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Full text of "Catalogue of the finger rings, early Christian, Byzantine, Teutonic, Mediaeval and later bequeathed by Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, in which are included the other rings of the same periods in the museum. By O.M. Dalton"




7 









CATALOGUE OF FINGER RINGS 



OXFORD 

HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



FRANKS BEQUEST 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

FINGER RINGS 

EARLY CHRISTIAN, BYZANTINE, TEUTONIC, 
MEDIAEVAL AND LATER 

BEQUEATHED BY 
SIR AUGUSTUS WOLLASTON ERANKS, K.C.B. 

IN WHICH ARK INCLUDED 
THE OTHER RINGS OF THE SAME PERIODS IN THE MUSEUM 



BY 

O. M. DALTON, M.A. 

ASSISTANT KEEPER OF THE DEPARTMENT OK BRITISH AND JIICDIAEVAL 
ANTIQUITIES AND ETHNOGRAI'IIY 



LONDON 

PRINTED BY ORDER OE THE TRUSTEES 
SOLD A T THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

AND BY LONGMANS & CO., 39 PATERNOSTER ROW 
BERNARD QUARITCH, 11 GRAFTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, W. 

ASHER & CO., 14 BEDFORD STREET, COVENT GARDEN 
AND HENRY FROWDE, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, AMEN CORNER 

1912 

[All rights reserved}^ 




NK 



PREFACE 

THE present volume is intended to supplement the Catalogue of 
Greek, Etruscan, and Roman finger-rings to which allusion is made 
at the beginning of the Introduction. It includes all the rings of 
post-classical times in the Museum. The system upon which the 
Catalogue has been drawn up, and the difficulty of handling many 
of the points that arise with finality, or even on logical lines, have been 
pointed out on a subsequent page. 

The major part of the collection dealt with in this volume, like a 
considerable part of that in the Catalogue already published, was 
comprised in the valuable bequest of Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, 
K.C.B., my predecessor in the charge of this department. During his 
official career of forty-five years he had unceasingly added to the riches 
of the Museum, particularly in his own department ; and at his death, 
in 1897, he left to the Trustees practically anything they chose to select 
from the various series he had retained for his life. Chief among 
these was the collection of finger-rings, the accumulation of many 
years, and of many hands. As will be seen from the pages of the 
Catalogue itself, this Collection so far surpassed that already in the 
Museum both in numbers and in importance, that it seems a fitting 
tribute to pay to the ' Franks Bequest ' to give the rings thus acquired 
the leading place upon the title-page. 



VI PREFACE 

For help in several directions in the preparation of the volume, 
thanks are due to Mr. Stanley Adam ; to Sir Harry Poland, K.C., 
whose knowledge in connexion with the rings of serjeants-at-law has 
been freely placed at our disposal ; to Mr. Longworth Dames for the 
elucidation of many oriental inscriptions ; and to the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London for the loan of several illustrations which have been 
used in their publications. 

I have read through the proofs of the Catalogue, and in many cases 
compared the descriptions with the specimens themselves. 



C. H. READ. 



DEPARTMENT OF BRITISH AND MEDIAEVAL 
ANTIQUITIES AND ETHNOGRAPHY. 
March, 1912. 



NOTE. The measurements and weights of the specimens are given in 
English denominations, but parallel tables are provided by means 
of which the necessary reductions can be made. 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE . . 

LIST OF PLATES ... x 

LIST OF WORKS USEFUL FOR THE STUDY OF RINGS . . xi 

INTRODUCTION ..... . xiii 

CATALOGUE 

A. EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE RINGS. 

I. CHIEFLY FROM ITALY AND BEFORE A. n. 600 : 

a. Inscribed .......... i 

b. Uninscribed ......... 4 

II. FROM THE CHRISTIAN EAST : 

a. Inscribed : 

1. Iconographic ......... " 

2. Marriage and Betrothal 

3. Acclamations and Prayers ...... 10 

4. Names and Monograms . . . . 14 
I. Uninscribed : 

1. Iconographic . . ... .18 

2. Marriage and Betrothal . . . . 21 

3. Miscellaneous ..... . 21 

B EARLY TEUTONIC RINGS. 

I. CONTINENTAL : 

a. Inscribed ... 23 

b. With Human and Animal Figures . . 26 

c. Ornamental ...... 27 

II. ANGLO-SAXON AXD VIKING : 

i. Anglo-Saxon : 

a. Inscribed. . . , . . . 29 

b. Ornamental ..... . . 32 

ii. Viking 35 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS 

C. SIGNET-RINGS. 

I. FROM A. n. 1000 TO 1450: PAGE 

a. Set with Antique Gems . 37 

b. Engraved with Arms and Devices . . 4 T 

II. FROM A.I). 1450 TO 1650: 

a. Set with Gems .... . . 5 

b. Set with Crystal ; Engraved Arms and Devices coloured beneath . 53 

c. Engraved with Arms and Devices . . 5^ 
III. AKTKR A. n. 1650: 

a. Set with Gems or Pastes ... 9 8 

/'. Engraved with Arms and Devices . . 101 

D. RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL. 

I. DEVOTIONAL RINGS : 

(i. 1 3th to 1 6th Centuries . .103 

/'. 1 6th Century and later . . .119 

Decade-rings ... .122 

Memento Mori Rings ... .125 

II. ECCLESIASTICAL RINGS: 

<!. Papal . . . . 129 

/'. Episcopal . 134 

E. AMULET-RINGS . . 135 

F. INSCRIBED RINGS . . .146 

G. LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS. 

I. INSCRIBED ..... 153 

II. FE DE-RINGS : 

a. Inscribed . . . . . . . . . . .161 

b. Uninscribed ....... . . 165 

III. UNINSCRIBED LOVE-RINGS . . . . ... 171 

IV. POSY-RINGS . . . . . . . . . . '75 

V. JEWISH MARRIAGE-RINGS . . ..... 189 

H. MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS. 

I. COMMEMORATIVE OF PERSONS AND EVENTS : 

a. With Portraits of Historical or Known Persons .... 195 

b. With Portraits of Unidentified Persons 202 

c. Rings commemorating Events . 204 



TABLE OF CONTENTS ix 

H. MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS (continued). 

II. MOURNING-RINGS : PAGE 

a. In Memory of Historical Persons . ... 208 

b. In Memory of other Persons . . . . . . .211 

f. Rings with Skeletons, &c., round Hoops . .221 

d. Foreign Mourning-rings . . . . 238 

III, OFFICIAL RINGS : 

<7. Rings of Serjeants-at-law ... . . 239 

b. Rings of Investiture (?) . . ... 241 

J. FANCY RINGS . .242 

K. ORNAMENTAL RINGS. 

I. FROM ABOUT A. D. 1000 TO ABOUT A. I). 1450 . . . 249 

II. FROM A. D. 1450 TO A. L>. 1650 .... . . 263 

L. PEASANT RINGS. 

a. Italian .... .... . 304 

b. From the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe . . . 309 

c. Scandinavian . . ...... 311 

M. ORIENTAL RINGS. 

I. WESTERN ASIA, NORTH AFRICA, AND INDIA : 

a. Inscribed . . . . . . . .314 

b. Uninscribed . . . . . .. . .324 

II. FARTHER INDIA, JAVA, CHINA : 

a. Burmah, Siam, and Java . ...... 336 

b. China ........... 340 

III. MISCELLANEOUS ORIENTAL RINGS . . . 343 

IV. WEST AFRICAN RINGS .... . . . 345 

ADDENDA . . 34 8 

TABLE FOR CONVERTING ENGLISH INCHES INTO MILLIMETRES 351 

TABLE OF RELATIVE WEIGHTS . . 352 

INDEXES. 

I. GENERAL INDEX . ......... 355 

II. INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS . ..... 361 

III. INDEX OF LOCALITIES ... . . . . . . . . 364 



LIST OF PLATES 



I. EARLY TEUTONIC RINGS. 
II. ANGLO-SAXON KINGS. 



III. SIGNET-KINGS 

IV. SIGNET-KINGS 
V. SIGNET-KINGS 

VI. SIGNET-RINGS 

VII. SIGNET-RINGS 

VIII. SIGNET-RINGS 

IX. SIGNET-RINGS 

X. SIGNET-RINGS 



MEDIAEVAL. 
MEDIAEVAL. 
if)TH CENTURY. 
i6m CENTURY. 
i5Tn-i6TH CENTURY. 
i6'iH-i7TH CENTURY. 
1 6TH- 1 7TH CENTURY. 
i6TH CENTURY AND LATER. 



XI. DEVOTIONAL AND INSCRIBED RINGS : MEDIAEVAL AND LATER. 

XII. PAPAL RINGS. 

XIII. PAPAL RINGS. 

XIV. PAPAL RINGS. 

XV. AMULET-KINGS: MEDIAEVAL AND LATER. 

XVI. LOVE-RINGS : MEDIAEVAL AND LATER. 

XVII. LOVE-RINGS OF VARIOUS DATES. 

XVIII. JEWISH MARRIAGE-RINGS. 

XIX. STUART MEMORIAL-RINGS. 

XX. PORTRAIT-RINGS. 

XXI. MEMENTO MORI AND MOURNING RINGS: 17 AND 18 CENTURIES. 

XXII. MOURNING-RINGS: 18 AND EARLY 19 CENTURY. 

XXIII. FANCY RINGS: SERJEANTS' RINGS. 

XXIV. MEDIAEVAL GEJI-RINGS. 
XXV. MEDIAEVAL GEM-RINGS. 

XXVI. RENAISSANCE ORNAMENTAL RINGS. 

XXVII. ORNAMENTAL RINGS: 16 AND 17 CENTURIES. 

XXVIII. ORNAMENTAL RINGS: if>TH, 17, AND iSra CENTURIES. 
XXIX. ORIENTAL RINGS. 

XXX. ORIENTAL RINGS. 



LIST OF WORKS USEFUL FOR THE 
STUDY OF RINGS 

ARCHAEOLOGIA (Miscellanous tracts relating to antiquity, published by the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London), Index to vols. i-1, s. v. Kings, and indices to subsequent volumes. 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL (Journal of the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain 

and Ireland), Index to vols. i-xxv, s. v. Kings, and indices to subsequent volumes. 
BABINGTON, C. See Smith and Cheetham. 

BRITISH QUARTERLY REVIEW, lx (1874), pp. 195 ff. : article ' Finger-rings'. 
BYZANTINISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT, Leipsic, 1892, &c., Generalregister, vols. i-xii, s. v. Kinge. 
CABROL, F. Dictionnaire d'arche'ologie chretienne et de liturgie. Article Annetui.v by 

H. Leclercq. 
CATALOGUE des objets antiques du moyen age, de la Renaissance etc., dependant de la 

succession de M. le Baron Jerome Pichon. Paris, Hotel Drouot, May 1897, pp. 1-24 

and plates. 
CATALOGUE of Antiquities, found principally in East Anglia, in the Norwich Castle Museum, 

edited by Walter Rye. Norwich, 1909, pp. 104 ff. 
CATALOGUE of the Antiquities and Works of Art exhibited at Ironmongers' Hall, London, in 

the month of May, 1861, vol. ii, pp. 475 ff. London, 1869. 
CATALOGUE of the Special Exhibition of Works of Art of the Mediaeval, Renaissance, and more 

recent Periods on loan at the South Kensington Museum, June, 1862, pp. 618 ff. 
CATALOGUE of the Loan Exhibition of Ancient and Modern Jewellery at South Kensington, 

1872. Ed. R. H. Soden Smith, 1873. 
CHURCH, A. H. Precious Stones considered in their Scientific and Artistic Relations. London, 

1905 (Board of Education, South Kensington, Victoria and Albert Museum). 
CROKER, T. C. Catalogue of a Collection of Ancient and Mediaeval Rings . . . formed for Lady 

Londesborough. London, 1853. 
DALTON, O. M. Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquities ... in the Department of British and 

Mediaeval Antiquities in the British Museum. London, 1901. 
DELOCHE, M. M. 'Leport des anneaux dans 1'antiquite' romaine et les premiers siecles du 

moyen age* in Affrnoires de r Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, xxxv (1896), 

Part 2, pp. 169 ff. 
Etude historique et archeologique sur les anneaux sigillaires et autres des premiers siecles 

du moyen age. Paris, 1900. 

EDWARDS, C. The History and Poetry of Finger-rings. New York, 1855. 
FONTENAY, E. Les Bijoux anciens et modernes. Paris, 1887. 
FORTNUM, C. D. E. ' On some Finger-rings of the Early Christian Period,' in Archaeological 

Journal (<\.v.), xxvi (1869), p. 141 ; xxviii (1871), p. 275. 
JONES, W. Finger-ring Lore. London, 1877. 



xii LIST OF WORKS USEFUL FOR THE STUDY OF RINGS 

JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, London. Index to vols. i-xxx, s. v. 

Ring, and indices to subsequent volumes. 
KING, C. W. Antique Gems and Rings. London, 1872. 

Handbook of Engraved Gems. London, 1866. 
KIRCHMANN, J. De annulis liber singulars. 1623. Republished in 1657 at Schleswig, and 

in 1672 at Leyden. 

KORNMANN, H. De annulo triplici. 1654. Reprinted in the 1672 edition of Kirchmann. 
KRAUS, F. X. Real-Encyklopiidie der christlichen Alterthiimer. 1880-1886. Article Ring. 
LECLERCQ, H. Sec Cabrol, F. 
LONGUS, G. De anulis signatoriis antiquorum. 1615. Reprinted in the 1672 edition of 

Kirchmann. 
MARSHALL, F. H. Catalogue of the Finger-rings, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman, in the 

Departments of Antiquities, British Museum, London, 1907. 
MARTIGNY, J. ' Des anneaux chez les premiers Chretiens,' &c., in Annales dc I' Academic de 

Macon, 1857. 

- Dictionnaire des antiquites chretiennes, 1865, s. v. Anneaux: 
MORGAN, OCTAVIUS. 'On Episcopal and other Rings of Investiture,' in Archaeolo&ia (q.v.), 

xxxvi(i8ss), PP-392ff- 

NOTES AND QUERIES, London. General Index, s. v. Rings. 
PROCEEDINGS of the Society of Antiquaries of London, passim. Sec General Index, 1911, 

s. v. Rings. 
SAUSSAY, A. DU. Panoplia episcopalis seu de sacro episcoporum ornatu libri VII, 1646: 

Lib. Ill : De annulo episcopali, pp. 175 ff. 
SMITH, W, AND CHEETHAM, S. A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. London, 1893. Article 

Rings, by C. Babington. 

SODEN SMITH, R. H. See Catalogue of the Loan Exhibition, &c. 
WATERTON, E. MS. entitled Dactyliotlucn Watertoniana in the Library of the Victoria and 

Albert Museum, South Kensington. 
'On the annulus piscatoris or Ring of the Fisherman,' in ArcJiaeologia (q.v.), xl 

(1866), p. 138. 



INTRODUCTION 



THE present publication is officially the complement of the Catalogue of General. 
1907 written by Mr. F. H. Marshall of the Department of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities. 1 That volume describes the rings of the Greeks, the Etruscans, 
and the Romans, and to it the student of the subject as a whole is referred for 
the earlier developments of this small but very important article of jewellery. 
In the following pages the history of the ring is taken up at the beginning of our 
era, with the rings of Roman date bearing signs of Christian ownership, and is 
continued through the Middle Ages down to our own time. It is apparent that 
the task of co-ordinating the rings of so extended a period must be one of singular 
complexity. 2 

The collection of finger-rings formed by Sir Wollaston Franks represents 
the gatherings of many years, and the efforts of many individuals. In addition 
to his usual sources of supply, yearly accessions resulted from the winter journeys 
to Italy, Egypt, and the East, of the Rev. Greville Chester, who up to the time 
of his death assiduously collected rings and other works of art on his friend's 
behalf. Sometimes whole series were acquired at once ; in this way were 
incorporated the splendid collection made by Lord Braybrooke at Audley End, 
that of Mr. R. H. Soden Smith of the South Kensington Museum, and finally 
the cabinet of another friend, Mr. Octavius Morgan. If all these specimens 
had been retained, the rings here to be described would have been exceedingly 
numerous ; but great numbers of duplicates were withdrawn, and only those which 
definitely enriched the Collection were kept. The Braybrooke Collection alone 
was absorbed intact, because the general quality of the examples composing it 
was very high ; because it contained many rings of types not otherwise 
represented ; and because Lord Braybrooke had privately printed a catalogue, 
illustrating it with the admirable wood engravings in fashion about the middle of 
the last century. These illustrations have been utilized for the first time in the 
present volume, for, like most catalogues of living collections, Lord Braybrooke's 

1 Catalogue of the Finger Rings, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman, in the Departments of- 
Antiquities, British Museum, by F. H. Marshall, M.A., 1907. 

2 The Catalogue does not include all the finger-rings in the Museum belonging to the period 
specified. With the exception of the West African gold rings, which Sir Wollaston Franks 
specially collected, ethnographical types have been omitted. 

b 



XIV INTRODUCTION 

was not completed and was never actually published. Another acquisition of 
importance, which may be specially mentioned, is the series of Javanese rings 
acquired from Lord Ashburnham ; these are largely of mediaeval date, and but 
rarely occur out of Java and Holland. It will be seen that throughout the name 
of the former collector is indicated wherever possible ; Mr. Greville Chester 
not having formed a collection of his own, his name is not associated with the 
rings he obtained ; but it may be assumed that the majority of those from 
Italy, Egypt, and the Holy Land were secured through him. Several hundred 
rings were acquired by the Museum at various times independently of 
Sir Wollaston Franks's bequest ; these are almost all included, and may be 
distinguished from the rest by the means indicated in the Note immediately 
preceding the Catalogue. The present Collection is perhaps the most repre- 
sentative in existence ; but those in the Victoria and Albert and Ashmolean 
Museums are of primary importance, while that in Norwich Castle 1 is of much 
interest for the history of English rings. In these cases, as in that of the British 
Museum, the chief wealth has been derived from one source; at South Kensington 
from the cabinet of Mr. Edmund Waterton ; at Oxford from that of Mr. C. Drury 
Fortnum ; at Norwich from that of Mr. Fitch. Museums, by a natural sequence 
of events, have taken the place of the old collectors, whose line runs back at least 
as far as the Renaissance, and includes Pope Paul II, 2 who was said to have been 
strangled by the demons imprisoned in the gems of his rings. 3 

Rings in the Collection directly associated with historical persons are not very 
numerous. That which will arouse the most general interest is the signet of 
Mary Queen of Scots (no. 316) ; but two of the Anglo-Saxon rings (nos. 179, 180) 
are of the highest importance as bearing the names of Ethehvulf and Ethelswith, 
the first the father, the second the sister of Alfred the Great. Most of the other 
rings bearing historical names or portraits have not the same intimate and personal 
associations; they are chiefly memorial rings, and never belonged to the person 
commemorated. Such is the group of Stuart rings, many with enamelled portraits 
of Charles I, Charles II, James II, and Charles Edward and James Edward Stuart ; 
such the ring commemorating the execution of the Jacobite lords on Tower Hill 
(no. 1417) ; such the portrait-rings of William III and Mary, William IV, John 
Wilkes, Mme de Maintenon, and others ; such, again, the mourning-rings made in 
memory of various members of the Royal Family, of Lord Nelson, and Spencer 
Perceval. Historical and literary references to rings with associations of this kind 
provide an interesting subject, already treated by the writers of general works ; 
the connexion of rings with personages familiar to us in history and legend is 
not the least attraction in their study. The more prominent episodes and events 
in which rings have played a part are matters of common knowledge. All have 

1 F. Leney, Catalogue of Antiquities in the Norwich Castle Museum, 1909, pp. 104 ff. 

2 E. Miintz, Les Arts d la Cour des Papes, ii, pp. 188-9. 

3 Ibid. p. 151. Cf. also C. W. King, Antique Gems and Rings, i, p. 393. 



INTRODUCTION 



XV 



heard of Edward the Confessor's ring, 1 given to a beggar, taken to Rome, and 
returned just before the King's death, to be removed from his coffin in A.D. 1163 
and kept at Westminster for the cure of epilepsy (Fig. i and see p. xliv). The ring 
given by Queen Elizabeth to the Earl of Essex is even better known, and is said 
to be still in existence.- More famous yet are the rings with which the Doges of 
Venice espoused the sea. 3 







FIG. i. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR GIVING HIS RING TO THE BEGGAR. 
Subject of a thirteenth-century tile in the Chapter House at Westminster. 

But few of the greater or the lesser rings of history have been preserved ; the 
survival of the Essex ring is a fortunate exception. Where is the ring reputed to 
be the work of St. Dunstan's hands, and twice recorded in inventories of the 
English royal house? 4 Where are the signets set with heliotrope, and engraved 



1 Polydore Vergil, Hist. Angl., Bk. viii ; J. Kirchmann, De annulis, p. 212 ; E. A. Freeman, 
Hist, of the Norman Conquest, ii, p. 519 ; iii, p. 34; H. R. Luard, Lives of Edward the 
Confessor, 1858, pp. 276, 373. An interesting miniature representing the subject may be seen 
in a thirteenth-century MS. in the British Museum (Add. 21,926, f. 12). 

* Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, ist series, i, p. 179. It contains a cameo portrait of 
Elizabeth. (Cf. no. 1358.) 

8 Revue archtologique, 1905, pp. i'ff., where the custom is brought into relation with the 
ancient legends connected with Minos, Polycrates, and Aristides. 

4 Liber quotidiamts contrarotulatorius . . . anno 28 Edwardi I, published by the Society 

b 2 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

with Our Lord crucified upon an anchor, which John Donne shortly before his 
death presented to his friends as tokens? 1 All have disappeared, and of those 
which have escaped, some of the most precious have experienced strange destinies: 
the ring of Alhstan, the Ariglo-Saxon Bishop of Sherborne, now treasured at 
South Kensington, was worn upon a necktie by one of its previous owners. 2 
The ring of Queen Ethelswith was tied to a dog's collar by the farmer who 
found it, and remained there for six months before it was discovered to be of gold. 
The ring of her father Ethelwulf lay in a cart-rut on a country road. 

Classi- It may be doubted whether it is possible to classify in a really logical way 

fication. the finger-rings made and used over so wide a range of centuries as that with 
which the present volume is concerned. Many obvious difficulties at once occur 
to the mind, but perhaps the most troublesome arises from the union in a single 
ring of several characteristic features, each alone sufficient to form a basis of 
division. A fifteenth-century ring with a devotional subject may be inscribed 
with such a motto as tout mon ca'iir avcz ; is it to be classed as devotional, or as 
a love-ring? Another ring has on the bezel: Dens protector mcus; is the legend 
there for a pious reason, or because the words are a family or personal motto of 
the wearer ? A signet has at the back of the hoop the clasped hands of a fede- 
ring ; to which group should it be assigned ? Small problems of this kind present 
themselves at every turn, to be followed perhaps by others of a more general 
nature, such as the difficulty of deciding where to draw the line between the 
mediaeval ring which is really religious, and that which is only amuletic ; or 
how to reconcile the competing claims of an ornamental type and a sentimental 
affinity. Chronology and typology may conflict ; here and there an example may 
be so indeterminate in style that even a wide experience may fail to suggest 
a date or a locality. For these and similar reasons several sections of the 
present Catalogue contain rings which might with equal reason be placed in other 
classes ; but by cross-references and a full Index the attempt has been made 
to remedy an unavoidable evil. Any conceivable classification must suffer from 
the difficulties inherent in such a subject, and it is perhaps superfluous to discuss 
them. But that here adopted may incur a definite charge of inconsistency 
in that two different principles have been adopted in different parts of the 
Catalogue. The Early Christian, Early Teutonic, Byzantine, and Oriental 
examples are classified according to countries and peoples, all the rest according 
to the purposes for which the ring was made. It is believed that this arrange- 
ment will commend itself as the most practical, and that the logical offence of 
a cross-division will be redeemed by general convenience in reference. For, to 

of Antiquaries; 1787, p. 351 : Unus anulns auricitm saphiro gui fuit defabrica Sancti Dunstani, 
ut credebatur; Rymer, Foedera, vol. iii (1706), p. 389: tin and d'or, un saphir; lequel Seint 
Dimsian forgo, de ses mains; this second entry is from the list of jewels found in the possession 
of Piers Gaveston. 

1 Izaak Walton, Life of Dr. John Donne, p. 72 (Temple Classics). 

a Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, and series, i, p. 277. 



INTRODUCTION XV11 

take particular examples, the Early Christian or Anglo-Saxon rings, which are 
not very numerous, would be lost if distributed among the large and diverse 
classes of signets, love-rings, devotional or ornamental rings. On the other hand, 
the great mass of mediaeval and later rings contains many examples to which 
a country can only be conjecturally given, their purpose being far clearer than 
their origin ; in this case it has seemed desirable to make use rather than origin 
the fundamcntum divisionis. Moreover, as a matter of practice, these later rings 
have generally been classed in this way, and a departure from common usage 
is best avoided unless the change brings with it a distinct archaeological gain. 

During the Christian centuries the earlier uses of rings were retained and Uses of 
amplified. The signet (see p. 37) suffered no loss in popularity, holding its own rings, 
by the side of the non-annular seal, especially as a sccretum for private corre- 
spondence : the Collection contains examples of almost every century. The same 
statement holds good of betrothal and marriage rings (see p. 161), which in 
different styles and fashions have preserved their importance in all civilized 
countries ; love-rings are no less general, and are represented in the Collection by 
very numerous examples. The amuletic use of rings did not diminish with the 
fall of the Roman Empire ; the charm-ring, which survives even in our own day, 
enjoyed in mediaeval times a vogue which hardly decreased at the Renaissance, 
and showed no serious sign of abatement among the educated classes until 
the eighteenth century. Rings made for religious purposes multiplied in 
the Christian era to au extent probably unknown in pagan ages ; they are 
characterized by inscriptions, representations of sacred persons and saints, and 
even by mechanical aids to devotion such as the knobs of the decade-ring, forming 
a class which is excelled by few in numbers and significance (sec p. 103). As 
a mark of rank, on the other hand, the ring docs not seem to have increased in 
favour ; it was assumed by kings, ecclesiastical dignitaries, and others to indicate 
their rank or office, but was not employed, as in Roman times, to distinguish 
a whole class of society, nor was it recognized as a mark of military distinction. It 
simply indicated wealth or social status by the value of its material or workman- 
ship, not differing in this respect from any other form of jewellery. Some rings 
served as credentials or signs of investiture, such a purpose being commonly 
assigned to the so-called papal rings (nos. 832 ff.) ; again, the attachment of rings 
to charters might authenticate the conveyance of estates. The custom of wearing 
mourning-rings in remembrance of the dead became general at the close of the 
Middle Ages, and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was almost 
universal in England (see p. li). Rings not unfrequently served for other 
memorial uses to commemorate a living person, a cause, such as that of the 
Stuarts (nos. 1359 ff.), or an historical event : all these uses are exemplified among 
the rings of the Collection. The purely ornamental use of rings has never ceased, 
and the variety of types is too great for brief description ; it is hoped that from 
the plates and the blocks in the text the reader may be able to form an idea of 
the styles prevailing in the different centuries. 



XV111 



INTRODUCTION 



Material 
of rings : 
parts of 
the ring. 



The precise dating of rings in the Middle Ages is often a matter of great 
difficulty ; sometimes it is impossible. Where rings bear historical names ; where 
they have been found in the tombs of known personages, as is the case with 
several episcopal rings at Durham and elsewhere ; or, again, where they have 
occurred in association with coins, like the examples from Lark Hill, Wor<?ester 
(nos. 1740 ff.), their age can be stated within narrow limits. But such cases are 
rare, and the age of a ring must usually be determined by its type, by the nature 
of its ornament or legend, or by more general considerations of style. The more 
precise sources of information on which we have to rely may be divided into two 
main classes first, the archaeological and artistic ; second, the documentary and 
literary. Neither class has yet been fully used ; no student has yet instituted 
a really comprehensive research, amassing and sifting the evidence of interments, 
monuments of all kinds, charters, inventories, wills. MSS., books, paintings, 
engravings, any and all the material, in short, from which an accession to 
knowledge may reasonably be expected. The field is so wide, the patience 
demanded by its exploration so infinite, that there need be no surprise if the 
really exhaustive treatise on rings is still awaited ; nor need the confession of its 
absence imply any disparagement of the many excellent books, ancient and 
modem, to which every student of the subject must admit his obligation. 

The material of which rings are made is very various. Gold, silver, and 
bronze account for the greater number; iron and lead are rare; in magic rings 
there may be, for astrological reasons, a combination of two metals (cf. no. 909). 
Of other substances, ivory was occasionally chosen ; the Collection contains two 
ivory rings to which attention may be drawn a signet of the sixteenth century 
with a religious subject (no. 778), ' and one of Zick's 'Trinity rings', formed of 
two fine interlacing hoops turned out of the solid, a proof of skill so great that 
only three of these rings are said to have been made (no. 1727). Amber and 
horn are rarely found. Occasionally the whole ring is cut from the solid 
stone, the favourite gems for the purpose being carnelian, chalcedony, and rock 
crystal. 2 

It may be of service to state the terms usually employed in the description ot 
rings. 3 The circle of metal or other substance surrounding the finger is called the 
hoop or shank. The setting, including the stone, is generally known as the bezel 
(der. Sp. bisel ; cf. French, biseau), literally, the basil edge, or ledge retaining the 
jewel in the cavity ; a more logical term is the French c/iaton, akin to the German 
word Kasten, and signifying the cavity itself. But the word bezel has now a 
meaning far wider than that suggested by its etymology. It generally signifies the 
salient or characteristic part of a ring; thus the part of the signet engraved with 

1 Cf. the ivory armorial signet of the fifth Earl of Shrewsbury (Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of 
London, i, p. 48). 

* Cf. F. H. Marshall, Catalogue, as above, p. xxxvi ; C. W. King, Antique Gems and Kings, 
P- 372. 

3 The Latin and Greek terms are given by F. H. Marshall, Catalogue, p. I. 



INTRODUCTION 



XIX 



the device is commonly called its bezel, though there may be no cavity or stone ; 
the word is similarly used in the case of rings which have no gem. The parts of 
the hoop approaching the bezel on cither side are known as the shoulders. 

Most of the stones used in ancient times were also used in the Middle Ages ; Gems in 
among the favourites were the ruby, sapphire, emerald, garnet, diamond, rock rings: 
crystal, topaz, peridot, and amethyst. 1 The cutting of simple designs like imitatlons - 
monograms on gems was still practised in the sixth century, as we know from 




FIG. 2. HANDS OF QUEEN MARY TUDOR. From the portrait by Lucas de Heerc in the 
possession of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 

the letter of St. Avitus, mentioned below (p. xxix). But the art ot cutting IH 
intaglio and cameo, if not entirely lost, is at any rate extremely rare between 
the fall of the Roman Empire and the fourteenth century. There was an 
interlude in the time of the later Prankish kings, when intaglios on crystal, some, 
like the crystal of Lothair in the British Museum, of great scope, were produced 
in some numbers. 2 Whatever the facts may be as to the Dark Ages, it seems 

1 The Collection contains the above, and, in addition, garnet, almandine, carbuncle, jacinth, 
sard, carnelian, beryl, chalcedony, turquoise, lapis lazuli, onyx and nicolo, plasma, jasper, &c. 

2 Archaeologia, lix, p. 25. There are cases which make us doubt whether the disappearance of 
the art was quite as absolute as has been suggested. The gem in the ring of Agilbert, Bishop of Paris 
about A. D. 670, had a gem engraved with St. Jerome kneeling before a crucifix, a subject which 



XX INTRODUCTION 

to be established that the engraving of gems was practically unknown in the 
Romanesque period, and it is not until the fourteenth century that the art was really 
revived in Italy. 1 At the close of that century, the period of Charles V and his 
brother the Due de Bern', it seems to have established itself in France, and from 
that time onwards was practised in all countries, reaching its highest point in 
the Italy of the high Renaissance. In the Byzantine Empire it had survived 
without interruption, but as a decadent art, at its best producing work which is 
respectable but never of great quality, and apparently confined to cameos. From 
the first half of the sixteenth century gem engraving was universal, but everywhere 
there was a gradual decline in excellence ; with some exceptions, the work of 
the seventeenth century is of small merit. The latter half of the eighteenth 
century witnessed a revival, based upon the spread of classical knowledge and 
the taste for the antique, but the popularity of such gems hardly survived the 
French Empire, and rings are now cut with little more than arms, crests, or 
initials. Many eighteenth-century gems arc mounted in hoops made for the 
convenience of collectors ; but in the majority of cases these are merely settings, 
neither worn nor intended to be worn ; and the scries of these 'collectors' rings ' in the 
Museum is not included in the present Catalogue. It docs not of course follow 
from the above that engraved gems were not used before the fourteenth century, 
but only that gems with intaglio subjects employed in the earlier Middle Ages 
were antique. Many of these were mounted in non-annular signcts, a but the 
number of those set in rings is considerable, and there are representative examples 
in the Collection (cf. nos. 217 ff.). Elaborate faceting of stones did not become 
common until the Renaissance ; but simple faceting into pyramidal and other 
forms appears at a much earlier date. One or two mediaeval examples are 
in the Collection (cf. no. 1780) ; better known examples are the rings of Bishops 
Flambard (1099-1128) and William de St. Barbara (1143-53) in the Chapter 
Library at Durham. As a general rule, gems in the Middle Ages were cut 
en cabochon ; that is, the stone was evenly rounded, and then polished. The 

cannot be earlier than the end of the fifth century. The ring was found in his sarcophagus in 1636, 
and was examined by the learned A. de Saussay, who describes it in his Panoplia Episcopalis, 
p. 183 (Paris, 1646). Unfortunately this ring is lost, as also another with an intaglio representing 
S*t. Paul the Hermit kneeling before a crucifix, found in the tomb of St. Ebregisilus, Bishop of 
Meaux in A. D. 660, and mentioned by Mabillon (Annul. Ord. S. Benedicti, i, p. 456). On these 
rings the reader may consult M. Deloche, Etude sur les anneaux sigillaires ct autres des 
premiers siecles dtt mcyen age, pp. xvii, xviii. We must also recall the ring of St. Arnulph, 
Bishop of Metz (A. D. 614-26), now in the cathedral of that city; the rude intaglio upon agate, 
representing a basket and fish, may well be of the Bishop's time (E. Babelon, Hist, de la gravttre 
sur gemmes en France, p. 7). 

1 Scipione Ammirati, Storia di Firenze, xiv, p. 741, mentions one Benedetto Peruzzi as an 
engraver of the latter part of the fourteenth century ; see also Cicognara, Storia della Scultura, 
ii, p. 127. For the whole subject see C. W. King, Antique Gems and Rings, pp. 412 ff. 

2 See C. W. King in Arch. Journal, xxi, p. 319 ; xxii, p. 118 ff. Also other notices in the 
same Journal, iii, p. 76; iv, p. 150; vi, p. 435 ; x, p. 328; xi, pp. 84, 266; xiii, p. 369 ; xvi, 
p. 357 ; xxvi, p. 84. See also Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, 2nd series, i, p. 51. 




INTRODUCTION XXI 

diamond was not engraved before the Renaissance, and the credit of first accom- 
plishing the feat has been ascribed to various persons. Gorlaeus mentions Jacopo 
da Trezzo of Milan l as the inventor of the process. Charles the Bold is said 
to have liberally rewarded L. de Berquem for cutting the diamond, but his work 
was probably of a simpler character. 2 At an earlier date some of the faces 
of the crystal of diamond had been polished, and the stone set in rings, the 
polished pyramid of the octahedron projecting, the unpolished remaining 
embedded in the bezel. 3 

Glass pastes, 4 simulating gems, had been familiar to the Romans, and their 
use was continued by the Teutonic tribes, 5 who also knew how to enhance the 
effect by the use of the foil/' which is a metallic leaf of variable colour placed 
under a clear paste or gem, or a gem of inferior quality, to enhance the effect. 
The doublet is a thin piece of colourless or pale stone, cut table fashion, to 
the lower side of which a coloured paste is cemented ; the paste is hidden by 

the mount, and the upper surface 
answers all the tests for hardness." 
Cardan 8 describes various methods of 
simulating or improving gems used 
in his day and similar to those now 
practised. For the supposed medical 

FIG. 3. SIGNET WORN ON THUMB. (After and amuletic properties of gems see 
Burlington Fine Arts Club Illustrate:! Cata- below, p. xliii. 

logue of Early Ger,,,an Art, 1906, plate xxii, p rec ious stones have always pro- Niello and 

School of Nuremberg.) pnampl 

vided the principal embellishment of e 

finger-rings, whether there be a single gem in the bezel, or a series covering a 
great part of the surface. But from a very early period the surface of hoop and 
bezel might be enriched with niello or enamel. The former substance, well 
known to antiquity, is found on rings of the Early Christian centuries ; it is 
common on Byzantine rings, and contributes in a striking manner to the 

1 He engraved a diamond with the arms of Philip II of Spain (C. W. King, Antique GC/HS 
and Rings, p. 426). Caradosso is also stated to have first engraved the diamond. 

2 C. W. King, Arch. Journal, xxi, p. 322. For the diamond signet of Charles I, now at 
Windsor, see C. D. E. Fortnum in Archaeologia, xlv, p. 26. This was perhaps engraved by 
Francis Walwyn. 

3 For precious stones in their scientific and artistic relations see Precious Stones, by Sir 
Arthur. Church, new edition, 1905 (Board of Education, South Kensington). 

4 A. H. Church, Precious Stones, p. 51. 

8 Deloche, Etude sur les anneau.v, &c., pp. xvi, xvii. Frankish tombs have yielded imita- 
tions of agate, amethyst, chalcedony, and emerald. Some of these may have been of Roman 
origin, but, when stones were not available, the barbaric tribes all employed glass in the manu- 
facture of their jewellery inlaid with pastes simulating garnets. 

r ' Ibid., p. xviii. 

7 A. H. Church, p. 52. 

8 J. Cardan, De subtilitate, &c., Bk. vii, p. 177. 



XX11 INTRODUCTION 

effect of the Anglo-Saxon rings which form so valuable a part of the Collection. 
In the later mediaeval times it was chiefly favoured in Italy, where it is 
especially familiar in the characteristic love-rings of the fifteenth century. 
Enamel was but little employed on rings before the fourteenth century, after 
which period its use was continuous. Among the earlier groups which were 
regularly enamelled are the iconographic rings with figures of saints dating 
from the fifteenth century (nos. 722 ff.). In the sixteenth century, rings, like 
contemporary jewels, were sumptuously enamelled, and the process continued 
to modern times; in the case of the large class of mourning-rings it is almost 
constant. 

Wearing The custom of wearing finger-rings has been continuous. It prevailed through 

of rings. a ;j tnc cal -ii er centuries of the Middle Ages, nobles and princes spending great 
sums upon rings as upon other jewels. Such inventories as that of Charles V of 
France at the close of the fourteenth century well illustrate the profusion of the 
great at a time when it was usual to hold property in the portable form of plate and 
jewels. The growth of commerce and the increase of prosperity in the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries introduced luxurious habits among the middle class ; and 
the inventories and wills of the time reveal a remarkable wealth of such possessions. 
To this period belong the most numerous paintings and works of art illustrating 
the use of rings, the most valuable being the pictures of the Flemish and German 
schools, with their careful elaboration of detail, while next to these in precision 
come the works of Italian painters, from which a multitude of interesting facts may 
be derived. It may be here observed that pictures do not always afford the 
information we should expect, for during some periods when rings were certainly 
worn they are sparingly represented. The seventeenth century, as we know from 
the number of surviving examples, was still prolific in rings. But it is curious 
that they hardly ever appear in the portraits of the time ; and were we to argue 
from pictures alone, we might conclude that the fashion of wearing rings had fallen 
into general disfavour. A walk through any large picture-gallery will soon reveal 
the difference in this respect between the seventeenth century and the Renaissance. 
Rings are absent precisely where we should most expect to find them ; the Court 
beauties of Lely at Hampton Court have hardly one among them, and the same 
absence is marked in contemporary portraits of both sexes preserved in other 
places. It may have been that Lely, Kneller, and their followers considered that 
rings interfered with the effect of the hands ; but the drawing is not always of 
such a quality as to justify the conclusion, and sitters of other periods have not 
removed their rings with the same uniformity. It is not until the second half of 
the eighteenth century that rings appear frequently again ; the portraits by 
Sir Thomas Lawrence are especially valuable for their study. 

The manner of wearing rings 1 is necessarily restricted, but the fashions of 
antiquity were for the most part preserved, and a few new customs were introduced. 

1 For customs in earlier times cf. F. H. Marshall, Catalogue, p. xxvi. 



INTRODUCTION 



XX111 






The second finger, the digitus in/amis of the Romans, remained the least popular, 

though it was not altogether avoided ; for example, to take instances from three 

different periods, the effigy of King John in Worcester Cathedral shows a ring on 

the second finger of the right hand, 1 St. Nicholas of Bari in Signorelli's 'Virgin and 

Child' in the National Gallery (fig. 8) wears one upon the middle finger of each hand, 

and one is found on the left middle 

finger of Lawrence's portrait of the 

Countess of Blessington. The other 

fingers were almost impartially 

used, though the third was perhaps 

the most favoured, especially for 

betrothal and marriage rings ; a 

ring was quite commonly worn by 

both sexes on the thumb down 

to the sixteenth century. The 

allusions in Chaucer and Shake- 




FIG. 4. SIGNET ON FIRST FINGER. From the 
' Portrait of a Man ' by Petrus Christus (d. 1473). 
National Gallery. 



speare to rings worn on the thumb 

are well known, 2 and signets were frequently carried on it (fig. 3)." 

The first finger, now seldom used for the purpose, frequently carried a ring, 
especially the signet. 4 Many portraits confirm the prevalence of this custom, 

1 C. A. Stothard, Monumental Effigies, pi. xi. In the Liber Regalis de excquiis regalibus 
it is stated that a gold or gilt ring was placed on the middle finger of the King's right hand on 
interment (Arcliaeologia, iii, p. 387). 

2 Notes and Queries, 5th series, iv, p. 252 ; 4th series, x, p. 180. 

3 Accessible examples in works of art are National Gallery : Signorelli's ' Virgin and Child ' 
(ring worn by St. Nicholas of Bari) (fig. 8) ; Solario, ' Portrait of a Senator' (no. 923) ; Lorenzo 
di San Severino, ' Marriage of St. Catharine ' (ring worn by episcopal saint) (fig. 10) ; M. Marziale, 
'Circumcision' (ring worn by a woman on the left); M. Marziale, 'Virgin and Child' (ring 
worn by an episcopal saint) ; Aldegrever, 'Portrait of a Gentleman'; Memlinc, 'Portrait of the 
Duke of Cleves ' (fig. 5). 

National Portrait Gallery : Edward IV ; Mary of Lorraine, Queen of James V of Scotland 
(1515-60). 

Hampton Court: Elizabeth Bourbon, Queen of Philip IV of Spain (School of Velasquez) ; 
B. Lichinio, ' Family Group ' (ring worn by the father) ; Zucchero, ' Queen Elizabeth.' 

Windsor Castle: Portrait of Richard III (Burlington Magazine, June. 1911, plate opposite 
p. 122). 

Wallace Collection : Van Dyck, ' Wife of Philippe le Roy.' 

Among monumental effigies may be mentioned that of Robert Lord Hungerford (d. 1455) in 
Salisbury Cathedral (C. A. Stothard, Monumental Effigies, pi. 130). 

A few other paintings may be mentioned : Memlinc's ' St. Blaise ' in Liibeck Cathedral ; 
Raphael's ' Cardinal Inghirami ' ; Rembrandt, ' A Jewess ' ; Rubens, ' Marie de Mddicis '. 

Sometimes two rings were worn on the thumb, as in Holbein's portrait of Jacob Meyer, 
Burgomaster of Basel. 

In one case, the monument of Bishop Oldham (d. A. D. 1519) in Exeter Cathedral, a single 
ring appears to be passed over both thumbs. 

4 Cf. in the National Gallery Moroni's ' Portrait of an Ecclesiastic ', and the portrait of 
Dr. Fuschius by Bart. Bruyn. 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

especially in the sixteenth century. Sir William Paulet, Marquis of Winchester, 
in the picture belonging to the Society of Antiquaries here reproduced (fig. 7 ; 
cf. fig. 4), affords an excellent illustration of the custom, and the picture is of 
additional interest in that the signet is of a kind very popular in England ; it is 
armorial, with the arms cut in crystal, the tinctures painted beneath so as to be 
visible but at the same time unexposed to damage from the hot wax (cf. nos. 316 ff. 
and p. xxxi below). The episcopal ring, as noticed elsewhere, was worn on the 
third or the first finger. The fourth finger of both hands was used for rings. 

The practice of wearing rings on the tipper joints l was not uncommon ; there 
seems to have been no distinction of sex, for we find kings, popes, and dukes 
rivalling queens and other ladies in this particular. It was natural that the third 
joint should be more rarely chosen, but even of this examples can be found ; the _ 
monument of Lady Grushill in Hoveringham Church, Nottinghamshire, is a case 
in point. 2 An excessive predilection for rings seems also to have been shared 
by both sexes. The effigy of Lady Stafford in Bromsgrove Church, Staffordshire 
(A. D. 1450), shows rings on every finger, and, centuries later, a portrait of the 
Marchioness of Londonderry by Lawrence appears to show at least ten rings on 
the left hand. 3 The hands of Queen Mary Tudor, from the portrait by Lucas de 
Heerc in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries of London, have been selected 
for illustration (fig. .2) because the rings are very clearly painted. It will 
be observed that all the six are of a similar type. Though such a number 
as ten rings on one hand cannot perhaps be paralleled in the case of men, 
the occurrence of half a dozen for the two hands is frequent, from the 
effigy of Bishop Oldham mentioned on the previous page, to Raphael's familial- 
portrait of Julius II in the National Gallery (fig. la). Johann Reuss, in Cranach's 
portrait in the Germanic Museum of Nuremburg (A. D. 1503), has three rings 
on the little finger of the right hand, with a thumb-ring and another on the 
left. 4 Heavy rings were often worn by children : Holbein's ' Princess Eliza- 

1 The custom of wearing rings on the second joint of the finger is illustrated in the following 
pictures : 

National Gallery: Ambrogio Borgognone, 'Family Portraits' (no. 780); M. Marziale, 
' Circumcision ' (rings worn by woman on the left) ; ' Portrait of a Lady ', German School 
(no. 722) ; R. van der Weyden, ' Portrait of a Lady' (no. 1433) ; Mabuse, ' St. Mary Magdalen 
(no. 2163) ; Memlinc, 'Duke of Cleves' (fig. 5) ; Benozzo Gozzoli, 'Virgin and Child with Saints' 
(ring worn by St. Zenobius). 

Hampton Court : Savoldo, ' The Holy Family ' (ring worn by the donatrix). 

Windsor Castle: Portraits of Henry V and Henry VI, painted for Henry VII (Burlington 
Magazine, June, 1911, p. 122). 

2 C. A. Stothard, Monumental Effigies, pi. no. 

3 For numerous rings a few pictures may be mentioned. The portrait of the Countess of 
Richmond, mother of Henry VII, is a good example for England. Signorelli, ' Virgin and Child 
with Saints,' National Gallery St. Nicholas of Bari wears five rings (fig. 8) ; Holbein, 'Jacob 
Meyer, Burgomaster of Basel ' five or six rings on the left hand ; Sir Thomas Lawrence, ' Lady 
Peel ' six on the third finger of the left hand ; ' Portrait of Benedikt von Hertenstein ' (fig. 16). 

* E. Flechsig, Tafelbilder Lucas Cranachs des Alleren, 1900. 



INTRODUCTION 



XXV 






beth' at Hampton Court, represented at the age of thirteen, has four massive 
gold rings with gems ; Velasquez' portrait of the Infanta Maria Teresa .afterwards 
Queen of Louis XIV, now in the Prado at Madrid, shows the princess wearing 
two heavy rings on the right hand ; at the time when the portrait was painted she 
was ten years of age. 1 

Rings were worn over gloves especially by ecclesiastics, but also by other 
persons. Pictures in the National Gallery illustrate the custom. 2 The habit of 
slashing the fingers of the gloves in order to show the rings beneath appears to 
have been common about A.D. 15 and is often shown in the works of Lucas 
Cranach ; the hands of his 'Judith 
with the head of Holofernes' arc 
reproduced (fig. 13) to illustrate the 
custom, which, as other pictures by 
Cranach show, 3 was adopted even by 
'bishops. Finger-rings were worn on 
the person in other ways than on 
the fingers. Sometimes they appear 
strung round the neck, as in several 
portraits by Cranach, of which one, 
that of the Elector John the Constant 
of Saxony, painted in 1,526, is here 
partly reproduced (fig. 6); 4 a portrait 
of an old lady by an artist of the 
School of Cranach affords an even 

better example (fig. 15). The reason FlG _ ? . HANDS OF THI , DuKE OF CLEVES. 
is possibly to be sought in the general From the portrait by Memlinc in the National 
belief in the amuletic properties of 

precious stones (see p. xliii). At other times a ring is seen threaded on the 
cord of a hat. 3 Yet another manner of wearing a ring was to suspend it 
from the neck by a long string. Examples of this are seen in portraits of the 
Tudor period, for instance in the portrait of Robert Cecil, first Earl of Salisbury, 

1 The fondness for rings in the latter half of the sixteenth century is proved by the number 
mentioned in the inventories of the middle classes. Thus the inventory of Laurence Rookbye, 
merchant, mentions nine gold rings, weighing afoz. (Surtees Society, xxxv, p. 429). 

2 Botticini, 'St. Jerome with SS. Damasus, Eusebius, Paula, and Eustochium ' (no. 227) 
St. Damasus wears five rings over his gloves (fig. ll); Lorenzo di San Severino (no. 249), 
'Marriage of St. Catharine' four rings over the gloves of the episcopal saint on the right (fig. 10); 
cf. M. Marziale, ' Virgin and Child enthroned,' a picture already cited ; Cranach, ' Portrait of 
a Lady ' (no. 291). 

3 Cf. also his portrait of Sibylla of Cleves. 

4 E. Flechsig, Tafelbilder L. Cranachs des Alteren, 1900, pi. 88 ; pi. 87 and 89 illustrate the 
same fashion. 

5 Portrait in the Pinakothekat Munich of Bernhard IV, Margrave of Baden (1474-1536), by 
Hans Baldung Grien (Classical Picture Gallery, x. 32). 




XXvi INTRODUCTION 

in the possession of Viscount Powerscourt ; a a second portrait of the same noble- 
man, belonging to the Right Rev. Monsignor Lord Petre and dated J599 J 
exhibits the same feature. 2 A ring worn on the hand is occasionally further 
secured by a string or band. A portrait of Sir Henry Lee, K.G., by Sir Antonio 
More, painted in 1,568, and belonging to Viscount Dillon, shows the left thumb in 
a ring suspended by a cord round the neck. 3 

Rings were sometimes attached to objects of value, especially those of a 
devotional nature. The Waddesdon Collection in the British Museum affords an 
example of this custom in a devotional carving in wood of the fourteenth century, 
suspended by a chain at the end of which is a gold signet-ring, no. 229 of the 
present Catalogue. 4 Another instance is recorded in the inventory of the jewels 
of Henry V, in which we read of a gold devotional tablet set with rubies, 
sapphires, and pearls, and, fastened by a chain, a ring set with a diamond. 5 
Examples like this recall the offering of rings among other jewels at famous 
shrines, among others, that of St. Erkenwalcl in old St. Paul's. 

Rings are sometimes seen, in pictures, upon the cylinders on which they were 
kept in jewel caskets or cabinets. The portrait of Costanza de' Medici by Lorenzo 
di Credi in the National Gallery (no. 2490) shows one with three rings upon it. 
Another (fig. 17) occurs in the portrait of a jeweller by a painter of the Saxon 
School. 7 Such cylinders, obviously the most convenient carriers of rings, seem to 
be mentioned in mediaeval inventories. 8 



EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE RINGS 9 

Early Christian rings have been so often described that little need be said of 
them here. The pagan usage of wearing the ring, especially the signet, was 
retained by Christians, who engraved the bezels with names and acclamations, 

1 Exhibited in the Tudor Exhibition, 1890 (Catalogue, no. 330). 

2 Ibid. no. 312. 3 Ibid. no. 268. 

4 C. H. Read, The Waddesdon Bequest, Catalogue of Works of Art, no. 231. 

5 The inventory was made in the second year of Henry VI. The entry, after describing 
the tablet, continues : et ung Amtl pendant $ ung cheyne a dit Tabulet, garniz d'un Diam. 
(Rotuli Parliamentorum, iv, p. 218). Another entry (p. 220) mentions: I Anulx pendant a 
I Cheyne, ovec I Diamand garniz de xviii Perles. 

6 W. Sparrow Simpson, St. Pau/'s Cathedral and Old City Life, pp. 12, 15. 

7 Portfolio of Anonymous German Masters, published by the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 
London. 

8 The inventory of jewels taken with Piers Gaveston (T. Rymer, Foedera, \o\.\\\ (ed. 1706), 
p. 389 : item, sur un autre baston sept Aneux). 

8 C. Babington in Smith and Cheetham's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, s. v. Rings; 
H. Leclercq in Cabrol's Dictionnaire d'arMologie chrtiienne, s. v. Anneaux ; Martigny, Des 
anneaux des premiers Chretiens, &c., Macon, 1858, and Dictionnaire des antiquith chrMennes, 
s. v. Anneaux ; F. X. Kraus, Real-Encykhpddie, s. v. Ring; E. Waterton, in Arch. Journal ', 
xxvi, pp. 137-47 ; xxviii, pp. 268-77, 284-91. 




INTRODUCTION XXV11 

e.g. vivas in Deo, sometimes accompanied by the bust of the owner, or with those 
symbols of the dove, the fish, the fisherman, the anchor, the ship, &c., which 
St. Clement declared to be the proper devices for Christian use. 1 Examples of 
these symbols appear on rings in the Catalogue, and on engraved gems of the 
same period in the Museum Collections. 2 We know from St. James 3 that in the 
time of the Apostles wealthy Christians wore gold rings ; and that several of the 
Fathers found reason to protest against extravagance in the manner of wearing 
such ornaments. 4 A few surviving rings may be earlier than 
Constantine, but the greater number are of the fourth and succeed- 
ing centuries, and in form resemble contemporary pagan work. 5 
We may specially note the key-rings (hos. i and 3) and no. 12, 
which is in the form of a shoe, intended to indicate full possession 
of the thing sealed. The commonest material is 
bronze, but a considerable proportion are of gold ; 
silver rings are rarer. 

In a few cases the ring is cut from the solid 
stone, such as carnelian (e.g. no. 20). 

The Christian betrothal-ring was usually of FlG> 6 _ R INOS WORN ROUND 

gold from the second century onwards." It was THE NECK. From a portrait 

.. . . , . . . . . of Kurfiirst John Constans of 

not necessarily plain, but might be sometimes in- Saxony in the Coll. of Prince 

scribed with a legend. It is probably impossible George of Saxony, Dresden, 
to distinguish between the betrothal-ring and that 

used during the ceremony of marriage ; ' most early mentions of the ring seem 
to apply rather to the former. 8 

East Christian and Byzantine rings exist in considerable numbers, the later 
examples showing affinities with Saracenic types. The signet persisted throughout 
the period of the East Roman Empire; those of precious metal are chiefly of the 
earlier centuries. More numerous are the bronze examples of the middle periods. 
A large series has the invocation: O Lord preserve the wearer, or thy servant 

1 Paedagog. iii, ch. xi. Other devices not mentioned by Clement are the Good Shepherd, 
sacred monogram (Cfti Rho), palm-branch, the Iamb, alpha and omega, &c. 

2 Catalogue of Early Christian and Byzantine Antiquities, plates i and ii. 

3 Ep. ii. 2. 

4 Tertullian, de hab. muliebr. c. 5 ; De cultu feminarum, c. ix (Migne, Pair. Lai. i, col. 
1314) ; Apol. c. 6; Clement of Alexandria, as above; Cyprian, de Hab. Virg. c. 14; Basil, 
Homil. ad Divit. c. 4 ; Jerome, Epist. ad Laet. c. 5 all cited by Babington. 

5 On the forms see C. D. E. Fortnum in Arch. Journal, xxvi, p. 138. 

6 Tertullian, Apologet. c. vi (Migne, Pair. Lai. i, col. 302). 

7 Leclercq in Cabrol, as above, col. 2191. 

8 See Babington, as above, p. 1808. The wearing of the ring on the third finger of the left 
hand was probably the earliest usage in Italy (A. du Saussay, Panoplia Episcopalis, p. 263 ; 
Deloche, Elude . . . stir les anneaux . . . des premiers siecles, p. Ixi). It must be remembered 
that when the ancient writers speak of 'the fourth finger' they mean our third, since they 
counted the thumb as the first. 



XXVlli INTRODUCTION 

such a one ; and a still larger group, monograms embodying a similar formula, or 
composing the owner's name (nos. 95 ff.). The intaglio gem was little, if at all, 
used for sealing, the lead bulla stamped by a die being commonly used for 
attestation of documents. 1 Amulet-rings were freely worn under the Byzantine 
Empire, and two examples may be noticed (nos. 59, 73) ; the Medusa-like head 
of no. 59 was supposed to preserve from colic. 

The most remarkable rings in the Collection are the gold marriage-rings 
enriched with niello, which may be as early as the seventh century (nos. 46-9), 
the earlier marriage-ring (no. 127), the gold signets (nos. 38, 88, 94, in, 112), the 
ring containing a coin of Marcian (no. 130) with its hoop fashioned in the shape 
of two hares. It is to be feared that the association of no. 94 with the Emperor 
Manuel Comnenus is too conjectural to be seriously maintained, though there are 
a few rings in other collections assigned with some probability to historical 
persons. - 

EARLY TEUTONIC RINGS 3 

The Teutonic tribes who invaded the Roman Empire were great wearers of 
rings ; archaeological discoveries show that these ornaments were worn by adults 
and children of both sexes. 3 The number of graves excavated in Fiance, 
Germany, and England is large and the material for comparative study extensive. 

A considerable proportion of rings are signets, with portraits, names or mono- 
grams, and emblems such as the cross, the Cld RJw, dove, &c. ; most of these have 
the designs cut in a metal bezel. 4 Gems being rarely engraved before the ninth 
century, intaglios in Teutonic rings are almost always antique, which, usually 
means Late Roman. The subjects of these are figures of Victory, Jupiter, 
Fortuna, and others of the same kind, the legend, if any, being engraved round the 
metal setting. But. as already stated, there seems to be some evidence for the 
cutting of intaglios in the seventh century in the case of the rings made for the 
Bishops Agilbert, Ebregisilus, and Arnulph (pp. xix, xx). The signets of Prankish 
kings are mentioned below. Teutonic rings were frequently of gold or silver, the 
latter being sometimes gilded. The commonest method of ornamentation is by 

1 After the Early Christian centuries the Byzantine gem-engravers seem to have preferred 
to work in cameo. 

2 G. Schlumberger, Mttanges d'arch. byz. i, p. 349, massive gold ring with the name of 
Basil I ; gold ring with the name of Aetius, patrician, and Strategus, slain by the Saracens in 
the ninth century (ibid. p. 43, and Leclercq in Cabrol, as above, p. 2208). 

3 M. Deloche, Etude historiqite et archtohgique sur les anneaux sigillaires et autres des 
premiers siecles tin moyen Age, Paris, 1900; the same, ' Le port des anneaux dans 1'antiquite 
romaine et dans les premiers siecles du moyen age,' in Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscr. et Betles- 
Leltres, xxxv, 2 e partie, p. 226. 

4 Barriere-Flavy, Les arts industriels des Catties, Album, pi. Ixiii-lxiv. Such was the signet 
of Childeric, now lost, described by J. Chifflet, Anastasis Childerici I Francortitn regis, &c., 
1655 ; see also Deloche, Etude, p. 189. 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

applied wire, and by pellets, while some rings are set with contiguous table 
garnets, or pastes simulating them, these being the features which most con- 
spicuously distinguish the Early Teutonic from the Roman ring. Some rings are 
nielloed, and a few are enamelled, though these are^probably not earlier than the 
ninth century. 

The rings found in pagan Anglo-Saxon cemeteries are for the most part plain in 
character (nos. 187 ff.). But the later Anglo-Saxon series contains in addition a 
number of fine gold rings independently found on the surface of the ground ; some 
are enriched with niello, two bearing royal names (see above, p. xiv). The ring 
of Alhstan, Bishop of Sherborne, now at South Kensington, is also richly nielloed ; 
and the group as a whole confirms the opinion of the ability of Anglo-Saxon 
goldsmiths which we derive from such objects as the Alfred Jewel in the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Among other notable Anglo-Saxon rings is one 
in the same museum with a name Elilla (?) and what has commonly been read as 
a profession of faith (Fides in Cliristo). A few Frankish rings appear to have been 
given as betrothal-rings, among others that conjecturally assigned to Basine, Queen 
of Childeric I ; * but, as with Early Christian rings, it seems impossible to assert 
of any that they were used in the actual ceremony of marriage. 2 



SIGNETS 

Early Christian, Byzantine, and Early Teutonic signets have been incidentally 
mentioned (p. xxvii), but a few details may here be added. St. Augustine's signet 
is said to have had an intaglio head in profile. Clovis, King of the Franks, at 
the beginning of the sixth century promised to recognize the letters of the 
Gallican bishops if authenticated by their seals. 3 About the same period 
Avitus, Bishop of Vienne, describes the manner in which he desired his signet to 
be made with a swivel, and engraved with his name in full and in monogram. 4 
The signet of Arnulph, Bishop of Mctz, a gold ring with a carnelian engraved with 
a fish in a basket between smaller fish, is preserved in the cathedral at that 
city. 5 The seal becoming more and more essential in illiterate ages, the use of 
the signet-ring continued practically without a break after the fall of Rome. 
It was essential to the Franks and other Teutonic tribes, who, as already stated, 

1 Deloche, Etude, &c., no. clxxx. The story of the sending of a betrothal-ring by Clovis I to 
Clotilda is told by Fredegarius, Historia Francorum epitomata, c. xviii (in Migne, Patr, Lot. Ixxi, 
col. 584). 

2 In Gaul the ring seems to have been worn on the right hand, contrary to the usual practice 
in early centuries (Deloche, Etude, p. Ixi). 

8 Anulo sigmitas. Gregory of Tours, in Migne, Patr. Lai. Ixxi. 

4 Letter Ixxviii, in Migne, as above, lix, pp. 280-1. CfTE. Le Blant, Inscriptions c/ir/t. de 
la Ganle, ii, p. 50. 

6 Martigny, Dictionnaire des antiquitts chretiennes, s. v. Anneau episcopal. As already 
noted (p. xx), the signet of Ebregisilus had an intaglio representing St. Paul the Hermit 
(Smith and Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, col. 1804). 

C 



XXX 



INTRODUCTION 



commonly engraved a name, monogram, or device upon a metal bezel, 1 or set an 
antique intaglio in the ring. 2 Throughout the duration of the Byzantine Empire, 







FIG. 7. PORTRAIT OF THE MARQUIS OF WINCHESTER (d. 1572), in the 
possession of the Society of Antiquaries of London, showing armorial 
signet. 

1 Monograms were, however, occasionally cut on gems, as in the already-cited case of 
St. Avitus, whose ring was set with a vernans lapis. 

2 The Merovingian kings used rings for the signature of state documents, and these were 
kept by a dignitary known as the referendarius. Sigebert II appointed St. Bonitus, Bishop of 
Clermont, to this office, anmilo ex iiianu regis recepto (L'fe, Jan. 15) ; and the referendarius of 
Dagobert, father of Sigebert, sealed documents on the king's behalf with the royal ring or 
seal : annulo regis sive siqilloab eo sibi commisso (Aimo, Eccl Hist. iv. 14, quoted by Babington 



INTRODUCTION XXXI 

and all through the Middle Ages in the West, the signet retained its importance ; l 
from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, though the need for it was less, it 
lost little of its popularity, and, while the more rapid methods of our own day 
have reduced its practical value, it still holds its ground, albeit in most cases for 
potential rather than actual use. 

The antique gem continued in favour as a signet down to the fifteenth century 
and even later 2 (cf. nos. 2 1 7 ff.), but, with the establishment of heraldry, the armorial 
signet was generally adopted by all entitled to bear arms. Examples from Italy 
become frequent with the fourteenth century ; in other countries they are not 
common until the century following. But the best examples in this style belong to 
the period of Elizabeth and the first two Stuarts ; and our own country could prob- 
ably produce as fine types as any other witness the series in the present Collection 
alone. The seal of arms was probably worn by almost every gentleman, and was 
so familiar an object that Sir Thomas North, translating an episode in Plutarch's 
Life of Artaxerxes, talks of Clearchus drawing a 'scale of armcs ' from his 
finger ; the mental picture of what a signet should be was evidently so precise 
that it is insensibly reflected in his language, even though he goes on to state that 
the ring was 'graven with the dance of the Caryatides'. The wills and inven- 
tories of this time make constant mention of armorial signets, which were often 
specially bequeathed. Two examples of such bequests may suffice to illustrate 
the practice. 3 A type of armorial signet has been already mentioned (p. xxiv), which 
enabled the tinctures of the arms to appear, and thus lent the ring a more decora- 
tive character ; it was especially popular in England. In these rings the arms are 
engraved in crystal, under which they are repeated in colour, so that the ring can be 
used for impressions without wearing the colours away. The signet of Mary Queen 
of Scots (no. 3 1 6), the most interesting historical ring in the Collection, is of this type, 
which is well illustrated in contemporary portraits ; among these may be noted 
that of Sir William Paulct, Marquis of Winchester, to which allusion has been 
made (p. xxiv; cf. fig. 7). The man not entitled to bear arms might seal with a device, 
either chosen at random, or concealing his name under the form of a rebus 
(cf. no. 329) ; 4 if a merchant, he might use a merchant's mark (cf. nos. 356, 559, 

in Smith and Cheetham, Diet, oj Christian Antiquities, col. 1803). Pepin is said to have 
sealed with an intaglio representing the Indian Bacchus, Charlemagne with a Jupiter Serapis. 
For the early Prankish royal signets see C. W. King in Arch. Journal, xxii, p. 121 ; and Rev. 
Arch., 1864, p. 319. 

1 See above, pp. xxvii, xxviii. 

2 The non-annular signets for private correspondence (secreta) are of just the same character 
as the rings ; good examples are in the British and Victoria and Albert Museums. Cf. also 
Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, i, pp. 163-4 > Arch. Journal, viii, p. 419. 

3 Will of Robert Lewen, Nov. 26, 1562 : I give my ring with the seall of my arines to 
Georg Lewen (Surtees Society, vol. cxii, 1906, Wills and Inventories, p. 26). Will of Robert 
Swift, Jan. 14, 1599-1600: To my most deare and entirely beloved father, my ringe, nvitli the 
arines of the Swiftes . . . (Ibid. p. 1/5). 

4 Cf. also Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, 2nd series, ii, p. 363. 

C 2 



XXX11 INTRODUCTION 

576, &C.). 1 Persons in comparatively humble walks of life used bronze signets 
with very rough designs ; the seal-rings bearing capital letters surmounted by 
crowns 2 were evidently very generally worn, as the number in existence is large 
(nos. 334, &c.). Though, as already observed (p. xxiii), the signet might be worn 
on the thumb, it was very commonly placed on the first finger (cf. figs. 4 and 7). 

In addition to the signet of Mary Queen of Scots the Collection contains few 
others of historical interest. That with the arms and initials of Henrietta Maria 
(no. 650) is not contemporary with that queen ; but interest attaches to the sapphire 
with the initials of the Old Chevalier (no. 652). It has been recalled (p. xxi) that 
the signet of Charles I is at Windsor Castle. 3 

In the East the signet has been in use from time immemorial, and was 
employed under all the ancient civilizations, the substance which received the 
impression being wax or clay. 4 No. 2333 shows Graeco-Roman tradition adopted 
by some partly hellenizcd people on the north-western borders of India, and was 
intended to make an impression in wax. In later times the Oriental signet was 
invariably made to give an impression in ink on paper, a method more suitable 
than our own to the hot climates of the East, and this rule applies from the 
most westerly Mohammedan countries to China and Japan. The Oriental signet 
commonly bears a legend, either with the name of the owner, or with a maxim, 
or text from the Koran (Section M. i). 



DEVOTIONAL AND ECCLESIASTICAL RINGS 

Religious The wearing of rings with figures or legends of a devotional character has 
been general from Early Christian to modern times (cf. Section A) ; it did but 
increase as the Middle Ages advanced and the cult of the saints extended. In 
addition to Early Christian examples, the Collection contains a representative 
series of the types most usual in mediaeval and later centuries, beginning with 
rings bearing inscriptions of universal adoption such as Ave Maria gratia 
plena or fesus Nazarcmts Rex ludaeorum (nos. 681 ff., 701). One of the principal 

1 Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, xii, pp. 6-7 ; xv, p. 239. For merchants' marks see 
also Arch. Journal, v, p. 5 ; xv, p. 289 ; Journ. Brit. Arch. Association, ii, p. 113 ; xlix, p. 45 ; 
Norfolk Archaeology, iii, p. 177. 

2 For these rings cf. Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, iii, p. 259 ; vi, p. 384 ; x, p. 296 ; 
xiii, p. 214 ; xx, p. 289, &c. ; Gentleman's Magazine, Ixxiv, p. 305. 

It may be of interest to give a reference here for another famous signet, the well-known 
' bague de Saint-Louis ' in the Louvre. M. E. Babelon considers that it is not earlier than the 
fifteenth century (Catalogiie tics Camees antiques et modernes de la Bibliothfque Nationale, 
1897, p. Ixxxi). The ring is figured by Barbel de Jouy, Gemmes et joyaux de la couronne, 
pi. xi. See also J. Labarte, Histoire ties arts industries, iii, p. 204. 

4 The discoveries of inscribed wooden tablets in Turkestan show us clay still employed in 
the early centuries of our era, and in some cases bearing impressions of Late Roman intaglios, 
probably set in rings (M. Aurel Stein, Ancient Khotan, pi. xcviii-c). 



INTRODUCTION 



xxxin 



groups in the class is formed by the so-called iconographic rings, which derive 
their name from the sacred persons or saints with which their bezels are 
engraved (nos. 723 ff.). The type is characteristically English, the hoops being 
commonly wreathed, engraved with sprigs, and enamelled ; a note on p. in gives 
the names of the most popular saints and the reason for their choice. Icono- 
graphic rings were often engraved with mottoes such as man cccur aves, loial de'sir, 
per ban aiitour, en ban an, &c., which seem to show that they were used as betrothal 
and New Year's gifts (nos. 722, 725, 746, 747). Special attention may be drawn 
to the Coventry ring (no. 718), and to no. 719, both with representations of the 





FIG. 8. HANDS OF ST. NICHOLAS OF BARI. From Signorclli's 'Virgin and Child 
with Saints", National Gallery. 

Five Wounds of Our Lord. Though not of the form adopted for iconographic 
rings, they essentially belong to the class. Memento mori rings (nos. 811 ff.) * with 
a skull and cross-bones, or a complete skeleton, embodied ideas which had 
obtained general acceptance in the late Middle Ages, and are expressed in 
other minor works of art, such as ivory carvings, represented in the Mediaeval 
Collections. 2 

Decade-rings form another conspicuous group (nos. 788 ff.). 3 These rings, of 
which surviving examples mostly date from the sixteenth century and later, 
have round the outer side a series of knobs or projections, usually but not 

1 Such rings are found in inventories. Thomasin Heath, in her will dated 1596, bequeathed 
to her sister ' a golde ringe with a deathe's head for a remembrance of my good will ' (Surtees 
Society, vol. cxii, p. 163). In Love's Labours Lost Biron compares Holofernes to ' a death's face 
in a ring '. A passage in Marston's Dutch Courtesan is often quoted to show that these rings 
were worn by light women about 1600. See F. Parkes Weber, Aspects of Death in Art, Index; 
s. v. Memento mori. 

2 Catalogue of Ivory Carvings of the Christian Era, nos. 441-4. 

3 Jones, Finger-ring Lore, p. 248 ; Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, vi. p. 59 ; Arch. 
Journal, v, p. 63 ; xx, p. 74 ; Gentleman's Magazine, Ixii, p. 612. 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

always ten, whence the name. 1 They were used in the recital of the Ave or Hail 
Mary (Luke i. 28), the prayer being repeated as each knob passed under the 
finger ; when the bezel with its cross was reached the Pater Noster was said. 
The example with the arms of Tichborne (no. 788) is of greater intrinsic 
value than most, for the decade was widely diffused, and largely used by the 
illiterate who could not read their prayers. The Rev. Francis Trappes con- 
sidered that such rings were .more common in England than elsewhere, since 
during the existence of penal laws they could be more easily concealed than 
rosaries. 2 

The Collection does not contain examples of those rings containing relics of 
which there is frequent historical and documentary evidence. We read, for 
example, that Macrina, sister of St. Gregory of Nyssa, set in an iron ring a piece 
of the wood of the True Cross, recently discovered by St. Helena, 3 and that 
Gregory the Great presented to princes golden key-rings containing filings from 
St. Peter's chains. 4 Inventories in like manner make mention of reliquary-rings: 
thus Elizabeth Lady Eitzhugh, in her will dated in 1427, bequeaths to her son 
Robert ' a Ryng with a Relyke of Saint Petre fingre '."' A ring containing lignum 
dominictim in a wardrobe account of Richard II would seem to be a relic-ring. 6 
Nor is there an example of a ring worn by a royal personage on fast days, such 
as the annel dcs Vcndrcdiz worn by the King of France on Fridays. 7 

Episcopal The ring was worn by bishops as by other Early Christians, but there is 

rings. uncertainty as to the time when it was first used as a symbol of their office. 8 

A ring was found on the finger of Caius. Bishop of Rome (283-96), when his 

tomb was opened in A. I). 1622," and Eusebius, bishop in A. D. 310, is said to 

have had a ring with the sacred monogram and his own name. 1 " A ring was 

1 The Rev. Francis Trappes, in a note on these rings in Journ. Brit. Arch. Association, 
xiv (1858), p. 271, states that he himself had used a decade-ring at Stonyhurst, and that such 
rings were known as tens. This seems to dispose of Mr. Edmund Waterton's theory that the 
decade was not really a rosary-ring (Arch. Journal, xx, p. 74). 

2 Ibid. p. 272. 

3 Greg. Nyss., Life of Macrina in Migne, Patrol. Grace, xlvi, p. 990. The wood of the True 
Cross probably provided relics for rings in all centuries. 

4 Gregory, Letters, i, Ep. xxxi ; vi, Ep. vi (see Migne, Patrol. Lat. Ixxvii, cols. 484 and 798). 

5 Surtees Society, ii, 1835 (Wills and Inventories), p. 74. 

6 W. Paley Baildon, Atchaeologia, Ixii, p. 499. The inference is that the ring contained 
a fragment of wood of the Cross. 

7 As by Charles V (J. Labarte, In-ventaire . . . de Charles V, p. 83). Two anneaux des 
Vendredis are mentioned, one with a cameo representing the Crucifixion, the other with a 
sapphire. 

8 See Babington, in Smith and Cheetham's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, col. 1803, 
and Leclercq in Cabrol's Dictionnaire d'Arch. chrctienne et de Liturgie, col. 2181 ; Octavius 
Morgan, Archaeohgia, xxxvi, p. 392 ; J. Kirchmann, De annnlis, ch. xx. 

* Aringhi, Roma Subt. iv, c. 48, vol. ii, p. 426 ; Boldetti, Cimit. p. 102. 
10 Du Saussay, Panopl. episc. p. 215. 



INTRODUCTION XXXV 

found in the tomb of Birinus, Bishop of Dorchester (d. 640) ; l another in that 
of St. John of Beverley (d. yai). 2 The ring of Agilbert with an intaglio repre- 
senting St. Jerome has been noted (p. xix) ; the ring of Leodegar or Leger, Bishop 
of Autun in the late seventh century, was preserved in Paris in 1636 ; 3 and the 
fine nielloed ring with the name of Alhstan, now in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, is 'attributed to Alhstan, Bishop of Sherborne. But in all these cases 
there is nothing to show that the ring had anything to do with the bishop's con- 
secration. 

There seems no proof that rings were used at the consecration of bishops 
before the latter half of the sixth century. 4 Mr. Octavius Morgan has already 
pointed out that in the Apostolical Constitutions, where there are minute 
directions for the ceremonial, nothing is said of rings ; and this is presumptive 
evidence, though the custom may have prevailed for some time before it was 
first recorded. Isidore, Bishop of Seville from A.D. 595 to 633, says in the 
second book of his Ecclesiastical Offices 5 that the ring is given on consecration 
as a mark of pontifical honour and for the signing of private documents. 
A letter of Pope Boniface in A. D. 6io c mentions the pontifical ring as attached 
to the episcopal dignity, and the twenty-eighth canon of the fourth Council of 
Toledo, held in A. D. 633, decrees that a deposed bishop cannot be restored unless 
he receive the stole, ring, and staff again before the altar. 7 The giving of the ring 
is mentioned in the sacramcntary of Gregory the Great, 8 in the pontifical of 
Egbert, Archbishop of York (732-66), and in various early mediaeval services 
for ordination. It seems probable that the earliest episcopal rings were usually 
signets ; 10 but in later times it was customary to have an unengraved gem. This 
is stated in a decision of the Synod of Milan, and is borne out by the character 
of episcopal rings known to us ; but the words in which the decision is actually 
recorded are perhaps later than the seventh century. 11 The episcopal ring, which 
was of gold, was at first placed upon the fourth (our third) finger of the right 

1 Surius, De vitis sanctorum, vi, p. 220, Venice, 1681. 

a Dugdale, Hist, of the Collegiate Church of Beverley, p. 55, in Appendix to History of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, 

3 A. du Saussay, Panoplia episcopalis, 1646, ii, p. 183. Another early ring is conjecturally 
assigned to Leudinus, Bishop of Tool, A.D. 660 or 680. 

4 Babington in Smith and Cheetham's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, p. 1804. 

5 Ch. v, 12. 6 Labbe and Cossart, Sacrosancta Concilia, v, col. 1618. 

7 Marriott, Vest. Christ, p. 75 ; Labbe and Cossart, as above, v, col. 1714. 

8 The references for this and the following data are all collected in Smith and Cheetham, 
p. 1806, and Cabrol, Diet. d'Arch. chretienne et de Liturgie, cols. 2182-3. 

9 Martene, De ant. rit. ecclesiae, i, ch. viii, art. xi, Ordo iii, Ordo v, Ordo viii, Ordo ix. 
Letters of Pope Nicholas I (858-67) and of Charles the Bald refer to rings of consecration 
(Leclercq, as above, col. 2183). 

10 Waterton, Arch.Journ. xx. 225. For the ring of St. Arnulph of Metz see above, p. xx. 

11 Caeterum amilus episcopalis ex auro puro solide conflatus constat, cum gemma pretiosiori 
in qua nihil sculpti esse debet (H. Leclercq in Cabrol, col. 2185 ; Archaeologia, xxxvi, p. 397). 



XXXVI 



INTRODUCTION 



hand, the first mention of this usage being in a letter of Hincmar (845-52),' but 
later it seems to have been also worn on the first finger of that hand, for which use 
various reasons have been alleged, one that this first finger was known to 
the Romans as the Index Salntaris, and was the finger raised in commanding 
silence. 2 

The above facts establish the ancient use of episcopal rings in the primary sense 
of the word, those, namely, which were given at the ceremony of consecration. 





FIG. 9. HANDS OF AN EPISCOPAL SAINT. From a picture of the 
Flemish School in the National Gallery : ' A Count of Henuegau 
and his patron Saints." 

But we must distinguish such rings from others worn by bishops in the Middle 
Ages and the Renaissance. These are all described as pontifical rings in 
inventories ; 3 and we can only conjecture which the real ring is by its position. 
Early pictures show bishops wearing numerous rings over their gloves (figs. 
10, n), and probably all of these would be described as 'pontificals'. Rings 
were worn both on fingers and thumbs when singing High Mass, 4 and the episcopal 
glove being rather thick, they had to be of large size. It seems possible that such 
rings were kept in cathedrals, to be used when required. 5 

It was the usage upon the death of a bishop for his ring, presumably the 
consecration ring, to be handed over to the royal treasure, the phrase used being 
liberatus (or redditns) in garderoba. The inventory of 28 Edward I affords 
numerous examples for our own country ; the rings of the Archbishops of Canter- 



1 Epistolae, xxix, in Migne, Pair. Lot. cxxvi, col. 188. Cf. J. Kirchmann. De annulis, 
p. 26. It has been already noted (p. xxvii) that the thumb counted as the first of five fingers. 
1 G. Longus, De anulis, p. 41 ; H. Kornmann, De triplici annulo, p. 15. 

3 Cf. J. Wickham Legg, ' On an Inventory of the Vestry in Westminster Abbey taken in 1388 ' 
(Arckaeologia, Hi), where 'glovys and pontyfycales ' are mentioned. 

4 D. Rock, The Church of our Fathers, ii, p. 169. 

6 The inventory of St. Paul's in 1445 mentions a case containing pontifical and other rings 
(W. Sparrow Simpson, St. Paul's Cathedral and Old City Life, p. 43). For a similar case at 
Canterbury see J. Dart, Hist. andAntiq. of the Cathedral Church of Canterbury, Appendix, p. xiii. 



INTRODUCTION XXXV11 

bury, York, and Dublin, and the Bishops of Salisbury, Bath and Wells, and Exeter, 
and of the Abbot of Abingdon, are all mentioned. 1 The same usage prevailed in 
other countries. The inventory of Charles V of France includes eight anneaulx 
pontificaitlx a prelat? The Emperor had from early years claimed the same 
right. 3 But the return of the ring can hardly have been rigorously enforced, 
because rings of value, bearing all the appearance of consecration rings, have been 
discovered in the coffins of bishops, and were undoubtedly buried with them. 4 
But where a ring of small intrinsic worth has been found in the coffin, as in the 
case of Lawrence Booth, Archbishop of York, buried in Southwell Cathedral, it 
may perhaps be regarded as a substitute for the real ring handed over to the royal 
treasury. 5 On the other hand, we may note that the inventory of 16 Elizabeth, 
quoted below, contains a silver-gilt 'pontifical!' set with a counterfeit sapphire, 
as if the monarch had been content to accept the substitute in place of the original. 
The Archbishops of Canterbury also claimed pontifical rings of deceased bishops, 6 
but these appear to have been the ' second best ' rings, and were accompanied. by 
the prelate's seals. 

There seems little doubt that the correct stone for the true episcopal ring 
was the sapphire. Of English examples, the rings of three early bishops, 
Flambard (1099-11:18), Geoffrey Rufus (1133-40), William de St. Barbara 
(i 143-52), in the Durham Chapter Library, all have sapphires. 7 So has the ring of 
William of Wykeham, preserved at Winchester ; 8 so have the fine ring of William 
Wytlesey, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1374), in the collection of Sir Arthur 
Evans, a ring of an unidentified bishop in the Cathedral of Chichester, 9 and 
that of Bishop John Stanbery of Hereford (d. I4/4). 10 Among the bishops' rings 
in the inventory of 28 Edward I already quoted, those of the Archbishops of 
Dublin and York, and of the Bishops of Salisbury and St. Asaph, have sapphires. 11 
The rings of the Bishops of Bath and Wells and the Abbot of Abingdon, both 
with sapphires, were among the jewels taken with Piers Gaveston. 12 Archbishop 

1 Liber quotidianus contrarotulatorius, &c., 28 Edivard I, pp. 344-5, 348 (published by the 
Society of Antiquaries of London, 1787). 

2 J. Labarte, Inventaire, &c., p. 136. 

3 Kirchmann, De annulis, ch. xx, p. 183. The ring had played its part in the great struggle 
for the right of investiture between the popes and emperors, investiture being per annuhiin 
(or virgam) et baculuin (cf. Sigebert, Chronicle, year MCXI ; William of Malmesbury, Gest. 
Reg. Angl. ii, 202). The different stages of the quarrel are concisely given by Kirchmann. 
See also Smith and Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, s. v. Investiture. 

4 Instances are quoted by W. Jones, Finger-ring Lore, p. 203. 

5 Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, 2nd series, viii, p. 243. 

6 Arch. Journal, xi, pp. 274 ff. 7 Archaeologia, xlv, p. 387. 

8 Exhibited with other episcopal rings by the Dean of Winchester at the Special Exhibition 
of Works of Art at South Kensington Museum in 1862 (Catalogue, p. 636). 

9 Archaeological Journal, xx. p. 235. 10 Ibid. p. 236. 

11 Liber quotidianus contrarot. pp. 344-5, 348. 

12 Rymer, Foedera (1706), iii, p. 389. 



XXXVlii INTRODUCTION 

Parker's ring had a sapphire. 1 The ' Bague de Saint Loup' in the Treasury of 
Sens Cathedral has the same gem. 2 The use of several stones, either of the same 
or of different kinds, on pontifical rings is well authenticated. Though William 
of Wykcham's consecration ring (sec above) was set with a sapphire, a ring which 
he bequeathed to his successor in his will, and described as his larger pontifical, 
is set with a sapphire surrounded by balas rubies. 3 Several of the bishops' rings 
in the Edwardian inventory are described as cum rubcttis. In the inventory of 
16 Elizabeth (A.D. 1574) two ' pontificalls ' with divers stones are entered. 4 The 
French pontifical rings in the already cited inventory of Charles V have almost 
without exception a variety of stones ; one has an emerald, five balas rubies, five 
large pearls, and a sapphire ; two have sapphires and inclines picrreries ; one has 
a cameo with twelve pearls, two sapphires, and two emeralds ; another a large 
sapphire among turquoises and garnets ; two more have sapphires, emeralds, 
pearls, and garnets. 5 The collection of Pope Paul II (Barbo) contained several 
pontifical rings with sapphires, mostly accompanied in the same way by other 
stones. 6 The amethyst, as of a similar symbolism to the sapphire, appears to 
have sometimes replaced that stone: an example is the ring of Henry of Worcester, 
Abbot of Evcsham (d. 126^)? Other tingle stones are frequent in rings associated 
with mediaeval bishops, but we cannot be sure whether these rings arc anything 
more than ' pontificals ' in the extended sense of the word. The ruby is found in 
the ring of Archbishop Greenfield of York (d. I3i5), s and in that of Bishop Richard 
Mayew or Mayo of Hereford (d. 1516)." Among the bishops' rings already 
mentioned as returned to the royal treasury and inventoried in the reign of 
Edward I, we find examples with emerald, ruby, topaz, and peridot. 10 Some rings 

1 His inventory, dated 1577, has the following item : a ringe with a blewe sapphire, at 
iiij li. (Archaeologia, xxx, p. 27). 

2 Viollet-le-Duc, D.ctionnaire du Mobilier fran$ais, iii, p. 21. 

3 Nicolas, Testamenla Vetusta, ii, p. 767. The ring found. in Bishop Gardiner's tomb has 
an oval intaglio on plasma, with a head of Minerva (Catalogue of the Special Exhibition, &>c., on 
loan at the South Kensington Af^^seum, 1862, no. 7197, p. 636). 

* British Museum, Stowe MS. 555 : 

Fol. 6 b . Item, oone Pontificalle Ring of course golde with a sapher in it, and rounde 
about the same, set luithfive course smale emerauiies and V course sinale garnettes . . . ponderans 
j oz. scant. 

Fol. 25''. Item cone Pontificall of silver and guilt, having a coitnterfeit sapher in the 
middest and about the same iiij pearles and thre course stones . . . ponderans j oz. dim. 

6 Labarte, p. 136. 

6 E. Miintz, Les Arts a la Cour des Papes, ii, pp. 187-8, and Revue archtclogique, N. S., 
xxxvi (1878), p. 205. The other stones are emeralds, garnets, and rubies, with pearls. 

7 Archaeologia, xx, p. 566. 

8 G. A. Poole and J. Hugall, An Historical and Descriptive Guide to York Cathedral, p. 195. 

9 Archaeologia, xxxi, p. 249 ; Arch. Journal, xx, p. 236. 

10 Liber quotidianus, &c., as above, pp. 344-5, 348. A ring of the Bishop of Salisbury is 
described as cum rubetto perforate. In the Westminster inventory of 1388 are several rings 
both with sapphires and red stones (J. Wickham Legg in Archaeologia, Iii, p. 199). 



INTRODUCTION 



XXX IX 



described as episcopal have no gem. The gold ring found at Charroux and 
associated with the name of Giraldus, Bishop of Limoges (d. icaa), has a large 
quatrefoil bezel. 1 

The rings which can be regarded with any certainty as those given at 
consecration being at once few in number and various both in form and 
ornament, there would appear to be no safe criterion by which they can be 
distinguished from rings worn by laymen. The sapphire was a popular stone, by 
no means reserved for ecclesiastical use, and the very variety of the attested 
specimens seems to show that, as far as outward appearance goes, pontifical rings 
were not a class apart, but followed contemporary fashions; there was no 
traditional form persisting century after century. Such being the uncertainty of 





FIG. 10. EPISCOPAL HANDS. From the ' Marriage of St. Catherine' by Lorenzo 
di San Severino, National Gallery. 

the whole subject, it has seemed best in the Catalogue itself to make no 
assumptions, and to class a number of rings commonly described as ' episcopal ' or 
'ecclesiastical' with the main body of ornamental rings. (Cf. nos. 1749 ff., 1827 ff.) 
Many of these may well have been worn by clerics, and some by bishops ; but 
of few could it be asserted with confidence that they are pontifical, either in 
the wider or the narrower sense. The large series of ' stirrup-shaped ' rings with 
sapphires (nos. 1782 ff.) seem to have no valid right to the title. 

It will be gathered from quotations made above that certain abbots were 
invested with the ring, but the privilege was exceptional, and in early times 
disliked by bishops. 2 Abbesses are represented on their monuments wearing rings, 
as for example Agnes Jordan, Abbess of the Bridgetinc Convent of Syon, on her 
brass at Denham, Bucks. 3 The date when the ring was given to abbesses is not 
precisely known; the custom was abolished by Gregory XIII in 1572. 4 It has 
been conjectured that the ring with the name of Lcubacius, in the Cathedral 
at Tours, may have been that of Leobatius, first abbot of the monastery of 

1 Didron, Annales archtologiques, x, I5o. 

1 Leclercq in Cabrol, col. 2186. The benediction of abbots' rings is not menticned in ritual 
until the fifteenth century. 

3 H . Druitt, Costume in Brasses, p. 98. 

4 Leclercq, col. 2187. 



xl INTRODUCTION 

Senaparia 1 (Sennevieres, Indre-et- Loire), but the style of the ornament seems 
rather too late to justify the attribution. Nuns were symbolically espoused to 
Christ by a ring, 2 and the Museum possesses an example (no. 712). These 
appear to have been sometimes set with gems, and, as we should expect, with the 
sapphire. 3 Widows sometimes inherited property from their husbands on condition 
of taking a vow of chastity, and assumed a mantle and a ring. 4 Any cleric might 
wear a ring, and from documentary evidence it is clear that the clergy often 
possessed more than one ring of value. But no one beneath the rank of bishop 
(or, in later centuries, of abbot) wore a ring as indication of rank or sacred office. 
We may note, however, that in the archdeaconry of Chester, on the death of 
a priest, his best horse, saddle, bridle, bit, and spurs, and his best signet or ring, 
passed into the possession of the bishop as archdeacon. Both bishops and 
clerics of lower rank sometimes received bequests of rings. By the will of 
Martin de Sancta Cruce, dated A. D. 1259, rings are bequeathed to the Arch- 
bishop of York, the Bishops of Durham, Norwich, and Chester, the Dean and 
residential canons of York, and the Vicar of Auckland. 7 

Papal If episcopal rings still present difficulties, the so-called papal rings (nos. 832 ff.) 

rings. are even more perplexing. These, it will be remembered, are massive, sometimes 

even ponderous rings, bearing arms or names of popes, cardinals, archbishops, and 
sometimes bishops, with accessories such as the papal tiara, the crossed keys, 
cardinals' hats, mitres, and very frequently the symbols of the Evangelists. The 
salient fact about all these rings is their small intrinsic value ; they are all of gilt 
bronze, and set either with glass pastes or inferior stones. 8 In view of the very 
considerable number of these rings, their undoubted authenticity/' and their 

1 Deloche, Essai hist, et arch, sur les anneaux, 1900, p. 44. 

- An allusion in a sermon of St. Ambrose possibly implies that in his time a ring was given 
to nuns on the day of their consecration. He says : Hinc est quod anulo fidei Agnes se asserit 
subauratam (Sermon xlviii, in Migne, Pair. Lat. xvii, col. 701). Pontificals from 1200 onwards 
mention the ring in the ceremony of consecration (Leclercq in Cabrol, col. 2188). 

3 Liber qiiotidianus contrarotulatorius, &C., 28 Edward I, p. 348 : Units anuhis auri parvus 
cum saphiro qui fuit de antilis provif pro Monialibus de Ambresbury contra earundem 
professionem. 

4 Cf. the will of William Edlington, of Castle Carlton, June 1 1, 1466 (F. J. Snel!, The Customs 
of Old England, p. 17); in other wills the portion of a widow refusing the condition is reduced. 

6 Martene, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus, iii, ch. xii, n. II : Episcopus debet habere annuhun 
quia sponsus est. Caeteri sacer dotes non, quia sponsi nan sunt, sed amid sponsi, vel vicar ii. 

6 Arch. Journal, 1854, p. 373. 

7 Surtees Society, Wills and Inventories, 1835, p. 7: Item Domino Eboracensi annuluin 
ineuin ciim rubeto majori. . . . Item Domino Dunelmensi annulum cum saphyr 1 majori. . . . 
Item anuli capiantur de melioribus existentibus Eboraci et dentur Dominis Norwycensi et 
Karleolensiepiscopis. . . . Item Dccano Eboracensi et singulis canonicis residenciam facientibus 
nnum annulum auri cum saphir 1 ponderis circa x vel xij denariorum. Item domino Roberto 
Vicar io de Aucland unuin annulum auri. 

8 Proc, Soc. Antiquaries of London, 1st series, iv, p. 230 ; 2nd series, ii, p. 431 ; xi, p. 70. 

They are most unlikely to have been fabricated for the deception of collectors as early as 






INTRODUCTION 



xli 



association with the late mediaeval centuries of which records are abundant, it is 
curious that there seems to be no certain knowledge as to their origin or use. 
The theory which finds most acceptance describes them as rings of investiture, 
and supposes that they were transmitted to new holders of papal fiefs or high 
offices in the Church on accession to their new dignity. One difficulty in this 
view lies in the fact that many of the rings were evidently made for dignitaries who 
either were never popes or were elected at a time later than that of the manufacture 
of the ring ; we should therefore have to suppose that the cardinal and the bishop 




FIG. ii. HANDS. From Botticini's 'St. Jerome with St. Damasus and 
other Saints ', National Gallery. 

shared with the pope the custom of investing by ring. According to another 
hypothesis, they were carried as credentials by ambassadors or minor envoys, much 
as a King's Messenger carries a badge ; but there is no proof of this, and smaller 
rings would certainly have been more convenient. 1 

Amid so much that is uncertain, one thing seems clear, that these rings cannot 
have been worn by the popes themselves. It is impossible to believe that the 
sovereign pontiff ever wore such cheap and cumbrous ornaments ; and though in 
portraits of individual popes, as for example Raphael's Julius II in the National 

A.D. 1494, when one is mentioned in the Este inventory : Una annello di ottone dorato cum 
vedro rosso quadra grande ligato dentro cum la mitra et chia-ue et quatro Evangelisti dintorno 
tagliati (G. Campori, Raccolta di Cataloghi ed Inventarii inediti, p. 27, Modena, 1870). Cf. also 
one of Pius II figured and described by J. Chifflet, Annulus pontificius Pio II assertus. 
Chifflet assumes the ring to have been worn by the Pope, and says : annulus est ingens aheneus 
inauratus gemma meliore digito Pii Papae II factus pretiosior. 

1 The occurrence of the arms of European kingdoms as well as those of the Pops (for 
example, rings of Paul II bear the arms of France and Aragon) perhaps suggested this idea, 
the second arms being assumed to be those of the kingdom to which the envoy was accredited. 






xlii INTRODUCTION 

Gallery, rings of considerable size are worn (fig. 12), they are evidently of 
a different character from those under consideration. Moreover, numerous 
duplicates exist, notably in the case of Pius II (Piccolomini) and Paul II (Barbo). 
Personal use by the Pope is therefore for every reason excluded. 1 The same may 
probably be said with regard to the use of such rings by cardinals. There is no 
doubt that it was the custom for the Pope to present a ring to each cardinal on 
his consecration. The Ordo Romanus XIV (about A. D. 1300) states that the 
rings were given at the close of the Consistory. But we know that these were 
rings of value, usually containing costly sapphires, 2 as appears from the accounts 
of the distribution by Etigcnius IV, at the promotion of A. D. 1439. The 
assumption that any of the existing 'papal rings' were used for this purpose 
certainly requires confirmation. Cavaliere G. Zippel states that during the 
pontificate of Paul II. at any rate, the accounts of the Camera Apostolica have no 
entries of disbursements in relation to rings of this type. 3 There is a well- 
known instance in which a Pope sent a ring as a sign of investiture, but the 
date was earlier than that of the ' papal ring ', and the intrinsic value of the gift far 
greater. This was when Pope Hadrian recognized Henry II of England as King 
of Ireland, the incident being related by John of Salisbury. 4 During the 
period of tension between Empire and Papacy an anti-pope was once himself 
invested by an emperor. A letter of Arnulph to the archbishops and bishops 
of England relates that Victor XI suffered this indignity at the hands of Frederic 
Barbarossa, and a rescript of Pope Alexander complains of the act as an outrage 
unparalleled in history. 5 In connexion with papal rings may be mentioned rings 
of a somewhat similar character, bearing crowns or shields of arms, and con- 
jectured to be rings of investiture issued by kings or dukes (nos. 1690, 1691). 



AMULET-RINGS 

Rings The charm-ring of the Christian era was held in the same respect as that of 

^Y more ancient periods. By virtue of the legends or figures engraved upon it, 

of the metal forming its hoop, or of the stone or other substance with which 

1 For the gold ' ring of the fisherman ', a signet engraved on the bezel with St. Peter in a boat 
with a net, and reproduced for each Pope, see E. Waterton, Archaeologia, xl, p. 138. 

E. Miintz, Les Arts a la Cour des Papes pendant les XV* et XVI' sihles, i, 1878, p. 54, 
ii, p. 313 ; Martene, De antiq. eccl. rit. i, c. viii, xi. Prior to the sixteenth century cardinals 
were in the habit of wearing numerous rings ; later it became customary to wear only one. 

1 lo posso soltanto assicurarla, che nei libri di conto della Camera apostolica durante il 
pontificato di Paolo II non si trova nessuna nota di pagamento per oggetti simili a quelli che 
Ella sta illustrando ' (Letter, May 24, 1911). 

4 Bk. IV: Concessit et dedit Hyberniamjurehzreditariopossidendutn. . . . Annulum quoque 
per me transmisit aurewn, smaragdo optimo decoratum, quo fieret investitura juris in gerendd 
Hybernia. Idemque adhuc annulus in curali archio publico custodiri jussus est. Quoted by 
Kirchmann, De anmtlis, pp. 196-7, who cites other instances. 

5 A seculis inauditum (Kirchmann, as above, pp. 193-4). 



INTRODUCTION xliii 

it was set, it was expected to avert from the wearer perils by sea and laud, to 
carry him safely past enemies and robbers, and preserve him from pestilence or 
sudden death. The faith reposed in these amulets was absolute, and those who 
relied upon them doubtless accepted without reserve such a tale as that in the 
Morte d' Arthur, in which a magic ring enables Sir Gareth to baffle all comers 
in the tourney by changing the colour of his arms at will. The Gnostics, 1 whose 
gems were often worn in the Middle Ages, handed down to later times much 
of their peculiar belief in the efficacy of ' words of power ' ; and superstitions of 
this kind, augmented from cabalistic and other Oriental sources, found their final 
expression in magical treatises like those of Cornelius Agrippa and other occult 
philosophers of the Renaissance and the seventeenth century. 

The old superstitious belief in the mysterious qualities of gems is manifested Qualities 
in numerous mediaeval treatises from which later writers derived their information. 2 of gems. 
The finer and more poetical ideas of religious symbolism are here confounded 
with the crudities of mere superstition. All are familiar with the belief that the 
sapphire, the colour of the Virgin and of the heavens, preserved the chastity of 
the wearer ; but the same virtue was attributed to the emerald and the green 
jasper, 3 and similar beliefs were extended to other gems. We may take an 
example from the Bestiary, which derived its petrology, like its other science, 
indirectly from Pliny and other ancient writers. The diamond is there described 
as a stone found upon a mount in the East, and shedding round it a great light at 
night ; it is a symbol of Our Lord, and like other stones has the power of counter- 
acting poison. 4 The lore of gems was, however, not always incorporated in the 
book of symbolic beasts ; it formed the subject of regular ' lapidaries ' composed 
upon similar lines, and suggested by the translation into French in the twelfth 
century of the poem by Marbodius, Bishop of Rennes, on precious stones. 5 Their 
lessons were transmitted to later times by writers like Jerome Cardan, from whom 
a few typical statements may be extracted to illustrate the superstitions of his 
day. Gems suffer sickness, age, and death. The hyacinth (? jacinth) protects 
from lightning, induces slumber, increases riches, and makes glad the heart of man. 
The turquoise will preserve in a fall from horseback. The emerald, like other 
stones, is an antidote to poison ; placed under the tongue, it confers divinatory 

1 C. W. King, The Gnostics and their Remains, 1864. 

2 e.g. Licetus, De anulis, pp. 77, 93, &c. ^ De Boodt, Historia Gemmarum Camillas 
Leonard!, Speculum lapidum, 1502. s Archaeologia, xxi, p. 126. 

Alcons dient del diainant 

Qu'il est centre venim poissant 

Et qifil chace vaines poors; 

Ne que Fart des enchanteors 

Ne devreit celui enchanter 

Qui ceste fere salt porter. 

(Bestiaire rime" ; Cahier and Martin, Melanges d'arMologie, iv, p. 66.) 
5 Gaston Paris, Litte'raturefranc.aise au moyen Age, 3rd edition, 1905, p. 158. 
" De Subtilitate, Book vii. Cardan died about 1576. 



xliv 



INTRODUCTION 



powers. The amethyst excites dreams ; the onyx stimulates the mind ; the 
carbuncle inspirits ; the jasper stops bleeding at the nose ; the sapphire will cure 
the bite of snakes and scorpions. It will be seen that there is no end to the 
virtues ascribed to various gems, and that even after the Middle Ages magic con- 
tinued to walk hand in hand with medicine. As an example illustrating the 
pertinacity of particular beliefs we may cite the use of gems and rings for affections 
of the eyes. Water in which the ring of Leodegar, Bishop of Autun, had been 
immersed was held to be thus remedial ; : the thirteenth-century inventory of 
St. Paul's, already quoted, states that a merchant presented to the shrine of 




FIG. 12. HANDS OF POPE JULIUS II. From the portrait by Raphael 
in the National Gallery. 

St. Erkenwald a sapphire renowned for its salutary influence in this respect ; and 
in Webster's Dttchcss of Malfy allusion is made to the application of a ring as 
a remedy for sore eyes. 2 Sometimes the virtue lay less in the nature of the gem 
than in the association of a ring with a venerated person. Thus the ring of 
Edward the Confessor, to which allusion has already been made, is said to have 
long been preserved at Westminster, and employed as a remedy for epilepsy. 3 
This may have suggested the first use of the Cramp Rings blessed at a special 
consecration service from the reign of Edward III, and deriving their mysterious 
power from contact with the royal hands. 4 

1 Martyrologium Gallicatnim, October 2. 

2 Act I, -Sc. 'i. 

s Polydore Vergil, Hist. Angl. Bk. viii. Cf. p. xv, n. I above. 

4 Of these rings, which were probably plain hoops of silver and gold, no authentic examples 
survive ; their consecration was discontinued by Henry VIII, but for a time revived by Queen 
Mary. See Notes and Queries, sen I, vii, p. 88, and the references there given. Rings of less 
august association have been worn as remedies for cramp and fits down to modern times. In 
the nineteenth century a plumber of Salisbury, questioned as to the lead rings on both his hands, 
replied that they were for the cure of fits, and that to secure their efficacy, the lead had 
to be cut from a coffin at exact full moon (Notes and Queries, 8th series, ix, p. 357. Cf. also 
ibid. pp. 127, 253). For similar superstitions in ancient times cf. F. H. Marshall, Catalogue, as 
above, p. xxii. 



INTRODUCTION xlv 

The nature of the intaglio design cut in the stone was naturally held to affect Figures 
its powers. The ordinary subjects upon antique gems received from mediaeval an . * n ." 
fancy a meaning and a potency far from the thought of those who first engraved 
them. An interesting thirteenth-century MS. in the British Museum, entitled 
DC Scnlptiiris lapidnin^ tells that the figure of Pegasus encourages boldness and 
swiftness; Andromeda conciliates lovers ; Hercules is a singular defence to com- 
batants ; Perseus preserves from lightning and from devils ; a Siren cut in jacinth 
renders invisible ; a hare defends against the devil ; a dog and lion on the same stone 
avert the dropsy. The significance of early engraved gems in the Middle Ages is 
a subject which still offers possibilities of research. 2 The magical inscriptions in 
most general favour are largely of Hebraic origin, derived from cabalistic sources. 
the popular formulae remaining in use from the Romanesque age to the seventeenth 
century and later. These arc for the most part without obvious sense to the 
uninitiated, the corruption of the words having in many cases gone too far for 
anything but a tentative reconstruction. 3 But others of Greek derivation are less 
far removed from their original ; 4 while parts of texts from the Vulgate, 3 or 
invocations to sacred persons and saints, or simply their names, present no further 
difficult}'. The names of the Magi, or Three Kings of Cologne, deserve especial 
mention as efficacious against the falling sickness and other maladies (nos. 885 ff.). c 
' Sigils ' and astrological signs were naturally used in addition to verbal texts 
(cf. no. 894), the nature of the metal and its affinity with particular planets also 
coming into play. 

The Collection contains a good series of rings set with toadstones." According Toad- 
to an ancient superstition, there was in the head of the toad a stone which was stones, 
considered a remedy against many afflictions, from tumours to bewitchments. 
The allusion in As Yon Like It is too familiar to quote, but may be mentioned to 

1 Harley MS. 80. This Latin MS. is printed in Archaeologia (xxx, 13.449). In the same 
volume is an early French lapidary entitled : I.e livre 1'cchel ties philosaplies ct dcs Indois et dit 
estre des enfuns d' Israel, mention faisant de fllusieiirs pierrcs prccicuscs et de leurs 1'crtus ct 
proprietes. 

2 F. de Mely, Revite de PArt chretien, 1893, pp. 14, 98. 

3 A few of the most popular words and formulae Agla, Amtnizapia, Tetragrammaton, 
Tebal Gut Guttani, &c. occur on rings in the Collection and are there discussed (nos. 868 ff.). 

On the general subject see C. W. King, Antique Gems and Rings, p. 376, and articles in the 
Archaeological Journal, xxvi, p. 225 ; O. Morgan, Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, 1st series, 
iv, p. 87 ; Archaeologia, xxx, 449, 451, 454. 

4 e. g. Agios o Theos, &c. (no. 892). 

* e. g. Jesus autem transiens (nos. 877 ff.), and Verbum caro factuin est (no. 895). The first 
formula was supposed to extricate from the hands fof enemies and dangers, and, as mentioned 
under no. 877, was chosen by Edward III to commemorate the battle of Sluys. 

6 For a ring with a sapphire engraved with the Three Kings, bequeathed in the I4th 
century by Sir John de Foxle, see Arch.Journ. xv, p. 274. 

7 Sir Ray Lankester, Recreations of a Naturalist, 1911 ; Jones, Finger-ring Lore, pp. 156-8; 
Notes and Queries, 4th series, 1871, pp. 399, 484, 540. From its supposed origin, the loadstone 
was called crapaudina, crapaudine, or bufonius lapis. 

d 



xlvi 



INTRODUCTION 



'Inscribed 
rings. 



illustrate the fact that Shakespeare may well have himself believed the story to 
which he alludes. It may be doubted whether he would have accepted all the 
fictions current on the same subject, as that the toad, if placed on a red cloth, 
would eject his stone; or that if a doubtful specimen were set before a toad,^ he 
would disregard it, whereas he would seize upon a genuine example, ' for he envieth 
much that man should have that stone '- 1 It was supposed that the stone could 
be cut out of the toad's head with a knife, and in a treatise of about 1490, called 
Hortits Sanitatis, a man is shown performing the operation. Faith in the toad- 
stone lasted to modern times, and refer- 
ence is always made in this connexion 
to a letter of Joanna Baillie, in which she 
tells Sir Walter Scott how a toadstone 
belonging to her mother had been re- 
peatedly borrowed for the protection 
against fairies of new-born children and 
their mothers. It is hardly necessary to 
say that there is no truth in these old 
beliefs. \o toad carries a jewel in his head, 
and the so-called toadstone, which is of a 
clrab colour and of a convex polished 
surface, is really the palatal tooth of a 
fossil fish called Lepidotus, common in 
the oolitic and wealden strata of England. 
Originally white, it derives its colour from 
staining, due to the rocks in which it is 
embedded. It has been conjectured that 
the fancies related above may have 
suggested themselves to the fertile 
imagination of the Middle Ages through 
Pliny's mention of a stone called Batra- 
chites, a name probably given because the colour suggested that of a toad. 
Through one of the strange processes by which the mediaeval mind associated its 
ideas, the story of the stone in the toad's head was evolved to satisfy the 
general desire for the marvellous. 

Of other substances embodied in rings for prophylactic purposes ass's hoof 
may here be noticed (cf. no. 907). This substance was considered a remedy 
against epilepsy, 2 and a ring in the Waterton Collection is of double potency in 
that it has ass's hoof in the hoop and a toadstone in the bezel. 

A small group of rings bearing mottoes and inscriptions of indeterminate 
character has been placed in a separate class under the title of inscribed rings. 

1 Lupton, A Thousand Notable Things of Sundry Series, London, 1595. 
J Reichelt, De amnletis, p. 20; cf. C. W. King, Antique Gems and Rings, p. 574 ; Proc. 
Soc. Antiquaries of London, 2nd series, i, p. 278 ; ii, pp. 183, 229. 




FIG. 13. RINGS UNDER SLIT GLOVES. 
After the picture of 'Judith with the Head of 
Holofernes ', by Cranach the elder. 



INTRODUCTION xlvii 

Some of these legends are merely sententious (e.g. nos. 917, 929, 936, 9.51); 
others are probably New Year's wishes (nos. 940, 941) ; others may be magical, 
others religious, others amatory, but in these cases there is usually room for doubt. 

LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 

The love-rings in the Collection are naturally numerous, and the number is 'Fede' 
really greater than would at first appear, since many rings, which from their type or a ^ 'posy' 
the nature of the subjects engraved on them were probably made for other uses, 
have been transformed into love-rings by the addition of amatory mottoes, such 
as mon cccur avez or per ban amor. 

The most extensive subdivisions of love-rings are the groups known as Fcde and 
Posy rings. Fede-rings (nos. 1 002 fif.) received their name from the two hands clasped 
in troth, which they always have in a conspicuous position; the type descends 
from Roman times. 1 Sometimes it happens that -afcdc-rmg bears a religious or 
magical inscription, and examples of this kind afford yet another instance of the 
difficulty of classifying rings, for it is not easy to say with certainty which has the 
most significance, the general type or an inscription which may be somewhat 
incongruous with it. The /wy-ring (cf. no. 1107) derives its name from the 
' poesy ' or motto, usually a rhymed couplet, engraved on the inner side. In the 
abstract, any ring bearing a motto or verse of an amatory nature may be regarded 
as a posy-ring : but the term is commonly restricted to the plain rings which 
enjoyed such popularity in England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
The references given in the note preceding no. 1107 will introduce the reader to the 
literature of the subject, which it is not necessary to repeat in the present place. 
The poetry of posy-rings, as will be seen from the examples in the Catalogue, is 
unassuming and often naive in style ; the mottoes on love-rings of earlier date often 
eclipse them, if not in sincerity, at least in the manner of expression. Attention 
may be called to the Godstow ring, which sentiment would fain associate with 
Fair Rosamund (no. 962) ; to the rings with the direct old motto, antre nc irttx 
(nos. 966, 967, ; to the frank English declaration, have heart and al (no. 982) ; 
and the cautious Italian, amore vol fe (no. 986). 

