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Full text of "Catalogue of the flora of Oak Island, Revere, Massachusets: with notes"

yKl 25 
.Y65 



Young, Herbert A 

Catalogue of the Flora of 
"Oak Island," Revere, 
Massachusetts: with notes 



yKl25 
.Y65 




Gray Herbarium 

Purchase 

August 1 970 



BULLETIN 



ESSEX INSTITUTE, 



VOLUME XIV. 



1882. 



SALEM, MASS. 
PRINTED AT THE SALEM PRESS. 

1883. 



ERRORS REGARDING THE DURATION OF LIFE. 137 

ber equal to thirty-eight per cent will be alive in seventy 
years from their birth ; so, to find the average duration 
of life in Massachusetts, we find that seventeen and two- 
thirds per cent die under five years of age, thirty-eight 
per cent live to be seventy and upwards. 





Under 5 years 


TOyrs. &upwai-ds 


6 to 70 years 




per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


Carlisle table . . . 


32 


24 


44 


Wigglesvvorth . . . 


39 


14 


47 


Eni^lisli life-table . . 


25 


25 


60 


Mass. average-at- . . 








death table . . . 


36 


14 


50 


Mass. average-dura- 








tiou-of-life table 


18 


38 


44 



In the town of Munroe, in Franklin county, in the year 
1875, there was one death, a child two years old ; and the 
report for that year makes the average age at death two 
years. As the population of Munroe was one hundred 
and ninety, and the death rate one per year, it would 
take one hundred and ninety years for a generation to pass 
away. Now, suppose the oldest person in that town had 
died, who was eighty years of age, the report would have 
been that the average age at death was eighty years, and 
as only one death occurred the length of a generation 
would be one hundred and ninety years. Massachusetts 
has expended a very large amount of money to ascertain 
the average age at death of all persons whose death takes 
place within the state, and we have tables showing the 
average age at death in every town and city of the state, 
and this average age at death is mistaken for the average 
duration of life. There is a difierence of twenty years 
between them. It is these tables that have given the im- 
pression that the length of a generation is thirty years in 
Massachusetts. They are ver}^ deceptive and of little use. 
When siich a man as Carrol D. Wright is deceived by 
such statistics, they can be of little use to the common 

ESSEX INST, BULLETIN, VOL. XIV. 9* 



138 ERRORS REGARDING THE DURATION OF LIFE. 

reader. In his report on the census of Massachusetts, 
he says " while from the Massachusetts Registration Re- 
ports it is learned that the average age to which all ^live is 
about thirty," he comes within twenty years of tb'e right 
figure. The most important fact and the easiest obtained 
is to get the number of the population and the number of 
deaths. For the City of Salem the deaths for the eleven 
years, from 1865 to 1875, were 54.07, the population 
25,958 or 1.89: to 100 living; if we take the average 
of the population for the eleven years it is a trifle over two 
per cent, which would take forty-nine years as the length 
of a generation in this city. 

Holyoke is considered the most unhealthy city in Mas- 
sachusetts : the deaths under five years are fifty-two per 
cent of all the deaths in the city. This is calculated 
on the births which for the eleven years were 4,065. 
There were added to the cit}^ by immigration during the 
eleven years, 10,612, of which number sixteen and one- 
half per cent were under fivp years of age, which makes 
1,750 added to the city by immigration, making with the 
births, which were 4, 065 j 5,815 to draw the deaths under 
five from. Now, if 5,845 gives fifty-two per cent deaths 
under five years, what will 4,065 give? answer, thirty-six 
per cent, just the .average of the whole state. There 
were added to t^ state by immigration in the eleven 
years, 273,044, /of this number 255,992 were added in 
cities. Of this 255,992, there were added to the cities 
42,238 under five years of age in the eleven years ; that 
is what mal^s the deaths under five greater in the cities, 
42,238 beins: distributed in the diflerent cities according^ 
to the increase of population ; this number is in addition 
to the -births of the cities. Our registration officers have 
left out entirely the number under five that have been 
added to the state by immigration, and many blunders 



ERRORS REGARDING THE DURATION OF LIFE./ 139 

have taken place in conseqnence. Should the/ city of 
Salem have gained in population as large a percentage as 
Holyoke did, the city Avould have had as lai^e a death 
rate under five as Holj^oke had, and wouLfl have been 
called the most unhealthy city in the state,/iind the State 
Board of Health would have had a special' report on your 
city, with a map showing the causes of the great death 
rate under live years, as they did of Iloiyoke. They had 
three maps of Holyoke, and after a thorough investigation 
they report : " As far as situation ;i,hd surroundings are 
concerned, Holyoke should be a heallthy place," and Hol- 
yoke is a healthy place, and the death rate is no greater 
than the average of Massachusetts. The mistake is in 
our registration officers and ^tate Board of Health. 
They leave out of the calculation the increase of popu- 
lation. Holyoke, in 18G5, a/town of 5,G48, becomes a 
city in 1875, of 16,260, haying added to her population 
10,612 in the eleven years. /The children under five years 
of this 10,612 are left out/of the count, the number being 
1,750. AVith this 1,750/ left out, the deaths under five 
are 52 per cent ; with tbe number added, thirty-six per 
cent, which makes Holyoke as healthy as the state aver- 
ages. So of the other; cities of the state ; they are con- 
sidered unhealthy Justin proportion to the percentage of 
the increase of population. The greater the increase of 
population the greater the death rate under five will be. 
Holyoke is very milch annoyed by these reports. People 
coming thei-e to /ettle, the first question they ask is, "Is 
Holyoke a healthy city?" and it is a healthy city, and the 
citizens say it is healthy. They are met with the remark 
that it is the most unhealthy place in the state, and the 
rcfx^rt ()(' our registration officers and State Board of 
health are given as authority. These reports based on 
ignorance are d(nng a great amount of mischief. Suppose 



