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Full text of "Catalogue of early German and Flemish woodcuts preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum"

OF 



EARLY GERMAN AND FLEMISH WOODCUTS 



CATALOGUE 

V 1 ' f . ' . ' 
OF 

EAELY GERMAN AND FLEMISH 

WOODCUTS 



PRESERVED IN THE 



DEPARTMENT OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS 



IN THE 



BRITISH MUSEUM 



BY 

CAMPBELL DODGSON, M.A. 

ASSISTANT IN THE DEPAETMENT OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS 



VOL. II 



LONDON 
FEINTED BY OEDEE OF THE TEUSTEES 

Sold at the BRITISH MUSEUM ; and by LONGMANS & Co., 39, Paternoster Row ; 
BERNARD QUARITCH, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W. ; 

ASHER & Co., 14, Bedford Street, Covent Garden; 
and HENRY FHOWDE, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, Amen Corner. 

1911 

[All rights reserved] 




LONDON : 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 
DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.E., AND OKKAT WINDMILL STREET, W. 



1050 

Bl 
./.a 



PREFACE 



THE present volume of the Catalogue of Early German and Flemish 
Woodcuts by Mr. Campbell Dodgson contains Part II, Divisions 
B, C, and D of the original scheme as set forth in the Preface to 
Volume I. It deals, that is, with the Schools of Augsburg, Bavaria, 
Suabia, Austria, Poland, and Saxony, the most important and 
prolific masters handled being Hans Leonhard Schaufelein, Hans 
Burgkmair, Hans Weiditz, Matthias Gerung, Albrecht Altdorfer, 
Wolfgang Huber, Lucas Cranach and his school, Georg Lemberger, 
and Hans Brosamer. The names most fully represented in the 
Museum Collection are those of Schaufelein, Burgkmair, and Cranach, 
again largely through the benefaction of the late Mr. W. Mitchell, 
though in the work of these schools his collection was not so pre- 
eminently rich as in that of the school of Nuremberg. 

The present Catalogue is largely a work of original research 
and not merely of compilation, and the thoroughness of the 
author's methods, together with the many claims made upon 
his time by other branches of departmental work, have very con- 
siderably delayed its completion. Hence the accounts given of 
one or two of the craftsmen discussed have become obsolete or 
insufficient by reason of the progress of inquiry since the passages 
concerning them were printed. In these cases, which occur 
exclusively in Division B (the school of Augsburg), and especially 
in regard to Jorg Breu the father and son, the new information 
which has recently come to light is given in an Appendix at the 
end of the volume (beginning p. 417). 

The twenty-one illustrations given have been chosen to represent 
characteristically the various schools and masters, by examples, so 
far as possible, which on the one hand are rare and little known, 
and on the other are of such dimensions as to admit reproduction 
for the purpose of the volume either on the original scale or without 
serious loss of effect by reduction. 

SIDNEY COLVIN. 



X. The Master - 1\ L~t . 195 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Part II. German Woodcuts, 1501-1550 1 

Division B. School of Augsburg 3 

Section I. Hans Leonhard Schaufelein . . 3 

II. Hans Burgkmair 56 

III. Jorg Breu I 108 

Jorg Breu II . .120 

Hans Tirol 121 

IV. Leonhard Beck 122 

V. Hans Weiditz 139 

VI. Christoph Amberger .... 187 

,, VII. Daniel Hopfer 189 

VIII. The Master D S 192 

IX. The Master J^| 193 

7W 

,, ,, XI. Anonymous Woodcuts of the Augsburg 

School 202 

,, ,, XII. Augsburg Woodcutters . . . 204 

C. Schools of Suabia, Bavaria, Austria, and Poland . . 209 
Section I. Matthias Gerung .... 212 
,, II. Anonymous Woodcuts from books 

printed in Wiirtemberg . . . 219 

III. Albrecht Altdorfer . . . .221 

IV. Master of the " Tross " . . .232 

V. Michael Ostendorfer . . . .239 

VI. Wolfgang Huber 253 

VII. The Master 'G^ . -261 
VIII. Hans Wurm . . . .263 

IX. Caspar Clofigl 266 

X. Anonymous Woodcuts from books 

printed in Bavaria and Austria . 268 
XI. Woodcuts published at Cracow . . 271 

D. School of Saxony 273 

,, Section I. Lucas Cranach I .... 274 

II. Hans Cranach 322 



Vlll 



Table of Contents. 



PAGE 

Part II. Division D. Section III. Lucas Cranach II .... 338 
,, ,, Appendix to Cranach .... 349 

,, ,, ,, IV. Anonymous Woodcuts of the School of 

Cranach 351 

,> ., ., V. Georg Lemberger .... 353 

VI. Erhard Altdorfer . . . .374 

,, VII. Hans Brosamer 380 

,, ,, VIII. The Master of the Adoration of the 

Shepherds 396 

IX. The Master *V^ . . . .399 

vRr 

X. The Master Pfl . . 400 

XI. The Master *^& . . . 401 

XII. The Master M S . . . . 404 

XIII. Michel Buchfiirer . . . ' . 409 

,, ,, XIV. Anonymous Erfurt .... 409 

,, ' XV. Anonymous Leipzig .... 411 

,, ,, ,, XVI. Anonymous Wittenberg . . . 414 

Appendix to Division B. Section I. Schaufelein . . . 417 
,, II. Burgkmair . . .418 

III. Breu I and II . . .423 

IV. Beck 438 

V. Weiditz . . . .439 

i> .. ,1 i, ,, ,, VI. Amberger .... 442 

,, XI. Anonymous . . . 442 

,, XII. Woodcutters . . .445 

" C. Introduction 447 

,, ,, ,, ,, Section I. Gerung .... 447 

V. Ostendorfer . . .447 

,, XI. Woodcuts printed at Cracow 448 

D. III. Lucas Cranach II . . 449 
VIII. The Master of the Adoration 

of the Shepherds . . 450 



LIST OF PLATES 

With reference to the page of the Catalogue on which each is described 



PLATE 

I. HANS LEONHABD SCHAUFELEIN. A Standard 

Bearer P. 34, no. 91 

II. HANS LEONHABD SCHAUFELEIN. The 

Martyrdom of St. Andrew . . , P. 37, no. 115 

III. HANS LEONHABD SCHAUFELEIN. Frontis- 
piece to " Die Schon Magelona " .P. 42, no. 135 

IV. HANS BUBGKMAIB. The Virgin and Child . P. 79, no. 19 
V. Samson and the Lion . P. 89, and p. 421, no. 194 

VI. (?) Louis XII, King of 

France P. 105, no. 185 

VII. JOBG BBEU I. a. Illustration to " For- 

tunatus " P. Ill, no. 3 

JOBG BBEU I. b. Illustration to " Warto- 

man's Beise " P. 109, no. 3 

VIII. JOBG BBEU I. The Patron Saints of 

Constance P. 114, and p. 423, no. la (1) 

IX. LEONHABD BECK. Angels with Monstrance P. 127, no. 5 
X. HANS WEIDITZ. Christ before Herod . P. 141, no. 6 (23) 

XI. Samson carrying off the 

Gates of Gaza P. 147, no. 26 (8) 

XII. HANS WEIDITZ. Title-page of Celestina . P. 151, no. 24 

XIII. THE MASTEB N H. Illustration to Apuleius P. 199, no. 3 

XIV. ALBBECHT ALTDOBFEB. St. Christopher . P. 229, no. 55 

XV. WOLF HUBEB. The Holy Family . . P. 256, no. 2 

XVI. LUCAS CBANACH I. The Martyrdom of St. 

Barbara (reduced) . . . - . P. 300, no. 77 

XVII. HANS CBANACH. Christian II, King of 

Denmark P. 331, no. 26 

XVIII. GEOBG LEMBEBGEB. The Division of the 

Apostles . . . . . .P. 355, no. 2 (6) 

XIX. EBHABD ALTDOBFEB. St. James . . P. 376, no. 1 (53) 
XX. HANS BBOSAMEB. a. Christ on the Cross . P. 392, no. 26 
6. David ... P. 390, no. 10 

XXI. ANONYMOUS. The Adoration of the Shep- 
herds (detail, reduced) . . . .P. 396, no. 1 



PART II. 



G-EBMAN WOODCUTS, 1501-1550, 

CONTINUED. 






DIVISION B.-SCHOOL OF AUGSBURG. 



I. HANS LEONHAED SCHAUFELEIN. 

Painter and draughtsman on wood 1 ; said to have been the son of 
Franz Schaufelin, or Scheifelin, wool merchant, of Nordlingen, who 
settled at Nuremberg in 1476 ; born about 1480, probably at 
Nuremberg 2 ; worked in Diirer's studio, and painted from his designs 
the altarpiece now at Ober St. Veit, near Vienna ; illustrated books 
issued by the private press of Ulrich Finder, 1505-1507 ; removed 
about 1510-11 to Augsburg, where he remained till 1515, illustrating 
books published by the two Otmars, the two Schonspergers and 
Miller; took part in illustrating the works commissioned by Maxi- 
milian I. ; other illustrations by him appeared at Basle, 1514, and 
Hagenau, 1516 ; removed finally to Nordlingen, where he became a 
citizen on 8 May, 1515, and painted in the same year the " Siege of 
Bethulia," containing his own portrait, in the Eathaus. While 
residing at Nordlingen he was chiefly engaged in painting, but 
continued to illustrate books printed at Augsburg until 1523 ; from 
that date nothing is known of his work till 1531 ; from 1533 
onwards he was employed by the Augsburg printer, Heinrich 
Steiner, and in 1538 by Alexander Weissenhorn; painted in 
1537-38 the miniatures of the Oettingen prayer-book, now at 
Berlin ; died 1539 or, according to Doppelmayr, in March, 1540 ; his 
widow, born Afra Tucher, married in 1542 3 Hans Schwarz, of 
Oettingen, painter ; little is known of his son, Hans Schaufelein the 
younger. 4 

1 Perhaps also in his youth engraver. See Max Lehrs, " Hans Schaufelein als 
Kupferstecher." Chronik filr vervielfaltigende Kunst, ii, 75, 91. 

2 On the reason for describing Schaufelein's work here instead of in Division A, 
see Vol. I., Preface, p. ix. 

3 According to Nagler ; some authorities give the date 1540. 

4 On the son see Nagl. Mon. iii, No. 1445, and Modern, Vienna Jahrbuch, xvii, 
3G3, note 3, 

B 2 



4 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Authorities : 

Steinmeyer, Preface to his reprints of woodcuts by old masters, 

Praukfort, 1620. 

Sandrart, " Teutsche Akademie," Nuremberg, 1675. 
Doppelmayr, " Historische Nachrichten," Nuremberg, 1730. 
Bartsch, P.-G., vii, 244. 
Passavant, P.-G., iii, 227. 

Nagler, K.-L., xv, 106 ; Mon. iii, no. 1444, and v, no. 28. 
Muther, " Biicherillustration," i, 145, and " Gesammelte Studien 

zur Kunstgeschichte," Leipzig, 1885, p. 160. 

Laschitzer, Jahrb. d. Kunstliist. Samml. d. Allerh. Kaiser fia uses, viii. 
Thieme, " H. L. Schaufelein's malerische Thiitigkeit," Leipzig, 1892. 
Modern, " Der Mompelgarter Flugelaltar des H. L. S. und der 

Meister von Messkirch," Jahrb. d. Kunsthist. Samml. d. Allerh. 

Kaiserhames, 1896, xvii, 807, especially pp. 854-382. 
Schmidt, "Zur Kenntnis H. Schaufelein's," Repertorhrm fiir Kunst- 

wissenscfutft, xvi, 306. 
Dodgson, " Zum Holzschnittwerk Schaufelein's," Mitt. d. Oes. f. 

vervielf. Kunst, 1905, Heft. 1, p. 2. 

In the section on Schaufelein a transition is made from the 
Nuremberg to the Augsburg school. Whether he may be called in 
the strict sense a pupil of Diirer or not, the style of Schaufelein betrays, 
at any rate in his early work, the decisive influence of the great 
Nuremberg master. His family, on the other hand, was connected 
with Nordlingen and Augsburg 1 ; he lived for some years in the latter 
city, and produced a vast number of illustrations for the Augsburg 
publishers, who continued to employ him even after his final 
migration to Nordlingen. His connection with Nuremberg was even 
then not definitely severed, for in the last decade of his life, while 
Steiner, of Augsburg, was publishing his illustrations, his separate 
woodcuts often appeared as broadsides with the address of a Nurem- 
berg Briefmaler. 

Schaufelein's style underwent such extraordinary changes that it 
is impossible to form any clear estimate of the quality of his work 
without studying it in chronological order. His early woodcuts, 
down to 1515, will be found, on the whole, the most interesting; it 
must be remembered, however, that much of the work he did for 
publishers, both then and later, was mere hackwork, careless in 
drawing and execution. The most remarkable modification in his 
style is that which appears towards 1516, in the illustrations to 

1 See Muther, " Biicherillustration," i, 145. The Martin Scheifelin mentioned 
there (Augsburg, 1502) may possibly be identical with the " Martin Schiffelin maler," 
who wrote his name followed by a shovel, in a copy of Geiler's " Granatapfel," 
Strassburg, 1511, in the library of the British Museum (3908, h. 1). See Kunstchronik, 
N.F., xi, 245 (22 Feb. 1900). 



Division J3. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 5 

the Hagenau " Evangelienbuch," and in a number of separate 
woodcuts, signed with the monogram <, some of which were 
printed at Durlach, in Baden. The difference from earlier and 
contemporary woodcuts, signed with the ordinary monogram, is so 
marked that some critics have been inclined to attribute these 
woodcuts to another artist; such a conclusion, however, seems to 
me unwarrantable. 1 It is likely that, whereas the illustrations to 
Petri's " Plenarium " (Basle, 1514) were cut at Augsburg, Schaufelein 
two years later sent his drawings uncut to Anshelm, at Hagenau, and 
that the handiwork of an Alsatian woodcutter largely accounts for 
their unfamiliar appearance. The different monogram must, of course, 
have been adopted deliberately. The woodcuts produced in the last 
decade of Schaufelein's life, though they bear his habitual monogram, 
are very different from anything that he had done before, especially 
in the treatment of foliage ; they are more original, perhaps, than 
those of his first or second period, but most of them show signs of 
haste and carelessness. 

The woodcuts fall into the following groups : 

i. 1505-1508 (nos. 1-37, with no. 1 of the books). 
Various early woodcuts. The Passion of 1507. 

ii. 1509-1510 (nos. 38-56). 

Life of Christ, Saints, and other subjects. 

iii. 1511-1515 (nos. 57-91 and nos. 2, 3, 11, 12 of the books). 
Woodcuts done at Augsburg, chiefly illustrations. 

iv. c. 1516 (nos. 92-118 and nos. 4 and 9 of the books). 
Woodcuts signed I. S., published at Durlach and Hagenau. 

v. 1517-1523 (nos. 119-127 and nos. 5, 6 and 13-15 of the books). 
Illustrations with normal signature. 

vi. 1533-1538 (nos. 128-209 and nos. 7, 8, and 10 of the books). 
Illustrations of the late period. 

vii. 1533-1538 (nos. 210-238). 

Separate woodcuts of the late period. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY SCHAUFELEIN. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FEINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [FINDER.] Speculum passiouis doinini nostri Ihesu christi. 
Printed at the private press of the author, Dr. Ulrich Finder, Nuremberg, 
30 August, 1507 ; fol. (Muther 897 ; Pr. 11031). 

1 The question is briefly touched upon by Dr. H. Bottinger (" Hans Weiditz der 
Petrarka-Meister," Strassburg, 1904, p. 34), who also adheres to the traditional 
attribution. 



6 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part It 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Another copy, purchased from Mr. Asher, 1850. 

Of the thirty-four large Passion subjects [236 x 160] (five of which occur twice), 
thirty are by Schaufelein, three by Hans Baldung, and one (fol. 21 v.) perhaps by 
Wolf Traut (see Vol. I, p. 505). The small cuts, chiefly by Baldung, are repeated 
from " Der beschlossen Gart," 1505. 

The following subjects are by Schaufelein : 

(1) Back of title, sig. A 1 v. (repeated fol. 56). Christ on the Cross, St. John and 
the Holy Women 1., the Centurion, Soldiers and Jews r. The cut 011 fol. 1 v., attributed 
by Bartsch (vii., 254) to Schaufelein, is by Baldung. (2) Fol. 16 v. Christ's Entry 
into Jerusalem. (3) Fol. 17 v. Christ purifying the Temple. (4) Fol. 18 v. Christ 
taking leave of his Mother. (5) Fol. 19 v. The Last Supper. (6) Fol. 20 v. Christ 
washing St. Peter's feet. (7) Fol. 23. Christ on the Mount of Olives. (8) Fol. 24 v. 
(repeated fol. 25 v.). The Betrayal. (9) Fol. 27 v. (repeated fol. 28 v.). Christ before 
Annas. (10) Fol. 30 v. Christ before Caiaphas. (11) Fol. 32 v. Christ mocked. 
(12) Fol. 35 (repeated fol. 39 v.). Christ before Pilate. (13) Fol. 37 (repeated 
fol. 33 v.). Christ before Herod. (14) Fol. 41. Christ stripped. (15) Fol. 42. Christ 
scourged. (16) Fol. 43 v. Christ crowned with thorns. (17) Fol. 45 v. Christ shown 
to the people. (18) Fol. 48. Pilate washing his hands. (19) Fol. 49. Christ bearing 
the cross. (20) Fol. 62. The Lamentation for Christ. (21) Fol. 63 v. The Entomb- 
ment. (22) Fol. 67 v. Christ descending into Hell (signed). (23) Fol. 68 v. The 
Resurrection. (24) Fol. 69 v. Christ appearing to his Mother after the Resurrection. 
(25) Fol. 70 v. Christ appearing to St. Mary Magdalen. (26) Fol. 71 v. The 
Incredulity of St. Thomas. (27) Fol. 72 v. The Ascension. (28) Fol. 73 v. The 
Descent of the Holy Ghost (signed). (29) Fol. 74 v. The Coronation of the Virgin. 
(30) Fol. 75 v. The Last Judgment. 

2. [EYBE.] Albrecht von Eybe, Spiegel der Sitten. J. Otmar, 
Augsburg, 20 Sept. 1511 ; fol. (Muther 979 ; Pr. 10688). 

Purchased from Messrs. J. and J. Leighton, 1905. 

The frontispiece (the author writing, 211 x 141, coloured), is by Schaufelein. 
Repr. in Leighton's Catalogue, 1902, pt. 3, no. 1895, and on p. 65 of Konnecke's 
" Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der Deutschen Nationallitteratur," 1887. See Mitt. d. 
Oes. /. vcrvielf. Kunst, 1905, p. 7, no. 2. 



3. [MAEN.] Das leiden Jesu | Christ! vnnsers erlosers. | Senders 
andachtiger | lere Nutzperlicher be | trachtunng ausz den | vier Evange- 
listen | entlichen durch | Wolffgang | von Man. | in gesatz | weisz be | 
zwun- | gen. J. Schonsperger, jun., Augsburg, 1515 ; 4to. (Muther 909 ; 
Pr. 10738). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

The following cuts are by Schaufelein : 

(1) Sig. c 4. Christ's entry into Jerusalem [93 x 66]. (2) Sig. d 3 v. Christ 
teaching in the Temple [92 x 68]. (3) Sig. e 4. Christ taking leave of his Mother 
[85 x 61], signed. (4) Sig. f 1 v. The Last Supper [93 X 68]. (5) Sig. f 2 v. Christ 
washing St. Peter's feet [87 x 62], signed. (6) Sig. g 4. Christ on the Mount of 
Olives [86 x 62], signed. (7) Sig. g 6. The Betrayal of Christ [87 X 62]. (8) 
Sig. h 2 v. Christ before Annas [87 X 62]. (9) Sig. h 4 v. Christ before Caiaphas 
[87 X 61]. (10) Sig.l 1 v. Christ scourged [98 X 68]. (11) Sig. 1 2v. Christ shown 
to the people [87 x 62]. (12) Sig. 1 4 v. Pilate washing his hands [88 x 63], signed. 
(13) Sig. m 2 v. Christ bearing the cross [86 X 60]. (14) Sig. m 4 v. Preparations 
for the Crucifixion [87 x 62]. (15) Sig. n 3 v. Christ on the cross [93 x 67]. (16) 
Sig. o 1 v. Christ descending into Hell [87 X 63]. (17) Sig. o 4 v. The Lamentation 
for Christ [87 x 61]. (18) Sig. q 1. The Resurrection [93 X 68]. 

As the dimensions show, the cuts belong to different sets; nos. (1), (2), (4), (10), 
(15) and (18) fit the passe-partouts in which they are printed, while the remaining 
subjects are too small for them. 



Division B. School of Auc/sburg. Schaufelein. 7 

4. [VIGrERIUS.] Marci Vigerii Decachordum Christianum. Thomas 
Anshelm for Johann Koberger, Hagenau, January, 1517 ; fol. (Muther 
912 ; Pr. 11684). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1870. 

The title-border is by Urs Graf. Each of the nine cuts by Schaufelein [c. 140 x 102] 
is enclosed in a passe-partout, which is not from his design. These cuts, eight of 
which are signed, were first used in the " Evangelienbuch," printed by Anshelm at 
Hagenau in 1516 (Muther 911). The Annunciation on fol. 2 v is not signed ; its 
dimensions are slightly different [144 x 99] ; it does not belong to the " Evange- 
lienbuch " of 1516, and in spite of faulty drawing the type of face of the Virgin and 
Gabriel is more refined and pleasing than is usual with Schaufelein. On these 
grounds the attribution of this cut to Schaufelein is questionable. 

The undisputed cuts, all signed except no. (1), are the following : 

(1) Fol. 22 v. The Nativity. (2) Fol. 40 v. The Circumcision. (3) Fol. 46 v. The 
Adoration of the Magi. (4) Fol. 59. The Presentation of Christ in the Temple. 
(5) Fol. 70. Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. (6) Fol. 75 v. Christ on the Mount of 
Olives. (7) Fol. 164. The Resurrection. (8) Fol. 168 v. The Ascension. (9) Fol. 174 
v. The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

With the exception of no. (3) these cuts were used again in " Dootrina, Vita et 
Passio," etc, 1537, 1542, 1550. 

5. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. J. Schonsperger, sen., Nuremberg, 
1517 (dedication dated March 1) ; fol. (Muther 845 ; Pr. 11180). 

An imperfect copy on vellum. (See Vol. I, p. 419). 
Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

The following subjects (quoted by the numbers attached to them in the book) are 
by Schaufelein : 

(1) No. 10. The evil spirit appears in disguise to Theuerdank. Ehrenhold, r. 

(2) No. 13. Theuerdank in danger when hunting the stag. The head of Fiirwittig, 
1, has been corrected ; the new head inserted is drawn by Book. Ehrenhold on 
horseback r. (signed). 

(3) No. 16. Theuerdank's adventure with a lion. Ehrenhold stands 1, Fiirwittig 
r ; the latter's head is drawn by Beck. 

(4) No. 21. Theuerdank in danger of having his foot crushed by a millstone. 
Ehrenhold and Fiirwittig stand r., the latter's head is by Beck. 

(5) No. 26. Theuerdank imperilled by an unsafe staircase ; Ehrenhold stands 1., 
Unfalo r. ; the latter's head is by Beck. 

(6) No. 80. Theuerdank, while hunting, catches his spurs in a bush and falls. 
Ehrenhold stands 1., Unfalo, mounted, r., has a head redrawn by Beck (signed). 

(7) No. 82. Theuerdank in danger of shipwreck. Ehrenhold is in the boat ; 
Unfalo stands 1. on shore. The latter's head is by Beck. 

(8) No. 39. Theuerdank endangered by a gun. Ehrenhold stands 1., Unfalo 
rides r. ; his head has not been altered (signed). 

(9) No. 42. Theuerdank induced by Unfalo to venture into a den of lions, 
Ehrenhold stands 1., Unfalo r. (signed). 

(10) No. 45. Theuerdank's horse falls with him. Unfalo and Ehrenhold on 
horseback 1. ; the former's head is by Beck. 

(11) No. 46. Theuerdank's boat damaged by ice. Unfalo (the head by Beck) 
stands r. on shore. 

(12) No. 48. Theuerdank in danger at a bear hunt. Unfalo 1. , Ehrenhold r. (signed) . 

(13) No. 50. Theuerdank again endangered by a gun. Both Theuerdank and 
Unfalo have been corrected by Beck. 

(14| No. 57. Another adventure with a gun. Unfalo's head is by Beck. 

(15) No. 58. A sack of powder is ignited on board ship without exploding the 
barrels on which it lies (signed). The figures of Theuerdank and Unfalo are by Beck. 

(16) No. 69. The man next Theuerdank is struck by a stone on a chamois hunt. 
Unfalo 1., Ehrenhold riding r. (signed). 

(17) No. 70. Theuerdank recovers from sickness after the physicians have 
despaired of his life. Unfalo's head is by Beck. Ehrenhold stands r. This block 
bore the signatures both of Schaufeleiu and of Jost de Negker, but they have been 
partially effaced. 



8 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

(18) No. 72. Theuerdank endangered by a violent storm. Theuerdank and 
Unfalo are by Beck. 

(19) No. 87. Theuerdank attacked by a party of armed men. The head of 
Neidelhart (r. behind Ehrenhold) is by Beck. 

(20) No. 105. Theuerdank's encounter with the fifth knight in the lists. Neidel- 
hart stands 1., Ehrenhold r., in the background. 

Each cut measures 158 x 138 mm. On Theuerdank see S. Laschitzer in Bd. viii. 
of Jdtirbuch d. kunsthist. Samml. d. Allerh. Kaiscrhauses (1888). 

6. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. J. Schonsperger, sen., Augsburg, 
1519 ; fol. (Muther 846 ; Pr. 10939). 

Imperfect, wanting sig. P 4. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 
The same cuts as in the first edition. 

7. [PLUTARCH.] Plutarchus Teutsch (translated by Hieronymus 
Boner). H. Steiner, Augsburg, 7 March, 1534 ; fol. (Muther 928 ; 
P. iii, 233, 134). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1870. 

The following cuts are by Schaufelein : 

(1) Fol. 1. Philip, Olympias and Alexander (signed) [155 x 143]. (2) Fol. 49 v. 
Caius Marius (signed; repeated fol. 144 v. as Cato of Utica) [154x141]. (3) Fol. 81. 
Demetrius (inferior to the rest, but probably also by S.) [142x153]. (4) Fol. 104 v. 
Marcus Antonius, B. 93 (signed) [141 x 153]. (5) Fol. 128 v. Phocion, B. 98 
(signed) [153x141]. 

Nos. (3) and (5) had previously been used in Schwartzenberg's " Memorial der 
Tugent," 1534 (nos. 21 and 40). 

8. [PAULI.] Das Buch Schiinpff vnnd Ernst genaiit. H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 10 April, 1535 ; fol. (Muther 1100, edition of 1584). 

Purchased at the Singer sale, 1860. 

The following cuts are by Schaufelein : 

(I) Fol. 53. A woman weeping beside a grave in which a skeleton lies. [142 x 153.] 



(2) Fol. 96 v. Death pointing to a charnel house. [142 X 153.] 
Both cuts are repeated from " Memorial der Tugent" (nos. 32, 33). 

9. [JESUS CHRIST.] Doctrina, Vita et Passio lesu Christi. 
Christian Egenolff, Frankfort, 1542 ; 4to. (Muther 914). 

Purchased from Mr. Fry, 1871. 

With the exception, probably, of the Annunciation (see 4, above) all the cuts are 
by Schaufelein. Fifty-five are reprinted from the " Evangelienbuch " of 1516, while 
seventeen (nos. 4, 6, 8, 11, 13-15, 17, 18, 21, 23, 26, 28, 31, 32, 71, 72) were not used 
in that work, though they appear to be of the same date as the rest of the series. 
The " Evangelienbuch " contains three subjects (Adoration of the Magi, Christ 
among the Doctors, Parable of the Mote and Beam) which do not occur in the 
" Doctrina." The total number of subjects amounts, therefore, to seventy-five, 
excluding the Annunciation. 

(1) A 2 v. The Nativity. (2) A 8. The Circumcision (signed). (3) A 3 v. 
Christ in the House of Simon the Pharisee (signed). (4) A 4. Christ taking leave 
of his Mother before the Passion. (5) A 4 v. The Entry into Jerusalem (signed). 

6) B 1. Christ purifying the Temple. (7) B 1 v. The Last Supper (signed). 

8) B 2. Christ washing St. Peter's feet. (9) B 2 v. Christ on the Mount of Olives 

signed). (10) B 3. The Betrayal (signed). (11) B 3 v. Christ before Annas. 

12) B 4. Christ mocked. (13) B 4 v. Christ before Caiaphas. (14) C 1. Christ 
before Pilate. (15) Civ. Christ before Herod. (16) C 2. Christ sent back to 
Pilate (signed). (17) C 2 v. Pilate washing his hands. (18) C 3. Christ stripped. 
(19) C 3 v. Christ scourged 'Xsigned). (20) C 4. Christ crowned with thorns 
(signed). (21) C 4 v. Christ shown to the people. (22) D 1. Christ bearing his 
Cross (signed). (23) D 1 v. Christ nailed to the Cross. (24) D 2. The raising of 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schaufelein. 9 

the Cross. (25) D 2 v. Christ on the Cross. (26) D 3. The Lamentation beneath 
the Cross (signed). (27) D 3 v. The Entombment (signed). (28) D 4. Christ 
descending into Hell. (29) D 4 v. The Resurrection (signed). (30) E 1. The 
three Maries at the Sepulchre (signed). (31) E 1 v. Christ appearing to St. Mary 
Magdalen. (32) E (misprinted D) 2. Christ appearing to his Mother. (33) E 2 v. 
Christ appearing to the Apostles (signed). (34) E 3. The Incredulity of St. Thomas. 
(35) E 3 v. The Ascension (signed). (36) E 4. The Descent of the Holy Ghost 
(signed). Here begins the second part of the book, illustrating the Gospels in the 
liturgical order. (37) F 1. Christ prophesying signs in the heavens (signed). 
(38) F 1 v. John the Baptist sending his disciples to Christ (signed). (39) F 2. 
John the Baptist preaching (signed). (40) F 2 v. The Presentation of Christ in the 
Temple (signed). (41) F 3. The Miracle of Cana (signed). (42) F 3 v. Christ 
cleansing a leper (signed). (43) F 4. Christ sleeping in the boat (signed). 
(44) F 4 v. The Parable of the Sower. (45) G 1. Christ addressing the Apostles. 
(46) G 1 v. The Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard (signed). (47) G 2. The 
Temptation (signed). (48) G 2 v. Christ and the Woman of Canaan (signed). 
(49) G 3. Christ expelling an evil spirit (signed). (50) G 3 v. The feeding of the 
five thousand (signed). (51) G 4. The Jews attempt to stone Christ (signed). 
(52) G 4 v. Christ going to his Father (signed). (53) H 1. Nicodemus comes to 
Jesus (signed). (54) H 1 v. The Parable of the man without a wedding garment 
(signed). (55) H 2. The Parable of the rich man and Lazarus (signed) . (56)H2v. 
Christ teaching from a boat (signed). (57) H 3. Christ weeping over Jerusalem 
(signed). (58) H 3 v. The Pharisee and the Publican (signed). (59) H 4. Christ 
cleansing the ten lepers (signed). (60) H 4 v. Christ raising the son of the widow 
of Nain (signed). (61) I 1. Christ healing the man with the dropsy on the Sabbath 
(signed). (62) I 1 v. Christ healing a man sick of the palsy. (63) I 2. Christ 
restoring sight to a blind beggar (signed). (64) I 2 v. Christ and the woman of 
Samaria (signed). (65) I 3. Christ and the woman taken in adultery (signed). 
(66) I 3 v. Parable of the guests bidden to a wedding (signed). (67) I 4. Parable 
of the unmerciful servant (signed). (68) I 4 v. The woman healed of an issue of 
blood (signed). (69) K 1. Zaccheus in the tree (signed). (70) K 1 v. The raising 
of Lazarus (signed). (71) K 2. The Coronation of the Virgin. (72) K 2 v. The 
Last Judgment. 

10. [VERGILIUS.] Polydorus Vergilius Urbinas. Von den Erfindern 
der ding (translated by Marcus Tatius Alpiuus). H. Steiner, Augsburg, 
July, 1544 ; fol. 

Purchased from Messrs. Willis and Sotheran, 1858. 

The following cuts are by Schaufelein : 

(1) Fol. 3. The Creation of plants, birds and beasts (signed). (2) Fol. 4. The 
Creation of Eve (signed). (3) Fol. 8 (repeated fol. 116 v.). The Death of Abel 
(signed). (4) Fol. 61 v. A tree. [86x68]. (5) Fol. 61 v. A gardener planting a 
tree. [88x70]. 

The first three cuts [c. 141x153] are repeated from "Memorial der Tugent" 
(nos. 2, 3, and 5). 

11. [BABELIUS.] Thomas Babelii Rationale rnysteriorum dominicas 
passionis domini nostri lesu Christi. Joannes Carbo, Vienna, 1550; 4to. 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

(1) M 3 v. Christ on the Cross, between the Virgin and St. John (signed) 
[100 x 63]. First used in " Via Felicitatis," Augsburg, 1513. 

(2) M4. The Last Judgment (signed) [101x63]. First used in "Via Felici- 
tatis," 1513. 

12. [PEUSCHEL.] Querela Lazari contempti ante fores divitis scripta 
a Lazaro Peuschelio Noribergensi. Joannes Carbo, Regensburg, 1554 ; 4to. 

Purchased from Mr. Wilson, 1873. 

(1) A 1 v. Christ on the Cross = 11 (1). 

B. 3. Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, the rich man in hell. [93x67.] A bad 
copy or imitation of Schaufelein, somewhat resembling the composition in the 1514 
Plenariuni. 



10 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

13. [STEINMEYER.] Neue Kiinstliche, | wohlgerissene, vnnd in 
Holtz ge- | schnittene Figuren. V. Steinmeyer, Frankfort, 1620 ; 4to. 
Imperfect, ending with sig. Tt instead of Yy. 

Presented by the National Art Collections Fund, 1906. 

(1) LI 2 v. St. Luke, from SchGnsperger's New Testament, 1523 (Muther 924). 

14. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. M. Wagner, Ulm, 1679 ; fol. 

Imperfect copy: sec Vol. I., p. 504. The book should contain, in addition to the 
same cuts as appear in the first edition (no. 5), one other subject by Schaufelein 
printed for the first time. Sec Vienna Jahrbuch, viii., 73. The title-page of this 
edition is responsible for the reckless attribution of the whole series of cuts to 
Schaufelein, which was accepted almost without question till the work was critically 
examined by Laschitzer for the purposes of the recent Vienna edition. 

15. [TREITZSAURWEIN.] Der Weisskunig. Vienna, 1775 ; fol. 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1850. 

The following cuts are by Schaufelein : 

(1) No. 123. The Blue King conversing with eight men seated in a circle. 

(2) No. 200. The battle of Cividale (signed). 

The initials H S appear, together with H B, on no. 232, a cut undoubtedly 
designed by Burgkinair. 

16. [TREITZSAURWEIN.] Kaiser Maximilian's Triumph. Vienna, 
1796 ; fol. 

Purchased from Messrs. Willis and Sotheran, 1859. 

(1-2) Two cuts, nos. 120, 121 in this edition, nos. 127, 128 in that of 1883-84, arc 
by Schaufelein. Each represents ten foot soldiers marching five in a rank, armed in 
one case with spears, in the other with long swords. No. 120 was cut by Cornelius 
Liefrinck. 

17. [BECKER.] Hans Sachs im Gewaude seiner Zeit. Gotha, 1821 ; fol. 
The cuts on fol. 8-10 and 14 are by Schaufelein ; that on fol. 21 is a copy. 

B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. l 

1. [MARY.] Der beschlossen gart des rosenkriitz marie. Printed 
for Ulrich Pinder, Nuremberg, 9 Out., 1505 ; fol. (Muther 896 ; Pr. 11030). 

A number of the unsigned cuts may be attributed to Schaufelein, but it is not 
always easy to draw the line, among the small illustrations, between his work and 
that of Baldung. The following are the chief subjects designed by Schaufelein : 

Between fol. 64 and 65 of vol. ii., the Crucifixion, afterwards used again in 
" Speculum Passionis," 1507 (back of title). 

Vol. i., fol. 122. Frontispiece to Book 4. [122 x 163.] 

Vol. ii., fol. 9 v. The pursuit of the Unicorn ; allegory of the Incarnation (sec 
above, Vol. I., p. 181) [122 x 163]. 

Vol. ii., fol. 11. A banquet [122 x 163]. 
;, Vol. i., fol. 267-269, three subjects [c. 82 X 160]. 

A long series of subjects [c. 93 x 72]. Vol. i., fol. 10, 12, 20 v., 48 v., 55, 58 v., 90, 
90 v., 117, 152, 153, 154, 155, 171, 172, 177, 182, 185. Vol. ii., fol. 11 v., 14, 17, 19, 
20 v., 22 v., 24 v., 26 v., 27 v., 28, 31 v., 32 v., 33 v., 38, 38 v., 39 v., 40 v., 41, 167 v. 
A few subjects of this size, c.g., vol. i, fol. 91 v., 113, 191, 206, 298, are by different 
hands. 



1 No attempt has been made to give an exhaustive list of books issued after 
Schaufelein's death in which earlier illustrations were reprinted. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schaufelein. 11 



A large proportion of a much longer series [c. 65 x 48], distributed over both 
volumes, must also be ascribed to Schaufelein, but many of these cuts, especially in 
vol. ii, are by Baldung, and others by inferior hands. It does not appear that 
Schaufelein designed any of the smallest series of cuts [43 x 36]. 

2. [TEXGLER.] Der neii Layenspiegel. J. Otniar, Augsburg, 18 
June, 1511 ; fol. (Pr. 10686). 



Five cuts by Schaufelein : Sig. 86T" 5, 6, 6 v., fol. 190, 222. The second is 
repeated on fol. 258 v. These cuts, important as they are for the study of 
Schiiufelein's development, have not been recognised as his by earlier writers. The 
fourth subject has been wrongly attributed to Burgkmair. (Jahrb. d. k. preuss. 
Kunstsamml., xii, 166, 2.) The fifth is reproduced in Mitt. d. Ges. f. vervielf. Kunst, 
1905, p. 5 ; the whole book is there described (p. 7, no. 1). 

3. [AMANDUS.] Henricus Suso, genannt Seuss. J. Otinar, Augs- 
burg, 20 June, 1512 ; fol. (Muther 983 ; Pr. 10689). 

Sixteen cuts by Schaufelein, unsigned, of various sizes, following in subject the 
illustrations to Sorg's edition of 1482. The compositions are usually reversed. See 
Mitt. d. Ges. f. vervielf. Kunst, 1905, p. 7, no. 3, with reproduction (p. 6) of the cut 
on fol. 55 v. 

4. [TENG-LEE.] Der neii Layenspiegel. J. Ofcmar, Augsburg, 24 
Dec., 1512 ; fol. (Pr. 10691). 

The same cuts as in no. 2. 

5. [.GEILER.] Das Schiff der Penitentz. J. Otmar, Augsburg, 
March, 1514 ; fol. (Muther 988, Pr. 10693). 

On the last page, the Crucifix adored by Prophets and Saints [190 x 145], 
originally used in Otmar 's " Heiligenleben " of 1513 (Muther 901). 

6. [BIBLE.] Das Plenarium oder Ewagely buoch. A. Petri, Basle, 
24 March, 1514 ; fol. (Muther 904). 

Five large cuts [195 x 130] and fifty-two small subjects from the Gospels 
[90 x 65], some of which are repeated, are by Schaufelein. 

7. [CATHARINE.] Hystori und wunderbarlich legend Katharine 
von Senis. J. Otmar, Augsburg, 1515 ; fol. (Muther 908 ; Pr. 10694). 

Title- woodcut (signed) and forty-two illustrations [90 x 65], excluding repetitions, 
by Schaufelein. 

8. [LITURGIES.] Cursus B.V.M. J. Schonsperger, jun. (?), Augs- 
burg, n. d. ; 4to (Pr. 10696, imperfect). 

Six cuts, a guardian angel, St. George, St. Andrew, the consternation of the 
soldiers, the Virgin and Child on the crescent, the Crucifixion. The last of these is 
the same cut as was used on sig. n 3 v. of " Das leiden Jesu Christi," while the St. 

George, with the signature f K*-j (presumably that of the woodcutter, since the 

same monogram is found on a woodcut designed by Urs Graf, Nagler, Mon. ii., 
no. 113), is described by Bartsch (vii, 494, 1). This last cut is clearly from a design 
by Schaufelein. It was also used on sig. E 6 of the " Taschen biichlin" printed 
by J. Schonsperger, jun., 24 March, 1514 (a copy at Bamberg). The angel, Virgin and 
Child and Crucifixion also occur in the last-named work, which is not the edition 
described by Muther (no. 903). 



12 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part 11. 

9. [SAXONY.] Sassenspegel. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 1 February, 
1516 ; fol. (Pr. 10755). 

On the last page, the third cut from Tengler's "Neu Layenspiegel," 1511 (no. 2), 
the Emperor and Electors. 

10. [BIBLE.] Das Plenarium oder Ewangely buoch. A. Petri, Basle, 
8 August, 1516 ; fol. (Muther 905, imperfect). 

The same cuts as in no. 6. 

11. [EYBE.] Albrecht von Eybe. Ob ainem sey zu nemen am Eelich 
weib. 8. Otmar, Augsburg, 1517 ; 4to (Muther 920 ; Pr. 10760). 

On the last page, the Last Judgment (signed) [150 x 97], also used in Leonrodt's 
" Himmelwagen." The portrait of the author on the title-page [140 x 112] seems 
not to be by Schaufelein (cf. no. 2, p. 6). 

12: [BIEL.] Der ubertrefflichst weg zu der Saligkait. S. Otmar, 
Augsburg, 29 May, 1518 ; 4to (Pr. 10764). 

On back of title-page, the Trinity (signed), the tenth cut of Leonrodt's " Himmel- 
wagen," 1517. 

13. [LEONRODT.] Hymelwagen ; Helhvngen. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 
20 Nov., 1518 ; 4to (Muther 918 ; Pr. 10769). 

Twenty-two cuts, excluding repetitions, by Schaufelein (B. vii, 269, 110-181); 
all are signed except the seventh. They appeared in the first edition, 1517 (Muther 
917). 

14. [BIBLE.] Das new Plenariu oder ewangely btich. A. Petri, 
Basle, 1518 ; fol. (Muther 906, imperfect). 

The same cuts as in no. 6. 

15. [PINDER.] Speculum Passionis domini nostri Jesu Christi. F. 
Peypus, Nuremberg, 11 Oct., 1519 ; fol. (Pr. 11132). 

The same cuts by Schaufelein as in the first edition, 1507. The Crucifixion on 
fol. 50 has been attributed to Schaufelein, but in my opinion wrongly. 

16. [LUTHER.] Ain trostlichs buchlein in aller widerwertigkait ains 
yeden Christglaubigen menschen. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 1520 ; 4to (Pr. 
10800). 

On fol. 33 v., the fourteenth cut from Leonrodt's " Himmelwagen." 

17,18. [LUTHER.] Ain Sermon von der Beraytung (Beraitung) zum 
sterben. (S. Otmar, Augsburg, 1520 ?) ; 4to. 

Two slightly different editions (Pr. 10815-6). On the title-page of each is the 
seventeenth cut of Leonrodt's " Himmelwagen." 

19. [LUTHER.] Ain Sermon von dem Wucher. S. Otmar, Augs- 
burg, 1520 ; 4to. (Pr. 10803). 

On the title-page, the thirteenth cut of Leourodt's "Himmelwagen." P. iii, 
239, 174. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 13 

20, 21. [LUTHER.] Ein . . . predig . . . wie sich ein christen 
mensch mit freuden bereyten sol zu sterben. A. Petri, Basle, 1520, 1523 ; 
4to. 

Two editions, each containing the same three cuts from the 1514 " Plenarium." 

22. [BIBLE.] Das neii Testament. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 21 March, 
1523 ; fol. (Muther 998). 

On the title-page the Crucifix adored by Prophets and Saints, as in no. 5. 

23. [LUTHER.] Ain betbuchlin Der Zehen gepott. Des Glaubens. 
Des Vatter vnsers. Vnd des Aue Marien. D. Martini Lutheri. (J. 
Schonsperger, jun., Augsburg), 1523 ; 8vo. 

On the title-page is the small cut of the Infant Christ on a cushion, bearing 
cross, scourge, etc., that occurs in Schonsperger's N. T. of 1523. The following cuts 
in the text (coloured) are by Schaufelein : D 4 v., Christ seated, blessing [92 x 65] ; 
D 7 v., the Good Shepherd [92 x 65] ; E 4 v., the Dove. [36 x 58] ; E 8 v., Christ on 
the Cross, turning to 1., three persons on either side of the cross [86 x 59] ; H 7., 
the Annunciation [85 x 60], signed. 

24. [BIBLE.] Das neii Testament. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 7 June, 
1524; fol. 

On the title-page the Crucifix adored by Prophets and Saints, as in nos. 5 and 22. 

25. [IOHANN, VON EOK.] Der Drit Tail Christenlicher Predigen 
.... durch -Tohan von Eck. A. Weissenhorn, Augsburg, 1531 (-33) ; fol. 

Contains forty-four cuts attributed to Schaufelein, first used in the " Heiligenleben," 
printed by J. Otmar, Augsburg, 1513 (Muther 901). 

26. [BIBLE.] Biblia beyder Alt vnnd Newen Testaments Teutsch. 
H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1534 ; fol. (Muther 926). 

Title border [276 x 190], signed. The upper part is an imitation of Beham's 
border in the Vulgate printed by Peypus in 1530 (Pauli 878). The Creation of Adam 
and Eve [98 x 182] on fol. 1, also attributed by Muther to Schaufelein, appears to 
me to be by Erhard SchOn ; it may be compared with nos. 32-34 of my catalogue of 
Sohon's works. 

27. [BIBLE.] Evangeliorum textus, tain Dominicalimn, ut uocant, 
quam de Sanctis. A. Weissenhorn, Augsburg, 1534 ; 8vo. 

Sig. G 5. The Annunciation [86 x 71], unsigned, = Eck, Drit Tail Christenlicher 
Predigen, 88v. There is a copy of this cut [89 x 68], in Luther, Das Magnificat 
Verteiitschet und auszgelegt (Augsburg, 1521). 

28. [CICERO.] Der Teutsch Cicero. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1535 ; 
fol. 

Fol. 39 v., at the end of the " De Senectute," a death-bed scene, signed. In a 
later part, " Memorial der Tugent," by Johann von Schwartzenberg, fol. 98-119, are 
forty-one woodcuts by Schaufelein (B. vii, 261, 55-94), printed on both sides of the 
page. The death-bed scene, which occurs earlier in the book, is repeated as the 
thirty-first subject of " Memorial der Tugent." An earlier edition of the whole work 
appeared in 1534 (Muther 927, 1097). 



14 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

29. [HERODOTUS.] Herodotus der allerhochberumptest griechische 
geschichtschreyber (translation by Hieronymus Boner.) H. Steiner, Augs- 
burg, 1535 ; fol. (Muther 1107). 

Fol. 96 v. A king on his throne [95 x 155], first used in Boner's translation of 
Thucydides, 1533 (Muther 925). 

30. [STAFFELSTEINER.] Bin kurtze vnderrichtung, das man 
einfeltig dem Herrn Jesu Christo nach wandern sol. H. Guldenmund, 
Nuremberg, 1536 ; 4to. 

Undescribed title border containing the Lamb and flag and symbols of the four 
Evangelists in medallions ; in the centre below a flock of sheep beneath Christ on 
the Cross [163 x 128 ; opening, 88 x 78]. 

81. [JESUS CHRIST.] Doctrina, Vita et Passio lesu Christi. C. 
Egenolff, Frankfort, 1537 ; 4to. (Muther 913). 

The same cuts as in no. 9 (p. 8). 

82. [APULEIUS.] Ain schon lieblich, auch kurtzweylig gedichte 
Lucij Apuleij von ainem gulden Esel. A. Weissenhorn, Augsburg, 1538 ; 
fol. (Muther 929). 

Forty -one cuts by Schaufelein (one signed), commencing at fol. 36. P. iii, 239, 
175. The earlier illustrations are by the Master '/\/v-/ , q.v. 

33. [BRUNI.l Historien der Rhomer krieg wider die Carthaginenser 
.... durch Leonhardum Aretinum beschriben. II . Steiner, Augsburg, 
7 Oct., 1540; fol. (Muther 1115). 

Two cuts repeated from Plutarchus Teutsch and the sea fight first used in 
Boner's Thucydides, 1533. 

84. [BOCCACCIO.] Von den furnamlichsteii Weybern. H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 1541 ; fol. (Muther 1118). 

On fol. 1, the Fall of Man from " Memorial der Tugent." 

85. [BOCCACCIO.] Die gantz Romer Hystori. H. Steiner, Augs- 
burg, 1542 ; fol. (Muther 1120). 

On fol. 3, the Death of Lucretia from " Memorial der Tugent." 

86. [SACCHL] (Platina) Von der Eerliche, zimlichen auch erlaubten 
Wolust des leibs. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1542 ; fol. (Muther 1121). 

Contains sixteen cuts, eight of which belong to the small series [67 x 72] 
intended to illustrate an edition of the Decameron which never appeared; eight 
others are similar in style but of different subjects and dimensions. 

87. [VIVES.] Von underweysung ayner Christlichen Frauwen. H. 
Steiner, Augsburg, 1544 ; fol. (Mather 1126) 

Contains eight of the small Decameron cuts, printed two together. 

88. [BOCCACCIO.] Von \viderwertigein Gliick. H. Steiner, Augs- 
burg, 1545 ; fol. (Muther 1127). 

Contains three cuts, The Fall, Abraham's, Sacrifice, and The Last Judgment, from 
"Memorial der Tugent"; also two cuts from "Plutarchus Teutsch" and the king 
on his throne from Thucydides and Herodotus. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 15 

39. [PONTHUS.] Ritter Pontus. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1548 ; fol. 
(Muther 1130). 

On the title-page, Philip, Olympias, and Alexander, from " Plutarchus Teutsch." 

40. [SCHERZ.] Schertz mit der Warheyt. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 
1550 ; fol. 

Contains two large cuts [176 x 163], P. iii, 238, 173, and twenty small onea, 
designed for the Decameron. 

41. [GOBLER.] Der Rechten Spiegel. 0. Egenolff, Frankfort, 
1550 ; fol. 

Contains Behoboam from "Memorial der Tugent" and Caius Marius from 
" Plutarchus Teutsch " (Pt. 3, fol. 209 v., 219 v.). 

42. [LONICER.] Naturalis Historic Opus Novum. C. Egenolff 
Frankfort, 1551 ; fol. 

Ff. 2, 4, 8. Nine of a series of cuts representing the planting, grafting, and 
pruning of vines and fruit-trees. One of these had been used in the Polydorus 
Vergilius printed by Steiner. 

43. 44. [ACADEMIES. SALERNO.] De conservanda bona valetudine 
opusculum. Opera et studio J. Curionis, etc. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 
1551, 1553. 8vo. (two editions). 

Contain four and five cuts respectively from the small Decameron series. 

45. [LOBERA DE AVILA.] Bancket der Hofe und Bdelleut. 
Heirs of C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 1556 ; 8vo. 

Contains ten cuts of the small Decameron series. 

46. [BIBLE.] Novi Testament! lesu Christi historia effigiata. Heirs 
of C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 1557 ; 8vo. 

Sig. g 7. The Scourging of Christ, with Schaufelein's monogram in 1. lower 
corner. Badly cut, perhaps a copy [88 x 61]. 

47. [ACADEMIES. SALERNO.] Conservandga Sanitatis praecepta 
saluberrima. Heirs of C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 1559 ; 8vo. 

Contains several cuts of the small Decameron series. 

48-50. [LONICER.] Kreuterbuch. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 1560, 
1564, 1593 ; fol. (three editions). 

Each edition contains seven cuts of the series described under no. 42. 

51. [BECKER.] Holzschnitte alter deutscher Meister. Gotha, 1808- 
1816 ; fol. 

The following cuts are by Schaufelein : 

B 32-39, 41-43, E 7. B 37 is the Crucifixion (B. vii, 252, 31) not represented in 
the Print-room. 



16 



WOODCUTS BY SCHAUFELEIN. 



I. VAEIOUS WOODCUTS, 1505-1508. Nos. 1-37. 

For numerous unsigned woodcuts published in 1505 see list of books, p. 10, no. 1. 
The signed works of the early period have either the monogram in its first form (S 
twined round the r. vertical stroke of H), accompanied by one or two shovels, or else 
a shovel alone without monogram. A drawing in this collection, dated 1509, already 
has the monogram in its normal later form, in which a small S crosses the horizontal 
stroke of the H. An early variation of this type may be seen on the woodcut of the 
death of St. Christopher at Gotha and Dresden, represented here by a reproduction. 

t THE LEGEND OF ST. CHRISTOPHER. 

Photographs of sixteen subjects, on two sheets, in the Ducal Museum at Gotha, 
hitherto undescribed. The last subject has Schaufelein's monogram, and the primi- 
tive style of the whole series makes it probable that this is the earliest extant cut 
that bears his signature. The signed subject by itself is also in the Dresden Cabinet. 
Each cut measures 110 x 89 mm., and is headed by a Latin elegiac couplet describ- 
ing the subject. The headings to the first four cuts have, however, been cut off. 
The birth and childhood of St. Christopher, as related, for instance, in Muther 
no. 1701 (a book with very interesting woodcuts of the Bavarian or " Danube " 
school), are omitted here. The story is taken up, following the Golden Legend, at 
the point where the giant Christopher, having set out in search of the mightiest lord 
on earth, is in the service of a Christian king, whom (1) he leaves because he fears 
Satan. Christopher (2) encounters Satan himself and enters his service, but quits 
him (3) when Satan turns back in dread from a wayside cross. Christopher now (4) 
seeks for Christ, as mightier still than Satan, and meets a hermit, who bids him 
(5) serve God by carrying passengers across a deep river. As Christopher (6) is 
sleeping one night in his cabin on the bank, he hears a child's voice asking to be 
carried over. He bears the child on his shoulders (7), but almost succumbs under 
the burden. The Child Jesus reveals himself (8). He bids Christopher plant his 
staff in the ground, and it breaks into leaf. In the city of Samos (9) Christopher's 
staff again breaks into leaf, and many unbelievers are converted. Christopher (10) is 
bound and led before the king, Dagnus, who puts him in prison (11), and sends two 
women, Aquilina and Nicea, to seduce him from virtue. Instead of that, he converts 
them to the faith, and (12) they pull down an idol in the temple. For this (18) 
Aquilina is hung, and Nicea, after passing unscathed through fire, is beheaded. 
Christopher himself (14) is tortured with a red-hot helmet, and condemned (15) to be 
shot. The arrows, however, avoid him; one recoils and puts out the king's eye. 
Finally (16) Christopher is beheaded in presence of the king, who recovers his sight 
by the virtue of the saint's blood, and is converted to Christianity. 

1. ST. SEBASTIAN. B. vii, 257, 89. 

The saint stands r., pierced by three arrows, with arms raised above 
his head and bound by the wrists to a tree. An archer stands 1. with bow 
and arrows in his r. hand, while a second kneels in the foreground and 
winds up his cross-bow. A turbaned man on horseback, attended by four 
other persons, watches the scene 1. Landscape background. The signa- 
ture (monogram and shovel), which should appear below the bent 1. knee 
of the archer, has been erased. 

[378 x 280.] Fair impression, somewhat damaged and backed. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Very rare; the Albertina has an impression with the monogram. Evidently 
produced under the influence of Diirer's large woodcuts of 1495-1498. Probably 
earlier than the Passion series, published in 1507. 



Division B. School of Augsburg . Schaufelein. 17 

[2-31.] 
THE PASSION. 1507. B. vii, 253, 34. 

The Crucifixion appeared in " Der beschlossen gart des rosenkrantz marie," which 
is dated 9 Oct., 1505. Some of the remaining woodcuts of the series may date from 
the same year, though they were first published on 30 Aug., 1507, in " Speculum 
Passionis," printed at the private press of the author, Dr. Ulrich Finder, physician 
at Nuremberg. The whole series was reprinted by Victor, at Cracow, in 1522, in 
" Zywot wssechmocnego syna bozego pana Jezu krysta," by Balthasar Oped, a 
translation from St. Bonaventura (Cracow, University Library, ix. c. 27). A copy 
of the Last Judgment was used in Bielski, " Kronika Swiata," Cracow, 1554. 

2. CHRIST'S ENTRY INTO JEBU- 18. PILATE WASHING HIS HANDS. 

SALEM. 

3. CHRIST PURIFYING THE 19 ' CHRIST BEARING THE CROSS. 

TEMPLE. 20. CHRIST ON THE CROSS. 

4. CHRIST TAKING LEAVE OF 01 , T A , T XT m. mTrk ,, T -o 

HIS MOTHER. 21 - THE LAMENTATION FOR 



6. THE LAST SUPPER. 

6. CHRISTWASHINGST.PETER'S 22 ' THE ENTOMBMENT. 

FEET. 23. CHRIST DESCENDING INTO 

7. CHRIST ON THE MOUNT OF HELL, signed. 

OLIVES. 24. THE RESURRECTION. 

8. THE BETRAYAL. 

rmnqT , ni , ATTOAq 25. CHRIST APPEARING TO HIS 

W. UrL-tUcI -D.tL.bU-bi.cj ANNAS. MOTHER 

10. CHRIST BEFORE GAIAPHAS. 28. CHRIST APPEARING TO ST. 

11. CHRIST MOCKED. MARY MAGDALEN. 

12. CHRIST BEFORE PILATE. 27. THE INCREDULITY OF ST. 

THOMAS. 

13. CHRIST BEFORE HEROD. 

14. CHRIST STRIPPED. **' E ASCENSION ' 



!5. OHRKT SCOURGED. 

16. CHRIST CROWNED WITH 

THORNS. 30. THE CORONATION OF THE 

17. CHRIST SHOWN TO THE VIRGIN. 

PEOPLE. 31. THE LAST JUDGMENT. 

[c. 235 x 160.] Nos. 2-4, 6-24, 26-28, 30 are impressions without text, not strictly 
speaking proofs, for they show the same defects in the blocks as the impressions of 
1507, and are probably of later date than the book, though still early, as the water- 
marks prove. On the other hand, they are earlier than the impressions in the edition 
of 1519, where nos. 9, 10 and 28 show cracks extending from top to bottom of the 
blocks. These impressions seem, therefore, to have been taken between 1507 and 
1519. Nos. 25, 29 and 31 are impressions with text from the edition of 1507, and 
no. 5 is from that of 1519. The watermark of nos. 2, 8, 9, 11, 14, 17-19, 23, 24, 27, 
30 is the large high crown ; that of no. 12, the large ox's head with cross and serpent. 

Nos. 2, 3, 9, 23 and 28 were presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895 ; the remainder 
are in the inventory of 1837. There are also duplicates without text of nos. 9, 11-16, 
17-21, and 26 from the Mitchell collection, and of nos. 2, 23, 28 and 30 from the old 
Museum collection. Most of these are almost equal to the impressions selected, and 
have the same watermarks. 

30a. THE CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN. 

A coarse copy in the same direction, reduced in size. 

[198 x 151.] Poor impression, from an " Evangelienbuch," printed by Griininger 
at Strassburg (1510 or 1513 ?). 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 





18 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

30b. THE CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN. 

Second state of the same copy. 

A correction has been made in the face of the Virgin by the insertion 
of a new piece in the block, whereby the hair is brought lower on the brow. 

[198 x 151.] Poor impression, from the " Evangelienbuch " printed by Griininger 
in 1515 (Proctor 9937). 

Purchased from Mr. Willis, 1848. 

The copy in this state also occurs on fol. 86 v. of Geiler von Kaisersberg's 
" Brosamlein," Griininger, 24 March, 1517 (Proctor 9941b). These books contain, in 
the form of large initials, numerous copies from Schaufelein's cuts in the Basle 
" Plenarium " of 1514. 

For a smaller copy [140 x 100], see p. 9, no. 9 (71). 

32. CHRIST BEARING THE CROSS. B. vii, 251, 28. 

St. Veronica kneels and offers her napkin to Christ, who advances to 
r. in the midst of a procession which issues from a fortified gate 1. Two 
mounted men are seen r., with a hilly and wooded landscape beyond them, 
and behind Christ we see the Virgin with another holy woman, accompanied 
by St. John, whose features resemble those of Durer's St. John in the 
Great Passion (B. 6 and 10). Near a boy in the foreground 1. is the early 
monogram with two crossed shovels, as in no. 29. 

[305 x 213.] A good impression, cut close. Watermark, " Reichsapfel " with 
star. 

Collections : Lely (F. 415), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Repr. in Hirth and Muther's " Meisterholzschnitte," no. 56. One of the 
best of Schaufelein's early works, and evidently contemporary with the " Speculum " 
woodcuts. The Veronica and the group of the Virgin and St. John betray the 
influence of Diirer. The boy in the foreground is an almost exact repetition of a 
figure by Schaufelein himself in no. 17. The woodcut is rare; there is a fine 
impression in the Albertina. 

32a. CHRIST BEARING THE CROSS. B. vii, 251, 28. 

A later impression, with margin [6-8], better preserved, except that the monogram 
and shovels have been erased. Watermark, gateway with two towers. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

83. THE CRUCIFIXION. P. iii, 285, 141. 

The cross stands exactly in the middle, facing to the front. To 1. are 
St. John, the Virgin and three other women ; behind the cross are three 
men on foot, and to r. a group of men on horseback. Landscape back- 
ground with an expanse of water. In the centre in front is the early 
monogram with a slanting shovel in contact with the letters. 

[363 x 272.] Good impression without watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Approximately of the same date as the Crucifixion in the " Speculum," which 
appeared in " Der beschlossen Gart," 1505. The landscape background is inspired 
by Diirer. Rather rare; a cut impression [340 x 265 J is at Wilton House. 

84. THE HOLY FAMILY. B. vii, 248, 18. 

The Virgin sits, in a building with a vaulted roof, supporting the Child, 
who stands before her on a cushion. Joseph r. ofl'ers an apple. Through 



Division B. School of Auysburg. Schdufelein. 19 



a window over his head a landscape is seeii. On a ledge in front 1. is the 
signature, a shovel only. 

[222 x 154.] A rather poor impression. 

Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1856. 

Evidently an early work. For the round arch with a curtain under it, compare 
no. 11. Rare ; a fine impression in the Albertina, a good one, partly coloured, at 
Munich. 

35. ST. CHRISTOPHER. P. iii, 237, 157. 

The saint crosses the water towards the r., carrying the child, wrapped 
in a voluminous mantle, on his shoulders ; to 1. the hermit, holding a 
lantern, kneels on the bank. In the foreground r. is the shovel without 
monogram. 

[222 x 155.] A black, heavy impression on discoloured paper, watermark, small 
bull's head. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

To some extent an imitation of Diirer's early St. Christopher, B. 104, which is 
approximately of the same size. 

36. A LANDSKNECHT. B. vii, 266, 99. 

A landsknecht, with ostrich plumes and a peacock's feather in his hat, 
walks to 1. with his r. hand raised, and carries a halberd in his 1. hand over 
his shoulder. The signature, a shovel only, is on the ground. 

[225 x 118.] Good impression. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Repr. in Breunner-Enkevoerth, Ser. iii, no. 7, and Hirth, no. 332. An early 
work. For the costume (shoes, peacock's feather) compare the halberdiers 1. in 
nos. 1 and 32. There is an early drawing of a similar subject in the Museum. 

37. CHRIST APPEARING TO ST. MARY MAGDALEN. 

B. vii, 175, 8. H. 1978. P. iii, 199, 231 and 236, 144. R. A26. 

Christ stands 1., resting his 1. hand on the handle of a spade, and giving 
the benediction with bis r. hand to the Magdalen, who kneels before him, 
holding the jar of ointment in both hands. Between them is a tall, 
slender tree ; behind the tree a low wall, over which a landscape is seen. 
In the 1. lower corner is the (false) monogram of Durer. 

[183 x 183.] Good impression with margin [5] ; watermark, gateway with two 
towers. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Attributed by P. and R. to Schaufelein. The faces of Christ and the Magdalen 
agree so closely with types to be found in the " Speculum Passionis " (e.g., nos. 2, 5, 
19, 28, see also St. Veronica in no. 32) that there can be little doubt that the present 
subject is a work of the same artist and time. The foliage is also in his style, though 
the drawing of architecture is unusual. 



II. VARIOUS WOODCUTS, 1509-1510. Nos. 38-56. 

To this period may be assigned a set of at least twenty-four subjects, uniform in 
dimensions and style, two of which bear the date 1510. I have described them in 
Mitteilungen der Gesellscliaft filr vervielfdltigende Eunst, Vienna, 1905, Heft 1, p. 4. 
Nineteen of these are woodcuts illustrating the life of Christ, which were not 
recognised by earlier writers as forming a connected whole. 1 Other subjects (e.g., the 

c 2 



20 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Annunciation, Chri8t before Herod, the Entombment, the Ascension, the Last 
Judgment) have probably been lost. The remainder, with one exception (B. 95), are 
subjects connected with the Virgin and the Saints. Here, again, it is probable that 
many subjects are lost. The subject to which I gave the number 25 is, as I am now 
convinced, by Huber, not by Schaufelein. In this set trees are drawn in quite a 
different manner from that of the first period. Architecture, remaining massive, as 
in the " Speculum Passionis," is no longer so severely plain, but is enriched with 
medallions, wreaths, or bizarre ornaments. 

I append a list of the subjects at present known to me, mentioning in the case of 
undescribed or rare woodcuts the collections in which I have seen them. I have not 
seen the St. Christopher, dated 1510, small folio, mentioned by Nagler, Mon. iii, 
p. 581, no. 46 ; it may belong to this series. 

1. The Nativity. P. iii, 234, 138b. 

2. The Adoration of the Magi. B. vii, 247, 8. P. iii, 234, 138c. 

3. The Presentation in the Temple. B. vii, 249, 14. 

4. The Jews sending messengers to St. John the Baptist. [233 x 158.] 

Berlin, Nuremberg. 

5. The disciples of the Baptist returning from Christ to their master in 

prison. P. iii, 238, 171. London, Paris (Courboin 10531). 
G. The Miracle at Cana. B. vii, 250, 21. 

7. The Last Supper. B. vii, 250, 22. 

8. The Agony in the Garden. [231 x 156.] Muther, " Gesammelte 

Studien," p. 172. Berlin, London, Munich (coloured), collection of 
the Earl of Pembroke, Wilton House (early chiaroscuro impression, the 
tone-block light green). 

9. The Betrayal of Christ. Basle, Paris (cut), Stuttgart, Vienna (Liechten- 

stein collection). 

10. Christ before Caiaphas. B. vii, 251, 27. Basle, London, Vienna (Albertina, 

Hofbibliothek and Liechtenstein collection). 

11. Christ before Pilate. B. vii, 251, 25. Basle, London. 

12. Christ scourged. Basle, London, Vienna (Liechtenstein collection). 

18. Christ crowned with thorns. Muther, " Gesammelte Studien," p. 162. 
Basle, London, Munich. 

14. Pilate washing his hands. Basle, London, Vienna (Liechtenstein 

collection). 

15. Christ bearing the Cross. London, Paris, Vienna (Liechtenstein 

collection). 

16. The Crucifixion. B. vii, 252, 31. P. iii, 234, 138d. Basle, Berlin (good). 

17. The Lamentation for Christ. B. vii, 253, 32. Berlin, London, Vienna 

(Albertina). 

18. The Resurrection. P. iii, 234, 138e. 

19. The Descent of the Holy Ghost. P. iii, 234, 138f. 

20. The Mater Dolorosa and St. Joseph. [232 x 157.] B. vii, 248, 11. 

Basle, Vienna (Albertina and Hofbibliothek). 

21. The Virgin and Child and St. Anne. 1510. B. vii, 248, 12, and 250, 20. 

22. St. Roch and St. Sebastian. 1510. B. vii, 257, 37. 

23. The Martyrdom of St. Catherine. B. vii, 257, 88. 

24. Pyramus and Thisbe. B. vii, 265, 95. Berlin (cut), London. 
Nos. 4, 9, 16, 18, and 20 are wanting in the British Museum collection. 

38. THE NATIVITY. P. iii, 234, 138b. C.D. Mitt. 1. 

The Child lies on the ground, with ox and ass standing near him, in 
an open shed with sloping roof. The Virgin kneels 1. ; Joseph stands r. 



1 For a partial recognition of their continuity, see B. vii, 250, 19-22 (B. 19, 
however, though uniform in dimensions with this set, is much later in style), and the 
note on B. 27. P. and Muther describe the five subjects which were published in 
Schonsperger's " Evangelienbuch " in 1512 and 1513. See Centralblatt fUr Biblio- 
thekswesen, 1895, p. 428, for a description of two editions, both different from Weigel 
20074 in Georg's Antiquariat, Basle, and St. Peter's Stiftsbibliothek, Salzburg, 
respectively. The Resurrection is said not to be by Schaufelein. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 21 

with a candle, and a shepherd stands bareheaded near the wall 1. In the 
sky are two angels with a scroll. Signature below in the centre. 

[228 x 157.] Late impression, coloured. No watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

This cut was used in the " Evangelienbiicher " of 1512 (fol. 9) and 1513 
(Muther 898, 899), 

39. THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI. 

B. vii, 247, 8. P. iii, 234, 138 c. C. D. Mitt. 2, 

The Virgin and Child are seated r. in a ruined building with a flat, 
thatched roof, on which shrubs are growing. Caspar kneels before them, 
offering gold. Melchior and Balthasar stand behind him with vessels of 
frankincense and myrrh, and two attendants stand farther back. The 
head of an ox is seen r. and that of a dog 1. The signature is on a wall 
above the ox's head. 

[233 x 157.] Good impression, on paper stained brown. No watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This cut was also used in the " Evangelienbiicher" of 1512 (fol. 15) and 1513. 

39a. THE ADOEATION OF THE MAGI. B. 8. P. 138 c. C. D. Mitt. 2. 

A later impression ; on the margin below, 11 mm. wide, is printed the name of 
Hans Guldenmundt. No watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

40. THE PRESENTATION OF CHRIST IN THE TEMPLE. 

B. vii, 249, 14. C. D. Mitt. 3. 

The Virgin kneels 1., holding a pair of pigeons in her hands ; Joseph 
and two other men stand behind her. The Child is laid on the altar, 
supported by a priest ; another priest holds a book, and a third a taper. 
Signature on the step of the altar. 

[219 x 153.] Late impression, cut, border-line drawn with Indian ink. No 
watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

41. ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST IN PRISON. P. iii, 238, 171. 0. D. Mitt. 5. 

St. John 1. is conversing through the barred window of his prison with 
the two disciples whom he had sent to Jesus (Matth. xi.. 2, Luke vii., 19). 
Jesus himself appears, standing behind them. A soldier armed with 
halberd and sword sits 1. guarding the prison ; near his feet is the 
signature. 

[234 x 158.] Good, early impression. Watermark, small ox's head. 

Presented by Mr. W. MitcheU, 1895. 

Repr. in Hirth and Muther's " Meisterholzschnitte," no. 53. A woodcut in 
" Doctrina, Vita et Passio Jesu Christ! " (sig. F 1 v.) represents the two disciples 
actually talking to Jesus outside the barred window of St. John's prison. 

42. THE MIRACLE AT CANA. B. vii, 250, 21. C. D. Mitt. 6 

The Virgin is seated at table among the wedding guests. Christ stands 
1., blessing the water in six vessels, two of which a servant holds in his 
hands. Signature in the foreground. Double border. 

[234 x 159.] Late impression. No watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 



22 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

43. THE LAST SUPPER. B. vii, 250, 22. C. D. Mitt. 7. 

Christ and the apostles are grouped about a round table in a room with 
renaissance decoration. St. James is seated at Christ's right hand, St. 
Peter at his left ; St. John leans his head on the Lord's bosom. Judas 
is seated 1., holding the money-bag. Signature on a wine-cooler. 

[233 x 157.] Good impression on stout paper. No watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

43a. THE LAST SUPPER. B. 22. C. D. Mitt. 7. 

[228 x 156.] Late impression on white paper, the block much worn ; re-touched 
with Indian ink. No watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

44. THE AGONY IN THE GARDEN. Muther, Ges. Stud., p. 172. C. D. Mitt. 8. 

Christ kneels in profile to 1. at the foot of a rock, on a ledge of which a 
chalice is placed, while an angel hovers above it. The three apostles sleep 
in the foreground, and soldiers, guided by Judas, enter the garden r. 
Monogram below 1. on a scroll ; the shovel below it. 

[228 x 156.] Late impression on white paper. No watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

Rare. The Munich impression, mentioned by Muther, is an early one, coloured, 
with wide scarlet margin. There are other impressions at Berlin and Wilton House. 

45. CHRIST BEFORE CAIAPHAS. B. vii, 251, 27. 0. D. Mitt. 10. 

The high priest, wearing a mitre, is seated r. Christ, whose hands are 
tied with a cord, stands before him with bowed head, surrounded by 
soldiers and accusing Jews. A wreath is suspended overhead in front of a 
round arch on which the signature is placed. 

[231 x 156.] A rather late impression. Watermark, small high crown. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Rare. The late impression in a passe-partout, described by B.,is in the Hofbiblio- 
thek, Vienna. The Albertina also has a late impression. B. calls the subject 
" Christ before Annas," but only Caiaphas would wear the mitre. Though Caiaphas 
is not rending his robes, the scene corresponds well with the description in St. 
John's Gospel, xviii, 19-24. 

46. CHRIST BEFORE PILATE. B. vii, 251, 25. C. D. Mitt. 11. 

Pilate, standing 1., leans over a low wall and speaks to Jesus, who 
stands r. surrounded by guards. A scribe with a document in his hand 
stands between the accused and his judge, and a man in the foreground 
with bent knee puts out his tongue with a mocking gesture. Signature in 
r. lower corner. 

[239 x 162.] The subject [228 x 155] is enclosed in a passe-partout, apparently 
of architectural design, of which only a fragment is preserved. Sharp, early 
impression. Watermark, large ox's head with cross and serpent. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

47. CHRIST SCOURGED. C.D. Mitt. 12. 

Near the middle Christ is bound to a pillar, similar in architecture to 
those in no. 40. He is surrounded by officers and gaolers, one of whom 
is beating him with rods, while another tugs at the cord about his waist, 
and a third plucks out his hair. Signature in r. lower corner. 

[229 x 156.] A rather late impression. Watermark, small high crown. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Rare ; there is another impression in the Liechtenstein collection, Vienna. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 23 

48. CHRIST CEOWNED WITH THORNS. 

Muther, Ges. Stud., p. 162. C.D. Mitt. 13. 

Two men are pressing down the crown of thorns with a bar, while a 
third is aiming at Christ's head with a stick. Pilate and two other officers 
look on. Signature on a wall at top 1. 

[230 x 156.] Sharp, early impression. Watermark, small " Reichsapfel." 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Rare ; Muther describes the Munich impression. 

48a. CHRIST CROWNED WITH THORNS. 

Muther, Ges. Stud., p. 162. C.D. Mitt. 13. 

[234 x 156.] A slightly later, blunter impression, mutilated at the top, and 
incorrectly restored. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

49. PILATE WASHING HIS HANDS. C.D. Mitt. 14. 

Christ 1., wearing the crown of thorns, followed by soldiers, is being led 
away towards the front from the presence of Pilate, who sits r. on a throne 
with renaissance ornament at the back and washes his hands in water which 
a servant pours from an ewer. The monogram and shovel, wide apart, are 
in the foreground r. 

[233 x 158.] Sharp, early impression, on white paper without watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Rare ; there is another impression in the Liechtenstein collection, Vienna. 

50. CHRIST BEARING THE CROSS. C.D. Mitt. 15. 

Christ, advancing to 1., is escorted by two soldiers and followed by the 
Virgin and St. John, who are passing through the city gate. Simon of 
Cyrene helps to bear the cross, and Veronica kneels r. with her napkin. 
Beyond the cross we see a rider and a soldier with a halberd. Landscape 
background. Monogram (on a scroll) and shovel in 1. lower corner. 

[232 x 156.] Sharp, early impression. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Rare; other impressions at Paris and Vienna (Liechtenstein collection). 

51. THE LAMENTATION FOR CHRIST. B. vii, 253, 32. C.D. Mitt. 17. 

The body of Christ, at the foot of the cross, is surrounded by mourners. 
Joseph of Arimathea stands 1., holding in both hands a large jar of 
ointment. Landscape background. Signature in r. lower corner. 

[231 x 156.] Good impression, somewhat discoloured. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Rare ; the Albertina has a fine impression. 

52. THE DESCENT OF THE HOLY GHOST. P. iii, 234, 138f. C.D. Mitt. 19. 

The Virgin sits in the middle, surrounded by the twelve Apostles who 
stand or kneel. Flames fall from the Holy Ghost and alight upon the 
heads of all present. On the wall are two medallions with heads. Signature 
below in the middle. 

[232 x 157.] Fair impression, lightly coloured, with text on back, from one of 
the younger Schonsperger's editions of Geiler's " Evangelienbuch," 1512 (fol. 84) 
and 1513. 

In the inventory of 1837. 



24 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

52a. THE DESCENT OF THE HOLY GHOST. P. 138f. C.D. Mitt. 19. 

[233 x 158.] A later impression, better printed and uncoloured, from Schon- 
aperger's New Testament, Augsburg, 1528 (Muther 924). On the back is the title, 
" DAB Ander Teyl desz / Euangeli Sanct Lucas / von der Apostel / Geschichte," 
followed by a cut of the infant Christ with the instruments of the Passion. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

63. ST. ROCH AND ST. SEBASTIAN. 1510. B. vii, 257, 37. 0. D. Mitt. 21. 

St. Roch 1. and St. Sebastian r., each with a nimbus, and bare-headed, 
stand in front of a portico of renaissance architecture, with suspended 
wreaths. Mountains 1. Monogram in the foreground on a tablet ; 
shovel 1. ; in r. upper corner the date 1510 reversed. 

[231 x 154.] Good, early impression. Watermark, small ox's head. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Repr. in Hirth and Muther's " Meisterholzschnitte," no. 54. This state is also 
at Vienna (Albertina). 

58a. ST. ROCH AND ST. SEBASTIAN. B. 37. C. D. Mitt. 21. 

Second state. The date has been almost entirely obliterated. 
[230 x 152.] Still a good impression, though the block is somewhat worn. Water- 
mark, small shield with Augsburg arms. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

54. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH ST. ANNE. 1510. 

B. vii, 248, 12 and 250, 20. 0. D. Mitt. 22. 

St. Anne sits 1., near a portico, with suspended wreath, holding the 
infant Christ on her lap ; the Virgin kneels adoring her child. On a table 
r. a jar, knife, and some fruit j behind a wall a date-palm, sea beyond. 
In 1. lower corner monogram, shovel and date 1510 reversed. 

[231 x 153.] Early impression, but discoloured, damaged and mended. 
Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1856. 

There are impressions of this state at Oxford (Bodleian) and Vienna (Albertina 
and Liechtenstein collection). 

54a. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH ST. ANNE. B. 12, 20. C. D. Mitt. 22. 

[228x156.] Second state, the date removed. Late impression on white paper 
without watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Modern, 1 evidently unacquainted with the first state of this woodcut, assigns it to 
Schaufelein's latest period. 

55. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. CATHERINE. B. vii, 257, 38. C. D. Mitt. 23. 

The Saint, crowned, kneels r. with folded hands, near the broken 
wheel, awaiting the headsman's sword. Fire and stones fall from heaven 
upon her would-be executioners, some of whom are fallen to the ground, 
wnile others hurry away 1. Trees 1., water r., and beyond it a castle on a 
hill. Signature in the foreground 1. 

[251 x 176.] The subject [231 x 153] is enclosed by a second border-line or plain 
passe-partout, separated from the inner line by an interval of 10 mm. Fine, early 
impression. Watermark, high crown. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

An early impression is in the v. Lanna collection at Prague (Singer 6222). 

1 Jahrb. d. kunsthist. Samml. d. Allerh. Kaiserhauses, xvii, 371. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 25 

66. PYRAMUS AND THISBE. B. vii, 265, 95. 0. D. Mitt. 24. 

Pyramus lies r. under a tree, holding with his r. hand the hilt of a 
dagger which is plunged into his body. Thisbe stands bending over him, 
wringing her hands. Behind her is the lion. Landscape background. 
Monogram r. on a tablet suspended from a branch; shovel in 1. lower 
corner. 

[230 x 156.] Good, early impression. No watermark. 

Collection : Lely (F. 415). 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Modern strangely assigns this subject, like no. 54, to Schaufelein's latest period. 

56a. PYRAMUS AND THISBE. B. 95. 0. D. Mitt. 24. 

[228x153.] Another impression, also good, not so black, slightly cut. No 
watermark. 

Collections : Liphart (P. 328), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Bepr. in Hirth and Muther's " Meisterholzschnitte," no. 55. 



III. VAEIOUS WOODCUTS, 1511-1515. Nos. 57-91. 

This group includes a number of Schaufelein's early Augsburg illustrations 
and some few separate woodcuts of the same period. The small illustrations, nos. 
58-73, belong to sets used in a number of devotional works, "Via Felicitatis," 
" Taschenbuchlein," " Das Leiden Jesu Christi," etc., published by Schonsperger, 
jun.. during the years 1513-1516, and sometimes reprinted later. 

57. AN ILLUSTRATION TO TENGLER'S " NEU LAIENSPIEGEL." 

C.D. Mitt. p. 7, no. la. 

Interior of a room. The author, Ulrich Tengler, sits 1. at a desk, behind 
which another person stands. R. stand Sebastian Brant and Jacobus 
Locher (Philomusus), authors of the prefaces, and two other men, looking 
up at a vision of the Coronation of the Virgin. A mirror (Laienspiegel) 
reflecting light on all sides is on a wall at the back of the room. 

[190 x 134.] Good impression, with text on the back from the edition of 24 Dec., 
1512 (the first edition is dated 18 June, 1511, see p. 11, no. 2). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This cut was attributed to Schauf elein while still in Mr. Mitchell's collection. 
It is one of five illustrations, in all of which his style plainly appears. They are 
allied to the group of 1510, though the figures are drawn on a much smaller scale. 

t THE LAST JUDGMENT. 

Facsimile of the last cut in Tengler's " Neu Laienspiegel." From Mitt. d. Ges. f. 
vervielf. Eunst, 1905, p. 5 (described p. 7, no. le). 



26 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

[58-66.] 
CUTS FEOM "ViA FELICITATIS." 

58. FRONTISPIECE. Nagl. Mon. iii, p. 571, no. 19 (2). 

In the foreground, Christ as judge ; 1. angels raising souls from 
purgatory ; r. the jaws of hell. Farther back, Christ standing, crowned 
with thorns, a man at his side ; a man rides up from r., to whom St. Peter 
turns, pointing to Christ ; the Virgin and other saints kneel 1. Farther 
back again, Christ, on the cross, holds out a key to a priest 1., who is 
absolving a penitent ; on the priest's chair are the monogram and shovel. 
R. the penitent thief ; between his cross and that of Christ two men kneel, 
and a child clings to a tree. 

[115 x 77.] Good impression. On the back, printed in red, the title " Via felici- 
tatis." (Schonsperger ? Augsburg, 1513. Muther 900; copies at Munich, Hof- 
und Staatsbibliothek, Asc. 5058, and Augsburg, Stadt-und Kreisbibliothek). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The block was used at Thierhaupten in 1594 (Nagler). On " Via Felicitatis " see 
Kraenzler in Kunstchronik, 1878, no. 1. The book contains twenty-five different cuts 
by Schaufelein, twelve of which are reproduced by Muther, nos. 178-183. 

59. A GROUP OF ANGELS. B. vii, 258, 44. 

Three tingels are clearly seen in the foreground standing with folded 
hands and looking down ; the heads and wings of others appear behind ; 
rays stream down from the sky. Signature in r. lower corner. 

[100 x 63.] Early impression without text on thin white paper, margin [7-10]. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

Used on fol. 132 v. of " Via Felicitatis." 

60. THE AUXILIARY SAINTS. B. vii, 258, 47. 

SS. George, Pantaleon, and Erasmus are conspicuous in front ; the 
heads of the remainder of the fourteen " Nothelfer " appear behind them. 

[100 x 64.] Similar impression to no. 59. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

Used on fol. 146 (misprinted 156) of " Via Felicitatis," and on sig. d 7 of " Taschen- 
biichlin," J. Miller, Augsburg, 1516, 8vo. (Muther 910, Berlin, Kupf.-Kab., no. 27). 

61. A MAN KNEELING AT THE WINDOW OF A CHARNEL HOUSE. 

A church 1. The kneeling man faces r. The signature is on the wall 
of the charnel house. 

[100 x 63.] Fair impression, with text in German and Latin from a late XVI 
century book on the back. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
Used on fol. 98 of " Via Felicitatis." 

62. THE ANNUNCIATION. P. iii, 230, 43a. 

The Virgin sits r., a book on her lap. Over her head, beneath a 
canopy, is the Dove. Gabriel, holding a wand in his 1. hand, enters 1. 
On a ledge in the middle is a pot of lilies, beyond it a trellis and trees. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 27 

The signature, originally present in 1. lower corner, has disappeared from 
the block. 

[100 x 62.] Late impression (Derschau). 
Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 
Used on fol. 40 v. of " Via Felioitatis." 

63. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH ST. ANNE. P. iii, 230, 43c. 

The Virgin sits 1., holding the Child in her lap ; St. Anne sits r., 
holding out both hands ; overhead the Dove. Signature in 1. lower corner. 

[100 x 63.] Late impression (Derschau). 

Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 

Used on fol. 52 of " Via Felicitatis," and on sig. e 8 v. of " Taschenbuchlin," 1516. 

64. THE TRINITY. B. vii, 258, 42. 

The First and Second Person of the Trinity are seated ; the Dove is 
poised over them. Signature below in the middle. 

[99 x 63.] Late impression (Derschau). 

Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 

Used on fol. 115 v. of " Via Felicitatis." 

65. THE TWELVE APOSTLES. B. vii, 258, 45. 

The Apostles stand grouped closely together ; SS. Peter, John and Paul 
are prominent. Signature below in the middle. 

[100 x 62.] Late impression (Derschau). 
Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 
Used on fol. 134 of " Via Felicitatis." 

66. THE LAST JUDGMENT. B. vii. 258, 43. 

Christ as Judge, seated on a rainbow. The Virgin kneels 1., St.* John 
the Baptist r. Signature below in the middle. 

[99 x 63.] Late impression (Derschau). 

Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 

Used on fol. 167 v. of " Via Felicitatis." See also p. 9, no. 11 (2). 

67. ADAM AND EVE. THE FALL. 

Adam stands to 1. of the tree, his back to the spectator, his head in 
profile to r. Eve stands r. facing the spectator, with her head turned 
towards Adam, to whom she offers the apple in her 1. hand. Her r. arm is 
raised and the hand hidden behind the tree. The serpent is coiled round 
a branch ; the head of a stag is seen in the shade 1. Signature below 1. 

[85 x 61.] Good, early impression, placed within the passe-partout [142 x 95] 
designed (probably by Burgkmair) for " Das Leiden Jesu Christi," 1515. This cut 
does not belong to that book, and I have not discovered where it appeared. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

68. ADAM AND EVE. THE EXPULSION. B. vii, 246, 2. 

The angel r. with uplifted sword is driving away Adam and Eve to J. 
Trees in background ; signature low down in the middle. 

[86 x 61] Old impression, not so good as no. 67 ; narrow margin. 
In the inventory of 1837, 



28 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

68. THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI. 

The Virgin is seated in the middle under an arch. Caspar kneels r. ; 
Melchior stands r. raising his crown from his head ; Balthasar stands 1. 
Signature on the wall over the latter's head. 

?34 x 60.] Late impression ; narrow margin, 
n the inventory of 1837. 

70. THE LAMENTATION FOR CHRIST. P. iii, 230, 43 f. 

The body of Christ rests on the arms of Nicodemus at the foot of the 
cross. Joseph of Arimathea stands 1. ; St. John, the Virgin, and another 
woman are also present. No signature. 

[86 x 60.] Late impression. 

Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1876. 

Used on sig. o 4 v. of " Das Leiden Jesu Christi," 1515. 

71. THE RESURRECTION. 

Christ stands in the foreground near the end of the tomb, pointing 
upwards with his r. hand and holding the banner in his 1. R. lies one of 
the sleeping guards. Farther back the three Maries have just entered the 
garden. Signature below r. on a ledge near the tomb. 

[86 x 60.] Good, early impression. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

72. THE DEATH OF THE VIRGIN. B. vii, 249, 15. P. iii, 230, 43 h. 

The Virgin, lying on her bed, around which the apostles are grouped, 
receives a taper from the hands of St. John. An apostle with a hood over 
his head sits 1. reading. The signature is on a chest at the foot of the bed. 

[86 x 59.] Late impression (Derschau). 
Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 

73. ST. VERONICA WITH SS. PETER AND PAUL. P. iii, 230, 43 g. 

St. Veronica stands in a niche with St. Peter r. and St. Paul 1. No 
signature. 

[85 x 60.] Late impression (Derschau). 
Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 

73*. ST. GEORGE. B. vii, 494, 1. Nagl. Mon. ii, no. 118, 3. 

The saint, riding to 1., raises his sword to strike at the prostrate 
dragon, already transfixed by his spear. The princess kneels r. ; on a hill 
1. a fortified town. In the 1. lower corner the monogram of the wood- 

CH 



cutter 



[93 x 67.] Old impression ; no text on the back ; no watermark. 

Purchased at the Durazzo sale, 1873. 

This subject is not by the same artist as the other woodcuts connected with it 
by Nagler. It occurs on sig. E 6 of the " Taschen biichlin " printed by Hans 
Schonsperger, jun. at Augsburg, 24 March 1514 ; 4to. (Weller 856), a copy of which I 
have examined at Bamberg (see p. 11, no. 8). It is there found as one of a long 
set of woodcuts designed by Sohaufelein, and I am convinced that the monogram on 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 29 

this subject is that of the woodcutter. The block is preserved and late impressions 
are to be found in Becker's edition of the Derschau blocks (C 17). 

Nagler, not recognising that the design of the St. George is by Schaufelein, leaves 
it an open question whether the monogrammist was a draughtsman or a woodcutter. 
The fact that his signature also occurs on a woodcut signed by Urs Graf makes it 
certain that he must have cut blocks designed by other artists. As a collaborator 
with Graf, Nagler assumes that he lived at Basle, but not only does the St. George 
appear, as we have seen, in a book printed by Schonsperger junior at Augsburg, but 
even the lute player (Nagler 4) signed by Graf is found in another book from the 
same press (Pr. 10745 ; a copy, retaining both monograms, in Pr. 11587, Schobser, 
Munich). I do not know the two woodcuts dated 1515 mentioned by Nagler (1, 2). 

f ST. BRIDGET GIVING THE RULE TO HER ORDER. 

St. Bridget, in monastic dress, a crown at her feet, sits on a low seat in 
front of a wall and gives a book with either hand to kneeling groups of 
four monks r. and five nuns ]., who wear the Brigittine habit. An angel 
stands with hands folded at the Saint's r. shoulder ; the Holy Ghost hovers 
over her head. Two male saints, holding empty scrolls, stand behind the 
wall, looking over. In the background is a genealogical tree of the 
Brigittine order, in two stems, each with four branches, with scrolls 
attached. St. Bridget herself, with a book, is recognisable 1. and her 
daughter, St. Catherine of Sweden, with lily and lamp, r. The arms of 
Sweden r. rest on the wall. At the top of the tree Christ and the Virgin 
Mary are seen in the clouds. No signature. Near the r. lower corner is 
the date 1513, rather indistinct. 

Photograph of the only known impression [242 x 222], in the Hofbibliothek, 
Vienna, on thick paper, not very early. 

I recognised this woodcut in 1900 t as a work of Schaufelein ; it is very character- 
istic of his manner at this date. It must be observed, however, that the heads of 
the monks and nuns have been inserted ; the new blocks which contain them were 
evidently drawn by Leonhard Beck, whose work in " Theuerdank " they resemble 
closely. This woodcut has already been mentioned in Vol. I, p. 254, note 1. 

74. THE CRUCIFIX ADORED BY PATRIARCHS AND SAINTS. 

P. iii, 232, 133. 

The crucifix, with the holy dove poised over it, is adored by four groups 
of kneeling worshippers, separated by a band of clouds. Below the clouds 
are patriarchs and prophets ]., among whom Abraham and Isaac, Moses and 
St. John the Baptist are recognisable, and Apostles r. with St. John and 
St. Paul in the foreground ; St. Peter occupies a position between the two 
groups. Above the clouds are a group of female martyrs 1. and a number 
of men r., either saints or members of the church militant. Schaufelein's 
monogram and shovel are near St. Paul's sword, and the signature of the 
woodcutter, /n 1 , appears on the clouds. 

[190 x 145.] Good impression, with two lines of text below, " Gloriosa dicta sunt 
de te . . . . in secula seculorum laudabunt te," and on the back the colophon of 

1 Nagl. Mon. iv, no. 1475. Presumably an Augsburg woodcutter. As Dr. W. 
Schmidt has pointed out (Report, f. Kunstv)., xvi, 254), the same signature occurs on 
one subject, " Khiinig Ludwig jn Vngern," of the series, "Die Wunder von Maria 
Zell," which Dr. Schmidt attributes to Wolf Huber, whereas I believe it to have 
been produced in Augsburg. The cut in question must be attributed, as Dr. Dorn- 
hoffer remarked in a letter to me, to Jorg Breu. The woodcuts reproduced by Hirth 
in 1883 are now at Berlin; there is a second set, wanting two subjects, in the 
Liechtenstein collection at Vienna. 



30 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Geiler von Kaiserberg's "Sohiff der Penitenz," printed at Augsburg by J. Otmar, 
March 1514 (Muther 988, Proctor 10693). 

In the inventory of 1837. 

The cut first appeared in J. Otmar's " Heiligenleben," 15.13 (Muther 901). It was 
used again in S. Otmar's editions of the New Testament printed in 1523 and 1524 
(Muther 998). The lower part of this composition may be compared with a drawing 
by Schaufelein (pen and ink tinted with water colour) in the British Museum, which 
has similar groups of patriarchs and apostles. The upper part of the drawing 
represents the Coronation of the Virgin. 

75. THE AEMS OP HABTMANN SCHEDEL. P. iii, 238, 172. 

The shield and crest, a blackamoor's head wearing a wreath, stand on 
grass under a round arch with renaissance ornament from which a wreath 
of flowers and fruit is suspended. Monogram on the ground. 

[211 x 160.] Late impression (Derschau). 

Duplicate from the Franks collection of book-plates, bequeathed 1897. 

Before 1514, when Schedel died. The architecture has ornaments (medallions, 
wreaths), which remind us of the 1510 cuts, but the capitals are more ornate. The 
grass is treated exactly as in the first of Schaufelein's outs in the Triumphal Pro- 
cession (1775, no. 120). 

76. A TITLE BORDER. 

A wide border with only a small opening [45 x 40] to contain a title. 
At the top Christ is seated in clouds, bending to L, holding the orb in his 
1. hand. Below are three men in a landscape, arguing ; long winding 
scrolls rise 1. and r. Monogram on the ground towards the 1. side. 

[157 x 121.] Old but late impression, after the block had been much used. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Undescribed ; I have not been able to ascertain in what book the border was 
used. An approximate date is given by the fact that the composition is borrowed 
from Burgkmair's border to Ricci's " Dialogus in Apostolorum Symbolum," J. Miller, 
Augsburg, 1514, 4to. (Muther 867). The style agrees well with that date. 

77. THE ANNUNCIATION. B. vii, 246, 6. 

The Virgin kneels 1. at a prie-dieu near her bed, in a building of hand- 
some renaissance design. Gabriel stands on steps r. delivering his message. 
The Almighty appears in the clouds with attendant cherubim. Monogram 
on the base of a column and shovel on the end of a step. In the foreground 
1. is a vase standing on a rug thrown over a chest. 

[283 x 197.] Old impression, but not early. Watermark, a small orb in a shield, 
over the letter \>. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Probably about 1514 ; closely allied to no. 76. The drapery of Gabriel may be 
compared with that of the angel in the Brigittine woodcut of 1513 at Vienna. 
Muther dates this subject much later, regarding it as contemporaneous with the 
Apocalypse (1523). A very fine early impression at Berlin, with German text below, 
is reproduced in Lippmann's " Engravings and Woodcuts by Old Masters," i, 40. 

78. THE MAN OP SORROWS. B. vii, 257, 41. 

Christ, half length, crowned with thorns, stands facing the spectator, 
and raises his r. hand. A mantle is held behind his back by two angels. 
This composition is enclosed in an architectural frame, drawn on the same 
block,with a shell ornament at the top, under which a weeping child is seated, 



Division B. School of Auysbury. Schdufelein. 31 

and an oblong panel below containing two children who hold a wreath 
from which a mirror is suspended. Over the wreath is a tablet containing 
Schaufelein's monogram and a space which may in an earlier state have 
contained a date, and over the tablet is a mask emerging from leaves, in 
the taste of Hopfer's borders. 

[242 x 171.] Good impression, not very early ; damaged and restored by hand 
immediately over Christ's head. Watermark damaged and indistinct. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1852. 

Muther dates this subject, with the Annunciation, about 1523. Some support is 
given to this view by the fact that Schaufelein used a very similar shell ornament 
for the tops of the niches which contain St. Barbara and St. Elizabeth on the wings 
of the Ziegler altarpiece at Nordlingen, painted in 1521. ] Modern 2 dates the wood- 
cut 1522 (sic) by comparison with the Christ (Ecce Homo) in the same picture. But 
the drawing of the figures seems to me characteristic of an earlier period, 1513-1515, 
and the nearest parallel to the wreath may be found in the Annunciation, which I 
refer, on other grounds, to that date. The same shell ornament was used at a much 
earlier date by an Augsburg artist, Hans Burgkmair, in his drawing (at Berlin) for 
the Madonna painted in 1509 (at Nuremberg, Germanic Museum, no. 170). 

[79-84.] 

CUTS FROM THE PLENABIUM, FEINTED BY A. PETRI, BASLE, 1514. 

79. THE NATIVITY. P. iii, 229, 9a, and 235, 139b. 

In a ruined building the Virgin kneels r., adoring the new-born child, 
and Joseph stands 1., sheltering the flame of a taper with his hand. A 
shepherd stands in the doorway, and another is seen approaching, beyond a 
wall. Landscape background. Monogram (on a tablet) and shovel in 1. 
lower corner ; initials of the woodcutter, MX 3 , on the base of a column 
behind Joseph. 

[198 x 129.] Good impression ; German text on the back. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

79a. THE NATIVITY. 

[194 x 150.] Copy in the same direction, enlarged to r., retaining Schaufelein's 
monogram, but not that of the woodcutter. From fol. 8 v. of Geiler's " Evangelien- 
buch," printed by Griininger at Strassburg in 1515 (Proctor 9937). Lightly coloured. 

Purchased from Mr. Willis, 1848. 

80. THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI. B. vii, 247, 9. 

The Virgin sits r. with the child upon her knees. Caspar kneels before 
them, offering gold coins in a box. Melchior stands 1., taking off his 
crown with his 1. hand, and Balthasar stands behind. Landscape back- 
ground. Schaufelein's monogram and that of the woodcutter fr 4 , on a 
column 1. 

[198 x 130.] Good impression. German text on back. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

1 Klassischer Bilderschatz, xii, 1617. 

2 Jahrb. d. kunsthist. Samml. d. Allerh. Kaiserhauses, xvii, 371. 

3 Nagl. Mon. iv, no. 1540. The monogram belongs in all probability to an Augs- 
burg, not a Basle, woodcutter. 

4 Nagl. Mon. iii, no. 896, p. 314, 2. This is not a Basle woodcutter, but more 
probably the Hans Franck who was associated with Jost de Negker in cutting the 
Triumphal Procession of Maximilian. See Burlington Magazine, 1907, x, 320. 



32 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

81. THE CRUCIFIXION. B. vii, 252, 30. 

Christ on the cross, to 1. St. John, Mary and two other women ; to r., 
Pilate, the centurion and others. Monograms of Schaufelein and the wood- 
cutter -IT 1 on the ground 1. 

[200 x 131.] Good impression. German text on back. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

82. THE DESCENT OF THE HOLY GHOST. P. iii, 235, 139a. 

The Virgin, with folded hands, is seated in the midst of the Apostles, 
two of whom kneel 1., while the rest stand. Overhead the Dove, in 
clouds. Landscape background. No signature. 

[198 x 130.] Fair impression, rather blunt. Low German text on the back in 
Adam Petri's type. In the inventory of 1837. 

83. ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST REPLYING TO THE QUESTIONS OF THE 

JEWS. 

St. John 1. leans over a wooden rail, addressing three of the priests and 
Levites sent by the Pharisees ; trees in the background. No signature. 

[92 x 66.] Late impression with Latin text on the back from S. Miinster's 
" Cosmographia." It occurs on p. 630 of the 1550 edition. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

The fourth of fifty-two small cuts which illustrate the " Plenarium " of 1514 and 
subsequent editions. For the subject see John i, 19-28. 

84. CHRIST AMONG THE DOCTORS IN THE TEMPLE. 

Christ sits at a desk ; four doctors are seated round the room ; Joseph 
and Mary enter 1. 

[92 x 65.] Similar impression to no. 83. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

The eighth of the small illustrations to the " Plenarium." See Luke ii, 46. 

85. THE HOLY FAMILY REPOSING. B. vii, 247, 7. 

The Virgin sits with the child in her lap under a date-palm in a 
fenced enclosure, while Joseph sleeps r. with his elbow resting on a hillock. 
Mountainous background with buildings. Signature in r. lower corner. 

[Ill x 89.] Good impression on stained paper. No watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

85a. THE HOLY FAMILY REPOSING. B. 7. 

[236 x 153 (cut).] Another impression, in a border with numerous little angels 
climbing vine-stems and playing on musical instruments ; at the bottom four 
children, one of whom is winged, are drawing a fifth, who holds a palm, in a car. 
L. a tablet with the date 1515. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

B. describes this border as a passe-par tout, but in the present impression it is 
connected at several points with the border line of the Holy Family, and both appear 
to have been drawn on the same block. The border occurs again, this time indis- 
putably as a passe-partout, in connection with a late impression of Baldung's St. 

1 See note on no. 80. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Sehdufelein. 33 

Sebastian, B. 36, in this collection. But here the border is in a second state. The 
inner frame of vine-stems, which fits closely round the Holy Family in the first 
state, has been entirely cut away, and the inner opening of the passe-partout now 
measures 132 x 101 mm. The outer dimensions of the passe-partout, perfectly 
preserved in this late impression and enclosed by a wide border-line, are 241 x 176 mm. 

88. PROOF OF A SUBJECT FROM " DER WEISSKUNIG " (no. 123). 

A king sits with a canopy suspended behind him, holding a conference 
with eight men, five 1. and three r., who are seated within a circular 
enclosure. A dog lies in the foreground. No signature. 

[220 X 198.] Brilliant proof on white paper without watermark. 

Collections : Thos. Allen, 1 W. Y. Ottley. 

Purchased at the Ottley sale, 1837. 

The cut represents the Blue King (King of France) tempting the subjects of the 
young White King (Maximilian) to didloyalty. The original block has Schaufelein's 
monogram on the back. The blocks were prepared about 1512-1516, but the first 
complete edition appeared in 1775, the second, edited by A. Schultz, in 1888 (see 
p. 161 of the latter). The only other subject designed by Schaufelein is no. 200, 
which is signed on the front as well as on the back of the block. 

87. A SUBJECT FROM THE TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION OF MAXIMILIAN 

(no. 120). 

Ten foot soldiers marching to r., armed with spears. No signature. 

[362 x 378.] Impression of the XVIII century, earlier than Bartsch's edition ; 
the scrolls are still black. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

Subject no. 120 in the 1796 edition, no. 127 in that of 1883-4. Cut by Cornelius 
Liefrinck. 

88. A SUBJECT FROM THE TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION OF MAXIMILIAN 

(no. 121). 

Ten foot soldiers marching to r., armed with long swords. No 
signature. 

[348 x 374.] A similar impression. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

Subject no. 121 in the 1796 edition, no. 128 in that of 1883-4. 

[89-91.] 

SEPARATE WOODCUTS OF SOLDIERS. 

These probably belong to the years 1512-1515, during which Schaufelein was at 
Augsburg, taking part in the preparation of blocks for the Emperor Maximilian's 
projected works. No. 91 bears the monogram of the leading Augsburg woodcutter, 
Jost de Negker. 

89. THREE MUSKETEERS. 

The three men march to r. carrying muskets over their shoulders ; 
the middle one of the three is bareheaded and looks back at the third. 
Trees and hills in the background. Near the 1. lower corner the mono- 
gram and shovel on the ground. Single border-line. 

[208 x 159.] Good impression. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Closely allied to nos. 87, 88. Repr. in Breunner-Enkevoerth, Ser. iii, no. 8. 

1 Allen's mark resembles the second mark given by Fagan (no. 3) as that of the 
Earl of Aylesford. 

D 



34 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part 11. 

80. TWO LANDSKNECHTS CONVERSING. B. vii, 267, 101. 

A tall man with his plumed hat slung over his shoulder stands 1., 
supporting in his 1. hand the shaft of a long pole or spear, the point of 
which is not visible. The other soldier, standing r., carries a halberd in 
his 1. hand and holds the hilt of a sword in his r. hand. Monogram in 1. 
lower corner on a solid tablet, representing a wood-block, and shovel on 
the ground near it. Trees in the background. Single border line. 

[238 x 169.] Good impression. Watermark, eagle and imperial crown. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Reproduced in Breunner-Enkevoerth, Ser. iii, no. 9, and Hirth, no. 331. 

91. A STANDARD BEARER. B. vii, 266, 100. 

He walks to r., wearing a hat with ostrich plumes and holding in his 
1. hand the end of the standard, which floats back behind his head. 
Mountain landscape with a castle and bridge. Schaufelein's monogram is 
on a tablet on the ground r., the shovel near it, and the signature of Jost 
de Negker is in the 1. lower corner. 

[208 x 133.] Good impression. Watermark indistinct. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Repr. (inaccurate) in Breunner-Enkevoerth, Ser. iii, no. 6. 

f A STANDARD BEARER. 

His body is directed nearly to the front, but he walks to r. with his 1. 
hand on the hilt of a poinard. Large tree 1., bushes r. A large standard 
falls in folds behind his head. Signed below r. with shovel and monogram 
apart on a label. 

Photograph of an undescribed woodcut [208 x 138] in the Kunsthalle at 
Carlsruhe. 

t TWO DRUMMERS AND A FIFE-PLAYER. 

They walk to r., the fife-player between the two drummers. High on 
the left is a cottage on a steep hill. The signature is on a tablet near 1. 
lower corner. 

Photograph of an undescribed woodout [206 x 146] in the Kunathalle at 
Carlsruhe. 



IV. WOODCUTS SIGNED $ c. 1516. Nos. 92-118. 

In this section are grouped together the woodcuts which Schaufelein signed with 
the monogram 4> either by the side of the shovel or more often within the shovel 
itself. The only fixed point by which this group can be dated is the publication 
of the " Evangelienbuch," containing fifty-eight cuts in this style, printed by 
T. Anshelm at Hagenau in 1516 (Muther 911, a copy at Munich). Some of the single 
cuts (nos. 77, 78, 82, 83) were printed at Durlach, in Baden. 

Since the woodcuts belonging to this group are imperfectly known and in part 
undescribed, I append a list of them, so far as they are known to me. 1 

1 This list was first printed, in German, in MM. d. Oes. f. vervielf. Kunst, Vienna, 
1905, p. 7. 














PLATE I 

HANS LEONHARD SCHAUFELEIN 
A STANDARD BEARER. B. 100 







MI3J3TUAH08 QHAHHO3J 3HAH 

His ho iv is dtp 






Division B. School of Augsburg. Schaufelein. 35 

1-58. Fifty-eight illustrations, exclusive of repetitions, to the " Evangelienbuch " 
of 1516 (T. Anshelm, Hagenau). Nine of these were reprinted in " Deca- 
chordum Christianum," 1517. 

59-75. Fifty-five of this series, with the addition of seventeen subjects, raising the 
total number to seventy-five, 1 were reprinted at Frankfort in 1637, 1542 
and 1550 under the title " Doctrina,Vita et Passio Jesu Christi." B. vii, 255, 35. 

76. The Crucifixion [283 x 213]. P. iii, 235, 142. Dresden, collection of K. 

Frederick Augustus II. 

77. The Crucifixion [298 x 215]. Nagl. Mon. v. p. 6, no. 28. Nuremberg. 

78. Eve and the Virgin Mary, an allegorical subject, ibid. London, Nuremberg. 

79. Mary as protectress of the human race. P. iii, 236, 150. Unknown to me. 

80. The martyrdom of St. Andrew. London. 

81. St. Florian [289 x 202]. P. iii, 237, 156. Berlin, London. 

82. St. Florian [206 X 140]. Coburg. 

83. The power of death and the ten ages of man. P. iii, 325, 83. Meyer's 

K.-L. ii, 636, 8. Bamberg, Berlin (Latin text), London, Guildhall library 
(a fragment), Vienna, Hofbibliothek (1. side wanting, German text). 

84. Alexander carried into the air by griffins. London. 

85. A standard-bearer. P. iii, 238, 166. 



[92-110.] 

PKOOFS OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE GOSPELS. 

B. vii, 255, 35. 

92. CHRIST WASHING ST. PETER'S FEET (= D. 2 , no. 8, sig. B 2). 

93. THE BETRAYAL OF CHRIST. Signed (= E. 3 , no. 26, D., no. 10). 

94. CHRIST BEFORE ANNAS (= D., no. 11). 

95. CHRIST BEFORE CAIAPHAS (= D., no. 13). 

96. CHRIST STRIPPED (= D., no. 18). 

97. CHRIST CROWNED WITH THORNS. Signed (= E., no. 30, D., no. 20). 

98. CHRIST SHOWN TO THE PEOPLE (= D., no. 21). 

99. PILATE WASHING HIS HANDS (= D., no. 17). 

100. CHRIST BEARING HIS CROSS. Signed (= E., no. 31, D., no. 22). 

101. CHRIST NAILED TO THE CROSS (= D., no. 24). 

102. THE ELEVATION OF THE CROSS (= E., no. 32, D., no. 24). 

103. THE LAMENTATION FOR CHRIST. Signed (= D., no. 26). 

104. THE ENTOMBMENT. Signed (= E., no. 34, D., no. 27). 

105. THE THREE MARIES AT THE SEPULCHRE. Signed 

(= E., no. 36, D., no. 30). 

106. CHRIST APPEARING TO ST. MARY MAGDALEN (= D., no. 31). 

107. CHRIST APPEARING TO HIS MOTHER (= D., no. 32). 

108. THE INCREDULITY OF ST. THOMAS (= E., no. 37, D., no. 34). 

109. THE DESCENT OF THE HOLY GHOST. Signed 

(= E., no. 42, D., no. 37). 

1 Or seventy-six, if the Annunciation be included. See p. 7, no. 4. 

2 D. = " Doctrina, Vita et Passio Jesu Christi," 1537. 
* E. = " Evangelienbuch," 1516. 

D 2 



36 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

110. THE LAST JUDGMENT (= D., no. 72). 

[138 x 112.] Good early impressions (except no. 109) without text. Watermark 
on nos. 99, 103, 107, 108, 110, the arms of Basle. No. 109 is on thinner, yellowish 
paper. 

Nos. 94, 109 in the inventory of 1837, the rest presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

There is nothing to show exactly at what date these impressions were issued, or 
how far they deserve the name of proofs. Though ten of these subjects did not appear 
in the " Evangelienbuch," that is no proof that they are later than the rest ; and, on 
the other hand, the watermark suggests that these impressions were taken, in Alsace, 
about the time when that book was printed (at Hagenau, 1516). They are, at any 
rate, earlier and much better than the impressions of 1537. 

lOOa. CHRIST BEARING HIS CROSS. 

103a. THE LAMENTATION FOR CHRIST. 

Duplicate impressions, very well preserved, with margin [5-7]. Watermark (lOOa), 
arms of Basle. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 



[Ill, 112.] 

IMPRESSIONS, BELONGING TO THE SAME SET, FBOM 
" DECACHORDUM CHRISTIANUM," 1517. 

111. THE CIRCUMCISION. Signed ( = E. no. 8, D. no. 3). 

112. THE ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM. Signed ( = E. no. 1, D. no. 6). 

[190x145.] Good impressions, with borders (not by Schaufelein), and Latin text 
on the back. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
For the complete book, see p. 7, no. 4. 

113. HORARIA COMMEMORATIO DOMINICE PASSIONIS. 1547. 

A " Bilderbogen " or broadside, with the above title, containing seven 
woodcuts from the same set, in a single row, with verses (Latin above the 
woodcuts, German below) relating to the seven canonical hours of prayer 
The subjects are the following : 

(1) Ad Matutinas. The Betrayal of Christ. 

(2) Ad Primam. Christ shown to the People. 

(3) Ad Tertiam. Christ bearing his Cross. 

(4) Ad Sextam. Christ nailed to the Cross. 

(5) Ad Nonam. Christ on the Cross ( = E. 33, D. 25). 

(6) Ad Vesperas. The Lamentation beneath the Cross. 

(7) Ad Completorinm. The Entombment. 

At the end is the address, "Druckts Frantz Behem zu S. Victor. 
Anno 1547." 

[Sheet, 275 x 800.] The cuts are coloured. This broadside is printed on the back 
of waste copies of the " Almanach Mentzisch " for 1545 and 1547, joined together, 
which contain several small woodcuts after the manner of H. S. Beham. Franz 
Behem was a Mentz printer. 

In the inventory of 1837. 




\ 



HI3J3qUAHOe QHAHHO3J 8UAH 



PLATE II 

HANS LEONHARD SCHAUFELEIN 
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ANDREW 








Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 37 

114. EVE AND THE VIRGIN MARY. AN ALLEGORY OF THE FALL 
AND REDEMPTION OF MAN. 

B. vii, 260, 54. Nagl. Mon. v., p. 6, no. 28. C. D. Mitt. p. 8, no. 78. Pr. 11965. 

Two trees, an apple and an olive (?), grow in the middle, with their 
stems twined round one another. Round a branch of the apple-tree is 
coiled the serpent, holding in its mouth an apple, which contains a death's 
head. Eve stands under the tree, raising her hand to take the fruit. Adam 
passes on a similar apple to an emperor, who stands r. with two attendants. 
Under the other tree stands Mary, crowned, with a nimbus round her 
head ; she holds a host in her r. hand, which she extends towards a group 
of ecclesiastics, pope, cardinal, and bishop. Over her head is an angel, 
also with a host in his r. hand. Schaufelein's monogram, on the shovel, 
is in the foreground. 

Below are two paragraphs of Latin text : 1. " Marie virginitatis 
astitas, cum humilitate, gratia in | ueta apud deum, redemptoris meruit 
fieri mater, qui no- | bis corporis et sanguinis sui sacramentum instituit 
via- | ticum, cibum anime cum ceteris sacramentis in remissio | onein 
omnium peccatorum, si tamen eins rnandatis obe- | dientes fuerimus." 
r. "Per diaboli inuidiam mors introiuit inorbem terraru | operabatur enim 
eius instigatio, atqz persuasio trasgres- | sionem rnandati creatoris, quia 
inuidebat homini, vt ali j quando possideret locii, de quo, olim superbia 
tumidus | eiectus est. Impressum per Frat. Nicola, keibss, [ Plebanum in 
Durlach." 

[Woodcut, 323 x 241, sheet, 357 x 241.] Fine impression. 

Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1856. 

This very rare woodcut is also in the Germanic Museum, Nuremberg, where it 
has printed on the back the Crucifixion described by Nagler in the same place. 1 The 
printer calls himself " Nicolaus Keibs, frater Ordinis S. lohannis, plebanus in 
Durlach," in the only dated book from his press, " Passio Christi," Panzer, viii, 
332, 1. The single book from this press in the British Museum, Proctor 11964, has 
an interesting woodcut of St. Adelaide [157x106], which has, however, nothing to do 
with Schaufelein. Keibs printed at least two more of Schaufelein's woodcuts of this 
group, viz., those to which I have given the numbers 82 and 83 in the list on p. 35. 

115. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ANDREW. C. D. Mitt. p. 9, no. 80. 

The Apostle, bareheaded, clad in a long tunic, is bound by cords at 
the wrists and ankles to a X cross. He is conversing with a man on 
Tiorseback 1. wearing a hat, by whose side stands a soldier with his hand 
on the hilt of a poniard. Two other heads are seen between the soldier 
and the cross ; to r. of the latter are three men and three women, com- 
panions of St. Andrew. There are olouds in the sky ; in the foreground is 
a clump of lilies of the valley, with the monogram on the shovel near it. 

[206 x 147.] Fair impression, not early. No watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

The woodcut is undescribed and I have nowhere met with another impression. 
The style is very closely allied to that of the Gospel series. 

116. ST. FLORIAN. P. iii, 237, 156. C. D. Mitt. p. 10, no. 81. 

St. Florian, with a round nimbus, wearing a cap, striped jerkin and 
hose, and a breastplate, throws water from a bucket into the door of a 

_^ The inscription given by Nagler should read : " Jhesu Christ ewiger kiinig. 
himelischer artzet," etc., and the address : " Jacob Furchamerr zu Durlach." 



38 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

burning house 1., from which flames and smoke issue. His mantle lies on 
the ground beside him. A man looks out at the window of another house 
r. In the distance, across a wall, is a small castle on a hill. Schaufelein's 
monogram, apart from the shovel, is on the ground near the 1. corner. 

[288x202.] Good impression, with margin [2-4]. White paper, no watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Bare ; another impression at Berlin. 

t ST. FLORIAN. C. D. Mitt. p. 10, no. 82. 

St. Florian, with a nimbus of rays, wears a cap on his long, curly hair, 
and is accoutred in a complete suit of armour. A standard bearing a cross 
lies at his feet. He throws water from a bucket into the door of a burning 
house 1., from the upper storey of which a man looks out, throwing up his 
hands in terrified entreaty. Other buildings r. and in the background are 
also on fire. Near St. Florian's r. foot is the monogram on the shovel. 

[206 x 140.] On the lower margin are German verses in two columns of six and 
four lines respectively, printed in the type of Keibs of Durlach, easily recognisable by 
the D : 

hailiger martler Florian Am letsten end das bit wir alle 

wir ruffen dich in niten an er vns bewar vor helschem valle 

Bit got das vns kein feures not Begem wir alle vnd sprechen Amen 

ym leben schad oder auch im todt war, es geschehe in gottes namen. 

Durch seines leidens bitterkait 
das vns sein gnad nit werd verseit 

Photograph of the only impression known to me, at Coburg. Repr. Mitt. p. 7. 

tTHE POWER OF DEATH AND THE TEN AGES OF MAN. 

P. iii, 825, 83. C. D. Mitt. p. 10, no. 83. 

Reduced facsimile of the imperfect impression in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna. 
See Mitt. d. Ges. f. vervielf. Kunst, 1905, p. 9. A fragment is in the Willshir 
collection in the Guildhall library, the complete woodcut [260x265] at Bamberg 
and Berlin. The Berlin impression has Latin text beneath the woodcut, " Elegia 
H. Bebelii," in three columns of 12, 12 and 8 lines respectively. At the end : 
" Impressum per Fratrem | Nicolaum koibss | Plebanum in Durlach. 

117. ALEXANDER CARRIED INTO THE AIR BY GRIFFINS. 

C. D. Mitt. p. 10, no. 84. 

The King of Macedon, a youthful knight fully armed but bare-headed, 
stands upright in a round cage, which reaches a little above his knees, and 
holds in both hands a spear, to which is attached the headless carcase of 
an animal. The cage is drawn up into the air by griffins, harnessed to 
the cage by strong chains which are attached to girths round their bodies. 
These creatures are striving to reach the carcase held above their heads, 
and their efforts carry the cage up. Clouds above and below it indicate 
that a considerable height has already been attained. Schaufelein's mono- 
gram and shovel (separate as in no. 116) are on the bottom of the cage. 

[210 x 143.] Fair impression, not very early ; somewhat repaired. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

This woodcut, which is unique so far as I am aware, has been reproduced and 
fully described in the Burlington Magazine, 1905, vi, 395. The subject is taken from 
" Historia de preliis," a fabulous history of the exploits of Alexander the Great, 
written in the tenth century at Naples by the Archpriest Leo, and translated in the 
middle ages into all the languages of western Europe. 1 This narrative was mainly 

1 For the Latin text see " Die Vita Alexandri Magni des Archipresbyters Leo 
(Historia de preliis), herausgegeben von Dr. Gustav Landgraf," Erlangen, 1885, p. 131. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 39 

derived from the original Greek romance, written at Alexandria about 200 A.D., 
which goes by the name of Pseudo-Callisthenes. This particular incident, however, 
and that which immediately follows it, a descent into the sea in a diving bell, form 
no part of the original narrative, and only occur in two late MSS. of Pseudo-Callis- 
thenes, the best of which is at Leyden. 1 The editions of the " Historia de preliis " 
in Latin or German printed in Germany before the date of Schaufelein's woodcut, 
seem to contain no illustration of the ascent to the sky. 2 It is depicted, however, in 
several French MSS. in the British Museum, the text of which invariably mentions 
sixteen griffins. 3 A relief of this subject with two griffins, on the north side of 
St. Mark's, Venice, is reproduced in Ongania's work on the basilica, and in Didron's 
Annales archtologiques, 1865, xxv, 141. See also Cahier and Martin's Nouveaux 
melanges d'Archdologie, 1874, i, 165-180, on the occurrence of this subject as a 
pendant to the Fall of Man, both being examples of the pride that goes before a fall. 

118. A STANDARD-BEARER. P. iii, 238, 166. C. D. Mitt. p. 10, no. 85. 

A bearded man, looking to r., in a cap with ostrich feathers, a slashed 
doublet and tightly fitting hose, holds a large standard by a short staff in 
his r. hand, and rests his 1. hand on the hilt of a poniard. He walks on 
rough grass. The monogram is on a shovel which lies in the foreground r. 

[247 X 176.] Good impression on white paper without watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 



V. ILLUSTRATIONS. 1517-1523. Nos. 119-127. 

It is difficult to understand Schaufelein's reversion, at this date, to his earlier 
style. It might be conjectured that the " Himmelwagen " woodcuts were designed 
earlier than the year of their publication (1517). With regard to the New Testament 
woodcuts, no such hypothesis can be allowed, for the book is a reprint of Luther's 
version, which was not itself printed at Wittenberg till September, 1522. 

[119-121.] 

ILLUSTRATIONS FROM LEONRODT'S " HIMHELWAGEN." (S. Otmar, 
Augsburg, 1517, 1518. 4to.) 

119. A MAN ADORING CHRIST ON THE CROSS. B. vii, 269, 112. 

[108 x 97.] Late impression of the third subject in " Der Himmelwagen." The 
cut was used afterwards in other books. 
Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1867. 

120. TWO MEN AND A WOMAN OVERCOME WITH GRIEF AT THE 

SIGHT OF A DEAD MAN. B. vii, 271, 126. 

[107 X 97.] Early impression of the seventeenth subject. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

121. THE HEAD OF CHRIST CROWNED WITH THORNS. B. vii, 271, 127. 

[107 X 97.] Good impression of the eighteenth subject, on the same leaf (verso) 
as no. 120 (recto). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

1 The Greek text may be found in " Pseudo-Callisthenes, nach der Leidener 
Handschrift herausgegeben von Heinrich Meusel," Leipzig, 1871, p. 767. 

2 Three illustrated editions, Augsburg, 1483, Strassburg, 1488, 1514, are in B.M. 

3 Roy. 15Evi, 19 D i, 20 A v; Harl. 4979. Durand {Ann. arcMol, u.s.) cites 
MSS. at Paris containing illustrations of this subject. 



40 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



[122-127.] 

ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. (J. Schonsperger, jun., 
Augsburg, 1523 ; fol. Muther 924.) 

122-125. THE FOUR EVANGELISTS. 

P. iii, 236, 151. Nagl. Mon. in, p. 581, 43. 

St. Matthew sits r. on a stone bench and reads a book held before him 
by a kneeling angel. Monogram in 1. lower corner. 

St. Mark sits writing at a desk which stands on a table. The winged 
lion lies 1. in a doorway ; near it is the monogram. 

St. Luke sits 1., writing at a high desk. The winged ox lies r. in a 
doorway. Monogram near 1. lower corner. 

St. John sits in the middle, on a bench, reading a book which he holds 
in both hands. The eagle stands r. near a pillar. Monogram on the 
floor 1. 

[93 x 135.] Good impressions cut from the book. 
Purchased from Mr. Daniell, 1877. 

Bepr. Muther, pi. 192, 193. St. Paul (repr. Muther, pi. 190) is wanting to com- 
plete this set. 

126. ANGELS RESTRAINING THE FOUR WINDS. THE ELECT 

MARKED ON THEIR FOREHEADS. B. vii, 260, 53. 

[232 x 157.] Good impression, from the book. 
From the Storck collection, Milan 1797. 
Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1849. 

Repr. Muther, pi. 195. Bartsch strangely calls the angel in the clouds St. 
Francis. 

127. THE ANGEL WITH THE KEY OF THE PIT. B. vii, 260, 52. 

[232 x 158.] A rather faint impression, from the book. 

Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1856. 

Repr. Muther, pi. 198. Schaufelein designed only five of the illustrations to the 
Apocalypse in this edition (all described and reproduced by Muther). The remainder 
are by an unknown artist, who copied the Wittenberg woodcuts. 



VI. ILLUSTRATIONS. 1533-1538. Nos. 128-209. 

For ten years, 1523-1533, there was a complete cessation in Schaufelein's work as 
a draughtsman on wood. In 1533 he reappears as an illustrator of books printed at 
Augsburg by Steiner, for whom he designed a large number of blocks in the years 
1534-1536. Steiner also acquired a series of blocks designed to illustrate the 
Decameron, very few of which were used in Schaufelein's lifetime ; they served 
occasionally as illustrations to books published after 1540. The Steiner illustrations 
are very imperfectly represented among the separate woodcuts, and the student is 
therefore referred to the lists of books illustrated by Schaufelein, pp. 8, 9, nos. 7, 8, 10, 
and pp. 13-15, nos. 26, 28, 29, 33-39. 

Similar in style to the Boccaccio series is a set of ten cuts, varying in height 
from 86 to 72 mm., about 68 mm. in width, of which only two appear to have been 
used by Steiner (p. 9, no. 10) ; the remaining eight were published by Egenolff 
and his successors in works of Adam Lonicer printed from] 1551 to 1593 (p. 15, 
nos. 42, 48-50). 

The latest book illustrated by Schaufelein was the Apuleius printed by Weissen- 
horn in 1538 (p. 14, no. 32). 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 41 

[128-129.] 

ILLUSTRATIONS TO BONER'S TRANSLATION OF THUCYDIDES. 1533. 

128. A KING ON HIS THRONE. P. iii, 237, 163. Nagl. Mem. iii, p. 581, 58. 

The king is seated, holding orb and sceptre in his 1. hand, raising his 
r. hand. He appears to be giving judgment in a case at issue between 
two young noblemen who stand 1. and r. attended by their respective 
supporters. The monogram is on the floor in the middle. 

[95 x 152.] Late impression, with no text on back. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

Used three times (fol. 11, 24 and 88 v.) in Boner's Thucydides (not in B. M.) ; 
also in the following books : 

Boner's Herodotus, 1535 (fol. 96 v.). 

Dictys Cretensis, 1536, 1540. 

Boccaccio, " Die Gantz Romisch Hystori," 1542. 

Bracellus, " Ein schone Cronica vom Kiinigreich Hispania," 1543 (fol. 36 v.). 

Boccaccio, " Von widerwertigem Gliick," 1545 (fol. 35 v.). 

129. A SEA FIGHT. Nagl. Mon. iii, p. 582, 83. 

The crews of two sailing vessels are engaged in a hand-to-hand fight. 
Monogram on the water, near the middle. 

[95 x 156.] Fair impression, with German text on the back, from Bracellus, 
" Ein schone Cronica vom Kiinigreich Hispania," 1543, fol. 121 v. (also used on 
fol. 23). 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

First used in Boner's Thucydides, 1533 (fol. 19), also in Aretinus, " Rhomer 
Krieg wider die Carthaginienser," 1540 (fol. 12, 19 v., 31). 

[130-131.] 

ILLUSTRATIONS TO BONER'S " PLUTARCHUS TEUTSCH," 1534. 

130. CAIUS MARIUS. P. iii, 233, 134 c. Nagl. Mon. iii, p. 582, 67. 

A general on horseback, holding a baton in his r. hand, addresses an 
officer who stands 1. under a tree, near which Schaufelein's monogram is 
placed on the ground. 

[154 x 140.] Good impression, from a German edition of Josephus. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

First used in Plutarch, fol. 49 v., and 144 v. (as Cato). Also in Aretinus, " Rhomer 
Krieg," etc., 1540, Bracellus, " Ein schone Cronica," etc., 1543, fol. 94 v., and in 
Boccaccio, " Von widerwertigem Gliick, 1545, fol. 120 v. 

131. PHOCION. B. vii, 266, 98. P. iii, 233, 134 f. Nagl. Mon. iii, p. 581, 61. 

An officer, holding a spear in his 1. hand, speaks to a man standing 1., 
who holds his hat in r. hand ; soldiers stand in the background on both 
sides ; monogram on the ground 1, 

[153 x 142.] Good impression, from a German edition of Josephus. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

First used in Plutarch, fol. 128 v. ; also in the three books enumerated in the 
note on no. 130. 



42 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

[132-134.] 

ILLUSTRATIONS TO SCHWARTZENBERG'S "MEMORIAL DER TUGENT," 1534. 

132. JUDITH PLACING THE HEAD OF HOLOFERNES IN A BAG. 

B. vii, 263, 77. 

[139 x 153.] Fair impression on yellowish paper, with the text of " Memorial der 
Tugent " below the woodcut, not from the edition (1535) which is in the British 
Museum. On the back is the Temptation of Job, copied from an illustration to the 
Wittenberg edition of Luther's Old Testament. 

Presented by Sir A. WoUaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

133. THE TROJAN HORSE. B. vii, 264, 89. 

[142 x 154.] Fair impression, on yellowish paper, with the text of a different 
book on the back. The woodcut was also used in two editions of Dictys Cretensis, 
printed by Steiner in 1536 and 1540. 

Presented by Mr. J. H. Anderdon, 1872. 

134. THE JUSTICE OF TRAJAN. B. vii, 264, 91. 

[143 x 154.] Fair impression, with text from a German edition of Josephus on 
the back. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

135. FRONTISPIECE TO " DIE SCHON MAGELONA," 1536. 

A gentleman stands 1. under a tree, holding a dagger in his r. hand, 
and holding out his 1. hand towards a lady who stands r., with a wreath 
of leaves upon her head, looking down. Behind her are trees, and in the 
background are two castles, one standing low, the other on a hill. No 
signature. 

[116 x 109.] Good impression, no text on the back. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

This woodcut is undescribed. Though unsigned, it is recognisable at once as a 
characteristic example of Schaufelein's late style. It was used as the frontispiece of 
the first German edition of the French romance, " La belle Maguelonne," which was 
printed by Steiner in 1636. The title-page, including this woodcut, is reproduced on 
p. 89 of Konnecke's " Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der Deutschen Nationallitteratur," 
Marburg, 1887, from a copy in the Berlin library. The edition of 1536 at Berlin, 
which I have myself seen, differs in the lettering on the title-page from that repro- 
duced by Konnecke. The edition of 1545, also in the Berlin library, has the same 
woodcut, which was also used on the title-page of the 1548 edition, printed by 
Zimmermann, Augsburg (collection of King Frederick Augustus II., Dresden). 

136. THE GARDEN OF LOVE. ILLUSTRATION TO BOCCACCIO. 

B. vii, 266, 97. P. iii, 238, 173b. Nagl. Mon. iii, p. 582, 75, 76. 

In the foreground are two couples walking and a third seated on a 
bank. A flask of wine stands in a wine-cooler marked with Schaufelein's 
monogram and shovel. In the background is a well into which a man 
and a woman are looking ; other couples are seen in various parts of the 
garden. Outside the palings is a palm-tree, and there are buildings on a 
hill in the distance. 

[176 x 163.] Fair, late impression, from Steinmeyer. On the back is the head 
of an Oriental (Scanderbeg ?) not by Schaufelein. 
Purchased from Mr. Daniell, 1877. 



PLATE III 

HANS LEONHARD SCHAUFELEIN 
FRONTISPIECE TO "DIE SCHON MAQELONA" 







Ill 

I K to 
UI3J31UAH03 QHAH 






Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 43 

One of a pair of blocks designed for Steiner's " Decameron," which was never 
printed. First used in " Schertz mit der Warheyt," printed at Frankfort in 1550 by 
Egenolff, who had acquired Steiner's stock of wood-blocks. Inaccurately described 
by Passavant as " Solomon, surrounded by his wives." Nagler describes it twice 
over. Late impressions were issued by Steinmeyer, 1620, and in " Oettingen- 
Wallersteinisches Museum," 1820, a publication of impressions from old blocks now 
preserved at Maihingen. 

The companion subject, representing a betrothal, is reproduced in Weigel's 
" Holzschnitte beriihmter Meister." 



[137-208.] 

SMALL ILLUSTRATIONS TO BOCCACCIO. 

These were designed about 1536, to illustrate Steiner's projected edition of the 
Decameron. They are closely allied in style to Schaufelein's miniatures in the 
Oettingen prayer-book, a MS. in the Berlin Cabinet, dated 1537-38. Five of these 
blocks were used in the first edition of " Die schon Magelona," 1536 ' ; a larger 
number occur in Ghristoph Bruno's " Historien und Fabulen," printed by Steiner in 

1541 (Muther 934), and eight in Platina, "Von der eerlichen Wolust des leibs," 

1542 (Muther 1121). The blocks subsequently passed into the possession of 
Egenolff, who used many of them in other books printed at Frankfort 2 , but the 
complete series was never published. The Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris possesses 
a set of seventy-two subjects, printed in rows of four, on six sheets, twelve subjects 
to a sheet, without repetitions. 

137. A MAN IN BED, WITH HEAD TO R. 

138. THREE MEN AND A WOMAN STANDING; TREES L. AND R. 

139. A MAN AND A WOMAN RIDE TO R. ; A YOUNG MAN STANDS L. 

NEAR A GATE. 

140. A WOMAN SEATED AT TABLE BETWEEN TWO MEN ; WINE-COOLER 

IN FOREGROUND. 

141. A MAN AT TABLE RAISES HIS GLASS TOWARDS A WOMAN WITH 

A CHILD. 

142. A KING AND ANOTHER MAN AT TABLE, CONVERSING. 

143. A MAN BEATING A WOMAN ON HER KNEES. 

144. A MAN AND WOMAN SEATED UNDER A TREE, CONVERSING. 

145. A MAN SEATED UNDER A TREE, CONVERSING WITH A LANDS- 

KNECHT. 

145a. THE SAME ; ANOTHER IMPRESSION. 

146. A MAN BEATING A CAPTIVE. 

147. THREE WOMEN RECLINE UNDER A TREE ; A FOURTH STANDS L. 

148. A MAN ATTACKING HIS WIFE, WHILE A MONK PUTS A CHILD 

INTO THE BED. 

149. TWO SOLDIERS WATCH A MAN RECLINING WITH HIS HEAD ON 

A WOMAN'S LAP. 

1 See no. 135. Some of the series also occur in the editions of 1545 and 1548. 

2 See p. 15, nos. 40, 43-45. 



44 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

150. A LOVER FLEEING FROM AN IRATE HUSBAND ; THE WIFE STANDS 

BETWEEN THEM. 

151. A CARPENTER HEWING A PLANK INTO SHAPE. 

152. A MONK PREACHING TO TWO WOMEN AND AN OLD MAN. 

153. AN OLD MAN TAKING A FLASK FROM A BOY ; TWO WOMEN R. 

154. FOUR MEN, A WOMAN AND A DOG. 

155. A WOMAN MEETS A CARDINAL RIDING, ESCORTED BY A 

HALBERDIER. 

156. A BOAT IN DANGER ; A WOMAN IN THE SEA ; TWO RIDERS ON 

THE SHORE. 

157. A HALBERDIER NEAR A TOWN GATE. 

158. A WOMAN AT TABLE WITH A MONK. 

159. A WOMAN ON HER KNEES NEAR A PILLAR, BETWEEN TWO 

MEN. 

159a. THE SAME ; ANOTHER IMPRESSION. 

160. A SERVANT OFFERING A CUP TO THREE MEN ; TWO OTHER 

PERSONS IN BACKGROUND R. 

181. A WOMAN AND A CHILD IN BED ; AN OLD MAN STANDING R. 

162. A WOMAN ROUSING A MAN FROM SLEEP ; SMALL FIGURES IN 

BACKGROUND R. 