Another type of love-ring is the gimmel or gimmal, made of two hoops Gimmel- 
fitting closely together, and capable of division if required : the name is derived rings, 
from the Latin gemellns (a twin). 2 It does not appear that the gimmel was 
always, or even often, actually divided, each lover wearing a half, though such 

1 The origin of the design was the dextrarum jimctio. See F. H. Marshall, Catalogue, 
as above, p. xxii. 

z The stock quotations for gimmel-rings are from Dryden's Don Sebastian, where one with 
the names of Juan and Zayda is described, and Herrick's Hcsperides, where a ' ring of jimmals' 
is mentioned, though, in defiance of etymology, it is said to indicate 'a triple tye '. The term 
gimmel was used for any appliance in which two rings of metal work in each other, for instance 
a bit (cf. Henry V, Act iv, Sc. 2). 

d 2 



xlviii INTRODUCTION 

would be its natural destination. In the case of most rings described under 
this title the two hoops work into each other, but can only be divided by being 
cut ; moreover, the sharpness of the edges would make the sundered halves very 
uncomfortable to wear. Nos. 990, 991, are good examples of this type, bearing 
in Latin and German the text usually found where an inscription is added. 
A ring said to have belonged to the great merchant Sir Thomas Gresham, 
temporarily deposited at South Kensington, is in the same style. 1 

Wedding- The majority of the rings in Class G are either betrothal or love rings. 

rings. Among them may be many which have been usccl in the marriage ceremony, 

but it is not easy to distinguish these, for, down to the sixteenth century at least, 
wedding-rings were apparently set with gems, the plain hoop not being introduced 
until a later period. Mr. Waterton, who collected various facts about the 
wedding-ring, derived from a will of 1503 the information that at that time 
it might be set with a stone, for the testatrix, one Marion Chambers of Bury 
St. Edmunds, describes her ' marying ring ' as ' having a dyamond and rubie 
therein '. 2 The wedding-ring of Martin Luther is said to have borne a Crucifixion 
ami the emblems of the Passion." The plain ring may have been introduced 
about the time of the Commonwealth, when some of the sterner spirits were 
in favour of its total abolition. The third finger of each hand has always been 
used for rings, and that of the left hand for the wedding-ring, partly because 
it is there unlikely to be damaged or worn, but partly also from the old super- 
stition, possibly based on an ancient Egyptian belief, that a vein ran from the 
heart to this finger. The belief is mentioned by Aulus Gellius and Macrobius ; * 
but the point which interests us here is its survival through the Middle Ages into 
the seventeenth century. In the Salisbury and Hereford missals it is directed 
that the ring, after being first temporarily passed over the second and third 
fingers, shall lastly be placed on the fourth/ there to remain qnia in illo digito 
.cst qiiaedam vena procedens usque ad cor, 1 ' The old belief survived later, though 
soon destined to be condemned by the advance of anatomical knowledge. 7 
Henry Swinburne, in his Treatise of Spoitsals, written about A. D. 1600, but 
printed later in the century, repeats that the marriage-ring is worn on the fourth 
finger ' because, by the received opinion of the learned and experienced in 
Ripping up and anatomizing men's Bodies, there is a vein of Blood which passeth 
from that fourth finger unto the Heart, called Vena Amoris, Love's Vein. And 

1 See note under no. 991. 

2 Waterton MS., Dactyliotheca Watertoniana (in the Library of the Victoria and Albert 
Museum), p. 96. 

s Journ, Brit. Arch. Assoc. x, p. 375. 

4 Aulus Gellius, Miscell. x, ch. 10; Macrobius, Saiurnal. vii, ch. 13. 

5 As already observed, the fourth finger of the early writers corresponds to our third. 

6 Notes and Queries, sth series, xii (1879), P- 48. 

' Sir Thomas Browne, Vulgar Errors, i (1852), p. 390; J. Kirchmann, De annulis, p. 23, 
who describes the opinion as exploded. 







INTRODUCTION xlix 

so the wearing of the Ring on that finger signifieth that the love should not 
be vain or fained, but that as they did give their hands each to other, so likewise 
they should give their hearts also, whereunto that vein is extended.' l 

Jewish marriage-rings, well represented in the Collection, are obviously not Jewish 
intended for permanent wear; their large size and inconvenient forms would rin s - 
alone disqualify most of them for everyday use. In fact they were only placed 
by bridegrooms upon the fingers of brides during the ceremony, and are therefore 
purely symbolical, as indeed the figure-subjects, where such occur, would 
themselves imply. There docs not seem to be 
unanimity of opinion as to whether the gabled 
building, which in many rings projects as a bezel, 
represents Solomon's temple, or a synagogue ; 
the writer in the Jewish Encyclopaedia inclines 
to the latter supposition.- Jewish marriage-rings 
almost invariably bear as legend, complete or 
abbreviated, the Hebrew words Mazzal tab 
(Good luck). The better specimens arc richly FIG. 14. KING WITH OUATKK- 

ornamented with enamel and filigree in a style IL I; , EXEL ox I " I1 < S1 ' FIN( T :E , R - 

B r rom the portrait 01 Kunurst John 

suggesting either Venice or the South of Germany Consums of Saxony, in the Collec- 
as the place, and the sixteenth century as the J 1 * I o ' rince Gcor c of ^ony. 
time, of manufacture. None of the existing 

examples are said to be older than the thirteenth century, though the use of the 
ring as a symbol in marriage can be traced some six centuries earlier. 

The Collection contains no historical betrothal-ring like that of Mary Uueen 
of Scots and Darnley. This ring, found at Fothcringay and now in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum," has on the bezel the initials M and H joined by a knot 
in the style of rings illustrated on plate VIII. Examples like no. 420 have 
no personal association with the married pair, but arc merely commemorative 
rings bought in celebration of an auspicious event. 

MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 

Among the most interesting commemorative rings are those commonly known ' Stuart ' 
as ' Stuart rings' (nos. 1359 ff.), from the fact that they were worn by adherents of an d other 

the royal house of that name. 4 They generally have an enamelled head or bust ^ 

rings. 

1 p. 28. The book was actually printed in 1686. See A'ti/es and Queries, 7th series, 
iv, p. 285. 

1 Article Kings, signed A. W. Cf. also Catalogue of the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition, 
nos. 1822-31 and 1949-63. 

* Arch.Joitrnal, xiv (1857), p. 298. Other rings of this type with the initials WS and A.W. 
have been claimed as the signet and betrothal-ring of Shakespeare. The evidence is by no means 
so complete as in the case of the ring of Mary Queen of Scots and Darnley, for there is no inscrip- 
tion engraved in the interior ; both are said to have been found at Stratford (Gentleman's 
Magazine, Ixxx, pp. 321-2 ; Journ. British Arch. Association, iv, p. 389). 

4 Gentleman's Magazine, Sept. 1788, p. 769; July and Sept. 1823. Examples of these rings 



1 



INTRODUCTION 



on the bezel, the most interesting being those with portraits of Charles I ;^but 
other members of the line are represented Charles II, James II, and the Old 




FIG. 15. PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN : School of Cranach. (After Burlington Fine 
Arts Club, Illustrated Catalogue of Early German Art, plate xxvi.) 

Chevalier. Sometimes a Stuart ring will outwardly express loyalty to the 
Hanoverian dynasty by exhibiting the portrait of the reigning monarch. But 

have been shown at various exhibitions, two at the Loan Exhibition of Jewellery at South 
Kensington in 1872 ; Catalogue, pp. 77 and 79. 

For portraits of the Stuarts see the article by Miss Helen Farquhar, British Numismatic 
Journal, v, 1908. 



INTRODUCTION li 

this will form the lid of a locket, which when opened is found to contain portraits 
of the Stuarts (no. 1372). Similar arrangements arc found in other objects 
carried by Jacobites, for example in snuff-boxes. 1 Of especfal interest in relation 
to the Jacobite cause are two almost identical rings (nos. 1417, 1418), surviving 
examples of a series made to commemorate the death of Lords Balmerino, 
Kilmarnock, Lovat, and Derwentwater, and others, executed in 1746 and 1747 for 
their connexion with ' the '4,5 ' ; and the signet (no. 652) with the cipher of the 
Old Chevalier (Jacobus Rex) cut in a sapphire. Among other portrait-rings 
may be mentioned nos. 1376, 1377, with William 'III and Mary ; and no. 1387, 
with William IV, enamelled by Henry Bone, R.A. : the greater number represent 
unidentified persons. Of rings commemorating events, those connected with 
Polish history have a peculiar interest (nos. 1426 ff.). A romantic association 
would attach to no. 1424, were the story told of it susceptible of proof. 

Numerically the most important among memorial rings arc those worn in Mourning- 
memory of the dead. These may be divided into two classes ; those which were rings, 
not specially made for the purpose, but perhaps belonged to the deceased and 
were bequeathed as mementoes ; and mourning-rings proper, intended for 
distribution among relatives and friends. The custom of leaving a ring for 
remembrance probably represents a very early form of bequest, and any ring so 
bequeathed is in a sense memorial; one instance of the thirteenth century has 
been already quoted in which rings are left to a number of clerics. The bequest 
of a ring ' for a token ', or of money for the purchase of one, becomes a frequent 
feature of wills in the sixteenth century, though the engraving of the deceased's 
name or initials, the feature which constitutes the mourning-ring strictly so 
called, does not seem to become general until after A. n. 1600.- A transition 

1 Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xxvii, p. 379. 

2 Bequests of rings mentioned in the wills published by the Surtees Society may be taken 
as typical. In vol. ii (1835) we find (p. 74) the following item, in the will of Elizabeth, 
Lady Fitzhugh, dated A. D. 1427: Ah so I -wyl yat my son William have a Kyng with 
a dyamond. ... On p. 161, in the will of Robert Hyndmer, A. D. 1558: I geve to the said 
Rattfe . . . a gold ringe with a rcade seale of an Imaige. p. 234, in the will of John Horton, 
1565 : Item, I give unto my brother Anthony Horton, for a token, my golde ringe w /k the 
seale of myne armes, desirenge him to be good to my wife and my childringe as my trust 
is in him. Also I give to the right honourable and my singular good Lord the Lord Ewerye 
for a token, one golde ringe w 11 ' a turkes in itt, desyringe him to be good Lord and ffrend unto 
my iviffe and childringe. . . . Other bequests of rings in this volume will be found on pp. 84 j 
87, 295, 328, 385, 416. In vol. xxxviii (1860), p. 224, we may note the bequest by James Carre 
in 1593 of eight gold rings, one of which had been given him by the King of Scots. Other 
bequests in the volume are on pp. 16, 36, 51, 117, 162, 321, 326. In vol. cxii (1906) we find 
in the will of Bertram Anderson, 1570-1 : I give to my said mother-in-lawe Mrs. Isabel! 
Francklynge, for a token of my assured good will toward her, one goude ring. ... In the 
will of Thomas Harrison, 1582: To my sonne John Harrison loo /. and my gould ringe for 
a token, it/hick weigheth an ounce, and my blessing ivithal. In the will of Jasper Bowdon, 
1589 : to Barbarye Anderson, on gold ringe, in hope she uiil not se my daughter Elionor and 
the reste of my children lacke. Other bequests are on pp. 9, 16, 61, 67, 83, 125, 130, 151. 



Hi -INTRODUCTION 

towards the conventional or ceremonial memento may be found in rings of which 
the testator himself chose the device, ordering' several in duplicate for presentation 
to friends. Such are those left by Sir John Shaw, alderman of London, who in 
his will of A. I). 1487 directed sixteen rings of fine gold to be made and graven 
with the Wounds of Our Lord for presentation to his friends, the rings probably 
resembling two of similar date in the British Museum (nos. 718, 719). 1 The 
memorial rings designed by John Donne have been already mentioned, but we 
may notice in the same connexion the following clause in Sir Henry Wotton's will 
dated October i, 1637: 'to each of the Fellows (of Eton College), a plain ring 
of gold enamelled black, all save the verge, with this motto within, Amor unit 
omnia' 2 

Throughout the eighteenth century the wearing of mourning-rings was 
general in England, and among literary references to the custom none are more 
interesting than those in Richardson's Clarissa Harloicc. for though we are 
dealing with a work of fiction, surviving rings show that the novelist described 
a familiar contemporary usage. It will be remembered that several mourning- 
rings are mentioned in the heroine's will, and we may specially note the 
following passage: 'to Lady Betty Lawrance, Lady Sarah Sadleir, Lord M., 
Miss Charlotte and Miss Martha Montague, each an enamelled ring with a cypher 
Cl. H., with my hair in crystal.'" The universality of the custom of wearing 
mourning-rings at this period is attested by another passage in the same novel. 
Lovelace, referring to Belton's death in a letter to Belford. writes : ' When I come 
to town . . . we will buy each a ring to wear in memory of the honest fellow.' 
Mourning-rings were sometimes engraved with allusive legends or mottoes, in this 
resembling ' posy-rings '. Examples were the rings said to have been worn by 
the King's party after the execution in 1658 of Dr. John Hewett, chaplain to 
Charles I, engraved: Herodcs nccuit Johanncin.^ 

The line of division between Memento Mori rings (see p. xxxiii) and mourning- 
rings is not easily drawn, for when a name and date are found engraved in the 
interior, the ring may be regarded as belonging to the memorial class. This 



1 Notes and Queries, gth series, xi, 1903, p. 308. 

- Izaak Walton, Lives of John Donne, Henry Wot ton, and Richard Hooker, p. 191 (Temple 
Classics). 

3 The considerable value of the more expensive mourning-rings in the eighteenth century, 
evidently those set with gems, is shown by other bequests in the same will. ' To my aunt, 
Mrs. Dorothy Hervey, I bequeath fifty guineas fora ring' : other rings of the value of twenty-five 
and twenty guineas are also mentioned. The symbolic devices which Clarissa caused to be placed 
on her coffin-plate are of interest, in that they are also familiar to us from mourning-rings : at 
the top was to be an hour-glass, winged, at the bottom an urn. The wings accompanying 
the hour-glass are represented on rings in the Collection (nos. 1529 ff.). 

4 Notes and Queries, ser. ii, viii, 393, quoting Kenneth's Register and Chronicle, 1727, p. 373. 
Cf. also Notes and Queries, as above, p. 466, for motto mourning-rings of Alderman John Smith 
of London, and Samuel Crumbleholme, Master of St. Paul's. 



INTRODUCTION 



liii 



distinction has led to the separation in the Catalogue of rings which are out- 
wardly of the same type. 

Rings have been worn as signs of office by persons of various ranks and Official 
positions, from kings downwards. The episcopal rings already mentioned 
(p. xxxiv) really come under this description. So do coronation-rings, of which 
the history extends to remote times and various countries. A ring was evidently 
regarded as the symbol of sovereignty in the Byzantine Empire, as we 
learn from a passage in Xicetas relating to the death of Alexius Comnenus. 1 
The Emperor, as King of Germany., was invested with a ring,- and Henry IV on 
his deposition was called upon to resign the 
crown, the mantle, the ring, and all things 
pertaining to investiture with the imperial 
dignity. 3 In our own country the corona- 
tion-ring goes back before the Xorman 
Conquest, though apparently not long 
before ; whatever may be thought of the 
story related of Offa, King of the East 



Angles, it is certain that the 



of 




ring immediately after the anointing is 
mentioned in the Bencdictional of Robert 
of Jumieges, Archbishop of Canterbury in 

the last years of Edward the Confessor, and Fl<; - l6 - IlANI > OF HiNKniKT vox 

, . , . . HERTENSTEIN. From a portrait by Hol- 

that since that time the principal change bein in thc Metropolitan Museum, Xeu- 

has consisted in thc translation of the York. (Cf. P. Gnnz, Hans Holbein dcr 
formula from Latin into English in the time J""^ t1t '^ '' 

of James I. 1 It is not to be supposed that the sovereign always wore the ring; 
the royal inventory of 28 Edward I. already so often quoted, 'includes the gold 
ring with which the King was consecrated '. 5 But it was probably very carefully 
kept. Camden relates that Elizabeth in her last illness ordered to be cut from 
her finger the ring with which she had been espoused to her kingdom at her 
coronation, and since then never removed ; while Queen Victoria did not allow 
her coronation-ring to pass out of her own custody. 7 Queens consort have 
always been invested with a ring in England. 

1 John Comnenus is said to have drawn thc ring from his father's finger, and by means 
of it confirmed his succession. 

2 E. M'artene, De aiitiquis ecclesicm ritibus, ii, ch. ix, ord. iv and v. 

3 This is related by Sigonius, Dereg. Italiae, iv, p. 89. See Kirchmann, De nnmilis, pp. 194-5. 
* J. \Vickhatn Legg, Arch. Journal^, 1897, pp. 4 ff. 

6 Liber quotidianus, &c., as above, p. 35 1 : annuliis attri cunt quo f nit Rex consecratus. 

6 Kirchmann, as above, p. 222. 

7 Arch. Journal, as above, p. I. The coronation-ring of Queen Mary II is in the possession 
of the Duke of Portland. Mr. Wickham Legg reproduces this ring and those of William IV, 
Queen Adelaide, and Queen Victoria. 



liv INTRODUCTION 

A bare mention must suffice for the ring conferred with other insignia on the 
recipient of a doctor's degree ; 1 it is still given at the University of Upsala. 
Serjeants' Among rings commemorating an office, those of the English serjeants-at-law 
rings. f orm a familiar group. 2 It was the custom, from the fifteenth century, for 

serjeants, on the occasion of their call, to present gold rings to the sovereign, 
princes of the Blood, great officers of state and ecclesiastics, nobles, legal and 
other dignitaries, and personal friends, the weight and value of the rings 
diminishing with the rank and importance of the recipient. This usage is in 
many ways analogous to that by which, in the Roman and Byzantine Empires 
down to A.D. 540, the Consul on his election presented a carved ivory diptych 
to the Emperor and important dignitaries ; like its prototype, it involved 
some expense, for thin though these rings usually were, the number which 
it was necessary to give made the procedure costly. Serjeant Wynne and 
thirteen others, called in A.D. 1736, expended 773, about ^~ ) each, on 1409 
rincrs, but the average seems to have been reduced in later years, since in 1809 

O J a * * 

Serjeants Peckwill and Frere spent 53 19^. (id. on a total of only sixty rings. 

In the nineteenth century the presentation of rings in open court ceased, and 
they were sent privately through the goldsmith employed to make them ; the 
custom came to an end even before 1873, in which year it became unnecessary 
for a barrister appointed a judge to proceed first to the rank of Serjeant, and 
serjeants ceased to be called. 

The Serjeant's ring is a flat band of gold, usually with a moulding at top and 
bottom, and with a motto engraved on the outer side, almost invariably in Latin. 3 
The earliest mention is of the ring of Sir John Fincux, called in 1485, whose 
motto was suac qitisquc fortunac fabcr;^ several rings are recorded for the 
sixteenth century, and many for the two centuries following, while examples are 
also numerous between 1800 and 1864. Down to 1846 it was usual for serjeants 
to be called in ' batches', when it was customary, though not obligatory, for all to 
take the same motto. 

The number of rings accumulated by the kings was naturally very great, and 
various stories have been circulated as to their fate ; one version states that at 
one time there was a drawer-full at Windsor Castle, but that all were supposed to 

1 E.G. Clark, Arch. Journal, \, p. 80; Kirchmann, p. 197; H. Kornemann, De annulo 
triplici, p. 40 (1672) ; Druitt, Costume in Brasses, pp. 121-2. 

2 E. Foss, The Judges of England (1857), v, pp. 1 6, 103, 285, 414, 417 ; vi, pp. 29, 230 ; vii, 
pp. 28ff.,207,3oi,38c; viii,pp. 1 1, 89, 2l6ff.,22O ; ix,pp.y,64, 116; Pulling, The Order of the Coif, 
pp. 245-6 ; E. \Y. Brabrook, Notes and Queries, 6th series, x, p. 29, and Proc. Sac. Antiquaries 
of London, iii, p. 414. Shorter notices by various writers in Notes and Queries, ist series, v, 
PP- 59. 92, no. 139. 181, 363 I 2nd scries, i, p. 249; ii, p. 24; vi, p. 477; 3rd series, iv, pp. 219, 
252, 278, 363 ; vi, pp. 69, 1 1 7 ; 6th series, ix, pp. 446, 511; x, pp. 132, 195 ; xii, pp. 226, 326. 

3 Sir Christopher Wray, Chief Justice, exhorting the serjeants called in 1577, said of the 
ring : ' it betokeneth ther bountifullnesse ; they be round, they have no end, it showeth ther 
integrity.' 

4 Foss, vol. v, p. 16; Notes and Queries, ist series, vii, p. 188. 






INTRODUCTION Iv 

have been melted down and converted into gold plate ;^ another, that in the 
Castle there are gold candlesticks, of which the stems are composed of Serjeants' 
rings placed one above another. 2 There is a collection of these rings in the 
Temple. 

Rings conferred with lands are in a sense allied to rings of office ; they Rings of 
stood as symbols of privilege and duty, and were regarded as evidence of legal inves- 
tenure. Instances relating to the Emperors Lothair and Henry are quoted by * ure ' 
Kirchmann from early sources/'' For our own country we may note that 
Richard Cceur de Lion attached his ring to a charter relating to the exchange of 
land in Normandy for other properties. 4 The attachment of rings to charters 
is a well-known custom of which a single example must suffice. Dugdale 
records that Osbcrt de Camera, in the twelfth century, granted certain lands to 
the Church, giving possession of them with his gold ring set with a ruby, and 
appointing that the same ring, together with his seal, should for ever be attached 
to the charter whereby the lands were disposed." In one case at least we find 
a tenure-horn with signet-ring attached, as if to lend it an increased validity; 
this is the Borstal horn by which the lands of Borstal descended for many 
hundred years.''' Nos. 1690, j6yi have been conjectured to be rings of investiture. 

FANCY, ORNAMENTAL, AND PEASANT RINGS 

The term ' fancy ring ' is one of somewhat wide application, but it may be taken Fancy 
to include rings characterized by some uncommon feature differentiating them and orna- 
from the ordinary classes into which rings are divided. The distinguishing feature rin 
may owe its presence to real or imagined utility, as is the case with the diamond- 
points of nos. 1693-8, recalling the rings which formed the uuprcsa of Cosimo 
de' Medici, 7 or with the dials and compasses (nos. 1699 ff.) ; or it may be due to 
a display of ingenuity, such as we find in the group of puzzle-rings (nos. 1713- 
26), or in Stephen Zick's Trinity ring (no. 1727) ; or, again, it may be prompted 
by the mere love of the bizarre and the eccentric (nos. 1730 ff). One class of 
ring which always attracts popular interest is conspicuous by its absence. The 
Collection contains no authenticated poison-ring ; the mere possession of a locket- 
bezel does not suffice to lend romance to a ring perhaps intended to contain 
a harmless perfume/ Fancy rings naturally overlap with the large class of 

1 Sir Harry Poland, K.C., was told this when making inquiries on the subject. 

- Lady Dorothy Neville, Leaves from a Notebook, pp. 247-8. 3 lie anmilis, pp. 195-6. 

4 This, with other instances, is given by Jones, whose third chapter is concerned with 
secular investiture by the ring. 

5 W. Dugdale, History of St. Paul's, 1658, p. 8. 

6 Archaeologia, iii, p. 16, and pi. I, fig. 2. 

7 A. Heiss, Les mcdailleurs de la Renaissance, \, p. 28 (after Paolo Giovio). 

8 Condorcet is said to have killed himself with poison concealed in a ring. For the stories 
as to Demosthenes and Hannibal see F. H. Marshall, Catalogue, as above, p. xxiii. 



Ivi 



INTRODUCTION 



Peasant 
rings. 



ornamental rings (nos. 1740-2182) which illustrates the changing taste of nearly 
a thousand years. 1 Reviewing this long series, we pass from the simplicity oi 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries through the graceful and more elaborate 
styles of the two centuries following, with their increasing prodigality of engraved 
design and growing use of enamel, to the finished designs of the Renaissance. 
From the early sixteenth century the cabochon gems begin to be replaced by 
smaller stones, now generally faceted ; the hoops tend to become more slender, 
and arc more boldly moulded, while brilliant enamel comes into general favour. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries the multiplication of gems 
becomes a common feature; forms which 
in the earlier part of the period show 
a falling off from the sculptural types of 
the Renaissance in the latter grow less 
clumsy and more graceful. As the 
eighteenth century verges to its close, 
a new decadence sets in, destined to 
reach its lowest point under the Empire 
and in the Early Victorian period. It 
is impossible to describe in detail the 
varieties of rings which succeed each 
other throughout the centuries, but 
attention may be drawn to one or two 
large groups, such as the ' stirrup-shaped ' 
type of the thirteenth century (cf. no. 
1783, pi. XXIV), the late fifteenth and early sixteenth-century type in which 
the bezel is cut to a quatrcfoil icf. figs. 2, J4 ; , the sixteenth-century form with 
four 'petals' (cf. no. 3937, pi. XXVI', the eighteenth-century ' giarclinetti ' rings 
cf. nos. 2126, &c., pi. XXVIII). It is hardly necessary to remind the reader that 
for all periods comparison should be made with contemporary signets, religious, 
love, memorial, and other rings, many of which deserve attention from the 
purely ornamental point of view. 

' Peasant rings' are of great interest, for though their intrinsic value may be 
small, they may reproduce contemporary styles, or preserve with fidelity those of 
a bygone age. Sometimes they illustrate the survival of old superstitions (e.g. 
no. 2257), and contain amulets supposed to protect from various forms of evil. 
They are widely distributed in Europe, the regions especially distinguished by 
their use being various parts of Italy, South Germany, and Scandinavia. The 
greater number are love or betrothal rings, but some are dedicated to rougher 
use. as no. 22573, reputed to be a Bavarian pugilist's ring. 2 

1 The Early Christian, Byzantine, and Early Teutonic rings also include ornamental types, 
and for the first millennium of our era the reader is referred to these. 

2 Cf. E. Fontenay, Les bijoux anciens et nweiern^'s, p. 82. 




FK;. 17. HAND OF A JI;\VI;LI.I;K. (After 
Burlington Fine Arts Club, Illustrated Catii- 
loguc if Kurly German Alt, 1 906, plate xxxvii.) 



INTRODUCTION Ivii 



ORIENTAL AND WEST AFRICAN RINGS 

Of this group little can be said, for the Oriental ring as such has not yet been 
the subject of extensive study. The ring has been worn all over the East from 
remote antiquity, and from very early times was especially useful as a signet, whether 
the characters were engraved upon a gem, or cut in the metal of the bezel. 
In Persia, the regions on the north-western border of India, and in Turkestan 
antique intaglio gems were used as seals for a great part of the first millennium, 
but in later times it has always been the custom of the East to rub the bezel with 
ink and impress it upon paper, wax being very seldom used from the Mohammedan 
countries on the borders of Europe to the limits of China and Japan. Though 
figure-subjects of a religious character do not occur upon Mohammedan rings 
a high proportion may be described as religious, for upon signets the name of the 
owner is often accompanied by a maxim or text of a devout character. Many, in 
the same way, are amuletic by virtue of a prayer or formula, while the magical 
properties of gems arc no less implicitly accepted in the East to-day than they 
were in the remote past ; it is possible that the projection at the back of the 
hoop, so common a feature in the rings of the Nearer East, may be held to serve 
some prophylactic purpose. In the Indian area, where a rich iconography exists, 
devotional rings may have figures derived from the Hindu Pantheon (no. 2414). 
As far as the present Collection is concerned, love-rings arc rare, though doubtless 
many rings of an ornamental character may have been made as betrothal gifts ; 
memorial rings in like manner are not represented. Many Mohammedan rings 
of the mediaeval period from Egypt and Western Asia have a distinction of style 
which even excessive ornament cannot impair; those of India, Burmah, and Siam 
are often of high intrinsic value, profusely set with gems, and sometimes of an im- 
moderate splendour. We may notice as of especial interest the jade bow-ring inlaid 
with gold and jewels dating from the Mogul period (no. 2383). The Collection 
contains a fine series of Javanese rings, once the property of Lord Ashburnham, 
some of them proved by their inscriptions to go back to the twelfth century 
(nos. 2324 ff.) ; these also are sumptuous in their effect. A small series of Chinese 
rings completes the Oriental section, which would be considerably larger had it 
been possible to include a number of rings and fragments from India, transferred 
from the India Museum in 1880, or forming part of the Ethnographical Collections. 1 
A collection of massive gold rings illustrates the goldsmith's art of Ashanti 
(nos. 2501 ff.) ; the ' Zodiac ring ' (no. 2514) is a type of which numerous examples 
reach Europe; they are usually supposed to be made on the Gold Coast, but 
are said to be offered for sale in the harbour of Funchal, and it has been con- 
jectured that they are actually made in Madeira. - 

1 Attention may be drawn to a few ancient Peruvian finger-rings in the American Room, 
which show that the ring was worn in Peru before the Spanish Conquest. 
a Notes and Queries, 8th series, viii (1895), p. 271. 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



NOTE 

TITF. great majority of the rings in the present catalogue formed part of the 
Franks Bequest of ^897. and in the descriptions of these no date of acquisition is 
given : the names of the collections to which they had previously belonged, 
where known, arc inserted in brackets. 

Rings for which, on the contrary, a date of acquisition is given must be 
understood as having been acquired at different times, and independently of the 
Franks Bequest : in the case of these, the names of earlier collections to which 
they belonged are without brackets. Where, in the case of a few old Museum 
possessions, the date of entry is unknown, the fact is stated. 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




A. EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 

I. Chiefly from Italy and before A.D. 600. 

(a) Inscribed. 
(Chiefly 4/// century or earlier.} 

SILVER ; rounded hoop, thickest at the back, where there is a revolving 
bronze key. On the front is an applied oval silver bezel rudely 
engraved in intaglio with a fisherman seated to ;-., drawing a fish out 
of the water with rod and line. In the field is the inscription 
CALVATOP (? Salvator) in a mixture of Greek and Latin characters irregularly 
placed and in part reversed. 

See figure. 

D. 1*2 in. L. of bezel, -36 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 46. Cf. a gem in Garrucci, Storia delF artc cristiana, vi, pi. 477, 
fig. 18. On the symbol of the fisherman, see Smith and Cheetham, Diet, of Christian Antiquities, 
vol. i, p. 715 ; de Rossi in Pitra, Spicilegium Solesincnse, p. 577; Macarius, Hagioglypta, 
p. ill, &c. 

The shape of the hoop, characteristic of a period earlier than Christianity, and the combi- 
nation of two metals suggest that only the bezel is of Early Christian date. 

GOLD RING ; the hoop angular and fluted on the outer side ; oval bezel set 
with an emerald engraved in intaglio with a fish ; at the back is a second bezel 
engraved in intaglio with a bird upon a tree, round which 
are the letters of the name A E M I L I A . 

See figure. 

D. i in. L. of gem, -32 in. Weight, 210 grains. Hamilton 
Coll. 1856. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 48. Garrucci, Storia delF artc cristiana, 
vol. vi, pi. 477, fig. 22. See also de Rossi in Pitra, Spicilegium 
Solcsmense, p. 577, no. 97 ; Martigny, Les anneaux chez les premiers 
Chretiens, &c., p. 17 ; Fortnum in Arch.Journ. xxvi (1869), p. 142, 
and xxviii (1871), p. 273 ; C. W. King, Antique Gems, ii, p. 29 ; Smith and Cheetham, ii, pp. 713 
and 1792 ; H. Leclercq in F. Cabrol's Diet, if arch, c/ir^tienne, col. 2203. De Rossi says of it : 
fuit in musaeo Imolensi Iitlii Caesaris Ginnasii. King assigns it to the early part of the third 
century on the analogy of the Tarsus Treasure (i, p. 344). 

B 




CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 





3. GOLD key-ring, with wide flat hoop fluted with twelve vertical channels and 
ornamented above and below with a pierced scroll border. In the centre of the 
channels are square apertures, eleven of which have reserved in the metal one 
letter of the inscription MVLTIS ANN IS, 

while the twelfth has a leaf. The bezel is 
rectangular and consists of three plain hori- 
zontal bands, between which are the words 
ACCIPE DVLC IS in openwork. From the 
bezel rises at right angles a vertical pro- 
jection with the wards, a diaper of nine 
crosses connected by pellets : on the sides 
it has cable borders, on the top a pierced 
scroll. 

See figure. 

D. ro4- Weight, 190 grains. Found in Egypt. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 49. Fortnum in Arch.Journ. xxxix (1872), p. 305 ; Frohner, Les 
Musces de France, pi. xxxviii, figs. 9 and 10 (Paris, 1873) ; H. Leclercq, as above, col. 2209. 

A ring of similar type was found at Tirlemont in Belgium about 1894, and is believed to be 
in private possession. Cf. also a ring formerly in the Castellan! Collection, and sold in Rome 
in 1884 (Sale Catalogue, no. 928, p. 120). For rings with similar pierced inscriptions see Fortnum 
in Arch, fount, xxvi (1869), p. 141, no. 5 (gold, in Fortnum Collection now in the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford) ; and Arch. Jonrn. vii (1850), p. 191 (gold ring in the collection of the Duke 
of Northumberland, found near Corbridge-on-Tyne). 

4. BRONZE ; flat polygonal hoop engraved on the outer side with the sacred 
monogram % between A and CO, and legend: ARBORI VIBAS IN CRISTO. 

D. ro2 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 50. For the name Arborius see de Vit, Onomasticon, s. v. 

5. GOLD ; flat polygonal hoop engraved on the outer side with a palm-branch 
followed by the legend : MARFINIANVS VIVAS. 

D. i -08 in. Weight, 244 grains. From Brackeland near Jiilich. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 51. See Banner Jahrbiicher, Heft Ixxiii (1882), p. 85, note I, and 
Ixxiv (1882), p. 64. 

Cf. two rings described by Fortnum in Arch, fottrn. xxvi (1869), p. 140. The name 
Marfinianus appears to be exceptional. 

6. BRONZE; plain hoop, and oval bezel inscribed : VIVAS. 

D. '86 in. L. of bezel, ^52 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 52. 

7. SILVER; plain hoop expanding into an oval bezel engraved: VIBAS. 

D. 74 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 53. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 



3 



8. BRONZE ; flat hoop and rectangular bezel engraved with a reversed 
inscription: VIVAS IN DIG in two lines. 

D. -88 in. L. of bezel, '45 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 54. Cf. bronze ring in the Vatican. See Fortnum in Arch. Joiirn. 
xxviii (1871), p. 279, no. 6. 

9. GOLD ; octagonal hoop, narrowest at the back, the outside faceted 
horizontally. The bezel is flat and octagonal, with a circular medallion in low 
relief inscribed : ARGYR VIVAS. 

D. '64 in. Weight, 100 grains. From Rome. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 58. 

IO. BRONZE ; with plain hoop and projecting square bezel engraved with the 
inscription in three lines: MERiCURI|VIV. 

D. ri8 in. L. of bezel, '4 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 59. 

11. GOLD ; the hoop double in front, with two oval bezels, the upper inscribed 
BLITHIA, the lower engraved with a monogram. 

See figure. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 258 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 
Found at Orvieto. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 60. See Fortnum in Arch. Joitrn. xxvii 
(1871), p. 281, no. 2 ; Smith and Cheetham, ii, p. 1798. The name may 
be Blitia or Blicia ; see de Vit, Onomasticon, s. v. 

Cf. a ring found in a treasure at Narona, Dalmatia, with coins of Justin I, Justinian, Justin II, 
and Tiberius Constantine, and a ring in the Louvre (Nnovo Bullettino di archeologia cristiana, 
1902, pp. 234 ff.). It is possible that the monogram may represent the name of Blitia's husband. 

12. BRONZE ; plain hoop ; bezel in the form of the sole of a shoe, engraved with 
the letters OER between two crosses. 

D. i in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 61. On shoe-shaped ring-stamps see Fortnum in Arch. Jaiini. 
xxviii (1871), p. 289 ; and Rev. Arch., 1883, p. 53. 

I 

13. SILVER ; angular shoulders and pointed oval bezel engraved : + YC. 

B 

D. '92 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 62. For the name Eusebius, see de Vit, Onomasticon, s. v. The 
family of the Eusebii became prominent in the middle of the fourth century. 

14. SILVER ; plain rounded hoop and flat oval bezel engraved with a bird to 
r., holding a branch in its beak. 

D. -82 in. L. of bezel, -36 in. Hamilton Coll. 1856. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 63. 

B 2 





4 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

15. GOLD ; the hoop expanding to a flat bezel engraved 
with a palm-branch, above arid below which are characters 
perhaps representing the words AM A ME. 
See figure. 

]).'7\n. Weight, 29 grains. Found at Carlisle. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) 

Christian Catalogue, no. 64. 

16. GOLD ; the hoop of plaited wire with a pearled wire along the middle, and 
a pair of pellets on each side of the oval bezel, which is set with a red jasper 
inscribed: 06OC 0OY YIOC THPei (God Son of God guard me). 

I). '34 in. Weight, 69 grains. Hamilton Coll. 1856. 

Christian Catalogue, no. n. Cf. L. Ferret, Les Catacombcs tie Rome, vol. iv, pi. xvi, fig. 14. 
The style of the hoop recalls that of a Late Roman ring in the Department of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities (F. H. Marshall, Catalogue of Finger-rings, no. 781). 

(6) Uninscribcd. 
(4t/i to fit it centuries} 

17. SILVER ; plain hoop expanding into a bezel on which is engraved a palm- 
branch. 

I). 74 in. Hamilton Coll. 1856. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 65. 

18. GOLD ; slender hoop ; flat oval bezel engraved in intaglio with a palm-branch (?). 
I), of bezel, -3 in. Weight, 32 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

Christian Catalogue, no. 66. 

19. GOLD ; flat hoop expanding into a bezel engraved with a palm-branch, above 
which rises from the edge a circular setting containing a green paste. 

D. '6 in. Weight, 24 grains. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 67. 

ao. CAKXELIAX ; part of a ring cut from the solid, with flat oval bezel engraved in 
intaglio with a dove holding an olive-branch in its beak. 

D. 75 in. L. of bezel, -34 in. Hamilton Coll. 1856. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 30. See also Fortnum in Arch. Journal, xxvi (1869), p. 140, 
note i. The greater part of the hoop is wanting. 

21. GOLD ; plain hoop and oval bezel, with a pair of pellets at each end, containing 
a sapphire engraved in intaglio with a dove holding a branch in its beak. 

D. -4 in. Weight, 60 grains. 1862. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 31. 

22. GOLD ; flat octagonal hoop ; oval bezel engraved with an anchor. 
D. 74 in. Weight, 101 grains. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 68. Cf. Rev. Arch., 1883, p. 53. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 5 

23. GOLD ; flat hoop and raised oval bezel engraved with a horizontal anchor. 
D. 72 in. Weight, 106 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 69. See Fortnum in Arch. Joitrn. xxviii (1871), p. 281, no. I ; 
Smith and Cheetham, ii, p. 1795. 

24. BRONZE ; plain slender hoop and oval bezel engraved with a galley with six 
oars visible on one side. The mast and yard form a cross. 

Plate II, row 4. 

D. -94 in. L. of bezel, '5 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 70, and cf. no. 40. See Fortnum in Arch, fount, xxviii (1871), 
pp. 274 and 281, no. 6. 

25. BRONZE ; spirally fluted hoop and projecting circular bezel engraved with 
a galley to r., above which is the sacred monogram inscribed in a circle. 

Plate II, row 4. 

D. i in. D. of bezel, '5 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 71. Garrucci, Storia dell' artc cristiaiiii, vi, pi. 478, fig. 14. 

26. BRONZE ; plain hoop and oval bezel set with a red cabochon paste engraved 
in intaglio with the sacred monogram combined with an anchor. 

D. -8 in. Given by Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B. 1894. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 29. 

27. GOLD ; hoop of triangular section : projecting 
oval bezel containing a nicolo paste engraved 
with a composite form of the sacred monogram. 

See figure. 

D. 1-4 in. D. of bezel, 78 in. Weight, 288 grains. 
Payne Knight Coll. 1824. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 28. See Smith and Cheet- 
ham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, ii, p. 1793. 

28. BRONZE ; hoop of triangular section ; flat-pointed oval bezel engraved with the 
sacred monogram sfc. 

D. -96 in. D. of bezel, -5 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 72. 

29. BRONZE ; plain hoop and oval bezel engraved with the sacred monogram :>{?. 

D. 78 in. D. of bezel, '3 in. Obtained in Rome. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 73. 

30. BRONZE ; hoop of triangular section and rectangular bezel engraved with the 
sacred monogram >fc within a cable border. 

D. I in. L. of bezel, "34 in. 

31. BRONZE SIGNET ; plain hoop and oval bezel engraved with 

D. '9 in. L. of bezel, '52 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 76. 







CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




32. GOLD ; circular openwork bezel, containing the monogram . 
$th century. 

D. '9 in. D. of bezel, '4 in. Weight, 65 grains. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 77. 

33. GOLD ; octagonal faceted hoop. The bezel is an applied setting in the form 
of the sacred monogram -f , originally containing stones, now 

lost. 

See figure. ~ t t/t century. 

D. -91 in. D. of bezel, '44 in. Weight, 123 grains. Castellani Coll. 
1872. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 78. See Fortnum in Arch.Joiirn. xxviii (1871), 
p. 281, no. 5 ; Smith and Chcetham, ii, p. 1793. 

34. BRONZE ; the hoop expanding to flat angular shoulders, on each of which is 
a star. The bezel is a truncated pyramid of three steps engraved with an equal- 
armed cross. 

D. ri6 in. L. of bezel, -32 in. From Catania, Sicily. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 79. Cf. for shape, Fortnum in Arch.Journ. xxvi (1869), p. 143. 

35. BRONZE ; plain hoop expanding into a narrow oblong bezel engraved with an 
equal-armed cross. 

D. 72 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 80. 

36. SILVER ; oval bezel engraved with an equal-armed cross. 

D. '92 in. L. of bezel, "22 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 81. 

37. GOLD ; the hoop embossed on each side with a meandering vine-.stem on 
which is perched a bird picking at a bunch of grapes ; 

the ground is punched with small dots, and below the 
bezel on each side is a small embossed ring or circle. 
The bezel is oval, containing a garnet engraved in intaglio 
with a draped figure seated facing upon a cushioned stool 
with both arms raised in the attitude of prayer. On each 
side of the head, a cross. 

Sec figure. 6th century (?). 

D. ri in.. Weight, 113 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 44. See Fortnum in Arch. Journal, xxviii (1871), p. 281, no. 3 ; 
Smith and Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, vol. i, p. 1716. 




EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 




II. From the Christian East. 

(a) Inscribed. 

(Chiefly 6th to \\tli centuries.) 
I. ICOXOGRAPHIC. 

38. GOLD SIGNET, with oval bezel engraved with a bust of 
Our Lord between two crosses. Below, two adoring angels 
with a cruciform monogram between them. Round the edge 
of the bezel is engraved : ATIOC ATIOC ATIOC KYPIOC 
CABAO0. 

See figure. 6th or Jth century. 

D. ri4 in. L. of bezel, "62 in. Weight, 309 grains. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 120. H. Leclercq, as above, col. 2204. 

39. GOLD, with engraved and nielloed ornament ; the flat octagonal hoop has an 
applied bezel in the form of a square with four lobes, on which is the Annun- 
ciation. To r is the Virgin, seated in a high-backed chair; to /. stands the 
archangel. Round the hoop is the inscription: + XGP KXAPI ////// O KC 
MTA COY (XaTpe Kf\api.Tw[j.4vri- 6 Kt/ptos /.urd crov, Luke i. 28) within a herring- 
bone border. 

"jth century (?). 

D. '9 in. L. of bezel, 76 in. Weight, 291 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 121. The niello is almost entirely lost, and the hoop is much worn. 
The style of this ring is the same as that of nos. 46-50, which see. Cf. a ring with the 
Annunciation, figured by G. Schlumberger, Melanges d' archeologic lyzantine, p. 169, and 
Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 1893, p. 191 ; another, with a bust of Our Lord, is in the Museo 
Civico, Venice. For other nielloed rings in this style see Kondakoff, Gcscliichte und Denkindler 
des byzantinischen Emails, p. 264 (in the treasury of the monastery of Gelat near Kutais) ; 
G. Schlumberger. Melanges d ' archcologic bysantinc, p. 67 ; O. Pelka, Altcliristliche Ehedenk- 
tnaler, pp. 105, 109. Rings in this style vary considerably in merit. If the Palermo example 
(see under no. 46) belonged to the treasure of Constans II, it must be at least as old as the 
seventh century. Such an early date is confirmed by the Latin inscription (GLORIA IN 
EXCELSIS Do ET IN TERRA PAX) on an example with Our Lord between two angels, from 
Trapani, in the collection of Sir Arthur Evans, perhaps also from the treasure of Constans. 



40. GOLD SIGNET ; plain hoop and applied oval bezel engraved 
with a full-faced bust of Our Lord (?), bearded, and wearing a 
diadem. Legend : CALBATOP. 

See figure. 

L. '8 in. D. of bezel, '6 in. Weight, 175 grains. Obtained in Rome. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 122. 






8 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



41. GOLD SIGNET, with hoop of rectangular section expanding 
to a massive rectangular bezel, engraved with Orpheus seated 
near a tree, holding a lyre ; at his feet lie two animals. 
Legend: C0PACHC, OIOAHOU TOY ATHO CTeeDANHTX 

((T(l>payls 'Icodwou TOV ayiov ore^arirou?'. 

See figure. 

i 

D. ro2 in. Weight, 879 grains. Found at Scutari. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 123. For the word <rre0aw'Ti)r (Corona/us) 
see Ducange, Glossarititit, s. ?'. 



42. SILVER SIGNET, with applied circular bezel engraved with St. Leontius as 
before. To ;. is a star, or the sacred monogram. Direct legend: AT IOC 
AeONTI. 

D. I in. D. of bezel. '5 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 125. 

43. BRONZE SIGNET, with circular bezel engraved with the standing figure of 
St. Demetrius, full face, in long garments, and holding a cross over his breast. 
To left and right the (reversed) inscription: + O AT IOC AHMHTPIC. 

D. i in. D. of bezel, ro2 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 126. 

2. MARRIAGE AND BETROTHAL RINGS. 

44. BRONZE SIGNET; flat hoop engraved on the outer side: XPVCAd>IOV 
0OAOOPAC. Applied rectangular bezel engraved with a standing figure in 
military costume, holding a long cross in the left hand, and a spear and oval shield 
in the right. 

D. i-oi in. D. of bezel, -7 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 127. Probably a marriage-ring. For the name Chrysaphius see 
Fape-Benseler, Worterbuch der spdt-griechischcn Eigennamen, s. v. Muralt, Essai tie chrono- 
graphie byzantine, p. 50 ; Theophanes, Chronographia, year 5938. 

45. IRON ; polygonal hoop and flat oval bezel engraved with (direct) legend : 
CT<t>ANY re|OC I A(C) Pin three lines. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, -6 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 128. The second name may be r<Auo-i'n, as reXao-io? is known as 
a late male name (Pape-Benseler, Worterbuch, s. v., and J. B. Chabot, Index a/phabt'tique des 
inscriptions grecques et latines publices par Wadditigton, s. v.). 

46. GOLD, with engraved and nielloed ornament. The hoop flat and octagonal ; 
applied bezel in the form of an eight-foil. On the bezel four figures stand on an 
exergual line, the two in the middle representing Our Lord and the Virgin, the 




EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 9 

former blessing the bridegroom, and the latter the bride. Above the figures 
is a seven-rayed star, and in the 
exergue is the word OMONVA (o^oi-oia). 
On each face of the hoop is engraved 
a scene from the history of Our Lord. 
These are, beginning from the right 
of the bezel : the Annunciation ; the 
Visitation ; the Nativity ; the Presenta- 
tion in the Temple ; the Adoration ; 
the Crucifixion or Ecce Homo ; the 
Angel at the Tomb. The figures in the 
various groups are engraved in outline, the lines being filled with niello. 
See figure, jf/i century (?). 

D. -75 in. D. of bezel, -46 in. Weight, 394 grains. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 129. Cf. no. 38 above, but especially the similar ring in the museum 
at Palermo (Salinas, Relazione sul Mitseo di Palermo, pi. A I, Palermo, 1873, ar) d Archivio 
Storico Siciliano, N. S., iii, pp. 92 ff. ; Durand, Bulletin monumental, 1882, pp. 508 ff. ; Archaeo- 
logical Joiirnal, xxxviii (1881), p. 154; de Rossi, Biillettino di arclmotogia cristiana, 1888-9, 
pp. 84 ff). The Palermo ring, discovered during the construction of the railway from Syracuse to 
Catania, was associated with numerous coins of Constans II, assassinated in Sicily in A.I). 668. 

47. GOLD ; once nielloed. The flat hoop is engraved on the outside with the 
inscription: + IPHNHN THN MHN AHAOM (John xiv. 27). Applied 
bezel resembling that of no. 38, with four projecting lobes, engraved with a figure 
of Our Lord standing with his right arm extended and resting on the shoulder of 
the bridegroom, his left on that of the bride. Behind the bridegroom is the letter 
O; behind the bride the letter M, the two commencing the word OM(O)NYA 
(ofxoVoio), the last three letters of which are below the feet of Our Lord, the second 
O being omitted. Below the feet of the bride is a star. 

7th century (?). 

D. -88 in. L. of bezel, -78 in. Weight, 218 grains. From Girgenti. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 130. See note to preceding number. 

48. GOLD ; engraved and nielloed ; flat hoop ; applied oval bezel, with Our Lord 
standing upon an exergual line with his arms extended over a bride and 

bridegroom on either side of him ; below 

the line, the legend: OMONYA (o/aoVow). +QIAJGT' 

Round the hoop, beginning from the right, 
a legend (see figure), possibly intended for fleoroVe /3o7J0i, 
1th centttry (?). 

D. -82 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 124 grains. 1856. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 131. See Arch.Jonrn. xix (1862), p. 325, from which the figure is 
reproduced. 




10 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

49. GOLD, with nielloed ornament, of similar shape to no. 48. The group on the 
bezel is the same, and in the exergue is the same word OMONYA (o/uo'wua). 
Round the hoop is the legend: + (EIP)HNHN TIN EMHN AIACOME UMHN 
(John xiv. 27). 

D. -78 in. L. of bezel, -51 in. Weight, 128 grains. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 132. The inscription and bezel are worn, and a great part of the 
niello is lost. 

50. GOLD, with slender hoop and applied oval bezel engraved with the busts of 
a man and a woman with a nielloed cross between them ; above 

the cross is a bust of Our Lord (?), with a nimbus and with the letter 
on one side and O A on the other, possibly part of the name Theodore. 
Below the cross is the word [OjMONOI A (6/aoVota). The inscriptions 
are filled with niello. 
Sre figure. 

D. -75 in. L. of bezel, -46 in. Weight, 52 grains. 1897. From Beyrut. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 133. 

3. ACCLAMATIONS AND PRAYERS. 

51. GOLD ; plain hoop swelling to the shoulders, and oval bezel engraved with 
a large six-rayed star, surrounded by the legend : + CATTIC MOY O 0C. 

D. -78 in. D. of bezel, -48 in. Weight, 103 grains. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 134. 

52. SILVER SIGNET, with faceted octagonal hoop and octagonal bezel engraved 
with (reversed) legend : KAPTJ6P6I in two lines. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 135. 

53. SILVER, with high circular bezel engraved with (direct) legend in six lines : 

eic 0e oc Ke o x PICTOC AV,TOV e TO AJFION nN;YMA. 

D. -88 in. D. of bezel, -4 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 136. 

54. SILVER SIGNET, the hoop expanding slightly at the bezel, which is oval, 
with a (reversed) legend in three lines: K B;OH0I C VNCI (Kvpit /3oj0ei 
Wfiriui ? ). 

D. -8 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 137. 

55. SILVER ; hoop swelling slightly to shoulders ; pointed oval bezel with 
(reversed) legend in three lines: K BO|H0H NIKHJTA AM (Kvpie fiori6(i 

^ra, d/x?;i>). 

D. i in. L. of bezel, -6 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 138. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 



II 



56. 



BRONZE SIGNET, once gilt, and inlaid with silver, the hoop narrowest at 
back and rounded on the outer side ; the bezel oval, with a vertical ridge at top 
and bottom. The outer sides of the hoop are 
engraved with floral scrolls inlaid with silver, and /iT*R"i !v 

the bezel with a (reversed) legend: + K B' T O (OCOA'C T < 



57. 



58. 



59. 



CO A' CT|<t>ANO AM|HN 




/3o>/'0ei rw o-<3 8oi)Xa> 



See figure. 

D. I in. L. of bezel, 7 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 139. This ring may be compared 
with an example from Sicily in the museum at Syracuse (Orsi, 
in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, xix, p. 472, fig. 12). Cf. also for 
the shape a gold betrothal-ring which some have considered 
to be that of Stephen Radoslav, styled Ducas, King of Servia 
(A. D. 1228-34), and Anna Comnena, daughter of the Emperor 

Theodore Angelus Comnenus Ducas of Salonica (A.D. 1216-30). Sec K. Krumbacher, 
Sitzungsberiihte der pliilos.-philol. and historischen Klasse der k. baycrischen Akademie der 
Wissenscliaftcn, 1906, Heft iii. The present example should be earlier than the year A.D. looo. 

BRONZE ; slender hoop and oval bezel engraved with (reversed) legend 
in three lines : + K BO|I0I KOCTAJTANOV (Kv/.ie /io?/0i Kcoixrrwriojxj) ?). 

D. - 8 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 140. 

BRONZE ; slender hoop with small projections at the shoulders, and high oval 
bezel with channelled sides roughly engraved with (direct) legend : KEBOH,XAI (?), 
within a dotted border. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, -5 in. From Catania. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 141. 

SILVER SIGNET ; flat hoop and applied circular bezel. Round the hoop, 
legend (sec figure) : Kvpie /3ojj#ei rijs 0opoi5(rrjs. 
The bezel is engraved with a Medusa-like 
face from which radiate seven serpents 
Above the head is a cross. 

See figure. 

D.'Sin. D.of bezel, -66 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 142. This ring was 

probably worn as an amulet. The design on 

the bezel may be compared with others of the same character, the use of which for protection 
against disease or accident is undoubted. See G. Schlumberger, Melanges d 'archeologie 
byzantine, pp. 136 ff. ; C. W. King, The Gnostics and their Remains, pp. 167-9, and % 3- 
Cf. also Antiquites de [Empire Russe, Atlas, vol. i, pi. 23 (Moscow, 1849). Tne tyP 6 of lar S e 
amulet with Medusa head is represented by various examples, one of which is in the church of 
St. Servaas at Maastricht (Arch.Journ. xxi, fig. on p. 275). 

The inscription : Lord preserve the wearer, found on this and the following numbers, was 
evidently in common usage. Cf. ring from Sicily in the museum at Syracuse (Orsi 
Byzantinische Zeitschrift, xix, p. 472). 




' 



12 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

60. BRONZE SIGNET ; the hoop engraved on the shoulders with conventional 
ornament. The bezel is oval, engraved with a reversed legend in three lines : 
+ K6 RO H0H THC j 4>OPX (Kvpie [ioitffi ri/s (jiopovmjs). 

D. ro4 in. L. of bezel, '64 in. 1853. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 143. 

61. BRONZE SIGNET: rectangular bezel engraved with a reversed legend: K 
BOH0;H TOY 4>O|PONTOC. 

D. '9 in. L. of bezel, '56 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 144. 

62. BRONZE ; the hoop engraved on the shoulders with conventional ornament. 
The bezel is oval, pierced in the centre, and with small projections on the upper 
and lower edges. Circular direct inscription : KC B00I TO <J>OPO (Kvpie fioj'jdei 

Ttf (flOpOVl'Tl). 

D. '94 in. L. of bezel, '64 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 145. 

63. SILVER ; the hoop engraved on each side with a serpentine figure and three 
stars. Oval bezel with a channelled projection at top and bottom, and a milled 
band round the sides. The centre is drilled with a circular cavity surrounded by 
the legend : KC BOH0H TON 6XOTA (Kvpie /3o?j0 rw c\ovra). 

D. -94 in. L. of bezel, - 66 in. Castellani Coll. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 146. 

64. SILVER ; the hoop engraved on the shoulders with conventional ornament ; 
oval bezel with projections at top and bottom, and engraved with 

the (direct) legend: K BO[H0H TO j *OPO (KtJpte /Soijflet r$ 0opowTi) 
in three lines within a circle. 
See figure. 

D. 78 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. Obtained in Constantinople. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 147. 

65. BRONZE ; the hoop expanding to an oval bezel with pointed projections from 
the upper and lower edges ; legend in four lines, beginning 

K BOH0I. 
See figure. 

D. '9 in. L. of bezel, 74 in. Obtained in Constantinople. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 148. 

66. SILVER; the hoop triangular in section, and engraved on each shoulder with 
floral ornament derived from the palmette. Circular bezel engraved with 
a reversed legend (much worn) in three lines, beginning KC b' (Kvpif /3o?J0et). 

D. I in. D. of bezel, '44 in. Date of acquisition unknown. 





EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 13 

67. IRON ; circular bezel engraved with a direct legend in three lines partially 
effaced: K( BO?) | IAKOY j YNA (Kfyie /3o/0er 'la/cw/Sov iiyieia?). 

D. '9 in. L. of bezel, "74 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 149. 

68. BRONZE ; slender octagonal hoop and vertical oval bezel engraved with 
a direct inscription in four lines : Vfl j IAN|NO V (vyitia 'Icodwou ?). 

D. "94 in. L. of bezel, '54 in. From Tartiis, Syria. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 150. 

69. BRONZE ; slender polygonal hoop, and applied oval bezel engraved with 
a Latin cross surrounded by a direct legend: Vl~l A IOANN1C (uyi'eia '[ladvvov). 

D. '84 in. L. of bezel, '56 in. From Beyrut. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 151. 

70. IRON ; polygonal hoop and circular bezel engraved with direct legend : 
+ ANTIOXX 



D. '92 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. From Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 152. 

71. SILVER; raised oval bezel engraved with a direct legend in three lines: 
(D | ZCOH|C. 

D. i '04 in. L. of bezel, '54 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 153. 

72. BRONZE SIGNET ; the hoop ornamented with a three-lobed projection on 
each shoulder. The bezel is oval, and engraved with a reversed legend in four 
lines: 0GJ[(DYAAKJTY TTAT;POC (eo^uAd/mw war/joy). 

D. 1-26 in. L. of bezel, 7 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 154. Perhaps a mourning-ring worn by a son in memory of his 
father. For the name Theophylactus see Pape-lienseler, Worterbuch tier griechischen Eigen- 
namen, s. v. 

73. BRONZE ; applied circular bezel engraved with a direct inscription in four 
lines: + C<t>PAlriC COAOMONOC BOH0I (S^/sayt's 2oAo^wi>os /3o?;0a). 

D. i'O4- L. of bezel, '64 in. Obtained in Rome. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 155. For Solomon's name on amulets sec G. Schlumberger, 
Melanges if 'archeologie byzantine, pp. 120 ff. On the ' seal of Solomon' see C. W. King, The 
Gnostics and their Remains, pp. 388 and 423 ; G. B. de Rossi, Bullettino di archeologia cristiana, 
ii (1891), pp. 133 ff., and iv (1894), pp. 104-5 ; P. Perdrizet in Rev. lies etudes grecques, xvi, 
1903, pp. 42 ff., and rSyzantinische Zeitschrift, viii (1899), p. 715. 

74. IRON ; slender polygonal hoop, and flat octagonal bezel engraved with 
a Greek cross and direct legend : -f Z<J>PAI~IC COAOMON. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, '56 in. From Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 156. 



14 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

75. BRONZE ; flat hoop and oval bezel engraved with a direct legend in three 
lines: OICATO|IKONe;NBOH. 

D. of bezel, '6 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 157. 

76. BRONZE : bezel engraved with a similar inscription in three lines : 
OICA TOIKO;NN. 

D. 7 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 158. 

77. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a direct inscription in two lines : 
ICKIiOI. 

D. '9 in. D. of bezel, '4 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 159. 

78. BRONZE ; circular bezel engraved with an inscription in characters 
symmetrically disposed. , 

See figure. I r 

D. '85 in. D. of bezel, '6 in. From Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 160. 

79. SILVER ; rectangular bezel engraved with an inscription in two lines : 
XP 




D. 74 in. L. of bezel, -32 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 161. 
The hoop broken. 

80. BRONZE ; the hoop of triangular section, swelling slightly at the shoulders, 
which are engraved with chevrons. Oval bezel, with channelled projections at 
top and bottom, and engraved with a very rough inscription in three lines. 

D. 1-36 in. L. of bezel, 7 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 162. 



4. NAMES AND MONOGRAMS. 

81. BRONZE; slender hoop and oval bezel engraved with the name AOMJNOV 
within a dotted circle. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, '64 in. From Smyrna. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 163. For the name Ao^iras see Pape-Benseler, Worterbuch der 

griechischen Eigennamen, s. v. 

82. BRONZE ; hoop expanding to an oval bezel engraved with the name 
AOJNTC (Aeo'iTto?) within a circle. 

D. I in. L. of bezel, '46 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 164. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 



1 H 



83. BRONZE ; projecting circular bezel engraved in direct characters with the 
name MIX|AHA in two lines. 

D. n6 in. D. of bezel, '44 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 165. 

84. BRONZE ; oval bezel with channelled projections at top and bottom, engraved 
with reversed legend: fGOP l~l 5f (Tewpyiou), preceded by a cross. 

D. -94 in. L. of bezel, '56 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 166. 

85. BRONZE; oval bezel engraved with the reversed name CePI~(l)O (Sepyiou?) 
in two lines. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, '5 in. Obtained in Naples. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 167. 

86. BRONZE ; projecting oval bezel, engraved with a reversed inscription in two 
lines: IOAN OWO. 

D. '9 in. D. of bezel, '55 in. 1865. 

87. BRONZE ; the hoop ornamented on each shoulder with a deeply cut chevron 
between vertical lines. Oval bezel with a monogram (?) in niello, divided into 

two parts by a horizontal line : 
D. -87 in. L. of bezel, '5 in. 

88. GOLD SIGNET ; plain hoop with angular shoulders ; 
oval bezel engraved with a monogram between two crosses 
and surmounted by a star with six rays. 

See figure. 6th century. 

D. i'O3 in. L. of bezel, '62 in. Weight, 243 grains. Obtained 
in Constantinople. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 168. Cf. a gold ring in the Fortnum 
Collection, Arch. Joitrn. xxvi (1869), p. 146, no. 24 ; Smith and 
Cheetham, ii, p. 1798. 

89. BRONZE SIGNET ; applied circular bezel engraved with a monogram. 
See figure. 6tk century. 

D. i'i in. D. of bezel, '58 in. From Tartus, Syria. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 169. 



90. BRONZE ; high circular bezel engraved with a monogram. 
See figure. 

D. ri2 in. L. of bezel, '42 in. Obtained in Rome. 

The ring may possibly be Frankish, in imitation of the Byzantine 
style. Cf. rings cited by Deloche, and Victoria and Albert Museum, 
nos. 622-71. 




i6 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




gi. GOLD SIGNET, the hoop formed of three pearled wires ; oval bezel engraved 
with a monogram between two crosses. 

Sec 'figure. 6//! century, $jj- 

D. -8 in. L. of bezel, '32 in. Weight, 37 grains. From Beyrut, Syria. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 170. 

92. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with two monograms, two crosses, and a star. 
Sec figure. 

I). '92 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 173. 

93. BRONZE SIGNET ; circular bezel engraved with legend : NK + K(JL>(?) in two 

lines. 

D. i in. D. of bezel, '6 in. Obtained in Pozzuoli. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 174. 

94. GOLD SIGNET ; hollow inside, the hoop with three marked 
flutings, which issue in an octagonal bezel ; on the shoulders, 
a band of engraved chevrons. The bezel is engraved with a 
cruciform monogram, perhaps forming the name Manuel. 

See figure. i4/// century. 

D. '93 in. L. of bezel, "64 in. Weight, 212 grains. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 171. This ring has been ascribed to Manuel 
Palaeologus (1348-1425), an attribution not contradicted by the style of 
the work though unsupported by any evidence. The type is common in 
Italy in the fourteenth century; the ring may either be the work of an 
Italian goldsmith settled in Greece, or that of a Greek goldsmith who 
adopted a Western form. 

95. GOLD SIGNET ; plain solid hoop ; oval bezel engraved 
with a cruciform monogram. 

Sec figure. 

1). i in. L. of bezel, '46 in. Weight, 333 grains. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 172. 

96. BRONZE SIGNET ; the hoop slender at back. Oval bezel engraved with 
a cruciform monogram composed of the letters YNCO and M (?). 

IX i in. L. of bezel, '6 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 175. 

97. BRONZE ; hoop slender at the back. Oval bezel engraved with a cruciform 
monogram. _ 

Sec figure. 

e- 




D. -96 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 176. 





EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 17 

98. BRONZE SIGNET ; a projection on each shoulder ; oval bezel with a direct 
cruciform monogram. 

Sec figure. 

D. '96 in. L. of bezel, .5 in. Given by John Fewkes, Esq., 1891. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 177. 

99. BRONZE SIGNET ; oval bezel engraved with a direct cruciform 
monogram. 

See figure. H 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, -64 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 178. 

100. SILVER ; flat circular bezel engraved with a direct cruciform monogram. 
See figure. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Obtained in Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 179. 

101. SILVER ; circular applied bezel engraved with a cruciform monogram. 

D. -88 in. D. of bezel, -5 in. 

The ring is more probably Byzantine than Merovingian, though a Frankish origin is 
not excluded. 

102. BRONZE SIGNET ; plain hoop and circular bezel engraved with a cruciform 
monogram within a circle. 

See figure. 



D. i in. D. of bezel, -46 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 180. (i) 

103. BRONZE SIGNET ; hoop expanding to an oval bezel with slight projections at 
top and bottom, and engraved with a much-worn cruciform monogram. 

D. -97 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 181. 

104. BRONZE SIGNET ; oval bezel engraved with a cruciform monogram with four 
characters: Y, CL), TT, and C (?). 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 182. 

105. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a direct cruciform monogram which 
perhaps reads eoro'/ce /3o?j0i. On one shoulder is a somewhat similar monogram 
formed of five letters : B (?), I, A, Y. and T. 

See figure. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, '56 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 183. (-fe 



i8 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



106. BRONZE SIGNET ; slightly raised circular bezel engraved with a circle con- 
taining a cruciform monogram with the letters N, If, C, and (?). 

D. .94 in. D. of bezel, -42 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 184. 



107. BRONZE SIGNET ; slender hoop with a tongue-shaped pro- 
jection on each shoulder, and high circular bezel with channelled 
sides, very rudely engraved with a cruciform monogram. 
See figure. 

D. i in. D. of bezel, -54 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 185. 



108. BRONZE SIGNET ; oval bezel engraved with a cruciform monogram. 

D. -96 in. L. of bezel, -46 in. Found in Sicily. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 186. 



109. BRONZE SIGNET ; rectangular bezel engraved with a cruciform 
monogram. 
See figure. 

D. -88 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 187. The monogram reads eeoroxf /3o^ei, and 
the four letters in the angles, YTHA (uyieia) ; cf. nos. 67-70 above. 




no. BRONZE SIGNET ; the hoop thickest at the back. Oval bezel engraved with 
a monogram (?) of very irregular form. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, -7 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 188. 



b. Uninscribed. 



to \\th centuries.} 



I. ICONOGRAPHIC. 

III. GOLD SIGNET, with plain rounded hoop and solid oval bezel 
engraved with a bust of Our Lord, with a cruciform nimbus ; 
below are two adoring angels with their heads inclined towards 
each other. In the field, three crosses. 
See figure. 

D. 1-14 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Weight, 427 grains. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 189. Found in the East with coins of Heraclius 
and another plain ring. Cf. no. 37 above. 




EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 



112. GOLD SIGNET ; the hoop forming seven oval medallions separated by pairs 
of pellets. Each medallion is engraved in intaglio 

with a standing figure in a long mantle, the end 
of which he holds in his r. hand ; all the figures 
are similar in character. The applied oval bezel 
is engraved with a beardless figure (Our Lord ?) 
seated on a high-backed chair with his r. hand 
raised in the attitude of benediction and with a 
footstool beneath his feet. 

See figure. $th century (?). 

D. i in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 318 grains. Ob- 
tained in Smyrna. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 190. 

113. BROXZE SIGNET, with flat hoop and oval bezel engraved with a seated figure 




Before her stands a nimbed figure. 



of the Virgin with the Child (?). 

D. of bezel, -6 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 191. 

The hoop is broken. 

114. GOLD ; flat hoop engraved with a chevron on each shoulder ; octagonal bezel 
bearing in relief a half-length figure of the Virgin, very rudely cast and chased, 
with the Child upon her breast, and her hands raised in the attitude of an orans. 

D. 78 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 33 grains. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 192. 

115. SILVER, with flat channelled hoop and applied oval bezel engraved in 
intaglio with the Annunciation. On the left stands the Virgin with the basket 
and the wool (?) before her ; on the right, the archangel Gabriel carrying a staff. 

D. -8 in. L. of bezel, -38 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 193. 

116. BRONZE SIGNET ; polygonal hoop and applied oval bezel engraved in 
intaglio with a draped figure of a saint standing between two animals, the arms 
raised in the attitude of an orans. 

D. -86 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 194. Probably St. Menas between two monsters. 

117. BRONZE SIGNET ; oval bezel engraved in intaglio with a saint (St. George ?) 
riding to /. and piercing a serpent with a lance cruciform at the butt. 

D. i in. D. of bezel, -7 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 195. 

118. IRON SIGNET, with applied oval bezel engraved with a mounted figure riding 
to /. (St. George ?). 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, -34 in. Obtained in Thebes, Egypt. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 196. 

C 2 



20 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

119. BRONZE SIGNET ; high circular bezel engraved in intaglio with a horseman 
riding to /., carrying a lance with cruciform butt. In front of the horse is 
a cross ; above its head a crescent. 

D. 1-04 in. D. of bezel, -6 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 197. 

120. IRON SIGNET: applied circular bezel engraved with a mounted saint riding 
to /. (St. George?), within a dotted border. 
D. -9 in. D. of bezel, -56 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 198. 

121. BRONZE SIGNET ; circular bezel rudely engraved with a mounted saint to 
/., holding a lance. The field is filled with punched dots. 

D. -94 in. D. of bezel, '74 in. Obtained in Constantinople. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 199. 

122. IRON SIGNET ; polygonal hoop and oval bezel engraved in intaglio with the 
bust of an angel, full-face. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. From Tartus, Syria. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 202. 

123. IRON SIGNET ; polygonal hoop and applied oval bezel engraved with the 
bust of a saint or angel within a circle. 

D. 1-04 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Obtained in Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 203. 

124. IRON SIGNET ; polygonal hoop and applied oval bezel engraved in intaglio 
with three standing figures within a circle. 

D. IMO in. L. of bezel, -68 in. Obtained in Asia Minor. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 204. 

125. BRONZE SIGNET ; slender hoop ; high conical bezel engraved with three 
draped standing figures. 

D. 1-08 in. D. of bezel, -6 in. From Beyrut. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 205. 



126. BRONZE SIGNET ; high circular bezel rudely engraved in 
intaglio with a standing figure, with arms raised in the attitude 
of an orans, between two other figures. 
See figure. 

D. -7 in. D. of bezel, -4 in. From Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 206. 
The hoop is broken. 




EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 



21 




2. MARRIAGE AND BETROTHAL RINGS. 

127. GOLD SIGNET ; the hoop forms seven circular medallions divided by pellets 
engraved with male and female busts alternating. The lines are filled with niello, 
and on each side of the head in each medallion is a branch or flower of punched 
dots. The bezel is rectangular, deeply 

engraved with a male and female bust 
confronted ; between the two heads is a 
cross with equal arms. The man wears 
a chlamys, with fibula on the r. shoul- 
der, the female a mantle covering both 
shoulders, ear-rings, and a necklace. 

See figure. $th century. 

D. 1-02 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 446 grains. Formerly in the Dimitri Coll. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 207. Fortnum in Arch. Jonrn. xxix, p. 304, fig. 2. Cf. no. 112, 
and a gold ring at Vienna (Y. Arneth, Cold- rind Silbcr- Monument e, &^i., pi. xii, fig. 152). 

128. GOLD SIGNET ; flat hoop ; rectangular bezel engraved with two male and 
female busts confronted. 

D. -8 in. L. of bezel, -26 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 208. The ring has no definite emblem of Christianity upon it, 
but the subject, though very inferior in execution, resembles that of the preceding number. 

129. BRONZE ; flat polygonal hoop and raised rectangular bezel rudely engraved 
with two confronted busts. On the hoop on each side of the bezel is a panel 
engraved with a bird. 

D. 78 in. L. of bezel, -30 in. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 209. 

3. MISCELLANEOUS. 

130. GOLD ; the hoop hollow and narrowest at the back, 
where there is a carbuncle in a raised setting ; the shoulders 
are moulded to represent hares.. High circular bezel with 
pierced sides, containing a gold coin of the Emperor 
Marcian (A.D. 450-7), showing the obverse. 

See figure, ^t/i century. 

D. 1-3 in. D. of bezel, -98 in. Weight, 382 grains. From the 
Seine at Rouen. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 210 and PI. IV. 

131. GOLD ; the hoop formed of a plain wire to which is applied a gold coin of the 
Emperor Justinian I, within a pearled border. The reverse of the coin is to the 
front of the ring. 

D. i in. Weight, 143 grains. Castellani Coll. 1865. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 211. 





22 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

132. GOLD ; pierced hoop of three horizontal bands ornamented with punched 
dots, enclosing four circular open-work medallions each containing 

a cross pattee. 
See figure. 

D. -7 in. Weight, 48 grains. From Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 212. 

133. BRONZE STAMP-RING ; rounded hoop with a boss on each side of the bezel, 
which is square, perforated at each corner, and ornamented with a cruciform 
figure in relief. 

D. 1-2 in. L. of bezel, -7 in. From Thebes, Egypt. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 213. 

134. BRONZE ; circular bezel deeply engraved with a cross pattee. 
D. 1-2 in. D. of bezel, -92 in. From Qiift, Egypt. 

Christian Catalogue, no. 214. 

135. IRON SIGNET ; plain rounded hoop and applied circular bezel engraved with 
a cross with bifurcating ends. 

D. -9 in. D. of bezel, -46 in. From Thebes, Egypt. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 215. 

136. IRON ; slender hoop and applied circular bezel engraved with a cross with 
bifurcating ends. 

D. -64 in. D. of bezel, -34 in. From Luxor, Egypt. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 216. 

137. BRONZE ; polygonal hoop ; bezel in the shape of a cross patte'e, with traces 
of an inscription, the letter GO being in the centre, and four others, of which two 
are H and <J>, at the extremities. 

D. -82 in. D. of bezel, -4 in. From the Fayum. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 217. 

138. IRON SIGNET ; engraved shoulders ; high circular bezel engraved with a cross 
pattee between four dots. 

D. 1-12 in. D. of bezel, -64 in. From Thebes, Egypt. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 218. 

139. BRONZE SIGNET ; the hoop triangular in section ; the shoulders channelled. 
The bezel is lozenge-shaped, and engraved with a cross. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, -36 in. From Naples. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 219. 

140. GOLD : the flat hoop cut into four circular and four hexagonal panels alter- 
nating with each other. The circular panels are engraved alternately with a bird 
(dove) and a palmette, the hexagons with an S-shaped line crossed by a bar, 
all the lines terminating in punched dots. 

D. -63 in. Weight, 56 grains. From Beyrut. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 220. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 23 

141. BRONZE SIGNET ; the hoop moulded at the shoulders to resemble two 
monsters' heads. Hexagonal bezel with projecting angles, engraved in intaglio 
with a bird and three branches ; below is an inverted pyramid of sunk dots, and 
in front of the head a line of similar dots. 

D. .94 in. D. of bezel, -66 in. From Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 221. 

142. BRONZE SIGNET ; slender hoop ; high circular bezel engraved with a palm 
tree between two birds. 

D. PI in. D. of bezel, -54 in. From Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 222. 

143. BRONZE ; applied circular bezel, engraved with a dove (?) between two 
crosses with equal arms. 

D. -94 in. D. of bezel, -45 in. From Luxor, Egypt. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 223. 

144. BRONZE SIGNET ; high circular bezel engraved with an eagle displayed, 
standing upon the back of a lion, beneath which is a serpent (?). 

D. pi2 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. From Cairo. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 224. 

145. BRONZE ; circular bezel engraved with a lion to r. ; above the back, the letters 
A60N (?). 

D. -7 in. Obtained in Smyrna. 
Christian Catalogue, no. 225. 



B. EARLY TEUTONIC 
I. Continental. 

(a) Inscribed, 

146. GOLD SIGNET ; the hoop expanding to a double bezel engraved with the 
legend: CIINDI|HILDI. Pearled band. 

Plate I. Merovingian, about 6th century. 

D. -84 in. D. of bezel, -42 in. Weight, 126 grains. Found in Savoy. 

Deloche, Etude historique et archeologique sitr les anneanx sigillaires et autres des 
premiers siecles du moyen Age, 1900, no. ccxcii, pp. 338-9. For the name which may be 
intended, Giridehild or Gundehild, see Forstemann, Personennamen, cols. 662 and 730. 

Rings of this kind with two or more bezels are not uncommon among Graeco-Roman and 
Roman rings; cf. Catalogue of Finger Rings, Greek, Etruscan and Roman, by F. H. Marshall, 
nos. 167, 966, 1117. An example of the type found at Angers and engraved with the name 
MARCONI VIA is ascribed by Deloche to the seventh century (Anneaux sigillaires, p. 51). 




24 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

147. SILVER ; plain hoop ; raised rectangular bezel engraved with a 
legend in two lines within a cable border. 
Sec figure. Merovingian. 
D. i in. L. of bezel, -5 in. From Poitiers. 



148. BRONZE SIGNET; large circular bezel engraved with (reversed) legend: 
-I- OAVF6QI CASTAL D6VS, within an engraved border. 

Merovingian (?), 6th century. 
D. 1-14 in. 

149. SILVER SIGNET ; a triangle of six pellets on each shoulder ; rectangular bezel 
engraved with the (reversed) legend: ZOC HMD, in two lines. 

Merovingian, about 6th century. 

D. -92 in. D. of bezel, -46 in. Found in a grave. (O. Morgan Coll.) 

150. BRONZE ; the hoop ornamented on the shoulders with punched dots. 
Rectangular bezel engraved with the letters RES within a dotted border. 

Merovingian, $th-6th century. 
D. I in. D. of bezel, -46 in. 

151. BRONZE SIGNET ; the shoulders ornamented with circles with dots in the 
centres ; raised pointed oval bezel engraved with an illegible reversed legend. 

Merovingian. 

D. i-i in. L. of bezel, -52 in. 

152. BRONZE SIGNET ; oval bezel engraved with a monogram. 

Merovingian. 

D. -96 in. D. of bezel, -56 in. 

153. BRONZE ; rectangular bezel with a monogram ; dotted border. 
D. i -02 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. 

154. BRONZE SIGNET ; engraved with simple geometrical ornament at the back ; 
raised rectangular bezel with monogram. 

Merovingian, about 6th century. 
D. -8 in. L. of bezel, -36 in. 

I 55- BRONZE SIGNET ; pointed oval bezel engraved with a monogram between 
two crosses ; dotted border. 
Merovingian. 
D. i in. D. of bezel, 72 in. 



EARLY TEUTONIC 25 

156. GOLD SIGNET; applied circular bezel engraved with a monogram. "TSyf 
See figure. Merovingian. IV N. 
D. -96 in. D. of bezel, -5 in. 

The monogram is so like the Byzantine monograms of the sixth century that it is really 
doubtful whether this ring is not Byzantine rather than barbaric. Cf. no. 90. But it closely 
resembles that upon another ring of unknown provenance figured by Deloche (Anneaux 
sigilluires, p. 316), which has upon the shoulders the large pellets characteristic of the Frankish 
goldsmith's art. Cf. also a ring from the Fould Collection in 'the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
no. 622-'7i. 

157. GOLD ; the hoop a thick wire bifurcating at the two ends, where a flat circular 
bezel is applied ; on each shoulder a group of three pellets. The bezel is 
engraved with a monogram ; pearled border. 

Plate I. Alcmannic (?). 

D. -86 in. D. of bezel, -72 in. Weight, loo grains. Found at Andernach (Antiinnaaem). 

Deloche, Anneaux sigillaires, p. 98, no. Ixxxiv ; and cf. the ring from Macon (ibid., p. 25). 

158. SILVER SIGNET ; plain hoop with pellets on the shoulders ; flat circular 
bezel engraved with a monogram. 

Merovingian, about 6tk century. 

D. -8 in. D. of bezel, -53 in. 

This ring may be compared with one found near Macon (Deloche, Anneaux sigillaires, 
p. 25) and another from the neighbourhood of Bonn (ibid., p. 97, and Moreau, La Collectioji 
Caranda, Album, pi. xxxvi. 17). 

159. SILVER ; applied circular bezel overlaid with gold and engraved with a 
monogram. 

Merovingian, about 6t/i century. 
D. -86 in. D. of bezel, -47 in. 

160. BRONZE SIGNET ; rectangular bezel rudely engraved with a monogram. 
D. -96 in. D. of bezel, -46 in. 

(6) With human and animal figures. 

161. SILVER ; the hoop bound with wire and ornamented with three pellets on 
each shoulder. The applied circular bezel is engraved with a male bust to ; 
wearing a fillet and looking towards a cross. 

Merovingian, $tJi century. 
D. ro6 in. D. of bezel, -37 in. 

162. SILVER SIGNET; shaped hoop having at the back a rectangular plate 
engraved with conventional ornament and near it a serpent's head. The shoulders 
expand to a rectangular bezel engraved with a standing human figure in relief. 

Merovingian, dt/i-'jth century. 
D. -82 in. D. of bezel, -46 in. 

The work is very rude. The form recalls that of a ring at Mayence found in Hesse- 
Darmstadt (Deloche, Anneaux sigillaires, p. 93). 



26 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

163. GOLD ; slender hoop and applied oval bezel engraved in inta glio with a dove 
holding an olive-branch (?). 

Merovingian, 6t/i-']tk century. 
D. -7 in. L. of bezel, -36 in. Weight, 55 grains. 

A bird, probably a dove, surmounted by a cross, occurs on an early Teutonic bronze ring 
from Bel-Air, Switzerland (Deloche, Anneaux sigillaires, p. 33). 

164. GOLD SIGNET ; hoop with ornament of pellets and twisted wire upon each 
shoulder ; applied circular bezel engraved with a bird, surmounted by a cross 
pattee. 

Merovingian, f>th-"/th century. 

I). -86 in. D. of bezel, -28 in. Weight, 74 grains. Found at Compiegne. 
See note to preceding number. 

165. GOLD SIGNET ; the hoop ornamented on shoulders with pellets and wire. 
Circular applied bezel engraved with a bird standing before a cross. 

Plate I. Merovingian, 61/1-71/1 century. 

D. -94 in. D. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, 170 grains. (Spitzer Coll., no. 1875.) 

166. SILVER SIGNET ; the hoop ornamented on each shoulder with three pellets. 
Circular bezel, on the back of which the ends of the hoop are beaten into scrolls ; 
it is engraved with a quadruped, below which is the letter fl 1 , while above is 
a palm-branch : the field is ornamented with dots. 

Merovingian, 'jtk centiiry. 
D. -93 in. D. of bezel, -8 in. 

For the scrolled ends of the hoop, cf. the gold ring from Macon (Deloche, Anneaux 
sigillaires, p. 25). 

167. GOLD ; the hoop chased on the outer side with figures of monsters merging 
into two human figures with raised arms on either side of a rectangular bezel 
set with an emerald. 

Plate I. Merovingian (J), ^th century. 
D. i in. Weight, 166 grains. 

168. SILVER GILT ; the hoop expanding towards the shoulders, and chased upon 
each side with two pairs of quadrupeds back to back, between them a rib 
branching to both sides and interlocking with the animals ; the eyes are filled 
with dark blue glass. The bezel has a raised setting containing a sard engraved 
in intaglio with a horse standing to r. 

Plate I. Carolingian, iot/1 century. 
D. 1-2 in. L. of bezel, -36 in. 
The gem is Roman. 

(c) Ornamental. 

169. GOLD ; thin flat hoop shaped and covered on the outer side with rows of 
punched dots, the shoulders engraved and ornamented with pellets. High 
circular bezel with pierced sides ; in the centre a small raised setting containing 



EARLY TEUTONIC 27 

an emerald ; round this a circle of garnets in cloisons between pellets and 
twisted wire. 

Plate I. Merovingian, 6(/i-jt/t century. 

D. i-i in. D. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 125 grains. 1865. 

Rings with table-garnets or red pastes set in a circle in a similar manner have been found 
in Prankish cemeteries, e.g. at Artres in the diocese of Cambrai (Deloche, Anneaux sigillaires, 
p. 185), and Samson, province of Namur (ibid., p. 122). 

170. GOLD ; flat hoop expanding at the shoulders to a bezel in the form of a disk 
with wavy edge and pearled borders, set with garnets in cells. On each 
shoulder is a conventional design in pearled wire and pellets. 

Plate I. Merovingian, dth-'jth century. 
D. -86 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 
Several of the stones are missing. 

171. GOLD ; the hoop enriched with pellets ; cruciform bezel set with table-garnets 
in cells. 

Plate I. Merovingian, bth-Jth century. 
D. -9 in. D. of bezel, -44 in. Weight, 60 grains. 
The central stone is missing. 

172. GOLD SIGNET ; plain rounded hoop having on each shoulder a group of 
pellets contained within a pearled wire, the ends of which pass beneath the bezel 
and terminate in diverging scrolls. The bezel is an oval setting containing 
a nicolo engraved in intaglio with a shepherd (?) leaning on a staff ; before him 
a goat and a tree. 

Plate I. Merovingian, 6th-lt/i century. 
D. 1-14 in. D. of bezel, -84 in. Weight, 340 grains. 
The gem is Roman. 

Cf. the ring with an intaglio on carnelian found in a Burgundian tomb at Ependes near 
Yverdon (Deloche, Anneaux sigillaires, p. 37). 

173. GOLD, with plain hoop rounded on the outer side and applied projecting 
openwork bezel in the form of a cupola on a high drum pierced with round 
arches. 

Merovingian (?), 6th century. 

D. 1-14 in. Hoop only, -76 in. Weight, 65 grains. 1872. (Castellani Coll.) 

Cf. Deloche, Anneaux sigillaires, pp. 4, 1 86, 255; examples from De la Garde, Loire; 

Ciply, near Mons (Hainault) ; and Herpes, Charente, which appear to be not later than the 

sixth century. 

174. GOLD ; the hoop ornamented with applied wire ; high projecting bezel in the 
form of a square structure with pyramidal roof, the sides pierced with round- 
headed arches. The sides of the roof are ornamented with groups of pellets 
arranged in triangles ; a raised setting at the top is now empty. 

Plate I. Ostrogothic or Lombardic (?), (tth-^th century. 
D. 1-2 in. D. of hoop only, -82 in. Found near Milan. 
Cf. no. 173. 



28 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




175. GOLD ; slender hoop and projecting domed bezel, round the sides of which 
a twisted wire forming a series of loops ; at the top is a circular boss. 

6th-'jth century. 

D. i-l in. D. of hoop only, '84 in. 

The bezel is perhaps a debased form of the true dome represented on nos. 174, 175. 

176. GOLD ; pierced hoop with a band of zigzag between two raised pearled 
borders ; high conical bezel, formerly containing a gem. At the apex it has two 
rows of leaves ; beyond these are two plain, and two pierced 

bands alternating ; round the edge are pellets and a pearled 
border. 

Sec figure. 1'i-ankish (?), (^tJi-'jth century. 

D. 1*2 in. Weight, 139 grains. 1912. 

Obtained in Samos. 

The zigzag of the hoop recalls that of a ring found at Spontin near 
Namur (Deloche, Anncau.r Sigillaires, p. 119) ; and the bezel appears to 
be an exaggerated form of the type seen in a ring from Herpes Charente 
(ibid. p. 264). Pins with high conical ends are found in Prankish graves. 
Cf. Barriere-Flavy, Les arts industriels des peitphs barbares de la Gaule, 
pi. Ixiv, fig. 8. Sumos is a curious place in which to find a Frankish ring. 

It is possible that similar types were made by the Teutonic tribes in Italy, from which country 
they would more easily find their way into the Mediterranean. 

1763. GOLD ; the hoop with angular shoulders broadening to the bezel, which is 
a pyramid of five steps set with a faceted ruby. The 
shoulders are engraved with conventional designs filled with 
niello. 

Sec figure. Lombardic (?), jt/i century. 

D. 1-35 in. Weight, 235 grains. 

The stone is probably a later addition. The general type of this ring, 
the form of the bezel, and the manner in which the stone is set recall 
examples which are presumably Late Roman and are represented in the 
Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities (F. H. Marshall, Catalogue 
of Finger Rings, Greek, Etruscan and Roman, no. 846, from S. Angelo 
del Lombard!) : cf. also no. 975. The character of the nielloed ornament, 

however, suggests a rather later period and an origin perhaps rather Lombard than Byzantine. 
The stepped pyramidal bezel is found on Frankish and other early Teutonic rings (Deloche, as 
above, pp. 289, 350). 

177. GOLD ; slender hoop and circular bezel with pearled border, containing 
a cross in blue and white cloisonne enamel. 

Plate I. Carolingian, Wi-yth century. 

D. -9 in. D. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 65 grains. 

Examined under the microscope, the vitreous substance within the cloisons appears to be 
true enamel fused in position, rather than glass paste cut into shape and inserted cold. 




EARLY TEUTONIC 29 

178. GOLD ; raised circular bezel (now empty) with double border of pellets, and 
flanked by two triangular raised settings with similar borders each containing 
a conventional design in green and white cloisonne enamel. 
Plate I. Carolingian, 8t/t-gth century. 

D. -94 in. D. of bezel, -36 in. Weight, 151 grains. 

Cf. a ring in the Victoria and Albert Museum, no. 4917-1901. 



II. Anglo-Saxon and Viking. 

(i) ANGLO-SAXON. 
(a) Inscribed. 

NOTE. For purposes of dating, the Anglo-Saxon period is here divided into two periods, 
Early and Late. The former is taken to end approximately at A.D. 650, when paganism was 
replaced by Christianity ; the latter closes about A. D. 1050. The Viking period falls between 
the ninth and eleventh centuries. 

179. GOLD ; the hoop flat and rising in front to a high mitre-shaped bezel. In 
the triangular portion a conventional ' tree ', dividing the field into two halves, 
is flanked by two peacocks, all reserved in the metal upon a ground of ; niello ; 
in the two lower corners are panels with foliage in relief without niello. The 
two disks with rosettes, which form part of the central ' tree ', are treated in the 
same manner. Round the hoop is the nielloed legend: EIHELVVVLF REX, 
preceded by a cross. The back of the hoop has a circle containing a rosette 
upon a nielloed ground, flanked by foliate designs, one of which is interlaced. 

Plate II. Late Saxon. 

D. 1-04 in. H. of bezel, 1-2 in. Weight, 285 grains. Given by the Earl of Radnor, 1829. 
Found in a cart-rut at Laverstock, Wiltshire, in the summer of A. D. 1780. 

The ring has been crushed and somewhat flattened, some of the niello in the inscription 
being lost. 

Archaeologia, vii, pi. xxx, p. 421 ; Arch.Jonrn. xix, 327 ; H. Clifford Smith, Jewellery, p. 72 
and pi. xiii, fig. 5. Ethelwulf, father of Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, reigned between 
A. D. 836 and 858. 

In Early Christian art peacocks are more usually separated by a vase, or by a disk 
containing the sacred monogram. The horn or sacred tree of Persia had, however, entered 
Christian art before this period, having been introduced through textiles and other works of 
minor art. It usually stands between quadrupeds or monsters, and has the most varied forms, 
in many cases so conventionalized that all resemblance to a tree is lost. 

Anglo-Saxon art appears to have derived such oriental motives not directly from the East, 
but mediately through Italy and France. The half-barbaric treatment of the peacocks may be 
compared with that of the Agnus Dei on the ring of Ethelswith (no. 180). 

A third nielloed Anglo-Saxon ring, dated through an inscription referring to a historic 
personage, is that of Alhstan, Bishop of Sherborne (A. D. 824-67), in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (Arch. Journ., as above, p. 327 and fig. 4; H. Clifford Smith, as above, p. 71 
and pi. xiii, fig. 9). 



3 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



The Anglo-Saxons enjoyed a reputation as goldsmiths and silversmiths reaching far beyond 
the limits of their own country. Anglo-Saxon work is often mentioned in the Liber Pontificalis, 
and some entries specify the use of niello. King Egbert, visiting Rome in A.D. 858, took silver 
vessels with him. See Archaeologia, Ixi, pp. 359, 360, and S. J. Beissel, Zeitschrift fur christ- 
liche Kunst, ix, pp. 364 ff. (1896). 

180. GOLD ; plain hoop expanding at the shoulders, which with the bezel are 
chased with designs upon a nielloed ground. The bezel is circular, with pearled 
border ; it is ornamented with a medallion inscribed in a 

quatrefoil and containing the Agnus Dei between letters A 
and B ; the leaves of the quatrefoil and the spaces between 
them are chased with foliage. Each shoulder has a semi- 
circular panel with pearled border, containing a monster on 
a ground of niello. Inside the ring is engraved the legend : 
+ EA;0ELSVI0 | REGNA. 

Plate II, and see figure. Late Saxon. 

D. ro2 in. D. of bezel, -72 in. Weight, 313 grains. Found between 
Aberford and Sherburn in the West Riding, Yorkshire. 

Proc. Sac, Ant. London, 2nd ser., vi, p. 305 ; H. Clifford Smith, Jewel- 
lery, p. 72 and pi. xiii ; Victoria County History : Yorkshire, vol. ii, p. 98. 

The owner of this ring was Ethelswith, Queen of Mercia (A.D. 855-89), and sister ot 
Alfred the Great. The form 0, intended to represent the sound th, is unusual; but D occurs 
on a copy of a coin of Edgar (d. A. D. 975) set in a brooch in the British Museum (R. A. Smith 
in Proc. Sac. Ant. xix, p. 210). 

The letters on either side of the Agmis Dei may be intended to represent those two words, 
as each has a mark of abbreviation above it. The may, however, stand for a Greek 0, in 
which case the words might be : 'A/ii/or 0eoO. 

181. GOLD ; a plain hoop, the exterior pearled along the upper and lower edges, 
and bearing a legend reserved in the metal upon a background of niello: 
+ AETHRED MEC AH EANRED MEC AGROF (Acthred mvns me, Eanred 
wrought me). 

Plate II, and see figure. Late Saxon. 




D. -92 in. Weight, 1 1 3 grains. Sloane Coll. 1763. 

Found in Lancashire. See G. Hickes, Linguarum Veterum Septentrionalium Thesaurus, 
i, preface, p. xiii, and plate opp. p. viii, fig. vi ; Stephens, Runic Monuments, i. 463 ; Arch. 
Journ. xix, 1862, p. 327; Kemble, On Anglo-Saxon Rimes, p. 22. 

182. GOLD ; massive flat hoop with cable edges and legend engraved and filled 
with niello : + EAPEN : MIEAHS : PETRVS : STANCES;. 

Plate II. Late Saxon. 

D. i-i in. Weight, 283 grains. 

The inscription has not been interpreted, but it has been suggested that the name Peter and 
the word ' Stan ' (stone) may point to a religious meaning. 



EARLY TEUTONIC 31 

183. GOLD; a plain band with legend: BVREDRVQ, AU), and two crosses, all 
reserved on a pounced ground. 
See figure. Late Saxon. 



D. -8 in. Weight, 140 grains. 1912. Found near Swindon. 

The legend is perhaps a personal name. The other two letters, the alpha and oimga of the 
Greek alphabet, probably have a religious significance. 

184. GOLD ; a plain hoop engraved on the outer side with a runic legend ending 
with three letters in the interior. Traces of niello remain in several letters. 

Late Saxon. 

D. 1-03 in. Weight, 360 grains. Given by the Earl of Aberdeen, after 1817. Found in 
1817 on Greymoor Hill, in the hamlet of Kingmoor near Carlisle. 

Archaeologia, xxi (1817), p. 25 ; Stephens, Runic Monuments, i. 496. See also Archaeologia, 
xxviii, pi. xxi. Another gold ring, with an almost identical inscription, found at Bramham Moor, 
Yorkshire, appears to be that now in the Museum at Copenhagen (VVorsaae, Nordiske Oldsager, 
fig. 442, p. 105). The various attempts to decipher the inscriptions on these two rings and on 
nos. 185-6 below are not regarded as successful. Three words occur in each case, and the sense 
is very probably magical. 

185. BRONZE ; a plain hoop engraved on the outer side with a runic inscription 
ending, as in no. 1 84, with three letters on the inner surface. 

Late Saxon. 

D. i -06 in. Given by R. Ferguson, Esq., M.P., 1875. 

Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 2nd ser., vi, p. 339, no. 4. The inscription resembles that of the 
previous number. 

186. AGATE ; broad hoop with convex outer side engraved with a runic 
inscription. 

See figure. Late Saxon. 




D. I-I2 in. Given by A..W. Franks, Esq., 1873. 

A. W. Franks in Archaeologia, xliv. 481 and xxi. 117; Stephens, Runic Monuments, i, 
p. 499. Mr. Franks suggested that this ring and the others of the class may have been 
attached to swords and not worn on the finger, rings having been found in connexion with 
swords in Anglo-Saxon cemeteries. 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



(<5) Ornamental. 

187. SILVER ; a wire with the two ends bent over each other to form a hoop. 
Early Saxon. 

D. -7 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) From grave no. 47 at Little Wilbraham, Cambs. 
See R. C. Neville, Saxon Obsequies, p. 17. 

188. BRONZE ; a piece of wire with the ends bent over each other as in the 
previous example. 

Early Saxon. 

D. -74 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found with nos. 189, 190, in grave no. 9 at Linton Heath, 
Cambridgeshire. 1853. 

Arch.Journ. xi (1854), p. 97. 



189. ANOTHER, similar. 

See figure. Early Saxon. 

D. -74 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found with nos. 188 and 190 in 
grave no. 9 at Linton Heath, Cambridgeshire. 
Archaeological Journal, xi, p. 97. 

190. SILVER ; a spiral band. 
See figure. Early Saxon. 

Found with nos. 188 and 189 in grave no. 9 at Linton Heath, 
Cambridgeshire. 

191. SILVER ; a fiat band diminishing towards the ends, which overlap each other ; 
the outer side ornamented with a cable band, terminating at each end in a spike 
and two pairs of pellets. 
Early Saxon. 

D. -82 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found with no. 192 in grave no. 45 at Linton Heath, 
Cambridgeshire. 

Arch.Journ., as above, p. 105. 

192. SILVER ; a plain hoop. 
Early Saxon. 

D. -8 in. Found with no. 191. 

193. SILVER ; a flat band forming a double coil ; the outer 
side is ornamented with a band of conventional design. 

See figure. Early Saxon. 

D. -72 in. Found in grave no. 28 at Little Wilbraham, 
Cambridgeshire. 

R. C. Neville, Saxon Obsequies, pi. xiii. 









EARLY TEUTONIC 33 

194. SILVER ; a flat band forming a coil ; the outer side is channelled. 
See figure. Early Saxon. 

D. -84 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) From grave no. 28 at Little Wilbraham, 
Cambridgeshire, 1851. 

R. C. Neville, Saxon Obsequies, pi. xiii. 

195. BRONZE ; a plain band with overlapping ends. 
Early Saxon. 

D. -7 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) From grave no. 53 at Little Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire. 
R. C. Neville, Saxon Obsequies, p. 17. 

196. BRONZE ; of similar form, with vertical ridges at intervals. 
Early Saxon. 

D. -7 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in grave no. 1 10 at Little Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire. 
R. C. Neville, Saxon Obsequies, p. 20. 

197. BRONZE ; similar form ; on the outer side a chequer pattern. 
Early Saxon. 

D. 1-02 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) From grave no. 100 at Little Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire, 
R. C. Neville, Saxon Obsequies, pi. xiii. 

198. SILVER; similar type ; ornamented on the outer side with two bands of dots. 
Early Saxon. 
D. -7 in. 

199. GOLD; the hoop formed of a cable wire in a ninefold coil. 
Late Saxon. 

D. -74 in. Weight, 96 grains. Found at Mountfield, Sussex. 

200. GOLD ; the hoop convex on the outer side with a raised rim above and below. 
Plate II. Late Saxon. 

D. I in. Weight, 236 grains. Found at Mountfield, Sussex. 

201. GOLD ; the broad hoop ornamented with a row of seven high bosses, between 
which are pellets enclosed within triple pearled borders. 

Plate II. Late Saxon. 

D. 1-22 in. Weight, 491 grains. Found at Lewes Priory, Sussex. 

202. GOLD ; the massive rounded hoop has on opposite sides two applied circular 
bezels, each -having a group of three large pellets to right and left, with 





smaller pellets. The outer sides of the hoop are engraved with interlaced 
knots ; one of the bezels has three interlaced triangles, the other a circular design 

D 



34 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

of continuous intersecting curves ; the edges of the bezels are ornamented with 
bands of zigzag. All the ornament is filled with niello. 
Plate II, and sec figure. Late Saxon. 

D. 1-06 in. Weight, 615 grains. 1855. Found in the River Nene, near Peterborough. 
Arch. Journ. xiii. 87; xix. 326; Victoria County History: Northants, vol. i, p. 253; 
H. Clifford Smith, Jewellery, p. 72 and pi. xiii, fig. 6. 

203. GOLD ; the hoop flat and covered on the outer side with four bands of twisted 
wire between two pearled borders, the whole creating the effect of plaited work 
(cf. no. 204) ; long pointed bezel applied at right angles ; raised settings 
bordered with twisted and pearled wire, all once filled with table-stones or pastes, 
of which only one, a garnet, remains in position. 

Plate II. Late Saxon. 

D. -82 in. H. of bezel, 1.33 in. Weight, 135 grains. 1849. Found near Tipperary. 

204. GOLD ; the hoop expanding to a large oval bezel. It is covered with bands 
of twisted wire, simulating plaiting and diverging at the shoulders so as to enclose 
a circular design in pearled wire and pellets. The principal motive may be 
a qtiatrefoil, the pellets in the centre and interspaces forming a cross pattee. 

Plate II. Late Saxon. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, 1-16 in. Weight, 185 grains. Found in Garrick Street, London. 

See R. A. Smith in Victoria County History of London, p. 157 and coloured plate, figs. 2 
and 4 ; H. Clifford Smith, Jewellery, pi. xiii, fig. 8. The form should be compared with that of 
an inscribed gold ring found at Bossington, Hampshire, and now in the Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford (Victoria County History: Hants, i, p. 397; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. i. 341). The 
present ring appears to belong to the time when native art had outgrown the animal forms of 
the pagan period, but was not yet pervaded by Irish or Scandinavian influences. 

Twisted wire arranged to simulate plaiting is also found in combination with pellets on' 
Prankish rings (e.g. Deloche, Anneaux sigillaires, p. 117 : ring from Spontin, Namur). 

205. GOLD ; massive ring with hoop widening towards the front, where there is an 
oval setting with pearled border containing a gold plate engraved with a cross 
potent. The shoulders and front of the ring are ornamented with deep hollows 
enclosed by pearled wire loops. The edges of the hoop are bordered with 
twisted and plain wires. 

Plate II. Late Saxon. 

D. 1-2 in. Weight, 488 grains. Found in North Lincolnshire, on the east bank of the 
Trent. 

A. W. Franks in Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd ser., iv, p. 97. 

206. GOLD ; broad hoop expanding to the front, with applied ornament consisting 
of three rows of club-shaped lobes with filigree between. Oval bezel with broad 
cable borders, set with a Late Roman intaglio on sard a trophy of arms. 

Plate I. Late Saxon. 

D. 1-04 in. Weight, 414 grains. 1905. Found near Faversham, Kent. 






EARLY TEUTONIC 35 

207. GOLD ; massive hoop expanding from back to front, chased over the whole 
outer side with an intricate ornament of interlaced animals. 

Plate II. Late Saxon. 

D. 1-17 in. Weight, 451 grains. Purchased 1865. (Castellani Coll.) 

The style of the ornament recalls that of other works of art in metal, ivory, or wood executed 
in England or in Scandinavia. Its date is probably about the time of the Conquest or 
rather later. 

A gold ring with interlaced animals round the hoop, in a rather different style, is at 
Stockholm (O. Montelius, Guide to the Collection of the National Historical Museum, 1887, 
p. 98), and the manner in which the animals interlace recalls the work on Swedish brooches of 
the later Iron Age (H. Hildebrand, The Industrial Arts of Scandinavia, 1883, p. 101) and 
brooches of the Viking period in Denmark (J. J. Worsaae, Danish Arts, fig. 237, p. 197) 

2073. GOLD ; a broad flat hoop roughened over the whole outer surface. 
Anglo-Saxon, gf/t-iof/i century. 

D. i in. Weight, 471 grains. 

Found in the Thames at Hammersmith. Although the ring has few decided features, and 
no ornamental design to serve as comparative material, its massive character, the square finish 
of the edges, and the roughening, which somewhat recalls no. 183, all tend to support the above 
attribution. The place of its discovery, though proving nothing in itself, accords well with an 
Anglo-Saxon origin. 

(ii) VIKING. 

208. GOLD ; the hoop made of a broad band narrowing to a wire at the two ends, 
which are knotted and coiled at the back. The front has two bands of stamped 
ornament diverging from the shoulders, each formed of a row of trefoils within 
pearled borders ; the space between them is filled by a pearled band swelling 
towards the middle. On each shoulder are two punched triangles and, two 
engraved circles. The inside is concave. 

Plate II. 

D. i in. Weight, 223 grains. Found at Tundergarth, Annandale, Dumfriesshire. 
The style of the stamped design and the knot at the back both recall the Northern silver 
hoard found at Cuerdale, Lancashire, to which no. 210 belongs. 

209. GOLD ; the hoop concave within and narrowing at the 
back to wires which are bent over each other. The outer 
side is ornamented with two bands of zigzag enclosing dots. 

See figure. 

D. -96 in. Weight, 102 grains. 1912. Found in Oxfordshire. 

210. SILVER ; a plain rounded hoop diminishing to the back, where the ends 
overlap. 

D. I in. Given by Her Majesty Queen Victoria through the Chancellor of the Duchy 
of Lancaster, 1841. Found with other ornaments and numerous coins at Cuerdale, Lancashire, 
the hoard having been deposited about A. D. 910. 

See Arch.Journ. iv, pp. ill and 191 ; Victoria County History : Lancashire, vol. i, p. 258. 

D 2 




36 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

211. SILVER ; penannular hoop of thick wire diminishing towards the ends. 
D. -9 in. Found near Douglas, Isle of Man, with coins dating from A.D. 925 to 975. 

212. GOLD ; formed of two wires twisted together ; one thick and plain, the other 
thin and waved ; the ring becomes narrower towards the back, where the wires 
are beaten together. 

D. I in. Weight, 153 grains. 1870. Found at West Bergholt, Essex. 
Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 2nd series, ii, p. 247. 

213. GOLD ; hoop of plaited wires diminishing towards the back, where they are 
beaten into a flat plate. 

D. 1-25 in. Weight, 197 grains. 1849 Found near Waterford. 

214. GOLD ; hoop of plaited wires diminishing towards the back, where they are 
beaten together. 

D. 1-12 in. Weight. 206 grains. 1905. Found about 1890 in a stone coffin in 
St. Aldate's Street, Oxford, during excavations for a drain opposite the great gateway of 
Christ Church. The hoop is now penannular, but the ends may have originally been united, as 
in the following numbers. 

215. GOLD ; a hoop of plaited wire diminishing to the back, where it is beaten 
solid. 

D. i-i in. Weight, 239 grs. 

Found with a hoard of silver coins of Edward the Confessor, Harold, and William I in a field 
near Wickham Lodge, Soberton, Hants, in a vessel of red earthenware. 
The ring is now penannular, but the division is due to damage. 

2isa. ANOTHER ; of similar type, with a plait of three wires. 
See figure. 

D. 1-03 in. Weight, 120 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
Found in Hamsey Churchyard, Sussex. Cf. a ring in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, no. &32-'7i. 

2isb. ANOTHER. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 38 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2150. ANOTHER ; of two wires with a thin pearled wire inter- 
twined. 

Sec figure. 

D. -94 in. Weight, 106 grains. 
From Gothland. 

216. GOLD, with overlapping ends at the back, where it is narrowest. The out- 
side is ornamented with punched circles. 

D. i-i in. Weight, 256 grains. Found with the preceding number. 








37 

C. SIGNET-RINGS. 

I. From A.D. 1000 to 1450. 

(a) Set with antique gems. 

217. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with vine-leaves in outline and nielloed. The 
raised oblong bezel contains a sard engraved in intaglio with a standing figure of 
Hygieia with patera and serpent. 

\\th-\ith century (?). 

D. 1-16 in. Weight, 385 grains. Castcllani Coll. 1872. 
The gem is Roman. 

218. GOLD ; the outside of the hoop forming a scries of indentations, each con- 
taining a letter of the inscription: TEBAL GVT GVTANI. Oval bezel set with 
a plasma engraved in intaglio with a lion statant. Round the margin is engraved : 
A + G + L + A. 

Plate III. 13/7^ century. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

The gem is Late Roman. The inscription is magical (cf. no. 866). 

Rings resembling this and the following numbers are in the Victoria and Albert Museum (nos. 
723-'7l, 725-'7i, 726-'7i, 727-71, 89-1899). They should also be compared with contemporary 
signets, not in the form of rings, but consisting of intaglio gems in silver mounts, which bear 
similar inscriptions. The gems are for the most part Late Roman and of inferior quality, but 
sometimes an intaglio of fair workmanship is found. Occasionally a contemporary gem occurs, 
presumably cut in Italy, as in the example figured in the British Museum Guide to the Mediaeval 
Room, 1907, p. 195. Good series of these signets, used as counter-seals or as secretahr private 
correspondence, are to be seen in the British and Victoria and Albert Museums. Cf. also Proc. 
Soc. Ant. London, 2nd ser., i, p. 53 ; vii, p. 47 ; xiii, pp. 49 ff. ; Arcli.Journ, iii, p. 76 ; iv, p. 150 ; 
v, pp. 3 ff. ; vi, p. 35 ; x, p. 328 ; xi, pp. 84, 266 ; xvi, p. 357 ; xxi, p. 319 ; xxii, pp. 117 ff., 164 ; 
xxvi, pp. 84 ff. 

219. GOLD ; slender hoop and octagonal bezel containing a plasma engraved in 
intaglio with a figure of Mercury standing to /., holding caduceus and purse. 
Latin legend, in which the words hoc signum can be deciphered. 

Plate III. 13^ century. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 83 grains. 
The intaglio is Late Roman. 

220. GOLD ; octagonal bezel containing an oval bloodstone engraved in intaglio 
with a bust with pendent hood. Legend : S' QRISTIHG KLMKRIdl. 

Plate III. English, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -87 in. L. of bezel, -66 in. Weight, 75 grains. Found at Canterbury. 
Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 2nd ser., i. 51. The intaglio is mediaeval. 



38 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

221. SILVER ; circular bezel set with a sard engraved in intaglio with the head of 
a young satyr. Legend : S'. SIMOHISM'. 

Plate III. Italian, i^th century. 
D. of hoop, -82 in. D. of bezel, .54 in. 
The intaglio is antique. The last word of the legend may stand for magistri. 

222. GOLD ; circular bezel with an eagle engraved in intaglio on oriental carbuncle. 
Legend : * S ffi 10 DH ttffiVRO. 

Plate III. Italian, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -85 in. L. of bezel, -39 in. Weight, 43 grains. 
The intaglio is probably Late Roman. 

223. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a plasma, engraved in intaglio with Venus standing 
by a column and holding a helmet. Legend: SIGILVI I SGQReSI. 

Plate III. English, early i4th century. 

D. of hoop, -77 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Weight, 55 grains. Found at London Bridge. 

224. GOLD ; oval bexel set with a nicolo engraved in intaglio with a bust of Ceres. 
Legend : SIGIMjVM S0QRHSI. 

Plate III. English, early T_^tli century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -69 in. Weight, 105 grains. Found at Chester. 

The intaglio is Late Roman. 

225. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a chalcedony engraved in intaglio with a figure of 
Nemesis, with branch and wheel. Legend : SIGILL : StJQRHTI. 

Plate III. English, early i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -86 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 65 grains. Found at South Loftus, York. 
The intaglio is Late Roman. 

226. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a sard containing an intaglio bust of Hercules. 
Legend: Q(?0 : SaORSTK : THCfO. 

Plate III. English, early \4th century. 

D. of hoop, -93 in. L. of bezel, .73 in. Weight, 104 grains. 

The intaglio is perhaps Late Roman. 

227. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a plasma engraved in intaglio with a female figure 
(Hebe ?) with patera. Legend: + MARINVS: DEIVDICE. 

Plate III. Italian, 14^/1 century. 

D. of hoop, -87 in. L. of bezel, -57 in. Weight, 71 grains. Obtained in Naples. 
The intaglio is Late Roman. 

228. GOLD ; the hoop divided into two longitudinal grooves engraved with scroll 
and zigzag designs counterchanged and once enamelled ; oval bezel set with 
a sard engraved with an eagle holding a wreath. Legend : SeQRQTVffi 
pearled border. 

Plate III. Italian, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -82 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, 71 grains. 

The intaglio is contemporary. 









SIGIS'ET-RINGS 



39 



229. GOLD ; flat hoop engraved on the outside : foeclltim : CafO fdCtum : C(0t) ; 
on each shoulder a rosette within a lozenge, once enamelled. Octagonal bezel 



230 



231. 




set with a nicolo engraved in intaglio with a genius with palm-branch and crown. 
Legend : SIGILL21SR TOGaw SQQReTaW. 