140 ERRORS REGARDING THE DURATION OF LIFE. 

Salem had as great an increase of population as Holyok^, 
you would have had as large a death rate under five/^as 
Holyoke. The State Board of Health would have had armap 
of your city and with the Mill Pond nuisance arid the 
North River, and you could not have made people believe 
that your death rate under five was due to any other cause 
than the two causes named. A great deal ,6f mischief 
results from not understanding the causes /of the great 
death rate in certain localities. A great aniount of labor 
has been expended to show that our cities have a much 
larger death rate under five than the country towns. I 
fail to see it. I see where our state officials make their 
mistake. They have left out of their calculation the 
number under five added to the state by immigration, 
nearly all of which goes to the cities, and the cities that 
draw the largest percentage are considered the most un- 
healthy. Had this immigration gone to the country towns 
instead of the cities, what would our registration officers 
and Board of Health have said was the cause of the 
deaths under five years being greater in the country 
towns than in the cities, as they surely would have been 
had immigration gdne to the country towns instead of the 
cities ? I imaging' they would have said the cities have pure 
water, their sanitary conditions are better regulated, they 
are under better police regulations, and the cities draw 
the most able physicians in the state. There is no reason 
why the cities of the state should not be as healthy as the 
rest of the state and they are. 
/ 




Sfrnoty/y^Proithig Co.Bo^ii. 



CATALOGUE OF THE FLORA OF "OAK ISLAND," 
REVERE, MASSACHUSETTS: WITH NOTES. 



By Herbert A. Young. 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY. 
Br John Robinson. 



"Oak Island," or " Chelsea Beach Island," as it was 
called before North Chelsea was rechristened Revere, is 
a slight elevation of land, covered with trees, hardly 
reaching more than three or four feet above the surround- 
ing saltniarsh, within the limits of the town of Revere, 
Massachusetts, and just a few rods beyond the inlet which 
separates that town from the town of Snugus in Essex 
Comity. 

The island begins at about 800 feet back from what is 
now called Revere beach, with a strip of land running 
north and south 1,000 feet, having a l)readth of 100 feet 
which is connected with the larger portion of the island 
which runs east and west some 1,400 feet, and has a 
breadth of 800 feet. This latter portion is divided into 
two unequal parts by the Eastern Railway which runs 
through it north and south. The Salem and Boston turn- 
pike road runs I)}' the island to the west at a distance of 
about a quarter of a mile. Formerly this station was only 
accessil)le to pedestrians and to the salt hay teams by a 
rough road from the beach. 

Recently, however, with the opening of Revere beach 
as a pleasure resoit, a picnic ground with its accompany- 

(1*1) 



142 FLORA. OF OAK ISLAND. 

iiig dance stands and " flying horses" has been established 
on the easterly portion of the larger section of the island, 
and not only is the pleasant seclusion of the place inter- 
fered with, but at no distant day this interesting and his- 
toiic botanical station will become for botanists a memory 
of the past. Mr. Young observes that the smaller de- 
tached portion of the island is more elevated and dryer 
than the larger portion, and that it possesses a somewhat 
diflferent flora. 

The wood upon the island has been cut from time to 
time, the last general cutting having been made perhaps 
not long after the Eastern Railway was built in 1837. 
The growth of timber now on the island is of deciduous- 
leaved trees, and consists chiefly of oaks, basswood, 
hickory and sassafras, the only coniferous tree being the 
red cedar (Jujiij>erus Virginiana) which is represented 
by a few scattered specimens. 

The soil is a vegetable humus on sand and gravel, up- 
on which the plants thrive in moist seasons with great 
luxuriance. 

The island is also a favorable locality for the collection 
of land snails and has been well known to botanists and 
conchologists for many years. 

The whole number of plants noted in Mr. Young's list 
which includes the phanerogams, ferns and mosses, is 
three hundred and sixty-two, divided among the difierent 
families as follows : 



Note. — Mr. C. E. Faxon and Geo. E. Davenport have kindly looked 
over Mr. Young's list and tlie collection of specimens which he has 
preserved, and add the following as the only species which they have 
noticed on or near the island not included Kanunculus Cymbalaria, 
Pursh; Kanunculus sceleratus, L. ; Sagina procumbens, L. Along the 
railroad track between Revere station and Oak Island near the last 
bridge yG. E. D.). Cynoglossum Morisoui, DC. On the island(C. E. F.). 



FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 



143 





Gen 


Sp. 


[nt. 




Gen. 


Sp. 


Inc. 


Ranunculaceae. 


4 


10 


2 




Ill 


182 


26 


Berberidaceaj. 


1 


1 


1 


Labiatse. 


8 


8 




Cruciferffi. 


7 


9 


3 


Convolvulaceae. 


