiza scandens scandens (Gould). GOULD'S GROUND FINCH. 

Cactornis scandens Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 7, Oct. 3, 1837 
Galapagos Islands (type, from James Island, in British Museum); idem, 
in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 104, pi. 42, 1841 James; Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 19, 1888 Galapagos. 

Geospiza scandens Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 534, 1897 (crit.); 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 509, 1901 (monog.). 

Geospiza scandens scandens Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 164, 
1899 (crit.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 336, 
1904 (crit.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 190, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. James and Jervis Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. 

*Geospiza scandens intermedia Ridgway. INTERMEDIATE GROUND 
FINCH. 

Geospiza intermedia Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 361 (in text), 
Nov. 18, 1894 Charles Island (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, 
I.e., 19, p. 535, 1897 (crit.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 511, 1901 (monog.). 

Geospiza barringtoni Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 361, Nov. 15, 
1894 Barrington Island (type in Tring Collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Geospiza fatigata Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 293, April 23, 1896 
Indefatigable Island (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, I.e., 19, 
p. 539, 1897 (crit.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 511, 1901 
(monog.); Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 62, 
1931 Indefatigable and Barrington. 

Geospiza scandens intermedia Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 164, 
1899 Charles (crit.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 193, 
1931 (monog.). 

1 Geospiza difficilis nigrescens Swarth: Similar to G. d. septentrionalis, but 
with larger (both longer and heavier) bill. Bill, 15^-17, (female) 14^-15. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 135 

Geospiza scandens fatigata Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 164, 
1899 (crit.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 338, 
1904 (crit.). 

Range. Albemarle, Duncan, Indefatigable, Charles, Harrington, 
and Chatham Islands, including adjacent islets, in the Galapagos 
Archipelago. 1 

5: Galapagos Islands (Indefatigable, 4; Charles, 1). 

Geospiza scandens abingdoni (Sclater and Salvin). ABINGDON 
ISLAND GROUND FINCH. 

Cactornis abingdoni Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, pp. 323, 

326 Abingdon Island (cotypes in British Museum); Salvin, Trans. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 486, 1876 (crit.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

12, p. 20, 1888 Abingdon. 
Geospiza abingdoni Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 540, March, 1897 

(crit.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 513, 1901 Abingdon 

(monog.). 
Geospiza scandens abingdoni Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 165, 

1899 part, Abingdon; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 

5, p. 340, 1904 Abingdon; Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 

p. 195, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Abingdon Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Geospiza scandens rothschildi Heller and Snodgrass. 2 ROTHS- 
CHILD'S GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza scandens rothschildi Heller and Snodgrass, Condor, 3, p. 75, 1901 
Bindloe Island (type in coll. of Stanford University); Snodgrass and 
Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 341, 1904 Bindloe; Swarth, Occ. 
Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 197, 1931 (monog.). 

Geospiza scandens abingdoni (not of Ridgway) Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 6, p. 165, 1899 part, Bindloe; idem, I.e., 9, p. 398, 1902 part, 
Bindloe. 

Geospiza rothschildi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 673, 1901 
Bindloe (monog.). 

Range. Bindloe Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 3 

1 Both G. barringtoni and G. fatigata were found by Swarth, who had an enor- 
mous series at his command, to be inseparable from Charles Island birds (intermedia), 
and what material we have seen certainly bears out his conclusions. 

2 Geospiza scandens rothschildi Heller and Snodgrass may be distinguished 
from the other races by slightly heavier bill. 

Five specimens compared with an equal number from Abingdon. 

Cactornis assimilis Gould (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 7, Oct. 5, 1837 
type, from the "Galapagos," in the British Museum) may be an earlier name for 
G. s. rothschildi, but its proper application is in doubt (cf. Swarth, Occ. Pap. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 198, 1931). 



136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Geospiza conirostris conirostris Ridgway. CONE-BILLED 
GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza conirostris Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, "1889," p. 106, 
pub. Feb. 5, 1890 Hood Island (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, 
I.e., 19, p. 516, 1897 Hood (crit.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 498, 1901 Hood (monog.); Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 64, 1931 Hood. 

Geospiza media Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, "1889," p. 107, pub. 
Feb. 5, 1890 Hood Island (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, 
I.e., 19, p. 517, 1901 Hood (monog.). 

Geospiza conirostris conirostris Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 158, 
1899 (crit.); idem, I.e., 9, p. 389, 1902; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. 
Acad. Sci., 5, p. 344, 1904 (crit.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
18, p. 201, 1931 Hood and Gardner-near-Hood (monog.). 

Range. Hood and Gardner-near-Hood Islands, in the Galapagos 
Archipelago. 

1: Galapagos Islands (Hood Island, 1). 

Geospiza conirostris propinqua Ridgway. TOWER ISLAND 
GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza propinqua Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 361, Nov. 15, 
1894 Tower Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, now with the Tring Col- 
lection in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 26, p. 152, 1919); idem, I.e., 19, p. 543, 1897 (crit.); 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 499, 1901 (monog.); Fisher 
and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 64, 1931 Tower 
Island. 

Geospiza conirostris propinqua Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 159, 
1899 Tower (crit.); idem, I.e., 9, p. 390, 1902; Snodgrass and Heller, 
Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 343, 1904 (crit.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., 18, p. 204, 1931 Tower (monog.). 

Range. Tower Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 1 

Genus PLATYSPIZA Ridgway 

Platyspiza Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, "1896," p. 545, pub. March 
15, 1896 type, by orig. desig., Camarhynchus variegatus Sclater and 
Salvin=C. crassirostris Gould. 

*Platyspiza crassirostris (Gould). DARWIN'S GROUND FINCH. 

Camarhynchus crassirostris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 6, Oct. 5, 1837 
Galapagos Islands (type lost); 2 idem, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, 
p. 103, pi. 41, 1841 Charles Island? 

1 Two specimens of an undetermined form have been secured on Culpepper 
Island (cf. Swarth, I.e., p. 206, 1931). 

2 A specimen from Charles listed by Sharpe (Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 16, 
1888) as "type" of C. crassirostris is erroneously so labeled. Cf. Swarth, I.e., p. 209 
(in text), 1931. 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 137 

Camarhynchus variegatus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 324 Abingdon and Bindloe Islands (cotypes in British Museum); 
Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 489, pi. 85, 1876 Bindloe and 
Abingdon (monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 15, 1888 Abing- 
don and Bindloe; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 548, 1897 (monog.). 

Geospiza crassirostris Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 166, 1899 
(crit.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 291, 1904 
(crit., nest and eggs descr.). 

Platyspiza crassirostris Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 474, 
1901 (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 208, 1931 
(monog.); Fisher and Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 16, 
1931 Chatham and Indefatigable. 

Range. Abingdon, Bindloe, Albemarle, Narborough, James, 
Jervis, Duncan, Indefatigable, Chatham, and Charles Islands, 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

1: Galapagos Islands (Indefatigable, 1). 

Genus CAMARHYNCHUS Gould 

Camarhynchus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 6, Oct. 3, 1837 type, 
by orig. desig., Camarhynchus psittacula Gould. 

Camarhynchus psittacula Gould. PARROT GROUND FINCH. 

Camarhynchus psittacula Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 6, Oct. 3, 1837 
Galapagos Islands (cotypes in British Museum); Swarth, Occ. Pap. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 215, 1931 (monog.). 

Camarhynchus psittaculus Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 103, 
pi. 40, 1841 James Island; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 552, 
1897 (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 477, 1901 
(monog.). 

Camarhynchus townsendi Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, "1889," p. 110, 
Feb. 5, 1890 Charles Island (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Camarhynchus rostratus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 363, Nov. 15, 
1894 James Island (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Camarhynchus compressirostris Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 294, 
April 23, 1896 Jervis Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, now with the 
Tring Collection in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 558, 1897 (monog.); idem, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 481, 1901 (monog.). 

Range. James, Jervis, Seymour, Indefatigable, Duncan, and 
Charles Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. 1 

Camarhynchus affinis Ridgway. 2 ALLIED GROUND FINCH. 

1 For the reasons of synonymizing C. toumsendi and C. compressirostris with 
C. psittacula, Swarth's elaborate paper should be consulted. 

1 Camarhynchus affinis Ridgway so closely resembles C. psittacula that one 
is tempted to regard it as only subspecifically distinct. However, both have 



138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Camarhynchus affinis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 365, Nov. 15, 
1894 Albemarle Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, now with the Rothschild 
Collection in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); 
idem, I.e., 19, p. 554, 1897 (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 481, 1901 (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 
p. 222, 1931 (monog.). 

Camarhynchus incertus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 294, April 23, 
1896 James Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, now with the Tring Col- 
lection in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, 
I.e., 19, p. 560, 1897 James Island (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 1, p. 482, 1901 part, James Island. 

Geospiza affinis Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 168, 1899 Albe- 
marle and Narborough; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 
5, p. 289, 1904 Albemarle (crit.). 

Geospiza incerta Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 168, 1899 part, 
James Island (crit.). 

Range. Albemarle (and perhaps Narborough) Islands, also 
recorded from James and Seymour Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Camarhynchus habeli Sclater and Salvin. HABEL'S GROUND 
FINCH. 

Camarhynchus habeli Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 325 
Abingdon and Bindloe Islands (cotypes, from Abingdon Island, in the 
British Museum); Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 490, pi. 86, 
1876 (monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 17, 1888 (Abingdon 
designated as type locality); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 555, 
1897 Abingdon (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 480, 
1901 Abingdon and Bindloe (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., 18, p. 219, 1931 Abingdon and Bindloe (monog.). 

Camarhynchus bindloei Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, p. 294, April 23, 
1896 Bindloe Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, now with the Tring Col- 
lection in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; cf. 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 26, p. 153, 1919). 

Geospiza habeli Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 168, 1899 Abingdon 
and Bindloe (crit.); idem, I.e., 9, p. 401, 1902 (crit.); Snodgrass and 
Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 288, 1904 Abingdon and Bindloe 
(crit.). 

Range. Abingdon and Bindloe Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. 
Camarhynchus pauper Ridgway. SMALL-BILLED GROUND FINCH. 

Camarhynchus pauper Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, "1889," p. Ill, 
pub. Feb. 5, 1890 Charles Island (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, I.e., 19, p. 559, 1897 (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 

been taken on Jervis and Seymour, and while the occurrence of C. affinis on these 
islands may be merely casual, the matter needs further investigation. I am in- 
clined to think that C. psittacula, C. affinis, and C. habeli will eventually prove to 
be mutual representatives on different islands. 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 139 

Part 1, p. 483, 1901 (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 
p. 224, 1931 (monog.). 

Geospiza paupera Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 169, 1899 (crit.); 
idem, I.e., 9, p. 401, 1902 Charles; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. 
Acad. Sci., 5, p. 288, 1904 Charles (crit.). 

Range. Charles Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

'Camarhynchus parvulus parvulus (Gould). BLACK-HEADED 
GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza parvula Gould, 1 Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 6, Oct. 3, 1837 

Galapagos (cotypes, from James Island, in British Museum); idem, in 

Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 102, pi. 39, 1841 James Island. 
Camarhynchus prosthemelas Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 

p. 325 Indefatigable Island (cotypes in British Museum); Sharpe, Cat. 

Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 7, 1888 Indefatigable; Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 9, p. 490, 1876 (monog., excl. of Chatham); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 484, 1901 (monog.); Fisher and Wetmore, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 66, 1931 Charles. 
Geospiza prosthemelas Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 169, 1899 

(crit.). 
Geospiza prosthemelas prosthemelas Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. 

Sci., 5, p. 284, 1904 Albemarle, James, Duncan, and Charles Islands 

(crit.). 
Camarhynchus parvulus parvulus Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 

p. 229, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Wenman, Abingdon, James, Jervis, Seymour, Inde- 
atigable, Duncan, Albemarle, Cowley, Narborough, Barrington, 
Charles, and Gardner-near-Charles Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. 

1: Galapagos Islands (Albemarle, 1). 

Samarhynchus parvulus salvini Ridgway. SALVIN'S GROUND 
FINCH. 

Camarhynchus salvini Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 364, Nov. 15, 
1894 Chatham Island (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, I.e., 19, 
p. 561, 1897 (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 486, 
1901 (monog.). 

Camarhynchus prosthemelas (not of Sclater and Salvin) Sundevall, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 125 part, Chatham; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 12, "1889," p. 110, Feb., 1890 part, Chatham. 

Geospiza salvini Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 169, 1899 Chatham 
(crit.); idem, I.e., 9, p. 402, 1902 Chatham. 

1 As shown by Swarth, this name, based on adult male and female from James 
[sland, refers to the form that was subsequently described as C. prosthemelas, 
ilthough it had been misapplied by Snodgrass and Heller and others to certain 
lupposed races of Geospiza fuliginosa. 



140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Geospiza prosthemelas salvini Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 

5, p. 287, 1904 Chatham (crit.). 
Camarhynchus prosthemelas salvini Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 

p. 232, 1931 Chatham (monog.). 

Range. Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 
Camarhynchus conjunctus Swarth. 1 SWARTH'S GROUND FINCH. 

Camarhynchus conjunctus Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 33, 
Jan. 29, 1929 Charles Island (type in the California Academy of 
Sciences); idem, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 237, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Charles Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Camarhynchus aureus Swarth. 2 YELLOW-BELLIED GROUND 
FINCH. 

Camarhynchus aureus Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 34, Jan. 29, 
1929 Chatham Island (type in the California Academy of Sciences); 
idem, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 236, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago. ' 

Genus CACTOSPIZA Ridgway 

Cactospiza Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 546, March 15, 1897 
type, by orig. desig., Cactornis pallida Sclater and Salvin. 

Cactospiza pallida pallida (Sclater and Salvin). PALE GROUND 
FINCH. 

Cactornis pallida Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 327 
Indefatigable Island (cotypes in British Museum); Salvin, Trans. Zool. 

1 Camarhynchus conjunctus Swarth: Upper parts generally dull olive green, 
feathers of pileum with dusky centers, giving a blackish appearance to top of 
head; sides of head like back; eyelids and faint superciliary line pale yellowish; 
remiges and rectrices dusky, edged with olivaceous; greater and median wing 
coverts like the back, narrowly edged with yellowish, producing two poorly 
defined wing bars; below greenish yellow, paler than back; sides of breast, flanks, 
and lower tail coverts tinged with brownish, middle of belly pale yellowish; chin 
and throat indistinctly marked with tawny, of the same shade as is characteristic 
of the gular patch in some species of Certhidea; feathers of throat and upper breast 
black-centered, producing a streaked appearance, the general effect of which is 
of poorly denned black lines surrounding a rather nebulous tawny throat patch; 
bill black; legs dark brown. Wing (male), 58-59; tail, 38^-40; bill, 9^-10. 

This species is stated by its describer to be intermediate in certain outstanding 
features between Camarhynchus and Certhidea, lying in measurements and bulk 
between the maximum reached in Certhidea, and the minimum in other species 
of Camarhynchus. The bill especially is described as being intermediate in shape 
and size between the typical members of the two genera. This curious bird is 
known only from two evidently adult males collected on Charles Island on 
February 28, 1906. The combination of the tawny wash on the throat with 
blackish streaks on it and the upper breast makes one think of the result of some 
hybridization. Until more material becomes available, it will be hard to interpret 
correctly the significance of the characters shown by these puzzling specimens. 

* Camarhynchus aureus Swarth: Generally similar to C. conjunctus, but with 
slightly heavier bill and more uniform coloration, the under parts being, from bill 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 141 

Soc. Lond., 9, p. 487, 1876 Indefatigable (monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 12, p. 20, 1888 Indefatigable; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 12, p. 109, 1890 James Island (crit.). 
dactornis] hypoleuca Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 109 (in text), 

Feb. 5, 1890 James Island (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Camarhynchus pallidus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 565, 1897 

Indefatigable, Jervis, and James (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

50, Part 1, p. 487, 1901 Indefatigable, Jervis, James, Duncan, and 

Albemarle (monog.). 
Geospiza pallida Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 165, 1899 part, 

Indefatigable, Jervis, Duncan, James, and Albemarle (crit.); idem, I.e., 

9, p. 399, 1902 Albemarle and Indefatigable; Snodgrass and Heller, 

Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 277, 1904 part, Indefatigable, Jervis, Duncan, 

and James (crit.). 
Cactospiza pallida pallida Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 240, 

1931 (monog.). 

Range. James, Jervis, Seymour, Indefatigable, Duncan, and 
Charles Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. 1 

Cactospiza pallida producta (Ridgway). 2 ALBEMARLE ISLAND 
GROUND FINCH. 

Camarhynchus produclus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 364, Nov. 

15, 1894 Albemarle Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, now with the Tring 

Collection in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; 

cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 26, p. 153, 1919). 
Camarhynchus pallidus (not Cactornis pallida Sclater and Salvin) Ridgway, 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 487, 1901 part, Albemarle. 
Geospiza pallida Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 165, 1899 part, 

Albemarle (crit.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 277, 

1904 part, Albemarle. 
Cactospiza pallida producta Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 243, 

1931 Albemarle (monog.). 

to tail coverts, almost uniformly pale yellow, broken only by a slightly mottled 
appearance on the breast, where the blackish base of the feathers show through, 
and with sides of breast and flanks slightly darker. The yellow of the under surface 
spreads over the sides of neck and face, cheeks, and auriculars, to meet a broad 
yellow superciliary line extending from bill and forehead back to a point well 
behind the eye. The bill is blackish, with edges of upper and tip of lower mandible 
slightly paler; legs blackish. Wing (male), 58; tail (worn), 35; bill, 9. 

Known from a single male in rather worn condition (Jan. 25, 1906) from 
Chatham Island. 

1 On the basis of good series Swarth came to the conclusion that the main- 
tenance of C. hypoleuca from James is no more justifiable than the segregation of 
the populations of Duncan, Charles, or Jervis. 

1 Cactospiza pallida producta (Ridgway) : Exactly like the nominate race, but 
with slightly smaller bill. 

The few specimens examined from Albemarle seem to substantiate Swarth 's 
opinion that C. p. producta merits recognition. 



142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Albemarle and (presumably) Narborough Islands, Gala- 
pagos Archipelago. 

Cactospiza pallida striatipecta Swarth. 1 STRIPED-BREASTED 
GROUND FINCH. 

Cactospiza pallida striatipecta Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 245, 
June 29, 1931 Chatham Island (type in the California Academy of 
Sciences). 

Geospiza pallida (not Cactornis pallida Sclater and Salvin) Rothschild and 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 165, 1899 part, Chatham Island. 

Range. Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 
Cactospiza giffordi Swarth. 2 GIFFORD'S GROUND FINCH. 

Cactospiza giffordi Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 32, Jan. 29, 
1929 Indefatigable Island (type in the California Academy of Sciences); 
idem, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 246, 1931 Indefatigable (monog.). 

. Range. Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Cactospiza heliobates (Snodgrass and Heller). 3 HELLER'S 
GROUND FINCH. 

Geospiza heliobates Snodgrass and Heller, Condor, 3, p. 96, July, 1901 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island (type in coll. of Stanford University); 
idem, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 279, 1904 Albemarle and Nar- 
borough (monog., habits); Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 400, 
1902 Albemarle (crit.). 

Cactospiza heliobates Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p.' 247, 1931 
Albemarle and Narborough (monog.). 

Range. Albemarle and Narborough, Galapagos Archipelago. 
Genus CERTHIDEA Gould 4 

Certhidea Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 7, Oct. 3, 1837 type, by mono- 
typy, Certhidea olivacea Gould. 

1 Cactospiza pallida striatipecta Swarth: Similar to C. p. pallida, but with 
shorter, heavier bill. Besides, the streaking below is generally more extensive as 
well as more sharply defined. Wing (males), 69-71 H; tail, 42-47; bill, (circa) 14. 

* Cactospiza giffordi Swarth: "Closely related to the pallida-heliobates group, 
but much smaller and with more slender bill than any other described form in 
that group. Wing (male), 64; tail, 41 }fa bill, 13^." (Swarth, I.e.) Known from 
a single male in rather worn plumage. 

3 Cactospiza heliobates (Snodgrass and Heller): Nearly related to C. pallida 
(s. lat.), but with smaller bill; breast and sides conspicuously streaked; the upper 
parts very dark, almost uniformly blackish. Wing (males), 70-73 Y^; tail, 42-45; 
bill, 12^-HM- 

Two specimens from Albemarle examined. 

4 This genus, long referred to the Warblers (Compsothlypidae), is unquestion- 
ably a close relative of the other Galapagos finches. Not only do some species 
of Camarhynchus show a certain approach to its characters, but the structure of 
the horny palate in Certhidea was found by Sushkin (Verh. 6th Intern. Orn. Kongr. 
Kopenhagen, p. 376, 1929) to be strictly Geospizine and totally different from the 
Warblers. 



L938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 143 

Serthidea olivacea becki Rothschild. 1 BECK'S CERTHIDEA. 

Certhidea becki Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 7, p. liii, May 25, 1898 
Wenman Island (type in Tring Collection, now in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 767, 1902 Wenman (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., 18, p. 259, 1931 Culpepper and Wenman (monog.). 

Certhidea drownei Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 7, p. liii, May 25, 1898 
Culpepper Island (type in Tring Collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 767, 1902 Culpepper (monog.). 

Range. Culpepper and Wenman, Galapagos Archipelago. 
Certhidea olivacea fusca Sclater and Salvin. DUSKY CERTHIDEA. 

Certhidea fusca Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, pp. 323, 324 
Abingdon and Bindloe Islands (type, from Abingdon, in British Mu- 
seum); Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 28, 1886 same localities; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 766, 1902 (monog.); Swarth, 
Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 257, 1931 (monog.). 

Range. Abingdon and Bindloe, Galapagos Archipelago. 2 

Certhidea olivacea mentalis Ridgway. 3 LEAD-COLORED 
CERTHIDEA. 

Certhidea mentalis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 359, 1894 Tower 
Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, afterwards in Tring Collection, now in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 766, 1902 Tower (monog.); Swarth, 
Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 260, 1931 Tower (monog.). 

Certhidea olivacea mentalis Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, 
p. 61, 1931 Tower. 

Range. Tower Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Certhidea olivacea olivacea Gould. OLIVACEOUS CERTHIDEA. 

Certhidea olivacea Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 5, p. 7, Oct. 3, 1837 Gala- 
pagos Islands= James Island (cotypes now in British Museum); idem, in 
Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 106, pi. 44, 1841 part, James; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 323 Indefatigable; Sclater, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 28, 1886 part, James and Indefatigable; 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 763, 1902 (monog.); Swarth, 
Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 254, 1931 James, Jervis, Indefatigable, 
Seymour, Duncan, Albemarle, and Narborough (monog.). 

1 Certhidea olivacea becki Rothschild, the darkest and most olivaceous of all 
the races, is remarkably similar to C. o. ridgwayi, from Charles Island, at the 
opposite end of the Archipelago, but is somewhat darker with even less, in fact 
hardly any, traces of the tawny gular area. Like Mr. Swarth, I am unable to 
appreciate any difference between five specimens from Wenman and three from 
Culpepper (drownei). 

1 Five specimens each from Abingdon and Bindloe examined. 

* Certhidea olivacea mentalis is very close to C. o. fusca, but of a more uniform 
lead-gray, particularly below. Five specimens examined. 



144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Certhidea olivacea olivacea Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 148, 
1899 (crit.); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 60, 1931 
Indefatigable. 

Certhidea salvini Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 358, 1894 Inde- 
fatigable Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, now with the Tring Collection 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 
19, p. 500, 1897 (monog.). 

Certhidea albemarlei Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 360, 1894 
Albemarle Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, now with the Tring Collection 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 
19, p. 500, 1897 (monog.). 

Range. James, Jervis, Duncan, Indefatigable, Seymour, Albe- 
marle, and Narborough Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. 1 

Certhidea olivacea ridgwayi Rothschild and Hartert. 2 RIDGWAY'S 
CERTHIDEA. 

Certhidea olivacea ridgwayi Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 149, 
1899 Charles Island (type in Tring Collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. 
Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 352, 1904 Charles (crit.). 

Certhidea ridgwayi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 765, 1902 
Charles (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 261, 
1931 Charles (monog.). 

Range. Charles Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 
Certhidea olivacea luteola Ridgway. 3 YELLOWISH CERTHIDEA. 

Certhidea luteola Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 360, 1894 Chatham 
Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, afterwards in Tring Collection, now in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 
19, p. 501, 1897 Chatham (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 764, 1902 Chatham (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., 18, p. 263, 1931 Chatham (monog.). 

1 As has been explained by Swarth, James Island must be considered as type 
locality. After studying some forty specimens, we are in agreement with this 
author that subdivision of this form is not warranted, although birds from Albe- 
marle (albemarlei) and Indefatigable (salvini) show certain average characters in 
opposition to those from James. 

2 Certhidea olivacea ridgwayi Rothschild and Hartert is very similar to C. o. 
olivacea, but in the male sex more grayish above and less yellowish below with the 
cinnamon-tawny area paler, more dilute, and less extensive. The juvenile plumage 
is very different in being heavily streaked on the under, faintly streaked on the 
upper parts. The streaked condition of the young, taken in conjunction with the 
somewhat stouter bill of this form, affords another point of evidence for the close 
relationship between Certhidea and Camarhynchus. 

Seven specimens examined. 

3 Certhidea olivacea luteola Ridgway: Generally similar to C. o. olivacea, but 
brighter olivaceous above and brighter yellow below without any, or at best a 
faint suggestion of, rufous color on the throat in the male sex. 

Five specimens examined. 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 145 

Certhidea olivacea (not of Gould) Sclater, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 28, 

1886 part, Chatham Island. 
Certhidea olivacea luteola Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 61, 

1931 Chatham. 

Range. Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Certhidea olivacea bifasciata Ridgway. 1 HARRINGTON ISLAND 
CERTHIDEA. 

Certhidea bifasciata Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 17, p. 359, 1894 
Barrington Island (type in coll. of G. Baur, now with the Tring Collection 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 19, 
p. 504, 1897 (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 2, p. 768, 
1902 (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 265, 1931 
(monog.). 

Certhidea cinerascens bifasciata Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, p. 151, 
1899 (crit.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, p. 356, 
1904 (crit.); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 60, 1931 
Barrington. 

Range. Barrington Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 
Certhidea olivacea cinerascens Ridgway. 2 ASHY CERTHIDEA. 

Certhidea cinerascens Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, "1889," p. 105, 
pub. Feb. 5, 1890 Hood Island (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, I.e., 19, p. 503, 1897 (monog.); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 2, p. 768, 1902 (monog.); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, 
p. 264, 1931 (monog.). 

Certhidea cinerascens cinerascens Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 6, 
p. 151, 1899 (crit.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 5, 
p. 354, 1904 (crit.); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 60, 
1931 Hood Island. 

Range. Hood and Gardner-near-Hood Islands, in the Galapagos 
Archipelago. 

Genus PINAROLOXIAS Sharpe 
Pinaroloxias Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 52, 1885 type, by mono- 

typy, Cactornis inornata Gould. 
Cocornis Townsend, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 27, p. 123, July, 1895 type, 

by monotypy, Cocornis agassizi Townsend. 

1 Certhidea olivacea bifasciata Ridgway comes very close to C. o. cinerascens, 
but is even paler, with more purely gray upper, and whiter under parts. Three 
specimens examined. 

2 Certhidea olivacea cinerascens Ridgway is strikingly similar to C. o. fusca, of 
Abingdon and Bindloe Islands, as has been pointed out by Swarth. The close 
resemblance of the inhabitants of so widely remote islands, which can be explained 
only as parallel development under similar environmental influence, seems to 
indicate that the best course is to treat all Certhideas as representatives of a single 
specific entity. 



146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Pinaroloxias inornata (Gould). 1 Cocos ISLAND FINCH. 

Cactornis inornata Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 104, Dec., 1843 
"Bow Island, Low Archipelago, Polynesia," errore= Cocos Island (descr. 
of female or young male; type in coll. of Zoological Society of London, 
now in British Museum); idem, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, p. 42, pi. 25, 1844 
"Bow Island." 

[Genus?] inornata Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 485, 1876 (crit.). 

Pinaroloxias inornata Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, p. 52, 1885 
"Bow Island"; Richmond, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 15, p. 247, 1902 Cocos 
Island (crit.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 894, 1910 Cocos 
Island; Gififord, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 2, p. 242, 1919 Cocos Island 
(habits); Swarth, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 18, p. 268, 1931 Cocos 
Island (monog.); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 61, 
1931 Cocos Island (habits). 

Cocornis agassizi Townsend, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 27, p. 123, col. pi., 
July, 1895 Cocos Island (descr. of adult male; type in U. S. National 
Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 516, 1902 
Cocos Island (monog.); Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 
4, p. 518, 1902 Cocos Island (plumages). 

Range. Cocos Island. 
1: Cocos Island, 1. 

Subfamily FRINGILLINAE. Finches 
Genus FRINGILLA Linnaeus 

Fringilla Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 179, 1758 type, by tautonymy, 
"Fringilla" = Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus. 

Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus. BRAMBLING. 

Fringilla Montifringilla Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 179, 1759 
"in Europa," restricted type locality, Sweden; Hanna, Auk, 33, p. 400, 
1916 Northeast Point, St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. 

Range. Breeds in Subarctic regions of Scandinavia, Russia, and 
Asia; winters in central and southern Europe and parts of Asia. 
Accidental on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska (Northeast 
Point, October 25, 1914). 

Subfamily CARDUELINAE. Purple Finches, 
Goldfinches, and Allies 

Genus COCCOTHRAUSTES Brisson 

Coccothraustes Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 36; 3, p. 218, 1760 type, by tautonymy, 
Coccothraustes Brisson =Loxia Coccothraustes Linnaeus. 

1 Pinaroloxias inornata (Gould), based on a female or young individual, was 
shown by Richmond to be the same as Cocornis agassizi. The species is exhaus- 
tively treated by Swarth in his admirable monograph of the Avifauna of the 
Galapagos. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 147 

Coccothraustes coccothraustes japonicus Temminck and 
Schlegel. JAPANESE HAWFINCH. 

Coccothraustes vulgaris japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Faun. 

Japon., Aves, p. 90, pi. 51, 1850 Japan (type in Leyden Museum). 
Coccothraustes coccothraustes japonicus Evermann, Auk, 30, p. 18, 1913 

St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 157, 

1920 Bering Island (May 24). 

Range. Breeds in eastern Siberia, Japan, and adjacent parts of 
Manchuria and China; winters south to southern China. Accidental 
on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska (November 1, 1911). 

Genus HESPERIPHONA Bonaparte 1 

Hesperiphona Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 31, No. 12 (stance 
du 16 sept.), p. 424, 1850 type, by orig. desig., Fringilla vespertina 
Cooper. 

Hesperophona Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 7, p. 250, 1882 (emendation). 

*Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina (Cooper). EASTERN EVE- 
NING GROSBEAK. 

Fringilla vespertina Cooper, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1, (2), p. 220, 1825 

Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan (type in coll. of the Lyceum of Natural 

History, New York). 
Loxia Bonapartei (Lesson MS.) F^russac, Bull. Sci. Nat. et Geol., 26, p. 190, 

Aug., 1831 "l'Ame>ique" (descr. of female; location of type not stated). 
Coccothraustes bonapartii Lesson, Illust. Zool., pi. 31, 1833 "America borealis, 

in insula dicta Melville." 
Hesperiphona vespertina Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 32, 1888 

North America (in part). 
Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 39, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Preble, N. Amer. Faun., 27, p. 413, 

1908 Alberta; Grinnell, Condor, 19, p. 19, 1917 (crit., range). 

Range. Breeds in western Alberta east to northern Michigan; 
reported once at Woodstock, Vermont; winters in the interior of North 
America, south of the Saskatchewan and east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and irregularly to Quebec, New England, New York, and 
Pennsylvania, and south sporadically to Missouri, Kentucky, Ohio, 
Maryland, the District of Columbia, Delaware, and New Jersey. 

20: Alberta (Red Deer, 3); Ontario (Toronto, 2); Massachusetts 
(Ayer, 1); Minnesota (Lake Minnetonka, 1; Minneapolis, 2); Wis- 
consin (Springwater, Waushara County, 1; Beaver Dam, 2; Viroqua, 
2; Milton, 1); Illinois (Highland Park, 2; Chicago, 1; Macomb, 1); 
Iowa (New Oregon, 1). 

1 About the affinities of this genus, cf. Sushkin, Auk, 42, pp. 256-259, 1925. 



148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Hesperiphona vespertina brooksi Grinnell. 1 WESTERN EVENING 
GROSBEAK. 

Hesperiphona vespertina brooksi Grinnell, Condor, 19, p. 20, Jan., 1917 
Okanagan, British Columbia (type in Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 
Berkeley); Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 349, 1924 near Hazel- 
ton, Skeena region, British Columbia; Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale, 
I.e., 35, p. 394, 1930 Lassen Peak region, California (crit.). 

Hesperiphona vespertina californica Grinnell, Condor, 19, p. 20, Jan., 1917 
Crane Flat, Mariposa County, California (type in Museum of Vertebrate 
Zoology, Berkeley). 

Hesperiphona vespertina warreni Grinnell, Condor, 19, p. 21, Jan., 1917 
Bear Creek, near Colorado Springs, Colorado (type in Colorado College 
Museum, Colorado Springs). 

Hesperiphona vespertina (not Fringilla vespertina Cooper) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 33, 1888 part, spec, a-e, British Columbia and Oregon 
(Linkville, Fort Klamath). 

Hesperiphona vespertina montana (not of Ridgway, 1874) Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 41, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.; excl. of 
"northern Mexico"). 

Coccothraustes vespertina montana Mearns, Auk, 7, p. 246, 1890 part, Rocky 
Mountains. 

Range. Breeds in the Canadian zone in the mountains from 
central British Columbia and Montana south to the central Sierra 
Nevada of California, and mountains of New Mexico and northern 
Arizona; winters irregularly in the lowlands of its breeding area and 
south to southern California. 

16: British Columbia (Vancouver Island, 1; Okanagan Landing, 3) ; 
Colorado (El Paso County, 1) ; California (Prattville, Plumas County, 
1; Chaparral, Butte County, 4; Grass Valley, 1; San Jose", 1); Utah 
(Ogden, 2) ; South Dakota (Deadwood, 1) ; New Mexico (Las Vegas, 1). 

*Hesperiphona vespertina montana Ridgway. 2 MEXICAN EVE- 
NING GROSBEAK. 

1 Hesperiphona vespertina brooksi Grinnell: Bill longer and relatively slenderer 
than in the nominate race; coloration of male darker than in the two other forms, 
line of demarcation between black cap and hindneck not sharply denned; female 
likewise darker, more sooty on top of head and back, and darker brown beneath. 

Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale have shown H. v. californica to be untenable, 
and in the absence of breeding material from Colorado we follow the A. 0. U. Check 
List in synonymizing H. v. warreni with the present form. 

2 Hesperiphona vespertina montana Ridgway: Nearest to H. v. brooksi, but 
bill much slenderer; coloration of males lighter with yellow frontal band narrower; 
female browner than vespertina and less sooty than brooksi. 

Birds from Arizona seem to be identical with one from southern Mexico 
(Orizaba). As has been demonstrated by Grinnell, the type of H. v. montana is 
from Mirador, Vera Cruz, and not from Cantonment Burgwin, New Mexico, C. v. 
mexicanus thus becoming a synonym. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 149 

Hesperiphona vespertina montana Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Amer. Bds., 1, p. 449, pi. 22, fig. 4, 1874 "Guatemala, Mexico, 
and the southern Rocky Mountains" (type, from Mexico =Mirador, 
Vera Cruz, in U. S. National Museum; cf. Grinnell, Condor, 19, p. 18, 
1917); Grinnell, Condor, 19, p. 20, 1917 Mexico (Mirador, Las Vegas) 
and Arizona (Huachuca and Chiricahua Mountains) (crit.); van Rossem, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 77, p. 481, 1934 Jesus Maria, Chihuahua, 
Mexico (Sept. 1). 

Coccothraustes vespertinus mexicanw Chapman, Auk, 14, p. 311, 1897 Las 
Vegas, Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 42, 1898 
Las Vegas. 

Hesperiphona vespertina (not Fringilla vespertina Cooper) Sumichrast, Mem. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 550, 1889 pine woods of Monte Alto, twelve 
leagues from Mexico City; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 32, 1888 
part, spec, f-1, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Coccothraustes vespertinus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 251, 1860 
Orizaba, Vera Cruz; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 426, 1886 part, Mexico (Monte Alto, Orizaba). 

Coccothraustes vespertina montana Mearns, Auk, 7, p. 246, 1890 part, Mexico 
(Valley of Mexico, Mirador). 

Hesperiphona vespertina mexicana Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 43, 1901 southern Mexico (monog.). 

Range. Southern Arizona (Huachuca and Chiricahua Moun- 
tains) and south in the mountains to Mexico (Monte Alto), Vera 
Cruz (Mirador, Las Vegas), Puebla (Chalchicomula), and Oaxaca 
(Sierra San Felipe). 

9: Arizona (Huachuca Mountains, 1); Mexico (40 miles south- 
west of Minaca, Chihuahua, 8). 

Hesperiphona abeillei pal lid a Nelson. 1 CHIHUAHUA GROSBEAK. 

Hesperiphona abeillii pallida Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, p. 155, 

1928 Jesus Maria, Chihuahua (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 

Cambridge, Mass.); van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 481, 

1934 Jesus Maria. 

Range. Mountains of northwestern Mexico, in State of Chi- 
huahua (Jesus Maria). 

Hesperiphona abeillei abeillei (Lesson). ABEILLE'S GROSBEAK. 

Guiraca abeillei Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 41, 1839 Mexico (type in coll. 
of Dr. Abeille, Bordeaux). 

1 Hesperiphona abeillei pallida Nelson: Adult female similar to H. a. abeillei, 
but much paler and grayer; upper parts dull grayish brown with only a trace of 
olive suffusion; under surface nearly uniform pale grayish brown with the buffy 
brownish shade but slightly suggested and without any greenish yellow admixture 
on the breast. Wing, 107; tail, 63. 

This form is known from a single female taken by McLeod in Chihuahua in 
June, 1893. 



150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hesperiphona abeillii Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 505, 1850 

Mexico; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 550, 1869 Orizaba, 

Vera Cruz; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 44, 1901 

part, highlands of southern Mexico (states of Vera Cruz, Puebla, and 

Mexico). 
Coccothraustes maculipennis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 251, pi. 163, 

1860 Orizaba, Vera Cruz, Mexico (descr. of female; type in coll. of 

P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum). 
Coccothraustes abeillii Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 365, 1859 

vicinity of Jalapa, Mexico. 
Coccothraustes abeillaei Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 

p. 426, 1886 part, Mexico (Orizaba, Jalapa); Chapman, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. N. H., 10, p. 30, 1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz (habits). 
Hesperiphona abeillaei Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 34, 1888 part, 

spec, a-f, Mexico (near City of Mexico, Jalapa, Vera Cruz). 
Coccothraustes abeillei Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, p. 222, 1899 

Coatepec, Oaxaca. 

Range. Highlands of southeastern Mexico, in Vera Cruz (Ori- 
zaba, Jalapa), Puebla (Huachinango), and Oaxaca (Coatepec). 

"Hesperiphona abeillei cobanensis Nelson. 1 GUATEMALAN 
GROSBEAK. 

Hesperiphona abeillii cobanensis Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, p. 155, 

1928 Coban, Vera Paz, Guatemala (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Coccothraustes abeillii (not Guiraca abeillei Lesson) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 

1859, p. 19 Guatemala; Salvin, Ibis, 1861, p. 352 Coban and Duenas, 
Guatemala (sexual differences). 

Coccothraustes abeillaei Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 426, 1886 part, Guatemala (Volcan de Fuego, Chilasco, Coban). 

Hesperiphona abeillaei Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 34, 1880 part, 
spec, g-m, Guatemala (Coban, San Geronimo, Volcan de Fuego). 

Hesperiphona abeillii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 44, 
1901 part, Guatemala (Duenas, Coban, San Geronimo, Volcan de Fuego). 

Coccothraustes maculipennis (not of Sclater, 1860) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 

1860, p. 398 Alotenango, Guatemala; Salvin, Ibis, 1861, p. 352 Coban, 
Guatemala; idem, Ibis, 1866, p. 206 Guatemala. 

Hesperiphona abeillii pallida (not of Nelson) Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 346, 1932 Guatemala; idem, Ibis, 1935, p. 552 (crit.). 

Range. Highlands of Guatemala (San Geronimo and Coban, 
Alta Vera Paz; Alotenango and Duenas, Sacatepquez). 

2: Guatemala (Volcan Tajumulco, San Marcos, 2). 

1 Hesperiphona abeiUei cobanensis Nelson : Similar to H. a. abeillei, but adult 
male decidedly clearer (brighter) yellow, especially on the breast; female perhaps 
more strongly suffused with buffy brown underneath; bill somewhat larger. 

Seven birds (male and female) compared with six from southeastern Mexico. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 151 

Genus PYRRHULA Brisson 

Pyrrhula Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 36; 3, p. 308, 1760 by tautonymy, "Pyrrhula" 
Brisson =Loxia pyrrhula Linnaeus. 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula cassini (Baird). 1 CASSIN'S BULLFINCH. 

Pyrrhula coccinea var. cassini Baird, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1, p. 316, 

pi. 29, fig. 1, 1869 Nulato, Alaska (type in U. S. National Museum; 

descr. of female). 
Pyrrhula kamtschatica Taczanowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 7, p. 395, 1882 

Kamchatka (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Doma- 

niewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 174, 1927). 
Pyrrhula cassini Stejneger, in Turner, Contrib. Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 169, 

pi. 7 (fig. of type), 1886 Nulato, Alaska; Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 10, p. 103, 1887 Nulato (crit. on type); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 57, 1901 part, Nulato, Alaska. 
Pyrrhula pyrrhula kamtschatica Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 406, 

1915 Copper Island (May 21, 25); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 157, 

1920 Bering and Copper Islands. 
Pyrrhula pyrrhula cassini Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Nat. Sci., (4), 17, p. 248, 

1928 Nunivak Island, Alaska (crit.); idem, Pacif. Coast Avif., 22, p. 47, 

1934 Nunivak Island. 

Range. Kamchatka, Bering and Copper Islands, northeastern 
Siberia. Accidental in Alaska (Nulato, Jan. 10, 1867, and Nunivak 
Island, Oct. 12, 13, and 16, 1927). 

Genus CARPODACUS Kaup 

Carpodacus Kaup, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Eur. Thierw., p. 161, 1829 2 type, 
by subs, desig. (Gray, App. List Gen. Bds., p. 11, 1842), Fringilla rosea 
Pallas. 

Erythrina Brehm, 3 Isis, 1829, Heft 7 (July), col. 725 type, by monotypy, 
Erythrina albifrons Brehm =Fringilla rosea Pallas. 

Erythrothorax Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 248, 1831 obvi- 
ously proposed as a new name for Erythrina Brehm, previously used 
in Botany. 

Haemorhous (not of Boie, 1826) Swainson, Nat. Hist. Classif. Bds., 2, p. 295, 
1837 type, by subs, desig. (Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 387, 
1888), Fringilla purpurea Gmelin. 

Burrica Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 390, 1887 type, by orig. desig., 
Fringilla mexicana P. L. S. Mliller. 

1 Although the subspecific term had been applied to P. cineracea Cabanis, of 
central Siberia, by Stejneger and others, Swarth showed the type of P. coccinea 
var. cassini to be clearly a female of the Kamchatkan Bullfinch, which conse- 
quently takes Baird's name, P. kamtschatica becoming a synonym. 

1 The exact date of publication is not known. 

t Erythrina Brehm (Isis, 21, col. 1276, 1828), which Stresemann (Orn. Monats- 
ber., 30, pp. 60-61, 1922) sought to revive, is a nomen nudum under the Rules, 
since E. rubrifrons was undescribed at the time, while the second species, E. rosea, 
listed without author's name or reference, is indeterminable. 



152 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Carpodacus purpureus purpureus (Gmelin). EASTERN PURPLE 
FINCH. 

FringiUa purpurea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 923, 1789 based mainly 
on "Purple Finch" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 41, pi. 41; 
"Carolina" = South Carolina (in winter). 

Carpodacus purpureus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 409, 1888 (in part). 
Carpodacus purpureus purpureus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 128, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 556, 1919 Nicholsville, Newfoundland; Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 24, p. 232, 1922 Telegraph Creek, Stikine region, British Colum- 
bia; idem, I.e., 24, p. 349, 1924 Hazelton and Kispiox Valley, Skeena 
River, British Columbia; idem, I.e., 30, p. 120, 1926 Atlin, British 
Columbia. 

Range. Breeds in North America from northwestern British 
Columbia, northeastern Alberta, northern Ontario (Moose Factory), 
southern Quebec (Gasp Basin), and Newfoundland to North Dakota 
(Turtle Mountains), central Minnesota, northern Illinois, the moun- 
tains of Maryland, northern New Jersey, and New York (Long 
Island); winters south to the Gulf coast from Texas to Florida; 
accidental in Colorado. 

78: Maine (Upton, 4); Massachusetts (Grantville, 1; Brook- 
line, 1; Cambridge, 1; Dedham, 1); New York (Shelter Island, 2); 
Pennsylvania (Gwynedd, 1); Connecticut (East Hartford, 23); New 
Jersey (Englewood, 2); Minnesota (Minneapolis, 1); Wisconsin 
(Woodruff, Vilas County, 2; Beaver Dam, 5; Fox Lake, 1); Michigan 
(Kalamazoo, 1); Illinois (Beach, Lake County, 1; Deerfield, 1; 
Highland Park, 1; Lake Forest, 6; Thatcher Woods, Cook County, 1; 
Lyons, Cook County, 1; Joliet, 7; Henry, 1; Hegewisch, 1; Warsaw, 
1; Mound City, 1); Indiana (Bluffton, 1); Iowa (Cedar Rapids, 
4); Ohio (Columbus, 2); North Carolina (Raleigh, 2); Arkansas 
(Winslow, 1). 

*Carpodacus purpureus californicus Baird. CALIFORNIAN 
PURPLE FINCH. 

Carpodacus californicus Baird, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Expl. 
& Surv. R. R. Pacif., 9, p. 413, 1858 "Pacific coast of United States" 
(type, from Fort Tejon, Kern County, California, in U. S. National 
Museum; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 303, 1932). 

Carpodacus purpureus (not FringiUa purpurea Gmelin) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 409, 1888 part, Vancouver to California. 

Carpodacus purpureus californicus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 130, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 10, p. 53, 1912 Vancouver Island; Grinnell, I.e., 32, p. 154, 1928 
Lower California; Grinnell, Dixon and Linsdale, I.e., 35,. p. 396, 1930 
Lassen Peak region, California. 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 153 

Range. Breeds in western North America from southern British 
Columbia south to the Sierra Juarez, Lower California, and east to 
the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada; in winter south to lat. 30 45' 
in Lower California and (casually) to southern Arizona. 

31: Oregon (Tillamook, 2); California (McCloud, 1; San Gero- 
nimo, 1; Nicasio, 6; Sebastopol, 2; Los Banos, 1; Monterey, 4; Los 
Gatos, 3; Los Angeles, 2; Claremont, 2; Alhambra, 2; Palo Alto, 2; 
San Bernardino Mountains, 1; Riverside, 1; Altadena, 1). 

*Carpodacus cassinii Baird. CASSIN'S PURPLE FINCH. 

Carpodacus cassinii Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 7, No. 3, p. 119, 
"June" [ = July 3], 1854 Camp 104, Pueblo Creek, and 75 miles west 
of Albuquerque, New Mexico (type, from Pueblo Creek, Arizona, in 
U. S. National Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 126, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Taylor, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 7, 
p. 387, 1912 northern Nevada; Huey, Condor, 29, p. 153, 1927 Laguna 
Hanson, Sierra Juarez; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 154, 
1928 San Pedro Martir range and Sierra Juarez, Lower California; 
Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 323, 1929 near Patagonia, 
Arizona; Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 35, 
p. 397, 1930 Lassen Peak region, California. 

Carpodacus cassini Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 412, 1888 (monog.). 

Range. Breeds in the mountains of western North America 
from southern British Columbia, northwestern Montana, and 
northeastern Wyoming to northern Lower California (Sierra San 
Pedro Martir), central Arizona, and northern New Mexico; winters 
in the lowlands of its breeding range south through Arizona and the 
Mexican plateau to Vera Cruz (Mirador, Mount Orizaba) and the 
Valley of Mexico. 

27: British Columbia (Okanagan, 5); Montana (Columbia Falls, 
1); California (Chaparral, Butte County, 1; San Bernardino, 1; Big 
Bear Valley, 6; northern Pacific, 1; Susan ville, 1); Colorado (Wind- 
sor, 1; Fort Lyon, 5); Arizona (Huachuca Mountains, 2); Mexico 
(30 miles west of Mifiaca, Chihuahua, 3). 

*Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis (Say). COMMON HOUSE 
FINCH. 

Fringilla frontalis Say, in Long, Exp. Rocky Mts., 2, p. 40 (note), 1823 
Arkansas River near the mountains=near Pueblo, Colorado (type lost, 
formerly in Peale's Museum). 

(l)Pyrrhula inornate Vigors, Zool. Voy. Blossom, p. 20, 1829 no locality 
indicated, probably Monterey, California (type lost; cf. Sclater, in Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 139, 1888, and Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 38, p. 303, 1932; = female?). 



154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Carpodacus obscurus McCall, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, p. 220, 1851 
near Santa Fe, New Mexico (type in coll. of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 21, 
1899; descr. of female). 

Carpodacus familiaris McCall, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 6, p. 61, 1852 
Santa F6, New Mexico (type lost; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
51, p. 21, 1899). 

Carpodacus mexicanus smithi Figgins, Proc. Colo. Mus. N. H., 9, No. 1, 
p. 2 (in text), April 22, 1930 near Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado 
(type in Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver). 

[Carpodacus mexicanus} sayi Figgins, Proc. Colo. Mus. N. H., 9, No. 1, p. 3, 
1930 new name for Fringilla frontalis Say. 

[Carpodacus frontalis} /3 Carpodacus rhodocolpus (not of Cabanis) Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 422, 1888 California. 

Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 137, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, 
p. 154, 1928 northern Lower California, and Todos Santos and Cedros 
Islands (crit.); Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, p. 323, 1929 
Patagonia, southern Arizona (breeding); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego 
Soc. N. H., 6, p. 295, 1931 Sonora (El Doctor, Saric [May to Sept.], 
Obregon, Tesia, Chinobampo, Magdalena, San Pedro Martir, San Est6ban, 
and Tiburon Islands); idem, I.e., 7, p. 143, 1932 Tiburon Island, Sonora; 
idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 481, 1934 Sonora (Guaymas, 
Nacozari, Oposura, Carmen) and Chihuahua. 

Range. Western North America from Oregon, Idaho, and 
northern Wyoming south through California and New Mexico to 
the northern half of Lower California, northern Sonora, and (?) 
northern Chihuahua, and east to the edge of the Great Plains 
(western Kansas and middle Texas). 1 Introduced in the Hawaiian 
Islands. 2 

129: California (Nicasio, 3; Placer County, 1; Colusa, 1; San 
Geronimo, 2; Alameda, 1; Fairfax, 1; San Francisco County, 1; 
San Francisco, 1; San Leandro, 1; Hayward, 4; Monterey, 12; 
Pacific Grove, 1; Sebastopol, 1; Los Gatos, 1; Corona, 4; Piute 
Mountains, Kern County, 1; Los Angeles County, 1; Palo Alto, 5; 
San Bernardino, 1; San Pedro, 6; Santa Ysabel, San Diego County, 1; 
San Diego, 3) ; Nevada (Truckee River, 1) ; Colorado (Fort Lyon, 2) ; 

1 Figgins has attempted to subdivide the Common House Finch into three 
races: (a) C. m. smithi, "east slope of the Continental Divide north of the Arkansas 
River"; (b) C. m. obscurus, "southeastern Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Okla- 
homa, Texas, and perhaps eastern Arizona"; (c) C. m. frontalis, "southern Colorado 
and westward." The matter requires, however, more extensive study with ade- 
quate material. 

* For the Hawaiian birds the name C. mutans has been proposed by Grinnell 
(Auk, 29, p. 24, 1912). Cf. also Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 7, pp. 179-195, 
1911; Phillips, Auk, 29, pp. 336-338; Grinnell, I.e., p. 543, 1912. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 155 

Arizona (Phoenix, 11; Tucson, 6; Carr Canyon, Huachuca Moun- 
tains, 1; Huachuca Mountains, 7; Fort Verde, 2; Fort Grant, 2; 
Calabasas, 21); New Mexico (Deming, 22); Mexico (Bustillos, 
Chihuahua, 1). 

"Carpodacus mexicanus ruberrimus Ridgway. SAN LUCAS 
HOUSE FINCH. 

Carpodacus frontalis ruberrimus Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 391 (note), 
1887 "Cape St. Lucas" (type, from La Paz, Lower California, in U. S. 
National Museum). 

Carpodacus mexicanus ruberrimus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 136, 1901 southern Lower California (monog., full bibliog.); Brewster, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 133, 1902 Cape region of Lower Cali- 
fornia; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 165, 1928 Lower 
California. 

Range. Southern half of Lower California (north to about 
lat.28). 

9: Lower California (La Paz, 2; Todos Santos, 3; San Jose" del 
Cabo, 3; unspecified, 1). 

"Carpodacus mexicanus dementis Mearns. SAN CLEMENTE 
HOUSE FINCH. 

Carpodacus dementis Mearns, Auk, 15, p. 258, July, 1898 San Clemente 
Island, California (type in U. S. National Museum); Grinnell and Daggett, 
Auk, 20, p. 33, 1903 Los Coronados Islands. 

Carpodacus mexicanus dementis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 140, 1901 (monog., bibliog.); van Rossem, Condor, 27, p. 176, 1925 
(range, crit.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 155, 1928 Los 
Coronados Islands (crit.). 

Range. San Clemente, Santa Catalina, and Santa Barbara 

Islands, California, and Los Coronados Islands, Lower California. 1 

12: California (San Clemente Island, 11; Santa Cruz Island, 1). 

Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori Anthony. 2 MCGREGOR'S 
HOUSE FINCH. 

Carpodacus mcgregori Anthony, Auk, 14, p. 165, April, 1897 San Benito 
Island, Lower California (type in coll. of A. W. Anthony, now in Carnegie 
Museum; cf. Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 18, p. 362, 1928); McGregor, 
Auk, 15, p. 265, 1898 (descr. of young); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

'According to Grinnell (I.e., pp. 154, 155, 1928), birds from Todos Santos 
and Cedros Islands, which have been referred here by various authors, do not belong 
with C. TO. dementis. 

* There seems to be no valid reason for maintaining specific distinctness of 
these insular forms, which are the only ones breeding on tne respective islands, 
and whose characters are merely differences of degree. 



156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

50, Part 1, p. 141, 1901 (monog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, 
p. 155, 1928 San Benito Islands and Cedros Island. 

Range. San Benito Islands, Lower California; casual on Cedros 
Island. 

*Carpodacus mexicanus amplus Ridgway. 1 GUADALUPE HOUSE 
FINCH. 

Carpodacus amplus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. & Geog. Surv. Terr., 2, 
No. 2, p. 187, 1876 Guadalupe Island, Lower California (type in U. S. 
National Museum); Bryant, Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci., 2, p. 293, 1887 
Guadalupe (habits, nest, and eggs); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 1, p. 142, 1901 (monog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, 
p. 157, 1928 Guadalupe Island. 

Range. Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 
5: Lower California (Guadalupe Island, 5). 

Carpodacus mexicanus potosinus Griscom. 2 POTOSI HOUSE 
FINCH. 

Carpodacus mexicanus potosinus Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 293, p. 5, Jan. 
12, 1928 San Luis Potosf, Mexico (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Range. Tableland of Mexico, in State of San Luis Potosi. 

Carpodacus mexicanus nigrescens Griscom. 3 TAMAULIPAS 
HOUSE FINCH. 

Carpodacus mexicanus nigrescens Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 293, p. 5, 
Jan. 12, 1928 Miquihuana, Tamaulipas, Mexico (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Carpodacus mexicanus mexicanus (not Fringilla mexicana Miiller) Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 131, 1901 part, Tamaulipas (Miqui- 
huana). 

Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis (not Fringilla frontalis Say) Ridgway, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 137, 1901 part, Tamaulipas and (?)Nuevo 
Leon (Monterrey). 

Range. Mountains of northeastern Mexico, in State of Tamauli- 
pas (Miquihuana), possibly also in Nuevo Leon (Monterey). 

1 See footnote 2 on page 155. 

2 Carpodacus mexicanus potosinus Griscom: Similar to "C. m. rhodocolpus" 
[sc. sonoriensis, from central western Mexico], but adult male in breeding plumage 
darker, the red being more crimson, less scarlet; brown of upper parts and brown 
streaking below darker; female darker above and more heavily striped under- 
neath. According to the describer, in darkness of coloration this form is inter- 
mediate between sonoriensis and nigrescens. Based on a large series from San Luis 
Potosi. 

3 Carpodacus mexicanus nigrescens Griscom: Very near to C. m. potosinus, but 
even darker throughout, the red areas slightly so; the upper parts, primaries, and 
streaks below dark fuscous. Based, as it is, on only four July specimens from 
Miquihuana, this form needs corroboration by more satisfactory material. 






1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 157 

*Carpodacus mexicanus sonoriensis Ridgway. 1 SONORAN HOUSE 
FINCH. 

Carpodacus mexicanus sonoriensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 135, after July 1, 1901 no type nor type locality indicated (type, from 
Alamos, Sonora, in U. S. National Museum; cf. van Rossem, Trans. San 
Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 295, 1931); van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. 
N. H., 6, p. 295, 1931 Sonora (Pesqueira, Tecoripa, San Javier, Obregon, 
Te"sia, Chinobampo, Guaymas, Tobari Bay, Agiobampo) (crit.); idem, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 481, 1934 Guaymas, Alamos, and Durazno, 
Sonora. 

Carpodacus mexicanus rhodocolpus (not of Cabanis) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 134, 1901 Jalisco to Colima and Michoacan (Lake 
Patzcuaro); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 175, 1906 Las 
Bocas, La Cienega de las Vacas, and Rio Sestin, Durango (breeding). 

Range. Western Mexico, from Sonora south to Colima and 
western Michoacan (Lake Patzcuaro). 

6: Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 6). 

Carpodacus mexicanus mexicanus (P. L. S. Miiller). MEXICAN 
HOUSE FINCH. 

Fringilla mexicana P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 165, 1776 based on 

"Bruant, du Mexique" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 386, fig. 1. 
Fringilla haemorrhoa Lichtenstein, Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, p. 2, 

1830 Mexico (type, from Mexico City, in Berlin Museum; cf. van Rossem, 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 421, 1934); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 11, p. 

56, 1863 (reprint). 
Pyrrhula crueniata Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 101, 1839 Mexico (type in 

AbeillS Collection, Bordeaux). 
Carpodacus rhodocolpus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 166, Oct., 1851 Mexico 

(type, from Cuernavaca, Morelos, in Berlin Museum; cf. van Rossem, 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 419, 1934), 
Carpodacus mexicanus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 422, 1888 

Valley of Mexico, City of Mexico, and Puebla. 
Carpodacus mexicanus mexicanus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 131, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

75, p. 416, 1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero (crit.). 

Range. Mountains of southern Mexico, in states of Hidalgo, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Morelos, and Guerrero. 

1 Carpodacus mexicanus sonoriensis Ridgway, though very close to C. ire. 
ruberrimus, is regarded by van Rossem as recognizable. The same author, further- 
more, believes that, without doing violence to facts, the name sonoriensis could 
easily be stretched to cover the house finches of central western Mexico down to 
Colima and western Michoacan, comprising thus the two races distinguished by 
Ridgway under "rhodocolpus" and sonoriensis. Moore (Condor, 38, No. 5, p. 203, 
Oct., 1936), however, has added another race, C. m. rhodopnus (type, from El 
Molino, 25 miles southwest of Culiacan, Sinaloa, in coll. of R. T. Moore), whose 
range is said to comprise the Arid Tropical zone of central Sinaloa. 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Carpodacus mexicanus roseipectus Sharpe. 1 OAXACA HOUSE 
FINCH. 

Carpodacus roseipectus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 424, 1888 

Oaxaca, southern Mexico (type in British Museum). 
Carpodacus mexicanus roseipectus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 133, 1901 Huajualpam, Oaxaca (monog.). 

Range. Southern extremity of Mexican tableland, in State of 
Oaxaca. 

Genus MELANOSPIZA Ridgway 

Melanospiza Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19, p. 466 (footnote), March 
15, 1897 type, by orig. desig., Loxigilla richardsoni Cory. 

*Melanospiza richardsoni (Cory). RICHARDSON'S GRASSQUIT. 

Loxigilla richardsoni Cory, Auk, 3, p. 382, July, 1886 "mountains of" 
Santa Lucia, Lesser Antilles (type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field 
Museum); idem, Ibis, 1886, p. 475 Santa Lucia; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 
290, 1889 Santa Lucia. 

Geospiza richardsoni Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 150, 1892 Santa Lucia. 

Euetheia richardsoni Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 129, 1890 
Santa Lucia. 

Melanospiza richardsoni Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 545, 
1901 (monog.); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 545, 1928 Santa 
Lucia; idem, Auk, 46, p. 523, 1929 Santa Lucia (distribution, habits, descr. 
of female); Danforth, Monog. Univ. Puerto Rico, Ser. B, No. 3, p. 106, 
pi. 1 (male, female), 1935 Grande Anse and De Barra, Santa Lucia 
(monog.). 

Range. Island of Santa Lucia, Lesser Antilles. 
1: Lesser Antilles (Santa Lucia, 1). 

Genus LOXIPASSER Bryant 

Loxipasser Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, p. 254, 1866 type, by orig. 
desig., [Spermophila] anoxantha Gosse. 

*Loxipasser anoxanthus (Gosse). YELLOW-SHOULDERED 
GRASSQUIT. 

Spermophila anoxantha Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 247, 1847 Mount Edgecombe, 
Jamaica (cotypes now in British Museum); idem, Illust. Bds. Jamaica, 
pi. 62, 1849. 

Loxigilla anoxantha Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 74 Jamaica; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 102, 1862 Jamaica; March, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 297 Jamaica (nest and eggs descr.); Cory, Auk, 
3, p. 205, 1886 (descr.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 85, 1888 
St. Anne's, Jamaica; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 203, 1889 (descr.); Scott, 
Auk, 10, p. 180, 1893 Jamaica. 

1 A race of very questionable validity. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 159 

Pyrrhulagra anoxantha Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 112, 1892 Jamaica. 
Loxipasser anoxanthus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 546, 

1901 (monog.); Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 480, 1928 Lumsden and Jackson 

Town, Jamaica. 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 
7: Greater Antilles (Jamaica, 7). 

Genus LOXIGILLA Lesson 1 

Loxigilla Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 443, Feb., 1831 type, by subs, desig. 

(Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 74, 1855), Fringilla noctis Linnaeus. 
Pyrrhulagra (Schiff MS.) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 492, end of 

1850 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 75, 1855), 

Loxia portoricensis Daudin. 
Scotospiza Sundevall, Oefvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 26, p. 597, 1869 

new name for Pyrrhulagra Bonaparte. 

*Loxigilla portoricensis portoricensis (Daudin). PORTO RICAN 
BULLFINCH. 

Loxia portoricensis Daudin, Trait6 E16m. et Compl. d'Orn., 2, p. 411, 1800 
Porto Rico (descr. of male and female; cotypes, collected by Mauge\ 
in Paris Museum); Ledru, Voy. lies TSneriffe, Trinite", etc., 2, p. 203, 1810 
Porto Rico; Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 10, p. 254, 1866 Porto 
Rico; Sundevall, Oefvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 26, p. 597, 1869 
Porto Rico. 

Pyrrhula aurantiicollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 4, p. 300, 
1816 new name for Loxia portoricensis Daudin; Porto Rico and "Saint 
Domingue" (errore). 

Pyrrhulagra portoricensis Gundlach, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 7, p. 208, 1878 
Porto Rico (Furnias, Quebradillas, between Arecibo and Utundo, 
Jayuya, Aguas Blancas); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 149, 1892 
Porto Rico; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 550, 1901 
Porto Rico (monog.). 

Loxigilla portoricensis Cory, Auk, 3, p. 205, 1886 Porto Rico (descr.); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 87, 1888 Porto Rico; Cory, Bds. W. 
Ind., p. 92, 1889 (descr.); Bowdish, Auk, 20, p. 13, 1903 Porto Rico; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., 326, p. 125, 1926 Porto Rico (habits 
and food) ; Struthers, Auk, 40, p. 478, 1923 Porto Rico; Danforth, Journ. 
Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 10, p. 107, 1926 Cartagena Lagoon, Porto Rico; 
Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands, 9, p. 557, 1927 
Porto Rico (monog.); Beatty, Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, 15, p. 31, 
1931 Guanica Lagoon, Porto Rico (nest descr.); Danforth, I.e., p. 104, 
1931 Porto Rico (nest, eggs, food). 

1 Loxia haitii Ricord (Rev. Zool., 1, p. 167, 1838) was probably intended for some 
species of this genus, but as pointed out by Wetmore and Swales (Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 155, p. 436, 1931) there is no means of determining it any further, since the 
author refers to birds observed by him "dans toutes les Indes occidentales . . . , a 
la Terre-Ferme de 1'Ame'rique espagnole, sur les bords de I'Or^noque . . . , et au 
continent de 1'Ame'rique du nord, en Virginie." 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Island of Porto Rico, Greater Antilles. 
10: Greater Antilles (Porto Rico, 10). 

*Loxigilla portoricensis grandis Lawrence. ST. CHRISTOPHER 
BULLFINCH. 

Loxigilla portoricensis var. grandis Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 204, 
Nov. 18, 1881 St. Christopher, Lesser Antilles (type in U. S. National 
Museum). 

Loxigilla portoricensis grandis Cory, Auk, 3, p. 206, 1886 St. Christopher 
(descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 93, 1889 (descr.). 

Loxigilla grandis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 87, 1888 St. Chris- 
topher Island. 

Pyrrhulagra grandis Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 149, 1892 St. Chris- 
topher; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 550, 1901 St. 
Christopher (monog.). 

Range. Island of St. Christopher (St. Kitts), Lesser Antilles. 
4: Lesser Antilles (St. Christopher, 4). 

*Loxigilia violacea violacea (Linnaeus). BAHAMAN BULLFINCH. 

Loxia violacea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 176, 1758 based on "The 
Purple Gross-beak" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 40, pi. 40; Bahama 
Islands. 

Pyrrhula superciliosa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 4, p. 300, 
1816 new name for Loxia violacea Linnaeus. 

Loxia violacea /3 bahamensis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 250, 
Dec. 10, 1878 Bahamas (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Loxigilla violacea Cory, Bds. Bahamas, p. 85, 1880 Bahamas (descr.); idem, 
Auk, 3, p. 203, 1886 part, Bahamas; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 
p. 82, 1888 part, spec, k-o, Bahamas; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 90, 1889 
part, Bahamas; Northrop, Auk, 8, p. 70, 1891 Andros; Cory, Auk, 8, 
pp. 294-297, 350, 351, 1891 Bahamas (New Providence, Caicos, Inagua, 
Abaco, Berry Islands, Great Bahama, Eleuthera); idem, Auk, 9, pp. 48, 
49, 1892 Mariguana and Inagua. 

Pyrrhulagra violacea Ridgway, Auk, 8, pp. 334-337, 1891 Abaco, New 
Providence, Eleuthera, and Cat Island; Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 
112, 148, 1892 part, Bahamas; Bonhote, Ibis, 1899, p. 512 Nassau, 
New Providence; Bangs, Auk, 17, p. 293, 1900 Nassau, Current Island, 
Eleuthera, and Highbourne Key; Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 289 New Provi- 
dence and Little Abaco; Allen, Auk, 22, p. 128, 1905 New Providence 
and Great Abaco; Riley, Auk, 22, p. 360, 1905 New Providence, Eleu- 
thera, Cat Island, and Long Island; idem, in Shattuck, The Bahama 
Islands, pp. 355, 367, 1905 Bahamas. 

Pyrrhulagra violacea violacea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 
551, 1901 Bahamas (monog.); Todd and Worthington, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 7, pp. 441, 464, 1911 New Providence, Great Inagua, Andros, 
and Abaco (crit.). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 161 

Loxigilla noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Cory, Bds. Bahamas, p. 87, 
1880 Inagua; idem, I.e., rev. ed., unpaged interpolated leaves [p. 12], 
1890 not in Bahama Islands. 

Range. Bahama Islands. 

236: Bahama Islands (Great Bahama, 1; Abaco, 6; Berry, 
5; Andros, 5; Long, 1; Nassau, 10; Eleuthera, 29; Inagua, 178; 
Caicos, 1). 

*Loxigilla violacea ruficollis (Gmelin). JAMAICAN BULLFINCH. 

Tanagra ruficollis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 894, 1789 based on "Rufous- 
throated Tanager" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (1), p. 241; Jamaica 
(type in British Museum). 

Pyrrhula robinsonii Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 259, 1847 Jamaica (partial 
albino). 

Pyrrhula violacea (not Loxia violacea Linnaeus) Gosse, Bds. Jamaica, p. 254, 
1847 Jamaica; idem, Illust. Bds. Jam., pi. 66, 1849. 

Loxigilla violacea Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 74 Jamaica; idem, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 102, 1862 part, spec, b, c, Jamaica; March, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 297 Jamaica (nest and eggs descr.); 
Cory, Auk, 3, p. 203, 1886 part, Jamaica; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 82, 1888 part, spec, c-i, Jamaica (St. Anne, Spanishtown, Mo- 
neague); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 90, 1889 part, Jamaica; Scott, Auk, 10, 
p. 180, 1893 Jamaica; Field, Auk, 11, p. 126, 1894 Port Henderson 
and Mandville, Jamaica. 

Loxia violacea a violacea Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 250, 1878 
Jamaica (crit.). 

Pyrrhulagra violacea Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 148, 1892 part, 
Jamaica. 

Pyrrhula violacea ruficollis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 552, 
1901 Jamaica (monog.); Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 490, 1928 Lumsden, 
Jackson Town, Mandville, and Black. River, Jamaica. 

Loxia rufobarbata (not Fringilla rufobarbata Jacquin) Hahn, Vogel Asien, 
Afr., etc., Part. 7, pi. 6, 1820 "East Indies" (spec, in Munich Museum 
examined). 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 
17: Greater Antilles (Jamaica, 17). 

"Loxigilla violacea affinis (Ridgway). HISPANIC-LAN BULLFINCH. 

Pyrrhulagra affinis (Baird MS.) Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 322, Oct., 1898 Port- 
au-Prince, Haiti (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Loxia violacea (not of Linnaeus) Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 93, 
1866 Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 

Loxigilla violacea Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 25, p. 231, 1857 Santo Do- 
mingo; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 102, 1862 part, spec, a, Santo 
Domingo; Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 152, 1881 Santo Domingo; 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

idem, Bds. Haiti & San Dom., p. 69, col. pi., 1884 Almercen and Samana; 
Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 Dominican Republic; Cory, Auk, 3, p. 203, 
1886 part, Haiti and Santo Domingo; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 
p. 82, 1888 part, spec, b, Santo Domingo; Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 90, 1889 
part, Haiti; Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 325 Sanchez; Verrill, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 362, 1909 Dominican Republic. 

Pyrrhulagra violacea Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 148, 1892 part, Haiti 
and Santo Domingo; Cherrie, Field Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 15, 1896 
Santo Domingo City, Catarey, and Aguacate. 

Pyrrhulagra violacea affinis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 
553, 1901 Haiti (monog.); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 425, 
1917 Dominican Republic (Monte Cristi, Sosua, Arroyo Salado); Dan- 
forth, Auk, 46, p. 375, 1929 main island (of Hispaniola) and Gonave. 

Loxigilla violacea affinis Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 519, 1928 
part, Haiti and Gonave; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
155, p. 434, 1931 Hispaniola, including Gonave, Catalina, and Saona 
Islands (monog.); idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 39, 1932 
Gonave Island and Thomazeau, Haiti; Wetmore and Lincoln, I.e., 82, p. 
66, 1933 Hispaniola. 

Range. Island of Haiti, including Gonave, Catalina, and Saona 
Islands, Greater Antilles. 

105: Haiti (Le Coup, 3; Kenskoff, 1; Port de Paix, 1); Domini- 
can Republic (Samana, 6; Almercen, 14; Puerto Plata, 6; Catarey, 
15; Aguacate, 14; Santo Domingo, 45). 

Loxigilla violacea maurella Wetmore. 1 TORTUE BULLFINCH. 

Loxigilla violacea maurella Wetmore, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 81, No. 13, p. 4, 

May 15, 1919 Tortue Island, Haiti (type in U. S. National Museum); 

idem and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 437, 1931 Tortue Island 

(monog.). 
Loxigilla violacea affinis (not Pyrrhulagra affinis Ridgway) Bond, Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 519, 1928 part, Tortue Island (nest and eggs 

descr.). 

Range. Tortue (Tortuga) Island, off the north coast of Haiti, 
Greater Antilles. 

Loxigilla violacea parishi Wetmore. 2 ILE A VACHE BULLFINCH. 

Loxigilla violacea parishi Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 44, p. 27, Feb. 21, 
1931 He a Vache, southwestern Haiti (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 2, p. 40, 1932 He a Vache; idem 

1 Loxigilla violacea maurella Wetmore: Similar to L. v. affinis, but larger, with 
bulkier bill. Wing, 82-84, (female) 77^; tail, 70-72, (female) 66; bill, 1534-17; 
depth at base, 16-17. 

2 Loxigilla violacea parishi Wetmore: Similar to L. v. affinis, but slightly 
smaller, including the bill. Wing, 71-7134 (female) 67; tail, 62 Y 2 , (female) 59; 
bill, 143^, (female) 13; depth at base, 103^-12. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 163 

and Lincoln, I.e., 82, art. 25, p. 67, 1933 He a Vache and Beata Island 
(crit.; nest and eggs). 

Range. He a Vache and Beata Island, off the southern coast of 
the southwestern peninsula of Haiti, Greater Antilles. 

*Loxigilla noctis ridgwayi (Cory). ANTIGUAN BULLFINCH. 

Pyrrhulagra noctis ridgwayi Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 150, 1892 Antigua, 

Lesser Antilles (type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum). 1 
Loxigilla noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1, p. 233, 1878 Antigua; idem, I.e., 1, p. 487, 1879 part, Antigua; 

Cory, Auk, 8, p. 47, 1891 Antigua. 
Pyrrhulagra noctis ridgwayi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 

558, 1901 Antigua (monog.); Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47, p. 291, 1904 

Antigua. 
Loxigilla noctis ridgwayi Danforth, Auk, 51, p. 364, 1934 Antigua. 

Range. Island of Antigua, Lesser Antilles. 
9: Lesser Antilles (Antigua, 9). 

Loxigilla noctis chazaliei Oustalet. 2 BARBUDAN BULLFINCH. 

Loxigilla chazaliei Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 20, p. 184, 1895 Bar- 
buda (cotypes in coll. of R. de Dalmas, subsequently in Tring Collection, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, examined; 
cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 26, p. 156, 1919). 