See figure. Italian, early 141/1 century. 

D. -96 in. D. of bezel, .52 in. Waddesdon Bequest. 

The intaglio is Late Roman. The ring is fixed by three chains to a devotional carving 
of the fourteenth century in boxwood (C. H. Read, Catalogue of the Waddesdon Bequest, 
1902, no. 231). 

For Italian ornaments with inscriptions in this style, see also Archaeologia, Ixii (1911), p. 394 
(rings, &c., from Chalcis now in the British Museum and the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford) ; 
Arch. Journ. viii. 418 (ring from Sessa). For the verse Verbum caro, &c., see under no. 895, 
and cf. Pichon Collection, Sale Catalogue, 1897, no. 67. 

GOLD ; octagonal bezel containing a garnet engraved in intaglio with a female 
bust with wreath. Round the hoop is an inscription reserved in the metal in 




Lombardic letters: * Ift SOUmS * TM(S) * DOMK8 
SPIRO, once nielloed and enamelled. 

Sec figure. Italian, \\th century. 

D. I in. L. of bezel, -44- in- Weight, 65 grains. 1872 (Castellani Coll.). 

The intaglio is Late Roman. Cf., for inscription, ring in the Pichon Collection, Sale 
Catalogue, 1897, no. 64. 

GOLD ; the hoop triangular in section ; the two faces of the outer side with an 
inscription reserved in the metal in Lombardic letters : * IHSaS jff5T6T$R 

TRflnsiens PBR wGDiaw iLLORaw IB#T resas noramer Tao 





Hollowed and chased shoulders ; on the lower part of each is engraved 
a sgn <). Oval bezel containing a sard engraved in intaglio with a laureate 
imperial bust; in Lombardic characters: * UOflRM Dfl 



See figure. Italian, 141/1 century. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. Weight, 118 grains. 1853. Formerly in the collection of 
Count Milano. 

The gem is perhaps contemporary. For the legend lesus autem, &c., cf. nos. 877, 239, 
283, and Catalogue of the Pichon Collection, as above, no. 66. 



40 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

232. GOLD ; the shoulders of quadrangular section engraved with a band of 
acanthus design, and the initials K F. Octagonal bezel, set with an intaglio 
on burnt onyx (?) of two cupids playing morra. 

Plate III. Italian, i$tk century. 

D. of hoop, -75 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 86 grains. Given to Sir A. W. Franks by 
Madame Castellani. 

The intaglio Late Roman. 

233. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with a legend inscribed in overlapping oval 
contours: 31 e i)OJUi3tjten?i t/////\/l////\\Wty. Cross-hatched borders. Oval bezel 
set with a nicolo engraved in intaglio with two masks. 

English, early \^th century. 

D. -98 in. Weight, 162 grains. 

The inscription may be : Jc I'Oiis liens, tenez-moi. 

234. GOLD ; the hoop wreathed with bands of imbrications ; octagonal bezel con- 
taining a nicolo engraved in intaglio with a male figure holding a branch and a 
helmet (?). Legend: + K IPIOC0OTICMOCMOVK6COTIPMOVTIN A4>OBI0(I) 

(Kvptos (^omo-^o'y fxou (cot (rcor?;p JJLOV, riva $o/3?;$(?;<roficu ;), Ps. xxvii. l). 
Plate III. Italian, x^tk century. 

D. 1-13 in. Weight, 375 grains. The intaglio Late Roman. 

This ring is in an Italian style, and like no. 239 and the rings found at Chalcis, now in 
the Ashmolcan Museum, Oxford (see under no. 229), was perhaps made by Italian goldsmiths 
for countrymen established in Greece. 

235. GOLD ; the shoulders faceted and engraved with foliate ornament and 
cross-hatching. Octagonal bezel with pearled edging, set with a nicolo engraved 
in intaglio with Bacchanalian figures. 

Italian, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -86 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 197 grains. Found in Greece. 

236. SILVER GILT ; the hoop plain at the back ; the shoulders engraved with leaf 
imbrications ; projecting oval bezel engraved on the sides with a band of egg 
and tongue design, and set with a chalcedony rudely engraved in intaglio with 
a human figure holding a branch. 

Italian, early i$t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -82 in. L. of bezel, -55 in. 
The intaglio may be Etruscan. 

237. BRONZE ; slender hoop with pounced scrolls on the shoulders ; oval bezel with 
four claws containing a plasma engraved in intaglio with a horse walking to ;-. 
with a cerastes upon its back. 

15^/2 century. 

D. 1-04. (Braybrooke Coll.) The intaglio is Gnostic. 



SIGNET-RINGS 



4 1 



238. BRONZE ; oval bezel set with a sard engraved in intaglio with a laureate head 
of bearded emperor to r. The hoop has an oblong setting on each 
shoulder, now empty. 

Sec figure. i6tk century. 

D. 1-12 in. 

The gem may be antique of the early third century A.M., the subject being 
possibly Severus. 




(K) Engraved with arms and devices. 



The octagonal 



bezel is 




239- GOLD; in the form of a bow-ring (cf. nos. 2383 ff.). 
engraved in intaglio with a shield of arms : per 
bend, a column and three bends, for Donati (?), 
surmounted by a helm with mantling and crest 
a column. Legend: S(IGH3ffi) Dfl 281*0 
DORjHT(I) ; pearled border. Round the hoop is 
an inscription reserved upon a ground of niello : 

* iexas * ;ffa.T8ffi * TRflwsiaws * PHR 
vReDiavn HjLORavn * IB-HOT * GLOI, with 

rosettes between several of the words. The ex- 
tended back of the ring has on one side of the 
inscription a column between two confronted 
wyverns, on the other a trefoil between two leaves, 
all on a ground of niello. In the interior of the 
hoop is engraved a column upon a mount cut 
towards the middle by a scythe with handle 
upwards, from which issues a scroll with legend : 
SIDfl SKflDIO (?), the whole nielloed. 

Plate III, and see figures. Italian, Venetian, 
147/2 century. 

D. 1-5 in. D. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, 565 grains. Found at Aegium in the Peloponnese. 
For lesus autem, &c., cf. nos. 231, 283. 

240. SILVER ; plain hoop ; bezel a flat disk engraved with a hand holding a sickle, 
and legend : * S. FRflttGISCII. 
Italian, \^th century. 

D. of hoop, -89 in. D. of bezel, -69 in. 

241. SILVER ; plain hoop of triangular section ; flat circular bezel engraved with 
the Agnus Dei. 

Italian, 141/1 century. 

D. of hoop, 1-9 in. D. of bezel, -76 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 




CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




242. SILVER ; slender hoop with engraved herring-bone pattern on the shoulders ; 
flat circular bezel engraved with a bull's head with a cross between the horns ; 
round the border an inscription : D I N D I V N D I (?). 

Italian, 14^/1 century. 

D. -76 in. D. of bezel, -44 in. 

243. SILVER; hoop of triangular section; the shoulders ribbed; circular bezel 
with flat centre engraved with a lion passant ; on the bevelled edge the legend : 
KVQ MRK. 

Italian, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -84 in. D. of bezel, -54 in. 

244. SILVER ; plain hoop with ornamented shoul- 
ders ; oval bezel engraved with a bird and sur- 
rounding legend : ICH DAOI. 

Sec figure. Italian, 141/1 century. 

D. of hoop, -96 in. D. of bezel, -6 in. 

245. SILVER ; plain slender hoop ; flat circular bezel engraved with a fleur-de-lis. 
Legend: *GIhO#IiH. 

Italian, 141/1 century. 

D. -86 in. D. of bezel, -56 in. Given by the executors of the Christy Collection. 1865. 

246. SILVER ; plain hoop widening towards the shoulders ; circular bezel engraved 
with two confronted figures, above which is a cross potent between sun and 
moon. Around an illegible inscription. 

Italian, 142/1 century. 

D. of hoop, -84 in. D. of bezel, -54 in. 

247. SILVER ; the hoop of triangular section, having on each 
shoulder a shield-shaped projection engraved with a leaf. The 
oval bezel is set with a red paste engraved in intaglio with 
a lion passant to ;-. Round the border is an indeterminate 
inscription. 

See figure. Italian, 14^/1 century. 

D. ro6 in. L. of bezel, -66 in. 1872. 

248. SILVER ; plain hoop ; circular bezel engraved with an axe-head, and legend 
GffiLiGflJttV ttD SRORTVL. 

Italian, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -96 in. D. of bezel, -57 in. 




SIGNET-RINGS 



43 



249. SILVER ; plain hoop with engraved pattern on shoulders ; circular bezel 
engraved with a monstrous quadruped. 

Italian, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -51 in. 

250. GOLD ; the hoop has designs in relief; at the back a cruciform ornament, on 
each shoulder a lion rampant and a scroll. Flat oval bezel 

engraved with a monster, and legend : 6 25 61 (?) P9 DIOI. 
See figure. Italian, late 14^ century. 

D. of hoop, -86 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. Weight, 77 grains. Found 
in Cyprus. 



251. SILVER ; plain hoop ; bezel a flat disk engraved with the letter 
border. 

Italian, \$th century. 




; pearled 



D. of hoop, -95 in. D. of bezel, -83 in. 

252. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with two bands of quatrefoils with oval 
medallions. The circular bezel is rudely engraved with a shield of arms : a lion 
rampant. Legend : TH^NH H eTPOTA. 

Plate III. Greek, \\tlt century. 

]). of hoop, -9 in. D. of bezel, -55 in. Weight, 85 grains. 

253. GOLD ; plain hoop and oblong bezel bevelled at the back and engraved 
with a vernicle within a wide border of leaves. 

century. 



D. of hoop, i-oi in. L. of bezel, -78 in. Weight, 185 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



254. GOLD SIGNET ; round the hoop is legend reserved in the metal in Lombardic 
letters, and once nielloed : * 10 WK021S T^KS * OOWIRff * (I. On each 




shoulder a crown in a pentagonal panel. High octagonal bezel with engraved 
borders containing a nicolo engraved in intaglio with a shield of arms : three 
bends, with a chief. 

See figure. Italian, ii\tli century. 

D. 1-12 in. L. of bezel, -38 in. Weight, 134 grains. 1872. (Castellani Coll.) 

The back of the ring is considerably worn, and the interior is reinforced. The legend, which 

is from Luke iv. 30, should continue Commendo spiritum ineum. Cf. ring in the Pichon Coll., 

Catalogue, &c., 1897, no. 64. 






44 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



255. GOLD ; the hoop of quadrangular section, widening at the 
shoulders ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : 
a lion rampant, with helmet and crest a hound's head collared. 
Legend : R . PttTRI 1)' .WO' T . 3L<$m (Petri di Monte 

Ulmi). 

Plate III. and sec figure. Italian, i^t/i century. 



D. of hoop, -91 in. 
(Braybrooke Coll.) 



L. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, 137 grains. 




256. GOLD ; the hoop faceted on the shoulders ; octagonal bezel engraved with 
a shield of arms : a fess, helmet and mantling, and crest a demi-dragon. Legend: 
VWCIILffl UVQIS VHN2ISII. 

Plate III. Italian, \^tli century. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 139 grains. 



257. 



GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop richly chased with floral designs on which 
are scrolls with the legend : tic PEl'ltS jScl. Octagonal bezel with revolving 




centre set with a sapphire and a sard, working on a swivel ; on the border, 
legend : * GVID6TI DH (1KSTILIONO. The sapphire is engraved in intaglio 
with a male head ; the sard with an eagle to /. 

Plate III, and see figure. Italian, ~u,th century. 

D. -84 in. Weight, 147 grains. 

The signet of Perseval d'Enneval, chamberlain of Charles V and VI, has a bezel revolving in 
a similar manner (Cat. des objets antiques . . . du Baron Jerome Pichon, 1897, no. 52). 

258. GOLD ; faceted hoop with legend reserved in the metal : 
FflQTHfla 6ST G|T JTBITflBIT IR KOBIS 



The 





shoulders flat, each bearing a shield of arms: paly. The octagonal bezel is 
engraved with the same shield, but oval. Legend : HiOflRQg DQ GOLTQRIO, 



SIGNET-RINGS 45 

the words separated by quatrefoils. On the under facets of the bezel elegant 
nielloed ornament. 

See figure. Italian, 141/1 century. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, -63 in. Weight, 245 grains. 1872. Castellani Coll. 
For the legend sec under no. 229. 

359. GOLD ; the hoop terminating in oval panels with scrolls; a legend (much worn) : 
SReinrH flR. . .a! Sll . . . CRT . Rtl mOIl ; octagonal bezel set with a garnet 
engraved with shield of arms : two bars. Legend : KVIflttI DI 



Plate III. Italian, 141/1 century. 

D. -8 in. L. of bezel, -53 in. Weight, 77 grains. 

The word verbuin is probably the beginning of the favourite text : verbum caro factuin est 
et nos, &><:. 

260. GOLD; hoop as the last number, engraved with legend : 2IQR|B2IflB, in two 
panels ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : an eagle passant 
regardant. Legend: ftKIOLfl D PROSTI. 

Plate IV. Italian, I4th century. 

D. of hoop, -89 in. L. of bezel, -44 in. Weight, I IO grains. Acquired in 1877. From Rome. 
For the word verbum, part of the text Verbum caro factum est, see under no. 229. 

261. GOLD ; similar hoop, much worn ; octagonal bezel engraved with a stag's 
head. Legend: GOI/fl : RaBIfta. 

Plate III. Italian, 142/1 century. 

D. of hoop, -86 in. L. of bezel, -49 in. Weight. 116 grains. 

262. SILVER ; octagonal bezel engraved with a goat and 
branch ; legend : * S MlffiOaaiiO. Cable border. 

See figure. Italian, early i^t/t century. 
D. of hoop, 1-03 in. L. of bezel, -64 in. 

263. SILVER; plain hoop; oval bezel engraved with a tree. 
Italian, early i^t/i century. 

I), of hoop, -86 in. L. of bezel, -48 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

264. SILVER ; flat hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a star and 
bordure compony, with label of three points. Legend: lOuKMUOGTfl ' DH 




Italian, 1 4th century. 

D. of hoop, -72 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. 

265. SILVER; plain hoop; on each shoulder a palm-leaf; oblong bezel engraved 
with a cock, and an indecipherable legend. 
Italian, early i^f/t century. 
D. of hoop, ro6 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. 




46 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

266. SILVER ; plain hoop ; engraved shoulders ; projecting 
oval bezel engraved with a dolphin (?). 

See figure. Italian, early \$th century. 
D. of hoop, -96 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. 

267. GOLD ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : quarterly : i and 2, 
no charge ; 3 and 4, dancetty surmounted by a helmet with crest a demi-lion. 
Legend : (jff T), all within a cable border. 

Plate IV. Italian, late \ th century. 
D. of hoop. -88 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, 150 grains. 

268. GOLD ; on each shoulder the letter p ; octagonal bezel engraved with shield 
with star of six points ; helmet and crest a goat's head, with legend : R2ISS2IS 
DH DI(?If 0. The back of the bezel is engraved with the sacred monogram : I j) 0. 

Plate IV. Italian, early 'i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -55 in. Weight, 168 grains. 

269. GOLD ; round the hoop, reserved on a scroll with nielloed ground, legend : 
KIIII IK LIHK III IIHHIB(V)S TVIS; octagonal bezel engraved with shield of 
arms of Condulmer : a bend. Legend : lOhKNIIS QONDVL S D. 

Plate IV. Italian, i$t/t century. 
D. of hoop, -79 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Weight, 1 60 grains. Found in Savoy. 

270. SlLVLK ; plain hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with the letter 6, and legend : 
LeOORDOVeaieR. Cable border. On one shoulder a star to indicate the 

top of the device. 

French, early i$th century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. 

271. BRONZE ; plain hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a lion rampant within 
a cable border. 

French, \6tJi century. 

D. of hoop, -99 in. L. of bezel, -53 in. 

272. BRONZE ; once gilt ; channelled hoop ; on the shoulders the letters A lit. Oval 
bezel engraved with a shield of arms: bendy of six, a chief; with a nearly 
obliterated legend. 

F rencl i, i^tk century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

273. BRONZE ; plain hoop rounded on the outer side, and oval bezel engraved in 
intaglio with a shield bearing a lion rampant ; round the shield an indeterminate 
legend. 

Italian, i^th century. 

D. -86 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. 

Traces of gilding remain in the shield. 




SIGNET-RINGS 

274. BRONZE GILT ; the hoop chased with a garland ; octagonal 
bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a lion rampant. Legend : 

isas SKI aoisa. 

See figure. Italian, i$th century. 
D. of hoop, -96 in. 

275. BRONZE GILT ; on hoop three lozenge panels engraved with nielloed foliage 
and much defaced inscription ; hexagonal bezel engraved with shield of arms : a fess 
between three cinquefoils with helmet and crest a dragon's head. Legend : HI 

flfflHHS tafls DOW. 

Plate IV. Italian, early i^tli century. 

D. of hoop, i -08 in. L. of bezel, -74 in. (Zschille Coll.) 
For the legend cf. no. 230. 

276. SILVER; plain hoop; oval bezel engraved with the head of a hound. Legend: 

esGiene nova. 

Italian, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -95 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. 

277. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a shaped shield barry of hurts (?), helmet 
and crest a demi-eagle; legend nearly obliterated. At the back of the bezel is 
engraved : p 1) <J. 

Plate IV. Italian, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -62 in. Weight, 278 grains. 

278. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved in intaglio with a shield of arms : an eagle dis- 
played, and in the dexter chief a star. Legend : * Cdlil * 13 * &//////. 

Italian, late i^th century. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 224 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

279. GOLD ; oval bezel deeply engraved with a shield : per fess, in chief a human 
leg, in base bendy, with helmet and crest a demi-wyvern. Legend : flROWiSS/^/ 
VOSSfl. 

Plate IV. Italian, early i$t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -79 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 157 grains. 

280. SILVER ; massive hoop with bevelled edges ; oval bezel engraved with 
a shield of arms : quarterly (i) and (4) five pellets, (2) and (3) an eagle displayed, 
with helmet and crest a demi-dragon. Legend : S QOSRITIS hORORSTI. 

Plate IV. Italian, i$th centiity. 
D. -95 in. 

281. BRONZE GILT ; hoop with ribbed border ; on each shoulder the letter P. 
Oval bezel engraved with a shaped shield of arms : on a cross surmounted by 
wings (?) five crescents. Pearled border. 

Italian, i^t/t century. 

D. of hoop, -96 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 



48 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

282. BRONZE ; once gilt ; oval bezel engraved in intaglio with a fa9ade. Legend : 
SOIQI. 

Italian, i$th century. 

D. -76 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

283. SILVER ; the hoop engraved with two lines of inscription in niello : IQSVS 
KVTer-I TRKHSIGNS P6R HQDIVH ILLORVI I IBKT. Oval bezel engraved 
with a monogram composed of the letters PLIO. 

Italian, \^t!i century. 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -77 in. (Castellani Coll.) 
For the legend see under no. 231. 

284. GOLD ; rectangular bezel engraved with the letter P within a pearled border. 
English (?), late i^th century. 

I). -86 in. Weight, 140 grains. 

285. GOLD ; flat hoop ; square bezel engraved with crest and supporters of 
Courtenay. 

Plate IV. English, early i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -44 in. Weight, 465 grains. Found at Hardington, Co. 
Somerset. 

286. GOLD ; the hoop diagonally wreathed at the back ; the shoulders faceted 
and engraved with foliage ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : 

a bird with initials - "j^. Cable border. 

Plate IV. English, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, '96 in. L. of bezel, '44 in. Weight, 163 grains. 

287. GOLD ; octagonal bezel engraved with a rose out of which rays are 
issuing ; on each shoulder three channels with the same device repeated. 
Within, legend : ilbmtlU'C Ct gniCtf. 

English, i~)th century. 

D. 1-07 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 398 grains. 1871. Found in Kent. 

288. GOLD ; wreathed hoop alternately pearled and ridged : hollowed on the 
shoulders and engraved with sprigs once enamelled. Circular bezel, engraved 
with a garb and legend : Sill Ul" ; inside is engraved the legend : |'OJ>t ttn# fPI1, 
enamelled. 

Plate IV. English, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 152 grains. (Rohde Hawkins Coll.) 
For the legend sec nos. 562, 924-7. 

289. GOLD ; the back of the hoop diagonally wreathed ; the shoulders similarly 
channelled and engraved with legend : autl'f 1U toflc and sprigs, with traces of 
enamel. Circular bezel engraved with letter A in centre of an ivy-leaf; in the 



SIGNET-RINGS 49 



interior is engraved legend : atltl CtCCC OU llfjSt, with sprigs ; traces 
of enamel. 

Plate IV. English, i$t/t century. 

D. of hoop, -89 in. D. of bezel, -44 in. Weight, 160 grains. From a cutting in the river 
bank, Richmond, Surrey. 

For the first legend see nos. 966-7. 

290. GOLD; bezel a circular disk engraved with the letter S, and legend: |9ttr : JltOP. 
Plate IV. English, i^t/i century. 

I), of hoop, -9 in. D. of bezel, -47 in. Weight, 173 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

291. GOLD ; bezel a circular disk engraved with a bird's head and neck issuing from 
a coronet ; around : II, four times repeated. 

Plate IV. English, i$th century. 

I), of hoop, 1-02 in. D. of bezel, -44 in. Weight, 185 grains. 



292. GOLD ; engraved in the interior with the legend : al : 10 : jJOt) : 
octagonal bezel on moulded base joined to the hoop by scrolls engraved with 
arms of South (?) on a shield : two bars in chief a mullet. Crest a tree ; the field 
filled with Gothic tracery. 

Plate IV. English, i^tli century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -49 in. Weight, 263 grains. 

293. GOLD ; hoop engraved on the ex- 
terior with the legend : + in * Oil * \0 
* al * and a sprig ; circular bezel en- 
graved with the letter 6f, crowned 
within an eight-foil of traces beyond 

which is a pearled border. nSTTW~i 

Plate IV, and see figure. English, * f " 
\$tJi century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. D. of bezel, -49 in. 
Weight, 226 grains. (Braybrooke Coll. 5.) 
Dug up at Little Easton, Essex, 1852. 

294. GOLD ; on the shoulders pounced scrolls ; circular bezel engraved with figure 
of a couchant stag and legend : 31 lOUeUale ; cable border. 

Plate IV. English, about A. D. 1500. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. D. of bezel, -46 in. Weight, 253 grains. 

295. GOLD ; circular bezel engraved with a female bust with long hair and 
garland ; cable border. 

Plate IV. Late i$th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-23 in. D. of bezel, -42 in. Weight, 465 grains. 

E 




50 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

296. GOLD ; channelled shoulders ; circular bezel with cable border, engraved with 
a shield of arms : two lions passant. In the interior is engraved the legend : }t 

poet fop ou j'e Dop. 

Plate IV. English, about A. D. 1500. 

D. of hoop, 1-03 in. I), of bezel, -52 in. Weight, 363 grains. 

Found in the Thames near Battcrsea (Proc. Sac. Antiquaries of London, 1st sen. iv, p. 268). 



II. From A. D. 1450 to 1650. 

(a) Set with gems. 

297. GOLD; hoop a twist; oval bezel set with a sard engraved in intaglio with 
a helmeted head. 

\f>th century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 284 grains. 

298. GOLD ; the hoop a twist: projecting oval bezel set with a paste engraved in 
intaglio with a wyvern (?). 

Late ^6tll century. 

D. of hoop, <.) in. L. of bezel, -51 in. Weight, 1 19 grains. 

299. GOLD ; the hoop chased on the shoulders with formal foliated designs. Oval 
bezel set with an imperial head engraved in intaglio on sard of contemporary 
work. 

PlalcV. German, i6tfi century, 

1J. of hoop, i -08 in. L. of bezel, -69 in. Weight, 152 grains. (Soden Smith Coil.) 

300. GOLD; the oval bezel, which has a pearled band round the sides, is set with 
a sard engraved in intaglio with two masks : a satyr and a maenad combined. 

PlateV. \6th century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -57 in. Weight, 148 grains. Found near Woodstock, Oxon. 
The intaglio contemporary with the ring. 

301. GOLD ; small hoop chased with foliate designs on the shoulders, and beaded 
border round the bezel. Oval bezel set with a garnet engraved in intaglio with 
two standing figures, perhaps Aesculapius and Hygieia. 

i6//2 century. 

D. of hoop, -65 in. L. of bezel, -42 in. Weight, 50 grains. 
The gem is probably antique. 

302. GOLD ; oval bezel with pearled band round the sides, set with a crystal 
engraved in intaglio with a male head of contemporary work. 

Plate V. \.f>th century. 

D. of hoop, -96 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 105 grain?. (Soden Smith Coll.) 



SIGNET-RINGS 51 

GOLD ; the hoop engraved on the shoulders ; oval bezel with pearled edge set 
with a lapis lazuli engraved in intaglio with Eros holding a ball (?) with both 
hands. 

\6tli century. 

D. -8 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 70 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 
The gem is Late Roman. 

GOLD ; oval bezel set with a dark sard engraved in intaglio with a figure of 
a deity leaning on a column, with composite attributes: the helmet of Minerva, 
the cornucopia of Fortune, the caduceus of Mercury, together with a shield and 
a serpent ; round the edge of the bezel a pearled and twisted band. 

English, \6t/i century. 

D. ro6 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 223 grains. 
The intaglio Late Roman. 

GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel set with a sard engraved in intaglio with 
Cupid in a chariot, driving two birds ; pearled edge. 
English, 1 6th cent:iry, 

I). -99 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 98 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Dug up between 
Annecy and Rumilly, south of Geneva. 

GOLD ; circular bezel containing a sard engraved in intaglio of contemporary 
work with a male bust, having a composite head with three faces. That in the 
centre, seen full, is bearded and has a lock of hair over the brow ; the two in 
profile are hairless. On the border of the bezel the word /[20tofl is engraved 
twice. 

Plate V. English, \6t/i century. 

D. 1-04 in. Weight, 281 grains. 

The hoop has been restored. The gem may be Italian of rather earlier date, and represent 
the cognizance of the Trivulzio family (Arch. Join -n. xxi, pp. 330). 

GOLD; the hoop and sides of the bezel engraved with foliated scroll designs, 
once enamelled. Oval .bezel set with a sard, engraved in intaglio with the head of 
a maenad, of contemporary work. 

Plate V. German, i6f/i century. 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Weight, 138 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

GOLD ; the shoulders engraved with arabesques ; the bezel is oval with 
a pearled band round the outside, and set with a sard rudely engraved in intaglio 
with a laureate imperial head of contemporary work. On the back of the hoop 
are engraved the initials E B. 

Plate V. English (?), i6f/i century. 

D. of hoop, 1-03 in. L. of bezel, -64 in. Weight, 107 grains. 

GOLD; the hoop with remains of brilliant enamel colours; at the back it is 
chased with a garland, and the shoulders are deeply cut with projecting collars ; 
the bezel a circular cup with four claws, ornamented on the back with trefoil 

E 2 



52 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

sprigs enamelled green, and set with a sard engraved in intaglio with a classical 
mask. 

Plated, \6thccntmy. 

D. of hoop, -92 in. D. of bezel, -53 in. Weight, 130 grains. 

The gem is probably antique. 

310. GOLD ; the hoop of thick twisted wires with smaller pearled thread between ; 
oval bezel set clear with an amethyst engraved in intaglio with a head of Jupiter 
Serapis. 

Plate V. i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, i-oi in. L. of bezel, -8 in. Weight, 271 grains. 

The gem may be antique. 

311. GOLD ; high oval bezel with moulded edge, containing a beryl engraved in 
intaglio with a bearded head. The sides and back of the bezel, and the shoulders 
of the hoop, are enriched with black enamel in series of broken lines. 

Plate X. French, i6t/i century. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, -7 in. Weight, 160 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

The gem may be antique. 

312. GOLD; on the hoop and bezel a delicate scroll design reserved in the metal 
on black enamel. Octagonal bezel set with a beryl engraved in contemporary 
intaglio with an imperial head. 
Plate V. i6t/t century. 
D. of hoop, -8 in. L. of bezel, - 5in. Weight, 137 grains. (Coll. of Lady Fellows.) 

313. GOLD ; flat channelled hoop with bars on shoulders ; octagonal box bezel with 
imitation claws and enamelled border, set with an almandine garnet engraved in 
intaglio with an imperial head of contemporary work. 

Plate V. Late i6t/t century. 

D. of hoop, -79 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. Weight, 75 grains. Found at Battlefield, near 
Shrewsbury. 

The head may represent Vespasian. 

314. GOLD ; in the circular bezel revolves in all directions a thick circular medallion, 
on the edges of which are hunting-scenes engraved and enamelled ; in one face is 
set an onyx engraved in intaglio with Apollo with his lyre, 

in the other a sard, with a male and female figure (Bacchus 
and Ariadne ?) standing. The rest of the ring is richly enamelled 




with floral design in green, white, and blue on a black ground. 
. See figure. Soiith German, early i"jt/i century. 
D. -96 in. Weight, 331 grains. 

The onyx intaglio is of the sixteenth century ; the sard may possibly be antique, of the 
third century. 



SIGNET-RINGS 53 

315. BRONZE ; slender hoop ; oval bezel set with a dark blue paste with a transverse 
white band, with an intaglio female bust. 

Early \"]tJi century. 

D. -96 in. 

The p;iste is antique. 

(6) Set with crystal ; engraved arms and devices coloured beneath. 

316. Goi.D ; the shoulders ornamented with flowers and leaves once enamelled ; oval 
bezel containing a chalcedony engraved with the achievement of Mary Queen of 
Scots. The shield is that of Scotland surrounded by the collar of the Thistle, 
with the badge, and supported by two unicorns chained and ducally gorged. The 
crest, on a helmet with mantlings and ensigned with a crown, is a lion sejant 
affronte, crowned and holding in the dexter paw a naked sword ; in the sinister a 
sceptre, both bendwise. Legend: IN D EFENS, and the letters M. R. On the dexter 






side is a banner with the arms of Scotland ; on the sinister side, another, with 
three bars and over all a saltire. The metals and tinctures appear through the 
crystal on a field of blue. Within the hoop at the back of the bezel is en- 
graved a cipher in a circular band and surmounted by a crown (sec figure), once 
enamelled. The cipher is formed of the Greek letter <t> and M, for the names 
Francis and Mary. 

See figure. French, \6tlicentnry. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 211 grains. 1856. 

A. Way in Catalogue of Antiquities, Works of Art, and Historical Scottish Relics exhibited 
in the Museum of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland during their annual 
meeting held in Edinburgh, July, 1856 (Edinburgh, 1859), pp. 173 fif. ; Sir H. Ellis in 
Archaeologia, xxxiii, p. 354. 

The hoop is much worn, so that the floral scrolls are partly effaced ; traces of green enamel 
remain in one flower. In the design at the back of the bezel, white enamel is visible in the 
band enclosing the cipher, translucent red on upper stroke of the M, and white in the upper 
stroke of the <|> ; the crown may have been enamelled in black. It has been conjectured that 
some legend may have been painted upon the white enamel of the band. If not a motto such 
as Nemo me impune lacessit, or Optimam flartem elegit, this may have been the anagram, 
So. verlu m'attire, which is found round the same cipher engraved on Mary's silver hand-bell 
in the possession of the family of Bruce of Kennet (Cutulogue of Antiquities, as above, 
pp. 169-73). 

The employment of Greek letters in this cipher, and in a variant used by Mary in a letter 
to Elizabeth, June 15, 1565, is in accordance with precedent, Francis I having employed <J>, Louis 
XII and Louis XIII A (Menestrier, Veritable Art <1u Blason, p. 22, Paris, 1673, and W. S.Walford, 
Archaeological Journal, xv, p. 263). 



54 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

Since after her marriage in 1558 Mary no longer bore the arms of Scotland alone, while 
after the death of Francis she would no longer have used the cipher with his name, it may be 
assumed that the ring was made, probably in France, at some time in the decade between 1548 
and 1558. Its history is unknown during the period between Mary's death and the year 1792, 
when an impression is reproduced by Astle as 'from a seal of Mary Oueen of Scots in the royal 
collection of the Queen's House'; it thus belonged at that time to Queen Charlotte. It 
subsequently passed into the possession of the Duke of York ; on the sale of his plate and jewels 
at Christie's in March, 1827, it was purchased by Mr. Richard Greene, F.S.A., from whom it was 
acquired in 1856 by the British Museum. 

Rings of this type, showing armorial bearings with their proper metals and tinctures beneath 
crystal, were evidently common in the second half of the sixteenth century ; they may be seen, 
for example, in the portraits of Sir Nicholas Bacon and Cranmer in the National Portrait Gallery. 
Several are in the Waterton Collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Large seals were 
executed in the same style ; the Franks Bequest contains that of Alexander Seton, first Earl 
of Dunfermline. 

317. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a flat crystal engraved with a shaped shield of 
arms : a plant with three flowers. Background of foil with gilding, and the 

letters : V M N. 

German, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -76 in. L. of bezel, -43 in. Weight, 40 grains. 

Cf. no. 326. The same letters, with date 1572, occur on a similar ring in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum (no. T$6-7\). 

318. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a crystal engraved with a shield of arms : azure, 
a chevron between in chief two stars or. and in base a ram passant. The 
tinctures appear through the crystal. 

Plate V. French, \6th century. 
D. of hoop, 1-04 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 175 grains. (Spitzer Coll., no. 1935.) 

319. GOLD ; oval bezel .set with a crystal engraved with arms of Fleetwood : per 
pale nebulcc a/.urc and or six martlets counterchanged. The colours appear 
through the crystal as before ; the ground is crimson. At the back of the bezel 
is engraved a grasshopper, once enamelled. 

Plate V. English, i6tk century. 

D. of hoop, 1-07 in. L. of bezel, -87 in. Weight, 256 grains. 

320. GOLD ; the hoop and sides of the bezel ornamented with elaborate formal 
scrolls in blue and black enamel. Oval bezel set yvith a crystal engraved with 
the arms of Bentinck : a cross molinc, with helmet, crest two arms each holding 
an ostrich feather, and mantling. The tinctures appear through the crystal on 
a crimson field. 

Plate V. Dutch, \6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-18 in. L. of bezel, -76 in. Weight, 514 grains. 

321. GOLD ; oval bezel with pearled edge, set with a crystal on which is engraved 
a shaped shield : or, a sprig of forget-me-nots. In the field, the initials P. M. and 
date 1577, the tinctures appearing through the crystal ; crimson field. 

\fith century. 

D. of hoop, -76 in. L. of bezel, -41 in. Weight, 44 grains. 






SIGNET-RINGS 55 

322. GOLD ; the hoop and sides of the bezel chased with formal foliated designs. 
Oval bezel set with a crystal engraved with an angel between two stars, holding 
a shield on which is a panel of imbrications, with initials P B W. Through the 
crystal is seen a gold background. On the back of the bezel is an ornamental 
panel engraved with the initials P. B. 

Plate V. \f>th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-03 in. L. of bezel, -74 in. Weight, 167 grains. 

323. GOLD ; the hoop chased on the shoulders with formal foliate design. 
Circular bezel with pearled band round the sides, set with a crystal engraved with 
a winged lion rampant, or, on a red background. 

Plate V. if>th century. 
D. of hoop, -96 in. D. of bezel, -62 in. Weight, 155 grains. 

324. GOLD ; the hoop and sides of the -bezel chased with scrolls. Oval bezel set 
with a crystal engraved with a shaped shield of arms : gules, six quatrefoils 
argent, three, two and one ; the tinctures appearing through the crystal. 

Plate V. German, i6t/i century. 
D. of hoop, -86 in. L. of bezel, -55 in. Weight, 112 grains. 

325. GOLD; the hoop engraved and once enamelled ; octagonal bezel engraved at 
the back with scroll-work and flames ; it is set with a crystal on which is engraved 
an oval shield of arms: per fess, or and sable, a stag rampant, countcrchanged, 
debruised by a fess, with helmet and mantling. 

Plate V. German, late idth century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 128 grains. 

326. GOLD; shoulders engraved with scrolls and terminating in boldly modelled 
volules; circular bezel with reeded back, the whole enamelled in brilliant colours. 
It is set with a flat crystal engraved with a shield : a plant with three flowers ; the 
tinctures showing through. Crimson field with the initials V M N and date 1562. 

German, \6tJi century. 

D. of hoop, -83 in. D. of bezel, -43 in. Weight, 75 grains. 

Cf. no. 317. 

327. GOLD ; slender hoop, plain at the back but partly engraved with spiral scrolls- 
enamelled black ; the shoulders are chased as scrolls and enamelled in pale blue, 
translucent green, and red. The oval bezel is enamelled at the 

back with lines in pale blue radiating from a green centre, 
and has a pearled band round the sides. It is set with 
a crystal cut with a coat of arms coloured on the back : per 
fess a gryphon rampant, and in base three fleurs-de-lis ; 
above, a helmet and crest a phoenix, the latter separating the 
letters H. E. 

See figure. German, i6t/i century. 

D. 1-06 in. Weight, 190 grains. Waddesdon Bequest, 1898. 

C. H. Read, The Wuddesdon Bequest, Catalogue of the Works of Art, &c., 1902, no. 198. 





CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



(c) Engraved ivith arms and devices. 

328. GOLD; broad flat hoop engraved on the shoulders with sprigs; square bezel 
working on a pivot, engraved with bell and key, and the vernicle. 
Plate VI. Englisli, i^th century. 
D. of hoop, -8 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 323 grains. 



329. GOLD ; broad hoop similar to the last with a tau 
engraved on each shoulder ; rectangular bezel engraved 
with a house, and letter t; pearled border. 

See figure. Euglislt, \6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -96 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. Weight, 210 grains. 
(Braybrooke Coll.) 

The device may be a rebus (R. Hutton?), Arch.Journ. xiii, 
p. 297. For the capital T (tau) as associated with St. Anthony 
see under no. 721. Cf. also nos. 528, 530, 532. For other 
rebuses cf. nos. 469, 526, 540, and Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of 
London, 2nd series, ii, p. 363; vi, p. 51. 

330. BKON/.E ; rectangular bezel engraved with a standing 
figure of St. Laurence holding the gridiron. To left, 
the letter I. 

See figure, ifit/i century. 

D. i-oS in. 1753. (Sloane Coll. 88.) 



331- SILVER ; flat hoop ; rectangular bezel engraved with the letter C. 

German, i6tk century. 

D. of hoop, 1-03 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. 




332. SILVER ; broad flat hoop ; on one shoulder a rose, on the other a heart 
transfixed with two arrows. Rectangular bezel engraved 
with initials i f between scrolls, all within a cable 
border. 

See figure. German, l 1 ] th century, 

D. of hoop, 1-05 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
This ring might equally well be classed as a love-ring. 




333. BRON/.E ; oval bezel engraved with the letters I B in monogram 
\6th century. 

D. i -08 in. 1893. (Uurden Coll.) 



SIGNET-RINGS 57 

334. SILVER ; plain flat hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with the letter fl within 
a cable border. 

\6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -99 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. 

Signets bearing a letter surmounted by a crown were in common use in the fifteenth, and 
in the first part of the sixteenth century. The great majority are of bronze and of small intrinsic 
value, and existing documents show that they were used by commoners (e. g. a crowned R is 
upon a seal affixed to a deed of A.D. 1431, representing Robert Byngham ; see Arch.Jonrn. iv, 
p. 360). Examples of these rings are in the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Norwich 
Castle Museum, &c. 

The great variety of letters so crowned shows that no religious significance attaches 
to these devices, and that crowned I does not signify Jesus, or the crowned M Mary. Cf. 
nos. 335-7, 357 ff., and Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, 2nd series, iii, p. 259 ; vi, p. 384 ; x, 
p. 296 ; xx, p. 289. 

335- SILVER ; once gilt ; flat hoop engraved on the shoulders with the letters K 
and G ; oblong bezel engraved with the letter P crowned ; pearled border. 
English, late i$th century. 
D. of hoop, i in. L. of bezel, -68 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

336. BRONZE ; slender hoop ; oval bezel engraved with a crowned letter "K. 
\~)th-\btJi century. 

D. i in. 

337. SILVER ; octagonal bezel engraved with P surmounted by 
a crown. 

Sec figure. i6//i century. 

D. -94 in. L. of bezel, -64 in. 1872. ( Castellan i Coll.) 

338. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved with a merchant's mark and the letters 
I f o ; above is a larger letter G. 

See figure. i6//i century. 

V. ! in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Given by H. J. Ellis, Esq., 1904. 

For merchants' marks used by mediaeval traders see Guide to the Mediaeval Room, 
1907, p. 199 ; Arch. Journal, v, p. 5 ; xv, p. 289 ; Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, xii, 
pp. 7-10; Journ. Brit. Arch. Association, xlix, p. 45. Cf. nos. 341-2, 355-6, 403, 518, 559, 
631 ff. Further examples of rings with these marks are in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
in. the Norwich Castle Museum, and in the collection of Sir Arthur Evans. 

339. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved in intaglio with a shield of 
arms : an estoile, crest a demi-lion rampant. 

See figure. \6th century. 

D. 1-06 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. 1836. 

340. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved with a merchant's mark. 
See figure. \6tk century. 

D. 1-04 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. 1836. 





CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



341- BRONZE ; slender hoop; octagonal bezel engraved with a merchant's 
beneath, the letters -I S- 

See figure. \6th century. 

D. -54 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

342. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved with a merchant's mark. 
See figure, \6tlicentury. 

D. 1-08 in. 1893. (Burden Coll.) Found near Blandford, Dorset. 

343. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved in intaglio 
with a monogram; legend: RASMVS HANSEN(?>). 

See figure. Dutch, \fttli century. 
D. ro6 in. 

The first name stands for Erasmus. 

*^s^ 

344. BRONZE; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms: four 
cinquefoils, crest a snake's head, and mantling. Above, a legend : 
ORK(?) * * URN. 



mark; 








ORK(?) . 

See figure. Italian, \' } tli century. 
I), i in. 

345. SILVER ; the shoulders and sides of the bezel 
chased ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of 
arms: a bird, in the sinister chief a crescent ; above. 
the initials J] S. 

See figure. Italian, \6th century. 
D. -96 in. L. of bezel, -66 in. Given by the Trustees of t he- 
Christy Collection, 1865. 

346. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel rudely engraved in intaglio with a stag lodged. 
English^ \6th century. 

D. -9 in. 1856. (Roach Smith Coll.) 

347. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a lion rampant. 
i6/7? century. 

D. -85 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

348. GOLD ; octagonal bezel containing an oriental garnet engraved with a shield of 
arms : a boar's head, in chief two crescents, and name GEORG TENNENT. 

Plate VI. German, early \']th century. 
L>. of hoop, -91 in. L. of bezel, -57 in. 

349 GOLD ; hoop of quadrangular section ; octagonal bezel set with a sard 
engraved with a merchant's mark, below which is a lion passant, all within an 
oval shield. 

Plate VI. German, late \6th century. 
D. of hoop, -86 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. 



SIGNET-RINGS 59 

35O. GOLD ; similar hoop ; octagonal bezel set with an almandine garnet engraved 
with a shield of arms: (i) per pale a seated figure holding sceptre; (a) per fess 
(a) a stork, (b) a wing, with crest a pair of wings ; mantling, and initials S. P. V. R. 

German, late i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, -43 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

351. GOLD; the hoop channelled at the shoulders, where it is engraved with 
two letters (I and L ?), one still filled with niello. Octagonal bezel engraved with 
a shield of arms: bendy, a chief; sprigs in the field ; pearled border. 

Plate X. Italian, i$th century. 

D. -96 in. L. of bezel. -5 in. Weight, 186 grains. Castellan) Coll. 1872. 
G OLD ; plain hoop with faceted shoulders ; octagonal bezel engraved with 
a shield of arms : per pale, barry of six, a lion rampant. On either side of the 
shield, the letters I A. 

Plate X. Italian, i$tk century. 

D. -88 in. D. of bezel, -48 in. Weight, 165 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

353. GOLD; flat hoop inscribed SPERO IN DEO; on the shoulders arc engraved 
St. George and St. Barbara (?) ; octagonal bezel, engraved with a shield : a left 
arm holding a sprig ; above, the initial \ v;r ; all enclosed in a pearled border. 

Plate Vf . German, early \ 6th century. 

D. of hoop, -91 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 200 grains. 

354. SILVER ; shoulders engraved with scrolls and zigzag border : octagonal bezel 
set with a carnelian engraved with a shield bearing a tree ; mantling, and crest 
three knobbed spikes, radiating, with the letters ^ ^. 

Late i6t/i century. 
D. 1-04 in. 

355. GOLD ; wreathed hoop with alternating plain and beaded bands ; the shoulders 
are scrolled at the sides, and engraved with the legend : iotjatlS ff0CI ; the bezel 
is engraved with a merchant's mark. 

Plate VI. English, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, PI in. L of bezel, -52 in. Found in the Thames at Southwark Bridge. 
For merchants' marks see under no. 338. 



356. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with legend : 

Cmalt, and an open crown on each shoulder, all once 
enamelled ; circular bezel engraved with a merchant's 
mark ; toothed border. 

Plate VI, and sec figure. English, i$lh century. 

D. of hoop, 1-08 in. D. of bezel, -56 in. (Octavius Morgan 
Coll.) 





60 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

357. BRONZE ; channelled shoulders ; octagonal bezel engraved with 
"R surmounted by a crown. 

See figure. i$th-i6th century. 

D. -94 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 
See under no. 334. 

358. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with "R surmounted by a crown. 
English, i ~ } t/i- 1 fith century. 

D. I in. 

359. BRONZE GILT ; slender hoop with facetted shoulders ; octagonal bezel 
engraved with the letter (5 crowned. Legend : GIRKR5. 

French, ijt/i-i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -95 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. 

360. BRONZE ; oblong bezel engraved with a letter I crowned. 
English, ].5///-i6//; century. 

D. 1-03 in. 

361. SILVER ; once gilt ; wreathed hoop ; octagonal bezel on which 
is engraved the letter I crowned ; pearled border. A star upon 
one shoulder to mark the top of the seal. 

Sec figure. English, i^thtftth century. 

D. of hoop, 1-03 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. 

362. BRASS ; oval bezel engraved with an I crowned. 
English, i $thi 6th century. 

D. of hoop, i -02 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. 

363. BRONZE ; faceted hoop and octagonal bezel, engraved in intaglio with an 
I crowned. 

English, i$th-it>th century. 

D. i in. 

A fragment is broken out of the hoop at one side. 

364. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with an I crowned. 
English, \$th-i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-04 in. 

365. ANOTHER; the same letter. 
D. ri in. 1865. 

366. ANOTHER. 

D. -94 in. 1872. 

367. ANOTHER ; crowned iH. 

D. i in. 1836. 




SIGNET-RINGS 6l 

368. ANOTHER ; the same letter. 
D. i-i in. 1865. 

369. ANOTHER. 

D. 1-04 in. 1836. 

370. BRONZE ; letter I? crowned. 
D. -98 in. 

371. BRONZE ; letter R crowned. 
D. i-i in. 

372. ANOTHER ; the same letter. 

D. 1-08 in. 1893. (Durden Coll.) Found at Woodyates, 1854. 

373. ANOTHER ; the same. 

D. -94 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

374. ANOTHER ; the same. 

D. i-i in. 1856. (Roach Smith Coll.) 

375. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved with the letter R, and cross 
English, jr,t/i-i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, 1-04 in. L. of bezel, -62 in. 

376. BRONZE ; plain hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with R crowned between 
two sprays. 

i^t^i6i/i century. 
D. of hoop, 1-03 in. 

377. BRONZE ; oblong bezel engraved with R crowned. 

English, i$th-\6th century. 

D. of hoop, -99 in. 

378. SILVER ; the shoulders engraved with floral ornament ; octagonal bezel 
engraved with Q. 

English, \$th-\6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-12 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

379. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved with a <~> crowned. 
English, \$th-i(>t]i century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. Found in Nelson Street, Bristol, in making the deep sewerage, 1862. 

380. BRONZE ; once gilt ; oblong bezel engraved with a crowned. 
English, i$th- -i6t/i cctitnry. 

D. of hoop, -99 in. 

381. BRONZE ; bezel engraved with the letters RflR crowned. 
D. 1-06 in. 1865. 

382. BRONZE ; oval bezel rudely engraved with a V crowned. 
D. 1-06 in. 1836. 




62 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

383. BRONZE ; rectangular bezel engraved with a W crowned. 
English, \$th-i6tk century. 
D. I in. 



384. BRONZE ; W crowned. 
See figure. 

D. i-i in. 1853. 

385. ANOTHER ; the same letter. 

I), i-i in. 1836. 

386-9. FOUR OTHERS ; the same. 

D. I in. 1836. 

One hoop broken at the back. 

390. ANOTHER ; similar. 

I). 1-04 in. 1865. 

391. BRONZE ; narrow oval bezel engraved with a letter f, without crown. 
D. i in. 

392. BRONZE ; oval be/el engraved with an I entwined in loops. . 
U. i in. 

393. SILVER; faceted hoop engraved on shoulders ; octagonal bezel 
engraved with an eagle on a triple mount. Cable border. 

See figure. French, \dtJi century. 

IX of hoop, 1-04 in. L. of bezel, -51 in. 



394. GoLU ; wreathed hoop, the shoulders channelled and engraved with the 
legend : tttiUeC tm memmtO met IjailSlta | paCffljC. Octagonal bezel engraved 
with a merchant's mark ; cable border. 

German, \^th century. 

D. of hoop, -92 in. Weight, 220 grains. (Fritz Hahn Coll.) 

The name is Hans van Parghem. For the inscription cf. nos. 696-9. 

395. IRON GILT ; faceted hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : 
three fishes, crest a mermaid with two tails, and mantling. Initials C F R. 

South German, \f>th century. 

D. IM in. L. of bezel, -67 in. (Zschille Collection, no. Si.) 




SIGNET-RINGS 




396. BRONZE ; faceted hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with figures of St. 
Catharine and another female saint. 

English, i^t/i century. 
D. of hoop, -84 in. 

397. SILVER ; faceted hoop ; octagonal bezel with pearled edge, engraved with 
a shield : a sprig of wild rose. Above, half-obliterated initials. 

1 6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, IT in. L. of bezel, -66 in. 



398, SlLVKR ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a 
mailed arm with sabre ; above, K B (?) ; cable border. 
See figure. French, early i6t/i century. 
D. of hoop, IT in. Found at Calais. 



399. BRONZE GILT ; plain hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a balance ; 
Hebrew legend much worn. 

German, I'jth century. 

I), of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. 

400. BRONZE ; faceted hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a 
merchant's mark. Legend within a cable border : * REINHOLT 
POPPE. 

See figure. German, early ijth century. 
D. -94 in. 

401. GOLD ; on the back of the hoop the legend : I IKIIIK, almost obliterated ; 
shoulders engraved with floral scrolls, enamelled. Octagonal bezel with pearled 
band round the sides engraved with shield of arms : a hare salient transfixed 
with an arrow ; above, a black-letter I. and a couchant animal ; cable border. 

P/afeVl. German, i6th century, 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 332 grains. (Hraybrooke Coll.) 

402. SILVER; faceted hoop; octagonal bezel engraved in intaglio with a shield : 
an ox's head ; pearled border. 

French, early i6f/i century. 

D. i in. 


403. SILVER ; the hoop diagonally wreathed at the back ; octagonal 

bezel engraved with a merchant's mark ; cable border. 
See figure. English, early \6th century. 

D. of hoop, -99 in. L. of bezel, -63 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 
The design of the merchant's mark may possibly be a rebus on the name 
Bowes. For such marks see under no. 338. 





64 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

404. GOLD ; ornamented with engraved scroll-work with remains of enamel ; 
octagonal bezel inlaid with silver in which is engraved a shaped shield of arms : 
dexter arm holding a mace ; above, the initials S. G. 

German, i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, 1-05 in. L. of bezel, -73 in. Weight, 274 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

405. BRONZE ; plain hoop of triangular section ; octagonal bezel deeply engraved 
with the vernicle. 

English, ith century, 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -51 in. 

406. SILVER ; once gilt ; octagonal bezel engraved with a horse, on which is the 
letter <o, with branches in the field ; cable border. 

English, early \f>th century. 

D. of hoop, i - o6 in. Found at Windsor, 1855. 

For a non-heraldic device of this kind, with a bird and initial among sprigs, cf. signet 
of Sir Rice ap Thomas, a partisan of Henry VII (Arcliaeohgia, xxxi, p. 474). 

407. SILVER ; octagonal bezel engraved with shield on which is 
a device of a nail and pair of pincers, with a stud between 
(emblems of the Passion). Border of crosses. 

See figure. French, 1 6t/i century. 
D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. 

408. BRONZE ; plain hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a fa9ade with two 
towers ; pearled border. 

i6th century. 

D. of hoop, i-i2 in. Found in Norfolk. 

409. SILVER ; faceted hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with the letter I within a 
horseshoe, above which is a cross, all within cable border. A cross on one 
shoulder to indicate the top of the seal. 

German, late i (Jt/i century. 

D. of hoop, i-i in. L. of bezel, -63 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

410. SILVER; plain hoop; shoulders engraved; octagonal bezel engraved with 
a shield of arms : three cinquefoils, and in base a gauntlet ; above, a crescent moon 
and a star. 

German, i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, 1-06 in. L. of bezel, -79 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

411. SILVER ; octagonal bezel engraved with arms : a kettle 
surmounted by a star ; crest a pair of wings with a star between. 
Initials: B K. 

Sec figure. German, late i6th century. 
D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. 





SIGNET-RINGS 65 

412. IRON GILT ; plain flat hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a stag's head 
cabossed ; below, a legend. 

English, i6th century. 
D. of hoop, 1-08 in. 

413. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved with a standing figure of Virgin and Child. 
French, i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -91 in. L. of bezel, -62 in. 

414. GOLD; circular bezel engraved with a lion's head erased, surrounded by an 
indeterminate legend, all within a Catharine wheel. 

.English, i6th century. 
D. of hoop, -96 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 187 grains. 

415. BRONZE ; the hoop rudely engraved on the shoulders ; flat octagonal bezel 
engraved with St. George and the Dragon, with initials : G R, all within a pearled 
border. 

German, early ijth century. 

D. of hoop, 1-06 in. L. of bezel, -71 in. 

416. SILVER GILT; plain hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a female bust and 
the legend : aDCfl gilUtiir. On one shoulder a star to mark the top of the seal. 

French, 1 6th century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. (Charvet Collection ; Sale Catalogue, 1883, no. 1277.) 

417. SILVER ; plain hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : 
a mailed arm holding a sabre ; above, a crescent and a star ; cable border. 

German, \6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-14 in. L. of bezel, -85 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

418. SILVER ; the hoop wreathed, with channelled shoulders ; octagonal bezel 
engraved with a stag. Legend : iff etlriCUgi >OUCl) ; cable border. 

Plate VI. English, i$th century. 

D. of hoop, I-I2 in. L. of bezel, -57 in. Found in the Thames. 

419. BRONZE ; plain hoop with fluted shoulders ; octagonal bezel engraved with 
device of a hammer between two stars, surmounted by a branch of palm. 
Legend : (BuilU tttacon. 

French, i $th century. 
D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. 

420. SILVER GILT; fluted at the shoulders; octagonal bezel 
engraved with a shield of arms : three cinquefoils wreathed. 

See figure. French, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-14 in. L. of bezel, -63 in. Given to Sir A. W. Franks 
by Mr. Edmund Waterton. 





66 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

421. BRONZE ; the shoulders channelled ; octagonal 
bezel engraved with a shield : a greyhound's head 
coupedand collared; below, the legend: 05uitt0(?) 
tJE bCUJJ. A star on one shoulder to indicate the 
top of the shield. 

See figure. French, ijfh century. 
D. 1-16 in. L. of bezel, -65 in. 1847. 

422. BRONZE ; the hoop, formerly wreathed at the back, forms an angle at the 
shoulders, which are fluted ; circular bezel engraved with a dog (?) with collar and 
chain running to r. 

English, i$th century. 

D. i-i in. 1836. 

423. SILVER ; the hoop diagonally ribbed at the back ; angular shoulders 
channelled ; octagonal bezel engraved with a merchant's mark within a 
pearled border. On one shoulder a cross to mark the top of the seal. 

Sec figure. English, i^t/i century. 
D. -96 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. 

424. BRONZE ; channelled shoulders ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield : 
a lion rampant, with helmet surmounted by two horns. 

i^th century. 

D. -98 in. Roach Smith Coll. 1856. 

425. BRONZE ; the hoop represents a twist ; the oblong bezel is engraved with 
a letter R. 

i$t/i century. 

D. 1-26 in. 1836. 

The hoop is bent out of its proper shape. 

426. ANOTHER ; similar ; the bezel is engraved with a letter R surmounted by 
ll)C, the whole within a pearled border. 

i^t/i century. 

D. 1-3 in. 1836. 

The hoop is bent out of shape. 

427. SILVER ; the hoop represents a twist ; oval bezel engraved 
with a letter crowned. 

See figure. i$tk centiiry. 

D. 1-2 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 
The hoop is broken at the back. 





SIGNET-RINGS 67 

428. BRONZE ; the hoop represents a twist of two thin branches ; oval bezel 
engraved with a minuscule letter HI (?). 

English, i^t/i century. 
D. ri in. 1836. 

429. SILVER; octagonal bezel engraved with the letters foil crowned. The hoop 
is diagonally channelled, and engraved on one shoulder : rt'tl with a leaf, on the 
other: facfi. 

English, i^lh century. 

D. ro8 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

430. LEAD; the hoop wreathed ; circular bezel engraved with the letter R. 
English, i$th century. 

D. ri2 in. Given by Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B., 1896. 
The ring is distorted. 

431. BRONZE ; the hoop wreathed and channelled on the shoulders ; octagonal be/el 
engraved with a merchant's mark within a pearled border. 

See figure. English, i$th century. 

D. 1-3 in. 1836. 
The ring is distorted. 

432. BRONZE ; the hoop diagonally channelled at the back ; octagonal bezel 
engraved with a shield bearing a merchant's mark between the letters 

t and II ; cable border. ^"fifr 

See figure. English, \$th century. Jg[ 

D. 1-16 in. 1893. (Durden Coll.) 

433. SILVER ; the hoop wreathed at the back, with deep channels on'the shoulders : 
octagonal bezel engraved with a tree or large plant between smaller flowers. 

English, i$th century. 

D. 1-04 in. Roach Smith Coll. 1856. 

434. BRONZE ; the hoop representing a twist ; octagonal bezel 
engraved with a tree between the letters ft. 5R, within a cable 
border. 

See figure. 

D. i-c6 in. 1865. 

435. BRONZE ; the hoop diagonally channelled ; octagonal bezel unengraved. 
i$th century. 

D. 1-16 in. 1836. 

Made for a signet, but never completed. 

F 2 




68 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




436. SILVER ; the hoop engraved on the shoulders with floral 
designs ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield with a fleur-de- 
lis. Legend : fol'ejt'. 

See figure. French, early \6th century. 
D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -48 in. 

437. SILVER GILT ; channelled hoop ; hexagonal bezel, engraved with a shield of 
arms : a saltire between four bezants. Legend : S2IQ $R&RI:ff. 

French, early i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -86 in. L. of bezel, -46 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

438. BRONZE '; wreathed hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a legend : 



439. 




German, \f>th century. 
D. -94 in. 

BRASS ; hoop with channelled shoulders ; octagonal bezel 
engraved with a trefoil, on the petals of which is engraved the 
legend : Ceft moil tit* (It is my destiny). Cable border. 

See figure. French, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Found in pulling down old 
London Bridge. 

Arch.Journ. ix, p. 109. 

BRONZE ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with the initials P crowned. 
English, early \6th century. 
D. of hoop, i in. 
See under no. 334. 

SILVER ; the hoop wreathed ; octagonal bezel engraved with a monogram 
between two branches ; cable border. A star is engraved on one shoulder to 
indicate the top of the seal. 

French, early i6th century. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. 

SILVER ; wreathed hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with the 
letter R crowned. Legend : tlC&al. A star is engraved on one 
shoulder to mark the top of the seal. 

See figure. French, early 16 th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-02 in. L. of bezel, -53 in. 
See under no. 334. 

443. SILVER; plain hoop with engraved shoulders; octagonal bezel engraved 
with a letter K, in a pearled border. 
French, about 1500. 
D. of hoop, 1-02 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Found at Calais. 



440. 



441, 



44; 




SIGNET-RINGS 



69 



444. SILVER ; hoop diagonally wreathed ; octagonal bezel engraved with a saltire, 
and initials : nt & 

French, early i$th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-02 in. L. of bezel, -55 in. 
/ 

445. SILVER ; octagonal bezel with letters nt D crowned between 
three branches; cable border. On one shoulder is engraved 
a star to mark the top of the impression. Inside the hoop 
a magical (?) inscription : + 3DgUttt + dljCird + op. 

See figure. German, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-12. L. of bezel, "] in. 

The legend is magical, and similar in character to those of nos. 863 ft". 

446. SILVER; flat hoop engraved with the legend : FRGIIDflRII; circular bezel 
engraved with a fleur-de-lis ; cable border. 

German, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -92 in. D. of bezel, -62 in. 

447. SILVER ; once gilt ; plain hoop ; circular bezel engraved with the letter 
W crowned. 

English, i$t/i-i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -97 in. L. of bezel, -49 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 







448. BRONZE ; once gilt ; circular bezel engraved with letter "R 
between two branches. 

See figure. English, i$th-i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -96 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found at 
Merton, Surrey. 





449. BRONZE ; circular bezel engraved with the letter jff. 
English, i~ l th-i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-02 in. 

450. BRONZE ; narrow hoop ; large circular bezel engraved with the letter ft. 
between a dagger and a palm-branch. 

English, i$th-\(>th century. 

D. -86 in. D. of bezel, -54 in. 1836. 

451. BRONZE ; of similar form ; bezel rudely engraved with the letter T crowned. 
English, \$th-i.6th century. 

D. -92. D. of bezel, -5 in. 1865. 



70 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

452. BRONZE ; similar form ; letter W between two branches and surmounted by 
a trefoil. 

English, I$t/i-i6f/i century. 

D. ro6 in. D. of bezel, -6 in. Burden Coll. 1893. From Tarrant Gunville, Dorset. 

453. BRONZE ; slender hoop and circular bezel rudely engraved in intaglio with 
a lion rampant. 

i^t/i century. 

D. -86 in. 1865. 

A fragment broken from the bezel. 

454. ANOTHER; of similar form, but stouter; a scorpion. 
i^th century. 

D. -96 in. 1865. 

455. BRONZE ; of similar form ; engraved in intaglio with a male bust to r. 

English, \6t/i century. t 

D. i in. Sloane Coll. 121, 1753. 

456. ANOTHER ; similar form ; bust of an ecclesiastic (?) to r., wearing a small cap. 
I'jt/i century. 

D. 1-16 in. D. of bezel, -5 in. 

457. BRONZE ; the hoop engraved ; circular bezel engraved with a horned 
quadruped, with a serpent (?) issuing from its mouth. 

i$th century. 

D. i in. D. of bezel, -6 in-. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

458. BRONZE ; circular bezel engraved in intaglio with a lion passant ; above, 
an eight-pointed star. 

i$th century. 

D. -9 in. D. of bezel, -42 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

459. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a large horseshoe and nail(?), by the side 
of which stands a rudely cut figure holding a staff". 

English, i$th century. 
D. -98 in. 

460. GOLD ; once enamelled ; massive hoop, the surface divided into seven panels- 
four with imbrications, two with the letter I on a dotted ground, and one with 
a rose. In the interior is engraved a heart in a circular panel. Shield-shaped 
bezel, engraved with arms : a unicorn's head erased, ducally gorged, with initials 
R O, all in a pearled border. 

Plate VII. English, \6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-22 in. L. of bezel, -62 in. Weight, 664 grains. (Rohde Hawkins Coll.) 



SIGNET-RINGS 71 

461. SILVER ; wreathed hoop with granular bands having channels between ; 
transverse shield-shaped bezel engraved with initials H A ; cable border. 

PlateVll. English, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, ro6 in. L. of bezel, -63 in. (Hailstone Coll.) 

462. GOLD ; wreathed hoop with cabled bands ; the bezel a shaped shield engraved 
with a swan, and the initials : W. B., all within a pearled border. 

Plate VII. English, \(>th century. 

D. fi2 in. Weight, 473 grains. 

463. GOLD ; the hoop chased with scrolls once enamelled ; shield-shaped bezel 
engraved with the eagle of St. John, with initials I W. Cable border. 

Plate VII. English, \6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-05 in. L. of bezel, -81 in. Weight, 370 grains. 



464. GOLD ; the hoop engraved on the shoulders with masks and scrolls ; lozenge- 
shaped bezel engraved with an ostrich seated on a ducal coronet, and holding 
a horseshoe. Beneath, H C in monogram. 
Plate VII. English, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, i-i in. L. of bezel, -87 in. Weight, 436 grains. From the waterworks, 
Tiverton, Devon. 



465. SILVER ; the hoop shaped on the outer side as a series 
of oval bosses ; lozenge-shaped bezel engraved with the letter 
I and scrolls. 

See figure. German, ibth century. 

D. of hoop, 1-09 in. L. of bezel, -93 in. 

466. SILVER ; the hoop of triangular section, slender at the 
back and expanding to a massive lozenge-shaped bezel 
engraved with the initials E. B. joined by a knot, and having 
round it a pearled band. 

See figure. i6f/i century. 

D. 1-14 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 



467. SILVER ; cable hoop with plain shoulders ; octagonal bezel engraved with 
the initials I W, in shields. 
English, i6th century. 

D. 1-08 in. 




72 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

468. GOLD ; wreathed hoop ; each shoulder chased with a crown ; octagonal bezel 
engraved with lit in monogram ; cable border. 

Plate VI. English, early i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, I in. L. of bezel, -55 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) Found in England. 
Cf. no. 548 and a ring in the Victoria and Albert Museum (no. 778-7 1). 

469. GOLD ; wreathed hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with two eagles confronted 
pecking at a trefoil ; legend : pekljam. Cable border. 

Plate VI. English, early i6f/t century. 

D. of hoop, -99 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Archaeological Journal, xxxiii. 194. The device forms a rebus. Cf. nos. 329, 526, 540. 

470. SILVER ; the hoop wreathed diagonally at back ; engraved shoulders. 
Octagonal bezel engraved with the letters a t crowned. Cable border. 

English, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-15 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

471. WHITE METAL ; the hoop ornamented with wreathed ribs and pearling. 
Circular bezel engraved with the letter I between two quatrefoils. 

Early \6th century. 

D. of hoop, -93 in. D. of bezel, -58 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in pulling down old 
London Bridge. 

Broken at the back. 

472. BRONZE GILT ; cable hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield, bearing 
the letter t) between three mullets ; the shank of the letter is prolonged into 
a cross above the shield. Cable border. 

English, i ~)th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-04 in. L. of bezel, -59 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in the Thames. 

473. BRONZE GILT ; the hoop diagonally wreathed, with inscription : en bOUC ait 
repeated. Octagonal bezel engraved with the figure of St. Thomas a Becket, 
with letters rto. Cable border. 

English, i$th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-15 in. L. of bezel, 79 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

For the legend, which may indicate a New Year's gift, cf. nos. 527, 940, 941, and Gentleman's 
Magazine, Ixvi, p. 457. 



474. SILVER ; wreathed hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with 
a device composed of two fs crossing each other within a 
cable border. 

See figure. i6(/i century. 

D. 1-16 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 




SIGNET-RINGS 



73 




475. BRONZE GILT ; the hoop has on the outer side an inscription on a nielloed 
ground ; edges cross-hatched. Octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : 
on a bend between two birds, three cinquefoils ; legend: fflCCO faCUU. At each end 
of the bezel is engraved a half-sun. 

French, \6th century. 
D. i in.' L. of bezel, -56 in. 

476. BRONZE GILT ; the shoulders engraved with floral designs ; 
octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms: three chevrons, 
in chief two annulets. Legend : cfjailetf It ////// UL'fjUt (?). 

See figure. French, i6f/i century. 
D. of hoop, I in. L. of bezel, -65 in. 

477. BRONZE ; once gilt ; cable hoop ; oval bezel engraved with the letter S 
over a small t ; . cable border. 

German, i$th century. 

D. of hoop, r 1 2 in. L. of bezel, -66 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) From the Thames. 

478. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a lion rampant between 
three stars, over all a fess. 

Plate X. Italian, i6th century. 

D. -96 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 160 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

479. GOLD ; the hoop, richly engraved with two bands of cinquefoils interrupted 
at the back by a trefoil with a pearled border, set with 

a crystal of ruby. The bezel is engraved with a 
shield of arms : quarterly, i and 4 a lion rampant, 
2 and 3 potent counter potent. Over the shield is a flower ; cable border. 

See figure. French, ~i$th century. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 122 grains. Castellani Coll. 1865. 

480. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with a running scroll and narrow border ; oval 
bezel engraved with a lion rampant, and two stars. 

Plate VI. Italian, \$th century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -62 in. Weight, 264 grains. 

481. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a shield : a cross potent within a square, and 
in base three mounts. In the field the initials : I +T. 

Plate VI. German, i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, 1-05 in. L. of bezel, -8 in. Weight, 308 grains. 

482. GOLD ; circular bezel engraved with the Pelham buckle. Cable border. 
Plate VI. English, \6th century. 

D. of hoop, -92 in. D. of bezel, -42 in. Weight, 249 grains. 




74 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

483. GOLD ; circular bezel engraved with the letter I crowned ; legend : 
Cable border. 

Plate VI. English, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -95 in. D. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, 230 grains. 

484. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with initials 0, with a knot ; cable border. 
Plate X. English, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -81 in. L. of bezel, -46 in. Weight, 87 grains. 

485. GOLD ; wreathed hoop ; circular bezel engraved with a couchant lion ; 
above, the word cltlf. Cable border. 

English, ] 6th century. 

D. -8 in. Weight, 83 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

486. GOLD ; engraved on each shoulder with a band of floral design, with sunk 
panels once enamelled. Circular bezel engraved in intaglio with a leopard's 
head with protruding tongue, on which is engraved the letter t; pearled border. 

Plate VI. English, early i6t/i century. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 185 grains. 

487. GOLD; plain hoop; engraved shoulders; oval bezel engraved with a shield: 
a cross flory with crest and ornament. 

Frencli, early i-jt/t century. 

D. of hoop, -73 in. L. of bezel, -49 in. Weight, 62 grains. 

488. BRONZK ; once gilt; plain hoop; oval bezel engraved with figure of a monk 
with a nimbus, holding a crosier and a book or scroll ; half-effaced legend : 
SBII. S.C. MONIASS(P). 

Italian, I'jth century. 

D. of hoop, -97 in. L. of bezel, -74 in. Found in Rome. 

489. IRON ; once gilt ; oval bezel set with a gold plate engraved with a shield of 
arms : a bend, on a chief an estoile, helmet and mantling. 

French, early ijt/i century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -69 in. 

490. SILVER GILT ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a lion 
rampant, with a mullet under the forepaws, within a double tressure flory 
counterflory. Above the shield, two arrows between three spear-heads. Cable 
border. 

Scottish, early ijt/i century. 

D. of hoop, -85 in. L. of bezel, -72 in. 



SIGNET-RINGS 



75 



491 



BRONZE ; once gilt ; oval bezel engraved 
with i 1) C with three gouttes. Cable border. 
In the interior is engraved : 111 &CO frtlu(!3). 

See figure. English, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-14 in. L. of bezel, -68 in. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) P'ound in repairing Weston Church, Suffolk. 

For other signets with I H S cf. Proc. Soc. Anti- 
quaries of London, 2nd series, i, p. no, v, p. 455. 







492. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a four- 
leaved flower. Cable border. 

See figure. English, \6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-07 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) Dug up at Rickling Green, Essex. 



493. IRON GILT; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms: quarterly, a branch 
of pear (?) in each quarter. 

French, ijt/i century. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. 

494. SILVER GILT ; hoop with engraved legend: foe gOfctUSf /////% fOOt. Circular- 
bezel engraved with a bear and ragged staff; legend : loplttttcnt ttllC. Cable 
border. 

English, early i6t/t century. 

D. of hoop, 1-12 in. D. of bezel, -5 in. 

495. SILVER ; projecting circular bezel engraved with I M in monogram. 
French, i$th century. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. 

496. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a Titan with a -branch ; pearled border. 
French, i6th century. 

D. 1-03 in. 



76 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

497. SILVER; oval bezel engraved with the letter S between two stars; pearled 
border. 

French, i6th century. 
D. of hoop, -98 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. 

498. SILVER ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a fish per fess between six 
mullets. 

French, Tjth century. 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel. -58 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

499. BRONZE ; on each shoulder is engraved a flower (?) ; oval bezel engraved with 
a half-figure of the Virgin with the Child ; cable border. 

German, ijth century. 

D. of hoop, '96 in. L. of bezel, -59 in. 

500. SILVER; oval bezel engraved with the letter I between two sprays; cable 
border. 

English, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-14 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found at Gloucester. 

501. BRONZE ; oval bezel rudely engraved with a fleur-de-lis ; border of dots. 
i$th centnry. 

D. I in. 

502. SILVER GILT ; oval bezel engraved with shield of arms : a fess between three 
wheels. Pearled border. 

German, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-03 in. L. of bezel, -59 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

503. BRONZE ; oval bezel rudely engraved with a crown above an indeterminate 

letter (?). 

English, i6th century. 

D. -96 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



504. GOLD; hoop wreathed and engraved with sprays, much 
worn. Oval bezel engraved with a shield : per fess, in chief 
a chevron enclosing a wreath (?), in base a cross. 
Plate VII, and see figure. English, i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, 1-04 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Dug up 
at Littlebury, Essex, 1848. 

The device may be a merchant's mark. 




SIGNET-RINGS 77 

505. SILVER; once gilt; plain massive hoop ; oval bezel with border of sunk ovals 
round the sides, and engraved with a crescent moon containing a face. 

German, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-26 in. L. of bezel, -95 in. 
Archaeological Journal, vii, p. 89 (1850). 

506. SILVER GILT ; the shoulders and edge of the raised bezel engraved ; at the 
back of the hoop a rose, chased with legend in two lines. 

Levantine, or Adriatic, \6tk century. 
D. -94 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. 

507. SILVER GILT ; oval bezel engraved with legend : D^IT liw Dlta (Ask after 
the peace of Jerusalem}. 

German, i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -79 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

508. SILVER GILT ; circular bezel engraved with the letter I crowned, between 
leaves. 

English, \yh-\6th century. 

D. of hoop, -98 in. D. of bezel, -57 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

509. BRONZE ; once gilt ; circular bezel engraved with an ox's head ; legend : 

me Content. Cable border. 
English, i6t/i century. 
D. of hoop, 1-14 in. D. of bezel, -75 in. 



510. SILVER ; oval bezel engraved with the letter I crowned 
between a crescent and a star. Cable border. 
See figure. Eitglish, \$tli-\f>tli century'. 

D. of hoop, -92 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found 
in London, 1846. 



511. BRONZE ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with a monogram, the chief letter 
being a minuscule ttt. 

English, i th century. 
D. 1-02 in. 1836. 

512. BRONZE; similar form; bezel engraved with a letter B preceded by a 
smaller S. 

English, \$th century. 

D. 1-08 in. Found at Beeston Castle, Cheshire. 





CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



513. BRONZE; the type similar; bezel engraved with the letters tttfc, and the 
legend : botiamttO (?) 

ifyh century. 

D. 1-17 in. Given by Major-General Meyrick, 1878. 

514. BRONZE ; thin hoop ; the shoulders engraved and pounced ; oval bezel 
engraved with pt)0 within a pearled border. 

iyh century. 

D. 1-02 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

The first letter may be a g, in which case the whole would represent the sacred monogram. 

515. BRONZE ; the same ornament on the shoulders. Oval bezel engraved with 
a bearded head wearing a hat ; pearled border. 

German, \6th century. 

D. -98 in. 1865. 

The hoop is broken on one side. 



516. SILVER ; the shoulders nielloed ; oval bezel engraved with 
a shield of arms : a cock. Above, a dot ; dotted border. 
See figure. i6th century. 
D. 1-04 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 



517. BRONZE ; round the bezel a chased wreath ; oval bezel 
engraved with a shield of arms : chequy, on a chief, two mailed 
arms embowed holding swords. Round the shield conventional 
floral scrolls, and above it rays, all within a pearled border. 
See figure. Italian, i6th century. 

D. 1-12 in. Castellani Col!. 1872. 




518. BRONZE, with remains of gilding, the shoulders 
engraved with a quatrefoil diaper ; octagonal bezel 
with a shield bearing a merchant's mark ; in the 
interior the legend : 3)a0pec S^elceC 3Salta$fat% 

See figure. English, i$t/i century. 

D. 1-2 in. 

For the names of the Three Kings as a charm see 
under no. 885. 




taspermrlcrrhaltafar 



SIGNET-RINGS 



79 






519. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a ram 
rampant on a rock ; round the shield, engraved scrolls, and the 
letters M and P. 

See figure, Italian, idth century. 

D. 1-04 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 
For this type of shield (a testa di cavallo) cf. no. 521 and a ring in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum (no. 799-'7i). 



520. BRASS ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a fess 
between three stars. 

See figure. Italian, i$th century. 

D. 1-15 in. 1865. 



521. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : vair, 
on a chief two lions rampant counter-combatant, supporting 
a fleur-de-lis, the top of which projects above the shield. 
See figure. Italian, i^f/i century. 

D. roi in. 1853. 



522. SILVER ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : bendy, 
a fess, and in chief a rose. 

See figure. Italian, late \yJi century. 

D. -98 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 



523. BRONZE; oval bezel engraved with a female bust, and legend : n tiCiJUpl'C. 
i ^th century. 

D. 1-04 in. 1753. (Sloane Coll. 91.) 

524. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a bird with extended wings ; dotted 
border. 

Englisli, i$t/t century. 
D. 1-12 in. 1836. 

525. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a monogram composed of a cross pattee 
between the letters S A*. 

See figure. \6th century. 

D. 1-04 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 
The letters are not reversed, but the ring appears to have been cut for 
impressions. 






8o CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



526. BRONZE GILT ; oval bezel engraved with a dog or hind (?) 
above a barrel or tun ; cable border. 
See figure. English, i$t/i century. 
D. 1-07 in. The device is probably a rebus. Cf. nos. 329, 469, 540. 



527. BRONZE GILT ; on each shoulder is engraved a tau. Oval bezel engraved 
with a shield of arms: six fleurs-de-lis, three, two, and one; legend: UtiUtUl 
jtltC. Cable border. In the interior is legend : en boett an. 

English, early 16 th century. 

U. of hoop, 1-16 in. L. of bezel, 7 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

For the tau see under no. 721. 

528. BRONZE ; hoop engraved on each shoulder with a tau ; oval bezel engraved 
with a chalice standing upon a flat rectangular object. 

English, ~i$tJi century. 

D. I- 1 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

See note to previous number. 

529. BRONZE ; oblong bezel engraved with the letters I L B. 
English, i,5//* century. 

D. i-i in. Found in the Thames, Southwark. 

530. SILVER ; engraved on each shoulder with a tau. Circular bezel engraved with 
a Lombardic crowned. 

English, 151/1 century. 

D.t>f hoop, 1-12 in. D. of bezel, -64 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) Found near Worcester on 
thumb of skeleton. 

For the tau sec under no. 721. 

531. BRONZE ; once gilt ; oval bezel engraved with a merchant's mark, and 
legend : l'I)C Ilfl. Cable border. 

English, ifjt/i-ifit/t century. 

D. of hoop, 1-04 in. L. of bezel, -64 in. Found at Caxton Priory, Cambridge. 
The legend represents lesus Nazarenus. Cf. no. 881. 

532. BRONZE GILT ; the hoop engraved on each shoulder with a tau. Oval bezel 
engraved with a bust, full-face. Cable border. 

English, i6t/i century. 
D. of hoop, -92 in. L. of bezel, -51 in. (Hailstone Coll.) 

533. BRONZE GILT ; wreathed hoop, pearled and ribbed ; oval bezel engraved with 
the letter R crowned. Cable border. 

English, ~i$th-\6th century. 

D. of hoop, ro8 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. 



SIGNET-RINGS 



8l 



534. SILVER ; the hoop channelled on the shoulders, wreathed at the back. Circular 
bezel engraved with the letter I crowned, between leaves. Cable border. 

English, ] 6tk century. 

D. of hoop, 1-09 in. D. of bezel, -59 in. 

535. SILVER ; the hoop fluted on the shoulders ; circular bezel engraved with 
a letter |> between moon and a star. 

English, \$tJi century. 

D. -9 in. 

The ring is broken ; the back of the hoop is detached and doubled up. 



536. GOLD ; massive channelled hoop ; circular bezel engraved 
with a lion passant regardant, legend ; noto : V8' tljttS. 
Plate VII, and see figure. English, late i$th century. 

D. of hoop, n8 in. D. of bezel, -65 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
The ring was found on the field of Towton, and has been called 
the Percy signet. 





537. BRONZE; once gilt; the hoop wreathed at the back and channelled on the 
shoulders ; oval bezel engraved with the pelican in her piety. 

English, i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, 1-09 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. 

For the same subject cf. nos. 542, 614, 635, 644, and a ring in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (no. 71)2-71). Cf. also Arch. Journal, xiii, p. 90 ; Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, 
v, p. 66; xi, p. 159. 

538. BRONZE; hoop wreathed at back, with channelled shoulders. Oval bezel 
engraved with the letter R between sprigs. 

English, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-2 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

539. BRONZE ; plain hoop ; circular bezel engraved with the letter R crowned. 
Cable border. 

English, early i6th century. 

U. of hoop, 1-19 in. 



82 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



540. BRONZE ; once gilt ; wreathed hoop with plain and pearled ribs. Oval bezel 
engraved with a pike and the letter I. Cable border. 

English, \>th century, 

D. of hoop, 1-3 in. Found in London. 
The device may be a rebus : John Pike. 

541. BRONZE GILT ; hoop with ridged edges ; oval bezel engraved with a monogram ; 
cable border. 

English, early i6t/t century. 

D. of hoop, 1-07 in. Found at Pensford, Somerset, 1864. 

542. BRONZE ; the hoop with ridged edges ; oval bezel rudely engraved with the 
pelican in her piety ; pearled border. 

\6th century. 

D. 1-14 in. 1836. 

For the pelican cf. nos. 537, 614, 635, 644. 

543. BRONZE ; circular bezel engraved with a bird (swan ?) ; much worn. 
English, \ ^tk century. 

D. 1-16 in. 1836. 

544. BRONZE ; with remains of gilding ; the hoop with ridged edges, and engraved 
on each shoulder with a rose, trefoils, &c. Oval bezel engraved with a dog 
sejant, and growing plants. 

English, \~)th century. 
I), i-i in. 1836. 

545. SILVER; massive hoop with ridged edges. On each shoulder is a figure 
engraved and filled with niello ; on one side the Virgin and Child, on the other 
a bishop with mitre and crosier (St. Thomas a Becket ?). Circular bezel 






engraved with a ship with ermine sails, and initials T. S., the whole within a cable 
border. 

See figure. Late \$th century. 

D. 1-185 in. D. of bezel, -66 in. Bernal Coll. 1855. 

Cf. a gold ring in the Victoria and Albert Museum (no. 695-';!), with the Virgin and 
Child, and St. Christopher. 



SIGNET-RINGS 83 

546. BRONZE ; circular bezel engraved with a bird with extended wings, standing 
on a hill between two trees. The hoop has a high ridge round each edge. 
\6th century. 

D. 1-28 in. L. of bezel, -7 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 







547. BRONZE GILT ; circular bezel, unengraved ; the hoop has on the outer side 
a median ridge, which at the back is grooved. 

English, i$th century. 

D. 1-16 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

548. BRONZE ; with traces of gilding ; wreathed hoop ; 
circular bezel engraved with two minuscule letters, one 
across the other. 

See figure. English, i'jf/i century. 

D. 1-24 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 
Cf. no. 468. 

549. BRONZE ; with traces of gilding ; the hoop diagonally wreathed ; circular 
bezel engraved with a bird standing between growing plants, and holding 
a four-leaved flower in its beak. 

English, \yh century. 

D. -8 in. Burden Coll. 1893. Found at Tarrant Gunville, 1847. 

Broken at the back. Cf. ring found at Norwich. Proc. Soc, Antiquaries of London, 
xvii, p. 355. 

550. BRONZE ; wreathed hoop ; circular bezel engraved with a bird and a branch ; 
pearled border. 

English, i $tfl century. 

IX 1-2 in. Given by Robert Young, Esq., 1838. Found at Southampton. 

551. LEAD ; the hoop, of which only part remains, is ridged ; circular bezel 
engraved with a hunting-horn suspended (?). 

English, "i^th century. 

D. -94 in. Roach Smith Coll. 1856. 

Part of the hoop lost at the back. The design on the bezel is very indistinct. 

552. BRONZE GILT ; on each shoulder is engraved a tau ; circular bezel engraved 
with an object resembling a tripod, above which are two hunting-horns. 

Plate X. English, \f>th century. 

D. 1-08 in. 1870. 

G 2 



84 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

553. SILVER ; the hoop with flanged edges ; on each shoulder is engraved a tau. Cir- 
cular bezel engraved with a crescent within a wreath, and enclosing two circles (?). 

Plate VII. English, early i6th century. 
D. 1-25 in. 

554. GOLD ; similar hoop with a tau on each shoulder, once enamelled. Circular 
bezel engraved with a unicorn and tree, and the letter e. In the inside of 
the hoop is the legend : tOUt ma trie, enamelled. 

Plate VII. English, early \6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -92 in. D. of bezel, -51 in. Found at Beverley. 

555- GOLD ; similar hoop ; on each shoulder is engraved a tau, once enamelled. 
Circular bezel engraved with letter R surrounded by a border of tracery. Cable 
border. 

Plate VII. Englislt, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-02 in. D. of bezel, -57 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 
Proc. Sac. Ant., 2nd ser., vi. 51. Said to be from Abergavenny. 

556. GOLD ; similar hoop engraved on each shoulder with a tau, and seven rows 
of tears enamelled in black. Circular bezel engraved with figure : a bowman 
with hound. Cable border. 

Plate VII. English, early i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. D. of bezel, -54 in. Found at Windsor. 



557. GOLD ; similar hoop ; circular bezel engraved with a wild man 
holding a sword in right hand and a scarf. Cable border. 
Plate VII, and see figure. English, early idth century. 

I), of hoop, -72 in. U. of bezel, -46 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in 
Thames, 1857. 



558. BRONZE ; once gilt ; plain flanged hoop with traces of engraved ornament ; 

circular bezel engraved with an owl between the letters A S, and with a cable 

border ; at the back of the bezel the legend : ntOlt 

English, i6th cen tnry. 

D. of hoop, l-2i in. L. of bezel, -74 in. 
For the legend Man caur avez cf. no. 10x39. 





SIGNET-RINGS 



559. BRASS ; once gilt ; flanged hoop engraved on the sides and .shoulders with a 
floral design filled with black- 
enamel. Oval bezel engraved 
with a merchant's mark 
within a pearled border. In 
the interior is a legend filled 
with enamel in black : g lebc 
JM 1) Opt (/ live in /tope). 

See figure. English, 
i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 1-06 in. L. of 
bezel, -65 in. (ISraybrooke Coll.) 
From Gloucester. 

For merchants' marks see 
under no. 330. 




560. GOLD ; similar hoop engraved with a floral design and crescents, enamelled. 
Oval bezel, blank. Within, the legend : mon COL' pltgUl'. 

English, early \ f>th century. 

D. of hoop, -97 in. L. of bezel, -57 in. Weight, 317 grains. (Lonclesborough Coll.) 

561. BRONZE GILT ; broad hoop engraved on the shoulders with a lozenge diaper 
enclosing roses and leaves. Oval bezel engraved with a monogram IB and 
a crosier, with a smaller letter b ; pearled border. In the inside, the legend : 

mil et ben. 

Plate X. English, \6th century. 

D. 1-26 in. Given by C. H. Read, Esq., 1906. From Newmarket, Cambridgeshire. 

562. GOLD ; similar hoop, the shoulders engraved with a floral ornament once 
enamelled. Circular bezel engraved with a heart with Lombardic .R-, and a cross 
above, within tracery and cable border. Within, legend enamelled in black ; )'0l'e 

gang t'pn. 

Plate VII. English, early idth century. 

D. of hoop, -78 in. D. of bezel, -48 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
For the legend cf. nos. 288, 924-7. 

563. BRONZE ; the hoop has four equidistant oval bezels of unequal size, engraved 
with an angel, a lion mask, a hound couchant before a tree or plant, and a scallop 
shell. 

English, i6t/i century. 

D. 1-18 in. D. of largest bezel, -62 in 



86 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

564. GOLD ; similar hoop ; shoulders engraved with floral scrolls and a tun. 
Circular bezel engraved with a tun, from which issue a pine-cone and leaves ; cable 
border. Within is engraved the legend : atttOUC fait mOUlt argent fait tOUt. 
All once enamelled. 

Plate VII. English, early i6t/i century. 

IX -9 in. Weight, 176 grains. From Sudbury, Suffolk. 

565. GOLD ; the hoop chased with foliate ornament, muqh damaged ; oval bezel 
engraved with a shield of arms : per pale, a dimidiated fleur-de-lis, and chequy ; 
above, initials I. 0. 

Plate VII. German. i6t/t century. 

1). of hoop, ris m - L. of bezel, -63 in. Weight, 265 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

566. GOLD; the hoop chased on the shoulders with floral ornament: circular 
bezel engraved with a merchant's mark. 

Plate X. English, early i6t/t century. 

\). i in. D. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 214 grains. Given by the Rev. J. M. Traherne, 
F.S.A., 1852. Found in a grave at Llantwit Major, Glamorganshire. 

567. GOLD : the shoulders and sides of the bezel chased in scrollwork, all 
once enamelled. Raised octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : or, 
a fesse between a star of eight points in chief, and an ox in base. At the back of 
the bezel is engraved a symmetrical floral design with quatrefoil scrollwork. 

Plate IX. French, \6th century. 

D. IMS in. L. of bezel, -52 in. Weight, 250 grains. Castcllani Coll. 1872. 
On the shoulders are traces of white enamel. 

568. BRONZE GILT : the hoop engraved with foliate design in low relief ; oval bezel 
engraved with an ornamental shield of arms : a bend engrailed, in chief a star ; 
cable border. 

French, i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, 1-02 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. Obtained in Rome. 

569. BRONZE GILT ; shoulders chased in the form of caryatid figures with scrolls ; 
the oval bezel at the back engraved in intaglio with bust of a bare-headed man in 
armour. Pearled border. 

i6th century. 

D. of hoo.p, IM in. L. of bezel, -67 in. (Hailstone Coll.) 

570. BRONZE ; with remains of gilding ; the hoop is plain and slender at the back, 
where it is broken ; the shoulders chased with arabesque figures. Oval bezel 
engraved with the initials P B, united by a knot. 

i6th century. 
D. 1-2 in. 1836. 




SIGNET-RINGS 87 

571. BRONZE GILT ; the hoop slender at the back, where it is 
broken ; the shoulders engraved with strap-work, one having a 
tubular whistle. Large oval bezel engraved with a shield of 
arms : on a chevron between three oak-leaves seven flowers. 

See figure. 1 6t/t century. 
D. 1-24 in. 

572. BRONZE ; slender hoop with scrollwork in relief upon the shoulders ; oval 
bezel engraved with a shaped shield, bearing a star of eight points upon a triple 
mount; to right and left the letters H. M. 

Italian, i6th century. 

IX -96 in. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

573. BRONZE GILT ; the hoop chased with formal scrollwork ; circular bezel with 
a shaped shield, blank. 

German, i6tk century. 
D. i-i in. Found in Greece. 

574. SILVER GILT; the hoop similar to the preceding; oval bezel with a shaped 
shield engraved with the letters CM ; above, the date 1575. 

German, 16 th century. 

D. 1-2 in. L. of bezel, -62 in. (Zschille Collection, no. 61.) 

575. BRONZE; transverse ribs on shoulders; oval bezel with a shaped shield, 
bearing a fleur-de-lis issuing from a heart. Above the shield the initials I M F. 

German, early ijf/i century. 
D. i in. 

576. BRONZE ; with raised ridges across the shoulders and the back of the 
bezel; oval bezel engraved with a merchant's mark, and mono- 
gram A. W. 

See figure. German, i6t/i century. 
D. of hoop, 1-13 in. L. of bezel, -65 in. 

577. BRONZE : plain hoop with a projection on each shoulder ; oval bezel with 
a shield of arms : a fylfot. Above, the initials I B R. Cable border. 

German, early \6th century. 

D. of hoop, IM2 in. L. of bezel, -64 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

578. SILVER ; large oval bezel engraved with a shield of 
arms : per fess, in chief a lion rampant, in base an acorn (?) ; 
mantlings, helmet, and crest a star between two wings issuing 
from a ducal coronet ; initials I A S. 

See figure. German, ijtk century. 

D. -9 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 





88 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



579. BRONZE ; the shoulders chased and engraved ; oval bezel engraved with an 
eagle with raised wings, and the initials R. S. 

English, idth century. 
D. -98 in. 

580. SILVER ; plain hoop with foliate ornament on the shoulders ; oval bezel 
engraved with a shield of arms with indeterminate bearings ; above, a helmet 
and coronet. 

i6f/i century. 

P. -96 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

581. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved with -a horseshoe, a nail, a hammer, and 
pincers ; above, the initials H. H. 

Englisli, i ~th century. 

D. I -06 in. L. of bezel, -06 in. 1865. 

582. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved with a horseshoe, 
hammer, pincers, &c. The shoulders are ornamented in 
relief and engraved ; on the hoop diagonal bands with 
flowers between. 

See figure. English, i6th century. 

D. i- 1 in. L. of bezel, -66 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy 
Collection, 1865. 



583. BRONZE ; hexagonal bezel engraved with a merchant's 
mark between the initials I. P.; the shoulders chased with 
scrollwork. 

Sec figure. English, \6thcentnry. 

D. ri in. 1865. 



584. SILVER ; octagonal bezel engraved with a merchant's mark 
and the letters W. H. The hoop is hollow, forming a whistle ; 
the shoulders are in the form of dragons' heads. 

See figure. English, \6tli century. 

D. 1-2 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 



585. BRONZE ; on the triangular projecting bezel are engraved a lion rampant, two 
stars, and a bezant (?). Pearled border. 
Italian, \ 6th centtiry. 

D. of hoop, 1-12 in. L. of bezel, -57 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.)- 




SIGNET-RINGS 89 

586. IRON ; the hoop chased with a floral design, in parts much defaced ; pointed 
oval bezel engraved with a. heart-shaped shield with the letters TT M l~, 
surmounted by a globe and crown. 

German, i "jth century. 

D. of hoop, -86 in. L. of bezel, -84 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

587. GOLD ; plain hoop widening at the shoulders ; flat oval bezel engraved with 
the initials T W, bound together with a knot, and surmounted by two flowers and 
a leaf. Cable border. 

Plate VIII. English, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -76 in. Weight, 283 grains. 

Knots of this kind uniting initials were very common in the sixteenth century. The initials 
of Mary Queen of Scots and Darnley were thus joined on the ring now in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, no. 84i-'7l (Arch. Journ. xiv, p. 299). Cf. also Gentleman's Magazine, Ixxx, 
p. 32 1 ; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. iv, p. 389. The use of the knot does not, however, in every 
case imply that the ring is a love-ring, for the initials are often those of a single person. 

588. GOLD ; plain hoop widening at the shoulders ; flat oval bezel engraved with 
the initials T B, joined by a knot, from which spring forget-me-nots ; all within 
a cable border. On the back of the bezel are engraved the initials D. B. 

English, \>th century. 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -67 in. Weight, 157 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

589. GOLD ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with the initials C S, joined by 
a knot ; cable border. 

Plate VIII. English, i6th century. 

D.of hoop, -7in. L. of bezel, -98 in. Weight, 1 86 grains. Found near Kirkstall Abbey, Leeds. 
Proc. Sac. Antiquaries of London, 2nd series, iv, p. 97. 

590. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with the initials T C and a knot. 
English, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, -81 in. L. of bezel, -66 in. Weight, 108 grains. 

591. GOLD ; engraved shoulders ; flat oval bezel with the initials A A, joined by 
a knot ; in the field acorns ; cable border. On the back qf bezel are engraved the 
letters AM A in monogram, and, above, a death's head. 

Plate VIII. English, i6th century. 

D. of hoop, I in. L. of bezel, -76 in. Weight, 235 grains. 

This ring has probably been used as a mourning-ring. For mourning-rings with posies 
see no. 1223. 

592. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with the initials M B, with a knot below, and 
forget-me-nots above ; cable border. 

English, \bth century. 

D. of hoop, -81 in. L. of bezel, -62 in. Weight, 126 grains. Found in Nottinghamshire. 



go CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

593. GOLD; plain hoop; oval bezel engraved with initials T. W. crowned; 
astragalus border. 

Plate VIII. Englisli, \6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -7 in. Weight, 184 grain;. 

594. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a tree between the initials T W surrounded 
by strap-work ; cable border. 

English, i6t/i century. 

I), of hoop, -75 in. L. of bezel. -6 in. Weight, 134 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

595. BRASS ; oval bezel engraved with the initials R. F., and also with the legend : 
CHE BEN. 

English, \~tlt century. 

D. of hoop, i'O2 in. 

1'roc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, 2nd series, iv, p. 98. 

596. BKOXZF. ; oval bezel engraved with the initials I K. Pearled border. 
English, ijt/t century. 

I), of hoop, i in. L. of bezel, -63 in. 

597. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with the initials I L, and a merchant's 
mark. Cable border. 

See figure. English, I't/i century. 
D. of hoop, - 9 in. 

598. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a crest a greyhound sejant, collared, and 
debruised with a crescent ; cable border. 

Plate VIII. English, i6f/i century. 

IJ.-of hoop, 1-12 in. L. of bezel, -93 in. Found near Weymouth. 

599- GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with the arms of Bury of Linwood Grange, Co. 
Lincoln, and Bath ; ermine, on a bend engrailed azure, plain cottiscd gules, three 
fleur-de-lis or; crest a demi-dragon : cable border. Pearled edge to bezel. 
Plate IX. English, late i6tk century. 

D. i -06 in. L. of bezel, -86 in. Weight, 495 grains. 1899. Found at Ashwell, Rutland. 
Several English armorial signets of this class are in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Cf. also Proc. SOL. Antiquaries of London, 1st series, iii, p. 137 ; 2nd series, ii, p. 364. 

600. GOLD ; modelled with foliate ornament on the shoulders. Oval bezel engraved 
with a shield of arms : gules two bars ermine between seven crosses pattee (three, 
three and one), argent, on a chief of the second a demi-lion issuant of the first. 
Above are the initials Tl, and three stars ; all within a cable border. 
Plate VIII. English, late i6/// century. 

D. of hoop, 1-21 in. L. of bezel, -84 in. Weight, 574 grains. 
The arms are those of Sir John Tirrell, knighted 1588. 




SIGNET-RINGS 91 

601. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms, with six quartering ; 
helmet, crest, and mantling. Cable border. 

Plate VIII. English, late i6f/t century. 

D. of hoop, i-ii in. L. of bezel, -88 in. Weight, 461 grains. 

i and 6 are Ravenscroft a chevron between three ravens' heads ; 2 Holland of Denby (?) 
azure, a lion rampant guardant, argent ; 3 Skeffington (?) argent, three bulls' heads erased 
(wyverns) ; 4 Berkhead (?) sable, three garbs, a bordure or; 5 Swettenham arg., on a bend 
vert, three spades of the first, a martlet in chief. 

The ring may have belonged to Thomas Ravenscroft, Sheriff of Flint in 1580, or to William 
Ravenscrnft, barrister of Lincoln's Inn in 1580. 

602. Goi.D; massive hoop; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms: three 
dragons' heads erased. 

Plate VIII. English, i6t/t century. 

V). of hoop, -96 in. L. of bezel, -94 in. Weight, 424 grains. 

The arms said to be those of Byam, Co. Somerset, with which, however, they do not 
correspond. 

603. GOLD; oval bezel, with cable border, engraved with a shield of arms: on a 
bend between two bendlets, three elm leaves and eight bezants on a bordure. To 
right and left the initials R. W. 

Plate VIII. English, late ifif/t century. 

I), of hoop, -99 in. L. of bezel, -74 in. Weight, 256 grains. 

604. GOLD ; the hoop engraved inside with legend : (KiCtOCl'OUiS Ije toljO befimlj 
tllC. Oval bezel, with cable border, engraved with figure of warrior crowned and 
riding on a lion over his enemies ; in his right hand he holds a sword, in his left 
an indeterminate object. In the field is monogram ^5. Stamp |MJ at back of bezel. 

Plate VIII. English, late \6t/t century. 

D. of hoop, -8 in. L. of bezel, -67 in. Weight, 136 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

605. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a lion rampant ; cable border. Stamp on 
the back of the bezel, the letters H E combined. 

Plate VIII. English, i6/// century. 

D. of hoop, -8 1 in. L. of bezel, / in. Weight, 158 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 



606. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a shield with the arms of 
Pynkeney : arg., a pale fusily sable, a bordure engrailed of the 
last, with a crescent for difference ; helmet, crest a demi-lion 
rampant, and mantling. Cable border. In the interior of the 
hoop a goldsmith's stamp, G upon a shield. 

Plate VIII, and see figure. English, about A. D. i6co. 

D. of hoop, -8 in. L. of bezel, -68 in. Weight, ill grains. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) Found at York in 1849. 







9 2 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



607. GOLD ; flat oval bezel engraved with the arms of Steward (Cambridge) : or, 
a lion rampant gules, debruised by a bend ragulee or. Cable border. 

Plate VIII. EnglisJi, about A. D. 1600. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Weight, 95 grains. 

608. GOLD ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with arms of Urswick : ermine, a fess 
chequy arg. and sable. Cable border. 

Plate VIII. English, about A.. D. 1600. 

D. of hoop, -84 in. L. of bezel, -65 in. Weight, 113 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

609. GOLD ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with a lion rampant between the 
initials I L ; cable border. 

English, about A. D. 1600. 

D. of hoop, -78 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 1 06 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



610. GOLD; plain hoop; oval bezel engraved with a lion passant ; 
cable border. 

See figure. English, late \6th century. 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -76 in. Weight, 118 grains. (Bray- 
brooke Coll.) 



611. GOLD ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with a two-headed eagle ; cable 

Q 

border. On the back of the bezel are the initials R g and a goldsmith's mark, 
B within a lozenge. 

Plate VIII. English, early \']th century. 

D. of hoop, -82 in. L. of bezel, -66 in. Weight, 137 grains. Found in the Tower Ditch, 
London. 

612. GOLD ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : chequy, 
on a chief a lion passant ; cable border. 

Plate IX. English, early i"jth century. 

D. of hoop, 76 in. L. of bezel, -67 in. Weight, 145 grains. 

613. GOLD ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with an ostrich, and legend : 
W ILLIAM * OSNEY *. At the back of the bezel are engraved the initials G. H. 

Plate IX. English, early ijt/i century. 

D of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -77 in. Weight, 262 grains. 




SIGNET-KINGS 

614. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with the pelican in her 
piety ; cable border. Goldsmith's mark, a fleur-de- 
lis (?), on the back of the bezel. 

See figure. English, early ijt/i century. 

D. of hoop, -82 in. L. of bezel, -64 in. Weight, 88 grains. 
(Braybrooke Coll.) Dug up during construction of Southwark 
Bridge. For the subject cf. nos. 537, 542, 635, 644. 

The ring was purchased by Lord Braybrooke at Mr. 
Windus's sale in 1855 ; it was then described as having been 
found during the construction of a coffer for a pier of Southwark 
Bridge. 



93 




615. GOLD; slender hoop and circular bezel engraved with a lion rampant, 
and, below, a star. 

See figure. 1 6th century. 

D. -98 in. Weight, 138 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 





616. GOLD; flat oval bezel engraved with a quartered shield of arms; cable 
border. 

Plate IX. English, early 17 th century. 

D. of hoop, i in. L. of bezel, 78 in. Weight, 284 grains. 

I Corbet, of Longnor, Salop or, two ravens proper in pale within a bordure engrailed 
bezantee ; 2 Goldington (?) argent, two lions passant azure ; 3 Springhose per fess gules 
and vert, a fess argent, in chief a chevron of the last. 



6l6a. GOLD ; oval bezel with cable border and shield quarterly i and 4 : a chevron 
ermines between three birds 2 and 3 : an annulet within a bordure of 
cinquefoils. In the interior is engraved : Tried wt/t the givers love the gould 
but droffe will prove. 

English, early \"jth century. 

D. -8 in. Weight, 126 grains. 1912. 

Said to have been picked up in a ploughed field at Grittleton, near Chippenham. 
the motto or ' posy ' cf. those of nos. i ic; ff. 



94 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

617. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a ship under sail and the initials E. G. in the 
field ; cable border. On the back of the bezel a goldsmith's mark, G within 
a circle. 

Plate X. English, early 1 7 th century. 

D. of hoop, -82 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Weight, 97 grains. 

618. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with arms : two chevrons engrailed, on each 
three bezants; a mullet in chief; helmet, crest a stag's head issuing from a 
ducal cornet, and mantling. 

Plate IX. English, early ijth century. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, -69 in. Weight, 126 grains. 
The arms may be those of Rothwell. 

619. GOLD ; flat oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a stag's head erased, 
within a bordure engrailed ; helmet, crest a lion statant, and mantling. Pearled 
border. 

Plate X. English, \ith century. 

D. of hoop, -79 in. L. of bezel, -66 in. Weight, 98 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

620. GOLD ; plain hoop : flat oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : three 
horseshoes on a bend cotised. Cable border. 

Plate IX. English, early ijt/i century. 

D. of hoop, -89 in. L. of bezel, -67 in. Weight, 180 grains. 

Three horseshoes on a bend are borne by various families : Ferrers, Ferrier, Crispe (Kent), 
Dethick. 

621. GOLD ; flat oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms quarterly : i and 4 
a lion rampant ; 2 on a chevron between three lions' faces, three mullets ; 3 on 
a chevron between three fleurs-de-lis, three hurts. 

Plate IX. English, early ijth century. 

D. of hoop, -8 in L. of bezel, -66 in. Weight, 136 grains. 
The third quarter may be Girdler or Pickering (Notts.). 

622. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with arms of Acklam, Co. York : a maunch within 
an orle of eight cinquefoils ; helmet, crest a cinquefoil voided, and mantling. 
Cable border. 

Plate IX. English, early \^th century. 

D. of hoop, -87 in. L. of bezel, -72 in. Weight, 135 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

623. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a bust and the initials S P ; cable border. 
At the back of the bezel a goldsmith's mark : a I (?). 

Plate IX. English, I'jtk century. 

D. of hoop, -89 in. L. of bezel, -55 in. Weight, 185 grains. 




SIGNET-RINGS 95 

624. SILVER ; slender hoop ; oval bezel engraved with arms : 
on a fess three stars, in base a beast, in chief an indeterminate 
charge. 

See figure. Italian, \6th century. 
D. "96 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

625. BRONZE ; slender hoop ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : on 
a chevron between three birds (choughs ?) as many torteaux ; helmet, crest, and 
mantling. At the back of the bezel, a goldsmith's stamp. 

English, 1 6th century. 
D. -Sin. 1836. 

626. SILVER ; oval bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a pentacle, in chief a 
star, in base three mounts ; helmet, and crest a wing charged with a star ; 
initials E. W. 

German, \6th century. 

D. -8 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

627. SILVER; oval bezel engraved with a merchant's mark in a 
shield ; initials M M. 

See figure. German, if>th century. 

D. -96 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

For merchants' marks see under no. 338. 

628. BRASS; oval bezel engraved with a three-masted vessel. 
\bth century. 

D. -9 in. 1865. 

629. BRONZE; oval bezel engraved with a merchant's mark between the initials 
R. S. 

English, i6th century. 
IX i in. 1865. 

630. BRONZE ; circular bezel engraved with a lion rampant. 
English, i6th century. 

D. -9 in. Sloane Coll. 122, 1753. 

631. BRONZE ; circular bezel engraved with a merchant's mark. 

See figure. English, i6th century. /\ , 

D. -8 in. Sloane Coll. 95, 1753. m \/ 

The hoop broken. For merchants' marks see under no. 338. 

632. BRONZE; plain rounded hoop; oval bezel engraved with a mer- 
chant's mark between the letters H and C. 

See figure. English, \6th century. 

D. i in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 






96 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

633. SILVER ; oval bezel engraved with a pair of scales and legend : FECIT (?) EX 

VT(?)0. 

I'jth century. 

D. 1-02 in. 

634. BRONZE ; oval bezel engraved with a merchant's mark. 
See figure. English. \6th century. 

I). 1-09 in. 1865. 

635. BRONZE; octagonal bezel engraved with a pelican in her piety. 

\6th century. 

D. -98 in. 1865. 

For the pelican cf. nos. 537, 542, 614, 644. 

636. BROXZE ; oval bezel engraved with a merchant's mark between the 
initials I. I. 

See figure. English, i6th century. 

D. i in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

637. GOLD ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a lion rampant on 
field seme of trefoils slipped. Cable border. 

Plate IX. English, early i"jtk century. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, -73 in. Weight, 156 grains. 

638. GOLD ; flat hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with a lion rampant. Cable 
border. 

Plate IX. English, early iJtA century. 

D. of hoop, -82 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Found in a hop-garden at Faversham, 1889. 

639. GOLD ; flat hoop and hexagonal bezel engraved with a three-masted 
ship with a cross on the ensign ; pearled border. On the back of the bezel 
a stamp : niL 

Plate X. English, \^t)i century. 

D. -76 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 79 grains. Durden Coll. 1893. Found on Spettis- 
bury Farm, Blandford, Dorset, 1850. 

The type of the ship is earlier than the date of the ring. 

640. GOLD ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : a chevron between 
three cinquefoils. Helmet, crest dexter arm holding a dagger, and mantling, and 
initials C. W. 

Plate IX. English, early \jth century. 

D. of hoop, -83 in. L. of bezel, -68 in. 

Various families of which the initial is W bear such arms : Wadham, Waltham, Walsingham, 
Wybaston. 



SIGNET-RINGS 97 

641. GOLD ; flat octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms: (i) on a chevron 
between three fleurs-de-lis a crescent ; impaling (2) a bend fusily, with mullet in 
chief. Helmet, crest a bird, and mantling. Cable border. At the back of the 
bezel a goldsmith's mark, B. 

Plate IX. English, early 17 th century. 

D. of hoop, -89 in. L. of bezel, -66 in. Weight, 139 grains. 

642. GOLD ; octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms : three leopards' heads 
jessant-de-lis on a chevron between three identical leopards' heads impaling 
(i) a bend engrailed between six garbs, (3) a cross between four ermine spots (?). 
Helmet, crest a leopard's head holding an arrow, and mantling. 

Plate X. English, early 17 th century. 

D. of hoop, -84 in. Weight, 112 grains. 

At the back of the bezel is a goldsmith's stamp, M. 

643. GOLD; flat hoop ; octagonal bezel engraved with arms of Murphy : quarterly 
arg. and gu.. four lions rampant counterchanged ; on a fess sa. three garbs or, 
with crest a hound passant, and mantling, and initials R. M. in field. Cable 
border. On the back are engraved the initials J. M. 

Plate IX. Irish, early 17 th century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -78 in. Weight, 228 grains. 

644. GOLD ; plain hoop ; flat octagonal bezel engraved with the pelican in her 
piety. Cable border. 

Plate X. English, early 17th century. 

D. of hoop, -79 in. L. of bezel, -55 in. Weight, 6 1 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

645. GOLD ; a puzzle ring, the main hoop transversely ribbed ; oval bezel 
engraved with H. T. in monogram, and surmounted by a double cross. Legend : 
FACTIS EXERCENDA VIRTUS; cable border. 

Plate IX. German, early \7th century. 

D. of hoop, -94 in. L. of bezel, -69 in. Weight, 324 grains. For puzzle-rings seenos. 713 ff. 

646. BRONZE ; octagonal bezel engraved with a merchant's mark in form of an 
anchor, and the initials M M, all in a wreath. 

German, \7th century. 

D. of hoop, -76 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

647. GOLD ; the hoop has been engraved with floral designs much defaced. Oval 
bezel with eight lobes, set with a sapphire of later date, and engraved with 
a round shield bearing an eight-pointed star, with mantling and the letters Q p. 
In the interior of the hoop is the legend : SPERARE LICET. 

Italian, early i6//t century. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 181 grains. 

H 



98 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

648. GOLD ; the hoop and the sides of the bezel chased with scrolls and masks 
enamelled in crimson, pale blue, &c. Oval bezel set with a crystal engraved with 
a shield of arms : three hearts (?), with helmet, crest four peacocks' feathers and 
three bulrushes, and initials R K. 

Plate X. German, i "jth century. 

D. of hoop, 1-28 in. L. of bezel, 1-05 in. Weight, 435 grains. 

649. GOLD ; the hoop hollow, engraved, and enamelled in blue and red. On the 
two shoulders an eight-armed cross with the letters T and X, and scrolls. 
Circular bezel containing a hemispherical chalcedony, engraved in intaglio with a 
face amid rays. 