163. A ROOM WITH THREE BEDS ; FIVE PERSONS IN THEM. 

164. A MAN AND WOMAN CONVERSING UNDER AN ARCH. 

165. LOVERS WATCHED BY AN OLD MAN BEHIND A CURTAIN. 

168. A MAN AND WOMAN RIDING TO R. WITH MOUNTED PURSUERS. 

167. A NAKED WOMAN CHASED BY A HUNTSMAN WITH DOGS. 

168. A PRIEST, A NAKED WOMAN ON ALL FOURS, AND A MAN 

HOLDING A TAPER. 

169. A WOMAN IN BED; A MAN DRIVING ANOTHER AWAY WITH 

A SWORD. 

170. A MAN, SWORD IN HAND, OFFERING A COVERED CUP TO A 

WOMAN IN BED. 

171. TWO BOATS, EACH CONTAINING TWO PERSONS. 

172. AN OLD MAN SURROUNDED BY THREE OTHERS. 

173. A PILGRIM APPROACHING THE GATE OF A TOWN. 

174. A MONK ENDEAVOURING TO ESCAPE FROM A WOMAN WHO 

HOLDS HIS SCAPULAR. 

174a. THE SAME; ANOTHER IMPRESSION. 

175. A PILGRIM AND A HALBERDIER. 






Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 45 

176. THROUGH A WINDOW A MONK AND A WOMAN ARE SEEN AT 

TABLE; IN THE FOREGROUND A WOMAN HOLDS A MONK BY 
HIS CLOTHING. 

177. A YOUNG MAN CONVERSING WITH A MAN AND WOMAN AT 

A WINDOW. 

178. A CHURCH L. ; NEAR IT A YOUNG WOMAN R. IN A BOAT. 
178a. THE SAME ; ANOTHER IMPRESSION. 

179. THREE PAIRS OF LOVERS; ONE SEATED, TWO STANDING. 

180. A HUSBAND RIDING AWAY WITH ARMED MEN, WHILE HIS 

WIFE CONVERSES FROM A WINDOW WITH HER LOVER. 

180a. THE SAME; ANOTHER IMPRESSION. 

181. A WOMAN UNDER A PALM TREE, CONVERSING WITH ANOTHER 

WOMAN SEATED. 

182. A MOUNTED MAN OUT HAWKING, WITH A DOG. 

183. A WOMAN IN BED; A KING STANDING IN HER CHAMBER; 

TWO OTHER PERSONS R. 

184. A WOMAN SITTING UNDER A TREE ; ON EITHER SIDE OF HER 

A WOLF AND A STAG. 

185. A WOMAN PURSUED BY A WOLF. 

186. A WOMAN AND A MAN CONVERSING OUTSIDE A GATE. 

187. A KING CONVERSING WITH ANOTHER MAN ACROSS A TABLE. 

188. A MAN ADDRESSING A WOMAN SEATED UNDER A TREE. 

189. A YOUTH CONVERSING WITH AN OLD MAN ABOUT A SEATED 

WOMAN. 

190. WOMEN SPEAKING TO AN OLD MAN SEATED NEAR A 

FOUNTAIN. 

191. THREE MEN SEATED AT TABLE CONVERSING; PILLARS IN 

BACKGROUND. 

192. A MAN AND WOMAN AT TABLE ; A SERVANT APPROACHING L. 

193. A MAN CARRYING A CORPSE, WATCHED BY A WOMAN FROM A 

WINDOW. 

194. TWO WOMEN CONVERSING ; ONE SITS UNDER A TREE. 

195. A MAN SEATED NEAR A FOUNTAIN ; THREE PERSONS WALKING. 

196. TWO MEN LEADING A CAPTIVE TO R. 

197. A MAN AND A WOMAN SEATED ; CASKS R. 

198. A HALBERDIER WALKING TO L. 

199. A MONK HEARING A WOMAN'S CONFESSION. 

200. TWO MEN RIDING TO R. 



46 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

201. TWO WOMEN LIFTING THE LID OF A CHEST IN WHICH A MAN 

IS HIDDEN. 

202. A WOMAN ROWING A BOAT WITH A SMALL SAIL HOISTED. 

203. A MAN ACCOSTING A MOUNTED ECCLESIASTIC. 

204. A WOMAN POINTING TO L., CONVERSING WITH A MAN ; A 

YOUTH LISTENS. 

205. A MAN RIDING A HORSE WITH PANIERS, IN WHICH ARE TWO 

CHILDREN. 

206. A SOLDIER FOLLOWING A HALF-NAKED PRISONER; TWO MEN 

STANDING R. 

207. A MAN AT TABLE, WITH A HEART IN A DISH; A WOMAN 

WALKING AWAY. 

208. TWO WOMEN WADING WITH NETS. 

[c. 67 x 70.] Late impressions varying in quality, some on white, some on 
yellowish paper. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Nos. 144, 166, 181, 185, 188 were used in " Die schon Magelona," 1536. 

209. BUILDINGS ON A PRECIPITOUS ROCK. 

[72 x 66.] Late impression. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

This seventy-third subject does not belong, perhaps, to the Boccaccio set, though 
it has been preserved with them, and the block is of uniform dimensions, though the 
subject is drawn upright. 



VII. WOODCUTS PUBLISHED SEPARATELY. LATEST PEEIOD. 

Nos. 210-238. 

The only date that occurs among the woodcuts of this group is 1536 on no. 212. 
The majority may be referred to the prolific years 1534-1536, being closely allied to 
the illustrations published at that period. The arrangement of this section is by 
subject. 

210. LOT AND HIS DAUGHTERS. B. vii, 246, 4. 

Lot sits r. under a fruit tree. One of the daughters lays her 1. hand 
on his shoulder and holds a wine-cup in her r. hand ; the other daughter 
holds a flagon. In the distance 1. we see Sodom burning and Lot's wife 
turned to a pillar of salt. The monogram is on a scroll fastened to a 
stump, 1. 

[179 x 373.] Old impression, though not very early. Watermark, two shields 
surmounted by a mitre. 
In the inventory of 1837. 
Repr. Hirth, no. 78. 



Division B, School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 47 

211. ESTHER AND AHASUERUS. P. iii, 233, 135. 

In the foreground 1., Esther, crowned, kneels before the king, extending 
her r. hand towards the sceptre which he has lowered (Esther, v. 2). In 
the background are four subordinate scenes : Ahasuerus and Haman at 
the banquet (v., 4), Mordecai riding in royal apparel (vi., 11), Haman 
hanged on the gallows prepared for Mordecai (vii., 10), the Jews slaying 
their enemies (ix., 5-16). The monogram and shovel are on a step r. 

[212 x 355.] Late impression. Traces of cracks disguised. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Repr. Hirth, no. 4. The block is in the Derschau collection (B 32). 

212. SUSANNA AND THE ELDERS. P. iii, 233, 136. 

In the foreground r. is a garden. The two elders are first seen climb- 
ing the wall, then accosting Susanna, who sits near a fountain ; her 
waiting women are outside the gate. In a hall 1. Daniel is seen on the 
judgment seat, and in the distance the elders are being stoned. The date 
1536 is placed over a gateway, and the monogram and shovel on a door 1. 

[207 x 354.] Late impression, retouched. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Repr. Hirth, no. 5. The block is in the Derschau collection (B 33). 

213. THE HISTORY OF BEL AND THE DRAGON. 

Copy? 

K. the Temple of Bel. Daniel enters 1., talking with Cyrus. In the 
foreground is the table on which the offerings of flesh, bread and wine are 
laid for the idol's consumption, with the secret opening by which the 
priests and their families enter by night to take away the food. Near it 
Cyrus is seen addressing the priests of Bel, who are denounced by Daniel. 
L. Daniel is seen about to put a ball of pitch, fat and hair into the dragon's 
mouth. He is arrested and led towards the lions' den. We see him again 
in the den, on the brink of which stands the prophet Habakkuk, who has 
been carried by an angel, by the hair of his head, from Judea to Babylon, 
to bring food to Daniel. 

[215 x 361.] Late impression of a block in the Derschau collection, not 
published by Becker. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

This subject is unsigned and has not been previously attributed to Schaufelein. 
The design is undoubtedly by him, but the block is very badly cut, and is probably a 
mere copy of an original no longer extant, which was uniform with nos. 211, 212. 
In subject this woodcut is a sequel to no. 212. 

214. THE CIRCUMCISION. B. vii, 250, 19. 

The child Christ 1. is surrounded by a group of seven priests and 
ministrants ; Mary and Joseph stand r., and a woman is seen in a doorway 
at the back. A fire burns on a raised hearth or low altar over an arch r. 
Monogram and shovel in 1. lower corner. 

[233 x 157.] Late impression on white paper with a small heraldic watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

Though uniform in dimensions with the early set, nos. 38-56, this subject clearly 
belongs in style to the late period ; it is closely akin, for instance, to no. 211. 



48 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

215. THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS. B. vii, 249, 16. 

The rich man and a lady sit at table on a covered terrace, attended by 
cup-bearer, majordomo and manciple. In the foreground, Lazarus is 
seated ; two dogs stand near him, one of which licks the sores on his foot ; 
the monogram is on the steps 1. Above, the soul of the rich man is seen 
in torment, and that of Lazarus in Abraham's bosom. 

[216 x 161.] Late impression. Heraldic watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

216. CHRIST AND THE WOMAN OP SAMARIA. B. vii, 249, 18. 

Christ sits r., near the well, extending his r. hand towards the woman, 
who stands holding a pitcher in her r. hand. The Apostles are seen 1. 
returning from the town. Monogram and shovel on one of the upright 
pillars of the well. 

[222 x 164.] Late impression, retouched with Indian ink. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

217. THE LAST SUPPER. B. vii, 251, 26. 

At an oblong table in the foreground, in a renaissance building, Christ 
is seated, addressing the eleven Apostles who remain after the departure of 
Judas. Under arches in the background are represented two subordinate 
scenes : 1. Christ giving the sop to Judas, r. Christ washing St. Peter's 
feet. Servants and other persons, unconcerned in the main action, are 
seen about the building, carrying baskets and flasks, or leaning on a 
parapet and listening to Christ's discourse. The monogram and shovel are 
on a flask in the foreground. 

[645 x 1075.] Printed from eight blocks. Good impression, not early. 
Purchased from Mr. Lauser, 1892. 
Repr. Hirth, no. 594. 

218. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. SEBASTIAN. 

The saint, whose body is already pierced by two arrows, stands r., 
bound by the arms to a tree. Two archers armed with long-bow and 
cross-bow stand 1. under trees, accompanied by officers and others (seven 
persons in all). Monogram and shovel on the ground in 1. lower corner. 

[288 x 227.] Late impression on brownish paper, the block much worn. 
Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1852. 

Undescribed, perhaps unique. The character of the foliage shows the work to be 
quite late. 

210. A BATTLE BETWEEN TURKS AND EUROPEAN TROOPS. 

Separate engagements are in progress in many parts of a wooded 
country. In the foreground 1. European infantry, commanded by an 
officer on horseback, have routed some Turkish cavalry, who ride away to 
r. past a village church ; some stragglers, who have fallen into a river, are 
being killed with a spear. In the background a cavalry engagement is in 
progress in a defile between two hills. Detachments of European troops 
stand waiting on either side ; Turkish stragglers are shot down and their 
riderless horses escape into the open. R. the tents of the European camp, 
and buildings on a low hill. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 49 

[285 x 385.J Old impression, not very early. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Not signed, but certainly by Schaufelein, in the style of the Siege of Bethulia 
(Derschau, B 34), though the figures are on a much smaller scale. The subject may 
be an incident in the campaign of 1532 against Soliman. The woodcut was doubtless 
published with text, perhaps as an illustration to the poem by Hans Sachs, entitled 
" Historia des Tiirckischen Scharmutzels bey der newen stat in Osterreich, Anno 
1532," and dated 28 Dec. 1532 (fol. 211 v. of vol. i of the collected edition, Nurem- 
berg, 1558). 

220. THE TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION OF CHARLES V. 

B. ix, 150, 1. P. iii, 247, 1. Nagl. Mon. iii, p. 345, 2. 

The procession, advancing from r. to 1., is printed from nine blocks. 
The first contains a standard-bearer, two trumpeters and a drummer, all 
mounted. These are followed by another mounted group of six trumpeters 
and a soldier on foofc. On the third block, four soldiers lead the first team 
of four horses that draw the Emperor's car ; four more men, one mounted, 
escort the second team (fourth block), while the third team (fifth block) is 
in charge of three soldiers on foot. In the upper part of the fifth block 
is a large wreath of bay, supported by two genii, holding the pillars of 
Hercules. The bay leaves are inscribed with the names of thirty-six 
virtues, three together, MODERATIO, IVSTICIA, POTENTIA, etc.,inEoman 
capitals ; all these virtues may be found inscribed on various parts of the 
great Triumphal Car of Maximilian, by Diirer, 1 which has evidently served 
as a precedent. Inside the wreath is the inscription (also xylographic), 
TRIVMPHVS CAROLI I IMPERATORIS EIVSI NOMINIS QVINTI. The sixth 
and seventh blocks are occupied by the triumphal car itself, with its driver 
and escort. Charles is seated on the car under a canopy adorned with the 
imperial eagle, the arms of Spain, Austria and Burgundy, and laurel 
wreaths, and surmounted by the sun. The Emperor holds the orb and 
sceptre, while the crown is held over his head by a winged genius. His 
grandfather Maximilian, and father, Philip, stand behind him ; two other 
princes (Ferdinand of Aragon and Charles the Bold of Burgundy ?) stand 
before him. Another ancestor, perhaps Rudolph of Habsburg, is repre- 
sented on the side of the car, reclining. The car is further adorned with 
the arms of the various dominions ruled by Charles. At the back is a 
lion. On either side, immediately before the driver, ride two heralds, 
each carrying one of the pillars of Hercules, surmounted by the royal and 
imperial crowns. Several soldiers accompany the car and help to turn the 
wheels. On the eighth block are five mounted officers, or noblemen, the 
last of whom carries a laurel branch, with two attendants on foot ; and on 
the ninth five more mounted men, with three foot-soldiers and a dog, bring 
up the rear of the procession. Every member of the procession wears a 
wreath of bay, as in the Triumph of Maximilian by Burgkmair and others. 

[400 x 2740.] Late impression, with no publisher's address. Watermark in- 
distinct (eagle?). 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Repr. Hirth, nos. 734, 739, 744. The woodcut does not bear Schaufelein's 
signature, and is ascribed in all the older catalogues to Hans Guldenmund, who was 
merely the publisher of the first edition. It was strangely overlooked by Muther in 
his brief survey of the work of Schaufelein, though it is one of the most important 
of the artist's late works. 

1 Vol. I, p. 338, no. 145. 



50 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

The earliest edition is that printed by Guldenmund in 1537, of which the 
Albertina and the Berlin Cabinet possess early illuminated copies, the former on 
vellum, enriched with gold, and in brilliant preservation. The Berlin copy, coloured, 
measures 44 x 270 cm. ; it is mounted on linen and rolled. This edition has Latin 
text, partly prose, partly verse, printed at the top in seven columns of unequal 
width, and at the end the address, " NORNBERGAE EXCUDEBAT | IOHANNES 
GULDENMUND. | ANNO M.D. xxxvii." 1 Nagler describes, probably from the 
copy now at Berlin, an edition with the same address, but the date M.D. xxxviii. 
This is evidently a mistake ; he also quotes inaccurately the inscription printed 
within the wreath of bay. This, in the edition of 1537, is printed with movable 
type, in the following form, SOLA TVO CAPITI DIGNA EST HAEC | LAVREA 
CAESAR. This, as we have seen, was replaced later by a different inscription, 
printed from a block, being a mere description of the subject, whereas the original 
words may almost be described as a dedication. 

The Hofbibliothek, Vienna, possesses an undated edition, 2 later than Gulden- 
mund's, with the address " Gedruckt zu Niirnberg boy Johann Kramer." 3 In this 
edition there is no inscription in the wreath and no printed text except the publisher's 
address. Nagler mentions another edition, " Gedruckt zu Niirnberg durch Peter 
Steinbach Formschneider," which I have not seen. His suggestion that this 
address is earlier than Guldenrnund's is absurd, for Steinbach occurs in the lists of 
Briefmaler at Nuremberg from 1577 to 1636, when he died. (Zahn's Jahrbttcher, 
i, 230, 231). 

220a. THE TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION OF CHARLES V. 

A still later impression ; the outline of the standard, intact in no. 220, is now 
broken. Xylographic inscriptions as before ; no address. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

[221-235.] 

DANCERS AT A WEDDINO. B. vii, 267, 103. 

On certain numbers of this series, by other artists than Schaufelein, see Vol. I, 
pp. 477, 540. The whole series has been reproduced by Andresen, Paris, 1865, and 
by Hirth, " Bilderbuch," i, 55-74. The separate subjects are described by Prof. H. 
W. Singer in his catalogue of the v. Lanna collection (nos. 6224-6247) more fully 
than elsewhere. The order in which they should stand is uncertain ; the MS. 
numbering, in two old hands, on the backs of our own impressions, may be right. 
I found evidence some years ago that the series was published in 1535, but I have, 
unfortunately, lost my note, and no longer remember where I saw a dated impression. 4 
Berlin possesses old, though not very early, coloured impressions of fourteen couples, 
with verses at the top, and the address "Gedruckt durch Hans Guldenmundt " on 
three sheets. Nuremberg possesses old coloured impressions with the address 

1 There i& an interesting contemporary reference to this edition in the " Niirnberger 
Ratsverlasse," ed. Hampe, 1904 (Quellenschriftcn filr Kunstgeschichte, N. F. xi), p. 
313, no. 2237, 5 (?) April 1537. " Hannsen Guldenmunds keiserischen triumph, 
damn er Meine Herren verehrt, also ruhen lassen, bisz das verteutscht auch kompt ; 
alsdan, wormit man ine verehren woll ratig werden." Guldenmund, it appears, 
presented the Council with a copy of the Latin edition, announcing that a German 
edition was to follow. The Council decided to wait for the arrival of the latter and 
then consider what sum to give him in return for his offering. 

2 L, 3, fol. 18-24, uncoloured. 

3 Probably identical with Hanns Cremer, mentioned in the list of Nuremberg 
Briefmaler in 1558 and 1561 (Zahn's Jahrbiicher, i, 230). Hans Cramer occurs as Form- 
schneider in 1547 (ibid. 234), and as Buchdrucker in 1560 (ibid. 238). See p. 55, no. 7. 

4 Breu's Augsburg Chronicle (p. 78, edition of 1906) describes a splendid dance 
held in ,that city on 6 February 1537, eight days after the wedding of Hans 
Baumgartner and Anna von Stadion (not Stetten) ; " darnach ain kostlichen dantz, 
[wiej der in langer zeit nie gesehen ist worden .... da was kain tadl, in keiner 
hoflart nichts gesparfc." The dance drawn by Schaufelein took place, most likely, at 
Nuremberg ; the quotation is only given to illustrate the custom of holding such a 
dance at a fashionable wedding at this period. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schdufelein. 51 

" Gedruckt zu Nurnberg, durch. Peter Steinbach Formschneider." In these old 
impressions many more subjects bear Schaufelein's signature than in the ordinary, 
late impressions of which our own series consists. 
All except no. 234 are in the inventory of 1837. 

221. THE LEADERS OP THE PROCESSION. Hirth 65. 

A man with a wand in his r. hand, perhaps master of the ceremonies, 
goes first. He has Austrian and other heraldic badges attached to his 
coat. He is followed by two men carrying flambeaux. 

[222 x 232.] Old, but late impression ; watermark, small imperial eagle. 
Numbered 1 in old MS. 

The old impression at Berlin has a tablet with the printed words " Vmb umb " 
(round, round) over the leader. 

222. A COUPLE EMBRACING. Hirth 71. Singer 6229. 

The body is seen 1., full face to front ; the gentleman r., from the back. He wears 
the collar of the Golden Fleece. 

[230 x 175.] As no. 221 in all respects. Numbered 3 and 4 in two different 
hands. 

223. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 68, Singer 6234. 

The lady 1. wears leaves on her head, which is profile to r. The gentle- 
man r. wears a soft cap, and has a large chain round his neck ; his 1. hand 
is on his rapier. Monogram in 1. lower corner. 

[247 X 208.] As no. 221. Numbered 5 in two different hands. 

224. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 58, Singer 6230. 

The lady 1. wears a wide hat with feathers and very large sleeves. The 
gentleman r. is bare-headed ; the fore-finger of his 1. hand is bent round 
the hilt of his sword. 

[224 x 176.] As no. 221. Numbered 6 in the later hand. 

225. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 60, Singer 6242. 

Both seen from the back, their heads in profile to 1. The gentleman 1. 
has his hair in a net, the lady r. has a small hat with feathers ; a scarf 
flutters behind her. 

[240 x 205.] As no. 221, but watermark A in a circle. Not numbered. 

228. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth, 67, Singer 6243. 

The lady 1., in a hat with feathers, turns her head round towards the 
gentleman r., who holds her 1. hand in his r. hand ; the train of the lady's 
dress extends to the extreme r. Monogram below 1. 

[257 x 195.] As no. 221. Numbered 10 in the later hand. 

227. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 63, Singer 6241. 

They move to 1., the lady in advance, holding one another by the hand. 
The lady is seen in profile to 1., the man is middle-aged, with a beard, and 
bare-headed ; he holds a cap in his 1. hand ; small trees 1. 

[240 x 190.] As no. 221. Numbered 11 in the later hand. 

E 2 



52 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

228. A PAIR OP DANCERS. Hirth 69, Singer 6232. 

They move to r., the gentleman in advance, looking back to 1. and 
holding a hat in his 1. hand. The lady has a wide hat with feathers. 
Monogram and shovel in r. lower corner. 

[250 X 206.] As no. 221. Numbered 12 in the later hand. 

229. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 57, Singer 6244. 

They hold their heads close together, as if whispering. The gentleman 
wears the order of the Golden Fleece ; his hat hangs at his back. 

[240 x 188.] As no. 221. Numbered 13 in the later hand. 

230. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 72, Singer 6238. 

They move to 1., both wearing wide hats ; the man's has a feather in 
front. 

[245 x 190.] As no. 221. Numbered 14 in the later hand. 

231. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 61, Singer 6246. 

The lady, wearing a hat with feathers, turns her head back to r. Her 
partner, carrying a hat with feathers in his 1. hand, has his head in profile 
tol. 

[248 x 182.] As no. 221. Numbered 15 in the later hand. 

232. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 62, Singer 6228. 

The lady 1. is seen full face, in a wide hat with feathers under it. Her 
partner wears a sprig of foliage on his head. 

[240 x 190.] As no. 221, but a different watermark, a shield with staff and 
serpent over it. Numbered 16 in the later hand. 

233. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 70, Singer 6233. 

The lady 1., wears a coif on her head, which is turned back to r. Her 
partner in a hat with feathers, holds his face close to hers. 

[260 x 200.] As no 221. Numbered 17 in both hands. 

234. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 64, Singer 6227. 

The lady 1., wears leaves on her head. The gentleman r. holding her 
hand, turns away and looks back ; he has large ostrich plumes on his hat. 

[260 x 175.] Old coloured impression, unlike the rest of the series; on dis- 
coloured paper without watermark. The monogram, which should appear 1., has 
been cut off. 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. 5944, 114). Transferred from the Department 
of Printed Books, 1900. 

234a. A PAIR OF DANCERS. Hirth 64, Singer 6227. 

[258 x 185.] Later impression, as no. 221. Numbered 18 in the later hand. 

235. A COUPLE EMBRACING. Hirth 66, Singer 6235. 

The lady is seen from the back, with her face in profile to 1. The 
gentleman's head is seen over her r. shoulder. 

[260 x 190.] As no. 221, but no watermark. Numbered 19 in the later hand. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Schaufelein. 53 

236. FEASTERS AND MUSICIANS. B. vii, 265, 96. 

A lady is seated 1. with her arms folded in her lap. To r. of a small 
tree an elderly man is uncovering a cup and offering it to the lady by his 
side ; behind them is a man with a hawk on his 1. hand. A dwarf in a 
fool's cap lays his hands on a column, on which Schaufelein's monogram 
and shovel are drawn. To r. of the column are four musicians in a gallery, 
and a woman seated on a stone bench with a dog lying beside her. In the 
1. corner is a wine-cooler. 

[273 X 403.] Good early impression without watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Repr. Hirth, no. 79. This subject is probably connected with the Dancers at a 
Wedding. 

[237-238.] 

ILLUSTRATIONS TO POEMS BY HANS SACHS. 

237. A PAIR OF WILD MEN OF THE WOODS. (of. P. iii, 238, 169, 170.) 

Copy? 

(1.) A hairy man crowned with leaves, in profile to r., holds a sapling 
in his r. hand, while he lays his 1. hand on the head of a boy, who bends 
over a standing dog. Grass and small bushes on the ground ; the back- 
ground otherwise is empty. [243 X 131 (cut).] 

(2.) A hairy woman, crowned and girt about the waist and hips with 
leaves, faces three-quarters 1. She holds a sprig of an apple tree in her 1. 
hand, while she lays her r. hand on the head of a boy who turns away from 
her, holding in both his hands a tall flowering plant. R. a small bush on 
rising ground. [252 x 130 (cut).] 

Old impressions, originally on the same sheet, but cut in two ; on coarse paper 
without watermark. 

From the Bagford Collection ; transferred from the Department of MSS., 1814. 

Strictly speaking, these are not two separate woodcuts, but a single one cut in 
halves. Late impressions of the undivided block are to be found in Becker's " Hans 
Sachs im Gewande seiner Zeit," 1821, no. xiv. The poem by Hans Sachs which 
Schaufelein illustrated is dated 2 June, 1530, in the first collected edition. 

237a. A PAIR OF WILD MEN OF THE WOODS. P. iii, 238, 169, 170. 

Copies. 

The two subjects are printed from separate blocks, side by side. To r., 
on the same sheet, is the poem by Hans Sachs in two columns, of sixty-six 
and sixty-two lines respectively, with the title, " Klag der wilden Holtzleiit | 
vber die vngetrewen Welt," and the address, " 1f Gedruckt zii Nurnberg 
durch | Hans Gruldenmundt | 1545." 

[Sheet, 262 x 395.] The woodcuts are coloured. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

These impressions are from the blocks now preserved in the Derschau Collection, 
and published by Becker in 1810 (B 41), whereas the single block published by Becker 
in 1821 (" Hans Sachs, etc.") is the other copy, of which no. 237 is an old impression. 
The difference is most noticeable in the drawing of the plants on the ground. 
No. 237a has a larger bush in the 1. lower corner than no. 237 (1), and the ground 
rises higher between the legs of the dog and the 1. leg of the child. Between 
no. 237 (2) and the corresponding portion of no. 237a there are differences of detail 
less easy to describe. 



54 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

237b. A PAIR OF WILD MEN OF THE WOODS. 

Copy. 

Free reduced copy of the two groups combined. The child accompany- 
ing the man now sits astride across the back of a seated dog. The other 
child turns r. instead of 1. There is more landscape background and a stag 
is seen on either side, at the extreme 1. and r. The woodcut [202 x 153] 
is printed on the 1. side of a sheet which contains the same poem by Hans 
Sachs, commencing above the woodcut, without title or address. 

[Sheet, 250 X 330.] Late impression (c. 1600 ?) on coarse paper without 
watermark. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1862. 

The Berlin Museum possesses an early impression [255 x 275] of a copy in which 
the two groups are united by a landscape background. We look out through the 
opening of a cave, which forms a frame to the picture, over the heads of the man 
and woman. In the middle, between the two children, we see in the distance a 
stag, a horse, and a hare ; through the open space between the woman's 1. arm and 
her body we see a camel. The landscape, and especially the trees, are utterly alien to 
Schaufelein in style, and suggestive of a much later period in the XVI century. The 
groups themselves, the ground on which they stand, and the little bushes near them 
agree very closely in drawing with our impression, no. 237a, but there are several 
minute differences; e.g., in the termination of the man's beard, the large thorn r. on 
his staff, details in the wreaths worn by both man and woman, the end of the dog's 
tail and the outline of its belly, which is more hairy in no. 237 than in the copy at 
Berlin. The back of the child r. in the Berlin copy touches his mother's thigh ; in 
237 and 237a there is a clear, though narrow, interval between them. 

238. THE FABLE OF THE HERMIT AND HIS ASS. B. vii, 268, 104-109. 

(1) A herald 1. addresses the hermit (or the poet ?). Behind them is a 
wall with a gateway in it. No signature. 

(2) The hermit and his son tie n millstone round the donkey's neck and 
sink it in the river. Two men look on r. standing under a tree. No 
signature. 

[Each cut, 108 x 150.] Old impressions, not very early. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

B. describes six woodcuts of this series, of which the fourth and fifth are signed. 
He does not explain the subject. To judge by the copies, the complete series should 
consist of eight subjects, of which the first (B. 104) and the eighth (not in B.), repre- 
senting an emperor, herald, and pope, form, as it were, the prologue and epilogue. 
The well-known story is divided by the illustrator of Hans Sachs' poem, " Der 
Waldbruder mit dem Esel. Der argen Welt thut niemand recht," into six scenes. 
1. The hermit and his son set out to see the world, leading their donkey. They meet 
a soldier, who makes fun of them for not riding on it (B. 108). 2. The son mounts 
the donkey, whereupon an old woman chides him for letting his old father walk 
(B. 107). 3. The father mounts instead, and is reproached for letting his son walk 
in the mud (B. 105). 4. Thereupon the son suggests that they should both ride, and 
they are rebuked by a beggar for overworking the donkey (B. 106). 5. The son pro- 
poses that they should carry the donkey, and see whether that plan meets with more 
approval than the rest. They are rebuked again, and the son says they had better 
kill the donkey (not in B.). 6. They do so, and sink it in the river with a millstone 
(B. 109). The son admits that his father is right ; it is impossible to please the 
world, and they had better go back to their hermitage. 

Schaufelein's woodcuts follow the story, but to judge by B.'s description, they do 
not agree closely with Hans Sachs' poem as regards the rank of the various persons 
who encounter the travellers. The poem is dated 6 May, 1531. 

238a. THE FABLE OF THE HERMIT AND HIS ASS. 

Copy. 

The story, divided into eight scenes, divided by pilasters, is drawn on 
two blocks, printed one above the other. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Sehdufelein. 55 

[Each block, 90 x 340 ; sheet, 197 x 348.] Old, rather faint impression ; on the 
back is the woodcut described in Vol. I, p. 543, no. 2. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

This is, strictly speaking, an imitation, rather than a copy, of the series described 
by Bartsch. It may even be based on an independent series of drawings by 
Schaufelein, whose style is still clearly discernible in spite of the rough execution of 
these blocks. The features resemble those in certain miniatures of the Oettingen 
prayer-book (1537-38), and in the illustrations to Apuleius (1538), which are not 
much better cut than this pair of blocks. 

238b. THE FABLE OF THE HERMIT AND HIS ASS. 

A fragment of the same copy, being the first compartment only [86 x 83] more 
strongly printed. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

238c. THE FABLE OF THE HERMIT AND HIS ASS. 

Another copy in eight scenes, similar in arrangement to 238a, but 
different in detail ; originally, no doubt, printed on one sheet, but now cut 
into two longitudinally. 

_ [First block, 93 x 351 ; second block, 94 x 347.] Old impressions, heavily 
printed. On the back are fragments of a late woodcut of the Crucifixion. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

These blocks, reduced in width by the sacrifice of the first and eighth compart- 
ments, were printed in Becker's " Hans Sachs, etc." 1821, no. xxi. 



APPENDIX TO SCHAUFELEIN. 



The following are the more important of the remaining woodcuts of Schaufelein's 
latest period, not represented in this collection. 

1. Abraham's Sacrifice, 150 x 360. B. vii, 246, 3. Lanna collection, Prague, 
(Singer, no. 6989) ; Hofbibliothek, Vienna. 

2. The Story of Job, 150 x 360. Block in the Derschau collection, Berlin 
(unpublished). 

3. The Siege of Bethulia. P. iii, 234, 137. Nagl. Mon. iii, p. 579, no. 6. 
Derschau, B 34. 

4. The Temptation of Christ, 222 x 160. Dresden; an imperfect impression, 
135 mm. in width, at Berlin. 

5. The Raising of Lazarus, 370 X 1080, B. vii, 249, 17. Repr. Hirth, no. 619. 
Hofbibliothek, Vienna. 

6. Christ conversing with Zacchseus, 152 x 359. Block in the Derschau 
collection, Berlin (unpublished). 

7. The Last Judgment, 237 x 158. Germanic Museum, Nuremberg, is a border 
also by Schaufelein, consisting of columns with heads of Emperors in medallions, 
three on either side ; above and below the woodcut a space for German text ; signed 
below, " Hans Kramer." Size of whole, 330 x 241. 

8. A large battle scene, 390 x 1100. B. vii, 267, 102. Albertina, Vienna. 

9. A woman being bled, 218 x 375. Albertina, Vienna. 

10. Two men and a woman in a row, 176 (cut) x 158. Collection of Prince Thurn 
and Taxis, Regensburg. 



56 



II. HANS BURGKMAIR. 

Hans Burgkmair, the elder, painter, etcher and draughtsman on 
wood ; born at Augsburg, 1473 ; son of Thoman Burgkmair (died 
1523); pupil of his father and of Schongauer; received as master by 
the Augsburg guild of painters, 1498 ; illustrated books for the 
leading Augsburg presses, those of Ratdolt, Oglin, J. and S. Otmar, 
Schonsperger and Miller, and took a large part in the woodcut works 
commissioned by Maximilian I ; died 1531. His wife, Anna 
Allerlahn, whose portrait he painted with his own in 1529, survived 
him ; their son, Hans (II) (died 1559), was an unimportant painter 
and etcher. 

Authorities : 
i. Catalogues. 

Bartsch, P. G. vii, 197. 

Passavant, P. G. iii, 264. 

Nagler, Mon. iii, 237, no. 708. 

Muther, " Bucherillustration," i, 130. 

Muther, " Ckronologisches Verzeickniss der Werke H. B.'s," 

Rupert. f. Kinistic., ix, 410. 
ii. Biographical and critical notices. 1 

Sandrart, " Teutsche Akadeinie," iii, 232. 

Huber, " Die Malerfamilie Burgkmair von Augsburg,'' Zeitschr. 

d. hist. Vereins f. Schwaben u. Neubury, i, 310. 
Muther, " H. B. Eine biographische Skizze," Zeitschr. f. Hid. 

Kunst, xix, 337, 378. 

Schmid, " Forechungen iiber Hans Burgkmair," 1888. 
Liitzow, "Geschichte des deutschen Kupferstiches und Holzsch- 

nibtes," 1891, 130. 
Jahrbuch d. Kwisthist. Samml. d. Allerh. Kaiserhauses, Wien, 

1883, etc. Bd. i, Triumphal Procession (Schestag) ; vi, 

Weisskunig (Schultz) ; vii, x, Genealogy (Laschitzer, 

Frimmel) ; viii, Theuerdank (Laschitzer) ; xv, chiaroscuro 

woodcuts (Chmelarz). 
Dornkoffer, " Uber B. und Diirer," in " Beitrage zur Kunst- 

geschichte, Franz Wickhoff gewidmet," 1903, 111. 

There is no adequate monograph on Burgkmair, while the catalogues 
of his works subsequent to that of Bartsch are loaded with entries which 

1 Those referring to a single woodcut or a limited group are not cited here, but in 
the appropriate place in the catalogue. 



Division B. School o/ Augsburg. Burgkmair. 57 

properly relate to the woodcuts of Hans Weiditz, who was known for a 
time as the Pseudo-Burgkmair, or Master of the Illustrations to Petrarch. 
The reaction against the confusion of this master with Burgkmair was 
inaugurated by Dr. W. von Seidlitz, 1 and culminated in the publication, 
in 1904, of a monograph by Dr. H. Rottinger, devoted to the work of 
Weiditz under his right name. 2 



BOOKS ILLUSTEATED BY BURGKMAIR. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FEINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [STAMLER.] Dyalogus Johannis Stamler Augusts. | de diver- 
sarum gencium sectis | et mundi religionibus. G. Oglin and G. Nadler, 
22 May, 1508 ; fol. (Muther 3 858 ; Pr. 10704). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. Another copy, transferred from the Depart- 
ment of Printed Books, 1889. 

Title-page, signed [288 X 185], repeated on the hack of the leaf. B. 39 ; M. 19. 

2. [GEILER.] Das buch granatapfel. Ain gaistliche bedeutung 
des aussgangs der kinder Israhel von Egipto. Die gaistlich spinnerin. 
Ain gaistliche bedeutung des heszlins. Die siben hauptsund. J. Otmar, 
Augsburg, 1510 ; fol. (Muther 862 ; Pr. 10678). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1870. 
Six woodcuts by Burgkmair : 



A 1 v. Christ with Lazarus, Martha and Mary. B. 16 ; M. 39. Signed. 
1 1 v. The destruction of Pharaoh in the Bed Sea. B. 3 ; M. 40. Signed. 



a 1 v. St. Elizabeth of Hungary, spinning. B. 28 (wrongly described) ; M. 41 
A a 1 v. A cook disembowelling a hare. B. 71 ; M. 42. Signed. 
a a 1 v. Seven demons with swords, typifying the seven deadly sins. B. 62 ; 
M. 43. Signed. 

(6) c c 2. Seven scabbards, typifying the virtues contrary to the aforesaid sins. 

3. [GEILER.] Predigen teiitsch [ vnd vil gutter leeren. Des hoch | 
gelerten herrn Johan von Kay j sersperg. | J. Otmar, Augsburg, 1510 ; 
fol. (Pr. 10679). 

Purchased at the Singer sale, 1860. 

Three woodcuts by Burgkmair, repeated from the edition of 1508 (p. 61, no. 6). 

(1) Pol. 1 v. Pilgrims climbing a hill (Der berg des schouwenden lebens, the 
mountain of the contemplative life). M. 16. 

(2) Fol. 38 v. Pilgrims passing a wayside cross and shrine. B. 72 ; M. 17. Signed. 

(3) Fol. 136 v. Zaccheus climbing a tree to see Christ. M. 18. 

1 Jahrb. d. k. preuss. Kunstsammlungen, xii, 158. 

2 "Hans Weiditz der Petrarkameister," Studien zur deutschen KunstgeschicMe, 
Heft 50. 

3 Muther, in the present list, applies, as usual, to that author's " Biicher- 
illustration " ; in the case of individual woodcuts, his " Chronologisches Verzeichniss 
der Werke Hans Burgkmairs des Aelteren (Repertorium filr Kunstwissenschaft, ix, 
410) is cited as " M." 



58 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

. 4. [RICCL] In Aposto | lorum simbolum | Pauli Ricii ora | toris 

dialogus. J. Miller. Augsburg, 4 April, 1514 ; 4to. (Muther 867 ; 

Pr. 10828). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1870. 
Title-page by Burgkmair, M. 145. Signed. 

5. [MAEN.] Das leiden Jesu | Christi vnsers erlosers. Senders 
andachtiger | lere Nutzperlicher be | trachtung ausz den | vier Euange- 
listen | entlichen durch | Wolffgang von Man. | in gesatz | weisz be | 
zwung- | en. Hans Schonsperger jun., Augsburg, 1515 ; 4to. (Muther 
866 ; Pr. 10738). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 
The following cuts are by Burgkmair : 

(1) a 3. The author presenting his book to the Emperor. 1 M. 149 [91 x 67]. 

(2) a 3 v. ( repeated m 4 v). Christ on the cross between the two thieves ; the 
centurion is piercing his side. 2 M. 150. Signed [141 x 93]. 

b 2. The raising of Lazarus. M. 151. Signed [142 x 94]. 

b 4. Caiaphas addressing the council. M. 152 [92 x 67]. 

c 2. Mary Magdalen anointing Jesus' feet. M. 153. Signed [91 x 67]. 

d 2. Christ expelling the money-changers. M. 155. Signed [91 x 66], 

e 2. Judas going to the priests to betray Jesus. [92 x 68]. 

k 3 v. Herod sending Jesus back to Pilate. M. 158 [93 x 68]. 

e passe-partouts [141 x 96], of four different designs t in which the smaller 
woodcuts are enclosed, appear to be also by Burgkmair. Each pattern contains the 
arms of the Empire arid of Austria, with black arabesque ornament on a white 
ground. The pattern dated 1515 contains in addition the arms of W. v. Maen, two 
crescents addorsed. 

6. [ECK.] Joan. Eckii Theologi in | summulas Petri Hispani. . . . | 

. . . . explanatio. J. Miller, Augsburg, May, 1516; fol. (Muther 869; 
Pr. 10833). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1870. 

On the title-page, the imperial eagle with the arms of Ingolstadt, Freiburg and 
Tubingen. B. 35 ; M. 323. Signed [130 x 127]. 

7. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. J. Schonsperger sen., Nuremberg, 
1517 ; fol. (Muther 845 ; Pr. 11180). Imperfect copy on vellum (see 
Vol. I, pp. 419, 504, Vol. II, p. 7). 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

The following subjects (quoted by the numbers attached to them in the book) are 
by Burgkmair: 



22. Theuerdank in peril on a chamois hunt. 

36. Theuerdank endangered by an avalanche. 

44. Theuerdank nearly shoots himself with a crossbow. 

47. Theuerdank's horse falls under him. 

49. Theuerdank, on a chamois hunt, is endangered by stones loosened by 



the rain. The figure of Theuerdank, inserted in the block, is by Beck. 
(6) 61. Theuerdank on a boar hunt. 

1 See p. 63, no. 25. Prof. L. Kaemmerer has made the plausible suggestion that 
a drawing of 1518 at Chatsworth, wrongly attributed to Dvirer (L. 400), is a portrait 
of Maen (Mitt, d Gsterr. Vereins f. Bibliothekswesen, ix, 42). 

* This block was afterwards used at Venice in the Aquileia Missal printed by 
Jacobus Pencius de Leucho at the expense of Johann Oswald, 16 Sept., 1517 ; 4 to - 
Weale, " Cat. Miss.", p. 27, Rivoli, " Les Missels Venitiens," pp. 75, 142 (with 
reproduction of the woodcut). The cut was there placed in the frame which encloses 
the text on the opposite page in Maen's book. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 59 

(7) 63. Theuerdank, riding, escapes falling into a hidden spring. Corrections 
have been made by Beck in the figure of Theuerdank. 

8\ 102. Theuerdank defeating another knight in single combat with swords. 
9) 109. The three captains brought up for judgment. 

113. Queen Ehrenreich requiring of Theuerdank another exploit. Signed. 



114. Ehrenhold delivering Ehrenreich's message to Theuerdank. 

115. An angel counselling Theuerdank to do the Queen's pleasure. 
118. Theuerdank walking on swords. 



8. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. J. Schonsperger, sen., Augsburg, 
1519 ; fol. (Muther 846 ; Pr. 10939). 

Imperfect. Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 
The same cuts as in no. 7. 

9. [ZOLLEE.] Durchbetrachtungvn | Bekarung Der bossen gebreych 
in 1 schweren siinden, 1st gemacht Dy- j ser Spyegel Der Blinden. ] V[on]. 
H[aug], Z [oiler]. Im jar. 1522. (M. Ramminger, Augsburg, 1522) 
4to. (Muther 888). 

Purchased from Mr. Breslauer, 1905. 

On the title-page, signed cut by Burgkmair, a round mirror with the sacred 
monogram supported by an elderly man and held at the top by an elector and a 
cardinal, both blindfolded. A nobleman and a peasant stand below, pointing up to 
the mirror. Near the peasant are Burgkmair 's initials. M. 810 [130 X 120]. 
Bepr. (reduced) in Breslauer's catalogue, no. 1, p. 91. Two books in the library, 
" Ain Spiegel Der Blinds" and " Blinden Spiegel," s. 1. e. a., contain a woodcut of 
the same subject but entirely different in composition, and unsigned [132 x 110]. 

10. [CICERO.] Officia M. T. C. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 16 Feb. 
1531 ; fol. 

Purchased from Mr. Breslauer, 1905. 

One signed cut, B. 74, M. 499, fol. 78, first used in Alsaharavius [Khalaf], 
Liber theoricae, etc., 1519 (Muther 875, see p. 62, no. 19). 

11. [AVILA.] Ein nutzlich Regiment der gesundt I heit, Genant das 
Vanquete. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 11 May, 1531 ; 4to. (Muther 1083). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1870. 

One cut by Burgkmair, sig. A 4 v., the author writing in his study. M. 921. 
Signed [118 x 120]. 

First used in the Spanish edition of 1530 (p. 63, no. 26). 

12. [STEINMEYER.] Newe Kimstliche, | Wohlgerissene, vnnd in 
Holtz ge- | schnittene Figuren. V. Steinineyer, Frankfort, 1620 ; 4to. 
(Imperfect). 

Presented by the National Art Collections Fund, 1906. 

(1) Sig. Tt 1 y. Six doctors seated at a table, B. 74. (2) Tt 2. An author 
kneeling in the midst of a group of kings and queens (see p. 63, no. 29). 

13. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. M. Wagner, Ulm, 1679; fol. 
(Muther 853). 

Imperfect, wanting the last ten leaves, with nine woodcuts, six of which appeared 
for the first time in this edition (a perfect copy is in the library). 

Purchased from Mr. Daniells, 1864. 

The same cuts as in nos. 7 and 8. Among the last six cuts (missing in this copy), 
which were not used in the early editions, is one by Burgkmair. 



60 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

14. [TREITZSAURWEIN.] Der Weisskunig. Vienna, 1775 ; fol. 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1850. 

(1-109) One hundred and nine of the woodcuts are by Burgkmair : nos. 1, 3, 4, 11, 
12, 14, 15, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31, 40, 42-46, 49-52, 54, 60, 62, 63, 65-73, 
75-77, 80, 83, 84, 86, 88-90, 93-95, 100, 101, 103, 105, 107, 110, 115, 116, 113, 121, 122, 
125-127, 130, 131, 136, 139, 143, 145, 146, 148, 149, 151, 153, 154, 161, 163, 166, 171, 
173, 174, 177, 178, 183, 185, 191, 195-198, 206, 207, 209-212, 214-216, 219, 225, 228, 
231-233, 235. 

In a few cases the names of the wood engravers are recorded on the blocks at 
Vienna. No. 68 was cut by Cornelis Liefrinck, nos. 154 and 207 by Hans Taberith. 

15. [TREITZSAURWEIN.] Kaiser Maximilian's I. Triumph 
Vienna, 1796 ; fol. 

Purchased from Messrs. Willis and Sotheran, 1859. 

(1-66) Sixty-six of the woodcuts are by Burgkmair : nos. 1-56, 109-112, 122-124, 
132-134. 



B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PBINTED BOOKS. 

1. [LITURGIES.] Missale Frisingense. E. Ratdolt, Augsburg, 10 
March, 1502 ; fol. (Weale, "Cat. Miss.," p. 71. Pr. 10641). 

At the beginning, the Virgin and Child with SS. Corbinian and Sigismund ; in 
the Canon, the Crucifixion, and initial T with angels bearing the instruments of the 
Passion. 

See Schmid, "Forschungen," p. 22, where these woodcuts were first mentioned in 
connection with Burgkmair ; Jahrb. d. k. preuss. Kunstsamml., xxi., 205, 207, 209, 
where they are more fully described, unfortunately under the name of Breu ; 
F. Dornhoffer, " Beitrago," etc., Vienna, 1903, 117-118, where they are rightly attri- 
buted to Burgkmair ; and Jahrbuch, xxiv, 336, where the amended attribution is 
accepted. According to Dornhoffer, the Munich copy of this Missal belongs to an 
earlier (undated) edition which contains Burgkmair's title woodcut but an older 
Crucifixion. 

2. [LITURGIES.] Missale Pataviense. E. Ratdolt, Augsburg, 
6 Jan., 1505 ; fol. (Weale, " Cat, Miss." p. 121 ; Pr. 10644). 

In the Canon the same Crucifixion and initial T as in no. 1. 

8. [CELTES.] Pai//co6Yu, Laudes et Victoria de Boernannis. J. 
Otmar, Augsburg, 1505 ; 4to. (Muther 856 ; Pr. 10665). 

(1) At the beginning (not, strictly speaking, a part of the book) the imperial eagle 
signed, P. 122. (2) Fol. A 1 v. A battle, which had previously been published on 
a broadside," Die bohmische Sohlacht." (3) B 1 v. Insignia poetarum, a woodcut also 
found printed separately(see Muther 857, and Dornhoffer, op. cit. 122-124, much the 
best account of this book ; also Thausing " Die Celtis-Ciste der Wiener Universitat," 
in Mitteilungen des AUerthums-Vereines zu Wien, 1877, p. 251). 

4. [LITURGIES.] Missale Saltzeburgense. P. Liechtenstein, 
Venice, 3 Dec. 1507 ; fol. (Weale, " Cat. Miss.," p. 177). 

Nothing in this Missal is by Burgkmair except the correction in the head of 
St. John, constituting the second state of Breu's Crucifixion (Schr. 380). See the 
articles cited under no. 1, and reproduction, Jahrbuch, xxi, 193. 



Division B. School of Augsburg, Burgkmair. 61 

5. [TAULEE.] Sermones. J. Otinar, Augsburg, 1508 ; fol. (Pr. 
10670). 

On last page of Register, facing sig. A, Christ bearing the Cross [119 x 148], 
unsigned, coloured. See Jahrbuch, xxi, 203. 

6. [GEILER.] Predigen Teiitsch. J. Obmar, Augsburg, 1508 ; fol. 
(Muther 857 ; Pr. 10671). 

Three woodcuts by Burgkmair, M. 16-18 (coloured), Fol. 1 v, 38 v 
(B. 72, signed), and 136 v. Used again in 1510 (Pr. 10679). 

7. [LITURGIES.] Missale Augusfcense. E. Eatdolt, Augsburg, 27 
March, 1510 ; fol. (Weale, " Cat. Miss.," p. 31 ; Muther 344 ; Pr. 10651). 

Crucifixion and initial by Burgkmair in the Canon, as in nos. 1, 2. 

8. [PINICIANUS.] Carmina (Virtus et Voluptas, etc.) J. Otmar, 
Augsburg, 25 March, 1511 ; 4to. (Pr. 10682). 

Two cuts by Burgkmair (one repeated), P. 101, 102 ; M. 142, 143. 

9. [CAEBEN.] Ain schon vnd seiiberlich Tractat vo der edlen 
rainen vnd vnbeflecten junckfrauschafft Marie .... Durch mich Victor 
von Carben, etc. J. Otmar, Augsburg, 12 April, 1511 ; 4to. (Muther 
981 ; Pr. 10684). 

On the title-page, the Virgin and Child by B., unsigned. This cut was used first 
in the " Taschenbiichlein," printed by J. Otmar, 1510 (Weller 620, Munich, Asc. 
2031), sig. f 3. It occurs again on a single sheet in the Munich print-room, 
" lohannis Piniciani Presbiteri Augustani ad diuam uirginem Mariam uotum, in 
sacra ede Oetingen solutum. M.D.XIII." The woodcut stands at the head of the 
first column, containing 40 elegiac verses. The second column contains 60 verses, 
and ends with " Finit Hecatostichon V.C.M." According to a MS. note, this sheet 
was formerly inserted in a book purchased and bound for the monastery of Tegernsee 
in 1516. The sheet measures 32 x 20 cm. 

10. [BONA VENTURA.] Der psalter marie. J. Otmar, Augsburg, 
31 May, 1511 ; 16mo. (Muther 982 ; Pr. 10685). 

The cut (coloured) on the back of the title-page [68 x 46] appears to be by B. 

11. [GEILER.] Nauicula peuitentie. J. Otmar, Augsburg, Sept. 

1511 ; fol. (Muther 863 ; Pr. 10687). 

Signed cut on title-page, P. 110, M. 138. 

12. [HENRICUS.] Suso, der Seusse. J. Otmar, Augsburg, 20 June, 

1512 ; fol. (Muther 983 ; Pr. 10689). 

One woodcut, " Der Berg des schauenden Lebens," M. 16, repeated from no. 6. 

13. [GERMAN SONGS.] Tenor part of song book, printed by E. 
Oglin, Augsburg, 19 July, 1512 ; obi. 4to. (Eitner's " Bibliographic der 
Musik-Sammelwerke," 1877, p. 9). 

Signed cut on title-page, Venus rising from the sea, holding two shields 
[77 x 117]. Reproductions of all four parts, each with a woodcut by B., in 



62 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Konnecke's " Bilderatlas," p. 76, and in " IX. Band der Publikation alterer Musik- 
werke, herausgegeben von der Gesellschaft fiir Musikforschung," Berlin, 1880. The 
frontispiece of " Discantus " represents Cupid, that of " Altus " Apollo enthroned 
between Mercury and a poet, and that of " Bassus " Apollo enthroned between two 
groups, each of five maidens, playing various instruments. See Schmid, " Forschun- 
gen," p. 33. 

14. [PINICIANUS.] Carmina (Virtus et Voluptas, etc.) J. Otmar, 
Augsburg, 31 July, 1512 ; 4to. (Muther 864 ; Pr. 10690). 

Two cuts by Burgkmair, P. 101, 102, M. 142, 143, as in no. 8, but P. 102 is not 
repeated in this edition. 

15. [PINICIANUS.] Epitoma gramaticae. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 
1513 ; 4to. (Pr. 10751). 

Signed cut, undesoribed [104 x 96], on title-page. 

16. [JORNANDES.] Be rebus Gothorum. Paulus Diaconus Foro- 
iuliensis de gestis Langobardorum. J. Miller, Augsburg, 21 March, 1515; 
fol. (Muther 868 ; Pr. 10826). 

Title-page, B. 63 ; M. 146. 

17. [ARISTOTLE.] Dialectica. J. Miller, Augsburg, 27 April, 1517 ; 
fol. (Pr. 10836). 

On title-page, B. 35 ; M. 323. 

18. [JOHANN VON ECK.] Elementarius Dialectice. J. Miller, 
Augsburg, 26 Dec., 1518 ; 4to. (Pr. 10844 A). 

On title-page, B. 35 ; M. 323. 

19. [KHALAF.] Liber theoricae necnon practicae. S. Grimm and 
M. Wirsung, Augsburg, 24 March, 1519 ; 4to. (Muther 875 ; Pr. 10896). 

Six physicians at a table, B. 74 ; M. 499. 

20. [LUTHER.] Ain Sermd von dem Hayligen Creiitz Geprediget 
Von D. M. L. Im Jar. M. D. xxii. (Augsburg, 1522) 4to. (Muther 890). 

On the title-page a crucifix (signed), with Mary and Moses below the arms of the 
Cross [142 x 132], M. 811. 

21. [CHRONIK.] Bin Schone Cronick vn Hystovia (by S. Meisterlein). 
M. Ramminger, Augsburg, 1522 ; fol. (Muther 948). 

Signed title-border with the arms of the Empire and of Augsburg, four medallions 
(Augustus, Octavianus, Otho, Hainricus), and whole length figures of SS. Ulrich 
and Afra [225 x 153]. P. iii, 279, 115. 

22. [BIBLE.] Das neii Testament. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 21 March, 
1523 ; fol. (Muther 892). 

Twelve initials (to the four Gospels, the Acts, Romans, 2 Corinthians, 1 Peter, 
1 John, Hebrews, James and Jude) and twenty-one woodcuts (all signed), illustrating 
the Apocalypse. M. 812-832. 

Muther describes an earlier edition (undated), in which only six of the 
Apocalypse cuts appeared. A later edition is dated 21 June 1523. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 63 

23. [STYRIA.] Des loblichen Fiirstenthumbs Steyer Erbhulldigung, 
etc. (For) J. de Necker, Augsburg, 28 Sept., 1523 ; fol. (Mather 894). 

Two coats of arms, those of the Duchy of Styria and of Sigmund von Dietrich 
stein, both signed and dated 1523. M. 833, 834. 

24. [BIBLE.] Das neii Testament, mit gantz nutzlichen vorreden, 
etc. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 7 June, 1524 ; fol. (Muther, " Bilderbibeln," 46). 

The same cuts as in no. 22. 

25. [BURGEE.] Der Euangelisch Burger. J. Gastel, Zwickau, 
1524; 4to. 

On the title-page, the dedication woodcut (a 3) of W. von Man's "Leiden 
Jesu Christi," 1515, M. 149. 

26. [LOBERA DE AYILA.] Vanquete de nobles Cavalleros. 
H. Steiner, Augsburg, 31 Aug., 1530 ; 4to. (Muther 895). 

One signed cut, M. 921 (repr. Hirth 649). The rest are by other hands. 

27. [CICERO.] Officia M. T. C. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 29 April, 
1531 ; fol. (Muther 879). 

One signed cut, B. 74, M. 499, fol. 78, first used in no. 19. It recurs in the later 
editions of the Officia. 

28. [WYLE.] Translation oder Deiitschungen des Hochgeachten 
Nicolai von Weil. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 18 Feb., 1536 ; fol. 

The illustration to " Von der Kunigin Frawgliick," after Aeneas Silvius, is by B. 
See Kunstgeschichtliche Anzeigen, 1904, p. 61, note 2, in which the woodcut is 
described. 

29. [KOEBEL.] Glaubliche offenbarung, wie vil fiirtreffenlicher 
Reych vnd Kayserthumb auff erdtrich gewesen, etc. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 
1540 ; fol. 

On the title-page an author presenting his book to five emperors or kings and 
three queens, sitting against a curtain. Not signed [145 x 128]. l 

30. [SACCHL] (Platina) Von der Eerliche zimlichen auch erlaubten 
Wolust der leibs. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 14 March, 1542 ; fol. (Muther 951). 

(Facing fol. 1). Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy learning one another's 
languages (signed, repr. Muther, pi. 164), a woodcut designed for the Weisskunig. 
An alternative woodcut of this subject by Beck (Muther, pi. 165) was used in 
the edition of 1775. 

The woodcut of a cook on fol. 52 v. [87 x 113] is signed H. B. Muther 
interpreted this as the signature of the younger Burgkmair, but it may be a weak, 
posthumous work by the father. A similar woodcut is the herald on the title-page 
of " Churfiirsten, etc. . . auf dem Reichstag zu Regenspurg," Steiner, 1541, 
fol. Of the other two cuts assigned by Muther to the same artist, the first is 
by an imitator of Beham, the second by Breu. 

Repeated in no. 34. Another book in which the same woodcut occurs is 
" Das Buch der Weisheit der Alten Weisen von anbeginn der Welt, s.l. (Augsburg), 
1548 (Hamburg, Stadtbibl.). It was reprinted in Steinmeyer's " Newe Kiinstliche 
..... Figuren," Frankfort, 1620, Sig. Tt. 2. 



64 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

81. [PISTORIUS.] Dialogus de Fato et Fortuna, cui nomen Para- 
clitus. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1544 ; 4to. 

The same cut as in no. 28. 

32. [BOCCACCIO.] Furnemsten Historien vnd Exempel von wider- 
wertigen Gliick. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1545 ; fol. 

The same cut as in no. 28 ; also B. 74 on fol. 71. 

33. Das HELDEN BUCH mit seinen Figuren. (H. Steiner, 
Augsburg), 1545 ; fol. 

Sig. Civ. Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy, as in no. 80. 

34. SCHERTZ mit der Warheyt. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, March, 
1550 ; fol. 

On back of title-page, Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy, as in no. 80. Fol. 1. 
The same unsigned cut as in no. 29, described from this book by Wiechmann-Kadow 
in Naumann's Archiv, ii, 166. 

35. [ROTTWEIL.] Ordenung des Hoffgerichts zu Rotweil. 

C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 1551 ; fol. 

On the title-page cut no. 109 of Theuerdank. 

36. [GOBLER.] Der Rechten Spiegel. Heirs of C. Egenolff, 
Frankfort, 1564 ; fol. 

Fol. 16 v., B. 74. 

37. [BECKER.] Holzschnitte alter deutscher Meister. Gotha, 1808- 
1816 ; fol. 

B 25-28, D 12, E 1, 8 are by Burgkmair. 



65 



WOODCUTS BY BURGKMAIB. 

[1, 2.] 
EARLY WOODCUTS BEFORE 1507. 

The earliest group, attributed to Burgkmair in part by Dr. Schmid 1 and more 
explicitly by Dr. Dornhoffer 2 , consists of illustrations to liturgical books printed by 
Erhard Ratdolt, 1499-1502. For these see pp. 60, 61, nos. 1, 2, 4, 7. They are repre- 
sented in this Department only by reproductions of " The Virgin with the Patron 
Saints of Constance " in two states, as issued in 1499 and 1505 3 , and of a " Salvator 
Mundi " on a broadside at Munich printed by Batdolt in 1500, in Schmidt's 
" Denkmale des Holz-und Metallschnittes," pi. 73. Another group, belonging to the 
years 1504-5, is also represented only in the library, p. 60, no. 3. 

1. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD. B. vii, 204, 13. M. 24. 

The Virgin sits in three-quarter face to 1. holding the naked Child upon 
her lap and handing him an apple. On a ledge in front lie a book, a 
scroll with the initials H. B., and a cushion with a pomegranate upon it. 
Through a window of Romanesque construction we see a square castellated 
building, in the same style, with a woman at a window drawing up a 
bucket of water from the moat. Landscape background with two tall 
trees. Double border with a very thick outer line. 

[218 x 158.] Good impression, no watermark. 

Collection : F. Rechberger (MS.), 1807. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

The earliest signed woodcut, dated by Dornhoffer ubout 1502, by Schmid before 
1505, by Muther about 1509. The first date mentioned is the most probable ; there 
are analogies with the Freising" Madonna of 1502, even with the Constance Madonna 
of 1499 (position of the Child's arm). The modelling of flesh and drapery by means of 
regular series of very fine lines is characteristic of this early time. There is no sign 
of Italian influence as yet in the architecture or the costume of the Virgin. The 
face of the woman at the window anticipates in a curious way Hans Weiditz's 
method of drawing faces on a small scale. 4 Repr. in Weigel's " Holzschnitte 
beriihmter Meister," no. 15. 

2. A HERALD. 1504 (?). Dornhoffer, " Beitrage," p. 120. 

He stands three-quarter face to 1. wearing a cap, a coat reaching to the 
knees, and over that a lozenge-patterned tabard with the cross of Jerusalem 
on the front. In his r. hand he holds a wand, while he supports with his 
1. hand a shield with an unknown coat of arms (per bend sinister, sable 
and or, a lion rampant crowned counterchanged). Near the shield is the 
date 1504. Over the herald's head is a long empty scroll on which the 
letter H. is written with ink. No border. Unsigned. 

1 " Forschungen," p. 22. 

2 " Beitrage," p. 117. 

3 See Vol. I, p. 219. The first state is also reproduced in the " Beitrage," pi. 2. 
< See p. 150, no, 16, 

F 



66 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

[Size of subject, 152 x 97.] Good impression, but stained. No watermark. 

Purchased 1834. 

First recognised as a Burgkmair by Dr. Dornhoffer, in whose article it is 
reproduced. It is doubtful whether the date which appears is that of the work or 
has some historical significance. In any case, the technique points to Burgkmair's 
early period. It is difficult to interpret the subject in the absence of any information 
as to the purpose for which the woodcut was intended. It has been suggested to me 
that the person represented (evidently a portrait) was a knight of the Holy Sepulchre 
in the mantle of his order, but the knight's mantle was white, and the wand seems 
clearly to mark this person as a herald, while the garment seems no less clearly to 
be a tabard, though if it be compared with the tabard worn by the heralds on Diirer's 
Triumphal Arch a difference will be noticed ; there the sleeves appear through a slit 
in the side of the tabard, whereas here they are covered by a flap hanging down between 
the front and back. The same difference is noticeable on Burgkmair's woodcut, P. 
120 (no. 4), where this very personage, with the cross of Jerusalem (but no lozenges) 
on his tabard, stands at Maximilian's 1. hand opposite to the imperial herald. 
Heralds in the attitude of the present one, with wand and shield, but in tabards 
without a covering for the sleeves, appear frequently in Ruexner's " Turnierbuch," 
Simmern 1530. The lozenges and the date 1504 on the present print suggest some 
connection with the war about the Bavarian succession in which Maximilian took 
part in that year, but I am unable to elucidate the point. The arms have not been 
identified ; Dornhoffer mentions various unsatisfactory suggestions. See no. 3. 

3. AN UNKNOWN COAT OF ARMS. 

The same shield as appears in no. 2 is here surmounted by helm, 
mantling and crest, a demi-lion rampant crowned and plumed holding two 
swords. In the r. upper corner is the badge of the order of St. Catherine 
of Mt. Sinai, consisting of sword, half- wheel and scroll ; in the 1. upper 
corner is the cross of Jerusalem, possibly a later addition to the block. At 
the foot of the shield is the letter B., printed from the block ; the letter 
H., farther 1., has been broken off and only a fragment remains. No 
border. 

[Size of subject, 175 x 121.] Badly printed, apparently late in the XVI century. 

From the Franks collection of bookplates, bequeathed 1897. 

The woodcut may well be ten years later, but I describe it here for convenience 
in connection with no. 2. The arms, which occur repeatedly on the coats of South 
German families, are not to be found in Sibmacher or Rietstap in combination with 
the present crest. The same two badges occur on a portrait painted in 1523 in the 
collection of Sir Frederick Cook at Richmond (repr. " Illustrated Catalogue of the 
Exhibition of Early German Art at the Burlington Fine Arts Club," 1906, no. 22), 
and on the bookplate of Hans Helfrich (1581), by M.S., W. 800 (repr. pi. 30 in 
Warnecke's " Biicherzeichen des xv. u. xvi. Jahrh."). Helfrich's plate shows the 
badge of St. Catherine's order in its two forms, with a whole and with a broken 
wheel, but without the scroll. The order is said to have been founded in the 
XI century for the protection of the tomb of the saint and of the roads by which 
pilgrims approached it. The order in the strict sense became extinct when the 
country fell into the hands of infidels, but it remained customary, according to 
Zedler, 1 even in the XVIII century, for pilgrims to the convent to receive the 
knighthood of St. Catherine from the superior. The knighthood of the Holy 
Sepulchre, an order founded by Alexander VI. in 1496 in succession to the 
Augustinian canons of the Holy Sepulchre, was similarly conferred on pilgrims 
to Jerusalem by the Guardian of the Franciscans, to whom the Pope delegated his 
authority for that purpose. 5 The badge of the order was this cross of Jerusalem 
which is also the emblem of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, as shown on the Triumphal 
Arch of Maximilian and among the quarterings of the Spanish coat, as borne by 
Charles V. 

1 " Universal-Lexicon," v. 1509. On the Order of St. Catherine see also Bieden- 
feld, " Geschichte aller Ritterorden," i, 21. 

* Biedenfeld, Op. cit. i, 42. This custom is also said to have prevailed as late as 
the XVIII century. 






Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 67 

[4-6.] 
WOODCUTS OF THE YEAB 1507. 

4. THE IMPERIAL EAGLE (1507). P. iii, 281, 120. Nagl., K.-L., iii,|245, 44. 

The eagle, AQVILA IMPERIALIS, has round either head a nimbus with 
the words SACRO . . . IMPERIO. 1 From each head is suspended a wreath, 
LAVREA, that on the 1. being identical in design with that which appears 
in the woodcut, " Insignia poetarum." 2 The eagle displays on its neck, 
breast and wings a number of mythological or symbolical designs. At the 
top we see the Emperor Maximilian, DIVVS MAXIMI, enthroned, with his 
feet on a three-legged stool, TRIPOS, between two heralds with the arms 
of the empire and the cross of Jerusalem on their respective tabards. 3 
Below the stool is the Muses' fountain, FONS MVSARVM, the spout of 
which runs out between the letters H.B. of Burgkmair's signature. The 
water falls into a basin, in which the Muses themselves, NOVEM MVSAE, 
are grouped. Beneath this basin, which has four spouts, we read the 
motto ERRADO DISCITVR. Then we see PHILOSOPHIA on a throne, her 
feet upon the world, flanked by two genii with harp and square. On 
the steps of the throne are the seven liberal arts, 8EPTE LIBERALES. 
divided into Trivium and Quadrivium. At the bottom of all is the 
Judgment of Paris, IVDICIVM PARIDIS, between MERCVR(ius) and 
DISCORD I A, the latter of whom is about to throw the apple while the 
former awakens Paris from slumber. On its dexter wing the eagle displays 
in seven roundels the works of the six days of creation, SEX OPERA 
DIERVM, and the Creator resting; on the sinister wing seven similar 
roundels contain the mechanical arts, SEPTEM MECHANICAE, viz., 
VESTIARIA, AGRICVLTVRA, ARCHITECTVRA, MILICIA, VENA(cio), 
MERCATVRA, COQVINARIA, METALLARIA. These two series of roundels 
are headed by the titles OWN A FABRICA and HVANA INVETA respectively. 
At the extremity of the eagle's talons are the escutcheons of the Empire 
and of Austria. At the top of the whole is the inscription : 

LAVREA SERTA GERIT SACRO IOVIS ALES IN ORE 
MAXMILIANEIS 1AM CELEBRATA SCOLIS. 

At the foot is the distich : 

BVRGKMAIR HANG AQVILAM DEPINXERAT ARTE lOH^S 
ET CELTIS PVLHRAM TEXVIT HISTORIAM. 

Below that again we read : 

ILLE NOVEM MUSIS SEPTENAS IVNXERAT ARTES 
QVAS STVDIO PARILI DOCTA VIENA COLIT. 

[Size of subject 327x215.] Good impression with margin. Watermark, large 
bull's head with cross and serpent. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

1 This inscription and all that follow are cut on the block. On the wings of the 
eagle the letters are white on black, elsewhere black on white. 

2 Repr. Hirth, i, 501. See p. 60, no. 3. 

3 See above, remarks on no, 2. 

F 2 



68 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

We gather from the inscriptions that Celtis provided Burgkmair with the subject 
matter of the woodcut, which alludes to the studies pursued in the College of poets 
and mathematicians founded by Maximilian at Vienna in 1501. The verses at the 
top allude to the privilege possessed by the humanistic Societas Danubiana, and 
afterwards transferred to the Vienna University, of crowning poets. Celtis was 
himself a poet laureate. The ancient chest in which the poet laureate's insignia 
were preserved is still in'possession of the University. 1 Celtis is said to have been 
at Augsburg in 1507, and it was probably through his host, Conrad Peutinger, that 
he became acquainted with Burgkmair, with whom he appears to have had similar 
relations in the last year of his life to those which he enjoyed with Diirer some five 
years previously at Nuremberg. 4 The motto " errando discitur " doubtless alludes to 
Celtis' own wandering life. The best accounts of that scholar are to be found in 
Kliipfel, " De vita et scriptis Conradi Celtis," Freiburg. 1827, and in an essay by 
P. von Bezold in Sybel's HistoriscJic Zeitschrift, 1883, N.P. xiii, 1, 193. The present 
woodcut, which is rather rare, is discussed by Schmid, " Forschungen," p. 31. 

t PORTRAIT MEDAL OF CONRAD OELTIS, 1507. Nagl., K.-L., Hi, 246. 

On the obverse is a bust of Celtis in his laureate's wreath, inscribed 
AN : VITAE XLVIII. On the reverse the inscription : ADDE SONV VOCIS 
CELTIS IS ALTER ERIT M.D. VII. Over the medal is the title : NVMVS 
AENEVS SYMMETRI/E CELT. 

[Size of subject 54 x 105, diam. of medal 47.] Process reproduction, from Mitt. d. 
Ges. f. vcrviclf. Kunst, Vienna, 1904. 

Presented by Dr. Dornhoffer, 1904. 

Dr. Dornhoffer described this woodcut in the " Beitrage," p. 127, from a bad 
impression in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna (Codex 3448), discovered by Dr. Giehlow, 
who mentioned it to me in a letter of 4 April 1902. Dr. Dornhofler subsequently 
found a better impression in the Hof-u.-Staatsbibliothek, Munich, from which the 
reproduction published in the Mitteilungen was made. There the woodcut is printed 
on the lower margin of the "Imperial Eagle," P. 120, with which the subject is, of 
course, closely connected. Prof. Lehrs had already described this impression to me 
in a letter of 16 Nov. 1899, and it is likely that Nagler knew the Munich impression. 
It is uncertain whether any such medal was actually made; it is not known to 
exist. 1 

5. PORTRAIT OF CONRAD CELTIS. 1507. 

Naumann's Archiv. ii, 143. P. iii, 280, 118. M. 9. 

Second state. 1508. 

The poet, with downcast eyes, wearing the laureate's wreath round his 
hat, is seen to the waist behind a parapet, resting both hands on four 
volumes of his own works, " Germania Illustrata," " Quatuor libri Arnorum," 
" Octo libri Epigrammatum," and " Quatuor libri Odarum" some of which 
were unpublished at the time of his death. Beneath these books we read : 
OPERA EOR SECjVVTVR ILLOS, and on the front of the parapet a 
shield with Celtis' arms lies broken through the middle. At either end 
of the parapet is seated a lamenting genius, uttering the words : 
CVR MORS TA DVLCES RVPIS AMICICIAS and QVID NON LIBITINA 
RESOLVIS. A large wreath of bay and a scroll with the words : EXITVS 
ACTA PROBAT CjVI BENE FECIT HABET unite to form a round arch 
over the poet's head. Above the arch the laureate's wreath is repeated, 



1 Described by Thausing in Mitt. d. Alterthums-Vereines zu Wien, 1877, p. 251. 

- See nos. 22-24 of Diirer's woodcuts in this Catalogue. 

* For Burgkmair and medals see Mitth. d. Bayer. Numism. Gesellschaft, vi, 76, 
whore evidence is quoted that he designed a medal of Count Konigstein in 1516. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkniair. 61) 

and in the spandrels Apollo and Mercury are seated in attitudes expressive 
of grief. On a tablet below is inscribed : 

D M s 
FLETE Pll VATES ET TVNDITE PECTORA PALMIS 

VESTER ENIM HIC CELTIS FATA SVPREMA TVLIT 
MORTVVS ILLE QVIDEM SED LONGV VIVVS IN EVVM 

COLOQVITVR DOCTIS PER SVA SCRIPTA VIRIS 
CHVN . GEL . PRO 1 . VIENNE LAVREE CVSTOS ET COLLATOR 
HIC IN CHRIS . QVIESCIT VIXIT AN . IXL . SAL . SESQVIMILL. 
SVB DIVO MAXIMIL . AVGV8T: ET VIII 

H. B. 
Double border. 

[219 x 143.] Fine impression. Watermark, large high crown. Margin [22-52]. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This epitaphium was prepared for Celtis in 1507 for presentation to his 
friends in anticipation of his death, which he felt to be imminent. He survived, 
however, until 4 February 1508, and an additional I was then added to the date 
SESOVIMILL. ET VII, which appears on the first state. The oblique shading 
from 1. to r., which in the first state is carried down along the 1. side of the inner 
border line in continuation of the shading at the top of the tablet, was cut away to 
make room for the addition. An impression of the first state (repr. Hirth, " Les Grands 
Illustrateurs," i,502, and Seidlitz, " Allgemeines Portratwerk ") is at Berlin ; another 
is inserted in Hartmann Schedel's copy of a book by Celtis, " Romanae vetustatis 
fragmenta in Augusta Vindelicorum et eius dioecesi" (E. Ratdolt, Augsburg, 1505), 
now in the Munich library (2 Arch. 112a). Muther (" Biicherillustration," i, 131, and 
Zeitschr. xix, 344) speaks as if the portrait of Celtis were an integral part of the book, 
but this is quite misleading. Our own copy of the second state appears, by the 
proportion of the margins to the print, to have been also at one time bound up with a 
book. The Munich library also possesses the second state. 

The features of Celtis on this portrait resemble those on the medal very closely. 
We possess a third portrait of Celtis by Burgkmair, as a correction introduced in the 
block of the frontispiece to the " Quatuor Libri Amorum," originally designed by 
Diirer (see Vol. I, p. 280, note on no. 23 ; the second state has since been reproduced 
by Dr. Dornhoffer in " Beitrage," p. 113). 

6. -ST. LUKE PAINTING THE PORTRAIT OF THE VIRGIN. 1507. 

B. vii, 209, 24. M. 10. 

The Virgin sits to the left, wearing a Byzantine robe with a star upon 
the shoulder, under a portico of renaissance architecture, which bears the 
date 1507. She holds the Child on her lap, and four angels are grouped 
behind her. The initials H. B are on a socle to the 1., upon the ledge 
of which lie a branch of a fig-tree and a pomegranate on a cushion. St. 
Luke sits to the r. before an easel, painting on a panel, with his 1. thumb 
passed through the hole in his palette. Beyond a low wall is a hilly 
landscape with trees. 

[221 x 152.] Good impression with small margin. No watermark. 

CoUections: Liphart (F. 328, 1), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

On the subject see Lehrs, in Chronik /. vervielf. Kunst, 1891, 34, who shows that 
the costume is that of the Madonna attributed to St. Luke in Santa Maria Maggiore 
at Rome. In addition to the engraving by Mair of Landshut there reproduced, 
compare Schmidt, " Die friihesten Denkmale," etc., no. 57, a woodcut printed at 
Pforzheim, 1500, which has the inscription, " Dis ist das bild der allerheiligesten 
ungfrauwen marie in den kleidern vnd gezierden mit welchen sie gezieret was an 

1 For Protucius, the third name adopted by Celtis according to the custom of 
the humanists of that age, in imitation of the threefold names of the ancient 
Romans. 



70 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

den hochzeitlichn feste ala sie besucht hat den heilige tempel zu iherusale Als vo ir 
schreibt der wiirdige Beda in eyner omely vnd hat sie also gemalt der Ewangelist 
S. lux welch heilig gemeld ist zu Bom." Compare also Altdorfer's woodcuts, B. 48, 
50, 51, Burgkmair's own Madonna of 1512, B. 26, H. S. Beham's engraving, B. 17, 
and the woodcuts, Schr. 1036, 1037. 

6a. ST. LUKE PAINTING THE PORTRAIT OF THE VIRGIN. 

B. 24. M. 10. 

A late impression tinted by hand in a dark greenish colour, leaving out the high 
lights, in imitation of a chiaroscuro. 

[219 x 151.] Cut at the top and at both sides. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

[7-10.] 
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE YEAR 1508. 

7. TITLE-PAGE OF STAMLER'S "DYALOGUS DE DIVERSARUM GEN- 

CIUM SECTIS ET MUNDI RELIGIONIBUS." B. vii, 214, 39. M. 19. 

A holy matron, the Church, sits before a tent inscribed IMS . SOLA . 
SANCTA . MATER . ECCLESIA. Behind her are a cross and the banners 
of the Papacy and the Empire. The globe is her footstool. With her r. 
hand she gives the keys to the Pope, and with her 1. the sword to the 
Emperor. The inscriptions ORA ET CVRA. and PROTEGE IMPPERA, 
on shields enclosed by wreath, indicate their respective functions. On a 
lower level sit four queens, typifying false religions, Mahometan 
(SARACENA . THVR), Jewish (SINAGOGA), Pagan (GENTILITAS), and 
Tartar (s. TARTARICA). Each of these carries a banner with a broken 
staff. A stream of water, FONS-VERE SAPIENCIE, issues from beneath 
the feet of Holy Church, and falls upon the head of the doctor seated in 
the midst of a circle of DISPVTATORES, with IVSTA EST RELIGIO 
inscribed on the cornice over his chair. (All inscriptions quoted so far are 
xylographic ; those which follow are printed with type.) The names of 
the disputants are Doctor Oliuerius, Balbus historicus, Rudolphus laicus, 
Arnestes Apostota, Samuel ludeus, and Triphon phisicus. In the lower 
corner 1. are the arms of Stamler in a wreath, with his initials I. s., and r. 
the signature H. B. on a tablet suspended from the wall. At the top is the 
title of the book. Single border. The woodcut with all inscriptions is 
repeated on the back of the leaf. 

[287 x 188.] Good impression. 
Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1850. 

The book, dated 22 May, 1508, was printed at Augsburg by Oglin and Nadler 
(Pr. 10704). See p. 57, no. 1. 

8. PILGRIMS CLIMBING A HILL. M. 16. 

8. PILGRIMS PASSING A WAYSIDE CROSS AND SHRINE. 

B. vii, 221, 72. M. 17. 
10. ZACCHEUS CLIMBING A TREE TO SEE CHRIST. M. 18. 

[190 X 140.] Impressions with text from "Prcdigen teutsch," by Johann Geiler 
von Kaisersberg, printed by J. Otmar, Augsburg, 1510; fol. (1 v., 38 v., 136 v.). 

Purchased from Mr. Willis, 1854. 

The book is in the Dept. The edition of 1508, in which the cuts first appeared, 
is in the library (p. 61, no. 6). The first two, of which only the second is signed, 
are roughly cut, but not more so than most of Burgkmair's early illustrations ; the 
third is so inferior in all ways that nothing except its conjunction with the other 
two makes Burgkmair's authorship probable. 



Division 3. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 71 

[11,12.] 
REPRESENTATIVES OF AFRICAN AND ASIATIC RACES. 

The first voyage of German merchants to the Portuguese Indies on three ships 
fitted up by the Welsers, Fuggers, and other leading Augsburg houses took place in 
the years 1505-6. 1 The German ships, Raphael, Jerome, and Leonard, formed 
part of a squadron commanded by Francisco D' Almeida. The description of this 
voyage by Balthasar Springer furnished Burgkmair with materials for a series of 
ethnographical woodcuts, of which the original edition is only known to exist in the 
archives of the Welser family at Schloss Bamhof. 2 It consists of a set of woodcuts 
on five sheets, with a short description of each country and its inhabitants printed 
at the top, the arms of Springer on the first sheet, and the address " H. Burgkmair 
zu Augspurg " at the foot of the first description. A different account of the voyage, 
also by Springer, with another set of woodcuts, was issued as a book in 1509 with 
the title "Die Merfart . . . zu viln onerkanten Inseln und Kiinigreichen " (see note 
on no. lla). A Latin narrative by Springer is also extant. Later, but still old, 
impressions of Burgkmair's woodcuts without the text (as no. 11) exist in various 
collections, and the blocks, in the Derschau collection, were reprinted by Becker 
(B 25) as well as a copy (B 26). 

11. THE KING OF COCHIN. B. vii, 223, 77. M. 11-15. 

(1.) Right-hand portion ; original. 

Towards the right the king is carried on a palanquin preceded by 
musicians and followed by warriors. Over the former is the title, DER 
KUNIG VON GUTZIN, over the latter a tablet bearing the date 1508 and 
Burgkmair's initials. To the left, on another sheet, is a clump of trees with 
groups of savages on either side, on the right four adults, and on the left a 
man, three women and three children surrounded by cattle (three cows, a 
sheep and two goats ; the laden camels mentioned by M. are wanting 3 ). 

[Size of sheet, 276 X 1100.] Old but not very early impression, on eight pieces 
of paper joined together. Watermarks, arms of Nuremberg and a circle containing 
a crown surmounted by a star. 

Collections: Buttstaedt (blue stamp), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

(2.) Left-hand portion ; copy. 

Four groups of savages, with the respective headings, IN GENNEA 
[Guinea], IN ALLAGO [Algoa, and not Alagoa (Ortelius, 1570), which is 
now called Delagoa Bay], IN ARABIA [really the East coast of Africa], 
DAS GROS INDIA, introduced by ten lines of xylographic text, Dise nachuol- 
gende figuren .... abgelait. 



1 See F. Kunstmann, " Die Fahrt der ersten Deutschen nach dem portugiesischen 
Indien," Munich, 1861. Later accounts of the voyage with accurate descriptions of 
the different editions of Springer's narrative will be found in H. Harrisse, " Americus 
Vespuccius," London, 1895, and F. Schulze, " Balthasar Springer's Indienfahrt," 
Heitz, Strassburg, 1902. 

2 Muther 859. First described by J. M. Freiherr von Welser in Zeitschr. d. hist. 
Vereins f. Schwaben u. Neuburg, 1875, ii, 121. See also Zeitschr. f. bild. Kunst, xxii, 
241. According to Harrisse, who describes the whole contents of Burgkmair's cut 
(p. 41), Baron Carl von Welser, at Bamhof, possesses only an incomplete set of the 
original edition, the left-hand portion, or first five of the six groups. The whole, 
according to him, should measure 26 by 190cm. Beduced photographs of the Welser 
originals are at Nuremberg (Germ. Mus.) and Augsburg (Hist. Vereinfiir Schwaben). 

3 A carnel and an elephant are said to exist on a copy of larger dimensions and 
later date at Vienna (Harrisse, p. 45). 



72 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

[Size of shoot, 273 x 778.] Late impression on three sheets joined together. 
Watermark on one sheet initials F M beneath a half-length figure of a bishop. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This copy, according to Becker, is by G. Glockendon, and is dated on some 
impressions 1509 or 1511. At Gotha there is an impression of the right-hand portion 
signed below on the 1. "Jorg Glogkendon," and dated 1509. It has verses at the 
foot, with the signature " Albrecht Glockenthon Illumiuist/1.5.4.1." 

11. (1) a. FREE REVERSED COPY, BY WOLF TRAUT, OF THE BLOCK 

CONTAINING THE KING OF COCHIN. 

The palanquiu, borne by four men and accompanied by a man holding 
an umbrella over the king, advances to the left preceded by four musicians 
and followed by two warriors. Two other warriors march on the further 
side of the litter. Low down in the 1. corner is the date (15)09 (damaged). 
At the top, outside the border-line, is the printed title TRIVMPHVS REGIS 
GOSCI SIVE GVTSCMIN . IhHS. 

[176 x 356, cut on L side; margin at top 17.] Early impression, damaged. 
Watermark, a pitcher. 

Purchased from Mr. Tiffin, 1851. 

This copy, or imitation, may safely be attributed to Wolf Traut of Nuremberg, 
and should have been included in the catalogue of his works in Vol. I. It is in the 
same rough style as no. 11 (I, 517). It is a fragment of the rare book by B. Springer, 
Die Merfart vu erfarung niiwer Schiffung vnd Wege zu viln ouerkanten Inseln vnd 
Kunigreichen, 1509, which has been reproduced in facsimile as 110. 8 of Heitz's series, 
" Drucke und Holzschnitte des xv und xvi Jahrhunderts in getreuer Nachbilduug," 
Strassburg, 1902. 

Four copies of the original are known at Munich, Vienna, Frankfurt a. M., and 
Copenhagen (the last imperfect). The editor, F. Schulze, describes these copies 
on p. 9 of the introduction. It appears that the inscription at the head of the 
folding plate differs in all the three copies of the book in which it is found. In 
the Vienna copy the first line runs, " Der Triumph des Kuuigks von Gutschin rnit 
seinen Spiolleuten vnd Hofgesynde," followed by TRIUMPH US, etc., as given 
above. Our impression, accordingly, must be from the same edition with the first 
part of the inscription cut off. The Munich copy has " Cochin " instead of 
"Gutschin," and is said to contain the date 1509, wanting in the Vienna copy. 
The Frankfurt copy, reproduced by Heitz, has a different inscription altogether : 
"Die Coninck van Gutschin met sinen hoffluyden, REX GOSCI SIVE 
GVTSCHMIN." 

The illustrations in the text are partly by Traut, partly by a different artist. To 
Traut I ascribe the arms of Springer (verso of title-page), the natives of Guinea 
(a 8, a3v), and the "Arabs" (East Africans, b4, b4v). The natives of Allago and 
India and the cut of a baobab tree are by the other hand. The Munich copy of the 
book, according to Harrisse, has the watermark, a pitcher, found on this folding leaf. 
It has been assumed, not proved, that the book was printed at Augsburg. 

12. A FAMILY OF ABORIGINES AT ALLAGO [ALGOA]. B. vii, 222, 75. 

A man standing r. under a tree offers a bunch of herbs to a woman who 
stands 1. with a baby on her arm. Both wear a cloak and apron of fur and 
sandals with very wide leather soles, as in the group headed " In Allago " 
on the large woodcut, no. 1 1 (2). The woman's head is also covered with 
fur ; the man's hair and beard are ornamented with pearls or precious 
stones, which were attached to the hair with gum and pitch. A naked boy, 
his head similarly adorned, runs up to his father. 1 Over the woman's head 

1 He illustrates the passage in Springer, " Sie bynden den iungen knaben yre 
schwentzleyu iiber sich," or, in the Latin version, " filiis etiam suis verenda sursum 
ligant." 



Division 75. School of Augsburg. Bwglcm&ir. 73 

is tlie inscription IN. ALLAGO. Burgkmair's initials are on a stone r. 
Single border. , 

[229 x 155.] Good impression without margin. Watermark, small bull's head 
surmounted by a tan cross. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1856. 

This is not, as Harrisse (p. 43) assumes, a separate impression of a fragment of 
the large woodcut, no. 11, for in that " Allago " group the man and woman are seated. 
This is an entirely different composition. On the identification of Allago with Algoa, 
not Delagoa Bay, see Schulze, pp. 40-42. Schulze argues that the natives described 
by Springer belonged to a Hottentot, not a Kaffir, race. 

f ST. ONUPHBIUS. 

An aged man, half length, with long beard and hairy body, girt with a 
garland of leaves, kneels or stands with hands folded under a tree. His 
arms rest on a low branch ; a shield with three crowns in pale hangs from 
a higher one. The saint wears a crown ; behind it is a nimbus. He looks 
up to 1. at an angel, partly hidden by the tree, who offers him a loaf. 
Single border. No signature. 

Photograph of the only impression known to me [133 x 100], coloured, in the 
Hofbibliothek, Vienna. I attributed this woodcut to Burgkmair on seeing it in 1900. 
The identification of the saint is not quite certain. The hairy breast, garland of 
leaves, and loaf brought by an angel are attributes of St. Onuphrius, but I find no 
authority for the three crowns. The recluse is said, however, to have been of princely 
birth, and Cahier and Mrs. Jameson mention pictures which represent him with a 
crown and sceptre at his feet in token of his renunciation of worldly rank. 

t THE VIRGIN AND CHILD, 1508. B. vii, 202, 8. M. 482. 

First state. 

The Virgin, three-quarter face to 1., holds the Child in her arms and a 
chaplet of roses in her r. hand. She stands under a round arch of 
simple Eenaissance design, cut off at the top by the border-line. On the 
shaded lower side of the arch 1. is the date 15)8, followed by the initials 
H. B. 



Photograph of the only impression known to me [237 x 166] in the Hofbibliothek 
Vienna. Bartsch read the date as 1518, not observing that the third figure is a 
broken 0. He has been followed by subsequent writers, who have failed to observe 
that this rare and important work belongs to an early stage in Burgkmair's 
development. 



13. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD. P. iii, 270, 84. 

Second state. 

Impression from the same block as B.8, with an alteration in the 
architecture. The width of the block has been reduced on the 1. side, but 
otherwise all remains the same to the top of the pilasters. The original 
truncated arch has been replaced by a complete round arch, the soffit of 
which has square panels, alternately plain and ornamented with a flower. 
With the removal of the original arch the signature and date have 
disappeared. 

[292 x 162.] Late impression, on thin white paper, without watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 



74 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part 11. 

P. 84 has not hitherto been recognised as a second state of B. 8, an omission 
which may be explained by the rarity of the latter. The ornament on the soffit 
rather suggests the style of Hans Weiditz, and it is possible that the alteration of 
the block was carried out by him, about ten years after the first appearance of the 
woodcut. In any case the alteration, which improves the proportions, must have 
been made with Burgkmair's approval. The block is in the Derschau collection at 
Berlin. 

13a. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD. P. Hi, 270, 84. 

Second state. Another impression. 

[292 x 162] Late impression on thick paper, tinted in brown to simulate a 
chiaroscuro woodcut. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

Similar tinted impressions exist at Berlin, iu the v. Lanna collection at Prague 
(Singer 2163), and in the Albertina (green tint over brown). Passavant describes 
them as " epreuves en clair-obscur, mais dont les teintes plus foncees sont posees 
au pinceau." So does Singer, " Helldunkel (nachgemalt)." I believe the colour to 
have been applied entirely with the brush. The greasy pigment used has stained 
the paper right through to the back, an effect which I have never seen in genuine 
chiaroscuro woodcuts. The St. Luke of Burgkmair (no. 6a) and some other false 
chiaroscuro prints in this collection present exactly the same appearance at the back ; 
so does a hand-coloured late impression of Burgkmair's Maximilian (B. 32) in the 
Albertina. Seen from the front the edges of the tinted surfaces and lines have no 
appearance of being cut, but all the softness and irregularity of brushwork, while the 
paler parts of the tint, which, according to Passavant, are printed, merge by imper- 
ceptible gradations into the darker. I had a friendly controversy on this subject by 
correspondence with the late Mr. S. B. Koehler in 1899-1900. On re-examining the 
Albertina impression during his last visit to Vienna in the latter year he found 
himself unable to agree with me. I remain equally unconvinced by his arguments 
in favour of a portion of the tint being printed, and believe the colouring on all 
impressions to be the work of a clumsy forger. 



[14, 15.] 

ST. GEORGE, AND EQUESTRIAN PORTRAIT OF THE EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN I. 
A PAIR OF CHIAROSCURO WOODCUTS. 1508. 

Special literature on these woodcuts : 

T. Herberger. " Conrad Petitinger in seinem Verhaltnisse zum Kaiser 
Maximilian I." Augsburg, 1851, p. 26, notes 81, 82. 

E. Chmelarz. "Jostde Negker's Helldunkelblatter Kaiser Max und 
St. Georg" (Jahrb. d. kunsthist. Samml. d. Allerh. Xaiserhmises, xv, 391). 

F. Lippmann. Jahrb. d. k. preuss. Kunstsamml., xvi, 142. 

K. Gienlow. Jahrb. d. kunsthist. Samml. d. Allerh. Kaiserhauses, xx, 
36-57, pointed out the connection of this pair of woodcuts with the 
Emperor's devotion to the patron saint of the order of St. George and his 
desire to undertake a crusade against the Turks. 

C. Dodgson. " Zu Jost de Negker " (Repert.f. Kunstw., xxi, 377), and 
Vol. I, p. 254, of this catalogue. The statement on p. 256 that the Gotha 
Museum possesses the Maximilian printed in black and gold is a regrettable 
repetition of an error which gained currency from the article by Chmelarz. 
The portrait in question is not Burgkmair's woodcut, but an illuminated 
impression of Durer's woodcut, B. 154, heightened with gold. 1 



See Vol. I, pp. 334, 568. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. BurgJcmair. 75 

Of the St. George (B. vii, 208, 23) I know six states, all very rare. 

I. Printed in black and silver, from two outline blocks, with the date M.D.VIII 

between two leaf ornaments under the monogram I H S. The only signature 
is that of H. Burgkmair, cut on the first (black) outline block. The only 
known impression, on paper, was purchased by the late Valentin Weisbach at 
the Holford sale in July, 1893, and is now in the collection of his son, Dr. 
Werner Weisbach, at Berlin. 

II. From the black block only, with the date M.D.VIII, without Jost de Negker's 
name. Berlin, Carlsruhe. 

III. A tone block substituted for the second outline block. The date retained. 
Without Jost de Negker's name. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, from the 
Kerrich collection. Very fine impression, the tone block printed in slate 
colour. 

IV. The name of Jost de Negker, printed with movable type, added on the right. 
One impression known, printed in black and red. Reproduced in Lippmann's 
"Engravings and Woodcuts by Old Masters," viii, 42. 

V. As IV, but the date has been cut away from the block. Jost de Negker's name 
remains. British Museum and Liechtenstein collection at Vienna. The 
latter impression is reproduced in Jahrb. d, Kunsthist. Samml. d. Allerh. Kaiscr- 
hauscs, xv, Taf. 30, but the colour there given is too yellow ; both the im- 
pressions mentioned are printed in black and dull green. 

VI. Later impressions from the black block only, without Jost de Negker's name. 
Albertina. Dresden (Samml. K. Friedr. Aug. II.). Gotha (coloured by hand). 

Of the Maximilian (B. vii, 211, 32 ; M. 20) I know seven states. 

I. Printed from two outline blocks. The date on the scroll is 1508, and Jost de 
Negker's name is absent. Of this state there are two varieties. 

A. On paper tinted a slaty blue ; the second outline is printed with a dull 
white, sticky-looking material. This impression, hitherto undescribed, which 
I saw in the Liechtenstein collection on May 23rd, 1905, corresponds to the 
Dresden impression of Cranach's St. George of 1507. * The white material 
seems to have been used as a ground for the gold subsequently to be applied. 

B. The second outline printed in gold. The only known impression is that 
on vellum in the Liechtenstein collection, reproduced in the article by 
Chmelarz, Taf. 29. The other two impressions there mentioned are different 
woodcuts. 

II. Impression from the black outline block only, with the date 1508. Munich 
(watermark, large high crown). 

III. Chiaroscuro, from black outline and one tone block. Still with the date 
1508. Jost de Negker's name printed in type towards the left. Bepr. in 
Oppermann sale catalogue, Berlin 1882, no. 304. This impression, from the 
Bale collection, now belongs to Baron Edmond de Rothschild, Paris. 2 A 
similar one, printed in greenish brown, was sold at Gutekunst's auction, 
Stuttgart, 1902, no. 196. 

IV. Chiaroscuro, with Jost de Negker's name, but with a gap between the 15 and 
the 8 of the date. 3 British Museum, dull brick-red. Dresden (Samml. K. 
Friedr. Aug. II., Inv. 86160), dull green. 

V. Chiaroscuro. The gap filled in with a slender stroke slanting from r. to 1. 
Still with Jost de Negker's name. Berlin (red, reproduced in Die Graphischen 

1 See Vol. I, p. 256. 

2 The genuineness of the date on this impression has been doubted, because the 
is in a different position and of a different shape from that on the Liechtenstein and 
Munich impressions (I and II). Dr. Giehlow, who examined the print in 1898, 
assured me that the date, though retouched, was originally printed. It is clear, 
however, that the third figure of the date had already been taken out. It seems to 
have been replaced at first by 0, then by 1, while in state IV the third place in the 
date is left blank. 

3 Without examining different specimens side by side it is impossible to deter- 
mine whether the impressions dated 15-8 are earlier or later than good impressions 
dated 1518 (state V). 



76 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Kiliiste, xvi, 13, Lippruaun, v, 42, and Liitzow, " Kupferstich u. Holzschnitt," 
132). Vicuna, Hofbibliothek. 

VI. Chiaroscuro. Instead of this slender stroke there is a thick wedge-shaped 
stroke, placed lower than the other figures, wide at the top and tapering 
towards the bottom. Without Jost de Ncgker's name. Vienna, Albertiua and 
Hofbibliothek (pale greenish brown). 

VII. From the black block only, with the wedge-shaped stroke in the date. 
Common. In the latest impressions (Albertina, Munich) there is no cross- 
stroke in the H. of Burgkrnair's signature. 

t ST. GEOBGE. 1608. B. vii, 208, 23. 

Lippmann's facsimile of the fourth state. 

14. ST. GEOKGE. 1508. B. vii, 208, 28. 

Fifth state. Chiaroscuro, undated. 

The saint, ou horseback, holding the reins in his 1. hand, the broken 
shaft of a lance ill his r., looks down on the Princess Cleodoliuda, who 
kneels r., with a lamb by her side. The dragon, transfixed by the lance, 
lies writhing on the ground. On the sky at the top, to 1. of the crest 
on the saint's helmet, is the xylographic inscription : DIVVS. GEORGIVS I 
CHRISTIANORUM. I MILITVM. PRO= I PVGNATOR. Burgkinair's signa- 
ture, also xylographic, is low down 1., that of Jost de Negker, type-printed, 
in the corresponding position r. 

[322 x 232.] Good impression, the tone-block printed in dull green. Cut close 
to the border-line, which remains intact. Damaged in a few places (most seriously 
under the signature), of which the letters MAI are restored), and backed with 
stout paper. 

Purchased at the De Paar sale, 1854. 

The date of the impression is obviously later than 1508. This woodcut was 
probably reprinted, together with the Maximilian, in 1518. There are impressions 
of the latter (e.g., Vienna, Hofbibl.) in the same colour. 

t MAXIMILIAN I. 1508. B. vii, 211, 32. M. 20. 

Reduced facsimile [256x180] of the first state, printed in black and 
gold, in the Liechtenstein collection. Published in Jakrbuck d. /cunst//ist. 
tiamml. d. Allerh. Kaiser/tauses, xv, Taf. 29. 

16. MAXIMILIAN I. 1508. B. vii, 211, 32. M. 20. 

Fourth state. Chiaroscuro, with date 15 8. 

The Emperor, in profile, to 1., is fully armed, with a lofty plume of 
peacock's feathers on the crest of his helmet. He rides to 1. in a portico 
of rich Renaissance architecture. On his horse's trappings are shields with 
the old and new arms of Austria, and the Imperial eagle is on a hanging 
banner or tapestry. Over this is the title: . IMP . CAES . MAXiMlL . AVG- 
Burgkrnair's signature is cut on the block, that of Jost de Negker printed 
with type. The date, withcvit 0, is on a scroll lying on the ground. 

[320 x 226.] Pine impi 3ssi? * without margin, the tone-block printed in dull 
brick-red. Watermark, small bull's head with tau cross. 

Collections : A. Firmin-Didot (autograph and stamp, F. 21), Mitchell (F. 551). 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 77 



15a. MAXIMILIAN I. 1508. B. vii, 211, 32. M. 20 

Seventh state. From the black block only, with the date 1518, the 1 
being a thick wedge-shaped stroke. 

[322 x 228.] Good impression of this state, the H in Burgkmair's signature 
intact. On stout paper without watermark. 

Collections : J. A. Boerner (MS.), Slade. 

Bequeathed by Mr. Felix Slade, 1868. 

An equally good impression of this state, from the Cracherode collection, is 
placed with the portraits of Maximilian I. 



[16-18.] 

VARIOUS REPRESENTATIONS OF THE FACE OF CHRIST ON THE 
VERNICLE (ST. VERONICA'S NAPKIN). Dates uncertain. 

16. ST. VERONICA WITH THE VERNICLE. 

She stands, three-quarter face to 1., on a meadow with grass and 
flowers, looking down and holding in both hands the gathered-up ends of 
the napkin. The face of Christ looks with wide-open eyes directly to the 
front ; tears fall from the eyes and there are drops of sweat upon the 
brow. The whole is enclosed by an architectural frame. A round arch 
with black ornament is supported by a single column on either side. In 
the upper corners are the papal and imperial arms, surrounded by wreaths, 
and on the bases of the columns small black shields. At the foot of the 
print is the xylographic inscription : SALVE . XP~l . EFFIGIES . SACERRIA 
The whole is surrounded by a very wide black line. No signature. 

[284 x 198.] Good impression, coloured (carmine, yellow, green). No water- 
mark. The back of the paper shows that it has been pasted to the cover of a book. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1904 (from an auction at Amsler and 
Ruthardt's, Berlin). 

There is another impression of this undescribed woodcut at Berlin. The 
attribution to Burgkmair can hardly be doubted. The date must be early : the 
shading of the nose of Christ and the heavy black border-line remind us of no. 1 
(B. 13) ; the colouring also suggests an early date. 

f ST. VERONICA WITH THE VERNICLE. 

Jahrb. d. K. preuss. Kunstsamml., xii, 166, 1. 

The attitude and costume of the saint are very similar to those on 
no. 16, but she turns to r. and stands on a step or dais. A round arch, 
cut off at the top, is supported by double columns on both sides. The 
papal and imperial arms are placed, without wreaths, in the upper corners. 
The face of Christ on the napkin is directed a little to r. ; there are no 
tears or drops of sweat. 

Photograph of a woodcut, attributed to Burgkmair, in the Dresden Cabinet 
[128 x 90]. Probably earlier than no. 16. Seidlitz dates it 1507. No other old 
impression is known, but the block itself is in the Derschau collection at Berlin. (See 
vol. i, p. 56 of the impressions of the unpublished blocks taken only for use in the 
Berlin Cabinet.) 

t ST. VERONICA WITH THE VERNICLE. 

She stands, with body three-quarters to r., but face to front and eyes 
a little to 1., upon an oblong base, with a semicircular step in front of it, 
under a round arch, cut off at the top, which rests on pilasters. A wreath 



78 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

of leaves and fruit is suspended behind her head. She holds in her r. hand 
the top and in her 1. hand the gathered-up corner of the napkin. The 
face of Christ is directed to the front ; the eyes are half closed and look 
downwards. Single border. No signature. 

Photograph of the impression [195 x 138] in the Dresden Cabinet. There are 
others at Nuremberg and Brunswick, and the block itself ia preserved in the Derschau 
collection at Berlin. 

The simple ornament on the front of the pilasters may have been suggested by the 
pilasters between the Fugger monuments in St. Anne's, Augsburg, erected 1511-12. 

17. SS. PETER AND PAUL WITH THE VERNICLE. 

St. Paul 1. and St. Peter r. stand behind a low wall, over which the 
napkin hangs. The eyes of Christ are open and look to the front ; there 
are no tears or drops upon his face. The architectural frame is richly 
decorated with black ornament, the lowest decorative panel on the r. 
containing the signature H B. The papal and imperial arms, surrounded 
by wreaths, are placed in the upper corners, and a shield with the initials 
s P Q R in a medallion over the column which divides the two saints. 
Broad outer border of black. 

[378 x 282.] Fine impression. Watermark, a stag. 

Collections : Fountaine, Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The only impression known. Reproduced in Hirth and Muther's " Meisterholz- 
schnitte," nos. 85, 86. 

To judge by the ornament the work might be as early as 1508, but the drawing 
of the heads suggests a later date. 

17a. TITLE-PAGE, PARTLY COPIED FROM NO. 17. 

A border composed of four blocks with black ornament on a white 
ground. The two side pieces are inaccurate copies of the lowest pair of 
pilasters in no. 17, retaining Burgkmair's monogram on the r. panel. 

[166 x 117.] Good impression, from Oecolam- | padij der haili- | gen schrifft 

Doctor Sant Brigi | ten ordens zu Alltenmiinster | vrtayl vfi maynung 

Doctor | Martin Luther belangend, etc. (M. Ramminger, Augsburg), M.D. XXI. 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

The side pieces were also used in Luther, " Vo de neiiwen Eckischen Bullen vnnd 
lugen" (Ramminger, Augsburg), 1520, "Ich bin der Strigel der teutschen landt," 
by " Niclas unter dem Rottenhiit " (M. Ramminger, Augsburg, 1521), and Luther, 
"Ain Christ = I lyche vnd vast Wolge- | griinte beweysung von dem Jfig (sic.) | 
sten tag" (n.p.d.). 

18. f FACE OF CHRIST ON THE VERNICLE, CROWNED WITH 

THORNS. B. vii, 207, 22. 

Photograph of the impression at Berlin, which has " Salve seta facies 
nostri redf-ptoris" printed in large type on the lower margin. The 
initials H. B. are also on the margin, but are printed from the block 
itself, though they stand outside the border line. 

[196 x 160, omitting margin.] 

A rare woodcut ; impressions, with monogram and lettering preserved, at Berlin 
and Vienna (Hofbibliothek) ; mutilated impressions at Frankfurt a. M. (cut to 
191 x 131), Hanover (Kestner Museum, the monogram cut off), and Vienna 
(Albertina), the signature erased and that of Diirer substituted). 

In the Hofbibliothek, Vienna (L. 5. 34) is an undescribed copy [225 x 147] with 
the addition of a cross, the instruments of the Passion, two angels, and an empty 
tablet for inscription. 









8MAH 

T .8 .ajmO OHA MtofliV 3H~T 



.. 




PLATE IV 

HANS BURQKMAIR 
THE VIRGIN AND CHILD. B. 7 

















Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 79 



18a. AFTER BURGKMAIB, BY (HANS LEU?). FACE OF CHRIST 
ON THE VERNICLE, CROWNED WITH THORNS. COPY, WITH 
ADDITION OF ST. VERONICA. B. vii, 208. P. iii, 340, 9. 

Above the vernicle we see the head and shoulders of St. Veronica, 
standing, and looking down to r. Her hands rest on, but do not grasp, 
the top of the napkin. This figure is perhaps added on a separate block, 
since the border-line at the top of the napkin is not continuous with the 
sides. The lower block, however, is not the original, as Bartsch supposed, 
but a copy, not deceptive when the two are seen together, though the 
difference is not easily described. The lines representing the folds of the 
napkin are coarser throughout, and the white spots at the corners, repre- 
senting pins which fasten the napkin to a board, are smaller. The shaded 
border, which stands in the original for this board itself, is omitted on the 
r. side, though preserved at the bottom. The monogram is placed low 
down towards the 1. upon the napkin. 

[296 x 151.] Good impression, a little retouched, on white paper with indistin- 
guishable watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The attribution to Hans Leu being uncertain, the woodcut seems to be best 
placed, as a copy from Burgkmair, in the latter's work. It is improbable that 
Leu, though he imitated other artists, would have condescended to such literal 
copying. The only ground on which an explanation of the monogram could be based 
would be the Veronica, for that figure is clearly an original addition by the copyist. 
An impression at Berlin has the note "Hans von Lyck oder Lederer " written on 
the margin by an old, though not contemporary, hand. This attribution is without 
authority. 



[19-21.] 

WOODCUTS OF THE VIRGIN AND CHILD. About 1509. 

19. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD UNDER A VINE TRELLIS. 

B. vii, 202, 7. M. 22. 

The Virgin, with a nimbus of rays and crowned with stars, sits under 
a trellis of vines, and with her 1. hand holds the naked Child sitting on her 
lap. In her r. hand she holds a book, on which the Child's r. hand also 
rests. The binding is decorated with the Burgundian emblems, St. 
Andrew's cross and flint and steel, an indication that the woodcut has some 
connection with Maximilian, whose patronage of Burgkmair seems to have 
commenced in 1508. Mary's robe is inscribed : AVE REGINA CELORV (M). 
The initials of the artist are on a scroll hanging from the trellis. Single 
border. 

[220 X 150.] Good impression, without watermark, cut to the border. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1905. 

The modelling of the faces with slanting lines indicates, perhaps, an even earlier 
date than that suggested. Muther dates the woodcut 1509, while Schmid (p. 39) 
connects it with the picture of 1510 at Nuremberg. A later impression of this 
woodcut in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna (which also possesses an early one), is enclosed 
in a border by Hans Weiditz, which occurs at Berlin as a frame to Burgkmair, B. II. 1 

1 Kunstgeschichtliche Anzeigen, i, 64. 



80 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

20. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD IN A CHAMBER. B. vii, 202, 9. M. 23. 

The Virgin sits, three-quarter face to r., and holds the Child upon her 
knee. Beyond them is a credence which bears Burgkmair's initials on its 
side. Beyond that again there is a view of open country on either side of 
a pillar with wreaths suspended from its capital. On a ledge in the fore- 
ground are a pitcher, a sprig of carnations, and an open book. A round 
mirror hangs on a column to the left of Mary's head. 

[235 x 175.] Late impression, without watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

21. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD IN A CHAMBER. B. vii, 203, 11. 

Copy of B. 9 by Jost de Negker, whose monogram is introduced 
towards the right on the architrave. Burgkmair's signature is omitted, 
and the original composition is curtailed on all four sides. 

[203 x 142.] Fair impression, not very early ; no watermark. 
Collections : Liphart (F 328,1), Mitchell. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

t THE VIRGIN AND CHILD IN A CHAMBER. B. vii, 203, 11. 

Reproduction (Dtirer Society, ii, 22) of the impression in the Hof- 
bibliothek, Vienna, which has on the lower margin a prayer in five lines, 
" Gegrusset seistu. . . .Maria. Amen," printed with type, followed by the 
address, Jost de Negker zu Augspurg, stamped from a block. 

Another copy, described twice by Bartsch, as no. 10 and no. 12, is the work of 
Hans Weiditz (see p. 167). 



[22-26.] 

WOODCUTS OF 1510. 

ILLUSTRATIONS TO " DAS BUCK GRANATAPFEL," by J. Geiler von Kaisers- 
berg, J. Otinar, Augsburg, 1510 (see p. 57, no. 2). 

22. CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF LAZARUS, MARTHA AND MARY. 

B. vii, 205, 16. M. 39. 

23. THE DESTRUCTION OF PHARAOH IN THE RED SEA. 

B. vii, 201, 3. M. 40. 

24. ST. ELIZABETH OF HUNGARY SPINNING. B. vii, 210, 28. M. 41. 
f A COOK DISEMBOWELLING A HARE. B. vii, 221, 71. M. 42. 

25. SEVEN SWORDS THE DEADLY SINS. B. vii, 218, 62 

26. SEVEN SCABBARDS THE SAVING VIRTUES. 

[c. 172 x 122.] No. 22 is a modern impression (Derschau), nos. 23-26 are cut 
from the book. The facsimile of B. 71 is from The Dome, vol. 5, in which B. 62 was 
also reproduced. 

Purchased on various occasions, 1834-1854. 

These compositions were freely copied by Baldung in the edition of " Granatapfel ' 
printed by Knoblouch at Strassburg in 1511, Muther 1395, and the copies have often 
been confused with the originals ; Bartsch, for instance, describes Baldung's " St, 
Elizabeth " in his catalogue of Burgkmair. 



Division B. School of Augsburg . Burgkmair. 81 



[27-30.] 

PROOFS OF THE GENEALOGY OF THE EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN I. 

B. vii, 223, 79. M. 59-135. 

Special literature : S. Laschitzer, " Die Genealogie des Kaisers Maxi- 
milian I.," Jahrb. d. kunsthist. SammL d. Allerh. Kaiserhauses, vii, 1 
(especially pp. 39-46, with summary of the earlier literature on p. 40), 
followed by reproductions of the seventy-seven woodcuts in Codex 8018 of 
the Hofbibliothek, Vienna. Four supposed designs for later numbers of 
the Genealogy, from Maximilian himself onwards, are published in the same 
volume, ii Th., Regesten 4578-4581. 

H. A. Schmid, " Forschungen uber H. B.," pp. 41-49. 

T. v. Frimmel, " Ergiinzungen zu B.'s Genealogie des Kaisers Maxi- 
milian I.," Jahrbuch, x, cccxxv, followed by reproductions of thirteen 
additional woodcuts in the Hof museum, Vienna (Ambraser Sammlung). 

The Genealogy, the earliest of the lengthy woodcut works commissioned by 
Maximilian, was carried out entirely by Burgkmair. The researches connected with 
two separate genealogical works, to be entitled " Stamm " and " Stammchronik " 
respectively, extended over a number of years, and were carried out successively by 
Mennel, Sunthaim, Trithemius, and Stabius. The differences of opinion between 
these several historians, and especially the severe strictures expressed by Stabius on 
the work of his predecessors, led to the abandonment of the work, and the only 
woodcut genealogy which actually appeared is that on the Triumphal Arch of Diirer, 
superintended by Stabius. Burgkmair's Genealogy is based on the researches of 
Mennel and Sunthaim, completed in 1509. He probably began to design the work 
in that year. We know from a letter of Peutinger to Maximilian, dated 17 November, 
1510, that a large portion of the work had then been completed, but the wood- 
cutter hitherto employed had absconded, no substitute could be found in Augsburg, 
and farther progress was accordingly delayed ; the painter (presumably Burgkmair 
himself) was competent, however, to help (not in cutting the blocks himself, as the 
words have generally been explained, but in obtaining a woodcutter). The difficulty 
seems soon to have been overcome, for Peutinger records the payment in 1510 of 
113 gulden, 24 kreuzer, to Burgkmair, the carpenter, and two wood-engravers for the 
preparation of 92 blocks. There is little doubt that all the 92 belonged to the 
Genealogy, of which 90 woodcuts survive. It has been generally assumed, 011 some- 
what insufficient grounds, that the second woodcutter was Jost de Negker. The work 
cannot have been entirely finished in 1510, for a proof of no. 45 at Munich has the 
date 1.5.1.1. under the signature H. BVRGKMAIR. 1 The emperor proposed to 
publish the work, if not in 1511, at least in the following year, for he wrote to 
Siegmund von Dietrichstein on 14 October, 1512, that he had definitely settled the 
form of the Genealogy, of which Peutinger would see to the printing, and that copies 
would be ready in a fortnight. Nevertheless, the work was never published, 
presumably owing to doubts of the correctness of the pedigree, in which many 
alterations were subsequently made. There are indications that the Genealogy was 

1 The editor of the Jahrbuch (Bd. vii, 1888) gives the date 1516-1519 to drawings 
preserved in the Thun-Hohenstein library at Tetschen, supposed to be designs (or 
more probably copies of designs) for four of the latest woodcuts of the series. This 
date is derived from the heraldic bearings of the king whom he calls Charles I. of 
Spain (Reg. 4580). But it is impossible that this bearded emperor (see the crown) 
should be meant for the young Charles, who appears, moreover, on a woodcut of this 
series as a small boy. The figure of Beg. 4580 appears in the woodcut no. 81 as 
Philip I., with a different head and an escutcheon taken directly from Reg. 4579. 
Reg. 4580 represents Charles at the age of thirty, at least, and the drawing appears 
to have been made up later from the woodcut, no. 81, and to be in no sense a design 
for that woodcut. The Tetschen drawings are thus of no authority for dating the 
woodcuts, and it is unfortunate that the date 1516-1519 has been given to the 
supplementary woodcuts published by Dr. Frimmel (Reg. 6254-6266, Bd. x). 

G 



82 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

to have been published as a book, 1 that each ancestor was to have been placed in an 
architectural frame, 2 and that verses were to have been printed at the top. 3 The set 
in the Hofbibliothek, which was probably Maximilian's own copy of the unfinished 
work, has the names printed with movable type. 

The blocks are lost and very few impressions have survived. In addition to the 
77 proofs in the Hofbibliothek, there are 86 in the Hofmuseum at Vienna, including 
thirteen subjects not represented in the other collection. Of the 78 woodcuts common 
to both, many vary in state, those in the Hofmuseum, which are without titles, being 
the earlier. The Albertina has but one proof, the Augsburg library sixteen, while 
the Munich collection has thirty-seven, including nos. 81, 83, 86, 87, 88, and the 
Stuttgart collection has four of the later numbers (after 77). 4 

Every ancestor has a coat of arms, which in the earlier numbers of the series was 
printed from a separate block, and in the later numbers from the same block as the 
figure. In the former case the earlier proofs (Hofmuseum) are found without the 
coat of arms. From no. 45 onwards almost every figure is accompanied by some 
emblem, generally an animal, in a circle. 

27. GLOTHEMUS II. (No. 29). 

He stands, his body directed to r., but looking back in three-quarter 
face to 1., with a sceptre in his r. hand and his 1. hand resting on the 
handle of a sabre. Signed H. B. near the r. foot. No coat of arms to 1. 
as in the Hofbibliothek impression. No border. 

[170 x 106, sheet 177 x 164.] Good impression, no watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

28. HILDEBIUS (No. 30). 

He sits three-quarter face to r. with legs stretched out before him, and 
holds a wand in his 1. hand. Signed H. B. No coat of arms to r. as in 
the Hofbibliothek impression. 

[145 x 148.] Printed on the back of no. 27. 

29. RUDOLFUS II. (No. 71). 

First state. 

He sits in profile to 1. with a sword held upright in his r., a sceptre in 
his 1. hand. Connected with the sword is a medallion containing a lion, 
and an escutcheon divided into six fields rests against the seat. The 
middle field of the lower row is black, as in the Hofmuseum, not white, as 
in the later impression reproduced in the Jahrbuch. The signature is on 
the seat. 

[167 x 138, sheet 200 x 156.] Good impression ; watermark, large bull's head 
with cross and serpent. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

30. ALBERTUSH. (No. 72). 

He sits in profile to r. with a sceptre in his 1. and a sword, point 

downwards, in his r. hand. The coat of arms leans against the throne, 

and a detached medallion r. contains a griffin. The signature is low on 
the 1. side. 

[167 x 147, sheet 205 x 160.] Good impression ; the same paper as no. 29. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

1 Stabius, text of the Ehrenpforte. 

z Treitzsaurwein, " Item der kaiser will alle seine vatter in arcus stellen." 

3 Dietrichstein, "Item die reymen, so ob den bilden kays. maiestat geslecht 
steen sollen." 

4 P. iii, 274, 103. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burglvmair. 83 

[31-45.] 
ALLEGORIES : VIRTUES, VICES, PLANETS. 

These three sets, of seven woodcuts each, are assigned both by Muther and 
Schmid to the year 1510. They are very imperfectly represented here. 

The Virtues (B. 48-54) occur, according to Bartsch, in three states: (a) in a 
single, (b) in a double frame, (c) with no frame. It may be doubted whether the 
alleged first state is not merely the second with the outer frame cut off. The Berlin 
cabinet possesses a complete set of what B. calls the second state. The inner frame 
is from the same design as that used for the St. Sebastian of 1512, B. 25 (no. 52, 
below), but not from the same block ; it is more coarsely cut, with fewer lines in the 
shading, and bears the initials H. B., divided by the base ; the neater repetition by 
Jost de Negker, described by B. as the original, lacks Burgkmair's signature. The 
outer frame contains, at the sides, candelabra, cut in half ; at the top, a vase in the 
centre, from which two sphinxes, holding cornucopias, turn away, then on either 
side a medallion with the head of a warrior in a helmet ; at the bottom, an arabesque 
of foliage with two dolphins and two nereids, whose arms, ending in foliage, support 
by rings a tablet bearing the Latin name and number of the virtue. The dimensions 
of the whole are 310 x 197mm. The inscriptions are as follows : (1) DER GLAVB I 
VIDESII. (2) DIE. LIEBE. I CARIT= I AS. III. (3) .HOFFNVNG. I SPES. I III. 
(4) DIE. GERECHTIKAI I IVSTICIAT I IIII. (signed H. B. between the legs). (5) 
DIE FIRSICHTIKAIT. I PRVDEN ICIA I V. (6) DIE M ESI KAIT. I -TEMPER I 
ANCIAIVI. (7) .DIE. STERCKI FORTIDI VDOIVII. 

The blocks of the Virtues themselves, in the third state, are preserved in the 
Derschau collection (Becker, B 27, where Prudence is wrongly placed last). The 
order given by Bartsch is wrong. 

31. HOPE. HOFFNVNG. B. vii, 216, 49. M. 45. 

The third of the series. Third state [159 x 73], 
Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1852. 

32. PRUDENCE. FIRSICHTIKAIT. B. vii, 216, 54. M. 50. 

The fourth of the series. Third state [160 x 74]. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

The mirror held by Prudence is very similar to that in the Italian engravings 
known as the Tarocchi, but there is no other indication that Burgkmair used that 
set of virtues as his models. Schmid points out traces of Venetian influence. 

The Vices (B. 55-61) occur in the first state with, in the second without, an 
architectural frame, in which two columns stand out prominently in front of a 
renaissance arch. Below the opening in which the allegorical figure stands is a 
procession of children wading through shallow water and drawing a boat, which is 
followed by sea-horses. Burgkmair's initials are on a scroll between the bases of the 
columns. Avarice in this state is reproduced (from the Berlin impression) in J. E. 
Wessely's "Das Ornament," i. 58. B. 55, 56 and 61 in the first state are in the 
Albertina. The blocks of six subjects in the second state, wanting Envy, are in the 
Derschau collection (Becker, D 12). 

33. PRIDE. DIE HOFART. B. vii, 217, 55. M. 51. 

34. AVARICE. DIE GEITIKAIT: B. 56. M. 52. 

35. LUST. VNKEISCH. B. 57. M. 53. 

36. WRATH. DER ZORN. B. 58. M. 54. 

G 2 



84 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

37. GLUTTONY. DIEFRESIKEIT. B. vii, 218, 59. M. 55. 
First state, in the frame described above. 

[296 x 191.] Fine early impression, without watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

The Planets (B. 41-47) occur in the first state with, in the second without, an 
architectural frame. The blocks are in the Derschau collection. The signs of the 
Zodiac are introduced at the feet of the divinities. B. 41 and 46 betray acquaintance 
with the Tarocchi (first set). 

37a. GLUTTONY. DIEFRESIKEIT. B. 59. M. 55. 

38. SLOTH. DIETRAKAIT. B. 61. M. 57. 

[c. 158 x 73.] Late impressions of the second state. 

Nos. 38 and 34 purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845, the remainder presented by 
Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Each of the Vices stands in flames. For additional emblems Pride has a peacock 
and mirror, Avarice a salamander and money-bag, Wrath a lion and sword, Gluttony 
a pig, goblet and pack of cards, Sloth an ass. Lust is represented by a pair of lovers 
embracing, without a further emblem. Wrath is a warrior, the rest are women. 

89. SATURNUS, WITH AQUARIUS AND CAPRICORNUS. B. vii, 215, 41. 

40. JUPITER, WITH SAGITTARIUS AND PISCES. B. 42. 

41. MARS, WITH SCORPIO AND ARIES. B. 48. 

42. SOL, WITH LEO. B. 44. 

43. VENUS, WITH LIBRA AND TAURUS. B. 45. 

44. MERCURIUS, WITH GEMINI AND VIRGO (also a cock). B. 46. 

45. LUNA, WITH CANCER. B. 47. 

[c. 150 x 70.] Old impressions of the second state. Saturnus and Luna show 
a portion of a bull's head watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

40a-46a. SIX COPIES OF THE PLANETS, OMITTING SATURNUS, WITH 
THE SIGNATURE 

These undescribed copies in the direction of the originals reproduce 
Burgkmair's architectural frame. They are somewhat roughly cut. The 
signature, unknown to Brulliot and Nagler, is on a tablet in front of the 
base on which each divinity stands. The frame is a passe-partout with two 
openings, one arched, to contain the divinity, the other round, in the 
base, to contain the emblem of the Planet, a human face in flames for Sol, 
a crescent for Luna, and a star for all the others. This round emblem is 
placed in the midst of a frieze of children at play. 

[c. 305 x 183.] Good impressions. The watermark of Sol is a bull's head with 
a star (the eyes connected as if wearing spectacles), that of Luna a unicorn. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

40b-45b. SIX COPIES OF THE PLANETS, OMITTING SATURNUS, WITH 
THE SIGNATURE 

These copies, also undescribed, are so closely similar to the last that it 
must be supposed that one of the sets was copied from the other and not 



Division B. School of Augsburg. BurgJcmair. 



directly from the originals. They also reproduce the frame, bub this set 
has been cut down, preserving only a portion of the niche and the base 
with a tablet containing the signature. 

[c. 180 x 78.] Good impressions on white early paper without watermark. 
Provenance not recorded. 

The same signature occurs on a set of copies of Cranach's Passion series, printed 
at Paris late in the XVI century (Nagl. Mon. iii, 927, no. 2353). 

46. THE LOVERS SURPRISED BY DEATH. 1510. B. vii, 215, 40. M. 58. 

Chiaroscuro, printed from three blocks, cut by Jost de Negker. 

Death, a lean, winged being with the face of a skull, but long hair, 
plants one foot upon the breast of a fallen warrior and dislocates his jaw 
with both hands, 1 while he clutches in his teeth the robe of a girl who 
runs to the 1. screaming, and with both hands raised in terror. The 
warrior's helmet and shield lie on the pavement. The costume is classical, 
the architecture Italian renaissance with reminiscences of Venice. A skull 
and crossbones are introduced as ornamental motives in a frieze. On a 
pilaster to the 1. is the signature H. I BVRGKMAIR, printed from the 
outline block. 

[212 x 151.] Fine impression, the outline block printed in dark grey, the tone 
blocks in lighter grey and dull pink, producing a lilac effect where the two overlap. 
The woman's face retouched. No watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This is an impression of the third state (variety A), which would have Jost de 
Negker's signature on the margin, if preserved ; a similar impression is at Basle. 

46a. THE LOVERS SURPRISED BY DEATH. B. 40. M. 58. 

[211 x ISO.] A later impression (variety B), cut slightly within the border. 
The outline block printed in black, the tone blocks in pale grey-blue and buff. The 
woman's face and the capital of the pillar retouched. No watermark. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

46b. THE LOVERS SURPRISED BY DEATH. B. 40. M. 58. 

[213 x 152.] A later impression (variety B), with a narrow margin. The 
outline block printed in black, the tone blocks in light, dull green and buff (yellower 
than in 46a). No watermark. 

Purchased in 1834. 

Apart from varieties of tint, this chiaroscuro occurs in four states. 

I. Without Jost de Negker's name, but with the date, MD. X., cut on the block, 
beneath that of Burgkmair. 

Though dated impressions are mentioned by Heinecken (Diet, des Artistes iii, 
462) and Passavant, their existence has been doubted (Nagl. Mon. iii, 240 and C. D. 
in Repertorium, xxi, 377). There are, however, at least five in existence, of which I 
have myself seen four. These are in the Stadel Institute, Frankfurt a. M. (fine 
impression, in shades of brown, or, rather, chocolate, colour), Liechtenstein collection, 
Vienna (fine impression with margin, same colour), Karlsruhe (mentioned also by 
Schmid, p. 43), and Heseltine collection, London (shades of grey only, cut). The fifth 
impression is at Paris (see Vol. I, p. 257, note 1). 

1 " Death the Strangler," which has been used as the English title of the print, 
called in German " Der Tod als Wiirger," is misleading. 



86 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

II. Without date. " Jost de Negker " printed with type vertically (parallel to 
the side of the block) beneath Burgkinair's name on the pilaster. Albertina (black, 
light and dark indigo blue, another impression black and two shades of warm, 
reddish brown), Berlin (black and two shades of green), Coburg (black ?, green and 
greenish grey), Lanna collection (Singer 2154). 

III. Without date. " Jost de Negker zu Augspurg" is printed from a block on 
the lower margin, which in many cases has been cut off. 

Of this state there are two varieties : 

A. The "outline block printed in a tint, not black. These are the best impressions. 
Berlin (repr. Lippmann, iv, 40), two shades of warm brown, and purplish 
grey, no black, from the Liphart collection (sale catalogue, no. 387). Basle 
and London (no. 46), exactly alike, Coburg and Vienna (Hofbibliothek), 
wanner in colour, resembling the best Berlin impression ; all these four 
are cut. 

Ji. The outline block, including Burgkmair's signature, printed In black. 
Albertina (black, yellow ochre and dull lilac), London (no. 46 a, b), collection 
of the Earl of Pembroke, Wilton House, exactly as no. 46a, but with the 
xylographic address preserved, Lauua collection, Prague (Singer 2155). 
Gersdorf collection, Bautzen. Hamburg (black, green and yellow, as no. 
46 b), etc. The commonest variety. Some of the latest impressions may be 
reprints, not issued by Jost de Negker himself. 



[47-49.] 

WOODCUTS OF 1511. 

ILLUSTRATIONS TO VIRTUS ET VOLUPTAS, CARMEN DE ORIOINE DUCUM 
AUSTRIAE. BY JOANNES PINICIANUS. 

J. Otmar, Augsburg, 1511, 1512; 4to. 

Muther knew only the second edition of this book (B.-I. no. 864) and dated the 
woodcuts, accordingly, 1512. The first edition (Pr. 10682) is dated 25 March, 1511, 
the second (Pr. 10690), 81 July, 1512. In the first edition the second illustration 
occurs twice, in the second only once. (See p. 61, no. 8, p. 62, no. 14.) 

47. THE ARCHDUKE CHARLES AND A HERMIT. P. iii, 273, 101. M. 142. 

The young prince stands 1. in hunting costume, with two dogs, at the 
edge of a wood. The hermit stands r. Signed H. B. in 1. lower corner. 

[144 x 90.] On thin paper, from the first edition. On the margin at the top is 
printed 1. CAROLVS and r. HEREMITA. 

47a. THE ARCHDUKE CHARLES AND A HERMIT. P. 101. M. 142. 

[144 x 90.] On stouter paper, from the second edition. The letters in the 
names are less spaced. 

48. THE ARCHDUKE CHARLES CHOOSING BETWEEN VIRTUE AND 

VICE. P- 102. M. 148. 

Two queens, VIRTVS and VOLVPTAS, the former in rags, the latter 
handsomely apparelled, take the prince by the sleeve and by the 1. hand 
respectively. Signed H. B. in r. lower corner. 

[144 x 91.] As no. 47. On the top margin is printed VIRTVS CAROLVS 
VOLVPTAS. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 87 

48a. THE ARCHDUKE CHARLES CHOOSING BETWEEN VIRTUE AND 
VICE. P. 102. M. 143. 

[144 x 91.] As no. 48. Repetition from the same edition. No inscription on 
the top margin. 

48b. THE ARCHDUKE CHARLES CHOOSING BETWEEN VIRTUE AND 
VICE. P. 102. M. 143. 

[144 x 91.] As no. 4Ya. Inscription as no. 48. 

Nos. 47, 48, and 48a purchased from Mr. Bumstead, 1852, nos. 47a and 48b pre- 
sented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The two woodcuts are reproduced by Hirth, nos. 631, 629. 

49. PORTRAIT OF JULIUS II. 1511. B. vii, 212, 33. M. 137. 

Bust, profile to 1., bare-headed, in a medallion advancing in relief 
from a square frame. Within the medallion are the inscription IVLIVS 
LIGVR PAPA- SECVNDVS and the date -MCCCCCXl. The signature 
H. BVRGKMAIR is on a tablet in the 1. lower angle of the frame ; the other 
angles are filled with white leaf ornament on a black ground. The morse 
of the cope contains the Eovere arms with keys and tiara. 

[248 x 242.] Impression from the black outline block only, cut within the 
border on the r. side. No watermark. 

Purchased at the Wellesley sale, 1866. 

It was known to Renouvier that this woodcut was taken from Caradosso's medal 
of 1506. The latter is copied in reverse, with the same inscription but different 
ornament. See Fabriczy, " Medaillen der italienischen Renaissance," p. 84, and 
Jahrbuch d. k. preuss. KunstsammL, iii, Taf. xxxv. 

t PORTRAIT OF JULIUS II. 1511. B. 33. M. 137. 

Facsimile by the Reichsdruckerei, Berlin, of a chiaroscuro impression 
printed with a grey tone block, cut to the circumference of the medallion. 

There is an impression of the rare original, cut by Jost de Negker, at Dresden. 
At Brunswick is an impression printed in a pale, greenish buff which has a 
margin 20 mm. in width preserved at the bottom only. On this margin, 2 mm. 
below the border of the woodcut, is printed Jost de Negker's xylographic address. 
A study for the chiaroscuro, in the same direction, is among the drawings 
at Berlin. Schmid (p. 52, n. 2) regards it as a proof of the woodcut, retouched, but 
Geheimrat Lehrs assures me, in a letter dated 11 Sept., 1905, that he is mistaken. 
The lines on the face, whether drawn with the pen or put in with the brush in olive- 
green, are different from those in the print, and accessories like the embroidery on 
the cope and the arms on the morse are slightly sketched, " Von einem Druck kann 
nicht die Rede sein, wenn auch die Lavierungen auf den ersten Blick wie von einer 
Tonplatte gedruckt aussehen." A subsequent inspection (December, 1906) has 
convinced me that this is correct. 

[50-52.] 

WOODCUTS OF 1512. 

50. PORTRAIT OF HANS PAUMGARTNER. 1512. B. vii, 212, 34. M. 141. 

Chiaroscuro, printed from three blocks, cut by Jost de Negker. 

Bust, three-quarter face to 1., under an arch to which the Paumgartner 
arms are attached, while a tablet, suspended r., bears the inscription 
ANN -SAL- MDXII I IOANNES- PAVNGARTNER Ci AVGV I STAN . /ETAT 
SWE- ANN LVII. The signature H. BVRGKMAIR is printed vertically 
towards the left. 



88 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



[293 x 241.] Good impression, but the r. lower corner is lost and has been 
supplied by a restorer. The outline block is printed in dark greenish blue, the tone 
blocks in two paler shades of the same colour. Watermark, imperial eagle and 
crown, in the form found in the early proofs of the Weisskunig. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Jost de Negker's share in this woodcut is certified by a letter from the wood- 
engraver himself to the Emperor, dated 27 Oct., 1512, in which he declares that he 
has done no work recently for any patron but Maximilian, with the exception of 
Paumgartner's portrait " mit drey Formen aines bogen gross " (quoted by 
Herberger, " Conrad Peutinger in seinem Verhaltnisse zum Kaiser Maximilian I," 
1851, p. 31). Schmid (p. 53) considers that the influence of this woodcut is shown 
in Holbein's portrait of Jakob Meier (1516). It is generally considered the finest 
specimen of chiaroscuro printing from three blocks, in imitation of grisaille painting, 
" auf damast art," which Jost de Negker claims as his own invention. 

There are other impressions of this rare woodcut at Cambridge (same colour, or 
slightly greener, reproduced in photolithography by Praetorius, L'Art, xvi, 221, text 
by S. Colvin), Berlin (lighter and bluer), Albertina, Brunswick and Lanua collection, 
Prague (all three lilac, from two blocks only, the Albertina impression fair, the 
others poor and made up with the brush). 

51. THE HOLY FAMILY. 1512. B. vii, 209, 26. M. 140. 

St. Anne, seated towards the r., takes the Child Jesns in her arms from 
his mother's lap. Mary has a mantle with Byzantine ornament and fringe, 
a star upon her shoulder and seven stars at the points of her nimbus. 
Joseph, wearing a hat, stands by her side, and Joachim appears behind 
Anne. Twelve cherubs look down from the clouds, where the Holy Ghost 
hovers in the midst of a wide circle of rays. Burgkmair's initials and the 
date 1512 are on a scroll in the r. lower corner. 

[223 x 151.] Good impression, without margin. Watermark, a small bull's head 
with tan cross. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

51a. THE HOLY FAMILY. 1512. B. vii, 209, 26. M. 140. 

[223 x 151.] A later impression, more heavily printed. Watermark, large high 
crown. Margin [16-181 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

62. ST. SEBASTIAN. 1512. B. vii, 209, 25. M. 139. 

The saint stands in a niche, bound by curiously twisted cords to a 
column and pierced by six arrows. The date 1512 is placed vertically on 
the shaded wall of the niche, and the name H. BVRGMAIR to r. of the 

ar> 
column, with the signature of Jost de Xegker, ^ below it. 