Loxigilla noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1, p. 239, 1878 Barbuda; idem, I.e., 1, p. 487, 1879 part, Barbuda. 

Pyrrhulagra noctis ridgwayi Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 150, 1892 part, 
Barbuda. 

Pyrrhulagra noctis coryi (not of Ridgway, 1898) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 559, 1901 part, Barbuda; Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 
47, p. 291, 1904 Barbuda (crit.). 

Loxigilla noctis chazaliei Danforth, Journ. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 19, p. 
482, 1935 Barbuda (crit.); idem, I.e., 21, p. 227, 1937 Barbuda (crit.). 

Range. Island of Barbuda, Lesser Antilles. 

1 The other islands listed by Cory refer to other races. 

2 Loxigilla noctis chazaliei Oustalet needs further investigation. When ex- 
amining the original examples many years ago, no material from Antigua was 
available for comparison, but the race seemed to me distinct from L. n. coryi, of 
St. Christopher. Mr. J. T. Zimmer has supplied the following note: "Compared 
with our pair of ridgwayi, the four specimens, including the cotypes, from Barbuda 
in our collection seem to be slightly different. The males are rather grayer in 
general coloration, although one of the cotypes is less distinct than the other two 
males. The back and sides of the head and the breast are less sooty, and one of 
the specimens, not a cotype, has somewhat of an olivaceous tinge on the outer 
edges of the rectrices near the base, not so brownish in the other two males. The 
female of chazaliei is decidedly paler than our female of ridgwayi. The upper 
parts are lighter brown, the auricular region is more brownish (less grayish), 
and the under surface is very distinctly paler buff, the breast being hardly darker 
than the abdomen. Perhaps it may be as well to recognize this form of Oustalet, 
although its full range may be uncertain." Danforth likewise insists on the grayer 
coloration of Barbuda birds. 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
"Loxigilla noctfs coryi (Ridgway). CORY'S BULLFINCH. 

Pyrrhulagra coryi Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 323, Oct., 1898 St. Eustatius, Lesser 

Antilles (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Loxigilla noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Cory, Auk, 8, pp. 46-48, 

1891 Anguilla, St. Eustatius, and St. Christopher; Sclater, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 499 Anguilla. 
Pyrrhulagra noctis ridgwayi Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 150, 1892 

part, St. Kitts, Anguilla, and St. Eustatius; Peters, Auk, 44, p. 537, 1927 

Anguilla (crit.); Danforth, Auk, 47, p. 47, 1930 St. Martin. 
Pyrrhulagra noctis coryi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 559, 

1901 part, Anguilla, Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Christopher (monog.). 
Loxigilla noctis coryi Danforth, Journ. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 21, p. 226, 

1937 (monog.). 

Range. Islands of Anguilla, St. Martin, Saba, St. Eustatius, 
St. Christopher (St. Kitts), and Nevis, Lesser Antilles. 

36: Lesser Antilles (Anguilla, 1; St. Eustatius, 10; St. Kitts, 25). 

*Loxigilla noctis dominicana (Ridgway). DOMINICAN 
BULLFINCH. 

Pyrrhulagra dominicana Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 323, Oct., 1898 Dominica 

(type in U. S. National Museum). 
Loxigilla noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 167 

part, Dominica; Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 57, 1878 Dominica 

(crit.; nest and eggs); idem, I.e., 1, pp. 457, 487, 1879 Guadaloupe and 

Dominica; (?) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 765 Montserrat; 

(?)Grisdale, Ibis, 1882, pp. 486, 487 Montserrat; Cory, Ibis, 1886, p. 

473 Marie Galante; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 84, 1888 part, 

spec, e-g, (?)o, Guadeloupe, Dominica, and (?) Montserrat; Sclater, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, p. 326 Dominica; Cory, Auk, 8, p. 49, 1891 

Guadeloupe; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 569 Dominica. 
Pyrrhulagra noctis ridgwayi Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 150, 1892 

part, (?) Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, and Dominica. 
Loxigilla noctis schlateri [sic] (not L. n. sclateri Allen) Verrill, Trans. Conn. 

Acad. Sci., 8, p. 337, 1892 Dominica (crit.; nest and eggs descr.). 
Pyrrhulagra noctis dominicana Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 556, 1901 (monog.); Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60, p. 385, 1916 

Guadeloupe (crit.). 
Loxigilla noctis dominicana Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 544, 

1928 Dominica; Danforth, Journ. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 21, p. 228, 

1937 (monog.). 

Range. Islands of Dominica, Marie Galante, La Desirade, 
Guadeloupe, and (?) Montserrat, Lesser Antilles. 1 

36: Lesser Antilles (Dominica, 4; Marie Galante, 3; Guadeloupe, 
25; Grande Terre, Guadeloupe Island, 4). 

1 No material seen from Montserrat. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 165 

"Loxigilla noctis desiradensis Danforth. 1 DESIRADE 
BULLFINCH. 

Loxigilla noctis desiradensis Danforth, Journ. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 21, 
p. 229, April, 1937 La Desirade (type in Field Museum). 

Loxia noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Cory, Ibis, 1886, p. 474 La 
Desirade. 

Pyrrhulagra noctis ridgwayi Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 150, 1892 
part, La Desirade. 

Range. Island of Desirade, near Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. 
5: Lesser Antilles (Desirade, 5). 

*Loxigilla noctis noctis (Linnaeus). MARTINIQUE BULLFINCH. 

Fringilla noctis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 320, 1766 based primarily 

on "Le Pere Noir" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 118, pi. 7, fig. 1; Martinique (type 

in Reaumur Collection). 2 
Fringilla rufo-barbata Jacquin, Beitr. Gesch. Vogel, p. 11, 1784 Martinique 

(type not extant). 
Pyrrhulagra noctis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 493, 1850 part, 

Martinique; Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 149, 1892 Martinique 

(crit.). 
Loxigilla noctis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 102, 1862 Martinique; 

Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 167 part, Martinique; Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1, pp. 355, 487, 1879 Martinique; Cory, Auk, 4, p. 95, 1887 

Martinique; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 84, 1888 part, spec. 

h, i, Martinique. 
Pyrrhulagra noctis noctis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 554, 

1901 Martinique (monog.). 

Range. Island of Martinique, Lesser Antilles. 
14: Lesser Antilles (Martinique, 14). 

"Loxigilla noctis sclateri Allen. 3 SANTA LUCIA BULLFINCH. 

Loxigilla noctis sclateri Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 5, p. 166, July, 1880 
Santa Lucia, Lesser Antilles (cotypes in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 370, 1930); 
Cory, Auk, 3, p. 204, 1886 Santa Lucia (descr.); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 12, p. 129, 1890 Santa Lucia; Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 80, p. 544, 1928 Santa Lucia (nest and eggs); Danforth, Monog. 

1 Loxigilla noctis desiradensis Danforth: Similar to L. n. dominicana but with 
shorter wing and tarsus. Wing, (male) 67-69^, (female) 62-65. 

2 Though Linnaeus also quotes Sloane's "Passer niger, punctis croceis notatus" 
(Voy. Jamaica, 2, p. 311), and "Yphualtototl" of Hernandez (Hist. Nov. Hisp., 
p. 49), two rather indifferently described birds, his diagnosis, "P. nigra, gula lorisque 
rufis, rostro nigro," is clearly taken from Brisson, who described a specimen sent 
by Thibault de Chanvalon from Martinique to de Reaumur. 

8 Loxigilla noctis sclateri Allen is rather a poor form hardly deserving recogni- 
tion. Eight additional specimens examined. 



166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Univ. Puerto Rico, Ser. B, No. 3, p. 103, 1935 Santa Lucia (habits, 
food); idem, Journ. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 21, p. 230, 1937 (crit.). 

Loxigilla noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1871, p. 270 Santa Lucia (crit.); Semper, I.e., 1872, p. 649 Santa Lucia 
(habits); Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 57 (in text), 1878 
Santa Lucia (crit.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 84, 1888 part, 
spec, k-n, Santa Lucia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, p. 395 
Santa Lucia; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 560 Santa Lucia (crit., plumages). 

Pyrrhulagra noctis sclateri Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 150, 1892 Santa 
Lucia (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 555, 1901 
Santa Lucia (monog.). 

Range. Island of Santa Lucia, Lesser Antilles. 
35: Lesser Antilles (Santa Lucia, 35). 

*Loxigilla noctis crissalis (Ridgway). ST. VINCENT BULLFINCH. 

Pyrrhulagra crissalis Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 323, Oct., 1898 Cumberland 

Valley, St. Vincent (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Loxigilla noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1, p. 191, 1878 St. Vincent (crit.); Lister, Ibis, 1880, p. 40 St. 

Vincent. 
Pyrrhulagra noctis grenadensis Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 150, 1892 

part, St. Vincent. 
Pyrrhulagra noctis crissalis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 557, 

1901 St. Vincent (monog.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, pp. 285, 

303, 1905 St. Vincent. 
Loxigilla noctis crissalis Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 544, 1928 

St. Vincent; Danforth, Journ. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 21, p. 230, 

1937 (crit.). 

Range. Island of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. 
20: Lesser Antilles (St. Vincent, 20). 

*Loxigilla noctis grenadensis (Cory). GRENADA BULLFINCH. 

Pyrrhulagra noctis grenadensis Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 150, 1892 part, 
Grenada (type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 560, 1901 Grenada (monog.); 
Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, pp. 285, 306, 1905 Grenada. 

Loxigilla noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1, p. 269, 1878 Grenada; idem, I.e., 1, p. 487, 1879 part, Grenada; 
Wells, I.e., 9, p. 614, 1886 Grenada (habits, nest and eggs). 

Loxigilla noctis grenadensis Danforth, Journ. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 21, 
p. 231, 1937 (crit.). 

Range. Island of Grenada, Lesser Antilles. 
7: Lesser Antilles (Grenada, 7). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 167 

Loxigilla noctis propinqua Lawrence. 1 GUIANAN BULLFINCH. 

Loxigilla noctis var. propinqua Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 58 

(in text), July 31, 1878 Essequibo River, British Guiana (type in coll. 

of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the American Museum of Natural History, 

New York). 

Loxigilla propinqua Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 85, 1888 (ex Lawrence). 
Pyrrhulagra noctis propinqua Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 549, 1901 British Guiana (crit.). 
Pyrrhulagra propinqua Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 427, 1921 Essequibo 

River and Berbice (ex Lawrence). 

Range. British Guiana (Essequibo River and Berbice). 
*Loxigilla noctis barbadensis Cory. 2 BARBADOS BULLFINCH. 

Loxigilla barbadensis Cory, Auk, 3, p. 382, July, 1886 Barbados, Lesser 
Antilles (type in coll. of C. B. Cory, now in Field Museum); idem, Bds. 
W. Ind., p. 290, 1889 Barbados (descr.); Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 483 
Barbados (nest and eggs); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 558 Barbados (crit.); 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 543, 1928 Barbados; Danforth, 
Journ. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 21, p. 232, 1937 (crit.). 

Loxigilla noctis (not Fringilla noctis Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1874, p. 175 Barbados; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 84, 1888 
part, spec, b-d, Barbados. 

Pyrrhulagra barbadensis Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 112, 150, 1892 Bar- 
bados; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 561, 1901 Barbados 
(monog.); Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, pp. 285, 303, 1905 Barbados. 

Range. Island of Barbados, Lesser Antilles. 

8: Lesser Antilles (Bathsheba, Barbados, 1; Barbados, 7). 

Genus MELOPYRRHA Bonaparte 

Melopyrrha Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, p. 924, Dec., 1853 
type, by subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 82, 1885) Loxia 
nigra Linnaeus. 

1 Loxigilla noctis propinqua Lawrence is stated by Ridgway to resemble 
L. n. grenadensis in dimensions, but to differ by less intensely black coloration 
and by having the rufous gular area restricted to the upper throat. The female 
and immature plumages are unknown. This race rests upon three males secured 
by A. H. Alexander on the Essequibo River. The collector claimed having shot 

?uite a number of specimens in that locality and having also observed it at Berbice. 
t is very strange that no other naturalist ever met with a representative of this 
otherwise purely West Indian group anywhere on the South American continent, 
though Bonaparte (Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 493, 1850) lists . Pyrrhulagra noctis 
from "Surinam," which may refer to the same form. More information about 
this mysterious bird is highly desirable. 

2 Loxigilla noctis barbadensis Cory is the most primitive member of the group, 
the adult males closely resembling in coloration the female of L. n. sclaleri. No 
black males have yet been collected, though Bond records having seen one during 
his rambles in Barbados. 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Melopyrrha nigra nigra (Linnaeus). CUBAN BULLFINCH. 

Loxia nigra Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 175, 1758 based on "The 
little black Bullfinch" Catesby (Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 68, pi. 68) and 
"The Black Bullfinch" Albin (Suppl. Nat. Hist. Bds., 3, p. 65, pi. 69). 

Pyrrhula crenirostris Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Chant. Zone Torr., p. 77, in or 
before 1807 "le Mexique" [errore] et 1'lle de Cuba." 

Pyrrhula nigra Vieillot and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 1, (2), p. 65, pi. 57, circa 1822; 
Vigors, Zool. Journ., 3, p. 440, 1827 near Havana, Cuba; d'Orbigny, in 
Sagra, Hist. He de Cuba, Orn., p. 108, pi. 17, 1839 Cuba. 

Sporophila nigra Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 498, 1850 "Mexico" 
(errore) et "Antilles" (descr.). 

Melopyrrha nigra Gundlach and Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 4, p. 8, 1856 Cuba 
(nest and eggs descr.); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 103, 1862 Cuba; 
Gundlach, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 125, 1874 Cuba (habits, nest, and eggs); 
Cory, Auk, 3, p. 206, 1886 Cuba (descr.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 141, 1888 Cuba (San Cristobal, Tuabeque); Cory, Bds. W. 
Ind., p. 93, 1889 part, Cuba; idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 112, 1892 
part, Cuba; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 4, p. 309, 1892 near 
Trinidad, Cuba; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 562, 1901 
Cuba (monog.); Bangs and Zappey, Amer. Natur., 39, p. 215, 1905 
Punta al Este, Isle of Pines; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 10, p. 283, 1916 
Calota Grande and Hato, Isle of Pines; Barbour, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 
6, p. 129, 1923 Cuba (habits); Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 81, art. 
2, p. 40, 1932 Puerto de Tanamo and Rio Moa, Cuba. 

Range. Island of Cuba, including Isle of Pines, Greater Antilles. 
11: Cuba (San Diego de los Banos, 1; near Palacios, 1; Casila, 
Prov. Santa Clara, 4; unspecified, 5). 

*Melopyrrha nigra taylori Hartert. 2 GRAND CAYMAN BULLFINCH. 

Melopyrrha taylori Hartert, Nov. Zool., 3, p. 257, Sept., 1896 Grand Cay- 
man (type in Tring Collection, now in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 24, p. 154, 1919); Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 563, 1901 Grand Cayman (monog.); 
Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 582 near Newlands, Grand Cayman; Lowe, Ibis, 
1909, p. 345 Grand Cayman; idem, Ibis, 1911, p. 159 Grand Cayman; 
English, Ibis, 1916, p. 31 Grand Cayman (food); Fisher and Wetmore, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79, art. 10, p. 23, 1931 Grand Cayman. 

Melopyrrha nigra (not Loxia nigra Linnaeus) Cory, Auk, 3, p. 501, 1886 
Grand Cayman; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 93, 1889 part, Grand Cayman; 
idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 112, 1892 part, Grand Cayman. 

Range. Island of Grand Cayman, south of Cuba. 
31: Greater Antilles (Grand Cayman, 31). 

1 Catesby gives "Mexico" as habitat, while Albin's description was based on 
a live bird of unrecorded origin. Cuba, the only island inhabited by the species, 
may be taken as terra typica. 

2 Melopyrrha nigra taylori Hartert, while easily distinguished by larger size 
and less glossy plumage, is clearly a geographical race of the Cuban Bullfinch. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 169 

Genus PIEZORHINA Lafresnaye 

Piezorina 1 Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, cl. 2, text to pi. 30, pp. 1, 2, 1843 

type, by orig. desig., Guiraca cinerea Lafresnaye. 
Piezorhina Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 542, 1850 emendation. 

Piezorhina cinerea (Lafresnaye). CINEREOUS FINCH. 

Guiraca cinerea Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, cl. 2, pi. 30, 1843 "aux lies 
Gallapagos," errore= coast region of northwestern Peru (type in coll. of 
F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 370, 1930); Prevost and 
Des Murs, Voy. Ve~nus, Zool., p. 209, 1855 "lies Gallapagos." 

Camarhynchus cinerea(us) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 542, 1850 
(ex Lafresnaye); Salvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 9, p. 491, 1876 "Galla- 
pagos" (ex Lafresnaye); Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 
321 Tumbez, Peru. 

Piezorhina cinerea Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 137 
Sorritos [=Zorritos], Prov. Tumbez, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1880, p. 199 
Chepen; Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 421 Payta, Dept. Piura, Peru; Tac- 
zanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 23, 1886 northwestern Peru (Tumbez, Guada- 
lupe, Chaman); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 89, 1888 Payta 
and Tumbez; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 462, 1918 Sullana, Piura; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 608, 1926 Lamor and Samate, 
Tumbez, Peru. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of northwestern Peru, from Tumbez 
south to Libertad (Chepen). 2 

Genus NEORHYNCHUS Sclater 

Callyrhynchus (not Callorynchus Gronovius, 1763) Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 

209, "July," 1842 type, by monotypy, Callyrhynchus peruvianus Lesson; 

idem, Echo du Monde Savant, 9e annde, 2nd s6m., No. 11, col. 253, 

August 11, 1842. 3 
Callirhynchus (not Agassiz, 1846) Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 

42, p. 822, May, 1856 emendation. 
Neorhynchus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 147 new name for 

"Callirhynchus" [i.e., Callyrhynchus] Lesson. 

Neorhynchus peruvianus peruvianus (Lesson). PERUVIAN 
NEORHYNCHUS. 

Callyrhynchus peruvianus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 209, "July," 1842 Callao, 
Peru (descr. of young; type in coll. of R. P. Lesson, now in the Academy of 

1 Evidently an error of transcription, since the generic name is stated to signify 
"bee comprime'." 

1 Five specimens, from Tumbez and Payta, examined. 

* It is quite probable that the account in the "Echo du Monde Savant" has 
priority, since the July issue of the "Revue de Zoologie," containing, as it does, the 
minutes of the meeting of the Academy of Sciences held on July 25, must have 
been published considerably later than indicated by its ostensible date. 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
51, p. 61, 1899); idem, Echo du Monde Savant, 9e annee, 2nd sem., No. 11, 
col. 253, August 11, 1842 Callao; idem, I.e., lOe annee, No. 36, col. 850, 
May 14, 1843 Callao and Lima, Peru. 

Callirhynchus masesus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, p. 822, 
May, 1856 no locality given (descr. of adult male; type in Paris Museum). 1 

Neorhynchus nasesus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 147 Lima, 
Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 520 Lima; idem, Orn. Per., 3, p. 9, 
1886 part, Lima; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 88, 1888 Lima; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 376 lea, Peru. 

Neorhynchus maseus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, pi. 12. 

Neorhynchus naseus Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 61, 1899. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of western Peru, from Libertad 
(Trujillo) to lea. 2 

Neorhynchus peruvianus devronis (Verreaux). 3 ECUADORIAN 
NEORHYNCHUS. 

Callirhynchus devronis Verreaux, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 4, p. 314, 1852 no 
habitat indicated (location of type not stated). 

Callirhynchus drovoni Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, p. 822, 
May, 1856 (ex Verreaux). 

Neorhynchus nasesus (not Callirhynchus masesus Bonaparte) Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 320 Tumbez, Peru; Berlepsch and Tac- 
zanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 550 Guayaquil, Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. 
Pe>., 3, p. 9, 1886 part, Tumbez. 

Neorhynchus devronis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 89, 1888 Guaya- 
quil; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 23, 
1899 Puntilla de Santa Elena, Ecuador. 

Neorhynchus devronis devronis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 607, 
1926 Bahia de Caraques, Santa Elena, Puna Island, and Tembleque 
Island, Ecuador (crit.). 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of southwestern Ecuador, from Ma- 
navi (Bahia de Caraques) southwards, and extreme northwestern 
Peru (Tumbez). 

1 1 have not succeeded in finding the specimen in the Paris Museum. 

* Material examined. Peru: Lima, 4; lea, 3. 

J Neorhynchus peruvianus devronis (Verreaux): Similar to N. p. peruvianus, 
but with shorter wings and tail, and decidedly smaller, less bulky bill. Wing 
(adult males), 56-59; tail, 40-42; bill, 14-15. 

A single adult male from Tumbez, while possessed with a slightly larger bill 
than others from Guayaquil and Puntilla de Santa Elena, is distinctly nearer the 
Ecuadorian than the Peruvian form. 

It is with considerable reluctance that we retain the name devronis for the 
small northern form. There is absolutely nothing in the description (which is 
by no means clear, no mention being made of the black color on the throat) to 
indicate that the type came from Ecuador rather than from Peru, though con- 
sidering the period the latter country is much more likely to have supplied the 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 171 

Genus SPOROPHILA Cabanis 1 

Spermophila (not of Richardson, 1825) Swainson, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, p. 

348, 1827 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 2nd ed., p. 63, 

1841), Pyrrhula falcirostris Temminck. 
Sporophila Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 291, 1844 new name for 

Spermophila Swainson, preoccupied. 
Gyrinorhynchus Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 79, June 1, 1850 type, by 

subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 82, 1855), Loxia minuta 

Linnaeus. 
Drepanorhynchus (not of Fischer and Reichenow, 1884) Dubois, M6m. Soc. 

Zool. France, 7, p. 400, 1894 type, by orig. desig., Drepanorhynchus 

schistaceus Dubois = Pyrrhula falcirostris Temminck. 
Spermophilopsis Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 4, p. xxxvii, May 31, 1895 

new name for Drepanorhynchus Dubois, preoccupied. 
Microphila Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 192, Feb., 1921 type, by 

orig. desig., Sporophila castaneiventris Cabanis. 

Sporophila falcirostris (Temminck). 2 TEMMINCK'S SEED-EATER. 

material. The type has been completely lost sight of, it being neither in the 
British Museum nor in the collections at Paris or Vienna. It was no doubt sold 
by Verreaux to one of his customers, and may yet turn up in some public or private 
collection. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Guayaquil, 3; Puntilla de Santa Elena, 2. 
Peru: Tumbez, 1. 

1 Further subdivision of this genus seems impracticable. While I readily 
admit that the type species, S. falcirostris and, to a lesser degree, S. schistacea 
have the maxilla shallower, they are otherwise so nearly related to S. intermedia 
that generic separation would merely serve to obliterate their natural affinities. 
As to Microphila, it is hardly necessary to point out that there is absolutely no 
sound reason for keeping S. castaneiventris and allies apart. 

2 Sporophila falcirostris (Temminck), a very rare species, of which less than 
a dozen specimens are known, agrees in wing-formula (first primary very nearly 
as long as second and much longer than fifth) with S. schistacea, but differs by 
longer tail; even shallower and in the apical half more strongly curved maxilla, 
and much deeper mandible; larger white alar speculum; much paler, slate gray 
upper parts; absence of the white patch on the sides of the throat; buffy brownish 
flanks; buffy under tail coverts, etc. Wing, (adult male) 62, (female) 58-62; 
tail, 46-47, (female) 42-46; bill, 11-12. 

Temminck's figure, which was evidently based on female examples, is incorrect, 
being much too green throughout, but shows the characteristic shape of the bill. 

As we have pointed out in another connection (Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 
54, pp. 529^-531, 1904), where its plumages are described at length, S. falcirostris 
is very distinct from S. super ciliaris, being much smaller than it and besides differ- 
ing widely in coloration. Adult males are slate gray above, paler below, with the 
middle line of the breast white and some whitish suffusion on the throat. The 
inner median (and in the type of D. schistaceus also the inner lesser) upper wing 
coverts are tipped with white. Dubois's type merely differs from an adult male 
secured by Beske at Nova Friburgo by the presence of a small white postocular 
streak and of some dusky subapical spots on the chest, without any doubt individual 
characters. According to a manuscript note of Count Berlepsch, who has examined 
the specimen, which afterwards became the type of S. sertanicola, this is a female 
or a young male of the present species. 

Material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 3; Rio de Janeiro, 1; Nova Friburgo, 
Rio, 1; unspecified (type of D. schistaceus), 1. 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyrrhula faldrostris Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PL Col., livr. 2, pi. 11, fig. 2 (= 

female), Sept., 1820 "Bre"sil" (descr. of female; cotypes in Leyden 

Museum; cf. Dubois, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 7, p. 401, 1894). 
Fringilla faldrostris Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 584, 1830 Bahia 

(descr. of female). 
"Pyrrhula faldrostris (Pyrrhula virescens, Mus. de Paris)" Lesson, Traite 

d'Orn., p. 451, Feb., 1831 Brazil. 
Pyrrhula virescens Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 6, p. 63, 1854 Brazil 

(type in Paris Museum; descr. of female). 
Sporophila faldrostris Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 499, 1850 Brazil; 

Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 252, 1856 Bahia (descr. of 

immature male); Hellmayr, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 529, 1904 

Bahia to Rio de Janeiro (crit., plumages); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 

p. 378, 1907 (range). 
Spermophila faldrostris Pelzeln, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Fri- 

burgo, Rio de Janeiro (descr. of adult male); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, 

p. 154, 1900 Nova Friburgo. 
Drepanorrhynchus schistaceus Dubois, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 7, p. 404, pi. 

10, fig. 2, 1894 "Bresil" (descr. of adult male; type in Brussels Museum 

examined). 
Sporophila sertanicola Lima, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 105, col. pi., fig. 3, 

1920 Alto da Serra do Cubatao, Sao Paulo (descr. of young male; type 

in Museu Paulista). 
Drepanorhynchus faldrostris (Buttikofer in) Dubois, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 

7, p. 401, 1894 (crit.). 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Bahia to 
Sao Paulo (Alto da Serra). 

Sporophila frontalis (Verreaux). 1 SUPERCILIATED SEED-EATER. 

1 Sporophila frontalis (Verreaux), the largest species of the genus, is perhaps 
nearest to S. faldrostris, which it resembles in the shallow, apically abruptly curved 
maxilla and in wing-formula, but may be immediately recognized by much greater 
dimensions and the two broad, well-defined bands across the wings, pale buffy 
in the adult male and deep ochraceous in the female. Another peculiarity is the 
presence of a conspicuous superciliary stripe in the male sex, which varies, accord- 
ing to age, from buffy olive yellow to buffy white. The adult plumage is well 
figured by Dubois and by Berlepsch and Ihering. Wing, (adult male) 65-68, 
(female) 65-66; tail, 50-52, (female) 46-48; bill, 12-13. 

In June, 1935, I carefully compared the type of C. frontalis with the original 
example of S. superdliaris taken for that purpose to Paris. Both are adult 
males in fairly good condition. Apart from the more purely whitish ground 
color of throat and median under parts and the more grayish (less olivaceous) 
brown sides due to fading of the mounted specimen Verreaux's type differs 
from the Mattodentro bird merely by brighter buffy wing-bands and by having, 
behind the blackish nasal plumes, a distinct white spot, which is barely suggested 
on the left side in Pelzeln's example. These trifling divergencies are without any 
question individual, as the two types otherwise agree perfectly one with another. 
Moreover, one of two males from Rio Grande do Sul has a number of white feathers 
in the middle of the crown, and the wing-bands are even brighter buff than in 
the Parisian specimen. The locality "Cayenne," inscribed on the label of C. fron- 
talis, is most certainly erroneous. Neither Cherrie nor Klages met with the bird 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 173 

Callirhynchus frontalis Verreaux, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., 5, Bull., p. 15, 
pi. 1, fig. 1, 1869 "Cayenne," errore (descr. of adult male; type in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Spermophila superciliaris Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, pp. 223, 330, 1870 Sao 
Paulo (Mattodentro, Porto do Rio Parana) and Nova Friburgo, Rio de 
Janeiro (type, from Mattodentro, in Vienna Museum examined) ; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 22 Mattodentro (ex Pelzeln); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. 
Ges. Orn., 2, p. 122, pi. 7, 1885 Arroyo Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (crit.); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 99, 1888 Sao Paulo and "Pelotas," 
Rio Grande do Sul; Ihering, Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 120, 
1899 Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 160, 
1899 Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 154, 1900 Can tagallo, Rio de Janeiro. 
Sporophila euleri Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 84, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de 

Janeiro (descr. of immature male; type in Berlin Museum examined). 
Sporophila superciliaris Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 374, 1907 Sao Paulo 
and Alto da Serra, Sao Paulo; Bertoni, Rev. Inst. Parag., Sept., 1907, p. 3 
Paraguay (crit.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 436, 
1910 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 
Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 355, 1914 
Alto ParanA (Misiones and Paraguay). 
Coccothraustes ambrosettianus Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 83, 

Jan., 1901 Alto Parana, Paraguay (type in coll. of A. de W. Bertoni). 
Drepanorhynchus superciliaris Dubois, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, 7, p. 401, pi. 

10, fig. 3 (male), 1894 (crit.). 

Range. Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, in states of Rio 
de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo, Cantagallo), Sao Paulo (Mattodentro, 
Alto da Serra, Sao Paulo, Porto do Rio Parand), and Rio Grande do 
Sul (Arroyo Grande), west to the confines of Paraguay and Misiones 
(Alto Parana). 

Sporophila schistacea 1 crissalis Carriker. 2 COSTA RICAN 
SEED-EATER. 

in French Guiana, nor is any representative of this group known to occur in the 
neighboring countries. The type is much more likely to have originated in 
the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro. The type of S. euleri Cabanis is an immature male, 
having olive yellow superciliaries and the throat washed with yellowish. The 
identity of the three species being thus proved, Verreaux's term must be accepted 
as having priority. 

Material examined. Brazil: Nova Friburgo, Rio, 1; Cantagallo, Rio, 1; Rio 
de Janeiro, 1; Mattodentro, Sao Paulo, 2; Porto do Rio Parana, 1; Arroyo Grande, 
Rio Grande do Sul, 2. "Cayenne," 1. 

1 Sporophila schistacea, in spite of superficial resemblance, seems to be quite 
distinct from S. intermedia, the principal characters being its shallower maxilla 
with less strongly convex culmen; the longer and more pointed wing, in which 
the first primary is very nearly as long as the second, and much longer than the 
fifth; the slightly shorter tarsus; and the proportionately as well as actually shorter 
tail. The wing measured in all the races is 60 mm. or more, while the tail never 
exceeds 45 mm. (only males considered). Color characters vary somewhat in the 
male sex, but females are always decidedly darker both above and below. 

''Sporophila schistacea crissalis Carriker, according to notes supplied by Mr. 
W. E. Clyde Todd, differs from the nominate race in the male sex by being more 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sporophila crissalis Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 4, p. 301, April 1, 1908 

Buenos Aires de T6rraba, Costa Rica (type in Carnegie Museum); idem, 

I.e., 6, p. 889, 1910 Buenos Aires de Terraba. 
Sporophila intermedia (not of Cabanis) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 

p. 189 Bugaba, Chiriqul. 
Spermophila grisea (not Loxia grisea Gmelin) Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 18 part, 

Chiriqui; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 356, 1885 

part, Bugaba; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 96, 1888 part, spec. 

r-u, Bugaba and Chiriquf. 
Sporophila grisea schistacea (not Spermophila schistacea Lawrence) Ridgway, 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 566, 1901 part, Bugaba, Chiriqui. 
Sporophila schistacea crissalis Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 379, 

1935 Chiriqui (Bugaba) and southwestern Costa Rica (Buenos Aires). 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Costa Rica (Terraba 
Valley) and extreme western Panama (Bugaba, Chiriqui). 

Sporophila schistacea schistacea (Lawrence). SLATE-COLORED 
SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila schistacea Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 474 (in 
text), 1862; idem, I.e., 8, p. 10, May, 1863 Lion Hill, Panama Railroad 
(type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York). 

Spermophila cinerea(l) (not Pyrrhula cinerea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 474, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama 
Railroad. 

Spermophila grisea (not Loxia grisea Gmelin) Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 18 part, 
Panama; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 356, 1885 
part, Lion Hill. 

Sporophila grisea schistacea Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 566, 
1901 part, descr. and hab., Lion Hill, Panama. 

Sporophila schistacea schistacea Penard, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 36, pp. 60, 61, 
1923 Las Pavas (La Cumbre, Valle), Las Ventanas (Santander), and 
Malagita (Choco), Colombia (crit.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
69, p. 183, 1929 Cana, Darien; idem, I.e., 72, p. 371, 1932 Obaldia, 
Panama; idem, I.e., 78, p. 379, 1935 Canal Zone, Darien, and Colombia. 

brownish on the wings and under parts, while the younger individuals are darker, 
more olivaceous green above, and lighter, less buffy yellowish underneath. Wing 
(type), 61; tail, 40. 

The original examples obtained by Carriker appear to be all immature, this 
being suggested by the brownish suffusion on back and wings. Furthermore, 
three adult males from Bugaba, Chiriqui, which we have seen without being able 
to compare them directly with typical schistacea, are pure slate gray above, as 
well as on throat and breast. One has a distinct white spot on each side of the neck, 
as described by Lawrence for the type of S. schistacea, while the others have hardly 
a trace of this marking. The inner smaller upper wing coverts are slightly tipped 
with white as in S. falcirostris. 

The claims of crissalis to recognition and the nature of its characters need 
corroboration by the comparison of adequate series, though Mr. Todd believes 
it to be valid. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 175 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Panama (west to the Canal 
Zone) and northern Colombia (Malagita, Choco; Las Ven tanas, 
Santander; Pavas, La Cumbre, Valle). 1 

Sporophila schistacea incerta Riley. 2 ECUADORIAN SLATE- 
COLORED SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila incerta Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 27, p. 213, Oct. 31, 1914 
Gualea, Ecuador (type in U. S. National Museum examined). 

Sporophila schistacea incerta Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 608, 
1926 Gualea (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador (Gualea). 

*Sporophila schistacea longipennis Chubb. 3 LONG-WINGED 
SEED-EATER. 

1 Three adult males from Las Ventanas (Santander) and Malagita (Choco), 
Colombia, which we have examined in the Carnegie Museum, have distinct white 
tips to the median upper wing coverts and large, well-defined, white patches on 
the sides of the throat. Wing, 60-62 mm. 

2 Sporophila schistacea incerta Riley, according to Chapman, is similar to S. s. 
schistacea, but considerably larger, with a more robust bill, and the white patches 
of the throat seem to be barely suggested. Wing (adult male), 66; tail, 44; bill, 10^; 
its depth at base, 8. 

This form is known from a single adult male in the U. S. National Museum. 
A cursory examination of the type, some years ago, showed it to belong to the S. 
schistacea complex, but there was no material available for comparison with other 
races. 

* Sporophila schistacea longipennis Chubb: Similar to S. s. schistacea, but the 
white patches on the sides of the throat in the adult male slightly smaller or even 
obsolete; females darker, much more olivaceous above as well as on breast and 
sides, with the middle of the belly more yellowish and the under tail coverts buffy. 

Not having been able to make direct comparison with the nominate race, I 
have taken the distinguishing characters from Penard's paper. While the material 
at hand is not very large, it seems difficult to correlate the differences in size with 
particular areas, and the segregation of two races in the Guianas (longipennis and 
arthuri) becomes more than problematical. Six males from Surinam, according to 
Penard, measure: wing, 60-62? 2; tail, 39-41; one from French Guiana (Tamanoir, 
Mana River): wing, 62; tail, 42; two from Roraima, British Guiana: wing, 62, 64; 
tail, 41, 45; one from La Union, Caura, Venezuela: wing, 623^; tail, 41 ]/%; one 
from Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela: wing, 63 Yi', tail, 42^; one from Peixe-Boi, 
Para, Brazil: wing, 64; tail, 40. 

Birds from Para (Peixe-Boi) are not distinguishable in coloration from those 
of the Caura Valley, which renders the existence of a distinct form in the intervening 
region around Roraima highly improbable. All the individuals examined have the 
proportions, shallow maxilla, and pointed wings of the schistacea group. In colora- 
tion, both sexes are much darker than S. intermedia. Mr. J. T. Zimmer, who on my 
request re-examined the Tring material, writes that, of the specimens recorded by 
Berlepsch and Hartert s. n. S. grisea, No. 11003, from Caicara, as well as nine from 
La Union (Caura) belong to S. s. arthuri, being inseparable from four Surinam 
topotypes, and he also confirms the pertinence of two skins from Peixe-Boi, Para, 
to the same form. 

Since writing the preceding lines, I have had an opportunity of studying the 
material in the British Museum. An adult male from Cayenne (arthuri) proves 
to be indistinguishable from Roraima birds. The type of S. longipennis is some- 
what aberrant, being slightly larger (wing, 64) with an unusually long tail (45 mm.), 



176 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sporophila longipennis Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 193, Feb., 
1921 Mount Roraima, British Guiana (type in the British Museum 
examined); idem, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 429, 1921 Roraima. 

Sporophila schistacea arthuri Penard, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 36, p. 60, March 
28, 1923 Lelydorp, Surinam (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.). 

Spermophila plumbea (not Fringilla plumbea Wied) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Bds., p. 103, 1862 Cayenne (certe) and (?)upper Amazon. 

Spermophila grisea (not Loxia grisea Gmelin) Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 18 
part, Cayenne; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 215 Roraima; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 96, 1888 part, spec, c-e, Cayenne and Roraima; 
Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 394, 1910 Surinam. 

Sporophila grisea Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 25, 1902 part, 
Caicara (Orinoco) and La Union (Caura), Venezuela (crit.); Berlepsch, 
I.e., 15, p. 120, 1908 Cayenne (ex Sclater); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 428, 1914 Peixe-Boi, Para, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Range. Tropical zone of southern Venezuela (La Union, Caura; 
Caicara, Orinoco Valley); British, Dutch, and French Guiana; 
south to extreme northeastern Brazil (Peixe-Boi, Para). 1 

1: Brazil (Serra da Lua, Rio Branco, 1). 
*Sporophila intermedia Cabanis. 2 GRAY SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila intermedia Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 149, Oct., 1851 Venezuela 
(descr. of male; type in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, 
Halberstadt) ; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 428, 1921 Takutu Moun- 
tains; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 419, 1931 south of 
Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia; Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 
Trinidad. 

Spermophila intermedia Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 103, 1862 Vene- 
zuela and "Bogota"; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 83 Trinidad. 

and, in the left wing, the first primary is decidedly shorter than the second, though 
still markedly longer (by about 6 mm.) than the fifth. A second male from Roraima, 
taken on the same day, is, however, wholly typical. The three Guianan males can 
hardly be told from Chiriqui skins (crissalis) without any white on the sides of the 
neck. It thus appears that the last word on the number of separable races in the 
schistacea complex has not yet been said. 

Material examined. Venezuela: La Union, Caura, 3; Caicara, Orinoco, 1. 
French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. British Guiana: Roraima, 2. Brazil: Peixe-Boi, 
Para, 2. 

1 An apparently undescribed form occurs in northern Bolivia. A single adult 
male from Juntas (northern base of the Cordillera of Cpchabamba) differs from the 
one from Peixe-Boi, Para, by still darker (more blackish slate) color of the upper 
parts, throat, and breast, etc. Wing, 65; tail, 45. More material should be 
examined before attempting any formal separation. 

*Loxia grisea Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, [2], p. 857, 1789) was long used for the 
above species. The name rests exclusively upon "Le Gros-Bec de Virginie" 
Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 393, fig. 1, called by Buffon "Le Grisalbin." The rather 
poor figure shows a blackish bill, white throat, and whitish superciliaries, and I am 
inclined to agree with Chubb (Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 41, p. 35, 1920) that the name is 
better dropped as undeterminable. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 177 

Spermophila cinereola (not Pyrrhula cinereola Temminck) L^otaud, Ois. 
Trinidad, p. 319, 1866 Trinidad. 

Spermophila grisea (not Loxia grisea Linnaeus) Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 18 
part, Venezuela, Trinidad, and "Bogota" (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 507 Envigado and Medellin, Colombia; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 356, 1885 part, 
Venezuela, Trinidad, and Colombia; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 
p. 96, 1888 part, spec, f-q, Venezuela, Trinidad, and Colombia (Santa 
Marta, Medellin, Envigado). 

Sporophila grisea Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 33, 1894 Princes- 
town, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cumanacoa and San 
Antonio [Bermudez], Venezuela; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, 
p. 166, 1900 Cienaga, Colombia; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
9, p. 25, 1902 part, Altagracia (Orinoco), Suapure" and La Pricion 
(Caura), Venezuela; Hellmayr, I.e., 13, p. 18, 1906 Trinidad (Caparo, 
Chaguaramas, Pointe Gourde, Seelet, Valencia); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., 
Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 360, 1908 Carenage and Pointe Gourde, Trini- 
dad; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 208, 1913 Cano Corozal, 
Orinoco Delta; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 516, 
1922 Dibulla, Tucurinca, and Fundacion, Santa Marta region, Colom- 
bia; Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 133, 1922 Trinidad 
(nest and eggs descr.). 

Sporophila grisea grisea Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 187, 
1916 Orinoco region; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 557, 
1917 Colombia (Caldas, Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Cali, Miraflores, 
Popayan, San Agustin, below Andalucia, Chicoral, Honda, Puerto Berrio, 
Buena Vista, Villavicencio). 

Range. Tropical zone of Trinidad, northern Venezuela (south 
to the Orinoco Valley), Colombia (extending up into the Subtropical 
zone), and British Guiana (upper Takutu Mountains). 1 

26: Colombia (10 miles north of Cucuta, Santander del Norte, 2; 
Tucurinca, Magdalena, 2; Fundacion, Magdalena, 1; "Bogota," 1); 
Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, 4; Encon trades, Zulia, 10; Rio Cata- 
tumbo, Zulia, 4; Rio Aurare, Zulia, 1; Colon, Tachira, 1). 

Sporophila plumbea 2 plumbea (Wied). PLUMBEOUS SEED-EATER. 

1 Birds from Trinidad, Venezuela, and "Bogota" agree well together, the 
respective series of males showing the same amount of individual variation in the 
coloration of the throat (with or without white), extent of the white alar speculum, 
and tone of the upper plumage. 

Additional material examined. Trinidad: Aripo, 1; Icacos, 1; Caparo, 12; 
Carenage, 3. British Guiana: upper Takutu Mts., 1 (male). Venezuela: San 
Antonio, 5; Maturin, Monagas, 1; San Esteban, Carabobo, 2; Altagracia, Orinoco, 
8; La Pricion, Caura, 1. Colombia: "Bogota," 23; Medellin, 1; Envigada, 1; 
Atuncela, 2; Las Lomitas, 1. 

2 Sporophila plumbea superficially resembles S. intermedia, but differs by less 
bulky bill with shallower mandible and less convex, more distinctly ridged culmen, 
as well as by more pointed wings, the first (outermost) primary being but slightly 
shorter than the second and much longer than the fifth. 



178 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Fringilla plumbea Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 579, 1830 "Campo 
Geral of inner Brazil" = boundary of Bahia and Minas Geraes (descr. of 
male; type lost, cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 223, 1889). 

Pyrrhula cinerea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 87, 1837 Chiquitos, Bolivia (descr. of male; type lost). 

Spermophila cinerea Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 75, 1847 Bolivia (descr.). 

Sporophila cinerea Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 499, 1850 Bolivia. 

Sporophila plumbea Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 149, 1851 Brazil; Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 242, 1856 Congonhas, Minas Geraes; 
Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 368, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 374, 1907 Batataes, Sao Paulo; Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 383, 1910 Alto Parana, Paraguay; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 
Chapada da Varzea Grande, Apertada Hora, and Santa Philomena, 
Piauhy; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Puerto Bertoni and Iguassu, 
Paraguay; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 355, 1914 Paraguay and 
Misiones. 

Spermophila plumbea Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 223, 1870 part, Sao Paulo 
(Itarare, Tejuco, Irisanga), Parana (Curytiba), and Matto Grosso 
(Villa Bella de Matto Grosso); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. 
Foren., 1870, p. 413 Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa) and Sao Paulo (Mugy 
das Cruzes, Franca); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 18 Sao Paulo, Matto Grosso, 
and Bolivia (monog.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 605 Chiquitos (ex d'Orbigny); Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 336 (song); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 97, 1888 Brazil (Curytiba, Itarare); 
Pereyra, El Hornero, 5, p. 218, 1933 Zelaya, Buenos Aires (Feb.). 

Spermophila aurantiirostris Bertoni, Anal. Cient. Parag., 1, No. 1, p. 84, 
Jan., 1901 Puerto Bertoni, Alto Parana, Paraguay (type in coll. of 
A. de W. Bertoni). 

Sporophila plumbea plumbea Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 296, 1929 Piauhy (ex Reiser); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
60, p. 345, 1930 Matto Grosso; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 17, (2), p. 792, 
1932 Tres Lagoas, Matto Grosso. 

Range. Campo region of Brazil, from southern Piauhy to Parana, 
west to Matto Grosso and the adjacent parts of Bolivia (Chiquitos) ; 
occasional (in migration?) in eastern Paraguay (Alto Parana) and 
Argentina (one record from Zelaya, Prov. Buenos Aires). 1 

1 According to published records, there seems to be a gap in the range of the 
species between Piauhy and Minas Geraes. Three adult males from the first- 
named state, however, do not appreciably differ from southern birds, though their 
bills appear to average slightly smaller. The coloration of the bill, in males of this 
form, varies considerably, being either bright orange or mainly dusky or blackish, 
often with paler brown mandible. One specimen is clearly intermediate, having 
the bill orange with dusky culminal streak and dusky tip to mandible. I am unable 
to account for this variation, which does not seem to be due to age or season, since 
both orange- and black-billed individuals representing adults and immature plu- 
mage are at hand from the same locality (Itarare, Sao Paulo). Certain specimens, 
irrespective of origin, have more or less white on the upper throat, and white spots 
on the cheeks. This is particularly observable in one from Tejuco (Sao Paulo) 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 179 

Sporophila plumbea whiteleyana (Sharpe). 1 WHITELEY'S 
SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila plumbea subsp. a Spermophila whiteleyana Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 98, 1888 Roraima, British Guiana (type in British 
Museum). 

Spermophila plumbea subsp. /3 Spermophila colombiana Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 99, 1888 "Bogota," Colombia (type in British Mu- 
seum examined). 

Spermophila plumbea (not Fringilla plumbea Wied) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, 
p. 223, 1870 part, Rio Branco, Brazil; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 18 part, 
"Bogota" and Cayenne; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 215 Roraima; Penard, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 394, 1910 Surinam. 

Sporophila plumbea whiteleyana Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 26, 
1902 Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.- 
Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 119, 1912 Mexiana and 
Marajo; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 428, 1914 Mexiana; Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 189, 1916 Altagracia, Orinoco. 

Spermophila whiteleyana Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 29, 1907 
Mexiana. 

Spermophila plumbea whiteleyana Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 296, 1907 
Mexiana. 

Sporophila whiteleyana Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 430, 1921 upper 
Takutu Mountains, Abary River, and Roraima. 

and two from Piauhy, these birds being hardly distinguishable from the general 
"run" of whiteleyana. While we have not seen any Bolivian material, we do not 
doubt that P. cinerea Lafr. and d'Orb. really belongs to the present form, since an 
adult male from Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, close to the Chiquitos frontier, is in 
every way similar to others from Sao Paulo. 

Material examined. Brazil: Santa Philomena, Piauhy, 1; Chapada da Varzea, 
Piauhy, 1; Apertada Hora, Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy, 1; Tejuco, Sao Paulo, 2; 
Itarare, Sao Paulo, 11; Irisanga, Sao Paulo, 2; Curytiba, Parana, 2; Villa Bella de 
Matto Grosso, Matto Grosso, 1 ; unspecified, 3. 

1 Sporophila plumbea whiteleyana (Sharpe) : Very similar to the nominate race, 
but distinguishable by the adult males having more white on the upper throat and 
a distinct white spot below the eye. 

Birds from the Orinoco Valley agree perfectly with a Guianan series, and two 
worn examples from Espirito Santo, Marajo, appear to be likewise inseparable 
from others in corresponding condition from Roraima. I am quite unable to 
maintain colombiana as distinct. The type, it is true, has an unusual amount of 
white on the throat, but other Bogota skins can be matched by numerous speci- 
mens from Guiana and Venezuela. These "Bogota" skins presumably came from 
the eastern base of the east Colombian Andes. There is no other published record 
for the occurrence of this form in Colombia. S. p. whiteleyana, while generally 
recognizable by the characters given above, is closely approached by occasional 
individuals of the nominate race. The females are absolutely indistinguishable. 
Contrary to what obtains in the typical form, all the males examined have the 
bill black or dark brown, the lower edge of the mandible inclining sometimes to 
pale brown. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 10; Annai, 1. Venezuela: 
Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, 10; Quiribana de Caicara, Rio Orinoco, 1. Colombia: 
"Bogota," 4. Brazil: Espirito Santo, Marajo Island, 2. 



180 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Extreme northeastern Brazil, from the Rio Branco to 
the estuary of the Amazon (islands of Mexiana and Marajo) ; French, 
Dutch, and British Guiana; southern Venezuela, in the valley of the 
Orinoco, west apparently to the eastern foot of the east Colombian 
Andes. 

*Sporophila albogularis (Spix). WHITE-THROATED SEED-EATER. 

Loxia albogularis Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 46, pi. 60, figs. 1, 2 (male, 
female), 1825 Brazil=Bahia, as suggested by Hellmayr, 1906 (cotypes, 
males, in Munich Museum examined; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. 
Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 679, 1906). 

Spermophila albigularis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 497, 1850 
Brazil; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 8 Bahia (monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 93, 1888 Bahia. 

Sporophila albogularis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 149, 1851 Brazil; Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 243, 1856 Brazil, "on the Amazon 
River" (errore); Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, 
p. 679, 1906 Bahia (descr. of female; note on types); Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 373, 1907 Bahia and "Paraguay" (errore); Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 294, 1929 Piauhy (Ibiapaba, Arara) 
and Ceara (Varzea Formosa, Quixada). 

Sporophila albigularis Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
76, p. 81, 1910 Pernambuco (Pao d'Alho, near Recife) and Bahia (above 
Joazeiro and Barra do Rio Grande); idem, I.e., p. 179, 1925 same local- 
ities. 

Sporophylla albigularis Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, 
p. 42, 1926 Ceara. 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, from Bahia north to Pernambuco, 
Ceara, and Piauhy. 1 

11: Brazil (Santo Amaro, Bahia, 1; Quixada, Ceara, 3; Varzea 
Formosa, Ceara, 1; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 4; Arara, Piauhy, 2). 

Sporophila leucoptera mexianae Hellmayr. 2 MEXIANA 
SEED-EATER. 

*The record of S. albogularis from Sapucay, Paraguay, by Oberholser (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 146, 1902) based on a single female, probably refers to S. 
caerulescens, but in no case to the present species. Bertoni (Faun. Parag., p. 64, 
1904) did not meet with it in Paraguay, and included it only on Oberholser's 
authority. 

Additional material examined. Pernambuco: Pao d'Alho, near Recife, 1. 
Bahia: Barra, 1; above Joazeiro, 1; unspecified, 11. "Brazil," 2. 

2 Sporophila leucoptera mexianae Hellmayr: Similar in the male sex to S. I. 
cinereola, but gray of upper parts lighter, and under surface pure white without 
any gray suffusion across chest and along flanks. Wing (type), 62 Y^; tail, 54; 
bill, 11. 

In the whiteness of the under parts this form resembles S. I. leucoptera, but 
is much paler gray above and lacks the narrow white uropygial band. So far it 
is known only from the Island of Mexiana, in the estuary of the Amazon. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 181 

Sporophila leucoptera aequatorialis (not Spermophila aequatorialis Salvador! 

and Festa, 1899) Snethlage, Orn. Monatsber., 15, p. 193, Dec., 1907 

Santa Maria, Island of Mexiana, Brazil (type in Museu Goeldi, Para, 

examined); idem, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 520, 1913 Mexiana; idem, Bol. 

Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 428, 1914 Mexiana. 
Sporophila leucoptera mexianae Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. 

Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 119, 1912 new name for Sporophila leucoptera 

aequatorialis Snethlage, preoccupied. 
Spermophila hypoleuca (not Fringilla hypoleuca Lichtenstein) Hagmann, Zool. 

Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 29, 1907 Mexiana. 
Spermophila leucoptera (not Coccothraustes leucoptera Vieillot) Snethlage, 

Journ. Orn., 55, p. 296, 1907 Mexiana. 

Range. Island of Mexiana, in the estuary of the Amazon, 
northern Brazil. 

*Sporophila leucoptera cinereola (Temminck). 1 WHITE-BELLIED 
SEED-EATER. 

Pyrrhula cinereola Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 2, pi. 11, fig. 1 

(=male), Sept., 1820 Brazil, we suggest Bahia (type in Leyden Museum); 

Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 41, p. 35, 1920 (crit.). 
Fringilla hypoleuca Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 26, after 

Sept., 1823 Brazil (type in Berlin Museum). 
Pyrrhula rubrirostris Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Me"th., Orn., 3, livr. 93, p. 1027, 

1823 supposed to be from "New Holland," errore (descr. of male; type 

in Paris Museum). 
Fringilla rufirostris Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 581, 1830 Rio de 

Janeiro (Rio Paraiba [=Parahyba] and near Villa de Sao Salvador) and 

Bahia (Camamu) (descr. of male and female; types lost, formerly in 

Wied Collection; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 223, 1889). 
Sporophila hypoleuca Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 497, 1850 part, 

Brazil; Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 148, 1851 Brazil; Reiser, Denks. 

Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 Pernambuco 

(Beberibe", Pao d'Alho) and Piauhy (Santa Philomena). 
Spermophila hypoleuca Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 223, 1870 part, Sapitiba, 

Rio de Janeiro (spec, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 17 part, Bahia; 

Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 336 Pernambuco; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

12, p. 94, 1888 Brazil (Rio, Bahia, Pernambuco, "Para"). 
Sporophila leucoptera hypoleuca Hellmayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges., 54, p. 537, 

1904 part, eastern Brazil; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 373, 1907 

part, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, and "Para." 

1 Sporophila leucoptera cinereola (Temminck): Differs from S. I. leucoptera by 
slightly smaller size, paler gray dorsal surface without white uropygial band, and 
by the strong gray suffusion on the sides of the body, this color often forming a 
pectoral crescent on the chest. Females are merely distinguishable by their 
inferior dimensions. Wing (males), 56-60; tail, 51-56. 

Additional material examined. Piauhy: Santa Philomena, 1. Pernambuco: 
Beberibe", 1; Pao d'Alho, 1. Bahia: Bahia, 20. Rio de Janeiro: Sapitiba, 1; Rio 
de Janeiro, 1. 



182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sporophila leucoptera cinereola Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 294, 1929 Maranhao (Grajahu) and Piauhy (Santa Philomena); 
Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 19, p. 280, 1935 Corupeba, Bahia. 

Range. Eastern Brazil, from southern Maranhao 1 (Grajahu) 
and Piauhy (Santa Philomena) through Pernambuco and Bahia to 
Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba and Rio Parahyba). 

3: Brazil (Santo Amaro, Bahia, 2; Grajahu, Maranhao, 1). 

*Sporophila leucoptera leucoptera (Vieillot). 2 WHITE-WINGED 
SEED-EATER. 

Coccothraustes leucoptera Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 13, 
p. 521, 1817 based on "Pico triqueno" Azara, No. 123; Paraguay. 

Sporophila hypoleuca clara Cherrie, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 35, p. 188, 
1916 Sao Lourengo River, below the mouth of the Rio Cuyaba, Matto 
Grosso (type in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
examined). 

Spermophila hypoleuca (not Fringilla hypoleuca Lichtenstein) Hartlaub, Syst. 
Ind. Azara, p. 8, 1847 Paraguay (ex Azara, No. 123); Pelzeln, Orn. 
Bras., 3, p. 223, 1870 part, Goyaz (Goyaz City, Rio dos Piloens, Rio 
Araguaya) and Matto Grosso (Cuyaba) (spec, examined); Reinhardt, 
Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 413 Lagoa Santa, Minas 
Geraes; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 17 part, Goyaz and Cuyaba. 

Sporophila hypoleuca Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 497, 1850 
part, Paraguay; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 241, 1856 
Minas Geraes; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 8, 1887 Lambare, Paraguay 
(crit.); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 368, 1891 Cachoeira and 
Corumba, Matto Grosso (spec, examined). 

Spermophila sp. Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 5, 1900 
Urucum, Matto Grosso (spec, examined). 

Sporophila leucoptera leucoptera Hellmayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges., 54, p. 537, 
1904 Paraguay (crit.); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 175, 
1909 Ocampo, Santa Fe, Argentina; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 382, 1910 Paraguay and Santa Fe (Ocampo); Naumburg, 

1 The locality "Para" attached to a specimen in the British Museum is probably 
erroneous. There is no authentic record for any form of this group in the Para 
region proper. 

2 Sporophila leucoptera leucoptera (Vieillot) differs from the eastern race 
(cinereola) by slightly larger size, and in the male sex by darker (almost slaty) 
gray tone of the upper parts, relieved by a more or less distinct, though narrow, 
white uropygial band, and nearly pure white ventral surface, with just a faint 
grayish shade along the inner sides of the chest. Wing (males), 60-65^; tail, 54-59. 

Birds from Matto Grosso (clara), while perhaps not quite so dark, are not 
separable from typical Paraguayan specimens, whereas the inhabitants of Goyaz 
and Minas Geraes slightly verge in the direction of S. I cinereola. 

Additional material examined. Paraguay: Lambare, 2; five leagues north of 
Villa Conception, 1; unspecified, 1. Brazil: Sao Lourenco River, 1; Agua Blanca 
de Corumba, 1; Urucum, 2; Cachoeira, near Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 1; Cuyaba, 2; 
Goyaz, 1 ; Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, 1 ; Rio dos Piloens, Goyaz, 1. Argentina: Ocampo, 
Santa Fe, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 183 

Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 344, 1930 Matto Grosso (Agua Blanca 
de Corumba and Rio Sao Lourenco); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 17, (2), 
p. 792, 1932 Aquidauana, Matto Grosso (crit.); Stone and Roberts, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 395, 1934 Descalvados, Matto 
Grosso. 

Sporophila leucoptera Hellmayr, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 536, 1904 
(crit., nomencl.); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 95 Boca de Homiguera (Alto 
Paraguay), Matto Grosso, and Colonia Mihanovitch, Formosa, Argentina; 
Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Paraguay; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 
1, p. 355, 1914 Chaco Argentino; M6n6gaux, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 5, 
p. 85, 1917 Caceres, Matto Grosso. 

Sporophila leucoptera hypoleuca Hellmayr, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges., 54, p. 537, 
1904 part, central Brazil; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 373, 1907 
part, Goyaz, Matto Grosso, and Minas Geraes. 

Range. Interior of Brazil, in states of Minas Geraes (Lagoa 
Santa, Rio das Velhas), Goyaz (Goyaz, Rio Araguaya, Rio dos 
Piloens), and Matto Grosso; Paraguay, and the adjacent parts of 
Argentina (Colonia Mihanovitch, Formosa; Ocampo, Santa Pe"). 

1: Brazil (Rio das Velhas, near Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, 1). 

Sporophila leucoptera bicolor (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 1 
BLACK-AND-WHITE SEED-EATER. 

Pyrrhula bicolor Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 86, 1837 Mojos, Bolivia (descr. of male and female; co types in 
Paris Museum); d'Orbigny, Voy. Ame'r. Merid., Ois., pi. 50, fig. 1 (=male), 
1844. 

Sporophila bicolor Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 499, 1850 Bolivia; 
Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 242, 1930 
Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 

Spermophila bicolor Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 103, 1862 Bolivia; 
idem, Ibis, 1871, p. 17 Mojos, Bolivia (monog.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 605 Mojos; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 138, 1888 Bolivia. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Bolivia, in depts. of El Beni 
(Mojos) and Santa Cruz (Buena Vista). 

*Sporophila obscura 2 obscura (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 
DULL-COLORED SEED-EATER. 

1 Sporophila leucoptera bicolor (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) : Male similar to 
S. 1. leucoptera in having a conspicuous white uropygial band, but upper parts, 
including wings and tail, glossy black instead of slate gray, and sides of neck with 
the suggestion of a black patch; female hardly separable by slightly paler under, 
and more brownish upper parts. Wing, 60-65, (female) 58; tail, 54-58, (female) 
52; bill, 11-12. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Mojos, 5; Buena Vista, 2; unspecified, 4. 

2 Sporophila obscura differs somewhat in shape of bill from the other members 
of the genus, but I now agree with Todd and others that its separation is hardly 
warranted, though at one time I had referred it to Catamenia. 



184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Emberiza obscure Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 81, 1837 Chiquitos, Bolivia (descr. of young; type in Paris 
Museum; cf. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 20, p. 237, 1913). 

Spermophila obscura Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 519 
Paltaypampa, Peru (type lost, formerly in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolc- 
man and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 169, 1927); 
idem, I.e., 1880, p. 199 Callacate, Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 
1883, p. 550 Chimbo, Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 17, 1886 
Paltaypampa; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 101, 1888 Callacate, 
Peru, and Salta, Argentina; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 6, 1895 Vina 
(Huamachuco), Peru; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 177, 
1902 Rio Sali, Tucuman; idem, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, 
p. 43, 1905 Rio Sali. 

Spermophila ornata (not Fringilla ornata Lichtenstein) Salvin, Ibis, 1880, 
p. 353 Salta (spec, in British Museum examined). 

Spermophila pauper Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, 
p. 293 Cayandeled, western Ecuador (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. 
Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 169, 
1927); Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 18, 1886 Callacate, Peru; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 102, 1888 Chimbo, Ecuador. 

Sporophila pauper Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 298, 1889 Tarapoto, Peru 
(crit.). 

Spermophila obscura pauper Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 485, 1898 Chimbo, 
Ecuador. 

Sporophila obscura Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 84, 1906 Santa 
Ana, Urubamba, Peru; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, 
p. 383, 1910 Salta and Tucuman; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1 
117, p. 109, 1921 Rio Cosireni, Santa Ana, Idma, Chauillay, and San 
Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru. 

Catamenia obscura Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 20, p. 237, 1913 Chiquitos, Bolivia 
(note on type, crit., range). 

Sporophila obscura obscura Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 612, 
1926 Bucay, Naranjo, Pallatanga, Zaruma, Porto Velo, Las Pinas, and 
Cebollal, Ecuador (crit.). 

Spermophila obscura obscura Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 459, 1930 Huachipa and Vista Alegre, Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Tropical (and locally Subtropical) zone of northwest- 
ern Argentina (Salta and Tucuman), Bolivia, Peru, and western 
Ecuador. 1 

1 In another connection I have already expressed my inability to distinguish 
between birds from Bolivia and Peru (obscura) and others from Ecuador (pauper), 
and additional material since examined serves to strengthen this conclusion. 
There is much individual variation, particularly with respect to the amount of 
white in the middle of the belly, and general coloration, besides, is subject to much 
seasonal change. Birds from western Ecuador and northwestern Peru average 
very slightly smaller, but the divergency is quite insignificant. The largest speci- 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 185 

8: Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1); Peru (Hacienda Limon, 
10 miles west of Balsas, 3; Huachipa, 1; Vista Alegre, 3). 

Sporophila obscura haplochroma Todd. 1 SANTA MARTA 
SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila haplochroma Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 8, p. 200, May, 1912 
Cincinnati, Santa Marta district, Colombia (type in Carnegie Museum); 
Todd and Carriker, I.e., 14, p. 517, 1922 Cincinnati, Minca, and Pueblo 
Viejo, Colombia (crit.). 

Phonipara bicolor (not Fringilla bicolor Linnaeus) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 13, p. 165, 1900 Minca (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of Colombia and the adjacent parts of 
Venezuela. 

*Sporophila simplex (Taczanowski). 2 TACZANOWSKI'S SEED- 
EATER. 

Spermophila simplex Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 132 
Lima, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, 
Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 168, 1927); Nation, I.e., 1874, 
p. 329 Lima (habits and nesting); Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 519 
Lima; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 199 Callacate, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe"r., 3, p. 16, 
1886 Peru (Lima, Paucal, Callacate); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 100, 1888 Lima and Callacate, Peru; Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 457, 1930 Chosica, Lima, and Macate, Ancachs. 

Sporophila simplex Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, 
p. 376 Lima; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 462, 1918 Bellavista, Peru. 

Range. Pacific slope of Peru, from Libertad south to Lima, 
east to the upper Marafion Valley (Callacate, Bellavista). 

4: Peru (Macate, Ancachs, 1; Chosica, Lima, 3). 

men (an adult male), with a wing of 59 mm., is from Bolivia (Buena Vista), though 
others from the same country hardly exceed northern birds in size. 

Spermophila obscura Holland (Ibis, 1892, p. 196), from Estancia Espartillar, 
Buenos Aires, proves on examination to be a young male of S. caerulescens. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 1; 
Cayandeled, 1; Bucay, 4; Chimbo, 4. Peru: Callacate, 2; Vina, Huamachuco, 4; 
Tarapoto, 2; Santa Ana, 2. Bolivia: Omeja, Yungas, 1; Santa Cruz, 1; Buena 
Vista, 1; Chiquitos, 1. Argentina: Salta, 1. 

1 Sporophila obscura haplochroma Todd: Very similar to S. o. obscura, but with 
larger, darker bill, and upper parts decidedly deeper brown. In worn plumage, 
this form scarcely differs in coloration from the nominate race. Wing, 54-57, 
(female) 51-54; tail, 42-45, (female) 38-42; bill, 10-11. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 2; Minca, 2; Cincinnati, 2; Palo- 
mina, 1; San Francisco, 1. 

2 Sporophila simplex (Taczanowski) is rather an isolated species of plain colora- 
tion with two well-marked whitish wing-bands. Birds from Callacate seem to be 
identical with a series from Lima. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Callacate, 4; Lima, 5. 



186 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Sporophila torqueola torqueola (Bonaparte). CINNAMON- 
RUMPED SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila torqueola Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 495, end of 1850 
Mexico (descr. of male; cotypes, from City of Mexico, in Berlin Mu- 
seum, examined; cf. van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 421, 
1934); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 303, 1858 Capulalpam, 
Oaxaca; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 105, 1862 Mexico; Duges, 
La Naturaleza, 1, p. 139, 1868 Guanajuato; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 6 
Oaxaca, Mazatlan, and Tepic, Mexico (monog.); Lawrence (and Grayson), 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 276, 1874 Mazatlan, plains of Colima, 
and Tepic (habits, nest, and eggs); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 351, 1885 Mazatlan, Tepic, plains of Colima, Guana- 
juato, Cuernavaca, Capulalpam (Oaxaca), and Tehuan tepee; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 119, 1888 Silao, Mazatlan, and Presidio. 

Sporophila ochropyga (Lichtenstein MS.) Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 5, 1861 
City of Mexico (descr. of male; cotypes in Berlin Museum examined). 

Spermophila atriceps (Baird MS.) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, 
p. 479, May, 1867 Mazatlan, Sinaloa (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Sporophila torqueola Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 142, 1886 
Huehuetlan, Puebla; Jouy, I.e., 16, p. 779, 1893 Hacienda El Molina, 
Jalisco; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 577, 1901 western 
Mexico, from Sinaloa to Puebla (monog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
21, p. 363, 1905 Escuinapa, Sinaloa; McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(4), 16, p. 45, 1927 San Bias, Nayarit. 

Spermophila albitorques Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 120, 1888 
Mexico (descr. of male; type in British Museum examined); van Rossem, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 422, 1934 (crit.). 1 

Sporophila albitorques Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 578, 
1901 (ex Sharpe). 

Sporophila torqueola torqueola Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 412, 
1934 Coyuca and Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Range. Southwestern Mexico, from southern Sinaloa (Mazatlan, 
Presidio, Rosario) south through Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima, and 
Guanajuato to Mexico, Morelos, Puebla, Guerrero, and Oaxaca. 

4: Mexico (Tuxpan, Jalisco, 3; unspecified, 1). 

*Sporophila torqueola morelleti (Bonaparte). MORELLET'S 
SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila morelleti (Pucheran MS) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), 
p. 497, end of 1850 "Guatimala" (type, from Peten, Guatemala, in 
Paris Museum; cf. Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 

1 Specimens from Presidio (near Mazatlan, Sinaloa) differ from the cotypes 
of S. torqueola (which are at the same time those of S. ochropyga) only in being 
darker on the under parts, but they are not comparable as to season. Like van 
Rossem, I cannot see in the type of S. albitorques anything but an individual 
variant of torqueola. 

Thirteen specimens examined. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 187 

p. 353, 1885, and van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 421, 1934); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 302, 1856 Orizaba, Vera Cruz; 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 102, 1868 San Jose" and 
Grecia, Costa Rica. 

Sporophila morelleti Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 150, 1851 Mexico; idem, 
Journ. Orn., 9, p. 4, 1861 Costa Rica (crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 212 Orizaba, Vera Cruz; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 575, 1901 part, from Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
to Costa Rica; Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 156, 1903 Ceiba, 
Honduras; idem, Auk, 24, p. 311, 1907 El Pozo de Te"rraba, Costa 
Rica; Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 118, 1907 
Guatemala (Los Amates, Mazatenango, Patulul, Lake Atitlan); Ferry, 
I.e., p. 281, 1910 Costa Rica (Turrialba Station, Guayabo, Coliblanco); 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 887, 1910 Costa Rica (many local- 
ities; habits, nest, and eggs); Peters, Auk, 30, p. 380, 1913 Camp Mengel 
and Xcopen, Quintana Roo; Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 31, 1919 
Talamanca, Sipurio, Costa Rica; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 235, p. 16, 
1926 eastern Yucatan. 

Spermophila moreleti Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, pp. 365, 378, 1859 
Jalapa, Vera Cruz, and Playa Vicente, Oaxaca; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 
1859, p. 17 near Lake of Peten, Duenas, and Belize, British Honduras; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1859, p. 468 near Duenas, Guatemala (nest descr.); Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 105, 1862 Orizaba, Guatemala, and Honduras; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 836 San Pedro and 
Medina, Honduras; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 10 part, southern Mexico, 
Guatemala, and Honduras (monog.); Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 
(n.s.), 25, p. 44, 1878 Guatemala; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 58 San Jose, Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 1883, p. 444 Me>ida, Yucatan; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 352, 1885 part, 
Vera Cruz to Costa Rica; Salvin, Ibis, 1888, p. 261 Meco and Mujeres 
Islands, off Yucatan; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 123, 1888 
Yucatan (MeYida, Mujeres, Meco), British Honduras (Corozal, Belize), 
Guatemala, Honduras (Medina, San Pedro), and Costa Rica (San Jose", 
Grecia, Turrialba, Irazu); Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geogr. y Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, 4, p. 139, 1893 Lagarto, Costa Rica. 

Spermophila moreletii Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 551, 1869 
State of Vera Cruz. 

Sporophila moreleti Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. Ill, 1887 
Alaju61a, Cartago, and San Jose, Costa Rica; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 10, p. 580, 1887 Trujillo, Honduras; Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 27, 
1892 San Jose to the Pacific coast, Costa Rica. 

Sporophila morelleti morelleti Allen, Auk, 24, p. 28, 1907 (char., range); Bangs 
and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 485, 1927 Presidio and 
Motzorongo, Vera Cruz; Peters, I.e., 69, p. 466, 1929 Lancetilla and 
Tela, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 350, 1932 
Guatemala (Chipoc, La Primavera, Sepacuite, Chama, Barrfllos, Pana- 
jachel, Antigua, San Antonio, La Perla, Puebla, San Lucas); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 340, 1932 Lancetilla, Honduras; 
van Tyne, Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool., Misc. Publ., 27, p. 39, 1935 Guate- 



188 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

mala, Pete"n (Chuntuquf, Pacomon, Flores, Ixtinta, Macanche, Remate, 
La Libertad); Carriker and de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
87, p. 447, 1935 Quirigua and Izabal, Guatemala. 

Sporophila moreleti mutanda Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 438, p. 7, Dec. 15, 
1930 Hacienda California, near Ocos, Pacific slope, western Guatemala 
(type in Dwight Collection, in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 351, 1932 Hacienda 
California, Ocos, Carolina, and Finca El Cipres, Guatemala. 

Sporophila mutanda Carriker and de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
87, p. 447, 1935 Quirigua, Moca (Guatemala City), and above Amatitlan, 
Guatemala (crit.). 

Spermophila aurita (not of Bonaparte) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 
p. 133, 1888 part, spec, r-u, Guatemala (Duenas, Retalhuleu, Totoni- 
capam). 

Sporophila morelletei sharpei (not of Lawrence) Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 10, p. 29, 1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico, from Vera Cruz 
to Chiapas, Tabasco, and Yucatan, and southwards through British 
Honduras, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua to Costa Rica 
(nearly all over the country). 1 

50: Mexico (Teapa, Tabasco, 2); Guatemala (San Jose", 2; Maza- 
tenango, 4; Patulul, Solola, 3; Lake Atitlan, 1; Los Amates, Izabal/ 
6; Bobos, Izabal, 3; Samac, Alta Vera Paz, 2) ; Nicaragua (San Emilio, 
Lake Nicaragua, 1 ; San Geronimo, Chinandega, 7) ; Costa Rica (San 
Jose", 1; Peralta, 1; Turrialba Station, 2; Coliblanco, 1; Guayabo, 14). 

*Sporophila torqueola sharpei Lawrence. 2 SHARPE'S SEED-EATER. 

1 The black-throated form (var. mutanda) is a mutational variation of S. t. 
morelleti, its occurrence being obviously restricted to Guatemala. While more 
frequent on the Pacific slope of the country, it is sometimes also found in the 
interior, though up to date not a single specimen of this variety has been recorded 
from any of the Atlantic provinces. In a series of nine adult males from the Pacific 
side (San Jose, Retalhuleu, Mazatenango) two only have the throat black (con- 
fluent with the pectoral band), two others are wholly white-throated and not 
distinguishable from specimens taken in Alta Vera Paz and at Los Amates, and 
the four remaining ones are variously intermediate. Carriker and de Schauensee 
have already pointed out that typical white-throated examples (morelleti) also 
occur on the Pacific side together with mutanda, but we cannot possibly follow 
their conclusion that these varieties are specifically distinct. Such a conception is 
disproved not only by the two being connected by every imaginable intermediate, 
but also by the consideration that similar variation has been observed in other 
species of seed-eaters (f. i. S. aurita). 

Additional material examined. Mexico: Chiapas, 5. Guatemala, 19. 
Honduras: San Pedro Sula, 7. Costa Rica, 11. 

* Sporophila torqueola sharpei Lawrence: Similar to S. t. morelleti, but black 
pectoral band in adult male only suggested by black mottling; female paler buff 
underneath and less brownish, more olivaceous above. 