\"/th century. 

1). 1-3 in. Weight, 248 grains. 1853. 



III. After A.D. 1650 

(a] Set wit It gems or pastes. 

650. GOLD ; plain hoop and lozenge-shaped bezel containing a white topaz 
engraved in intaglio with the arms of England under the Stuarts, surmounted by 
a crown and flanked by MR, the first letter having a cross-bar and thus also 
forming an H. 

] Kilt century (?). 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 72 grains. 

Archaeologist, xlvii, p. 401. 

The hoop of this ring is not earlier than the eighteenth century. The design upon the gem 
is apparently an inexact imitation of that upon the diamond in the Royal Collection, engraved 
by Francis Wahvyn to the order of Charles I, for presentation to Henrietta Maria, whose initials 
are represented by the characters (Archaeologist, as above, fig. on p. 400). Several reproductions of 
this diamond are known to have been made (cf. Cat. of the Loan Exhibition of Ancient and Modern 
Jewellery, South Kensington, 1872, no. 936), and imitations in glass were once sold at Holyrood 
as copies of the signet of Mary Queen of Scots (Arch'icologia, 1, pp. 104 ff., especially p. no). 
A similar shield and crown with the letters M R, the former without thecross-bar, is found on 
a sapphire signet attributed to Mary, Queen of William III (ibid., p. in). 

651. GOLD; slender hoop, the shoulders scrolled and enriched with green, dark 
blue, and white enamel. The bezel octagonal with convex back, where it is 
enamelled with the letters J. R. in monogram on translucent blue touched with 
opaque. It is set with a white topaz engraved with the arms of England with 
supporters gartered and crowned. Below, on a scroll : DIEU ET MON DROIT. 

English, I7//2 century. 

D. -88 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Weight, So grains. 

The cipher shows that the ring was made for a James, either James II or possibly James 
Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Chevalier). 




SIGNET-RINGS 99 

652. GOLD ; slender hoop, the shoulders pierced and forming a trefoil ; oval bezel 
containing a sapphire engraved with the initials J R surmounted by a royal crown 
and enclosed in a wreath. At the back of the bezel a shaped shield surmounted 
by the papal tiara, and bearing an eagle reserved in the metal upon a ground of 
blue enamel ; above its head a crown. On one side of the hoop a goldsmith's 
stamp. 

Plate XIX, row 5. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, 7 in. Weight, 109 grains. 

The initials (Jacobus Rex) are those of the Old Chevalier ; the arms are those of 
Innocent XIII (1721-4). 

653. GOLD ; octagonal bezel set with octagonal sapphire engraved with the arms 
of James Sobieski, father of Clementina Stuart, who died 17.37- 

Shoulders chased and once enamelled in blue and white ; back 
of bezel rubbed and enamelled. 

Sec figure. Polish, i8/// century. 

I), of hoop, 73 in. L. of bezel, -48 in. Weight, 55 grains. 
The arms are : or, an oval shield purpure. A ring with arms engraved 
on'sapphire is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, no. 820-71. 

654. GOLD ; the hoop divides at the shoulders, each of which has a setting with 
a faceted crystal. Octagonal bezel containing a chalcedony 

engraved with a shield of arms between palm-branches and 
surmounted by a princely crown : quarterly, i and 4 an eagle 
displayed, crowned ; 2 and 3, a lion rampant crowned ; over all 
an escutcheon of pretence, two bends and in chief a lion. Inside 
the hoop is a goldsmith's stamp Tl. 

See figure. Polish, early iftth century. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, -55 in. Weight, 136 grains. 

655. GOLD ; oval bezel containing a carnelian engraved in intaglio with arms of 
Bell (?) : two spears broken at the points crossing each other saltireways between 
three bells. 

Plate X. English, late i-jth century. 

D. -74 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. Weight, 65 grains. 

656. GOLD ; the hoop enamelled in blue and white on the shoulders. Oval bezel 
with convex back, enamelled in blue and white, set with a nicolo engraved 
in intaglio with a bust of Mercury, full-face. 

English, late i"jth century. 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -62 in. Weight, 95 grains. 
The gem is antique. 

H 2 




100 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

657. GOLD ; with scalloped edge ; shoulders of hoop and lower edge of bezel 
enamelled ; bezel oval, set with a nicolo engraved in intaglio with a raven 
standing on a branch. 

English, late ijf/i century. 

D. of hoop, 72 in. L. of bezel, -45 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

The gem, though resembling a Roman intaglio, is perhaps contemporary with the ring. 

658. SILVER GILT ; slender hoop, the shoulders moulded with scrolls and leaves ; 
high circular bezel containing a carbuncle engraved in intaglio with a Medusa 
head. 

i&t/t century. 

D. 1-36 in. L. of bezel, -6 in. From Smyrna. 
The gem is antique. 

659. GOLD ; the hoop and edges of the bezel enamelled ; on each shoulder is 
a diamond in a shell-shaped boss. Octagonal bezel, the sides with scalloped 
edges, set with a nicolo engraved in intaglio with a laureate bust. 

Plate X. Italian, early I tit/i ccntnry. 

D. of hoop, -84 in. L. of bezel, 73 in. Weight, 113 grains. 

The gem is late Roman. 

660. GOLD; slender hoop of rococo design enamelled with black touched with 
white ; open-work shoulders ; the shoulders divided with a flower between. Oval 
bezel, ornamented at the back with a bold radiating design, set with a lapis 
paste engraved in intaglio with the bust of a youth. 

Plate X. Italian, ijt/i century. 

D. -94 in. L. of bezel, 7 in. Weight, 93 grains. 

661. GOLD ; the shoulders and sides of the bezel enamelled with scrolls and 
flowers on grounds of dark blue and green ; large oval bezel 

containing an amethyst clear set, engraved in intaglio with two 
female figures burning incense at an altar before a column. 

Sec figure. Late I'jt/i century. 

D. -94 in. L. of bezel, '82 in. Weight, in grains. Carlisle Coll. 1890. 

The gem is probably not antique, but of the period of the Renais- 
sance. This ring, with the two following numbers, belonged to Henry 
Howard, fourth Earl of Carlisle (1694-1758), a well-known collector of gems. 

662. GOLD ; the hoop with three bands of imbrications reserved on a ground of 
black enamel ; the shoulders have transverse ribs, and terminate in trefoils 
enamelled in black and white. Oval bezel, riveted to the shoulders, formed of 
a plain gold setting, with a sard engraved in intaglio with a head of Socrates, 
within a band of diamonds mounted in silver. 

17 th and iSf/i centuries. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, 74 in. Weight, 138 grains. Carlisle Coll. 1890. 
The hoop is of the latter part of the seventeenth century ; the bezel is an addition made 
in the eighteenth century. 




SIGNET-RINGS IOI 

663. GOLD ; the back of the hoop baluster-moulded and enamelled in translucent 
blue and green, the shoulders wreathed and each flanked by a pair of thunder-bolts. 
Oval bezel, the sides with an open-work interlaced band enamelled in blue and a 
pearled band ; it contains a sard deeply engraved in intaglio with a head of Jupiter. 

1 8 tk century. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, '8 in. Weight, 118 grains. Carlisle Coll. 1890. 

664. GOLD ; slender hoop with pierced shoulders ; circular bezel, reeded beneath, 
set with a sapphirine chalcedony engraved in intaglio with two standing figures : 
Hermes with caduceus, and Fortuna with cornucopia. 

English, early i8//i century. 

D. i in. D. of bezel, -44 in. Weight, 56 grains. 
The gem is late Roman. 

665. GOLD ; the hoop channelled and dividing into three at -the shoulders, the 
middle member being of silver. Oval bezel with a silver edge and ribbed at the 
back, set with a plasma engraved in intaglio with a female figure holding 
a mirror (?). 

English, i&t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -8 in. L. of bezel, -49 in. Weight, 35 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
The intaglio is Roman. 

666. GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel set with an onyx paste, engraved in 
intaglio with Aphrodite seated to /. upon a rock and holding a cestus (?) in her 
r. hand. Behind her Eros stands in a basket and pulls her elbow. Below, the 
letters of a signature : AHTC/^/. 

i8/// century. 

D. -86 in. Weight, 46 grains. 

The intaglio is of the eighteenth century. 

667. GOLD ; flat hoop with median ridge and flanged shoulders ; hollow almond- 
shaped bezel set with a carnelian engraved in intaglio with Fortuna standing with 
rudder and cornucopia ; round the border a legend : 0O FTOM///. 

17^-18^ century. 

D. 1-04 in. L. of bezel, i-l in. Weight, 93 grains. 1866. Probably from the Adriatic. 
The gem is late Roman. 

(6) Engraved with arms and devices. 

668. SILVER ; flat oval bezel with ribbed back, engraved with a dove. Legend : 

O*A 1C TY AIMITPI. 
Greek, i "jth century. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, 74 in. 



102 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

669. SILVER ; flat oval bezel with ribbed back, engraved with a double-headed 
eagle. Legend: reOPTIOC TOU CIPOMOUNO. 

Greek, ijt/i century. 

D. of hoop, -99 in. L. of bezel, -87 in. Obtained in Smyrna. 

670. SILVER ; flat oval bezel with ribbed back, engraved with a dove. Legend : 
AOUK 3C TX ICiJCNIAX A0XU. 

Greek, \yt1i century. 

]). of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, -82 in. 

671. SILVER ; the hoop has triangular shoulders engraved and partly nielloed ; 
octagonal bezel with projecting points, and legend : reOPTI I 1742 ; above which 
is an ornament of three round arches. 

Georgian, i8/// century. 

D. of hoop, -93 in. L. of bezel, -68 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

672. SILVER ; engraved shoulders ; high oval bezel rudely engraved with a lion (?) 
passant ; all once enamelled. 

Hungarian, I'/fii century. 

D. 1-06 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

673. BRONZE ; high circular bezel engraved with a horseman carrying his sword 
over his shoulder; above, the initials FS ; pearled border. 

Hungarian (?), i-jt/i centnry. 
D. i in. D. of bezel, -64 in. 

674. SILVER ; on each shoulder of the hoop is chased a crowned 
bearded head. High octagonal bezel engraved with two lions 
confronting ; between them branches and the initials I. T. At 
the back of the bezel, a stamp ^13. 

See figure. Hungarian, ijt/t century. 
D. 1-12 in. L. of bezel, -8 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 
Cf. J. Szendrei, Catalogue tie la Coll. tie Bagues de M e G. de Tarnoczy, 
no. 74. 

675. SILVER; massive hoop of triangular section with two projections on each 
shoulder ; oval bezel engraved with a bird between leaves. 

Hungarian (?), Jjf/i century. 

D. ri2 in. L. of bezel, 76 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

676. SILVER ; the hoop wreathed at the back ; the shoulders moulded with lions' 
heads ; octagonal bezel engraved with a formal carnation and the initials I. P. On 
the outside of the hoop, a rectangular control mark, with the letter A. 

German, \Wi century. 
D. ri2 in. L. of bezel, 76 in. 




SIGNET-RINGS 103 

677. BRASS ; circular bezel engraved with a shield of arms upon a cross : quarterly, 
i and 4 four bezants, 2 and 3 a demi-lion rampant. Legend: CLEM AVG C Z 
COL H B 1725. 

Hungarian, ioV/i century. 

D. of hoop, -96 in. D. of bezel, -83 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

678. SILVER; plain slender hoop and applied circular bezel engraved in intaglio 
with a figure of Mercury carrying the caduceus. 

i8//z century. 

D. -88 in. Durden Coll. 1893. 

679. GOLD ; the hoop channelled on the shoulders ; the bezel scutiform and 
engraved with a shield of arms : or. two lions passant. 

iqt/i century. 

D. -74 in. L. of bezel, -46 in. Weight, 106 grains. 

680. SILVER; the shoulders modelled, one in the form of St. George, the other as 
a dragon clutching the hoop. Circular bezel engraved with a shield of arms : 
per pale, two hunting horns. Legend : &llwt fuoljll'clj t'Sft 

Plate X. German, i^th century. 
D. -94 in. 



D. RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 

I. Devotional Rings. 

(a) \$th to \6tJi centuries. 

681. GOLD; exterior of hoop engraved with legend: * KVH HKRIK GRKCHK 
PUHCK DH, each letter in a concave panel. 

1 3^/2 century. 

D. of hoop, -8 in. Weight, 39 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) Cf. Journ. Jlrit. Arch. Assoc. 
xiii, pi. xxxix. 

The last two letters (DN) represent the Dominus of Domimis tecum. The sentence, the 
Latin version of the Angelic message to the Virgin in the Annunciation (Luke i. 28), is 
very commonly found upon the minor products of mediaeval industrial art. It was doubtless 
considered to have a prophylactic virtue, and is sometimes found in conjunction with familiar 
charm-words such as AC LA (cf. no. 218, and Arch. Journ. iv, p. 78). 

682. SILVER; legend: * KV6 ffiKRIK 6RRUIR PLHN, each letter in a 
depression. 

13^/2 century. 
D. '87 in. 1849. 



104 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

683. GOLD ; a plain slender hoop engraved on the exterior : KVQ 
GRKQIft PLBNK. 

i^th century. 

D. of hoop, -81 in. Weight, 23 grains. 

684. GOLD ; plain hoop with legend : * KV : H I-KSfllK : G *. The bezel con- 
sists of two raised settings one above the other, the upper with a sapphire, the 
lower a ruby. 

Plate XI. ~i$tli century. 
D. '86 in. J). of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 28 grains. 

685. GOLD; legend: KV6 IIKRIK GRKd, preceded and terminated by 
quatrefoils in square sunk panels. The bezel is a high conical oval setting, from 
which the stone is missing. 

i$th century. 

D. '86 in. L. of bezel, - S in. Weight, 51 grains. 

686. SILVER ; legend : * KVQ HKRIK G, with a ridge between each pair of letters ; 
pyramidal bezel surmounted by a cluster of five pellets. 

i^/i-i4f/i century. 

D. of hoop, '91 in. H. of bezel, '26 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

687. GOLD ; flat hoop with legend : * KVQ : I-IKRIK : GRKQIK : PLQIiK ; above 
and below, raised borders, the upper complete and pearled, the lower imperfect. 

141/1 century. 

D. of hoop, - 8l in. Weight, 56 grains. 

688. GOLD ; hoop of triangular section terminating in conventional monsters' 
heads ; of the bezel there remain only two 

claws, once supporting a stone. On the 
outer faces of the hoop, the legend : Hh KVH 
OIKRIK GRKT|I7I PLeiOT DOOIIW. 
See figure. 142/1 century. 

D. '88 in. Weight, 30 grains. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) Found at Volterra. 

689. SILVER ; thick flat hoop with legend : KVB ffffiRIK GRKQIK PLQ. The 
bezel is a raised foliated setting with a coral stud revolving on a pin. 

Italian, I4f/i century. 

D. 1-04 in Castellani Coll. 1872. 

690. SILVER GILT ; flat hoop with legend : KVQ ffiKRIK 6 reserved in the metal. 
Bezel in the form of two quatrefoils, on the uppermost of which is a heart. 

i4/7z century. 

D. -96 in. D. of bezel, -66 in. Durden Coll. 1893. 
The leaf of the lower quatrefoil is broken. 





RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 105 

6goa. GILT METAL; flat hoop with legend: KVG MKRIK GRK; it contracts 
towards a projecting pyramidal bezel. 
English, I4t/i century. 
D. T02 in. Durden Coll. 1893. Found at Ash, near Ulandford. 

691. GOLD ; legend on sides of hoop : KV6T ffiKRIK, the letters reserved in the 
metal, and the words interspersed with leaves ; pearled borders. The bezel con- 
sists of two raised settings side by side, each, cut to a quatrefoil at the top, one 
containing a turquoise, the other a ruby. 

i5/// century. 

D. '96 in. D. of bezel, '5 in. Weight, 41 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 

692. GOLD ; the hoop forms on the outer side a series of concave panels in which are 
engraved the letters of the legend: KVH I-IKRIK G; between the words -are 
quatrefoils ; pyramidal bezel engraved with foliate designs. 

Plate y>\. Italian, ith century. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 108 grains. From Arezzo. 

693. BRONZE ; formerly gilt ; legend : KVG MKRIft GR7WIK 'PL6MK. 
i$t/i century. 

D. of hoop, '95 in. (Londesborough Coll.) 



694. SILVER ; wreathed hoop ; 
bezel with median ridge and 
legend : lljt lltiina. 

See figure, i^th century. 

D. '92 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. 
(Braybrooke Coll.) 



99iU'itl ; between the words engraved branches. 





695. SILVER ; legend : 

English, 151/1 century. 
D. -gain. Sloane Coll. 1753. 



696. BRONZE ; in the form of a buckled strap ; legend : MTCTGR Dffl 
MQMKHTO. 

See figure, i^th century. 

D. i in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

The inscription is intended for Mater Dei 
memento mei. Cf. no. 394 and ring in Norwich 
Castle Museum, Catalogue, 1902, no. 1125. 

Cf. Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xiii, pi. xl ; 
Arch. Inst. York Meeting, 1848, p. 1 6 ; Norwich 
Meeting, 1851, p. xlix ; Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 
iv, 1867, p. 1 6. 




106 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

697. BRONZE ; of similar form ; legend : IIKT8R DBI M8MKHTO. 
141/1 century. 

D. -94 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

698. BRONZE; same form and legend. 
i4t/t century. 

D. of hoop, i in. From Ixworth, Suffolk. 

699. ANOTHER ; similar ; legend : HHTflR <8> D8I <8> Hei'IKN///. 
14/7; century. 

D. -86 in. 1865. 

700. SILVER ; flat hoop with legend : * IHSVS : ffffiRM, the letters filled with 
niello. 

i4//^ century. 

D. roS in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

701. SILVER GILT; legend: |j)C lUlJiirmu tt lUDeo, the terminal letters 
foliated. Bezel in the 
form of a heart, from 
which issue two flowers. 

Plate XI, and see 
figure. English, i$t/i 
century. 

D. ri6 in. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) From Bury St. Ed- 
munds. 

This inscription, like the 
Ave Maria of preceding num- 

bers, is of frequent occurrence in mediaeval personal ornaments. Cf. Proc. Sac. Antiquaries 
pf London, xi, p. 79. The words are from Matthew xxvii. 37. 

702. SILVER ; a hoop of triangular section with legend : KVB flRKRI : GR. * Illd 

RGX IV * D60R/ (lesns Nazaren(ns) Rex Indaeorn(m)). 
century. 

D. '92 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

703. GOLD ; the hoop is of triangular section with legend : 





Projecting oval bezel with a chalcedony. 
See figure. Italian, i^th century. 

D. riz in. Weight, 70 grains. 

The chalcedony is probably not the original stone. 




RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 107 

704. GOLD ; once enamelled ; the hoop a slender wire ; quatrefoil bezel with the 
monogram IhQ reserved in the metal between a crown surmounted by a cross 
above, and three pellets below. 

\4,th century. 

D. i in. Weight, 23 grains. 

For rings with the sacred monogram cf. Proc. Sac. Ant, London, vii, p. 104. 

7043. BRONZE ; the hoop wreathed and engraved with sprigs on the shoulders ; 
octagonal bezel engraved with the sacred monogram il)0 between branches. 
English, i$f/i century. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, '6 in. 

The surface of the ring is roughened by some chemical action, which has also given it a 
golden appearance. 



705. GOLD; the inside of the hoop engraved with the legend: ^Eitlt p(CO) 
OCiltp(CO) 0C laliorat. The circular bezel is engraved with a quatrefoil panel, 
on which the letters i'hr. are reserved in the metal. 

Plate XI, row 4. ifjt/e century. 

D. i in. Weight, 157 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

706. GOLD ; slender hoop with shaped shoulders ; bezel an oval raised setting 
covered with a plate engraved with the monogram iljSi : above, a cross, and 
below, foliate ornament. 

Plate XI, row \. Early i6f/i century. 
D. '82 in. Weight, 47 grains. 

707. GOLD ; the hoop engraved on the shoulders with foliate designs : oval bezel 
with i()C in relief. 

Early i6t/i century. 

D. 7 in. Weight, 27 grains. From Cambridge. 

708. SILVER ; the shoulders nielloed ; oval bezel with the sacred 
monogram on a ground of niello within a foliate border. 

See figure. Italian, i$th century. 
D. -84 in. 

709. ANOTHER, similar. 

D. -82 in. 

710. SILVER ; circular bezel with il)0 upon a hatched background. 
Italian, }$th century. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

711. SILVER ; oval bezel on which is the sacred monogram in niello. 
i5/// century. 
D. -86 in. 1854. Found in Galway. 




I08 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

712. GOLD ; legend on the hoop : * OHST : KB8IJ : D9 : QIiKSEeTe|SGV : 

espose : K mesv amss. 

Plate XI, row 5. i$th century. 

D. -94 in. Weight, 77 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

A nun's ring. ' This is the ring of chastity. I am the spouse of Jesus Christ. ' Rings were 
from an early period given to novices on taking the veil to signify their espousal to Christ. 
Widows also took vows of chastity and wore a ring regarded as a token of similar espousal 
(Harrod in Archaeologia, xl, pt. 2, quoted by Jones, Finger-ring Lore, p. 241). 

713. GOLD ; high octagonal bezel set with a crystal over a piece of red cloth. On 
the outer side of the hoop, legend in relief: I)0Ip ptt HJlUe mact'a IjaUlJ. 

German, \$th century. 

I), i '68 in. D. of bezel, '93 in. Weight, 280 grains. An old possession of the Museum. 

714. GOLD ; hoop expanding at shoulders into monsters' heads, supporting globe 
from which rises a high conical bezel with fluted sides and eight claws ; it 
contains a flat plate of gold rudely engraved in intaglio with three standing 
draped figures, of which the central is Our Lord. 

I2/// century. 

1). I '2 in. Weight, 102 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

715. SILVER; plain hoop with ends overlapping at the back and engraved on the 
shoulders ; rectangular bezel with a cross in niello. 

1 5 tit century. 

D. -84 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

716. GOLD ; thick plain hoop engraved on the outer side with two scourges, beyond 
one of which is the crescent moon ; small rectangular raised bezel engraved with 
a cross pattee. In the interior of the hoop is engraved : s5>CC 

Sec figure. English, late ^fyli century. 



mtrimd 



D. -98 in. Weight, 97 grains. Given by the Friends of the British Museum, 1902. 
One shoulder is battered, and the representation of the sun, corresponding to the moon on 
the other side, has been obliterated. 

717- GOLD ; the bezel is engraved with the Vernicle surrounded by a legend. 
\4ttli century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 138 grains. Found at Geneva. 
The ring is much worn. 



RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 109 

718. GOLD ; a massive broad band, engraved on the outer side with Christ standing 
in the tomb ; the Cross and the Instruments of the Passion are behind him, and 
the Five Wounds at intervals round the hoop, that of the side being larger and 
by itself, the others of smaller size and in pairs. Between these subjects are 
engraved the descriptions of the Five Wounds, viz. <Wtyt \0tll Of pittj>, the 

of merci, the toell of confort, the toell of gracp, the toell of 

Ipffe, the last next to the large wound, to which it applies. In the interior 

is_engraved: OQjttltura qufiiq oef 0tmt metif ciiia mei pt'a cru.r et paggt'o 
3Eci 0tmt meoicina miclji lagpai* | melcljior baltajsac ananj?japta tetra- 
fcammaton, 

See figure. English, itfJi century. 

D. i '06 in. Weight, 786 grains. Found at Coventry in 1802, and known as the Coventry 
ring. 

Archaeologia, xviii. 306 ; Cat. of the Special Exhibition . . . on loan at Sou/A Kensington, 
1862, no. 7176; Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 1911, p. 340. 

The Five Wounds of Our Lord were venerated in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ; 
confraternities were formed in their honour, and they were sometimes represented on a shield, as 




in the fragment of stained glass at Sidmouth Church (Proc. Soc. Ant., as above, p. 342). The 
great wound in the side was commonly described as the Well of Everlasting Life, and the other 
names are usually as here, though at Sidmouth Wisdom replaces Pity. (For the Great Wound 
see W. Sparrow Simpson, On the measure of the wound in the side of the Redeemer, in Joiirn. 
Brit. Arch. Assoc. xxx, p. 357.) For the mystical type of the Christ of Pity, unknown in the 
earlier Middle Ages, but frequent from the close of the fourteenth century, see E. Male, 
L'art religieux de la fin du may en age en France, pp. 91 ff., and Proc. Soc. Ant., as above, 

P. 343- 

For the Instruments of the Passion, which had been placed on a shield from the beginning 
of the fourteenth century, see Male, as above, p. 97. 

Other rings with the Instruments of the Passion and the wounded hands and feet are in 
private possession in England : they are in a different style, and appear to be of rather later date 
than the present example. 

From a passage in the will of Sir John Shaw, alderman of London, dated 1487, it would 
appear that rings of this type may have been not uncommon (Notes and Queries, gth series, 
xi, p. 308 : 1903). Few are likely to have been as massive as the present example, which, with 
no. 719, appears for the moment to be almost the sole representative of the class. A similar 
ring, stated to have been found in Surrey, was described by John Piggott, Esq., F.S.A., in Notes 
and Queries, 4th series, vol. x, p. 330 : 1872. 

For the names of the Three Kings in magic see no. 885, and for Ananizapta, no. 870. For 
Tetragrammaton, one of the ten names of God, see Proc. Soc. Ant., ist series, iv, pp. 86 and 91 ; 
Arch. Jottrn. xl, p. 317 ; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xi, pp. 317, 318. It was one of the most 
frequent and important of magical names of power from mediaeval times to those of Jacob 
Bohme. 



110 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



719. GOLD; a broad hoop engraved on the outer side in three equidistant places 
with the Five Wounds, one larger than the rest represented alone, the others in 
two pairs. To the right of the wounds are engraved religious subjects : near the 
large wound, the Trinity ; near the others two representations of the Virgin 





standing with the Child. In the interspaces is the legend: ^Ije Vndl Of 

tljetodl of mcrct | tljetodlof confoitrljc tocll of grace | tljctodlofetonlafring; 

Ipff. Round the inside of the ring is an inscription in three lines, a small star 
separating each word from the next : 

!? ii In era qtifnque fcei gttnt mcdicina mci 
pia crtu; tt pasMo jn 0unt me&icina midji 
j'agpar mclcfor baltljajar ananpjapta tetraffinaton. 

Sec figure. English, i^tli century. 

\). '96 in. Weight, 136 grains. 
Cf. note on the preceding number. 

720. GOLD ; the hoop engraved on the shoulders : the bezel cut into a trefoil 
containing a crystal of diamond. On one 

shoulder is engraved the Virgin standing 
with the Child, on the other Thomas ;\ 
Beckct before an altar on which arc a 
chalice, mitre, cross and candle : a sword 
pierces his head from above. 

Sec figure. English, i$t/i century. 

I), i in. Weight, 158 grains. 

Proc. Sac. Ant. London, 1st series, i, p. 165. 

For Thomas a Becket upon rings cf. Proc. Soc. Ant. xii, p. 55. 

721. GOLD ; a broad band engraved on the outer side with figures of St. John the 
Baptist and St. Anthony, each standing upon the calix of a flower. Between 
them, a scallop-shell and a tau-cross. Within is the legend : A- A COMFORT ; 
a star after each letter. 

See figure. English, late i th century. 




X 

x- 







F * 



D. -86 in. .Weight, 135 grains. Sloane Coll. 1763. 

The tau fou-nd on the shoulders of various signets (cf. nos. 528, 530, 532, and Proc. Soc. 
Antiquaries of London, ist series, iv, p. 187) is an emblem of St. Anthony; the form, which 
is that of the Greek letter T, came to be associated with the crutch-like stick which he was 



RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL III 

thought to have carried as a swineherd ; but a mystical meaning attached to it from an early 
date, due to its resemblance to the cross. It was regarded as the mark which the man wearing 
a linen garment set upon the foreheads of the righteous in the Vision of Ezekiel (ix. 2 ff.), 
and it is so represented on Rhenish enamels of the twelfth century, an example of which is 
in the British Museum. Some of the rings bearing this emblem may have been worn by 
members of different orders of St. Anthony. This may have been the case with the gold ring 
of Richard Mayo, Bishop of Hereford, A. n. 1504-16 (Archaeologia, xxxi, p. 251), which has 
a tau and bell on each shoulder. Insignia of the military order of the Knights of St. Anthony, 
instituted by Albert II, Duke of Bavaria and Emperor, before his proposed campaign against the 
Turks in A. D. 1382, included a gold collar in the form of a hermit's girdle, from which hung a T 
with a small bell attached (Proc. Soc. Ant. London, vi, p. 53). Monuments show persons 
wearing mantles with the tau, e. g. Sir Roger de Hois and his lady (C. A. Stothard, Monumental 
Effigies, p. 93). 

St. Anthony was regarded as the especial preserver against erysipelas (St. Anthony's fire) ; 
but he was also, like SS. Adrian, Sebastian, and Roch, invoked against the pest. His relics were 
preserved in the Church of St. Antoine de Viennois in Dauphine, whither they had been brought 
from Constantinople in the eleventh century. Possibly some of the rings bearing his effigy or the 
tau may commemorate visits to this famous place of pilgrimage (1C. Male, L'art religieux delafai 
du nwycn age, p. 195). 

As is well known, the tau form was used for episcopal staves in the Roman Church down to 
the twelfth century ; in the Greek Church it has been continuous from very early times, and was 
perhaps derived from the crutch used in support during long periods of standing. 

The following numbers, 722-69, belong to the class commonly known, from 
the decoration with figures of saints and religious subjects, as iconographic. They 
are English, and of the fifteenth century. 

They were originally enamelled, though in most cases all traces of this have 
disappeared: cf., however, no. 7^0 and Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, vi, 
1876, p. 510. In the descriptions enamel is only mentioned where considerable 
traces remain. The principal colours seem to have been green, white, and black. 
There can be no doubt that a number of these rings, whatever their original 
purpose, were used as betrothal or as love-rings, many being inscribed with legends 
which make this destination almost certain (e. g. nos. 725, 742). Other rings of 
the iconographic class bear the legend en ban an, which seems to indicate that 
they were presented as New Year's gifts (e. g. no. 761, and cf. nos. 473, 527, 940, 
941). One discovered on the site of Lewes Priory, Sussex, bore this motto, the 
bezel being engraved with the patron saints of the house {Arch. Journ. vii. 321). 
Others have been discovered at Attleborough and elsewhere (ibid. p. 323). 

For purposes of comparison it has been found more convenient to retain such 
examples in the present class than to separate them from the rings with similar 
religious figures but without legend. 

The subjects most commonly found onjconographic rings are the Trinity, the 
Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist, and saints especially venerated at the 
close of the Middle Ages, SS. Christopher, George, Margaret, Catharine, and 
Barbara. St. George would naturally be found on English rings ; St. Catharine, 
as the patron saint of young girls, would also be frequently represented. 



112 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



725. 



St. Christopher and St. Barbara owe their great popularity to the belief that 
they protected from sudden death. (Cf. E. Male, L'art religietixde la fin du moyen 
, p- I9 1 -) 



722. GOLD ; the hoop spirally fluted and engraved on the shoulders with sprigs 
and the words loifll oC0ti' ; hexagonal bezel engraved with the Trinity. 

D. 74 in. L. of bezel, '42 in. Weight, 55 grains. 1893. Found near Southampton. 
Cf. a ring in the Victoria and Albert Museum (no. 693-71). 

723. GOLD ; the hoop has at the back a raised disk, the rest being imbricated ; 
near the bezel are engraved flowers. Oval bezel engraved with the Trinity. 

D. "86 in. D. of bezel, '4 in. Weight, 97 grains. 

724. GOLD ; hoop engraved on the shoulders : + 3! tntSJt III d5oD ; stars between the 
words. Oval bezel, engraved with the Virgin and Child within a glory, the 
Virgin holding a lily in her left hand. 

D. '9 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. Weight, 88 grains. Found on the site of Liverpool St. Station, 
London. 



the wreathed hoop with legend : 



Ctt|Ct: (a)|t)fj, with foliate 




GOLD ; 

ornament. Oblong bezel engraved with the Virgin with the Child beneath 
a canopy. In the interior, legend : 
CailC &ec|p]partir, the final letters 
floriated. 

See figure. 

D. 76 in. L. of bezel, "4 in. Weight. 
65 grains. 

This is one of the rather numerous 

rings mentioned in the previous note (p. in) which, while devotional in subject, may have been 
used as love-rings. The legend: Sans departir (lit., 'without distributing'; sense, 'all my 
love is yours') is frequently employed as a love motto. Thus it is found on a silver brooch 
from the Tower of London with the equally common words man cceur avez (Arch. Journ. 
ix, p. 116) ; and on the ring no. 978 below in conjunction with the words d nul autre (ibid. 
v, p. 160). Cf. nos. 728, 736, 978, and Norwich Castle Museum, Catalogue, 1909, no. 997. 

Man cttur avez is a frequent motto on love-rings. Cf. nos. 742, 752, 1009, and the signet 
no. 558. 

726. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a standing figure of St. John the Baptist 
carrying the lamb. 

English, i$f/i century. 
D. -8 in. L. of bezel, -25 in. Weight, 31 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

727. GOLD ; once enamelled ; the outer side of the hoop forms a series of lozenges. 
Rectangular bezel is engraved with St. George standing with shield and lance over 
the dragon. 






RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 113 

D. "84 in. D. of bezel, "5 in. Weight, 61 grains. 1855. (Bernal Coll.) Said to have been 
found in the Thames. 

For rings with St. George cf. Proc. Soc. Ant. London, xvii, p. 29. 

728. GOLD ; once enamelled ; on the hoop the legend : 0flI10 &C pactl'l' between 
lozenges. Oval bezel with St. Christopher carrying the infant Christ. 

D. '81 in. L. of bezel, '5 in. Weight, 45 grains. 1871. 
Cf. no. 725. 

729. GOLD ; the hoop wreathed and engraved upon the shoulders with flowers and 
legend : iiullt C(?) lUClt. Rectangular bezel with St. John carrying the lamb, or 
St. Christopher. 

D. '82 in. L. of bezel, '42 in. Weight, 70 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 
For a ring with St. Christopher and legend : mil anltre, cf. Proc. Sac. Ant. London, iii, 
p. 269. 

730. GOLD ; on the shoulders the legend : &C boil CUCf, with interspersed flowers 
and sprays. Rectangular bezel with St. John the Baptist carrying the lamb. 

D. '84 in. L. of bezel, '45 in. Weight, 69 grains. 

Cf. nos. 767, 939, and ring found near York, Arch. Journ. xxi, p. 91, in the Waterton 
Collection. 

731. GOLD; wreathed hoop with legend: tie llOCIl CtlCl 4 , and interspersed foliate 
ornament. Rectangular bezel with St. 

John the Baptist carrying the lamb, 
the ground formerly enamelled. 
See figure. 

D. '86 in. D. of bezel, '43 in. Weight, 95 grains. Given by John C. Rose, Esq., 1910. 
For the inscription cf. nos. 730, 732, and a ring in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(no. 692-'7i). 

732. GOLD ; the outer side of the hoop forms a series of lozenges, each with a 
single letter of the legend : df b00n C00C. Rectangular bezel engraved with 
St. Christopher carrying the Child on his shoulder ; at each end, rays. 

D. 76 in. L. of bezel, "4 in. Weight, 50 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 

733. GOLD ; the outer side of hoop is wreathed and engraved with the letters of an 
indeterminate legend, and with leaves. Rectangular bezel with the standing 
figure of a female saint (St. Barbara?). 

D. -8 in. L. of bezel, '5 in. Weight, 53 grains. Found in 1880 on the banks of the Frome.. 
Bristol, on the site of Messrs. Fry's works. 

J 



114 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

734. GOLD ; hoop fluted at the back ; imbricated shoulders. Oblong bezel 
engraved with a standing figure of St. Barbara, with tower in her right hand. 

D. -66 in. L. of bezel, '4 in. Weight, 38 grains. 

A small ring, either a child's ring or worn on the second joint of the finger. 

St. Barbara carries a diminutive tower because a tower was the cause of her martyrdom. 
The legend relates that her father built a tower in which to imprison her, and that, seeing two 
windows only, she in his absence ordered a third to be added that the three might symbolize the 
Trinity. On his return he was so enraged that he struck off her head. 

735- SILVER GILT; wreathed hoop, ridged and pearled; the shoulders engraved 
with floral designs. Oblong bezel engraved with a standing figure of 
St. Barbara (?). 

D. of hoop, 78 in. L. of bezel, '54 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

736. GOLD; the hoop spirally channelled, the shoulders engraved with flowers and 
the legend : ailgi De|pat'tl'CC. Bezel engraved with a figure of St. Margaret 
rising from the back of the dragon and holding a cross. 

D. 76 in. L. of bezel, '5 in. \Veight, 59 grains. 
For the inscription see no. 725. 

737. GOLD ; shoulders engraved ; rectangular bezel with figure of St. Catharine 
crowned, and holding wheel and sword. 

D. '8 in. L. of bezel, '48 in. Weight, 29 grains. 

738. GOLD ; hollow hoop, with letters of a defaced legend upon a band of lozenges. 
Oval bezel engraved with a standing figure of St. Catharine, holding the wheel in 
her left hand and a sword in her right. 

D. -94 in. L. of bezel, '4 in. Weight, 71 grains. 

739- GOLD ; the shoulders chased with foliate ornament. Oval bezel engraved with 
a figure of St. Catharine standing with wheel and sword. 

D. '82 in. L. of bezel, '4 in. Weight, 70 grains. 

740. GOLD ; cabled hoop ; rectangular bezel revolving on a swivel, engraved on one 
side with a standing figure of St. John the Baptist carrying the lamb, on the other 
a female saint (St. Margaret?) crowned and holding a long cross. 
D. '92 in. L. of bezel, '45 in. Weight, 133 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

741. GOLD ; at the back, legend : fan0 * fjm ; on the shoulders flowers. The 
bezel is ridged, with two concave panels, one engraved with St. John the Baptist 
carrying the lamb, the other with St. John the Evangelist holding a chalice. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, -47 in. Weight, 103 grains. 

The inscription is usually joye sans fin (cf. nos. 924-7) : the words might be construed in 
either a religious or a secular sense (cf. no. 760). 




RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 115 

742. GOLD ; wreathed hoop engraved on the shoulders with flowers and legend : 
tOUt ntOIl | Ctiei* aiiej. Rectangular bezel engraved with standing figures of 
St. Margaret (?) holding a long 

cross, and St. Christopher. 
Sec figure. 

D. '84 in. L. of bezel, '4 in. Weight, 71 grains. 1854. 

Arch. Journ. xi, p. 187. 

A similar inscription is frequent on love-rings (cf. nos. 558, 725, 752, icog). 

743. GOLD ; the shoulders engraved with sprays of flowers. Ridged bezel engraved 
on one face with the half-figure of Our Lord in the tomb, on the other with the 
Virgin or a female saint. 

D. '92 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 56 grains. 
For the figure of Our Lord cf. no. 718. 

744. GOLD ; wreathed hoop pearled and ridged ; on the shoulders flowers. Ridged 
bezel engraved on one face with the Trinity, on the other with St. Catharine. 

D. "96 in. L. of bezel, "44 in. Weight, 106 grains. From Alresford, Hants. 

745. GOLD ; cable hoop ; the shoulders channelled and engraved with flowers. 
Ridged bezel engraved on one face with the Angel of the Annunciation, on the 
other with the Virgin. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, '4 in. Weight, 78 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

For the Annunciation on similar rings cf. Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 2nd series, iv, p. 284. 

746. GOLD ; half of a ring cut as a gimmel. The exterior of the hoop is of cable 
design, and each shoulder is engraved with flowers. The half of the ridged bezel 
is engraved with the Angel of the Annunciation. On the surface (concealed 
when the two halves were together) is engraved : CM 1)011. Two projections on 
the edge of the hoop served to fasten the halves together. 

D. -96 in. L. of bezel, '44 in. Weight, 19 grains. 

The other half of the ring must have had the Virgin, and the word an, completing the 
legend : en ban an. For this motto see note preceding no. 722. 

Cf. nos. 423, 527, 940, 941. The same motto, which may indicate a New Year's gift, is 
found on the ring of John Stanbery, Bishop of Hereford, who died A. D. 1474 (Archaeologia, 
xxxi, p. 249). 

747. GOLD ; wreathed hoop, ridged and pearled ; the shoulders engraved with 
flowers. Ridged bezel engraved on one face with the Virgin and Child, on the 
other with St. George on foot, transfixing the dragon with a spear. In the interior 

the legend : pet bon amoc. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, '47 in- Weight, 112 grains. 

This is another common motto. It is found on an iconographic ring from Dallinghoe, 
Suffolk (Arch. Journ. xvii, p. 183). Cf. also no. 758. 

I 2 



n6 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



748. GOLD ; the hoop ornamented with zigzag pearled bands, the channels between 
engraved with flowers still partially filled with green and white enamel. Ridged 
bezel engraved on one face with St. George, on the other with St. Christopher ; 
both have remains of black enamel. 

Plate XI. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, -44 in. Weight, 105 grains. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

749. GOLD ; wreathed hoop, ridged and pearled ; the shoulders engraved with 
flowers and rays. Ridged bezel engraved on one face with St. Margaret holding 
a long cross and standing on the dragon, on the other with St. Catharine. 

D. '92 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, loo grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

750. SILVKR ; similar hoop, the shoulders rudely engraved with flowers, still partly 
filled with green enamel. 

Ridged bezel rudely en- 
graved with two saints 
enamelled in black. 
See figure. 

D. ro6 in. L. of bezel, "52 
in. (Uraybrooke Coll.) Found 
on the site of Garendon Abbey, 
Leicestershire. 




751. SILVER ; similar hoop, the shoulders engraved with flowers. Ridged bezel 
rudely engraved with figures of St. John the Baptist (?) and another saint. 

D. '86 in. L. of bezel, "5 in. 

752. GOLD ; similar hoop and bezel, the latter engraved with figures of St. Margaret 
holding a long cross and standing above the monster, and St. Barbara holding the 
tower. In the interior the legend : ttton COC at)0. 

L. of bezel, '4 in. 



D. -b'2 in. 
Suffolk. 

For the inscription cf. nos. 558, 725, 742. 



Weight, 78 grains. 1891. Treasure trove, Fressingfield, 



753 



SILVER GILT ; the hoop 
wreathed at the back ; the shoul- 
ders rudely engraved with sprigs. 
Ridged bezel engraved with a 
male and a female saint. 

See figure. 

D. -94 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
Found in a gravel-pit at Chesterford, 
Essex. 











RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 



117 



754- SILVER ; similar type ; the bezel rudely engraved with two saints. 

D. '84 in. L. of bezel, '46 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in 1860 at Leiston Abbey, 
Saxmundham. 

755. SILVER GILT ; the hoop has on each shoulder a flat panel engraved with 
a conventional design. Ridged bezel rudely engraved with two saints. 

D. i in. (Hailstone Coll.) 

756. SILVER GILT ; similar hoop, engraved on the shoulders with bands of zigzag. 
The bezel has two vertical panels side by side, each rudely engraved with 
the standing figure of a female saint. 

Plate XI. 
D. -86 in. 

757. GOLD ; wreathed hoop, pearled and ridged ; the shoulders are channelled and 
engraved with flowers. Bezel with three concave panels engraved with standing 
figures of the Virgin and Child, St. Christopher, and St. Barbara or St. Margaret. 
Inside the hoop, the legend : IjontlOUC Ct JOpC- 

Plate XL 

D. '96 in. Weight, 130 grains. 1871. Found at Norwich. 
ArcIi.Journ. xvii, p. 182. 

The same inscription is found on the ring of Archbishop Bowet of York, 1407-23 
(Archaeologia, xlv, p. 404). Cf. Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, iv, 1867, p. 1 6. 

758. GOLD; hoop of similar type. Bezel with three concave panels rudely engraved 
with three standing figures of saints, 

two of whom are female. In the 
interior is engraved : pOC flOIl antOtlf. 

See figure. 

D. '9 in. Weight, III grains. 1871. Found at Dallinghoe, Suffolk. 

Arch.Journ. xvii, p. 182. For the inscription cf. no. 747. 

759. GOLD ; hoop of similar type, but the wreathing angular in four places ; bezel 
with three panels en- 
graved with standing 

figures of St. Chris- 
topher, St. Barbara, 
and St. Catharine (?). 
Inside the hoop the legend: en boil COU. 

See figure. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 134 grains. 1900. Found at St. Gennys, near Bude, Cornwall. 

760. GOLD ; wreathed hoop, pearled and ridged, shoulders engraved with flowers ; 
bezel rudely engraved with three saints. Within the hoop is the legend : ' 

fjn, with stars between the words. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 109 grains. Roach Smith Coll. 1856. Found in London. 
For the motto cf. nos. 741, 924. 





Il8 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

761. GOLD ; the shoulders spirally channelled and engraved with flowers, once 
enamelled. The bezel has three panels, one engraved with the Virgin and Child, 
the other two with indeterminate figures. In the interior the legend : en 

bon an. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 103 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

The ring is much worn. For the motto cf. nos. 473, 527, 746. 940, 941, also a ring now in the 
collection of Sir Arthur Evans (Catalogue of the Loan Collection of Ancient and Modern 
Jewellery, <S~v., South Ketisington, 1872, no. 86l). 

762. SILVER ; wreathed hoop ridged and pearled, shoulders engraved with flowers. 
Bezel with three longitudinal panels, roughly engraved with figures of saints. 

D. I in. L. of bezel, '54 in. Found at Ipswich. 

763. SlLVKR ; similar hoop ; shoulders engraved with flowers and cross-hatching. 
Bezel with three panels, each rudely engraved with the figure of a saint. 

1). -88 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

764. SILVER GILT ; at the back of the hoop three lozenge panels, engraved with 
floral ornament ; angular shoulders, channelled and engraved ; bezel with three 
concave panels, each rudely engraved with the figure of a saint. 

D. '94 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. 

765. SILVER ; the shoulders channelled and engraved with a letter T ; bezel with 
three panels, rudely engraved with a figure of a saint and bands of zigzag. 

D. -96 in. 

766. SILVER GILT ; the hoop similar to no. 762, &c. Bezel with three concave 
panels, engraved with 

figures of saints : St. 
John the Baptist be- 
tween St. Barbara and 
an indeterminate female 
saint. 

Plate XI, and see 
figure. 

D. -96 in. L. of bezel, 
68 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
Ploughed up in 1854 on 
the White Farm in the parish of Shapwick, Dorsetshire. 

767. GOLD ; hoop similar to no. 764 ; bezel with three vertical concave panels 
engraved with the Trinity between two figures of saints. In the interior the 

legend : tie bon cuec. 

D. '86 in. L. of bezel, -42 in. Weight, 88 grains. Found during gleaning at Priors Salford, 
Evesham. 

The ring is considerably worn. For the motto cf. nos. 730-2, 939. 





RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 



768. SILVER ; the hoop channelled on the shoulders, where it is engraved with 
flowers. Bezel with three vertical concave panels, each rudely engraved with 
the half-figure of a saint. 

D. -94 in. L. of bezel, '64 in. 1849. 



(b) \6t/i century and later. 

769. BRONZE ; slender hoop ; lozenge-shaped bezel with the letters I H S in relief. 
D. 74 in. 



770. SILVER ; the shoulders chased ; 
circular bezel with I H S reserved 
on a hatched ground, between 
foliations. 

Plate XI, and see figure. \6th 
century. 

D. '94' in. D. of bezel, '66 in. 
(Braybrooke Coll.) 






771. GOLD ; engraved shoulders ; 
heart-shaped bezel having in the 
centre I H S within a radiate 
border. 

See figure. I'/t/i century. 

D.'Qin. L. of bezel, 76 in. Weight, 
39 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



772. SILVER ; a narrow hoop engraved on the outer side: IESVS MARY IO.SEPH, 
with rosettes between the words. 
i 8tk century. 

D. -82 in. 

773. SILVER ; slender flat hoop with a standing figure of the Magdalen in low relief; 
legend: S. M. MAGDALENA + ORA PRO M(E). 
\%th century. 

D. 76 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 



120 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

774. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with lozenges on the shoulders ; hemispherical 
bezel, ribbed on the under side, containing beneath crystal glass the Pater Nosier, 
in minute characters within a circle upon white paper. 

Plate XI. i8t/i century. 
D. -82 in. D. of bezel, '38 in. Cf. no. 2045. 

775. GOLD ; bezel, which is protected by glass, has an eye in pink enamel, the pupil 
being formed of the Lord's Prayer in minute characters. 

English, iftth century. 

D. 78 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, 29 grains. 1897. 

776. SILVER GILT ; convex hoop with dots closely set in diagonal lines, and two 
oval panels, one engraved with a cross resting on a mount, the other with the 
Virgin and Child. 

1 6 / '/i century. 

D. -97 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

777. GOLD ; broad hoop channelled at the back, the shoulders moulded. The bezel is 
a pierced disk with the Crucifixion between the Virgin and St. John ; pearled border. 
Plate XI. Early \f>th century. 
D. l'O4 in. D. of bezel, '54 in. Weight, 235 grains. 



778. IVORY SIGNET ; circular bezel engraved with the Cruci- 
fixion between the Virgin and St. John; legend: IN HOC 
SIGNO VINCES. 

See figure. \6t/t century. 

D.'92in. D. of bezel, "6 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in Suffolk ; 
cf. a gold signet with the same device found at Warkton, near Kettering 
{Arch. Journal, iii. 335). 

The hoop has been restored at the back. 



778a. SILVER; engraved shoulders, much worn; oval bezel engraved with I H S, the 
cross and the three nails; round the border: GIROMIMO CODO. 
Italian, i6t/i century. 
I). 1-14 in. L. of bezel, 7 in. 

779. GOLD ; very slender hoop ; bezel an oval setting protected by glass, containing, 
upon a dark ground, the Crucifixion between the two thieves, with the Virgin and 
St. John in relief, in gold on a dark ground. The lower side of the bezel has 
in the middle I ft S in dark enamel within a foliate border reserved, upon 
a ground of similar enamel. 
I'jth ccnttiry. 
D. -98 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 40 grains. 






RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 121 

780. GOLD ; slender hoop ; the bezel a shallow rectangular setting containing a 
figure of Our Lord crucified, and legend: (Piije 3!^^"^ m white enamel on 
a dark ground. 

i7/// century. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, '36 in. Weight, 20 grains. 

781. SILVER, once gilt ; the bezel formed of pierced scrolls divided by a cross 
bearing a figure of Our Lord ; the rest of the hoop is wreathed. 

See figure. ijt/i century. 

IX '9 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

This type somewhat recalls that of Martin Luther's betrothal-ring at Leipsic, 
which has on the shoulders the Crucifix and Instruments of the Passion, and 
is reproduced in various late examples. Cf. J. Szendrei, Catalogue de la Collection 
de bagiies . . de Madame G. de Tarnoczy, p. 344. 

782. GOLD ; the hoop roughened to simulate bark ; upon one side is applied a figure 
of Our Lord crucified with the skull of Adam beneath his feet. Rays issue from 
the angles of the cross, above which is a titnlm engraved with INRI. 

it>tli century. 

D. i in. Weight, 96 grains. 

783. GOLD ; oval bezel engraved with a mounted St. George piercing the dragon, 
the princess kneeling behind him. 

English, \btli century. 

D. '82 in. \Veight, 45 grains. 1871. 
Cf. no. 727. 

784. COPPER GILT; the shoulders have conventional floral designs in relief; the 
oval bezel contains an Agnus Dei, painted in colours, under glass. 

i6th century. 

D. '9 in. L. of bezel, '8 in. 

785. GOLD ; on the shoulders foliate designs reserved on a ground of black enamel. 
Octagonal bezel containing an enamel painted in colours with the Virgin and 
Child ; legend : ^aria $flff. 

Plate XI. Late I'jth century. 

D. 72 in. L. of bezel, -34 in. W 7 eight, 19 grains. 

The enamel is German. The ornament of the hoop resembles that of English mourning-rings 
of the same period. 

786. GOLD ; slender hoop and large oval bezel with a half- figure of a saint in relief, 
in gold upon a black ground. The saint is in prayer before a crucifix, at the 
foot of which rests an oval medallion with a half-figure of the Virgin. 

i ^>th century. 

D. I in. Weight, 1 10 grains. 



122 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

787. BRONZE SIGNET ; hoop of triangular section, engraved and chased with floral 
and geometrical designs ; pointed oval bezel with a gold plate in which is inlaid 
an octagonal sard engraved in intaglio with a figure of St. John Nepomuk, 
standing upon a bridge in ecclesiastical vestments, holding a cross in one hand 
and an indeterminate object in the other ; below his feet are the letters I. B. F. P, 
and round the oval cavity in which the figure is cut is a border of stars. 
century. 



D. ri2 in. 

St. John Nepomuk, Canon of Prague, was martyred by being flung from a bridge into the 
Moldau. His statues are therefore usually found on bridges. A miraculous light is said to have 
surrounded his body, indicated in art by the stars surrounding his head and figure. (Cf. C. Cahier, 
Caractcristiques <ies Saints, pp. 390, 699.) 



Nos. 788-810 belong to the class known as decade-rings because they 
usually have ten projections, the fingers passing from one to the other during 
the recital of prayers ; their use is therefore analogous to that of the rosary. They 
are said to have been known as early as the fourteenth century, but existing 
specimens are generally of the sixteenth century or later. 

788. GOLD ; with ten projections ; high bezel engraved with the arms of Tichborne : 
vair, a chief or. Inside the hoop the legend : 2Di]jnar me %atl&are te (HJttffO 

feacrata. 

Plate XI. 

D. -94 in. D. of bezel, '32 in. Weight, 124 grains. 1871. Found at Netley Abbey, 
Hampshire. 

789. SILVER; ten projections ; oval bezel engraved with the arms of Crane (?) : on 
a fess between three crosses pattce as many annulets. 

Plate XI. 

I). i'2 in. 

790. BRONZE ; ten projections ; circular bezel containing a Crucifixion between 
the Virgin and St. John embossed in silver under glass. 

D. of hoop, I in. 13. of bezel, '46 in. 

79 1 - SILVER ; ten projections ; oval bezel with a crucifix in low relief. 
D. ri in. L. of bezel, '36 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

79 2 - SILVER ; ten projections ; the bezel in the form of a projecting cross on three 
steps, engraved with a figure of the crucified Saviour. 

Plate XI. i it/i century. 

D. 17 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 123 

793. SILVER ; similar, but of thinner metal ; no figure on the cross, but a stamp 
with letter F (?). 

D. i -66 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 



794. SILVER ; ten projections ; with projecting oval bezel 
engraved with a Latin cross. 
See figure. 

D. ri6 in. L. of bezel, '32 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 





795. SILVER; ten projections engraved with whorls; high oval bezel with a cross 
in low relief upon a hatched ground. 

D. r2 in. L. of bezel, '4 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

796. ANOTHER ; of the same design. 

D. i'2 in. Durden Coll. 1893. Found on Damory Farm, near Blandford. 

797. ANOTHER ; similar. 
D. 1-2 in. 

798. SILVER ; ten projections ; bezel an applied square plaque engraved with a 
St. Andrew's cross. 

D. of hoop. '83 in. L. of bezel, '21 in. 

799. SILVER ; ten projections ; conical bezel engraved with I H S surmounted by 
a cross ; below, three nails. 

century. 



D. i'36 in. 

Decades with this device are in the Norwich Castle Museum, Catalogue, 1909, no. 1052, &c. 

800. SILVER ; ten projections ; circular bezel with the same device as. the last. 
ijth century. 

D. 1-4 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 





801. SILVER ; ten projections ; the bezel is heart-shaped, 
engraved with sacred monogram I H S surmounted by a 
cross. 

See figure. 

D. of hoop, nS in. L. of bezel, '43 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



802. SILVER; high projecting bezel engraved with the same device surmounted 
by a cross. 

D. of hoop, rc>4 in. L. of bezel, "27 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

803. COPPER GILT ; ten projections ; oval bezel with the same device. 
D. of hoop, '92 in. L. of bezel, '33 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

804. SILVER ; ten projections ; circular bezel engraved with a crowned monogram 
MRA above a heart. 

D. of hoop, i '24 in. D. of bezel, "43 in. (Soden Smith Coll.; 

805. BRASS ; oval bezel engraved with a figure of St. Christopher (?) leaning on 
a staff. 

D. of hoop, '88 in. L of bezel, '54 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

806. BRASS ; oval bezel on which is engraved a bust of the Virgin in glory. 
D. of hoop, '99 in. L. of bezel, "49 in. Obtained in Verona in 1874. 

807. BRONZE ; covered on the outer side with white enamel, on which are ten 
projections of dark blue glass ; bezel in the form of a skull, also enamelled. 

D. 1-3 in. 

808. SILVER ; ten bosses with pellets between ; a larger eleventh boss serves as 
a bezel. 

See figure. 

D. of hoop, '98 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

809. BRONZE ; similar, but without the pellets between the bosses. 
D. -9 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

810. BRONZE ; the hoop has eleven bosses of equal size. 

D. -98 in. 1865. 
Perhaps a decade-ring. 




RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 




Nos. 811-31 are Memento Mori rings (cf. nos. 1448-53). 

811. GOLD ; enamelled and set with jewels ; the bezel is in the form of a clasped 
book, having on the upper side a skull in white enamel between four stones 
(sapphire, ruby, emerald, and diamond), and two toads and two snakes 
enamelled in green ; the 

under side is engraved and 
enamelled with conven- 
tional designs in trans- 
lucent red, blue, and green. 
Inside the book, on a 
separate plate of gold, is 
a white enamelled recum- 
bent figure with skull and 
hour-glass, on a green ground ; and on the under side of the cover is a legend 
in black enamel : SIVE VIVIM 9 SIVE MORIMVR DOMINI SVM 9 COMMEND A 
DOMINO VIAM TVAM ET SPERA IN EVM ET IPSE FACIET (Rom. 
xiv. 8 ; Psalm xxxvii. 5). On the shoulders two groups in enamel : the Fall, and 
the Expulsion from Eden. The back of the hoop in the form of hands clasping 
a heart, enamelled. 

See figure. German, \btlicentnry. 

D. i'2 in. Weight, 230 grains. Waddesdon Bequest, 1898. (Bernal Coll.) 

C. H. Read, The Waddesdon Bequest, Works of Art, &c., no. 199. 
This ring is also &fede\ cf. nos. 1002 fif. 

812. GOLD ; the shoulders and sides of the bezel ornamented with conventional floral 
designs reserved on a ground of black enamel ; oval bezel set with a cameo skull 
in onyx. 

Plate XXI. \(>th century. 

D. 1-04 in. Weight, 133 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

This ring, like the succeeding numbers, may have been used as a mourning-ring. 

813. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with arabesques. The bezel is flat and hexagonal 
with incurved sides, containing an oval plate revolving on a swivel ; the plate has 
on one side a skull in white enamel, on the other a merchant's mark flanked by 
the initials R E. Legend on bezel : + MORS BONIS GRATA. 

Plate XXI. English, i6t/i century. 

D. ri in. L. of bezel, '68 in. Weight, 297 grains. 1871. Found at Banstead, Surrey, in 
1870. 

There are traces of green enamel upon the shoulders. The hoop has been pressed out of 
shape at the back. 

For the form cf. rings in the Victoria and Albert Museum (nos. 13-1888 and 9zo-'7l). 



126 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 





814. GOLD ; the hexagonal bezel has an oval cavity, once containing a death's- 
head. Legend: DEATH SY MYN + ERITAG : angular shoulders, ornamented 
with scrolls in relief. The meaning is : Death is my licritagc. 

Plate XXI. Late i6th century. 
D. '98 in. Weight, 140 grains. 

815. GOLD ; slender hoop scrolled at the shoulders, where it 
has been enamelled. Hexagonal bezel with incurved sides, 
having in the centre a skull enamelled in white ; surrounding 
legend: + DYE TO LINE. In the angles of the hexagon are 
engraved trefoils. 

See figure. \jtk century. 

D. -98 in. L. of bezel, 7 in. Weight, 1039 grains. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) 

The same inscription is found on a ring in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (no. 920-7 1 ). 

816. GOLD ; the shoulders with scrolls filled with green, blue, and white enamel ; 
quatrefoil bezel, in the centre of which is a skull in white and black enamel ;' 
legend: + MEMENTO MORI. 

English, i-jUi century. 

D. -9 in. L. of bezel, 7 in. Weight, 163 grains. Sloane Coll. 1753. Found at Canterbury. 

On the back of the bezel is a goldsmith's mark, an H within a shield. 

817. GOLD ; similar ring with the same design and legend ; shoulders partially 
enamelled in black and white. 

English, iji/i century. 

D. '82 in. L. of bezel, '65 in. Weight, 78 grains. Sloane Coll. 1753. Found at Canterbury. 

The ring is much worn, and the details of the skull are indistinguishable. 

818. GOLD ; the shoulders scrolled and once enamelled ; bezel with four lobes 
between which are small triangular projections ; it has in the centre a skull in 
white and black enamel ; round it the legend : MEMENTO MORI, enamelled in 
black. 

English, early ijth century. 

D. '86 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. Weight, 122 grains. 



819. BRONZE ; the shoulders scrolled ; 
quatrefoil bezel, engraved with a 
death's - head ; legend in margin : 
MEMENTO MORI. 

See figure. English, ijth century. 

D. of hoop, '84 in. L. of bezel, '65 in. 
(Braybrooke Coll.) 





RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 



127 



820. GOLD ; oval bezel with a skull in white enamel within a black enamel border ; 
surrounding legend : ^c MEMENTO MORI, formerly enamelled in black. 

English, \*]th century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 103 grains. 

821. GOLD SIGNET ; oval bezel engraved with a death's-head ; beneath it the letters 
I-P; around, the legend : MEMENTO MORI. 

Plate XXI. English, early \7tlicentury. 
D. '98 in. Weight, 200 grains. 

822. GOLD; circular bezel engraved with a death's-head; legend: MEMENTO 
MORI. 

English, about A. D. 1600. 
D. 79 in. Weight, 80 grains. 

823. GOLD SIGNET ; octagonal bezel engraved with a skeleton standing between 
two growing flowers, and holding a dart and hour-glass ; cable border. 

Plate XXI. English, I'jf/i century. 

D. of hoop, '9 in. L. of bezel, 72 in. Weight, 143 grains. 



824. SILVER ; the hoop and back of bezel en- 
riched with nielloed floral ornament ; oval bezel 
set with an oriental garnet engraved in intaglio 
with a skeleton, standing with a scythe. 
See figure. Caucasian (?), i ~th century. 

D. of hoop, '81 in. L. of bezel, '62 in. (Bray- 
brooke Coll.) 

The projection at the back of the hoop suggests 
an oriental influence. 






825. GOLD ; the shoulders ornamented with pierced or flaming hearts, a scythe and 
hour-glass, and an open and a closed book, all enamelled, for the most part in white. 
The bezel is a skull resting upon cross-bones, similarly enamelled. In the interior 
the legend: MEMENTO MORI. 
Plate XXI. ijf/t century. 
D. -98 in. Weight, 51 grains. 



128 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

826. GOLD ; slender hoop, the shoulders and back of the bezel enamelled in black 
and translucent green. The bezel, which is lobed, has a lid representing an open 

. flower set with diamonds ; when opened it displays an enamelled skull, the 
interior having blue enamel, and the inner side of the lid a seeded rose in pale 
blue, with a border of the same colour. 
Early i"/t/i century. 

D. ro4 in. Weight, in grains. 

826a. SILVER ; slender hoop having on each shoulder a recumbent figure in relief. 
The bezel is in the form of a death's-head pierced at the top. 
] ~tli century. 

I). r66 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

827. IRON SIGNET, lined with brass ; the shoulders have chased scrolls ; octagonal 
bezel engraved with a skull and cross-bones. 

17/7* century. 

D. ro6 in. L. of bezel, '64 in. 

828. IRON; broad hoop rounded on the outer side ; high projecting bezel in the form 
of a skull. 

17/7; century. 

D. 1-62 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

829. IRON ; the hoop imbricated ; projecting bezel, one side representing a 
woman's head, the other a skull. 

i "jtk century. 

D. '84 in. 

830. GOLD ; the shoulders enamelled with tulip-like flowers, much 
of the enamel lost. The bezel, also once enamelled in white, 
represents on one side a woman's head, on the other a grinning 
skull ; at the top is a diamond in an oval setting. 

See figure. Late i//7z century. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 36 grains. 

831. GOLD ; slender hoop with on each shoulder a ruby in a circular setting. The 
bezel is in the form of a skull and cross-bones, enamelled in white, diamonds being 
set in the eyes. 

ifith century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 26 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 




RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 129 

II. Ecclesiastical. 

(a) Papal. 
(Chiefly dating from the ijt/t century.} 

The purpose of these rings is not certain ; they were perhaps used as emblems 
of investiture or as credentials. They are always of small intrinsic value, made 
of gilt copper or bronze, and set with stones of little worth or with glass pastes 
over foil. Some are extremely massive, no. 860 weighing no less than 12 oz. 
avoirdupois. They usually bear the names or arms of popes and cardinals, the 
triple tiara, crossed keys, cardinal's hat, or mitre ; those with names or emblems 
of reigning popes often bear, in addition, the emblems of the Evangelists. Many 
of the following rings from the Octavius Morgan Bequest were exhibited at the 
Ironmongers' Hall in 1861 (Catalogue of tJic Antiquities and Works of Art, &c., 
1869, pp. 510-13. See also Introduction). 

832. On each shoulder crossed keys in relief upon a hatched background ; octagonal 
bezel set with malachite en cabochon. 

Plate XII. 

D. i'4 in. L. of bezel, '8 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

The crossed keys may represent the arms of Nicholas V (A. D. 1447-55). 

833. The hoop longitudinally channelled, and ornamented with finely pounced 
designs ; on one shoulder a floriated crown above three fleurs-de-lis, on the other 
the tiara above the crossed keys. Octagonal bezel set with a cabochon crystal 
above a dark green foil within a pearled border. 

Plate XII. 

D. i - 3 in. L. of bezel, 78 in. 

834. The hoop fluted at the back ; on each shoulder in low relief a column 
surmounted by a crown, between foliage, which extends over the other faces. 
Rectangular bezel set with a silver plaque engraved with arms : a cherub's head 
with six wings ; above, a cardinal's hat. 

Plate XII. 

D. 1-4 in. L. of bezel, '8 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest. 1888. 

The column is that of the Colonna family, and the ring has been ascribed to Martin V, 
1417-31, but there were cardinals of the family of Colonna in 1378, 1405, 1426, and 1480. 
The arms on the bezel are those of Cardinal Boccafusco (d. I 585), who evidently used it at 
a later date. 

835. Quadrangular bezel set with a crystal. On one shoulder in relief the arms 
of Cibo (a band chequy : a chief of St. John of Jerusalem), enclosed within the 
infulae of a mitre ; on the other side a hat with tassels. 

D. i'S in. 
Cf. no. 836. 

Innocent VIII (1484-92) was cardinal in 1473. Members of his family (Cibo) were 
cardinals in 1402 and 1484. 

K 



130 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

836. On one side of the hoop a shield of arms two bends : a chief of St. John of 
Jerusalem surmounted by a mitre with infulae ; on the other a hat with tassels. 
Quadrangular bezel set with a faceted amethyst paste. 

Plate XIII. 

I). 1-4 in. L. of bezel, '84 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 
The arms may be a misrendering of those of Cibo (cf. no. 835). 

837. On one shoulder a mitre, with infulae enclosing the shield of Condolmerio a 
bend ; on the other a hat with tassels. Square bezel set with a crystal over red 
foil. 

D. 1-5 in. L. of bezel, -9 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 
Cardinal Gabriele Condolmerio (1408-31). 

838. Similar ring set with a blue paste. The same arms and ornament. 
Plate XII. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, I in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 
Cardinal Condolmerio. 

839. Rectangular bezel engraved in intaglio with arms of Medici (?) ; on one shoulder 
hat with tassels ; on the other the same arms surmounted by a mitre. 

D. 1-3 in. 

The arms may represent the earlier Medici shield, but the Medici popes bore the 
later Medici arms : five torteaux and in chief one charged with three fleurs-de-lis. 

840. On one side of the hoop in relief a shield with the arms of della Rovere: 
an oak with branches interlaced beneath a mitre ; on the other, a cardinal's hat ; 
the ground has been covered with blue enamel, which is also used on the shield ; 
above the hat three disks of translucent red enamel simulating gems. Quadran- 
gular bezel set with a pyramidal amethyst. 

PtateXllI. 

IX r62 in. L. of bezel, '8 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

Sixtus IV (?), Pope, 1471-84. 

Cf. ring in the Victoria and Albert Museum, no. 67o-'7i. 

841. On one shoulder a hat with tassels ; on the other a shield of arms : a bend, and 
in the sinister chief a cross ; above, a mitre. Quadrangular bezel containing a flat 
sapphire paste. 

Plate XIII. 

D. 1-56 in. L. of bezel, -9 in. 1872. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

842. Rectangular bezel set with a crystal ; on one shoulder the tiara with two roses, 
all in low relief; on the other, crossed keys, above and below which are similar 
roses. The remaining faces have foliate ornament in the same relief, a pearled 
border enclosing all towards the bezel. 

Plate XII. 

D. rj in. L. of bezel, -54 hr. 

Conjecturally ascribed to Clement VI (1342-52). 



RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 131 

843. Hoop narrow at the back ; shoulders pounced on one side with three 
fleurs-de-lis, surmounted by a floriated crown with floral scrolls below, on the 
other with the papal tiara above a crescent and a floral design. The other faces 
are ornamented with pounced scrolls, a pearled band terminating each face towards 
the bezel, which is quadrangular and set with a crystal. 

Plate XII. 

D. i -5 in. L. of bezel, I in. 

844. Rectangular bezel containing a crystal : hoop narrow at the back. On one 
shoulder, in relief, the crossed keys ; on the other a shield of arms : a bend 
(Condolmerio). On the other faces, foliage. 

Plate XII. 

D. i'4 in. L. of bezel, '92 in. 

Eugenius IV (1431-47). 

845. Rectangular bezel set with a crystal rose foil. On one shoulder the same 
arms and the tiara ; on the other, crossed keys with radiant suns and foliage, all 
delicately pounced. On the remaining faces, rays. 

Plate XII. 

D. 1-42 in. L. of bezel, '94 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

846. Hoop channelled at the back ; on one shoulder is engraved the tiara, on the 
other the crossed keys ; on the other faces are sun's rays ; above, a pearled border. 
Quadrangular bezel set with a crystal over amethyst foil. 

Plate XIII. 

D. 1*38 in. L. of bezel, '86 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 
Perhaps Nicholas V, A. D. 1447-55. 

847. Narrow hoop, with a cross at the back ; on each shoulder a shield, one 
bearing a fleur-de-lis, the other the crossed keys and a mitre. Quadrangular 
bezel with a raised setting containing an agate. 

Plate XIII. 

D. I '66 in. L. of bezel, '84 in. 

848. Plain hoop ; shoulders and other faces engraved with sun's rays issuing from 
four segments of circles, and between, inverted fleurs-de-lis. Quadrangular 
bezel containing a flat crystal paste. 

Plate XIII. 

D. r&4 in. L. of bezel, 1*07 in. 

849. Slender hoop ; on one shoulder in low relief the biscionc, on the other 
a cardinal's hat, with foliage ; on the two other faces sun's rays. Rectangular 
bezel set with a doublet over garnet foil. 

Plate XIII. 

D. 1-35 in. L. of bezel, '84 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

(?) Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, 1-1505. The biscione, the device of the Visconti and Sforza of 
Milan, is a large serpent with a child in its mouth. 

K 2 



132 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

850. Rounded hoop engraved on the outer side with the biscione and with a double- 
headed eagle. Round the bezel, the Evangelists' symbols in high relief, and 
between them two pairs of shields, one of each pair paly of seven, the other 
bearing a cross. Octagonal bezel set with a crystal. 

Plate XII. 

D. 17 in. L. of bezel, '96 in. 

851. Quadrangular bezel set with a pyramidal amethyst paste. On the four sides 
the Evangelists' symbols in relief ; on the shoulders are engraved the crossed keys 
with cord and tassel, and the papal tiara with inftilae. 
D. 2'l in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

852. Massive ring ; on one shoulder beneath the tiara a shield of Condolmerio, on 
the other, beneath a floriated crown, a shield with the crossed keys, and a chief. 
On the sides the symbols of the Evangelists in high relief. Quadrangular bezel 
with a blue paste in a raised setting. 

Plate XII. 

D. 2'i in. L. of bezel, ri4 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

Eugenius IV (Gabriele Condolmerio, 1431-47). Cf. nos. 837-8, and a ring with the same arms 
in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford (no. 428). 

853. At the back of the hoop, the legend : PAPA CALISTO. On one shoulder, in 
relief, a crowned eagle, displayed ; on the other, the crossed keys ; on the four 
faces round the bezel the symbols of the Evangelists in relief. Quadrangular 
bezel from which the setting is lost. 

Plate XIII. 

D. i'8 in. L. of bezel, ri4 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 
Calixtus III, A. D. 1455-8. 

854. The same symbols, but a two-headed eagle crowned, and the crossed keys ; 
both engraved. The bezel set with a smoky crystal. 

Plate XIII. 

D. 17 in. L. of bezel, i-i in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

855- Quadrangular bezel set with a flat crystal in a raised setting ; on the four 
sides the symbols of the Evangelists in relief. On one shoulder, the arms of 
Piccolomini in relief, surmounted by crossed keys ; on the other the tiara, of which 
the infulae extend to the back of the hoop and enclose the legend : PAPA PIO. 
Plate XIV. 

D. i -9 in. L. of bezel, l'22 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

Pius II, Piccolomini (1458-64). 

In the inside is engraved: Thomas Windus, F.S.A., Stamford Hill, 1819. A ring with 
the same arms and legend is in the Bargello at Florence. Cf. also examples in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum (nos. 665, 667~'7i) and the Ashmolean Museum (no. 429) ; also Catalogue 
of the Antiqitities, &C., exhibited in the Ironmonger? Hall, London, p. 497, 1869. 



RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL 133 

856. Similar ring ; with the same arms and legend ; set with a jasper. 
D. r8 in. L. of bezel, 1-2 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

857. Broad flat hoop inscribed at the back PAPAVLVona scroll. On one shoulder 
the shield of Barbo : a lion rampant debruised by a bend, surmounted by the 
crossed keys ; on the other, the tiara ; on the sides the symbols of the Evangelists. 
Quadrangular bezel with a raised setting containing a clear glass painted on 
the under side with St. Peter and St. Paul carrying their emblems. 

Plate XIV. 

D. 2'O4 in. L. of bezel, i'j6 in. 

Paul II (1464-71). 

A ring with the same arms and similar legend is in the Bargello at Florence. 

858. Rounded hoop, with legend: PAVLVS . PP. SECMDVS (sic) between 
engraved laurel borders. On the two sides the shields of France surmounted 
by a crown, and of Barbo with a tiara in chief ; at the angles, the symbols of the 
Evangelists in relief. Oblong bezel with a faceted sapphire paste in a high 
setting with cable borders. 

Plate XIV. 

1). 2'i in. L. of bezel, i'4 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

Mr. Morgan suggested that the Barbo anus with the tiara in chief may have been borne by 
Marco Barbo, relative of Paul II, cardinal in A. D. 1464 (Proc. Soc. Ant., 1st scries, iv, p. 230). 
Cf. a ring in the Correr Collection, Venice (V. Lazari, Notizie &c. delta Raccolta Correr, no. looi ). 

859. Legend in two lines at the back of hoop : PAVLVS PP j SECVNDVS. On 
one shoulder is the shield of Barbo surmounted by the tiara and crossed keys ; 
on the other the shield of Aragon surmounted by a crown ; on the other faces 
are the symbols of the Evangelists in relief. Quadrangular bezel cut into 
a quatrefoil, with a raised setting containing a foiled rose crystal. 

Plate XIV. 

D. 2'3 in. L. of bezel, i'6 in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

Paul II. A ring of this pope, with the same legend, and arms of Aragon, is in the Bargello 
at Florence. Cf. rings in the Correr Collection (V. Lazari, as above, nos. 1003, 1004), and at 
South Kensington (Nos. 663-71 and 664~'7i). 

860. At the back of the hoop, legend in relief in two lines : INOCETI | PAPA 
YAV. On one shoulder the arms of Cibo : a bend chequy, on a chief a cross of 
St. John, surmounted by a tiara ; on the other the crossed keys ; all in relief. On 
three sides are the symbols of St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. John, in relief ; that of 
St. Matthew has been removed. Quadrangular bezel with an elaborate raised 
setting, forming an eightfoil at the base and containing a piece of looking-glass. 

Plate XIV. 

D. 2-3 in. L. of bezel, I'S in.. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 
Innocent VIII, A.D. 1484-92. 



134 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

(ff) Episcopal. 

In addition to no. 861, which in style is allied rather to the 'papal' group, 
the collection contains only one ring which can be described with certainty as 
episcopal, and that is of modern date (no. 862). It is, however, quite probable 
that a number of the mediaeval rings in the Ornamental section may deserve 
the description, especially those set with large sapphires (cf. nos. i827ff.). 
But though there is one definite statement (no. 1827) in no case is there any 
decisive evidence, and it has seemed better to place these examples with 
other rings of their period than to isolate them on grounds which are 
conjectural. On the variety of type in the rings of known bishops, and 
on the consequent difficulty in deciding which among the unauthcnticated 
rings may properly claim the title Episcopal, see Introduction. 

861. ENAMELLED ; oblong bezel set with a pyramidal amethyst ; on one shoulder 
on a ground of yellow enamel the Virgin seated with the Child, beside her a pot 
with a lily ; on the other, on a similar ground, a half-figure of an abbess with 
crosier and book, and beside her a branch. On each side, on a ground of 
blue enamel, a shield with crossed keys under a hat with twenty tassels. 
On the back of the hoop, on a blue ground: PISC LM/GDM/H. 

D. i'7 in. L. of bezel, I in. Octavius Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

This ring, which has been re-enamelled in modern times, has been attributed to Charles 
of Bourbon, Cardinal Archbishop of Lyons, A.D. 1466-88; but none of the occupants of that 
see appears to have borne the crossed keys. The word Episc. might imply another 
Lugdunum, e. g. Lugdunum Convenarum (St. Bertrand de Comminges), a bishopric in the 
South of France. But here too the crossed keys are not known to have been borne by any 
of the bishops ; it has been suggested, however, that the John who was bishop in 1465 
may have adopted them, like Pope Nicholas V, because he was not of an armorial family 
(O. Morgan, Arch. Journ. 1857, p. 178). Cf. a ring in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
no. 74l-'7l. 

862. GOLD ; plain hoop and octagonal bezel, containing an amethyst with a border 
of brilliants upon which, fixed to two crossed bands of gold, is the shield of the 
Archbishopric of Mayence : a wheel on a ground of brilliants, surmounted by 
mitre, cross, and crosier. 

iq//t century. 

D. n in.. Weight, 197 grains. 

On the sides and back of the bezel is engraved : A humble sister in Christ to his 
Eminence the R* R d Cardinal Wiseman, Dec. 25, 1853. 



E. AMULET-RINGS. 

(Cf. also nos. 218, 445, 718.) 

863. GOLD ; the bezel a raised oval setting ; slender flat hoop ; legend : 
MV6MM6RMI, the letters separated by pairs of vertical lines. 

Plate XV. 14^ century. 
D. -84 in. L. of bezel, -3 in. Weight, 22 grains. 

The formula may possibly be intended for Ave Maria gratia plena very carelessly 
written. 

864. GOLD ; slender hoop of triangular section, the outer side having two faces 
engraved with a legend : GA \ GNO : | OIT | OIP | AN &C., interrupted in five 
places by rectangular projections engraved with quatrefoils. The bezel containing 
a sapphire. 

Plate XV. 14/7* century. 

D. i in. Weight, 36 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

865. GOLD; slender flat hoop with nielloed legend: + AA6LA ALA GLA 
GHOTI S. Bezel, an oval raised setting containing a ruby. 

Plate XV. i4t/i century. 

D. -96 in. L. of bezel, -25 in. Weight, 28 grains. (Castellani Coll.) 
Much of the niello is lost. 

866. GOLD ; the hoop of triangular section with monsters' heads at the shoulders 
supporting a bezel with four claws enclosing an opal. Legend on outer side of 
hoop: + AGLA + AD///OS + VDROS + IDR|OS + TEBAL + GVT + <$//////// \ 
in interior: TEBAL = GVT ; GVTA//%7. 

Plate XV. 141/1 century. 

D. 72 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. W r eight, 150 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
The charms upon this ring are among the most popular employed in mediaeval and later 
magic (cf. no. 218). The first word is of frequent occurrence on personal ornaments, such as 
rings and brooches, but is also found on larger objects, such as on the bronze horn at Dover 
(Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xxvii, p. 403) and on the wax disks used by Dr. Dee (Proc. Soc. Ant., 
xxi, p. 380). It is formed from the Latin equivalents of the initial letters of Hebrew words meaning 
Thou art mighty for ever, O Lord (Ate Gebir Leilam Adonai, see Arch. Journ. xxiv, p. 68, xxvi, 
p. 229). The English medical MS., temp. Edward III or Richard II, now in the Royal Library 
at Stockholm, includes it in a charm against fever (Arckatologia, xxx, p. 400), and in the 
Encheiridion Learns Pupae, ed. 1647, p. 58, it occurs with Ananisapta (cf. no. 870) as a charm 
of potency (see Naudd, Apologie pour les grands hoinmes soupqonne's de magie, 1712). 

The words Tebal (Taketal), Gut, Guttani (Cuttu, Gutta, Guthman, Ghether, &c.), 
commonly associated with adros, idros, itdros, are very frequent charms. The Stockholm MS. 
quoted above includes the first word in a long charm for peynys in theth (toothache). It has 






136 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

been conjectured that the sentence stands for similarly sounding Hebrew words which signify 
Time, the World, Vanity, c., the whole alluding to the mutable fortunes of humanity (C. W. 
King in Arck.Journ. xxv, p. 232). Sometimes they were used in conjunction with other formulae. 
With Verbum Caro factum (cf. no. 229) and Ihesus Nazarenus they are found in a MS. 
volume in the Chapter Library at Canterbury (Liber Maioris Voluminis Secretorum) as part of 
a charm against spasms (Arcli. Journ. xviii, p. 64). For examples of Tebal, c., on rings, 
brooches, c., see Arch. Jonrn. iii, pp. 267, 358 ; v, p. 159 ; Notes and Queries, 4th series, x, 
p. 311, and cf. nos. 218, 872-3 ; for Agio., ibid., iii, p. 358 (gold ring found at Newark, 1741), 
iv, p. 78. The syllable Gut occurs frequently in other combinations upon charm-rings (Archaeo- 
Icgia, xxx, p. 400; Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 2nd series, iii, p. 340, iv, p. 125). 

867. GOLD; a plain flat hoop inscribed on the outside: + BNAROT BARPC : 
lAROT , and in the inside with further characters. The inscriptions were all 
originally filled with niello, much of which remains. 

Plate XV. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 77 grains. From St. Germans. Obtained in 1882. 

868. GOLD ; the hoop has on the outer side flutings engraved at intervals with 
letters and crosses : + A + (? + L + A. 

\<\tli century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 19 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
Cf. note to no. 866. 



869. SILVER ; flat hoop engraved on the outer side with the legend : 7VQ 
GRKQIK PLG ; oval bezel with legend : ^. 

Plate XV. 1 4th century. 
D. of hoop, '99 in. L. of bezel, "36 in. 

This answers to the description of the ring found on the finger of a skeleton exhumed out- 
side the south gate at Gloucester (Arch. Journ. iv, p. 78). 

870. GOLD ; hoop of triangular section having on the two outer sides a legend of 
which the letters are reserved in the metal : DaflR DIQIT2tR flliSHISS fl(P)Tfl 
HST SRffl/il 5RORS GSPTST | jffltfmiSS fl(P)T 3KR RGRIT ILG QaQflR 
LBDeRG QV6RIT. 

\4th century. 

I), of hoop, '92 in. Weight, 55 grains. 

The ground between the letters was perhaps rilled with niello. 

Ananizapta (Anamissapta), or Ananizaptus was usually a charm against epilepsy or falling 
sickness, though it appears also to have served against intoxication (see below). The couplet 
on the present ring is more correctly given on a ring in the Waterton Collection (in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum) : 

Est mala inors capta dtiin dicitur Ananizapta 
Ananizapta ferit ilium qui laederc qttaerit. 

Another variant is given in a magical MS. in the British Museum (Sloane, 389), where it is 
connected with the Signtim Tau (Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xl, p. 31 1 ; and see above, no. 721, for 
the connexion of the Tau with St. Anthony). The Stockholm MS. says (f. 35) : For ye fallyg eviell. 
Seyyis ivord anamzaptus in hys ere qhwa he is f ally n dofi in y* eivyll, and also in a womanys 
ere attamzapta . . . 



AMULET-RINGS 137 

Cf. no. 876, and for other rings with Ananizapta see Arch. Journ. xvi, p. 303 ; xviii, p. 91 ; 
Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xxxiii, p. 117. 

The word may be susceptible of an explanation on principle similar to that which resolved 
the mystery of AC LA (cf. no. 866). As early as 1491 Guarinus in his Vocabularium gives 
an explanation based on this principle, though the language to which he applies it is not Hebrew 
but Latin : Ananisapta mala mors interprelatur et quaelibet littera repraescntat unam dictionem, 
scilicet : Antidotum Nazareni Auferat Necein Intoxicationis Sanctifice(n}t Alimenta Pocula 
Trinitatis Alma. Here drunkenness is the evil against which the charm is employed (see E. Le 
Blant, in Rev. Arch., 1892, Pt. I, p. 57). Ananizapta is found in conjunction with Agla, 
and is also associated with the names of God, Emmanuel and Tetragrammaton (Reichelt, 
Exercitatio de Amulet is, 1676, p. Ivi, fig. 2). 

871. GOLD ; hoop of triangular section en- 
graved on the outer faces with legend : 




: >R In the interior are engraved other 

characters. 

Sec figure, i^t/t century. 



D. -8 in. Weight, 56 grains. (Braybrooke -<^o-JT O vg) Q O^ Q ^ O~TT 

Coll.) 

872. SILVER ; the hoop square in section, and engraved on all four faces with 
magic legends : + fflR * DQBQLi * GVT * GVTTKM10K' 
* GVGGVGBffljTGBKMI KLPHKBTW 



* KOLVOHO 
and other characters. 

142/1 century. 

D. "9 in. Obtained in Florence, 1882. 

For the first line cf. no. 866. The second line occurs upon a brooch in the Waterton 
Collection at South Kensington (Arch. Journ. xviii, p. 64 ; xx, p. 201). 

873. BRASS ; octagonal hoop inscribed on the outer side : TQBKL GVT 
GVTDKNI. 

15^ century. 

D. of hoop, -82 in. (Londesborough Coll. : T. Crofton Croker, Catalogue, &c., no. 57.) 

Cf. no. 866. 

874. SILVER ; flat plain hoop with legend in interior : * GOTH * GKBQS * 
GIBGL. 

Late i^tii century. 
D. of hoop, "99 in. 

875. SILVER ; a plain hoop with legend on the outer side : ana^apta and another 
word separated by branches. 
i$th century. 

D. -95 in. Given by B. Purnell Purnell, Esq., 1856. 
The ring is broken. Cf. no. 870. 







138 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

876. GOLD ; the oval bezel is pierced with a trefoil aperture, once containing a gem ; 

the hoop has four oval panels engraved with the Trinity, the Virgin and Child, 

St. George, and St. Christopher, probably once enamelled. In 

the interior is the legend: (But + ffOt + IjUllUJW + aiiatltjapta. 

Plate XV, and see figure. Late itf/i century. 

IX '94 in. Weight, 137 grains. 
Said to have been ploughed up at Hatfield near Hornsea. Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 2nd 
series, xi, p. 387. For the inscription cf. no. 866. 

877- GOLD ; the hoop of triangular section, with projecting rosettes interrupting 
a legend reserved in the metal : + IBX2I8 | HaTGM TIR7CHSI6HS | IL2U | 
MXaS HaTGML | TRKHS|IQHS LL. Rosettes and floral scrolls are inter- 
spersed between the words. Projecting oval bezel between panels engraved with 
conventional ornament ; it is set with a cameo sard representing the head of genius 
or cherub in three-quarter face. 

Plate XV. Italian, i^tJi century. 



D. ri in. L. of bezel, '34 in. Weight, 37 grains. (Spitzer Coll., no. 1880.) 

The cameo is of the i6th century. 

The words lesus autem transiens, &c. (Luke iv. 30) were very generally used as a charm 
against dangers of travel by sea and land, more especially against attack by robbers. 
Mandeville, ch. x, says : and therefore seyen some men when thei dreden them of thefes on any 
way, or of enemyes, Jesus autem &*f., in tokens and mynde that our Lord passed through oute of 
the Jeities 1 cr^teltie and scaped safely fro-hem. Edward III used the text in the legend of the gold 
noble struck to commemorate his escape in the naval battle off Slays (see C. W. King, Arch. 
Journ. xxvi, p. 231). 

For examples of rings with this formula cf. nos. 231, 239, 895, and see Proc. Soc. Ant. 
London, ix. p. 97 ; Arch. Journ. xxv, p. 67 ; Pichon Coll., Sale Catalogue, 1897, no. 66. 

878. GOLD ; flat hoop thickening towards a pyramidal bezel set with a crystal of 
diamond ; on the outside of the hoop, legend reserved in the metal : I6X2IS 
KaTGK TRHRSI6BS P6R MEDiaft ILLOR ; rosettes between the words. 

Plate XV. Italian, \^tli century. 

D. -98 in. Weight, 90 grains. 

879. GOLD; legend on outer side of hoop : + 3)cl)U3 autem tcan0t(eil0) ; raised 
oval bezel with four claws containing a hexagonal garnet. 

Plate XV, and see figure. 

century. 




D. roi in. L. of bezel, '42 in. 
Weight, 45 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

The ring may be older than the inscription ; but black letter is found on other Italian rings 
of the I4th century (cf. no. 229), as well as upon personal ornaments of Italian workmanship 
found at Chalcis in Euboea (Archaeologia, Ixi, p. 397-8). 



AMULET-RINGS 139 

880. WHITE METAL, GILT ; hoop convex on the outer side with cable edges. On 
the exterior, the legend : * IQSVS. 
i^t/i century. 

D. of hoop, f23 in. 

This may be simply a devotional ring, but the use of Our Lord's name as a ' Name of 
power ' may justify its insertion in the present place. It occurs alone in magic sigils, e. g. in the 
British Museum Add. MS. 25,311. 



88l. SILVER ; legend reserved upon a hatched ground : * IIlQSVS RHZKRGftVS 

Rex IVDQ. 

iA,th century. 

D. -9 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

lestts Nasarcnus Rex ludacorum or lesus Nazan-nus is very common upon mediaeval 
rings, brooches, and other objects. (Cf. Arch. Jonrn. vii, p. 195 ; xi, p. 80, 285 ; xvii, p. 166 ; xx, 
p. 201 ; Journ. Brit, Arch. Assoc, ix, p. 74 ; xiv, p. 342 ; /'roc. Sec. Ant. London, xi, p. 79.) It 
occurs in MS. collections of charms in positions where its magical intention is beyond dispute, 
e. g. in the Liber Maioris Voluminis Secrctorum in the Chapter Library at Canterbury. Here 
it forms part of the charm against spasms noticed elsewhere (no. 866). 



882. SILVER; legend: * 

$la?arenu0 re*. 

See figure. i$th century, 

D. ro2 in. (Braybrooke Col- 
lection.) Found during railway 
excavations at Colchester in 1848. 




883. BRONZE ; broad flat hoop divided horizontally into two bands bearing a raised 
legend : HiQSVS * HK2R9RVS * RQX in irregular Lombardic capitals. The 
bezel is an applied quatrefoil. 
i5// century. 

D. of hoop, '88 in. From Ixworth, Suffolk. 



884. BRONZE ; thin hoop with 
a worn inscription in relief, 
probably Ihesus Nazarenus 
Rex; the bezel an applied 
quatrefoil. 

See figure, i $th century. 

D. -97 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
From the Thames. 




T7act;M'4wi i re Mr*: 



140 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

885. GOLD ; legend : 3)a0per tiidcljior . baltagar , in goto 10 ar. 

/Y0# XV. i,5//! century. 

D. - 9 in. Weight, 88 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 

The names of the Magi, or Three Kings, do not occur in the Canonical or Apocryphal 
Gospels ; it has been suggested that they may be of Mithraic origin, and that they may 
be borrowed from titles of Mithras as 'the White One', 'the King of Light', ' the Lord of 
Treasures ' (C. W. King, Arch, Journ. xxvi, p. 234). They were supposed to be of especial 
efficacy against falling sickness, though the Stockholm MS. (see under no. 866) includes them in 
a long charm against fever (Archaeologia, xxx, p. 400). 

The Lilium Medicinae of Bernard of Gordon (late 1 3th cent.) contains the following passage : 
' Si aliquis est in paroxismo. Si ponat os supra aurem patientis et dicat ter istos tres versus 
prncul dubio statim surgit : 

Caspar fert inirram, thus .Melchior, Baldasar aurum : 
Haec tria qui secum portabit nomina reguin 
Soh'itur a morbo, Cliristi pietate, caduco. 

(Magistri Bernardi de Gordonio Lilium Medicinae, Pt. II, ch. xxv, De Epilepsia: Lugduni, 
1486. Quoted by E. Lc Blant, /to'. Arch., 1892, Pt. I, p. 60.) 

The first of the three verses has remained in use in Europe down to modern times (ibid.). 
The names of the Kings are common on mediaeval ornaments, and through the celebrity of the 
relics of the Three Kings at Cologne outlived most magical formulae, and they are mentioned by 
Sir Thomas Browne in his Vulgar Errors, Book v, ch. viii. For instances of their use in 
comparatively recent times see Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xxx, p. 370. They are inscribed on 
the Glenlyon brooch in the British Museum (Pennant, Tour in Scotland, i, p. 103). 

For mediaeval examples of rings, &c., with the names see Arch. Journ. vii, p. 333 ; iii, p. 77 ; 
xv, p. 274 ; Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 2nd series, iv, p. 5 19 ; viii, p. 332 ; xix, p. 264 ; Journ. Brit. 
Arch. Assoc. xviii, p. 84 ; xxxvi, p. 101 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd series, x, 1866, p. 8 ; C. Roach 
Smith, Collectanea Antigua, \, p. 120; ii, p. 50; Catalogue of the Ironmongers' Exhibition, 
p. 485- 

886. BRASS ; hoop of triangular section engraved on the outer faces with legend : 
* IKSPyK B'RIiT'RZM ffiHLQIOR. 

15^ century. 
]). of hoop, '85 in. 

887. SILVER GILT ; hoop with inscription on the outer side in letters reserved in 
the metal : IttSPSR * BSfLTSSflR 5RGL . . . 

Plate XV. 15/7* century. 

D. of hoop, -89 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

888. SILVER GILT; legend: * IASPPAR BALTA # | SAR ffiOLOGMOR. 
i$th century. 

I). '9 in. 1856. Roach Smith Coll. Found in London. 

889. GOLD ; hoop on outside divided by vertical ridges into eight compartments in 
which is the legend : IN NOIMNE DOIMNI, formerly enamelled black. 

13/7* century. 

D. of hoop, '82 in. Weight, 58 grains. 

The legend (In nomine Domini) may well have an exorcistic sense. The phrase In nomine 
Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti is frequent in books of magic. 



AMULET-RINGS 141 

890. GOLD ; exterior of hoop divided by beaded vertical ridges into eight com- 
partments engraved with legend : + IN NOMINE DOMINE. 

I3/// century. 

D. 77 in. Weight, 41 grains. 

The inscription has probably been enamelled. 

891. GOLD SIGNET ; massive hoop expanding to an oval bezel scrolled at each 
end and enclosed by a chased serpent with its tail in its mouth ; within the 
circle a pentagram, in the outer angles of which are the letters ASLSV (reversed). 

PtafeXV. \(>th century . 

D. '96 in. L. of bezel, '82 in. Weight, 587 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

The letters will form the word Salus. 

The serpent with its tail in its mouth is the emblem of eternity. The pentagram, which has 
a similar significance, is among the best known of symbols. It is an essential feature in magical 
diagrams, and may be found in all treatises on the subject. It may be noted that it forms the 
centre of the figures on the largest wax disk used by Dr. Dee, and now in the British Museum 
(Proc. Sac. Ant. London, xxi, p. 380). 

892. SILVER; legend: AGIOS + OTEOS + ATANATO ; oval bezel set with a 
cameo mask in yellow marble. 

Plate XV. Italian, \btli century. 

D. '92 in. L. of bezel, '65 in. Presented by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

The inscription is intended for'Ayios !> Geos tldavaios God (is) holy (and) immortal, words 
occurring in the Service of the Mass, the full sentence being dyios o Sfos iiyios la-xvpbs ayios 
adaua-ros, in which form it is found in magical books, e. g. in the British Museum Add. MS. 25,311 
(seventeenth century) transcribed in Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xl, pp. 321 ff. Cf. also rings 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum (no. 709^7 1), and the Pichon Collection, Sale Catalogue, 
no. 83. 

893. BRONZE ; flat hoop considerably battered ; projecting oval bezel engraved : 
ANAEL ; above, a triangle and circle ; below, another sign. 

I'jth century. 

D. l'2 in. 

Anael is the name of an angel or spirit. It is found on a magic tablet by the side of a nude 
figure (Proc. Soc. Ant. London, xviii, p. 147). 

894. SILVER ; a plain hoop with large circular applied bezel 
engraved with astrological characters. In the interior is 
engraved the legend : Sadayel + rap/tad + tiricl, with other 
signs. 

See figure. 17 th century. 

D. -96 in. D. of bezel, '9 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

The names in the interior are those of angels. Silver was the ' metal 
of the Moon ', and this ring was probably considered to possess special 
virtues as a lunar amulet. The characters are analogous to those on magic 
tablets, on which see Proc. Soc. Ant. London, viii, 355 ; xvii, pp. 146-7 ; 
xx, p. 155. 




142 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

895. GOLD ; projecting oval bezel set with a toadstone ; thin hoop ol triangular 
section with a raised rosette at the back and on each shoulder, where there are 
also panels of engraved conventional ornament : on the two outer faces is a legend 
reserved in the metal, with rosettes between the words : * I6XVS KVTGH 

TRjmsiens PGR fleeoiiauft ILLOR^R IBKT QT aeRBam CIKRO. This 

is continued on the under sides of the bezel, which contains a toadstone : 
RKQT2R flST T. The concluding words (habitavit in nobis) are absent. 
Plate XV. Italian, \^tli century. 

D. ri2 in. L. of bezel, -53 in. Weight, 72 grains. 

The toadstone (crapaudina, bufonius lapis, batraclutes, &.) was supposed to be carried by 
the toad in his head, whence it might be cut out, or to be thrown out of the mouth if the creature 
was placed upon a piece of red cloth. In fact the ' stones ' to which this fictitious origin was 
ascribed are formed of the palatal teeth of a fossil ganoid fish called Lepidotus, common in our 
own oolitic and wealden strata, and receiving their coloration from the iron salts present in the 
rock. This colour it may have been which brought them into connexion with the gem described 
by Pliny as batrac/iites, and thus originated the superstition. 

A silver toadstone ring is mentioned by Rabelais as worn on the thumb of the right hand : 
' un gros et large' anneau d 'argent, en la palle duqud etait enchassee une bien grande craparidim.' 
The stone was believed to be efficacious against kidney disease and to protect new-born infants. 
Joanna Baillic, in a letter to Sir Walter Scott often quoted in this connexion, states that one 
belonging to her mother was often borrowed for the latter purpose. 

E. Ray Lankester, Recreations of a Naturalist, 1911 ; Notes and Queries, 4th series, vii 
(1871), pp. 399, 484- 

The words Verbuin caro are part of a text (John i. 14) which has also occurred on a previous 
ring (no. 229). Without precise evidence, such as direct association with a magical formula, 
we need not suppose that all rings bearing this legend are magical. But in the present case 
there can be no doubt ; and the text is also found in the charm for paroxysms in the al- 
ready quoted MS. in the Chapter Library at Canterbury (cf. Arch. Jottrn. xviii, p. 64), a 
charm intended to be written on parchment or paper, folded, and worn on the person as an 
amulet. For Jesus autem transicns see no. 878, and cf. nos. 231, 239. 

For other rings with toadstones sec Arch. Jourii. xvi, p. 363; xix, p. 189; Proc. Sac. 
Ant. London, 1st series, i, p. 278. 

A ring in the Waterton Collection (Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 2nd series, ii, p. 229) combines 
the toadstone with ass's hoof, on which see below, no. 907. 

896. GOLD ; slender rounded hoop expanding to an oval bezel containing 
a toadstone. 

1 6 tli century. 

D. 1-05 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 98 grains. 1897. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

897. SILVER ; circular bezel containing a toadstone ; slender hoop, the shoulders, 
with back and sides of bezel, chased with floral scrolls on a ground of niello. 

\6th century. 

D. 1-36 in. D. of bezel, '62 in. 1858. Found near Harwich. 

The hole at the back of the bezel was probably intended to allow a vent to the power of the 
stone. 



AMULET-RINGS 143 

898. SILVER ; slender hoop ; circular bezel containing a toadstone. 
1 6t/i century. 

D. l'2 in. D. of bezel, 74 in. 1901. Morel Collection. 

899. SILVER GILT ; flat hoop divided into rectangular panels engraved with foliate 
design. Circular bezel with vandyked setting containing a toadstone. To right 
and left of the bezel are two floral bosses. 

i6t/i century. 

D. 1*32 in. L. of bezel, 76 in. (Londesborough Coll.) 

goo. SILVER ; circular bezel with a cable border and vandyked setting containing 
a toadstone. 

i6//i century. 

D. 1*05 in. 1). of bezel, 76 in. 

901. SILVER ; engraved shoulders ; oval bezel similar to the last, containing 
a toadstone. On the under side, the letters R and F. 

Plate XV. \6th century. 

D. i '2 in. D. of bezel, 77 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

902. SILVER ; flat hoop engraved on the back with IHS ; oval bezel with vandyked 
setting containing a toadstone. 

ijt/i century. 

D. ri in. L. of bezel, '84 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 



903. SILVER ; circular bezel with similar setting to 
last, containing a toadstone with a depression in the 
centre. 

See figure. 17 th century. 

D. ri in. D. of bezel, '66 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 





904. SILVER ; flat hoop ; circular bezel, similar to the above, containing a toadstone. 
On each side of the bezel is a large pellet. 
Plate XV. rjth cen tury. 

D. i '3 in. D. of bezel, '84 in. (Londesborough Coll.) 



144 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




905. SILVER ; scrolled shoulders ; bezel a hexagonal raised setting containing 
a claw-shaped piece of horn. 

Plate XV. 1.6th century. 

D. i'26 in. L. of bezel, '37 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

There are traces of gilding on the metal. Horn was a frequent constituent in magical rings. 
Cf. example in the Waterton Coll. (Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 2nd series, ii, p. 363). 

906. SILVER ; the hoop of triangular section with a quatrefoil at 
the back and chased scrolls upon the shoulders ; hexagonal bezel 
set with a conical piece of horn. 

Sec figure, ijth century. 

D. 1-2 in. D. of bezel, '64 in. 1753. Sloane Coll. 

907. SILVER SIGNET ; the hoop has on the outer side a median ridge, the spaces 
on either side of which are filled in with ass's hoof (?). 

Octagonal bezel engraved with a shield of arms surmounted 
by the letters H. b. 

Sec figure. Late \6tlt century. 

D. 1-5 in. L. of bezel, 74 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

Ass's hoof was considered efficacious against epilepsy. Cf. Proc. 
Soc, Ant., 2nd series, i, p. 278. (J. Reichelt, De Amuletis exercitatio, 
p. 20.) Two rings with hoof, one mounted in gold, the other in silver 
with a shield of arms bearing a crescent and a star are in the Waterton 
Collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Proc. Soc. Ant. 
i, p- 278). 




London, 2nd series, 
For other rings with hoof sec Proc. Soc. Ant. London, ist series, ii, pp. 183, 229. 



908. SILVER ; the hoop has round the outer side a median ridge, between which 
and the rim on either side the ring is inlaid with ass's hoof, fluted at the shoulders. 
The silver bezel is engraved with a shield of arms. 

Late T.6th century. 

D. 1-32 in. L. of bezel, 74 in. (Zschille Coll., no. 80.) 

909. BRONZE AND IRON ; the outside of the hoop forms a plaited band of the 
two metals ; on each shoulder is a copper setting, one triangular, containing 
a garnet, the other rectangular, from which the stone is lost. The bezel is 
circular, engraved in intaglio with a bear or ape, and a mirror (?) ; behind the bear, 
a letter t>. The interior of the hoop is of bronze with the legend : |'f)C T 

anam^apta + jpi. 

Plate XV. Early i6tk century. 

D. 1-34 in. D. of bezel, -5 in. (Londesborough Coll., no. 39.) 

Jones, p. 139. 

For the word Ananizapta, see no. 870. The combinations of certain metals were supposed 
to impart a magical virtue, each metal having its own significance. Cf. a magic tablet made of 
two plates, one bronze, the other silver (Proc. Soc. Ant. London, xviii, p. 147). 



AMULET-RINGS 145 

910. SILVER GILT ; on the outside of the hoop a "continuous band of circular 
settings of twisted wire, containing a dark brown substance. 
D. -84 in. Hamilton Coll. 
Probably magical. 

911. ANOTHER, similar ; from the same collection. 
D. -84 in. 

QI2. SILVER GILT ; wreathed hoop, ridged and pearled ; on each shoulder a raised 
setting, containing a faceted crystal and a fluted cup with face embossed upon the 
bottom. Almond-shaped bezel fluted at the back, and with twisted and vandyked 
borders, containing a wolf's (?) tooth. At the back of the hoop is a stamp C. C., 
each letter within a rectangle. 

Plate XV. German, \ltJt century or later. 

I). 1-3 in. L. of bezel, '86 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

A peasant's ring, which for its general type may be compared with the rings of Class L. 
A wolf's tooth is a hunting charm to secure success in sport. Teeth were used as charms for 
other purposes ; a rosary ring formerly in the Londesborough Collection (no. 24) had a tooth set 
in the largest projection (T. C. Croker, Catalogue, 1853, p. 6). Cf. also ring in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum (no. 816-1902). 

913. SILVER ; the hoop 
wreathed and pearled at the 
back, the shoulders pierced 
with foliations each having 
a raised setting with a gar- 
net. The front of the ring 
has a larger setting which 
contains a wolf's (?) tooth. 

Sec figure. German, 
ijt/i century or later. 

I). ri6 in. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) Cf. no. 2257. 

914. SILVER ; the hoop wreathed, and chased upon the shoulders, which are pierced 
and support an almond-shaped setting containing a tooth. 

German, I'jth century or later. 
D. i '04 in. 

915. SILVER ; the hoop wreathed at back, the shoulders pierced and each 
ornamented with two garnets in raised settings and a small key-shaped pendant. 
The bezel has two almond-shaped settings side by side containing teeth, between 
which is a loop with a triangular pendant representing a padlock, while above and 
below are two rows of three settings each containing garnets and green pastes. 

South German, I'jth century or later. 
D. i -02 in. 

Cf. E. Fontenay, Les bijoux anciens et modernes, p. 65. The teeth may be those of young 
deer, used perhaps to symbolize purity. 

L 





146 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



F. INSCRIBED RINGS 

The rings in this class are separated from the numerous inscribed rings in 
other groups because the inscriptions form their chief interest, whereas the others 
are primarily interesting for their form, use, &c. Doubtless the class contains 
examples which, were their original destination certain, might prove to belong 
other sections. Thus no. 919 may be a charm-ring; nos. 924-5 may be 
devotional ; no. 928 may have some memorial significance. On the other hand, 
no. 1830 is classed with ornamental rings because much of its interest lies in its 
form and style, 

916. GOLD ; flat hoop with bezel in the form of two confronted monsters' heads. 
Round the outer side of the hoop the legend : RITCIDVN ATAT6I PLVSANIR- 
TIIO_VS. In the in- 
terior, at the back of the 
bezel: 1. 

See figure, i tfh century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 43 grains. 1867. Found at Lambourn Hill, near Rochford. 

917. SILVER ; in form of a belt with buckle. Legend both on the outer and inner 
sides: he YHT HKI KS IiB VOL 

he Doanr KS he is. 

English, i^th century. 
D. 1-14 in. 

918. GOLD ; flat hoop ; bezel an irregularly oval setting containing a sapphire. 
Round the hoop the legend : IBO \ 

eil I i HVH ; POTKGe. The meaning 
is : y'aiinc man potagc. 

See figure. 142/1 century. 

D. '86 in. L. of bezel, '2 in. Weight, 46 

grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found at Valen- 

tine's Island, County Kerry, and acquired by ffl|Tl O iHMMVJJIB O^T^JSUS fll 

Lord Braybrooke in 1853. 

919. BRONZE ; plain rounded hoop with applied bezel in the form of a triangle, on 
which is engraved a flaming torch and a legend running round the three sides : 
APXCNTeXNOC CONN.OVXePICAPXMANeP | XMANOCOPNC00PIOC. 

Italian (?), \^th century. 

D. I'l in. L. of bezel, -86 in. 
This is perhaps a magical ring. 




INSCRIBED RINGS 



147 



920. GOLD ; on each shoulder foliate ornament reserved upon a ground of niello 
and round the outer side of the hoop the nielloed legend : 1&utt fiOCtntO tUtC 
tJl'Ctt'0 parCO nullum fugi'O. A pearled band runs round the sides of the 



921. 





txitemfflio mmr yarcomUliftflTxavo 



oval bezel, which is set with an onyx of three layers cut in cameo with the figure 
of a recumbent dog. 

See figure. Italian, irf/t century. 

D. 1-14 in. \Veight, 239 grains. 

The first word is probably intended for caute, the sense then being : ' Alert I sleep, safely I 
watch, I spare the vanquished, I flee from none.' Cf. a ring in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(no. 143-1907). 

GOLD ; flat hoop gradually expanding to the bezel which has a cavity of 
irregular shape formerly containing a stone. At the right of the bezel is engraved 
a capital M surmounted by a crown ; and following this is a partly effaced 
inscription once covering the whole hoop : volllti^//////////nlt ntC : *I1 : (?). 

Frencli, late 14^/1 century. 

D. '95 in. Weight, 119 grains. 

The ring has been broken at the back of the hoop. 



922. GOLD ; the hoop rounded on the outer side and engraved with the legend : 
IC'UaultCe meCCI, with floral scrolls between the words. Oblong bezel with four 
claws, from which the stone is missing. 
English, 15/7^ century.* 

D. '86 in. L. of bezel, '4 in. Weight, 54 grains. 
The legend may be : le vdtre merci. 



923. GOLD ; the hoop rounded on the outer side and expanding to the shoulders, 
which are engraved with radiating wavy lines ; the bezel is in 
the form of a Lombardic D, the interior of which was once 
set with a stone, now lost. Inside the hoop is engraved : tttt 

o!9 un. 

See figure. English, \^tli century. 

D. "84 in. L. of bezel, '38 in. Weight, 100 grains. Found at Tilty Abbey, 
Dunmow, Essex. 

L 2 




148 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



924. GOLD ; rounded hoop with legend on the outer side : f00l * fitenS * 
fill, * iotit * 0, the last two words reading in the opposite direction to 
the others ; heart-shaped bezel with rays, set with a sapphire. 
Plate X I, and see figure. 



I). 76 in. Weight, 27 grains. 
The inscription may be religious. Cf. the following three numbers, and nos. 288, 562, 741, 
760 ; also Arch. Journ. xxi, p. 190. 

925. GOLD ; once enamelled ; a flat band, once enamelled ; legend on the outer 
side : 1010 03110 fill, with flowers between the leaves. 

i $th century. 

I). 7 in. Weight, 23 grains. 

926. GOLD; a flat hoop engraved on the outside with diagonal lines between 
which are the words : 1010 03110 

^^: 



, set diagonally, with foliage. 
Sec figure. i5/// century. 

I). 7 in. Weight, 37 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) Found in Westminster. 



927. Gor.D; hoop rounded on the outer side with foliate ornament in relief. 
the interior the legend : IOYE + SANS + FIN. 
\6tJi century. 

I). 7 in. Weight, 23 grains. 



In 




928. GOLD; once enamelled; the hoop a torse of two branches from which the 
twigs have been cut. In the inside 
the legend : Whan ye lake on tliis 
thynk on the in y* yave you tliys. 

Plate XI, and sec figure. English, 
iy/1 century. 

I), ri in. Weight, 295 grains. (Bray- 
brooke Coll.) 

Helow the mediaeval inscription is en- 
graved : Found in the Thames 1841 at 
Westminster. 

The ring may have been worn as a 
memorial, but. the form of the inscription is 

unusual. It has been suggested that in rings of this type the interlacing of two branches may 
symbolize an alliance between two families, but here again the legend is inappropriate. The 
form recalls the crown of thorns and suggests the possibility of a religious allusion. 