1 


1 




Violaceaj. 


1 


3 




Solanacese. 


1 


1 


1 


Cistacese. 


2 


2 




Gentianaceae. 


1 


1 




Hypericaceie. 


1 


3 


1 


Apocyuaceae. 


1 


1 




Caryophyllaceae. 


8 


11 


5 


Asclepiadaceae. 


1 


2 




Portulacacese. 


1 


1 


1 


Chenopodiaceae. 


5 


7 


2 


Tiliacea;. 


1 


1 




Aniarantaceae. 


1 


2 


2 


Geraniaceae. 


3 


3 




Polygonaceae. 


2 


10 


4 


Anacardiaceae. 


1 


3 




Lauraceae. 


1 


1 




Vitaceaj. 


2 


2 




Euphorbiaceae. 


2 


3 




Celastracese. 


1 


1 




UrticacejB. 


2 


2 




Leguminosse. 


7 


14 


5 


Cupuliferae. 


3 


10 




Rosaceae. 


10 


18 




Myricaceae. 


1 


1 




Saxifragaceae. 


1 


2 




Betulaceaj. 


1 


1 




Hamamelaceae. 


1 


1 




Salicaceaj. 


2 


4 




Onagraceae. 


3 


5 




Coniferae. 


1 


1 




Lylhraceje. 


1 


1 




Araceae. 


1 


1 




Umbelliferae. 


5 


5 


1 


Naiadaceae. 


1 


1 




Araliaceae. 


1 


1 




Alismaceae. 


1 


1 




Coruacese. 


1 


1 




Orchidaceae. 


1 


1 




Caprifoliaceae. 


4 


4 




Iridaceas. 


2 


2 




Rubiaceae. 


2 


4 




Smilaceae. 


1 


2 




Compositae. 


23 


48 


4 


Liliaceae. 


8 


10 


1 


Carapanulaceae. 


1 


1 




Juncaceae. 


2 


6 




Ericaceae. 


4 


6 




" Cyperaceae. 


5 


24 




Aquifoliaceae. 


1 


1 




Gramineae. 


22 


44 


9 


Plantaginaceae. 


1 


3 


1 


Equisetaceae. 


1 


1 




Plumbaginacete. 


1 


1 




Filices. 


4 


4 




Piimulaceae. 


1 


2 




Ophioglossaceae. 


1 


1 




Orolancliaceae. 


2 


2 




Musci. 


16 


25 




Scrophulariaceae. 


6 


10 


2 


liepaticae. 


3 


3 




Verbenacese. 


2 


2 














111 


182 


26 


Old. Gen. Sp. 


213 

Int. 


364 


45 


Exogens. 








50 144 237 


35 






Gymnosperras. 






1 1 1 








Endogeiis. 








10 44 92 


10 






Vascular Crypto 


gams. 


3 6 6 








Musciueae. 








2 19 28 









66 



214 



364 



144 FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 



THE FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 



BY HERBERT A. YOUNG. 



The species enumerated in the following list were mostly 
observed during the year 1882, although the writer has 
been familiar with the station for many seasons previous. 
Representatives of nearly all the species have been pre- 
served. As the list is therefore based upon the work of a 
season rather unfavorable for botanical collecting, on ac- 
count of the drought of July and August, it is probable 
that other species might be added especially to the list of 
mosses which owing to their small size are easily over- 
looked. 

The region was evidently familiar to Dr. Bigelow, for 
in the " Florula Bostoniensis" he mentions the following 
species as found on " Chelsea Beach Island :" 

Ranunculus recur vatus, Poir. 
Arabis falcata, Michx. 
Cryptotaenia Canadensis, D O. 
Osmorrhiza longistylis, D O. 
CircEea lutitiana, L. 
Desmodium cuspidatum, Torrey. 
Monarda allophylla, Michx. 
Phryma leptostachia, L. 
Scrophularia Marilandica, L. 
Lysimachia ciliata, L. 
Allium Canadense, L. 
Leersia Virginica, Willd. 
Botrychium Virginicum, Willd. 

With the exception of Phryma all have been collected 
during the past season. The portion of the isftmd to the 



FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 145 

east of the tracks of the Eastern Railway has for several 
years been used for the purposes of a picnic ground, so 
that the herbs and uudershrubs are fast disappearing, and 
can only now be collected in the spots along the out- 
skirts, and in a few j^ears the farther portion of the island 
to the west of the Eastern Railway will undoubtedly 
share the same fate, thus entirely destroying one of the 
most interesting botanical stations in this part of the coun- 
try. 

Ranunculaceae. 

Anemone Virginiana, L. A few specimens found. 

Anemone nemorosa, L. Abundant. 

Thalictrum dioicum, L. Abundant. 

Tlialictrum purpurascens, i. Abundant. Matures a short time 

after T. dioicum and before T. Cornuti. Kecognized lirst by 

the peculiar odor of the leaves. 
Thalictrum Cornuti, L. Abundant. 
Ranunculus recurvatus, Poir. Not very abundant. 
Ranunculus abortivus, L. Abundant. 
Ranunculus bulbosus, L. One specimen only obtained. 
Ranunculus acris, L. Only a few specimens noticed. 
Actuse spicata, L. var. rubra, Michx. Abundant. 

Berberidacese. 

Berberis vulgaris, L. One bush in the western part. 