It appears that most of the characters used by Allen for distinguishing sharpei 
are of seasonal nature. However, the absence of the complete black pectoral band 
in males, and the paler coloration of the females serve to differentiate the form 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 189 

Sporophila morelleti sharpei Lawrence, Auk, 6, p. 53, Jan., 1889 Lomita, 
Texas (type in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); 
Allen, Auk, 24, p. 26, 1907 (crit., char., range); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 89, 
1911 Matamoros, Tamaulipas; Friedmann, Auk, 42, p. 551, 1925 
lower Rio Grande Valley; Griscom and Crosby, Auk, 43, p. 26, 1926 
Brownsville, Texas. 

Spermophila albigularis (notLoxia albogularis Spix) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 5, p. 124, 1852 Texas (descr.). 

Spermophila moreletii (not of Bonaparte) Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. 
Pacif., 9, p. 506, 1858 Texas and Nuevo Le6n (San Diego, Monterrey); 
idem, Bds. N. Amer., atlas, pi. 54, figs. 2, 3, 1860; idem, Rep. U. S. Mex. 
Bound. Surv., 2, (2), p. 17, pi. 16, figs. 2, 3, 1859 San Diego and Mon- 
terrey, Nuevo Leon. 

Spermophila moreleti Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 10 part, Texas and Nuevo Le6n; 
Merrill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, p. 129, 1878 Fort Brown, Texas 
(habits, nest, and eggs); Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. Geog. Surv. Terr., 5, 
p. 393, 1879 Lomita, Texas (habits, crit., descr. of young). 

Spermophila parva (not of Lawrence) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 124, 
1888 part, spec, a-c, Lomita, Texas and Mexico. 

Sporophila morelleti Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 575, 1901 
part, lower Rio Grande, Texas, and northeastern Mexico (Nuevo Le6n, 
Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, (?)Guanajuato, (?)Hidalgo, and (?)Puebla). 

Range. Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, and northeastern 
Mexico (in states of Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi, 
southern limit undetermined). 

9: Texas (Hidalgo, 1; Lomita, 1; Cameron County, 1); Mexico 
(Tampico, Tamaulipas, 2; Valles, San Luis Potosi, 4). 

*Sporophila aurita corvina (Sclater). 1 BLACK SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila corvina Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 379, 1859 Playa 
Vicente, Oaxaca, Mexico (descr. of male; type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum); Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 33 Izabal, 
Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 105, 1862 Oaxaca and 
Honduras; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 8, p. 180, 1865 Greytown, 
Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 9, p. 102, 1868 Costa Rica (Angostura, Pacuare, 
Turrialba); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 278 
Bluefields, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 836 San Pedro, Honduras; 
Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 551, 1869 near Orizaba, Vera 
Cruz; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 301, 1869 "southwestern side" of 

from the lower Rio Grande Valley and the adjacent parts of northeastern Mexico. 
The southward extension of its range remains yet to be determined. 

1 Sporophila aurita corvina (Sclater) is nothing but the Caribbean representa- 
tive of the aurita group. It is very constant throughout its range, but almost 
complete intergradation is furnished by individual variation of aurita in the Canal 
Zone. One male collected by A. Boucard near Colon (Munich Museum) is nearly 
wholly black, and merely differs from corvina by having some white on rump, 
sides of neck, and under tail coverts, and a larger white wing-speculum. The 
females of the two "species" are, besides, exceedingly similar. 



190 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Costa Rica (errore); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 16 (monog.); Salvin, Ibis, 1872, 
p. 317 Chontales, Nicaragua; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 58 San Carlos, Costa Rica; idem, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 25, 
p. 45, 1878 Guatemala; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 401, 
1884 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 1, p. 355, 1885 Mexico to Costa Rica; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 137, 1888 Mexico (Oaxaca), Guatemala (Vera Paz, Choc- 
turn), Honduras, Nicaragua (Chontales), and Costa Rica (Pacuare, 
Angostura, Turrialba). 

Spermophila badiiventris Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 172, 
1865 Greytown, Nicaragua (descr. of immature male; type in U. S. 
National Museum); Baird, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1, p. 319, pi. 28, 
fig. 3, 1869 Greytown. 

Sporophila corvina Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 169 "San 
Jose," Costa Rica; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. Ill, 1887 
Costa Rica (Jimenez, Las Trojas, Angostura); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 10, p. 580, 1887 Segovia River, Honduras; Richmond, I.e., 
16, p. 492, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (habits, nest, and eggs); 
Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 16, p. 223, 1899 Chocan River, Guate- 
mala; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 571, 1901 (monog.); 
Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 156, 1903 Ceiba and Yaruca, 
Honduras; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 890, 1910 Costa Rica 
(range, nest and eggs); Ferry, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 281, 
1910 Guayabo and Port Limon, Costa Rica; Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 12, 
No. 8, p. 31, 1919 Talamanca (Sipurio), Costa Rica, and San Juan del 
Norte, Nicaragua; Kennard and Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 38, p. 461, 
1928 Almirante, north western Panama; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ,69, 
p. 466, 1929 Lancetilla, Honduras; Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
84, p. 241, 1932 Eden and Bluefields, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 340, 
1932 Lancetilla, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, 
p. 350, 1932 Finca Chama, Chimoxan, and Chipoc, Caribbean Guate- 
mala; idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 379, 1935 Almirante and 
Rio Calovevora, Panama. 

Range. Tropical zone of the Caribbean slope of southeastern 
Mexico (in states of Vera Cruz and Oaxaca), Guatemala, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and western Panama, east to the Rio Calo- 
ve"vora, Veraguas. 1 

20: Guatemala ("Vera Paz," 1; Bobos, Izabal, 1); Nicaragua (San 
Emilio, Lake Nicaragua, 2); Costa Rica (Limon, 9; Matina, 5; 
Guayabo, 1; Siquirres, 1). 

1 The species is confined to the Caribbean lowlands. Its occurrence on the 
Costa Rican plateau seems to be exceptional. Cassin records a single male collected 
by J. Carmiol at San Jose, but perhaps this locality is not exact. 

Additional material examined. Guatemala: Choctum, Alta Vera Paz, 4. Hon- 
duras: San Pedro Sula, 2. Costa Rica: Cachi, 2; Castilla, Rio Reventazon, 6; 
unspecified, 2. 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 191 

*Sporophila aurita aurita (Bonaparte). HICKS'S SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila aurita Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 497, (end of) 1850 
"Bresil," errore (descr. of male; type said to be in Paris Museum); 1 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 333, 1861 Lion Hill, Panama; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 14, pi. 2, figs. 1, 2 western Colombia (Buena- 
ventura), Panama, Veraguas, and Costa Rica (monog.); Boucard, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond.,1^78, p. 58 San Mateo, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 354, 1885 Costa Rica and Panama; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 133, 1888 part, spec, a-g, Costa Rica 
to Panama (Lion Hill, Paraiso Station, Santa Fe, CaloveVora, Mina de 
Chorcha, Chitra, Bugaba, Chiriqui); Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 4, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Darien. 

Sporophila hoffmanni Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 6, 1861 Costa Rica (descr. 
of black-throated variety of male; type in Berlin Museum). 

Spermophila lineata (not Loxia lineata Gmelin) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 474, 1862 Panama Railroad. 

Spermophila semicollaris Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 10, 
May, 1863 Lion Hill, Panama Railroad (descr. of black-throated, black- 
rumped variety of male; type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 352 Lion Hill; Salvin, I.e., 1867, p. 141 
Mina de Chorcha, Chitra, Calovevora, and Santa Fe, Veraguas; idem, 
I.e., 1870, p. 189 Bugaba, Chiriqui (crit.). 

Spermophila hicksii Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 171, Oct., 
1865 Panama (descr. of white-throated variety of male; type in U. S. 
National Museum). 

Spermophila fortipes Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 172, Oct., 
1865 line of Panama Railroad, New Granada (descr. of intermediate 
variety of male; type in coll. of Geo. N. Lawrence, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Spermophila collaris (not Loxia collaris Boddaert) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 177, Oct., 1865 David, Chiriquf (descr. of black- 
throated variety of male; type in U. S. National Museum); Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 141 David. 

Sporophila aurita Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geogr. y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 
4, p. 140, 1893 Terraba and Buenos Aires, Costa Rica; Bangs, Proc. 
New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 33, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; idem, 
Auk, 18, p. 370, 1901 Divala, Chiriquf; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 573, 1901 part, Costa Rica to Panama (monog.); 
Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 224, 1906 savanna 

1 Although the type was examined by Sclater (Ibis, 1871, p. 15), I looked in 
vain for it when at Paris in June, 1935. Bonaparte's description seems to refer 
to a male without white on the rump and with wholly black throat and chest, the 
prevailing color type found in the Panama Canal Zone. 

Pyrrhula albocollaris Lesson (Traite d'Orn., livr. 6, p. 450, Feb., 1831 no 
locality indicated), of which the type has disappeared (cf. Pucheran, Rev. Mag. 
Zool., nouv. se>., 6, p. 68, 1854), possibly belongs here, but the description is too 
indefinite. 



192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

of Panama; Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 311, 1907 Boruca, Paso Real, El Pozo, 

and Barranca de Terraba, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 

6, p. 888, 1910 Pigres, Pozo Azul de Pirris, Buenos Aires, El General 

de Terraba, Bolson, Boruca, etc., Costa Rica (habits); Stone, Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 275, 1918 Gatun, Panama; Bangs and 

Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 229, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darien; 

Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 321, 1924 Mindi, near Corozal, Sosa Hill, New 

Culebra, and Farfan, Canal Zone. 
Sporophila aurita aurita Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 557, 1917 

Dabeiba, Quibdo, Bagado, Novita, and Noanama, Colombia (crit.); 

Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 183, 1929 Cana, Darien; idem, 

I.e., 72, p. 371, 1932 Perme and Obaldia, eastern Panama; idem, I.e., 

78, p. 379, 1935 Panama. 
Spermophila ophthalmica (not of Sclater) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 

p. 120, 1888 part, spec, g, Choco Bay, Colombia. 
Sporophila ophthalmica Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1098 

mouth of Calima and Guineo, Choco, Colombia (crit.). 
Sporophila aurita ophthalmica Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 558, 

1917 San Jose, Los Cisneros, Tumaco, and Barbacoas, southwestern 

Colombia (crit.). 

Range. Tropical zone of Pacific Costa Rica (north to southern 
Guanacaste), Panama, and Colombia south to Tumaco and Bar- 
bacoas, Narino. 1 

19: Costa Rica (Buenos Aires, 6; Boruca, 1; El Pozo, Rio TeYraba, 
3); Panama (Colon, 5; Balboa, 1; Barro Colorado, 1; near Darien, 1); 
Colombia (Quibdo, Rio Atrato, 1). 

*Sporophila aurita ophthalmica (Sclater). 2 SPECTACLED 
SEED-EATER. 

1 The extraordinary variation of this form has been admirably set forth by 
Chapman (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 610, 1926), and it is quite possible that 
extensive material may lead to the recognition of several, though more or less ill- 
defined, local races. Males from Costa Rica and Chiriqui generally have the throat 
and breast black with a narrow, medially often incomplete, white collar; those 
from the Panama Canal Zone as a rule lack this collar, as well as the white rump, 
and are sometimes wholly black down to the vent, thus approaching S. a. corvina; 
those from Darien and western Colombia, finally, have the lower throat largely 
white and form an almost unbroken chain to ophthalmica. Exceptions from these 
prevailing color-types being not infrequent, definition of any geographically cir- 
cumscribed units is a matter of considerable difficulty. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Bebedero, 1; Puerto Jimenez, 
2; Pozo Azul de Pirrfs, 1; Buenos Aires, 3; El General de Terraba, 5; Terraba, 2. 
Panama; Chiriqui, 5; El Banco, Chiriquf, 2; Panama Railroad, 4; Punta de Sabana, 
Darien, 1. Colombia: Buenaventura, 1; Rio Calima, 3; Los Cisneros, 2; Sipi, 1. 

2 Sporophila aurita ophthalmica (Sclater) differs, in the male sex, from Choco 
examples of S. a. aurita by narrower black pectoral band and extensively white 
throat. 

Birds from Esmeraldas Province invariably have the pectoral band wider, 
and at the base of the bill on each side a small black malar spot, which is entirely 
absent in four from Guayaquil. The inhabitants of northwestern Ecuador thus 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 193 

Spermophila ophthalmica Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 276, 1860 
Babahoyo, Ecuador (cotypes in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British 
Museum); idem, I.e., p. 293, 1860 Esmeraldas, Ecuador; idem, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 103, 1862 Babahoyo and Esmeraldas; idem, Ibis, 
1871, p. 11 Ecuador (monog.); Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 550 Guayaquil and Chimbo; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 84 
Yaguachi; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 120, 1888 part, spec, 
a-f, h, Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Babahoyo, Santa Rita); Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., 5, p. 484, 1898 Cachavi; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 24, 1899 Vinces and Playas; Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1901, p. 473 Santo Domingo. 

Sporophila aequatorialis Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 
357, p. 24, 1899 Balzar, Ecuador (cotypes in Turin Museum examined). 

Sporophila ophthalmica Menegaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Armee Mes. Arc 
Merid. Equat., 9, p. B75, 1911 Santo Domingo. 

Sporophila aurita ophthalmica Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 609, 
1926 Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Manavf, Daule, Duran, Bucay, Chimbo, 
Naranjo, Santa Rosa, Rio Jubones, Portovelo, Rio Pindo, Salvias, Cebol- 
lal, Alamor, Rio Pullango) and Peru (Palambla); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 235, 1932 Rio San Antonio, Ecuador. 

Sporophila aequatorialis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 611, 1926 
Ecuador (ex Salvadori and Festa). 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador and extreme north- 
western Peru (Palambla, Dept. Piura). 

3: Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, 1; Milagro, Prov. Guayas, 2). 

Sporophila aurita murallae Chapman. 1 LA MURELIA 
SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila aurita murallae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 34, p. 649, 
Dec., 1915 "La Muralla," Caqueta, Colombia (type in the American 

verge in the direction of S. a. aurita (or rather the yet unnamed, doubtfully sepa- 
rable Colombian race). Thanks to the courtesy of Dr. E. Festa, the cotypes, male 
and female, of S. aequatorialis have been available for examination. The male 
agrees in every particular with the Guayaquil examples, but differs by having the 
black breast-band widely interrupted in the middle and the uropygial feathers 
neutral gray with narrow dull whitish apical margins. The female is indistinguish- 
able from the same sex of S. ophthalmica. I have no doubt whatever that the male 
type is merely an individual aberration, and not a distinct species. Its abnormal 
condition is suggested by the opaque black color of the tail with irregular, water- 
mark-like bars on the inner web of the outermost rectrix and the presence of pale 
grayish-brown apical margins on the two outer pairs. The grayish rump is without 
significance in view of the variability observable in S. a. aurita. The dimensions 
(wing, 53; tail, 45; bill, 10) are exactly the same as in other Ecuadorian birds, and 
as no second specimen like the type has ever been taken in the region, though well 
worked by collectors, the admission of another species seems altogether unlikely. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador, Prov. Esmeraldas: Pambilar, 5; 
Carondelet, 6; San Javier, 16; Ventana, 1; Balzar, 2; Guayaquil, 6. 

1 Sporophila aurita murallae Chapman: "Most nearly related to S. a. ophthal- 
mica, but larger throughout; the black breast-band averaging narrower (nearly 
incomplete in one specimen) ; sides grayer; white patch at base of primaries smaller; 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 558, 1917 
La Murelia, Colombia. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Colombia (La Murelia, 
Caqueta). 

*Sporophila americana americana (Gmelin). GMELIN'S 
SEED-EATER. 

Loxia americana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 863, 1789 based on "Black- 
breasted Grosbeak" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (1), p. 148; "some part 
of America" = Cayenne 1 (descr. of male; type lost, formerly in British 
Museum). 

Loxia pectoral-is Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 390, 1790 based on "Black-breasted 
Grosbeak" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (1), p. 148; "America." 

Loxia semi-torquata Richard and Bernard, Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1, (1), 
p. 118, 1792 Cayenne (descr. of male; location of type unknown). 

Pyrrhula misya [sic] Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Chant. Zone Torr., p. 75, pi. 46, 
(=male), circa 1806 Cayenne (descr. of male; type in coll. of L. P. 
Vieillot). 

Loxia leucopterygia Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 45, pi. 58, fig. 3, 1825 
"in vicinitate Parae," Brazil (type in Munich Museum; cf. Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 679, 1906). 

Sporophila americana Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 678, 
1848 [=1849] coast of British Guiana; idem, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 150, 
1851 Surinam and Cayenne; Hellmayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesells. Wien, 
54, p. 531, 1904 (crit., synon.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 376, 
1907 Surinam (range); (?)Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 524, 1908 
Alcobaca, Rio Tocantins, Brazil; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 120, 317, 
1908 Cayenne and St. Georges d'Oyapock, French Guiana; Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 88, 104, 
119, 1912 Para localities and Mexiana (Fazenda Nazareth); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 208, 1913 Pedernales and Cano 
Corozal, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 521, 
1913 (ecology); idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 429, 1914 Peixe-Boi, 
Quati-puru, Rio Guama (Ourem), Rio Moju, Rio Capim (Aproaga), (?) 
Rio Tocantins (Alcobaca), Marajo (Sao Natal, Pindobal), Amapa, Aru- 
manduba, Monte Alegre, Rio Maecuru (Ig. de Paituna), and Rio Jamunda 
(Faro); Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 90, 1918 
vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 431, 
1921 Ituribisci River, Supenaam, Bartica, Bonasica River, Abary River, 
and Anarika River. 

lesser wing coverts narrowly tipped with white, greater ones less frequently with 
white near end of shaft. Wing (males), 58^-61; tail, 44-47^; bill, 123^-13." 
(Chapman, I.e.) 

We are not acquainted with this form, which seems to be known only from the 
three original specimens (adult males) in the American Museum at New York. 
Should it not be compared rather with S. americana, which is certainly closely 
related to the S. aurita complex? 

1 As designated by Hellmayr (Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesells. Wien, 54, p. 532, 1904). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 195 

Fringilla pectoralis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 26, 1823 Para. 

Spermophila misya Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 333, 1847 Tobago. 

Spermophila mysia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 496, 1850 "Brazil"; 
idem, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne; Sclater, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 121, 1862 Cayenne. 

Spermophila leucopterygia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 496, 1850 
(ex Spix). 

Sporophila pectoralis Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 247, 1856 
Para and Guyana. 

Sporophila lineata (not Loxia lineata Gmelin) 1 Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 245, 1856 Para (ex Spix). 

Spermophila lineata Sclater, Cat. Coll. Bds. Amer., p. 104, 1862 Para; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 572 Para, Mexiana, 
and north side of Amazon, Brazil; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 11 Guiana, 
Cayenne, and Para (monog.); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 214 Bartica Grove, 
British Guiana; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 121, 1888 Cayenne, 
British Guiana (Georgetown, Bartica Grove), Surinam (Albina), and 
Brazil (Para, Mexiana, north side of Amazon); Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 
1893 Tobago; Dalmas, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 138, 1900 
Tobago; MSnegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 183, 1904 St. 
Georges d'Oyapock, French Guiana; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 393, 
1910 Surinam (nest and eggs). 

Sporophila collaria (not Loxia collaria Linnaeus) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 214 
British Guiana (ex Schomburgk). 

Spermophila albigularis (not Loxia albogularis Spix) Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 162 
Amapa, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Spermophila hypoleuca (not Fringilla hypoleuca Lichtenstein) Goeldi, Ibis, 
1903, p. 498 Rio Capim, Para. 

Spermophila americana Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 296, 1907 Amapa, 
Maraj6, Para, and Rio Moju, Brazil. 

Sporophila misya Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 120, 1908 Cayenne, Ile-le- 
Pere, and Roche-Marie, French Guiana. 

Range. Islands of Tobago and Trinidad; northeastern Vene- 
zuela (Pedernales and Cano Corozal, Orinoco Delta) ; British, Dutch, 
and French Guiana; northeastern Brazil, from the Guianan boundary 
south to the Para region, west on the north bank of the Amazon 
to the Jamunda River, south of the river probably not beyond the 
Tocantins. 2 

1 Loxia lineata Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, [2], p. 858, 1789), based on "Radiated 
Grosbeak" Latham (Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, [1], p. 156), cannot be identified with the 
present species, the bird being described as having a white bill, and the head, neck, 
breast, lesser wing coverts, and tail black, while the secondaries, sides of the body, 
and base half of the prime quills are said to be striated black and white, etc. It 
was named from a living specimen in the possession of the "Dutchess Dowager of 
Portland." 

2 Recent comparison of a Guianan series with a good number of skins from 
Tobago and the Para region fails to reveal any constant differences. Six adult 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

7: British Guiana (Hyde Park, Demerara River, 2; Georgetown, 
1; unspecified, 2); Island of Tobago, 2. 

Sporophila americana dispar Todd. 1 SANTAREM SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila americana dispar Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 90, July 
12, 1922 Santar6m, Brazil (type in Carnegie Museum). 

Spermophila mysia (not Pyrrhula misya Vieillot) Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 
8, p. 79, 1876 Santarem. 

Sporophila lineata (not Loxia lineata Gmelin) Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, 
p. 268, 1890 Santarem. 

Range. Known only from Santarem, on the south bank of the 
lower Amazon, but probably extending east to the Rio Xingu or 
even to the Tocantins. 

Sporophila collaris 2 collaris (Boddaert). COLLARED SEED-EATER. 

Loxia collaris Boddaert, 3 Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 40, Dec., 1783 based on "Gros- 
Bec, d'Angola" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 659, fig. 2; "Angola," errore= 

males from Para, Mexiana, and Marajo are by no means larger nor have they the 
rump more extensively suffused with white than Cayenne specimens. On the 
contrary, the greatest amount of white is shown by an adult male collected at 
Cayenne by Cherrie and Gault. Two of the Tobago males have the rump darker 
as well as more uniform gray than the rest of the series, but others from the same 
island compare well with the average from Cayenne. The white alar speculum 
varies considerably within the same locality, it being smallest in one from Mexiana. 
The type of L. leucopterygia, a male with remains of immaturity, has a wing of 57 
mm., and cannot be separated from Cayenne birds in corresponding plumage, 
except by its yellow (instead of black) bill. If dispar be maintained, it must have a 
more westerly range, whereas the inhabitants of the Para region are to be referred 
to typical americana. The wing, in Cayenne males, ranges from 56 to 60; in those 
from Para (including Mexiana and Marajo), from 56 to 59; in those from Tobago, 
from 57 to 60. 

The British Museum has two females collected by P. R. Lowe on March 20, 
1905, at Maqueripe Bay, Trinidad, which constitute the first record from the 
island. 

Additional material examined. Tobago: Man o' War Bay, 8; Castare, 1; 
Lecito, 2. Trinidad: Maqueripe Bay, 2. British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 2. 
French Guiana: Cayenne, 20; Isle-le-Pere, 2; Roche-Marie, 2. Brazil: Amapa, 1; 
Sao Natal, Marajo, 3; Nazareth, Mexiana, 1; Para, 3. 

1 Sporophila americana dispar Todd : Similar to the nominate race, but slightly 
larger; rump in adult male more conspicuously mottled with white; female (accord- 
ing to Todd) much duller, brownish or grayish olive above and dull whitish below, 
shaded with buffy. Wing (male), 62; tail, 51. 

A single adult male from Santarem is indeed slightly larger and has more 
conspicuous white mottling on the rump than any example we have examined 
from the Guianas, Tobago, and the Para region. We are not acquainted with the 
female. 

2 Sporophila collaris, though allied to S. americana, presents various striking 
characters, notably a larger bill and two buffy wing-bands. 

The "Gros-Bec, appelle la Nonette" Daubenton (PI. Enl., pi. 393, fig. 3) 



described and figured from a cage-bird of unknown origin, upon which 
nonnette P. L. S. Miiller (Natursyst., Suppl., p. 151, 1776) and Loxia cucullata 
Boddaert (not of Mtiller, 1776) (Tabl. PL Enl., p. 24, 1783) are based, is too am- 
biguous to be identified, though it might have been intended for a member of this 
group. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 197 

Rio de Janeiro, as designated by Hellmayr (Verb. Zool. Bot. Gesells. 

Wien, 54, p. 534, 1904). 
Fringilla atricapilla Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 569, 1830 Rio 

Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil (type lost; cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. N. H., 2, p. 224, 1869). 
Sporophila leucopsis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 5, 1861 habitat ignota 

(descr. of male; type in Berlin Museum examined). 
Spermophila americana (not Loxia americana Gmelin) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. 

Av., 1, (2), p. 496, 1850 part, Brazil. 
Sporophila collaria (not Loxia collaria Linnaeus) 1 Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 

Th. Bras., 3, p. 246, 1856 part, Espirito Santo (ex Wied); Ihering, 

Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 376, 1907 Rio de Janeiro and Goyaz. 
Spermophila collaria Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 9 part, Rio de Janeiro (descr.). 
Spermophila atricapilla Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 223, 1870 Rio de Janeiro 

and Rio Araguaya, Goyaz (spec, examined); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. 

Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 224 Rio de Janeiro and Lagoa Santa, Minas 

Geraes. 
Spermophila cucullata (not Loxia cucullata Boddaert nor Miiller) Sclater, 

Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 103, 1862 Brazil. 
[Spermophila cucullata] subsp. a Spermophila polionota Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 12, p. 118, 1888 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (type in British 

Museum examined). 
Sporophila collaris Hellmayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 534, 1904 

(crit., nomencl., range). 
Sporophila melanocephala ochrascens (not of Hellmayr) Pinto, Rev. Mus. 

Paul., 20, p. 144, 1936 Inhumas, Rio Meia Ponte, Goyaz, and Ataphona, 

Rio de Janeiro (crit.). 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, in states of Espirito Santo, Rio de 
Janeiro, Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa), and Goyaz (Rio Araguaya; 
Inhumas, Rio Meia Ponte). 2 

*Sporophila collaris ochrascens Hellmayr. 3 OCHRACEOUS 
SEED-EATER. 

1 Loxia collaria Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 305, 1766), an Indian bird 
with bare forehead and of yellowish green coloration with bright yellow breast and 
collar. 

1 Material examined. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, 8; Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, 2. 

3 Sporophila collaris ochrascens Hellmayr: Similar in the male sex to S. c. 
melanocephala, but sides of neck and under parts much paler, ochraceous-buff 
instead of tawny; median line of breast and abdomen extensively light buff or 
pinkish buff; nuchal collar medially interrupted; uropygial band narrower and 
paler, ochraceous tawny rather than tawny; female indistinguishable. Wing, 
56-59, (female) 53-57; tail, 49-54. 

Birds from Mojos (pallidd) are precisely similar to the type and other speci- 
mens from the interior of Brazil. One (out of three) from Cuyaba, which I at one 
time have referred to melanocephala, is an intergrade between the two races, while 
two from Carandasinho, in southwestern Matto Grosso, are so close to the Para- 
guayan form that I have no hesitation in calling them melanocephala. S. c. och- 
rascens, in fact, is a connecting link between the eastern S. c. collaris, with nearly 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sporophila melanocephala ochrascens Hellmayr, Verb. Zool. Bot. Gesells. 
Wien, 54, p. 534, 1904 Rio Parana, northern Sao Paulo, Brazil (type in 
Vienna Museum); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 376, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Jaboticabal, Avanhandava, Barretos, Itapura); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 60, p. 347, 1930 Descalvados and Palmiras, Matto Grosso; 
Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 396, 1934 Des- 
calvados, Matto Grosso. 

Sporophila melanocephala pallida Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87, 
p. 339, Oct. 10, 1935 Chatarona (near Reyes), Beni, Bolivia (type in 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Pyrrhula melanocephala (not Coccothraustes melanocephala Vieillot) Lafresnaye 
and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 87, 1837 part, 
Mojos and Guayaros, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Spermophila americana (not Loxia americana Gmelin) Bonaparte, Consp. 
Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 496, 1850 part, Bolivia. 

Sporophila collaria (not Loxia collaria Linnaeus) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 246, 1856 part, Bolivia. 

Spermophila collaria Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 9 part, Brazil (Rio Parana, 
Cuyaba) and Bolivia (Mojos, Guarayos); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 604 Mojos and Guayaros. 

Spermophila cucuttata (not Loxia cucullata Boddaert nor Muller) Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 223, 1870 Rio Parana, Sao Paulo, and Cuyaba, Matto 
Grosso; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 116, 1888 Cuyaba; Mene- 
gaux, Rev. Prang. d'Orn., 5, p. 85, 1917 Sao Luiz de Caceres, Matto 
Grosso. 

Range. Interior of Brazil, from the northern parts of Sao Paulo 
across to northern and western Matto Grosso, and the eastern 
districts of Bolivia (Chiquitos, Mojos, and El Beni). 

1: Brazil (Descalvados, Matto Grosso, 1). 

*Sporophila collar is melanocephala (Vieillot). BLACK-HEADED 
SEED-EATER. 

Coccothraustes melanocephala VieiUot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 13, 
p. 542, 1817 based on "Pico grueso cejita blanca" Azara, No. 124; 
Paraguay. 

Pyrrhula melanocephala Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 85, 1837 part, Corrientes, Argentina. 

white under parts and sides of neck, and the deeply colored, tawny-bellied S. c. 
melanocephala. The palest individuals of ochrascens run very near to certain Rio 
specimens, differing merely by deeper buff sides of neck and abdomen, as well as 
by the possession of an ochraceous tawny uropygial band, which, in the race of 
eastern Brazil, is but faintly suggested by a dull buffy tinge across the rump. 
There is no reason, therefore, to maintain the specific rank of melanocephala, 
inasmuch as females of the three forms are in no wise distinguishable. 

Material examined. Brazil: Porto do Rio Parana, Sao Paulo, 2; Cuyaba, 
Matto Grosso, 5; Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, Matto Grosso, 2. Bolivia: Chi- 
quitos, 1 ; Mojos, El Beni, 2. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 199 

Spermophila lafresnayi Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 496, 1850 
Corrientes, Argentina (descr. of male; type in Paris Museum examined). 

Spermophila melanocephala Hartlaub, Syst. Index Azara, p. 9, 1847 Paraguay 
(ex Azara, No. 124); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 45, 1888 
Punta Lara, Buenos Aires; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 118, 1888 
Punta Lara; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 125 Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 5, 1900 Urucum and 
Carandasinho, Matto Grosso (spec, in Turin Museum examined); Lillo, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 177, 1902 Tucuman (sight record); 
idem, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 43, 1905 Lagunas de Mal- 
vinas, Tucuman; Giacomelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 69, 1923 La Rioja (rare). 

Spermophila collaria (not Loxia collaria Linnaeus) Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 9 
part, Paraguay. 

Sporophila americana (not Loxia americana Gmelin) Doering, Period. Zool. 
Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes. 

Spermophila sp. Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 5, 1900 
Paraguari and Colonia Risso, Paraguay (spec, examined). 

Sporophila melanocephala Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 368, 1891 
Corumba, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 375, 1907 
(range); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 633 Sapucay, Paraguay; Grant, Ibis, 
1911, p. 95 Monte Alto and Desaguadero, Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. 
Parag., p. 65, 1914 Asuncion and Chaco, Paraguay; Pereyra, El Hornero, 
3, p. 171, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires. 

Sporophila melanocephala melanocephala Hellmayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. 
Wien, 54, p. 533, 1904 (crit., range); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, pp. 384, 436, 1910 (range in Argentina); idem, I.e., 23, p. 361, 
1912 Villa Rica, Paraguay; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, 
p. 658, 1924 Punta Lara, Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 133, p. 401, 1926 Las Palmas, Chaco, and west of Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay; Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 243, 
1930 San Jose, Formosa (crit.). 

Spermophila melanocephala melanocephala Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 
16, p. 175, 1909 Mocovf, Santa F6, and Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires. 

Range. Southwestern Matto Grosso (Corumba, Carandasinho, 
Urucum); Paraguay; and northern Argentina, from Formosa, Chaco, 
and Santa Fe" east to Corrientes, west to Tucuman (Laguna de 
Malvinas) and La Rioja; rare in Buenos Aires (Punta Lara, Zelaya, 
Barracas al Sud). 1 

1: Argentina (Las Palmas, Chaco, 1). 

1 Birds from Argentina and Paraguay agree very well together. Two males 
from Carandasinho, Matto Grosso, while having the middle of the belly narrowly 
bufify, show the complete deep tawny nuchal collar, the broad tawny uropygial 
band, and the intensely colored breast and sides of Paraguayan specimens, so that 
I cannot but refer them to melanocephala. 

Additional material examined. Brazil, Matto Grosso: Carandasinho, 2; Uru- 
cum, 1. Paraguay: Bernalcue, near Asuncion, 3; Colonia Risso, 1; ParaguarJ, 1; 
Sapucay, 2; island near Villa Conception, 2; unspecified, 1. Argentina: Corrientes, 
1; Mocovf, Santa Fe, 2; San Jose, Formosa, 4; Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, 1. 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Sporophila luctuosa (Lafresnaye). BLACK-AND-WHITE 
SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila luctuosa Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 291, 1843 "Colombia" = 
Bogot (descr. of male; cotypes in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 70, p. 372, 1930); Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), 
p. 497, 1850 Colombia, "Brazil," and Peru; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 23, p. 160, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, I.e., 26, p. 72, 1858 Rio Napo, 
Ecuador; idem, I.e., p. 455, 1858 Gualaquiza and Zamora, Ecuador; 
idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 105, 1862 Bogota; Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 750 Xeberos and Chyavetas, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata, Peru; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 15 
(monog.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 264 
Xeberos and Chyavetas, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 519 Mon- 
terico and Higos, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, pp. 507, 605 
Medellin, Colombia, and Simacu, Yungas, Bolivia; Salvin and Godman, 
Ibis, 1880, p. 122 San Jose and San Sebastian, Santa Marta region, 
Colombia; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 17 Huambo 
and Yurimaguas, Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, p. 293 
Bugnac, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 84 Mapoto and Machay, Ecuador; 
Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 10, 1886 Peru (Monterico, Higos, Huambo, 
Yurimaguas, Chirimoto, Ninabamba); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus.,-12, 
p. 135, 1888 Colombia (Bogota, Medellin, San Sebastian), Ecuador 
(Intag, "Sarayacu"), Peru (Cosnipata, Xeberos), and Bolivia (Simacu); 
Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 6, 1895 Cajabamba, Succha, and Vina (Huama- 
chuco), Peru; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 484, 1898 Ibarra and Paramba, 
Ecuador; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, 
p. 24, 1899 Zamora and Gualaquiza, Ecuador; Zimmer, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 458, 1930 near Huanuco, Vista Alegre, 
and Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru. 

Sporophila luctuosa (Cabanis MS.) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 291, 
1844 Peru; idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 221, 1846 "Lima," 
Peru; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896,. p. 349 
La Gloria and La Merced, Peru; Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 1, 
p. 79, 1899 San Sebastian and El Mamon, Colombia; Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 110, 1906 Escopal, Marcapata, Peru; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 559, 1917 Barro Blanco and Anolaima, 
Colombia; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 513, 1922 
Santa Marta region; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 612, 1926 
Ecuador (Loja, Sabanilla, Zamora, below Oyacachi, Baeza, lower 
Sumaco, junction Chanchan and Chiguancay, Cumbaya) and Peru 
(Viru, La Libertad). 

Pyrrhula leucomelas Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., lie annee, 2nd sem., 
No. 10, col. 234, Aug. 4, 1844 "Amerique" (descr. of male; type in 
Abeille Collection, Bordeaux). 

Sporophila luctuosa albilateralis Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82, 
p. 374, Dec. 15, 1930 Acobamba, Dept. Junin, Peru (type in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 201 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of Colombia, Ecuador, 
Peru, and northwestern Bolivia (Simacu, Dept. La Paz). 1 

15: Colombia (Bogota, 3); Peru (Yurimaguas, 2; Cajamarca, 2; 
Huanuco Mountains, Huanuco, 5; Vista Alegre, Huanuco, 2; Chin- 
chao, Huanuco, 1). 

*Sporophila caerulescens caerulescens (Vieillot). SCREAMING 
SEED-EATER. 

Coccothraustes collaris (not Loxia collaris Boddaert) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. 

Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 13, p. 524, 1817 based on "Pico grueso gargan- 

tilla" Azara, No. 125; Paraguay. 
Pyrrhula caerulescens Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., livr. 93, p. 1023, 1817 

"Bresil"= vicinity of Rio de Janeiro (type in Paris Museum examined; 

descr. of male). 
Fringilla leucopogon Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 572, 1830 Rio 

Guajintibo, Rio de Janeiro (descr. of male; type lost, cf. Allen, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 223, 1889). 
Pyrrhula torquata Lesson, Traite d'Orn., livr. 6, p. 450, Feb., 1831 "Br&sil" 

(descr. of male; type in Paris Museum examined). 2 
Spermophila nigrogularis Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, Birds, Part 3, 

p. 88, Nov., 1839 Montevideo, Uruguay (descr. of male and female; 

cotypes now in British Museum). 
Pyrrhula ornata (not Fringilla ornata Lichtenstein) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 

Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 86, 1837 Yungas, Bolivia (descr. 

of female). 
Spermophila ornata Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 9, 1847 Paraguay (ex 

Azara, No. 125); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 632 

r Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 224, 1870 Rio 
de Janeiro, Sao Paulo (Mattodentro, Ypanema, Itarare'), Paran& (Cury- 
tiba), and Matto Grosso (Poruti, Villa Bella); Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 412 Minas Geraes (Sao Domingo), 
Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo), and Sao Paulo (Campinas, Ypanema, 
Hytu, Sao Bento); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 170 Prov. Buenos Aires 
(nest descr.). 

1 Males from Colombia and Ecuador generally have the sides and flanks more 
solidly black with very little white spotting, while the same parts in Peruvian 
birds are largely variegated with white, the black becoming sometimes nearly 
evanescent. There are, however, many exceptions to this rule, and three speci- 
mens (out of five) from Marcapata have just as much black on the sides as any 
from Bogota. The coloration of the females, regardless of locality, is exceedingly 
variable. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: San Sebastian, 2; Medellin, 1; 

! Bogota, 19. Ecuador: Bugnac, 1; Ibarra, 2; Paramba, 1; Sarayacu, 2; Guala- 

j quiza, 8. Peru: Huambo, 1; Succha, Huamachuco, 2; Santiago, Huamachuco, 1; 

! Pozuzo, Huanuco, 1; La Gloria, Vitoc, Junin, 1; Cosnipata, Cuzco, 3; Caradoc, 

I Marcapata, 2; Marcapata Valley, 3. 

1 The type is the very same example that served as basis for P. caerulescens 

1 Vieillot. Lesson's description is faulty with respect to the coloration of the head 
and back. 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sporophila ornata Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 149, 1851 Brazil; Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 243, 1856 Rio de Janeiro (Rio Macacu, 
Nictheroy) and Minas Geraes (spec, from Congonhas in Halle Museum 
examined); idem, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 256, 1860 Mendoza and Parana; 
idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 488, 1861 same localities; Cabanis, 
Journ. Orn., 22, p. 84, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro. 

Spermophila caerulescens Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 498, 1850 
Brazil; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 104, 1862 Brazil; idem, Ibis, 
1871, p. 12 (monog.); Hamilton, Ibis, 1871, p. 303 near Sao Paulo, 
Brazil; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 246, 1873 Blumenau, Santa 
Catharina; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 604 
Simacu, Yungas, Bolivia; White, I.e., 1882, p. 598 Flores, Buenos Aires; 
Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 8, p. 92, 1883 Conception del Uruguay, 
Entre Rios (nest and eggs descr.); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. 
Orn., 2, p. 122, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 1, p. 46, 1888 Argentina (habits); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 126, 1888 part, spec, h-b', Rio de Janeiro, "Pelotas" (Rio 
Grande do Sul), Montevideo, Buenos Aires (Barracas, Flores, Conchitas), 
Mendoza, and Simacu (Bolivia); Holland, Ibis, 1890, pp. 425, 426 Est. 
Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, p. 125 Fortin Page, lower 
Pilcomayo; Holland, Ibis, 1892, p. 196 Est. Espartillar; Aplin, Ibis, 
1894, p. 168 Soriano, Uruguay; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, 
No. 208, p. 5, 1895 San Pablo (Tucuman), Colonia Risso (Paraguay), 
and Corumba (Matto Grosso); idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 8, 1897 
Aguairenda and Caiza, Bolivia; idem, I.e., 15, No. 378, p. 5, 1900 Uru- 
cum, Matto Grosso; idem, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Genova, 40, p. 622, 1900 
Penguin Rookery, Staten Island; Ihering, Annuario Est. Rio Grande 
do Sul, 16, p. 120, 1899 Mundo Novo and Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do 
Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 162, 1899 Sao Paulo (Piquete, Iguape, 
Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo); idem, I.e., 4, p. 154, 1900 Cantagallo, Rio; 
Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 177, 1902 Tucuman; Baer, 
Ornis, 12, p. 216, 1904 Santa Ana and Tapia, Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. 
Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 43, 1905 Tucuman; Giacomelli, El 
Hornero, 3, p. 69, 1923 La Rioja. 

Sporophila caerulescens Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 83, 1889 lower 
Beni, Bolivia; Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, 
p. 398, 1890 Cordoba; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 368, 1891 
Chapada, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 376, 1907 Sao 
Paulo (Salto Grande do Rio Paranapanema, Cachoeira, Itarare, Piquete, 
Sao Sebastiao, Iguape, Ypiranga); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 635 Sapucay, 
Paraguay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 385, 1910 
(range in Argentina); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 95 Buenos Aires (Los Yngleses, 
Ajo), Formosa (Colonia Mihanovitch), and Entre Rios (Santa Elena); 
Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 23, p. 362, 1912 Paso Yuvay, 
Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 430, 1914 Santa Julia, Rio Iriri, lower 
Amazon, Brazil; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 397, 1916 La Plata; Sanzin, El 
Hornero, 1, p. 152, 1918 Mendoza; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 23, 1920 
Uruguay (Montevideo, Canelones, San Jose, Flores, Rio Negro); Renard, 



L938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 203 

I.e., 2, p. 60, 1920 Canuelas, Buenos Aires; Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 270, 1922 
Rosas, Buenos Aires; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, 
Entre Rfos; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 171, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Dinelli, 
I.e., 3, p. 256, 1924 Tucuman (nest and eggs descr.); Marelli, Mem. 
Min. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 658, 1924 Buenos Aires; Wilson, El 
Hornero, 3, p. 360, 1926 General Lopez, Santa Fe"; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 400, 1926 Chaco (Resistencia, Las Palmas), Uruguay 
(La Paloma, San Vicente, Lazcano, Rio Negro), and Mendoza (Tunuyan); 
Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 187, 1926 Rio de 
Janeiro and Parana (Marechal Mallet, Rio Claro, Invernadinha, There- 
zina, Salto Guayra); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 231, 1927 
Concepcion, Tucuman; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 315, 1928 
Monte Serrat and Bemfica, Serra do Itatiaya, Brazil; Laubmann, Wiss. 
Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 243, 1930 San Jose" and Yunca 
Viejo.-Formosa; Marelli, El Hornero, 5, p. 197, 1933 Sierra de la Ventana, 
Buenos Aires; Castellanos, I.e., 5, p. 319, 1934 Valle de los Reartes, 
Cordoba; Laubmann, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 20, p. 325, 1934 Est. La 
Geraldina, Santa Fe. 

Spermophila obscura (not Emberiza obscura Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Hol- 
land, Ibis, 1892, p. 196 Est. Espartillar, Buenos Aires (spec, in British 
Museum examined = young male). 

Sporophila caerulescens caerulescens Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 244, 1919 
Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
60, p. 347, 1930 Urucum and Descalvados, Matto Grosso; Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 20, p. 146, 1936 Fazenda Thome Pinto, Goyaz. 

Range. Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes south to 
Rio Grande do Sul, west to Matto Grosso, also in Lower Amazonia 
)n the Rio Iriri, an affluent of the Rio Xingu; Uruguay; Paraguay; 
lorthern Argentina, south to Buenos Aires, Cordoba, and Mendoza; 
eastern Bolivia; accidental on Staten Island. 1 

22: Bolivia (Parotani, Prov. Cochabamba, 1); Uruguay (Rio 
Uruguay, Dept. Soriano, 5); Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman, 14; 
\vellaneda, Prov. Buenos Aires, 1; Prov. Buenos Aires, 1). 

1 Within the range thus circumscribed some variation in the coloration of the 
idult males is observable, and the study of more extensive material might lead 
;o further subdivision. The type, which we have examined, was secured by 
Delalande, Jr., who did not extend his travels beyond the vicinity of Rio de 
Faneiro, which, therefore, must be regarded as terra typica. Males from this 
iistrict have the forehead back to the eye, the lores, cheeks, and auriculars blackish, 
hence conspicuously darker than the gray crown. Those from southern Brazil 
(Sao Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul), Matto Grosso, and Tucuman, as a rule have 
the blackish color more restricted to the forehead, while the lores and sides of 
the head are not so dark. An adult male from Aguairenda, Bolivian Chaco, is 
precisely similar. Birds from the Bolivian Yungas are again slightly divergent, 
biaving the whole pileum as well as the sides of the head gray, like the crown, only 
the loral region somewhat obscured. One from Songo, however, shows a distinct 
blackish frontal band like Sao Paulo skins, from which it merely differs by rather 
paler gray auriculars. A single adult male from the Rio Iriri, Lower Amazonia, 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sporophila caerulescens ornata (Lichtenstein). 1 BLACK-CAPPED 
SEED-EATER. 

Fringilla ornata Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 26, 1823 Bahia, 
Brazil (type in Berlin Museum). 

Spermophila ornata Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 497, 1850 Brazil; 
Berlepsch, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 122 (note), 1885 Bahia (crit.). 

Spermophila caerulescens (not Pyrrhula caerulescens Vieillot) Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 127, 1888 part, spec, f, g, Bahia; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 
p. 40 Bahia. 

Range. Eastern Brazil, in State of Bahia (exact distribution 
unknown). 

Sporophila melanops (Pelzeln). 2 BLACK-FACED SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila melanops Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, pp. 224, 331, 1870 Porto do Rio 
Araguaya, Goyaz, Brazil (descr. of male; type in Vienna Museum examined) ; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 21 (ex Pelzeln); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 
140, 1888 (ex Pelzeln). 

Sporophila melanops Hellmayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 528, 1904 
Rio Araguaya (descr., crit.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 378, 1907 
Goyaz. 

Range. Interior of Brazil, in State of Goyaz (Porto do Rio 
Araguaya). 

closely resembles the ordinary Bolivian type (without black on forehead or auric- 
ulars), but is lighter gray above, more like S. c. ornata. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Congonhas, Minas Geraes, 1; Rio de 
Janeiro, 10; Sao Paulo, 8; Parand, 2; Santa Catharina, 2; Rio Grande do Sul, 12; 
Matto Grosso, 7; Santa Julia, Rio Iriri, 1. Paraguay: island near Villa Concep- 
tion, 1. Argentina: Buenos Aires, 4; Tucuman, 3. Bolivia: Aguairenda, Chaco, 1; 
San Mateo, Cochabamba, 1; Yungas of La Paz (Chicani, Coroico, Songo), 5; 
unspecified, 1. 

1 Sporophila caerulescens ornata (Lichtenstein) : Differs in the male sex from 
the nominate race by having the whole pileum to the nape, as well as the sides 
of the head glossy black, and the back decidedly clearer ashy-gray. 

Six specimens of the well-known Bahia preparation examined. 

2 Sporophila melanops (Pelzeln), a very distinct species, bears some superficial 
resemblance to S. n. nigricollis, but differs at a glance by the following characters. 
The whole head is black, this color being abruptly defined on the hind neck (instead 
of passing gradually into the greenish tone of the back) and restricted below to 
the throat proper (not extending onto the foreneck) ; back and edges to wings and 
tail are light brown, between Isabella color and light brownish olive; the under 
parts from the foreneck down to the tail coverts are dingy buff, between cream- 
buff and chamois (instead of primrose yellow); the tail is shorter; the bill stouter, 
shorter, with more rounded culmen, and uniform pale brown (instead of marguerite 
yellow, with plumbeous base). Wing (adult male), 55; tail, 41; bill, 8. 

The type obtained by Natterer on October 19, 1823, at Porto do Rio Araguaya, 
in southern Goyaz, is still unique. Whether Azara's "Pico grueso variable" among 
other seed-eaters also includes this species, as is assumed by Bertoni (Faun. 
Parag., p. 65, 1914), remains to be proved by the actual taking of specimens in 
Paraguay. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 205 

*Sporophila nigricollis nigricollis (Vieillot). 1 YELLOW-BELLIED 
SEED-EATER. 

Pyrrhula nigricollis Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Me"th., Orn., livr. 93, p. 1027, July, 
1823 "Br&dl" (descr. of immature male; type lost). 2 

Pyrrhula olivacea Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Me"th., Orn., livr. 93, p. 1027, July, 1823 
"Br&il" (descr. of female). 

Fringilla guituralis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 26 (after 
September), 1823 Sao Paulo, Brazil (type in Berlin Museum). 

Loxia ignobilis Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 46, pi. 59, fig. 3 ("Loxia 
plebeja"), 1825 "in provincia Parae," Brazil (descr. of female; type lost, 
formerly in Munich Museum; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 680, 1906). 

Loxia plebeja Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 46, pi. 60, fig. 3 ("Loxia igno- 
bilis"), 1825 no locality indicated (descr. of male; type in Munich 
Museum; cf. Hellmayr, I.e., p. 680, 1906). 

Fringilla melanocephala (not Coccothraustes melanocephala Vieillot) Wied, 
Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 577, 1830 Rio Belmonte, Bahia, Brazil 
(descr. of male; type lost, cf. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 223, 
1889). 

Spermophila olivaceo-flava Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 291, 1843 "Colombie" 
= Bogota (type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 372, 1930; crit.); idem, I.e., 9, p. 207, 1846 Colombia (descr. of male); 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 160, 1855 Bogota (ex Lafresnaye). 

Spermophila ignobilis Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 333, 1847 
Tobago. 

Phonipara gutturalis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 494, 1850 Brazil; 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 298, 1861 Panama Railroad. 

Sporophila gutturalis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 149, 1851 Brazil; Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 244, 1856 Rio de Janeiro; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 369, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Chap- 
man, I.e., 6, p. 34, 1894 Princestown, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 
1897 Cumanacoa and San Antonio, Bermudez, Venezuela; Bangs, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 179, 1898 Palomina, Santa Marta, Colombia; 

1 It has been claimed by Bangs (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 372, 1930) 
that Fringilla crispa Linnaeus (Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 324, 1766) is an earlier 
name for this species. I am, however, quite unable to recognize our bird in "The 
Black and Yellow Frizled Sparrow" of Edwards (Glean. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 128, 
pi. 271), which formed the exclusive basis of Linnets account. The bright yellow 
belly and the heavy, acutely pointed bill, which, in shape, recalls that of a Siskin, 
render the identification more than problematical, and I hesitate to sacrifice a 
certainty for the benefit of an uncertainty. 

1 Vieillot's description is unmistakable. Sclater (Ibis, 1871, p. 13) writes of 
having examined the type and identifies it with S. c. caerulescens, adding that the 
bird differs from other individuals merely by a slight yellowish tinge on the belly. 
The specimen in question, which is still in the Paris Museum (it was collected 
by A. de Saint Hilaire in Brazil and received in August, 1822), entirely disagrees 
with the description and though it bears Vieillot's name on the label, it is not 
marked as "type," and has evidently no claims to be regarded as such. The 
real type, and also that of P. olivacea, are not in the French National Collection. 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 166, 1900 Cacagualito and Onaca, 
Colombia; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 569, 1901 part, 
excl. of Peru and Ecuador (monog.); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
9, p. 26, 1902 Ciudad Bolivar, Munduapo, Maipures, and Caicara, 
Orinoco, and Caura (Suapure, La Pricion), Venezuela; Thayer and Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 159, 1905 Saboga Island, Pearl Islands, 
Panama; idem, I.e., p. 224, 1906 savanna of Panama; Clark, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 35, p. 286, 1905 Grenada, Carriacou, and St. Vincent 
(Kingstown); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 278, 1905 Igarape-Assu, Para 
(crit.); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 311, 1907 El Pozo de Terraba, Costa Rica; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 377, 1907 Venezuela (Merida), Bahia, 
Sao Paulo (Itapura), and Minas Geraes (Marianna); Beebe, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 1, p. 101, 1909 Guanaco, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 Pernam- 
buco (Pao d'Alho, near Recife), Bahia (Estreito da Ursa, Rio Preto), and 
Piauhy (Ilha Sao Martin, Rio Parnahyba); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 891, 1910 El Pozo de Terraba, Costa Rica; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
61, p. 521, 1913 (ecology); idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 430, 1914 Ilha 
das Oncas, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Tocantins (Cameta, Arumatheua), 
Mexiana, and Monte Alegre, Brazil; Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. 
Nat., 5, p. 808, 1914 Medellin, Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 558, 1917 Colombia (Novita, Los Cisneros, Caldas, San 
Antonio, Barbacoas, Buenavista [Narino], Ricaurte, Cali, La Manuelita, 
Rio Frio, Miraflores, La Candela, San Agustin, below Andalucia, Subia, 
La Morelia, Quetame, Buena Vista); Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. 
Tob., 20, p. 133, 1922 Trinidad; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
14, p. 513, 1922 Santa Marta region of Colombia (Bonda, Cacagualito, 
Don Diego, Don Amo, Cienaga, Mamatoco, Minca, Cincinnati, Fundacion, 
Dibulla, Pueblo Viejo; plumages, crit.); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de 
Janeiro, 2, No. 6, pp. 42, 61, 1926 Ceara and Maranhao (Anil, Sao 
Bento); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 419, 1931 Rio Frio, 
Magdalena, Colombia; Griscom, I.e., 78, p. 379, 1935 Canal Zone. 
Spermophila gutturalis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 160, 1855 
Bogota; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p 105, 1862 part, spec, d, Para; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 352 Panama Rail- 
road; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 572 Para; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 321, 1866 
Trinidad; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 225, 1870 Sao Paulo (Borda do 
Matto, Furnas), Goyaz (Rio Araguaya, Goyaz), Matto Grosso (Cuyaba), 
and Rio Negro (Marabitanas) ; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. 
Foren., 1870, p. 412 Lagoa Santa and Curvelo, Minas Geraes; Sclater, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 15 (monog., excl. western Ecuador); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 
328 Ocafia, Colombia; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 380 Nazare, Para, Brazil; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 507 Medellin and 
Envigado, Colombia (nest and eggs descr.); Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 336 
Pernambuco (Estancia, Quipapa, Garanhuns); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 215 
Roraima, British Guiana; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 354, 1885 Panama to Brazil (excl. of Peru); Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 9, p. 614, 1886 Grenada; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 128, 
1888 part, spec, a-t, Brazil (Pernambuco, Bahia, Para), British Guiana 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 207 

(Roraima), Trinidad, Colombia (Bogota, Medellin), and Panama (Lion 
Hill); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 113, 151, 1892 Grenada; Dalmas, 
Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 138, 1900 Tobago; Snethlage, Journ. 
Orn., 55, p. 296, 1907 Santo Antonio do Prata and Monte Alegre, Brazil; 
Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 396, 1910 Surinam(?). 

Spermophila gutturalis pallida Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 295, 1884 
Bucaramanga, Colombia (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frank- 
fort Museum, examined). 

Sporophila gutturalis roraimae Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 193, 
Feb., 1921 Roraima, British Guiana (type in British Museum); idem, 
Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 435, 1921 Roraima and Abary River. 

Sporophila gutturalis gutturalis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 18, 1906 Caparo 
and Aripo, Trinidad; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 360, 
1908 Aripo, Trinidad; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. 
Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 16, 88, 1912 Peixe-Boi, Pard (Para localities); 
Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 190, 1916 Orinoco Valley. 

(l}Spermophila ardesiaca Dubois, 1 M6m. Soc. Zool. France, 7, p. 399, pi. 10, 
fig. 1, 1894 "Bresil" (type in Brussels Museum examined). 

(l)Sporophila ardesiaca Hellmayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 528, 
1904 (crit.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 376, 1907 (ex Dubois). 

Sporophila nigricollis nigricollis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 296, 1929 Goyaz (Philadelphia) and Ceara (Varzea Formosa, 
Quixada); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 348, 1930 Matto 
Grosso; Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad; Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 19, p. 281, 1935 Bahia (Aratuhype, Serra do Palhao, Coru- 
peba); idem, I.e., 20, p. 145, 1936 Faz. Thome" Pinto and Inhumas, 
Goyaz. 

Sporophila luctuosa (not Spermophila luctuosa Lafresnaye) Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 13, p. 166, 1900 Masinga Vieja, Colombia. 

Range. Southwestern Costa Rica (Te"rraba Valley); Panama 
(Canal Zone); Colombia; Venezuela; islands of Trinidad, Tobago, 
Grenada, Carriacou, and (?)St. Vincent (one sight record); British 
Guiana; eastern Brazil, south to Sao Paulo and Matto Grosso. 2 

1 The unique type of S. ardesiaca differs from the common Brazilian Yellow- 
bellied Seed-eater by white (instead of pale yellow) breast, abdomen, and under 
wing coverts, and by having the back, together with the edges to the wing and 
tail feathers gray with a barely perceptible olivaceous hue here and there. In 
other respects, such as extent of black on head and throat, black spotting on the 
sides, pale yellow bill with dusky base to the lower mandible, etc., it is exactly 
similar. The tail would seem to be somewhat longer, but this is clearly due to 
its being stretched when the bird was mounted. The specimen has the appearance 
of having originally been preserved in alcohol, which would account for the loss 
of all yellow and olive tints of the plumage. No second individual like the type 
has ever been found, and unless fresh material from some definite region substanti- 
ates its claims to recognition, I now feel inclined to regard S. ardesiaca as an arti- 
ficial variety of S. nigricollis. 

'With a very full series from Brazil, Trinidad, Venezuela, and Colombia 
before me, I cannot distinguish S. n. pallida [=olivaceoflava], described from the 
last-named country. The type of pallida (from Bucaramanga) and an adult 
male from Bogota have indeed paler yellow under parts than the majority of 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

47: Colombia (Call, Valle de Cauca, 1; Bogota, 1); Venezuela 
(Cocollar, Sucre, 3; Mount Turumiquire, Sucre, 1; Rio Chama, 
MeYida, 1; Colon, Tachira, 4); Lesser Antilles (Grenada, 3); Brazil 
(Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 1; Varzea Formosa, Ceara, 3; Quixada, 
Ceara, 4; Philadelphia, Goyaz, l;Veadeiros, Goyaz, 3; Santo Amaro, 
Bahia, 5; Sao Marcello, Bahia, 1; Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, 
Bahia, 6; Rio das Velhas, near Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, 4; 
Urucum de Corumba, Matto Grosso, 2; Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 
1); Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 2). 

*Sporophila nigricollis inconspicua Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 
PERUVIAN YELLOW-BELLIED SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila gutturalis inconspicua Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 84, 
Sept., 1906 Santa Ana, Urubamba, Peru (type in coll. of H. von 
Berlepsch, now in Frankfort Museum, examined) ; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 
35, p. 462, 1918 Bellavista, Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 108, 1921 Santa Ana, Idma, and San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru. 

Spermophila gutturalis (not Fringilla gutturalis Lichtenstein) Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 519 Paltaypampa, Chilpes, and Amable 
Maria, Peru; Sclater, and Salvin, I.e., 1876, p. 16 Maranura, Urubamba; 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1879, p. 229 Tambillo, Peru; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 199 
Callacate; idem, Orn. Per., 3, p. 13, 1886 Peru (Paltaypampa, Chilpes, 
Amable Maria, Tambillo, Chota, Callacate, Maranura); Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 128, 1888 part, spec, c', d', Tambillo; Salvin, 
Nov. Zool., 2, p. 6, 1895 Malca, Cajabamba, Peru. 

Spermophila nigricollis inconspicua Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
17, p. 457, 1930 Huanuco and Chinchao, Huanuco (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of eastern Peru, from 
the Maranon and lower Huallaga south to Urubamba. 

Brazilian birds. However, one from Piauhy (Ilha Sao Martin, Rio Parnahyba) 
is even paler below, while others from "Bogota" are fully as deeply colored as 
any from Brazil. The individual variation in the amount of black on the head 
has already been discussed by Mr. Todd, so we need not dwell on this subject any 
further. Two males from British Guiana (roraimae) are in no wise different from 
numerous Brazilian and Venezuelan males with a medium amount of black on 
the pileum, nor do they differ in size. 

Additional material examined. Brazil : Borda do Matto, Sao Paulo, 2 ; Cuyaba, 
Matto Grosso, 1; Goyaz, 5; Bahia, 12; Pao d'Alho, near Recife, Pernambuco, 5; 
Ilha Sao Martin, Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy, 1; Para, 7; Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 1. 
British Guiana: Rio Caramang, 1; Roraima, 2. Trinidad: Caparo, 10; Aripo, 1. 
Tobago: Man o' War Bay, 2. Venezuela: inland of Cumana (San Antonio, etc'), 
6; Maipures, Orinoco, 4; Munduapo, Orinoco, 2; Merida, 10. Colombia: Bucara- 
manga, 2; Bogota, 12; Santa Marta region, 6. 

1 Sporophila nigricollis inconspicua Berlepsch and Stolzmann: Similar to 
S. n. nigricollis, but adult male with blackish color of head, throat, and foreneck 
duller and less extensive, especially on pileum, where it is often restricted to a 
narrow frontal band, and obviously never reaches backwards beyond the eyes. 

As explained by Mr. Zimmer, this form seems to be entitled to recognition. 
Other specimens examined by us serve to substantiate its characters. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Tambillo, 3; Santa Ana, 4. 






1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 209 

9: Peru (Yurimaguas, 2; Moyobamba, 1; Huanuco, 4; Chinchao, 
Huanuco, 1; San Ramon, Chanchamayo, 1). 

*Sporophila nigricollis vivida Hellmayr, nom. nov. 1 WESTERN 
YELLOW-BELLIED SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila gutturalis olivacea (not Pyrrhula olivacea Vieillot) Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 550 Chimbo, Ecuador 
(type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. 
Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 169, 1927); idem, I.e., 1884, p. 293 Cayandeled; 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 484, 1898 Paramba; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 
473 Santo Domingo; Mene'gaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Arme'e Mes. Arc 
Merid. Equat., 9, p. B75, 1911 Gualea, Ayuriquin, and Santo Domingo. 

Spermophila gutturalis (not Fringilla gutturalis Lichtenstein) Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, pp. 85, 293, 1860 Nanegal, Puellaro, and Esmeral- 
das, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 105, 1862 part, spec, a-c, 
Puellaro, Nanegal, and Esmeraldas; idem, Ibis, 1871, p. 15 part, western 
Ecuador; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 128, 1888 part, spec, u-b', 
Ecuador ("Quito," Nanegal, Puellaro, Esmeraldas, Cayandeled); Salva- 
dori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 25, 1899 La Con- 
cepcion, Chota Valley. 

Sporophila gutturalis olivacea Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 611, 
1926 Esmeraldas, Mindo, Rio de Oro, Bucay, junction Chanchan and 
Chinguancay, Huigra, Cumbaya, and Alamor, Ecuador. 

Range. Tropical zone (locally in the Subtropical zone) of 
western Ecuador. 

1: Ecuador (Paramba, Imbabura, 1). 

*Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus). LINED SEED-EATER. 

Loxia lineola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 174, 1758 "Asia," errore 
= Surinam, as designated by Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 26, 
1902 (descr. of male). 

Loxia crispa (not Fringilla crispa Linnaeus, 1776) P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., 
Suppl., p. 154, 1776 based on "Bouvreuil a plumes frisees, du Bresil" 
Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 319, fig. 1. 

Loxia fusca (not of Linnaeus, 1766) Hermann, Tabl. Aff. Anim., p. 221 (note), 
1783 based on "Le Bouveron" Buffon (Hist. Nat. Gen., Ois., 4, p. 388) 
= Daubenton's "Bouvreuil a plumes frisees, du Bresil." 

Fringilla lineola Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 574, 1830 eastern 
Brazil. 

1 Sporophila nigricollis vivida Hellmayr: Similar to S. n. nigricollis in the 
adult male having the head, throat, and foreneck extensively black, but breast 
and abdomen much richer yellow. 

The subspecific name olivacea being untenable in the genus on account of 
Pyrrhula olivacea Vieillot, bestowed upon a female of the nominate race from 
Brazil, the west Ecuadorian representative requires to be rebaptized. 

Additional material examined. Western Ecuador: Paramba, 17; Gualea, 3; 
Cayandeled, 2; Chimbo, 2. 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pyrrhula lineola Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 
2, p. 86, 1837 Chiquitos and Guarayos, Bolivia. 

Spermophila lineola Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 497, 1850 Brazil; 
idem, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne; Sclater, Cat. 
Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 104, 1862 Cayenne; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 252 Maruria, Lake of Valencia, Venezuela; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 224, 1870 part, [Villa Bella de] Matto Grosso, Rio Xie, 
and "Barra" [=Manaos], Brazil (spec, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 
13 part, Cayenne, Rio Negro, Bolivia, Matto Grosso, Bahia, and Para- 
guay (Rio Vermejo); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 
604 Chiquitos and Guarayos, Bolivia; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 214 
Merume Mts., Camacusa, and Roraima, British Guiana; Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 131, 1888 part, spec, a-p, Bahia, Pernambuco, 
Cayenne, British Guiana (Merume Mts., Camacusa, Caramang River), 
and Venezuela (Lake of Valencia); Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
10, No. 208, p. 5, 1895 Santa Rosa, Salta (spec, examined); idem, I.e., 
12, No. 292, p. 8, 1897 San Francisco and Aguairenda, Bolivia (spec, 
examined); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 162, 1898 Piracicaba, Sao 
Paulo; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 43, 1905 Tucuman; 
Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 175, 1909 Ocampo, Santa Fe, 
Argentina; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 392, 1910 Surinam. 

Sporophila lineola Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 150, 1851 Cayenne; Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 248, 1856 "Para"; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 2, p. 93, 1889 Falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia; idem, I.e., 3, p. 
369, 1891 Cachoeira, Matto Grosso; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
9, p. 26, 1902 Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela (spec, examined); Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 377, 1907 Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Avanhandava) 
and Bahia; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 8, 1907 Urucurituba, Rio 
Tapajoz; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 500, 1908 Goyana, Rio Tapajoz; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 121, 1908 Cayenne and Roche-Marie, 
French Guiana; Hellmayr, I.e., 17, p. 280, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 82, 1910 
Joazeiro, Bahia, and Parnagua, Piauhy, Brazil; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 385, 1910 Argentina (Tucuman; Ocampo, 
Santa Fe); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Rio Bermejo, Paraguay 
(?); Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 431, 1914 Para, Magoary, Peixe- 
Boi, Rio Xingu (Victoria, Forte Ambe), Rio Iriri (Santa Julia), Rio 
Tapajoz (Goyana), Rio Jamauchim (Tucunare), and Obidos; Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 189, 1916 Caicara, Orinoco; Bangs 
and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 90, 1918 vicinity of Para- 
maribo, Surinam; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 433, 1921 Supe- 
naam, Abary River, Merume Mts., Camacusa, Caramang River, George- 
town, and Bartica [Grove]; Dinelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 256, 1924 Tucu- 
man (nest and eggs descr.); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 
231, 1927 Conception, Tucuman. 

Sporophila lineola lineola Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 348, 
1930 Urucum and Fazenda do Sao Joao, Matto Grosso; Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 20, p. 146, 1936 Inhumas, Rio Meia Ponte, Goyaz. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 211 

Range. Venezuela (one record each from Lake Valencia, Cara- 
bobo, and Caicara on the Orinoco); British, Dutch, and French 
Guiana; Brazil, from the Rio Negro and the Para region south to 
Bahia, northern Sao Paulo (Piracicaba, Avanhandava), and Matto 
Grosso; Peru (one record from the Rio Samiria); eastern Bolivia; 
northern Argentina (Santa Rosa, Salta; Tucuman region; Santiago 
del Estero; Rio Vermejo, Chaco; Ocampo, Santa F4). 1 

5: Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1); Argentina (Isca-yacu, 
Santiago del Estero, 2; Tucuman, 1; Conception, Tucuman, 1). 

Sporophila bouvronides (Lesson). 2 LESSON'S SEED-EATER. 

Pyrrhula bouvronides Lesson, TraitS d'Orn., livr. 6, p. 450, Feb., 1831 no 
locality indicated, we suggest Trinidad (descr. of male; type lost; cf. 
Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., 2, (6), p. 68, 1854). 

Spermophila bouvronides Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 104, 1862 Trinidad. 

Spermophila bouvronoides Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 318, 1866 Trinidad. 

Spermophila ocellata Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 181 
Nauta, Peru (descr. of male and female; cotypes in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum, examined); idem, I.e., 1869, pp. 252, 253 plain 
of Valencia, Venezuela (spec, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 14, pi. 2, 
fig. 3 (male) Nauta and Lake of Valencia (monog.); Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 264 Nauta; (?)Taczanowski and Ber- 

1 Specimens from Matto Grosso, Bolivia, and Argentina average very slightly 
larger, but aside from this there is no difference whatever between birds from 
various parts of the range. In adult males the white stripe in the middle of the 
forecrown varies but little in extent, and always forms a very conspicuous, well- 
defined marking. The under parts are as a rule unmarked white, though in a few, 
notably one from Cayenne, the lateral chest feathers show traces of blackish 
cross-bands, thus indicating an approach to the "ocellata" variety of Lesson's 
Seed-eater. The most westerly locality represented in the series examined is an 
adult male secured by J. Hauxwell on October 13, 1881, on the Rio Samirfa in 
northeastern Peru. The specimen is quite typical in every respect as is also one 
from the Rio Xie, upper Rio Negro. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Caicara, Orinoco, 2. British 
Guiana: Camacusa, 6; Rio Caramang, 5; Annai, 2. French Guiana: Cayenne, 17; 
Roche-Marie, 5. Brazil: Rio Xie, 1; Manaos, 1; Urucurituba, Rio Tapaj6z, 6; 
Calama, Rio Madeira, 2; Bahia, 8; Joazeiro, Bahia, 1; Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, 
2. Peru: Rio Samirfa, 1. Bolivia: Santa Cruz, 2; San Francisco, 1; Aguairenda, 
1. Argentina: Santa Rosa, Salta, 1. 

2 Sporophila bouvronides (Lesson) : Similar to S. lineola, but adult male with 
crown wholly black or with but a few tiny white dots in the middle of the forehead ; 
female indistinguishable. 

The names P. bouvronides, S. ocellata, S. trinitatis, and S. amazonica have 
been based on individual variations. This is clearly shown by the comparison of 
an excellent series of fourteen adult males collected by S. M. Klages at Caparo, 
Trinidad, with another from Amazonia, including the types of S. ocellata and 
S. amazonica. In several examples, the foreneck and sides of the chest are plain 
white like the rest of the under parts (as in S. lineola); in others there are a few 
blackish cross-lines to be seen on some of the lateral breast-feathers; and three 
or four others have the entire chest and sides more or less regularly barred or edged 
with black as in specimens from Nauta (ocellata). The type of S. amazonica and 
a male from Lamalonga represent the intermediate stage, while one from Mara- 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

lepsch, I.e., 1885, p. 84 Machay, Ecuador (female); Taczanowski, Orn. 
Per., 3, p. 15, 1886 Nauta, Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 130, 
1-888 (?) Colombia (Santa Marta), Venezuela (Valencia, Merida), British 
Guiana (Caramang River), and Peru (Rio Ucayali, Iquitos, Nauta); 
Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 391, 1910 Surinam. 

Spermophila lessoni Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 583 Trinidad 
(new name for Pyrrhula bouvronides Lesson). 

Spermophila trinitatis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, pp. 132, 133, 1888 
Trinidad (descr. of male; type in British Museum examined). 

Spermophila amazonica Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, pp. 122, 123, 1888 
north side of the Amazon, Brazil (descr. of male; type in British Museum 
examined). 

Sporophila lineola restricta Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 128, July 27, 
1927 Gamarra, Magdalena, Colombia (descr. of male; type in the Car- 
negie Museum, Pittsburgh); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 
419, 1931 Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia. 

Spermophila lineola (not Loxia lineola Linnaeus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 595 Mexiana, Rio Tocantins, and north side 
of the Amazon, Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 224, 1870 part, Mara- 
bitanas and Lamalonga, Rio Negro (spec, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 13 part, Rio Negro, Venezuela, and Trinidad. 

Sporophila ocellata Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 98, 1889 Tonantins, Rio 
Solimoes, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Sporophila lineola trinitatis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 34, 1894 
Trinidad (ex Leotaud); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 26, 
1902 Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco, Venezuela (spec, examined). 

Sporophila lineola Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 133, 1922 
Trinidad (Palo Seco and Maracas Valley). 

Sporophila bouvronides Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 58, 1906 (crit.; regular 
occurrence in Trinidad questioned); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 377, 
1907 (range); Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 11, 1908 Bom Lugar, Rio 

bitanas is just as heavily marked beneath as some of the Nauta birds, which show, 
however, considerable variation. A Bogota specimen, which is without doubt 
what Todd described as S. I. restricta, cannot be distinguished from the white- 
breasted Trinidad males. 

While we have kept Lesson's Seed-eater as specifically distinct, we are not 
certain that it is anything more than an individual mutant of S. lineola. Females 
are absolutely the same as far as I can see, and the geographical distribution of the 
two "species" is almost incomprehensible. Both occur in Dutch and British 
Guiana, in the plains around Lake of Valencia, in the Orinoco Valley, and in various 
sections of Amazonia (Rio Negro and northeastern Peru). On the other hand, 
males with pronounced white crown-stripe are not found in Trinidad, while such 
without that marking never occur in French Guiana, Argentina, Bolivia, Bahia, 
or Matto Grosso. The character does not strike me as of specific value, and further 
investigation of the problem is imperative. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Caparo, 15; unspecified, 3. Venezuela: near 
Cumana, 1; north shore of Lake Valencia, 1; Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco, 3. 
Colombia: Bogota, 1. Brazil: Lamalonga, Rio Negro, 1; Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 
2; north side of Amazon, 1; Sepatiny, Rio Purus, 1; Tonantins, Rio Solimoes, 1. 
Peru: Nauta, 5; Rio Canchahuaya, Ucayali, 1. British Guiana: Demerara, 3; 
Rio Rupunani, 1. Dutch Guiana: near Paramaribo, 4; Crippie, 1; Surinam, 4. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 213 

Purus, Brazil; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 430, 1914 Rio Purus; Cherrie, 
Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 189, 1916 Las Barrancas, Delta region, 
up to Caicara, Orinoco (crit.); Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 432, 1921 
Takutu Mountains, Supenaam, and Caramang River; (?)Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 611, 1926 Machay, Ecuador; Roberts, 
Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Range. Island of Trinidad; northern Venezuela, from Cumana 
and Lake Valencia south to the Orinoco Valley; northern Colombia 
(Magdalena Valley); British and Dutch Guiana; Amazonia (Lama- 
longa and Marabitanas, upper Rio Negro; Tonantins, Rio Solimoes; 
Sepatiny and Bom Lugar, Rio Purus); northeastern Peru (Nauta; 
Iquitos; Ucayali); (?)eastern Ecuador (Machay). 