The arched inner block [100 X 73] is placed in the architectural frame 
already described on p. 83, a copy of the signed frame used for the set of 
Virtues. 

[211 x 150.] Fair impression, cut ; the round-arched top of the frame and its 
base, printed from separate blocks, are wanting. 1 Watermark, a small fleur-de-lys. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

The same frame was used for St. Clara, B. 27 (Hofbibliothek, Vienna), which has 
the xylographic address, " Jost de Negker zu Augspurg." 



1 The whole is reproduced in Wessely's " Das Ornament und die Kunstindustrie," 
1877, i, 57. There are impressions at Carlsruhe and Vienna (Albertina). 



[53, 5 I 






Present, 

53a. THi TITLE-PAGE, 

on. The 



SHAH 



VARIOUS 

N. 1516 



t PORTRAIT 











PLATE V 

HANS BURGKMAIR 
SAMSON AND THE LION. B. 2 





Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 89 

[53, 54.] 
TITLE-PAGES. 

53. TITLE-PAGE OF BICIUS, IN APOSTOLOBUM SIMBOLUM DIALOGUS, 

J. Miller, Augsburg, 1514; 4to. M. 145. 

A single block with an opening [46 x 40] to hold the title. Above 
the opening is the Almighty, seated on clouds, with his hand upon an 
orb. A long scroll passes behind him, inscribed VBI DVO VEL TRES 
CONGREGATl SVNT, etc. Below stand three disputants. The artist's 
initials are low down on the r. 

[161 x 122.] Good impression, text on the back. The title is IN APOSTOLO | BVM 

SIMBOLVM | PAVLI BICII OBA | TOBIS, PHILO | SOPHI ET THEO | LOGI OCVLATIS | SIMI, 

A PBIOBI | DEMONSTBATI | vvs DiALOGVS. This is from the first edition, 4 April, 1514 
(Muther 867 ; Pr. 10823). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

53a. THE SAME TITLE-PAGE. 

From a later edition. The title runs : IN APOSTOLO- | BVM SIMBOLUM | IVXTA 

PEBIPA- | TETICOBVM DO | GMA DIALOGVS | PEBPLANE AC | SVMMO INGENII | ACVMINE 
LUMI- | NI GBATIAE LVMEN | CONCILIA! NATVBE. 

CoUection : Bell Scott (F. 489). 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

54. TITLE-PAGE OF JOBNANDES DE BEBUS GOTHOBUM. J. Miller, 

Augsburg, 21 March, 1515 ; fol. B. vii, 218, 53. M. 146. 

Alboin, King of the Lombards, and Athanaric, King of the Goths, are 
seated in a hall in conversation. The title is on a shield suspended from 
the roof, and Burgkmair's initials are on the cornice. 

[253 X 166.] Good impression, from the book. 
Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1850. 

VARIOUS REPRODUCTIONS. 

t SAMSON AND THE LION. 1515. B. vii, 201, 2. M. 148, 

Photograph of the impression at Munich. 

t POBTBAIT OF JESUS CHBIST IN A MEDALLION. B. vii, 207, 20. 

Photograph of the impression at Munich. 

This woodcut, which is also in the Hofbibliothek at Vienna, has been 
reproduced and discussed by Mr. G. F. Hill in an article on " Medallic 
Portraits of Christ," in The Reliquary, July, 1904, x, 173 (continued October, 
1905). It stands in relation to a group of medals derived, in Mr. Hill's opinion, 
from the head of Christ painted by Jan van Eyck now in the Berlin Museum. The 
particular medal from which Burgkmair appears to have worked is Mr. Hill's d, 
specimens of which are preserved in the Uffizi and in the Ashmolean Museum at 
Oxford. " It will be noticed that the inscription of the reverse has been transferred 
to an outer circle, and that the copyist has slavishly followed the original in running 
the two words IN HUNG into one." An earlier woodcut, founded on the same 
group of medals, is that dated " Pforzheim, 1507," reproduced p. 97 of Kaemmerer's 
" Hubert und Jan van Eyck," 1898. Mr. Hill believes that the type was invented 
by Van Eyck and not in reality copied, as the inscriptions on the early medals state, 
from the emerald sent by Bajazet II to Innocent VIII about 1492. 

Another rare woodcut of this subject by Burgkmair, B. 21 [diam., 230; outline 
of square, 228 x 228], is to be seen at Berlin and Vienna (Albertina, Hofbibliothek, 
and Liechtenstein collection). 



90 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

t CHRIST ON THE CROSS. 

Photograph of an undescribed woodcut [252 x 181] at Basle. 

Christ is naked. His legs are crossed and the feet are nailed 
separately to a bracket. A cord with two broken ends hanging loose on 
the 1. side passes round his chest ; another cord passes three times about 
his thighs and is knotted r. behind the cross. The background is a 
wooded landscape with water 1. The initials are on the mound of earth 
in which the cross is embedded. A scroll with I N R I is tied to a staff 
which rises from the transverse beam behind Christ's head. The nimbus, 
with its fringe of small rays, is of the type found in no. 51 but rarely else- 
where in Burgkmair's work. The landscape resembles that of the 
Weisskunig cuts, and the date may be about 1515. 

t THE DEATH OF LUCRETIA. Woltmann, " Holbein und seine Zeit," ii, 219. 

Photograph of a woodcut [167 X 138] in the Basle Museum, described 
only by Woltmann. 

Lucretia, with her breast pierced "by a sword, lies fainting on the floor 
of a room in which is a bed 1. with curtains partly drawn. She is 
surrounded by four men, one of whom kneels and raises her. Burgkmair's 
initials (the B reversed) are on the cornice to r. of a pilaster. 

This cut must date from about the time of the Weisskunig. It was 
copied in reverse on the Basle title-page, P. iii, 405, 93, wrongly ascribed to 
Holbein. The copy omits the old man who stands over Lucretia with 
both hands raised. 

t THE LAMENTATION FOR CHRIST. 

Jahrb. d. k. preuss. Kunstsamml., xii, 166, 4. 

Photograph of the Dresden impression [162 x 122]. There are others 
at Paris and in the Beuth-Schinkel collection nt Charlottenburg ; the latter 
has the xylographic address of Jost de Negker on the margin. Seidlitz 
dates the woodcut about 1515. 

f JUDITH. Jahrb. d. k. preuss. Kunstsamml., xii, 166, 5. 

Photograph of the Dresden impression [177 X 132] which has been 
published in Hirth and Muther's " Meisterholzschnitte," no. 88. There 
are others at Basle and in the Liechtenstein collection at Vienna. The 
date, 1519, proposed by Seidlitz, is rather late. 

[55-101.] 
ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE WEISSKUNIG (1514-1516). 

B. vii, 224, 80. M. 163-815. 

" Der Weisskunig," ' the most extensive of the unfinished works of the Emperor 
Maximilian, is a historical romance supplementary to Theuerdank and dealing chiefly 
with the political history of his reign, though the first part is devoted to the life of 
his parents and the second to his birth and education. The narrative is in the main 
autobiographical, but the imperial author does not hesitate to interpolate a little 
fiction and to represent events in a light more favourable to himself than strict 

1 The name means " the White," not " the Wise King." Maximilian thought of 
changing the title to " blank kunig." It is derived from the white (i.e., silver) 
armour that he wore, according to the precedent of such titles as " der rote Ritter," 
" Tirante el bianco," in the romances of chivalry (Schultz, p. xv). 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 91 

historical truth can justify. The book is dedicated to the Archdukes Charles and 
Ferdinand. Much of it was written down at the Emperor's dictation and put into 
shape by his secretary, Marcus Treitzsaurwein, who may be regarded as the main 
author of the first two parts ; the more important third part is practically 
Maximilian's own work, and the disguises under which he chose to describe persons 
and events were only partially intelligible to anyone but himself. All the characters 
go by fictitious names, chiefly derived from their heraldic bearings. Thus, 
Frederick III is the Old, and Maximilian himself the Young White King ; Archduke 
Sigismund is the Merry White King. The Blue King is the King of France, the 
King of the Steel the Duke of Burgundy, the King of Flowers, or White Roses, 
Edward IV, the Red King Richard III, the White and Red King Henry VII, the 
Green King the King of Hungary, the King of the Swan the Duke of Gleves, the 
Ermine or Black and White King the Duke of Brittany, King Mana Alfonso of 
Naples, the King of the Wild People (also Tenettenkunig) the King of Scotland, the 
King of the Dragon (Biscione) the Duke of Milan, the King of the Fish the Doge of 
Venice, the Black King the King of Spain, the Yellow King the King of Poland, the 
Handsome King Philip the Handsome, and the Pope the King of the Three Crowns. 
The White Company are Maximilian's subjects, the Blue Company the French, the 
Grey Company the Dutch, the Dapple-grey Company the people of Gueldres, the 
Coal-black the people of Liege, the Brown Company the Flemings, the Peasants 
with the Strange Flag the Dutch insurgents, the Leapers the Frisians, and the 
Peasant Company, or Company with the Many Colours, the Swiss. 

A fragmentary autobiography in Latin preceded the composition of the Weiss- 
kunig. Portions of this and of various later drafts in German written at the 
Emperor's dictation are still extant, with notes relating to the projected illustrations. 
In 1514 Treitzsaurwein put these drafts in order to the best of his ability and wrote 
a fair copy of the whole, 1 which is exceedingly confused, as he did not sufficiently 
understand the Emperor's intentions. When different drafts had been written at 
dictation relating to the same event, Treitzsaurwein would copy them all, and insert 
them in different places. The printed editions are based upon this MS., which 
nothing but the Emperor's revision could have made completely intelligible. There 
exists, further, a copy of the latter part of this MS., made for Maximilian's own use, 2 
which has numerous notes and corrections in his hand of great historical importance. 
Thence we learn that Peutinger, Pfinzing and others had a share in the work. 

The confused state of the text itself reacted on the illustrations, which were 
carried out at Augsburg under Peutinger's supervision. Some subjects were cut 
twice, many others omitted, and many illustrations represent subjects not included 
in the text so far as it was finished. The contents of the illustrations were prescribed 
by the Emperor and his advisers, and exact instructions were given about the 
costumes ; the compositions were then sketched with the pen by various artists and 
submitted for approval or correction. Ninety-two of these drawings survive, six 
being in Codex 8033 of the Hofbibliothek, 3 fifty-one in an album in Prince 
Liechtenstein's collection, 4 and thirty-five in Treitzsaurwein's " book of queries," 5 
which was written after Whitsuntide in 1515. This book contains suggestions, 
generally approved by Maximilian, as to the woodcuts required for the illustration 
of every chapter, with drawings or proofs inserted in the appropriate places. It 
further contains queries as to the subjects, names of the persons, etc., represented in 
the woodcuts queries which Maximilian, unfortunately, never answered. He wrote 
on 9 August, 1515, that he had received the book and entrusted it to Pfinzing for 
safe-keeping. 

The final drawings on the block were made for the most part by Burgkmair and 
Beck, while Springinklee and Schaufelein undertook two subjects each. The blocks 
were cut by the group of wood-engravers who worked at Augsburg under the 
supervision of Jost de Negker. Only five blocks have the cutter's name recorded on 
the back ; they are the work of four men, Glaus Seman, Alexius Lindt, Cornelius 
Liefrinck, and Hans Taberith ; the name of Hans Franck is written on a proof of 
another subject at Vienna. The date of their execution appears to range from 1514 
to 1516; on May 16th in the latter year Maximilian sent to Peutinger a drawing 



1 Schultz's MS. A (Hofbibl. Codex 3032). 

2 Schultz's MS. E (Hofbibl. Codex 2832). 

3 Schultz's MS. F. 

4 Schultz's MS. G. 

8 Schultz's MS. H (Hofbibl. Codex 3034). 



92 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

for one of Burgkmair's subjects (no. 163, the Veneration of the Holy Coat) which 
was then still uncut. One of Burgkmair's subjects (no. 54) bears the date 1515. 

Two hundred and thirty-six of the blocks, found in the XVIII century at Graz, 
are now preserved in the imperial library at Vienna; thirteen blocks are lost. 
Very few contemporary impressions survive. The most important sets are the proofs 
in the Hofbibliothek (116 in MS. A, another large set 1 in MS. F, printed on the back 
of proclamations of Oct. 5th, 1514, and 82 in MS. H), and 128 in the Liechtenstein 
collection (MS. G). The Berlin cabinet contains a few proofs, one of which is of 
great interest, being an undescribed first state of the woodcut no. 26 (Maximilian 
in the painter's studio), which has a shield suspended from a pair of antlers on the 
wall over Max's head and the words " gelick det vil " ; all this was subsequently 
removed from the block. An early proof of the same subject, already in the second state, 
with wide margin and a MS. inscription above, Der Lust (?) vnd die schicklicheit so er 
in | angebung des gemaels gehabt vnd \ bey sein zeiten (?) besserung der selbn, ; is preserved 
at Coburg, along with a similar fine proof of no. 13 (1775 edition), inscribed, wie die 
kunigin schwanger vnd \ ain Sun geporen ward. A recent acquisition of the Berlin 
Cabinet is a proof on vellum of the rare subject reproduced on p. 259 of the Vienna edition. 

Of the 90 early proofs here (43 by Burgkmair, 48 by Beck, 1 by Schaufelein and 6 
duplicates) 74 were acquired at the sale of W. Y. Ottley's prints in 1837 (lot 659), 
and the remainder by subsequent purchases. Many of Ottley's proofs bear the stamp 
of the Thos. Allen collection. Some of our proofs, like those in the Vienna Codex 
3033, are printed on the back of a proclamation of 5 Oct., 1514, summoning a council 
to meet at Landshut on the 30th of the same month, of which there are three 
editions, printed with the type of J. Schonsperger, juu. (Pr. 10737). 2 

No edition appeared in Maximilian's lifetime, and his grandson Ferdinand's 
project of issuing the work was frustrated by the death of Treitzsaurwein in 1527. 
Notes in the volume of proofs and drawings now belonging to Prince Liechtenstein 
show that two earlier possessors of the book, Baron Richard Strein von Schwarzenau 
(d. 1600) and Georg Christoph von Schallenberg (1633), contemplated a publication 
of the Weisskunig. The MS. (A) of the text was found at Schloss Ambras in 1665 
and brought to Vienna, but it was not published till the blocks were found at Graz 
a century later. The first edition appeared at Vienna in 1775, and the remaining 
stock was bought by S. Edwards, of London, who re-issued it with a French title in 
1779. For this edition the missing block of the last subject (no. 237) is supplied by 
a modern copy signed F. F. instead of H.B. 

The second edition forms the sixth volume (1888) of the Vienna Jahrbuch. It 
contains impressions of the 236 blocks, increased to 238 by the use of the two supple- 
mentary blocks to Springinklee's first subject (no. 156), which were omitted in the 
first edition. 3 The thirteen missing subjects are supplied by etchings on zinc from 
early proofs, so that the total number of illustrations is 251. Specimens of the 
sketches are given in the introduction, written by Dr. Alwin Schultz, who also 
edited the text. I am indebted to his admirable essay for all the information 
relating to the Weisskunig which I have summarised here. 

It only remains to define more precisely Burgkmair's share in the work, with 
which we are here immediately concerned. Five subjects are ascribed to him by 
notes on the blocks, and 110 bear his initials. 4 Schultz, further, regards three 
subjects as certainly, and two as probably, his work, but doubts his responsibility for 
uos. 73, 172, 190, 203. Only the first of these is, in my opinion, by Burgkmair 
(observe, especially, the trees). Accepting this, the total number of his woodcuts 
amounts to 121 ; 43 of these are represented here by proofs. 

The latter are arranged in the order adopted by Schultz. The title of each 
woodcut is followed by its number in the first edition (A), the page on which it stands 
in the second edition (B), and its number in Muther's catalogue (M.). Muther's 
explanations of the subjects are often wrong. 

1 According to Passavant (iii, 268) 155, but the list given by Schultz, p. xvii, 
note 1, amounts only to 140, including duplicates. 

2 The conjecture is perhaps admissible that this set may have been derived from 
the " two books of the Weisskunig with all belonging thereto " which could not be 
found at Innsbruck whbn the Archduke Ferdinand ordered them to be sent thence 
to Vienna in 1526. 

s See Vol. I, p. 374, where the first edition is inaccurately cited by the name of 
Bartsch. It was edited by Hoffstatter. 

4 109 according to Schultz, but no. 177 (p. 314) is also signed. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 93 

[55-97.] 
EARLY PROOFS. 

55. THE YOUNG WHITE KING LEARNING TO WRITE (signed). A, no. 18. 

B, p. 57. M. 172. 

56. THE YOUNG WHITE KING INSTRUCTED IN THE BLACK ART. 

A, no. 23. B, p. 65. M. 175. 

57. THE LIBERALITY OF THE YOUNG WHITE KING (signed). A, no. 25. 

B, p. 71. M. 177. 

57a. ANOTHER PROOF OF THE SAME, WITH THE PROCLAMATION ON 
THE BACK. 

58. HE CONDUCTS A MASQUERADE (signed). A, no. 33. B, p. 83. M. 180. 

50. HE FORTIFIES A CAMP WITH BAGGAGE WAGGONS 1 (signed). 
A, no. 44. B, p. 113. M. 186. 

60. HE TELLS HIS FATHER THE QUEEN'S 2 MESSAGE (signed). A, 

no. 46. B, p. 126. M. 188. 

61. THE YOUNG WHITE KING LEARNS THE FLEMISH LANGUAGE 

FROM AN OLD PRINCESS (signed). A, no. 52. B, p. 139. M. 193. 

62. HE LEARNS ENGLISH FROM ARCHERS IN THE NETHERLANDS 3 

(signed). A, no. 228. B, p. 141. M. 306. 

63. HE SPEAKS SEVEN LANGUAGES WITH AS MANY CAPTAINS 

(signed). 4 A, no. 80. B, p. 144. M. 213. 

64. BATTLE IN A VINEYARD IN BURGUNDY (signed). A, no. 63. B, 

p. 148. M. 198. 

65. THE BLUE KING TAKING COUNSEL HOW TO SURPRISE THE 

WHITE KING (signed H. S. and H. B.). A, no. 232. B, p. 322. M. 232. 

66. THE WAR WITH THE BLUE KING (signed). A, no. 86. B, p. 159. 

M. 217. 

67. THE WHITE KING'S DAUGHTER HANDED OVER TO THE BLUE 

KING (signed). A, no. 88. B, p. 172. M. 218. 

68. THE BATTLE OF SEYST (signed). A, no. 100. B, p. 193. M. 226. 



1 Such a defence was called a " Wagenburg " or " Tabor." See Vol. I, p. 314. 

2 " The Queen of the Steel (Feuereisen)," i.e., Mary of Burgundy. 

8 The subject may belong to the following chapter, of learning Spanish, as it is 
interpreted in MS. H. It will be observed that the men do not carry bows, as 
Henry VII.'s soldiers do on block 116 (no. 74 here). 

4 The head of the king has been inserted on a separate piece of wood. 

* According to Schultz's note (p. 519) this subject properly belongs to p. 152, and 
that order is adopted here. The historical allusion is to the expedition to Pont-a- 
Vendin, 1478. 



94 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

69. SIEGE OF A TOWN (signed). A, no. 101. B, p. 221. M. 227. 

70. UTRECHT (signed ; cut by Taberith). A, no. 207. B, p. 222. M. 294. 

71. SIEGE OF A TOWN (signed). A, no. 105. B, p. 230. M. 231. 

72. YPRES (signed). A, no. 118. B, p. 233. M. 239. 

73. THREE TRANSPORTS (signed). A, no. 214. B, p. 247. M. 300. 

74. PHILIP MAKES A TREATY WITH HENRY VII. ON BEHALF OF 

HIS FATHER (signed). A, no. 116. B. p. 248. M. 238. 

75. THE STORMING OF NANTES (signed). A, no. 136. B, p. 253. M. 253. 

76. THE WHITE KING IN CONFERENCE WITH HIS CAPTORS (signed). 

A, no. 122. B, p. 260. M. 243. 

77. THE WHITE KING GREETS THE MERRY WHITE KING 2 (signed). 

A, no. 143. B, p. 271. M. 257. 

78. A MESSENGER BRINGS A LETTER TO THE WHITE KING AS HE 

SITS IN COUNCIL (signed). A, no. 71. B, p. 280. M. 206. 

79. NEWS BROUGHT TO THE WHITE KING OF THE DEFEAT OF THE 

CROATS (signed). A, no. 209. B, p. 286. M. 295. 

80. THE VOYAGE DOWN THE DANUBE TO FIGHT THE TURKS 

(signed). A, no. 89. B, p. 294. M. 219. 

81. SHIPWRECK OFF THE LIGURIAN COAST (signed). A, no. 65. B, 

p. 297. M. 200. 

82. THE BATTLE OF BREGENZ (signed). A, no. 72. B, p. 304. M. 207. 

83. LUDOVICO SFORZA, DUKE OF MILAN, TAKEN CAPTIVE (signed). 

A, no. 60. B. p. 315. M. 196. 

84. THE WHITE KING'S MESSAGE DELIVERED TO THE STRANGE 

COMPANY (signed). A, no. 210. B, p. 320. M. 296. 

85. THE COUNCIL AT GMUNDEN (signed ; cut by Taberith). 3 A, no. 154. 

B, p. 324. M. 267. 

86. THE CONQUEST OF GRADISCA, 1508 (signed). A, no. 196. B, p. 334.' 

M. 288. 

87. THE CONQUEST OF THE VENETIAN TERRITORY (signed and 

dated 1515). A, no. 54. B, p. 339. M. 194. 

88. THE POPE AND THE KING OF SPAIN RETIRING FROM THE 

LEAGUE OF CAMBRAY, 1511 (signed). A, no. 51. B, p. 348. M. 192. 

1 This appears to be the same incident as is represented on the tenth of the 
historical subjects on the Triumphal Arch (see Vol. I, p. 325). 

* The Archduke Sigismund (1427-14%), first cousin of Frederick III. He resigned 
the government of Tirol in 1489 in favour of Maximilian. 

3 There is a proof of this at Berlin inscribed Das Concili zu Gmunden mit den vil 
seltzamen Potschafften. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 95 

89. THE BATTLE OF RAVENNA (signed). A, no. 94. B, p. 350. M. 222. 

90. THE SWISS EMBASSY AGAINST THE BLUE KING (signed). A, 

no. 93. B, p. 355. M. 221. 

90a. ANOTHER PROOF OF THE SAME SUBJECT, WITH THE PRO- 
CLAMATION ON THE BACK. 

91. THE BATTLE OF THE SPURS, 1513 (signed). A, no. 215. B, p. 362. 

M. 301. 

92. THE ELECTION OF MAXIMILIAN AS KING OF THE ROMANS 

(signed). A, no. 166. B, p. 372. M. 270. 

93. THE SPLENDID FOUNDATIONS OF THE OLD WHITE KING 1 

(signed). A, no. 206. B, p. 377. M. 293. 

94. THE STORMING OF THE CASTLE OF SALINS (signed). A, no. 107. 

B, p. 393. M. 232. 

95. THE STORMING OF MORAN (signed). A, no. 174. B, p. 397. M. 275. 

96. THE BATTLE OF KOCHSEE (signed). A, no. 191. B, p. 398. M. 284. 

97. THE LEAGUE WITH THE WHITE RUSSIANS 2 (signed). A, no. 219. 

B, p. 400. M. 304. 

[c. 217 X 196.] Brilliant early proofs on white paper. The watermark of 
nos. 55, 57, 59, 61, 63, 68, 70, 77, 81-83, 85, 90, 93 is an imperial eagle and crown 
[95 x 72], of nos. 58 and 89 the head of a jester (?), of nos. 62, 75, 86 the large high 
crown, of nos. 71, 76, 92 a small orb (Reichsapfel) ; the remainder are without 
watermark. Nos. 57a, 59, 66, 68, 70, 82, 90 and 96 have the text of the proclamation 
on the back. Nos. 62, 65, 71, 72, 74, 79 and 94 have the stamp of the Thomas Allen 
collection. 3 

No. 90 is from the Banks collection, presented 1818 ; nos. 56, 57, 60-74, 78-81, 
83, 84, 86-89, 92, 94-98 were purchased at the Ottley sale, 1837 ; nos. 58, 75 and 82 
from Evans, 1849 ; nos. 57a, 59, 77, 85, 91 at the Bammeville sale, 1854 ; nos. 55, 93 
from Evans, 1858, and no. 76 was presented by Mr. J. H. Anderdon, 1872. 



[98-101.] 

LATER IMPRESSIONS (BEFORE 1775). 4 

98. THE YOUNG WHITE KING'S SKILL IN MUSIC (signed). A, no. 28. 
B, p. 79. M. 179. 

Fair impression on stout paper without watermark, apparently of the XVI century. 
Purchased at the Bammeville sale, 1854. 

1 Referring to the Bishoprics of Laibach, Vienna and Wiener-Neustadt, the 
Cistercian abbey of Neukloster at Neustadt, and the religious order of Knights of 
St. George at Millstatt. 

2 A Russian embassy visited Vienna in 1515. Cardinal Lang stands behind 
Maximilian. 

3 See Fagan 5. The stamp, however, resembles that given by F. (no. 3) as the second 
Aylesford stamp, the only difference being that the star is lighter (in outline, not 
solid) and has a circle in the middle. The Allen collection was sold 13 May, 1807. 

4 For the 1775 edition of the complete work, see p. 60, no. 14. 



96 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

99. THE KING OF THE STEEL AND HIS ONLY DAUGHTER 1 (signed). 

A, no. 45. B, p. 115. M. 187. 

Good impression on thin XVIII century paper. 

Purchased at the Ottley sale, 1837. A similar impression, from the Mitchell 
collection, 1895, is placed with prints of costume. 

100. THE YOUNG WHITE KING AND HIS QUEEN LEARNING ONE 

ANOTHER'S LANGUAGES (signed). B, p. 137. 

Two different blocks of this subject were cut, from the designs of Burgkmair and 
Beck respectively. Beck's block (B, p. 136) is preserved at Vienna, and was used in 
A, no. 55. The proof of the first state of Burgkmair's block in the Liechtenstein 
collection is described by Schultz as unique ; this, however, is a second example. It 
is on old paper without watermark, of much the same quality as no. 98, but inferior 
to the early proofs. It must have been printed before 1542. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

lOOa. THE SAME : SECOND STATE. M. 315. 

A good, old impression, without text on the back. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Burgkmair's block, cut down 1. to the width of 152 mm., was used in books 
printed by Steiner and Egenolff, 1542-1550 (pp. 63, 64, nos. 30, 33, 34). It is reproduced 
in Weigel's " Holzschnitte beriihmter Meister," no. 1, and Muther, " B.-L," pi. 164. 
Muther's statement that it was used in " SchimpfT und Ernst," 1534, appears to rest 
on a confusion of this title with that of the later book, " Schertz mit der Warheyt, 
Vonn gutten Gesprache, In Schimpff vnd Ernst Reden," Frankfort, 1550. 

101. THE BATTLE OF NAUDERS (B, p. 518), called also THE BATTLE OF 

NAPLES (i.e., Cerignola, 28 April, 1503). A, no. 62. B, p. 318. M. 197. 

Fair impression, on brownish XVIII century paper. Watermark, imperial eagle 
holding two sceptres. 
Provenance unknown. 



[102-167.] 

WOODCUTS FORMING PART OF THE TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION OF 
MAXIMILIAN I. (1516-1518). B. vii, 229, 81. 

Literature : 

J. G. A. Frenzel, " Uber den Triumphzug Kaiser Maximilians." 

Naumann's Archiv, 1856, ii, 71. 
F. Sehestaij, "Kaiser Maximilians I. Triumph." Vienna Jahrbuch, 

1883,'i, 154-181. 
K. Woermann, " Dresdener Burgkmairstudien." Zeitschrift fur 

bildende Kunst, 18!)0, N.F., i. 40. 
See also Vol. I of this Catalogue, pp. 332, 398. 

The original programme of the Triumph, written by Treitzsaurwein (1512) in 
accordance with the Emperor's instructions, is preserved at Vienna (Hofbibl., Codex 
2835). Miniatures were then painted, which are preserved in two forms, copy and 
original, also in the Hofbibliothek. The originals, formerly at St. Florian, are 
preserved only from no. 50 onwards ; the copies, however, are complete. The 
miniatures appear to have been carried out by Altdorfer and his pupils. For some 

1 I.e., Charles the Bold and Mary. Notice on the curtain the symbol of eternity 
(a dragon swallowing its own tail), introduced also on the woodcut of the Planet 
Saturn, B. 41, where it has a prototype in the Italian engraving (Tarocchi series). 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 97 

of the compositions there are preliminary sketches in pen and ink ; one such drawing 
is in this collection (see Vol. I, p. 399, no. 1). The artists employed in drawing the 
subjects on the blocks, with the written programme and the miniatures to guide 
them, were Diirer, Springinklee, Schaufelein, Burgkmair, Beck and (probably) 
Huber. The blocks, of which 135 out of a' total of 138 are preserved at Vienna, 
were cut by Hieronymus Andrea, Jan de Bom or Bonn, Hans Franck, Cornelius and 
William Liefrinck, Alexius Lindt, Jost de Negker, Wolfgang Resch, Jakob Bupp, 
Glaus Seman and Jan Taberith. On most of the blocks notes are preserved, recording 
the name of the cutter and the date on which he delivered (" praesentavit ") his 
work, the earliest being 12 Nov., 1516, the latest (on any of Burgkmair's subjects) 
8 May, 1518. 

Burgkmair designed 67 blocks, including nos. 1-56 without interruption. A 
specially interesting collection of trial proofs (52 in number, besides one duplicate) is 
preserved in the Dresden cabinet, together with Burgkmair's working copy, with 
annotations in his own hand, of the original written programme. The MS. has 
Burgkmair's initials and the date M.D.XVI on the wrapper, and on the fly-leaf the 
following inscription : H. Burgkmair, maler, Angefangen 1516 adi 1 abrilis, followed 
by a drawing of the artist's arms, which occur again on the 28th woodcut of the 
series. From this we learn exactly when he commenced his work, and it is evident 
that the woodcuts are a set of the earliest trial proofs which came from his own 
collection ; the paper on which they are printed differs from that of the 1526 issue, 
and the impressions are sharper. The tablets and scrolls appear white, not black, 
as paper was pasted over the block in those places to prevent it from printing. 
Eleven similar proofs, of which six only are by Burgkmair, are in the Berlin cabinet, 
and one is in this collection (no. 145a, below). This set at Dresden contains one other- 
wise unknown subject, not mentioned by Schestag, which raises the total number of 
blocks, hitherto stated as 137, to 138. It represents five men with battle-axes, a 
subject mentioned in the programme, and should be placed after no. 36 of Bartsch 
and Schestag, or no. 359 of Muther. It is reproduced on p. 41 of Woermann's 
article. 

Apart from such early proofs there have been four issues of the Triumph, of 
which only the last two are complete editions with the text. 

1. Printed by order of the Archduke Ferdinand in 1526. The watermark 
is a two-headed eagle with a sickle on its breast, and the tablets are black. 

2. Issued in 1777 after the discovery of the blocks at Graz and Schloss 
Ambras. The tablets still printed black ; after this the wood was cut away. 

3. Bartsch 's edition, printed at Vienna, 1796. The leaves have printed 
numbers, sometimes corrected in red ink. 

4. Schestag's edition, Vienna, 1883-84, issued as a supplement to Vol. I. of 
the Jahrbuch. 



IMPRESSIONS BOUND IN BOOK FORM. 1 

102. A HORN -BLOWER RIDING ON A GRIFFIN, LEADING THE PRO- 

CESSION. S. 1. M. 324. 

103. HORSES CARRYING A BOARD TO HOLD THE EMPEROR'S TITLES. 

S. 2. M. 325. 

104. A RIDER (ANTHONI VON DORNSTETT) CARRYING A TABLET, 

FOLLOWED BY THREE FIFE-PLAYERS (signed). S. 3. M. 326. 

105. FIVE MOUNTED DRUMMERS (signed). S. 4. M. 327. 

106. A MOUNTED FALCONER (HANS TEUSCHEL), CARRYING A TABLET. 

S. 5. M. 328. 



1 On the composition and. provenance of the volume, see Vol. I, p. 332. The order 
in the following catalogue is that of Schestag (S.). When Bartsch's order (B.) differs 
from his, both numbers are quoted. 

H 



98 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

107. FIVE MOUNTED FALCONERS (signed). S. 6. M. 329. 

108. A MOUNTED HUNTSMAN (CONRAD ZUBERLE) WITH A TABLET, 

FOLLOWED BY CHAMOIS AND IBEX (signed). S. 7. M. 330. 

109. FIVE CHAMOIS-HUNTERS ON FOOT. S. 8. M. 381. 

110. A MOUNTED HUNTSMAN (CONRAD VON ROT) WITH A TABLET, 

FOLLOWED BY FIVE STAGS. S. 9. M. 332. 

111. FIVE MOUNTED STAG-HUNTERS. S. 10. M. 838. 

112. A MOUNTED HUNTSMAN (WILHELM VON GREYSSEN) WITH A 

TABLET, FOLLOWED BY FIVE BOARS (signed). S. 11. M. 334. 

113. FIVE MOUNTED BOAR-HUNTERS. S. 12. M. 335. 

114. A MOUNTED HUNTSMAN (DIEPOLT VON SLANDERSBERG) WITH 

A TABLET, FOLLOWED BY FIVE BEARS (signed). S. 18. M. 336. 

115. FIVE BEAR-HUNTERS ON FOOT. S. 14. M. 337. 

116. THE UNDER MARSHAL (EBERPACH), WITH A TABLET. 

S. 16. M. 338. 

117. THE COURT BUTLER, COOK, BARBER, TAILOR AND SHOEMAKER. 

S. 16. M. 339. 

118. TWO ELKS WITH A MOUNTED BOY, CARRYING A TABLET 

(signed). S. 17. M. 340. 

119. FIVE MUSICIANS, INCLUDING ARTHUR, CHIEF LUTE-PLAYER, 

ON A CAR. S. 18. M. 341. 

120. TWO BUFFALOES WITH A MOUNTED BOY, CARRYING A TABLET 

(signed). S. 19. M. 842. 

121. FIVE MUSICIANS, INCLUDING NEYSCHEL, CHIEF TRUMPETER, 

ON A CAR (signed). S. 20. M. 843. 

122. A CAMEL RIDDEN BY A BOY, CARRYING A TABLET. S. 21. M. 344. 

123. PAULUS HOFHAIMER, 1 CHIEF ORGANIST, ON A CAR. S. 22. M. 345. 

124. A DROMEDARY RIDDEN BY A BOY, CARRYING A TABLET. 

S. 23. M. 846. 

125. EIGHT MUSICIANS ON A CAR (signed). S. 24. M. 347. 

126. TWO OXEN WITH A MOUNTED BOY, CARRYING A TABLET. 

S. 25. M. 848. 

1 A portrait of Hofhaimer, drawn by Dtirer, is in the British Museum (L. 284). 
See Kunstgeschichtliche Anzeigen, 1904, p. 58, and Burlington Magazine, vii, 152 
(with illustrations). 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 99 

127. JORG SLAKONY, BISHOP OF VIENNA, WITH A CHOIR AND MUSI- 

CIANS, ON A CAB ADORNED WITH APOLLO AND THE MUSES 
(signed). S. 26. M. 349. 

128. CONRAD VON DER ROSEN, COURT JESTER, MOUNTED, FOL- 

LOWED BY TWO WILD HORSES WITH A MOUNTED BOY. 

S. 27. M. 350. 

129. FIVE JESTERS IN A CAR DECORATED WITH MONKEYS. Burgk- 

mair's arms and the date 1517 are on a flask held by one of the jesters. 

S. 28. M. 351. 

130. TWO ASSES WITH A MOUNTED BOY, CARRYING A TABLET. 

S. 29. M. 352. 

131. FIVE FOOLS IN A CAR DECORATED WITH GREENERY (signed). 

S. 30. M. 353. 

132. THE MASTER OF THE MASQUERADES (PETER VON ALTENHAUS), 

MOUNTED, FOLLOWED BY FIVE MASKED TORCH-BEARERS ON 
FOOT. S. 31. M. 354. 

133. FIVE PERFORMERS IN THE SPANISH MASQUE. S. 32. M. 355. 

134. THE MASTER OF THE FENCERS (HANS HOLLY WARS), FOL- 

LOWED BY FIVE MEN WITH FLAILS (signed). S. 33. M. 356. 

135. FIVE MEN WITH POLES (signed). S. 34. M. 357. 

136. FIVE MEN WITH LANCES (signed). S. 35. M. 358. 

137. FIVE MEN WITH HALBERDS. S. 36. M. 359. 

138. FIVE MEN WITH SWORDS AND BUCKLERS (signed). 

S. 37. M. 360. 

139. FIVE MEN WITH SWORDS AND SHIELDS (signed). S. 38. M. 361. 

140. FIVE MEN WITH SHIELDS AND HUNGARIAN MACES (signed). 

S. 39. M. 362. 

141. FIVE MEN WITH SHEATHED SWORDS (signed). S. 40. M. 363. 

142. THE MASTER OF THE TOURNAMENTS (ANTHONI VON YFAN), 

MOUNTED (signed). S. 41. M. 364. 

143. FIVE KNIGHTS ARRAYED FOR THE TOURNAMENT, ON FOOT. 

S. 42. M. 365. 

144. FIVE KNIGHTS MOUNTED. S. 43. M. 366. 

145. THE MASTER OF " RENNEN UND GESTECH " (WOLFGANG VON 

POLHEIM), MOUNTED. S. 44. M. 367. 

146. " WELSCH GESTECH " (signed). S. 45. M. 368. 

147. " DEUTSCH GESTECH." S. 46. M. 369. 

148. "HOHENZEUGGESTECH" (signed). S. 47. M. 370. 

H 2 



100 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

149. " GESTECH IN PEINHAENISOH " (signed). S. 48. M. 871. 

150. " WELSCH RENNEN." S. 49. M. 372. 

151. " PUNDTEENNEN " (signed). S. 50. M. 873. 

152. " GESCHIPPTEENNEN " (signed). S. 51. M. 874. 

153. " HELMRENNEN " (signed). S. 52. M. 375. 

154. " SCHEIBENRENNEN." S. 58. M. 376. 

155. " SCHILDRENNEN " (signed). S. 54. M. 377. 

156. " PFANNENRENNEN " (signed). S. 55. M. 378. 

157. " FELDRENNEN " (signed). S. 56. M. 879. 

158. FIRST GROUP OF CAPTIVES (signed). B. 109. S. 111. M. 880. 
169. SECOND GROUP OF CAPTIVES (signed). B. 110. S. 112. M. 881. 

160. FIRST GROUP OF VICTORS (signed). B. 111. S. 113. M. 382. 

161. SECOND GROUP OF VICTORS (signed). B. 112. S. 114. M. 883. 

182. THE MASTER OF THE HORSE, MOUNTED, FOLLOWED BY A 
HUNGARIAN AND A MAN IN OLD FRENCH COSTUME, LEADING 
TWO HORSES (signed). B. 132. S. 123. M. 384. 

163. FIVE MEN LEADING HORSES (signed). B. 133. S. 124. M. 885. 

164. FIVE MEN LEADING HORSES (signed). B. 134. S. 125. M. 386. 

This woodcut is founded on a drawing by Dlirer of 1517 (copy ?) in Mr. C. Fairfax 
Murray's collection (Diirer Society, ix, 23), in which the nationalities of the men 
(from 1. to r.) are given as huk (?), alt flemig, alter lilticher, Cleuischer, Junger francos. 
" Alt " and " Jung " refer to the fifteenth century and modern costumes respectively. 
In the Diirer drawing there is a sixth person, pehaim (Bohemian) ; he has been 
transferred by Burgkmair to the front of the other group, B. 133 (no. 163 here). 

165. A RIDER ON AN ELEPHANT, FOLLOWED BY FIVE PEOPLE OF 

CALICUT (signed). B. 122. S. 129. M. 387. 

166. TEN MEN OF CALICUT (signed). B. 123. S. 130. M. 388. 

167. PEOPLE OF CALICUT WITH BIRDS AND ANIMALS (signed). 

B. 124. S. 131. M. 389. 

All the proofs described above, except nos. 159-162 and 165-167, have the 
watermarks of the 1526 edition ; the impressions excepted are probably of the date 
1777. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

Nos. 122, 123, 132, 136, 140, 155, were cut by Jan de Bom (or Bonn), no. 166 by 
Hans Franck, nos. 129, 134, 139, 147 by Cornelius Liefrinck, nos. 115, 119, 137, 144, 
156, 157 by Willem Liefrinck, no. 164 by Alexius Lindt, nos. 120, 121, 126, 127, 
138, 143, 148, 151 by Jost de Negker, no. 159 by Wolfgang Resch, no. 160 by Jacob 
Rupp, nos. 103, 124, 125, 130, 133, 145, 150, 153, 154, 163, 165, 167 by Jan Taberith. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 101 



LOOSE IMPRESSIONS. 

145a. WOLFGANG VON POLHEIM, MASTER OF THE TOURNAMENTS. 

S. 44. M. 367. 

[Sheet, 405 X 380.] Early trial proof, like those at Berlin and Dresden, with the 
watermark described by Woermann, an anchor in a circle, surmounted by a star. 

The tablet and scroll have been overlaid with paper, so that they print white. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

150a. SECOND GROUP OF CAPTIVES. B. 110. S. 112. M. 381. 

[Sheet, 245 x 375.] A very fine impression on white paper without watermark, 
having wire marks 30 mm. apart (like the last 14 leaves of the Dresden proofs, as 
described by Woermann). 

In the inventory of 1837. 

167a. PEOPLE OF CALICUT. B. 124. S. 131. M. 389. 

[Sheet, 285 x 380.] A similar impression to that in the volume. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 



WOODCUTS OF 1519. 

[168-171.] 
THE INFLUENCE OF WOMEN OVER SAGES AND HEROES. 

168. SAMSON AND DELILA. B. vii, 201, 6. M. 488. 

169. DAVID AND BATHSHEBA. Dated 1519. B. vii, 201, 5. M. 486. 

170. SOLOMON'S IDOLATRY. B. vii, 201, 4. M. 487. 

171. ARISTOTLE AND PHYLLIS. B. vii, 221, 73. 

[118 x 95.] Good impressions of the first state, on thin white paper without 
watermarks, cut to the border line. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895 

168a. SAMSON AND DELILA. B. 6. 

169a. DAVID AND BATHSHEBA. B. 5. 

170a. SOLOMON'S IDOLATRY. B. 4. 

171a. ARISTOTLE AND PHYLLIS. B. 73. 

Good impressions of the second state, in the architectural frame designed by 
Hans Weiditz 1 [218 x 155], without watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Three subjects have German text printed below the woodcut, but within the 
frame, in the type of the elder Schonsperger (Pr. 10941). No. 168a : " Samson ain 
lud vom gschlecht dan ain sun Manue | der xii richter in Israhel regiert . 20 . iar." 
No. 170a : " Salomon ain iud vom gschlecht inda (sic) ain sun danid (sic). | der ander 
king in israhel, regiert 40 Iar." No. 171a: " Aristoteless ain grekischer Nicomachi 
sun. ain iunger | Platonis . ain maister des grossen alexanders." 

1 Rottinger 46. 



102 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

There were two editions with the border. At Berlin are impressions of B. 4 and 6 
with the border but without text, corresponding to our impression of B. 5. The same 
collection has B. 5 with text inside the border, " Dauid ain lud vom gschlecht iuda 
ain sun Isai | der erst king in Israhel . regiert . 40 . iar," corresponding to our impres- 
sions of B. 4 and 6. At Basle is an impression of B. 6 in the first state with the 
xylographic address, " Jost de Negker zu Augspurg," on the wide margin. The four 
subjects were doubtless cut by Jost de Negker. 

[172-177.] 
HEROES AND HEROINES. 

172. THE THREE CHRISTIAN HEROES. B. vii, 219, 64. M. 489. 

The heroes collectively, Christian, Jewish and Pagan, constitute the set 
known as the Nine Worthies. The Christians, DREI GVT CRISTEX, 
are CJSSAR CAROLUS, KINIG ARTVS and HERCZOG GOTFRID. Signed. 

173. THE THREE JEWISH HEROES. B. vii, 219, 66. M. 491. 

Inscribed: DIE DREI (JVTEN JVDEX. JOSVE. REX DAVIT. 
JVDAS MACHABEVS. Signed. 

174. THE THREE PAGAN HEROES. B. vii, 219, 68. M. 493. 

Inscribed: DIE DREI GVTEN HAIDEN. HECTOR vo DROI. 
Guos ALEXANDER. JULIVS CESAR. Signed. 

In some late impressions, otherwise quite good, the A of HAIDEN has lost its 
cross-stroke. 

175. THE THREE CHRISTIAN HEROINES. 

B. vii, 219, 65. P. iii, 270, 86. M. 490. 

Inscribed: DREI GVT KRISTIN. S. ELENA. S. BRIGITA. S. 
ELSBETA. 'Signed. 

176. THE THREE JEWISH HEROINES. B. vii, 219, 67. M. 492. 

Inscribed: DREI GVT JUDIN. HESTER. JVDITH. JAEL. Signed. 

177. THE THREE PAGAN HEROINES. B. vii, 220, 69. M. 494. 

Inscribed : DREI GVT HAIDIN. LUCRECIA. VETVRIA. VIRGINIA. 
Signed and dated 1519. 

[195 x 133.] Good impressions of the first state, without border. Watermark of 
no. 172 a small high crown, of nos. 174 and 175 a fleur-de-lys, of no . 177 a bunch of 
grapes ; the remainder are without watermark. 

No. 176 was purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1854, nos. 172 and 173 from Messrs. 
Evans, 1858 ; the remainder are from the Mitchell collection, presented 1895. 

173a. THE THREE JEWISH HEROES. B. 66. M. 491. 

Second state, enclosed in the border [322x217] designed by Hans 
Weiditz. 1 

[Sheet, 340 x 240.] Good impression, with margin ; watermark, a jug. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

1 Rottinger 47. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 103 

175a. THE THREE CHRISTIAN HEROINES. B. 65. M. 490. 

Second state, in the border. 

[310 x 206.] Good impression, but cut on all sides. Watermark, a jug. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1856. 

The series was cut by Jost de Negker. The Hofbibliothek, Vienna, possesses 
impressions of B. 64 and 66 (first state) with his xylographic address on the margin ; 
a similar impression of B. 65 is at Paris (Pass.), and one of B. 67 in the Albertina, 
which also possesses all six cuts in the second state. 



[178, 179.] 

ILLUSTKATIONS. 

178. SIX PHYSICIANS SEATED AT A TABLE. B. vii, 222, 74. M. 499. 

[119 x 146.] Late impression with German text on the back. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

This cut was first used in " Liber theoricae necnon practicae Alsaharavii," Grimm 
and Wirsung, Augsburg, 24 March, 1519, and afterwards in many books printed by 
Steiner, including the 1531 and later editions of Cicero's " Officia," " Der Teutsch 
Cicero," 1534, 1535, and Boccaccio, "Von widerwertigem Gliick," 1545 (fol. 71). It 
is the only cut bearing Burgkmair's initials which appeared in one of Grimm and 
Wirsung's books, and I have already expressed the opinion 1 that, in spite of the 
signature, the subject was really drawn upon the block by Hans Weiditz, to whom, 
but for the initials H. B., I should have no hesitation in attributing it. 

The Basle Museum possesses a beautiful early proof of this woodcut on vellum. 

179. FORTUNE'S WHEEL. 

Fortune, a woman with two heads, young and old, sits on a throne let 
down from the clouds by cords and suspended in the air. With her 1. hand 
she turns a handle which sets in motion a wheel up which several men 
are clambering, while a group of aspirants wait their turn below. Fortune 
points with her r. hand towards a group of seven demons holding a skin 
stretched out, while a group of men below wait with a sheet held up in the 
same manner. Two victims of her caprice are being tossed to and fro in 
the air from one group to another. 

[147 x 128.] Late impression, on the title-page of " Dialogus de Fato et Fortuna, 
cui nomen Paraclitus, vere pius, & doctus," by Joannes Pistorius, Abbot of 
Fiirstenfeld, H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1544. 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

Though not signed, this seems to be clearly a work of Burgkmair, about the 
period of the Weisskunig ; it may be compared, especially, with the cut in that work 
dated 1515 (no. 54). The illustration is only found, however, in later books, e.g., in 
*' Translation oder Deutschungen des Hochgeachten Nicolai von Weil," H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 18 Feb. 1536, in Abt- Johann zu Fiirstenfeld's " Gesprach vom Gliick und 
ewiger Ordnung," ibid. 1544, and in Boccaccio, " Furnemste Historien vnd Exempel 
von widerwertigen Gliick," ibid. 1545. See Kunstgeschichtliche Anzeigen, 1904, 
p. 61, note 2. 



Mitteilungen d. Ges. f. vervielf. Kunst, 1905, p. 65. 



104 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



[180-183.] 
LARGE WOODCUTS OF SACRED SUBJECTS, 1524-1527. 

180. ADAM AND EVE: THE PALL. B. vii, 200, 1. M. 838. 
Printed from eight blocks ; signed, but not dated. 

[945 x 650.] Late impression (Derschau, E 1). 
Presented by Mr. Albert Way, 1839. 

181. CHRIST ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES. B. vii, 205, 17. M. 835. 

Printed from eight blocks, signed and dated (in the lower margin) 
MDXXIIII. 

[970 x 660.] Late impression. 
Presented by Mr. Albert Way, 1839. 

182. THE CRUCIFIXION. B. vii, 206, 19. M. 837. 

Printed from eight blocks, signed and dated (in the lower margin) 
MDXXVJ. The margin contains a xylographic inscription in four lines, 
beginning " Herr Jesu Christe, Der du vmb die ix . Stund am Krewtz 
hangend," and ending " beuolhen sein. (Then, on a lower line) Jobst de 
Necker Formschneider zw Augspurgh." 

[950 x 670.] Early impression, coloured, with margin [20], 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The edition with Jost de Negker's address is mentioned by Nagler, Mon. iii, 242, 15. 

182a. THE CRUCIFIXION. B. 19 (copy). Nagl. Mon. iii, 243, 21, and iv, 106, 3. 

Copy. The initials I R (separate), with a woodcutter's knife below 
them, are placed on a tablet of irregular shape near the bottom of the 
block on the right, but inside the border-line. The inscription on the 
margin is the same as far as " beuolhen sein." Then follows, on the same 
line, " Gedruckt zu Nurnberg, bey Hans | Wolff Glaser. 1562." There is 
no date on the cartouche which divides the inscription. 

[940 x 670.] Good impression ; watermark, a dog. 

Presented by Mr. Albert Way, 1839. 

The presence of Glaser's address, unknown to Nagler, makes it extremely unlikely 
that this woodcut is the work of the Saxon monogrammist to whom he attributes 
it. The copy in the Derschau collection is a different one, with no woodcutter's, 
signature ; as printed by Becker (E 3) it has no inscription. 

183. MATER DOLOROSA. Nagl. Mon. iii, 243, 23. 

The Virgin sits in a landscape, turned to 1., weeping and wringing her 
hands ; a single sword pierces her bosom. Above, in medallions surrounded 
by clouds, are the Seven Sorrows of Mary : the Presentation of Christ in 
the Temple, the Flight into Egypt, Christ among the Doctors, Christ 
bearing the Cross, Christ on the Cross, the Lamentation beneath the 
Cross, and the Entombment. The signature H. B. is low down to r. In 
the margin is the inscription in three lines : " herr Jhesu Criste vnser 






D^XVIIII^ 



irk. 



IN. 1528. 

d H.B. at foot of desk. 
tt< .:.:.:*,.,*;> man 



PltAMXOflUa 8HAH 
uoJ 



185. 

p. iii, 2y?, 6. ^l^?i >i-.t; u\ 

. 

1 




PLATF VI 

HANS BURGKMAIR (P) 
Louis XH, KING OF FRANCE 






M 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 105 

erloser . . . vnd bitten Dich du wollest vnns vor ewige hertzlaid behutte 
A.," divided by a cartouche with the date MDXXIIII. Printed from 
eight blocks. 

[955 x 675.] Good impression, though not early ; no watermark. 

Presented by Mr. Albert Way, 1839. 

This is rarer than some of the series, and has escaped the notice of Bartsch, 
Passavant and Muther. Nagler describes the Gotha impression. 

The unsigned cut of Christ bearing the Cross (P. iii, 270, 83, Nagl. Mon. iii, 242, 
17, M. 836), with the date 1527 on the cartouche in the margin, belongs to the same 
series, but cannot be attributed to Burgkmair. It is represented in this collection, 
as also at Gotha and in the Albertina. A large cut of the Resurrection, preserved 
with it here, is also not by Burgkmair and perhaps not connected with the series, as 
its dimensions [986 x 672] are larger, and it has no margin or inscription at the foot. 
The woodcut in question is from the same design as that in the Derschau 
collection, signed B. (Nagl. Mon. iv, no. 3510, 3), but it is not printed from the same 
blocks, and is unsigned. 

t FRONTISPIECE TO CANTZLEIBUCHLEIN. 1528. 

One man seated, two standing. Signed H.B. at foot of desk. 

[141 x 122.] On the title-page of " Cantzley biichlin zaigetan, wie man schreiben 
sol eim yeden," etc., H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1528, 4to. 

Photograph from the copy in the Munich library. There is another copy in the 
collection of Prince Liechtenstein. This cut, though signed, is not described in any 
of the catalogues of Burgkmair. It is described and reproduced in Mitteilungen d. 
Ges. /. vervielf. Kunst, 1907. 



DOUBTFUL WOODCUTS. 

184. CHARLES V. 1519. P. iii, 223, 334a. See p. 170, no. 54. 

185. LOUIS XII., KING OF FRANCE. 1519. 

P. iii, 297, 5. Nagl. Mon. iii, 246, 49. 

Bust, three-quarter face to 1., wearing the collar of scallop-shells of the 
order of St. Michael, against a white background sprinkled with fleurs-de- 
lys. The block containing the portrait is enclosed in an architectural 
frame with the date MD.XVIIII. on the base. 

[136 x 109.] Good impression with narrow margin [1-4]. No watermark. 

Purchased 1834. 

Impressions with full margin have the xylographic address of Jost de Negker 
below the woodcut. Such an impression is in the Wiltshire collection in the Guild- 
hall library. The portrait has been drawn in reverse, probably by Burgkmair, from 
the large medal presented by the town of Lyons in 1499 to Louis XII. and his 
consort Anne (Jahrbuch d. k. preuss. Kunstsamml., iii, 205-207, and Taf. xli.). The 
frame was probably used for other portraits, though none have been described. That 
of Anne of Brittany would be likely to occur as a counterpart to the one now before 
us. It is a copy by Jost de Negker from a frame dated M.D. XVIII., which belongs 
to a portrait of a man in profile to r. with the initials H. S. D. over his head, and the 
quotation Sic OCULOS sic ILLE GENAS, sic OBA FEEEBAT, on the entablature of the 
frame. This undescribed woodcut [136 x 108] is in the collection of K. Friedrich 
August II, at Dresden (no. 86,287). The frame there is not a passe-partout, but 
drawn on the same block as the portrait. 

t ANONYMOUS PORTRAIT OF H. S. D. 

Photograph of the woodcut at Dresden mentioned above. 



106 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

186. THE ARMS OF THE REHM FAMILY. 1526. 

B. vii, 153, 54. H. 2142. P. 317. R. A 56. Pauli 1475. 

Crest and coat an ox. The coat-of-arms is set back in the opening 
between two square columns, ornamented with a black arabesque, which 
support an entablature pierced by a round window with cross-bars. In the 
foreground is the date MDXXVI. 

[202 x 178.] Fine impression with margin. Watermark, a dog. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This fine and rare armorial woodcut has hitherto been attributed doubtfully to 
Diirer or Beham. It has never been definitely accepted as the work of Diirer, of 
whom, indeed, there is little to remind us except the bold Roman lettering of the 
date. The Rehms were an Augsburg family, and the black ornament on white is 
rather in Augsburg than in Nuremberg taste. That ornament and the drawing of 
the animal suggest the hand of Burgkmair. 



[187-191.] 

LANDSKNECHTS. 

Literature : 

Brennner-Enkevoerth, " Rflmisch kaiserlicher Majestiit Kriegsvolker 

im Zeitalter der Renaissance," Vienna, 1883. 
H. A. Schmid, Zeitschr. fur bild. Kunst, N.F. v, 24 and Kunst- 

chronik, 2 Nov. 1H93, Sp. 56. 

R. Stiassny, ZeitsrJir.fiir cltristl. Kunst, 1H94, vii, Sp. 119, 120. 
W. Schmidt, Repertorium fiir Kunsdcissenschaft, xvii, 366. 
F. Dornhoffer, Jahrb. d. Kunsthist. Samml. d. Allerh. Kaispr- 

hauses, xviii, 35. 
C. Dodgson, Repertorium fur Kunstti'issenschaft, xxvi, 117. 

A series of fifty landsknechts was published at Vienna, unfortunately without a 
date, by David de Necker, introduced by a preface in which he says that the blocks 
were cut over sixty years ago by his father, Jost de Necker, from the designs of three 
good painters, all then living at Augsburg Hans Burgkmair, Christoph Amberger, 
and Jorg Breu. Some, however, are evidently by Hans Sebald Beham. According 
to David de Necker, the blocks had " slept " and never been printed before. This is 
disproved, however, by the existence of many early proofs and by the circulation of 
copies cut by Guldenmund and Meldemann at Nuremberg about 1530. Only two 
copies of David de Necker's edition are known to exist, in the cabinet of prints at 
Stuttgart and the Liechtenstein collection at Vienna. The series is taken by 
Breuuner-Enkevoerth to represent the costumes of the Landsknechts engaged in 
Charles V.'s Italian campaign of 1525, and the execution of the woodcuts may be 
placed between that date and 1530. 

Some uncertainty prevails as to the attribution of the woodcuts, none of which 
are signed, to the respective artists. Those attributed by Schmidt to Burgkmair 
which are represented in this collection are placed on that account only among his 
doubtful works, the most doubtful cases, perhaps, being nos. 184 and 188. 

187. A LANDSKNECHT TO L. WITH L. HAND ON THE HEAD OF A 

BATTLE-AXE. D. de N. 3. 

[Sheet, 261 x 150.] Good impression ; no watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

188. A LANDSKNECHT to L. DRAWN FROM THE BACK. D. de N. 4. 

[Sheet, 275 x 158.] Good impression ; watermark, a small high crown. 
Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Burgkmair. 107 



189. A STANDARD-BEARER TO R., WITH THE INITIALS V S A UPON 

HIS HOSE. D. de N. 9. 

First state, with the date 1489. 

[Sheet, 270 X 157.] Good impression ; no watermark. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

The date 1489 (the second and fourth figures reversed) appears low down on the 
block ; it was removed before the issue of David de Necker's edition. The meaning 
of the date is unexplained. 

190. A LANDSKNECHT TO R. GLEANING THE BARREL OF HIS FIRE- 

ARM. D. de N. 20. 

[Sheet, 257 X 160.] Good impression ; watermark unrecognisable. 
Purchased at Gutekunst's auction, 1901. 

191. A LANDSKNECHT TO R. HOLDING A POLE IN HIS L. HAND. 

D. de N. 37. 

[Sheet, 275 x 125.] Good impression ; no watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 



108 



III. JORG BREU I. 

Jorg (Georg) Breu, 1 the elder, painter and draughtsman on wood ; 
son of Georg Breu, of Augsburg, cloth-shearer and weaver (died 
1501-02) and his wife Barbara (died 1527-28) ; born about 1480 ; 
first dated picture 1501 (at Herzogenburg) ; already a master in 1502, 
when he presented his brother Glaus to the guild of painters as 
apprentice; other presentations followed up to 1520; first dated 
woodcut 1504, followed by numerous illustrations for the leading 
Augsburg presses, in his later years especially for that of Steiner. 
Breu's works show, from about 1510 onwards, a strong Italian 
influence ; he appears to have visited Venice more than once ; he is 
known to have travelled to Baden and Strassburg in 1522. He 
composed a chronicle of Augsburg, extending from 1512 to 1537, 
the year of his death. 2 

Authorities : 

Bartsch, P.-G., vii, 448. 

Nagler, Mon. i, nos. 1603- 1606, iii, no. 1943. 

Passavant, P.-G., iii, 294. 

A. Rosenberg, Kunstchronik, 1875, x, 388. 

R. Vischer, "Studien zur Kunstgeschichte," 1886 (see index). 

R. Stiassuy, Kunstchronik, 1890, N. F. ii, 33. 

R. Stiassny, " J. B. von Augsburg," Zeitschr. f. christliche Kunst, 

1893, vi, 289 ; 1894, vii, 101. 
H. A. Schmid, " J. B. d. A. und - J. B. d. J.," Zeitschr. f. Uld. 

Kunst, 1893-94, N. F. v, 21. 
W. Schmidt, " Notizen zu deutschen Malern. 1, J. B.," Repert. f. 

Kunstic., 1896, xix, 285. 
F. Dornhoffer, " Bin Cyclus von Federzcichnungen," etc. Vienna 

Jahrbuch, 1897, xviii, 1, 274. 

1 The name is variously spelt Breu, Brew, Brewy, Brue, Bruy, Prew and Prey. 
The monogram, composed of i and b, indicates that Jorg Breu was the normal 
orthography, though Prew is the form adopted on the fully signed pictures in the 
Augsburg and Munich galleries. (These are ascribed officially to the younger Breu, 
but see Dornhoffer, pp. 16, 32-34.) 

* See Roth's introduction to Breu's Augsburg chronicle, in which the artist's 
biography is more fully given than elsewhere. The date of his death has hitherto 
been given as 1536 on the authority of the Augsburg Malerbuch (Vischer, p. 567). 
This is contradicted by the chronicle, the entries in which are carried on without 
breach of continuity or difference of literary style from 28 December, 1536, to 
8 January, and later dates up to 12 May, 1537. In the Steuerbuch, made up 
annually in October, he is mentioned in 1536, but not in 1537 ; his death seems, 
therefore, to have occurred in the summer or early autumn of that year. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Breu. 109 

K. Stiassny, " J. B. und Hans Knoder," Zeitschr. f. bild. Kunst, 

1897-98, N. F., ix, 296. 
K. Griehlow, " Beitrage zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Gebetbuches 

Kaiser Maximilians I.," Vienna Jahrbuch, 1899, xx, 97-100. 
C. Dodgson, "Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Holzschnittwerks J. B.'s." 

Berlin Jahrbuch, 1900, xxi, 192 ; " Nachtrag," ibid, xxiv, 335. 
W. Schmidt, " Notiz zu J. B.," Repert.f. Kunstw., 1903, xxvi, 133. 
A. Hagelsbange, " J. B.'s. Holzschnitte im Konstanzer Brevier von 

1516." Mitt. a. d, German. Nationalmuseum, 1905, 3. 
"Die Chronik des Augsburger Malers G-eorg Preu des Alteren, 

1512-1537," herausgegeben von F. Roth (Die Chroniken der 

deutschen Stadte, Bd. xxix ; Augsburg, Bd. vi), Leipzig, 1906. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY BREU. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [MAEN.] Das leiden Jesu Christi. J. Schonsperger, jun., 
Augsburg, 1515 ; 4to. (Muther 866 ; Pr. 10738). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

(1) i 2 v. The Mocking of Christ. Signed [93 X 68]. B. vii, 448, 1 ; P. iii, 295, 1. 
This woodcut was attributed to " Georg Broy " in 1618 by Paulus Behaim, in the 
catalogue of his collection of prints. Later impressions of it exist. Reproduced 
by Dornhoffer, p. 20, and Muther, ii, p. 175. 

(2} i 4 v. Christ before Pilate [92 x 66]. 

(3) q 4. The Virgin and St. John adoring Christ as Man of Sorrows ; in the 
background Calvary, in the foreground Wolfgang von Maen kneeling, his coat-of- 
arms before him ; the imperial and Austrian arms in upper corners. Dated 1515 
140 x 95]. The remaining illustrations are by Schaufelein and Burgkmair (see 
pp. 6, 58). 



2, [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. J. Schonsperger, sen., Nuremberg, 

1517 ; fol. (Muther 845 ; Pr. 11180). 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

(1) Subject no. 31. Theuerdank in danger on a chamois hunt (corrections by 
Beck inserted). By Laschitzer's "unknown artist D," identified by Dornhoffer 
(p. 22) with Breu. 

3. [BARTHEMA.] Die Ritterlich vnd | lobwirdig raisz des gestreg- [ 
en vnd iiber all ander weyt j erfarnen ritters vn landt- | farers, herren 
Ludowico | Vartomans von Bolonia. (Grimm and Wirsung P), 1 Augsburg, 

1518 ; 4to. (Pr. 10891). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

(1) A i v. The author presenting his book to the Duchess of Urbino in presence 
of her court [131 x 98]. Repr. Dornhoffer, p. 21. 

(2-41) Forty small illustrations [70 X 95], two of which, nos. 2 (A 3) and 21 (L 2) 
are repeated (y 2, P 1). All the cuts are coloured. 

1 So ace. to Pr., but the edition of 16 June, 1515 (M. 1020, Pr. 10829) with the 
same illustrations, was printed by Miller. 



110 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

4. [PFINZING.] Tbeuerdank. J. Schonsperger, sen., Augsburg, 
1519 ; fol. (Mather 846 ; Pr. 10939). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 
The same woodcut as in no. 2. 

5. [JUSTIN.] Justini warhafftige Hystorien. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 
1531 ; fol. (Muther 1079). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

The cuts on ff. 19, 21, 38, 61 v (=92 v), 66 v ( = 80 v), 68 v, 70 v, 117 v, are by Breu. 

6. [LOBERA DE AVILA.] Ein nutzlich Regiment der gesundt | 
heit, Genant das Vanquete. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 11 May, 1531 ; 4to. 
(Muther 1083). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunat, 1870. 

(1) Fol. 64 v. A knight riding, followed by two mounted attendants. From 
" Fortunatus," 1609. 

(2) Fol. 71 v. A galley, a man standing in the prow. From " Wartoman's 
Beise " (sig. A 3 in the edition of 1518). 

7. [PAULI.] Das Buch Schimpff vnnd Ernst genaiit. H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 10 April 1535 (Muther 1100, edition of 1534). 

Purchased at the Singer sale, 1860. 

Fol. 28 v. A scene of witchcraft. From " Der Teutsch Cicero," 1534-35. 
Fol. 35. An usurer. From the same. 

Fol. 78 v. A man teaching a dog to stand on its hind legs. From the same. 
Fol. 82. A preacher. From the same. 

8. [REICHENTHAL.] Das Concilium | So zu Constanta gehalten 
1st worden, | Des jars do man zalt von der geburdt vn- | sers erlosers 
M.CCC. xiii. Jar. H. Steiner, Augsburg, Dec. 1536 ; fol. (Muther 1109). 

Presented by Mr. Max Rosenheim, 1906. 

(1-40.) Forty full page illustrations [205 x 145]. (41-44.) Three half-page cuts 
[110-135 x 145], and numerous heraldic cuts, all redrawn from the original illustra- 
tions in Sorg's edition of 1483 (see Vol. I, p. 25, and W. Schmidt in Repert. f. Kunsttv., 
xxvi, 133). 

9. [VERGILIUS.] Polydorus Vergilins Urbinas. Von den Erfindern 
der ding. H. Steiner, Augsburg, July, 1544 ; fol. 

Purchased from Messrs. Willis and Sotheran, 1858. 

Contains many cuts by Breu, all repeated from earlier books. That on fol. 163 is 
from " Fortunatus," 1509 ; those on ff. 93 v, 95, 121 v, 124 v, 131, 132 v, 161 v, are 
from the history of the Council of Constance, 1536; those on ff. 97 v, 99 y, 137, 144 v, 
from " Der Teutsch Cicero," 1534-35. The historian, fol. 15, is used in several other 
books printed by Steiner. 

REPRODUCTION. 

Hans Tirols Holzschnitt darstellend die Belehnung Konig Ferdinands I. 
mit den osterreichischen Erblandern durch Kaiser Karl V. auf dem Reichs- 
tage zu Augsburg am 5 September, 1530. Nach dem Originale im Besitze 
der Stadtgemeinde Nurnberg herausgegeben von Dr. A. Essenwein. 
Frankfurt a. M., 1887 ; fol. 



School 



IENT OF PRTSTKD 

Je Constantiense. E. -Ratdolt, Angsbui> 
2)- 



IIV 3TAJS 



.'/ " OT Hi 



IIQT rfinr in K 




PLATE VII 
JORQ BRED I 

ILLUSTRATION TO "FORTUNATUS" 
ILLUSTRATION TO " WARTOMAN-S REISE " 





Division B. School of Augsburg. Breu. Ill 



Facsimile of the only known impression, in the Germanic Museum, of a woodcut, 
measuring 1'57 by 2-38 metres, representing the investiture of Ferdinand with the 
hereditary dominions of Austria (Nagler, Mon. iii, p. 805, 1943, no. 4). The woodcut, 
accompanied by text, was printed in 1536 by Heinrich Steiner for, and at the expense 
of, Breu's son-in-law, Hans Tirol. It is improbable that the latter had any share in 
the actual design. The woodcut contains the monogram of Breu, together with the 
letter I, which has been interpreted as the initial of Hans. It is clear that the 
drawing of the figures, at least, is Breu's; the landscape, and especially the drawing 
of the trees, is defective, and Dr. Dornhoffer (loc. cit. p. 36) has suggested that the 
elder Breu was assisted by his son, who may have drawn the subjects on the blocks 
from the father's sketches. Both the drawing and the cutting, at any rate, were 
finished before Breu's death, for the date of publication is 1536, and we know that 
the blocks, eighteen in number, were cut by Stephan Ganseder of Nuremberg in 
1535. l The best of the figure groups are closely allied in style to the illustrations in 
Reichenthal's History of the Council of Constance, 1536. 



B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [LITURGIES.] Missale Constantiense. E. Ratdolt, Augsburg, 
24 April, 1504 ; fol. (Pr. 10642). 

Frontispiece, the Virgin with the Patron Saints of Constance (see p. 114, no. 1). In 
the Canon, the Crucifixion, signed, in first state [224 x 143], P. iii, 295, 2. Schr. 380. 
See Jahrbuch, xxi, 192-195. Opposite, initial T [80 x 68), letter and border printed 
in red ; imitation of the similar initial [89 x 77J by Burgkmair, used first in 1502. 
See Jahrbuch, xxi, 204-205, and Dornhoffer, " Beitrage zur Kunstgeschichte," 
1903, p. 118. 

2. [LITURGIES.] Missale Saltzeburgense. P. Liechtenstein, Venice, 
3 Dec., 1507 ; fol. (Weale, p. 177). 

In the Canon, the same Crucifixion, in second state. See Jahrbuch, xxi. 194, d. 

3. FORTUNATUS. (J. Otmar), Augsburg, 1509 ; 4to.(Muther 1050 ; 
Pr. 10675 A). 

Title woodcut [149 x 113], repr. in Konnecke's " Bilderatlas," p. 71, and 44 
different illustrations [68 x 93] in the text, one of which occurs twice, another thrice. 
Two of the 44 (D 2 and N Iv) appear to be by another draughtsman. See Jahrbuch, 
xxi, 210, note 1. 

1 Essenwein prints (p. 3) an instructive correspondence between Ganseder and 
the Nuremberg Council on the one part, Tirol and the Augsburg Council on the 
other. In 1538 Ganseder petitioned the Nuremberg Council to aid him in recovering 
from Tirol 5 florins still due to him for his work in cutting eighteen blocks for 
the Investiture of Ferdinand, which it had taken him thirty-six weeks to finish. 
The Council wrote on 26 April, 1538, to the Augsburg Council, who called on 
Hans Tirol for an explanation. He replied that Ganseder had been fully paid 
for his work, but had asked, before leaving Augsburg, for a further " Trinkgeld " 
of 5 florins, which Tirol had agreed to give, if the King of the Romans should 
make him a present for the work on which he had employed Ganseder and 
others. But when he took the blocks to Steiner's press to be printed, he found the 
cutting was much too shallow, so that he himself, the printer, his son and a joiner 
had to spend two and a half weeks in completing the work which Ganseder ought to 
have finished ; in addition to the loss of time, this extra work cost 15 florins. Tirol 
was informed that Ganseder had taken a hand-printed proof to Steiner, and it had 
then been pointed out to him that the cutting was too shallow; that notwith- 
standing, he had shirked doing the work properly. If he would pay the 15 florins 
Tirol had lost over it, he was welcome to his " Trinkgeld." There the matter seems 
to have ended. 



112 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

4. [LITURGIES.] Breviarium Ratisponense (Pars Hyemalis, Pars 
Estivalis). (E. for) G. Ratdolt, Augsburg, 20 Nov., 1515; 8vo. (Pr. 10653). 

Title-page of each part, St. Peter [152 x 84] ; repr. Jahrbuch, xxi, 199. Initials 
[37 x 30], in the winter part four different B's ; in the summer part two of these 
repeated, also V and A, all by Breu (described in Jahrbuch, 199-200). Also eight 
letters of a smaller ornamental alphabet [27 x 23]. 

5. [LUTHER.] Aiii Sermon von dem netiwen Testament. S. Otmar, 
Augsburg, 21 Aug., 1520 ; 4to. (Pr. 10792). 

Title-border from four blocks. At top, the Creator [82 x 61] ; at sides [138 x 30], 
1. Adam, r. Eve ; below [32 x 122], socle with medallion of Charles V. Repeated in 
another edition (Pr. 10802) ; also in "Theologia teutsch," 26 Sept., 1520 (Pr. 10793), 
and in U. Regius, " Ain predig von der hailigen junckfrauwen Catharina," 14 Dec., 1521. 

6. [STAND.] Von dem Eelichen Sbandt. J. Schonsperger, jun., 
Augsburg, c. 1520 ; 4to. (W. 1369 ; Pr. 10744). 

On title-page, a priest joining the hands of bride and bridegroom ; single border 
[118 x 100]. 

7. [CHRISTIAN SOUL.] Der Gilgengart. (J. Schonsperger, sen., 
Augsburg, c. 1520) ; 8vo. (Muther 959 ; Pr. 10938). 

(The Virgin as Queen of Heaven wanting in this copy.) Virgin and Child seated, 
and David [84 x 59], by Breu. 

8. [LUTHER.] Das Magnificat Verteiitschet vnd auszgelegt. (Augs- 
burg ? c. 1521 ?) ; 4to. 

K 3 v, copies [63 x 50, 62 x 50] of the Virgin and Child seated and David 
kneeling, in no. 7. 

9. [LUTHER.] Aiu betbiichlin. (J. Schonsperger, sen., Augsburg, 
1523) ; 8vo. 

I 4 v, David, as in no. 7. 

10. [ZWINGLI.] Herr Ulrich Zwingli leerbiechlein | wie man die 

Knaben Christlichv nterweysen | vnd erziehen soil, M.D. xxiiij. 

(Augsburg) ; 4to. 

Important cut by Breu [124 x 112] on title-page. Reproduced in Krackowizer's 
" Die Sammelbande ausder Reformationszeit im Landes-Archiv zu Linz," Linz, 1904, 
p. 36, and attributed to Breu by Rottinger in his review of that book. 

11. [ARISTOTLE.] Das aller edlest vn bewertest Regiment der 
gesundheit. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 28 Dec., 1530 ; 4to. 

On title-page, two kneeling men presenting a book to a king [98 x 108] ; on verso, 
Alexander the Great [163 x 103] repeated in Justin, 1531, fol. 38. 

12. [WEIDWERK.] Waidwergk. (H. Steiner, Augsburg, c. 1530- 
31); 4to. 

On title-page, a huntsman in antique costume holding in a hound which is follow- 
ing a trail [95 x 96]. A good cut, also used in " Meysterliche Stuck von Bayssen vnd 
Jagen " (Muther 1081). See Repertorium xix, 286. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Breu. 113 

18. [CHRONIK.] Chronic von an vn abgang aller weltwesenn. 
C. Egenolff, Frankfort (after 12 Jan.), 1533 ; 4to. 

Fol. 34. A warrior with a tuft of hair on his head kneeling before an Oriental 
monarch [65 x 100]. Style of the " Wartoman's Beise" cuts. Repeated on fol. 16 
of the folio 1535 edition. 

14. [BARLETIUS.] Des .... Herrn Georgen Castrioten, genant 

Scanderbeg, Ritterliche thaten. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 21 Feb., 1533 ; 

fol. (Muther 1090). 

Numerous illustrations by Breu, of various sizes, coloured. 

15. [CICERO.] Der Teiitsch Cicero. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 4 March, 
1535 ; fol. 

Cuts by Breu on ff. 83, 83 v, 91 v, 92 and (doubtful) 119 v- 132 v, 134-147. This 
set includes several copies from Hans Weiditz. It can hardly be by the elder Breu. 

16. [WYLE.] Translation oder Deiitschungen des hochgeachten 
Nicolai von Weil. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 18 Feb., 1536 ; fol. (Muther 1111). 

The cuts on A 1 v and fol. 58 v belong to Reichenthal's History of the Council of 
Constance, but are printed here some months before the issue of that book (Dec., 1536). 
The illustrations to Euriolus and Lucretia (a 6 v) and The Golden Ass (fol. 66 v) 
properly belong to this book. 

17. [MELUSINA.] Die Histori oder geschicht von der edeln vnnd 
schonen Melusina. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1588 ; 4to. 

Cut on title-page [102 x 138], repeated at end, and numerous illustrations 
[68 x 105] in the text. That on D 4 v is from Portunatus (K 2), that on K 1 v from 
Wartoman's Reise (C 2, ed. of 1518). Those on A 3 v, I 2 v, K 3 are not by Breu. 

18. [KOEBEL.] Glaubliche Offenbarung, etc. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 
1540 ; fol. 

A 1 v, an Emperor enthroned, from Reichenthal, 1536, fol. 141. 

19. [BOCCACCIO.] Ein Schone Cronica. . . .von den fiirnamlichsten 
Weybern. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1541 / fol. (Muther 1118). 

Seventy-five illustrations [70 x 100], two repeated. 

20. [TRAUT.] Tiirkischer Kayser Ankunfft, Krieg vnd Sig, wider 
die Christen, etc. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1543 ; fol. (Muther 1123). 

Illustrations of various sizes repeated from no. 15. 

21. [BOCCACCIO.] Fiirnemste Historien vnd exeinpd von wider- 
wertigem G-liick. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1545 ; fol. (Muther 1127). 

Illustrations repeated from earlier books, including eleven from no. 17. 

I 



114 



WOODCUTS BY BREU. 



I. EAELY ILLUSTRATIONS. Nos. 1-2. 

In 1504 and in 1515-16 Breu designed a number of woodcuts for liturgical books 
printed by Erhard Batdolt. The earlier group is still Gothic ; in the later, the 
transition to Renaissance style is already accomplished. Breu's secular illustrations 
of this period are not represented among the separate woodcuts. 

1. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH THE PATRON SAINTS OP CONSTANCE. 
1504. 

Schreiber ii, no. 2022, note. Zeitschr. f. christl. Kunst, vi, col. 292. Berlin Jahr- 
buch, xxi, 195, 2. 

The Virgin stands on a pedestal against which rest a mitre and crosier 
and the coat of arms (coloured red and yellow by hand) of Hugo von 
Hohenlandenberg, Bishop of Constance from 1496 to 1582. To 1. stands 
St. Conrad, a bishop holding a chalice with a spider on it, to r. St. Pelagius, 
ii young nobleman with sword and martyr's palm. The whole group is 
framed by a portal of late Gothic stonework, containing in the spandrels 
recumbent figures of Adam and Eve and the divided date 1504. In the 
lower corner r. the monogram of Breu. Single border. 

[226 x 141.] Good impression, uncoloured except the escutcheon, with margin 
[23], on the verso of the title-page of " Constitutiones synodales ecclesie costantieD," 
E. Ratdolt, Augsburg, 1510 ; fol. (Panzer, " Ann. Typ.," xi, 868, 51b). On the recto 
is the title in five lines, followed by an " Elogium " of Sebastian Brant, addressed to 
the bishop, in twelve elegiac verses. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

A perfect copy of the book is at St. Gallon (Stiftsbibliothek, Inc. 436b). The 
woodcut was first used in the Constance Missal of 24 April, 1504 (E. Ratdolt, Augs- 
burg), then in another missal (edition undetermined). In both cases the escutcheon 
was printed in two colours, red and black. For full details see Jahrbuch, xxi, 196. 
The woodcut is reproduced from the first edition in Zcitschr. f. christl. Kunst, vi, 
col. 293-4, also in Zcitschr. f. Bttchcrzeichen, v, 96. 

t THE VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH ST. BRIDGET AND ST. CATHERINE OP 
SWEDEN. Berlin Jahrbuch, xxi, 210, xxiv, 337. 

A proof of the collotype published in the Jahrbuch. The original woodcut 
[243 x 167] is at Munich (K. B. Graphische Sammlung, Inv. Nr. 171550). 

t THE VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH THE PATRON SAINTS OF CONSTANCE. 

t THE ANNUNCIATION. 

Photographs of two of the illustrations in the octavo Constance Breviary printed 
by E. Ratdolt, Augsburg, 1516, from the copy at St. Gallon (Inc. 321). See Stiassny, 
Zeitschr. f. christl. Kunst, vii, col. 107-8, Dornhoffer, Vienna Jahrbuch, xviii, 21, Dodg- 
son, Berlin Jahrbuch, xxi, 201, and Hagelstange, Mitteilungen aus dem Germanischen 
Nationalmuseum, 1905, 3, where all the illustrations except the frontispiece, which 
was already well known, 1 are reproduced. The remainder are David and Bathsheba, 
the Calling of St. Peter, SS. Peter and Paul, the Descent of the Holy Ghost (badly 
cut), and three ornamental borders ; the initials are also by Breu. 



1 See Berlin Jahrbuch, xxi, 200, and Zeitschr. f. Bttcherzeichen, v, 98, where the 
woodcut is reproduced in colours as a bookplate, which, of course, it is not. 








PLATE VIII 
JORG BREU I 

THE PATRON SAINTS OF CONSTANCE 




IU 





..I f 'ii-. [tirny.: tire unt : !-, f lit) (j 

1. THE V I KG LN A V #5 AlNTS OP C01s> 



. :r.'.s of Adorn and Eve and tbt dh 

. the :.-'.. ./T-aiJW ttiuwS Single border. 

d 1 U3R8 0Jlbt -^ pt the escutcheon, with m 

irs<., .-,f ; ; ,- *i-' : , pa ;e of " ' 

. 

i . . i! : . adreaMd to 



rh. 

A praof <A th ooUo^M fiMhhri in the Jahrlmch. Thi- orifiMl oo4oft 

J43 x 1(57 IsRtMonK .K I f r 4 >hick iSnmlung, L -50). 

t THE VIRGIN AN 

f THE ANNUN- 

cltristl. K 
Berlin Jnhrbuc. 



., are roprtxlac- 
the Oalling ol 

t-; yniai .ent*l borders ; ti 

., aoo, am. 

. 




Siwctue Xonrafctte. Sanctua t>elagroe 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Breu. 115 

2. BORDER, DATED 1515, PROM THE CONSTANCE BREVIARY OP 1516. 

[132 x 82 ; opening, 92 x 48.] Late impression, used on title-page of BERN- 
HABDINI OCHINI | Senensis expositio | Epistolse diui Pauli ad | Romanes, de Itali- 
co in latinum | translata. | AUGUSTS VINDE- | licorum (n.d.). See Berlin Jahrbtwli, 
xxi, 202 (border 2), and Hagelstange, p. 12 (reproduction). 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. MS. 5989-115). Transferred from the Dept. 
of Printed Books, 1900. 



II. LANDSKNECHTS. Nos. 3-5. 

For the literature on this series, see p. 106. There is more unanimity as to the 
share to be ascribed to Breu than prevails with regard to that of the other artists 
concerned. 

The series was cut by Jost de Negker, probably about 1525-30. It is thought to 
represent the costumes of the landsknechts engaged in Charles V.'s Italian campaign 
in 1525. 

3. A LANDSKNECHT DRAWN PROM THE BACK, HIS FACE IN PROFILE 

TO R., HIS L. HAND RAISED, R. HAND HOLDING A SWORD. 

D. de N. 28. Hirth 453. 

[Sheet, 270 x 157.] Good impression ; no watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 
Attributed to Breu by Schmidt, Schmid, Stiassny and Dornhoffer. 

4. A LANDSKNECHT THREE-QUARTER FACE TO L., HOLDING AN UP- 

RIGHT POLE IN R. HAND, A PONIARD IN L. HAND. D. de N. 43. 

[Sheet, 275 x 163.] As no. 3. This and no. 5 are attributed to Breu by Schmidt 
and Dornhoffer. 

5. A LANDSKNECHT IN PROFILE TO L. BRANDISHING A POLE IN 

RAISED R. HAND, A PONIARD IN L. HAND. D. de N. 47. 

[Sheet, 270 x 133.] As no. 3. 



III. LARGE SEPARATE WOODCUTS. Nos. 6-10. 

With one exception, these belong to the latest period of Breu's life, 
after 1530, when his works become mannered and betray a strong Italian 
influence. 

6. THE BATTLE OF PAVIA. 1525. Berlin Jahrbuch, xxi, 211, 1. 

To 1. the fortified town ; before it, in a field surrounded by walls, the 
battle proceeds. To r., beyond the wall, a church, which should be the 
Certosa. In the midst of the battle-field the inscription on a flag, 
CAPTIO REGIS F, indicates the capture of the King of France. The 
landscape is bounded 1. by the Ticino, in the background by the Alps. At 
the top 1. are the imperial arms, under them the biscione of Milan, and on 
a scroll the name PAP I A in white letters upon black ; to r., on a cloud, the 
artist's monogram reversed. Above the rising sun r. is a tablet with 
inscription in seven lines : Ain verzaichnug der belegerten stat Pauia | von 

i 2 



116 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



Francisco dem Kiinig zu Franckreich, | mit erlegung allda seines gantzen 
hores, vnd | aigner person, des Kiinigs gefencknus | von Kayser Karoli 
kriegsvolck, geschehen Frey- | tag morgens den vierundzwaintzigsten 
Fe- | brnarij Anno M.D. XXV. Under this two coats of arms and the 
initials B L and A K. 

[380 x 528.] Printed from two blocks. Fine impression. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The only other impressions known to me are at Stuttgart and Wolfegg. An oil 
painting identical in composition with this woodcut is at Wilton House. 

7. THE JUDGMENT OP PARIS. Berlin Jahrbuch, xxi, 212, 2. 

To r. Mercury, a bearded warrior, wakes Paris from his sleep near a 
fountain under a large tree. The three goddesses stand 1. ; in the clouds 
Cupid aims a shaft at Paris. A horse stands r. in the shade of the tree, and 
a stag is seen in a field beyond the grove. Buildings in the distance. 

[380 x 550.] Printed from two blocks. 
Purchased from Messrs. Heussner & Lauser, 1873. 
This rare woodcut is also at Wolfegg. 

8. THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS. 1535. Berlin Jahrbtich, xxi, 212, 3. 

Dives, on a balcony, is drinking the health of two guests to the sound 
of trumpets. To r. a servant armed with a whip drives Lazarus down the 
steps. The latter is seen again on a dung-hill before the stable with dogs 
licking his wounds. In the background Lazarus appears in Abraham's 
bosom, and the Rich Man in Hell. In the foreground huntsmen and 
retainers bring in game and fish ; a stag is being broken up and the 
rollarer fetches wine. The parapet of the balcony is adorned with a frieze 
containing Medusa's head and other classical motives ; on the wall is a 
tablet with the date 1535. 

[385 x 555.] Prom two blocks. Good impression, formerly coloured, but washed. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1862. 

A portion is reproduced in the Jahrbuch, p. 213. I have seen no other impression. 
Two copies exist, undated and with date 1508, both in the Albertina, the former also 
at Wolfegg. This woodcut affords the strongest argument for attributing the whole 
late group to the same artist as the early woodcuts of 1515. 



9. A GARDEN FfcTE AT VENICE. Berlin Jahrbuch, xxi, 214, 4. 

The scene is the garden of a patrician villa ; the Piazzetta is seen in 
the distance across the lagoon. Four gentlemen and two ladies sit at a 
table 1. under a canopy embroidered with the lion of St. Mark. A third 
lady advances from the house. In the foreground 1. a girl holds a wreath 
over a young man's head and picks his pocket with her other hand ; near 
this couple are a jester and a servant pouring wine. In the centre three 
couples are dancing ; a senator converses r. with another nobleman. 
Musicians sit on a raised terrace under a tree. In the distance the Doge 
approaches, escorted by four senators ; near the ducal gondola a servant 
kneels as he passes. 

[380 x 820.] Prom three blocks. Good impression. 

Purchased from Mr. Dunthorne, 1885. 

The central portion is reproduced in Hirth's "Bilderbuch" (ii, 991). The 1. 
portion is at Berlin. I have seen no other complete impression. The design seems 
to prove that Breu visited Venice towards the end of his life and possessed a first- 
hand acquaintance with Venetian habits and fashions. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Breu. 117 



10. CHARLES V., KING FERDINAND AND THEIR CONSORTS IN 
SLEDGES. Repertorimn xix, 286. 

Two sledges, each drawn by a single horse richly caparisoned and 
adorned with ostrich plumes, run side by side, preceded and followed by 
running footmen. The Empress Isabella sits in the farther sledge, which 
is a little in advance of the nearer one, occupied by Anne, Queen of 
Hungary and Bohemia. The Emperor and King stand behind their 
respective consorts, holding the reins. The pole of the nearer sledge 
bears the initials F and A alternately, whereas on the side those letters 
are combined in a monogram. The tall front of the Emperor's sledge 
bears the pillars of Hercules and the motto PLVS VLTRE ; his initial K 
is on the pole. 

[248 x 752.] From two blocks. A rather late impression. 
Provenance not recorded. 

Breu may have sketched the imperial and royal couples at the Diet of Augsburg 
n 1530. This woodcut was ascribed to Breu in 1896 by Dr. W. Schmidt. 



IV PORTIONS OF A MOUNTED PROCESSION. 
Nos. 11-18. 

These woodcuts, with one exception undescribed, form part of a procession 
connected, as no. 16 would seem to indicate, with the investiture of King Ferdinand 
at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530. The series is obviously incomplete, and it is not 
quite certain that all the sheets here represented belong to it. The cutting varies 
much. The first three are late impressions, all the remainder uniform and early, 
on a stout paper without watermark. All were in the inventory of 1837, but their 
provenance is not recorded. Throughout there is a border line at the bottom only. 
The dimensions given are those of the sheet. 

The connexion with Breu is least obvious in the case of nos. 11 and 18. The 
former, in fact, has been attributed by Dr. W. Schmidt l to Amberger. But even 
here I think the resemblance of certain types to those in Hans Tirol's large sheet is 
greater than to the numbers of David de Necker's landsknechts which are ascribed 
to Amberger. In the remaining cases the resemblance to the Investiture and others 
of Breu's late woodcuts is obvious. The attribution was suggested to me by Dr. 
Dornhoffer in 1900. 

11. A GENERAL AND A HERALD MOUNTED, ESCORTED BY FOUR 

FOOT-SOLDIERS. 

[300 x 415.] Rather late impression on white paper. 
Reproduced in Breunner-EnkevoSrth, iii, 14, and Hirth, ii, 746. 

12. FOUR NOBLEMEN RIDING ABREAST, ESCORTED BY SIX HAL- 

BERDIERS. 

[300 x 395.] Late impression on discoloured paper. 

13. SIX SOLDIERS IN HELMETS RIDING ABREAST, PRECEDED BY 

AN OFFICER IN A PLUMED HAT. 

[280 x 395.] As no, 12. 



Repertorium, xvii, 368. 



118 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

14. SIX SOLDIERS IN HELMETS RIDING ABREAST, PRECEDED BY A 

BURGUNDIAN TRUMPETER. 

[238 X 390.] Early impression. 

15. NINE NOBLEMEN RIDING (ONE ON A MULE), ESCORTED BY FOUR 

SOLDIERS ARMED WITH SPEARS. 

[213 x 388.] Early impression. 

16. CHARLES AND FERDINAND RIDING BETWEEN ANOTHER PRINCE 

AND A CARDINAL, ESCORTED BY EIGHT HALBERDIERS. 

[252 x 390.] Early impression. 

17. TEN HUNGARIAN LANCERS, IN TWO GROUPS. 
[310 x 410.] Early impression. 

18. THREE YOUTHFUL RIDERS. 

To 1. a youth in a wide, plumed hut, his back turned to the others. In 
the middle a boy in Oriental costume with a single very long feather in his 
hat, holding a bow, with a quiver hanging at his side. To r. a young 
man in armour ; the crest on his helmet is an ostrich, the tail composed 
of long plumes. The horses, except the first, also wear plumes. 

[260 x 410.] Early impression. The horses appear gigantic ; their proportions 
can only bo explained by supposing that their riders are lads not fully grown. 



V. LATE ILLUSTRATIONS. Nos. 19-40. 

19. FOUR TOPERS INTERRUPTED BY A DEVIL WITH A MESSAGE 

FROM HELL. 

[158 x 108.] Late impression without text. Originally used in Schwartzenberg, 
" Ain Buchlo wider das zutrincken " (part of " Der Teiitsch Cicero"), H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 1534, 1535. Repr. Hirth, ii, 749. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1858. 

20. VISION OF THE SIBYL. 

[175 x 156.] Late impression, probably from Steinmeyer, 1620, with a woodcut 
of Alexandria on the back. Repr. Hirth, i, 349. Occurs in " Scanderbeg," 1533, 
fol. 1, and in " Schertz mit der Warheyt," Frankfort, 1550 (fol. 61, "Von Traumen "). 

Purchased from Miss Bury, 1877. 

21. SIGISMUND, KING OF THE ROMANS, IN COUNCIL. 

[203 x 141.] Good impression. From fol. 12 of Reichenthal's History of the 
Council of Constance, 1536. Sigismund is here addressing the Pope with the words 
"Pater sancte placet vobis Constancia? " 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. MS. 5944-210). Transferred from the 
Department of Printed Books, 1900. 



Division B. School of Augsbury.- Brev. 119 



DOUBTFUL. 

22. ST. PETER. 

He sits at a desk and hands a sealed packet to a messenger. 

[105 x 70.] On title-page of " Bulla Jejuniorum, et Supplicationum pro pace," 
etc. (Augsburg, 1543 ?). Perhaps from a series of Evangelists and authors of Epistles 
n a New Testament. 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

23-40. EIGHTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS FROM SCHWARTZENBERG'S 
"MEMORIAL DER TUGENT." 

From ff . 122, 123, 132, 135, 136, 139, 140, 141, 144, 145, 147 of " Der Teutsch 
Cicero " (edition of 1535), printed in several cases on both sides of the leaf. 
Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 



120 



JOKG BKEU II. 

Jorg Breu, the younger, painter ; b. about 1510 ; pupil of his 
father ; admitted a master, 1 May, 1534 ; in 1538 restored the old 
paintings by Kaltenhofer in the Weberhaus, now, after subsequent 
restorations, preserved in the Bavarian National Museum at Munich ; 
presented pupils 1539, 1540, 1543 ; d. 1547. 

Authorities as for Jorg Breu I, especially Vischcr, pp. 522, 560, 562, 
">G7, and Roth's introduction to Breu's Chronicle, p. 5. H. A. Schinid 
attributed to him much work in painting and illustration, from 152* > 
onwards, that other critics agree in ascribing to the father. 

No woodcuts in this collection can definitely be ascribed to 
Jorg Breu II., but he probably assisted his father in producing his 
numerous late illustrations and such a big piece of work as the 
Investiture of Ferdinand I. 1 He signed a woodcut of the Story of 
Susanna, 1540 (!'. iii, 295, 3), at Berlin, and another of the Siege of 
Algiers, published in 1541, a with Latin and German text (address 
" Excudit Auguste Viudelicoz? loannes Hofer " on the Gotha 
impression, Sammelband i, 341, " Getruckt zu Augspurg durch Hans 
Hofer Briemaler im klainen Sachssengesslin " on that at Berlin). 
To him, rather than to his father, I am inclined to attribute a large 
undescribed and unsigned woodcut of the Kich Man and Lazarus, 
printed from eight blocks [672 x 984] at Wolfegg. 



1 See p. no. 

- Hans Guldeuraund brought out au "Algeri Contrafactur " at Nuremberg In 
the same year (Hampe, " Niirnberger Katbverlasse iiber Kunst und Kiinstler," 1901. 
i, no. 2626). 



121 



HANS TIROL. 

Hans Tirol, painter, publisher and architect ; b. about 1510 ; 
pupil and housemate from 1531 onwards of Jorg Breu I, whose 
daughter Anna he married ; admitted a master in 1532 ; entered the 
service of the town council of Augsburg as architect in 1537, and 
constructed new fortifications ; left Augsburg 1548, and was at 
Prague in 1551, when he became herald and architect to King 
Ferdinand, for whom he carried out much work on the castle and 
cathedral ; in 1570, after leaving the royal service, he was again at 
Augsburg, where he died between October 1575 and 1576. 

On a reproduction of the only woodcut with which Tirol's name 
is associated, see p. 110. 



122 



IV. LEONHAED BECK. 

Leonhard Beck, a member of an Augsburg artist family, 1 became a 
master painter 1503; married Dorothea Lang 1505; received some 
mark of favour from Maximilian I, 18 Feb., 1511, and took a large 
share in the illustration of his works, " Der Weisskunig," "Theuer- 
dank," " The Triumph," and " The Austrian Saints " ; introduced five 
pupils to the painters' guild between 1505 and 1538; otherwise 
mentioned in documents 1516-17, 1522, 1523, 1527, 1534 3 ; d. 1542. 
His son Leouhard was ennobled by Charles V, 31 March, 1540. 3 

Authorities : 

S. Laschitzer in Vienna Jahrbuch, v, 1887 (biography, 170, 221, 

criticism of style, 159-170). 
A. Hchtiltz, ibid., vi, p. xxv. 

K. Vischer, " Studien zur Kunstgeschicbte," 188(j (see index, p. 611). 
Nagler, " Monogrammisten," iv., 279, no. 942. 
C. Liitzow, "(Jeschichte des deutschen Kupferstiches und Hol/- 

schnittes," 137. 
Reporter ium fur Knnstwixsenschaft, xxvi, 511, xxviii, 61. 

Of the very numerous woodcuts by Beck, three only are signed 
with his monogram, the title-page of Geiler's " Schiff' der Penitentz," 
1514, and two subjects in "Der Weisskunig" (39, 78). Five other 
blocks in the Weisskunig series are inscribed with the name " Beckh." 
His style is so strongly marked that with this assistance it is possible 
to determine with certainty his remaining contributions to the works 
commissioned by the Emperor, and a few other illustrations in 
Augsburg books. A picture of St. George and the Dragon in the 
Vienna Gallery (no. 1431, cat. 1896) is attributed to Beck with great 
probability. 

1 The name Hans Beck occurs thrice (1498, 1523, 1547) in the records of Augsburg 
artists published by Vischer. Jorg Beck, painter, first mentioned 1501, d. 1512 (for 
a work by him, see " Catalogue of the Exhibition of Early German Art," Burlington 
Fine Arts Club, 1906, p. 119). Mathes Beck is introduced as a pupil, 1511. Laux 
Beck, glass-painter, occurs in 1528. 

2 Our artist is probably, though not certainly, identical with the Leonhard 
Becker mentioned as being at Frankfort in 1501 with Sigismund Holbein (Reper- 
torium, xxvi, 511). 

3 The arms of " Leonhard Beckh von Beckenstain, Bom. Kay. Maye. Rath. &c.," 
appear in Boccaccio, " Furnemste Historien und Exempel von widerwirtigem gliick " 
(H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1545), which was dedicated to Beck by H. Ziegler, the 
translator. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Beck. 123 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY BECK. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FEINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [ULRICH.] Glorioso | rum Christ! confessor Vldari- | ci & Sym- 
perti : uecno beatissi- | me martyris Aphre Augusta- | ne sedis patrono7? . . . 
historic, etc. Silvanus Otmar, at the expense of the Monastery of 
SS. Ulrich and Afra, Augsburg, 14 April, 151G ; 4to. (omitted by Proctor). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Five cuts certainly, another probably, by Beck ; 1 attributed to Burgkmair by 
Weigel (cat. no. 16353), Passavant (iii, 277, 108), and Muther (M. 317-322). 

(1) Architectural title-border with a seated satyr below, an angel and wreath 
above. [165 X 120, opening 103 x 60.] Proctor's border, S. Otmar E, used again 
in Luther, Predig von der wirdigen berayttung zu dem hochwirdigen Sacrament, 
1518 (Pr. 10768). 

(2) A 2. SS. Simpert, Ulrich and Afra, standing side by side ; three coats-of- 
arms (Lorraine, Kyburg, Cyprus) "below. 2 [165 x 120.] 

(3) A 3 v. St. Ulrich, standing, holding in his 1. hand a book on which a fish lies. 
Landscape background with a wall ; below r. the arms of Kyburg. [120 x 78.] In 
& passe-partout similar in style to the title-border [165 x 120], 

(4) H 1. St. Simpert, standing, his pastoral staff in his 1. hand, giving a gesture 
of command with his r. hand to a bear which has carried off a child and now restores 
it uninjured. Landscape background with a wattled fence ; a shield with the arms 
of Lorraine hangs on a tree [120 x 78]. In the same passe-partout. 

(5) M 1. St. Afra, standing, bound by the wrist to a dead tree, at the foot of 
which a fire is kindled. She wears a crown, and the arms of Cyprus (here reversed, 
1 and 4 Lusignan, 2 and 3 Jerusalem) hang from a stump behind her. Her face has 
been re-drawn and inserted on a small square block [120 x 78]. In the same passe- 
partout. The block is preserved in the town library at Augsburg, and was reprinted 
by Mezger in 1840 (" Augsburgs alteste Druckdenkmale etc."). 

(6) S 8. View of the church of SS. Ulrich and Afra [165 x 125], without border- 
line. Perhaps also by Beck, but his style is not to be recognised in it. 

2. [RICCL] Portae Lucis (by Paulus Ricius). J. Miller, Augsburg, 
9 June, 1516 ; 4to. (Pr. 10835). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1870. 

Cut on title-page ; a Jewish doctor seated, holding a cabalistic emblem inscribed 
with Hebrew letters, in a room with a door opening on mountainous scenery 
[156 x 117]. See Jahrb. d. k.preuss. Kunstsamml. xxi, 211, note 5. 

8. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. J. Sclib'nsperger, sen., Nuremberg, 
1517; fol. (Muther 845; Pr. 11180). Imperfect copy on vellum (see 
Vol. I, pp. 419, 504, Vol. II, pp. 7, 58, 109). 3 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

1 See Jahrb. d. k. preuss. Kunstsamml. xxi, 211, note 5. 

2 Muther (B.-L, no. 942), describing the German edition of this book (4 Oct. 1516), 
says that it contains a cut of this subject with a wood-engraver's mark (in reality 
the arms of the abbey of SS. Ulrich and Afra) and the initials F.S.W. The cut so 
signed is a late copy, made after 1600, of much larger dimensions [450 x 343], of 
which modern impressions are to be found in Mezger, " Augsburg's alteste Druck- 
denkmale und Formschneiderarbeiten," 1840. 

3 As Beck designed by far the greater part of the illustrations to Theuerdank, 
this is the most suitable place to mention a set of impressions in the collection of 
Mr, A. H. Huth of a kind not yet described in the literature on this book. These 
are not proofs, but impressions without text, later than the first edition ; watermark, 
a chalice. A border of four lines serves as a passe-partout. There are forty-four of 
these impressions, numbered on the back by an old hand ; the last has " 44 e ultimo." 



124 Early German and flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



The following subjects (numbered as in the book) are by Beck : 



1. Bomreich and Ehrenreich (Charles the Bold and Mary of Burgundy). 

2. Bomreich in council choosing a husband for his daughter. 

:3. The death of Bomreich in a garden. 
4) 4. The death of her father announced to Ehrenreich by an old knight. 

(5) 5. Ehrenreich in council addressed by the old knight. 

(6) 6. Ehrenreich despatching a message to Thouerdank. 

(7) 7. Furwittig, Unfalo and Neidelhart resolve not to admit Thcuordank to 

Ehrenreich's territory. 

8. Ehrenreich's message delivered to Theuerdank. 

9. Theuerdank receiving advice from his father. 

(10) 11. Theuerdank starting on his journey with Ehreiihold. 



(8) 

CO 



(11 

(12 
13 
Li 
16 

L6 

17 



12. Their passage opposed by Furwittig at the first barrier. 

15. Theuerdank in danger on a chamois hunt. 

17. Theuerdank in danger on a boar hunt. 

18. Thouerdank again in danger on a chamois hunt. 

19. Theuerdank again in danger on a boar hunt. 

23. Furwittig leading Theuerdank into peril by ice. 

24. Theuerdank striking Furwittig. 



18) 27. Unfalo leading Thcuordank into danger on a bear hunt. 

19) 28. Theuordauk stopping on a rotten plank. 



29. Theuordank again in danger on the ice. 

33. Theuerdank taking a dangerous jump on a stag hunt. 



20 

.21 

(22 35. Thouerdank impaling a boar with one foot still in the stirrup. 

(23) 37. A stone knocks Theuerdank's hat off when chamois hunting. 

24) 41. Theuerdank slaying a boar which had wounded his horse's leg. 

25) 43. Thouerdank in danger of shipwreck. 

26) 51. Unfalo mounts Theuerdauk on an unsafe horse. 



52. Theuerdank nearly struck by a thunderbolt. 

53. Theuerdank escapes injury from a fall of stones. 

54. Theuerdank escapes injury in a tournament. 

55. Theuerdank again nearly struck by a fall of stones. 

5G. Theuerdank on a chamois hunt endangered by a gust of wind. 

59. Theuerdank falls, but is saved by clutching a tree. 

60. A fool nearly sets fire to a cask of gunpowder. 
62. Theuerdank's nailed boots slip on a rock. 

64. Theuerdank again in peril of shipwreck. 

65. Theuerdank's boat damaged in a collision. 

66. Theuerdank's escape from an avalanche. 

67. Theuerdank cures himself of an illness in spite of Unfalo's physician. 

68. Theuerdank's horse falls on the ice on a boar hunt. 
71. A chamois nearly falls on Theuerdank. 

73. Theuerdank escapes being burnt as he sleeps. 

74. Theuerdank gets rid of Unfalo. 

75. Neidelhart meets Theuerdank at the third barrier. 

76. Theuerdank's boat brought by Neidelhart within range of cannon. 

77. Theuerdank wounds an enemy with the sword. 

78. Theuordank hit by a cannon ball. 

80. Theuerdank's horse hit through the neck. 

81. Theuerdank attacked by a number of armed men. 

82. Theuerdank wounds a knight sent by Neidelhart to attack him. 

83. Theuerdank assailed by several knights. 

84. Theuerdank has his horse shot under him. 



52) 85. Theuerdank defeats a hostile knight. 
(53) 86. A plot to murder Theuerdank in his chamber. 



88. Theuerdank holding a besieged fort. 

89. Theuerdank defeats another hostile knight. 

90. Theuerdank and thirteen men take over a hundred prisoners. 



64 

55 
56 

57) 91. Theuerdank attacked by the defenders of a town. 

58) 92. Theuerdank defeats another hostile knight. 

59) 93. Theuerdank lays low a number of enemies. 

60) 94. Theuerdank stoned.' 



1 Used again in Vegetius, " Vier Biichor der Bitterschaft," Steiner, 1534, fol. 24 v. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Beck. 125 



95. Traps set by Neidelhart for Theuerdank's destruction. 

96. An attempt to poison Theuerdank. 

97. Theuerdank dismisses Neidelhart. 

98. Theuerdank received by Ehrenreich. 

99. Fiirwittig, Unfalo and Neidelhart conspire again. 

100. Theuerdank challenged by six knights to games of chivalry. 

101. " Scharfrennen " between Theuerdank and the first knight. 

103. Italian joust with the third knight. 

104. Combat on foot with the fourth knight. 

106. Combat on foot with the sixth knight. 

107. Theuerdank crowned by Ehrenreich. 

108. Ehrenhold accuses the three captains before the Queen. 

110. Fiirwittig beheaded. 

111. Unfalo hanged. 

112. Neidelhart thrown headlong. 

116. Theuerdank promises to fulfil Queen Ehrenreich's behest. 

117. Theuerdank starts on St. George's quest (a crusade against the Turks).' 



4. [MENNEL.] De inclito atque apud Germanos rarissimo | actu 
ecclesiastico Kalen. Augusta Au | guste Celebrate anno doruini | 1518. 
(Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, after 1 Aug., 1518) 4to. (Pr. 10877). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

(1) On title-page an angel carrying a processional cross and cardinal's hat in his 
r. hand, a sword and hat in his 1. hand. [116 x 95.] By comparison with the subor- 
dinate figures on certain cuts among the Austrian saints (e.g., nos. 26, 31, 56, 78, 91 
of the edition of 1799 notice especially the wings in 78), it seems that this illustra- 
tion, which has hitherto remained anonymous, must be by Beck. 

(2) At end, the arms of Mennel, a pair of wings ; crest, a demy warrior in helmet 
and chain mail between buffalo horns with peacock plumes [116 x 94]. 

There is nothing decisive to show the authorship of this cut, which reappears in 
books by Mennel printed at Freiburg in 1522 and 1523, but its juxtaposition with 
no. (1) in this book, where it first appears, makes it likely that Beck designed both. 
In the years 1516-18 Beck was illustrating the work on the Austrian Saints, of 
which Mennel was the literary author. On the present book see Vienna Jahrbuch iv, 
83, 85. On 1 Aug., 1518, during the Diet of Augsburg, the two papal legates, Cajetan 
and Lang, conferred on Albert of Brandenburg the dignity of cardinal, and on 
Maximilian a sword and helmet, blessed byi Leo X on Christmas Day, for the 
defence of Christendom against the Turks. 

5. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. J. Schonsperger, sen., Augsburg, 
1519 ; fol. (Muther 846 ; Pr. 10939). 

Imperfect, wanting cut 117. Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 
The same cuts as in the first edition, 1517 (no. 3). 

6. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. M. Wagner, Ulm, 1679; fol. 
(Muther 853). 

Imperfect, wanting the last ten leaves, with nine woodcuts, six of which appeared 
for the first time in this edition (a perfect copy is in the library). 
Purchased from Mr. Daniells. 
The same cuts as in nos. 3 and 5. 

7. [TKEITZSAURWEIN.] Der Weisskunig. Vienna, 1775 ; fol. 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1850. 

One hundred and twenty-three of the woodcuts are by Beck : nos. 2, 5-10, 13 
16, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27, 29, 32-39, 41, 47, 48, 53, 55-59, 61, 64, 74, 78, 79, 81, 82, 85, 87, 
91, 92, 96-99, 102, 104, 106, 108, 109, 111-114, 117, 119, 120, 124, 128, 129. 132-135, 
137, 138, 140-142, 144, 147, 150, 152, 155, 157-160, 162, 164, 165, 167-170, 172, 175 
176, 179-182, 184, 186-190, 192-194, 201-205, 208, 213, 217, 218, 220-224, 226, 227, 
229, 230, 231, 234, 236. 

' Used again in Traut, " Tiirkischer Kayser Ankunfft," Steiner, 1543, fol. 23 v. 



126 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



8. [TREITZSAURWEIN.] Kaiser Maximilians I. Triumph, Vienna 
1796; fol. 

Purchased from Messrs. Willis and Sotheran, 1859. 
Seven of the woodcuts are by Beck : nos. 113-119. 

9. [BURGKMAIR.] Images de Saints et de Saintes issus de la famille 
dc 1'Empereur Maximilien I. Vienna, 1799 ; fol. 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1850. 

One hundred and eighteen outs by Beck, formerly attributed to Burgkmair 
This edition contains the following Saints in addition to those which appeared in the 
first edition described below (nos. 56-142) : (1) Adelaide ; (4) Athala ; (6) Alibertus ; 
(7) Amalberga I ; (8) Amalberga II ; (14) Bavo ; (19) Ohlodoaldus (Cloud) ; (24) 
Dagobert ; (27) Edgar ; (39) Firmin ; (40) Fridolin ; (42) Gangolfus ; (48) Grimoaldus ; 
(52)Hedwig; (55) Hildegard ; (60) Iduberga ; (63) Ladislaus; (64) Landrada; (70) 
Louis IX; (78) Otilia; (80) Otto; (82) Pharahildis ; (84) Poppo; (85) Radegundis 
(88) Rhaton (Guido) ; (90) Bicharda ; (97) Sebald ; (98) Sigolina ; (99) Severa ; (106 
Thomas a Becket; (111) Wenceslaus; (115) Wandrillus; (119) Wunmbaldus. 



B. IN THK DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BooKs. 1 

1. [GEILER.] Das Schiff der penitentz. J. Otmar, Augsburg, March, 
1514 ; fol. (Muther 988 ; Pr. 1069:3). 

Signed title-border [246 x 159, opening 115 x 71], Proctor's border A (J. Otmar). 
Fully described by Nagler, Mon., iv, 279, 942. 

2. [LITURGIES.] Breviarium Frisingense, Pars Hyemalis, Pars 
Estivalis, P. Liechtenstein for J. Oswald, Venice, 15 March, 1516 ; Hvo. 

2a. [LITURGIES.] Directorium . . . Secundum ritum ecclesie & 
diocesis frisinggfi. (Same place and printer) 20 June, 1516 ; 8vo. 

Each of the throe volumes has on the title-page a cut [115 x 85] representing the 
Madonna and Child enthroned, with SS. Corbinian and Sigismund standing on 
either side. It has not yet been attributed to Beck, but is undoubtedly by him. 2 A 
separate impression is in the Culemann collection at Hanover (Kestner Museum). 

3. [ULRICH.] Das Leben . . . sant Ulrichs, und Symprechts, auch 
der siiligen martrerin sant Aphre. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 4 Oct., 1516 ; 
4to. (Muther 942 ; Pr. 10756). 

The same cuts as in the Latin edition (p. 123, no. 1), with the exception of the 
title-border. The passe-partout to the illustrations is here used on the title-page. 

4. [MENNEL.] Von dem Eerlichen . . . gaistlichen Geschicht, in de 
ersten tag des monat Augusti zu Augspurg begangen, in dem jar des 
herren 1518. (Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 1518) 4to. (Pr. 10878). 

The same cut on the title-page as in the Latin edition (p. 125, no. 4). 



1 No attempt has been made to enumerate those which merely contain 
repetitions of the Theuerdank cuts. 

1 For other instances of Augsburg cuts published at Venice, see pp. 58, 60, 111, 152 






: 

U by Beck (Jahtb, ti. h. 
-nditz," p. 77). 



XI 3TAJ9 

QflAHHOBJ 



Mi i/eara to beloug to the same set, 

as oci . heu Prauwen," 1544 ; but 

t to be found there. 




PLATE IX 
LEONHARD BECK 

ANGELS WITH MONSTRANCE 



Division, B. School of Augsburg. Beck. 127 



5. [LUTHER.] Ain Sermon von dem hochwirdigen Sacrament, des 
hailigen waren leichnams Christi. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 13 Feb., 1520 ; 
4to. (Pr. 10782). 

On the title-page two kneeling angels in copes, supporting a monstrance, sur- 
rounded by clouds [135 x 96]. I found this out in 1899 in the Munich cabinet 
attributed by a MS. note to Beck ; the attribution is unquestionably right. 

6. [TECKENDORF.] Von Tegkendorff das geschicht | wie die Juden 
das hailig sacrament haben zugericht. (S. Otmar, Augsburg, 1520 ?) 4to. 
(Pr. 10807). 

The same cut as in no. 5. 

7. [CHRISTIAN SOUL.] Der Gilgengart ainer yetlichen Cristen- 
lichen sel. J. Schonsperger, sen., Augsburg. (1520 ? Pr. 10938 says 
" c. 1518," but this is too early.) 

One woodcut, the Mass of St. Gregory, is by Beck (Jahrb. d. h. prems. 
Kunstsamml. xxi, 211. H. RSttinger, " Hans Weiditz," p. 77). 

8. [IOHANN, VON ECK.] Christenliche Auslegung der Evangelien, 
J. Krapff, Ingolstadt, 1530 ; fol. (Muther 1145). 

The signed title-border first used in 1514 (p. 126, no. 1). 

9. [BOCCACCIO.] Bin Schone Cronica oder Hystori buch von den 
fiirnamlichsten Weybern (translated by Heinr. Steinhowel). H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 1541 ; fol. (Muther 930). 

Two woodcuts in the style of Theuerdank, ascribed by Muther to Schaufelein. 

(1) On title-page, three ladies seated under a canopy behind a table [131 x 140]. 

(2) A 6 v. the same three ladies seated, one at the end, the other at the back of 
a table, on which a wreath of leaves and some pieces of cord or riband are lying. 
Two men converse in the foreground [160 x 140]. 

Muther describes (no. 931) a third cut which appears to belong to the same set, 
as occurring in Vives, " Von Underweysung ayner Christlichen Frauwen," 1544 ; but 
the cut is not to be found there. 

10. [PONTHUS.] Von Adelischen Mannlichen Tugenten . . . Ritter 
Pontus. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1548 ; fol. (Muther 1130). 

Fol. 34 v. the first of the two cuts described under no. 9, reduced in width to 
125 mm. Also repetitions from Theuerdank. 



128 



WOODCUTS BY BECK. 1 

[1-48.] 

ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE WEISSKUNIG (1514-1510). 

B. vii, 224, 80. M. 163-315. 

For an account of the book, see p. 90. Two woodcuts (nos. 39 and 78 nos. 11 
and 40 in this catalogue) of the series bear Beck's monogram ; his name is written 
on five of the blocks. Schultz ascribes to him 126 subjects altogether, but does not 
include in his list no. 39, which he had already mentioned as signed ; he should have 
written, therefore, 127. To those may, perhaps, be added nos. 190 and 203, which 
he treats as doubtful works of Burgkmair. Forty-eight of Beck's subjects are repre- 
sented here by early proofs. 

1. THE OLD WHITE KING'S AMBASSADOR ASKING FOR THE HAND 

OF LEONORA. A, no. 227. B, p. 9. . 

2. THE OLD WHITE KING AND LEONORA RECEIVING THE HOLY 

COMMUNION FROM THE POPE AFTER THEIR MARRIAGE. 

A, no. 9. B, p. 38. 

3. THE YOUNG WHITE KING AT HIS LESSONS. 

A, no. 17. B, p. 55. M. 171. 

4. THE YOUNG WHITE KING INSTRUCTED IN THE SEVEN LIBERAL 

ARTS. A, no. 29. B, p. 59. 

5. THE YOUNG WHITE KING LEARNING WENDISH FROM A PEASANT. 

A, no. 24. B, p. 73. M. 176. 

6. HE LEARNS THE ART OF BUILDING. A, no. 27. B, p. 76. 

7. HE LEARNS THE ART OF CARPENTERING. A, no. 21. B, p. 78. 

8. HAWKING. A, no. 34. B, p. 93. 

9. STAG-HUNTING. A, no. 35. B, p. 95. 

10. FISHING. A, no. 36. B, p. 98. 

11. A COMBAT ON FOOT WITH HALBERDS. (Signed.) A, no. 39. B, p. 103. 

12. THE YOUNG WHITE KING LEARNS THE MANAGEMENT OF 

HORSES. A, no. 41. B, p. 107. 

1 See p. 29 for a description of additions made by Beck to a woodcut by 
Schaufelein of the year 1513. 

7 Muther, " Verzeichniss der Werke Hans Burgkraair's," Repertorium, ix, 410. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Beck. 129 

13. THE SIEGE OF NEUSS. A, no. 47. B, p. 117. M. 109. 

14. THE DAUGHTER OF THE KING OF THE STEEL CONFERRING 

WITH HER MOTHER AND COUNCILLORS. A, no. 48. B, p. 122. 

15. THE OLD WHITE KING GIVING COUNSEL TO HIS SON. 

A, no. 57. B, p. 129. 

15a. ANOTHER PROOF, WITH THE PROCLAMATION ON THE BACK. 1 

16. THE MARRIAGE OF THE YOUNG WHITE KING. A, no. 53. B, p. 134. 

17. THE YOUNG WHITE KING AND HIS QUEEN LEARNING ONE 

ANOTHER'S LANGUAGE. A, no. 55. B, p. 136. 

18. THE YOUNG WHITE KING LEARNING ITALIAN. A, no. 59. B, p. 142. 

19. SOLDIERS RECEIVING A CHILD. A, no. 87. B, p. 174. 

20. THE BLOCK-HOUSE AT ANTWERP. A, no. 91. B, p. 177. 

21. SWINDRECHT. A, no. 96. B, p. 178. M. 224. 

22. A SEA-FIGHT. A, no. 104. B, p. 195. M. 230, 

23. SURRENDER OF A CITY. A, no. 187. B, p. 201. M. 282. 

24. ATTACK UPON A CITY. A, no. 109. B, p. 208. M. 234. 

25. THE YOUNG WHITE KING EXPLAINING HIS PLAN OF ACTION 

TO HIS CAPTAINS. A, no. 117. B, p. 212. 

26. THE YOUNG WHITE KING TAKING COUNSEL WITH HIS 

CAPTAINS. A, no. 164. B, p. 214. 

27. BATTLE IN THE TERRITORY OF NAPLES. A, no. 106. B, p. 224. 

28. ANOTHER BATTLE IN THE TERRITORY OF NAPLES. 

A, no. 203. B, p. 226. M. 292. 

29. THE ERMINE KING SENDING A MESSAGE TO THE BLUE KING. 2 

A, no. 205. B, p. 236. 

30. THE WHITE KING SUING FOR THE HAND OF THE ERMINE 

KING'S DAUGHTER. A, no. 208. B, p. 238. 

31. THE BLUE KING CARRYING OFF THE DAUGHTER OF THE 

ERMINE KING. A, no. 192. B, p. 242. M. 285. 

32. THE YOUNG WHITE KING AND HIS COUNCILLORS TAKEN 

CAPTIVE. A, no. 114. B, p. 256. 

33. THE OLD WHITE KING SENDING HELP TO THE YOUNG WHITE 

KING. A, no. 111. B, p. 268. 

1 See p. 92. 2 See p. 91. 



130 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

34. THE YOUNG WHITE KING COMING TO TERMS WITH THE GREEN 

KING. 1 A, no. 236. B, p. 276. M. 313. 

35. THE TREATY MADE WITH THE GREEN KING AT PRESSBURG. 

A, no. 155. B, p. 279. 

36. THE ERMINE KING CONFERS HIS DAUGHTER'S HAND ON THE 

YOUNG WHITE KING (?). A, no. 234. B, p. 283. 

37. THE BATTLE WITH THE CROATIANS. A, no. 82. B, p. 285. 

38. THE SWISS IN COUNCIL. A, no. 188. B, p. 301. 

39. THE BATTLE OF STOCKHAMER HAIDE. A, no. 230. B, p. 308. M. 308. 

40. THE BATTLE OF CREMA. (Signed.) A, no. 78. B, p. 338. 

41. MONSELICE. A, no. 99. B, p. 340. 

42. DISSOLUTION OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI. A, no. 98. B, p. 346. 

43. A SORTIE FROM VERONA. A, no. 229. B, p. 359. M. 307* 

44. THE BLUE KING SENDS TO KING DENETTE (JAMES IV. OF 

SCOTLAND) FOR HELP. A, no. 85. B, p. 365. M. 216. 

45. THE BATTLE OF FLODDEN FIELD. A, no. 170. B, p. 366. M. 271. 

46. KING PHILIP RECEIVING HIS SPANISH BRIDE. A, no. 113. B,p. 379. 

47. THE SUBJECTION OF LEYDEN. A, no. 224. B, p. 395. 

48. MAXIMILIAN MEETING HENRY VIII. AT TOURNAI (24 SEPT. 1513). 

A, no. 204. B, p. 399. 

[c. 217 x 196.] Brilliant early proofs on white paper. The watermark of nos. 5, 
11, 17, 21 is the head of a jester(?), of nos. 6, 7, 10, 16, 26, 32, 33, 35, 37, 40, 45 a high 
crown, of nos. 8, 9, 14, 22, 23 an imperial eagle and crown, of nos. 24, 28, 38, 42, 47 
a small orb (Reichsapfel), and of no. 46 a chalice ; the remainder are without water- 
mark. Nos. 14, 15a, 22, 39 have the text of the proclamation on the back. Nos. 25, 
30, 32, 36, 46 have the stamp of the Thomas Allen collection (see p. 33). 

No. 1 is from the Banks collection, bequeathed 1818 ; nos. 2, 4-13, 16, 18-25, 
27-34, 36, 37, 39-48 were purchased at the Ottley sale, 1837 ; nos. 3 and 15 from 
Evans, 1849 ; nos. 14, 15a, 17, 26, 35 at the Bammeville sale, 1854, and no. 38 from 
PJvans, 1858. 

[49-55.] 

WOODCUTS FORMING PART OF THE TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION OF 
MAXIMILIAN I. B. vii, 229, 8i. 

40. FIVE DRUMMERS AND FIVE TRUMPETERS. B. 113. S. 115. 

50. TEN TRUMPETERS. B. 114. S. 116. 

51. TEN TRUMPETERS. B. 115. S. 117. 

1 See p. 91. * See p. 96 for literature on this series. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Seek. 131 



52. TEN HERALDS. 
53. TEN HERALDS. 
54. TEN HERALDS. 


B. 116. S. 118. 
B. 117. S. 119. 
B. 118. S. 120. 



55. THE LEADER OF THE " WERDIGEN KNECHT " FOLLOWED BY 
TEN MEN WITH FIRE-ARMS. B. 119. S. 126. 

Nos. 50 and 52 were cut by Jan Taberith, no. 51 by Jan de Bom, no. 53 by Jacob 
Rupp, no. 54 by Glaus Seman, and no. 126 by Wilhelm Liefrinck. 

Impressions varying in quality ; no. 49 being of the 1526 edition (watermark, 
eagle with sickle), nos. 50, 51, 53 and 55 of the 1777 edition, while nos. 52 and 54 
belong to that of 1796. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

The subjects mentioned above form the whole of Beck's contribution to the 
Triumph. His work can be identified by its resemblance to the signed cuts in the 
Weisskunig and to the Austrian Saints. 

[56-142.] 

SAINTS CONNECTED WITH THE HOUSE OF HABSBURG. B. vii, 240, 82. 

Literature : 

S. Laschitzer, " Die Heiligen aus der ' Sipp-, Mag-und Schwager- 
schaft ' des Kaisers Maximilian I.," in the Vienna Jahrbuch, iv, 
70, v. 117. This exhaustive treatise supersedes the scanty and 
inaccurate accounts contributed by earlier writers. A brief 
summary of its contents is given here with references to the pages. 

The researches connected with the genealogy, history and legends of the saints 
connected with the House of Habsburg were carried out by Jacob Mennel (b. c. 1470, 
d. bef. 6 Mar., 1526 ; biography, iv, 79-88, v, 220), and not, as was formerly supposed, 
by Sebastian Brant. The literary work on which the series of woodcuts is based was 
not originally designed for separate publication, but to form a part of the " Fiirstliche 
Chronik " or " Geburtspiegel," a general account of Maximilian's ancestry. The 
projected publication was abandoned on the death of Maximilian, but Mennel 
published on his own account an extract relating to the saints under the title, " Seel 
vnnd heiligen buch keiser Maximilians altfordern " (J. Worlin, Freiburg, 1522; 4to., 
with portrait of Maximilian and Mennel's arms). Of three MSS. extant in the 
Hofbibliothek at Vienna (iv, 71-75), the second (Cod. 3077*, 3077**), dated Freiburg 
i.B., 9 Aug., 1514, is that most closely connected with the illustrations. It contains 
22 pedigrees and 123 legends, most of which are headed by small miniatures of more 
iconographical than artistic importance. The first MS. is merely a draft preparatory 
to the second, while the third (finished 5 Jan., 1518) contains the same 123 legends, 
arranged on a different principle, viz., in the order of the saints' days according to 
the calendar, instead of an order based on the relationship set forth in the pedigrees. 
After the completion of the second MS. in 1514 it appears that Stabius and Pfinzing 
were consulted with reference to changes desired by the Emperor (iv, 78), and it is 
probable that they, and not Mennel himself, supervised the illustrations (v, 172), 
which had reached an advanced stage before the completion of the third and final 
MS. by Mennel. 

The preliminary studies for the illustrations to the Austrian Saints are preserved 
in greater abundance than those for any other of the woodcut works of the Emperor 
Maximilian. There are three sets of pen and ink sketches (A., Hofbibl. Cod. 2857, 
B., Ambraser Sammlung, no. 79a, C., Hofbibl. Cimel. Suppl. 3104, all minutely 
described by Laschitzer, v, 119-128), in all of which each saint is represented as if 
painted on an upright rectangular panel, resting on a socle, with a square compart- 
ment in the middle for the arms. The artists in each case are different, anonymous, 
and so far independent of one another that Laschitzer believes them to have 
reproduced, each in his own way, a common original in the shape of the first, rough 

K 2 



132 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

sketches of the compositions, now lost. There is also a set of miniatures, imperfectly 
preserved, in the Benedictine abbey of St. Paul in Carinthia (v, 134-145), consisting, 
in its present state, of 48 pictures, in each of which two saints stand side by side. 
The arrangement of panel and socle is the same as in the sketches, with two coats of 
arms instead of one, in square compartments. The miniatures were presumably 
prepared later than the sketches, and submitted for the Emperor's approval, as a 
more finished form of the work, before it advanced to its final stage, the preparation 
of the wood blocks. 

The miniatures stand much nearer to the sketches than to the woodcuts, which 
are far superior to both in artistic merit. None of these preliminary studies are by 
the designer of the woodcuts, nor did they influence him to any marked extent in 
his composition. The most notable difference, in all three cases, is to be found in 
the backgrounds. 

The woodcuts themselves are 123 in number ; 121 blocks are preserved at Vienna, 1 
three of which are so badly injured that they were omitted from the edition of 1799, 
while two more subjects exist in old proofs, though the blocks are lost. A large 
number of the blocks, like those of* the Weisskunig, bear the names of the cutters 
and the dates on which they presented the work when finished. These dates range 
from 3 Nov. 1516 to 7 Sept. 1518 (v, 148-158). The woodcutters are the group who 
worked at Augsburg in the Emperor's service under the direction of Jost de Negker. 

There is no recorded attribution of the woodcuts to any artist earlier than 1799, 
when Bartsch published the first modern edition. Indeed, no early allusion whatever , 
to the series has been discovered, except in an undated letter of Glareanus to 
Charles V, quoted by Laschitzer, iv, 76. 

In spite of Muthcr's attempt to attribute definite portions of the designs to 
Burgkmair, Schiiufelein and Springiuklee, there can no longer be the least doubt 
that Bartsch was right in attributing the whole to a single artist, though it is now 
ascertained by comparison with his signed works that that artist is Beck, not 
Burgkmair (v, 159-171). The Austrian Saints are Beck's most original and impor- 
tant work. 

There have been four editions of the whole or a part of the woodcuts, two of 
which appeared in the XVI century, while two are modern (v, 173-218, 222.) It is 
evident that, for some reason, 89 of the blocks became separated at an early date 
from the rest ; the first two editions contain only that number of woodcuts, while 
the only known old impressions of the minority have a different watermark 
(v, 17G, 178, 222). 

1. Proofs on separate sheets of 89 woodcuts, having the name of the saint in 
Latin printed with movable Gothic type at the foot of every woodcut but one. No 
other text, number, or signature. Place and date of printing unknown, but the 
exceptional inscription under St. Sebald, "Sancte- Sebalde Ora Pro Nobis," 
points to Nuremberg. Five different watermarks, viz., three types of high crown, a 
low crown, and a combination of a human face with a triple prominence surmounted 
by a stem and five-pointed star. 

The only complete set known is in the abbey of St. Paul in Carinthia. That in 
the British Museum, described below, contains 87 subjects, lacking Ladislaus 
(no. 8, St. P.) and St. Sebald (no. 81, St. P.). Laschitzer (v, 176) describes loose 
impressions of this edition in the Liechtenstein collection (11), the Albertina (3), 
Dresden (2), and Nuremberg (1). Though both the St. Paul and London sets are 
bound, their order differs so much that it seems unlikely that this edition appeared 
originally in book form. 

2. Edition printed on one side of the leaf, with German text (1-8 11.) above the 
woodcuts and signatures below, issued in book form at some date between 1522 and 
1551.* 124 leaves, A-X 4 in sixes, without title-page; 89 leaves contain woodcuts, 

1 Laschitzer, v, 156, gives the number by an oversight as 119, and reckons the 
existing woodcuts accordingly as 121. The three saints, Nothburga, Karolomannus, 
and Drogo, represented only in the sketches, would then bring up the number, 
according to him, to 124, but really to 126. The highest number contemplated in 
the preliminary studies is 124, in Codex A, which has St. Otto in addition to 
Mennel's original 123. From notes in Codex A it appears that SS. Nothburga and 
Karolomannus, at least, were actually cut. 

2 Not earlier than 1522, for the text is reprinted (in a different order) from 
Mennel's " Seel-und Heiligenbuch," printed in that year. Not later than 1551, for 
one of the Vienna copies has a MS. title bearing that date (v, 215). 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Beck. 133 

the remaining 34 have the text only with a space left blank for the missing illustra- 
tion. Watermark, an escutcheon with a bend between two six-pointed stars. 

There are two varieties of this edition, differing only in the type and completeness 
of the signatures. Of the first variety one perfect and one imperfect copy are 
known, both in the Hofbibliothek ; of the second variety the Hofbibliothek has a 
perfect and an imperfect copy, the Albertina an imperfect, and the Berlin Cabinet a 
perfect copy. A further perfect copy, in the possession of L. Rosenthal (1887), has 
34 additional woodcuts (27 old and 7 late impressions) pasted on the blank leaves 
(v, 222), while yet another, having 6 additional woodcuts inserted, 1 is in the library 
of Mr. C. Fairfax Murray (described in Quaritch's Catalogue 209, Oct. 1901). Forty- 
six leaves of this edition, cut down, are in the collection of K. Frederick Augustus II. 
at Dresden, and four similar leaves in this collection. 

3. Bartsch's edition, Vienna, 1799, with the title " Images de Saints et de 
Saintes issus de la Famille de 1'Empereur Maximilien I. En une Suite de cent dix 
neuf planches gravees en bois par differens graveurs d'apres les dessins de Hans 
Burgmaier." 

118 woodcuts, and one of St. George, by Springinklee, which has nothing to do 
with the series. 

4. Laschitzer's edition, Vienna Jahrbuch iv, 1886 (nos. 1-100), and v, 1887 
(101-120). 

118 subjects in this edition are printed from the blocks themselves, two are 
reproduced from old proofs. Impressions from the three damaged blocks are placed 
in the text (v, 181, 189, 219) in order not to mar the uniformity of the good 
impressions. 

EABLY PROOFS, BOUND : FIRST EDITION. 

These are of necessity described in the order in which they are bound, though 
that order does not correspond to any of the published editions, or even to that of 
the other set of proofs with Latin titles at the Abbey of St. Paul. The volume has 
been rebound since it entered the Museum, but the woodcuts are kept in their 
original order, which appears to be more systematic than that of the similar set 
in Austria (v, 174). The series opens with kings, emperors and princes (1-25) ; 
then follow bishops (26-45), priests, hermits and pilgrims (46-59) ; all the women 
form a series apart (60-86), and the last subject of all, as in the other set, is the 
unnamed boy-saint, Denthelinus (87). This arrangement follows an absolutely 
different principle from that of the second edition, where, as in the sketch-books 
and miniatures, the saints are grouped by families according to the degrees of their 
relationship to Maximilian. In both the modern editions the saints are arranged 
alphabetically, Bartsch adopting the French and Laschitzer the Latin form of their 
names. In the following list the names are given exactly as printed in the first 
edition. They are followed by the numbers of the St. Paul set (St. P.), the second 
edition (II), the third edited by Bartsch (B.), and the fourth edited by Laschitzer 
(L.). The correct Latin version of the name adopted by Laschitzer is given when 
the spelling of the first edition is corrupt ; divergent names given by B. are also 
mentioned. For the discussion of iconographical details the student is referred to 
Laschitzer's essay (v, 179-215), where the full German text of the second edition is 
reprinted with a commentary. 

56 (1). SANCTUS . CLODOUEUS. St. P. 4. II, 1. B., 20. L., 18. 

67 (2). SANCTUS . MAUBICIUS. Si. P. 9. II, 64. B., 73. L., 70. 

58 (3). KAROLUS . MAGNUS. St. P. 1. II, 50. B., 18. L. 57. 

59 (4). SANCTUS . RULANDUS. St. P. 2. 11,52. B.,93. L., 89 (Rolandus). 

60 (5). SANCTUS . HEINRICUS. St. P. 6. II, 61. B., 53. L. 47. 

1 Not 7 (Q.), for one of them, St. Sigibertus, inserted under the name of 
Fridolinus, has the watermark which proves it to belong to this edition. 



134 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

61 (6). SANCTUS . OSW ALDUS. St. P. 14. II, 112. B., 79. L., 74. 