INSCRIBED RINGS 149 

929. GOLD ; the hoop of triangular section engraved with legend : 

+ qut plug Degpmt qua U naft'ert 
S>an0 colp ferir a mort 0e fijrt. 

(' He who spends more than belongs to him kills himself without 
striking a blow.') Conical bezel set with an emerald supported 
by two open-work scrolls, with enamelled stars and rosettes. 
At the end of each line of the inscription, a floral spray once 
enamelled. 

Plate XXV, and sec figure. English, about A. D. 1400. 

D. I'oi in. Weight, 41 grains. 1899. Found in the Queen's Head 
Tavern, Green Lanes, Hornsey, 1898. Proc. Soc. Ant. London, xvii, p. 345. 

930. GOLD ; on the outer side of the hoop an inscription in relief: J>tl) + 
followed by floral scrolls. 

German, i$th century. 

D. "68 in. Weight, 30 grains. 

The second word of the legend may be luartcn. 

931. GOLD ; the hoop composed of three panels connected by wire knots, convex 
on the outer sides and terminating at each end in transverse ridges ; upon them 
is engraved the legend : 3|cl) U'Det qfavtm. 

German, i5/// century. 

D. '9 in. Weight. 70 grains. 

The legend (/ bear u'illi/iffty ()) may have reference to the chain-like form of the hoop. 



932. SILVER ; hoop in the form of a buckled strap ; round the outer side a legend 
in relief: lOfeGKHDIRSWOI). 
German, i^th century. 
D. '94 in. (Londesborough Coll., c. 31.) 

933- GOLD ; rounded hoop with legend in relief on the outer side : >an0 + fotlCtllC, 
quatrefoils separating the words. 
English, ~i$th century. 
D. '96 in. Weight, 119 grains. 

934. GOLD ; a slender hoop, on the outer side of which three small pointed oval 
panels alternate with three applied quatrefoils ; on the three former are the 
letters of the word : b | f | tl. 

English, ^$th century. 
D. 76 in. Weight, 21 grains. 

935. SILVER; a flat hoop engraved on the outer side: bien etl'tOUt; flowers and 
leaves between the words. 

English, i^f/i century. 

D. -9 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in the South of France. 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




936. GOLD ; hoop slightly convex on the outer side, where it is diagonally engraved 
and enamelled with flowers and leaves representing a wreath, bands with white 
enamel ground alternating with others of which the ground is plain gold. In 
several flowers are remains of red enamel and of green in the leaves ; in the 
interior of the hoop is engraved : tOUt pOUC 
English, !$/// century. 

1). '64 in. Weight, 45 grains. 



937. BRASS ; flat hoop with inscription 
on the outer side in relief: + tOUt 
pOtlC tit en fepCC ; between the words, 
fleurs-de-lis. 

Sec figure. i,5/// century. 

I). '8 in. (IJraybrooke Coll.) Found in 
a garden at Cape! St. Andrew, near Ipswich 
(Arch, Journ. vii, p. 426). Cf. Gentleman's 
Magazine, cxxi, ii, p. 640. 



938. GOLD ; the hoop with horizontal channels interrupted by four diagonal bands 
each engraved with a rosette and a sun. In the inside of the hoop is engraved : 
mpC Cp liptl (Mcrci bien (?)). 

English, j-5/// century. 

D. -64 in. Weight, 60 grains. 1884. Found at St. Feock, Cornwall. 

939. GOLD; once enamelled; a plain band, engraved on the outer side: foe t'Otl 
COeC, with flowers between the words. 

See figure. English, i 5 /A century. 

D. '74 in. Weight, 21 grains. Durden Coll. 1893. 
For the inscription see nos. 730, 731-2, 767. 

940. SILYLK GILT ; a flat hoop engraved on the outer side : en l)0tl fill, with leaves 
between the words. 

English, i$t/e century. 

D. 72 in. 

Cf. nos. 473, 527, 746, 761 ; also Proc. St>f. Ant., 2nd series, iv, p. 412 ; vii, p. 322 ; Arch. 
Jonrn. x, p. 67. 

941. SILVER ; a flat hoop; on the outer side in relief: tt lion an, with leaves 
between the words. 

English, \yh century. 

D. -6 in. 

Cf. the preceding number. 



INSCRIBED RINGS 

942. GOLD ; flat hoop engraved on the outer side with legend : gfangf mal pettier ; 
between the words, flowers and sprays, 

the whole once enamelled. 
See figure. 15^ century. 

D. '68 in. Weight, 42 grains. 1856. 

This is a common motto. Cf. Arch. Journal, xi, p. 159 ; Proc. Soc. Ant. London, xi, p. 159. 

943. GOLD ; a hoop engraved on the outer side with three rows of gouttes ; in the 
interior is engraved tOllt (i part between floral designs. 

English, "i^th century. 
I). '68 in. Weight, 40 grains. 

944. SILVER ; hoop convex on the outer side with legend in relief : 31 e JJjJ aljgfO ; 
between the words and between the two syllables of the last word, quatrefoils 
enclosed in ovals. 

French, i^tJi century. 
D. -82 in. 

945. SILVER ; thick flat hoop, the exterior having six raised rectangular panels, one 
with a rosette, the others with 

the letters of a legend in 
relief, in pairs or singly : 

re | 5 | no | ut 1 1. The last 

letter terminates in a foliate 
ornament. 

See figure. English, i$th 
century. 

D. i in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

The ending of letters in floria- 
tions is frequent in the period to 

which the ring belongs. Cf. nos. 725, 978, and a ring from Chalcis in the Ashmolean Museum 
(Archaeoloffia, Ixi, p. 393, fig. 46). 

946. GOLD ; a plain hoop engraved with three crosses, and in the interior with 
three letters : C C C, at long intervals. 

1 5/7; century. 

D. 78 in. Weight, 48 grains. 
The inscription may be magical. 

947. GOLD ; hoop engraved on exterior with foliate designs in compartments 
separated by diagonal cable bands ; it has been enamelled. In the inside is 
engraved the legend : DOMINS: MICHI: ftDIVTOR. 

i6th century. 

D. of hoop, 72 in. Weight, 41 grains. 

The motto is that of Cardinal Wolsey. 




152 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

948. GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel with pearled band, set with a garnet 
engraved with legend : DEVS PROTECTOR MEVS; the letters gilded. 

Plate XI. Early ijt/1 century. 

D. i in. Weight, 91 grains. 

949. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop chased with scrolls ; in the interior a legend : 

SPRE///A VI///NT. 
\6tli century. 

I). '74 in. Weight, 29 grains. 

950. GOLD ; a plain hoop rounded on the outer side where it is engraved : 
+ THE LORDE + WYNSORE. In the interior : EA. 

Early \']tli century. 

D. -88 in. Weight, 65 grains. 

951. SILVER ; a plain band with raised rims; in the interior the legend: I LIVE 
IN HOPE. 

English, \lth ctntnry. 
IX '82 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

952. ANOTHER, similar. On the outer side the legend : 
+ HONOVR GOD. 

See figure. I'jth century. 

IX -9 in. (Hailstone Coll.) From Kilmattock, Co. Limerick. 
The hoop broken. 

953- GOLD ; the hoop divided into three sections ornamented respectively with 
white, blue, and black enamel ; on the inside an inscription in letters engraved 
and rilled with black enamel : SEPESMEADEVS. 

T.'jtJi century. 

D. 78 in. Weight, 25 grains. 

The first word of the legend may be intended for spes, but it makes sense as it stands, 
sepcs meaning a fence, and so a protection. 

954. GOLD ; hoop enriched with green and white enamel. In the inside, legend : 
Vertue croivnes all croffes. 
I'jth century. 

D. -64 in. Weight, 25 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

955- BRONZE ; plain hoop rounded on the outer side. Legend in the inner side : 
Literature grande. 
I'jth century. 
D. -87 in. 1870. (Pollexfen Coll.) 




INSCRIBED RINGS 153 

956. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop once chased but now much worn ; in the 
interior: CARLE -GRICNET. 

Early ijth century. 

D. '65 in. Weight, 16 grains. 

957. GOLD ; the shoulders and back of bezel enamelled in blue, white, and green ; 
square bezel set with a table jacinth engraved in reversed letters: UN PEU 
BEAUCOUP. 

Early ittt/t century. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

The stone is probably later than the ring. 



G. LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS. 

I. Inscribed. 

958. GOLD ; flat slender hoop engraved on the outer side with legend + 10 SVI 
D DRVRie l/ie MC DV. Projecting bezel in the form of two hands. 

See figure. 131/1 century. 

D. -84 in. Weight, 8 grains. 1903. ^^OiSvr-P^PKVSRiCPrgrFrgTgg^ 
Found in the Fleet Ditch, City of London. 

For the word druerie the following synonyms are given : amitie, affection, amour, tendresse, 
galanterie, &c. (Godefroy, Lexique de Fancien fran^ais, s. ;>.) The ring is probably a love-ring, 
though the word is also found on such objects as Corporation maces (e. g. Ilchester, LI. Jewett 
and W. H. St. John Hope, Corporation Plate, ii, p. 204). 

959. GOLD; slender hoop ending in monsters' heads supporting a bezel of an 
irregular oval containing a ruby. Round the hoop in letters in relief: 
VIRGIS 5RIH KIT, a rosette separating the last two words. 

German, itylt century. 
D. -84 in. Weight, 35 grains. 

960. GOLD; plain hoop with legend on the outer side: + AMOR VIHGIT 
OMSIA. 

ityh century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

The motto is that on the brooch of the Prioress in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Cf. 
a ring in Norwich Castle Museum, no. 104 (Arch. Journ. xx, 1863, p. 172). 

g6oa. GOLD ; bezel an oval setting with four claws set with a turquoise ; slender 
hoop of triangular section with six projecting rosettes, engraved with the legend : 
+ AMOR VIC IONIA A U), followed by an indeterminate sign. 

D. -94 in. Weight, 29 grains. 

The inscription is Amor vincit omnia, with alpha and omega, the Greek letters perhaps 
intended as a charm. 



'54 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



VILdff 





961. BRONZE ; thick flat hoop with engraved legend on the outside : 
* MOII <v> GKRDI LI MO (A A voila man cant; garde -le moi !'). 

14 /// century. 
D. of hoop, ri in. 

962. GOLD ; a broad hoop engraved and chased on 
the outer side with designs once enamelled. The 
ornament consists of three lozenge-shaped panels 
engraved with the Trinity, the Virgin and Child, 
and a male saint, the intervening spaces being filled 
with flowers and foliage. In the interior is engraved 
the legend : 

9lpo0t in mpna anti pn mpn Ijerrt 
Hotl)e0t from pott ferto Uepartt. 

Plate XVI, and sec figures. Early \^th century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 232 grains. Dug up at Godstow 
Nunnery, near Oxford. 

Arch. Journ. xx, p. 195 ; Cat. of Antiquities, &>c., exhi- 
bited in Ironmongers' Hall, 1869, ii, p. 487. 

The ring was evidently a love-ring, but the ornament 
resembles that of the iconographic class. It was long described 
as ' Fair Rosamund's ring '. 

963. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop engraved with a wreath once enamelled ; 
interior engraved with legend : 31 VDI0 tltp lettll prate fO | pe ar tO Maim fO mot 

31 ffO (/ know my little pretty foe \ Ye arc to blame so must I go}. 
i$th century. 

D. of hoop, "68 in. Weight, 69 grains. 

964. GOLD ; broad flat hoop divided horizontally by a milled band and engraved on 

the exterior with legend : tine fame nommati'uc a fait tie mop Ton oattff par la 

parole gem'tttte en Oept't Oe latUfatiff, and in the inside with the figure of a woman 
and a squirrel among flowers and foliage, and with 

the legend : frf amour eft infinitive ge foeu Con 

relattff. Bezel a circular setting containing a sapphire 

bead. _____ 

Plate XVI, and see figure. English, i$th century. 

D. of hoop, 72 in. D. of bezel, '42 in. Weight, 121 grains. (Pichon Coll., Sale Catalogue, 
no. 68.) 

965. GOLD ; a flat hoop engraved on exterior with legend : amor mettg ; between 
the words is engraved a lozenge band of thorned stems. 

English, i$t/i century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 29 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Dug up close to Bendysh Wood, in 
parish of Ashdon, Essex. 




LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 155 

966. SILVER ; a flat hoop engraved on the outer side with the legend : atltCC lie 
l'l (autre ne veux) ; between the words, rosettes and leaves. 
century. 



D. '8 in. Cf. no. 289. 

967. SILVER GILT ; a thick flat hoop engraved on the outer side : dUtl'C 
(autre ne veux) ; between the words, rudely engraved sprigs or branches. 
15^ century. 

D. -98 in. 



968. GOLD ; once enamelled ; thick flat hoop engraved with legend : 
(souvenez-vous), the words separated by sprigs and flowers. On the inner side 
are engraved five slipped trefoils, three bearing the letters : f (?) 

i ijt/i century. 

1). -92 in. Weight, 117 grains. Said to have been found at Fountains Abbey (Arch. 
Journal, xxi, pp. 101-2). 

969. GOLD; hollow flat hoop ; on the outer side, reserved in the metal, four stars 
of six points inscribed in circles connected by diagonal bands, each with leaves 
and two or three letters of a legend : t)JW aljleijW, on ground of white 
enamel. 

German, \^th century. 



1). '8 in. Weight, 60 grains. 

The rest of the ring has also been enamelled. 



970. GOLD ; once enamelled ; flat hoop engraved : m iHW emer ; between the 
words, engraved flowers and radiant 

suns, formerly enamelled. 

See figure. English, "i$th century. 

D. 7 in. Weight, 30 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

971. GOLD ; flat hoop engraved on the outer side with legend : Ctl l)0ne fO|>, sprays 
of leaves and flowers separating the words. Inside is the word pcetieg between 
two sprigs, the sentence reading prenez en bonne foi. 

English, i^t/i century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 40 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
The hoop is broken at the back. 



I5 6 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

972. GOLD ; thin plain hoop, engraved on the outer side : me plet (me plait ?), in 
black-letter between ornament of roses and leaves. 
English, late 14^/1 century. 

D. '62 in. Weight, u grains. 1856. Found in London. Roach Smith Coll., no. 2705. 
The ring is broken, and a part of the hoop is missing. 

973- GOLD ; once enamelled ; hollow rounded hoop with chased legend : Ct0t fOUt 
mon DeCl'tr, divided into pairs of letters inclined so as to form a zigzag band ; 
between them large trefoils with 
their bases alternately on the 
upperandloweredgeofthcring. 
Sec figure. i?)//i century. 
I). -82 in. Weight, 44 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

974. GOLD ; once enamelled ; hoop rounded on the outer side, where it is 
engraved with an interlaced band between two rows of sprigs. In the interior 
is engraved a monogram com- 
posed of the letters A and R, 
with the legend : tie * 



tr -maniour * o one 



^ *.,,, 

IX '94 in. Weight, 121 grains. 1856. 

975- GOLD ; once enamelled ; the hoop rounded on the outer side, where there is 
the legend in relief: pour fcOUSJ 00tet, the last letters of the first two words 
ending in leaves ; between the words are circles containing disks and resembling 
rosettes. 

iyh century. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 40 grains. 



976. GOLD ; once enamelled ; rounded hoop with legend in relief: gfOtej lEftlgf ert 
antOUr0, the words separated by a rosette and pairs of quatrefoils, one above the 
other. In the interior is engraved : tCO\t!)e + 10 + fte (troth is f reel). 
English, i$t/i century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 85 grains. (Londesborough Coll., no. 196.) 
Dug up at Wollaston, near Wellingborough. 

977- GOLD ; once enamelled ; rounded hoop having at the back figure-of-eight knot 
and on each shoulder a vase containing a flower ; the bezel is a small circular 
setting with an emerald. In the interior the legend : put le tnettj. 
i^tli century. 

D. -6 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

This ring may be a love-ring worn on an upper joint of the little finger. Possibly, however, 
it may have been made for a child. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 



157 



In the interior 




978. GOLD ; once enamelled ; the hoop wreathed, one band engraved with 
flowers and sprigs, the other with 

legend : >auil0 HepartlC. Oval bezel 
set with a bloodstone, 
the legend : + a mil 

See figure. i5/// century. 

I). -9 in. Weight, 65 grains. (Bray- 
brooke Coll.) 

Arch. Journ. v, p. 160. Said to have 
been found in the Tower of London. For 
the legend see no. 725. 

979. GOLD ; once enamelled ; the hoop composed of three panels separated by 
figure-of-eight knots. Each panel has a word cut in relief forming the motto : 

pence? oe mop. (Cf. no. 993.) 

Plate XVI. English, \4tJi century. 
I). '82 in. Weight, 49 grains. 1854. Found in Whitechapel, near the Church, 

980. GOLD ; once enamelled ; the hoop is composed of four curved panels with 
crescent-shaped plates riveted to their outer sides alternating with pierced panels 
each composed of four circles containing trefoils, and bordered by four pellets. 
The riveted plates are chased with the legend : aillOUl' Hie tient CM fOl'e, the 
letters disposed in groups of two or three upon ornamental panels. 

Plate XVI. English, 141/1 century. 

I). <.) in. Weight, 64 grains. 1870. Found at Colchester. 

981. GOLD ; once enamelled ; broad hoop with channelled borders ; on the outer 
side arc scrolls with the legend : ^QtUlllt 2Dl'eU plei'il UtlCg HOUg 0eCd. 

Plate XVII. English, i$(/e century. 
D. '82 in. Weight, 65 grains. 

982. Sli.VKR ; once nielloed ; on the outside of the hoop, five panels, with 
legend : ijat)C ^ and al, and a quatrefoil. 

See figure. English, I'^th century. 
D. -9 in. 1854. 

For the sign ? held in place of the word cf. Proc. Soi. Antiquaries 
of London, iii, p. 465. 

983. GOLD ; plain hoop, with legend : $ C0t 111011 foOttlOtC 111 ... 
English, J$t/t century. 

1). '8 in. Weight, 64 grains. 

984. GOLD ; the hoop expanding to the shoulders, where it has the legend 
enamelled in black : 3Loreil00 * 3 Heiia Hena. Circular bezel is cut to a quatrefoil 
and set with a crystal of diamond. 

Plate XVI. Italian, i$th century. 

D. 76 in. D. of bezel, -34 in. Weight, 80 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 




158 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

985. SILVER; the hoop wreathed and engraved with legend : + MA | TLO MEO ; 
oval bezel with a glove and the sole of a shoe on a ground of niello. 

Italian, i $th century. 

D. ri in. 

Much of the niello is lost. 

986. SILVER ; gilt and nielloed ; broad hoop with convex surface and ridged 
borders, ornamented with eight depressed circles round which winds a broad 
scroll with legend : * AMORE VOL FE (Love demands faith). 

Plate XVI. Italian, \yh century. 
I). '9 in. 

987. GOLD ; the plain hoop expands to a bezel cut as a quatrefoil and set with 
a turquoise. In the interior is engraved the legend : (B(?)p WCt ttTOlt COC 

15^/2 century. 

P. i in. Weight, 130 grains. 1856. 

988. GOLD ; bezel a high quatrefoil set with an emerald ; the shoulders have 
ornament of rosettes on a ground of niello ; at the back of the hoop the name 
ANTONE, also nielloed. 

Plate XVI. FrencJi, \$th century. 
]). '9 in. Weight, 70 grains. 

989. GOLD ; flat hoop keyed for enamel on both faces and on the edge ; at each 
shoulder a cube pierced on three sides with letters forming 

the word J[$R02IRS ; from each cube issue two pairs of 
divergent limbs enclosing pierced trefoils, and supporting 
a long pyramidal bezel now containing two table 
emeralds. 

See figure. French, i^th century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 36 grains. 
A ring of exceptionally graceful workmanship. The enamel is all lost. Two holes at the 
back of the bezel were connected with the original stone, replaced by modern emeralds. 

990. GOLD ; hoop of triangular section engraved with foliage next the bezel, which 
is lozenge-shaped with pearled edge, and bears the initials K W in blue, united by 
a knot in green enamel. 

English, \6th century. 

D. -86 in. Weight, 93 grains. Found at Eversfield, Surrey. 

For the form cf. no. 464 ; for the style of the initials and knot cf. nos. 587 ff. 

The fashion of joining initials in this manner with knots was popular in the later part of the 
sixteenth, and in the first half of the seventeenth century. For the ring with initials of Mary 
Queen of Scots and Darnley see Proc. Soc. Ant. London, 1st series, i, p. 278; for two rings 
conjecturally associated with Shakespeare, one with the initials WS, the other with AW, see 
Gentleman's Magazine, Ixxx, p. 321, and Joitrn. Brit. Arch. Assoc. iv, p. 389. 




LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 



J 59 



991- 



992. 



GOLD ; gimmel ring, enamelled. The bezel is in the form of a quatrefoil 
flower, the pendant leaves enriched with scrolls enamelled in black, blue, and 
white ; it is set with a ruby and an emerald ; the shoulders are moulded with 
scrolls also enamelled. On the inner surfaces, when the ring is opened, is the 
enamelled inscription: WAS GOT ZV SAMEN FIECT DAS SOL DER 
MENSCH NIT SCHAIDEN. Enamelled scrolls ornament the cut inner faces of 
the bezel. 

German, i6t/z century. 

IX ri5 in. Weight, 143 grains. Cf. Jones, p. 319. 

ANOTHER ; similar, set with a ruby and an aquamarine ; legend : QJJOD 
DEUS CONJUNXIT HOMO NON SEPARET. 
See figure. German, i6t/i century. 




D. 1'is in. Weight, 171 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

. The betrothal or wedding-ring of Sir Thomas Gresham, now exhibited in the Loan Court 
at the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, by Mr. G. C. Leveson Govver, is of 
similar design and bears the same legend. 

993. GOLD; half of a gimmel ring formerly enamelled on the shoulders ; the bezel, 
cut to a quatrefoil with four claws, contains an opaque rough emerald ; on the 
inner face of the ring, and concealed when it was complete, the legend : U 

(Cf. no. 979.) 
Plate XVI. English, i$t/i century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, loo grains. Found in the Thames. 



160 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

| 

994. GOLD ; slender hoop with legend : L 'ami sincere on the outer side, the letters 
reserved on a ground of black enamel. The shoulders bifurcate, each supporting 
an enamelled flower ; the bezel has a ruby enclosed in a figure 3 set with 
diamonds, both resting on an anchor. 

English, i8t/i century. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

The ring has been repaired at the back. 

995. GOLD ; flat hoop divided into three panels ; on the outer side the legend : 
AMOUR POUR AMOUR, the letters reserved on a ground of white enamel; 
rectangular bezel, reeded at the back, containing a sapphire. 

English, i8/// century. 
D. 76 in. Weight, 1 8 grains. 

996. GOLD ; the hoop forms four scrolls connected by four garnets in rectangular 
settings ; on the scrolls, in gold letters on a ground of white enamel, the 
legend: VOTRE AMITIE FAIT MA FELICITE. 

English, iWi century. 
D. 7 in. Weight, 13 grains. 

997. GOLD ; similar hoop with white enamel and garnets : GAGE D'AMOUR. 
English, i8//i century. 

D. "61 in. Weight, 14 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

998. GOLD; similar hoop; on the scrolls, in gold letters on a ground of white 
enamel, the inscription : PRENEZ MOI SI VOUS M'APPROUVEZ. 

English, \>tli century. 
D. 77 in. Weight, 15 grains. 

999. GOLD ; wreathed hoop ; bezel in form of two hands holding a crowned 
heart ; on each thumb is perched a dove. In the interior the letters 
I * N * H * M, with two groups of three stars. 

i8M-i9//i century. 

D. '94 in. W T eight, 93 grains. 

1000. GOLD ; slender hoop ; large oval bezel bordered with pearls, alternating with 
gold bosses and containing an enamelled white plaque painted in brown with 
two hearts on which stand two doves supporting a crown ; below, a wreath ; 
above, legend : L'AMOUR NOUS UNIT. 

i8//i century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 41 grains. 

1001. GOLD ; the bezel, which is backed by a silver plate, has two confronted doves 
in white enamel, and between them a plant set with rubies and diamonds. 
Round the outside of the hoop, legend in relief: AIMONS COMME EUX. 

Plate XVII. English, iKth century. 
D. '8 in. Weight, 41 grains. 1871. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS l6r 

II. Fede-rings. 

(a) Inscribed. 

1002. GOLD; clasped hands at the back and two hands supporting a bezel with 
high claws which contains a sapphire. On the hoop arc inscribed in two places 
the earlier letters of the alphabet. 

i$t/i century. 

D. I'o6 in. Weight, 55 grains, (liraybrooke Coll. ) 

The hoop is damaged and the hands at the back partly broken. One of the hands 
supporting the bezel is pierced. 

The letters of the alphabet may be used with some magical significance. A silver bowl in 
the church of Studley Royal, dating from about A. D. 1380. is ornamented with letters (Proc. 
Soc. Antiquaries of London, xxiii, p. 461. 

!OO2a. ANOTHER; of the same type, but with a rosette in the middle of each side 
and in the bezel a ruby set in a collet. On the hoop, legend : PL | AV I VL 
Al PL | DV | D(?)OI. 

i$t/t century. 

D. 1*07 in. Weight, 67 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

The collet and stone replace another stone, now lost, set as the stone of the preceding 
number. 

!OO2b. GOLD ; flat hoop with clasped hands at back and terminating at the 
shoulders in conventional monsters' heads ; bezel a lozenge-shaped setting 
containing a plaque of cloisonne enamel, four red disks on a green ground. 

Italian, i^th century. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 36 grains. 

The hoop is broken. 

1003. GOLD ; slender hoop with clasped hands at back and engraved on the outer 
side : KVQ MKRIK (SR.////. At the shoulders the hoop ends in hands supporting 
a double bezel, formerly containing two stones. 

\4 t th century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 48 grains. 

1004. GOLD; clasped hands at back; slender hoop engraved on the outer side 
with the legend : + AVIHLQRI AT(il ; a cross or quatrefoil on each shoulder. 
The bezel is a high conical setting containing a cabochon rub)-. 

Plate XVI. itfA century. 

D. of hoop, 75 in. Weight, 26 grains. 

1005. GOLD ; slender flat hoop with clasped hands as before at the back ; it is 
engraved on the outer side with legend : RVKIlM 6 IIVRI, between raised 
quatrefoils. The bezel is a high oval setting containing a sapphire. 

Plate XVI. Early i^tk century. 

D. '92 in. L. of bezel, -24 in. Weight, 26 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 

M 



162 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1006. GOLD ; at the back of the hoop, which is of triangular section, two clasped 
hands. Legend engraved on 

the outer faces : 10 : SVI . UII . 

HM | LIV : D6 KM! | (Jc sitis 

id en lien d'ami) ODUtST : PI16 SGHT : K\VS : The bezel pyramidal with 

flat sides containing a crystal of diamond. 

Plate XVI, and sec figure. English, i^t/i century. 

}). i in. Weight, 59 grains. 1857. Found in Clerkenwell. 

The legend is common on mediaeval rings and brooches. -Cf a ring in the Collection of 
Sir Arthur Evans (1'roc. Sflc. Ant. London, iii, p. 38, and Catalogue of the Loan Collection of . . . 
Jewellery, South Kensington, 1872, no. 859). 

1007. SILVER GILT ; clasped hands as bezel ; legend on the outer side : fltlC. On 
each shoulder a cross. 

Plate XVI. i yk century. 

\). '9 in. Found at Folkestone. 

The legend is part of the verse A-,>e Maria gratia plena. Cf. nos. 68 1 ff. 

1008. SILVER ; once gilt ; the bezel in the form of clasped hands, with sleeves, each 
of which has a row of buttons. On the 

shoulders the legend : (J5otl IjElp- At the 
back of the hoop, in relief, a heart with 
two quatrefoil flowers issuing from it. 
See figure. English, i^t/i century. 

D. ro6 in. (Loiidesboi-ough Coll.) 

1009. SILVKR GILT ; flat hoop with clasped hands at back; on sides legend: 
IHOIl COf irtP?, with sprigs. Applied bezel, a crowned heart from which issue 
leaves. 

i$th century. 

D. -92 in. 

For the motto cf. nos. 558, 725, 742, 752. 

loio. SILVER C;ILT ; clasped hands engraved in front ; the shoulders engraved 
with quatrefoils in squares and lozenges ; at the back a heart with issuing 
leaves as in the preceding number, but crowned. 
15^ century. 

D. 1*04 in. 

ion. SILVER ; the hoop engraved on the outer side with |'I)C eft atltor 1110110. 

I5/// century. 

D. '9 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 





LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 



I6 3 



1012. SILVER ; once gilt ; bezel in form 
of clasped hands ; legend on outer side 

of hoop: gjijc najacen' v//////uDtouim. 

See figure. \yJi century. 

D. -94 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in 
the Ahjbsy grounds, Bury St. Edmunds, 1849. 




^ !iuFonnn:||| 



1013. SILVER ; clasped hands in front ; on outer side of hoop in relief : 
* I6SV8 WRZ'R//////VS R6X. 

i$th century '. 

D. '92 in. (Londesborough Coll.) 
The hoop broken at the back. 

1014, SILVER GILT ; hoop with median ridge on outer side, where it is engraved 
with legend : IhCI IOT2K RtttVS RX. 

i^th century. 

I). '96 in. 



1015. SILVER GILT; similar ; legend: IliKl 
i^tii century. 

D. -94 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 




1016. SILVER GILT ; legend on outer side : iljt 
\~)th century. 

D. -9 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1017. SILVER ; once gilt ; legend : IIlCI 
KK2KR6. 

See figure. i$t/i ccntnry. 

D. '88 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in 
a field near Burton Wood, Chesterford, in 
1846. 



1018. SILVER ; once nielloed ; the clasped hands form the bezel ; the hoop 
ornamented with cinquefoils and a wavy band, on either side of which are 
disposed the letters: lACObbVFTA. 
North Italian, ij/// century. 



D. -84 in. 



M 2 



164 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1019. SILVER ; a signet with octagonal bezel engraved in intaglio with a lion 
passant ; flat hoop with clasped hands at the back, and on the sides, in relief, 




the legend : PIBRO | H(?)IReHTI HO, preceded by a quatrefoil. 
See figure. Italian, i ,-}/// century. 
I). ri6 in. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

loiga. GOLD ; bezel in form of clasped hands ; flat hoop engraved inside and 
out with legends: DVLCE DONVM FIDES, and P N SOLA F A AMA. 
Italian, i$th century. 
I), of hoop, 76 in. Weight, 42 grains. 

1020. BRONZE; a hoop with legend in raised letters: ON CVERAVOS, and two 
clasped hands. 
\f>tli century. 

I). '86 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 
The legend is (M)on ca'itr a THUS. 

IO2I. GOLD ; the bc/cl in the form of clasped hands holding a heart ; laced cuffs 
over the wrists. In the interior, legend: Honored for your verities. 
I'jth century. 
I). "8 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

1022. GOLD ; similar, the cuffs more elaborate ; legend : 

Bee true in heart 
Tho farr apart. 
Plate XVI I . i -jt/i century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 54 grains. 

The legend is a familiar posy ; cf. below, nos. 1129 ft". 

1023. GOLD ; broad hoop with pearled edges, expanding from back to front, where 
there is a rectangular plate engraved with the letters R. CL, concealed by two 
clasped hands, each of which forms the end of a foliated band working on 
a hinge at the back, and engraved on the inner side with legend : He ever 
be | constant to thcc. 

Plate XVII. i8t/i century. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 128 grains. 




LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 165 

1024. GOLD ; clasped hands are applied to the back of the hoop, which is 
channelled at the sides ; the bezel is an open-work lozenge ending in trefoils, 
having applied to the front a heart inscribed with the letters AMI. In the 
interior of the hoop is engraved the posy : Constant to tliee lie ever bee. 

Plate XVII. English, \Wi century. 
D. '86 in. Weight, 60 grains. 

(&) Uninscribed. 

1025. SILVER ; flat hoop, the clasped hands forming the bezel ; transverse ridges 
at the wrist. 

See figure. English, i a/// century. 
L. -58 in. 

Found at Lark Hill near Worcester in 1854 with coins of Henry II, 
&c. (Archaeologia, xxxvi, PI. xvii, fig. 4). 

10253. SlLVKK ; clasped hands at back. The hoop has transverse ribs on the 
shoulders, and divides into a double pyramidal bezel. 
13^ century. 
D. ria in. 1853. Found at St. Albans. 

1026. SILVER ; at the back, clasped hands ; the sides of the hoop have an 
astragalus design in relief; flat pyramidal bezel with three knobs instead of 
stones ; the sides engraved. 

Plate XVI. i$th century. 
D. n in. 

1027. GOLD ; the bezel in the form of clasped hands held at the 
wrists by monsters' heads. The exterior of the hoop is 
engraved with a floral scroll. 

See figure. Italian, \4t/t century. 
I). '84 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

1028. GOLD ; slender hoop with clasped hands at back and 
shoulders ending in monsters' heads which support a lozenge- 
shaped bezel engraved with foliate ornament. 

Plate XVI, and see figure. Italian, i$th century. 
D. '82 in. L. of bezel, '34 in. Weight, 37 grains. 

1029. SILVER GILT; once enamelled; clasped hands at the back; the shoulders 
are spirally channelled and engraved with sprigs. The bezel consists of two 
vertical concave panels very rudely engraved with figures of two saints, one 
representing St. Barbara holding the tower. 

iy/i century. 
D. -94 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

The ring belongs, as far as its ornament is concerned, to the ' iconographic ' group. Cf. 
nos. 722 ff. 





i66 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




1030. SILVER ; once gilt ; wreathed hoop with bezel in form of clasped hands 
surmounted by a crown ; at the wrists, 
quatrefoils. At the back of the hoop 
is applied a device in form of a heart 
from which issue two flowers (cf. no. 
1010) surmounted by a crown. 
See figure. I5/// century. 
D. i'o6 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

1031. SILVER ; at the back, clasped hands; the sides of the hoop raguly ; circular 
bezel with a foliated whorl on a ground of niello. 
Plate XVI. North Italian, \yli century. 
I). -88 in. 

1032. SILVER ; nielloed ; clasped hands at the back of the hoop ; on each shoulder 
a medallion with floral ornament in niello. The bezel is circular, with a nielloed 
bust of a lady to /. within an octagonal panel. 

Nortli Italian, i^tli century. 

D. '9 in. D. of bezel, 7 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

Cf. nos. 1081 ff. The upper and lower edges of the bezel are broken. 

1033. ANOTHER; similar, but with oval bezel, the bust upon an oval medallion 
within a border of flutes. 

North Italian, \^tli century. 
I), i in. L. of bezel, '8 in. 

1034. SILVER ; fragment of a ring similar to the last ; on the bezel, busts of 
a lady and gentleman in profile to left ; the back of the hoop broken. 

North Italian, i$th century. 
D. -87 in. D. of bezel, '7 in. 

1035. ANOTHER ; similar, but with an interlaced design on one shoulder, and 
an oval medallion with foliate ornament on the bezel. 




1036. 



See figure. North Italian, \$th century. 
D. roi in. L. of bezel, "84 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

ANOTHER ; the same design. 

Plate XVI. North Italian, i$th century. 

D. -9 in. D. of bezel, 7 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 



,67 



IO37- SILVER ; bezel in form of clasped hands in sleeves ; at the back of the hoop 
an applied quatrefoil, the sides engraved with stars. 
Italian, \6tlt century. 
IX '94 in. (Hailstone Coll.) 

1038. SILVER ; once gilt ; clasped hands at back of hoop with cinquefoils at the 
wrists; flat lozenge-shaped bezel with hatched ground, containing a quatrefoil, 
the centre and all extremities bossed. 

\6t1i century. 
I). 1-15 in. 

1039. SILVER GILT ; clasped hands at bezel ; wreathed hoop. 
i6t/i century. 

IX i in. 

1040. SILVER ; bezel in form of clasped hands ; plain hoop 
\6tk century. 

D. -94 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1041. ANOTHER ; similar. 
i6th century. 

I). -9 in. 

1042. GOLD ; bezel in form of clasped hands ; the 
hoop modelled in form of two Amorini, their 
heads to the bezel, their feet touching at the 
back. 

Sec figure, \6tli century. 

IX -98 in. Weight, 291 grains. 

A wing of one Amorino is broken off. 

1043. GOLD ; bezel as clasped hands ; the shoulders chased with human figures 
with masks at their feet. 

Plate XVI. i6t/i century. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 115 grains. Castellani Coll. 1865. 

1044. GOLD ; bezel clasped hands in open-work ; on shoulders, human half-figures 
with arms raised at the backs of their heads. 
i6tk century. 
IX '89 in. Weight, 56 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1045. GOLD ; bezel clasped hands ; shoulders chased with scrolls and masks. 
i6th century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 65 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1046. ANOTHER ; the same design. 
Plate XVI. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 74 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 




168 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1047. GOLD ; another similar. 

1). '86 in. Weight, 73 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1048. GOLD ; crossed hands on bezel ; engraved shoulders. 
1 6t/i- 1 Jt/i century. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 40 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1049. GOLD ; clasped hands in front ; the shoulders of the hoop chased. 
\6th-\7th century. 

D. -86 in. Weight. 68 grains. 1856. Hamilton Coll. 

1050. ANOTHER ; similar. 
I6M-I7/// century, 

1). 74 in. Weight, 56 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1051. GOLD ; rounded hoop, the. shoulders simulating sleeves puffed at the wrists, 
enamelled in white ; the shoulders enamelled in black. 
Plate XVI. \6tlt-\~! tli century. 
D. ro2 in. Weight, 251 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1052. GOLD ; the bezel in form of clasped hands in open-work ; plain slender 
hoop. 

^6t//~^']t/i century. 

I). '85 in. Weight, 46 grains. 

1053. GOLD; slender hoop; the shoulders chased in scrolls; bezel in form of 
clasped hands in open-work. 

i6t/t-i'/t/i century. 

L>. '8 in. Weight, 31 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1054. SlLYF.K ; bezel in form of clasped hands. 
\6th-^ r ]tJi century. 

D. i in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1055. GOLD ; a broad band, the exterior covered by twisted 
and plain wires alternating. Two pairs of hands enamelled 
in white, clasped over a red heart, each project from one 
edge ; between them is a heart over crossed arrows, set 
with a crystal, and fixed by a small padlock. 

See figure. Flemisli, ijt/i century. 

D. i in. Weight, 1 60 grains. Waddesdon Bequest, 1898. 

C. H. Read, The Wnddesdon Bequest, Catalogue of the Works 
of Art, &c., 1902, no. 197. 

1056. GOLD ; bezel clasped hands cut in turquoise ; each shoulder set with 
a turquoise and a diamond. 

Plate XVI I . i H th century. 

D. 79 in. Weight, 30 grains. 




LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 169 

1057. SILVER ; clasped hands in front, the sleeves engraved. 
i8/// century. 

D. -g in. 

1058. GOLD ; diminutive ; clasped hands in front, a band of diamonds on each 
wrist. 

i%th century. 

IX '63 in. Weight, 35 grains. 

1059. GOLD ; slender hoop with two clasped hands applied to form a bezel. 
1 8//i century. 

D. 7 in. Weight, 20 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 

1060. SILVER ; diminutive hoop with clasped hands in front. 
Swedish, i8/// century. 

D. -6 in. 

1061. SILVER ; hoop of twisted wire on which is fused as bezel a lump of black 
glass with clasped hands in white glass, a band of gilt glass over each wrist. 

Englisli, i Xt/i century. 

D. 76 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. ' From Moulins.' 

1062. ANOTHER; similar. 

D. 77 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

1063. GOLD ; double ring ; bezel clasped hands ; two turquoises on each shoulder. 
The hands may be unclasped and the hoops drawn apart, working on a hinge. 

i 8t/t century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 37 grains. 

1064. GOLD ; triple ring; bezel clasped hands; each shoulder set with a pearl; 
the hoop opens on a hinge by unclasping the hands ; the centre of the three 
bands is pearled. 

i^>th century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 65 grains. 

1065. GOLD ; triple fedc-ring of similar construction to the last, but without 
gems. 

i8t/i century. 

D. -94 in. Weight, 45 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1066. ANOTHER; similar. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 35 grains. 

1067. ANOTHER. 

D. - 9 in. Weight, 20 grains. Obtained in Corfu. 



170 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1068. ANOTHER. 

IX '86 in. Weight, 43 grains. 

1069. ANOTHER ; silver. 
D. '96 in. 

1070. ANOTHER ; gold ; the three hoops engraved, and a setting on each side of th e 
clasped hands, one containing a red paste. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 48 grains. 

1071. ANOTHER; the three hoops plain. In the interior: AFFECTION LOVE 
FIDELITY, one word on each hoop. 

I). IT in. Weight, 115 grains. 

1072. GOLD ; puzzle fede-ring ; five hoops interlacing at the back, two faceted, 
the rest engraved with floral scrollwork ; all are held together in front by applied 
ornament of two hands clasped over a heart. 

Plate XVII. iMi century. 
D. of hoop, roy in. Weight, 208 grains. (Soclen Smith Coll.) 

1073. ANOTHER; five hoops interlacing at the back; two arc pearled and two 
plain ; the central hoop broader, engraved with floral scrolls, and having two 
clasped hands applied on the front. 

x8/// century. 

D. of hoop, 79 in. Weight, 97 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1074. ANOTHER ; five hoops all differently engraved. 

I). '94 in. Weight, 129 grains. 

1075. ANOTHER ; the two outer hoops plain. 
I). T22 in. Weight, 137 grains. 

1076. ANOTHER ; four plain hoops. 
Plate XVII. 

I). '96 in. Weight, 69 grains. 

1077. ANOTHER ; nine hoops, four of which are plain. 

I). "82 in. Weight, 70 grains. 

1078. ANOTHER; silver; five plain hoops ; the hands enamelled blue at the wrists. 

I). '9 in. 

1079. ANOTHER ; silver ; three hoops, one of cable design. 

D. roy in. 

1080. ANOTHER ;. gold ; four hoops, one cable, the others engraved with various 
designs. In the interior, where they interlace, are engraved Chinese numerals. 

D. "92 in. Weight, 341 grains. 

The ring may itself be of Chinese manufacture. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS IJt 

III. Uninscribed Love -rings. 

1081. SILVER ; nielloed ; the hoop has at the back a nielloed panel with quatre- 
foils ; on the sides a transverse bar and a row of three circles with crosses, and 
on each shoulder a flat oval with conventional design ; oval bezel with a female 
bust in an octagon. 

Italian, i$t/i century. 

D. 76 in. 

Cf. nos. 1032 fif. 

1082. ANOTHER ; similar; the hoop plain at back with two rows of circles with 
crosses ; oval bezel with bust of a lady. 

Italian, \$tk century. 
D. -9 in. 

1083. ANOTHER; the shoulders without the ovals as in no. io8j, but with two 
rows of circles containing quatrefoils ; the rest of the hoop plain. 

Italian, \tli. century. 
D. '86 in. Obtained in Koine. 

1084. ANOTHER; plain flat hoop with engraved shoulders; oval bezel with bust 
of a lady. 

Plate XVI. Italia//, \$th century. 
D. -8 in. 

1085. ANOTHER ; shoulders channelled ; oval bezel with bust. 
Italian, 15^ century. 

D. -82 in. L. of bezel, '54 in. 

1086. ANOTHER ; plain slender hoop ; similar bust. 
Italian, ^^th century. 

D. -82 in. 

1087. ANOTHER ; similar. 

D. -88 in. 

1088. SILVER ; twisted hoop ; bezel a heart from which issue two leaves. 
i^t/t century. 

D. i - o2 in. 

For the design of the bezel ci. nos. ico6, ico/. 

1089. SILVER ; once gilt ; a pearled band round the hoop ; bezel in form of two 
hands holding a heart from which issue leaves, as before. 

i^th -century. 
. D. -86 in. 

logo. BRONZE ; oval bezel with two hearts side by side ; shoulders ribbed. 
English, ijt/i century. 
D. '84 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 



172 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1091. BRONZE ; hoop with cable edges and ornamented with alternating hearts 
and quatrefoils in relief. 

German, \ 8t/i century. 

U. 1-04 in. f. 

1092. GuLD ; flat hoop ; open-work oval bezel with two flaming hearts enamelled 
in blue and white with an arrow between them. 

i Hf/i century. 

D. '> in. H. of bezel, 72 in. Weight, 34 grains. 

1093. SILVER ; hoop of twisted wire, to which is fused an oval glass bezel with 
convex front of dark blue ; on this are two hands, a flaming heart, a true-love 

knot, &c. 

Englisli, itit/t century. 

U. -84 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 
Cf. nos. 1061-2. 

1094. ANOTHER; similar; the bezel a lump of black glass with a blue heart 
supported by white hands. 

I). '8 in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 
Cf. nos. 1061-2. 

IO 95- GOLD; the shoulders engraved with scrolls on ground of black enamel; 
bezel a heart-shaped setting containing a carbuncle surmounted by two 
emeralds and a diamond, and flanked by two garnets. 
Plate XVII. English, early \Ktk century. 
U. '8 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1096. GOLD; a similar design; plain hoop; heart-shaped bezel surmounted by 
three diamonds and flanked by two rubies ; the bezel contains a monogram in 
gold thread under crystal glass. 

Plate XVII. iMi century. 

L>. '98 in. Weight, 40 grains. 

This ring may be a mourning-ring, the style of some contemporary mourning-rings 
being identical ; but the absence of names renders this attribution uncertain. 

1097. GOLD ; the hoop surrounded by garnets in settings ; heart-shaped bezel 
containing a monogram in gold thread under crystal glass. 

Plate XVII. i8t/t century. 
I). '92 in. Weight, 54 grains. 
Several of the garnets are missing. 

1098. GOLD ; slender hoop with ribbed shoulders pierced to enclose trefoils ; 
heart-shaped bezel containing a monogram (M C) in gold thread under glass, 
and surmounted by three settings containing two garnets and a diamond. 

Plate XVII. i8t/t century. 
D. -8 1 in. Weight, 30 grains. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 173 

1099. GOLD ; slender hoop similar to last; bezel composed of two hearts set with 
moss agates, bordered and crowned by garnets. 

Plate XVII. rtt/t century. 
D. "82 in. Weight, 30 grains. 

10993. GOLD ; bezel composed of two hearts in open-work interlaced, one set with 
garnets, the other with emeralds ; above, a crown of the same stones alternating. 
English, i8// century. 
D. 76 in. Weight, 25 grains. 

1100. GOLD ; the hoop terminates in a pair of hands enamelled white, supporting 
a heart-shaped bezel containing hair in a border of gold thread, the whole 
beneath crystal glass. 

Plate XVII. i8/// century. 

D. '88 in. Weight, 35 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

HOI. GOLD ; the design similar to the last, though the hands arc larger ; the 
bezel is set with a central emerald surrounded by garnets. At the back, a rose 
of six petals on a ground of dark blue or black enamel. 

Plate XVII. itit/i century. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 88 grains. 

1102. GOLD; double hoop opening on a hinge at the back; on each shoulder 
three diamonds in raised settings, each part of the hoop terminating in a hand 
in white enamel. The hands hold a heart-shaped bezel containing an emerald 
with diamond in a central setting, and crowned by three diamonds. The back 
of the bezel and parts of the hoop enamelled with foliage. 

Plate XVII. iSt/i century. 
D. '96 in. Weight, 73 grains. 

1103. GOLD ; hoop engraved with flowers and terminating in two hands which 
hold a heart-shaped bezel containing a clear glass paste. 

Plate XVII. \Wi century. 
D. '8 in. Weight, 62 grains. 

1104. GOLD ; plain hoop with stamp R in the interior ; bcxel in form of two 
hands holding a crowned heart. 

Plate XVII. iXth-iqt/i century. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 125 grains. 

'Claddagh ring,' worn by fishermen's wives in the Claddagh of Gal way. The rings 
are said to be transferred from the mother to the daughter who is first married, and so handed 
down as heirlooms. The present example was given to Sir A. W. Franks by the Rt. Hon. 
Sir W. H. Gregory, who stated that it had been obtained by his mother. 

1105. ANOTHER; similar. Stamp CR in the interior. 
See figure. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 115 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 




174 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1106. GOLD ; on each shoulder in relief a royal crown, with interior of red enamel, 
and a crowned lion. Oval bezel covered with pink enamel in which is a setting 
with a lady's eye painted in natural colours beneath a diamond. 
German, \qtli century. 
IX -98 in. Weight, 94 grains. 

IV. Posy-rings. 

(Sec also Introduction.) 

For posy-rings see British Museum, Harley MS. 6910, and the following 
early books cited in Notes and Queries for 1884: A helpc to Discourse, 12 mo, 
1635 ; The Card of Courtship, or the Language of Love, fitted for the humours 
of all Degrees, Sexes and Conditions, 1653 ; The Mysteries of Love and Elo- 
quence, or the Arts of Wooing and Complimenting, &c., printed for N. Brooks 
at the Angel, Cornhill, 1658 ; A Nezv Academy of Compliments, lamo, 1741 ; 
FennelPs Antiquarian Chronicle and Literary Advertiser, June, 1882, p. 13. 

Posies from rings are cited in various publications, of which the following 
may be mentioned : Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, see 
General Index, s. v. Rings ; Archaeological Journal, xvi, p. 306; xvii, p. 184; xix, 
p. 172; xx, pp. 195, 200, 377; xxii, pp. 70, 174; Catalogue of the Norwich 
Castle Museum, p. 112; Catalogue of the Antiquities and Works of Art 
exhibited at the Ironmongers Hall, London, 1869, p. 506 ; Catalogue of the Loan 
Exhibition of Ancient and Modern Jeivellery and Personal Ornaments, London, 
1873, pp. 80, 81 ; Notes and Queries, as under: second series, vol. iv, pp. 118, 
166, 429; vol. vii, p. 251 ; third series, vol. iii, p. 503; vol. iv, pp. 83, 243, 
382 ; fourth series, vol. v, p. 341 ; eighth series, vol. xi, p. 328. 

Among preceding numbers there are several which fall under the definition 
of posy-rings ; cf. nos. 6i6a, 962-3, 974, 981, and various examples among signets 
and iconographical rings: e.g. nos. 289, 296,558-9, 728, &c. But since the 
term is by general usage chiefly confined to examples made between the close 
of the sixteenth century and the latter part of the eighteenth, the group which 
follows is restricted to that period. 

Except where otherwise stated, the rings are gold with plain hoops rounded 
on the outer side, the legends being engraved in the interior. In trie greater 
number of cases only the ' posy ', dimensions, and collection or source will 
follow the number ; the weights, which vary but little, are not recorded. 

1107. A + FRIND + TO + THE + END + 

D. -9 in. 

1108. A loveing wife a happy life. 
D. 7 in. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 175 

nog. A true friends gift. 
D. -82 in. 

mo. A vertnons wife a happy life. 
IX -88 in. 

mi. A ncrtnous wife prefcructh life. 
IX 74 in. 

III2. SILVER ; the interior gilded : A-bidc Witli PA Cience. 

D. '94 in. 

1113. After coafent * Euer content. 
I). -88 in. 

1114. A'ycfeiH (? 'AyaTn;) auvbeoiuos THJ reAeioTHTOS. 

I). '93 in. 

1115. A happy pair that faitlif nil are. 

IX -82 in. 

1116. All J refuje and thee J chiife. 
IX '9 in. 

1117. As dear to me As Life can be. 
D. -86 in. 

1118. As God decreed fo ive agreed. 
IX '8 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

IIIQ. As God decreed so ive agreed. 
D. -8 in. 

1120. As god decreed fo ivc agreed. Goldsmith's mark |B|. 

D. of hoop, "83 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) From Egham, Surrey. 

II2I. AS GOD DECREED SO WE AGREED. 

I). -84 in. 

112 2. As god decreed fo ioec agreed* 
D. i '02 in. 

1123. As God hath knit to hartcs in one So none shall part but death alone. 
D. -88 in. 

1124. As this Ring tells (was Bed-win Bells. 
D. -82 in. 

1125. Afke + and + Have. 
D. -6 in. 



176 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1126. SILVER ; Be Juft to me. 

D. '9 in. 

1127. Bee t/wu like the Cullour. 

D. -66 in. 

The words may refer to the enamel with which the ring was once covered. 

1128. Be trcw and conftant. 
D. -81 in. 

1129. SlLVKR ; broad plain hoop engraved in interior with legend : bee true In haft. 
D. of hoop, '94 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1130. BE TREV -IN -HART- 

D. 72 in. 

1131. Be true, Jn, Hart > 

D. -82 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1132. be trv Jn hart. 
D. -8 in. 

1133. Blest from above who lives in love. 
D. -84 in. 

1134. GOLD ; By god alone wee two arc one. 
D. '94 in. 

1135. Two plain broad hoops fitting into one another and covered by a third hoop 
engraved on outside with a geometrical pattern which has been enamelled. 
This, when drawn aside, displays on the under rings the inscription: + BY 
TREVTH- YE- SHALL -TRYE -ME + BY TYME YE SHALL SPYE ME 
-I-SO-FYND -SO -SET -BY -ME. 

D. -83 in. 

1136. Clirist and tliee my comfort be. 
D. -90 in. 

1137- The hoop engraved on the outside with a heart pierced with arrows, an anchor, 
a true lover's knot, and other devices which have been enamelled ; in the 
interior is engraved : Conceane confcnt confirme content, which has also been 
enamelled. 

U. of hoop, 72 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1138. Constant to tlice lie encr le. 
D. 72 in. 

"39- Content is a Kingdom. 
D. 74 in. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 177 

1140. Contents a treasure, 

D. -8 1 in. 

t 

1141. Content supplys all want. 
D. -86 in. 

1142. CONTINEW CONSTANT. 

D. 78 in. 

1143. Continue yon for I am true. 
D. '93 in. 

1144. De nos OX? le dcsir saccomplisse. 
D. -85 in. 

1145. Direct our waycs Lord all our daycs ; and goldsmith's mark | H S |. 
D. -86 in. 

1146. SILVER ; Endlcfs be my Love to thcc. 
D. -89 in. (Braybrooke Coll., no. 85.) 

1147. ERAM*NON*SVM. 

D. 73 in. 

The exterior, which is keyed, was formerly enamelled. This may have been a mourning- 
ring. Cf. no. 1223. 

1148. Ever true my Dear to Yon. 
D. 73 in. 

1149. Fear God lone me. 
D. -84 in. 

1150. The hoop forms a succession of ovals ; in the inside : Feare God only. 
D. -68 in. 

1151. Forget not lie who loveth tliee. 
D. -84 in. 

1152. God abo^le increafe our loue. 
D. -86 in. 

1153. Hoop of triangular section; inside: God above increafe our Love. F P M, 
and a goldsmith's mark, T(l)? surmounted by a crown. 

D. -8 in. 

1154. God above increafe our love. 
D. -89 in. 

1155. Hoop of triangular section ; God above increase our love. Goldsmith's 
stamp |WE|. 

D. -96 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

N 



178 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1156. God above fend peace and lone. 
D. 79 in. 

1157. God allone of two makes one. 
D. -85 in. 

1158. God alone made ns one. 
D. -86 in. 

1159. God alone made ns two One. Goldsmith's mark | AP| 
D. -86 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found at Reigate. 

1160. God alone made vs' two one. 

D. '85 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

Il6l. God alone we two made one. 
D. -83 in. 

1162. GOD CONTINV LOVE IN VS. 

D. -86 in. 

1163. God did decree our nnitce. 
D. -8 1 in. 

1164. God did decree our unity. 
D. 72 in. 

1165. God did forcfce wcef/ionld agree. 
D. -89 in. 

1166. God dotli foresee whats heft for me. 
D. -93 in. 

1167. God for me appoyntcd thcc. 
D. 78 in. 

1168. God liatli me sent my hearts content. 
D. -88 in. 

1169. God hathfcnt my hearts content. 
D. -82 in. 

1170. SILVER ; God hatJi sent my heart content. 
D. -86 in. 

1171. Godly love will not remove. 
D. -82 in. 

1172. SILVER ; Godly love will not remove. 
D. 72 in. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 179 

1173. Gods blcfsing be on thce and me. 
D. -84 in. 

1174. Gods blcfsing be on thee and me. 
D. -92 in. 

1175. Gods decree fullfild hanc we. 
D. -88 in. 

1176. Gods decree well pleaseth me. 

D. -85 in. 

1177. Gods dcvine hath made thee mn (mine). Goldsmith's stamp 1 1 M |. 
D. 77 in. Found near Wonham Manor, Betchworth, 1859. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1178. Gods Intent none Can prcncnt ; also an indeterminate mark, and initials I'C. 
D. -92 in. (Braybrooke Coll.). 

1179- God' s providence is our inheritance. 
D. -86 in. 

1180. Gods Providence is our inheritance. 
D. -91 in. 

1181. Gods providence is our inheritance. 
D. -86 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1182. God vnitcth Itartcs. A. P. 
D. -83 in. 

1183. Good will is above gould. 
D. 72 in. 

1184. Happy in thee hath God made me. 
D. '92 in. 

1185. Hearts content canot repent. 
D. -86 in. 

1186. Hearts that unite find true delight. 
D. -87 in. 

1187. Harts vnitcd Hue contented. 
D. -82 in. 

1188. Hearts tmited live contented. 
D. -8 in. 

1189. Hearts vnited live contented. 
D. -82 in. 

N 2 



l8o CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1190. Hearts wilted live contented. Goldsmith's stamp, an anchor (?). 
D. -82 in. 

1191. Heancns act was our compact. 
D. -85 in. 

1192. The exterior of the hoop is wreathed and enamelled in pale blue, bands of 
enamel, each relieved by a small circle reserved in the metal, alternating with 
the gold. In the interior : Hope is the life of love, 

D. -68 in. 

1193. / bed adue to all but you. 
D. -8 in. 

1194. I cannot show tlic love I oiue. 
D. -9 in. 

1195. The exterior of the hoop ornamented with roses and foliage in relief; inside, 
the legend : / clnife not to change. 

D. 70 in. 

1196. The hoop ornamented on the outside with roses and foliage with traces of 
dark blue enamel ; inside : / dare not f how the love J owe. 

D. -68 in. 

1197. BRASS ; I fancy none but you alone. 
D. -92 in. 

1198. I have obtaind whom God ordaind. 
D. -92 in. 

1199. / ioy to find a constant mind. 

D. 76 in. . 

1200. / love and like my clwyce. 
IX '91 in. 

1201. BRONZE ; / Loue you. 
D. -86 in. 

1202. Hoop ornamented with a continuous conventional design in relief with traces 
of green enamel. Inside : I prcfent the abfent. 

D. 72 in. 

1203. // love abide God will provide. Goldsmith's stamp H|. 
IX of hoop, -86 in. Found at Reigate. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1204. Hoop ornamented with scrolls. Inside : If lotte you bare thif forr mee ware. 
D. -71 in. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS l8l 

1205. + IF THIS THEN ME I-P- 

D. .84 in. 

1206. In Chris a lone wee two arc one. 
D. -92 in. 

1207. In Chrift & thee my comfort be. 1744 ', and goldsmith's stamp : E Y. 

D. 78 in. 

1208. In god alone we too ar one. 

D. '83 in. From Bartlow, Essex, 1850. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1209. BRASS GILT ; In god alone wee to ar- one. 
D. '93 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1210. In god & tJiee my joy shall be. 
D. -86 in. 

I2H. In love abide God will provide. IB. EB. 
D. -85 in. 

1212. Plain rounded hoop set with a ruby in an oval setting. Inside : In lone 
abide till death deuide. 

D. -87 in. 

1213. In loue abide till death divide. 
D. 73 in. 

c 

1214. E c In love abide till death deviae. 

o 

D. '92 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1215. IN LOVE LINKT FAST WHILE LIFE DOT! LAST. 

D. '8 in. 

1216. In thee I find content of mind. 

D. -86 in. 

B . 

1217. In tliee my choice I do rejoice. T A. 
D. -87 in. 



1218. In thee my choyce I doe rejoyce. Goldsmith's mark |I 
D. '8 in. From Reigate. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1219. In thy breaft my hart doth reft. 
D. '9 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1220. In thy fight is my delight. 
D. '8 in. 




182 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1221. In thy fight is my delight. 
D. -86 in. 

1222. In unity lets live & die. 
D. -82 in. 

1223. The hoop imbricated and ornamented with a death's-head ; in the inside : In 
v train qc paratiis for tunam. R. S. 

D. -82 in. 

This ring may perhaps be a mourning-ring, as its type is that of 
nos. 459 ff., and ' posies ' were occasionally engraved in mourning- 
rings (Notes and Queries, 2nd series, ii, pp. 393, 466). 

1224. Joynd in one by Clirift alone. 
D. '93 in. 

1225. loyn'd in one by God alone. 
D. -84 in. 

1226. loyned in one by God alone. 
D. '93 in. 

1227. Knitt in one by clirift alone. 
L>. -85 in. 

1228. Let israell hope in the lord. 
D. -85 in. 

1229. Let Love abide till deatli devide. 
I). - 9 in. 



1230. Let love abide till deatli divide. Goldsmith's stamp DW| 

D. of hoop, -82 in. Found in churchyard at Bishop's Stortford, May, 1854. (Braybrooke 

Coll.) 

1231. Let me in thee moft happy be. 
D. -83 in. 

1232. The exterior with a band of enamelled ornament consisting of ovals 
alternating with conventional designs ; frequent traces of white enamel. Inside 
is engraved : Let noe calamity seperate amity, followed by two 
goldsmiths' marks, one with E, the other half obliterated. 

See figure. 17^/2 century. 
D. 72 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1233. The hoop engraved on the outside with a floral pattern containing roses ; in 
the interior the inscription : Lets fix our loue in god aboue. 

D. 77 in. 




LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 183 

1234. Lets live & die in unity. 
D. -83 in. 

1235. Let this prefent my good intent. 
D. 77 in. 

1236. Let its agree In Unity. 
D. 79 in. 

1237. Let us Contest which shall lone best. 
D. -8 in. 

1238. Let its share in joy and care. 

D. -87 in. 

1239. Let vertnc bee a guide to the. 
D. -82 in. 

1240. Let virtue be a guide to tJicc. 
D. -82 in. 

1241. Lett vcrtne be thy guide. 

D. 78 in. 

1242. LET VERTVE GYED TH... 

D. 72 in. 

1243. Let vertue still direct thy will. 
D. -84 in. 

1244. Live in Love (inscription stamped). 
D. -83 in. 

1245. Line in louc and f care the lord. 
D. -82 in. 

1246. x Long x last x onr x lone x -*- 
D. -82 in. 

1247. Love and live happy. F. C. Goldsmith's mark, R H. 
D. "85 in. 

1248. GOLD; in the interior: Love & Live happy. Goldsmith's mark SN, with 
marks bearing the sovereign's head, and carat number 18, surmounted by 
a crown. 

D. 7 in. 

1249. Love and live happy; and goldsmith's stamp, D A. 
D. '84 in. 



184 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




1250. Love and live happy. 
D. 76 in. 

1251. Love and live happy. E. C. 
D. -86 in. 

1252. Lone and line Jiappy. 
D. -86 in. 

1253. Love & live happy. 
D. 72 in. 

1254. Love as I or elce I dye, 
D. '89 in. 

1255. Love cntier is my dcsicr. 
D. '42 in. 

1256. LOVE IS A IOY. The exterior of the hoop chequered and once enamelled. 
See figure. 

D. 74 in. 

1257. Love is the bond of piece. 
D. -85 in. 

1258. Love is the bond of peace. W E. 
D. 72 in. 

1259. TORTOISESHELL AND SILVER ; in the interior, on the silver, the inscription : 
Love me. 

D. 76 in. 

1260. Lone neuer dyes 'where vertue lyes. 
D. -88 in. 

1261. The hoop ornamented on outside with sixteen stars in relief; in the 
interior : Many are tlicc stars I see yet in my eye no starr like thee. 

D. 7 in. 

1262. Mas valet (The man has the poiver). 
D. 78 in. 

1263. My V is free for God & thee. 
D. -9 in. 

1264. My love is true to only you. 
D. 74 in. 

1265. My promise past shall ever last. 
D. 75 in. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 




1266. Nee fate my loue can ere remoue. 
D. -84 in. 

1267. Neuer look but remember A S 
D. -83 in. 

1268. The exterior milled ; in the interior : No cut to unkindnes. 
D. -82 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1269. No recompence but love. 
D. -85 in. 

1270. No recompence but love. 

D. -88 in. 

1271. The hoop has a floral pattern once 
enamelled. In the interior : No recom- 
penc but remembrance. 

See figure. 

D. '74 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1272. No Riches like Content. 
D. 71 in. 

1273. Noe fate my love Can ere remove. 
D. -82 in. 

1274. Noe hap so hard as hue dcbard. 
D. -89 in. 

1275. None can preucnt the lords intent. 
D. -89 in. 

1276. Nos QC? vnis en dieu. A G I. 
D. -82 in. 

1277. The hoop ornamented with a single boss, and engraved with a herring-bone 
pattern, most of which is worn away. In the interior : NOT ThE G YFT BVT 
ThE -GEVER. 

D. '69 in. 

1278. Not the vallue but my love. 
D. -68 in. 






#o reconvene 6ut remem.Btnrue 




l86 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1279. O Lord ^ls blcfs in hajpynefs. Goldsmith's stamp, S. I. 
D. -8 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1280. Our \Jiands\ and \]iearts~\ with 
one consent Hath tied this \_knof\ 
till \deatli\ prcucnt. The words in 
brackets are expressed by symbols 

in the engraving. Ow <9^B and WT&itfi one con/ent 

See figure. 'T&ufi tiedtfiijft till fejj^ "=? pretuem 

D. '88 in. 

1281. Pari ingo dulcis tractiis. 
D. -8 in. 

1282. Pray God to make us fuck a pair As Ifaac & Rcbcca were. 
D. -8 in. 

1283. Prepared bee to follow inec. 
D. 78 in. 

1284. SILVER GILT ; on the outside legend in relief upon a rough ground between 
high rims: PRESENT EN ABSENCE. 

D. -66 in. 

1285. Pronidence divine Iiath made tliec mine. 
D. -92 in. 

1286. SILVER GILT ; Rather =dy= then -faith = deni. 
D. -96 in. 

1287. Rather dy then faith deny. 
D. 76 in. 

1288. Remember the giver. 
D. -85 in. 

1289. Sin no more Lest sin consume thee & thy store. 
D. -93 in. 

1290. Since god hath joy nd us two together Let its line in lone and serue him ever. 
D. 78 in. 

1291. Take this in part of a trtie heart. 
D. -8 in. 

1292. The beft Flower by Holy Matrimony H M 
D. -88 in. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 187 

1293. The hoop forms a series of ovals ; in the interior is inscribed : The gift of 
a f rend. 

D. 72 in. 

1294. Tlie god of peace true louc increafe. 
D. -99 in. 

I2 95- The God of peace true Love Increafe. 
D. -88 in. 

1296. The lord us blefs with good succcs, 
D. -84 in. 

1297. The love I owe in this I show. 
D. -83 in. 

1298. The love is true that io u. 
D. 7 in. 

1299. The love of the contcnteth me. 
D. 74 in. 

1300. Thee and i will loiters die. 
D. -85 in. 

1301. Think e ever on the giver. 
D. 79 in. 

1302. SILVER GILT; on the outer side: + THINKE-ON ME, between two bands 
of engraved conventional design. 

D. -82 in. 

1303. The outside of the hoop ornamented with four lozenges, each containing 
a quatrefoil ; between them are scrolls all once enamelled. In the inside : This 
is to fhowe r effect J owe. 

D. 77 in. 

1304. Till death noe change. 
D. -8 1 in. 

I35- To gods decree we both agree. 
D. -92 in. 

1306. To loue and peace god giues incrafe. Goldsmith's stamp |WS|. 
D. '83 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found near Bartlow, 1854. 

1307. To thee i wifh eternal! blifs. 
D. -81 in. 



l88 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1308. Too light to requite. 
D. 7 in. 

1309. Tonjours Fiddle. 
D. -Si in. 

1310. * united harts death only parts. 
D. -94 in. 

1311. United hearts death only parts. 
D. -88 in. 

1312. Vnited Q? <v> death onely parts. 
D. '85 in. 

WS- Vcrtue and lone is from abone. 
D. -8 1 in. 

1314. Vertne gaynctli glory. 
D. 75 in. 

I 3 I 5- Vertne only bringctli fclecitic * 

D. 74 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Dug up in \Venden village, Essex, 1855. 

1316. The hoop ornamented with applied wires, plain and 
twisted alternately, in a figure-of-eight knot. In the inside : 

Vertne Rule Affection. 
See figure. 
D. 76 in. 

1317. Broad hoop rounded on the outside, and ornamented with an enamelled 
armorial shield : gules, a chevron or between three annulets 

of the second, supported by the letters A and G (? Goring). 
In the interior the inscription: Wee Joyne our hearts in 

god. R P L 

See figure. 
D. -84 in. 

1318. We ioyne ovr Love in God abovfe. 
D. -84 in. 





We 'will agree in one accord To live in love & serve the Lord. 
D. -84 in. 

1320. When this you fee remember mce. 
D. 77 in. 

1321. Wher love I find my <3 I bind. 
D. -66 in. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 189 

1322. Whilst life is mine my loue is thine. 
D. '91 in. 

1323. Broad plain hoop, the outside rounded, with raised rims. In the interior: 
Y- AM-YOVRS- FOR EVER. 

D. -85 in. 

1324. BRONZE; Y LOVE THEE. 
D. "9 in. 

1325. Broad hoop; inside: YELD + TO + RE SON + T + A. 
D. '82 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1326. You and I will loners die. 
D. -87 in. 

1327. SILVER GILT; YOU- ARE- MY- IOY. 

D. '92 in. 

1328. GOLD ; the hoop ornamented in relief with a band of circles containing 
quatrefoils, alternating with semicircles and dots. In the interior is engraved 
the legend: + YOVRS + TIL + DETH. 

Plate XVII. 
D. 72 in. Weight, 30 grains. Roach Smith Coll. 1856. 

1329. GOLD ; in the interior a heart between two hands, followed by the word till 
and a skull (death). 

See figure. 

D.73in. Found with a hoard 
of coins, London. 

An elaborate example of such 
pictograms as the above occurs on 
a posy-ring mentioned by T. North, Notes and Queries, 3rd series, vol. iv, 1863, p. 243. 

1330. GOLD ; plain hoop rounded on outside. In the interior the inscription : D'D^ 
ts:n l'y TIQ1V mvn yc'irv (Good luck. Jos/ma and Judith Tsarfathi. May their 
Rock and their Redeemer guard them. 1699). 

D. -88 in. 

V. Jewish Marriage-rings. 

These rings, which are rarely older than the sixteenth century, were 
apparently made in Venice and the south of Germany. The projecting 
building represents either the synagogue or Solomon's temple, perhaps the 
former. The engraved legend is usually Mazzal fob = Good luck. The 
subjects ornamenting the hoops are commonly the Creation of Eve, the Fall, the 
Expulsion from Eden, the Seven-branched Candlestick, &c., often enamelled, 
while many examples have richly enamelled floral ornament. The large Jewish 
marriage-ring was not worn ; the bridegroom placed it upon the middle finger 
of the bride's right hand during the ceremony. 





190 CATALOGUE OF FINDER-RINGS 

1331. GOLD ; with high twisted borders. The broad flat hoop has in open-work 
applied to a silver ground the Creation of Eve, the Fall, and the Expulsion 
from Eden, with the sun, the moon, and various animals, the whole being 
enriched with blue, green, and white enamels. 

Plate XVIII. Late \6th century. 
D. of hoop, i'O3 in. Weight, 269 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1332. GOLD ; the hoop a broad band with borders of looped 
and twisted wire. The sides are covered with a pierced 
plate with the Creation of Eve, the Fall, and the Expulsion 
from Eden. In the interior are engraved the initial letters 
of Mazzal tob. 

Sec figure. German, i6th century. 

Width of hoop, ri in. Waddesdon Bequest, 1898. 

C. H. Read, 'J'lie Waddesdon Bequest, Catalogue of the Works 
of Art, &c., 1902, no. 196. 

1 333- GOLD ; with high twisted borders. The broad hoop has ceremonial scenes 
applied in open-work : two figures bring offerings of first fruits, a priest with 
the tables of the law, another lighting the candles on the golden candlestick, 
another blowing on a ram's horn, &c., enriched with enamels of various colours. 
In the interior is engraved Mazzal tob. 
Plate XVIII. Late i6t/i century. 

D. of hoop, 1-03 in. Weight, 235 grains. 

1334. GOLD ; with raised borders of plaited wire chain ; the sides have, in pierced 
work applied to a broad plain hoop, the Fall, and the beasts among the trees of Eden. 
Plate XVIII. Late \6th century. 
D. of hoop, -96 in. Weight, 248 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

I 335- SILVER GILT ; with raised borders of cable wire. The sides are ornamented 
with pierced designs representing the Fall and the beasts in Eden, applied to 
a broad plain hoop. High projecting bezel in the form of a house with four 
pillars at corners, high gabled roof with a vane. Inside the hoop is engraved 
Mazzal tob. 

Plate XVIII. i6t/i century. 
D. of hoop, i'O3 in. 

1336. GOLD ; broad flat hoop with cable borders, inscribed on the outside with the 
letters *?< E3 D, probably the initials of Mazzal 'tob Yihya leolam= Good luck, may they 
live for ever, and ornamented with filigree bosses and pyramids surmounted with 
finials enamelled in blue, and looped finials ; between them flowers in turquoise 
and yellow, and double fleurs-de-lis in blue, green, and white enamel. Bezel 
in form of a gabje working on a hinge, and showing in the interior a leaf of gold, 
unengraved ; the exterior decorated with enamelled imbrications. 
Plate XVIII. German, i6t/i century. 
D. 1-58 in. Weight, 489 grains. (John Brogden and Soden Smith Colls.) 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 



191 



1337. GOLD ; the hoop a broad band with cable borders, having on the outside 
five bosses of filigree enriched with flowers in pale 

blue, green, and white enamel ; between the bosses 
enamelled ornaments in dark blue and green, each 
with a pale blue rosette in the middle, from which 
rises a loop. The place of a sixth boss is occupied 
by a gable with two small windows and enamelled 
imbrications in blue, white, and green representing 
tiles. The gable works on a hinge, and discloses 
a plain gold plate beneath. 

See figure. German (Niirnberg), i6f/i century. 

D. 1*84 in. Width of hoop, - 8 in. Weight, 500 grains. 
Waddesdon Bequest, 1898. 

C. H. Read, as above, no. 195. 

1338. ANOTHER ; similar design ; slight variations in the colour of the enamel. 
In the interior, legend : Good luck. 







See figure. German, i6th century. 

D. '64 in. Weight, 418 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



192 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1339. ANOTHER ; similar, with loose rings of twisted wire. The filigree bosses 
have only pellets ; the enamelled ornaments between them are in different 
shades of pale blue and green, with four loops enamelled in apple green on either 
side of the bezel. The enamelled imbrications on the gable are dark blue, and 
beneath it are engraved the initial letters of the words Mazzal tab. The hinged 
gold plate within is unengraved. 

German, i6f/i century. 

D. 17 in. Weight, 341 grains. 

1340. GOLD ; broad hoop with cable borders ; round sides six filigree bosses, 
between which are pairs of quatrefoils enamelled blue, each flower with a pair 
of green leaves. In the interior, the same initial letters. 

i6tk century. 

D. 1-3 in. Weight, 225 grains. 

1341. GOLD ; broad hoop with cable borders, the outside ornamented with a series 
of filigree bosses surmounted by pellets and encircled at the bases by cable 






wire. Between them is formal ornament in applied cable wire and pellets. 
In the interior are engraved the same initials. 

Plate XVIII, and sec figure. i6t/i century. 

D. 1-3 in. H. -8 in. Weight, 200 grains. ( Bray brooke Coll.) 

1342. GOLD ; broad hoop ornamented in a similar style, but with smaller bosses 
of looped wire. Between two of these is a heart-shaped plaque engraved 
Mazzal tab (Good hick}. 
i6th century. 

D. 1-26 in. Weight, 180 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

X 343- GOLD ; broad hoop with borders and median band of cable pattern. 
Between these three bands are two identical zones of ornament consisting of 
filigree bosses alternating with turquoise enamelled quatrefoils ; between them 
are pairs of pellets. In the inside are engraved the initials of Maszal tab, as in 
"os. 1339, &c. 

Plate XVIII. -if>th century. 

D. of hoop, i -2 in. Weight, 205 grains. 1897. 



LOVE AND MARRIAGE RINGS 193 

1344. GOLD ; flat hoop with borders of twisted wire ornamented on the outer side 
with dome-shaped filigree bosses and quatrefoils of dark blue enamel, between 
which are pairs of pellets. In the interior are engraved the same initials. 

\f>tk century. 

D. 1-24 in. Weight, 119 grains. 

1345. GOLD ; flat hoop with raised cable borders. On the outer side is applied 
ornament consisting of a series of filigree bosses between which are pairs of 
pellets. In the inside of hoop the same initials. 

Plate XVIII. i6t/t century. 
D. of hoop, 1-25 in. Weight, 119 grains. (Soclen Smith Coll.) 

1346. GOLD ; flat hoop with cable borders : the outer surface has applied 
decoration consisting of a band of filigree bosses, between which are pairs of 
pellets. The bezel is an oblong applied plate, and on the inside of the hoop 
are the same initials. 

i6tk century. 

D. of hoop, 1-25 in. Weight, 116 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1347. GlLT METAL ; flat hoop with ornament in relief and borders of cable pattern ; 
the ornament consists of conventional floral designs of turquoise-coloured and 
yellow enamel alternating with the letters of the words Mazzal tob (Good luck). 

Plate XVIII. ibth. century. 
D. of hoop, '98 in. 1897. 

1348. GILT METAL ; the hoop a band with raised cable borders ornamented on 
the outer side with the words Mazzal tob, reserved in the metal ; between the 
letters conventional designs also in relief. 

ijt/t century. 
D. i in. 

1349. ANOTHER ; similar ; the same legend. 
D. -88 in. 

1350. ANOTHER ; similar ; the same legend. 

D. i in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

1351. GlLT METAL ; broad flat hoop with raised borders, engraved on the outer 
side with four quatrefoils in squares upon a pounced ground. The bezel 
represents the page of a book, engraved with the same words. 
i6t/t century. 

D. of hoop, '86 in. 1897. 

O 



i 9 4 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



1352. GILT METAL ; flat hoop with cable borders; on the outer side a raised scroll 
inscribed with the same words, and three pierced bosses. 
\6tfi century. 
D. 1-34 in. 

I 353- ANOTHER ; similar, with the same inscription. 
D. 1-32 in. 

1354. ANOTHER. 

D. ri6 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1355. SILVER GILT ; flat hoop having on the outer side in low 
relief a lozenge band enclosing quatrefoils, between cable 
borders. The bezel is in the form of a rectangular 
building with four pillars at the corners and a pyramidal 
roof, the walls being pierced with a row of circular holes. 

Sec figure. i6//i century. 

D. of hoop, '8 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 



1356. SILVER GILT ; broad plain hoop ; projecting bezel in 
form of a building with gable roof flanked by two cylin- 
drical projections and two bosses ; at the back a shaped 
shield unengraved. 

See figure. TjtA century. 
D. 1-4 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 




1357. SILVER GILT ; broad hoop, the exterior enamelled with the words Mazzal 
tab in red on a black ' ground ; projecting open-work bezel in the shape of 
a rectangular building with gable roof. 
igt/i century. 

D. 1-4 in. 

The enamel is modern and the ring appears contemporary with it. 





195 



H. MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS. 

I. Commemorative of persons and events. 

(a) With portraits of historical or known persons. 

. 1358. GOLD ; the hoop chased with 
scrolls and foliage in relief; high 
bezel crossed beneath by two pearled 
bands and containing an oval cameo 
in onyx with portrait of Queen 
Elizabeth. 

Plate XX, and sec figure. i6t/i 
century. 

D. i in. Weight, 95 grains. (Bray- 
brooke Coll. Formerly Herz Coll.) 

Nos. 1359-75 are 'Stuart rings' worn by adherents of the royal house of 
that name. 

Cf. also Gentleman's Magazine, Sept., 1788, p. 769 ; July and Sept., 1823. 
Stuart lockets were also worn (ibid., 1791, pp. 401, 618, 814). 

1359. GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel with portrait of Charles I in enamel on 
a blue ground, with border of brilliants. 

Plate XIX. 
D. '94 in. Weight, 47 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1360. GOLD ; slender hoop and oval bezel with enamelled portrait of Charles I 
on a blue ground ; the shoulders and the sides of the bezel enamelled with 
black designs on white. In the interior of the hoop is engraved : The gift of 
Mr. Roger Jones ; on the back of the bezel : Mr. Roger Jones. 

Plate XIX. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 58 grains. 

1361. GOLD ; oval bezel with portrait of Charles I on a blue ground. The sides 
of the bezel have flutes in black enamel, and on the back it is enamelled with 
a skull flanked by C R, all in white on black ; the shoulders are also enamelled 
black. In the interior of the hoop, legend: Prepared be to follow me, also in 
black enamel. 
Plate XIX. 

D. '84 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. W r eight, 53 grains. 

O 2 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



1362. GOLD ; the shoulders with scrolls reserved upon a ground of black enamel ; 
the oval bezel with a bust of Charles I painted under glass. At the back of 
the bezel a skull in white enamel, surmounted by a crown and flanked by the 
letters C R in black enamel; below, the date, Jan. 30, 1648. In the interior 
of the hoop, legend enamelled black : Prepared be to Follow me. 
Plate XIX. 

D. '9 in. L. of bezel, '52 in. Weight, 63 grains. 



1363. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with a 
wreath on a ground of black enamel ; 
oval box bezel with a formal rosette at 
the back and a band of ovals round the 
sides, all enamelled in black and white. 
It contains a miniature portrait of 
Charles I in enamel on a blue ground. 
Plate XIX, and sec figure. 

D. of hoop, '8 1 in. L. of bezel, '64 in. 
Weight, 62 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 





1364. GOLD ; shoulders rubbed and pierced ; oval bezel, reeded at back, containing 
a miniature of Charles I with blue background, painted under glass. 
Plate XIX. 

D. of hoop, '87 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, 59 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 



1365. GOLD ; the shoulders with scrolls reserved on ground of black enamel ; oval 
bezel opening as a locket, and containing an enamelled portrait of Charles I 
with a blue ground. The lid has a table diamond in a square setting on 
a ground with scrolls on black enamel ; the edges and back of the bezel are also 
enamelled in black. 
Plate XIX. 

D. 74 in. L. of bezel, -5 in. Weight, 48 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 
Before it passed into the possession of Lady Londesborough, this ring was in the collection 
of Horace Walpole, to whom it was given by Lady Murray Elliott ; it was sold (lot 59) on 
the fifteenth day's sale at Strawberry Hill (T. Crofton Croker, Catalogue of the Collection of 
Ancient and Mediaeval Rings and Personal Ornaments formed for Lady Londesborough, 
no. 218, p. 74). 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 



197 






1366. GOLD ; on the shoulders foliate 
ornament reserved on ground of 
black enamel ; oval bezel with 
head of Charles I painted on a 
blue ground beneath glass ; on 
either side a raised setting with 
a diamond. The sides of the bezel 
and settings are enamelled in black 
with white spots. 

Plate XIX, and sec figure. 
D. -85 in. L. of bezel, -38 in. Weight, 
55 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1367. GOLD ; the shoulders, which are pierced, are enamelled in pale blue and 
white ; oval bezel with portrait busts of Charles I and two beardless personages 
in enamel under glass, with ground of pale blue and green. The edges of the 
bezel have a band of flutes in white ; the back is covered with white enamel 
with the letters C.R., a crown, and a skull in brown. 

Plate XIX. 
D. '8 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 43 grains. 



1368. GOLD ; the hoop has on each 
side a pierced scroll ; the shoulders 
are ribbed and expanding to broad 
foliations ; oval bezel containing 
a black jasper cut in cameo with 
a bust of Charles I to r. At the 
back of the bezel a conventional 
flower enamelled in " various 
colours. 

Plate XIX, and sec figure. 

D. '86 in. L. of bezel, '7 in. Weight, 
93 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Formerly 
in the Herz Coll. 

The stone is cracked across the face. 



1369. GOLD ; slender hoop pierced and bifurcating at the shoulders, each of which 
is set with a table diamond; flat oval bezel containing a miniature of Charles II 
under glass. 
Plate XIX. 
D. of hoop, '87 in. L. of bezel, 71 in. Weight, 59 grains. 






198 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1370. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with scrolls enamelled black ; oval bezel, with 
sides fluted and enamelled black, containing a miniature of Charles II under 
glass. 

Plate XIX. 

D. of hoop, .'8 in. L. of bezel, '54 in. Weight, 38 grains. 

1371. GOLD ; plain hoop with ridged edges ; oval bezel, with reeded convex back, 
containing a miniature of Charles II under glass. 

Plate XIX. 

D. of hoop, 76 in. L. of bezel, '44 in. Weight, 35 grains. 

1372. GOLD ; slender hoop ; rectangular locket bezel, with miniature of George II 
on the outside of the lid, and a miniature of one of the Stuarts inside ; the space 
for a third miniature is now empty. On the back of the bezel is a glass 
frame covering another miniature which is almost obliterated. 

Plate XIX. 

D. of hoop, '83 in. L. of bezel, '34 in. Weight, 31 grains. 

1373. GOLD ; oval bezel containing a miniature of ' The Old Chevalier ' in a blue coat 
with frills and a red ribbon over the right shoulder, beneath a convex crystal. 

Plate XIX. 

D. of hoop, 78 in. L. of bezel, -62 in. Weight, 46 grains. 

1374. GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel containing a miniature of ' The Old 
Chevalier ' with guilloche border under glass, all surrounded by a border of 
small pastes, one of which is missing. The Chevalier wears a full wig and 
a broad blue ribbon over the left shoulder. 

Plate XIX. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, 79 in. Weight, 73 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1 375- GOLD ; slender hoop with open-work shoulders terminating in scrolls ; oval 
bezel containing a miniature of ' The Old Chevalier ' under glass. He wears 
a powdered wig with black bow and a yellow coat with a broad blue ribbon 
over the right shoulder. 
Plate XIX. 

D. of hoop, 7 in. L. of bezel, '49 in. Weight, 40 grains. 

1376. GOLD ; slender hoop ; flat oval bezel containing a miniature of Queen Mary, 
wife of William III, with a skull behind her right shoulder, and date of her 
death Dec. 28, 95 (1695). The queen wears a red dress trimmed with ermine ; 
the skull is on a table covered with a blue cloth. 
Plate XIX. 

D. of hoop, '8 in. L. of bezel, 74 in. Weight, 43 grains. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 199 

J377- GOLD ; the shoulders ribbed and opening into trefoils ; oval bezel with 
reeded back containing a miniature of William III under glass. 
Plate XX. 
D. of hoop. '88 in. L. of bezel, '93 in. Weight, 98 grains. 

1378. GOLD ; oval bezel with a dentated band round the sides, set with an intaglio 
portrait of William III to right, on a sard. 

D. of hoop, 78 in. L. of bezel, '59 in. Weight, 77 grains. 

1379- GOLD ; oval bezel, reeded at the back, containing a profile portrait of Queen 
Anne embossed in gold-foil on a ground of black hair, all under glass faceted 
round the edges. On each shoulder is a square setting containing a diamond. 
Plate XX. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, -44 in. Weight, 45 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1380. GOLD ; hoop ribbed at shoulders, which are pierced and form trefoils ; oval 
bezel, reeded at back, containing a bust of George I embossed in gold-foil 
beneath glass. 
Plate XX. 

L>. of hoop, 7 in. L. of bezel, '54 in. Weight, 43 grains. 

1381. GOLD ; hoop moulded in scrolls ; bifurcating shoulders with applied flowers 
in silver gilt ; oval bezel, with reeded back, containing under glass a three- 
quarter portrait of George II embossed in gold-foil. 

Plate XX. 

D. of hoop, '82 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 57 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1382. GOLD ; octagonal bezel containing a topaz engraved in intaglio with a bust 
of George II (?) to right. 

D. of hoop, '82 in. L. of bezel, -44 in. Weight, 41 grains. 

1383. GOLD ; hoop bifurcating at the shoulders, where it is ornamented with applied 
leaves ; oval bezel containing a miniature, under glass and in silver-gilt setting, 
of one of the sons of George II, Frederick Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cumber- 
land, or the Duke of Gloucester. The prince wears a blue coat with red facings. 

Plate XX. 

D. of hoop, 79 in. L. of bezel, -56 in. Weight, 35 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1384. GOLD ; plain hoop expanding to shoulders ; oval bezel, clear set with 
a cameo portrait bust of George III to right, in onyx. 

D. of hoop, '8 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Weight, 48 grains. 

1385. GOLD ; the hoop channelled at the shoulders ; oval bezel, clear set with 
a cameo bust of George III to right in glass paste, by Tassie. 

Plate XX. 

D. of hoop, -88 in. L. of bezel, -91 in. Weight, 132 grains. 



200 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1386. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a cameo bust by Wedgwood of a young man to 
left, under a glass. He wears a tie-wig, and on his breast the star of an order. 
Goldsmith's stamp, I. H., and 1800. 

IX of hoop, '85 in. L. of bezel, ri4 in. Weight, 155 grains. 
The personage is a prince of the House of Hanover. 

1387. GOLD ; the hoop and sides of bezel ornamented with scrollwork reserved 
on a ground of black enamel ; oval bezel containing a portrait bust to left of 
William IV in enamel : the king wears a dark blue coat and the star and 
ribbon of the Garter. On back of the bezel : William the Fourth By Henry 
Bone R A Enameller to the Royal Family. 

Plate XX. 

D. of hoop, "82 in. L. of bezel, "59 in. Weight, 92 grains. 

1388. GOLD ; slender hoop ; the shouldees enamelled with flowers, much of the 
enamel now lost ; concave circular locket-bezel, the back and sides ornamented 
with a large rosette and leaves still partly filled with dark blue enamel, con- 
taining a bust in relief in gold of Gustavus Adolphus on a black ground ; on the 
edges hinge and catch of a lid, now lost. 

I'jt/i century. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 34 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1389. GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel with a cameo paste by Tassie bust of 
Henri IV of France to right. 

Late i^itli ccntnry. 

D. '84 in. L. of bezel, '56 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

1390. GOLD ; the hoop made of three wires with transverse ribs at the shoulders ; 
oval bezel containing a paste by Tassie a cameo portrait of Frederick the 
Great, in white on dull red. 

Plate XX. 

D. of hoop, '87 in. L. of bezel, -81 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

1391. GOLD ; oval bezel containing cameo portrait of William V, Prince of 
Orange (1751-1806), in white glass, by Tassie. 

D. of hoop, -84 in. L. of bezel, 1-04 in. (Lady Charlotte Schreiber Coll.) 
Medallions of this prince were made by Wedgwood; three examples are in the Museum 
(Cat. of English Pottery, i, p. 215, nos. 29-31). 

1392. SILVER GILT ; slender hoop ; large oval bezel set with a cameo portrait of 
Maria I, Queen of Portugal (1734-1816), in jasper ware, surrounded by 
a border of crystal pastes ; the bezel engraved at the back with sprigs down the 
sides. 

Plate XX. 

D. of hoop, 78 in. L. of bezel, ro; in. 

Cf. Sir A. W. Franks, Catalogue of a Collection of Continental Porcelain, 1896, no. 511. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 



201 






I 393- GOLD ; the hoop enamelled 
in white on the shoulders, which 
are pierced, the design including 
fleurs-de-lis ; oval bezel orna- 
mented on back and sides with 
enamel, and containing a ruby 
cut in cameo with a bust of 
Madame de Maintenon to right. 
Sec figure. French, early 
i%th century. 

D.ro4in. L.ofbezel,7in. Weight, 
85 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Formerly 
in the Herz Collection (lot 2744). 



1394. GOLD ; the hoop forms four panels enamelled black, between which are 
three diamonds; on the panels is the inscription: YE RT HON HUGH L VISC N T 
FALMOUTH, reserved in the gold. Oval bezel containing a miniature portrait, 
under glass, of Lord Falmouth in a full wig, purple coat, and white neck-cloth ; 
at the back is engraved : died Oct. 25. 1734 Aged ^j. 

Plate XX. 

D. '82 in. L. of bezel, '62 in. Weight, 54 grains. (Lady Charlotte Schreiber Coll.) 
Hugh Boscawen, first Viscount, M.P. for Tregony, Cornwall, Truro, and Penryn. The 
ring should be compared with mourning-rings without portraits, catalogued below. 

1395. GOLD ; plain hoop ; oval bezel containing a portrait bust of John Wilkes on 
porcelain. He wears a wig ; the coat is pale blue. 

Plate XX. 

D. of hoop, '85 in. L. of bezel, 72 in. Weight, 49 grains. 

John Wilkes, imprisoned on a general warrant for no. 45 of his periodical paper, The North 
Briton; M.P. for Aylesbury, 1761, Middlesex, 1774 ; d. 1797. 

1396. GOLD ; hoop expanding at shoulders ; oval bezel containing paste imitation 
of a sard engraved with a bust of Jeremy Bentham ; at back of the bezel, the 
inscription : Jeremy Bentham Ob 1 6. Jtmc 1$)2. ^Et. 84. 

D. of hoop, -92 in. L. of bezel, 78 in. Weight, 121 grains. 

1397- GOLD ; plain slender hoop ; long oval bezel containing, upon a ground of 
dark blue enamel, under glass a bust in porcelain of a man in a tie-wig to r. At the 
back of the bezel is engraved : Horatio Sharpe Esq ob. 9. Nov r 7790 AL 1 72. 

Plate XXII. 

L. of bezel, I'l in. Weight, 120 grains. 



202 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1398. SILVER GILT ; flat hoop ornamented on the outside with borders of plain and 
cable wire,"and the letters RO MA applied in wire on each side of the bezel, which 
is oval and contains a cameo bust of Cardinal Antonelli in onyx. 

D. of hoop, "8 in. L. of bezel, "67 in. 
Giacomo Antonelli, Cardinal, 1847; d. 1876. 

(K) Portraits of unidentified persons. 

1399. GOLD ; the hoop chased with scrolls and bifurcating at the shoulders, where 
there are applied scrolled panels with cherubs' heads cut in cameo in onyx ; 
oval bezel with a cameo portrait of a young man in onyx. At the back of the 
bezel is chased a conventional rosette. 

Plate XX. 

D. i in. L. of bezel, '5 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

The cameo portrait is Italian of the fifteenth century, the cherubs' heads are Italian of 
the latter part of the sixteenth, the mounts of the seventeenth century. 

1400. SILVER ; thick plain hoop ; oblong bezel containing a cameo portrait bust 
in onyx of a lady to /. in the costume of the sixteenth century. 

D. ri in. L. of bezel, '64 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

1401. GOLD ; the hoop a double wire; oval bezel with bust of a lady to /., modelled 
in coloured wax on a ground of purple foil. Her hair is in a gold net ; she wears 
a black ribbon round her neck with a jewel, and a scarf over her shoulders. 

Plate XX. German, i6t/i century. 
I), i in. L. of bezel, '91 in. 

1402. JET; the hoop, which is broken at the back, raguly ; oval bezel containing, 
under glass, a bust in relief in coloured wax of a young woman 

to left, wearing a ruff and a green dress. 
See figure. French, i6th century. 
D. '9 in. L. of bezel, '5 in. 

1403. GOLD ; once enamelled ; slender hoop with scrolled shoulders ; hexagonal 
bezel rudely engraved with the bust of a young man with long hair ; by the side 
of the face an object resembling a grenade. 

Early 17 th century. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 36 grains. 

1404. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop set with garnets ; the bezel an almond- 
shaped frame set with garnets and finished at the top by a projecting ornament 
set with the same stones. It contains an oval setting with a portrait enamelled 
in grisaille on a brown ground, representing an officer of the Guards in a three- 
cornered hat, and wearing a small gorget on his breast. 

Plate XX. 

D. '82 in. L. of bezel, I'oz in. Weight, 46 grains. 

On the back of the bezel is enamelled the name Lee. 




MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 203 

1405. GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel containing, under glass, a miniature of 
a young lady in a low dress. 
Plate XX. About A. D. 1740. 
D. of hoop, '83 in. L. of bezel, '58 in. Weight, 56 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1406. GOLD ; oval bezel, with wavy and pearled borders, containing a miniature 
portrait to left, under ,a glass. It represents an elderly man, clean-shaven, to 
left, wearing a wig and a black necktie. 

Plate XX. T.Mi century. 

D. of hoop, '86 in. L. of bezel, '92 in. Weight, So grains. 

1407. GOLD ; oval bezel with pearled border, containing a miniature portrait of 
a lady with flowers in her hair beneath a glass. 

Plate XX. Late iSt/i century. 

D. of hoop, '86 in. L. of bezel, '9 in. Weight, 89 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1408. GOLD ; oval bezel containing a miniature portrait under glass of a gentle- 
man wearing a wig, a red coat, and green waistcoat. 

Plate XX. Late i8t/i century. 

D. of hoop, 79 in. L. ofbezel, '84 in. Weight, 78 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1409. GOLD ; the hoop with pierced scrolls and trefoil shoulders ; oval bezel with 
an onyx cameo head of a man to right, wearing a curled wig. 

Plate XX. i8t/i century. 

D. of hoop, '88 in. L. of bezel, '84 in. Weight, 46 grains. 

1410. GOLD ; oval bezel containing an enamelled silhouette bust of an elderly 
man to right, wearing a tie-wig. 

*8t/i century. 

D. '8 in. L. of bezel, 7 in. Weight, 65 grains. 

1411. SILVER ; oval bezel, containing a cameo bust of a young man in a tie-wig 
to left, in jasper ware white on a pale blue ground. 

Late itith century. 

D. of hoop, 74 in. L. of bezel, i'i in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 
Perhaps a member of the Hapsburg family. 

1412. GOLD ; octagonal bezel containing a cameo portrait in white on blue 
jasper ground a lady in a low dress, wearing three ostrich feathers in her hair. 

Plate XX. Late i8t/i century. 
D. of hoop, 76 in. L. of bezel, I '07 in. Weight, 98 grains. 

1413. BASE METAL ; oval bezel containing a laureate bust to right, cameo on 
a mottled ground. 

Venetian, late i8t/i century. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, ro6 in. 



204 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1414. GOLD ; open-work trefoil shoulders ; oval bezel set with a bloodstone 
engraved in intaglio with the bust of an elderly man to right, all surrounded 
by a border of garnets. 

D. of hoop, -82 in. L. of bezel, '6 in. Weight, 39 grains. 
The intaglio is of about 1800, the ring of the l8th century. 

1415. GOLD ; oval bezel containing a sapphire engraved in intaglio with the 
head of a beardless middle-aged man to left. 

D. of hoop, 74 in. L. of bezel, -39 in. Weight, 28 grains. 

(c) Rings commemorating events. 

1416. GOLD ; the shoulders channelled and enamelled black ; oval bezel with flutes 
in black enamel round the sides, and containing a paper under glass, inscribed, 
in a heart-shaped panel, as follows : 

On the Death e>fK. CHARLES y e II. 
A greater Prince y f Throne did never grace 
Nor to a better ever left liis Place : 
Cliarles is reviv'd while Royal JAMES does Reign ; 
And all our loss well paid in such a gain. 

Died Feb. 6, 1684. 
D. -82 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. Weight, 27 grains. 

1417. GOLD ; JACOBITE MEMORIAL RING, with inscriptions reserved upon white 
enamel covering both the hoop and bezel. The bezel is panel-shaped, with 
six points, four of which are coronets. It bears the initials B.D.L.K. ; the dates 
8. DEC. 9 AP. 18 AU ; and, in the middle, an axe with the year 1746. On the 
hoop, which is formed of two interlacing bands, are the following initials and 
dates: FT : AB :TD : TS : DM : JD :GF :TC : JB:30 JULY, 1746 on one band, 
and on the other : JN : D. M<=D : WO : 22 AU : S* JW : JB : JH : AL : AW: 28 NO. 
On one side of the bezel is a thistle, on the other a rose, both enamelled. 

Plate XIX. 

D. -94 in. Weight, 75 grains. 

The ring commemorates the execution of the Jacobite Lords, Balmerino, Kilmarnock 
(executed Aug. 18, 1746), Derwentwater (Dec. 8, 1746), and Lovat (April 9, 1747). The 
initials on the hoop are those of seventeen of their followers, executed on Kennington Common, 
viz. Francis Townly, Andrew Blood, Thomas Deacon, Thomas Syddal, David Morgan, 
James Dawson, George Fletcher. Thomas Chadwick, and John Berwick, executed July 30, 
1746; James Nicholson, Donald McDonald, Walter Ogilvie, executed Aug. 22, 1746; 
Sir John Wedderburn, James Bradshaw, John Hamilton, Alexander Leith, Andrew Wood, 
executed Nov. 28, 1746. 

See Chambers's History of the Scottish Rebellion 0/1745-6. 

1418. ANOTHER ; similar, but with the initials C S in gold wire on light brown 
hair at the back of the bezel. 

D. -82 in. Weight, 60 grains. 

An early possession of the Museum. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 205 

1419. GOLD; the hoop bears the legend: PLVS QJJAM VICTOR. 1648, re- 
served in the gold on a ground of black enamel ; circular bezel with a border 
of rays on black enamel, enclosing a cavity in which are brown hairs and a 
gold crown, with stars on the points, on a ground of blue silk. At the back of 
the bezel is engraved C R 1'', under a royal crown. 
century. 



D. I in. D. of bezel, '66 in. Weight, 120 grains. 

This ring may have been made after the opening of the coffin of Charles I in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, in the presence of the Prince Regent in 1813. 

1420.- GOLD ; the bezel in form of two hearts surmounted by a crown, all in 
garnets; the hoop with legend: GEORGE & CHARLOTTE UNITED 1761, 
reserved in the gold on a ground of white enamel. 
Plate XVII. 

D. 7 in. Weight, 26 grains. 

The form of the ring may be compared with that of no. 1099. It commemorates the 
marriage of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 

1421. GOLD ; the hoop is scrolled and bifurcates at each shoulder, where there is 
a setting containing a ruby ; the bezel is in the form of three 

initials, crowned ; the middle letter F and the imperial crown 
above it are set with rubies, the flanking letters M T are in 
silver, set with diamonds. 
See figure, ittt/i century. 

D. '8 1 in. Weight, 41 grains. 

Probably made to commemorate the marriage of Maria Teresa 
with Francis Stephen of Lorraine (afterwards Emperor Francis I) in 1740. 

1422. GOLD AND SILVER ; bezel formed of the letters F R, the first set with 
rubies, the second with diamonds ; to right and left two settings with diamonds 
and the letters E (?) L in gold. 

i8t/i century. 

D. "84 in. Weight, 36 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

The consort of Frederick the Great was Elizabeth of Brunswick; this ring does not 
therefore appear to relate to him, unless it was a gift presented by him to some other person 
{Arch. Journal, xxviii, p. 174). 

1423. GOLD ; the hoop scrolled and pierced at the shoulders, on each of which is 
a ruby in a raised setting ; oval bezel containing an onyx cut 

in cameo with the crowned and wreathed letters F R in mono- 
gram, and below, with the legend : VI VAT. 
See figure, i %th century. 

D. 78 in. L. of bezel, -36 in. Weight, 29 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
Probably commemorating a victory of Frederick the Great. 





206 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



1424. 



GOLD ; the hoop a wire ; oval locket bezel containing a laureate head 
of Napoleon in relief in gold, with legend 1 : NAPO- 
LEON ///// PET (?) ////; the hinged lid is enamelled 
on the outer side with three flowers on stems within 
a wreath. 

See figure. 

D. 76 in. L. of bezel, '35 in. Weight, 13 grains. 

Stated to have been given by a French officer, who died 
in 1830, to Mr. John Boyle of the firm of Wedgwood and 
Bentley of Etruria. Bought from his son Henry Boyle. The 
tradition was that the ring was one of six made for the con- 
spirators concerned in the escape of the Emperor Napoleon 
from the Isle of Elba. In the illustration the ring is enlarged 
on account of the minuteness of the design. 




1425. SILVER GILT : hollow hoop bearing on the shoulders the following names in 
relief: CAP D'ALGESIRAS, VALENCE, MOL DEL REY, LORCA, FERROL, 
ISLE DE LEON, CAMPILLO, SEVILLE, BIDASSOA, PUICERDA, LOGRONO, 
SARRAGOSSE, CASTELTERSOL, MADRID, LA REGENCE, GE(?) REV. DE 
LISBONNE. Oval bezel with a scene in relief: on the left, before a pile of 
cannon-balls, three soldiers of different regiments stand with extended left 
arms before a general who confronts them bare-headed, trampling under foot 
a hydra ; beside him a river god leaning on an urn behind a fortress. Above 
the figures the legend : Fl DELITE HON N EUR Dl SCI PLI NE ; in the exergue : 
CO QJJARDON. 

Early ittth century. 

D. i'i in. L. of bezel, '9 in. 

Commemorating French campaigns in the Peninsula. 



1426. GOLD ; the hoop expanding to a raised oval bezel bearing the arms of the 
United Republic of Poland and Lithuania, with the field enamelled red; above, 
a crown. The shoulders have trophies on a ground of black enamel. In the 
interior, round the hoop, is engraved the legend : procz nadziei Wszystko zgineto 
(All is lost but hope) ; at the back of the bezel : Konst.) Maia ijtyl. (Constitution 
of May 3, 1791), between the dates 1794 1812 

1806 1830 
1809 1831 
Polish, \gth century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 86 grains. 

The dates refer to various important periods in the history of Poland. Thus 1794 
represents the Third Partition, 1806 the Napoleonic Constitution for the Congress Kingdom, 
1812 the close of the Moscow Campaign, 1831 the Polish Rising. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 207 

1427. SILVER ; flat hoop with legend reserved on ground of dark blue enamel : 
NA-PAM-ROZB- POL - 1772 (Na pamiatke rozbioru Polski = In remem- 
brance of the partition of Poland}. 

i<)t/i century. 
D. -8 in. 

1428. SILVER ; a flat hoop with legend and device reserved on a ground of black 
enamel a crown of thorns, flanked by a cross and palm branch, 25-27 LUT 
8 KWIET 1861 (25-27 February, 8 August 1861). 

D. 72 in. 

A ring made to commemorate the death of Polish peasants, shot in the rising at Warsaw 
on the above-mentioned dates. Iron crosses were made for the same purpose. 

1429. SILVER ; the hoop ribbed on the outer side and having a cross in relief, with 
other emblems. In the interior is engraved the legend : Niech was nasza smierc 
nic odstrasza {May our death not discourage you). 

Polish. 

D. 76 in. 

A patriotic ring. 

1430. SILVER ; a broad hoop with designs in relief. On one side the arms of 
Paris flanked by olive branches; on the other a shield inscribed: TOUS AUX 
DANCERS TOUS A L'HONNEUR. 1870-1871. 

D. -86 in. 

Commemorative of the siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian war. 

1431. SILVER ; the hoop simulates a wreath bound with ribbons ; oval bezel with 
pearled border, a figure of Victory advancing to left, with left arm raised and a 
sword in her right hand : in the background a burning city. Legend : FRANCE 
SOUVIENS TO I ; in the exergue, 1871. 
D. I in. L. of bezel, '64 in. 

II. Mourning- rings. 

The great majority are English, and an English origin is to be assumed 
unless another provenance is given ; the dates range from the close of the 
sixteenth to the first quarter of the nineteenth century. Several marked types 
were fashionable at different periods. The simple hoop with an enamelled skull 
on the exterior, sometimes amid foliate ornament, was in vogue for some eighty 
years, from about 1660 to 1740 (nos. 1459-82). It was overlapped by 
the type with enamelled scrolls on the shoulders, and oval or circular bezel 
containing, under glass, a monogram in gold thread (more rarely a skull or 
skeleton), on a ground formed of the deceased's hair ; the collection contains 
examples from about A. D. 1690 to A. D. 1720 (nos. 1495-1547). The fashion 
of covering the whole hoop with a skeleton, hour-glass, &c., reserved upon a 
ground of black or white enamel, seems to have been of shorter duration ; 
examples in the collection range from A. D. 1714 to A. D. 1747 (nos. 1529- 
50). Plain hoops with the name and date of death reserved upon ground of 



208 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

black or white enamel date from about 1730 to 1815 (nos. 1551-97). Over 
the greater part of the same period hoops in the same style often have bezels 
containing gems ; at the beginning of the period the bezel may be coffin-shaped 
and enclose a skeleton under crystal (nos. 1542-7) ; at the end of it, an oval 
bezel may contain a monogram, urn, &c., executed in the hair of the deceased, 
or on a ground formed of it (nos. 1577 ff-)- 

The elegant hoops wavy, or forming panels or scrolls, enamelled and bearing 
names, begin about A. D. 1735 and continue for some forty years (nos. 1597- 
1643) ; these rings also may have bezels with gems, or with skulls, skeletons, Sec., 
under crystal. 

The ' Marquise ' type, and that with large oval bezels containing urns and 
symbolical emblems, belong to the last quarter of the eighteenth century 
(nos. 1644-6). 

Gems of the most varied colours are found in mourning-rings : sapphire, 
amethyst, ruby, diamond, garnet, and emerald. 

Black enamel signifies that the deceased was married ; white implies the 
single state. In no. 1641, a ring commemorating two relatives, one name is on 
a ground of white, the other upon black. 

(a) In memory of historical persons. 

1432. GOLD; flat hoop with legend: GVLIELMVS III REX, a death's-head 
and date 1702, all reserved in the metal on 

a ground of black enamel ; the bezel is an 
applied silver buckle with six steel studs ; 
two isolated studs of the same kind on one 
shoulder represent the ornament upon the 
tongue of the strap. 

Sec figure. English, early \^tJi century. iSawqai^iaHHKMaiaCjj 

D. 72 in. Weight, 35 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1433. GOLD ; royal mourning-ring ; hoop plain at back and enamelled on shoulders 
with three horizontal bands of black ; the 

bezel is a lozenge-shaped setting enamelled 
in black on the sides, and with a death's- 
head and cross-bones enamelled in outline 
on the back. It is set with a faceted crystal 
which covers plaited hair, on which is the 
crowned monogram, M R, of Queen Mary 
(consort of William III) in gold thread. 

See figure. English, end of the \jth 
century. 

D. of hoop, '62 in. Weight, 25 grains. (Bray- 
brooke Coll.) 

This ring belonged to Henrietta, sole child, by his second vyife, of Lord William Powlett, 





MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 209 

second son of Charles, first Duke of Bolton. She married in 1725 William, third son of the 
second Viscount Townshend. One of their granddaughters, the Hon. Amelia Townshend, 
presented the ring to Lord Braybrooke in 1855. 

1434. GOLD ; the oval bezel contains a monogram in gold thread with the letters 
A and G (?) under a crystal ; round the hoop, reserved in the metal on a ground 
of black enamel, are an hour-glass, spade and pick crossed, cross-bones, skeleton, 
&c. ; inside is engraved the inscription : sR ob f i Aitg* iji./. xta ^9 (ycarcs ?) in 
y e 13 y o Reigne. 

D. 78 in. Weight, 53 grains. 

Memorial ring for Queen Anne. 

For the type of hoop cf. nos. 1529-50, below. 

1435. COPPER ; the hoop forms a series of six panels, with inscription in letters 
reserved on a ground of black enamel: QJJEEN CAROLINE OB- '20 NOV. 1737. 
K.. 55. 

Plate XXI. 

D. 78 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1436. GOLD ; wavy hoop with inscription reserved on a ground of black enamel : 
CEORGIUS 2 REX OB 25 OCT. 1700 ft.. 77. 

D. 73 in. Weight, 22 grains. 
Much of the enamel is lost. 

1437. GOLD ; bezel an oval setting containing an onyx cameo with an urn ; round 
the hoop on ground of black enamel between chain borders a royal crown 
twice repeated, with supporters lions crowned rampant, and monogram con- 
taining letters L. R. three times repeated ; the design is terminated towards the 
bezel on each side by a crowned and rampant lion ; on the back of the bezel 
is engraved: G III Ob 4 1820. 

Plate XXII. 

D. ri4 in. Weight, 181 grains. 

1438. GOLD ; revolving rectangular bezel, on one side of which is in gold on 
ground of black enamel a royal crown, and inscription: CAROLINA REGINA 
OB : 7 AUG 1821 IE. 52 ; on the other side, plaited hair beneath glass bordered 
with foliate ornament. Hoop plain at back ; shoulders chased with floral scrolls. 

Plate XXII. 

D. of hoop, '92 in. L. of bezel, '52 in. Weight, 98 grains. 

1439. GOLD ; hollow hoop narrowest at the back and rounded on the outer side ; 
swivel bezel consisting of a small medal having on one side a head of George 
IV with legend : GEORGIUS IV D. G. BRITANNIARUM REX. F. D. Immediately 
below the bust the initials J. B. M., and below these a mark resembling a 
crown. On the reverse the legend : BORN AUGUST 12. 1762 . DIED JUNE 26 . 
1830, and round the border: ALL THE NATION LAMENTS HIS LOSS. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 55 grains. The initials J. B. M. are those of J. B. Merlen, medallist. 

v 

P 




210 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1440. GOLD ; bezel containing on a ground of black enamel the end of a sarco- 
phagus in white, bearing the letters P C (Princess Charlotte) surmounted with 
a crown, all reserved in the metal. 
Plate XXII. 