Cruciferse. 

Cardamine hirsuta, L., var. sylvatica. Scarce. 
Arabis Canadensis, L. Abundant in the western part. 
Arabis perfoliata, Lam. A few specimens noticed in 1878. 
Sisymbrium officinale, Scop. Abundant near the barn. 
Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Mcgnch. Near house and barn, 
Lepidium Virginicum, L. Mostly on the road from the beach to 

the island. 
Lepidium ruderalc, L. Mostly on the road from the beq,ch to 

the island. 
Cakile Americana, Nutt. Around the edges. 
Raphanus Raphanistrum, L. One specimen only. 

Violacese. 

Viola cucullata, Ait. Specimens abundant and very large. 
Viola sagittata, Ait. A few small specimens only found, 

ESSEX INST, BULLETIN, VOL. XIV. 10 



146 FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 

Viola pubesceus, Ait. Quite abundant in the western part: 
growing scarcer. 

Cistacese. 

Helianthemum Cauadense, Michx. Found in extreme eastern 

part. 
Lecliea major, Michx. Found in the extreme eastern part. 

Hypericaeese. 

Hypericum perforatum, L. Quite abundant. 

Hypericum corymbosum, Muhl. Found in the western part. 

Hypericum mutilum, L. Scarce. Found near railroad track. 

Caryophyllaeese. 

Dianthus Armeria, L. A few specimens obtained. 

Silene inflata. Smith. Abundant near railroad track. 

Silene antirrhiua, L. Abundant near railroad track. 

Arenaria latei'iflora, L. Abundant. 

Stellaria media, Smith. Abundant. 

Cerastium viscosum, L. Abundant. 

Lepigonum rubrum, Fries., var. campestre. Only one specimen 
found. 

Lepigonum medium, Fries. Common in the western part along 
the edge bordering on the salt marsh. 

Lepigonum salinum. Fries. Abundant. Growing with L. me- 
dium. 

Scleranthus anuuus, L. Scarce. On the railroad track. 

MoUugo verticillata, L. On the railroad embankment. 

Portulaeacese. 

Portulaca oleracea, L. On the railroad embankment. 

Tiliacese. 

Tilia Americana, L. The most abundant tree. 

Geraniacese. 

Geranium maculatum, L. Abundant. 

Impatiens fulva, Nutt. The form producing without flowering 

most abundant. 
Oxalis stricta, L. Abundant. 

Anacardiacese. 

Ehus typhina, L. Not very abundant. 
Rhus glabra, L. Not very abundant. 
Rhus Toxicodendron, L. Very abundant. 

Vitacese. 

Vitis Labrusca, L. A few plants noticed. 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Michx. Quite abundant. 



FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 147 

Celastracese. 

Celastrus scancleus, L. A few vines noticed. 

Leguminocese. 

Trifolium avvense, L. Abundant on the railroad track. 

Trifolium prateuse, L. Quite abundant. Scattered. 

Trifolium hybridum. One plant noticed. 

Trifolium repens, L. Quite abundant. 

Trifolium asrarium, L. One plant noticed. 

Medicaiio lupulina, L. Only a few plants on the island. 

Desmodlum acuminatum, D C. Abundant in the west part. 

Dosmodium canescens, D C. Found a few years ago by Mr. 
C. E. Faxon. Not found since. 

Desmodium Canadense, D C. Quite abundant. 

Lespedeza capitata, Michx. A few plants in the extreme east- 
ern part. 

Lathyrus niaritimus, Bigeloio. A few specimens noticed a 
short distance from the island on the railroad track. 

Lathyrus palustrls, L. In extreme eastern part. 

Apios tuberosa, Mcendi. Not very abundant. 

Amphicarpsea monoica, Nutt. Abundant in western part. 

Rosacese, 

Prunus Virgininna, L. Not very abundant. 

Prunus serotiua, Ehrliart. A few small trees in western part. 

Spiraja salicifolia, L. A few bushes. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria, L. Scattered. 

Geum album, Gmelin. Mostly near the hotel. 

Potentilla Norvegica, L. Around the edges, north side. 

Potentilla Canadensis, L., var. simplex, T. & G. Abundant. 

Potentilla argentea, L. A few specimens only. 

Potentilla Anserina, L. Around the edges mostly on north 
side. 

Fragaria Virginiana, Ehrhart. In extreme eastern part. 

Ilubus strigosus, Michx. A few specimens on north side. 

Rubus occidentalis, L. Quite abundant. 

Rubus villosus. Ait. Quite abundant. 

Rubus Canadensis, L. Quite abundant. 

Rubus hispidus, L. Mostly on the north side. 

Rosa lucida, Ehrhart. Abundant. 

Pirns arbutifolia, L., var. erythrocarpa. Scattered, not abun- 
dant. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, T. & G., var. oblongifolia. A few 
trees in western part. 



148 FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 

Saxifragacese. 

Eibes oxycanthoides, L. A few plants. 
Ribes floridum, L. Three plants noticed. 

Hamamelacese. 

Hamamelis Virginica, L. A few plants ; scattered. 

Onagracese. 

Circsea Lutetiana, L. Abundant in the western part. 
Epilobium angustifoiium, L. Three or four plants noticed. 
Epilobium coloratura, Muhl. Scattered, 
ffinothera biennis, L. A few plants only. 
CEnothera pumila, L. Not abundant. 