*Sporophila telasco (Lesson). 1 CHESTNUT-THROATED SEED-EATER. 

Pyrrhula telasco Lesson, Voyage Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 8, pi. 15, fig. 3 
(=male), Nov. 29, 1828; idem, I.e., livr. 15, p. 663, April 3, 1830 environs 
of Lima, Peru (descr. of male; actual location of type unknown). 2 

Pyrrhula alaudina Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 88, 1837 Tacna, Chile (descr. of female; type in Paris Museum). 3 

Camarhynchus leucopterus Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 118, 1848 near 
Callao, Peru (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Spermophila telasco Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 75, 1847 Lima, Peru; 
Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 496, 1850 Peru; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 341 Lima, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1868 
p. 173 Tambo Valley, Arequipa; Sclater, I.e., 1869, p. 147 Lima; idem, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 7 Lima and Tacna (monog.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1871, p. 497 Lima (habits, nest, and eggs); Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 
519 Lima; idem, I.e., 1877, p. 320 Tumbez, Peru; Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 
421 Callao, Peru; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 550 
Guayaquil, Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 14, 1886 Lima and Tum- 
bez; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 102, 1888 Ecuador (Guayaquil, 
Balzar) and Peru (Lima, Callao, Tambo Valley); Salvador! and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 24, 1899 Puntilla de Santa 
Elena and Balzar, Ecuador. 

Sporophila telasco Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 291, 1844 Peru; idem, 
Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 221, 1846 "western Sierra valleys" of Peru; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 376 Lima; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 609, 1926 Ecuador (Esme- 
raldas, Chone, Bucay, Puna Island); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 19, p. 52, 1932 Tacna and Asapa (near Arica), Chile. 

Sporophila alaudina Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 291, 1844 Peru; 
idem, Unters. Faun. Peru., Orn., p. 222, 1846 Tacna (ex Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny). 

1 Sporophila telasco (Lesson), though well characterized by its white rump and 
white under parts excepting the chestnut throat, seems to be allied to S. minuta. 

2 Not in the Paris Museum. 

3 The type has lately been re-examined, at my request, by Mr. Berlioz, who 
writes that it is without any doubt a female of the present species. 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Spermophila alaudina Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., I, (2), p. 496, 1850 
Peru (ex Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 

Range. Pacific coast from northwestern Ecuador (Esmeraldas) 
south to extreme northern Chile (Tacna Province). 1 
4: Peru (Menocucho, 3; Trujillo, 1). 

Sporophila insulata Chapman. 2 TUMACO SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila insulata Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 18, p. 12, Sept. 22, 1921 
Tumaco Island, off southwestern Colombia (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Tumaco Island, off southwestern Colombia. 

*Sporophila minuta parva (Lawrence). 3 RICHARDSON'S 
SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila parva Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2, p. 382, May 28, 1883 
Tehuan tepee, Oaxaca, Mexico (descr. of female; type in U. S. National 
Museum). 

Spermophila richardsoni Salvin and Godman, Ibis, (6), 3, p. 611, Oct., 1891 
Tonala, Chiapas, Mexico, and Retalhuleu, Guatemala (type, from San 
Benito, Chiapas, in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in British Museum, 
examined) . 

Sporophila minuta parva Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 568, 
1901 southern Mexico (Chiapas and Oaxaca), Guatemala (Retalhuleu), 
and Nicaragua (Managua) (monog.); Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 68, p. 401, 1928 Tapanatepec, Oaxaca; Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 64, p. 351, 1932 Hacienda California and Carolina, Guatemala. 

1 Birds from Ecuador (Guayaquil) agree with others from Peru and Chile. 
Additional material examined. Ecuador: Guayaquil, 4. Peru: Eten, Lam- 

bayeque, 6; Pacasmayo, 1; Tembladera, 3; Trujillo, 1; Callao, 2; Lima, 3. 
Chile, Tacna: Tacna, 1; Asapa, near Arica, 1. 

2 Sporophila insulata Chapman: "Adult (?) male (in worn plumage). Upper 
parts, including tail coverts, mouse gray, only the terminal feathers of the rump 
rufous-chestnut; tail black, white at the base, white on the outer tail feathers 
much reduced or absent; wings black, secondaries white for basal half, all but 
two outer primaries basally white, increasing in extent inwardly; under parts 
rufous-chestnut, the abdomen mixed with whitish (indicating immaturity?); 
lower tail coverts chestnut; bill and feet blackish. Immature male similar, but 
abdomen and under tail coverts white. Female resembling that of S. m. minuta, 
but somewhat grayer above and paler below with more white at the bases of the 
wing-quills. Wing, 50, (female) 48; tail, 36; bill, 9.3." (Chapman, I.e.) 

This species, which we have not seen, is described as nearly related to 
S. minuta, but differing by largely gray rump, with only the most posterior uropy- 
gial feathers chestnut, and basally white tail. Birds from northwestern Ecuador 
(Paramba and La Conception, Rio Mira) do not show any of the above characters, 
and evidently are not separable from S. m. minuta. 

3 Sporophila minuta parva (Lawrence) differs from the more southern races 
by the adult males being above pure (bluish) ashy gray (without any brownish 
or olive tinge), while the females are slightly less buffy. 

Additional material examined. Mexico, Nayarit: Tuxpan, 2; Ixtlan, 1. 
Guatemala: Retalhuleu, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 215 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of the Pacific slope of Mexico, in 
states of Nayarit (Tuxpan, Ixtlan), Oaxaca (Tehuantepec, Tapana- 
tepec), and Chiapas (Tonala), and in Guatemala (Hacienda California 
and Carolina, San Marcos; Tiquisate; Retalhuleu), and Nicaragua 
(Managua). 

5: Guatemala (Escuintla, Tiquisate, 2); Nicaragua (San Gero- 
nimo, Chinandega, 3). 

*Sporophila minuta centralis Bangs and Penard. 1 PANAMA 
SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila minuta centralis Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 90, April, 1918 near Panama City, Panama (type in Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Griscom, I.e., 78, p. 379, 1935 
Panama east to the Rio Chepo. 

Spermophila minuta (not Loxia minuta Linnaeus) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 333, 1861 Panama Railroad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 352 Lion Hill, Panama; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 3 
part, Panama; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 351, 
1885 part, Panama; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 109, 1888 
part, spec, a-d, Lion Hill, Panama. 

Sporophila minuta Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 33, 1900 Loma 
del Leon, Panama. 

Sporophila minuta minuta Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 567, 
1901 part, Panama (Lion Hill, Colon); Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 46, p. 224, 1906 savanna of Panama; Carriker, Ann. 

> Carnegie Mus., 4, p. 302, 1908 Buenos Aires de Terraba, Costa Rica; 

Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 22, p. 38, 1909 Buenos Aires, Costa Rica; 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 891, 1910 Buenos Aires de Terraba, 
Costa Rica; Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 321, 1924 Balboa, Panama. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of southwestern Costa Rica (Te"- 
rraba Valley) and western Panama, east to the Rio Chepo. 
1: Costa Rica (Buenos Aires, 1). 

*Sporophila minuta minuta (Linnaeus). MINUTE SEED-EATER. 

Loxia minuta Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 176, 1758 Surinam (descr. 

of adult male). 
Loxia fusciventer Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 20, Dec., 1783 based upon 

"Bouvreuil a ventre roux, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 319, 

fig. 2 (male). 

1 Sporophila minuta centralis Bangs and Penard: Similar to S. m. minuta, 
but very slightly smaller, the upper parts of the males more brownish (less grayish 
brown), and the lower surface as well as the rump on average paler; female hardly 
distinguishable. 

This is not a very strongly marked race, but four adult males from Panama, 
when compared to a series of South American skins, are decidedly more brownish 
above. 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Spermophila fustiventris Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 333, 1847 
Tobago. 

Sporophila minuta Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 150, 1851 Cayenne; Riker and 
Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 268, 1890 Santarem, Brazil; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 6, p. 34, 1894 Princestown, Trinidad; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 
364, 1897 Cumanacoa and San Antonio [Bermudez], Venezuela; Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 307 Honda, Colombia; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 166, 1900 Bonda, Onaca, and Cienaga, northern 
Colombia; Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 26, 1902 Altagracia 
and Caicara, Orinoco, and Suapure, Caura, Venezuela; Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 374, 1907 Me"rida, Venezuela (range); Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 56, p. 524, 1908 Alcobaca, Rio Tocantins; Berlepsch, Nov. 
Zool., 15, pp. 102, 317, 1908 Cayenne, Roche-Marie, lower Mahury, and 
Sinnamary, French Guiana; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 
208, 1913 Pedernales, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
61, p. 521, 1913 Marajo and Monte Alegre, Brazil; idem, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 429, 1914 Quati-puru, Rio Tocantins (Alcobaca), Marajo 
(Sao Natal, Tuyuyu, Pacoval), Mexiana, and Maraca, Brazil; Williams, 
Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 134, 1922 Trinidad (eggs descr.). 

Spermophila minuta Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 495, 1850 Cayenne 
and Brazil; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 160, 1855 Bogota and 
Santa Marta, Colombia; Bonaparte, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 
1857 Cayenne; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 104, 1862 Tobago 
and Bogota; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 83 Trinidad; Leotaud, Ois. Trinidad, 
p. 322, 1866 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 
p. 167 El Pilar [Bermudez], Venezuela; Finsch, I.e., 1870, p. 582 
Trinidad; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 3 part, Cayenne, Venezuela, Trinidad, 
Tobago, and Bogota; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 328 Ocana and Lake Paturia, 
Colombia; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 380 Nazare, Para, Brazil; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 506 Retire and Medellin, Colom- 
bia (nest and eggs descr.); Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 220, 1882 
Bogota and Trinidad; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 294, 1884 Bucara- 
manga, Colombia; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 
351, 1885 part, South America; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 214 Roraima, 
British Guiana; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, pp. 109, 820, 1888 
part, spec, f-t, Colombia (Medellin, Bogota), British Guiana (George- 
town, Roraima), Cayenne, Tobago, and Brazil (Para); Salvadori and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 23, 1899 La Conception, 
Rio Mira, Ecuador (spec, examined); Dalmas, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 
13, p. 138, 1900 Tobago; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 13, 
p. 498, 1907 French Guiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 296, 1907 
Maraca, Marajo, and Mexiana; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 29, 
1907 Mexiana; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 390, 1910 Surinam (habits). 

Sporophila minuta minuta Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 567, 
1901 part, northern South America, including Trinidad and Tobago; 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 18, 1906 Caparo and Seelet, Trinidad 
(crit.); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 1, p. 360, 1908 Carenage, 
Trinidad; Beebe, Zoologica (N.Y.), 1, p. 101, 1909 Guanaco, Orinoco 
Delta; Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 217 

pp. 88, 119, 1912 Nazare" (Para) and Mexiana; Hellmayr and Seilern, 
Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 164, 1912 San Esteban, Carabobo, 
Venezuela; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 189, 1916 
Orinoco Valley, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 557, 
1917 Caldas, Call, Rio Frio, La Manuelita, Miraflores, Barro Blanco, 
San Agustin, Chicoral, Honda, Puerto Barrio, Malena, Calamar, and 
Quetame, Colombia; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 
89, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo and Lelydorp, Surinam; Todd and Car- 
ricker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 515, 1922 Bonda, Don Diego, Gaira, 
Rio Hacha, Mamatoco, Fundaci6n, and Tucurinca, Santa Marta region, 
Colombia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 609, 1926 western 
Ecuador; Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 71, p. 419, 1931 Rio Frio, 
Magdalena, Colombia; Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Spermophila (Gyrinorhynchus) minuta M6n6gaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
10, p. 183, 1904 lower Mahury and Sinnamary, French Guiana. 

Microphila minuta Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 438, 1921 Roraima, 
upper Takutu Mts., Supenaam, Abary River, Georgetown, and Hoorie 
River. 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, from the Guianan border south 
to Para, west to Santare"m and Monte Alegre; the Guianas; islands 
of Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela (south to the Orinoco basin); 
Colombia; northwestern Ecuador. 1 

29: Colombia (Fundacion, Magdalena, 1; Tucurinca, Magda- 
lena, 1; 10 miles north of Cucuta, Santander del Norte, 2; Chicoral, 
Tolima, 1; Barro Blanco, Antioquia, 1; Bogota, 2); Venezuela 
(Caracas, 6; Maracay, Aragua, 2; Colon, Tachira, 4; Rio Catatumbo, 
Zulia, 2; Encon trades, Zulia, 5); British Guiana (Georgetown, 2). 

Sporophila minuta hypoxantha Cabanis. 2 TAWNY-BELLIED 
SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila hypoxantha Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 150 (note), Oct., 1851 
"Montevideo," errore (descr. of male; type in Berlin Museum); Bur- 
meister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 250, 1856 part, descr. of alleged 

1 1 am unable to subdivide satisfactorily this widely spread form, although 
males from Surinam and French Guiana frequently show unusually dark, nearly 
hazel under parts. These dark individuals are, however, matched by others from 
Colombia, notably one from Antioquia. Two adult males from western Ecuador 
agree well with the average from Cayenne, and I cannot separate either these 
or the inhabitants of Colombia, though some of the latter, by slightly smaller 
size and more olivaceous upper parts, approach S. m. centralis. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Para, 1; Maraj6, 2. French Guiana: 
Cayenne, 14; Roche-Marie, 5. Surinam, 2. British Guiana: Roraima, 2. 
Trinidad: Caparo, 15; Icacos, 2; Seelet, 1. Tobago, 2. Venezuela: San Antonio, 
Bermudez, 4; Altagracia, Orinoco, 6; Valley of San Esteban, Carabobo, 4; Me>ida, 
5. Colombia: Aracataca, 2; Bogota, 17; Bucaramanga, 1. Ecuador: La Concep- 
ci6n, Rio Mira, 2; Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 2. 

1 Sporophila minuta hypoxantha Cabanis merely differs from the nominate 
race by slightly larger size and by the tawny color of the under parts extending, 
in the male sex, up to the cheeks and auriculars. The rufous parts of the plumage 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

"adult female" (= adult male!), from "Montevideo," errore; Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 35, p. 7, 1887 Lambare, Paraguay (crit.); Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 374, 1907 Itarare, Sao Paulo; Lillo, Apunt. Hist. Nat., 
1, p. 44, 1909 Mocovf, Santa Fe; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 383, 1910 Mocovf, Chaco; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 634 Sapu- 
cay, Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Puerto Bertoni, 
Paraguay; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 355, 1914 Misiones and Chaco 
Austral, Argentina; Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay; 
Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rfos; Pereyra, 
I.e., 4, p. 27, 1927 Zelaya, Buenos Aires (male, February, 1925); Naum- 
burg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 346, 1930 Paraguay (Puerto 
Pinasco, Rio Negro) and Matto Grosso (Urucum, Bocaina de Descalva- 
dos); Anonymous, El Hornero, 5, p. 427, 1934 Villagay, Entre Rios. 

Pyrrhula minuta (not Loxia minuta Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 87, 1837 Chiquitos, Bolivia (in 
part; spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Spermophila minuta Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 8, 1847 Paraguay (ex 
"Pico grueso pardo y canela" Azara, No. 122). 

Spermophila hypoxantha Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 225, 1870 Curytiba, 
Parana, and Poruti, Matto Grosso (spec, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 3 Paraguay, Bolivia (Chiquitos), Parana (Curytiba), and "Monte- 
video" (monog.); Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 277 Paysandu, Uruguay; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. Ill, 1888 Curytiba, Parana; 1 Salvadori, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 5, 1900 Urucum and Caranda- 
sinho, Matto Grosso (spec, examined); Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 
16, p. 175, 1909 Mocovi and Ocampo, Santa Fe. 

Spermophila sp. Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 5, 1895 
Corumba, Matto Grosso (spec, examined). 

Sporophila minuta hypoxantha Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco 
Exp., Vogel, p. 244, 1930 Formosa (San Jose, Tapikiole) and Bolivia 
(San Fermin and Ipias, Santa Cruz) (crit.). 

Range. Southern Brazil, in states of Sao Paulo (Itarare"), Parana 
(Curytiba), and Matto Grosso (Poruti, Urucum, Descalvados, 
Corumba, Carandasinho) ; eastern Bolivia (Chiquitos; San Fermin 
and Ipias, Santa Cruz); Paraguay; Uruguay (Paysandu); northern 
Argentina (chiefly in the Chaco provinces, but also recorded from 
Santa Elena, Entre Rios, and Zelaya, Buenos Aires). 

are, as a rule, somewhat lighter in tone, though this is not an absolutely constant 
character. Wing, 53-57, (female) 51-53; tail, 40-44. 

The original locality, "Montevideo," is no doubt inaccurate, and should be 
corrected to southern Brazil. Birds from Argentina and Bolivia agree with a 
Brazilian series. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Chiquitos, 1; San Fermin, Santa Cruz, 2. 
Paraguay: Lambare, 2. Argentina: San Jose, Formosa, 5; Mocovi, Chaco, 1; 
Ocampo, Santa Fe, 1. Brazil: Curytiba, Parana, 8; Poruti, Matto Grosso, 1; 
Corumba, Matto Grosso, 2; Urucum, Matto Grosso, 4; Carandasinho, Matto 
Grosso, 1. 

1 The female from Bahia certainly belongs to some other species. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 219 

*Sporophila ruficollis Cabanis. 1 RUFOUS-THROATED SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila ruficollis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 150, Oct., 1851 "Montevideo," 
Uruguay (descr. of young male; type in Berlin Museum examined); 
Hellmayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 523, 1904 "Montevideo," 
Bolivia (Chiquitos), Brazil (Rio Araguaya, Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, 
Engenho do Gama), and Tucuman (crit., plumages, range); Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 378, 1907 (range); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 634 Sapucay, 
Paraguay; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 385, 1910 
(range in Argentina); Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Puerto Bertoni, 
Paraguay; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 346, 1930 Matto 
Grosso; Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 245, 
1930 San Fermfn, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (crit.). 

Pyrrhula minuta (not Loxia minuta Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, 
Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 87, 1837 Chiquitos, Bolivia (part, 
spec, "quoddam pileo cinereo, gutture regioneque parotica nigrobrunneis," 
etc., in Paris Museum examined). 

Sporophila hypoxantha (not of Cabanis) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 
3, p. 249, 1856 part, descr. of "young" and "subadult." 

Spermophila ruficollis Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 225, 1870 Goyaz (Rio Ara- 
guaya) and Matto Grosso (Villa Bella and Engenho do Gama), Brazil 
(spec, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 21 "Montevideo" and Matto 
Grosso; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 140, 1888 Brazil; Hartert 
and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 174, 1909 Tucuman, Santa Fe (Mocovf, 
Ocampo), and Santiago del Estero (Selvo). 

Spermophila plumbeiceps Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 5, 
June, 1895 San Pablo, Tucuman (descr. of nearly adult male; type in 
Turin Museum examined); Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 
177, 1902 Rio Sail, Tucuman (descr. of female); Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 216, 
1904 Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 42, 1905 

1 Sporophila ruficollis Cabanis is closely related to S. m. hypoxantha, but 
differs in the male sex by having the cheeks, auriculars, throat, and foreneck 
conspicuously darker than, and more or less contrasting with, the deep tawny 
of breast and abdomen, though the coloration of the former area varies in different 
individuals from auburn to chestnut brown and sooty black. 

In another connection (Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, pp. 523-524, 1904), 
we have discussed at length the various plumages of this little-known species, 
pointing out that S. plumbeiceps had been based on a more advanced stage of the 
bird described by Cabanis as S. ruficollis. We have merely to add that material 
recently examined shows the perfectly adult male, which we had not seen at the 
time, to have the upper back neutral gray like the crown, much as in S. m. hypo- 
xantha. The only constant characters separating it are the dark coloration of the 
gular area and the somewhat more saturated tone (amber brown to hazel) of 
the posterior under parts, which, in S. m. hypoxantha, are of a uniform clear tawny 
from chin to tail coverts. The juvenile plumage is light Saccardo's umber above 
and cream buff (of varying shades) underneath, while cheeks, auriculars, and 
throat are cinnamon brown to chestnut, forming a well-defined area. The two 
plumages are connected by every imaginable intermediate stage in the series at 
hand. The original locality, "Montevideo," is open to serious doubt. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Chiquitos, 1; San Fermin, Chiquitos, 
2. Argentina: San Pablo, Tucuman, 1; San Felipe, Tucuman, 1; Tucuman, 3; 
Ceres, Santa Fe, 1. Brazil: Villa Bella, Matto Grosso, 2; Engenho do Gama, 
Matto Grosso, 1; Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, 1. Uruguay: "Montevideo," 1. 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Rio Salf; Pereyra, El Hornero, 5, p. 218, 1933 Zelaya, Buenos Aires 

(male, Feb. 25). 

Sporophila plumbeiceps, 1 El Hornero, 5, p. 427, 1934 Villagay, Entre Rfos. 
Sporophila plumbeiceps posneri Bertoni, Rev. Soc. Cient. Parag., 2, p. 256, 

Sept., 1930 Monte Sociedad, Paraguayan Chaco (type in coll. of A. 

Breyer, Buenos Aires). 

Range. Eastern Bolivia (Chiquitos, Dept. Santa Cruz); central 
Brazil, in states of Matto Grosso (Villa Bella, Engenho do Gama) 
and Goyaz (Rio Araguaya) ; northern Argentina, from Tucuman and 
Santiago del Estero south to Santa F<, Entre Rios (Villagay), and 
Buenos Aires (one record from Zelaya); Paraguay (Sapucay; Puerto 
Bertoni); Uruguay ("Montevideo"). 

2: Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman, 2). 

Sporophila palustris (Barrows). 2 MARSH SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila palustris Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, p. 92, April, 1883 
Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rfos (cotypes in British Museum and 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., examined; cf. 
Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 371, 1930); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 112, pi. 2, 1888 Concepcion; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. 
Orn., 1, p. 45, 1888 Concepci6n; (?) Kerr, Ibis, 1901, p. 223 Villa Con- 
cepcion, Paraguay. 

Sporophila palustris Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 384, 1910 
Concepcion del Uruguay. 

Range. Northeastern Argentina, in Province of Entre Rios 
(Concepcion del Uruguay). 

Sporophila lorenzi Hellmayr. 3 LORENZ'S SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila lorenzi Hellmayr, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 522, 1904 

Cayenne (?) (type in Vienna Museum). 
Range. South America (exact habitat unknown). 

1 Anonymous. 

2 Sporophila palustris (Barrows) is still known only from the eight specimens 
secured by its discoverer in 1880 and 1881 on the edge of a marsh at Concepcion 
del Uruguay, Entre Rios. Graham Kerr, it is true, recorded the species from 
Villa Concepcion, northern Paraguay, but as I am informed by Mr. N. B. Kinnear, 
the specimen is not in the British Museum and the identification is perhaps a 
little doubtful. The species, while allied to S. m. hypoxantha, is immediately 
recognizable by having the cheeks, auriculars, throat, and foreneck white in 
abrupt contrast to the tawny remainder of the under parts. I have examined 
four of Barrows' skins, two males at Cambridge (Mass.), and a couple in the 
British Museum. I do not know what became of the remaining four specimens 
obtained by that naturalist. 

3 Sporophila lorenzi Hellmayr: Nearest to S. palustris, and agreeing in the 
white color of the cheeks, auriculars, throat, and foreneck; but wings much longer; 
lesser and median upper wing coverts bright rufous (between Sandford's brown 
and Burnt Sienna) instead of black edged with deep gull gray; larger wing coverts 



1938 BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 221 

*Sporophila bouvreuil bouvreuil (P. L. S. Muller). PINKISH 
SEED-EATER. 

Loxia bouvreuil P. L. S. Muller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 154, 1776 based on 

"Bouvreuil de 1'Isle Bourbon," Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 204, fig. 1 (male); 

'Tile de Bourbon," errore=Bahia, Brazil (as designated by Hellmayr, 

Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 520, 1904). 
Loxia nigro aurantia Boddaert, Tabl. PL Enl., p. 12, December, 1783 based 

on the same. 
Loxia aurantia Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 853, 1789 part, "male" (ex 

Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 204, fig. I). 1 
Pyrrhula pyrrhomelas Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., livr. 93, p. 1027, 1823 

"Bresil, rapport^ par Delalande fils"=Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (descr. 

of male; type in Paris Museum). 
Loxia brevirostris Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 47, pi. 59, figs. 1 (male), 

2 (female), 1825 "in confinibus Parae," Brazil (male cotype in Munich 

Museum; cf. Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2 Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, 

p. 680, 1906). 
Pyrrhula capistrata Vigors, Zool. Journ., 5, No. 18, p. 273, 1830 Brazil 

(descr. of male; type in coll. of Zoological Society of London, its present 

location unknown). 
Loxia frater culus Lesson, Traite d'Orn., livr. 6, p. 451, Feb., 1831 Brazil (part, 

adult; type in Paris Museum examined). 
Spermophila rubiginosa Swainson, Nat. Hist. Classif. Bds., 2, p. 294, 1837 

based on Loxia brevirostris Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, pi. 59, fig. 1. 
Spermophila pyrrhomelas Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 495, 1850 

Brazil. 
Sporophila aurantia Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 15, 1851 Brazil; Burmeister, 

Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 250, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio, and Lagoa 

Santa, Minas Geraes. 
Spermophila aurantia Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 104, 1862 Rio, 

Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 226, 1870 part, Mattodentro, Sao 

Paulo, and Rio Araguaya, Goyaz; Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. 

Foren., 1870, p. 413 Lagoa Santa and Sete Lagoas, Minas Geraes. 
Spermophila caboclinho Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, pp. 224, 331, 1870 Rio de 

Janeiro (descr. of young male and female; co types in Vienna Museum 

and remiges exteriorly edged with avellaneous or wood-brown; no white alar 
speculum, the inner remiges being tinged with dull tawny at the base of the outer 
webs instead; axillaries, under wing coverts, and narrow edge along inner web of 
remiges light ochraceous-buff. Wing (male), 60; tail, 44; bill, 9. 

The type of this seed-eater is still unique. It was purchased by Johann 
Natterer from a Parisian natural history dealer by the name of Lennier in 1840. 
Its habitat is altogether uncertain. "Cayenne" is not likely to be its true patria, 
since neither Cherrie nor Klages, both of whom made large collections in French 
Guiana, nor any other naturalist ever met with it in that colony. Renewed 
examination of the type raised suspicions as to the validity of the species, which 
may have been based upon an artifact. The wings do not seem to be those of a 
Sporophila, though we have not been able to determine the species originally 
owning them. 

1 Figure 2 of the same plate, regarded by Boddaert and Gmelin as the female, 
is the African Alario alario (Linnaeus). 






222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 19 (ex Pelzeln); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 138, 1888 (ex Pelzeln). 

Spermophila nigro-aurantia Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 4 Brazil (monog.); Forbes, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 335 Recife, Pernambuco; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 113, 1888 "Para," Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and 
"Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul" (errore); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, 
p. 161, 1899 Ypiranga, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 154, 1900 Cantagallo 
and Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, 
p. 29, 1907 Mexiana. 

Sporophila bouvreuil Hellmayr, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 519, 1904 
(crit., nomencl., synon.); idem, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 
22, No. 3, p. 680, 1906 Para (crit.); idem, I.e., 26, No. 2, p. 119, 1912 
Mexiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 521, 1913 Marajo and Mexiana; 
idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 429, 1914 Marajo (Rio Arary, Fazenda 
Teso San Jose) and Mexiana; idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
2, No. 6, p. 61, 1926 Sao Bento, Maranhao; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 297, 1929 Sao Bento, Maranhao; Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 19, p. 279, 1935 Ilha da Bimbarra and Corupeba, Bahia; 
idem, I.e., 20, p. 143, 1936 Fazenda Thome Pinto, Goyaz. 

Spermophila bouvreuil Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 296, 1907 Mexiana. 

Sporophila nigroaurantia Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 375, 1907 Ypiranga, 
Sao Paulo. 

Range. Campo region of eastern Brazil, from the delta of the 
Amazon (islands of Mexiana and Marajo) through Para, Maranhao, 
Pernambuco, and Bahia south to Goyaz (Rio Araguaya; Fazenda 
Thome" Pinto), Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa, Sete Lagoas), Rio de 
Janeiro, and eastern Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Mattodentro). 1 

2: Brazil (Sao Bento, Maranhao, 2). 

Sporophila bouvreuil pileata (Sclater). 2 NATTERER'S 
SEED-EATER. 

1 Adult males from the southern extremity of the range (Mattodentro, eastern 
Sao Paulo), by paler, more pinkish-cinnamon coloration, verge towards S. b. 
pileata. The locality "Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul," is unquestionably erroneous. 

Additional material examined. Island of Marajo, 2; "Para," 1; Bahia, 10; 
Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, 1 (adult male); Rio de Janeiro, 4; Mattodentro, Sao Paulo, 4. 

2 Sporophila bouvreuil pileata (Sclater) differs from the nominate race merely 
by the paler cinnamon, instead of bright orange cinnamon, upper and light pinkish 
cinnamon to pinkish buff, instead of vinaceous-cinnamon to orange cinnamon, 
under parts and sides of the head in the male sex. In worn plumage, the lower 
surface becomes dingy white, and corresponding changes take place in the coloration 
of the dorsal side. 

This is obviously the inland representative of S. b. bouvreuil in the State of 
Sao Paulo. While specimens from the eastern section (Mattodentro) are not 
properly separable from the nominate race, though some average rather paler, 
males from the more arid parts in the north and south of the state (Irisanga, Bata- 
taes, Borda do Matto, Itarar6) are distinguished without difficulty by the above 
characters. Yet, one of two taken by Natterer near Sao Paulo City on January 16, 
1819, is so decidedly intermediate in coloration that there can be no longer any 
question as to their conspecific relationship. Specimens from Misiones (Bonpland) 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 223 

Spermophila pileata Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 607 "San 
Paulo" = Borda do Matto, northern Sao Paulo (type in coll. of P. L. 
Sclater, now in British Museum examined); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 226, 
1870 Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo, Itarare, Borda do Matto, Irisanga); Sclater, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 5, pi. 1, fig. 3 (male) Sao Paulo and "Montevideo," errore 
(monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 115, 1888 "Sao Paulo" 
[=Bprda do Matto] and Irisanga, Sao Paulo; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
3, p. 161, 1899 State of Sao Paulo; Blaauw, Ibis, 1919, p. 83 (molt). 

Loxia fraterculus Lesson, Traite d'Orn., livr. 6, p. 451, Feb., 1831 Brazil 
(part, var. "de couleur tannee blanchatre et a corps presque blanc"). 

Sporophila alaudina (not Pyrrhula alaudina Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 251, 1856 "Montevideo," 
errore (descr. of male). 

Sporophila pileata, Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 375, 1907 Batataes, 
northern Sao Paulo; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Encarnacion, 
Paraguay; Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 533, 1915 Bonpland, 
Misiones; Bertoni, El Hornero, 1, p. 258, 1919 Encarnacion and Puerto 
Bertoni, Paraguay; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 23, 1920 "Uruguay." 

Sporophila pileata paraguayensis Chubb, Ibis, (9), 4, p. 634, 1910 Sapucay, 
Paraguay (type in British Museum examined). 

Range.- Interior and southern parts of the State of Sao Paulo, 
southern Brazil, west to northeastern Argentina (Bonpland, Misi- 
ones) and eastern Paraguay (Encarnacion, Puerto Bertoni, Sapucay). 

Sporophila saturata Hellmayr. 1 SAO PAULO SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila saturata Hellmayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesells. Wien, 54, p. 520, 1904 
state of Sao Paulo, Brazil (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in 
Frankfort Museum); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 375, 1907 Mugy 
das Cruzes, Sao Paulo. 

and Paraguay (Sapucay) are nowise distinguishable from Natterer's original series. 
The locality "Montevideo" attached to one of Sellow's birds in the Berlin Museum 
is due to a confusion of labeling. It probably came from Sao Paulo, instead. 

Azara's "Pico grueso variable" (No. 126), upon which Coccothraustes mutans 
Vieillot (Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 13, p. 525, 1817) is based, seems 
to refer in part to S. b. pileata, but contains also some other elements, the descrip- 
tion being an undeterminable composite. 

Material examined. Brazil, Sao Paulo: Sao Paulo, 2; Borda do Matto, 2; 
Itarare, 5; Irisanga, 1. Argentina: Bonpland, Misiones, 1. Paraguay: Sapucay, 3. 

1 Sporophila saturata Hellmayr: Nearest to S. b. bouvreuil, but adult male 
with upper and under parts very much darker, deep Sandford's brown to chestnut; 
female unknown. Wing (adult male), 54-55; tail, 40-42. 

This little-known species may prove to be a local race of S. bouvreuil. The 
two recorded specimens were obtained in the State of Sao Paulo, the type by 
Dusshanek at an unspecified locality, the second by J. Natterer at Goayo (not far 
(from Mugy das Cruzes) on January 8, 1819. The type, an adult male in fresh 
| plumage, is very nearly as dark chestnut as S. cinnamomea, while Natterer's 
bird, in rather worn condition, is paler and more cinnamomeous about deep 
Sandford's brown. From S. cinnamomea, both examples may be at once distin- 
guished by their black (instead of neutral gray) pileum and longer upper tail 
'coverts, as well as by the absence of white at the base of the rectrices. 

Material examined. Brazil, Sao Paulo: Goayo, 1; unspecified, 1. 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Spermophila aurantia (not Loxia aurantia Gmelin) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 
226, 1870 part, Goayo, near Mugy das Cruzes, Sao Paulo. 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, in State of Sao Paulo (Goayo, near 
Mugy das Cruzes). 

Sporophila cinnamomea (Lafresnaye). 1 CHESTNUT-COLORED 
SEED-EATER. 

Pyrrhula cinnamomea Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 99, 1839 "prope Rio 

Grande" probably Goyaz, Brazil (descr. of male; type in coll. of Charles 

Brelay, Bordeaux, its present location unknown). 
Spermophila cinnamomea Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 495, 1850 Rio 

Grande (ex Lafresnaye); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 226, 1870 Porto do 

Rio Araguaya, Goyaz; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 20 (ex Lafresnaye and Pelzeln) ; 

Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 138, 1888 Brazil (ex Lafresnaye). 
Sporophila cinnamomea Hellmayr, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 521, 

1904 Rio Grande and Rio Araguaya, Goyaz (crit.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. 

Braz., 1, p. 377, 1907 Goyaz. 

Range. Interior of Brazil, in State of Goyaz (Rio Grande and 
Porto do Rio Araguaya). 2 

Sporophila nigro-rufa (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 3 BLACK- 
BACKED SEED-EATER. 

Pyrrhula nigro-rufa Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 87, 1837 Chiquitos, Bolivia (descr. of male; cotypes in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Spermophila nigro-rufa Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 495, 1850 Bolivia; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 226, 1870 Poruti and [Villa Bella de] Matto 
Grosso, Matto Grosso (spec, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 6, pis. 1, 2 

1 Sporophila cinnamomea (Lafresnaye), as we have pointed out elsewhere, is 
a very distinct species immediately recognizable by its deep chestnut body plumage, 
neutral gray cap and longer upper tail coverts, and white base to the rectrices. 
The female is still unknown. 

Aside from the type whose present whereabouts are in doubt, the only speci- 
mens on record are three males obtained by Natterer near Porto do Rio Araguaya, 
Goyaz, and preserved in the Vienna Museum. The original locality, "Rio Grande," 
clearly does not refer to the city of that name in Rio Grande do Sul (cf. Ihering, 
Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 120, 1899), but was more likely to be 
intended for the Rio Grande, a river in Goyaz state. 

2 Whether Azara's "Pico grueso variable" (No. 126) from Paraguay also com- 
prised this species, as Bertoni (Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914) seems to think, remains 
somewhat questionable. 

3 Sporophila nigro-rufa (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny), though allied to the 
S. bouvreuil group, is readily distinguished by having the upper tail coverts as 
well as the hindneck and upper back black like the crown. The rump, sides of 
head, and under parts, furthermore, are of a different shade, being bright ochra- 
ceous-tawny. The color of the bill, in adult males, varies from reddish brown to 
black. Matto Grosso specimens agree with the types from Chiquitos. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Chiquitos, 2. Brazil, Matto Grosso: Villa 
Bella de Matto Grosso, 6; Poruti, 2. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 225 

(male, female) Chiquitos, Bolivia, and Matto Grosso, Brazil (monog.); 

Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1879, p. 604 Chiquitos; 

Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 114, 1888 Matto Grosso. 
Sporophila hypoxantha (not of Cabanis) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 

3, p. 249, 1856 part, "very old male." 
Sporophila nigrorufa Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 375, 1907 (range); (?) 

Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 "northern Chaco"; Naumburg, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 346, 1930 Matto Grosso. 

Range. Central Brazil, in extreme western Matto Grosso (Villa 
Bella and Poruti), and eastern Bolivia (Chiquitos). 

Sporophila hypochroma Todd. 1 BOLIVIAN SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila hypochroma Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 28, p. 79, April 13, 1915 
Buena Vista, Bolivia (descr. of male; type in Carnegie Museum). 

Range. Eastern Bolivia (Buena Vista, Prov. del Sara, Dept. 
Santa Cruz). 

*Sporophila castaneiventris Cabanis. CHESTNUT-BELLIED 
SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila castaneiventris Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
"1848," p. 679, 1849 Cumaka, coast of British Guiana; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 83, 1889 Falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia; 
Riker and Chapman, Auk, 7, p. 268, 1890 Santarem, Brazil; Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 349 La Merced, Chan- 
chamayo, Peru; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 432, 1905 Rio Jurua, 
Brazil; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 374, 1907 Rio Jurua (range); 

1 Sporophila hypochroma Todd: Adult male. Pileum, upper and middle back, 
and upper tail coverts neutral gray (paler and less bluish than in S. castaneiventris) 
with indistinct dusky centers to the feathers of crown and back; wing coverts and 
remiges blackish, the coverts and the inner secondaries broadly edged with very 
pale, nearly whitish gray (much paler than in S. castaneiventris}', fourth to eighth 
primaries at base of outer webs white, forming a distinct alar speculum; a similar 
white spot, but wholly concealed by the overlying greater wing coverts, on the 
median secondaries; rectrices black, externally edged with gray; loral and temporal 
regions gray like the crown; upper eyelid gray, lower one whitish; lower back and 
rump as well as cheeks, auriculars, and whole under surface uniform chestnut; 
axillaries and under wing coverts white, the latter gray towards the edge of the 
wing; basal half of remiges (excepting outermost primary) white; bill black. 
Wing, 54; tail, 41; bill, 8. Female unknown. 

Sporophila hypochroma, a very distinct species, resembles S. cinnamomea in 
the wholly chestnut under parts, but differs by neutral gray (instead of chestnut, 
like lower back and rump) hindneck and anterior back, as well as by lacking 
the white at the base of the rectrices. From S. castaneiventris it may be distin- 
guished by chestnut lower back, rump, cheeks, and auriculars; absence of gray 
on sides and flanks; paler gray of upper parts, and thicker, stouter bill; from 
S. minuta hypoxantha by chestnut, instead of tawny, coloration of under parts 
and rump, etc. From the single adult male, which, thanks to the describer's 
courtesy, I have been able to examine, it is, of course, impossible to ascertain to 
which of the species just mentioned S. hypochroma is most nearly related, especially 
without knowing the female, but there can be no doubt as to its being perfectly 
distinct. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Buena Vista, 1. 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, pp. 7, 30, 45, 353, 1907 Rio Tapajoz (Urucuri- 
tuba), Obidos, Teffe (Rio Solimoes), and Humaythd (Rio Madeira), 
Brazil; Berlepsch, I.e., 15, pp. 120, 320, 1908 Cayenne and Saint Jean du 
Maroni, French Guiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 56, pp. 11, 500, 1908 
Rio Purus (Bom Lugar) and Rio Tapajoz (Goyana), Brazil; Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 17, p. 281, 1910 Marmellos, Rio Madeira, Brazil; Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 428, 1914 Rio Tapajoz (Pinhel, Itaituba, Goyana), 
Rio Purus (Bom Lugar), Arumanduba, and Monte Alegre, Brazil; Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 557, 1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, 
Colombia; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 89, 1918 
vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam. 

Spermophila castaneiventris Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 495, 1850 
Cayenne; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 104, 1862 Guiana; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 181 Nauta, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1867, p. 977 Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata, Peru; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 225, 1870 Borba (Rio Madeira), Rio Amazon, 
and Marabitanas (Rio Negro), Brazil; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 7 (monog.); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 185 Cosnipata; idem, 
I.e., 1873, p. 264 Nauta and Pebas, Peru; Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 
79, 1876 Santarem, Brazil; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, 
p. 17 Yurimaguas, Peru; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 214 Bartica Grove, 
British Guiana; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 12, 1886 Peru (Nauta, 
Pebas, Yurimaguas, Iquitos); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 108, 
1888 British Guiana (Bartica Grove) and Peru (Pebas, Iquitos, Nauta, 
lower Ucayali, Cosnipata) ; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 357, p. 24, 1899 Gualaquiza and Zamora, Ecuador; Menegaux, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 13, p. 498, 1907 French Guiana; Penard, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 388, 1910 Surinam (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Microphila castaneiventris Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 436, 1921 Great 
Falls of Demerara, Bartica, and Georgetown. 

Sporophila castaneiventris rostrata Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 91, 
July, 12, 1922 Santarem, Brazil (type in Carnegie Museum). 

Sporophila castaneiventris castaneiventris Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 609, 1926 eastern Ecuador; Naumburg, I.e., 60, p. 345, 1930 
Calama, Rio Madeira. 

Range. Tropical lowlands of French, Dutch, and British Guiana, 
and the whole Amazonian region from Santarem and Arumanduba 
on the lower Amazon west to the eastern foot of the Andes in 
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 1 

1 It will be very difficult to subdivide this species, as has been attempted 
by Mr. Todd. The tone of the chestnut color underneath varies considerably 
within the same locality. The palest specimen is from Rio Espirito Santo, Bolivia, 
the darkest from Cosnipata, Peru. Another male from the latter locality, however, 
does not differ from the Guianan average. On the other hand, there is an un- 
deniable tendency to develop larger bills among the birds found on the south 
side of the lower Amazon from the Tapaj6z to the Rio Madeira, a male from 
Borba being particularly noticeable in that respect. However, other individuals 
are hardly different on this score, and the smallest bills are those of two males from 
Bolivia (Rio Espirito Santo) and Cosnipata, which, if the dividing line be formed 






1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 227 

12: British Guiana (Georgetown, 1; unspecified, 1); Brazil 
(Itacoatiara, Amazonas, 4); Peru (Yurimaguas, 5; Moyobamba, 1). 

Sporophila melanogaster (Pelzeln). 1 BLACK-BELLIED 
SEED-EATER. 

Spermophila melanogasler Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, pp. 225, 332, 1870 Itarar6 
and Borda do Matto (near Mogy-mirim), Sao Paulo, Brazil (descr. of 
male; cotypes in Vienna Museum examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 21 
Sao Paulo (ex Pelzeln); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 140, 1888 
(ex Pelzeln). 

Sporophila melanogastra Hellmayr, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 525, 
1904 (descr., crit.). 

Sporophila melanogaster Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 378, 1907 ItararS 
and Mogy-mirim, Sao Paulo (ex Pelzeln). 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, in State of Sao Paulo (Itarare" and 
Borda do Matto, near Mogy-mirim). 

Genus CATAMENIA Bonaparte 2 

Catamenia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 493, end of 1850 type, by 
subs, desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 78, 1855), Linaria analis 
Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 

Idiospiza Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 127, July, 1917 type, by 
orig. desig., Linaria inornata Lafresnaye. 

by the Amazon Valley, should undoubtedly go with S. c. rostrata! It appears 
to me that the study of adequate series from throughout the range is required 
to prove the existence of two or more races. 

Additional material examined. British Guiana: Bartica Grove, 5. Dutch 
Guiana: Paramaribo, 1. French Guiana: Saint Jean du Maroni, 2; unspecified, 
5. Brazil: Marabitanas, Rio Negro, 1; Sao Paulo de Olivenca, 2; Teff6, Rio 
Solimoes, 1; Rio Amazonas, 1; Obidos, 1; Urucurituba, Rio Tapajoz, 3; Santar6m, 
2; Borba, Rio Madeira, 1; Calama, 1; Humayta, 2; Marmellos, 1; Rio Jurua, 1. 
Colombia: "Bogota," 1. Ecuador: Zamora, 2. Peru: Iquitos, 3; La Merced, 
Chanchamayo, 1; Cosnipata, Cuzco, 3. Bolivia: Rio Espirito Santo, 1. 

1 Sporophila melanogasler (Pelzeln) : Male similar to S. caslaneiventris in pro- 
portions and general style of coloration, but upper parts and sides of head, neck, 
and breast as well as flanks much paler, light ashy gray instead of plumbeous, and 
the median under parts from throat to tail coverts dull black instead of rufous, 
not to mention several minor differences. Wing (male), 55-56; tail, 40-42; bill, 
9 mm. 

This very distinct form, which may prove to be a geographical representative 
of S. castaneiventris, still rests on Natterer's two specimens, an adult male 
(in worn breeding garb) shot at Itarar6, on Feb. 24, 1821, and an immature male 
(in fresh plumage) obtained at Borda do Matto, on November 20, 1822. The 
female is unknown. 

* Further subdivision of this genus appears to me unwarranted. I not only 
concur with Mr. Zimmer's view (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, pp. 459-460, 
1930) regarding the close affinities existing between C. analis and C. inornata, 
but also believe that C. homochroa, which differs again by slenderer, less convex 
bill, should not be separated either. The structural features characterizing the 
three groups are to my mind good specific characters, and their natural relation- 
ship is much better expressed by uniting them in one genus than by admitting 
three monotypic genera of questionable value. 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Duncanula Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 193, Feb., 1921 type, 
by orig. desig., Catamenia homochroa Sclater. 

*Catamenia analis analis (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 
D'ORBIGNY'S SEED-EATER. 

Linaria analis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 
2, p. 83, 1837 Sicasica (La Paz) and Cochabamba, Bolivia (descr. of 
male and female; cotypes in Paris Museum examined); 1 d'Orbigny, Voy. 
Ame"r. Merid., Ois., p. 364, pi. 48, fig. 1, 1844 La Paz, Inquisivi, Cocha- 
bamba, Totora, and Chuquisaca, Bolivia. 

Catamenia analis subinsignis Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87, 
p. 340, Oct. 10, 1935 Sandillani, La Paz, Bolivia (type in the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Catamenia analis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 493, 1850 part, 
male, Bolivia; Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 256, 1860 Sierra of Mendoza; 
idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 488, 1861 Sierra of Mendoza; Sclater, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 105, 1862 Bolivia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 606 Sorata (Yungas) and d'Orbigny's localities, 
Bolivia; White, I.e., 1882, p. 599 Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca; 
Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 57, 1888 near Mendoza and Cata- 
marca; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 Sibaya, Tarapaca, Chile; Stempel- 
mann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Cienc. Cordoba, 10, p. 398, 1890 Cordoba; 
Holland, Ibis, 1893, p. 485 Santa Elena, Buenos Aires (spec, examined); 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 8, 1897 Salta; Wet- 
more, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 401, 1926 Mendoza (Potrerillos 
and Rio Tunuyan); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 232, 
1927 Conception, Tucuman; Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 35, 1927 
Mendoza. 

Spermophila analis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 106, 1888 Bolivia, 
Mendoza, and Cordoba (Cosquin); Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, 
p. 279, 1895 Chilecito, La Rioja; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
8, p. 177, 1902 Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 216, 1904 La Criolla, 
Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 237, 1904 Rosario de 
Lerma, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 43, 1905 
Tucuman; Giacomelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 69, 1923 La Rioja. 

Spermophila analis analis Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 176, 1909 
Mendoza and Tucuman. 

Spermophila analis Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 383, 1910 
(range in Argentina); Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 152, 1918 Mendoza; 
Budin, I.e., 4, p. 411, 1931 Maimara, Jujuy. 

Catamenia analis analis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 52, 
1932 Sibaya, Tarapaca, Chile. 

Spermophila analoides (not Linaria analoides Lafresnaye) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 107, 1888 part, spec, k-m, Sorata, Bolivia. 

1 Two other cotypes are in the Lafresnaye Collection, now in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. (cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 373, 1930). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 229 

Range. Temperate zone of the Andes of Bolivia (depts. of 
La Paz, Cochabamba, and Sucre), extreme northern Chile (Cor- 
dillera of Tarapaca), and western Argentina, from Jujuy to Mendoza 
and the Sierra de Cordoba; in migration east to Santa Elena, west- 
ern Buenos Aires. 1 

6: Bolivia (Parotani, Cochabamba, 3); Argentina (Concepcion, 
Tucuman, 3). 

Catamenia analis griseiventris Chapman. 2 GRAY-BELLIED 
SEED-EATER. 

Catamenia analoides griseiventris Chapman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 32, p. 267, 
Dec., 31, 1919 Cuzco, Peru (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 109, 1921 
Cuzco, Pisac, Chospiyoc, Huaracondo Canyon, and above Torontoy, 
Urubamba, Peru. 

1 In opposition to what obtains in other races, the development of the white 
alar speculum is subject to considerable individual variation in this form. This 
is well illustrated by a series of twelve males collected by G. Garlepp within a few 
weeks at La Paz, Bolivia. One has a conspicuous white speculum involving the 
basal portion of both webs of the second to ninth primaries precisely as in the 
male type of L. analis, not marked as to locality, but presumably from Sicasica, 
La Paz, which may thus be regarded as terra typica. Two other specimens have 
no trace of white on the outer web of the primaries, and the remaining ones are 
variously intermediate between the two varieties, which are represented both by 
adults and immature birds. The under parts likewise vary a good deal, being 
either uniform gray from throat to abdomen, or having a more or less extensive 
whitish area in the middle of the lower belly. There is no correlation with the 
absence or presence of the white alar speculum, and the two "extremes" are again 
connected by intermediates. C. a. subinsignis is without a shadow of doubt based 
on individual mutants. The variability of La Paz birds may possibly indicate an 
approach to C. a. griseiventris, since all of the specimens examined from Cocha- 
bamba and Argentina are possessed with a more or less distinct speculum. Two 
examples from Santa Elena, Buenos Aires, are perfectly typical of the present 
form. The male, secured on November 4, 1892, agrees with others from Tapacari, 
Bolivia, having a large white speculum occupying the basal portion of both webs 
of the second to eighth primaries, and differs only by more extensive, also purer 
white abdominal area; the female, taken on March 5, 1893, is absolutely identical 
with one from Tapacari. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Sorata, 3; La Paz, 12; Chulumani, 
La Paz, 3; Tapacari, Cochabamba, 5; Cochabamba, 1; Sucre, 2. Argentina: Tafi, 
Tucuman, 3; near Mendoza, 2; Cosquin, C6rdoba, 1; Santa Elena, Buenos Aires, 2. 

* Catamenia analis griseiventris Chapman: Similar to C. a. analis, but with 
more white in the tail, all of the rectrices except the middle pair being crossed on 
the inner web from shaft to margin by a broad band measunng about 15 mm. on 
the outermost feather. In C. a. analis, the four or five lateral rectrices are merely 
marked with an oval or elongated white spot not reaching the inner margin of 
the web. Wing (males), 66-69; tail, 57-61. 

The difference in the tail-markings is the only character by which I can 
separate the Cuzco race from typical analis. The six specimens examined re- 
semble the average of the La Paz variety in having the outer webs of the outer 
primaries margined with white, more broadly so at the base, without meeting, 
however, the white inner quill-lining. None of them has any white on the abdo- 
men, like many of the La Paz birds. 

Material examined. Peru, Cuzco: Paucartambo, 4; Tinta, 3. 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Catamenia analis (not Linaria analis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, pp. 152, 599 Tinta, Peru; Sclater, 
I.e., 1873, p. 780 Paucartambo, Cuzco, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 
1874, p. 677 Paucartambo; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 19, 1886 
Carumas, Peru. 

Spermophila analoides (not Linaria analoides Lafresnaye) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 107, 1888 part, spec, h, i, Tinta. 

Range. Temperate zone of southeastern Peru, in Dept. of Cuzco. 

*Catamenia analis analo'ides (Lafresnaye). 1 LAFRESNAYE'S 
SEED-EATER. 

Linaria analoides Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 75, 1847 Lima, Peru (type 
in coll. of T. B. Wilson, now in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 51, 1899). 

Catamenia analis (not Linaria analis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 521 Lima. 

Catamenia analoides Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 493, 1850 Lima, 
Peru; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 20, 1886 Lima (crit.); Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 376 Lima; idem, Ornis, 
13, p. 68, 1906 Coracora, Ayacucho, Peru. 

Catamenia analoides analoides Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 143, p. 9, 1924 
Lima, Pisco, Huaral, Huacho, and Vitarte, Lima, and Huancabamba, 
Piura. 

Catamenia analis analoides Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist,, Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 460, 1930 Matucana, Peru (crit.). 

Catamenia lafresnayei Sharpe, Hand List Bds., 5, p. 214, 1909 new name 
for Linaria analoides Lafresnaye. 

Range. Pacific slope of the coast Cordillera of Peru, from 
Piura (Huancabamba) to Ayacucho (Coracora). 

4: Peru (Mirador, near Macate, Ancachs, 1; Matucana, Lima, 3). 

*Catamenia analis insignis Zimmer. 2 MARAN6N SEED-EATER. 

Catamenia analis insignis Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 460, Dec. 10, 1930 Cajamarca, Peru (type in Field Museum). 

Catamenia analoides (not Linaria analoides Lafresnaye) Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, 
p. 6, 1895 Cajamarca and Cajabamba, PeYu (spec, examined). 

1 Catamenia analis analo'ides (Lafresnaye) is clearly but a race of the analis 
group, as has been explained by Mr. Zimmer, to whose remarks I may add that 
a goodly number of the La Paz specimens discussed beyond have the white on 
the inner web of the remiges extended toward the tip very nearly as in the coastal 
form. 

A single, not quite mature male from Coracora, Ayacucho, agrees with others 
from Lima in coloration, but is slightly larger (wing, 67 1 A; tail, 55 H). 

Additional material examined. Peru: Huancabamba, 5; Caraz, Ancachs, 1; 
Lima, 12; Chosica, 2; Matucana, 3; Coracora, Ayacucho, 1. 

2 Catamenia analis insignis Zimmer: Nearest to C. a. griseiventris, but edges 
along the outer web of the outer primaries gray instead of white, and white tail 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 231 

Range. Temperate zone of the upper Maranon Valley, northern 
Peru (Cajamarca; Banos, near Cajamarca; Cajabamba; Succha; 
Cullcui). 

5: Peru (Cajamarca, 3; Cullcui, 1; Chachapoyas, Amazonas, 1). 

Catamenia analis soderstromi Chapman. 1 SODERSTROM'S 
SEED-EATER. 

Catamenia analoides soderstromi Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 143,- p. 9, 
Nov. 6, 1924 El Paso, Prov. Azuay, Ecuador (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
55, p. 613, 1926 Riobamba, Cumbaya, Hacienda Garzon, El Paso, 
Quito, Tumbaco, and Yaguarcocha, Ecuador. 

! Catamenia analoides (not Linaria analoides Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 26, pp. 155, 552, 1858 Cuenca, Riobamba, and Guano, 
Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 105, 1862 Cuenca; Pelzeln, 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 26, p. 772, 1877 Quito; Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 293 Cechce, Bugnac, 
and on road from Alausi to Bugnac; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 85 between 
Chimborazo and Riobamba; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 485, 1898 Ibarra 
and Cayambe; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, 
p. 26, 1899 Chillo Valley and Tumbaco; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 474 
Quito and Chillo Valley; Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 
p. 79, 1922 Quito, Tumbaco, and Cumbaya; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 34, p. 76, 1928 Tumbaco. 

Spermophila analoides Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 107, 1888 part, 
spec, c-g, Cuenca and Sical, Ecuador. 

Catamenia lafresnayei (not of Sharpe) Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Armee 
Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B77, 1911 Guapulo and Tumbaco. 

Range. Temperate zone of western Ecuador. 

*Catamenia analis schistaceifrons Chapman. 2 CHAPMAN'S 
SEED-EATER. 

band not so extensive, measuring about 12 mm. on the outermost rectrix. Differ- 
ing from C. a. analoides by gray (instead of whitish) abdomen and absence of the 
white alar speculum. Wing (males), 67-70; tail, 57-60. 

One adult male from Cajabamba has the anal region whitish and the black 
frontal band even wider than in analoHdes, while the others have about as little 
blackish suffusion on the forehead as griseiventris. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Cajabamba, 5; Banos, near Cajamarca, 
1; Cajamarca, 3; Succha, 1. 

1 Catamenia analis soderstromi Chapman: Similar to C. a. insignis, but smaller; 
under tail coverts darker chestnut; and the outer primaries edged with pure 
white at the base of the outer webs, suggesting an alar speculum. Wing (males), 
60-64; tail, 50-55. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Quito, 6; Chillo Valley, 4; Tumbaco, 2; Ibarra, 
1; Riobamba, 4; Guallabamba, near Riobamba, 2. 

2 Catamenia analis schistaceifrons Chapman is a little-known form whose 
characters, owing to lack of adequate material, cannot be determined at present. 
The only three available specimens from "Bogota," all males according to their 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Catamenia analoides schistaceifrons Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H. f 34, 
p. 649, Dec. 30, 1915 La Mar, Cundinamarca, Colombia (type in the 
American Museum of Natural History); idem, I.e., 36, p. 560, 1917 
La Mar and Suba, Colombia. 

Catamenia analis (not Linaria analis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 159, 1855 Bogota. 

Spermophila analoides (not Linaria analoides Lafresnaye) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 107, 1888 part, spec, a, b, Bogota. 

Range. Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia 
(Bogota region). 

1: Colombia (Bogota,!). 

Catamenia analis alpica Bangs. 1 SANTA MARTA SEED-EATER. 

Catamenia alpica Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 89, March 11, 1902 
Paramo de Chiruqua, Sierra de Santa Marta, Colombia (descr. of 
female; type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
70, p. 373, 1930); Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 510, 
pi. 7 (male, female), 1922 Taquina, Macotama, and Paramo de Chiruqua 
(descr. of male; crit.). 

Catamenia sp. Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, p. 102, 1899 Paramo de 
Chiruqua. 

Range. Temperate and Paramo zones of the Sierra de Santa 
Marta in northern Colombia. 

*Catamenia inornata inornata (Lafresnaye). PLAIN-COLORED 
SEED-EATER. 

Linaria inornata Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 75, 1847 Bolivia (type in 
coll. of T. B. Wilson, now in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia; cf. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 51, 1899). 

Sporophila rufirostris (Landbeck MS.) Leybold, Journ. Orn., 13, p. 404, 1865 
near La Guardia, east of Portillo Pass, Prov. Mendoza (cotypes in 

gray unstreaked plumage, closely resemble certain individuals of C. a. soder- 
stromi with grayish white lower abdomen, but lack all trace of the white margins 
at the base of the outer web of the outer primaries. In the latter respect they 
agree with C. a. insignis, but are smaller and have darker chestnut under tail 
coverts. One has a well-defined black frontal band like the male from Cajabamba 
mentioned beyond, while the two others show no trace of that color. Wing, 
61-64; tail, 48-52. 

1 Catamenia analis alpica Bangs: Evidently very close to C. a. schistaceifrons, 
but larger and with less white in the tail. Wing, (males) 69-70, (female) 66; 
tail, 55-57, (female) 52. 

I have not been able to make direct comparison with Bogota skins, but my 
notes on two examples, in the collections at Pittsburgh and Cambridge respec- 
tively, indicate that C. a. alpica must be very near to, if not identical with, C. a. 
schistaceifrons. The Santa Marta form being likewise known only from a few 
individuals, the final decision as to its status depends on the study of further 
material. 

Two males (one fully adult) from the Sierra Nevada recently examined in 
the British Museum are indeed larger (wing, 67, 69; tail, 54, 58) and have much 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 233 

National Museum, Santiago de Chile; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. Mus. 

Nac. Santiago, 13, p. 21, 1930). 

Spermophila rufiroslris Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 21 (ex Leybold). 
Catamenia rufirostris Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cor- 
doba, 10, p. 398, 1890 Sierra de Cordoba, Argentina. 
Spermophila inornata Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 104, 1888 part, 

spec, a-c, Bolivia and Mendoza. 
Catamenia inornata Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 57, 1888 near 

Mendoza. 
Sporophila inornata Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 396, 

1910 Sierra de Cordoba and western Mendoza. 
Catamenia inornata inornata Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 37, 

1920 Ollachea, Dept. Puno, Peru (crit.); Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 117, p. 109, 1921 Ttica-Ttica and above Matchu Picchu, Dept. 

Cuzco, Peru. 
Catamenia beecheyi Sharpe, Hand List Bds., 5, p. 214, 1909 new name for 

Linaria inornata Lafresnaye. 1 

Range. Puna zone of extreme southeastern Peru (depts. of 
Cuzco and Puno), Bolivia, and western Argentina from Jujuy to 
Mendoza and the Sierra de Cordoba. 2 

8: Argentina (Maimara, Jujuy, 1; Las Pavas, Tucuman, 6; Lago 
Helada, Catamarca, 1). 

*Catamenia inornata minor Berlepsch. 3 LESSER PLAIN-COLORED 
SEED-EATER. 

less white in the tail than a single Bogota skin. The adult bird has a distinct, 
though narrow, black frontal band. 

Material examined. Colombia: Macotama, 1; Paramo de Chiruqua, 1 (the 
type); Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (alt. 9,200 and 10,000 ft. resp.), 2. 

1 There is no reason whatever for this change, Linaria inornata Lafresnaye 
being by no means preoccupied by Pyrrhula inornata Vigors (Zool. Voy. Blossom, 
p. 20, 1829), an indeterminable species (of Carpodacus?), of which the type has 
disappeared. 

2 Birds from western Argentina are absolutely identical with a Bolivian 
series. Those from southeastern Peru average perhaps very slightly smaller, but 
are nevertheless strictly referable to the larger southern form. No material is 
available from the Sierra of Cordoba. 

Males from Bolivia (La Paz, Iquico) measure: wing, 73-77 K; tail, 63-69 mm. 
Males from Ollachea, Puno, Peru, measure: wing, 73-75; tail, 60-65 mm. 

Additional material examined. Argentina: near Mendoza, 1. Bolivia: La 
Paz, 2; Iquico, Illimani, 3; unspecified, 1. Peru: Ollachea, Dept. Puno, 7. 

3 Catamenia inornata minor Berlepsch : Similar to C. i. inornata, but smaller 
in all dimensions. 

While Ecuadorian specimens, when compared to a series of the nominate 
race, are easily separable by their lesser size (wing of males, 64-68; tail, 57-62), 
there is a gradual increase in dimensions among Peruvian specimens. Males 
from Huanuco and Maraynioc sometimes attain 70 mm. in the length of the 
wing, and Chapman, for birds from Oroya, Junin, indicates even 71 Yi mm. as 
maximum figure. In the Maranon Valley variation in size is considerable. While 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Fringilla analis (not Linaria analis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Lafresnaye, 
Rev. Zool., 6, p. 291, 1843 Colombia= Bogota (descr. of female; type 
in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 372, 1930). 

Catamenia inornata minor Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 115 
based on Catamenia homochroa (not of Sclater) Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 293; Cechce, Ecuador (type in Warsaw 
Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 6, p. 169, 1927); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, I.e., 1896, p. 349 
Maraynioc, Peru (crit.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 559, 
1917 Santa Isabel, Valle de las Pappas, La Pradera, and Paramo de 
Choachi, Colombia (crit.). 

Catamenis inornata var. aequatorialis Dubois, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 13, 
p. 401, 1894 Ecuador (type in Brussels Museum). 

Catamenia rufirostris (not Sporophila rufirostris Leybold) Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 521 Maraynioc, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 3, 
p. 21, 1886 Peru (Maraynioc, Cutervo, Tambillo). 

Catamenia inornata (not Linaria inornata Lafresnaye) Taczanowski, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 229 Tambillo, Peru; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 199 
Cutervo and Tambillo, Peru; Sclater, I.e., 1881, p. 486 west side of 
Cordillera above Lima, alt. of 10,000 to 12,000 ft., Peru; Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1885, p. 85 San Rafael, Ecuador; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 
2, p. 7, 1895 Huamachuco, Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 26, 1899 Canar, Ecuador. 

Spermophila inornata Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 104, 1888 part, 
spec, d, e, Peru (above Lima and Acancocha). 

Catamenia homochroa (not of Sclater) Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 293 Cechce, Ecuador (crit., measurements). 

Catamenia beecheyi minor Menegaux, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Arm6e Mes. Arc 
Merid. Equat., 9, p. B76, 1911 Quito, Ecuador. 

Idiospiza inornata minor Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 612, 
1926 Ecuador (Pichincha, Lloa, above Chambo, Guamani, Chimborazo, 
Bestion, El Paso, Guachanama, Taraguacocha) ; Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 34, p. 76, 1928 Cerro Mojanda, Ecuador. 

Range. Paramo zone of the central and eastern Andes of 
Colombia and of the Andes of Ecuador and Peru south to Junin. 

6: Colombia (Neyon, Bogota, 1); Peru (mountains near Hua- 
nuco, Huanuco, 5). 

an adult male from Cutervo (wing, 66; tail, 60) and one female each from Cutervo 
and Tambillo (wing, 61; tail, 54, 56) fall well within the measurements of Ecua- 
dorian birds, an adult male from Santiago (wing, 74; tail, 65) and a female from 
Huamachuco (wing, 70; tail, 62) are fully as large as typical inornata. Taken as 
a whole, the inhabitants of Peru with the exception of the southeastern section 
seem, however, better referred to minor. Color differences do not exist between 
the two races, so far as I can see. 

Additional material examined. Colombia: Santa Isabel, central Andes, 2. 
Ecuador: above Mindo, 1; Pichincha, 4; Sinche, Chimborazo, 1; Canar, 2; "Quito," 
3. Peru: Cutervo, 2; Tambillo, 1; Santiago, 1; Huamachuco, 1; Maraynioc, 4. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 235 

Catamenia oreophila Todd. 1 MOUNTAIN SEED-EATER. 

Catamenia oreophila Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 26, p. 169, Aug. 8, 1913 
San Lorenzo, Santa Marta region, Colombia (type in the Carnegie Mu- 
seum, Pittsburgh). 

Idiospiza oreophila Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 508, 1922 
San Lorenzo and Cerro de Caracas, Colombia (crit., meas., habits). 

Range. Temperate and Paramo zones of the Santa Marta 
mountains in northern Colombia. 

Catamenia homochroa 2 homochroa Sclater. SCLATER'S 
SEED-EATER. 

Catamenia homochroa Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 552, 1858 
Matos, Ecuador (descr. of male; type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum); idem, I.e., 28, p. 88, 1860 Calacali and Puellaro, near 
Quito, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 106, 1862 Matos, 
Calacali, and Puellaro; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 521 
Maraynioc, Peru; idem and Berlepsch, I.e., 1885, p. 85 San Rafael, 
Ecuador; Taczanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 22, 1886 Maraynioc, Peru; 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 350 Maray- 
nioc; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 26, 
1899 Papallacta, Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 474 vicinity of 
Quito; Me"n6gaux, Miss. Serv. Ge"ogr. Arm6e Mes. Arc Me"rid. Equat., 
9, p. B76, 1911 Oyacachi and Lloa, Ecuador; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 560, 1917 Paramillo, west of Popayan, Valle de las 

IPappas, and Laguneta, Colombia; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 462, 
1918 Tabaconas, Peru. 
Spermophila homochroa Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 105, 1888 part, 
spec, a-h, Ecuador (Matos, Calacali, Puellaro, Sical, "Intag") and 
Colombia (Bogota). 

1 Catamenia oreophila Todd: "Similar to the female of C. i. minor, but rump 
and upper tail coverts dull grayish olive, almost concolor with the back, the 
latter with the dusky streaks less distinct; bill much smaller and more compressed; 
tail relatively longer and less emarginate. Wing (female), 62-64; tail, 56-60; 
bill, 9-10." (Todd, I.e.) 

This species, which we have not seen, is of doubtful affinity. The only existing 

male, while generally resembling the female, is darker, nearly slaty on forehead 

and throat. This peculiar coloration speaks for its immaturity, and suggests 

that the male, when adult, probably assumes a slate gray plumage, corresponding 

to that of C. homochroa. Although the species is compared to C. inornata minor, 

certain characters, such as the less turgid bill, seem to associate it with C. 

homochroa, which, judging from Todd's measurements, it also resembles in pro- 

I portions of wings and tail. In coloration, the female of C. oreophila is stated to 

I be intermediate, being paler than C. homochroa and darker than C. inornata minor, 

I but not nearly so heavily streaked above as either. While more detailed informa- 

I tion about this bird is urgently desired, I would not be surprised if it turned out 

i to be a geographical race of C. homochroa. 

1 Catamenia homochroa may be readily distinguished from C. inornata by longer 
and differently shaped bill, the mandible in particular being less turgid, with the 
culmen straighter and the tip acutely pointed. In the plumage of the adult male, 
moreover, the gray is darker without any trace of the blackish streaks in the 
interscapular region, so conspicuous in the allied species. It appears to be quite 
distinct specifically. 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Idiospiza homochroa Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 613, 1926 
Hacienda Garz6n, Pichincha, El Corazon, Cerro Huamani, Papallacta, 
and Oyacachi, Ecuador. 

Range. Temperate and Paramo zones of Colombia (except 
Santa Marta region), Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 1 

Catamenia homochroa duncani (Chubb). 2 DUNCAN'S 
SEED-EATER. 

Duncanula duncani Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 193, Feb., 1921 
Mount Roraima, British Guiana (descr. of young male; type in coll. of 
F. V. McConnell, now in British Museum, examined); idem, Bds. Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 440, pi. 7 (young male, female), 1921 Mount Roraima. 

Catamenia sp. Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 216 Roraima. 

Spermophila homochroa (not Catamenia homochroa Sclater) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 105, 1888 part, spec, i-1, Roraima. 

Idiospiza homochroa duncani Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 119, 
1931 Mounts Roraima and Duida (crit.). 

Range. Upper altitudes of Mounts Roraima and Duida, British 
Guiana and Venezuela. 

Genus AMAUROSPIZOPSIS Griscom 3 

Amaurospizopsis Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 412, Jan., 1934 
type, by orig. desig., Amaurospizopsis relictus Griscom. 

1 We are quite unable to appreciate any local variation in this widespread 
species, examples from Bolivia being to all appearance identical with others from 
Bogota. A single bird in juvenile plumage from Onda in the Paramo zone of the 
Andes of M6rida, Venezuela, differs considerably in coloration and has a more 
elevated, though otherwise similarly shaped bill. Without knowing the adult 
stage, it is impossible to determine the status of the Venezuelan bird. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota," 4. Ecuador: Quito, 5; Puellaro, 
1; Riobamba, 1; San Rafael, 3; Oyacachi, 2; Lloa, 1; Papallacta, 2; unspecified, 
2. Peru: Maraynioc, 2. Bolivia: Unduavi, 2. 

2 Catamenia homochroa duncani (Chubb) : Exceedingly similar to the nominate 
race, but adult males apparently never uniform dark gray, being more or less 
tinged with brownish, especially on the abdomen; immature (first winter?) and 
juvenile plumages more heavily streaked, with the ground color of the latter 
more ochraceous. Wing, 65-67, (female) 61-64; tail, 58-61, (female) 56-59. 

This is a very unsatisfactory race, but perhaps distinguishable by the above 
divergencies. As has been correctly explained by Chapman, C. homochroa varies 
so greatly with age and season that the segregation of local races encounters 
unusual difficulties. As a matter of fact, an immature male from Roraima is 
exactly like a bird from Puellaro, Ecuador, while one of the females hardly differs 
from a Bogota skin. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Roraima, 6. 

3 Genus Amaurospizopsis Griscom: "Very close to Amaurospiza, but larger, 
with proportionately shorter and deeper stubbier bill; rictal bristles twice as long, 
greatly exceeding the plumules, and much stiff er; nostril large, with a marked 
operculum; culmen distinctly ridged, a groove just over the nasal fossae, extending 
forward two-thirds of the way to the tip of the maxilla; maxilla with five other 
fainter ridges and grooves extending diagonally from the nostril to the commissure." 
(Griscom, I.e.) 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 237 

Amaurospizopsis relictus Griscom. 1 GUERRERO BLUE 
SEED-EATER. 

Amaurospizopsis relictus Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 412, Jan., 
1934 Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Mexico, in State of 
Guerrero (Chilpancingo). 

Genus AMAUROSPIZA Cabanis 

Amaurospiza Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 3, 1861 type, by orig. desig., 
Amaurospiza concolor Cabanis. 

Amaurospiza concolor grandior Griscom. 2 NICARAGUAN BLUE 
SEED-EATER. 

Amaurospiza concolor grandior Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 414, 
Jan., 1934 Pena Blanca, eastern Nicaragua (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern (Caribbean) Nicaragua (Pena 
Blanca, San Emilio, Rio Coco, and Rio Tuma). 

Amaurospiza concolor concolor Cabanis. CABANIS'S BLUE 
SEED-EATER. 

Amaurospiza concolor Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 3, 1861 Costa Rica (type 
in Berlin Museum examined; descr. of adult male); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 103, 1868 Costa Rica (ex Cabanis); Frantzius, 
Journ. Orn., 17, p. 301, 1869 Costa Rica; Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 313 
Panama Railway; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 350, 1885 Costa Rica and Panama (Chiriqui; Paraiso Station, Panama 
Railroad) ; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 156, 1888 Paraiso Station 

1 Amaurospizopsis relictus Griscom: "Uniform dull grayish blue, slightly 
bluer on the lesser wing coverts, grayer and paler on belly; chin dusky; loral 
region black; sides of head below eye dusky; remiges blackish, the primaries 
narrowly edged externally with grayish, the secondaries very broadly with grayish 
blue; rectrices blackish, narrowly edged on outer webs with grayish blue; bill 
dusky, lower mandible abruptly whitish for terminal third; legs and feet dusky. 
Wing (adult male), 69; tail, 59; tars., 19; bill, 9^." (Griscom, I.e.) 

This recently described species, which we have not seen, appears to be an 
exact duplicate of Amaurospiza concolor in coloration, but is slightly larger and 
has a somewhat differently shaped bill. In spite of these structural divergencies, 
it may, however, prove to be merely a northern race of that bird, and more material 
is greatly needed to establish its true taxonomic position. At present, a single 
adult male is all that is known of it. 

2 Amaurospiza concolor grandior Griscom: Evidently indistinguishable in 
color from A. c. concolor, but with slightly longer bill. Wing (males), 62^-64; 
bill, 9.8-10.2. 

Three adult males recently examined tend to show that the Nicaraguan race 
is not maintainable. Only one has a larger bill, while in the two others this organ 
is decidedly shorter than in specimens from Costa Rica and Panama. 

Material examined. Nicaragua: San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua, 2; Rio Coco, 1. 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

and Chiriqui, Panama; Underwood, Ibis, 1896, p. 436 Miravalles, Costa 
Rica; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 579, 1901 Panama 
(Paraiso Station) to Costa Rica (monog.); Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 311, 1907 
Boruca, Terraba Valley, Costa Rica; idem, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
22, p. 38, 1909 Tenorio, Costa Rica (descr. of female); Carriker, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 886, 1910 Tenorio and Miravalles, Costa Rica. 