62 (7). SANCTUS . LEOPOLDUS. St. P. 10. II, 83. B., 68. L., 65. 

63 (8). SANCTUS . EUDOLFUS. St. P. 3. II, 79. B., 92. L. 91. 

64 (9). SANCTUS . LUCIUS. St. P. 19. II, 111. B., 28 (Edmond). L., 24 

(Eadmundus II). 

65 (10). SANCTUS . RUPERTUS. St. P. 12. 11,114. B.,91. L.,88 (Robertas). 

66 (11). SANCTUS . GUNTRAMUS. St. P. 22. II, 77. B., 47. L., 45. 

67 (12). SANCTUS . LUCZ. St. P. 5. II, 97. B., 71. L., 66 (Lucius). 

68 (13). SANCTUS . RADMUNDUS. St. P. 15. II, 110. B., 29 (Edmond I). 

L., 23 (Eadmundus I). 

69 (14). SANCTUS . SIGBERCHUS. St. P. 23. II, 66. B., 100. L., 96 (Sigi- 

bertus). * 

70 (15). SANCTUS . STEPHANUS. St. P. 7. II, 89. B., 37. L., 101. 

71 (16). SANCTUS . EDWARDUS. St. P. 18. 11,108. B.,31. L., 28 (Eduardus 

II). 

72 (17). SANCTUS . EMERICUS. St. P. 20. II, 90. B., 33. L., 30. 

73 (18). SANCTUS . SIGISMUNDUS. St. P. 24. II, 63. B., 101. L., 97. 

74 (19). SANCTUS . RUMOLDUS. St. P. 16. II, 95. B., 95. L., 92. 

75 (20). SANCTUS . EDWARDUS. St. P. 11. 11,107. B., 30. L., 27 (Eduardus 

76(21). SANCTUS . ADELBRECHTUS. St. P. 17. II, 105. B.,36 (Ethelbert). 

L., 1 (Adalbertus). 

77 (22). SANCTUS . HERMEGILDUS. St. P. 13. II, 115. B., 54. L., 48 

(flerminigildus) . 

78 (23). SANCTUS . VENANCUIS. St. P. 21. II, 19. B., 110. L., 108 

(Venautius). 

79 (24). SANCTUS . PEIIUUS. St. P. 25. II, 35. B., 81. L., 79 (Pippinus). 

80(25). SANCTUS . REINBERCHUS. St. P. 32. H, 28. B., 44 (Germain). L., 

83 (Reimbertus). 

81 (26). SANCTUS . BOLFGANGNUS. St. P. 37. II, 121. B., 118. L., 119 

(Wolfgangus). 

82 (27). SANCTUS . LANDRICUS. 3t. P. 39. II, 10. B., 65. L., 62. 

83 (28). SANCTUS . HUGO. St. P. 35. II, 54. B., 58. L., 52. 

84 (29). SANCTUS . ARNOLPHUS. St. P. 30. II, 13. B., 11. L., 10. 
86 (30). SANCTUS . LUDWICUS. St. P. 46. II, 91. B., 69. L., 67. 

86(31). SANCTUS . BILLIBALDUS. St. P. 36. 11,101. B., 51. L.,118 (Willi- 

baldus) . 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Seek. 135 

87 (32). SANCTUS . GORRICUS. St. P. 45. II, 14. B., 46 (Go6ry. L., 40 

. (Goericus) 

88 (33). SANCTUS . SIMPRECHTUS. St. P. 42. II, 51. B., 103. L., 100 

(Simpertus). 

80 (34). SANCTUS . GEBHARDUS. St. P. 29. II, 84. B., 41. L., 38. 
90 (35). SANCTUS . MODERICUS. St. P. 28. II, 4. B., 75. L., 71. 

81 (36). SANCTUS . MODOALDUS. St. P. 27. II, 40. B., 74. L., 72. 

82(37). SANCTUS . BONOSBERCHUS. St. P. 43. 11,23. B. 3(Adelbert). L., 

31 (Emesbertus). 

83 (38). SANGTUS . LEO PAPA. St. P. 26. II, 118. B., 66. L., 63 (Leo IX). 

84 (39). SANCTUS . VDALRICUS. St. P. 47. II, 120. B., 109. L., 106. 
95 (40). SANCTUS . RUPERTUS. St. P. 33. II, 73. B., 96. L., 93. 

86 (41). SANCTUS . HUPERTUS. St. P. 40. II, 60. B., 56. L., 50. 

87 (42). SANCTUS . CUNRADUS. St. P. 34. 11,58. B., 58. L.,58 (Konradus). 

88 (43). SANCTUS . BONEFACIUS. St. P. 31. II, 104. B., 16. L., 15. 
88(44). SANCTUS . AGNEBERTUS. St. P. 44. 11,36. B., 10 (Ansbert). L., 4. 

100 (45). SANCTUS . REMIGIUS. St. P. 38. II, 47. B., 87. L., 85. 

101 (46). SANCTUS . SILVINUS. St. P. 41. II, 44. B., 102. L. 99. 

102 (47). SANCTUS . FERRECLUS. St. P. 48. II, 3. B., 38. L., 34 (FerreoluB). 

103 (48). SANCTUS . DOOTHARIUS. St. P. 56. II, 16. B., 105. L., 103 

(Theodardus). 

104 (49). SANCTUS . DRUTPERTUS. St. P. 86. II, 74. B., 107. L., 105 

(Trudbertus). 

105 (50). SANCTUS . VEROMUS. St. P. 85. II, 56. B., 112. L., 110 (Veronus). 

106 (51). SANCTUS . RICHARDUS. St. P. 87. II, 100. B., 89. L., 87. 

107 (52). SANCTUS . BENDELMUS. St. P. 82. II, 96. B., 116. L., 116 

(Wendelinus). 

108 (53). SANCTUS . ALARDUS. St. P. 49. II, 49. B., 2. L., 2. 

108 (54). SANCTUS . LEONHATUS. St. P. 50. II, 2. B., 67. L., 64 

(Leonardus). 

110 (55). SANCTUS . JODOCUS. St. P. 84. II, 99. B., 61. L., 56. 

111 (56). SANCTUS . BILHELMUS. St. P. 76. II, 78. B., 50. L., 44 

(Guilhelmus). 



136 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



112 (57). SANOTUS . SUGBALDUS. St. P. 83. II, 119. B., 57. L., 51 

(Hugbaldus). 

113 (58). SANCTUS . RAMABICUS. St. P. 77. II, 85. B., 94. L., 90 

(Romaricus). 

114 (59). SANCTUS . COLOMANUS. St. P. 88. II, 94. B., 21. L., 19. 

115 (60). SANCTA . GERDRUDIS. St. P. 60. II, 34. B., 45. L., 39. 

116 (61). SANCTA . VERONA. St. P. 53. II, 57. B., 113. L., 109. 

117 (62). SANCTA . BALPURGIS. St. P. 70. II, 103. B., 108. L., 113 

(Walpurgis). 

118 (63). SANCTA . ODA. St. P. 63. II, 6. B., 76. L., 73. 

119 (64). SANCTA . BILDRUDIS. St. P. 55. II, 81. B., 117. L., 117 

(Wildrudis). 

120 (65). SANCTA . BATHILDIS. St. P. 73. II, 69. B., 13. L., 12 (Bathilda). 

121 (66). SANCTA . BRIGITTA. St. P. 68. II, 93. B., 17. L., 16. 

122 (67). SANOTA . AMELBERGA. St. P. 71. II, 18. B., 9. L., 9 (Amal- 

berga HI). 

123 (68). SANCTA . ERMENDRUDIS. St. P. 65. II, 75. B., 34. L., 32 

(Erentrudis.) 

124 (69). SANCTA . MADELBERTHA. St. P. 72. II, 12. B., 72. L., 69. 

125 (70). SANCTA . REGA. St. P. 61. II, 33. B., 15. L., 14 (Bega). 

126 (71). SANCTA . ITA. St. P. 78. II, 123. B., 59. L., 53. 

127 (72). SANOTA . PLECTRUDIS. St. P. 79. II, 42. B., 83. L. 80. 

128 (73). SANCTA . ADELDRUDIS. St. P. 75. II, 9. B., . L., 5. 

129 (74). SANCTA . GUDULA. St. P. 66. H, 24. B., 49. L., 42. 

130 (75). SANCTA . IRMNIA. St. P. 80. II, 67. B., 62. L., 55 (Irmina). 

131 (76). SANCTA . EDELDRUDIS. St. P. 59. II, 109. B., 12 (Audry). L., 

26 (Ediltrudis). 

132 (77). SANCTA . OTILLIA. St. P. 74. II, 70. B., 77. L., 76. 

133 (78). SANCTA . KUNGUNDIS. St. P. 58. H, 62. B., 23. L., 59. 

134 (79). SANCTA . BALDEDRUDIS. St. P. 67. II, 8. B., . L., 112 

(Waldetrudis). 

135 (80). SANCTA . DODA. St. P. 62. II, 30. B., 26. L., 22. 
138 (81). SANCTA . ELISABET. St. P. 64. H, 86. B., 32. L. 29. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Beck. 137 

137 (82). SANCTA . VERTELA. St. P. 69. II, 21. B., 5 (Agnes). L., 111. 

138 (83). SANCTA . BEMELDIS. St. P. 52. II, 25. B., 86. L., 84 (Reineldis). 

139 (84). SANCTA . TAESICIA. St. P. 57. II, 5. B., 104. L., 102 (Tharsitia). 

140 (85). SANCTA . ERMOLINDIS. St. P. 54. II, 27. B., 35. L., 33. 

141 (86). SANCTA . VBSULA . St. P. 51. II, 98. B., 114. L., 107. 

142 (87). . St. P. 89. 11,11. B.,25. L.,21 (Denthelinus). 

Nagl. Mon. iii, 242, 11. 

Nos. 11, 17, 27, 40, 47, 49, 54, 62, 78, in the volume, were cut by H. Franck ; nos. 
18, 22 (?), 32, 43, 51-53, 56, 82 by C. Liefrinck ; nos. 19, 59, 74 by W. Liefrinck ; nos. 
4, 5, 9, 29, 33, 42 (?), 44, 60, 65, 67, 77, 86, 87 by A. Lindt ; nos. 7, 10, 35, 50, 64, 66 
by J. de Negker; nos. 3, 8 (?), 13, 14, 21, 24, 26, 31, 37, 39, 41 (?), 55, 58, 63, 68, 80, 
83 by W. Resch ; nos. 2, 6 (?), 12, 15, 16, 20, 23, 25, 30, 38, 45, 48, 57, 61, 69-72, 75 (?), 
76, 84, 85 by C. Seman ; nos. 1 (?), 28, 34, 36, 46, 81 by J. Taberith ; the cutter of 
nos. 73 and 79 is unknown. 

[c. 235 x 210.] Good impressions throughout, with wide margins [size of leaf, 
397 x 297], in modern binding with one blank leaf of old paper (watermarks different 
from those of the series) at either end. Watermarks as described by Laschitzer ; 
fourteen leaves have the composite mark, one (no. 73) the low crown, all the rest one 
of three forms of the high crown. 

Purchased from Mr. Ellis, 1865. 

LOOSE IMPRESSIONS : SECOND EDITION. 

56a. CLOVIS. II, 1. B., 20. L., 18. 

82a. ST. LANDRICUS. II, 10. B., 65. L., 62. 

89a. ST. GEBHARDUS. II, 84. B., 41. L., 38. 

134a, ST. WALDETRUDIS. II, 81. B., . L., 112. 

[c. 235 x 210.] Good impressions but discoloured, without margin. Water- 
mark, that found in all copies of the second edition, an escutcheon with a bend 
between two six-pointed stars. 

Nos. 56a, 89a, and 134a purchased from Mr. Durrell, 1848, no. 82a from Messrs. 
Colnaghi, 1852. No. 134a is from one of the blocks lost before 1799, and therefore 
omitted from Bartsch's edition. 

The arms of the heathen Merovingian kings were or, three toads sable ; when 
Clovis became Christian his arms were changed to azure, three lilies or. In the 
woodcut an angel is bringing him a standard with the new arms, which appear again 
on a shield having, like most of the shields throughout the series, an inescutcheon 
with the Habsburg lion. St. Landry, Bishop of Metz, has a razor lying on a book, 
because he wished as a child to receive the tonsure. 

143. ANGEL HOLDING THE INSIGNIA OP THE CARDINAL AND 
EMPEROR. From Mennel, " De inclito actu ecclesiastic," 1518. 

[116 x 95.] The first leaf of the book (see p. 125, no. 4), complete. Above the 
woodcut, the title ; on the back, the dedication " Ad Reuerendissimum in christo 

patrem et Illustrem Principem | Fabricium de Carreto Jacobi Manlij 

Friburgensis Brisgaudij | doctoris divi Maximilian! Cesaris Augusti Hystoriographi. 
| et Consiliarij &c., Hysteria. 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1849. 



138 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

DOUBTFUL WOODCUTS. 

144. THE ARMS OF MENNEL, from the same book as no. 148. 

[116 x 94.] The last leaf, complete ; the verso blank. Provenance as above. 

145. THE BOOK-PLATE OF ERASMUS STRENBERGER. 

Arms, an eagle standing on a triple mount ; crest, the same eagle. To 
1. of the crest a naked man with bellows, standing on a dragon, surrounded 
by a nimbus. The whole framed within an arch. 

[252 x 179.] Worm-eaten on the r. side. On the lower margin ERASMUS 
STRENBERGER I CANONICVS TRIDENTINVS. 

In the Franks collection of Ex-libris, bequeathed 1897. 

See Ex-Libris-Zeitschrift, 1895, v. 8, where the book-plate is reproduced and 
described as that of Stabius by Diirer. Doepler (ibid. p. 33) and myself in the first 
volume of this catalogue (p. 368) rejected this attribution, but it was only later that 
I became aware that Strenberger, not Stabius, was the owner of the book-plate (Ex- 
Libris-Zeitschrift, 1904, xiv, 115). The impressions at Berlin and Munich lack the 
margin, on which is printed in the Franks copy a Latin, and in Mr. Rosenheim's copy 
a German, inscription giving the owner's name. 

The attribution to Beck, which I think probable, was suggested to me by Dr. 
Giehlow. The form of the nimbus round the title device is one which Beck con- 
stantly employs. The small ovals among the feathers on the wings are also character- 
istic. For the architecture of the columns compare the following woodcuts of 
saints (Laschitzer's numbers) : 4, 5, 31 (base), 62 (capital and shaft), 64 (capital), 66 
(fluted shaft). There is wide difference of date between this book-plate and Beck's 
certain woodcuts, unless the former should be older than the inscription found on its 
margin, for Strenberger (d. 1558, aged 75) became a canon of Trent in 1529, eleven 
years after the date of the Austrian Saints. In 1518, however, he was already a 
person of some importance, for he succeeded Jacobus de Bannissis in that year as 
archpriest of Roveredo ; his book-plate may have been designed before his appoint- 
ment to a canonry of Trent. The book-plate with the head of a wind (P. iii, 282, 
127) may well be, as Doepler says, by the same artist (Ex-Libris-Zeitschrift, v, 34, 
with reproduction, and xiv, 116). 



139 



V. HANS WEIDITZ. 

Hans Weiditz, draughtsman on wood, biography unknown : 
member of a Strassburg family, but worked at Augsburg from 1518 
(1516 ?)to 1522 or 1523, afterwards at Strassburg, where he produced 
new woodcuts up to 1536. Other members of the Weiditz or Widitz 
family are known by name as artists, partly at Augsburg, partly at 
Strassburg. Most of the early illustrations of Hans "Weiditz were 
published by Grimm and Wirsung, whose stock of blocks was 
acquired about 1523 by Steiner, from whom it passed about 1550 to 
Egenolff, of Frankfort. He was also employed by Miller, S. Otmar, 
and the younger Schonsperger, and a few of his woodcuts appeared at 
Nuremberg and Venice. 

Authorities : 

Brunfels, " Herbarum Icones." Verses by Sapidus prefixed to the 

Latin edition, 1530, mention Joannes Guidictius, and Brunfels' 

own preface to the German edition, 1532, names Hans Weyditz, 

of Strassburg, as the artist of the herbal. 
Fischart, " Accuratae effigies Pontificum maximorum," Strassburg, 

1573, mentions Weiditz, with Vogtherr and Baldung, among 

Strassburg artists. 
Steinmeyer, " Newe Kiinstliche Figuren," Frankfort 1620, preface 

p. 1, first mentions the illustrator of Petrarch as a definite 

artist, whose name was then forgotten. 
Nagler, Kiinstlerlexikon, xxi, 364. 
Seidlitz, " Der Illustrator des Petrarca (Pseudo-Burgkmair)," Berlin 

Jahrbuch xii, 158. 
Rottinger, " Hans "Weiditz der Petrarkameister," 1904. (Reviews : 

Dornhoffer, Kunstgeschichtliche Anzeigen, 1904, 51 ; Dodgson, 

Mitt. d. Ges. f. v&rvielf. Kunst, 1905, 64 ; Kaemmerer, Mitt. 

d. Osterr. Vereinsf. BibliotheJcswesen, 1905, 41.) 

A monograph on Hans Weiditz by Campbell Dodgson, containing a 
catalogue of his whole work, is in course of preparation and will be issued 
by the Bibliographical Society. 

None of the Augsburg work of Weiditz is described under his 
name in the literature on woodcuts prior to 1904. All writers from 
Sandrart to Muther attributed it to Burgkmair, and Seidlitz (1891) 
was the first to declare this identification impossible. The artist was 
only partially redeemed from the oblivion into which he had fallen 
for so long when he became known provisionally as the Petrarch 
Master, Master of the " Trostspiegel," or Pseudo-Burgkmair. This 



140 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

oblivion was chiefly due to the fact that only three of his very 
numerous woodcuts bear a signature : the martyrdom of St. Laurence 
in " Sanctorum Icones " (1551), signed H. W., one of the cuts in 
Cicero's " Officia," signed H. W. 1 and H b b 2 , and the portrait of 
Schwartzenberg, signed with a monogram composed of I and B. 3 The 
most probable explanation of the last two signatures is that in South 
Germany b and w were frequently interchanged, and the letters stand 
for Hans or Johannes Beiditz. Dr. Rottinger was the first to give 
what is undoubtedly the true explanation of the first signature, and 
to recognise that just when fresh illustrations by this master cease to 
appear at Augsburg, woodcuts by the same hand begin to be published 
at Strassburg, connected by an unbroken chain of evidence with the 
illustrations to Brunfels' Herbal, which are known to be the work of 
Weiditz. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY WEIDITZ. 

A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

I. AUGSBURG PERIOD. 

1. [HUTTEN.] OYTI2. NEMO. J. Miller, Augsburg (1518); 4to. 
(Booking xv., 1 ; Muther 1024 ; Rott. 7). 

Purchased from Mr. Breslauer, 1905. 

On title-page a Roman general ; over his head a tablet containing the xylographic 
title ; behind him, Polyphemus hurling a rock at the ship of Ulysses. R. a man 
and woman throwing vessels on a heap of musical instruments, cards, backgammon 
board, etc. ; other implements 1. [160 x 111]. 

la. [HUTTEN.] OYTI2. NEMO. n. p. d. (M. Schurer, Strassburg, 
f. 151D-20) 4to. (Booking xv., 2; Pr. 10258; mentioned by Rott. 
under no. 7). 

Purchased from Mr. Breslauer, 1905. 

On title-page inferior but rather deceptive copy of the original cut. When the 
original is not available for comparison, the copy may most readily be detected by 
the serifs of the letter Y in the title, which turn inwards in the copy, outwards 
in the original [161 x 111]. 

2. [HUTTEN.] Hoc in volumine haec continentur. | VLR. DE HVT | 
TEN EQ. | Ad Csesareni Maximil. vt bellum in Venetos | cceptum prose- 
quatur. Exhortatorium. | etc. J. Miller, Augsburg, 2 Jan., 1519 ; 4to. 
(Muther 871 ; Pr. 10845 A ; Rott. 12). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

All the cuts are by Weiditz. The title-border (Pr.'s Miller E.) is dated M.D.XVIII 
[178 x 140]. In the text are twelve illustrations [91 x 102-104] alluding to Maxi- 
milian's quarrel with the Republic of Venice. 

1 Nagl. Mon. iii, 1707. * Ibid, iii, 723. Ibid, i, 1888. 






perial eat. 



v o> id. 
u of St. Mark. 

!ig. HI, 123-380. 
(presentation of Venice proves* that 

! 



' T8lf1HO 

v Fran jcisc-i Re^is Gallurnm 
.in t- j oonBuentia j miss* [ Dw 

' 

Prose: 

satyrs [177 x 133]. Seidl. 4; 

' 






PLATE X 

HANS WEIDITZ 
CHRIST BEFORE HEROD 







Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 141 



(1) A 3 v. Four Venetian envoys on their knees before Maximilian. Fighting 
in the background. 

(2) E 2 v. The imperial eagle, with the arms of Austria on its breast, surrounded 
by men of rank. 

(3) F 3. The eagle, poised over the Venetian territory, thrusts back a too 
ambitious frog (emblem of Venice) into the lagoon. 

(4) G 2. A hand-to-hand fight. The standards display the imperial eagle and 
the lion of St. Mark respectively. 

(5) H 1 v. Fortune and her wheel ; the papal tiara is at the summit, the French 
cock descends, St. Mark's lion is at the bottom, and the eagle rises. 

(6) I 1 v. The eagle, with Hutten himself beside it, contemplating an escutcheon 
bearing quarterly the arms of France and Milan. 

(7) I 4 v. The eagle, supported by Swiss landsknechts (with the arms of Uri and 
Berne) vanquishing the cock of France. Victory of Novara, 6 June, 1513 (Becking). 

(8) L 1. The eagle confronting the two allies, lion and cock. 

(9) M 1 v. Julius II stirring up strife throughout the Christian world. 

10) N 2 v. The Venetians fishing. 

11) 1. The crown snatched away from the lion of St. Mark. 

12) P. 3. Italy addressing a letter to the Emperor. 

There are modern copies of these cuts in Hutteni Opera, ed. Booking, iii, 123-330. 
Rottinger justly remarks that the conventional representation of Venice proves that 
Weiditz had not visited Italy. 

3. [GREGORY.] Divi Gre | gorii Nazanzeni Erudi- | ti aliquot, et 
mirae | frugis sermones. Grimm and "Wirsung, Augsburg, 22 May, 1519 ; 
4to (Pr. 10901). 

From the Pirkheimer (afterwards Boyal Society) library. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Title-border (Pr.'s G. & W. A), with sea-horses (repr. Butsch i, 28) ; on the last 
page the arms of Grimm and Wirsung [124 x 126], without border line (Rott. 17 c). 
Ornamental initials G P Q B, v, without border. 

4. [FRANCIS I.] Ora- | tio oratory Fran | cisci Regis Gallorum 
Prin | cipibus Electoribus | Francofordiarn e | confluentia | missa [ Die 
xviii. Mens. Junij. | Anno M. D. xix. Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 
28 June, 1519 ; 4to. (Pr. 10905). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Title-border (Pr.'s G. & W.-E) with chained satyrs [177 x 133]. Seidl. 4; 
Rott. 17 (3) ; P. iii, 217, 302. 

5. [HUTTEN.] Ulrichi Hutteni Equ. Super interfectione propinqui 
sui loannis Hutteni Equ. Deploratio, etc. Ex arce Steckelbergk (J. 
Schoffer, Mentz, Sept. 1519) ; 8vo. (Panzer, viii, 299, 1 ; Booking, xxiv, 
1 ; Pr. 9866 ; Rott. 6). Imperfect, wanting sig. c. 4, with the colophon. 

Purchased from Mr. Voynich, 1905. 

D 6 v. The murder of Johann von Hutten by Duke Ulrich of Wurtemberg 
[122 x 113], first used in Hutten's " Phalarismus," March, 1517. The portrait of 
Ulrich von Hutten, X 2 v,-is not by Weiditz. 

6. [JESUS CHRIST.] Deuotissime Meditati | ones de vita : benefici | 
is : et passioe salva- | toris Jesu chfi | cu gratiaru | actione. Grimm 
and Wirsung, Augsburg, 5 April, 1520 ; 8vo. (Muther 1025 ; Seidl. 11 ; 
Rott. 25). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Title-border, white ornament on black ground, dated M.D.XX [132 X 90]. 
Cuts in text [86 x 49-50, where no other dimensions are given] : (1) A 3 v. 
Creation of Eve. (2) A 5. Annunciation [68 x 75 ; inol. narrow orn. border 



142 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

(string of beads), 77 X 84]. (3) A 6. Nativity. (4) A 8 v. Circumcision [68 x 75; 
incl. narrow orn. border, 77 x 84]. (5) B 1 v. Monogram I H S [71 x 72 ; incl. 
orn. border, 81 x 83]. (6) B 2 v. Adoration of the Magi [68 x 74 ; incl. orn. 
border, 76 x 83]. (7) B. 4. Presentation in the Temple [69x74; incl. orn. border, 
77 x 83]. (8) B 5. Plight into Egypt. (9) B 6. Massacre of the Innocents 
[69 x 74 ; incl. orn. border, 77 x 83]. (10) B 7. Christ among the Doctors in the 
Temple. (11) B 8. Baptism of Christ [69x75; incl. orn. border, 77 X 84]. (12) C 1. 
Temptation of Christ. (13) C 2 v. Raising of Lazarus. (14) C 4 v. Entry into 
Jerusalem. (15) C 6. Last Supper. (16) C 7. Christ washing St. Peter's feet. 
(17) D 1. Judas receiving the thirty pieces of silver. (18) D 2. Christ on the 
Mount of Olives. (19) D 3 v. The Betrayal of Christ. (20) D 5 v (repeated E 6). 
Christ before Annas. (21) D 7 (repeated E 1). Christ before Caiaphas. (22) 
E 3 v (repeated F 5). Pilate washing his hands. (23) E 4 v. Christ before Herod. 
(24) E 7 v. Christ scourged. (25) F 1 v. Christ crowned with thorns. (26) F 2 v. 
Christ shown to the people. (27) F 6. Christ bearing the Cross. (28) G 1. Christ 
on the Cross. (29) H 3 v. The title of Christ in Hebrew, Greek and Latin [82 x 81, 
incl. orn. border]. (30) H 5 v. Christ on the Cross addressing Mary and John. 
(31) H 8. Mater Dolorosa (with seven swords). (32) K 4 v. The piercing of Christ's 
body on the Cross. (33) K 6 v. The Lamentation for Christ. (34) L 1 v. The 
Entombment. (35) L 3 v. The five wounds [82 x 81 ; incl. orn. border]. 

Each of the upright subjects (nos. 1, 3, 8, 10, 12-28, 30-34) is enclosed in a passe- 
partout [132 x 90], containing children, birds, animals, insects, plants and fruit. Of 
these frames there are twenty-one varieties. 

7. [CHARLES V.] Romischer vnd Hispanischer Kiiniglicher Maies- 
tat Eiureytten, vfi Kronung, z3 Ach beschehen (Grimm and Wirsung, 
Augsburg, 1520) 4to. (Panzer, D.A. 995d ; Muther 1056 ; Pr. 10925 ; 
Rott. 23). 

Duplicate transferred from the Dept. of Printed Books, 1904. 
On the title-page, Charles V. enthroned and the seven Electors standing [158 x 112]. 
See pp. 151, 156, nos. 21, 22, 64. 

8. [CICERO.] DCS hochberumpten Marci Tul | lii Ciceronis buehlein 
vo dein | Alter, durch herr Johan | Xciibcr, Caplan zu | Schwartzetiberg | 
vsz dC- latein in | Teiitsch ge | bracht. S. Grimm, Augsburg, 1522 ; fol. 
(Muther 877 ; Seidl. 18 ; Rott. 44). 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1849. 

Folio border with trophies of arms (Proctor's G. & W.-F.), first used in July, 1520. 
putsch, i, 29 ; Rott. 21.) Five cuts [138 x 155] in the text (Muther, Verz. 805-809) : 
(1) A 2 v. Scipio, Laelius and Cato conversing. (2) B 2 v. A governor incapacitated 
by old age from transacting business. (3) Civ. An old man watching a wrestling 
match. (4) C 4 v. An old man unable to take part in dancing. (5) E 2. An old 
man sits contemplating an open tomb. Some of the cuts are badly coloured in part. 

9. [TRACHSELUS.] Suplicatio quorundam | apud Heluetios 
Euangelistarii ad R.D. | Hugonem Episcopum Constan | tiensem, etc. 
(Dated "ex Eremo. D. Virginia [sc. Einsiedeln] apud Heluetios, 
M.D.XXII. secunda lulii." S. Grimm ? Augsburg) ; 4to. 

From the Pirkheimer (afterwards Royal Society) library. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Border on title-page composed of four separate blocks [top and bottom each 
14 x 109, sides 122 x 10] ; black arabesque on white ground. Also used in 
fficolampadius, " Vrtail und Meinung, etc.," 1521 ; " Das sechst Capitel S. Johannis 
Euangelisten," 1524; Andreas Bodenstain, "Von manigfeltigkait des ainfeltigen 
ainigen willen Gottes," 1524 (Linz, Krackowizer 49 (41) ) ; and Dengk, " Was geredt 
sey, etc." 1526. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 143 

10. [BOESCHENSTAIN.] Das gebet salomonis | am driten buch der 
kiinig ge- | teuscht . . . durch Johan | B&schestain. (Dedication dated 16 
Feb., 1523). S. Grimm, Augsburg, 1523 ; 8vo. (Muther 1028 ; Seidl. 
20 ; Rott. 33). 

Purchased from Messrs. Leighton, 1903. 

Title-border of four separate blocks, white arabesque on black ground ; in 1. panel 
a satyr, in bottom panel (inverted) musical instruments ; also used, according to 
Rott., in the Psalter, 1523 (Rott. 32). 

A 7 v. Moses receiving the tables of the law [86 X 51]. 

11. [BODENSTE1N.] Am frage ob auch | yemant mSge selig | 
werden on die furbit Ma | rie. | Andreas Carolstat. | Anno. M. D. 
xxiiij. | Wittenberg. (Augsburg, 1524) 4to. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Title-border [149 x 104, opening 87 X 54], white arabesque, including two 
cherubs' heads, on black ground, also used in Luther, " Wider den gaystlichen stand 
(S. Grimm ? Augsburg, 1522 ? W. 2201) ; J. Carolstadt, " Ain Christlicher Sendbrieff 
an die Miltenberger," 1524 (W. 2834) ; Luther, " Sermon An dem xxiii. Sontag nach 
Pfingsten"; " Vnterricht vnnd Antwort auff die siben todtsiind, etc." 1524; Haugk, 
<l Ain Christlich ordenung" (1524); Mandat von aynem Ersamen Radt der stadt 
Basel, gegen der Bischofs Vicari, etc." (1524) ; Melanchthon, " Ain Sermon von dem 
Priesterthumb," 1525; Linck, "Ob die gaystlichen auch schuldig sein, zynsze 
zugeben," 1525. 

12. [CICERO.] Officia M.T.C. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 16 Feb., 
1531 ; fol. (Muther 879 ; Seidl. 13 ; Rott. 43). 

Purchased from Mr. Breslauer, 1905. 

One hundred cuts by Weiditz, in addition to borders and initials. Thirty-three 
of these (3 v, 6, 8, 9, 10, 10 v, 12 v, 14 v, 16 v, 19 v, 21 v, 22, 25, 27 v, 29 v, 33, 34, 35, 
36, 40, 43 v, 44 v, 47, 48, 50 v, two on 51 v, 53, 72, 72 v, 75 v, 80 v, 82 v) belong to the 
Petrarch set, while the remaining sixty-seven (from sixty -four blocks, three of which 
are used twice) were designed for the Cicero itself. One cut (fol. 78) is by Burgkmair ; 
two (50, 71 v) are anonymous. (The cut belonging to Petrarch, i, 17, is actually 
printed on fol. 71 v, but the anonymous cut is pasted over it, as in all copies of the 
first edition.) The cut on fol. 73 v is signed H W and H b b. 

13. [LOBERA DE AVILA.] Ein nutzlich Regiment der gesundt | 
heit, Genant das Vanquete, etc. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 11 May, 1531 ; 
4to. (Muther 1083). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1870. 

Two cuts by Weiditz: (1) Fol. 75, " Aderlassmannchen " (naked man, seated, 
with lines indicating various places for bleeding), first used in the 1530 edition of the 
Spanish text (Rott. 37). (2) Fol. 82 v, Doctor in a sick-room [85 x 109], first used in 
Marsilius Ficinus, De epidimiae morbo, 1518 (Muther 873 ; Proctor 10884 ; Seidl. 2 ; 
Rott. 10. See p. 149, no. 5). 

Also initials E, W, of a large alphabet by Weiditz, with children [47 x 47], and 
many smaller initials. 

14. [JUSTINUS.] . . . Justiui warhafftige Hystorien, die er auss 
Trogo Poinpeio gezogen, etc. Translated by Hier. Boner. H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 1531 ; fol. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Eighteen cuts by Weiditz (excluding repetitions), either c. 140 x 155, or 
c. 98 x 155, belonging to the two sets designed for Cicero's " Officien " and Petrarch's 
" Trostspiegel," published respectively in 1531 and 1532. Also initials W [47 x 47], 
A, B, D, G, i, M,of a smaller alphabet [c. 32x32] with children (G a satyr), and smaller 
letters with white ornament on black. Three tailpieces [21 x 82] and two upright 
panels [100 x 12] with white arabesque on white. The cut on fol. 11 is from 
Meisterlin's chronicle, M. Ramminger, Augsburg, 1522, fol. 11 v. 



144 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part 11. 

15. [PETRARCH.] Franciscus Petrarcha. Von der Artzney bayder 
Gltick, des guteu vnd widerwertigen, etc. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1532 ; 
fol. (Muther 886 ; Seidl. 12 ; Rott. 24). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. Another copy, purchased from Mr. 
Quaritch, 1897. 

Contains 126 woodcuts in the first part, 135 in the second, all by Weiditz. The 
date 1519 occurs i, 118 v, and 1520, ii, 176. The woodcuts, for which Sebastian 
Brant supplied sketches of some kind, were completed in the years 1519-20 for the 
firm of Grimm and Wirsung, but first published by Steiner in 1532 with the 
exception of some cuts used in earlier books (e.g., five in Avila's " Vanquete," 1530, 
thirty-three in Cicero's " Officia," 1531, fifteen in Justin, 1531}. Five different tail- 
pieces [21x82] are used in this book (e.g., i, 7 v, 9, 35 v, 40 v ; h, 58 v). One of these, 
containing musical instruments, was used as part of the title-border of no. 9. Two 
oblong panels [11 x 158 and 25 x 158] are used several times (e.g., ii, 39 v, 58). 
Large initials H, S, V, W [47 x 47] are used. The illustrations were attributed by 
Muther (Verz. 547-804) to Burgkmair. 

16. [PLUTARCH.] Plutarchus Teutsch. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 7 
March, 1534 ; fol. (Muther 928). 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1870. 

Fol. 1. Initial D, bear carrying a basket of apples [46 x 47]. 

Fol. 28 v. Julius Cfflsar, from the Cicero of 1531. 

17. [PAUL!.] Das Buch Schimpff vnnd Ernst genaut. H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 10 April, 1585 ; fol. (Muther 1100, edition of 1534). Im- 
perfect, wanting ff. 69, 70, with two woodcuts. 

Purchased at the Singer sale, 1860. 

Twenty-five cuts, repeated from the Cicero and Petrarch. Fol. 1 v, initial S 
[47x47]. Fol. 55 v, a confession [68x97], is repeated from an early work of Weiditz, 

Plautus, " Zwo Comedien, geteiiwtscht durch Albrecht von Eybe," 1518, sig. 

N 3 v (Rott. 6). Another confession, fol. 58 v [85 x 59], is from " Gilgengart einer 
christlichen Seele," 1520, Big. a 1 v (Rott. 26). The cuts on fol. 62 and 92 are 
from a series of devotional woodcuts (Rott. 27 B, b, d), first printed as a whole in 1551. 

18. [MORE.] Ein glaubwirdige anzay- | gung des tods, Herrn 
Tho- | me Mori, vnnd andrer treffenlicher | manner inn Engelland, ge- | 
schehen ini jar M.D. xxxv. (By P.M., i.e., Philippus Montanus ? H. 
Steiner, Augsburg) 1536 ; 4to. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

On the title-page the Martyrdom of St. James, on the recto of the last leaf (C 4) 
that of St. Matthew, both from the series, Rott. 27. 

19. [VERGILIUS.] Polydorus Vergilius Urbinas. Von den Erfin- 
dern der ding. H. Steiner, Augsburg, July, 1544 ; fol. 

Purchased from Messrs. Willis and Sotheran, 1858. 

Sixty-four cuts (including two or three repetitions) from the Cicero and Petrarch 
series. Nine cuts (fol. 84 v., 107, 123, 139, 142, 166 v.) from the series (Rott. 27) 
first issued as a whole in 1551. On fol. 127 v. are two of the blocks which compose 
the memorial of the death of Maximilian, Rott. 14 (P. iii, 272, 100), and on fol. 85 v 
the Circumcision (a copy, see p. 165) from a series described by Rott. under nos. 28 
and 30. The cuts on fol. 86 v. and 90 belong to the series, Rott. 34. That on fol. 
102 v. belongs neither to the Petrarch or the Cicero series, so far as published, 
though Rott. (p. 87) conjectures that it belongs to the latter. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 145 

20. [BIBLE.] Novi Testament!, lesu Christ! Historia effigiata. Vna 
cum alijs quibusdam Iconibus. Das New Testament, vnd Histori Christi, 
furgebildet. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, March, 1551 ; 8vo. (Rott. 27, 30). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

The following cuts are by Weiditz : (1) a 4 v. The creation of Eve. (2) a 5. 
Moses receiving the tables of the law. (3) a 5 v. The embrace of Joachim and 
Anne at the Golden Gate. (4) a 6. The Nativity of the Virgin. (5) a 6 v. The 
Presentation of the Virgin. (6) a 7 v. The Annunciation. (7) a 8. The Annunciation. 

(8) a 8 v. The birth of St. John Baptist. (9) b 1. The Nativity. (10) b 2. The 
Annunciation to the Shepherds (copy ; the original has " excelsis " in the legend on 
the scroll, the copy " exelsis"). (11) b 3 v. The Circumcision. (12) b5. The Ador- 
ation of the Magi. (13) b 5 v. The Virgin and Child and St. Anne. (14) b 6. The 
Virgin and Child and Angels. (15) b 6 v. The Plight into Egypt. (16) b 7. The 
Return from Egypt (copy ; in the original, much more delicate throughout, the tufts of 
grass are continued to 1. of the donkey's foremost hoof). (17) b 8 v. The Baptism of 
Christ. (18) civ. The Temptation of Christ. (19) c 4. A man praying before a 
crucifix. (20) d 2 v. The beheading of St. John Baptist. (21) e 7 v. The raising of 
Lazarus. (22) g 1. Christ's entry into Jerusalem. (23) g 3 v. Judas bargaining to 
betray Christ. (24) g 4 v. Christ washing Peter's feet. (25) g 5. The Last Supper ; 
the departure of Judas. (26) g 7 v. Christ on the Mount of Olives. (27) g 8. The 
Betrayal of Christ. (28) g 8 v. Christ led before Annas. (29) h 1 v. Christ led away 
from Gethsemane. (30) h 2. Christ before Caiaphas (more correctly Annas). (31) 
h 3 v. Caiaphas rending his robes. (32) h 4. Peter denying Christ. (33) h 6. 
Christ before Herod. (34) h 7. Christ scourged. (35) h 8. Christ mocked. (36) 
i 1. Christ shown to the people. (37) i 2. Pilate washing his hands. (38) i 3. 
Christ bearing the Cross. (39) i 4 v. Christ on the Cross ; Mary Magdalen kisses his 
feet. (40) i 5 v. Christ on the Cross commends his Mother to St. John. (41) 
i 6. Joseph of Arimathea asks Pilate for the body of Christ. (42) i 6 v. The 
piercing of Christ's side. (43) i 7 v. The Lamentation for Christ. (44) k 1 v. The 
Resurrection. (45) k 3. The Entombment. (46) k 3 v. Christ appearing to Mary 
Magdalen. (47) k 7 v. The Trinity. 

Nos. 7, 10 and 16 measure c. 93 x 71 ; nos. 3, 4, 6, 7, 11-13, 17 and 20, 
c. 69 x 74, and the remaining subjects c. 86 x 52. Nos. 1, 6, 9, 11, 12, 15, 17, 18, 
21-28, 31, 33-40, 42, 43, 45 were first used in " Devotissimae Meditationes," 1520 
(no. 6), and the remaining cuts are of about the same date. No. 2 was used in 
" Das gebet Salomonis," 1523 (no. 9) ; no. 7 in Luther's " Betbiichlin," 1523 
(Rott. 28). 

21. [SAINTS.] Sanctorum, et Martyrum Christi Icones qusedarn arti- 
ficiosissimae. Der heiligen, vnd Martirer Gottes kunstliche Bildtnussen. 
C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 1551 ; 8vo. 

Purchased from Mr. Fry, 1871. Another copy (imperfect, lacking sig. F 1) 
presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

The cuts are all by Weiditz with two exceptions (p. 20 and 83). (1) Title-page 
(repeated p. 32), Martyrdom of St. Laurence, signed H. W. (2) A 2. The Trinity. 
(3) A 2 v. The Trinity and Our Lady in glory (copy ; in the original the two lowest 
figures r. are a pope and a cardinal). (4) A 3. The Crucifixion, with Mary, John 
and Mary Magdalen (copy ; the shading is much more regular and mechanical than 
in the original ; the navel of the impenitent thief is omitted). (5) A 3 v. The 
Ascension. (6) A 4. The descent of the Holy Ghost. (7) A 4 v. Christ appearing 
to Mary Magdalen. (8) A 5. The Virgin Mary surrounded by many emblems. 

(9) A 5 v. The Visitation. (10) A 6 r. Mater dolorosa. (11) A 6 v. The Assump- 
tion. (12) A 7. David and Bathsheba (deceptive copy; most easily distinguished 
by the mechanical regularity of the shading on the wall to r. of David). (13) A 7 v. 
The Martyrdom of St. Paul. (14) A 8. St. Matthew. (15) A 8 v. The Martyrdom 
of St. Matthew. (16) B 1. St. Luke. (17) B 1 v. St. John in Patmos. (18) 
B 2. The Crucifixion of St. Peter. (19) B 3. The Crucifixion of St. Andrew. 
(20) B 3 v. The Martyrdom of St. James the Greater. (21) B 4. The Martyrdom 
of St. James the Less. (22) B 4 v. The Crucifixion of St. Philip. (23) B 5. The 
Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew. (24) B 5 v. The Martyrdom of St. Simon. (25) 

L 



146 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

B 6. The Martyrdom. of St. Jude. (26) B 6 v. The Martyrdom of St. Thomas. 
(27) B 7. The Martyrdom of St. Matthias. (28) B 7 v. St. John descending into the 



grave. (29) B 8. The Martyrdom of St. Stephen. (30) C 1. St. Mark. (31) 
Civ. St. Michael. (32) C 2. St. Augustine. (33) C 2 v. St. Jerome. (34) 
C 3. St. Sebastian. (35) C 3 v. St. Bernardino (called " Dominicus "). (36) C 4. 



St. Francis. (37) C 4 v. The Mass of St. Gregory. (38) C 5. The Martyrdom of St. 
Erasmus. (39) C 5 v. St. Roch. (40) C 6. St. John before the Latin Gate, called 
"Vitus" (deceptive copy; the topmost curl of the smoke rising above the cherub is 
omitted). (41) C 6 v. St. George. (42) C 7. " Exaudi " (a procession). (43) 
C 7 v. " Terribilis " (entrance to a church). (44) C 8. A group of Saints : SS. 
Andrew, Oswald, Urban, etc. (" Consortium divorum "). (45) C 8 v. St. Alexius. 
(46) D 1. St. Maternus. (47) D 1 v. St. Ambrose (called "Victor"). (48) D 2. 
St. Bernard. 1 (49) D 2 v. The Temptation of St. Antony. (50) D 3. St. Bernard 
receiving Christ in his arms (called " Benedictus "). (51) I) 3 v. St. Ulrich 
(c/. Rott. 18 ; called " Bonifacius "). (52) D 4. St. Christopher. (53) D 4 v. 
The ten thousand Martyrs. (54) D 5. The auxiliary Saints. (55) D 5 v. The 
ecstasy of St. Mary Magdalen. (56) D 6. St. Catherine. (57) D 6 v. One of the 
Wise Virgins. (58) D 7. The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia. (59) D 7 v. The 
Martyrdom of St. Barbara. (60) D 8. The Martyrdom of St. Catherine. (61) D 8 v. 
The Martyrdom of St. Dorothy. (62) E 1. St. Elizabeth of Hungary tending 
lepers. (63) E 1 v. St. Helen finding the Cross. (64) E 2. St. Helen sitting with 
her arm round the Cross. (65) E 2 v. St. Ottilia. (66) E 3. St. Afra (called 
" Regina "). (67) E 3 v. St. Veronica. (68) E 4. St. Ursula. (69) E 4 v. The 
Martyrdom of St. Lucy. (70) E 5. The Martyrdom of St. Agnes. (71^ E 5 v. 
St. Gudula (" Patientia "). (72) E 6. St. Margaret (" Tentatio "). (73) E 6 v. 
Funeral of a bishop (St. Martin?). (74) E 7. Veneration of relics ("Reljquise "). 
(75) E 7 v. The " Confiteor " at the Mass. (76) E 8. Peasants kneeling before 
an image of the Virgin (" Grimmental "). (77) E 8 v. The Mass (" Missa "). (78) 
F 1. Communion of the laity. (79) F 1 v. Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament 
(' Eucharistia "). (80) F 2. Purgatory. (81) F 2 v. Confession. (82) F 3 v. 
The Last Judgment. (83) F 4. Hell. 

Nos. 3, 4, 12 and 40 measure 93 x 70 ; nos. 7 and 8, 123 x 83 ; nos. 1, 9, 13-39, 
41-48, 58-74, and 76, 69 x 74, and the remaining subjects 86 x 52. 

No. 10 was used in " Devotissimae Meditationes," 1520 ; no. 2 in " Der Gilgen- 
gart," 1520 ; no. 56 in " De Anima," 1520; and the remaining cuts, though not 
used till later, are of about that date. Nos. 35 and 76 were used in Pauli's " Schimpff 
und Ernst," 1535, and nos. 13, 18, 29, 42, 43, 74-77 in " Polydorus Vergilius," 1537 
and 1544 ; nos. 14, 16, 17 and 30 were used in Steiner's folio Bible, 1535, and 14, 16 
and 30 in the edition of 1534; no. 6 was used in Luther's " Betbuchlin," Steiner, 
1523 (R6tt. 28, not in the B.M.). 



22. [STEINMEYER.] Newe Kunstliche, | Wohlgerissene, vnnd in 
Holtz ge- | schnittene Figuren. V. Steinmeyer, Frankfort, 1620 ; 4to. 
(Imperfect, ending with sig. Tt instead of Yy). 

Presented by the National Art Collections Fund, 1906. 

Three hundred and three woodcuts by Weiditz, printed on both sides of the leaf, 
with short text below as far as Sig. I i. Almost all are from the Petrarch and Cicero 
sets. The exceptions are four large oblong cuts of saints, R. 34, SS. Luke and 
Cosmas (?), I i 3 ; St. John descending into the grave, K k 1 ; St. James receiving the 
book of magic from the sorcerer Hermogenes, K k 2 v ; and St. Peter baptizing 
Cornelius at Csesarea, K k 4 v. There are also a few cuts by Beham, Burgkmair, 
Sohaufelein and unknown artists. 



1 The subject represented here is the accident in the hunting-field which caused 
the death of Mary of Burgundy in 1482. Maximilian stands r. wringing his hands. 
Nothing is said in the early accounts of the event about the appearance of any 
saint, and I have not discovered what saint is actually represented. In the Bremen 
Kunsthalle is a lithograph from a picture of the same subject in reverse, attributed 
to Diirer. 












' 

.'. leaf, D 4, with Schotf B device by Weiditz and th 



a< hing, a oiiapol in a wood 1. [140 x 98, opening 



>n a base 




PLATE XI 
HANS WEIDITZ 

SAM30N CARRYING OFF THE GATES OF GAZA 






V 







Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 147 



DOUBTFUL. 

23, 24. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. Hans Schonsperger the elder, 
Nuremberg, 1517, and Augsburg, 1519 ; fol. (Mather 845, 846 ; Pr. 
11180, 10939). 

Bottinger attributes one cut in each of these editions (no. 23, by Laschitzer's 
" unknown master C ") to Weiditz (Repr. B5tt., pi. 1). Dr. Dornhoffer (Kunstgesch. 
Anzeigen 1, 1904, p. 62) agrees with him on the whole ; I am not convinced by his 
arguments. 

II. STRASSBURG PERIOD. 

25. [LUTHER.] XXVII Predig newlich vszgangen. Anno, xxiii. 
J. Schott, Sfcrassburg, 1 Sept., 1523 ; 4to. (Muther 1509 ; Krist. 464 ; 
Rott. 57). 

Imperfect, lacking the last leaf, D 4, with Schott's device by Weiditz and the 
colophon. 

Title-border by Weiditz, Christ preaching, a chapel in a wood 1. [140 x 98, opening 
80 x 55]. Bad impression. 

26. [BIBLE.] Das Annder teyl des alten Testaments. J. Knoblouch, 
Strassburg, 1 July, 1524 ; fol. (Muther 1543 ; Rott. 60, part 2 only). 

Purchased from Mr. Breslauer, 1905. 

Twenty-three cuts by Weiditz [79 x 130] adapted in reverse from the illustrations 
to the edition printed by Melchior Lotter at Wittenberg, 1524. These were repeated 
in the edition of 1529 (W. Seltz, Hagenau). (1) 2 v. The ark passing through Jordan. 
(2) 4. The fate of Jericho. (3) 7 v. The five kings hanged at Makkedah/ (4) 23 v. 
Gideon and the fleece ; Gideon choosing the men that lapped water. (5) 24. Gideon 
defeating the Midianites. (6) 29 v. Samson and the lion. (7) 30 v. Samson sending 
foxes into the corn, etc. (8) 31. Samson carrying off the gates of Gaza. (9) 32. 
Samson betrayed by Delilah. (10) 32 v. Samson breaking the pillars of the house of 
Dagon. (11) 42. The death of Eli ; the plague of mice ; the fall of Dagon. (12) 44 v. 
Samuel anointing Saul. (13) 50 v. Samuel anointing David. (14) 51 v. David slaying 
Goliath. (15) 62 v. Saul's death ; his crown brought to David. (16) 69. David and 
Bathsheba. (17) 75. The death of Absalom. (18) 86 v. Solomon's temple. (19) 87 v. 
Solomon's house. (20) 88. Hiram's two pillars. (21) 88 v. The molten sea. (22) 
88 v. A laver standing on a base. (23) 92 v. Solomon on his throne. 

27. [BRUNFELS.] Biblisch Bettbuchlin Der Altuatter, vn herrliche 
Weibern, beyd Alts vnd Newes Testaments. J. Schott, Strassburg, 1531 ; 
8vo. (Krist. 473 ; Rott. 73). 

Purchased from Mr. Peach, 1905. 

Title-border, dated 1528, with Manasse, King of Judah, in prison (cf. fol. 16) 
[124 x 80, opening 64 x 43] ; 219 page borders, each of four blocks, composing frames 
of 16 different designs [129 x 83, opening 94 x 53], many of which are in the style 
of the Devotissimae Meditationes, 1520, decorated with children, animals, birds, and 
flowers. At the end the device of Schott with a stork's nest and fallen warrior 
[79 x 65], which dates from 1523 (Bott. 57). Bepr. Heitz iv. 9, and Bott., pi. 19. 

28. TACUINI Sanitatis Elluchasem Elimithar Medici de Baldath. 
De sex rebus nou naturalibus, etc. J. Schott, Strassburg, 1531 ; fol. 
(Krist. 475 ; Rott. 85). 

Duplicate transferred from Dept. of Printed Books, 1889. 

Forty cuts [c. 38 x 175, without border] on the recto of every leaf from p. 39 to 

L 2 



148 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

p. 117, illustrating articles of food, utensils, methods of medical treatment, etc. On 
p. 5, initial P, Lot and his daughters. 

Nagler (Mon. iii, p. 669; no. 4) attributed these cuts to'Vogtherr. They were 
recognised as the work of Weiditz by Rottinger (p. 15), who describes the edition 
of 1533. 

29. TACUINI ^Egritudinum et Morborum, Buhahylyha Byngezla 
autore. J. Schott, Strassburg, 1532 ; fol. 

Duplicate transferred from the Dept. of Printed Books, 1889. 
Two tailpieces [20 x 82, without border], repeated at the foot of the verso of 
every leaf from p. 2 to p. 88. 

30. [HUTTICHIVS.] Impcratorum et Caesarum Vitae, cum Imagi- 
nibus ad uiuam effigiein expressis. Libellus avctns cum elencho & Iconijs 
Consulum ab Authore. W. Kopfel, Strassburg, 1534 ; 4to. (Rott. 67, 
see p. 97). 

Presented by Mr. C. Dodgson, 190G. 

Title-border with sphinxes and figure of Justice, and border to the Elenchus 
Consulum, with subjects from the Iliad (Rott. 65). Printer's mark, medallions of 
emperors, and numerous ornaments throughout the book. 

31. [BIBLE.] Biblia veteris Testament! & Historic, avtificiosis 
pictnris effigiata. Biblische Historien, Kunstlich fiirgemalet. C. Egenolff, 
Frankfort, 1551 ; 8vo. 

Sig. A 8 v, the small device of Egenolff, Adam and Eve after the Fall [57 X 48] 
(p. 185, no. 148), used here as an illustration. 

32. [COOKERY.] Koch vnd Kellermeysterei. Heirs of C. Egenolff, 
Frankfort, 1564 ; 4to. (The edition of 1544 reissued with a new title-page.) 

Bequeathed by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1897. 

On the title-page, a cook in his kitchen [75 x 120], first used in 1530 (Rott. 78), 
in the second state, coloured and damaged. 

B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BooKS. 1 
I. AUGSBURG PERIOD. 

1. [FRANCISCUS.] Abt von Werd. Anzeigung der Blutschweis- 
sung des Dorns von der Krone Christi. Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg 
(after 4 April, 1518) ; 4to. (Pr. 10872). 

Title-border (Pr.'s G. & W. A), = Rott. 8. Repr. Butsch i, 28. Also used in Pr. 
10874, 10875, 10879, 10880, 10881, 10885, 10887, 10889, 10892, 10901, 10906b, 10912. Pr. 
10879 is the earliest book known to Rott. in which the border occurs. 

2. [PLAUTUS.] Zwo Comedien des synn reichen Poeten Plauti 
namlich in Menechmo vfi Bachide. Nachuolgent ain Comedien Vgolini 
Philegenia genannt. (Grimm and Wirsung) Augsburg, 1518 ; 4to. 
(Muther 1054 ; omitted by Pr. ; Rott. 5). 

Twenty illustrations by Weiditz [67 x 98]. 

1 In this list only one book containing each title -border is included. Repetitions 
are mentioned in the notes, but with no guarantee of completeness. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 149 

3. [IOHANN, VON ECK.] Joan. Eckii de materia Juramenti 

acutiss. decisio ad Georgium Kungspergium Augustanum. Grimm and 
Wirsung, Augsburg, 1518 ; 4to. (Pr. 10876). 

On the title-page, arms of Georg Kungsperger [100 x 101], not described by Rotfc. 

4. [HUTTEN.] Aula. Bialogus. Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 
17 Sept., 1518 ; 4to. (Pr. 10882 ; Seidl. 1 ; Rott. 9). 

Title-border (Pr. G. &. W. B 1 ), dated 1518. Also used in Pr. 10883, 10902, 10908. 

5. [FICINUS.] Tractatus de Epidimiae inorbo. Grimm and Wirsung, 
Augsburg, 26 Sept., 1518 ; 4to. (Muther 873 ; Pr. 10884 ; Seidl. 2 ; 
Rott. 10). 

Cut on title-page, doctor in sick room [85 x 109], attributed by Muther (Verz. 
483) to Burgkmair. 

6. [ENGEL.] Tractat von der Pestilentz Joanni Engel. (Grimm and 
Wirsung) Augsburg, 4 Nov., 1518 ; 4to. (Pr. 10886). 

The same cut as in no. 5, on the title-page. 

7. [WIRSUNG.] Wann vnd vmb wellicher vrsachen willen das 
loblich Ritterspil dea turniers erdacht, vnd zum ersten getibet worden ist. 
(Grimm and Wirsung) Augsburg, 13 Nov., 1518 ; 4to. (Muther 874 ; 
Pr. 10888 ; Seidl. 8 ; Rott. 11). 

On the title-page two cuts. At the top four coats-of-arms [28 x 114], for the four 
races, Bhinelanders, Pranconians, Suabians, and Bavarians (see sig. A 2). Under 
this a tournament [93 x 113]. Attributed by Muther (Verz. 484) to Burgkmair. 

8. [RICIUS.] De anima coeli compendium. Grimm and Wirsung, 
Augsburg, 2 March, 1519 ; 4to. (Pr. 10893 ; Seidl. 5). 

Title-border (Pr. G. & W. D), arabesque and scallop-shell, described by Rott. 
under no. 15. Repr. Butsch i, 27. Also used in Pr. 10894, 10895, 10397, 10899 b, c, 
10904, 10907, 10910. 

9. [KHALAF.] Liber theoricae necn on practicae Alsaharavii. Grimm 
and Wirsung, Augsburg, 24 March, 1519 ; fol. (Muther 875 ; Pr. 10896). 

The cut on the title-page, B. vii, 222, 74, bears the monogram of Burgkmair, but I 
believe it to have been drawn on the block by Weiditz. At the end is the first 
heraldic device of Grimm and Wirsung [124 x 126], described by Rott. under no. 17 
(3). This device (Pr. a) was also used in Pr. 10900-10902 (earlier than Rott. 17). 

10. [JOHANN.] Eckius, Ad P. Ricium de anirna coeli responsio. 
Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg (after 27 March, 1519) ; 4to. (Pr. 10898). 

Title-border with chained satyrs (P. iii, 217, 302; Pr. G. & W.-E. ; Seidl. 4), 
described by Rott. under no. 17 (3). Also used in Pr. 10899 a, 10903, 10905, 10919. 

11. [HUTTEN.] Ulrichi de Hutten Eq. de guaiaci medicina et morbo 
gallico liber unus. J. Schoffer, Mentz, April, 1519 ; 4to. (Pr. 9865). 

On title-page, arms of Albrecht of Brandenburg, Archbishop of Mentz [140 x 100], 
undescribed. 



150 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts Part II. 

12. [ARISTOTLE.] Libri de Ccelo IIIL, etc. ... Adiectis Eckij 
Commentarijs. Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 18 May, 1519 ; fol. 
(Pr. 10900 ; Rott. 16). 

On the title-page the arms of Georg von Limburg, Bishop of Bamberg, attributed 
to Burgkmair (B. vii, 214, 38). On the last leaf, the first device of Grimm and 
Wirsung, as in no. 9. 

13. [FABER.] Oratio funebris in depositione gloriosis. Imp. Caes. 
Maximiliani. Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 26 July, 1519 ; 4to. (Pr. 
10906a ; Rott. 17 (1) ). 

Pol. h 2 v. Memorial tablet to Philip the Handsome [173 x 123]. P. Hi, 218, 304. 
Fol. h 3. Memorial tablet to Maximilian [173 X 123]. P. iii, 217, 303. 

14. [FILELFO.] Epistole Fracisci Philelplri. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 
30 July, 1519 ; 4to. (Pr. 10777). 

Title-border (Pr. S. Otmar- G) printed from four blocks, Rott. 20. Also used in 
Pr. 10783, 10786, 10789, 10791, 10798-10801, and in Luther, "Von den gutcn 
Wercken," 1521. Pr. 10789 is the first book mentioned by Rott. as containing this 
border. 

15. [BRASSICANUS.] In Divum Carolum . . . Dialogus. J. 
Miller, Augsburg, 4 Aug., 1519 ; 4to. (Pr. 10849). 

Title-border (Pr. Miller-E.), as in Hutten (p. 140, no. 2), but the date removed. 
Described by Rott. under no. 12. 

16. [FREDERICK I.] Ein warliafftige history von dem kayser 
Friderich der erst seines Namens, mil einem langen rotten Bart, den die 
Walhcn nennten Barbarnssa . . . Vnnd wie der Pundt scliiich auff ist 
khomen in Bairn. J. "Weissen burger, Landsliut, 1519 ; 4to. (Muther 1697 ; 
Pr. 11812). 

Four illustrations in the text (A3, A4, Bl, B2, the first repeated B5) are by 
Weiditz (not mentioned by Rott.). B2, representing Barbarossa taken prisoner by 
Saladin, is in tho most familiar style of Weiditz; the other cuts are chiefly recog- 
nisable by his habit of drawing the eyes as black dots in faces on a tiny scale (cf. 
Rott. 46 and Petrarch, ii, 87 v.). 

17. [ARISTOTLE.] De anima Libri III., etc. ... Adiectis Eckij 
Commentarijs. Grimm and Wirsuug, Augsburg, 16 March, 1520 ; fol. 
(Pr. 10914 ; Rott. 19). 

On the title-page the arms of Christoph von Schrovenstein, Bishop of Brixen. 
Sig. 4. St. Catherine (used in Sanctorum Icones, 1551). 

18. [BOEMUS.] Repertorium librorum trium Joarmis Boemi de 
omnium gentium ritibus. Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, July, 1520 ; 
fol. (Pr. 10918 ; Rott. 21). 

Title-border [249 x 162] (Pr. G. & W.-F), repr. Butsch, i, 29. Also used in 
Cicero, Biichlein von dem Alter, 1522 (p. 142, no. 8). 






' 



iii Pa-saris Anguati. & e . 

ittiii' 
Protei. Grimm and Wi> 



HX 3TAJS 



?} 4.io. 
he murder of Joliaon von 







PLATE XII 

HANS WEIDITZ 

TITLE-PAGE OF "CELESTINA' 




er 6wt 




Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 151 

19. [CHARLES V.] Wie . . . Konig Karl von Hispanien .... 
erstlich geschifft nach Engellandt, nach main fiirterhin 'aufifs Niderlandt 
gen Flyssingen inn Flandern Gelegen, etc. (J. Weissenburger, Landshut, 
not before June, 1520) ; 4to. (Pr. 11817). 

On the title-page the cut by Weiditz which was first used on sig. A 3 arid B 5 of 
no. 16 (1519). Not described by Bott. 

20. [ERASMUS.] Epistola de Luthero ad praesulem Moguntinurn. 
Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 1520 ; 4to. (Pr. 10920). 

Title-border (Pr. G. & W.-B 2 ), described by Bott. under no. 9, in the second 
state. This border also occurs in Pr. 10921. 



21. [SBROLIUS.] In Divi Caroli Maximi Cgesaris Augusti, &c. 
Foalice ex Hispania in Germaniam Reditum, Richardi Sbrulij Foro luliani, 
C. P. Elegia. Cui Titulus, Vaticinium Protei. Grimm and Wirsung, 
Augsburg, 1520 ; 4to. (Pr. 10923). 

On the title-page the cut of Charles V and the seven Electors [158 x 112], 
described by Bott. under no. 23. 

22. [CHARLES V.] Romischer Kiiniglicher Maies. Kronung zii 
Ach geschehe. (Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 1520) 4to. (Weller 
1447 ; Pr. 10924). 

On the title-page the same cut as in no. 21. 

23. [HUTTEN.] Hienach volget ein scharft'es kiinstlichs gedicht vo 
eine tyranne, etc. (J. Schott, Strassburg, 1520 ?) 4to. (Weller 1118 ; 
Booking xii a ; Pr. 10295). 

On the title-page, the cut [120 x 112] representing the murder of Johann von 
Hutten by Duke Ulrich of Wurtemberg, first used in Phalarismus (Augsburg, 1517 
or 1518). See Bott., no. 6, who mentions a Latin edition (Booking xxiv, i. Schoffer, 
Mentz, 1519) as containing the woodcut, but not the present edition. Bepr. Hirth 
i, 26. 

24. [CELESTINA.] Ain Hipsche Tragedia vo zwaien liebhabendil 
mentscken ainem Ritter Calixtus vn ainer Edln junckfrawen Melibia 
genat. Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 20 Dec., 1520 ; 4to. (Muther 
876; Pr. 10925A). 

Border at the beginning with the arms of Lang and Wirsung (Pr. G. & W.-G.) 
and at the end with those of Grimm and Wirsung (Pr. G. & W.-H). 1 In the text 
are one large cut [145 x 94], sig. A 3 v., and twenty-six small illustrations [69 x 92], 
one of which occurs twice. Seidl. 9 ; Bott. 35. Ascribed by Muther (Verz. 501-523) 
to Burgkmair. 



1 The flame of the cresset shows that this was the combination originally designed. 
The portion of the block containing Grimm's arms was then sawn off, and Lang's 
arms were drawn on a piece of wood of similar shape, so that either piece could be 
printed with the main portion of the block. 



152 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

25. [OECOLAMPADIUS.] Ain Sermon von dem verss in Magnificat. 
Exultauit spiritus meus in deo salutari meo. (Grimm and Wirsung, Augs- 
burg, 1520) ; 4to. (Weller 1612 ; Pr. 10928). 

Title-border of irregular outline. Pr. G. & W.-I ; Seidl. 16 ; Rott. 40. 

26. [LITURGIES.] Scamnalia s'm ritum ac ordine ecclesie & diocesis 
Frisingen. Pars hyemalis. Pars estiualis. P. Liechtenstein for J. 
Oswalt, Venice, 1520 ; fol. (Due de Rivoli, " Bibliographic des livres a 
figures venitiens," p. 425). 

Two woodcuts, not described by Rottinger (see pp. 166, 181). On the title-page of 
each part the arms of the Bishop of Freising, under an arch [236 x 197]. On the 
back of the leaf, the Virgin enthroned, between St. Corbinian and St. Sigismund, 
described byPassavant (iii, 201, 243) under the name of Diirer. Both cuts are repro- 
duced by Rivoli (" Les Missels imprimes & Venise," pp. 147, 148) from the Freising 
Missal of the same year, in which they were also used. 

27. [CHRISTIAN SOUL.] Das buechlin ist genant der Gilgengart 
ainer yetlichen Cristeliche sel. (J. Schonsperger, Augsburg, 1521 ?) 8vo. 
(Muther 959 : Rott. 26 ; Jahrb. d. k. preuss. Kunstsamml. xxi, 210, 211). 

Three cuts are by Weiditz : (1) sig. a 1 v. a woman confessing to a priest ; (2) 
sig. d 1 v. the Trinity ; (3) sig. g 3 v. a priest giving the host to a kneeling man (not 
the cut used in " Sanctorum Icones," p. 79). 

28. [ERASMUS.] Die Unterweysung eines Christlichen Fursten. 
Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 1521 ; 4to. 

On the back of title-page, the arms of Charles V ; at the end, the second device 
of Grimm and Wirsung. 

29. [OECOLAMPADIUS.] Bin sonderliche lere vfi bewerug das die 
beicht aine Christen meuschen nitt burdlich oder schwer sey bescrhryben 
durch Jo. Hauszschein sust genat (Ecolampadius sat Birgitten ordens. 
Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 28 Aug., 1521 ; 4to. 

Title-border of irregular outline, Rott. 41, also used in " Divi loannis Chrysostomi 
Sermo de Eleemosyna. lo. Oecolarap. Interprete." S. Grimm, Augsburg, 1522 ; 4to. 
(Rott. 41). Rott. mentions no book earlier than 1522 in which the border occurs. 

30. [KLAINMULLER.] Anzaygung diser sterbliclu" leuff. J. 
Schonsperger, Augsburg (after 12 Oct.), 1521 ; 4to. 

Title-border with leaf ornament, unshaded, on white ground [166 x 115 ; opening, 
126 x 80], Rott. 42. 

31. [LUTHER.] Wider den falsch genante gaystlichen stand des 
Bapsts vnd der Bischofe. (S. Grimm ?) Augsburg, 1522 ; 4to. 

Undescribed border, four blocks [top and bottom, 14 x 64 ; sides, 149 x 14], 
black arabesque on white ground. 

82. [OECOLAMPADIUS.] Ain schone Epistel Oecolampadii an 
Caspar Hedion. (Augsburg, after 1 June, 1522) ; 4to. 

Undescribed border, eight rosettes on black ground spotted with white [160 x 116 ; 
opening, 101 x 66], also used in "Haimliche Anschlag des Tiirckischen Kaysers," 
1523, and Locher, " Vom Aue Maria Leuthen," 1524. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 153 

33. [LUTHER.] Ein mercklicher Sermon Von der gepurt Marie. 
(Augsburg) 1522 ; 4to. 

Undescribed border, white arabesque on black ground, small rosettes in top 
corners [148 x 101 ; opening, 90 X 56]. Also used in Luther, " Ein sermo Am 
Erichtag in Pfingst feyertagen geprediget," 1522 ; Luther, " Ain predig am fiinfften 
Sontage nach Ostern. Johannisxvi.," 1525; and " Das Salue regina, nach dem richt- 
scheyt . . . ermessenn vnnd abgericht" (Linz, Krackowizer 49 (27), not in B.M.). 

34. [STAUPITZ.] Vo der liebe gottes (Augsburg, after 1518) ; 4to. 
(W. 1148). 

Undescribed title-border with putti riding on dolphins and sphinxes suckling 
young fauns, obliquely shaded background [165 x 125 ; opening, 93 x 68]. Bepr. 
Hiersemann, Cat. 292, cover. Also used in Luther "Von menschen leren zu meyden," 
1522; Luther, " Acht Sermon," 1523; Luther, "Acht Sermones," 1523; and Sachs, 
" Die Wittembergisch nachtigall," J. Gastel, Zwickau (1523. W. 2671). 

35. [CASTENPAUR.] Artickel wider Doctor Steffan Castenpawr 
Eingelegt. M.D. xxiij. (Augsburg) ; 4to. 

Undescribed border, black arabesque on white ground [169 x 126 ; opening, 
77 X 60], also used in Gastenbaur, " Sermon von Sterben," 1523, and Huberinus, 
" Ain trostliche Sermo von der vrstendt Christi," 1525. 

36. [DISTELMAIR.] Ain trewe ermanung, das ain yeder Christ 
selbs zu seiner seel hail sehe. (Augsburg) 1523 ; 4to. 

Undescribed border, four blocks [top, 34 x 72; sides, 132 x 28; bottom, 38x126], 
white arabesque on black ground. 

37. [DISTELMAIR.] Ain gesprechbiichlein von aim Xodtschneyder 
vn aim Holtzhawer. (Augsburg) 1523 ; 4to. 

Undescribed border, four blocks [top, 18 x 105 ; sides, 118 x 15 ; bottom, 21 x 104], 
white arabesque on black ground, also used in " Summarium der schodlichen todt- 
lichen gyfften, etc., gedruckt zu Hohensteyn durch Hanns Fiirwitzig " (1523?); 
Hess, " Von disen nach geschriben Schluszreden, etc." (1524) ; Lindenmayer, " Ain 
kurtzer griindtlicher bericht, etc." (1524?); "Ain Christenliche betrachtung in der 
Mess " (W. 2787) ; Seb. Mayer, " Widerriiffung," 1524 ; Luther, " An die herren 
Deutschs ordens, das sy falsche keuschait meyden," 1524 ; " Supplication des 
Pfarrers zu sant Thoman aim ersamen Radt zu Strassburg uberantwort," 1524 (W. 
3186); Hedio, " Von den Zehenden," 1525; Osiander, " Ain Sermon iiber das Evan- 
gelion Mathei am 17," 1525 (W. 3600). 

38. [GrERUNGr.] Ain kurtze vnderweysug wie man Got allain Beych- 
ten sol ... durch Christoffen Grerung vonn Memmingen . . . Im jar 
M.D. xxiij quinto Septembris. (Augsburg) ; 4to. 

Undescribed border, four blocks [top, 36 x 127 ; sides, 93 x 30 ; bottom, 37 x 127] , 
white arabesque on shaded ground, also used in Luther, "Von anbeten des Sacra- 
ments," 1523 ; Luther, " Wie man ain menschen zum Christen glaubn tauffen soil," 
1523. The top and bottom pieces were used in Xenophon, " Der Teutsch Cicero," and 
Kobel, " Offenbarung," 1540. 

39. [WESTERBURCH.] Vom Fegfewer. (Augsburg) 1523 ; 4to. 

Undescribed border, white ornament (sun, shells, masks, foliage and flowers) on 
obliquely shaded ground [173 x 123 ; opening, 55 x 55]. 



154 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

40. [MELANCHTHON.] Anweisung in die warhafftig haylig 
geschrifft gottes. 8. Grimm, Augsburg, 1523 ; 4to. 

Ornaments on title-page and large device of S. Grimm. 

41. [BIBLE.] Psalter des kuniglichen prophetten davids geteutscht 
(by Caspar Amman). S. Grimm, Augsburg, 1523 ; 8vo. (Seidl. 19, 
Rott. 32). 

On back of title-page, David and Nathan [129 x 74]. On recto of last leaf, the 
small device of S. Grimm. Six pages are surrounded by borders by Weiditz each 
composed of four blocks. 

42. [LUTHER.] Ain betbuchlin Der Zehen gepott. Des Glaubens. 
Des vatter vnsers. Vnd des Aue Marien. D. Martini Lutheri (J. 
Schonsperger, jun., Augsburg) 1523 ; 8vo. (Weller 2498, not mentioned 
by Rott.). 

Sig. a 6 v. Moses holding the tables of the law [85 x 58], not mentioned by R6tt. 
Sig. D 1 v. The Trinity, as in " Der Gilgengart." 

43. [REGIUS.] Ain kurtze erklarung etlicher leiimger puncten. 
Augsburg, 30 July, 1523 ; 8vo. 

On title page, border with dog seizing a hare, from " Devotissimae meditationes." 

44. [IESUS CHRIST.] Bin andechtige betrachtung des leydens 
vnsers lierren Ihesu Christi an dem hailigen creutz hangende, etc. (Augs- 
burg), 1523 ; 4to. 

Title border undescribed, white ornament on black ground [171 x 123 ; opening, 
83 x 162], also used in " Ain Christenlich ansehen vnnd ordnung von den Ersamen 
Burgermayster vnnd Radt . . . der Statt Zurich" (Augsburg), 29 Sept., 1528 (W. 
2741), and Luther, " Von zwayerlay menschen," 1523. On back of title-page, the 
Crucifixion from Rott. 28. 

45. [BIBLE.] Allegoriae Psalmorum (by Ottomarus Luscinius). S. 
Ruff for S. Grimm, Augsburg (August), 1524 ; 8vo. 

Border (four blocks) on title-page, and initials from three alphabets. 

46. [BIBLE.] Der Psalter des kinigs vn propheten Davids. S. 
Ruff for S. Grimm, Augsburg, August, 1524 ; 4to. 

Numerous initials from various alphabets. Ornamental border (four blocks) 
round printer's mark on last page. 

47. [SCHATZGER.] Von dem wareii Christlichen leben in wem es 
stehe. (Augsburg) 1524 ; 4to. 

On title-page, Christ on the cross, from " Devotissimae Meditationes," 1520. 

48. [BIBLE.] Das New Testament Deutsch. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 
1529 ; 8vo. 

Fol. 103. Annunciation to the shepherds, copy [92 x 70], see Rott. 30. Facing 
fol. 1, the Stem of Jesse [94 x 71], belonging to the roughly cut set (copies) described 
by Rott. under nos. 28 and 30. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 155 

49. [VEG-ETIUS.] Flavij Vegetij Renati vier biicher der Ritterschaft. 
H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1529 ; fol. (Muther 1071). 

On the title-page a copy [133 x 112] of the cut used in Ciceros "Officia," fol. 83 
(CA. FABRICIVS). 

50. [AREZZO.] Marius Aretius. Dialog!. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 
80 Aug., 1530 ; 8vo. (Rott. 36). 

E 4. The Planet Sol [79 x 47]. 

51. [LOBERA DE AVILA.] Vanquete de nobles cavalleros. H. 
Steiner, Augsburg, 31 Aug., 1530 ; 4to. (Muther 895 ; Rott. 37). 

Seven cuts by Weiditz : 

(1) Sig. K l = "Trostspiegel," i, 4. (2) Sig. S l = Diagram for bleeding, new. (3) 
Sig. S 2 = " Trostspiegel," ii, 120 v. (4) Sig. S 4 = "Trostspiegel," ii, 116, but the 
cut is here in an earlier state. (5) Sig. T 3 v = " Trostspiegel," ii, 3 v. (6) Sig. 
V 1 = " Trostspiegel," ii, 138 V. (7) Sig. X 1 = Picinus (p. 149, no. 5, title-page). The 
cut on Sig. T 4, surrounded with borders by Weiditz, is a copy of part of the cut in 
" Trostspiegel," ii, 105 v (mentioned by Rott., p. 74). 

52. [ALCIATUS.] Emblematum liber. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 6 
April, 1531 ; 8vo. 

On title-page, the border from F 5 of " Devotissimae Meditationes." Also used in 
the first edition of Alciatus, 28 Feb. 1531 (Rott. p. 76). Several small borders in the 
book are in the manner of Weiditz. 

53. [CICERO.] Officia M. T. 0. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 29 April, 
1531 ; fol. (Muther 879 ; Seidl. 13 ; Rott. 43). 

The second edition, with the same cuts as the first excepting certain initials and 
ornaments. The anonymous cut on fol. 71 v is now printed with the text instead of 
being pasted over another. 

54. [BUSTETER.] Ernstlicher Bericht, wie sich ain Frame Oberkayt 
. . . . halten sol. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 17 May, 1532 ; 4to. 
(Muther 1086). 

On the title-page an anonymous copy [119 x 111] of part of the cut in " Trostspiegel," 
i, 116 v. 

55. [VOGTER.] Ain nutzlich vnnd notwendigs Artzney Biichlin. 
P. Ulhart, Augsburg, n.d. ; 4to. (Muther, no. 1082, describes Steiner's 
edition of 1531). 

On the title-page an anonymous copy [100 x 112] of part of the cut in ' ' Trostspiegel," 
ii, 120 v. Another book in which this copy occurs is mentioned by Rott. (p. 75). 

56. [BARLETIUS.] Des Herrn Georgen Castrioten genant Scauder- 
beg Ritterliche Thaten. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 21 Feb., 1533 ; fol. 
(Muther 1090). 

Ten cuts (excluding repetitions) from "Trostspiegel," and one (fol. 169) from 
"Officia" (fol. 83). 



156 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

57. [VEGETIUS.] Flauij Vegetij Renati Vier biicher der Ritter- 
schaft. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1534 ; fol. (Muther 1103). 

On the title-page the cut, dated 1519, from " Trostspiegel," i, 118 v. 

58. [BIBLE.] Biblia beyder Alt vnnd Newen Testaments Teutsch. 
H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1534 ; fol. (Muther 1096). 

Contains David and Nathan, by Weiditz (Rott. 32), before the Psalter, and the 
Evangelists Matthew, Mark and Luke before their respective Gospels. 

59. [BIBLE.] Biblia. Das ist die gantze heilige Schrifft Deudsch. 
H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1535 ; fol. (Muther 1104). 

A copy [106x71] of David and Nathan before the Psalter. The four Evangelists 
at the beginning of the Gospels are by Weiditz. 

60. [CICERO.] Der Teutsch Cicero. H. Sbeiner, Augsburg, 4 March, 
1535 ; fol. (Rott. 45, edition of 1534). 

Most of the illustrations are by Schaufelein and Breu. Seven by Weiditz are 
from the " Trostspiegel," five from Cicero's " Officia," five from Cicero's "Buch vom 
Alter," 1522, while three, Cicero writing (fol. 2), Cicero's birth (fol. 2 v), and Cicero's 
death (fol. 19 v), had not been used before. Some of the cuts by Breu (?) in this book 
are freely adapted from Weiditz. Compare fol. 186 with "Officia," fol. 20 v, fol. 135 
v with " Trostspiegel," ii, 46 v, fol. 136 v with " Trostspiegel," i, 131, fol. 126 v with 
"Trostspiegel," i, 108, and fol. 123 with "Trostspiegel," i, 58 v. The table on fol. 
134 v is, perhaps, adapted from "Trostspiegel," i, 19 v. 

61. [WYLE.] Translation oder Deiitschungen Nicolai von Weil. H. 
Steiner, Augsburg, 1H Feb., 1536 ; fol. 

Fourteen cuts from " Trostspiegel," one from "Officia." 

62. [PAULI.] Das Buch Schimpff vnnd Ernst genant. H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 30 Oct., 1537 ; fol. 

The same cuts as in the edition of 1535 (p. 144, no. 17). 

63. [MELUSINA.] Die Histori . . . von der ... schonen Melu- 
sina. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1538 ; 4to. (Rott. p. 64, mentions the 
edition of 1539). 

The out on sig. A 3 v (repeated D 3 v) is from Plautus, 1518, K 1 v (Rott. 5). 

64. [KOEBEL.] Glaubliche offenbarung, etc. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 
1540 ; fol. 

Sig. C 6 v. Charles V and the seven Electors, Rott. 23. See nos. 21, 22. 

65. [BRUNI.] Historien der Rhomer krieg wider die Carthagineuser 
. . . durch . . . Leonhardurn Aretinum beschriben. H. Steiner, Augs- 
burg, 7 Oct., 1540 ; fol. (Muther 1115). 

One cut from " Buch von dem Alter," five from " Trostspiegel." 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 157 

66. [SACCHI.] (Platina) von der Eerliche . . . Wolust des leibs. H. 
Steiner, Augsburg, 14 March, 1542 ; fol. 

Four cuts from " Trostspiegel." 

67. [BOCCACCIO.] Die Gantz Romisch histori . . . verteiitscht 
durch Christophorum Brunonem. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 12 June, 1542 ; 
fol. (Muther 1120). 

Six cuts from " Trostspiegel," and five from " Officia." 

68. [BRACELLUS.] Bin schone Cronica vom Kiinigreich Hispania. 
H. Steiner, Augsburg, 18 Aug., 1543 ; fol. (Muther 1124). 

Eight cuts from "Trostspiegel." 

69. [VIVES.] Von Gebirliche Thun vnd Lassen aines Ehemanns. H. 
Steiner, Augsburg, 1544 ; fol. (Muther 1125). 

Eleven cuts (one used thrice) from "Trostspiegel." 

70. [VIVES.] Von vnderweysung ayner Christlichen Frauwen. H. 
Steiner, Augsburg, 1 March, 1544 ; fol. (Muther 1126). 

Twelve cuts from "Trostspiegel," one (fol. 25) from "Celestina," sig. L 7 v. 

71. [BOCCACCIO.] Furnemste Historien vnd exempel von wider- 
wertigem Gliick. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 27 Feb., 1545 ; fol. (Muther 
1127). 

Forty-four cuts from "Trostspiegel," three from "Officia," one (Cicero writing, 
fol 89 v) from "Der Teutsch Cicero," and one (Massacre of the Innocents [69 x 74], 
fol. 163), from " Devotissimae Meditationes." 

72. [PONTHUS.] Von Adelischen Mannlichen Tugenten . . . Ritter 
Pontus (H. Steiner, Augsburg), 1548 ; fol. (Muther 1130). 

Seven cuts from " Trostspiegel," one (the signed cut) from "Officia," and the 
"Theuerdank" illustration (no. 25) which Rottinger attributes to Weiditz. 

73. [GOBLER.] Der Rechten Spiegel. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 
March, 1 550 ; fol. 

Thirty-two woodcuts by Weiditz, chiefly from" Officia," some from " Trostspiegel." 

74. SCHERTZ mit der Warheyt. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, March, 
1550; fol. 

Eleven cuts from " Trostspiegel " and one (Rott. 82) of the Strassburg period, first 
used in 1531. 

75. [PETRARCH.] Zwei Trost bucher, Von Artznei beydes des 
guten vnd wider wertigen Gliicks. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, January, 
1551 ; fol. 

Reprint of the cuts from " Trostspiegel," 1532. 



158 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

76. [BIBLE.] Novi Testament! lesu Christi historia effigiata. Heirs 
of C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 1557, 8vo. 

A reprint of the 1551 edition, except that on sig. g 7, a "Flagellation" by Schau- 
fclein is substituted for that by Weiditz. 

77. [PETRARCH.] Zwei Trost biicher, Von Artznei vnd Rath beyde 
im gnten vnd widerwertigen Glu'ck. Heirs of 0. Egenolff, Frankfort, 
1559 ; fol. 

Reprint of the cuts from " Trostspiegel," 1532. 

78. [BIBLE.] Postilla . . . per loannem Spangenbergium. Heirs 
of C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 1560 ; 8vo. 

Two cuts (fol. 171, 185 v) from the upright series used in "N. T. hist, effigiata," 
1551. 

79. [BARLETIUS.] Des aller Streyttbarsten . . . Fiirsten . . . 
Georgeu Castrioten, genannt Scanderbeg . . . Ritterliche Thaten. W. 
Hahn and G. Rabe, Frankfort, 1561 ; 4to. 

Eleven cuts, one used twice, from "Celestina," 1520. 

80. [PETRARCH.] De rebus memorandis. Heirs of C. Egenolff, 
Frankfort, 1566 ; fol. 

Pour cuts by Weiditz. Fol. 1 = " Officia," 1531, fol. 63 ; 36 v = " Officia " 73 ; 67 
v = "Trostspiegel," 1532, ii, 23 v; sig. T 5 v = "Officia" 17 v, with different verses 
(17 11.) over the cut. 

si. [SPANGENBERG.] Duodecim hymni ecclesiastici. Heirs of C. 
Egenolff, Frankfort, 1570 ; 8vo. 

Nativity and Trinity from the upright series used in "N. T. hist, effigiata," 1551. 

82. [PETRARCH.] Trostspiegel in Gliick und Ungliick. Heirs of 
C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 1596 ; fol. 

Reprint of the cuts from" Trostspiegel," 1532. 

83. [PETRARCH.] Trostbucher, Von Rath, That, vnd Artzney in 
Gliick vnd Vngliick. J. Saur for V. Steinmeyer, Frankfort, 1604 ; fol. 

Reprint of the cuts from "Trostspiegel," 1532. 

84. [PETRARCH.] Trostspiegel in Gliick und Ungliick. Widow of 
J. Bringer for V. Steinmeyer, Frankfort, 1620 ; fol. 

Reprint of the cuts from "Trostspiegel," 1532. 

DOUBTFUL. 

85. [THURNMAIER.] Aventinus, Musicae rudimenta. J. Miller, 
Augsburg, 21 May, 1516 ; 4to. (Muther 1021 ; Pr. 10834 ; Rott. 2). 

On the title-page, the author presenting his book to Duke Ernest of Bavaria 
[99 x 99]. Sig. D 2, four stringed instruments. 

Rejected, rightly as I think, by Dr. Dornhoffer (Kunstgesch. Anzeigen, 1904, p. 61). 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 159 

86. [ARISTOTLE.] Acroases physicae libri viii Joan. Argyropilo 
adiectis loan. Eckii adnotationibus. Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 
June, 1518 ; fol. (Pr. 10873). 

Arms of Ernest, Count Palatine [116 x 118] on title-page, perhaps by Weiditz. 
Also used on recto of last leaf of Aristotle, De Anima, etc., 17 March, 1520 (Pr. 10914). 

87. [IOHANN, VON ECK.] Elementarius Dialectice d. Joan. Eckii 
J. Miller, Augsburg, 26 Dec., 1518 ; 4to. (Pr. 10844 A). 

On the back of the last leaf, D 6, the arms of Eck, Bott. 50, also used separately 
as a bookplate. According to Nagler, the same woodcut occurs in the edition of 
12 Feb., 1517. The British Museum copy of that edition (Pr. 10838) has a blank 
page at the end. 

Rejected by Dr. Dornhoffer (loc. cit., p. 64). 



II. STRASSBURG PERIOD. 

88. [BIBLE. Concordances]. Concordantz des Newen Testaments 
zu Teutsch. J. Schott, Strassburg, 17 June, 1524 ; fol. (Krist. 466 ; 
Schmidt ii, 85 ; Rott. 59). 

Title-page [211 x 163] with four subjects from the Pentateuch. 



89. [BIBLE.] ^aXrrJpiov TT/DO^^TOU /cat /Jao-tAe'ws TOV Aa/3i8. W. Kopfel, 
Strassburg, 1524 ; 8vo. (Rott. 61). 

Title-border dated 1524 (repeated in 1528 edition), and device, Heitz xx, 17. 

90. [BIBLE.] T?}s 0etas ypa0>ys TraXaias SrjXaSr] KOL ve'as aVaiTa- 

(Four parts in five vols.) W. Kopfel, Strassburg, 1524 (N. T. only), 
1526 ; 8vo. (R. 68). 

Four title-borders (that to N.T. described by B. under no. 67), and five different 
devices of Kopfel (Heitz xvi, 2-4, xviii, 8, 10). 

91. [SCHATZGER.] Tractatus de Missa. U. Morhard, Tubingen, 
Jan., 1525 ; 8vo. (Steiff 100 ; Rott. 62). 

Ornamental border, also used in [DOBNECK] Cochlaeus, Pia exhortatio Feb 
1525 (Steiff 101). 

92. [BIBLE.] Das neiiw Testament, Recht griindtlich teutscht. 
J. Knoblouch, Strassburg, 1525 ; fol. (Muther 1545 ; Krist. 430 ; R. 63). 

Twenty illustrations to the Apocalypse, after Holbein. Three of the copies are in 
the same direction, the rest reversed, wholly or in part. Twenty of Holbein's 21 
original blocks (first printed by Wolff at Basle in 1523) were used by Knoblouch in his 
folio N.T. of 1524. The illustration to ch. 19, fol. 193 v. of that edition, does not 
appear in 1525 ; on the other hand, the latter contains one subject, the second 
illustration to ch. 6, fol. 185, which is not in the edition of 1524 ; it is also after 
Holbein. Bottinger's note on this book is misleading, as he has confused the 1528 
edition, which contains 16 reversed copies by another hand after Holbein, with the 
1524 edition, which contains the Holbein cuts themselves. 



160 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



93. [HOMER.] OAY22EIA. BaTpa X o^v p. aX ia. vfivoi. W. Kopfel, 
Strnssburg, MT/VI e'Aa^/SwAtwve (March ?), 1525 ; 8vo. 



Title-border with subjects from the Odyssey, R. 66, and two devices of Kopfel. 
The border was repeated in the editions of 1542 and 1550 (not 1534). 

94. [HOMER.] IAIA2. W. Kopfel, Strassburg, Myvl ya^Xi^vi 
(August?), 1525; 8vo. 

Title-border with subjects from the Iliad and two devices of Kopfel. The border 
was repeated in the editions of 1534, 1542 and 1550. 

95. [HUTTICHIUS.] Imperatorum Romanorum Libellus. W. Kopfel, 
Strassburg, 1526 ; 8vo. 

The second edition, containing a Bacchanalian title-border and medallions of 
emperors, some of which are attributed to Weiditz by Rottinger. 

96. [BUCER.] Vergleichung D. Luthers vnnd seins gegentheyls, 
vom Abentmal Christi. W. Kopfel, Strassburg, 1528 ; 8vo. 

The same border as in no. 90. 

97. [DIOSCORIDES.] Pharmacoruin simplicium, reiq' Medicae Libri 
VIII. lo. Ruellio interprete. J. Schott, Strassburg, 28 Aug., 1529 ; 
fol. (Rott. 75). 

Title-border and five initials with biblical subjects. 

98. [NACHTIGALL.] Seria locique dulcissimo liternru Mecsenati 
D. Antonio Fuggero ab Ottomaro Luscinio .... congesta. (Strassburg, 
1529) ; 8vo. Panzer vi, 117, 807. 

Title-border, repeated sig. k 7, with the arms of the Fugger family. Repr. Jahrb. 
<l. k. preitss. Kunstsamml. xxvi, 131, as Burgkmair. 

99. [WEIDWERK.] Weydtwergk. C. Egenolff, Strassburg, May, 
1530; 4to. 

Hunting, fowling and fishing. [84 x 117.] 

100. [BRUNFELS.] Herbarium (Kriiuterbuch). J. Schott, Strass- 
burg, fol. (Rott. 77). 

The following editions are in the library : Latin, Tom. i (Herbarum vivae 
eicones), 1530, 1532, 1587; ii, 1531, 1536; iii, 1536, 1540. German, i, 1532; ii, 
1537. Woodcuts of plants certified both by verses in the Latin editions and by the 
preface to the German as the work of the painter Joannes Guidictius or Hans 
Weyditz of Strassburg. Reduced copies of the cuts, in reverse, occur in the quarto 
German edition of 1539-40. 

101. [BIBLE. Concordances.] Concordantiae Maiores Biblije. J. 
Schott, Strassburg, 3 Sept., 1530 ; fol. (Schmidt ii, 115 ; Rott. 59). 

Title-page [211 x 163] with four subjects from the Pentateuch. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 161 

102. [FECHTER.] * Der Allten Fechter griindtliche Kunst. C. 
Egenolff, Frankfort, n.d. ; 4to. 

Forty illustrations, from' 33 different blocks, of fencers, wrestlers, etc. R. 
(no. 86) describes another edition. 

103. [GUNTHERUS.] Guntheri Ligurinus, seu Opus De Rebus 
gestis Imp. Caesaris Friderici I. J. Schott, Strassburg, 26 Aug., 1581 ; 
fol. (Schmidt ii, 118 ; Rott. 83). 

Title-page [238 x 154] with the portraits and arms of Frederick I., Maximilian I., 
Charles V., and Ferdinand, King of Hungary. 

104. [BOCCACCIO.] Compendium Romanae historiae. J. Frolich, 
Strassburg, 1535 ; 8vo. (Rott. 89). 

Device of Frolich, swan and fiddle, Heitz, xxv, 1. 

105. [BRANT.] Der Richterlich Clagspiegel. J. Albrecht, 23 Mar., 
1530 ; fol. 

On title-page, a judge trying a case [192 x 135]. Rott. 90. 

106. [CUBE.] Kreuterbuch. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, Aug., 1536 ; fol. 
Sig. b 6 v. An apothecary's distillery [49 x 120], undescribed. 

107. [MENGENBERGER.] Naturbuch. C. Egenolff, Frankfort, 
Sept., 1536; fol. 

Fol. 10 v-11 v. The seven planets with the twelve signs of the zodiac [70 x 40], 
without borders, not described by Rott. Fol. 18. Horses, cattle, poultry, etc., from 
" Erziehungaller zahmen Thiere," 1530. Fol. 45 v. A garden, from " Von Lustgarten 
vnd Pflantzungen," Jan., 1530. 

108. [DIOSCORIDES.] In Dioscoridis Historian* Herbarum certis- 
sima adaptatio .... Der Kreliter rechte warhafftige Contrafactur. J. Schott, 
Strassburg, 1543 ; fol. 

Contains the majority of the cuts used in Brunfols' Herbal, with additions by 
another hand. 



H 



162 



WOODCUTS BY WEIDITZ. 

A. AUGSBURG PERIOD. 
I. SACRED SUBJECTS. Nos. 1-52. 

[1-43.] 
SMALL ILLUSTRATIONS TO DEVOTIONAL BOOKS. Rott. 25, 27. 

Two large series of woodcuts, of upright and oblong shape, were designed by 
Weiditz towards 1520 for the publishers Grimm and Wirsung. A number of these 
were published in " Devotissimae Meditationes de Vita Jesu Christi." Selections 
from the remainder were used sparingly by Steiner during the following twenty 
years, but the majority saw the light for the first time in 1551, l when they were 
published by Egenolff at Frankfort in two books, " Novi Testament!, Jesu Christi 
Historia effigiata," and " Sanctorum et Martyrum Christi Icones." The set here 
described includes many early impressions without text, the date of which cannot 
be determined. 

A. UPRIGHT CUTS [>. 86 x 52]. 

1. THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. 

2. THE REPOSE IN EGYPT. " INFANTIA CHRISTI " (N.T. Hist.). 

3. CHRIST ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES. 

4. THE BETRAYAL OF CHRIST. 

6. CHRIST LED AWAY FROM GETHSEMANE. 

6. CAIAPHAS RENDING HIS ROBES. 

7. PETER DENYING CHRIST. 

8. CHRIST BEFORE PILATE. 

9. CHRIST BEFORE HEROD. 

10. PILATE WASHING HIS HANDS. 



1 Rottinger mentions (p. 77) Egenolff's " Kleyne Bibel " of 1549 (Berlin, Munich) 
as containing fourteen of the cuts which appeared in the Historia. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 163 

11. CHRIST APPEARING TO MARY MAGDALEN. 

12. MATER DOLOROSA. 

13. THE ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN. 

14. THE AUXILIARY SAINTS. 

15. THE TEMPTATION OF ST. ANTONY. 

18. ST. CHRISTOPHER (called Bonifacius in the "Icones"). 

17. ST. ULRICH. : 

18. ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA. 

19. THE ECSTASY OF ST. MARY MAGDALEN. 

20. CONFESSION. 

21. THE "CONFITEOR" AT THE MASS. 

22. ADORATION OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT. 

23. THE LAST JUDGMENT. 

24. HELL. 

Nos. 1-11 and 13-15 are early impressions with the verso blank ; nos. 12 and 
16-24, on thinner paper, are from the " Icones," 1551. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Nos. 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12 were used in " Devotissimae Meditationes," 1520 ; ^no. 18 
in " De Anima," 1520. The remainder were first published by Egenolff . 

B. OBLONG CUTS [c. 69 x 74]. 

25. THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI. 

26. THE CIRCUMCISION. 

27. THE MASSACRE OF THE INNOCENTS. 

28. THE NATIVITY OF THE VIRGIN. 

29. ST. AUGUSTINE. 

30. THE MASS OF ST. GREGORY. 

31. THE BEHEADING OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 

32. ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST DESCENDING INTO THE GRAVE. 

33. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. LAURENCE (signed). 

M 2 



164 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

34. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. MATTHIAS. 
36. ST. ROCH. 

36. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. STEPHEN. 

37. ST. SIXTUS OR URBAN SURROUNDED BY OTHER SAINTS. 1 

"Consortium Divorum" (Icones). 

38. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. AGNES. 

39. ST. HELEN DISCOVERING THE TRUE CROSS. 

40. ST. VERONICA. 

41. A PROCESSION. " Exaudi " (Icones). 

42. THE FUNERAL OF A BISHOP. "Exequise" (Icones). 

43. VENERATION OF RELICS. " Reliquise " (Icones). 

All are early impressions with the verso blank, except no. 25, which is from 
" Novi Testament! historia effigiata," 1551. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Nos. 25-27 were used in " Devotissimae Meditationes," 1520, no. 27 also in 
Boccaccio, " Furnemste Historien vnd Exempel von widerwertigen Gliick," Augsburg, 
1545 (fol. 163). Nos. 36, 41 and 43 were used in Polydorus Vergilius, " Von den 
Erfindern der Ding," Augsburg, 1537 and 1544. The remainder were first published 
in 1551. 

[44-47.] 

LARGER ILLUSTRATIONS TO DEVOTIONAL BOOKS. Rott. 28-30 (Copies). 

Rottinger describes ten cuts [c. 91 x 70] belonging to this series, which is some- 
what rough in execution. 2 The order of subjects is as follows : 

1. David and Bathsheba. 

2. The Annunciation. 

3. The Angel appearing to the Shepherds. 

4. The Circumcision. 

5. The Flight into Egypt. 

6. The Crucifixion. 

7. Pentecost (Rott. 29). 

8. The Trinity and the Blessed Virgin in Heaven. 

9. The Virgin standing on the Crescent. 

10. The Martyrdom of St. Vitus (properly St. John, " ante portam Latinam "). 



1 According to Cahier, " Caracteristiques des Saints," p. 722, it was the custom in 
some German dioceses to bless the new grapes on St. Sixtus 1 day, Aug. 6th. Cahier, 
however, had never seen a representation of this saint with grapes as his emblem, 
and the pope with grapes, represented in many South German pictures, is commonly 
explained in that country as St. Urban. The other saints recognisable in this group 
are SS. Andrew, Oswald (with a raven holding a. ring) and Clara. The reason for 
their association is obscure. In three cases the saint's day falls in August, but that 
does not apply to St. Andrew. 

* For another connected with them, see p. 154, no. 48. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 165 

The cuts are found scattered about various books ranging from 1523 to 1558. The 
four represented here are from " Sanctorum Icones," 1551. They are copies of 
originals, much finer in execution, which have not hitherto been described. These 
cuts, nineteen in number, appeared in the Horae printed by S. Sylvius for P. Roffet, 
Paris, 1527, described in Part 4 of the General Catalogue of J. and J. Leighton, 
no. 2598, with a reproduction of the cut of David and Bathsheba. The book is now 
in the library of Mr. C. W. Dyson Perrins, of Malvern, who was so kind as to lend it to 
me for study. 

The subjects are as follows : (1) David and Bathsheba ; (2) Stem of Jesse ; (3) 
Annunciation ; (4) Visitation ; (5) Angel appearing to the Shepherds (the original 
has ' excelsis,' the copy ' exelsis ' ) ; (6) Adoration of the Shepherds ; (7) Adoration of 
the Magi ; (8) Circumcision ; (9) Flight into Egypt ; (10) Raising of Lazarus ; (11) 
Christ on the Mount of Olives ; (12) Crucifixion ; (13) Pentecost ; (14) The Trinity 
and Blessed Virgin Mary in Heaven (the two lowest persons r. are in the original a 
pope and a cardinal, in the copy they have no attributes) ; (15) Coronation of the 
Virgin ; (16) The Virgin as Queen of Heaven, standing ; (17) Our Lady of the Seven 
Sorrows ; (18) St. John, " ante portam Latinam " (the copy is called St. Vitus in 
" Sanctorum Icones ") ; (19) Mass of St. Gregory. 

Alterations in several of the German copies are due to Protestant objections. 
French copies in reverse of nos. 1--9, 11-13, 15 and 17 are found in various editions of 
Regnault's Sarum Horae, 1530-1536 ; a few of these copies also occur in the " Great 
Bible," London, April, 1539. The Horae of 1527 also contains the originals of seven 
of the ten cuts illustrating the Commandments, of which copies appeared in Luther's 
" Betbiichlein," 1523 (Rott. 28). 

44. DAVID AND BATHSHEBA. 

45. THE CRUCIFIXION. 

46. THE TRINITY AND THE BLESSED VIRGIN IN HEAVEN. 

47. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. VITUS. 
In the inventory of 1837. 



[48, 49.] 
ILLUSTRATIONS SURROUNDED BY BORDERS. Rofct. 31. 

These two cuts [124 x 83] have borders containing birds, flowers and insects, in 
the style of the borders used in " Devotissimae Meditationes." Here, however, the 
border is not a passe-partout, but cut on the same block as the subject. These cuts 
are only found in " Sanctorum Icones." 

48. CHRIST APPEARING TO MARY MAGDALEN. 

49. THE VIRGIN MARY STANDING, SURROUNDED BY EMBLEMS 

(speculum, fons, rosa, lilium, hortus conclusus, porta, turris, etc.). 

In the inventory of 1837. 

50. THE FIVE WOUNDS OF CHRIST. 

[71 x 67 (cut).] German text on the back, from the translation of the " Devotis- 
simae Meditationes," entitled " Gebet vnd betrachtungen des lebens des millers gotes 
.... Jesu Christi," Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 15 Jan., 1521 ; 8vo. 

In the inventory of 1837. 



166 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

81. ST. ULRICH DEFEATING THE HUNGARIANS ON THE LECHFELD. 
1520. B. vii, 286, 74. P. iii, 278, 109. Seidl. 8. Rott. 18. Muther,," Verz. 
d. Werke H. Burgkmair's," 500. 

St. Ulrich on horseback, in episcopal vestments, with a nimbus of 
rays round his head, is seen from the back, with his face in profile to r. 
He raises his r. hand to receive a cross which an angel is bringing to him. 
The Emperor Otto I., also on horseback, is seen r., looking up at the 
angel. On either side are standards, one with the arms of Kyburg 1 and 
another bearing an angel 1., and that of the empire, with the rampant 
horse of the Saxon line, r. In the foreground a hand-to-hand fight is 
going on between Germans and Hungarians, the latter being in the 
XVI century national costume. 3 On a shield 1. is the date 1520. 

[168 x 127.] A rather late impression, cut close to the border. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Attributed by B. to Cranach, and by P. to Burgkmair. There were at least two 
different editions with German text. The Dresden impression, on a sheet measuring 
360 x 230mm., is headed " Sant Ulrichs Schlacht | So an dem 16 . tag desz Hew- 
monats in dem 955 Jar auff dem | Lechfelt wider die Ungern beschehen." Below 
the woodcut are fourteen and a half lines, beginning " Als man zalt nach der geburt 
Christi 955 . Jar, etc." The cut itself is enclosed in a passe-partout, with scrolls, birds 
and fruit [246 x 225]. The (later) Berlin impression is headed " S. Ulrichs Schlacht." 
Below the woodcut are sixteen and a half lines of text, beginning " Als man zehlt 
955 Jahr .... Die Schlacht ist geschehen den 10 Augusti an S. Lorentzen tag in 
obgeschribuen Jahr, etc." This is the edition described by Rottinger, who mentions 
impressions at Munich, Nuremberg and Vienna (Albertina). It is also in the Huth 
collection. A late impression at Coburg has the address, " Gedruckt zu Augspurg 

bey Andream Aperger, 1624." A copy, by 1^ appeared in Meisterlin's Chronicle, 

M. Ramminger, Augsburg, 1522. 

The text states that the cross brought to St. Ulrich by the angel was still 
preserved in his monastery at Augsburg, 3 and mentions among the slain Duke Conrad 
of Worms, son-in-law of Otto, Diebaldus, Count of Kyburg, St. Ulrich's brother, and 
Reginbaldus, Duke of Suabia. The woodcut is closely allied to the contemporary 
" Trostspiegel " illustrations. The same subject is represented in the " Sanctorum 
Icones " (no. 53, wrongly called Bonifacius). 

62. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED, BETWEEN SS. CORBINIAN 
AND SIGISMUND. P. iii, 201, 243. 

On the canopy over Mary's head is the inscription AVE GRACIA PL. 
The names of the two saints are inscribed in full at the foot of the print. 
At St. Corbinian's foot is his emblem, a bear which killed his mule, and 
which he compelled as a punishment to carry the mule's pack. At 
St. Sigismund's feet are the arms of Burgundy. At the Madonna's feet 
are the arms of the diocese of Freising, and of the Bishop, Philip, 
Count Palatine (1481-1540). 

[234 x 191.] Good impression, on the back of the title-page of " Scamnalia s'm 
ritum ac ordine ec- | clesie & diocesis Frisingen. | Pars estiualis," P. Liechtenstein 
for J. Oswalt, Venice, 1520 ; fol. Over the cut are three lines of text beginning 
" Regina celi letare All'a." The same woodcut was used in " Missale s'm ritum et 

1 Cf. the arms given to St. Ulrich on Beck's two cuts in " Uldarici, Symperti et 
Aphrae Historiae," 1516. For Kyburg, see the Triumphal Arch. 

* Cf. " Trostspiegel," i, 23, " Sanctorum Icones," 67. 

* I am informed by Mr. Peartree that the cross is still (1904) in St. Ulrich's 
church, preserved in a case of 1492, with niello ornament. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 167 

ordine ecclesie et diocesis Frisingen.," also printed by Liechtenstein for J. Oswalt in 
the same year (Weale, " Cat. Miss.," p. 71 ; Rivoli, " Les Missels imprimes a Venise," 
p. 146). In both cases the large cut of the arms of the Bishop of Freising (below, 
no. 138) is printed on the recto of the leaf. 

Collection : Cornill d'Orville (blue stamp). 

Purchased at the Gornill d'Orville sale, 1900. 

Attributed by P. to Diirer. This cut has not hitherto been ascribed to Weiditz, 
but I am convinced that it is his work, and any difficulty which may be felt in 
recognising his style is occasioned partly by the unusual scale of the figures. The 
resemblance is more obvious in the reduced reproduction on p. 147 of the Due de 
Rivoli's book. Attention may be called to two small but characteristic details, the 
sun on St. Corbinian's mitre and the hatching along a fold of the drapery, exemplified 
in the robes of both saints. 



t THE VIRGIN STANDING, ON THE CRESCENT, IN AN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL FRAME. 1521. 

The Virgin, to 1., standing, with a crown of stars, and holding the 
Child on her r. arm, is copied in reverse from Durer's engraving of 1508 
(B. 31). The faces and hands are clumsy and expressionless, and this 
portion of the woodcut is hardly to be attributed to Weiditz ; the figure 
is drawn on a block of irregular shape inserted within the architectural 
frame, which is the most important part of the woodcut and certainly by 
"Weiditz. The round arch, supported by double columns, under which the 
Virgin stands, is flanked by walls containing four niches, which hold the 
Evangelists and their emblems. The lion of St. Mark and the ox of St. 
Luke (who carries a picture of the Virgin and Child) project beyond the 
architecture. Over the flanking walls are two putti carrying cressets, 
riding upon dolphins. The round arch is surmounted by a pediment, 
containing a figure of Justice as a man enthroned, holding sword and 
scales ; a lion crouches at his feet ; there is a goose 1. and a fox r. The 
whole structure rests upon a socle in three compartments, with bas-reliefs ; 
1. a naked man seated on the ground, another riding ; in the middle a 
tablet with the date 1521, carried by a triton and a nereid ; r. two men 
sacrificing to an idol. On the lower margin is the address, " Gedruckt tzft 
Augspurg durch Jobst de Necker ftirmschneider," printed with movable 
type. 

Photograph (reduced) of the only known impression [341 x 223] in the Ducal 
Museum, Gotha. See Mitt. d. ges.f. vervielf. Kunst, 1905, p. 67. 

The attribution to Weiditz is my own. His style is easily recognised in the four 
Evangelists (compare especially the angel of St. Matthew with SS. Agnes and Lucy 
in the "Icones"), but the architecture and ornament are also characteristic 
(compare, especially, " Trostspiegel " ii, 176, and the portrait of Charles V, no. 54). 



f THE VIRGIN AND CHILD, AFTER BURGKMAIR. 

B. vii, 203, 12. Rott. 49. 

Facsimile from. Lippmann's "Engravings and Woodcuts by Old 
Masters," x, 38 (= i, 39). 

Dr. Rottinger is inaccurate in bis account of this woodcut. Weiditz has added 
not only the pilaster, but the Madonna's throne, with the griffin near her r. arm, 
also the scroll with inscription in front. Moreover, the whole woodcut is a copy, 
whereas Rott. speaks as if Weiditz had merely added decoration to an existing block. 
B. 9 appears to be the true original by Burgkmair. 



168 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

II. PORTRAITS, HISTORICAL AND OTHER SECULAR 
SUBJECTS. NOB. 53-57. 

53. MAXIMILIAN I IN AN ARCHITECTURAL FRAME, AFTER DURER. 
1519. B. vii, 162, 153. 

See Vol. I, p. 335, no. 141. 

t CHARLES V. 1 

First block. First state. 

The young King of Spain is drawn half-length, three-quarter face to 
1., wearing a wide-brimmed hat, turned up and trimmed on the under side 
with ribands, to which a medallion, containing a nude child seated, is 
attached. Over a shirt edged with a diaper pattern containing fleurs-de- 
lis he wears a coat of brocade with slashed sleeves, and over this a mantle 
of brocade with slit sleeves, trimmed with ermine, and the collar of the 
Golden Fleece. In his r. hand he holds a pomegranate. His hands rest 
on a parapet, from which a carpet falls without a fold, 75 mm. wide. 
Over the hat is the (xylographic) title, " Karolus . Rex . Hispanic." The 
portrait is flanked by columns with pseudo-Corinthian capitals and shafts 
fluted half-way up, resting on socles with bas-reliefs in imitation of the 
antique, representing 1. two naked boys mounted on a horse, and r. a naked 
lad with long hair brandishing a whip with two lashes. The abacus of 
each column is decorated with a flower, that on the 1. side having five 
petals, the other six. The columns support a flat ceiling shaded with 
horizontal lines. On the base of each column stands a boy-genius ; the 
boy 1. carries a cresset on a long pole, the other blows a trumpet. 

The block described above measures 215 x 198 mm., not counting the 
projection of the carpet below the border-line. Above it are the royal 
arms of Spain 3 on an escutcheon in the grasp of an eagle, flanked by 
cornucopias containing pomegranates ; a bow 1. and a sheaf of arrows r. are 
suspended from the cornucopias. This design is cut on a separate block 
without border [112 x 195] ; the tail of the eagle impinges slightly on 
the large block, from which a small piece has been cut away. 

Collotype from the impresmon of this state at Dresden. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

[Sheet, 375 x 200. | At the foot of the large block, on either side of the projecting 
carpet, is an inscription printed in ten lines: "Karolus vo gottes genade Kiinig 
in Hispanic ein gewaltiger her vn kiing vo viij kiinig reich zu Castilia zu 
Leo zu Arragoni KM Cioilio zu Granaden zu Toledo zu Galicie zu den fiinzehe 
hundert inszsele her vo Valncie vo sardonie vo Catalonie vo Bisgnaye grafe zu Rossillon 
ein gewaltiger hervnd kiinig in Cicilie ober Rome Nappies poellien hertzog zu Callabre 
kiinig zu Jerusalem ein gepornner Ertzhertzog in Osterreich vn zu Burgundy zu 
Lothreich zu Steir eu Brabandt zu Carinthe zu Gran zu Tyrol zu Limburg zu 
Lutzeburg zu Gclder graf in H under zu Habspurg zu Phyritte zu Kyburg zu Arthois 
zu Burgundy pfaltzgraf zu Hennegaw zu Holand zu Seeland au Namen zu Siitphen 



1 On the various versions of this portrait see C. Dodgson, " Eine gruppe von 
Holzschnittportraten Karlfi V um die Zeit der Kaiserwahl," Vienna Jahrbuch, 1905, 
xxv, 238. 

Per pale ; dexter quarterly, Castile, Austria, Burgundy (lilies), Burgundy (three 
bends) ; sinister quarterly of six, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, Austria, Alsace ; 
over all an inescutcheoii, per pale, eagle of Tyrol and lion of Burgundy. 



Division B. School of Augsburg, Weiditz. 169 

Marckgraff des Heiligen Romischen Reich vnd zu Burgaw LantgrafE in Elsas herr von 
Friesland bis auff die Windische Marck zu Portenaw zu Salin zu Mechelen etc. 
d Item diese gebildnus ist gemacht nach seiner gestalt 1518. 

A reproduction of the Dresden impression, from a line block, appeared in the 
Diirer Society's first portfolio. Another impression of the same state, but with 
variations in the text, is at Bremen. 

There is a second state of this portrait at Berlin (238-1884). Above the square 
block, which is the same as in the Dresden impression, is an oblong block [117 x 197] 
in quite a different style, not connected with Weiditz, which contains a griffin 
supporting the imperial arms, flanked by lions supporting the arms of Spain, Sicily, 
etc., and carrying standards with a bow 1. and sheaf of arrows r. Below, inserted in 
the block on either side of the carpet, are two blocks each containing three escutcheons, 
viz., 1. Dalmatia, Croatia, Bosnia, r. Seville, Galicia, the 1500 islands. A fragment 
of this state, containing only the upper block and a piece of the portrait itself, is at 
Wolfegg. 

The portrait was formerly attributed both at Dresden and Berlin to Diirer, under 
whose name Bartsch (app. 41), Heller (no. 2161) and Passavant (no. 334, b, c) 
described a later copy (see below, no. 54a). On the attribution to Weiditz, see p. 171. 

t CHARLES V. 

Second block. First state. 

The attitude and the costume, with the exception of one detail, are the 
same as on the first block. A piece has been added to each end of the hat, 
making the outline convex instead of concave. There is a much more 
important difference in the treatment of the face. The outlines are no 
longer so round and youthful, and the artist has evidently attempted to 
make the king look a year older by adding lines to the face. In the first 
block there is no shading on the face except to model the outlines of 
eyelids, lips and chin. In the second the brow is shaded with slanting 
strokes over the r. eye, which are continued down the ridge of the nose ; 
the nose throws a shadow on the r. cheek, and the 1. cheek is carefully 
modelled. The neck is also more fully modelled. Below the hands we 
now see the upper surface of the parapet, instead of the front only, and 
the carpet, which has a different border, though the same pattern in the 
middle, is 120 mm. wide and is sharply bent where it falls over the edge 
of the parapet. It no longer projects beyond the border-Line, which is 
continued without interruption along the bottom of the block, the spaces 
under socles being shaded. The architectural frame remains the same as 
far as the capitals of the columns. The latter no longer support a flat 
ceiling, but a round arch springs from them, ornamented with a moulding 
formed of SS, studded at intervals with projecting bosses in the form of 
rosettes. 1 From two of the latter a garland of pomegranates and leaves 
is suspended, and the bow and sheaf of arrows hang by cords from 
the garland. The eagle grasping the Spanish shield (with different 
quarterings 2 ) is poised in the middle. Beneath it, over the king's hat, is 
his device, the Pillars of Hercules, with the motto Noch Weiter. The 
angles outside the round arch have ornament imitating a recessed frame. 

Photograph of the impression in the Albertina. 

[Cut, 318 x 199.] On the lower margin are printed the titles of Charles, in 7 
lines : ( Von gottes genaden wir Karoll Romischer Kunig zu Hispanien Kastilien 

1 To be compared with the boss in the middle of a buckler in the woodcut, B. vii, 
203, 12 (see Rott. 49), and " Trostspiegel," i, 24. 

2 Divided by pale ; dexter quarterly, Castile, Leon, Sicily, Jerusalem ; sinister, 
Austria and Burgundy. 



170 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Leon Arigon Cecilien Granaden Napols | Nauarra Cauarien der Siben Insel Maiorca 
Sardenien Gallicien Valencia Boncue Morcue Toleiden Corsica Iherusa I lem Oran 
Malcabi In affrica Hungern Dalmacien Croacien etc. Kiinig Ertzhertzog zu 
Osterreych Hertzog zu Burgundi zu | Lottrigkh zu Brawant zu Steir zu Kerndten zu 
Krain zu Lymburg zu Liitzelburg vnd zu Geldern Landtgraue Im Elsas | Fiirst zu 
Schwaben Pfaltzgraue zu Habspurg vnd zu Henigaw gefiirster Graff zu Burgundi zu 
Flandern zu Tyroll zu Katbe | lonie Bossellon zu Gertz zu Arthoys zu Holand zu 
Seland zu Phirdt zu Kyburg zu Namur vnnd zu Ziitphen Marggraue des | hayligen 
Romischen Beychs der Ens vnd zu Burgaw Herr zu Fryszland auff der windischen 
margk zu mecheln zu Portenaw | vnd zu Salins etc. 

Tbis is the same cut as P. iii, 223, 334a, but a different edition. There is another 
impression, imperfect at the bottom, at Maihingen, a third, coloured, without text, 
at Bremen. 

54. CHARLES V. P. iii, 223, 334a. Pr. 10911. 

Second block. Second state. 

The same as the first state in all respects, except that the flower has 
been removed from the abacus of each of the columns. 

[Sheet, 346 x 193.] On vellum, richly coloured and gilt, but mutilated, being 
cut on both sides and at the top, where everything beyond the round arch has been 
cutaway. The last three letters of the word "Noch" and the 1. pillar have also 
been cut away. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1862. 

On the lower margin are printed, in the same type, that of Grimm and Wirsung, 
the titles of Charles in eight lines (mutilated on 1. side) : Carl von gottes gnaden . 
Romischer Kiinig . zu Castillien Aragon Leon, bayder Sicilien Hierusalem Nauarren 
Granate | (To)leten Valencien Gallicien Maioricarum Hispalen Sardinien Corduben 
Corsicen Murcien Giennen Algarbieu Alge- I (ri)en Gibraltaren, auch der Insule 
Canarie, Indien vnd des Lands Oceanischn Moors . etc. Kiinig . Ertzherzog zu 
Osterreich | (H)erzoge zu Burgundien, Lotreich . Brabant Steyr Kernthen Grain 
Limburg Lutzelburg . Geldren Calabrien Athenarum I (vn)d Nevpatrien . etc. Graue 
zu Flandern Hapspurg Tyrol Bartzalon . Arthois vnd burgundien . etc. Pfaltzgraue zu 
Henegaw | (Ho)land Seland Phyrt Kyburg Namur Rosillon Centhanie vnd Zutphen . 
etc. Landgraue am Elsas . Margrauo zu Burgaw (Or)istanen vnd Gocian . etc. des 
heyligen reychs fiirst zu Cathalonien Schwaben vnd Asturien . etc. herre zu Frieszland, 
Bischay | Molinen . auff der Windischen marck zu Portenaw Salins vnd Mechelnn . 
etc. Jost de Negker zu Augspurg 1519. 

The other portrait of Charles V. cut by Jost de Negker, P. iii, 297, 3, has nothing 
to do with this. 

54a. CHARLES V. B. app. 41. H. 2161. P. iii, 224, 334b. 

Copy of second block. First state, before Diirer's monogram. 

The architectural frame has disappeared. The face and costume are 
copied pretty closely from no. 54, but the sleeves and mantle have been 
extended to fill the gap caused by the removal of the columns. The block 
is arched at the top, and within the border-line are, first, the xylographic 
title " Karolus . Rex . Hispanic " (copied from the first block, then the date 
1519 and the imperial arms (copied from the second cut in Faber, Rott. 17, 
P. iii., 217, 303), flanked by shields, 1 from which the bow and sheaf of 
arrows are suspended. Over the hat are the Pillars of Hercules and motto 
" Noch Weiter," as in 54 (xylographic in both cases). 

[305 x 174.] Old, but not very early impression. Watermark, an escutcheon 
containing a cross upon a triple mount. 
Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1858. 

1 Dexter shield, exactly the same as in the portrait dated 1518 at Dresden. 
Sinister shield, quarterly, 1 and 4 Apulia and Jerusalem, 2 and 3 Aragon. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. Ill 

Bepr. (from an impression on bull's head paper) in the catalogue of Gutekunst's 
59th auction, 1904, p. 33. On p. 35 of the same catalogue is reproduced yet another 
portrait of Charles, of the same type, from a book printed at Nuremberg by Holzel 
in 1522 (Muther 1166). Here the mantle has been further prolonged, following the 
circumference of a disc which bears sixteen small escutcheons surrounding that of 
the empire. The second state of P. 334b, with Diirer's monogram inserted, is in 
Derschau. 

In spite of the account given by Thausing 1 of a design by Diirer for a medal of 
Charles V, said to have been cut on wood in 1520, I do not believe that Durer had 
anything to do with the group of portraits described above. In proportions and 
arrangement they are utterly unlike a design for a medal. Moreover, the woodcut 
after Diirer is described as having the name and arms of the Emperor arranged 
above the numbers 1 and 9, and a crown between the two pillars. No impression of such 
a woodcut appears to be extant. Thausing's theory that the woodcut here numbered 
54a is the original which Jost de Negker copied in 54 is contradicted not only by the 
technical inferiority of the former, but also by its heraldic decoration, which betrays 
an acquaintance not merely with one but with both of the other blocks, and 
also with a third cut distinct from either, but drawn, on my theory, by the same 
artist. 

That artist is Hans Weiditz. I base the attribution, as in the case of the portrait 
of Maximilian after Diirer, not on the actual portrait, 2 but on the decorative frame, 
which is an integral part of the woodcut and must have been drawn by the same 
hand. 3 The children on the bases of the columns, the fluted shafts, the cresset, 
the rosettes, the border of the carpet (in Jost de Negker's cut) are all in his taste - 
the children especially should be compared with those in the alphabet, Bott. 39 
but the most significant detail is the pair of reliefs in imitation of the antique on 
the socles beneath the bases of the columns. These should be compared with 
" Trostspiegel," ii, 176, and the woodcut at Gotha described above. The tiny dots 
for eyes on the faces of the two boys 1. and on the little figure in the medallion on 
the hat are also characteristic of Weiditz. 4 

The question then arises whether both the blocks, square and arched, are to be 
attributed to Weiditz, or whether one is a copy of the other. It is clear, as Dr. 
Dornhoffer pointed out to me in 1900, that Jost de Negker's cut, in the Albertina and 
the British Museum, is superior to the other at Dresden, but it is also clear that the 
latter is the earlier version, for the text is dated 1518 and the face is more boyish. 
The characteristics of Weiditz appear in the square block. Not only are they 
preserved, but new features equally characteristic appear for the first time, in the 
arched block. 5 Of the actual portrait, however, the second version is superior to the 
first, and betrays the hand of Burgkmair. My conclusion is that the portrait drawn 
a second time in 1519, after the election of Charles as King of the Bomans, is the 
joint work of the two artists. 

The curtain below and the heraldic emblems above were now brought within the 
rectangular border-line. The eagle was retained, but more powerfully drawn, the 
pomegranates were arranged in a wreath, instead of cornucopias, the bow and sheaf 
of arrows were made to hang from the wreath, and the motto was added. The 
flowers at the top of the columns were retained at first, but removed by an after- 
thought in the second state. The fact that the round arch is an addition is betrayed 
by the survival of a thick stroke, representing the border-line of the square block, 
between the capital of the r. column and the border. 

There is a progress observable in the three printed lists of titles which confirms 
this account of the order of origin. In the first block, Charles is called King of 
Spain ; in the first state of the second block he is already called King of the Bomans. 
In the first block eight kingdoms are expressly mentioned (after Spain) ; in the 



1 " Life of Diirer," E. T., ii, 158. Thausing's views are combated by Dr. Hebich 
(Berlin Jahrbuch, 1906, xxvii, 21 fi.) by a line of argument independent of my own 
but consistent with it. 

2 Weiditz seems to have drawn no original portraits from life. 

3 A parallel case is the woodcut of the Virgin and Child, B. vii, 203, 12, which is 
a close copy of Burgkmair's original woodcut (B. 9) with ornamental additions by 
Weiditz. See also p. 172, no. 55. 

4 See p. 150, no. 16. 

4 Bosses (see p. 169), ornament in spandrels (cf. " Trostspiegel," i, 41), tassels. 



172 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

second, twenty-four kingdoms are mentioned (after Rome and Spain). 1 In the second 
state of the second block, three new duchies appear (Calabria, Athens, Neopatria) ; 
there are other changes, but the inscriptions on both states are much fuller than 
that which accompanies the first block. 

In the copy, the bow and sheaf of arrows, copied closely from the second block, 
are suspended from shields, one of which reproduces exactly the quarterings of the 
shield on the first block, while the other is new. The title is copied from the first 
block, the device and motto from the second. The arms of the empire, supported 
by griffins, here introduced for the first time, are copied from an independent work 
of Hans Weiditz, the memorial tablet to Maximilian I (P. iii, 217, 303) in Faber's 
" Oratio Funebris," published 26 July, 1519 (p. 150, no. 18). 

The real authorship of the portrait remains an unsolved enigma, for Weiditz can 
only have reproduced a drawing or miniature by another artist. Throughout 1518 
Charles was in Spain. 

t CHARLES V. 

Photograph of the title-page (at Berlin) of Trithemius, " Von den sieben Geistern 
oder Engeln," H. Holzel, Nuremberg 1522 (Muther 1166). See Dodgson, Vienna 
Jahrbuch, xxv, 243. 

55. MARTIN LUTHER, after Cranach. 1520. Heller 655. 

In the Augustinian habit, half length, standing, three-quarter face to 
r., holding in both hands an open book of which one corner is cut off by 
the border-line ; it has a decorated binding and one leaf stands up loose. 
Behind Luther's head is a niche, and on either side a pilaster with ornament 
of candelabrum arrangement in outline on a white ground ; in the middle 
of these candelabra are tablets containing the divided date, (1.) 15 (r.) 20. 
In a space below the portrait is the xylograpbic inscription : 

XETERNA IPSA SV/E M/ENTIS SIMVLACHRA LVThERVS 
EXPRIMIT AT VVLTVS CERA LVC/E OCCIDVOS 

This is followed by the date M.D.XXL, printed with type. 

[168 x 115.] Good impression ; on the back (recto of the leaf) is the following 
title : Doctor Martini Luthers antwort | auf Pfintztag, den . 18 . tag Aprilis, im . 
1521 . | vor Kay . Ma . vfi den Churfursten | Fiirsten vnd andern vil der | stend des 
Reychs of- I fenlich besche- | hen (Augsburg, 1521). This is the second of the books 
mentioned by Heller in which the portrait occurs. 

Collection : Brentano (F. 50, blue). 

Purchased at the Brentano sale, 1870. 

55a. MARTIN LUTHER, after Cranach. 1520. Heller 655. 

Second state. 

The margin below the portrait which contained the inscription has been 
cut away, the height of the block being thus reduced to 149 mm. ; the 
width, in this impression, is 116. 

On a sheet [290 X 215] containing German text headed "Ain 
Christlich bekentnus oder Beycht ausz der hayligen geschrifft gezogen, 
wolche | der mensch Got taglich vnd offtuials ausz grundt seines hertzen 
than soil." The text opens with an initial [16 x 14] from the smallest 
alphabet by Weiditz found in Steiner's books. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1852. 

1 In the second state the Habsburg dominions of Hungary, Dalmatia and Croatia 
are omitted from the list of kingdoms, and the Spanish dominions are enumerated 
in greater detail. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 173 

On this and similar woodcut portraits of Luther see Flechsig, " Cranachstudien," 
i, 58, where it is shown that all are derived from the engraving of Luther in a niche, 
Lippmann 63, P. 8, which is itself a copy of an original engraving by Cranach, L. 61, 
B. 5. The attribution of this version to Weiditz is due to Dr. Rottinger, who 
communicated it to me in a letter of 17 September, 1906. The ornament on the 
pilasters is entirely in the style of Weiditz, to be compared, especially, with the 
woodcuts in Rottinger, no. 17 (1). 

56. JOHANN, FREIHERR ZU SCHWARTZENBERG, after Durer. 

B. vii, 166, 157. H. 2178. P. iii, 174, 157. Nagl. Mon. i, 813, 1. Hirth, " Meister- 
hoizschnitte," xi, xii. Rott. 43. 

Bust, three-quarter face to r., in a hat, in a circle enclosed in a 
rectangular frame containing sixteen coats of arms and a device of two 
arms issuing from clouds, clasping hands. In the lower corner r. is a 
monogram, composed of I and B, which has generally been explained as 
that of the woodcutter, but should probably be read as Johannes Beiditz. 

[191 x 129.] Placed between two narrow ornamental panels by Weiditz, on the 
back of the title of Cicero's " Officia," 1531. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

As Schwartzenberg died in 1-528, aged 64, and his portrait was taken by Durer at 
the age of 50, it follows that the lost drawing was made in 1514. The date of the 
woodcut is about 1520. This impression is from the first edition of the " Officia," 
16 Feb., 1531; there are slight differences in the text as compared with that of 
April 29th. On the other books in which this portrait was used, see Nagler (loc cit.). 
Repr. Hirth, i, no. 504. 

t MAXIMILIAN I HEARING MASS. 

B. vii, 184, 31. H. 1889. P. iii, 207, 270 and 271, 99. Seidl. 6. Rott. 13. 

From Lippmann's " Engravings and Woodcuts by Old Masters," viii, 
43. Observe the arms of Grimm and Wirsung over the altar. The im- 
pressions with Latin text are, of course, earlier than the German edition 
issued by " Antony Formschneider zu Frankfurt," who merely reprinted 
older Augsburg blocks. 

57. VIEW OF AUGSBURG. 1521. Seidl. 15. Rott. 38. 

Large bird's-eye view of the city, printed from eight blocks. On a scroll 
attop is the (xylographic) title, SACRI RO. IMP. CIVITAS AUGUSTA 
YIDELICOR^. Towards the r. is arichly decorated frame containing a printed 
inscription in twelve lines : SACRI ROMANI IMPERII URBS AUGUSTA 

VINDELICORUM PACEM, CONCORDIAM, ET SECVRITATEM 

PRECATVR. Lower down on the same side is a smaller frame with printed 
inscription in nine lines, ending : Georgius Seld Civis & aurif. Augu. ob 
singulare in patria pietatem mensura posuit hacqz pictura absoluit. 
M.D.XXI. In a similar frame 1. is a printed inscription in eight lines : 
Sigismundus Gryfii phisicus, & Marcus Vuir- | sung Gives August . 
Spectatiss. olbus bonis qui | aliquo Auguste urbis desiderio tenentur aut 
fa- ma eius inclita ducunt, rem grata facere uoletes | Quo vel absetes aut 
logo Interuallo semoti uoti i copotes effecti hacqz pictura ocl'os pascere 
pos | sint. Coi Impensa assentiete autore plurima ex- | cusserunt exem- 
plaria Auguste. An. M.D.XXI. Below in the centre are the arms of 
Augsburg supported by two lions sejant, and at the top at the 1. are three 



174 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

large escutcheons with the arms of the empire and of the Spanish dominions 
of Charles V., quartered as in no. 54a, with the collar of the Golden 
Fleece. 

[808 x 1936.] Good impression, uncoloured, slightly damaged. 

In the Department of Printed Books (Maps). Acquired 1875. 

Bare. There is another copy of the Latin edition in the Maximiliansmuseum, 
Augsburg, and one of the German edition in the Berlin Cabinet, both coloured. The 
latter has the title, DES HEILIGEN RO~MISCHEN REICHS STAT AUGSPURG. 

58. A BOYS' SCHOOL. 

Five pupils sit on two benches looking up at the teacher, who stands in 
a high pulpit, the front of which is decorated with an empty shield 
surrounded by a wreath. An older pupil sits by himself r. under a round 
window, and a boy in the foreground is being birched. 

[155 x 95.] Late impression, no text on the back. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

In the style of the Cicero cuts ; it was probably designed to form part of the 
"Officia" series, but was not used. See Mitteilungen der Oesellschaft filr verviel- 
f&ltigcnde Kunst, 1905, p. 68, no. 12. A similar impression is in the Hofbibliothek 
at Vienna. 



III. ILLUSTRATIONS FKOM THE "TROSTSPIEGEL." 
Nos. 59-80. 

See p. 144, no. 15. These, with the exception of one early proof, are loose cuts 
from the " Trostspiegel " itself or later books, or in some cases quite late impressions, 
which happen to be in the Department. Many of these, though originally intended 
for Petrarch's " Trostspiegel " (called here " P."), were first used in Cicero's " Officia " 
(called " C."), or Justin (called " J."). 

69. A CALCULATOR AND A SIBYL. C. 27 v. ; P. i, 7. 

[97 x 156.] Sharp, early proof on white paper ; watermark, bull's head. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

I have seen in the collection of Mr. Huth a similar proof, in brilliant preservation, 
of the cut attributed by Bartsch (vii, 188, 39) to Diirer, which occurs in the " Trost- 
spiegel," i, 5 v. 

60. A GENEALOGICAL TREE. C. (16 Feb., 1531, only) 71 v. ; P. i, 17. 

61. A MAN ASLEEP L. ; VARIOUS COMBATS R. C. 51 v. ; P. i, 24. 

62. A PAINTER'S STUDIO. C. 35 v. ; P. i, 51 v. 

63. A MAN RECEIVING HIS MASTER'S DEGREE. C. 40; P. i, 60. 

64. A GARDEN IN WHICH WE SEE A MURDER, AN EXECUTION, AND 

AN EMPEROR (TIBERIUS ?) GRAFTING A TREE. P. i, 74 v. 

65. MEN AND BOYS IN A ROOM. C. 47 ; P. i, 88 v. 

66. THE KING WITH A STRONG SON (Priam and Hector ? etc.). P. i, 91 v. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 175 

67. THE SON WITH A KIND FATHER (the prodigal son receiving his patri- 

mony ?). C. 43 v. ; P. i, 99. 

68. TWO ASTRONOMERS. P. i, 102 v. 

69. SOLON RELATING TO CROESUS THE STORY OP BITON AND 

CLEOBIS, THE SONS OF ARGIA (Herod, i, 31). 0. 16 v. ; P. i, 128 v. 

70. A NOBLEMAN RECEIVING A VISIT FROM A PRINCE. P. i, 138 v. 

71. A HOUSE BEING BUILT. C. 33 ; J. 62 v. ; P. i, 140. 

72. A MAN ATTACKED BY ROBBERS. C. 53 ; P. ii, 17 v. 

73. A TYRANT WITH A SWORD SUSPENDED OVER HIS HEAD. 

C. 82 v. ; P. ii, 48. 

74. PEOPLE ESCAPING FROM A HOUSE ON FIRE. P. ii, 65 v. 

75. A MERCHANT IN HIS COUNTING-HOUSE. C. 36 ; P. ii, 66 v. 

76. FISHERMEN DRAWING IN THEIR NETS. C. 75 v. ; P. ii, 73 v. 

77. A SIEGE. C. 72 v. ; J. 34 ; P. ii, 81. 

78. VARIOUS KINDS OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. C. 21 v. ; P. ii, 162. 

All the above are from books, except nos. 66 and 70, which have other woodcuts 
printed on the back different from those which occur in Steinmeyer and no text. 
No. 74 is from Steinmeyer. No. 60 was presented by Mr. Mitchell, 1895, the rest 
are in the inventory of 1837. 