Lythraceae. 

Lythrum Hyssopifblia, L. Abundant. 

Umbelliferse. 

Cicuta maculata, L. One or two specimens. 

Osmorrhiza longistylis, D C Abundant. 

Cryptotaenia Canadensis, D C. Abundant. 

Sanicula Marilandica, L. Abundant. 

Carum Carui, L. One specimen only in extreme eastern part. 

Araliacese. 

Aralia nudicaulis, L. Abundant in western part. 

Cornacese. 

Cornus paniculata, L'Her. Abundant in southwestern part. 

Caprifoliacese. 

Diervilla triflda, Moench. In southwestern part. 
Triosteum perfoliatura, L. Scattered. Not abundant. 
Sambucus Canadensis, L. In extreme eastern pai't. A few 

bushes. 
Viburnum dentatum, L. A few bushes around the edge. 

Rubiacese. 

Galium Apariue, L. Abundant. 
Galium triflorum, Michx. Abundant. 
Galium circsezans, Michx. Not abundant. 
Houstonia caerulea, L. A few specimens only. 

Composit8B. 

Eupatorium purpureum, L. Abundant in western part. 

Aster corymbosus, Ait. In westex'n part. Scarce. 

Aster Isevis, L. Scarce. 

Aster undulatus, L. Abundant. 

Aster cordifolius, L. Abundant. 



FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 149 

Aster multiflorus, Ait. Abundant. 

Aster miser, L. Abundant. 

Aster carneus, Nees. In western part in one spot only. 

Aster louf>;ifolius, Lam. Abundant. 

Aster Novae-Angliaj, L. Mostly in one spot in eastern part. 

Aster linifolius, L. Around the edge. Abundant. 

Erigeron Canadense, L. Mostly on approach to the island 
from the beach. 

Erigeron aunuuni, Pcr.s. Scattered. 

Erigeron strigosum, 3Iithl. In extreme eastern part. 

Solidago cjBsia, L. Two small patches in the western part. 

Solidago bicolor, L. Not abundant. 

Solidago serapervirens, L. Very abundant around the edges. 

Solidago arguta, Ait. Abundant. 

Solidago altissima, L. Not abundant. 

Solidago odora, Ait. A few plants in the extreme eastern part. 

Solidago nemoralis, Ait. Not abundant. 

Solidago Canadensis, Z. Two forms occur. 

Solidago lanceolata, L. Scarce. 

Solidago sp. ? Perhaps a cross between S. sempervirens and 
S. altissima. 

Iva frutescens, L. A few plants on the eastern edge of the 
island near the road. 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, L. Abundant. 

Xanthium strumarium, i. Abundant near the barn. 

Rudbeckia hirta, L. A few plants in the eastern part. 

Helianlhus strumosus, L. Abundant. 

Helianthus divaricatus, L. Abundant. 

Bidens frondosa, L. Around the northern edge ; not abundant. 

Maruta Cotula, D C Not abundant. 

Achillea Millefolium, L. Scarce. 

Leucanthemum vulgare. Lam. Two specimens only. 

Artemisia caudata, Michx. Mostly on the road from the beach 
to the island. 

Gnaphalium polycephalum, 3Iichx. A few specimens in the ex- 
treme eastern part. 

Gnaphalium uligiiiosum, L. A few specimens; scattered. 

Anteniiaria margaritacea, B. Br. A few specimens in the ex- 
treme southeastern part. 

Antcnnaria plantaginifolia. Hook. A few specimens in the ex- 
treme eastern part. 

Erechthites hieracifolia, liaf. Abundant on northern border. 

Circium discolor, Spreng. Three specimens. 

Circinni horridulnm, Michx. In the extreme western part. 



150 FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 

Circium arvense, Scop. Scarce. 

Lappa officinalis, Allioni. Scarce. 

NaVjalus albus, Hook. Abundant in the western part. 

Taraxacum Dens-leouis, Desf. About four plants seen. 

Lactuca Canadensis, L. Not abundant. Scattered. 

Mulgedium leucophfeum, B C. Not abundant. Scattered. 

Campanulacese. 

Specularia perfoliata, A. D C. Abundant in the eastern part 
in the early part of the season. The form found was very- 
small, and perfected the fruit without producing any corolla. 
It was identified for me by Mr. C. E. Faxon. 

Erieacese. 

Gaylussacia resinosa, T. & G. Only found in the extreme 

southeastern part. 
Vacciuum Pennsylvanicum, Lam. Only found in the extreme 

southeastern part. 
Vaccinum vacillaus, Solander. Only found in the extreme 

southeastern part. 
Vaccinum corymbosum, L., var. atrococcura. A few plants. 
Andromeda ligustrina, Muhl. One bush in the extreme eastern 

part. 
Pyrola elliptica, Nutt. A few plants in the western part. 

Aquifoliaeese. 

Ilex verticillata, Gray. Not abundant. Mostly around the 
western border. 

Plantaginacese. 

Plantago major, L. Abundant. 
Plantago Rugellii, Decaisne. Abundant. 

Plantago decipiens, Bavneoud. Abundant around the western 
border. 

Plumbaginacese. 

Statice Limonium, var. Caroliniaua. Abundant on the neigh- 
boring marsh. 

Primulacese. 