Amaurospiza concolor concolor Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 414, 
1934 Miravalles and Tenorio, Costa Rica (crit.). 

Amaurospiza concolor australis Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 415, 
1934 Boquete, Chiriqui, Panama (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Range. Tropical zone of Pacific Costa Rica (Miravalles, Tenorio, 
Boruca) and Panama (Chiriqui; Paraiso Station, Panama Railroad). 1 

Amaurospiza concolor aequatorialis Sharpe. 2 EQUATORIAL 
BLUE SEED-EATER. 

Amaurospiza aequatorialis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 157, 1888 
Pallatanga and Balzar, western Ecuador (type, from Pallatanga, in British 
Museum examined); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 614, 
1926 junction of the Rio Coco and Rio Chimbo, Ecuador (crit.). 

Spiza ? Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 66, 1859 Pallatanga. 

1 Splitting of the Pacific birds into two races has been attempted by Griscom, 
but the alleged differences prove to be purely individual. The type collected by 
Frantzius somewhere in Costa Rica agrees with one from Chiriqui in dimensions 
and coloration, both having the lower abdomen slightly more grayish (less bluish) 
than the breast, whereas two from Miravalles, like another from Chiriqui and a 
male from Paraiso Station, are nearly uniform dull (grayish) indigo underneath. 
Females are even more variable individually. One from Chiriqui is dark mars 
brown, the under parts being just a shade paler, only the rump somewhat more 
olivaceous; while a second female from the same locality is very much paler 
throughout, about Dresden brown with a faint rufescent tone on the foreneck. The 
same variation obtains in A. c. aequatorialis. Griscom designates "Miravalles" 
as type locality of A. concolor. The Berlin Museum does not possess any birds 
collected by Frantzius at that place, and I believe Underwood was the first natura- 
list to visit this locality (in 1895 or 1896). The wings of adult males examined 
vary, regardless of origin, from 59 to 63; the tail from 52 to 57 mm. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Miravalles, 2; unspecified, 1. Panama: 
Chiriqui, 5; Paraiso Station, 1. 

2 Amaurospiza concolor aequatorialis Sharpe: Very similar to A. c. concolor, 
but with smaller bill; coloration of male somewhat paler, particularly the pileum 
lighter indigo blue. Wing, 61, (female) 55-57; tail, 47-52; bill, 9-10. 

The type, an immature male with numbers of reddish brown feathers under- 
neath, has no white under the wing, while a nearly adult male in the American 
Museum of Natural History shows white under wing coverts. The female varies 
just as much as does the same sex of its northern ally, one from Balzar, Ecuador, 
being very nearly as dark mars brown as the dark-colored individual from Chiriqui 
mentioned above, whereas two from San Pablo, Colombia, have the upper parts 
brighter, more cinnamomeous, and the ventral surface likewise more reddish. 
Though more adequate material is required to determine its characters, there 
can be no question as to A. aequatorialis being but a slightly differentiated race 
of Cabanis's Blue Seed-eater. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Balzar, 1; Pallatanga, 1 (the type). Colombia: 
San Pablo, Prov. Tuqueres, 2. 



i 1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 239 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Colombia (San Pablo, 
! Prov. Tuqueres) and western Ecuador (Balzar, Pallatanga, Rio 
, Chimbo). 

*Amaurospiza moesta (Hartlaub). 1 HARTLAUB'S BLUE 
SEED-EATER. 

Sporophila moesta Hartlaub, Journ. Orn., 1, p. 36, 1853 Brazil (type in 

Bremen Museum examined; descr. of adult male). 
Amaurospiza coerulatra Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 14, p. 306, 1866 Rio [de 

Janeiro], Brazil (type in Zurich Museum; descr. of adult male); Finsch, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 583 (crit.). 
Haplospiza (?) crassirostris Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, pp. 227, 332, 1870 Tejuco, 

near Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil (type in Vienna Museum examined; 

descr. of female); Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, p. 267, 1902 (ex Pelzeln). 

Amaurospiza axillaris Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 157, 1888 Brazil 
(the type, a skin of "Rio" preparation, in British Museum examined; 
descr. of adult male). 

Amaurospiza moesta Hellmayr, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 54, p. 516, 1904 
Rio and Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil (crit., synon.); Ihering, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., 1, p. 379, 1907 (range); Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 97, 
1918 Iguazu, Misiones; Bertoni, I.e., 1, p. 258, 1919 Puerto Bertoni, 
Paraguay; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 187, 1926 
Parana (Sao Domingo, Banhados, Fazenda Durski, Cara Pintada, Candido 
de Abreu, and Salto Guayra); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 294, 1929 Tranqueira, Maranhao. 

Dolospingus (?) Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 63, 1914 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay. 

Range. Eastern Brazil (Tranqueira, Maranhao; Rio de Janeiro; 
Therezopolis, Rio; Tejuco, near Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo; Sao Domingo, 
Banhados, Fazenda Durski, etc., Parana) and Misiones, Argentina 
(Iguazu, Caraguatay, and El Dorado). 

6: Brazil (Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1; Tranqueira, Maranhao, 
1); Argentina (Caraguatay, Misiones, 3; El Dorado, Misiones, 1). 

Genus DOLOSPINGUS Elliot 

Dolospingus Elliot, Ibis, (3), 1, p. 402, 1871 type, by monotypy, Dolo- 
spingus nuchalis E\liot=Oryzoborus (?) fringilloides Pelzeln. 

1 Amaurospiza moesta (Hartlaub) differs from A. concolor by much duller, 
less bluish upper parts passing into blackish on the pileum, and dull black under 
surface with white under wing coverts and white inner margins to the remiges. 
The bill is differently shaped, being wider at the base and laterally more com- 
pressed towards the tip, the culmen more sharply ridged, etc. Wings and tail 
are decidedly longer. 

The types of S. moesta and A. axillaris are practically identical, except that 
the latter has the back marked with subapical black spots like our specimen 
from Maranhao, whereas the other males examined have the back either uniform 
or with mere suggestions of darker markings. This seems to be a purely individual 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Dolospingus fringilloides (Pelzeln). 1 WHITE-NAPED SEED-EATER. 

Oryzoborus (?) fringilloides Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, pp. 223, 329, 1870 Rio 

Xie, upper Rio Negro, Brazil (type in Vienna Museum examined; descr. 

of female). 
Dolospingus nuchalis Elliot, Ibis, (3), 1, p. 402, pi. 11 (=male), 1871 

"Orinoco, on the Borders of British Guiana" (type in the American 

Museum of Natural History, New York, examined; descr. of adult male); 

Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 141, 1888 (ex Elliot); Cherrie, Sci. 

Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 190, 1916 Orinoco (ex Elliot). 
Amaurospiza fringilloides Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 157, 1888 

Rio Xie (ex Pelzeln); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 380, 1907 Rio 

Negro. 
Dolospingus fringilloides Berlepsch and Hellmayr, Journ. Orn., 53, p. 23, 

1905 Rio Negro (crit.). 

Range. Southern Venezuela (Savanna Grande, Mount Duida) 
and adjacent section of northeastern Brazil (Rio Xie"; Yavanari, 
upper Rio Negro). 

Genus ORYZOBORUS Cabanis 

Oryzoborus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 151, Oct., 1851 type, by subs, desig. 
(Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 75, 1855), Loxia torrida "Gmelin" 
[=Scopoli] = Loxia angolensis Linnaeus. 

*Oryzoborus crassirostris maximiliani Cabanis. 2 WIED'S RICE 
GROSBEAK. 

Fringilla crassirostris (not Loxia crassirostris Gmelin) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 3, (1), p. 564, 1830 Rio Espirito Santo, Espirito Santo, and Cara- 
vellas, Bahia (cotypes lost, formerly in Wied Collection; cf. Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 222, 1889). 

variation. The female of A. moesta, in general coloration, is very much like the 
same sex of A. concolor, but larger, with much heavier, deeper bill. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: unspecified, 1 (male; the type); Rio 
de Janeiro, 2 (male, female); Tejuco, Sao Paulo, 1 (female). 

1 Berlepsch and Hellmayr's suggestion that Dolospingus nuchalis and Ory- 
zoborus fringilloides are likely to be different sexes of the same species has been 
fully confirmed by a series of specimens received by the American Museum of 
Natural History from the Duida region. The four males are D. nuchalis, the 
three females are what Pelzeln described as O. fringilloides, the latter name haying 
one year's priority. The original locality, "Orinoco, near the borders of British 
Guiana," is probably inexact, as no one ever found this remarkable bird on the 
lower stretches of that mighty river. 

Material examined. Venezuela: "Orinoco," 1 (type of D. nuchalis); Savanna 
Grande, Mount Duida, 7. Brazil: Rio Xie, 1 (type of 0. fringilloides); Yavanari, 
right bank of Rio Negro, 1 (male). 

2 Oryzoborus crassirostris maximiliani Cabanis: Similar to O. c. crassirostris, but 
tail longer; axillaries and under wing coverts, in the adult male, broadly edged 
with black; female with upper parts rather darker and less rufescent, and the 
axillaries and under wing coverts more buffy (less whitish). Wing, 74^-77, 
(female) 69; tail, 68-72; bill, 16-17; depth at base, 14-15. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, 2; Fazenda Esperanca, 
Goyaz, 2; Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 241 

Oryzoborus maximiliani Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 154 (footnote), Oct., 1851 
new name for Fringilla crassirostris Wied; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. 
Th. Bras., 3, p. 238, 1856 Rio Espirito Santo (ex Wied); (?)idem, 
Journ. Orn., 8, p. 257, 1860 near Tucuman; (?)idem, Reise La Plata St., 
2, p. 488, 1861 near Tucuman; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 102, 
1862 "Brazil"; (?)Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 44, 1888 
near Tucuman (ex Burmeister); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 78, 
1888 Rio de Janeiro; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 368, 1891 
Chapada, Matto Grosso; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 177, 
1902 (not seen near Tucuman); idem, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, 
p. 42, 1905 (not seen at Tucuman); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 369, 
1907 Franca, Sao Paulo (range); Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 355, 
1914 "Tucuman" (crit.). 

Oryzoborus crassirostris maximiliani Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 32, 1908 
Fazenda Esperanc.a, Goyaz (crit.); Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
60, p. 344, 1930 Matto Grosso. 

Oryzoborus crassirostris subsp. maximiliani Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. 
Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 380, 1910 Tucuman (ex Burmeister). 

Oryzoborus crassirostris Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 222, 1870 part, Cuyaba, 
Matto Grosso (spec, examined). 

Range. Southern and interior Brazil, in states of Bahia (Cara- 
vellas), Espirito Santo (Rio Espirito Santo), Rio de Janeiro, Sao 
Paulo (Franca), Goyaz (Fazenda Esperanca, Veadeiros), and Matto 
Grosso (Cuyaba, Chapada). 1 

1: Brazil (Veadeiros, Goyaz, 1). 

Oryzoborus crassirostris crassirostris (Gmelin). LARGE- 
BILLED RICE GROSBEAK. 

Loxia crassirostris Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 862, 1789 based on "Thick- 
billed Grosbeak" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (1), p. 148, habitat unknown 
= Cayenne, as suggested by Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 25, 
1902 (type in coll. of M. Tunstall; descr. of adult male). 

Coccoborus ater Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," 
p. 678, 1849 British Guiana (type in Berlin Museum; descr. of adult 
male). 

Sporophila crassirostris Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 498, 1850 
Guiana. 

Spermophila crassirostris L6otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 316, 1866 Trinidad. 

Oryzoborus crassirostris Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 151, Oct., 1851 (crit.); 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 102, 1862 "Trinidad"; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 979 Xeberos, Peru; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras., 3, p. 222, 1870 part, Lamalonga and Marabitanas, Rio 
Negro, Brazil; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 214 Bartica Grove, British Guiana; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 79, 1888 British Guiana (George- 

1 Burmeister's Tucuman record requires corroboration, no other naturalist 
having since met with the species in Argentina. 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

town, Bartica Grove), Trinidad, Venezuela (San Esteban), Colombia 
(?Medellin, Bogota), Brazil (Lamalonga), and Peru (Pebas, Nauta); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 34, 1894 Princestown, Trinidad; 
Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 25, 1902 Quiribana de Caicara, 
Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; Hellmayr, I.e., 13, p. 19, 1906 Seelet, Trinidad; 
Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 29, 1907 Mexiana, Brazil; Sneth- 
lage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 296, 1907 Mexiana and "Cussary," Brazil; 
Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 369, 1907 (range, excl. of Matto Grosso); 
Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 386, 1910 Surinam (habits); Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 61, p. 520, 1913 Mexiana and "Cussary"; idem, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 427, 1914 Mexiana and "Cussary," Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. 
Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 186, 1916 Caicara, Quiribana de Caicara, 
and San Feliz River, Orinoco; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 425, 1921 
Great Falls of the Demerara River, Bartica, Georgetown, and Hoorie 
Creek; Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 135, 1922 Trini- 
dad; Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Oryzoborus melas Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 979 
Pebas, Peru (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum, exam- 
ined); idem, I.e., 1869, pp. 252, 253 San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela; 
idem, I.e., 1873, p. 264 Peru (Nauta, Xeberos, Chyavetas, Pebas); Tac- 
zanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 8, 1886 same localities. 

Oryzoborus sp. Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 181 
Nauta, Peru. 

Oryzoborus crassirostris crassirostris Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. 
Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 119, 1912 Mexiana; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 556, 1917 Villavicencio, eastern Colombia; 
Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 89, 1918 vicinity of 
Paramaribo, Surinam. 

Range. Island of Trinidad; Venezuela (El Llagual, Caura; 
Caicara, Quiribana de Caicara, and San Feliz River, Orinoco Valley; 
San Esteban, Carabobo); the Guianas; northern Brazil, north of 
the Amazon, 1 west to the eastern foot of the east Colombian Andes 
(Villavicencio) and northeastern Peru. 2 

1 1 cannot help questioning the locality "Cussary," a place on the south 
bank of the lower Amazon, inasmuch as we learn from the late Madame Snethlage 
that collections made at that village and others from near Montalegre were 
mixed up by the collector, an employee of the Museu Goeldi. 

2 1 have not been able to correlate certain variations in dimensions and in 
size of bill with geographic areas. Males from British Guiana and Surinam are 
generally smaller; those from Trinidad and the Orinoco Valley are larger, the 
tail in particular longer, and have much bulkier, heavier bills, some being fully 
as large-billed as O. c. maximiliani; three from the upper Rip Negro combine the 
massive bill of the latter with the other dimensions of the Guianan birds. A single 
Bogota bird is intermediate between the two "extremes," but three from Pebas 
(melas) are not certainly distinguishable from Annai specimens. The white spot 
at the base of the central rectrices is a purely individual character. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Annai, 8. Dutch Guiana: near Para- 
maribo, 3. Brazil, Rio Negro: Lamalonga, 2; Marabitanas, 4. Trinidad: 
Seelet, 2. Venezuela: El Llagual, Caura, 2; Caicara, Orinoco, 1; Quiribana de 
Caicara, Orinoco, 2. Colombia: "Bogota," 1. Peru: Pebas, 5. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 243 

Oryzoborus crassirostris occiden tails Sclater. 1 WESTERN LARGE- 
BILLED RICE GROSBEAK. 

Oryzoborus occidentalis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 276, 1860 
Babahoyo, Ecuador (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum, 
examined); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 102, 1862 Babahoyo and 
"Bogota"; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 506 
Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia (eggs descr.; spec, examined); Sharpe, Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 80, 1888 Babahoyo and "Bogota"; Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H. ( 55, p. 607, 1926 Babahoyo (ex Sclater). 

Range, Tropical zone of western Ecuador (Babahoyo) and 
Colombia (Medellin, Antioquia; "Bogota"). 

Oryzoborus crassirostris nutting! Ridgway. 2 NUTTING'S RICE 
GROSBEAK. 

Oryzoborus nuttingi Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 401, Apr. 11, 1884 
Los Sabalos, Nicaragua (cotypes in U. S. National Museum); Salvin 
and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 348, 1885 Los Sabalos 
(crit.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 80, 1888 Nicaragua; Rich- 
mond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 491, 1893 Greytown and Rio Escon- 
dido, Nicaragua; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 604, 
1901 eastern Nicaragua (monog.); Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
84, p. 241, 1932 Santa Rosita, Nicaragua. 

Range. Tropical zone of eastern Nicaragua (Los Sabalos, Grey- 
town, Rio Escondido, Santa Rosita). 

1 Oryzoborus crassirostris occidentalis Sclater, in the male sex, differs from the 
nominate race by somewhat longer wings; black axillaries, broad sooty margins to 
the basally white under wing coverts; and decidedly smaller white alar speculum. 
Wing, 74-75, (female) 69. 

Two "Bogota" skins agree in all particulars with the male secured by Louis 
Fraser at Babahoyo. An adult male from Medellin, Antioquia, combines the size 
of occidentalis (wing, 75) with the white axillaries and under wing coverts of 
crassirostris, while in extent of white alar speculum it is intermediate between the 
two. For geographical reasons, I am inclined to regard it as an aberrant individual 
of occidentalis, whose range probably comprises most of Colombia west of the 
eastern Andes (Magdalena and Cauca Valley), whereas the nominate race takes 
its place at the eastern base of the eastern range ( Villa vicencio). Such a distribu- 
tion would account for the occurrence of both races in native "Bogota" collections. 
A female from Medellin does not differ in color from the Guianan crassirostris. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Babahoyo, 1 (male; the type). Colombia: 
"Bogota," 2; Medellin, Antioquia, 2. 

2 Oryzoborus crassirostris nuttingi Ridgway: Nearest to 0. c. occidentalis, but 
smaller with decidedly larger, more massive bill; male with axillaries and under 
wing coverts wholly deep black and without trace of the white alar speculum; 
female much darker throughout, Prout's brown above and deep cinnamon brown 
below, more tawny abdominally. Wing, 70, (female) 68; tail, 64, (female) 63; 
bill, 17-18, (female) 16. 

Two males and one female from Rio Escondido and Greytown examined in 
the British Museum. 

It seems hardly likely that Sporophila othello Bonaparte (Consp. Gen. Av., 
1, p. 498, 1850), from "Central America," is the same thing. Unfortunately, the 
type, once in the Berlin Museum, has disappeared (Stresemann, in litt.). 



244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Oryzoborus atrirostris Sclater and Salvin. 1 BLACK-BILLED RICE 
GROSBEAK. 

Oryzoborus atrirostris Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 136 
Moyobamba, Peru (type in Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 81, 1888 Moyobamba. 

Range. Northern Peru (Moyobamba). 

*Oryzoborus angolensis angolensis (Linnaeus). CHESTNUT- 
BELLIED RICE GROSBEAK. 

Loxia angolensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 303, 1766 based on 
"The Black Gros-beak" Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist., 3, p. 296, pi. 352 
(right fig.); "Angola," errore= eastern Brazil, as suggested by Hellmayr 
(Nov. Zool., 13, p. 19, 1906). 2 

Coccothraustes rufiventris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 13, p. 543, 
1817 part, Brazil and Paraguay (ex Azara, No. 121). 

Loxia torrida (not of Scopoli) Wied, Reise Bras., 2, p. 166, 1821 Barra da 
Vareda, eastern Minas Geraes. 

Fringilla torrida Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 567, 1830 eastern 
Brazil. 

Coccoborus magnirostris Swainson, Nat. Hist. & Class. Bds., 2, p. Ill, July, 
1837 Brazil (new name for Loxia angolensis Linnaeus). 

Pitylus torridus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 85, 1837 Chiquitos, Bolivia; Hartlaub, Syst. Ind. Azara, p. 8, 
1847 Paraguay (ex Azara, No. 121). 

Sporophila torrida Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 499, 1850 Brazil. 

Oryzoborus torridus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 151, 1851 Rio Grande, 
Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 239, 1856 part, Brazil; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 222, 1870 Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo (Ypanema, 
Irisanga), Goyaz (Araguaya), and Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Engenho tlo 
Cap Gama); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 225 
Rio de Janeiro, Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa), and Sao Paulo (Campinas); 
Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 85, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro; Sclater 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 604 Chiquitos, Bolivia; 
Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 335 near Cabo, Pernambuco, and Parahyba; 
Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 122, 1885 Taquara, Rio 
Grande do Sul; Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 7, 1887 Lambare, Para- 
guay; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 77, 1888 part, spec, b-g, 
Ypanema, Bahia, and Pernambuco, Brazil; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

1 Oryzoborus atrirostris Sclater and Salvin, described from a single male 
obtained by Professor Steere at Moyobamba, is said to resemble O. crassirostris 
in size, but to be distinguished by larger, black bill and black under wing coverts. 
We are not acquainted with this bird. 

2 Edwards described the species from a cage bird in the possession of P. C. 
Webb. Though supposed to be from Angola, it certainly came from eastern 
Brazil, as we have pointed out (cf. Nov. Zool., 15, p. 32, note, 1908). The desig- 
nation of Surinam as type locality by Berlepsch and Hartert (Nov. Zool., 9, 
p. 25, 1902), subsequently corrected by the senior author (I.e., 15, p. 119, 1908), 
has no foundation whatever. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 245 

N. H., 3, p. 368, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Annuario 
Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 120, 1899 Mundo Novo, Rio Grande 
do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 159, 1899 Iguape and Sao Sebastiao, 
Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 153, 1900 Can tagallo; Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 Pernambuco (Beberibe, 
near Recife) and Piauhy (Rio Taquarussu). 

Oryzoborus specularis Finsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 583 (in text) 
Brazil (type in Bremen Museum). 1 

Oryzoborus torridus var. major Dubois, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, 7, p. 402, 
1894 habitat unknown (cotypes in Brussels Museum examined). 2 

Oryzoborus angolensis Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 369, 1907 Sao Paulo 
(Piquete, Iguape, Sao Sebastiao) and Espirito Santo (Rio Doce) ; Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 437, 1910 Santa Ana, Misiones; 
Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Alto Parand, Paraguay; Dabbene, 
Bol. Soc. Physis, 1, p. 354, 1914 Paraguay and Argentina (Misiones); 
Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 187, 1926 Salto Guayra, 
Parana. 

Oryzoborus angolensis angolensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 32, 1908 
Fazenda Esperanga, Goyaz; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 23, 
p. 360, 1912 Mburero and Villa Rica, Paraguay; Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 57, p. 315, 1928 Bemfica, Serra do Itatiaya, Rio de Janeiro; 
Naumburg, I.e., 60, p. 343, 1930 Matto Grosso (Urucum, Descalvados, 
Fazenda do Sao Joao, Tapirapoan, Rio Roosevelt) ; Hellmayr, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 293, 1929 Rio Taquarussu, near Santa 
Philomena, Piauhy; Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 17, (2), p. 791, 1932 Tres 
Legoas, Matto Grosso; idem, I.e., 19, p. 276, 1935 Rio Gongogy, Bahia. 

Range. Eastern and southern Brazil, from southern Piauhy 
(Santa Philomena), Pernambuco, and Parahyba south to Rio 
Grande do Sul and Matto Grosso; the adjacent parts of Argentina 
(Misiones) and Paraguay (Alto Parana; Mburero; Villa Rica; 
Lambare"); and eastern Bolivia (Chiquitos and Santa Cruz). 3 

3: Bolivia (Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 1); Brazil (Rio das Velhas, 
Minas Geraes, 1; Joinville, Santa Catharina, 1). 

1 While throat and chest, as a rule, are uniform black in adult males, there 
are sometimes a number of half-concealed spots of whitish or cinnamon and 
occasionally even a nearly complete rufous band across the throat, as described 
by Finsch for his O. specularis. This is, however, a purely individual variation, 
since of the specimens so marked two are from Trinidad (Carenage and Caparo), 
and one from Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

2 The specimens from Guiana and Trinidad used for comparison being the 
smaller northern form, Dubois was misled to rename typical angolensis of Brazil. 

3 Two adult males from Buena Vista, Bolivia, are typical of the southern race 
with bulky bills, long wings, and well-marked white alar speculum. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Rio Taquarussu, Santa Philomena, 
Piauhy, 1; Beberibe, Pernambuco, 2; Bahia, 10; Agua Suja, Minas Geraes, 1; 
Rio de Janeiro, 1; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 3 ; IguapS, Sao Paulo, 1; Araguaya, Goyaz, 
1; Fazenda Esperanga, Goyaz, 4; Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 1; Engenho do Cap 
Gama, Matto Grosso, 2. Paraguay: Island near Villa Conception, 1. Bolivia: 
Buena Vista, 1. 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Oryzoborus angolensis torridus (Scopoli). 1 LESSER CHESTNUT- 
BELLIED RICE GROSBEAK. 

Loxia torrida Scopoli, Ann. I Hist. Nat., p. 140, 1769 based on a bird 
brought alive by Jacquin to the Vienna Zoological Garden; habitat un- 
known, we suggest north coast of Venezuela. 2 

Coccothraustes rufiventris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 13, p. 
543, 1817 part, Cayenne. 

Loxia nasuta Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, p. 45, pi. 58, figs. 1 (male), 2 
(female), 1825 vicinity of Pard (female cotype in Munich Museum; cf. 
Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 679, 1906). 

Coccoborus torridus Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 223, 1846 Peru. 

Oryzoborus torridus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 455, 1858 Zamora. 
eastern Ecuador; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1866, p. 181 northeastern 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, pp. 572, 750, 977 Brazil (Para) and Peru (Xeberos, 
Nauta, Pebas); idem, I.e., 1868, p. 167 Pilar, Bermudez, Venezuela; 
Finsch, I.e., 1870, p. 583 Trinidad (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1873, 
pp. 185, 264 Peru (Cosnipata, Xeberos, Nauta, and Pebas); Tacza- 
nowski, I.e., 1882, p. 16 Yurimaguas, Peru (crit.); idem, Orn. Per., 3, 
p. 7, 1886 Peru (Yurimaguas, Xeberos, Nauta, Pebas); Salvin, Ibis, 
1885, p. 214 British Guiana (Bartica Grove, Merume Mountains, 

1 Oryzoborus angolensis torridus (Scopoli): Very similar to O. a. angolensis, 
but slightly smaller, the tail especially shorter, and with decidedly smaller, less 
bulky bill. Wing (adult males), 56-59, rarely to 61; tail, 52-57; bill, 13-14. 

Though not strongly marked, this form is recognizable in series by its smaller 
bill and generally lesser size. Single individuals are, however, sometimes insepa- 
rable. In males from eastern and southern Brazil (typical angolensis) the wing 
ranges from 59 to 64, the tail from 55 to 62, while the bill is as a rule both longer 
and more massive. The development of the white alar speculum is exceedingly 
variable within the same locality, and does not afford a useful criterion for sepa- 
rating the two races. For instance, among nine adult males from French Guiana 
three are without a visible speculum; three have a distinct white spot; and the 
three remaining examples show some suggestion of white in front of the tips of the 
primary coverts. The same variation is observable in the series of typical an- 
golensis from eastern Brazil, though the percentage of individuals without any 
visible white on the wings appears to be smaller. Two males from northeastern 
Peru (polinskii) , do not differ in any respect from Guianan and Venezuelan 
examples. They have the same small bills and agree in dimensions (wing, 57, 59; 
tail, 52, 53), as well as in the tone of the chestnut belly. One has a small white 
spot on the wing, while in the other the white is wholly concealed by the primary 
coverts. A female from Moyobamba, like one from Gualaquiza, eastern Ecuador, 
is somewhat darker (less rufescent) above than any other specimen examined, but 
they are both in exceedingly fresh plumages, and foT the present I am unable to 
recognize polinskii as distinct. 

Additional material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne, 7; Roche-Marie, 
6. British Guiana: MerumS Mountains, 2. Trinidad: Carenage, 3; Caparo, 9; 
Icacos, 1. Venezuela: Puerto Cabello, 2; Suapure, Caura, 3. Brazil: Para, 3; 
Santa Isabel, Rio Preto, Rio Madeira, 3. Ecuador: Gualaquiza, 1. Colombia: 
"Bogota," 2. Peru: Iquitos, 2; Pebas, 1. 

2 While the description is indefinite, there seems hardly any doubt as to 
Loxia torrida being referable to the northern form, since Jacquin did not visit 
Brazil, but is known to have travelled in the West Indies and along the coast of 
Venezuela and Colombia (Cartagena). If my reasoning be rejected, Spix's term 
nasuta must be accepted in place of brevirostris, since birds from Pard are identical 
with those from Guiana. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 247 

Camacusa, Roraima); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 77, 1888 
part, spec, k-u, Brazil (Para), Peru (Pebas), British Guiana (Roraima, 
Bartica Grove, Camacusa), Venezuela (Pilar), Colombia ("Bogota"), and 
Ecuador (Sarayacu); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 34, 1894 
Trinidad; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 23, 
1899 Zamora, Ecuador; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 29, 1907 
Mexiana; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 296, 1907 Para, Mexiana, and 
Cussary, Brazil; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 387, 1910 Surinam (eggs 
descr.); Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, p. 134, 1922 Harmony 
Hall and Princestown, Trinidad (nest and eggs). 

Pitylus torridus LSotaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 283, 1866 Trinidad. 

Oryzoborus angolensis (not Loxia angolensis Linnaeus) Berlepsch and Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 9, p. 25, 1902 Orinoco (Altagracia, Caicara, Quiribana de 
Caicara) and Caura (Suapure 1 ), Venezuela; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 
19, 1906 Trinidad (Caparo, Seelet, Laventille, Chaguaramas) ; Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 369, 1907 part, Para; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 
56, p. 499, 1908 Goyana, Rio Tapajoz; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., 1, p. 360, 1908 Carenage, Trinidad; idem, I.e., 2, p. 187, 1916 
Orinoco and San Feliz River, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 556, 1917 Andalucia and Villavicencio, Colombia; idem, 
I.e., 63, p. 118, 1931 Paulo and Arabupu, Roraima. 

Oryzoborus angolensis brevirostris Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 119, 1908 
Cayenne, French Guiana (type in Tring Collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); Hellmayr, I.e., 17, p. 280, 1910 
Santa Isabel, Rio Preto, Rio Madeira (crit.); idem, Abhandl. Math.- 
Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 89, 119, 1912 Para and 
Mexiana; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 426, 1914 Para, Rio To- 
cantins (Cameta), Cussary, Rio Tapajoz (Boim, Goyana, Bella Vista), 
Mexiana, and Rio Jamunda (Faro) ; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 62, p. 89, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo and Rijsdijkweg, Surinam; 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 607, 1926 eastern Ecuador; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 61, 1926 Tury- 
assu, Maranhao; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 173, 1928 
Para; Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Oryzoborus brevirostris Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 423, 1921 Ituribisci 
River, Supenaam, Bartica, Abary River, Roraima, and Camacusa. 

Oryzoborus polinskii Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 230, 
Dec. 31, 1926 Yurimaguas, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum). 

Range. Island of Trinidad; Venezuela; eastern Colombia; the 
Guianas; Amazonian Brazil, east to northern Maranhao (Tury-assu) ; 
eastern Ecuador, and northeastern Peru. 

15: British Guiana (Hyde Park, Demerara River, 1; Mazaruni 
River, 1) ; Brazil (Boa Vista, Rio Branco, 1; Itacoatiara, 1) ; Venezuela 
(Encontrados, Zulia, 2; Catatumbo River, Zulia, 6; Colon, Tachira, 
2); Peru (Moyobamba, 1). 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Oryzoborus funereus Sclater. LESSER RICE GROSBEAK. 

Oryzoborus funereus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 378, 1859 Su- 
chapam, Oaxaca, Mexico (descr. of male; type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, 
now in British Museum); Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 398 Choctum, 
Guatemala; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 102, 1862 Oaxaca; Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 141 Santa Fe, Veraguas; idem, I.e., 1870, 
p. 189 Calovevora, Veraguas; Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (n.s.), 
25, p. 44, 1878 Guatemala; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 506 Medellin, Colombia (crit., eggs descr.); Nutting, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 400, 1884 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 349, 1885 Mexico (Suchapam) 
to Ecuador (crit.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 81, 1888 Mexico 
(Oaxaca), Guatemala (Choctum), Honduras, Veraguas (Santa Fe), Colom- 
bia (Minca, Medellin), and Ecuador (Nanegal, Babahoyo, Balzar); 
Cherrie, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geogr. y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 139, 1893 
Boruca, Costa Rica; Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 491, 
1893 Escondido River and Greytown, Nicaragua (habits, nest, and 
eggs); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 484, 1898 Cachavi, Ecuador; Bangs, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, p. 102, 1899 Chirua and La Conception, 
Santa Marta, Colombia; idem, Auk, 18, p. 32, 1901 San Miguel Island, 
Bay of Panama; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 605, 1901 
Mexico to Colombia and Ecuador (monog.); Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 39, p. 156, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras; Thayer and Bangs, I.e., 46, p. 
159, 1905 San Miguel and Saboga Islands, Bay of Panama; idem, I.e., 
46, p. 224, 1906 savanna of Panama; Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 311, 1907 
Boruca and Barranca de Terraba, Costa Rica; Carriker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 6, p. 883, 1910 Juan Vinas, Costa Rica; Chapman, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 36, p. 556, 1917 Atrato River, Novita, Buenaventura, 
Barbacoas, and Rio Frio, Colombia (crit.); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 70, p. 275, 1918 Fort Lorenzo, Panama; Todd and Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 506, 1922 Minca, Pueblo Viejo, Chirua, and 
Heights of Chirua, Colombia (crit., habits); Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 321, 
1924 Gatun, Panama (nest and eggs); Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 67, p. 484, 1927 Motzorongo, Vera Cruz, Mexico; Peters, 
I.e., 69, p. 465, 1929 Lancetilla, Honduras (crit.); idem, I.e., 71, p. 338, 
1931 Bocas del Toro and Almirante, Panama; Huber, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 84, p. 241, 1932 Bluefields, Nicaragua; Stone, I.e., p. 340, 
1932 Lancetilla, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, p. 
379, 1935 Panama. 

Oryzoborus aethiops Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 28, p. 88, 1860 Nanegal, 
western Ecuador (descr. of male; type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in 
British Museum); idem, I.e., 28, p. 276, 1860 Babahoyo, Ecuador 
(descr. of female); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 333, 1861 
Panama Railroad; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 102, 1862 Baba- 
hoyo, Nanegal, and "New Granada." 

Oryzoborus salvini Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 401 (note), Apr. 11, 
1884 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua (type in U. S. National Museum; = female). 

Oryzoborus funereus aethiops Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 1098 
mouth of Calima, San Juan River, Colombia (crit.); Chapman, Bull. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 249 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 607, 1926 western Ecuador (Esmeraldas, 
Bucay, Naranjo, Zaruma, Porto Velo, Rio Pindo). 

Oryzoborus funereus funereus Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 349, 
1932 Guatemala (Finca Chama, Secanquim); van Tyne, Univ. Mich. 
Mus. Zool., Misc. Pub., 27, p. 39, 1935 Chuntuqui, Peten, Guatemala; 
Carriker and de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87, p. 447, 1935 
Izabal, Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of southeastern Mexico (Motzorongo, 
Vera Cruz; Suchapam, Oaxaca; Frontera and Teapa, Tabasco), 
and southwards through Guatemala (depts. of Pete"n, Alta Vera 
Paz, and Baja Vera Paz), British Honduras (Manatee Lagoon), 
Honduras (Ceiba, Lancetilla), Nicaragua (Los Sabalos, Bluefields, 
Grey town, Rio Escondido), Costa Rica (Te>raba Valley and Juan 
Vinas), and Panama to Colombia 1 and western Ecuador. 2 

9: Mexico (Teapa, Tabasco, 2); Guatemala (unspecified, 1); 
Costa Rica (Limon, 4); Panama (Colon, 1); Ecuador (San Javier, 
Esmeraldas, 1). 

Genus VOLATINIA Reichenbach 3 

Volatinia Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 79, June 1, 1850 type, by subs, 
desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 78, 1855), Tanagra jacarina 
Linnaeus. 

*Volatinia jacarina jacarina (Linnaeus). BLUE-BLACK 
GRASSQUIT. 

Tanagra jacarina Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 314, 1766 based 
primarily on "Jacarini" Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 210; northeastern 
Brazil. 

Fringilla splendens (not of Vieillot) Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), p. 597, 
1830 Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo (Aracatiba, Coroaba, etc.). 

1 Though definitely recorded only from the Pacific coast, the Cauca Valley, 
and the Santa Marta region, this species undoubtedly also ranges into the Mag- 
dalena basin, since we have seen an example (adult male) of the usual "Bogota" 
preparation. 

2 After studying a more satisfactory series I am led to agree with Peters and 
Todd that the recognition of a southern race (aethiops), advocated by me in an 
earlier communication, is hardly warranted. The alleged differences in size and 
in the coloration of the females do not hold at all, and the only point of distinction 
is the averaging smaller bill of the South American birds. 

Additional material examined. Guatemala: Coban, 7. Costa Rica: Boruca, 
4. Panama: unspecified, 1, 2. Colombia: "Bogota," 1; Medellin, 1; mouth of 
Calima, 1. Ecuador, Prov. Esmeraldas: San Javier, 3; Pambilar, 2; Ventana, 1; 
Carondelet, 1; Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 2. 

3 A possible member of this genus is the unidentified Sporophila corallina 
Bonaparte (Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 498, end of 1850) from "Brazil." The descrip- 
tion, "Minima; nigerrima; remigibus ex toto nigris; alis intus tectricibusque in- 
ferioribus albis; rostro rubro, valde incurvo," does not fit any known species of 
Volatinia or Sporophila. The type, though credited by the describer to the Berlin 
Museum, is not to be found in that collection. 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Emberiza jacarini Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 81, 1837 Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia (spec, examined). 

Volatinia jacarina(i) Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 234, 1856 
Laranjeiras, foot of Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro (habits, nest, and eggs); 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata, 
Cuzco, Peru; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 226, 1870 part, Rio de Janeiro, 
Sao Paulo (Ypanema, ItararS), and Goyaz, Brazil; Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 220 Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa) and 
Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo); Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 
1874 Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 605 Santa Cruz, Consata, and Tilotilo, Bolivia; 
Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 336 from Parahyba and Recife on the coast to 
Quipapa and Vista Alegre in the interior, northeastern Brazil; Berlepsch, 
Journ. Orn., 35, p. 8, 1887 Lambar6, Paraguay; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 152, 1888 part, spec, f-o, Bolivia (Consata) and Brazil 
(Bahia, Pernambuco); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 369, 1891 
Chapada, Matto Grosso; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, 
p. 9, 1897 Caiza and San Francisco, Bolivia; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
3, p. 163, 1899 Piquete and Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 
154, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 15, No. 378, p. 5, 1900 Urucum, Matto Grosso; Lillo, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 177, 1902 environs of Tucuman; 
Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 39 Bahia; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, 
p. 43, 1905 vicinity of Tucuman; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 379, 
1907 Sao Paulo (Ypiranga, Cachoeira, Piquete, Itarare, Sao Sebastiao) 
and Espirito Santo; Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien, 76, p. 82, 1910 Pernambuco (Beberibe), Bahia (Bahia; Solidade 
near Carnahyba, Lagoa do Boqueirao, Rio Grande) and Piauhy (There- 
zina; opposite Ilha Sao Martin and below Uniao, Rio Parnahyba); Bertoni, 
Faun. Parag., p. 65, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay; Daguerre, El Hornero, 
2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires (very rare). 

Volatinia jacarina jacarina Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 353, 1907 Humayta, 
Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 15, p. 33, 1908 Fazenda Esperanca, Goyaz; 
Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 176, 1909 Ocampo, Santa F6, and 
Tucuman (nest and eggs descr.); Hellmayr, I.e., 17, p. 281, 1910 Hu- 
mayta; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 386, 1910 Argen- 
tina (Tucuman; Mocovf and Ocampo, Santa Fe; Tucuman; Tigre, Buenos 
Aires); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 232, 1927 Santa 
Elena, Entre Rfos; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 297, 1929 part, Grajahu and Tranqueira, Maranhao; Laubmann, 
Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 246, 1930 Formosa (Tapi- 
kio!6 and Chaves) and Bolivia (Ipias, Santa Cruz); Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 349, 1930 Matto Grosso (Urucum, Tapirapoan) 
and Rio Madeira (Calama); Stone and Roberts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 86, p. 396, 1934 Descalvados, Matto Grosso; Pinto, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 19, p. 282, 1935 Bahia (Serra do Palhao, Rio Gongogy, Corupe"ba, 
Ilha de Madre de Deus). 

Volatinia jacarini jacarini Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 109, 1921 
Santa Ana, Urubamba, Peru. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 251 

Volatinia iacarina splendens Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 
6, p. 42, 1926 Ceara. 

Range. Eastern and central Brazil, from the interior of Piauhy 
and Maranhao, and Ceara south to Sao Paulo and Matto Grosso 
(in the north as far as the banks of the upper Rio Madeira) ; Paraguay 
(Lambare"; Alto Parana); northern Argentina, from Tucuman south 
through the Chaco to Santa Fe", Entre Rios (Santa Elena), Corrientes 
(Rio Guayquiraro), and rarely to Buenos Aires (Tigre, Rosas); 
eastern Bolivia and (according to Chapman) southeastern Peru 
(Santa Ana, Urubamba). 1 

17: Brazil (Belem, Prov. Para, 1; Grajahu, Maranhao, 1; Tran- 
queira, Maranhao, 1 ; Jud, near Iguatu, Ceara, 1 ; Quixada, Ceara, 1 ; 
Rio do Peixe, near Queimadas, Bahia, 4; "Bahia," 1; Macaco Secco, 
near Andarahy, Bahia, 5; Descalvados, Matto Grosso, 2). 

*Volatinia jacarina splendens (Vieillot). NORTHERN BLUE-BLACK 
GRASSQUIT. 

Fringilla splendens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 12, p. 173, 
1817 based on "Moineau, de Cayenne" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 224, 
fig. 3; Cayenne. 

Tiaris jacarina(i) (not Tanagra jacarina Linnaeus) Jardine, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 20, p. 332, 1847 Tobago; L6otaud, Ois. Trinidad, p. 312, 1866 
Trinidad. 

Volatinia jacarina(i) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 160, 1855 
"Bogota"; idem, I.e., 24, p. 304, 1856 Cordoba, Vera Cruz; Bonaparte, 
Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 30, 1857 Cayenne; Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1859, p. 17 Guatemala; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 27, p. 365, 
1859 Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 
332, 1861 Panama Railroad; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 2, 1861 Costa 
Rica; Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 106, 1862 part, spec, a-g, Cay- 
enne, Trinidad, Tobago, Guatemala, and Bogota; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 
83 Trinidad; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 174 Valley of 
Mexico; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1864, p. 352 Lion Hill, Panama; Law- 
rence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8, p. 177, 1865 David, Chiriquf; 

1 Adult males from Brazil south of the Amazonian region are very constant 
in having the axillaries, inner under wing coverts, and a large patch at the basal 
half of the remiges pure white without any black. Exceptions to this rule are 
I exceedingly rare, the most aberrant individual being one from Rio do Peixe, near 
Queimadas, Bahia, in which the axillars and under wing coverts are almost entirely 
black as in the northern form. Birds from Bolivia, while slightly verging toward 
splendens, are much nearer to typical jacarina. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Santa Cruz, 4; "La Paz," 1. Argen- 
|tina: Tucuman, 2; Mocovi, Santa Fe, 1. Brazil: opposite Ilha Sao Martin, Rio 
;Parnahyba, Maranhao, 1; Therezina, Piauhy, 1; Santa Philomena, Piauhy, 1; 
i below Uniao, Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy, 1; Beberibe, Pernambuco, 2; Solidade, 
jBahia, 1; Bahia, 16; Gpyaz, 2; Fazenda Esperanca, Goyaz, 6; Humayta, Rio 
Madeira, 1; Rio de Janeiro, 6; Sao Paulo, 3. Paraguay: Lambar, 1. 






252 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 181 Sarayacu, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1867, pp. 572, 750 Brazil (Manaos and Guia, Rio Negro) and 
Peru (Xeberos); idem, I.e., 1868, p. 167 Venezuela (Carupano and 
Caracas); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 103, 1868 Costa 
Rica (San Jose, Barranca, Grecia); idem, I.e., 9, p. 201, 1869 Merida, 
Yucatan; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 552, 1869 Vera 
Cruz, Mexico; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 226, 1870 part, Rio Negro, 
Marabitanas, and Para, Brazil; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 190 
Chitra, Veraguas; Finsch, I.e., 1870, p. 582 Trinidad; Sclater and Salvin, 
I.e., 1870, p. 836 San Pedro, Honduras; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 328 
Ocana and Bucaramanga, Colombia; Layard, Ibis, 1873, p. 380 Para; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 264 Peru (Xeberos 
and Sarayacu); Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 2, p. 276, 1874 
Mazatlan and mountains of Colima, western Mexico; idem, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 4, p. 20, 1876 Guichicovi, Oaxaca; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1878, p. 57 San Jose, Costa Rica; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 
1879, p. 200 San Jos4, Santa Marta, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 507 Medellin, Colombia (nest and eggs descr.); 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1880, p. 199 Callacate, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 17 
Chirimoto, Peru; Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, p. 392, 1882 La 
Palma, Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 6, p. 383, 1883 Sucuya, Nicaragua; 
Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 444 Merida, Yucatan; 
Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 215 Roraima, British Guiana; Taczanowski, Orn. 
Per., 3, p. 25, 1886 Peru (part, Amable Maria, Callacate, Chirimoto); 
Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 142, 1886 Huehuetlan, Puebla, 
and Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Wells, I.e., 9, p. 615, 1886 Grenada (habits); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 152, 1888 part (excl. of spec, a-o, 
m', n'); Cory, Bds. W. Ind., p. 290, 1889 Grenada; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 
2, p. 7, 1895 part, Malca and Vina, Huamachuco, Peru; Dalmas, Mem. 
Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 138, 1900 Tobago; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 498 
Rio Capim, Para, Brazil; Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, 
p. 183, 1904 French Guiana; Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 29, 
1907 Mexiana, Brazil; Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 297, 1907 Mexiana, 
Marajo, Para, and Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 
2, p. 397, 1910 Surinam; Williams, Bull. Dept. Agric. Trin. Tob., 20, 
p. 132, 1922 Trinidad. 

Volatinia splendens Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 215 Bartica Grove, British Guiana; 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 357, 1885 Mexico 
to Colombia, Venezuela, and Guiana; Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, 1, p. Ill, 1887 San Jos6, Costa Rica; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 10, p. 580, 1887 Trujillo, Honduras; Cory, Auk, 6, p. 218, 1889 
Grenada (crit.); idem, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 113, 151, 1892 Grenada; 
Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 27, 1892 San Jose, Costa Rica; idem, Anal. Inst. Fis.- 
Geogr. y Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 4, p. 140, 1893 Boruca, Te>raba, and 
Buenos Aires, Costa Rica; Cory, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago; Rich- 
mond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 493, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; 
Robinson, Flying Trip to Tropics, p. 161, 1895 Baranquilla, Colombia; 
Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 5, 1899 






1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 253 

Col6n, Panama, and Punta de Sabana, Darien; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 
2, p. 443, 1921 British Guiana. 

Volatinia jacarina(i) splendens Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 295, 1884 
Bucaramanga, Colombia (crit.); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 349 La Merced, Chanchamayo, Peru (crit.); Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 33, 1894 Princestown, Trinidad; 
idem, I.e., 10, p. 29, 1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Robinson and Richmond, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, pp. 6.77, 685, 1896 Margarita Island (El 
Valle) and La Guayra, Venezuela; Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 Cu- 
manacoa and San Antonio, Bermudez, Venezuela; Bangs, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 12, p. 139, 1898 Santa Marta; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 13, p. 165, 1900 Bonda, Onaca, Masinga Vieja, and Cacagualito, 
Santa Marta, Colombia; Robinson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
24, p. 175, 1901 La Guayra, Venezuela; Bangs, Auk, 18, pp. 32, 370, 
1901 San Miguel Island and Divala, Chiriquf, Panama; Ridgway, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 526, 1901 (monog., excl. of western 
Ecuador); Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 27, 1902 Alta- 
gracia, Caicara, and Ciudad Bolivar, Orinoco, and La Prici6n, Caura, 
Venezuela; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 21, p. 291, 1905 Bonda, 
Colombia (nest and eggs descr.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 278, 1905 
Igarap6-Assu, Para; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 287, 1905 
Grenada; Thayer and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 159, 1905 
San Miguel Island, Panama; Cole, I.e., 50, p. 146, 1906 Xbac, Yucatan; 
Thayer and Bangs, I.e., p. 223, 1906 savanna of Panama; Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 13, p. 18, 1906 Caparo, Trinidad (crit.); idem, I.e., p. 359, 
1906 Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; Cherrie, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. 
Bull., 1, p. 188, 1906 Aripo, Trinidad; idem, I.e., p. 360, 1908 Carenage, 
Trinidad; Bangs, Auk, 24, p. 311, 1907 Boruca and Paso Real, Te"rraba 
Valley, Costa Rica; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 379, 1907 (range); 
Dearborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 118, 1907 Guatemala 
(Los Amates, Gualan, Mazatenango, San Jos6); Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., 
15, p. 121, 1908 Cayenne; Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 323 Cariaco, Venezuela; 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 892, 1910 Costa Rica (range, 
habits); Hellmayr, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, 
No. 2, pp. 16, 88, 119, 1912 Peixe-Boi, Para localities, and Mexiana, 
Brazil; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 208, 1913 Caria- 
quito, Paria, Venezuela; Peters, Auk, 30, p. 380, 1913 Camp Mengel, 
Quintana Roo; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 431, 1914 Para, 
Providencia, Ananindeua, Maguary, Peixe-Boi, Castanhal, Santo Antonio 
do Prata, Rio Xingu (Victoria), Rio Iriri (Santa Julia), Rio Tocantins 
(Baiao), Rio Tapaj6z (Goyana), Mexiana, Marajo (Santa Ana), and 
Arumanduba, Brazil; Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 190, 
1916 Ciudad Bolivar and Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela (eggs descr.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 561, 1917 Colombia (Dabeiba, 
Caldas, San Antonio, Barbacoas, Tumaco, Cali, La Manuelita, Mira- 
flores, Barro Blanco, Chicoral, Honda, La Playa, Quetame); Bangs and 
Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 90, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, 
Lelydorp, and Rijsdijkweg, Surinam; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
70, p. 275, 1918 Gatun, Panama (nest descr.); Hallinan, Auk, 41, p. 321, 



254 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

1924 Rio Algarrobo and Balboa, Panama; Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 61, 1926 Sao Bento and Tury-assu, Maran- 
hao; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 173, 1928 Para; Austin, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 389, 1929 Augustine, British Honduras; 
Roberts, Trop. Agric., 11, p. 99, 1934 Trinidad. 

Volatinia jacarina jacarina Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 297, 1929 part, Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Volatinia jacarini jacarini Chapman, Bull. Amer, Mus. N. H., 63, p. 119, 
1931 Roraima (Paulo and Glycon Swamp). 

Volatinia jacarini(a) atronitens Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 33, p. 72, 
Dec., 1920 Campeche, Campeche, Mexico (type in U. S. National Mu- 
seum); idem and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 518, 1922 Bonda, 
Don Diego, Santa Marta, Cincinnati, La Tigrera, Minca, Mamatoco, 
etc., Santa Marta, Colombia; Griscom, Amer. Mus. Novit., 235, p. 16, 
1926 Palmul, Yucatan; McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 46, 
1927 near Labrados, Sinaloa; Bangs and Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
67, p. 485, 1927 Presidio and Motzorongo, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 68, 
p. 402, 1928 Tapanatepec, Oaxaca; Griscom, I.e., 69, p. 183, 1929 
Cana, Darien; Peters, I.e., p. 466, 1929 Lancetilla, Honduras; Zimmer, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 462, 1930 Chinchao, Huachipa, 
and Vista Alegre, Huanuco, Peru (crit.); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
71, p. 338, 1931 Almirante, Panama; Darlington, I.e., p. 420, 1931 
Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia; Griscom, I.e., 72, p. 371, 1932 Perme 
and Obaldia, Panama; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 352, 1932 
Guatemala (many localities); Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, 
p. 340, 1932 Cantarranas, Honduras; Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
75, p. 415, 1934 Coyuca, Guerrero; idem, I.e., 78, p. 379, 1935 Panama; 
van Tyne, Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool., Misc. Pub., 27, p. 40, 1935 Uaxactun, 
Chuntuquf, La Libertad, and Remate, Peten, Guatemala. 

Range. Tropical zone of Central America, from southern 
Sinaloa and Vera Cruz, Mexico, southward to Panama; Colombia; 
Venezuela; the islands of Trinidad, Tobago, and Grenada, Lesser 
Antilles; the Guianas, and the whole of the Amazonian region to 
eastern Peru and the coast districts of Maranhao, Brazil. 1 

1 It appears to me impracticable to separate the inhabitants of Central 
America from those of Guiana (splendens). Todd proposed for them the name 
V. j. atronitens, claiming that Guianan birds (splendens) were the same as typical 
jacarina. With this statement I am unable to agree, and do not see any necessity 
for changing the nomenclature of the two eastern races. Fifteen males from 
French Guiana, it is true, show considerable variation in the color of the axillars 
and under wing coverts. In five they are wholly black; in five others the pre- 
vailing color is likewise black, though a few of the shortest axillaries (next to the 
body) as well as the tips of some of the longer under wing coverts are white as in 
birds from Manaos and the upper Rio Negro (Marabitanas) and in numerous 
individuals from Central America; one adult male has the apical portions of the 
longest under wing coverts white, and the extreme base of the inner webs of 
the inner primaries is slightly vermiculated with white; in the five remaining speci- 
mens the axillaries are for the greater part white, though more or less edged with 
black apically, and the inner remiges are narrowly edged or vermiculated with 
white at the base of the inner webs. Not one of these examples, however, has the 
white under the wing so solid as is the case, with very few exceptions, in a long 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 255 

95: Mexico (Colima, 11; Cuernavaca, Morelos, 1; Teapa, Tabasco, 
1); Guatemala (San Jose", 2; Salamd, Baja Vera Paz, 3; Los Amates, 
Izabal, 3; Gualan, Zacapa, 1; Lake Amatitlan, 1; Mazatenango, 1); 
Nicaragua (San Geronimo, Chinandega, 10) ; Costa Rica (Miravalles, 
1; Las Canas, 1); Panama (Colon, 6); Lesser Antilles (Tobago, 4; 
Grenada, 3); Colombia (Bogota, 6; 10 miles north of San Jose* de 
Cucuta, Santander del Norte, 3; Rio Cauqueta, 1; Chicoral, Coello 
River, Tolima, 1; Cali, Valle de Cauca, 1); Venezuela (Caracas, 6; 
Maracay, Aragua, 5; Encontrados, Zulia, 2; Cocollar, Sucre, 1; Colon, 
Tachira, 1); British Guiana (Georgetown, 1); Brazil (Tury-assu, 
Maranhao, 1; Manaos, 6; Itacoatiard, 1; Porto Velo, 1); Peru (Chin- 
chao, 6; Huachipa, 1; Vista Alegre, 1; San Ramon, Junin, 1). 

"Volatinia jacarina peruviensis (Peale). 1 PACIFIC BLUE-BLACK 
GRASSQUIT. 

Geospiza peruviensis Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 115, 1848 between Callao 
and Lima, Peru (cotypes in U. S. National Museum). 

Volatinia jacarini pacifica Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 143, p. 11, Nov. 6, 
1924 Trujillo, Dept. Libertad, Peru (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 614, 1926 

series from eastern and southern Brazil, and the white margin at the base of the 
remiges is never more than suggested, while in typical jacarina the whole basal 
half of the inner webs of all the remiges is white, often reaching to the shaft, and 
forms a broad continuous band across the under surface of the wing. The same 
variation obtains in specimens from the Par 4 region, though the trend towards 
jacarina is perhaps even more pronounced. On the other hand, every stage as 
described above for French Guianan birds also occurs along the north coast of 
Venezuela, in Colombia, and in Central America, although specimens without 
any white under the wings are far in preponderance. To sum up, birds from the 
Guianas and Lower Amazonia, while intermediate to the nominate race, are as 
a whole much nearer to the black- winged form, and may well go under Vieillot's 
term splendens. Males from Mexico and Costa Rica average slightly smaller 
and more purplish than those from South America, but the divergencies are far 
from constant, and hardly warrant the recognition of an additional race (atronitens). 
Van Rossem (Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 58, p. 130, July 13, 1938) separates the inhabit- 
ants of western Mexico (Sinaloa to Guerrero) as V. j. diluia (type from San Bias, 
Nayarit), their character being the duller, less buffy brown edging in winter 
plumage. 

Birds from eastern Peru, as has been correctly explained by Zimmer, connect 
; the coastal form (peruviensis) with splendens, and some even closely approach 
typical jacarina. 

One hundred and fifty-seven specimens representing nearly every country 
between Mexico and the southern boundary of the range examined. 

1 Volatinia jacarina peruviensis (Peale) : Very similar to V. j- splendens, but 
males with generally more white on the axillars and under wing coverts, and the 
remiges dusky brown rather than black. Besides, there is another difference in 
that males obviously do not acquire the adult plumage until after the second year. 

Birds from northwestern Ecuador form the passage to V. j. splendens, but they 
all have the brownish wings of peruviensis. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 12; 
Guayaquil, 4. Peru: Eten, Lambayeque, 3; Caraz, Ancachs, 2; Lima, 6. 



256 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

western Ecuador (Esmeraldas; Chone, Manavf; Daule; Guayaquil; Chon- 
goncito; Duran; Bucay; junction Changan and Chiguancay; Cumbaya; 
Puna Island; Santa Rosa; Porto Velo; Rio Pindo). 

Volatinia spkndens (not Fringilla splendens Vieillot) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 27, p. 140, 1859 Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 275, 
1860 Babahoyo, Ecuador. 

Volatinia jacarina(i) splendens Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1883, p. 551 Guayaquil, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1884, p. 294 El 
Placer, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 84 Yaguachi, Ecuador; Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 5, p. 484, 1898 Paramba and Ibarra (Prov. Imbabura), 
Ecuador; Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 462, 1918 Bellavista, Peru. 

Volatinia jacarina(i) (not Tanagra jacarina Linnaeus) Sclater, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 106, 1862 part, spec, h, Pallatanga; idem, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 97 around Lima; idem and Salvin, I.e., 1868, p. 173 
Tambo Valley, Arequipa, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 520 Lima; 
Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 421 Callao; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 25, 
1886 part, Lima, Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 152, 1888 
part, spec, a-e, m', n', Peru (Lima, Tambo Valley, Callao) and Ecuador 
(Pallatanga, Guayaquil); Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1892, p. 376 Lima; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 7, 1895 part, 
Tembladera, Peru; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 357, p. 25, 1899 La Concepcion, Vinces, and Balzar, Ecuador; 
Menegaux, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Chuquibamba, Otuzco, Peru. 

Volatinia jacarina peruviensis Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 462, 1929 Chosica, Vitarte, and Matucana, Dept. Lima, Peru (crit.); 
Hellmayr, I.e., 19, p. 52, 1932 Chacalluta, Tarapaca, Chile. 

Range. Tropical zone of western Ecuador and western Peru 
(east to the upper Maranon Valley) south to Tarapaca, on the 
Chilean boundary. 

13: Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, 4); Peru (Chosica, 5; Vitarte, 1; 
Matucana, 2); Chile (Chacalluta, Tarapaca, 1). 

Genus PINICOLA Vieillot 

Pinicola Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., 1, p. iv, pi. 1, fig. 13, "1807" 

type, by monotypy, Pinicola rubra Vieillot =Loxia enucleator Linnaeus. 1 
Strobilophaga Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Orn. Elem., p. 29, April, 1816 type, by 

monotypy, "Dur-Bec" Buffon=L<ma leucura P. L. S. Miiller. 
Corythus Cuvier, Regne Anim., 1, p. 391, "1817" [=Dec. 7, 1816] type, 

by monotypy, Loxia enucleator Linnaeus. 
Densirostra Wood, The Analyst, 3, pp. 32, 204, 1835 type, Loxia enucleator 

Linnaeus. 2 
Enucleator Brehm, Vollst. Vogelfang, p. 89, 1855 new name for Corythus 

Cuvier. 

1 While the bill characters of text and plate are undoubtedly those of the 
Pine Grosbeak, the identification of the race that served as a basis is, of course, 
impossible. 

2 Not seen by me. 



1938 BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 257 

*Pinicola enucleator leucura (P. L. S. Miiller). GREATER CANA- 
DIAN PINE GROSBEAK. 

Loxia leucura P. L. S. Muller, 1 Natureyst., Suppl., p. 150, 1776 based on 
"Gros-Bec, du Canada" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 135, fig. 1; Canada. 

Pinicola canadensis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 167, Oct., 1851 based on 
"Le Gros-Bec de Canada" Brisson, Orn., 3, p. 250, pi. 12, fig. 3; Canada 
(type in Reaumur Collection). 

(l)Corythus splendens Brehm, Vollst. Vogelfang, p. 89, 1855 "Nordamerika"; 
idem, Isis, 1840, p. 590 North America (type in coll. of C. L. Brehm, 
subsequently in Rothschild Collection [cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 25, p. 11, 
1918], now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 2 

Pinicola enucleator canadensis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 60, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.; in part). 

Pinicola enucleator leucura Richmond, Auk, 19, p. 85, 1902 (nomencl.). 

Pinicola enucleator leucura Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 14, p. 12, 
1934 (crit., range). 

Range. Breeds in northern North America from Northwest 
Territories and northern Alberta east to Ungava and northern Labra- 
dor; south in winter to the northern United States from Nebraska 
to western Pennsylvania, casually to Kentucky and more rarely 
to New England (Griscom, I.e.). 

7: Labrador (Anatalok Bay, 2; Bowdoin Harbor, 2); Wisconsin 
(Beaver Dam, 1); Illinois (Beach, Lake County, 1; Chicago, 1). 

*Pinicola enucleator eschatosus Oberholser. 3 LESSER CANA- 
DIAN PINE GROSBEAK. 

Pinicola enucleator eschatosus Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 27, p. 
51, Mar. 20, 1914 Harry's River, Newfoundland (type in coll. of L. 
C. Sanford, now in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York); Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 556, 1919 Newfoundland 
(crit.); Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 14, p. 12, 1934 (crit., range); 
van Tyne, Auk, 51, p. 529, 1934 Ohio and Michigan (in winter). 

-Pinicola enucleator canadensis (not of Cabanis) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 60, 1901 (in part). 

Range. Breeds from central Labrador and Newfoundland south 
to the Gulf of St. Lawrence region, and more locally throughout 

1 Muller's description is misleading, since the sentence "der Biirzel aber ist 
" actually refers to the vent and lower tail coverts. 



* Griscom (I.e., p. 11) restricts leucura, canadensis, and splendens to the larger 
heavy-billed form, and while this action with respect to the first two names, in 
the absence of types, may be regarded as final, the proper disposition of C. splen- 
dens depends on a critical study of the original example, now in the collection of 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

3 Pinicola enucleator eschatosus Oberholser: Similar to P. e. leucura, but 
smaller with shorter, basally narrower bill; coloration slightly darker gray; adult 
males always more scarlet, less rosy. 



258 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

the Maritime Provinces of Canada to the mountains of northern 
Maine and New Hampshire; south in winter to New Jersey, New 
York, District of Columbia, Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin. 

17: Maine (Lincoln, 3; Brewer, 4; Buckfield, 2); Massachusetts 
(Burlington, 2; Cambridge, 1; Monson, 3); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 
1); Michigan (Kalamazoo, 1). 

Pinicola enucleator kamtschatkensis (Dybowski). KAMT- 
SCHATKA PINE GROSBEAK. 

Corythus enucleator kamtschathensis [sic] 1 Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

8, p. 367, 1883 based on "Corythus enucleator L.?" Dybowski, op. cit., 

7, p. 394, 1882; Kamtchatka (type, from Machoura, in Warsaw Museum; 

cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 

173, 1927). 
Pinicola enucleator kamtschathensis Riley, Auk, 34, p. 210, 1917 St. George 

Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska (October, 1915). 
Pinicola leucura kamtschathensis Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. F., 46, p. 881 

1923 St. George Island, Pribilof Islands. 
Pinicola enucleator kamtschatkensis Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 157, 1920 

Bering or Copper Island(?). 

Range. Breeds in Kamchatka. Accidental on St. George Island, 
Pribilof Islands, Alaska (October, 1915). 

*Pinicola enucleator alascensis Ridgway. ALASKA PINE 
GROSBEAK. 

Pinicola enucleator alascensis Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 319, October, 1898 
Nushagak, Alaska (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 63, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 
(?) Pinicola enucleator flammula (not of Homeyer) Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. 

Zool., 24, p. 231, 1922 upper Stikine River, British Columbia. 
Range. Breeds in northwestern North America from north- 
western Alaska and northwestern Mackenzie to northern British 
Columbia; winters south to British Columbia, Washington, Mon- 
tana (Bitter Root Valley), southern North Dakota, and north- 
western Minnesota. 

3: British Columbia (Okanagan, 3). 

Pinicola enucleator flammula Homeyer. KODIAK PINE 
GROSBEAK. 

Pinicola flammula Homeyer, Journ. Orn., 28, p. 156, April, 1880 "Nord- 
westamerika" (type in coll. of E. F. von Homeyer, now in Brunswick 
Museum). 2 

1 An obvious typographical error for kamtschatkensis. 

1 Homeyer's description seems to fit the large-billed form of the Alaskan 
coast, though the absence of bill-measurement renders identification rather 
difficult. Unfortunately, my efforts to obtain the type on loan were unsuccessful. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 259 

Pinicola enucleaior kodiaka Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Bds., p. 388, 1887 Kodiak 
to Sitka, Alaska (type, from Kodiak Island, in U. S. National Museum). 

Pinicola enucleator (not Loxia enucleator Linnaeus) Finsch, Abhandl. Naturw. 
Ver. Bremen, 3, p. 54, 1872 Kodiak Island (crit.). 

Pinicola enucleator flammula Stejneger, Auk, 1, p. 149 (footnote), 1884 
Kodiak (crit.); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 64, 1901 
Kodiak Island and Alaskan coast to Sitka (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, 
Condor, 3, p. 21, 1901 Kodiak; idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 5, p. 222, 
1909 Chichagof Island and Glacier Bay, Alaska; idem, I.e., 5, p. 395, 
1910 Prince William Sound region, Alaska (Port Nell Juan; Montague, 
Latouche, Knight, and Chenege Islands; crit.); Swarth, I.e., 7, p. 81, 1911 
Bradfield Canal, Sitka district, Alaska; idem, I.e., 10, p. 52, 1912 
Vancouver Island; idem, Pacif. Coast Avif., 22, p. 47, 1934 Sitkalidak 
Island,- Alaska. 

Range. Breeds on Kodiak Island and in the coast region of 
Alaska south at least to Sitka; winters along the coast south to 
British Columbia. 

Pinicola enucleator carlottae Brooks. 1 QUEEN CHARLOTTE PINE 
GROSBEAK. 

Pinicola enucleator carlottae Brooks, Condor, 24, p. 86, June 10, 1922 Massett, 
Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands (type in coll. of Allan Brooks). 

Pinicola enucleator flammula (not of Homeyer) Osgood, N. Amer. F., 21, p. 
47, 1901 Cumshewa Inlet (one imm. male). 

Range. Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 

'Pinicola enucleator montana Ridgway. ROCKY MOUNTAIN PINE 
GROSBEAK. 

Pinicola enucleator montana Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 319, October, 1898 Bear 
Creek, Gallatin County, Montana (type in U. S. National Museum); 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 66, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Range. Summits of the Rocky Mountains of North America 
from west-central Alberta, southeastern British Columbia, Idaho, 
and Montana to northern New Mexico; in winter to northwestern 
Nebraska. 2 

6: Alberta (Red Deer, 2); Montana (Townsend, 2); Colorado 
(Williams Range, Routt County, 1; Webster, 1). 

1 Pinicola enucleator carlottae Brooks: Smallest and darkest of all the American 
races; tail much shorter than in the other forms; red of males deeper and more 
scarlet (less of a carmine); yellow of females and old males darker and more or 
less suffusing the entire plumage, except the center of belly, lower tail coverts, 
and under wings and tail. Wing, 109, (female) 108; tail, 80-82; bill, 14^, (female) 
13^; depth at base, 10 1 A- (Brooks, I.e.) 

1 An additional race, P. e. jacoti Jenks (Condor, 40, p. 29, Jan., 1938), related to 
P. e. montana, but with stubbier bill and of darker coloration has lately been 
described from the White Mountains in central-eastern Arizona (type, from Phelps 
Ranger Station, northeast base of Baldy Peak, Apache County, in coll. of R. Jenks). 



260 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Pinicola enucleator californica Price. CALIFORNIA PINE 
GROSBEAK. 

Pinicola enucleator californica Price, Auk, 14, p. 182, April, 1897 Pyramid 
Peak, near Echo, Eldorado County, California (type in coll. of Stanford 
University; cf. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 304, 1932); 
Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 65, 1901 (monog., full 
bibliog.). 

Pinicola californica Ray, Condor, 14, pp. 157-187, 1912 (range; nest and eggs 
descr.). 

Range. Boreal zone of the Sierra Nevada from near Gold 
Lake, Plumas County, to Mammoth Pass, Mono County, California. 
1: California (Blue Canyon, Placer County, 1). 
Genus LEUCOSTICTE Swainson 

Leucosticte Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, 
"1831," p. 265, pub. Feb., 1832 type, by monotypy, Linaria (Leu- 
costicte) tephrocotis Swainson. 

*Leucosticte tephrocotis griseonucha (Brandt). ALEUTIAN ROSY 
FINCH. 

Fringilla (Linaria) griseonucha Brandt, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., 

10, Nos. 14-16, col. 252, pub. May 15, 1842 "insulae Aleuticae" = Aleu- 

tian Islands, Alaska (type in Leningrad Museum). 1 
Leucosticte griseogenys Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 104, Dec., 1843 

no locality given (type, now in British Museum, examined); idem, in Zool. 

Voy. Sulphur, p. 42, pi. 23, 1844 "Russian America"= Sitka (cf. Zool. 

Sulphur, p. 49). 
Montifringilla pustulata Cabanis, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss. 

und Ktinste, 1st sect., 50, p. 214, 1849 "von den kurilischen Inseln," 

errore (type in Berlin Museum). 
Montifringilla speciosa Finsch, Abhandl. Naturw. Ver. Bremen, 3, p. 60, 

Feb., 1872 Unalaska Island (type in Bremen Museum). 
Leucosticte kadiaka McGregor, Condor, 3, p. 8, Jan., 1901 Karluk, Kodiak 

Island, Alaska (type in coll. of R. C. McGregor, now in Dwight Collection, 

in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 
Leucosticte griseonucha maxima Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 405, 

Sept., 1915 Copper Island, Commander Islands (type in Museum of 

Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 
Montifringilla griseinucha Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 275, 1888 

Kodiak and St. George Islands (monog.). 
Leucosticte tephrocotis kadiaka Grinnell, Condor, 3, p. 21, 1901 Kodiak 

(crit.). 

1 Brandt's name is by no means merely based on Passer arctous var. 7 Pallas 
(Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat., 2, p. 23), as given by Hartert and Ridgway. The author 
states that there are four specimens in the Petersburg Museum, including two 
young ones secured by Kittlitz on Unalaska Island. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 261 

Leucosticte teprocotis griseonncha Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 72, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Leucosticte griseonucha griseonucha Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 
405, 1915 Semidi Islands. 

Leucosticte griseonucha Bent, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 56, No. 32, pp. 19, 28, 1912 
Kiska Island, Aleutians, and St. Paul Island, Bering Sea; Hersey, I.e., 66, 
No. 2, p. 29, 1916 Unalaska and Amaknak Islands; Hanna, Condor, 24, 
p. 88, 1922 St. George and St. Paul Islands (habits, nest and eggs descr.); 
Preble and McAtee, N. Amer. F., 46, p. 88, 1923 Pribilof Islands (St. 
George, St. Paul, and Otter); Laing, Victoria Mem. Mus., Bull., 40, p. 36, 
1925 Unalaska, Atka, and Attu Islands, Alaska; Swarth, Pacif. Coast 
Avif., 22, p. 47, 1934 Akutan, Unalaska, and Nunivak Islands, Alaska. 

Montifringilla iephrocoiis maxima Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 156, 1920 
Copper Island (crit.). 

Range. Islands of Bering Sea (St. Matthew, Commander, 
Nunivak, Pribilof) and the Aleutian chain, western part of the 
Alaska Peninsula, and the Semidi and Shumagin Islands; winters 
east to Kodiak Island. 1 

8: Alaska (Dutch Harbor, Unalaska Island, 1; St. Paul Island, 
2; St. George Island, 3; unspecified, 2). 

*Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis Baird. HEPBURN'S ROSY 
FINCH. 

Leucosticte littoralis Baird, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1, p. 318, pi. 28, fig. 1, 
1869 Sitka, and Port Simpson, British Columbia (type, from Port 
Simpson, in U. S. National Museum); idem, in Cooper, Orn. Calif., p. 162, 
1870 same localities. 

Leucosticte campestris Baird, in Cooper, Orn. Calif., p. 163, 1870 Denver, 
Colorado (type in U. S. National Museum). 

Montifringilla littoralis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 277, 1888 (monog.). 

Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 
71, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 5, p. 
226, 1909 Chichagof Island, Alaska; idem, I.e., 5, p. 397, 1910 Prince 
William Sound region, Alaska; Swarth, I.e., 24, p. 235, 1922 Doch-da-on 
Creek, Stikine region, British Columbia (breeding; food, meas.); idem, 
I.e., 24, p. 350, 1924 Ninemile Mountain, Skeena region, British Colum- 
bia; Brooks and Swarth, Pacif. Coast Avif., 17, p. 88, 1925 British 
Columbia; Racey, Auk, 43, p. 323, 1926 Alta Lake Region, British 

1 While there can be no question as to its being conspecific with L. tephrocotis, 
I am not quite certain that the Aleutian Rosy Finch should not be subdivided. 
Birds from Copper Island (maxima), of which I have compared a considerable 
series in the Tring Collection, average slightly larger (wing of males, 117-123) 
than others from Unalaska. Two from St. George, Pribilof, are seemingly 
intermediate, having wings of 117 and 121, respectively. It is quite possible 
that more adequate material may show the inhabitants of Nunivak, the Pribilofs, 
and the Matthew group to constitute a recognizable larger race entitled to the 
name maxima, and typical griseonucha to be restricted to the Aleutian Islands 
and the adjacent regions. 



262 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Columbia; Bailey, I.e., 44, p. 357, 1927 Muir Inlet (Glacier Bay) and 
Mt. Robert, Alaska; Leffingwell and Leffingwell, Condor, 33, p. 140, 
1931 Clarkston, Washington (habits, food, call-notes, summer and 
winter ranges). 

Range. Mountains of northwestern North America, from the 
Alaska Peninsula east and south to central Oregon; winters along 
the Pacific coast from Kodiak Island to Vancouver Island, and 
south to Oregon, Nevada, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and 
Colorado; accidental in Minnesota. 