79. A PHYSICIAN DRESSING A DISEASED LEG. P. ii, 120 v. 

On the title-page of " Der grossenn wundartzney Das ander Buch, Des ergrundten 
vnnd bewerten, bayder Artzney Doctors Paracelsi," H. Steiner, Augsburg, 1536. 
Collection : W. Bell Scott. 
Presented by Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

80. SATIRE AGAINST THE CLERGY. P. i, 13. 

Very late impression, coloured brown to imitate a chiaroscuro. 
Duplicate from the Berlin Cabinet. 
Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1876. 



IV. ILLUSTRATIONS FROM CICERO'S " OFFICIA." 
Nos. 81-123. 

See p. 143, no. 12. These are forty-three out of the sixty-four illustrations which 
actually belong to the Cicero set and were not used in Petrarch. 

81. JULIUS CAESAR AND EIGHT OTHERS IN COUNCIL, CICERO WRITING. 

C. title-page. 

82. AN ACCOMPLICE LOOKING ON AT THE MURDER OF A PILGRIM. 

C. 5v. 



176 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

83. QUINTUS FABIUS LABIO, ADJUDICATING ON THE DISPUTED 

FRONTIER BETWEEN NOLA AND NAPLES, SECURES A STRIP 
OF TERRITORY BETWEEN THE TWO FOR ROME. 1 C. 7 v. 

84. ONE MAN GIVES ANOTHER A LIGHT ; A THIRD POINTS OUT THE 

WAY TO A TRAVELLER. C. 12. 

85. A PAINTER AT HIS EASEL. 0. 14. 

86. A MAN CROSSING A NARROW FOOTBRIDGE. C. 15 v. 

87. CICERO SETTING A WARRIOR IN THE SCALES AGAINST A CAPTIVE. 

C. 19. 

88. A GUARDIAN DEFRAUDING HIS WARD. C. 20 v. 

89. A KING, A PHILOSOPHER AND A MAN OF RANK. C. 22 v. 

90. MEN DRAGGING A CART UP A STEEP INCLINE. C. 26 v. 

91. A KNIGHT ON HORSEBACK AND HIS SON ON A HOBBY-HORSE. 

C. 29. 

92. A MAN LOOKING AT A CONVEX MIRROR WHICH REFLECTS HEARTS 

AND EYES. C. 23. 

93. A WOMAN STANDING, ALMOST NUDE. C. 30 v. 

94. A MAN TURNING AWAY FROM A LINENDRAPER'S SHOP TO THE 

ARMOURER'S NEXT DOOR. C. 81. 

95. PRUDENCE WEIGHING THE GOOD THINGS OF THE BODY AGAINST 

THOSE OF THE SOUL. C. 62 v. 

96. A WOMAN (Eloquence?) CARRYING IN HER R. HAND A KINDLY 

TONGUE (over it a crown) AND IN HER L. HAND A MALICIOUS 
TONGUE (over it a spider, as emblem of poison). C. 32. 

97. A MAN AND WOMAN PLAYING ON HARP AND LUTE IN A GARDEN. 

C. 34 v. 

98. FOUR BEEHIVES AND A MAGPIE IN A CAGE (emblems of the social 

and the solitary life). C. 37. 

99. FOUR FOOLS STRIVING TO SEPARATE HONESTY FROM PROFIT 

(two strong-boxes chained together). C. 40 v. 

100. A SICK MAN TAKING A DRAUGHT ; MINER, HUNTSMAN, BUILDER, 

ETC., IN THE DISTANCE. C. 41 v. 

101. VARIOUS ARE THE CAUSES OF DEATH, BUT MAN'S MOST DEADLY 

FOE IS MAN. C. 42 v. 

102. A TYRANT, WHO HAS PADLOCKED THE MOUTHS OF ALL HIS 

MINISTERS. C. 44. 

103. SULLA CONFISCATING AND SELLING THE GOODS OF PROSCRIBED 

CITIZENS. C. 45 v. 

1 A late impression, with the forged dedication, " Amico suo H. Holbeinio 
singular! J. Burgmairus anno S. 1520," written on the tablet. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weidilz. 177 

104. ROBBERS IN A WOOD DIVIDING THEIR BOOTY. C. 49. 

105. A MAN. GIVING ALMS TO A POOR AND DESERVING FAMILY. 

C. 55 v. 

106. A HOUSEHOLDER RECEIVING GUESTS. C. 56 v. 

107. CICERO AND SCIPIO AFRICANUS. C. 63. 

108. A SURGEON CUTTING OFF A MAN'S LEG. C. 68 v. 

109. GYGES FINDING THE MAGIC RING. C. 69 v. 

110. ROMULUS KILLING REMUS. C. 70 v. 

111. A RUNNING MATCH. C. 71. 

112. LUCIUS MUTIUS, SCIPIO AFRICANUS AND PAULUS AEMILIUS. 

C. 59 y. - 

113. A MAN PLEADING BEFORE A JUDGE THAT HIS GOODS HAVE 

BEEN TAKEN FROM HIM WRONGFULLY. C. 60 v. 

114. THE NARROW WAY WHICH LEADS TO SALVATION. C. 65 v. 

115. THEMISTOCLES AND ARISTIDES. C. 73. 

110. A MERCHANT BRINGING CORN FROM ALEXANDRIA TO RHODES 
IN TIME OF FAMINE (signed H W and H b b). C. 73 v. 

117. A MAN SELLING AT A HIGH PRICE A HOUSE WHICH HE 

PRIVATELY KNOWS TO BE INFESTED WITH SNAKES. 

C. 74 v. 

118. A SICK MAN MAKING HIS WILL. C. 79. 

119. THE ROMAN PROVERB, "HE IS AN HONEST MAN, WITH WHOM 

YOU CAN PLAY AT DICE WITHOUT A CANDLE." C. 80. 

120. A MAN TRANSFORMED BY EVIL PASSIONS INTO A BRUTE. 

C. 81 v. 

121. JULIUS CAESAR MISLED BY DECEITFULNESS INTO TYRANNY. 

C. 81 v. 

122. TWO SHIPWRECKED MEN, ONE OF WHOM IS A FOOL, CLING- 

ING TO THE SAME PLANK. C. 84. 

123. A DESERTER FROM THE CAMP OF PYRRHUS OFFERS TO RE- 

TURN AND POISON THE KING; CAIUS FABRICIUS WILL NOT 
PERMIT THE TREACHERY. C. 83. 

f!23a. REPRODUCTION OF A COPY OF THE LAST SUBJECT [133 x 111] 
PUBLISHED IN VEGETIUS, " VIER BUCHER DER RITTER- 
SCHAFT," 1529 (Muther 1071). See Rott., p. 87. 

The above cuts were used in three editions of the " Officia " of the year 1531, viz., 
Feb. 16th, April 29th and Dec. 7th (the last being vol. 2 of Schwarzenberg's Works), 
also in later editions of 1532, 1533, 1535, 1537, 1540 and 1545. Most of the preseni 
impressions are from an edition later than the second. 

N 



178 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



V. TITLE-BORDERS, FRAMES, ORNAMENTAL AND 
HERALDIC DESIGNS. 

Nos. 124-139. 

124. QUARTO BOEDER WITH SEA-HORSES. Rott. 8. Pr., Gr. & W. A. 

[177 x 130; opening, 120 x 85.] From " Defensio loan. Eckii contra amarulentas 
D. Andreae Bodenstein Carols tat in i . . . inuectiones," Grimm and Wirsung, Augs- 
burg, 14 Aug., 1518 ; 4to. (Pr. 10880). See p. 148, no. 1. Repr. Butsch, i, 28. 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

125. QUARTO BORDER WITH A ROUND ARCH AND FOUR WINGED 

CHILDREN. Seidl. 1. Rott. 9. Pr., Gr. & W. B. 

Second state. 

[177 x 132.] Late impression, from Wolfgang Musculus, " Von dem Bapstischon 
Messz " ; dated on the socle 1543. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

In the first state there was a pendent wreath and the date M.D. XVIII. The 
wreath and date were then cut out and the block patched. 

126. QUARTO BORDER WITH WHITE ARABESQUE AND SCALLOP 

SHELL. Seidl. 5, 17. Rott. 15. Pr., Gr. & W. D. 

[177 x 110; opening, 100 x 58.] From " Pauli Ricii Lepida ... in psalmu 
Beatus vir meditatio," Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 15 April, 1519; 4to. (Pr. 
10899 c). See p. 149, no. 8. Repr. Butsch, i, 27. 

Collection : W. Bell Scott. 

Presented by Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

126a. QUARTO BORDER WITH WHITE ARABESQUE AND SCALLOP 
SHELL. 

Another impression, from Erasmus, " Ad reverendum in Christo p. & illustrem 
principem Christophoru episcopu Basiliensem, epistola apologetica," S. Grimm, 
Augsburg, 1522 ; 4to. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

127. QUARTO BORDER WITH CHAINED SATYRS. 

H. 2117. P. iii, 217, 302. Seidl. 4. Rott. 17 (3). Pr., Gr. & W. E. 

[178 x 133 ; opening, 101 x 58.] From " Ad D. | Pauli Ricii Israeli | tae de anima 
coeli cxamina . loan. Eckij artium. | luris . & Theologies | Doctoris arnica | responsio," 
Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg (1519) ; 4to. (Pr. 10898). See p. 149, no. 10. 

Purchased from Mr. Caspari, 1875. 

12a QUARTO BORDER WITH THREE HALF-LENGTHS OF WILD MEN, 
TWO OF THEM HOLDING TRUMPETS. R. 20. Pr., S. Otmar G. 

[180 x 127 ; opening, 97 X 78.] Printed from four blocks. From " Ain andechti- 
| ger, vnd zu besserung | siindigs lebens, nutzlicher Tractat | des hailigen vnd 
Christenlichen | lerers Aurelij Augustini, von I iippigkait der welt, neiilich | ausz 
Latein in Teiitsch | gebracht." S. Otmar, Augsburg, 25 May, 1519 ; 4to. (an earlier 
book than those mentioned by Rott. or Pr. as containing this border). See p. 150, 
no. 14. 

Collection : W. Bell Scott. 

Presented by Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 179 

129. FOLIO BORDER WITH CHILDREN AND TROPHIES OF ARMS. 

Rott. 21. Pr., Gr. & W. F. 

[249x168; opening, 156x93.] From " Reperto | rium librorum tri | um loannis 
Boemi de om | nium gentium ritibus," Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 1520 ; fol. 
(Pr. 10918). See p. 150, no. 18. Repr. Butsch, i, 29. 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

A free reduced copy of this, by ]-$, occurs in Vitellius, " Oratio in conventu 
Augustensi," J. Miller, Augsburg (after 31 August), 1518; 4to. (Pr. 10843). Pr., 
Miller C. [170 x 126]. The original cut, therefore, must be older than 1520. 

130. QUARTO BORDER WITH WHITE ARABESQUE, CONTAINING TWO 

CHERUB'S HEADS, ON A BLACK GROUND. 

[149 x 104 ; opening, 87 x 54.] From " Ain Christlicher | Sendbrieff an | die 
Milten | berger. Johannes Ca | rolstatt. | Vuittemberg | M.D.xxiiij." (H. Steiner?), 
Augsburg, 1529 ; 4to. (Weller 2834). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Described by Rott. See p. 143, no. 11, for other books in which this border was 
used. Like many of the ornaments in white on black which Weiditz designed, it 
appears not to have been used till after his departure from Augsburg. 

131. PAGE BORDER FROM " DEVOTISSIMAE MEDITATIONES." 

Below, a leopard and an owl ; 1. a large caterpillar, and at the top a 
parrot ; flowers and fruit. 

[123 x 84 ; opening, 88 x 53.] Used on the title-page of " Institu- | tionum 
Gram- | maticarum loan- | nis Riuij Atthen- | doriensis libri | octo. | Augustas Vin- | 
delicorum Philippus | Vlhardus excu- | debat." Originally used on sig. H 5 v. of the 
" Meditationes " (1520). 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. 5989 116). 

Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1900. 

132. ARCHITECTURAL FRAME TO BURGKMAIR'S SERIES OF HEROES 

AND SAGES IN SUBJECTION TO WOMAN (B. 4-6, 73). Rott. 46. 

See p. 101, nos. 168-171. 

133. ARCHITECTURAL FRAME TO BURGKMAIR'S SERIES OF HEROES 

AND HEROINES (B. 64-69). Rott. 47. 

A duplicate of B. 66, the three Jewish heroes (see p. 102, no. 173). 
In the inventory of 1837. 

134 (1-4). FOUR ORNAMENTAL PANELS. 

Two upright panels [216 x 16] with background shaded obliquely from 
1. to r. No. (1) contains a flask, cornet and flute, two bucklers, cross-bones 
and a coat of arms ; no. (2) five children, one above the other. 

Two oblong panels. No. (3), shaded horizontally, contains vases between 
pairs of masks [21x119] ; no. (4), with background irregularly shaded, 
obliquely from 1. to r., contains three pairs of children [26 X 117]. 

The four panels enclose the arms of Anthony Sanftl, dated 1542 
[156 X 116], not by Weiditz. 

On the back of the title-page of Boccaccio, " Die Gantz Romisch histori," H. 
Steiner, Augsburg, 1542 ; fol. (Muther 1120). 

From the collection of bookplates bequeathed by Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B., 1897. 

N 2 



180 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

These panels belong to a large number of ornaments, initial letters, etc., which 
occur in books printed by Steiner, c. 1525-1545. They were evidently designed before 
Weiditz left Augsburg, but appear not to have been used by Grimm and Wirsung. 

134 (l-4)a. FOUR ORNAMENTAL PANELS. 

The same panels enclosing the arms of Christophorns Bruno, also dated 
1542 (not by Weiditz), from the same book. 

From the collection of bookplates bequeathed by Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B. 

See Leiningen-Westerburg, " German Bookplates," 1901, p. 132, where the arms 
of Bruno are wrongly described as a book-plate by Schaufelein, who died two years 
before the date of the woodcut. 

f SUMMER AND WINTER : A FRIEZE. 

A group of winged children 1., carrying wreaths and branches of bay, 
play with a hobby-horse, a squirt and other toys, round a large shield with 
the imperial eagle which rests upon the ground, propped up from behind. 
One of them carries on a pole a tablet inscribed " Sumer " ; another blows 
a trumpet. In the middle another group carries on a litter the arms of 
Augsburg. To r. of this group one boy carries on a pole a tablet 
inscribed " Wintter," another blows a trumpet, and a third carries a flaming 
cresset. The remaining children are snowballing one another round a 
shield with the arms of Castile, which balances the imperial shield on the 
other side. In the distance the outline of a range of hills runs along the 
whole length of the composition. 

Photograph of the only known impression, in the Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 
Munich. See Mitt. d. Oes. f. vcrviclf. Kunst, 1905, p. 66, no. 10. 

Presented by Prof. Max Lehrs, 1899. 

The attribution to Weiditz is my own. I base it mainly on the resemblance of 
the children to those in the well-known alphabet published by Jost de Negker in 
1521 and formerly attributed to Diirer or Burgkmair (Rott. 39). 

136. THE ARMS OF SIGISMUND GRIMM AND MARCUS WIRSUNG. 

Rott. 17 (p. 70). 

The arms of the two printers [124 x 125], without border, are placed 
side by side. Over them is printed M.D.XIX, from a colophon, the rest 
of which has been cut off. 

From the collection of bookplates bequeathed by Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B., 1897. 

The device was first used in Alsaharavius, Liber theories, etc., 24 March, 1519, 
fol. (Pr. 10896) ; also in Pr. 10900, 10901, 10902, and 10906 c. When Wirsung left the 
firm, Grimm continued to use his own arms (the savage man) alone as a device. A 
different device was used, however, in the books printed for Grimm by S. Ruff. 

136. THE ARMS OF CHRISTOPH VON SCHROVENSTEIN, BISHOP OF 
BRIXEN. Rott. 19. 

[152x152.] No border. Below the woodcut is printed, " Reuerendissimo D. D. 
Christophoro | Episcopo Brixiensi D.D." 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Cut from the title-page of " Aristotelis Stagyritae Philosophi De anima Libri III. 
.... Adiectis Eckij Commentarijs," Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg, 16 March, 
1520; fol. (Pr. 10914). Repr. in Hirth's Formenschatz, 1881, no. 87. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 181 

137. THE ARMS OP CARDINAL MATTHAUS LANG, ARCHBISHOP OF 
SALZBURG. Seidl. 10. Rott. 23. 

Quarterly, 1 and 4 Salzburg, 2 and 3 Lang. The shield is surmounted 
by a Latin cross, over which a cardinal's hat is held by two angels. 
Printed in seven colours, red, black, grey, olive-green, dark blue, pink and 
gold. 1 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

[272 x 206 2 .] A very fine impression, cut to the edge of the colour-print. 

From Senfel, " Liber selectarum cantionum, quas vulgo mutetas appellant, sex 
quinque et quatuor vocum," Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg (Nov.), 1520; fol., of 
which a perfect copy, containing the colour-print, is in the Stuttgart library. 
The woodcut occupies the front of the leaf (the second of two unnumbered leaves at 
the beginning of the book). On the back is the dedication by the printers to 
Cardinal Lang, of which the greater part is here preserved, viz. : " Reuerendissimo 
1 Amplissimo Princi- | pi ac Domino, dno Matheo, Sanctae | Romanae ecclesiae Tituli 
. s. Angeli Pres- | bytero Cardinali, et Archiepiscopo Saltz- | burgensi, Sacroqz sanctae 
Sedis Apostoli- | cae Legato. *jc. Domino nostro obseruan- | dissimo, Sigismundus 

Grimmius Medi- | cus, et Marcus Wyrsungus Augustani, qz | humilime sese com- 
mendant. | Cum Quintiliano authore Princeps et domine .... (33 lines omitted) 

dignitatem studemus. Cui tu ipse amplissimo ornamento esse " The whole 

leaf (in the Stuttgart copy) measures 430 x 275 mm. 

There are two different editions of the book. In the Berlin and Munich copies, 
the woodcut printed in black from the outline block alone is placed on the back of 
the title-page. Here the recto of the second leaf contains an index of contents ; the 
verso has the dedication, " Reuerendissimo, etc.," as in the other edition. The third 
leaf is numbered 1. 

This is the most elaborate colour-print of the German renaissance, and of great 
technical interest. The shadow cast by the angels, the shield itself and the strings 
of the cardinal's hat, has been very carefully cut on a block and printed in grey, a 
most unusual colour. A special block has been used for the flesh-colour of the 
angels, with the high lights cut out. One wing of each of the angels is printed in red. 
The red block also produces a ruby in the middle of the cross, and the red tongues of 
the heraldic lions, which are otherwise black with gold printed over them. 

There is another and larger cut of Lang's arms in the Berlin Cabinet, printed in 
black and red only, with yellow added by hand. It measures 320 x 415 mm., 
including the lettering at the top, " MATHEVS . M. D A . S. ANGLE. DIAC. CARD. 

| GURCEN . COADIVT . SALTZBVRGEN . ZC." The escutcheon is of a different 
shape, and it is not surmounted by a cross or the angels with the cardinal's hat. 

The woodcut by Weiditz was first described in the Allgemeine Zeitung, Beilage 
175, 20 June, 1871, by E. Tross of Paris, who found the loose leaf, afterwards acquired 
by Mr. Mitchell, bound up with a book of 1582. See Zahn's Jahrbilcher filr Kunst- 
wissenschaft, iv, 352. 

138. THE ARMS OF PHILIP, COUNT PALATINE, BISHOP OF FREISING 
AND NAUMBURG. P. iii, 202. 

The Episcopal shield (quarterly, 1 and 4 Freising, 2 and 3 Naumburg, 
bearing an inescutcheon with the arms of Bavaria and the Palatinate, 
quarterly) is surmounted by the three crests of Freising, the Palatinate and 
Naumburg. The shield stands between two columns, with mermaids 
reclining near their bases ; they support an arch of foliage, and a wreath is 
suspended behind the chief crest. In the upper corners are cherub's heads. 

1 The silver mentioned by Seidlitz is only grey, printed from the same block as the 
shadow. The discoverer, Tross, made eight colours by dividing light grey from dark 
grey ; there is but one shade. 

2 Rott. gives the measurements as 270 x 206 ; Koehler, in a letter to me, as 
269 x 204. The discrepancy is easily accounted for by inaccuracy of register in 
printing from the colour blocks. 



182 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

[237 x 197.] On the title-page of " Scarnnalia s'm ritum ac ordine ec- | clesie 1 
diocesis Frisingen. Pars estiualis " (printed in red), P. Liechtenstein for J. Oswalt, 
Venice, 1520 ; fol. 

Purchased at the Cornill d'Orville sale, 1900. 

Repr. (reduced) in Rivoli, " Les Missels imprimds & Venise," p. 148, and in 
Warnecke, " Biicherzeichen des xv. u. xvi. Jahrhunderts," Heft 3, no. 47. The 
woodcut was also printed, with no. 52 (q.v.), in the Freising Missal of the same year. 

Philip, Count Palatine (1480-1541), had been Bishop of Freising since 1498 and of 
Naumburg since 1517. 

DOUBTFUL. 

139. THE BOOK-PLATE OF JOHANN VON ECK. 

Nagl. Mon. iii, p. 309, no. 889. Warn. 423. Rott. 50. 

The shield with the arms of Eck, azure, a triangle or, is surmounted by 
helm and crest. To 1. of the plumes is seen God the Father, half-length, 
emerging from clouds, with the sun over his head, and to r. the monogram 
reproduced by Nag'er, to be read, according to a note by Eck on a copy at 
Munich, 1 as Johannes Maioris (for Maier) Eckius Theologus. There is a 
frame of boughs and foliage at the top, and a tablet at the foot, in which 
the name ECKIVS is printed with movable type. 

[168 x 108.] Good impression, coloured, with margin [3-6]. 

Duplicate from the collection of bookplates bequeathed by Sir A. W. Franks, 
K.C.B., 1897. The use of separate impressions of this woodcut as bookplates is well 
authenticated, but it was also printed as an integral part of at least one book, Eck's 
" Elementarius Dialectice," J. Miller, Augsburg, 26 Dec., 1518; 4to. (Pr. 10844A). 
Nagler says that it occurs also in the edition of 12 Feb., 1517 (Pr. 10838), but in the 
British Museum copy the last page (on which the woodcut was printed in 1518) is 
blank. Further literature on this woodcut is quoted by Rott. The attribution to 
Weiditz is rejected by Dornhofier (loc. cit. pp. 62,64). I think there is insufficient 
evidence for Weiditz' authorship, but do not pronounce definitely against it. 



B. STRASSBURG PERIOD. 
I. TITLE-BORDERS. Nos. 140-146. 

140. FOLIO BORDER WITH SUBJECTS FROM GENESIS. Rott. 59. 

A single block. At the top the Fall and the Expulsion from Eden ; 1. 
the death of Abel ; r. Moses and the brazen serpent ; below, Abraham's 
Sacrifice. 

[211 x 162 ; opening, 91 x 91.] From " Concordantiae Maiores Bibliae," J. Schott, 
Strassburg, 3 Sept., 1530 (Ch. Schmidt, ii, 115). 

Collection : W. Bell Scott (F. 489). 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

The border was first used in " Concordantz des Newen Testaments zu teiitsch," 
J. Schott, Strassburg, 17 June, 1524 (Krist. 466; Ch. Schmidt, ii, 85). 

1 See Count Leiningen-Westerburg, "German Book-plates," 1901, p. 58. The 
woodcut is reproduced on p. 124. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. W&iditz. 183 

141. POLIO BORDER, WITH MEN, ANIMALS AND HERBS. Rott. 75. 

A single block. At the top are a scorpion, a basilisk, an owl, a monkey 
playing the bagpipes and a dromedary. At the sides and at the bottom are 
heroes and heroines of antiquity, accompanied by the plants with which 
they are specially associated, and animals and birds with the medicinal 
herbs to which they resort. Then at the sides we see Pompey with a sprig 
of ebony, which he carried at his triumph after the war with Mithridates T 
and Helen with nepenthe (Od. iv, 221). In the middle Mercury with 
moly, and the Greek botanist Crateias and a companion, armed with a hoe 
and spade. The animals and the plants associated with them are pigeons 
and bay, deer and elaphoboscon (wild parsnip), stork and origanum, weasel 
and rue, cock and sideritis (ironwort or wall-sage), bear and arum, swallow 
and chelidonia, snake and betony, goat and plantain, heron and bulrush, 
stag and dittany. Below Helen's feet grows the fragrant plant cnaiorona 
or cneorum, with the legend " Abstine sus, non tibi spiro." 

[251 x 163 ; opening, 126 x 89.] From P. DIO | SCOBID^E | PHABMACOBUM | Sim- 
plicium, reique Medicse | LIBBI vin. | Io. RVELLIO interprete, J. Schott, Strassburg, 
28 Aug., 1529; fol. (Schmidt, ii, 111). The first two lines of the title and the names 
of plants, etc., printed with type inserted in the block, are in red. 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. MS. 5920, 127). 

Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1900. 

142. QUARTO BORDER WITH THE STORY OF ADAM AND EVE. 

A single block, with opening, approximately square, representing a 
scroll with the ends rolled up. On the 1. side, the creation of Eve ; at the 
top, the Fall ; on the r. side, the Expulsion from Eden ; at the bottom, 
Adam tilling the ground, Eve seated r. holding up a baby in both hands, 
and surrounded by other children, one of whom carries a small uprooted 
tree, in the background Cain chasing a stag. 

[122 x 87 (cut) ; opening, 49x55.] From POSTIL- | LA LATINA, | Pro Christiana 
luuentute, per | Quaestiones explicate,. \ AVT . loanne Spangenbergio. | Apud 
Northusanos Verbi \ ministro. \ FBANC. Apud Chr. Egenolphum. 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. MS. 5992, 120). 

Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1900. 

Not described by Rott, but unmistakably by Weiditz. The book to which the 
title-page belongs is not in the library. Egenolph (as he seems at first to have 
written his name, afterwards Egenolff) left Strassburg for Frankfort in the autumn 
of 1530. The subject of this border is the same as that of Egenolph's device, \ised 
both at Strassburg ("Els. Bucherm.," xxi) and at Frankfort (" Frankf . Bucherm.^" 1 
xxvii, verso). 

143. OCTAVO BORDER WITH SS. PETER AND PAUL. 

Steiff, " Der erste Buchdruck in Tubingen," 1881, p. 30, no. 6V 

A single block. At the top, the Conversion of St. Paul ; 1. St. Paul, r. 
St. Peter, standing ; at bottom, the dispersion of the twelve Apostles, who 
fall into four groups, of three, four, two and three respectively ; most of 
them carry staves, the three to 1. are grouped round a fountain. 

[130 x 85 ; opening, 70 x 47.] From IN OB | SCVBIOBA ALI- | QVOT CAPITA 

GE- | NESEOS PHILIP. ME- I LANCH. ANNOTA- | TIONES | TVBINGAE. U. Morhard, 

Tubingen, (Dec.) 1523 (Steiff, 93). 



184 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part IL 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. MS. 5994, 13). 

Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1900. 

Not described by Rott. The attribution to Weiditz needs no demonstration. The 
border was used also in Melanchthon, " Annotationes in Evangelium loannis," July, 
1523 (St. 91), Novum Testamentum, Sept., 1523 (St. 94), and Hanapus, "Exemplorum 
liber," 1533 (St. 150 and 155). None of these books are in the Museum. 

144. OCTAVO BORDER WITH SUBJECTS PROM THE ILIAD. Rott. 65. 

A single block. On 1. side Homer with a harp and Calliope with a 
lute ; at top, Hecuba and Priam looking out from the walls of Troy, and 
a group of men comprising Deiphobus and Alexander ; on r. side, Achilles 
dragging Hector behind his chariot ; at the bottom, combat between 
AchiUes and Hector. 

[126 x 82; opening, 64 x 39.] From OMH- j POT IAIAZ Argent, apd' 

Vuolf . Cephal. \ ANNO M.D.XXV. Between the title and the printer's address is the 
device of Kopfel, a group of winged children lifting a stone on a shield [23 x 36], also 
by Weiditz (Panzer, vi, 108, 716). 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. MS. 5964, 54). 

Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1900. 

The whole title-page is reproduced by Heitz, " Elsass. Biicherm.," xvi, 3, and by 
Rott., pi. 22. 

146. OCTAVO BORDER WITH BACCHANALIAN SUBJECTS. Rott. 67. 

Four blocks. At the top a wreath and tablet with the name BACHVS ; 
1. Bacchus and children on a vine-stem ; r. children with wine-skins, 
Bacchus seated ; at bottom, Bacchus seated among children, one of whom 
pours wine from a skin. 

[128 x 85 ; opening, 84 x 52.] From Huttichius, " Imperatorum Romanorum 
Libellus," W. Kopfel, Strassburg, 1526 (Panzer, vi, 111, 737), but the original title 
with a small device (repr. Heitz, xviii, 11) has been cut out and its place supplied 
by a larger device of Kopfel (Heitz, xviii, 8) which does not belong to this book. 

Purchased from Mr. Evans, 1849. 



146. OCTAVO BORDER WITH THE DEVICE OF JOHANN SCHOTT. 

Rott. 69. 

A single block. At the top, a flaming cresset between two winged 
demi-satyrs blowing trumpets ; at the bottom, two winged female figures 
ending in leaves, supporting a shield with Schott's device ; on either side 
a cornucopia, starting from the bottom of the shield. Background 
partially shaded. 

[125 X 85 ; opening, 72 x 51.] From LOCI I omnium ferme Capitum | Evangelij 
secun- | dum | MATTHAE- | VM. | Argentorati apud lo- | annem Schottum. | Anno. 
1527. | B. R. 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. MS. 5964, 59). 

Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1900. 

Repr. Butech, i, 73a ; Heitz, iv, 8. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Weiditz. 185 

II. PEINTEES' MAEKS AND OENAMENTS. Nos. 147-149. 

147. DEVICE OF WOLFGANG KCJPFEL. Rott. 56. 

A standing youth, whose r. leg is that of a bear, points with his r. 
hand to his heart, which is displayed in the cavity of his chest. In his 
1. hand he holds a pole to which a large wreath is attached, with four 
smaller wreaths suspended from it, each containing an empty tablet. On 
the hem of his garment is the legend MORS ET VITA. Near his 1. leg 
is a shield with three angel's heads, the device of Kopfel. 

[131 x 92.] Late impression, after the removal from the tablets of the words 
ESTAS, HYEMS, PROPE, LONGE. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1858. 

Bepr. Heitz, xvi, 1. This device was used as early as 1523, and is therefore one 
of the earliest works of Weiditz' Strassburg period. There is no break of continuity 
between this and his Augsburg illustrations of 1521-22. 

148. DEVICE OF CHRISTIAN EGENOLFF. 

Landscape with a background of forest. Adam r. is tilling the ground 
with a primitive hoe. Eve sits 1. under a date palm with a baby in her 
lap. In the foreground two other children are rocking a third in its 
cradle, and a fourth is filling a pail of water at a spring. In the distance 
Cain is chasing a deer and a hare. 

[57 X 48.] Cut from a book with German text. 

Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 

Repr. Heitz, xxi, 1, and " Frankfurter Biichermarken," pi. xxvii, verso. 

Bott. does not describe this woodcut, but I see no reason to doubt that it is by 
Weiditz. The subject is that of the border described above (no. 141), but the com- 
position is different in all respects. The device occurs in books issued both before 
and after Egenolph's removal from Strassburg to Frankfort in 1530. The second 
book mentioned by Heitz is dated January, 1530. In 1535 this woodcut was used, 
not as a printer's mark but as an illustration, in the " Chronica," illustrated chiefly 
by Beham (Pauli, p. 484). It occurs also in " Biblische Historien," 1551. 



149. DEVICE OF MATTHIAS BIENEB (APIABIUS). 

P. iii, 415, 134. Woltmann, ii, 196, 245. 

A bear stands on its hind legs reaching up to a hollow in the side of a 
fir-tree, which contains honey. A mallet hangs from a bough over the 
bear's head, and there is a spider's web high up on the 1. side. Bees fly in 
and out of the hole and settle on an open Bible, with Hebrew characters, 
which lies open on the ground among flowering plants. 

[85 x 58.] No border-line. The device is surrounded by printed quotations from 
the Bible, one Greek and three Latin. Good impression, with margin (size of sheet, 
248 x 175), probably from Hortus Sanitatis, 1536. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1825. 

Repr. Heitz, xxiv, 1 (no. 2 is obviously by the same artist). Rightly attributed 
to Weiditz by Dr. Dornhoffer, Kunstgeschichtliche Anzeigen, 1904, 57. Apiarius 
printed at Strassburg 1533-36 ; in 1537 he removed to Berne, and is said to have 
died in 1554. Woltmann's information about this device is inaccurate, and there is 
no reason for attributing it to Holbein. 



186 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

150 (a, b). TWO ORNAMENTAL BORDERS. 

From the Bagford collection (Harl. MS. 5917, 56). 
Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1900. 

These candelabra [92 x 16], here used as head and tail-pieces on a 
folio page, belong to a numerous set of ornaments properly belonging to 
the decoration of an octavo book. 1 The page in question is that contain- 
ing the name of Weiditz in its Latinized form, Joannes Guidictius, in 
Otto Brunfels' " Herbarum vivae Eicones," J. Schott, Strassburg, 1530, 
1532, 1539 (Rott. 77, cf. p. 17). 2 The coat of arms on the back of the 
leaf, printed in red and black in the 1530 edition, but not here, is by 
another hand ; the helm and crest show that the arms are not those of 
Strassburg, as Rott. supposes, but those of a private individual, presumably 
Brunfels himself. 



III. ILLUSTRATIONS. Nos. 151-152. 

151. A COOK IN HIS KITCHEN. Rott. 78. 

A stout cook in a cap stands in the middle, surrounded by all sorts of 
cooking utensils and baskets of vegetables. Between his legs is the wood- 
engraver's monogram IVF. 

[73 x 113 (cut, should be 74 x 118).] From the Bagford collection. 

Transferred from the Dept. of MSS., 1814. 

The cut in the first state, with the monogram, appears only to have been used in 
the first edition of Platina, " Von alien Speisen vnd Gerichten," C. Egenolph, Strass- 
burg, Jan., 1530. In the second state, without the monogram, it occurs in several of 
Egenolph's books, from 1530 to 1564 (W. Reiff, " Lustgarten der gesundtheit," 1546, 
89, " Koch und Kellermeysterei," 1564, title-page). A copy [75 x 118] was used in 
Steiner's editions of Platina, Augsburg, 14 Nov., 1530, and 3 July, 1531, and in 
Platina, " Von der Eerliche Wolust des leibs," Steiner, 4 March, 1542, fol. 45 v. 

152. A COOK IN HIS KITCHEN. 

A younger cook, bare-headed, stands in the midst of his kitchen, 
turning to the right, and lifting the lid from a saucepan. 

[79 x 114.] From the Bagford collection. 
Transferred from the Dept. of MSS., 1814. 

This woodcut is undescribed, and its provenance is at present unknown to me, but 
it is clearly by the same hand as no. 151. 

1 They are used, for instance, in Brunfels' " Biblisch Bettbuchlin," 1531, fol. 6 v. 
and 7. 

1 Of the 24 verses by Joannes Sapidus the following four refer to the artist : 
Nunc & Joannes pictor Guidictius ille 

Clarus Apellseo non minus ingeniq, 
Reddidit adfabras acri sic arte figuras, 
Vt non nemo Herbas dixerit esse meras. 



187 



VI. CHRISTOPH AMBERGER. 

Christoph Amberger (b. about 1500 ?) entered the guild of painters 
at Augsburg on 15 May, 1530 ; presented pupils 1536, 1538, 1542, 
1546 ; earliest known painting a portrait of Charles V, 1532, 
latest a religious picture, 1560, in church of St. Anne; d. at 
Augsburg between 1 Nov., 1561, and 19 Oct., 1562. 

Authorities : 

A. Woltmann in Meyer's Kiinstler-Lexikon, i, 600. 

R. Vischer, " Studien zur Kunstgeschichte," 1886 (see index, p, 

613). 

Catalogue of the Vienna Gallery, 1896, p. 402. 
Literature on David de Necker's series of landsknechts already 

quoted on p. 106. 

Amberger is not mentioned in the older literature as a designer 
of woodcuts, but his name is expressly mentioned by David de 
ISTecker as one of the three Augsburg painters who had drawn the 
series of landsknechts cut by his father Jost. His exact share in the 
work is uncertain, and can only be approximately fixed by internal 
evidence. The only other woodcuts that can be definitely ascribed 
to him are three, following seventy-nine cuts by Burgkmair, at 
the end of Pappenheim's chronicle of the family of the Counts 
Truchsess von Waldburg (P. iii, 274, 104 ; Muther in Bepertorium, ix. 
446). One of these is signed C.A. The date of Burgkmair's share 
in the work is 1530 ; Amberger may have completed it after his 
death in 1531. The series is very rare and not represented here. 

WOODCUTS ATTRIBUTED TO AMBERGER. 

1. A LANDSKNECHT THREE-QUARTER FACE TO R., LOOKING UP r 

HOLDING A SPEAR. D. de N. 1. 

[262 x 152.] Good impression, cut at the top. 

2. A LANDSKNECHT THREE-QUARTER FACE TO R., LOOKING UP, 

HOLDING A HALBERD. D. de N. 6. Pauli 1459. 

[282 x 166.] Old impression, much torn and repaired. 

3. TWO LANDSKNECHTS KNEELING, PLAYING AT DICE. D. de N., 13, 14. 
[232 x 333.] Good old impression of the two blocks printed on one sheet. 



188 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

4. A LANDSKNECHT TO L. HOLDING A HALBERD IN HIS L. HAND. 

D. de N. 23. Pauli 1458. 
[275 x 123.] Good Impression, cut close but well preserved. 

6. A LANDSKNECHT TO L. HOLDING A SWORD BEHIND HIS NECK. 

D. de N. 29. 
[268 x 161.] Good impression. 

6. A LANDSKNECHT FULL FACE, HOLDING A SPEAR, HIS R. HAND 

ON HIS HIP. D. de N. 34. Pauli 1455. 

[268 x 150.] Good impression, cut close. 

7. A LANDSKNECHT WALKING TO L. HOLDING A POLE IN HIS L. 

HAND. D. de N. 36. Pauli 1456. 

[265 x 148.] Good impression. 

8. A LANDSKNECHT IN A HAT WITH LONG FEATHERS, LOOKING 

UP TO L. D. de N. 39. 

[277 X 131.] Good impression. 

9. A LANDSKNECHT LOOKING TO R., HIS BODY DIRECTED TO THE 

FRONT. D. de N. 40. 

[273 x 143.] Good impression. 

10. A LANDSKNECHT TO L. HOLDING A POLE IN BOTH HANDS. 

D. de N. 41. 
[275 x 125.] Good impression ; watermark, small high crown. 

11. A LANDSKNECHT TO R. WITH LONG BEARD, HOLDING HIS 

HAT IN HIS R. HAND. D. de N. 42. 

[278 x 150.] Good impression. 

12. A LANDSKNECHT IN PROFILE TO R. WITH ONE FEATHER IN 

HIS HAT. D. de N. 44. 

[273 x 140.] Good impression ; watermark, small high crown. 

13. A LANDSKNECHT TO L. BRANDISHING A SPEAR IN HIS L. HAND. 

D. de N. 45. 
[268 x 156.] Good impression. 

14. A LANDSKNECHT DRAWN FROM THE BACK, HIS HEAD TO R., 

WITH A PEACOCK'S FEATHER. D. de N. 50. 

[285 x 163.] Good impression. 

Nos. 2-4 and 8-14 were purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845 ; nos. 1 and 5-7 at 
Gutekunst's auction, 1901. All are on early paper, without watermark except in the 
case of nos. 10 and 12. 

Nos. 1, 3, 5 and 8-14 are attributed to Amberger by H. A. Schmid and W. Schmidt. 
Nos. 2, 4 and 7 are attributed by Schmid to Ainberger, but by Schmidt to Beham ; 
Pauli rejects them. No. 6, not mentioned by Schmid, is treated in the same way by 
Schmidt and Pauli. The whole of the woodcuts here described are almost certainly 
by one draughtsman, and as they cannot be attributed to Burgkmair, Breu or 
Beham, we arrive by the method of exclusion at the less-known Amberger. 



189 



VII. DANIEL HOPFER. 

Daniel Hopfer, of Kaufbeuren, painter, etcher, and draughtsman 
on wood ; became a citizen of Augsburg 12 October, 1493 ; mentioned 
in the same year as a master presenting a pupil to the guild of 
painters ; presented other pupils 1498, 1501, 1503 ; designed title- 
pages for books printed by Johann Miller and Silvan Otmar, 1514- 
20, and initial letters for the press of his brother-in-law Dr. 
Sigismund Grimm, 1522-23 ; obtained a grant of arms signed by the 
Archduke Ferdinand at Nuremberg, 28 January, 1524; various 
documents mention him as enjoying a prosperous and honourable 
position at Augsburg, where he died in 1536. His relationship to 
the etchers Hieronymus and Lambert Hopfer is unknown. 

Authorities : 

R. Weigel, " Holzschnitte beriihmter Meister," 1851-54, no. 37. 

R. Weigel, " Kunstkatalog," 1852, no. 18944. 

G. Nagler, " Monogramrnisten," 1860, ii, nos. 1131-32. 

A. F. Butsch, " Bucherornamentik," 1878, i, 21-23, and text 

(p. 64) to Taf. 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 30. 
R. Muther, " Biicherillustration," 1884, i, 159. 
R. Vischer, "Studien zur Kunstgeschichte," 1886 (see index, p. 

619). 
C. Liitzow, " G-eschichte des deutschen Kupferstiches u. Holzsch- 

nittes," 1891, 221. 
R. Proctor, " Index to Early Printed Books in the British Museum," 

Pt. ii, 1903 (p. 81, borders A, B, D, F ; p. 84, border G). 
H. Rottinger, " Hans Weiditz," 1904, p. 82, no. 32. 

Hopfer's heavy renaissance ornament on a black ground is over- 
praised by Butsch. The best example of his figure-drawing is the 
title-page of " Chronicon Abbatis Urspergensis " (1515), which could 
hardly be attributed to the same hand as the group in the " Chryso- 
passus" title-page (1514), were the figures not drawn upon the same 
block as a border undoubtedly by Hopfer. Even so, the collaboration 
of another master is not impossible. 



190 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY HOPFER. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FEINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [GREGORY.] Divi Gregorii Nazanzeni sermones, Oecolampadio 
interprete. Grimm and Wirsuug, Augsburg, 22 May, 1519 ; 4to. (Pr. 
10901). 

Initials C, G, P, R, Q. 

2. [CICERO.] Ciceronis biichlein vo dem Alter. S. Grimm, Augs- 
burg, 1522 ; fol. 

D 1. Initial H, ornamented with masks. 

3. [TURNAUER.] Von dem Jiidi | schen vnnd Jsraeli- | schen 
volck vnnd | jren vorgeera. | Durch Casparn Tur- | nawer auss der Bi- | bel 
gezogen. | M.D.XXVIII. (Augsburg, 1528) ; 4to. 

Late impression of the border, Proctor, S. Otmar F (repr. Butsch, pi. 26), used in 
1517. The design is certainly by Hopfer, but it is an adaptation, possibly not by his 
own hand, of the signed border A (Butsch, pi. 24). 

B. IN THR DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

(Only the earliest book in which each border occurs is mentioned here. The 
numbers of Proctor are quoted for repetitions down to 1520.) 

1. [JOHANN VON ECK.] Chrysopassus. J. Miller, Augsburg, Nov., 
1514 ; fol. (Muther 939 ; Pr. 10824). 

Cut on title-page (repr. Butsch, i, 20). See p. 191, no. 1. 

2. [CONRADUS.] Chronicon Abbatis Urspergensis. J. Miller, Augs- 
burg, 23 Oct. 1515 ; fol. (Muther 940 ; Pr. 10829A). 

Cut on title-page, Nagl. Mon. ii, p. 437, no. 4 (repr. Butsch, i, 21). 

3. [PINICIANUS.] Promptnarium vocabulorum. S. Otmar, Augs- 
burg, 26 Jan., 1516 ; 4to. (Pr. 10754). 

Signed title-border, Pr. A, Nagl. Mon. ii, p. 438, nos. 6, 7 (repr. Butsch, i, 24). 
Repeated in Pr. 10757, 10765, 10769, 10781, 10784, 10785, 10795, 10796, 10808-10. 

4. [SAXONY.] Sassenspegel. S. Otmar, Augsburg, 1 Feb., 1516 ; 
fol. (Pr. 10755). 

Signed title-border, Pr. B, Nagl. Mon. ii, p. 437, no. 3 (repr. Butsch, i, 23). Re- 
peated in Pr. 10763. 

5. [GERMAN THEOLOGY.] Theologia Teiitsch. S. Otmar, Augs- 
burg, 23 Sept., 1518 ; 4to. (Pr. 10766). 

Title-border, Pr. D (repr. Butsch, i, 30). Repeated in Pr. 10770, 10797, 10811, 
10812. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Hopfer. 191 

6. [AUCTORES.] Ex probatissimis auctoribus vocabula. S. Otmar, 
Augsburg, 1518 ; 4to. (Pr. 10772). 

Title-border, Pr. P, perhaps a copy of Pr. A (repr. Butsch, i, 26). Repeated in 
Pr. 10814. 

7. [FABRL] Declamationes divine de humane vite miseria. 
J. Miller, Augsburg, 8 Aug., 1520 ; fol. (Pr. 10855). 

Title-border, Pr. G, Nagl. 5, copied from S. Otmar's border B. The monogram is 
retained. 

8. [BIBLE.] Psalter des kuniglichen prophetten dauids geteutscht. 
S. Grimm, Augsburg, 1523 ; 8vo. (see p. 154, no. 41). 

Initials by Hopfer. 



WOODCUTS BY HOPFER. 

1. TITLE-PAGE OF EOK'S " CHRYSOPASSUS." 1514. (See p. 190, no. 1.) 

t Jacob and Esau stand side by side under an arch. God, surrounded 
by cherubim, holds a crown over Jacob's head. The inscriptions 
OHRYSOPASSUS, THEODORUS, ALEXANDER, are xylographic, the remainder 
printed with type. 

[255 x 173.] Good impression with margin. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

2. TITLE-BORDER OF FOUR BLOCKS, WHITE ARABESQUE ON BLACK 

GROUND (Pr. S. Otmar D). 

[174 x 122 ; opening, 91 x 72.] Not signed. From Luther, " Ain Sermon Von 
dem Ban," Augsburg, 1520 ; 4to. Repr. Butsch, i, pi. 30. For other books in which 
the border was used (from 1518), see p. 190, no. 5. 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

3. DEVICE OF JOHANN MILLER (Pr. C). Nagl. Mon. ii. p. 437, no. 4. 

An escutcheon, party per fess sable and or ; a miller half-length 
holding on his head half a millstone ; mantling and crest of the same. 
In the upper corners are cornucopiae. Single border-line. 

[100 x 75.] Good impression, from Jornandes, " De rebus Gothorum," 21 March, 
1515, in which the device was first used. It also occurs in " Chronicon Abbatis 
Urspergensis," 1515, and " Fabri Declamationes," 1520. 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1850. 

Hopfer's connexion with Miller and the character of the ornament make Nagler's 
attribution probable. 



192 



VIII. THE MASTER D S. 

Unknown designer of ornaments, influenced by Hans Weiditz. 
Two unsigned oblong panels, which occur frequently in books printed 
by Steiner after 1530, were originally used about 1524 in title-borders, 
composed of four blocks in different combinations, for books by 
Urbanus Regius. One of the upright panels which occur in each 
of these borders is signed D S. (See Nagler, Monogrammisten, ii, 
p. 524, no. 1370, where the artist's work is dated too late.) 



BOOKS WHICH CONTAIN WOODCUTS BY D S. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [CICERO.] Officia. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 16 Feb., 1531 ; fol. 

Pol. 58 v. Ornament on black ground, containing four children, two cornucopias, 
and in the middle the initials "i h s," reversed, within a wreath. 

2. [PETRARCH.] Von der Artzney bayder Gluck. H. Steiner, 
Augsburg, 9 Feb., 1532 ; fol. 

Vol. i, end of the preface and fol. 144. Ornament of architectural character, with 
three medallions, containing the head of a queen full face and two female heads in 
profile. The central medallion is flanked by winged children seated on dolphins and 
holding a wreath. 

B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [RHEGIUS.] Von volkomenhait vnd frucht des leidens Christi. 
(Augsburg, n.d. 1522 ?) ; 4to. (W. 2253). 

Architectural border of four pieces, the signed panel being on the left ; the bottom 
piece is the first of those described above. 

2. [RHEGIUS.] Ob das new testament yetz recht verteutscht sey. 
M.D.X^IIII. (Augsburg) ; 4to. (W. 3116). 

Similar border, the signed panel r. ; the bottom piece is the second of those 
described above. 



193 



IX. THE MASTER 

Unimportant draughtsman and copyist; worked about 1513-1530 
at Leipzig and Augsburg. Only the Augsburg woodcuts are con- 
sidered here, and the list of books containing them does not include 
the numerous unsigned works which can be attributed to him on 
grounds of style. 

Authorities : 

Nagler, " Monogrammisten," iii, no. 1449. 

Muther, " Biicherillustration," i, 160. 

Rottinger, "Hans Weiditz der Petrarkameister," 1904, p. 73. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY 
A. IN THE DEPAKTMENT OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [CAPISTRANUS.] VITA JOHANNIS | CAPISTRANI. | Ser- 
mones eiusdem. J. Miller, Augsburg, 8 Jan., 1519 ; 4to. (Muther 947 ; 
Pr. 10846). 

Duplicate transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1889. 

On title-page, St. John Capistran preaching. In the foreground pointed shoes, 

cards, dice and backgammon boards are being burnt. The monogram J^ is on a 

pair of bellows [115 x 118]. 

This woodcut was ascribed by Bartsch (vii, 255, 36) to Schaufelein. Rottinger 
(p. 74) suggests with great plausibility that this is a copy of an unknown woodcut by 
Weiditz, to whose woodcuts of 1518 it has a marked affinity. 



B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [VITELLIUS.] Oratio in conventu Augustensi. J. Miller, 
Augsburg (after 31 Aug., 1518) ; 4to. (Pr. 10843). 

The border, Pr. Miller C, is a free reduced copy (signed) from Weiditz's folio 
border, Rott. 21. 





194 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

2. [CHRONIK.] Bin Schone Cronick vn Hysteria (by S. Meisterlein). 
M. Ramminger, Augsburg, 1522 ; fol. 

All the woodcuts except the border, which is by Burgkmair (repr., Formenschatz, 
1887). The signature occurs on a copy of the battle of St. Ulnch by Weiditz (Rott. 
18). Nagl. Mon. iii, p. 587, no. 9. 

3. [ALCIATUS.] Eniblematum Liber. H. Steiner, Augsburg, 
G April, 1581 ; 8vo. 

The printer's mark of Steiner mentioned by Nagler, Muther and Rottinger as 
occurring in Boner's Xenophon, 1540, is found nine years earlier on the last leaf of 
this book. There can be no doubt that it represents Steiner's device, and that the 
monogram consequently stands in this case for Heinrich Steiner, but just for this 
reason it is extremely doubtful whether this woodcut has anything to do with the 
artist with whom we are now concerned, who used a similar monogram for his own 
signature. 



WOODCUT BY 

1. ST. JOHN CAPISTRAN PREACHING. B. vii, 255, 36. 

[120 x 118.] Late impression of the woodcut already described. There is a 
crack across the block 22 mm. from the top. 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1867. 

On the lower margin is a MS. inscription (XVIII century?), " Im Jahr Christi 
M.CGCC.LII. seind, auf eines Cardinals, Nahmens Johann Capistran, Predigt, die er 
in Niirnberg, unter dem freyon Himel, vor unser Frauen Kapellen, gethan hat, 76. 
Schlitten, 2640 Brettspiel, 40000 Wiirfel, und ein grosser Hauffe Kartenspiel, wie 
auch unterschiedlich Geschmeid, vnd anders so zur Hoffart dienlich, auf dem Marck 
offcntlich vorbrand worden." 

(For another woodcut, see Vol. I, p. 349, no. 2b.) 



195 



X. THE MASTEE 



Draughtsman ; biography unknown ; worked at Augsburg about 
1516(?)-1522, then, perhaps, at Basle, and in 1526 at Cologne. 

Authorities : 

F. Dornhoffer, in KunstgeschichtlicUe Anzeigen, 1904, pp. 60, 61. 
See also Burlington Magazine, 1907, X, 319, and the literature 
quoted on each of the woodcuts. 

Except in the review quoted above, the connexion between the 
scattered pieces of this master's work has never been recognised. Of 
his few signed woodcuts one appeared at Cologne, while another has 
always been associated, though on insufficient grounds, with Basle 1 ; 
his principal Augsburg work, the set of 37 illustrations to Apuleius, 
has been attributed to other artists (Burgkmair, Weiditz). It needs 
insight and close study of the original woodcuts to accept, in face 
of such obstacles, the evidence of style in favour of their common 
authorship. 

For the connexion of this artist with Augsburg there is the 
following evidence. Illustrations by him appeared in Augsburg 
books 2 ; Buchlein von Complexion der Menschen (S. Otmar, 1518), 
Maximilianus Transilvanus, Legatio (Grimm and Wirsung, 1519-20, a 
German edition dated 29 March, 1520), Apuleius (Weissenhorn, 1538, 
the cuts much earlier in date). The Apuleius illustrations are clearly 
by the master who signed with his monogram a cut in the Passion 
series printed at Cologne in 1526. The initials 1ST H appear on the 
woodcut of a battle of naked men in a wood, and the evidence of 
style again proves the draughtsman to be the same. This last wood- 

1 The cut DIVISIO APOSTOLORVM, signed and dated 1522, which Passavant 
describes (iii, 443, 1) without mentioning where he saw it, is unknown both to Dr. 
Dornhoffer and myself. I searched in vain at Basle in 1906 for P. 3, a design in the 
manner of Holbein said to bear the monogram of N H. 

2 The assertion of Prof. H. A. Schmid (Berlin Jahrbuch, xx, 246) that no woodcuts 
by N H appeared at Augsburg, cannot be upheld after the evidence to the contrary 
brought by Dr. Dornhoffer. 

2 



196 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

cut is accompanied, in one edition, by verses printed in the Augsburg 
dialect. 1 It is signed, moreover, in another edition, by the wood- 
engraver, in the form HANNS . LEVCZELLBVRGER . FVRMSCHNIDER . 
1.5.2.2. The same engraver calls himself, on the proofs of 
Holbein's Dance of Death initials, " Hanns Lutzelburger, form- 
schnider, genant Franck." Now Hans Franck (Lutzelburger), who 
was engaged from the end of 1522 onwards in cutting Holbein's 



' ' I am indebted to Dr. Max Geisberg for a transcript of the verses printed in 
three columns beneath the Dresden impression, of which only excerpts have hitherto 
been printed, and that not without errors. 

(First column.) Ain Insel haiszt Vtopion 

Die leyt nit ferr von Morian 
Da gschach ain sollichs schlagen 

Hundert tausent hort ich sagen 
Doch ist es eben vil dor Jar 

Das ich gelaub es sey nit war 
Wann wie wolt ain nackend man 

Ain angelegten pawren bstan 
Der maister der das hat erdicht 

Der hat seiu kunst dahin gericht 
Das man erkennen mug da bey 

Wasz hoher kunst im maalen sey 
Ausz maalen kumpt gar vil zu druck 

Durch formen schneyden manig stuck 
Vnd welcher sollich kunst nit waisz 

Der maalt ain Esel fiir ain gaisz 
Vnd ain Teiifel fur ain Engel 

Ain wurst fiir ain pretzenstengel 
Maalen kumpt von alter her 

Maalen hat grosz lob vnd eer 
Bey den alten offt erworben 

Das zeiigen die vor seind gestorben 
Pythis Micon Timagor 

(Second column.) Poligrot Appollodor 

Der auch den ersten pensel fand 

Gleophant gab farb dem gwand 
Gyges nach dem schatten maalt 

Prothagein die kunst nit fault 
Den doch Appelles xiber wand 

Mit kluger lyni die er fand 
Zonsis die weinber maalt so fein 

Das darzu flugen die vogelein 
Vnd wolten daruon esson 

Parrhasis sich nit vergessen 
Der maalt ain tuch von kluger art 

Daruon Zensis betrogen ward 
Wer maalen will soil sein gelert 

In kiinsten vil, als drinn begert 
Die rechten kunst der maalerey 

In perspectiua, Geometrey 
Er soil auch gar mit nichte 

Versaumen der Poeten dichte 
Mit sinnen sey er gschwind vnd bhend 

Den sinnen volgen nach die hend 
Das er herfiir kiind bringen 

Masz vnd gstalt in alien dingen 



Division B. School of Augsburg. The Master N E. 197 

designs at Basle, and cut alphabets in that same year for the Mentz 
printer Schoffer, had been one of the group of wood-engravers 
engaged at Augsburg under Jost de Negker in work for the Emperor 
Maximilian I from 15 1G to 1519. 1 It would seem that he remained 
at Augsburg till 1522, and that the "Battle of Naked Men in a 
Wood" is his earliest work of that year and his latest done at 
Augsburg, which place both he and the draughtsman probably 
quitted, like Hans Weiditz at the same date, on account of the 
depression in the printing and illustrating trades, of which the failure 
of Grimm and Wirsung was a symptom. 2 On the other hand, it is 
possible that N H himself, who seems later to have migrated to 
Cologne, may have resided at Basle for a time in 1522, and that the 
dialect may be explained by the recent residence of both designer and 
engraver at Augsburg. Acquaintance with More's Utopia, which had 
been printed by Froben in 1518, in itself proves no close connexion 
with Basle. 

In the Apuleius illustrations the designer, whether a native of 
Augsburg or not, proves himself a thorough master of the Augsburg 
style, akin to Burgkmair, Schaufelein, Breu and Weiditz; he 
approaches the latter, at the period of the Celestina and Trostspiegel 
illustrations, more nearly than any other artist. The signed work 
of 1522 differs from the Apuleius by the excellence, that of 1526 by 

(Third column.) Mit jr natur vnd aigenschafft 

Vil farben macht er ausz dem safit 
Grun, plaw, praun, wie mans haben will 

Wer maalen will der darff noch vil 
Erfarung land vnd leiite 

Berg vnd tal, hoch gebiirg vnd weyte 
Fisch, vogel, aller thier gestalt 

Er kennen soil, wie manigfalt 
Gott hat sy all gezieret 

Den hymel vmbher fieret 
Mit liechter vil entprennet 
Dabey man wol erkennet 
Den schopffer hooh ins hymels throne 

Der alle gaben tailt gar schone 
Mit rechter masz wer es begerte 

Desz maalens seind nit vil gelerte 
Darumb man billich loben soil 

Den, der sein kunst beweiset wol 
Als diser auch ain maister was 

Doch 1st jm lieber das wein glasz 
Das braucht er fiir ain langen spiesz 

Er thue jms nach, den das verdriesz. 
1 See p. 208. 

z Woltmann (" Holbein," i, 193), His (Zahn's Jahrbiicher, iii, 169) and Lippmann 
(" Engravings and Woodcuts by Old Masters," ii, 40), are in favour of the 
woodcut having been produced at Augsburg. Liitzow (" Gesch. d. deutschen Kupf. 
u. Holzschn.," p. 149) holds that Liitzelburger came from Augsburg, but calls the 
master NH " oberrheinisch." 



198 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

the inferiority of the cutting ; in the latter series, moreover, the 
influence of Diirer shows itself; but the same personality may be 
traced through all. 1 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY THE MASTER N H. 
A IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTS AND DBAWINGS. 

1. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. J. Schonsperger, sen., Nurem- 
burg, 1517 ; fol. 

Cut no. 14. A bear hunt (the head of Fiirwittig, r., corrected by Beck). Dr. 
Dornhoffer suggests that this cut (by Laschitzer's " unknown master E "\ may be a 
work of the monogrammist. Comparison of the head of Ehrenhold (1.) with types in 
the Apuleius and Maximilianus Transilvanus inclines me to the same opinion. 

2. [PFINZING.] Theuerdank. J. Schonsperger, sen., Augsburg, 
1519 ; fol. 

The same cut repeated. 

3. [CHELIDONIUS.] Passio Jesu Chfi ama- | rulenta, certis & 
primarijs effigiata locis, uario [ carmine Benedict! Chelidonij, & tandem 
Chri- j stiani Ischyrij illustrata. P. Quentel, Cologne, 152G ; 8vo. 

Purchased from Mr. Bumstead, 1852. 

Thirty-seven cuts [c. 84 x 60]. First mentioned by Dornhoffer, loc. cit., p. Gl ; 
omitted by Merlo and Muther. 

(1) A 3. The Man of Sorrows, standing. (2) A 4. The Fall of Man (signed- A A-/ 1 ) 

(For the bushes compare Apuleius, fol. 26 v., 27 v., etc.) (3) A 5. The Expulsion from 
Eden. (4) A 6. The Annunciation. (5) A 7. The Nativity. (6) A 8. The Entry 
into Jerusalem. (7) B 1. Christ purifying the Temple. (8) B 2. The Virgin, kneel- 
ing. (9) B 3. The last Supper. (10) B 4. Christ washing the Apostles' feet 
(compare types in Apuleius, fol. 10). (11) B 5. The Agony in the Garden. (12) 
B 6. The Betrayal of Christ. (13) B 7. Christ before Annas. (14) B 8. Christ 
before Caiaphas. (15) C 1. Christ mocked. (16) C 2. Christ before Pilate. (17) C 3. 
Christ before Herod. (18) C. 4. Christ scourged (for the gaoler r. compare Apuleius 
9, man in boat). (19) C 5. Christ crowned with thorns. (20) C 6. Ecce homo. 
(21) C 7. Pilate washing his hands. (22) C 8. Christ bearing the Cross. [D 1. 
The Man of Sorrows, seated, 78 x 61, probably by a different artist.] (23) D 2. 
Christ fastened to the Cross (Apuleius trees). (24) D 3. Christ on the Cross between 
the Virgin and St. John. (25) D 4. Christ descending into Hell. (26) D 5. The 
Descent from the Cross. (27) D 6. The Lamentation beneath the Cross. (28) D 7. 
The Entombment. (29) D 8. The Resurrection. (30) E 1. Christ appearing to 
the Virgin. (31) E 2. Christ appearing to St. Mary Magdalen (trees and female 
type as in Apuleius, fol. 33 v.). (32) E 3. The Supper at Emmaus. (33) E 4. The 
incredulity of St. Thomas. (34) E 5. The Ascension. (35) E 6. The Descent of 
the Holy Ghost. (36) E 7. The Last Judgment. 

1 I attribute to the same master without hesitation a woodcut [84 x 58] of the 
" Nothelfer," among whom SS. George, Pantaloon, Erasmus, Christopher and 
Catherine are the most conspicuous, in the Culemann collection at Hanover (Kestner 
Museum). On the verso is Latin text in large type from sig. MM iiij of an exposition 
of the liturgical gospels, ending " . . . . odierno Euangelio, inter csetera." The 
book, not identified, probably contains a series of illustrations by this master. 






trien erv 
phaltzgrafen 

4lo. 

On the back t 



H H H3T3AM 1 



.idenreUaer, name,! 
* to to UK, tbw 







PLATE XIII 

THE MASTER N H 

ILLUSTRATION TO APULEIUS 






Division B. School of Augsburg. The Master N H. 199 



B. IN THE DEPAETMKNT or FEINTED BOOKS. 

1. [MAXIMILIANUS TRANSILVANUS.] Legatio ad sacratis J 
simum ac inuictu Csesarem Diuu Carolii ... in Molendino regio | Die 
ultimo Novembris . Anno . M .D.XIX. (Grimm and Wirsung, Augsburg) ; 
4to. (Pr. 10909. Dornhoffer, p. 60). 

Cut [150 X 102] on title-page. Frederick, Elector Palatine, approaches Charles V, 
who is on his throne, attended by four courtiers. The architecture and the treat- 
ment of heraldry suggest Weiditz, and the cutting is probably the work of a man 
accustomed to work for that artist, but the types of face, especially of the two men 
on either side of Charles, are characteristic of N H. 

2. [GERMANY.] Werbung an den . . . Herrn Carlen erwelten 
Romischen Konig . . . durch . . . Herrn Friderichen phaltzgrafen 
bey Rein, etc. (Grimm and Wirsung), Augsburg, 29 March, 1520 ; 4to. 
(Weller 1655 ; Muther 1057 ; Pr. 10915). 

On the back of the title-page, the same cut as in no. 1. 

3. [APULEIUS.j Ain Schon Lieblich auch kurtzweylig gedicbte 
Lucij Apuleij von ainem gulden Esel [translated by Job. Sieder]. A. Weis- 
senhorn, Augsburg, 1538 ; fol. (Muther 929 ; Rottinger (Weiditz) 3). 
(Specimens of the illustrations are reproduced in both books.) 

Thirty-seven cuts [c. 117 X 154] on ff. 1-33, one of which (f . 17 v.) is also used on 
the title-page. Costume and style prove that this first part of the illustrations must 
have been designed about 1520. Then, for some reason or other, the publication of 
the book was postponed. When the project was resumed the publisher applied to 
Schaufelein to complete the series ; the remaining cuts are in the latest style of that 
artist, and the date 1537 suits them very well. See p. 14, no. 32. 

4. [HOMER.] Odyssea (translated by Simon Schaidenreisser, named 
Minervius). A. Weissenhorn, Augsburg, 1538 ; fol. 

On fol. 9 the cut from fol. 31 v. of Apuleius is used as an illustration to the third 
book of the Odyssey. The seventeen remaining illustrations are by another hand, 
much influenced by Breu. 



200 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



WOODCUT DESIGNED BY N H. 

1. BATTLE OF NAKED MEN AGAINST PEASANTS IN A WOOD. 

B. vii, 552, 1. P. iii, 443, 2. Nagl. Mon. iii. no. 1292. 

The scene is a fir-wood in Utopia ; in the battle 100,000 men are said 
to have fallen, but the poet confesses his scepticism : 

Doch ist es eben vil der Jar 

Das ich gelaub es sey nit war 
Wann wie wolt ain nackend man 

Ain angelegten pawren bstan ? 

It does not appear whether the peasants, armed with flails, clubs, 
scythes, axes, etc., are themselves Utopians or invaders assailing the 
natives of the island, who, though naked, are armed with swords and 
bucklers. 1 To 1., standing apart from the fray, and pointing with a 

jagged stick to his monogram on a palette,* jf-J[ Ml, is the artist him- 
self, holding a blown wine-glass 3 in his r. hand, to which allusion is made 
in the text : 

Als diser auch ain maister was 

Doch ist jm lieber das wein glasz 
Das braucht er fur ain langen spiesz 
Er thtie jrns nach, den das verdriesz. 

The other nude man, running up with a can and also pointing, with 
his hand, to the palette, is perhaps the engraver, Liitzelburger himself. 
Some close connexion with the wine-bibbing artist is obviously intended, 
and the verses mention the engraver in addition to the painter : 

Der maister der das hat erdicht 

Der hat sein kunst dahin gericht. 
Das man erkennen mug da bey 

Wasz hoher kunst im maalen sey 
Ausz maalen kumpt gar vil zft druck 

Durch formen schneyden manig stuck, etc. 



1 There is an allusion, of course, to the frequent armed risings of the German 
peasants at this period. 

2 A palette of similar shape is held by the painter in no. 26 of the Weisskunig. 

3 For a similar vessel in actual use, see Apuleius, f. 10. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. The Master N H. 201 



[149 x 293.] Fine early impression, well preserved, but cut to the border-line. 
A modern false margin has been added, wherein is inserted, in the middle, the tablet 
[29 x 55] containing the engraver's name, HANNS- LEVCZELLBVRGER FVRM- 
SCHNIDER. 1 1.5.2.2, which properly belongs to the 1. side, where it was placed 
immediately under the border of the woodcut, with a tablet containing an alphabet 
in the corresponding position r. (see repr. of the Munich impression in this state in 
Hirth and Muther's Meisterholzschnitte, nos. 106, 107). The verses (68 lines in three 
columns) from which extracts are quoted above, are found on the lower margin of 
the impression at Dresden which does not contain Liitzelburger's address and the 
alphabet, and belongs accordingly to another, apparently later, edition. The Berlin 
impression also has Liitzelburger's name attached to it. The Lanna collection has 
a fine early impression without margin (watermark, high crown). 

Purchased from Mr. Obach, 1870. 

It is evident from the verses 2 that the draughtsman deliberately intended this 
woodcut to be a masterpiece, and the wood-engraver has done his best to second him 
in the effort. A very high place indeed must be assigned to it among all the pro- 
ductions of the German school. The extreme finish of the cutting, indeed, is what 
chiefly impedes the recognition of its essential unity in draughtsmanship with the 
more carelessly executed Apuleius illustrations. A few of the more marked points of 
resemblance may be pointed out. Man in hat, towards r., looking down: cf. 
Apuleius, f. 12. Face on extreme 1. : cf. bald man in same illustration. Peasant 
with flail, treatment of drapery : cf. Apuleius, f . 18 v. Hair, like a wig : cf. Apuleius, 
passim. Trees : cf. Apuleius, f . 20. The frontispiece to Maximilianus Transilvanus 
also offers many analogies. 

la. BATTLE OF NAKED MEN AGAINST PEASANTS IN A WOOD. 

A fairly early impression, stained and ill preserved ; no margin. 
Bequeathed by the Rev. C. M. Cracherode. 

lb. BATTLE OF 'NAKED MEN AGAINST PEASANTS IN A WOOD. 

A much later impression, well preserved ; no margin. Small heraldic watermark, 
indistinct. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 



1 The two tablets only, without the woodcut itself, are said to be in the Paris 
collection (Woltmann, i, 193). 

2 Especially from the following lines : 

Des maalens seind nit vil gelerte 
Darumb man billich loben soil 

Den, der sein kunst beweiset wol 
Als diser auch ain maister was, etc. 



202 



XI. ANONYMOUS WOODCUTS OF THE 
AUGSBUEG SCHOOL. 

EARLY XVI CENTURY. 

1. THE VIRGIN IN GLORY, CROWNED BY TWO ANGELS. Schr. 2869. 

White-line woodcut on black ground, with the symbols of the four 
Evangelists (Schr. 2875) in medallions touching the corners of the 
principal block. 

[Chief woodcut, 152 x 9G ; medallions, diam. 39.] Good impression, on title- 
page of " Stellarium Corone benedicte marie Virginia," by Pelbartus de Temesvar, J. 
Otmar, Augsburg, 1502 (Muther 966; Pr. 10658). Under the woodcut is a stamp of 
the Buxheim Library. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This woodcut has been attributed to the end of the XV century, but 1502 is the 
date of its first publication, though it is thoroughly late-Gothic in spirit. It is not 
in the Hagenau editions of 1498 and 1501. There has been much discussion of the 
question whether it was cut on wood or metal. It is needless to suppose that it is 
anything but a woodcut ; the cross-hatching in white line in the medallions shows a 
deliberate imitation of the metal-cutter's technique, but has not the delicacy that 
work in that material itself would possess. Cf. Vol. I, pp. 154, 183. 

The woodcut of the Virgin occurs again in Plutarch, " Von Zucht der Kinnder," 
1508 (Pr. 10669), and the medallions of the Evangelists in Geiler, " Predigen 
teiitsch," 1510 (Pr. 10679), both printed by J. Otmar. 

2. THE FRANCISCAN, PELBART OF TEMESVAR, STUDYING IN A 

GARDEN. W. E 7. Schr. 2876. 

White-line woodcut on black ground, as no. 1. Here the corners of 
the block are cut away and the four medallions encroach upon the space 
that it would otherwise have filled. 

[Chief woodcut, 178 x 119.] Fair impression, on title-page of " Pomerium de 
sanctis, fratris Pelbarti ordinis sancti Francisci," J. Otmar, Augsburg, 1502 
(Muther 965). 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

2a. THE FRANCISCAN, PELBART OF TEMESVAR, STUDYING IN A 
GARDEN. 

Another impression, from another part of the same work, " Pomerium 
de tempore." From a duplicate of the Munich library. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

On this woodcut see Passavant, i, 101, Hymans, " Documents iconographiques," 
etc., p. 21, Willshire, i, 320, Muther, Schreiber, and Koehler " White-line engraving 
for relief printing," etc., p. 393. The woodcut is reproduced by Hymans, Butsch, i, 
pi. 18. and Koehler (here from " Pomerium Quadragesimale "). Ed. Eyssen, 
" Daniel Hopfer von Kaufbeuren," Heidelberg, 1904, p. 44, no. 1, attributes it to 
Hopfer, whose first authenticated woodcut is twelve years later. Dr. Eyssen does 
not mention the Virgin in Glory (no. 1). 



Division B. School of Augsburg. Anonymous. 203 

3. THE LAMENTATION FOB CHRIST. 

The Virgin kneels in the foreground, three-quarter face to 1., with 
clasped hands, bending over the body of Christ, which is so far supported 
by St. John, 1., that only the feet rest on the ground. Both St. John and 
the Saviour have long hair falling in ringlets. St. Mary Magdalen kneels r., 
behind the Virgin, holding a jar of ointment in both hands. On the hill 
of Calvary, at a distance r., are the three crosses. A ladder stands erected 
against the central one ; the bodies of the crucified thieves still remain in 
position. A tower stands on a hill across a lake ; behind St. John is a clump 
of trees. Single border line. 

[146 (cut at top) x 118.] Damaged impression, occupying the r. portion of a 
sheet, which contains 1. the poem " Maria Zart," in five stanzas, printed as prose, 

with the heading " Fiinnff andechtiger gesetz newgedicht, mit zalder Reimen 

vnd der melody ma | ria zart, Gesetzt vnd gedicht zu Haydelberg 1506 " (511.). The 
poem itself occupies 26 11. and is followed by the address, " Getruckt zu augspurg." 
The printer, according to Proctor (10698), is Erhard Oglin. (See also Weller, suppl. 1, 
358.) To 1. of the text is an upright panel of white renaissance ornament on black 
ground, foliage with dolphins, springing from a vase. [145 (cut at top) x 25], in 
Burgkmair's taste. [Size of sheet, 150 x 280.] 

Purchased from Mr. Cohn, 1880. 

I have seen other impressions of this rare and undescribed woodcut at Sigmaringen 
and Munich (damaged, without text). It is one of exceptional artistic merit, and its 
freedom of style, combined with the advanced renaissance character of the ornament 
on the same sheet, inclines me to think that it may be some years later than 1506, 
which is given, it must be 'observed, as the date of the composition of the poem. I 
can make no suggestion with regard to the artist. 

4. A MONSTROUS BIRTH AT ERTINGEN, 20 July, 1512. 

On the front of the leaf the front view, on the reverse the back view, 
of a female child with two heads, named respectively Elisabet and 
Margareta. 

[114 x 87.] The leaflet bearing the two woodcuts is attached by a hinge to the 
middle of a broadside containing two columns of verse, each in 58 lines, with the 
heading in three lines, " Im iar da man zalt tausent fiinff hundert vnd zwolfften, ist 
geborn ain solichs kind wie dise figur anzaigt in der herren von Werdenberg land in 
dorff | Ertinge nechst by Riedlinge auf den zwaintzigste tag des Heumons, vfi sein 
nam ist Elszgred." The type is that of Oglin (Pr. 10711). Size of sheet, 277 x 150. 

Purchased from Mr. Bigmore, 1876. 

This is the prodigious birth commemorated by Durer in a drawing now at 
Oxford (L. 394). Durer gives the same particulars about the date and place of the 
occurrence, and the separate baptism of the united bodies under the name of 
Elizabeth and Margaret, but he does not mention the amusing abbreviation 
" Elszgred." 



204 



XII. AUGSBURG WOODCUTTERS. 
(1) JOST DE NEGKER. 

Jost, or Jobst, de Negker (de Necker, Dienecker), wood-engraver 
and publisher, a native of Antwerp, worked at Augsburg 1508-1544. 
He was the chief of a numerous group of wood-engravers employed in 
the service of the Emperor Maximilian about 1512-1518 under the 
direction of Conrad 1'eutinger, and carried the art of wood-engraving in 
chiaroscuro to great perfection. The earliest dated work that bears 
his monogram 1 appeared in March 1508 at Leyden. 

Authorities : 

Bartsch, P.-G., vii, 243. 

Heller, " Zusiitze," 96. 

Passavant, P.-G., iii, 295. 

Nailer, " Monogrammisten," ii, nos. 901, 1172. 

Herberger, " Conrad Peutinger in seinem Vernal tnisse zum Kaiser 

Maximilian I.", 1851. 
Chmelarz, " Jost de Negker's Helldunkelbliltter," Vienna Jahrbuch, 

xv, 391. 
Rooses, in " Biographic Nationale publiee par 1'Academie Royale de 

Belgique," xv, 562. 
Dodgson, "Zu Jost de Negker," Repertorium, xxi, 377. 

Summary list of woodcuts by Jost de Nt-gker. 
A. Cut in the Netherlands. 

1. St. Martin, designed by Lucas van Leyden, in Utrecht Breviary, 
Leyden, 31 March, 1508. Repertorium, xxi, 37, 377, xviii, 146, 2. Signed 
with monogram ft. 

2. Perhaps the Temptation of St. Antony, related to an anonymous 
engraving, dated 1520, Repertorium xxi, 381 (see p. 207, no. 1). 

3. Undescribed musical broadside [463 X 307], part xylographic, part 
printed with type, entitled " Principium et ars tocius musice," in the 



1 Jost de Negker used the monogram *t (fo f Jost), either alone or combined 

with the initials & or fcc n, when he introduced his signature on the block. 
On the lower margin he frequently employed the full xylographic address, 



Division B. School of Augsbwg. De NegJcer. 205 

Culemann collection of " Einblatter," Kestner Museum, Hanover. 1 In 
the middle is a large hand ; to 1. is a tablet containing the dedication : 
IO . FRAN . FERRARIEN . ORD . SERAPH . CAPP . DIAE ISAB . MANTVE . 
MARCH . HOC . DEDIT .; at the top is a tablet with the second dedication 
D . FREDERICO . PRIMO . GENITO MAR . MAN . DIG . and at the foot 

a third tablet containing the signature fe w between the imperial arms 

and those of Antwerp. The dedication to Federigo Gonzaga as heir to 
the Marquis of Mantua gives a date between 1500 and 1517 ; this range 
is narrowed to 1500-1508 by Jost de Negker's presence in the latter year 
at Augsburg, which he did not leave again. The broadside is probably 
copied from an Italian original earlier than the versions hitherto known. 

B. Cut at Augsburg. 

I. "Works commissioned by the Emperor Maximilian. 

1. The Genealogy. It is not proved that Jost de Negker cut the 
blocks. 

2. Der Weisskunig. Few of the blocks bear the engraver's name, and 
that of Jost de Negker does not occur. There can be no doubt, however, 
that he took an important share in the work. 

3. Theuerdank. No. 70 has Jost de Negker's monogram in the early 
proofs, but it was afterwards effaced. 

4. The Triumphal Procession. Jost de Negker cut nos. 19, 20, 25, 
26, 37, 42, 47, 50, 76, 79 and 131 (122 in edition of 1883-84). 

5. The Austrian Saints. Jost de Negker cut nos. 17, 68, 75, 91, 112, 
117 (edition of 1799). 

II. Unofficial works. 

A. After Amberger (Beham), Breu and Burgkmair. 

Series of fifty landsknechts. Authority, preface to the edition printed 
at Vienna by David de Necker. 

B. After Burgkmair. (1) In chiaroscuro. St. George, B. 23, and 
Portrait of Maximilian I., B. 32, both 1508 ; the Lovers surprised by 
Death, B. 40, 1510 ; Julius II., B. 33, 1511 (on a signed impression at 
Brunswick, see p. 87) ; Hans Paumgartner, B. 34, 1512. There is no 
direct evidence that Jost de Negker cut the portrait of Jakob Fugger, 
P. 119, but there can be little doubt that it is by him, as well as the 
anonymous chiaroscuro portrait at Berlin reproduced in the Jahrbuch x, 
209, and Liitzow, p. 223. 

(2) In black only. The Virgin and Child, B. 11 (copy of B. 9), signed 
with monogram on the block and also (Vienna, Hofbibl.) with 

xylographic address on margin ; St. Sebastian, 1512, B. 25, signed with 
monogram and initials ; St. Clara, B. 17, with xylographic address on 
margin (Vienna, Hofbibl.) ; Lamentation for Christ, Jahrbuch xii, 166, 4, 
xylographic address on margin (Charlottenburg, Beuth-Schinkel Museum) ; 
Influence of Women over Sages and Heroes, 1519, B. 4-6, 73, xylographic 

1 A broadside of the same size and composition, published IN ROMA PER 
ANTONIO STRAMBI, is in the British Museum, (Music, 1. 600 (49), under the name 
IOANNES FBANCISCUS, Ferrariensis). Two other versions, a woodcut published in the 
XVI century by Gadaldini at Modena, and a later engraved copy, are in the Liceo 
Musicale at Bologna (Gaspari and Parisini, Catalogo, i, 220). 



206 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

address on margin of B. 6, first state (Basle) ; Heroes and Heroines, 1519, 
B. 64-68, xylographic address on margin of first state (Paris, Vienna, 
Albertina and Hofbibliothek) ; the Crucifixion, 1526, B. 19, Nagl. 
Mon. iii, 242, 15, address forming part of xylographic inscription at foot 
(see also p. 63, no. 23). 

C. Probably after Burgkmair. Portrait of Louis XII. of France, 
1519, P. iii, 297, 5, xylographic address on margin (London, Guildhall) ; 
Portrait of Charles V., 1519, P. iii, 223, 334a, address printed below 
(London) ; Imperial eagle, Nagl. Mon. ii, 456, 7, Dresden, collection of K. 
Friedrich August II., printed in red and black, yellow and green added 
by hand [sheet 290 x 390], below, 1. AVGSPVRG, r. Jobst de Necker. 

D. After Schaufelein. Standard-bearer, B. 100. Signed with initials. 

E. After Weiditz. Alphabet, 1521, Rottinger 39, P. iii, 282, 130. 
Nine ornamental handles, B. vii, 223, 78, Kunstyeschicktliche Anzeigen, 
1904, p. 64 (a perfect impression in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna, another, 
cut in nine pieces, at Berlin). Architectural frame containing the four 
Evangelists, dated 1521 (see p. 167). Probably also the ornamental 
frames to woodcuts by Burgkmair, Rottinger 46, 47. 

F. After unknown artists. The Prodigal Son, P. iii, 297, 2, Dresden ; 
Charles V., P. 3, and the Empress Isabella, P. 4, Bamberg ; Mater Dolorosa 
(not the large cut by Burgkmair), Nagl. Mon. ii, 456, 5. Caricature of a 
bird-catcher, with an owl on his 1. hand, and an old woman, half-length, 
dated 1526 [222 x 332], signed "Gedruckt zu Augspurg durch Jobst de 
Necker Furmschneider " (Gotha, with others of the same set, unsigned). 

G. Copies of engravings or woodcuts by other artists. 

After Diirer (engraving, B. 31) the Virgin on the Crescent, B. vii, 243, 1, 
P. iii, 297, 1, and (woodcut, B. 104) St. Christopher, Repertorium xxi, 381. 

After Cranach (B. 58) St. Christopher, ibid. 

After an unknown original, St. Christopher, ibid. 

After Beham (cf. Pauli 1114), the Siege of Griechisch Weissenburg, 
1522, P. iii, 298, 6, Nagl. Mon. ii, 456, 8. 1 

After Jan van Calcar, a skeleton, Nagl. Mon. ii, 456, 6 ; after the same ? 
"Anothomia oder abconterfectung eines | Weybs leyb, wie er innwendig 
gcstaltet ist, Getruckt zu Augspurg durch Jobst de Negker Furmsnider in 
M.D. xxxviij Jar," in the Albertina (Chmelarz, Vienna Jahrbuch xv, 397). 

After Holbein, Dance of Death, 1544, Nagl. Mon. ii, p. 351. 



1 At Bamberg and Berlin (coloured, sheet 197 X 363 ; at top, ^ Im Stetleyn ist 
ain parfiisser Closter, auch noch ain kirchen da hat ain Ratzischer Byschoff seyn 
wonung gehabt. ^ Getruckt zu Augspurg durch Jost Denecker, 1522). This is not 
from the same block as the (larger) Derschau copy ; here the boats are in outline, 
whereas in Jost de Negker's cut they are solid black. 



Division B. School of Augsburg. De Negker. 207 



WOODCUTS BY JOST DE NEGKER. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [DANCE OF DEATH.] Todtentanz. Augsburg durch Jobst Denecker, 1544, 
fol. (Imperfect). 

Forty-two woodcuts, of which 40 are after Holbein, coloured [196 X 147.] The 
cut of the Duchess, F 2 v., has the date 1542, and that of the Advocate, D 3 v, has 
the wood engraver's monogram HVE (Nagler, Mon. ii, 1798) from which it appears 
that J. de Negker was only the publisher. The cut of the Adulterers, E 3 v, is the 
earlier one described by Nagler, and not that which bears the monogram, Nagler ii, 
901, in the second, undated edition. At Berlin is the edition of 1561, " Getruckt inn 
der loblichen Eeychstatt Augspurg, durch Dauidt Denecker, Formschneyder." 

B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. THE TEMPTATION OF ST. ANTONY. 

The saint, in a monastic habit, sits r., raising his r. hand with two 
fingers extended towards two nude women, who approach him, holding 
metal vessels in their hands. An ape-like fiend crouches between them, 
offering a bowl full of coin. Landscape background, with a stag standing 
on a road in the middle distance. In front is St. Antony's pig with a bell 
tied to its ear ; his staff lies on the ground. In the middle in front is the 



signature fe* n upon a tablet. 



[370 x 260.] Good impression. Watermark, ox's head, with serpent and 
tau cross. 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1875. 

See Repertorium, xxi, 380, where this woodcut is described and reproduced on a 
small scale. It contains the same composition, in reverse, with slight modifications, 
as an anonymous engraving, dated 1520, in the Lanna collection at Prague (Singer 
6712, repr. pi. x). It is difficult to believe, however, that the woodcut can be the 
work of Jost de Negker, whose monogram it bears, unless it is much earlier than 
1520. Both, accordingly, may be derived from a common original. The woman in 
front is seen in the engraving, much more clearly than in the woodcut, to be derived 
from Durer's Nemesis. 

t THE PEODIGAL SON CAROUSING. P. iii, 297, 2. 

Photograph of a large coloured woodcut at Dresden, " Die histori vom 
verlornen Son. Lucas am xv. Capittel," with address "Gedruckt zu 
Augspurg, durch Jobst de Negker, Formschneyder." l I am unable to 
attribute the design to a definite artist. It was copied in reverse by Hans 
Rudolf Manuel Deutsch, with some variations, including the introduction 
of a pack of cards and names for all the characters represented. The date 
1552 occurs, with the monograms of draughtsman and woodcutter, in the 
ornamental border. The copy is in this collection. 

1 Dimensions of the whole sheet, 1040 x 995, of the woodcut itself, 715 x 792, or 
including the ornamental border, 990 x 992. The height of the text is 130 mm. 



208 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

(2) OTHER WOODCUTTERS. 

Of the following little or nothing is known except that they 
belonged to the group of woodcutters, partly Flemish, partly of 
German birth, employed at Augsburg under the leadership of Jost de 
Negker, who gave the finishing touches to their work. 

JAN DE BONN (or BOM), cut nos. 21, 22, 81, 35, 39, 54, 60, 104, 
117 of the Triumphal Procession (1883-84 edition). 

HANS FRANCK, cut nos. 62, 87, 97-99, 103, 105, 109, 130 of the 
Triumphal Procession, nos. 23 (?), 33, 38, 47, (55, 67, 96, 107, 108 of 
the Austrian Saints (1799). He is, perhaps, the if who cut woodcuts 
after Schaufelein in the 1514 Plenarium, and is probably identical with 
Hans Liitzelburger "genannt Franck," who worked from 1522 to 1526 
at Basle (see p. 196). 

CORNELIUS LIEFRINCK, 1 cut no. 68 of the Weisskunig, nos. 2, 5, 
16, 46, 50, 54 (?), 70, 85, 89, 101, 111, 116 of the Saints, and nos. 28, 33, 
38, 46, 58, 96, 102, 127, 136 of the Triumphal Procession. 

WILHELM LIEFRINCK, 2 cut nos. 21, 49, 63 (?) 95 of the Saints, 
and uos. 14, 18, 36, 43, 55, 56, 59, 69. 77, 81, 94, 111, 126, 135 of the 
Triumphal Procession. Other woodcuts by him will be described in later 
sections of this catalogue. 

ALEXIUS LINDT, cut no. 56 of the Weisskunig, nos. 9-11, 13, 
22(?), 25, 28, 45, 53, 77, 93, 103, 114 of the Saints, and nos. 121, 125 
of the Triumphal Procession. 

JAKOB RUPP, cut nos. 113, 119 of the Triumphal Procession. 

GLAUS SEMANN, cut no. 199 of the Weisskunig, nos. 12, 15, 30, 
31, 35, 37, 44, 57, 59, 62, 66, 69, 71-73, 79, 83, 87, 104, 105, 110, 113 of 
the Triumphal Procession. 

JAN TABERITH, cut nos. 154, 207 of the Weisskunig, nos. 20, 32, 
41, 58, 74, 102 of the Saints, and nos. 2, 23, 24, 29, 32, 44, 49, 52, 53, 
88, 116, 118, 124, 129, 131 of the Triumphal Procession. 

HIERONYMUS ANDREA and WOLFGANG RESCH, who also shared 
in these works, were Nuremberg men. 



C W 



(3) WOODCUTTERS KNOWN ONLY BY THEIR MONOGRAMS. 

See pp. 11, 28. 
tf See above, Hans Franck. 

See p. 79. 
M See p. 29. 
AV7T See p. 31. 

1 See " Biographie Nationale publiee par 1'Academie Boyale de Belgique," xii, 109 
(article by Max Booses). 

2 Ibid, xii, 110 (by the same). 



209 



DIVISION C. SCHOOLS OF SUABIA, BAVARIA, 
AUSTRIA, AND POLAND. 

The Suabian school, apart from Augsburg, is represented here 
only by Matthias Gerung, a native of Nordlingen, whose affinities 
are with the Augsburg group, and by a few fragments from books 
printed within the limits of the modern kingdom of Wurtemberg. 
Ulm, which in the fifteenth century had been an important centre of 
book illustration, held no such position after 1500, and it was only 
in the latter half of the sixteenth century that a certain revival of 
woodcutting took place in Suabian cities, notably at Ulm and 
Tubingen. 

The modern kingdom of Bavaria includes, of course, Nuremberg 
and Augsburg, the two chief centres of South German illustration, 
but to each of these a separate section has been devoted, and we are 
here chiefly concerned with two bishoprics, Eatisbon and Passau, 
which in the sixteenth century were no less independent of Bavarian 
rule than the free cities of the Empire. Ratisbon, already the home 
of a famous school of miniature-painting, owes to the genius of 
Altdorfer its importance in the history of the graphic arts, to which 
the painter-engravers and woodcutters of the Danube contribute at 
this period one of the most fascinating chapters. The study of the 
Danube style, represented at Passau by Wolf Huber, would naturally 
lead us on to Austria, but we must first turn back to consider the 
art of Bavaria proper in the two capitals of the divided duchy, 
Munich and Landshut, where the court painters occupied themselves, 
however, only to a small extent with illustration or engraving. 
Mair, the chief artist of Landshut, has been dealt with in the first 
volume ; his imitator, Hans Wurm, belongs to the first years of the 
sixteenth century. The illustrations that issued from the press of 
Weissenburger, the chief Landshut printer of this time, are very 
varied in character, and include the work of Nuremberg and Augs- 
burg artists in addition to woodcuts of the local school. The wood- 

p 



210 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

cuts of another Bavarian centre of book production, the university 
town of Ingolstadt, are sparingly represented here. 

A Salzburg artist of small importance is placed next to Huber. 
Austria itself, in the first half of the sixteenth century, contributes 
very little to the great mass of German woodcutting and illustration. 
Poland follows next, not only by its geographical position, but 
because the printer Victor emigrated from Vienna to Cracow and 
took, apparently, his woodcutters with him. The art of both cities is 
represented in this collection by very few examples. 

Some readers may have expected to find other names included 
in this division. A few words may explain their omission. 

The Master of the Miracles of Maria Zell, who has been identified 
with Huber, 1 is represented in this collection only by reproductions 
of the original woodcuts at Berlin, 2 which are not, however, unique, 
since twenty-three of the twenty-five are in the Liechtenstein col- 
lection at Vienna. They are the work of at least two hands, the 
majority being by an artist of marked individuality and unmistakable 
affinities with the school of the Danube, but distinct from Huber ; 
while two woodcuts, " Marggraff Hainrich in Marhern " and " Khiinig 
Ludwig in Ungern," stand apart from the rest and show the style of 
Augsburg, where the whole set was very likely printed. The second 
of these, at least, may be attributed to Jorg Breu the Elder ; 3 it bears 
at the top the mark of the Augsburg woodcutter, Al. 4 

Of the uionogrammists, <> B(1515), 6 and MS (1530), we know too 
little to be justified in placing them with the Bavarian school, though 
certain stylistic features suggest such an attribution; 

Another monogram mist, HWG, 7 whose work, as at present 
recognised, consists of five woodcuts, three of which are represented 
here, has of late been ranked much more positively among the 
artists of the Danube school as a follower of Huber, to whom a 
fourth woodcut, evidently by this artist, had already been attributed 
by Passavant. 8 In my opinion the influence of Altdorfer and 

1 W. Schmidt, Rcpertorium, xvi, 254. 

2 " Die Wunder von Maria Zell," G. Hirth, Munich and Leipzig, 1883. 

* The attribution was first suggested to me by Dr. F. Dornhoffer. 
See p. 29. 

* P. iv, 109, 1 ; Nagl., Mon., iv, no. 3957, 2. See Voss, Mitteilujigen, 1909, p. 56. 

* B. vii, 494; Nagl., Mon., iv, no. 2544. The two pieces mentioned by B. are in 
the Hofbibliothek, Vienna ; the first (signed) piece, only, is here. 

7 Nagl., Mon., iii, no. 1722. 

8 P. iii, 306, 12. The fifth woodcut (at Berlin) is attributed by Passavant (iii, 
263, 4) and Nagler (Mon., iii, 653, 30) to Lautensack. Nagler describes it again 
(Mon., v, 271) under the name of Solis. On this monogrammist as a master of land- 
scape, see Friedlander, Das Museum, iv, 21 ; Voss, " Der Ursprung des Donaustiles," 
p. 48, note 1, and Mitteilungen, 1909, p. 59 ; Riggenbach, " Wolf Huber," p. 43, note f ; 
Halm, Christliche Kunst, v, 65 ff. 



Division C. Schools of Suabia, etc. 211 

Huber on this group of woodcuts has been exaggerated, though 
in the little (unsigned) landscape with St. Jerome it undeniably 
exists. The occurrence of the monogram of Virgil Solis on two 
of the group points to Nuremberg as the place of their production, 
and I have reserved them, accordingly, for treatment in a subsequent 
section among the later woodcuts of Nuremberg. Whether the 
artist who uses the monogram here reproduced is actually the 
draughtsman, or a woodcutter working after Solis and perhaps 
after a different draughtsman as well, is a question open to dispute. s 



p 2 



212 



I. MATTHIAS GEEUNG. 

Gerung described himself on a lost work (tapestry, dated 1543, 
representing the Siege of Vienna, 1529) as " Mathias Gerung von 
Nordlingen, Maler zu Lauging." He is first heard of in 1525 at 
Lauingen, where his name occurs in the register of tax-payers for 
the last time in 1568 ; from 1531 to 1567 he was weigh-master to 
the town of Lauingen, where he died, probably in 1569. His earliest 
work, a series of miniatures executed 1530-32 for Otto Heinrich of 
Pfalz-Neuburg in a MS. New Testament, now at Gotha, proves his 
dependence upon Diirer and Schaufelein ; the dates on his woodcuts 
extend from 1536 to 1558. In 1542 he illustrated the Protestant 
" Kirchenordnung " for the Palatinate ; this work was followed by 
satires against the Roman Catholic clergy, and yet Gerung was 
chosen to illustrate the missal printed at Dillingen in 1555 by 
order of Cardinal Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, Bishop of Augsburg. 1 
Pictures by Gerung exist at Carlsruhe (1543), Lauingen (1551, 1557) 
and Hochstadt (1553) ; his chief painting (1551), in the Lauingen 
Rathaus, represents the Council of that town doing homage to 
Charles V in his camp at Weihgay on the Danube, between 
Lauingen and Dillingen, during his campaign against the League of 
Schmalkalde in that region in 1546. 2 

Gerung's affinities are with the Suabian rather than the Bavarian 
school, and his artistic descent appears to be traced through 
Schaufelein from the school of Augsburg. Lauingen, now in Bavaria, 
belonged in his time to the Duchy of Neuburg, and its population 
was of Suabian stock. 

1 A finely illuminated copy of this book, once the property of the Cardinal 
himself, is preserved at Wolfegg in the possession of the present head of the family, 
Prince Waldburg- Wolf egg- Waldsee. A similar copy is in the Munich library (2 
L. impr. membr. 31). A clear survival of Gerung's style is to be seen in a Catholic 
academical address (single sheet) printed by J. Mayer at Dillingen in 1613 (B.M.). 
It is probable, indeed, that some of the blocks used for this purpose are old ones by 
Gerung himself. 

* Exhibited at the Schwabische Kreisausstellung at Augsburg, 1886. See 
Zcitschr. f. bild. Kunst, xxii, 360, and Rcpertorium, x, 30. Tapestry designed by 
Gerung, representing scenes on Otto Heinrich's pilgrimage to Jerusalem, was lent to 
the same exhibition by the Historische Verein of Neuburg on the Danube. Other 
tapestries executed for the same prince were dispersed in the XIX century. 



Division 0. School of Suabia. Gerung. 213 

In the XVII century Gerung was confused with Griinewald, 
who had used a similar monogram. An old collection of Gerung's 
woodcuts illustrating the Apocalypse and satirical subjects exists in 
Mr. Alfred Huth's collection, bound in book form in 1637 with the 
name " GRVNEWALT " on the black leather cover. 1 There can hardly 
be a doubt that Sandrart, in 1675, was thinking of the same series 
when he attributed to Griinewald, by no means positively, a set of 
Apocalypse woodcuts. 2 On no better evidence than this a consider- 
able number of Nuremberg woodcuts has been attributed by two 
recent writers to Griinewald. 

Authorities : 

Bartsch, P.-G., ix, 158. 
Passavant, P.-G., iii, 307. 
Nagler, Mon., iv, 569, no. 1824. 
Catalogue of the Huth Library, 1880, v, 1734. 
Liitzow, "Gesch. d. deutschen Kupf. u. Holzschnittes," 1891, 178. 
Alois Wagner, " Mathis Gerung," Jahrbuch des Historischen 
Vereins, Dillingen, ix. Jahrgang, 1896 (Dillingen, 1897), p. 69. 
Dodgson, Jahrbuch der k. preuss. Kunstsammlungen, 1908, xxix, 195. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY GERUNG. 
IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [LITURGIES.] Kirchenordnung, Wie es mit der Christlichen 
Lehre, heiligen Sacramenten, vnd allerley andern Ceremonien, in .... 
Herrn Otthainrichen, Pfaltzgrauen bey Rhein .... Fiirstenthumb 
gehalten wirt. J. Petreius, Nuremberg, 1543 ; fol. 

Der ander theyl, A i v. The Crucifixion, in a richly decorated frame, dated 
MDXLII, signed. P. 10 ; N. 15. 

2. [LITURGIES.] Missale secundum ritum Augustensis ecclesie. 
S. Mayer, Dillingen, July, 1555; fol. 

All the woodcut decorations are designed by Gerung. P. 11-14 ; N. 10-13. Title- 
border ; on verso, the Virgin and Child, with SS. Ulrich and Afra, signed, dated 
1555 ; page-border (B. 8), facing fol. 1 and repeated ten times, with different small 
cuts inserted in the socle ; Christ on the Cross, with the Blessed Virgin and St. 
John, before the Canon ; and three ornamental alphabets, of different sizes, O(tho), 
the first letter used of the largest alphabet, being signed (N. 23 ; Weigel, in 
Naumann's Archiv, ii, 218). A pelican in her piety, with motto SIC HIS QVI 
DILIGVNT, occurs repeatedly among the decorations of the missal. 

1 Fully described in the Berlin Jahrbuch, 1908, pp. 202-204. 

2 Teutsche Academie, II. Th. 3 Buch, p. 237. " Wiederum gehet in Holzschnitt 
aus die Offenbarung des heiligen Johannes, 1st aber ubel zu bekommen, und solle 
auch von dieser Hand seyn." 



214 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

3. HORTULUS Animse. Der Seelen Garten. S. Mayer, Dillingen, 
n.d. (1560 ?) ; 8vo. 

Twenty-six small cuts in the text, from fol. 229 v, onwards, repeated from the 
Augsburg Missal, 1555 (no. 2). Other illustrations by several different hands. The 
1572 edition of this Hortulus is in the Guildhall Library. 



WOODCUTS BY GERUNG. 

[1-4.] 
SUBJECTS FROM THE GOSPELS. 

1. THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI. Jahrbuch, xxix, 199, 2. 
The Virgin sits 1., holding the Child upon her lap ; Joseph stands 

behind her, and an angel stands at Mary's side, watching the presentation 
of gold by the kneeling Caspar. Melchior bends his knee, while Balthasar, 
still standing and crowned, leans forward, holding the vessel of myrrh in 
both hands. The retinue of the three kings, r., look in through the door- 
way and a gap in the wall. Three shepherds are seen through a window 
in the background, two of whom look up at a second angel who appears 
in clouds over the heads of the Holy Family, pointing to the star which 
rests over the beams of the roof. No signature. 

[690 x 1015.] Good impression, with slight inequalities of printing, on eight 
sheets. 

Purchased at the sale of the Lanna collection, May, 1909 (no. 1017). The only 
other impressions at present known are in the Albertina and the Berlin Cabinet. 
The Albertina also possesses the large upright " Nativity " described from the Berlin 
impression in the Jahrbuch (xxix, 199, 1) and the " Last Supper " (ibid. no. 3). The 
three woodcuts form a closely connected group, and contain many types highly 
characteristic of Gerung. 

2. CHRIST WASHING PETER'S FEET (fragment of a Last Supper). 

Jahrbuch, xxix, 199, 3. 

St. Peter sits 1., with his arms crossed upon his breast ; his r. foot is 
in a basin, while his 1., a little raised, is being washed by Christ, who 
kneels. St. John holds a towel. Another Apostle is seen between John 
and Peter, while six more are partly visible r. Through an arched 
window r. we see the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. To 1., beyond 
a pilaster which extends from top to bottom of the sheet, are two Apostles 
seated, in profile to 1., and part of a third ; these form a small portion of 
the Last Supper, which, in a complete impression, would be the principal 
subject of the woodcut. 

[705 x 512.] Good impression, though not before some few cracks in the block ; 
printed on four sheets ; no watermark. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

This anonymous woodcut was formerly placed under the name of Schaufelein. I 
have no hesitation in attributing it to Gerung. The type of face, the drawing of the 
hair and beard, the treatment of the nimbus, are the same as in his large signed wood- 
cut, no. 4. The veining of the marble on the pilaster occurs again in nos. 3 and 8, 
also in Huth 7. For St. John in the principal subject, compare the angel r. (with 
sword) in Huth 34, dated 1553; for St. James and St. John in the background, 
compare various types in Huth 17, or St. John in Huth 36. 

The Berlin Cabinet possesses two impressions (one late) of the complete woodcut 
[height varying from 695 to 700, width 990], with the Last Supper 1. 



Division C. School of Suabia. Gerung. 215 

3. CALVARY. 1542. P. iii, 308, 10; Nagl., Mon., iv, 572, 15 and 17. 

Christ on the cross between the two thieves. Mary stands 1., supported 
by St. John, two women stand behind them ; Mary Magdalen kneels, 
clasping the cross, at the foot of which is a tablet with Gerung's mono- 
gram. The traditional group of Jews, soldiers, etc., surrounds the cross. 
The whole scene is framed in a portal of renaissance architecture, dated 
below MDXLII ; on the top are angels bearing the instruments of the 
Passion. 

[247 x 145.] Good impression. On the back is the title, Der ander theyl der 
Kirchen- 1 ordnung, etc. (811.), then the arms of the Palatinate [77 X 62] and date, 
1543. See p. 213, no. 1. 

Collections : C. R. (stamp, not in F.), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Nagler describes this woodcut twice, confusing it in the second case, as Passavant 
had done, with the Canon woodcut in the Missal printed at Dillingen in 1555. The 
remaining illustrations in the Kirchenordnung (frontispiece to pts. 1 and 3, and 
Last Supper, fol. 23 v. of pt. 2), are signed by Virgil Solis ; the initial letters are by 
Erhard Schon. The book was printed by Petreius at Nuremberg. 

4. THE DESCENT FROM THE CROSS. Nagl., Mon., iv, 571, 14. 

Two men on ladders lower the body of Christ from the cross ; a third 
draws out the nail by which his feet were fastened, while Mary Magdalen, 
in tears, holds the cloth by which the feet are covered. Another man 1., 
standing beyond Joseph of Arimathea, holds up both hands. R. the 
Virgin Mary, fainting, is supported by two women ; St. John and another 
woman stand behind them. The two thieves are still on their crosses ; 
their bodies are only in part included in the limits of the design. The 
monogram, without a date, is on the ground 1. 

[1000 x 677.] Fine impression, perfectly preserved, printed on eight sheets. 
Watermark, Gothic P, a small shield above the letter, and initials A H. 
Collections : Caspar! (sale, 1878, no. 386), Mitchell. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

4a. THE DESCENT FROM THE CROSS. N. 14. 

Another impression, less well preserved ; same watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Heussner and Lauser, 1878. 

[5-13.] 

ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE APOCALYPSE, SYMBOLICAL SUBJECTS, AND 
SATIRES AGAINST THE CHURCH OF ROME. 

These woodcuts, uniform for the most part in size, ranging in date 
from 1536 to 1558, form a double series carried on by the artist 
contemporaneously during a number of years, but with special intensity 
from 1546 to 1548. It is not easy to draw the line between those which 
are, strictly speaking, illustrations to the Apocalypse, and those which 
are merely Protestant lampoons or Biblical subjects with an obvious 
allusion to modern religious controversies. But it seems that out of a 
total of sixty, twenty-six certainly, and in all probability twenty-eight 
belong to the Apocalypse, the remainder falling under the other categories. 



216 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part If. 

No complete series is known. The Wolfenbiittel library possesses fifty- 
four, the Huth library forty -eight, the Berlin Cabinet thirty -seven, 
Maihingen fourteen, Dresden (Collection of K. Friedrich August II) 
thirteen, while some few other collections contain a smaller number. 
Only seven are described by Bartsch ; Passavant adds two, his nos. 9 and 
15 ; and Nagler three more, nos. 6, 7, 20. The catalogue of the Huth 
collection describes forty-eight, and the whole series of sixty is described 
in the Berlin Jahrbuch, 1908, xxix, 195 ff. An impression of no. 11, not 
mentioned there, is in the Willshire collection at the Guildhall, while 
nos. 25, 29, 34, 36-39, 43, 49, 54, 55, 57 and 59 are at Coburg. 

5. ST. JOHN BEHOLDS THE SEVEN GOLDEN CANDLESTICKS. 1544. 

B. ix, 158, 1 ; Nagler, 1 ; Huth, 23; Dodgson (Jahrbuch), 1. 

[233 x 162.] Good impression, without margin ; no watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

6. ST. JOHN BEHOLDS THE THRONE OF GOD AND THE FOUR AND 

TWENTY ELDERS. 1546. B. 2 ; N. 2 ; H. 25 ; D. (Jahrbuch), 2. 

[233 x 163.] Good impression, with margin [2-7], on white paper with castle 
gate watermark. This and the following number belong to the same issue as the 
whole set at Wolfenbiittel and the majority pf those in the Huth collection. 

Collections: Benedict XIV (F. 614, 1., black), H. Buttstaedt (F. 253, blue), 
Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

7. THE ANGELS RESTRAINING THE FOUR WINDS. 1546. 

B. 4 ; N. 4 ; H. 29 ; D. (Jahrbuch), 6. 

[233 x 162.] Good impression, with margin [7], on the same paper as no. 6, but 
without the watermark. 
Collections : as no. 6. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

8. SYMBOLICAL SUBJECT. 1536. H. 4 ; D. (Jahrbuch), 35. 

A prophet stands with 1. arm extended, a staff in his r. hand, before a 
large throne which contains two seats, one elevated above the other. 
On the lower are seated two elderly and two youthful princes, on the 
upper five children l holding palms or flowering sprays in their hands. 
To 1. and r. of the four rulers a sword and a bundle of rods are poised in 
the air ; the holy Dove is seen above clouds which descend to the top of 
the throne. Txw down r. are the monogram and date 1536. 

[233 x 162.] Old impression without watermark, somewhat discoloured and 
damaged. 

Purchased from Mrs. Noseda, 1856. 

Other impressions occur at Berlin, in the Huth library and at Wolfenbiittel. 

9. SATIRICAL SUBJECT. 1548. H. 8 ; D. (Jahrbuch), 39. 

A mounted emperor pierces a prostrate pope with a lance ; a cardinal, 
a bishop and several monks bewail his fall under a tent r. In the 
distance Elijah (H ELI AS) is slaying the priests of Baal on the slopes of 
Carmel. At the foot, towards the 1., are the monogram and date 1548. 

1 Possibly the " babes and sucklings " of Matth. xxi. 16. 



Division G. School of Sudbia. Gerung. 217 

[215 (for 233) x 163.] Old impression, without watermark, discoloured, damaged 
and cut at the top. 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1853. 

Other impressions occur in the Huth library and at Wolfenbiittel. 

10. SATIRICAL SUBJECT (undated). H. 13; D. (Jahrbuch), 44. 

In the background a Gothic church is crashing down, though its apse 
stands intact ; a number of ecclesiastics are overwhelmed by the ruins ; a 
tiara, mitre, cardinal's hat, processional banner, monstrance, chalice, and 
box of indulgences lie scattered on the ground ; a panel with a painted 
figure of St. Paul rests across a fragment of carved stone. To 1. a crowd 
of laymen, including a king, watch the catastrophe with dismay ; a canon 
stands in advance of them. Three demons fly in the air over the ruins, 
and a book inscribed EVANG is about to fall upon the shattered roof of 
the church. Monogram in 1. lower corner. 

[233 x 162.] Good impression, but discoloured and repaired towards the top. 
No watermark or margin. 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1867. 

11. SATIRICAL SUBJECT (undated). D. (Jdhrbuch), 60. 

In the background Christ, over whose head the Father and Holy 
Ghost are seen, preaches to a crowd of humble listeners, men and women, 
on the top of a rock from either end of which an angel is just pushing off 
an unbeliever. In the foreground two large devils, crowned as Sultan 
and Pope, with their tails intertwined, are raised over the pit of Hell. 
Each draws into his mouth and chews a chain to which seven other chains 
are attached, passing round the bodies or necks of Turks 1. and ecclesiastics 
r. In the background are three demons, two of which perform on guitar 
and fiddle. In the r. lower corner is the monogram. 

[234 x 163.] Good impression, a little torn on r. side. No margin. Water- 
mark, small high crown. On the back is written in an old hand, perhaps that of 
the artist himself, Dasz. 21 . vndt 22 . caput \ Seint noch zu inventirenn, meaning 
probably, " The [illustrations to the] 21st and 22nd chapters [of Revelations] are yet 
to be designed." An illustration to the 21st chapter exists, dated 1546, D. (Jahrbuch), 
28, so that the present woodcut would have to be dated not later than 1546, with 
which time its style agrees well. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

No other impression is known. 

12. SMALLER SATIRICAL SUBJECT. 

Towards the right is a round table, at which a cardinal and a bishop 
(both vomiting) and three women are seated. The bishop lays both 
hands on the shoulders of the women beside him, one of whom is receiving 
rival addresses from a young layman. The cardinal is being assisted by 
a monk who stands at his side holding a vessel. A woman seated by 
herself r. is handing her cup to a man to be refilled. In the foreground 1. 
are three money-bags, a display of plate, several boxes, and a dog. In 
the middle distance 1. a priest is seen standing between two devils, while 
a third holds the papal tiara over his head. Smoke rises round this group 
and divides it from a pair of lovers embracing and a third group, behind 
the banqueters, consisting of four men and two women. Through the 



218 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

windows are seen in the distance a soldier piercing a prostrate man with 
his spear and a conflict between two squadrons of cavalry. No signature 
or date. 

[215 x 172.] Good impression, slightly damaged but with border-line preserved 
on all sides. Watermark, letter P surmounted by the arms of Augsburg. 

From the Holtrop collection, sold at Sotheby's, July, 1909. 

This woodcut is uniform in every respect except size with the earlier portion 
(before 1550) of the set of sixty described in the Berlin Jahrbuch in 1908. Its 
dimensions differ, however, so markedly from those of the series that it cannot be 
treated as belonging to it. 

13. FKAGMENT OF A LARGE SATIRICAL SUBJECT. 

Jahrbuch, xxix, 200, 4. 

First state. 

The complete woodcut [990 X 691], of which an impression, in a later 
state, exists at Berlin, represents the Saviour with a banner standing at 
the head of a staircase, between God the Father 1. and the Lamb 
surrounded by angels r. At he foot of the staircase stands St. Peter, 
holding a key in either hand, between St. Paul 1. and St. John the Baptist 
r. Below, 1. and r., are the two sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's 
Supper ; the latter is administered in both kinds by two apostles. Farther 
to r. Moses and Charles V stand in front of a crowd of blindfolded 
Catholics, who are pressing on towards a pile of rocks by which all 
approach to the staircase from the side is barred. A Jew (?) in a high 
hat is trying to climb the rocks, a monk mounts a ladder, and another 
falls back baffled in a shower of fiery hail. Other invaders make a similar 
effort on the 1. side, but are repulsed by angels. Low down r. a boar's 
head with fool's cap and papal tiara emerges from water. Near the 
middle, beneath the groups of devout Protestants, is Gerung's monogram. 

[481 x 352.] A fragment, being the r. lower portion of the whole woodcut 
described above. Fine impression ; watermark, small shield with the arms of 
Augsburg. 

Purchased from Mr. Daniell, 1866. 

In both the known impressions pieces of the block have been cut out, evidently 
in order to contain inscriptions, which, however, are wanting. These pieces are to 
(1. and) r. of the second step above St. Peter's head (and on the hill below the 
Lamb). In the second state, at Berlin, a piece of wood has been inserted containing 
new headgear for Charles Y, who now has a turban instead of the imperial crown, and 
the cardinal by hU side. The monk who is falling backward with hands spread out 
above him has also received a new head. 

14. A LEAF FROM THE AUGSBURG MISSAL. 1555. B. ix, 160, 8. 

An architectural frame containing, in a lunette, the Coronation of the 
Virgin, flanked by statues of St. Paul 1. and St. Peter r. on columns. The 
frame is a, passe-partout, used frequently in the missal, and containing in 
this case the Adoration of the Sacrament of the Altar by Apostles, 
Evangelists and Doctors of the Church. In the lower part of the frame 
is the Last Supper with Gerung's monogram beneath it. 

[332 x 240.] Fair impression. On the back text printed in red and black, com- 
mencing with " Accessus altaris," the last page of the preliminary matter; this 
woodcut, in the missal, faces fol. 1. 

From the Holtrop collection. 

Presented by Messrs. Obach & Co., 1909. 



219 



II. ANONYMOUS WOODCUTS FEOM BOOKS 
FEINTED IN WUETEMBEEG. 

SCHWABISCH HALL. 

1. QUARTO TITLE-BORDER. 

Explica = | tio Epistolse | Pauli ad Galatas. | Autore loanne Brentio. | 
Halse Suevorum j per Petrum Frentium, | XLVI. 

One piece, architectural. Below, in the centre, three coats-of-arms, 
surrounded by a wreath. 

[162 x 123 ; opening, 72 x 75.] Good impression. 
From the Bagford Collection (Harl. MS. 5920-505). 
Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1900. 

2. FOLIO TITLE-BORDER. 

Evangelii | quod inscribitur, secun j dum loannem, Vndecim posteriora 

capita explicata. | Per loannem Brentium. | Halae 

Suevorum | Excudebat Petrus Frentius, | Anno salutis, | M.D.XXXXVIII. 
| Mense Maij. 

One piece, architectural. Below, in the centre, a tablet containing 
ornamental foliage and a bird. 

[255 x 177 ; opening, 146 x 105.] Upper corners damaged. 
From the Bagford Collection (Harl. MS. 5918-609). 
Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1900. 



TUBINGEN. 

3. THE ARMS OF JOHANNES NAUCLERUS (1516). 

A boat sailing with an ecclesiastic at the helm, a blackamoor at the 
prow, and another, holding a club, at the top of the mast. Crest, a 
blackamoor holding a paddle in either hand. 

[156 x 154.] Good impression, Latin text on the back, from the title-page of 
" Memorabi | lium omnis aetatis et omni | um gentium chronici com | mentarii a 
loanne Nau | clero I. V. Doctore Tubing. Praeposito, j & Vniversitatis Cancel- 
lario, digest! in | annum Salutis M. D.," printed at Tftbingen by Thomas Anshelm, 
March 1516 ; fol. (Steiff , l 84 ; Pr. 11743). There is no other cut in the book. 

From the Franks Collection, bequeathed 1897. 

4. PORTRAIT OF JOHANNES STOFFLER (1531). P. iii, 392, 61. 
Half-length, in profile to r., wearing a gown and fur-trimmed cap ; 

the r. elbow leans on a ledge, the 1. hand holds a roll of paper, the r. hand 

1 Karl Steiff, " Der erste Buchdruck in Tubingen," 1881. 



220 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

a book. Leaf and grape ornament at the sides and upper corners. To r. 
of the portrait are the type-printed words, EFFIGIES | IO. STOEF | LER 
AN = | NORVM | LXXIX. 

[113 X 97.] Fine impression, evidently a proof, 1 with margin [10-13]. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The mathematician Stoffler waa born 10 December, 1452, and died 16 February, 
1531 ; since his age is given as 79, the portrait must have been drawn after 10 Dec- 
ember, 1530. It was first published, at least in book form, in " Ephemeridum Opus 
loannis Stoefleri," second edition, printed by Ulrich Morhard, Tubingen, 1 February, 
1533; 4to (Steiff, 149). In the first edition, 1 September, 1531 (Steffi, 142), a 
different and inferior portrait was used. The present portrait was repeated in 
" Almanach No = | vum Petri Pitati Veronensis . . .TVBINGAE M.D. X LI 1 1 1. VL. 
MOR." (British Museum) on the verso of the fourth (unnumbered) leaf, before 
sig. A. The recto of the leaf has two Latin poems printed in italics. There is no 
text on the portrait itself , but over it is printed EFFIGIES IO. STOEFLERI AN = | 
norum LXXIX. There-is no cut in the corresponding place of the 1552 edition. 
At some later time the woodcut was reprinted with the addition of a second block, 
printed in red. 

This beautiful woodcut was attributed by Passavant to Holbein. The attribution 
was rejected by Woltmann 2 and by His-Heusler. 3 A more recent attribution to 
Flotner 4 meets the case no better. 



ULM. 
5. THE DEVICE OF THE PRINTER, HANS VARNIER THE ELDER. 

The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, round the stem of 
which a serpent is twined, holding in its mouth a skull. A skeleton lies 
on the ground, which is strewn with skulls and bones. An axe lies at 
the roots of the tree, which project above the ground. The name " Hans 
Varnier," printed with type, is divided by the stem of the tree. 8 

[102 x 62 (cut, border-line preserved only at the bottom).] Good impression ; 
watermark, a hand surmounted by a flower. 

In the inventory of 1857. 

Varnier, whose family appears to have migrated from tbe Tyrol, one of thorn 
being described at Ulm as" Athesinus," became a citizen of Ulm in 1531 and printed 
there from that year till 1547, when he took to other forms of industry. He printed 
chiefly the works of Protestant sectarians. The date of his death is unknown. His 
name appears in Mr. L. Cust's index to artists of the German school, but I find no 
evidence that he was himself a draughtsman or engraver. The device is extremely 
well drawn and cut. 

1 As printed in the book, Steiff 149, the = after AN is wanting, and there is a line 
over LXXIX. Moreover, the text of the title comes close to the upper and lower 
border-lines. A second impression, derived from this book, is placed in the portrait 
collection. The woodcut is reproduced in facsimile as the frontispiece to Steiff's 
bibliography. 

* " Holbein und seine Zeit," ii, 217. 

3 Quoted by Steiff, p. 187. 

4 Karl Domanig, Jahrbuch der kunsthist. Samml. d. allcrh. Kaiserhauses, 1895, 
xvi, 32. 

5 K. Steiff, in his article on Varnier in " Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie," xxxix, 
499, describes this device, which he says occurs in two sizes. They are described 
more fully by G. Veesenmeyer, " Miscellaneen " (Nuremberg, 1812), pp. 53 and 55. 
In the smaller, used in 1535, the name HANS VARNIR ZV VLM is placed on a 
scroll round the stem of the tree. The device above described is the larger, also used 
in 1535. Neither of the books named by Veesenmeyer is in the British Museum. 
Steiff suggests that the idea for Varnier's device was taken from Seb. Franck's book, 
" Vom Baum des Wissens des Gutz und Bosz," printed by Varnier along with a 
translation of Erasmus' " Moriae Encomium " and other pamphlets in 1535. 



221 



III. ALBEECHT ALTDOEFEE. 

Painter, architect, engraver and draughtsman on wood ; born 
about 1480, place and exact date of birth unknown, perhaps son of 
the painter Ulrich Altdorfer, a citizen of Eatisbon from 1478 to 
1499 ; removed in 1505 from Amberg to Eatisbon, of which place he 
became a citizen, being then aged at least twenty-five ; earliest dated 
engraving 1506, 1 earliest dated woodcut 1511, in which year he 
travelled down the Danube to Austria ; resided permanently at 
Eatisbon, 2 where he was architect to the municipality and a member 
of the inner council from 1526 till his death, which occurred in 
February, 1538. 

Authorities : 

Bartsch, P.-G., viii, 73. 

Passavant, P.-G., iii, 301. 

Nagler, Mon., i, p. 38, no. 87. 

Meyer, K.-L., i, 536 (biography by C. W. Neumann, critical 

essays and catalogues by W. Schmidt). 
" The Fall of Man, by A. A f , edited by A. Aspland, with an 

introduction by W. Bell Scott." The Holbein Society, 1876. 
" A. A.'s Farbenholzschnitt, Die Madonna von Regensburg," 

Jahrbuch der It. preuss. Kunstsammlungen, 1886, vii, 154. 
M. Friedlander, " A. A. der Maler von Regensburg," Leipzig, 1891, 

especially pp. 34-39, 53-58. 

T. Sturge Moore, "Altdorfer" (The Artist's Library), London, 1900. 
T. Sturge Moore, "A. A., a Book of 71 Woodcuts" (Little En- 
gravings, no. 1), London, 1902. 
J. Meder, "A. A.'s Donaureise im Jahre 1511," Mitt. d. Ges. f. 

vervielf. Kunst, 1902, 9 and 1907, 29. 
H. Voss, "Der Ursprung des Donaustiles," Leipzig, 1907. 
M. Friedlander in Thieme-Becker's " Lexicon," i, 347. 
H. Hildebrandt, " Die Architektur bei A. A.," Strassburg, 1908. 
H. Voss, " A. Altdorfer und W. Huber " (Meister der Graphik, 

no. 3), Leipzig, 1910. 

1 Dr. Friedlander (p. 170) divides Altdorfer's activity in the graphic arts into 
periods in which he chiefly produced some special kind of work, as follows : 1506- 
1511, engravings ; 1511-1517, woodcuts ; c. 1520, engravings, woodcuts and etchings ; 
1521-1526, chiefly engravings; after 1530, etchings. No woodcuts were produced 
much, if at all, later than 1520. Most of Altdorfer's drawings belong, like the 
majority of his woodcuts, to the years 1511-1517. 

2 Hildebrandt endeavours to show that Altdorfer must have travelled to northern 
Italy about the years 1520-22 by the alleged influence of definite buildings and 
monuments in Verona, Padua and Venice upon his paintings and prints. It is a 
hypothesis which lacks any definite proof ; see Friedlander, Bepertorium, xxxii, 362. 



222 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

BOOKS CONTAINING WOODCUTS BY ALTDORFER. * 
IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [DUERER.] Albert! Dureri Noriberg. German. Icones sacrae. In 
historiam Salutis humanae per Redemptorem nostrum Jesum Christum 
Dei & Mariae filium instauratae. . . . Nunc primiim e tenebris in lucem 
editae. Georg Ludwig Frobenius, Hamburg, 1604 ; 4to. 

Contains 38 cuts (omitting B. 38 and 40) of the little series, the Fall and 
Redemption of Man, B. 1-40, erroneously published under Diirer's name and 
arranged partly in the wrong order. Heinecken 2 asserted that some of the woodcuts 
in this edition were copies ; his statement, repeated by Bartsch 3 and Heller, 4 is 
controverted by Schmidt.* The question is by no means an easy one to settle, but 
after a close examination of the 1604 edition with three sets of early impressions at 
hand for comparison, I have come to the conclusion that in no single case can it be 
proved that a copy has been substituted for the original block. In several cases, 
however, alterations have been made, and in one case the mark of the woodcutter 
who made them has been inserted. The alterations occur, with one exception, in 
places where a wide blank space on the original block facilitated the insertion of new 
detail by which a subsequent engraver thought to improve upon Altdorfer ; I can 
discover no alteration in the body of the work and find it incredible that a copyist 
should have adhered so closely to the original. Any deterioration that is noticeable 
can be explained by the wear and tear of the block, and such little defects as are 
already present in early proofs never fail to reappear, often exaggerated, in the 
impressions of 1604. The one exception alluded to above is in the case of B. 26, 
Pilate washing his hands, where alterations may be noticed along the border-line, 
which is narrower than in the early proofs, and perhaps added by the Wittenberg 
wood-engraver, Jacobus Lucius, of Cronstadt in Transilvania, who has inserted his 
mark, a trefoil, in the r. lower corner, at a place previously blank. In the early 
proofs the boot of the man 1., and the outermost spearhead touch the border-line; 
there is a little variation in the cord by which the sounding-board over Pilate's 
head is suspended ; at the extreme r. side of this sounding-board are some short lines 
of shading not present in the early proofs, so that on all four sides the border-line 
may have been renewed. Of course, the simpler explanation would be that the 
whole is a copy, but I cannot persuade myself that such is the case. The only other 
instances in which alterations are noticeable are the following : 

B. 2. A tuft of hair has been added to Adam's head. 

B. 3. A little piece of superfluous scrabble has been inserted at the top, 1. 

B. 4. The monogram, removed from the 1., is now inserted beneath the r. wing 
of the angel ; just below it a superfluous and disconnected piece of foliage is put in. 
The foliage which originally rose above Joachim's r. arm has been removed. The r. 
wing of the angel no longer touches the upper border-line 8 mm. from the r. side. 
This is the one case explicitly mentioned by Heinecken as a copy ; Schmidt describes 
the transference of the monogram as a mark of late impressions. 

B. 15. A little shading has been introduced, 1. and r., on the breast of Christ's 
robe. 

2. [BECKER.] Holzschnitte alter deutscher Meister. Gotha, 1808- 
16; fol. 

B. 60-66, seven woodcuts by Altdorfer, B. 41, 43, 44, 50, 53, 54, 57, printed from 
the blocks preserved in the Derschau collection, now at Berlin. The same collection 
includes the block of B. 56, which was not published by Becker. 

1 So far as we know, Altdorfer, unlike most of the contemporary painters, never 
himself illustrated books. 

2 " Dictionnaire des Artistes," 1778, i, 176. 

3 P.-G., viii, 75. 

4 " Zusatze," 1854, p. 5. 
Meyer's K.-L., i, 551. 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Altdorfer. 223 



WOODCUTS BY ALTDORFER. 

Since these extend over a few years only, and it is difficult to place 
some of the undated cuts with any degree of certainty, a chronological 
order has not in this case been adopted. The dated woodcuts are the 
following : 

1511. The Massacre of the Innocents, B. 46 ; St. George slaying 
the Dragon, B. 55 ; The Judgment of Paris, B. 60 ; Lovers 
seated in a Wood, B. 63. 

1512. The Resurrection of Christ, B. 47; The Beheading of St. 
John the Baptist, B. 52. 

1513. The Annunciation, B. 44 ; St. Christopher, B. 53 ; Pyramus 
and Thisbe, B. 61. 

1517. The Beheading of St. John the Baptist, S. 54. 

To the year 1512 belongs a wood-block preserved at Munich (K. B. 
Graphische Sammlung), with a drawing by Altdorfer of a Lamentation 
for Christ [124 x 95], on which the woodcutter has just begun to work. 1 

The earliest woodcuts by Altdorfer are the small set in the Hofbiblio- 
thek at Vienna reproduced in " Altdorfer " (Little Engravings), pi. 1, and 
described, though not under Altdorfer's name, by W. L. Schreiber. 2 The 
monogram appears on two of the seven, St. Achatius and St. Jerome. In 
addition to these, there are two others, hitherto undescribed, in the same 
collection, SS. Peter and Paul with the Sudarium, in a single circle [diam. 
31, size of sheet, 31 X 32], and St. Bartholomew, half length, knife in r. 
hand, in a double circle placed within a square [18 x 19 ; diam. (outer 
circle) 14]. To these must be added the more mature work, St. John, 
reproduced by T. S. Moore, pi. 2. 

Among the later woodcuts not actually dated a group connected with 
" die schone Maria von Regensburg," can be referred with certainty to a 
period between 1519, when the cult of this wonder-working Madonna 
became popular, and 1523, when it was already on the decline, soon after 
1520 being the most probable date for the production of the woodcuts. 

The following approximate order is suggested by Dr. Friedlander for 
the undated woodcuts ; his reasons for so dating them are mentioned in 
the course of the catalogue. 

Early (1511 or later). St. George standing, B. 56; St. Christopher, 
B. 54. 

About 1514. St. Jerome in a cave, B. 57. 

About 1515. The Fall and Redemption of Man, B. 1-40. 3 

1 Reproduced in W. Schmidt, " Handzeichnungen alter Meister im Kon. Kupfer- 
stichkabinet zu Miinchen," Lief, ix, 1900, Bl. 164, and in T. S. Moore's " Altdorfer" 
(Little Engravings, no. 1), pi. 3. No other blocks of the early German school with 
uncut drawings upon them appear to be extant except those at Basle designed to 
illustrate an edition of Terence, many of which, both cut and uncut, are reproduced 
in D. Burckhardt's " Albrecht Diirer's Aufenthalt in Basel," 1892. A block drawn 
upon by P. Brueghel the Elder is in the Figdor Collection at Vienna. 

2 " Manuel de 1'Amateur," nos. 901, 939, 1174, 1183, 1269, 1572, 1669. 

3 The compositions of two of the series were used in a painting dated 1517, still at 
Ratisbon. See Hildebrandt, pp. 40 and 50. 



224 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II, 

About 1516. The Adoration of the Shepherds, B. 45 ; St. Jerome, 
in an ornamental border, B. 58. 

Before 1519. A Standard-bearer, B. 62. 

About 1520. The Virgin and Child in a church, B. 48 ; Abraham's 
Sacrifice, B. 41 ; the Return of Joshua and Caleb, B. 42 ; Jael and 
Sisera, B. 43 ; a Suppliant kneeling before the Virgin and Child, B. 49 ; 
the Holy Family at a fountain, B. 59. 

Somewhat after 1520. The Beautiful Virgin of Ratisbon, B. 51 ; 
An altar with figures of the Virgin and Saints, B. 50 ; ornamental wood- 
cut, S. 68. ! 

Hildebrandt dates B. 48 and 59 fee/ore, the other woodcuts connected 
with the Beautiful Virgin after the supposed Italian journey of c. 1520. 
It may perhaps be suggested that Altdorfer, who manifestly took the 
keenest interest in all connected with the cult of the Beautiful Virgin, is 
not likely to have absented himself from the city just as that cult was 
reaching its climax. 

[1-40.] 

THE FALL AND REDEMPTION OF MAN. B. viii, 73, 1-40. 

S. 2 1-40. 

1. THE FALL. B. 1. S. 1. 

2. THE EXPULSION FROM EDEN. B. 2. S. 2. 

3. JOACHIM'S OFFERING REJECTED BY THE HIGH PRIEST. B. 3. S. 3. 

4. THE MESSAGE OF THE ANGEL TO JOACHIM. B. 4. S. 4. 

5. THE EMBRACE OF JOACHIM AND ANNE AT THE GOLDEN 

GATE. B. 5. S. 5. 

6. THE PRESENTATION OF THE VIRGIN IN THE TEMPLE. B. 6. S. 6. 

7. THE ANNUNCIATION. B. 7. S. 7. 

8. THE VISITATION. B. 8. S. 8. 

9. THE NATIVITY. B. 9. S. 9. 

10. THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI. B. 10. S. 10. 

11. THE CIRCUMCISION. B. 11. S. 11. 

12. THE PRESENTATION OF CHRIST IN THE TEMPLE. B. 12. S. 12. 

13. THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. B. 13. S. 18. 

14. CHRIST DISPUTING WITH THE DOCTORS. B. 14. S. 14. 

15. THE TRANSFIGURATION. B. 15. S. 15. 

16. CHRIST TAKING LEAVE OF HIS MOTHER BEFORE THE 

PASSION. B. 16. S. 16. 

17. THE ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM. B. 17. S. 17. 

1 This has been reproduced, so far as I know for the first time, in Hildebrandt's 
book, pi. 8, from the unique impression in the Dresden cabinet. 

2 S. = W. Schmidt, author of the catalogue of Altdorfer in Meyer's " Kiinstler- 
Lexikon," i, 650-552. 



Division C. School of Eatisbon. Altdorfer. 225 

18. THE LAST SUPPER. B. 18. S. 18. 

19. CHRIST ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES. B. 19. S. 19. 

20. THE BETRAYAL OF CHRIST. B. 20. S. 20. 

21. CHRIST BEFORE CAIAPHAS. B. 21. S. 21. 

22. CHRIST BEFORE PILATE. B. 22. S. 22. 

23. CHRIST SCOURGED. B. 23. S. 23. 

24. CHRIST CROWNED WITH THORNS. B. 24. S. 24. 

25. CHRIST SHOWN TO THE PEOPLE. B. 25. S. 25. 

26. PILATE WASHING HIS HANDS. B. 26. S. 26. 

27. CHRIST BEARING THE CROSS. B. 27. S. 27. 

28. CHRIST NAILED TO THE CROSS. B. 28. S. 28. 

29. THE RAISING OF THE CROSS. B. 29. S. 29. 

30. CHRIST ON THE CROSS. B. 30. S. 30. 

31. CHRIST TAKEN DOWN FROM THE CROSS. B. 31. S. 31. 

32. THE LAMENTATION BENEATH THE CROSS. B. 32. S. 32. 

33. THE ENTOMBMENT. B. 33. S. 33. 

34. CHRIST DESCENDING INTO HELL. 1 B. 34. S. 34. 

35. THE RESURRECTION. B. 35. S. 35. 

36. CHRIST APPEARING TO ST. MARY MAGDALEN. B. 36. S. 36. 

37. THE ASCENSION. B. 37. S. 37. 

38. THE DEATH OF THE VIRGIN. B. 38. S. 38. 

39. THE LAST JUDGMENT. B. 39. S. 39. 

40. THE VIRGIN AS QUEEN OF HEAVEN. B. 40. S. 40. 

[72-73 x 48 mm.] Good impressions, not very early, with narrow margin 
[3-4 mm.]. No watermark ; white paper, but artificially stained in a few cases. 
Collections : Liphart (F. 321, 1), Mitchell. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
The date suggested by Friedlander (p. 36) for this series is about 1515. 

la-40a. THE FALL AND REDEMPTION OF MAN. SECOND SET. 

Impressions of similar character, but more evenly printed and in some cases 
superior to the first set. No margin. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

Impressions of this quality are by no means rare. An 
exceptional set of proofs is that at Wolfegg, in which four 
subjects are found printed on one sheet arranged as follows : 

Each sheet measures about 225 x 150 mm. The woodcuts 
approach within 2 or 3 mm. of the edge of the paper ; the space 
between 1 and 2 amounts to 48, that between 1 and 3 to 74 mm. 
The ten sheets contain respectively the following numbers of 
Bartsch : No. 1, B. 2, 3, 6, 7 ; no. 2, B. 15, 17, 19, 20 ; no. 3, B. 40, 

1 This subject should always follow immediately upon Christ's death on the 
cross, as in the "Little Passion" of Diirer, but I have not thought it worth while 
here to disturb the order which has been customary since the days of Bartsch. 

Q 




226 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

1, 4, 5 ; no. 4, B. 16, 18, 22, 23 ; no. 5, B. 8, 9, 18, 12 ; no. 6, B. 10, 11, 14, 38 ; no. 7, 
B. 23, 24, 27, 28 ; no. 8, B. 34, 31, 36, 36 ; no. 9, B. 32, 33, 37, 39 ; no. 19, B. 25, 26, 
29, 30. The watermark is a bull's head with cross and flower. Early impressions 
also occur in book form, in which each subject, with a wide margin, is printed on a 
leaf measuring about 140 x 90 mm. A complete set of this kind in the Berlin 
Cabinet has two watermarks, bull's head with cross and flower and " Reichsapfel." 
Mr. Max Rosenheim possesses a similar but imperfect set (B. 1-7, 19-31, 34, 36, 40), 
leaves measuring 135 x 86 mm., with bull's head, high crown, and cardinal's hat as 
watermarks. This set had been bound in the XVI century as a book, with an early 
inscription, Ce livr a particnt a guilebert belart imagier de scaints (?) a mons (?). 