D. '6 in. Weight, 17 grains. 
Princess Charlotte died 1817. 

1441. GOLD ; flat hoop expanding to the shoulders ; raised oblong bezel with an 
N surmounted by a viscount's coronet and a B by a 

ducal coronet; beneath, the word TRAFALGAR, all on 
a ground of black enamel ; the coronets enriched with 
coloured enamels. On the exterior of the hoop is 
engraved: PALMAM Q_VI MERVIT FERAT; in the 
interior : Lost to his country 21 Ocf iSoj Aged jj. 
Sec figure (twice real size). 

D. '84 in. L. of bezel, '66 in. Weight, 97 grains. Given by 
the Rev. W. P. Haslewood, 1879. 

1442. GOLD; hoop ornamented on outside with floral pattern; reserved for 
enamel, now lost ; in the inside the inscription : Cha. Montagu, Earl of Halifax 
ob. 19 May . ijif xt. jy. 

EnglisJt, i8t/i century. 

D. 79 in. Weight, 66 grains. 

Charles Montagu, first Earl, b. 1661, friend of Sir Isaac Newton, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer and First Lord of the Treasury; impeached in 1701 without result. Created 
Baron Halifax, 1700; Earl of Halifax, 1714. 

1443. GOLD ; bezel containing a skull and cross-bones on hair, which has been 
surrounded by twenty-four diamonds, of which six are missing ; shoulders 
ornamented with skulls and cross-bones reserved on a ground of black enamel ; 
the rest of the hoop once enamelled black. On the back of the bezel is 
engraved the inscription : H. G. the D. of Kingston ob. 23. Sep. IJJ}- Aet. 62. 
Not lost but gone before. 

D. 78 in. 

Sir Evelyn Pierrepont, second Duke, K.G., b. 1711, raised a regiment of horse to 
oppose the Jacobites. 

1444. GOLD ; oval bezel containing a cameo portrait head in onyx a bearded man 
to /. ; round the hoop, reserved on a ground of black enamel, the inscription : 
S r THO S FRANKLAND BT. OB. 21 NOV. 1784 /E. 66. 

D. of hoop, 75 in. L. of bezel, -84 in. Weight, 164 grains. (Hailstone Coll.) 
Sir Thomas Frankland, admiral on the Bahama station ; M. P. for Thirsk, 1749-84. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 211 

1445. GOLD ; flat hoop with swivel bezel, on one side of which in letters re- 
served upon black enamel: JE N'OUBLIERAI JAMAIS; on the other side is 
engraved : Frederick Earl of Bristol died 8 July 1803 in his 7? year. 

D. of hoop, "85 in. L. of bezel, -52 in. Weight, 55 grains. 

Frederick Augustus Hervey, fourth Earl, Bishop of Derry, advocated relaxation of penal 
laws against Catholics, and their admission to the House of Commons. 

1446. GOLD ; flat hoop with inscription on a band of black enamel in gold letters : 
RT. HON. SPENCER PERCEVAL: OB. 11 MAY 1812 /E 49. between ribbed 
bands and narrow bands of black enamel ; in the inside is engraved : died by the 
hand of an Assassin . . . Stamps : sovereign's head, leopard's head, crown, carat 
number 18, and date-letter O (1811), with goldsmith's mark S. C. 

Plate XXII. 

D. -79 in. Weight, 83 grains. 

The Right Hon. Spencer Perceval, Prime Minister of England, shot while entering the 
lobby of the House of Commons by a bankrupt named Bellingham, who had a grievance 
against the Government. 

1447. GOLD ; with bezel containing a crystal paste beneath which is some sub- 
stance resembling iridescent glass ; behind the bezel are enamelled the arms 
of Innocent XI ; the sides are also enamelled. On the shoulders is foliate 
ornament on a ground of black enamel. 

English, about A. D. 1690. 

D. -82 in. Weight, 56 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

(I)) In memory of other persons. 

1448. GOLD ; bezel in shape of a lozenge in which is engraved a circle containing 
a white enamelled skull and legend: MEMENTO MORI, in black enamel; 

I E 

enamelled shoulders and edges of bezel ; on back of bezel the letter SM. 

K 
Plate XXI. j.'jth century. 

D. -91 in. Weight, 155 grains. 

1449. GOLD MOURNING-RING ; flat hexagonal bezel with a cavity once containing 
a death's-head ; slender hoop with the shoulders shaped as scrolls. On the 

D 

back of bezel are engraved the letters w . D 
English, about A. D. 1610. 
D. 77 in. Weight, 39 grains. 

1450. GOLD ; circular bezel containing an enamelled death's-head surrounded by 
the legend: FCELIX CONCORDI A FRATRUM. The shoulders of the hoop are 

P 2 



212 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

scrolled and ornamented with white and green enamel. Inside the bezel are 

u 

engraved the letters .... 

I " A 

Plate XXI. English, ijt/i century. 

U. '83 in. Weight, 120 grains. 

Compare nos. 812-22, which, not having names or initials, have been classified as 
devotional. Rings of the memento mori type were, however, used as mourning-rings ; jewellers 
probably stocked them, and names or initials were subsequently added to order. Nos. 1487- 
93 below may have been stocked in a similar way ; they may be regarded as potentially 
mourning-rings, though some might equally well be considered devotional. 

1451. GOLD ; octagonal bezel containing white enamelled skull and the legend : 
Hodie mihi eras tibi, in black enamel. 
ijf/i century. 
D. '8 1 in. Weight, 112 grains. From Rushton, Cheshire. 

1452. GOLD ; hollow oval bezel engraved with a skull, once enamelled, and legend : 
REMEMBER DEATH; round the sides of the bezel the name IOYCE YEM AN, 
in letters reserved for enamel, which is lost. 

I'jt/t century. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 160 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Cat. of the Loan Exhibition of Ancient and Modern Jnuellery, South Kensington, 1872, 
no. 906. 

1453. GOLD ; the hoop, which is enamelled in white, has at the back two clasped 
hands, the rest representing two skeletons supporting a coffin-shaped bezel. 
This has a movable lid fastened with a pin, and ornamented with a Maltese cross, 
once enamelled red, on a black ground with hearts reserved in the metal ; when 
opened, it displays another skeleton within. On one end an enamelled 
cinquefoil. 

Plate XXI. 

D. -84 in. L. of bezel, "4 in. Weight, 93 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 

The clasped hands, usually a feature of love-rings (see nos. 1002 ff.), should be noticed. It 

is not easy to say whether this ring should be regarded as a mourning-ring in the usual sense of 

the word, or whether it had a devotional purpose. 

1454. GOLD mourning-ring ; plain hoop ; on the inside the inscription : W I L 
1592. 

D. 78 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

J 455' GOLD ; plain hoop rounded on the outside ; on the inside the inscription : 

A- Goldsmith's mark A\V 
1727 

D. '86 in. Weight, 104 grains. 

1456. GOLD ; plain hoop rounded on outside; in the inside : Feb r v I), 1725 M.S., 
with goldsmith's mark 6M. 
D. -94 in. Weight, 124 grains. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 213 

1457. GOLD ; the bezel contains a double pearl ; round the hoop inside is engraved : 
None can prevent t/ie Lord's intent. 

English, i'] th century. 

D. -84 in. Weight, 95 grains. 

1458. GOLD ; the hoop, which is of triangular section, has been enamelled ; on the 
inside is the inscription : Ante obitum nemo beatus. 

English, \ythcentiiry. 
D. 78 in. Weight, 50 grains. 

1459. GOLD ; the hoop has on the outer side a laurel wreath reserved on a ground 
of white enamel ; in place of bezel is the outline of a skull ; in the inside of the 
hoop : Wee part to mcctc. Et : 19 mar : 1658. 

D. 75 in. Weight, 55 grains. 

1460. GOLD ; hoop wreathed on the outside ; in the inside, legend : Hope helpeth 
greife, followed by a goldsmith's stamp. 

English, 17 th century. 

D. '63 in. Weight, 27 grains. 

1461. GOLD ; the hoop has on the outside a floral scroll which has been enamelled ; 
in the inside is engraved : I C C May 6th Ij6i. Goldsmith's 

mark P.C. 

See figure. 

D, - 9 in. Weight, 108 grains. 

1462. GOLD ; plain hoop with a skull engraved on the outside, probably once 
enamelled ; in the inside, legend : /;/ memory of RR. 1664. 

D. 79 in. Weight, 35 grains. 

1463. ANOTHER ; with the same device as the last ; inside, legend : H. L. obiit 
5. May 1669. 

D. -83 in. Weight, 58 grains. 

1464. ANOTHER; similar; inside: In memory of A. S. ob. ) Aug. 73. 
D. 78 in. Weight, 42 grains. 

1465. ANOTHER ; in the interior : I S : obyt Dec. y f i) : 75. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 45 grains. 
The date is 1675. 

1466. ANOTHER; legend : E. H. ob> // Se/ 8) &ta. 21 ; goldsmith's mark R. M. 
English, ijth century. 

D. -8 1 in. Weight, 48 grains. 

1467. ANOTHER; legend: S. J. Ad-vans 1 to glory Dec. 24 C. Goldsmith's mark B. 
\7th century. 

D. 7 in. Weight, 45 grains. 



214 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1468. ANOTHER ; legend : Bee prepared M. B. July 79. 
I7//2 century. 

D. 75 in. Weight, 60 grains. Obtained at Bildeston in 1883. 

1469. ANOTHER ; Memoriajusti aeterna R. W; goldsmith's stamp, P R, in a shield. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

1470. ANOTHER ; M. S. ob 24 MA Y 1705 xt. 68. 
See figure. 

U. 77 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1471. ANOTHER ; the skull containing black enamel ; inscription : C. A. ob 1 13 Dec. 
jo8 aet. 6j. 

D. 7 in. Weight, 60 grains. 
The date is 1708. 

1472. ANOTHER ; the skull enamelled ; in the interior : T. H. ob 1 16 Dec r ijn 
xta 65. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 61 grains. 

1473. ANOTHER ; the skull without enamel ; legend : L . H ob 10 Jan 1733 xt 68. 
Goldsmith's stamp 'QDHX 

D. '83 in. Weight, 73 grains. 

1474. ANOTHER ; the skull between panels of imbricated ornament. In the 
interior, legend : S- H- obijt ij.* 1 ' Aprill 1691. Goldsmith's mark D A. 

D. 79 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1475. ANOTHER ; in addition to the skull, floral design once enamelled, covering 
the whole hoop ; in the interior, legend : N N = oft if Nov ijoj xta 22. 

D. '85 in. Weight, So grains. 

1476. ANOTHER ; similar, the enamel perfect ; in the interior : Eliz. Nicholas ob* 
4 Mar. ij}2 xt. 22. Goldsmith's mark (IflL C. 

D. "83 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

1477. ANOTHER ; similar ; inscription : Quos irrupta tenet Copida. 
D. 72 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

1478. ANOTHER; in the inside the inscription : Jif^Bignell ob 1 3 Atig. 1723 xt. f6. 
with goldsmith's stamp ]&. $$. 

D. '83 in. Weight, 88 grains. 

1479. ANOTHER ; in the inside : .S. 6'. Arm. ob. 29 Aug. 1724 Aet. 6} ; goldsmith's 
mark B. 

Plate XXI. 

D. '89 in. Weight, 100 grains. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 215 

1480. ANOTHER ; in the inside : K Packer ob. 7 Dec r 1728 xt. ji, and a gold- 
smith's mark B. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 78 grains. 

1481. ANOTHER ; in the inside : T. W. ob' 30 Mar. 7729 xtat. jj. Traces of 
a goldsmith's mark. 

D. -94 in. Weight, 76 grains. 

1482. ANOTHER ; similar, but with white enamel ; in the inside : IV. S. ob. 5 May 
IJJI. Goldsmith's stamp flfli. d. 

Plate XXI. 

D. '77 in. Weight, 63 grains. 

1483. GOLD ; round the outside of the hoop, in black and white enamel, skulls and 
cross-bones ; between them rosettes reserved in the metal. In the inside, legend : 
A dearc frend gift, and goldsmith's stamp R. 

17^ century. 

D. '6 in. Weight, 19 grains. 
Much of the enamel is lost. 

1484. GOLD ; the hoop has on the outside a skull between two pairs of cross-bones 
in white enamel on a black ground : in the inside, legend : In death fhccs bleft 
Since hcauens her reft, with a goldsmith's stamp. 

\1th century. 

D. 7 in. Weight, 51 grains. 

1485. GOLD ; the hoop of triangular section enamelled on the outer side with a 
death's-head in white upon black; the rest of the enamel lost. In the 
interior, legend : Not loft but gone before. Goldsmith's stamp DA. 

ijth century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 118 grains. 

1486. GOLD ; oblong bezel containing a skull between the letters A. S. in gold 
thread beneath a crystal paste. On the shoulders of the hoop are black 
enamelled panels with small leaves reserved in the metal ; in the inside is the 
inscription : A. S. 6 Nov. 1724, and a goldsmith's stamp KP. 

D. 76 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1487. GOLD ; mourning-ring ; octagonal bezel containing a skull and cross-bones 
in enamel ; on each shoulder are three enamelled black roses in 

applied settings ; below, on each side a panel of foliate orna- 
ment reserved upon a black enamel ground ; on the back of 
the bezel is a lozenge-shaped panel containing a cross fleurettee 
executed in the same manner. 

See figure. 11 th century. 

D. '64 in. Weight, 46 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

See note to no. 1450. 




2l6 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1488. GOLD ; the bezel is an oval setting containing an enamelled skull and cross- 
bones with a scroll inscribed : memento mori. On each shoulder is a diamond 
in a raised setting. The exterior of the slender hoop is enamelled in blue, white, 
and yellow ; the back of the bezel has a radiating design in red, yellow, and 
white on a blue field. 

About A. D. 1700. 

I). 72 in. Weight, 52 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 
Much of the enamel is lost. 

1489. SILVER GILT ; the bezel consists of an enamelled skull, the eyes and nose 
set with diamonds ; the hoop is a series of figures of eight, alternating with 
eight diamonds. 

English, iX//t century. 
D. 76 in. 

1490. GOLD ; the bezel a skull and cross-bones in white enamel on black ground ; 
shoulders are ornamented with floral scrolls reserved on a ground of black 
enamel. 

Early i8t/i century. 

1). '68 in. Weight, 26 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1491. GOLD ; on each shoulder a panel of foliate ornament reserved upon a ground 
of black enamel ; bezel in form of an enamelled skull and 

cross-bones. 

Sec figure. English, early i8t/i century. 
I). 78 in. Weight, 46 grains. 

1492. GOLD ; bezel a death's-head of white shell, the eyes set with diamonds ; 
a diamond in a setting on each shoulder, which is pierced and enamelled in 
black and white. 

iti//i century. 

I). 72 in. Weight, 34 grains. 

J 493- GOLD ; bezel an enamelled skull ; on each shoulder a diamond in a silver 
setting ; hoop formed of two serpents intertwined, a head and tail at each 
shoulder. At the back of the bezel cross-bones in relief. 
icS tk century. 

D. -68 in. Weight, 30 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1494. GOLD ; bezel a skull mask enamelled in white, with a crown set with three 
diamonds above it ; shoulders pierced and set with diamonds in silver settings. 
At the back of the crown is engraved : I. M. 1759. 
D. '82 in. Weight, 27 grains. 





MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 217 

Nos. 1495-1527 belong to the second general type mentioned in the 
prefatory note. 

1495. GOLD; the circular bezel contains in gold thread on hair the letters E. P. 
in a looped border, all beneath a crystal paste ; on the shoulders, herring-bone 
pattern reserved upon a ground of black enamel. 

English, late i"jth century. 
D. 77 in. Weight, 44 grains. 

1496. GOLD ; on each shoulder a panel with scrolls upon a 
ground of black enamel now almost entirely lost ; oval bezel 
containing a monogram T H on a ground of plaited hair, under 
a crystal paste, and ornamented on the sides by flutings filled 
with black enamel with white dots. In the inside is engraved : 
ob l 4 mar : buried : 9 : 169} aged ]}. 

See figure. 

D. 79 in. Weight, 37 grains. 

1497. ANOTHER ; of the same type. On the back of the bezel are engraved the 
initials D K surmounted by an earl's coronet, and inside the hoop : ob. 31 July 
9f xta 79. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 46 grains. 
The date is 1695. 

1498. ANOTHER ; of the same type, the bezel containing a monogram in gold 
thread beneath a faceted crystal paste. 

D. 73 in. Weight, 49 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1499. ANOTHER ; the octagonal bezel contains, under a red paste, a monogram in 
gold wire flanked by two winged (?) figures supporting a coronet. 

D. '87 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 40 grains. 

1500. ANOTHER ; the octagonal bezel contains a monogram in gold thread within 
a looped border. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 65 grains. 

1501. ANOTHER ; octagonal bezel containing beneath glass a monogram in gold 
wire within a looped border of the same. 

D. -8 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 38 grainy. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1502. ANOTHER ; the bezel contains a skull and cross-bones within a looped 
border of gold wire ; on the back are engraved the letters I. W. 

D. -82 in. Weight, 85 grains. 

1503. ANOTHER ; oval bezel with a white skull and cross-bones and the letters W C 
in gold thread in a border of the same, all under a faceted crystal paste. 

D. 78 in. Weight, 45 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 



2l8 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1504. ANOTHER ; oval bezel containing plaited hair surrounded by a looped 
border of gold thread, beneath a crystal paste. Behind the bezel are engraved 
the letters P. H. 

English, late ijt/i century. 
D. 73 in. Weight, 44 grains. 

1505. ANOTHER ; hexagonal bezel containing a monogram in gold wire within 
a looped border of the same under a crystal paste. 

D. -92 in. L. of bezel, -4 in. Weight, 34 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1506. ANOTHER; bezel containing a monogram MD with looped border in gold 
thread on red foil beneath a faceted crystal paste. 

Plate XXI. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1507. ANOTHER ; oval bezel containing a monogram in gold thread over hair 
beneath a crystal paste. 

D. 71 in. Weight, 35 grains. 
The enamel is almost entirely lost. 

1508. ANOTHER ; oval bezel containing a left eye painted beneath a crystal paste. 
D. '83 in. Weight, 56 grains. 

1509. ANOTHER ; the oval bezel contains on a background of plaited hair 
a skeleton in gold thread holding an hour-glass and a 

torch, all beneath a crystal paste. At the back of the bezel is 
engraved : M. F. obit Aug. 2) 98. 

See figure. 

D. 76 in. Weight, 58 grains. 

The date is 1698. 

1510. ANOTHER; the bezel containing a monogram in gold thread with a looped 
border under a crystal paste. 

D. -8 1 in. Weight, 55 grains. 

Most of the enamel on the shoulders is lost. 

1511. ANOTHER ; the bezel is hexagonal, containing a garnet engraved in intaglio 
with a shield of arms, quarterly, i and 4 (?), 2 and 3 a lion rampant ; above, 
two crested helms and the initials H. M. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 51 grains. 

The arms on the intaglio are German. 

1512. ANOTHER ; oval bezel with initials N L in gold thread, above which is 
a skull with cross-bones, all on a ground of hair ; inside is the inscription : N L 
na 14 Aug. ijoj ob. 5 Ian. ijo). 

D. -83 in. Weight, 68 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 




MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 



219 



1513. ANOTHER ; the bezel containing a skeleton holding an hour-glass, in metal 
upon a ground composed of a soft black substance. 

D. of hoop, '84 in. Weight, 71 grains. 

The glass paste protecting the bezel is missing. 

1514. ANOTHER ; in addition to the foliate ornament of the shoulders, the hoop 
has at the back a skull, also once enamelled ; oval bezel set with a faceted crystal 
paste. In the inside of the hoop is engraved : A. T. ob' y e 2} Feb. ijio xta jj. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 56 grains. 

1515. ANOTHER ; octagonal bezel containing a representation of a skull and cross- 
bones, &c., upon a ground of hair ; no skull upon the hoop. In the inside the 
inscription : M S obijt ii Jan'J Iji8. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 70 grains. 

1516. ANOTHER ; the hoop as before, but the bezel reeded at the back and not 
enamelled. It contains a monogram in gold thread beneath a crystal paste. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 43 grains. 

1517. ANOTHER ; oval bezel with a monogram in gold thread 
under a crystal paste, surrounded by eight smaller pastes. 
The sides of the bezel have enamelled flutes as in previous 
examples. 

See figure. 

D. 77 in. Weight, 76 grains. 

1518. ANOTHER ; similar, but with pastes on the shoulders in place of enamel ; 
beneath the larger central paste the letters R in gold thread. At back of 
bezel, date 





D. '81 in. Weight, 75 grains. 

1519. ANOTHER ; oval bezel containing a monogram in gold 
thread within a looped border. On the shoulders are two 
diamonds in raised settings. 

See figure. 

D. - 8 in. Weight, 70 grains. 

1520. ANOTHER ; bezel containing a monogram in gold thread within a looped 
border, beneath a crystal paste ; on each shoulder a heart between foliations, 
all reserved upon a ground of black enamel. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 52 grains. 

The ornament on the shoulders, like that on the next eight examples, is a variation, but 
the general type of the ring remains the same. 



220 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1521. ANOTHER ; the hoop ornamented on each shoulder with black enamel in 
three parallel channels ; octagonal bezel containing a panel of silver thread 
beneath a crystal paste. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 39 grains. 

1522. ANOTHER ; oval bezel containing a monogram in gold thread with loop 
border on a background of hair, the whole beneath a faceted crystal paste. 
Slender hoop, each shoulder chased with a leaf. 

D. -58 in. Weight, 31 grains. 

1523. GOLD ; bezel containing a crystal paste, beneath which is a monogram 
within a loop border of gold thread over plaited hair ; beneath 

it is enamelled with a lozenge in green upon a ground of 
dark blue with white spots (most of the enamel lost). The 
hoop is enamelled on the shoulders with a blue lozenge with 
central white spot on a ground of black enamel ; each shoulder 
branches into three before it meets the bezel. 
Plate XXI, and see figure. 

I). '84 in. Weight, 47 grains. 

1524. GOLD ; plain octagonal bezel, bevelled on the under side, containing a com- 
plicated monogram in gold thread, flanked by two skeletons supporting a 
crown, all beneath a crystal paste ; plain hoop with a channel on each shoulder. 

D. '83 in. Weight, 50 grains. 

1525. GOLD ; plain hoop ; bezel containing a monogram NW in gold thread on 
hair beneath a crystal paste ; on the back, A C in gold thread beneath glass. 

D. 76 in. Weight, 36 grains. 

1526. GOLD ; octagonal bezel, reeded beneath, containing a monogram in gold 
thread beneath a crystal paste ; the hoop is ribbed on the outer side. 

D. -84 in. Weight, 52 grains. 

1527. SILVER ; oval bezel reeded beneath and containing a cipher in gold 
thread, with a basket in silver, all beneath a crystal paste ; each shoulder of 
the hoop is set with a garnet, and pierced with scrolls. 

English, \Wi century. 




1528. GOLD ; rectangular bezel set with a large table-cut crystal and enamelled on 
the sides ; on the shoulders foliate ornament reserved on a ground of black 
enamel. 

English, \Wi century. 

D. -85 in. Weight, 71 grains. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 221 



(c) Rings witk skeletons, &c., round Iioops. 

Nos. 1529-50 belong to the third general type mentioned in the 
prefatory note on p. 207. 

1529. GOLD ; round the outside of the hoop a skeleton, cross-bones, pair of wings, 
and hour-glass, reserved on a ground of black enamel ; in the inside the inscrip- 
tion : In mem. I. W. Arcli. Rock, ob* n June 79 (John Lee Warner, arch- 
deacon). 

Plate XXI. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 122 grains. Found at Catwick, East Riding of Yorkshire. 
The date is 1679. 

I 53- ANOTHER ; all the enamel lost ; skeleton, cross-bones, and foliate ornament ; 
inside: In mem: S : P: ob f 4 Nov 8) aetat 25. Goldsmith's stamp I. C. in 
shield. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 91 grains. 
Date, 1685. 

1531. ANOTHER ; a skeleton with an arrow between the legs, crown, cross- 
bones, hour-glass, pair of wings, star, spade and pick crossed, and a panel 
inscribed: MEMENTO MORI, over a sword and two crossed spears. In the 
inside the inscription : W Ic 29 Mars 1714. 

D. '83 in. Weight, So grains. (Bateman Coll.) Found in Suffolk. 

1532. ANOTHER ; copper ; once enamelled and gilt ; round the hoop, skeleton, 
hour-glass, cross-bones, and rose, reserved in the metal for enamel, now lost. 
D. -87 in. 

I533- ANOTHER ; gold ; skeleton and cross-bones reserved on a ground of black 
enamel ; in the inside the in- 
scription : Cap 1 Rob 1 Jackson 
otf 29 Oct. 1726. xt. j6. Gold- 
smith's Stamp flflj. SI. GafZffi ffac^son^l,* V) dffZ 6: 
See figure. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 76 grains. 

1534. ANOTHER ; similar ; skeleton and conventional designs on black enamel. 
In the inside: God hath fent my hearts content. R. C. 7727. Goldsmith's 
stamp R C. 

D. -89 in. Weight, 94 grains. 



222 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

I 535- ANOTHER ; skeleton, cross-bones, and crossed pick and spade, on black 
enamel. In the inside: I. K. ob: Nov. 21 . 7729. Indeterminate goldsmith's 
mark. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 91 grains. 

1536. ANOTHER; skeleton, cross-bones, hour-glass, and crossed pick and spade. 
In the interior: Let love abide till death devide\ goldsmith's mark I R. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 78 grains. 

1537. ANOTHER; white enamel ; skeleton and cross-bones, and MEMENTO MORI. 
In the inside : W m Fletcher ob' 4 May ijji acid $9. Goldsmith's mark flxll.Si. 

D. '87 in. Weight, 96 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1538. ANOTHER ; black enamel ; skeleton, cross-bones, and crossed spade and 
pick. In the inside: D. Wcstcomb ob. 7 Sep. ijji xt. 44. Goldsmith's mark 



D. '82 in. Weight, 101 grains. 

1539' ANOTHER ; white enamel ; skeleton, cross-bones, hour-glass, and pick and 
spade crossed. In the inside : John Haitgliton ob ij Dec. 1743 x. 24/5. Gold- 
smith's mark C. J. 

Plate XXI. 

D. '88 in. Weight, 88 grains. 

1540. ANOTHER ; skeleton, cross-bones, hour-glass, pick and spade crossed ; in the 
inside, inscription : Eliz. Faggc ob 1 29 Jul. IJ4J. xt. 47. 
D. '85 in. Weight, 95 grains. 

1541. ANOTHER ; black enamel ; skeleton, cross-bones, pick and spade, and hour- 
glass. In the inside : Mich 1 Wood ob. 2j Dec. iJfQ. Goldsmith's mark M C(?). 
D. '86 in. Weight, 65 grains. 

1542. GOLD ; similar hoop, with skeleton, cross-bones, and quatrefoil on black 
enamel, with the addition of a bezel in shape of a coffin containing a white 
enamelled (?) skeleton under a clear paste. In the inside : K. Verney ob 1 Nov r 
20: 16^8: xt 3J. Goldsmith's stamp ^ j|2. 
D. -81 in. Weight, 43 grains. 

1543. ANOTHER; similar; on hoop, skeleton, crown, and a panel, with MEMENTO 
MORI over two arrows crossing a dart, all on black enamel. Inside is the 
inscription : In memoria I. T. otf j' h Aprill 77.27 : goldsmith's mark R H. 

D. -82 in. Weight, 89 grains. 

1544. ANOTHER ; skeleton in bezel ; on hoop, skeleton and crown on each 
shoulder, on black enamel. Inside: Memento W H ob* 2} July IJ22. Gold- 
smith's stamp R H. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 50 grains. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 223 

1545. ANOTHER ; in the bezel the letters H M in gold thread, surmounted by a 
skull; round the hoop, skeleton, pick and spade crossed, and panel with 
MEMENTO MORI over three darts crossed, all on black enamel. Inside, the 
inscription : H. Maiindrell ob. 18 Oct. 1722. 

Plate XXI. 

D. 76 in. Weight, 64 grains. 

1546. ANOTHER ; almost identical ; in the inside, inscription : R. P. 12 June 
ij}4 s 25 . Red. y. the time. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 67 grains. 

1547. ANOTHER ; similar bezel ; single skeleton on hoop. 
See figure. 



D. '92 in. Weight, 66 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1548. GOLD ; rectangular bezel containing representation of a skull beneath a 
crystal paste; hoop with a skeleton and other symbols on black enamel; in the 
inside is the inscription : R. H. obijt 2 May IJ2$. Goldsmith's stamp B. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 67 grains. 

The outer surface of the ring is much worn. 

1549. GOLD ; rectangular bezel set with half a cylindrical bead of coral ; hoop 
with skeleton, hour-glass, and pick and spade crossed, all on black enamel ; 
inside the hoop the inscription: think of y f giver T M. Goldsmith's stamp N. 

D. -84 in. Weight, 78 grains. 

1550. GOLD ; rectangular bezel, formerly containing a stone or paste ; hoop with a 
skeleton, hour-glass, pick and spade crossed, and cross-bones, on black enamel. 
In the inside the inscription : Eliz. Bayley ob ( n May ijji xt. 34. 

D. '8 1 in. Weight, 49 grains. 

The following numbers, i,55 I ~ I 597) illustrate the fourth general type men- 
tioned in the prefatory note. 

1551. GOLD ; round the outside, reserved on a ground of black enamel, a skull, 
and inscription: B. SOUTHWOOD OB 22 JAN. 1731 . /E. 83. The hoop is 
bevelled in the interior. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 56 grains. 

1552. GOLD ; a plain hoop ; on the outside, on a flat raised band of black enamel, 
an inscription in reserved letters: JOHN EMERTON ESQ. OB. 10 AUG. 1745 
/E. 86. In the interior, goldsmith's mark I.C. 

D. '83 in. Weight, 81 grains. 



224 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

I 553- ANOTHER; similar, but with pearled edges j inscription :GILBERT'ALLIX. 
ESCL OB. 27 JUNE. 1767. /E. 73. Goldsmith's mark TS., partly effaced. 
Plate XXII. 

. '8 in. Weight, 89 grains. 

1554. ANOTHER; inscription: Brice Fisher Esq. ob. 28 May. ij6j aet.jg. Gold- 
smith's mark E.P (?), partly effaced. 
D. '87 in. Weight, 79 grains. 

1555- ANOTHER; inscription: REV : EDW SANDERCOCK OB. 2 JAN. 1770 
K.. CO. Goldsmith's mark JN (?), twice repeated. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 84 grains. (Hailstone Coll.) 

1556. ANOTHER; with white enamel ; inscription: ANN WILLIAMS OB. 14 SEP. 
1772 /E. 20. Two goldsmiths' marks, one R A, the other indeterminate. 

IX '9 in. Weight, So grains. 

1557. ANOTHER; black enamel, as before; inscription: THOMAS BENTLEY 
OB. 20 NOV. 1780 /E : 49 : 

I), '9 in. Weight, 81 grains. (Frere Coll.) 

Thomas Bentley was partner of Wedgwood the potter. 

1558. ANOTHER; inscription: JUDITH SHELDRAKE ' OB ' 20 OCT 1788 /E' 44. 

In the inside is engraved : Jcsns tJie Lord his harp employs. Goldsmith's 
stamp Vl(?). 

D. '8 1 in. Weight, 62 grains. Found at Hadleigh, 1884. 

1559. ANOTHER; inscription: CHRIS r McEVOY OB. 11 JULY 1792 T. 73. 

I). -85 in. Weight, 67 grains. 
Most of the enamel lost. 

1560. ANOTHER; outside the hoop, on black enamel, the inscription: ANN ' 
ABRAMS 17 AUG 1795 /E 93 ; in the inside is engraved : In conftanci 
let us live and die. 

1). '84 in. Weight, 69 grains. 

1561. ANOTHER ; flat hoop with inscription outside on a band of black enamel 
between two bands of white: ROB~r BATTERSBY OB. 18 DEC. 1799 /E. 45. 
Goldsmith's mark, and London date-letter for 1799 (D),with lion and sovereign's 
head. 

D. 78 in. Weight, 67 grains. (Hailstone Coll.) 

1562. ANOTHER ; similar, but broader ; raised milled bands enclosing the enamel ; 
on the black band: JOHN MORGAN ESQ_OB. 24 JAN 1808 KL 53. Gold- 
smith's mark I.P, sovereign's head, lion and M (London date-letter for 1807). 

D. 74 in. Weight, 81 grains. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 225 

1563. ANOTHER ; on a wavy band of black enamel, itself on a broader white band, 
the inscription: M rs BARBARA DAVENPORT DIED 4 NOV. 1S12. AGED 57; 
raised milled borders. Goldsmith's stamp MG. sovereign's head, lion, and date- 
letter for 1812. 

D. '66 in. Weight, 88 grains. 

1564. ANOTHER ; similar, but all the enamel black; inscription: CEO. BOGLE 
OB ' 11 NOV 1813 . XET. 51. In the interior, goldsmith's mark W.A, sovereign's 
head, lion, and date-letter for jHi;;. 

IX 72 in- Weight, 77 grains. 

1565. GOLD ; the hoop on outside has raised borders of black enamelled scrolls 
separated by rosettes, and between the borders, in relief, on a cross-hatched 
ground, the legend : III mentOCP of. In the inside of the hoop is engraved : 
Edw. Mcyrick Esi] ob. f July 182$ xt. 62. Goldsmith's stamp W. E., sovereign's 
head, crown, leopard's head, carat number 18, and date-letter (K) for JtSa. 1 }. 

IX '85 in. Weight, 109 grains. 

1566. GOLD ; round the hoop reserved upon black enamel the inscription : 
WC-RC-OBT. IVLY-8'1715; small coffin-shaped bezel with an enamelled 
skeleton holding dart and hour-glass, upon a ground of hair. 

D. '77 in. Weight, 48 grains. 



1567. ANOTHER; similar; inscription: BER KEN^ QBT DECBR 12. 171S. 
I). 76 in. Weight, 60 grains. 

1568. AXOTIIKR ; similar ; inscription : I HO WK AR N AT !) FEB K...7 OB 10 
IUNE 1722. 

IX '71 in. Weight, 64 grains. 
The enamel is all lost. 

1569. ANOTHER; white enamel; sides of bexel reeded; inscription: A'. Wcuborn 
ob. 4. Dec. 1724. Ait. 24. 

D. 75 in. Weight, 41 grains. 

1570. GOLD ; hoop of triangular section with two faces on the outer side, each 
having an inscription reserved upon an enamel ground. Upon one, on a white 
ground, is: ELI Z : BROOKING OB. 17 DEC. 1729 / 18; on the other, on black: 
SUZAN BROOKING OB. NOV. 1731 XE. 14: oval bezel, with reeded back, set 
with a sapphire. 

D. of hoop, 72 in. Weight, 37 grains. 

1571. GOLD ; small rectangular bezel set with a crystal paste and reeded on the 
under sides ; round the hoop, in letters reserved on black enamel : I. TUCKER 
OB 12 NOV 1729 AET 49. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 70 grains. 

Q 



226 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1572. ANOTHER ; of similar type, the bezel containing an emerald paste ; inscription 
in three compartments separated by ribs: FRA. CANNING AR. OB. 29 JAN. 
1732 /ET. 67. 

I). 77 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

J 573- ANOTHER ; the be/cl, flanked by two diamonds, contains a skull under 
a crystal paste. Inscription: SUS. MARTI N OB 1 OCT 1715 /ET. 49. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 66 grains. 

1574. GOLD; the be/.cl contains a garnet flanked by two pairs of emerald pastes. 
Inscription: THO ' SHORT OB. JUNE 1722 /ET. 52. 

IX 76 in. Weight, 37 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
Almost all the enamel is lost. 

!575- GOLD ; inscription : J : STUCKEY OB 7 JULY 1711 /ET. 8(5. The shoulders 
bifurcate, and each supports a setting containing a diamond. The bezel is 
a box setting reeded at the sides and containing a foiled sapphire. 
I), of hoop, 75 in. I., of bezel, '29 in. Weight, 49 grains. 

1576. Got,]) ; the bc/.cl is circular, containing a Scotch pearl surrounded by 
amethysts ; round the hoop, inscription : M. BELL'OB'SJUNE 174<S PC: 74. 

1). "82 in. Weight, 38 grains. 

1577. GOLD; oval bezel containing a double knot of hair between two pieces of 
glass surrounded by garnets ; round the hoop inscription reserved on a ground 
of black enamel : JANE WILLOCK Dl ED 1 OCT R 1764 /E. 62. 

D. -85 in. Weight, 38 grains. 

1578. ANOTHER ; similar, but with trefoiled shoulders ; similar bezel, but with 
reeded back ; on hoop inscription : Waif Stoncstrcct ob. i) Apr. 1765 s. jo, on 
black enamel. 

I). -96 in. Weight, 83 grains. 

X 579- GOLD; the oval bezel contains plaited hair beneath glass; inscription on 
white enamel : l<~anncy Parley ob. 26 Sep. ij68 xt. 3. 
1). '85 in. Weight, 62 grains. 

1580. ANOTHER; similar, but bezel contains, under glass, a tree executed. in hair 
on ivory ; round the hoop, on white enamel : JANE LEPLA OB. 22 JAN. 1768. 
XE. 17. 

Plate XXII. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 48 grains. 

1581. ANOTHER ; bezel set with a piece of ivory under glass, on which clouds 
and distant hill? are sketched in blue, while in the foreground are two trees 
done in hair; inscription on white enamel: JOHN BLAI KIE OBT 20 MAR 
1770. /E. 6. 

I). 78 in. Weight, 36 grains. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 227 

1582. ANOTHER ; oval bezel containing an urn overshadowed by a cypress-tree 
done in hair in the same manner; round the hoop, on black enamel: MARY . 
RAWLINGS 'OB DEC. 1774. /E. 70. 

D. of hoop, '82 in. L. of bezel, '53 in. Weight, 49 grains. 

t 

1583. GOLD ; the bezel is in the form of an urn enamelled white and set with 
garnets ; the hoop, pierced with loops at the shoulders, is inscribed on white 
enamel : CEO : JOLLAND OB. 17 AVG. 1773. /E. 29. 

Plate XXII. 

I). -87 in. Weight, 46 grains. 

1584. GOLD; oval bezel with monogram JL in gold letters on white ground 
beneath glass; round the hoop, on black enamel, the inscription : J os LA 
CROIX MORT LE 4 OCTOBRE 1771 AGEE 40. 

I). '78 in. Weight, 36 grains. 

1585. GOLD; slender hoop; oval bc/.el containing a monogram EZ in gold on 
plaited hair beneath glass, surrounded by inscription reserved upon a ground of 
white enamel : ELIZ ZACHAW OB. 11. SEP. 1775. XET. 'JO. Engraved on the 
back of bezel : Her ivortk / knew her loss deplore. 

I), of hoop, '/ in. L. of bezel, '62 in. Weight, 56 grains. 

1586. GOLD; slender hoop ; oval be/.cl with an urn surmounted by an carl's coronet, 
within a wreath, all executed in hair on a ground of white porcelain or enamel. 
At the back of the bezel is plaited hair under glass, and round this is engraved 
the legend : John Earl of Stratlunore Ob 1 7 March ijj6 . let. 38. 

Plate XXII. 

I). '86 in. L. of bezel, '76 in. Weight, 53 grains. 
John Lyon, ninth Earl. 

1587. GOLD ; oval bezel containing a monogram SB in hair upon white enamel ; 
round the hoop, which has milled borders, a band of black enamel with in- 
scription : SARAH -BALLINGER OB. 23 APR. 1777. /E. 78. 

D. of hoop, '82 in. L. of bezel, "49 in. Weight, 63 grains. 

1588. ANOTHER ; in the bezel a nicolo engraved in intaglio with a head ; round 
the hoop on ground of white enamel the inscription: SARAH JERVIS OB: 25 
JULY 1777 /ET. 23. 

D. of hoop, '9 in. L. of bezel, '62 in. Weight, 60 grains. 

1589. GOLD ; oval bezel containing monogram M M in white letters on plaited 
hair beneath glass; round the hoop inscription on white enamel; MARG T 
MEAD OB. 10 OCT. 1778 / 15. 



D. of hoop, '88 in. L. of bezel, '56 in. Weight, 86 grains. 






228 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1590. ANOTHER ; similar ; in the bezel, on a white ground, a monogram J J, partly 
executed in hair, surrounded by a wreath, all beneath glass ; round the hoop on 
white enamel the inscription: JOHN JACKSON OB 11 FEB. 1778 fE. 27. 

Plate XXII. 

D. of hoop, -9 in. L. of bezel, '59 in. Weight, 55 grairfs. 

1591. ANOTHER ; similar ; in the oval bezel a tree in hair on a white ground ; 
round the hoop, on white enamel, inscription : EDITH WARRINGTO OB. 20 DEC. 
1779 K.. 20. 

1). of hoop, '92 in. L. of bezel, '60 in. Weight, 76 grains. 

1592. GOLD ; the oval bezel, with border of garnets, contains an angel leaning 
on an urn, surmounted by a cypress bough painted in outline on white enamel 
and reinforced by hair ; round the hoop, on black enamel, the inscription : 
ANN BESWICK OB. 17 MARCH 1780 fE. 55 ; on each shoulder an applied trefoil. 

Plate XXII. 

1). of hoop, -81 in. L. of bezel, '63 in. Weight, 70 grains. 
.Much of the enamel lost. 

I 593- GOLD ; the oval bezel contains a figure of Hope painted in outline on white 
enamel, and reinforced with hair- work ; round the hoop, on a ground of white 
enamel, inscription : JOHN BADCOCK D 23. JULY 1781 AC. 34. 
D. of hoop, '82 in. L. of bezel, -54 in. Weight, 67 grains. 

1594. GOLD ; marquise bezel containing an urn and landscape painted on a white 
ground and reinforced with hair, the whole under glass ; the border has a band of 
black enamel on which is reserved the inscription: ELIZ. SEYMIR. OB. 24 
SEP. 1782. XE. 74. Round the hoop, inscription on black enamel: RICH 
SEYMIR -OB ' 1 DEC -1781 -/E" 79. 
Plate XXII. 

1). of hoop, 73 in. L. of bezel, '93 in. Weight, 86 grains. 
For marquise rings cf. nos. 1644, 2163-4. 

!595- GOLD ; bezel a long oval set with lapis lazuli ; round the hoop, inscription 
on white enamel : R RICHARDSON ARM : OB 24 MAY 1782 /E 28. 
D. of hoop, 76 in. L. of bezel, '88 in. Weight, 75 grains. 

1596. GOLD ; marquise bezel containing an urn on a pedestal, with letters ^ G 

painted upon a white ground ; over it is a weeping willow executed in hair, and 
the inscription : I N MEMORY OF A DEAR FATHER. Round the hoop, reserved 
on a ground of black enamel, is the inscription : JOHN HIGGS OB. 12 MAY 1782 
/E53. 

D. of hoop, 72 in. L. of bezel, '69 in. Weight, 60 grains. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RIN(iS 229 

1597. GOLD ; the hoop has four panels inscribed in letters reserved upon a ground 
of white enamel: CAE HORNSBY OB : "24- MAR : 1736 / : '27. 

I), of hoop, 79 in. Weight, 46 grains. 

In this and the forty following numbers the hoop is shaped into panels, inostJyin the form 
of scrolls, on which the inscriptions are reserved upon a ground of black or white enamel. 

1598. Goi.l); the hoop forms a scries of five panels separated by C-shapcd scrolls 
back to back ; inscription on black enamel: ELIZ. OSBORNE OB 19 MAY 1737 
/E: 71; bifurcating shoulders, each with an applied flower; oval bezel, reeded 
beneath, and set with a crystal paste covering a death's-head. 

1). of hoop, '82 in. L. of bezel, "28 in. Weight, 37 grains. (Hateman Coll.) 

!599- ANOTHER; of the same design, but circular be/el containing a pearl fixed 
with a pin; inscription on white enamel: JOHN JORDAN OB. 20 APR : 
1742 /ET. 16. 

I). '89 in. Weight, 53 grains. 

1600. GOLD ; the hoop is divided into five panels; inscription: ANNA HEPBURN 
OB T 3 AUG 1712 /ET. 17. Square box-bezel, reeded beneath, set with a crystal 
paste. 

D. of hoop, 74 in. L. of bezel, -26 in. Weight, 32 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
The enamel all lost. 

1601. GOLD ; the bezel is a circular box-setting reeded on the under sides, and 

containing hair beneath a crystal paste ; the hoop forms four scrolled panels 

connected by small ovals ; inscription on black enamel : 

WINIFRED FRANKS OB. 20 JAN. 1747 fE. 58. 

Sec figure. 

I). 79 in. Weight, 49 grains. 

1602. SlLVKR ; the hoop forms live panels separated by ribs, with inscription : 
ME^EN TO MO Rl, in relief. On each shoulder is a square setting, one now 
empty, the other containing a crystal paste. Rectangular box-bezel containing 
hair beneath a crystal paste. 

]). -83 in. 

1603. GOLD; similar; the hoop with inscription on black enamel: J. FARRER 
OB. 14 JUL. 1735 /E 80. The shoulders bifurcate, and each is set with a diamond ; 
the bezel is a rectangular setting, reeded beneath, and containing a table-cut 
sapphire. 

Plate XXI. 

D. of hoop, 75 in. L. of bezel, -24. in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1604. ANOTHER ; similar hoop with two diamonds on shoulders flanking an oval 
bezel set with a diamond. Inscription on white enamel : J. W hittington t ob. 
21 Nov. 1743. Al. 50. 

D. 75 in. Weight, 53 grains. 




230 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1605. ANOTHER; similar hoop; bezel is a square setting, reeded beneath, and 
containing a monogram in gold thread under a crystal paste ; the shoulders 
are ornamented with two diamonds in rectangular settings. Inscription : 
ROGER FRANKS OB. 3 MAY 1752 /E. .50. 

D. 73 in. Weight, 41 grains. 

1606. GOLD ; hoop of four continuous scrolls with inscription upon black enamel: 
GEORGE BUCHANAN OBT IUNE 10. 1731; shoulders pierced. Bezel reeded 
beneath, and containing a representation of a skull upon hair under a crystal 
paste. 

1). '86 in. Weight, 57 grains. 

1607. GOLD ; hoop of four scrolled panels separated by small C-shaped scrolls in 
pairs; inscription on black enamel: JOHN STOOKE OB. 5 JUNE. 1731. /E 23. 
Oval bezel, reeded at the back, containing a faceted crystal. 

D. "85 in. Weight. 66 grains. 

1608. ANOTHER; hoop of five scrolls with inscription on black enamel: CHA: 
PEEL OB: 1 OCT: 173C XET. 35 ; in the inside is engraved : Ric* Peel ob. 8 May 
1722 xt. 48 ; on each shoulder is a diamond in a raised setting ; hexagonal bezel, 
reeded at back, set with a crystal paste covering a death's-head in enamel (?) on 
a ground of plaited hair. 

1). of hoop, 78 in. L. of be/el, '3 in. Weight, 47 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1609. ANOTHER ; hoop of four scroll-shaped panels separated by pairs of C-shapcd 
scrolls back to back ; inscription on white enamel : ROG : LAMING OB 26 JAN 
173| XET. 17; rectangular bezel with reeded back, set with a crystal paste 
covering a death's-head on a ground of hair. 

D. of hoop, '88 in. L. of bezel, '25 in. Weight, 74 grains. (Frere Coll.) 

1610. GOLD ; hoop made of four shaped scrolls inscribed on black enamel : ELI Z : 
PRICE: OB: 29 MAR 1739 /E. 49; hexagonal bezel with reeded back, set 
with a crystal paste covering a skull over hair. 

D. of hoop, '83 in. L. of bezel, '34 in. Weight, 66 grains. 

1611. GOLD ; the hoop of five scroll-shaped panels, separated by pairs of small 
C-scrolls back to back, and having reserved in the metal on a ground of white 
enamel a crown, skull and cross-bones, pick and spade, coffin and inscription : 

MEMENTO ^. 

. Ihe bezel is a hexagonal setting, reeded at the back, containing 



a crystal paste covering a death's-head on silver foil. In the interior of the hoop 
is engraved : E. V. ob f 25 Dan !"])() xt 56. 
English,. 

D. of hoop, 78 in. L. of bezel, '32 in. Weight, 60 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
For the designs on the hoop cf. nos. 1529 ff. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 231 

1612. ANOTHER ; similar; hexagonal bezel, with a skull visible beneath a crystal 
paste ; hoop of five scrolls with crown, skull and cross-bones, coffin, crossed pick 
and spade, and hour-glass with wings on white enamel ; in the inside the in- 
scription : 5. Buller ob* 21 Octb 1748 net. 77. 
I). -84 in. Weight, 61 grains. 

1613. ANOTHER; hoop of six scrolls on which are a skull, cross-bones, and other 
symbols on black enamel. Rectangular bezel reeded at back and set with 
a crystal under which is visible a white skull. In the inside of the hoop the 
inscription : A tin Earlc ob 2J July ijjo xt 65. Goldsmith's stamp G. T. 

IJ. '94 in. Weight, 46 grains. 

1614. ANOTHER; hoop of six scrolls with inscription on black enamel: HEN: 
WISE ALD : OB : 9 AP : 1T41 /ET. 7G ; octagonal bezel, with reeded back, set 
with a sapphire. In the interior is engraved : M. Heyisood oh: 18 Jnl : 

xt 66. 

Plate XXI. 
I), of hoop, '89 in. Weight, 83 grains. 

1615. ANOTHER; hoop of five scrolls, with inscription: C. MARGRAVE OB. 2 SEP 
1742 K. 3, on white enamel ; hexagonal bezel set with a crystal. 

IX '94 in. Weight, 69 grains. 

1616. ANOTHER; similar; the scrolls of the hoop separated by small open-work 
C-scrolls; inscription on white enamel: CATH : TAYLOR 'OB. 24 JAN 1712 
.. 17 ; hexagonal bezel set with a paste. 

IJ. of hoop, '81 in. Weight, 61 grains. 

1617. GOLD ; the hoop of five scrolls separated as before, and inscribed on enamel : 
E LIZ. ADAMS OB. 21 JAN 1741 /E. 33. Rectangular box-bezel, with reeded 
back, set with a table-cut paste covering 1 hair ; on each side of it a diamond in 
a silver setting. 

D. of hoop, 75 in. L. of bezel, "22 in. Weight, 54 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1618. Gou>; hoop of five scroll-shaped panels inscribed on black enamel: ROB. 
HEARD OB. JUNE 5. 1743. /E. 30. The bezel is a coffin-shaped setting 
reeded on the under sides, and containing a skeleton beneath a crystal paste. 

Plate XXII. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 74 grains. 

1619. GOLD ; hoop formed of six crescent-shaped scrolls with inscription on 
white enamel: NICH WESCOMB ESQ. OB 27 DEC. 1744 /E. 65. Goldsmith's 
mark I. C. 

D. 76 in. Weight, 77 grains. 



232 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1620. GOLD ; hexagonal bezel reecled beneath, and containing a skull within 
a border of gold thread, all beneath a glass paste. Hoop of five scrolls of black 
enamel with inscription: ELIZ. PARSONS OB. 18 SEP. 1752 /E. 59. 

I). '87 in. Weight, 63 grains. 

1621. GOLD ; square be/el containing hair beneath a crystal paste ; hoop of five 
scrolls with inscription on white enamel : Sar. Peckstoii. ub. if Dec. ijtf. ^K. 24. 

1). 78 in. Weight, 47 grains. 

1622. GOLD ; hoop of six crescent-shaped scrolls with inscription on white enamel: 
F.liz: Peckston ' <>/>. 21) Jan. 77/7 ' sl : .. 16. Goldsmith's mark B (?) A. 

I). '91 in. Weight. 6y grains. 

1623. ANOTHER ; similar ; hoop of five scrolls with inscription on white enamel : 
MARY LEICHTON OB. 15 FEB. 1751. IE. (55. 

I). -fc'4 in. Weight, 60 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1624. GOLD; hexagonal bezel, reeded on the sides, and containing a skull under 
a crystal paste ; hoop of five scrolls with inscription on black enamel : SARAH 
RUDDELL OB. 2 MAY 1755 /E. 82. 

I). 71 in. Weight, 45 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1625. ANOTHER ; square bc/cl with skull and cross-bones beneath a paste ; hoop 
of six scrolls with skull, crown, winged hour-glass, crossed spade and pick, &c. ; 
in the inside the inscription : E. Godard ub. 2 June ij}$ xt. c)i. 

I). (-) in. Weight, 76 grains. From IJildeston, Suffolk. 

1626. GOLD: hoop of five scrolls with inscription on white enamel: FRANCIS' 
JEN KIN DD :5() MAY 1757. /E. 32. 

I). '82 in. Weight, 60 grains. 

1627. ANOTHER; similar; inscription on black enamel: CATH. HEYDON OB. 
5 DEC. 1758 /E. 59. Goldsmith's mark C H. 

1). "82 in. Weight, 67 grains. 

1628. ANOTHER; similar hoop of four scrolls inscribed on white enamel: JOHN 
THORNHILL ESQ., OB 23 SEP 1757 /E. 57 ; bifurcating shoulders with open- 
work leaves ; flat oval bezel 

enamelled in pale blue and 
white ; in the centre a grid- 
iron reserved on blue, round 
it legend: BEEF AND 
LIBERTY. 
See figure. 

D. of hoop, '81 in. L. of bezel, 
5 in. Weight, 95 grains. 





MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 233 

1629. GOLD ; pointed oval bezel, with a. ring of eight silver settings, each con- 
taining a diamond, enclosing a larger central setting, also with a diamond. 
Hoop of three scrolls with inscription on white enamel: A- MARCARITTA 
ALLOTT-OB-1-NOV. 1758 /E. 31. 

I). '85 in. Weight, 55 grains. 

1630. GOLD; square bezel reeded on two lower sides, and containing a skull 
beneath a crystal; on the shoulders are pearls in square settings. Hoop of 
four scrolls with inscription in black enamel: GERTRUDE BRYER OB. !) DEC. 
1759 /E. 39. 

I). -81 in. Weight, 55 grains. (Frere Coll.). 

1631. ANOTHER; similar; the bezel has an amethyst flanked by two diamonds : 
hoop of four scrolls with inscription on black enamel: RICH FRANKE-OB- 
9 NOV. 1763. /E. 57. 

I). 78 in. Weight, 43 grains. 

1632. GOLD; the hoop of five scrolls inscribed on white enamel: DOR V FITZJOHN 
OB. 12 SEPT. 176-1 /E. 56. Goldsmith's mark J K. 

1). 'gi in. Weight, 84 grains. 

1633. GOLD ; bezel reeded on sides, and containing hair beneath a crystal ; on 
each shoulder is a square setting with a smaller crystal. Hoop of four scrolls 
with inscription on black enamel : ELIZ : WILD. OB. 7. FEB. 1766. fE. 65. 

D. -88 in. Weight, 78 grains. 

1634. GOLD ; hexagonal bezel with a skull and cross-bones in white under crystal ; 
hoop of five scrolls, and shoulders pierced with scrollwork on which are 
settings containing diamonds ; on the hoop, skull, winged hour-glass, pick and 
spade crossed, coffin (?), and crown. In the interior the inscription : J'-. />'. ob. 
15 Aug. ijji. sfc 4 Mo. 

D. 7 in. Weight, 55 grains. 

1635. GOLD ; the bezel contains an almandine, and is reeded at the back ; the 
shoulders are in open-work, each with an applied trefoil ; hoop of four panels 
with wavy edges, having on white enamel the inscription: Samuel Lester ob. 
28 Oct. 1746 sE. 20. 

D. '85 in. Weight, 55 grains. 

1636. GOLD; bezel, open-work in the form of an urn with flowers, set with six 
diamonds; hoop of five scrolls with inscription on white enamel : S. J. OB. 27 
JULY, 1752. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 46 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 



234 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1637. GOLD ; rectangular bezel set with an emerald ; on each shoulder a diamond 
in a silver setting ; wavy hoop with inscription on white enamel : THO WARD. 
OB. 2 AVG. 1762. /ET. 44. 

I). '84 in. Weight. 43 grains. 

1638. GOLD ; bezel containing an almandine ; on each shoulder a diamond in 
a square setting. Hoop wavy, with inscription on white enamel: THO S 
MARTIN OB: 19. SEP. 1703. /E. 27. In the inside is engraved: lohn Martin 
ol>. 2} July T/fi-4- xt. 2). 

I). '82 in. Weight, 41 Bruins. 

1639. GOLD ; octagonal be/.el reeded on the under sides, and containing an apple- 
green stone ; the shoulders are pierced with trefoils ; wavy hoop with inscription 
on black enamel: MAGDALEN BENEFO OB. 7 DEC. 1702. fc. 38. 

I). '84 in. Weight, 54 grains. 

1640. Goi.D; wavy hoop with inscription reserved in the metal for enamel: THE' 
FATE OF LOVE. 10 FEB. 1078. 

I). '87 in. Weight, 63 grains. 

The hoop is much bent ami all the enamel is lost. 

1641. GOLD: the hoop represents two interlacing bands, one enamelled in black, 
the other in white. The former has an inscription : ROBT WEBB. OB. 19. NOV. 
1772. /E. 55; the latter: SARAH WEBB OB. 11 DEC. 1704 /E 44. 

I). - 8l in. Weight, 58 grains. 

1642. ANOTHER ; similar, but with both bands black ; inscriptions : Sam 1 
Warren ob. 20 Dec. 1762 ac. 79. Ann Warren <>/>. /j Aug. ijj6 ac. 72. 

Plate XXII. 

1). 79 in. Weight, 51 grains. 

1643. ANOTHER ; of similar design, but with an octagonal bezel, reeded at the 
back, containing brown hair beneath a crystal ; open-work shoulders with 
applied trefoils. The bands of the hoop are white and black ; on the former is 
the inscription: ROB STI RLI NG OB 18 NO V 1703 /ET. 48 ; on the latter 
SARAH MORRIS -+M + D. 24 OCTOBER. 1703. 

1). '8 1 in. Weight, 6 1 grains. 

The mourning-rings of the last quarter of the eighteenth century usually 
have large bezels, oval, octagonal, or the pointed-oval shape known as the 
marquise form. The inscriptions are usually either round the bezel or engraved 
in the interior, the exterior of the hoop being plain. 

1644. GOLD ; marquise bezel containing a plaque of white porcelain or glass 
on which is painted a cupid holding a heart, flying over a tomb surmounted by 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 235 

three hearts, with cypress houghs at the sides ; parts are executed in hair ; 
above is the inscription: ONE WELL CHOSEN. Hoop of five scrolls with 
inscription on black enamel: ANN JACK SON OB 1C FEB. 1787. /E. '27. On 
the back of the be/el is engraved : Wife of Jabcz Jackson. 

Plate XXII. 

1). of hoop, '89 in. L. of bezel, "92 in. Weight, 83 grains. 

1645. GOLD ; oval bezel, reeded beneath, containing a tree formed of hair upon 
a white ground, and surrounded by a border of amethysts, all beneath crystal ; 
plain slender hoop. 

D. of hoop, '85 in. L. of bezel. -58 in. \Veight, 47 grains. 

1646. GOLD; slender channelled hoop; oval bezel containing plaited hair covered 
with a convex glass; border of seed pearls alternating with emerald pastes. 

D. of hoop, '82 in. L. of bezel, '56 in. Weight, 35 grains. 

1647. GOLD; slender plain hoop and oval bezel containing an urn cut in cameo 
on onyx of two strata and surrounded with inscription reserved on a ground of 
black enamel: MARY LOOPS OB. 15. DEC. 177.5 IE. 59. 

Plate XXII. 

D. of hoop, '73 in. L. (if bezel, 72 in. Weight, 88 grains. 

1648. ANOTHER ; similar type ; oval bezel containing a white plaque painted in 
grisaille with a female figure seated by an urn on a pedestal inscribed with 
letters I M, beneath glass, and surrounded by a border of black enamel with 
inscription : JOHN'MARSH'OB-1-JAN- 17S4 XE. :58. 

D. of hoop, '84 in. L. of bezel, '86 in. Weight, 71 grains. 

1649. GOLD; octagonal bezel containing under glass an urn in gold and white 
enamel inscribed SB, upon plaited hair; border of blue and white enamel 
with inscription on the white : NOT LOST BUT GONE BEFORE. At the 
back of the bezel the inscription : Sarali Bourne, died 16 Oct. ij8j A^ d 9 y r * 
3 1110*. 

D. of hoop, '9 in. L. of bezel, l '07 in. Weight, 134 grains. 

1650. GOLD ; marquise bezel containing a crystal with a white urn cut in the 
back ; beneath it plaited hair. On each shoulder of the hoop is engraved 
a rose ; inside the bezel, inscription : M. !'. B. ob. 28 July ij8j xt. 22. 

U. of hoop, 71 in. L. of bezel, r29 in. Weight, 117 grains. 

1651. ANOTHER; hoop engraved on shoulders; marquise bezel containing an 
enamelled urn in high relief on a white ground inscribed : IN MEMORY OF 
A FR I E N D, all beneath a convex glass ; border of black enamel with inscription : 

HANDLEY ESQj OB: 11 "MAR : 1788 : /E : 09. 
Plate XXII. 
U. of hoop, -95 in. L. of bezel, 1-28 in. Weight, 140 grains. 



236 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1652. GOLD ; hoop slender at the back and broadening at the shoulders, where it 
is engraved ; marquise bezel containing under glass a representation of a lady 
mourning by an urn and an angel hovering over her, painted in grey and partly 
executed in hair. On the back is engraved : Mary Arlett Oct. 22* Ang 1 178$ 

xt. 84. 

IX of hoop, -91 in. L. of bezel, ro3 in. Weight, 76 grains. 

1653. GOLD; plain slender hoop; marquise bezel containing a white plaque 
painted in grey with an urn upon a plinth inscribed: SACRKD TO FRIENDSHIP; 
above it droops a tree of which the foliage is formed by human hair ; all under 
glass. Round the plaque is a double border of blue and white enamel, the white 
band having the inscription : MATTHEW HlLTOX OH. 31 JAN. 1790 /KT '27. 

IX i '26 in. L. of bezel, rz6 in. Weight, 106 grains. 

1654. GOLD ; marquise bc/.el studded round the border with garnets in settings 
over bands of blue and white enamel, and containing a figure of Britannia (?) 
sitting on the stern of a vessel on which is the name FORMIDABLE, and 
wreathing the picture of an admiral ; at her feet a lion couchant guardant with 
his paw on dead dove. 

Plate XXII. 

D. of hoop, '83 in. L. of bezel, I'zS in. Weight, 95 grains. 

1655. GOLD; marquise bezel containing a vase of flowers in various coloured gold 
on field of black enamel ; plain slender hoop. 

D. of hoop, '85 in. L. of bezel, T25 in. Weight, 95 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1656. GOLD; plain slender hoop; marquise bezel containing hair, upon which is 
the letter S in gold, all beneath glass. 

IX of hoop, 73 in. L. of bezel, roy in. Weight, 65 grains. 

1657. GOLD ; slender hoop ; marquise bezel, with pearled border, containing the 
letters V. S. in gold upon a circular white field. The protecting glass is clear 
over this medallion, but the rest of its surface is at the back coloured pale 
blue, ornamented with gold stars and pellets. 

About 1790. 

IX of hoop, 72 in. L. of bezel, ro2 in. Weight, 67 grains. 

1658. GOLD ; oval bezel containing an urn in cameo on onyx. At the back is 
engraved: MARY JEMIMA CORYTON OB. 8 JAN. 1779 ft. 29. 

IX of hoop, 78 in. L. of bezel, -58 in. Weight, 38 grains. . 

1659. GOLD ; large oval bezel containing the monogram W C in gold over plaited 
hair, all beneath glass; on the back of the bezel: Will M Gordon ob. 18 Ap l 
ij88 &. jo. 

IX of hoop, 77 in. L. of bezel, ro6 in. Weight, 95 grains. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 237 

1660. ANOTHER ; similar type ; bezel containing on a white ground an urn on 
a pedestal in gold enamelled in blue and white, the pedestal bearing the mono- 
gram M R ; black enamelled border with gold pellets, all beneath glass. At the 
back of bezel is the inscription : Mary Ricard, ob. 18 Feb. 1789 act. 58. 
D. of hoop, '8 in. L. of bezel, 132 in. Weight, 124 grains. 

1661. GOLD; marquise bezel containing the monogram MA in gold on plaited 
hair beneath glass, surrounded by inscription reserved upon a ground of black 
enamel: MARY ALLISON OB. 10. OCT. 170:5 XE. 53. The shoulders engraved 
with floral ornament. 

D. of hoop, 78 in. L. of bezel, I in. Weight, 75 grains. 

1662. GOLD ; plain hoop widening at the shoulders ; oval bezel, covered by glass, 
containing a porcelain or glass plaque painted with an urn on a pedestal 
inscribed: H- COOMBS OB. NOV. 24 1705, XE. -M), and overshadowed by 
drooping boughs. Part of the work appears to be executed in brown hair, which 
also forms a broad band below the urn. On the back of the bezel is engraved: 
Ab m Wickham Ob 1 12 May 1795 xt. jj. 

D. of hoop, '82 in. L. of bezel. '98 in. Weight, 83 grains. 

1663. GOLD ; hoop expanding at shoulders ; circular bezel with convex surface, 
containing, under glass, an eye painted in natural colours, surrounded by a 
border of blue and white enamel ; at the back of the bezel an engraved inscrip- 
tion : Mary Dean Ob* 2j Aug* 1794 sEt. jj. 

D. of hoop, 77 in. L. of bezel, -82 in. Weight, 58 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1664. ANOTHER, of the same form, containing in gold on blue enamel the mono- 
gram T F beneath glass, surrounded by bands of dark blue and white enamel. 
At the back is engraved : 77ios. Fleet ob. 14 Mar. 1796. xt. 67. 

D. of hoop, '87 in. I), of bezel, 78 in. Weight, 78 grains. 

1665. ANOTHER ; similar ; the bezel containing plaited hair beneath glass, sur- 
rounded by inscription reserved on a ground of black enamel with a border of 
white : Will" 1 Tucker ob. // Dec. 7797 sE. 64. 

Plate XXII. 

D. of hoop, '85 in. D. of bezel, 78 in. Weight, 93 grains. 

1666. ANOTHER ; similar ; bezel containing, under glass, the monogram J T in 
gold letters on ground of dark blue enamel, surrounded by a band of plaited 
hair; at back of bezel, inscription : James Tyson ob. n Dec. 779$ xt. 2). 

D. of hoop, -83 in. D. of bezel, '83 in. Weight, 93 grains. 

1667. GOLD ; oblong bezel containing hair beneath a crystal within a border of 
garnets ; hoop of black enamel barred with gold, with chased borders of floral 
scrolls ; inscription engraved on back of bezel : Gco. Prentis Ob 1 26 Aug. 

xt. 61. 

D. 76 in. Weight, 70 grains. 



238 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1668. GOLD ; octagonal and revolving bezel, with an urn on pedestal in white 
enamel, engraved with gold letters M W,and a gold cypress-tree, all on a ground 
of black enamel ; at the back of bezel beneath glass arc plaited hair and the 
letters M W in gold, and engraved round the border the inscription : Mary 

W aighl Ob' 20 March i8n AL 6$ ; the hoop is formed of three wires united 
at the back, but diverging at the shoulders. 

Plate XXII. 

I), of hoop, -96 in. L. of be/el, '55 in. Weight, 82 grains. 

1669. ANOTHER ; similar ; swivel bezel, on one side of which in gold on ground of 
black enamel is. an urn under a cypress, surrounded by the inscription : Remem- 
ber yon had once a son Gerald; the other side is hollow, its contents being lost. 
Hoop is channelled at the back and expanding at the shoulders, where it is 
pierced. 

1). of hoop, '84 in. L. of bezel, '65 in. Weight, 77 grains. 

1670. GOLD ; bezel a viscount's coronet opening on a hinge and showing plaited 
hair beneath glass ; hoop ornamented with a band of black enamel, and en- 
graved in the interior : Tims. L d Vis* 1 Hainpdcn ob 20 Aug. 1824, xt. j8. 

I). '85 in. Weight, 50 grains. 

Thomas Hampden-Trevor, second Viscount. 

1671. GOLD ; the bezel is an oval locket setting, now empty, ornamented on the 
lid with an enamelled left eye. The hoop has a formal floral design reserved 
on a ground of black enamel ; it is hollow, and has six oval openings in the 
inner side. 

Early iqth century. 

I). 1-02 in. Weight, 53 grains. 

The hoop formerly contained hair. 

1672. GOLD ; slender hoop on which revolves a bezel in form of a skull with 
eyes of red enamel ; at the base of the skull is engraved the letter M. 

1 gt/i century. 

1). -92 in. Weight, 54 grains. 

(d) Foreign, mourning-rings. 

1673. GOLD ; the hoop rounded on the outer side and swelling to a pyramidal 
bezel cut as a quatrefoil and set with a piece of jasper, round 

which is engraved a border of flames ; at the back of the 
hoop are engraved tears and a star ; towards each shoulder 
a tree. 

See figure. -French (?). i6t/i century. 

D. -81 in. Weight, 53 grains. 




MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 239 

1674. GOLD ; the bezel a raised setting containing an almandine garnet ; on the 
shoulders, tears in relief. 

See figure. French, \6tli century. 
D. '67 in. Weight, 39 grains. 

1675. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop is ornamented with transverse bands of 
plaited hair ; the shoulders expand into a lozenge-shaped bezel ornamented with 
applique scrolls and having an oval setting in which is an eye partly executed in 
hair, under glass. At the back of the be/.el arc engraved the letters M. J. sur- 
mounted by a royal crown. 

Swedish. 

D. '99 in. Weight, 79 grains. 

III. Official rings. 

(a) Rings of serjeants-at-law. 

These rings were presented by serjcants to various important personages 
and to friends on the occasion of their call to office. Each new serjeant, or 
group of serjeants, chose a motto, which was engraved on the exterior of the 
ring. (Sec also Introduction.) 

1676. NARROW FLAT HOOP; legend: tlitiat I'C.l' Ct lc,L' : cinquefoils and a star 
between the words. 

Plate XXIII, ruiu i. i~ t th century. 
D. - 66 in. Weight, 14 grains. 1856. 

1677. FLAT HOOr, with engraved borders; legend: VIVAT Re// T LX : with 
cinquefoils and stars between the words. 

Plate XXIII, row 5. i6th century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 61 grains. 

The joint of the hoop comes where the X of the second word should have been. For 
another example of the same century cf. Catalogue of Antiquities mid Works of Art exhibited 
at Ironmongers' 1 Hall, London, \ 869, vol. ii, p. 486. 

1678. FLAT HOOP, with engraved borders ; legend: LEGIS + EXECVCO REGIS 
PSERVACIO, with cinquefoils after the second and third words and a quatrcfoil 
at the end. 

Plate XXIII, rou< 5. l6t/i century. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 53 grains. 

1679. ANOTHER; similar; legend: LEGlS EXECVO RE(?IC PSERVA ; cinquefoils 
and a cross between the words. 

Plate XXIII, roiv 5. if>t/i century. 

D. -88 in. Weight, 32 grains. Given by R. Burch, Esq., 1879. Found at Tutbury, 
Staffordshire, in the gravel of the river Dove, at a spot where coins had been discovered 
(Archaeologia , xxiv, pp. 148!?.). 



240 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1680. ANOTHER, with raised borders: legend: LEX + REGIS + PR/ESIDI VM * 

\ftth century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 98 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

This motto was chosen by Edward Fenner in 1577 (E. Foss, Judges of England, 
vol. v, p. 414, notes 2 and 3). A ring with the same motto was exhibited by Mr. (afterwards 
Sir John) Evans at the Loan Exhibition of Ancient and Modern Jewellery, South Kensington, 
1872 (Catalogue, no. 853). 

1681. Hooi> WITH RAISED BORDERS ; legend : Bonus Foclixque tiiis. Goldsmith's 
stamp (UU. C. 

i 8/// century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 45 grains. 1753. (Sloane Coll.) 

Described in the Sloane M.S. Catalogue as : ' Serg* Baines' ring given me by him when 
he was made Serg* at law.' Mr. John Baines was called in 1724 (E. Foss, The Judges of 
England, vol. viii, p. 11). 

1682. ANOTHER ; similar ; legend : Impcrio regit nmis aequo. Maker's stamp E. P. 

D. '85 in. Weight, 48 grains. 1910. 

Motto of Serjeant N. Grose, 1774. Cf. Arch. Journal, xv, 1858, p. 161. 

1683. ANOTHER ; legend : Mas ct lex. Same maker's stamp. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 44 grains. 1910. 

This motto was common to Serjeants De Grey (1771), Eyre, Hill, Kempe, Walker, 
Vaughan (all 1772), Dallas (1813), and Taddy (1813). See Foss, as above, vol. viii, p. 216. 

1684. ANOTHER; Tit pace juvare M or talcs \ same stamp. 
Late i8/// century. 

I). '86 in. Weight, 44 grains. 1910. 

1685. ANOTHER ; Gcnitnm sc credere Mundo. Stamp as before. 
Late ifttli century. 

D. "82 in. Weight, 44 grains. 

1686. ANOTHER ; borders lower ; legend : Rcvercntia Legum. Stamps : sovereign's 
head and lion passant, with goldsmith's mark R D. 

Late \KtJi century. 
D. 76 in. Weight, 44 grains. 

The sovereign upon the stamp is George III. The same motto was used later by 
W. Payne, coroner of the City of London, 1858. 

1687. BROAD HOOP, with borders of raised bands. Legend : Justitiae tenax. 
Stamps : sovereign's head (George IV), lion, date-letter N, and maker's mark 
W P. 

D. 78 in. Weight, 98 grains. 

The date-letter is the London letter for 1828, and the ring is that of James Parke, after- 
wards Lord Wensleydale, a baron of the Court of Exchequer. 

1688. NARROWER HOOP ; raised rims. Legend : Paribits legibus. Stamps : 
sovereign's head (Victoria), lion, leopard's head, and date-letter (0. 
D. "83 in. Weight, 40 grains. 

The motto is that of Sir Frederick Pollock, Lord Chief Baron of the Court of the 
Exchequer. The date-letter is that of London for 1842. 



MEMORIAL AND OFFICIAL RINGS 



241 



1689. BROAD HOOP; similar to no. 1680. Legend: Leges sine Moribus Vanae. 
Stamps : leopard's head, carat number 22, crown, date-letter f, and goldsmith's 
mark T. B. 

Plate XXIII. 

V 

D. '86 in. Weight, 80 grains. 

The motto is that of Sir W. Bovill. The date-letter, London, 1864. 




(I)) Rings of investiture (?}. 

1690. BRONZE ; once gilt ; square bezel set with a flat crystal ; on the shoulders, in 
relief, a fleur-de-lis and a crown ; on the two sides a similar crown. The back 
of the hoop is channelled. 
See figure. i^f/t century. 

D. 1*62 in. L. of bezel, i'o6in. Octavius 
Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

This ring, which has been attributed 
to Robert of Anjou, King of Naples, A. D. 
1309-43, is said to have been found in a 
field near Amiens. The style of the hoop 
recalls the so-called ring of Roger of Sicily 
(Arch.Journ. iii, p. 269). 

Like the following number, it presents 
the same problem as papal rings (nos. 
832 ff.). Being of base metal and very 
cumbrous, such rings can hardly have been 
worn by persons of importance, and the most probable suggestion is that they served as 
credentials or as emblems of investiture. 

A ring in the Bargello (Museo Nazionale), Florence, has an eagle displayed crowned, and 
the lion of St. Mark, each repeated, and the name FEDERICVS. Possibly this may indicate 
a connexion of Federigo II of Aragon and Naples with Venice. A ring of ' papal ' type in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, no. 664-71, has a shield of arms and legend RXRACONA ; 
another example in the same place, no. 663-71, has a shield and R AGON AS. (See also 
Introduction.) 

1691. BRONZE GILT ; square bezel, now empty, pearled round the edges ; one side 
restored. Flat hoop engraved on 
each shoulder with a shield of arms : 
a cross between four cinquefoils, en- 
closed in two branches springing from 
a fleur-de-lis. On each side of the 
bezel is engraved a ducal coronet. 
See figure. Italian, \$th century. 

D. 1-6 in. L. of bezel, '9 in. Octavius 
Morgan Bequest, 1888. 

See note to previous number. 




~>...^w<iuuuumiii 





242 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1692. GILT COPPER ; with enamels on gold ; oval bezel once set with a stone (?) but 
now empty ; massive hoop analogous to the type of papal ring ; on each 
shoulder and below the sides of the bezel are sunk panels 

once all filled with gold plates enriched with cloisonne 
enamel ; of these only one, below the bezel, is in fairly 
good condition, having a conventional floral design ; that 
corresponding to it on the other side is empty, while the 
two panels on the shoulders retain their gold plates, but 
have lost almost all their enamel. The ground appears to 
have been a translucent green. 

See figure. I5//5 century. 

D. i -3 in. Said to be from Corfu. 

This ring is included in the present place on account of its 

general resemblance to rings of investiture ; there is, however, no definite evidence that it was 
used for a like purpose. 

J. FANCY RINGS. 

1693. GOLD ; plain hoop thickening to the bezel, where it is set with a pyramidal 
diamond. 

Plate XXIII. \$th century. 

D. -84 in. Weight, 38 grains. 

Rings of this kind were used for writing on glass. Cf. nos. 1694-7. Tne well-known 
stories of Sir Walter Raleigh and other famous personages writing on windows with diamonds 
are mentioned by Jones, Finger-ring Lore, p. 77. 

As stated in the Introduction, three diamond rings interlaced formed the impresa of Cosmo 
Vecchio de' Medici. 

1694. BRONZE ; plain hoop broadening to the bezel, which is set with a crystal of 
diamond. 

\6th century. 

D. '9 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

Cf. nos. 1693, 1695-7. 

1695. GOLD ; slender flat hoop with applied bezel cut to a quatrefoil and set with 
a crystal of diamond. 

Plate XXIII. i6t/t century. 
D. '92 in. Weight, 28 grains. 
Cf. nos. 1693-4, 1696-7. 

1696. GOLD ; the shoulders with floral designs on a ground of black enamel ; the 
enamel is continued on the sides of the bezel, which has a quatrefoil setting 
with a pyramidal diamond. 

See figure. i6th century. 
D. '82 in. Weight, 60 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

Cf. nos. 1693-5, 1697 ; also a ring in the Londesborough Collection (T. Crofton Croker, 
Catalogue, no. 15). 



FANCY RINGS 243 

1. GOLD ; slender hoop, shoulders and sides of bezel enamelled black, with 
herring-bone and other designs ; square projecting bezel set with a pyramidal 
crystal. 

Plate XXIII. \6th century. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 24 grains. 
Cf. nos. 1693-6. 

\. GOLD ; ring-dial, of a size to be worn upon the finger. It is a flat band, 
having on the outer surface a channel round the middle, in which works by 
means of a projection another ring exactly filling the space. Upon one part of 
the outside are engraved the initial letters of the names of the months, six on one 
side of the channel and six on the other. Upon the moving ring is a small hole, 
flanked by a star, and by a hand with the index and second fingers extended. 
Inside are engraved the numbers of the hours from 4 a.m. to 8 p.m. in two lines, 
the hour of noon beyond them at the point opposite to the ring which suspends 
the dial. On the outside, over the number 12, is fixed a shield of arms : a demi- 
bull rampant ; at the sides of it are the letters H.G.V.B. probably the arms and 
initials of the owner. 

Plate XXIII. German, late \6th century. 

D. i'l in. B. -3 in. Weight, 165 grains. (Zschille Coll.) 

Proc. Soc. Antiquaries of London, xv, p. 82. 

Information upon ring-dials will be found in the article above quoted. When in use, the 
hole in the moving ring is brought level with the month in which the observation is taken, and 
held towards the sun"; the ray passing through it then falls upon the figure of the hour engraved 
on the inner side. It will be remembered that Shakespeare makes Touchstone the possessor 
of such a dial. 

9. BRONZE RING-DIAL, the hoop representing a buckled strap pierced with 
three holes. In the interior are engraved the hours from 4 a.m. to 8 p.m. 
arranged like those of no. 1698 but in Roman numerals ; on the outside are the 
initial letters of the months in two rows, with four other letters, two at the end 
of each row : > M and V . 

Plate XXIII. English, T/t/i century. 

D. -9 in. 

Rings of this type have been described as shepherds' dials. They are diminutive forms 
of the well-known ring-dials, and arc used in the same way. 

1700. GOLD SPHERE RING ; the sphere is formed of an outer hoop in two parts, 
working like a gimmel, and three interior hoops almost concealed when the ring 
is closed. The exterior hoop is chased on the outer side with scrolls on a ground 
once enamelled black, and each part has on the flat surfaces concealed when the 
ring is closed a section of an inscription, enamelled black: VERBO DEI CELI| 
FIRMATI SUNT | DIXIT ET CREATA SUNT IPSE MANDAVIT ET CREATA 
SUNT. The figures 1555, indicating the date, follow the words firmati stint. 

R 2 



244 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

The three interior hoops are plain flat bands engraved and enamelled in black 
with the signs of the zodiac, stars, and other figures. 

Plate XXIII. German, 17^ century. 

D. ro8 in. Weight, 180 grains. 

An armillary ring inscribed with an English quatrain is mentioned in Notes and Queries, 
3rd Series, vol. iv (1863), p. 156. 

1701. ANOTHER ; with four hoops, unengraved. 
Plate XXIII. 
D. 75 in. Weight, 27 grains. 

1702. ANOTHER ; with six plain slender hoops. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 43 grains. 

1703. GOLD DIAL-RING ; the shoulders and sides of the bezel chased with scrolls 
enamelled in blue, green, and white ; oval locket bezel, the hinged lid set with a 
ruby surrounded by five crystals ; in the interior is a compass under glass, and 
the surrounding border is engraved with numbers, on one side 1-6, on the other 
6-12. 

Plate XXIII. German, late \btli century. 
D. i in. Weight, 1 18 grains. (Fould Coll.) 

1704. ANOTHER, GOLD: plain hoop with oval locket bezel, the lid set with a 
turquoise. When open it shows a dial, the compass lost, the border engraved 
as before, on the right 1-7, on the left, in the reverse direction, 5 -I1 - 

Plate XXIII. German, i6f/i century. 
D. i'22 in. Weight, 169 grains. 

1705. ANOTHER, of bronze ; round the hoop a niello band ; the shoulders and 
sides of bezel engraved with flowers gilt ; at the back of the bezel is engraved 
llfiS. Oval bezel, the lid now undecorated, but engraved on the interior with a 
sun with human features. The figures on the dial are as in the preceding 
number. The compass is lost. 

Plate XXIII. German, \6th century. 

D. -62 in. 

The shoulders of the hoop damaged. 

1706. ANOTHER, BRONZE ; slender hoop of rectangular section ; oval bezel with a 
deep cavity and hinged lid, set with an onyx cut in cameo with a cherub's head. 

\6tJi century. 
D. 1-34 in. 1850. 

Though nothing is engraved round the cavity, the form is that of a dial-ring ; the work may 
have been never finished. 

1707. ANOTHER, GOLD ; pierced shoulders with scrolls ; oval bezel reeded at the 
back and containing a compass under glass. 

Plate XXIII. English, i8ih century. 
D. '96 in. Weight, 53 grains. 



FANCY RINGS 245 

1708. GOLD ; slender hoop ; the bezel is an oval watch with white dial under glass 
and bordered by pearls; on the back are engraved the letters A R. 

Plate XXIII. \.Wi century. 
D. '96 in. L. of bezel. '9 in. Weight, 175 grains. 

1709. GOLD; TWO FOB-RINGS ; hollow; one has on the hoop and sides of the bezel 
grapes and vine-leaves in relief, and oval bezel clear set with a faceted violet 
topaz ; the other has a watch-key as a bezel. At the backs of the hoops, loops 
for suspension. 

English, late 1 8t/i century. 

D. 1-56 in. and 2 in. Weight, 198 grains and 126 grains. 

Rings of this kind were not actually worn, but suspended with seals on the fob chain. 

1710. GOLD ; ring of two plain hoops moving apart upon a pin. 
iSt/t century. 
D. '8 in. Weight, 58 grains.. 

1711. ANOTHER, opening in the same way ; the interior of each hoop hollow, 
perhaps for the reception of hair. Bezel formed of two oval raised settings side 
by side, containing a garnet and a turquoise. 

1 8t/e century. 

D. i in. Weight, 47 grains. 

1712. GOLD; three rings forming a plain hoop when closed ; all are inscribed. On 
the outer ring: Augustin, Mario, Anno Ton pcut ce qnon vent; middle ring: 
I union fait la force Aligns tine la Maria F J ct Anna L, sails cnfans dc J. 
Atiguste F. Dcspreaux ; lower ring : et de Coelina Rossignol son tresor perdu a 

jamais. 

French, iKt/i century. 
D. '82 in. Weight, 40 grains. 

NOTE. Nos. 1713-26 are puzzle-rings, dating from the seventeenth to 
nineteenth centuries. 

1713. GOLD; three hoops; bezel of three rectangular plaques, each having a rosette 
in relief, between and beyond them pellets. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 123 grains. 

1714. SILVER ; the same design. 
D. '96 in. 

1715. SILVER ; three hoops ; bezel of three engraved squares, and pellets. 
D. -86 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



246 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1716. GOLD ; three hoops ; on the shoulders pierced scrolls enamelled white ; 
almond-shaped bezel with border of rubies, and in the centre a triangular 
setting with a diamond. 

\"lth century. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

1717. GOLD ; three hoops ; white ena- 
melled scrolls similar to those of the 
previous number ; cruciform bezel 
with a central diamond between four 
rubies. 

Plate XXVII, row i, and sec 
figure, ijt/i century. 

D. i in. Weight, 73 grains. (Bray- 
brooke Coll.) 



1718. ANOTHER ; four hoops ; bezel a 
large central stud surrounded by 
seven of smaller size. 
See figure. 
D. -8 in. Weight, 92 grains. 



1719. ANOTHER ; four hoops ; bezel a sexfoil surrounded by quatrefoils ; on each 
side three additional quatrefoils. 
D. i in. Weight, 228 grains. 

1720. ANOTHER ; four hoops ; bezel of small sexfoils symmetrically disposed. 
D. "84 in. Weight, 63 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1721. ANOTHER ; similar with central rosette ; two hoops spirally fluted. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 72 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1722. ANOTHER ; cinquefoils forming a cable design. 
D. '74 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1723. GOLD ; five hoops, two of cable pattern ; bezel a central rosette with an 
emerald, surrounded by small flowers, scrolls, and pellets. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 54 grains. 

1724. GOLD ; eight hoops ; the bezel an open knot. 
D. -86 in. Weight, 78 grains. 




FANCY RINGS 247 

1725. GOLD ; nine hoops ; bezel a snake with ruby eyes. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 78 grains. 

1726. GOLD ; eleven hoops, partly cabled, and interlacing to form a bezel. 
D. '86 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1727. IVORY ; three interlacing hoops turned from the solid. 
See figure. German, late ijt/i century. 

D. T2 in. 

A so-called Trinity ring, made by Stephen Zick at Nuremberg. 
In a turned wooden box with screw top. Zick is said to have 
made only three of these rings (J. G. Doppelmayr, Historischc 
Nachricht von den Niirnberg' schen Mathematicis und Kiinstlern, 
Niirnberg, 1730, p. 310 and pi. v, fig. i). 




1728. SILVER ; a pellet on each shoulder of the hoop ; projecting bezel 
in form of a spur with revolving rowel. 

See figure. Italian^), iqth-i$th century. 

D. i'25 in. (Castellani Coll.) 

A ring from Chalcis in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, probably of 
.Venetian origin, represents a similar spur (Archaeologia, Ixii, p. 393, row 4, a). 



1729. GOLD ; slender hoop, once enamelled, representing a branch on which is 
perched a bird in the act of pecking, which forms the bezel. The bird is 
enamelled white, and has a ruby in a rectangular setting upon its back. 

i 1 ] th century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 28 grains. 

1730. GOLD ; the hoop with raised borders, pearled and plain alternately ; the 
shoulders bifurcate, and have each a setting with a diamond. Oval locket bezel 
with hinged lid, in form of a masked face enamelled in white 

and black, the eyes set with diamonds. 
See figure. i8t/i century. 

D. i in. Weight, 36 grains. 

This ring, with the following three numbers, belongs to a group 

L sometimes described as carnival rings and attributed to Venice. An 
example was exhibited at the Loan Exhibition of Ancient and Modern Jewellery at South 
Kensington in 1872 (Catalogue, no. 979). 
GOLD; channelled hoop enamelled black, with five pearls in settings at 
intervals ; locket bezel with hinged lid enamelled to represent a lady's face with 
a black mask ; the eyes set with diamonds. 
Italian (?), \f>th century. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 1 8 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 




248 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1732. ANOTHER ; similar ; the hoop faceted. The mask on the lid has white 
eyes, without stones. On the interior of the lid in enamel : la FT du Q?. 

i ftth century. 

D. 76 in. Weight, 9 grains. 

1733. GOLD ; cable hoop, once enamelled light blue ; bezel in shape of a locket, 
but not opening ; it contains a similar mask of glass with cavities in the eyes for 
gems, now missing. At the back a blue flower on a white ground. 

1 8/7? century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 25 grains 

J 733a- ANOTHER ; the shoulders of the hoop pierced and looped ; in the bezel 
a mask with diamonds inlaid in the eyes. 
1 8t/i century. 
1). '9 in. Weight, 56 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1734. GOLD ; hoop pierced at the shoulders, each of which has 
a setting with a ruby ; deep bezel with a lid working upon 
a hinge in the form of a portcullis rounded at the top and 
square at the base. 

See figure. \Wiccntury. 
]). -82 in. Weight, 51 grains. 

17343. GOLD ; the shoulders pierced and enamelled in blue and green ; oval locket 
bezel rounded on the under side, where it is enamelled in the same colours, and 
having on the cover a bust of Hippolyta (?) to /., cameo on onyx. 

i $>th century. 

D. '87 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

I 735- GOLD ; the bezel in form of a three-cornered hat, enamelled black and with a 
ruby set in the back; hoop with legend: PRAY BE COUERED, on ground of 
white enamel. 

English, i$t/i century. 

1). 76 in. Weight, 20 grains. 

1736. GOLD ; slender hoop expanding to open-work shoulders ; 
bezel an enamelled skull opening on a hinge and showing an 
oval enamelled plate with legend : Je nc la crains que 
dans ton cceur. 

See figure. ititA century. 
D. -8 in. Weight, 20 grains. 





FANCY RINGS 249 

1737. GOLD ; the hoop a wire, on which moves a mouse enamelled white, attached 
by a loop beneath the body, and by the coils of the tail. 

Frencli, i8//z century. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

1738. GOLD ; a similar ring ; the mouse is, however, not enamelled, and the ring 
passes between its legs, which are joined to a rectangular plate. There is a loop in 
the nose. 

\%tJi century. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 23 grains. 

I 739- GOLD ; the ring is in two halves moving upon pins below the shoulders, 
which are enamelled in dark blue. The bezel resembles a flower with four 
drooping petals enamelled in the same colour. It is hollow, and when the ring 
is opened each half displays a cavity. 
Modern. 

D. -95 in. Weight, 105 grains. 

The form of the bezel imitates a type common in the sixteenth century. Ct". nos. 1920 fif. 



K. ORNAMENTAL RINGS. 

I. From about A. D. 1000 to about A. D. 1450. 

With the exception of a few examples, such as those from Lark Hill, Worcester 
(nos. 1740-1, i743~,5)> the majority of the rings down to no. 1859 are of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and may be assumed to be of this period 
unless another date is given. 

1740. SILVER ; thin hoop ; long rectangular bezel divided into three panels with 
ornament in relief, the ground with traces of niello ; in the middle five small 
crosses, on each side a larger cross. 
See figure. English, i ill: century. 

D. -8 in. 1854. 

Found at Lark Hill, near Worcester, with silver pennies of Henry II 
and David I of Scotland, a halfpenny of Eustace, Count of Boulogne, a 
denier of Hugh, fifth Count of Anjou, and other coins. Cf. nos. 1024, 1741, I743~5- 
(Archaeologia, xxxvi, p. 200.) 

1741. SILVER ; hoop a twist of two thick wires, the junction hammered square. 

D. ri in. 1854. 

From the same place as nos. 1024, 1740, 1743-5. The ring is interesting as a survival 
of an earlier type usually associated with the Viking period (cf. nos. 212 fif.). 

1742. BRONZE ; the type similar to the last, but cast, and rounded at the back. 
D. ri6 in. 1836. 




250 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

I 743- SILVER ; rectangular bezel set with a crystal, beneath which are remains of 
red foil ; slender hoop with two engraved transverse ribs at the junction with the 
bezel. 

Plate XXIV. English, 1 2 th century. 

D. i'2 in. L. of bezel, 73 in. 1854. Found with nos. 1024, 1740, 1741, and 1744-5. 

1744. ANOTHER ; of the same type with a single rib on the hoop ; bezel set with 
an amethyst. 

D. i '06 in. L. of bezel, '54 in. Found with nos. 1024, 1740, 1741, 1743, and 1745. 

1745. ANOTHER ; bezel set with a transparent yellow paste. 

D. roS in. L. of bezel, '46 in. Found with nos. 1024, 1740-1, 1743-4. 

1746. BRONZE ; slender hoop and large rectangular bezel containing a doublet with 
a green foil. 

iltli century, 
D. ri8 in. 

1747. ANOTHER ; similar, but with a deep channel round the bezel, which contains 
a burned crystal (?). 

Italian, izt/i century. 
D. 1-35 in. 

1748- BRONZE ; slender hoop ; rectangular box bezel with an oval cavity for a stone 
now missing. 
D. i in. 

NOTE. The majority of the rings which follow (nos. 1749-1818, 1827-45) 
are of types which have been described as episcopal or ecclesiastical, presumably 
because they are so often set with sapphires. It may well be that a proportion 
of them were worn by bishops ; there is a statement that no. 1837 came from 
the tomb of Bishop Thierry of Verdun, and no. 1773 was said to have been 
found in a bishop's grave. But such evidence is too vague to possess serious value. 
The sapphire was a popular stone in the Middle Ages, and its use was not con- 
fined to bishops, the only ecclesiastics except abbots who wore rings as marks 
of their sacred office. Authenticated rings of bishops show a considerable 
variety in their type and mode of decoration, and are not exclusively set with 
sapphires or amethysts. Again, the number of rings in the present collection 
alone is considerable ; other collections have their examples ; and if we reflect 
how many must have been lost or destroyed in the course of centuries, it is 
difficult to confine any of the types here illustrated to bishops. The rings with 
very large sapphires have perhaps the best claim (nos. 1827 ff.) ; those of 
a stirrup-shape, with smaller stones (nos. 1782 ff.), are so numerous that the secular 
use of the type seems almost certain. Among the known rings of English 
bishops there is only one of this form, and it would be rash to conclude from 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 251 

a single instance. In default of valid evidence, it has been considered best to 
leave uncertain example no. 861 and the modem ring (no. 862) to represent the 
class in the Ecclesiastical section, and to group rings with unsubstantiated claims 
to episcopal use with contemporary rings for which no such claim is made, in 
order to keep the exhibited series of ornamental types as complete as possible. 
See also Introduction. 

1749. GOLD ; slender hoop ; high hexagonal bezel containing a sapphire. 
Plate XXV. 

D. ri in. Weight, 40 grains. Castellani Coll. 

1750- GOLD ; slender hoop ; rectangular bezel containing a ruby. 
D. '8 in. Weight, 15 grains. Found at Cambridge. 

1751. ANOTHER ; but with larger bezel set with a carbuncle. 
Plate XXIV. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 25 grains. 

1752. ANOTHER ; containing a ruby. 
D. '86 in. Weight, 36 grains. 

1753- GOLD ; plain rounded hoop and high rectangular bezel set with a garnet ; 
round the sides of the bezel are set small garnets alternating with plasma and 
chrysoprase. 

Plate XXIV. \$th century. 

D. ri in. L. of bezel, "36 in. Weight, 119 grains. 1856. Roach Smith Coll. Found in 
London. 

One of the smaller garnets from the side of the bezel is missing. 

1754. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop wreathed and engraved with bands of circles ; 
rectangular box bezel from which the stone is lost. 
D. -96 in. Weight, 41 grains. 

J 755- GOLD ; slender hoop with baluster shoulders ; rectangular bezel set with 
a small emerald. 

D. '72 in. Weight, 1 3 grains. 

1756. BRONZE ; slender hoop with rectangular bezel engraved at the corners and 
set with a cameo head in blue paste. 
i^th-i^th century. 

D. rc>4 in. 1865. 

The cameo may be of later date than the ring. 

I 757- GOLD ; the hoop a plain wire ; high rectangular bezel containing a ruby. 

D. -82 in. Weight, 38 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Said to have been found near Malton, 
Yorkshire. 



252 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1758. GOLD ; massive rounded hoop ; small hexagonal bezel set with a sapphire. 
Plate XXV. 

D. 1-13 in. Weight, 187 grains. Morel Coll. 1901. 
Probably French, the greater part of the Morel Collection coming from the Champagne. 

J759- ANOTHER ; similar, with small rectangular bezel containing a crystal of 
diamond. 

D. rce in. Weight, 161 grains. (Hraybrooke Coll.) 

1760. GOLD ; the hoop a plain wire ; oval box bezel containing a ruby. 
Plate XXV. 
D. i-i in. Weight, 45 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 1761. 

1761. ANOTHER; the bezel smaller, with a jacinth. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 23 grains. From Milton, Kent. 

1762. ANOTHER ; similar ; a jacinth. 
D. -96 in. Weight, 22 grains. 

1763. GOLD ; the hoop a wire ; small oval bezel with an emerald. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 12 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found near Ipswich, 1849. 

1764. ANOTHER ; similar ; rather larger circular bezel, with a chrysoprase (?). 

D. -9 in. Weight, 26 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in the Minories, London, 1854. 

1765. ANOTHER ; oval bezel with ruby. 

D. i in. Weight, 28 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1766. ANOTHER ; similar ; a sapphire. 

D. -58 in. Weight, 28 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1767. ANOTHER ; narrow oval bezel with sapphire. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 23 grains. ( Londesborough Coll.) Found at Lincoln. 

1768. GOLD ; a diminutive ring ; slender hoop with hexagonal bezel, with channel 
round sides, containing a chrysoprase. 

D. '62 in. Weight, 12 grains. 

1769. GOLD ; with plain slender hoop ; bezel a hexagonal setting, bevelled on the 
lower edge, containing an emerald. 

D. '82 in. L. of bezel, '3 in. Weight, 24 grains. 1909. Found in Cloak Lane, Cannon 
Street, London. 

177- GOLD ; slender hoop ; bezel scutiform, set with an amethyst. 
Plate XXIV. French. 
D. ro4 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1771. ANOTHER ; bezel three-sided ; containing a ruby. 
D. 1-02 in. Weight, 35 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 



253 





ORNAMENTAL RINGS 

1772. ANOTHER ; oval bezel with a sapphire. 
See figure. 

D. i in. Weight, 43 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Said to have been 
found in a bishop's tomb in the south of France. 

1773. ANOTHER ; bezel containing a sapphire. 
See figure. 

D. I '2 in. Weight, 70 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in the 
New Forest, Hampshire, 1857. Said to resemble one of the three rings 
mentioned under no. 1774. 

1774. GOLD; slender hoop engraved on the shoulders with chevrons and small 
circles ; the bezel containing a ruby. 

Plate XXV, and sec figure. 

D. '98 in. Weight, 35 grains. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) 

Washed ashore at Whitstable, Kent. Said 
by Lord Braybrooke to resemble one of three 
rings found on property belonging to Trinity College, Cambridge, with coins of Henry III. 

1775- GOLD ; slender hoop and oval bezel, both of rough workmanship ; the bezel 
is set with a cabochon amethyst. 

D. i'28 in. Weight, 87 grains. Said to have been found in a stone coffin in Galway. 



1776. GOLD ; hoop broadening to shoulders ; irregular hexagonal 
bezel containing a sapphire. 
See figure. 

D. ri in. Weight, no grains. 1853. 

Found on Flodden Field about 1818. The ring is too early in type 
to have been made at the period of the battle ; but it may possibly have 
been worn by some one present at the engagement. 



1777. ANOTHER ; with similar bezel set with a sapphire, but the hoop engraved 
on the exterior with floral scrolls. 





Plate XXIV, and see figure. 
D. I '42 in. Weight, 131 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



254 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1778. GOLD ; the hoop narrow and flat at the back ; on each shoulder transverse 
ribs, between which two stones, a ruby and an emerald, are set. The bezel is 
a rectangular setting containing a pyramidal sapphire. 

Plate XXIV. 
D. -96 in. Weight, 96 grains. From Benevento. 

1779. GOLD ; with plain narrow hoop ; in the front are two oval settings contain- 
ing a sapphire and an amethyst, flanked by two smaller settings each with 
a turquoise ; between the settings ribbed bands reserved in the metal. 

Plate XXV. 

D. ro6 in. Weight, 188 grains. Roach Smith Coll. 1856. Found in London. 

1780. GOLD ; the hoop faceted ; each shoulder has a pierced square panel with 
a quatrefoil, after which it narrows towards a deep octagonal bezel, containing 
an amethyst with three longitudinal facets. 

Plate XXV. 

D. 1-2 in. Weight, 94 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Found at Wells. Exhibited at South Kensington, 1872 (Catalogue of the Loan 
Exhibition of Ancient ami Modern Jewellery, 1872, ed. R. H. Soden Smith, 1873, no. 901). 

The faceting of the stone may be compared with that of the ring of Bishop William de St. 
Barbara of Durham, d. 1152 {Archaeologia, xlv, p. 387). 

1781. GOLD ; slender hoop, the shoulders forming monsters' heads, which support 
a high bezel engraved with leaves and geometrical designs ; it contains in a 
rectangular setting a sapphire cut to three faces. 

Plate XXV. Italian. 

D. i in. Weight, 43 grains. (Castellani Coll.) 

1782. GOLD ; massive faceted hoop ; a raised ridge on each side where it thickens 
to the bezel, which contains a sapphire. 

Plate XXIV. 

D. 1*44 in. Weight, 544 grains. Bequeathed by the Rev. E. H. Mainwaring, 1885. Found 
at Wittersham, Kent. 

This ring is the finest example in the collection of the 'stirrup-shaped' type (cf. nos. 
1783-1815). The ring at Chichester Cathedral, said to have belonged to Bishop Hilary 
(d. 1169), is similar. 

1783. GOLD ; the shoulders engraved and nielloed with a lozenge design ; in the 
bezel a ruby. 

D. ri in. Weight, 107 grains. 1849. 

1784. GOLD ; plain hoop with sapphire. 
D. ri in. Weight, 87 grains. 1849. 

1785. ANOTHER ; the same stone. 

D. 1-2 in. Weight, 222 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) From Morton, Bucks. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 



2 55 



1786. ANOTHER ; similar. 

D. 1-14 in. Weight, 192 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Exhibited at South Kensington in 1872 (Catalogue of the Loan Exhibition, &c., 1873, 
no. 899). 

1787. ANOTHER. 

D. n6 in. Weight, 155 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1788. ANOTHER. 

D. ri in. Weight, 144 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in Lancashire. 

1789. ANOTHER. 

D. ri in. Weight, 90 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1790. ANOTHER. 

D. ri6 in. Weight, 140 grains. Found in St. Leonards Forest, Sussex. 

1791. ANOTHER. 

D. ri in. Weight, 88 grains. 

1792. ANOTHER. 

D. IT2 in. Weight, no grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Exhibited at South Kensington in 1872 (Catalogue, no. 899). Cf. no. 1786, above. 

I 793- ANOTHER. 

D. I'oS in. Weight, 73 grains. 

1794. ANOTHER. 

D. i- 1 in. Weight, So grains. 

1795. ANOTHER. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 108 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1796. ANOTHER. 

D. IT in. Weight, 68 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found near the Victoria Docks, 
London, November, 1859. 

1797. ANOTHER. 

D. IT in. Weight, 87 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1798. ANOTHER. 

D. i in. Weight, 55 grains. 

1799. ANOTHER. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 73 grains. 

1800. ANOTHER. 

D. -98 in. Weight, 38 grains. 



256 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS [ 

1801. ANOTHER. 

D. i "04 in. Weight, 60 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Exhibited at South Kensington in 1872 (Catalogue, no. 899). Cf. nos. 1786, 1792. 

1802. ANOTHER. 

D. -96 in. Weight, 58 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Exhibited at South Kensington in 1872 (Catalogue, no. 899). Cf. the preceding number. 

1803. ANOTHER. 

D. '97 in. Weight, 35 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Exhibited at South Kensington in 1872 (Catalogue, no. 899). Cf. the two preceding 
numbers. 

1804. ANOTHER. 

D. -96 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1805. ANOTHER ; a rough sapphire. 

D. ri6 in. Weight, 85 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
The stone probably replaces an original now lost. 

1806. ANOTHER ; set with a turquoise. 

D. ri6 in. Weight, 176 grains. (Londesborougli Coll.) 

1807. ANOTHER; a ruby. 

D. -98 in. Weight, 67 grains. 

1808. ANOTHER ; an emerald. 

D. -98 in. Weight, 63 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Exhibited at South Kensington in 1872 (Catalogue, no. 899). Cf. nos. 1786, 1789, 1792, 
1801-3. 

1809. GOLD ; stirrup-shaped hoop thickening to an oval bezel pierced and 
vandyked round the edges, and containing a pale ruby with an indented surface. 

Plate XXV. 

D. 1-04 in. Weight, 106 grains. 

Exhibited at the Ironmongers' Hall in 1861 (Catalogue of Antiquities and Works of Art, 
&c., 1869, p. 489). 

1810. ANOTHER ; silver ; with a ruby ; the hoop indented along the edges. 
D. i in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1811. ANOTHER ; bronze ; set with a blue paste. 
D. i-i in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

The hoop broken at the back. The ring was probably gilt. 

1812. ANOTHER ; once gilt ; with a jacinth. 

D. i in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 257 

1813. ANOTHER ; with a blue glass paste. 
D. ri in. (Castellani Coll.) 

1814. ANOTHER ; similar ; the stone or glass paste missing. 
I). ro6 in. Found at Chilcombe, Hants, 1879. 

1815. SILVER ; slender hoop ; on each shoulder a raised rectangle engraved with 
a quatrefoil ; the stone lost. 

D. -84 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

1816. GOLD ; stirrup-shaped hoop channelled and cut to represent a double ring 
with two bezels ; one is set with a ruby, the other with a turquoise. 

Plate XXV. 

L>. -92 in. Weight, 43 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

Exhibited at South Kensington in 1872 (Catalogue, no. 899). Cf. nos. 1786, 1792, 1801-3, 
1807. 

1817. GOLD ; slender stirrup-shaped hoop expanding at each shoulder to an 
engraved lozenge-shaped panel between transverse ribs ; double bezel, con- 
taining two glass pastes, one representing a sapphire, the other an emerald. 

1). -92 in. Weight, 24 grains. Obtained in Florence, 1878-9. 

1818. SILVER GILT ; the shoulders in the form of monsters' heads supporting 
a double bezel for two stones, now lost. 

I). '9 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1819. SILVER GILT ; stirrup-shaped hoop once nielloed ; it has on the exterior 
seven quatrefoils in relief connected by a band of cable pattern, and terminates 
in monsters' heads supporting a double bezel, each limb of which has a pearl 
revolving on a pin. 

Italian. 

D. ri2 in. (Castellani Coll.) 

This and the following ring have affinities with examples from Chalcis (Negropont), now in 
the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, and Venetian in their style: see reference under no. 1821. 
The present rings may have formed part of the same find. Cf. also a ring in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, no. 94-1899. 






1820. GOLD ; once nielloed ; hoop of triangular section engraved with two designs : 
a floral scroll, and a band of quatrefoils, counterchanged in four 
panels. The ends form monsters' heads, which support a bezel 
in the shape of a flower of eight petals, having in the centre 
a large pearl surmounted by a ruby in a gold setting, all 
revolving on a pin. 

Plate XXV, and see figure. Italian ( Venetian), i^th century. 

D. I in. Weight, 49 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
See note to preceding number. 

S 




258 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1821. GOLD ; broad hoop cut from a thin plate ; on each shoulder three settings 
surrounded by pellets, containing two rubies and a pearl upon a pin (one ruby 
lost) ; at the back a similar setting with a ruby. The bezel is a globe of 
filigree, with bands of pellets, surmounted by a pearl on a revolving pin, with 
a head formed of a ring of pellets. 

Plate XXV. Vcneto-Grcck, about A. I). 1400. 

D. 1'8 in. Weight, 209 grains. 

Found at Chalcis in Euboea in the first half of the nineteenth century {Archaeologia, 
Ixii, p. 395, pi. Ivi, fig. 3). 

The North Italian affinities conspicuous in nos. 1819, 1820, and the rings from Chalcis 
in the Ashmolean, are not found in nos. 1821-4. The distinction is remarkable, for the 
tradition with regard to the locality is the same in both cases, and nos. 1822-5 were found 
with a quantity of personal ornaments (Arclutcologia, as above, pp. 391 ff.). 

1822. GOLD ; hoop of triangular section ; it ends in conventional monsters' heads 
which support a bezel in form of an open calyx of six petals with a pearled ring 
above it, set with a circular pearl pierced and fixed by a wire. 

Plate XXV. Vcneto-Grcck, about A. D. 1400. 

D. I '3 in. Weight, 223 grains. 

From Chalcis. Found with nos. 1821 and 1823-4 (Archaeologia, as above, pi. Ivi, fig. l). 

1823. GOLD ; octagonal hoop hexagonal in cross-section ; projecting bezel in the 
form of a calyx of six petals, on which is an oval plate with a setting 
containing a sapphire. 

Plate XXV. Vcncto-Grcck, about A. D. 1400. 

D. i'2 in. Weight, 201 grains. 

Found with nos. 1821-2 and 1824 (Archacologia, as above, pi. Ivi, fig. 4). 

1824. GOLD ; flat hoop engraved on the outer side to represent a cable ; high 
projecting bezel in form of a calyx of six petals supporting a hexagonal plate 
on which is a circular setting surrounded with pellets, and containing a large 
pearl, pierced and secured by a wire. 

Plate XXV. Vencto-Greck, about A. D. 1400. 

D. 1-32 in. Weight, 128 grains. (Archaeologia, as above, pi. Ivi, fig. 2.) 

1825. GOLD ; slender hoop of triangular section ; a small projection on each 
shoulder, where the ring rises to a projecting four-sided bezel containing an 
emerald. 

D. i in. Weight, 14 grains. 

1826. SILVER GILT ; broad flat hoop with applied foliate ornament ; 
rectangular bezel set with a carbuncle. 

See figure. 
D. 1-14 in. 

Two stamps have been applied at the back of the hoop. The ring may 
be compared with no. 1852. 





ORNAMENTAL RINGS 259 

NOTE. Nos. 1827-54 are classed together as having their gems mounted 
in claws. 

1827. GOLD ; the hoop broadens at each shoulder to represent the wings of 
a dragon, narrowing again to the neck and head, by which the bezel is supported 
on each side. The bezel is a deep oval setting in which is a cabochon sapphire 
held by four claws. 

Plate XXV. i 2t/i century. 

I), ri in. Weight, 95 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 

Obtained in exchange from the collection of M. Failly, Inspector of Customs at Lyons, 
in 1848. Said to have been found in 1829 in the tomb of Thierry, Bishop of Verdun in 1165 
(T. Crofton Croker, Catalogue of a Collection /if Ancient and Mediaeval Rings . . . formed 
for Lady Londesborough, 1853, p. 14). 

1828. GOLD ; slender hoop terminating in monsters' heads 
supporting a large irregular bezel with claws, in which is 
a cabochon sapphire. 

Plate XXIV, and sec figure. 

D. ri8 in. Weight, 192 grains. (Fritz Halm Coll.) 

The setting somewhat resembles that of a ring found in Win- 
chester Cathedral and conjccturally attributed to Henry of Blois, 
Cardinal and Bishop of Winchester (Archaeologia, NX, p. 236 and fig. 2). 

1829. GOLD ; hoop of triangular section with two raised and engraved quatrefoils, 
terminating in monsters' heads supporting a pentagonal bezel with claws, set 
with a large cabochon sapphire. The outer faces of the hoop bear the enamelled 
inscription : KVH HKRIK GRKTIK. 

I), ri in. Weight, 154 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 

The N in the second word of the inscription is an original mistake. The hoop appears 
to have been renovated and the enamel of the inscription renewed. The inscription might 
have justified the inclusion of this ring among devotional rings, but, as in the case of no. 1830, 
it seemed more in place among examples of the same decorative type. 

1830. GOLD ; hollow hoop with transverse ribs and rays on the shoulders, from 
each of which bifurcating supports rise to a boat-shaped bezel containing 
a cabochon sapphire held by four claws. Round the hoop, legend in relief 
on a ground keyed for enamel : ale pD tot'10 ilCt foeter C lit (?). 