7: Washington (Pullman, 1); Oregon (Camp Harney, 2; Sparta, 
1); Montana (Fort Keogh, 1); Wyoming (Fort Washakie, 1); 
Colorado (Fremont County, 1). 

*Leucosticte tephrocotis tephrocotis (Swainson). GRAY- 
CROWNED ROSY FINCH. 

Linaria (Leucosticte} tephrocotis Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. 
Bor.-Amer., 2, "1831," p. 265, pi. 50, pub. Feb., 1932 on the Saskatche- 
wan [=near Carlton House, Saskatchewan] (type now in the Swainson 
Collection, University Museum, Cambridge, Eng.). 

Montifringilla tephrocotis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 273, 1888 
(monog.). 

Leucosticte tephrocotis tephrocotis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 
p. 68, 1901 part, excl. of California. 

Range. Breeds in the Alpine zone of the Rocky Mountains 
from central-eastern Alaska, central Yukon, and western Alberta 
south to northwestern Montana; in winter and in migration west to 
the Cascade Range, east to the Saskatchewan plains and Manitoba, 
north to Great Slave Lake, and south to Utah, Colorado, and 
western Nebraska. 

27: Alberta (National Park, 2); Washington (Pullman, 1); 
Montana (Fort Keogh, 5); Wyoming (Douglas, 5; Fort Washakie, 2; 
Hat Creek, 7) ; Colorado (Boulder, 2; Webster, 1; Colorado Springs, 2). 

*Leucosticte tephrocotis dawsoni Grinnell. 1 SIERRA NEVADA 
ROSY FINCH. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis dawsoni Grinnell, Condor, 15, p. 77, March 25, 1913 
Whitney Meadows, Sierra Nevada, Tulare County, California (type in 
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley); Dawson, Journ. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 2, pp. 8-26, 1922 Sierra Nevada (nest and eggs descr.). 

1 Leucosticte tephrocotis dawsoni Grinnell: Similar to L. t. tephrocotis, but 
slightly smaller, especially the bill; general coloration distinctly grayer, less 
brownish, notably in juvenile plumage. Wing, 101-107, (female) 98-102; tail, 
67^-74, (female) 62-68; bill, 10Ji-ll^. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 263 

Leucosticte tephrocotis tephrocotis (not of Swainson) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 68, 1901 part, Sierra Nevada, California. 
Leucosticte tephrocotis Ray, Auk, 20, p. 187, 1903 Pyramid Peak, California. 

Range. Alpine and Hudsonian zones of the Sierra Nevada, 
from Pyramid Peak, Eldorado County, south to Cottonwood Pass, 
Tulare County, California. 

4: California (Pyramid Peak, 2; Fresno County, 2). 

*Leucosticte tephrocotis atrata Ridgway. 1 BLACK ROSY FINCH. 

Leucosticte atrata Ridgway, Amer. Sportsman, 4, p. 241, July 18, 1874 
Canyon City, Colorado (type in coll. of C. E. Aiken, now in U. S. National 
Museum); Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 75, 1901 (monog., 
full bibliog.); Miller, Condor, 27, pp. 1-7, 1925 Wapiti Range, Wyoming 
(nest and eggs descr.). 

Range. Breeds in the Rocky Mountains, in states of Idaho 
(Salmon River Mountains), Utah (Uinta Mountains), and western 
Wyoming (Wapiti Range, Wind River, Teton, and Absaroka Moun- 
tains); winters south to southern Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, 
southeastern Wyoming, Montana, and west (casually?) to Mono 
County, California. 

2: Colorado (Colorado Springs, 2). 

"Leucosticte tephrocotis austral is Ridgway. 1 BROWN-CAPPED 
ROSY FINCH. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis var. australis Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., 5, No. 11, 
p. 189, Nov., 1873; I.e., No. 12, p. 197, Dec., 1873 Mount Lincoln, 
Colorado (cotypes in coll. of J. A. Allen, now in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, 
p. 379, 1930). 

Montifringilla australis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 275, 1888 
Colorado (Mount Lincoln, Colorado Springs, South Park). 

Leucosticte australis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 77, 1901 
(monog., full bibliog.); Henshaw, Auk, 22, p. 315, 1905 Summit Peak, 
Colorado; Cooke, Auk, 26, p. 416, 1909 La Plata Mountains, Colorado; 
Warren, Auk, 27, p. 148, 1910 Chaffee County, Colorado; Lincoln, 
Auk, 33, p. 41, pi. 2, 1916 Mount Bross, Colorado (nest and eggs descr.). 

Range. Breeds in the Alpine zone of the Rocky Mountains of 
Colorado and probably northern New Mexico; winters mostly in 
the valleys of Colorado and New Mexico. 

3: Colorado (Canyon City, 2; Silverton, 1). 

1 Leucosticte tephrocotis atrata Ridgway and L. t. australis Ridgway, though 
strongly marked, are clearly geographic races of L. tephrocotis. 



264 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
Genus CHLORIS Cuvier 

Chloris Cuvier, Leg. d'Anat. Comp., 1, tab. 2, 1800 type, by monotypy and 
tautonymy, Loxia Moris Linnaeus apud Cuvier, Tabl. E16m. Hist. Nat. 
Anim., p. 212, 1798 (Opinion Int. Comm. Nomencl., No. 39). 



Chloris chloris (Linnaeus) subsp. 1 GREENFINCH. 

Loxia chloris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 174, 1758 "in Europa 



, 

= Sweden (ex Fauna Suecica). 

Chloris chloris Tremoleras, El Hornero, 5, p. 390, 1934 Rio Migueleta, 
Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Range. Northern and central Europe; introduced and accli- 
matized in Uruguay (vicinity of Montevideo). 

Genus CARDUELIS Brisson 

Carduelis Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 36; I.e., 3, p. 53, 1760 type, by tautonymy, 
"Carduelis" Brisson =Fringilla carduelis Linnaeus. 

Carduelis carduelis britannica (Hartert). BRITISH GOLDFINCH. 
Acanthis carduelis britannicus Hartert, Vogel Pal. Fauna, 1, p. 68, Nov., 

1903 Rottingdean, Sussex, England (type in Tring Collection, now in 

the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 
Carduelis carduelis bermudiana Kennedy, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 33, p. 33, 

Oct. 24, 1913 Ireland Island, Bermudas (type in British Museum). 
Carduelis carduelis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 94, 1901 

part, United States records; Bradlee and Mowbray, Proc. Bost. Soc. 

N. H., 39, p. 343, 1931 Bermuda. 

Range. The British Isles, naturalized in Bermuda. Introduced 
into the United States and for a time established about New York 
City, but now extinct in that region. 2 

Genus ACANTHIS Borkhausen 3 

Acanthis Borkhausen, Deutsche Fauna, 1, p. 248, 1797 type, by subs, 
desig. (Stejneger, Auk, 1, p. 145, 1884, and A.O.U. Comm. Check .List 
N. Amer. Bds., 3rd ed., p. 247, 1910), Fringilla linaria Linnaeus = Frin- 
gilla flammea Linnaeus. 

1 Not having seen any Uruguayan material, I am unable to determine the 
racial affinities of the Greenfinch that has established itself for the last five years 
in the vicinity of Montevideo, as has been reported by the late Juan Tremoleras. 
While there seems to be no clew as to the country whence the original stock came 
from, the possibility cannot be excluded that some other form, perhaps C. c. 
aurantiivenlris, of southern France and Spain, might be involved. 

2 A single adult from Long Island is unequivocally the British form. A 
race of the European Goldfinch is said to have been introduced into the island of 
Cuba (cf. Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. 123, 1892), but appears to have long van- 
ished, for Barbour (Mem. Nutt. Orn. CL, 6, 1923) does not even mention it. 
According to Hartert (Nov. ZooL, 16, p. 182, 1909) and Dabbene (Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 388, 1910), goldfinches have also been obtained at 
Barracas al Sur, Buenos Aires, but the race is undetermined. 

3 Aegiothus (flavirostris var.) brewsterii Ridgway (Amer. Nat., 6, No. 7, p. 
434, July, 1872), known from a single specimen taken at Waltham, Massachusetts, 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 265 

Linaria Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Orn. Ele"m., p. 30, April, 1816 type, by 

monotypy, "Sizerin" Buffon = Fringilla flammea Linnaeus. 
Aegiothus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 161, Oct., 1851 type, by subs, desig. 

(Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 78, 1855), Fringilla linaria Linnaeus 

= Fringilla flammea Linnaeus. 
Linacanthis Des Murs, in Chenu, Enc. Hist. Nat., Ois., 5, pp. 292, 303, 1854 

new name for Acanthys [sic] "Keyserling and Blasius." 
Acanthys Des Mure, TraitS d'Ool. Orn., pp. 334, 546, 1862 emendation of 

Acanthis Borkhausen. 
Agriospiza Sundevall, Meth. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent., p. 32, 1872 type, by 



orig. desig., Fringilla flavirostris Linnaeus. 



* Acanthis flammea flammea (Linnaeus). COMMON REDPOLL. 

Fringilla flammea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 182, 1758 based on 

Faun. Suec., No. 201, which, in its turn, rests exclusively on "Fringilla 

fusca, crista flammea" Rudbeck, Icon, ined., [pi. 11, fig. ii), "Norlandia" 

= Norrland, Sweden; cf. Lonnberg, Ibis, 1931, p. 306, pi. 11, fig. 2 (crit.). 
Fringilla linaria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 182, 1758 based on 

Faun. Suec., No. 210; Sweden. 
Linaria borealis Vieillot, M6m. Acad. Sci. Torino, 23, "1816," Sci. Fis. & 

Mat., p. 199, 1818 new name for Fringilla linaria Linnaeus. 
Linaria americana Wied, Journ. Orn., 6, p. 338, 1858 upper Missouri River 

(winter) (type in Wied Collection, now in the American Museum of 

Natural History, New York). 
Acanthis linaria Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 245, 1888 (monog., part, 

excl. of Labrador). 
Acanthis linaria linaria Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 85, 

1901 (monog., full bibliog., excl. of Labrador); Grinnell, Univ. Calif. 

Pub. Zool., 5, p. 398, 1910 Prince William Sound region, Alaska (crit.); 

Swarth, I.e., 7, p. 83, 1911 Kupreanof Island, Alaska. 

Acanthis flammea flammea Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 1, p. 77, 1903 (monog.). 
Carduelis linaria linaria Salomonsen, Vidensk. Medd. Naturh. Foren., 86, 

p. 126, 1928 (monog.). 

Range. Breeds in Boreal zones of North America from north- 
western Alaska, northern Mackenzie, and northern Quebec south to 
northern Alberta, northern Manitoba, and islands in the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence; also throughout northern Europe and northern Asia; 
winters in the northern parts of the United States, irregularly south 

on November 1, 1870, now in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass. (cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 379, 1930), is considered as a 
possible hybrid between Acanthis flammea (Linnaeus) and Spinus pinus (Wilson). 

A somewhat similar form of hybrid origin was obtained on the Colle di Tenna, 
Trentino, northern Italy, on October 29, 1908. It is discussed at length by Mar- 
torelli (Pub. Mus. Civ. Rovereto, No. 47, pp. 1-17, 1900), who believes the 
'bird to be probably the result of hybridization between A. flammea and Chloris 
chloris (Linnaeus). 



266 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

to Oregon, California, Colorado, Kansas, Indiana, Ohio, Alabama, 
and South Carolina, also over the greater part of Europe and south 
to central Asia; accidental in Bermuda. 1 

80: Alberta (Red Deer, 10); British Columbia (Okanagan, 2); 
Ontario (Hyde Park, 1); Quebec (unspecified, 1); Maine (Brewer, 2); 
New York (Owasco, 1); Massachusetts (Lexington, 1; Boston, 1; 
Cambridge, 1; Monson, 2; Burlington, 1; Somerville, 1; Quincy, 1); 
Connecticut (New Haven, 1); Rhode Island (Providence, 1); Wis- 
consin (Beaver Dam, 17; Meridian, 1; unspecified, 3); Michigan 
(Kalamazoo, 2); Illinois (Brandenburg Lake, Volo, 1; Waukegan, 2; 
Pistakee Bay, 3; Beach, Lake County, 11; Lake Forest, 1; South 
Chicago, 1; Indiana (Roby, 1; Miller, 4; Liverpool, 6). 

Acanthis flammea holboellii (Brehm). HOLBOELL'S REDPOLL. 

Linaria Holboellii Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 280, 1831 
"middle Germany [=Roda Valley, Thuringia] in November, 1822 and 
1825" (probable type in Brehm Collection, now in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York; cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., 25, p. 10, 1918). 

Linaria alnorum Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deuts., p. 281, 1831 same 
habitat as L. holboellii (no type apparently extant). 

Linaria longirostris Brehm, Vollst. Vogelf., p. 107, 1855 visits Germany 
from the north (no type extant). 

Fringilla linaria magnirostris Holmgren, Scand. Fugl., 1, p. 328, 1866 

northern Sweden. 
Linaria brunnescens Homeyer, Journ. Orn., 27, p. 184, 1879 part, Sweden 

and Lappland (no type specified, but doubtless in coll. of E. F. von 

Homeyer, now in Brunswick Museum). 
[Acanthis linaria] subsp. a Acanthis holboelli Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

12, p. 250, 1888 (monog.). 
Acanthis linaria holboellii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 89, 

1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Acanthis flammea holboellii Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 1, p. 79, 1903 (crit.). 
Carduelis linaria holbfttli Salomonsen, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 86, 

p. 139, 1928 (monog.); Hartert, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 156, 1920 Bering 

Island (crit.). 
Acanthis holboelli Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 404, 1915 Petro- 

pavlovsk, Kamchatka, and islands in the Bering Sea (East Cape Island, 

Big Diomede Island, and St. Lawrence Island). 

1 Asiatic birds, for which various names, A. intermedius Dybowski (Bull. 
Soc. Zool. France, 8, p. 365, 1883), A. innominatus Dybowski (I.e., p. 365, 1883), 
and A. linaria asiaticits Domaniewski (Compt. Rend. Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 10, 
p. 1054, 1917) have been proposed, and the inhabitants of North America (L. 
americana) are stated by Salomonsen to be indistinguishable from those of northern 
Europe. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 267 



. Breeds in extreme northern Scandinavia and east along 
the Arctic coast to western Siberia, and also on Herschel Island, 
the Commander Islands, Kamchatka, and adjacent parts of north- 
eastern Siberia; occasional in winter to northwestern Alaska, Canada, 
and the eastern United States, also in Sweden, England, Germany, 
Hungary, Russia, central Asia, and northern Japan. 1 

*Acanthis flammea fuscescens (Coues). 2 LABRADOR REDPOLL. 
Aegiothus fuscescens Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, for August, 

p. 222 Fort Resolution and coast of Labrador (cotypes, from Groswater 

Bay, Labrador, in U. S. National Museum; cf. Stejneger, Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 29, p. 256, 1885); idem, I.e., 1861, p. 380 (crit.). 
Acanthis linaria linaria (not Fringilla linaria Linnaeus) Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 85, 1901 part, Labrador. 
Acanthis linaria Townsend and Allen, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 33, p. 392, 

1907 Labrador Peninsula. 
Acanthis linaria fuscescens Hantzsch, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 384, 1908 north- 

eastern Labrador (crit.). 
Carduelis linaria fuscescens Salomonsen, Vidensk. Medd. Naturh. Foren., 86, 

p. 148, 1928 Labrador (monog.). 

Range. Breeds in eastern Labrador and winters probably in 
eastern Canada, Maine, Massachusetts, Illinois, and Iowa (Salomon- 
sen, I.e.). 

5: Labrador (Anatalok Bay, 3; Nain, 2). 

*Acanthis flammea rostrata (Coues). GREATER REDPOLL. 

Aegiothus rostratus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, Nov.-Dec., 

p. 378, pub. Mar. 31, 1862 Jakobshavn, Greenland (type in U. S. National 

Museum). 

Linaria brunnescens Homeyer, Journ. Orn., 27, p. 184, 1879 part, Greenland. 
[Acanthis linaria} subsp. /3 Acanthis rostrata Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 

12, p. 251, 1888 Greenland and Illinois (Chicago). 
Acanthis linaria rostrata Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 91, 

1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 

1 The breeding range of this form is still very imperfectly known. It appears 
to breed in scattered, often widely separated colonies north of the breeding area 
of A. f. flammea, and its winter range also cannot be defined with absolute 
accuracy, since the present form has frequently been confused with other races, 
in America especially with A. f. fuscescens. The case has been discussed very 
lucidly by Salomonsen (pp. 139-148), whose account should be carefully con- 
sulted by everyone interested in this complicated subject. 

1 Acanthis flammea fuscescens (Coues), although not currently recognized, 
is regarded by Hantzsch and Salomonsen as distinguishable on account of very 
dark brownish-black dorsal coloration with some scattered white spots, but 
without any brownish lateral margins. Besides, the streaking on the sides and 
flanks is generally heavier, and the red color as a rule more intense. 



268 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Acanthis flammea rostratus Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 1, p. 80, 1903 (monog.). 
Carduelis linaria rostrata Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 34, p. 88, 1926 
Heligoland (Oct. 24, 1879); Salomonsen, Vidensk. Medd. Naturh. Foren., 
86, p. 151, 1928 (monog.); idem, Ornith. Monatsber., 39, p. 113, 1931 
southern part of East Greenland; Nicholson, Ibis, 1930, p. 287 Godthaab 
Fiord, Greenland (habits). 

Range. Resident in southern Greenland, north to about lat. 
70; irregularly in winter south through Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, 
and Ungava to Montana, Colorado, northern Illinois, Michigan, 
northern Indiana and New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut; 
casual on the Hebrides, Shetlands, and Orkneys, Scotland; accidental 
in Heligoland (Oct. 24, 1879). 

9: Massachusetts (Hingham, 1; Monson, 2; West Newton, 1; 
Taunton, 1); Greenland (Simiutak, 4). 

* Acanthis flammea exilipes (Coues). 1 HOARY REDPOLL. 

Aegiothus exilipes Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, Nov.-Dec., 
p. 385, pub. March 31, 1862 Fort Simpson, Mackenzie (type in U. S. 
National Museum). 

Acanthis exilipes Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 254, 1888 (monog.). 

Acanthis hornemannii exilipes Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 82, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 1, p. 81, 

1903 (crit.); Townsend and Allen, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 33, p. 391, 

1907 northern Labrador. 

Carduelis linaria exilipes Salomonsen, Vidensk. Medd. Naturh. Foren., 86, 

p. 163, 1928 (monog.). 
Acanthis hornemanni exilipes Sutton, Mem. Carnegie Mus., 12, Part 2, Sect. 2, 

p. 228, 1932 Southampton Island (breeding). 

Linaria sibirica (Severtzow MS.) Homeyer, Journ. Orn., 27, p. 185, 1879 
Onon and Baical, Siberia (co types in coll. of E. F. von Homeyer, now in 
Brunswick Museum). 
Linaria pallescens Homeyer, Journ. Orn., 28, p. 156, 1880 (-L. sibirica 

Homeyer, 1879). 

Range. Breeds from western Alaska to Ungava, and throughout 
Arctic Asia to northern Lapland; winters occasionally south to 
British Columbia, Montana, northern Minnesota, Michigan, Illinois, 
Ontario, Maine, Massachusetts, New York, and Connecticut, also 
to Japan and various countries in Europe. 

13: Alaska (Nome, 5; St. Michael, 1 ; Chamisso Island, Kotzebue 
Sound, 1); Alberta (Red Deer, 3); Minnesota (Humboldt, 1; North- 
cote, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 1). 

Salomonsen (Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 86, pp. 123-202, 1928) 
has supplied convincing evidence for considering all Redpolls as races of a single 
specific entity. The distributional map accompanying his excellent review plainly 
shows that nowhere do two races regularly breed side by side, while areas of 
intergradation ("Mischgebiete") are not infrequent. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 269 

*Acanthis flammea hornemanni (Holboell). HORNEMANN'S 
REDPOLL. 

Linota hornemanni Holboell, Naturhist. Tidsskr., 4, (4), p. 398, 1843 Green- 
land (type, from Ameralikfjord, in Copenhagen Museum; cf. Salomonsen, 
Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 86, p. 170, 1928). 

[Acanthis exilipes] subsp. o Acanthis hornemanni Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 256, 1888 Greenland, Labrador, and Ungava (Fort Chimo). 

Acanthis hornemannii hornemannii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 80, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 1, 
p. 81, 1903 (crit.). 

Carduelis linaria hornemanni Salomonsen, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 

86, p. 169, 1928 (monog.). 
Acanthis hornemanni hornemanni Sutton, Mem. Carnegie Mus., 12, Part 2, 

Sect. 2, p. 226, 1932 Southampton Island (visitant). 

Range. Resident in Greenland north of lat. 70; in winter and 
in migration irregularly to Ungava and Southampton Island; casual 
at Fort Churchill, Hudson Bay, and at Gait, Ontario; accidental in 
Jan Mayen, Spitzbergen, England, and France. 1 

4: Quebec (Fort Chimo, 2; Whitefish Lake, 1); Labrador (Ka- 
marsuk, 1). 

Genus LOXIMITRIS Bryant 

Loximitris Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 93, May, 1867 type, by 
monotypy, Chrysomitris dominicensis Bryant. 

*Loximitris dominicensis (Bryant). HISPANIOLAN SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris dominicensis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 11, p. 93, May, 
1867 "Port-au-Prince," Haiti (type in U. S. National Museum); Cory, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 6, p. 152, 1881 near Petionville, Haiti. 

Loximitris dominicensis Cory, Bds. Haiti and San Domingo, p. 67, col. pi., 
1884 Petionville; idem, Auk, 3, p. 207 (descr.); idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 
94, 1889 (descr.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 234, 1888 "San 
Domingo"; Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., p. Ill, 1892 Haiti and Dominican 
Republic; idem, Auk, 12, p. 279, 1895 Dominican Republic; Cherrie, 
Field Columb. Mus., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 16, 1896 Aguacate and Catarey, 
Dominican Republic (descr. of female and young); Christy, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 324 La Vega; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 107, 
1901 Hispaniola (monog.); Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61, p. 
362, 1909 La Vega, Dominican Republic; Bond, I.e., 80, p. 518, 1928 
La Selle, Haiti (habits); Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 68, p. 326, 
1929 Loma del Medio, Haiti; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 155, p. 438, 1931 Hispaniola (habits, distribution, descr.). 

1 There is no authentic record of this redpoll from Iceland. Breeding reports 
refer to A. f. islandica Hantzsch (Orn. Monatsber., 12, p. 32, 1904), the only 
form of redpoll nesting on that island. 



270 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Mountains of the island of Hispaniola, Greater Antilles. 
12: Haiti (Petionville, 3); Santo Domingo (Aguacate, 5; Catarey, 
3; unspecified, 1). 

Genus SPINUS Koch 

Spinus Koch, Syst. Baier. Zool., 1, p. 232, 1816 type, by tautonymy, Frin- 

gilla spinus Linnaeus. 
Chrysomitris Boie, Isis, 1828, p. 322 type, by subs, desig. (Gray, List. Gen. 

Bds., p. 45, 1840), Fringilla spinus Linnaeus. 
Sporagra Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 79, June 1, 1850 type, by subs. 

desig. (Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 77, 1855), Fringilla magellanica 

Vieillot. 
Pyrrhomitris Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 517, end of 1850 type, 

by monotypy, Carduelis cucullalus Swainson. 
Astragalinus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 159, Oct., 1851 type, by subs, desig. 

(Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., p. 77, 1855) .Fringilla tristis Linnaeus. 
Melanomitris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 91 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 192, 1888), Carduelis atrata 

Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 
Pseudomitris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 93 type, by subs. 

desig. (Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 192, 1888), Fringilla psaltria 

Say. 

*Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson). NORTHERN PINE SISKIN. 

Fringilla pinus Wilson, Amer. Orn., 2, p. 133, pi. 17, fig. 1, 1810 Bush-hill 
in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (type in Peale's 
Museum, obviously lost). 

Chrysomitris pinus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 227, 1888 (monog., 
excl. spec, p, r, Jalapa, Mexico). 

Spinus pinus pinus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 97, 1901 
(monog., full bibliog.); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 175, 1906 
Cienaga de las Vacas, Durango (Mar. 30); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 
Galindo, Tamaulipas; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 159, 
1928 Lower California (winter); Swarth, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 18, 
p. 324, 1929 southern Arizona (crit.); van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 77, p. 481, 1934 Chihuahua and Sonora (Nacozari; Oposura, 
June 2). 

Range. Breeds in North America, from Alaska, southern 
Mackenzie, central Manitoba, and Quebec south through the 
mountains of the western United States to southern California and 
southern New Mexico, and also to Nebraska, northern Minnesota 
and Michigan, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, northwestern Pennsylvania, and the mountains of North 
Carolina; winters in the greater part of the United States to southern 
Florida and extreme northern Mexico (Lower California; northern 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 271 

Sonora; 1 northwestern Durango, Cienaga de las Vacas; Chihuahua; 
and Tamaulipas). 

90: Ontario (Coldstream, 1; Toronto, 1); British Columbia 
(Okanagan, 2); Maine (Parmachene Lake, Oxford County 1); New 
York (Sing Sing, 4; Cayuga County, 1; Long Island, 1); Massa- 
chusetts (Great Island, 21); Michigan (Huron Mountains, Marquette 
County, 2; Ann Arbor, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 1); Illinois 
(Beach, Lake County, 10; Chicago, 1; Joliet, 1); Indiana (Miller, 1; 
Bluffton, 3); South Carolina (Aiken, 1); District of Columbia 
(Washington, 1); Florida (Mary Esther, 1); California (Lassen 
County, 1; Big Bear Valley, 1; Clipper Gap, Placer County, 8; 
Nicasio, 1; Palo Alto, 1; San Mateo, 1; Monterey, 6; San Ber- 
nardino Mountains, 1); Colorado (Routt County, 2; Berthoud's 
Pass, 1; Floyd Hill, 1; Fort Lyon, 7; unspecified, 1); Arizona (Carr 
Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, 1; Huachuca Mountains, 1); Mexico 
(40 miles southwest of Minaca, Chihuahua, 1). 

Spinus pinus macropterus (Bonaparte). MEXICAN PINE 
SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris macroptera (Du Bus MS.)* Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), 
p. 515, end of 1850 "Guatimala" (errore) and Mexico (location of type 
not stated, probably in Brussels Museum). 

Chrysomitris pinus (not Fringilla pinus Wilson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, p. 174 Valley of Mexico; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1869, p. 362 
City of Mexico; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 550, 1869 
plateau and alpine region of Vera Cruz; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 1, p. 428, 1886 part, Mexican localities; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 227, 1888 part, spec, p-r, Jalapa, Mexico. 

Spinus pinus Bryant, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (2), 2, p. 298, 1889 Sierra San 
Pedro Martir; Anthony, Zoe, 4, p. 240, 1893 Sierra San Pedro Martir; 
Huey, Auk, 36, p. 357, 1926 Sierra Juarez, Lower California (breeding). 

Spinus pinus macroptera Chapman, Auk, 16, p. 311, 1897 Las Vegas, Vera 
Cruz, Mexico (crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 42, 1898 
Las Vegas. 

Spinus pinus macropterus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 100, 
1901 (monog., bibliog.); Todd, Auk, 40, p. 330, 1923 San Pedro Martir, 
Lower California (crit.); Grinnell, Condor, 30, p. 191, 1928 (crit., range); 
idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 159, 1928 Sierra San Pedro Martir 
and Sierra Juarez, Lower California (breeding); van Rossem, Trans. San 
Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 295, 1931 Saric, Sonora (May 15). 

1 The subspecific status of the siskins breeding in northwestern Mexico is in 
doubt. Birds from southern Arizona and southern California are stated by 
Swarth and Grinnell to be paler and less heavily streaked below, thus verging 
toward macropterus. 

1 Plate 23 (Carduelis macroptera) of Du Bus's "Esquisses Ornithologiques," 
intended for Part 5, apparently was never published. 



272 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Mountains of Mexico, from Sonora south through 
Zacatecas and Michoacan to Mexico, Puebla, and Vera Cruz; 
also in the Sierra San Pedro Martir and Sierra Juarez, northern 
Lower California. 1 

Spin us atriceps (Salvin). 2 GUATEMALAN PINE SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris atriceps Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 190 near 
Quetzaltenango, Guatemala (type in Salvin-Godman Collection, now in 
British Museum); idem, Ibis, 1866, p. 194 Quezaltenango; Ridgway, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 43 (crit.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 429, pi. 31, figs. 1, 2, 1886 Quezaltenango; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 200, 1888 same locality. 

Spinus atriceps Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 100, 1901 
Guatemala (Quetzaltenango, Hacienda Chancol) and Chiapas (San 
Cristobal); Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 354, 1932 Tecpam, 
Guatemala. 

Range. Mountains of western Guatemala (Quezaltenango, 
Hacienda Chancol, Tecpam) and the adjacent parts of south- 
eastern Mexico (San Cristobal, Chiapas). 

*Spinus spinescens spinescens (Bonaparte). LICHTENSTEIN'S 
SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris spinescens (Lichtenstein MS.) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, 
(2), p. 517, end of 1850 Santa F6 de Bogota, Colombia (type in Berlin 
Museum); Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 160, 1851 Colombia; Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 159, 1855 "Bogota"; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 90 (crit.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 199, 
1888 part, spec, a-d, "Bogota." 

Spinus spinescens spinescens Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 563, 
1917 Bogota, La Holanda, La Porquera, La Mar, Chipaque, and El 
Roble, Colombia; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 32, 1926 eastern 
Andes of Colombia and western Venezuela (monog.). 

Range. Temperate zone of the eastern Andes of Colombia and 
of western Venezuela (Cordillera of Me>ida). 3 

1: Venezuela (Paramo de Tama, 1). 
Spinus spinescens capitaneus Bangs. 4 SANTA MARTA SISKIN. 

*Van Rossem (Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 58, p. 134, July 13, 1938) has lately dis- 
criminated Spinus pinus perplexus (type from San Andres, Chiapas, in the British 
Museum) from southeastern Mexico (Chiapas) and western Guatemala. 

2 Spinus atriceps (Salvin), which we have not seen, seems to be related to 
S. spinescens, of South America. 

3 Additional material examined Colombia: "Bogota," 12. Venezuela: Andes 
of Me"rida, 2. 

4 Spinus spinescens capitaneus Bangs: Very similar to the nominate race, 
but with larger bill; under parts of males slightly more olivaceous, and in females 
on average more grayish. Size the same. 

Material examined. Colombia: San Sebastian, 4; San Miguel, 4. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 273 

Spinus spinescens capitaneus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 178, Oct. 31, 
1898 San Miguel, Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 378, 1930); idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 
1, p. 79, 1899 San Sebastian; Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
14, p. 534, 1922 Macotama; Todd, I.e., 17, p. 35, 1926 Sierra Nevada 
of Santa Marta (monog.). 

Chrysomitris spinescens (not of Bonaparte) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 
p. 199, 1888 part, spec, e-g, Sierra Nevada and San Sebastian, Colombia. 

Range. Temperate zone of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 
in northern Colombia. 

Spinus spinescens nigricauda Chapman. 1 BLACK-TAILED 
SISKIN. 

Spinus nigricauda Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 31, p. 160, July 23, 
1912 Paramo de Santa Isabel, Colombia (type in the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York); idem, I.e., 36, p. 564, 1917 Santa Isabel 1 
and Paramillo, Colombia; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 36, 1926 
western and central Andes of Colombia (monog.). 

Range. Temperate zone of the central and western Andes of 
Colombia (Santa Isabel; Paramillo). 

*Spinus yarrellii (Audubon). 2 YARRELL'S SISKIN. 

Fringilla mexicana (not Carduelis mexicanus Swainson) Audubon, Orn. Biog., 

5, p. 282, pi. 433, fig. 4 (male), 1839 "Upper California" (part, descr. 

of male). 
Carduelis yarrellii Audubon, Syn. Bds. N. Amer., p. 117, 1839 part, descr. 

of male; "Upper California," errore 1 (type now in U. S. National Museum; 

cf. Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. R. R. Pacif., 9, p. 421, 1858). 

1 Spinus spinescens nigricauda Chapman: Nearest to S. s. capitaneus, but 
wings and tail slightly longer; yellow at base of tail absent or at best suggested; 
back darker, Roman green rather than warbler green, with pronounced, more 
blackish centers; yellow on wing more restricted; under tail coverts faintly streaked; 
female (in adult plumage) approaching the male in coloration, but pileum less 
blackish. Wing (male), 71-72; tail, 45-47. 

The variation in the amount of yellow at the base of the tail in typical spines- 
cens, the occasional occurrence of traces of it in specimens from western Colombia, 
and the variability of the other characters leave, in my mind, no doubt that 
nigricauda is merely a race of Lichtenstein's Siskin. 

Material examined. Colombia: Santa Isabel, central Andes, 2; Paramillo, 
western Andes, 1. 

1 Spinus yarrellii (Audubon) is probably conspecific with S. spinescens. Cer- 
tain specimens from the Lake Valencia region, northern Venezuela, have the 
upper tail coverts, indeed, decidedly greenish, thus marking a step in the direction 
of Lichtenstein's Siskin. 

Audubon received the type (together with an alleged female, which, judging 
from his figure, appears to belong to one of the races of S. psaltria), from William 
Swainson, who might have secured it on his trip to eastern Brazil. Mr. Todd 
(Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 32, 1926) very aptly suggested Bahia as corrected 
type locality. 



274 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chrysomitris hypoxantha Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 14, p. 160, 1866 Bahia and 
Leopoldina, Bahia (type, from Bahia, in Berlin Museum). 

Chrysomitris yarrelli(i) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 517, 1850 (ex 
Audubon); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 26, p. 7, 1857 "Orinoco," 
Venezuela (crit.); Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 93 
"Orinoco" (crit.); Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 338 Parahyba and Pernambuco 
(Garanhuns, Quipapa); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 198, 1888 
Bahia and Pernambuco; Nicoll, Ibis, 1906, p. 669 Bahia; Snethlage, 
Journ. Orn., 55, p. 297, 1907 "Para" (cage-bird); Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 178, 1925 Fazenda da Serra, Rio 
Grande, Bahia. 

Spinus yarelli Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 380, 1907 Bahia. 

Spinus jarelli Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 42, 
1926 Ceara. 

Chrysomitris icterica alleni (not Spinus alleni Ridgway) Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 part, Nos. 453, 454, 
Fazenda da Serra, Rio Grande, Bahia (spec, examined). 

Spinus yarrellii Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 30, 1926 eastern Brazil 
(Bahia to Ceara) and northern Venezuela (monog.); Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 298, 1929 Jua, near Iguatu, Ceara. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of eastern Brazil (from Leopoldina, 
southern Bahia, north to Ceara) and northern Venezuela (El Trom- 
pillo, Carabobo). 1 

1: Brazil (Jua, near Iguatu, Ceara, 1). 
*Spinus cucullatus (Swainson). RED SISKIN. 

Carduelis cucullata Swainson, Zool. Illust., 1, Part 2, pi. 7, Nov., 1820 
"Spanish Main"=north coast of Venezuela 2 (type in coll. of E. Falkner, 
of Fairfield, near Liverpool, present location unknown; descr. of male); 
Sundevall, Oefvers. Vetensk.-Akad. Forh., 26, p. 597, 1869 Porto Rico 
(crit.). 

Fringilla cubae Gervais, Mag. Zool., 5, cl. 2, pi. 44, 1835 Santiago, Cuba 
(type in Paris Museum examined; descr. of male); Gundlach, Journ. 
Orn., 4, p. 10, 1856 (not seen in Cuba); Cabanis, I.e., 5, p. 241, 1857 
Caracas, Venezuela; Gundlach, I.e., 19, p. 282, 1871 Cuba (cage-bird). 

Pyrrhomitris cucullata(us) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 517, 1850 
Cumana, Venezuela; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 269, 
1860 north side of Cuba (crit,); Gundlach, Orn. Cub., p. 21, 1876 

1 Specimens from Venezuela (El Trompillo, Carabobo), which we have seen 
in the Carnegie Museum, do not appear to be satisfactorily separable, although 
they average slightly larger and sometimes have the upper tail coverts more 
greenish. The discontinuous distribution of Yarrell's Siskin offers an interesting 
parallel to that of Basileuterus flaveolus (Baird). 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Bahia, 14; Fazenda da Serra, Rio 
Grande, Bahia, 2; Pernambuco, 1; Ceara, 1. Venezuela: El Trompillo, Cara- 
bobo, 14. 

2 Cumana suggested as type locality by Todd (Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, 
p. 43, 1926). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 275 

Cuba (escaped cage-bird); idem, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 312, 1874 Porto 
Rico; idem, I.e., 26, p. 160, 1878 Porto Rico; idem, Anal. Soc. Esp. 
Hist. Nat., 7, p. 207, 1878 Porto Rico (escaped cage-bird); Cory, Auk, 
3, p. 207, 1886 Cuba and Porto Rico ("introduced"); idem, Bds. W. 
Ind., p. 94, 1889 Cuba and Porto Rico ("introduced"); idem, Cat. 
W. Ind. Bds., p. Ill, 1892 Cuba and Porto Rico ("introduced"). 

Chrysomilris cucullata Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 123, 1862 "Trinidad"; 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 91 "Trinidad," "Cayenne," 
and Venezuela (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 
p. 167 Carupano [Sucre] and Caracas, Venezuela; Finsch, I.e., 1870, 
p. 553 "Trinidad" (ex Sclater); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 225, 
1888 Venezuela (Carupano, Caracas), "Trinidad," and Cuba. 

Spinus cucullata Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 6, p. 33, 1894 Monos 
Island, near Trinidad. 

Spinus cucullatus Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San Antonio [Bermudez], 
Venezuela; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 104, 1901 
Venezuela, Trinidad, Cuba, and Porto Rico (monog.); Hellmayr, Nov. 
Zool., 13, p. 56, 1906 Monos Island and Cumana, Venezuela (not in 
Trinidad proper); Wetmore, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands, 9, 
p. 559, 1927 Porto Rico (cage-bird); Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, 
p. 41, 1926 Caracas to Monos Island (monog.); Roberts, Trop. Agric., 
11, p. 99, 1934 Monos Island. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of northern Venezuela, from the 
region around Me>ida (Sabaneta) east to Sucre, and Monos Island, 
off Trinidad. 1 

1: "Trinidad," 1. 
Spinus crassirostris (Landbeck). 2 THICK-BILLED SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris crassiroslris Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 254, 1877 near the 
Chilean boundary on Argentine territory, not far from the passes of 

1 Although Chapman secured an example on the little island of Monos, there 
is not yet any authentic record of the occurrence of this siskin in Trinidad proper. 
Trade skins labeled "Trinidad" are of Venezuelan preparation, and doubtless 
originated in Venezuela. S. Briceno obtained a single adult male at Sabaneta 
(alt. 600 metr.), Meiida, now in the Tring Collection at the American Museum 
of Natural History, which agrees perfectly with individuals from more eastern 
localities. 

Records from Cuba and Porto Rico refer to escaped cage-birds. Some may 
have lingered there some time, but none has been seen on either island for many 
years. The type of F. cubae exhibits unmistakable signs of having been kept in 
captivity. 

Additional material examined. Venezuela: Bermudez: Plains of Cumana, 3; 
San Antonio, 6; La Tigrera, 1; Los Palmales, 1; Campos Alegre, 1; Quebrada 
Secca, 1; La Montana del Guacharo, 1. Merida: Sabaneta, 1. Cuba: Santiago, 
1 (type of F. cubae). 

1 Spinus crassirostris (Landbeck), though related to the S. magellanicus group, 
may immediately be distinguished by its larger size and the enormous bill, which 
is not only decidedly longer, but from two to three times as bulky as in the other 
members of the genus. The adult male, which like its allies has the whole head 
including the throat deep black, differs from S. m. urubambensis and the other 
races by duller coloration, the back being about yellowish olive and the lower 



276 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Uspallata and Portillo, in the high Cordillera, Prov. Mendoza (descr. of 
male; type in National Museum, Santiago de Chile). 1 

Spinus ictericus magnirostris Dabbene, Physis, 4, No. 16, p. 105, May 15, 
1918 Sierra del Cajon, Salta, and Laguna Blanca, Catamarca (type, 
from Sierra del Cajon, Salta, in Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, 
Buenos Aires); idem, El Hornero, 1, p. 181, 1918 (reprint of orig. descr.); 
Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 187, 1921 El Pefion and Ojos de 
Agua, Rio Aconcagua, and Valle de los Leones, Prov. Aconcagua, Chile. 

Spinus crassirostris Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 40, 1926 western 
Argentina (Salta, Catamarca, and Sierras of Mendoza) and central Chile 
(monog.); Deautier, El Hornero, 4, pp. 186, 187, 1928 (crit., range); 
Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 81, 1932 Puna zone 
of Aconcagua, Chile (crit.). 

Range. High mountains (chiefly in the Puna zone) of western 
Argentina (Sierra del Cajon, Salta; Corral Quemado and Lago 
Helado, Catamarca; Puente del Inca, Mendoza) and central Chile 
(Prov. Aconcagua). 

*Spinus magellanicus capitalis (Cabanis). 2 CABANIS'S SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris capitalis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 14, p. 160, 1866 Ecuador 
(descr. of male; type in Berlin Museum examined); Taczanowski, Proc. 

abdomen buffy, while the apical bands to the greater upper wing coverts are 
dull pyrite yellow instead of bright lemon yellow. The female, with which we 
are not acquainted, is stated by Todd to be similar in coloration to that of S. m. 
capitalis. Wing (adult males), 80-82; tail, 52-56; bill, 13J4-15; depth at base, 
10-12. 

This striking bird, while possibly a geographic representative of S. magel- 
lanicus, as considered by Dabbene, may provisionally be accorded specific rank 
until its breeding range has been definitely established. 

Material examined. Argentina: Lago Helado (alt. 3,000 metr.), Catamarca, 
1; Puente del Inca (alt. 10,000 ft.), Mendoza, 4. 

1 According to Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 41, p. 102, 1872, where Chsy- 
somitris [sic] crassirostris is, however, a pure nomen nudum. The specimen is 
not listed by Gigoux and Looser (Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, pp. 5-33, 1930), 
but these authors have also omitted several other types belonging to the col- 
lections of the Chilean National Museum. 

2 Spinus magellanicus capitalis (Cabanis), when compared to S. m. paulus 
and S. m. peruanus, is generally distinguished in the male sex by stronger bill, 
darker green and more heavily spotted back, the restriction of the black hood 
on the sides of the head, and duller, more greenish yellow under parts. However, 
the two last-named characters are far from constant, and certain examples of 
peruanus do not differ at all from capitalis in these respects. The type of C. 
capitalis is a perfectly typical example of the present form, and compares well 
with the average of the birds from the highlands of Ecuador, having the same 
amount of black on the throat. The type of C. sclateri is somewhat aberrant, 
having the chin and throat yellow like the remainder of the under surface, but 
the individual nature of this divergency is proved by two males from "Nanegal." 
One bird has only on one side of the chin some black, while in the other this color 
extends, in the form of irregular spots, towards the lower throat. In all other 
characters, notably the dark warbler green back with heavy dusky spots, the 
three individuals are typically capitalis. A single male from Pun and another 
from Papallacta are more heavily spotted above, and duller (between sulphine 
yellow and pyrite yellow) underneath than any other example we have examined, 
but we do not consider these divergencies of sufficient importance to justify 
their formal separation. Birds from the mountains bordering the Maran6n 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 277 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 230 Tambillo, Peru; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 199 
Cutervo, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 17 Chirimoto, Peru (eggs descr.); 
Berlepsch and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, p. 294 part, Cechce, Chimbo- 
razo, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 85 Mapoto, Ecuador; Taczanowski, 
Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 49, 1886 part, Tambillo and Cutervo, Peru; Salvin, 
Nov. Zool., 2, p. 7, 1895 Cajamarca, Chusgon, and Succha (Huama- 
chuco), Peru; Salvador! and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, 
p. 27, 1899 Cuenca, "Nanegal," Tumbaco (Quito), and Pun, Ecuador 
(crit.). 

Chrysomitris icterica (not Fringilla icterica Lichtenstein) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 26, p. 552, 1858 Riobamba, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Bds., p. 125, 1862 part, spec, c-e, Riobamba and Cuenca, Ecuador. 

Chrysomitris icterica subsp. a Chrysomitris capitalis Sharpe, Caf. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 219, 1888 part, spec, m-p, Ecuador ("Jima," "Sical," 
"Intac," Quito) and Colombia (Pasto). 

Chrysomitris sclateri Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 200, 1888 Rio- 
bamba and Cuenca, Ecuador (type, from Riobamba, in British Museum 
examined). 

Chrysomitris icterica capitalis Hartert, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 484, 1898 Ibarra, 
Ecuador; Goodfellow, Ibis, 1901, p. 475 Quito and the Chillo Valley, 
Ecuador. 

Chrysomitris sp. Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 357, 
p. 28, 1899 La Conception, Chota Valley, Ecuador (young). 

Spinus ictericus capitalis Me'ne'gaux, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Arm6e Mes. Arc Me"rid. 
Equat., 9, p. B78, 1911 Tumbaco and Santa Rosa, Ecuador; idem, 
Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 390, 1912 Banos, Ecuador; Berlioz, Bull. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 76, 1928 Volcan de Tumbaco, Ecuador. 

Spinus capitalis Lonnberg and Rendahl, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 79, 1922 
Quito, Cumbaya, and Chaupicruz, Ecuador; Todd, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 17, p. 37, 1926 part, Temperate zone of Ecuador (monog.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 621, 1926 Ecuador (Nono, 
Pichincha, near Quito, Cumbaya, Papallacta, Mocha, Chimborazo, 
Cuenca); Berlioz, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, (2), 4, p. 627, 1932 Las 
Palmas and Cuenca, Ecuador. 

Chrysomitris siemiradzkii (errore) Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 313 Cuenca, Ecuador (spec, examined). 

Range. Temperate zone of extreme southern Colombia (Pasto), 
Ecuador, and northwestern Peru south to Cajamarca (Cajamarca, 
Chusgon, Huamachuco). 

Valley (Maynapall and Chusgon, near Huamachuco) we are unable to satis- 
factorily distinguish from those of the Ecuadorian highlands. The specimens 
from southern Peru and Chile referred by Todd to capitalis belong, in my opinion, 
to other races. The female of S. m. capitalis, as represented by a series from 
Ecuador, is fairly uniform by reason of its dull (grayish) green upper, and grayish- 
white under parts, but similarly colored examples also occur in the range of peru- 
anus and urubambensis. 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: near Quito, 6; Tumbaco, 3; La 
Concepci6n, 1; "Nanegal," 2; Mount Chimborazo, 1; Pichincha, 4; Mocha, 2; 
Cechce, 1; Govinda, 1; Cuenca, 2; Riobamba, 2; Pun, 2; Papallacta, 1 ; unspecified, 
4. Peru: Chusgon, Huamachuco, 2. 



278 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

2: Peru (Maynapall, near Huamachuco, 2). 
*Spinus magellanicus paulus Todd. 1 PACIFIC SISKIN. 

Spinus peruanus paulus Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 51, June 9, 1926 
Zamora, Loja, Ecuador (type in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, examined); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 621, 1926 Ecuador (Pallatanga, Bucay, Porto Velo, El Paso, Alamor, 
Loja, Zamora) and northwestern Peru (Milagros, Palambla, Huanca- 
bamba). 

Chrysomitris capitalis (not of Cabanis) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 985 Islay and Arequipa, Peru; idem, I.e., 1868, p. 569 
western Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 522 part, Lima; Berlepsch 
and Taczanowski, I.e., 1884, p. 294 part, Cayandeled, Ecuador; Tac- 
zanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 49, 1886 part, Lima; Berlepsch and Stolz- 
mann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 377 Lima and lea, Peru. 

Chrysomitris barbata (not Fringilla barbata Molina) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1883, p. 422 Callao, Peru. 

Chrysomitris iderica subsp. a Chrysomitris capitalis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 219, 1888 part, spec, a-g, i, k, Peru (Arequipa, Islay, 
Callao). 

Spinus ictericus peruanus (not of Berlepsch and Stolzmann) Bangs and Noble, 
Auk, 35, p. 46, 1918 Bellavista(?) and Huancabamba, Peru (crit.). 

Spinus peruanus peruanus Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 48, 1926 part, 
Pacific coast of Peru. 

Spinus magellanicus paulus Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 
p. 467, 1930 Santa Eulalia and Vitarte, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of the Pacific slope of 
southwestern Ecuador and Peru from Piura (east to Huancabamba) 
south to Arequipa. 

8: Peru (Trujillo, 1; Macate, Ancachs, 3; Santa Eulalia, Lima, 2; 
Vitarte, Lima, 1; Matucana, Lima, 1). 

1 Spinus magellanicus paulus Todd: Similar to S. m. capitalis, but smaller, 
with slenderer bill; back brighter, more yellowish citrine, and less variegated 
with dusky; rump brighter yellow; under parts brighter yellow without any 
buffy whitish color in the anal region; similar also to S. m. peruanus, but de- 
cidedly paler yellow below, the back more yellowish green, and the rump brighter 
yellow; female not certainly distinguishable from that of S. m. peruanus. 

Birds from the lowlands of southwestern Ecuador, including the type, are 
decidedly small in comparison to S. m. capitalis, of the Temperate zone of the 
Ecuadorian Andes. Those from the Pacific slope of Peru average slightly larger 
(wing of males, 65-69, against 61-66), but do not differ in coloration. I am in 
agreement with Mr. Zimmer that they have to go with paulus rather than with 
peruanus to which they had been referred by Mr. Todd. The intergradation 
between S. m. paulus, S. m. peruanus, and S. m. urubambensis has been discussed 
at some length by Mr. Zimmer (I.e., pp. 465-466). 

Additional material examined. Ecuador: Pallatanga, 2; Cayandeled, 1; 
Jalancay, Chunchi, Chimbo, 1; Zamora, 3; El Paso, 4. Peru: Huancabamba, 
Piura, 4; Huacho, Lima, 4; Huaral, Lima, 4; Lima, 6; lea, 1; Islay, Arequipa, 1; 
Cocachacra, Arequipa, 3. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 279 

*Spinus magellanicus peruanus Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 
PERUVIAN SISKIN. 

Spinus ictericus peruanus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 352 La Merced, Chanchamayo, and Garita del Sol, Vitoc, 
Dept. Junfn, Peru (type, from La Merced, in Warsaw Museum; cf. 
Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 170, 
1927); idem, Ornis, 13, p. Ill, 1906 Huaynapata, Marcapata, Cuzco, 
Peru; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 115, p. 110, 1921 part, San 
Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru (crit.). 

Chrysomitris capitalis (not of Cabanis) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1869, p. 597 Cosnipata, Cuzco, Peru; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, 
p. 522 part, Huanta (Ayacucho) and Ropaybamba (Junin), Peru; 
idem, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 49, 1886 part, Huanta, Ropaybamba, Amable 
Maria, Pumamarca, and Palca, Peru. 

Chrysomitris icterica subsp. a Chrysomitris capitalis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 219, 1888 part, spec, h, Ropaybamba, Peru. 

Spinus peruanus peruanus Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 48, 1926 part, 
eastern Peru. 

Spinus magellanicus peruanus Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
17, p. 465, 1930 Vista Alegre, Chinchao, and Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Spinus sclateri (?) (not Chrysomitris sclateri Sharpe) Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 353 Garita del Sol, Peru. 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of eastern Peru from 
Huanuco through Junin and Ayacucho to Cuzco. 
6: Peru (Vista Alegre, 2; Chinchao, 2; Huanuco, 2). 

*Spinus magellanicus urubambensis Todd. 2 URUBAMBA 
SISKIN. 

Spinus magellanicus urubambensis Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 65, 
June 9, 1926 Cuzco, Dept. Cuzco, Peru (type in the American Museum 

1 Spinus magellanicus peruanus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, in the male sex, 
comes pretty close to S. m. paulus, but differs by brighter as well as deeper yellow 
under parts, somewhat darker and more greenish back, and duller yellow rump. 
Wing (males), 67-70; tail, 42-45. 

Birds from La Merced (topotypical), Utcuyacu (alt. 4,800 ft.), and Vista 
Alegre agree well together. Two males each from Garita del Sol and Chipa 
(12,000 to 14,000 ft. elev.) likewise belong here. An adult male from Chinchao, 
Huanuco, is exactly intermediate between peruanus and capitalis, so much so 
indeed that its reference to one form rather than to the other is largely a matter 
of personal preference. The whitish-bellied female from Garita del Sol, referred 
by Berlepsch tentatively to S. sclateri and by Todd to capitalis, is clearly but an 
individual variant of peruanus. Similar variation occurs also in S. m. urubambensis. 
We have not seen any material of this form from south of Junin, though Todd 
extends its range to the Marcapata Valley. 

Additional material examined. Peru: La Merced, Chanchamayo, 7; Garita 
del Sol, Vitoc, 4; Utcuyacu, Junfn, 3; Chipa, Junin, 3. 

1 Spinus magellanicus urubambensis Todd differs from S. m. peruanus merely 
by its larger size. Wing, 73-78, (female) 70-74; tail, 48-52, (female) 45-48 H- 

This is apparently an altitudinal representative of S.m. peruanus in the Temper- 
ate zone of the Andes of southern Peru. Birds from Tacna Province, Chile, agree 



280 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

of Natural History, New York, examined); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 

Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 82, 1932 Putre and Palca, Tacna, Chile (crit.). 
(l)Spinus sclateri (not Chrysomitris sclateri Sharpe) Berlepsch and Stolz- 

mann, Ornis, 13, p. 68, 1906 Pauza and Coracora, Ayacucho. 
Spinus ictericus peruanus (not of Berlepsch and Stolzmann) Chapman, Bull. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 115, p. 110, 1921 part, Chospiyoc, Ttica-Ttica, Cuzco, 

Pisac, and La Raya, Urubamba, Peru (crit.). 
Spinus capitalis (not Chrysomitris capitalis Cabanis) Todd, Ann. Carnegie 

Mus., 17, pp. 37, 39, 1926 part, Putre, Tacna, and (?) Coracora and 

Pauza, Peru. 

Range. Temperate zone of extreme northern Chile (Tacna) and 
southern Peru (depts. of Cuzco, Junin, and possibly Ayacucho). 

2: Chile (Putre, Tacna, 2). 
*Spinus magellanicus bolivianus (Sharpe). 1 BOLIVIAN SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris ictericus subsp. /3 Chrysomitris boliviano, Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 12, p. 220, 1888 Bolivia (type in British Museum examined). 
Chrysomitris barbata (not Fringilla barbata Molina) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. 

Bds., p. 125, 1862 part, spec, a, Bolivia. 
Spinus magellanicus bolivianus Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 64, 1926 

highlands of Bolivia (monog.). 

Range. Temperate zone of central Bolivia, in depts. of Cocha- 
bamba, Chuquisaca, and Potosi. 

4: Bolivia (Arque, Cochabamba, 1; Parotani, Cochabamba, 3). 

with the typical series from the Cuzco region. Three adults in worn plumage 
taken by R. H. Beck at Oroya, Rio Mantaro, on the Junin plateau, in March, 1913, 
seem to be inseparable! A single adult female from Coracora, Ayacucho, with a 
wing of 73J/2, and a tail of 48 J^ mm., falls well within the measurements olurubam- 
bensis, but without further material it is, of course, impossible to allocate it with 
absolute certainty. While clearly distinct from S. m. peruanus, this form shows 
some analogy to the widely distant S. m. capitalis, of the Ecuadorian highlands, 
thereby demonstrating the conspecific relationship of all the Andean black-hooded 
siskins. It is exceedingly close to S. m. bolivianus, from which it seems to differ 
only by slightly brighter, more yellowish green dorsal surface. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Cuzco, 3; Ttica-Ttica, 3; Pisac, 3; 
Oroya, Rio Mantaro, Junin, 3. Chile: Palca, Tacna, 1. 

1 Spinus magellanicus bolivianus (Sharpe) : Similar to S. m. alleni, but much 
larger. Wing, 73-76, (female) 71-73; tail, 47-51, (female) 45-47. 

All the specimens we have seen of this form are from the central Bolivian 
highlands of Cochabamba and Sucre, the type agreeing with males from that 
region. The single specimen from Chaco, Yungas of La Paz, identified by Todd 
as S. m. bolivianus, is before me. It is a male in juvenile plumage with a few 
black feathers appearing on the lower throat and pileum, and without knowing 
the adult stage it cannot be determined with any degree of confidence. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Cochabamba, 2; Vinto, Cochabamba, 
3; Pulque, Sucre, 3; unspecified, 3. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 281 

*Spinus magellanicus tucumanus Todd. 1 TUCUMAN SISKIN. 

Spinus magellanicus tucumanus Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 62, June 9, 
1926 Lavalle, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (type in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 68, p. 236, 1927 Concepcion, Tucuman; Deautier, El Hornero, 
4, pp. 186, 187, 1928 (range); Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 34, p. 319, 
1930 Las Cuevas and Las Lenas, Cordillera of Mendoza. 

Chrysomitris magellanica (not Fringilla magellanica Vieillot) Burmeister, 
Journ. Orn., 6, p. 160, 1858 Mendoza; Salvin, Ibis, 1880, p. 355 Salta; 
Koslowsky, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 6, p. 279, 1895 Chilecito, La Rioja. 

Chrysomitris barbata (not Fringilla barbata Molina) White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1882, p. 600 part, Sierra de Totoral, Catamarca. 

Chrysomitris icterica (not Fringilla icterica Lichtenstein) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 217, 1888 part, spec, b-g, "Chile" [= Mendoza], 
Salta, and C6rdoba (Cosquin); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 64, 
1888 Argentina (in part); Frenzel, Journ. Orn., 39, p. 120, 1891 
Cordoba; Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 7, 1895 part, 
spec, e-f, San Pablo, Tucuman, and Chilchas, Salta; idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, 
p. 10, 1897 Campo Santo, Salta; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 216, 1904 Santa 
Ana, Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 255, 1904 Rosario 
de Lerma, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 43, 1905 
cerros de Tucuman. 

Chrysomitris magellanica (icterica) Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. 
Cienc. C6rdoba, 10, p. 398, 1890 C6rdoba. 

Carduelis icterica icterica Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 176, 1909 
part, Tucuman and (?)Mocovf, Santa Fe\ 

Spinus ictericus ictericus Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 387, 
1910 part, western Argentina (Salta to C6rdoba). 

Spinus ictericus Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 152, 1918 Mendoza; Giacomelli, 
I.e., 3, p. 69, 1923 La Rioja; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 
433, 1926 part, El Salto, above Potrerillos, Mendoza; (?)Wilson, El 
Hornero, 3, p. 361, 1926 General Lopez, Santa Fe; Castellanos, I.e., 5, 
p. 320, 1934 Valle de los Reartes, C6rdoba. 

Range. Western Argentina, from Jujuy south to Mendoza, 
east to the Sierra of Cordoba and (?)Santa FC"; in winter occasionally 
to Buenos Aires (Quilmes). 

9: Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman, 9). 

1 Spinus magellanicus tucumanus Todd : Very close to S. m. bolivianus, but on 
average slightly smaller; adult male with upper parts, especially wing and tail 
coverts uniform warbler green without any, or with very little, dusky spotting; 
female not distinguishable with certainty except for being smaller. Wing, 70-76, 
(female) 66-69; tail, 45-49, (female) 43-46. 

Though readily separable from S. m. magellanicus by duller coloration (green 
of upper parts duller with less yellow on the rump ; under surface and sides of neck 
duller, etc.), as pointed out by its describer, this form runs pretty close to bolivi- 
anus, and certain individuals are distinguishable only with difficulty. No material 
being available from Santa F6, the breeding form of that region remains in doubt. 
According to Todd, S. m. tucumanus migrates in winter to the coast of Buenos 
Aires. 

Four additional specimens from Tucuman (Tan, San Pablo) and two from 
Salta examined. 



282 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 
*Spinus magellanicus alleni Ridgway. 1 ALLEN'S SISKIN. 

Spinus alleni Ridgway, Auk, 16, p. 37, Jan., 1899 Chapada, Matto Grosso 
(type in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Fringilla magellanica (not of Vieillot) Wied, Reise Bras., 2, p. 178, 1821 
near Ressaque, Bahia-Minas boundary; idem, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, 
(1), p. 620, 1830 Bahia. 

Carduelis magellanica Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 83, 1837 Chiquitos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Chrysomitris magellanica Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 607 Chiquitos (ex d'Orbigny). 

Chrysomitris icterica (not Fringilla icterica Lichtenstein) Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 403 part, Catalao, Goyaz; Salvin, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 217 part, Bahia, Brazil; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 217, 1888 part, spec, o, p, Bahia (spec, examined); Kerr, Ibis, 
1892, p. 126 Fortln Page, lower Pilcomayo, Paraguayan Chaco. 

Spinus yarrelli (not Carduelis yarrellii Audubon) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 3, p. 375, 1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso. 

Spinus ictericus alleni Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 33, 1908 Rio Thesouras 
and Rio Araguaya, Goyaz (crit., range); Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paul., 17, 
(2), p. 792, 1932 Tres Lagoas and Aquidauana, Matto Grosso (crit.). 

Chrysomitris icterica alleni Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 part, spec. Nos. 704, 751, Parnagua, Piauhy 
(spec, examined). 

Spinus magellanicus alleni Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 52, 1926 
Brazil, eastern Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Paraguay (excl. of Bernalcu6) 
and Argentina (monog.); Deautier, El Hornero, 4, pp. 186, 187, 1928 
Chaco and Formosa, Argentina; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 297, 1929 Certeza, Goyaz; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 60, p. 352, 1930 Matto Grosso. 

Range. Campo region of central Brazil, from southern Piauhy 
(Parnagua) and Bahia west through Goyaz (Certeza, Rio Perdido; 
Rio Thesouras; Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya; Catalao) to northern 
Sao Paulo (Bauru) and Matto Grosso (Tres LagSas, Aquidauana, Cha- 
pada, Estiva, Piraputanga), and eastern Bolivia (west to the eastern 
base of the Andes at Santa Cruz), and the adjoining parts of Para- 
guay (west of the Rio Parana) and northern Argentina (Chaco). 

1 Spinus magellanicus alleni Ridgway: Similar to S. m. ictericus, but smaller; 
adult males with yellow of under parts brighter and clearer, and the yellow basal 
area of the tail less extensive; female brighter and clearer yellow below without 
the olivaceous shade on throat and chest. Wing, 63-69, (female) 64; tail, 38-45; 
(female) 40-41; bill, 9^-11. 

Birds from Chiquitos, Bolivia, agree with others from Brazil, but seem to 
have slightly shorter tails. I have not seen any material from the Paraguayan or 
Argentine Chaco w,hich Todd refers to the present form. Specimens from eastern 
Paraguay (Bernalcue, Sapucay) pertain unquestionably to S. m. ictericus. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Parnagua, Piauhy, 2; Bahia, 2; Cha- 
pada, Matto Grosso, 2; Estiva, Matto Grosso, 1; Rio Thesouras, Goyaz, 1; Rio 
Araguaya (Leopoldina), Goyaz, 1. Bolivia: Chiquitos, 3. 






1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 283 

3: Brazil (Baurii, Sao Paulo, 1; Certeza, Goyaz, 1; Piraputanga, 
Matto Grosso, 1). 

*Spinus magellanicus ictericus (Lichtenstein). 1 BRAZILIAN 
SISKIN. 

Fringilla icterica Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 26, after Sept., 
1823 Sao Paulo, Brazil (type in Berlin Museum). 

Fringilla campestris (not of Schrank, 1789) Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Bras., 2, 
p. 48, pi. 61, fig. 3 (young male), 1825 "in campis districti adamantini" 
= Minas Geraes, Brazil (type in Munich Museum examined; cf. Hellmayr, 
Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 680, 1906). 

Carduelis ictericus bavarici Collin and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 34, p. 50, 1927 
new name for Fringilla campestris Spix, preoccupied. 

Chrysomitris magellanica (not Fringilla magellanica Vieillot) Bonaparte, 
Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 516, 1850 Sao Paulo; Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 
1, p. 160, 1851 Brazil; Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 255, 
1856 Lagoa Santa and Congonhas, Minas Geraes (spec, examined); 
Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 92 part, southern Brazil. 

Chrysomitris icterica Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 125, 1862 part, spec, 
a, b, Brazil; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 231, 1870 Sao Paulo (Mattodentro, 
Ypanema, Jaguaraiba, Itarare); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. 
Foren., 1870, p. 403 part, Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa and Olleria); 
Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 124, 1885 Taquara do 
Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 
217, 1888 part, spec. 1-n, "Pelotas," Rio Grande do Sul, and Sao Paulo; 
Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 7, 1895 part, spec, 
a-d, Paraguay (Luque, Villa Rica, Colonia Risso); Ihering, Annuario 
Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 120, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul (Mundo 
Novo, Barra do Rio Camaquam, Pedras Brancas); idem, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 3, p. 23, 1899 Sao Paulo (Iguape); Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 635 
Sapucay, Paraguay. 

Chrysomitris barbata (not Fringilla barbata Molina) White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1882, p. 600 part, Conception, Misiones, and Santo Tome, 
Corrientes (spec, examined). 

1 Spinus magellanicus ictericus (Lichtenstein) : Very close to S. m. magellanicus, 
but distinguishable by slightly smaller size, less extensive black gular patch, and 
absence of the buffy whitish area in the middle of the lower abdomen in the male 
sex. The wing, in adult males, ranges from 67 to 72 mm. Birds from eastern 
Paraguay (Bernalcue, near Asunci6n; Villa Rica; Sapucay) and Misiones, and a 
single male from Santo Tom6, northeastern Corrientes, agree precisely with Bra- 
zilian individuals. Since writing about the type of F. campestris, I have carefully 
examined six adult males from Minas Geraes and find them to be unquestionably 
referable to ictericus, though one from Congonhas slightly verges toward S. m, 
alleni. Besides, Spix's term campestris is preoccupied anyway, having been pre- 
viously used by Schrank. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, 2; Con- 
gonhas, Minas Geraes, 1; Rio de Janeiro, 4; Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 10; Matto- 
dentro, Sao Paulo, 3; ItararS, Sao Paulo, 1; Jaguaraiba, Sao Paulo, 1; Roca Nova, 
Serra do Mar, Parana, 2; Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, 3; Rio Grande do Sul, 4. 
Paraguay: Sapucay, 1; Villa Rica, 2; Bernalcu6, 1. Argentina: Concepci6n, 
Misiones, 1; Bonpland, Misiones, 2; Santo Tom6, Corrientes, J. 



284 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Spinus ictericus Miranda Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 13, p. 186, 
1906 Retire do Ramos, Serra do Itatiaya; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, 
p. 380, 1907 Sao Paulo (Jundiahy, Itarare, Itatiba), Minas Geraes 
(Campos de Itatiaya), and Rio Grande do Sul (Novo Hamburgo); Liider- 
waldt, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 27, p. 357, 1909 Serra do Itatiaya (habits); 
Miranda Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 255, 1923 
Retire do Ramos, Itatiaya; Velho, I.e., p. 263, 1923 Monte Serrat, 
Itatiaya, Brazil. 

Spinus magellanicus ictericus Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 54, 1926 
southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, and Misiones (monog.); Deautier, El 
Hornero, 4, pp. 185, 187, 1928 (range). 

Spinus ictericus ictericus Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 316, 1928 
Serra do Itatiaya, Brazil. 

Spinus ictericus campestris Hellmayr, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 22, 
No. 3, p. 680, 1906 Minas Geraes (crit.). 

Cardueles [sic] icterica Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 63, 1914 Alto Parana, 
Paraguay. 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, from Minas Geraes and Rio de 
Janeiro south to Rio Grande do Sul, and the adjacent parts of 
Paraguay (east of the Rio Parana) and extreme northeastern Argen- 
tina (Misiones and the adjoining section of Corrientes). 

5: Brazil (Joinville, Santa Catharina, 1; Rio das Velhas, near 
Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, 4). 

Spinus magellanicus magellanicus (Vieillot). ARGENTINE 
SISKIN. 

Fringilla magellanica Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Chant. Zone Torr., pi. 30, circa 
1805 "la partie meridionale de 1'Amerique . . . et encore aux environs du 
detroit de Magellan" (errore); type locality, as designated by Todd 
(1926, p. 61), Buenos Aires. 1 

Chrysomitris magellanica Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 97, 1841 Uruguay 
(Maldonado) and Rio Negro; Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 14, p. 161, 1866 
Montevideo and Buenos Aires (crit.); Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 
254, 1874 Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, southern Corrientes; Durnford, 
Ibis, 1876, p. 159 Ranches, Buenos Aires; Gibson, Ibis, 1880, p. 30 
Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires (nest and eggs). 

Chrysomitris barbata (not Fringilla barbata Molina) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 140 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Hudson, I.e., 
1870, p. 549 Buenos Aires; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 172 Baradero, 
Buenos Aires; Doering, in Roca, Inf. Of. Exp. Rio Negro, 1, Zool., p. 40, 

1 Although the habitat ascribed to the species is incorrect, since no other 
siskin than S. barbatus occurs in the Straits of Magellan, Vieillot's figure clearly 
represents a member of the black-headed group and, as has been explained by 
Cabanis and more recently again by Todd, corresponds fairly well to the Argentine 
form, which was already met with near Buenos Aires by the traveller Commerson, 
as quoted by Montbeillard (in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 4, p. 402) in the account 
of "L'Olivarez." The type, it may be added, does not exist in the collections of 
the Paris Museum. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 285 

1881 Rio Sauce, Rio Colorado, and Rio Negro; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Cl., 8, p. 132, 1883 Concepci6n del Uruguay, Entre Rfos, and 
Buenos Aires; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. C6rdoba, 5, p. 83, 
1884 Tandil, Buenos Aires. 

Chrysomitris iderica (not Fringilla icterica Lichtenstein) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 217, 1888 part, spec, h-k, Buenos Aires, Conchitas, 
and Campana; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 64, 1888 part, 
eastern Argentina; Kerr, Ibis, 1890, p. 361 Est. Mate Grande, near 
Nueva de Julio, Buenos Aires; Holland, I.e., 1891, p. 16; idem, I.e., 
1892, p. 197 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Aplin, I.e., 1894, p. 
170 Santa Elena, Uruguay (habits); Grant, I.e., 1911, p. 101 Los 
Yngleses and Luiconia, Buenos Aires (nest and eggs); Gibson, I.e., 1918, 
p. 388 Cape San Antonio, Buenos Aires. 

Spinus ictericus Tremoleras, El Hornero, 2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay (Monte- 
video, Canelones, Colonia, San Jos6, Florida); Renard, I.e., 2, p. 60, 
1920 Canuelas, Buenos Aires; Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, 
Buenos Aires; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 171, 1923 Escobar, Buenos Aires; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 433, 1926 part, Buenos Aires 
(Dolores, Lavalle) and Uruguay (San Vicente); Smyth, El Hornero, 4, 
p. 149, 1928 Cacharf, Buenos Aires (egg). 

Spinus ictericus ictericus Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 387, 
1910 part, eastern Argentina; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 397, 1916 La Plata; 
Marelli, Mem. Minist. Obr. Publ. for 1922-23, p. 658, 1924 Buenos 
Aires Province; idem, El Hornero, 5, p. 197, 1933 Dorrego and Fortfn 
Chaco, southern Buenos Aires. 

Carduelis icterica icterica Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 176, 1909 

part, Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires. 
Spinus magellanicus magellanicus Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 58, 1926 

Argentina (monog.); Deautier, El Hornero, 4, pp. 185, 187, 1928 

(range in Argentina). 

Range. Eastern Argentina, from Entre Rios and Buenos Aires 
south to the Rio Negro, and Uruguay. 1 

*Spinus magellanicus longirostris (Sharpe). 2 RORAIMA SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris icterica subsp. y Chrysomitris longirostris Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 12, p. 220, 1888 Roraima, British Guiana (type in British 

Museum). 
Chrysomitris icterica (not Fringilla icterica Lichtenstein) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 

p. 217 Roraima. 

1 Ten specimens from Buenos Aires and two from Uruguay (Montevideo) 
examined. 

1 Spinus magellanicus longirostris (Sharpe): Similar to S. m. ictericus, but 
decidedly smaller, with somewhat longer, slenderer bill; dorsal surface of adult 
males more yellowish green with hardly a trace of the dusky mottling, and under 
parts brighter yellow without any olivaceous shading across chest and along flanks. 
Wing (males), 60-63; tail, 37-40; bill, 11. 

Additional material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 8. 



286 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Spinus longirostris Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 44, 1926 Roraima 

(monog.). 

Range. Tropical zone of British Guiana (Roraima, Quonga). 
1: British Guiana (Quonga, 1). 

Spinus santaecrucis Todd. 1 SANTA CRUZ SISKIN. 

Spinus santaecrucis Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 47, June 9, 1926 Sa- 
maipata, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (type in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh). 

Range. Tropical zone of the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 

Spinus siemiradzkii (Berlepsch and Taczanowski). 2 SIEMIRADZKI'S 
SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris siemiradzkii Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, p. 551, pi. 50 Guayaquil (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in 
Senckenberg Museum, Frankfort, examined); 3 idem, I.e., 1884, p. 282 
Guayaquil; (?) Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 50, 1886 Tumbez, Peru 
(sight record). 

Chrysomitris icterica subsp. 8 Chrysomitris siemiradzkii Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 221, 1888 "Balzar," Ecuador. 

Spinus siemiradzkii Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 43, 1926 Guayaquil 
and Puna Island, Ecuador (monog.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. 
H., 55, p. 622, 1926 Puna Island, Ecuador. 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of southwestern Ecuador (Guaya- 
quil and Puna Island). 

1 Spinus santaecrucis Todd : Similar to S. magellanicus bolivianus, but de- 
cidedly smaller; adult male with the dorsal feathers extensively blackish in the 
center and narrowly margined with light olive-green, and the upper tail coverts 
also largely blackish with greenish edges. Wing (male), 70; tail, 44. 

A single adult male from Holguin, Santa Cruz, differs indeed strikingly by the 
above characters from a small series of S. m. bolivianus, from the highlands of 
Cochabamba. An immature male, with the black hood already largely developed, 
from Santa Cruz, is much less spotted above, being hardly different on this score 
from bolivianus, but has no yellow at all on the rump. These two specimens look 
almost like a connecting link between S. m. alleni, of Chiquitos, and S. m. bolivianus, 
of Cochabamba, but according to Todd, who does not seem to be very confident as 
to their taxonomic status, alleni and santaecrucis both occur at Santa Cruz, Buena 
Vista, and Rio Surutu! The case obviously requires renewed investigation with 
the help of more adequate material. 