Impressions of this series in chiaroscuro are said to occur (Meyer's " Kunstler- 
lexikon," p. 551). The forty woodcuts are reproduced in the Holbein Society's 
publication, 1876, in Hirth's " Liebhaber-Bibliothek alter Illustratoren," xii, 1888, 
and in Moore's Altdorfer (" Little Etvgravings "). 

41. ABRAHAM'S SACRIFICE. B. viii, 76, 41. S. 41. 

[122 x 95.] Good impression, without margin or watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
About 1520 (Friedlander, p. 37). 

42. THE RETURN OF JOSHUA AND CALEB. B. viii, 76, 42. S. 42. 

[122 x 95.] Good impression, without margin. Watermark, flower of four petals 
{fragment). 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Companion to no. 41, about 1520 (Friedlander). The architecture is distinctly of 
Renaissance character. 

43. JAEL AND SISERA. B. viii, 76, 43. S. 43. 

[121 x 94.] Good impression, without margin or watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Probably belongs to the same set as nos. 41 and 42. 

44. THE ANNUNCIATION. 1513. B. viii, 76, 44. S. 44. 

[122 x 95.] Good impression, but the table and part of Mary's dress are damaged 
and restored. No watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

In late impressions there is a crack on either side of the tablet containing 
Altdorfer's monogram. 

45. THE ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS. B. viii, 77, 45. S. 45. 

[122 x 95.] Good impression, without margin or watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Friedlander dates this woodcut about 1516, remarking on the deficiencies of the 
Renaissance architecture as compared with the purer style of 1520. 

46. THE MASSACRE OF THE INNOCENTS. 1511. B. viii, 77, 46. S. 46. 

[193 x 147.] Good impression without margin. Watermark, anchor in a circle, 
surmounted by a star. 

Collections : Drugulin (F. 535, blue), Mitchell. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

47. THE HOLY FAMILY ON THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT, AT A FOUNTAIN. 

B. viii, 80, 59. S. 47. 

[228 X 176.] Very fine impression without margin. Watermark, cardinal's hat. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The Virgin in this subject is almost certainly the Beautiful Virgin of Ratisbon. 
The date is therefore about 1520. Friedlander (p. 53) remarks on the perfection of 
the technique as compared with the woodcuts of 1511-17. Repr. Lippmann, " En- 
gravings and Woodcuts by Old Masters," ii, and Durer Society, i, 21. 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Altdorfer. 227 

48. THE RESURRECTION. 1512. B. viii, 77, 47. S. 48. 

[230 x 178.] Good impression without margin, worn thin in a few places. 
Watermark, Gothic p. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

W. Bell Scott (" The Fall of Man," Holbein Society, 1876, p. 12) believed that 
his own impression of this woodcut proved Altdorfer's acquaintance with the process 
of "overlaying," "the entire figure of Christ being made to print dark, while the 
clouds all round are relieved of the pressure, and made to print comparatively 
fainter." 

49. THE VIRGIN STANDING IN A CHURCH, WITH THE CHILD IN HER 

ARMS. B. viii, 77, 48. S. 49. . 

[122 x 94.] Good impression, without margin or watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This appears to be the earliest (1519-20) of the woodcuts representing the 
Beautiful Virgin of Ratisbon (Friedlander, p. 53). 

50. A SUPPLIANT KNEELING BEFORE THE VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

B. viii, 77, 49. S. 50. 

[168 x 121.] Good impression with narrow margin. No watermark. 

Collections : Liphart (F. 328, 1), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

B. mentions a work by Angelus Fagius Sangrinus, " Carminum de pietate in 
Deum divosque libri III," printed at Venice in 1570, in which this woodcut occurs. 
The statement is confirmed by Schmidt. The book is not in the British Museum. 
Friedlander (p. 57) remarks on the close agreement in technique between this wood- 
cut and no. 47 (B. 59). 

51. AN ALTAR WITH NICHES CONTAINING FIGURES OF THE VIRGIN 

AND CHILD, SS. CHRISTOPHER, MARY MAGDALEN, GEORGE 
AND CATHERINE. B. viii, 78, 50. S. 51. 

[Sheet, 305 x 218; woodcut, 295 x 213.] Good impression, without watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

According to S., chiaroscuro impressions with two tone-blocks exist. Friedlander 
suggests that this may have been a design for an altar in the new stone church of 
the Beautiful Virgin. He is followed in this by Hildebrandt, and there is no reason 
to doubt that they are right. 

52. THE BEAUTIFUL VIRGIN OF RATISBON. B. viii, 78, 51. S. 52. 

Printed in black and five colours (pink, light and dark brown, yellow 
and blue). The pink (a dull shade, verging on brown) is used for the 
rim of the Virgin's nimbus, the rays of the nimbus of the Child (which 
contains no fleur-de-lis, as in the Wolfegg impression), part of the Child's 
tunic, the Virgin's left sleeve, the small upright rectangular panels on 
the 1. and r. sides of the entablature, the shields containing Altdorfer's 
signature and the arms of Ratisbon, and the initials of the inscription. 
The light brown is only used for the Child's hair and a small portion of 
the Virgin's veil, between her 1. cheek and her hood ; this brown differs 
very slightly from the pink and might be mistaken for it if the two 
colours did not stand in close contact. The dark brown is used for the 
greater part of the architectural frame, also for the Virgin's face and 
hands, the Child's face and limbs. Yellow is used for the rays of the 
Virgin's nimbus, the lining of her hood and mantle, the Child's sash, the 
flowers, the medallions, the tall upright panels and the frame which 
contains the inscriptions (all the parts which in the Wolfegg impression 
are green). Dark slate-blue is used for the Virgin's hood and mantle 

Q 2 



228 Ea.rly German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

the vase, the frieze at the top, and the panels behind the monogram 
and arms. 

[340 x 247.] Late impression, printed rather badly oat of register. Watermark 
indistinct (eagle ?). 

Collections : Coppenrath (Sale 1889, no. 200), Lanna (Singer, no. 647). 

Purchased at the Lanna Sale, Stuttgart 1909, no. 265. 

Making allowances for the obvious inaccuracy of Weigel's reproduction J (" Holz- 
schnitte beriihmter Meister," Lief. 13), it seems probable that this is the impression 
there published ; it was then in the collection of J. Stiglmeier at Straubing, and had 
been formerly in that of Kraenner at Ratisbon. 

The " Beautiful Virgin " was an old miracle-working statue for which a new and 
enthusiastic cult arose when it was erected, on 14 March, 1519, on an altar placed 
among the ruins of the Synagogue recently destroyed. This figure is to be dis- 
tinguished from the new statue by Erhard Haidenreich erected outside the temporary 
wooden chapel built to contain the wonder-working image. The wooden chapel was 
the first successor of the Synagogue, but was itself soon replaced by a stone church 
in the Renaissance style, now the Protestant church of Ratisbon. A copy of the 
medal commemorating the cult, in silver-gilt repousse, with the inscription, TOTA 
PVLCHRA ES 1519, is preserved in the K. K. Hofmuseum, Vienna, inserted in a 
prayer-book which belonged to Ferdinand I. The Virgin, who has a distinct six- 
pointed star on her head-dress and mantle, bears a general resemblance to the figure 
shown in several of Altdorfer's woodcuts. Beneath the half-length figure is a shield 
with the crossed keys of Ratisbon. 2 

The original woodcut is rare in any condition. I have seen other impressions at 
Berlin (blue, yellow, two shades of brown, black), Coburg (dull blue, dull yellow, 
brown and black), Vienna, Hofbibliothek (Fries collection, pink, brown, blue, yellow 
and black), and Albertina (dark indigo, dark brown, dull light red, dull yellow and 
black), Wiirzburg (black and four colours). There is another (pink, brown, light 
blue, grey and black) in the collection of Altdorfer's works presented by G. A. 
Peuchel in 1651 to the Ratisbon Council, now in the Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 
Munich (Cod. icon. 412 = Cim. 182).* According to Bartsch, impressions occur in 
black outline only ; I have not seen them. 

t THE BEAUTIFUL VIRGIN OF RATISBON. B. viii, 78, 51. S. 52. 

Facsimile in chromolithography of the finest impression known, in the collection 
of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg, printed in black and five colours (crimson, pink, brown, 
blue and green). The watermark of the original is a bull's head with serpent twined 
round a cross ; the woodcut measures 340 x 244 mm. (border-line) . 

The present reproduction is a proof of the facsimile published by Grote in the 
Berlin Jahrbuch, 1886 (vii, 154), in C. v. Liitzow's " Geschichte des deutschen Kupfer- 
stiches und Holzschnittes," 1891 (after p. 176), and again, with slightly different 
colouring, in Lippmann's " Engravings and Woodcuts by Old Masters," iv, 37. 

53. THE BEHEADING OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 1512. 

B. viii, 78, 52. S. 53. 

[204 x 155.] Good impression, without margin or watermark. 

Collections : Hausmann (F. 67), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Another woodcut of this subject, dated 1517, S. 54, is only known to exist in the 
Albertina. It is reproduced in Sturge Moore's " Altdorfer " (Little Engravings, 
no. 1, 1902), pi. 12. 

1 The impresaion is described as being from five plates, but only four are used in 
the reproduction. The white trefoils in the medallions are an invention of the 
copyist. 

2 I have to thank Dr. Weixlgartner for calling my attention to this rarity. 

* Dr. Leidinger kindly sent me a list of the contents of this volume. In addition 
to two drawings it contains (in a different order) : 

Woodcuts : S. 1-49, 51, 52, 55-57, 59, 60, 62-65. 

Engravings : S. 1-9, 11, 12, 14-24, 26, 28-38, 40-43, 45, 46, 49-51, 53, 54, 58, 60, 
62, 63, 65-67, 70-76, 78, 79, 79a, 80-82, 84-91, 93-97, 99-101. 






RAGON. 1611. B. viii, 79, 66. 8. 57. 

>,rk 






-age 



PLATE XIV 

ALBRECHT ALTDORFER 
ST. CHRISTOPHER. B. 53 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Altdorfer. 229 

54. ST. CHRISTOPHER STOOPING TO RAISE THE CHILD CHRIST. 

B. viii, 79, 54. S. 55. 

[123 x 95.] Good impression, without margin or watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
An early work. 

55. ST. CHRISTOPHER WADING WITH THE CHILD CHRIST UPON 

HIS SHOULDERS. 1513. B. viii, 79, 53. S. 56. 

[169 x 122.] Fine, early impression with margin [2-3], on thin white paper, 
watermark a cardinal's hat. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

56. ST. GEORGE SLAYING THE DRAGON. 1511. B. viii, 79, 55. S. 57. 

[192 x 150.] Sharp, early impression, but damaged and cut within the border. 
Watermark, anchor in a circle, surmounted by a star. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

56a. ST. GEORGE SLAYING THE DRAGON. 1511. B. viii, 79, 55. S. 57. 

[196 x 150.] Old impression, somewhat damaged, no margin or watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

On Altdorfer's journey down the Danube in 1511, see J. Meder in Mitteilungen 
der Gesellschaft fUr vervielfaltigende Kunst, 1902 and 1907. Dr. Meder (1902, p. 11) 
identifies the castle in this woodcut with Aggstein below Melk. An anonymous 
German picture at Piacenza based upon this woodcut is reproduced by H. Voss, 
Mitteilungen, 1909, p. 75. 

(57. ST. GEORGE STANDING. B. viii, 79, 56. S. 58.) 

The British Museum does not possess the original. A photograph of the only 
impression known to me, a late one, at Vienna (Hofbibliothek), is inserted for 
comparison with the copy, no. 57a. 

57a. ST. GEORGE STANDING. B. 56. S. 58. 

Copy. 

[135 x 101.] Late impression with false chiaroscuro tint, dull sage green, 
applied by hand, white patches being left for the high lights. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

This impression was reproduced as Altdorfer's original woodcut in the " Little 
Engravings" volume. Dr. Weixlgartner was the first -to recognise it as a copy. 1 
Differences in detail are numerous ; for instance, the shaft of the spear is shaded 
along the left side, in the original, with short horizontal lines which are omitted in 
the copy. For similar shading on the handle of the spear a curved line is substi- 
tuted in the copy, which the original lacks. The copy, moreover, is larger, the 
original measuring only 125 x 95 mm. The original itself is unsigned and its 
authenticity is doubted by Friedlander (p. 35) and Weixlgartner. The original block 
is no. 426 in the Derschau collection of blocks at Berlin. 

58. ST. JEROME IN PENITENCE, IN A CAVE. B. viii, 79, 57. S. 59. 

[169 x 120.] Good impression with narrow margin. No watermark. The 1. 
upper corner has been inserted by a restorer. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The most remarkable achievement on the technical side among Altdorfer's wood- 
cuts. Friedlander dates it 1514. 

1 Mitt. d. Ges. f. vervielf. Kunst, 1903, p. 47. 



230 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part 1L 

59. ST. JEROME IN PENITENCE, IN THE OPEN AIR. 

B. viii, 80, 58. S. 60. 

[66 x 45.] Late impression, enclosed in a passe-partout of Renaissance design, 
also by Altdorfer [107 x 75 ; opening, 69 x 49]. 

Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1857. 

The woodcut is rare. Friedlander dates the border about 1516, remarking on the 
signs of Diirer's influence which it bears. 



60. THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. 1511. B. viii, 80, 60. S. 62. 

[203 x 161.] Fine early impression, the same subject repeated on the back. 1 No 
margin. Watermark, a triangle (fragment, the rest indistinguishable). 
Collections : Firmin-Didot (F. 21), Mitchell. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 



61. PYRAMUS AND THISBE. 1513. B. viii, 80, 61. S. 63. 

[120 x 96.] Fair impression, not very clear. No margin or watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

62. A STANDARD BEARER. B. viii, 81, 62. S. 64. 

[120 x 95.] Good impression, without margin or watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1853. 



63. LOVERS SITTING IN A WOOD. 1511. B. viii, 81, 63. S. 65. 

[135 x 100.] Fair impression, without margin or watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1858. 

A free imitation of this woodcut, in reverse [82 x 65], appeared in " Das untrew 
Spiel," by Hans Sachs, " Gedruckt zu Niirnberg durch Herman Hamsing " (n.d.). 

Of the remaining woodcuts enumerated by Schmidt, no. 54 has already 
been mentioned, no. 61 (St. Catherine, P. iii, 304, 64) is unknown to me 
as it was to Schmidt and Friedlander, no. 66 (repr. Butsch, i, 88), a title- 
border signed A, is not by Altdorfer, no. 67 is a portion of the "Tross " 
at the end of the Triumphal Procession of Maximilian, no. 68, an orna- 
mental doorway, not described by B. or P., is at Dresden. 2 

64 (1-10). SUBJECTS DESIGNED BY ALTDORFER FOR THE TRIUMPHAL 
ARCH OF THE EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN.' 

On the Triumphal Arch see Vol. I, pp. 311-321. Altdorfer's share 
in the work, consisting of ten of the scenes of Maximilian s private life on 
the round towers at either end, and the decoration of the cupolas by 
which these towers are surmounted, is described on pp. 313-315 and 317. 
The subjects may be briefly repeated here. 



1 Schmidt mentions a similar double impression of B. 57 at Munich. 

2 Repr., Hildebrandt, pi. 8. 

3 First attributed to Altdorfer by W. Schmidt (Chronik filr vervielftiltigende 
Kunst, 1891, iv, 12). 



Division C. School of Ratisbon, Altdorfer. 231 

Left Tower. (1) i. The foundation or incorporation of a church of the 
Order of St. George. 1 

(2) ii. Maximilian and the knights of St. George vowing 

a crusade against the Turks. 

(3) iii. Maximilian's improvements in artillery. 

(4) iv. Maximilian conversing in seven languages. 

(5) vi. 2 Maximilian's prowess in the chase. 

Right Tower. (6) vii. Maximilian engaged in tournaments and masque- 
rades. 

(7) viii. Maximilian's genealogical and heraldic studies. 

(8) ix. The tomb erected by Maximilian for his father. 

(9) x. The imperial treasure. 

(10) xi. Maximilian's interest in building. 

1 Since the publication of Vol. I important new material for the history of this 
order has been published by Dr. Robert Eisler. (Jahrbuch der k.k. Zentralkom- 
mission filr kunst- und histarische Denkmale, 1905, iii, 103-109.) The Abbey of 
Millstatt, formerly Benedictine, was conferred upon the order at the time of its 
foundation by Frederick III. In 1471 followed the incorporation of Wiener 
Neustadt, which had been the seat of a much earlier Order of St. George, founded in 
1333 by Otto " der Frohliche." From documents issued by Maximilian (17 Sep- 
tember 1493), and Alexander VI (13 April 1494), we learn that what was formerly a 
strictly religious order, with vows of chastity and obedience (not poverty), was 
transferred into a secular confraternity for both sexes, for the purpose of checking: 
the advance of the Turks. A donation qualified for admission to the confraternity, 
but those who were willing to serve in person for a year in war against the Turks 
obtained the title of crowned knights of St. George with certain privileges. Ordinary 
members had their names read yearly from the pulpit of one of the churches of the 
order, and if they were of knightly birth their arms were placed in the church ; the 
church at Millstatt is so decorated to this day. Bayn in Carinthia was bestowed 
upon the order in 1493, and Victring in 1494 ; it is possible that one of these in- 
corporations, as Dr. Eisler suggests (p. 103), may be the subject of the present 
woodcut. The codex at Vienna, mentioned in Vol. I, p. 314, should have been 
quoted as 3221, not 3301. 

2 The fifth subject is by Diirer. 



232 



IV MASTEE OF THE "TKOSS." 

Unknown artist; worked presumably at Ratisbon about 1515. 

A certain portion of the woodcuts which compose the Triumphal 
Procession of the Emperor Maximilian 1 has for many years been 
recognised as the work of an artist distinct from the others engaged 
in preparing the designs. But whereas the hand of Diirer, Spring- 
inklee, Burgkmair, Beck or Schaufelein is easily recognisable in this 
or that group of the Triumph, no identification of the remaining artist 
hitherto proposed has met with general acceptance. Schestag 2 and 
Laschitzer 3 left him nameless ; Dr. W. Schmidt * and Dr. H. Bottinger 6 
agree in naming him Altdorfer, though they base the attribution on 
somewhat different grounds. The name of Hans Diirer has also been 
proposed, though only recently, so far as I am aware, in print. 6 

Before discussing these suggestions, it is necessary to define more 
closely what share in the preparation of the blocks was assigned to 
the unknown draughtsman. Nos. 57-88, a double series of riders 
bearing respectively the banners of the hereditary domains of Austria 
and of those acquired through the Burgundian marriage, divided by 
five ranks of mounted trumpeters, form a group apart, distinguished 
from the rest of the Triumph by a set of numbers, 1 to 32, cut upon 
the block and printed in reverse low down to the right of the subject. 7 
But it has been fully recognised since 1887 that another group of six 
blocks at the end of the Triumph, nos. 132-137 in the latest edition, 
must be attributed to the same draughtsman. This second group 
represents the " Tross," or train of stragglers and packbearers 
following with the baggage in the rear of the procession. It is dis- 
tinguished from the rest of the Triumph by the fact that the throng 

1 B. vii, 229, 81. On the Procession see Vol. I, pp. 332, 398, Vol. II, pp. 33, 
96,130. 

* Vienna Jahrbuch, i, 174 ff. 

* Vienna Jahrbuch, v, 167. 

4 Kunstchranik, 1893, N.F. iv, 347. 

4 Repertorium filr Kunstwissenchaft, 1903, xxvi, 328. 

* By H. Voss, in Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft filr vervielfaltigende Kunst, 1909, 
p. 56, note 1. 

7 On the early proofs in this collection nineteen of these numbers appear (2, 3, 
6-8, 11-17, 19, 24, 27, 28, 30-32) ; as printed in 1796, two numbers (2, 12) are seen, 
but the most recent edition shows that ten (2, 8, 11-13, 15-17, 24, 31) are still pre- 
served upon the blocks. 



Division C. School of Eatisbon. Master of the " Tross." 233 

advances in an easy disorder, instead of being marshalled in compact 
and formal ranks, and also by the presence of a complete landscape 
background. So free, indeed, is the treatment that these picturesque 
and lively inventions would hardly be recognised as conforming to 
the general regulations of the Triumph were it not for the obligatory 
wreath or " lobkrennzl " on every head and the tablet carried by the 
" trossmaister." l 

The landscape affords the first clue to the authorship of the group 
in question. No one who has studied the characteristics conveniently 
summarised by the term " Donaustil " can fail to recognise in the 
treatment of plants and trees the manner of the school of Eatisbon 
and Passau. The mountain ridges, the curly outlines of the small 
trees and shrubs, the habit of using a taller tree to mark the limit of 
a picture (nos. 132-134, 136, 137), the artist's obvious delight in 
woodland scenery, remind us of the drawings and woodcuts of 
Altdorfer and Huber. The Eomanesque architecture on nos. 135 
and 136 is also characteristic of the Danube region. The first im- 
pression is confirmed by study of the figures. The preference for 
grotesque and eccentric types, the lean, bony faces of the men, the 
rounder heads of the women, the strongly marked nose and carefully 
drawn eyes of both sexes remind us of Eatisbon rather than 
Nuremberg or Augsburg. The Bavarian love of curly lines and 
continually indented contours betrays itself no less in the animal 
than in the vegetable forms ; hair and feathers are studied with the 
same minuteness as the foliage by the wayside. 

But though the draughtsman is obviously a countryman of 
Altdorfer it is impossible to identify him with the chief of the 
Eatisbon school. The days are past when everything produced in 
that school was ascribed to Altdorfer, just as unsigned Nuremberg 
woodcuts and drawings bore the name of Diirer and those of 
Augsburg were attributed to Burgkmair. Altdorfer certainly bore 
his part in carrying out the commissions of the Emperor Maximilian, 
though it is exceedingly questionable whether he drew either of the 
two groups of marginal decorations in the Besangon portion of the 
Prayer-book of Maximilian which are assigned by different critics to 
Altdorfer the group signed " A. A." or that signed " H. D." 2 With 

1 On no. 132 not only the horses but even the ducks and running dog wear 
wreaths. 

2 It is notorious that the signatures in this book were added, not always discreetly, 
by a later hand. Dr. Giehlow ascribes the " A. A." group to Altdorfer, the " H. D." 
group to Hans Diirer; Dr. Rottinger gives the former to Huber, the latter to 
Altdorfer himself. I am inclined to agree with Dr. Rottinger to the extent of 
assigning these groups to two different artists of the Ratisbon school. 



234 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts, Part II. 

regard to the portions of the " Ehrenpforte " attributed to him by 
Schmidt no doubt is possible. But the test of comparison with 
woodcuts and drawings signed by Altdorfer excludes his participation 
in the Triumphal Procession no less surely than it confirms such a 
participation in the Triumphal Arch. The miniatures for the Tross, 
in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna, stand nearer to Altdorfer than the 
woodcuts, and may be from the hand of the master himself. 

The differentiation of the minor artists of this school has made 
some progress, but is far from being complete. With the best known 
of them, Wolf Huber, the Master of the Tross has more in common 
than with Altdorfer. In the treatment of foliage he approaches 
Huber closely, but there is a great divergence in the drawing of the 
human figure between our anonymous draughtsman and the Passau 
master. 1 His skill in depicting an animated crowd might suggest the 
artist of the Pilgrimage to the Beautiful Virgin of Ratisbon, Michael 
Ostendorfer, but there is no more than a superficial resemblance 
between the popular types drawn by the two men. The draughtsman 
" H. D." of the Besanfon Prayer-book has a more serious claim to be 
the Master of the Tross, and Dr. Rottinger has stated, perhaps over- 
stated, a number of definite points of resemblance between the two 
works. In my opinion those resemblances count for little as against 
a far more radical divergence. 

Neither in the works of any of the artists hitherto named, nor 
among such drawings of the school of Ratisbon as have been pub- 
lished do I find any parallel to the most characteristic peculiarities 
of this master's style. Not only the Tross but the series of horses 
and riders in nos. 57-88 of the Triumphal Procession, with the 
women depicted on the banners above them, stand apart from any- 
thing else in German illustration of the time. They are the work of 
a considerable master whose individual talent is so easily recognised 
and remembered that it is surprising that no other works by his 
hand can be identified. 

Against all this negative criticism of the existing attributions I 
can set but one positive discovery that may tend towards the solution 
of the problem. The woman on the third of the banners displayed in 
no. 65 of the Triumph has the letters " H V " placed upon her bodice 
in a form which suggests that they are the initials of the artist and 
not intended merely for decoration, though it is always unsafe to 

1 The Berlin drawing published by Dr. Voss (Mitteilungen, 1909, p. 57) forms a 
closer connecting link than had yet been found, but I would claim it for Huber and 
not for the anonymous draughtsman. 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Master of the " Tross." 235 

take letters in such a position for a signature. Before the " H " there 
may, perhaps, be a " W " partly hidden by the sleeve. No signature or 
letters can be found anywhere else upon the two groups of woodcuts 
by this master, except that on the same block, no. 65, the rider has 
upon his leg the letter " W " four times repeated, ill a form which 
obviously does not betoken a signature. 1 The other letters, till an 
explanation of them can be offered, only serve as an additional argu- 
ment for distinguishing this master from the known artists of Ratisbon. 
It only remains to be added that the blocks of this portion of the 
Triumphal Procession were cut, like all the rest, at Augsburg in the 
workshop of Jost de Negker. 



WOODCUTS BY THE MASTER OF THE "TROSS." 
[1-32.] 

THE ARMS OF THE HEREDITARY DOMAINS OF AUSTRIA AND OF 
THOSE ACQUIRED THROUGH THE BURGUNDIAN MARRIAGE. 

The woodcuts forming this series are numbered 57 to 88 in all editions 
of the Triumph. The scheme throughout is uniform. Three cavaliers (in 
nos. 7476 two only), riding to the right, carry on their spears banners 
which contain the arms of the respective countries or towns with helm 
and crest. A woman, standing or seated, is also represented upon every 
banner, carrying the same arms on a small flag and wearing a gown 
embroidered with heraldic emblems to match. At the top of every 
banner is a black strip which represents a place reserved upon the block 
for inscriptions which were never cut. According to the programme of 
the Triumph the knight who carries the banner is to wear armour if the 
Emperor Maximilian has won a victory in the country of which he is the 
representative ; if not, he is to be richly dressed in the fashion of that 
country, but not in armour. The bearers of the Burgundian banners are 
not to wear armour. 

In the following list only the arms displayed upon the banners are 
mentioned, in order from right to left, as they are given in the programme. 
For the elucidation of some doubtful points in heraldry I am indebted to 
Mr. Max Rosenheim. 

1 (57). AUSTEIA. OLD AUSTEIA. STYRIA. 

2 (58). CARINTHIA. CARNIOLA (Grain). SUABIA. 

3 (59). ALSACE. HABSBURG. TIROL. 

4 (60). GORITZ (Gorz). PFIRT (Ferette). KYBURG. 

5 (61). UPPER AUSTRIA (Land ob der Enns). BURGAU. CILLI. 

1 It may represent " weiss." Beneath it is a trefoil, possibly the leaf often used 
as a symbol for green. 



236 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Q (62). NELLENBURG. HOHENBERG. SECKINGEN AND URACH. 1 

7 (63). GLARIS. SONNENBERG. FELDKIRCH. 

8(64). ORTENBURG. EHINGEN. ACHALM.' 

9 (65). FREIBURG. BREGENZ. SAULGAU. 

10(66). WALDHAUSEN. RAVENSBURG. KIRCHBERG. 

11 (67). TOGGENBURG. ANDECHS. FRIULI. 

12 (68). TRIESTE. WINDISCHMARK. PORTENAU. 

13 (69). TRIBERG. 3 RHAZUNS (Grisons). THURGAU. 

14 (70). RHEINECK. ACHTGERICHT (one of the constituent parts of the later 

Canton of Grisons). LIEBEN. 

15 (71). EHRENBERG. WEISSENHORN. HOHENSTAUFEN. 

16 (72). RAPPERSWYL. SCHWARZWALD. NEUBURG ON THE INN. 

17 (73). TIBEIN. 4 UPPER WALDSEE. LOWER WALDSEE. 

18 (74). BURGENT (unexplained not Burgundy). ZAHRINGEN. 

19 (75). BOHEMIA. ENGLAND. 

20 (76). PORTUGAL. MORAVIA. 

21 (77). TEN BURGUNDIAN MUSICIANS (five with " Pumharden," and five 

with trombones). 

22 (78). FIVE BURGUNDIAN MUSICIANS (with trombones). 

22a. FIVE BURGUNDIAN MUSICIANS. Another impression. Very early 
proof, showing none of the injuries to the block that appear even in the 
1526 edition. The haunch of the last horse 1. is intact. Cut 
[269 x 346] ; the paper stained brown, no watermark. In the inventory 
of 1837. 

23 (79). TEN BURGUNDIAN MUSICIANS (with shawms and " Rauschpfeifen "). 

24 (80). BURGUNDY (reversed). LORRAINE. 6 BRABANT. 

1 Or Aurach, a town in the Schwarzwald. 

z The arms of the Counts of Achalm are given by Sibmacher ; in the Triumph 
they are reversed. 

3 These arms are given by Sibmacher (II, 14) as those of the Counts of Tryburg. 

4 This is interpreted in the French version published in the 1796 edition as Duino, 
a town at the head of the Adriatic, in the modern province of Kiistenland, adjacent 
to Carniola. The arms agree, however, very nearly with those given in a MS. of 
about 1487, belonging to Mr. Rosenheim, as the arms of " Thwbin," one of " des richs 
fier edle geschlecht." Rietstap gives the arms of the MS. as those of Trivisan, of 
Padua, with the difference that the fesse is or instead of argent. 

s The instruments are described in the programme of the Triumph as Pumharten, 
Schalmeien and Rauschpfeifen. These, as Mr. Barclay Squire informs me, are the 
three slightly varying forms of wood-wind instruments shown in nos. 77-79 and do 
not include the trombones (brass) shown in nos. 77 and 78. The shawm (schalmei) 
is an old form of oboe ; the Pumhard (pommer, bombarde, pomharte) is a bassoon ; 
the Rauschpfeife is closely allied to the other two. 

6 These are not the right arms of Lorraine as generally understood, but are the 
same as the arms of (new) Austria. The Austrian arms are given in Mr. Rosen- 
heim's MS. (c. 1487) as those of " Hertzog zu hinder lutringen " (fol. 23 v.), but with a 
different crest, while the correct arms of Lorraine (" Hertzog von lutringen ") are 
given on folio 24, v. Grote, " Stammtafeln," p. 257, says that these arms were used 
from 1509 onwards for " Nieder-Lothringen," and borne by the lords of Perweys in 
Brabant as descendants of Godfrey of Bouillon. 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Master of the " Tross." 237 

25 (81). LIMBURG. LUXEMBURG. GUELDRES. 

26 (82). HAINAULT. BURGUNDY (i.e. Haute Bourgogne or Franche-Comte). 1 

FLANDERS. 

27 (83). NAMUR. ZUTPHEN. 2 FRIESLAND. 

28 (84). MALINES. SALINS. ANTWERP. 

29 (85). CHAROLOIS. MACONNOIS. L'AUXERROIS. 

30 (86). BOULOGNE. ALOST. SIMUM (?, not Chimay). 

31 (87). OSTROBAN (?). 3 ARGUS (Arkel). 4 AUXONNE (Cote d'Or). 

32 (88). TERREMONT (Tenremonde). FRANCKH (Franeker). BKTHUNE. 

[33-38.] 

THE "TROSS." 

33 (132). FIRST SHEET. 

The procession is led by Jeronimus von Heremberg, " trossmaister " 
(called on the miniature " Jheronimus von Herrenberg Drossmaister "), 
who carries a tablet and a great scroll, destined to hold inscriptions which 
were never cut. He is followed by two men riding with women on 
pillions behind them. A man runs holding up a flask in his 1. hand, 
followed again by mounted men. 

The block of this subject is lost ; it is wanting, accordingly, in the edition of 1796. 

34 (133). SECOND SHEET. Meyer's K.-L. i, 552, 67 (2) (as Altdorfer). 
A man and two women walk in the foreground ; the man leads a goat 

laden with kitchen utensils. Beyond the goat walks a man with a pack 
on his back and a dog standing on his shoulders ; two women follow the 
goat. On the far side of the road is a cart containing three persons ; 
others follow on horseback or on foot. 

35 (134). THIRD SHEET. Ibid. 67 (1). 

In the middle are two mounted men, conversing with others on foot 1. 
and r., one of whom (to 1.) is drinking from a gourd ; another (to r.) 
carries a cock slung by the legs over his shoulder. 

36 (135). FOURTH SHEET. 

Men and women marching, in the distance a village with a spire. A 
conspicuous figure in the crowd is a soldier, walking arm in arm with a 
young woman and carrying a flag. 6 

1 " Lowe gekr. g. in b. bestreuet mit g. Schindeln " (Grote, page 341). 

2 Stumpf, Chronicle, i, 249, gives " Zymphen " (meaning Zutphen) with these arms. 
8 Unexplained. The French version gives " Ostrevant." 

4 These arms are given in Mr. Rosenheim's MS. (fol. 70 v.) as " Her vo Erckel," 
and in Grote, p. 281, as Arkel (5-fach zinnenweise q.-gth. w. r.), a title of the Counts 
of Egmond. 

* The object represented on the flag is not easy to explain. Dr. Meder suggested 
to me the swaddling-clothes of a baby. In that case a satirical allusion to the loose 
conduct of the soldiery and wenches, and its consequences, may be intended. It may, 
however, be a very intimate article of masculine wearing apparel, such as is displayed 
upon a roof in Lucas Moser's altar-piece at Tiefenbronn. 



238 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

37 (136). FIFTH SHEET. Meyer's K.-L. i, 552, 67 (3). 

Men and women marching. They carry packs and implements of 
various kinds. In the middle is a square tower with a mountain beyond it. 

The horses 1. do not belong, as Wessely supposed, to the cart in no. 34 (133), 
but to that in no. 38 (187). The Berlin Cabinet possesses very beautiful proofs of 
the three subjects which Wessely attributed to Altdorfer. Neither Wessely nor 
Schmidt (in 1872) observed that they belong to the Triumphal Procession. 

38 (137). SIXTH SHEET. 

A cart drawn by four horses (two of which are in no. 37), containing 
a chest, a tub, sacks, etc. A man walking in the foreground carries 
shoes hanging from two long rods. Several other figures are seen upon 
the road, which descends from a wood 1. 

All the woodcuts described above except no. 22a are in the volume purchased in 
1845 from Messrs. Smith. Nos. 1-18, 20-27, 30, 31, 33 and 36 belong to the edition 
of 1526, nos. 19, 28, 29, 32, 34, 35, 37 to that of 1777, and no. 38 to that of 1796. 
Later impressions of the whole set, except no. 33, are also to be found in the 1796 
edition itself. 

The block of no. 4 was cut by Jan de Bonn (or Bom), those of nos. 6 and 31 by 
Hans Franck, of nos. 2 and 37 by Cornelius Liefrinck, of nos. 3, 13, 21, 25, and 36 by 
Wilhelm Liefrinck, of nos. 20 and 23 by Jost de Negker, of no. 32 by Jan Taberith. 
The remainder of the blocks are unsigned. 

The six sheets of woodcuts are based upon two sheets of the series of miniatures 
(by Altdorfer ?) at Vienna. The woodcuts reproduce in general the contents of the 
miniatures, but the draughtsman has not scrupled, when making his drawings on 
the block, to rearrange portions of the composition, to omit certain figures and add 
others of his own invention. Both painter and draughtsman are good artists and 
closely allied, but not identical. It would be inconsistent with Maximilian's usual 
practice to allot these two tasks to the same man, and, moreover, there are diver- 
gences in the treatment of trees, plants and grass too great to be explained only by 
the use of another medium. Some innovations in the arrangement of the figures arc 
worth mentioning in detail. Herrenberg, in the miniature (without feathers), does 
not lead the procession, but is preceded by the man on horseback with a woman, to 
whom another man runs up, offering a flask. The dog (without a wreath) is more 
conspicuously placed in the foreground. The two women just behind the " Tross- 
maister " in no. 33, and the rider on the extreme left, are original additions of the 
draughtsman, as are all the high trees which serve to vary the level of the composi- 
tion. In no. 34 the goat walks on a level with the hind wheels of the cart, whereas 
in the miniature he is beside the front wheel and the three women walk well in 
advance of the cart. The third person in the cart faces to the front, in the minia- 
ture, instead of turning backwards. In no. 35 the divergence is yet greater ; the 
striking figure on horseback, looking round to the left, is quite new, and the man 
standing, with his arm in a sling, takes the place of a very different soldier in an 
analogous position. In no. 36 the correspondence of figure to figure is somewhat 
closer ; the flag, in the miniature, displays no emblem. In no. 37 the church is 
brought much nearer to the mountain ; two women on horseback, who appear in the 
background of the miniature, are omitted, and the dog is new. In no. 38 the men 
carrying shoes are new, and the figure standing, with an open book, in a cart drawn 
by two horses, takes the place of two seated figures in a cart drawn by one horse. 
There are numerous differences besides those mentioned here. 



239 



V. MICHAEL OSTENDOEFEE. 

Painter and draughtsman on wood ; : place and date of birth 
unknown ; mentioned in 1519 as a master at Eatisbon, where he 
continued to reside ; his first wife, Anna Wechin, died 1550, and he 
married again, unhappily ; having fallen into poverty, he was 
admitted in May, 1556, to an almshouse, where he died in December, 
1559. Many of his letters written after 1550 to the civic authorities 
and his patron, Dr. N. Hiltner, are extant. His most important 
picture, the altar-piece painted in 1553-55 for the Protestant parish 
church, is preserved in the collection of the Historical Society at 
Eatisbon. 

Authorities : 

i. Catalogues, etc. 

Bartsch, P.-G., ix, 154. 

Heller, " Zusatze," 100. 

Passavant, P.-G., iii, 310. 

Nagler, Mon., iv, 637, no. 2024 and 645, no. 2036. 2 

Wessely, Repertorium, iv, 150. 

Schmidt, ibid., xv, 433. 

Dodgson, Monatshefte fur Kunstwissenschaft, i, 35 and 511. 
ii. Biographical and critical notices. 

Schuegraf , " Lebensgeschichtliche Nachrichten tiber den Maler 
u. Burger M. O. in Regensburg," Verhandl. d. hist. Vereines 
v. Oberpfalz u. Begensburg, 1850, xiv (N. F. vi), 1. 

Janitschek, " Gesch. d. deutschen Malerei," 1890, 420. 

Liitzow, " Gesch. d. deutschen. Kupferstiches u. Holzschnittes," 
1891, 177. 

1 According to Heller and Passavant he also etched, but Nagler (Mon., iv, 638) 
asserts that the portrait of Caspar Othmayr, 1547, with his monogram (P. 1), is 
merely copied from a woodcut (N. 14). Both woodcut and etching are at Berlin ; 
Dr. Elfried Bock tells me that the woodcut has more artistic merit than the etching ; 
the latter, only, is in this collection. 

2 Nagler attributes a portion of the woodcuts, published at Ingolstadt, to Martin 
Ostendorfer, portrait-painter to Duke William IV of Bavaria. There is no reason 
for this separation. We have no evidence that Michael Ostendorfer resided at 
Ingolstadt, but he can easily have illustrated books printed in that town without 
leaving Ratisbon, situated lower down the Danube. The woodcuts designed for 
Apian betray the same hand as the earlier works produced at Ratisbon, though the 
monogram is changed. Other painters of the name of Ostendorfer, Heinrich, Ulrich, 
Lienhard and Hans, are mentioned by Schuegraf, but their relationship to Michael 
is unknown. 



240 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

By far the most interesting portion of Ostendorfer's work is the 
earliest, produced at Ratisbon 1519-22, while the devotion to the 
Beautiful Virgin was at its height. The woodcuts of this period 
show the influence of Altdorfer and rank among the more important 
productions of the Danube school. The monograms used on them 
are of the type given by Nagler (inaccurately) at the end of the third 
row. A Repose of the Holy Family, signed and dated 1523, is 
known only by a description in Weigel's Kunstkatalog, no. 24551. 
A second group of works, also full of character, with a different 
monogram (last type but one in Nagler's second row), 1 appeared at 
Ingolstadt, in books or on broadsides, in the years 1528-31. Osten- 
dorfer's share in the illustration of Apian's books has been unduly 
magnified by Weigel, whose attributions of unsigned works, like 
those of other art-dealers and booksellers, are often ill-founded. 2 A 
third type of monogram makes its first appearance in 1533 (P. 7), 3 
and continues to be used with modifications (see Nagler's remaining 
facsimiles) to the end. Ostendorfer's later woodcuts, issued after the 
introduction of the Reformation, are inferior in artistic merit ; they 
consist, except the large religious subject, B. 1, of portraits, topo- 
graphical subjects, small illustrations to Protestant catechisms, and 
other kinds of ill-paid hackwork. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY OSTENDORFER. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OP PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [GALLUS.] Catechismus Predigsweise gestelt, fiir die kirche zu 
Regenspurg, zum Methodo. . . . Durch Nic. Gallum. Hans Khol 
(Kohl), Ratisbon, 1554; 4'. P. iii, 313, 16-40; Nagl., Mon., iv, 
640, 17. 

Title-page and 23 illustrations [c. 120 x 95], of which all but no. 23 are signed, 

(1). Title-page. Below, Christ preaching; above, in compartments (from 1. to r.), 
Absolution, Mary Magdalen anointing Christ's feet, Christ and little 
children, (centre) the arms of Ratisbon, Baptism, the Last Supper, 
Communion [157 X 115], P. 16. 

(2) E 2. Moses breaking the tables of the law. P. 17. 

(3) G 2 v. The stoning of a blasphemer. P. 18. 

(4) 1 1 v. Interior of a church at sermon time. P. 19. 

(5) M 3 v. Ham mocking the nakedness of Noah. P. 20. 

(6) P3v. Cain killing Abel. P. 21. 

1 The earliest work on which I have found this monogram is a title-border dated 
1526 (p. 241, no. 1). 

2 See Monatshefte fiir Kunstwissenschaft, i, 38. 

* Nagler gives a slightly different monogram with the date 1530, but mentions no 
work on which 5t occurs. 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Ostendorfer. 



241 



David and Bathsheba. P. 22. 

Achan confessing his sin to Joshua. P. 23. 

Susanna accused by the elders. P. 24. 

Jacob peeling the rods. P. 25. 

Joseph and Potiphar's wife. P. 26. 

The Creation. P. 27. 

Christ on the Cross. P. 28. 

The Descent of the Holy Ghost. P. 29. 

Christ teaching the Lord's Prayer to the Apostles. P. 30. Dated 1554. 
p 4 v (also q 4). Christians using the Lord's Prayer. P. 31, 32. (P. iii, 311, 6 ; 
Nagl., Mon., iv, 638, 4.) 

Christ bearing the Cross. P. 33. 

The feeding of the five thousand. P. 34. 

The parable of the unmerciful servant. P. 35. 

The temptation of Christ. P. 36. 

The woman of Canaan. P. 37. 

The Baptism of Christ. P. 38. 
B b 3 v. Absolution. P. 39. 
(24) D d 3. Communion. P. 40. 
Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1853. 




B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [LUTHER.] Vier Trostliche | Psalmen, An die Koni- 1 gin zu 
Hungern, auss- 1 gelegt durch D. I Martinum j Luther. I Wittemberg. I 
1. 5. 27. (n. p. d.) 4 to . 

Signed border, undescribed. A portal with a round arch resting on either side 
upon two columns. Between each pair of columns stands an angel of Ostendorfer's 
regular type, with a cross standing up prominently over the brow. From the 
entablature supported by these columns hang two tablets containing the date, 15 (1.), 
26 (r.). In the spandril at the top stand two angels holding cressets and supporting 
shields, which contain (1.) Ostendorfer's monogram in its second form, and (r.) a 
flower. [164 x 119 ; opening, 81 X 55.] 

The border had probably been used in an earlier book. The construction of the 
portal and decoration of the interior of the arch are strongly reminiscent of the 
border by Hans Cranach reproduced on p. 228 of Flechsig's " Cranachstudien." 

2. [IOHANN, von Eck.~\ Christenliche auszlegung der Euangelienn. 
. . . . Der Erste Tail. Ingolstadt, 1530; fol. Muther 1780. 

j3 6 (last leaf of Register). Christ on the cross, with Mary and John [93 X 66], 
signed. P. iii, 311, 5 ; Nagl., Mon., iv, 638, 2. 

The remaining woodcuts in the book are not, as Nagler and Muther say, by 
Ostendorfer, but by H. S. Beham (see Vol. I, p. 442, no. 11). A bad copy of Osten- 
dorfer's woodcut, in the same direction but without the monogram [91 x 62], occurs 
in Pt. 4 of the same work (sig. d3v.), April 1534, and onisig. B 6 of " Evangeliorum 
Textus, tarn dominicalium, ut uocant, quam de Sanctis," A. Weissenhorn, Augsburg, 
1534; 8. 

3. [BED A.] Abacus atque vetustissima, veterum latinorum per 
digitos manusque numerandi .... cosuetudo, Ex beda, etc., J. Khol, 
Ratisbon, 1532 ; 4 to . 

Three leaves (sig. B 1-3) contain numerous small woodcuts of hands and men 
gesticulating with their hands to signify certain numbers ; these are evidently by 
Ostendorfer. On the last leaf is the armorial device of the printer Joannes Khol or 
Kohl, signed M [111 x 98]. See Nagler, Mon., iv, no. 2036, W. Schmidt, Reper- 
torium, xix, 122, and A. Hagelstange, " Ein Schriftchen iiber Zeichensprache von 
1532, mit Holzschnitten von M. Ostendorfer," in " Studien aus Kunst und Geschichte, 

R 



242 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Friedrich Schneider gewidmet," Freiburg i. B., 1906, p. 275, with reproductions of 
all the woodcuts in the text. 

4. [APIANUS.] Astronomicum Caesareum. Ingolstadt, May 1540 ; 
fol. F. van Ortroy, "Bibliographic de 1'CEuvre de P. Apian," 1 no. 112 ; 
MonatsJiefte fur Kunstwissenschaft, i, 35. 

Four different woodcuts of the arms of Apian are found in various copies of this 
book. 

(1) The old arms, with single-headed eagle, in a wreath [100 x 105]. This wood- 
cut is found alone, with printed inscription above, Insignia Petri Apiani, Mathemat. 
IngolstadieS., in the copy at Berlin (Kupf.-Kab.). This variety of the book is 
mentioned by Weigel, Kunstkat., no. 19450, but not by F. van Ortroy. 

(2) The old arms, with xylographic inscription, Insignia Petri Apiani, at the foot 
[401 x 288]. By Ostendorfer, though not signed; the winged face at the top 
sufficiently shows his hand. This woodcut alone occurs in the British Museum copy. 

(3) The new arms, with double-headed eagle, in a wreath [105 x 105]. This is 
found in some copies (e.g. Berlin, K. Bibl., collection of Mr. Max Rosenheim, 
London) placed side by side with no. (2), with printed inscription above, Insignia P. 
Apiani. Vtraque. | Priora. Posteriora. In these copies the large woodcut, no. (1), 
is also used. The grant of these new arms to Apian is dated 24 July, 1541 ; the 
sheet containing them was, therefore, an addition to the book, which was printed in 
1540, and early copies were issued without it. 

(4) The new arms, with Ostendorfer's monogram immediately beyond the point 
of the shield, which rests upon a ledge. The shield and mantling cast a shadow 
upon the background, which is otherwise blank, and is enclosed by a plain border- 
line [349 x 289]. This coat-of-arms was acquired, as a loose sheet, by the Berlin 
Cabinet in 1907. It is identical with that described by Nagler, Mon., iv, 642, 27. 
The inscription, INSIGNIA PETRI APIANI SACRI PALATII CO 182 (cut away 
from the Berlin impression), is printed with type beneath the woodcut, to which it 
corresponds exactly in length. This cut is found in certain copies of the Astro- 
nomicum Csesareum (e.g. Brussels, Observatoire Royal and Paris, Bibliotheque 
Nationale, Section des imprimes, Inv. Res. v. 220, 221). Passavant, no. 15, describes 
the signed arms as having the inscription which belongs to the unsigned arms ; by a 
further blunder, he describes the woodcut as belonging to the Instrument Buch, 
instead of the Astronomicum. 

No. 2 appears to be by Ostendorfer, in addition to no. 4. The following other 
cuts in the Astronomicum are probably from Ostendorfer's design : 85 full page 
plates, with handles of six different patterns, including the movable discs attached to 
many of them ; one of these discs, belonging to sig. G 3 v., is also used on the title- 
page. Further, the small head of Christ (B 1), and four quarters of the globe with 
figures of priest, cosmographer, poet and astronomer (F 8 v). 

He is certainly not the author of the fine alphabet [48 X 47] with astronomers 
and geometricians (22 letters, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, 0, P, Q, R, S, 
T, Y, Z and *) attributed to him by Weigel (Naumann's Archiv, ii, 206) and on 
Weigel's authority by Passavant (no. 15) and Nagler (no. 29), nor of the small CT 
alphabet [26 X 26] also mentioned by Nagler (17 letters, A, B, C, D, E, F, H, i, 
N, o, P, QU, H, B, T, v, z). The large alphabet appears by the subjects represented 
in it to have been designed expressly for this work, but it was ready some years 
before the completion of the book, since some letters from it occur as early as 1533 
(Q in Folium Populi and Introductio Geographica, 1539, A, C, E, N, 0, Q, V in In- 
ecriptiones, 1534). It may have been prepared for the Astronomicum Imperatorium 
(F. v. O.,96), the existence of which is only known by the allusion to it in Quadrans 
Apiani Astronomicus, 1532. Letters from the small alphabet also occur in 1533 (QU, 
s in Folium Populi, A, M in Introductio Geographica, c in Horoscopion Generate) . 
Both alphabets, like the fine cartouche containing the title, show the hand of an 
artist more skilled in ornament than Ostendorfer. I should be inclined to attribute 
them to cne artist who has signed a woodcut in one of Apian's books, Folium Populi, 

with his monogram pErJ^, accompanied by a knife. The Torquetum, 4 v., used 
earlier in Introductio Geographica, 1 4 v., is by the same artist. 

1 fe> Bibliographe Moderne, Paris, 1901, V. 89, 284. 

* " Comes," according to Nagler, but this is impossible. 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Ostendorfer. 243 

5. [RATISBON.] Ordnung eines Erbarn Raths der Statt Regenspurg, 
Die Hebammen betreffende. H. Khol, Ratisbon, n.d. (ace. to Schuegraf, 
1550); 4 to . 

On the title-page, Christ receiving a child at its birth, signed [98 x 92] ; printed 
in red and black. Schuegraf, p. 26 ; N. 15. 

6. [HESHUSIUS.] Kurtze . . . Anleitung. Wie die wahre gegen- 
wertigkeit des leibs vnd bluts Jhesu Christi im heiligen Abentmal . . . 
zubeweisen sey. H. Geisler, Ratisbon, 1568 ; 4'. 

On title-page, the arms of the city, supported by two child angels; dated 
1558 and signed with monogram [52 x 106]. At the end, printer's mark in wreath, 
diam. 71, perhaps also by Ostendorfer. 

7. [ROSINUS.] Kurtze Fragen vnd Antwort vber die sechs Heubt- 
stiick des heiligen Catechismi Doctoris Martini Lutheri. J. Burger, 
Ratisbon, 1581 ; 8 V0 . (Schuegraf, p. 45, describes the edition of 1589). 

Five woodcuts by Ostendorfer, of which the first is signed. P. 41, 48, 43, 44, 45 ; 
N. 18 (1, 8, 3, 4, 5). 

8. [CHRISTIAN FAITH.] Ordenliche Vnd kurtze summa, der 
Rechten waren Lehre vnsers heiligen Christlichen glaubens (by N. Gallus). 
J. Burger, Ratisbon, 1587; 8 V0 . 

Seven woodcuts by Ostendorfer, of which the first is signed. P. 41-47 ; N. 18 
(1-7). S. and N. describe an earlier edition, 1574, which contains one more wood- 
cut. A still earlier one, 1552, in this library, contains different woodcuts 
(anonymous) of the same subjects. 

9. [BECKER.] Holzschnitte alter deutscher Meister. Gotha, 1808- 
16 ; fol. 

C 14. Saturn and Mars, signed and dated 1533 [121 x 101]. P. 7 ; N. 5. 

DOUBTFUL. 

1. [MARY.] Wie die new Capell zu der schonen | Maria in Regens- 
purg Erstlich auff kommen ist, | nach Christi geburt. M.CCCC. vn. xix. 
Jar. n. p. d. (H. Holzel, Nuremberg) W. 1303; Pr. 11020; Weigel, 
Kat. 18351 ; Muther 1777. 

On title-page, back and front, an unsigned cut, possibly an early work of Osten- 
dorfer, representing the Beautiful Virgin clasping the Child to her breast, with four 
angels, two of whom hold the sun over her head, while two, armed with javelin and 
trident, make war upon two serpents beneath the crescent at her feet [119 x 92]. 
Muther says that it is uncertain whether this cut is by Altdorfer or Ostendorfer ; the 
former name may be at once dismissed, the latter is problematical, especially if the 
type is correctly identified by Proctor as Holzel's. The writer in the Jahrbuch, vii, 
155, mentions the woodcut only on hearsay. It is reproduced in Monatshefte /. 
Kiinstivissenschaft, i, 516. 

Passavant (P.-G., iii, 313, 15) has misquoted Weigel (Kunstkatalog, 
19450) to the effect that some of the woodcuts in Apian's Instrument 
Buch (1533) meaning, evidently, the Astronomicum Csesareum (1540) 
are attributed to Ostendorfer by Doppelmair. Weigel says nothing of 

R 2 



244 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

the kind ; he quotes the MS. notes in a " Handexemplar " of Doppelmair 
in his possession as saying that Charles V himself helped to draw the 
astronomical figures with his own hand ; Ostendorfer is not mentioned. 
No signature of Ostendorfer occurs in the following books, of which the 
woodcuts have been attributed to him ; nor can any of them be ascribed 
to him with certainty. (See above, p. 242, no. 4, and Monatshefte, i, 38.) 

2. [APIANUS.] Quadrans Apiani Astronomicus. Ingolstadt, 6 July, 
1532; fol. F. v. O., 98. 

The roughly executed cuts of the constellations and signs of the zodiac may be by 
0. (compare Virgo, C 1 v., with the cuts in " Abacus," 1532). The finely executed 
cuts are by the other artist employed by Apian, as are those in Horoscopion generals 
(F. v. 0., 100) and Introductio Geographica, 1533 (F. v. 0., 101). 

3. [APIANUS.] Instrument Buch. Ingolstadt, 1533 ; fol. 
F. v. O., 104. 



The cut on the title-page is clearly by f, though not signed ; on the verso are 
the arms of J. W. von Loubemberg, as in Folium Populi. The constellations and 
signs of the zodiac, used in no. 2, are repeated here. 

4. [APIANUS.] Folium Populi. Ingolstadt, 22 Oct., 1533; fol. 
F. v. O., 106 (also in the Department of Prints and Drawings). 



The first cut is signed JeR (see Weigel, Kunstkat. no. 19449), and all the rest seem 
to be by the same hand. 

5. [APIANUS.] Inscriptiones sacrosanct* vetustatis. Ingolstadt, 
1534; fol. F. v. O., 109. 

The cut on the title-page, Mercury, after a drawing by Diirer, 1 may safely be 
attributed to the same artist as the first cut in nos. 3 and 4. Whether anything in 
the book is by Ostendorfor, as stated by P. (no. 15), after Weigel (no. 18790), is very 
doubtful. 

6. [RATISBON.] Warhaffitiger Bericht eines Erbern Camerers vnd 
Rats der Stat Regenspurg, Warumb . . . sie des herrn Abentmal . . . 
bey jhnen, fiirgenomen vnd auffgericht, etc. H. Khol, Ratisbon, 10 Oct., 
1542; 4. 

On title-page, the arms of Ratisbon [117 X 118], perhaps by Ostendorfer, who 
worked much for this press. 



WOODCUTS BY OSTENDORFER. 
i. EARLY WOODCUTS CONNECTED WITH RATISBON, 1519-1522. Nos. 1-3. 

1. THE PILGRIMAGE TO THE CHURCH OF THE BEAUTIFUL VIRGIN 
AT RATISBON. P. iii, 312, 13 ; Nagl., Mon., i, 42, 20 and iv, 641, 20. 

On 21 February, 1519, the Jews were expelled from Ratisbon, and 
their synagogue was shortly after pulled down. 2 An altar was erected in 

1 Lippmann, 420. See Thausing's Diirer, Engl. Tr., i, 288. 

* For an account of the influence of this event on art at Ratisbon, see Friedlander, 
" Albrecht Altdorfer," 1891, p. 50 ff. 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Ostendorfer. 245 

the ruins and an old wooden statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary was set 
up on 14 March. This image of the " Schone Maria" soon attained to 
great celebrity as a worker of miracles, and an immense concourse of 
pilgrims nocked to the shrine in 1519 and the following years, till 1523, 
when their numbers decreased. In the same year, 1519, a temporary 
wooden chapel was erected to the Beautiful Virgin, while plans were 
prepared for a permanent stone church in her honour, of which the 
foundation stone was laid on 9 September. A statue of the Virgin, not 
wearing the distinctive dress of the "Beautiful" Virgin herself, was 
erected before the door of the temporary church ; this was the work 
of Erhard Haidenreich, architect of Ratisbon Cathedral from 1514 
to 1524. Two other representations of the Beautiful Virgin were made 
for the temporary church : a banner, painted by Altdorfer, which is 
shown in the woodcut now to be described, and a picture, painted by 
Jorg Magk, which was set up over the alms-box, and may be identical, 
according to Friedliinder, 1 with a painting now preserved in the church 
of St. John. 

The woodcut shows the end of the wooden chapel with a brick tower, 
containing one bell. The spire is surmounted by a cross. On little 
pinnacles above the belfry are weather-cocks with the crossed keys of 
Ratisbon. These pinnacles and the spire are printed from a separate 
block. Altdorfer's banner, on which the Virgin stands behind the keys, 
hangs to the right of the belfry. The approach to the chapel is protected 
by a tiled porch or penthouse supported by wooden posts to which 
numerous votive offerings are attached. In an open space before the 
chapel Haidenreich's statue stands on a column on which votive candles 
are stuck, before which on one side a railing is placed. Round the 
statue is a group of devotees, clasping the column with their arms, raising 
their hands towards it, or throwing themselves prostrate on the ground. 
Four men, overcome either by illness or by paroxysms of religious mania, 
lie on the ground nearer than this group, and a woman kneels beside 
them, praying. On the left we see the rear of a procession of men, armed 
with spears and pikes, who pass out of sight round the outside of the 
church. On the right the front of the procession comes into view, headed 
by a banner-bearer and a youth carrying an enormous candle with the 
Bavarian arms on a (printed 1) sheet attached to it. Young girls follow 
wearing wreaths and crowns, two of them carrying tapers, then another 
banner-bearer precedes the clergy who carry reliquaries. Near the group 
of maidens two women support a girl who is, apparently, becoming rigid 
in an access of frenzy. At the door of the chapel two streams of pilgrims 
converge and pass into the interior, where a picture of the " Schone 
Maria " is seen at the end of the aisle. They consist chiefly of peasant 
women, carrying pitchforks, rakes, pails, sickles and the like, 2 but on the 
left we see a knight in armour and two men wearing nothing but hair- 
shirts. On the side wall of an outhouse on the left which has a small 
chimney is Ostendorfer's monogram in its earliest form, in which the O 

1 P. 168, note 68. 

2 They are described in the text to the 1610 edition as having left their work 
without pausing to lay down their tools, and hastened without pause for food or 
sleep to the shrine. 



246 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

is attached to the outside of one of the uprights of the M. 1 On either 
side of the church are ruined buildings, connected no doubt with the 
destroyed synagogue and the Jewish quarter round it. 

[Size of sheet, 583 x 392 ; limits of woodcut, 551 x 390 ; the border line extends 
to a height of 215 mm. 1. and 195 r.] Good impression, on white paper; watermark, 
a large imperial eagle. In the lower margin are three lines printed in Gothic type : - 
. . insignem . et . benignam . dexterae . excelsi . mutationem . qua . iudaicae . super- 
stitionis . sunagoga . Ratisponen . in . aedem . deo . sacram . iuxta . imaginem . hanc . 
est . | conuersa . vbi . lapis . perpetuae . virginitatis . sanctae . et . vndecumque . 
pulchrae . Mariae . diu . a . perfidis . reprobatus . mine . factus . in . caput . anguli . 
a . christi . fidelibus | passim . et . cateruatim . magno . ac . inaudito . deuotionis . 
feruore . confluentibus . pia . et . debita . veneratione . colitur . miraquc . operatur. 
(In the original " u " is printed instead of " n " in almost every case ; in the transcript 
these misprints have been corrected.) 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

For a reduced reproduction, see Hirth, i, 45. An early impression of this woodcut 
at Goburg bears an inscription in 1 Hirer's handwriting, dated 1523 and signed, 
recording a protest against this act of mariolatry. See G. Kinkel, in Zeitschr. f. 
bild. Kunst, 1881, xvi, 334, Lange and Fuhse, " Diirer's Schriftlicher Nachlass," p. 
381, and T. S. Moore, " Altdorfer," p. 13. 

la. THE PILGRIMAGE TO THE CHURCH OF THE BEAUTIFUL VIRGIN 
AT RATISBON. P. 13. 

A later impression. 

[548 x 388]. The border broken away in several places ; the monogram, and tho 
arms of Ratisbon on the weather-cock to 1. of the tower, are no longer recognisable. 
The paper is stained green with water-colour, the high lights being reserved, in 
imitation of a chiaroscuro woodcut. At the foot, written in ink, WC S . C G S . 
1713. Watermark, large shield with arms of Augsburg and two M's at top. 

Purchased at the Brentano sale, 1870 (lot 498). 

Ib. THE PILGRIMAGE TO THE CHURCH OF THE BEAUTIFUL VIRGIN 
AT RATISBON. P. 13. 

A later impression. 

[Sheet, 693 x 417]. There is now a conspicuous vertical crack passing through 
the mantle of the child in the Virgin's arms, and extending to the foot of the block. 
Part of the processional banner seen in shadow has been broken off. Watermark, 
small eagle in a circle. On a separate sheet attached to the foot of the woodcut is a 
description of the devotion to the Beautiful Virgin in 17 lines, dated 1610 and headed 
" Contrafactur der Kirchen zu Regenspurg, welche zu der schonen Maria genannt | 
worden, mit Beschreibung und Verzeichniss, der wunderbarlichen und zuvor nie 
erhorten Wollfahrt, | so im Jahr 1519. daselbst geschehen." 

Purchased from Messrs. Heussner and Lauser, 1873. 

The impression at Gotha described by Passavant belongs to an earlier edition, 
though it is also dated 1610. The banner is still intact, and there are the following 
variations in the heading: comma after " Contrafactur," end of line after the first 
syllable of " geuannt," " beschreibung vnnd verzeichnuss," " Wunderbarlichen, 
vnnd," " Wallfahrt," " 1516." The text which follows occupies fifteen instead of 
seventeen lines. Another impression with text was in the Lanna collection (Singer 
5724). 

1 Passavant, Nagler, and Friedlander say that the woodcut is unsigned. They 
had probably not seen an early impression. In the two later impressions here the 
monogram is unrecognisable, and it is indistinct even in the earliest, but comparison 
with the two following numbers enables us to recognise its form. 

* Pr. 12002. 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Ostendwfer, 247 

2. THE NEW CHURCH OF THE BEAUTIFUL VIRGIN AT RATISBON. 

Heller, " Zusatze," p. 101 ; P. iii, 304, 65 ; Nagl., Mon., i, 42, 21 and iv, 641, 

21 ; Wessely, Repertorium, iv, 150, 3 ; Dodgson, Monatshefte, i, 514. 

Exterior view of the new stone church which was erected upon the 
site of the Synagogue in succession to the temporary wooden structure 
shown in no. 1. The church here exhibited corresponds, however, to the 
wooden model still preserved in the Rathaus, and not to the building 
actually erected from a modified design, which became, after the intro- 
duction of the Reformation in 1542, the new Protestant parish church of 
Ratisbon. The author of the design reproduced by Ostendorfer was 
Hans Hieber, or Huber, of Augsburg, who was selected in preference to 
Haidenreich, the cathedral architect, and to Hans Behaim of Nuremberg, 
who also prepared a design. 1 

The church, mainly in Renaissance style, but with late-Gothic 
ornament in the windows and towers, stands upon a platform surrounded 
by a balustrade. Between the summits of the two towers that flank the 
short nave is a full length figure of the Beautiful Virgin, surrounded by 
clouds. Ostendorfer's monogram, in its early form, the O attached to the 
M on the right, is placed upon the rays of the halo, to r. of the Virgin's 
head. At a lower elevation two flying angels carry shields with the arms 
of the Empire 1. and of Ratisbon r. Lower still are clouds. The back- 
ground is still occupied by ruinous buildings, as in no. 1. Round the 
church several small figures, drawn in a manner very characteristic of the 
Ratisbon school, are standing or walking. There is a double border-line 
at the foot, a single one on either side to a height of 227 mm. 

[Sheet, 647 x 538 ; limits of woodcut, 618 x 537.] Old, but not very early 
impression ; there is a vertical crack passing down through the rays of the Virgin's 
glory on the 1. side, and extending across the tower as far as the foot of the upper- 
most block. The presence of this crack, apparently, has given rise to the mistaken 
statement of Passdvant that a new piece of wood has been inserted, in which the 
figure of the Virgin is drawn by Ostendorfer and bears his mark. 2 There is no 
evidence of any such insertion having been made ; the drawing and monogram from 
the first were those of Ostendorfer, not Altdorfer. The lower portion of the sheet is 
made up of two pieces of paper placed side by side, meeting halfway across the r. 
tower. Watermark, letter R upon an ornamental shield. 

On either side of the figure of the Virgin are inscriptions printed with type. 
(L.) Anno incarnationis Domini decimo nono supersesqui mil-|lesimo Nono Calendas 
Marcias gentem recutitam usura | Ratispone pepulit Quasq* ; habuit cryptas urbica 
ira vetustas | Penitus eradicavit quse illic6 pietate mota templum cujus ideam | Hie 
cernis depictam suadente senatu fundere decrevit venustum | Quo Maria Virgo 
formosa nuncupata verbis solummodo exosa | Christianorum & convolantem & 
clamitantem catervam prodi- 1 giorum miraculis (exorato filio) diu noctuq" ; Isetificare 
non I cessat. 



1 See Friedlander, " Altdorfer," 1891, p. 58. Hieber's model and its ground plan 
are given in Dohme's " Geschichte der Deutschen Baukunst," pp. 293-6. The 
model is also reproduced on pi. 4 of H. Hildebrandt's " Die Architektur bei 
A. Altdorfer " (1908) ; the present woodcut is described and criticized at length on 
pp. 17-21 of that work. 

* Dr. A. Weixlgartner has, unfortunately, resuscitated Passavant's error, quoting 
an impression in the Albertina as being Altdorfer's monogram (Mitt. d. Oesellsch. f. 
viervielf. Kunst, 1903, p. 47). I am assured by Dr. Rottinger that this monogram 
is a forgery, produced with Indian ink. A second impression, with the genuine 
monogram, is kept under Ostendorfer's name in the same collection. 



248 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

(R.) Alss man nach der Geburth Christi gezeblet hab, 
Tausendt fiinfihundert neunzehen Jahr also drab, 
Sind vertriben an Sant Peter Stuelfeyer abend 
Auss Regenspurg bescbnitten wucheriscb Knaben, 
Die Judiscbbeit, Weiber und Mann, Jung und alt ich main, 
Auch an ihrer Synagog liess man gar kein stain, 
Ain frumme Gmain und Ersamen weisen Ratb, 
Vnleidlich last des Wuchers Sy bewegt hat, 
Demnach bald ein Capellen fiirgenommen ward, 
Zubauen nacb diser Visier und Solcber Arth, 
Gott und der Schonen Maria zu lob und Eern, 
Gross Wunderzeichen taglich alda geschehen, 
Alss unzehlich Pilgram bey ihrem Aydt sagent und schreyent, 
Grumb, labm, blindt, kranck, Sy seind all hertzlich erfreuent. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Ostendorfer received twelve florins in 1519 ' for drawing the design for this 
church upon the block. The latter is preserved in the Bavarian National Museum 
at Munich. 2 Passavant mentions impressions atBamberg, Berlin, Vienna (Albertina) 
and Frankfort-on-the-Main (this last, according to him, a later state, but he is 
mistaken). 

3. DESIGN FOR A TABERNACLE. 1521. Wessely, Repertorium, iv, 150, 2. 

The structure, designed throughout in Renaissance style, consists of 
five members. (1) A slender shaft, resting on two plain and solid plinths, 
the uppermost of which bears the date 1521, supports (2) the actual 
tabernacle. This is an arched recess, destined to contain the monstrance 
in which the reserved Host would be placed ; it is closed in front by 
a grating, and flanked by Corinthian pilasters. A torch-bearing angel 
stands on either side upon a small detached column. Above the tabernacle 
the structure expands, and takes the form of (3) a vaulted recess contain- 
ing a plastic group of the Last Supper, seen through intervals between 
four pillars. This member would be either hexagonal or octagonal, but 
only three sides are visible. The pillars support an entablature resting 
on round arches ; the frieze is adorned with dolphins. Ostendorfer's 
monogram, in its early form and somewhat indistinctly cut, the O 
attached to the M on the left, is to be seen 1. on the shaded side, beneath 
a seated apostle. Above this member the structure contracts again, and 
we see (4) a flat arch-shaped tablet on which is a representation of the 
Israelites gathering manna, set in an architectural frame. On either side 
of the frame stands an angel, with wings uplifted and cross erect over the 
brow, supporting a shield of florid pattern. At the top of this frame 
rises an open arch with ornaments on the outer edge which culminate in 
a cherub's head between two dolphins. The whole structure is crowned 
by (5) a crucifix, the mound in which the cross is planted being visible 
through the open lunette formed by the arch at the summit of the 
preceding member. Figures of St. John (1.) and the Blessed Virgin (r.) 
stand upon the ledge formed by the entablature of the frame beneath 
them ; they balance the two pairs of angels below, but are on a much 
larger scale than the figure of Christ, and are placed in no very close 
relationship to it. 

1 According to Schuegraf, loc. cit. p. 7, but Nagler gives the date as 1520. The 
payment appears to be entered in the church accounts for 1520 (Schuegraf, p. 23). 
* Friedlander, " Altdorfer," p. 169, note 76. 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Ostendorfer. 249 

The whole is cut on two blocks and printed on two sheets, which meet 
at the height of the capitals of the columns which surround the group of 
the Last Supper. 

[Sheet, 955 x 202 ; limits of woodcut, 934 x 200 ; no border-line.] Fine impression. 
No watermark. 

Purchased at the Brentano sale, 1870 (lot 499). 

The tabernacle was meant to be executed either in metal, or, as is more probable, 
on a larger scale in stone, carrying on the tradition of the Gothic " Sakraments- 
hauschen " common in South German churches. There can be little doubt that it was 
intended, like Altdorfer's Renaissance altar, B. 50, for the new church of the 
Beautiful Virgin, which in 1521 was in course of erection. 1 

I have seen but one other good impression of this fine and rare woodcut, viz. 
in the collection of Prince Liechtenstein at Vienna. That in the Albertina is much 
later ; the block had become worm-eaten. 

ii. WOODCUTS PUBLISHED AT INGOLSTADT, 1528-1540. Nos. 4, 5. 

The earliest of this group, a genealogy of the Sultans to Soliman the 
Magnificent (1527), published in 1528, is not represented in this 
collection. 2 According to Nagler Petrus Apianus suggested the idea, 
but this statement is not borne out by the text, which is signed by Eck. 
In 1530 Ostendorfer drew for Apian the Map of the World described 
below, and in 1540 he contributed some of the woodcuts to the Astro- 
nomicum Csesareum. Whether any illustrations in other Ingolstadt 
books of Apian can be attributed to Ostendorfer is uncertain. 

4. APIAN'S MAP OF THE WORLD ON A HEART-SHAPED PROJECTION. 
1530. F. van Ortroy, no. 5. 

The heart-shaped map is surrounded by twelve heads of winds drawn 
in Ostendorfer's characteristic manner, nine being placed in the upper, 
three in the lower portion of the sheet. The signs Cancer and Capricorn 
are placed to the right on the lines of the tropics, Libra on the 
line of the equator. Beneath the North wind is a cartouche contain- 
ing the imperial privilege. In the r. lower corner is a cartouche 
composed of clouds, containing a dedication to Leonhard von Eck 
dated "Anno M.D.XXX . die . 9 . ~N"ou.," and in the 1. lower corner are 
Eck's arms. In the upper corners are busts of Ptolemy 1. and Vespucci 

1 See Friedlander, " Altdorfer," 1891, p. 56. 

2 P. iii, 312, 11 ; NagL, Mon., iv, 642, 24 ; Wessely, Repertorium, iv, 150, 1. There 
are two editions of this woodcut at Berlin: a. With Latin text, headed AMIR 
SVLTANI TVRCICI , CHRISTIAjni Imperil pernicies, serie continua, vsque ad 
Soleymannum Magnum | Qui modo magnis triumphis potenter regnat. Below is the 
xylographic address, Ingolstadij, M.D. xxviij. This edition is also in the Liechten- 
stein collection, Vienna, b. With German text, Der Tiirgkyszchen Keyser 
herkomen vnnd ge- 1 schlecht bis auff den grossen Soleymannum welcher den nechst 
vergangen | Summer den Kiinig vonn Hungern im feldt erschlagen hatt (Battle of 
Mohacz, 29 Aug., 1526). Below, Ingolstat (xylographic), but no date. Both editions 
contain the words, Eckius moestus (in the German ed., mestus) hosti P., as a 
signature to the text. The woodcut is signed below 1. by the wood-engraver G A 
(NagL, Mon., ii, no. 2676, but here a different monogram), who may be Georg Apian 
(see Nagl., Mon., i, no. 2193, ii, nos. 2685 and 2687), and r. by Ostendorfer, who uses 
the monogram of his middle period, in which the middle portion of the M is prolonged 
in a small loop for the (last monogram but one in the second row of those given 
by Nagler). The woodcut measures 365 X 191, the sheet (at Vienna) 390 X 254 mm. 



250 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

r., both in fantastic Oriental costume, with their hands laid on small 
heart-shaped maps. The clouds from which these busts emerge bear on 
both sides the monogram of Ostendorfer in the form in which the O is a 
small loop attached to the middle portion of the M. 

[Sheet, 558 x 398.] Good impression, no watermark. 

Purchased from Mr. Quaritch (Cat. 362, no. 28142), 1885. 

Preserved in the Department of Printed Books (Maps, S. 159 (17) ). 

This is the only known impression of this woodcut map, which has not yet been 
mentioned in the literature on Ostendorfer. A facsimile was made for Prof. Hermann 
Wagner, of Gottingen, who has published an appreciation of the map from the 
geographer's point of view, in Nachr. v. d. kgl. Oesellsch. d. Wissenschaften u. d. 
Georg-Aiigusts-Univ. zu GQttingen, 28 Dec. 1892, pp. 549-559. A reduced reproduc- 
tion is given in Nordenskiold, " Periplus," pi. 44. 

tAPIAN'S MAP OF THE WORLD. 1530. 

See above. Facsimile presented by Professor Hermann Wagner, 1907. 

5. AN ILLUSTRATION TO THE ASTRONOMICUM CAESAREUM OF 
APIANUS. 1540. 

The zodiac and fixed stars. 

[Diarn. 291, with projections ; sheet, 300 x 305.] Good impression, not coloured. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

This diagram, cut to a circle and generally coloured, was used as a movable 
revolving disc on Sig. B 3 of the Astronomicum. 



iii. WOODCUTS CONNECTED WITH FREDERICK II, COUNT (AFTERWARDS 
ELECTOR) PALATINE. Nos. 6, 7. 

These woodcuts are derived from the following book : Warhafftige 
beschreibung des andern Zugs in Osterreich wider den Turcken gemeyner 
Christenheit Erbfeinde, vergangens funffzehenhundert zwei und dreissig- 
sten jares thatlich beschehen. Und ytzund allererst in disem 1539 jar in 
druck gefertiget mit lustigen abkondterietten Figuren der landts gelegen- 
heit, schlachtordnungen, etc. (Nuremberg), 1539 ; fol. (Berlin, Kupf.- 
Kab., no. 2404 ; another edition, no. 2403, has the imprint, " Gedruckt 
zu Nurenberg durch Jheronimum Formschneyder MDXXXIX."). Weigel, 
Kunstkat., no. 12860. The book contains seven woodcuts : (1) A 1 v. 
Arms of Frederick, Count Palatine [320 X 217]. (2) A 2. Equestrian 
Portrait, no. 6. (3) Inserted between B 1 and B 2. Large folding view 
of encampment outside Vienna; VIEN above 1., NVSDORF in centre, DER 
GOLEM BERG r. [338 x 487]. (4) Between C 1 and C 2. An army 
marching to 1. away from Laxenburg [342 X 494]. (5) Between D 1 and 
D 2, no. 7. (6) Between D 2 and E 1, Battle near Neustadt [334 x 970]. 
(7) Between E 1 and D 3 Frederick's army marching towards Vienna, 
Charles V riding out to meet him [338 x 960]. 

6. EQUESTRIAN PORTRAIT OF FREDERICK II, COUNT (AFTERWARDS 
ELECTOR) PALATINE. 1534. 

B. ix, 155, 2 ; P. iii, 311, 2a; Nagl., Mon., iv, 639, 9. 

In profile to 1., holding reins in 1. hand, commander's baton in r. On 
the border of his coat and on the caparison of the horse the letters Z C 



Division C. School of Ratisbon. Ostendorfer. 251 

occur repeatedly. 1 The stem of a tree on either side serves as a frame. 
From the branches, which meet in the middle, are suspended a tablet 
with the date 1534, the collar of the Golden Fleece, and the escutcheons 
of the Palatinate and Bavaria. On a tablet in the middle, below, is 
Ostendorfer's monogram in its late shape, in which the O crosses the 
middle strokes of the M. 

[320 x 216.] Good impression, without margin or watermark. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

Frederick II, " The Wise," b. 1482, was in early life much associated with the 
House of Habsburg, and became in 1522, jointly with the Archduke Ferdinand, 
Statthalter or representative of Charles V in Germany. He commanded the Im- 
perial troops against the Turks in Austria in 1529 and in the campaign of 1532, to 
which the book quoted above relates. In 1535 he married Dorothea, daughter of 
Christian II of Denmark. He became Elector Palatine on the death of his eldest 
brother, Ludwig V, in 1544, and introduced the Reformation into his territories in 
1545, but was reconciled with Charles V before his death in 1556. 

7. FREDERICK II COMMANDING THE IMPERIAL FORCES AGAINST 

THE TURKS. P. Hi, 311, 2e. 

In the foreground the two main bodies of infantry (DER GEWALTIG 
HAVF FVSKNECHT) and cavalry (DER GEWALTIG RAISIG ZEVG) are 
drawn up, commanded by Frederick (PHALTGRAF FRIDERICH OBERST 
VELTHAVPTMON). In the midst of the cavalry may be seen the 
standard with DE CELO VICTORIA. Two squadrons of Bohemian 
cavalry r. are detached from the main force, while the artillery and 
smaller bodies of troops are seen 1. ; the followers of the army (DER 
DROSS) wait r. The main body of the Turkish forces (DER DYRCK HAVF) 
is advancing through a defile in the hills. In the distance r. Turkish 
troopers are seen in flight (DER TVRCKt FLVCHT). No signature. 

[340 x 490.] Good impression. Watermark, anchor in a circle. 
Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1852. 

iv. LATER WOODCUTS. Nos. 8 ; 9. 

8. THE LAMENTATION FOR CHRIST. 1548. 

B. ix, 154, 1 ; Nagl., Mon., iv, 638, 1. 

The two thieves still hang on their respective crosses. The body of 
Christ, beneath the central cross, is propped up by the Virgin, who is 
herself supported by St. John, and by a standing man. Joseph of 
Arimathea stands 1., the Magdalen kneels r., a holy woman stands behind 
St. John, and a man who has aided in taking down the body from the 
cross stands 1., with three nails in his hand. The monogram and date, 
1548, are on a stone r. 

1 These initials, relating probably to a motto or device, appear as C Z in an anony- 
mous equestrian portrait of Frederick, also in this Department, headed FREDERICVS 
PRINCEPS PALATINVS PROIMPERATOR, in which he carries a banner of the 
Bavarian colours with an angel holding a scroll, inscribed DE CELO VICTORIA 
[152 x 104]. This woodcut is from Soiterus, De Bello Pannonico, A. Weissenhorn> 
Augsburg, 1538, 4to, Neither this woodcut nor Ostendorfer's is mentioned in A. 
Peltzer's list of portraits in "A. Diirer u. Friedrich II von der Pfalz," 1905, p. 15f. 
(for the device, " De Caelo Victoria," see pp. 18 and 48). 



252 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

[930 x 660.] Printed on eight sheets joined together. Old, though not very 
early impression. Watermark, imperial eagle, having on its breast a shield with W ; 
below, I M. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

The block is preserved in the Derschau collection at Berlin. 

9. FREDERICK II, ELECTOR PALATINE, CARRIED IN A LITTER. 
1556. B. ix, 456, 4 ; Nagl., Mon., iv, 639, 13. 

The aged Elector, escorted by seven halberdiers, is carried to 1. in a 
litter borne by two horses. On a stone near the centre are the monogram 
and date, 1556. Frederick died on 26 February of that year. 

[Sheet, 275 x 687.] Old impression, but after some injury to the block, including 
the loss of the front of the canopy of the litter. Watermark, half-moon. On the 
impression is written in ink in an early hand, Pfaltzgraf Friderich bey Rhein des 
H. Rom : Reichs Ertztruchses Hcrzog in Bayren vnd Churfilrst. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, -1845. 

Repr., Hirth, 998. 

An undescribed woodcut of 1556, at Berlin, represents Cupid winding 
up a cross-bow, with the legend, " SUPERANTUR INGENIO VIRES. ANNO 
M.D.LVI.," monogram 1. [66 X 53]. 

Several late portraits by Ostendorfer were published by Hans 
Guldenmundt at Nuremberg. Charles V, N. 6, and Ferdinand I, N. 7, 
are at Vienna (Hofbibl.), N. 6 also at Gotha, where is also another 
portrait of Charles V by Ostendorfer. Isabella, daughter of Charles 
V, 1544, is at Gotha. Frederick II, Elector Palatine, standing, 
1544, is described by Nagler, no. 12; his wife, Dorothea, 1547, 
P. 10, N. 11, is in the Liechtenstein collection. Wolfgang, Count 
Palatine, 1545, P. 8, N. 8 (repr., Hirth, 885), belongs to the same set; 
George, Landgrave of Leuchtenberg, P. 9, N. 10, has the address of Hans 
Daubmann. 

In addition to the signed Herald, P. 49, N. 26, turning to r., with an 
eagle on his tabard (repr., Hirth, 883), there is an unsigned companion 
cut turning to 1., with a lion rampant on the tabard, also with Gulclen- 
mundt's address ; both are at Gotha. By the form of the monogram, 
they would seem to belong to an earlier period, c. 1530. 

Other rare woodcuts described by Weigel are : 20471, Arms of 
Reinhart, Graff zu Solms vnd Herr zu Minczenborgk, signed and dated 
1543 (P. 50, N. 28); 23446, Aderlassmann, signed and dated 1555, 
printed by H. Khol, Ratisbon; 20470, View of Ratisbon, signed and 
dated 1558 (P. 12, N. 23). 

On various views of the city of Ratisbon by Ostendorfer, see Nagler, 
nos. 22, 23, and fuller particulars in Schuegraf, pp. 30-34. 



253 



VI. WOLFGANG HUBEE. 

Painter and draughtsman on wood ; b. at Feldkirch, probably 
about 1490 ; influenced by Altdorfer, if not actually his pupil ; 
travelled on the Danube; was settled by 1515 at Passau, where he 
chiefly resided during the remainder of his life, as court-painter to 
Duke Ernest of Bavaria, administrator of the Diocese, 1517-40, and 
his successor, the Prince-Bishop Wolfgang I von Salm. We learn, 
however, from a complaint addressed to the latter by the guild 
of painters, sculptors and glaziers, that Huber had long worked at 
Passau with assistants and pupils without becoming a citizen, and 
even after "acquiring the rights of citizenship had not complied with 
the regulations of the guild. 1 The bishop's reply to this complaint 
is dated 20 September 1542; 2 later documents are wanting till we 
hear of Huber's death in 1553, apparently at the beginning of July. 3 

Authorities : 

Bartsch, P.-G., vii, 485. 

Passavant, P.-G., iii, 305. 

Nagler, Mon., v., p. 344. 

Hirth-Muther, " Meisterholzschnitte," text to nos. 64-67. 

Articles by W. Schmidt in Repertorium, xi. 358, xii. 40, xvi. 148, 
254, xvii. 368, xix. 120, 287, Kunstchronik, 27 October, 1892 
Zeitschr. f. bild. Kunst, N. F. iii. 116 ; Allg. Zeitung, January, 
1893, Beilage 9. 

W. M. Schmid, " Zu W. Hueber," Bepertorium, xxiv, 390. 

G. Hartenberger, " Kunstgeschichtliches aus dem alten Feld- 
kirch," Archie f. Geschichte und Landeskunde Vorarlbergs, 
1905, ii. 41. 

C. Dodgson, Burlington Magazine, 1906, x. 54. 

1 Bepertorium, xxiv, 390. 

2 Biggenbach, p. 14. 

3 Biggenbach explains away all dates on extant works after 1542, even the 
obviously authentic date, 1544, on a woman's head at Vienna (Albertina publication, 
no. 371). The drawing at Budapest dated 1549 (Repertorium, xix, 121, 20), he says, is 
a copy ; that dated 1545 (ibid. 19) has nothing to do with Huber ; the date read as 1544 
on a drawing at Wolf egg inscribed " Wolf Huber zu Bassau " is in reality 1542. The 
earliest certain dates on drawings by Huber are 1510 (view of Mondsee, Nuremberg) 
and 1512 (not 1502 ; on a drawing at Budapest, Albertina publication, no. 384 ; St. 
Jerome, in the Vienna Academy, ibid., no. 576, is also dated 1512). A drawing in 
the Ehlers collection, Gottingen, dated 1505, is perhaps a work of Huber's boyhood. 



254 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

H. Voss, "Der Ursprung des Donaustiles," Leipzig, 1907, pp. 

13-45. 

R. Riggenbach, " Der Maler und Zeichner W. Huber," Basle, 1907. 
P. M. Halm, " Zu W. Huber," Monaishefte f. Kumtwissenschaft, 

1908, i. 1123. 
H. Voss, " Ein unbekanntes Bild W. Hubers," Amtliche Serichte 

aus den Iconigl. Kunstsammlungen, Berlin, Jan. 1909. 
H. Voss, " Aus der Umgebung A. Altdorfers und W. Hubers," 

Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft f. vervlelf. Ktinst, 1909, 52, 73. 
H. Voss, "A. Altdorfer und W. Huber" (Meister der GrapJiik, 
no. 3), Leipzig, 1910. 

The art of Huber has only in recent years received the attention 
that it deserves. His drawings were for the most part ascribed to 
Altdorfer ; his paintings were wholly unknown. Only three signed 
pictures are even now known to exist. The chief of these is the 
' Lamentation for Christ/ dated 1521, in the parish church at Feld- 
kirch, belonging to an altar-piece for which a commission was given 
in 1515 by the confraternity of St. Anne to " Master Wolfgang 
Hueber, of Feldkirch, now dwelling at Passau." * According to a 
tradition recorded by J. G. Prugger, " Historische Beschreibung der 
Statt Veldkirch," 1685, p. 75, this altar-piece was the work of three 
brothers, joiner, sculptor and painter. The other signed pictures are 
the portraits of Anton Hundertpfundt and his wife, 1526, respectively 
in the National Gallery of Ireland and in the collection of Sir J. C. 
Kobinson, C.B. 2 Another work universally ascribed to him is the 
'Christ taking leave of his Mother' (1519) in the Kaufmann 
collection at Berlin, while his hand has more recently been recognised 
in two Passion scenes at St. Florian, two pictures (nos. 1417, 1418) 
in the Vienna gallery, and a ' Flight into Egypt ' in the Kunstgewerbe- 
museum at Berlin. Drawings by Huber are much more numerous, 
and a considerable number have been reproduced in the Albertina, 
Munich and Dresden publications, the Vasari Society, Ser. ii and iii, 
and elsewhere. 

The woodcuts described by Bartsch as the work of an unknown 
master W. H. had been ascribed to "Wolfgang Hauber" in the 
inventory of the Paul Behaim collection, 1618. The few additions 
made since Bartsch's days to the catalogue of Huber's work on wood 

1 The original document is no longer to be found in the Feldkirch archives, but 
its contents were published by M. Merkle in " Notizen iiber Feldkirch," Innsbruck, 
1833, p. 21 (Repertorium, xvi, 148). P. M. Halm (loc. cit.) denies that the picture of 
1521 now at Feldkirch is the altar-piece referred to in the document. 

* Exhibition of Early German Art, Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1906, nos. 49, 53. 
The male portrait is reproduced in the illustrated edition of the catalogue (pi. 30) 
and in the Burlington Magazine, ix, 265. 



Division C. School of Passau. Huber. 255 

are all described or mentioned below. The interesting discovery that 
Huber was employed as the illustrator of a book printed by Peypus 
at Nuremberg is due to a gift to this collection made by Mr. Mitchell 
in 1904. It has not been possible, unfortunately, to identify the 
book, which may have contained more illustrations than one. 

The chief merit of Huber's woodcuts lies in the treatment of 
landscape. They reproduce with fidelity and charm the mountain 
and river scenery amidst which the artist was born and bred, and 
even Altdorfer hardly equalled his disciple in the skill with which 
he draws a windy sky, sunshine bursting through clouds, or the 
reflection of the moon in water. Huber's study of light effects was 
original and advanced. He exercised a considerable influence upon 
artists of other schools, notably those of Nuremberg. 



WOODCUTS BY WOLFGANG HUBER. 

Only two of the woodcuts bear dates, 1515 and 1520 respectively. 
The undescribed woodcuts in this collection are early, and so most 
suitably placed at the beginning. The evidence for dating the 
remainder is hardly sufficient to warrant a departure from the 
customary arrangement by subject. 

The following order is proposed by Dr. Eiggenbach on the 
evidence afforded by dated drawings : 

Pyramus and Thisbe, B. 9. Early, not dated. R., p. 38. 
Christ on the Cross, B. 5. About 1517, or earlier. R., p. 35. 
St. Christopher, B. 6. Rather before St. George. R., p. 33. 
St. George, B. 7. Dated 1520. R., p. 32. 
Three Landsknechts, repr. Hirth-Muther, no. 67. About 1520. 

R., p. 44. 
Christ on the Cross, repr. Hirth-Muther, no. 66. About 1526. 

R., p. 75. 
Four subjects from the early life of Christ, B. 1-4. About 1526- 

30. R., p. 76. 
Judgment of Paris, B. 8. After 1530. R., p. 77. 

t THREE LANDSKNECHTS. 1515. 

Photograph of the only impression known [210 x 173], in the collection of Mr. 
A. H. Huth, at Fosbury Manor, Hungerford, formerly in the Herryns Collection, 
Antwerp. See Burlington Magazine, October, 1906, x, 54 ; Biggenbach, p. 54 ; Voss, 
Mittcilungen, 1909, pp. 55, 56. 

Another unique print of three landsknechts, signed but not dated, at Basle 
[212 x 169], is well known by the reproduction in Hirth and Muther's " Meister- 
Holzschnitte," no. 67. Biggenbach (p. 54) dates it about 1520. An unsigned coloured 



256 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

woodcut of a single landsknecht, by Huber, not belonging to this set, is in the 
Liechtenstein collection at Vienna [231 x 156]. It is inaccurately reproduced in 
Breunner-Enkevoerth's " Kriegsvolker," iii, 15. See W. Schmidt, Bepertorium, xvii, 
368 ; C. Dodgson, Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft f. vervielf. Kunst, 1905, 6, and Bur- 
lington Magazine, x, 58 ; Riggenbach, p. 54. 

1. CHRIST AT EMMAUS. 

Christ sits, in the act of blessing and breaking bread, on the farther 
side of a table placed in a long vaulted corridor of Gothic architecture, 
leading at the far end to the open air. L. is a doorway, leading pre- 
sumably to the interior of the house. In front of the table, 1., one of the 
disciples sits on a bench, his back turned towards us, his head in profile 
to r. The other disciple sits on a stool to r. of the table. The head of 
Christ is surrounded by long rays. Single border-line, no signature. 

[91 X 64.] Good impression, with margin, from a book not identified. On the 
back is the following text : " Dise Homilia oder Sermon, das er nit | bey dem 
begrebnusz zii lang sey, mag | man wol bey stiicken lesen, oder | was ausz lassen, wie 
das wirt | dem leser gefallen, zu nutz | der ihenigen die zu ho-|ren, Wann ein we-| 
nig mit fleysz ge- 1 hort, ist besser | dann vil | mit ver | driesz. | Gedruckt zu Nurn- 
berg durch | Friderich Peypus." 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Comparison with the signed woodcuts, B. 1-4, makes it certain that this illustra- 
tion is by Huber. It is ruder in execution and probably earlier in date (" about 1515," 
Riggenbach), though it was the custom of the period for less care to bo bestowed on 
book illustrations than on woodcuts destined for circulation as independent works of 
art. The subject is one of infrequent occurrence in German art of this period. 
Huber has evidently studied Diirer's woodcut, B. 48. 

See Mitt. d. Oes.f. vervielf. Kunst, 1905, 12 ; Riggenbach, p. 40. 

2. THE HOLY FAMILY. 

The scene is laid in a Gothic building of which two walls are seen, 
meeting at right angles slightly to 1. of the middle. The 1. wall is pierced 
by an open door, the r. wall by an arcade of four pointed arches resting 
on pairs of columns. Distant mountains are seen through the door, and 
buildings through the arcade. On a bench beneath the arcade sits Mary, 
holding the naked child upon her knees. He raises his r. hand to take 
some object offered to him by St. Anne, who sits on another bench, facing 
her daughter. Joachim stands 1. beside Anne, with his 1. foot raised and 
placed on the bench. He looks round towards the Virgin and Child. 
Joseph stands in the foreground r., carrying a staff over his r. shoulder. 
At the top the First and Third Persons of the Trinity appear, surrounded 
by clouds, which conceal the roof of the building. The Dove is encircled 
by brilliant light which casts long rays downwards into the hall. Single 
border-line, no signature. 

[206 x 131.] Good impression, cut to border, on the back of a calendar for 1516 
("Als man zelt nach Christi geburt, Mcccccxvi. 1st ain so ... ," etc.) printed in 
red and black (Pr. 10831). The surviving portion of this calendar contains fragments 
of several woodcuts and one complete cut [33 X 38] of an angel supporting the arms 
of Salzburg and of the Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach, which shows that the 
calendar was printed for that diocese. Comparison with a calendar in the library 
(8610, cc. 5 (1) ), " Kalendarius teiitsch maister Joannis Kungspergers " (Pr. 10842) 
shows that the printer was J. Miller of Augsburg. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

The ugly types of the Virgin and Joseph are most characteristic of Huber. The 
latter has a strong resemblance to the man drawing tighter the cords round Christ's 








PLATE XV 

WOLF HUBER 

THE HOLY FAMILY 








Division C. School of Passau. Huber. 257 

legs in the flagellation at St. Florian now attributed to Huber. The mountain 
background closely resembles that on a drawing dated 1513 at Basle. The nimbus 
on the head of St. Anne is like that of St. John in B. 5. The execution of this wood- 
cut is again rough, and the design has, no doubt, lost considerably by the cutting. 
Eriggenbach, p. 40. Reproduced in this volume. 



[3-6.] 
THE EARLY LIFE OF CHRIST. 

3. THE NATIVITY. B. vii, 485, 1. 

The moon shines through the roof of a ruined building upon the child, 
who lies on his back adored by Mary, kneeling 1., and Joseph r. A 
shepherd approaches 1., another stands, with arms crossed upon his breast, 
behind a cow. An ass stands at a little distance r. ; beyond it, through 
an arch, we see a tower with pointed roof. The initials of Huber are in 
the foreground, near Joseph's knee. 

[118 x 92.] Good impression, without margin. White paper ; watermark, high 
crown. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1858. 

3a. THE NATIVITY. B. 1. 

[118 x 92.] Another early impression, but soiled. No watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

4. THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI. B. vii, 485, 2. 

Mary sits in a ruined church, holding the child in her lap. Caspar 
kneels before him with folded hands ; Melchior stands r. holding his hat 
in his 1. hand, a vase of frankincense in his r. hand ; Balthasar stands 1. 
in profile to r. A fourth man approaches 1. In the distance are tall 
buildings, and to r. a river, bridge, castle and distant mountain. Huber's 
initials are on the ground between the bases of two pilasters. 

[119 x 93.] Good impression, without margin. White paper; watermark, high 
crown. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

4a. THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI. B. 2. 

Another early impression, but discoloured, narrow margin. No watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1854. 

5. THE CIRCUMCISION OF CHRIST. B. vii, 485, 3. 

On a platform in the nave of a church-like building an aged priest 
holds the Child Jesus in his arms. A younger priest performs the rite 
of circumcision ; a kneeling ministrant holds a dish beneath his hands, 
and another stands 1., supporting a sacred vessel on his arm. Mary and 
Joseph stand at a little distance r., another person beyond them, while 
more spectators survey the rite from a balcony. Huber's initials are 
on a step r. 

[119 x 94.] Very good impression, though apparently modern, on white paper, 
without watermark. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1858. 

8 



258 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

5a. THE CIRCUMCISION OP CHRIST. B. 3. 

[118 x 93.] Old impression, cut close and discoloured. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

6. THE PRESENTATION OP CHRIST IN THE TEMPLE. B. vii, 485, 4. 

Mary kneels before a table in the nave of a Gothic church, offering 
two doves in a cage. Simeon, near the end of the table, holds the Child 
in his arms ; a ministrant, near him, reads from a book, another holds a 
taper. Joseph and the prophetess Anna stand 1. as spectators ; in the 
distance a man stands praying. Huber's initials are near the feet of 
Simeon. 

[117 x 93.] Good impression, without margin. White paper ; watermark, high 
crown. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The kneeling Virgin is copied from Durer's woodcut of the same subject, B. 88. 
For other traces of Durer's influence on this series, see Riggenbach, p. 76. 

6a. THE PRESENTATION OP CHRIST IN THE TEMPLE. B. 4. 

[118 x 94.] Good modern impression, narrow margin. White paper ; without 
watermark. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1858. 

7. CHRIST ON THE CROSS. 

The cross and Christ himself upon it are seen in profile to r. St. 
John stands 1., looking upwards, with both hands raised, and one of the 
holy women is seen behind him. To r. two other holy women are 
ministering to the Virgin Mary, who has fallen in a swoon. Behind 
them is a clump of trees. Buildings and mountains are seen in the 
distance. Huber's initials are on the ground near the foot of the cross. 

[91 x 63.] Good impression, slightly damaged and repaired. 
Purchased at the sale of the W. L. Schreiber collection, Vienna, 3-4 March, 1909 
(no. 405). Repr., Hirth-Muther, no. 66, and p. 61 of Schreiber Sale Catalogue. 
No other impression is known. 

8. CHRIST ON THE CROSS. B. vii, 485, 5 ; P. iii, 306, 10. 

The cross is erected on a mound towards the r. in such a position that 
Christ is directed three-quarter face to 1. He looks down upon St. John, 
who stands with both hands raised, gazing with an agonized expression 
upon the Saviour, who speaks to him. Mary stands 1., a little farther off, 
with arms crossed upon her breast. Huber's initials are placed near her 
feet. Behind the cross of Christ stands one other of unshaped wood, 
from which the malefactor has been removed ; a ladder stands against 
the stem. Near the feet of Christ we see the sun, whose rays disperse 
clouds which had lately darkened the sky. In the distance 1. are 
buildings on the slopes of a mountain. 

[123 x 93.] Good impression, with margin [2-3]. Paper somewhat discoloured ; 
no watermark, but similar in make to the paper of no. 9. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

H. Voss, " Der Ursprung des Donaustiles," p. 183, reproduces this woodcut, the 
spirit of which he compares very appositely with that of a Volkslied on the Cruci- 
fixion, which he quotes at length. Like other renderings of the Crucifixion by Huber 



'Division C. School of Passau. Huber, 259 



(woodcut no. 7, drawings in the Berlin Cabinet and in the collection of Mr. 
Ricketts and Mr. Shannon, Vasari Society, ii, 30) the composition is unconven- 
tional and full of pathos and imagination. This woodcut is also reproduced in Das 
Mtiseum, iv, 22 (text). 

8. ST. CHRISTOPHER. B. vii, 485, 6. 

The Saint, carrying an uprooted tree in both hands, wades through 
the river, carrying the infant Christ upon his shoulders. Huber's initials 
are upon a stone on the near bank r. The hermit stands farther back, 
under a tree, and holds a flaring torch. The moon is reflected in the 
river. On the farther shore, 1., is a clump of trees. 

[121 x 94.] Good impression, with margin [4-7]. Watermark, bull's head with 
serpent. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

The treatment of clouds, differing from that on the other woodcuts, is exactly the 
same as in no. 8, which approaches no. 9 very closely in other respects, and is printed 
on the same paper. 

10. ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON. 1520. B. vii, 486, 7. 

The Saint, an armed knight on horseback, with a huge plume of 
feathers, raises his sword in his r. hand to smite at the dragon, which 
crouches 1. with claws outspread and tail lifted high in the air. The 
princess kneels 1. at some distance with folded arms ; a lamb stands by 
her side. St. George's spear lies broken on the ground near his horse's 
hoofs ; Huber's initials are on a stone r. There is a beautiful landscape 
background with an old castle on a crag in the distance 1., a rock over- 
grown with trees behind St. George, near which the sun shines low in the 
heavens, and a tall tree r., cut off at the top of the print. The date 1520 
is in the sky 1. 

[202 x 151.] Good impression, without margin. Watermark, high crown. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

Dr. Meder speaks of the drawing of St. Eustace at Seebarn (Alb. Publ., no. 395) as 
possibly a design for a counterpart to this woodcut, not carried out. 

lOa. ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON. B. 7. 

[201 x 149.] Another impression, cut slightly within the border-line. White 
paper, without watermark. 

Collections : Liphart (F. 328, 1), Mitchell. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

11. THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. B. vii, 486, 8. 

Paris sits r., asleep, under a clump of trees, leaning his head on his r. 
hand. Venus stands before him, holding in her 1. hand a pole, from 
which a mirror hangs by a cord. 1 Near her feet are various vessels. 
Mercury stands beside her, holding in his r. hand a globe (the apple of 

1 The object suspended, if not a mirror, can only be a framed painting, and not a 
tablet containing the letter B, which Passavant (iii, 305) takes for the mark of the 
wood-engraver. With a similar mistaken ingenuity one might point to an A in the 
harness of St. George's horse on B. 7 (near the off hind-leg, in a circle). In this case 
the resemblance to a letter is probably accidental ; in the former case the resemblance 
simply does not exist. 

s 2 



260 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

discord ?), and in his 1. hand a staff with which he points to Paris. Behind 
Paris stands Juno, holding a covered cup, and in the centre, at a little 
distance, Minerva, with spear in her 1. hand and helmet on the ground at 
her feet. Near the helmet are Huber's initials. Cupid, in the sky, aims 
a double dart at Paris. 

[118 x 93.] Early impression, without margin or watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
Repr., Hirth-Muther, no. 64. 

lla. THE JUDGMENT OP PARIS. B. 8. 

[118 x 93.] A similar impression, better preserved. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

12. PYRAMUS AND THISBE. B. vii, 486, 9. Meyer, K.-L., i, 553, 10. 

Pyramus lies on his back, awkwardly foreshortened, with head to 1. 
under a pair of trees, his body pierced by a dagger. Thisbe stands 1., 
gazing at him. Beyond her, in the distance, the lion prowls ; near her 
feet is a flask bearing Huber's initials. There is a fine landscape back- 
ground. 

[119 x 93.] Good impression, cut a little close. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
Repr., Hirth-Muther, no. 65. 

A drawing by Huber of the dead Pyramus, not immediately connected with the 
woodcut, is at Budapest (Alb. Publ., no. 848). 

12a. PYRAMUS AND THISBE. B. 9. 

[119 x 93.] Another impression, somewhat discoloured. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

The only woodcuts signed by Huber that are missing in this collection 
are the "Three Landsknechts," reproduced by Hirth-Muther (no. 67), 
from the unique original in the Basle Museum, and a " St. Florian " 
(P. iii, 306, 11), which I do not know. P. 12 is not by Huber, but 
belongs to the group attributed to the Master HWG : we Friedlander 
in Das Museum, iv, 21 (text), with a reproduction, Voss, " Der Ursprung," 
etc., p. 48, note 1, and Riggenbach, p. 43, note f. The same wood- 
cut is reproduced, wrongly attributed to Lautensack, in the catalogue of 
Gutekunst's auction, no. 63, Stuttgart, 1907, p. 44. A coloured woodcut 
of a landsknecht in the Liechtenstein collection, Vienna, is undoubtedly 
by Huber (Schmidt, Ecpertorium xvii, 368, Riggenbach, p. 44). The 
attribution of the "Miracles of Maria Zell" to Huber, proposed by W. 
Schmidt in 1893 (Repertorium xvi, 254), is now discredited. 1 

1 See p. 210. 



261 



VII. THE MASTER 

Worked at Salzburg, about 1550 ; his woodcuts occur in books 
printed by Hans Baumann. 

Authorities : 

Nagl., Hon., ii, p. 321, no. 825. 
Passavant, P.-G., iii, 317. 1 

The unknown draughtsman who uses this monogram is probably 
not identical with C W, an artist of the school of Altclorfer, by 
whom there is a drawing of Pyramus and Thisbe, dated 1518, in the- 
Brunswick Museum ; in spite of the close dependence upon Altdorfer, 
the drawing betrays a much more accomplished hand. He is certainly 
not identical, on the other hand, with the painter (doubtless Suabian) 
of the Niirtingen altar-piece, bearing the same monogram and dated 
1516,' in the Stuttgart gallery. 2 Unless his woodcuts are much 
earlier than the date of their publication, which the condition of the 
blocks as they appear in Baumann's books does not preclude, he 
represents a later generation of the " Danube " school than that of 
Altdorfer and Huber, and is more nearly the contemporary of 
Lemberger. His Last Supper is enlarged from Altdorfer's wood- 
cut, B. 18. 3 

Hans Baumann, the first printer established at Salzburg, was a 
native of Rothenburg on the Tauber. The earliest book from his 
press mentioned by Siiss 4 is dated 1551 ; Nagler mentions one of 
1544, but this is probably a mistake for 1554; an edition of 
Hirspeck's sermons of the latter date is in the Munich library. At 
some date after 1557 Baumann left Salzburg and settled at Wurzburg, 
taking with him his stock of wood-blocks, including some designed 
by this artist. 

1 Passavant translates Nagler inaccurately in two cases, and adds nothing from 
an independent source except a description of the text accompanying the woodcut of 
the Last Supper on its first publication. 

2 Catalogue, 1907, nos. 78-80. 

3 H. Voss, Mitteil. d. Gesellsch. f. vervielf. Kunst, 1909, p. 56. 

4 "Beitrage zur Geschichte der Typographic in Salzburg," 1845, p. 4. 



262 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY 

IN THE DEPARTMENT OP PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [LITURGIES.] Libellus agendarum . . . secundum antiquum 
vsum Metropolitan* Ecclesiae Salisburgensis. Salisburgi excudebat Joafi 
Bauman, Ano 1557. 8vo. 

(1). Fol. 77, David and Bathsheba [65 x 47], signed. P. iii, 317, 1. Bathsheba's 
two maids are in the background, as described by Nagler, not " devant elle " (P.). 

(2). Fol. 121, St. John [66 x 46], signed. Undescribed. He stands under an 
arch, holding the chalice with a serpent in his 1. hand. The artist's initials are on 
the shaded side of the pilaster r. The remaining woodcuts in this book are by 
different artists. The woodcut of Baptism (fol. 81) is reproduced by Diederichs, 

no. 350, as a work of *f! Vv ' ^ ne ^ un i c ^ 1 library possesses three different editions 
of this Agenda, all of 1557, one of which contains another woodcut by this artist, 
hitherto undescribed, representing the Virgin and Child with St. Anne. 

2. [LITURGIES.] Agenda Ecclesiastica, secundum usum Ecclesise 
Wyrzeburgensis. J. Bauinann, Wiirzburg, Sept. 1564. fol. 

(1). Fol. 61. The Last Supper [138 x 109], signed. P. iii, 317, 2. Used earlier 
in the sermons of Hirspeck, printed at Salzburg (not Ratisbon) in 1554. 

(2). Fol. 104 v. Visiting the Sick [102 x 80]. Although not signed, this cut 
may safely be attributed to C. W. by comparison with the St. John and the David 
and Bathsheba. 

(3). Fol. 220 T. St. John, as in the Salzburg Agenda. 

3. [LITURGIES.] Agenda Ecclesiastica, sive Cseremoniarum, Bene- 
dictionum aliorumque inysticorum rituum . . . liber. J. Bauinann, 
Wiirzburg, Sept. 1564. fol. 

With the exception of a new title-page and preface, this is the same book as 
no. 2, and contains the same woodcuts. 



WOODCUT BY 

1. THE MAN OF SORROWS, WITH TWO ANGELS. 

Christ stands, three-quarter face to r., with his back to the stem of 
the cross, pressing with his r. hand the wound in his side, while he 
extends his 1. hand, showing the wounded palm. A triple scourge 1. and 
bundle of rods r. hang from the arms of the cross, which are not 
themselves visible. Two youthful angels, of whom only one, to 1., has 
wings, kneel 1. and r., adoring Christ ; one bears the sponge upon a reed, 
the other the spear. In the distance is a river ; on it a boat, bearing 
three men ; trees and mountains rise from the farther shore. In the 1. 
upper corner, near the scourge, are the artist's initials. Single border-line. 

[138 x 110.] Good impression, cut to the border. On the back are the words 

" Kirchen allerlay Ceremonj anndachtigklich bewey- | sen, Glaidtsman 

fur den stren-| gen Richteretul, des | vatters sey, I Amen " (9 11.). Then " Getruckht 
in der Ertz- 1 bischoflichen Statt Saltzburg, | durch Hansen Bawman | jm M.D.Liiij. 
The woodcut occurs on the last page of " Drey Predig, von dem | Hochwiirdigen 
Sacrament des Alltars. Durch Doctor Paulsen Hirsspeckhen, Thumbprediger zu 
Regenspurg (Munich library; Dr. G. Leidinger kindly identified the book for me). 
The words quoted are from the recto of the leaf. The book contains no other wood- 
cuts. A different edition of these sermons, also dated 1554 (not 1544), at Munich, 
contains on both the first and last leaf this artist's woodcut of the Last Supper. 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1867. 

The composition was probably influenced by the woodcut on fol. 1 v. in Finder's 
" Speculum Passionis," Nuremberg, 1507. 



263 



VIII. HANS WUEM. 

Woodcutter and printer, worked at Landshut about 1501-1504. 

Authorities : 

Heller, "Geschichte der Holzschneidekunst," 123. 
Nagler, K.-L., xxii, 131 ; Mon., i, 429, iii, 709, iv, 493. 
Sotzmann, " Ueber ein unbekanntes xylographisches Ringerbuch," 

Serapeum, v, 33. 
G. Leidinger, " Chronik und Stamm der Pfalzgrafen bei Rhein und 

Herzoge in. Bayern, 1501 " (Drucke u. Holzschn. des xv. u. 

xvi. Jahrh. in getreuer Nachbildung, Heft vii), Heitz, 

Strassburg, 1901, pp. 19-32. 

The only certain existing work of Hans Wurm, of Landshut, 
besides the woodcut now to be described, is the undated xylographic 
wrestling-book, " Gedruckt zu landshut (arms of the town) Hanns 
Wurm," of which the only copy known is in the Berlin Cabinet. 1 
The biographical statements in some of the older books lack docu- 
mentary confirmation. It is asserted, for instance, on unsatisfactory 
evidence, that he had formerly lived at Eatisbon, that he was the 
son-in-law of the printer Schon at Freising, and that he subsequently 
emigrated to Nuremberg. 2 A woodcut representing the marriage at 
Cana, attributed to him in Westenrieder's Beytrage zur Vaterldnd- 
ischen Historic, 1788, i, 404, is unknown at the present time. The 
woodcut with scenes from the Passion, signed H W, which Nagler 
(Mon., iv., no. 1693) attributes to Wurm, is much later in date and of 
inferior quality. Dr. Leidinger attributes to him, with considerable 
plausibility but no convincing proof, the composition and cutting of 
a pedigree of the Counts Palatine and Dukes of Bavaria preserved in 
the Hof- und Staatsbibliothek at Munich ; a second, and better, 

1 Specimens are reproduced by Sotzmann and by Schreiber, " Manuel," viii, 
pi. 120. 

2 A woodcut signed " Hanns Wurm in Nurnperg, 1423 " (white letters on black), 
is in the Berlin Cabinet ; Schreiber (no. 2157) places it in the category of impostures. 
A woodcutter of the same name was working at Nuremberg after 1559 (Leidinger, 
p. 24). 



264 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

impression has since come to light in the Bavarian National Museum. 
The woodcut, measuring 162 x 85 cm., has been reproduced by 
Dr. Leidinger as a supplement to the facsimile of a rare book, 
believed to be the first printed at Landshut, beginning " In dem jar 
des hails Cristi des herren fimffzehenhundert vnd darnach in dem 
ersten jare ward die Cronick vnd der fiirstlich stamm der durch- 
leuchtigen hochgepornen fiirsten vn herren pfalnntzgrafen bey Eein, 
vnd herczog in Bairen, etc., loblich vollendt." Two copies of the 
book are at Munich, a third in the British Museum (Pr. 11775). 
Neither woodcut nor book is actually dated, but Leidinger concludes 
that they were probably finished in 1501. The two are intimately 
connected. The book has the colophon, " Gedruckt von . N. Wurm 
zu lantzhut." Leidinger's arguments * for identifying " . N. Wurm " 
with Hans do not cany conviction. Nor can it be taken for certain 
that our Hans Wurm, the woodcutter, is identical with " Meister 
Hans Wurm, Seidensticker [embroiderer on silk] zu Landshut," who 
is mentioned in 1514 in connection with the projected casting of one 
of the bronze statues for the Emperor Maximilian's tomb at Innsbruck. 2 
On other Wurins at Landshut from 1331 onwards, see Leidinger, 
p. 29, note 2. 



WOODCUT BY HANS WURM. 

1. THE RECEPTION AT THE DOOR OF A GOTHIC HOUSE, AFTER MAIR 

OF LANDSHUT. 

R. Weigel, Kunstlagerkatalog, no. 9453 ; Nagler, K.-L., xxii, 131, Mon., i, p. 429, 
iii, p. 709, iv, p. 493; Willsbire, ii, 384; Lehrs, Repertorium, xvi, 339; Singer, 
Catalogue of the Lanna Collection, no. 2. 

A youthful gallant, crossing the threshold with a jaunty air, his r. 
hand on his hip, is received by a young lady with downcast eyes, who 
stands within the open door. A dog sits outside in front of the doorstep, 
looking in. On either side of the porch is a barred window. Pillars, 
projecting before these windows, support pedestals containing niches ; on 
each pedestal stands a warrior carrying a banner. In a large niche over 
the centre of the porch is a seated figure ; this niche is flanked by 
truncated columns, but the small warriors who stand on these columns in 
the original engraving are here omitted. The background is black. The 
name HANS WVRM is placed on two tablets near the 1. and r. lower 
corners respectively. 

[226 X 162; size of sheet, 242 x 175]. Fine impression, with margin [6-8], well 
preserved apart from a damaged portion on the r. side and two places near the top. 
Watermark, large high crown. 

1 Anticipated by Nagler, Mon., iii, p. 709. 

8 Vienna Jahrbuch, 1884, ii. pt. 2, LXVI, Reg. 1166. Leidinger, op. cit., p. 24. 



Division C. School of Landshut. Wurm. 265 

The whole sheet, margin included, has been covered before printing with a 
reddish brown opaque ground. The woodcut itself is printed in black upon this 
brown surface, and the artist has then put on the high lights in opaque white with 
the point of his brush, greatly enhancing the effect ; the curls of the young man's 
hair, for instance, and the veil over the brow of the lady are inserted in white ; the 
hatching in fine white lines is delicate and artistic. 

Collections : Liphart (F. 328), Lanna. 

Purchased at the sale of the Lanna collection, Stuttgart, 1909 (no. 3036). 

No other impression is known. The original engraving by Mair of Landshut ' is 
also of great rarity, only three impressions being known in the Albertina, the 
collection of Baron E. de Rothschild, Paris (formerly Durazzo and Felix collections), 
and in the Louvre. 2 In most collections the subject is represented by a deceptive, 
but inferior, copy. 3 All three impressions of the original are coloured by the artist, 
while that in the Louvre is also dated 1499, a date which occurs on other engravings 
by Mair and also on two of the three woodcuts in the British Museum collection. 4 
The copy by Wurm cannot be much later than the original, but must belong to the 
early years of the sixteenth century if the date given for his activity at Landshut, 
1501-1504, be correct. The cutting, however, resembles so closely that of the 
woodcuts signed by Mair, that the question suggests itself whether Wurm was not 
actually the cutter of the three blocks in question, though his name is suppressed 
and only that of the draughtsman appears. To this question there can, of course, be 
no positive answer. The present woodcut is not exactly parallel to the other three, 
since it is not the original, authorized expression of Mair's idea in graphic form, but 
a copy in a different medium of a composition already engraved on copper by Mair 
himself. 

The interest of this group of Landshut woodcuts as marking a preliminary stage 
in the evolution of colour printing has already been discussed in this Catalogue. 5 
They are separated by very few years from the introduction of true colour printing 
from wood-blocks, which was perfected almost simultaneously at Wittenberg and 
Augsburg. 6 They afford a parallel on wood to the engravings of Mair himself, or the 
etchings of Hercules Segers, on copper. The woodcut by Wurm forms a very inter- 
esting addition to the group by Mair. As regards the colouring, however, it should 
be observed that Mair's woodcuts are tinted with a wash of transparent watercolour, 
whereas Wurm has used opaque body colour. Mair himself used body-colour for 
heightening his engravings with touches of white, yellow, green or red, but the 
general surface, as a rule, was tinted with watercolour ; Prof. Lehrs speaks, how- 
ever, of " violettroth grundiertes Papier " in the case of an impression of P. 13, terms 
which seem to imply the use of opaque pigment. 

1 P. ii, 157, 13. 2 Lehrs, Repertorium, xvi, 338. 

3 B. vi, 370. 4 Vol. I. 149, A 143-145. 

s Ibid., 148. Ibid., 255. 



266 



IX. CASPAlt CLOFIGL. 

Caspar Clofigl, or Clofligl, worked at Munich about 1516-1529 
as court painter to Duke William IV. 

Authorities : 

Bartsch, P.-G., vii, 466. 
Passavant, P.-G., iii, 299. 
Nagler, Mon., i, no. 2372. 

BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY CLOFIGL. 
IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [BAVARIA.] Das buech der gemeinen land pot .... in. 
Obern, vnd Nidern | Bairn, Im Fiinftzehn hundert vnd | Sechtzehendem 
Jar aufgericht (xylographic title, printed in red ; J. Schobser, Munich, 
after 23 April, 1516) fol. (Pr. 11582). 

On title-page, B. vii, 466, 1 [143 X 187]. 

2. [HIRSCHBERG.] Ettlich notturfftig freihaitbrief vii ordnung 
iiber das handtgericht Hirsperg. (J. Schobser?, Munich?, after 10 April, 
1518). fol. (Pr. 11592). 

On title-page, the arms of Bavaria, the Palatinate and Hirschberg, with date 
1518. See p. 2G7, no. 3. 

3. [BAVARIA.] Reformacion der Bayrischn Lanndrecht (J. 
Schobser, Munich, after 23 April, 1518); fol. (Pr. 11585).. 

On title-page, B. vii, 466, 1. 

4. [BAVARIA.] Das buech der gemeinen Landpot | ... in Obern 
vnnd Nidern Bairn | Im Fiinftzehenhiindert vnnd | Sechtzehendem 
Jar aufgericht (xylographic title, printed in red ; J. Schobser, Munich ? 
after 26 March 1520) fol. (Pr. 11594.) 

On title-page, B. vii, 467, 2 [139 x 181]. This is the repetition of B. 1, in which 
the two Dukes wear beards. It is probably, as Proctor says, a copy, rather than a 
variant by the same artist. 

5. [BAVARIA.] Gerichtzordnung Ini Fiirst'nthumb Obern vnd 
Nidern Bayrn Anno 1520 aufgericht. (J. Schobser, Munich, after 
23 April 1520) fol. (Pr. 11 59 la). 

On title-page, B. vii, 467, 3 [185 X 192]. 



Division C. School of Munich. Clofigl. 267 



WOODCUTS BY CLOFIGL. 

1. THE DUKES WILHELM AND LUDWIG OF BAVARIA IN ARMOUR, 

STANDING. B. vii, 466, 1. 

The two Dukes, distinguished by their initials H W and H L on 
tablets hanging near their heads, stand confronting one another, each 
with a hand laid upon the Bavarian shield, in a building which rests on 
columns and is open at both sides. They are beardless, and their chins 
are covered. No signature. 

[143 x 191.] On title-page of " Das biich der gemeinen lanndpot. | Landsord- 
nung. Satzung, vnd ge-|breuch, des Furstenthombs, in Obe-|ren vnd Nidern 
Bairn, im funf tze- 1 henhundert vund Sechtzehendem Jar aufgericht." (Printed 
with type in red, a different edition from Pr. 11582 and 11594.) 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1849, 

2. THE DUKES WILHELM AND LUDWIG OF BAVARIA SEATED. 

B. vii, 467, 3 ; P. iii, 300, 1. 

A table, the end of which is decorated with the shield of Bavaria 
resting on a lion, is placed in a recess lighted by a window, at the end of 
a hall or court of justice. Over the window is the date 1520. The 
Dukes, distinguished as in no. 1 by their initials, sit on either side of the 
table ; a book the code of laws lies between them. Seven persons 
stand on Duke William's, eight on Duke Ludwig's side of the room. The 
signature C. C. is on a step leading to the platform on which the table 
stands. 

[185 x 192.] On title-page of " Gerichtzordnung Im fiirst'n- 1 thumb Obern vnd 
Nidern | Bayrn Anno . 1.5.2.0. aufgericht (xylographic, printed in red). 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1849. 

The " composition analogue " mentioned by Passavant is evidently the same 
woodcut described a second time. It is more true of this, than of no. 1, that it is 
treated in the style of Burgkmair ; it shows the influence of the " Weisskunig." 

3. THE ARMS OF THE PALATINATE, BAVARIA AND HIRSCHBERG. 1518. 

The arms, with a tablet bearing the date 1518, are in a circle 
representing a seal, suspended from a large tablet which contains the 
title of the book (see p. 266 no 2). The whole is surrounded by a double 
border-line, beyond which the end of a tassel projects. On the verso is a 
proclamation by the Dukes Wilhelm and Ludwig, dated 10 April 1518. 

[267 X 169.] Good impression. 

Bequeathed by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1897. 

This woodcut, hitherto undescribed, may safely be assigned to Clofigl on the 
ground of its resemblance to the others, described by Bartsch, and its publication at 
the same press and under the same official patronage. 



268 



X. ANONYMOUS WOODCUTS FROM BOOKS PRINTED IN 
BAVARIA AND AUSTRIA. 1 

INGOLSTADT. 

1. FOLIO TITLE-BORDER. 

Der Ftinft vnd letst | Tail Christenlicher Predig, etc, by Johann von 
Eck. Georg Krapff, Ingolstadt, 1539. 

One piece. At the corners, the four Evangelists in medallions ; at 
the top, the Almighty ; below, the Virgin and child ; at the sides, 
SS. Peter, Paul, Willibald and Victor. 

[234 x 164 ; opening, 140 x 95.] Good impression. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

LANDSHUT. 
tST. ANNE AND OTHER SAINTS. 

St. Anne is seated on a throne ; the Child Jesus, naked, stands on her 
lap, while the Virgin Mary kneels with folded hands before him. St. 
John stands 1., holding a chalice in his 1. hand, St. Nicholas r., in episcopal 
vestments, holding the three balls of gold on a book in his r. hand. In 
both the upper corners are garlands of leaves forming an arch with the 
canopy of the throne in its centre. At the foot of the print is a tablet 
with xylographic inscription : " Ora p nobis S. Anna : ". 

[175 X 114.] Photograph of the original cut in " St. Christophs Geburt und 
Leben," J. Weissenburger, Landshut, 1520 (Weller 1347, Muther 1701), in the 
Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, Munich. 

Somewhat rough but vigorous and interesting work of the native Bavarian school. 
The other illustrations in the book, including a St. Christopher [123 x 102] on the 
title-page, which Muther does not mention, 2 show more of the " Donaustil " influence. 

Many illustrations in books printed by Weissenburger are of Nuremberg or 
Augsburg origin. 

2. QUARTO BORDER USED BY WEISSENBURGER. Proctor A. 

Copy of Holbein's earliest border designed for Froben, Woltmann 234 
(Repr., Butsch, i, 41, and Heitz-Bernoulli, " Easier Biichermarken," 

1 An anonymous Bavarian woodcut of the beginning of the XVI century has been 
described in Vol. I, pp. 53 (A 17) and 565. The copy of this woodcut occurs in 
Proctor 11581. 

2 This is not the same as a St. Christopher dated 1520, also of the Bavarian 
school, in the Berlin Cabinet. 



Division C. School of Bavaria. Anonymous. 269 

no. 27). At the foot, in the place occupied in the original by Froben's 
device and a frieze, are the arms of Bavaria and Landshut. 

[177 x 121.] On title-page of " Exhortatio | ad Collatores benifi- 1 ciorum eccle- 
siasticorum," etc. (s.l.e.a., 6 11.). 

Purchased from Messrs. Heussner & Lauser, 1875. 

For other books in which the border occurs (only at Landshut, not at Nuremberg) 
see Pr. 11803-4 (c. 1516). On the supposed authority of dates I described this border 
in 1898 (Jahrbuch der k. preuss. Kunstsamml., xix, 160) as the original which 
Holbein copied. Proctor assigns the printing of Scheurl's book, " Sacerdotum 
defensorium," to a much later date than that of its composition, and regards the 
Landshut border as a copy of that by Holbein, which is, indeed, much more 
probable. 

3. FRONTISPIECE TO DIETRICH VON PLENINGEN'S TRANSLATION 

OF SALLUST. H. 2090; P. iii, 212, 285. 

In an arched recess between two pilasters of Renaissance architecture, 
Maximilian I, in profile to r., holding a sceptre, receives a book from the 
hands of the translator, who kneels. Duke Ludwig of Bavaria confronts 
Maximilian and lays his r. hand on the book. The titles of the two 
Sovereigns, MAXIMILIAN . IMP and . H . LVDBIG, are on labels placed 
above their escutcheons and across a border with white arabesque pattern 
upon a black ground, which surrounds the whole. 

[225 x 160.] Good impression with margin. On the back is the title, printed in 
red, " Des hochberom | pten Latinischen histori schrei-|bers Salustij : zwo schon 

histo-lrien .... Durch | herrn Dieterichen von Pleningen | getheutscht 

(12 11.). J. Weissenburger, Landshut, 4 Sept. 1515, Pr. 11792. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Formerly attributed to Diirer, but probably Augsburg work. The same cut 
occurs in a second state, with the name of Duke Wilhelm instead of Duke Ludwig, 
in the same author's translation of Pliny's Panegyric, 14 Dec. 1515, Pr. 11793. The 
British Museum copy is defective and lacks this woodcut. 

4. THE VIRGIN MARY, BY THE MONOGRAMMIST G. A. 1525. 

Nagl., Mon., ii, p. 957, no. 2676. 

The Virgin, in the costume of the Beautiful Virgin of Ratisbon, 
stands under a round arch supported by pilasters which bear the date 
15 (1.) 25 (r.). On her nimbus is inscribed S. MARIA. The initials G A 
are on the shaded spandrils. 

[108 x 80.] On the title-page of " Enchiridion locorum comuniu aduersus 
Lutteranos . Joanne Eckio Autore," Landshuti Baioarie, M.D.XXV, Mense Aprili 
(Dept. of Printed Books). 

The initials are perhaps those of the printer and wood-engraver Georg Apian, 
who was connected with Landshut (Nagl., Mon., i, no. 2193), and afterwards removed 
to Ingolstadt, where various decorative borders signed GAB (Georgius Apianus 
Biener?) appeared 1530-40 in the astronomical and other learned works of Peter 
Apian (Nagl., Mon., ii, nos. 2685, 2687). See p. 249. 



270 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

VIENNA. 

[5-7.] 

THREE WOODCUTS FROM SOLINUS. 

The folio Solinus edited by J. Gamers was printed by Johann Singriener 
(Singrenius) at the expense of Lucas Alantsee, 1520. These fragments are from the 
Bagford collection (Harl. MS. 5920-383, 5968-123, 5920-378) and were transferred 
from the Dept. of Printed Books, 1900. 

6. TITLE-PAGE. 

From four blocks : (a) two busts of bearded warriors in wreaths, 
between them a candelabrum [60 X 169], (b, c) columns [132 x 401, 
(d) a shield with the device of Alantsee supported by putt i [60 x 169J. 
On the back is an ornamental initial M [57 X 49]. 

6. DEVICE OF LUCAS ALANTSEE (sig. F4). 

A shield containing Alantsee's mark is suspended from the boughs of 
an oak and supported by griffins [92 x 78]. Above the woodcut is the 
colophon. 

The brothers Leonhard (d. 1518) and Lucas Alautsee (d. 1522) were publishers 
resident in Vienna, and books were printed at their expense at Hagenau, Strassburg 
and Venice in addition to their own city. Heitz (" Elsiiss. Biichermarken," Taf. 13) 
reproduces the device, similar to this in design, used in books printed for the 
brothers Alantsee by M. Schiirer. The article on Lucas Alantsee in Nagler's 
" Monogrammisten " (iv, no. 902) is utterly misleading. 

7. DEVICE OF JOHANN SINGRIENER (sig. cc 3 v.). 

A shield containing a florid monogram (I. S.) is supported by the 
symbols of the four Evangelists [93 X 78]. Round this is printed in 
large type the name IOANNES SINGRENIVS CALCOGRAPHVS VIENNENSIS, 
enclosed by four narrow ornamental panels, the lowest of which contains 
the name HANS RESELL. 

Singriener printed at Vienna in partnership with Vietor 1510-14, then 
independently till his death in 1546. 

Hans Rebell, of whom I find no record, appears to have been employed in cutting 
ornaments for Singriener's books, and to have worked afterwards for Vietor at 
Cracow (see p. 272). The position of his name, in full, on the ornamental panel 
mentioned above, and of his monogram on the letter M on fol. 2, v. of the Solinus, 
suggests that he not only cut, but also designed the ornaments. A different mono- 
gram composed of H and R appears on the book-plate of Dr. Gregorius Angror, 
Canon of Brixen and Vienna, 1521 (repr. Ex-Libris Zeitschr., 1892, ii, 5, and 
Leiningen-Westerburg, " German Book-plates," 1901, p. 139). .The decoration of 
this book-plate agrees well with that of Singriener's Solinus, and it is probable that 
the block was cut at Vienna by Hans Rebell. Another woodcut in the same style, 
and signed with the same monogram, is reproduced by Diederichs, no. 555, from a 
book printed by Singriener at Vienna in 1523, Judenkonig, " Unterweisung im 
Lauton spiel " ; on the same cut is a monogram composed of A and V. 



271 



XL WOODCUTS PUBLISHED AT CBACOW. 

1. THE TABLE OF CEBES. 1519. Willshire D. 115a. 

The hill of life, crowned at the summit by the castle of happiness, is 
enclosed by three circular walls, one within the other. Beneath the 
outermost wall a crowd of persons, " Ingredientes vita," from naked 
children to youths and adults, of various nationalities, some being in 
Turkish, Hungarian, and Slavonic costumes, approach the gate, " PORTA 
VITAE," beside which " SVADELA " sits enthroned ; she offers the cup 
of error to a youth at the gate, who drinks of it. An aged man, standing 
1. within the gate, extends a monitory finger and holds a scroll inscribed 
"GENIus 1519." Within the first circle loose women, " Voluptates, 
Concupiscentiae, Opiniones," seduce the young from the right path. To 
1. are seen the blind goddess of Fortune and those who lose or enjoy her 
favours, " Fortuna & ei adheretes, & a q(ui)bus vocat'(ur) Fortuna mala, 
Fortuna bona." To r. these who have received the gifts bestowed by 
Fortuna are seduced by other vices, " Incontinentia, Luxuria, Auaritia, 
Assentatio," x and fall into punishment and grief, " Punitio, Tristitia, 
Dolor, Maesticia, Bestiola, Luctus." 

At the gate of the second circle sits " FALSA disciplina " ; to 1. 
within are her lovers, "Amatores falsae disciplinae," further described as 
" Musici, Voluptuarij, Oratores, Dialectici, Poetae, Astrologi, P(er)ipatetici, 
Critici, Geometrae, Arithmetici." " Vera disciplina " stands above, near 
the gate of the third circle, upon a square stone (in contrast to the round 
stone of Fortune), between two maidens, Veritas and Persuasio (not 
named). The way of true discipline, "Via verae disciplinae," leads not 
through the gate but over steep rocks, up which two pilgrims are climbing, 
by the aid of " Continentia " and " Constantia," into the third circle, 
" Fortunatorum domicilium." 

To 1., within, are Knowledge and her eight sisters, " Scietiae sorores, 
Scietia, Fortitude, Justicia, Probitas, T(em)p(er)atia, Modestia, Liberalitas, 
Cotine(tia), Mfisue(tudo)." There are the daughters of Happiness, 
" FELIcitas," who sits aloft on a throne and crowns a pilgrim who has 
persevered to the end. Those who have attained happiness are then 
taken to the place by which they entered, where the Virtues show them 
the pursuits of the wicked, "VIRtutes monstrant studia improborum." 
To 1. are seen the happy, wearing crowns, " COronati," and the miserable, 
" Incoronati," who have despaired and turned back from discipline, and 
now wander, harassed by grief, anxiety and ignorance. 

1 These four words are printed in Gothic, all other inscriptions within the border 
of the woodcut in Roman type. 



272 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

All the quotations, taken from the Latin version of the ILVa by 
Lodovico Odassi, 1 are printed with type. At the top 1. is printed " Hoc | 
pictasma sub | felicissimo Re | uerendissimi | D. D. Petri epi | premislien.' 2 
Regni | Polonie Vicecacel | larij, patroni sui gra | tiosi auspicio Hiero | 
nyinus Vietor in lu | cem dedit. Anno, a | natali Christi, 1519." Along 
the foot of the sheet is printed in large Gothic type, " Tabula Cebetis ab 
Hieronymo Vietore impressa Craccouie." 

[386 x 291 ; margin with title and imprint, 1C X 291.] Good impression. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Hieronymus Vietor (Binder) studied at Cracow 1497-99, printed at Vienna 
1510-14 in partnership with Singriener, from 1515 onwards alone. In 1517 he 
removed to Cracow, being succeeded at Vienna by his brother Benedict and son 
Florian, till 1531. He died in 1546. 

The artist who designed this woodcut was evidently also the illustrator of Mathias 
de Mechovia, " Chronica Polonorum," and Decius, " De Vetustatibus Polonorum," 
etc, printed by H. Vietor, Dec. 1521 ; fol. 

2. PORTRAIT OF SIGISMUND I, KING OF POLAND. 1532. 

Nagl., Mon., iii, 547, no. 1401. 

Beardless, in profile to 1., wearing a cap and fur cape. Framed by an 
arch, which contains in the spanclrils the arms of Poland and Lithuania. 
Beneath the former shield is an indistinct monogram, to be read, 
apparently, as T G or I G, on the other side is the woodcutter's monogram, 

5 Double border line. 

The woodcut [159 x 150] is placed on a sheet bordered with small 
ornamental panels, six on each side, and containing text in 36 lines, 

" SIGISMVNDVS eius nominis primus Hier. Viet. | M.D. 

XXXII." 

[Sheet, 361 x 244.] Good impression, but not very early. Watermark, pair of 
scales in a circle. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

An impression of this portrait in a different edition, in the Czartoryski Museum, 
Cracow, has the following inscription above it : 

Regia Sismundi facies Joue digna vel ipso 
Juppiter est patrie nee minus ista suae. 