Plate XXIV. English (?), i^t/i century. 

D. i'25 in. Weight, ico grains. 

This might have been included in Class F (Inscribed Rings), but so much of its interest 
lies in its form and the style of its setting that it seemed best to keep it among rings of 
a similar appearance. 

1831. GOLD ; slender hoop terminating in conventionalized monsters' heads, which 
support an octagonal setting with claws, containing a sapphire. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 41 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 
The hoop has been mended at one shoulder. 

S 2 




260 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



1832. SILVER ; hoop of quadrangular section terminating fin con- 
ventional monsters' heads from which pierced supports rise to 
the sides of a bezel with octagonal base and high vertical top 
with four claws containing a pierced sapphire. 
See figure. Italian. 

D. I '66 in. Found at Murano. 



1833. ANOTHER ; the same design, also with a sapphire. 

D. i '64 in. From Murano. 

A third ring of identical design, stated to have been found in a grave outside the Duomo 
at Murano, is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 

1834. GOLD ; slender hoop ; bezel a deep hexagonal setting with four claws, 
containing a cabochon sapphire. 

Plate XXIV. 
1). 1-32 in. Weight, 167 grains. 

1835. GOLD ; slender hoop ; bezel an oval setting with four claws, containing 
a cabochon sapphire. 

I). rc>5 in. Weight, 80 grains. 

1836. GOLD ; slender hoop ; the bezel a deep oval setting with four claws, con- 
taining a pale sapphire. 

D. ri6 in. Weight, 75 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1837- GOLD ; slender hoop ; bezel a square setting with four claws containing 
a sapphire. 

D. i in. Weight, 66 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
Said to have been found at Oxford, April, 1860. 

1838. GOLD ; slender hoop thickening towards the bezel, which is an oval setting 
with a sapphire held by four short claws. 

D. i -08 in. Weight, 100 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) From Armagh. 
The bezel has no base, probably by accident rather than design. 

1839. ANOTHER ; slender hoop ; bezel a large oval setting with four claws, 
containing a cabochon amethyst. 

D. ro2 in. Weight, 96 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 
T. Crofton Croker, Catalogue, &c., no. 49. 

1840. GOLD ; slender hoop ; bezel a setting in form of an inverted pyramid, 
containing a chrysoprase held by four claws. 

D. n in. Weight, 40 grains. Found in the Thames. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 261 

1841. GOLD ; the hoop rounded on outer side ; it terminates in conventional 
monsters' heads which support a long bezel in the form of a flat band cut to 
contain a ruby and a sapphire side by side, the stones secured by claws at 
each end. 

Plate XXIV. 

D. -98 in. Weight, 40 grains. (Garthe Coll., Cologne.) 

The ring is restored by means of two small plates at the juncture of hoop and bezel near 
the sapphire. 

1842. ANOTHER; of similar design; thinner hoop, and a single sapphire in the 
bezel. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 30 grains. (Garthe Coll., Cologne.) 

1843. ANOTHER ; similar, but without monsters' heads ; a sapphire. 
D. '92 in. Weight, 34 grains. 

1844. ANOTHER ; with hands holding the bezel instead of monsters' 
heads ; a dark sapphire. 

See figure. 

D. i in. Weight, 40 grains. 

18443. SILVER GILT ; the outside of the hoop pearled at the back ; the shoulders 
conventionally modelled as monsters' heads supporting a high bezel, in which is 
a ruby glass paste held by four claws. 
D. ri2 in. 

1845. SILVER GILT ; on each shoulder of the hoop two projections ; between these 
rises a high bezel in the form of a conical setting with four claws, containing 
a sapphire. 

D. ro4 in. Weight, 27 grains. 

1846. SILVER ; slender hoop with projections on shoulders ; the bezel has four 
claws holding an oval jasper. 

D. -93 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1847. BRONZE ; plain hoop broadening to the shoulders, where it is pounced with 
scrolls ; oval bezel with four claws containing a sapphire. 

D. i -06 in. 

The ring was probably once gilt. 

1848. BRONZE ; stirrup-shaped hoop punched with similar scrolls on the shoulders ; 
oval bezel with claws containing a dark blue paste. 

D. I in. Found near Cambridge. 




262 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1849. GOLD ; on each shoulder transverse ribs. The conical bezel rises between 
two volutes, and contains a sapphire held by four claws. 

Plate XXIV. 
I). I '12 in. Weight, 85 grains. (Zschille Coll., no. 59.) 

1850. GOLD; on each shoulder a pierced disk from which rise pierced scrolls 
supporting a high conical be/el, in which is an amethyst held by four claws. 

Plate XXIV. 
I). ri2 in. Weight, 129 grains. 1903. From Sweden. 

1851. GOLD: plain rounded hoop ; oval bexel flanked by four pellets, and containing 
a pale sapphire held by four claws. 

Plate XXV. 
I). 1-04 in. Weight, 130 grains. From a sand-drift on the coast of Scania, Sweden. 

1852. GOLD ; on each shoulder and on the sides of the bezel 
symmetrical foliate designs in relief; the bezel, nearly 
triangular, has four claws and contains a dark amethyst. 

See figure. 

D. I '12 in. Weight, 103 grains. From Wiston, Sussex. Exhibited 
at Ironmongers' Hall in 1861 (Catalogue of Antiquities, &c., 1869, vol. ii, 
p. 488). 

l %53- GOLD ; the hoop, which is rounded on the outer side, has at the back 
a rectangular panel with formal foliate ornament reserved in the metal, and 
round the sides a band of engraved fret ; from each shoulder rises a flower on 
a high stem, the petals formed by loops. The bezel has four large claws 
containing an eye-agate. 

Levantine, i$th-i^t/i century. 
D. l - 34 in. Weight, 135 grains. Obtained in Crete. 

1854. GOLD ; flat hoop broadening to the shoulders, which are 
cut into scrolls ; between these rises a high setting with two 
claws, containing a turquoise. 

See figure. 15^ centiiry. 

I). i - 3 in. Weight, 97 grains. Obtained in Alexandria. 

NOTE. The following rings are without stones : 

1855. SILVER; the shoulders form conventional monsters' heads ; projecting bezel, 
terminating in a pyramid in imitation of a pyramidal crystal. 

i?,th century. 

D. -96 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 





ORNAMENTAL RINGS 263 

1856. SILVER ; the shoulders engraved with diagonal bands ; pyramidal bezel 
terminating in a knob. 

i^t/i century. 

D. ri in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

The type resembles that of the 'stirrup-shaped' gold rings (nos. 1782 ft). 

1857. SILVER ; similar form, but lower bezel, flat at the top ; both sides and top 
engraved with crosses. 

i3//i century. 

D. -8 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) From Peterborough. 

1858. BRONZE ; the bezel representing two dragons' heads crossing each other. 
13^ century. 

D. '94 in. Obtained in Rome. 

1859. GOLD ; slender hoop in the form of an oval setting which, instead of a stone, 
contains a plate of gold, having in relief the arms of England as borne from 
A.D. 1405 to A.D. 1603 : France Modern and England quarterly. 

The ring, 141/1 century. 
D. '9 in. Weight, 29 grains. 

The plate upon the bezel perhaps replaced an earlier stone, and is probably of later date 
than the period suggested by the arms. 

1860. SILVER GILT; on each shoulder a rosette in relief; the bezel a pinnacle, 
probably once surmounted by a globular pearl, supported by two crocket-like 
scrolls. 

Italian, i^t/t century. 

D. ro8 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

This ring has points of analogy with others from Chalcis in the Ashmolean Museum at 
Oxford. Cf. also nos. 1819-24 above. 

1861. SILVER ; hoop of triangular section ; bezel an applied quatrefoil, engraved. 

D. i -08 in. 1853. Found at Metal Hill, Meldreth, Cambridgeshire. 

1862. SILVER ; round the hoop a band of small quatrefoils in relief. Bezel an 
engraved quatrefoil. 

D. -9 in. 1865. 

1863. BRONZE; a plain hoop with applied bezel in the form of an eightfoil. 
\^th century. 

D. 1-07 in. D. of bezel, '6 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

II. A.D. 1450 to A.D. 1650. 

1864. SILVER ; rounded hoop ; applied circular bezel with a capital <o in relief. 
Italian, i$th century. 
D. I'oi in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 



264 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1865. SILVER ; round the hoop a band of quatrefoils upon a niello ground ; circular 
bezel with a cross pattee in niello. 

Italian, about A.D. 1450. 
D. -98 in. I), of bezel, 74 in. 

1866. SILVER ; the hoop channelled ; projecting circular bezel ornamented with 
a quatrefoil in niello within a nielloed border. 

Italian, about A.D. 14,50. 
I). rc>5 in. D. of bezel, 7 in. 

1867. SILVER ; the type resembling no. 1035, but without the clasped hands. 
Italian, i^t/i century. 

D. '9 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 
The bezel broken. 

1868. SILVER; on each shoulder a panel of nielloed ornament: oval bezel with 
conventional floral design on ground of niello. 

Italian, i^t/i century. 

D. '82 in. Temple Coll. 1856. 

The bezel damaged. 

1869. SILVER ; once nielloed ; hoop expanding to the shoulders, each of which has 
a panel of foliate ornament ; octagonal bezel with a cross between four leaves, 
within a border. 

Italian, i$t/i century. 
D. 76 in. Obtained in Rome, 1882. 

i86ga. BRONZE GILT ; large ring, with hollow hoop narrow at the back and 
rectangular bezel set with a crystal held by four claws. 
Italian, i^th century. 
D. 1-5 in. 

1870. SILVER ; flat hoop with conventional nielloed ornament in four panels 
separated by vertical bands of herring-bone design. 

i &th century. 

D. '84 in. 1854. Found near Edenderry, Ireland. 

1871. SILVER ; the hoop a plain wire ; circular bezel engraved with a large capital 
C, the letters B e, a crescent, stars, and leaves (?). 
Late i$tk century. 

D. -96 in. D. .of bezel, -96 in. (Londesborough Coll.) 

Mr. Croker (Catalogue of a Collection of Ancient and Mediaeval Rings, &c., formed for 
Lady Londesboroi/z/ii p. 82, no. 244) considers the ring to have been made for astrological 
purposes. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 265 

1872. SILVER GILT ; the hoop, which expands to the shoulders, has a band of 
lozenge compartments containing quatrefoils, the spandrels having V-shaped 
leaves ; bezel with median ridge, engraved with conventional floral design. 

English, i^th century. 

D. "9 in. An old possession of the Museum. 

The type of this ring and of the following seven numbers is that of English iconographic 
rings. Cf. nos. 722 ff. 

1873. SILVER GILT; similar type; hoop wreathed at back; bezel and shoulders 
ornamented with bands of triangles, probably once enamelled. 

D. -96 in. 

1874. ANOTHER ; the shoulders engraved with diagonal bands ; on the two faces 
of the bezel, stars and zigzag design. 

D. -9 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1875. ANOTHER ; on each shoulder a large quatrefoil ; on each face of the bezel 
a band of three smaller quatrefoils. 

D. '9 in. Found at Bradford-on-Avon. 

1876. ANOTHER ; the hoop wreathed at the back ; on each shoulder a flat panel 
with a quatrefoil ; bezel with three divisions, that in the middle engraved with 
a heart-shaped leaf and two quatrefoils. 

I). -9 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1877. ANOTHER ; the shoulders spirally channelled and engraved with chevrons 
and other designs ; bezel with three longitudinal divisions, that in the middle 
engraved with quatrefoils, those on each side with the same designs as the 
shoulders. 

D. '86 in. Found at \Vinchester. 

1878. ANOTHER ; the hoop has a band of zigzag ; the shoulders and bezel have 
three longitudinal divisions rudely engraved. 

D. '94 in. 

1879. ANOTHER; the hoop ornamented on the outer side with lozenge bands 
containing quatrefoils ; the bezel has three vertical concave panels, that in the 
centre engraved with a heart, those on the sides with open flowers. 

D. -95 in. (Purnell Coll.) 

1880. GOLD ; once enamelled ; the hoop engraved with flowers 
and sprigs except at the back, where an oval panel is without 
ornament. Circular bezel engraved with a flower (carnation ?) 
rising from its leaves between two buds. 

See figure. i$th century. 
D. '62 in. Weight, 73 grains. 




2 66 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1881. GOLD ; once enamelled ; the flat hoop engraved with sprigs ; rectangular 
bezel, slightly raised, containing a pale opaque stone. 

15/7^ century, 

D. 7 in. Weight, 90 grains. Found at Andernach. 

1882. GOLD ; hoop slender at back, expanding to an oval bezel set with an 
amethyst. 

I5//2 century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 35 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

This ring bears some resemblance to a Roman type, but stems to be of late mediaeval 
date. 

1883. GOLD ; the hoop expanding to a shield-shaped bezel set with a sapphire 
held by four claws. 

i6f/i century. 
D. '88 in. Weight, 59 grains. 

This ring has affinities with types of the fourteenth century, but the style of the bezel 
suggests a later date. 

1884. SILVER ; the hoop rounded on the outer side, and im- 
bricated ; it has five rhomboidal settings containing rubies. 

See figure. i6f/i century. 

D. -94 in. After 1829. 

In the interior is engraved : Found at York Miif (Minster) the 
Duy MARTIN was Bro (brought) in. Febr. 9''. 1829. 

1885. BRONZE ; hoop rounded on the outer side, which is inlaid with a network of 
gold ; a circular cavity for a stone now missing. 

i6tk century. 

D. ri in. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

1886. SILVER GILT ; slender hoop expanding to a bezel cut as a quatrefoil and set 
with an almandine garnet. 

German, early \6tli century. 
D. -87 in. 

1887. GOLD ; diminutive hoop expanding to a double bezel containing a turquoise 
and a ruby in quatrefoil settings. 

Early i6th century. 

D. -56 in. Weight, 50 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

The hoop is broken. The ring reproduces a type common in earlier centuries. Cf. no. 1816. 

1888. ANOTHER ; similar ; set with a ruby and a sapphire. 
See figure. Early i6t/i century. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 28 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 








ORNAMENTAL RINGS 267 

1889. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with floral scrolls ; double bezel cut into 
trefoils, one set with a ruby, the other with a diamond. 

i$th century. 

D. 72 in. Weight, 18 grains. 
The hoop is broken at the back. 

1890. GOLD ; hoop engraved on the shoulders with sprigs from which the enamel 
has been lost, between bands of dots still retaining 

dark enamel ; projecting oval bezel, the edges 
cut to a sexfoil, containing a cabochon sapphire. 

Plate XXV, and sec figure. Late \$th century. 

D. "92 in. Weight, 60 grains. Roach Smith Coll. 1856. 

1891. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with sprays of flowers, perhaps once enamelled ; 
raised oval bezel with quatrefoil edges, containing a faceted garnet. 

Plate XXV. Late itf/i century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 42 grains. 

The stone is perhaps a more recent addition. 

1892. GOLD ; the shoulders with transverse ribs between which the hoop was 
enamelled ; oval bezel cut to a quatrefoil and containing a carbuncle. 

D. '78 in. Weight, 23 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1893. GOLD ; the hoop imbricated on the outer side ; bezel cut to a quatrefoil and 
set with a ruby. 

Plate XXVI. \6th century. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 184 grains. 
The hoop is broken on one side. 

1894. BRONZE GILT ; oblong bezel cut to a quatrefoil and containing a glass 
paste ; hoop diminishing to the back. 

1 6th century. 

D. -8 in. An old possession of the Museum. 

1895. SILVER ; slender hoop ; pierced shoulders ; the bezel pierced in four places, 
suggesting a cruciform design. 

\dth century. 

D. -92 in. 1854. Found at Portarlington, Leinster, Ireland. 

1896. BRONZE ; cast ; shoulders with transverse ridges ; bezel in form of a pyra- 
midal crystal. 

i6th century. 

D. i '4 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

The ring probably simulates one of those set with diamonds and used for writing on 
glass. Cf. nos. 1 693(1. 



268 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1897. GOLD; slender hoop; hexagonal bezel containing a piece of jade en cabo- 
chon. 

i6t/i century. 

D. ri in. Weight, 107 grains. 

1898. BRONZE GILT ; the shoulders chased with bands of rosettes in lozenge panels, 
and trefoils in the spandrels ; rectangular bezel with broad flutings round the 
sides and eight bosses round the base, set with a clear paste. 

South European, i6th century. 
I), ri in. Obtained in Corfu. 

1899. ANOTHER ; silver gilt, of similar type ; high oval bezel with flutings and 
bosses round the sides, containing a turquoise paste fixed by claws. 

SoutJi European, early \Ctth century. 
D. i '3 in. 

1900. SILVER GILT ; each shoulder is engraved with a leaf; high circular bezel set 
with a square glass paste, the sides ornamented with bosses. 

i$th century. 

D. I in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1901. GOLD ; the hoop chased with scrolls on the shoulders ; oval bezel containing 
a crystal ; the sides have six vertical ridges, suggesting claws, connected with 
each other at the base by curved lines. 

Plate XXVI. 1 6th centiiry. 

D. ri in. Weight, 136 grains. 

The manner in which the sides of the bezel are treated marks a stage in development 
which culminates in such examples as no. 1920. 

At first the ridges, as representing claws to hold the stone, remain the essential feature, 
though their connexion at the base by curved lines gives the whole ornament the appearance 
of an engrailed band. In the type of ring with square bezel (e. g. no. 1909) there is usually no 
further development ; but in another type the interspaces are transformed into the petals of 
a conventional flower (nos. 1916 ff.), which receive independent ornament ; sometimes the old 
'engrailed band' is retained in addition (e.g. no. 1937). 

1902. GOLD ; slender hoop chased with scrolls and enamelled black ; high hexa- 
gonal bezel containing a turquoise, reeded at the back and similarly enamelled, 
the sides resembling those of the previous number. 

Plate XXVII. 

D. ri6 in. Weight, 95 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1903. GOLD ; once enamelled ; hexagonal bezel with turquoise, the sides similarly 
treated to those of no. 1901 ; the shoulders chased. 

D. -92 in. Weight, 42 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 




ORNAMENTAL RINGS 269 

1904. ANOTHER; similar but smaller; slender hoop; the bezel of similar form, 
with a turquoise. 

D. 72 in. Weight, 16 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1905. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop granulated and set with 
eleven rubies ; rectangular bezel, ornamented on the sides 
like no. 1901, and containing a dark green stone, perhaps 
hornblende. 

See figure. \6th century. 

I). I'o6 in. Weight, 163 grains. From Smyrna. 

1906. GOLD ; the shoulders chased and much worn ; rectangular double bezel with 
two settings containing a ruby and an emerald ; between, on each side a large 
pellet. The sides of the settings engraved with curved lines derived from the 
claw design described under no. 1901. 

riate XXVII, i6t/i century. 
U. I'o6 in. Weight, 146 grains. 

1907. GOLD ; thin hoop scrolled at the shoulders ; circular bezel with projecting 
fluted base and high setting containing a sapphire, the sides treated as in the 
preceding numbers. 

\6th century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 32 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1908. GOLD ; richly enamelled ; the exterior of the hoop is enamelled with con- 
ventional designs ; the shoulders have scrolls raised and pierced, in the centre of 
each a small quatrefoil ; the whole enamelled. Rectangular bezel with project- 
ing enamelled base, and containing a crystal ; the back enamelled with trefoils 
on a black ground. 

Plate XXVI. i6tA century. 
U. rc4 in. Weight, no grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1909. ANOTHER ; of similar design but without 
enamel ; the bezel containing a ruby. 

See figure. 

U. 1-2 in. Weight, 81 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1910. ANOTHER; similar; enamelled; the bezel containing a ruby ; the design of 
the shoulders more conventionalized. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 85 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

igioa. ANOTHER ; similar ; the enamel almost entirely lost ; bezel containing a 
crystal and reeded at back. 
D. ro4 in. Weight, 59 grains. 




270 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1911. ANOTHER ; the enamel all lost ; bezel with a crystal. 
D. '9 in. Weight, 50 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1912. ANOTHER ; on each shoulder two crescents back to back with a quatrefoil 
'between; bezel reeded at back and containing an emerald; enamel remaining 

in part. 

D. i in. Weight, 48 grains. 

1913. ANOTHER ; GILT BRONZE ; shoulders chased for enamel, now lost ; bezel 
with a crystal. 

D. I in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1914. ANOTHER; GOLD; enamelled; the sides of the hoop chased, and on each 
shoulder a quatrefoil in turquoise enamel ; the bezel has on the back a diaper of 
quatrefoils on black enamel ground, and contains a ruby. 

D. ro4 in. Weight, 57 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1915. ANOTHER ; similar ; also with ruby ; two trefoils engraved at back of bezel. 
D. I in. Weight, 45 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



1916. GOLD; slender hoop with plain faceted shoulders; quatrefoil- 
shaped bezel set with a jacinth, the sides cut to resemble four 
drooping petals. 

See figure. \6th century. 

D. i in. Weight, 93 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

The stone is strictly hessonite or ' cinnamon stone ', but is commonly 
described as jacinth. 

For the development of this form see note to no. 1901. 



1917. ANOTHER ; similar ; plain hoop ; bezel containing turquoise, 
j 6th century. 

I). ro2 in. Weight, 69 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1918. GOLD ; plain hoop with slight projection at the back ; raised bezel of 
sexfoil shape with ridges on the sides simulating claws, set with a rough ruby. 

1 6th century. 

D. -88 in. Weight, 85 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1919. GOLD ; shoulders chased and scrolled ; bezel of quatrefoil shape, set with 
a ruby. 

i6t/i century. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 42 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 






ORNAMENTAL RINGS 271 

1920. GOLD ; the shoulders faceted ; quatrefoil-shaped bezel containing an onyx, 
the 'petals' with scrolls reserved in the metal on a ground of black enamel. 
Plate XXVI. \6th century. 
D. ri4 in. Weight, 193 grains. 

1921. ANOTHER ; on the shoulders and sides of the hoop formal foliate designs on 
a ground keyed for enamel, now lost; bezel with four plain petals, set with 
a crystal. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 53 grains. 

1922. ANOTHER ; hoop of triangular section ; large bezel with a 
cabochon peridot ; the petals are continued below the simulated 
claws, and have been enamelled. 
See figure. 
D. ri5 in. Weight, 150 grains. From Crete. 



1923. ANOTHER ; SIMILAR ; ISRONZK GILT ; the shoulders chased for enamel ; 
the bezel has a rectangular clear glass paste, and the petals are enamelled blue 
at the tips. 

D. ri in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

1924. ANOTHER ; the enamel lost ; set with a clear paste. 
D. i in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1925. ANOTHER; shoulders scrolled ; bezel set with an onyx cameo head ; petals 
with blue enamel. 

D. -9 in. 

The hoop broken at the back. 

1926. GOLD ; similar type ; the shoulders with transverse bars and keyed for 
enamel ; bezel containing a turquoise ; the lower parts of the petals chased with 
scrolls for enamel. * 

D. ro8 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

1927. ANOTHER ; similar ; bezel containing a crystal. 
D. i in. Weight, 43 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1928. ANOTHER ; bezel set with a turquoise ; the petals plain ; the hoop cut and 
bent so that the ends overlap ; at the back stamp of the tiara and crossed keys, 
the control-mark of the Papal States. 

D. 72 in. Weight, 28 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1929. ANOTHER ; the petals engraved with oval panels, &c. ; in the bezel a 
carbuncle. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 52 grains. Bequeathed by Miss Auldjo, 1859. 



272 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1930. ANOTHER ; set with a turquoise, white enamel on the petals ; on each 
shoulder two crescents back to back. 

D. -82 in. Weight, 25 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1931. ANOTHER ; with traces of white and green enamel ; the sides of the hoop 
have ornament of chevrons, and the shoulders transverse ribs ; the bezel has 
floral design with white enamel on the petals, and contains a garnet. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 66 grains. From Burnham Market, Norfolk. 

1932. ANOTHER ; shoulders engraved and chased with scrolls ; the bezel contains 
a ruby, and the petals have floral ornament on black and white enamel. 
D. -94 in. Weight, 68 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

J 933- ANOTHER ; the shoulders scrolled, and enamelled in black and white ; bezel 
set with a ruby, the petals at the sides enamelled black, as also are the under 
sides, which are reeded. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 40 grains. 

1934. ANOTHER ; the shoulders chased for enamel, now lost ; bezel with crystal, 
the petals chased with scroll designs. 
D. i in. Weight, 78 grains. 

I 935- ANOTHER ; shoulders scrolled, with traces of enamel ; bezel with a crystal 
and white enamel in the petals. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 51 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1936. ANOTHER ; the bezel has a turquoise, and the petals at the sides are 
engraved with oval panels and other ornament, once enamelled ; the shoulders 
are scrolled and were once enamelled in white and black ; at the back of the 
hoop a goldsmith's stamp resembling that on no. 1928. 
D. 1*03 in. Weight, 48 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

J 937- ANOTHER ; the shoulders have each a quatrcfoil with projections to right 
and left ; large bezel with an emerald, the petals at the side elaborately chased 
with scrolls, once enamelled. 
Plate XXVI. 
U. i'35 in. Weight, 170 grains. 

1938. ANOTHER ; shoulders scrolled and chased for enamel ; bezel with sapphire, 
the petals ornamented with scrolls on ground of white enamel. 
Plate XXVI. 
D. ro2 in. Weight, 69 grains. Bequeathed by W. Surges, Esq., A.K.A., 1881. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 273 

1939. ANOTHER ; the shoulders scrolled and enamelled dark blue, white, and 
translucent red ; fede hands at back of hoop. Bezel with ruby, the petals 
enamelled translucent green. 

Plate XXVI. 
D. i in. Weight, 65 grains. 
For the fede type cf. nos. 1002 ff. 

1940. ANOTHER ; shoulders chased and scrolled for enamel ; bezel set with a ruby 
and a diamond side by side; the petals chased with ovals and other designs, 
with traces of black and white enamel. 

Plate XXVI. 

D. i'o4 in. Weight, 70 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1941. ANOTHER ; richly enamelled ; the whole exterior of the hoop is chased ; the 
shoulders are scrolled ; the bezel is set with an emerald, the petals enriched 
with translucent red enamel. 

Plate XXVI. 
I). "94 in. Weight, 118 grains. 

1942. ANOTHER ; BRONZE ; shoulders scrolled ; bezel with a turquoise, and black 
enamel in the petals. At the back of the hoop, stamp with tiara and crossed 
keys, control-mark of the Papal States. 

D. ro4 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1943. ANOTHER ; COLD ; richly enamelled in four colours, dark blue, white, 
translucent red, and green. The hoop and shoulders chased and scrolled, and 
enamelled like the petals of the bezel, which contains a cupid's head cut 
in onyx. 

Plate XXVI. 
I). ri2 in. Weight, 105 grains. 

1944. ANOTHER ; the shoulders scrolled ; triangular bezel with three petals 
instead of the usual four, and set with a crystal ; the petals chased throughout 
for enamel, traces of which remain. 

Plate XXVI. 
I). ro4 in. Weight, n6grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1945. ANOTHER ; SILVER GILT ; the shoulders scrolled ; bezel set with a carbuncle 
and having four petals once enamelled, but less drooping than in preceding 
examples. 

1). '9 in. Found at Geneva. 

1946. ANOTHER ; SILVER GILT ; scrolled shoulders ; long quatrefoil-shaped bezel 
with a turquoise, the petals chased with foliate ornament. 

German. 

D. 1-1 in. (Soden Smith Coll.j 

T 



274 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1947. GOLD ; shoulders scrolled, each with a quatrefoil in high relief. Rectangular 
bezel bevelled at the base, the sides enamelled in red and black, set with 
a garnet. 

i6tk century. 

]). i in. Weight, 54 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

1948. ANOTHER ; similar ; the bezel containing a crystal ; the enamel mostly lost. 
1). i in. Weight, 33 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1949. ANOTHER ; similar, but with enamel preserved ; the bezel set with an 
emerald ; a dot of white enamel on each of the sides. 

Plate XXVI. 

I), ro6 in. Weight, 73 grains. 

1950. ANOTHER ; the enamel all black ; set with a pyramidal white topaz. 
1). rij in. Weight, 81 grains. (Bruybrooke Coll.) 

1951. ANOTHER; the enamel lost; set with a pyramidal sapphire. 
D. 1*05 in. Weight, 39 grains. 

1952. GOLD ; the hoop scrolled at the shoulders and enamelled in translucent blue 
and green ; oval bezel, with a plate revolving on a swivel, having on each side 
the same monogram P.C.M (?) reserved in the metal, in the one case on a blue, 
in the other on a green ground ; the border .scrolled and enamelled red. 

Plate XXVII. if>t/i century. 

I). '88 in. Weight, 93 grains. 

I 953- GOLD ; the hoop chased with quatrefoils for enamel, now lost ; high rectan- 
gular bezel set with a table crystal, the sides chased with quatrefoils ; pro- 
jecting base with pearled edge. 
Italian, \f>t/t century. 
I). ro2 in. Weight, 90 grains. 

1954. GOLD ; shoulders of hoop, sides and back of bezel with scrolls on ground 
of black enamel ; rectangular bezel set with a table crystal. 
Italian, \bt/t century. 
D. ro2 in. Weight, 74 grains. Found in Venice. 

!955- GOLD ; the hoop engraved on the shoulders with herring-bone design ; 
rectangular bezel containing a crystal. 
\6tk century. 
D. '8 in. Weight, 52 grains. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 275 

I 955 a - GILT BRON/K ; the hoop rounded at the back and chased on the shoulders 
with foliate designs ; rectangular bezel set with a table-cut crystal over dark 
blue foil ; the sides of the bezel are cut to suggest claws (cf. no. 1901). 

P Italian, idth century. 

D. i'4 in. Perhaps a thumb-ring. 

JQSSb- GILT BRONZE ; the shoulders have scrolls on a ground of black enamel ; 
high rectangular bezel set with a table-cut amethyst glass paste; the sides are 
cut to simulate claws, as in the last example, and at the bottom have foliate- 
designs on a ground of black enamel ; the bottom is similarly enamelled. 
Italian, i6t/i century. 
\). 1-4 in. 

1956. GOLD ; shoulders chased with floral ornament and once enamelled ; 
rectangular bezel containing a crystal. 
Italian, \fttli century. 
D. '87 in. Weight, 44 grains. 

1957. GOLD; the shoulders chased with scrolls for enamel, now lost; high 
hexagonal bezel containing a faceted garnet set in claws; round the sides 
of the bezel a band of white enamel, and on the back IMS engraved, with crosses. 

ifith century. 

D. ro4 in. Weight, 59 grains. 

1958. GOLD ; shoulders and sides of bezel chased for enamel, now lost ; hexagonal 
bezel set with a turquoise. 

\6t/t century. 

D. i in. Weight, 88 grains. 

I 959- GOLD; the sides of the hoop chased with scrolls and enamelled; the sides 
and back of the oval bezel, which contains a turquoise, also enamelled in blue, 
green, and white. 

Early 17 tk century. 
D. ro8 in. Weight, 61 grains. 

1960. GOLD ; the shoulders of the hoop enamelled in white and translucent 
colours ; oval bezel rounded beneath, where it is enamelled with leaves, set with 
a diamond ; round the sides conventional claws. 
Plate XXVII. Early ijth century. 
D. i in. Weight, 70 grains. 

1961. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop chased with a band of astragalus for enamel, 
now lost ; the shoulders scrolled. On the flat bezel are Prometheus and the 
vulture in high relief, with traces of enamel. 
Late i6t/i century. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 67 grains. Hamilton Coll. 1856. 

T 2 



276 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1962. GOLD ; the shoulders chased ; oval bezel scalloped beneath, containing 
a cupid's head in onyx. 

Late \dth century. 
I). -98 in. Weight, 70 grains. 

1963. ANOTHER ; square bezel with cupid's head in onyx. 
Late i6th century. 

I). l'O4 in. Weight, 32 grains. Hamilton Coll. 1856. 

1964. ANOTHER ; the hoop with leaves in relief, and pierced at the shoulders ; 
oval bezel reeded at back, with cupid's head cut in cameo on onyx. 

Late \6th century. 

D. -82 in. Weight, 33 grains. From .Messina. 

1965. GOLD ; similar hoop ; oval bezel set with a ruby. 
Late \bth century. 

I). 73 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

1966. GOLD ; the shoulders scrolled ; high oval bezel with a cupid's face in high 
relief. 

Plate XXVI. Late i6th century. 

I). I'O4 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

1967. GOLD ; the shoulders scrolled ; the bezel resembling a flower with four 
tiers of petals. 

Late \btlicentitry. 
IX '77 in. Weight, 31 grains. 

1968. SILVER GILT ; the shoulders chased with scrolls in high relief; raised oval 
bezel reeded at the back, engraved with a letter L and a heart on a ground 
of foliage. 

German, \6t/t century. 

IX roi in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1969. GOLD ; the shoulders chased and once enamelled ; high bezel, enamelled 
in black beneath and on the sides, and containing a diamond. 

i6/// century. 

1). '94 in. Weight, 33 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1970. GOLD ; slender hoop expanding to the shoulders, which are finely chased 
with scrolls reserved on a ground of black enamel ; oval bezel containing 
a glass paste simulating a cameo on onyx, and representing Cupid with his 
quiver, carrying doves on a stick over his shoulder. The back of the bezel 
is ornamented with scrolls in black enamel. 

Plate XXVI. 

D. ri in. Weight, 166 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 
The cameo paste is antique. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 



277 



1971. GOLD ; once enamelled ; flat hoop expanding to the shoulders, where, as 
on the sides of the bezel, it is chased with scrolls ; octagonal bezel containing 
a plate of iron, and engraved on the back with a geometrical design. 
Italian, 1 6th century. 
D. ro4 in. Weight, 155 grains. 

1972. GOLD ; once enamelled ; the shoulders chased with palmettes and scrolls with 
masks in relief; oval bezel with the sun in his splendour reserved in the metal, 
within a scrolled border below which are the letters C B. 

L ate i6th century. 
D. -9 in. Weight. 112 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1973. BRONZE GILT ; slender hoop, with foliate ornament in relief on the shoulders ; 
oval bezel with an oval shield of arms surmounted by a coronet : azure, on 
a fesse or, a cinquefoil between in chief a sun in his splendour, and in base a lamb. 

Late ibth century. 
D. i'i in. 

The bezel has a deep longitudinal slit extending to the shoulders, as if it had contained 
a knife-blade. 

1974. GOLD ; diminutive ring ; the shoulders engraved with foliate ornament ; 
circular bezel engraved with a crescent upon a dotted ground. 

1 6th century. 

D. -54 in. Weight, 36 grains. Obtained in Naples. 

1975- BRONZE GILT ; the hoop imbricated on the outer side, and expanding to 
an oval bezel with a laureate imperial bust to /-. in relief. 
\6th century. 
D. "94 in. 



1976. SILVER ; the shoulders rudely chased 
with floral ornament ; large oval bezel 
chased with letters R M in monogram ; 
above and below the letters an open 
flower. 

See figure. German, \-/tk century. 

D. '96 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
The hoop is broken. 

1977. ANOTHER; similar, but smaller, with the letters D M 
similarly chased. 
See figure. 

D. '82 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

This ring is in exactly the same style as the other. It is possible that 
the two may have been betrothal-rings. 






278 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1978. SILVER ; flat hoop with raised rims ; round the outer side a band of quatre- 
foils. 

1 7 tit century. 

D. - g6 in. (Hailstone Coll.) From Monkstown, Cork. 

The hoop is broken. 

1979. SILVER GILT ; plain hoop, with applied circular bezel set with a carbuncle, 
i bt/i century. 

D. '96 in. 

1980. SILVER GILT; hoop of triangular section at back, faceted on shoulders, 
expanding to a pointed oval bezel containing a gilt mask of Silenus in relief 
under a cabochon crystal. 

"i'jtli century. 

1). i'32 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

1981. BRONZE GILT ; hoop ornamented on the outer side with a wreath in relief; 
transverse ribs on shoulders. Large oblong bezel containing a turquoise glass 
paste. 

i"] lit century. 

1). I (> in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1982. GOLD ; slender hoop, the shoulders engraved for enamel ; hexagonal bezel 
enamelled in black beneath and containing a cabochon clear glass paste. 

if>t/i century. 

I). "98 in. Weight, 56 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1983. GOLD ; once enamelled ; the hoop with arabesque scrolls reserved in the 
metal ; bezel rectangular at the top, and containing a crystal set with claws, 
and below pyramidal, chased with palmcttes. 

1 6tk century. 

\). "92 in. Weight, 43 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1984. GOLD ; slender hoop ; bezel square at the top and containing a crystal ; the 
sides reeded and contracting below. 

1). '96 in. Weight, 20 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

1985. GOLD ; the shoulders chased for enamel with a design of leaves ; bezel cut 
to an irregular quatrefoil and containing a triangular diamond. 

Late \6t/t century. 

I). '84 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

1986. GOLD ; slender hoop expanding to an octagonal bezel containing a turquoise. 
Late \f>th century. 

D. -66 in. Weight, 19 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 




ORNAMENTAL RINGS 279 

1987. GOLD ; the hoop of triangular section ; on the shoulders herring-bone design 
reserved on ground of black enamel ; calyx-shaped bezel also enamelled in 
black on the back and sides, containing a faceted white topaz (?) engraved with 
a monogram. 

French, late i6t/i century. 

IX '9 in. Weight, 77 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

1988. GOLD ; slender hoop chased on the shoulders with scrolls on ground of 
black enamel and expanding to a lozenge-shaped bezel similarly enamelled, 
with four claws partly enamelled white, and containing a diamond. 

Plate XXVI. Late \6tk century. 

IX '96 in. Weight, 68 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1989. GOLD ; on each shoulder a band of crescents reserved in 
the metal on ground of black enamel ; pyramidal bezel, also 
enamelled in black, supported by four large claws, and con- 
taining an emerald in a square setting. 

See figure. Late i6tk century. 
I), ri2 in. Weight, 80 grains. 

1990. ANOTHER ; of similar type, containing a crystal. 
Plate XXVI. Late i6th century. 
D. -98 in. Weight, 76 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

1991. ANOTHER ; similar ; the bezel set with a diamond. 
Late i6tk century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 60 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
Two of the claws are broken. 

1992. BRONZE GILT ; the hoop forms a trefoil at the shoulders, after which it 

(contracts to the bezel, which is a high octagonal setting containing a cameo 
head of a cupid in glass paste. 
ijt/e century. 
fX ro8 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

1993. GOLD ; similar hoop ; rectangular bezel channelled round the sides, 
containing a crystal glass paste. 

\7th century. 

D. i in. Weight, 58 grains. 

The style of the bezel in this and the following numbers closely recalls that of rings 
dating from the Middle Ages (cf. nos. 1743 ff., 1751). But the form of the hoops prevents such 
an early attribution ; it is further negatived by the whole character of no. 1992, with which all 
have distinct affinities. The hoops must be regarded as degradations of the finer sixteenth- 
century types with scrolls. 



280 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

1994. GOLD ; similar hoop ; large rectangular bezel with channelled sides, having 
in the centre an oval pearled setting containing a cupid's head cut in sard, 
from which four ridges radiate to the corners. 

17 tk century. 

D. i'i in. Weight, 100 grains. 1866. 

1995. GOLD ; similar hoop ; high oval bezel containing a turquoise. 

^"jtk century. 

I). I in. Weight, 44 grains. Castcllani Coll. 1872. 
The hoop broken at the back. 

1996. ANOTHER ; similar hoop ; high circular bezel with eight claws, containing 
a red glass paste. 

i'] tli century. 

I). 75 in. Weight, 29 grains. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

1997. ANOTHER ; similar, but with rectangular bezel containing a garnet. 
ijth cent iny. 

I). '66 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

1998. ANOTHER ; similar, with a jacinth. 
171/1 century. 

I). "86 in. Weight, 41 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

1999. BRONZE ; once gilt ; similar hoop ; rectangular bezel rising to a pyramid 
and containing a garnet. 

i"l 'tli century. 

1). ri7 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1866. 

2000. ANOTHER; bezel flatter, and containing an emerald. 
I'jtk century. 

I). '92 in. Castcllani Coll. 1872. 

2001. ANOTHER ; the bezel containing a crystal. 
ijtk century. 

1). '98 in. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

2002. ANOTHER ; set with a garnet. 
ijt/i century. 

1). '96 in. Castellan! Coll. 1872. 

2003. GOLD ; slender hoop and high rectangular bezel set with a crystal. 
I'jtk centtiry. 

D. i in. Weight, 45 grains. 

2004. ANOTHER ; similar ; the bezel shallower and containing a ruby. 
I'jtk century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 31 grains. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 281 

2005. GOLD; enamelled; the hoop with scrolls in relief; hexagonal bezel con- 
taining a diamond supported on four high claws and two enamelled trefoils, 
one on each side, 

Plate XXVII. Italian, late \.f>th century. 
D. -98 in. Weight, 67 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2006. GOLD ; enamelled in black, pale blue, pale green, and white. The hoop 
has at the back two birds' heads, competing for a berry ; on each side is a 
scroll in open-work. Two S-scrolls support a high bezel in which is a ruby 
held by four claws. 

Plate XXVII. Late ifit/i century. 

I), risin. Weight, 94 grains. (Hraybrookc Coll.) 

2007. GOLD; richly enamelled; the hoop ornamented on the shoulders with 
scrolls and rams' heads in high relief. The bezel is pyramidal, channelled 
round the base, and containing a ruby ; the sides arc ornamented with 
enamelled flowers and ribbons. 

German, late i6t/t century. 

D. i '28 in. Weight, 200 grains. (Braybrookc Coll.) 

2008. GOLD ; richly enamelled ; the hoop of the fede type with clasped hands at 
the back ; on each side of these a diamond and enamelled ornament, and on 
each shoulder four emeralds. The bezel is conical, with nine emeralds 
arranged in a cross, and chased scrolls with white and translucent red enamel ; 
the back, as well as the interior beneath the shoulders, is also enamelled with 
scroll and other designs in brilliant colours. 

Plate XXVI. German, late iht/i century. 
D. '98 in. Weight, 128 grains. (Hraybrookc Coll.) 

2009. GOLD ; oval bezel set with an onyx cameo of the bust of a negro with a 
collar of diamonds ; the back has scrolls reserved upon a ground of black- 
enamel, and in the centre a quatrefoil on a blue ground 

within a white circle. The shoulders represent negroes 

with turbans ; before them are escutcheons enamelled 

red and blue, on each of which is a ram's head in relief 

and a quatrefoil. The back of the hoop is enamelled 

black and white; in the interior under one shoulder is 

a sun, under the other a moon reserved upon a blue 

ground, the remaining space covered by scrolls reserved on a black ground 

with white border. 

See figure. German, late \6tk century. 

D. 1*2 in. L. of bezel, 74 in. Weight, 155 grains. Waddesdon Bequest, 1898. 

C. H. Read, The Waddesdon Bequest, Works of Art, c., British Museum, 1902, no. 200. 





282 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



2010. GOLD ; the shoulders shaped and enamelled in translucent red, pale blue, 
green, and white; in the bezel is a ruby held in four claws and engraved in 
intaglio with a standing draped figure. 

Plate XXVII. 1 6th century. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 47 grains. 

The intiiglio is Late Roman. 

2on. GOLD; enamelled in green, red, and white ; the hoop in the form of a serpent, 
the body curved to a circle, and the head, at the bezel, attacking a bird. The 
eyes are inlaid with garnets. 

Plate XXVII. Italian, i6tk century. 

D. -94 in. Weight, 84 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2012. GOLD ; the hoop formed of fish enamelled in bright 
colours. 

Sec figure, i "jth century. 

I). 76 in. Weight, 58 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2013. GOLD ; the shoulders cross-hatched to receive white enamel, of which little 
remains ; rectangular bezel containing an oval ruby ; the sides enamelled in 
white, at each corner a vertical projection simulating a claw. 

1 6th centnry. 

1). '94 in. Weight, 95 grains. (Londesborough Coll.) 
Said to have been found at Canterbury. 

2014. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with a herring-bone design for white enamel, 
mostly lost ; rectangular bezel set with a ruby held by four claws, the sides 
contracting towards the hoop and enamelled white. 

English, i jth centnry. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 28 grains. 
Found at Cambridge. 

2015. GOLD ; the hoop and sides of the bezel finely enamelled with arabesques 
on a white ground ; the bezel is heart-shaped 

and contains a jacinth. 

Plate XXVI, and see figure. English, 
early I'jt/i century. 

D. i in. Weight, 206 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

The style of the enamelling recalls that upon the 
back of the jewel in the Waddesdon Bequest presented 
by King James I to Mr. Thomas Lyte (C. H. Read, 
The Waddesdon Bequest : Catalogue of the Works of 
Art, &c., British Museum, 1902, no. 167). 





ORNAMENTAL KINGS 283 

2016. GOLD; the hoop has designs resembling peacocks' feathers in green 
enamel upon a ground of white ; the shoulders swell to a high triangular bezel 
containing an emerald. 

Plait XXVI. English, 17 'th century. 
IX '9 in. Weight, 36 grains. 

2017. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with a formal floral design, once enamelled ; 
rectangular bezel enamelled at the back and on the sides with conventional 
floral ornament on a white ground, and containing a sapphire. 

i jt/t century. 

D. '99 in. Weight, 98 grains. (Bateman Coll.) 

2018. GOLD ; the shoulders and sides of the bezel enamelled in white and black ; 
rectangular bezel containing a faceted crystal on a sapphire foil. 

D. I in. Weight, 97 grains. 

2019. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop and the sides of the bezel are chased and 
enamelled with floral scrolls in white, and tints of green and red ; high 
rectangular bezel set with a faceted amethyst. The back of the bezel 
enamelled with conventional flowers. 

\7tli century. 

D. i in. Weight, 63 grains. 

2O2O. GOLD ; the hoop ornamented with scrolls in white and black enamel, con- 
tinued on the sloping sides of the large rectangular bezel, which contains 
a crystal over a rose foil. 
Late 171/1 century. 
D. ri in. Weight, 1 60 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

2021. GOLD ; the shoulders of the hoop chased in scrolls for enamel, now lost ; 
oblong bezel, the sides enamelled in white and black, containing a sapphire. 

Plate XXVII. Late 17 th century. 
D. ro7 in. Weight, 96 grains. 

2022. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with similar scrolls, and at the junction with 
the bezel forming pierced trefoils enamelled in white and black ; pyramidal 
bezel, enamelled on the base and sides with the same colours, and containing an 
amethyst. 

Plate XXVII. Late 17 th century. 

D. -86 in. Weight, 47 grains. Castellani Coll. i}>72. 

2023. GOLD ; the shoulders chased for enamel, now almost entirely lost ; high 
rectangular bezel with fluted sides containing white enamel, now set with 
a piece of malachite. 

Late \"/th century. 

IX '9 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

The malachite probably replaces a lost gem. 



284 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2024. GOLD ; the shoulders of the hoop similarly scrolled ; the bezel rectangular 
at the top, where it is set with a ruby, and rounded underneath, where, as on 
the sides, there are traces of black enamel. 

Late i^th century 

D. '84 in. Weight, 58 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2025. GOLD ; the shoulders with scrolls on ground of black enamel ; octagonal 
bezel set with an amethyst and ornamented on the sides with conventional 
floral designs enamelled white and black. 

Plate XXVII. Late i-jt/i century. 
I). '98 in. Weight, 59 grains. 

2026. GOLD ; pointed oval bezel set with a table diamond surrounded by ten 
other diamonds ; the under sides of the bezel enamelled with white scrolls on 
a black ground, the design continued on the shoulders of the hoop. 

Plate XXVIII. Late \-]th century. 
D. I in. Weight, 97 grains. 

2027. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with scrolls for enamel, of which only traces 
remain ; large pointed oval bezel set with an amethyst surrounded by a row of 
diamonds, three additional stones being added at each end. The sides of the 
bezel have flutings filled with black enamel. 

Plate XXVIII. Late \jt/i century. 
D. '86 in. Weight, 60 grains. 

2028. GOLD ; shoulders with scrolls on ground of black enamel ; large pointed 
oval bezel set with a garnet surrounded by alternating emeralds and rubies, the 
sides scalloped beneath, and enamelled in black with white dots. 

Plate XXVIII. Late ijth century. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 84 grains. 

2029. GOLD ; the hoop with floral designs reserved on ground of black enamel ; 
large pointed oval bezel set with a garnet surrounded by emeralds, the under 
side enamelled like the previous number. 

Plate XXVII. Late \lth century. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 87 grains. 

2030. GOLD ; the shoulders cut as trefoils enamelled white and black ; the bezel 
an oval setting containing a turquoise, flanked on each side by two rubies and 
an emerald in smaller settings. The sides of all settings have flutings filled with 
white, black, and pink enamel. At the back of the hoop a ridge-like projection. 

Late 17 th century. 

D. roi in. Weight, 149 grains. 

The projection at the back suggests oriental influence. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 285 

2031. GOLD ; similar type ; the shoulders with scrolls reserved on ground of 
black enamel ; the oval setting in the middle contains a faceted crystal, and the 
smaller settings beyond clear glass pastes ; the sides of all the settings and the 
back of the bezel are ornamented with scrolls in white and black enamel. At 
the back of the hoop a goldsmith's stamp with the tiara and crossed keys, the 
control-mark of the Papal States. 

Plate XVIII. Late ijt/i century. 

IX I '04 in. Weight, no grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

2032. GOLD; the shoulders with scrolls reserved on white enamel, mostly lost; 
long oval bezel containing an emerald cut in cameo with two clasped hands, and 
bordered at each end by a setting for three rubies. The sides of all the 
settings have white enamel with scrolls in black. 

Late \lth century. 

I), i in. Weight, 79 grains. Obtained in Rome. 

This ring is allied by the character of its bezel to the class of fede-rings, nos. 1002 ff. 

2033. GOLD; the shoulders with scrolls on ground of black enamel; circular 
bezel set with garnets, the under side scalloped and ornamented with flutes 
filled with black enamel with white dots. On the central stone is painted 
a representation of the Virgin and Child in half- figure. 

Plate XXVII. Late ijt/i century. 

IX '9 in. Weight, 58 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

In the plate the figures on the central stone are inverted. 

2034. GOLD ; the shoulders with scrolls reserved on a ground of black enamel ; 
the bezel has a lozenge setting containing a sapphire, flanked by two projecting 
settings, each with three brilliants. The under side of the bezel is enamelled as 
in the previous number. At the back of the hoop a small stamp, perhaps the 
control-mark of the Papal States. (Cf. no. 2031.) 

Plate XXVII. Late ijt/t century. 

I). '92 in. Weight, 87 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2035. GOLD ; similar type ; the bezel set entirely with diamonds. At the back of 
the hoop a similar stamp. 

Late 17 th century. 

IX '86 in. Weight, 56 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

2036. GOLD ; oblong bezel set with a table diamond flanked on each side by 
three other diamonds ; the under sides are enamelled with scrolls in the same 
style as no. 2031, and the enamel was once continued on the hoop, which is 
keyed on the shoulders to receive it. 

Plate XXVIII. Late i -jtfi century. 
I). '84 in. Weight, 52 grains. 



286 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2037. GOLD ; plain hoop expanding to a lozenge-shaped bezel set with four 
diamonds ; the sides are engraved, probably for enamel, now lost. 

Late 17 th century. 

IX -82 in. Weight, 53 grains. (Braybrooke C'oll.) 

2038. GOLD ; slender hoop chased on the shoulders with scrolls for enamel, now 
lost ; the bezel is an oval setting containing a diamond. 

English, early ittt/t century. 

I). '9 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

2039. GOLD ; the hoop with scrolls as in the preceding number; oval bezel, with 
flutings on the under side filled with black enamel, and containing under glass 
a miniature painting, in colours, of the Judgement of Paris. 

English, early \ftth century. 

IX '82 in. Weight, 38 grains. 

2040. SILVER GILT; the hoop enamelled on the shoulders with a floral design in 
black ; the bezel is a rectangular setting containing a .sapphire and ornamented 
with six bosses round the sides. 

English, late i"jt/t century. 
D. -88 in. 

2041. BRONZE ; the shoulders engraved for enamel, now lost ; the bezel is 
a rectangular box setting containing a blue glass paste. 
English, late ijt/t century. 

IX ~9 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2042. ANOTHER ; similar ; oval bezel set with an amethyst. 

D. '96 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) Found in St. Nicholas's Churchyard, Colchester, 1851. 

2043. GOLD; the shoulders with scrolls for enamel, now lost; rectangular box 
bezel containing a crystal, the sides ornamented with flutings filled with white 
enamel. 

English, late i "jth century. 

IX -9 in. Weight, 37 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2044. ANOTHER; similar, but with oval bezel set with a garnet cut in ca,meo 
with a cupid's head. 

Late i'jth century. 

D. -98 in. Weight, 54 grains. Obtained in Rome. 
The gem is Italian. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 287 

2045. GOLD ; the hoop ornamented with scrolls filled with pale blue enamel ; 
raised oval bezel, the sides ornamented with flutings filled with the same- 
enamel ; it contains, beneath glass, a paper inscribed with the Lord's Prayer, 
followed by the words: William Mason Writing M r (Master] in tlic Minor ics, 
April 2 (?) Anno Domini, i6j6. 

English, late I'jt/t century. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 29 grains. Sloane Coll. 1753. 

Cf. no. 774. 

2046. GOLD ; oblong bezel containing three diamonds, the sides ornamented with 
flutings filled with pale blue enamel. 

English, late ijt/i century. 

U. '8 in. Weight, 30 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

The hoop is broken at the back. 

2047. GOLD ; the bezel has four large and two small diamonds in silver settings 
among four-leaved flowers enamelled in pale blue and white ; the interior of 
the hoop has a band of white enamel, on which is the legend in black : Kadi 
dem Regcn sclicint die Sonnc. 

German, early ittt/t century. 
D. '8 in. Weight, 38 grains. 

2048. Goi.D ; a diminutive ring. On the shoulders of the hoop are .scrolls reserved 
on a ground of white enamel ; the bezel has a square setting with a table 
emerald between two oval settings once containing two diamonds ; of these one 
is lost. 

Englisli, late \ "jt/i century. 
D. '66 in. Weight, 23 grains. 

2049. GOLD ; high oval bezel set with a ruby, and on the sides with two rubies 
and two emeralds, the lower edges simulate petals of leaves. Kach shoulder 
of the hoop is engraved, and set with a ruby and an emerald. 

Plate XXVI. Italian, late ijf/i century. 
D. '94 in. Weight, 112 grains. 

2050. GOLD ; square bezel set with a ruby ; the shoulders and sides of the bezel 
are ornamented with arabesques reserved upon a ground of black enamel. 

Plate XXVII. German, \~th century. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 79 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2051. GOLD ; the shoulders of the hoop shaped as human masks between butterfly 
wings enamelled blue and white ; the bezel consists of a large oval setting 
containing a faceted sapphire, flanked by two small circular settings, one with 
a ruby, the other with a carbuncle ; round the large setting are circular projec- 
tions once enamelled white. 

Plate XXVII. Early \%th century. 

D. '88 in. Weight, 76 grains. Obtained at Naples. 



288 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2052. SILVER; the hoop a flat band with raised ribbed borders; the bezel is an 
applied circular plaque engraved with the letter T, once filled with enamel. 

German, ittt/t century. 

D. ro8 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2053. SILVER GILT; each shoulder is chased with the half-figure of a winged 
female; the bezel, which is between the wings, has three small figures in open- 
work a man and a woman leading a child between them. 

ifith century. 

IX ri7 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2054. SILVER GILT; the hoop twisted at the back; each shoulder is formed of 
two monsters with tails interlaced ; the be/el has an unengraved shield between 
their heads. 

Italian, early I 8/// century. 
I), roz in. 

2055. SILVER; flat hoop ornamented on the outside with raised lozenges alter- 
nating with groups of four pellets. 

German, late i~tk century. 
1). -96 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2056. SILVER ; plain hoop ; oval bezel engraved with a wreath. 
1'rench^ late \*]tli century. 

I). -92 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2057. SILVER ; slender twisted hoop ; bezel of three circular divisions simulating 
stones in settings ; between them four small settings in cable wire. 

1'last European. \ tit/t cent/try. 

IX '8 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

2058. SILVER; slender hoop; bezel in the shape of a cinquefoil set with glass 
pastes, that in the centre green, the rest dark blue. 

Late \7tJi century. 

D. '9 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

2059. SILVER GILT; the shoulders and sides of the bezel modelled with scrolls: 
circular bezel set with a dark stone. 

Hungarian, late \"]th century. 
I). 1-14 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2060. ANOTHER ; similar ; the circular bezel containing an unengraved silver plate. 
I). ri4 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2061. ANOTHER ; high hexagonal bezel containing a garnet crystal. 
D. T28 in. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 289 

2062. SILVER ; on each shoulder a square panel with engraved ornament ; flat 
circular bezel raised upon a projecting stem, and engraved with conventional 
designs. 

Hungarian, late \7tk century. 
D. I'l in. D. of bezel, -86 in. 

2063. SILVER GILT ; the shoulders modelled with foliate ornament ; oval bezel 
set with a turquoise and engraved with foliage at the back. Inside the hoop 
is engraved a date : MDCLXXII. 



Hungarian, late ijt/i century. 
D. ri in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2064. GOLD ; the shoulders scrolled and enamelled in green and blue ; oval bezel 
enamelled at the back, and containing a cabochon sard engraved in intaglio 
with a lion to left. 

Plate XXVII. Hungarian, late ijt/t century. 
D. i '2 in. Weight, 179 grains. 

2065. SILVER ; the shoulders moulded with trefoils ; circular bezel, reeded 
beneath, set with six table garnets ; a central stone wanting. 

Hungarian, \%th century. 
D. '92 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2066. SILVER ; the exterior of the hoop has conventional designs reserved on 
a ground of black enamel, and on each shoulder a small panel, with rounded 
end, enamelled green and white ; the bezel is a rectangular setting with 
a crystal over a pale blue foil, flanked by two triangles of red enamel and two 
turquoise beads. The interior of the hoop beneath the bezel is enamelled 
blue and white. 

Hungarian, ittt/i century. 
D. i in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

2067. GOLD ; slender hoop and leaf-shaped bezel set with a large emerald within 
a border of rubies and diamonds. 

Hungarian, early 1 St/i century. 

D. -97 in. Weight, 146 grains. Obtained at Budapest. 

2068. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with scrolls and half-figures of a man and 
a woman with arms raised behind their heads towards a lozenge-shaped bezel 
containing a pyramidal garnet. 

German, \%th century. 

D. 1*28 in. Weight, 247 grains. 

2069. SILVER GILT ; the hoop expanding to the shoulders, which are chased ; 
oval bezel set with a cabochon topaz, engraved with the terrestrial globe, 
on which is the legend : IL L'A TOUCHE PEUT-ETRE. 

German, i %th century. 

D. 1-25 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

U 



290 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2070. SILVER ; shoulders engraved with foliate designs ; rectangular bezel 
unengraved. 

German, i%th century. 
D. '88 in. 

2071. GOLD ; the hoop pierced with foliate ornament ; oblong bezel, with 
a monogram A M L in open-work between four crystals. 

Plate XX VIII. i$t/i century. 

D. -86 in. Weight, 80 grains. 
The bezel is bent at the sides. 

2072. GOLD ; thin hoop with median ridge and with conventional scrolls at 
shoulders ; large hollow pear-shaped bezel set with a cabochon emerald. To 
one shoulder is attached a fragment of gold chain. 

South-eastern Europe, i8t/i century. 

D. 1-32 in. Weight, 66 grains. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

2073. GOLD ; thin hoop bifurcating at the shoulders ; large circular bezel, with 
a central crystal surrounded by eight others of smaller size. 

Late I'jth cen tu ry. 

D. -98 in. Weight, 95 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

2074. GOLD ; the shoulders channelled 
and filled with black enamel ; large 
circular bezel set with a central 
cross surrounded by a circle, all of 
pearls pierced and threaded on wires ; 
round both cross and circle, channels 
formerly filled with black enamel. 

Sec figure. Venetian (?), late I'jth 
century. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 103 grains. (Bray- 
brooke Coll.) 

2075. ANOTHER ; of similar design ; the bezel has a single central pearl surrounded 
by six others threaded on wires radiating from the centre. The under side 
of the bezel is lobed. 

Venetian (?), late i Jth century. 
D. ro6 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

2076. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with foliage and bifurcating with scrolled ends ; 
open-work bezel with five diamonds of different size. 

Early \f>th century. 

D. i in. Weight, 122 grains. 




ORNAMENTAL RINGS 291 

2077. GOLD ; the shoulders of the hoop are in the form of hands supporting an 
oval bezel set with a turquoise. 

ijth century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 52 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

For a similar type of bezel with the hands supporting a heart cf. nos. 1103-4. 

2078. BRONZE GILT : similar design, but the setting contains a garnet and is 
surmounted by a conventional crown. 

English, ijt/t century. 

D. '94 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

2079. GOLD ; similar design ; the hands are enamelled white, and have diamonds 
in settings over the wrist ; the rectangular bezel contains an emerald, and 
is surmounted by three foliate projections. 

English, ijth century. 

D. '74 in. Weight, 32 grains. Found at Newport Castle, Monmouthshire. 

2080. GOLD; slender hoop; pierced circular bezel resembling a rosette, partly 
enamelled in black and set with a diamond. 

Early iSf/i century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 20 grains. 

2081. GOLD ; the shoulders scrolled and ornamented with floral designs, still 
partially filled with black enamel ; high circular bezel, set with five square 
garnets, the spaces between the settings filled with black enamel dotted with 
white ; the under side is ornamented with quatrefoils reserved upon a ground 
of black enamel. 

Plate XXVII. Late \",th century. 
D. "88 in. Weight, 46 grains. 

2082. GOLD ; slender hoop ; applied circular bezel representing a rosette set with 
garnets, the central stone pear-shaped, the others square. 

Italian, early \%th century. 
D. '92 in. Weight, 69 grains. 

2083. GOLD ; the hoop divides into three limbs at the bezel, which is pear-shaped, 
and thickly set with table-cut garnets. On the hoop a goldsmith's stamp with 
the letters L. C. 

Italian, early i8t/i century. 

D. i in. Weight, 92 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2084. GOLD ; the shoulders bifurcating ; circular silver bezel simulating a rosette, 
and set with sparks of diamond. 

Italian, early i$t/i century. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 70 grains. Obtained near Ancona. 

U 2 



292 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2085. SILVER ; the hoop pierced with scrolls at the sides and bifurcating at the 
shoulders, the spaces between the diverging limbs covered by leaves ; circular 
bezel set with marcasites. 

i %th century. 
D. -97 in. 

2086. GOLD ; slender hoop ; the shoulders modelled with transverse ribs, and 
bifurcating at the ends, where each has an applied leaf, with a diamond in 
a square setting. The bezel has a carnelian cut in cameo with a female bust 
in a setting which follows its outline. 

Early ittt/i century. 

D. -96 in. Weight, 34 grains. 

2087. GOLD ; the hoop pierced and bifurcating at the shoulders, the spaces 
between the limbs occupied by settings for stones now lost. Oval bezel 
containing a cameo onyx with a female head to left. 

Early i Wi century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 31 grains. 

The cameo is of the sixteenth century. 

2088. GOLD ; slender hoop with median ridge round the outside ; the bezel 
is a heart-shaped setting with a diamond, flanked by two oval settings, each 
containing a ruby. 

Early 1 8t/t century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 34 grains. 

2089. GOLD ; slender hoop enamelled on the shoulders ; the bezel has a square 
diamond between two triple settings, each with three diamonds of smaller size. 
The under sides of all the settings have flutings filled with black enamel dotted 
with white. 

Early \%th century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 61 grains. 

2090. GOLD ; the hoop channelled round the outer side, and having on each 
shoulder an applied leaf; the bezel is a deep circular setting containing a ruby, 
flanked by two triple settings of silver, with sparks of diamond. 

Early iftth century. 

D. '98 in. Weight, 80 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

2091. GOLD ; the hoop is in the form of foliate scrolls ; the shoulders bifurcate, 
the spaces between the limbs being filled by applied leaves; the high circular 
bezel, containing a ruby and ornamented on the sides with scrolls, is flanked 
by two small silver settings, each with a diamond spark. 

Early ~i%th century. 

D. ro4 in. Weight, 71 grains. Castellani Coll. 1872. 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS 293 

2092. GOLD ; the hoop pierced at the sides and bifurcating at the shoulders ; the 
bezel is an oval setting with a central diamond surrounded by a ring of the 
same stones ; it is flanked on each side by two small settings, each containing 
a diamond. 

Plate XXVIII. Early i8t/i century. 
D. -86 in. Weight, 79 grains. 

2093. GOLD; the bezel consists of an oval setting containing a diamond between 
two smaller settings, one with a ruby, the other with an emerald. 

Italian, early i&t/i century. 
D. '9 in. Weight, 36 grains. 

2094. GOLD ; oblong bezel containing in the middle a square ruby glass paste, 
flanked on each side by three crystal pastes. 

Italian, 1 8t/t century. 

D. "9 in. Weight, 48 grains. From Avellino. 

2095. SILVER ; of the same type. In the middle of the bezel is a carnelian 
engraved in intaglio with a nude figure of a faun seated to right, holding 
a thyrsus in one hand and a lyre in the other ; on either side a triple setting 
with ruby and emerald glass pastes. 

Italian, \Wicentury. 

D. '94 in. 

The gem is antique. 

2096. GOLD ; the hoop has at each shoulder a collar, beyond which it bifurcates, 
the space in each case being filled by a setting with a diamond ; the bezel 
is a deep oval setting with a larger diamond. 

Plate XXVII. English, early \t>th century. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 61 grains. 

2097. GOLD ; the hoop scrolled with leaves and bifurcating at the bezel, the two 
spaces between the limbs filled by two settings, each with a diamond ; the bezel 
is a deep setting reeded beneath and containing a rectangular diamond. 

English^ ~L%th century. 
D. 7 in. Weight, 19 grains. 
The hoop is broken. 

2098. GOLD ; the hoop bifurcates at the shoulders, where it is enamelled in blue 
and white ; oblong bezel containing an emerald, and engraved on the sides with 
enamelled floral ornament ; it is enamelled beneath with a rosette on a blue 
ground. To right and left are two smaller settings containing rubies. 

English, i8/// century. 
D. '88 in. Weight, 63 grains. 



294 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2099. GOLD ; slender hoop, the shoulders engraved for enamel, now lost ; 
cruciform bezel set with five rubies. 

Italian, early i8t/i century. 
D. '9 in. Weight, 59 grains. 

2100. GOLD ; the hoop with bifurcating baluster shoulders, the space between 
the limbs in each case filled by a leaf; the bezel is a large oval setting 
containing a cabochon amethyst. 

Early ifti/t century. 

D. ri6 in. Weight, 114 grains. 

2101. GOLD ; the hoop bifurcating at the shoulders, the interspace in each case 
filled by a third limb of silver ; large oval bezel fluted beneath, containing, 
under glass, St. George killing the dragon, enamelled in colours in relief. 

Plate XXVIII. English, \Mi century. 

D. '98 in. Weight, 82 grains. 

2102-3. GOLD; pair of rings. Each has bifurcating shoulders, with a setting between 
the limbs containing a diamond ; the bezel consists of an oblong setting with an 
emerald, above which is a triple setting with an emerald flanked by diamonds, 
and below a single setting with a diamond. 

Spanish, i8t/i century. 

D. '9 in. Weights, 49 and 50 grains. 

2104. GOLD ; the shoulders pierced ; the bezel has an oval setting with a turquoise, 
above and below which are two rubies, and to right and left two diamonds; 
between the stones are C-shaped scrolls. 

Plate XXVIII. English, i8t/i century. 
D. 77 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

2105. GOLD ; the shoulders pierced ; the bezel similarly arranged to that of the 
preceding number, but with an amethyst between four diamonds. 

Plate XXVIII. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 30 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2106. GOLD ; the hoop forms five scrolls, on four of which is a legend in relief on 
a ground once enamelled : ELLE BRILLE PARTOUT. Open-work bezel with 
a star formed of a central diamond, with three smaller diamonds and three 

' garnets. 

D. -86 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

2107. GOLD ; the hoop forms three scrolls, on which are the words VOYEZ ET 
SOUVENEZ reserved in the metal on a ground once enamelled white. The 






ORNAMENTAL RINGS 295 

bezel is in open-work, and set with a rectangular emerald, surrounded by two 
rubies and two diamonds. 
English, \ 8t/i century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

Comparison with dated mourning-rings proves that this ring dates from about the year 
1760. 

2108. GOLD ; slender hoop ; open-work bezel, with an anchor, once enamelled, 
between a ruby and a diamond of unequal size. To right and left were two small 
settings, probably both containing diamonds, though only one now remains. 

English, i8t/i century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 27 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2109. GOLD ; the hoop fashioned into scrolls and pierced at the shoulders ; the 
bezel has in the centre a diamond and a ruby, below which is a diamond and 
above a crown set with a ruby between two diamonds ; to right and left two 
settings, each with a diamond. 

Plate XXVIII. English, i8t/i century. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 77 grains. 

2110. GOLD ; each shoulder set with an emerald ; the bezel has two diamonds one 
over the other, flanked by two rubies and surmounted by three diamonds in 
a line, suggesting a crown. 

English, i8t/i century. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 25 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2III. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with floral designs ; open-work bezel in form 
of a flower set with a ruby between two diamonds. 
English, i8t/i century. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

The present, with the following sixteen numbers, are Giardinetti rings, so called from 
the arrangement in their bezels of gems representing flowers. They are chiefly English, and 
date from the middle to the third quarter of the eighteenth century. 



2112. ANOTHER ; the shoulders pierced, and ornamented with cinquefoil flowers 
in blue enamel ; the bezel represents a basket of flowers, the body of the 
basket set with a diamond, the flowers themselves with three diamonds and 
two rubies. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 44 grains. 

2113. ANOTHER ; a similar basket ; the flowers are set with a diamond and four 
rubies. 

D. -97 in. Weight, 44 grains. 



296 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2114. ANOTHER ; bifurcating shoulders enamelled in black and pale blue, and 
containing two settings, one with a diamond, the other with a ruby. The bezel 
has a diamond and ruby side by side, and above, a ruby between two diamonds. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 39 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2115. ANOTHER ; the bezel has a flower composed of a diamond between two 
leaves, each set with three small diamonds ; below are three rubies in a line, and 
a single diamond. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 54 grains. 

2116. ANOTHER ; the hoop in the form of scrolls engraved with foliage ; the bezel 
has seven settings among pellets and surmounted by stems ; they contain three 
sapphires in a vertical line, on either side of which are a sapphire and a ruby. 
At the back is a circular setting containing plaited hair(?) under glass. 

I). '9 in. Weight, 48 grains. 

2117. ANOTHER ; the hoop shaped to scrolls and pierced at the shoulders ; the 
bezel suggests flowers set with rubies, emeralds, and diamonds twelve stones 
in all. 

D. 72 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

A ribbed wire is twisted down one side, and an empty space on the other suggests that 
a similar wire is there missing. 

2118. ANOTHER ; the hoop shaped to floral scrolls ; the bezel set with four rubies, 
six diamonds, and four sapphires. 

D. 78 in. Weight, 31 grains. 

2119. ANOTHER ; the bezel set with three diamonds, three rubies, two sapphires, 
and an opal. 

D. '88 in. Weight, 59 grains. 

2120. ANOTHER ; the bezel represents tulips set with six diamonds and two 
rubies. 

Plate XXVIII. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 66 grains. 

2121. ANOTHER ; the bezel has a large circular flower with a diamond surrounded 
by six rubies, and in addition three more rubies and two diamonds. 

Plate XXVIII. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 45 grains. 

2122. ANOTHER ; a small rosette on each shoulder ; the bezel represents flowers 
and stems set with one large and four smaller rubies, and three diamonds. 

Plate XXVIII. 

D. -83 in. Weight, 68 grains. 




ORNAMENTAL RINGS 297 

2123. ANOTHER ; the bezel has flowers with three red blossoms (rubies) ; on the 
leaves and other blossoms are eight small diamonds. 
Plate XXVIII. 
D. '9 in. Weight, 56 grains. 

2124-5. PAIR OF RINGS ; in the same style ; each is of the same design, the hoop 
formed to represent leaves, the bezel having a large circular flower with a central 
diamond surrounded by rubies (nine in one' case, eight in the other) ; to the 
right is a bud set with a diamond ; below are divergent leaves with four rubies, 
while another bud beneath has a diamond. 
D. '9 in. and 76 in. Weights, 77 and 72 grains. 

2126. GOLD ; the hoop a plain wire ; the bezel representing flowers entirely set 
with diamonds. 
Plate XXVIII. 
D. 76 in. Weight, 36 grains. 

2127. GOLD ; bezel an open flower amid sprays, all set with 
marcasites. 

See figure. \Wi century. 
D. -94 in. Weight, 47 grains. 

2128. GOLD ; flat hoop engraved with foliage rapidly expanding to a broad pierced 
bezel with a monster amid foliage set with diamond sparks. 

German, i8/// century. 
D. - 86 in. Weight, 60 grains. 

2129. GOLD ; the shoulders pierced with scrolls ; the bezel a quatrefoil setting 
with four crystals representing leaves. 

i St/i century. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 40 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2130. GOLD ; triple hoop gradually expanding to a circular bezel set with a 
central diamond surrounded by five topazes, representing the leaves of an open 
flower ; between the leaves, five small emeralds. 

English, iSt/i century. 

D. 77 in. Weight, 60 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2131. GOLD ; open-work shoulders ; oblong bezel set with a faceted topaz between 
two silver settings, each containing a diamond. 

\?>tk century. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 53 grains. 

2132. GOLD ; the hoop with pierced quatrefoil designs at the shoulders ; oval bezel 
set with a faceted garnet. 

1 8t/i century. 

D. -8 in. Weight, 27 grains. Obtained in Naples in 1883. 



298 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2133. GOLD ; the shoulders and sides of bezel pierced with floral scrolls and 
set with diamonds ; the bezel is an oblong silver setting with claws, containing 
a faceted amethyst. 

English, itttti century. 

D. 1-03 in. Weight, 105 grains. 

2134. GOLD ; the shoulders and sides of the bezel pierced with floral scrolls ; oval 
bezel set with a sard engraved in intaglio with a bust of Minerva to right. 

i8t/i century. 

D. i'i in. Weight, 85 grains. 
The intaglio is ancient Roman. 

2135. GOLD ; the shoulders with transverse ribs enclosing diagonal lines ; large 
oval bezel set with a cameo in coral, representing the bust of a beardless king 
crowned ; in the surrounding border topazes alternate with pearls. 

i8t/i century. 

D. ro2 in. Weight, 75 grains. 
An old possession of the Museum. 

2136. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a cameo onyx with a lyre, 
and surrounded by a wreath set with emeralds. 
See figure. i8t/i century. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 69 grains. Blacas Coll. 1866. 

2137. GOLD ; flat hoop, pierced with fine filigree scrolls ; bezel an oval setting 
with cable and pellet borders round the base, and containing an onyx cameo, 
a female head to left, with a band over the hair. 

Italian ; the hoop iftth centttry, the cameo i6th century. 
D. '98 in. Weight, 66 grains. Obtained in Florence. 

2138. GOLD ; plain hoop with enamelled leaves on the shoulders ; circular bezel 
with pearled border containing a cross enamelled in dark green on a white 
ground. 

Maltese, 18^/2 century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 44 grains. 

2139. ANOTHER ; similar ; the shoulders plain ; the cross enamelled in white on 
black. 

D. -8 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

2140. ANOTHER ; diminutive ; twisted hoop ; cross enamelled white on gold 
ground. 

D. -68 in. Weight, 8 grains. 

2141. GOLD ; slender hoop with median ridge round the outside ; rectangular 
bezel with sloping sides, reeded, containing an emerald. 

English, i %th century. 
D. 78 in. Weight, 19 grains. 




ORNAMENTAL RINGS 299 

2142. GOLD ; slender twisted hoop ; bezel a circular setting with claws, containing 
an emerald. 

English, iftt/t century. 
D. '8 In. Weight, 10 grains. 

2143. GOLD ; the shoulders chased with quatrefoils ; bezel an oval raised setting 
with vandyked edges, containing a blue stone. On the outside of the hoop, 
below the chased designs, goldsmiths' stamps. 

Italian, 1 8t/t century. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 54 grains. 

2144. GOLD ; angular shoulders expanding to the bezel and chased with foliate 
ornament ; oval bezel set with a garnet. On the hoop similar goldsmiths' 
stamps to those of no. 2143. 

Italian, i8//2 century. 

D. '88 in. Weight, 76 grains. 

2145. GOLD ; short angular shoulders, engraved, like the sides of the bezel, with 
flowers ; oblong bezel set with a garnet. 

Italian, \^th century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 97 grains. 

2146. GOLD ; slender hoop channelled round the outer side ; open-work bezel 
forming a knot. 

i8//z century. 

D. 73 in. Weight, 16 grains. 

2147. SILVER ; flat hoop chased with floral scrolls ; bezel a shield supported by 
two recumbent figures ; it is engraved with a turreted castle, and surmounted by 
a coronet. 

Italian, i8t/t century. 
D. i in. 

2148. GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel, with a head of Hercules, repousse in gold 
under glass. 

Italian, i8t/i century. 

D. '84 in. Weight, 34 grains. Obtained in Taranto. 

2149. GOLD ; the hoop slender with goldsmiths' stamps at the back (H. L. (?), L. C., 
&c.) ; oblong open-work bezel with a central rectangular emerald surrounded by 
enamelled red petals ; beyond, on each side, a jacinth between red and green 
enamelled leaves. 

Sicilian, i8t/i century. 
D. I in. Weight, 64 grains. 



300 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2150. BRONZE ; the front polygonal with five faces, four engraved with conven- 
tional floral designs ; that in the middle, forming the bezel, is engraved with the 
name Garcia. Above the three middle panels a slit is cut, leaving above it a 
rounded band or bar. 

Spanish, i ttth century. 
D. -88 in. 

2151. ANOTHER ; similar ; engraved on the shoulders with shields, and on the five 
panels with hands and geometrical designs. 

D. '9 in. 

2152. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with overlapping leaves ; unengraved rectangular 
bezel. 

English, i8/// century. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 35 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) Found at Selsey, 1871. 

2153. GOLD ; the hoop is pierced at the shoulders with floral designs, and has 
a pearled band round the outer side ; oblong bezel containing an onyx cut in 
cameo with a seated cupid and a goose, within a border of rubies. 

English, i8t/i century. 
D. '9 in. Weight, 82 grains. 

2154. GOLD ; slender hoop ; large oval bezel reeded at the back, containing, under 
glass, a ship modelled in wax, entering a port, with buildings in the background ; 
border of rubies. 

English, i8t/i century. 
D. - 9 in. Weight, 57 grains. 

2I 55- GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel with border of garnets, containing, under 
glass, a representation of a plant in brown hair upon a ground of white silk. 
English, \fith century. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

This number, like the following, may be compared with the mourning-rings, nos. 1580 ff. 

2156. GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel with border of marcasite containing, under 
glass, a representation of a plant executed in fair hair. 

English, iSf/t century. 
D. 78 in. Weight, 33 grains. 

2157. GOLD ; oval bezel with border of crystal glass pastes, containing on 
a ground of pale rose foil the initials T A W in monogram. 

English, i$t& century. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 86 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 






ORNAMENTAL RINGS 301 

2158. GOLD ; circular bezel with border of pearls, containing, under glass, the 
word Amitiein twisted wire over a broad diagonal band of gold, beneath which 
is dark blue enamel. 

English, late i8///r century. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 84 grains. 

2159. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a red glass paste, on which are the initials T S 
in monogram, in marcasites within a border of the same. 

English, late i8i/i century. 

D. "84 in. Weight, 99 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2160. GOLD ; large oval bezel with a ground of purple enamel, on which are 
a shepherdess's hat, a horn and crook (?), and floral sprays, all executed in 
pearls within a border of the same ; on the hat a ribbon and flowers in garnets. 

English, late i8t/t century. 
D. ri6 in. Weight, 186 grains. 

2161. GOLD ; slender hoop and large oval bezel with a ground of blue enamel, on 
which is a flower in gold and pearls ; border of pastes. 

Plate XXVIII. English, late i8tA century: 

D. 1-38 in. Weight, 162 grains. (Lady Charlotte Schreiber Coll.) 

2162. SILVER ; long oval bezel containing a miniature of a lady standing by an 
ornamental vase in a landscape with trees. 

Plate XXVIII. English, late i8tA century. 
D. 1-22 in. (Lady Charlotte Schreiber Coll.) 

2163. GOLD ; slender hoop ; marquise bezel, with ground of dark blue enamel, 
having in the middle a rosette of crystal glass pastes and a border of the same. 

Plate XVIII. English, late i8t& century. 
D. 1-36 in. Weight, 87 grains. 

2164. SILVER; marquise bezel with a central rosette in pastes among six other 
single pastes on a ground of dark blue enamel ; fluted border. On one shoulder 
is a stamp, apparently the tiara and crossed keys, the control-mark of the Papal 
States. (Cf. no. 2031.) 

Late i8tA century. 

D. i '22 in. 

2165. GOLD ; octagonal bezel with the initials C M in monogram on a ground of 
corded olive-green silk beneath glass. 

Late i8tA century. 

D. 74 in. Weight, 55 grains. 

2166. GOLD ; oval bezel clear-set with an agate. 
Late 1 8 th century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 54 grains. An old possession of the Museum. 



302 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2167. ANOTHER ; the bezel set with clear glass and opening on a hinge at 
the back. 

Late i8^/<! century. 

D. '85 in. Weight, 43 grains. 

2168. GOLD ; oval bezel set with a carnelian on which is a conventional temple in 
various coloured stones, the words a I'amitie engraved on the architrave. 

French, late i8f/i century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 79 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2169. ANOTHER; similar; the ground of onyx, the columns of the temple of 
lapis lazuli. 

French, late i ftt/i century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 79 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2170. GOLD ; the hoop composed of seven circles of wire, held one over the other 
by five containing vertical bands ; in the front are seven silver settings 
containing sparks of diamonds. 

English, i8/// century. 
D. '84 in. Weight, 35 grains. 

2171. GOLD ; hoop of nine wires with a vertical panel enamelled in dark blue 
and white. 

Sec figure. English, late i8f/i century. 

D. 72 in. Weight, 28 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2172. GOLD ; similar type, with six superposed settings 
containing ruby, emerald, garnet, amethyst, ruby, diamond. 

See figure. English, late i8t/i century. 
D. -86 in. Weight, 66 grains. 

A ' regard ' ring, so called from the fact that the initial letters of 
the gems composing the bezel form that word. 

2173. GOLD ; the hoop a plain wire on which is threaded a large pearl. 

Late i8t/i century. 

D. i in. Weight, 19 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2174. GOLD ; hoop rounded on the outer side and engraved at the back with the 
letters : dx L. jf. p. (IQJ. ; projecting rectangular bezel engraved with the arms 
of England as borne from 1802 to 1837, with a label of three points, and, below, 
a scroll with motto ICH DIEN. 

English, early iqt/i century. 
D. i in. Weight, 196 grains. 

The arms are those of George IV as Prince of Wales, and the letters at the back of the 
hoop stand for George Augustus Frederick Prince of Wales. 




ORNAMENTAL RINGS 303 

2175. GOLD ; hoop rounded on the outer side ; octagonal bezel engraved with 
a rose. 

Irish, iqth century. 

D. "94 in. Weight, 135 grains. 

2176. GOLD ; the hoop represents seven wires one above the other ; the bezel 
is formed of two rows of clusters of five pellets, within a border of pellets. 

Irish, igtk century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 63 grains. 

Said to have been found in Ireland. 

2177. ANOTHER ; similar ; the wires of the hoop alternately plain and cabled ; 
the bezel with ' rosettes ' of wire loops round central pellets. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 32 grains. 

Said to have been found in Ireland. 

2178. GOLD ; the hoop a broad flexible band ; bezel a setting of irregular form 
containing an onyx cut in cameo with a cupid standing on a dolphin and 
blowing a horn. 

Italian, early igt/i century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, ill grains. From Naples. 

2179. IRON ; lined with gold ; the shoulders and sides of the bezel damascened 
with figures, masks, scrolls ; oval bezel with two doves (?) in gold in relief. 

Italian, \<^th century. 
D. i'2 in. 

2180. GOLD ; the outer side of the hoop is chased to represent Cupid embracing 
Psyche. 

igt/i century. 

D. i in. Weight, 299 grains. 

2181. GOLD ; the hoop expanding from the back and enriched with filigree ; 
circular bezel with a faceted clear glass paste. 

Italian, i gtk century. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 41 grains. 

2182. SILVER ; plain hoop with large applied lozenge-shaped bezel on which 
is a square with another lozenge upon it ; at all the angles and upon the 
top, pellets in groups of three. On the outside of the hoop is engraved : 
IANNE L . DAN. 

Scandinavian, igth century. 
D. 1-8 in. (Lady Charlotte Schreiber Coll.) 

The type is that of a large gold mediaeval ring in the Louvre. Cf. Jones, Finger-ring 
Lore, p. 71. 



304 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

21823. ANOTHER ; silver gilt, reproducing the same design, but with a circular 
setting containing a pale plasma ; on the outside of the hoop are engraved the 
letters L : R : P : I : L. 
D. l'2 in. 

L. PEASANT RINGS 

These rings are usually of impure gold or silver gilt, set with glass pastes 
or stones of small value (chiefly garnets). They reproduce types in use from 
the seventeenth century to modern times. Though a few are of earlier date, 
most apparently date from the eighteenth century, and reproduce contemporary 
forms. The majority are probably to be regarded as love or betrothal rings. 

also Introduction. 



(a) Italian. 

2183. SILVER GILT ; pierced shoulders, over each of which is a setting with an 
emerald ; high oval bezel, reeded at the back, set with a garnet. 

D. ro6 in. 

2184. ANOTHER ; similar ; the same stones in the same arrangement. 
1). -92 in. 

2185. ANOTHER ; similar. 

D. -9 in. 

2186. ANOTHER. 

D. '94 in. 

2187. ANOTHER ; similar ; but the place of the stones is taken by pastes of the 
same colours. 

D. ro4 in. 

2188. ANOTHER ; in the centre an emerald glass paste ; to right and left, red 
pastes. 

D. i in. 

2189. ANOTHER ; an emerald paste in the centre ; crystal pastes to right and left. 

D. -98 in. 

2190. ANOTHER ; with a crystal paste between two garnets. 
D. i in. 

2191. ANOTHER ; a crystal paste over a yellow foil, between two garnets. 

D. -98 in. 

2192. ANOTHER ; a pearl between two garnets. 
D. ro8 in. 



30.5 




PEASANT RINGS 

2193. ANOTHER ; a pearl between two garnets. 
D. -92 in. 

2194. ANOTHER ; a pearl between two garnets. 
D. i -06 in. 

2195. ANOTHER ; a pearl between two garnets. 
D. 1-05 in. 

2196. ANOTHER ; a pearl between two garnets ; the hoop 
scrolled. 

See figure. 
D. i in. 



2197. ANOTHER ; a faceted crystal paste between two garnets. 

D. -94 in. 

2198. ANOTHER ; a garnet between two crystal pastes. 
D. '9 in. 

2199. GOLD ; plain flat hoop ; bezel an oval central setting with a faceted crystal 
paste over a red foil, flanked by two triple settings each containing clear glass 
pastes. 

D. I in. 

220O. GOLD ; scrolled hoop ; bezel an oval setting with a jacinth paste flanked 
by two triple settings of silver containing diamond sparks. 
D. -9 in. 

2201. ANOTHER ; similar ; an emerald paste flanked in the same way. 
D. -9 in. 

2202. ANOTHER ; similar ; a garnet flanked by two settings with sparks of 
diamonds, each between two loops. 

D. -9 in. 

2203. GOLD ; the shoulders once enamelled ; large bezel with a faceted crystal 
paste surrounded by smaller pastes of the same kind ; the two over the 
shoulders are larger than the rest. 

D. -96 in. 

2204. GOLD ; shoulders enamelled and pierced, with applied 
trefoil ornament ; circular bezel set with turquoises, and 
having on each side a triple setting with the same stones. 

See figure. Tuscan, i8/// century. 
D. i -04 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 




306 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2205. ANOTHER ; similar ; but set with garnets. 
D. I in. 

2206. ANOTHER ; similar to the last. 
D. i in. 

2207. ANOTHER ; similar ; but set with rose-foiled pastes. 
D. -98 in. 

2208. GOLD ; the bezel similar to the last and set with garnets, but enamelled at 
the back in blue, white, and red ; shoulders pierced and enamelled ; the hoop is 
also enamelled round the edges, and has a projecting ornament at the back. 

D. I '04 in. 

2209. GOLD ; the shoulders with foliate ornament once enamelled ; oval bezel set 
with a central turquoise surrounded by garnets, and ornamented on the under 
edges with flutings, once enamelled. 

D. i in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2210. GOLD ; the shoulders pierced, and the hoop engraved with scrolls ; oval 
bezel set with a central foiled glass paste surrounded by garnets. 

D. '9 in. 

2211. ANOTHER; similar; the hoop channelled round the back; oval bezel with 
a paste over green foil surrounded by garnets. 

D. '92 in. 

2212. ANOTHER ; a paste with topaz foil and garnets. 
D. '9 in. 

2213. ANOTHER ; a similar paste and garnets. 
D. '92 in. 

2214. ANOTHER ; similar paste and stones ; plain hoop. 

D. -88 in. 

2215. ANOTHER ; a foiled green paste and garnets ; channelled hoop. 
D. -88 in. 

2216. ANOTHER ; the same paste and stones. 
D. -92 in. 

2217. GOLD ; the hoop pierced with foliate scrolls ; circular bezel set with a 
central garnet, round which four emeralds alternate with diamond sparks. 

D. '9 in. 

2218. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with flowers on the shoulders ; circular bezel set 
with faceted clear glass pastes. 

D. i in. 



PEASANT RINGS 307 

22ig. GOLD ; the hoop a plain wire ; applied oval bezel with an emerald glass 
paste cut in cameo to represent two clasped hands and surrounded by garnets, 
beyond which is a border of loops. 

D. i in. 

The design of clasped hands on the bezel brings this numbsr within the category of fede- 
rings. (Cf. nos. 1002 ff.) 

222O. GOLD; slender hoop ; large applied bezel in the form of a rosette; in the 
centre is a raised setting with a garnet, round it a circle of pearls, and then a 
circle of large pearls fixed on pins, each surrounded by a ring of small pearls. 
D. '92 in. Obtained in Rome. 

The manner of setting the pearls recalls that employed at an earlier date in districts 
influenced by Venetian art. Cf. rings from Chalcis in Euboea (nos. 1819 ft".). 

2221. GOLD; the shoulders of the hoop with conventional scrolls; large raised 
circular bezel, with a raised central setting containing a pearl ; round this two 
circles of pearls. 

D. 1-22 in. 

2222. GOLD ; oblong bezel raised in a similar manner to that of the last number ; 
it has a central setting with a pearl, flanked on each side by radiating triple 
settings, each with three pearls ; similar shoulders. 

D. ri2 in. 

2223. GOLD ; the bezel a deep circular setting fluted beneath, containing a central 
carbuncle surrounded by turquoises. 

D. ri2 in. 

2224. GOLD ; similar shoulders ; bezel a pyramidal setting fluted beneath, and 
with engrailed ornament round the sides, containing a red-foiled glass paste. 

D. i in. 

2225. BRONZE, once gilt; similar shoulders; high conical bezel, with ribs on the 
sides, simulating claws, and containing a faceted garnet. 

D. ri in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2226. GOLD ; the hoop a plain wire ; oval bezel set with an emerald paste 
surrounded by a ring of pearls, and by an outer ring of similar emerald pastes. 

D. -8 in. 

2227. GOLD ; oblong bezel with a setting containing a rosette of turquoises ; on 
each side enamelled scrolls. 

D. -92 in. 

2228. GOLD ; the hoop engraved with scrolls and pierced at the shoulders ; the 
bezel is a high oval setting with a large pearl between two projections, each 
consisting of three disks resembling settings. 

D. ro4 in. 

x 2 



308 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2229. SILVER GILT ; slender hoop expanding at the shoulders, each of which has 
four cavities as if to contain pastes or stones ; high cylindrical bezel with 
vandyked edge, containing a purple and white bead, surrounded by smaller 
beads. 

D. I in. 

2230. SILVER GILT ; slender hoop expanding at the shoulders into pierced foliate 
designs ; circular bezel modelled as a flower, with a central setting containing 
a pearl. 

D. i '2 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

2231. SILVER GILT ; hoop engraved with scrolls and pierced at shoulders ; oval 
bezel set with a garnet. 

D. I in. 

2232. SILVER GILT ; circular bezel containing the Virgin, St. Joseph, and the 
infant Jesus modelled in wax and coloured, under glass. 

D. -8 in. 

2233. GOLD ; modelled shoulders ; oval bezel with the Crucifixion between the 
Virgin and St. John, embossed. 

D, '94 in. 

2234. GOLD ; shoulders modelled with scrolls ; high circular bezel, reeded beneath 
with a cupid's head embossed in high relief. 

T.'jth centTtry. 
D. i in. 

2235. GOLD ; circular bezel cut to resemble a rosette set with stones, such as 
no. 2204. 

D. '86 in. Obtained in Pisa. 

2236. GOLD ; the hoop has two cable bands on the outer side ; the bezel a heart 
surmounted by a flame (?) in relief; to right and left, three rosettes with central 
pellets. 

D. '92 in. Probably from Genoa. For the rosettes cf. nos. 2249, 2311. 

2237. GOLD ; similar hoop ; broad hexagonal bezel entirely covered with rosettes 
similar to those of the previous number. 

D. '9 in. From Genoa. 

2238. SILVER ; a hoop with two bands of ornament in open-work, consisting of 
branches with flowers formed of closely coiled wire scrolls. 

D. - 8 in. From Genoa. 

2239. GOLD ; large marquise bezel embossed with an imperial head to right ; 
borders of bosses. 

D. 1-55 in. 



PEASANT RINGS 



39 



(b) From the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe. 



2240. GOLD ; circular bezel simulating a flower, set with an emerald glass paste 
in the centre; a surrounding circle of disks was probably once set with pearls. 
D. '8 in. From Corfu. 

2241. GOLD ; hoop with median ridge round the outside ; each shoulder has 
a hemispherical boss over a leaf-like ornament. Large pyramidal bezel set 
with an emerald, and with eight small settings projecting from its sides, these 
containing five rubies and three emeralds. 
D. ri in. From Athens. 

2242. GOLD; flat hoop with engraved zigzag; trefoil bezel, on which are three 
hemispheres ornamented with circles of cable wire, and surmounted by a globe 
with similar circles and pellets on its upper surface. 

Levantine (?). 
D. i'2o in. 

2243. GOLD ; the shoulders forming trefoils ; square bezel, set with an amethyst 
and ornamented round the sides with a band of triangular leaves in relief; the 
base is engraved with foliations. 

Levantine (?). 
D. I in. 

2244. GOLD ; hoop channelled round the outer side ; mitre-shaped bezel projecting 
vertically, set with garnets and emeralds. 

D. -84 in. 

Possibly from the Balkans. Cf. J. Szendrei, Catalogue .' . . dc la coll. de t agues de 
Jlfme Q (f e 'J\i rnoC zy, p. 321, no. 96. 






2245. GOLD ; bezel of similar form, but with wavy outline 
and pierced ; it contains a crystal over a rose foil. 
See figure. 
D. -92 in. 




2246. SILVER ; bezel in form of clasped hands. 
French. 

D. -8 in. 
' Said to be a Breton engagement ring. For the type cf. the fede-rings, nos. 1002 ff. 

2247. BASE METAL ; the hoop a plain wire ; the bezel with three settings, that in 
the middle heart-shaped and containing a blue glass paste, those on either side 
circular, and set with pastes of opaque white glass. 

French. 

D. 75 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



310 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2248. BRONZE ; slender hoop with a setting on each shoulder, one with a dark blue 
paste, the other empty. Circular bezel, with a bust in coloured wax flanked by 
the letters A R, under glass. 

D. -64 in. 

2249. SILVER GILT ; the hoop wreathed at the back, where there are two 
stamps, one with the number 12, and expanding to foliated shoulders, each 
with a high setting containing a garnet. Oblong bezel with a border of wire 
'rosettes' with central pellets, and having in the middle a square setting with 
a heart under drapery in gold on a red ground. 

Italian (?). 

D. ri in. 

The ' rosettes ' recall those of nos. 2236-7 and also of no. 2492, which appears to be oriental. 

2250. SILVER GILT ; the hoop engraved, and having on each shoulder a bunch of 
grapes in relief, with a red glass paste in a circular, setting ; the bezel has an 
almond-shaped setting with a similar paste. 

Hungarian (?). 
D. i in. 

2251. GOLD ; plain rounded hoop ; almond-shaped bezel, fluted beneath and 
ornamented with four settings containing a turquoise, a garnet, and two pearls 
on pins. 

Hungarian. 
D. -9 in. 

2252. SILVER GILT ; the shoulders moulded in scrolls ; bezel in 
the form of a flower with four pendent leaves, set with a pearl 
mounted on a pin. 

See figure. South German. 

D. 1-3 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

The type is one common in the sixteenth century ; cf. nos. 1916 ft". 



2253. SILVER GILT ; broad hoop wreathed on the outer side, where it has at 
intervals four circular settings with two red and two green glass pastes. 

South German. 
D. 1-04 in. 

2254. SILVER GILT ; the hoop wreathed at the back, where there is a silversmith's 
stamp ; on each shoulder an applied leaf and a setting with a red glass paste. 
The bezel is an oblong setting with a large paste of the same colour. 

South German. 

D. rc6 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 




PEASANT RINGS 311 

2255. SILVER GILT ; flat hoop with raised edges, and on each shoulder raised 
ornament ; rectangular bezel, with a smaller rectangular setting in the middle 
containing a foiled paste. 

D. l'O4 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

2256. SILVER GILT ; the hoop expands to a broad bezel set with a large garnet 
paste between four pearls ; on each shoulder is a setting with a pale blue bead, 
and below it a figure of Our Lord, as crucified, in low relief. At the back of 
the hoop are two goldsmiths' stamps, one with the number 12, the other with 
a letter A (?). 

D. i in. 

2257. SILVER; hoop wreathed at the back, expanding to the shoulders, which are 
pierced, and have each a setting, one with a green the other with a red glass 
paste ; almond-shaped bezel containing a section of an animal's tooth. 

South German. 

U. i "04 in. 

Possibly the tooth may be a charm. Cf. nos. 912-14. 

22573. WHITE METAL ; massive ; the hoop narrowest at the back, and ornamented 
on the outer side with two pearled bands ; on each shoulder is applied a large 
quatrefoil. High octagonal bezel with a deep cavity, in the bottom of which 
is seen part of an Austrian silver coin ; round the sides a pearled band. 
South German. 

D. 1-26 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

Said to be a Bavarian peasant's 'pugilistic 1 ring, worn on the finger while fighting. In 
the interior of the hoop are two stamps, one with the number 10. 

2258. SILVER ; the hoop wreathed ; large oval bezel, with a gilt figure of the 
Virgin and Child in mandorla, surrounded by a border of settings containing 
alternately red and green glass pastes. 

Bohemian. 
D. ri6 in. 

(c) Scandinavian. 

2259. SILVER GILT ; at the back of the hoop clasped hands ; 
the shoulders cut into palmette-like forms. The bezel has 
two high circular settings, one containing a veined onyx, the 
other a red stone ; each setting has two loops., one on each 
side, from which hang triangular pendants in the form of 
padlocks. 

See figure. 

D. i- 1 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 







312 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



2260. SILVER ; the hoop wreathed at the back ; on the front are five contiguous 
loops, from which depend small models of a key and four padlocks. 

D. '94 in. 

2261. SILVER GILT ; the hoop with foliate ornament in relief, and pierced at the 
shoulders. Conical bezel, with six inverted leaves surmounted by a loop, from 
which hangs a letter A. 

D. ri4 in. 

2262. SILVER GILT ; flat hoop with cable borders expanding to bezel, which is 
embossed with floral designs and has fixed to it nine loops, in each of which is 
a ring of ribbed wire. 

D. i -06 in. 

A wedding-ring. 



2263. SILVER GILT ; flat hoop ex- 
panding to the bezel, which has 
five loops with ten rings in pairs ; 
the surface beneath these is em- 
bossed with two doves and a 
heart pierced with arrows ; on 
each shoulder a winged cherub. 
Sec figure. 

D. 1-05 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
A wedding-ring. 





2264. SILVER; thin flat hoop ; long oval bezel at right angles, with eleven pendent 
rings, the surface between which is filled with bosses. 

D. ri6 in. 

2265. SILVER GILT ; channelled hoop ; on the front three loops with pendent rings. 
D. 1-05 in. 

2266. SILVER GILT ; the hoop has a median ridge at the back, and has applied 
foliations over pierced shoulders. The bezel has four high settings forming 
a quatrefoil, only one containing a stone (a garnet) ; from each setting hangs 
a tab containing a garnet in a claw setting. On one side is an additional fixed 
setting with a garnet. 

Norwegian. 

D. i'2 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 



PEASANT RINGS 



313 



2267. WHITE METAL ; flat hoop with plaited design in low relief with three large 
applied rosettes, one at the back, one on each shoulder ; drum-shaped bezel 
with border of projecting pellets, and ornamented with a cross of pellets 
between four conical projections, all surmounted by pellets ; from four points 
round the sides hang four disks. 
D. i'44 in. 

22673. ANOTHER; of similar type, but without the pendants. 
D. i'45 in. 

2268. SILVER GILT; channelled hoop expanding to the bezel, where there are 
seven loops, from six of which hang cup-shaped pendants, one having been lost. 
In the interior four goldsmiths' stamps, one with the letters KB. 

U. -9 in. 

2269. SILVER GILT ; the hoop partly in form of a serpent, but in place of 
narrowing to the tail it rapidly expands, and is ornamented with two circular 
settings, each with a hemispherical red glass paste. 

Swedish. 
D. '98 in. 

2270. SILVER GILT ; channelled hoop simulating a spiral ; it broadens at the bezel, 
where it has raised ornament above and below, representing the two ends. 

D. '96 in. 



2271. SILVER ; flat hoop with 
pounced outer surface and 
raised rims ; it expands to the 
bezel, where are in relief two 
doves beak to beak upon 
wreaths ; to right and left are 
clasped hands holding hearts. 

See figure. 

D. n in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 





CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



M. ORIENTAL 

I. Western Asia, North Africa, and India. 

(a) Inscribed. 

2272. BRONZE ; hoop broadening to the shoulders ; circular bezel with indented 
border, set with a black onyx engraved with a Kufic inscription probably 
signifying Ahmad ! may welfare be accomplished for him. 

The stone about the ioth century. 
D. '94 in. 

The inscription may have been engraved in Baghdad or Persia. The hoop is post- 
mediaeval. 

2273. SILVER ; fragment of a ring, including the bezel and shoulders. The bezel 
is oval, engraved with reversed legend in Kufic: Jaslru 'lla/iu 'l-malik (God 
strengthen the King !). 

About t/te nt/i century. 
D. '84 in. 

The region in which this ring was .made is perhaps the same as that of the preceding 
number, but it may be even farther to the East. 

2274. GOLD ; the hoop dividing at each shoulder, where it has applied ornament 
of conventional foliate design ; at the back it has pearled edges, 

and is engraved on the outer side with an inscription in Kufic : 
Al-inalek ibn Nasrn 'llah (The King, son of N asm 'Hah); long 
oval bezel, the sides engraved with a vandyked band and orna- 
mented with pellets ; it contains a cabochon amethyst, with a 
Kufic inscription in two lines, the upper reading : Al Sultan 
al inalik. 

See figure. Persian, ict/i-iit/i century. 

D. ro6 in. Weight, 166 grains. 

2275. BRONZE ; the hoop narrow at the back and swelling to the shoulders ; pro- 
jecting rectangular bezel engraved with a Kufic legend in two lines : Manlana 
(our lord), and other words. 

Persian, iith-izth century. 
D. -9 in. 




ORIENTAL 



315 



2276. SILVER ; a ridge round outside of the hoop ; angular shoulders, and high 
projecting bezel engraved on the top and on the two broader sides with Kufic 
legends. Those on the top and on one side are only in part decipherable ; that 
on the second side reads: He gives consolation (?). 

Plate XXIX. Egyptian, iitk-\2th century. 
D. i'2 in. 

2277. SILVER ; hoop similar to that of the preceding number ; angular shoulders, 
each with a double projection ; high bezel in the form of an inverted pyramid, 
engraved with a reversed Kufic inscription : Ahmad//////. 

Plate XXIX. Egyptian, 1 1 tli- 1 1th century. 
D. I "2. in. Obtained in Alexandria. 

2278. GOLD ; hollow hoop expanding to a rectangular bezel which contains 
a table-cut garnet engraved in intaglio, in Kufic characters, with the name: 
Dali. 

Egyptian, izt/i-ity/i century. 
D. '82 in. Weight, 35 grains. 1901. 

2279. BRONZE ; the hoop has at the back a lozenge in relief, and on each shoulder 
an almond-shaped figure ; circular bezel engraved in Naskhi with a name, 
either Altaf o\- Al mnlla ; the ground engraved with conventional ornament. 

Persian, mediaeval. 

D. '96 in. Obtained at Tartus. 

2280. SILVER ; similar hoop ; circular bezel with reversed Kufic inscription in four 
lines ; the top and bottom lines are illegible, the two in the middle seem to read: 
'Umar al Malik ('Umar the King) ; Al vnthlm la///'////////; border of scrolls. 

Plate XXIX. Persian, mediaeval. 
D. i in. Obtained in Cairo. 

2281. SILVER ; at the back of the hoop a pointed-oval floral ornament in relief, 
and on each shoulder a heart-shaped figure engraved with scrolls, above which 
is a transverse band of engraved diagonal lines. Oval bezel, with a reversed 
legend in Arabic dividing the field into two halves : Rahmatu 'Hah laliu (God's 
mercy on him). On either side scrolls filled with niello. 

Plate XXIX. Egyptian, mediaeval. 
D. - 9 in. 

2282. SILVER ; hoop with raised lozenge at back and almond-shaped ornament on 
each shoulder ; pointed-oval bezel with four pellets at the ends and in the middle 
on each side, engraved with legend in Arabic : Ila/ut Halm Ilahu (Allah Allah 
Allah). 

Plate XXIX. Egyptian, mediaeval. 
D. '9 in. 



316 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




2283. SILVER ; the hoop has a square pro- 
jection at the back, and is engraved on 
the outer side with a band of lozenges 
containing quatrefoils ; the shoulders are 
in the form of monsters. High almond- 
shaped bezel, the sides chased with floral 
ornament; it hasacentral almond-shaped 
panel within a border, both with decora- 
tive Arabic inscriptions in relief. 

Sec figures. Central Asian (?), me- 
diaeval. 

D. 1-3 in. 1866. Perhaps from Bokhara. 



2284. SILVER; at the back of the hoop a lozenge in low relief; the shoulders 
chased with arabesques ; pointed-oval bezel with chased inscription in two lines 
in Naskhi, divided by a band of ornament ; two of the words read al makliluk 
al ka-wa id (the people, the laws). 

Plate XXIX. Central Asian, mediaeval. 
D. I '03 in. Perhaps from Bokhara. 

2285. ANOTHER, of similar type ; the bezel chased with a legend in Naskhi sym- 
metrically disposed in compartments. 

Plate XXIX Central Asian, mediaeval. 
D. I '04 in. Perhaps from Bokhara. 

2286. SILVER ; projection at back of hoop ; shoulders chased with palmette 
design and scrolls ; pointed-oval bezel with oblong panel bearing chased inscrip- 
tion in Arabic, possibly Kata Beg, a Turkish name. 

Plate XXIX. Central Asian, mediaeval. 
D. '96 in. 

2287. SILVER ; shoulders chased with a palmette-like design ; pointed-oval bezel 
chased with an inscription in Naskhi : Allahu amal-l (God is my hope}. 

Persian, mediaeval. 
D. 7 in. 

2288. SILVER ; an oval in relief at the back of the hoop ; on each shoulder an 
almond-shaped panel with chased ornament. Circular bezel, chased with 
Solomon's seal, in the centre of which is a word in Naskhi characters : Ghurujtf). 

Plate XXIX. Egyptian, mediaeval. 
D. -96 in. 



ORIENTAL 



317 



2289. GOLD; at -the back of the hoop a lozenge-shaped panel engraved with 
arabesques; flat angular shoulders, also engraved ; rectangular box bezel with 
four claws, holding a flat gold plate. The plate and the sides of the bezel are 
engraved with an inscription in fine Naskhi characters. 

Plate XXIX. Egyptian, mediaeval. 
D. '82 in. Weight, 96 grains. 

2290. GOLD ; pointed-oval bezel engraved with an inscription in Naskhi. reversed : 
ya hu barmaq al alma al-marsila (?). 

Egyptian, mediaeval. 

D. '82 in Weight, 65 grains. 

Barmaq is probably a proper name, but the sense of the words following it is obscure. 

2291. GOLD ; diminutive ring with pointed-oval bezel engraved in Naskhi : 
Amalnllali (God's hope). 
Egyptian, mediaeval. 
D. '63 in. Weight, 21 grains. 

2292. SILVER ; the hoop has on the outer side three lozenges in relief with trefoils 
in the interspaces, and on each shoulder a raised shield with an inverted pal- 
mette ; hexagonal bezel, with four pellets and two projections simulating claws, 
engraved in Naskhi with the name : al-mamalih (or al-mamalij). 

Plate XXIX. Egyptian (?), mediaeval. 
IX '96 in. 

2293. CARNELIAN ; cut from the solid ; hoop narrow at the back, where it has 
a projection ; pointed-oval bezel, engraved with reversed legend in Nashki : 
Muhammad wa 'All kliairn'l bashar (Mohammed and All arc the best of 
mankind). 

Persian, mediaeval. 
D. ro6 in. 

2294. CHALCEDONY ; cut from the solid ; the hoop triangular in section, but 
depressed and flattened at the shoulders. Rectangular bezel with reversed 
inscription in Kufic : a name with other words. 

Persian, mediaeval. 

D. l'i in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

The hoop is broken. 

2295. SiLVER ; hoop of triangular section with lozenge in relief at the back, and 
on each shoulder a shield-shaped panel chased with conventional ornament. 
Circular bezel with Arabic inscription in two lines. 

Egyptian, mediaeval. 

D. -84 in. 

The rim of the bezel damaged. 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2296. SILVER ; hoop similar to the last ; octagonal bezel with an inscription 
in Arabic, within a circular floriated border. 

Plate XXIX. Mediaeval. 

D. '82 in. Obtained in Constantinople. 

The style of the hoop closely resembles that of preceding examples assigned to Egypt, but 
the character of the inscription, which is very difficult to decipher, suggests that it may have 
been engraved in Central Asia. 

2297. SILVER ; hoop similar to the last, but plainer ; octagonal bezel with an 
illegible inscription in Arabic within an octagon enclosed in a floriated circle. 

Plate XXIX. Mediaeval. 

D. '94 in. Obtained in Beyrut. 
See note to preceding number. 



2298. SILVER ; similar hoop, with shield-shaped panels on the shoulders, engraved 
each with the Confession of Faith (La ilahu ilia allahi) ; octagonal bezel 
engraved with a magic square containing the Arabic numerals arranged as 
below : 



9 

8 

i 


8 
18 

9 


18 


i 


i 


9 


8 


18 


18 


i 


9 


8 



The spandrels are also engraved with figures: at the top 8119 n ^ 18181; 
at the bottom, 112 117 112 117; on the left side, 116 112 112 116; on the 
right, another line of figures, with the number 18 twice written across, as above. 
Plate XXIX. Mediaeval. 

D. -92 in. Perhaps from Central Asia. 

2299. PART OF A RING ; iron overlaid with gold ; most of the hoop missing. 
The oval bezel is divided into four wedge-shaped compartments, counter- 
changed, two overlaid with gold, two uncovered and chased, though now very 
much worn. Those covered with gold show two concentric bands inscribed 
in Arabic, while the edges have also been inscribed. The shoulders have fine 
interlacing arabesques in gold. 
Persian, mediaeval. 

D. -86 in. 

The inscription presents great difficulty. 



ORIENTAL 319 

2300. SILVER; at the back of the hoop a pointed oval in relief; flat shield-like 
shoulders ; square bezel engraved with the Arabic word Al-malik (the king) 
in large letters ; beneath, in fine and small letters, an inscription of numerous 
figures. 784, 12, 17851, 781, 71. On the right side, reading downwards, are 
the numbers 3, 4, 6, 3, a, 4, &c. ; orf one shoulder are engraved other figures, 
5 8 5, 3^4-! &c. ; on the other, 781, 678, 483. 

Plate XXIX. Mesopotamia*! (?), i6th century. 
D. -84 in. 

2301. GREEN JASPER ; cut from the solid ; the hoop of triangular section, 
flattened and incurved at the shoulders, each of which is pierced with a single 
hole. Rectangular bezel engraved with a reversed Persian inscription : 
Mtiliammad bin Jahan slidh ; on the sides, further inscriptions. 