2 Spinus siemiradzkii (Berlepsch and Taczanowski), in spite of its bright yellow- 
ish coloration, which is indicated, though to a lesser degree, even in the female 
sex, may ultimately prove to be a geographic representative of S. magellanicus. 
It appears to be restricted to the arid tropical region around Guayaquil, including 
Puna Island. Stolzmann's sight record from "Tumbez" needs corroboration by 
actually secured material. The locality "Balzar" attached to a skin by Illing- 
worth, a native collector in the service of Clarence Buckley, is no doubt due to 
a confusion of labeling, this man having also visited Puna Island. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Guayaquil, 3 (two males, one female). 

8 The specimen in the Warsaw Museum listed by Sztolcman and Domaniewski 
(Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 170, 1927) as "type" has no valid claims 
to this dignity, the marked type being still in the Berlepsch Collection at Frankfort. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 287 

*Spinus olivaceus Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 OLIVACEOUS 
SISKIN. 

Spinus olivaceus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ibis, (6), 6, p. 387, July, 1894 
Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Dept. Junfn, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. 
Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 170, 
1927); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 353 Garita del Sol; Todd, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 46, 1926 eastern Ecuador to Bolivia (monog.); 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 622, 1926 Zamora, eastern 
Ecuador; Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 468, 1930 
Vista Alegre, Huanuco, Peru. 

Range. Subtropical zone of eastern Ecuador (Zamora), eastern 
Peru (Huayabamba, Dept. San Martin; Vista Alegre, Dept. Hua- 
nuco; Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Dept. Junin; Marcapata, Dept. Cuzco), 
and northern Bolivia (Songo and San Antonio, Yungas of La Paz; 
Yungas of Cochabamba). 

2: Peru (Vista Alegre, Huanuco, 2). 

*Spinus notatus 2 notatus (Du Bus). BLACK-HEADED SISKIN. 

Carduelis notata Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Sci., Lettr. et Beaux Arts Belg., 14, 
(2), p. 106, Aug., 1847 Mexico =Jalapa, Vera Cruz 3 (type in Brussels 
Museum). 

Chrysomitris notata Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 24, p. 304, 1856 Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 26, p. 303, 1858 Orizaba; idem, I.e., 27, pp. 365, 
380, 1859 Jalapa, Vera Cruz, and La Parada and Totontepec, Oaxaca; 
Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1860, p. 275 Volcan de Fuego and Coban, 
Guatemala; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 92 Mexico 
(crit.); Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 4, p. 22, 1876 Gineta Moun- 
tains, Chiapas; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 428, 
1886 Mexico (Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas) and Guatemala; Sharpe, 

1 Spinus olivaceus Berlepsch and Stolzmann: Adult male superficially resem- 
bling S. magellanicus peruanus, but with proportionately and absolutely much 
shorter tail; upper parts decidedly darker, deep warbler green tinged with citrine; 
the yellow of the rump generally less contrasted with the color of the back; the 
terminal edges to the tertials much narrower and less conspicuous, in fresh plu- 
mage grayish green instead of clear yellowish white; chest, sides, and flanks strongly 
tinged with olivaceous. Wing, 63^-66; tail, 35-38; bill, 9-10. Female unknown 
to the author. 

The short tail, the inconspicuous edging to the innermost secondaries, and the 
olivaceous-tinged under parts are the best characters to tell this siskin from its 
allies. Birds from the Yungas of La Paz appear to be similar to others from Peru. 
S. olivaceus evidently is specifically different from the S. magellanicus group, being 
found side by side with races of the Magellanic Siskin (S. m. peruanus and S. TO. 
urubambensis) in part of its range. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Huayabamba, 2; La Garita del Sol, 
Vitoc, 1. Bolivia, Yungas of La Paz: San Antonio, 1; Songo, 3. 

t Spinus notatus is clearly related to S. magellanicus, but has a slenderer, 
more acute bill, very little yellow on the wing coverts and tertials, and the sexes 
are nearly alike in coloration. 

As designated by Todd (Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 68, 1926). 



288 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 221, 1888 Mexico (Orizaba) and Guatemala 
(Volcan de Fuego, Calderas, pine ridge of Dolores, Santa Barbara, and 
Vera Paz). 

Chrysomitris notatus Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 550, 1869 
temperate region of Vera Cruz. 

Spinus notatus Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, p. 149, 1886 Teziut- 
lan, Puebla; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 10, p. 30, 1898 Jalapa, 
Vera Cruz. 

Spinus notatus notatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 102, 
1901 part, Mexico and Guatemala; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 
66, 1926 part, Mexico and Guatemala (monog.); Bangs and Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 402, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca; Griscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 355, 1932 Guatemala (Finca Sepacuite, 
Secanquim, Nebaj, Chichicastenango, Momostenango, La Perla, Pana- 
jachel, San Lucas). 

Range. Pine and oak forests of the mountains of southeastern 
Mexico (in states of Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, Oaxaca, and 
Chiapas) and Guatemala. 1 

2: Mexico (Jalapa, Vera Cruz, 2). 

Spinus notatus forreri (Salvin and Godman). FORRER'S SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris forreri Salvin and Godmaix Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 429, 
Nov., 1886 Ciudad Durango, Durango, Mexico (type in Salvin-Godman 
Collection, now in British Museum); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 
p. 222, 1888 Ciudad Durango. 

Spinus notatus forreri Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 103, 
1901 southwestern Mexico (monog.); Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, 
p. 69, 1926 (monog.); Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 416, 1934 
Chilpancingo, Guerrero (crit.); van Rossem, I.e., 77, p. 482, 1934 
Sonora (Mina Abundancia) and Chihuahua (Bravo, Chihuahua, Carmen). 

Range. Mountains of western Mexico, from northeastern 
Sonora and Chihuahua south through Durango, Zacatecas, Jalisco, 
and Nayarit to Guerrero. 2 

*Spinus notatus oleaceus Griscom. 3 HONDURAN SISKIN. 

Spinus notatus oleaceus Griscom, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 13, p. 61, Nov. 7, 
1932 Cerro Cantoral, Distr. of Achaga, Honduras (type in Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

1 Birds from Guatemala (Vera Paz) agree with a series from Jalapa, Vera Cruz. 

2 Van Rossem (Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 58, p. 135, July 13, 1938) has recently 
subdivided the above form, restricting S. n. forreri to Durango and northwards 
and separating the birds from Guerrero to Nayarit as S. notatus griscomi (type, 
from Voican de Colima, Jalisco, in the British Museum). 

3 Spinus notatus oleaceus Griscom: Similar to S. n. notatus, but slightly smaller, 
with a slenderer bill; upper parts less yellowish, more olive-green; under parts 
dirty greenish yellow, without the rich gamboge shade of northern birds. Wing 
(males), 62-64. (Griscom, I.e.) 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 289 

Spinus notatus (not Carduelis notata Du Bus) Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
14, p. 470, 1891 Santa Ana, Honduras. 

Spinus notaius notatus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 102, 
1901 part, Santa Ana, Honduras; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 66, 
1926 part, Honduras (Santa Ana) and Nicaragua (Matagalpa); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 84, p. 340, 1932 Santa Ana, Honduras. 

Range. Pine and oak forests of Honduras and northern 
Nicaragua. 

1: Nicaragua (Matagalpa, 1). 

*Spinus xanthogaster xanthogaster (Du Bus). YELLOW-BELLIED 
SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris xanthogastra Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Sci., Lettr. et Beaux-Arts 
Belg., 22, (1), p. 152, 1855 Ocana, Colombia (type in Brussels Museum; 
descr. of male); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, pp. 781, 
785 part, Meiida (Venezuela), "Bogota," and Costa Rica (crit.); Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 328 Canuto and Cucuta Valley, Santander, Colombia; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 508 Santa Elena, 
Colombia (eggs descr.). 

Chrysomitris bryantii Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 91 Dota, 
Costa Rica (type in U. S. National Museum); Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 104, 1868 Dota; Frantzius, Journ. Orn., 17, p. 302, 
1869 Costa Rica; Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 56 Volcan 
de Irazu, Costa Rica. 

Chrysomitris xanthogaster Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 
p. 430, pi. 31, fig. 3, 1886 part, Costa Rica (Dota, Frailes, Irazu), Colom- 
bia, Venezuela, and (?)Ecuador; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 209, 
1888 Costa Rica (Irazu, Frailes, Dota), Colombia (Bogota, Canuto, 
Santa Elena), Venezuela, and (?)Ecuador. 

Spinus xanthogastra Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 
Cartago, Dota, and Sarchi, Costa Rica. 

Spinus xanthogaster Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 105, 1901 
Costa Rica to Venezuela and (?)Ecuador (monog.); Piguet, Me"m. Soc. 
Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 808, 1914 Angelopolis, near Medellin, Colom- 
bia; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 564, 1917 San Antonio, 
western Andes, and Santa Elena, central Andes, Colombia. 

Spinus xanthogaster bryantLEangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 4, p. 34, 1908 
Costa Rica (crit.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 914, 1910 
Costa Rica (Volcan de Irazu, Azahar de Cartago, Carrfllo, La Estrella 
de Cartago, Sarchf, Turrialba, Dota, Ujurras de Te>raba) (crit.). 

Spinus xanthogaster xanthogaster Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 70, 1926 
(monog.); (?)Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 621, 1926 La 
Chonta, Ecuador (one female). 

Range. Subtropical zone of Costa Rica and extreme western 
Panama (Boquete, Chiriqui), Colombia (except Santa Marta 



290 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

region), and western Venezuela (Cordillera of MeYida east to the 
mountains around Caracas); (?)Ecuador. 1 

7: Costa Rica (Volcan de Irazu, 1; Juan Vinas, 1); Panama 
(Boquete, Chiriqui, 1); Colombia (Bogota, 1); Venezuela (Me>ida, 1; 
Teta de Niquitao, 2). 

Spinus xanthogaster stejnegeri (Sharpe). 2 STEJNEGER'S SISKIN. 

Chrysomilris stejnegeri Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 210, 1888 

Sorata and Nairapi, Dept. La Paz, Bolivia (type in British Museum). 
Chrysomitris xanthogastra (not of Du Bus) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1870, p. 785 part, Bolivia; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 607 Sorata and 

Nairapi. 
Chrysomitris xanthogaster Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, 

p. 430, 1886 part, Bolivia. 
Spinus xanthogaster stejnegeri Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 72, 1926 

Bolivia (monog.). 

Range. Subtropical zone of northern Bolivia (Dept. La Paz to 
Santa Cruz). 

*Spinus atratus (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). BLACK SISKIN. 

Carduelis stratus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 83, 1837 La Paz, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined); 
d'Orbigny, Voyage Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 364, pi. 48, fig. 2, 1844 La 
Paz; Philippi, Reise Wueste Atacama, p. 162, 1860 northern Chile; 
Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 176, 1909 Tucuman (Lara, 
Cerro Munoz) and Jujuy (Angosta Perchela). 

1 Birds from Merida and the Venezuelan north coast mountains agree perfectly 
with a suite from the east Colombian Andes, both series varying to the same de- 
gree in the extent of the yellow wing-spot and the intensity of the under parts. 
Nine adult males from Costa Rica average slightly paler beneath and have gener- 
ally less yellow at the base of the tail, but these trifling divergencies are so largely 
bridged by individual variation that I do not see any practical advantage in 
recognizing a northern race under the name of S. x. bryantii. The status of the 
inhabitants of Ecuador, whence only a single female is known, remains to be 
determined. 

Additional material examined. Costa Rica: Volcan de Irazu, 11. Colombia: 
"Bogota," 7; Santa Elena, 2; Antioquia, 1. Venezuela: Merida, 5; above Puerto 
Cabello, Carabobo, 3; Galipan, Cerro del Avila, near Caracas, 14. 

2 Spinus xanthogaster stejnegeri (Sharpe): Similar to the nominate race, but 
slightly larger, with longer bill; tibial feathers in males extensively yellow instead 
of dusky tipped with yellowish or whitish; throat of females clouded with dusky. 
Wing, 66^-69, (female) 65; tail, 44-46M, (female) 41-44; bill, 10-11. 

This form, which is found chiefly in the western Yungas (of La Paz) 
although there is also one record from Santa Cruz (Cerro Hosane) is but slightly 
different from typical xanthogaster, which is rather strange considering the absence 
of any representative in the intervening Peruvian republic. 

Material examined. Bolivia, Dept. La Paz: Chaco, 4; Iquico (Illimani), 6; 
Songo, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 291 

Chrysomitris atrata Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 515, 1850 (diag.); 
Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 257, 1860 Sierra de Mendoza; 1 idem, 
Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 490, 1861 Sierra de Uspallata, Mendoza; 1 
Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 125, 1862 Bolivia; Cassin, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 91 (crit.); Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, 
Vogel, p. 92, 1865 Chile (spec, examined); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 152 Pitumarca, Cuzco, Peru; Taczanowski, 
I.e., 1874, p. 526 Junin, Peru (descr. of eggs); Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 3, p. 353, 1876 Moho, Lake Titicaca, Peru (habits); Landbeck, 
Zool. Garten, 18, p. 254, 1877 near Uspallata and Portillo Pass, Mendoza; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 607 La Paz, Bolivia; 
Sclater, I.e., 1886, p. 397 Huasco and Sacaya, Tarapaca, Chile; Tac- 
zanowski, Orn. Pe>., 3, p. 53, 1886 Peru (Junm, Tarma, Huanta, Puno); 
Bartlett, Monog. Weaver-Birds and Finches, Part 1, pi. 1 and text, Feb., 
1888 La Paz (Bolivia) and Mendoza (monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 12, p. 212, 1888 Bolivia, Mendoza, and Peru (Pitumarca); 
Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 "Colorados ii" [probably near Rio Loa, 
Antofagasta], Chile; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 65, 1888 
Sierra de Uspallata, Mendoza; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, 
p. 134 Sacaya and Lake Huasco, Tarapaca, Chile; Koslowsky, Rev. 
Mus. La Plata, 6, p. 290, 1895 Catamarca; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 
93, p. 200, 1896 Tarapaca, Chile; Albert, I.e., 108, p. 196, 1901 Chile 
(monog.); Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 22 Huasco, and Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lillo, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 178, 1902 Tucuman; Baer, Ornis, 

12, p. 216, 1904 Lara, Tucuman; Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 

13, p. 43, 1905 sierras of Tucuman. 

Chrysomitris anthracina Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 91, p. 675, 1895 Andes 
of San Fernando [Colchagua], Chile (type in National Museum, Santiago 
de Chile; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 13, p. 19, 1930); 
idem, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 56, pi. 17, fig. 1, 1902 San Fernando. 

Spinus atratus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 353 
Ingapirca, Maraynioc, Jauja, and Tarma, Dept. Junfn, Peru; Dabbene, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 387, 1910 (range in Argentina); 
Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 110, 1921 Ollantaytambo 
and La Raya, Urubamba, Peru; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 73, 
1926 (monog.); Deautier, El Hornero, 4, pp. 186, 187, 1928 Argentina; 
Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 467, 1930 La Quinua 
(Junin) and Huanuco Viejo (Huanuco), Peru (crit.); Hellmayr, I.e., 19, 
p. 84, 1932 Antofagasta (Ojo de San Pedro) and Tarapaca (Cueva 
Negra, Huasco, Sacaya), Chile (crit.). 

Spinus atratus fasciatus Carriker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82, p. 374, 
Dec. 15, 1930 Opamayo, Lake Junin, Peru (type in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia). 

Range. Puna zone of southern Peru (north to Huanuco), 
Bolivia, northern Chile (south to Antofagasta), and western Argen- 

1 The alleged female described as "light gray with greenish edges to the 
feathers" does not fit that sex of the present species. 



292 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

tina (from Jujuy to the Sierra de Uspallata, Mendoza); casual in 
central Chile (San Fernando, Colchagua; Cordillera of Santiago). 1 

7: Peru (La Quinua, Junin, 3; Huanuco Viejo, Huanuco, 1); 
Argentina (Angosta Perchela, Jujuy, 1); Chile (Ojo de San Pedro, 
Prov. Antofagasta, 2). 

*Spinus uropygialis (Sclater). 2 YELLOW-RUMPED SISKIN. 

Chrysomitris uropygialis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 125, 1862 Chile 
(type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum, examined) ; Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 91 Chile (crit.); Pelzeln, Reise 
Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 92, 1865 Chile (spec, examined); Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 322, 338 Santiago, Chile; Philippi, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 263, 1868 Cordilleras of central Chile; Land- 
beck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 254, 1877 high Cordillera [of Chile] at 5,000 
to 10,000 ft. elev.; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 544, 1877 Valle de 
los Cipresos, Colchagua; Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 54, 1886 "San 
Mateo, Lima, Peru" (errore); Bartlett, Monog. Weaver-Birds & Finches, 

1 Doering's record of Chrysomitris atrata from the Rio Guayquiraro, southern 
Corrientes (cf. Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874), must be due to misidentification 
of some other species. 

Subdivision of the Black Siskin is impracticable. On comparing good series 
from various parts of the range, I notice some variation in the extent and tone of 
the yellow abdominal zone in the male sex, which seems to be purely individual. 
In certain individuals the yellow runs up towards the breast, while in others this 
color is restricted to the anal region and lower tail coverts, but these divergencies 
are connected by every possible gradation, and are by no means peculiar to any 
geographic area. A specimen with only the under tail coverts yellow was de- 
scribed by Philippi as C. anthracina. Since discussing this alleged species in "The 
Birds of Chile," I have examined in the Vienna Museum an example correspond- 
ing to Philippi's description, which was obtained, in company of a full-grown 
young bird, by Dr. Segeth in the Cordillera of Santiago. While I cannot see in it 
anything but an extreme variation of the Black Siskin, its casual occurrence in 
central Chile seems now established beyond doubt. Adult females from Junin, 
Peru, differ nowise from Bolivian examples, having the median wing coverts 
apically edged with greenish or yellowish and the dorsal feathers margined with 
olivaceous. Carriker, when describing S. a. fasciatus, evidently used immature 
individuals having retained the wings of the juvenile plumage characterized by 
broad ochraceous-buffy tips to the median upper wing coverts. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Tarma, 1; Maraynioc, 2; Jauja, 1; 
Ingapirca, 1; Anta, Cuzco, 3. Bolivia: La Paz, 12; Esperanza, 1. Chile: Tara- 
paca, 1; Sacaya, 1; Cueva Negra, Tarapaca, 1; Huasco, Tarapaca, 1; Cordillera 
of Santiago, 2. Argentina: Lara, Tucuman, 3; Cerro Munoz, Tucuman, 3; 
Angosta Perchela, Jujuy, 2; Sierra de Uspallata, Mendoza, 1; Mendoza, 1. 

2 In "The Birds of Chile" (pp. 86-87), I have stated my reasons for provi- 
sionally according specific rank to the Yellow-rumped Siskin. Birds from the 
Aconcagua Valley, Mendoza, agree perfectly with a Chilean series. Taczanowski's 
locality, "San Mateo, Lima," is likely to be erroneous. 

[Chrysomitris] icterioides (Schimper MS.) Bonaparte (Compt. Rend. Acad. 
Sci. Paris, 37, p. 915, 1853; Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 15, 1854 Chile), of which 
the type is obviously lost, cannot be identified from the phrase "une espece a 
petit bee aiguise." 

Additional material examined. Chile: Huasco Alto, Atacama, 1; Santiago, 1; 
unspecified, 6. Argentina, Mendoza: Aconcagua Valley (Puente del Inca, Puente 
de Vacas), 6. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 293 

Part 2, pi. 2, and text, April, 1888 Chile and "Peruvian Andes," errore 
(monog.); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 211, 1888 Chile; Reed, 
Ibis, 1893, p. 596 Chile (seasonal occurrence); idem, Anal. Univ. Chile, 
93, p. 200, 1896 Chile; Albert, I.e., 108, p. 194, 1901 Chile (monog.); 
Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, p. 451 Moreno, Jujuy; Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. 
Nat., 25, p. 188, 1921 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Gigoux, I.e., 28, p. 84, 
1924 Caldera, Atacama; Housse, I.e., 29, p. 147, 1925 San Bernardo, 
Santiago. 

Chrysomitris magellanicus (not Fringilla magellanica Vieillot) Eraser, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 113, 1843 valleys of the Andes on the eastern 
and western sides. 

Chrysomitris xanthomelaena (Reichenbach MS.) Bibra, Denks. Math.-Naturw. 
Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 130, 1853 Cordillera [of Santiago], Chile 
(nomen nudum). 

Chrysomitris atratus (not Carduelis atrata Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Cassin, 
in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 181, 1855 interior of Chile. 

Chrysomitris atrata Jaffuel and Pirion, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 31, p. 109, 
1927 cerros of the Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Melanomilris uropygialis Gosse, in Fitzgerald, The Highest Andes, p. 347, 
1899 Aconcagua Valleys, Vacas, Mendoza (spec, examined). 

Spinus uropygialis Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 387, 1910 
Moreno, Jujuy, and Cordillera de Mendoza; idem, Bol. Soc. Physis, 
1, p. 356, 1914 Jujuy and Mendoza; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, 
p. 76, 1926 (monog.); Deautier, El Hornero, 4, p. 187, 1928 Argentina 
and Chile; Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 34, p. 315, 1930 Juncal to 
Portillo, Santiago; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 86, 
1932 central Chile (crit.); Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 38, p. 136, 
1934 Corral de las Ovejas, O'Higgins, Chile. 

Range. Andes of central Chile, from Atacama to Colchagua, 
and of the adjoining parts of Argentina (Moreno, Jujuy; Aconcagua 
Valleys, Mendoza). 

2: Chile (Caldera, Atacama, 1; San Jos de Maipo, Santiago, 1). 

*Spinus barbatus (Molina). BLACK-CHINNED SISKIN. 

Fringilla barbata Molina, 1 Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 247, 345, 1782 
Chile = Valparaiso (as designated by Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, 
p. 81, 1926); Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 26, (1), p. 27, 1860 Chile (synon.). 

Carduelis stanleyi Audubon, Syn. Bds. N. Amer., p. 118, 1839 "Upper 
California," errore= Valparaiso, Chile (type in U. S. National Museum; 
cf. Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 90); idem, Bds. Amer., 
8vo ed., 3, p. 137, pi. 185, 1841 "California." 

Chrysomitris campestris (not Fringilla campestris Spix) Darwin, Zool. Voy. 
Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 89, 1839 Tierra del Fuego and Valparaiso, Chile; 
Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 112, 1843 Valparaiso, Chile; Des 
Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 352, 1847 Chile; Boeck, 

1 Molina's description is very poor and must have been drawn up from memory. 



294 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Naumannia, 1855, p. 504 Valdivia, Chile; Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 
1, Vogel, p. 92, 1865 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 263, 1868 
Chile; Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 253, 1877 foothills of the Chilean 
Andes, also at Valdivia; Lataste, Act. Soc. Scient. Chili, 3, p. cxv, 1893 
Ninhue, Maule, Chile; Waugh and Lataste, I.e., 4, pp. Ixxxvii, clxxii, 1894 
Penaflor, Santiago, and San Alfonso, Quillota, Chile; Lataste, Extr. 
Proces-Verb. Seanc. Soc. Linn. Bord., 1923, p. 170 Santa Tereza, Chile; 
Gigoux, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 84, 1924 Caldera, Atacama. 

Chrysomitris marginalis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 517, 1850 
Chile (cotypes in Berlin and Paris Museums); Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, 
p. 160, 1851 Chile; Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 181, pi. 17, 
1855 Chile; Burmeister, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 490, 1861 "near 
Mendoza," Argentina. 

Criihagra flavospecularis Hartlaub, Naumannia, 3, p. 213, 1853 Valdivia, 
Chile (location of type unknown). 

Chrysomitris barbata Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 26, (1), p. 27, 1860 Chile 
(crit., syn.); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer., Bds. p. 125, 1862 part, spec, b, 
Falkland Islands; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 90 Chile 
(crit.); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 322, 338 Chile; Sclater 
and Salvin, Ibis, 1868, p. 186 Gregory Bay, Straits of Magellan; idem, 
Ibis, 1870, p. 499 Ancud, Chiloe, and Sandy Point, Straits of Magellan; 
Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 544, 1877 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 216, 1888 Falkland Islands, Straits of 
Magellan, Tierra del Fuego, and Maldonado (Uruguay); Oustalet, Miss. 
Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B99, 1891 Punta Arenas, Orange Bay, and Picton 
Island, Straits of Magellan; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 200, 1896 
Chile; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 21 Corral, Coronel, Calle-Calle, and Maque- 
gua, Chile; Schalow, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 722, 1898 Tumbes, Chile; 
Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, (2), 20, p. 622, 1900 
Punta Arenas and Penguin Rookery, Staten Island; Albert, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 108, p. 198, 1901 Chile (monog.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 8, p. 361, 1902 Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego; Crawshay, 
Bds. Tierra del Fuego, p. 49, col. pi., 1907 Rio McClelland Settlement; 
Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 49, 1924 Isla La Mocha, Chile; 
Jaffuel and Pirion, I.e., 31, p. 109, 1927 Marga-Marga Valley, Val- 
paraiso; Bullock, I.e., 33, pp. 125, 189, 1929 Cerro de Nahuelbuta and 
Angol, Malleco, Chile. 

Chrysomitris magellanicus (not Fringilla magellanica Vieillot) Abbott, Ibis, 
1861, p. 154 Stanley, East Falkland Island. 

Chrysomitris magellanica Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 46 Falkland 
Islands; Arribalzaga, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 166, 1902 
Lago General Paz, Chubut. 

Spinus barbata Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H. f 2, p. 83, 1889 Valparaiso, 
Chile. 

Spinus barbatus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, p. 131, 1889 Sandy 
Point and Laredo Bay, Straits of Magellan; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 387, 1910 (range in Argentina); Barros, Rev. Chil. 
Hist. Nat., 24, p. 148, 1920 Nilahue, Curico, Chile; idem, I.e., 25, p. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 295 

188, 1921 Los Andes and Rio Blanco, Aconcagua, Chile; Paessler, Journ. 
Orn., 70, p. 475, 1922 Coronel, Chile (habits); Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 65, p. 330, 1923 Bariloche, Rio Negro; Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. 
Nat., 29, p. 147, 1925 San Bernardo, Chile; Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
17, p. 78, 1926 (monog.); Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 434, 
1926 Concon (Valparaiso), Chile and General Roca, Rio Negro; idem, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 464, 1926 Bariloche, Rio Negro; Stone, 
Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patagonia, 2, (1), p. 830, 1928 Punta Arenas, 
Patagonia; Deautier, El Hornero, 4, pp. 184, 187, 1928 (range); Barros, 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 362, 1929 Rio Blanco, Aconcagua, Chile; 
Bennett, Ibis, 1931, p. 13 Falkland Islands; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 83, 1932 Atacama to Straits of Magellan, Chile; 
Reynolds, El Hornero, 5, p. 343, 1934 Tierra del Fuego; idem, Ibis, 
1935, p. 70 Deceit Island, Cape Horn. 

Spinus ictericus ictericus (not Fringilla icterica Lichtenstein) Peters, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 331, 1923 Rio Colorado, Rio Negro (one 
female; fide W. E. C. Todd). 

Range. Chile, from southern Atacama (Copiapo Valley) to the 
Straits of Magellan, and the adjoining portion of Argentina along 
the eastern base of the Andes from the vicinity of Lake Nahuel 
Huapi 1 southwards to Tierra del Fuego; accidental on the Falkland 
Islands. 2 

20: Chile (Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, Atacama, 3; Romero, 
Coquimbo, 2; San Jose" de Maipo, Santiago, 1; Las Condes, Santiago, 
1; Talcahuano, Conception, 1; Curacautin, Malleco, 1; Rio Colorado, 
Malleco, 1; Quellon, Chiloe" Island, 5; Melinka, Ascension Island, 
Guaitecas Islands, 4); Argentina (Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut, 1). 

*Spinus tristis tristis (Linnaeus). EASTERN GOLDFINCH. 

Fringitta tristis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 181, 1758 based on 

"The American Goldfinch" Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 43, pi. 43; 

Carolina, Virginia, and New York (South Carolina accepted as type 

locality). 
Fringilla taria P. L. S. Mtiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 163, 1776 based on 

"Tarin, de la nouvelle York" Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 292, fig. 1 ; New York. 
Carduelis americana Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.- 

Amer., 2, "1831," p. 268, Feb., 1832 new name for Fringilla tristis 

Linnaeus. 
Chrysomitris pistacina (Eversmann MS.) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, 

(2), p. 515, end of 1850 "Sibiria," errore= eastern North America 

(type in Berlin Museum; = adult female, cf. Stresemann, Ornith. Monats- 

ber., 30, p. 41, 1922). 

1 Burmeister's record from Mendoza is open to doubt. 
1 Birds from western Argentina agree perfectly with Chilean ones. 
Additional material examined. Chile: Santiago, 5; Valdivia, 7; Desagxie, 
near Puerto Montt, 2. Argentina, Neuquen: Lake Nahuel Huapi, 4; Arroytos, 2. 



296 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Chrysomitris tristis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 195, 1888 (in part). 
Astragalinus tristis tristis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 109, 

1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 
Astragalinus tristis Dwight, Auk, 19, pp. 149-164, 1902 (variation, plumages, 

measurements). 

Range. Eastern North America, from southern Manitoba, 
southern Quebec, and Newfoundland south to eastern Colorado, 
southern Oklahoma, central Arkansas, northern Alabama, and 
northern Georgia; winters south to the Gulf coast. 

119: Maine (Upton, 4; New Vineyard, 1); New York (Cayuga 
County, 1; Suffolk County, 1; Shelter Island, 9; Peterboro, 1); 
Connecticut (East Hartford, 21); New Jersey (Englewood, 1); 
Ohio (Columbus, 1); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 17; Del ton, 1; Neenah, 
1); Michigan (St. Joseph, 1; Kalamazoo, 1); Illinois (Beach, Lake 
County, 2; Fox Lake, 1; Deerfield, 3; Fort Sheridan, 1; Lake Forest, 
1; Auburn Park, 1; Addison, 3; Chicago, 9; Joliet, 3; Glen Ellyn, 1; 
Grand Chain, 6; Henry, 1; Hegewisch, 2; Nugard, 1); Indiana 
(Liverpool, 1; Dune Park, Lake County, 1; Bluffton, 3); Iowa 
(Knoxville, 1); District of Columbia (Washington, 1); Arkansas 
(Cleburne County, 1; Winslow, 1); Colorado (Fort Lyon, 4); Texas 
(Harlingen, 1); Mississippi (Holly Springs, 1; Vicksburg, 1); Louisi- 
ana (Chef Menteur, 3; Buras, 1; New Orleans, 1); Florida (Gaines- 
ville, 2). 

*Spinus tristis pallidus Mearns. PALE GOLDFINCH. 

Spinus tristis pallidus Mearns, Auk, 7, p. 244, July, 1890 Forte Verde, 

Yavapai County, central Arizona (type in coll. of E. A. Mearns). 
Astragalinus tristis pallidus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. Ill, 

1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 Santa Leonor, 

Tamaulipas. 
Chrysomitris tristis (not Fringilla tristis Linnaeus) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 12, p. 195, 1888 part, spec, v-x, Jalapa, Mexico. 

Range. Rocky Mountains of North America from southeastern 
British Columbia and southwestern Manitoba south to central 
Nevada and southern Colorado; in winter south through eastern 
Mexico (Monterrey, Nuevo Leon; Sabinas, Coahuila; Santa Leonor, 
Tamaulipas; Texolo and Jalapa, Vera Cruz). 

4: Colorado (unspecified, 3); Mexico (Sabinas, Coahuila, 1). 
*Spinus tristis salicamans Grinnell. W T ILLOW GOLDFINCH. 

Spinus tristis salicamans Grinnell, Auk, 14, p. 397, Oct., 1897 Pasadena, 
California (type in coll. of J. Grinnell, now in U. S. National Museum; cf. 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 304, 1932); Brooks, Auk, 17, p. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 297 

106, 1900 Okanagan, British Columbia; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. 

Zool., 32, p. 158, 1928 northwestern Lower California. 
Astragalinus tristis salicamans Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 112, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Huey, Auk, 43, p. 356, 1926 San 

Quintin plain and south of Ensenada, Lower California. 
Chrysomitris tristis (not Fringilla tristis Linnaeus) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 

Mus., 12, p. 195, 1888 part, spec, r-u, California. 

Range. Pacific coast of North America from extreme south- 
western British Columbia south to northwestern Lower California, 
chiefly west of the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada. 1 

23: British Columbia (Okanagan, 3); Oregon (Tillamook, 1); 
California (Claremont, 1; Menlo Park, 1; Hayward, 3; San Jose" 
1; Los Gatos, 1; Los Banos, 3; Monterey, 1; Monterey County, 
3; Los Angeles County, 1; Pomona, 1; Riverside, 2; Stockton, 1; 
Point Reyes, 1; Corona, 2; San Diego County, 1). 

*Spinus psaltria hesperophilus (Oberholser). 2 GREEN-BACKED 
GOLDFINCH. 

Astragalinus psaltria hesperophilus Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, 
p. 116, Sept. 30, 1903 San Bernardino, California (type in U. S. National 
Museum); Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 22, p. 175, 1906 Guanacevi, 
Durango; Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 5, p. 92, 1908 San Bernardino 
Mts., California; Taylor, I.e., 7, p. 389, 1912 northern Nevada; Grinnell, 
I.e., 12, p. 165, 1914 lower Colorado Valley; Kellogg, I.e., p. 383, 1916 
Scott River, northern California; Grinnell, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 
13, p. 83, 1923 Death Valley; Swarth, I.e., (4), 18, p. 323, 1929 southern 
Arizona. 

Spinus psaltria hesperophilus Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 158, 
1928 Lower California; van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, 
p. 296, 1931 Sonora (El Doctor, Pesqueira, San Javier, Saric, southwest 
of Nogales, (?)Chinobampo, (?)Guirocoba); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 77, p. 482, 1934 Sonora (Hacienda de San Rafael, Nacozari, 
Oposura). 

Chrysomitris psaltria (not Fringilla psaltria Say) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 204, 1888 California (Red Bluff, Cohuilla Valley, Hayward, 
Pueblo, Fort Tejon). 

1 An undetermined race of S. tristis has been taken at Panajachel, in the 
Pacific Cordillera of Guatemala (cf. Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 356, 
1932). It is known from a single unsexed immature specimen which is very small 
(wing, 63 Yi mm.) and in coloration even darker than salicamans. 

1 Spinus psaltria hesperophilus (Oberholser): Similar to S. p. psaltria, but 
auriculars, sides of neck, with back, nape, and rump, in fully adult plumage 
olive green instead of black. 

As has been shown by Oberholser, Say's description of Fringilla psaltria was 
clearly based upon an immature green-backed specimen of the (eastern) Arkansas 
Goldfinch, leaving the western race unnamed, for which the subspecific term 
hesperophilus was accordingly proposed. 



298 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Astragalinus psaltria psaltria Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 

114, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 
Astragalinus psaltria Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 41, p. 135, 1902 

Lower California (Sierra de la Laguna and Cape region). 
Astragalinus psaltria arizonae (not of Coues) Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., 41, p. 136, 1902 San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower California (crit.). 

Range. Western North America from southern Oregon and 
Utah to southern Lower California, northern Sonora, and extreme 
southwestern New Mexico; winters from California to Cape San 
Lucas, Lower California. 

49: Utah (unspecified, 1); California (Placer County, 3; Berk- 
eley, 2; Nicasio, 6; Pasadena, 1; Pomona, 2; Hayward, 4; Los 
Gatos, 2; Palo Alto, 2; San Diego, 6); Arizona (Phoenix, 1; Fort 
Verde, 1; Fort Thomas, 1; Tucson, 3; Huachuca Mountains, 13; 
Calabasas, 1). 

*Spinus psaltria psaltria (Say). 1 ARKANSAS GOLDFINCH. 

Fringilla psaltria Say, in Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., 2, p. 40 (note), 1823 

Arkansas River near the mountains = near Pueblo, Colorado (type lost); 

Bonaparte, Amer. Orn., 1, p. 54, pi. 6, fig. 3, 1825 (fig. of type, then in 

Peale's Museum, No. 6278). 
Carduelis mexicanus Swainson, Phil. Mag., (n.s.), 1, No. 6, p. 435, June, 

1827 Temiscaltepec and Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico (type in coll. 

of W. Bullock, now probably in the Swainson Collection in the University 

Museum, Cambridge, Eng.). 
Fringilla melanoxantha Lichtenstein, Preis.-Verz. Saug., Vogel, etc., Mexico, 

p. 2, 1830 Mexico (type in Berlin Museum); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 11, 

p. 56, 1863 (reprint). 
Fringilla texensis Giraud, Sixteen Spec. N. Amer. Bds., pi. 5, fig. 1, 1841 

Texas (type in U. S. National Museum). 
[Chrysomitris (Pseudomltris) mexicanus} var. arizonae Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 1866, pp. 82, 83 near Fort Wingate, New Mexico, and on the 

Gila River, Arizona (type, from near Fort Wingate, in U. S. National 

Museum; cf. Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 115, 1903). 
Chrysomitris mexicana Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 

431, 1886 part, Mexico (excl. of Yucatan) and Guatemala (San Gero- 

nimo, Coban); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 206, 1888 part, spec. 

a-h, p-r, Mexico (Jalapa; Tres Marias Islands) and Guatemala (Coban). 
Astragalinus psaltria arizonae Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 115, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.. 

16, p. 115, 1903 (crit.). 
Astragalinus psaltria mexicanus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, 

p. 117, 1901 Mexico and southern Texas (monog., full bibliog.). 

1 Fringilla catotol Gmelin (Syst. Nat., 1, [2], p. 914, 1789) is based on "Caca- 
tototl" Fernandez (Hist. Nov. Hisp., p. 52), which appears to me unidentifiable. 






1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 299 

Astragalinus psaltria psaltria Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 16, p. 115, 

1903 (crit., char., range); Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 Galindo, Rampa- 

huila, Yerba Buena, Guiaves, Montelunga, and Rio Martinez, Tamaulipas; 

McLellan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4), 16, p. 307, 1926 Maria Madre and 

Maria Magdalena, Tres Marias Islands. 
Spinus psaltria mexicanus Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 780, 1894 

Soledad, San Luis Potosf, and El Molino, Jalisco (crit.). 
Spinus (Astragalinus) psaltria mexicanus Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 

64, p. 356, 1932 Sacapulas and La Primavera, northern Guatemala. 
Spinus psaltria mexicana Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 75, p. 416, 1934 

Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 
Spinus psaltria psaltria van Rossem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, p. 482, 

1934 Chihuahua and Carmen, Chihuahua (winter). 

Range. Southwestern United States, from northern Colorado 
to northern Texas and south throughout Mexico, except the extreme 
northwestern and southeastern portions; casual in Wyoming. 1 

19: Texas (Ingram, 3; El Paso, 1); New Mexico (Santa F<, 1); 
Mexico (San Luis Potosi, 2; Tuxpan, Jalisco, 7; Iguala, Guerrero, 5). 

*Spinus psaltria jouyi (Ridgway). YUCATAN GOLDFINCH. 

Astragalinus mexicanus jouyi Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 320, Oct., 1898 Temax, 

Yucatan (type in U. S. National Museum). 
Chrysomitris mexicana (not Carduelis mexicana Swainson) Boucard, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 445 Yucatan; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 

Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 431, 1886 part, Yucatan; Salvin, Ibis, 1888, 

p. 263 Mujeres Island, Yucatan; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 

206, 1888 part, spec, i, k, Yucatan and Mujeres Island. 
Spinus sp. Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 781, 1894 Yucatan (crit.). 
Astragalinus psaltria jouyi Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 120, 

1901 Yucatan (monog.). 

Range. Yucatan (including Mujeres Island). 
1: Yucatan (unspecified, 1). 

*Spinus psaltria colombianus (Lafresnaye). COLOMBIAN 
GOLDFINCH. 

Carduelis colombianus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 292, 1843 "Colombie" 
= Bogota (descr. of adult male; type in coll. of F. de Lafresnaye, now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; cf. Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 378, 1930). 

(?) Chrysomitris nana Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 516, 1850 
"Columbia" (descr. of female or young; type lost, formerly in Paris 
Museum; fide J. Berlioz [in litt.]). 

Astragalinus columbianus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 159, Oct., 1851 Colom- 
bia (descr. of adult male; type in Heine Collection, now in Municipal 

1 Like Mr. H. C. Oberholser, I am unable to separate Mexican specimens 
(mexicanus) from those of the United States. 



300 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Museum, Halberstadt) ; idem, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 94, 1861 Costa Rica 
(crit.); Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 913, 1910 Juan Vinas and 
La Estrella de Cartage, Costa Rica. 

Chrysomitris columbiana(us) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 23, p. 159, 1855 
Bogota; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 124, 1862 Bogota; Cassin, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 93 Bogota (crit.); Lawrence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 9, p. 103, 1868 San Jose, Costa Rica; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 167 Caracas, Venezuela; Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 328 Ocana, Colombia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1875, p. 234 Me"rida, Venezuela; Taczanowski, I.e., 1879, p. 230 
Tambillo, Peru; Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1879, p. 508 Concordia, 
Retire, Santa Elena, and Medellin, Colombia (eggs descr.); Taczanowski, 
I.e., 1880, p. 199 Callacate, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 3, p. 51, 1886 Peru 
(Tambillo, Callacate, Chota, Bambamarca, Cutervo); Salvin, Nov. Zool., 
2, p. 7, 1895 Vina, Huamachuco, Peru; Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
12, p. 139, 1898 "Santa Marta"; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 357, p. 27, 1899 Niebli, Ecuador. 

Chrysomitris colombiana Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 208, 1888 
Colombia (Bogota, "Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta," Medellin, Retire, 
Concordia), Venezuela (Merida, Caracas), Ecuador, and Peru (Tambillo). 

Chrysomitris mexicana (not Carduelis mexicanus Swainson) Sclater and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1860, p. 34 Duenas, Guatemala; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, p. 353 Lion Hill, Panama; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
9, p. 103, 1868 Costa Rica (Barranca, San Jose); Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 
314 Costa Rica (crit.); idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 190 
[Calobre], Veraguas; Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 431, 1886 part, Guatemala (Duenas), Costa Rica, and Panama; 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 206, 1888 part, spec, m-o, s-i, 
Guatemala (Duenas, Quezaltenango), Costa Rica (Volcan de Cartago, 
Irazu, San Jose), and Panama (Paraiso Station, Calobre, Lion Hill); 
Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 139, 1898 "Santa Marta"; Salva- 
dori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 356, p. 27, 1899 La 
Conception, Mira Valley, Ecuador. 

Chrysomitris mexicanus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 332, 
1862 Panama Railroad. 

Chrysomitris mexicana columbiana Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 296, 1884 
Bucaramanga, Colombia (crit.). 

Spinus mexicanus Zeledon, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 112, 1887 
Costa Rica (San Jose, Cartago, Volcan de Irazu) ; Cherrie, Auk, 9, p. 249, 
1892 San Jose, Costa Rica. 

Astragalinus mexicanus Piguet, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 808, 
1914 La Camelia, near Angelopolis (Medellin), Colombia. 

Spinus psaltria columbianus Phelps, Auk, 14, p. 364, 1897 San Antonio, 
Bermudez, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 623, 
1926 "Gualea," Ecuador. 

Spinus psaltria croceus Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, "1893," p. 780, pub. 
April 18, 1894 Panama (type in U. S. National Museum); Griscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 356, 1932 San Lucas, Panajachel, Lake 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 301 

Amatitlan, and Pantaleon, Guatemala (crit.); idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 78, p. 380, 1935 Pacific slope of western Panama. 

Astragalinus psaltria crocens Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 
118, 1901 Chiapas to western Ecuador (monog.); Dearborn, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, p. 115, 1907 Mazatenango, Guatemala; Carriker, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 913, 1910 Costa Rica (Escazu, Azahar de 
Cartago, El Salitral, Volcan de Irazu, San Jose", Cartago); Bangs and 
Noble, Auk, 35, p. 462, 1918 Bellavista, Peru; Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 84, p. 340, 1932 Cantarranas, Honduras. 

Astragalinus psaltria columbianus Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 
165, 1900 Bonda, Onaca, and Minca, Colombia; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 120, 1901 Costa Rica to Venezuela and Peru 
(monog.); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 191, 1916 Alta- 
gracia and Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 564, 1917 Colombia (Caldas, Miraflores, San Antonio, 
Cerro Munchique, El Eden, Rio Toch6, Chicoral, near San Agustin, 
La Palma, La Candela, below Andalucia, El Consuelo above Honda, 
Fusugasuga, Bogota, Quetame, Buena Vista, La Holanda, La Hen-era, 
El Carmen, Pacho, Subia, Tenasuca, Puente Andalucia; crit.); Todd and 
Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 533, 1922 Cincinnati and Minca, 
Colombia (crit., habits). 

Spinus mexicanus columbianus Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 27, 
1902 Altagracia and Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela. 

Range. Central America, from southwestern Chiapas, Mexico, 
and the Pacific Cordillera of Guatemala south to Colombia, western 
Ecuador, and northern Peru, and east through northern Venezuela 
to Sucre and Monagas, south to the Orinoco Valley. 1 

30: Guatemala (Lake Amatitlan, 2; Mazatenango, 1); Costa Rica 
(San Jose", 1); Colombia (Cachiri, Santander, 1; La Holanda, north- 
east of Bogota, 1; Bogota, 5); Venezuela (MeYida, 2; Col6n, 
Tachira, 3; Caracas, 7; Maracay, Aragua, 2; Cocollar, Sucre, 4); 
Peru (Menocucho, 1). 

*Spinus lawrencei (Cassin). LAWRENCE'S GOLDFINCH. 

Carduelis lawrencei Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, No. 5, Sept.-Oct., 
p. 105, pi. 5, pub. Dec. 7, 1850 Sonoma and San Diego, California (type, 

1 As has already been intimated by both Chapman and Todd, S. p. croceus, 
of Panama and farther north, appears to be inseparable. Individual variation in 
the presence and extent of the white markings on the lateral rectrices is con- 
siderable among specimens from the same locality, and while it cannot be denied 
that birds with wholly or nearly uniform black tail predominate in the eastern 
Andes of Colombia and in Venezuela, and those with extensive white tail spots 
in Central America, exceptions to this rule are so frequent that further subdivision 
of the form would serve no practical purpose. 

Additional material examined. Guatemala: Duefias, 2. Costa Rica: Irazu, 
12. Panama: Lion Hill, 2. Colombia: Santa Marta, 2; "Bogota," 34; Cundina- 
marca, 5; Bucaramanga, 4. Venezuela: M6rida, 7; Galipan, Cerro del Avila, 
Caracas, 12; San Antonio, Sucre, 4. Ecuador: Paramba, Prov. Imbabura, 5. 



302 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

from Sonoma, in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; cf. 
Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51, p. 30, 1899, and Grinnell, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., 38, p. 304, 1932). 

Chrysomitris lawrencii Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 223, 1888 Califor- 
nia and Arizona. 

Astragalinus lawrencii Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 121, 
1901 (monog., full bibliog.). 

Astragalinus lawrencei Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 5, p. 92, 1908 San 
Bernardino Mountains; idem, I.e., 12, p. 166, 1914 Riverside Mountain, 
lower Colorado Valley, California. 

Spinus lawrencei Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 158, 1928 northern 
Lower California; van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 6, p. 296, 
1931 Tecoripa and twelve miles west of Magdalena, Sonora. 

Range. Breeds in California, west of the Sierra Nevada, from 
about lat. 40 south to northern Lower California; winters over most 
of its breeding range, east to Arizona and western New Mexico, 
south to Sonora. 

6: California (Lakeside, 1; Corona, 1; Monterey County, 1; 
Palo Alto, 2); Arizona (Phoenix, 1). 

Genus LOXIA Linnaeus 1 

Loxia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 171, 1758 type, by subs, desig. 
(Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 49, 1840), Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus. 

Crucirostra Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm., etc., Brit. Mus., p. 12, 1816 type, by 
monotypy, Crucirostra europaea Leach =L<ma curvirostra Linnaeus. 

Curvirostra Brehm, Ornis, 3, p. 85, 1827 type, by tautonymy, Loxia curvi- 
rostra Linnaeus. 

*Loxia curvirostra minor (Brehm). 2 RED CROSSBILL. 

Curvirostra americana (not Loxia americana Gmelin, 1789) Wilson, Amer. 

Orn., 4, p. 44, p. 31, figs. 1, 2, 1811 pine forests of America north of 40 

(type in Peale's Museum, evidently lost). 
Crucirostra minor (Lichtenstein MS.) Brehm, Allg. Deuts. Naturhist. Zeit., 

1, p. 532 (footnote), 1846 eastern United States (type, No. 6982, in 

Berlin Museum; cf. van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, pp. 358, 

359, pi. 27, left fig., 1934; crit.); idem, Naumannia, 3, p. 193, fig. 12, 1853 

pine forest of eastern United States (full descr.). 
Loxia curvirostra minor Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 47, 

1901 (monog., full bibliog., except Sitka district of Alaska). 

Range. Breeds in northern North America from central Alaska, 
northern Mackenzie, and central Quebec south to Michigan and 

1 Since this writing the genus Loxia has undergone a thorough revision by 
Ludlow Griscom (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 41, pp. 77-210, 1937). 

2 According to Griscom (I.e., p. 110), this becomes L. c. neogaea Griscom (type, 
from Lake Umbagog, Maine, in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 

3.). 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 303 

locally and irregularly in the Alleghenies to northern Georgia 
(casually in Massachusetts, Maryland, and Virginia) ; winters irreg- 
ularly south to Texas, Louisiana, and Florida; casual in Bermuda. 

33: Ontario (Hamilton, 1); Maine (Parmachene Lake, 3); New 
York (Peterboro, 1); Massachusetts (Newton, 2); Michigan (Huron 
Mountains, Marquette County, 2); Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 1; 
Woodruff, Vilas County, 2); Illinois (Beach, Lake County, 10; Lake 
Forest, 2; Chicago, 6; Joliet, 3). 

*Loxia curvirostra pusilla Gloger. 1 NEWFOUNDLAND CROSSBILL. 

Loxia pusilla (Lichtenstein MS.) Gloger, Vollst. Handb. Naturg. Vog. Eur., 
1, p. 356 (footnote 71), 1834 North America (type, No. 6984, from 
"Georgia" in Berlin Museum; cf. Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber., 30, p. 41, 
1922, and van Rossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. N. H., 7, p. 358, pi. 27, 
right fig., 1934; crit.). 

Loxia curvirostra percna Bent, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 60, No. 15, p. 1, Dec. 12, 
1912 Flatbay River, Newfoundland (type in U. S. National Museum); 
Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 557, 1919 Nicholsville and Hobley 
Hills, Newfoundland (crit.); Bent, Auk, 37, p. 298, 1920 Massachusetts 
(Chathamport), Rhode Island, and Virginia; Wetmore, I.e., p. 456, 1920 
Four-Mile Run, Virginia; Bishop, Auk, 38, p. 587, 1921 Seabright, 
Halifax, Nova Scotia (breeding), and Connecticut; Sanborn, Auk, 39, p. 
370, 1922 Beach, Illinois (meas.); Fleming, Auk, 47, p. 70, 1930 
Toronto, Ontario (April 9); Rook, Ibis, 1935, p. 875 Newfoundland. 

Range. Breeds in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia; south after 
the breeding season to Virginia and (?) Georgia; also recorded 
from Ontario (Toronto), northeastern Illinois (Beach), and Iowa 
(Burlington). 

4: Illinois (Beach, Lake County, 3); Iowa (Burlington, 1). 

*Loxia curvirostra sitkensis Grinnell. 2 SITKA CROSSBILL. 

Loxia curvirostra sitkensis Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 5, p. 223, Feb. 18, 
1909 Windfall Harbor, Admiralty Island, Alaska (type in Museum of 
Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley); Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 59, p. 
406, 1915 Woewodsky and Kupreanof Islands, Alaska; Willett, Condor, 

1 Loxia curvirostra pusilla Gloger: Similar to L. c. minor, but decidedly larger 
with much larger, heavier bill; slightly larger than L. c. bendirei, but somewhat 
smaller than L. c. stricklandi; in coloration darker than the other American races, 
the red color deeper and more brilliant. Wing, 90-96, (female) 89-92; tail, 54- 
57, (female) 50*^-55; bill, 17^-19; depth of bill, 10-12. 

Van Rossem having shown the type of L. pusilla to be referable to the large 
eastern Crossbill, Gloger's name must replace Bent's term percna, bestowed much 
later upon Newfoundland birds. 

1 Loxia curvirostra sitkensis Grinnell : Similar to L. c. minor, but slightly smaller, 
and coloration of adult males different, about orpiment orange, instead of deep 
brownish crimson or coral red. Wing (average of adult male), 85. 

According to Griscom (I.e., pp. 107, 121, 1937), the correct name of the 
Sitka Crossbill is L. c. minor (Brehm). 



304 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

19, p. 17, 1917 Forrester Island and Sitka, Alaska; idem, I.e., 23, p. 159, 

1921 southeastern Alaska; Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 233, 

1922 Sergief Island, Alaska. 
Loxia curvirostra minor (not Crucirostra minor Brehm) Grinnell, Auk, 15, p. 

128, 1898 Sitka; Willett, Condor, 16, p. 86, 1914 Kruzof and St. 

Lazaria Island, Alaska. 
Loxia americana sitkensis Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 7, p. 81, 1911 

Sitka district (crit.). 

Range. Sitka district of Alaska and southward along the coast 
to central California; irregularly east to the Atlantic states. 
2: New York (Niles, 1; Holley, 1). 

*Loxia curvirostra bendirei Ridgway. 1 BENDIRE'S CROSSBILL. 

Loxia curvirostra bendirei Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 2, p. 101, April 
28, 1884 "chiefly the western mountain regions of the United States, 
from Colorado to Oregon and California" (type, from Fort Klamath, 
Oregon, in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 1, p. 50, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); Oberholser, Auk, 34, p. 328, 
1917 (crit., range); Swarth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 232, 1922 
Telegraph Creek, Stikine region, British Columbia; Grinnell, I.e., 32, 
p. 157, 1928 Lower California (visitant); Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale, 
I.e., 35, p. 404, 1930 Lassen Peak region, northern California. 

Range. Breeds in the mountains of the western United States 
from northern British Columbia, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado 
to the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada, California; in winter to 
Nebraska, Kansas, New Mexico, the coast district of California, 
and casually to Lower California and Guadalupe Island. 

2: California (Monterey County, 1); Colorado (unspecified, 1). 
*Loxia curvirostra stricklandi Ridgway. MEXICAN CROSSBILL. 

Loxia mexicana (not of Linnaeus, 1758) Strickland, Contrib. Orn., 1851, 
p. 43 Mexico (type in coll. of H. E. Strickland, now in University Mu- 
seum, Cambridge, Eng.; cf. Salvin, Cat. Strickl. Coll., p. 202, 1882); 
Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 193 Chuacus, Guatemala; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 1, p. 424, 1886 Arizona, Mexico, and Guatemala. 

Loxia curvirostra stricklandi Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8, p. 354, 
Sept. 2, 1885 new name for Loxia mexicana Strickland, preoccupied; 
idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 52, 1901 (monog., full bibliog.); 
Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 5, p. 91, 1908 San Bernardino Mts., 
California; Phillips, Auk, 28, p. 87, 1911 Galindo, Tamaulipas; Grinnell 
and Lamb, Condor, 29, p. 125, 1927 Vallecitos (San Pedro Martir) and 
Laguna Hanson (Sierra Juarez), Lower California; Huey, I.e., 29, p. 153, 
1927 Laguna Hanson; idem, I.e., 30, p. 159, 1928 Laguna Hanson; 

1 Two more races, L. c. benti and L. c. grinnelli, have recently been distinguished 
by Griscom (I.e., pp. 129, 1932, 1937) from North Dakota (Grafton) and California 
(Phillips, Eldorado County), respectively. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 305 

Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 32, p. 157, 1928 Lower California; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 357, 1932 Joyabaj, El Quiche", 
Guatemala. 

Range. Mountains of northern Lower California (Sierra San 
Pedro Martir and Sierra Juarez), southern California, Arizona, New 
Mexico, and western Texas south through eastern Mexico to northern 
Guatemala (Joyabaj, El Quiche"; Chuacus, Baja Vera Paz). 1 

7: Arizona (Chiricahua Mountains, 2); Mexico (Chihuahua, 1; 
Mount Orizaba, 2); British Honduras (unspecified, 2). 

*Loxia leucoptera leucoptera Gmelin. WHITE-WINGED 
CROSSBILL. 

Loxia leucoptera Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 844, 1789 based on "White- 
winged Crossbill" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (1), p. 108; Hudson's 
Bay and New York; Winge, Medd. Gr0nland, 21, p. 296, 1899 Green- 
land; Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 53, 1901 (monog., 
full bibliog.). 

Loxia falcirostra Latham, Ind. Orn. f 1, p. 371, 1790 new name for Loxia 
leucoptera Gmelin. 

Loxia atrata Homeyer, Journ. Orn., 27, p. 179, 1879 "Nordamerika" (co- 
types in coll. of E. F. von Homeyer, now in Brunswick Museum). 

[Loxia bifasciata] subsp. a Loxia leucoptera Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 443, 1888 (monog.). 

Range. Breeds in North America from tree limit in northwestern 
Alaska, northern Mackenzie and Manitoba, and northern Quebec 
south to British Columbia, southern Alberta, Ontario, New York 
(Adirondacks), New Hampshire (White Mountains), southern 
Maine, and Nova Scotia; winters south to Oregon (Cascades), 
Nevada, Colorado, Kansas, Illinois, Ohio, and North Carolina; 
casual in Greenland, the British Isles, and Heligoland. 

28: Alberta (National Park, 3; Edmonton, 2); Ontario (Hamil- 
ton, 2; Toronto, 1); Quebec (Magdalen Islands, 1); Oregon (Logan, 
2); Maine (Parmachene Lake, 3); New York (Long Island, 2); 
Wisconsin (Beaver Dam, 1); Illinois (Beach, Lake County, 8; Lake 
Forest, 3). 

Loxia leucoptera megaplaga Riley. 2 HISPANIOLAN CROSSBILL. 

1 An undetermined race of the Red Crossbill breeds in northern Nicaragua 
(cf. Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 357, 1932). It has since been 
described as L. c. mesamericana Griscom (Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 41, p. 136, Jan., 
1937 type, from Rancho Quemado, Honduras). 

1 Loxia leucoptera megaplaga Riley: Similar toL. I. leucoptera, but white wing- 
bands more restricted, and bill much larger and heavier. Wing, S5J4-92, (female) 
82-84; tail, 56-61, (female) 53-56; bill, 18-20. 

The Hispaniolan form resembles the European race of the White-winged 
Crossbill, L. I. bifasciata (Brehm), in the restriction of white on the tips to the 



306 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Loxia megaplaga Riley, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 66, No. 15, p. 1, Dec. 1, 1916 
El Rio, Santo Domingo (type in U. S. National Museum); Richmond, 
I.e., No. 17, p. 37, fig. 39, 1917 El Rio; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus., 
N. H., 37, p. 331, 1917 Loma Rucilla and Loma Pelone, Dominican 
Republic; Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 519, 1928 Morne 
La Selle, Haiti; Wetmore and Swales, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 155, p. 440, 
pi. 26, 1931 Hispaniola (monog.). 

Range. Mountains of Hispaniola, Greater Antilles. 

Genus GNATHOSPIZA Taczanowski 1 

Gnathospiza Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 230 type, by 
monotypy, Gnathospiza raimondii Taczanowski. 

Gnathospiza raimondii Taczanowski. TACZANOWSKI'S YELLOW 
FINCH. 

Gnathospiza raimondii Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 320, 
pi. 36, fig. 1 Tumbez, Peru (type lost, formerly in Warsaw Museum; 
cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, 
p. 173, 1927); idem, I.e., 1877, p. 750 Tumbez (habits); Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 549 Guayaquil, Ecuador; Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 3, p. 6, 1886 Tumbez and Mancora (habits, range); Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 624, 1926 Santa Elena, Ecuador. 

Sycalis taczanowskii Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 385, 1888 Tumbez 
and Santa Elena (new name for Gnathospiza raimondii Taczanowski). 

Range. Arid Tropical zone of southwestern Ecuador (Santa 
Elena, Guayaquil) and northwestern Peru, south probably to the 
Chicama River, Dept. Libertad. 2 

Genus SICALIS Boie 3 

Sicalis Boie, Isis, 21, p. 324, 1828 type, by subs, desig. (Cabanis, in Tschudi, 
Unters. Faun. Peru., Ornith., p. 215, 1846), Emberiza brasiliensis Gmelin 
=Fringilla flaveola Linnaeus. 

Sycalis Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 291, 1844 emendation of Sicalis 
Boie. 

wing coverts, but has decidedly shorter wings and tail, while the bill is even 
stouter and more robust. 

Two specimens examined. 

1 Gnathospiza appears to deserve generic separation on account of its differently 
shaped bill. 

1 Material examined. Ecuador: Guayaquil, 1. Peru: Tumbez, 2. 

3 We are not disposed to recognize a genus Pseudochloris. While admitting 
that certain Andean species referred to that group, such as uropygialis, luteocephala, 
olivascens, etc., have a longer wing-tip and differently shaped bills, others are so 
decidedly intermediate that no definite line can be drawn between "Psettdochloris" 
and Sicalis proper. For instance, S. lutea has a bill of very nearly the same shape 
as S. flaveola, while S. citrina (the type of Pseudochloris) combines the short wing- 
tip of Sicalis with the bill-character of the Andean species. Chubb's remarks on 
the distinguishing features of Pseudosicalis are quite confused, and I do not see 
how S. auriventris can be separated genetically. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 307 

Orospina (not of Kaup, 1829) Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 31, p. 108, 1883 type, 

by monotypy, Orospina pratensis Cabanis =Sycalis citrina Pelzeln. 
Pseudochloris Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 774, 1888 new name for 

Orospina Cabanis, preoccupied. 
Serinopsis Ridgway, Auk, 15, p. 225, 1898 type, by orig. desig., Fringilla 

arvensis Kittlitz=Frinfft/ta luteiventris Meyen. 
Pseudosicalis Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 41, p. 78, Feb., 1921 type, by 

orig. desig., Sycalis auriventris Philippi and Landbeck. 

*Sicalis citrina citrina Pelzeln. 1 NATTERER'S GROUND FINCH. 

Sycalis citrina Pelzeln, 8 Orn. Bras., 3, pp. 232, 333, 1870 Jaguaraiba and 
Murungaba, Parana, and Itarar6, Sao Paulo, Brazil (type, from Jaguaraiba, 
in Vienna Museum examined) ; Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 48 Sao Paulo (crit.). 

Orospina pratensis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 31, p. 108, pi. 1, fig. 1, 1883 Cor- 
dillera of Tucuman, Argentina (descr. of male; type in Berlin Museum 
examined); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 389, 1910 
Cordilleras of Tucuman. 

Pseudochloris pratensis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 779, 1888 
Tucuman (ex Cabanis); Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 71, 1888 
Tucuman; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 179, 1902 Cuesta 
de Malamala, Tucuman (spec, in coll. of M. Lillo examined); idem, Rev. 
Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 44, 1905 same locality (crit.). 

Pseudochloris citrina Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 778, 1888 part, 
Brazil; Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 390, 1907 Sao Paulo; Reiser, 
Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 82, 1910 Santo 
Antonio de Gilboez, Piauhy (spec, examined). 

Pseudochloris citrina citrina Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 300, 1929 Santo Antonio de Gilboez, Piauhy. 

Pseudochloris lutea (not Emberiza lutea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 391, 1907 Marianna, Minas Geraes (spec, in 
Museu Paulista examined; = young). 

Range. Campo region of Brazil, from Piauhy south to Parana, 
west to Goyaz, and in Argentina (Cordilleras of Tucuman). 8 
2: Brazil (Rio Sao Miguel, Goyaz, 2). 

1 Sicalis citrina Pelzeln, in the male sex, bears a remarkable similarity to S. 
pelzelni, but aside from other differences may be easily separated by much smaller, 
less convex bill, and the complete absence of the yellow inner margins to the 
remiges. It is also not unlike S. luteola luteola, but differs by the white spots on 
the two lateral rectrices; the absence of the bright yellow supraloral and super- 
ciliary streaks, as well as of the grayish suffusion on the back; yellowish green 
(instead of whity gray) edges to the upper wing coverts; uniform wax yellow 
pileum; slenderer and longer bill. 

'Fringilla xanthoroa [sic] Bonaparte (Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 4, p. 350, 
April, 1825), of which no type is extant, appears to me wholly unidentifiable. It 
was described from "a male which lived for some time at the house of Mr. Droz of 
this city, who received it from Rio de Janeiro." Perhaps this was some African 
Weaver bird, since the author states: "This species moults twice a year." At all 
events, the description does not at all suggest Natterer's Ground Finch. 

* Adult males from Piauhy and Goyaz agree with the typical examples from 
Jaguaraiba, Parana. Birds from Tucuman, notwithstanding the widely separated 



308 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sicalis citrina browni Bangs. 1 BROWN'S GROUND FINCH. 

Sycalis browni Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 139, 1898 "Santa 

Marta" [mountains], alt. 5,000 ft., Colombia (type in coll. of E. A. and 

O. Bangs, now in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; 

cf. Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 70, p. 380, 1930); idem, I.e., 13, p. 102, 

1899 Palomina and La Concepcion, Santa Marta, Colombia (crit.); 

Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 165, 1900 (ex Bangs). 
Sycalis citrina (not of Pelzeln) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 217 MerumS Mountains 

and Roraima, British Guiana. 
Pseudochloris citrina Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 778, 1888 part, 

Guiana (Merum6 Mountains, Roraima) and Colombia; Allen, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N. H., 13, p. 163, 1900 Onaca, Colombia. 
Pseudochloris citrina antioquiae Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 571, 

1917 Barro Blanco, central Andes, Colombia (type in the American 

Museum of Natural History, New York). 
Pseudochloris roraimae Chubb, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 7, p. 194, 1921 

Roraima (type in British Museum). 

Sicalis roraimae Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 457, 1921 Roraima. 
Sicalis citrina browni Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 519, 

1922 Onaca, Minca, and San Miguel, Santa Marta, Colombia (crit., 

habits). 
Sicalis citrina citrina Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 63, p. 119, 1931 

Mount Roraima, Esmeralda Savanna (base of Mount Duida), and Cotiza 

(Caracas), Venezuela (crit.). 

Range. Tropical and Subtropical zones of British Guiana 
(Merum Mountains, Roraima), Venezuela (Mount Duida; Cotiza, 

habitat, do not appear to be distinguishable. While the type of 0. pratensis has 
just as much (if not more) white on the two lateral tail-feathers as Brazilian 
specimens, another male from the region (Cuesta de Malamala, alt. 2,100 metr.) 
shows no white at all on the penultimate, and a mere suggestion of a faint whitish 
streak near the shaft of the inner web on the outermost rectrix. The under tail 
coverts are plain yellow (as usual) in Cabanis' type, streaked with dusky in the 
Malamala bird. The wings, in Brazilian males, measure 67-70, in those from Tucu- 
man, 66-67 mm. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Santo Antonio de Gilboez, Piauhy, 
1; Marianna, Minas Geraes, 1; Itarare, Sao Paulo, 1; Jaguaraiba, Parang, 2; 
Murungaba, Parana, 1. Argentina, Tucuman: Cuesta de Malamala, 1; Cordillera 
of Tucuman, 1. 

1 Sicalis citrina browni Bangs: Exactly like S. c. citrina, but apparently slightly 
smaller. Wing (adult males), 63-67 (against 66-70); tail, 44-47 (against 47-52); 
bill, 8^-9. 

Larger series may show this form to be inseparable, as has been intimated by 
Chapman. Birds from Roraima (roraimae) are perfectly identical with those 
from Colombia (browni). Chapman now admits that P. c. antioquiae is merely 
the worn breeding plumage, and I am in fact quite unable to distinguish speci- 
mens from "Bogota" and Barro Blanco from others in corresponding condition 
taken on Mount Roraima. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima, 10. Venezuela: La Cumbro 
de Valencia, Carabobo, 2. Colombia: Onaca, 1; Minca, 1; "Bogota," 3; Barre 
Blanco, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 309 

Caracas; Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo), and Colombia (Santa 
Marta region; Barro Blanco, central Andes; "Bogota"). 1 

Sicalis lutea (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 2 ANDEAN YELLOW 
GROUND FINCH. 

Emberiza lutea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 

cl. 2, p. 74, 1837 "in summis Andibus, Bolivia" (type, from "pampas 

d'Oruro," Oruro, in Paris Museum examined; descr. of adult and young). 
Crithagra chloropsis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 521, 1850 

Bolivia (in part).' 
Sycalti lutea Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 46, pi. 2, fig. 2 part, "male," Peru and 

Bolivia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 607 Bolivia 

(ex d'Orbigny); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 56, 1886 Tinta, Peru; 

Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 68, 1906 western Bolivia (crit.). 
Sycalis chloris (not of Tschudi) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1869, p. 153 Tinta, Dept. Cuzco, Peru (in part; spec, in British Museum 

examined). 
Pseudochloris olivascens chloris Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. Ill, 

1921 part, spec, from Tirapata, Peru (crit.). 
Pseudochloris lutea Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 775, 1888 part, 

spec, b-d, Bolivia and Tinta, Peru ("adult male"). 

Range. Puna zone of southern Peru (in depts. of Arequipa, 
Puno, and Cuzco) and western Bolivia (Oruro, Santiago, and 
Sajama, Dept. Oruro). 

1 Another race was recently described by Carriker (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 83, p. 467, Jan., 1932) from Oconeque, Prov. Sandia, Dept. Puno, Peru, 
as Sicalis citrina ocridentalis. The two specimens, females in worn breeding 
plumage, appear to resemble the same sex of S. c. citrina in having the chest 
streaked with dusky, but are stated to be richer yellow below with an orange 
tinge on the crissum, and to have brighter olive edgings on the pileum. The 
other points of distinction claimed by the describer are of no consequence in these 
birds. No measurements are given. Until adequate material comes to hand, it 
is hard to ascertain the significance of the divergencies shown by the two Peruvian 
specimens. 

* Sicalis lutea (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny), though confused with S. olivascens 
chloris by Sclater and Salvin, Sharpe, and others, is a very distinct species, and 
readily distinguished by bright olive yellow upper parts (without traces of dusky 
streaks) passing almost into canary yellow on the rump; bright yellow sides of 
head and ventral surface without any greenish tinge on the flanks; bright yellow 
margins to wing and tail feathers; shorter, proportionately deeper bill with more 
convex culmen; blackish, not pale brown legs. Wing (adult males), 82-85; tail, 
54-57; bill, 10^-11^- 

Material examined. Peru: Tinta, Dept. Cuzco, 2; Rinconada, "Andes between 
Arequipa and Cuzco," 1; Colca, Calalla River, Dept. Arequipa, 1. Bolivia: 
Pampas d'Oruro, 1 ; Santiago, Oruro, 1 ; Sajama, 1 ; unspecified, 2. 

3 Crithagra chloropsis Bonaparte comprises both S. lutea and S. o. olivascens, 
as is shown by the material in the Paris Museum. Of two Bolivian males marked 
as "type," one from Oruro is the type of E. lutea, the other, collected by Pentland, 
is S. o. olivascens. Bonaparte's diagnosis appears to be a composite of characters 
taken from the two birds. The passage "subtus flavissima" applies better to S. 
lutea, whereas the sentence "rostro valido, recto, acuto" seems to fit S. o. olivascens. 

4 An excellent representation of the species. The bird figured is an adult 
male from Tinta, Peru. 



310 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Sicalis uropygialis uropygialis (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 
YELLOW-RUMPED GROUND FINCH. 

Emberiza uropigyalis (typogr. error) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 
1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 75, 1837 "in summis Andibus, Bolivia" 
(type, from an unspecified locality in Bolivia, examined in Paris Museum). 

(l)Crithagra penllandi Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 521, end of 
1850 "ex Amer. Merid." (type in Paris Museum examined). 

Sycalis uropygialis Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 47 Andes of Bolivia (monog.); 
Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3, p. 354, 1876 Moho, east shore of 
Lake Titicaca, Bolivia; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1886, p. 397 
Huasco and Sitani, Tarapaca, Chile (spec, in British Museum examined). 

Pseudochloris uropygialis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 776, 1888 
part, Bolivia; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 200, 1896 Tarapaca; 
Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 23 Sacaya and Cancosa, Tarapaca, Chile; Albert, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 108, p. 228, 1901 Tarapaca and "Arica," Chile 
(monog.); Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 44, 1905 Cumbres 
Calchaquies, Tucuman; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 127, 
1906 Puno, western shore of Lake Titicaca, Peru; Menegaux, Bull. 
Soc. Philom. Paris, (10), 1, p. 212, 1909 Corocoro (north of Sajama), 
Oruro, Bolivia; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 181, 1909 
Cerro Munoz, Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, 
p. 389, 1910 Cumbres Calchaquies, Tucuman; idem, Bol. Soc. Physis, 
1, p. 358, 1914 (range in Argentina). 

Sicalis uropygialis uropygialis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
19, p. 90, 1932 Antofagasta (twenty miles east of San Pedro) and Tara- 
paca (Chintaguai), Chile (crit.). 

Range. Puna and upper Temperate zones of extreme southern 
Peru (Lake Titicaca), Bolivia, northwestern Argentina (prov. of 
Jujuy and Tucuman), and northern Chile, south to Antofagasta. 1 

4: Chile (Chintaguai, Prov. Tarapaca, 1; east of San Pedro, 
Prov. Antofagasta, 1); Peru (Puno, 2). 

Sicalis uropygialis connectens (Chapman). 2 INTERMEDIATE 
YELLOW-RUMPED GROUND FINCH. 

1 Comparison of a fair series from various parts of the range fails to reveal 
any racial distinction. The sides of the face are as a rule plain ashy gray, as 
claimed by Chapman, though the type of C. pentlandi and the specimen from east 
of San Pedro have the cheeks and anterior auriculars olive yellow, just a little 
duller than the crown, thus closely resembling S. u. connectens of the Urubamba 
Valley. Specimens from the eastern end of Lake Titicaca (Chililaya), by reason 
of their gray sides of the head, seem decidedly referable to typical uropygialis. 
Those from the western shore (Puno City) vary, some being like uropygialis, 
others more like connectens. 

Additional material examined. Bolivia: Chililaya, 4; Chuquecamata, 1; 
Oruro, 1; unspecified, 2. Chile, Tarapaca: Huasco, 1; Sitana, 2. Argentina: 
Santa Catalina, Jujuy, 1; Cerro Munoz, Tucuman, 2. Peru: Puno, 4. 

2 Sicalis uropygialis connectens (Chapman) : "Most nearly related to S. u. 
uropygialis, of Bolivia, but male with anterior portion of auriculars and, usually, 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 311 

Pseudochloris uropygialis connectens Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 41, 
p. 329, Sept., 1919 La Raya, head of Urubamba Valley, Dept. Cuzco, 
Peru (type in U. S. National Museum); idem, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 112, 1921 La Raya and Ttica-Ttica, Peru. 

Range. Puna zone of the upper Urubamba Valley, Dept. 
Cuzco, southeastern Peru. 

*Sicalis uropygialis sharpei (Berlepsch and Stolzmann). 1 
SHARPE'S YELLOW-RUMPED GROUND FINCH. 