In the Historical Museum at Basle is a framed impression on vellum, coloured 
and gilt, with the MS. inscription, D : Bonifatio Amerbachio . ft . Doctori . Joannes 
a Lose omisit. Above the portrait are two lines of verse, " Sigmundi Regis facies 
Joue," etc. (the rest as at Cracow), and beneath it are eighteen lines of Latin prose. 

A copy of this portrait, in the same direction, signed C. S., occurs in Z. Bielski's 
Chronicle of the World (Polish), printed by Siebeneicher at Cracow, 1564. 

The woodcutter may be Hans Rebell, who was employed by Singriener, 
formerly Vietor's partner at Vienna, and may have followed Vietor to Cracow. J The 
same monogram occurs on a woodcut [118 x 96] in " Andreae Cricii Episcopi 
Premislien . . . . de negotio Prutenico epistola," Cracoviae per Hier . Vietorem . 
Anno dni 1525 (Cracow, Czartoryski Museum). 

1 Editions of this version were printed by Singrenius at Vienna in 1519 and at 
Cracow in 1524. 

* Peter Tomicki, Bishop of Premysl 1514-20, then translated to Posen and 1522 
to Cracow, d. 1535. 

1 See p. 270. 



273 



DIVISION D. SCHOOL OF SAXONY. 

The history of the graphic arts in Saxony begins with the arrival 
at Wittenberg of the Franconian painter, Lucas Cranach, in 1505, for 
the illustrations produced before that date at Leipzig and Erfurt are 
insignificant and for the present purpose negligible. For the next 
half-century, at least, the influence of Cranach remains predominant, 
not only at Wittenberg and Leipzig, but also in Lower Saxon 
districts farther to the north, though in some outlying places, such 
as Halberstadt, minor artists flourished whose provincial art cannot 
be traced to the main fountain-head. 

It is interesting to observe the links that unite the school of 
Saxony with that of the Danube region. All that we know of the 
early years of Cranach himself connects him with Bavaria and 
Austria, while two Bavarian artists, Georg Lemberger and Erhard 
Altdorfer, emigrated a few years later from Landshut and Katisbon 
to the north, settling respectively at Leipzig and Eostock. Both 
artists belong to the most notable illustrators of the school of 
Cranach, but their woodcut style reveals, in Lemberger's case most 
markedly, clear traces of their South German origin. 



274 



I. LUCAS CKANACH I. 

Lucas Cranach, the Elder, painter, engraver and draughtsman on 
wood; born at Kronach, 1472, travelled in Bavaria and Austria, 
settled at Wittenberg early in 1505 ; married Barbara Brengbier, 1 of 
Gotha (died 1541), and received a grant of arms in 1508, in which 
year he travelled to the Netherlands, was court painter to the 
Elector Frederick III, also to his successors John and John Frederick ; 
was intimate with Luther and an active partisan of the Eeformation ; 
in 1519 he became a member of the Wittenberg Council, in 1537 
and 1540 burgomaster ; he joined John Frederick, who had been 
defeated by Charles V at Muhlberg, 1547, in his captivity at Augs- 
burg, 2 afterwards at Innsbruck; on their liberation in 1552 Cranach 
accompanied the deposed Elector to Weimar, and there resided with 
his son-in-law, Christian Briick, till his death on 16 October, 1553. 
Both his sons, Hans and Lucas [q.v.] were painters. 

Authorities : 
i. Catalogues. 

Bartsch, P.-G., vii, 279. 

Heller, " Lucas Cranach's Leben und Werke," 2. Auflage, 
Niirnberg, 1854. 

Schuchardt, " Lucas Cranach d. Ae. Leben und Werke," 
2. Teil, 1851, p. 192 ; 3. Teil, 1871, p. 212. 

Passavant, P.-G., iv, 7. 

Nagl., Mon., iv, no. 980. 

Lippmann, "Lucas Cranach," Berlin, 1895 (first attempt at a 
chronological order). 

Flechsig, " Cranachstudien I. Teil," Leipzig, 1900, pp. 291- 
295 (comparative table of other catalogues, and chrono- 
logical list of woodcuts 1500-1521). 

ii. Biographical and critical literature. 3 
A. Biographical. 

Heller and Schuchardt see above. 

M. B. Lindau, " Lucas Cranach. Kin Lebensbild aus dem 
Zeitalter der Reformation," Leipzig, 1883. 

1 It is usually supposed that the marriage took place before 1505 ; for doubts 
expressed on this point, see Kunstchronik, 1899, x, 375. 

* John Frederick's letter summoning Cranach to Augsburg, dated 2 August, 
1547, is published in Repertonum, xxvi, 425. 

)l. * A selection only, with special reference to woodcuts. For more, see Dodgson , 
" Bibliographic Critique de L. Cranach," Paris, 1900. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. CranacJi I. 275 

H. Michaelson, " Etwas aus Cranach des Aelteren Jugendzeit," 

Eepert.f. Kunstw., 1899, xxii, 474. 
K. Woermann, " Verzeichnis der Cranach- Ausstellung," 

Dresden, 1899, Einleitung, pp. 6-11. 
J. Vogel, " Lucas Cranach in Wien," Monatshefte f. Kunstw., 

ii, 545. 

B. Critical. 

G. K. Nagler, "Tiber alte mit Gold und Silber gedruckte 

Holzschnitte," etc., Naumann's Archiv, 1857, iii, 56. 
C. Schuchardt, " Uber Holzschnitt in Golddruck," ibid., 1858, 

iv, 295. 
J. D. Passavant, " Uber einen sachsischen Silberdruck," ibid., 

1861, vii, 94. 
Knaake, "Uber Cranach's Presse," Gentralbl. f. Bibliotheks- 

wesen, 1890, vii, 196. 
C. v. Liitzow, " Gesch. d. deutsch. Kupf. u. Holzschn.," Berlin, 

1891, 179-190. 
G. Bauch, "Zur Cranach -Forschung," Itepert. f. Kunstw., 

1894, xvii, 421. 

F. Lippmann, " Farbenholzschnitte von L. C.," Berlin Jahrbuch, 

1895, xvi, 138. 

F. Lippmann, " L. C. Sammlung von Nachbildungen seiner 
vorziiglichsten Holzschnitte," etc., Berlin, 1895. 

E. Flechsig, " Cranachstudien I. Teil," Leipzig, 1900. 

C. Dodgson, " L. C.'s Holzschnitt, ' Der Adel,' " Mitt. d. Ges. 

f. vervielf. Kunst, 1901, 33. 
H. Michaelson, " L. C. d. Ae." (Beitrage zur Kunstgeschichte, 

N. F., no. 28), Leipzig, 1902. 
M. J. Friedlander, "Die friihen Werke L. C.'s," Berlin 

Jahrbuch, 1902, xxiii, 228. 
C. Dodgson, " Fiinf unbeschriebene Holzschnitte L. C.'s," 

Berlin Jatrbuch, 1903, xxiv, 284. 
W. Schmidt, " Uber die friihere Zeit von L. C.," Monatsberichte 

uber Kunstwissenschaft, 1903, iii, 117. 

F. Dornhoffer, " Ein Jugendwerk L. C.'s," Jahrbuch d. k. k. 

Zentral-Kommission f. Erforschung u. Erhaltung d. Kunst- 

u. histor. Denkmale, 1904, ii, 2, p. 175. 
K. Simon, "Zu L. C.," Eepert.f. Kunstw., 1904, xxvii, 515. 
J. Beth, "Zu Cranach's Missalien-Holzschnitten," ibid., 1907, 

xxx, 501. 
C. Dodgson, " Cranach's Kanonbild vom Jahre 1508," ibid., 

1908, xxxi, 247. 

The earliest woodcuts of Cranach, produced before he settled at 
Wittenberg, point, as do certain of his early pictures, to a temporary 
residence in Austria. The painter who was destined in a few years 
to exert the strongest influence on art in Saxony and all Northern 
Germany was thus of Franconian birth, and for a time associated 
with the art of the Danube region. The period of his chief activity 

T 2 



276 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

at Wittenberg as a draughtsman on wood, and occasionally as an 
engraver on copper, extends from 1505 to about 1520. After that 
time it is doubtful whether he took any direct share in the production 
of woodcuts, though the output of title-borders, illustrations and 
portraits which possess in varying degrees the characteristics of his 
style continues to be large. So far as he spent his time at all in 
purely artistic work it was mainly in painting, but his attention 
must have been much distracted from art by his interest in the 
progress of the Reformation, his duties as councillor and burgomaster 
of Wittenberg, his various commercial enterprises, and the direction 
of a large workshop for the manufacture of pictures, in which his 
elder son Hans, till his death in 1537, and then his younger son 
Lucas, appear to have been his principal assistants. 

The woodcuts here directly attributed to Cranach (nos. 1-124) 
form an approximately complete collection, supplemented occasionally 
by reproductions of missing originals, of the woodcuts which he is 
believed to have drawn himself upon the block. There is no 
satisfactory catalogue of Cranach existing, the woodcuts of the sons 
and other extraneous matter being mixed in all the older catalogues 
with those of the father. The order adopted here is chronological, 
slight departures being occasionally made from the strictly logical 
sequence for the sake of convenience in grouping the woodcuts. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY LUCAS CRANACH I. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OP PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [SCHEURL.] Libellus Doctoris Christoferi Scheurli Nu [ rem 
bergensis de sacerdotu et reru | ecclesiasticaru pstantia. W. Stockel, 
Leipzig, March 1511 ; 4to. (Pr. 11457). 

From the collections of W. Pirkheimer, Lord Arundel, the Royal Society, 
E. Gordon Duff and Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B. 

Presented by Mr. Max Rosenheim, 1908. 

On verso of last leaf (d 6), the arms of Scheurl and Tucher, formerly ascribed to 
Diirer (H. 2147 ; P. iii, 221, 322), a cut which was also used as a book-plate 
(Warnecke, no. 1896). P. iv, 21, 211. See p. 305, no. 80. 

2. [POLLICARIUS.] Der heiligen XII. | Aposteln ankunfft, beruff, 
glauben, | lere, leben vnd seliges absterben, etc. Successors of G. Rhaw, 
Wittenberg, 1549 ; fol. 

Purchased from Mr. Evans, 1851. 

On the title-page, eleven statuettes of the apostles, each on a base [75 x 29], by 
an artist of the school of Cranach. The twelfth (no. 5, St. Philip) represents the 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach 1. 277 

apostle himself standing on the ground, and does not belong to the same set. The 
arrangement may have been suggested by an engraving of the Master E S, in which 
the apostles are similarly disposed. The cut of the Creation, A 4, is not by Cranach. 
Then follow (1-12) the Martyrdoms of the Twelve Apostles (B. 37-48) ; then (13) 
St. Paul (B. 92, Sch. 107-90), from the Wittenberg relic-book. 



B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OP PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [LITURGIES.] Missale Pataviense. J. Winter-burger, Vienna 
25 May, 1503 ; fol. (Panzer, ix, 1, 4; Weale, Cat. Miss., 120; Dodgson, 
Jahrb. d. k. preuss. Kunstsamml., 1903, xxiv, 289 ; Dornhoffer, Jahrb. d. k. 
k. Zentral-Kommission, 1904, II, 2, 182. 

The first woodcut, St. Stephen, dated 1502 (coloured red, yellow and green), on 
the back of the title-page, is certainly by Cranach, to whom, the following cuts are 
also attributed : small head of Christ, in the Canon, fol. 140, v. (Dornhoffer, p. 182), 
and twelve initials printed in red, which are enumerated by J. Beth, Repertorium f. 
Kunstwissenschaft, 1907, xxx, 511. The Crucifixion in the Canon in this copy is 
interpolated, and is not by Cranach ; the woodcut properly belonging to the book is 
reproduced in the Berlin Jahrbuch, xxiv, 287. 

There are two different editions of this missal with the same date. The copies at 
Vienna do not contain the St. Stephen, but do contain the Crucifixion by Cranach, 
as well as an ornamental diagram in the Kalendar and initial T in the Canon, both 
attributed to Cranach by Dr. Dornhoffer. 

2. [LITURGIES.] Missale Olomucense. J. Winterburger, Vienna, 
14 March, 1505; fol. (Panzer, ix, 2, 5; Weale, 110; Dornhoffer, ibid. 
185). Imperfect. 

The first leaf and the Crucifixion before the Canon are wanting ; the initial T 
and the round Agnus Dei in the Canon are those described by Dornhoffer as not 
being by Cranach. Cranach's table for finding the dominical letter, with an owl 
in the centre, is on the eighth leaf, and the initials described by Beth occur through- 
out the book. 

3. [LITURGIES.] Missale Pragense. G. Stuchs, Nuremberg, 8 
August, 1508; fol. (Weale, 125; Pr. 11079). 

At the beginning of the Canon, Christ on the Cross, between Mary and John, on 
vellum, coloured ; Sch. 30 (B. 21 is a copy of this). See Dodgson, " Bibliography," 
1900, p. 13, Beth, Repertorium, xxx, 501, and Dodgson, Repertorium, xxxi, 247. The 
two articles last quoted establish the fact that the woodcut actually belongs to this 
Missal ; the connection had been doubted. The same woodcut was used for the 
Prague Missal printed by M. Letter at Leipzig in 1522, but the canon in that edition 
consists of eight leaves instead of ten. The block was already at Leipzig in 1516 ; 
the woodcut occurs in Letter's Brandenburg Missal of that year (Berlin, K. Bibl. 
Dq. 6614), printed on paper, beneath it the prayer, " Et faml'os tuos Papa Eege 
RoanoZ?," etc. (2 lines). A small copy of this woodcut, perhaps by E. Schon, occurs 
in " Wurtzgertlein der andechtigen iibung," F. Peypus, Nuremberg, 24 March, 1516 
(Berlin, Kunstgewerbemuseum and Kupf.-Kab. ; Nuremberg, Stadtbibl.), and in 
Dwanacte Artykuluow Wijry Kfetiank6 kterez lugij Symbolum dwanacte Apostoluw, 
etc., 1542 (Berlin, Kunstgewerbemuseum, Grisebach collection). On the full-sized 
copy, Sch. 31, B. 21, see Beth, loc. cit., p. 503. For another copy, see p. 279, no. 16. 

4. [SCHEURL.] Oratio doctoris Scheurli attingens litteraru prestan- 
tiam, necnon laudem Ecclesie Collegiate Vittenburgensis. M. Landsberg, 
Leipzig, Dec. 1509 ; 4 to (Pr. 11284). 

On the last page, C 6 v., is the view of the Stiftskirche at Wittenberg [160 x 111], 
which was also used in the Wittenberg Heiligthumsbuch of 1509. According "to 



278 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Flechsig, the condition of the block in the latter shows that the use in the " Oratio " 
was earlier. Even here, however, the block already shows signs of wear. The 
oration is preceded by the well-known letter of Chr. Scheurl, " Ad Lucam Chronum 
Ducalem Saxonie pictorem ingeniosum celerem absolutumque." 

5. [SIBUTUS.] Friderici & Toannis Illustriss. Saxoniae principu 
torniamenta per Georg : Sibutu : Poe : & Ora : Lau : heroica celebritate 
decantata. J. Griinenberg, Wittenberg, 1511 ; 4 to (Pr. 11830). 

On the title-page, the arms of the Elector of Saxony, from the Wittenberg Heilig- 
thumsbuch ; on the last page, E 4 v., the portrait of the poet laureate, Sibutus, 
half-length, three-quarter face to r. [84 x 59], See Repertorium, xvii, 438, and 
p. 293. 

6. [LITURGIES.] Missale Pataviense. J. Winterburger, Vienna, 
13 May, 1512 ; fol. (Weale, 122 ; other references as for no. 1). 

On the back of the title-page, the St. Stephen, dated 1502. The Crucifixion 
Inserted in this copy is the woodcut by Traut, dated 1514, belonging to the edition 
of that year printed by Gutknecht at Nuremberg (see Vol. I, 508, 12). The initial T 
is neither by Cranach nor by Traut. 

7. [ADAM.] Eyn geystlich edles Buchleynn . von rechter vnder- 
scheyd vnd vorstand . . . Was Adams vii was gottis kind sey, etc. J. 
Griinenberg, Wittenberg, 4 Dec., 1515 ; 4 to (Pr. 11833). 

On the title-page, Christ crucified [111 x 76], Sch. 136, from " Ein ser andechtig 
Cristenlich Bucklel aus hailigc schriff ten vnd Lerern von Adam von Fulda in teutsch 
reymenn gesetzt," S. Reinhart, Wittenberg, 1512 (Weigel, Kunstcat., 20775; Bauch, 
Repertorium, xvii, 421 ; Flechsig, p. 65). 

8. [LUTHER.] Resolutiones disputationum de Indulgetiarum virtute 
(J. Grunenberg, Wittenberg, 1518), 4"> (Pr. 11845). 

On the title-page, Christ crucified, as in no. 7. 

9. [BODENSTEIN.] Epitome Andree Carolostadij De impij iustifi- 
catione. M. Lotter, Leipzig, 1519 ; 4 lu (Pr. 11380). 

On the title-page, the arms of the Elector of Saxony, as in no. 5. 

10. [LUTHER.] Eyn Sermon von der betrach- 1 tung der heyligen 
leydens ] Christi D. Martini Luther zu | Wittenberg. (J. Grunenberg) 
Wittenberg, 1519; 4 to (Pr. 11860). 

On the title-page, Christ on the Cross, between the Virgin and St. John 
[129 x 93], undescribed. Not very good, but it has so much of Cranach's own 
style in it that it can hardly, at this date, be the work of a pupil. It is perhaps 
earlier. The block is better printed in another edition of the same year, with 
" Betrach- 1 tung," and colophon on A 5 v., instead of A 6 (Royal Society's library). 
It occurs again in the edition of 1521 (4 leaves only, Griinenberg's name given in the 
colophon on A 4 v.). 

11. [LUTHER.] Von den guten | Wercken : | D.M. | L. (1 v., 1. 3 : 
" Doringen "). M. Lotter, jun., Wittenberg, 1520 ; 4 to (Pr. 11885). 

On recto of last leaf, Christ crucified, as in nos. 7 and 8. 






Division I). School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 279 

12. [LUTHER.] Same title, but " Duringe" (Pr. 11886). 
The same woodcut. In Pr. 11887 the last leaf is wanting. 

13. [MELANCHTHON.] Declamatiuncula in D. Pauli doctrinam. 
M. Letter, jun., Wittenberg, 1520; 4 to (Pr. 11899). 

On the title-page, the arms of the Elector of Saxony, as in nos. 5 and 9. 

14. [BODENSTELN.] Verba Dei, quanto candore, etc. M. Letter, 
jun., Wittenberg, 1520 ; 4 to (Pr. 11901). 

On G 3 v., the same cut as in nos. 5, 9 and 13. 

15. [LUTHER.] Eyn Sermon von der Betrachtung des heiligenn 
leydens Christi . D. Martini Luther tzu Wittenberg. (M. Lotter, jun.) 
Wittenberg, 1520; 4 to (Pr. 11902). 

On the title-page, Christ crucified, as in nos. 7, 8 and 11. 

16. [BIBLE.] Husz Postilla (by Luther, edited by Veit Dietrich). 
S. Seelfisch, Wittenberg, 1582; fol. 

Fol. 111-159, thirteen subjects (the Resurrection missing) from the Passion, 
B. 7-20. Heller mentions the use of these blocks in an earlier edition, printed by 
H. Krafft, 1570. Fol. 154, a copy (not Sch. 31) of the Crucifixion, Sch. 30, without 
the serpent, and with plain background [250 x 158]. 

17. [FRANTZE.] Historischer Erzelung Der Beyden Heiligthumen, 
nemblich eines, So in der Schloszkirchen zu Wittenberg im anfang der 
Reformation Herrn D. LUTHERI vorhanden gewesen. Das Ander, So zu 
Hall in Sachsen nach der angefangenen Reformation . . . vollkomment- 
licher gemacht worden . . . Zum Druck befordert, Durch Wolffgang 
Franzium. Paul Helwig, Wittenberg, 1618; 4 to - 

The first part is illustrated by seventeen of the original blocks made for the 
Wittenberg relic- book of 1509; six of the same blocks are used, with others not by 
Cranach, in the second part. 



WOODCUTS BY CRANACH. 
UNSIGNED WOODCUTS, ABOUT 1500-1502. 

The earliest group of woodcuts, attributed to Cranach only within the 
last ten years, 1 belongs to the Austrian period of his Wanderjahre. It 
consists of illustrations in liturgical books printed by Winterburger at 
Vienna, and of two large single woodcuts of Calvary, the only known 
impressions of which are at Berlin. The group is represented in this 
Department only by reproductions ; see also p. 277, nos. 1, 2. 

1 See Flechsig, 5 ft. ; Friedlander, Jahrbuch d. k. preuss. Kunstsammlungen, 
xxiii, 228 ; Dodgson, ibid, xxiv, 284 ; Dornhoffer, Jahrbuch d. k. k. Zentral- 
Kommission, II, 2, 1904, 181 ff. ; Beth, Bepertorium, xxx, 509 ff. ; Vogel, Monatshefte 
f. Kunstwissenschaft, ii, 545. 



280 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

t CHRIST ON THE CROSS, BETWEEN THE VIRGIN AND ST. JOHN. 

Nagl., Mon., iii, 580, 22. 

Collotype from the coloured impression in the Dresden Cabinet. Published in 
Jahrbuch d. k. preuss. Kunstsammlungen, xxiv, 286. 

The exact provenance of this woodcut has not been ascertained, but there can be 
no doubt that it is derived from the canon of a missal. The collection of K. Fried- 
rich August II at Dresden contains another impression on vellum. 1 The canon 
woodcut of the Missale Pataviense (J. Winterburger, Vienna, 25 May, 1503), repro- 
duced on p. 287 of the same volume, is closely allied to this in style, but rather more 
advanced. 

f ST. STEPHEN. 1502. 

Process reproduction from the impression in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna. Pub- 
lished, Jahrbuch, xxiv, 286. In the missal of 1503 the words " Sanctus Stephanus 
prothomartyr " are not printed, as here, beneath the woodcut. 

t CALVARY. 1502. P. iv, 40, 1. 

[360 x 260.] Photograph of the Berlin impression [405 x 292], made at the 
time of the Cranach exhibition at Dresden, 1899. 
Presented by Professor Max Lehrs. 

t CALVARY. P. iv, 40, 2. 

[360 x 257.] Photograph, as above [size of original, 398 x 284]. Reduced 
reproductions of both woodcuts are given by Flechsig ; the first only is given, on a 
larger scale, by Friedlander. P. 2 is evidently earlier than P. 1. Dornhoffer regards 
it as the second of the early group, following the canon woodcut at Dresden. 



SIGNED WOODCUTS. 

The woodcuts recognised as Cranach's work in the older catalogues of 
Bartsch, Heller, Schuchardt and Lippmann were all produced at Witten- 
berg after his appointment as court painter to the Elector Frederick the 
Wise in 1505. 2 It is probable that in the interval between his Vienna 
and Wittenberg periods he resided in Bavaria, but no woodcuts of 
this date are known. A painting of capital importance, the " Repose on 
the Flight to Egypt" at Berlin, belongs to the year 1504. 

The chronological order adopted for the woodcuts of Cranach's 
maturity agrees, except in a few cases, with that of Flechsig, whose more 
minute study of the subject has enabled him to correct, in many respects, 
the first chronological order established by Lippmann. 

1 This was attributed to Cranach by R. Weigel in 1857 (Kunstcatalog, no. 21489). 

2 The date 1504 has generally been accepted for this event, but see Dornhoffer, 
p. 105. Gunderam says " in 1504 after the Bavarian war." The Bavarian war, 
however, lasted till April 1505, and it was on 14 April, 1505, that Cranach received 
his first payment from the Saxon court. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach 1. 281 

i. WOODCUTS SIGNED WITH THE MONOGRAM ^{,1505-1506. Nos. 1-6. 
t LANDSKNECHT. B. vii, 292, 120 ; H. 210, 257 (407) ; Sch. ii, 276, 119 ; L. 31. 

+ LADY HOLDING PANSIES. B. 121 ; H. 258 (408) ; Sch. 120 ; L. 81. 

Reproduction. 

Presented by Dr. Lippmann, 1902. 

The two woodcuts form a pair. In the Albertina, Berlin and Dresden collections 
the originals are printed side by side on one sheet, in the Hofbibliothek they have 
been separated. Flechsig, p. 15, dates them before Cranach's appointment as 
painter to the Saxon court, because the arms are omitted. 

1. FOUR SAINTS ADORING CHRIST CRUCIFIED UPON THE SACRED 
HEART. 1505. 

B. vii, 287, 76 ; H. 171, 98 (245) ; Sch. ii, 233, 95 ; N. 82 ; L. 1. 

Second state. 

Upon a shield supported by four flying angels is displayed a heart, 
surmounted by flames confined within a crown. Upon the heart is a 
crucifix ; an empty scroll passes in front of the stem of the cross ; 
descending flames form a pattern upon the r. (sinister) side only of the 
heart. Beneath the shield is a landscape, containing a view of a castle 
surrounded by a deer park. In the foreground are two pairs of kneeling 
saints, the Blessed Virgin and St. John in the middle, St. Sebastian and 
St. Roch behind them. The date 1505 is placed, within the monogram, 
beneath St. John, and the two coats of arms of Saxony occupy the lower 
corners, the electoral L, the ducal r. 

[380 x 284.] Good impression, without margin ; defects in the border-line 
disguised ; the crack across the heart is not conspicuous. No watermark. 

Collections : Firmin-Didot (F. 393), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The two Saxon shields denoting Cranach's official appointment here make their 
first appearance. The electoral shield with the two crossed swords has the earlier 
form, in which the lower half of the field is sable, the upper argent. This arrange- 
ment was reversed in the year 1507 or 1508, * and thereupon an alteration was made 
upon the block of many of Cranach's woodcuts ; in this case, however, the original 
shield remains unaltered, even in late impressions. 

In the first state the scroll bears the inscription VIRGO MATER MARIA. Only 
two impressions are known, both in the collection of K. Frederick Augustus II a't 
Dresden (Flechsig, p. 23). Late impressions of the second state in the Dresden 
Cabinet and the Liechtenstein collection have the names, S. SEBASTIANVS . S. 
MARIA . S. IOHANNES . S. ROCHVS., printed on the lower margin. 

la. FOUR SAINTS ADORING CHRIST CRUCIFIED UPON THE SACRED 
HEART. B. 76 ; H. 98 (245) ; Sch. 95 ; N. 82 ; L. 1. 

Second state ; another impression. 

[375 x 276.] Good impression, but slightly cut on all sides; false border-line. 
Watermark, a very small high crown. 

Collection : Maberly (F. 363) ; sale 1851, lot 118. 
Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1852. 

1 Flechsig, p. 22. No official decree ordaining the alteration has yet been found. 



282 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

2. ST. GEORGE, 'STANDING. 1506. 

B. vii, 285, 67 ; H. 165, 83 (224) ; Sch. ii, 223, 76 ; N. 68 ; L. 5. 

Second state. 

Three-quarter face to 1., in armour, but bareheaded, with very large 
ornamental nimbus. His r. hand grasps a banner, the 1. rests on the 
hilt of a sword. Two angels stand beside him, one of whom holds his 
helmet, the other a portion of his armour. The dragon lies at his feet. 
In the background the princess kneels, with a lamb beside her, while St. 
George binds the defeated dragon with a rope ; in another place the 
princess is seen again, leading the dragon away. The monogram and date 
are on a stone, r., the two Saxon shields in the sky ; the electoral shield 
has already been altered to the new form. 

[375 x 273.] Good impression, but the paper much discoloured ; no margin. 
Watermark, high crown. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

The first state, with the old form of the electoral shield, occurs at Munich. 
Flechsig observes (p. 18) that the crown of rue on the otber shield is drawn here, as 
in no. 1 (B. 76), with three leaves only, whereas Cranach on all later woodcuts draws 
it witb five ; for tbis reason be gives the present woodcut precedence among those 
dated 1506. Tbe second state is reproduced by Lippmann. 

2a. ST. GEORGE, STANDING. 1506. 

B. 67 ; H. 83 (224) ; Sch. 76 ; N. 68 ; L. 5. 
Third state. 
The upper half of the corrected shield has been lost from the block. 

[378 x 278.] Clean and well-preserved impression, without margin. Watermark, 
arms of Basle. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

3. THE STAG HUNT. 

B. vii, 292, 119 ; H. 213, 266 (416) ; Sch. ii, 281, 128 ; N. 107 ; L. 14, 

Second state. 

Three stags, in different parts of the deer forest, have taken to the 
water, in which they are pursued by swimming hounds, while sportsmen 
aim at them with crossbows. A fourth stag 1. stands at bay, and is just 
receiving the coup de grace from the sword of a mounted huntsman. In 
the background 1. is seen a castle, near it a church. The two Saxon 
shields are in the sky, the electoral shield already altered ; the monogram, 
without date, is on the ground, near the middle. 

[379 x 513.] Fair impression, but uneven, the 1. sheet being paler than tbe other. 
Watermark, ox's bead with flower over it. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

The first state is in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna (Flechsig, p. 18, 20). According to 
Weigel (Kunstcat. no. 19100, 50) tbe castle is that of Freyburg, near Naumburg. 

4. THE TEMPTATION OF ST. ANTONY. 1506. 

B. vii, 282, 56 ; H. 163, 77 (218) ; Sch. ii, 219, 70 ; N. 62 ; L. 2. 

The Saint is suspended in the air, while his hair, beard, limbs and 
raiment are plucked by demons. There is a landscape below, and the 
hermit's cave is seen near a tree, to the branches of which the two shields 
(the electoral shield already altered) are attached by straps. The mono- 
gram and date are in the 1. lower corner. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 283 

[400 x 268.] Fair impression, but cut somewhat close. Watermark, high crown 
of the same type as in no. 2. 

Collections : Fiissli (F. 196), Mitchell. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
The first state is at Basle. 

6. THE ECSTASY OF ST. MARY MAGDALEN. 1506. 

B. vii, 286, 72 ; H. 169, 94 (237) ; Sch. ii, 231, 88 ; N. 79 ; L. 7. 

Third state. 

The Saint, in a state of nudity, is carried into the air by seven angels ; 
her hands are folded in prayer. The monogram and date are on a stone 
r., the two shields in the air. The electoral shield had been altered in the 
second state to the new form ; here, in the third, the upper part is 
broken off. 

[243 x 145.] Late impression, well preserved. Watermark, vase containing 
flowers. 

Purchased 1834. 

The first state is in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna ; the second is reproduced by 
Lippmann. On the subject see Vol. I., p. 285. 

6. ST. MICHAEL. 1506. 

B. vii, 286, 75 ; H. 167, 89 (230) ; Sch. ii, 228, 82 ; N. 74 ; L. 3. 

Second state. 

The Archangel stands, holding in his 1. hand a pair of scales. The 1. 
scale, containing a human soul, sinks to the ground, in spite of a group of 
devils who make frantic efforts to depress the other scale. Michael 
threatens the demons with a sword. The electoral shield, already altered, 
is in the 1. upper corner ; the ducal shield in the corresponding position r. 
The monogram and date are on the ground 1. 

[245 x 143.] Good impression, no watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

Impressions of the first state are at Berlin, Dresden (Coll. of K. Fred. Aug. II) 
and Stuttgart (Flechsig, p. 20). 



ii. WOODCUTS SIGNED WITH THE INITIALS, 1506-1508. Nos. 7-16. 

7. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ERASMUS. 1506. 

B. vii, 283, 59 ; H. 164, 80 (221) ; Sch. ii, 222, 73 ; N. 65 ; L. 4. 

First state. 

The Saint, lying on the ground, is being disembowelled by two 
executioners who use a winch. The mitre near his head betokens his 
rank. Four mounted spectators and three bystanders are present. In the 
distance is a castle which has been identified with the fortress of Coburg. 1 
The two shields are suspended by straps from the branches of a tree. 
Cranach's initials are on the ground r., the date 1506 is beneath the 1. 
hand of Erasmus. 

[228 x 156.] Good impression, no watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Another impression of the first state is in the Albertina. 

1 First, as it seems, by Dr. K. Koetschau. See B. Ebhardt, " Deutsche Burgen," 
Berlin, 1900, Heft 3, p. 137 ; G. Voss, " Bau-und Kunstdenkmaler Thiiringens," Jena, 
1907, Heft 31, p. 485. The picture by Cranach at Dresden, no. 190b B, is said to 
show the same fortress. 



284 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

7a. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ERASMUS. 

B. 59 ; H. 80 (221) ; Sch. 73 ; N. 65 ; L. 4. 

Second state. 

The original electoral shield has been replaced by a new one of simpler 
outline, and with the sable field uppermost. 

[224 x 158.] Late impression, no watermark. 
Purchased, 1834. 

8. A TOURNAMENT. 1506. 

B. vii, 293, 124 ; H. 213, 267 (417) ; Sch. ii, 282, 129 ; N. 108 : L. 10. 

Second state. 

The lists, strewn with straw, are set up in the square of a town. 
They are thronged with combatants, and numerous spectators lounge or 
gossip along the rails. The band may be seen at the 1. end. Ladies and 
gentl men of the Court watch the scene from a balcony in the middle, 
which is decorated with two shields ; the electoral arms are in the later 
form. Cranach's initials and the date are over the door of an adjacent 
house. 

[257 x 372.] Good impression. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

An impression of the first state is at Dresden. According to Nagler this tourna- 
ment was held at Dresden. 

9. A BOY ON HORSEBACK. 1506. 

B. vii, 292, 116 ; H. 211, 261 (411) ; Sch. ii, 278, 123 ; N. 102 ; L. 11. 

Second state. 

The lad, probably a young Saxon Prince, rides a pony ; his r. hand is 
raised. A castle in the background. The two shields the electoral 
arms altered to the later form hang on a tree. The date 1506 is near 
the pony's head, the artist's initials are placed near its foot. 

[182 x 125.] Not an early impression, but well preserved. No watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 
The first state is at Budapest. 

9a, A BOY ON HORSEBACK. B. 116 ; H. 261 (411) ; Sch. 123 ; N. 102 ; L. 11. 
Second state. 

[180 x 125.] An earlier impression, but slightly cut. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

10. A GENTLEMAN AND LADY RIDING TO THE CHASE. 1506. 

B. vii, 292, 117 ; H. 211, 264 (414) ; Sch. ii, 280, 127 ; N. 103 ; L 12. 

Second state. 

Both ride on one horse towards the right ; the gentleman leads a pair 
of hounds in the leash. The two shields the first already altered are 
in the sky ; the initials on the ground in front of the horse, the date in 
the r. lower corner. 

[172 x 123.] Fair impression, but the corners have been restored and the date is 
wanting ; the border-line is false. 

Purchased from Messrs. Evans, 1864. 

An impression of the first state is at Dresden. Nagler describes impressions of 
the second state printed within a border and with verses signed C.M.O. 



Division D, School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 285 

lOa. A GENTLEMAN AND LADY BIDING TO THE CHASE. 

B. 117 ; H. 264 (414) ; Sch. 127 ; L. 12. 

Third state. 

The electoral shield has been removed from the block ; the ducal shield 
remains. 

[175 x 125.] Fair impression, no watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

11. A KNIGHT IN ARMOUR RIDING TOWARDS THE RIGHT. 

P. iv, 12, 169 ; Sch. ii, 279, 126 ; N. 105 ; L. 13. 

Second state. 

He has the letters KLVE on a band round his r. arm. The two 
shields the first already altered hang on a tree ; the date 1506 is in the 
1., the initials in the r. lower corner. 

[174 x 118.] Early impression, but rather pale. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

No impression of the first state is known, but Flechsig is clearly right in describing 
this as the second. 

lla. A KNIGHT IN ARMOUR RIDING TOWARDS THE RIGHT. 

P. 169 ; Sch. 126 ; N. 105 ; L. 13. 
Second state. 

[166 X 118.] Another impression, somewhat damaged and cut close. 
Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1856. 

12. A BOAR HUNT. 

B. vii, 292, 118 ; H. 211, 262 (412) ; Sch. ii, 278, 124 ; N. 103 ; L. 17. 

Second state. 

The huntsman, riding to the r. through a wood, thrusts his sword into 
the neck of a boar which is attacked at the same moment by two hounds. 
The initials, without date, are near the front hound. The shields the 
first already altered are suspended from two different trees. 

[180 x 124.] Good impression, no watermark. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1856. 

An impression of the first state is at Dresden. Flechsig has pointed out (p. 19) 
that a fragment of the original electoral shield is still visible in the second state, on 
the trunk of the tree to 1. of the ducal shield. The date of this woodcut is deter- 
mined as 1506 or 1507 by the occurrence of the initials L C and (in the first state) of 
the electoral shield in its early form. 

12a. A BOAR HUNT. B. 118 ; H. 262 (412) ; Sch. 124 ; N. 103 ; L. 17. 

Second state. 

[180 x 125.] Another good impression, but less evenly printed. 
Collections : Drugulin (F. 535), Mitchell. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

13. MARCUS CURTIUS. 

B. vii, 291, 112; H. 207, 254 (403); Sch. ii, 271, 116; N. 96; L. 18. 

In the foreground Marcus Curtius, armed and mounted, is plunging 
into the chasm. On a raised platform just beyond stands a little temple 
open at the back to the country, with a domed roof resting on four 
columns. The architrave is decorated with medallions representing the 
labours of Hercules ; other medallions, in the spandrils of the foremost 



286 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

arch, contain busts in profile ; a burning lamp is suspended from the 
middle. On the platform 1. are a mounted warrior and three Romans, 
almost nude, whose gestures express amazement and dismay at the action 
of Curtius. To r. stand four other Romans, one of whom carries a 
banner with an eagle. Another man stands apart, on a lower level, 
nearer to the scene of action. There is a landscape background. Wild 
duck in large numbers fly across the sky. Cranach's initials are near the 
1. lower corner. The two shields the electoral shield in the old form 
are on the front of the pavilion. 

[335 x 235.] Good impression. Watermark, a jug. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

This woodcut is dated by Flechsig (p. 23), 1506 or 1507, being signed L C, while 
the electoral arms (in all impressions) are in the old form. 

The entire composition, apart from its landscape setting and the detached figure 
on the right, is copied in reverse, as Lippmann first observed, 1 from an Italian 
plaquette attributed to Giovanni delle Opere, or delle Corniole, z an example of which 
is in the mediaeval department of the British Museum. The date given to the Italian 
artist by Molinier is c. 1470-1516. The plaquette is undoubtedly earlier than the 
Cranach woodcut, not copied from it. The Renaissance architecture is remarkable 
in a German woodcut so early as 1507, and the whole composition, in its strict 
symmetry, has a foreign effect, which is fully explained by its direct derivation from 
an Italian source. The landscape, on the other hand, is entirely original and in 
Cranach's usual manner. The detached figure on the right is probably taken from 
some other Italian work. The two Saxon shields are awkwardly interpolated, to the 
detriment of the architecture ; the perspective of the building is not so good as in 
the plaquette, and inverted capitals are made to serve as bases. 

14. ST. GEORGE. B. vii, 284, 65 ; H. 165, 82 (223) ; Sch. ii, 223, 75 ; N. 67 ; L. 20. 

First state, with a second outline block, printed in gold. 

The Saint rides to r., lance in hand. The dead dragon lies on its 
back just beyond the horse's feet. In the background, r., is a castle on a 
cliff; to 1. is a tree, from which hang the two shields, the electoral coat- 
of-arms being still in its original condition. 

The paper is tinted (with the brush) a dull blue, varying in depth ; 
the darkest part is the sky, on which the colour is not evenly laid but 
lies in horizontal washes. On the paper so prepared has been printed, in 
addition to the outline block in black, a second outline block in gold, by 
which high lights are added on the sky (in horizontal streaks harmonizing 
with the washes of colour on the paper), on the armour, plumes and lance 
of St. George, on the neck, legs and trappings of his horse, the trunk of 
the tree, the neck, breast and wing of the dragon, and the grass in the 
foreground. The gold represents sunlight falling from the right. The 
second outline block contains, finally, the artist's initials, which stand 
between the horse's hoof and the dragon's head. This second block is 
printed a little out of register, as appears most plainly by the outlines of 
the two shields. 

[234 x 160.] Fino impression, without margin, on thick paper, white at the 
back, without watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. Mr. Mitchell obtained this proof from the 

1 " Lucas Cranach," 1895, p. 2. 

* Molinier, " Les Plaquettes," 1886, i, 94, no. 139 ; repr. by Lippmann and in the 
Berlin catalogue, " Beschreibung der Bildwerke der Christlichen Epochen," 2" Aufl.. 
ii, Taf. Ivii, no. 958, here ascribed to a later artist, Gian Francesco di Boggio. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 287 

late Dr. Lippmann while ho was still at Vienna ; Lippmann had bought it from 
Artaria. 

From certain portions of the hills in the background the blue surface has been 
scraped off, leaving the paper white and rough. This abrasion is most marked on 
the front of the cliff above the horse's mane, where the paper is almost pierced ; 
it is slighter, but still conspicuous, on the side of the distant hill between 
St. George's plumes and the tree, and it is very slight indeed on the cliff between 
St. George's breastplate and his lance. It may be disputed whether these abrasions 
are due to accidental damage to the proof, or were deliberately made by Cranach 
himself, or another, with the artistic intention of adding still further to the high 
lights already introduced by the printing in gold. One would like to accept the 
latter hypothesis, and it is undeniable that these white lights occur in the right 
places and have a happy effect, except in the first place mentioned, on the front of 
the cliff, where the white patch is too conspicuous, and the frayed surface excites 
pity rather than admiration. 

This proof, as I have already pointed out in this Catalogue, 1 marks a stage of 
extreme importance in the history of colour-printing from wood-blocks. The earliest 
experiment, that of colouring the paper and then printing on it in black only, had 
been made by Mair von Landshut. 2 There is direct evidence, in Peutinger's letters 
to the Elector Frederick and Duke George of Saxony, of 24 and 25 September, 1508, 
respectively, that the next invention, that of printing in gold or silver from a second 
outline block, was made by Cranach himself in the year 1507, and the description 
can only apply to this very " St. George," to which that date is in every respect 
suitable. The only other impression of the first state existing, at Dresden, 3 is in a 
less finished condition than ours, and consequently also of great interest as an 
illustration of the technique employed. The paper was prepared with a sticky, 
white material, in exactly the places to which the impression of the second block 
with the gold (gold dust, not leaf gold) was to be applied. I have already vindicated 
the genuineness of our impression against the doubts cast upon its early date by 
Flechsig in consequence of the utterly misleading " facsimile" by which it has the 
misfortune to be known. That writer's account of Cranach's early experiment in 
colour-printing is admirable in all other respects. The next step, as taken at 
Augsburg by Jost de Negker, has already been described in the section on Burgkmair 
in this volume. 

14a. ST. GEORGE. B. 65 ; H. 82 (223) ; Sch. 75 ; N. 67 ; L. 19. 

Second state. 

[232 x 158.] Fine early impression from the black block alone, after the alteration 
in the electoral shield. No watermark. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

14 b. ST. GEORGE. B. 65 ; H. 82 (223) ; Sch. 75 ; N. 67 ; L. 19. 

Second state. 

f232 x 164.] A later impression, printed in a slightly brownish ink. Water- 
mark, an eagle. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

15. THE BEHEADING OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 

B. vii, 283, 61 ; H. 166, 86 (227) ; Sch. ii, 226, 79 ; N. 71 ; L. 53. 

The Baptist kneels in the foreground, in profile to r., his wrists bound 
with a cord. A landskuecht, standing behind him, draws his sword from 
its sheath with his r. hand, while he holds St. John's chin in his 1. hand. 

1 Vol. I, p. 255, where all necessary references to Herberger, Lippmann and 
Cranach are already given. 

2 Vol. I, p. 148. 

3 Schuchardt, iii, 225. 



288 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Salome stands r., with a dish under her r. arm, attended by her mother 
Herodias and three ladies of the court. Cranach's initials are seen upon 
a wall in the background, at the top of which is a balcony in which a 
number of men, of grotesque features and wearing a variety of fantastic 
head-dresses, are assembled to witness the execution. The summit of the 
wall, immediately beneath this balcony, is adorned with a frieze of 
winged children disporting themselves amongst foliage or flying through 
hoops. 

[401 x 277.] Fine impression, but damaged in one place ; the faces of Salome 
and the woman just to 1. of her have been restored in facsimile. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

This woodcut is rather difficult to date, and looks strange at whatever stage of 
Cranach's development it is placed. Lippmann puts it about 1516, and attributes 
the Netherlandish elements in it to an acquaintanceship with the engravings of 
Lucas van Leyden. I follow Flechsig in dating it much earlier, in consequence of 
the signature with initials only. Flechsig's hypothesis (p. 16) that the block was 
designed and cut in the Netherlands during Cranach's residence in that country in 
the summer and autumn of 1508 is ingenious and attractive. In the design itself, 
however, and the feminine costumes, there are no such direct traces of acquaintance 
with the Italianizing art of Antwerp (Mabuse) as in the picture of 1509 now at 
Frankfort on the Main. 1 

16. THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. 1508. 

B. vii, 291, 114 ; H. 209, 256 (405) ; Sch. ii, 273, 118 ; N. 98 ; L. 21. 

Paris, reclining 1. beneath a tree near a little waterfall, is roused from 
sleep by Mercury, who taps him on the breastplate with his wand. On 
Mercury's helmet is a cock ; his 1. knee is winged. In his 1. hand he 
holds the hand of Venus, who bends towards Paris ; Juno stands erect, 
holding a veil in her r. hand ; Pallas, with her back turned to the 
spectator, holds in both hands the ends of her drapery. The horse of 
Paris stands 1., a dog lies at his feet. Above the dog is the apple of 
contention ; beneath it, Cranach's initials and the date 1508. Landscape 
background. The two Saxon shields hang from a bough, the electoral 
shield being, as in all impressions of this woodcut, in the later form. 

[363 x 252.] Fine impression. Watermark, ox's head, Ha. 1. 

Purchased 1834. 

This is the earliest woodcut by Cranach in which the electoral shield from the 
first has the new tinctures. 

In the opinion of Passavant 2 and Schuchardt, 1 the suggestion of Rathgeber 4 has 
to be adopted, that this subject, as treated several times by Cranach, represented not 
the Judgment of Paris, but an English legend of Alfred, King of Mercia, and the 
three daughters of the knight of Albonack. This opinion, combated by Kugler, 4 has 
now been almost universally abandoned, and I have no desire to revive the contro- 
versy. Schuchardt'a arguments in support of his opinion are feeble, and no one has 
been able to produce an authenticated representation of the Albonack legend earlier 
than a picture by Benjamin West. I would merely observe that the three daughters 
of the knight of Albonack, in the story told by Leland, are presented to Alfred not 

1 Cf. Rieffel in Zeitschrift filr bildende Kunst, 1906, N.F. xvii, 270. 

2 iv, 7, 114. 

3 iii, 48. 

4 " Beschreibung der herzogl. Gemaldegalerie zu Gotha," 1835, 179. Krause 
quotes a much earlier description of a Cranach picture under the new title in a sale 
catalogue of 1812. 

4 Deutsches Kunstblatt, 1852, 60. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 289 

by their father alone, but by their father, mother, and brother, and in the interior of 
a castle. The two latter persons are wanting in every representation of the subject 
in German art. The apple, again, cannot be explained on Schuchardt's hypothesis. 

More recently Molinier * has given the title " Legende du roi de Mercie " to four 
plaquettes which he describes under the numbers 710 to 713. There is no old 
authority for such an interpretation, and they may equally with the woodcuts be 
explained as the Judgment of Paris. If the costume of Mercury is utterly different 
from that adopted by Cranach, it agrees, on the other hand, perfectly well with that 
on the engraving by the Master of the Banderoles (Lehrs, pi. 3), which is identified 
by the inscription as a Judgment of Paris. 

In the Italian plaquettes Paris is confronted by the three goddesses alone, and 
the god of love flies over them. The introduction of Mercury into the scene is 
peculiar to German art, and the literary source from which it is derived has hitherto 
been obscure. Ernst Krause has pointed out 2 that Dares Phrygius, through whom 
the story of Troy was chiefly known in the Middle Ages, represents the strife of the 
three goddesses as a dream of Paris, and that Mercury is depicted with the wand 
with which he summons dreams. The metamorphosis of the youthful messenger of 
the gods into a bearded man of venerable aspect is explained by Krause as a 
transference of ideas from Wotan, the chief divinity of Teutonic mythology, who had 
already been identified by classical writers, such as Caesar and Tacitus, with Mercury. 
The customary introduction of a white horse, which belongs to Wotan, confirms this 
interpretation. Krause seems, however, to be wrong in explaining the round object 
held by this divinity as the orb of sovereignty instead of the apple of discord. 

As regards the actual print now in question, there is direct evidence in a woodcut 
at Oxford, dated 1511, that Cranach's composition was understood by contemporaries 
in his own country as a Judgment of Paris. In the Douce collection of woodcuts in 

the Bodleian (vol. viii, 133) is a reversed copy, by the artist with the monogram 

of the lower part of Cranach's composition, omitting the landscape background 
and the upper part of the trees [230 x 330]. On a scroll at the top is the title 
IVDICIVM HARIDIS, and the characters (from 1. to r.) are identified by other 
scrolls as PALLAS, IVNO, VENVS, MERCVRIVS, PARIS. The apple is en- 
titled POMV COTE NCI OIS. Instead of Cranach's initials we see the copyist's 
monogram in the midst of the date 1511. He was working at that period at Leipzig, 
whence he afterwards removed to Augsburg. 



iii, ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE YEARS 1508-1512. Nos. 17-53. 

17. CHEIST ON THE CROSS, BETWEEN THE VIRGIN AND ST. JOHN. 

H. 132, 21 (60) ; Sch. ii, 207, 30 ; N. 24. 

Christ hangs on the cross, his head slightly inclined to 1. The 
inscription INRl upon the board above his head is in reverse. The Virgin 
stands 1. with her hands folded, St. John r. with his hands clasped. The 
serpent, drawn in solid black, is on the ground in front, at a distance of 
16 mm. beneath St. John's r. foot. 

[268 x 169.] Early, sharp impression on paper without watermark, slightly 
discoloured. 

Purchased at the sale of the W. L. Schreiber collection, Vienna, 3-4 March, 1909 
(no. 203). Repr. Schreiber catalogue, pi. 30. 

On the occurrence of this woodcut before the canon in missals of 1508, 1516 and 
1522, see p. 277 (no. 3). This impression, being on paper, is probably derived from 
the Brandenburg missal of 1516. 

1 " Les Plaquettes," 1886, ii, 176. 

* " Mercurius, der Schriftgott, in Deutschland." Zeitschr. f. Biicherfreunde, 
1904, vii, 480 fl . 



290 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

17a. CHRIST ON THE CROSS, BETWEEN THE VIRGIN AND ST. JOHN. 

B. vii, 281, 21 ; Sch. ii, 207, 31. 

Copy. 

The same composition, but the letters INRI are placed in the. right 
order. The serpent is between St. John's 1. foot and the border of the 
woodcut. 

[264 x 172.] Good impression, without watermark. 
Purchased at the Lanna sale, Stuttgart, May 1909 (no. 1279). 



[18-46.] 

WOODCUTS FROM THE WITTENBERG HEILIGTHUMSBUCH. 1509. 
Sch. ii, 255, 107. 

The presence of the electoral shield in its original form on a number 
of these woodcuts here on nos. 21 and 2427 proves that the work was 
in course of preparation before 1508. Flechsig (p. 63) has rightly 
vindicated their authenticity as works of Cranach himself in the fullest 
sense. The woodcuts purport to represent reliquaries and other treasures 
preserved in the Stiftskirche at Wittenberg, but it is obvious that 
Cranach made no attempt at a realistic representation of the actual 
objects. The designs for the reliquaries preserved in the Staats-Archiv 
at Weimar give, probably, a more accurate representation of the metal 
vessels than Cranach's woodcuts. 1 

The Heiligthumsbuch itself is not in the Museum. It has been well 
reproduced as no. 6 of Hirth's Liebhaber-Bibliothek alter Illustratoren, 
1884. The woodcuts represented are described here as they are mounted 
for decorative effect, and not in the original order of the book. Many of 
them were reprinted in various editions of the Hortulus Animse printed 
by Rhaw. 

18. THE RISEN CHRIST (Gang viii, 11). 

B. vii, 290, 97 ; H. 104 (252) ; Sch. 107 (116). 

10. BUST OF ST. SIGISMUND (Gang v, 10). H. 142 (290) ; Sch. 107 (71). 

20. CHRIST ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES (Gang vii, 10). 

Sch. 107 (103) ; see also Sch. iii, 239, 115a. 

21. FOUR ANGELS KNEELING (Gang iv, 13). Sch. 107 (59). 

These, in the book, support a lectern decorated with the symbols of the evange- 
lists. This impression is cut to the size, 37 X 95. 

22. AN ANGEL PLAYING THE HARP (Gang viii, 9). 

H. 137 (285) ; Sch. 107 (114). 

23. ST. ANDREW (Gang vi, 12). B. 100; H. 106 (254) ; Sch. 107 (89). 

1 A small selection of these drawings is published in R. Bruck's " Friedrich der 
Weise als Forderer der Kunst," Taf. 37-40. The Heiligthumsbuch itself is discussed 
in the text, p. 208 ff. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach 1. 291 

24. ST. PETER (Gang vi, 16). B. 93; H. 140 (288); Sch. 107 (93). 

Over this impression is printed "S. Petrus"; there is text on the back. The 
block was subsequently used as a book-plate by the town of Oehringen (Warnecke 
1518). An impression is in the Pranks collection with " Stadt Orngaw " printed over 
the woodcut ; the watermark is a very small high crown. 

25. ST. BARTHOLOMEW (Gang vi, 11). B. 104; H. 107 (255) ; Sch. 107 (87). 

26. ST. PAUL (Gang vi, 14). H. 117 (265) ; Sch. 107 (91). 

27. ST. PAUL (Gang vi, 13). B. 92 ; H. 141 (289) ; Sch. 107 (90). 

This woodcut, like no. 24, was used at Oehringen as a book-plate. In the 
Franks collection, " Predicatur zu Oringen," is printed over the woodcut ; same 
watermark. 

28. ST. PETER (Gang vi, 15). B. 99; H. 105 (253) ; Sch. 107 (92). 

29. ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST (Gang vii, 2). B. 98; H. 118 (266) ; Sch. 107 (95). 

30. THE VIRGIN OFFERING A BUNCH OF GRAPES TO THE CHILD 

(Gang vii, 5). B. 86 ; H. 129 (277) ; Sch. 107 (98). 

31. THE INFANT CHRIST (Gang vii, 6). B. 90; H. 103 (251) ; Sch. 107 (99). 

In the Dresden Cabinet is a later state of this subject, in which the block has 
been cut short just above the eyes of the owl, and a new border-line has been put on ; 
the height is reduced from 130 to 115 mm. See Nagler, Mon., iv, p. 309, 95b, 28. 

32. ST. MATTHEW (Gang vi, 2). B. 110; H. 112 (260) ; Sch. 107 (78). 

33. ST. MATTHIAS (Gang vi, 3). B. 106; H. 113 (261); Sch. 107 (79). 

34. ST. SIMON (Gang vi, 4). B. 108; H. 115 (263) ; Sch. 107 (80). 

35. ST. JUDE (Gang vi, 5). B. 109; H. Ill (259) ; Sch. 107 (81), 

36. ST. THOMAS (Gang vi, 6). B. 105 ; H. 116 (264) ; Sch. 107 (82). 

37. ST. JAMES THE LESS (Gang vi, 7). B. 107 ; H. 109 (257) ; Sch. 107 (83). 

38. ST. PHILIP (Gang vi, 8). B. 103; H. 114 (262); Sch. 107 (84). 

39. ST. JAMES THE GREATER (Gang vi, 9). 

B. 101 ; H. 108 (256) ; Sch. 107 (85). 

40. ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST (Gang vi, 10). 

B. 102; H. 110 (258) ; Sch. 107 (86). 

41. A RELIQUARY WITH THE STEM OF JESSE (Gang vii, 9). 

B. 85 ; H. 161 (309) ; Sch. 107 (102). 

42. A CROSS : UPON IT THE VIRGIN AND CHILD (Gang iii, 10). 

H. 167 (315) ; Sch. 107 (41). 

43. A RELIQUARY WITH THE FALL OF MAN (Gang viii, 2). 

B. 94 ; H. 157 (305) ; Sch. 107 (107). 

44. A RELIQUARY WITH CALVARY (Gang iii, 14). 

B. 82 ; H. 158 (306) ; Sch. 107 (45). 
U 2 



292 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

45. A CRUCIFIX (Gang vii, 8). B. 80; H. 164 (312); Sch. 107 (101). 

A late impression. Above the woodcut is printed I N R I , below it A D I M AG I N EM 
FILII DEI CKVCIFIXI VITVS VVINSHEMIVS D., then two poems, one of six, the 
other (ALIVD) of four Latin elegiacs. Heller (p. 183) describes this edition. The 
page with the woodcut forms part of an invitation to the funeral of Jeremias Schutz, 
of Nuremberg, who died 30 January, 1556. The verses are by Nicolaus Selnecker. 
A complete copy is at Bamberg. 

46. A RELIQUARY WITH THE LAMENTATION FOR CHRIST (Gang viii, 1). 

B. 84; H. 160 (308) ; Sch. 107 (106). 

All the above, except nos. 24, 42 and 45, are from an edition of the Hortulus 
Aniiinc, and are in the inventory of 1837. No. 24, also from a Hortulus, was pur- 
chased from Mr. Bihn, 1875, no. 45 from Mr. Cohu, 1880 ; the provenance of no. 42 
is not recorded. 



[47-53.] 
ILLUSTRATIONS, CHIEFLY FROM THE HORTULUS 

These, though not actually used in the Wittenberg Heiligthumsbuch, 
appear with the exception of nos. 47 and 51 to have been produced at the 
same time, and they are most conveniently described in this place. 
Except nos. 47, 50 and 53, these woodcuts are not known to have been 
printed earlier than in Rhaw's Wittenberg edition of the Hortulus 
Animw, 1547 (48). 1 

47. THE ANNUNCIATION. B. 89. 

The Virgin kneels r., with folded hands, at a desk. Gabriel stands 
near her 1., with wings raised. At the back is a column under a round 
arch. [112 x 72 (cut)]. 

This woodcut was first used in " Ein ser andechtig Cristenlich Buchlei aus 
hailigc schrifften vnd Lerern von Adam von Fulda in teutsch reymenn gesetzt," S. 
Reinbart, Wittenberg, 1512, of which only two copies are known, at Berlin and 
Hamburg (sec Bauch, Repertorium, xvii, 421 ; Flechsig, p. 65). Our impression is 
from the Hortulus Animae. 

48. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD, STANDING. 

B. 87 ; H. 224 (375) ; Sch. Ill ; Flechsig, p. 64. 

49. THE INFANT CHRIST (on the verso of no. 48). Sch. 112. 

50. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD, SEATED. 

B. 88 ; H. 223 (374) ; Sch. 113 ; Flechsig, p. 64. 

This woodcut was first used in " Elegidion Guolfi Cyclopii Cycnaei. . . . De 
immaculata Conceptione, etc.," J. Griinenberg, Wittenberg, Sept. 1511 (Heller, p. 
192). 

61. ST. BERNARD ADORING THE MAN OF SORROWS. 

B. 57 ; H. 78 (219) ; Sch. 71 and 114 ; N. 63. 

62. THE HOLY TRINITY. B. 81 ; H. 220 (370) ; Sch. 108 ; Flechsig, p. 64. 

1 On this, see Heller, pp. 194, 205 ; Schuchardt, ii, 220. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 293 

53. THE HOLY TRINITY. 

God the Father, seated, supports with both hands the transverse 
beam of the cross to which the Son is nailed ; the Dove sits r. upon the 
beam. In the four corners cherubs emerge from clouds. 

[112 x 76.] Late impression, the border-line broken in several places. On the 
back is part of the text of " Veni Creator " (Laua quod est sordidum | Flecte quod 
est rigidum, etc.), printed in large type and accompanied by the music. 

Purchased at the Lanna sale, 1909 (no. 374). 

Originally used in the work by Adam von Fulda mentioned under no. 47 
(Repertorium, xvii, 422, 1). 



iv. SINGLE WOODCUTS OF THE YEAR 1509. THE PASSION. Nos. 54-76. 

[54-56.] 
TOUKNAMENTS. 

These three woodcuts commemorate the festivities held at Wittenberg 
on 15 and 16 November 1508, and described by Sibutus in his Latin 
poem published in 151 1. 1 Cranach, who returned that autumn from a 
mission to the Netherlands, must have been present at the tournaments, 
and have made sketches which he did not work up into their definitive 
form till the following year. For an account of the tournaments see G. 
Bauch in Repertorium, xvii, 432. 

54. THE TOURNAMENT WITH LANCES. 

B. vii, 294, 125 ; H. 214, 269 (419) ; Sch. ii, 284, 131 ; N. 110 ; L. 28. 

A melee in which a number of knights are engaged. Ladies and 
courtiers watch the scene from a raised platform, r., and the steps leading 
up to it. On the wall over which the spectators lean are the two Saxon 
shields. A man and woman look through a window more to 1., and on 
that side is a mounted band. The most conspicuous decorations on the 
trappings of the horses are (1.) four couples dancing in a circle and (r.) a 
kneeling woman who blows a fire with a pair of bellows. Cranach's 
initials and the date 1509 are on the ground near the middle. 

[292 x 416.] Good impression. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Three of the women among the spectators r. wear a costume similar to that of 
St. Anne in the Frankfort triptych of 1509. 

55. THE TOURNAMENT WITH SWORDS. 

B. vii, 294, 127 ; H. 214, 270 (420) ; Sch. ii, 284, 132 ; N. Ill ; L. 29. 

A melee of knights armed with swords is watched by spectators in a 
balcony at the back, before which the band is stationed. On the trappings 
of the horses may be noticed a monkey seated, looking at a mirror, and 
two little boys throwing buckets of water at a helmet on fire. The Saxon 
shields are suspended on either side of the balcony ; Cranach's initials and 
the date 1509 are in the foreground. 

[296 x 418.] Good impression, the corners a little restored. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

1 See p. 278, no. 5. 



294 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

56. THE TOURNAMENT WITH SAMSON AND THE LION. 

B. vii, 294, 126 ; H. 213, 268 (418) ; Sch. ii, 283, 130 ; N. 109 ; L. 26. 

Near the foreground two knights are tilting ; the lance of one of the 
opponents is broken ; the other's horse has fallen under him, and the 
lance which he has just dropped is picked up by a page from the ground. 
Other mounted knights drawn up on either side are watching the tilters ; 
in the background, 1., a combat is going on among a small group of knights 
armed with staves and swords. The decorations on the horses' trappings 
include several mythological subjects : a satyr family, Venus carrying a 
cradle and leading Cupid by the hand, a centaur playing a fife, and 
refugees from a burning town taking shelter in a cave, where their foes 
attack them. A long balcony at the back contains the spectators, among 
whom are two men who hold up shields containing the arms of two of the 
combatants. Over the front of the balcony hangs a piece of tapestry 
containing the subject of Samson breaking the lion's jaw. The two Saxon 
shields are upon this tapestry itself. Near the end of the balcony, r., is 
a tablet which contains the date 1509 and Cranach's initials with the 
winged serpent, his armorial bearings, between them. 

[295 x 419.] Good impression, with margin of 5 mm. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This, according to Flechsig, is the first woodcut by Granaoh on which he used as 
part of his signature the winged serpent which he had received as his armorial 
bearings in a grant of arms signed by Frederick the Wise, at Nuremberg, on 
6 January 1508.' It has since been proved, however, that another woodcut so signed, 
the Crucifixion, Sch. 30, was published as early as August 1508. 

The spectators in the balcony in this woodcut offer, perhaps, the nearest parallel 
to the figures in the background in no. 15. Flechsig suggests that the knight in 
front on the left was perhaps inspired by Burgkmair's equestrian portrait of 
Maximilian of the year 1508. 

67. ADAM AND EVE: THE FALL. 

B. vii, 279, 1 ; H. 124, 1 (3G) ; Sch. ii, 192, 1 ; N. 1 ; L. 22. 

Adam sits under the tree, holding an apple in his r. hand. Eve, with 
her r. arm round his neck, plucks with her 1. hand another apple from a 
bough round which the serpent is coiled. A label containing date, 
initials and serpent, is on the trunk of the tree, and the two Saxon shields 
hang from a bough. Two wild duck fly beneath them. A lion and two 
stags lie in the foreground ; two other stags stand 1., and deer, sheep, 
horses and a boar are seen at a greater distance r. 

[334 X 228.] Good impression, but cut rather close. 
Collections : Firmin-Didot (F. 21, black), Mitchell. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Schuchardt (iii, 212) mentions a chiaroscuro impression in dull green, with the 
outlines extremely sharp, in the library at Aschaffenburg. 

58. THE REPOSE ON THE FLIGHT TO EGYPT. 

B. vii, 279, 3; H. 125, 3 (39) ; Sch. ii, 195, 7 ; N. 4 ; L. 24. 

The Virgin sits under an oak, with the babe at her breast ; Joseph 
stands 1., holding the halter of the ass while it grazes. Child angels play 

1 See Flechsig, p. 25 ff., and on the successive shapes that the serpent assumed, 
as drawn, painted or engraved by Cranach, p. 37 ff. Flechsig goes a little too far 
in pressing the evidence afforded by these developments to its extreme logical 
conclusion. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 295 

about a pool of water r., and pluck flowers in the foreground ; another 
group sing and play on a bough of the tree. An angel flies down with a 
bird in his hands, and another, 1., blows a trumpet to which a banner is 
attached, having on it the two Saxon shields. The initials, serpent and 
date are on a tablet, r. 

[285 x 185.] Good impression, cut rather close, in chiaroscuro ; the tone block 
printed in light brown. 

Purchased 1834. 

In the Parma library (Stampe, vol. 94, no. 19709) is a somewhat interesting 
drawing, dated 1522, which is a free copy of this woodcut. It is a pen drawing in 
Indian ink, heightened with white, on a reddish-brown ground [295 x 202], and is 
signed with a pen passing through the ear of a fool's cap, with a bell attached to it. 
Compare the note on no. 87 (p. 309). 

58a. THE REPOSE ON THE FLIGHT TO EGYPT. 

B. 3 ; H. 3 (39) ; Sch. 7 ; N. 4 ; L. 23. 

[285 x 189.] Impression from the outline block only, on thick white paper 
without watermark. The condition of the block shows that this is later than the 
chiaroscuro impression. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

69. DAVID AND ABIGAIL. 

B. vii, 293, 122 ; H. 210, 259 (409) ; Sch. ii, 276, 121; N. 100; L. 25. 

Abigail sits 1. under a tree and offers a flask in her 1. hand to David, 
who stands r., armed with a halberd. Both are in the German costume 
of Cranach's time. The Saxon shields are attached to the tree, the 
initials, serpent and date on a tablet, r. 

[243 x 172.] A fairly early impression ; watermark, fleur-de-lis. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Some impressions, as at Vienna (Hofbibliothek), have German verses by C.M.O., 
which explain the subject. According to Schuchardt, chiaroscuro impressions 
exist. 

59a. DAVID AND ABIGAIL. B. 122 ; H. 259 (409) ; Sch. 121 ; N. 100 ; L. 25. 

[247 x 175.] A somewhat later and blacker impression. 
Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1856. 

60. ST. JEROME IN PENITENCE. 

B. vii, 284, 63 ; H. 165, 84 (225) ; Sch. ii, 224, 77 ; N. 69 ; L. 26. 

In a beautiful landscape the Saint, bare to the waist, kneels r. before 
a crucifix erected under a tree. The two Saxon shields are suspended 
from a smaller tree, 1., the initials, serpent and date are on an inverted 
tablet with rings attached to it, which lies, L, on the ground. 

[335 x 226.] Very fine impression, without watermark. 
Purchased 1834. 

61. ST. CHRISTOPHER. 

B. vii, 283, 58 ; H. 163, 79 (220) ; Sch. ii, 220, 72 ; N. 64 ; L. 6. 

St. Christopher, with the infant Christ upon his 1. shoulder, holding 
the trunk of a small tree in his left hand, is just landing, 1., after fording 
the river. The two shields and a tablet containing initials, serpent and 
the date 1506 are suspended from various branches of a tree, 1. 

[282 x 193.] Fine chiaroscuro impression, with a very narrow margin except on 
the 1. side. No watermark. The tone-block is printed in reddish-brown. Creased 



296 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part If. 

in the middle, and a tear across the figure of St. Christopher has been mended 
otherwise well preserved. 

Collections : St. John Dent (pink), Lanna. 

Purchased at the Lanna sale, 1909, no. 1284. 

Ola. ST. CHRISTOPHEE. B. 58 ; H. 79 (220) ; Sch. 72 ; N. 64 ; L. 6. 

[281 x 194.] Fairly sharp impression from the outline block only, after the 
removal of the date, with margin of 4 mm. below, 14 mm. above, but none at the 
sides. At the topis printed AD IMAGINEM DIVI | CHRISTOPHORI. Watermark, 
a narrow high crown with a star above, a horn below. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

In the Brunswick museum is a complete impression of the broadside of which 
this is a fragment. The sheet measures 888 x 274 mm. Beneath the woodcut is 
printed IN IMAGINEM DIVI CHRISTOPHORI; then follow twenty-six elegiac 
verses in two columns : 

" Tu quis es? ingenu6 Christum profitentis imago, 



Mecum habita, tecum vivere, vera salus. 

lohan. Stigelius." 

In a column to r. of the woodcut are printed forty rhyming Latin couplets, headed 
A4>OPIZMOI nOIMENIKOI | AD PASTOREM THE | ODORIENSEM. ; at the 
end, " Tt'Aos," then " Inter Montes Regis | Pastor Dei Plebis | 1554." The watermark 
is an ox's head with staff and serpent. Heller describes an edition with the date 
1560. 

61b. ST. CHRISTOPHER. B. 58 ; H. 79 (220) ; S. 72 ; N. 64 ; L! 6. 

[285 X 202.] Good, but not early, chiaroscuro impression, with margin [7-9 mm.] ; 
no watermark. The tone-block is printed in grey-brown, or light chocolate colour. 
There is no date. 

Collections : Alferoff (P. 342), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

61c. ST. CHRISTOPHER. B. 58 ; H. 79 (220) ; S. 72 ; N. 64 ; L. 6. 

[281 x 198.] Later chiaroscuro impression, also without the date. No margin ; 
no watermark. The tone-block is printed in a warm orange-brown. 

Purchased 1834. 

It is difficult to determine the order of the various issues of this woodcut. The 
earliest are those with the date 1506 ; first-rate dated chiaroscuro impressions are at 
Berlin and Dresden, black impressions with the date are at Berlin and in the 
Albertina. I have seen at Coburg quite a late chiaroscuro impression still with the 
date (dark grey-brown). In 1554 the black outline block, with the date removed, was 
still in good condition. The majority of the chiaroscuro impressions, our own 
(nos. 61b, 61c) among them, appear to be later than this. 

In spite of the presence of the date 1506 on early impressions of the St. Christo- 
pher and Venus, Flechsig (pp. 28-37) has brought forward convincing arguments 
against the possibility of any earlier date than 1509 for the actual production of 
these woodcuts. Most of these arguments apply equally to both. They may be 
summarized as follows. 1. These woodcuts are signed with the serpent. The grant 
of this serpent as Cranach's coat of arms is dated 1508, and no other case of its use 
as part of his signature occurs before 1509. l 2. The electoral coat of arms shows, 
even in the earliest impressions, the modification introduced in 1508. 3. Up to 1509 
the sky in Cranach's woodcuts is always cloudless. 4. The shape of the wreath of 
rue in the ducal shield agrees better with that on works of 1509 and later than with 
earlier examples. 5. All the dated woodcuts, engravings and pictures of 1509 are 
signed in the same way as these two woodcuts, with initials, serpent and date 

1 So Flechsig, but this must be modified, inasmuch as it has now been proved 
that the Crucifixion so signed was published in August, 1508. 



Division D. School of Saxony. Z. Cranach I. 297 

combined. 1 (This mode of signature does not occur later, except on a picture of 
1514.) The two Saxon shields, moreover, are attached to the boughs in the same 
manner as in the Fall of Man and St. Jerome of 1509. Numerous other resemblances 
in style to woodcuts of 1509 are mentioned by Flechsig. 6. It has been proved that 
the invention of printing with two outline blocks, a precursor of the true chiaroscuro 
technique, was made in 1507, and that the chiaroscuro technique itself was perfected 
at Augsburg in 1508, apparently in the autumn. Cranach, who only returned from 
the Netherlands in the late autumn of 1508, cannot have profited by the new 
discovery before 1509. 

The genuineness of the date 1506 cannot, after all these arguments, be maintained. 
Its presence, however, is an inconvenient fact, for which one would like to see a 
satisfactory explanation. 2 Flechsig (p. 31) remarks that perhaps this will remain 
for ever a puzzle. I am not myself prepared to offer any solution. 

62. VENUS AND CUPID. 

B. vii, 291, 113 ; H. 208, 255 (404) ; Sch. ii, 272, 117 ; N. 97 ; L. 9. 

First state, before the correction in the shoulder. 

Venus, treading on clouds, holds a scarf in her 1. hand, and extends 
her r. hand towards the head of Cupid, who holds his bow and arrow. 
The two Saxon shields hang on a tree, r. The serpent and date 1506, 
between the initials L and C, are on a ten-sided tablet suspended from 
the same tree. 

[277 X 189.] Good impression, in chiaroscuro, the tone block printed in light 
brown. The print has been cut close all round, and the existing border-line is the 
work of a restorer, who has supplied a narrow margin, which he has coloured brown 
instead of white. No watermark. 

Collections: P. Gervais, 1860 (MS.), Firmin-Didot (F. 21), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

All the chiaroscuro impressions of this woodcut are early, with the outline block 
in the first state. The Dresden impression is a very fine one, with a greenish-grey 
tone. The Berlin collection has also a fine one with brown tone. Black impressions 
of the outline block only, in the first state, are at Berlin and Cambridge. 

62a. VENUS AND CUPID. 

B. 113 ; H. 255 (404) ; Sch. 117 ; N. 97 ; L. text, p. 8. 

Second state, after the correction. 

[280 x 190.] A rather late, but well-preserved, impression from the outline block 
only. The outline of the 1. shoulder of Venus, which was formerly too straight, has 
been corrected. No watermark. 

Purchased 1834. 

Lippmann called attention to the similarity of the figure of Venus, as corrected, 
with that of Juno in the Judgment of Paris, of 1508, and argued that the 
chiaroscuro impressions, which are prior to this correction, are older than 1508. 
Flechsig answers this on p. 32, calling attention to the different position of the arms 
in the two cases. 

An impression of the second state at Berlin has AD I MAG IN EM VENERIS 
printed below. The Albertina possesses both the editions with verses described by 
Heller and Nagler. The first has, at the top, " Venus vnd jr Son Cupido" ; below, 
twelve German verses, in two columns, signed " C. M. O." On the back are two 
columns of music with Latin text. The second has nothing at the top, but below 
the woodcut IN I MAG IN EM VENERIS and eighteen Latin verses, in two columns, 
signed I. L. C. Heller believed the block to be extant. A quite late impression in 
red is at Maihingen. 

1 Beth (Repertorium, xxx, 509) adds that none of the woodcuts before 1509 are 
signed upon a shield or tablet. 

2 See Repertorium, xxiv, 65 and xxx, 509. 



298 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



[63-76.] 

THE PASSION. B. vii, 280, 7-20 ; H. 127, 7-20; Sch. ii, 200, 16-29 ; N. 9-22. 

The history of the editions, from 1509 to 1616 (Amsterdam), is given 
most fully by Heller. An edition with German text, not mentioned by 
him, is in the Berlin Cabinet : " Der Passion vnsers herren | Jhesu Cristi 
rait vil [ schonen Be- | trachtugen " (12 leaves, text printed on eight 
pages only). It was purchased at Gutekunst's auction, 1899. The 
edition mentioned last by Heller (p. 132), each woodcut in & passe-partout, 
with a German quotation under it, is at Paris, in addition to a complete 
set of proofs. This same edition in the passe-partout, with German text 
and numbers from I. to XIIII., is in the Albertina and at Dresden ; at 
Dresden is also an earlier edition in the same passe-partout, in which the 
cuts are printed back to back and the numbers are 1 to 14. At Dresden 
is also an issue without text on the back, but with two lines of Latin 
above each woodcut and German translation below ; this appears to be 
the earliest of the five issues represented at Dresden with the exception 
of proofs. 

Every woodcut in the series bears the two Saxon shields. No. 64 
(B. 8) has, in addition, a tablet with initials, serpent and the date 1509, 
while nos. 68 (B. 12) in early impressions only 73 (B. 17) and 76 
(B. 20) are signed with the serpent alone. 

Only six subjects are represented in this collection by proofs. These 
are supplemented by a complete set, nos. 63a-76a, made up from one or 
other of the later editions, but the Museum possesses no edition of the 
Passion as a whole. See p. 279, no. 16. 

PROOFS. 
66. CHRIST BEFORE CAIAPHAS. B. 10 ; H. 10 (48) ; Sch. 19 ; N. 12. 

The high priest, seated r., is in the act of rending his robe ; this action 
shows that Caiaphas, not Pilate (H., Sch., N.) is represented. In the 
German edition at Paris the quotation beneath this woodcut is from 
Matth. xxvi, 63. 

[246 x 166.] Very sharp, early proof. Watermark, ox's head with cross and 
flower. 

70. CHRIST BEING SHOWN TO THE PEOPLE. 

B. 14 ; H. 14 (52) ; Sch. 23 ; N. 16. 
[249 X 171.] Fine, early proof. No watermark. 

72. CHRIST BEARING THE CROSS. B. 16; H. 16 (54) ; Sch. 25 ; N. 18. 

[246 x 168.] Cut rather close and slightly restored. A crack is already visible 
across the figure of Christ, exactly in the middle of the block. No watermark. 
Collections : ? (F. 197), Mitchell. 

73. CALVARY. B. 17; H. 17 (55) ; Sch. 26; N. 19. 
[248 X 170.] Fine, early proof, slightly damaged. Provenance, as no. 72. 

74. THE LAMENTATION FOR CHRIST. B. 18 ; H. 18 (56) ; Sch. 27 ; N. 20. 

[248 X 16B.] Fine, early proof. Provenance, as no. 72. 

Nos. 66, 70 and 72-74 were presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranacli I. 299 

75. THE ENTOMBMENT. B. 19 ; H. 19 (58) ; Sch. 28 ; N. 21. 

[249 x 170.] Fine, early proof ; no watermark. 
Purchased from Messrs. Obach & Co., 1909. 

LATE IMPRESSIONS. 

63a. CHRIST ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES. B. 7 ; H. 7 (44) ; Sch. 16 ; N. 9. 

[250 X 172.] Poor impression. German text on the back : " Es erschein (sic) 
. . . menschen tand." 

63b. CHRIST ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES. 

[252 X 175.] Copy in the same direction, omitting the Saxon shields. The 

signature ^[IJFWfF is near St. Peter's feet. 

Purchased from Mr. Gaucia, 1850. 

Ten of this series of copies are in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (Ea. 12) ; the 
copies of B. 10, 11, 15 and 18 are wanting. In the copy of B. 17 the serpent is 
retained. The same woodcutter (French ?) has signed copies after Burgkmair 
(Vol. II, p. 84). 

64a. CHRIST TAKEN CAPTIVE. 1509. B. 8; H. 8 (46) ; Sch. 17 ; N. 10. 

[247 X 168.] Impression before the text, but much damaged. 

65a. CHRIST BEFORE ANNAS (?). B. 9; H. 9 (47); Sch. 18; N. 11. 

[250 X 172.] Poor impression. German text on the back: ".Da das sahe Judas 
. . . Israeliter zu heissen." 

The older catalogues call this subject " Christ before Caiaphas," an interpretation 
confirmed by the quotation in the edition with German text at Paris, which is from 
John xviii, 20. But in that case Caiaphas is represented twice, for B. 10 applies 
even more evidently to him. 

66a. CHRIST BEFORE CAIAPHAS. B. 10 ; H. 10 (48) ; Sch. 19 ; N. 12. 

[246 x 167.] Fairly good impression. On the back is B. 11. 

67a. CHRIST BEFORE HEROD. B. 11 ; H. 11 (49) ; Sch. 20 ; N. 13. 

[246 x 167.] On the back of no. 66a. 

The quotation in the German edition at Paris is from John xix, 11, words 
addressed to Pilate, but the sceptre indicates Herod, and the costume of the seated 
figure is utterly unlike that given to Pilate in the subsequent scenes. 

68a. CHRIST BEING SCOURGED. B. 12 ; H. 12 (50) ; Sch. 21 ; N. 14. 

[249 x 171.] Poor impression. German text on the back from a volume of 

sermons : " krafft des Sacraments Von dem an trachtet." In the middle : 

"Die fiinffte Predigt am Karfreitage, aus I dem Euangelio Johannis am 19. 
Capitel." 

69a. CHRIST BEING CROWNED WITH THORNS. 

B. 13 ; H. 13 (51) ; Sch. 22 ; N. 15. 
[249 x 170.] Poor impression. On the back is B. 14. 

70a. CHRIST BEING SHOWN TO THE PEOPLE. 

B. 14 ; H. 14 (52) ; Sch. 23 ; N. 16. 
[249 X 170.] Poor impression, on the back of no. 69a. 

7 la. PILATE WASHING HIS HANDS. B. 15; H. 15 (53) ; Sch. 24; N. 17. 

[249 x 171.] Poor impression. German text on the back : " Pilatus, wie er 

Pilatus bekent." 

Reproduced in the text of Lippmann's publication, p. 9. 



300 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

72a. CHRIST BEARING THE CROSS. B. 16 ; H. 16 (54) ; Sch. 25 ; N. 18. 
[248 x 171.] Poor impression. On the back is B. 17. 

73a. CALVARY. B. 17 ; H. 17 (55) ; Sch. 26 ; N. 19. 

[247 x 168.] Rather good impression. On the back are two columns of German 
verses ; low down : " Betrachtung zu der Sext zeit. . . . Betrachtung zu der Non 
zeit." 

74a. THE LAMENTATION FOR CHRIST. B. 18 ; H. 18 (56) ; Sch. 27 ; N. 20. 
[249 X 170.] Poor impression. On the back is B. 19. 

75a. THE ENTOMBMENT. B. 19 ; H. 19 (58) ; Sch. 28 ; N. 21. 

[249 x 170.] Poor impression, on the back of no. 74a. 

76a, THE RESURRECTION. B. 20; H. 20 (59) ; Sch. 29; N. 22. 

[247 X 169.] Fairly good impression. On the back two columns of German 

verses : Herr Jhesus nach dem herben streit herr von mir zu danck das 

hab. | Pater noster. | Aue Maria. | Ein Glawben." 

All the above are in the inventory of 1837. 



v. UNDATED WOODCUTS, ABOUT 1509. Nos. 77-79. 

77. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. BARBARA. 

B. vii, 285, 70; H. 168, 92 (234) ; Sch. ii, 230, 87 ; N. 78, 

At the opening of a cave St. Barbara kneels to 1. Her father, 
Dioscorus, grasps her hair in his 1. hand, and is about to behead her with 
a sword. An aged man, probably the proconsul Marcian, witnesses the 
scene, attended by several soldiers. To r. is a group of three peasants ; a 
boy holds the sheath of Dioscorus' sword. 

[245 x 165.] Fine impression, but the border-line has been restored. Water- 
mark, ox's head with cross and flower. 

Purchased from Mr. Lauser, 1894. 

This woodcut agrees so closely in style and dimensions with the Passion that it 
must be ascribed to the same year. See Flechsig, p. 45-6. It was omitted by 
Lippmann, but is reproduced in Hirth-Muther, no. 70, and in this Catalogue. 

78. CHRIST AND THE WOMAN OF SAMARIA. 

B. vii, 281, 22 ; H. 132, 22 (61) ; Sch. ii, 207, 32 ; N. 26, and vol. iv, no. 1406 ; L. 30. 

First state. 

Christ stands leaning against the 1. side of the well, and raises his 
r. hand as he speaks to the Samaritan woman, who holds a bucket in 
both hands. On the side of the well are the letters L V C, and on the 
sloping roof the two Saxon shields. The Apostles are seen in the distance, 
1., emerging from a wood and speaking to a beggar by the roadside. 

[230 x 158.] Good impression. No watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This woodcut also is closely allied to the Passion. Heller's interpretation of the 
letters on the well as an abbreviation of " Lucas von Cranach " is rejected by 
Schuchardt (i, 56). Nagler admits the possibility of such an interpretation, but 
guards against its being used in support of Cranach's f-upposed patent of nobility. 
Lippmann reads the letters as an abbreviation for LVCAS, which seems, indeed, the 
only possible solution. Flechsig's opinion, that this Lucas is not Lucas Cranach, 
but the evangelist St. Luke, as author of the story, is refuted by the fact that the 







. 





PLATE XVI 

LUCAS CRANACH I 
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. BARBARA. B. 7O 

(Reduced) 










-3; N. 



UXDA'TKO WOODCUTS, ABOVT :".0'\ Nog. 77-79. 

IVX 3TAJ9 

: MARTYKDGM OK sT BAKI;AKA 

H.HQAHARO 0AOUJ" 2 ; 



Oi., ^ .*>*, i*O .rZ ^oi'wttowWflkMe.^HT-'.' 1- -' 
: tiy w\ .r,i: ...... 












Division D. School of Sarony. L. Cranach I. 301 

narrative only occurs in the Gospel of St. John. This was first pointed out by 
K. Simon, Repertorium, 1904, xxvii, 515. 

78a. CHRIST AND THE WOMAN OP SAMARIA. 

B. 22 ; H. 22 (61) ; Sch. 32 ; N. 26 ; L. 30. 
Second state. 

[230 x 158.] A much later impression, after the disappearance of the electoral 
shield from the block. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

At Paris is a still later impression, after the ducal shield has also disappeared. 

79. THE HOLY FAMILY AND KINDRED. 

B. vii, 280, 5 ; H. 126, 5 (43) ; Sch. ii, 198, 14; N. 6; L. 36. 

The subject represented is the group known in German as " die heilige 
Sippe," for which there is no recognised English equivalent. The central 
figure is St. Anne, who according to a form of her legend, which was 
evidently popular at the end of the middle ages, had three successive 
husbands, Joachim, Cleophas and Salomas, 1 and by each a daughter named 

1 The following verses are quoted in the Diet. Christ. Biogr. (s.v. Anne) : 
Anna tribus nupsit Joachim, Cleophae Salomaeque, 
Ex quibus ipsa viris peperit tres Anna Marias, 
Quas duxere Joseph, Alphaeus, Zebedaeusque. 
Prima Jesum ; Jacobum Joseph cum Simone Judam 
Altera dat ; Jacobum dat tertia datque Joannem. 

In the Legenda Aurea (ed. Graesse, Lipsise, 1850, p. 586) are different verses to 
the same effect : 

" Anna tres viros habuisse dicitur, scilicet Joachim, Cleopham et Salome. 
Anna solet dici tres concepisse Marias, 
Quas genuere viri Joachim, Cleophas Salomeque. 
Has duxere viri Joseph, Alpheus, Zebedaeus, 
Prima parit Christum, Jacobum secunda minorem 
Et Joseph Justum peperit cum Symone Judam, 
Tertia majorem Jacobum volucremque Joannem." 

In some well-known pictures of the " heilige Sippe," as in the picture at Cologne 
{no. 169), and the Artelshofen altar-piece by Traut at Munich (Nationalmuseum, 
no. 400a), the various children are characterized by their attributes. That is not the 
case here, or in the picture of 1509 by Cranach in the Stadel Institute. I have 
followed Rieffel (Zeitschr. f. bild. Kunst, N.F. xvii. 269) in his interpretation of the 
personages on the latter work, which is not far removed in date from the woodcut 
(note the similar costume of St. Anne). The group of three elderly men is the only 
one that presents any difficulty. Rieffel and the authors of the Munich catalogue 
call them, on the two pictures last mentioned, the three husbands of St. Anne. In 
the earlier picture at Cologne they are not grouped together, as here, but form, with 
Joseph, a series of four separate figures at regular intervals. Since two of them 
happen to stand behind SS. Catherine and Barbara, who are here associated with 
the kindred of Jesus, Aldenhoven calls them the fathers of these two saints. St. 
Barbara's father, however, was not at all a saintly personage, and there can be no 
doubt that here, too, these persons are the fathers of the two lesser Maries, uamed 
after them Mary Cleophas and Mary Salome. 

Some valuable remarks on the origin and development of the "Sippenbild" will 
be found in F. Back's " Mittelrheinische Kunst," Frankfurt a. M., 1910, p. 67. Two 
pictures at Darmstadt are reproduced in this book in which the kindred of our Lord 
is further enlarged by the inclusion of Esmeria, sister of St. Anne and mother of 
Elizabeth, and her son, or descendant. St. Servatius. ^uch an extension of the group 
would only occur in regions where St. Servatius was held in especial honour. In the 
second picture at Darmstadt (Back, Taf. Ixii) the third husband of St. Anne is named 
" Salomas," which would seem to be a more correct form of the name than that 
adopted in the Golden Legend. 



302 Early German o.nd Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



Mary. The three husbands, the daughters, sons-in-law and grandchildren 
of St. Anne compose the group. 

St. Anne is seated in the middle, with the infant Christ on her lap 
and the Virgin Mary at her side. Over their heads are carved angels, 
two of which carry the two Saxon shields. Joseph stands 1., holding his 
hat. Joachim and the two other husbands of Anne stand conversing r. 
To 1. Alpheus, rod in hand, is teaching his two elder boys, Simon and 
Judas Thaddeus, to read ; James (the Less) sits on the floor, and the 
youngest, Joseph Justus, is held on a cushion by his mother Mary 
Cleophas. The group to r. consists of Zebedee, Mary Salome, and their 
sons James (the Greater) and John. James holds a book and satchel. 
On the ground is a tablet containing Cranach's initials and serpent. 

[225 X 325.] Good impression without margin. Watermark, large bull's head 
with serpent. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Early impressions are found with verses below, in Latin or German, alluding to 
the opening of the school term on St. Gregory's day, March 12th. This explains 
the fact that SS. Simon, Jude and James, the elder children among the cousins of 
our Lord, are represented here as school-boys. The Latin edition, at Berlin and 
Dresden (here coloured), has beneath the woodcut " Carmen quo solent pueruli 
ad studium literarum | in scholam evocari, die Gregorii, circa aequi | noctium 
vernum. | Vos ad se pueri primis invitat ab annis | . . . Ad Christum monstrat nam 
Schola nostra uiam (12 verses)." The German edition, also at Berlin, has " Das 
Lied | Vos ad se Pueri &c. mit welchem zu Wittemberg die Kinder zur Schulen 
wereden gefiiret, | Am tag S. Gregorii, etc. Verdeutscht | Der Herre Christ, jr 
Kindlein klein | . . . Den weg zu Christo weiset klar. | C.M.O." 

On the dating of the woodcut see Flechsig, p. 45. The picture now at Frankfort 
was not yet known when he wrote. 



REPRODUCTIONS OF UNDESCRIBED WOODCUTS (c. 1511-1513). 

t THE ARMS OF DEGENHARD PFEFFINGER. 

H. (Durer) 2137 ; P. iii, 220, 316. 

Photograph of a well-preserved impression [238 x 135] in the Albertina, belonging 
to a different edition from that described by Passavant. The inscription at the top, 
printed with type, is " Degenhardus Pfeffinger, Bauarie inferioris | Marscalcus 
hereditarius ic." P.'s description of the arms is accurate on the whole, but he 
omits to mention that the lion, on the shield as in the crest, wears a mitre ; the 
other animal is a wolf, not a hound. The drum is not between peacock's feathers ; 
the feathers grow out of the drum, at the top. The " cordon form6 de roses et 
d'epees " is the collar of the Order of Cyprus. 1 P. omits to mention two other badges 
which are seen, in addition to the Jerusalem Cross of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. 
To 1. of the drum is a sword and scroll, badge of the Order of Cyprus ; to r. of the 
lion crest a two-handled vase with three sprays of flowers, badge of the Aragonese 
Order of Temperance. 

The only other impression known to me, at Gotha, has the German superscription 
quoted by Passavant ; the first line ends with " in." 

The family of Pfeffinger held the office of hereditary Marshal in Lower Bavaria 
since the XIV century. Degenhart, son of Gentiflor Pfeffinger, was the last of the 
line. He was born at Salbarnkirchen (now Salmanskirchen), on 3 February 1471. 
He was " Truchsess " to the Duchess Hedwig of Burghausen, wife of George the 
Rich, and in 1493 accompanied Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, on his 
journey to Palestine.* According to the family chronicle of the Pfeffingers, preserved 

1 See P. Ganz, " Die Abzeichen der Ritterorden," Schweiz. Archiv f. Heraldik, 
1905-6, p. 24. 

* R. Rohricht, " Deutsche Pilgerreisen nach dem Heiligen Lande," 1889, p. 188. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 303 

at Munich, 1 he was knighted at Jerusalem. He was chamberlain to Frederick the 
Wise, and received from him in 1507 the gift of Schloss Waldsachsen near Coburg, 
and at some date unknown, a house at Torgau. He resided chiefly at the Electoral 
court, was sent on diplomatic missions to the court of the Emperor, and was employed 
on his travels in collecting books for the Elector ; he stood in intimate relations 
with the humanists ; 2 Spalatin calls him " Piorum, eruditorum, pauperum et 
sacrorum patronus et Maecenas optimus." In 1519 Pfeffinger accompanied 
Frederick to Frankfort for the imperial election, and died there of an epidemic on 
July 3rd. He was buried in the Barfiisserkirche, Frankfort, and monuments were 
erected to him at Salmanskirchen and in the Wittenberg Stiftskirche. He left no 
children by his marriage with Ehrentraut von Seiboltsdorf . 

In a decree of 8 April, 1511, according to the family chronicle, Maximilian 
conferred upon Pfeffinger a grant of the new coat-of-arms represented in this wood- 
cut, " einen gevierteten Wappenschild im 1. und 4. Feld mit einem Lowen ; im 2. 
und 3. mit dem Wolf zu fiihren, und das Wappen mit zwei Helmen, dem alten 
und einem, aus dem der Lowe des Schildes herauswachst, zu kronen." The second 
animal has also been described as a hound ; Beierlein 3 calls it, writing of the old 
arms, " den halben schwarzen Biiden im gelben Feld." Koetschau calls it (p. 314) 
" ein halber anspringender Wolf . . . Wenn nicht die Beschreibung und Abbildung in 
Siebmachers Wappenbuch, 6. Bd. 1. Abth. zu Hilfe kame, wiirde man wohl 
zweifeln konnen, welches Tier dargestellt ist." 4 See Siebmacher, loc. cit. p. 23, on the 
new coat-of-arms. The old arms are represented on the reverse of Pfeffinger's medal, 
reproduced by Koetschau, and by Fabriczy in his book on Italian Medals. 5 The lion 
is said in the " Wappenbrief " to be the original " Stammwappen," relinquished by 
the family when they took over the office of hereditary Marshal, and with it the half 
wolf sable on a field or, from the extinct Landsbergers. 

The woodcut is probably to be dated soon after the grant of new arms in the year 
1511. The fact that intimate relations subsisted between Pfeffinger and the Electoral 
court confirms my belief, originally based on purely stylistic grounds, that the design 
is to be attributed to Cranach, and not to Diirer or his school. 

fTHE POBTRAIT AND ARMS OF ERNEST OF SAXONY, ARCHBISHOP 
OF MAGDEBURG AND BISHOP OF HALBERSTADT. (1513.) 

The Archbishop, vested in cope and mitre, and holding his pastoral 
staff under his r. arm, stands, leaning forward, and holding an open book 
in both hands, behind a large shield surmounted by a small cross. The 
shield 6 contains : 1 Sachsen, 2 Thiiringen, 3 Pfalz-Sachsen, 4 Mark- 
grafschaft Meissen, with an inescutcheon, 1 and 4 Archbishopric of 
Magdeburg, 2 and 3 Bishopric of Halberstadt. 

Photograph of the illustration [142 x 94] on the title-page of the Magdeburg 
breviary printed by Melchior Letter, Leipzig, at the expense of Heinrich Widerker, 
" alio nomine Propst civis Liptzensis," die Kunegundis (3 March), 1513 ; 8. The 
photograph was made from ihe copy in the Library of the RR. Peres Bollandistes, 
Brussels ; other copies of the book, in which the woodcut is defaced by scribbling, 
are in the royal libraries of Berlin and Dresden. 

Apart from the probability that Cranach would design such a portrait of the 

1 Historischer Verein von und fur Oberbayern. The chronicle has not been 
published, but information derived from it is given by E. Geiss, " Geschichte des 
Schlosses Herzheim u. seiner Bewohner," Oberbayr. Archiv, Bd. vii, and by 
K. Koetschau, " Die Medaille auf D. P.," Zeitschr. f. Numismatik, xx. 310. The 
last-named article is at present the best source for Pfeffinger's biography. 

2 On his correspondence with Peutinger concerning woodcuts printed in gold, see 
Vol. I, p. 255. 

3 Medaillen auf ausgezeichnete und beriihmte Bayern (Oberbayerischer Archiv f. 
vaterlandische Geschichte, x, Heft 2, p. 163, or p. 22 of the reprint. 

4 Taf. 19. See text, p. 23. 

4 Not in the article in the Berlin Jahrbiich, xxiv, 89, where only the obverse is 
figured. 

8 See Siebmacher, Bd. i. Abth. 1, Taf. 26. 



304 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

Elector's brother for a book printed at Leipzig, bis band may clearly be recognised 
in tbe features and drapery. 

Ernest of Saxony, a younger brother of Frederick the Wise, b. 1466, became 
Archbishop of Magdeburg in 1476 and died on 3 August 1513. His monument in 
Magdeburg Cathedral is a celebrated work of Peter Vischer. 

fTHE PORTRAIT AND ARMS OP ERIC OP BRUNSWICK, BISHOP OP 
PADERBORN AND OSNABRUCK. (1513.) 

The Bishop, wearing his mitre and holding his pastoral staff in his r. 
hand, stands behind a large shield, on the top of which he lays his 1. 
hand. The shield contains, 1 and 4 Bishopric of Paderborn, 2 and 3 
Bishopric of Osnabriick, with the two leopards of Brunswick on an 
inescutcheon. 1 

Photograph of the illustration [112 (cut originally c. 120?) x 88] on recto of 
second leaf of the Paderborn breviary printed by Melchior Lotter, Leipzig, 1513, 8. 
Over the woodcut is printed : " Ericus ex ducibus Brunsuicen, Ecclesiaru | Pader- 
bornen, ac Osnaburgen, Eps." In the only copy known to me of this rare book 
(Berlin, Kgl. Bibl. Dq. 8, 9720) the woodcut, tastefully coloured, is mutilated at the 
bottom. 

The portrait is very beautifully cut, and Cranach's drawing is plainly apparent in 
the features. The work may be compared especially with some of the portrait heads 
in the lower portion of the " Ladder of St. Bonaventura," L. 51. 

Eric of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, b. 1476-78, became Bishop of Osnabriick in 
February and of Paderborn in November, 1508 ; on 27 March 1532 he became 
Bishop of Miinster ; he died on 14 May in the same year. 

fTWO COATS-OP-ARMS FROM THE PADERBORN BREVIARY. (1513.) 

The two shields, each suspended by a strap from a hook, are enclosed 
by a single border-line. Over the first is printed : " lohanes de 
Ymmessen | Apostolice Sedis | prothonotarius " ; over the second : " Con- 
radus de Vuipper | Curie Paderbornen, | Officialis,". 

Photograph of the second woodcut [59 x 93], also coloured, at the end (Rr 4 v.) 
of the same book. 

t A CHILD ANGEL WITH THE ELECTORAL ARMS OP SAXONY. 

Photograph of an undescribed woodcut in the collection of King Frederick 
Augustus II, Dresden. 

fA CHILD ANGEL WITH THE DUCAL ARMS OF SAXONY. 

Photograph of an undescribed woodcut in the same collection. 

These two woodcuts [each 93 X 50] are printed on the recto and verso of a leaf 
[160 X 95], apparently from an octavo book, which is bound in at the end of the 
Wittenberg relic-book of 1509. The second angel is in the style of the woodcut, 
B. 68 (no. 82). 

vi. OTHER UNDATED WOODCUTS, ABOUT 1510-1515. Nos. 80-118. 

There is some difficulty about dating certain of these, and 1 am not 
always in agreement with Dr. Flechsig. Nos. 81-85, for instance, appear 
to me to form a closely connected group, whereas he divides some of these 
by an interval of several years from the rest, and rejects others altogether 
from the work of Cranach. 

1 See Siebmacher, Bd. i. Abth. 5, p. 124 and Taf. 203. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 305 

80. THE BOOK-PLATE OF CHRISTOPH SOHEUBL. 

H. 2147 ; P. iii, 221, 322 ; Warnecke 1896. 

A young woman, richly attired, with ostrich feathers on her head- 
dress, holds in her r. hand the arms of Scheurl and in her 1. those of 
Tucher. Over her head are the verses : 

HIC SCHEVRLINA SIMVL TVCHERINAQ} SIGNA REFVLGENT 
QVE DOCTOR GEMINI SCHEVRLE PARENTIS HABES. 1 

[164 X 127.] Fine impression, the lines still sharp, but the border already broken 
above the word SIGNA and in both lower corners. Tastefully coloured, the dress 
brown and green, the plumes brown, green, blue and yellow ; the upper part of sky 
blue, the grass green, the coats of arms in their proper tinctures. Wide margin 
[size of sheet, 273 x 193] ; watermark, large bull's head. Had been used as book- 
plate in a folio book. 2 

From the collection of " ex-libris " bequeathed by Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B., 
1897. An approximate date for this woodcut is given by the fact that the block was 
used in " Libellus Doctoris Christoferi Scheurli Nurembergensis de Sacerdotu et 
reru ecclesiasticaru pstantia," W. Stockel, Leipzig, March 1511 (Pr. 11457), on verso 
of the last leaf. In the book the border is still intact, and the separate impressions 
used as book-plates must therefore be later, though they are more carefully printed 
and the lines are sharper. Quite late impressions from the worn block are common. 
The block itself forms part of the Scheurl collection purchased by the Germanic 
Museum, Nuremberg, in 1866. The design is rightly attributed by Passavant to 
Cranach, though he still describes it among the doubtful works of Diirer. It is not 
mentioned by Flechsig. In presence of one of the rare early impressions it is 
impossible to doubt that the woodcut is really by Cranach. 

81. THE INFANT CHRIST AS REDEEMER. 

B. vii, 286, 73 ; H. 170, 96 (240) ; Sch. ii, 232, 90 ; N. 80 ; L. 32. 

He stands, nude, to front, blessing with his right hand and holding 
the orb in his left hand, upon the tombstone placed aslant across the open 
sepulchre. On the side of the tomb is the serpent, with wings erect, 
slightly sketched. Landscape background. Cherubim and angels bearing 
the instruments of the Passion form a semicircle in the sky. 

[243 x 165.] Good impression without margin. No watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Flechsig (pp. 52-53, 295) dates this woodcut considerably later, after 1516, perhaps 
after 1520. I find no great difference, except in the shape of the serpent, between it 
and the woodcut of like dimensions, no. 82, which Flechsig dates about 1510-11. 
The angels bear a strong resemblance to those on the Coronation of the Virgin 
(L. 50), which Flechsig rejects. Early impressions with margin have the heading 
" Das Kindlein Jesu " and twelve German verses in two columns below. 

82. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD AND ST. ANNE. 

B. vii, 285, 68 ; H. 167, 90 (231) ; Sch. ii, 228, 83 ; N. 75 ; L. 42. 

The composition is pyramidal. St. Anne, standing 1., receives the 
holy Child from the arms of his mother. Over them are the First and 
Third Persons of the Blessed Trinity, in a halo of rays. L. and r. cherubim 
in clouds. In the r. lower corner the serpent. 

[247 X 168.] Good impression, without margin ; watermark unrecognizable. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Dated about 1510-11 by Flechsig (p. 48). 

1 See Vol. i, p. 516, note 1. 

2 An impression similarly coloured is inserted in a Scheurl MS. belonging to 
Mr. Rosenheim. 



306 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

83. THE LADDER OF ST. BONAVENTURA. 

B. vii, 287, 78 ; H. 172, 101 (249) ; Sch. ii, 235, 99 ; N. 85 ; L. 51. 

The ladder, reaching from earth to heaven, consists of two uprights and 
three rungs. These bear inscriptions, printed, like all the following, with 
Gothic type. On the 1. upright, " Ich bin der weg, die warheit vnd das 
leben. Niemand kompt zum Vater, den durch mich." Beneath this is 
the serpent, simply formed. On the opposite upright, " Das ist das 
ewige lebe, das sie dich, das du allein warer Gott bist vnd den du gesand 
hast etc. Joh. 17." On the rungs are "Tauff.," " Abendmal Christi.," 
and " Vergebug der siinde." Beneath and above these are two scrolls, 
inscribed " Furcht ewiger pein." and " Ewiges Leben." At the head of 
the ladder is the Blessed Trinity, in two circles supported by the emblems 
of the four Evangelists. The inscriptions on the circles are, " Ich bin der 
HErr, vnd ist ausser mir kein Heiland, Esa. xliij. Ich bin der Erst, 
vnd bin der Letzt, Esa. 44," and " Heilig, Heilig, Heilig ist Gott der 
HErr, der allmechtige, der da war, vnd der da ist, vnd der da kompt ! 
Apoca. 4." On a scroll held above the Trinity by angels is printed 
" Heilig, Heilig, Heilig ist der HErr | Zebaoth, Alle Land sind seiner | 
ehren vol, Esaie 6." In the upper corners, to 1. and r. of this, are the 
two Saxon shields. God the Father holds in his hand a scroll inscribed 
" Kompt alle zu mir, die jr mit siinden seit beladen, Ich wil euch durch 
meinen Son laben." On either side of the Trinity is a group of saints, 
women L, men. r. A scroll enfolding both groups contains the words, 
" Die welt haben wir gelassen, vnd auff Christum vns verlassen, drumb 
frewe wir vns ewiglich, mit Gott in seineru, Himelreich." Below each of 
these groups is a flying angel bearing a scroll with words addressed to 
those on earth ; 1., " Ringet darnach, das | jr durch die enge Pfor- 1 te 
eingehet, Luce 13.", r., " Kompt herzu, last vns dem | HErrn frolocken, 
jautzen dem | Hort vnsers heils, Psal. 95." 

At the foot of the ladder are two groups, men 1., women r., who 
represent the church militant. The men, partly kneeling, partly standing, 
are of various ranks pope, emperor, bishop, cardinal, nobleman, etc. ; 
their leader is recognizable as a portrait of Frederick the Wise. 1 The 
women are similarly characterised by variety of costume. Above the men 
is a scroll with " Das Blut Jhesu Christi reinigt vns von alien siinden," 
above the women a scroll with " Hilff vns Gott durch Christu." On either 
side is a devil trying to lead the Christians into temptation. The one to 
1. holds a scroll with " So Gott kein gefallen hat in ewrem verderben, | 
Was arbeit jr so hart in tugent bis auff ewr sterben ?" On the women's 
side the devil holds a scroll with " Der Teuffel spricht. | Hut dich mensch, 
du bist schwacher natur. j Brauch in wollust, weil du lebst, Gottes 
Creatur." 

[389 x 292.] Good impression, though not very early, without margin. No 
watermark. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Schuchardt describes this edition, which is also at Gotha in a damaged impression 

1 According to H. Michaelson (Kunstchronik, 1899, N.F. x, 377) John (the 
Constant) is seen behind Frederick, and on the other side his wife, Margaret of 
Anhalt, to whom he was married on 13 November, 1513, but this identification is 
extremely doubtful. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 307 

(watermark, high crown), and quotes the title, which is wanting here, as " Ein kurtz 
andechtiges himelisch Leitterlein angegeben von dem heiligen Bonaventura An 
welchem die Christglaubigen leichter steige mogen dem vehsten hochen Himmel." 
He mentions another edition in the Albertina with the title " Das himlische Letter- 
lein S. Bonauentura " ; this has "Kompt alle" and "Apoca. 4," like the edition in 
London ; a second copy at Gotha, with the same title as the edition in the Albertina 
(watermark, high crown) and inscriptions in Gothic letters, has " Apo. 4 " and 
" Kumpt alle," instead of " Apoca. 4 " and " Kompt alle." The edition published by 
Lippmann differs from all three, and appears to be the earliest of all. Instead of 
" Kompt alle " or " Kumpt alle," it has " Kubt all." The edition with the text in 
Roman characters is much later. 

The Trinity from this block, cut to a circle (diam. 93), was used on the title-page 
of the 1616 edition of Cranach's Passion, printed at Amsterdam (Coburg, Stuttgart 
the round block by itself), described by Weigel, Kunstkat., no. 12712. Flechsig 
(p. 49) compares this woodcut ad the following, which belongs to it, with the 
illustrations in " Ein ser andechtig Cristenlich Buchlein," by Adam von Fulda, 
printed by S. Reinhardt, Wittenberg, 1512. 

84. HELL. P. iv, 10, 163; Sch. ii, 238, 100, and iii, 226 ; N. 86; L. 51a. 

Men and women in flames, tormented by devils. On a long scroll 
above the woodcut is a line of Gothic type, " Wir haben an vnsern leben 
nicht wollen d yhymlische leitter stigen, darumb wirgef alien jn die Hell 
mussen bey dem teufiel ewig bleiben." 

[120 X 291, height of sheet 129.] Sharp, early impression ; the upper corners, 
containing the ends of the scroll, are lost, and restored in pen and ink. The border- 
line at the top is wanting. This subject, as the dimensions and heading show, is 
connected with the preceding, and would be found printed beneath it, if the sheet 
were preserved intact. This is the case at Paris (late edition, the heading, " Gehet 
bin," etc., printed in Latin type; repr. Lippmann 51a), and at Gotha (the second of 
the impressions described under no. 83, an earlier edition than at Paris, later than our 
own), where the heading of the lower subject is " Die erbarmliche Klage der Ver- 
dampten, vom jmmer werende wehe der Hellen." Under the woodcut is printed, 
on the Gotha copy, " Jamer vnd not, O Hell vnd Tod, o Elend on end, sterben 
on sterben," etc. ; there is no address or date. The woodcut in any edition is very 
rare ; Schuchardt, when he wrote the second part of his book, had only seen it at 
Stuttgart. Our own impression of no. 84 belongs to an earlier edition than that of 
no. 83 ; to judge by the condition of the block, it is probably the first issue. 
Passavant quotes the same heading, with some variations of spelling, in his descrip- 
tion of the Stuttgart impression. 

fTHE ASSUMPTION AND CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN. 

Sch. ii. 238, 101 ; P. iv, 10, 164 ; N. 87 ; L. 50. 

Reproduction, from Lippmann's publication (Berlin, 1895). 

Flechsig (p. 62) rejects this woodcut, surely on insufficient grounds, 
from the work of the elder Cranach, without ascribing it to any other 
artist, and dates it some ten or twelve years later than the group with 
which it is here connected. Schuchardt regards it as forming one series 
with the other woodcuts of like dimensions, his nos. 99 and lOla, and 
this opinion is here adopted. It is signed in the same way as no. 99 
(L. 51), and there is a strong resemblance between the angels in both. 
The execution is certainly slighter and more sketchy in the present case. 

t THE DEATH AND ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN. Sch. iii, 228, lOla. 

Photograph of the impression at Wolfegg. 

x 2 



308 



Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



85. THE DEATH OP THE VIRGIN. 



Fragment of Sch. iii, 228, lOla. 



The Virgin, propped up by a pillow, receives a lighted taper from the 
hands of St. John, who stands beyond the bed. Next to him, on one 
side, is an apostle who is wiping tears from his eyes, and on the other 
side St. Peter, who holds a holy water sprinkler. Four apostles stand 
behind St. Peter, five more kneel on the near side of the bed. Above 
St. John's head Christ, surrounded by cherubim, receives the soul of the 
Virgin in his arms. A border-line is preserved on the 1. and lower sides 
only. 

[88 x 102.] Sharp, early impression. 

Presented by Mr. J. H. Anderdon, 1872. 

Reproduced and described in Jahrbuch d. k. preuss. Kunstsammlungen, 1903, 
xxiv, 290. 

Since I published this woodcut I have ascertained that it is a fragment of a large 
sheet, described by Schuchardt in the third part of his book, which is extant in two 
impressions, at Paris and Wolfegg. The Wolfegg impression, better preserved than 
that in the Bibliotheque Nationale, measures 399 x 282 mm. The arrangement of 
subjects is best explained by a diagram. The ruled lines correspond to actual lines 



16 



15 



14 



13 



12 



11 



10 



on the original, the dotted lines to less definite divisions between the subjects. The 
lowest compartment contains four subjects, divided from one another by columns at 
irregular intervals. The sequence begins from the left. 1. Mary, sitting in her 
chamber, is visited by an angel, who brings her a branch of palm and announces her 
approaching death. 2. She stands ; the angel, after leaving the palm in her hands, 
takes leave of her. 3. She sits on the step beside her bed, leaning her head on her 
hand, awaiting the arrival of the apostles. 4. St. John, bearing the palm, receives 
at the door of the Virgin's house St. Peter and eleven other apostles (including 
St. Paul), who have arrived, miraculously borne on clouds, to be present at Mary's 
death. 5. The death scene, described above (no. 85). 6. The apostles, led by 
St. John, who bears the palm, carry the bier of the Virgin to the grave. The 
sacrilegious high priest and his attendants fall to the ground convulsed with pain, 
and the severed hands of one man remain fixed to the pall. 7. The twelve apostles 
(excluding St. Thomas) are assembled round the empty tomb, from which (8) Mary 
is borne up to heaven, surrounded by angels. 9. " Kindlen " (three boys and three 
girls). 10. " Eelewth " (three married couples). 11. " Witwen " (widows). 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 309 

12. "Beichtiger" (confessors). 13. "Angelas" (angels). 14. "Archangel"' (arch- 
angels). 15. " Virtutes " (virtues). 16. " Potestates " (powers). 

In the cutting of the letters and in all other respects the complete woodcut 
closely resembles Sch. 101. Further than that, it forms actually the lower half of 
the same design. On placing it beneath Sch. 101 (L. 50), it will be seen that the 
nine orders of angels, complete, run up the 1. side, matched by a corresponding 
hierarchy of saints to r., while the Virgin, in the central column, is shown twice on 
her passage from the tomb to heaven, where finally she is seen a third time at the 
moment of her coronation. The absence of a signature on the lower half is explained 
by the fact that the Saxon shields at the top of Sch. 101 are intended to cover the 
entire double sheet. 

Cranach has followed closely the second of the two versions of the story given in 
the Golden Legend, 1 viz., that in which the hands of one of the high priest's 
attendants are cut off. In the first version the high priest himself attempts to 
throw down the coffin ; his hands stick to the pall and wither, but are not severed. 

86. THE SEVEN JOYS OF MARY. 

The Virgin sits, turning a little to 1. holding a book half open on her 
lap. She is surrounded by clouds, amongst which are seven medallions, 
each enclosed by a double line, containing (1) the Annunciation, (2) the 
Nativity, (3) the Adoration of the Magi, (4) the Finding of Christ in the 
Temple, (5) the risen Christ appearing to the Virgin, (6) the Descent of 
the Holy Ghost, (7) the Coronation. These subjects begin at the bottom 
on the left, and end at the bottom on the right, the fourth being just 
over the Virgin's head. No signature. 

[152 x 141 (greatest dimensions the sheet is cut irregularly).] Damaged and 
discoloured. 

From the Bagford collection. Transferred from the Department of MSS., 1814. 
Reproduced and described in Jahrbuch d. k. preuss. Kunstsdmmlungen, 1903, xxiv, 
288, 290. Another impression, more perfectly preserved [157 X 147, including 
border-line], was in a portion of the Holtrop collection, sold at Sotheby's in July, 
1909. " The principal figure looks somewhat earlier, but the small subjects harmonize 
well in style with the group among which the woodcut is here placed. 

87. A NOBLEMAN. 

B. vii, 293, 123 ; H. 211, 263 (413) ; Sch. ii, 278, 125; N. 104 ; L. 35. 

He rides to L, fully armed, with large ostrich plumes ; his face is only 
partially seen through the open vizor of his helmet. On the caparison of 
the horse is a pattern of pansies with the letter G upon a heart, frequently 
repeated. The winged serpent is on the ground. 

[243 x 164.] Fine impression, without watermark. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Impressions with margin preserved have the title " Der Adel " printed above, and 
twelve German verses by G.M.O. printed underneath. This woodcut is rejected by 
Flechsig (p. 53), on insufficient grounds. It must be admitted that the horse's head 
is too small for it, and its legs are badly out of drawing. But the attribution to 
Hans Cranach (Flechsig, p. 250), who is supposed to have been born about 1500-1501, 
is impossible, since a reversed copy of this woodcut appeared on 1 May, 1515, in N. 
Marschalk's " Institutionum Reipublice Militaris ac civilis Libri novem," printed at 
Rostock (repeated in " Historia aquatilium," 1520). The original and copy 2 are 
reproduced in Mitteilungen der Oesellschaft filr vervielfaltigende Kunst, 1901, p. 35, 
where I have discussed the whole question of authenticity in detail. I have only 
now to add that the copy may be the work of the artist who signed in a very similar 
manner the drawing at Parma, dated 1522, which is mentioned above under no. 58. 

1 J. a Voragine, " Legenda Aurea," ed. T. Graesse, Lipsiae, 1850, p. 520. 
* Wrongly attributed to Erhard Altdorfer. P. iv, 51, 79. 



310 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

88. THE ANNUNCIATION. 

B. vii, 279, 2 ; H. 125, 2 (37) ; Sch. ii, 194, 5 ; N. 8 ; L. 41. 

The Virgin sits 1. with hands folded, a book in her lap, a pot of 
flowers near her on the ground. Gabriel approaches from the r. ; over 
his head is the Holy Ghost. The serpent is placed in contact with the 
lower border-line. 

[243 x 166.] Good impression, but 1. upper corner mended. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Flechsig (p. 44) dates this about 1511-12. An early impression at Berlin has 
eight lines of German text below, " Zu disen nachfolgenden gebetten. . . . Ave 
Maria gratia plena." Late impressions, in the passe-partout described by Schuchardt, 
are in the Albertina, at Berlin and at Coburg. 

89. THE WEREWOLF. 

B. vii, 291, 115 ; H. 210, 260 (410) ; Sch. ii, 277, 122 ; N. 101 ; L. 15. 

A man turned brute walks on all fours towards the forest, carrying a 
baby by the skin of its back between his teeth. The mangled remains of 
several other victims of his cannibalism lie on the ground. A peasant 
woman and her child stand at the door of a cottage 1. ; a small boy runs 
up dismayed at the loss of his baby brother ; a dog runs out and barks ; 
the father looks out, roused by the noise, from the cowstall adjoining the 
house. Over a window is the winged serpent ; the two Saxon shields are 
in the sky. 

[162 x 126.] Good impression, but discoloured, and r. upper corner mended. 

No watermark. 

Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1854. 

80. ST. GEORGE SLAYING THE DRAGON. 

B. vii, 284, 64 ; H. 164, 81 (222) ; Sch. ii, 222, 74 ; N. 66 ; L. 16. 

St. George, on horseback, facing r., raises his sword to strike at the 
dragon, which lies on its back, already wounded by a spear. The 
princess kneels in the background. The two Saxon shields are suspended 
from the branch of a tree. 

[164 x 128.] Fine impression. No watermark. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 



[91-102.] 

THE MARTYRDOMS OF THE APOSTLES. 

B. vii, 282, 37-48 ; H. 155, 58-69 ; Sch. ii, 210, 34-45 ; N. 41-52 ; L. 43-46. 

Heller and Nagler describe several books in which this series was 
used, much later than the probable date of its origin, about 1512. The 
woodcuts are only seen to advantage in the early impressions, without 
text on the back and before injury to the blocks. 

PROOFS. 
91. ST. PETER. B. 37; H. 58; Sch. 34; N. 41. 

He is crucified head downwards. A wedge is being driven in, to hold 
the cross erect. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 311 

92. ST. ANDREW. B. 38 ; H. 59 ; Sch. 35 ; N. 42. 

He speaks from the cross to an assemblage of men and women on the 
right. 

83. ST. JAMES THE GREATER. B. 39 ; H. 60 ; Sch. 36 ; N. 43 ; L. 43. 

He kneels, about to be beheaded. His cloak and hat lie on the 
ground. 

84. ST. JOHN. B. 40 ; H. 61 ; Sch. 37 ; N. 44 ; L. 44. 

Vested in a chasuble, he descends alive into the tomb prepared for 
him behind the altar, as the acolyte extinguishes a taper after mass. 

95. ST. PHILIP. B. 41 ; H. 62 ; Sch. 38 ; N. 45 ; L. 45. 

He hangs on the cross, surrounded by a throng of men, mounted and 
on foot, who look up at him. 

86. ST. BARTHOLOMEW. B. 42 ; H. 63 ; Sch. 39 ; N. 46. 

He is laid upon planks in the form of a cross and is being flayed. 

97. ST. THOMAS. B. 43 ; H. 64 ; Sch. 40 ; N. 47. 
He is pierced with a spear as he stands at the altar. 

98. ST. MATTHEW. B. 44 ; H. 65 ; Sch. 41 ; N. 48. 

He has been beheaded ; water gushes forth from two places at which 
his head has fallen on the ground. 

99. ST. JAMES THE LESS. B. 45 ; H. 66 ; Sch. 42 ; N. 49. 
He is thrown down from a pulpit and smitten with a fuller's club. 

100. ST. SIMON. B. 46; H. 67; Sch. 43; N. 50. 
He is sawn asunder. 

101. ST. JUDE. B. 47 ; H. 68; Sch. 44; N. 51. 
He is clubbed to death in a church. 

102. ST. MATTHIAS. B. 48 ; H. 69 ; Sch. 45 ; N. 52 ; L. 46. 
He is beheaded with a guillotine. 

[c. 163 x 126.] Good impressions throughout, without margin ; not quite 
uniform. 

Nos. 95 and 98 purchased at Prince de Paar's sale, 1854 ; no. 94 from Messrs. 
Deprez and Gutekunst, 1891 ; the remaining nine from Messrs. Obach and Co., 
1904. 



312 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

LATE IMPRESSIONS. 
91a. ST. PETER. B. 37. 

92a. ST. ANDREW. B. 38. 

93a. ST. JAMES THE GREATER. B. 39. 

94a. ST. JOHN. B. 40. 

95a. ST. PHILIP. B. 41. 

96a. ST. BARTHOLOMEW. B. 42. 

97a. ST. THOMAS. B. 43. 

98a. ST. MATTHEW. B. 44. 

99a. ST. JAMES THE LESS. B. 45. 

lOOa. ST. SIMON. B. 46. 

lOla. ST. JUDE. B. 47. 

102a. ST. MATTHIAS. B. 48. 

Nos. 91a-101a are from the 1548 edition of Luther, " Das Syxnbolum der Heiligen 
Aposteln," with German text on the back, the title being on the back of no. 91a. 
These are from the Storck collection (Milan, 1797) and were purchased from Mr. 
Tiffin, 1849. No. 102a, a later impression without text on the back, was presented 
by Dr. Percy, F.R.S., 1858. 

[103-116.] 

CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES. 

B. vii, 281, 23-36; H. 139, 44-57; Sch. ii, 215, 46-59; N. 27-40; L. 37-40. 

103. CHRIST. B. 23; H. 44; Sch. 46; N. 27. 

He stands, in the act of blessing, holding an orb in his 1. hand. 
Round his head is a cloud full of cherubim. On either side of Christ's 
mantle are the two Saxon shields ; on the ground 1. is the winged 
serpent. 

[329 X 184.] Good impression, on thin white paper ; cut within the border-line, 
as are all that follow. Watermark, a dog with post-horn on its back. 
Purchased at Prince de Paar's sale, 1854. 

104. ST. PETER, WITH BOOK AND KEY. B. 24 ; H. 45 ; Sch. 59 ; N. 28. 

[309 x 182.] On the lower margin is printed : " I. Ich gleub an Gott Vater 
allmechtigen, Schopffer Himels vnd | der Erden." Watermark and provenance as 
no. 103. 

105. ST. ANDREW, WITH BOOK AND CROSS. 

B. 25 ; H. 46 ; Sch. 48 ; N. 29 ; L. 38. 

[312 x 187.] "II. Vnd an Jhesum Christum, seinen einigen Son, vnsern | 
HErrn.'' Watermark, etc., as no. 103. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 313 

106. ST. JAMES THE GREATER, AS A PILGRIM. 

B. 26; H. 47 ; Sch. 49 ; N. 30; L. 39. 

[313 X 185.] " III. Der empfangen 1st von dem heiligen Geist, Geborn aus | 
Maria der Jungfrawen." Watermark, etc., as no. 103. 

107. ST. JOHN, WITH A CHALICE. B. 27 ; H. 48 ; Sch. 50 ; N. 31 ; L. 40. 

[302 x 182.] " III. Gelitten vnter Pontio Pilato, gecreutziget, gestorben vnd | 
begraben." Watermark, a larger dog, without post-horn. Provenance as no. 103. 

108. ST. PHILIP, WITH A CROSS. B. 28 ; H. 49 ; Sch. 51 ; N. 32. 

[304 x 182.] " V. Nidder gefaren zur Hellen, am dritten Tage wider auffer- | 
standen von den todten." Watermark, small high crown. Provenance as no. 103. 

109. ST. BARTHOLOMEW, WITH HIS FLAYED SKIN. 

B. 29; H. 50; Sch. 52; N. 33. 

[311 x 182.] " VI. Auffgefaren gen Himel, Sitzend zu der rechten Gottes des .| 
Allmechtigen Vaters." Watermark and provenance as no. 103. 

109a. ST. BARTHOLOMEW. B. 29 ; H. 50 ; Sch. 52 ; N. 33. 

[Woodcut, 315 x 188 ; sheet, 348 x 235.] A better preserved impression, from 
another edition, with margin. Over the woodcut is the title, " S. Bartholomeus." 
On the r. side a biographical notice in 28 lines, " Von diesem finde ich . . . vnd 
endtlich kopffen lassen." Beneath the woodcut the same text as under no. 109, but 
the first line ends with " all-." Watermark, high crown with a star at the top. 

Purchased from Mr. Evans, 1849. 

110. ST. THOMAS, WITH BOOK AND SPEAR. 

B. 30 ; H. 51 ; Sch. 53 ; N. 34. 

[310 X 184.] " VII. Von dannen er komen wird zu richten die Lebendigen vnd 
| die Todten." Watermark and provenance as no. 103. 

111. ST. MATTHEW, WITH BOOK AND CARPENTER'S SQUARE. 

B. 31 ; H. 52 ; Sch. 54 ; N. 35. 

[310 x 183.] " VIII. Ich gleube an den heiligen Geist." No watermark. 
Provenance as no. 103. 

112. ST. JAMES THE LESS, WITH BOOK AND FULLER'S CLUB. 

B. 32 ; H. 53 ; Sch. 55 ; N. 36. 

[310 x 180.] "IX. Eine Heilige Christliche Kirche, die gemeine der Heiligen." 
Watermark and provenance as no. 103. 

113. ST. SIMON, WITH A SAW. B. 33; H. 54; Sch. 56; N. 37. 

[312x185.] "X. Vergebung der Sunden." Watermark, high crown with star 
above, post-horn beneath. Provenance as no. 103. 

114. ST. JUDE, WITH A CLUB. B. 34; H. 55; Sch. 57; N. 38. 

[309 x 181.] "XI. Aufferstehung des Fleisches." Watermark as no. 113, but 
the post-horn is inside the lower outline of the crown, not beneath it. Provenance 
as no. 103. 

115. ST. MATTHIAS, WITH AN AXE. B. 35; H. 56; Sch. 58; N. 39. 

[309 x 182.] " XII. Vnd ein ewiges Leben, Amen." Watermark, high crown 
without a horn. Provenance as no. 103. 



314 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

116. ST. PAUL, WITH TWO SWORDS. B. 36; H. 57; Sch. 47; N. 40; L. 37. 

[302 x 180.] No margin. Watermark and provenance as no. 103. 

Of this series there are several editions and several sets of copies, both most fully 
represented at Berlin. For instance, B. 23. (1) Early impression without text, wide 
margin ; (2) Over the woodcut, " Jhesus Christus warhaff- | tiger Gott vnd Mensch," 
at side, "At soist es geschrieben," etc. (17 lines). (3) Later impression without text, 



top, " S. Andreas" ; r. " Von Andrea Petri bru," etc. (13 lines). (4) At top, " S. Andreas. 
Apostel " (later impression). B. 26. (1) At top, " S. Jacob der grosser " ; r. " Zebedei 
Son," etc. (28 lines). (2) At top, " S. Jacob der grosser"; r. " Zebedei son, Johannis," 
etc. (17 lines). (3) " S. Jacob der grosser . . Apostel." B. 27. (1) At top, " S. Johannes 
der Euangelist," r. " Diesen hat," etc. (30 lines). (2) At top, " S. Johannes der Euan- 
gelist," r. " Diesen hat Domicia- | ," etc. (18 lines). (3) " 4. S. Johannes . Apostel. 
vnd Euagelist." And so forth. 

Among the copies the most interesting, on account of their early date, are the 
reduced ones in reverse published in the " Hortulus Animae," printed by J. Schoffer, 
Mainz, 1516. These were reprinted in " Gatholica Nauseae," J. Schoffer, Mainz, 
1529,' SS. Andrew, Matthew and Paul excepted, and again in the Hortulus Animae, 
Dillingen, 1574. 

Another set of copies produced at Augsburg appeared in two editions, accompanied 
in each case by a border from the design of Weiditz. Both editions are represented 
at Berlin, the first only by a single Apostle (194-1903, copy of B. 33). The first 
edition has the fine architectural border, Rottinger 48, designed about 1519. The 
second, of which twelve sheets are preserved at Berlin (830-2, etc., Christ and St. 
Matthias, B. 35, are wanting), is in a border in the style of the Oecolampadius title- 
borders of 1521, Rottinger, 40, 41. At the bottom on each side is a dolphin's head, 
then an undulating pattern of large leaves, with a large five-petalled flower at top. 
The background is shaded obliquely with black lines on a white ground. The r. side 
repeats the 1. approximately. The height is 305 mm., the width of each side at the 
bottom 30 mm., at the top 78 mm. 1. side, 100 mm. r. side. At the top the two sides 
nearly meet, but there is a gap of 38 mm. just over the head of each Apostle. The 
size of the sheet is 320 x 217 mm. At the top is a white margin on which the name 
of the Apostle is printed. The copies described by Heller (Diirer), nos. 2221-2282 > 
are at Bremen. These are mentioned in Heller's Granach catalogue, among other 
copies, separately under the name of each Apostle, in the second place. 

117. FREDERICK THE WISE IN PRAYER BEFORE THE VIRGIN AND 
CHILD. B. vii, 287, 77 ; H. 171, 100 (247) ; Sch. ii, 234, 97 ; N. 84 ; L. 34. 

The naked child sits 1. upon his mother's lap, holding a bunch of 
grapes in his 1. hand. The Elector, r., three-quarter face to L, wearing a 
mantle with a fur collar, folds his hands in prayer. Across a low wall 
we see a landscape, with a large tree r. A festoon of fruit is suspended 
from the top. On a ledge in front lies a closed book ; farther to r. is the 
winged serpent, carefully drawn on a large scale. 

[369 x 230.] Early impression, but grey and ineffectively printed, with margin 
[10-15]. Watermark, large high crown. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Flechsig (p. 50-51) dates this woodcut about 1514, calling attention to the fine 
execution of the serpent and the resemblance to the large series of Apostles. He 
remarks that this is the only woodcut by Cranach himself in which Frederick the 
Wise is represented ; I should add L. 51. 

The fine impression of this extremely rare woodcut in the Albertina has the same 
watermark as ours. At Gotha is an old, but late, coloured impression with the name 
" Hans Guldenmundt" ; an uncoloured impression of the same edition is reproduced 
in the A. von Lanna sale catalogue, Stuttgart, 1909, pi. 8. In the Liechtenstein 
collection is a coarse copy. 

1 A copy of this book is in the Department. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 315 

118. THE BEHEADING OP ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 

B. vii, 284, 62 ; H. 166, 87 (228) ; Sch. ii, 226, 80 ; N. 72 ; L. 47. 

The body lies prone upon a platform, where the executioner is 
sheathing his sword. Three armed men stand near him, three others on 
the floor below, one of whom picks up the Baptist's head, which had 
fallen over the edge of the platform. The daughter of Herodias, with an 
escort, descends some steps r., carrying the charger to receive the head. 
A group of men watch the scene from a gallery above. The two Saxon 
shields are suspended near them ; the winged serpent is in the r. lower 
corner. 

[330 x 232.] Very fine impression. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
Flechsig (p. 50) dates this woodcut about 1514-15. 



vii. WOODCUTS SOME DATED 1515-1520. Nos. 119-123. 

t GEORG SPALATIN BEFORE A CRUCIFIX. 1515. 

Sch. ii, 239, 102 ; P. iv, 10, 165 ; N. 88 ; L. 48. 

Reproduction presented by Dr. Lippmann, 1902. 

119. ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST PREACHING. 1516. 

B. vii, 283, 60 ; H. 166, 85 (226) ; Sch. ii, 225, 78 ; N. 70 ; L. 49. 

St. John stands 1. behind a rail which is supported by the fork of a 
tree. He gesticulates with his r. hand as he addresses the crowded 
congregation partly seated, partly standing to r. in a clearing of the 
wood. The two Saxon shields are suspended from branches; a tablet 
containing the serpent and date 1516 lies on the ground r. 

[335 X 236.] Early impression, black. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The chiaroscuro impressions, with the tone-block printed in yellow, are rare, but 
bad and late. Specimens are in the Albertina and the Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Paris. 

120. A TOURNAMENT (" ANZOGEN-RENNEN"). 1 

B. vii, 188, 37 ; H. (Durer) 2096 ; H. (Cranach) 235, 587 ; P. iii, 214, 287. 

Of the two combatants one has a shoe as a device on his helm, the 
other has the initial A repeated all over his shield and the trappings of 
his horse. Both are unseated, and the lance of the first has splintered. 
No signature. 

[239 X 330.] Good impression. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This woodcut was treated in the older catalogues of Durer as belonging to the 
latter's Freydal series. 2 It does not correspond, however, to any subject among the 
original miniatures for Freydal, and its dimensions are considerably larger than 
those of the Freydal woodcuts. I attribute it without hesitation to Cranach, whose 
style betrays itself in the hands, drapery, the treatment of the straw on the ground, 
and, above all, in the clouds. The probable date is about 1516-17. 3 Repr., Hirth, 
475. There is a particularly good impression at Bremen. 

1 See Vol. I, p. 329. 
1 Vol. I, p. 328 f., nos. 131-135. 

3 See Repert. f. Kunstw. xxv, 449. I have recently observed that this woodcut had 
already been attributed to Cranach in Rost's Catalogue xxi, p. 295 (quoted by Heller). 



310 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

121. ST. BARBARA. B. vii, 285, 69 ; H. 168, 91 (233) ; Sch. ii, 229, 84 ; N. 76. 

She stands, three-quarter face to r., dressed as a gentlewoman of 
Cranach's time ; both her hands are covered with drapery, upon which a 
chalice rests. To 1. is a tower, upon which the winged serpent in the later 
shape is drawn in solid black, not, as hitherto, in outline. In the clouds 
to r. of St. Barbara's head is a human face ; the clouds to 1. take the 
semblance of a grotesque monster. 

[215 x 126.] Good impression, with margin [16] at top, on which the name, 
S. Barbara, is printed in large letters. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

This woodcut is the companion of the following, which is dated 1519. See 
Flechsig, p. 55. 

122. ST. CATHERINE. 1519. 

B. vii, 286, 71 ; H. 168, 93 (235) ; Sch. ii, 230, 85 ; N. 77 ; L. 52. 

She stands, three-quarter face to 1., holding in both hands a book in 
which she reads. Near her feet are a sword and portion of a wheel ; on 
the latter is the date 1519. The winged serpent, shaped as in no. 121, is 
in the air above the wheel. Among the clouds a man's face may be seen 
1. and a cherub's r. ; the other clouds bear a vague resemblance to 
animal forms. 

[215 x 126.] Good impression, with margin [15] at top, on which the name, 
Katharina, is printed in large letters. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

123. REPOSE OF THE HOLY FAMILY, WITH ANGELS DANCING. 

B. vii, 280, 4 ; H. 125, 4 (40) ; Sch. ii, 196, 9 ; N. 5 ; L. 33. 

The Virgin sits under a tree upon a rustic bench J like that which 
occurs several times in the work of Diirer. The naked child dances on 
her knee, holding an apple in his r. hand. St. Joseph stands behind 
watching them, his 1. elbow resting on the fork of a branch. Angel 
children dance in a circle round the Virgin and child ; two others, on a 
branch of the tree, are stealing the fledglings from a nest, to the 
indignation of the parent birds. Landscape background. The two 
Saxon shields are in the 1. upper corners, Cranach's serpent, in outline, 
in the r. lower corner. 