Lysimachia quadrifolia, L. Abundant. 

Lysimachia ciliata, L. Abundant in the western part. 

Orobanehacese. 

Epiphegus Virginiana, Bart. Found by Mr. F. S. Collins a few 

years ago. 
Aphyllon uniflorum, T. & G. Three plants in the eastern part 

near railroad. 



FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 151 

Scrophulariaeese. 

Verbascum Thfipsus, L. Not abuudant. 

Linaria Canacleusis, Spreng. Near the railroad mostly. 

Linaria vulgaris, Mill. Near the railroad mostly. 

Scrophularia nodosa, L. A few plants in the middle of the 
western part. 

Veronica arvensis, L. A few plants in the extreme eastern 
part. 

Veronica peregrina, L. Scattered. 

Gerardia purpurea, L. About a dozen specimens on the south- 
western edge of the island. 

Gerardia maritiraa, Haf. Very abundant on the neighboring 
marshes. 

Gerardia quercifolia, Pursh. Abuudant in the western part 
near the railroad. 

Pedicularis Canadensis, L. In the extreme western part. Not 
abundant. 

Verbenacese. 

Verbena hastata, L. Scattered. Not abundant. 
Phryma Leptostachya, L. Bigeloio, Florula Bostoniensis. Not 
found since. 

Labiatse. 

Teucrium Canadense, L. Abundant around the borders. 

Trichostema dichotomum, L. One plant on the Eastern Rail- 
road track. 

Lycopus sinuatus. Ell. Abuudant. 

Hedeoma pulegioides, Pers. Abundant in the eastern part. 

Collin.sonia Canadensis, L. Quite abuudant in the western 
part near the railroad. 

Monarda flstulosa, L. A few plants in the western part. 

Lopanthus iscrophulariaefolius, Benth. A few plants in the 
middle of the western part. 

Brunc'Ua vulgaris, L. Abundant. 

Convolvulaceae. 

Convolvulus sepium, L. Abundant on the western border. 

Solanacese. 

Solanum nigrum, L. Near the house. 

Gentianacese. 

Genliana Andrewsii, Griseb. Two plants only found. 



152 FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 

Apoeynacese. 

Apocynura audrossemifolium, L. In northern part near rail- 
road. 

Asclepiadacese. 

Asclepias Cornuti, Decaisne. Along the railroad bank. 
Asclepias phytolaccoides, -Pursh. lu the centre of the western 
part. 

Chenopodiacese. 

Chenopodium album, L. Abundant. 

Cheuopodium hybridum, L. In the eastern part. 

Atriplex patula, L., var. hastata. Abundant around the border 

of the island. 
Atriplex patula, i.,var. littoralis. Abundant around the border 

of the island. 
Salicornia herbacea, L. Abundant on the marsh adjacent. 
Suseda maritima, L. Abundant around the borders. 
Salsola Kali, L. Mostly on the approach to the island from the 

beach. 

Amarantacese. 

Amarantus retroflexus, L. Abundant near the house. 
Amarantus albus, L. A few plants only. 

Polygonaceae. 

Polygonum Pei'sicaria, L. Abundant. 
Polygonum Hydropiper, L. Abundant. 
Polygonum aviculare, L. Abundant. 
Polygonum erectum, L. Scarce and somewhat doubtful. 
Polygonum maritimum, L. Abundant on the borders. 
Polygonum sagittatum, L. One plant only found. 
Polygonum Convolvulus, L. Not very abundant. 
Polygonum dumetorum, L., var. scandens. Abundant in west- 
ern part. 
Eumex crispus, L. Abundant. 
Kumex Acetosella, L. Abundant. 

Lauracese. 

Sassafras officinale, Nees. Abundant in the western part. 

Euphorbiaeese. 

Euphorbia polygonifolia, L. Scarce. Abundant on the beach 

opposite. 
Euphoi'bia maculata, L. Abundant on the railroad bank. 
Acalypha Virginica, L. Abundant. 



FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 153 

Urticaceae. 

Ulmus Americana, L. A few trees. Scattered. 
Pilea pumila, Gray. Abundant in the western part. It all dried 
up and disappeared before flowering. 

Cupuliferae. 

Carya alba, Niitt. Abundant. 

Carya tonieutosa, Nutt. Scarce. Two or three trees only. 

Carya porcina, Nutt. Abundant. 

Carya amara, Nutt. The most abundant hickory. 

Quercus alba, L. Quite abundant. One of the largest trees ; 
about fifteen inches in diameter, is a white oak. 

Quercus bicolor, Willd. Most abundant in the extreme eastern 
part. 

Quercus coccinea, Wang. There is one tree which seems to be 
intermediate between Q. coccinea and Q. rubra. It has the 
acorn of coccinea and the leaf of rubra. The leaf is rather 
small. 

Quercus tinctoria, Bart. One tree in the extreme southeastern 
part. Identified by the fringed acorn and the bright orange 
inner bark. 

Quercus rubra, L. Abundant. This species with bicolor con- 
stitutes the greater part of the oaks. 

Corylus Americana, Walt. In the middle of the western part. 

Myricaceee. 

Myrica cerifera, L. Not abundant. 

Betulaceae. 

Betula alba, var. populifolia, Spach. A few small trees. 

Salicaceae. 