Persian, late i6t/i century. 
D. i in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2302. SILVER ; leaf-shaped bezel, revolving on a swivel, and inscribed on both 
sides in modern Naskhi characters. On one side is a charm for the multiplication 
of posterity, of corn, of mankind, and for the averting of misfortune. On the 
other are numerous ciphers, the words my father and breaking of the fast, and, 
in the middle, the figures 1590. 

Egyptian, i6//i-i~t/i century. 

D. -86 in. 

The number 1590 may possibly indicate a date, but the use of the Christian reckoning 
would be remarkable. 

2303. SILVER ; a similar ring to the last ; the bezel on a swivel, but lozenge-shaped, 
with a trefoil at each end. It is engraved on each side with Arabic 
inscriptions, probably of a talismanic character. 

Egyptian, \6th-\7th century. 
D. -84 in. 

2304. ANOTHER; similar. On one side of the bezel an Arabic (talismanic) 
inscription in five lines ; on the other, numbers thus arranged : 




See figure. 
D. -94 in. 



320 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2305. ANOTHER ; the revolving bezel, in the form of a pear-shaped fruit (?), has 
on one side ciphers in compartments ; on the other, a kind of raised setting, 
and characters. 

Egyptian, i6t/i-ijt/i century. 
D. -88 in. 

2306. ANOTHER ; similar, but with the bezel fixed and engraved on the front 
with figures in compartments. 

Egyptian, i6t/i-ijt/t century. 
D. 76 in. 

2307. SILVER ; slender hoop, and high pyramidal bezel pierced beneath and 
round the sides. It is set with a garnet, engraved with a Persian inscription 
in three lines : 

'Awivadh ba-jaldla 'lldld 
'Awwadh ba-jdniba 'lldhi 
'Aii'iuadh ba-rasula 'lldhi 

(Jlfy refuge is in God's glory, my refuge is by Gods side, my refuge is in 
God's prophet). 

Persian, ijt/t century. 

D. 96 in. 

2308. SILVER ; angular hoop ; projecting pyramidal bezel set with a carnelian 
engraved with an unreversed inscription : Allali ta 'ald(l) (Be God exalted). 

Persian, I'jth century. 
D. r22 in. 

2309. SILVER ; quatrefoil projection at back of the hoop, which is engraved with 
conventional designs ; large oval bezel with pearled border set with a cabochon 
carnelian engraved in the middle, in an oval medallion, in Arabic, unreversed : 
Yagkauth a 'adliam (O greatest succour} ; round this: Nasru inin Alldhl wa 
fathu qarlbu maddu (Help is in God and succour is nigh). 
North African (?), ijth century' 
D. 1*23 in. 
The title ' greatest of helpers ' is given to the Saint 'Abdu '1-Kadir Gilanl. 

2310. SILVER ; the hoop a plain wire, broken at the back ; oval bezel set with 
a clear glass paste, under which is a silver plate engraved with a minute Arabic 
inscription divided into four compartments by a saltire. 

Egyptian, i8//z century. 

D. -86 in. 

2311. GOLD ; the hoop has on the outside a pearled band between cable borders, 
and on each shoulder two filigree rosettes ; the bezel is a larger rosette in the 






ORIENTAL 321 

same style, projecting above the others. In the interior is engraved an Arabic 
inscription, of which the first part reads : Alldli hifadli anifan (God's protection 
first of all). 

North African (?), ifttk-igth century. 

D. '98 in. Weight, 70 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

For the rosettes cf. nos. 2236, 2249. 

2312. SILVER ; plain hoop ; circular box-bezel opening with a hinge and showing 
within pierced conventional designs in silver. The outside of the lid is formed 
by a half-rupee of Shah 'Alam, probably struck at Farrukhabad under the East 
India Company. The legend, in Persian, is Sikka zad bar haft kishwar 
sdya i fazl-i Allah. Hami-i-din i Muhammad Sliali 'Alain Padslidh (the 
Emperor ShaJi Alam, Protector of tlic faith of Muhammad, Shadow of tlie 
Grace of God, struck this coin in the seven regions). 

Persian, \ 8t/i century. 

D. 1-16 in. (ISraybrooke Coll.) 

The box in the bezel is probably for perfume. 

2313. SILVER; the shoulders engraved; raised oval be/.el containing a green 
jasper engraved : Mazhar Nur Ilahl Haji Ahmad 62 i 190 ( A. n. TJ76). 

Persian, \tith century. 

D '92 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

2314. SILVER ; a small projection at the back of the hoop, which is chased with 
floral scrolls; oval bezel rudely engraved with characters, apparently Arabic. 

D. '82 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 
The date is comparatively modern. 

2315. BRONZE ; oval be/el of a signet-ring, with part of the hoop. The bezel 
is engraved in intaglio with a man standing to right, wearing a sword, and 
holding up a wreath in his right hand. On either side, a Kharosthi inscription 
written vertically: Of [Spa~\lavcra of Kabura (or Kitp/ia), son of Saniga. 

Indo-Scythic, ist-yd century A.D. 

D. -92 in. 

E. ]. Rapson, 'Notes on Indian Coins and Seals; Journ. Royal Asiatic Society, 1905, 
pp. 807-8. Kabura or Kupha may mean Cabul, and indicate the residence of the owner. 

2316. BRONZE ; hoop narrow at the back and expanding to the shoulders ; oval 
bezel, much worn, engraved in intaglio with two confronted birds, above and 
below which are Kharosthi inscriptions partly obliterated. 

Indo-Scythic, ist yd century A.D. 
D. '9 in. (Cunningham Coll.) 

2317. BRONZE ; hoop rounded on the outer side ; long pointed-oval bezel engraved 
in Brahmi characters (reversed) Godlianat///isya (?), probably a proper name. 

Early mediaeval. 

D. ri4 in. (Cunningham Coll.) 

Y 



322 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2318. CHALCEDONY ; fragment of a ring cut from the solid, including the oblong 
bezel and the shoulders. The bezel is engraved in reversed Nagari characters : 

Sri-abhankar ( The blessed A bliankar Saviour). 
Mediaeval. 
D. -96 in. 

2319. GOLD ; the hoop with protuberances at the back and on the shoulders ; 
high projecting bexel simulating an expanded flower, the centre engraved with 
a Nagari inscription in three lines : Sri Rama (Blessed Rama] repeated 
three times. 

NortJi Indian, about ifttlt century. 
IX I "22 in. Weight, 305 grains. 

2320. GOLD ; protuberant shoulders ; projecting conical bezel engraved on the 
under sides with conventional ornament, and on the flat surface with an 
inscription in Nagari characters in four lines: SrJ Ramasya ////// Ramasya ////// 
Rama (Of blessed Rama . . . of Rama, Rama). 

Indian, about \btli century. 
IX -94 in. Weight, 1 34 grains. 

2321. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop has an applied quatrefoil at the back, and 
is ornamented with two bands of cable design ; the bezel is in the form of 
a figure-of-eight knot, enriched with pellets, and bearing in the middle a raised 
leaf-shaped panel with Nagari characters in relief: Sri Raitia(!). 

Indian, ibth-i'jth century. 

D. '98 in. Weight, 155 grains. (Soden Smith Coll.) 
Cf. no. 2381. 

2322. GOLD ; the hoop with two panels in low relief at the back, and engraved 
on the shoulders ; projecting square bezel, engraved with Nagari letters and 
figures : Sri //// 

4 9 
Indian, \'jth-\&th century (?). 

D. - 9 in. Weight, 135 grains. 

2323. SILVER ; projections at the back and on the shoulders of the hoop ; large 
concave oval bezel, with a Tamil inscription in three lines within an ornamental 
border. 

South Indian, 1 8t/i century. 
D. n in. 

2324. GOLD ; richly enamelled ; the shoulders are pierced and ornamented with 
sexfoils in blue, white, and green ; the rest of the hoop is decorated with 
translucent red, green, white, and pale blue. Octagonal bezel, set with a ruby 



ORIENTAL 



3 2 3 






engraved with a border of sprigs, within which is the inscription in modern 
Persian : Yd nur (O light /). The back of the bezel is enamelled in translucent 
red and other colours. 

Indo-Persian, iSt/i century. 

D. -86 in. Weight, 83 grains. 

The gem is Persian, but the ring itself may be of Indian origin and enamelled at Jaipur. 

2325. GOLD ; the hoop of triangular section at the back, and ornamented on the 
outer faces with bands of zigzag in relief ; pierced shoulders, with applied pellets 
and other ornament. The bezel is a setting ornamented round the sides with 
cable bands and pellets in groups of three ; it contains a bloodstone engraved in 
Perso-Arabic characters : fain (literally, / am mortal), with a date which seems 
intended for A.D. 1872. 

North Indian, igf/i century. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 62 grains. 

The inscription may be intended for the European name Fanny. Cf. nos. 2327 ff. 

2326. GOLD ; the hoop ornamented on the shoulders and sides of the bezel with 
arabesques on a ground of black enamel. The bezel is octagonal, having at each 
end of it a small setting with a garnet. It contains a clear-set carnelian, inlaid 
in gold and silver with sprigs and stars, and with an inscription in Arabic char- 
acters : Thanks to God the greatest. 

North Indian, i&th-iqth century. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 107 grains. 

2327. SILVKR ; the hoop has at the back an uncngraved panel, to right and left 
of which it is pierced ; the shoulders are flat and engraved. Large oval bezel in 
the form of a setting, reeded at the back, and cut with a band of ornament which 
resembles engrailing round the sides ; it contains a carnelian, engraved in 
reversed Persian characters : Baron (?) Nicholson. 

North Indian, iqt/i century. 

D. ri8 in. 

Cf. nos. 2328-9. Europeans in India and Persia have often used signets of this kind 
bearing their own names in Arabic characters. 

2328. SILVER SIGNET ; raised rectangular bezel, engraved with an inscription in two 
lines in reversed Nagarl characters : Jemas SJitivinsan (James Stevenson}. 

North Indian, \yt/i century. 
D. -94 in. 

2329. SILVER ; hoop with protuberances at the back and on the shoulders ; large 
oval bezel engraved at the back with a quatrefoil, and on the surface with the 
name Henry Downcs (Donas) A. i>. 1816, in Arabic characters. 

North Indian, J gth century. 

D. ri6 in. 

Cf. the two preceding numbers. 

y 2 



324 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2330. GOLD ; the hoop pierced at the shoulders ; bezel an octagonal setting, reeded 
beneath, and containing a garnet engraved in reversed Roman characters with 
the name Raffacl Picciotto, with sprigs in a Persian style. 

Persian, \&tk-igtk century. 

D. -8 in. Weight, 90 grains. 

The ring suggests imitation of a type popular in F.urope in the eighteenth century ; but 
the execution is Oriental, as is the engraving of the gem. 

2331. BRONZE ; hoop of triangular section ; hexagonal bezel engraved with a 
reversed inscription in two lines in a character allied to the Tibetan. 

1 8t/t-i gt/i century. 

I). I in. (Cunningham Coll.) 

2332. SILVER ; octagonal hoop set with a carnelian engraved in intaglio with a 
mounted saint (St. George ?) armed with a lance ; he rides to left and transfixes a 
dragon on the ground before him. In the field are sprigs and a small cross ; in 
the exergue, the name 'Krikvr (Gregory), in Armenian characters. 

Armenian, ijth-iftt/i century (?}. 



D. -9 in. 

The name may be that of the owner of the ring. 



(/>} Uninscribed. 

2333. SILVER SIGNET ; hoop rounded on the outer side ; only bezel and shoulders 
are original. Oval bezel engraved in intaglio with a horseman riding to right 
towards a draped figure standing before a (phallic ?) column 

and holding a staff in the left hand. The horseman extends 
his left arm, and the other figure raises the right as if in 
conversation. 

Sec figure. Nort/i-iucst Frontier of India, about 
century A. D. 

D. -86 in. 

The ring is of a late Greek type, and the inspiration is classical, but the figures are Asiatics. 
The ring may have been made in a region like Gandhara, where Greek influence survived 
to a late period under Indo-Scythic princes. 

2334. SILVER ; the shoulders of the hoop ornamented with a number of small 
cavities and engraved with arabesques ; a group of similar cavities at the back ; 
pointed-oval bezel chased with a lion passant. 

Plate XXIX. \ith-i2th century. 

D. '8 in. Probably from Mesopotamia or Persia. 





ORIENTAL 035 

2 335- GOLD ; at the back of the hoop and on the sides and 
shoulders, panels of arabesque ornament in relief, mostly 
much worn. The bezel is a high oval setting, with double 
claws rising from the arabesques on the shoulders and from 
others on the sides. It now contains a pale star sapphire. 
Sev figure. Mesopotamian (?), i2//i \^th century. 

L>. i '3 in. Weight, 319 grains. 

Obtained from Rawal Pindi, where it was stated to have been found 
in the region of the Oxus. The stone was added in England. 

2336. GOLD ; at the back of the hoop a raised ro.sette ; on the sides and shoulders 
arabesques in relief; pyramidal bezel, with arabesques on the sides, and with 
four claws which hold a flat blue glass paste. 
ilth-i^t/i century. 
D. '8 in. Weight, 61 grains. 

2337- ANOTHER; similar, but with conical bezel set with a carbuncle engraved in 
intaglio with a male head to right. 
izt/i- iT,th century. 

D. '92 in. Weight, 79 grains. 

The gem shows antique influence and was probably cut in the early centuries of the 
Christian era. 

2338. SILVER ; the hoop chased at the back, where it forms a point, and engraved 
on the shoulders ; projecting square bezel chased with a diaper of quatrefoils 
within a cable border. 

Persian or Nortli Indian, i^tk~\6t/i cent/try. 

D. ro5 in. 






2 339- BRONZE ; at the back of the hoop a pointed oval in relief ; the shoulders 
scutiform and engraved. Square bezel engraved with a diaper. 
Persian (?), \$th-i6th century. 
D. -94 in. 






2340. SILVER ; the hoop of similar type ; octagonal bezel engraved with a 
similar diaper. 

Plate XXIX. Persian (?), \yh-\6th century. 

D. ro6 in. 

2341. SILVER ; the shoulders depressed near the bezel, which is hexagonal, and 
engraved with a scroll between other devices. 

i6th century. 

D. '86 in. Obtained in Smyrna. 



326 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2342. AGATE ; cut from the solid ; at the back of the hoop is a projection ; scuti- 
form shoulders ; octagonal bezel unengraved. 

l$th~L6th century. 

D. IM in. Hamilton Coll. 1856. 

2343. CARNELIAN ; a similar form, also unengraved. 
D. -96 in. Hamilton Coll. 1856. 

2344. CHALCEDONY; cut from the solid ; hoop with projections at the back and 
on the shoulders ; projecting oblong bezel unengraved. 

Persian, i6t/t century (J). 
D. 1-26 in. 

2 345- BRONZE ; projection at back of hoop ; projecting circular bezel with fluted 
sides ornamented with a central boss surrounded by a ring of engraved circles. 
Mediaeval. 
I). 1-37 in. 

2346. SILVER GILT ; at the back of the hoop a lozenge-shaped projection, much 
worn ; the shoulders chased and supporting a high hemispherical bezel having 
on the surface two concentric circles of bosses, enclosing an oval setting with 
a carbuncle. 

Mediaeval. 
D. 1-24 in. 

2347. BRONZE, with similar bezel containing a turquoise blue paste. 
D. 1-14 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2348. BRONZE ; similar type, but without any gem. 
D. i'i in. 

2349. BASE METAL ; the hoop a thick wire, on which revolves a hemispherical 
bezel having in the middle of each side a triangular shield engraved with the 
same designs, viz. objects of various forms, one resembling a dagger. The 
space round the shield on the flat surface is deeply engraved with conventional 
floral ornament ; on the round surface, with similar ornament and whorls in 
circles. 

Plate XXIX. Mediaeval. 
D. i in. 

2350. BRONZE ; the hoop with a projection at the back and triangular in transverse 
section ; pointed-oval bezel engraved with symmetrical ornament. 

Mediaeval. 

D. I in. Obtained in Constantinople. 



ORIENTAL 337 

2351. ANOTHER ; similar, but the bezel engraved with marks simulating an 
inscription. 

D. i in. Obtained in Smyrna. 

2352. ANOTHER ; of the same type, with similar designs. 
D. riz in. 

2 353- SILVER ; the hoop rounded on the outer side and engraved on the shoulders 
and sides of the bezel with scrolls in compartments ; octagonal bezel set with 
a sard engraved in intaglio with a shrimp. 

Mediaeval. 

D. ri2 in. Obtained in Athens. 
The gem is antique. 

2354. BRONZE ; the hoop has at the back a projection in low relief, and the 
shoulders are engraved with geometrical ornament. The bezel, which is of an 
irregular rounded form, is engraved with a small heart-shaped figure surrounded 
by scrolls. 

Mediaeval. 

D. '96 in. Obtained in Smyrna. 

2 355- GOLD ; projecting cylindrical bezel expanding to the edges, having a raised 
rosette in the centre, from which radiate compartments chased with palmette- 
like flowers, the ground alternately filled with a black composition ; the sides 
are also engraved with foliate ornament. On each shoulder of the hoop is 
a lozenge-shaped panel in relief with chased ornament. 

Plate XXIX. Mediaeval. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 86 grains. 

2356. BRONZE ; projection at back of hoop ; circular bezel engraved with a rect- 
angle enclosing a lozenge, the interspaces filled with scrolls. 

Mediaeval. 

D. 78 in. The hoop is broken. 

2357. BRONZE ; applied circular bezel chased with a bird upon a branch ; in the 
field two whorls and a cross. 

Mediaeval. 
D. -94 in. 

2358. SILVER ; large octagonal bezel on which is a plate of iron set in bronze, and 
inlaid with six bronze rosettes, between which are circular cavities. 

Mediaeval. 

D. n in. Obtained in Constantinople. 




328 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2 359- SILVER ; hoop of triangular section, the outer faces crossed at intervals by 
three lozenge-shaped projections ; the whole surface, as also the shoulders, 
engraved for niello, of which traces remain. Pointed-oval bezel inlaid with gold 
engraved with conventional ornament : the border also engraved. 
Mediaeval. 

L>. 78 in. 

2360. SILVER ; the shoulders engraved with geometrical ornament ; projecting 
circular bezel engraved with a quatrefoil and segments within a circle. 
1J. i '02 in. 
The ring is of comparatively modern date. 

2361. SILVER ; broad hoop with applied filigree scrolls on the 
outer side ; and, rising from the front, a triangular projection 
similarly ornamented. At intervals on the hoop are three 
settings, two with turquoises, one empty ; on the front arc 
two quatrefoil settings, one empty, the other still containing a 
turquoise, a ruby, and a pale bead. 

Sec figure. Persian, \"&tk century (?}. 
U. i '04 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2362. CARNELIAN ; cut from the solid ; the hoop has a projection at the 
back and notches on the shoulders ; high projecting bezel terminating in a 
point representing a cut stone. 

Persian, \f>tli century (?). 
D. i -6 in. 

2363. SILVER-, the shoulders chased with transverse bands of zigzag; applied 
almond-shaped bezel engraved with a crescent, star, and interlacing scroll. 

Turkisli. 

i 

D. 1-04 in. 

2364. SILVER ; the bezel is a high setting with a cable border round the sides and 
containing a faceted garnet. 

L>. 1-14 in. From Sana, Yemen. 

2365. SILVER ; the hoop has on the outer side a median pearled band and on . 
either side double borders of cable wire ; on the bifurcating shoulders are coils of 
similar wire with pellets at their centres, and applied disks, lozenges, and rosettes ; 
oval bezel with pearled and cable borders set with a cabochon carnelian. 

Arab, i8//V century (f). 

D. 1-2 in. Bought at Suez, as having been obtained at Mecca by Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
Caspar Purdon Clarke. 



ORIENTAL 



329 



2366. ANOTHER ; similar ; the bezel set with a faceted crystal. 
Arab, i %th century (?). 

D. i '04 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

2367. ANOTHER ; square bezel divided into four quarters each punched with five 
small circles ; at top and bottom it has two loops through each of which passes 
a loose ring of twisted wire. 

Arab, \Kthccntitry (J). 
L>. i'O2 in. 

2368. SILVER GILT; the hoop has a pearled median band on either side of which 
is applied wire ; on each shoulder is a trefoil of coiled wire rising from a stem 
ending in a rosette of pellets. Oval bezel with applied wire round the sides, set 
with a hemispherical onyx. 




D. 1-2 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

2369. SILVER ; a plain wire flattened and overlapping at the ends, one of which 
is stamped OL. 

D. '92 in. Said to be a Mecca pilgrim's ring. 

2370. GOLD ; the shoulders flat and pierced ; hexagonal bezel 
with simulated claws at the corners and engraved with 
scrolls; in the middle a sunk lozenge-shaped panel with a 
boss in the centre. At the back of the bezel is engraved 
a quatrefoil. 

Sec figure. Egyptian, mediaeval. 

L>. 78 in. Weight, loi grains. 
Probably of the Mameluk period. 

2371. SILVER ; the hoop has at intervals on the outer side three lozenges in relief, 
between which it is chased with scrolls ; the shoulders represent half-figures of 
men wearing helmets with nasals, and supporting with their raised arms 
a hexagonal bezel, with pierced quatrefoil panel in an engraved border. 

Plate XXIX. Egyptian, mediaeval. 

D. -9 in. 

Of about the same date as no. 2370. 

2372. SILVER ; the hoop has a band of pellets within cable borders ; the applied 
bezel is in the form of a fruit. 

Egyptian, i6t/i-fjt/i century. 

D. -8 in. 

Cf. nos. 2305-6 above. 

2373. ANOTHER ; similar, with simpler hoop. 
D. '86 in. 



33 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2374. ANOTHER ; the hoop a plain wire. 
D. -8 in. 

2375. SILVER ; the bezel is a setting containing a convex glass paste with a similar 
fruit to that of the three preceding numbers in white, between three groups of 
quatrefoils. 

Egyptian, ibth-^th century. 
D. I in. 

2376. GOLD ; applied circular bezel engraved with a rosette in a circle. 

Egyptian, 

I). '6 in. Weight, 45 grains. Obtained in Cairo. 

2377. BRONZE; applied square bezel with border of pellets in groups of three 
and set with a piece of amber. 

Early mediaeval. 

1). '9 in. Given by Capt. W. B. Walker, 1910. Washed out of the mound in Quetta arsenal, 
Baluchistan. 

2378. LEAD; the hoop of triangular section; projecting lozenge-shaped bezel 
with central boss. 

Early mediaeval. 

D '62 in. Given by Capt. W. B. Walker, 1910. From the same place as the last number. 

2379. SILVER ; once gilt ; rounded hoop ; the shoulders engraved with nielloed 
sprays ; circular bezel fluted round the edges ; in the centre is a nielloed cross 
within a border with ornament resembling an Arabic inscription. 

North Indian, mediaeval. 

D. -9 in. Obtained at Rawal Pindi. 

2380 . GOLD ; each shoulder had once a cup-shaped setting (?), of which only one 
remains in an imperfect condition. Oval bezel with pearled border containing 
a cabochon sard engraved in intaglio with a boar. 
North Indian. 

D. 78 in. Weight, 47 grains. 

The gem is ancient, perhaps produced on the borders of India under Greek influence soon 
after the beginning of the Christian era. 

2381. GOLD; massive ring, the exterior of the hoop ornamented with four cable 
bands ; the bezel is in the form of a figure-of-eight knot 
covered with large pellets, and having in the middle a 
leaf-shaped panel on which are two figures of Hindu 
deities (?) in relief. 

See figure. Indian, \6th-\7thcentury. 

D. I '2 in. Weight, 362 grains. 

Cf. no. 2321, with which the present example is almost identical. 




ORIENTAL 



331 



2382. CARNELIAN ; cut from the solid ; the exterior is ornamented by a design 
of quatrefoils and leaves in the form of settings outlined in gold and connected 
by inlaid strips of gold. The settings contain diamonds, emeralds, and sapphires. 

Plate XXX. North Indian, Mogul period. 
D. I in. Weight, 107 grains. 

2383. BOW-RING ; of pale jade ; round the upper edge it is set with rubies 
in leaf-shaped gold settings ; round the sides are two sprays of flowers formed 
of rubies and emeralds in sunk settings, connected by stems of inlaid gold 
diverging from a larger flower in the middle of the front, formed of the same 
stones. 

Plate XXX. Indian, Mogul period. 

D. 7 in. Weight, 367 grains. 

Cf. no. 239. For the manner in which the bow-ring was used sec H. Balfoui 
in Man (publication of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland I, 
no. 84. Other bow-rings are in the Ethnographical Collections. 

2384. ANOTHER ; similar ; the ornament in the front resembling an inverted 
palmette. 

D. i'54 in. Weight, 202 grains. 

2385. ANOTHER ; of plain crystal. 
D. 1-62 in. 

2386. ANOTHER ; of onyx ; on the broad front a trefoil cavity which probably 
contained gems in a gold setting. 

D. 172 in. 

2387. ANOTHER ; also of onyx ; the hoop broken. 
D. 1-6 in. 

2388. ANOTHER ; of bone ; the surface thickly set with small rods of wire after 
the style of pique work. 

D. 17 in. 

2389. ANOTHER ; bronze ; the front engraved with conventional designs. 
D. 1-48 in. 

2390. GOLD ; the hoop had on the outer side ornament in relief, now much worn ; 
on each shoulder is a drop-shaped setting with pearled border, between three 
pellets, and containing a ruby. The bezel has an oval setting in the same style, 
with an opal. 

North Indian, i6t/i~ij th century. 

D. -9 in. Weight, 98 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



332 



CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 




2391. GOLD ; the hoop chased on the outer side, with floral scrolls ; lozenge-shapecl 
bezel with a central setting (now empty) between four other settings containing 
two rubies and two sapphires. Between these are coils of cable wire surmounted 
by pellets, and round the edge is a border of cable wire. 

Indian, iftth century. 

D. -82 in. Weight, 85 grains. 

The hoop is broken. 

2392. GOLD ; the hoop has cable borders, and at each shoulder 
two disks, and an edging of pellets ; oval bezel set with a 
carbuncle surrounded by a border formed of pyramids of 
wire surmounted by pellets. 

See figure. Indian, \8th century (?). 
D. '98 in. Weight, 124 grains. 

2 393- GOLD; the hoop with three projections at the back and one on each 
shoulder ; pyramidal bezel set with a diamond : the borders of the setting 
are cut to an ornamental design. 

Indian, ] 8f/t century (?). 

IX '9 in. Weight, 75 grains. 

2394. GOLD ; the hoop with a triple projection at the back, and a single projection 
on each side ; projecting oval bezel, set with a Nandi bull cut in sapphire. 
Plate XXX. Indian, \Kth century. 
D. l'22 in. Weight, 102 grains. 

2 395- GOLD ; similar hoop ; projecting square bezel on which is a baroque pearl 
with two diamonds inlaid as eyes, the whole bearing some resemblance to a 
couchant (Nandi) bull. Round this is a border of rubies, and a projection of 
the gold forms the bull's tail. 

Plate XXX. North Indian, i8//z century. 

U. i '4 in. Weight, 160 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2396. GOLD; the hoop is chased on the outside with formal floral design on a 
ground of translucent green enamel ; at the back is an enamelled projection. 
The bezel is an oval setting, enamelled on the sides and beneath in the same 
colour, and set with a large cabochon ruby. 

Plate XXX. North Indian, iWt century. 
D. i'i6 in. Weight, 207 grains. 

2397. GOLD ; the hoop is a sequence of quatrefoil settings containing the following 
stones: diamond, emerald, ruby, moonstone, jacinth, pearl, 

turquoise, carnelian, sapphire, topaz, almandine garnet. 
The edges of the settings are enamelled in translucent 
green (much worn), and the interior with quatrefoils of 
translucent red with white centres. 

See figure. North Indian, i8//z century. 

D. I in. Weight, 84 grains. 




ORIENTAL 



333 



3398. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop is set with rubies ; applied quatrefoil bex.cl 
set with the same gems. 

North Indian, i8/// century. 
D. '95 in. Weight, 72 grains. 

2399. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop, which is of square section, set with garnets 
and emeralds, half with stones of one colour, and half with gems of another, but 
several emeralds are missing. The interior enamelled with flowers in translucent 
red and green on a ground of white ; the remaining faces were also enamelled. 

North Indian, i tit/i century. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 63 grains. Perhaps from Jaipur. 

2400. GOLD ; the hoop pierced at the back, where it once had two settings con- 
taining gems, and chased on the exterior with formal designs ; cruciform bezel 
with a central setting containing a sapphire, the limbs of the cross set with 
numerous rubies of different size. The sides of the bezel are richly chased with 
scrolls, while the interior of the hoop beneath the bezel is chased with two panels 
amid foliations. 

Plate XXX. North Indian, i 8/// century. 

I). ri6 in. Weight, 227 grains. 

2401. GOLD ; the hoop ornamented with quatrefoil set- 
tings each containing a sapphire and four rubies, con- 
nected by pairs of cruciform settings containing rubies. 
The bezel contains a sapphire and has rubies round the 
sides ; below these, settings which resemble petals with 
rubies and sapphires. 

Sec figure. Nortli Indian, \&t!i century. 

D.I '6 in. Weight, 252 grains. Castelb.ni Coll. 1872. 

2402. GOLD ; the hoop once enamelled with conventional designs, traces of white 
enamel remaining ; bifurcating shoulders enamelled in translucent red, blue, and 
white, with applied drop-shaped settings containing moonstones ; octagonal 
bezel containing a faceted almandine garnet ; it is rounded beneath, where it is 
enamelled in translucent red, green, and white. 

North Indian, 1 8//i century. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 60 grains. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

The ring is Western in type and in the style of the ornament on the hoop. It was probably 
made after a European model at Jaipur. 

3403. SILVER ; slender hoop, broken on one side ; oval bezel set with a carbuncle. 
Indian. 
D. 78 ir. (liraybrooke Coll.) 




334 CATALOGUE OK FINGER-RINGS 

2404. SILVER ; the shoulders engraved ; oval bezel containing a miniature bust of 
a lady on a blue ground, under glass. 
North Indian, \ "Jth century. 
L). '9 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

2405 GOLD puzzle-ring of four hoops, expanding and interlacing at the bezel, 
where there are four settings ; one has lost its stone, the others contain two 
turquoises and a ruby. 
North Indian. 

D. -8 in. Weight, 73 grains. 1858. 

Cf. the European puzzle-rings, nos. 1713 ff. 

2406. GOLD ; concavo-convex hoop with embossed ornament. At the back is a 
rosette, on the sides a pearled median band with diagonal parallel lines to right 
and left. On each shoulder is a mask, the bezel forming a figure-of-eight knot 
composed of plain and pearled bands. 

North Indian, iqth century. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 107 grains. Obtained in Gwalior. 

2407. SILVER THUMB-RING ; flat hoop expanding towards the bezel, where it rises 
to an apex surmounted by a finial ; it is ornamented on the outside with birds and 
foliage reserved on a ground of blue enamel. 

North Indian, igth century. 
D. '86 in. From Scinde. 

2408. SILVER ; the exterior of the hoop ornamented by a series of quatrefoils 
reserved in the metal and filled with blue enamel; the interspaces filled with 
green enamel. 

North Indian, \<)th century. 
D. '86 in. From Scinde. 

2409. SILVER ; hoop with pierced designs between borders of cable wire. 
North Indian, \yth century. 

D. 76 in. From Amritsar. 

2410. SILVER ; broad hoop with three bands of rosettes applied to a backing of 
<S -shaped loops ; above and below, pearled and cable borders. 
North Indian, \<$th century. 
D. i in. From Amritsar. 

2411. SILVER ; the hoop surrounded by a sequence of cinquefoils on a backing of 
8-shaped loops. 

North Indian, igth century. 

D. I. in. From the Kangra valley. 

The method of manufacture resembles that of the previous example. 



ORIENTAL 335 

2412. SILVER ; at the back of the hoop a raised quatrefoil, the shoulders engraved ; 
applied square bezel set with a table-cut carnelian. 

Indian. 

D. '9 in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 

2413. SILVER ; oval bezel set with an onyx. 
Indian, 

D. -9 in. 

2414. SILVER ; projecting square bezel embossed with a figure of Krishna 
standing with crossed legs and playing a flute, between two figures of Gopis : 
behind, a bull or cow. 

Indian, \<)tii century. 
D. i in. 

2415. SILVER ; the exterior has figures of gods, with two hands, two feet, &c., in 
relief. 

Indian, iqt/t century. 
D. '92 in. 

2416. SILVER : flat hoop ; at the back is applied a flat plate rudely engraved with 
the feet of Vishnu ; near the upper and lower edges it is encircled by bands of 
cable wire which form over the bezel a figure-of-eight knot interspersed with 
five pellets. 

North Indian, iqt/t century. 

D. '92 in. From Gaya ; a pilgrim's ring. 

2417. ANOTHER ; similar, but the hoop formed of two triple-wire bands forming 
an open-work knot at the bezel. 

D. '84 in. From Gaya. 

2418. GOLD ; flat hoop engraved on the shoulders. Circular bezel with pearled 
border, and flanked by two groups of three pellets, containing a jacinth. 

Assamese, i"jth century. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 72 grains. 

Said to be from the grave of a queen of the Ahom tribe ; the age of the tomb was estimated 
as 250-300 years. 

2419. GOLD ; the bezel has a high central setting with a crystal ; to right and left, 
towards each shoulder of the ring, are four contiguous settings, the sides 
ornamented with pellets ; on one shoulder these settings are all empty, on the 
other, two contain red stones. On each of the other two sides is a single large 
setting of similar style, the stones lost from both. 

Sinhalese. 

D. i '28 in. Weight, 130 grains. 

This is a well-known type ; a number of similar examples will be found in the Ethnographical 
Collections. 



336 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2420. SILVER GILT ; the hoop ornamented on the outer side with applied scrolls 
and cable borders ; lozenge-shaped bezel of similar type to the last, the central 
setting containing a crystal, and two of the smaller settings smaller crystals. 

Sinhalese. 

D. 1-38 in. 

2421. SILVER ; similar type ; plain hoop ; the bezel with a central crystal ; other 
settings with four garnets and two crystals. 
Sinhalese. 
D. ri6 in. 



II. Farther India, Java, China. 

(a) Burmali, Siam, and Java. 

2422. GOLD ; a spiral coil in the form of a dragon or serpent, with open mouth, 
showing fangs. The outer side has a continuous band of rubies in oval settings 
(several missing). The remainder of the outer surface is enamelled in translucent 
green, red, and white enamel, the mouth, nose, tail, and scales on the side of the 
body being enriched in this way. The eyes were both originally set with red 
stones, only one of which now remains ; each ear (?) is set with a small sapphire. 

Plate XXX. Burmese. 
D. i'2 in. Weight, 338 grains. 

2423. GOLD ; hoop of triangular section ; bezel an oval setting with six claws 
containing a cat's-eye. 

Siamese. 

D. i in. Weight, 100 grains. 

2424. GOLD ; rudely flattened hoop ; oval bezel engraved with an early Javanese 
inscription : cri labha (Good hick and profit}. 

Javanese, izt/i century. 
D. '9 in. Weight, 323 grains. 

2425. Got.D ; slender hoop; bezel similar to the last and engraved with an 
inscription in the same style: era liana (fri haua Here is luck}. 

Javanese, izth ccnttiry. 

D. -86 in. Weight, 217 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2426. GOLD; the hoop angular at the shoulders and modelled in two lobes; 
pointed-oval bezel engraved with ornamental (?) characters. 

Javanese. 

D. 1-46 in. Weight, 545 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 



ORIENTAL 



337 






2427. GOLD; massive hoop of triangular section, narrowest at the back ; pointed- 
oval bezel engraved with undulating and curved lines, suggesting modern 
written characters, and perhaps standing for hjaiig (deity}. 

Javanese. 

D. ro2 in. Weight, 404 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2428. GOLD ; the hoop narrowest at the back and expanding to protuberant 
shoulders; the bezel is a circular setting with a pearled border, containing 
a carnelian engraved in intaglio with a bird. 

Javanese. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 132 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2429. GOLD; slender hoop ; oval bezel set with a carnelian engraved in intaglio 
with a monster. 

Javanese. 

D. '82 in. Weight, 72 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2430. GOLD ; hoop rounded on the outer side and swelling at the shoulders : 
hexagonal bezel with moulded sides, engraved with conventional foliate 
ornament surmounted by a fish, before the mouth of which is a leaf or 
branch. 

Plate XXX. Javanese. 

D. ri8 in. Weight, 871 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2431. GOLD; the hoop swelling to the shoulders; circular bezel engraved with 
conventional foliate design. 

Javanese. 

D. ri in. Weight, 425 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2432. GOLD ; the hoop swells to the shoulders, which are ribbed, with transverse 
pearled bands ; quatrefoil bezel engraved with a design resembling a vase. 

Plate XXX. Javanese. 

D. '94 in. Weight, 346 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2433. GOLD ; the hoop swelling to the shoulders ; pointed-oval bezel engraved 
with a similar device. 

Plate XXX. Javanese. 

D. -94 in. Weight, 150 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2434. GOLD ; slender hoop ; oval bezel engraved with a similar device. 
Javanese. 

D. -83 in. Weight, 126 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

Z 




338 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 



2435. GOLD ; massive hoop expanding to the bezel, which is 
engraved with a similar device. 

See figure. Javanese. 

1). '<)6 in. Weight, 435 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2436. Goi.l); the hoop swelling from the back to the be/.cl, which is chased with 
scrolls, and engraved on a pointed-oval panel with a device similar to those 
on the preceding numbers. 

Javanese. 

1). '94 in. Weight, 1115 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2 437- GOLD ; hollow hoop with protuberant shoulders ; lozenge-shaped bezel 
engraved with a device within a border. 
Javanese, 

1). '98 in. Weight. 40 grains. (Ashburnham Coll.) 

2438. GOLD: the hoop swells from the back to protuberant shoulders; flat 
circular bezel engraved with a floral (?) design. 

Javanese, 

U. - 8 in. Weight, I lo grains. 

2439. GOLD; the hoop narrowest at the back and chased on the shoulders; 
lozenge-shaped bezel, raised on a stem, formerly engraved with a device. 

Javanese, 

I). I in. Weight, 18.5 grains. 

The shoulders perhaps imitate the Chinese type with monsters' heads. Cf. no. 2458. 

2440. COITKK cil.T ; hoop swelling to protuberant shoulders; raised oval bezel 
unengraved. 

Javanese. 

D. 12 in. 

2441. GOLD; hollow; the hoop swells from the back to the shoulders, which are 
divided into sections by transverse ribs; bezel a quatrcfoil setting containing 
a cabochon crystal. 

Plate XXX. Javanese. 
D. i '2 iii. Weight, 222 grains. 

2442. ANOTHER ; similar ; also with a crystal. 
Javanese. 

I). ri2 in. Weight, 202 grains. 

2443. ANOTHER ; with a crystal. 
Javanese. 

D. i -a in. Weight, 160 grains. 



ORIENTAL 339 

3444. ANOTHER ; set with an amethyst. 
Javanese. 
I), i '04 in. Weight, 107 grains. 

2445. ANOTHER ; set with a blue and white glass paste. 
Javanese. 

D. I in. Weight, 133 grains. 

2446. GOLD; massive; shoulders similar to those of the previous numbers, but 
the transverse ribs pearled, and the spaces between forming rounded panels : 
oval bezel, the sides chased with scrolls, and set with an amethyst of irregular 
form. 

Plate XXX. Javanese. 
IX i'24 in. Weight, 580 grains. 

2447. GOLD ; hollow ; the hoop swells from the back to protuberant shoulders : 
the bezel a quatrcfoil setting with a carbuncle. 

Javanese. 

D. I in. Weight, 240 grains. 

2448. AXOTHF.R; similar, set with a cabochon amethyst. 
Javanese. 

D. ri6 in. Weight, 117 grains 

2449. GOLD; the hoop enriched with plaited and cable wire bands, the shoulders 
chased with lotus-like flowers in high relief, and ornamented with pellets and 
applied wire scrolls. The bezel is a broad flat quatrefoil, with five cabochon 
crystals in plain raised settings ; between them are applied trefoils, and round 
the edge is a plaited border. 

Plate XXX. Javanese. 
D. 1-5 In. Weight, 615 grains. 

2450. GOLD; the exterior of the hoop has a plaited median ridge, much worn, 
and pearled and plaited borders ; the shoulders have expanded flowers in high 
relief, with applied wire scrolls and pellets. Large flat bezel with border of 
plaited wire and pellets in groups of three ; it has three raised settings containing 
a carbuncle, an amethyst, and a crystal, and between them small groups of pellets. 

Plate XXX. Javanese. 
D. i '4 in. Weight, 618 grains. 

2451. GOLD ; the outside of the hoop chased with floral scrolls ; the bezel chased 
with flowers in very high relief. 

Plate XXX. Javanese. 

D. 1-44 in. Weight, 695 grains. 

The hoop is cut through transversely near one shoulder. 

Z 2 



34 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2452. GOLD ; the hoop chased with foliage on the shoulders ; acorn-shaped bezel 
with double border of leaves. 
Plate XXX. Javanese. 
I). I-I2 in. Weight, 518 grains. 

(/;) China. 

2 453- GOLD; the shoulders in the form of dragons' heads ornamented with fili- 
gree ; rectangular bezel, with seal characters formed of strips of gold soldered 
on the edges : Nan an (Annam). 
D. -94 in. Weight, 145 grains. 

In the interior of the hoop are goldsmiths' stamps with Roman capitals : OR and JG ; 
these were possibly applied by European jewellers in one of the treaty ports. 

2454. ANOTHER; similar. On the bezel the characters Knng hsi (Western 
Tribute), signifying Saigon. In the interior of the hoop, a Chinese maker's 
stamp, consisting of the characters: i yiian (source of harmony). 

D. -92 in. Weight, 82 grains. 

2455. ANOTHER ; in the bezel the seal character : wci (?) (a trifle). 
D. '98 in. Weight, 106 grains. 

2456. ANOTHER ; in the bezel the seal form : knng (workmanship}. 
I). '86 in. Weight, 85 grains. 

2457. ANOTHER ; the characters in the bezel crushed and illegible. 
D. -94 in. Weight, 112 grains. 

2458. ANOTHER ; the dragons' heads chased, without filigree ; 
in the bezel characters in seal form : S/icng chit (dwell in 
prosperity). 

See figure. 

I). '94 in. Weight, 252 grains. 

2 459- ANOTHER ; the bezel oval, with seal characters for shou hsiang (old age and 
felicity). In the interior, the maker's stamp : Pao-ch'cng (treasure complete). 
The hoop has ends overlapping at the back. 
D. -94 in. Weight, 144 grains. 

2460. GOLD ; similar type, much worn ; the bezel with two characters, one of 
which is chung, meaning ' middle ', the other uncertain. 
D. -9 in. Weight, 148 grains. (Ashbuinham Coll.) 







ORIENTAL 

2461. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop divided into a scries of compartments, 
each ornamented with a quatrefoil in relief. In the interior, the same maker's 
stamp as on no. 2459 : Pao-clieng. 

D. '9 in. Weight, 68 grains. 

2462. GOLD ; the exterior of the hoop is chased with floral scrolls, and at the 
back is a raised rosette set with diamonds (one missing) ; the bezel is a rect- 
angular panel engraved with the characters : wci ticn (?) shih nil (literally : do 
not weigh men and ivomen). In the interior are two makers' stamps: Jnisheng 
(auspicious progress), and another which is indistinct, and, in addition, in large 
capitals, ACUM, EAKJEM, with X , and a form resembling a shield. 

D. -86 in. Weight, 140 grains. 

2463. GOLD ; the hoop faceted on the exterior, with cable borders. In the 
interior are scratched the words : Ting ssit yu ivit 

yiieh (Ting-ssu year, and fifth month), a cyclical 
date representing 1857, 1797, 1737, &c., but in the 
present case most probably 1857. The interior has 
also the maker's stamp: jnng hua (grandeur). 
See figure. 

Do/- 117 -1 11 1 1 f ii \ C^Y^V^ V V^ V*X*^\\^\" AV^X^t\\ 

. '86 in. Weight, 230 grains. (Braybrooke Coll.) /flTHiN Uj;\7 L*T V 

t J c 




2464. SILVER; a broad band with raised borders and overlapping ends ; on the 
outside, in relief, emblems of four of the Eight Immortals: i. Crutch and 
gourd of Li T'ieh-Kuai. 2. Fan of Chung-li Ch'uan. 3. Lotus seed-pod 
of Ho Hsien Ku. 4. Bamboo drum and rods of Chang Kuo Lao. In the 
interior the maker's seal : Cheng slum an (Preserve accord and peace). 

D. -9 in. 

2465. SILVER ; a broad band with overlapping ends, one shaped and engraved to 
represent a bat. In the interior is the maker's stamp : t'ai ho tsu wen (great 
harmony, pure silver). 

D. -8 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

The bat (fu) is a homophone oifit (happiness). 

2466. SILVER ; a broad hoop with raised borders, the exterior surface banded with 
alternating plain and cable bands. Over these are four plaques enamelled in 
blue and pale bluish green, three representing birds, the fourth an indeterminate 
object. In the interior is the maker's stamp : fai ho (great harmony). 

D. -84 in. 



342 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2467. SILVER ; a broad band with raised edges ; the outer side is pounced and 
has three bats in relief, once all enamelled in blue. In the interior is the 
maker's stamp: yil yilan (source of plenty). 

D. -88 in. 

For the bat (/) see no. 2465 ; the three bats symbolize the Three Blessings Long life, 
happiness, and emolument. 

2468. SlLVKR ; the bezel an oblong panel divided longitudinally into two com- 
partments. In the interior is a sign or mark, apparently composed of ssfi 
(four) and ytt (and). 

D. 78 in. 

2469. SILVER; broad penannular hoop with rounded overlapping ends. Abroad 
band in the middle is pierced, and chased with scrolls, &c. : above and below 
are borders with frets. 

D. -9 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2470. SILVER ; slender hoop with overlapping ends ; large rectangular bezel 
embossed with a scene representing women and children in a garden ; border 
with lozenge ornament. 

D. -94 in. (Soden Smith Coll.) 

2471. SILVER ; puzzle-ring of nine hoops ; the bezel is a rectangular panel chased 
with a building, before which is a figure reading a book ; raised border, with 
a band of lozenge ornament. 

D. -86 in. 

For puzzle-rings cf. nos. 1713 ff. 

2472. GOLD ; flat hoop, the outer side divided into three channels each containing 
the hair of an elephant's tail. Over these are applied five elephants embossed 
in gold. 

D. 75 in. Weight, 34 grains. 

The elephant is regarded in China as a symbol of peace. 

2473. ANOTHER ; similar, but the hoop divided into only two channels, and 
with a single elephant. 

D. 76 in. Weight, 27 grains. 

2474. COPPER ; very broad hoop with conventional dark 
blue lotus flowers enamelled by the cloisonne process on 
a white ground. 

See figure. i6t/t-ijt/i century. 
D. "92 in. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 




ORIENTAL 



343 



2475. PALE JADE ; broad hoop cut from the solid, the upper edge bevelled ; 
on the outer side is painted in red four times the word fisi (joy). 

D. i '04 in. 

Hsi is commonly inscribed on wedding gifts. 

2476. ANOTHER ; similar, with the same word painted four times in the same way. 
D. 1-05 in. 

2477. ANOTHER ; similar ; without painted characters. 
D. T22 in. H. '92 in. 

2478. ANOTHER; of variegated serpentine. 
D. i'3 in. H. 1-04 in. 

2479. PALE JADE ; a broad hoop flattened on one side, where it is carved in relief 
with a Chili lung (archaic dragon). 

D. 1'4 in. H. n in. 



2480. Wurri': JADE; the hoop narrowest at the back; unengravcd oblong bezel 
in relief. 
D. I in. 

2481. ANOTHER; similar; pale green jade. 

D. '94 in. 

2482. ANOTHER; dark green jade. 
I). -86 in. 

2483. ANOTHER; similar. 

D. -8 in. 

2484. HORN ; a plain hoop rounded on the outer side. 
D. '9 in. 

III. Miscellaneous Oriental Rings. 

2485. SILVER ; slender hoop with a band of sexfoils reserved on a ground of niello ; 
raised circular bezel set with a hemispherical onyx, and nielloed with rosettes 
on the under side. 

Caucasian, igt/e ccntriry. 
D. -93 in. 

2486. SILVER ; a broad hoop with a band of conventional ornament reserved 
on a ground of niello. 

Caucasian, \ f)th century. 
D. -92 in. 



344 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-KINGS 

2487. SlLVKK GILT; flat hoop, the exterior ornamented with an interlaced band 
between cable borders ; on each shoulder a setting with a green glass paste. 
Globular bezel, the upper half ornamented with cable wire, and set at the top 
with a coral bead ; it is supported at the sides by two vertical bars terminating 
in looped rosettes. 

L>. i'5 in. Obtained in Algeria. 

2488. SILVER; flat hoop with cable and pearled bands on the outer side; the 
be/el is a high conical setting, the sides ornamented with similar bands which 
enclose pyramids of pellets alternating with circles ; it contains a piece of coral. 

North African (?). 

L>. 1-3 in. Castellani Coll. 1872. 

2489. SILVER ; the hoop a high setting, with a cable border round the base, and 
containing a cabochon onyx. 

North African^). 

I). T22 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

2490. BRONZE ; the shoulders engraved ; conical bezel with knob at top and 
flange round base ; the surfaces engraved. 

D. i'3 in. 

2491. SILVER ; slender hoop with bifurcating shoulders, over which are applied 
ornaments ; the bezel is a circular setting containing a carbuncle. 
D. '96 in. From Tashkend. 



2492. SILVER; multiple ring with four hoops con- 
nected by three vertical bars, each with four loops 
at the back through which the hoops pass. One 
of these has three settings containing two pieces 
of coral and one blue glass paste, the other two 
have wire rosettes surmounted by pellets. 

See figure. North African (?). 

1). i'3in. (Braybrooke Coll.) 



2493. SILVER ; multiple ring with five plain hoops secured in an equal number 
of loops at the back of three vertical bars, each set with a row of five turquoises 
and terminating in pellets. 

Persian (?). 

D. i -2 in. 





ORIENTAL 345 

2494. SILVER ; multiple ring with seven hoops, alternately plain and cabled, 
passing through loops in a vertical bar, the front of which is ornamented with 
a fruit-shaped plaque on which is a circular setting with a faceted conical red 
glass paste. 

Egypt (J). 

D. -9 in. 

2495. SILVER ; on each shoulder a row of pellets diminishing in size ; raised 
octagonal bezel with three lines of characters in silver wire on ground of blue 
and green enamel. 

D. ro8 in. 

2496. SILVER ; the ring, which is formed of two wires, simulates two serpents 
interlaced, their heads forming the bezel ; the eyes are inlaid with green beads 
(only one remaining). 

D. -94 in. 

2497. ANOTHER ; similar, the eyes set with red beads, of which two are missing. 
D. -92 in. 

2498. GOLD ; flat hoop with cable borders, 
between which is a band of overlapping 
links. 

Sec figure. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 54 grains. (Braybrooke 
Coll.) 



2499. GOLD ; the hoop narrowest at the back ; the shoulders depressed ; the 
whole outer surface is ornamented with filigree, and the rectangular bezel has 
ornament in the same style, having in the middle figures suggesting characters, 
and a border of loops. 

D. '96 in. Weight, 98 grains. 

2500. ANOTHER ; similar ; the hoop has ornament of applied cable wire and 
pellets ; the oval bezel filigree as in the preceding example. 

D. -94 in. Weight, 66 grains. 

IV. West African Gold Rings. 

2501. GOLD ; concavo-convex hoop, the outer side punched with a wavy band, 
in the curves of which are pointed-oval figures with 
small circles above them ; round the edges, at intervals, 
are semicircles. 

See figure. 

IX ri6 in. Weight, 124 grains. 






346 CATALOGUE OF FINGER-RINGS 

2502. GOLD ; cast ; flat hoop, the exterior ornamented with indeterminate scroll- 
work in relief. 

D. '98 in. Weight, 138 grains. 
The ring is broken. 

2503. GOLD ; cast ; the hoop narrowest at the back, the shoulders pierced ; bezel 
with a central vertical ridge between two others, each 

divided into three. 
See figure. 
D. ro6 in. Weight, 655 grains. 

2504. GOLD ; cast ; the hoop represents a wavy band with indeterminate figures 
filling the curves ; oval bezel, with a central oval panel in relief, round which 
are ^-shaped figures. 

D. '86 in. Weight. 200 grains. 

2505. GOLD ; cast to represent a crocodile ; the hoop broad at the back, where 
there are two large almond-shaped apertures. 

D. i in. Weight, 386 grains. 

2506. GOLD cast; hoop narrowest at the back, with transverse ridges in pairs at 
intervals ; the bezel is formed by two projecting flanges. 

D. i'25 in. Weight, 671 grains. 

2507. GOLD ; cast ; flat hoop cut through at the back, and punched with a band 
of zigzag ; thimble-shaped bezel with pierced foliate ornament. 

D. r6 in. Weight, 240 grains. 



2508. GOLD ; flat hoop with foliate ornament in relief ; large 
globular bezel with conventional flowers and leaves in 
open-work. 
See figure. 

D. i '94 in. Weight, 423 grains. Given by the Government of 
the Gold Coast, 1901. 

The ring is stated to have belonged to the Chief Samory. 



2509. GOLD ; cast ; flat hoop with median ridge on outer side ; hollow triangular 
bezel with leaves and other ornaments. 
D. 1-3 in. Weight, 135 grains. 




ORIENTAL 



347 



2510. GOLD ; cast ; the slender hoop has a roughly pearled band round the outer 
side ; bezel formed of three rows of spiral coils, with a single coil projecting 
at the top ; on the front of it is a cylindrical projection. 

D. i in. Weight, 88 grains. 

2511. GOLD ; cast ; flat hoop horizontally channelled ; pierced lozenge-shaped bezel 
filled by five spiral scrolls, one partially overlaid with copper. 

D. i '03 in. Weight, 65 grains. 

2512. GOLD ; cast ; the hoop represents a twist ; flat circular bezel with concentric 
circles, over which is a cruciform ornament. 

I). '94 in. Weight, loo grains. 

2513. GOLD ; penannular hoop, plain and narrow at the back, the rest spirally 
wreathed with very deep channels and sharp high ridges. 

D. i'82 in. Weight, 912 grains. 

The use of this object as a finger-ring is not certain. 

2514. GOLD ; ' zodiac ring ' ; the hoop is a flat band to which air soldered the 
conventional signs of the zodiac ; 

above and below are soldered 
scrolled borders. 
See figure. 

D. -88 in. Weight, 168 grains. 
(Braybrooke Coll.) 

The ring is probably of nine- 
teenth-century date and made on the 
Gold Coast. Examples of a similar kind 
are numerous. 

2515. SILVER ; the exterior of the hoop is divided into small oval panels engraved 
with circles, crosses, &c. ; oblong bezel engraved with a geometrical design with 
a small disk in each corner. 

D. -9 in. 

The hoop has been cut through at the back. 

2516. SILVER ; penannular ring in the form of a spiral twist. 
Egba, Abeokuta. 

D i in. 





ADDENDA. Nos. 2517 32 

2517. GOLD ; flat hoop having on the outer side a band of interlacing wire between 
borders of plain wire; large lozenge-shaped bezel of three tiers, with carbuncles 
in projecting settings, and ornament of filigree and pellets ; in the middle a high 
oval setting with a large carbuncle. 

i')t/i century. 

L. of bezel, 2^3 in. Weight, 558 grains. 

This may be a pontifical ring intended to be worn over gloves. 

2518. Gou> ; puzzle-ring of seven wires ; bezel a rosette of turquoises ; on the 
shoulders rosettes of applied wire with central pellets. 

i titk century. 

D. -96 in. Weight, 95 grains. 

Cf. nos. 1713 ff. The rosettes recall those of nos. 2487, 2492, &r. 

2519. SILVER ; puzzle-ring of two interlocking hoops. 
i8/Vi century. 

D. -9 in. (Londesborough Coll.) 

2520. BRONZE GILT ; slight projection at the back of the hoop ; the shoulders 
engraved. The bezel is a high oval setting containing a cabochon carnelian. 

i tith century. 

U. T2 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

The ring is not purely oriental, but the projection at the back shows it to have been made 
in a country subjected to Eastern influence, perhaps Georgia. 

2521. SILVER ; on each shoulder a leaf ; octagonal bezel set with a blue glass 
paste ornamented with a conventional flower in gold. 

itit/i century. 

D. -86 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 

2522. SILVER ; conical bezel with border of twisted wire round the base, set with 
a cabochon agate. 

Oriental. 

D. i '2 in. Given by the Trustees of the Christy Collection, 1865. 



ADDENDA 



349 



2523. SILVER ; flat hoop ornamented on the outer side with bands of twisted 
pearled wire; projecting conical bezel with similar wire, which encloses a band 
ornamented with pyramids of pellets alternating with rings ; it is set with 
a piece of coral. 

Oriental. 
D. 1-3 in. 

2524. SILVER; the hoop of the type of no. 2340 ; the rectangular bezel is engraved 
with an Arabic inscription : Qnnla lahu al haqq laJiu al-imdk (Say : to God is the 
truth, to God is the dominion}. 

Egyptian (?), mediaeval. 
I), i in. Obtained in Cairo. 

2525. SILVER ; flat hoop engraved with scrolls upon the shoulders ; rectangular 
bezel engraved in Kufic with the words : lam ism (no name). 

Egyptian (?), mediaeval. 
D. -84 in. 

2526. SILVER ; the hoop with projections at the back and on each shoulder ; 
projecting conical bezel engraved with an interlaced design in a lozenge 
inscribed within a square ; in the spandrels scrolls. 

Egyptian (?), mediaeval. 
D. ri6 in. 

2527. GOLD ; hollow hoop expanding to the bezel, which contains a pale sapphire 
of irregular shape. 

yd century or later. 
D. '8 in. Weight, 37 grains. 1848. 

Found in a tope at Manikyala, enclosed in a gold box, with Sassanian and other coins 
(H. H. Wilson, Ariana Antigua, p. 35). 

2528. GOLD ; plain hoop expanding from the back to the shoulders ; bezel an 
oval setting containing a sard, engraved in intaglio with a beardless male head 
to right; before the face, in Nagan characters: Bhadona cliarana (probably 
a personal name). 

The gem early mediaeval; the hoop \Kth century (jf). 

D. '94 in. Weight, 164 grains. 

The gem is probably of the Gupta period. 

2529. GOLD ; hollow hoop slender at the back, filled with a resinous substance ; 
oval bezel set with a carnelian engraved in intaglio with a beardless male head 
to right. 

Indv- Sassaniati. 

D. '8 in. Weight, 35 grains. 

The exterior of the hoop is much broken, so that the filling is continuously exposed. 



35 



ADDENDA 



2530. GOLD ; the hoop chased at the back with a quatrefoil design and engraved 
with leaves on the shoulders ; the bezel is an oval setting with claws, containing 
a sard engraved in intaglio with a bearded head to right, with long hair, and 
wearing a high cap. 

D. '86 in. Weight, 90 grains. 

The gem is Sassanian, the hoop comparatively modern. 

253 1 - GOLD ; the hoop similar to the last ; oval bezel set with a chalcedony 
engraved in intaglio with a standing figure of Minerva standing to left with 
shiefd and spear. 

D. 76 in. Weight, 38 grains. 

The gem Late Roman, the hoop Indian, and of comparatively modern date. 

2532. SILVER ; flat hoop engraved on each shoulder ; oval bezel with claws 
containing a lapis lazuli engraved in Nagari characters : Rduardy Narasaqa, 
and below, a swastika. 

Indian, i8t/i century 

D. -92 in. 

The inscription gives a proper name. 



TABLE 

FOR 

CONVERTING ENGLISH INCHES INTO MILLIMETRES 



INCHES 


MILLIMETRES 








- 95 




_ 




3*5 




85 

f>ri 






f ? 






, to 






65 






I 60 


-5 





55 




^o 












Af-t 












30 







25 


i 


pn 














-5 




L^ 






^^ 



352 



TABLE 

OF 

THE RELATIVE WEIGHTS OF ENGLISH GRAINS 
AND FRENCH GRAMMES 



Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes, 


i 


064 


41 


2-656 


81 


5-248 


121 


7-840 


2 


129 


42 


2-720 


82 


5-312 


122 


7-905 


3 


194 


43 


2-785 


83 


5-378 


123 


7-970 


4 


259 


44 


2-850 


84 


5-442 


124 


8-035 


5 


324 


45 


2-915 


85 


5-508 


125 


8-100 


6 


388 


46 


2-980 


86 


5-572 


126 


8-164 


7 


453 


47 


3-045 


87 


5-637 


127 


8-229 


8 


518 


48 


3-110 


88 


5-702 


128 


8-294 


9 


583 


49 


3-175 


89 


5-767 


129 


8-359 


10 


648 


50 


3-240 


90 


5-832 


130 


8-424 


11 


712 


51 


3-304 


91 


5-896 


131 


8-488 


12 


777 


52 


3-368 


92 


5-961 


132 


8-553 


13 


842 


53 


3-434 


93 


6-026 


133 


8-618 


14 


907 


54 


3-498 


94 


6-091 


134 


8-682 


15 


972 


55 


3-564 


95 


6-156 


135 


8-747 


16 


1-03C 


56 


3-628 


96 


6-220 


136 


8-812 


17 


1-101 


57 


3-693 


97 


6-285 


137 


8-877 


18 


1-166 


58 


3-758 


98 


6-350 


138 


8-942 


19 


1-231 


59 


3-823 


99 


6-415 


139 


9-007 


20 


1-296 


60 


3-888 


100 


6-480 


140 


9-072 


21 


1-360 


61 


3-952 


101 


6-544 


141 


9-136 


22 


1-425 


62 


4-017 


102 


6-609 


142 


9-200 


23 


1-490 


63 


4-082 


103 


6-674 


143 


9-265 


24 


1-555 


64 


4-146 


104 


6-739 


144 


9-330 


25 


1-620 


65 


4-211 


105 


6-804 


145 


9-395 


26 


1-684 


66 


4-276 


106 


6-868 


146 


9-460 


27 


1-749 


67 


4-341 


107 


6-933 


147 


9-525 


28 


1-814 


68 


4-406 


108 


6-998 


148 


9-590 


29 


1-879 


69 


4-471 


109 


7-063 


149 


9-655 


30 


1-944 


70 


4-536 


110 


7-128 


150 


9-720 


31 


2-008 


71 


4-600 


111 


7-192 


151 


9-784 


32 


2-073 


72 


4-665 


112 


7-257 


152 


9-848 


33 


2-138 


73 


4-729 


113 


7-322 


153 


9-914 


34 


2-202 


74 


4-794 


114 


7-387 


154 


9-978 


35 


2-267 


75 


4-859 


115 


7-452 


155 


10-044 


36 


2-332 


76 


4-924 


116 


7-516 


156 


10-108 


37 


2-397 


77 


4-989 


117 


7-581 


157 


10-173 


38 


2-462 


78 


5-054 


118 


7-646 


158 


10-238 


39 


2-527 


79 


5-119 


119 


7-711 


159 


10-303 


40 


2-592 


80 


5-184 


120 


7-776 


160 


10-368 



353 



TABLE 

OF 

THE RELATIVE WEIGHTS OF ENGLISH GRAINS 
AND FRENCH GRAMMES 



Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


161 


10-432 


201 


13-024 


241 


15-616 


290 


18-79 


162 


10-497 


202 


13-089 


242 


15-680 


300 


19-44 


163 


10-562 


203 


13-154 


243 


15-745 


310 


20-08 


164 


10-626 


204 


13-219 


244 


15-810 


320 


20-73 


165 


10-691 


205 


13-284 


245 


15-875 


330 


21-38 


166 


10-756 


206 


13-348 


246 


15-940 


340 


22-02 


167 


10-821 


207 


13-413 


247 


16-005 


350 


22-67 


168 


10-886 


208 


13-478 


248 


16-070 


360 


23-32 


169 


10-951 


209 


13-543 


249 


16-135 


370 


23-97 


170 


11-016 


210 


13-608 


250 


16-200 


380 


24-62 


171 


11-080 


211 


13-672 


251 


16-264 


390 


25-27 


172 


11-145 


212 


13-737 


252 


16-328 


400 


25-92 


173 


11-209 


213 


13-802 


253 


16-394 


410 


26-56 


174 


11-274 


214 


13-867 


254 


16-458 


420 


27-20 


175 


11-339 


215 


13-932 


255 


16-524 


430 


27-85 


176 


11-404 


216 


13-996 


256 


16-588 


440 


28-50 


177 


11-469 


217 


14-061 


257 


16-653 


450 


29-15 


178 


11-534 


218 


14-126 


258 


16-718 


460 


29-80 


179 


11-599 


219 


14-191 


259 


16-783 


470 


P.0-45 


180 


11-664 


220 


14-256 


260 


16-848 


480 


31-10 


181 


11-728 


221 


14-320 


261 


16-912 


490 


31-75 


182 


11-792 


222 


14-385 


262 


16-977 


500 


32-40 


183 


11-858 


223 


14-450 


263 


17-042 


510 


33-04 


184 


11-922 


224 


14-515 


264 


17-106 


520 


33-68 


185 


11-988 


225 


14-580 


265 


17-171 


530 


34-34 


186 


12-052 


226 


14-644 


266 


17-236 


540 


34-98 


187 


12-117 


227 


14-709 


267 


17-301 


550 


35-64 


188 


12-182 


228 


14-774 


268 


17-366 


560 


36-28 


189 


12-247 


229 


14-839 


269 


17431 


570 


36-93 


190 


12-312 


230 


14-904 


270 


17-496 


580 


37-58 


191 


12-376 


231 


14-968 


271 


17-560 


590 


38-23 


192 


12-441 


232 


15-033 


272 


17-625 


600 


38-88 


193 


12-506 


233 


15-098 


273 


17-689 


700 


45-36 


194 


12-571 


234 


15-162 


274 


17-754 


800 


51-84 


195 


12-636 


235 


15-227 


275 


17-819 


900 


58-32 


196 


12-700 


236 


15-292 


276 


17-884 


1000 


64-80 


197 


12-765 


237 


15-357 


277 


17-949 


2000 


129-60 


198 


12-830 


238 


15-422 


278 


18-014 


3000 


194-40 


199 


12-895 


239 


15-487 


279 


18-079 


4000 


259-20 


200 


12-960 


240 


15-552 


280 


18-144 


5000 


324-00 



A a 



I. GENERAL INDEX 



Abbess's ring, xxxix. 

Acklam, Arms of, 618. 

Adoration, The, 46. 

Aesculapius, 301. 

/Ethrcd, Ring of, 181. 

African rings, West, Ivii, 2501 ff. 

Agilbert, Ring of, xix, xx. 

Agnus Dei, 180, 241, 784. 

Alhstan, Ring of, xvi, 179. 

Amulet, Lunar, 894. 

Amulet-rings, xxviii, xlii ff., Ivii, 59, 518, 

863 ff. 

Anchor, 22, 23, 26. 
Angels, 38, 39, 46, in, 115, 122, 123. 
Anglo-Saxon rings, xxix, 1 79 ff. 
Anne, Queen, 1379. 
Mourning-ring for, 1434. 
Annel tie Vendrcdi,-&yxn. 
Annunciation, The, 39, 46, 745, 746. 
Anthony, Saint, 721, 765. 
Antonelli, Cardinal, Portrait of, 1398. 
Apollo, 314. 
Apostles, il 2. 
Armenian ring, 2332. 
Arnulf, Ring of, xx. 
Ashburnham, Lord, xiv, Ivii. 
Ashmolean Museum, xiv, xxix, 204, 229, 234, 

855, 945, I833- 
Athens, 2242, 2353. 
Ass's hoof, xlvi, 907, 908. 



Bacchanals, 235. 

Balmerino, Lord, 1417. 

Barbara, Saint, 353, 733-5, 752, 757, 759, 

766, 1029. 

Barbo, Arms of, 857. 
Bargello, The, 855, 857, 859, 1960. 



Beefsteak Club, Mourning-ring of, 1628. 

Bentham, Jeremy, Portrait of, 1396. 

Bentinck, Arms of, 320. 

Bentley, Thomas, Mourning-ring for, 1557. 

Bestiary, The, xliii. 

Betrothal rings, xxvii, xxviii, xlvii xlix, 44 ff., 

127-9. 

ftiscfone, 849. 

Bishops' rings, see Episcopal. 
Boccafusco, Arms of Cardinal, 834. 
Bone, Henry, Enamel by, 1387. 
Booth, Lawrence, Ring of, xxxvii. 
Borstal Horn, Ring on, Iv. 
Bow-rings, Ivii, 239. 
Braybrooke, Lord, xiii. 
Bride and bridegroom, 46-50, 127-9. 
Brinus, Ring of, xxxv. 
Bristol, Lord, Mourning-ring for, 1445. 
Burmese ring, 2422. 
Bury, Arms of, 599. 
Byzantine rings, xxvii, xxviii, 7 ff. 



Cabochon gems, xx. 

Callixtus III, 853. 

Cameos, 892, 920, 1358, 1368, 1389 ff., 1393, 

1399, 1409, 1411-13, 1706, 1962 ff., 2009, 

2044, 2086, 2087, 2135-7, 2153, 2178. 
Cardan, J., xxi, xliii. 
Cardinals' rings, xlii. 
Carlisle Collection, 653. 
Carnival rings, 1730-3. 
Caroline, Queen (Consort of George II), 

Mourning-ring for, 1435. 
Caroline, Queen (Consort of George IV), 

Mourning-ring for, 1438. 
Catharine, Saint, 396, 737~9, 744, 749- 
Caucasian rings, 2485, 2486. 



A a 2 



356 



GENERAL INDEX 



Ceres, 224. 

Charles I, Portrait of, 1359 ft". 
- Ring commemorating exhumation of, 

1419. 

Signet of, xxi. 
Charles II, Portrait of, 1369 ff. 
Charles V of France, Inventory of, xxxiv, 

xxxvii, xxxviii. 

Charlotte, Princess, Mourning-ring for, 1440. 
Charters, Rings on, Iv. 
Chester, The Rev. G., xiii. 
Chevalier, The Old. Sec Old Chevalier. 
Chichester, Episcopal ring at, xxxv ii. 
Childeric, Signet of, xxviii. 
Chinese rings, Ivii, 1080, 2453 ff. 
Christopher, Saint, 7:8, 729, 732, 742, 748, 

757, 759, 805. 
Clarissa Harlowc, Hi. 
Classification of rings, xvi. 
Cibo, Arms of, 860. 
Claddagh rings, 1104, 1105. 
Coins found with rings, m, 210, 215, 1740. 
Colonna, Badge of, 834. 
Compass ring, 1707. 
Condolmerio, 269, 837, 838, 844, 852. 
Cord, Rings carried on, xxv, xxvi. 
Coronation-ring, liii. 
Courtenay, Arms of, 285. 
Coventry ring, The, 718. 
Cramp-rings, xliv. 
Cranach, Portraits by, xxiv, xxv. 
Cross, 34-8, 50, 88, 91, 92, in, 132-40, 161, 

164, 165, 246, 793-800. 
Crowned letters, 334 ff., 357 ff., 427, 447, 451, 

510,530, 534, 539. 

Crucifixion, The, 46, 777, 781, 782, 790-2. 
Crystal signets with colours behind, xxiv, 

xxxi. 

Cupid, 303, 305, 666, 1970, 2180. 
Cupid, Head of, 1962 ff. 
Cylinders for rings, xxvi. 

Dating of rings, xviii. 

Death's-head, 811 ff., 826 ff., 1448 ff., 1459, 

I462ff., 1502, 1503, 1736. 
Decade-rings, xxxiii, xxxiv, 788 ff. 
Demetrius, Saint, 43. 
Derwentwater, Lord, 1417. 
Devotional rings, xxxii ff., 681 ff. 
Dial-rings, 1703-6. 



Diamond, Engraving of the, xxi. 

Doctor's ring, liv. 

Doges, Ring of, xv. 

Donati, /Ceno, 239. 

Donne, John, Rings devised by, xvi. 

Doublets, xxi. 

Dragon, 239, 256, 275, 279, 298. 

Dunstan, St., Ring reputed by, xv. 

Durham, Episcopal rings at, xxxvii. 

Eagle of St. John, 463. 

Eanred, 181. 

Early Christian rings, xxvi, i ff. 

Ecclesiastical rings, 832 ff. 

Edward the Confessor, Ring of, xv, xliv. 

Elizabeth, Queen, Portrait of, xxv, 1358. 

Enamel, xxii, 177, 178, 309, 311, 319, 320, 
325-7, 404, 460, 486, 554-6, 559, 562, 564, 
567, 648, 649, 651, 656, 657, 659 ff., 704, 
722 ff., 779, 7 o, 785, Siiff., 825, 826, 
925 ff, 936 ff., 962 ff., 989 ff., 1055, 1092, 
1095, i ico, 1 102, 1106, 1331 ff., I359ff., 
1387, 1410, 1432 ff., 1529 ff., 1692, 1873, 
1880, 1890, 1908 ff, 2015, 2089, 2101, 
2io6ff, 2139, 2140, 2i6off., 2396, 2397, 
2399, 2402, 2407, 2408, 2422, 2474. 

Episcopal rings, xxxiv ff., 861, 862, 1749 

(note preceding), 1827 ff., 2517 (?). 
- Reversion of, xxxvi, xxxvii. 

Essex ring, The, xv. 

Ethelswith, Ring of, xvi, 180. 

Ethelwulf, Ring of, 179. 

Kugenius IV, Arms of, 844, 852. 

Evangelists, Symbols of the, 852 ff. 

Evans, Sir A., Collection of, xxxvii, 39. 



Falmouth, Viscount, Portrait of, 1394. 

Fancy rings, Iv, 1693 ff 

Fede rings, xlvii, 811, 1002 ff. 

Feock, Saint, 938. 

Fingers on which rings are worn, xxii ff. 

Fish, 2, 266. 

Fisherman, i. 

Fisherman's ring, xlii. 

Fleetwood, Arms of, 319. 

Fob-ring, 1709. 

Formidable, The, 1654. 

Fortnum, C. D., xiv. 

Frankish rings, xxx, 146 ft. 



GENERAL INDEX 



357 



Frankland, Sir Thomas, Mourning-ring for, 

1444- 

Franks, Sir Wollaston, xiii. 
Frederick the Great, Initials of, 1422, 1423. 
Portrait of, 1390. 
French military rings, 1425, 1430, 1431. 



Galley, 24, 25. 
Gems, Cabochon, xx. 

Engraving of, xix-xxi. 
- Faceting of, xx. 

Imitations of, xxi. 

Qualities of, xliii, xliv. 

used in rings, xix-xxi. 

George, Saint, 117-21, 353, 415, 727, 748, 

783, 2101. 

George I, Portrait of, 1380. 
George II, Mourning-ring for, 1436. 
- Portrait of, 1372, 1381. 
George III, Portrait of, 1384, 1385. 

Ring commemorating marriage, 1420. 

Mourning-ring for, 1437. 
George IV, Mourning-ring for, 1439. 

Arms of, 2174. 
Giardinetti rings, 2111. 
Gimmel rings, xlvii, xlviii, 991-3. 
Gloves, Rings worn over, xxv, xxxvi. 

Rings worn under, xxv. 
Gnostic gems, 237. 

Gresham, Sir Thomas, Ring of, xlviii. 
Grushill, Lady, Monument of, xxiv. 
Gustavus Adolphus, Portrait of, 1388. 



Halifax, Lord, Mourning-ring for, 1442. 

Hampden, Lord, Mourning-ring for, 1670. 

Hat, Rings worn on, xxv. 

Henri IV, Portrait of, 1389. 

Henrietta Maria, Ring of, 650. 

Henry VI, Inventory of, xxvi. 

Hercules, 226, 2148. 

Hereford, Episcopal ring at, xxxvii, xxxviii. 

Horn amulet, 905, 906. 

Hygieia, 217, 301. 



Iconographic rings, xxxiii, 722 ff. 
Indian rings, 2315 ff., 2377 ff., 2527 ff. 
Innocent VIII, Arms of, 835, 860. 
Innocent XI, Mourning-ring for, 1447. 



Innocent XIII, Initials of, 652. 
Inscribed rings, 916 ff. 

Intaglios, Antique, in later rings, xxviii, xxxi, 
168, 172, 206, 217 ff., 302 ff., 656, 659, 664, 

665, 667, 2OIO, 2O95, 2134. 

-Mediaeval, 220, 228, 23K?), 244, 257 
297 ff., 306 ff. 
- Renaissance and later, 661, 662, 666. 

824, 1414, 1415. 

Investiture, Rings of, xli, lv, 1690. 
Ivory, Rings of, 778, 1727. 

Jacobite rings (stv Stuart rings), li, 1417, 1418. 

Javanese rings, Ivii, 2424 ff. 

Jewish rings, xlix, 1331 ff. 

John the Baptist, Saint, 721, 726, 729 31, 

74, 741, 751, 766. 
John of IJeverley, xxxv. 
John the Evangelist, Saint, 741. 777. 
John Nepomuk, Saint, 787. 
Jupiter, 310, 663. 
Justinian I, Coin of, 131. 

Key-rings, i, 3. 

Kilmarnock, Lord, 1417. 

Kingston, Duke of, Mourning-ring for, 1443. 

Knots, 466, 570, 587 ff., 990. 

Krishna, 2414. 



Lankester, Sir E. Ray, 895. 
Laurence, Saint, 330. 
Lord's Prayer, The, 774, 775, 2045. 
Louis, Saint, Signet of, xxxii. 
Loup, Ring of Saint, xxxviii. 
Lovat, Lord, 1417. 

Love-rings, xxvii, xxviii, xlvii-xlix, 44 ff., 
127-9, 1331 ff- 

Magi, see Three Kings. 

Magic figures and inscriptions, xlv. 

formulae, xlv, 218, 1005 (?). 
rings, xlii ff. 

square, 2298, 2304. 

Maintenon, Madame de, Portrait of, 1393. 
Marcian, Coin of, 130. 
Margaret, Saint, 736, 749, 752. 
Maria I of Portugal, Portrait of, 1392. 
Maria Teresa, Portrait of, xxv. 



358 



GENERAL INDEX 



Maria Teresa, Ring commemorating marriage 

of, 1421. 

Marquise rings, 1594, 1644, 2163, 2164. 
Marriage-rings, xxvii, xxviii, xlvii-xlix, 44 ff., 

127-9, 1331 ff. 
Marshall, F. H., xiii. 
Mary I, Portrait of, xxiv. 
Mary Queen of Scots, Betrothal-ring of, xlix. 

Signet of, 316. 

Mary II, Portrait of, 1376. 

Mourning-ring for, 1433. 
Material of rings, xviii. 
Medici, Arms of, 839. 
Medusa head, 59, 658. 

Memento mori rings, xxxiii, lii, 811 fl"., 1450. 

Memorial-rings, xlix ff., 1358 ff. 

Menas, Saint, 116. 

Merchants' marks, xxxi, 338, 340-2, 355, 356, 

400, 403, 423, 431, 432, 504, 559, 566, 576, 

53, 584, 597, 627, 629-32, 646. 
Mercury, 219, 656, 664, 678. 
Merovingian rings, 146 ff. 
Minerva, 2531. 

Miniatures, 1405 ff., 2039, 2162. 
Monograms, 38, 88-no, 152-60, 541, 548, 

591, 604, 645, 651, 804, 7096 ff., 1496, 

I498ff. 

Cruciform, 95 ff. 
Morgan. Octavius, xiii, xxxv. 
Mourning-rings, li, lii, 591, 1432 ft". 
Murphy, Arms of, 643. 

Napoleonic ring, 1424. 

Nativity, The, 46. 

Neck, rings worn round, xxv. 

Nelson, Lord, Mourning-ring for, 1441. 

Nemesis, 225. 

Niello, xxi-xxii, 38, 46-50, 176, 179-82, 202, 
239, 2 54, 258, 351, 708, 711, 715, 824, 920, 
982, 986, 1032 ff., 1081, 1740, 1865 ff. 

Norwich Castle Museum, xiv, 799. 

Nun's ring, xl, 712. 

Official ring, liii. 

Old Chevalier, Cipher of, 651. 

- Initials of, 652. 

Portraits of, 1373 ff. 
Oldham, Bishop, Monument of, xxiv. 
Old St. Paul's, Rings in, xxvi-xxxvi. 
Orans, 37, 116, 126. 
Oriental rings, Ivii, 2272 ff., 2520 ff. 



Oriental rings with European names, 2325, 

2327 ff- 

Ornamental rings, 1740 ff. 
Orpheus, 46. 

Our Lord, 38, 46, 50, ill, 112, 714, 2256. 
in Tomb, 718, 743. 

Palm-branch, 15, 17-19, 166. 

Papal rings, xl-xlii, 832 ff. 

Paris, Judgement of, 2039. 

Parts of rings, xviii. 

Passion, Instruments of the, 407, 718. 

Paul II, Arms of, 857-9. 

Collection of, xiv, xxxviii. 

Peacock, 179. 

Peasant rings, Ivi, 2183 ff. 

Pelham, Buckle of, 482. 

Pelican in her piety, 537, 542, 614, 644. 

Pentagram, 891. 

Percival, Spencer, 1446. 

Percy Signet, The, 536. 

1'iccolomini, Arms of, 855. 

Pius II, Arms of, 855. 

Poison-rings, Iv. 

Polish memorial-rin^s, 1426 ff. 

Pontifical rings, xxxvi. 

Portrait- rings, li, 1358 ff. 

Posy-rings, xiii, 3, 15, 233,289,290,296,494, 
554, 558-60, 564, 6isa, 725, 728, 742, 747, 
752, 759, 95-63, 965, 968, 970 ff., 993, 
995, 997, 1022, 1024, 1025, 1107-1330, 
1457, 1484, 1534, 1536- 

Presentation, The, 46. 

Prometheus, 1961. 

Puzzle-rings, 2518, 2519, 1713 ff. 

Pynkeney, Arms of, 606. 

Ravenscroft, Arms of, 601. 
Rebus, 327, 469, 526, 540. 
' Regard ' ring, 2172. 
Relic-rings, xxxiv. 
Ring-dials, 1698, 1699. 
Rings : 

Classification of, xvi. 

Dating of, xviii. 

Material of, xviii. 

Parts of, xviii. 

Uses of, xvii. 

Wearing of, xxii. 

Offered at shrines, xxvi. 



GENERAL INDEX 



359 



Rings : (continued). 

On charters, Iv. 

On cords, xxv, xxvi. 

On cylinders, xxvi. 

Worn as neck-ornaments, xxv. 

Worn on hat, xxv. 

Worn on thumb, xxiii, xxxii. 

Worn over gloves, xxv, xxxvi. 

Worn under gloves, xxv. 
Rothwell, Arms of, 618. 
della Rovere, Arms of, 840. 
Runes, 184-6. 



Sacred monogram, 4, 25-33. 
Saints : 

Anthony, 721, 765. 

Barbara, 353, 733-5. 7S-, 757- 759, 7 r A 
1029. 

Catharine, 396, 737-9, 744, 749. 

Christopher, 728, 729, 732, 742, 748, 757, 
759, 805. 

Demetrius, 43. 

Feock, 938. 

George, 117 21, 353, 415, 727, 748, 783, 

2101. 

John the liaptist, 721, 726, 729-31, 740. 
741, 751, 766. 

John the Evangelist, 741, 777. 

John Nepomuk, 787. 

Laurence, 330. 

Margaret, 736, 749, 752. 

Menas, 116. 

Thomas a Becket, 473, 545, 720. 
Samory, King of, 2508. 
Sapphire in episcopal rings, xxxvii. 
Satyr, 221. 

Sens, Ring at, xxxviii. 
Serjeants-at-law, Rings of, liv, Iv, 1676 ff. 
Serpent, 891. 
Severus, 238. 
Sforza, Badge of, 849. 
Shah 'Alam, Coin of, 2312. 
Shrines, Rings offered to, xxvi. 
Siamese ring, 2423. 
Sidmouth, Stained glass at, 718. 
Signet-rings, xxiv, xxix-xxxii, 217 ff. 
Signets, English armorial, xxxi, 5980 ff. 
Oriental, xxxii, 2272 ff, 2333, 2424, 2425. 
Silenus, 1980. 



Skeleton, 824, 1509, 1513, 1529 ff. 

Skull, sec Death's-head. 

Sobieski, James, initials of, 653. 

Socrates, 662. 

Soden Smith, K. IL, xiii. 

Solomon's seal, 73, 74. 

Sphere-rings, 1700-2. 

Spur-ring, 1728. 

Stafford, Lady, Monument of, xxiv. 

Steward, Arms of, 607. 

" Stirrup-shaped " rings, xxxix. 

Strathmore, Lord, Mourning-ring for, 1586. 

Stuart rings, xlix-li, 1359 ff. 

Swivel-rings, 314, 328. 

Sword-ring, 186. 

Tau, 527, 528, 530, 532, 553-6, 721, 765. 

Teeth, 2257. 

Teutonic rings, xxviii, xxix, 146 ff. 

Thierry, Bishop of Verdun, 1827. 

Thomas a Becket, Saint, 473, 545, 720. 

Three Kings, xlv, 518, 718, 719, 885-8. 

Thumb] Signets worn on, xxiii, xxxii. 

Tirrell, Arms of, 600. 

Toadstone, xlv, xlvi, 895 ti". 

Tooth amulet, 912 15. 

Trinity, The, 719, 722, 723, 744, 767. 962. 

Trinity ring, 1727. 

Trivulzio, Device of, 306. 

Urswick, Arms of, 608. 
Uses of rings, xvii. 

Venn <imon.i, xlviii. 

Venus, 223, 666. 

Vernicle, 253, 405, 717. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, xiv-xlix, 179, 

218, 316, 317, 519, 537, 545, 599, 722, 731, 

8l 5, 855, 872, 907. 
Viking rings, 208 ff. 
Virgin, 39, 46, 113-15. 4'3> 499, 545. 719, 

720, 724, 725, 743, 745, 746, 757, 761, 

776-8, 785, 786, 806, 861, 962, 2033, 2232, 

2233. 

Vishnu, Feet of, 2416. 
Visitation, The, 46! 

Waddesdon Bequest, The, 229, 327, 1055, 
I33 2 , 1337. 20 9- 



3 6o 



GENERAL INDEX 



Waddesdon Bequest, Wood-carving in, xxvi. 

Walpole, Horace, 1355. 

Watch-ring, 1708. 

Waterton, E., xiv. 

Wax portraits, 1401, 1402. 

Wearing of rings, xxii. 

Whistle, 571. 

Widow's ring. xl. 

Wilkes, John, Portrait of, 1395. 

William III, Mourning-ring for, 1432. 

Portrait of, 1377, 1388. 
William IV, Portrait of, 1387. 
William V of Orange, Portrait of, 1391. 
Winchester, Episcopal rings at, xxxvii. 
Winchester, Marquis, Portrait of, xxiv. 



Wiseman, Cardinal, 862. 

Wotton, Sir H., Mourning-rings of, lii. 

Wounds, The Five, lii, 718, 719. 

Writing rings, 1693 ff. 

Wykeham, William of, Rings of, xxxvii, 

xxxviii. 

Wytlesey, William, Ring of, xxxvii. 
Wyvern, see Dragon. 

York, Episcopal ring at, xxxviii. 

Zick, S., Iv, 1727. 
/ippel, G., xlii. 
Zodiac ring, Ivii, 2514. 



II. INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS 






(Excluding a few obscure combinations of letters, the less important personal names, 
the legends of the posy-rings, nos, / 107-1330, and of the oriental rings, nos. 2272- 
, 2424 and 2425.) 



lieef and liberty, 1628. 

Be goddis f , . . efoot, 494. 

lie true in heart though far apart, 1022. 

llien, 934. 

Bien en tout, 935. 

Blithia, II. 

Bonamito(f), 515. 

Bonus fa'lixquc tuis, 1681. 

BuredruS, 183. 



A and 10, 4, 31, 183, 96oa. 

Accipe dulcis multis annis, 3. 

A deare frend gift, 1483. ' 

ALmilia, 2. 

AflOC AROC, c.,38. 

AriOCAEONTI, 42. 

AGIOS OTEOS, &c., 892. 

Aethred mec ah, &c., 181. 

A greater prince ye t krone, &.C., 1416. 

Agla, 218, 866, 868, 869. 

Aimons coimne eur, icoi. 

A F ami tie, 2168. 

A I is god lue/e, 292. 

Allxeit frohlich ist ttniniiglicft, 680. 

A Is God wits act beter, &c., 1830. 

Ama me, 15. 

Amitie, 2158. 

Amore -uolfe, 986. 

Amor meus, 965. 

Amor vincit omnia, 960. 

Amour fait moult, argent fait tout, 564. 

Amour me tient en ioie, 980. 

Amour pour amour, 995. 

Amours, 989. 

Anael, 893. 

Ananizapta, 718, 719, 870, 875, 876, 909. 

And evere you best, 289. 

Anima meant in manibus tuis, 269. 

Anna Maria, 695. 

Ante obitum nemo bcatus, 1458. 

ANTIOXOY YHA, 70. 

A nul autre, 978. 

Arbor i -vitas in Chris to, 4. 

Argyr vivas, 9. 

Atader me comment, 509. 

Attllre bien, 729. 

Autre ne vertx, 289, 966, 967. 

Ave, 485. 

Ave Maria, &c., 243, 437, 681 ft., 869, 1003, 

1007, 1829. 
Aventure et graes, 287. 



;v, 439. 
r/Az>-, 973. 
XAIPE KEXAPITOOMENH, &c., 39. 
Che ben, 595. 

XEPE, &c., 79; sec XAIPE. 
C/' r//o, see Sacred Monogram in General 

Index. 
XPYCAcHOY, 44. 

Dcat/i sy myn eritag, 814. 
/> fo ca-ur, 73, 73 r i 767, 939' 
l)e rnamour suit's sure, 974. 
De may pence s, 993. 
Veus in nomine tuo, &c., 703. 
Deus protector meus, 948. 
Dignare me laudarc le, &c., 788. 
AOMNOY, 81. 

Dominus miclii adjutor, 947. 
Dulce donum fides. loiga. 
Dum dicitur Ananizapta, &c., 870. 
Dye to live, 815. 
alleyn, 969. 



Eathelsvith reg(i)na, 180. 

j^<? secreta tego, 226. 

EIPHNHN THN EMHN, &c., 47, 49. 

EIC 0EOC, &c., 53. 

Elle brille partout, 2106. 

EAHIC MOY O 0C, 51. 

EAPEN MIEAHS PETRVS STANCES, 182. 



362 



INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS 



En Men emer, 970. 

En ban an, 473, 527, 746, 761, 940, 941. 

En ban cor, 759. 

EYCEBI, 13. 

Factis exercenda virtus, 645. 
Felix concordiafratrttm, 1450. 

Gage d'amour, 997. 

Gentium se credere mundo, 1685. 

r'EOPriOY, 84. 

Giindihildi, 1 46. 

God hath sent my hearts content, 1534. 

God help, 1008. 

Haec tria qui secum, &c., 885. 

Have heart and all, 982. 

Help gott unite Maria, &c., 713. 

Her -worth I knew her loss deplore, \ 585. 

He yat wai as he vol, &c., 917. 

Hodie mi/ii eras tibi, 1451. 

Honour God, 952. 

Hope hclpeth grief, \ 460. 

Ich lidet gherne, 93 1 . 

leo eim mun pot age, 918. 

/. //. .V., 277, 426, 491, 514, 704 fit, 769-71, 

778:1, 779, 801-3, 909- 
/. H. S. cst amor metis, ion. 
He ever be constant to thee, 1024, 1025. 
/ live in hope, 951. 
// Fa toiulie pcut-etfe, 2069. 
Iinperioregit linos aequo, 1682. 
In death she's blest, &c., 1484. 
In Defens, 316. 
In Deo Sal us, 491. 
In hoc signo vinces, 778. 
In rnaniis tuas Doming, 230, 254, 275. 
In nomine Domini, 889, 890. 
In on is al, 293. 

lo sui id en liu de ami, &c., 1006. 
ICKIOI.77. 
/ trust in God, 724. 
I ivis my letul pratyjo, &c., 963. 
IOOANONNO, 86. 

Jasper, Melchior, Balthasar, 518, 885-8. 
Je tie la crains que dans ton cicur, 1736. 
Je portfoy oil je day, 296. 
Je si also, 944. 



Jc stiis de druerie, &c., 958. 

Jesus, 880. 

Jesus autem transiens, &c., 231, 239, 283, 

877-9, 895. 

Jesus Maria, 694-700. 
Jesus Mary Joseph, 772. 
Jesus Nazarentis, 531, 701, 702, 881-4, 

1012 ff. 

Jesus the Lord his harp employs, 1558. 
Je votes liens, 233. 

Joie sans fin, 288, 562, 741, 760, 924-7. 
Justitiae tenax, 1687. 

KAPTEPEI, 52. 

KIPIOC 4>OTICMOC, &c., 234. 
KYPIE BOH0EI,&c., 54-67. 
Kttte dormio, &c., 920. 

L amour nous unit, 1000. 

Leges sine moribus Vanae, 1689. 

Legis execuco regis pservacio, 1678, 1679. 

AEONTC, 82. 

Let love abide till death de-side, 1 536. 

Lex regis praesiiiium, 1680. 

Literature grande, 955. 

Lorenzo a lena, 984. 

Loyal lie sir, 722. 

Loylement une, 494. 

Magical inscriptions, 445. 

Marfiniamts vivas, 5. 

Maria, 401. 

Maria hi Iff, 785. 

Mazzal tab, 1 332 fif. 

Memento mori, 816, 818-22, 825, 1448, 1488, 

i53i, 1537, 1543. '545, 1602, 1611. 
Memoriajusti aeterna, 1469. 
Mentem, &c., 259. 
Me plet, 972. 
Mercuri viv[as], 10. 
MIXAHL, 83. 

Man ca'ur avez, 558, 752, 1009. 
Mon cor pies ur, 560. 
\_M\on ctier a vos, 1020. 
Mors bonis grata, 813. 
Mos et lex, 1683. 
Most in mynde, &c., 962. 
Myr sy byn, 938. 

Nach item Regen scheint die Sonne, 2047. 
None can prevent the Lord's intent, 1457. 



INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS 



Not lost but gone before, 1485, 1649. 
Noivel, 306. 
Now ys thus, 536. 
Nu I el lien, 561. 

AflOC AHMHTPIC, 43. 

O cesl anel de chastttc, &c., 712. 

Oer, 12. 

OICATO, &c., 75, 76. 

O Mater Dei memento mei, 394, 696-9. 

OMONYA, 47-50. 

One well chosen, 1644. 

I'apa Callisto, 853. 
Parities legibus, 1688. 
J'ater Noster, 774, 775. 
Pauius P.P. Secundiis, 858, 859. 
Fences de may, 979. 
/Vr ban amor, 747. 
Pour vans soiet, 975. 
Prenes en bonefoy, 971. 
Prenez moi si vous m'approuvez, 998. 
Prepared be to follow me, 1631, 1632. 
/"r / meux, 977. 
, 290. 



363 



Quant Dieu plera, &c., 981. 
Qui plus despent, &c., 929. 
Qui pro aliis oral, &c., 705. 
Quod Deus conj^lnxit, &c., 992. 
2<w irrupta tenet copula, 1477. 

Regno 7^/2, 945. 
Remember death, 1452. 
./?, 150. 
Reverentia legum, 1686. 

Sadayel, Raphael, Tiriel, 894. 

CAABATOP, 40. 

Salvaior, I. 

S ancle Michael, 716. 

S 1 . /)/. Magdalena ora pro me, 773. 

iit!partir, 725, 728, 736, 978. 
? mal penser, 942. 

vilenie, 933. 
Secretum meum, 228. 
Sepes mea Deus, 953. 
CEPPIO, 85. 

Sigillum meum secretum, 229. 
Sigillum secreti, 223-5. 

vivimus sive morimur, &c., 81 J . 
amoitrs, 976. 



S pern re licet, 647. 
Spero in Deo, 353. 
OPAFHC OIOANOY, &c., 41. 
C4>PAriC COAOMONOC, 73, 74 
CTE*ANOY, 45. 
Stevene vous, 968. 



Gutani, 218, SCO, 873. 
Tetragraiiitiinlon, 718, 719, 870. 
The fate of love, 1640. 
6EOC OEOY YIOC THPEI, 16. 
0EOD4>YLAKTOY, 72. 
7V>/^ A part, 943. 
^Vt', 554. 

wo ca'teravez, 742. 
Tout pour bien feyrc, 936, 937. 
7wrf ^/ the giver's love, &c., 61 5:1. 
Troivth is/re, 976. 
Tu pace ju~<>tire inortalcs, 1684. 
7/ <//j- //;;, 923. 

YTIA, 109. 

VTIA lOOANNOY, 68, 69. 

U ne fame nominative, &c., 964. 

Un pen litntitcoiip, 957. 

Kr^o r/tv' cclijirinati sun I, \c., 1700. 

Verbum caro factum est, 229, 258-60, 895. 

Vergis min nit, 959. 

Vertue crownes all crosses, 954. 

Victorious he who beareth me, 604. 

Vibas, 7. 

Fi/rt ;ow tr^', &c., 961. 

Vivas, 6. 

Vivas in Dio, 8. 

Vivat rex et lex, 1676, 1677. 

Vive Jesus, 780. 

fitfre amiti^ fait inafclicilc, 996. 

Voycz et souvenez, 2107. 

Vulnera quinque Dei, &c., 718, 719. 



o/ zusamenfiegt, &c., 991. 

/V/y, (/ Comfort, &c., jff General 
Index, Wounds, the Five, 718, 719. 
Wi? part to meet, 1459. 
Whan ye lake on this, &c., 928. 

Y leve yn hope, 559. 

ZOCHMO, 149. 
ZOOHC, 71. 



III. INDEX OF LOCALITIES 



Aberford, 180. 
Abergavenny, 555. 
Aegium, 239. 
Alexandria, 1854, 2277. 
Alresford, 744. 
Amritsar, 2409, 2410. 
Ancona, 2084. 
Andernach, 157, 1881. 
Arezzo, 692. 
Armagh, 1838. 
Ash, 6903. 
Ashdon, 965. 
Ashwell, 599. 
Assam, 2418. 
Avellino, 2094. 

Banstead, 813. 
Bartlow, 1306. 
Battersea, 296. 
Beeston Castle, 512. 
Benevento, 1778. 
Berkshire, 406, 556. 
Betchworth, 1 177. 
Beverley, 554. 
Beyrut, 50, 69, 125, 140. 
Bishop Stortford, 1230. 
Blandford, 796. 
Bossington, 204. 
Brackeland, 5. 
Bradford-on-Avon, 1875. 
Bramham Moor, 184. 
Bristol, 379, 733. 
Brittany, 2246. 
Buckinghamshire, 1785. 
Buda-Pesth, 2067. 
Burnham Market, 1931. 
Bury St. Edmunds, 701, 1012. 

Cairo, 144, 2280, 2376. 

Calais, 443. 

Cambridge, 707, 1750, 1848, 2014. 



Cambridgeshire, 187 ff., 531, 561,707, 1750, 

1861, 2014. 

Canterbury, 220, 816, 817, 2013. 
Carlisle, 15, 184. 
Catania, 34, 58. 
Catvvick, 1529. 
Caxton Priory, 531. 
Ceylon, 2419-21. 
Chalcis, 1821 ff. 
Cheshire, 224, 512. 
Chester, 224. 
Chesterford, 753, 1017. 
Chilcombe, 1814. 
Clerkenwell, 1006. 
Colchester, 882, 980, 2042. 
Compiegne, 164. 
Constantinople, 64, 65, 88, 121, 2296, 2350, 

2358. 

Corbridge, 3. 
Corfu, 1067, 1898, 2240. 
Cork, 1978. 
Cornwall, 759. 
Coventry, 718. 
Crete, 1853, 1922. 
Cuerdale, 210. 
Cyprus, 250. 

Dallinghoe, 747, 758. 

Devonshire, 718. 

Dorset, 372, 452, 549, 598, 680, 766, 796. 

Douglas, 211. 

Dunmow, 923. 

Essex, 393, 492, 504, 753, 882, 897, 916, 923, 

965,980, 1306, 1315,2042. 
Eversfield, 990. 
Evesham, 767. 

Faversham, 206. 
Flodden, 1776. 



INDEX OF LOCALITIES 



Florence, 855, 857, 859, 872. 
Fountains Abbey, 968. 
Fressingfield, 752. 

Galway, 711, 1104, 1105. 
Garendon, 750. 
Garrick Street, 204. 
Gaya, 2416, 2417. 
Geneva, 305, 717, 1945. 
Gennys, Saint, 759. 
Genoa, 2236 ff. 
Girgenti, 47. 
Glamorganshire, 566. 
Gloucester, 500, 559. 
Gloucestershire, 500, 559. 
Godstow, 962. 
Gothland, 2I5C. 
Greece, 235, 573. 
Greymoor Hill, 184. 
Grittleton, 6i6a. 
Gwalior, 2406. 

Hammersmith, 2O7a. 

Hampshire, 204, 215, 550, 722, 744, 78cS, 

1814, 1877. 
Hamsey, 2i5a. 
Hardington, 285. 
Harwich, 897. 
Hertfordshire, 1026, 1230. 
Hornsea, 876. 
Hornsey, 929. 

Ipswich, 762, 937, 1763. 
Isle of Man, 211. 
Ixworth, 698, 883. 

Kangra Valley, 2411. 

Kent, 206, 220, 287, 816, 817, 1761, 1774, 

1782, 2013. 
Kerry, 918. 
Kilmattock, 952. 
Kingmoor, 184. 
Kirkstall Abbey, 589. 

Lancashire, 181, 210, 1788. 
Lark Hill, 1025, 1740. 
Laverstock, 179. 
Leicestershire, 750. 
Leinster, 1895. 
Lewes, 201. 



Limerick, 952. 

Lincoln, 1767. 

Lincolnshire, 205, 876, 1767. 

Linton Heath, 188-92. 

Littlebury, 504. 

Little Easton, 293. 

Little Wilbraham, 187, 193-8. 

Llantwit Major, 566. 

London, 204,. 2073, 223, 355,439,4/1, 5', 
529, 540, 61 1, 614, 724, 760, 888, 958, 972a, 
978,979, 1753, 1764, 1769, 1779, 1796. 

London Bridge, 223, 439, 471. 

Luxor, 136, 143. 

Macon, 157, 158. 

Malton, 1757. 

Manikyala tope, 2527. 

Mayence, Archbishopric of, 862. 

Mecca, 2365, 2369. 

Meldreth, 1861. 

Merton, 448. 

Middlesex, 926, 928, 929, 1006. 

Milan, 174. 

Milton, 1761. 

Monkstown, 1978. 

Monmouthshire, 555, 2079. 

Morton, 1785. 

Mountfield, 200. 

Murano, 1832, 1833. 

Naples, 85, 139, 1974, 2051, 2132. 
Narona, u. 
Nene R., 202. 
Netley, 788. 
Newmarket, 561. 
Newport, 2079. 
Norfolk, 757, 1931. 
Northamptonshire, 202, 1857. 
Northumberland, 1776. 
Norwich, 757. 
Nottinghamshire, 592. 

Orvieto, 11. 
Oxford, 214, 1837. 
Oxfordshire, 209, 214, 300, 962. 

Palermo, 39, 46. 
Pensford, 541. 
Peterborough, 202, 1857. 
Pisa, 2235. 
Port Arlington, 1895. 



3 66 



INDEX OF LOCALITIES 



Quetta, 2377, 2378. 
Oiift, 134. 

Rawal Pindi, 2335, 2379. 

Reigate, 1203, 1218. 

Richmond, 289. 

Rickling Green, 492. 

Rochford, 916. 

Rome, 29, 40, 73, 90, 260, 488, 568, 1083, 

1858, 2032, 2044, 2220. 
Rouen, 130. 
Rutlandshire, 599. 

St. Albans, 1026. 

St. Leonards Forest, 1790. 

Savoy, 146, 269. 

Saxmundham, 753. 

Scania, 1851. 

Scutari, 41. 

Selsey, 2152. 

Shapwick, 766. 

Sherburn, 180. 

Shrewsbury, 313. 

Shropshire, 313. 

Sicily, 108. 

Sindh, 2407, 2408. 

Smyrna, 70, 74,78, 81, 100, 123, 126, 132, 

141, 142, 145, M, 66 9> IS 95, 2341, 2351, 

2354. 

Soberton, 215. 

Somersetshire, 285, 379, 541, 733, 1780. 
Southampton, 550, 722. 
South Loftus, 225. 
Staffordshire, 1679. 
Sudbury, 564. 
Suffolk, 491, 564, 698, 701, 747, 752, 753, 

758, 762, 778, 883, 937, 1012, 1531, 1763. 
Surrey, 289, 296, 448, 813, 990,' 1177, 1203, 

1218. 

Sussex, 200, 201, 2i5a, 1790, 1852, 2152. 
Sweden, 1850, 1851. 
Syracuse, 56. 



Tarrant Gunville, 452, 549. 

Tartus, 68, 89, 122, 2279. 

Thames, 2073, 289, 296, 355, 418, 472 477, 

529. 557, 727, 884, 928, 993, 1840. 
Thebes, Egypt, 118, 133, 135, 138. 
Tirlemont, 3. 
Tipperary, 203. 
Towton, 536. 
Tutbury, 1679. 

Valentine's Island, 918. 
Venice, 39, 1954. 
Verona, 806. 
Vol terra, 688. 



Warwickshire, 718. 

Waterford, 213. 

Wells, 1780. 

Wenden, 1315. 

West Bergholt, 212. 

Westminster, 926, 928. 

Westmoreland, 15, 184. 

Weston, 491. 

Weymouth, 598. 

Whitstable, 1774. 

Wiltshire, 179, 6i6a, 1875. 

Winchester, 1877. 

Windsor, 406, 556. 

Wiston, 1852. 

Wittersham, 1782. 

Wollaston, 976. 

Woodstock, 300. 

Woodyates, 372. 

Worcester, 530, 1025. 

Worcestershire, 530, 767, 1025, 1740. 

Yemen, 2364. 
York, 606, 1884. 

Yorkshire, 180, 184, 225, 536, 554, 589, 606, 
968, 1529, 1757, 1884. 



PLATE I 




177 




178 




172 




171 




146 





17O 



168 




169 





2O6 



173 




158 





166 



EARLY TEUTONIC RINGS. 



PLATE II 






179 



182 




208 





ISO 



207 





2O2 




203 



204 






2OO 



2O1 



205 






ANGLO-SAXON RINGS. 



PLATE 





219 



m 




221 



218 



220 





222 




223 



224 




225 





227 



226 







228 



232 




234 







239 



252 



PT:^ 
gi 

%J!^ 




255 



256 



257 




259 







261 



SIGNET RINGS : MEDIAEVAL. 



PLATE IV 




260 




267 




268 



269 





^ 




275 



277 



279 



280 





286 





288 



285 





290 



289 




292 



291 




294 




293 



295 



296 



SIGNET RINGS: MEDIEVAL. 



PLATE V 




307 




31O 




312 




313 





299 



3O6 



300 





3O9 



3O8 





3O2 





318 




32O 







319 



323 



324 



325 



SIGNET RINGS : i6 TH CENTURY. 



PLATE VI 







349 





348 



48 O 





4O1 



328 




486 






355 



353 




482 







356 



483 



481 






468 



469 



418 



SIGNET RINGS: i6x H CENTURY. 



PLATE VII 




462 



463 



46O 




461 



554 




555 



536 



556 




562 




557 



553 




564 




565 



5O4 



SIGNET RINGS : i 5 TH-i6TH CENTURY. 



PLATE VIII 




593 




587 




591 





589 





603 



6O7 




&E&* 

5 . : ^ff^~*--; 



601 




598 



6O2 




E'v^B 



6O4 




600 






- v 





6O5 



606 



SIGNET RINGS : i6 T H-i 7 TH CENTURY. 



PLATE IX 




612 








616 




638 




637 




622 



621 




t^\ 

w 



641 




62O 



643 



618 





613 



64O 




645 




567 



599 



623 



SIGNET RINGS: i6 T H-i 7 TH CENTURY. 



PLATE X 




351 



352 




617 



639 





566 



478 



642 




619 




644 



311 



648 




660 



655 





.. 



659 



484 




552 




680 



561 



SIGNET RINGS: i6 TH CENTURY AND LATER. 



PLATE XI 





7O6 



684 





924 



692 





948 



770 





757 



756 




777 



792 





774 





788 



928 




748 



766 





705 



789 



o 



785 



712 



701 



DEVOTIONAL AND INSCRIBED RINGS: MEDIEVAL AND LATER. 



PLATE XII 





845 



844 





843 



852 





838 




850 



833 






834 



832 



842 



PAPAL RINGS. 



PLATE XIII 





849 




847 



841 






846 



848 



840 





836 




853 



854 



PAPAL RINGS. 



PLATE XIV 




859 



860 



PAPAL RINGS. 



PLATE XV 



887 




905 



867 



885 




901 



912 



909 



904 




869 





892 




891 



866 




879 



865 




878 




876 




895 




863 




864 




877 



AMULET RINGS: MEDLEVAL AND LATER. 



PLATE XVI 




10O6 




984 




1004 




1028 




993 




979 




1OO5 




980 




1046 




962 




964 




988 




1026 




1051 




1036 




1043 




986 






1084 1007 

1O31 



LOVE RINGS: MEDIAEVAL AND LATER. 



PLATE XVII 




1100 




1O95 




142O 




1097 




1102 




1096 




1099 




1O98 




11O1 




1O56 




1328 




1OOO 




11O4 




1022 




1O24 




11O3 




1076 





1023 




981 



1O72 



LOVE RINGS OF VARIOUS DATES. 



PLATE XVIII 




1345 





1347 



1335 




1331 





1334 



1336 






1343 



1333 



1341 



JEWISH MARRIAGE RINGS. 



PLATE XIX 




1361 





136O 




1368 




1359 




1362 



1365 




1363 



iV 




J 

1370 




1367 




1364 




1366 




1369 




1373 




1417 




1374 



H 




1371 




1376 




1372 




1375 




652 



STUART MEMORIAL RINGS. 



PLATE XX 




1399 




1358 




1383 




1381 




1387 




1379 





1390 



1394 




1409 






14O1 



1408 



1377 




1407 




1405 




1395 




14O6 





1392 



14O4 




1385 




1412 



PORTRAIT RINGS. 



PLATE XXI 





813 



1448 





145O 814 




821 




8I2 




1453 




823 




1529 




1482 




1479 




1539 




825 




1545 




1433 




1435 




1523 




1614 




16O3 




1505 



MEMENTO MORI AND MOURNING RINGS: IJTH AND i8rn CENTURIES 



PLATE XXII 




1586 




1618 




1583 




1644 




1651 




159O 




1580 




1654 




1397 




1642 




1592 




1553 




1647 




144 O 




1446 




1594 




1668 



1665 





1437 



1438 



MOURNING RINGS : 18 AND EARLY IQTH CENTURIES. 



PLATE XXIII 



1693 



1697 




1676 



1695 




1698 




17O1 




17O5 






1703 



17O4 




1707 




17O8 




1699 




1689 




1678 




1677 




1679 



FANCY RINGS; SERJEANTS' RINGS. 




1751 




1782 



PLATE XXIV 




177O 




1841 




1830 




1778 




1834 




1777 



W A 'fc ^. 



1828 




1753 





1743 



1849 



MEDIAEVAL GEM-RINGS. 



PLATE XXV 




1774 




929 




1781 




1749 




189O 




18)6 




182O 




1891 






176O 178O 



Q 




1758 1779 




1822 1823 







1827 1809 




185O 1851 




1821 1824 



MEDIEVAL GEM-RINGS. 



PLATE XXVI 




1920 




1937 




1940 




1944 







1938 



1943 



1939 



2008 





194-1 



1988 




1990 




2049 






1908 



2OO9 



1966 




1949 




1893 






2O15 



1970 



1901 



RENAISSANCE ORNAMENTAL RINGS. 




1717 




2005 



2OO6 



PLATE XXVI I 




1952 




1960 




2010 




2O1I 




2OS1 




19O2 




2O51 




2O2I 




2064 




2O25 






19OO 



2029 



2O33 




2034 




2022 




2096 




2050 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS : 16 AND 17711 CENTURIES. 



PLATE XXVIII 




2031 




2028 




2026 




2027 




2O92 




2036 




2O7I 




2109 




2126 




2123 




1OO1 




2120 




2122 




21O5 




2104 




2121 





2161 



21O1 





2162 



2163 



ORNAMENTAL RINGS : 17 AND i8x H CENTURIES. 



PLATE XXIX 




2285 




2282 





2289 



2284 




2286 




2288 




2292 



2371 




2340 




2334 




2355 




2298 




2296 




2300 




228O 




2297 




2277 






2281 
2349 2276 



ORIENTAL RINGS. 



PLATE XXX 




2395 




2394 





2382 



24OO 




2432 




2422 





2396 



2383 




2430 



2433 





2451 




2432 







2446 



2450 



2449 



2441 



ORIENTAL RINGS. 



BINDING SECT. DEC 2 1 1977 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



NK 

7442 

L6B7 



British Museum. Dept. of 
iritish and Mediaeval Anti 
qiotoea 

Catalogue of the finger 
rings