[338 x 236.] Fine impression, but with a crack already extending from the top 
of the block to St. Joseph's head. Watermark, bull's head with trefoil on a stalk. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 
Dated by Flechsig (pp. 52, 53, 295) about 1520. 

124. LUTHER AS " JUNKER JO'RG." 

H. 222, 293a (527) ; Sch. ii, 310, 179, iii, 254 ; P. iv, 18, 193 ; N. 171 ; L. 54. 

Second edition. Bare-headed, with moustache and beard ; bust, 
showing the r. shoulder, in three-quarter face to 1., looking upward. 
Clouds in background ; single border-line ; unsigned. 



1 In German, Rasenbank. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 317 

[285 x 208.] Damaged impression (watermark small high crown), with margin 
preserved only at the top. On this is printed the title : 

IMAGO MABTINI LVTHERI EO HABITV EX = 
PRESS A, QVO REVERSVS EST EX PATHMO VVITTE= 

BERGAM ANNO DOMINI 1522. 

Collection : Cracherode. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

124a. LUTHER AS " JUNKER JORG." 

H. 293a; Sch. 179; P. 193; N. 171 ; L. 54. 

Second edition : another impression. 

[Size of sheet, 326 X 207.] A finer impression (same watermark), the woodcut 
itself well preserved, but with margin only at the bottom, containing the remainder 
of the text. Beneath the centre of the portrait are the verses : 

Qusesitus toties, toties tibi Roma petitus, 
En ego per Christum uiuo Lutherus adhuc. 

Vna mihi spes est, quo non fraudabor, lesus, 
Hunc mini dum teneam, perfida Roma uale. 

Below this, Latin text in three columns : 

(Col. 1). ANNVS CONFESSIONIS VVOR= | MACI^E 1521. 

Csesarls ante peDes, proCeres stetlt ante potentes 
ACCola qVa RhenI Vanglo LIttVs aDIt. 

(Col. 2). ANNVS PATHMI | 1521 

A Rheno properans CapitVr, ben6 ConsCIa PathMI 
TeCta, PApse fVglens retla strVCta, petit. 

(Col. 3). ANNVS REDITVS EX | PATHMO 1522. 

CarLstaDII ob fVrlas aD SaXona teCta reCVrrlt, 
FaVCIbVs ex saeVIs rVrsVs oVesqVe raplt. 

The letters printed in capitals (C, D, I, L, M, V, X) within the words, give, when 
added together, the date required, except in the third column, where the date works 
out as 1512 ; the x in " ex," if printed X, would correct this error. 

Collections : Liphart, Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Luther, after leaving Worms on 26 April, 1521, was arrested near Altenburg on 
May 4th by two masked knights (his friends) and removed to the Wartburg (called 
here " Pathmos ") where he remained in retreat, dressed as a knight and letting his 
beard grow, until 3 March, 1522. During this time, in the first week of December, he 
paid a hasty visit to Wittenberg, where he remained a few days in strict seclusion, 
seeing only Cranach, who recognised him in his disguise by his voice, and a few 
other friends. During this visit Cranach painted, according to Dr. Flechsig, 1 the 
portrait in oils which is now in the Stadtbibliothek at Leipzig, of which the present 
woodcut, on Flechsig's theory, is a copy in reverse. I hold it, with Mr. Lionel 
Gust, 2 more probable that Cranach's original portrait was a drawing, reproduced 
directly in the painting and in reverse in the woodcut. The latter has been very 
highly praised by earlier writers on Cranach, and I see no reason why it should not 
be retained in the list of his original works, in the sense that the drawing on the 
block, even if it be a repetition of the picture (which I doubt), is by his own hand. 
This may be inferred from the clouds, drawn entirely in his manner. 

There are two editions of the woodcut. The earlier, reproduced by Lippmann, is 
preserved at Dresden 3 in a fine contemporary impression with broad margin [size 

1 P. 63, 108. 2 Burlington Magazine, xiv, 209. 

* Sch. iii, p. 254. 



318 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts, Part II. 

of sheet, 422 x 312] on which is an old inscription in verse, in red chalk, running 
round the woodcut. It has above the portrait only the name "Luthcrus " (sic), and 
beneath it the four verses, with different orthography. This edition must have 
appeared before Luther's final return to Wittenberg, to which allusion is made in 
the second edition. 1 In the first edition there is no break in the outline of the r. 
shoulder. In the Berlin collection is an undescribed copy of this woodcut by Hans 
Sebald Beham, in two states, the earlier having the date 1522 ; the late state is also 
in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna (L. 6,129). 

124b. LUTHER AS "JUNKER JORG." 

Copy. 

In the same direction. To be distinguished by the more mechanical 
regularity of the shading. In the upper margin is the name " Lutherus," 
showing that the copyist had the first edition before him. 

[Size of sheet (much cut), 265 x 193.] Damaged impression. In the portrait 
collection. 

Purchased at the Brentano sale, 1870. 



DOUBTFUL. 

125. PORTRAIT OF GEORG RHAW. 

H. 228, 307 (541) ; Sch. ii, 318, 193 ; N. 199 ; L. p. 16. 

Second state. 

Bust, in three-quarter face to 1., wearing a cap and cloak lined with 
fur, in a medallion, the border of which is inscribed : GEORGIVS RHAVV8 
TYPOGRAPHVS WITTEMB. ANNO /ETATIS SV>E . Lllll. 

[Diam. 100.] On recto of the last leaf of the Hortulus Animae printed by Rhaw, 
1548. Beneath are four Latin verses. 

Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 

The first state (reproduced by Lippmann) was used in an earlier edition in which 
the verses are the same, but the comma after "varios" in 1. 2 is lacking. The 
xylographic ornaments on the back are smaller. In the second state the shading 
along the rim and behind the head has been cut away, and much fine detail has been 
removed from the face, especially about the eyes and on the upper lip. The portrait 
of Luther in the same book was subjected to similar treatment. 

This woodcut cannot be positively ascribed to the elder Cranach, but I agree with 
Schuchardt and Lippmann in thinking it probable that he made the drawing with 
his own hand after a long interval, in which he had refrained from designing wood- 
cuts. The book contains, for the most part, reprints of early Cranach blocks ; the 
other portrait contemporary with the book itself, one of Luther standing, with 
serpent and date 1548 (B. 147, Sch. 159), is certainly not to be attributed to Lucas 
Granach I. 



APPENDIX TO LUCAS CRANACH I. 

WOODCUT PORTRAITS AFTER ENGRAVINGS OR PICTURES BY THE ELDER 

CRANACH. 

Numerous woodcuts exist, especially portraits of Saxon princes, 
which are commonly catalogued under the name of Cranach, but have, 
at the best, no closer relation to him than that of copies from works 

1 See Lippmann, text, p. 15. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 319 

executed in other mediums, generally oil-paintings, by Cranach or his 
assistants. Many of these portraits were produced at Nuremberg or else- 
where, and are not works of the Saxon school at all. They are very 
poorly represented in this collection as compared with those at Berlin, 
Dresden or Gotha. Some of these are attributed, on account of style, 
date or signature, to Lucas Cranach II. The anonymous woodcuts of 
which no more can be said than that they are probably after Lucas 
Cranach I are catalogued here. 

126. LUTHER AS AN AUGUSTINIAN FRIAR. 

H. 244, 653 ; Sch. ii, 312, 181 ; P. iv, 18, 194 ; N. 172. 

Half-length, with tonsure and monastic habit, holding an open book. 
He stands in front of a niche ; on the wall, r., is the date 1520. Over 
his head, on a separate block which completes the round arch of the niche, 
is the dove of the Holy Ghost. On a tablet below, forming part of the 
main block, is the xylographic inscription : EFFIGIES DOCTORIS 
MARTINI LVTHERI I AVGVSTINIANI WITTENBERGESIS^:-' I ~:~1520 ~:^ 

[205 x 123 ; height of upper block, 30.] Early impression, with fine contemporary 
colouring ; the hair and habit dark brown, book and wall pale pink, back of niche 
green, tablet yellow. 

Purchased from Messrs. Obach and Co., 1903. 

This state is undescribed; Sch. and P. quote a German inscription, Doctor 
Martinus Luther zu Wittenberg 1520. This is probably an inaccurate version of the 
xylographic inscription, Doctor Martinvs Luther Avgvstiner | zv Wittenbergk 
~:~ 1520 -c- which occurs on a fine impression (without the dove) at Berlin. That 
impression has six German couplets, printed with type, below : 

Der Luther heyss ich, das ist wor, 
Dan mein leer lauter ist vnd klor, etc. 

The whole sheet measures 227 x 122 mm. 

On the numerous copies of this woodcut, see Schuchardt, and A. Hagelstange, 
Zeitschrift filr Bilcherfreunde, 1907, xi, 97 (p. 104 for this woodcut). The copy re- 
produced by Hagelstange, p. 99, is by Weiditz ; another, which he omits to mention, 
is by Baldung (Eis. 145). 

The woodcut itself is evidently a copy of the engraving of Luther in a niche (P. 8), 
signed with the Cranach serpent, reproduced in Lippmann'a work as no. 63. The 
draughtsman on wood, while he omits the hand, has inserted the architectural 
framework to the niche. The engraving is unfavourably criticized by Flechsig, 
p. 57, who attributes it (p. 250) to Hans Cranach, treating it as a copy of the father's 
original engraving, L. 61. 

126a. LUTHER AS AN AUGUSTINIAN FRIAR. 

H. 653 ; Sch. 181 ; P. 194 ; N. 172. 

Copy. 

In the same direction, deceptive, but with a thick border-line at top 
and bottom, where in the original there is a slightly marked division 
between the portrait itself and the upper block, on the one hand, the 
tablet on the other. 

[154 x 123.] Good impression. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., 1852. 

On this copy, see Hagelstango, p. 105 ; it is reproduced on p. 100. 

The same copy is found, but in a much worn state, the upper corners broken and 
only " 15 " remaining of the date, in " Wider den newen | Abgot vnd alten Teufell, 
der zu | Meyssen sol erhaben | werden. | M. Luther. | Wittemberg. | M.D. XXiiij." 
(Nuremberg) 4*. 



320 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part, II. 

127. THE ELECTOR JOHN I, THE CONSTANT. 

Bust, in three-quarter face to 1., wearing a cap. In the 1. upper 
corner the two Saxon shields, in contact. 

[272 x 219.] Modern impression. 
Purchased from Mr. Durrell, 1848. 

The block is in the Derschau collection, Becker, B 20. The connexion with 
Cranach is remote. Probably a Nuremberg woodcut. 

128. THE ELECTOR JOHN FREDERICK I, THE MAGNANIMOUS. H. 608. 

As a young man, before the scar on his cheek. Bust, in three-quarter 
face to 1., bare-headed, wearing a fur cape. On his collar are two rows of 
S's embroidered in pearls. Over his shoulder, r., is Cranach's serpent. 
In the 1. and r. upper corners are the electoral and ducal arms of Saxony. 

[331 x 265.] Late, but not quite modern impression. 
Purchased at the W. L. Schreiber sale, 1909. 

129. SIBYLLA OF CLEVES. H. 620. 

Half-length, three-quarter face to r., with the motto ALS IN EREN 
embroidered in pearls upon her cap and collar. The electoral arms are in 
the 1., those of Cleves in the r. upper corner. Over her shoulder, L, is 
Cranach's serpent. 

[330 x 265.] Late, but not quite modern impression ; a companion to no. 128. 
Purchased at the W. L. Schreiber sale, 1909. 

129a. SIBYLLA OF CLEVES. H. 620. 

[327 x 260.] Modern impression (Derschau, B 47, called in the text 48) from 
the same block, which has been meanwhile repaired. The serpent has gone ; the 
upper border-line now touches the top of the electoral shield from which it was 
removed, in no. 129, by an interval of 1 mm. The sharp corner, r., of the outer 
collar, level with the chin, which was broken off, and in no. 129 made up with pen 
and ink, has now been inserted by a patch on the block. The long vertical crack 
beneath it remains visible as before, but has been partially closed up in the printing. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., 1871. 

130. THE ELECTOR JOHN FREDERICK I, THE MAGNANIMOUS. 

Bust, in three-quarter face to left, with the scar on the 1. cheek, in 
front of a niche. Near the upper corners are two coats-of-arms, duchy of 
Saxony, with crown of rue, 1., and Thuringia r. In the lower corner r. 
the date 1547. 

[306 x 241.] Modern impression. 
Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

131. DUKE JOHN ERNEST OF SAXONY. Sch. ii, 309, 176. 

Bust of a young man, clean-shaven, in a hat with feather, nearly full 
face, but turned slightly to r. In the r. upper corner the arms of the 
duchy of Saxony. 

[325 X 267.] Modern impression (copy, Derschau, B 48 in the text, 47), uniform 
with no. 129a. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1850. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach I. 321 

132. DUKE GEORGE, AFTERWARDS CALLED "THE BEARDED." 

Copy of B. vii, 298, 143. 

Bust, three-quarter face to 1., with very short hair, a wreath on his 
head, wearing the order of the Golden Fleece. In 1. upper corner the 
arms of the duchy of Saxony, in r. those of Thuringia. 

[335 x 265.] Modern impression of the copy (Derschau, B 23), uniform with 
nos. 129a and 131. 

Purchased from Mr. Buttler, 1873. 

An old coloured impression of B. 143, at Dresden, has, above the portrait, "Von 
gots genaden Georg Hertzog zu Sachssen, LantgrafE in Doringen, Margraff zu 
Meissen," and below, " Zu Nurnberg bey Hanns Wandereisen " (no serpent). This 
cut has five lines on the forehead where the Derschau cut has three, and the shape 
of the shields is different. There is an impression of the other (Derschau) block 
with the serpent. 

133. MARTIN LUTHER. Sch. iii, 257, 189 b. 

Bust, three-quarter face to 1., looking upward ; wearing a cap and coat 
with high collar. Above the cap are lines reaching to the top of the 
block, the purpose of which is not clear, but they are probably the 
remains of a tablet which contained an inscription before the block was 
mutilated. 

[330 x 276.] Late impression. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

Repr. W. L. Schreiber Sale Catalogue, no. 231. This and nos. 134, 135 are 
presumably after pictures by Cranach. 

134. KATHARINA VON BORA. 

Bust, three-quarter face to r.. the hair in a net. She wears a gown 
trimmed with fur, black bodice, white stomacher and collar. The arms 
are seen to the elbow. 

[328 x 273.] Late impression, similar to no. 133. 
Purchased at the Brentano sale, 1870. 

135. PHILIP MELANCHTHON. 

Bust, three-quarter face to r., bare-headed, wearing a gown with the 
pointed collar turned up. 

[325 x 277.] Late impression, similar to nos. 133 and 134. 
In the inventory of 1837. 



322 



II. HANS CRANACH. 

Hans, elder son of Lucas Cranach the Elder ; b. after 1500 
(date unknown), pupil of his father at Wittenberg ; travelled in 1537 
to Italy ; d. at Bologna, 9 October 1537. 

Authorities : 

J. Stigel, " In immaturum obitum ornatissimi juvenis et eximii 
pictoris Johannis Cranachii, consulis Vittebergensis Lucae 
Cranachii filii, qui in Italiain profectus, Bononiae obiit, 
Epicoedion" (Poemata Johannis Stigelii, Jenae 1572). In 
the edition of 1577 the title is thus abridged : " In immaturum 
obitum Johannis | Lucae F. Cranachii." 

M. Luther, " Tischreden," Leipzig, 1700 (the date of Hans Cranach's 
death is wrongly given as 1536). 

J. Heller, C. Schuchardt see L. Cranach I. 

M. B. Lindau, "Lucas Cranach," Leipzig, 1883, pp. 292-304. 

E. Flechsig, " Die Losung der Pseudogriinewald-Frage," Kunst- 
chronik, 1899, N.F. x., 337. 

H. Michaelson, " Hans Cranach," ibid., 373. 

E. Flechaig, " Cranachstudien I. Teil," Leipzig, 1900, pp. 110-250, 
especially from p. 179 onwards. 

The only authenticated work of Hans Cranach is a sketch-book 
in the Kestner Museum at Hanover (Lippmann, " Cranach," pp. 4, 5). 
His name has only come into prominence since 1899, when Dr. Eduard 
Flechsig, at the opening of the Cranach exhibition at Dresden, 
published in a summarized form his arguments for identifying the 
" Pseudo-Grunewald," an artist allied to, but distinct from Lucas 
Cranach the Elder, with Hans Crauacb. These arguments were 
further developed in the " Cranachstudien " (1900), but Dr. Flechsig 
has not fulfilled his promise to deal more fully with the work of 
Hans, and especially his woodcuts, in a later part of the same 
enquiry. The pictures need not here be considered, but it is on 
woodcuts, the two portraits of Christian II of Denmark (1523), that 
the argument really hinges. These are signed with the serpent, and 
everything indicates that they were produced under Cranach's 
immediate supervision ; an old tradition even relates that Christian 



Division D. School of Saxony. Hans Cranach. 323 

resided in Cranach's house during his visit to Wittenberg. But the 
serpent differs in form from that used by Lucas Cranach, and it is 
universally agreed that the style of the woodcuts is not Lucas 
Cranach's own. Does the serpent, then, hereby mean that the 
woodcuts issued from Cranach's workshop ? No, Flechsig replies ; it 
has its strict heraldic meaning as a distinctive mark of the Cranach 
family, to whom it was granted as their heraldic bearings in 1508 ; 
in 1523 no one had a right to use it except Cranach himself and his 
sons. The younger of these was aged eight ; there only remains 
the elder, Hans, whose age, unfortunately, is not recorded. 1 

The two portraits of Christian II are inseparably connected with 
certain groups of Wittenberg and Leipzig titlepages, and with the 
Halle relic-book of 1520 ; Flechsig partly sketches, partly hints at, 
a considerable ceuvre to be attributed to the same artist. His identi- 
fication was received at first with a good deal of scepticism, and it 
was pointed out that his interpretation somewhat strains the language 
of Stigel, our one authority for Hans Cranach's biography, with 
regard to that artist's age, or rather his youth. One or two of 
Flechsig's attributions, on the other hand, have been disproved. 
But, in the main, a tendency is noticeable in the more recent 
literature to accept Hans Cranach as the author of the group of 
woodcuts, and at least a part of the pictures, attributed to him by 
Dr. Flechsig. 2 " Hans Cranach " is used here as a more appropriate 
and convenient name than " Pseudo-Griinewald " for a certain young 
Wittenberg artist working about 1520 under Cranach's influence, but 
only with the distinct reservation that the identification of that 
artist with Hans remains an hypothesis neither proved nor disproved 
for want of paintings or woodcuts authenticated as Hans Cranach'a 
work. No attempt has been made to trace his hand throughout the 
great mass of Wittenberg illustrations of the years 1520-37, but a 
few new attributions are here included which seem to arise naturally 
out of those already made by Flechsig. 



* Arguing solely from the works attributed to " Hans Cranach," the earliest of 
which is a picture at Aschaff enburg, dated 1516, Flechsig assumes that he was born 
about 1500. Lucas was born in 1515, the youngest child Anna in 1520, and there is 
reason for thinking that the other daughters were born between Lucas and Anna. 
This leaves a surprising interval between Hans and Lucas, but it is quite possible 
that several children may have been born during these years and died young, just as 
in the Diirer family three children only survived, out of eighteen, and the junior 
painter, Hans, was nineteen years younger than the senior, Albrecht. 

2 The hypothesis is most fully accepted by E. Heyck in his book on Cranach 
(Kunstler-Monographien, no. 95), which deals with pictures only. 



Y 2 



324 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY HANS CRANACH. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [LUTHER.] DE BONIS OPERI- | bus Docto. Martini | 
Lutheri Li- | ber. J. Griinenberg, Wittenberg, 1521 ; 4*. (Dommer 
192.) 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Flechsig's border 10, with birds, animals, printing-press, and monogram of J. 
Griinenberg [165 x 125; opening, 85 x 63], Sch. ii, 290, 137; P. iv, 23, 214. 

2. [LUTHER.] Auff des bocks zu | Leypczick Ant- | wort D. M. | 
Luther. | Wittenberg. | 1521. (J. Grunenberg, Wittenberg, 1521. 
Dommer 205.) 4*. 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1869. 
The same border as in no. 1. 

3. [LUTHER.] ANTITHESIS FIGVRATA VITAE | CHRISTI 
ET ANTHICHRISTI. (J. Grunenberg, Wittenberg, 1521. Dommer 

237) 4 to . 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1851. 

Flechsig's border 12, with a large vine-leaf and columns with tritons and nereids 
at their bases [169 x 121]. Twenty-six illustrations [o. 118 x 96]. Sch. ii, 240, 104. 

Christ fleeing from the Jews who wish to make him King. 

The Pope asserting his superiority to the Emperor and denying him access. 

Christ being crowned with Thorns. 

The Pope assuming the Triple Tiara. 

Christ washing the Apostles' Feet. 

The Emperor kissing the Pope's Toe. 

Peter finding the Tribute Money in the Fish's Mouth and paying it at Christ's 



2. 
3. 

1. 
5. 
0. 
7.. 

command. 
(8.) The Pope fulminating against an Emperor who receives Money from 

Ecclesiastics. 



(9. 
(10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 



Christ healing Cripples and Lepers. 
The Pope watching a Tournament. 
Christ bearing the Cross. 
The Pope carried in a Litter. 
Christ preaching to the People. 
The Pope and Bishops at a Banquet. 



15.) Mary and Joseph adore the Infant lying in a Manger. 

16.) The Pope in command of an Army. 

(17.) Christ's entry into Jerusalem, riding upon an Ass. 

(18.) The Pope riding with a stately Betinue. Hell in the Distance. 

(19.) Christ forbidding his Disciples to take Gold and Silver, or two Coats. 

!20.) The Pope points out to a Bishop the stateliness of his Cathedral City. 

21.) Christ saying to the Pharisees, "The Kingdom of God cometh not with 
observation." 



(22. 
(23. 
(24. 
(25. 



The Pope giving his blessing to Monks and Nuns who kneel before him. 
Christ expelling the Money-changers from the Temple. 
The Pope enthroned in Church receiving Money for Indulgences. 
The Ascension. 



(26.) The fall of Antichrist into Hell. 

The woodcuts have not hitherto been attributed to Hans Cranach, but they are 
connected by several links with the group put together as his work by Flechsig. 
Observe, especially, the resemblance of Christ in no. 25 with Christ in the Besurrec- 



Division D. School of Saxony. Hans Cranach. 325 

tion in " Eyn deutsch Theologia," 1518 ; in no. 26 the face of the devil on the right 
resembles the masks of frequent occurrence in the Heiligthumsbuch and the title- 
pages ; the ornaments at the foot of the throne resemble those in the Heiligthums- 
buch, sig. P 5 v. ; the ornaments on sig. B 3 are also characteristic of Hans Cranach. 
It is impossible to attribute these illustrations to Lucas Cranach, though his influence 
is strongly marked in them. No. 18 was used on the back of the title-page of " Eyn 
Clag vnd bitt der deutsche | Nation an den almechtigen | gott umb erloszug | auss | 
dem gefencknis des | Antichrist (n.p.d.), 4*. 

4. [LUTHER.] Passional Christi vnd | Antichrist!. (M. Maler, 
Erfurt, 1521. Dommer 238) 4 to . 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Contains copies of the title-page and complete set of illustrations in no. 3. 

5. [LUTHER.] Yon men- | schen lere zu | meyden .... Wittem- 
berg, M.D.xxij. (J. Griinenberg, Wittenberg. 1522. Dommer 280) 4 to . 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Flechsig's border 5, containing 1. a man with a squirrel on his shoulder, r. a man 
drinking, the arms of Saxony above and those of Wittenberg below. [158 x 118 ; 
opening, 113 x 72]. 

6. [LUTHER.] Von eynsetzung vnnd | ordnung der diener der 
kirch | en (n.p.) 1524 ; 4 to . 

Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1887. 
Copy of Flechsig's border 16 (for the original, see p. 329, no. 17). 

7. [MELANCHTHON.] Eyn schrifft Phi- | lippi Melanchthon | 
widder die arti- 1 kel der Bawr- 1 schafft. (J. Griinenberg, Wittenberg, 
1525) 4 to . 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Flechsig's border 8, containing angels with musical instruments [160 X 119 ; 
opening, 115 x 76], in the second state (Dommer 69 B). The electoral swords have 
been removed from the upper shield, and the small Saxon arms with the crown of 
rue from the lower one. 

8. [LUTHER.] Eyu brieff an die | Christen Zu | Straspurg | widder 
den schwer- | mer geyst. (Cranach and Doring, Wittenberg, 1525) 4 to . 
(Knaake l 32.) 

Transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1889. 

Flechsig's border 17, with a portico and two angels holding a disc with Luther's 
device of a rose, and on either side of it the initials M L in white [166 x 128 ; 
opening, 61 x 59]. 

9. [LUTHER.] Eyn Sermon von | stercke vnd zunemen des 
glaubens vnd der | liebe. | Aus der Epistel S. | Pauli zun Ephe- 1 sern. 
Mart. | Luther. | Wittemberg. | M.D.XXVI. (M. Letter jun., Witten- 
berg, 1526) 4 to . 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Border not described by Flechsig, with three stags and a hind below, male and 
female monsters above, on either side of a vase, upon a background shaded from 
right to left [171 X 120 ; opening, 77 X 59]. P. iv, 24, 123. Bepr. Butsch i, 93 (from 
a book of 1527). 

1 " tTber Cranach's Presse," Centralbl. /. Bibliothekswesen, vii, 196 ff. 



326 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

10. [BIBLE.] Das naw | testament nach lawt | der Christliche 
kirchen | bewerte text, corrigirt, vn wider | umb zu recht gebracht . 
m.d.xxvij. (Eraser's Catholic Version). W. Stockel, Dresden (1527); 
fol. 

Purchased from Mr. Thorp, 1851. 

Nineteen illustrations to the Apocalypse from the series first used at Wittenberg 
in the September and December editions of Luther's translation, 1522 (p. 330, nos. 23, 
24 ; see the remarks there made), Sch. ii, 208, 33. Emser applied to Lucas Cranach, 
by order of Duke George of Saxony, for the use of the blocks to illustrate his trans- 
lation of the New Testament, and paid forty thalers for the privilege. This only 
proves that the blocks were Cranach's property. The two subjects not used in the 
1527 edition were replaced by new woodcuts designed by Lemberger. 

11. [MELANCHTHON.] Vnterricht | Philip. Melan. | Wider die 
Lore | der Widerteuffer aus dem | latin verdeudschet, durch | Just. Jonas 
| Wittemberg | MDXXVIII. (N. Schirlentz, Wittenberg, 1528) 4 to . 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

On the title-page is the autograph of Veit Dietrich (Vitus Theodorij). 

Border with the Trinity, two prophets, the Nativity, and three shields with the 
devices of Luther, Melanchthon and Schirlentz. [172 x 120: opening, 63 X 481, 
P. iv, 23, 119. 

12. [POLLICARIUS.] Der heiligen XII. | Aposteln ankunfft, 
beruff, glauben, | lere, leben vnd seliges absterben, etc. Successors of 
G. Rhaw, Wittenberg, 1549 ; fol. 

Purchased from Mr. Evans, 1851. 

Eleven of the Apostles on the title-page (see p. 276, no. 2) may be by Hans Cranach, 
assuming that they are much earlier than the date of this book. The Creation, 
sig. A 4, 157 X 106, seems to be by the same hand as the border in no. 11 (P. 119). 
On B 5 v. is the Resurrection, Sch. 94, P. 162, first used in 1518 (see p. 330, no. 20). 



DOUBTFUL. 

13. [LUTHER.] Der Erste Theil | Der Bucher, Schrifften, vnd | 
Predigten . . . D. Martin Luthers. V. Gaubisch, Eisleben, 1564; fol. 

Purchased from Messrs. Heussner and Lauser, 1879. 

(1-65.) Sixty-five woodcuts [80 x 60], representing the pope, the Catholic 
hierarchy and the religious orders, by an artist of the school of Cranach, not recorded 
as appearing earlier than 1557. Judging, however, by internal evidence, it would 
seem that these woodcuts were produced at the time of the composition of Luther's 
work, Das Pabstthum mit seinen Gliedern (1526), though the illustrations in the 
editions of that year are by Beham (Pauli, 1124-1196). They strongly resemble the 
illustrations to " Passional Christi und Antichrist!," and may well be by the same 
artist five years later. These illustrations themselves were formerly erroneously 
attributed to Beham. (See Pauli, nos. 1124a-1196a.) They are printed from fifty- 
six blocks, nine of which are used twice. 



B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OP PRINTED BOOKS. 

Nos. 1-19 are quoted for their title-borders only. Their arrangement 
is not strictly chronological, but follows the order adopted by Flechsig in 



Division D. School of Saxony. Hans Cranach. 327 

his enumeration of the Hans Cranach borders. 1 Nos. 1, 2, 5, 8 were 
printed by M. Lotter, sen., Leipzig, 3, 4, 7 by M. Letter, jun., 6, 9, 10, 11, 
13 by J. Griinenberg, 12, 14, 17, 18 by Cranach and Doring, 15, 16 and 
19 by N. Schirlentz, Wittenberg. 

1. [LANGIUS.] Oratio | loannis Langij Lembergij, Encomium 
theo- j logicse disputationis .... coplectens. M. Lotter, sen. ; Leipzig, 
27 July 1519; 4 to (Pr. 11376). 

Border with the Holy Family, St. Dorothy, and a group of children singing and 
playing from a sheet of music, attributed by Flechsig, p. 221, to Hans Cranach. 
Signed A (presumably the mark of the woodcutter). Wrongly attributed to Holbein 
(Pass, iii, 411, 117). Repr. Butsch, i, 88. Proctor's border (M. Lotter, sen.) C. 
Also used in Pr. 11558 and 11907 (M. Lotter, jun., Wittenberg). 

2. [SUAVENIUS.] Petri Suaue | nii Equitis [ Pomerani | ad 
Joanne | Cellariu epi | stola Apo j logetica. (M. Lotter, sen., Leipzig, 
1519) 4 to (Pr. 11379). 

Border with eleven half-lengths of musicians and nine poets round the Castalian 
spring, attributed by Flechsig, p. 221, to Hans Cranach. 

3. [LUTHER.] Appellatio D. Mar- 1 tini Lutheri ad | Concilium a | 
Leone Decimo, denuo re | petita & innouata. | Wittembergae. (M. Lotter, 
jun., Wittenberg, 1520) 4 to . (Dommer 182 ; Pr. 11896). 

Border with a hermit and nun. Fl. 1 ; Dom. 77 ; Gotze 159 = Butsch, i, 90. The 
border was repeated in the following books of 1521-23, all in the library : Dommer 
201 (Pr. 11908), 254, 266, 327, 334, 360. Also in the following not mentioned by 
Dommer : [Luther] Evangelium | Von den tzehen ausz- | setzigen vordeutscht | vnd 
ausgelegt | Mar. Luth. Wittenberg (earlier than Dommer 254), and [Luther] Das 
eyn Christliche ver- | samlung odder gemeyne | recht vnd macht habe : al- | le lere 
zu vrteyleH, etc., M. Lotter, jun., Wittenberg, 1523; 4'. (Baer, Cat. 500, no. 736, 
but with " Christeliche.") 

Dommer 254 contains G, and D. 266 H, I, Q, V, of the alphabet designed by Hans 
Cranach in the same style as the border (see Dommer, p. 239). D from the same 
alphabet occurs on sig. a 3 of "Das Magnificat ver- | teuschet vnd ausge- | legt 
durch Mart. | Luther. | Wittemberg" (not in Dommer). 

4. [LUTHER.] Rationis Latomia- | nse pro Incendiariis Louanien- 1 
sis Scholse Sophistis red-| ditse, Lutheriana | Confutatio. | Vuittembergse. 
(M. Lotter, jun., Wittenberg, after 20 June, 1521) 4. (Dommer 245). 

Border with a man holding bottle and spoon, and a horned savage. Fl. 2 ; Dom. 
78 = Butsch i, 91. Initial E from Hans Cranach's alphabet. The border repeated 
in Dommer 262 (1522), which contains initials (used as Q), P, S, from the same 
alphabet. 

1 " Cranachstudien," pp.221 (early borders without numbers), 202-220 (nos. 1-16), 
227 (no. 17). Flechsig's no. 4 and the folio border are mentioned on p. 221. A border 
not described by F., but clearly belonging to this group, occurs in " Des heylgen 
Geysts, deutlicher warnungsbrieffe vnnd Brandtzeychen," etc. (n.p.d., 4 40 , 18 11, sig. a-e), 
in the library of the Royal Society. It is in one piece [168 x 118; opening, 82 x 65], 
and contains at the top a bearded monster with two tails ending in foliage and 
grasped by naked boys, at the sides square columns with four dolphins at the base 
of each, and below two winged boys supporting an empty shield. Others in which, 
perhaps, his influence rather than his own hand is to be detected, occur in " Eyn 
trost brief! an die Christen zu Augspurg Martinus Luther Wittemberg. M.D.XXIIII." 
(Hans Lufft), and " Eyn Schrecklich geschicht vnd gericht Gottes vber Thomas 
Miintzer," n.p.d. (1525). 



328 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

5. [LUTHER.] Sermo Mar-|tini Lutheri de praepa | ratione ad 
morien- 1 dn e vernaculo | in latinii versus. M. Letter, sen., Leipzig, 
1520; 4 to . (Dommer 115; Pr. 11563). 

Border with monsters and birds issuing from cornucopias. PL 8 (repr. p. 205) ; 
Dom. 91 ; Gotze 170. This border was repeated in Pr. 11566 (= Dommer 106). 

6. [LUTHER.] Ein heylsams Buch- 1 lein . . . vo der Beicht 
gemacht. . . . M.D.XX. J. Grunenberg, Wittenberg, 1520; 4 to . 
(Dommer 133; Pr. 11864). 

Border with arms of Saxony and Wittenberg, a man with a rosary having a 
squirrel on his back, and a naked man drinking. PL 5 (repr. p. 207) ; Dommer 70 A ; 
Gotze 109. This border was repeated in Pr. 11872, 11875, 11878 (1520), and Dommer 
211, 246, 273, 274, 280, 285 (1521-22), all of which are in the library. It was also 
used later in an altered state (see Dommer, p. 235, no. 70 B). 

7. [LUTHER.] Confitendi | Ratio D, Martini | Lutheri Augus- 1 
tiniani Wit- 1 tenber | gen. | Vuittenbergse, apud Melchiorem | Lottherum 
luniorem, Anno [ M,D,XX. 4 to . (Pr. 11884). 

Border with arms of Wittenberg at the top, children riding on monsters at the 
sides, and two men supporting the device of Letter at the foot ; on a black ground. 
PL 6 (repr. p. 209) ; Dommer 75 A ; Gotze 183. This border was also used in Dommer 
61 = Pr. 11914, 144 = Pr. 11900, 168 = Pr. 11916, in Pr. 11888, 11889, 11891, 11894, 
11913, 11915, all of the year 1520, and in Dommer 203, 240 (1521). See Pr.'s remarks 
(p. 162) about the cracks in the block and its different states. 

A copy of this border was used by N. de Grave at Antwerp in 1520 (Justinianus, 
Instituten). See W. Nijhoff, " L'Art Typographique dans les Pays-Bas," Livr. 2. 

8. [ALVELD.] Eyn gar fruchtbar vn | nutzbarlich buchleyn | vo 
d Babstliche stul : | vnnd von sant Peter : | .... durch bruder Augus- 
tinu | Alweldt sant Francisci | ordens tzu Leiptzk. (M. Letter, sen., 
Leipzig, 1520) 4 to . (Pr. 11560). 

Border with a drunkard reclining, a man playing the shawm, a fat man drinking, 
and two men below supporting a shield with Letter's device (wrongly attributed to 
Holbein, P. iii, 407, 102). PL 7 ; Dommer 76 ; Gotze 184. This border was also used 
in Pr. 11559 (a weak impression), which has Letter's name as printer, and also at 
Wittenberg by M. Letter, jun., in three editions of Luther, Von den guten Werken, 
Dommer 146-148 (= Pr. 11887, 11885, 11886). Butsch, i, 92, reproduces an Augs- 
burg copy which is perhaps by Weiditz. 

9. [BIBLE.] Auszlegung des hudert | vnd neundten psalmen. | 
Dixit dfis domino meo. | Doctoris Martini Lu- 1 ther, etc. J. Grunenberg, 
Wittenberg, 1520; 4 to . (Pr. 11866). 

Border with electoral shield at top supported by two seated angels in breast-plates, 
the arms of Wittenberg below between two angels eating grapes and two reclining, 
angels playing musical instruments at the sides. PL 8 ; Dommer 69 A ; Gotze 112. 
This border was also used in Pr. 11874. In 1523 it appeared in a second state with 
the upper shield empty and the arms of Saxony removed from the lower one. It is 
insignificant and badly cut, and the attribution to Hans Cranach, though defended 
by Flechsig, is doubtful. 

10. [LUTHER.] Von men | schenn lere zu | meyden. J. Grunen- 
berg, Wittenberg, 1522) 4*. Dommer 281. 

Border vn*' candelabra supporting a man blowing the shawm, and a wolf in 
monk's habjC 1 ; below two angels supporting an empty shield. Fl. 9 (repr. p. 213); 
Dommer Y3. Also used in Dommer 292 (1522), and 377 (1523), all in the library. 



Division D. School of Saxony, Hans Cranach. 329 

11. [BODENSTEIN.] Von vormugen des | Ablas. wider bruder | 
Franciscus Seyler | parfuser ordens | Andres Carol | stat Doct. 
J. Grunenberg, Wittenberg, 1520 ; 4 to . (Pr. 11880). 

Border (already worn and broken) with a printing press and the monogram of J. 
Grunenberg, attributed to Lucas Cranach I (Sch. ii, 290, 137). Fl. 10 ; Dommer 71 ; 
Gotze 131. Repr. Butsch, i, 89. Also used in Dommer 192, 205, 232 (1521), 271, 
279, 315 (1522), all in the library. 

12. [LUTHER.] Vrsacb. vnd antt- 1 wortt. das iungk- [ frawe. 
kloster. got- | lich v'lassen muge. (Cranach and Doring, Wittenberg, 
1523) ; 4 to . (Dommer 355). 

Architectural border with three angels above, supporting shields. Fl. 11 (repr. 
p. 217) ; Dommer 80 ; Gotze 146. Knaake, p. 199. Also used in Dommer 361, 368 
(July, 1523). 

13. [JESUS CHRIST.] Passional Christi vnd | Antichrist!. 
(J. Grunenberg, Wittenberg, 1521) 4 to . (Dommer 236). 

Architectual border with nereids and tritons at the base of the columns, and a 
large vine-leaf pierced with an opening to contain the title. Fl. 12; Dommer 72 A. 
Also twenty-six woodcuts in the text, as in p. 324, no. 3. 

14. [LUTHER.] Ordenug eyns gemey- 1 nen kastens. | Radschlag 
wie die gey- ] stlichen gutter zu han- | deln sind. (Cranach and Doring, 
Wittenberg, 1523) 4 to . (Dommer 375). 

Border with a large vine-leaf and two lions. Fl. 13 ; Dommer 79 B (79 A is a copy 
of this) ; Gotze 164 (" Nachschnitt ") ; Knaake, p. 201. Also used in Dommer 386. 
In the original the background is white ; a copy with horizontal shading was used by 
M. Letter, jun. 

15. [LUTHER.] Eyn Bett- j buchlin vnd lesse buchlin, j Mar. 
Luth. | Gemehret vnd ge- | bessert. N. Schirlentz, Wittenberg, 1523 ; 8 T0 . 

Border with two columns supporting an entablature and a mask below. 
[134 x 84.] Fl. 14 ; Heyer l 59. This border was also used by J. Grunenberg. 

16. [LUTHER.] Eyn Sermon | auff den Pfiug- | stag. (N. Schir- 
lentz, Wittenberg, 1523) 4 to . (Dommer 358). 

Border with a satyr, nude woman and two children. Fl. 15 ; Dommer 83 A. Also 
used in Dommer 391 and 394. 

17. [LUTHER.] De insti- 1 tuendis Ministris | Ecclesiae, ad Claris- 
simum | Senatum Pragensem | Bohemise. (Cranach and Doring, 
Wittenberg, 1523) 4 to . (Dommer 385). 

Border with three angels supporting an empty shield ; the two outermost hold 
the upper ends of two garlands, with fruit in the middle, of which a fourth angel is 
tying the lower ends together. Below on either side is a reclining stag. Fl. 16 ; 
Dommer 81 ; Gotze 166 ; Knaake, p. 202. This border was also used in Knaake 14, 
16, 17, 20. Dommer 385 contains a large initial P [56 x 51], with a child riding on 
a dolphin, evidently by the same artist as the title-border. 

1 " Lutherdrucke auf der Breslauer Stadtbibliothek," Centralbl. f. BibliotJwk- 
swesen, 1892, ix, 479, no. 59. 



330 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

18. [LUTHER.] Offinba-| rung des Endchrists | aus dem Prophe- | 
tea Daniel wydder | Catharinum. (Cranach and Doring, Wittenberg, 
1524) 4 to . (Knaake 23). 

Border with a portico and two angels holding a disc with Luther's device of a 
rose, and on either side of it the initials M L in white. Flechsig 17 ; Gotze 132 ; 
Knaake, p. 203. Also used in Knaake 26, 28-33, 35, all in the library. 

19. [LUTHER.] Formula | Missae et Communionis | pro Ecclesia 
Vuittem- 1 bergensi. | Martini Lvther. | Wittembergae. MDXXIII. (N. 
Schirlentz, Wittenberg, 1523) 4 to . (Dommer 388). 

Border undescribed, but in the style of the preceding group, composed of four 
pieces : (a) winged monsters, male and female, facing outwards, their tails linked 
[42 x 117] ; (b, c) columns [123 x 25] ; (d) a console [30 X 67]. Background shaded 
horizontally. On the verso of the last leaf is an Agnus Dei upon a vine-leaf [63 X 52], 
clearly also by Hans Cranach. The same border was used in Dommer 380, and in 
" Von B. Henrico ynn | Diedmar verbrand | sampt dem zehen- | den Psalmen [ 
ausgelegt | durch | Mart. Luther. | Wittemberg. | 1525 Jar." 4". 



OTHER BOOKS, IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER. 

20. [GERMAN THEOLOGY.] Eyn deutsch Theologia. J. Grtinen- 
berg, Wittenberg, 1518; 4 to . (Pr. 11839). 

On the title-page, the Resurrection of Christ and the Burial of the old Adam 
[132 x 105], signed with the serpent. Sch. 94 ; Pass. 162. Flechsig (p. 54) discusses 
the form of the serpent, denies any intimate connection with the genuine woodcuts 
of Lucas Cranach, and attributes this cut (p. 250) to his son Hans. The woodcut 
was reprinted in the edition of 28 Sept., 1520, Eyn Deutsch Theologia (Pr. 11869). 
See also p. 326, no. 12. This cut should be compared with the " Ascension " in the 
Passional Christi und Antichrist! (1521). 

21. [MAURICE.] VOrtzeichnus vnd | zceigung des hochlob | 
wirdigen heiligthumbs | der Stifftkirchen der heiligen | Sanct Moritz vnd 
Ma- | rien Magdalenen | zu Halle. Halle, 1520; 4 to . (Pr. 11985). 
Imperfect, wanting title-page and three other leaves. 

For list of woodcuts by Hans Cranach, see Flechsig, p. 183. The remainder are 
by Wolf Traut. 

22. [BIBLE.] Deutsch Auszlegug des sieben | vn sechtzigste Psalme. 
vo dem | Ostertag. Hymelfart | vnd Pfingsten. D. | Martinus L. 
(n.p.d. 1521). 4 1 ". 

On title-page, David kneeling and playing the harp ; the Almighty appears to him 
1. [94 x 74]. Clearly by the same artist on the " Antithesis Figurata," cp. especially 
C 2 v. (no. 19). 

23. [BIBLE.] Das Newe Testa- 1 ment Deutzsch. (xylographic). 
Vuittemberg. (Melchior Lotter, September, 1522) fol. (Muther l 16). 

1 B. Muther, " Die altesten deutschen Bilder-Bibeln," Munich, 1883. 



SLESVICEN HQLSffJb STOK1VMRIE ET 







. 

. [BIBL; 

Vviti- 



HVX 3TAJ9 

HOAUAHQ 3MAH 

iQ ^o .,n,* ,:, 















raus 

HIS 








PLATE XVII 
HANS CRANACH 

I. KING or DENMARK 



SVE1TE NCKVKHECKEXDYX 




Division D. School of Saxony. Hans Cranach. 331 

The twenty-one woodcuts to the Apocalypse, which first appeared in this, the 
original edition of Luther's translation of the N.T., are related to the style of the 
elder Cranach in much the same degree as those of the " Antithesis Figurata," and 
notably of the illustrations to the early editions of Luther's O.T. They differ among 
themselves, not only in cutting but in draughtsmanship, so markedly that it seems 
impossible to attribute all to the same designer. The last cut is signed with a 
monogram H B, for which no satisfactory explanation has been found. 1 Some of 
the best of the series, nos. 1 (observe the ornament on the candlesticks), 2, 4 (compare 
the corpse in Sch. 94), 10, 11, 12, 17, 18, 20, seem, however, to be by the artist here 
identified with Hans Cranach ; in other cases, perhaps, his style is only obscured by 
the bad cutting. 

24. [BIBLE.] (Same title as no. 23.) Melchior Letter, Wittenberg 
(December), 1522; fol. (Muther 17). 

The same woodcuts to the Apocalypse. In three cases (nos. 11, 16, 17) a second 
state has been produced, the triple crown having been converted into a single one. 

25. [BIBLE.] Das All | te Testa [ ment deutsch. [ M. Luther. I 
Vvittemberg. (M. Letter, 1523) fol. (Muther 28). 

25a. [BIBLE.] Das Ander (xylographic) | teyl des alten | testa- 
ments. (Cranach and Doring?, Wittenberg, 1524) fol. (Muther 35). 

25b. [BIBLE.] Das Dritte teyl des allten Testaments. M. Lotter, 
Wittenberg, 1524 ; fol. (Muther 38). 

The illustrations to these three parts of Luther's Bible are closely allied to those 
of the Apocalypse, and there is the same possibility that a portion of them may be by 
Hans Cranach. The title-page of the first part is by Lemberger ; that of the third 
part appears to be by a different hand altogether. The only illustration in the third 
part is that belonging to the Book of Job. 

26. [FREDERICK I.] Illustrissimi et potentissimi Principis 
Domini Christierni ... ad duas epistolas, quibus rationem belli aduersus 
ilium suscepti Illustrissimus Holsatiae dux D. Fridericus illius patruus 
reddere conatur, responsio. M. Lotter (Wittenberg), 1524 ; 4 to . 

27. [LUBECK.] Illustrissimi et invictissimi Principis, Domini 
Christierni ... ad emissos contra se Lubicensium articulos. . . . Responsio. 
M. Lotter (Wittenberg), 1524 ; 4 to . 

On the title-page of each work, the arms of Christian II, King of Denmark [110 x 
72], undescribed. On the verso, the portrait of Christian II, signed with the serpent, 
and dated 1523 (repr. Flechsig, p. 229). Sch. ii, 309, 177. On the importance of this 
woodcut for the whole Hans Cranach question, see Flechsig, p. 230 ff. The books 
also contain initials (C, E, I, I, V) from Hans Cranach's alphabet. 

28. [LUTHER.] Eyn predigt vnd | warming, sech zu | hiiten fur 
f alschen Propheten, auff das Euangelion. Matthei. vii. G. Rhaw, Witten- 
berg, 1525 ; 4 to . 

Border [167 X 128; opening, 75 x 59] containing the dispersal of the twelve 
Apostles ; St. John is filling his flask at a spring. Sch. ii, 293, 143 ; P. iv, 24, 120. 
The cuts in this and the following books (nos. 29-31) are closely connected with those 
in nos. 22-25. 



1 For drawings at Pavia with a similar signature, see the Vasari Society's 
publications, part iv. (1908-9), nos. 33, 34. 



332 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

29. [BIBLE.] Der Prophet Jona, aus- 1 gelegt durch Mart. Luth. 
Michel Lotter, Wittenberg, 1526 ; 4 to . 

Border [165 x 122 ; opening, 21 x 80] with five scenes from the story of Jonah. 

30. [BIBLE.] Der Prophet Habacuc | ausgelegt durch Mart. Luth. 
Michel Lotter, Wittenberg, 1526 ; 4*. 

Border [163 x 120 ; opening, 22 x 70] in the same style as that of no. 29. Sch. 
ii, 293, 141 ; P. iv, 23, 118. 

31. [BIBLE.] Der Prophet Sachar la, ausge- 1 legt durch Mart. 
Luther. Michel Lotter, Wittenberg, 1528 ; 4 to . 

Woodcut on title-page [161 x 118] in which Zechariah is represented in the act 
of prophesying, with special reference to the Incarnation, the angel among the 
myrtles (Zech. i, 8-11J, the clothing of Joshua the high priest with a mitre and fair 
raiment (Zech. ii, 3-5), and the entry of Christ into Jerusalem (Zech. ix, 9). Letters 
E and I from an ornamental alphabet [38 x 38] by Lemberger. 

32. [BIBLE.] Fragment of a Low German Old Testament [Dat 
driidde Deel des olden Testaments mit vlite gecorrigert], lacking title- 
page, with colophon " Gedruckt dorch Michel Lotther. MDxxxij." 8 TJ . 

Sig As, illustration to the Book of Job [121 x 85]. Border to Proverbs (De sproke 
Salomo) exactly in the style of the quarto borders ascribed by Flechsig to Hans 
Cranach, especially nos. 1, 3 and 4. At the top is a man in armour reclining, seen 
from the back, over him a mask formed of leaves. Below is a vase of fruit. On either 
side is a monster with a single head and curved beak, but divided into two bodies 
ending in foliage [122 x 85; opening, 66 x 43]. 

33. [BIBLE.] Dat Nye | Testament. | Martini Luthers. H. Luffib, 
Wittenberg, 1532 (titlepage dated 1533) ; 8 T0 . 

The cuts illustrating the four Gospels, Epistle to the Galatians, and Epistles of 
St. Peter and St. James, belong to the group attributed to Hans Cranach under 
nos. 22-25 and 28-31. Other cuts are by Lemberger and various hands. 



WOODCUTS BY HANS CRANACH. 
i. TITLE-PAGES. Nos. 1-11. 

1. BORDER WITH THE HOLY FAMILY, SINGING ANGELS, AND ST. 
DOROTHY. P. iii, 411, 117 (as Holbein) ; Flechsig, p. 221. 

[183 x 128 ; opening, 125 x 90.] Good impression, on title-page of " De Ratione 
disputandi, prae | sertim in re Theologica, Pe-|tri Mosellani Protegesis ofo." (M. 
Lotter, Leipzig, 1520 ?) 4to. See p. 327, no. 1. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The initial A (Nagl., Mon., i, no. 34?), which is visible in the foreground, is 
presumably that of the woodcutter. Repr., Butsch, i, 88. 



Division D. School of Saxony. Hans Cranach. 333 

la. THE SAME BORDER. 

Not so well printed, on title-page of " De ratioe dispu | tandi, prsesertim in re 
Theologica, Petri Mo | sellani Protegensis oratio." (M. Letter, Leipzig, 1520. Pr. 
11558). 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., 1871. 

2. BORDER WITH A HERMIT AND NUN, VASE OP FRUIT, MASK AND 

CORNUCOPIAS. Flechsig, p. 202, no. 1. 

[172 x 124; opening (arched) 108 x 75.] Good impression, on title-page of 
" Van der fryheyt eynes | Christen mynschen. | D. Martinus Luther. I wittemberch 
Jm | xxiij . Jare." (M. Letter, Wittenberg) 4 to . (Not mentioned by Dommer, nor 
in the B.M.) 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Repr., Butsch, i, 90. Used in 1520 (see p. 327, no. 3). 

3. BORDER WITH A MAN HOLDING A BOTTLE AND SPOON, AND A 

HORNED SAVAGE. Flechsig, p. 203, no. 2. 

[171 X 120 ; opening (arched), 106 x 73.] Fair impression, on title-page of " De 
ab | roganda missa | privata Marti- | ni Lutheri | senten- | tia. (M. Lotter, Witten- 
berg, 1521). 

Transferred from the Dept. of Printed Books, 1909. 

Repr., Butsch, pi. 91. See p. 327, no. 4. 

4. BORDER WITH THE ARMS OF WITTENBERG, CHILDREN RIDING 

ON MONSTERS, AND TWO SOLDIERS SUPPORTING A SHIELD 
WITH THE BRAZEN SERPENT, 1 UPON A BLACK GROUND. 

Flechsig, p. 208, no. 6. 

[177 x 120; opening, 109 x 68.] Fair impression, on title-page of " DESYDERII 
ERABMI I AD REVEBENDISSIMVM Mo- | guntinensimn Prsesulem .... Epistola." (M. 
Lotter, ]un., Wittenberg, 1520. Pr. 11894). See p. 328, no. 7. Repr., Flechsig, 
p. 209. 

Purchased from Mr. Caspar!, 1875. 

4a. THE SAME BORDER. 

Later impression, with a crack across the two shields, on title-page of " Grund 
vnnd vrsach al- | ler Artickel D. Marti. | Luther," etc. (1521, Dommer 203). 
Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

5a. COPY OF BORDER WITH A MAN PLAYING THE SHAWM, A STOUT 
MAN DRINKING, AND TWO SOLDIERS SUPPORTING A SHIELD 
WITH THE BRAZEN SERPENT, UPON A BLACK GROUND. 

P. iii, 407, 102 (as Holbein) ; Flechsig, p. 208, no. 7. 

[176 x 121 ; opening, 107 X 68.] Fair impression, on title-page of " Ain Sermon 
In | der deiitlich angezeygt, vnd geleert 1st | .... 1. 5. 23. | D. Jac. Strauss zu Eyssenach 
eccle." (Augsburg). 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi, 1871. 

This copy, not the original, is reproduced by Butsch, i, 92. It has been attributed 
to Weiditz, but I see nothing specially characteristic of him in the slight deviations 
from the original design, which is clearly an invention of the Wittenberg artist, and 
is closely connected with the other borders of this series. For the original, see p. 328, 
no. 8. 

1 According to Flechsig the device of Melchior Lotter, and this is confirmed by 
its presence in a border designed by Lemberger and used in " Der Cxxvij Psalm . . . 
Durch D. Mar. Luther ausgelegt," Michel Lotter, 1536; but it is also an emblem 
specially associated with Melanchthon. See the border, P. iv, 23, 119, used by N. 
Schirlentz, and that containing the initials and badges of five reformers, used by 
Lufft. 



334 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

6. BORDER WITH BIRDS, ANIMALS, PRINTING PRESS, AND MONO- 
GRAM OF JOHANN GRUNENBERG. 

P. iv, 22, 214 ; Sch. ii, 290, 137 ; Flechsig, p. 214, no. 10. 

[166 x 124 ; opening, 85 x 61.] Good impression, on title-page of " Biblia noua | 
Aluelde | sis. | Wittenbergae. | ANNO M.D.XX." (not in Pr.). 
Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., 1871. 
Repr., Butsch, i, 89, and Lippmann, Text, p. 16. See p. 329, no. 11. 

7a. COPY OF BORDER WITH A LARGE VINE-LEAF AND TWO LIONS 
WITH THEIR TAILS CROSSED. Flechsig, p. 218, no. 13. 

[168 x 127 ; opening, 68 x 66.] Good impression, on title-page of " Von dem al | 
ler nottigisten, Wie | man diener der kirchcn we- | len vnd eynsetzen sol. | Mart. 
Luther. | . . . Wittemberg . Im . xxiiij . iar." (M. Letter, jun., Wittenberg, 1524 
Dommer 79A.) 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

In the original according to Flechsig (Dommer 79B, as copy) the background is 
white. It was used by Cranach and Doring. See p. 329, no. 14. 

8. BORDER WITH TWO DOLPHINS, A SATYR, NUDE WOMAN, AND 
TWO CHILDREN. Flechsig, p. 219, no. 15. 

[172 x 123; opening, 95 X 59.] Good impression, on title-page of " Epistel 
Sanct | Petri gepredigt | vnd ausgelegt | durch | Mart. Luther. | Vuittemberg. | 
M.D. xxiij." (N. Schirlentz, Wittenberg, 1523. Dommer 394). See p. 329, no. 16. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

8a- THE SAME BORDER. 

Later impression, on title-page of " Die ander Epistel I Sanct Petri, | vnd eine S. 
Judas | gepredigt vB aus- | gelegt durch | Mart. Luther | Vuittemberg." 
Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

8b. COPY OF THE SAME BORDER. 

[170 X 121; opening, 93 X 58.] The horizontal shading of the background is 
much closer. An isolated pebble which may be seen in the original on the ground 
beneath the r. foot of the child by the woman's side, is omitted in the copy. On 
title-page of " Ordenung vnd beri | cht wie es furterhin | mit ihe- | nen so das Hoch- 
wirdig Sa | crament empfahen wol- I len | gehalten sol | werden. | . . . Martinus 
Luther. | Wittemberg. | MDXXV." (M. Letter, jun., Wittenberg, 1525). 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., 1871. 

8. BORDER WITH FOUR ANGELS HOLDING GARLANDS AND AN 
EMPTY SHIELD, AND TWO RECLINING STAGS. 

Flechsig, p. 219, no. 16. 

[172 x 121 ; opening, 79 x 60.] Fair impression, on title-page of " DE INSTI- | 
TVENDIS MINIBTKIS | EcclesisB, ad Clarissimum | Senatum Pragensem I Bohemias. | 
MAKTINVS LVTHEB. | Vuittemberge." (Cranach and Doring, Wittenberg, 1523. 
Dommer 385, Knaake 15). See p. 329, no. 17. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., 1871. 

9a. THE SAME BORDER. 

Later but better impression on title-page of " Wie man trotzen sol | auffs Creutz 
wid | der alle wellt | zustehen | beideml Euangelio, I andielgler. | Paul us Speratus 
nach der | gefencknis zum newen Jar. | Gedruckt zu Wittemberg. | M.D. xxiiij." 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 






Division D. School of Saxony. Hans Cranach. 335 

10. BORDER WITH A PORTAL UNDER WHICH TWO ANGELS HOLD A 

DISC WITH THE DEVICE OP LUTHER. 

Knaake, p. 203 ; Flechsig, p. 227, no. 17. 

[165 x 128 ; opening, 60 x 58.] Good impression, on title-page of " Der hundert 
vnd | Sieben vnd zwen- 1 zigst psalm ausge- 1 legt an die Ghri- 1 sten zu Rigen | ynn 
Liff- | land. | Martinus Luther. | Wittemberg. | M.D.lXXIIII." (Knaake 31). See 
p. 330, no. 18. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

DOUBTFUL. 

11. BORDER WITH THE TRINITY, TWO PROPHETS, THE NATIVITY, 

AND THE DEVICES OF LUTHER, MELANCHTHON AND SCHIR- 
LENTZ. Sen. ii, 293, 142 ; P. iv, 23, 119 (sic, for 219). 

[169 x 118 ; opening, 62 x 49.] Fair impression, on title-page of " Das 
XXXVIII | vnd XXXIX | Capitel Hese- 1 chiel vom | Gog. | Verdeudscht durch | 
Mart. Luther. | Wittemberg. | MDXXX." 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

This border was used in 1526. It has not hitherto been ascribed to Hans Cranach, 
but may be regarded as belonging to the group put together on pp. 330--332, nos. 
22-25, 28-31. 

ii. RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS. Nos. 12-14. 

12. THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST AND THE BURIAL OF THE OLD 

ADAM. H. 170, 97 (244) ; Sch. ii, 233, 94 ; P. iv, 10, 162. 

Christ stands upon clouds, blessing with his r. hand and holding in 
his 1. a cross to which a banner is attached. Angels float in the clouds. 
Below r. is the empty tomb, to 1. of which four angels with pickaxes and 
shovels are engaged in burying a corpse. Near the tombstone r. is the 
serpent with a broad wing. 

[132 x 104.] Fair impression. The text on the back is that of Pollicarius, but 
not from the edition represented in the Museum (1549) ; it is probably from the 
" Symbolum der Apostel," 1548. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

See p. 326, no. 12. 

13. THE CREATION. H. 169, 95 (238) ; Sch. ii, 231, 89. 

In the innermost of three circles representing earth, water and air, 
we see the creation of Eve. The Almighty, attended by angels, appears 
again, half-length, above the clouds. In the corners are the four winds. 

[158 x 107.] Text on the back, apparently from the same book as the preceding. 
Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 
See p. 326, no. 12. 

14. ALLEGORY OF THE FALL AND THE ATONEMENT. 

The oblong composition is in two compartments divided by a tree of 
which the branches on the 1. side are withered, whereas those to r. are 
full of leaves. In the background 1. is the Fall ; in the sky the Last 
Judgment. In the foreground Death, a skeleton armed with a spear, and 
Sin, a monster with claws on hands and feet, are driving a naked man 
into the flames of Hell, in which three lost souls, two men and a woman, 
are burning. To r. are figures typifying the Law and the Prophets. 

In the other compartment we see to 1. the Brazen Serpent in front of 



336 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

the tents of the Israelites, and more to r. the angel announcing to the 
shepherds the Incarnation, which is further symbolized by a Child 
bearing the cross who descends from Heaven towards Mary. In the 
foreground 1. the same naked man is seen, to whom St. John the Baptist 
points out Christ crucified, with the Lamb and flag beside him, on the 
hill of Calvary. In a cave at the side of this hill is the sepulchre, from 
which Christ rises, victorious over Sin and Death. 

On the upper margin is printed 1. " Ro. 1. Es wird offenbart gottes 
zorn von hymel vber | aller menschen gottlos wesen vnd vnrecht." B. 
" Isaia. 7. Der Herr wird euch selbs ein zeichen geben, Sihe, eine Jung- 
fraw | wird schwanger sein vnd einen son geperen." 

On the lower margin are texts from scripture in six columns. (1). 
" Sie sind alle zumal sundere, | vnd mangeln, das sie sich | gottes nicht 
rhumen mugen | Ho. . 3." (2). " Die sunde ist des todes spies, | Aber das 
gesetz ist der sunden | krafft 1. Co. 15. Das gesetz | richtet zorn an. 
Ro. 4." (3). " Durchs gesetz kompt erkentnus | der sunden Ro. . 3. Das 
ge- | setz vnd die propheten gehen bis | auff Johannes zeit. Math. 11." 
(4). "Der gerecht lebt seines glau- | bens Ro. 1. Wir halten das | ein 
mensch gerecht werde | durch den glauben, on werg | des gesetzs. Ro. . 3." 
(5). " Sihe, das ist Gottes lamb, das der | wellt sunde tregt S. Joh. bap. 
Jo. 1. | In der heyligunge des geystes, zum | gehorsam, vnd besprengung 
des | blutts Jhesu Christi 1. Pet. 1." (6). " Der tod ist verschlungen 
ym sieg, | Tod, wo ist dein spies? Helle, wo | ist dein sieg? Danck 
habe Gott, I der vns den sieg gibt durch Jhe- | sum christu vnsern herrn 
1. Cor." 

Sheet, 270 x 325 ; woodcut, 233 x 324.] Fine impression ; watermark, small 
ox's head surmounted by a trefoil. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The undescribed woodcut, well executed in a free and sketchy style, has much in 
common with a pen and ink sketch by Lucas Cranach the Elder at Dresden, 1 and 
With several pictures of the school of Cranach, one of the best known being that of 
1529 in the Gotha museum.* The drawing lacks the Fall, but the Last Judgment 
and group of Man, Sin and Death, are almost exactly the same. The group of Law 
and Prophets consists of five persons in the woodcut, as against three in the drawing. 
On the other side, the group of Man and Baptist in the woodcut is identical with 
that in the drawing, except in the arrangement of the Baptist's drapery, but there 
the close resemblance ceases. In the drawing it is the Lamb, bearing the cross, that 
triumphs over Sin and Death, and God the Father is seen in the sky, while Christ 
and the smaller figures are omitted. 

The invention may be ascribed to the elder Cranach, but the woodcut was 
evidently not drawn by him on the block. Several types recall woodcuts which have 
already been attributed to Hans. The risen Christ resembles the early woodcut 
(1518) of the same subject (no. 12). The group of men to 1. of the trunk of the tree 
seems to be by the draughtsman of the "Antithesis figurata Christi et Antichristi." 

iii. PORTRAIT. No. 15. 

15. PORTRAIT OF CHRISTIAN II, KING OF DENMARK. 1523. 

Sch. ii, 310, 178 ; P. iv, 18, 192. 

Half-length, three-quarter face to r., wearing a hat, fur-lined mantle, 
and the collar of the Golden Fleece. Over his head is the date 1523. 

1 Sch. ii, 47, 243. Reproduced, Woermann, ii, 20. 

* Reproduced, Heyck, " Lukas Cranach," Kiinstler-Monographien 95 (1908), p. 80. 






Division D. School of Saxony. Hans Cranach. 337 

His elbows rest on a stone sill, and he points with his 1. hand to his coat- 
of-arms (quarterly, 1. Denmark, 2. Sweden, 3. Norway, 4. the kingdom 
of the Wends or Vandals ; on an inescutcheon, quarterly, 1 . and 4. 
Schleswig, 2. Holstein, 3. Stormarn ; over all, Oldenburg), which has two 
naked men, armed with clubs, as supporters. The King is placed under 
a round arch which rests upon four columns, the two foremost of which 
are ornamented with cherubs and lions' heads. On the base of the front 
column 1. is the winged serpent of the Cranach family. A naked man 
and a woman with a child at her side, who stand upon the capitals of the 
front columns, hold in their hands a scroll which hides the top of the 
arch and contains the titles of the King : " Christiernus . 2 ? . dei gracia . 
Danise . Suecite . Noruegise . Yuan | dalorum . Gotthorumque . rex . 
Dux . Slesuicensis . Holsacise . | Stormarie . & . Dietmarsise . Comes . 
in . Oldenborch . &ce." 

[252 x 172.] Good impression, but both corners on 1. side damaged and restored. 
No watermark. 

Purchased from Mr. Weber, 1854. 

Christian II visited Wittenberg for the first time on 10 October, 1523, and appears 
to have spent a considerable time there, dwelling, according to tradition, in Cranach's 
house. Mechsig (pp. 225-236) points out in detail the intimate connection which 
exists between this woodcut and the other portrait of Christian II, dated 1523 (p. 331, 
no. 26, reproduced in this volume), and between both portraits and the border, no. 10 
above (no. 17 of Mechsig's list), which came into use in 1524. This little group is 
linked, again, with earlier borders and with the woodcuts of the Halle relic-book. 
The heraldic significance of the serpent compels us, as Flechsig argues, to recognise 
in the designer of these works a member of the Cranach family, not merely of the 
Cranach school, and as the group cannot, on stylistic grounds, be attributed to the 
father, the only person who can, in 1523, have used this mark is his elder son, Hans. 
The premises once granted, the conclusion follows inevitably, but eome caution is 
necessary in accepting this view of the meaning of the serpent, which at a later date 
occurs on so many pictures that it can hardly be supposed that all were painted by 
the elder or younger Lucas Cranach, and not by assistants in the workshop. 



338 



III.-LUCAS CRANACH II. 

Lucas, second son of Lucas Cranach the Elder ; b. Wittenberg, 
4 October, 1515 ; pupil of his father, whose mark, the winged serpent 
(in the form used since 1537) he adopted ; married Barbara Briick, 
1541, and secondly Magdalena Schurff, 1551 ; burgomaster of 
Wittenberg, 1565 ; d. 25 January, 1586. 

Authorities : 

J. Heller, " L. Cranach's Leben und Werke," 2. Aufl., Nuremberg, 
1854, pp. 289-311 (on the woodcuts, pp. 306-309). 

Passavant, P.-G., iv, 24-32. 

In the other catalogues (Bartsch, Schuchardt, Nagler) the wood- 
cuts of the son are confused with those of the father ; 
Schuchardt intended to deal with them separately, but did 
not do so. 

As a painter, the younger Lucas Cranach is well represented in 
the Leipzig gallery. His earlier works have not been fully distin- 
guished from those of his father and elder brother ; he finished the 
large allegorical picture in the town church at Weimar begun by the 
elder Cranach. His woodcuts consist of religious subjects of a dis- 
tinctly Protestant character and of portraits ; none of them are of 
much artistic merit. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY LUCAS CRANACH II. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OP PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [MELANCHTHON.] Magister Phi | lipps Melanchthon | Christ- 
liche erinnerung, von den | lieben Engeln, etc. G. Rhaw, Wittenberg, 
1536 ; 4 to . 

Border with Samson and the lion. See p. 843, no. 13. 

2. [SAXONY.] Illustrissimorum Ducum Saxoniae .... Effigies, ab 
anno natiuitatis Christi 842 . vsq'ad annum 1563. G. Schnellboltz, 
Wittenberg, 1563 ; 4<. 

Purchased from Mr. Asher, 1850. 

Thirty-four portraits of Dukes of Saxony, including five John Frederick I, 
Sibylla of Cleves, John Frederick II, John William, John Frederick III (B. vii, 296, 
136-140 ; H. 823, 826, 829, 832, 834) signed with the serpent. B. 138 is also signed 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Oranach II. 339 

by the woodcutter Qj (Nagl., Mon., I. 2487, p. 1031, no. 3). The remaining twenty- 
nine woodcuts are also attributed to Cranach by H., nos. 836-864. There are reduced 
and bad copies of this series in " Warhafftige Abcontrafactur vnd Bildnis aller Gross- 
hertzogen, Chur vnd Fiirsten, welche vom Jahr nach Christ! geburt, 842 . bis auff das 
jetzige 1586 . Jahr, das Landt Sachssen .... regiret haben," G. Bergen, Dresden, 
1586 (reprinted 1587) ; 4'. 



B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [AUERSWALD.] Ringer kunst : fiinff vnd achtzig | stticke, zu 
ehren Kurfiirstlichen gna- 1 den zu Sachssen, &c. | Durch Fabian von 
Auerswald zugericht. | M.D. xxxix. H. Lufft, Wittenberg, 1539 ; fol. 

On title-page, the arms of Saxony ; A3, portrait of the author, signed with the 
serpent; A4-H4v., eighty-six woodcuts, each representing the same pair of wrestlers, 
Auerswald himself and a much younger opponent. B. vii, 298, 145 ; H. 270a (421- 
503) ; Sch. i, 161 and ii, 288, 135. 

2. [BIBLE.] Die Propheten alle Deudsch . D . Mart . Luth . (pt. 2 of 
complete Bible). H. Lufft, Wittenberg, 1541 j fol. 

Title-border with Fall and Redemption of Man [301 x 209], perhaps by Cranach, 
but not signed. On back of title-page, the arms of Anhalt (= Siebmacher, 1856, 
Bd. i, Abth. 1, Taf. 97), in a rich architectural frame ; below r. a black serpent with 
wings sloping back [303 X 209]. H. 673 (LXXXV). 

3. [BIBLE.] Biblia | Das ist die gantze | Heilige Schrifft, | Deudsch, 
Auffs new | zugericht. j D. Mart. Luth. | Gedruckt zu Leipzig durch j 
Nicolaum Wolrab. | M.D.XLI ; (2 vols.). 

In the N.T. are the full page woodcuts of the four Evangelists and SS. Paul, Peter 
and James. B. vii, 282, 49-55 ; H. 70-76 ; Sch. ii, 219, 63-69. St. Paul, as well as St. 
John, is signed; St. John is dated 1540. Other illustrations in the book, all of 
which except the Apocalypse are ascribed by Passavant to Cranach, are by different 
hands. 

4. [PETSCH.] Ein schon Christlich Lied, Yon dem Ehrwirdigen 
Herren, D : Mart. Luth. vnd seiner Lere. 1546. Gemacht vnd Com- 
poniret, durch M. Johan Friedrichen Petsch zu Wittemberg. G. Rhaw, 
Wittenberg, 1546 ; 4 to . 

On back of title-page, the portrait of Luther, dated 1546. B. 150; H. 294 (529) ; 
Sch. 182. 

5. [LITURGIES.] Kercken ordeninge : Wo ydt mit Christlyker 
Lere, .... Im Hertochdome tho Meckelenborch IQ geholden werdt. L. 
Dietz, Rostock, 1557 ; 4 to . 

On back of title-page, the arms of Mecklenburg [148 x 106], H. 675, P. iv, 32, 44, 
with winged serpent in 1. lower corner. From 1559 onwards this woodcut was used 
as a book-plate (Warnecke, 1264). According to Leiningen- Wester burg, p. 130, it was 
originally used at the end of the Mecklenburg " Kirchenordnung " of 1552, but it is 
not to be found in the editions of 1552 and 1554, printed by H. Lufft, Wittenberg, 
both in this library. Passavant attributes to Cranach (no. 43) the small coat of arms 
supported by lions [70 X 70], which occurs on the title-page of the present edition, 
and quotes a document l showing that " Lucas Maler," at Wittenberg, was paid for 
drawing two coats of arms for the Duke of Mecklenburg, and also the wood-engraver 

1 Of 1552. Mecklenb. Jahrbuch, v, 227, 228. 

z 2 



340 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

for cutting them. The small one, however, is not signed by Cranach, and bears no 
evidence of his style. It appears, from the full account of these woodcuts given by 
C. Teske, 1 that both were actually used in some copies, at least, of the Wittenberg 
1552 edition. Teske reproduces, in addition to the original (nos. 1-3), a rather 
deceptive copy (no. 10), also with the serpent. 

6. [AGRICOLA.] Abcontrafactur Vnd Bildnis aller Groshertzogen, 
Chur vnd Fiirsten, welche .... bis auff das itzige 1563 . Jar, das Land 
Sachssen .... regieret haben. G. Schnellboltz, Wittenberg, 1563 ; 4 to . 

The same woodcuts as in the Latin edition, p. 338, no. 2. 

7. [GEORGE, OP ANHALT.] Reverendissimi .... Domini Georgii 
Principis Anhaltini .... Conciones et scripta. L. Schwenck, Wittenberg, 
1570 ; fol. 

On back of title-page, full length portrait of Duke George of Anhalt, standing, 
with five coats of arms [250 x 162], not signed. The arms, fol. 395 v., repeated 
635 v., may also be by Cranach. 



WOODCUTS BY LUCAS CRANACH IT. 

i. SACRED SUBJECTS AND TITLE-PAGES. Nos. 1-14. 

[1-7.] 

EVANGELISTS AND APOSTLES. B. vii, 282, 49-55. 

1. ST. MATTHEW. B. 49 ; H. 70 ; Sch. 63 ; N. 53. 

Seated at a table, writing on a desk ; the angel stands at the end of 
the table ; the Dove flies overhead ; a landscape is seen through a 
window. 

2. ST. MARK. B. 50; H. 71; Sch. 64; N. 54. 

Seated r. before a sloping desk ; a winged lion in the foreground. 
Overhead, 1., a vision of the risen Christ. 

3. ST. LUKE. B. 51 ; H. 72 ; Sch. 65 ; N. 55. 

Seated 1. writing; the forepart of the winged ox in the foreground. 
Through a window is seen a vision of the Virgin and Child. 

4. ST. JOHN. B. 52 ; H. 73 ; Sch. 66 ; N. 56. 

Seated r. on a stone, holding pen and book, and looking up at a vision 
of the Blessed Trinity in the sky 1. The eagle is seen in front of a rock 
1. On the stone r. is the winged serpent with the date 1540. 

5. ST. PAUL. B. 53 ; H. 74 ; Sch. 67 ; N. 57. 

Seated r. at a table, writing. Two swords lie on the ground. The 
winged serpent is on the base of the table 1. 

1 " Das Mecklenburgische Wappen von L. Cranach d. A." Berlin, 1894. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach II. 341 

6. ST. PETER. B. 54 ; H. 75 ; Sch. 68 ; N. 58. 
Seated 1. at a table, writing on a sloping desk. 

7. ST. JAMES THE GREATER. B. 55 ; H. 76 ; Sch. 69 ; N. 59. 

Wearing a hat with scallop shell and pilgrim's staves, he sits behind a 
table under a vine trellis, dipping his pen in an inkpot. 

The series [c. 260 x 160] has text on the back from the German Bible printed by 
N. Wolrab, Leipzig, 1541, vol. 2 (p. 339, no. 3). See H. 232, 561, where the date 
MDLXI is evidently a misprint for MDXLI. The German verses there quoted 
attribute the woodcuts to Cranach. The same woodcuts were used in Wolrab's 
Latin Bible, 1544 (Weigel, Kunstkat. no. 15476). 

8. TITLE-BORDER WITH THE FALL AND REDEMPTION OF MAN, OR 

OLD AND NEW COVENANT. 

The subjects are divided by a tree with green, leaves r., withered 
branches 1. To L, in the middle, the Fall of Man ; in the distance above, 
the worship of the brazen serpent ; and below, Death and the Devil driving 
lost souls into hell. At the top of all, the Last Judgment. To r., 
corresponding to these, we see Christ victorious over sin and death, the 
Incarnation and Annunciation to the Shepherds, and, below, the saving 
blood of Christ falling upon Adam, while John the Baptist stands at his 
side. 

[250 x 164; opening, 121 x 78.] From " Dat Nye Testa- |ment. | Vordudeschet 
dorch D. Marti- 1 num Lutherum. | (5 lines omitted) | Tho Wittemberch. | M.D.XLI. 
On the back is no. 9. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The subject corresponds, except for one detail, the cardinal's hat, with Sohuchardt's 
description (iii, 246) of Lufft's variant of his no. 145 h. ; the dimensions, however, are 
smaller. This border cannot be attributed positively to the younger Cranach, and is 
apparently a reduction of a larger version of the same subject. It is described here 
on account of its connection with no. 9. 

9. CHRIST AS REDEEMER. 

Half-length, in full face. He blesses with his r. and holds the orb in 
his 1. hand. He is surrounded by cherubim in clouds. Single border- 
line. 

[162 x 127.] On all four sides are printed texts in Low German. At the top : 

" Dyth ys myn leue Sone," etc. From the same Bible as no. 8. 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

This Christ, of a dignified and sympathetic type, with high brow, may fairly be 
attributed to the younger Cranach. The treatment of the clouds and cherubs is 
very similar to that on no. 10, which must, however, be some years later and cut by 
a different hand. 

10. THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST. H. 572 ; N. 7. 

Christ stands, facing to the front, with both hands raised, immersed 
to above his knees in the Jordan. St. John, also standing in the river, 
to r., pours water on Clmst's head with his r. hand. Above Christ is the 
Dove, and higher yet God the Father, surrounded by cherubim. In the 
background is a mountainous landscape. On the near shore the Elector 
John Frederick I kneels 1. and Luther r. In the 1. lower corner is the 
winged serpent. Cut on three blocks. 



342 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

[277 x 386.] Good impression. Watermark, a low crown. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

A rare woodcut, described by Heller only on hearsay, but accurately. John 
Frederick already has the scar from his wound at the battle of Muhlborg, 1547, so 
that the woodcut is later than the death of Luther. 

11. CHEIST, AFTER JACOPO DE' BARB ART. 1553. 

H. 821 ; P. iv, 9, 158 and 25, 1. ; L. p. 19. 

Bust, nearly full face, showing both hands. With the r. hand he 
blesses, in the 1. he holds a small cross. To 1., on the background, is the 
date 1553 with the winged serpent below it. 

[388 x 288.] Good impression. Watermark, small bull's head with caducous. 
Purchased from Mr. Richard Fisher, 1867. 

lla. CHRIST. H. 821; P.I. 

Another impression. 
Beneath the woodcut is the inscription : EFFIGIES SALVATORIS 

NOSTRI IESV | CHRI8TI, ANTE L. ANNOS PICTA A PRAESTANTISSIMO 

ARTIFICE | IACOBO DE BARBARis Italo, & recens de exemplo illo foeliciter 
expressa | Vuitebergae Anno 1553. Then, in two columns, a description 
of our Lord's appearance, in Greek, by Nicephorus, and a Latin 
translation by Melanchthon (reproduced, Berlin Jahrbuch, xiii, 145). 

[Size of sheet, 510 x 286.] Early impression, with a German translation l of the 
description of Christ written in MS. on the background behind the head. Water- 
mark, small high crown. 

Purchased from Mr. Tross, 1864. 

The picture of Christ by Jacopo de' Barbari, painted according to the text of this 
edition about 1503, is now in the Dresden Gallery (no. 57). See L. Gust, Berlin 
Jahrbuch, xiii, 142. A somewhat similar picture, signed with Barbari's initials and 
caduceus, is in the Weimar Gallery,* but the Dresden picture is the original of 
Cranach's woodcut. Barbari was in the service of Frederick the Wise as court 
painter at Wittenberg (also Torgau and Lochau) from 1503 to 1505. 8 

Besides the impression of another edition at Gotha, described by Mr. Cust, I have 
seen one, cut to the border-line, at Coburg, where there is also a copy [384 x 282], 
without the date, but with the serpent, and having the background filled with a 
nimbus of rays ; * the original woodcut is also at Dresden. 

12. FOLIO BORDER WITH CHRIST ON THE CROSS AND THE EMBLEMS 

OF THE FOUR EVANGELISTS. 

One piece. At the corners of the opening destined to contain the 
title are roundels, enclosed by three lines, which contain the emblems of 
the Evangelists, each of which has the name upon a scroll. The inter- 
vening space is filled with clouds and cherubim upon a horizontally shaded 
background. Beneath the opening is the crucifix with the Elector John 
the Constant and Martin Luther kneeling 1. and r. upon the grass. The 
clouds descend to the level of their shoulders. No signature. 

1 Not the same text as that printed on another edition of the broadside which is 
preserved at Gotha (reproduced, Jahrbuch, xiii, 144). It was probably translated 
independently from the Latin text by a former owner of this impression. 

2 Repr. Brack, " Friedrich der Weise als Forderer der Kunst," 1903, Taf. 14. On 
the two pictures see the text, p. 168. Richard Fisher ("Introduction," etc., p. 292) 
regarded the Weimar picture as the original of Cranach's woodcut. 

3 Brack, p. 164 ff. 

4 Herr Max Lossnitzer informs me (1909) that this may be a late state of the 
original block with the rays inserted, since there is an interval between the nimbus 
and the head, and the block is much worn. My own notes made on the spot in 1900 
describe it as a copy. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach II. 343 

[260 x 162 ; opening, 127 x 85.] Good impression, but the title has been cut 
out, and the book in which the border appeared has not been identified. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

13. QUARTO BORDER WITH SAMSON AND THE LION. Sch. ii, p. 295. 

The opening for the text takes the form of a portal flanked by columns, 
over which are cherubs' heads. Beneath the opening is Samson in the 
act of breaking the lion's jaw ; landscape background. 

[159 x HO; opening, 75 x 61.] On the title-page of "Auslegung | D. Mart. 
Luthers, | vber das Lied Mose | an Zwey vnd Dreissigsten | Cap. Deutero. Vordeud- | 
schet aus dem La- (tin, durch | Justum Jonam. | Gedruckt zu Wittemberg | jm 
M.D.XXXII." 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1874. 

This seems to be a companion to the signed border, no. 14, and is therefore 
attributed to Lucas Cranach, though it contains much that reminds us of the later 
woodcuts here attributed to Hans. 

13a. QUARTO BORDER WITH SAMSON AND THE LION. 

A much later impression, on the title-page of " Summaria | vber das alte Testa- | 
ment, .... Durch M. Veiten Dieterich," etc. 
Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 

14. QUARTO BORDER WITH DAVID AND GOLIATH. 

H. 309 (544) ; Sch. ii, 294, 145 ; P. iv, 22, 212 ; Nagl., Mon., ii, 114, 6. 

Over the opening to contain the title is a pediment containing leaf 
ornament. Beneath the title David stands, holding a long sword in both 
hands, upon the body of the prostrate giant, who is clad in full armour. 
The landscape rises high on both sides. To r. is a monogram composed of 
the letters L C, given by Nagler as the second in the lowest row of the 
monograms attributed to the elder Cranach. 

[159 X 110; opening, 70 x 60.] Fair impression, on title-page of " Confessio | 
fidei exhibita .... in Comicijs Augustas . Anno . M.D.XXX," (G. Rhaw) Witten- 
berg, 1540. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Heller mentions eight books in which this border was used, from 1532 to 1542. 



ii. PORTRAITS. Nos. 15-36. 

A series of portraits of princes is placed first ; the remainder are 
described in chronological order. 

15. CHARLES V. H. 505. Copy of B. vii, 294, 128 ; Sch. ii, 296, 149. 

Copy. 

Full length, standing, three-quarter face to r., holding a glove in r., 
sword in 1. hand. In 1. upper corner, the pillars of Hercules with motto 
PLVS OVLTRE, in r. the arms of the Empire, with the Golden Fleece. 

[333 X 225.] Late impression, from the Storck collection (Milan, 1796). 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

The original, B. 128, H. 271 (504), Sch. 149, is signed with the serpent. H. 
describes the six dots, instead of one, on the cross-piece beneath the handle of the 
sword as the distinguishing mark of the copy. The original dates, presumably, from 
1548, the year of the companion portrait of the Emperor's brother. 



344 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

16. FERDINAND I. B. vii, 294, 129 ; H. 272 (506) ; Sch. 150; N. 138. 

Full length, standing, three-quarter face to 1. holding gloves in r., 
sword in 1. hand. To 1. the eagle and crown of the King of the Romans, 
to r. the shields of Hungary and Bohemia. Low down, r., the winged 
serpent. 

[312 x 216.] Late impression. 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., 1862. 

17. DUKE JOHN WILLIAM OP SAXONY. 

B. vii, 295, 133 ; H. 280 (514) ; Sch. ii, 298, 154. 

Full length, standing, wearing a cap and feather and a short coat 
lined with fur. His r. hand is held in front of his body, while his 1. hand 
rests upon the hilt of his sword. The winged serpent is upon the ground 
to 1. of his r. foot. 

[320 x 210.] Late impression, cut irregularly within the border-line, except at 
the foot. Watermark, two shields surmounted by a mitre and crozier. 
Purchased at the sale of the W. L. Schreiber collection, 1909 (no. 224). 

18. COUNT ALBRECHT VON MANSFELD. 

H. 633 ; Sch. ii, 298, 155; P. iv, 14, 174; N. 165. 

Full length, standing, three-quarter face to L, holding sword in 1. 
hand, coat-of-arms in r. upper corner ; winged serpent low on same side. 

[322 x 217.] Fairly old impression. 
Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1851. 

10. SIBYLLA OF OLEVES. H. 621. 

Full length, standing, three-quarter face to L, wearing a low hat with 
feathers ; her hands are clasped in front of her waist. In the 1. upper 
corner are the arms of Cleves ; in the r. lower corner the winged serpent. 

[328 x 214.] Old impression. Watermark, small high crown surmounted by 
cross and star. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

Part of the same series as nos. 15-18. 

20. THE ELECTOR JOHN FREDERICK I. 

B. vii, 295, 130; H. 275 (509) ; Sch. ii, 304, 169 (2) ; N. 147. 

Half-length, in elector's robes and ermine hat, holding a long sword 
in both hands. Over his r. shoulder the winged serpent. 

[156 x 137.] Good impression. Above and below the portrait the text described 
by H. from the Bible printed by Lufft in 1545. On the reverse is the privilege 
granted in 1534 to the booksellers M. Goltz, B. Vogel and C. Schramm, at Wittenberg, 
to sell Luther's Bible, Psalter, New Testament and Postilla. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

This out was used in Bibles of 1541, 1543, 1545 and many later editions. 

21. SIBYLLA OF CLEVES. 1551. 

H. 279a (513) ; Sch. ii, 307, 174 ; P. iv, 17, 188 ; N. 154. 

Bust, three-quarter face to r., with hands clasped over a closed book. 
Over her r. shoulder the serpent, in r. upper corner the arms of Cleves. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Oranach 11. 345 

[163 x 127 ; sheet, 258 x 132.] Good impression, with the inscriptions quoted 
by H. above and below the portrait. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The portrait (B. 137) in the book, p. 338, no. 2, is a fairly accurate copy of the 
present woodcut, but in the original the hands are not resting on a table. 

22. FABIAN VON AUERSWALD. 

B. vii, 298, 145 ; H. 288 (519) ; Sch. ii, 288, 135 ; P. iv, 12, 171 ; N. 189. 

Half-length, three-quarter face to 1., holding his coat-of-arms in both 
hands ; over his 1. shoulder the winged serpent. 

[214 x 164.] Good impression, from sig. A iij of " Bingerkunst," H. Lufft, 
Wittenberg, 1539 ; fol. (p. 339, no. 1). 
Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1846. 

23. MARTIN LUTHER. H. 660. 

Bare-headed, three-quarter face to r., standing, holding a book in both 
hands. Landscape with buildings in the background. In 1. upper corner 
Luther's arms, heart marked with a tau cross in the centre of a rose. 

[335 x 214.] Old impression, damaged ; the 1. lower corner wanting, also a large 
piece beneath the shield ; the signature, which should be in one or other of these 
places, is consequently missing. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

The landscape closely resembles in character that in no. 10. 

24. MARTIN LUTHER. H. 301 (536). 

The figure of Luther is from the same drawing as that in no. 23, from 
which the present woodcut is evidently copied, with the omission of the 
background. The winged serpent is in the 1. lower corner ; the ground to 
1. of the feet is shaded. Above the woodcut is the name, Doctor Martin 
Luther, and the margin to 1. of the woodcut contains the inscriptions quoted 
by Heller, giving dates of events in Luther's life. 

[329 x 134 ; size of sheet, 350 x 201.] Fair impression. Paper discoloured. 
In the inventory of 1837. 

25. MARTIN LUTHER. 1546. 

B. vii, 299, 150 ; H. 294 (529) ; Sch. ii, 313, 182 ; N. 173. 

Half-length, three-quarter-face to 1., holding a book in both hands. 
The date 15-46 is divided by the head, and the winged serpent is beneath 
the figure 6. 

[134 x 89 ; size of sheet, 241 x 124.] Beneath the portrait are fourteen elegiac 
verses, " Cum lachrymis tristes Ecclesia funde querelas .... Nemo nocere pijs te 
prohibente potest," headed " DE OBITU REVERENDISSIMI VI- 1 Rl, DOMINI 
D. MARTINI LVTH ER I, "and signed " A.L." 

Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., 1862. 

25a. MARTIN LUTHER. 1546. B. 150; H. 294 (529) ; Sch. 182; N. 173. 

[134 x 89.] Later impression. The lines are thickened. On the back is printed 
a rhymed life of Luther in twelve verses. 

Purchased from Messrs. Heussner and Lauser, 1875. 



346 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

25 b. MARTIN LUTHER (1546). B. 150; H. 294 (529) ; Sch. 182 ; N. 173. 

Second state. 

The date removed, portions of the hatching cut away from several 
places. 

[134 x 89.] From a book ; German text on the back. 
Purchased from Mr. Fawcett, 1877. 

This state is mentioned by Schuchardt, who remarks that it could easily be 
mistaken for a copy. 

26. MARTIN LUTHER. 1548. 

B. vii, 299, 147 ; H. 298 (533) ; Sch. ii, 271, 115 and 300, 159 ; N. 170. 

Full length, standing, three-quarter face to r., holding a closed book in 
both hands. In 1. upper corner Luther's arms, below 1. the serpent under 
the date 1548. 

[145 x 97.] Good impression ; text of " Hortulus Animae " on the back. 
Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1867. 

27. CHRISTIAN BRUCK. 1549. 

B. vii, 298, 144 ; H. 289 (521) ; Sch. ii, 317, 190; L. p. 18 ; N. 190. 

Half-length, three-quarter face to r., wearing a low, soft hat ; his 
hands clasped. To 1. of the head is the date 1549, and beneath it the 
winged serpent. 

[173 x 151.] Late impression, cut to the innermost border-line of four. 

Purchased from Mr. Tiffin, 1851. 

The block is in the Derschau collection (Becker, B 46). Lippmann (p. 20) 
remarks that the woodcut appears to reproduce a picture. 

Dr. Christian Briick, son of the Electoral Chancellor Gregor Briick, married in 
1541 Barbara, daughter of the elder Cranach, while the younger Cranach married in 
the same year Christian's sister Barbara. In 1549 Christian Briick built himself a 
house at Weimar, in which he received the elder Cranach on his return from sharing the 
captivity of John Frederick the Magnanimous. Cranach resided with his son-in-law 
during the remainder of his life. Briick was involved in the rebellion of Wilhelm 
von Grumbach, with whom he was executed by quartering in the market-place at 
Gotha on 18 April, 1567. 

28. JOHANN FORSTER. 1556. H. 293 and 865 ; P. iv, 26, 40 ; N. 196. 

Half-length, bare-headed, with long beard, holding a book in both 
hands. On the shaded background over the 1. shoulder are the serpent 
and date 1556 ; in the 1. lower corner the monogram of the woodcutter 
called, on insufficient grounds, Hans Bocksberger (Nagl., Mon., iii, no. 607), 
followed by a knife. 

[185 x 146.] Good impression, with the inscription quoted by H. beneath the 
woodcut. Provenance not recorded. 

This portrait of a Wittenberg professor appeared in a Hebrew dictionary printed 
at Basle, according to Heller and Nagler in 1554, which is two years before the date 
on the portrait ; N. mentions, however, an edition of 1557. 

29. PAUL EBER. 

Half-length, bare-headed, seated at a table, turned to r., but looking 
to the front, holding an open book in both hands. 



Division D. School of Saxony. L. Cranach II. 347 

[144 x 112.] Good impression, enclosed in a passe-partout [278 x 160] composed 
of four blocks ; at the foot a sleeping child with skull and hour-glass, holding a 
tablet inscribed HODIE MIHI I CRAS TIBI. Over the portrait, "VIVA IMAGO 
REVERENDI VIBI M. | PAVLI EBERI KITTHINGENSIS, PASTORIS | ECCLESI^ WITTE- 
BERGENSIS. | ANNO .ETATis 48" ; beneath it, seven elegiac couplets, signed "M.Iohan: 
Schosserus. Wittebergse 1559." 

Purchased from Mr. Gutekunst, 1867. 

Not signed, but attributed to Cranach by comparison with the following. 

30. JOHANNES BUGENHAGEN. N. 188. 

Half-length, standing, bare-headed, holding an open book in both 
hands. Over his 1. shoulder the winged serpent. 

[142 x 109.] Good impression, in the same passe-partout as no. 29, but with a 
different piece at the top. Over the portrait, " Warhafftige Abcontrafactur des .... 
Johannis Bugenhagij Pomerani," etc. Beneath it, four German couplets, " Wer 
wissen wolt kurtzlich von wan .... auff diesem blat." 

Purchased from Mr. Daniell, 1870. 

31. PHILIPP MELANCHTHON. H. 304 (538) ; N. 185 ; L. 55. 

Bust, three-quarter face to r., in a coat lined with fur. Over the r. 
shoulder is the winged serpent. 

[267 X 194 (cut) ; height of sheet, 345.] Good impression, but cut within the 
border-line on both sides. Above the portrait, " VIVA IMAGO BEVERENDI 
VIRI | D. PHILIPPI MELANTHONIS." Below it, eleven elegiac couplets, " Si tibi non 
licuit coram spectare Philippum. . . . Et quae dexteritas, totaque uita liquet," 
signed " HENRICVS MOLDERVS | HESSVS . 1560." 

Collections : Firmin-Didot (F. 21), Mitchell. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

Lippmann reproduces another edition (that described by H.), entitled " War- 
hafftige Abconterfeiung | des Herrn Philippi Melanthonis," with German verses 
below in three columns, " ex latino." This edition was in the Theobald collection 
(sale, Stuttgart 1910, no. 177). The same collection contained (no. 176) an earlier 
Latin edition than that described here, the second line not being in italics. 

31a. PHILIPP MELANCHTHON. H. 304 (538) ; N. 185 ; L. 55. 

Another impression [265 x 211], fully preserved but the border-line cut close. 
Purchased from Messrs. Graves, 1851. 

32. PHILIPP MELANCHTHON. 1561. B. vii, 300, 153 ; H. 870 ; N. 182. 

Full length, standing, bare-headed, holding his cap in his 1., a book in 
his r. hand. On a shield in r. upper corner is a serpent wound about the 
cross; low down to 1. the date 1561 and Cranach's serpent. In the 
shadow near the r. foot of Melanchthon is the mark of the woodcutter 
Jacobus Lucius Transilvarius. 

[251 x 153.] Fair impression, but the border already broken in three places. 
Over the woodcut is printed " EFFIGIES REVERENDI VIRI, D. PHI- | LIPPI 
MELANTHONIS, EXPRESSA VVITTEBER- \ GAE, ANNO M.D.LXIII." 

Purchased from Mr. Bihn, 1875. 

This portrait was used in various editions of Carion's Chronicle. 

32a. PHILIPP MELANCHTHON. 1561. B. 153 ; H. 870 ; N. 182. 

[252 x 152.] Another impression, the border-line restored, with the same in- 
scription but no italics, and the date M.D.LXXXII. 
Purchased from Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., 1871. 



348 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 



WOODCUTS AFTER LUCAS CRANACH II. 

33. PHILIPP MELANCHTHON. 1561. H. 867 ; P. iv, 26, 41. 

Bust, three-quarter face to r., in an oval ; over the 1. shoulder are the 
date 1561 (not 1556) and the serpent. The portrait is enclosed in a 
frame ornamented with cherubs' heads and fruit. The mark of the 
woodcutter Jacobus Lucius Transilvanus, with a knife, is on a tablet 
attached to the r. side. 

[115 x 94.] Good impression, on title-page of " Chronicon Carionis," J. Crato, 
Wittenberg, 1572; fol. 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1896. 

This portrait is clearly derived from no. 82, which, itself, is only a variant of 
no. 31, on a smaller scale and increased to full length. 

34. PHILIPP MELANCHTHON. 

Bust, three-quarter face to r., in four-fold circular border ; the three 
outer lines are close together, the fourth (innermost) being removed by 
over one millimetre from the third. 

[Diam. 53.] Fair impression. 

Purchased at the Brentano Sale, 1870. 

A similar, but superior cut, of which this is a copy, is used on the title-page of 
" Brevis narratio exponens quo fine vitam in terris suam clauserit reverendus vir 
D. Philippus Melanthon," P. Seitz, Wittenberg, 1560; 4*. Yet another, still better, 
occurs on the title-page of " Orationes, Epitaphia et Scripta, quae edita sunt de 
morte Philippi Melanthonis omnia," J. Crato, Wittenberg, 1561 (2), 8 V . In this the 
border consists of three lines about equidistant, and the innermost line is further 
removed (2 mm.) from the top of the head [diam. 55]. 

35. PHILIPP MELANCHTHON. 

An almost exact repetition of no. 34, but not printed from the same 
block. 

[Diam. 53.] Late impression. 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

36. PHILIPP MELANCHTHON. 

Similar bust, in fourfold circular border, but the lines of the border 
fall into two distinct pairs. On either side of the circle is the date 
15-89. 

[Diam. 51.] Poor impression. 
Purchased from Mr. J. Marshall, 1876. 



349 



APPENDIX TO CRANACH. 



TABLE I. Bartsch Numbers. 
(B. = Bartsch ; D. = Dodgson.) 



B. 


D. 


B. 


D. 


B. 


D. 


B. 


D. 


1 


57 


39 


93 


77 


117 


115 


89 


2 


88 


40 


94 


78 


83 


116 


9 


3 


58 


41 


95 


79 





117 


10 


4 


123 


42 


96 


80 


45 


118 


12 


5 


79 


43 


97 


81 


52 


119 


3 


6 





44 


98 


82 


44 


120 


t p. 281 


7 


63 


45 


99 


83 





121 





8 


64 


46 


100 


84 


46 


122 


59 


9 


65 


47 


101 


85 


41 


123 


87 


10 


66 


48 


102 


86 


30 


124 


8 


11 


67 


49 


p. 340, no. 1 


87 


48 


125 


54 


12 


68 


50 


,. 2 


88 


50 


126 


56 


13 


69 


51 


3 


89 


47 


127 


55 


14 


70 


52 


4. 
y 


90 


31 


128 


p. 343, no. 15 


15 


71 


53 


., 5 


91 


20 


129 


p. 344, no. 16 


16 


72 


54 


p. 341, no. 6 


92 


27 


130 


20 


17 


73 


55 


341, 7 


93 


24 


131 





18 


74 


56 


4 


94 


43 


132 





19 


75 


57 


51 


95 





133 


p. 344, no. 17 


20 


76 


58 


61 


96 





134 


Vol. I, p. 514, no. 5 


21 


17a 


59 


7 


97 


18 


135 


,. 6 


22 


78 


60 


119 


98 


29 


136-140 


p. 338, no. 2 


23 


103 


61 


15 


99 


28 


141 





24 


104 


62 


118 


100 


23 


142 





25 


105 


63 


60 


101 


39 


143 


132 


26 


106 


64 


90 


102 


40 


144 


p. 346, no. 27 


27 


107 


65 


14 


103 


38 


145 


p. 345, no. 22 


28 


108 


66 





104 


25 


146 





29 


109 


67 


2 


105 


36 


147 


p. 346, no. 26 


30 


110 


68 


82 


106 


33 


148 





31 


111 


69 


121 


107 


37 


149 





32 


112 


70 


77 


108 


34 


150 


p. 345, no. 25 


33 


113 


71 


122 


109 


35 


151 





34 


114 


72 


5 


110 


32 


152 


Not by Cranach 


35 


115 


73 


81 


111 





153 


p. 347, no. 32 


36 


116 


74 


p. 166, no. 51 


112 


13 


154 





37 


91 


75 


6 


113 


62 


155 





38 


92 


76 


1 


114 


16 







350 



Early German and Flemish Woodcuts Part II. 



TABLE II. Schuchardt Numbers. 
(SCH. = Schuchardt ; D. = Dodgson.) 



SCH. 


D. 


SCH. 


D. 


SCH. 


D. 


SCH. 


D. 


1 
2 


57 


49 
50 


106 
107 


104 | 


p. 324, no. 3 
p. 329, no. 13 


149 
150 


p. 343, no. 15 
p. 344, no. 16 


3 





51 


108 


105 





151 





4 





52 


109 


106 





152 





5 


88 


53 


110 


107 


18-46 


153 





6 





54 


111 


108 


52 


154 


p. 344, no. 17 


7 


58 


55 


112 


109 





155 


ii ii 18 


8 





56 


113 


110 





156 




9 


123 


57 


114 


111 


48 


157 





10-13 





58 


115 


112 


49 


158 





14 


79 


59 


104 


113 


50 


159 


p. 346, no. 26 


15 





60-62 


114 


51 


160 





16 


63 


63-69 p.340,nos. 1-7 


115 


p. 346, no. 26 


161 





17 


64 


70 


4 


116 


13 


162 





18 


65 


71 


51 


117 


62 


163 





19 


66 


72 


61 


118 


16 


164 





20 


67 


73 


7 


119 


tp. 281 


165 





21 


68 


74 


90 


120 


M 


166 


Vol. I, p. 514, no. 5 


22 


69 


75 


14 


121 


59 


167 





23 


70 


76 


2 


122 


89 


168 





24 


71 


77 


60 


123 


9 


169 


p. 344, no. 20 


25 


72 


78 


119 


124 


12 


170 





26 


73 


79 


15 


125 


87 


171 





27 


74 


80 


118 


126 


11 


172 





28 


75 


81 





127 


10 


173 





29 


76 


82 


6 


128 


3 


174 


p. 344, no. 21 


30 


17 


83 


82 


129 


8 


175 





31 


17a 


84 


121 


130 


56 


176 


131 


32 


78 


85 


122 


131 


54 


177 


p. 331, nos. 26, 27 


Ip. 326, no. 10 


86 





132 


55 


178 


p. 336, no. 15 


p. 330, no. 23 


87 


77 


133 





179 


124 


p. 331, no. 25 


88 


5 


134 





180 





34 


91 


89 p. 335, no. 13 


135 


p. 339, no. 1 


181 


126 


35 


92 


90 


81 


136 


p. 278, no. 7 


182 


p. 345, no. 25 


86 


93 


91-93 





137 


p. 334, no. 6 


183 





87 


94 


94 


p. 335, no. 12 


138 





184 





38 


95 


95 


1 


139 


Lemberger 


185 





39 


96 


96 


p. 166, no. 51 


140 





186 





40 


97 


97 


117 


141 


p. 332, no. 30 


187 





41 


98 


98 





142 


j. 335, no. 11 


188 





42 


99 


99 


83 


143 


i. 331, no. 28 


189 





43 


100 


100 


84 


144 





189b 


133 


44 


101 


101 


tp. 307 


145 


p. 343, no. 14 


190 


p. 346, no. 27 


45 


102 


lOla 


85 


146 





191 





46 


103 


102 


tp. 315 


147 





192 





47 


116 


1fW 


fNot by 


148 





193 


125 


48 


105 


J.VAJ 


( Cranach 











351 



IV. ANONYMOUS WOODCUTS OF THE SCHOOL OF 

CRANACH. 

1. ABRAHAM'S SACRIFICE. 

The Angel, flying, grasps with his 1. hand the hilt of the sword with 
which Abraham is about to smite off the head of Isaac, who kneels, facing 
to r., on a pile of wood. To 1. is the ram caught by the horna in a 
thicket, to which the angel points with his r. hand. In the foreground 
trees, in the distance, r., buildings. 

[233 x 159.] Late impression, coloured in imitation of a chiaroscuro, of the 
second cut, between fol. 13 and 14, in the first folio edition of Luther's 
translation of the Old Testament, pt. 1, Wittenberg, 1523. (See p. 331, no. 25.) 
No text on the back. 

Purchased from Messrs. Smith, 1845. 

2. THE DEATH OP ELI. 

To 1., the ark in the Temple of Dagon, whose image is broken ; in the 
middle the plague of mice, and the death of Eli ; to r. a battle. 

[113 X 145.] Late impression, with text on the back (1 Sam. v), of the cut first 
used in the first folio edition of Luther's translation of the Old Testament, pt. 2. 
(See p. 331, no. 25a.) 

Purchased from Mr. Miller, 1848. 

3. THE AFFLICTION OF JOB. 

Job, covered with sores, converses with his wife and friends. In the 
background, behind a wall, we see the collapse of his house and the 
raiding of his cattle. 

[225 X 159.] Early impression, with text on the back, from the first folio edition 
of Luther's translation of the Old Testament, pt. 3. (See p. 331, no. 25b.) 
In the inventory of 1837. 

4. THE CREATION OF EVE. P. iv, 26, 42b. 

In the foreground the Almighty lifts Eve from the side of Adam, who 
sleeps on the bank of a stream in which waterfowl swim and wade. In 
the distance are seen the Creation of Adam, the Fall, the concealment of 
Adam and Eve, and their Expulsion from Paradise. 

[256 x 156.] Badly preserved ; no text on the back. 

In the inventory of 1837. 

First used in Luther's Bible, printed by Nicolaus Wolrab at Leipzig, 1541. The 
illustrations of this book are ascribed by Passavant en bloc to the younger Lucas 
Cranach, but it is obvious that they are by various hands. 

5. TWO JUDGES OF ISRAEL. P. iv, 27, 42h, 

Both in armour ; one wears a helmet, the other, to r., is bare-headed. 
Near the feet of the first is a dog. 



352 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

[261 x 163.] Good impression, with text on the back. 

Presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., 1895. 

First used in the same book as no. 4. This is from a late edition. 

6. BOEDER WITH THE TRINITY, EIGHT ANGELS HOLDING THE 

INSTRUMENTS OF THE PASSION, AND DAVID KNEELING IN A 
LANDSCAPE, PLAYING THE HARP. 

[266 x 176; opening, 124 x 107.] Good impression, on title-page of "Psalteriu 
summi f u | ditoris et Egregij cytharedi Daui- | dis bphete excelletissimi filij Jesse : | 
. . . editu : Et per Diuu Aureliu Augustinu in tres | quinquagenas sagaciter diuisum 
... | ... ad | laudem cunctipotentis dei accura-|te impressum." (Place and date 
of printing unknown) fol. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The artist is strongly influenced by Lucas Cranach. Some features suggest an 
attribution to Hans, but it is rash to speak positively without knowledge of the place 
and date of publication. 

7. BOOK-PLATE OF CHRISTOPH SCHEURL. 

Christoph Scheurl and his two sons, Georg and Christoph, kneel r., 
facing three-quarters to 1., before a crucifix. Behind the father is a large 
tree, and on a hill in the distance is a castle. In the foreground 1. is a 
large escutcheon with the arms, helm, mantling and crest of Scheurl ; 
beside it a small plain escutcheon with the arms of Fiitterer, the family 
of Scheurl's wife. 

[231 x 142.] Late impression, without inscriptions, with margin. 
Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1895. 

The early impressions actually used as book-plates (e.g. Franks collec- 
tion, Berlin Cabinet, and pasted in a copy of Aretino's " Historia 
Fiorentina," J. de Rubeis, Venice 1476, Hain 1562, which belonged to 
William Morris, and was purchased at the sale of his library, December 
1898, by Mr. Emery Walker) are coloured, and have texts from the 
Psalms and Tobit printed on the margin. Within the limits of the cut 
itself the following quotation is printed aslant : " Luc. 22 | Ame dico tibi, 
hodie | mecu eris in paradise." At the bottom, beneath a verse from the 
Psalms, is printed : " Liber Christ . Scheurli . I.V.D. qui natus est . 
11 . Nouemb . 1481 . | Filij vero Georg . 19 . April . 1532 . & Christ . 
3 . August . 1535." 

The arms, in their present form, were granted to Scheurl by the Emperor 
in 1540. In 1541 he received further permission to use two flags in 
addition to the griffin in the crest above the helmet. As these do not 
appear, the date of the woodcut is fixed to the year 1540 or 1541. Scheurl 
died in 1542. * 

The design appears to be by a Saxon, rather than a Nuremberg artist. 
The block is in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg (no. 35 of " Katalog 
der im Germanischen Museum vorhandenen . . . Holzstocke vom XV.- 
XVIII. Jahrhunderte. Erster Toil." Niirnberg, 1892). Impressions 
were taken from it in 1892, and were issued as a plate in Zeitschrift fur 
Bucherzeichen, ii, 4, Berlirj, 1892, described p. 9 by G. A. Seyler. A 
facsimile of a coloured impression was issued in the same journal. For 
other Scheurl book-plates already described, see Vol. I., pp. 365, 516, and 
Vol. II., p. 305. 



353 



V. GEORG LEMBERGEK. 

Worked 1522-1537. " Georgius Lemberger ex Lantshuth pictor " 
became a citizen of Leipzig in 1523. Wustmann identifies him with 
" Georg Maler," who in 1525 received twelve groschen " von eyner 
forme etzlicher vorbotten pfennige zureyssen und schneyden," and 
in 1529 six groschen " von eynem Moster des Rats wapen daruff 
zereyssen." In that case he was also a woodcutter. In 1532 l he was 
expelled from Leipzig by the government of Duke George of Saxony 
for his obstinate adherence to the Lutheran faith and participation in 
proscribed services. He may have taken refuge at Wittenberg, but 
it is rash to identify him, as Wustmann does (p. 41), with the Jorg 
Formschneider who worked at Wittenberg in 1551. The dates on 
his woodcuts, published at Leipzig, Wittenberg, Altenburg, Dresden 
and Magdeburg, extend from 1522 to 1537, 2 and I have discovered 
no illustrations that are certainly of later date. 3 

Authorities : 

i. Partial catalogues of Lemberger's work. 
Bartsch, P.-G., ix, 434. 
Passavant, P.-G., iv, 59. 
Nagler, Mon., iii, nos. 93, 94, 120, 121. 
C. Schuchardt, "Lucas Cranach," iii, 116. 
R. Muther, "Die altesten. deutschen Bilder-Bibeln," 1883, 

nos. 20, 31, 36, 39. 
R. Muther, " Die deutsche Bucher-Illustration," 1884, nos. 

1604, 1615, 1662. 
H. Rottinger, "Zuin Holzschnittwerke G. Lembergers," 

Mitteil. d. Ges. f. vervielf. Kunst, 1906, Nr. 1, p. 1. 



1 Not 1530, as stated by Geyser, Naumann's Archiv, iii, 78, apparently on the 
authority of Vogel's " Annalen," pp. 115, 119. The Lutherans of Leipzig, Lemberger 
among them, began in the summer of 1532 to attend the ministrations of a Protestant 
clergyman appointed by the Elector to the parish of Holzhausen, close to Leipzig, but 
situated in the electoral territory. They were denounced by spies to the Duke, and 
proceedings against them were commenced in September and concluded in October. 
The transactions are fully related by Seidemann, " Beitrage zur Reformations- 
geschichte," i, 121 and 209 ff. 

2 I cannot accept as Lemberger's work the woodcuts in a book printed at Mainz 
in 1515 which are attributed to him by Rottinger (no. 1). 

3 The large woodcuts in the Swedish Bible printed at Upsala, 1540-41, form a 
possible exception, but it is likely that these had been previously used in Germany 
in some book not yet recognised. 

2 A 



354 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

ii. Biographical and critical notices. 

G. Wustmarm, " Beitrage zur Geschichte der Malerei in 

Leipzig," 1879, pp. 36-41. 
W. Schmidt, Kunstchronik, 1890, N.R i, 321. 

A single picture, no. 609, in the Leipzig Museum, the Crucifixion, 
dated 1522, commemorative of the Schmidburg family, can be attri- 
buted with certainty to Lemberger. 1 It is reproduced on pi. viii in 
Heft 17 (edited by C. Gurlitt) of " Beschreibende Darstellung der 
alteren Bau-und Kunstdenkmalerdes Konigreich.es Sachsen," Dresden, 
1895, and in T. Schreiber, " Das Museum der bildenden Kiinste zu 
Leipzig," 1906. W. Schmidt's attribution of a drawing at Windsor 
cannot be accepted ; apart from discrepancies in style, the signature 
is to be read as L. C. or C. L. 2 

Lemberger signs his woodcuts either with a monogram upon a 
tablet or with separate initials, often accompanied by dots or small 
rings ornamentally disposed. The signature was interpreted by the 
older writers since J. F. Christ as that of Gottfried Leigel, a fictitious 
personage. The identification of the monogrammist with Lemberger 
is attributed by Schmidt to Woltmann and Woermann, 3 but they 
had been anticipated by Seidemann in 1846. 4 There can be no 
reasonable doubt that this identification is correct. Though he 
belongs not only by his place of residence but by the affinities of his 
art to the Saxon school, Lemberger preserves many characteristics of 
the Bavarian region whence he came, and his figures, as well as 
his trees, skies and mountain backgrounds often remind us of Huber. 
Schuchardt, who knew very little about " Gottfried Leigel's " work, 
dwells on the resemblance of his woodcuts to Altdorfer, and under- 
rates the influence of Cranach. A method of lightening the outline 
of mountain peaks by breaking the line into a row of dots is distinc- 
tive of Lemberger as compared with Altdorfer, Huber and their 
immediate school, though imitations of the trick may be found on a 
small scale in woodcuts by Brosamer and anonymous Saxon artists. 5 
Lemberger did much decorative work for the Saxon presses, especially 

1 Rottinger, p. 7. 

2 See publications of the Vasari Society, v. 30, where this and another drawing 
by the same artist are discussed. 

* "Geschichte der Malerei," ii, 433. 

4 " Beitrage zur Reformationsgeschichte," i, 121, quoted by Wustmann. 

* For instance, in the woodcut of the Temptation of Christ [105 x 76] by an 
imitator of Lemberger on fol. 59 of " Deudsch Catechismus," G. Bhau, Wittenberg, 
1530 ; 4*. In this same book, fol. 39, is the woodcut of the Creation attributed here 
(p. 335, no. 13) to Hans Cranach. A series of ten woodcuts [112 x 75] in the first 
part of the Catechism, illustrating breaches of the ten commandments, is evidently 
by the same artist and should have been mentioned in Section II. 



in archil 






IIIVX 3TAJS 

Dfl 

.faiviQ 




PLATE XVIII 

QEORQ LEMBERGER 

THE DIVISION OF THE APOSTLES 




r/-. 







Division D. School of Saxony. Lemberger. 355 

that of Letter and Blum at Leipzig, Letter, Ehau and Lufft at 
Wittenberg, and Kantz at Altenburg. 1 The few signed title-pages 
contain architectural and ornamental motives that repeat themselves 
tiresornely, and are easily recognised on unsigned borders and on the 
architectural parts of Bible illustrations ; similar motives are found 
on a smaller scale on the letters of several alphabets of different sizes 
which have not yet been classified or described. 

The earliest work of Lemberger, the frontispiece to the Prague 
Missal printed by Lotter at Leipzig in November 1522, 2 is the most 
striking and original of his woodcuts ; the decorative use of black 
spaces in the design is unsurpassed in German illustration. In 1523 
he was designing numerous illustrations to the Bible, which appeared 
in that year and in 1524 in Letter's octavo editions of the Old and 
New Testaments in Luther's version. Some of these are excellent, 
but like most of Lemberger's work, existing only in books which have 
become scarce, they are little known. His principal series of illus- 
trations is the very numerous set of woodcuts to the Old Testament 
(at least 123) begun, apparently, in 1532 and first published in 1536 
in a Low German Bible printed at Magdeburg. The cuts in that 
Bible are for the most part admirably printed, but they have the 
misfortune to be known chiefly by the late and very inferior im- 
pressions in Bibles printed by Lufft at Wittenberg from 1550 onwards. 
Apart from books, the selection of woodcuts by which Lemberger is 
represented here is small and not particularly good. 



BOOKS ILLUSTRATED BY LEMBERGER. 
A. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS. 

1. [MUNTZER.] Bekentnus J Thomas Muntzers etwa | Pfarner zu 
Alstedt .... geschehen in | der guthe dinstags nach | Cantate. | .1525. | 
Ein Sendbrieff Tho|mas Muntzers. (M. Blum, Leipzig, 1525 1 ) 4 l . 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Title-border [147 x 105 ; opening, 65 x 46] with six angels, two of whom carry a 
wreath, two stand behind pillars, and two support an empty shield. Badly printed. 
Rottinger 17 (described from a book of 1534). Also used in [TOLTZ] Eyn Sermonn | 
von der vilfeltigen fmcht | des gestorbnen weytzkorn | en ... 1526, and in 
[LUTHER.] Ob kriegsleu|te auch ynn se|ligem stande seyn | kunden. | Mar. 
Luther. | Wittemberg. | 1527. 

2. [BIBLE.] Das naw | testament ) nach lawt | der Christliche 

1 The productions of the last-named press, not mentioned by Rottinger, have not 
yet been sufficiently explored. 

2 Reproduced, Mitteilwigen, 1906, p. 4. 

2 A 2 



356 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

kirchen | bewerte text, corrigirt, vn wider | umb zu recht gebracht 
m.d.xxvij. (Emser's Catholic version.) W. Stockel, Dresden, 1527 ; 
fol. Muther 1662. 

Purchased from Mr. Thorp, 1851. 

Woodcuts, partly described by Passavant, iv, p. GO, and more fully by Nagler, 
Mon. iii, p. 41. l 

(1) Title-page [228 x 141, pierced in four places for type] containing the three 

Persons of the Trinity, a group of Apostles, and the four Evangelists. 
Signed and dated 1527. P. 1. 

(2) Verso of fourth leaf (repeated 2 v.). A group containing Moses, David, St. 

Paul, and other Apostles or Prophets standing before the Virgin and 
Child enthroned ; the Almighty appears in clouds. Initials and date on 

.1 steps of throne [208 x 141]. P. 2. 

I (3) Fol. 24 v. The Resurrection ; a lion stands beside Christ on the slab of the 

tomb [148 x 113J. 

' (4) Fol. 38. The Presentation of Christ in the Temple [145 x 114]. 

(5) Fol. 61 v. The Trinity, floating in clouds over a landscape ; on the clouds 

an eagle. Signed and dated 1527 [148 x 115]. P. 3. 

(6) Fol. 79 v. The Dispersion of the Apostles. Signed and dated 1527 [147 x 

110]. P. 4. 

(7) Fol. 103 v. The Conversion of Saul. Signed and dated 1527 [146 x 115]. P. 5. 

(8) Fol. 177. The stars fall from heaven and the kings and rich men of the 

earth hide themselves [148 x 114]. 

(9) Fol. 177 v. Angels restraining the four winds and marking the foreheads of 

the elect. Signed and dated 1527 [149 x 115]. P. 6. 
(10-13) Initials with the four Evangelists [c. 72 x 64] before the Gospels. 

(14) Ornamental initial D, column, dolphin and leaves [58 x 56] before the Acts. 

(15) Initial M with St. Paul [67 X 64] before the Epistle to the Hebrews. 

3. [LUTHER.] Der hundert | vnd zwelffte psalm Dajuids .... 
ge-|predigt durch | Mar. Luth. | Wittemberg 1. 5. 26. H. Weiss, 
Wittenberg, 1526; 8 T0 . 

Duplicate transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1889. 

Title-border [118 x 84 ; opening, 61 x 42], undescribed. One piece. Columns at 
the sides supporting balls and foliage and resting on the heads of seated monsters. 
Two angels seated back to back at the top touch the leaves. Between the two 
monsters at the foot an angel stands, supporting a shield with the monogram of 
H. Weiss. Background shaded obliquely from r. to 1. 

The same border is used in the following books in the Library: [LUTHER.] 
" Sermon von I der heubtsum | ma Gottes gepots . . . Mar. Luth. | Wittemberg. 1. 5. 
26," and [LUTHER.] " Ein vnterrich|tung wie sich die Chri-|sten ynn Mosen 
sollen | schicken Gepredi-|get durch Mar. Luther. | Wittemberg | 1.5.26," both 
without name of printer. 

4. [RHEGIUS.] Selen ertz|ney fur die gesunjden vn krancken | 
zu diesen geferlichen zeit-|ten, vnd ynn todes notten durch | Vrbanum 
Rhe|gium | M.D.XXX. (n.p.d.) 8 T0 . 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Title-border [122 x 85 ; opening, 74 x 44], undescribed. At the top two seated 
children with shields containing the letters M and S. 2 On either side a winged child 

1 Nagler omits the initial S (St. Luke), no. 12, and no. 14, while he wrongly 
includes the P, which is not by Lemberger, and comes from the first Wittenberg 
edition of Luther's N.T., 1522. 

2 These initials occur in an analogous position on a woodcut representing 
St. Luke with the features of Melanchthon in an octavo Low German N.T. printed 
by Hans Lufft at Wittenberg in 1527. But for that, it might be conjectured that 
they stood for the initials of the printer. 



Division D. School of Saxony. Leniberger. 357 

standing on a base and supporting with both hands a column behind which another 
winged child stands, blowing a long horn. At the foot, two winged children seated 
on foliage, holding shields in both hands. Background closely shaded with oblique 
lines, 1. to r. 

5. [LUTHER.] Etliche| schone Predig-|ten, Ausder ersten I Epistel 
S. Jo-|hannis. | Von der Liebe. | D. Mart. Luth. | M.D.XXXIII. J. Klug, 
Wittenberg (1533) ; 4 to . 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Title-border [151 x 103 ; opening 68 x 49], with four warriors supporting shields 
at the sides, and two winged children supporting the electoral arms of Saxony below. 
Bottinger 9 (used in 1528). 

6. [LUTHER.] Bin Pre-|digt von den | Engeln. I Mart. Luth. | 
Wittemberg. j 1531. H. Lufft, Wittenberg, 1531 ; 4*. 

Presented by Mr. W. Mitchell, 1904. 

Title-border [160 x 119]. A portal with triangular gable under which wreaths 
are suspended. To 1. of the gable four, to r. three winged children. At the sides 
two boys, each of which carries a child astride upon his shoulders. At the foot two 
winged children play with garlands, and a third is indistinctly seen r. Bottinger 5 
(used in 1525). 

7. [HUSS.] Etliche | Brieue Johan-|nis Huss des Heiligen | Mert- 
erers, aus dem ge|fengnis zu Costentz, An die Behemen j geschrieben. | 
Mit einer Vorrhede Doct. Mart. Luthers. J. Klug, Wittenberg, 
1537; 4 to . 

Duplicate transferred from the Department of Printed Books, 1889. 
The same border as in no. 5. 

8. [BIBLE.] Die Propheten | alle Deudsch. | Doct. Mart. Luth. | 
Gedruckt zu Witteru-| berg, Durch Hans Lufft. 1555; fol. (Second 
volume of a complete Bible.) 

Purchased from Mr. Evans, 1850. 

1) fol. 149 v. Judith in the tent of Holofernes. 

2) ,, 160. The Worship of the Golden Calf ; Tobit performing acts of mercy 

(signed). 
(3) 161. Tobit blinded by a swallow (signed). 



162 v. Tobias catching the great fish. 

164 v. Tobias curing his father's blindness. 

195 v. A battle ; illustration to 1 Mace. iv. 

223 v. Daniel judging the elders. 



Poor impressions from blocks which had been used in several earlier editions. 

B. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

1. [BIBLE.] Das All | te Testajment deutsch. | M. Luth. | Wit- 
temberg (Melchior Letter, Wittenberg, 1523) fol. (Muther, " Bilder- 
Bibeln," 28). 

Title-border [256 x 163], coloured, in the form of a portal, with eight angels on 
the top of the arch, an angel on either side clinging to a ring attached to the shaft 
of a column, and, below, a crucifix surrounded by angels seated or kneeling. Second 
state ; in the first state, with the date 1522 in the r. lower corner, the border had 
been used in the Prague Missal presented by Melchior Letter at Leipzig, 27 October 
1522 (Bottinger, p. 1, no. 2). The initial D with Moses [72 x 60], sig. A 2, repeated 
fol. 115, is also by Lemberger. 



358 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

2. [BIBLE.] Das | Newe j Testa-] ment Deutzsch. | Wittemberg. 
Melchior and Michel Letter, Wittenberg, 1524 ; fol. (Muther, B.-B., 18). 

The same border as in no. 1. It was used later in Sweden ; see no. 33. 

3. [BIBLE.] Pentateuch ;( wants title ; pt. 1 of Das allte testament 
deutzsch), M. Letter, jun., Wittenberg, 1524; 8 V0 . (imperfect). (Muther 
1615.) 

Ten cuts [146 x 95]. (1) D 6, Abraham's sacrifice ; (2) E 6 v., Jacob's dream ; 
(3) G 5, Joseph expounding Pharaoh's dreams ; (4-9) M 3-M 8 v., six cuts of the 
Tabernacle and its furniture ; (10) N 3, Aaron. Nos. 1, 3, 6 and 10 are signed G L 
and dated 1523, no. 4 has the initials only. According to Muther this edition contains 
thirteen cuts including the title-border, the Creation, and presumably some other 
subject wanting in this copy. 

4. [BIBLE.] Das newe | testament | deutzsch. | Mart. Luther. M. 
Lotter, jun., Wittenberg, 1524 ; 8 T0 . (imperfect, wants title). (Muther 
1604.) 

Thirty-four cuts [c. 148 x 96]. (1-4) the four Evangelists ; (5) the Descent of the 
Holy Ghost ; (6-9) four different cuts of St. Paul ; (10) St. Peter ; (11) St. John ; 
(12) St. James ; (13) St. Jude ; (14-34) twenty-one illustrations to the Apocalypse. 
No. 8 is used twice, no. 9 seven times. Nos. 1 and 8 are signed and dated 1523, 
nos. 2 and 3 are signed, nos. 14-16 are dated 1523. Among the initials four varieties 
of P, d 2, g 4 v., k 2, 1 6, can be attributed to Lemberger. 

Small copies in reverse [67 X 65] of all these woodcuts except nos. 4, 7, 8, appeared 
in the octavo Low German N.T. printed by " Johannes Loersfels anders Paryser 
genomet " in 1526 (sine loco). A free copy of no. 4 [113 x 72] appeared in the octavo 
editions of Eraser's Version of the N.T. printed by V. Schumann, Leipzig, in 1528 
and 1529. The other Evangelists in the books appear also to be indirectly from Lem- 
berger's designs, and the Apocalypse cuts are reduced copies [88 x 65] from those in 
this edition. 

5. [EMSER.] Canonis | Missae contra | Huldricu Zuing- | Hum. | 
Defensio. | M.D.XXIIII. (n.p., after 13 April, 1524); 4*. 

Border with the Mass of St. Gregory, in r. upper corner the words "ECOE HOMO." 
[159 x 118 ; opening, 57 x 60.] Rottinger, p. 2, no. 3. Bepr., Diederichs, no. 351, 
from "Missae Christianorum contra Lutheranum missandi formula Assertio," 1524. 

6. [FREDERICK L, K. of Denmark.] Serenissimi Domini, D. 

Friderici Daniye, Norvegiae Regis ad Cliristierni Patruelis 

calumnias, Responsio. (M. Lotter, jun., Wittenberg, 1524); 4*. 

On title-page, the royal arms of Denmark [102 x 89]. Undescribed. The cut 
may safely be ascribed to Lemberger by comparison with his ornamental work, 
especially in alphabets. 

7. [LINCK.] Dyalogus | Der Auszge-| lauffen Munch. G. Kantz, 
Altenburg, 1524; 4 10 . 

Border composed of four pieces : (a) cherub's head with foliage on either side 
[21 x 120] ; (b, c) candelabra of different designs, with vegetable forms [106 x 24] ; 
(d) a vase between two dragons [31 x 119]. Black ground throughout. Undescribed. 
A 2 v., initial E [24 x 23]. 

8. [JAN, Hus.] Joan : Husz | Von sched-|lickeit der menschen 
satzungen | oder Tradition. | Verdeutsch durch Wentzeslau | Linck. 



Division D. School of Saxony. Lemberger. 359 

Ecclesiasten zu | Aldenburgk. (At end, sig. A 4.) Gedruckt zu Alclen- 
burgk. (G. Kantz) Altenburg (1525 ?) ; 4*. 

Border composed of four pieces : (a) Two cornucopias saltire under a round arch 
decorated with grapes [30 x 59] ; (b, c) a pair of upright panels with crescents, 
cornucopias, winged children facing to r. and 1. respectively, and scrolls of foliage 
[130 x 31] ; (d) a nereid holding an apple in her 1., a long leaf in her r. hand, and a 
triton with a long leaf in his 1. hand, back to back ; their bodies end in leaves from 
which stalks project, bearing flowers and berries [40 X 118]. Black ground 
throughout. Undescribed. 

9. [BIBLE.] Dat Nye Te-|stament dudesch gantz j vlytigen 
gecorrigeret, | rait eynem Register. | Martinus Luther. | Wittemberch. j 
M.D.XXV. Hans Lufft, Wittenberg, 1525 ; 4 10 . 

Title-border with same motives as the folio border in no. 1, reduced to quarto 
size [150 x 104], and twenty-one illustrations to the Apocalypse, repeated from the 
edition of 1524. 

An octavo copy of this title-border [127 x 87], not by Lemberger himself, 
appeared in the Low German N.T. printed by Johannes Loersfels, 1526 (sine loco). 

10. [LUTHER.] Ein Sermon von des Judischen reichs vnd der welt 
ende. H. Lufft, Wittenberg, 1525; 4*. 

Title-border [160 x 119], with irregular opening. A triangular gable, with four 
angels 1., three r. ; between the column and the pilaster on either side is an angel 
who carries another on his back. In front of the socle are two children with gar- 
lands ; a third is seen in the lower corner on the right. Rott. 5. Repr., J. Luther, 
" Die Titeleinfassungen der Reformationszeit," Lief. 1, 1909, Taf. 34. Also used in 
[LUTHER.] Ob man | fur dem ster | ben fliehen | muge, 1527; Von Er|Lenhard 
keiser | ynn Beyern vmb des Euan-[gelij willen verbrandt. Eine | selige geschicht, 
1528; Ein Pre-[digt von den | Engeln, 1531 and 1535. 

11. [LUTHER.] De servo ar-|bitrio. H. Lufft, Wittenberg, Dec. 
1525; 8. 

Architectural border [109 x 78], with three round openings in the vault of the 
arch ; below, an angel holding a shield with the device of Hans Lufft ; opening 
irregular. Rott. 6, repr. p. 5. 

12. [LUTHER.] Zwopredigt ] auff dieEpistel S. Pauli. 1. Tessa. 4. 
1525; 8 V0 . (s.t.n.). 

Architectural border. At top two nude men seated, each with his hand on a large 
ball. At sides columns ; below, a lion reclining in a semicircular recess [119 x 83 ; 
opening, 59 x 40]. Undescribed. 

13. [LUTHER.] Das der freie | wille nichts sey. H. Lufft, 
Wittenberg, 1526 ; 4 to . (also in an edition without Lufft's name). 

Architectural border [146 x 105], with triangular gable. At the top, five angels 
on either side of the gable. Below, Christ on the cross between two angels swinging 
censers. Opening irregular. Repr., J. Luther, " Die Titeleinfassungen der Reforma- 
tionszeit," 1. Lief., Leipzig, 1909, Taf. 35. 

14. [BIBLE.] Der Pro|phet Haba-|cuc, ausge-|legt durch | Martin. | 
Luth. G. Kantz (Altenburg, n.d., 1526?) 8 V0 . 

Border with eight little angels on a background shaded diagonally from 1. to r. 
Two at the top flank a vase ; four at the sides carry fruit and sprays of foliage in 
their hands; two below support an escutcheon [122 x 82; opening, 70 x 42]. A 
characteristic work, Undescribed. On back of title-page initial D [24 x 24], 



360 Early German and Flemish Woodcuts. Part II. 

15. [LUTHER.] Tro-|stunge an die | Christen zu | Halle. H. Lufft, 
Wittenberg, 1527; 4 10 . 

Architectural border. A round arch rests on columns which project in front of a 
wall with three cornices ; on the lowest of these stand two warriors, on the next sit 
two nude men ; on the third are five angels on either side [146 x 106 ; opening, 
65 x 44]. Rott. 8. 

16. [JOHANN, Lichtenberger.] Die weissajgunge Johannis 
Lich|tenbergers deudsch, | zugericht mit vleys. H. Lufft, Wittenberg, 
1527 ; 4 to . 

Border as in no. 15 (Rott. 8). Forty- four illustrations of various sizes, first 
ascribed to Lemberger by Rottinger, p. 7, note 2. 1 His hand is not at first sight 
very easily recognised in them, but those who know the putti on his title-pages will 
discover analogies, and his style appears in the tree on sig. C 4, the mountains on 
sig. L 3, and the ornaments of the throne on sig. O 1 v. The subjects are traditional 
and were drawn by other artists of Lemberger's time, e.g., Breu and Anton von 
Worms. 

17. [BIBLE.] Vber das Erst | buch Mose, pre-|digete | Mart. 
Luth. G. Rhau, Wittenberg, 1527 2 ; 4*. 

Border with angels above holding the two devices, rose with heart and cross, and 
Lamb and flag, and below Christ crucified between the two thieves ; opening 
irregular [171x120]. Rott. 13. Repr., J. Luther, "Die Titeleinfassungen der 
Reformationszeit," Leipzig, 1909, Lief. 1, Taf. 29. 

Repeated in [LUTHER.] Deudsch Catechismus, G. Rhau, Wittenberg, 1529 ; 4 to . 
Also in [LUTHER.] Bin | Brief! an | den Cardinal Ertz-|bischoff zu Mentz. | Mart. 
Luth. (G. Rhau, Wittenberg, not before 1530) ; 4 to . 

18. [LUTHER.] Ein epistel aus I dem Propheten Jere-|mia, von 
Christus reich | vnd Christlicher frey-lneit .... Wittemberg, 1527; 
8'. (ts..n). 

Architectural border ; below, two angels hold a shield with device of a hand 
grasping a fleur-de-lis [118x83 ; opening, 61x43]. Rott. 20 (described from a book 
of 1544). The^same border occurs in [LUTHER.] Am funff-|ten Sontag na|ch der 
heiligen Dreykonigentag, Euangelion | Matthei xi, 1527. (s.t.n.). 

19. [SAXONY.] Sachsenspie|gel . auffs newe ge-|druckt . vnander- 
weit rnit vleysse | corrigiret. M. Letter, sen., Leipzig, 2 Jan. 1528 ; fol. 

Title-border dated 1525 with scenes from the Passion : the Scourging, Crowning 
with thorns, and Mocking of Christ as he sits upon the cross while holes are being 
drilled through the beam. In an upper storey a group of prophets and patriarchs, 
including Moses, John the Baptist, and David [255x163; opening, 82x69]. Rott- 
inger 7. The initials D, N, 0, P, V of the larger alphabet used in this book [47 x 47] 
are very characteristic ; the small alphabet (22 letters) used throughout the book is 
also attributed to L. by Rottinger ; observe on sig. E e 5 the inclination of the letter O 
in both large and smafi initials. The same initials but not the border are used in 
the " Sachssenspigell " printed by M. Lotter, Leipzig, 1535. 

20. [BIBLE.] Der Prophet Jesaia Deudsch. H. Lufft, Witten- 
berg, 1528 ; 4 to . 

On title-page, Isaiah's lips touched with a live coal from the altar [184 x 130 ; the 

also Repertorium fUr Kunstwissenschaft, xxxi, 52. 
n fol. 14 of this book is the Creation described on p. 335, no. 13. 



Division D. School of Saxony. Lemberger. 361 

height includes a space at the top designed to hold the title ; in 1532 (no. 26) this 
upper portion was cut off]. Bott. 10. 

21. [LUTHER.] Eine be-|richt an einen | guten freund | von 
Beider gestalt des | Sacraments auffs Bi-|schoffs zu Meissen | mandat. 
J. Klug, Wittenberg, 1528 ; 4 ta . 

Border containing a round arch, on either side of it a naked boy, holding a spray 
of foliage ; the pillars are