Pseudochloris sharpei Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ibis, (6), 6, p. 386, 1894 

"in Peruvia centrali (Junin et Ingapirca)" (type, from Ingapirca, Junin, 

in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. 

Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 175, 1927); Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 9, 1895 Caja- 

marca; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 351 

Ingapirca and Tarma, Peru. 
Sycalis uropygialis (not Emberiza uropygialis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 522 Junin; idem, Orn. 

Pe>., 3, p. 58, 1886 Junin. 
Pseudochloris uropygialis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 776, 1888 

part, Peru (Junfn). 
Sicalis uropygialis sharpei Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, 

p. 469, 1930 La Quinua, Junin, and Huanuco Viejo, Huanuco, Peru 

(crit.). 

Range. Puna zone of central and northern Peru, from Junin 
north to Cajamarca. 

8: Peru (Huanuco Viejo, Huanuco, 3; La Quinua, Junin, 1; 
Junin, 4). 

Sicalis luteo-cephala (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). 2 YELLOW- 
HEADED GROUND FINCH. 

region below the eye olive-yellow, and yellow more extensive on sides and flanks; 
female with the head yellower than in S. u. uropygialis" (Chapman, I.e.) 

Two males from La Raya, the only ones we have seen of this form, merely 
differ from individuals of uropygialis with yellow anterior ear coverts by the 
slightly lesser extent of the gray area on the sides of the body, whereby they mark 
a step in the direction of S. u. sharpei. Perhaps this form, if maintainable, should 
be called S. u. pentlandi, but we hesitate to employ this name until we have learned 
something definite about Pentland's travels. 

1 Sicalis uropygialis sharpei (Berlepsch and Stolzmann) : Differs in the adult 
male from S. u. uropygialis by slightly smaller size, generally longer bill, and by 
lacking the grayish area on the flanks. While the sides of the head are as a rule 
olive yellowish like the crown, our male from La Quinua has the posterior auriculars 
distinctly grayish. 

A single male from Cajamarca agrees pretty well with others from Junin. 

* Sicalis luteo-cephala (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny), in the male sex, is im- 
mediately distinguished from S. u. uropygialis by having the hindcrown, nape, 
rump, and upper tail coverts gray, the lesser wing coverts and the edges to the 
remiges olive-yellow, etc. Wing, 80-82; tail, 59-61; bill, 10-11. Female unknown 
to the author. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Totora, Cochabamba, 1; Chuquisaca, 1; un- 
specified, 2. 



312 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Emberiza luteo-cephala Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, d. 2, p. 74, 1837 "Chuquisaca, rep. Boliviana" (type, from Totora, 
near Mizque, Cochabamba, in Paris Museum examined; part, descr. of 
male); 1 d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., p. 360, pi. 44, fig. 2 (=male), 
1844 "sur toutes les montagnes du versant oriental de la Cordillere, 
depuis Cochabamba et Valle Grande jusqu'a Chuquisaca," Bolivia. 

Crithagra luteocephala Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 521, 1850 
(descr. of male). 

Sycalis luteocephala Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 46 Bolivia (monog.); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 607 Cochabamba, Valle Grande, 
and Chuquisaca (ex d'Orbigny). 

Pseudochloris luteocephala Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 776, 1888 
Bolivia. 

Range. Highlands of central Bolivia, in depts. of Cochabamba 
(Cochabamba, Valle Grande, Totora) and Chuquisaca (Sucre). 

*Sicalis auriventris Philippi and Landbeck. 2 YELLOW-BELLIED 
GROUND FINCH. 

Sycalis auriventris Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 30, (1), p. 49, 
1864 Cordilleras of the province of Santiago, Chile (types in Museo 
Nacional, Santiago; cf. Gigoux and Looser, Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, 
p. 19, 1930); Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 255, 1877 Prov. Santiago 
(habits). 

Sycalis aureiventris Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 24, p. 342, 1864 Cordi- 
lleras of Santiago (habits); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 323, 
338 Chile (crit.); Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 264, 1868 Cordi- 
lleras of the central provinces of Chile; Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 47, pi. 3 
Cordilleras of Santiago (monog.); Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 545, 
1877 Valle de los Cipresos and Valle del Yeso, Colchagua, Chile; Philippi, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 57, pi. 19, fig. 1, 1902 Cordilleras of central 
provinces of Chile. 

Emberiza luteocephala (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Bridges, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 9, p. 113, 1841 "the elevated valleys of the Andes [of Col- 
chagua], east and west sides." 

Pseudochloris aureiventris Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 777, 1888 
Chile (Province of Santiago) and "Bolivia" [=Mendoza]; Reed, Anal. 
Univ. Chile, 93, p. 200, 1896 Chile; Albert, I.e., 108, p. 226, 1901 
Cordilleras of Chile (monog.); Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 188, 
1921 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

1 The alleged females pertain to S. flaveola pelzelni Sclater. 

1 Sicalis auriventris Philippi and Landbeck, a very distinct species, is perhaps 
most nearly related to S. luteo-cephala, but in addition to other characters is readily 
distinguished by its large size. 

Birds from the Mendoza side of the Andes (incae) are nowise different. The 
seemingly more "saturated" coloration of the specimens described by Chubb 
is merely due to their greasy condition. 

Additional material examined. Chile: Cajon de Castro, Aconcagua, 1; Cor- 
dilleras of Santiago, 5; unspecified, 2. Argentina: Puente del Inca, Mendoza, 3. 






1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 313 

Sycalis lutea (not Emberiza lutea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Gosse, in Fitz- 
gerald, The Highest Andes, p. 352, 1899 "Lujan, south of Mendoza" 
(spec, examined). 

Pseudochloris lutea Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 389, 1910 
part, Cordillera of Mendoza (ex Gosse). 

Pseudochloris aureiventris incae Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 39, p. 71, Mar., 
1919 Puente del Inca, Aconcagua Valley, Mendoza (type in British 
Museum examined). 

Pseudosicalis aureiventris Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 331, 1923 
Huanuluan, western Rio Negro. 

Pseudochloris aureiventris mendozae (not of Sharpe) Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. 

Nat., 34, p. 319, 1930 Puente del Inca, Mendoza. 
Sicalis auriventris Stone, Rep. Princ. Univ. Exp. Patag., 2, p. 833, 1928 

Huanuluan, Rio Negro; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 

p. 91, 1932 Antofagasta (east of San Pedro), Coquimbo (Banos del 

Toro), and Santiago (San Jose de Maipo), Chile. 

Range. Upper Temperate and Puna zones of Chile (from 
Antofagasta to Colchagua) and the adjoining section of Argentina 
(from west of Mendoza to the region south of Lake Nahuel Huapi). 

7: Chile (twenty miles east of San Pedro, Antofagasta, 1; Banos 
del Toro, Coquimbo, 4; Cajon de Castro, Aconcagua, 1; San Jos6 
de Maipo, Santiago, 1). 

*Sicalis olivascens salvini (Chubb). 1 SALVIN'S GREENISH GROUND 
FINCH. 

Pseudochloris salvini Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 39, p. 70, Mar. 31, 1919 
Vina, Huamachuco, Peru (type in British Museum examined). 

Pseudochloris lutea(!) (not Emberiza lutea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Salvin, 
Nov. Zool., 2, p. 9, 1895 Vifia and Chusgon, Huamachuco, Peru. 

Sicalis olivascens salvini Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 469, 
1930 Huanuco, Peru (crit.). 

Range. Temperate zone of northern Peru, from the upper 
Maranon Valley (Huamachuco) south to Huanuco. 

2: Peru (Huanuco, 2). 

1 Sicalis olivascens salvini (Chubb) : Similar in coloration to S. olivascens 
chloris, but decidedly smaller, with shorter, blunter bill. Wing, 73-75, (female) 
73-76; tail, 47-53; bill, 10-11. 

The two Huanuco birds are unquestionably the same as the original series 
of P. salvini, with which they have been directly compared. The type and two 
other males collected by Baron are immature, the females are in very worn breeding 
plumage. The series merely differs from S. o. chloris in comparable condition 
by smaller size and shorter, thicker bill. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Chusgon, Huamachuco, 2; Vifia, Hua- 
machuco, 3; Otuzco, 1. 



314 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

*Sicalis olivascens chloris Tschudi. 1 TSCHUDI'S GREENISH 
GROUND FINCH. 

Sycalis chloris (Cabanis MS.) Tschudi, Unters. Faun. Peru., Ornith., p. 216, 

1846 Peru, we suggest Matucana, above Lima (type in Berlin Museum 

examined); 2 Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 568 

Arequipa, Peru (spec, examined); Taczanowski, Orn. Per., 3, p. 57, 1886 

part, Arequipa and Andes of Lima, Peru. 
Sycalis lutea (not Emberiza lutea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, Ibis, 

1872, p. 46 part, "female," western Peru; idem, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1881, p. 487 Cordillera above Lima (alt. 8,000 ft.). 
Pseudochloris lutea Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 775, 1888 part, 

spec, e-h, Arequipa and Andes of Lima. 
Sycalis aureiventris (not of Landbeck) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1886, 

p. 397 Chumisa, Tarapaca, Chile (spec, examined); Gigoux, Rev. Hist. 

Nat., 28, p. 84, 1924 Caldera, Atacama, Chile. 
Pseudochloris aureiventris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 133 

Sacaya, Tarapaca, Chile; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 23 Andean valleys of 

Tarapaca. 
Pseudochloris chloris Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 108, p. 225, 1901 Tarapaca 

and "Arica" (monog.). 
Pseudochloris olivascens chloris Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 68, 

1906 Pauza, Ayacucho, Peru (spec, examined). 
Sicalis olivascens chloris Zimmer, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 468, 

1930 Matucana, above Lima, Peru (crit.); Hellmayr, I.e., 19, p. 92, 

1932 Antofagasta (east of San Pedro) and Atacama (Domeyko), Chile 

(crit.). 

Range. Temperate zone of the western Cordillera (de la Costa) 
of Peru, from above Lima southwards, and northern Chile, south 
to Atacama. 

14: Peru (Matucana, 2); Chile (east of San Pedro, Antofagasta, 
7; Domeyko, Atacama, 5). 

1 Sicalis olivascens chloris Tschudi is exceedingly similar to the nominate 
race, but has a slightly shorter tail and a rather stronger bill, while the under 
parts, as a rule, are of a somewhat duller, more greenish yellow tone in the male 
sex. The differences are not very strongly pronounced, and should be corroborated 
by larger series. Birds from northern Chile agree in proportions and coloration 
with those from western Peru, and do not appear to be separable. Wing, 78-86, 
(female) 78-83; tail, 50-57, (female), 50-55; bill, 10-11. 

Additional material examined. Peru: San Mateo, Dept. Lima (alt. 3,200 
metr.), 2; Cordillera above Lima (alt. 8,000 ft.), 1; unspecified, 1 (the type); 
Pauza (alt. 7,300 ft.), Ayacucho, 2; Arequipa, 3. Chile: Chumisa, Tarapaca, 1. 

2 The type, No. 885, Berlin Museum, is labeled, evidently by error, "Cinchon- 
forests." It was collected by B. Philippi, who is known to have traveled from 
Lima to Maraynioc and thence down to the tropical forests. This Ground Finch 
does not occur in the forests, and as the type is a perfect match to specimens 
from the Coast Cordillera, Matucana may be substituted as a more likely terra 
typica. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 315 

Sicalis olivascens berlepschi (Me'ne'gaux). 1 BERLEPSCH'S GREEN- 
ISH GROUND FINCH. 

Pseudochloris olivascens berlepschi M6ngaux, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (10), 
1, p. 212, 1909 Pulacayo, Lake Poop6, Dept. Oruro, Bolivia (type in 
Paris Museum examined); idem, Rev. Franc.. d'Orn., 1, p. "124" [=134], 
Jan., 1910 (reprint). 

Sicalis olivascens berlepschi Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 94 (in text), 1932 Oruro and Pulacayo, Oruro, Bolivia (crit.). 

Range. Temperate zone of western Bolivia, in Dept. Oruro 
(Oruro; Pulacayo, Lake Poopo). 

Sicalis olivascens olivascens (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). BOLI- 
VIAN GREENISH GROUND FINCH. 

Emberiza olivascens Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 75, 1837 La Paz, Bolivia (descr. of male and female; type 
[female] in Paris Museum examined). 2 

Crithagra chloropsis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 521, 1850 
Bolivia (in part). 3 

Sycalis chloris (not of Tschudi) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1869, p. 153 Tinta, Dept. Cuzco, Peru (in part; spec, in British Museum 
and Vienna Museum examined); (?)Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 522 
Huanta, Ayacucho; idem, Orn. Per., 3, p. 57, 1886 part, Tinta and 
(?)Huanta. 

Sycalis lutea (not Emberiza lutea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater, Ibis, 
1872, p. 46 part, "female," Bolivia; (?)Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
3, p. 354, 1876 Moho, east side of Lake Titicaca. 

Pseudochloris lutea Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 83, 1889 "Valpa- 
raiso," errore= Bolivia (spec, examined); (?)Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 351 Tarma and Jauja, Dept. Junin, 
Peru. 

Pseudochloris olivascens Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 127, 1906 
Puno, west shore of Lake Titicaca. 

Pseudochloris olivascens chloris Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. Ill, 
1921 part, Pisac, Urubamba, Peru. 

1 Sicalis olivascens berlepschi (M6n6gaux): Very similar to S. o. olivascens, 
but with decidedly longer wings and tail. The type is by no means brighter 
yellow beneath than the average of S. o. chloris, while an adult male from Oruro 
fully attains the intensity of S. o. olivascens. A very doubtfully separable form, 
whose claims to recognition need confirmation by adequate material. Wing 
(adult males), 90, 92; tail, 60, 63; bill, 10^-11^. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Pulacayo, Lake Poop6, 2; Oruro, 1. 

1 The male type is no longer to be found in the French National Collection. 
3 Cf. footnote 3 on page 309. 



316 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Range. Temperate and Puna zones of northwestern Bolivia 
(depts. La Paz and Cochabamba) and southeastern Peru (Dept. 
Cuzco). 1 

*Sicalis olivascens sordida (Chapman). 2 ARGENTINE GREENISH 
GROUND FINCH. 

Pseudochloris olivascens sordida Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 41, p. 
330, 1919 Tilcara, Jujuy, Argentina (type in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York). 

Pseudochloris stewarti Chubb, El Hornero, 3, pp. 34, 35, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2 (male, 
female), 1923 Gualfin, Prov. Catamarca, Argentina (type in British 
Museum examined). 

Pseudochloris uropygialis (not Emberiza uropygialis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 217, 1904 Lara, Tucuman (spec, in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Pseudochloris aureiventris (not Sycalis auriventris Philippi and Landbeck) 
Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 44, 1905 Cerro Munoz, Tucu- 
man; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 389, 1910 Cerro 
Munoz. 

Pseudochloris lutea (not Emberiza lutea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Lonnberg, 
Ibis, 1903, p. 451 Moreno, Puna de Jujuy; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 389, 1910 part, Catamarca, Salta, and Jujuy. 

Pseudochloris aureiventris mendozae (not of Sharpe) Hartert and Venturi, 
Nov. Zool., 16, p. 181, 1909 Tucuman (Cerro Munoz) and Jujuy (Angosta 
Perchela, Tilcara) (spec, examined). 

Sicalis olivascens sordida Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 95 (in text), 1932 (crit., range). 

Range. Puna zone of northwestern Argentina, in provinces of 
Catamarca, Tucuman, Salta, and Jujuy. 

2: Argentina (Maimara, Jujuy, 2). 

1 Specimens from southeastern Peru (Tinta; Lucre, Cuzco; Urubamba) agree 
in every respect with a topotypical series from La Paz. Not haying seen any 
material from either Junin or northern Ayacucho (Huanta), I am in doubt as to 
which form is found in these parts of Peru. An adult male from "near Valparaiso, 
1885" collected by H. H. Rusby is perfectly typical of the present race, and 
certainly never came from Chile. 

Material examined. Bolivia: La Paz, 9; Tapacari, Cochabamba, 2; unspeci- 
fied, 2. Peru: Tinta, 2; Lucre, Cuzco, 1; Urubamba (alt. 10,000 ft.), Cuzco, 1. 

1 Sicalis olivascens sordida (Chapman): Exceedingly close to S. o. olivascens, 
but perhaps separable in the male sex by somewhat duller upper and under parts 
with more olivaceous shading on the throat, chest, and sides. Size about the 
same. Wing, 83-87, (female) 81-86; tail, 54-60, (female) 52-56. 

Direct comparison of the type with Jujuy specimens proves P. stewarti to 
be an absolute synonym of sordida. 

Additional material examined. Jujuy: Tilcara, 2; Angosta Perchela, Jujuy, 1; 
Cerro Munoz, Tucuman, 1; Lara, Tucuman, 2; Gualfin, Catamarca, 1; Corral 
Quemado, Catamarca, 1; Antofagasta, Catamarca, 1; Lago Helado, Catamarca, 1. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 317 

Sicalis olivascens mendozae (Sharpe). 1 MENDOZA GREENISH 
GROUND FINCH. 

Pseudochloris mendozae Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 778, 1888 
Mendoza, Argentina (type in British Museum examined). 

Sycalis chloropis (not Crithagra chloropsis Bonaparte) Burmeister, 1 Journ. 
Orn., 8, p. 257, 1860 Mendoza (descr. of male and female; spec, in 
Halle Museum examined); idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 489, 1861 
Mendoza and "Catamarca"; Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 47 (crit.). 

Sycalis chloropsis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 126, 1862 part, spec, b, 
Mendoza. 

Pseudochloris aureiventris mendozae Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 152, 1918 
Las Cuevas, Mendoza. 

Pseudochloris lutea (not Emberiza lutea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 775, 1888 part, spec, a, "Pampas Argen- 
tinas" (spec, examined). 

Sicalis lutea Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 403, 1926 near Potreri- 
llos, Mendoza. 

Range. Western Argentina, in Province of Mendoza (Mendoza, 
Las Cuevas, Potrerillos). 

Sicalis lebruni (Oustalet). 3 LEBRUN'S GROUND FINCH. 

Pseudochloris lebruni Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B98, 1891 Mis- 
sioneros, Terr. Santa Cruz, Patagonia (type in Paris Museum examined). 

1 Sicalis olivascens mendozae (Sharpe) : Similar in coloration to S. o. sordida, 
but considerably smaller. Wing, 76-78, (female) 76-77; tail, 51-53; bill, 10. 

This little-known form, which has been recorded only from the vicinity 
of the city of Mendoza, is merely a smaller edition of S. o. sordida, its coloration 
being exactly the same. The female bears some likeness to that of S. lebruni, 
and sometimes has just as little yellow beneath; it is, however, slightly smaller 
and much darker, less grayish, on the upper parts. 

Material examined. Argentina: Mendoza, 5; "Pampas Argentinas," 1. 

1 Although one of the specimens labeled "S. chlpropsis" in the Halle Museum 
pertains to S. flaveola pelzelni, Burmeister's description clearly refers to the present 
form. There are two males at Halle, and one male and one female in the British 
Museum from his trip to Argentina, all marked "Mendoza," but none from 
Catamarca. The spelling "chloropis" seems to be merely a slip for chloropsis, 
since Bonaparte is quoted as author of the specific name. 

Sicalis lebruni (Oustalet), while about the same size as S. o. sordida, differs 
from the S. olivascens group by grayish (instead of olive yellow) outer margins 
to the remiges; nearly whitish tail-edging; grayish flanks; largely white-tipped 
under tail coverts, etc. In the male sex, it is not unlike S. auriventris, but, in 
addition to its smaller size, it differs by decidedly weaker bill; duller greenish 
yellow (instead of bright yellow) pileum ; mainly gray (not wholly greenish yellow) 
upper tail coverts; broad ashy-gray apical spots to the dorsal feathers; much 
lighter yellow under surface with grayish sides of the belly and white anal patch; 
largely white under tail coverts. The female is much smaller, the bill decidedly 
so, and the under parts are paler, less suffused with yellow. Until its breeding 
range is worked out, it may provisionally be regarded as a separate species of 
rather uncertain affinities. Wing, 81-85, (female) 78-84; tail, 53-57; bill, 10-11. 

Material examined. Santa Cruz: Missioneros, 1 (the type); Valle del Lago 
Blanco, Chubut, 6; Huanuluan, Rio Negro, 2; Maquinchao, Rio Negro, 2. 



318 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Pseudosicalis lebruni Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 332, 1923 
Huanuluan and Maquinchao, western Rio Negro (nesting). 

Sicalis kbruni Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 458, 1926 Rio Negro 
(Arroyo Las Bayas and Lago Carilaufquen) and Santa Cruz (Rio Gallegos 
and Coy Inlet), Patagonia; Stone, Rep. Princet. Univ. Exp. Patag., 2, 
p. 833, 1928 Santa Cruz and Rio Gallegos; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, p. 95 (in text), 1932 Patagonia (crit.). 

Range. Patagonia, from Santa Cruz north to western Rio Negro. 

Sicalis columbiana 1 columbiana Cabanis. VENEZUELAN 
YELLOW FINCH. 

Sycalis columbiana Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 147, October, 1851 "Porto 
Cabello," errore; we suggest Ciudad Bolivar, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela 
(types in Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, Halberstadt, 
examined; descr. of male and female); Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., 
p. 126, 1862 "Trinidad" and Venezuela; idem, Ibis, 1872, p. 43 part, 
Venezuela ("Porto Cabello"); Berlepsch, Ibis, 1884, p. 433 Angostura, 
Orinoco (descr. of female); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 379, 1888 
part, spec, a, b, Venezuela and "Trinidad"; Berlepsch and Hartert, 
Nov. Zool., 9, p. 28, 1902 Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, and Caura Valley 
(Suapure, La Pricion), Venezuela. 

Sicalis columbiana Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 381, 1907 part, Venezuela. 

Sicalis colombiana Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 209, 1913 La 
Pedrita (Rio Uracoa) and Cano Corozal, Orinoco Delta. 

Sicalis columbiana columbiana Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 8, 1907 Vene- 
zuela ("Porto Cabello"; Orinoco and Caura Valleys) (crit.); Cherrie, Sci. 
Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 193, 1916 Orinoco region (descr. of plum- 
ages, nest, and eggs). 

Range. Valley of the Orinoco and its affluents from the delta 
region up to San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela. 2 

*Sicalis columbiana leopoldinae Hellmayr. 3 ARAGUAYA YELLOW 
FINCH. 

1 Sicalis columbiana, a very distinct species, differs in the male sex from S. 
flaveola by much lesser dimensions; much smaller bill; darker, less yellowish green 
back without any trace of dusky streaking; by the broad bright yellow inner 
margin to the remiges being replaced by a narrow, rather indistinct, whitish 
fringe, etc. Furthermore, the female is quite differently colored, being pale brown 
above, and white below tinged with buffy anteriorly and laterally, while in S. f. 
flaveola the sexes are nearly alike in coloration. 

2 Birds from the Caura Valley agree with an Orinocan series. We have called 
attention to the fact that various Orinocan species described by Cabanis in the 
"Museum Heineanum" are wrongly assigned to "Porto Cabello" [=Puerto 
Cabello], this locality evidently serving as their shipping port. "Trinidad" is 
another unreliable record for the present species. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Angostura, 1; Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, 6; 
Quiribana de Caicara, Orinoco, 1; La Vuelta, Caura, 1; Suapure, Caura, 4; La 
Union, Caura, 1; La Pricion, Caura, 3; San Fernando de Apure, 2. 

3 Sicalis columbiana leopoldinae Hellmayr: Similar to S. c. columbiana, but 
with shorter wings and much smaller bill; male slightly more yellowish green 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 319 

Sicalis columbiana leopoldinae Hellmayr, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 16, p. 85, April, 
1906 Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya, Goyaz, Brazil (type in Tring Collection, 
now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York); Ihering, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 381, 1907 Leopoldina; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, 
p. 9, 1907 Leopoldina (crit.); idem, I.e., 15, p. 34, 1908 Rio Araguaya, 
Goyaz; idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 299, 1929 Tronco 
Falls, below Nova York, Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy (crit.). 

Sycalis arvensis minor (not Sycalis minor Cabanis) Reiser, Denks. Math.- 
Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 part, Nos, 296, 1181, 
Joazeiro, Bahia, and Tronco Falls, Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy (spec, 
examined). 

Sycalis arvensis (not Fringilla arvensis Kittlitz) Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. 
Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 178, 1925 part, Tronco Falls, Piauhy. 

Range. River banks in the interior of Brazil, in states of Goyaz 
(Leopoldina, Rio Araguaya), Bahia (Joazeiro, Rio Sao Francisco; 
Sao Marcello, Rio Preto), and Piauhy (Tronco Falls, below Nova 
York, Rio Parnahyba). 

1: Brazil (Sao Marcello, Rio Preto, Bahia, 1). 

*Sicalis columbiana goeldii Berlepsch. 1 GOELDI'S YELLOW 
FINCH. 

Sicalis goeldii Berlepsch, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 16, p. 97, May, 1906 "San- 
tar6m"= Paricatuba, south bank of Amazon, west of the junction of the 
Rio Tapaj6z, Brazil (type in coll. of H. von Berlepsch, now in Frankfort 
Museum, examined); idem, Ornis, 14, p. 350, 1907 Paricatuba (full 
descr.); Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 381, 1907 Santarem; Naumburg, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 352, 1930 Rio Solimoes and Calama, 
Rio Madeira. 

above with the frontal patch brighter, fiery orange, and without any greenish 
tinge on the sides of the chest; female paler, upper parts more grayish, and the 
ventral surface less shaded with brownish on chest and sides. Wing, 58, (female) 
55-58; tail, 40-42; bill, 9-10. 

From Bahia and Piauhy females only being available, their subspecific status 
cannot be determined at present with absolute finality. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Leopoldina, Goyaz, 5; Joazeiro, Rio 
Sao Francisco, Bahia, 1; Tronco Falls, Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy, 1. 

1 Sicalis columbiana goeldii Berlepsch: Agreeing in large bill withS. c. columbi- 
ana, but male with lower parts of a much deeper cadmium yellow to cadmium 
orange tone, this color also spreading over the cheeks and auriculars, both of 
which are yellowish-olive like the back in the two other races; the fiery orange 
of the forehead is even brighter than in S. c. leopoldinae and extends over the 
whole vertex; the hindneck and rump are much brighter yellow, and the remiges 
are interiorly more distinctly edged with yellowish. Female similar in paleness 
of under parts to that of S. c. leopoldinae, but with much larger bill; the flanks 
washed with buffy yellowish, the axillaries and under wing coverts more yellowish, 
and the whitish inner margin to the remiges more conspicuous. Wing, 58-63, 
(female) 57-59; tail, 40-45, (female) 38-42; bill, 11-12. 

Two adult males from Yana-yaco, Peru, do not differ from Brazilian birds, 
so far as I can see. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Paricatuba, south bank of lower 
Amazon, 2; Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z, 2; Urucurituba, Rio Tapaj6z, 7; Obidos, 1; 
Manaos, 8. Peru: Yana-yaco, 2. 



320 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sycalis brasiliensis (not Emberiza brasiliensis Gmelin) Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 573 north side of the Amazons [= Monte 
Alegre]. 

Sycalis columbiana (not of Cabanis) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 231, 1870 
Barra do Rio Negro [ = Manaos] (spec, examined); Sclater, Ibis, 1872, 
p. 43 part, Barra do Rio Negro; Allen, Bull. Essex Inst., 7, p. 79, 1876 
Santarem; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 379, 1888 part, spec. 
c-e, Barra do Rio Negro; Chapman and Riker, Auk, 7, p. 268, 1890 
Santarem. 

Sicalis columbiana Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 381, 1907 part, Rio Negro. 

Sycalis goeldii Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 297, 1907 Maraca and Monte 
Alegre, Brazil; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 432, 1914 Rio Tapajoz 
(Boim, Pinhel), Maraca, Monte Alegre, Erere, and Rio Jamunda (Faro). 

Sicalis columbiana goeldii Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 14, pp. 8, 9, 1907 Rio 
Tapajoz (Urucurituba and Itaituba), Manaos, and Yana-yaco, Peru 
(crit.); idem, I.e., p. 30, 1907 Obidos. 

Range. Northern Brazil, on the banks of the Amazon and its 
tributaries, from the Rio Maraca and the Rio Tapajoz westwards, 
south to the Rio Madeira (Calama), and the adjacent parts of 
northeastern Peru (Rio Yana-yaco, an affluent of the Rio Ucayali). 

3: Brazil (Itacoatiard, Amazonas, 3). 
Sicalis flaveola jamaicae Sharpe. 1 JAMAICAN YELLOW FINCH. 

Sycalis jamaicae Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 523, 1888 Jamaica 

(type in British Museum); Cory, Cat. W. Ind. Bds., pp. 113, 130, 151, 

1892 Jamaica. 
Crithagra brasiliensis (not Emberiza brasiliensis Gmelin) Gosse, Bds. Jamiaca, 

p. 245, 1847 Mount Edgecumbe, Auchindown, Culloden, and Peter's 

Vale, eastern Westmoreland (introduced); idem, Illust. Bds. Jamaica, 

pi. 61, 1849. 
Crithagra braziliensis March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 298 

neighborhood of Hodge's Pen and Long Hill, Jamaica. 
Sycalis brasiliensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 74 Jamaica. 
Sycalis flaveola (not Fringilla flaveola Linnaeus) Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 41 

part, Jamaica; Danforth, Auk, 45, p. 490, 1928 Constant Spring, eastern 

Jamaica. 
Sicalis flaveola Cory, Auk, 3, p. 213, 1886 Jamaica; idem, Bds. W. Ind., p. 

100, 1889 Jamaica. 

1 Sicalis flaveola jamaicae Sharpe: Adult male similar to the Brazilian race of 
S. flaveola, but brighter yellow throughout, particularly below, and the orange 
crown patch farther extended toward the nape. 

Although there seems hardly any doubt that the bird was originally intro- 
duced to the island, where it has since gained rather a wide distribution, I cannot 
avoid recognizing the form, as three adult males from Jamaica differ from any 
continental individual by their brighter yellow coloring and more extensive orange 
crown-patch. 






1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 321 

Sycalis flam (not Fringilla flava P. L. S. Miiller) A. and E. Newton, Handb. 

Jamaica, p. 117, 1881 Jamaica. 

Sycalis flaveola jamaicae Scott, Auk, 10, p. 179, 1893 Jamaica. 
Sicalis jamaicae Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 523, 1901 

Jamaica. 

Range. Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 

*Sicalis flaveola valida Bangs and Penard. 1 PACIFIC YELLOW 
FINCH. 

Sicalis flaveola valida Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 64, p. 396, 
Jan., 1921 Sullana, Dept. Piura, Peru (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, 
p. 623, 1926 Guayaquil, Santa Rosa, Porto Velo, Casanga, Lunama, Rio 
Pindo, and Loja, Ecuador (crit.). 

Sycalis flaveola (not Fringilla flaveola Linnaeus) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1877, p. 322 Tumbez, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 244 Tumbez 
(eggs descr.); idem, I.e., 1880, p. 199 Callacate, Peru; Berlepsch and 
Taczanowski, I.e., 1883, p. 552 Yaguachi, Ecuador (crit.); Taczanowski, 
Orn. Per., 3, p. 55, 1886 Peru (Guadalupe, Nancho, Paucal, Tumbez, 
Chepen, Callacate, Guajango); Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 377, 
1888 part, spec, y, z, Tumbez; Salvin, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 7, 1895 Tem- 
bladera, Peru; Mengaux, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 9, 1911 Choquisongo, 
northeast of Otuzco, Peru. 

Sicalis flaveola Bangs and Noble, Auk, 35, p. 462, 1918 Sullana, Huanca- 
bamba, and Bellavista, Peru. 

Range. Tropical zone of southwestern Ecuador (from the 
Guayaquil district southward) and northwestern Peru, south to 
Libertad, east to the upper Maranon Valley. 

1: Peru (Menocucho, 1). 

*Sicalis flaveola flaveola (Linnaeus). NORTHERN YELLOW FINCH. 

Fringilla flaveola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 321, 1766 patria 
ignota; = Surinam as designated by Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
9, p. 27, 1902 (type in coll. of Baron de Geer; descr. of adult male). 

(?) [Sycalis} aureipectus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 37, p. 917, 
Dec., 1853 "Nova Granata" = "Santa F6 de Bogota (type in coll. of J. 
Verreaux, now in Turin Museum, examined; descr. of young); idem, Not. 
Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 17, 1854 (reprint); Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
23, p. 159, 1855 "Bogota"; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 126, 1862 
"Bogota." 

Sycalis brasiliensis (not Emberiza brasiliensis Gmelin) Cabanis, in Schom- 
burgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 679, 1848 [=1849] coast region, espe- 

1 Sicalis flaveola valida Bangs and Penard: Similar to S.f. flaveola, but decidedly 
larger, with heavier bill; coloration of males on average slightly more yellowish. 
Wing (males), 78-83; tail, 57-61; bill, 11-12. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Sullana, 3; Tumbez, 4; Huancabamba, 
1. Ecuador: Guayaquil, 2; Yaguachi, 1. 



322 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

cially Georgetown; Taylor, Ibis, 1864, p. 83 shores of the Orinoco; 
Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 402 part, Caracas, 
Venezuela; Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 328 Santa Marta, Colombia. 
Sycalis flaveola Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 41 part, Santa Marta, "Bogota," 
Venezuela, and British Guiana; Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 1880, p. 123 
Santa Marta; Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 217 British Guiana (ex Schomburgk); 
Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 377, 1888 part, spec, t-x, Venezuela 
(Valencia) and Colombia (Santa Marta, "Bogota"); Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 13, p. 165, 1900 Bonda, Cienaga, and Cacagualito, Colombia; 
Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 27, 1902 Altagracia, Ciudad 
Bolivar, and Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela (nest and eggs descr.); Ber- 
lepsch, I.e., 15, p. 121, 1908 French Guiana; Penard, Vog. Guyana, 2, 
p. 401, 1910 Surinam; Delacour, Ibis, 1923, p. 148 Venezuela (Guarico 
and Apure). 

Sicalis flaveola Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 2, p. 191, 1916 Orinoco 
region (plumages, nest, and eggs); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 
36, p. 565, 1917 Turbaco, La Playa, Calamar, and Boca de Chimi, 
Colombia; Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 454, 1921 Georgetown. 
Sicalis flaveola flaveola Todd and Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 521, 
1922 Tucurinca, Bonda, Cienaga, Rio Hacha, Gaira, Mamatoco, and 
Fundacion, Colombia (plumages, habits); Darlington, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 71, p. 430, 1931 Cienaga, etc., Magdalena, Colombia. 
Range. Tropical zone of French, Dutch, and British Guiana, 

Venezuela (Orinoco basin north to the Caracas region, Lake of 

Valencia, etc.), and northern Colombia (Santa Marta region and 

lower Magdalena west to Cartagena). 1 

31 : Colombia (Tucurinca, Magdalena, 2) ; Venezuela (Maracaibo, 

5; Rio Aurare, Zulia, 2; Puerto Cabello, 2; Lake Valencia, Aragua, 2; 

Maracay, Aragua, 8; Cocollar, Sucre, 10). 

*Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin). 2 BRAZILIAN YELLOW 
FINCH. 

1 Specimens from Surinam and Venezuela agree well together. Two adult 
males from Baranquilla, while slightly more orange on the throat, are matched 
by occasional Venezuelan individuals, and it will require an adequate series to 
establish the claims of a Colombian form for recognition (cf. Miller, Auk, 42, 
p. 255, 1925). "Bogota" skins, whose exact origin is of course unknown, may 
be different again. They have remarkably stout, bulky bills, which are larger 
even than in S. f. valida, and an adult male closely approaches the Pacific race 
also in other dimensions (wing, 77; tail, 56). The type of S. aureipectus, actually 
in the Turin Museum, is marked "Santa Fe de Bogota." It is in the process of 
molting from the juvenile plumage (with buffy white throat, breast, and abdomen, 
and yellow pectoral band and under tail coverts) into the yellow dress, showing 
new yellow feathers in forehead, cheeks, chin, and belly. If separable, this form 
will have to bear Bonaparte's name, but we hesitate to admit it as valid on the 
present, all too meager evidence. 

Additional material examined. Surinam: near Paramaribo, 2. Venezuela: 
Quiribana de Caicara, Orinoco, 1; Altagracia, Orinoco, 6; Rio Guayra, near 
Antfmano, Caracas, 2. Colombia: "Bogota," 3; Baranquilla, 2. 

1 Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin): Similar to S. /. flaveola, but upper 
parts more heavily streaked ; flanks slightly striated ; orange of f orecrown generally 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 323 

Emberiza brasiliensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 872, 1789 based mainly 
upon "Guiranheemgatu" Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 211; north- 
eastern Brazil. 1 

Sycalis flaveola (not Fringilla flaveola Linnaeus) Forbes, Ibis, 1881, p. 338 
from Parahyba and Recife to the interior; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
12, p. 377, 1888 part, spec, p-s, Bahia, "Para," and Pernambuco; 
Reiser, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 
Pernambuco (Pao d'Alho, near Recife), Bahia (Fazenda Serra, Rio 
Grande), and Piauhy (Parnagua); idem, I.e., p. 178, 1925 same localities; 
Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 42, 1926 Ceara. 

Sicalis flaveola flava (not Fringilla flava P. L. S. Miiller) Hellmayr, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 298, 1929 Maranhao (Cod6, Cocos), 
Piauhy (Ibiapaba, Arara), and Ceara (Jua, near Iguatu; Quixada; Serra 
de Baturite") (crit.). 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, from southern Maranhao, Piauhy, 
and Cear south at least to Bahia (vicinity of Bahia City). 

26: Brazil (Codo, Cocos, Maranhao, 4; Ibiapaba, Piauhy, 2; 
Arara, Piauhy, 1; Serra Baturite", Ceara, 4; Quixada, Ceara, 7; Jud, 
near Iguatu, Ceara, 6; Sao Marcello, Rio Preto, Bahia, 1; Santo 
Amaro, Bahia, 1). 

*Sicalis flaveola holti Miller. 2 HOLT'S YELLOW FINCH. 

Sicalis flaveola holti Miller, Auk, 42, p. 254, 1925 Monte Serrat, Serra do 
Itatiaya, Sao Paulo (type in the American Museum of Natural History, 

paler as well as less extensive. In the juvenile plumage the yellow prepectoral 
band is narrower, paler and frequently streaked with dusky. 

Additional specimens examined. Piauhy: Parnagua, 3. Pernambuco: Pao 
d'Alho, Recife, 1. Bahia: Fazenda da Serra, Rio Grande, 1; unspecified, 10. 

1 Although Daubenton's "Bruant du Bresil," PI. Enl., pi. 321, fig. 1, is quoted 
in the synonymy, Gmelin's description appears to be taken from Brisson, whose 
account is based on Marcgrave. Moreover, nearly all of the other references cited 
by Gmelin go back to this same source. In another paper I had used the term 
flava for this race. However, on again consulting Daubenton's picture of the 
"Bruant du Bresil" (PI. Enl., pi. 321, fig. 1), upon which Fringilla flava P. L. S. 
Miiller (Natursvst., Suppl., p. 164, 1776) is based, I am bound to agree with 
Sharpe and Miller that this figure showing a bird of indefinite coloring with short 
reddish legs is hardly identifiable, if referring to a Sicalis at all. 

1 Sicalis flaveola holti Miller: Exceedingly similar to S. f. brasiliensis, but 
adult male more conspicuously striped above, with the orange of the crown more 
restricted; female much less greenish above, the upper and middle back with 
broad brown lateral edges to the feathers and much more heavily streaked with 
dusky or blackish; no well defined orange patch on the forecrpwn, only the fore- 
head tinged with dull orange; underneath paler yellow, this color frequently 
obscured by buffy edges on throat and sides. 

It is with some reluctance that we separate the Yellow Finch of southeastern 
Brazil from S. /. brasiliensis, with which we formerly united it. While the males 
are certainly very much alike and cannot be distinguished in every individual 
case, three females from Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba) and Sao Paulo (Ypanema) 
look rather different, as may be gathered from the above description, which 
concurs perfectly with Miller's characterization of the Itatiaya birds. Certain 
Bahia trade-skins are, however, decidedly intermediate between a series of females 
from northeastern Brazil (brasiliensis) and those from southern Brazil. They 



324 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

New York); Holt, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 316, 1928 Serra do 
Itatiaya. 

Emberiza brasiliensis (not of Gmelin) Wied, Reise Bras., 2, pp. 166, 178, 
1821 Barra da Vareda and road to Fazenda Ilha, eastern Minas Geraes. 

Fringilla brasiliensis Spix, Av. Bras. Spec. Nov., 2, p. 47, pi. 61, figs. 1, 2 
(male, female), 1825 Minas Geraes; Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (1), 
p. 614, 1830 Brazil (habits). 

Sycalis brasiliensis Burmeister, Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 253, 1856 
[Minas Geraes], Brazil (habits); Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. 
Foren., 1870, p. 212 part, Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa, Sete Lagoas, 
Curvelo) and Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 22, 
p. 84, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio de Janeiro (spec, examined). 

Sycalis flaveola (not Fringilla flaveola Linnaeus) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 231, 
1870 Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba), Sao Paulo (Ypanema), and Parana 
(Jaguaraiba); Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 41 part, Sao Paulo and Minas 
Geraes; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 377, 1888 part, spec, f-o, 
Rio de Janeiro, Santa Fe (Minas Geraes), "Pelotas" (Rio Grande do 
Sul), Ypanema, Sao Paulo, Sapitiba, and "Rio Claro, Goyaz"; Ihering, 
Ibis, 1899, pp. 434, 435 (occurrence in Rio Grande do Sul denied); idem, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 164, 1899 Piquete and Sao Sebastiao, Sao 
Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 154, 1900 Cantagallo, Rio. 

Sicalis flaveola Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 381, 1907 Sao Paulo (Piquete, 
Cachoeira, Sao Sebastiao, Caconde, Ypiranga); Liiderwaldt, Zool. Jahrb. 
(Syst.), 27, p. 358, 1909 Serra do Itatiaya; Chrostowski, Compt. Rend. 
Soc. Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 488, 500, 1912 Vera Guarany, Parana; 
Miranda Ribeiro, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 255, 1923 
Retiro do Ramos, Itatiaya; Velho, I.e., p. 263, 1923 Monte Serrat, 
Itatiaya. 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, from Minas Geraes (? and southern 
Bahia) south to Parana. 1 

5: Brazil (Therezopolis, Rio de Janeiro, 5). 
*Sicalis flaveola pelzelni Sclater. 2 PELZELN'S YELLOW FINCH. 

agree with the latter in strongly streaked crown and dull orange-tinged forehead, 
but differ by much deeper yellow under parts and green (not brownish) back, 
resembling in both respects females from Piauhy and Ceara. One of these birds 
except for its conspicuously striped flanks corresponds well to Spix's figure of 
the female (pi. 61, fig. 1) said to be from Minas Geraes, which is no longer in the 
Munich Museum. Miller, it will be remembered, referred some skins collected 
by Beck at Bahia City, to S. f. holti, a procedure that serves to complicate matters 
even further. Without large series of properly sexed specimens it is impossible 
to determine whether the variation discussed in the preceding lines is of indi- 
vidual or geographical significance. 

Additional material examined. Espirito Santo: Victoria, 1. Rio de Janeiro: 
Cantagallo, 1; Sapitiba, 3; Rio de Janeiro, 1. Sao Paulo: Ypanema, 3; Iguape, 1; 
Cachoeira, 1; Ilha de Sao Sebastiao, 1. Parana: Jaguaraiba, 1. 

1 The localities "Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul" and "Rio Claro, Goyaz" are 
unquestionably erroneous. 

1 Sicalis flaveola pelzelni Sclater is so closely approached by certain males of 
S. f. holti that its conspecific relationship to the S. flaveola group cannot any longer 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 325 

Passerina flava (not Fringilla flava P. L. S. Mttller, 1776) Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. 
M6th., On., livr. 93, p. 932, 1823 primarily based on "Chuy" Azara, 
No. 133; Paraguay. 

Sycalis pelzelni Sclater, Ibis, (3), 2, p. 42, 1872 Matto Grosso (Cuyaba), 
Paraguay, and Buenos Aires (type, from Buenos Aires, in coll. of P. L. 
Sclater, now in British Museum); Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 172 Buenos 
Aires (plumages); Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 26, p. 196, 1878 Cordoba; 
Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 278 Paysandu, Uruguay; Berlepsch and Ihering, 
Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 125, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul (crit.); 
Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 10, 1887 Lambare, Paraguay; Sharpe, 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 380, 1888 part, 1 spec, f-u, La Plata, 
Buenos Aires, Conchitas, Punta Lara, Belgrano, Salta, Catamarca, 
C6rdoba, Cuyaba, and Bolivia; Sclater and Hudson, Arg. Orn., 1, p. 66, 
1888 Argentina (habits); Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 83, 1889 
Reyes, Bolivia; Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. 
Cordoba, 10, p. 398, 1890 C6rdoba; Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 425; 1891, 
p. 16; 1892, p. 197 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Allen, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 375, 1891 Cuyaba, Matto Grosso; Aplin, Ibis, 
1894, p. 171 Uruguay; Salvadori, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, 
p. 7, 1895 Paraguay (Colonia Risso, Bahia Negra, Puerto Francia), 
Salta (Chilcas), and Matto Grosso (Corumba); idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, 
p. 10, 1897 Caiza, Bolivia, and Tala, Salta; idem, I.e., 15, No. 378, 
p. 6, 1900 Urucum and Carandasinho, Matto Grosso; Ihering, Ann. 
Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 121, 1899 Mundo Novo, Rio Grande 
do Sul; Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 178; 1902 Tucuman; 
Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 25, p. 143, 1903 Sapucay, Paraguay; 
Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 217, 1904 Santa Ana, Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. 
La Plata, 11, p. 257, 1904 Rosario, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. 
Soc., 3, No. 13, p. 43, 1905 Tucuman; Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 636 
Ybitimi and Sapucay, Paraguay; Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 101 Los Yngleses, 
Buenos Aires; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 388 Cape San Antonio, Buenos 
Aires. 

Sycalis intermedia Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 31, p. 216, 1883 Buenos Aires and 
C6rdoba (type, from Buenos Aires, in Berlin Museum examined). 

Emberiza brasiliensis (not of Gmelin) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 
1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 73, 1837 Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia 
(spec, examined). 

Crilhagra(l) brasiliensis Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 88, 1839 northern 
bank of the La Plata. 

Sycalis brasiliensis Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 232, 1870 Cuyaba, Matto 
Grosso; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba, 5, p. 83, 1884 
Tandfl, Buenos Aires. 

Sicolis [sic] flaveola brasiliensis Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Alto 
Parana, Paraguay. 

be challenged, inasmuch as it replaces its allies to the south and west. Besides, 
the juvenile plumage of S. /. holti, by the reduction of the yellowish tinge on the 
chest as well as by the almost complete absence of greenish tones on the upper 
parts, marks an undeniable step towards the female coloration of pelzelni. 

1 Spec, a-d, from "Para," Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro have, no doubt, been 
incorrectly referred to the present form. 



326 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Sycalis chloropis (not Crithagra chloropsis Bonaparte) Burmeister, Reise La 
Plata St., 2, p. 489, 1861 part, Catamarca. 

Sycalis chloropsis Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, pp. 161, 
632 Buenos Aires and Conchitas. 

Sycalis flaveola (not Fringilla flaveola Linnaeus) Berlepsch, Journ. Orn., 21, 
p. 247, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina (spec, examined); Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 607 Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 
Bolivia; White, I.e., 1882, p. 600 Monte Grande and Flores, Buenos 
Aires; Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, pp. 456, 470 San Luis and Tatarenda, 
Bolivia. 

Siedlis flaveola Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 388, 1910 
Posadas, Misiones; Pereyra, El Hornero, 4, p. 33, 1927 Misiones. 

Sicalis pekelni Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 381, 1907 part, 1 Rio Grande 
do Sul (Novo Hamburgo) and Buenos Aires (La Plata); Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 177, 1909 Buenos Aires (Barracas al Sud) 
and Tucuman (nest and eggs descr.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 388, 1910 (range in Argentina); idem, I.e., 23, p. 364, 1912 
Villa Rica, Paraguay; Bertoni, Faun. Parag., p. 64, 1914 Alto Parana, 
Paraguay; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 397, 1916 La Plata, Buenos Aires; 
Menegaux, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 5, p. 86, 1917 Pocone and Caceres, 
Matto Grosso; Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 245, 1919 Isla Martin Garcia, 
Buenos Aires; Tremoleras, I.e., 2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay (Montevideo, 
Canelones, Florida, Maldonado, Minas); Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 271, 1922 
Rosas, Buenos Aires; Serie and Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, 
Entre Rios; Giacomelli, I.e., 3, p. 69, 1923 La Rioja; Pereyra, I.e., 3, 
p. 172, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. for 
1922-23, p. 659, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires (Rosas, Isla Martin Garcia); 
Dinelli, El Hornero, 3, p. 256, 1924 Colalao del Valle, Tucuman (nest 
and eggs descr.); Wilson, I.e., 3, p. 361, 1926 General Lopez, Santa Fe; 
Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 402, 1926 Buenos Aires (Bera- 
zategui, Lavalle, Bahia Blanca), Chaco (Resistencia), Formosa (Formosa), 
Tucuman (Tapia), Paraguay (west of Puerto Pinasco), and Uruguay 
(La Paloma, San Vicente, Lazcano, Rio Negro); Friedmann, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 68, p. 233, 1927 Concepcion, Tucuman; Smyth, El Hornero, 
4, p. 148, 1928 Cacharf, Buenos Aires (eggs descr.); Naumburg, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 352, 1930 Paraguay (Trinidad, Fort Wheeler, 
Puerto Pinasco) and Matto Grosso (Urucum, Descalvados, Palmiras); 
Budin, El Hornero, 4, p. 411, 1931 Maimara, Jujuy; Marelli, I.e., 5, 
p. 197, 1933 Fortin Chaco and Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires; Castellanos, 
I.e., 5, p. 321, 1934 Valle de los Reartes, Cordoba; Stone and Roberts, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 86, p. 396, 1934 Descalvados, Matto 
Grosso. 

Sicalis pelzeni [sic] Marelli, El Hornero, 1, p. 79, 1918 Curuzu Cuatia, 
Corrientes. 

Sicalis flaveola pelzelni Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., 
Vo'gel, p. 248, 1930 Formosa (Lapango, Yunca Viejo) and Bolivia 
(Cuevo, Chuquisaca; Ipias and Caraparicito, Santa Cruz). 

1 The specimen from Cachoeira, Sao Paulo, proves on examination to be 
referable to S. f. holti. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 327 

Sicalis pelzelni danisa Oberholser, Proc. Colorado Mus. N. H M 10, p. 28, 
Nov. 13, 1931 Descalvados, Matto Grosso, Brazil (type in Colorado 
Museum). 

Range. Extreme southern and southwestern Brazil, in states of 
Matto Grosso, Santa Catharina, and Rio Grande do Sul ; eastern and 
southern Bolivia; northern Argentina south to La Rioja, Cordoba, 
and Buenos Aires (Bahia Blanca); Paraguay and Uruguay. 1 

57: Bolivia (Trinidad, Rio Mamore", 2; Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, 
5; Parotani, Cochabamba, 6); Paraguay (Villa Rica, 1); Brazil 
(Urucum de Corumba, 3; Santa Catharina, Joinville, 5); Argentina 
(Conception, Tucuman, 24); Uruguay (El Carrizal, Sierra Polanco, 
Minas, 3; Rio Cebollati, Passo de Averias, Minas, 4; west of Garzon, 
Dept. Rocha, 2; Estancia "El Corte," north of San Carlos, Mal- 
donado, 2). 

Sicalis luteola chrysops Sclater. 2 MEXICAN YELLOW FINCH. 

Sycalis chrysops Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 376 southern 
Mexico (type in coll. of P. L. Sclater, now in British Museum); idem, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., (3), 9, p. 340, 1862 (reprint); Salvin, Ibis, 1866, p. 194 
Duenas, Guatemala; Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1, p. 551, 1869 
near Orizaba, Vera Cruz; Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 45, pi. 2, fig. 1 Mexico 
and Guatemala (monog.); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
1, p. 432, 1886 Mexico (Orizaba) and Guatemala (Duenas). 

[Sycalis arvensis] subsp. y Sycalis chrysops Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, 
p. 384, 1888 Mexico and Guatemala (Duenas). 

Sicalis chrysops Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 1, p. 523, 1901 
Mexico (Orizaba, Vera Cruz; Palenque, Chiapas) and Guatemala (Duenas) ; 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 64, p. 357, 1932 Duenas, Guatemala. 

Range. Temperate zone of southeastern Mexico, in states of 
Vera Cruz (Orizaba) and Chiapas (Palenque), and Guatemala 
(Duenas). 

*Sicalis luteola luteola (Sparrman). 3 LESSER YELLOW FINCH. 

Emberiza luteola Sparrman, Mus. Carls., fasc. 4, pi. 93, 1789 habitat not 
stated, probably Surinam (type now in Stockholm Museum; cf. Sundevall, 

1 With good series from various parts of the range we have not been able to 
make out any local variation. Adult males from Buenos Aires vary in the length 
of the wing from 66 to 71, others from Matto Grosso (danisa) from 66 to 68^ mm. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, 7; Cambara, 
near Descalvados, Matto Grosso, 1; Blumenau, Santa Catharina, 2; Sao Lou- 
renco, Rio Grande do Sul, 1; Taquara, 5; Rio Grande do Sul (unspecified), 5. 
Bolivia: Mojos, 3; Guarayos, 1; Ayupaya, 2; Valle Grande, 2; Chuquisaca, 1. 
Paraguay: Bernalcue, 3. Argentina: Corrientes, 2; Buenos Aires, 10. 

1 Sicalis luteola chrysops Sclater, in spite of its widely separated habitat, is 
exceedingly close to S. I. luteola, the racial characters being nearly bridged by 
individual variation. 

* Sicalis luteola luteola (Sparrman) is recognizable from the other Brazilian 
races by its small, slender bill. The adult male has the cheeks, auriculars, and 



328 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 2, No. 3, p. 14, 1857, and Gyldenstolpe, Ark. 

Zool., 19, A, No. 1, p. 20, 1926). 
Sycalis minor Cabanis, in Schomburgk, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, "1848," p. 

679, 1849 British Guiana (type in Berlin Museum examined); Pelzeln, 

Orn. Bras., 3, p. 232, 1870 Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco, Brazil 

(spec, examined); Salvin, Ibis, 1885, p. 217 British Guiana (ex Cabanis). 
[Sycalis arvensis] subsp. /3 Sycalis minor Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 

384, 1888 part, spec, c, Caracas, Venezuela. 
Serinopsis arvensis minor Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 28, 1902 

Altagracia, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela (spec, examined); Stone, Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 209, 1913 Cano Corozal, Orinoco Delta. 
Sicalis arvensis minor Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 35, 1908 British Guiana 

(Annai, Rio Rupununi), northern Brazil (Forte do Rio Branco), and 

Orinoco Valley, Venezuela (crit.); Cherrie, Sci. Bull., Mus. Brookl. Inst., 

2, p. 195, 1916 San Mateo de Caicara, Orinoco, Venezuela (song, nest, 

and eggs); Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 566, 1917 part, 

Cali (Cauca) and Chicoral (Magdalena), Colombia. 
Sycalis arvensis (not Fringilla arvensis Kittlitz) Penard, Voy. Guyana, 2, p. 

401, 1910 Surinam. 
Sicalis minor Chubb, Bds. Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 455, 1921 Abary River, Mount 

Roraima, Rupununi River, and Georgetown. 
Sicalis luteiventris minor Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 143, p. 15, 1924 

Venezuela (Caicara and Rio San Feliz) and Colombia (Cali; Chicoral). 
Range. Tropical zone of extreme northern Brazil (upper Rio 
Branco); French, Dutch, and British Guiana; Venezuela (Orinoco 
Valley, north to the Caracas region); Colombia (Chicoral, Mag- 
dalena Valley; Cali, Rio Cauca). 

1: Brazil (B5a Vista, Rio Branco, Amazonas, 1). 
Sicalis luteola laetissima Todd. 1 LARGE-BILLED YELLOW FINCH. 

Sicalis luteiventris laetissima Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 90, July 12, 
1922 Rocana, [northern] Para, Brazil (type in Carnegie Museum); 
Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 143, p. 15, 1924 Marajo (crit.). 

the sides of breast and abdomen strongly shaded with olivaceous, and the re- 
maining under parts very bright yellow with very little, if any, white at the tips 
of the tail coverts, while above the rump only is decidedly yellowish olive. In 
the females the throat is mainly buffy whitish. 

Birds from the upper Rio Branco and the Orinoco Valley are identical with 
others from Guiana, and one from "Caracas" does not differ either. Specimens 
from the Tropical zone of Colombia are not available for comparison. Wing 
(males), 63-66; tail, 44-48; bill, 8-9. 

As recorded in another connection (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
pp. 87-88, note 4, 1932), Emberiza luteola proves to be an earlier name for S. minor. 
Gyldenstolpe, on independent study of Sparrman's type specimen, has reached 
the same conclusion. 

Additional material examined. Brazil: Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco, 
4. French Guiana: Cayenne, 1. British Guiana: Annai, 1; Rio Rupununi, 2; 
unspecified, 1. Venezuela: Altagracia, Orinoco, 5; Quiribana de Caicara, Orinoco, 
2; "Caracas," 1. 

1 Sicalis luteola laetissima Todd: Similar to S. I. luteola, but with slightly 
longer wings, much larger, more curved bill, and with rump in adult male more 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 329 

Sycalis hilarii (not of Cabanis) Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Bds., p. 126, 1862 

Mexiana; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 573 Mexiana. 
Sycalis luteola (not Emberiza luteola Sparrman) Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 44 

part, Mexiana. 
[Sycalis arvensis] subsp. ft Sycalis minor (not of Cabanis) Sharpe, Cat. Bds. 

Brit. Mus., 12, p. 384, 1888 part, spec, a, b, Mexiana (spec, examined). 
Sycalis minor Hagmann, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.), 26, p. 29, 1907 Mexiana. 
Sycalis arvensis minor Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 297, 1907 part, Maraj'6. 1 
Sicalis arvensis chapmani (not of Ridgway) Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 34, 

1908 part, Maraj6 and Mexiana (crit.); idem, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. 

Kl. Bayr. Akad. Wiss., 26, No. 2, pp. 119, 127, 1912 Mexiana and 

Maraj6 (Cachoeira). 
Serinopsis arvensis chapmani Snethlage, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 432, 1914 

Maraj6 (Pacoval, Sao Natal, Magoary), Mexiana, and Monte Alegre. 

Range. Northeastern Brazil, from the north bank of the Amazon 
(Monte Alegre) and the islands of Marajo and Mexiana north to the 
confines of French Guiana (Rocana). 

Sicalis luteola chapmani Ridgway. 2 CHAPMAN'S YELLOW FINCH. 

Sicalis chapmani Ridgway, Auk, 16, p. 37, 1899 Diamantina [near Santar&n], 
Rio Tapaj6z, Brazil (type in U. S. National Museum); Ihering, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., 1, p. 381, 1907 (ex Ridgway). 

Sycalis minor (not of Cabanis) Chapman and Riker, Auk, 7, p. 268, 1890 
Santare'm (crit.). 

Range. Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon, on the banks of 
the Rio Tapajoz. 

*Sicalis luteola luteiventris (Meyen). MISTO YELLOW FINCH. 

Fringilla luteiventris Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Leop.-Carol., 16, Suppl., p. 87, 
pi. 12, fig. 3, 1834 near Api, Altos de Toledo, southern Peru (type in 

yellowish, practically unstreaked. The female, which we have not seen, is stated 
by Todd to have the throat yellowish instead of buffy white. Wing (males), 65-69; 
tail, 44-48; bill, 10-11. 

Material examined. Brazil: Mexiana, 2; Pacoval, Maraj6, 1; Cachoeira, 
Maraj6. 1. 

1 The Maraca specimen proves to pertain to S. columbiana goeldii. 

1 Sicalis luteola chapmani Ridgway: Similar to S. I. laetissima in large, strongly 
convex bill as well as in proportions of wing and tail, but upper parts much more 
yellowish green with narrower dusky streaking, and lower surface brighter, deep 
lemon yellow without any olive shading on chest or sides. Female unknown to 
the author. Wing, 69; tail, 50; bill, 11. 

A single adult male from Santar6m bears out the characters indicated by 
Ridgway and Todd, and seems to be separable from S. I. laetissima by its much 
brighter coloration. 

An undescribed race inhabits the banks of the Sao Francisco River, in the 
State of Bahia, Brazil. It was recorded by Reiser (Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 81, 1910 part, No. 295. Adult male, near Joazeiro) as 
Sycalis arvensis minor. We refrain, however, from naming it, since the only avail- 
able specimen could not be properly characterized, owing to its worn condition. 



330 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Berlin Museum examined); Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, 1, p. 172, 1858 
Valley of Quillota, Chile. 

Fringilla arvensis Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Pe~tersb., sav. e~tr., 2, p. 470, 
pi. 4, August, 1835 Valley of Quillota, Valparaiso, Chile (type in Lenin- 
grad Museum; cf. Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 19, 
1921). 

Crithagra(1) brevirostris Gould, in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, p. 88, 
Nov., 1839 Maldonado, Uruguay, and Valparaiso, Chile (type lost, 
formerly in coll. of Zoological Society of London); Eraser, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 11, p. 112, 1843 Chile; Yarrell, I.e., 15, p. 53, 1847 Chile 
(egg descr.). 

Grithagra brevirostris Des Murs, in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, 1, p. 361, 1847 
Valparaiso (ex Darwin); Germain, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 7, p. 312, 
1860 Santiago, Chile (nesting habits); Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, 
p. 163, 1860 Quebrada de la Encantada, Atacama; idem, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 31, p. 266, 1868 Chile; Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 258, 1877 
Chile (habits); Lataste, Act. Soc. Sci. Chili, 3, p. cxv, 1893 Ninhue, 
Maule; idem and Waugh, I.e., 4, pp. Ixxxvii, clxxii, 1894 Penaflor, 
Santiago, and San Alfonso, Quillota, Chile; Lataste, I.e., 5, p. xxxiv, 
1895 Caillihue, Curico, Chile. 

Crithagra luteiventris Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 521, 1850 
"Chile" (ex Meyen). 

Crithagra hilarii Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., 1, (2), p. 521, 1850 Brazil 
(nomen nudum); 1 Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 309, 1906 (crit.). 

Sycalis hilarii Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, p. 147, Oct., 1851 Brazil (type in 
Heine Collection, now in Municipal Museum, Halberstadt) ; Burmeister, 
Syst. Uebers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 254, 1856 Minas Geraes (excl. of syn. 
S. minor); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 3, p. 232, 1870 Goyaz (Fazenda do Jose 
Dias, Abrantes) and Matto Grosso (Fazenda do Santo Antonio); Rein- 
hardt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 403 Lagoa Santa, 
Minas Geraes. 

Crithagra luteiventris Cassin, in Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp., 2, p. 181, 1855 
Andes [of Chile]; Pelzeln, Reise Novara, 1, Vogel, p. 95, 1865 Chile. 

Sycalis luteoventris Bibra, Denks. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 5, 
p. 130, 1853 Cordillera of Santiago, Chile. 

Sycalis luteiventris Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 257, 1860 near Parana 
and Tucuman; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 489, 1861 Argentina 
(descr., eggs); Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 599 
Tinta, Dept. Cuzco, Peru; Doering, Period. Zool. Arg., 1, p. 254, 1874 
Barrancas, Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 33 
Ninfas Point, Chubut (eggs descr.); Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 65, p. 513 
(crit. on type). 

1 The entry reads: "C. hilarii Bonap. Mus. Paris ex Brasil. Similis C. lutei- 
ventri." The name thus is an absolute nomen nudum, and the supposed type in 
Paris discussed by Hellmayr has no value as such. S. hilarii was not character- 
ized until a year later, when Cabanis, in making use of Bonaparte's term, refers 
to the somewhat smaller bill of the Brazilian bird. 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 331 

Sycalis arvensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 323, 338 Chile; 
Sclater and Salvin, I.e., 1868, p. 140 Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Reed, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 545, 1877 Cauquenes, Colchagua, Chile; 
Doering, in Roca, Inf. One. Exp. Rio Negro, p. 40, 1881 near Carhue, 
Rio Sauce, and Rio Colorado; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 433 
La Plata, Buenos Aires; Holmberg, Act. Acad. Nac. Cienc. C6rdoba, 
5, p. 83, 1884 Campos de Tandil, Buenos Aires; Dalgleish, Proc. Roy. 
Phys. Soc. Edin., 8, p. 84, 1884 Estancia de la Tala, Prov. Durazno, 
Uruguay (nest and eggs descr.); Berlepsch and Ihering, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 

2, p. 125, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; Taczanowski, Orn. P6r., 3, 
p. 61, 1886 part, "Arequipa" =Tinta, Peru; Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 382, 1888 Argentina (Buenos Aires, Conchitas), Uruguay, 
Matto Grosso, Bolivia (Tilotilo), and Chile (Santiago, Coquimbo, Tal- 
cahuano); Stempelmann and Schulz, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. C6rdoba, 
10, p. 398, 1890 C6rdoba; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 3, p. 375, 
1891 Chapada, Matto Grosso; Reed, Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 200, 
1896 Chile; Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 24 Chile (Hacienda Mansel, Rio 
Bueno, Puerto Montt, and Laguna Llanquihue; habits); Salvadori, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 12, No. 292, p. 10, 1897 Tala, Salta; Schalow, Zool. 
Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 722, 1898 Tumbes, Chile; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paul., 

3, p. 165, 1899 Ypiranga, Sao Paulo; idem, Annuario Est. Rio Grande 
do Sul, 16, p. 121, 1899 Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do Sul; Albert, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 108, p. 203, 1901 Chile (monog.); Lillo, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 178, 1902 Tucuman; Bruch, Rev. Mus. La 
Plata, 11, p. 257, 1904 Oran, Salta; Lillo, Rev. Letr. y Cienc. Soc., 3, 
No. 13, p. 43, 1905 Tucuman; Paessler, Zeits. Ool. Orn., 16, p. 29, 1906 
Coronel, Chile (nest and eggs); Grant, Ibis, 1911, p. 102 Luiconia and 
Los Yngleses, Ajo, Buenos Aires; Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, 
p. 110, 1921 Huaracondo Canyon, Urubamba, Peru; Gigoux, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 84, 1924 Caldera, Atacama; Housse, I.e., 29, 
pp. 147, 226, 1925 San Bernardo and Isla La Mocha, Chile; Jaffuel and 
Piri6n, I.e., 31, p. 110, 1927 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock, I.e., 35, 
p. 189, 1929 Angol, Malleco. 

Sycalis luteola (not Emberiza luteola Sparrman) Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 44 
part, Peru (" Arequipa" =Tinta), Chile (Santiago), Buenos Aires, and 
Matto Grosso; Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 172 Prov. Buenos Aires; idem, 
Ibis, 1878, p. 394 Chubut Valley, Patagonia; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 607 Tilotilo, Bolivia; Salvin, I.e., 1883, p. 422 
Coquimbo and Talcahuano, Chile; Barrows, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Cl., 8, 
p. 132, 1883 Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios (nest and eggs); 
Gibson, Ibis, 1885, p. 278 Paysandu, Uruguay; Sclater and Hudson, 
Arg. Orn., 1, p. 69, 1888 Argentina (habits); Holland, Ibis, 1890, p. 16; 
1892, p. 198 Estancia Espartillar, Buenos Aires; Aplin, Ibis, 1894, 
p. 171 Uruguay; Gibson, Ibis, 1918, p. 389 Cape San Antonio, Buenos 
Aires (nesting habits). 

Sicalis arvensis Ihering, Cat. Faun. Braz., 1, p. 382, 1907 Sao Paulo (Ypi- 
ranga) and Buenos Aires; Bertoni,Faun. Parag., p. 64,1914 Alto Parana, 
Paraguay; Sanzin, El Hornero, 1, p. 152, 1918 Mendoza; Tremoleras, 
I.e., 2, p. 23, 1920 Uruguay (Montevideo, Calelones, Maldonado, San 



332 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII 

Jos6, Colonia, Flores); Renard, I.e., 2, pp. 58, 60, 1920 Canuelas, Buenos 
Aires; Daguerre, I.e., 2, p. 271, 1922 Rosas, Buenos Aires; Seri6 and 
Smyth, I.e., 3, p. 53, 1923 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; Pereyra, I.e., 3, p. 
172, 1923 Zelaya, Buenos Aires; Wilson, I.e., 3, p. 361, 1926 General 
Lopez, Santa F6; Smyth, I.e., 4, p. 148, 1928 Cacharf (F.C.S.) and Santa 
Elena (eggs); Castellanos, I.e., 5, p. 321, 1934 Valle de los Reartes, 
C6rdoba. 

Sicalis arvensis arvensis Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 34, 1908 Rio Thesouras, 
Goyaz (crit., range); Hartert and Venturi, I.e., 16, p. 177, 1909 Barracas 
al Sud (Buenos Aires) and Tucuman (eggs descr.); Dabbene, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 388, 1910 (range in Argentina); idem, 23, p. 363, 
1912 Paso Yuvay and Itap&nini, Paraguay; Hussey, Auk, 33, p. 397, 
1916 La Plata, Buenos Aires; Dabbene, El Hornero, 1, p. 244, 1919 
Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires; Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, p. 
148, 1920 Nilahue, Curico, Chile; idem, I.e., 25, p. 188, 1921 Precor- 
dillera of Aconcagua, Chile; Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 331, 
1923 Huanuluan and Bariloche, Rio Negro; Marelli, Mem. Min. Obr. 
Publ. for 1922-23, p. 659, 1924 Prov. Buenos Aires; Wetmore, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 402, 1926 Argentina (Lavalle and Carhue', Buenos 
Aires; General Roca, Rio Negro; Tunuyan, Mendoza) and Uruguay 
(Carrasco, La Paloma, San Vicente, Lazcano); idem, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 24, p. 458, 1926 Bariloche, Rio Negro; Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. 
Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 189, 1926 Pinheirinhos, Parana; Stone, Rep. 
Princet. Exp. Patag., 2, p. 832, 1928 (range in Patagonia); Barros, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 362, 1929 Aconcagua, Chile; Laubmann, Wiss. 
Erg. Deuts. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 247, 1930 Santa Fe (La Ger- 
mania), Formosa (San Jose), and Bolivia (Villa Montes, Tarija); Marelli, 
El Hornero, 5, p. 197, 1933 Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires. 

Sicalis arvensis luteiventris Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 127, 1906 
Puno, Peru; Clark, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32, p. 287, 1905 Barbados 
(introduced); Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 544, 1928 Bar- 
bados (introduced). 

Sycalis luteiventris luteiventris Paessler, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 476, 1922 Coronel, 
Chile (nesting habits). 

Sicalis luteiventris luteiventris Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 143, p. 15, 
1924 Tirapata, Peru; Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 60, p. 353, 
1930 Matto Grosso. 

Sicalis paranensis Sztolcman, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 188, 
1926 Marechal Mallet, Parana, Brazil (type in Warsaw Museum). 

Sicalis luteola luteiventris Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 19, 
p. 87, 1932 Chile (crit.). 

Range. Southern Brazil, from Minas Geraes (Lagoa Santa), 
Goyaz, and Matto Grosso south to Rio Grande do Sul; Uruguay; 
Paraguay; eastern Bolivia; southern Peru, in depts. of Cuzco, Puno, 
and Moquegua; Chile, from Atacama south to Chilce* and the 



1938 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR 333 

Guaitecas Islands; northern Argentina, west to Mendoza and Rio 
Negro, south to the Chubut Valley. Introduced in Barbados. 1 

32: Chile (Ramadilla, Atacama, 1; Caldera, Atacama, 1; Los 
Andes, Aconcagua, 1; Hacienda Gualpencillo, Concepci6n, 2; 
Curacautin, Malleco, 2; Mafil, Valdivia, 4; Quellon, Chilce" Island, 
7; Guaiteca Island, Guaitecas, 1); Bolivia (Parotani, Cochabamba, 
2); Uruguay (Treinta y Tres, 1; La Lata, Colonia, 1; north of San 
Vicente de Castillos, Rocha, 1); Argentina (Concepci6n, Tucuman, 
4); Brazil (Chapada, Matto Grosso, 4). 

*Sicalis luteola raimondii Taczanowski. 2 RAIMONDI'S YELLOW 
FINCH. 

Sycalis raimondii (Jelski MS.) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, 
p. 133 vicinity of Lima, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum; cf. Sztolcman 
and Domaniewski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 172, 1927); 
Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 65, p. 514, 1917 Lima (crit.). 

Sycalis raimondi Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 522 Lima. 

Sycalis luteiventris (not Fringilla luteiventris Meyen) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, p. 342 near Lima; Taczanowski, I.e., 1874, p. 522 vicinity 
of Lima (eggs descr.); idem, I.e., 1879, p. 230 Arenal, near Tambillo; 
idem, Orn. Per., 3, p. 59, 1886 Lima and Tambillo; Salvin, Nov. 
Zool., 2, p. 7, 1895 Huamachuco, Cajabamba, and Cajamarca. 

1 Further subdivision of this form is impracticable in the light of a very 
satisfactory series of upwards of one hundred specimens. Birds from southern 
Peru, including the type, are absolutely indistinguishable from the Chilean ones 
(arvensis). Neither are the under parts brighter or deeper yellow, nor is there 
any difference in the coloring or streaking of the upper surface. Brazilian skins, 
as a rule, have very slightly smaller bills, but certain individuals are unusually 
large^billed like S. /. chapmani, the type of S. paranensis being no doubt an example 
of this variation. Birds from Argentina and Uruguay average a trifle more brown- 
ish above, but the divergency is so completely bridged by individual variation 
that no practical purpose would be gained by recognizing a race brevirostris. 

Additional material examined. Peru: Altos de Toledo, Puno, 1; Puno City, 5; 
Urubamba, Cuzco, 3. Bolivia: Villa Montes, Tarija, 3. Chile: 15. Argentina: 
Estancia La Germania, Santa F6, 3; Buenos Aires, 5. Brazil: Rio Grande, 1; 
Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, 2; Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do Sul, 1; Ypiranga, 
Sao Paulo, 1; Abrantes, Goyaz, 3; Jos6 Dias, Goyaz, 1; Fazenda do Santo An- 
tonio, Matto Grosso, 1; Chapada, Matto Grosso, 2. 

t Sicalis luteola raimondii Taczanowski: Similar to S, I. luteiventris in large 
bill, but wings and tail shorter. Wing, (male) 67-74, (female) 67-69; tail, 46-52, 
rarely 54, (female) 47-50; bill, 9-10. 

Specimens from northern Peru do not appreciably differ from a topotypical 
collected in the Lima region, though they generally have the under parts 



slightly more deeply colored. Birds from Huanuco (Chinchao) are like the former. 
The coloring of the upper surface is as much subject to seasonal variation as in 
the other races. The whitish spot on the inner web of the outermost rectrix is 
likewise variable. It is absent in numerous ind