Salix discolor, Muhl. A few bushes. 
Salix humilis, Marshall. A few bushes. 

Populus grandidentata, Michx. This species and the next occur 
together as small shrubs in the extreme southeastern part. 
Populus tremuloides, Michx. 

Coniferse. 

Juniperus Virgiuiana, L. The only conifer. A few trees only. 

Araceae. 

Aristcma triphyllum, 2on-. Abundant. 

Naiadaceae. 

Huppia maritima, L. In a pool of water near the island. 

E6SKX INST. UULLETIN, VOL. XIV. 10* * 



154 FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 

Alismaceae. 

Triglochin maritimum, L. Abundant on the saltmarsh adjoin- 

Orchidacese. 

Orchis spectabilis, L. Bigelow found this plant. It is now 
found in the western part. Some j^ears it is abundant, while 
in others it is very scarce. It was abundant this year (1882). 

Iridacese. 

Iris Virgiuica, L. A few specimens on the southern edge. 
Sisyrinchium Bermudiana, L. Not abundant. 

Smilacese. 

Smilax rotundifolia, L. In the northwestei'n part. 
Smilax herbacea, L. Scattered. 

Liliacese. 

Uvularia perfoliata, L. Abundant. 

Oakesia sessilifolia, Watson. Abundant. 

Smilacina racemosa, Desf. Abundant. 

Smilacina bifolia, Ker. Abundant in the extreme western part. 

Polygonatum bifloruni, Ell. Abundant in the western part. 

Asparagus officinalis, L. One specimen only found. 

Lilium Philadelphlcum, L. In the extreme eastern part. 

Lilium Canadeuse, L. Scattei-ed. 

Erythronium Americanum, Smith. Very abundant. 

Allium Canadense, Kalm. Abundant. 

Juncacese. 

Luzula campestris, D C. Not abundant. 
•^ Juucus Balticus, Dethard. On the adjacent marshes. 
Juncus bufonius, L. Abundant around the borders. 
Juncus Gerardi, Loisel. On the adjacent marshes. 
Juncus tenuis, Willd. Abundant. 
Juncus acuminatus, Michx. Not abundant. 

Cyperacese. 

../ Cyperus Nuttallii, Torr. Not abundant. 
Cyperus strigosus, L. Not abundant. 
Cyperus flliculmis, Vahl. Not abundant. 
Eleocharis obtusa, Schultes. One specimen found. 
Eleocharis palustris, B.Br. A variety on the adjacent salt- 
marsh. 
Eleocharis tenuis, Schultes. Quite abundant. 
Scirpus pungens, Vahl. Near the railroad on the north side. 
Scirpus planifolius, Muhl. One bunch in the western part. 



TLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 155 

Scirpus maritimus, L. Abundant around the borders. 

Fiinbristylis caplUaris, Gray. On the railroad. 

Carex stipata, Muhl. Not very abundant. 

Carex sparjianioides, Muhl. A few plants in the eastern part. 

Carex cephalophora, 3Iuhl. Abundant. 

Carex rosea, Schk. Abundant. 

Carex scoparia, Schk. Abundant. 
^ Carex silicea, Olney. On the road from the beach to the island. 
^ Carex cristata, Schio., var. niirabilis, Boot. Abundant. 

Carex straminea, Schk. Several varieties are found. 

Carex virescens, 3Iuhl. Scarce. 

Carex laxiflora, Lam. Two varieties occur. 

Carex Emmonsii, Dexo. Abundant in the western part. 

Carex Pennsylvanica, Lam. Abundant. 

Carex lanuginosa, Michx. Not abixndant. 

Carex vestita, Willd. Not abundant. 

Gramineae. 

Leersia Virginica, Willd. In the western part near the rail- 
road. Scarce. 

jilopecurus pratensis, L. Abundant. 

Phleuni pratense, L. Not abundant. 

Agrostis perennaus, Tuckerman. Two specimens only. 

Agrostis scabra, Willd. Quite abundant. 

Agrostis vulgaris, With. Abundant. 

Agrostis alba, L. Abundant between the extreme eastern and 
the main eastern parts. 

Muhlenbergia Willdenovii, Trin. A few specimens only in the 
middle of the western part. 

Calamagrostis areuaria, Roth. On the road from the beach to 
the i.sland. 

Calamagrostis Canadensis, Beauv. Abundant. 

Oryzopsis asperifolia, Michx. Found three specimens in 1879. 

Spartiua cyuosuroides, Willd. Abundant around the edges. 

Spartina juucea, Willd. Mostly on the adjacent saltmarsh. 

Spartina stricta, Roth. Mostly on the borders of the creeks 
and pools adjacent, 
v^ Glyceria maritima, Wahl. On the adjacent saltmarsh. 

Glyceria distans, Wahl. This species is a little doubtful. 

Brizopyrura spicatum. Hook. Abundant on the adjacent marsh. 

Poa annua, L. In front of the house in the eastern part. 

Poa compressa, L. The most conmion grass. 

Poa serotina, Ehrhart. Abundant. 

Poa pratensis, L. Abundant. 



156 FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 

Poa trivialis,'Z, A little doubtful. 

Festuca ovina, L., var. duriuscula. Scarce. 

Festuca elatior, L. Abundant. 

Festuca nutans, Willd. Abundant in the western part. 

Phragmites communis, Trin. Three specimens in the north- 
western part. 

Triticum I'epens, L. Abundant. 

Elymus Virginicus, L. On the approach to the island mostly. 
Scarce. 

Elymus striatus, Willdj. Quite abundant in the western part. 

Gymnostichum Hystrix, Schreb. Abundant in the western part. 

Danthouia compressa, Austin. Abundant. 
yf Hierochloa borealis, B. & S. Quite abundant. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum, L. A few specimens only. 

Panicum virgatum, L. Abundant around the borders. 

Panicum latifolium, L. Abundant. 
•^ i- Panicum pauciflorum, Ell. Abundant. 

Panicum dichotomum, L. This species is a little doubtful. 

Panicum sanguinale, L. Mostly on the railroad. 

Panicum capillai'e, Bosc. Mostly on the railroad bank. 

Panicum Crus-Galli, L. A few specimens found. 

Setaria glauca, Beativ. Mostly on the railroad bank. 

Setaria viridis, Beauv. Mostly on the railroad bank. 

Setaria Italica, Kunth. Two or three specimens only found. 

Andropogon furcatus, Muhl. A few specimens found in 1880. 

Equisetaceae. 

Equisetum arvense, L. Abundant. 

Filices. 

Pteris aquilina, L. The most abundant fern. 
Aspidium Thelypteris, Swartz, Abundant. 
Asplenium Filix-foemina, Bernh. Scarce. 
Onoclea sensibilis, L. Not abundant. 

Ophioglossaeese. 

Botrychium Virginianum, Swartz. Very fine specimens ob- 
tained. Not abundant. 



FLORA OF OAK ISLAND. 157 

The followinsr is a list of mosses collected this season 
(1882). The list is undoubtedly incomplete, as many 
must have escaped my notice. 

MUSCI. 

Fissidens osmundioides, Iledw. Rare. One specimen only ob- 
tained. 

Ceratodon purpureas, B7-id. Not common. 

Tricliostomum pallidum, Hedio. Very common in the western 
part. 

Orthotrichum strangulatum, Benuv. Abundant on trees. 

Ortbotrichum Ilutchinsia;, Smith. On rocks. Not abundant. 

Hedwigia ciliata, Ehrh. Not very common. 

Atriclium angustatum, Beauv. Common. 

Polytriclium commune, L. Common in the eastern pai't. 

Polytrichum juniperinum, Hedio. Common in the eastern part. 

IMuiuui alliiie, Bland. Very common. 

Mniuiu horuum, Hedio. In one spot in the northwestern part, 

Bryum caespiticium. Frequent. 

Fuuaria hygrometrica, Hedw. Not common. 

Physcomitrium pyriforme, Br. & Sch. Not common. 

Anomodon attenuatus, Hub. On one rock in the western part. 
The species is somewhat doubtful. 

Thelia hirtella, Sulliv. On ti:ees. Not common. 

Cyliudrothecium seductrix, Bryol. Europ. Not common. One 
specimen only obtained. 

Hypnum cupressiforme, L. Not common. 

Ilypnum nitens, Schreb. Not common. Determination very 
doubtful. 

Hypnum salebrosum, Hoffm. Common. 

Hypnum rutabulum, L. One specimen only obtained. 

Hypnum populeum, Hedio. The most abundant moss. 

Hypnum hispidulum, Brid. Rare. 

Hypnum serpens, Hedio. Quite abundant on rocks with H. 
populeum. 

Hypnum adnatum, Hedio. Rare. 

HEPATIC^. 

Lophocolea heterophylla, Xees. Not common. 
Madotheca platyphylla, Dumortier. Common on the rocks. 
FruUania Grayana, Montague. Common on trees. 



OPENING OF A NEWLY DISCOVERED SHELL- 
HEAP AT IPSWICH. / 



Communicated by John Robinson. 



The shellheaps in the vicinity of Ipswich have long 
been a subject of study and investigation for the archae- 
ologists of this region. Messrs. Wyman, Putnam, Morse, 
Cooke, Lebarron and others have, from time to time, 
worked upon these shellheaps and collected many inter- 
esting specimens from them besides adding to the scientific 
knowledge of the subject. In no single instance, how- 
ever, has any particular shellheap been carefully turned 
over from end to end, nor have the contents of a heap 
been collected and preserved as a special collection. This 
is to be regretted, as there is now hardly any shellheap to 
be found in this vicinity at which some one has not worked 
to a greater or less extent. 

Early in September (1882), Mr. I. J. Potter of the 
Ipswich Chronicle, an earnest student of the Indian re- 
mains in the neighborhood of Ipswich, called the attention 
of the officers of the Peabody Academy of Science to a 
shellheap which he had observed on the shore of Ipswich 
river. An examination showed that this heap had never 
been disturbed and it was at once determined to investigate 
it carefully and to retain as one exhibit everything of 
scientific value that might be obtained. Permission was 
kindly given to the Academy by Mr. Perkins, the owner 
of the land upon which the heap was found, to do the work, 
and on September 17, the first examination was made. 

The shellheap is situated on the northeastern end of 
Perkins island in Ipswich river, now incorrectly known as 

(158) 



QK 125 ,Y6b 
^°?i"^l,fii?,^f?^^.!,^:",^^{Catalqg,ue^of the flo ^'" 



3 5185 00126 8224